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Full text of "The Massachusetts magazine : devoted to Massachusetts history, genealogy, biography"

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUULIO LIBRARY 



3 1833 01746 5185 



PENEALOGY 
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1914 



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THE 



SSACHVSETT 
AGAZINE 






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ye uofci)-to.(na5sac^U5gtt5«Historij>QagaloQi|-'Siograp()i| 
Published by the Salem Press Ca Salem, Mass. USA. 



A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 
ASSOCIATED AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 



George Sheldon, 

DEERFIELD, MASS. 

Charles A. Flagg, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Dr. Frank A. Gardner, 

SALEM, MASS. 



Lucie M. Gardner, 

SALEM, MASS. 

Albert W. Dennk 

SALIM, MASS. 



Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $1.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 



vol. vn 



JANUAKT, 1914 



NO. 1 



GEsnfettfs sf fljts Jssue. 



THOMPSON IN CONNECTICUT 
MICHIGAN PIONEERS .... 

REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 
COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 



C. Crozat Converse 

Charles A. Flagg 

Judge Francis M. Thompson 

Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



3 
6 

11 
32 

44 



the 



CORRESPONDENCE of a business nature should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. 

BOOKS for review mav be sear to the office of publication in Salem. Books should not be sent to individual 
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SUBSCRIPTIONS should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. Subscriptions are $2.50 
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CHANGES OF ADDRESS. When a subscriber makes a change of address, he should notify the publishers, 
giving both his old and new addresses. The publishers cannot be responsible for lost copies, if they are not 
notified of such changes. 

ON SALE Copies of this magazine are on sale in Boston, at W. B. Clark's & Co., 25 Tremont Street Old 
Corner Book Store. 1'3 Brom field Street, Smith & SlcCance, 3-* Brom field Mreet; in New iork, at John 
Wanamaker's, Broadway, 4th, 9th and 10th Streets; in Washington, at Brentanos, 

Entered as second-class matter March 13, 1903, at the po«t-office at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congre^ 
of March 3, 1879. Office of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 



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Count Rumford whose monument is proposed 
for Boston Common 



A COPY OF THE GAINSBORO PORTHII 



THOMPSON, IN CONNECTICUT 



By C. Crozat Converse. 



There are many towns in the United States called Thompson, but one 
is preeminent — that in Connecticut — because of its association with the 
family of Count Rumford, whose family-name it bears. 

His real greatness already is historic, hence a portrait of him adonis 
the second volume of the County History of Massachusetts. The house 
of his grand-mother, Converse, at Woburn, Massachusetts— now bought 
and kept as a Rumford monument — is one of Woburn's show-places. 

Here is a bit of Thompson-family biography: 

Edward Conyers, founder,, of Woburn, Mass., died in 1663. His 
daughter Mary married, in 1643, Simon, son of James Thompson, of Eng- 
land, who settled in Woburn in 1640. Simon died in 1658, leaving a large 
part of his estate to his wife, her father Edward, and her brothers. James 
and Mary Conyers-Thompson left a son Jonathan, whose son Ebenezer 
married Hannah Converse, whose son Benjamin became distinguished as 
Sir Benjamin Thompson and Count Rumford. Edward Conyers' son 
Samuel, who was, with his father a legatee of Simon Thompson, removed 



4 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

in 1710 to Killingly, Conn., and became the first settler of Thompson, 
riamed so in honor of James Thompson. 

This excerpt is from a newspaper report concerning the Royal Society 
of England : 

"Nor must the name be forgotten of that Woburn, Mass., boy, Benja- 
min Thompson, who, after being a salesman in a store at Boston, school 
teacher at Bradford on the Merrimac, Major on the staff of Governor 
Wentworth of New Hampshire, then Under Secretary of State in Eng- 
land, General in the English Army, knighted by George III, Minister of 
War, and Grand Chamberlain and Field Marshal of the King of Bavaria, 
and Count of the Holy Roman Empire, was elected a member of the 
Royal Society, founded in that capacity the Royal Institution of England, 
and died as the husband of the widow of Lavoisier, the celebrated French 
chemist. 

His memory is preserved in this land of his birth by the Rumford Pro- 
fessorship of Harvard University. The titles of nobility conferred upon 
him by the Emperor of Germany and by the King of Bavaria were those 
of Count Rumford. 

Another memorial of his busy life may be found in the Salvation Army. 
For it was he who as Minister of State in Bavaria devised and initiated 
that remarkable system of dealing with pauperism which was revived 
more than half a century later by "General," the Rev. William Booth, 
with such wonderful success. 

It was, indeed, from reading about all that Sir Benjamin Thompson 
had managed to accomplish in Bavaria in dealing with the problem of 
pauperism that Gen. Booth derived his inspeiration for the foundation of 
the Salvation Army." 

Certain members of the Converse family intend the erection of a copy 
of the Rumford statue in Munich to their distinguished relative, on Boston 
Common, believing that his career, under the most discouraging circum- 
stances, may encourage other aspiring Americans. 

The writer has this matter in hand, and would be glad to have the 
active cooperation of all persons whom this magazine reaches, who are 
interested in it 



THOMPSON IN CONNECTICUT. 5 

Hereunto is a facsimile of the Patent of Nobility, approved by King 
George III, of Great Britain and of an outograph letter by Count Rum- 
ford to his publishers. A copy of the Gainsborough portrait of Count 
Rumford is given herewith, the original of which is owned by E. C. Con- 
verse, of Greenwich, Conn. 



MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By Charles A. Flagg 



Sikes, Orrento Montague, b. Westhamp- 
ton, 1815; set. Mich., 1837. Berrien 
Hist., 485. 

Zenas, b. Westhampton; set. Mich., 

1837. Berrien Hist., 478. 

Silcox, Mrs. E., set. Mich., 1854. Wayne 
Chron., 84. 

Silliman, Amanda A. m. 1850? John 
Dcud of O. Newaygo, 223. 

Simmons, Ephraim, set. N. Y., 1800? 
Clinton Port., 524. 

1., set. Mich., 1824. Wayne Chron., 

75- 

Joshua, b. Dighton, 1801; set. N. Y., 

1801, Mich.. 1824 or 1825. Oakland 
Biog., 411; Oakland Hist., 332; Oak- 
land Port., 208, 602. 

Simons, Marion, of Salem; b. 1850? m. 
Robert W. Lonsdale of Mich. Me- 
costa, 497. 

Sines, Isaac, b. Berkshire, 1798; set. 
Mich., 1824. Washtenaw Hist., 506. 

Sizer, Adelia S., Sheffield. 1830; m. 1849 
iHenry A. Angell of Mich. Lenawee 
Illus., 341; Lenawee Port., 393. 

Charles F., b. Chester, 1833; set. 

Mich., 1859. Lenawee Illus., 87. 

Emma I., b. Lee, 1853; m. 1875 Wal- 
ter S. Westerman of Mich. Lenawee 
Illus., 86. 

Skinner, Elias, b. Shelburne; set. N. Y. 
Genesee Hist., 351. 

Hannah, m. 1830? Stillman Mon- 
tague of N. Y. Branch Twent, 717- 

Harriet, of Williamstown; b. 1795? 
m. Austin E. Wing of Mich. Monroe, 

Mary H., b. Roxbury, 1807; m. 1824 

Ebenezer Davis of Mass., N. Y. and 
Mich. Lenawee Hist. II, 131. 

Slade, Benjamin, b. Dartmouth, 1782; 
set. N. Y., Mich., 1835. Lenawee Hist. 
II, 275. 



Lavina D., b. Chelsea; m. 1855 John 

Whittemore of Mass. and Mich. Kent, 
1 1 67. 

Phebe, b. Fall River; m. 1804 John 

Hoxie of N. Y. and Mich. Lenawee 
Port., 1217. 

Slade, Sarah, b. Uxbridge, m. 1850? 
John Foss of Conn, and R. I. Bay 
Gansser, 698. 

Slater, Leonard, b. Worcester, 1802; 
set. Mich., 1826 or 1827. Grand Rap- 
ids Hist., 7S; Grand Rapids Lowell, 
51; Kalamazoo Hist., 286; Kent, 192, 
800. 

Slayton, Reuben, b. 1769; set. N. Y. 
Lenawee Port., 431. 

Russell, b. Worcester, 179S; set. N. 

Y., 1820, Mich., 1845 or 1846. Grand 
Rapids City, 1015; Kent, 77%. 

Sloan, James, b. Townsend; set. Vt. f 
1800? Lenawee Hist. II, 241. 

Thomas, set. N. Y., 1810? Gratiot, 

274. 

Slocum, Benjamin, b. 1786; set. N. Y., 
1810, Mich., 1825. Lenawee Hist., II, 
142. 

Smith, b. Berkshire Co., 1787; set. 

N. Y., 1816. Hillsdale Hist., 199. 

Slosson, Ozias J., b. Great Barrington, 
1805; set. N. Y., Mich., 1856. Osceola, 
223. 

Smalley, Rufus, set. N. Y., 1790? Vt. 
Jackson Port., 232. 

Smead, Elizabeth, b. 1817; m. 1842 Ebe- 
nezer Fisk of Mich. Lenawee Port., 
335- 

Lavina, m. 1833 John A. Hawks of 

Mich. Lenawee Port., 255. 

Rufus, b. Montague or Sheburne, 

1757; set. N. Y., 1800? Mich., 1834- 
Lenawee Hist., I, 337; Lenawee Illus., 
124; Lenawee Port., 255. 335, 434- 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS. 



Smedley, Lois, m. 1830? John B. Clark 
of Mich. Clinton Port., 651. 

Sallie, m. 1830? Silas O. Hunter of 

N. Y. Muskegon Port., 267. 

Smith, b. Ashfield, Apr. 6, 1770; 

set N. Y., 1812. Macomb Hist, 762. 
-b. Adams, 1783; m. John Tib- 



bits of N. Y. and Mich. Branch Port. 

629. 
Achsah, b. Chicopee; m. 1800? Levi 

Chapin of N. Y. and Mich. Ingham 

Hist, 317. 
Alice, b. Salem; m. James Marble 

of Ind. Berrien Port., 707. 
Smith, Asa, set Mich., 1854. Macomb 

Hist, 712. 
Asa L., b. Boston, 1792; set. Mich., 

1825? Washtenaw Hist., 894, 1040. 
Ashley, set. N. Y., 1828. Gratiot, 

683. 
Austin, of Hampden Co., bought 

land in Mich., 1814. Allegan Hist., 

293. 
Chipman, b. Ashfield, 1817; set. 

Mich., 1875. Washtenaw Hist., 1271. 
Clarissa, b. 1802; m. 1827 James B. 

Arms of Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 

145 1- 
Daniel, b. 1700? set. N. Y., 1810? 

Washtenaw Port., 389. 
— — David B., b. Worcester Co., 1836; 

set Mich., 1842. Saginaw Hist, 831- 
Dean Uriel, b. Buckland; set. N. Y., 

1820? Macomb Hist., 883. 
Dollie, of Shrewsbury; m. 1787 Wil- 
liam Hobart of Mass. and N. Y. Jack- 
son Port., 604- 
Eaton, set. N. Y., 1815? Mich., 1840? 

O. Jackson Port., 222. 
■ Edward, b. Walpole, 1830; set 

Mich., 1842. Saginaw Port., 706. 
Edward C, of Hadley; set. N. Y., 

1844; d. 1847. Oakland Biog., 426. 
Elijah, b. Ware, 1772; set. Vt, N. 

Y., Mich. Kalamazoo Hist., 423. 

Elisha, b. Amherst; set. Mich., i8?6. 

St Clair, 683. 

Elizabeth, m. 1856 John B. Dumont 

of Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 728. 



Emeline P., m. 1857 George W. 

Carlton, of Mich. St Clair, 671. 
Ephraim, Revolutionary soldier, set 

Conn., 1800? N. Y. Clinton Port., 809. 
Eugene, b. Amherst, 1821; set. 

Mich., 1836. St. Clair, 683. 

Smith, Eunice, m. 1S00? Joshua Parma- 
lee of N. Y. Hillsdale Port, 766. 

Ezekiel, set. Vt, 1788, N. Y. Lans- 
ing, 160. 

George H., of N. Amherst; set 

Mich., 1837. Calhoun, 137; Jackson 
Port., 451. 

Gilbert, set. N. Y., 1845? Midland, 

288. 

Hannah, b. N. Adams, 1783; m. 

Gideon Ramsdell of Mass and N. Y. 
Lenawee Hist. I, 254; Lenawee Port., 
637- 

Henry, b. Worcester, 1798; set. N. 

Y., 1803, Mich., 1833. Lenawee IIlus., 
272. 

Henry O., b. Hatfield, 1817; set. 

Mich., 1852. Macomb Hist., 672 

— — Jabez, b. 1766; set. Canada, 1800? 
Jackson Hist., 1019. 

Jane, b. 1767; m. Nathan Ball of 

Vt. and N. Y. Lenawee Port., 986. 

Laura, b. 1805? m. Jeremiah Holmes 

of N. Y. Midland, 208. 

Levi Lincoln, b. Whately, 1826; set. 

N. Y., Mich., 1866. Gratiot, 683. 

Lorenza S., m. 1859 John McCurdy 

of Mich. Jackson Port., 451. 

Lyman B., set. Mich., 1836. Lake 

Huron, 143. 

Martin, set N. Y., 1830? Kalama- 
zoo Port., 449. 

Marv, m. 1825? Jonathan White of 

N. Y.," 111. and O. Genesee Port, 
464. 

Mary, m. 1850? Augustus Lilley of 

Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 954. 

Mathias, b. Martha's Vineyard; 

soldier in French and Indian war; set. 
Me. Berrien Port, 466, 528. 



8 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Smith, Nathaniel, set. N. Y., Mich., 

1790? Lenawee Port., 1120. 
Nicholas, of Stockbridge; set. N. 

Y. 1789. Shiawassee, 529. 
Obed, b. Hawle>, 1706; set. N. Y., 

1814, 111., 18^8, Mich., 1843- Lake Hu- 
ron, 209. 
Oliver M., of Northfield; set. N. Y., 

Vt. Jackson Hist., 727. 
Phebe, b. Adams, 1772; m. Darius 

Comstock of Mass., N. Y. and Mich. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 370. 
Reuben R., set. Mich.. 1835. Ma- 
comb Past, 105. 
Ruth, m. 1825? Aruna Fox of O. 

'Clinton Port., 864. 
Sallie, b. 1790; m. Sylvester Shedd 

of Mich. Berrien Port., 549; Berrien 

Twent, 882. 
Samuel, b. Acton; set. Mich., 1829. 

Branch Hist., 224. 
Samuel, set. N. Y., 1835? Kent. 

I035- 
Samuel E., of Colerain; set. Mich., 

1835. Hillsdale Hist, 151. 
Seth, b. Dighton, 1825; set. N. Y., 

Mich., 1863. Macomb Hist., 712. 
Stephen, set. N. Y., 1800? Jackson 

Hist., 928. 
Thomas, set. O., 1830? Kalamazoo 

Port., 739. 
Wanton, b. Berkshire Co., 1776; set. 

N. Y., 1783. Lenawee Illus., 217; Le- 
nawee Port., 579. 
William, b. Dalton, 1794 ;set. N. Y., 

1820? Mich., 1837. Lenawee Hist. II, 

289. 
William, b. Worcester Co., 1800; 

set. Mich., 1842. Saginaw Hist., 831; 

Saginaw Port., 684, 706. 

William, Jr., b. Worcester Co., 1838; 

set. Mich., 1842. Saginaw Port., 684. 

William C, b. Dalton; set N. Y., 

.Mich., 1837 Hillsdale Port, 877. 

Snow, Alonzo, b. 1810 set. N Y. 1820, 
Mich., 1832. Oakland Port, 736. 

■ ' Ansel, b. Bridgewater, 1784; set. 
Mich., 1837. Kalamazoo Hist, 415; 
Kalamazoo Port, 866. 



Smith, Elizabeth, b. Boston; m. 1841 
Lewis C. Gesler of Mich. Ionia Port., 
319- 

Sparrow, set. O., 1817. Detroit, 

1269; Wayne Land., 820. 

William W. b. Millbury, 1837; set. 

Mich., i860. Jackson Hist., 728. 

Soule, John, b. 1787 or 178S; set. N. Y., 
1810? Mich., 1825. Macomb Hist., 
between 672 and 710, also 840. 

Marcia, m. 1S35? David Crapo of O. 

and Mich.. Ionia Port., 736. 

Southwick, David, set. N. Y., 1800. Kal- 
amazoo Port., 73S. 

Southworth. James B., b. Hancock, 
1816; set. N. Y., 1822, Mich., 1849. 
Branch Twent., 841. 

Norman, of Hancock; set. N. Y., 

1822, Mich., 1850? Branch Twent., 
805, 841. 

-Sarah I., b. Hancock, 1824; m. 1845 

Arteman H. Legg of N. Y. and Mich. 
Branch Twent., 804. 

Spafford, Thomas L., b. Dalton, 1797; 
set. N. Y., 1813, Mich., 1836. Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 1351. 

Sparks, Austin, b. Sheffield, 1798; set. 
N. Y. Hillsdale Port, 775. 

Mary, m. 1830? Lewman Fox of N. 

Y. Kalamazoo Port., 514. 

Spaulding, Charles A., b. Middlebury, 
1839; set. Mich., 1845. Branch Port, 
289. 

Ephraim, b. Townsend, 1801; set 

Vt, Mich., 1845. Branch Port., 290. 

Spear, Sally, b. 1810? m. James Benja- 
min of N. Y. Genesee Port., 801. 

Spencer, Elias T., b. Middlefield, 1S15; 
set. O., 1840? Muskegon Port., 556. 

Grove, b. 1803; set. Mich., 1835? d. 

1887. W'ashtenaw Hist., 1231; Wash- 
tenaw Port., 475. 

Ralph H., b. Tyringham, 1854; set 

Mich., 1879. Grand Rapids Hist.. 222; 
Grand Rapids Lowell, 713. 

Sperry, Elizabeth, m. 1820? Ebenezer 
Andrews of N. Y. Ionia Port., 718. 

Pamelia., m. 1815? Patrick Gibbins 

of Mass. Jackson Hist., 1141. 

S. H. b. Berkshire Co., 1816; set 

Mich., 1845. Jackson Hist., 906. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



Spicer, Amos, b. Groton; set. Mich., 
1836. Ingham Hist., 478, 480. 

Spoonfr Allen P., b. 1802: set. N. Y., 
1830? Kent, 1272. 

Sprague, Annie E., b. Great Barrington. 
tRjo: m. 1870 Peter W. Carpenter of 
Mich. Washtenaw Port.. 289. 

Elvin L.. b. Gill, 1830: set. Mich., 

1836. Northern M., 404; Traverse. 64. 

. Erastus, b. t8o6; set. N. Y., 1810? 

Mich., 1852. Clinton Past.. 27. 

Tames, set. N. Y., 1810. Clinton 

Past., 27. 

Mary. m. t8oo? Tonathan Howland 

of N. Y. and Mich. Hillsdale Port, 
513. 

Nancy., b. 1794; m. 1810? James 

Hiscock of Pa. and Mich., Washte- 
naw Past, 481; Washtenaw Port., 
26$. 

Sprout, Susan, m. 1813 Martin Town- 
send of N. Y. Branch Port.. 40T. 

Sot'trfs. Nancv M . m. 1835? Benjamin 
Davie*. Kent. 683. 

Sr\ry. Consider H., b. New Salem; set. 
N. Y.. t8t4. Lenawee Hist. I. 517; 
Lenawee Port., 360. 

Harriet F.. of Concord: m. 186' 

Herman DeForrest of Mas=;. and 
Mich. Wayne Land., appendix, 29. 

Stafford. Henry H.. b. Boston. 1833; 
set. Mich., 1856. Northern P., 633- 

T. L., b. 1797; set. Mich., 1837. 

Washtenaw Hist., 507. 

Stanley, Lois, m. 1790? Daniel Olds of 
Mass., O. and Mich. Jackson Port., 
428. 

Stanton. Hannah, b. 1807; m. Russel G. 
May of N. Y. and Mich. Cass Twent, 
440. 

Starkweather. Anna, b. Williamstown, 
1789; m. Gurdon Hovey of N. Y. and 
Mich. Macomb Hist., 826. 

Stfadman, Matilda, m. 1820? Aretas 
Pierce of N. Y. Clinton Port., 832. 

■ Thomas, set. N. Y., 1820? Mich., 

1858. Ionia Port., 697. 

Stearns, Alanson. b. Goshen, 1800; set. 
Mich., 1854. Muskegon Port., 176. 



Stearns, Edwin b. Lanesboro, 1818; set. 

Mich., 1834. Jackson Hist., 814. 
Ezra, of Pittsfield, b. 1836; set 

Mich., 1854 or 1855. Muskegon Hisr.. 

116; Muskegon Port., 176. 
Hannah, m. Eri Whelan, of N. Y. 

and Mich.; d. 1865. Branch Port., 362. 
Isaac H., b. Pittsfield, 1800? set. 

Vt, N. Y., 1820. Clinton Port., ^41. 
James H. b. Berkshire Co., 1835; 

set. Mich., 1851. Jackson Hist., 93*- 
Royal, b. Upton: set. N. Y., 1810? 

Branch Twent., 674. 
Stebbins, Bliss, b. Wilbraham, 1777; 

set. Vt., 1805. Lenawee Hist. I, 493; 

Lenawee Illus., 225. 
Caroline, of Springfield; m. 1816 

Wolcott Lawrence of Mich. Monroe, 

244. 
Chauncy M., b. 1807; set. Mich., 

1832? Ionia Port., 312. 
Dimmis. m. 1825? Lyman Webster 

of Mass. and Mich. Clinton Port., 

596, 971; Gratiot, 499- 
Dorothy, of Deerfield; m. 177°? 

Lawrence Kemp, Sr. Northern P.. 

473- n _ 
Gaius P., b. 1805; set. N. Y., 1835? 

Kent, I344- 
Louisa, m. 1830? Rufus Densmore 

of Mich. Gratiot, 491. 
Mary, b. 1776; m. Wilson White of 

N. Y. Jackson Port., 351. 
Mary F. b. Worcester, 1848; m. 

1872 Hamilton S. McMaster. Berrieo 

Port., 121; Cass Twent., 715. 
William, b. Springfield, 1795; set - 

N. Y. Gratiot, 548. 
Steele, Aurelia, b. Blandford, 1800; m. 

Levi Noble of N. Y. Hillsdale Port, 

335- 
Stevens, Abigail, b. Salibury; m. 1800? 

Enoch Fifield of Mass.. Vt. and Mich. 

Jackson Hist, 626; Jackson Port., 747- 
Betsev, b. 1818; m. William Castle 

of Mich. Clinton Past., 204. 
Charles B., b. Centerville, 1858; set 

Mich., 1885? Wayne Land., appendix, 

89. 



IO 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Stevens, George, b. Worcester, 1S31; 
set. Mich., 1839. Hillsdale Hist., 229. 

.Israel, set. N. Y., 1820? Lenawee 

Port., 661. 

Joseph, b. 1790; set. Mich., 1830? 

Clinton Past, 204. 

Mary Ann, b. 1819; m. George Pe- 
ters of N. Y. Newaygo, 418, 475. 

Ransom F., b. Lee, 1820; set. O., 

1831, Mich. Kent, 629. 

Samuel, b. Worcester Co., 1793; set. 

Mich. 1838. Hillsdale Hist., 229. 
' Samuel, set. N. Y., 1830? Muskegon 

Port., 317. 



Silas, b. Southwick, 1755; set. N. Y. 

Berrien Port., 406. 
Warren, b. Cheshire, 1809; set. N. 

Y., Mich., 1S29. Hillsdale Port., 264. 
William W., b. Worcester Co., 1836; 

set. O., 1840? Mich., 1854. Clinton 

Port., 662. 

Steward,, Jabez, b. Paxton, 1770; set. 

N. Y., 1810. Hillsdale Hist., 197. 
Stewart, Anna, b. 1785? m. John C. 

Bell of O. Gratiot, 682. 
Harvey, set. N. Y., Mich., 181 1. St. 

Clair, 717. 

Ira, set. N. Y., Mich., 1830? Lena- 
wee Port., mi. 



(To be Continued) 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR-SCORE YEARS 



By Judge Francis M. Thompson of Greenfield, Massachusetts 



Including His Narrative of Three Years in the New West, During Which 

He Took in 1862 a 3000-mile Trip From St. Louis up the Missouri, and 

Thence Down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to Portland, and to 

San Francisco, Returning in 1863. 

(Continued from p. ipo, Vol. VI.) 

was said to be fully armed and thirsting for the life of the first Vigilante 
who should make his appearance. A party of three were sent to capture 
him. In mountain parlance, the Vigilantes "got the drop on him," and he 
surrendered without resistance, but refused to make any confession. A 
rope was thrown over the limb of a tree, and Graves being properly 
bound was forcibly mounted behind a Vigilante upon a horse, and when 
the noose was adjusted he exclaimed, "Good-by, Bill!" and put spur to 
the animal, and poor Bill was left dangling with a broken neck. The 
Vigilantes then took up their return ride to Alder Gulch, well satisfied 
that they had performed their duty as God fearing men. and thankful 
that in executing their mission, no member of the party had received any 
injury. 

So far as known only one person remained who was suspected as be- 
ing an active member of Plummer's gang of road agents. The missing 
man was Bill Hunter, who had by the aid of some guard, who did not 
believe in his extreme guilt, been allowed to escape through the picket 
line at Virginia City. It came to the leader of the Vigilantes that he was 
in hiding far up the Galatin valley. A party of volunteers, although it 
was mid winter and very cold, rode over the Madison divide, forded the 
Madison river, and coming to his place of hiding, allayed his suspicions 

II 



12 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

by claiming to be on a stampede to find Carney Hughes new discovery, 
they returned to Virginia and made their report. Four Vigilantes were 
selected to pursue, capture, and execute the robber. The party were 
caught in a blizzard in the mountains, and one oi the men came near 
drowning while crossing the Madison, but they succeeded in their mis- 
sion, and Hunter admitted the justice of of their action in his case. 

For the present the great work of the Vigilance Committee was finished. 
Its reorganization and its activities in subsequent years occurred after I 
had left the country, and of those events I am not qualified to write. Xo 
person whose life has been passed under the protection of civil law, ad- 
ministered by just and upright judges can ever fully realize the chaotic 
condition of affairs as they existed in the territory in question, before 
the organization of the Vigilance Committee. No man's property was for 
a moment safe, and no person's life was weighed w r hen the robbers 
thought it necessary to take it, in order to get possession of his property 
No prophet could foretell what a day would bring forth. Had I not 
frankly — perhaps foolishly, it might have been thought — told Dr. Howard, 
Lowry and Romaine, the exact condition of my finances as I rode with 
them to Bannack there is no doubt in my mind but that my bones would 
now be mouldering on the banks of the Deer Lodge or Big Hole. At the 
time the Vigilantes were organized, the country was terrorized beyond 
all conception. The remedy for this state of affairs was terrible and 
bloody, but it was most effectual, and in no other way could the incubus 
be removed. It seemed almost providential that the punishment dealt out 
by the committee should have been fully carried out without the loss of 
any life but that of. George Copley, and the wounding of Smith Ball by the 
Mexican. Jo Pizanthia. Mr. Copley was a native of Vermont, of pleasing 
and gentle manners, faithful to every duty and an excellent citizen. His 
sudden death was greatly lamented and quickly avenged. He was the only 
deputy sheriff holding under Plummer who was not a member of his gang. 

Chief Justice H. L. Hosmer in his charge to the first grand jury or- 
ganized in Montana, Dec. 5, 1864, said : — 

"Gentlemen of the Jury: The assemblage of a grand jury in this new 
Territory affords an opportunity for a casual survey of the interests com- 
mitted to its charge. The cause of justice hitherto deprived of the in- 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 13 

tervention of regularly organized courts, has been temporarily subserved by 
voluntary tribunals oi the people, partaking more of the nature of self- 
defense than the comprehensive principles of the common law. It is no 
part of the business of this court to find fault with what has been done, 
but rather in common with all good citizens to laud the transactions of 
an organization which in the absence of law, assumed the delicate and 
responsible office of purging society of all offenders against its peace, hap- 
piness, and safety. 

"Such societies originating in necessity have been in communities with- 
out law, and in which the penalties of the laws were not in proporton to 
the criminality of the offence. Their adaption to the necessities of new 
settlements has obtained for them an approbation so universal that they 
are the first measures resorted to by well intentioned men to free them- 
selves of that vile class of adventurers, which infest all unorganized com- 
munities, for the purpose of fraud, robbery, and murder. In no part of 
our country have they labored more efficiently than here. Nowhere else 
did they enter upon duties amid greater embarrassments. It was question- 
able even, when they commenced, whether they were numerically equal 
to the task. The sources of official power had been monopolized by the 
very class which preyed upon society. The greatest villain of them all, 
with hands reeking with the blood of numerous victims was the principal 
ministerial officer of the territory and had at his beck a band of wretches 
who had become hardened in the bloody trade, years before they came 
here to practice it. 

In this condition of affairs there could be but one of two courses to 
pursue; to hang the offenders or submit to their authority and give the 
territory oyer to misrule and murder. Happily the former course prevailed 
and the summary punishment visited upon the few, frightened the survi- 
vors from the territory and restored order and safety." 



CHAPTER VI 
THE BEGINNING OF A NEW STATE. 

After the termination of the reign of terrior, white winged peace 
settled upon the gulches, mining camps and settlements of the territory, 
and busy men began to think of other things than robbery and murder 
and the terrible work done by the Vigilance committee. When I had 
decided to take my goods to Bannack and had made ready a store for 
their reception, I received an invitation from Col. Darius H. Hunkins to 
build him a three room log house, at Marysville. Col Hunkins had for- 
merly been a railroad contractor, his home being in Galena, 111. He came 
up the Missouri on the Emilie with the avowed purpose of getting as far 
as possible from the seat of war, and shipped up a large stock of clothing 
that he might have some business. He never opened a store, and I pur- 
chased his goods. He paid me five dollars per day while building his 
house, the timber for which was hauled from the mountains some four- 
teen miles up the Grasshopper. He was much pleased with his house when 
it was finished. 

Once more the Miner's court, accountable to none but the people, re- 
sumed jurisdiction of all matters in dispute, and if its business was not 
accomplished with all the dignity and formality of courts of justice in the 
eastern states, the decision of its judges was nearly always popular, and 
satisfied the people for whose benefit the court was established. 

One day when on the street in Bannack, to my surprise I heard my 
name called three times by an officer, and answering the summons I 
entered a cabin in which I found Judge Burchett holding a session of the 
Miners' court. I was called to act as a juryman on a civil action. For 
some reason only known to the others on the panel I was chosen fore- 
man. After hearing the evidence, the common sense rulings of the judge 
on law points, and the arguments of the learned counsel, the judge gave 
the jury a laconic charge and was about to submit the case, when one of 
the jury, more used to the local practice than the foreman, suggested to 

14 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 15 

:h<r court that the case had been a peculiarly dry one, and that to relieve 
♦he monotony each of the litigants be ordered to pay one-half the cost 
of liquid refreshments for the court, officers, lawyers and jury. The sug- 
gestion met the hearty approval of the court and in due time the jury re- 
tired, refreshed, and took up the consideration of the case. After a short 
conference it appeared that the jury were agreed in finding for the plain- 
tiff, and I said, "Then gentlemen, I understand that we find for the plain- 
tiff, Richard Joy." "What's that?" cried one. "Is Joy the plaintiff? Hell, 
sio! I don't find for Joy! I'm for Peters! He's my friend!'' and for 
Peters he remained and after four hours without more refreshments that 
jury was discharged, not being able to agree with Peter's friend. 

A half a century ago, the courts of Ohio did not compare in dignity 
and formality with those of Massachusetts, and yet chief justice Edgerton, 
an old practitioner in the Ohio courts was somewhat astonished at what 
occurred in the Miners' court of Bannack. His daughter, Mrs. Plassman, 
writes, "Shortly after arriving at Bannack my father strolled up Main 
street see the town, and coming to a building where a Miners' court 
was in session he went in. The judge seeing that he was a stranger, (and 
suspecting that he was the new chief justice of Idaho) invited him to the 
bench. The trial of the case proceeded, but not for long, it being inter- 
rupted by the suggestion by some of the parties that it was time for liquid 
refreshments. The court and every one present approving the suggestion 
an old darky (Frank Pope) was dispatched to a neighboring saloon for 
whiskey. On his return the court took a recess and a drink — several of 
them, in fact. When the supply was exhausted and the court and those 
in attendance upon it were sufficiently stimulated, the trial went on, only 
to meet with a similar interruption in the course of a half hour or so." 

This was the iniation of the new chief justice into the far western 
methods of legal proceedure. 

Judge Edgerton had not been in Idaho territory more than three 
months before a suggestion was made that a new territory be organized 
from portions of eastern Idaho and western Dakota. Meetings were held 
at Virginia City and at Bannack, two thousand dollars was raised by 
subscription, and Judge Edgerton who had recently been a member of 
Congress, was induced to go to Washington and secure if possible the 



16 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

legislation necessary to work out this new scheme. The matter had been 
delayed by the operations for the extinction of Plummer's band of road 
agents. It was the middle of January, 1864, before the Judge was able to 
start for Washington, and the prospect of a winter trip to Salt Lake and 
overland, was not to be anticipated with pleasure. Every respectable man 
in the territory possessed more or less influence with the member of 
Congress from his old home district, and nearly every one used all the 
means at his command to promote the scheme which Judge Edgerton 
represented. Langford and Hauser and some others were already in 
Washington, and worked with good effect with the judge, when he ar- 
rived. Large quantities of gold in dust, ingots and nuggets, was exhibited 
in the halls of Congress, and then turned over to various banks to 
be placed to the credit of the business men of the mountains who owned 
it. Thanks to the Vigilantes, there was no fear of the road agents during 
its transportation. By a previous arrangement with the judge, I left 
Bannack on the 22nd of February for Salt Lake and the east, in company 
with Judge W. B. Dance and others. It happened that a few days before 
starting, in retorting a lot of gold which had been gathered by quick- 
silver, over a blacksmith's fire, that the crucible broke and the gold ran 
down into the cinders, making when congealed, a most beautiful spangle 
of the value of $1,500. This wonderful specimen Col. Hunkins purchased 
of me and requested that after I had exhibited it at Washington and at 
my home in Massachusetts, that I should send it to his daughter in Galena, 
111., for her to use as a mantel ornament. 

Our journey to Salt Lake was made on horseback, and we drove some 
pack animals and spare horses. We slept in a cabin the first night out on 
our four hundred-mile trip, but not again until we reached Salt Lake city. 
If the night was very cold and windy, we built some little protection of 
brush to cover our heads as an ostrich is said to run his head in the 
sand, but otherwise our bodies were wrapped in our blankets and we lay 
on the ground with our feet converging toward the camp fire. We were 
fortunate enough to be able to cross the Snake river on the ice, the ludi- 
crous thing being the fact that the pack mules would make no effort to 
stand upon the" glare ice, and we had to attach lariats to them and snake 
them over like a sled. Two other large fast flowing streams we were 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS x 7 

obliged to cross by swimming. Stripping, and swimming an icy stream in 
mid winter cannot be recommended as an agreeable diversion at the best, 
but what made our passage much worse was, the streams were frozen 
out to the swift water which ran like a mill race in the- centre of the river. 
One of our bravest fellows swam over taking with him a long lariat. 
Others followed, using the lariat for safety. After gathering wood and 
building a large fire, we attached our end of the lariat to a pack mule, and 
pushing him to the edge of the ice he was plumped in and the men helped 
him upon the ice on the opposite side, when he was towed to it. In this 
manner each animal was towed over, and our bedding was rolled in an 
elk skfn and was taken over without getting wet to any extent. It is 
candidly admitted that these proceedings were a little trying to both man 
and beast. Even the animals were willing to stand upon the smoky side 
of a big camp fire. Two nights of this journey we were compelled to camp 
in deep snow in the mountains, with no feed for the horses. I rememDcr 
waking one morning with a feeling of unusual comfort and warmth, to find 
that the whole camp was buried under about eighteen inches of fresh, 
snow. We were all glad to see the glistening waters of the great Salt 
Lake ,and took up our quarters at the Sale Lake House, one of whose 
landladies was a daughter of Brigham Young. The long drawn out trip 
from Salt Lake to Atchison, by the Overland stage was vexatious and 
trying. We awoke one morning to find that we had been sleeping in a 
coach since midnight, in front of a home station, because the driver who 
had brought us there, had neglected to fully awake the driver who was 
to take us forward. Although the morning was cold and frosty, there was 
one driver on the old Overland who was made warm, for I never heard 
Judge Dance wax more eloquent than on this occasion. The Indians were 
reported wicked all along the Platte, and we rode with heavy dragoon pis- 
tols lying in our laps ready for instant use. Hundreds of horses had been 
stolen along the line, and transportation was badly demoralized, but it was 
this or none, and we did the best w r e could. 

When we arrived at St. Louis, dressed in moccasins and all our moun- 
tain toggery, we created quite a sensation at the Leland and the next 
morning the papers announced the arrival of a distinguished party from 
the mountains, loaded with gold. Three of our party pushed on imme- 



i8. MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

diately to Washington, where we at once commenced lobbying for the 
passage of the bill for the organization of Montana Territory. Being with 
Judge Edgerton, admitted to the floor of the House, we, or at least our 
gold nugget, became the centre of attraction to scores of the members 
and officials of the House, and several senators came over to see the re- 
rrarkable specimen, which all thought was as nature had made it. We im- 
proved our opportunity to impress upon the members the necessity of the 
immediate organization of the new Territory. I was much aided by lion. 
William B. Washburn, member from my home district in Massachusetts, 
and Mr. Upson from Michigan, a valued friend. In the discussion of the 
bill a question arose whether Idaho should retain the Flathead Lake and 
Bitter Root country, or that it should be included in the new territory. 
•Governor Wallace of Idaho was a broad minded man and gave his assent 
ithat the territory in question be included in the new Territory of Montana. 
When assured that the bill would pass, I signed a petition for the appoint- 
ment of Sidney Edgerton as governor of the new territory, and went to 
New York, and my old home in Massachusetts. It was almost unani- 
mously the desire of the Union men of the mountains, that Mr. Edgerton 
-should receive the appointment as governor, and all then in the east 
worked together for that purpose. 

Mrs. Plassman writing of this time says, "Whether my father's ulti- 
mate appointment to the position was the result of his last visit to Mr. 
Lincoln, will never be known, but this is his account of the visit he made 
and the story he told." 

"When the division bill passed, I went to the White House to make 
my farewell visit, as I had been in Washington for some time and was 
anxious to get home. On my way there, a gentleman told me that a 
-senator had filed a protest against my appointment as governor. On meet- 
ing the President I asked him if this report was true, and he said that it 
-was. I inquired if any charges had been made against me. He said, none. 
tut that I had called the senator a liar. He insisted that it was the truth, 
and if he (Mr. Lincoln) chose to appoint some one of the other applicants, 
•it would be satisfactory. As for me, I should return home and go t« 
imining, as Dorsheimer kept tavern." "Dorsheimer !" exclaimed Mr. Lin- 
coln. "Why I knew Dorsheimer! What was the story?" "Why Dor- 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 19 

sheimer attended a convention at Utica hoping to obtain the nomination 
as Canal Commissioner. He was defeated, and rising in his seat, said, 
'Shentlemen, I goes back to Pnffalo and keeps tavern, like hell.' I left 
Mr. Lincoln laughing heartily at the story, and it was the last time I 
ever saw him. I did not hear of my appointment until I reached Salt 
Lake city. 

During Mr. Edgerton's absence in the east, the historic stork alighted 
at the gubernatorial log cabin upon the banks of the Grasshopper, and left 
a little blue eyed baby girl, who was named Idaho, and became the idol 
of the capital town of Montana. 

I spent a few happy weeks with my friends in old Massachusetts, but 
was unable to persuade the lady who afterward became my wife, to re- 
turn with me to the wilds of the Rocky Mountains. But her parents intrust- 
ed to my care her young brother, Lucius Nims, Jr., and when I again de- 
parted for the mountains I also took with me my brother, John \V. Thomp- 
son, and Newcomb Warner of Charlemont, Mass. At St. Louis I pur- 
chased a steam saw mill, a small stock of general merchandise and a large 
supply of Ynkee notions. 

I shipped my goods by the steamer Shreveport and Mr. Warner and 
my brother took passage on the same boat. Needing a little more time in 
St. Louis young Nims and I overtook the boat at Kansas City, and con- 
tinued with her to Sioux City, but the river was low and progress so slow,. 
that I thought it best to leave the steamer and take the overland stage, 
as I had been from my business for a long time. 

Finding a transport about to leave for Omaha, Nims and I took passage 
and were soon trundling rapidly down the Missouri. All went well until 
we were about opposite the mouth of the Little Sioux river when the 
boat ran on a sawyer 16 (submerged log) and in less than twenty minutes 
the rear part of the cabin was under water, while the nose of the boat 
was high and dry. Putting two life preservers on Nims, who could not 
swim, we secured our baggage and getting upon the dry part of the boat, 
thouht we were having pretty fair luck. As the boat was liable to slip 
into deep water, the captain hurried the passengers to the Nebraska shore, 
but at our request he took us to the Iowa side of the river. Loaded down 
with our baggage, we bravely struck out through the brush, snags and 



20 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

slough holes of the river bottom, to find a stage road which I knew ran 
along the river bottoms. When nearly exhausted, we reached a clearing 
and the good motherly woman who presided over the little log cabin 
we found there gave us a good breakfast. 

We learned from her that it was but two miles to Little Sioux, that the 
mail coal went up the river one day and down the next, and that she 
thought it went up that day, but that we could find out at the 'Tike." 
While negotiating at the "Pike" for a team to take us to Council BlufTs, a 
farmer appeared driving in that direction, and we soon closed with him 
for transportation in his farm wagon. We finally reached Omaha and took 
passage on the Overland coach for Kearney Junction, distant one hundred 
and eighty miles. Through the Loup Fork country the Indians were very 
ugly, and we rode fully prepared for defence a good share of the way. 
Opposite Kearney w r e made preparations to cross the Platte river, which 
is made a hazardous undertaking by reason of the constant shifting of 
the quick sands in its bed. Where it is safe fording today, it may De trought 
'with much danger on the morrow. The coach was abandoned and the 
baggage and mail transferred to a long wagon with body set high up 
above wheels at least six feet in diameter, and with felloes and tires 
about a foot in width. Into this we climbed, and to it were attached 
nine pair of cattle. Everything being ready, we rolled forward into the 
river. Where the sand was hard packed the wagon jarred as though up- 
on a street paved with cobble stones. When we came to the main cur- 
rent one after another of the pairs of oxen were swimming, but as the last 
yoke began to swim the forward ones struck bottom and the train was 
straightened out. Water came into the wagon body at the deepest por- 
tion of the stream. 

At Kearney junction we were compelled to wait a day for the western 
coach, and were a little dismayed to find upon comparing notes that we 
had not enough money with us to pay our fares to Salt Lake city. The 
change in our plans had not received that attention which was demanded ; 
but I had the overland agent telegraph to Oliver •& Co., at Salt Lake, 
who paid our fares there. When the coach arrived from the east, and 
we informed the passengers of our situation several entire strangers of 
fered us funds for our journey. The long journey in the Alkaline dust 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 21 

was most trying and tedious. The coach was full, and Xims and I, had to 
pile the baggage around the edges of the deck of the coach, and make our 
bed there. We had a rubber blanket with us which we spread over us at 
night, but unfortunately lost it before we reached Denver junction, ana 
missed it very much during the rest of our journey. At Salt Lake we made 
only sufficient stop to gather provisions for our four hundred mile drive 
over the Oliver line to Bannack. This apology for a stage line was simply 
a box wagon without springs of any kind, drawn by two mules. The com- 
pany had no ranches upon the route, but every thirty or forty miles some 
man was stationed who put up a little wakiup and guarded a few animals, 
if the Indians kindly left any, so that a change might possibly be made if 
the team could go no further. Passengers had to furnish their own 
provisions and do their own cooking. 

The season was usually dry, feed for stock very scarce, and all the 
animals were weak and scrawny. Our principal reliance for food was a 
boiled ham, and wrap it as we w r ould, we were always compelled to scrape 
off a covering of alkili dust before we could slice off our meal. It found 
its way into everything, baggage, clothing, ears, eyes and nostrils. When 
possible we drove in the night, and it often became necessary for me to 
grope around on the ground to find the trail, which a stupid driver had 
strayed from, while asleep. All roads have an ending, and so did the 
one from Salt Lake to Bannack, and when greeted by friends at the end 
of our journey, all the little discomforts of a tedious overland trip were 
forgotten. Reviewing that trip after more than forty years have elapsed, the 
principal things fixed in my memory are the picturesque view of the great 
Salt Lake and the Mormon city; the beautiful temple and Brigham 
Young's house; the clear water flowing in the streets; the great hot 
spring near by the city ; the sublime scenery of the Portneauf canon ; the 
fording of Snake river above old Fort Hall; the magnificent grandeur of 
the Three Tetons ; Market Lake; and the Red Rock canon. Then the 
country was a wilderness; now. cities, villages, mines, ranches, dominate 
the scene, and instead of the expected Snake war-whoop at every turn, 
the shrill steam whistle resounds from bluff to bluff. 

During the summer of 1864 nothing more exciting than stampedes to 
newly discovered "diggins" disturbed the quiet of the people. Immigra- 



22 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

tion was large, and Alder Gulch was being torn up by ten thousand peo- 
ple. Money was plenty, prices were high, and every willing worker 
seemed prosperous. The steamer Shreveport found it impossible 10 reach 
Fort Benton, and for the second time my freight was put off near Cow 
Island, hurdreds of miles below the point named in the bill of lading. It 
was Occobe: before my messenger met "Baron O'Keefe, of O'Keele 
Castle,'' at Big Hole river, with directions to take the saw mill to Alder 
gulch and the store goods 19 to Bannack. I had decided to locate my mill 
at Brown's Gulch, some nine miles from Virginia City, and at the nearest 
point where I found fine timber. I was compelled to build quite a bit 
of road in order to get my machinery into Uncle Sam's timber, but I only 
made the way passable, and awaited the advent of lumber to make bridges 
and sluices for a road which could be used for hauling lumber. My 
brother and Mr. Warner were men of much experience in lumbering and 
they contrived by attaching levers to the truck which carried the engine 
and boiler to keep it right side up as the cattle snaked it along the side 
of the gulch. We soon had the mill upon the ground in the midst of an 
immense pine forest, and digging a ditch along the hill-side we conducted a 
little stream of water to a sufficient elevation above the boiler for our use. 
It was a sweet sound as the saw cut its way through the first log we 
rolled upon the mill carriage The finest trees were larger than our saw 
would reach through, and we would run the saw through, and then turn 
the big log over on the carriage, and running through again the log would 
be split in halves, and then could be managed. We had a crew of five 
Yankees, and ran the mill night and day. Lumber delivered at Virginia 
City or the mines found ready sale at $150. per thousand, and every slab 
was worth twenty-five cents. I opened a lumber yard at Virginia City, 
and soon after, the Methodists began the erection of a chapel near the 
foot of Jackson street, the first Protestant church erected in Montana. 
I furnished the most of the lumber for the building and they paid what 
they could, and the balance I felt went toward a good cause. The build- 
ing was dedicated November 6, 1864 by Rev. A. M. Hough, acting pastor. 
Upon his return from Washington in the early spring of 1864, Gover- 
nor Edgerton was enthusiastically welcomed by the people, and he pro- 
ceeded as best he could to organize a civil government, according to the 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 23 

organic act establishing Montana Territory. Communication with the 
cast was at best very slow, and at times suspended almost completely. 
Nothing had been heard from the person appointed secretary of the new 
territory. As the time approached which was named in the proclamation, 
for the assembling of the first legislature and no secretary having put in 
an appearance, Governor Edgerton asked me to allow him to ask the 
president to appoint me to that position. A petition was drawn and 
signed by Governor Edgerton and another signed by prominent citizens, 
and sent to Governor Doty of Utah for him to endorse and forward to 
Washington. If this petition ever reached the president, no notice was 
ever taken of it and the territory had no secretary until the arrival of 
Thomas Francis Meagher in the summer of 1865. Having travelled in 
almost every part of the territory- I was able to be of assistance to the 
governor in apportioning the council and representative districts for the 
election of members of the first legislature. Judge James Tufts was also 
sent into some parts of the territory to make estimates of the population. 
In the fall of 1864 the governor issued his proclamation for the election 
of seven members of the Council and thirteen members of the House of 
Representatives, and the persons elected were to meet at Bannack early 
in December. Our county of Beaver Head elected Dr. Erasmus D. Leav- 
ttt, a native of Berkshire, Mass. and myself to the Council. 

The war of the Rebellion was at its height and party feeling was ramp- 
ant. The iron clad oath required of the members, excluded all who had 
served in the confederate armies. It was well known that John H. 
Rogers, elected to the house from Madison county had been an officer in 
that service, and that being a man of honor he could not take the pre- 
scribed oath. Efforts were made to have the governor omit a portion of 
the prescribed form, but without avail. When the members met for 
organization the lines between Southern sympathizers and Union men 
were tightly drawn. The governor refused to administer the oath until 
Mr. Rogers had withdrawn, and the excitement was intense. When the 
members elect of the Council were drawn up to take the oath, Charles S. 
Bagg a member from Madison county, an intense Southern sympathizer, 
happened to stand at one end of the line and I at the other. As the 
governor repeated the solemn words of the prescribed oath, Major Bagg 



«4 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

interspersed words of contempt, "That means obey Abe Lincoln !" "I 
guess not!'' Keeping- silence as long as I could at last I said, "Governor, 
I move that we proceed to take the oath prescribed L*y law without further 
interference." Major Bagg immediately stepped over and stood clcst! to 
me, and the governor again read the oath with no more interruption.;. I 
expected that at its close the Major would attack me, but he said, "Dr. 
Thompson, I'll make you the best friend I have before the winter is over!" 
1 retorted, "I am your friend now; when you are sober, Major Bagg, you 
are a gentleman; when you are drunk you are an infernal nuisance!" 
Ever after, we were good friends. He was a good citizen, and an able man 
and good lawyer, and I hope overcame his great failing. 

Creating a whole code of laws for a new state without the aid of a 
library or a printing press 21 was not a task of easy performance, and it has 
always been a wonder to me that we made as much of a success of our 
work as we did. My associate, Dr. Leavitt, w r as nominated by the demo- 
crats as president of the Council, and I was named by the republicans. 
It soon became evident that neither of us could be elected unless we voted 
for ourselves, and a chance occurring, I led our side to the election of 
Robert Lawrence, of Virginia City, a good war democrat and a fine man 
and good presiding officer. The three republicans in the Council got sat- 
isfactory places on the committees. 

Upon reviewing my work in the Council I take most pride and satis- 
faction in having been chairman of the committee to report upon a design 
for a territorial seal. Accompanying my report I made a sketch of the 
proposed seal, from which has come the coat of arms of the great state 
of Montana, and the .original sketch is preserved in the archives of the 
Historical Society of Montana. I also made the report of the committee 
appcin+ed to divide the territory into counties, and feel that in making 
the summits of mountains dividing lines rather than rivers, we did a 
good thing for the territory. 

There was no suitable place in Bannack for the use of the Legislature, 
but the governor rented a large room over a log store for the use of t'.'.e 
representatives, and in order to accommodate the council. I went to Vir- 
ginia City and purchased a partly built two story log building which a 
party commenced to build for a hotel, but abandoned to go on the Alder 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 25 

Gulch stampede. This I cut down to one story and made convenient fur 
our use as a legislative hall. The main room was quite large and when 
anything of unusual interest was being transacted, the space between the 
rail and the entrance was often filled with spectators. Thomas D. Pitt, a 
wealthy and prominent citizen, of English birth, often maltreated the let- 
ter "H." When feeling jovial he had a habit of singing with great gusto, 
the popular ditty. "Jchn Brown's body, &c." When he came to the words, 
"John Brown's knapsack was number highty-four," he always roared it 
out strenuously, and every one was ready to cheer him, which he took to 
be an encore, and would repeat. The legislature was at this time granting 
:o stock and ranchmen, the exclusive right to use certain figures and 
levices as brands for their stock. Thinking to have a little fun, I intro- 
luced a bill granting to Tom Pitt the exclusive right to use "No. 84" as 
his brand, and a certain hour the next day was fixed for its consideration. 
When the bill came up, many witty remarks were made, which might 
have been more proper in a mock session than one for regular business. 
The Council chamber was filled to overflowing, and when finally passed, 
up jumped Tom Pitt and shouted, "Come boys, adjourn ! Come lets 
liquor!" The motion was put and declared carried, the whole crowd vot- 
ing "Aye." 

I doubt if any other state or territory in the Union in its first legis- 
lative session passed an act for the organization of an Historical Society. 
I think that I may justly claim the credit of initiating and putting through 
the bill granting a charter for the Historical Society of Montana, and I 
attended a meeting of the corporators at Virginia City February 25, 1865 
held for the organization of the society. 

By reason of the limitation fixed in the Organic Act, the legislative 
session closed February 9, 1865. The mock session in the Council and 
House was supremely ridiculous. Before the day closed it seemed as if 
nine-tenths of the men in Bannack were drunk. I had become somewhat 
conspicuous by never lowering my standard as a temperance man, which 
was something very unusual in this country. The members and clerks 
of the two houses concocted a scheme to get me drunk. I eluded them 
for some time, but was at last captured and taken by superior force to a 
saloon opposite my store where pandemonium reigned On one side the 



26 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

long room stood the bar, against which leaned a lot of men, the clerk 
of the council with glass in hand singing in a loud vofce, "The Star 
Spangled Banner," &c. I was lead up to the bar, a lusty fellow holding 
on to my coat collar on each side. Along the dead wall of the room were 
piled beer casks, some with spigots in them ready for use. As I stood 
there, all at once I ducked my head, turning my coat wrong side out and 
in turning to run, hit a spigot in a beer barrel, the contents spirting clear 
across the room. All attention was at once given to stopping the flow 
of the precious beer, and I had no difficulty in reaching that seclusion 
that I so highly desired. I never was aware that I lost any popularity 
for standing firmly by my avowed principles. Late in the fall of 1864 
rich discoveries were made at Last Chance srulch, where now stands the 
city of Helena. Stampedes took place from all the mining camps in the 
territory, and the discovery showing every sign of proving rich and per- 
manent, and having* accumulated a large stock of lumber at Virginia City, 
I sold to W. F. Sanders a half interest in my mill and we decided to re- 
move it to the new mines. This was safely accomplished while I was 
attending the legislature, and at its close having met with moderate suc- 
cess, and having large interests in partnership with Gov. Edgerton, A. 
W. Hall, and Leonard A. Gridley in numerous quartz veins I determined 
to forego further experience of mountain life, and return to my old home 
in Massachusetts, Nims and I decided to go to Fort Benton and await 
the first boat and descend the Missouri to St. Louis, while my brother 
and Mr. Warner remained to manage the mill. Mr. Sanders finally 
purchased the remaining half of the mill and his brother became its man- 
ager. 

Among the other mining interests which we had obtained was No. 6 
north of the discovery, on the "Dakotah," above the gulch at Marysville. 
No. 4 had been found to be very rich ;n pockets, and it was right near 
town. From the discovery claim two miners by most primitive methods 
took out over six thousand dollars during the winter months. They 
dragged the quartz in rawhides to their cabin, where they pulverized it 
in a mortar, and washed the crushed quartz in a pan and secured the 
gold. One day some miners at work on No. 4 broke through into a 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 27 

cavern of considerable extent which they asserted was of great beauty. 
When they had arranged their machinery so as to be able to lower people 
into their mine, they extended an invitation to the governor and the mem- 
bers of the legislature to visit the new discovery. We were all lowered 
safely into the cavern, which was indeed a wonderful sight. While not 
of great size the walls of the room and the stalactites suspended from the 
roof were beautiful, and the stalagmites in rare and picturesque form 
covered the floor of the cave. Before the crib containing the goverror 
and some of the council was raised to the surface, the occupants were 
made to pledge themselves to pass a bill pending in the legislature in 
which the miners were interested, which trick they considered a huge 
joke upon the members. 

When the time came for severing the intimate relations which had for 
so long existed between us and the Edgerton and Sanders families, it 
was much harder than I had anticipated. It was particularly trying to 
leave the sweet babe, Idaho, who had been a pet, and for whom I had 
made from a shoe box the cradle in which she slept. W T hen grieved, she 
would come to me even from her mother's arms. And the little five year 
old Pauline, whom I called "my little wife" was very dear to me. One 
day when she and her mother were alone Mrs. Edgertcn said, "Pauline," 
receiving no answer she again spoke, "Pauline." No answer. "Why 
Pauline Edgerton! why don't you answer when I speak to you?" The 
little minx looked up and said, "I'm not Pauline Edgerton; I'm Mrs. 
Thompson!" I am informed that among the treasures hoarded by the 
Historical Society of Montana are to be found a barrel chair which I 
constructed from a ten gallon molassses keg for my "little wife," and the 
cradle made for little Idaho. Young Nims who was the post master of 
Bannack, resigned his office, and securing a light wagon and span of 
horses with Henry Tilden for driver, we set out for the head waters of 
the Missouri at Fort Benton. On the journey I crossed the Rocky 
Mountains for the eleventh time into Deer Lodge praine, and the 
twelfth time as we went out at Mullen's pass. We stopped at the ranch 
of Malcom Clark on the Little Prickley Pear, little thinking that our 
friend would be murdered within a few years by the same dirty Indians 
who were hanging about his ranch at that time. I had purchased a Mexi- 



28 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

can bridle, the most beautiful piece of leather work which I ever saw, 
tending to present it to a lady in Massachusetts, but Mr. Clark having 
caught sight of it, frankly told me that it could not go out of the 
country, and that if I would not sell it to him, one of his Indians would 
steal it. Under the circumstances, I felt compelled to exchange it for a fine 
bead pouch, the work of his Blackfoot wife. I possess it yet, together 
with the lady to whom I presented it. In the Prickly Pear canon we 
secured a fine set of deers horns and the head of a large Big horn, which 
we took to Massachusetts. At Sun river we found the government farm 
abandoned, and there met a messenger sent out by Carroll & Steell to 
warn people on their way to Fort Benton to travel only in large parties, 
and to keep a sharp look-out as all the Indians were very ugly, and that a 
large war party of Bloods were out and would be likely to attack any 
small party. There was no other way for us to do, but cross the high 
prairie for sixty miles which lay between us and Benton. We drove on 
forty-five miles and camped at the "Springs," and before noon next day 
arrived safely at Benton, and committed ourselves to the kindly care of 
Carroll & Steell. These progressive men, formerly clerks of the Ameri- 
can Fur Co. had built a convenient store house and other buildings a 
mile or more above Fort Benton and entered into the Indian trade upon 
their own account. Here w r e remained several weeks waiting with all 
the patience we possessed, for some intelligence from the Missouri river 
boats. The ugly attitude of the Indians prevented any white man from 
hunting, and the poor horses and cattle suffered severely from want of 
feed, for that near, or within safe distance of the fort, had been gnawed to 
its roots. Mountain Chief, a Blackfoot and a few other of his tribe, rela- 
tives of the squaws of some of the half breeds and white men had 
wikiups near at hand, and hunted enough to keep us supplied with meat. 
Henry Bostwick, who at one time had been our teamster, whose squaw 
was Mountain Chiefs relative, was taken suddenly sick and sent for me 
to come and see him. I found him at his wikiup near that of the Moun- 
tain* Chief and evidently very sick. There was no more shape to his head 
than to a pumpkin, both eyes being closed and his head a mass of sores. 
I went down to Fort Benton and tried to find some remedy which I 
thought might relieve him, as I had no idea that he could recover. 1 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS a 9 

found nothing but a few packages of pressed hops. The squaw and I 
made of these a compress and applied it as hot as the patient could bear, 
to his head and face, which we often renewed. The patient soon slept 
and the next day seemed improved. He said that before I came, he made 
up his mind that he must die, and, said he, "I prayed." "Well, Bostwick; 
what did you pray for?" "Well, I'll tell you; I prayed that these d — d 
Indians might have the same disease!" It was not many days before 
Bostwick appeared at Carroll & Steel's store, but such a looking specimen 
of humanity was never before seen ; there was not a hair on his head ; not 
even an eye-lash or eye-brow! The Mountain Chief came down with the 
same disease, and his squaw sent down for me, but luckily for me, and 
probably for him, a regular physician strayed into the Fort, and I gladly 
retired from practice. There were about fifteen men waiting at Benton, 
and our entertainers ran out of both sugar and salt. A few weeks pre- 
viously, ten men had laid out a town at the junction of the Marias and 
Missouri rivers, about fifteen miles by land below Fort Benton, and some 
thirty miles by the big river. They were cutting timber and building 
cabins expecting the town to rival Fort Benton. 

Volunteers were called for to go down to "Gphir" and procure the 
need supplies. Being cooped up as we were was pretty dull business for 
me, and I told Carroll that if he would find me a companion and let us have 
the two best buffalo horses there were in the herd, that I would make the 
trip. This was agreed to. and soon my companion and I were journeying 
toward "Ophir." W r e kept upon the highest land — the ridge lying be- 
tween the Teton and the Missouri — known as the "Cracon-du-Nez" in- 
tending to make a run for safety should we discover any Indians. We 
reached the camp' without incident, had a good visit with the boys, (one 
of whom, Frank Angevine, had been a clerk in the legislature) purchased 
our sugar and salt, warned the party of hostile Indians, and safely re- 
turned to Benton without any Indian scare. 

Twenty-four hours later the bodies of these ten men lay naked, stiff, 
and stark, in their blood, scalped, maimed, and mangled, in the most 
fiendish and inhuman manner which can be imagined. They had been 
surprised by one hundred and fifty Blood Indians, who immediately after 
the massacre fled toward the British line. Only Little Joe Kipp, a half 



SO MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

breed who had been employed as a herder, was left to tell the story. On 
his arrival at the fort a party was made up to pursue the murderers, who 
followed the trail for a day, only finding- a white man's scalp, and the 
first camping place, where ten fires had been built. At Ophir thev found 
the remains of Frank Angevine, 'George Allen, James Andrew?, X. W. 
Bunis, Franklin Friend, George Friend, Abraham Low, James H. Lyon-, 
Henry Martin and James Perie. The bodies of the murdered men were 
buried in one grave and the settlement was blotted out. A friendly 
Blackfoot reported that the Bloods said that the whites fought like 
devils ; that one man got his back against a tree and killed three Indians 
before he died. The body of Frank Angevine was found terribly 
mutilated at the foot of a large cottonwood tree. AYe subscribed quite a 
sum of money to induce Joe Kipp to go out on the Deer Lodge road and 
warn travellers of the danger of venturing out in small parties. 

* We were so hemmed in that our food supplies were getting pretty 
short. One day the squaw cook served a most savory soup, and we all 
ate heartily; but when upon inquiry, it was learned that the basis of the 
feast was a buffalo calf taken from its slain mother, it caused some of the 
tender-feet to feel a little gruesome. They were a few buffalo cows run- 
ning with the herd of cattle, which had been captured when calves, but 
they were only killed for food supply, when hunger made it necessary. 

Late in May the long waited for boat arrived, and we took ourselves, 
baggage, and trophies, on board for our three thousand mile voyage. 

I had, by the kindness of Carroll & Steell, who had no goods for trade, 
been permitted to trade all those things which I did not care to take to 
the states, with a large party of Crows, for robes and furs. One morning 
we discovered upon the opposite side of the Missouri, perhaps two 
hundred lodges of these Indians, who had noislessly come in and made 
camp since the preceeding day. A boat was sent over from the Fort and 
two or three chiefs came over, and after a palaver, although neither Fort 
Benton or Carroll & Steell had any goods to exchange, they decided to 
cross and go down to Fort Union, by way of Milk river. In a few minutes 
after the boat returned to the Crow camp, the wikiups were all down, 
and each boss squaw had her household goods securely rolled up in the 
tent skins, making a large, round bundle. The river was now running 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 31 

high from melting snows in the mountains, and was very swift, but be- 
fore long five hundred ponies were in the river, and attached to the tail 
of each was the family tent skin, and clinging to the huge ball and 
partially supported by it were the more mature members of the family, 
while the papooses were perched on top. The bucks swam along side 
the ponies, holding to their manes, and keeping them guided against the 
current of the stream. The young girls and maidens modestly unloosed 
som,e article of clothing as their feet touched our shore, but the old 
squaws were not in the least abashed to land quite in the costume of the 
original inhabitants of Paradise. A few weaklings floated a long way 
down the river and we assisted the men at the fort in launching a large 
flatboat and picking up the stragglers. The whole affair did not occupy 
an hour's time, and was a very interesting exhibition of native courage 
and capacity. A bevy of young girls came up in the vicinity of Carroll & 
Steell's store, and Nims, Tilden and another young man went out to make 
their acquaintance. Perhaps too abrupt in their missionary work of civil- 
ization, it was not long before we saw the three gallants hoofing it for 
the home station, closely followed by about a dozen handsome young 
squaws who were very fleet of foot. The could not be induced to enter 
the trading post. We dickered with the old squaws, and instead of tak- 
ing home old clothes, jack-knives, fish-hooks, percussion caps, and other 
knick-knacks, we carried some fine robes — whole skins — deerskin hunting 
shirts, leggins, bows and arrows, lariats, moccasins, and skins and small 
furs. In fact I took home a whole bale of selected robes, and from Car- 
roll & Steell's warehouse containing many thousand beaver pelts I selected 
twelve which I had made into a coat, which after more than forty years 
service is still a very comfortable garment. 

The boat brought report of many Indian murders along the river, and 
we went prepared for trouble. At a bend of the river just below the 
mouth of the Musselshell, where the channel which the boat must follow 
ran close under the curving bank, the pilot discovered about three hundred 
warriors who were evidently intending to attack the boat. The alarm 
was given just as we had sat down to breakfast, and as I rushed to my 
stateroom to get my rifle, right before the door lay a big colored waiter 
evidently hoping to escape any stray bullet. A full head of steam was 

To be Continued. 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S 

REGIMENT 

Colonel John Mansfield's 7th Regiment, Provincial Army, May to 

July, 1775. 
Colonel John Mansfield's 19th Regiment, Army United Colonies. 
July to September 15, 1775. 
Lieutenant Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 19th Regiment, Army 
United Colonies, September 15th to December, 1775. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



CAPTAIN BENJAMIN KIMBALL of Manchester was engaged May 
5, 1775 as Captain in Colonel John Mansfield's 7th Regiment, Provincial 
Army, and he served through the year under that officer and Lieutenant 
Colonel Hutchinson. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel Israel Hut- 
chinson's 27th Regiment, Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN JOHN LOW of Beverly (also given Ipswich) was en- 
gaged May 12, 1775 as Captain in Colonel John Mansfield's 7th Regiment, 
Provincial Army. He served through the year under this officer and his 
successor in command, Lieutenant Colonel Israel Hutchinson. January 
I, 1776 he became Captain in Lieutenant Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th 
Regiment, Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN EZRx\ NEWHALL of Lynn was the son of Samuel and 
Sarah (Sargent) Newhall. He was born in Maiden May 1, 1733. May 
20, 1760 he was commissioned Ensign in Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regi- 
ment, in which his elder brother, Joseph, served as Captain. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a Lynn Company 
of Minute Men. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John 
Mansfield's 7th Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through the 
year under Colonel Mansfield and Lieutenant Colonel Hutchinson. During 
1776 he was Captain in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, Con- 
tinental Army. January 1, 1777 he became Major in Colonel Rufus Put- 

32 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 33 

!*>>! f \ - ■ • : i • \ \ y .- . 1 

nam's 5th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, to rank from November i, 1776. 
May 17, 1777 he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel William 
Shepherd's 4th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He served in the cam- 
paign which resulted in the surrender of Burgoyne, was at Valley Forge 
and took part on the battles of Trenton and Princeton. During the re- 
mainder of the war he was in the army under the command of General 
Heath and was stationed at West Point and vicinity. September 30, 1783 
he was brevetted Colonel and he served until November of that year. 
After the war he removed to Salem to live. President Washington made 
him collector of Internal Revenue, and he held that position until he died. 
He was one of the original members of the Massachusetts Society of Cin- 
cinnati. He died April 5, 179S and was buried in the old Charter Street 
burying ground in Salem. His grave just inside the gate is marked by a 
black stone. Saunderson in his "Lynn in the Revolution" writes: "Abund- 
ant evidence appears that Colonel Newhall was a brave and prudent 
officer in the war, and a well beloved citizen at home." 



CAPTAIN ASA PRINCE of Danvers was the son of Doctor Jonathan 
and Mary (Porter) Prince. He was born February 22, 1746-7. On the 
Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775 he marched from Danvers in command 
of a company. April 25 of that year he was engaged as Captain in Colonel 
Mansfield's 7th Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through the 
year. September 6. 1776 his name appears in a list of officers of Colonel 
Henry Herrick's Sth County Regiment, Massachusetts Militia. In Decem- 
ber 1776, he commanded a company which was raised in Danvers and 
Middleton in Colonel Timothy Pickering; Junior's 1st Essex County 
Regiment. In a petition dated Danvers, May 4, 1778 signed by said 
Prince, he stated "that he had been commissioned as Captain of the Sec- 
ond Company of the Sth Essex County Regiment, September 6, 1776; that 
he had served faithfully in that capacity at home and in three campaigns. 
but .as certain field officers under whom he declined to serve had been 
appointed to his regiment, he asked permission to resign his commission". 
He was noted for his coolness in the face of danger. 



34 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN ENOCH PUTNAM was born in Salem Village (now Dan- 
vers Highlands) February 18, 1731-2. He was the son of Jethro and 
Annie (Putnam) Putnam. He was a Lieutenant in Captain Jeremiah 
Pages (3rd Danvers) Company in Colonel William Browne's 1st Essex 
County Regiment, August, 1771. He was elected to a town office in 1757 
and for nearly forty years served in one town office after another. "He 
held, previous to the Revolution, the office of highway surveyor, warden, 
constable and tythingman. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he 
was Second Lieutenant in Captain Israel Hutchingson's Company of Min- 
ute Men. April 26th he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John Mans- 
field's 7th Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year under 
that officer and Lieutenant Colonel Israel LIutchinson. During 1776 he 
"was Captain in Colonel Israel LIutchingson's 27th Regiment, Continental 
Army, and was taken prisoner at Fort Washington November 15, 1776. 
March 4, 1778 he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel Larkin 
Thorndike's 8th Essex County Regiment. June 18, 1779 he was commis- 
•sioned Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel Nathan Tyler's 3rd Worcester Coun- 
ty Regiment, engaged in the Rhode Island service. July 7, 1781 he be- 
'Came Lieutenant Colonel of a Regiment raised to reinforce the Continent- 
al Army stationed at West Point and served until December 8, 1781. 
After the Revolution he held many "important positions serving on com- 
mittees to see about raising the necessary men for army, taxes, supplies, 
highways, etc. He was often moderator of the town meetings." "Put- 
nam Ancestry," Page 246. He died in Danvers about 1796. 

I 

CAPTAIN ADDISON RICHARDSON of Salem was the son of Isaac 
and Elizabeth (Richardson) Richardson. He was born in Woburn, July 
3* J 739- After the death of his parents he lived for a few years in Cam- 
bridge. From April 10th to November 23, 1758 he was a private, resi- 
dence Cambridge, in Captain William Angier's Company in Colonel Jos- 
eph Williams's Regiment. He removed to Salem as* early as 1765. May 
■9, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John Mansfield's 7th Regi- 
ment, Provincial Army, and served through the year under that officer 
;and Lieutenant Colonel Hutchinson. • During 1776 he was Captain in 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 35 

Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, Continental Army, and was 
taken prisoner at Fort Washington November 16, 1776. Colonel Israel 
Hutchinson in a petition addressed to the Council August 16, 1777 rep- 
resented that certain officers who belonged to the regiment and other 
officers were prisoners at Long Island recommending that advance pay 
be sent to these officers. Draft of a letter of instructions from the Coun- 
cil to Captain Thomas Randall, dated November 3, 1777 is preserved in 
the archives, directing said officer to effect the exchange of Captain Rich- 
ardson and other prisoners for British prisoners to be forwarded to New 
York in a cartel. Captain Lawrence R. T. Campbell was exchanged for 
Captain Richardson, a parole agreement bearing the date of Boston, 1777. 
His release was not effected evidently at that time as his name appears 
on a list dated February 24, 1778, of prisoners to be exchanged for British 
prisoners under parole. October 14, 1779 he became Captain in Colonel 
Jacob Gerrish's Regiment and served until November 22nd of that year. 
This regiment at this time being detached to reinforce the army under 
General Washington. From June 29th to October 10, 1780 he w r as Captain 
in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's three month Essex County Regiment. He 
died in Salem, July 31, 1811. 



FIRST LIEUTENANT JAMES BANCROFT of Lynn, was the son 
of John and Ruth (Newhall) Bancroft. He was born in that part of 
Lynn now Lynnfield, March 21, 1732. From May 31st to September II, 
1754 he was a Corporal in Captain William Flint's Company, Colonel 
Winslow's Regiment and bounty was paid for the above service. From 
March 13th to October 29, 1758 he was Sergeant in Captain Isaac Os- 
good's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Nichols's Regiment. In 1767 he was 
an Ensign in Captain Nathaniel Bancroft's 3d Lynn) Company, Colonel 
Benjamin Pickman's 1st Essex County Regiment. In August 1771 he 
was an Ensign in Captain Joseph Gowing's 3rd Lynn Company, Colonel 
William Browne's Essex County Regiment of Militia. He was tything- 
man in 1757 and a warden in 1775. May 6. 1775 he became Lieutenant 
in Captain Gideon Foster's company, Colenel John Mansfield's Regiment 
and served through the year in that command, the latter part of the 



* &3S9S5 



36 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

year being in Captain John Baker's Company. January i, 1776 he became 
First Lieutenant in Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment Continental 
Army, and was promoted to Captain July 16, 1776. November 26, 1779 
he was commissioned Ensign in Colonel Michael Jackson's 8th Regiment, 
Massachusetts Line, and in April 17S0 was promoted to Lieutenant. 
May 12, 1780 he enlisted as Lieutenant in Lieutenant Colonel Ezra Bad- 
lam's Regiment, and his name appears in a list of officers dated Phillip- 
bury, July 18, 1782. Notwithstanding the last named record, Heitman 
stated that he resigned May 12, 1780. He died in Lynnfield, August 22, 
1814, aged 82 years (and not March 17, 1831 as stated by Heitman). 



FIRST LIEUTENANT ZADOCK BUFFINGTON of Salem was the 
son of James and Elizabeth Buffiington. May 7, 1775 he enlisted as 
First Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Barnes's Company. June 7, 1775 
he was commissioned Lieutenant in Captain Ezra Newhall's Company 
in the same regiment. He served through the year under Colonel Mans- 
field and Lieutenant Colonel Israel Hutchinson. June 6, 1776 he was 
commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Robert Foster's Company, 
Colonel Timothy Pickering's First Essex County Regiment. August 10, 
1777 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Samuel Johnson's 4tb Essex- 
County Regiment and served in that command until November 30, 1777. 
In December 1777 he was commissioned Lieutenant in the Sea Coast 
Company at Salem, reported appointed in place of Benjamin Ropes, who 
declined. April 14, 1778 he was commissioned Lieutenant in the Sea 
Coast Company of Salem. He was called cordwainer in the records, later 
gentleman and esquire. He conducted a tavern on the corner of what 
are now Church and Washington Streets in Salem. He died in the 
Spring of 1799. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT NATHANIEL CLEAVES of Beverly was 
the son of Joshua and Elizabeth (Putnam) Cleaves. He was born in Bev- 
erly, September 20, 1750. In a petition dated April 27, 1776 this officer 
stated that he served in the engagement of April 19, 1775- Having pro- 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 37 

ceeded from Beverly on horse-back to "Menottamy/' where, meeting the 
enemy, he dismounted to engage them, was wounded, and lost his horse, 
saddle, etc., and praying that he might be reimbursed for said losses. His 
father, Joshua Cleaves in a petition referred to later, stated that he was 
wounded in this engagement, loosing a finger. He enlisted as Lieutenant 
in Captain Thomas Barnes' Company, Colonel Mansfield's Regiment. In 
1776 he was first Lieutenant in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regi- 
ment, Continental Army. He was taken prisoner at Fort Washington 
November 16, 1776. His father, Joshua Cleaves, signed a petition in 
Boston August 22, 1777 in which he stated the above facts regarding his 
service on the Lexington alarm and his capture at Fort Washington. In 
a letter dated November 3, 1777, instructions were given from the Coun- 
cil to Captain Thomas Randall directing him to effect the exchange 
of said prisoner at Long Island, for a British officer to be forwarded to 
New York in a cartel. In a list dated February 24, 1778 said Cleaves 
was to be exchanged for Lieutenant Charles Campbell. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT FRANCIS- COX of Salem, was engaged May 
9> l 775 to hold that rank in Captain Addison Richardson's Company and 
he served through the year. January 1, 1776 he became First Lieutenant 
in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, Continental Army. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN DODGE (Junior) of Wenham march- 
ed as Ensign in Captain Thomas Kimball's Company of Minute Men, 
Colonel John Baker's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
He may have been, and probably was, the John Dodge who was Ensign 
in Captain Caleb Low's 1st Danvers Company, Colonel William Browne's 
1st Essex County Regiment in August 1771. May 5, 1775 he was en- 
gaged as Lieutenant in Capt. Benjamin Kimball's Company, Colonel John 
Mansfield's Regiment, and served through the year. In another list he 
is given as a member of Captain Enoch Putnam's Company in the same 
regiment. May 7, 1776 he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Jonathan 
Col. John Mansfield's Regiment, and served through the year under Colonel 



38 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

year he was a Captain in Colonel Timothy Pickering-. Junior's 1st Essex 
County from November u, 1777 to December 15, 1778. He was a Cap- 
tain in Colonel Jacob Gerrish's Regiment of Guards. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EPHRAIM EMERTON of Salem, was en- 
gaged May 19, 1775 as Lieutenant in Captain Nathan Brown's Company, 
Colonel John Man's Regiment, and served through the year under Colonel 
Mansfield and Lieutenant Colonel Hutchinson. During 1776 he was First 
Lieutenant in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, Continental 
Army. December 19, 1777 his commission was ordered as commander 
of the privateer schooner "Congress.'' October 5, 1779 his commission 
was ordered as commander of the privateer brigantine ''Saratoga." Oc- 
tober 8, 1781 he was commissioned commander of the privateer brigan- 
tine "Hound." At one time during this sea service he was captured, as 
his name appears in an undated list of officers and crew of five privateers 
belonging to Salem, Marblehead and Cape Ann, taken by a British Ship 
of War. 



FIRST LIEUTENANT BILLY PORTER of Wenham was the son 
of Jonathan and Lydia (Tyler) Porter. He was born in Wenham August 
3> x 739- On the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain 
of a Wenham Company of Minute Men in Colonel John Baker's Regiment. 
Seven days later he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Ebenezer 
Francis's Company, Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment and he served 
through the year in that regiment, part of the time, probably, according 
to a list, in Captain Gideon Foster's Company. During 1776 he was 
Captain of the 8th Company in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regi- 
ment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel 
Ebenezer Francis's nth Regiment, Massachusetts Line. October 26, 1780 
he was commissioned Major in Lieutenant Colonel John Brook's 7th 
Regiment, Massachusetts Line. In Heitman's "Historical Register of the 
Officers of the Continental Army" it is stated that he became Major in the 
ioth Regiment, Massachusetts Line on the date above assigned for his 
commission as Major, and that he was transferred to the 7th Regiment, 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 39 

Massachusetts Line, January i, 1781. During the next two or three years 
he served "up the Hudson" frequently acting as Major Commandant of his 
regiment. June 12, 17S3 he was transferred to Colonel Michael Jackson's 
3rd Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He served until November 3, 178^ 



LIEUTENANT JOHN UPTON, JUNIOR of Lynn was the son of 
John and Tabitha Upton. He was born October 16, 1746. His home was 
in Lynnfield at the place now owned by Mr. Frank Hart and the fine 
old house is still standing on Chestnut Street. On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775, he marched as Ensign in Captain Ezra Newhall's Lynn 
Company of Minute Men. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Lieutenant 
under the same Captain in Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment, and he 
served through the year in that regiment. On the list his name appears 
as Lieutenant in Captain Asa Prince's Company in the same Regiment. 
April 26, 1776 he was commissioned Captain in the 6th Company in 
Colonel Timothy Pickering's 1st Essex County Regiment. His commis- 
sion as Lieutenant in Captain Newhall's Company has been reproduced 
in Saunderson's "Lynn in the Revolution" opposite page 56. After the 
war he returned to Lynnfield and carried on his occupation as cordwainer. 
ne died in Lynnfield April 30, 1838, and was buried in the old br-ying 
ground in Lynnfield Center. The gravestone has the droll inscription 
describing one wife '/deposited on the right" and the other "deposited on 
the left." He was a man of good mind and strong character in personal 
appearance and medium height, portly and dignified. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOB WHIPPLE of Danvers was a private 
in Captain Israel Herrick's Company from April 28th to November 26th, 
1757. The name of Israel Hutchinson was given as his master. He en- 
listed for service upon the "Eastern Frontier." On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775 he enlisted as Sergeant in Captain Israel Hutchinson's 
Company of Minute Men. April 26, 1775 he was engaged as Lieutenant 
in Captain Enoch Putnam's Company, Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment 
and he served through the year under Colonel Mansfield and Lieutenant 



4 o MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Colonel Israel Hutchinson. During 1776 nc served as First Lieutenant " 
Colonel Hutchinson's 27th Regimennt Continentnal Army. January 1, 1777 
he became Captain i Colonel Rufus Putnam's 5th Regiment, Continental 
Army, and he served under that officer chiefly up the Huason and about 
West Point until April 25, 17S1 when he was reported ''resigned." Heit- 
man in his "Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental Army" 
states that he was retired January I, 1783. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT STEPHEN WILKINS of Middleton was 

probably the son of Stephen and Hannah (Curtis) Wilkins, who was 
born in Middleton, December 17, 1736. He was a Lieutenant in Captain 
Asa Prince's Company in Colonel Mansfield's Regiment and June 7, 1775 
the Provincial Congress ordered that his commission be delivered. In 
1776 he was Captain of a company, made up of men from Danvers, Mid- 
dleton and Lynn. The company was raised to reinforce the Continental 
army is Canada and New York. This return was made by Aaron Wood, 
chairman of the committee of Essex County by resolve of June 20, 1776. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ARCHELAUS BATCH ELOR of Bev- 
erly may have been the man of that name who was one of the recruits 
for Castle William raised by Richard Saltonstall and Francis Miller who 
entered service in 1765 and served seven days. He enlisted April 25, 
1775 as Ensign in Captain Asa Prince's Company, Colonel Mansfield's Regi- 
ment. In another list of officers of the Massachusetts Militia, he was 
credited with the rank of Ensign in Captain John Lowe's Company in the 
same regiment and was reported commissioned June 7, 1775. In another 
list of officers of this regiment from Colonel Henshaw's orderly book, 
published in the Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. XV, 
p. 78, he is credited with the rank of Second Lieutenant in Captain John 
Lowe's Company. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN CRAFT of Manchester was 
the son of Benjamin and Mary (Choate) Craft. Lie was born probably 
in Ipswich (now Essex) August 20, 1738. He was a cordwainer by trade 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 41 

and lived in Manchester. August 16, 1757 as a member of Captain 
Thomas Dennis's Company, Colonel Appleton's Regiment, he marched 
from Chebacco to Waltham on the way to assist in the relief of Fort 
William Henry. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he was en- 
gaged as Sergeant in Captain Andrew Worcester's Company which 
marched to Medford. May 5, 1775 he enlisted as Ensign in Captain Ben- 
jamin Kimball's Company, Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment. In an- 
other list he is given as holding the same rank in Captain Enoch Putnam's 
Company in the same regiment. In a return dated October 6, 1775 at 
Winter Hill his name appears as Second Lieutenant under the last named 
officers. He served through the year. After the wai he returned to 
Manchester from the army and engaged in the manufacture of shoes, 
furnishing one hundred pairs a month to the soldiers. While in the army 
he kept a journal as his father had done in the French War. This journal, 
covering the period from June 15th to August 13, 1775 has been published 
in the Essex Institute Historical Collections. Vol. 3, pp. 51 to 57. "He 
was a man of observant mind, careful in his statements, and painstaking 
in giving many things of value." He died in Manchester, February 27, 
1823, aged 85 years. 



SECOND LIEUTENANT THOMAS DOWNING of Salem, en- 
listed May 19, 1775 as Ensign in Captain Nathan Brown's Company, Col- 
onel Mansfield's Regiment, and served through the year under Colonel 
Mansfield and Lieutenant Colonel Hutchinson. In one of the lists of of- 
ficers he is called Lieutenant. During 1776 he was First Lieutenant in 
Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, Continental Army. In a 
petition dated May 12, 1777 ne was called Second Lieutenant of the 
brigantine "Pluto." In this petition, Josiah Orne, the owner of the 
brigantine requested that Nathan Brown be commissioned Commander, 
afrd said commission was order in Council In a descriptive list of the 
officers and crew of the Privateer Ship "Jack'' he was named as com- 
mander, his age being given as 35 years; stature 5feet 9J inches; com- 
plexion dark; residence Salem. 



42 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

SECOND LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN GARDNER was the son of 
Ensign Daniel and Anne (Putnam) Gardner. He was baptized October 
9, 1757. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Ser- 
geant in Captain Asa Prince's Company of Minute Men. April 26, 1775 
he was engaged to serve as Ensign in Captain Putnam's Company, Col- 
onel John Mansfield's Regiment, and he served through the year under 
Colonel Mansfield and Lieutenant Colonel Hutchinson. In a list of offi- 
cers of this regiment found in Colonel Henshaw's orderly book his name 
appears as Second Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Kimball's Company. 
During 1776 he was Second Lieutenant in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 
27th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777 he became Lieuten- 
ant (called Captain Lieutenant by Pleitman) until November, 1778, when 
he was promoted to Captain. He retired January 1, 1781. About 1785 he 
removed to Marblehead where he lived during the remander of his life. 
He died in Marblehead, September 17, 1S13. Heitman in his "Historical 
Register of the Officers of the Continental Army" evidently confounds 
him with some one else, and gives various services between 1813 and 
1816. 



SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSEPH HERRICK of Beverly was the 
rfon of Colonel Henry Herrick of Beverly, and was born February 15, 
1738. on the Lexington Alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as a private 
in Captain Larkin Thorndike's 1st Beverly Company. May 12, T775, he 
became Ensign in Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment, serving part of 
the time in Captain John Low's Company and the rest of the time in 
the Company of Captain Thomas Barries. In some of these lists, both 
of Captain Low's officers and 'Captain Barnes's he is called Lieutenant. 
During 1776 he was a Second Lieutenant in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 
27th Regiment, Continental Army. August tS, 1777 he enlisted as Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Samuel Flint's Company, Colonel Samuel Johnson's 4th 
Essex County Regiment for service at the Northward. He was killed 
in the Battle of Stillwater, August 7, 1777. 



COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT 43 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JAMES MATTHEWS of Marblchcad 

was engaged May 6, 1775 as Second Lieutenant in Captain Gideon Fos- 
ter's Company, Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment. On another list he- 
was credited as Second Lieutenant in Captain John Baker's Company 
and on still another as Ensign in Captain Ebeneazer Francis's Company 
in the same regiment. January 1, 1776 he became First Lieutenant in 
Colonel Enoch Poor's 8th Regiment, Continental Army. "In a general 
order dated Headquarters, Ticonderoga, September 5, 1776 taken from 
Colonel Wheelock's orderly book ; said Matthews, Lieutenant in Colonel 
Poor's Regiment, tried on charge of going on parade while intoxiated, 
selling liquor to private soldiers, etc., found guilty of conduct unbecom- 
ing an officer, and sentenced to be dismissed from the service." 



SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN PIERCE. Boston, (also given 
Salem) was engaged May 8, 1775 as Ensign in Captain Thomas Barnes's 
Company, Colonel John Mansfield's Regiment and served through the 
year under Colonel Mansfield and Lieutenant Colonel Hutchinson. In a 
list of officers in this regiment found in Colonel Henshaw's orderly book, 
he is called Second Lieutenant in Captain Ezra Newhall's Company in 
this Regiment, and he is also given the same rank in Captain Barnes's 
Company in a return dated Camp at Winter Hill, October 5, 1775. Dur- 
m & l 77& he was First Lieutenant in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th 
Regiment, Continental Army- January 1, 1777 he became First Lieu- 
tenant in Colonel Edward Wigglesworth's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line. In 1778 he was promoted to Captain Lieutenant and March 1, 
1779 became Captain. He retired January 1, 1781. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT FREDERICK REED was probably the 
son of John and Mary (Torrey) Read, who was born in Abington, July 
21, "1736 and lived later in Weymouth and Boston, according to the 
"History of the Reed Family." On the Lexington alarm he marched as 
Sergeant in Captain Jacob Gould's Company, Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's 
Regiment. He was Second Lieutenant in Captain Addison Richardson's 



44 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Company, according to the list of officers found in Colonel Hcnshaw's or- 
derly book. Heitman in his "Historical Register of the Officers of the 
Continental Army'' credits him with service in this rank in this regiment 
through the year. 



SECOND LIEUTENANT GRIMES TUFTS of Lynn served as Ser- 
geant in Captain Ezra Newhall's (Lynn) Company of Minute Men which 
marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775 he was 
engaged as Ensign in Captain Ezra Newhall's Company, Colonel John 
Mansfield's Regiment. In another list of officers of this company he is 
called Second Lieutenant and in Colonel Henshaw's list in his orderly 
book he is given the same rank in Captain Asa Prince's Company. He 
served through the year. He died December 23, 1805. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT HAFFIELD WHITF. was the son oi 
Josiah and Sarah (Prince) White. He was born in Wenham, January 3, 
1738-9. August 16, 1757, he marched from Wenham to Waltham in Cap- 
tain Dennis's Company, Colonel Daniel Appleton's Regiment for the 
relief of Fort W r illiam Henry. From April 7th to November 19, 1758. he 
was a private in Captain Stephen Whipple's Company, Colonel Jonathan 
Bagley's Regiment. His place of residence was given Wenham, and his 
father's name Josiah White. April 6, 175c he enlisted for the invasion of 
Canada, his residence being given as Wenham. age 21 years. From Jan- 
uary 1, 1760 to January 12, 1761 he was a private in Captain Andrew 
Gidding's Company 3 Colonel Bagley's Regiment, in service at Lonisburg. 
He was probably the man of this name who marched as a private in 
Captain Billy Porter's Company of Minute Men, Colonel John Baker's 
Regiment, on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26, 1775 
he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Ebenezer Francis's 
Regiment, and he served through the year, under those officers. In the 
list found in Colonel Henshaw's orderly book he was credited with the 
same rank in Captain Gideon Foster's Company in this regiment. Dur- 
ing 1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th 






COLONEL JOHN MANSFIELD'S REGIMENT. 45 

Regiment, Continental Army, being Regimental Adjutant at least as 
early as April iSth. January 1, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel Rufus 
Putnam's 5U1 Regiment, Massachusetts Line. In May, 1781, his name ap- 
pears as acting Brigade Quarter Master and he was later reported as 
holding the same office. He retired January 1, 1783. Drake states that 
on "December 3, 1787, he led from Salem the advance guard of pioneers 
in the settlement of Marietta, Ohio; afterwards erected mills at Wolf 
Creek, and finally settled near Waterford." He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Society of Cincinnati. He died in 1817, near Waterford, 
Ohio. 



ENSIGN EZEKIEL COOPER of Rowley (also given Danvers) was 
in all probability the man of that name who was the son of Leonard and 
Sarah (Piatt) Cooper, who was born in Rowley, October 7, 1745. O n 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Sergeant in Cap- 
tain Asa Prince's Company of Minute Men. May 4, 1775 he enlisted 
as Sergeant under the same officers. 'I his rank of Sergeant is the highest 
with which he is credited in the "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sajlors in 
the War of the Revolution," during 1775, and the writer has found no 
documentary evidence that he was given a commission during that year 
His name appears, however, as Ensign in this Regiment in Heitman's 
"Historical Register of the Continental Army" and similar credit is 
given him in the volume published by the Massachusetts Society of the 
Cincinnati, of which he was a member. During 1776 he was Ensign in 
Colonel Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, Continental Army. January 
I, 1777 he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Colonel Rufus Put- 
nam's 5th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and he served in that organi- 
zation until 17S2. January 1, 1783 he was transferred to Lieutenant Col- 
onel Ebenezer Sprout's 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts Line and on the 
7th of January of that year he was commissioned Captain in the same 
organization. He served to June, 1783. He removed to Ohio in 1788, 
and was living there in the town of Warrenton in the year 1807. He was 
a member of the Massachusetts Societv of Cincinnati. 



(Sritm^m $c (&®mmml 



on ^nofi^ anb 0tliec J^ubjecti? 



A book which will interest those of our readers who have followed 
Dr. Frank A. Gardner's short histories of the Massachusetts Naval ves- 
sels and privateers, is "Merchant Venturers of Old Salem"by Robert 
E. Peabody, in which has been collected from old letters and log books 
an account of the early commercial ventures and voyages of the Derbys 
of 'Salem, Massachusetts, who were among the leading American mer- 
cjhants of their day. They carried on a large business with the West 
Indies in colonial times., and during the Revolution took an active part 
in the Provincial cause, fitting out many privateers. After the war they 
were pioneers in the commerce between this ocuntry and the Far East, 
where they built up an extensive trade, especially with the island of Mau- 
ritius. 

The books not only tell of the romantic old voyages, captures by 
pirates, smuggling, and the like, but also contains much information of 
economic value, such as what the cargoes were, what prices they brought 
and how contemporary political events in America and Europe directly 
affected the trade. It gives an excellent idea of the way our merchants 
carried on their business in those "good old davs" a hundred years ago, 
when American ships were found on every sea. — Published by Houghton. 
Mifflin Co., Boston. 

During the year 1913 the vital records to 1850 of the following towns 
nave been printed under the provisions of chapter 470 of the Acts of the 
1902 Massachusetts Legislature: Carver, Duxbury. Framingham, Hop 
kinton, Hull, Xewburyport (Vol. IT.). Sherborn, Story, and YYorthington. 

46 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT. 47 

It is well known that the ink used in the original copy of the Declara- 
tion of Independence has faded away nntil it has become almost invisible, 
and many other old documents are fading so rapidly that they will become 
invisible in course of time — due to the poor quality of ink used when 
they were written. Several years ago the custodian of public records 
agitated the subject of better inks until a standard formula was adopted 
by the State of Massachusetts for inscribing all State .records. 

The typewriter has come into such general use in preparing docu- 
ments that the Commission of Public Records has seen the necessity of 
indelible inks for typewritten manuscripts, and has accordingly tested 
and approved the following grades of typewriter ribbons, for use in all 
Massachusetts Public Records: 

Eagle Brand Black Record- Ribbon, 

Manufactured by American Ribbon and Carbon Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

Non-filling Black Record Typewriter Ribbon. 

Manufactured by The Ault and Wiborg Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Markwell Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by the Frank Bayer Company, 22 North William Street, New York. 

Carter's Black Record Typewriter Ribbon. 

Manufactured by The Carter's Ink Company, First and Athanaeum Streets,- Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Columbia Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by the Columbia Ribbon and Carbon Manufacturing Company, 
111 West Broadway, New York. 

Crown Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Crown Ribbon and Carbon Manufacturing Company, Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Criterion Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by M. F. Donovan Company, Auburn, N. Y. 

Empress Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Imperial Manufacturing Company, Newark, N. Y. 

Kee Lox Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Kee Lax Manufacturing Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

Little's Satin Finish and Gold Seal Brands, Black Record Ribbons. 

Manufactured by A. P. Little, Rochester, N. Y. 



48 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Manifold Supplies Company, 1S8 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Carnation Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Miller-Pierce Company, Aurora, 111. 

Eureka Brand Special Black Record Ribbon, ink No. 158. 

Manufactured by Mittag & Volger, Park Ridge, N. J. 

Obashi's Standard Brand Black Typewriter Ribbon. 

Manufactured by H. Ohashi & Co., 395 Broadway, New York. 

Cotton King Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Pen-Carbon Manifold Company, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Du-ra-bul Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by The Republic-Dodge Manufacturing Company, Brooklyn, N. T. 

Diamond Brand Official Black Record Ribbon, ink Xo. 621. 

Manufactured,' by The S. T. Smith Company, 11 Barclay Street, New York. 

American and How-Ko Brands, Black Record Ribbons. 

Manufactured by H. M. Storms Company, 11 and 13 Vandewater Street. New York. 

Underwood's Black Record Ribbon, ink No. 655. 

Manufactured by John Underwood & Co., 30 Vesey Street, New York. 

Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by Union Ribbon and Carbon Company, 9th and Thompson streets, 
•Philadelphia. Pa. 

Paragon, Premier, Invinciple, Monarch, and Success Brands. Black 
Record Ribbons, and Yost Black Record Pad. 

Manufactured by The Union Typewriter Company, Ribbon Factory, Bridgeport. 
Conn. 

The Webster Star Brand Black Record Ribbon. 

Manufactured by F. S. "Webster Company, 332 Congress Street, Boston. 

Every individual preparing historical manuscripts on a typewriter ought 
to use the same care in selecting typewriter ribbons that the State does, 
for in event of failure to print, through interruption in the work by death, 
lack of finances, or other cause, the permanence of the manuscript is as 
important to the author (and others interested in his work) as it is to 
the State. 



THE 




IVSETTS 



AZINE 




^oteD'fo.(nassa(^U5gtt5«Ht5forij'Ccngalo{j\j-'Bioc)rftpl)ji l 
Published bytheSalem Press Ca Salem, Mass. USA 



Wilt JHassadptsrifs |Haitajtnt. 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 

ASSOCIATED AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 

George Sheldon, Dr. Frank A. Gardner, Lucie M. Gardner 

iDSlltntLD. MASS. _, SAL1M, MASS. S A LKM. M A ■»*. ' 

. Charles A. Flagg, Albert W. Dennis, 

■AUK, MASS. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $1.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 



vol. vn AFsrx, 1914 ko . 2 



Cmtfcnfs of fijtis J00UC. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT Frank A. Gardner. M. D. . 5] 
REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS Judse Francis M. Thompson . §5 
COMMENT AND CRITICISM • • • • 95 

CORRESPONDENCE of a business nature should be sent to The Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass. 

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of March 3, 1879. Office of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S 



REGIMENT 

Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, April 19, 1775. 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 5TH Regiment, Provincial Army, April- 
July, 1775. 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 23RD Regiment, Army United Colonies, 

July-December, 1775. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



This regiment was made up largely of men from Worcester County, 
but two companies were composed principally of Middlesex men, while 
another had representatives from several counties. On the Lexington 
Alarm of April 19, 1775, Colonel Asa Whitcomb responded to the call 
with twelve companies. His regimental staff was composed as follows : 

Colonel Asa Whitcomb, Lancaster 

Lieutenant Colonel Josiah Whitney, Harvard 

First Major Josiah Carter, Leominster 

Second Major John Rand, Westminster 

Adjutant Eliakim Atherton. Bolton 

Quarter Master Jeremiah Laughton, Harvard 

All of these men were engaged for service April 19, 1775. 



The line officers of this Lexington Alarm 



Captains 

Joseph Fairbanks 
Ebenezer Woods 
Isaac Gates 
Daniel Robbins 
Elisha Jackson 
James Burt 
Deliverance Davis 
John Estabrook 
Robert Longley 



First Lieutenants 
William Burt 
Kendall Boutell 
Josiah Haskell 
Asa Wilder 



Phineas Farnsworth 
Ebenezer Conant 
W r illiam Eagell 
Paul Whitcomb 
Josiah Kendall* 
Joseph White Cyrus Fairbank 

♦Marched with Daniel Robbins' Company. 
fEnsign Edward Newton also in thiscompany. 



Regiment were as follows: 

Second Lieutenants 
Phineas Willard 
Asa Perry 
Amos Fairbanks 
Fortunatus Eagert 

Jacob Robbins 

John Conn 

Nathan Howard (Ens.) 

Jonathan Baley (Ens.) 

Thomas Osborn 

Moses Sayer 



51 



5* 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



When the Provincial Army was organized.. April 25, 1775, this regi- 
ment became the 5th in that service and was stationed at Cambridge. 
The Field and Staff officers at this time were as follows: 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb, Lancaster. 
Lieutenant Colonel Josiah Whitney, Harvard. 
Major Ephraim Sawyer, Lancaster. 
Adjutant Jeremiah Gager, Westminster. 
Surgeon William Dunsmore, Lancaster. 

Two other members of the staff were added May 22nd, namely 
Surgeon's Mate Moses Barnard, Lancaster. 
Quartermaster Jeremiah Laughton, Harvard. 
The line officers were as follows : 



Captains 
John Fuller 
Ephraim Richardson 
James Burt 
David Wilder 
Andrew Haskel 
Robert Longley 
Agripa Wells 
Jonathan Davis 
Abner Cranston 
Edmund Bemis 



Lieutenants 
Ebenezer Bridge 
Seth Haywood 
Ebenezer Woods 
Jonathan Gaits 
John Kindreck 
Sylvanus Smith 
Jacob Poole 
Elisha Fullam 
John Wyman 
John Hore 



-bnsigns 
Jered Smith 
Ephraim Boynton 
Jabez Keep 
Timothy Boutal 
Jonathan Sawyer 
Ephraim Smith 
Ezekial Foster 
John Meeds 
Benjamin West (Ded.) 
David Foster." 



To the above list he appended the following: 
"Captain Benjamin Flastings 
Lieutenant Jonathan Houghton 
Ensign Jonathan Merriam 

I desire that these officers may be commissioned and join my Regi- 
ment according to their Desier as they have Done Dutye and Joynd the 
Regiment Ever Since they have Bin in Camp. 

Asa Whitcomb, Colonel. 

The above said officers ware minet officers and Came Down at the 
fight at Concord and have about fifty able Bodied men in the Company. 
The Capt. ware my Lieut, the year 58 and were good officer and Can- 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 



53 



not Persuaid him to join any other Regiment But mine." 

"A return to Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment now in Capmt at 
Cambridge the 25th of May, 1775. 



Colonel, Lt. Col., M, 


a j or, Ac 


jutant, 


Qt. M 


aster, S 


urgeon, 


I each 


John Fuller 


1 




1 


4 


2 


52 


Ephraim Richards 


1 




T 


4 


2 


5i 


David Wilder 


1 




1 


4 


2 


53 


Abner Cranston 


1 




I 


4 


2 


50 


James Burt 


1 






2 


2 


43 


Robert Longley 


J 


1 


I 


4 


2 


47 


Jonathan Davis 


1 






4 


2 


32 


Edmund Bern is 


1 




1 


4 


2 


43 


Andrew Haskell 


1 




I 


4 


2 


49 




IO 


10 


8 


38 


20 


468 



Field Ofticers 



Colonel Asa Whitcomb 
Lt. Col. Josiah Whitney 
Major Ephriam Sawyer 



Staff Officers 



Adjutant Jeremiah Eager 
Quarter Master Jeremiah Laughton 
Chaplain None 

"Cirgeon" William Dunsmore 
" Mate None 

Field Officers 3 

Staff Officers 3 

Commissioned 28 

Non Commisisoned 58 

Rand and File 468 

Total 560 

Asa Whitcomb, Col 
N. B. Captain Benjamin Hastings has enlisted 33 men in order to 

Settle in my Regiment which is not numbered in the above Number." 
Appended to a list of Lieutenants and Ensigns similar to the above 

list we find the following: 



54 ' MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

"In Committee of Safety June 9, 1775. 

Cambridge. 

We recommend to the Honble the Provinicial Congress that the 
within named Officers belonging to Collo. Whitcomb's Regiment may 
be Commissioned, if the Congress have no objection. 

William Cooper, Secretary." 

It was ordered in Provincial Congress June 12, 1775 that Mr. Sayer 
fill up and deliver commissions to men in Colonel Whitcomb's Regiment. 

In the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775, it is believed that at 
least three companies of this regiment were present. One account, given 
by a soldier, states that Captain Benjamin Hastings led on a company 
of 34, and took post at the rail fence. Two other companies, Captains 
Burt's and Wilder's were also, in all probability, in the battle. In a list 
of causualties given in 4 Force II, 1828, it is stated that five members of 
this regiment were killed, eight wounded and two missing. The follow- 
ing document explains itself: 

"This May Certifie that we the Subscribers Being Chosen officers 
of a minett Company in Bolton have taken orders to Rais a Company 
in the Preasent army and haveing fifty-three able Bodied effective men 
fit for Servce in our Company and having Don Duty in Coll. Whitcomb's 
Regiment from our Furst Takeing out orders and we desire that we may 
be commistioned under said Coll. which was the Expectation of the 
Company. 

To the Honble The Provincial Congress Camp No. 2 Cambridge June 

ye 30-1775. 
Benjin Hastings, Cpt. 
Jonathan Houghton, Lieut. 
Jonathan Meriam, Sd. Lieut." 

Certain officers (not named) were ordered to be commissioned in this 
regiment June 30, 1775 in the Provincial Congress. 

"Cambg. June 30, 1775 
A List of the Staff Officers and Commission Officers in Coll. Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment, not commissioned. 
Staff Officers 
Jeremiah Gage, Adjutant 
Jeremiah Laughton, Quat. Master 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 55 

Will. Dunsmore, Doct. 
Capt. Abner Cranston 

Sam West, 2nd Lt. in the place of him that was killed in the tight at 
Charleston. 

Asa Whitcomb. 

N. B. I have a full Regmt exclusive of Benj Hastings who has 53 
in his Company, and he has done Duty with me and declines joining any 
other Regm't and I desire that the officers of that Company may be 
commissioned and join my Regmt. 

Asa Whitcomb. 
Benjamin Hastings, Captain 
Jonathan Houghton, Lieut. 
Jonathan Meriam, Second Lieut." 

"In Committee of Safety 

Cambridge. June 30, 1775 

It is recommended to the Honorable the Provincial Congress that 
Samuel West above named be Commissioned as 2d Lieut, in Capt. Abner 
Cranston's Company in Collo. Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. 

Wm. Cooper, Sec'y." 

The principle towns represented in the regiment were as follows: 
AgTippa W r ells, Greenfield, Bernardston, Shelburn, Xorthfield, etc. 
James Burt, Harvard, Fitchburg. Lancaster, Ashburnham, etc. 
Robert Longley, Bolton, Shirley, Groton, etc. 
Benjamin Hastings, Bolton, Putney. Westminster (Vt. ? ) Rockingham, 

Brattleboro, Vt. 
Ephraim Richardson," Lancaster, Lexington, etc. 
Andrew Haskell, Lancaster. Lunenberg. 

David Wilder, Leominster. Ashburnham, Claremont, Westminster. 
Edmund Bemis, Westminster, etc. 
Jonathan Davis, Harvard, Boston, etc. 

John- Fuller, Lunenberg, Fitchburg, Hillsboro, N. H., Concord. 
Abner Cranston, Marblehead, Salem, Boston, Marlboro, Southboro, etc. 

The Regiment was located at Prospect Hill during the remainder of 

I775- 

The officers of this regiment attained rank during the war as follows: 
colonel 4, lieut. colonel 2, major 2, captain 26, first lieutenant 15, second 
lieutenant 14, ensign 1, adjutant 2, quarter-master 1, surgeon 2. After the 



56 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

war one became brigadier general, 2 attained the rank of colonel and 
one captain. 

The following table shows the strength of the regiment during the 
different months of the year: 





Com. Off. 


Staff 


Non. Com. 


Rank & 


File Tota 


June 9, 1775 


36 




44 


522* 


612 


July, 1775 


36 


5 


5it 


523 


615 


Aug. 18, 1775 


36 


3 


57 


493 


589 


Sept. 23, 1775 


36 


4 


58 


518 


616 


Oct. 17, 1775 


26 


5 


44 


512 


587 


Nov., 1775 


36 


5 


58 


498 


597 


Dec. 30, 1775 


35 


5 


60 


487 


587 



*This number in June includes corporals, fliers and drummers. 

■("Including drummers and fifers. 

COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB of Lancaster was born about 1720. 
Jrle was a brother of General John Whitcomb. He served first as a scout 
in 1748. From March 28th to December 1756 he commanded a company 
from the second precinct in Lancaster on the Crown Point Expedition. 
In 1758 he commanded a company in Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regi- 
ment, and his men were billeted on the march from Lake George, No- 
vember 10th of that year. The company served ten months. He had a 
large farm in Lancaster and was deacon of the Church. In 1773 Captain 
Asa Whitcomb served as delegate from Lancaster to the General Court 
and was one of the delegates from Lancaster to the Worcester Conven- 
tion, August 9, 1774. He was also a delegate from Lancaster to the 
General Court in 1774. He was a delegate to the First Provincial Con 
gress from Lancaster, "Colonel" Asa Whitcomb was one of the repre- 
sentatives from Lancaster in the Second Provincial Congress in February 
1775. He was one of the citizens of Lancaster to contribute for the poor 
of Boston during that winter. The account of his response to the Lex- 
ington alarm has been given in the historical section of this article. 
May 9, 1775 he was chosen by the Second Provincial Congress as muster 
master in place of his brother John who declined to serve. When at 
the end of 1775 the Continental Army was organized, Colonel Whitcomb 
was left out, the reason being given on account of his advanced age, as 
he was 56 years old at this time. The following story of his reinstate- 
ment was told in the New London Gazette: 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 57 

"Deacon Whitcomb of Lancaster (Who was a member of the assem- 
bly of Massachusetts Bay until the preesnt war commnced, has served 
in former wars and been in different engagements) served as Colonel in 
the Continental Army ; but on account of his age was left out on the new 
regulation. His men highly resented it, and declared they would not 
enlist again after their time was up. The Colonel told them he did not 
doubt there was sufficient reason for the regulation and he was satisfied 
with it. He blamed them for their conduct and said he would enlist as 
a private. Colonel Jonathan Brewer heard of it, and offered to resign 
in favor of Colonel Whitcomb. The whole coming to General Washing- 
ton's ears, he allowed of Colonel Brewer's resignation in Colonel Whit- 
comb's favor and appointed the former Barrack-master until he could 
further promote him, and acquainted the whole army with the whole af- 
fair in general orders. Let antiquity produce a more striking instance of 
true greatness of mind.'' 

During 1776 he served as Colonel of the 6th Regiment in the Contin- 
ental Army. Towards the close of January his regiment was transferred 
from Prospect Hill to the Brigade of General Thomas, and on February 
22nd, 1776 was ordered to Roxbury, where it occupied the home known 
as Shirley's Mansion. After the evacuation of Boston, Colonel Whit- 
comb's was. one of the three regiments detailed to garrison the town. 
He with his regiment stayed in Boston until August when they marched 
for Ticonderoga. Colonel Whitcomb was very popular with his men and 
the author of "Military Annals of Lancaster" states that it "se^ms to 
have been in a large degree due to the noble qualities of the heart. 
He was evidently a lovable, as well as able man. a practical Christian, 
an uncompromising patriot, a true and tried soldier. While he may 
have been an unexceptionable leader of men in days like those of Lex- 
ington and Bunker Hill, it needed but a brief campaign to show that 
he was too amiable to become a military disciplinarian." His surgeon 
described him as "a serious, good man, but is more conversant with the 
economy of domestic life than the etiquette practiced in camp." This is 
shown in the following, taken from the "Annals of Lancaster" above 
quoted. 

"Each officer was entitled to the service of a private soldier as his 
waiter, a regimental commander had two. Colonel Whitcomb selected 
his own sons for this service, and one of them, wanting to earn an honest 



5 8 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

penny by plying his trade of shoemaker, the good country deacon saw 
no impropriety in allowing the cobbler's bench to be set up in the room 
he occupied as regimental headquarters. This republican simplicity at 
once excited the fiercest contempt of the officers of other organizations 
in the encampment, and one night the Lieutenant Colonel of Wayne's 
Regiment, when half crazy with drink, made an assault on the offensive 
bench, which, having succumbed to his valliant sword, he knocked the 
Colonel down, and ended by calling all of his own battalion and raising 
a bloody riot." 

Various depositions concerning this affair have been published in 
the "Annals of Lancaster," and that of Major Daniel Whiting of Dedham 
closes as follows : "Colonel Whitcomb entered a compaint against the 
said Thomas Craige to the Commandant & and said Thomas was arested, 
but as Colo. Whitcomb was obliged to return home, & the trial of said 
Thomas was not likely to take place soon, the said Col. Whitcomb with- 
drew his complaint as far as concerned himself received satisfaction for 
himself from the said Thomas. According to Surgeon James Thatcher 
this satisfaction consisted of a bear supper which Colonel Graige gave, 
inviting as his guests Colonel Whitcomb and his officers." 

Colonel Whitcomb's service ended April I, 1777, and he returned to 
Lexington to his farm. In June J777 he "collected evidence (in accord- 
ance with a resolve of the General Court) against such as were deemed 
'internal enemies of the State.' " Before the end of the war he removed 
to Princeton, and served that town in the Legislature. He died March 
16, 1804, aged 84 years. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOSIAH W T HITNEY of Harvard was 
born in Stow, September 1 1, 1731, the youngest son of Richard and Anna 
(Whitcomb) Whitney. His mother was a relative of General John and 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb. In 1755 from August 16th to December 14th he 
served as a private in Captain Samuel Preston's Company, Colonel John 
Whitcomb's Regiment. In August 1757 he marched as a private in Cap- 
tain Israel Taylor's Company, Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regiment for the 
relief of Fort W r illiam Henry. December 27, 1767 his name appears as 
Lieutenant in Captain Jason Russell's 2nd Harvard Company, Colonel 
Joseph Wider's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. In September 1774 
his name appears in the records as Captain of "The Youngest Company" 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 59 

in Harvard. On the Lexington Alarm of 1775 he marched as Lieutenant 
Colonel of Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and on the 25th of that 
month was engaged to hold the same rank under Colonel Asa Whitcomb 
in the Provincial Army, and he served through the year under him. Jan- 
uary 23, 1776 he was chosen Colonel of the Second Worcester County 
Regiment, one of the six regiments raised to serve before Boston until 
April 1, 1776. April 10, 1776 he was chosen Colonel of a regiment raised 
to fortify the town and harbor of Boston, and to be stationed at Boston 
under General Ward. The regiment was stationed at Camp Howe. On 
April 17, 1777 he was nominated to command one of two regiments des- 
tined for Rhode Island. In August 1777 he was Colonel of a regiment 
which marched on the alarm of Bennington. In the Rhode Island cam- 
paign in August 1778 he was Colonel of a Regiment comprising 630 rank 
and file in Brigadier General Titcomb's Brigade. In 1779 according to 
a return dated July 5th of that year he was Colonel of the Second Wor- 
cester County Regiment in Brigadier General Jonathan Warner's Bri- 
gade. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of May 1780- 
1783. He was made Brigadier General, but resigned before the breaking 
out of Shay's Rebellion. He was a selectman of Harvard 1783, '4, '7, '8, 
'9. He represented his town in the General Court in 1787-9. He was 
a delegate to the United States Convention in 1788. He favored Shays 
at the time of the insurrection. He was arrested and taken to jail in 
Worcester. He petitioned to be liberated as he had "left at home a des- 
titute family, a wife and seven children, the eldest not twelve years 01 
age." He was released after sixteen days imprisonment under £250- 
bonds. When his trial came no one appeared against him and he was 
released. 

FIRST MAJOR JOSIAH CARTER of Leominster was a private in 
Captain John Carter's Company (troop of horse) in Colonel Oliver Wild- 
er's Regiment for the relief of Fort William Henry, August 14-27. 1757. 
In December 1767 he was a Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Wilder's Leo- 
minster Company, Colonel Joseph Wilder's Regiment. In July 1771 he 
was Captain of the 1st Leominster Company in Colonel Caleb Wilder's, 
2nd Worcester County Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 
x 9» l 775, he served as First Major in Colonel Asa W r hitcomb's Regiment; 
service seventeen days. February 1, 1776 he was commissioned Lieuten- 



60 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ant Colonel in Colonel Abijah Stearns's 8th Worcester County Regiment. 
June 2, 1779 he was chosen Colonel of the 8th Worcester County Regi- 
ment. He presented his resignation June 18. 1779, and it was accepted in 
council June 23, 1779. He died in Leominster February 14, (13 G. S.) 
1812, 85 years. 

SECOND MAJOR JOHN RAND of Westminster was the son of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (Parker) Rand. He was born in Lynn, October 
14, 1722 (his name incorrectly spelled Rann in the records). He spent 
"his boyhood days in Salem, Woburn and Shrewsbury, and later lived 
in Bolton, and removed to Westminster where he bought property in 
1747. He was a Lieutenant in the Westminster Company, Colonel Jos- 
eph Wilder's Second Worcester County Regiment (in August, 1 76 1 ) . In 
July 1771 he was promoted to Captain in the same company. He marched 
as Second Major in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington 
Alarm of April 19, 1775, and served seventeen days. February 7, 1776 
he was commissioned First Major in Lieutenant Abijah Stearns' 8th 
Worcester County Regiment. July 25, 1777 he was engaged to hold the 
same office in Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment, 
serving until November 30th of that year. June 2, 1779 he was chosen 
Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel Josiah Carter's Sth Worcester County 
Regiment, and on the 24th of that month was chosen Colonel of the 
same regiment. From July 4th to October 11, 17S0 he was Colonel of a 
regiment raised in Worcester County to reinforce the Continental Army 
for three months. "He w r as a man of unsual natural ability, active in 
public afTairs and in the church." He died December 11, 1789. 

MAJOR EPHRIAM SAWYER of Lancaster was a Lieutenant in 
Captain Nathan Brigham's Company from June 10th to December 3rd 
1760. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Second 
Major in Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment. April 25, 1775 ne was 
engaged as Major in Colonel Asa W T hitcomb's Regiment. He was ap- 
pointed field officer of picket, May 25, 1775, and field officer of fatique 
May 30th. He served through the year under Colonel Whitcomb, and 
February 2, 1776 was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel Josiah 
Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. Later in 1776 he fvvas 
Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel James Converse's 4th Worcester County 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 61 

Regiment. He marched northward with this regiment in September 1777. 
In October 1780 he has a record of "Colonel" serving as private "in Cap- 
tain William Fletcher's Company in Colonel Benjamin Symond's Second 
Berkshire County Regiment." 

ADJUTANT ELIAKIM ATHERTON of Bolton enlisted as adjut- 
ant in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment April 19, 1775 and served 
seventeen days. We have no further record of any Revolutionary ser- 
vice. He died in Bolton December 24, 1786, aged 44 years. 

ADJUTANT JEREMIAH GAGER of Westminster came to that 
town from Stamford, Conn, about 1770. His name appeared on the 
muster roll in Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment of Minute Men as 
Adjutant, April 19, 1775. April 25, 1775 he was engaged to serve in 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and he continued in that command 
through the year. He was Deputy Sheriff in 1778. He died in 1805. 

SURGEON WILLIAM DUNSMORE of Lancaster was burn in that 
town February 8, 1733-4. He was the son of John and Eunice Dunsmore. 
He was a private in Captain Nathan Sawyer's Lancaster Company, Col- 
onel Oliver Welder's Regiment, which marched for the relief of Fort Wil- 
liam Henry in August 1757. On the Lexington alarm on April 19, 1775 
he marched as First Major in Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment of 
Minute Men, serving six days. April 25, 1775 ne was engaged as Surgeon 
in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and he held that rank under that 
officer during the year. July 10, 1780 he was engaged as Surgeon in Col- 
onel John Rand's 8th Worcester County Regiment and he served until 
October 11, 1780. According to the records of the House of Representa- 
tives he was chosen Muster Master of Worcester County. He died in 
Lancaster, May 20, 1784 in the 51st year of his age. 

SURGEON MATE MOSES BARNARD of Lancaster was appointed, 
May 22, 1775, to serve in that rank under Doctor Dunsmore in this regi- 
ment, and he served through the year. August 20. 1776 he was engaged 
as Surgeon on the State Sloop "Republic," commanded by Captain John 
Williams. He served two months and twenty-eight days. 

QUARTERMASTER JEREMIAH LAUGHTON of Harvard was a 
Corporal in Colonel. Josiah Brown's Regiment in 1756. In 1757 he held 



62 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

the same rank from August 13th to 28th in Captain Samuel Haskell's 
(Harvard) Company, detached from Colonel Oliver W'ilder's Regiment, 
which marched on the Fort William Henry alarm. In August 1761 he 
was Lieutenant in Captain Phineas Fairbank's (Second Harvard) Com- 
pany, Colonel Joseph Wilder's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775 he marched as Quartermaster in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
Regiment and six days later was engaged to serve under the same com- 
mander in the Provincial Army. He held that rank until his death Au- 
gust' 11, 1775. 

CAPTAIN EDMUND BEMIS of Westminster was the son of Philip 
and Elizabeth (Lawrence) Bemis. He was baptized October 22, 1732 and 
settled with his family at his home lot in Westminster. A man of thi: 
name, but with residence given Spencer, held the rank of Captain in an 
expedition to Crown Point from February 18th to December 25, 1756, and 
is included in a list of men from the Worcester County Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel John Chandler, Jr. The subject of this sketch march- 
ed as Lieutenant in Captain Noah Miles' Company, Colonel John Whit- 
comb's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. serving five 
days. April 24, 1775 he enlisted as Captain in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
Regiment and served through the year. He commanded a Company in 
this regiment in the battle of Bunker Hill. He served as assessor in 
Westminster one year, and as selectman three years, and held other posi- 
tion of trust. He died December 1, 1807. a g" e ^ 75 years. 

CAPTAIN JAMES BURT of Harvard was the son of John aid Eliza- 
beth (Nutting) Burt. He was born in Harvard in 1727. From March 
20th, to December 20, 1760 he was Captain in Captain Richard Syke's 
Company. In this record he was called of Harwood. In 1762 he was at 
Crown Point in Captain Thomas Farrington's Groton Compan\ . In 1774 
he was a Lieutenant in Captain Josiah Whitney's "Youngest Company" 
of Harvard. In the History of Harvard, under date of March 17. 1775, 
he is called "Captain" James Burt. On the Lexington Alarm of April 10 
1775 he marched as Captain of a Company in Colonel Asa Whitcomb s 
Regiment. April 25, 1775 he enlisted in the same rank under that com 
mander and served through the year, receiving his commission May 26th 
The roll of his company has been published in the "History of Harvard 
page 320. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 63 

CAPTAIN ABNER CRANSTON of Marlborough, was the son of 
Samuel and Elizabeth (Brown) Cranston. He was born in Marlboroug-h, 
April 21, 1732. From May 31st to September 13, 1754 he was a Corporal 
in Captain Phineas Osgood's Company, Colonel John Winslow's Regi- 
ment. From August 18th to November 16, 1755, he was a Corporal in 
Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment. In 1757 he served in the 2nd Marl- 
borough Company, commanded by Captain John Weeks, the record being 
endorsed "Gone into the Province Service this year." From March 31st 
to November 17, 1758 he was a Sergeant in Captain Asa Whitcomb's Com- 
pany, Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regiment. April 6. 1759 he became Ser- 
geant in Captain Stephen Maynard's Company, Colonel Abel Williams's 
Regiment, and he served until November 30th of that year. From June 
ioth to December I, 1760 he was Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Peniman's 
Company. His name appears in a return of officers of Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment, May 25, 1775, as a Captain in that command. He serv- 
ed through the year. January 1, 1776 he was appointed Captain in Colonel 
Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, Continental Army, and he served until 
November. November 6, 1776 he was engaged as Major in Colonel Ed- 
ward Wigglesworth's 13th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He continue 1 
to serve under this officer and his successor, Lieutenant Colonel Cabin 
Smith until his death May 29, 1777. Seven years half pay was allowed his 
widow 

CAPTAN DELIVERANCE DAVIS of Ashburnham was the son ot 
Ebenezer and Sarah Davis. He was born in Harvard July I, 1736. He 
was a private in Captain Israel Taylor's (Harvard) Company in a detach- 
ment from Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regiment, serving from August 13th 
to 26th, 1757, in an attempt to relieve Fort William Henry. In response 
to the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a 
Company in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. 

CAPTAIN JONATHAN DAVIS of Harvard was Ensign in Captain 
Jason Russell's Second Harvard Company, Colonel Joseph Wilder's Reg- 
iment, December 26. 1767. In the records of the Town of Harvard he was 
called Captain, March 7, 1775. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 
he marched as Captain of a Company in Colonel John Whitcomb's Regi- 
ment, and April 26, 1775 was engaged as Captain in Colonel Asa Whit- 



64 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

comb's Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year. In 
1777 ne was a member of the Committee of Correspondence and Saicty 
for the town of Harvard. 

CAPTAIN JOHN ESTABROOK of Westminster was the son of 
John and Prudence (Harrington) Estabrook. He was born October 20, 
1729. July 1771 he was Lieutenant in Captain John Rand's 1st Westmin- 
ster Company in Colonel Caleb Wilder's 2nd Worcester County Regi- 
ment. He marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775 as Captain of 
a company which joined Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serving nine 
and one-half days. He died in 1S04. aged nearly 75 years. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH FAIRBANKS of Harvard was the son of Joseph 
and Mary (Brown) Fairbanks. He was born in Harvard November 4, 
1722. From March 27th to November 11. 1755 he was Lieutenant in 
Captain Richard Godfrey's Company. Colonel Ruggles' Regiment on the 
Crown Point expedition. He was Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Day's 
Wrentham Company, Colonel Miller's Regiment on the alarm list in 
April, 1757. In August 1761 he was Captain Lieutenant in Lieutenant 
Colonel Peter Atherton's Company, Colonel Joseph Wilder's 2nd Wor- 
cester County Regiment. He marched as Captain of a Company in Col- 
onel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, 
leaving the rendevous April 21st, and serving three days. 

CAPTAIN JOHN FULLER of Lunenberg was probably the man of 
that name who was a resident of Sutton in 1759 and who, at the age of 
twenty-one years enilsted on April 16th, in Captain Samuel Clark Paine's 
Company, Colonel John Chandler, Junior's Regiment, on the expedition 
to Crown Point. In the following year, at the age of twenty-two he en- 
listed in Captain Moses Hart's Company in an expedition to Canada, the 
lafcei enlistement being April 9th. April 25. 1775 he was engaged as 
Captan in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, Provincial Army, and re- 
ceived his commission May 26th. serving through the year. 

CAPTAIN ISAAC GATES of Harvard was the son of Jacob and 
Elizabeth Gates, and was born in Harvard August 6, 1729. He was a 
private in Captain John Whitcomb's Company from April 14th to October 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 65 

3 r » x 755» on a Crown Point expedition. In 1757 ^ rom August 13th to 28th 
he was a trooper in Captain John Haskell's Company, detached from 
Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regiment, marching for the relief of Fort William 
Henry. He was selectman of the town of Harvard in 1771, and served 
as assessor in 1774. In the latter year he was named among the fifteen 
largest tax payers in the town. September 26, 1774 he was First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Asa Houghton's "oldest Company" in Harvard, March 
7, 1/75 ne is called Captain in the Harvard Records. He marched on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 as Captain of the 4th Company in 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment and he served sixteen and one-half 
days, returning home May 4. 1775. He was a member of the Harvard 
Committee of Correspondence in 1776. In the "History of Harvard" it is 
stated that he "was of a family noted for physical and mental energy. He 
was peremptory of speech, high spirited, and autocratic, with stately fig- 
ure and soldierly mein. Flis patriotism was so ardest that he devoted 
large shares of his property (and he was one of the wealthiest men in the 
town), to the cause of liberty. He lived on the East Side of Bare Hill. 
He died October 30, 1796, aged 68 years. 

CAPTAIN ANDREW HASKELL of Lancaster was First Lieutenant 
in Captain Benjamin Houghton's Company of Minute Men, Colonel John 
Whitcomb's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 
x 9« 1775- April 25th he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment in the Provincial Army, and he served through the year. 
In a list of Field Officers of the "2d reg't to be raised for the Defence of 
Boston May 8" (1776), he was called Captain, the regiment being com- 
manded by Colonel Thomas Marshall. He was commissioned July 5th. He 
continued in this service until December I, 1776. He probably was the 
man who served in July 1777 as Lieutenant in Captain John White's Com- 
pany, Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment, on the 
Bennington alarm. In May 1778, while still a resident of Lancaster, he 
enlisted in Captain White's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Wor- 
cester County Regiment. His description was as follows: age 30 years, 
stature 5 feet, 10 inches, complexion dark, hair dark, eyes black. In 
1779 he was a private in Captain Samuel King's Company, Colonel Thom- 
as Marshall's 10th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He was reported dis 
charged March 7, 1779. July 12, 1780 he was appointed Sergeant of the 



66 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Colonel's Company in Colonel Gamaliel Bradford's Regiment, serving 
until December 20, 1781. He was engaged for a term of three years to 
serve in Captain Beman's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Wor- 
cester County Regiment. His age at this time was given as 33 years. 
In explanation of his service in the decadent scale as shown above, the 
hstorian of Lancaster states that he ''resigned because others were pro- 
moted over his head but ... an inborn love of military service and 
patriotic ardour impelled him into the field, rank or no rank. The spirit 
of the man was above his position and it was inextingusihable. He lived 
here until the year 1791 when he enlisted under General Arthur St. Clair 
who led our forces against the Indians in the Northwest. Our army was 
badly defeated in the battle near the village of Miami, November 3, 1 79 t . 
In this fight Captain Haskell was killed." The supposed impediment to 
his promotion (in the Revolutionary service) was incurable uncouthness 
of manners. 

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN HASTINGS of Bolton was Ensign in Cap- 
tain Joseph Whitcomb's Company on the Crown Point Expedition from 
March 27th to October 24, 1755. From March 13th to November 5th of 
the following year he was Lieutenant of Captain Asa Whitcomb's Com- 
pany, Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regiment. From May 21st to Septem- 
ber 13, 1759 he served as Captain in the Crown Point Expedition. On the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a Company 
of Minute Men in Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment. April 27, 1755 
he was engaged to serve in the same rank in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
Regiment in the Provincial Army. In the Battle of Bunker Hill he led a 
company of thirty-four, and took post at the rail fence. He served through 
the year. 

CAPTAIN ELISHA JACKSON of Wistminster was the son of Isaac 
and Ruth (Greenwood) Jackson. He was born about 1737. In August 
1757 he marched from Cambridge to Springfield in Captain Joshua Ful- 
ler's Company, Colonel William Brattle's Regiment in an expedition for 
the relief of Fort William Henry. From April 2. 1759 t0 September 5, 
1760 he served in Captain William Angier's Company, Colonel Joseph 
Frye's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched 
to join Captain Asa W'hitcomb's Regiment and served thirteen and one-- 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 



6? 



half days. March 23, 1776 he was commissioned Captain of the 2nd West- 
minster Company in Colonel Abijah Stearns' 8th Worcester County Regi- 
ment. On the Bennington alarm of August, 1777, he commanded a com- 
pany from Westminster, which served under Major Ebenezer Bridge. 
From June 2nd to September 5, 1778 he was a Captain and supernumerary 
officer in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regiment. His father, Isaac, gave 
him a grant of land in Gardner and he lived there until his death in 1814, 
at the age of yy years, 4 months and 23 days. He was buried on the 10th 
of July of that year. 

CAPTAIN ROBERT LONGLEY of Bolton was born in that town 
about 1732. August 9, 1756, he was at Fort William Henry in Captain 
Timothy Houghton's Company, Colonel Jonathan Bagley's Regiment, 
serving from March 22, to October 23. A note stated that he joined from 
Colonel Wilder's Regiment. From June 17th to December 5, 1760 he was 
a private in Captain Jonathan Rolfe's Company. In July 1771, he was 
Ensign in Captain Jonas Houghton's 1st Bolton Company in Colonel Cal- 
eb Wilder's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. He marched as Captain 
of a Company in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775, and seven days later was engaged to serve in 
the same rank under the same commander in the Provincial Army, and 
continued through the year. In a list of Field Officers of the Regiments 
of the Worcester County Militia, proposed by the Legislature, January 
12, 1776, he was reported as belonging to the Second Worcester County 
Regiment. June 26, 1776 he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel in 
Colonel Jonathan Smith's Regiment of the Berkshire and Worcester Coun- 
ty men, raised for service at Quebec and New York. "Colonel" Robert 
Longley died in Bolton, August 10, 1802, aged 70 years. 

CAPTAIN EPHRAIM RICHARDSON of Lancaster served as Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Samuel Sawyer's Company of Minute Men, Colonel 
John W^hitcomb's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775. May 19th of that year he was commissioned Captain in 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and his original commission is pre- 



68 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

served in the Massachusetts Archives, Volume 146, page yj. He served 
through the year. 



CAPTAIN DANIEL ROBBINS of Lancaster was a private in 
Captain John Carter's Company, a detachment of Colonel Oliver 
Wildes Regiment, which marched for the relief of Fort William 
Henry, August 14th to 27th, 1757. He served as clerk of the town in 
1770, 2, 3, 5, 6. He was Captain of the 4th Lancaster Company, in Col- 
onel Caleb Wilder's 2nd Worcester County Regiment in July 1771 . On 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched to Cambridge and com- 
manded a Company of Militia in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, 
serving fourteen days. 



CAPTAIN AGRIPPA WELLS of Greenfield. From March 8th to 
April 2, 1756 as a sentinel in Captain John Burt's Company, he was re- 
ported "scouting Westward". From October 16th to December 11, 1756 
he w r as "at Westward", in Captain John Catlen's Company. June 25, 
J 758, while a member of Captain Jonathan Burbank's Company, he was 
taken into captivity by the Indians scouting near Lake George. July 1, 
1773 he was chosen "to tune the psalm" in the church at Greenfield. On 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain in Colonel 
Samuel Williams's Regiment of Minute Men. May 1, 1775 he was en- 
gaged as Captain in Colonel Asa W r hitcomb's Regiment, and served 
through the year. p September I, 1776 he became Captain in Colonel 
Samuel Brewer's Regiment and served for three months. July 10, 1777 
he was engaged as Captain of Colonel Porter's Regiment and served 
twenty-eight to thirty-eight days, to reinforce the Northern Army after 
the evacuation of Fort Ticonderoga. June 19, 1780 he was commissioned 
Captain of the iorh Company in Lieutenant David Wells' 5th Hampshire 
County Regiment. He served as assessor of the town of Greenfield in 
1777. He kept an inn in that town in 1778. 9 and 81. The following 
year he sold this tavern, and it became known as the Willard Tavern. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 69 

He took sides with Shays in the Rebellion of 1787, and led a full com- 
pany of men from Colrain, Leyden, and Bernardston. He died in 
Greenfield March 24, 1809, aged 70 Years. 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH WHITE of Lancester was the son of Josiah and 
Abigail (Whitcomb) White. He was born in that town November 1, 
1719. He served as a Sergeant in Captain Nathaniel Sawyer's Company 
in a detachment of Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regiment which marched 
August 15th to 27th, 1757 for the relief of Fort William Henry. In Aug- 
ust 1761 he was Ensign in the Colonel's (1st Lancester) Company, Col- 
onel Joseph Wilder's Regiment. June 8, 1767 he was Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain John White's 1st Lancester Company, in the same regiment. On 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 ne commanded a Company of Mili- 
tia in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serving four and one-half days. 
He was a deacon of the first church in Lancester, and lived on the old 
homestead. He died November 15, 1780. 

CAPTAIN DAVID WILDER of Leominster was the son of David 
and Anna (Prentice) Wilder. He was born in Lancaster in 1741. From 
February 29th, to December 2, 1760, while still a resident of Lancaster, 
he served as a private in Captain Thomas Beman's Company. In July 
1771 he was First Lieutenant, in Captain Ebenezer Robinson's Troop of 
Horse, in Colonel Caleb Wilder's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. On 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a Com- 
pany of Minute Men' in Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment. April 25, 
l 77S he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment 
and served through the year. June 24, 1779 he was chosen First Major 
in Colonel John Rand's 8th Worcester County Regiment.. 

CAPTAIN EBENEZER WOODS of Fitchburg was the son of Ser- 
geant Nathaniel and Alice (French) Woods. He was born in Groton, De- 
cember 19, 1728. From April 18th to October 17th, 1748 he was a centinel 
on Captain Edward Hartwell's Company. On the Lexington alarm of 



70 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

April 19, 1775 he was Captain of a Company of Militia in Colonel Asa 
Whitcomb's Regiment. In a return dated June 3, 1775 his name appears 
as Lieutenant in Captain James Burt's Company, Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment, and he served, in all probability, through the year. He 
was later called '"Colonel". He was living in Winsor, Vt. in 1780. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT KENDALL BOUTELL of Fitchburg was 
a private in Captain Thomas Wilder's (Leominster) Company, Colonel 
Joseph Wilder's Regiment, from August 15th to 28th, 1757, on the Fort 
William Henry alarm. He served as surveyor of highways of Fitchburg 
in 1764 and was a member of the school committee the following year. 
October 1774 his name appears as Ensign in Captain Ebenezer Woods's 
Company. He served as selectman in Fitchburg in 1775-6. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Lieutenant in Captain 
Ebenezer Woods's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serv- 
ing thirteen days. March 23, 1776 he was commissioned First Lieutenant 
in Captain Jonathan Woods's Company, Colonel Abijah Stearns's 8th 
Worcester County Regiment. May 5, 1777 he was a member of Captain 
Joseph Sargent's Company, detached from Colonel Stearns's Regiments 
to march to Rhode Island under command of Colonel Spencer. This ser- 
vice lasted until July 12, 1777. August 22, 1777 he was Lieutenant in 
Captain William Thurlo's Company, Major Ebenezer Bridge's Regiment, 
which marched on the alarm at Bennington. He was dismissed after pro- 
ceeding ninety miles. According to a roll sworn to April 4, 1778, he ser- 
ved in the same company and regiment 28 days at Saratoga. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EBENEZER BRIDGE of Fitchburg enlis- 
ted April 25, 1775 in Captain John Fuller's Company, Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment, and served through the year. January 12, 1776 his 
name appears in a list of officers of the newly organized 8th Worcester 
County Regiment. He was a resident of Harvard in 1790. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM BURT of Harvard, was the son 
of John and Elizabeth (Nutting) Burt. He was born in 1729. In 1757, 
from August 13th to 26th, he was a private in Captain Israel Taylor's 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 71 

Company, detached from Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regiment for service 
on the Fort William Henry alarm. From June nth to October 6, 1760 
he was a private in Captain Aaron Brown's Company. October 7th, he 
was promoted to the rank of Ensign in the same Company, serving until 
December on a Crown Point expedition. He was selectman of the town 
of Harvard in 1771, '4, '5, '8, '9, '80. April 19, 1776 he marched as Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Joseph Fairbank's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
Regiment. His name appears on a receipt dated December 11, 1776 for 
mileage from Harvard to Danbury (Lemuel Hills Company). He lived 
in the "Old Mill District" in 1782. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EBENEZER CONANT JUNIOR of Ash- 
burnham was the son of Ebenezer and Ruth (Pierce) Conant, of Concord. 
He was born August n, 1743 and settled in Ashburnham before 1762. 
From March 23rd to November 17, J. 762, he served as private in Captain 
James Reed's Company. He was Lieutenant in Captain Deliverance Da- 
vis's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, which marched in 
response to the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, serving ten days. 
March 14, 1776 his name appears in a list of officers of the Massachusetts 
Militia as Adjutant in Colonel Abijah Stearns's 8th Worcester County 
Regiment. In a list of officers at Dobb's Fern;, Tarry town and North 
Castle, N. Y., in 1776, his name appears as Adjutant in Colonel Con- 
verse's Regiment. He served as selectman of Ashburnham in 1779. He 
was five feet, nine inches in height, and dark complexion. He was sick 
two years before he died and became poor. His wife begged him to give 
away some of the children. He said : "I have given away all your 
children to the truest Friend in the world. I have given them away to 
God." He died August 3, 1783. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM EDGELL of Westminster was 
the eldest son of William and Elizabeth (Norman) Edgell, and was born 
in 1726. In July 1771, he was Ensign in Captain John Rand's 1st West- 
minster Company, Colonel Caleb Wilder's Second Worcester County Re- 
giment. On the Lexington alarm ot April 19, 1775 he was Lieutenant in 
Captain John Estabrook's Company, in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regi- 
ment, serving 13J days. In 1776 his name appears in a list of commis- 



7 2 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

sioned officers in Colonel "Jam's'' Regiment. August 16, 1776 he was com 
missioned quartermaster in Colonel Nicholas Dike's Regiment, but five 
days later Joseph Holden was reported to have been chosen in his place. 
July 6, 1780 he mas commissioned Captain of the 1st Westminster Com- 
pany, in Colonel John Rand's 8th Worcester County Regiment. "He 
was a public spirited and active citizen of the town, esteemed and hon- 
ored." He died January 13, 1809 ag' e d S2 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT PHINEHAS FARNSWORTH of Harvard, 
the son of Phinehas and Azubah Farnsworth, was born July 15, 
1733. In 1858 he was a private in Captain George Reed's Company. Col- 
onel Ruggles's Regiment in service at Lake George. From March 20 to 
December 24, 1760, he was a private in Captain Thomas Farrington's Com- 
pany. He served as selectman in Harvard in 1774. In response to the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. he marched as Lieutenant in Captain 
James Burt's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serving 8 
days. "Captain" Phinehas Farnsworth was one of the leaders who helpe! 
drive the Shakers out of Harvard in 1783. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ELISHA FULLAM of Harvard was the 
son of Elisha and Sarah Fullam. He was born February 14, 1752. He 
was Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Davis's Company of Minute Men, 
Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26, 1775 he was engaged to serve as First 
Lieutenant under the same Captain in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regi- 
ment. In August and September 1778 he served in Captain Manassah 
Sawyer's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's Regiment, in the Rhode 
Island service. He had a fulling shop on Monacoicus Brook, Harvard. 
He was one of the leaders of the Anti-Shaker riots in 1782. He dropped 
dead at his own hearthstone, and the Shakers thought it was just retri- 
bution. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JONATHAN GATES of Ashburnham was 
the son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Gates, and was born May 27, 1738. 
They removed to Ashburnham between 1760 and 70. From April 20th 
to November 5, 1756 he was a member of Lieutenant Jerathmeal Powers's 
Company, and was credited as "scouting between the Merrimack and Con- 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 73 

necticut Rivers". Jonathan Gates, Sr., sent a bill of two pounds to the 
Provincial Government for caring for his son Jonathan while in the ser- 
vice suffering from a fever. May 3rd to December 10, 1750 he was a 
private in Captain John Church's Company, on the Crown Point expedi- 
tion. A portion of this time he was in Captain Benjamin Hasting's Com- 
pany. He was Captain of a Company of Minute Men in Colonel John 
Whitcomb's Regiment, which marched on the. Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775, serving six days. April 25, 1775 he was First Lieutenant in 
Captain Wilder's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and ser- 
ved through the year. March 23, 1776 he was commissioned Captain 
in Colonel Abijah Stearns's 8th Worcester County Regiment. October 1, 
1777 he was engaged as Captain for service at Saratoga. He was fre- 
quently elected to office. He removed from Ashburnham soon after the 
Revolution. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSIAH HASKELL of Harvard was the 
son of Deacon Joseph Haskell of Stillriver. A receipt of bounty dated 
Harvard, March 29, 1757, from Colonel Oliver Wilder for enlistment un- 
der the Earl of Loudoun. He was one of the survivors of Fort William 
Henry massacre, August 9, 1757. He was an Ensign, and the Indians, 
seeing the decorations on his uniform, pursued him and grabbed his coat, 
one on each side. He slipped out of it and left them quarreling for its 
possession. He was Second Lieutenant in Captain Asa Houghton's 
(oldest Company) in Harvard in September 1774. He was a Lieutenant 
in Captain Isaac Gates' Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, 
which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775, serving 10J days. 
January 26, 1787 he became Major of the Lancaster Regiment of the 
Second Brigade, and on December 20th of the same year was promoted 
to Colonel. He served as selectman in Harvard in 1786, '96, '7, 1800, '4, '5. 
He died May 19, 1819, at the age of 82. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SETH HEYWARD (HAYWARD, etc.) of 
Lancaster, was born about 1738, and was probably the son of Phineas 
Heyward, who removed from Worcester to Shrewsbury in 1739. He was 
a private in Captain Artemas Ward's 1st Company in Shrewsbury in 
March, 1757. From April 6th to November 29, 1759 he was a private in 
Captain Stephen Maynard's Company, Colonel Abraham Williams's Reg- 



74 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

iment for the invasion of Canada. In a return dated May 19, 1760 his age 
is given as 22. April 25, 1775, he became Lieutenant in Captain Ephraim 
Richardson's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment and served 
through that year. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN HOAR of Westminster was the son 
of John and Elizabeth (Coolidge) Hoar. He was born in Lexington July 
14, 1741. He was Lieutenant in Captain Elisha Jackson's Company, Col- 
onel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
April 25, 1775 he enlisted as First Lieutenant in Captain Edmund Be- 
mis's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Provincial Regiment, and he 
served under these officers through the year. He died April 2y, 1812, aged 
70. Bond and Hudson state that this son of John and Elizabeth died 
young, but this is evidently an error as shown in the History of West- 
minster, page 700. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JONATHAN HOUGHTON of Bolton was 
Ensign in Captain Jonas Houghton's 1st Bolton Company in Colonel Jos- 
eph Wilder's 2nd Worcester County Regiment, June 8, 1767. In July 
1771, he was Lieutenant in that organization under the same officers. He 
was Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Hasting's Company, Colonel John 
Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 
27, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Hasti- 
ing's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment and served through 
the year. March 20, 1776, he was commissioned Captain in Colonel Josiah 
Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. July 22, 1776, he was Cap- 
tain in Colonel Jonathan Smith's Regiment, and with his company of 78 
men, marched "to the Northward or Canada Department." A pay ab- 
stract is preserved for rations due from October 1st to November 30. 1776 
He may have been the man of that name who died in Bolton in 1829, ac- 
cording to the vital records of that town. No age was given in the record. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSIAH KENDALL of Lancaster was the 
son of Josiah and Tabithy Kendall. He was born May 3, 1738. He march- 
ed on the Lexington alarm of April 19, IJ7S as First Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Daniel Robbins' Company of Militia, Colonel Asa Whtcomb's Reg- 
iment, serving until April 26, 1775. The company was made up from 
the 2nd and 13th companies of the regiment. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 75 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN KENDRICK of Lancaster was a pri- 
vate in Captain Sack's Company, Colonel Ruggles' Regiment in October 
1760. He was an Ensign in Captain Jonas Stone's 2nd Newton Company, 
Colonel William Brattle's 1st Middlesex County Regiment, December 29, 
1763. He was Sergeant in Captain Benjamin Houghton's Company of 
Minute Men, Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment, which marched on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, serving eight days. April 25, 1775 ne 
was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Andrew Haskell's Company, 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. He served in this regiment through 
the year, in one record being credited to Captain James Burt's Company. 
August 15, 1777 he became Lieutenant in Captain John White's Company 
Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment, serving 21 days 
on the alarm of Bennington. In 1778-9 he served in Captain John Drury's 
Company, Colonel Ezra Wood's Regiment at "North river," New York. 
An order dated April 19, 1779 on Captain Potter, paymaster in Colonel 
Ezra Wood's Regiment, called for wages for eight month's service. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JACOB POOLE of Shelburne was the son 
of Honorable Samuel and Rebecca (Shaw) Poole of Abington. He was 
at Lake George in Captain Slocomb's Company, Colonel Joseph Williams' 
Regiment, from April 11, to November 24, 1758. On the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775 he served as First Lieutenant in Captain Hugh 
"McClallenV Company of Minute Men, Colonel Samuel Williams's Regi- 
ment. In a list of officers of Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, dated 
June 3, 1775 his name appears as First Lieutenant in Captain Agrippa 
Wells's Company of this regiment, and he served through the year. In 
another list his name appears as Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Davis' 
Company of Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. (Year not given, prob- 
ably 1775). In 1780 he was Captain in Colonel John Jacob's Plymouth 
County Regiment, and on July 27th of that year he was detached with 
other men of that command to reinforce the Continental Army for three 
months, and twenty-five days. He was a selectman and prominent citizen 
of that town and was later a pensioner. He died February 10, 1834, aged 
94 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SLYVANUS SMITH of Shirley was the 
son of Nathan and Rebecca Smith. He was a private in Captain James 



76 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Reed's Company at Crown Point from June 12th to December 2, 1761. 
The following year he served in the same company from March iSth to 
November 2Sth. He marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 
as First Lieutenant in Captain Henry Haskell's Company, Colonel James 
Prescott's Regiment. April 26, 1775 h ^ was engaged as First Lieutenant 
in Captain Robert Longley's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regi- 
ment. He served under those officers through the year. During 1776 he 
was First Lieutenant in Colonel Moses Little's 12th Regiment, Continent- 
al Army. January I, 1777 he became Captain in Colonel Timothy Bige- 
owl's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. He served with distinction at 
Valley Forge, West Point and other posts in the Highlands. January I, 
17S1 he became Captain of the 1st Company in Colonel Rufus Putnam's 
5th Regiment, .Massachusetts Line. In the summer of 1783 he was trans- 
ferred to Colonel Joseph Vose's 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Line. In 
a list made up in July and August 1783 he was reported "sick and absent 
in Massachusetts." He served until November 3, 1783. He was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. He died May 12, 1830. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT PAUL WHITCOMB was born in Lancaster 
December 30, 1732. He was the son of Josiah and Ruhamah Whitcomb 
of Lancaster. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched 
as First Lieutenant in Captain Robert Longley's Bolton Company, in Col- 
onel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. He served under the same Captain in 
the Provincial Army Regiment in April — June 1775 and probably through 
the year. In the Bolton records, under date of March 15, 1802, at the 
age of 70, is recorded the death of "Captain Paul Whitcomb.'' 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ASA WILDER of Lancaster (probably), son 
of Josiah Wilder, w r as born in 1734. He was Ensign in Captain Daniel 
Robbins 4th Lancaster Company, in Colonel Caleb Wilder's 2nd Worces- 
ter County Regiment in July, 1771. On the Lexington alarm of April 
J 9t x 775 ne served as First Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Robbins' Com- 
pany, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, returning home May 1, 1775, 
after serving 14 days. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN WYMAN of Cambridge, held that 
rank in Captain Abner Cranston's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
Regiment, according to a roll made up June 3, 1775, and he served through 
the year in that command. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 77 

SECOND LIEUTENANT EPHRIAM BOYNTON of Lancaster, en- 
listed April 25, 1775 as Second Lieutenant in Captain Ephraim Richard- 
son's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. In the list of officers 
at camp in Cambridge, dated June 3, 1775, he was called Ensign with the 
date of his commission given as June 12, 1775 in the same list. He served 
through the year. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN CONN of Harvard, son of George 
Conn, was born in that town in 1740. During the campaign of 1758 to 
Lake George, he was a private in Captain James Reed's Company, Col- 
onel Ruggles' Regiment. From March 26th to December 11, 1759, "age 
19," he was a private in Captain Aaron Willard's Company, Colonel Oliver 
Wilder's Regiment "serving eastward." According to the History ot 
Harvard he was Sergeant in 1760, serving at Crown Point. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 as a resident of Ashburnham, he served 
as Second Lietuenant in Captain Deliverance Davis' Company, Colonel 
Asa Whitcomb's Regiment; service 10 days. His removal to Ashburn- 
ham occurred probably in 1761. He became a prominent citizen of this 
town and was frequently elected to office. He died there June 3, 1803, 
aged 63. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT FORTUNATUS EAGER of Lancaster 
was probably the man of this name who was in Captain J. Week's Second 
Marlboro Company, April 7, 1757. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775 he was Second- Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Robbins's Company, 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. He returned home May 1, 1775 after 
a service of 14 days. March 20, 1776 he was commissioned Captain in 
Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. With his 
regiment he marched, December 17, 1776 "to reinforce the army in the 
Jerseys under General Washington, returning March 27, 1777" October 
2, 1777 he marched as Captain in this regiment under command of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Ephraim Sawyer, serving 25 days, including travel. March 
2 9> J 779 a petition was drawn up "asking permission to resign his com- 
mission as Captain of the 7th Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's Second 
Regiment, he having served in that capacity for a long time, and being 
advanced in years." The resignation was accepted in Council June 2. 



78 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

1779. He may have been the man of this name who was a resident of 
Sterling in 1790. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT AMOS FAIRBANK (FAIRBANKS) of 
Harvard was the son of Joseph and Mary (Bowen) Fairbank. He was 
born in that town April 31, 1737. From August 13th to 26, 1757, he was 
a private in Captain Israel Taylor's Harvard Company in a detachment 
of Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regiment on the Fort William Henry alarm. 
September 26, 1774 he was an Ensign in 'The Oldest Co." of Harvard. 
He was an Inn Holder in Harvard in 1 770-1 773. On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775 he was a Lieutenant in Captain Isaac Gates' Company, 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serving 10J days. March 20, 17/6 
he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Hills' Com- 
pany, Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regiment. In 
another record, year not given, his name appears as First Lieutenant in 
Captain David Nurse's Company in the same regiment. From August 
19th to 26th, 1777 he marched with Captain Samuel Hill's Company of 
Harvard, in Colonel Josiah Whitney's Regiment on the Bennington alarm. 
September 6, 1777 ne entered service as First Lieutenant in command of 
a company in Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment, 
said company being drafted from the Militia to join the Continental Army 
at the Northward. He was furloughed November 29, 1777. He was a 
member of the Committe of Correspondence and Safety in 1780. He was 
a selectman ot the town of Harvard in 1781, '9, '90, and Deacon of the 
church in 1786. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT DAVID FOSTER of Westminster served 
as Corporal in Captain Noah Miles' Company, which marched on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, and joined Colonel John Whitcomb's 
Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Edmund Bemis' Company, Colonel Asa W'hitcomb's Regiment. In 
a list of officers of this regiment who were ordered June 12, 1775 to be 
commissioned, his name appears as Ensign. He served through the year. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT EZEKIEL FOSTER of Greenfield ( also 
given Bernardston) was the son of Sergeant John and Hannah (Thorp) 
Foster. He was born in Lebanon, Conn, in 1727, and removed with his 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 7g 

father to Deerfield in 1741. December 29, 1747 he was a sentinel in Lieu- 
tenant Samuel Child's Company at Fort Pelham. From December 29, 
1747 to March 9, 1748 he was in Colonel John Stoddard's Regiment in the 
Colonel's Company. From November 1, 1748 to April 3, 1748-9 he was in 
Captain Israel Williams's Company. From June 4, 1750 to March 28, 1755 
he was in Captain Ephriam Williams's Company at Fort Massachusetts. 
From June 20th to December 10, 1755 he was Corporal in Captain Israel 
Williams's Company, serving on the Western Frontier. In the Spring of 
1758 he was in Captain Israel Foster's Company of Colrain and from 
April 15 to September 24, 1759 was in Captain Burk's Company at the 
same place. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 ne marched as 
Lieutenant in Captain Agrippa Wells's Company, Colonel Samuel Wil- 
liams's Regiment. May 1, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant 
in Captain Agrippa Wells's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment* 
and served through the year. In some returns he is called Ensign. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JABEZ KEEP of Harvard, was the son of 
Captain Jabez Keep, Senior, who died in 1774. He succeeded his father 
as owner of the trip hammer forge and bloomery upon the brook at 
Old Mill upon his father's death in 1774. On the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775 he marched as First Sergeant in Captain Jonathan Davis's 
Company, Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment of Minute Men. April 25, 
1775 he enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Captain James Burt's Company, 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and served through the year. In 
one list (not dated) he is called Ensign in Captain David Wilder's Com- 
pany of this regiment. March 18, 1776 he was chosen Second Lieutenant 
in Captain Hezekieh Whitney's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's Sec- 
ond Worcester County Regiment, Massachusetts Militia. July 22^ 1776 
Captain Jabez Keep marched wth his company of S2 men "to the North- 
ward or Canada Department" under command of Colonel Jonathan Smith. 
He served as selectman of Harvard in 1783-4. He died in Harvard in 1784. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN MEAD (OR MEED) of Harvard 
was the son of Samuel and Hannah (Willard) Mead. He was born in 
that town June 29, 1749. He marched as Third Sergeant in Captain Jona- 
than Davis's Company Colonel John Whitcomb's Regiment of Minute 
Men, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26, 



go MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Davis's 
Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. In another list (date not 
given) he is called Ensign in Captain Edmund Bemis's Company in the 
same regiment. He served as late as September, and probably through 
the year. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JONATHAN MERIAM of Bolton marched 
with that rank in Captain Benjamin Hastings's Company, Colonel John 
Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 
2 7» I 775 ne was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Hast- 
ings's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and served through 
the year. In one list (not dated) he is called Ensign in the same company. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT THOMAS OSBORN of Bolton was evi- 
dently the Thomas "Ozbon" who was a private in Captain Israel Taylor's 
Company of Harvard in a detachment from Colonel Oliver Wilder's Regi- 
ment, serving on the Fort William Henry alarm from August 13th to 
26th, 1757. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as 
Second Lieutenant in Captain Robert Longley's Company, Colonel Asa 
Whitcomb's Regiment, serving eight days. March 20, 1776 he was com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Houghton's Company, 
Colonel Josiah Whitney's Second Worcester County Regiment. From 
April 1st to July 2, 1778, he was Lieutenant in Captain Seth Newton's 
Company in Colonel Abijah Stearns's Regiment, serving on guard duty at 
Roxbury. He died in Bolton, September 13, 1810, aged 75. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ASA PERRY of Fitchburg held that rank 
in Captain Ebenezer Woods's Company of Militia, Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment which marced on the Lexington Alarm of April 19, 
1775, serving six days. He was a prominent man in that town and served 
as constable in 1773. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JACOB ROBINS (OR ROBBINS) of 
Harvard was born about 1728. August 15, 1757 he enlisted as a private 
in Captain Jonas Prescott's Company for service for the relief of Fort 
William Henry, being at that time a resident of Littleton. September 26, 
1774 he was Ensign in Captain Josiah Whitney's ''Youngest Co." He 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 81 

was Second Lieutenant in Captain James Burt's Company Colonel Asa 
Whitcomb's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775. He served as assessor in the town of Harvard in 1777. He may- 
have been the man of that name and town who served in Captain Joseph 
Sargent's Company on a Rhode Island alarm from May 5 to July 12, 1777. 
He died in that town November 25, 1778, in the 50th year of his age. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT MOSES SAWYER (OR SAYER) of Lan- 
caster was born somewhere between 1730 and '35. Three children of that 
name belonging to different families were born in that town during that 
period, and we are therefore unable to tell to which family he belonged. 
On the Lexington Alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched in the above rank 
in Captain Joseph White's Company of Militia, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 
Regiment, serving 4% days. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT EPHRAIM SMITH of Shirley was the 
son of Nathan and Rebecca Smith. He was probably the man of that 
name who was a private in Captain Artemas Ward's 1st Shrewsbury Com- 
pany, March 28, 1757. From February 29th to December 2, 1760 as the 
son of Nathan Smith, and a resident of Shirley, he was Corporal in Cap- 
tain Thomas Beaman's Company. From March 8th to December 7, 1761 
he was Sergeant in Captain James Reed's Company, serving at Crown 
Point, and from March 16th to November 24, 1762 he served under the 
same company commander. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 
he served as Sergeant in Captain Henry Haskell's Company, Colonel 
James Prescott's Regiment. April 26, 1775 he was engaged as Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Robert Longley's Company, Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment, and he served through the year. He was probably the 
man of that name who was Lieutenant in Captain Nathan Smith's Com- 
pany, Colonel Jacob's Regiment in November 1778. He removed to Peter- 
boro, N. H. about 17S0, and he and Ephraim, Junior were residents of 
that town in 1790. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JARED SMITH of Lunenberg was en- 
gaged April 25, 1775 to serve in Captain John Fuller's Company, Colonel 
Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and he served through the year. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT SAMUEL WEST was probably the man 



82 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

who served in Captain "Perces" Company.. Colonel Williams's Regiment, 
and sworn to January 3, 1761. In a list of officers of Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's Regiment in 1775 his name appears as Second Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Abner Cranston's Company. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT PHINEAS WILLARD of Harvard was 
the son of Phineas and Mary (Sawyer) Willard. He was born in Har- 
vard August 1, 1736, and was one of the twenty Harvard men in Colonel 
Josiah Brown's Regiment in 1756. From August 13th to 28th, 1757 he 
was a trooper in Captain Samuel Haskell's Company of Harvard, in a de- 
tachment of Colonel Oilver Wilder's Regiment, on the Fort William 
Henry alarm. He was a lieutenant in Captain Joseph Fairbanks's Com- 
pany, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775, and he was probably the man of that name who served as 
2. private in Captain Amos Fairbanks's Company. Colonel Job Cushing's 
Regiment from September 6th to November 29, 1777, serving to reinforce 
the Continental Army at the Northward, He served as assessor in Har- 
vard in 1772, ' 3j '5, '6, '7, '8, >8&, '9. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JONATHAN SAWYER of Lancaster 
was probably born in that town, but as two of the same name were born 
within a few years of each other, we have been thus far unable to identify 
them, and cannot state his parentage. He was a Sergeant in Captain 
Benjamin Houghton's Company of Minute Men, Colonel John Whit- 
comb's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1 1 75. April 25, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Andrew Haskell's Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, and he 
served through the year. In some of the returns- he is called Ensign. 
June 18, 1776 his name appears on anstract for advance pay as Lieutenant 
in Captain William Warner's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitnay's Second 
Worcester County Regiment. He was killed by the Indians in July or 
August, 1777, according to the records of the First Church of Lancaster. 



COLONEL ASA WHITCOMB'S REGIMENT 83 

ENSIGN JONATHAN BALEY (OR BAYLEY) of Lancaster was 
the son of Jonathan and Bridget Bayley. He was born in that town 
March 12, I/3/-S. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he served 
Ensign in First Lieutenant Josiah Kendall's Company which marched 
with Daniel Robbins's Company. 



ENSIGN TIMOTHY BOUTELL (BOUTOL, BOUTWELL) was 
born about 1740. He was in the French War service in 1758 as shown in 
a billeting account, dated January 2, 1759, in which his name appears as 
a private in Captain Philip Richardson's Company, Colonel Ruggles's Reg- 
ment, returning from Lake George. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775 he marched as Ensign in Captain John Joslyn's Company, Colonel 
John Whitcomb's Regiment, serving six days. April 25, 1775 he enlisted 
as Second Lieutenant in Captain David Wilder's Company, Colonel Asa 
Whitcomb's Regiment, and served through the year. July 6, 1780 he was 
commissioned Captain of the 1st Leominster Company in Colonel John 
Rand's 8th Worcester County Regiment, raised to reinforce the Con- 
tinental Army for three months. He w r as discharged October 11, 1780. 
In the Vital Records of Leominster for 1778 he was called Major, and the 
death is recorded May 25, 1810 of "Col. Timothy Boutwell," aged 70 years. 



ENSIGN NATHAN HOWARD of Westminster was the son of Jon- 
athan and Mercy Howard of Maiden. He was born October 22, 1733- 
He served as an Ensign in Captain John Estabrook's Company which 
marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, and joined Colonel 
Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serving 9 days. March 14, 1776 he was 
chosen First Lieutenant in Captain William Edgell's 3rd Company in 
Colonel Abijah Stearns's 8th Worcester County Regiment. The date of 
his death is given in the "Westminster Vital Records" as April 5, 1820 
and his age as &6. In the "History of Westminster"' it is stated that he 
was "a man of character and enterprise, respected and honored by his 
fellow citizens who elected him selectman for several years, and called 
him to other positions of public service." 



84 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ENSIGN EDWARD NEWTON of Lancaster was the son of Ed- 
ward and Elizabeth (Allen) Newton, and was born in Shrewsbury Janu- 
ary 18, 1737-8. He and his father were both members of Captain Jabez 
Beaman's Second Shrewsbury Company, April 7, 1757. On the Lexington 
adarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Ensign in Captain Daniel Robbins's 
Company, Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, serving fourteen days. 
March 20, 1776 he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain For- 
tunatus Eager's Company, Colonel Josiah W T hitcomb's Regiment. March 
21, 1777 he marched as First Lieutenant in Captain Solomon Stuart's 
Company, Colonel Josiah Whitcomb's Regiment on the Bennington alarm, 
serving five days. September 1, 1777 he was engaged to serve in Captain 
William Greenleaf's Company, Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester 
County Regiment; and reported October 26, 1777. In a pay abstract 
dated October 30, 1777, he is credited with rations from September 3 to 
December 7, 1777. April 12, 1780 he was commissioned Captain in 
Colonel Josiah Whitcomb's Second Worcester County Regiment. 

ENSIGN BENJAMIN WEST of Salem was born January 7, 1738-9, 
and may have been the man who from April 10 to November 14, 1759 was 
seaman on board the ship "King George", Captain Benjamin Halowell, Jr. 
According to a return dated at Camp in Cambridge, June 3, 1775, be was 
commissioned Ensign in this regiment before that date. He was killed 
in the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775, and his mother, Mary West, 
rendered an account, March 13, 1776, against the Colony of Massachusetts 
Bay for compensation for clothing lost belonging to her son. An account 
was rendered the same day, attested by Captain Abner Cranston of cloth- 
ing and other articles "the property of said West, Lieutenant, who was 
slain in the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. The sum of £3:17:00 
was allowed the heirs of said West, June 22, 1776 for the above named 
loss. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR-SCORE YEARS 



By Judge Francis M. Thompson of Greenfield, Massachusetts 



Including His Narrative of Three Years in the New West, During Which 

He Took in 1862 a 3000-mile Teip From St. Louis up the Missouri, and 

Thence Down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to Portland, and to 

San Francisco, Returning in 1863. 

(Continued from Vol. VII, No i) 

applied, and as the boat rushed past the Indians they poured in a fire of 
bullets and arrows, but luckily without damage to any person. I se- 
cured for my collection an arrow which penetrated the smoke stack. 
As we passed, our two field pieces loaded with grape were let go, and 
then a second time, as the red-skins skedaddled over the hills. I saw a 
big rascal in a clump of brush about six rods from the river bank, and 
fired both barrels of my rifle at him, but with what effect I do not know. 
I anxiously watched the clump of brush as long as possible, but saw 
nothing of him. This attack was made in the Crow country, but was 
probably the work of some other tribe. 

When we reached Fort Union we found near by, a large Indian vil- 
lage fully occupied by the Gros Ventres, who were then deeply engaged 
in a devout religious ceremony. A very large booth had been constructed 
of poles covered with green branches, and in the center stood a high pole 
from which the roof sloped to the leafy screen of the sides. This greer 
tent was surrounded by hundreds of Indians of all ages and sexes, peer- 
ing curiously through the foliage. From the inside issued the tum-tnm 
of the skin drums, the singing of the excited inmates and the tootings 
of innumerable whistles. Pressing among the crowd who fell away when 
they discovered a white man, I soon had a peep-hole and obtained a good 
view of the performances going on within. On the ground surrounding a 
dry hide tightly stretched over a hole in the earth, sat a half dozen In- 

85 



86 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

dians solemnly pounding in unison .upon its surface. Near by were others 
beating upon skin heads tightly drawn over the ends of sections of hol- 
low logs, something like an ordinary drum. Every man taking active 
part in the ceremonies was stripped to the skin, with the exception of a 
breech-cloth. Some were entirely covered with white clay, some streaked 
with vermillion, some with yellow ochre, and others daubed with black 
and other colors. The big medicine man, master of ceremonies, was 
clothed in the most fantastic manner, with his medicine bag and his 
potent charms displayed in the most attractive manner. He was the 
chief manager of the concern and conducted himself with the greatest 
dignity, and w r ith a haughtiness w r hich seemed to indicate his assurance 
that he had all the gods under his direct command. It seemed as though a 
hundred men had either long or short whistles in constant use, emitting 
ear piercing toots, keeping time w r ith the singers and the drums. The 
singing seemed mostly "Hi-ya !" Hi-ya I" repeated over and over, 
now soft and low, then swelling to the fullest volume, as the occasion 
seemed to demand. From the center pole extended several long ropes of 
rawhide, ending in loops, four or five feet from the ground. In the mid- 
dle of the ring stood a number of young bucks, their legs and arms 
lacerated and bleeding, and having in their breasts two parallel cuts per- 
haps three inches in length and an inch and a half apart. The skin be- 
tween the cuts was raised and beneath were thrust on each breast, a 
wooden peg perhaps three inches in length. Soon a young fellow slipped a 
loop over each button and ran settling back upon the throngs, swiftly 
around the pole. As the throngs wound up the unearthly music rose to 
its highest pitch, and the bleeding victim threw himself back upon the 
ropes and slowly unwound, the whole weight of his body borne by the 
throngs. At the climax the excitement is most intense. The singers yell 
their loudest; the drummers pound most furiously, and the whistlers 
cheeks swell with their efforts to make more noise. 

The antics of the medicine man reach the highest flights of the gro- 
tesque. While I was an observer one of the victims passed into a swoon. 
Whether he would again have to make the crucial test, or whether he 
would be in disgrace, and fail of becoming a warrior, 1 was unable to 
learn. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 87 

Then followed an impassioned address by a battle scarred old warrior, 
and at his telling points, the other old men would grunt assent. The 
whole scene was one long to be remembered, and was worthy the pencil 
of Frederick Remington. No murmur of pain came from any actor 
while I watched the scene, and the countenances of some seemed to in- 
dicate that their bodies were entirely under the control of their fanatic 
spirits. I was told that these ceremonies continue for three days and that 
during that time the chief actors take no food. 

Governor Stevens tells this story of these Indians. A Gros Ventre 
brave was married to a woman of the Blackfeet tribe, and while they 
were travelling he was killed and his fleet horse was stolen. The assassin 
proposed that she marry him and go northward, and the Gros Ventres 
would never learn of the death of their fellow tribesman. She assented, 
and he gave her the slow animal which he had ridden and took the better 
one himself. They came to water on their journey, and leaving her horse 
with him she went for some, and returning, pressed him to go for some 
also. He consented, and leaving his horse with her, she mounted the 
fast horse and fled to her own people, who soon took revenge for the 
murdered man. 

Our trip down the Missouri was without special interest excepting as 
related, and in due time we arrived at the end of our journey and were 
warmly welcomed. After spending a short time in Massachusetts I took 
an office at the corner of Broadway and Courtland streets, New York 
City, for the purpose of disposing of the mining property owned jointly 
by myself and others. My desk overlooked Courtland street, up which 
came marching at the close of the civil war, regiment aft^r regiment ol 
ragged and dirty heroes, keeping step to patriotic music, and as they 
turned the corner into Broadway, they were greeted by thousands of 
cheers and the shouts of an enthusiastic populace. 

Base indeed must have been the man who witnessed these events, 
without feeling his heart stirred to the depths with patriotic fervor. 

I took the precaution before leaving Montana, of having taken from 
each mine owned by our company, a generous sample of the ore, having 
the same sealed in a rawhide case, and annexed to each package a state 
ment signed by the miner who took it out as to its genuineness, and the 



88 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

date of said transaction. This was sworn to before a magistrate, and 
then the parcels put into large raw-hide packages of convenient size, and 
sewed up. 

I brought with me about a ton of these samples, of course at quite a 
large expense, but this extra caution paid us well, for of all the men from 
Montana during that season trying to interest eastern people in mining 
property, I think I was the only one who met with much success. 

After having several assays made at the mint, I arranged with the 
superintendent of the School of Mines of Columbia College, whereby in 
consideration of my furnishing them with gold bearing Montana quartz, 
they would make assays and report to me the result of each separate 
original parkage. In this way I obtained accurate knowledge of the value 
of the mining property which I offered for sale. I also had about a pound 
of selected nuggets of gulch gold, which I exhibited, to show the richness 
of the country. Somehow these nuggets disappeared like melting snow, 
but I have no doubt but the missing gold helped to make advantageous 
sales of our mining property. 

I was successful in disposing of mines to the value of upwards of 
one hundred thousand dollars, principally to merchants in the leather 
trade, in the district known as "The Swamp/' When the option which I 
first negotiated matured, and the parties accepted the properties, my 
partners Edgerton, Hall, and Gridley came on from Montana, and we 
executed the formal conveyances, to the purchasers. 

Having disposed of all my mining interests in Montana, I gave up 
my office in New York and my wife and I returned to our old New Eng- 
land home, where we are content to spend the fast fleeing years, in lead- 
ing a "simple life." 

I have kept in touch with many old friends all these years, and my 
interest in them, as well as in the great Commonwealth which has arisen 
from the small beginnings which I helped to foster, is keen and loyal. 
Occasionally we receive ever-welcome visits from some of my mountain 
friends, but many have passed over that great divide which separates us 
from the undiscovered country. 



BEING NOTES ON MEN AND THINGS IN JUDGE THOMPSON'S 
MONTANA REMINISCENCES. 

Note No. i. See reference on page 141, vol. V. 

JAMES AND GRANVILLE STUART, the first gold miners of 
Montana, then located at Gold Creek, came into this region in 1857. 
They were natives of Virginia, their father being a pioneer in California 
in 1849, an d taking his two sons with him to that country in 1852. When 
the young men were on their way home in 1857, upon nearing Salt Lake, 
they found their way blocked by the Mormons, who were preparing to 
resist the United States troops under Albert Sidney Johnston. 

Together with Reece Anderson they turned north and made their way 
into the Beaver Head and Deer Lodge valleys. James was an associate 
of mine in the first legislature of Montana, and a charter member of the 
Historical Society. He posssessed a most adventurous spirit and was the 
bravest and coolest man, when in a tight place, that I ever knew. He 
was the leader in the celebrated Yellowstone expedition of 1863, and the 
survivors of that party all agree that it was only by his coolness, sagacity, 
and knowledge of Indian character that any of the party escaped. He 
and fourteen others, among whom were H. A. Bell of our original party, 
Samuel T. Hauser, and others mentioned in my sketches, left Bannack 
April 9, 1863, f° r an exploration of the then little known Yellowstone 
country. Six others had agreed to meet them at a certain point, but they 
were stopped and turned back by a large party of Crow Indians. This 
disappointed party were the lucky discoverers of the mines at Alder 
Gulch, while on their escape from the Crows. 

89 



90 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

About two weeks after setting out on their expedition the party under 
Stuart crossed the divide into the Yellowstone valley, having been de- 
tained by meeting Winnemucca and a large party of Bannacks returning 
from a buffalo hunt. Two days after they were surprised by thirty Crow 
warriors, who came in their camp. After the men had stood all the 
provocation they could, and Stuart gave no orders to attack, they made 
preparations to commence the fracas without orders. Stuart then com- 
manded the chief to call his men off and make them behave themselves, 
which he did. Placing double guards, they got but little sleep, as thiev- 
ing Indians were busy all night stealing from the camp. They in- 
tended to start at daybreak, and try and escape toward Fort Benton. Be- 
fore they could get away in the morning they were again surrounded by 
the Indians, who began to forcibly exchange their poor horses for the best 
of Stuarts. Seeing that it was time to die or do something, Stuart took 
his hands full of cartridges and his rifle and told the Indians to mount 
their horses and leave or he would kill the last one of them, his men all 
being ready to open fire upon them upon signal from Stuart. The Indians 
finally weakened and drew off, two chiefs and six others saying they 
would go with them and get breakfast. After getting their stomachs 
filled they offered Stuart their robes as a peace offering, but he declined ; 
having, as he told them, nothing to give in return. 

Getting rid of their tormentors they followed down the Yellowstone 
and then up the Big Horn, and upon the night of May 13th, while Stuart 
and another were on guard, their tents were fired into by a large party 
of Crows. Ordering the tents pulled down and the men who were able, 
to crawl out from them and lie close to the ground, they awaited the 
coming of the morn. In the morning they found that two of the party 
were fatally wounded, three more severely, and two others wounded, but 
able to care for themselves. Five horses were killed and several had 
arrows sticking in their bodies. The Indians could be seen in the hills 
and ravines near the camp. C. D. Watkins died of his wounds, and E. 
Bostwick urged his companions to not delay their escape on his account, 
but to give him his revolver and he would get even with the crew when 
they came. H. A. Bell was so badly wounded that no one thought he 
could travel, but upon placing him upon a horse he pluckily held out 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 91 

and made his escape. Throwing away all their provisions but for a few 
days supply, after making a fire and drinking coffee, the stricken party 
mounted their horses, and bore off southeast toward the overland route. 
As they left, poor Bostwick, placed his pistol to his ear and ended his 
life. At the supper camp H. T. Geery, who had received an arrow wound, 
in taking up his rifle from the ground fatally wounded himself in his 
left breast. Thoughtful to the last of his comrades, he told them they 
must not remain to wait for his death, and asking them to bury him in 
his army overcoat, he bade them all good bye, and placing his revolver 
to his temple he put himself out of misery. 

After fifteen days of travel, up pathless canyons and over rocky moun- 
tains, the party came upon telegraph poles and rejoiced in civilization. 

James Stuart became post trader among the Sioux, and died at Fori 
Peck, Sept. 30, 1873, aged forty two years. 

Granville Stuart, also a charter member of the Historical Societv 
of Montana, was for many years associated with Judge W. B. Dance 
in mercantile business, and was, by President Cleveland appointed minis- 
ter to Uraguay and Paraguay, in 1895. 

Note No. .2. See reference on page 154, vol. V. 

FORT PIERRE, was at the time of my visit one of the principle 
posts of the American Fur Company. It took its name from Pierre Cho- 
teau, Jr., a prominent member of the company. It was of the same gen- 
eral character of the other trading posts, a palisaded headquarters. It 
was built in 1831, the timber for its construction being floated from sixty 
miles above. This post was the home of Dorian, a famous interpreter 
and trader. About 1855 tne government purchased it for a military post. 
Note No. 3. See reference on page 156, vol. V. 

FORT BETHOLD was built in 1845 b « the Fur company and in its 
day was an important trading post. In 1865 when I knew it several 
companies of Iowa cavalry were garrisoned there, but soon after Fort 
Stevenson was erected as a military post and it was abandoned. Nothing 
remains of it now. 

Note No. 4, See reference on page 158, vol. V. 

LOUIS DAUPHIN was for a long time a most skillful and fearless 
hunter on the Missouri. "He seemed to have no fear of Indians and de- 



92 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

lighted in danger, but his lack of prudence cost him his life, for he was 
killed by the Sioux near the mouth of Milk river in 1S65." 

Note No. 5. See reference on page 158, vol. V. 

MACKINAW boats were built primarily to go down the river, 
and were flat bottomed and sometimes fifty to seventy-five feet in length 
and ten or more feet in width, and could carry quite a large amount of 
freight, even on shoal water. Originally goods were taken up the river 
in keel boats built in St. Louis and other towns. Sometimes sails were 
used on these boats, but they were generally cordelled against the cui- 
rent by men tracking along the shore, in the same manner that canal 
boats are drawn by horses. It was slow and heavy work. 

Note No. 6. See reference on page 29, vol. VI. 

FORT UNION was in 1S62 by far the best of the trading posts on the 
Missouri river. It was situated on the northerly side of the river about 
three miles above its junction with the Yellowstone, and was established 
in 1829. The buildings were enclosed in a high palisade of hewn logs 
made square and placed close together. The palisade was 220 x 240 feet. 
and at the southwest and northeast corners were built two story stone 
mounts or bastions, loopholed with cannon in place. The buildings were 
well constructed and admirably fitted for the Indian trade, and for many 
years this station was the general headquarters of the American Fur 
Company's posts. 

In 1833 William Sublette, in the interests of Robert Campbell 
built Fort William, a few miles below, in opposition to Fort Union, but 
it went to decay, and the United States government took the site and 
built thereon Fort Buford, for military purposes. When I first saw Fort 
Union there were but few Indians there. The enclosed space had been 
used all winter as a corral for stock, and I thought it about the dirtiest 
place I ever saw used by white men as a residence. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 93 

Note No. 7. See reference on page 30, vol. VI. 
CRACON DU NEZ. The Lewis and Clark party were here June nth 
1805. They called the Teton the Tansey river, which at this place fre- 
quently flows quite near the Missouri., before discharging- into the Marias 
The high clayey bluffs lying between the two rivers is known as "Cracon 
du Nez." From this elevation they first caught sight of the glistening 
snow on the Rocky mountains. Clark speaks of a fine spring where "we 
refreshed ourselves with a good drink of grog." Near here they killed 
two brown bears, and made a cache in which they deposited "corn, pork, 
flour, some powder and lead" relieving themselves of over one thousand 
pounds in weight. Capt. Lewis also killed several fine elk, and hung 
what they did not need on trees for the use of the men on the boats in 
the Missouri. 

Note No. 8. See reference on page 33 (sixth line) vol. VI. 

MALCOLM CLARKE. Perhaps the most picturesque character 
whom I met in my wanderings in the mountains, was Malcolm Clarke. 
He was the son of Nathan Clarke, an officer in the U. S. army, and was 
born at Fort Wayne, in 1817. When yet a lad his father was stationed 
at Fort Snelling, then in a wilderness, and Malcolm became an expert 
hunter and trapper while yet in his teens. When seventeen years old he 
received appointment at West Point, but having cowhided a fellow cadet 
for some real or fancied wrong, he was court martialed, and dismissed 
the service. He then sailed for Texas, determined to offer his services 
to Sam Houston, to aid in the liberation of that country. 

On the voyage, the captain of the ship not living up to the agreement 
entered into for their .passage, he. excited and commanded a mutiny, and 
bound the captain and took him as a prisoner to Galveston, where he lib- 
erated him and reported to Houston as having been in mutiny on the 
high seas. After hearing the case, Houston dismissed him, and gave him a 
commission in the Texas army. When twenty-four years old, he met 
John Culbertson, in Cincinnati, and enlisted in the service of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company for service at their forts upon the upper Missouri. By 
his dash and daring deeds he obtained great renown among the Indians 
of the upper river, and took a chieftain's daughter of the Blackfeet tribe, 
for his wife. He remained in the Fur company's employ for many years, 
being often in charge of some of their trading posts. He sent his chil- 



94 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

dren to the states for education, generally visiting- them once each year. 
He was a daring hunter and gained the name of Ne-so-ke-i-yu, (The 
Four Bears) from having killed four grizzlies in one day. At an encounter 
with a grizzley he ventured too much, and at one blow the bear took the 
scalp from the side of his head, and ever after he had great respect for 
that species of bear. He advised me never to attack one unless I was on 
horseback or where I could climb a tree. Retiring from the service of 
the company, he took up the Indian trade upon his own account, taking 
his goods into the villages and camps of his Indian friends. During this 
period he passed through marvellous experiences and wonderful escapes. 
Once while trading in Calf Shirt's village, he caught an Indian stealing, 
and knocked him down. The village was at once in an uproar and 
cries of vengeance filled the air. With a derringer in each hand he stood 
off the crowd until the older men came, when a council was held, and 
after the truth was known, Calf Shirt declared "This man shall live ; he 
has a big heart!" At one time when in charge of Fort Benton, he gave 
shelter to a half dozen Blackfeet who were pursued by three hundred 
Arickarees. These Indians after spending nearly all their ammunition 
and arrows in an attack on the fort were obliged to draw off in defeat. 
He had long had a feud with McKinzie, an old mountain man, and by 
some chance they met in 1863, on the Fur company boat, below Fort 
Union. Frank Worden, an old friend of mine who was present informed 
me that McKinzie, who had been drinking, began the quarrel at this 
time, which ended in the shooting of McKinzie by Clarke, as he claimed, 
in self defence. By Worden's advice Clarke and his young son Nathan, 
left the boat at Fort Union and drove to Fort Benton by the Milk river 
route. No judicial notice was ever taken of this affray. 

Retiring from the Indian trade, Mr. Clarke gathered his family to- 
gether and established a ranch on the Prickley Pear, in 1S64, and it was 
here in the spring of 1865 that I was his guest. At that time many of 
his wife's Indian relatives were hanging about his premises, living upon 
his lavish generosity. Not long after I was there, his own and his In- 
dian guest's horses were stolen. After examination, the Indians de- 
clared the thieves to have been white men. The visitors ill will was 
aroused when all the horses bearing Clarke's brand came straggling back 
into camp. They suspected that Clarke had played them falsely. 

(To be Continued) 



THE 








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COLONEL. JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT . . . Frank A. Gardner, M. D. . 99 

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REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS . Judge Francis M. Thompson % 129 

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LETTER FROM A SOLDIER IN THE CIVIL WAR J 39 

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COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S 

REGIMENT 



16TH REGIMENT PROVINCIAL ARMY, APRIL-JULY, 1775. 

6TH REGIMENT ARMY OF THE UNITED COLONIES, JULY-DECEMBER, 1775. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



This regiment was made up largely of Middlesex County men. Two 
of the companies, however, were composed mostly of men from New 
Hampshire, and one of men from Maine. Still another was largely com- 
posed of men from Salem, Marblehead and towns in Essex County. 

The Field and Staff officers of this regiment April 24. 1775, were as 
follows : 

Colonel John Nixon, Sudbury. 

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Nixon, Framingham. 

Major John Buttrick, Concord. 

Adjutant Abel Holden, Sudbury. 

Quartermaster John White, Haverhill. 

Surgeon Isaac Spafford, Haverhill. . 

Surgeon's Mate Josiah Langdon, Sudbury. 

"In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, May 9, 1775. 
To the Hon'le the Provincial Congress. 
Gent. — 

Capt. Ebenr Winship Having Inlisted in Company and being Desir- 
ous of Joyning Colo. John Nixon's Rejemet, We Recommend that Said 

99 



ioo MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

I ..< v '._.., 

Ebenr Winship Capt., and Will'm Warren, Lieut, and Richard Buckmin- 
ster, Ensn be Commissioned accordingly, 

Benja. White 

Chairman." 
A list published May 23, 1775, contains the following names of officers 
of this regiment : 

"Colonel John Nixon 
Lt. Colonel Thomas Nixon 
Major Butrick or Cudworth 
Captains. 
William Smith Joseph Butler 

John Lealand Benj. Bullard 

John Hayward William Buckminster 

Thadeus Russell Micajah Gleason 

Thomas Drury Abisha Brown." 

"Cambridge, 26th May, 1775. 
To the Honorable Committee of Safety. 
Gentlemen. We, the Subscribers being highly disatisfied with the 
alteration that is likely to take place respecting the Field Officers in Colo. 
Nixon's Rigement, as we took our Misting Orders under Coin. John 
Nixon, Lieut. Coin John Nixon, Lieut.. Coin Jacob Miller & Major Nath- 
aniel Cudworth w r ith an expectation that they would be Established Field 
Officers of the Rigement, especially as we were at the Choice of sd Gentle- 
men & knowing the Choice to be Fair and above board and every Gentle- 
man Present appeared to be pleased with the same, therefore think it a 
great Greavance that after they had ben at the trouble of Recruiting and 
had almost Filled up our Respective Companys before we had any notice 
of aney design to make an Alteration in the Leaders of said Rigement 
and further that we were to come to a New Choice with Men that were 
not Nominated with us to be in our Coine as Capts; and furthermore that 
several Lieuts. should Act in behalf of their Capts. they being not pres- 
ent, and one Lieut. ; saying at the same time he had not thought of tar- 
reing in the Armey, of which we think to be sufficient reasons that the 
first Choice stand Fair and the last the Contrary, therefore as we are 
Earnest to be in the Service in the Defence of our Country, (if the last 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 101 

Choice is Established) beg leave to have the Privilcdge of Joining in some 
other Rigement, and as in Dutey bound shall ever pray — 
Benja. Bullard, Capt. 
Thos. Drury, Capt. 
John Leland, Capt. 
Thadeus Russell, Capt." 

"Cambridge, 30th May, 1775. 
Sir; 

Wee, the Subscribers, Commanders in the Regiment under your Com- 
mand Beg leave, (with great Concern) to acquaint you that the Respect- 
ive Companys whom we have the Honour to Command, are nearly Com- 
pleat in Numbers, Some of Which is destitute of arms and Blankets 
notwithstanding, We have made aplication to the Respective Towns to 
which they belonged to supply them their advance pay Voted them by the 
Congress Withheld — the regiment unsettled — Our Commissions Re- 
tained, all Which Seems to Create a general uneasiness among the 
Soldiers. 

To prevent Which We desire you would Represent these Facts, to 
that Department to which it belongs in Order to have these Our Com- 
plaints Redressed. 

Humbly submitting Our Cause to Our Colonel in full Con- 
fidence that he Will assist us in this Our Petition. 
Joseph Butler Abishai Brown 

Micajah Gleason William Smith 

Moses McFarland David Moore 

To Col. Nixon." 

In Committee of Safety, June 2, 1775, the following action was taken. 

"Col. John Nixon having satisfied this Committee that his regiment 
is in good forwardness, he had a certificate thereof, and a recommendation 
to the Provincial Congress that said regiment be commissioned accord- 
ingly." 

"To His Excellancy General Ward & c. 

May it Please your Excellancy 
the petition of the Subscribing Soldiers of the Compy Commanded by 
Capt. Drury Humbly showeth . . . that your petitions With t'ne utmost 



xoa MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Concern find themselves Shifted Out of Col. Nixon's Regt. into that of 
Col. Gardner. Contrary to Our Inclination and Repugnant to the prom- 
ise made us at Our Inlisting. Wee therefore beg that your Excellency 
Would be Pleased to Continue us in the Regiment Wee Engaged to Serve 
in — and not to be removed in the Future Only to Serve the Malevolent 
Disposition of our Captain — and as in Duty Bound shall pray. 
Camp Cambridge, 5th June, 1775." 
Signed by twenty-eight men. 

"A list of officers in Colo. John Nixon's Rigemen. Viz. — 
Thos. Nixon, Lt. Colo. 
John Butrick, Major. 



Joseph Butler, Capt. 
Silas Walker, Lt. 
Edwd. Richardson, Ensn. 



Abisha Brown, Capt. 
Daniel Tayler, Lt. 
Silas Mann, Ensn. 



Wm. Smith, Capt. 
John Heald, Lt. 
John Hartwell, Ensn. 



Micaja Gleason, Capt. 
James Kimball.. Lt. 
Willm Ryan, Ensn. 



Moses McFarland, Capt. 
David Bradley, Lt. 
Jacob Quimby, Ensn. 



David Moore, Capt. 
Micah Goodenow, Lt. 
Jona. Hill, Ensn. 



Staff Officers : 

Isaac Spafford, Surgeon. 
, Mate Surgeon. 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 103 

Abel Holden, Adjutant. 

John White, Quartermaster." 
Upon the back of the above document was written the following: 
"Colo. John Nixon's return of officers in his Rijement Recommended 
for Commission June 5, 1775." 

In records of the Committee of Safety we find the following under 
date of June 14, 1775. "A number of men belonging to the Company of 
Captain Drury, having petitioned that they be permitted to join, some, 
the regiment commanded by Col. Gardner and others the regiment com- 
manded by Colo. Nixon; and the committee having considered their sev- 
eral requests, Voted, as the opinion of this committee, that said company 
be joined to such regiment as it shall appear the major part of said com- 
pany are in favor of when called upon for that purpose." 

When the Regiments in the Provincial Army were numbered this was 
known as the 16th. It was stationed at Cambridge. 

"Return of two Companies in Colo. Nixon's Regiment to be Commis- 
sioned 

Thomes Drury, Capt. 
William Maynard, Lieut. 
Joseph Mixer, Ensign. 



Samuel McCob, Captain. 
Benjamin Pattee, Lieut. 
John Riggs, Ensign. 

June 16, 1775. J n0 - Nixon, Col. 

In Committee of Safety, Cambridge, June 16, 1775. 
The Above Officers are approved of and recommended to the 
Honble Congress to be Commissioned. 

Benj. White, Chairman." 
From another record we find the following were also commissioned 
on that date, 

"Capt. Ebeneazer Winship. 
Lieut. William Warren. 
Ensign Richard Buckminster." 



I04 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Frothingham in his History of the Seige of Boston says in regard to 
this Regiment at the Battle of Bunker Hill: 

"John Nixon's Regiment from Middlesex and Worcester was neither 
full nor commissioned, and both the returns and details of it are very 
meagre. Only three companies appear to be listed dated June 16th, and 
the officers of them are all that appear to have been commissioned at 
this time. Colonel Sweet states that three hundred were led onto the 
field by Colonel Nixon who behaved with great gallantry. He was badly 
wounded and carried off the hill." In a list of the casualties of this 
battle given 4 Force 11, 1628, this regiment is listed as having "3 killed 
and missing." 

"Return of the officers of Col. Nixon's Reg't Cambridge 23d June, 

1775. 

Viz.: 1 Col., 1 Lieut. Do., 1 Major, 9 Captains, 9 Lieutenants and 9 
Ensigns Commissioned, 1 Adjutant, 1 Quartermaster, 1 Surgeon, 1 Mate 
Present but Not Commissioned. 

N. B. 1 Captain and his officers Recruiting in the country Not Com- 
missioned but Dayley Expected in Camp. 

Thomas Nixon, Lt. Col." 
When the Army of the United Colonies was organized early in July, 
1775, the regiment became No. 5 in that service. Doctor Isaac Spafford 
was chosen Surgeon of this regiment in Provincial Congress July 5, 1775. 
He had served from April 19, 1775, the time of his enlistment. The prin- 
cipal towns represented in this regiment were as follows: 

Captains. 

Moses McFarland, Haverhill, (N. H.) Plastow, Hawke, etc. 
Joseph Butler, Concord, Newburyport, etc. 
Ebenezer Winship, Salem, Marblehead, Waltham, etc. 
Abishai Brown, Concord, Ashby, Acton, etc. 
Micajah Gleason, Franiingham, Salem, Haverhill, etc. 
David Moore, Sudbury, Framingham, etc. 
William Smith, Lincoln, Acton, etc. 

Jeremiah Gilman, Haverhill, Plastow and other N. H. Towns. 
Samuel McCobb, Georgetown, Woolwich, Wiscussett and other 
Maine towns. 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 



10* 



Under date of July 16, 1775, we find that Lieutenants Jonathan Hill 
and Joseph Mixer were recruiting officers. 

A letter from General Lee to the Committee of Supplies was written 
the last of July requesting j$ firearms and bayonets for this regiment 
and other firearms were requested August 8th. 

A return of Captain Joseph Butler's Company made September 30, 
1775., gave the name of the junior commissioned captain — "Ensign Nathan 
Wheeler, of Roilstown." 

From returns dates September 30th and October 18th, 1775, we note 
that this regiment was stationed during this period on Winter Hill. 

The following table shows the strength of the regiment during the 
different months of the year: 

Staff. Non-Com. Rank and file. Total. 

June 9, 1775 

July, 1775 

Aug. 18, 1775 

Sept. 23, 1775 

Oct. 17., 1775 

Nov. 18, 1775 

Dec. 30, 1757 

The commissioned officers whose records are given in connection with 
the story of this regiment, attained rank as follows during the Revolution: 
brigadier general 1, colonel 2, lieut. colonel 3, major 1, captain 15, first 
lieutenant 13, second lieutenant 4, surgeon 1 and surgeon's mate 1. Nine- 
teen of these officers had seen service in the French and Indiana wars or 
in Provincial Militia, including ten who had held commissions in such 
service ; 1 colonel, 3 captains, 3 lieutenants and 3 ensigns. 

COLONEL JOHN NIXON of Sudbury was the son of Christopher 
and Mary (Sever) Nixon of Framingham. He was born in the last 
named town March 1, 1727. He joined the Colonial troops under Sir 
William Pepperill in 1735, and from that date until 1775 was m tne Army 
of the Province continuously except in 1752-5, when he was at his home 
in Framingham. From March 27th to September 8, 1775, he was a Lieuten- 

*Not including field officers. 

"{"Including drummers and fifers. 

^Including drummers and fifers. (July-Dec. inclusive.) 



Com. Off. 


Star! 


18* 


. 


17 


5 


26 


3 


25 


3 


18 


4 


17 


4 


23 


5 



40 


235t 


2 93 


53* 


412 


487 


52 


417 


498 


46 


423 


497 


42 


415 


479 


39 


396 


456 


5i 


419 


498 



106 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ant in Captain Ebeneazer Neat's Company, Colonel Ruggles's Regiment. 
During this service is recorded four and a half days' travel from Albany 
to Boston. September 9, 1755, he was appointed Captain of a company 
"lately commanded by Captain Jonathan Hoar" and he served until Janu- 
ary 3, 1756. In the following year he was Captain of a company in 
Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. His birthplace and residence 
being given as Framingham ; age 27; occupation farmer. On the nth of 
October of that year he was "in Camp at Fort William Henry." The full 
extent of this service was from February 18th to December 26, 1756. In 
September-November, 1758, he also commanded a company in Colonel 
Ruggles's Regiment. From March 31st to December 31, 1759. he com- 
manded a company in Colonel Ruggles's Regiment on an expedition to 
Crown Point. His residence at this time was given as Sudbury. August 
13, 1761, he was given three months' advance pay for service in Sir 
Richard Saltonstall's Regiment and he served continuously until January 
i, 1763. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he commanded a com- 
pany of Minute Men from Sudbury in Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment. 
April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Colonel of the 16th Regiment in the 
Provincial Army. His regiment was stationed at Cambridge. He was 
Field Officer of the Main Guards, May 20, 1775, and Officer of the Day 
for June 1st. His commission as Colonel was ordered June 3, 1775, and 
he again served as Officer of the Day June 9th. A portion of this regi- 
ment at least, was led on the field by Nixon at the battle of Bunker Hill, 
Colonel Sweet stating that the number so engaged was 300. Frothing- 
ham in his "History of the Seige of Boston" states that Colonel Nixon 
"behaved with great gallantry" and that he was badly wounded and car- 
ried off the Hill. When the Army was reorganized, Colonel Nixon's, 
Regiment became the 5th in the Army of the United Colonies, and was 
assigned to Brigadier General Sullivan's Brigade, forming a part of the 
second division of the Army under Major General Lee, to be stationed at 
Winter Hill. He served through the year, and January 1, 1776, became 
Colonel of the 4th Regiment in the Continental Army. He. served in that 
regiment until August 9, 1776, when he was promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier General in the Continental Army. He was placed ia com- 
mand of the forces stationed at Governor's Island in New York Harbor. 
At the first Battle of Stillwater, September 19, 1777, General Nixon's 
Brigade, with that of Generals Grover and Paterson, composed the right 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT I07 

wing under the immediate command of General Gates. During this day 
a cannon ball passed so near his head that it impaired the sight of one 
eye and the hearing of one ear. He continued to serve, however, until 
September 12, I/So, when he resigned owing to ill health occasioned by 
his wound. He retired to private life and kept a Tavern at Rice's End, 
Framingham. He went to Middlebury, Vt., about 1806, and died there 
in March 24, 1815, "age 90". The history of Sudbury refers to him as 
follows : 

He "was preeminently a military man by nature and experience and 
had known much of the hard fare and rough companionship of the 
army. He was a man of afTable ad Iress and quiet demeanor. He was 
light complexioned, medium size and cheerful disposition. He was a de- 
cided man and a great lover of children. One of his grandsons informed 
the author of the 'History of Sudbury' that the old man used to take his 
grandchildren on his knee and sing war songs to them, and one that he 
remembered was as follows: 
'O, why, soldiers, why should we be melancholy, boys? whose business 

'tis to die 
Though cold, hot and dry we are always bound to follow, boys, and 

scorn to fly/ " 

1 
LIEUTENANT COLONEL THOMAS NIXON of Framingham was 

the son of Christopher and Mary (Sever) Nixon, and brother of General 
Nixon. He was born April 27, 1736. From April 5th to December 15, 
1755, he was a private in Captain Ebeneazer Newall's Company, Colonel 
Timothy Ruggles's Regiment. From February 18th to December 3, 1756, 
he was Ensign in the company of his brother Captain John Nixon, Colonel 
Timothy Ruggles's Regiment, on an expedition to Crown Point. In this 
record his age is given as twenty, occupation farmer, birthplace and resi- 
dence Framingham. In 1759 he was "Cominshears in Conll John Jones 
Regiment", as recorded in the Massachusetts Archives, Volume 97, 
page 152A. From March 31st to November 30 of that year he served 
as a Lieutenant in Captain Stephen Maynard's Company. April 24, 1775, 
he was engaged as Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel John Nixon's Regi- 
ment, and he served through the year. January 1, 1776, he became Lieu- 
tenant Colonel in Colonel John Nixon's 4th Regiment in the Continental 
Army, holding that rank until the 9th of August, 1776, when he was 



io8 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

promoted Colonel succeeding- his brother, who had been made Brigadier 
General. January i, 1777, he became Colonel of the 6th Regiment, Massa- 
chusetts Line. He served most of the time in the Highlands of the Hud- 
son until he retired, January 1, 1781. He was a brave and efficient offi- 
cer. He removed from Framingham to Southborough about 1784, and 
died on the passage from Boston to Portsmouth, August 12, 1800. He 
was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

MAJOR JOHN BUTTRICK of Concord was the son of Jonathan 
and Elizabeth (Wooley) Buttrick. He was born in Concord, July 20, 
1731. From a return dated September 17, 1755, we learn that he was 
in Colonel Joseph Buckminster's Regiment in an expedition against 
Crown Point. April 25, 1757, he was in Colonel James Minors 1st Con- 
cord Company. August 17, 1757. he was a private in Ensign Jonathan 
Brooks's Company, Colonel Joseph Buckminster's Regiment for the re- 
lief of Fort William Henry. In 1771 he was a Lieutenant in Captain 
James Minot's 1st Concord Company, in Colonel Elisha Jones' 1st Mid- 
dlesex County Regiment. Shattuck in his "History of Concord" makes 
the following mention of Major Buttrick in connection with the Battle 
of April 19, 1775: "His name will be handed down to posterity with dis- 
tinguished honor for the noble stand he took and the bravery he mani- 
fested in leading a gallant band of militiamen on to meet the invading 
army at the North Bridge and for beginning the first forcible resistance 
10 the British Army. He then returned the fire by commanding his own 
company to fire by saying, 'Fire, fellow soldirs, for God's sake, Fire !' and 
discharged his own gun at the same instant." Frothingham, in his 
"Siege or Boston", page 65, states that John Buttrick was Major in 
Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment on the Lexington alarm. The author 
has, however, failed to find any record in the archives, of such service on 
the Lexington alarm. In a list of staff officers made about April 25, 
1775, Juhn Buttrick's name appears as Major in Colonel John Nixon's 
Regiment, and he continued to serve in that rank through the year. Jan- 
uary 24, 1776, he was chosen Lieutenant Colonel of a regiment raised in 
Lincoln and Middlesex Counties as a reenforcement to serve in Boston 
until April 1, 1776; reported chosen to serve in place of Colonel Michael 
Jackson. From October 19th to November 26th, 1779, he was Lieuten- 
ant Colonel in Colonel Samuel Dennv's Second Regiment, raised for 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 109 

three months service in order to march to Claverack, N. Y. He died 
May 16, 1 79 1, at the age of 60. 

ADJUTANT ABEL HOLDEN of Sudbury was the son of Jonas and 
Abigail (Kendall) Holden. He was born October 2, 1752. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Sergeant in Captain John 
Nixon's Company of Minute Men, Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment, 
serving five days. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Adjutant in Colonel 
Jcflin Nixon's Regiment, and served through the year. During 1776 he 
was Second Lieutenant and Adjutant in Colonel Nixon's 4th Regiment, 
Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he became Captain in Colonel 
Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and he continued 
in that command until June 3, 1783. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Society of the Cincinnati and subsequently upon his removal 
to New York city he joined the New York State Society in 1809. He 
died August 2, 1818, 

QUARTERMASTER JOHN WHITE of Haverhill was engaged to 
serve in that rank in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment April 24, 1775, and 
he continued through the year. During 1776 he was Second Lieutenant 
and Quartermaster in Colonel Nixon's 4th Regiment, Continental Army. 
January I, 1777, he became Quartermaster in Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th 
Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and he held that rank until July 29, 1777, 
when he was promoted to the rank of Assistant Deputy Quartermaster 
General. A certificate signed by Brigadier General John Nixon stated 
that he had served as Quartermaster in his Brigade "with Honour to 
himself and the Country Who Employed Him". 

SURGEON ISAAC SPOFFORD (also called SPAFFORD) of Hav- 
erhill was the son of Captain Ebenezer and Sarah (Colman) Spofford. 
He was born in Georgetown, April 10, 1752. He was a student of Dr. 
James Brickett, Sr., of Haverhill, later Brigadier General Brickett in the 
Revolution. Fie settled in Wenham. He was engaged April 19, 1775, as 
Surgeon in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. April 24, 1775, he was en- 
gaged to serve in the same rank in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment in the 
Provincial Army and he served under that officer through the year. Dur- 
ing 1776 he was Surgeon in Colonel Nixon's 4th Regiment in the Conti- 



no MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

nental Army. January I, 1777, he became Surgeon in Colonel John 
Crane's Artillery Regiment. He served in this Regiment until March 
13, 1778. He died in his 34th year of pulmonary consumption and was 
buried, according to the Beverly records, June 16. 1786. 

SURGEON'S MATE JOSIAH LANGDON of Sudbury was the son 
of Nathaniel and Abigail (Harris) Langdon. He was born March 3, 1746, 
and graduated at Harvard College, 1764. He was principal of the North 
Latin Grammar school in Boston for a short time. April 24, 1775, he was 
engaged as Surgeon's Mate in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment and he 
served at least until September 30, 1775, on which date he was reported 
sick and absent. He died in Sudbury in or about 1779. 

CAPTAIN ABISHIA BROWN of Concord was the son of Abishia and 
Mary (Farrar) Brown. He was born in Concord, May 2, 1746. April 24, 
1775, he joined Colonel John Nixon's Regiment as Captain and served 
through the year. April 11, 1777, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel 
Josiah Whitney's Regiment and served at Hull until December 1, 1776. 
From April to January he was sick with small-pox. In 1777 he was a 
Captain in Colonel John Robinson's Regiment, and March 2, 1788, be- 
came Major in that command. From April 1st to December 31, 1778, he 
was Major in Colonel John Jacob's Light Infantry Regiment. He died 
April 13, 1799, in Concord, aged 55 years. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BUCKMINSTER of Hutchinson was born in 
Framingham December 15, 1736. His name appeared in an alarm list 
in Colonel Buckminster's Framingham Company under command of Cap- 
tain Lieutenant Jeremiah Belknap April, 1757. He removed in 1757 to Bar- 
re. He was Captain of the Second Rutland District Company in Colonel 
John Murray's Regiment, June, 1771. His name appears as Captain in 
Colonel John Nixon's Regiment in a list of officers of the Massachusetts 
Militia but this is evidently a mistake because a record elsewhere shows 
that he entered the service April 24, 1775, as Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel 
Jona. Brewer's Regiment, and he fought with that Regiment at Bunker 
Hill on June 17, 1775. His service in that Battle is thus described, by 
Frothingham in his "Seige of Boston": "Lieutenant Colonel Buckminster 
acquired much reputation for bravery and prudence in the Battle. Just 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT IZ1 

before they retreated he received a dangerous wound from a musket ball 
entering his right shoulder and coming out in the middle of his back. 
This made him a cripple during his life. He was much respected for his 
sterling integrity and patriotism and kindness of heart." In a muster roll 
of Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, Continental Army for January- 
November, 1776, dated Ticonderoga, we read: "Appointed January 1, 
1776; reported at New Rutland on account of wound received June 17, 
1775, at Bunker Hill." In another list his name appears in a list of Field 
Officers on the Continental Army in 1776, "Colonel Brewer's Regiment, 
Major General Green's Division." In the Massachusetts Archives, Vol- 
ume 235, Page 326-8, we find a petition as to "his restoration to good will 
and citizenship", in which it is stated he was wounded at Bunker Hill. 
His residence at this time was Barre. He did not live long after the 
war as the following inscription on his monument bears witness: "Sacred 
to the memory of Colonel William Buckminster, an industrious farmer, 
a useful citizen, an honest man, a sincere Christian, a brave officer and a 
friend to his country; in whose cause he graviously fought and was dan- 
gerously wounded at the battle of Bunker Hill. He was born December 
15, A. D. 1736. Died June 22, A. D. 1786." (See Col. J. Brewer's Reg't.) 

CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BULLARD of Sherborne. His name appears 
in a list of officers of this regiment dated May 2^, 1775. But this is 
evidently a mistake as he was engaged for service in Colonel Jonathan 
Brew r er's Regiment, April 24, 1775, and his record will be given in the 
history of that Regiment. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH BUTLER of Concord served as a Corporal in 
Captain John Johnson's Company, Colonel Winslow's Regiment from May 
31st to September 12, 1753. October 11, 1756, his name appears as En- 
sign in the Colonel's Company, Colonel Timothy Ruggles's' Regiment, 
at Fort William Henry. Heitman state that he was Lieutenant of a com- 
pany of Minute Men at Concord, April 19, 1775, but no such record is 
found in the "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary 
War". April 24, 1775, he enlisted as Captain in the First Company in 
Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and he served through the year. During 
1776 he was Captain in Colonel Nixon's 4th Regiment, Continental Army. 



na MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN THOMAS DRURY of Framingham was the son of Uriah 
and Martha (Eames) Drnry, and was born April 12, 1743. April 22, 17^6 
he enlisted in Colonel Abraham Williams's regiment for service at Crown 
Point. His name also appears in the Training Band list of Captain 
Henry Erams's. In August, 1771, he was Ensign in Captain Joseph 
Erne's 2nd Framingham Company in Colonel John Noyes's Regiment i.i 
the South Part of the 3rd Middlesex Regiment. April 24, 1775, he was 
engaged as Captain in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and he served 
through the year. He lived on the old homestead place in Framingham 
and died April 19, 1790. 

CAPTAIN JEREMIAH GILMAN of Plaistow, N. H., was engaged 
April 24, 1775, to command a Company in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment 
and he served through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel 
Nixon's 4th Regiment, Continental Army. November 8, 1776, he was 
appointed Captain in Colonel John Stark's 1st Regiment New Hampshire 
Line, and on the 2nd of April, 1777, was promoted Major. September 20, 
1777, he was made Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel Nathan Hale's 2nd Reg- 
iment, New Hampshire Line. He was transferred to Colonel Joseph 
Cilley's 1 st Regiment, New Hampshire Line, March 5, 1788, and he served 
until he resigned March 24, 1780. Fleitman states that he died March 
24, 1823. 

CAPTAIN MICAJAH GLEASON of Framingham was the son of 
Ebenezer and Thankful (Johnson) Gleason. He was born in that town 
October 11, 1740. In 1758 he served on an expedition to Cape Breton. 
From Apiil 2nd to November 2J, 1759, he w r as a private in Captain John 
Nixon's Company, Colonel Ruggles Regiment on an expedition to Crown 
Point. From April 215th to December 3rd, 1761, he was Sergeant in 
the same company. He marked on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775, as Captain of a Company of Minute Men from Framingham. April 
23', 1775, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. 
January 1, 1776, he became Captain in Colonel John Nixon's 4th Regi- 
ment Continental Army, and he served in that command until Septem- 
ber 16, 1776, when he was killed in the Battle of Harlem Plains. 

CAPTAIN JOHN HAYWARD of Acton was a Corporal in Captain 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT u 3 

Samuel Dakin's Company from September 15th to December 14, 1755. 
In 1771 he was Ouratermaster in Captain Andrew Conant's Troop 
of Horse, in Colonel Elisha Jones's 3rd Middlesex County Regi- 
ment. April 19, 1775, ne marched as Captain of a Company of Minute 
Men in Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment. In a list published May 23, 
1775, his name appears as one of the Captains in Colonel John Nixon's 
Provincial Army Regiment. 

CAPTAIN JOHN LELAND. This name appears in a list of officers 
of this regiment, dated March 23, 1775, but no further record of his con- 
nection with the regiment has been found. He was a Captain in Colonel 
Ephraim Doolittle's Regiment and his record has already been given in 
♦he history of that organization. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL McCOBB of Georgetown (Maine District) was 
the son of Samuel McCobb. August 17, 1771, he was Lieutenant in 
Captain Thomas Moulton's Second Georgetown Company, Colonel Wil- 
liam Lithgow's First Lincoln County Regiment. He commanded a com- 
pany of Minute Men on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775; reported 
enlisted April 24, 1775. May 14, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in 
Colonel John Nixon's regiment and he served through the year. Janu- 
ary 1, 1776, he became Captain in Colonel Joseph Frye's Regiment, ac- 
cording to a list of Seacoast officers stationed at Falmouth, Casco Bay. 
January 23, 1776, he was chosen Major of Colonel John Robinson's Regi- 
ment for service until April 1, 1776. February 8, 1776, he was commis- 
sioned Colonel of the 1st Lincoln County Regiment. June 7, 1777, he 
was chosen Colonel of a regiment to be raised in Cumberland and Lin- 
coln Counties for service in an expedition to St. John's River, Nova Scotia, 
under Brigadier General Moses Little. May, 1778, Colonel McCobb was 
superintendent of the enlistments for Lincoln County. July 5, 1777, in 
a general return of the Massachusetts Militia his name appears as 
Colonel of the 1st Lincoln County Regiment, and he also held the same 
rank in General Lovell's Brigade in which he has a record of service from 
June 24th to September 26, 1779. April 25, 1781, he was engaged as 
Colenel and served seven months, five days in the Eastern department. 
In the History of Booth Bay, Me., it is stated that he later obtained the 
rank of Brigadier General. 



H4 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN MOSES McFARLAND of Haverhill was engaged April 
23, 1775, as Captain in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. He served 
through the year in that command. He was badly wounded at the battle 
of Bunker Hill. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel Nixon's 4th 
Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he became Captain in 
Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. March 16, 
1779, he was transferred to the Corps of Invalids, as his wound, received 
at Bunker Hill, would not permit of his continuing in active service in the 
field. His name appears as Captain of a company of invalids stationed 
in Boston in Colonel Nichola's Regiment in October, 1779. He continued 
to serve until 1783. Heitman gives the date of his death as March, 1790, 
but this is evidently a mistake as the Haverhill Records contain the fol- 
lowing entry: "Major Moses McFarland (Husband of Eunice Clark)" 
died April 6, 1802. 



CAPTAIN DAVID MOORE of Sudbury was the son of Uriah and 
Abigail (Haynes) Moore, and was born in that town June 21, 1722. April 
?5, 1757, he was a Sergeant in Captain Josiah Richardson's 2nd Sudbury 
Company. In 1764 (probably) he was Ensign in Captain Elijah Smith's 
Second Sudbury Company, Colonel Elisha Jones's 3rd Middlesex County 
Regiment. In 1771 he was Captain of a Troop of Horse in Colonel John 
Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regiment. He was probably the man 
of that name from Sudbury who served as private in Captain Aaron 
Haynes's Company, which marched on the alarm of April 19, 1775, to 
Cambridge, and served four days. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Cap- 
lain in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment and he served through the year. 
He was probably the same officer who was commissioned June 17, 1779, 
as Captain in Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County Regi- 
ment, and who was appointed September 2, 1779, as Captain in Colonel 
John Jacob's Light Infantry Regiment. In all probability he was the 
same officer w'10 was appointed June 29, 1780, as Captain in Lieutenant 
Colonel Enoch Hallett's 1st Barnstable County Regiment, engaging in 
the service at Rhode Island until his discharge, October 20, 1780. He 
was evidently wounded at some time as his name appears in a list of 
Sudbury soldiers who were wounded, published in the "History of Sud- 
bury." 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT n 5 

CAPTAIN THADDEUS RUSSELL of Sudbury was born about 1740, 
and he enlisted first as a private in Captain Moses Maynard's 1st Sud- 
bury Company, April 26, 1757. March 23, 1759, at the age of nineteen, 
residence Sudbury, he enlisted in Colonel Elisha Jones's Regiment for 
service in Canada. He was apprenticed to Ebenezer King. He was a 
member of Major Joseph Curtis's 1st Foot Company in Sudbury. From 
November 2, 1759, to May 14, 1760, he was a private in Captain Daniel 
Fletcher's Company, Colonel Frye's Regiment in Nova Scotia. From 
March 22nd, to November 20, 1762, he was a private in Captain Gray's 
Company. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as 
Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Cudworth's Company of Minute Men in 
Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment. In a list of officers of this regiment 
published May 23, 1775, his name appears as one of the Captains and on 
May 26th, he with three other Captains, signed a protest against changes 
in the Field Officers of this Regiment. His connection with this regiment 
evidently ceased soon after this, as in June he was a Captain in Colonel 
Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. In a Muster Roll of this last named regi- 
ment, dated August 1st, 1775, an entry giving Captain Russell's name 
states that he was engaged April 24, 1775, but the two documents above 
cited prove that he was in Colonel John Nixon's Refiiment in the latter 
part of May. He evidently changed on account of dissatisfaction ex- 
pressed in one of the above quoted documents, and served through the 
remainder of the year in Colonel Jonathan Brewer's Regiment. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM SMITH of Lincoln probably was one of the 
men of that name who served in the French War, but the large number 
of "William Smiths" in that service makes it impossible to identify his 
record. He commanded a company of Minute Men in Colonel Abijah 
Pierce's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775. April 24th of that year he was engaged to serve in that rank in 
Colonel John Nixon's regiment and he served through the year. No 
further record has been found. 

CAPTAIN EBENEZER WINSHIP of Salem was probably the man 
of that name who was a resident of Charlestown, and served as a private 
from September 15th to December 16th. 1755, in Colonel Gridley's Regi- 
ment in an expedition to Crown Point; and who was appointed May 20, 



ii6 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

1767, as 4th Brigadier* to rank as Colonel in the Governor's Troop of 
Horse. April 23, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John 
Nixon's Regiment and he served through the year. His residence at 
this time was given as Salem. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel 
John Nixon's 4th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he be- 
came Captain in Colonel Rufus Putnam's 5th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line, and he held that rank until August nth of that year, when he was 
appointed Deputy Commissioner of Issues. 

*A term used in some European armies to distinguish a cavalry subal- 
tern of the grade of a corporal. — F. A. G. 



FIRST LIEUTENANT DAVID BRADLEY of Haverhill was the 
son of Captain Daniel and Elizabeth (Ayer) Bradley. He was born in 
Haverhill September 20, 1740. He may have been the man of that name 
who was Captain of the 2nd Haverhill Company in Colonel John Os- 
good, Junior's 4th Essex County Regiment in 1762. On the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Sergeant in Captain Joseph 
Eaton's Company, Colonel Samuel Johnson's Regiment. May 23, 1775, 
he enlisted as Lieutenant in Captain Moses McFarland's Company, 
Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and served probably through the year. 
From December, 1775, to October, 1776, he served as Quartermaster in 
Colonel Henry Knox's Regiment. Continental Artillery. February 3, 
1777, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant in Captain Moses Green- 
leaf's Company, Colonel Ebenezer Francis's nth Regiment, Massachu- 
setts Line. February 20, 1777, he was recommended for commission as 
First Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Eaton's Company in the same 
regiment. Reported resigned November 7, 1777. He died in Haverhill 
May 2, 181 1, aged 70 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT MICAH GOODENOW of Sudbury was the 
son of Daniel and Sarah (Rice) Goodenow. He was born in that town 
February 21, 1731-2. April 25, 1757, he was a member of Captain Josiah 
Richardson's 2nd Sudbury Company, and in May, 1768, he was commis- 
sioned Ensign in Captain Wood's 3rd Sudbury Company, Colonel Elisha 
Jones's Regiment. He was Sergeant in Captain John Nixon's Company 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 117 

of Minute Men, Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment on the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain David Moore's Company, Colonel John Xixon's Regi- 
ment, and he served through the year. He died in Wayland (which was 
formerly East Sudbury) December 17, 1813, aged 82 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN HEALD (also given John, Junior) 
of Acton served in 1764 in Captain Samuel Hay ward's (Acton) Company, 
Colonel Elisha Jones's 3rd Middlesex County Regiment. He served as 
Lieutenant in Captain John Howard's Company of Minute Men, Colonel 
Abijah Pierce's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
April 24, 1775, he w r as engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain William 
Smith's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and served through 
the year. March 4, 1776, he was Second Lieutenant in Captain Israel 
Heald's Company, Colonel Eleazer Brooks's 3rd Middlesex County Regi- 
ment. March 27, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain 
Simon Hunt's 5th Company in the same regiment. In a list of rations 
allowed from July 11, 1776, to November 30, 176, as a Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Joshua Parker's Company, Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex 
County Regiment, we find that he was credited with 143 days' allowance. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN HEYWOOD, of Worcester, 
was born in that town October 25, 1746, the son of Phineas and Elizabeth 
(Moore) Heywood. He learned the carpenter's trade but by studying 
duriug his spare time, fitted himself for college. He entered Harvard in 
1771 and is said to have become remarkably proficient in mathematics. 
It is stated that he was Ensign of a student company and took part in 
the pursuit of the British on the Lexington alarm. In the "Memorials 
of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati" it is stated that he was 
commissioned Lieutenant in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, in May, 
1 775 ♦ but the writer has failed to find confirmation of the same in the 
records in the Massachusetts Archives. January 1, 1776, he became 
Second Lieutenant in Captain Adam- Wheeler's Company in Colonel John 
Nixon's 4th Regiment, Continental Army. He was appointed Regimental 
Paymaster, September 14, 1776. January 1, 1777, he was made Lieuten- 
ant and Paymaster of Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachu- 
setts Line, and April 10th was promoted Captain. He served until June 



i 



n8 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

3, 1783. After the war he served on a committee to adjust the accounts 
of the officers and soldiers of the Massachusetts Line. He returned to 
Worcester in 1784, to the management of his farm. He was appointed 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1802, holding the office until 
September, 181 1, when the seats of all the judges of that court were de- 
clared vacant. He was for many years an acting- magistrate of the county 
and a Trustee of Leicester Academy. He was chosen one of the presi- 
dential electors on two occasions. He was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Society of the Cincinnati and the first assistant treasurer. He died 
in Worcester, December 6, 1816. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JAMES KIMBALL of Haverhill enlisted 
April 23, 1775, in that rank in Captain Micajah Gleason's Company, Colonel 
John Nixon's Regiment, and served probably through the year. During 
1776 he was First Lieutenant in Captain Micajah Gleason's Company, 
Colonel Nixon's Regiment. In a return of men, dated Springfield, Janu- 
ary 25, 1776, his name appears with a list of men in Colonel Nixon's Regi- 
ment who were to serve for the month of January, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM MAYNARD of Framingham was 
the son of Jonathan and Martha (Gleason) Maynard. He was born in 
Framingham March 29, 1745. From April 19th to November 20, 1762, 
he was a private in Captain James Gray's Company. April 24, 1775, he 
was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Drury's Company, Colonel 
John Nixon's Regiment, and he served evidently through the year. In a 
list of officers, however, of Colonel Thomas Gardner's Regiment, dated 
June 2, 1775, his name appears as Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Drury's 
Company in that Regiment, with the statement that his commission was 
ordered in Provincial Congress. June 1, 1777, he was commissioned 
Lieutenant in Captain Moses McFarland's Company in Colonel Louis 
Nichola's Regiment of Invalids stationed at Boston. In a muster roll 
dated October, 1779, his name appears holding the same office under the 
above named officer, with the statement that he was appointed June 1, 
1779, to serve during the war. He was reported furloughed June 30, 1780, 
for forty days. Heitman states that his term of service dated to June, 
1783. Barry, in his" History of Framingham" states that he was town 
"lerk there for six years, and Temple in his history of the same town 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT ng 

states that about 1788 he went to South Carolina and kept school, and 
died there. He was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cin- 
cinnati. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN PATTEE of Georgetown 
(Maine District) enlisted April 24, 1775, as Sergeant in Captain Samuel 
McCobb's Company, probably on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
May !Q, 1775, he enlisted as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel McCobb's 
Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and served through the year. 
January I, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel 
McCobb's Company. Colonel Joseph Frye's Regiment for Sea Coast De- 
fense and stationed at Falmouth, Casco Bay. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT DANIEL TAYLOR of Concord was a 
private in Captain James Reed's Company from July 16th to November 
28, 1761, in an expedition to Crown Point. June 5, 1775, his commission 
was ordered in Provincial Congress as Lieutenant in Captain Abishia 
Brown's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. In a return of the 
Company dated September 31, 1775, he was reported discharged. In a 
list of men drafted from Concord, who paid money in lieu of sen-ice, 
dated May 15, 1777, said Taylor is said to have paid five pounds. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SILAS WALKER of Concord served as Cor- 
poral in Captain Daniel Brewer's Company, Colonel Whitcomb's Regi- 
ment from August 22nd to December 14, 1756, on an expedition to Crown 
Point. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain Joseph 
Butler's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment and served through 
the year. During 1776, he was First Lieutenant in Colonel John Nixon's 
4th Regiment, Continental Army. From an order on the paymaster dated 
November 28, 1776, we learn that at that time Captain Butler's Company 
was commanded by Lieutenant Walker. January 1, 1777, he became First 
Lieutenant in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line, and he served until April 9. 1779; reported a "supernumary 
officer". From November 1, 1779, to February 9, 1780, he was a Captain 
m Major Nathaniel Heath's Regiment, serving on guard duty about 
Boston. July 13, 1780, he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain 
Abraham Andrews's Company, Colonel Cyprian Howe's 4th Middlesex 



120 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

County Regiment, and he served to October 30th of that year on detached 
service to reinforce the Continental Army. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM WARREN of Walthnm was en- 
gaged April 23, 1775, to serve in that rank in Captain Ebenezer Win ship's 
Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. June 16, 1775, his commission 
was ordered to be delivered. He was severely wounded in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, and rendered incapable of any further service. He died 
July 29, 1831. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT RICHARD BUUKMINSTER of Salem 
held that rank in Captain Ebenezer Win ship's Company, Colonel John 
Nixon's Regiment, his date of enlistment being April 23, T77$. He held 
the same rank in Colonel John Nixon's 4th Regiment, Continental Army 
through the year 1776. January 1, 1777, he became Adjutant of Colonel 
Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and held that office 
for twenty-seven months. He served two months, ten d.^ys as Lieuten- 
ant. June 10, 1779, he w r as promoted Captain, having resigned his adju- 
tancy April 1, 1779. He died November 11, 1779, and half pay was con- 
tinued to his family to November 11, T786. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN HARTWELL of Lincoln was born 
about 1747. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as 
Sergeant in Captain William Smith's Company of Minute Men, Colonel 
Abijah Pierce's Regiment. April 24, 1775, he ''enlisted" as Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Smith's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. He 
probably served through the year. He was Captain of a company in 
Colonel Eleazer Brook's 3rd Middlesex County Regiment, which was 
called out at the time of fortifying Dorchester Heights, March 4, 1776. 
His commission was ordered September 27, 1776, as Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain John Minot's Company, Colonel Nicholas Dike's Regiment for the 
defense of Boston. December 1, 1776, he was engaged to serve as Cap- 
tain in Colonel Dike's Regiment, said service to continue until March 1, 
1777. In a muster roll for February, 1777, he was "reported sick and 
absent". "Deacon" John Hartwell (also called Captain John in the rec- 
ords) died in Lincoln, November 2, 1820, aged 93 years. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JONATHAN HILL of Framingham was 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 121 

the son of Jonathan and Lydia (Osgood) Hill of Billerica. He was born 
January 12, 1741-2. He was Sergeant in Captain Micajah Gleason's 
Company of Minute Men on the alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24th he 
was engaged to serve as Second Lieutenant in Captain David Moore's 
Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment and served through the year. 
In January, 1776, he was engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Daniel 
Littlefield's Company, Colonel Isaac Smith's Regiment, raised to serve 
until April 1, 1776. He was reported commissioned March 14, 1776. In 
September of that year, he was enlisting recruits for Colonel Nixon's 4th 
Regiment, as shown in a regimental return of that organization made at 
North Castle, November 6, 1776, his name appears as First Lieutenant in 
Captain Adam Wheeler's Second Company. He was the first man to 
organize a Methodist class in Framingham. He died October 16, 1S26. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSEPH MIXER of Framingham was the 
son of Benjamin and Sarah (Garfield) Mixer. He was born March 7, 
1742. As Joseph 'Mixter" he served as a private in Captain Simon Ed- 
gell's Company of Minute Men which marched on the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775, he was engaged as Ensign in Captain 
Thomas Drury's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and he ser\ ed 
through the year. Like his commander Captain Thomas Drury he is also 
credited as belonging to Colonel Thomas Gardner's Regiment. In a 
document found in the archives bearing date of July 16, 1775, the name of 
Lieutenant Joseph Mixer appears as a recruiting officer. He was a writing 
master. Owing to financial embarrassment he lost his farm and retired to 
Southborough in 1784. Fie died in Boston in 1822. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JACOB QUIMBY of Flampstead, N. H., 
was engaged April 25, 1775, to serve in that, rank in Captain Moses 
McFarland's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment, and he served 
through the year. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN RIGGS of Georgetown (also given 
Falmouth) (Maine District) was a Corporal in Captain Samuel McCobb's 
Company of Minute Men which responded to the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775. May 9, 177$, he enlisted as Ensign in Captain McCobb's 
Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment and he served through the 



122 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

year. January I, 1776, he became First Lieutenant in Colonel John 
Nixon's Regiment, Continental Army, and he served until June 5th of that 
year, when he was cashiered. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM RYAN of Salem was engaged 
May 23, 1775, for service in that rank in Captain Micajah Gleason's Com- 
pany, Colonel John Nixon's Regiment. According to Heitman he was 
cashiered August 24, 1775. 

ENSIGN SILAS MANN was born abot 1745. May 19, 1775, he was 
commissioned Ensign in Colonel John Nixon's Regiment and served 
through the year. February 5, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieuten- 
ant in Captain Wheeler's Company, Colonel John Robinson's Regiment, 
for service to April 1, 1776. He died in Concord, November 14, 1788, 
aged 40 years (in the 43d year of his age. g. s.). 

ENSIGN EDWARD RICHARDSON of Concord was the son of 
Edward and Abigail (Chenery) Richardson. We was born in Woburn, 
February 8, 1747-8. He later removed to Concord and was a resident 
of that town at the time of his marriage in 1771. In the "Richardson 
Memorial" it is stated that at the time of the Concord Bridge fight of 
April 19, 1775, he was Orderly-Sergeant of a Company of Minute Men of 
Concord, but no such record is found in the "Massachusetts Soldiers and 
Sailors in the Revolutionary War". April 24, 1775, he was engaged as 
Ensign in Captain Joseph Butler's Company, Colonel John Nixon's Regi- 
ment, and he served through the year. His son, Josiah stated that his 
father was Ensign, Lieutenant, Quartermaster, Paymaster and Captain, 
commanding a Company at West Point, and it is probable that the 
following records of service also belonged to him. Quartermaster, Colonel 
Josiah W r hitney's Regiment from April 10th to November 1, 1776, also 
Captain in Colonel Thomas Poor's Regiment from May 20, 1778, to Feb- 
ruary 17, 7779, this service being up the Hudson and at West Point. 
He removed to the Androscoggin River country in Maine in February, 
1783. to a place called Phips's Canada, the district in which he located 
being later called Jay, Lincoln County. He served as Trial Justice many 
years. He died July 1, 1834, in the 87th year of his age. 

ENSIGN NATHAN WHEELER of Royalston, was engaged June 29, 



COLONEL JOHN NIXON'S REGIMENT 123 

*775> t° serve m * na t rank in Captain Joseph Bntler's Company in Colonel 
John Nixon's Regiment. During I//6, he was First Lieutenant in Captain 
Ebenezer Winship's Company in Colonel Nixon's 4th Regiment, Conti- 
nental Army. From January I, 1777., to December 14, 177S, he was First 
Lieutenant in Colonel Thomas Nixon's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line. 



MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By Charles A. Flagg 



Stickney, Lemuel, b. 1761; Revolution- 
ary soldier; set. N. Y. Macomb Hist., 

853. 
Stiles, Mercy, b. 1784, m. 1820? Stephen 

ball of N. Y. and Mich. Ionia Hist, 

261, 262; Ionia Port., 390. 
Samuel, Revolutionary soldier; set. 

N. Y., 1790? Jackson Port., 585. 
Stimpson, John, set. N. Y., 1800? d. 

1831. Jackson Hist., 1127. 
Stimson, Benjamin G., b. Dedham, 1816; 

set. Mich., 1837. Wayne Chron., 387. 
Ephraim ,set. N. Y., 1820? d. 1832. 

Kalamazoo Port., 329. 
Robert, set. N. Y., 1797. Genesee 

Hist., 260. 
Stitt, Henry, b. Berkshire Co., 1833; 

set. O., Mich., 1862. Gratiot, 512. 
■ John, b. Berkshire Co.; set. O., 

1835, Mich., 1864. Gratiot, 442, 512. 
Stocking, Billious, b. 1779; set. N. Y., 

1800? Grand Rapids Lowell, 39°; 

Kent, 1 137. 

Stockwell, Lovina, b. 1770; m. Oliver 
C. Derby of N. Y. Ingham Hist., 
facing 214. 

Parley, b. 1803; set. Mich. Branch 

Twent, 253. 

Stoell, Sarah, m. 1820? Nathaniel Kel- 
logg of N. Y. Jackson Hist., 657. 

Stoker, Minnie, m. 1883 Francis Mc- 
Mann of Mich. Saginaw Port., 228. 

Stone, Alvah G., b. Charlton, 1852; set. 
Mich., 1877. Lenawee Illus., 406. 



Clement W., b. Gloucester, 1840? 

set. Mich., Washtenaw Past, 181. 
David, b. 1793; set. N. Y., Mich., 

1836. Macomb Hist., 805. 
Elias, set. Mich., 1780? Macomb 

Hist., 804. 
Isaiah, b. 1785; set. Vt., N. Y.., 1800, 

N. Y., O., 1835. Lenawee Hist. II, 

418; Lenawee Port., 2^9 
Martha, m. 1st, 1800? Nicholas 

Cook of Mass; m. 2d of 

O. Hillsdale Port., 634. 
Nabby, b. Framingham; m. 1820? 

Samuel Murdock of N. Y. Washte- 
naw Hist., 868. 
Nathan, set. Vt., 1805? Jackson 

Hist., 891. 
Solomon, set. N. Y., Mich., 1845? 

Macomb Past, 460. 
Solon, b. 1801; set. N. Y., 1830? 

Mich. Clinton Port, 873. 
William B., b. Boston; set. Vt., 1850? 

Oakland Biog., 333. 
William W., b. 1821; set. N. Y., 

Mich., 1855. Muskegon Port., 155. 
Stow, set. N. Y., Mich.; d. 1835- 

Clinton Port., 335. 
Stowe, Elbridge G. b. Conway, 1821; 

set Mich., 1844. Kent, 1320. 
Stowell, Jesse, b. Boston; set. N. Y., 

1810? Jackson Port., 275. 
Josiah, b. Petersham, 1797; set. Vt, 

1800? Lenawee Port., 1072. 
Luther, b. 1772; set. Vt. 1800? Le- 
nawee Port., 1072. 

124 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



125 



\ 



\ 



set. N. Y., Mich., 1834. Jackson Hist, 

151; Jackson Port., 275. 

Ransom Nutting of Mass. and Mich. 

Kalamazoo Port., 786. 
Stkeeter, Sereno W., b. 181 1; set. O. 

Northern P., 354. 
.Thankful, b. Chester, 1795; m. 

Robert H. Baird of O. Kalamazoo 

Port., 702. 
Strong, Abigail L., of Northampton; b. 

1821; m. 1845? Adin C. Evans of O. 

Northern M., 327. 
Asahel of Northampton; set. O. 

Northern M., 328. 
Asahel B., b. Westhampton, 1826; 

set. O., Mich., 1849. Hillsdale Port, 57*. 
Jared, b. Northampton, 1801; set. 

Mich., 1846. Kent, 715. 
Olive, of Northampton; m. Abner 

Clark of O. Berrien Port., 582. 
Phineas, b. Southampton; set. N. 

Y., 1830? Kent, 1140. 

Stuart, Charles, of Martha's Vineyard; 
set. N. Y., 1805. Kalamazoo Port., 
205. 

■ Ebenezer, set. N. Y., 1810? d. 1817. 

Macomb Hist., 805. 

• James, set. N. Y. Genesee Port., 

622. 

Grand Rapids Hist., 1086. 

Styles, Mercy, see Stiles. 

■ Pamelia, b. 1791; m. Peter Downs 

of Mich. Allegan Hist., 463. 

Sumner, Lucina, m. 17S0? William Car- 
penter of N. H. and N. Y. Lenawee 
Illus., 121. 

- — .Ruth, b. 1791; m. 1822 John Towar 
of N. Y. and Mich. Lansing, 434. 

1837. Macomb Hist., 713. 

Swain, Joseph G., b. New Bedford; 
Twent., 441. 

Richard, b. Nantasket? I773J set. 

N. Y., 1796. Detroit, 1232. 
Studley, Elbridge G., set. N. Y., 1840? 
Sutton, Amsey, set. N. Y., 1830, Mich., 

set. N. Y., 1830? Mich., 1846. Branch 
"towell, Silas W., b. Littleton, 1802; 



Swan, Mrs. Betsey, wife of Abel Swan, 

later wife of John Bean; b. Heath, 

March, 1793. Sanilac, 249. 
Sweetser, Luke, of Hampshire Co., 

bought land in Mich., 1S36. Allegan 

Hist., 270. 
Sykes, Alanson, set. N. Y., Mich., 1837. 

Kalamazoo Port., 895. 
Symes, J. T., b. Berkshire Co., 1821; set. 

O., Mich., 1S55. Saginaw Hist., 913. 
Taber, Benjamin, b. 1775; set. N. Y., 

Mich. Hillsdale Port., 245. 
Earl, Revolutionary soldier; set. N. 

Y., 1799. Oakland Port., 577. 
Taft, Cynthia, b. Chesterfield. 1790; m. 

Silas Wilcox of N. Y. and Mich. Len- 
awee Hist. II, 190. 
Levi B., b. Billingham, 1821, set. 

Mich., 1834. Oakland Hist., 47; Oak- 
land Port., 225. 
Lydia, m. 1790? Royal Wheelock of 

N. Y. Washtenaw Port., 609. 
Mary Ann. b. Worcester Co., 1S29; 

m. Danford Parker of Mich. Ingham 

Port., 754. 
Moses, b. Mendon, 1792; set. Mich., 

1834. St. Joseph, 220. 

Taggart, b. Roxbury? set. N. H. 

Branch Port.. 316. 

John, Jr., b. Roxbury, 1750; set. N. 

•H. Branch Hist., 330. 

Talbot, Samuel, set. N. Y., 1800? Kala- 
mazoo Port., 765. 

Talmadge, Joseph I., b. Williamstown, 

1807; set. Mich., 1834. Lenawee Hist 

I, 251. 
Taplin, Elliott, set. Vt. Saginaw Port., 

234. 
Tarbell, Betsey, m. 1820? Asquar AP 

drich of Mich. Gratiot, 389. 

Tasker, Reuben C, b. New Bedford, 

1836; set. Mich., 18S1. Saginaw Port., 

942. 
Tateum, William A., graduate of Wes- 

leyan University; set. Mich., 1887. 

Grand Rapids City, 432. 

Taylor, Alanson, set. O., 1835? Ncwag- 
go, 224 



126 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Taylor, Almira M., b. 1829; m. 1857 B. 

F. Chamberlain of Mich. Washtenaw 

Hist., 697. 
• Betsey, m. 1S00? Amos Gray of Vt. 

Washtenaw Hist., S53. 
Chloc, b. Springfield, 17S1; m. 1803 

Seth Otis of N. Y. Washtenaw Hist., 

1029. 
David, b. Ashfield; set. O.; d. 1840? 

Genesee Hist., 391. 
Elbridge G., b. 1826; set. Mich. 

1844. Washtenaw Port., 201. 

James, Sr., b. Buckland, 1791; set. 

N. Y., Mich., 1836. Ionia Hist., 402. 
John, b. Westfield, 1762; set. N. Y., 

1802, Mich., 1832. Macomb Hist., 

763. 
• John, b. Deerfield, 1792; set. N. Y., 

1810? ,Mich., 1832. Macomb Hist., 

763. 
Joseph, b. Harvard? 1790?; set. Vt. 

1810? Kent, 792; Newaygo, 363. 
Mary A., of Westfield; m. 1828 

Nathan Dickinson of Mass. and Mich. 

Macomb Past, 337. 
Obed, b. 1799; set. Mich., 1832. 

Washtenaw Hist., 697. 
Sylvester, b. Berkshire Co., 1814; 

set. N. Y., 1816, O., 1829, Mich., 1854- 

Ionia Hist., 171. 
Templeton, Sarah, m. Isaac Butterfield 

of N. Y. and Mich. Kent, 963. 
Tenney, Weston, set. N. Y., 1820? 

Newaygo, 302. 
Terry, Polly, m. 1S20? Joseph Chad- 
dock of N. Y. Muskegon Port., 368. 

Thacher, Isaac E., b. N. Wrentham, 
1833; set. Mich., 1855. Ionia Port., 
642. 

Israel, b. 1810; set. N. Y., Mich. 

Hillsdale Port, 654. 

— —Martha M., b. N. Wrentham, 1829; 
m. 1854 Nelson E. Smith of Mass., 
Penn. and 111. Ionia Port., 790. 

Moses, b. Princeton, 1795; set. 

Penn., 1803; N. Y., 111., Mich. Ionia 
Port., 643, 790. 
1851. Ionia Port., 644. 
Tyler, b. Princeton, 1801; set. Cal., 



Thayer, Betsey,' b. Taunton, 1778; m. 

1818 William Freeman of Mass. and 

Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 245; Lenawee 

Port., 668. 
Dolly, m. 1825? Willard Richards 

of N. Y. and Mich. Genesee Port., 

927. 
Hosea, b. Plainfield or Springfield, 

1784; set. N. Y., 1800? Lenawee Hist., 

I, 357; Lenawee Port., 579. 
John, b. Randolph, 1787; set. Me., 

1820? Ionia Hist., 165. 
Nathan, b. Milford, 1765? set 

Mich., 1824. Washtenaw Hist. 
Nathaniel, set. Vt., 1820? 

Rapids Lowell, 380. 
Thomas, David, of Rowe; set. 



N. Y, 

1049. 
Grand 



1841. Hillsdale Hist. 
Port., 221. 



Mich., 
257; Hillsdale 



Sophia, b. 1781; rrv 1808? Frederick 

Wright of Mass., N. Y. and Mich. 

Jackson Hist., 1020; Jackson Port., 

593- 
Victor H., b. Berkshire Co., 1837; 

set. N. Y., 1842, Mich., 1857. Berrien 

Twent, 767. 
Zimri D., b. Rowe, 1809; set. N. Y., 

1820? Mich., 1852 or 53. Hillsdale 

Port., 683; Kalamazoo Port., 219. 
Thompson, Caleb S., b. Northboro, 1805; 

set. N. Y., Mich., 1829. Genesee Hist., 

249. 
Cyrus, set. N. Y., 1800? Jackson 

Hist., 817; Jackson Port., 335. 
Horace, b. Uxbridge, 1809; set. 

Mich., 1S31. Cass Hist., 144, 307. 
Lewis S., b. Peru, 1827; set. N. Y., 

Mich. Genesee Port., 740. 
Lovina, b. Worcester Co., 1782; m. 

1799 John Barber of N. Y. Lenawee 

Hist. II, 191. 
Lyman, set. N. Y., Mich., 1840? 

Genesee Port., 740. 
Margaret, b. Monson; m. 1853, 

James C. Bennett of Mich. Kala- 
mazoo Port., 794, 

Oren C, b. Stockbridge, 1806; set 

Mich., 1831. Wayne Chron., 159. 

Sally, b. Berkshire Co.; m. Elisha 

Branch of O. Ingham Hist., 347- 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



127 



Thorn, Mrs. Sampson, b. Falmouth, 

Aug. 6, 1813; set. Mich., 1838. Jack- 
son Hist., 152. 
Thornton, Isaac, set. O., 1835? Mid- 
land, 209. 
Thorp, Susannah, b. Springfield; m. 

1810? Timothy Wood of Mass. and N. 

Y. Saginaw Hist., 940. 
Thorpe, Hannah, m. 1820? Justus Alvord 

of N. Y. and O. Isabella, 382. 
Tibbitts, John, b. Adams, 1783; set. N. 

Y., Mich. Branch Port., 630. 
Ticknor, Deborah, m. Alfred Bingham 

of Vt. Saginaw Port., 468. 
Tiffany, Gideon of Norton; set. N. H. 

1780? Lenawee Hist. I, 523. 
Oliver, set. N. Y„ 1820? Mich., 1836. 

Jackson Port., 310. 
Polly, m. 1810? Mason Whipple of 

N. Y. and Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 

819; Washtenaw Port., 250. 
Sylvester, b. Norton; set. Canada, 

1792, N. Y. Lenawee Hist. I, 523. 
Tillotson, Leonard, set. O., 1815. Clin- 
ton Port., 558. 
Tilton, Caleb, of Conway; set. Mich., 

1832. Calhoun, 162. 
-John, of Berkshire Co.; set. Mich.; 

d. 1849. Calhoun, 162. 
Joseph, b. Sudbury, 1779; set. N. 

H., 1800? Mich. 1833. Lenawee Hist. 

I, 72. 
Lucy J., m. 1855 Martin N. Hine of 

Mich. Kent, 1219. 
Timothy, Clarissa A., m. 1840? David 

P. Allen, of N. Y. and Mich. Saginaw 

Port., 684. 
■ Elkana, set. N. Y., 1820? Saginaw 

Port., 684- 
Tinney, Olive, ib. 1793; rn. Benjamin 

Tobey of N. Y. and Mich. Lenawee 

Port., 68. 
■ Sally, b. Lee, 1790; m. 1815, Ezra 

Howes of N. Y. and Mich. Lenawee 

Hist. II, 151. 
Tobey, Benjamin, b. Conway, 1779; set. 

N- Y., 1820? Mich., 1844. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 147; Lenawee Port., 681. 
Toms, Ira, set. N. Y., Canada., Mich., 

1824. Oakland Hist., 288. 



Toombs, Louisa, b. 181 1; m. 1S43 Josiah 
Childs of Mich. Washtenaw Port., 545. 

Torrey, Ann, m. 1825? Ezra Newton of 
N. Y. and Mich. Ionia Port., 732. 

George, b. Salem, 1S01; set. Mich., 

1833. Kalamazoo Hist., 284, 489. 

Miles, set. N. Y., Mich., 1845. Lan- 
sing, 542. 

Norman, b. Williamstown, 1S07; set. 

Mich., 1S30. Lenawee Port., 575. 

Torry, Ruth, b. Williamstown, 1770; m. 
Stephen Frazier of Mass. and N. Y. 
Lenawee Port., 948. 

Tower, Clarissa, m. 1800? Elkana Tim- 
othy of N. Y. Saginaw Port., 684. 

Deborah, m. 1807, Ansel Ford of 

Mass. and O. Lenawee Port., 1137. 

Osmond, b. Cummington, 181 1; set. 

Mich., 1834 or 1835. Clinton Port., 
768; Ionia Hist., 160; Kent, 263. 

Town, Betsey, m. 1812? Festus Persons 
of N. Y. Newaygo, 382. 

Nathan, b. Berkshire Co., 1792; set. 

N. Y., Canada, 1820? Mich., 1838. Le- 
nawee Hist. I, 269; Lenawee Illus., 
446; Lenawee Port., 874. 

Stephen, set. N. Y., Mich., 1845. 

Jackson Hist., 739. 

Townsend, Abiel, set. Mich., 1836. Ionia 
Port., 268. 

Isaac, b. New Salem, 1750? set N. 

Y., 1800 Branch Port., 491. 
James, b. Berkshire Co., 1842; set. 

Mich., 1845. Jackson Hist., 907. 
Josiah, set. N. Y., 1850? Gratiot, 

180. 

Martin, 1812 soldier; set. N. Y. 

Branch Port., 491. 
Tartullus, of Berkshire Co.; set. 

Mich., 1845. Jackson Hist., 907. 
Thomas, Revolutionary soldier; set 

N. H., d. 1814. Genesee Port., 954. 
Townson, Calvin, b. 1776; set. N. Y. 

Jackson Port., 352. 

Tracy, Addison, b. PittsfieM, 1796; set. 
O., 1840? Mich., 1864. Grand Rapids 
City, 292; Kent, 79c 

Hannah, of Lenox; m. 1785? Isaac 

Grant of Vt. and N. Y. Osceola, 191. 



128 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Tracy, James, set N. Y. f 1S10. Jackson 
Hist., 873. 

Sarah, m. 1810? Ira L. Watkins of 

Mich. Jackson Hist., 873. 

Thomas, b. Berkshire Co., 1790; set. 

N. Y., 111., 1832, Mich., 1S53. Kala- 
mazoo Port., 530. 

Train, Samuel, b. 1833; set. O. Neway- 
go, 246. 

Sylvester, set. Vt, 1830? Mich., 1840. 

Grand Rapids City, 236; Kent, 1229. 

Trask, Annie, b. Leicester, 1790; m. 
John Wood of N. Y. and Mich. Ing- 
ham Port., 415. 

Luther H., b. Millbury, 1807; set. 

Mich., 1835. Kalamazoo Port., 239. 

■ Salmon, set. Mich., 1835. Bean 

Creek. 49. 

Tremain, Justus, b. Berkshire Co., 1798; 
set. N. Y., Mich., 1833. Monroe, 505. 

Trowbrtdge, Luther, b. Framingham; 
Revolutionary soldier; set. N. Y., 
1785? Detroit, 1034; Wayne Chron., 
178. 

Trumbull, Orrin S., b. 1821; set. Mich., 
1845. Kent, 774. 

Tryon, Rodolphus, b. Deerfield, 1809; 
set. N. Y., Mich., 1836. Ingham Hist., 
facing 214. 

■ Sebina, set. N. Y., 1810? Clinton 

Port., 700. 

• Zebina, b. 1785; set. N. Y. Ingham 

Hist., facing 214. 

Tubbs, Seth, set. N. Y., 1800; d. 1859. 
Shiawassee, 247. 

Tucker, Luther L., b. Windsor; set. 
Mich., 1836. Hillsdale Hist., 129. 

Mary, b. Charlton, 1770? m. Abel 

Foster of Mass. and R. I. Lenawee 
Hist. I, 92. 

Tuckermam, Benjamin, set. N. Y., 1795? 
Allegan Hist., 390. 

Tuffs, Rebecca, b. Maiden, 1797; m - 
James H. Young of Mass. and Mich. 
Washtenaw Port., 469. 

Tufts, Aaron, b. 1794; set. N. Y. Le- 
nawee Port., 565. 



Tufts, Aaron, b. 1S03; set. X. Y., 1821. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 417; Lenawee Illus., 

274. 
Tuller, Artemidorus, b. Egrcmont, 

17S3; set. N. Y., O., Mich. Hillsdale 

Port., 451. 

Turner, Anna, m. 1825? Joseph S. Blais- 
dell of Vt. and Mich. Kent, 1212. 

Carmi, set. O., 1800? Lenawee 

Port., 370. 

Delonza, b. 1798; set. N. Y. Mich., 

1836. Hillsdale Port., 539. 

Ezra, 1S12 soldier; set. N. Y., 1S15? 

Muskegon Port., 452. 

Mary, b. 1S10? m. Cornelius D. 

Seager of O. Lenawee Port., 370. 

Mary R., b. Pittsfield, 1818; m. 1848 

Moses A. McNaughton of Mich. Jack- 
son Port., 509. 

Nathaniel, b. 1780; set. N. Y., Mich 

1835. Branch Hist., 323. 

Stiles, set. N. Y., Mich., 1831. Ing- 
ham Port., 522. 

Turrell, Deborah, b. Pelham, 1804; m. 
Horace Turner of Mich. Hillsdale 
Port., 611. 

Noah, b. Bridgewater; set. N. Y., 

1812. Hillsdale Port., 612. 
Tuten, R. P., b. E. Cambridge, 1845; 

set. N. H., Mich., 1875. Northern P., 

91. 
Tuttle, Annie, b. Franklin Co.; d. 1834; 

m. Zedock Hale of Vt. Kalamazoo 

Port., 447. 
Nelson, b. 1800; set. O., 1830? Ionia 

Port, 414. 
Twitchell, Chloe O., b. Mendon, 1808; 

m. E. A. Roby of Wis. and Mich. 

Kent, 1343- 
Tyler, Frank C, b. Stoneham, 1855; 

set. Mich., 1857. Muskegon Hist., 95. 
Sarah H., of Greenfield; m. 1837 

•Preston Mitchell of Mich. Calhoun, 

78. 
Susan, m. 1800? Asabel Cogswell of 

N. Y. Saginaw Hist., 755- 

Underwood, Daniel K., b. Enfield, 1803; 
set. Mich., 1836. Lenawee Hist. II, 
360; Lenawee Illus., 137. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR-SCORE YEARS 



By Judge Francis M. Thompson of Greenfield, Massachusetts 



Including His Narrative of Three Tears in the New West, During Which 

He Took in 186:2 a 3000-mile Trip From St. Lons up the Missouri, and 

Thence Down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to Portland, and to 

San Francisco, Returning in 18G3. 

(Continued from Vol. VII, No. 2) 

In revenge, the Indian relatives stole Clarke's field glass and enough 
horses to get away with and fled toward the north. Not long after, 
Clarke and his son Nathan, rode into the Blackfoot village, and almost 
immediately Nathan discovered his mother's cousin, Ne-tus-che-o, riding 
his (Nathan's) favorite horse. Nathan took his horse from his relative 
and gave him a cut across his face, calling him a "dog.'' Nathan was at 
once surrounded by twenty young bucks, when the old men came upon 
the scene. They prevented bloodshed, but Malcolm Clarke had called 
his wife's cousin "an old woman." 

The difficulty was at length adjusted, and Air. Clarke traded in Calf 
Shirt's camp the next two winters, when Ne-tus-che-o might have taken 
his revenge. 

In 1869 the feeling between the Indians and the whites had become so 
intense that Mountain Chief's brother and a young Blood Indian, sent 
on a mission to Major Culbertson, were killed by white men, who thought 
them enemies. Ne-tus-che-o saw that this was his chance to wipe out 
the stain he had received from Nathan and his father. He made up a 
party, and went to Clarke's ranch, where he was kindly entertained, but 
treacherously killed Mr. Clarke and his son Horace, Nathan being at this 
time absent from home. 

Note No. 9. See reference on page 35, vol. VI. 

"BIG GWYNN" was killed by the Sioux while descending the Mis- 
souri in a mackanaw boat in the fall of 1863. 

Note No. 10. See reference on page 40, vol. VI. 

What was in the early days known as "The Beaver Head Country'" 
was located near the junction of Red Rock and Beaver Head creeks, and 

129 



130 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE. 

made prominent by Beaver Head rock, frequently called "Point of Rocks," 
which was a noted locality in Vigilante days as being a resort of the 
"Road Agents." 

Note No. ii. See reference on page 75, vol. VI. 

JOHN OWEX was sutler to a regiment of United States troops called 
the Mounted Rifles, which left St. Joseph, Mo., for Oregon in 1S49. The 
detachment was snowed in near Snake river, and built Cantonment Lor- 
ing, where they wintered. In the spring Owen threw up his commission 
and spent the summer trading with emigrants on the old overland route. 
In the fall he made his way north to the Bitter Root valley where he 
found the priests at St. Mary's mission, which Father De Smet and others 
had founded in 1841. 

The fathers had suffered so much from incursions of the thieving 
Snake Indians, that they sold their possessions to Major Owen and moved 
their station north among the Flatheads. Mr. Owen made great im- 
provements, by erecting several adobe buildings for ranch purposes, and 
surrounding them by a palisade. 

He entered into Indian trade, making yearly pilgrimages to Oregon 
to sell his furs and purchase supplies. Even his strong palisade did not 
always stop the rascally Snakes, for once they dug up some of the pickets 
and drove off every horse on the premises. 

The life led by the occupants of these isolated posts may be inferred 
from the following incident. One John F. Dobson, from Buffalo Grove, 
111., worked for Owen and kept a aiary from the time he left home until 
he made this last entry. "Sept. 14, 1852. I have been fixing ox yokes 
and hay rigging. • Helped haul one load of hay. Weather fine. 

The next entry was in Owen's writing and reads, "Sept. 15. The poor 
fellow was killed and scalped by the Blackfeet in sight of the fort.'' The 
Major obtained his military title by being government agent for the Flat- 
head Indians. He was a most companionable man, exercising a prodigal 
generosity, and Fort Owen became noted among mountain men for the 
geniality of its host. Within his fenced farm he proved the abundant 
agricultural resources of the country. In carrying on the original surveys 
for a Pacific railroad, Governor Stevens caused Lt. Mullan to winter in 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 



131 



Origins.?. sActe/t oj 

pirapeS&oL Seed J-** CfiTe, 

?}ieu i6+~' *1 c ******* i-t&o 

J / 

fTf 




K ^ti-z^ 



T-h* 



Photographic reproduction of the original sketch for the seal of Mon- 
tana, as made by the Massachusetts Pioneer, Judge Thompson, now of 
Greenfield, Mass, 




J/ 






'„_p ■-.-" 1, - A_ / 



'■Mr- 9l^-t ( 



cr^c^L^o ' 





■m 






&< 



' • - 
















Reproduction of the original draft of the resolution authorizing the 
seal for the Territory of Montana. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 133 

this valley, and he erected buildings near Fort Owen which he named 
Cantonment Stevens, which were his headquarters during the winter of 
1853-54. With Lt. Mullan there came to this region, YV. W. Delacy, C. 
P. Higgins, Thomas Adams, Fred H. Burr and others. I acknowledge 
many favors received from Major Owen. 

Note No. 12. See reference on page 124 (fifth line) vol. VI, No. 3. 

SIDNEY EDGERTON, the first governor of Montana Territory, 
was born in Cazenovia, New York in 1818. His parents came from Con- 
necticut, his mother being left a widow with six young children before 
Sidney was six months of age. Circumstances compelled his removal 
from the family home at the tender age of eight years. He made his own 
way in the world and with some assistance gained sufficient education 
to become a school teacher, studied law and was admitted to the Ohio 
bar in 1846. He began practice in Akron, Ohio, was married to a most 
excellent helpmate in 1849, an ^ became prosecuting attorney for his 
county in 1852. He w r as elected to Congress from the 18th Ohio District 
in 1858, which position he retained until 1862. Mr. Lincoln appointed 
him chief justice of the newly formed Territory of Idaho in 1863, and in 
company with his nephew, Wilbur F. Sanders, they with their families 
crossed the plains in the summer and fall of that year. 

Wihen the party reached Snake river, they found that there was no 
time to reach the capitol of Idaho, and turned their faces toward that 
Bannack on the east side of the Rocky mountains. The tired and dusty 
travellers unyoked their oxen for the last time, after three months and 
seventeen days travel, on the banks of the Grasshopper, Sept. 17th, 1863. 

Judge Edgerton's winter journey to Washington, his successful labors 
in getting the new territory of Montana erected, and his return as its 
governor, were all very satisfactory to the people, and he took up the 
duties of his new position with zeal and good judgment. 

Many men who had served in the Confederate army had taken refuge 
in Montana when Price's army was defeated in southwestern Missouri. 
Of these many who were well qualified in other respects were excluded 
from serving in official capacities, because of the iron clad oath which 
had been prescribed in the territories by the government. This made 



134 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE. 

the organization of the new government in the territory peculiarly em- 
barrassing to the chief magistrate. 

The services of these men were needed and desirable, but Governor 
Edgerton was firm in the performance of the duty imposed upon him. 
and it became necessary to exclude a gentleman otherwise eminently 
qualified, who had been elected to the legislature, for the reason that he 
had served as an officer in the Confederate army. This naturally caused 
much excitement, although the parties immediately concerned admitted 
the justice of the Governor's position. 

Having travelled in all inhabited portions of the new territory, I was 
enabled to give the governor considerable assistance in apportioning to 
the different sections their proper numbers of representatives and coun- 
cillors, which should be chosen to make up the first legislature. Conse- 
quently my relations with the governor and his family became very in- 
timate, and were most agreeable to me. He and his excellent wife were 
of the good old fashioned kind, who avoided all unnecessary formalities, 
and were most kind and cordial in all their ways. 

Upon Andrew Johnson's accession to the presidency, Mr. Edgerton 
felt that his usefulness to Montana was over, and he began preparations 
to return with his family to his old home in Ohio. As soon as he con- 
veniently could after the arrival of Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher, who 
had been appointed secretary of Montana, he took his family to Akron, 
and renewed his law practice, leaving Gen. Meagher as acting governor 
of the territory. 

Mr. Edgerton was almost as fond of a joke as was his friend Lincoln. 
He could extract crumbs of comfort from the most adverse circumstances. 
He was full of the spirit of charity, and it was not an easy thing to per- 
suade him that a well appearing person was not always worthy of trust. 
Himself the very soul of honor, he believed everybody else honest until 
convinced to the contrary. He loved fun and games, and his home was a 
most happy one. 

Writing from Virginia City to a niece who was a member of his family, 
he says: "I am well and happy and having a good time. Everything is 
lovely and "the goose hangs high." Hoping that you are enjoying the 
same blessing, I am your loving uncle." He died July I, 1900, aged 
eighty-eight. 



REMINISCENCES OF FOUR SCORE YEARS 



135 



Note No. 13. See reference on page 124 (sixth line) vol. VI, No. 3. 

WILBUR F. SANDER! Mr. Sanders was a young man when he 
arrived at Bannack after his iong- journey by ox team across the plains, 
on the 17th of September, 1S63. He had seen service in the civil war, 
and withdrew from ill health. He was a member of the Ohio bar, and 
practiced his profession during all his business life, excepting when a 
member of the United State Senate. 

He was a man of intense action, aggressive, forceful, brilliant, brave 
and talented, good natured and always willing to aid in a "square deal," 
and an opponent must possess many of these qualities or he would be 
borne to the wall in a clash of arms. 

Mr. Sanders was the acknowledged leader in the great struggle of the 
people against the oath bound band of robbers, who at one time in the 
history of the territory had the community at their mercy, and in con- 
stant peril of his life he led the way to the establishment of law and order. 

He was the organizer of the Republican party in Montana, and in his 
spirited canvass with James M. Cavenaugh for election as the first dele- 
gate from Montana territory to Congress, he established his reputation 
as a speaker of high order. He however had a forlorn hope, but ne earned 
the name of "The War Horse of the Republican party,'' which he re- 
tained all his remaining days. 

Ever ready to sacrifice himself in any cause which to him appeared 
for the advantage of the public, he was always active in helping forward 
all enterprises w T hich w r ere calculated to advance the interests of the 
people of Montana, his beloved home. 

He was a charter member of the Historical Society of Montana, and 
for many years its president, and always deeply interested in making the 
society active and progressive in its noble work. As an orator he was 
second to none, and was often called upon to deliver addresses upon pub- 
lic occasions. He spoke with eloquence of "The Pioneers of Montana/' 
upon the dedication of the Capitol, in 1902. 

-The real character of the man may perhaps be better shown by a letter 
addressed to me. 



EDITORS' NOTE: Through the trials and exigencies of getting behind 
in our printing, it will be found that these Addenda notes, where continued on 



136 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE. 

pages 15 to 22, in Vol. VIII, were unintentionally printed without numbers and 
references to the text: 

Note 13, on page 15, refers to page 124, vol. VI, W F Sanders (6th line). 

Note 14, on page 16, refers to page 166, vol. VI, N. P. Langford (1st line) 

Note 15, on page 17, refers to page 169, vol. VI, S. T. Hauser. 

Note 16, on page 17, refers to page 19, vol. VII, Jos. La Barge. 

Note 17, on page 18, refers to page 40, vol. VI, J. F. Grant (7th line.). 

Note 18, on page 19, refers to page 145, vol. V, Buffalo (16th line). 

Note 19, on page 21, refers to page 22, vol. VII, Prices of Provisions. 

Note 20, on page 21, refers to page 123, vol. VI, Miik River. 

Note 21, on page 21, refers to page 24, vol. VII, First Newspaper 

Note 22, on page 22, refers to page 

Note, 23, on page 22, refers to page 181, vol. VI, First School. 







A NEGRO SLAVE 

IN DANVERS, MASS. 

By Anne L. Page- 

The following interesting account of a negro slave, bought and owned 
by Jeremiah Page of Danvers, and who died only a score of years prior 
to the Civil War, was written by Miss Anne L. Page, granddaughter of 
Jeremiah Page: 

"Danvers, Mass., April 19, 1766. 

"Received of Mr. Jeremiah Page, Fifty-eight pounds thirteen shillings 
& four pence, lawful money, and a negro woman called Dinah, which is 
in full for a negro woman called Combo and a negro girl called Cate and 
a negro child called Deliverance or Dill, which I now sell and deliver to 
said Jeremiah Page. 

"John Tapley." 

"John A. Bancroft 

"Ezek. C. Malsh" 

Deliverance, or 'Dill/ as she was always called, was the youngest of 
the three named on the bill of sale, and was then only a child. The 
valuable part of the purchase, in the buyer's estimation, must have been 
the two older ones — Dill's mother and sister. These two died in a year 
or two. Dill lived to good old age and, with other members of the family, 
I attended her funeral in Saint Peter's Church in Salem, of which she 
was a member. 

I think her death occurred some time in the forties. She made up for 
the loss of the other two. Combo and Cate. She was a faithful nurse to 
the children and became a cook of renown. I remember when she came 
to the homestead to spend a day each year. We children liked to stay in 
the kitchen with Dill who told us stories and made gingerbread for us 
that was always of the best. In return for her faithful service she was 
always treated kindly in my grandfather's family. My Aunt Carroll once 
told me that the children did not dare to tease Dill for fear of their 
father's displeasure, and as she stood by his coffin in 1806, she was heard 
to say: "He was a good man." 

Tt was not an uncommon thing until after the Revolution to hold 

137 



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MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



slaves- African trade was carried on by people in Salem and vicinity and 
then vessels often returned with a few slaves as a part of their cargo. 
These slaves found a ready sale, for the New England conscience still 
slumbered and slept, so far as slavery was concerned- It is a well authen- 
ticated fact that slaves of both sexes were commonly held as family 
slaves, even by many of the clergy, who sometimes acquired them by 
purchase, and sometimes received them as presents from their parishion- 
ers. 

Miss Lucy Larcom gives Dill a place in the poem of the "Gambrel 
Roof," but this was by poetic license. 

Dill loved to tell us stories of the "goings on" in the old times, and 
would never have omitted the story of the roof-party if she had known 
it. Besides, the tea-drinking was, and had to be a profound secret be- 
tween the three tea-drinkers, who went slyly up the scuttle stairs and sat 
on the roof and drank their tea that afternoon. Mrs. Page, the hostess. 
died within the year. Mrs. John Shillaber, by whom the account of the 
event was transmitted, moved to Salem soon after it happened. It was 
only in her old age, when all who would have been disturbed by it had 
been gone many years, that she told her story to her daughters. It was 
from the lips of one of the daughters that I heard the story as she told it 
to my father and mother, neither of whom had been born at the time. 
Col. Page would have felt disgraced and perhaps would nave been mobbed 
— so strong was the feeling againsl tea-using. 

In her last years, Dill lived in a small, unpainted house in North Salem 
now North Street, with a willow tree at the door, on which, in Summer, 
a parrot in a green cage hung, and called to the horses, in imitation of 
drivers of teams as they passed the house. 

Dill wrote verses- Anstiss, her daughter, told me that when "Ma'am 
wanted to rhyme up' she would take a basket and go into the woods ana 
bring home some poetry. I could see where the woods might be an in- 
spiration, but the basket seemed irrelevant- One of the verses in a poem 
of some length ran thus: 

"The minister he stands in the pulpit so high 
. And tells us from the Bible that we all must die!" 

The refrain between each verse ran : 

"They stole us from Africa, the home of the free, 
And* brought us in bondage across the blue sea." 

Peace to her memory! Stolen from Africa, but not exactly the "home 
of the free." From a little, ignorant, friendless black child, she cam*- 
to be an unusually intelligent, amiable, Christian woman. 



LETTERS OF A SOLDIER 

IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



LIEUTENANT JOHN W. SUMMERHAYES. 



The following letters, hastily penned "under fire'* at the front, in the 
Civil War, show the inward thoughts and feelings of a brave soldier, as 
few letters do. "Coz. John" became captain of his company in ihe fall 
of 1863. After the war he spent years of strenuously active service in the 
regular army in the western states, and was promoted to Lieutenant 
Colonel by an Act of Congress in 1900. We have typed the letters just 
as they were hastily scrawled on scraps of paper, and have not deleted 
the familiar references to the folks at home, preferring to let them stand 
in all their homely vividness. They were written to his cousin, a school 
girl at Nantucket, and have been preserved amongst other old letters, with 
no expectation that they would ever see the light of print. 

Jan. 3d, 1862. Camp Near Falmouth. 
Dear Cousin : 

You know in olden times at Salem, and several other places of note 
of which probably you have heard People were Possessed (They caught 
Jessie for it too) and I hope you will continue to be possessed if by 
which, I shall be favored with a like favor. The Jessie part I 
guarantee to leave out and substitute a Beau (perhaps). But Joking 
aside Dear Coz. you letter did r-a-t-h-e-r astonish me. Of my existence I 
thought you were not aware. Supposed may be you might have thought 
me rubbed out in some skirmish or "D. D." (died of disease) there are many 
such poor fellows — "Peace to their ashes." Home, kindred and friends 
are forgotten by them for what? 

Your description of poor Alley's* reception pleased me greatly, as he 
was my pattern of a true soldier— Many battles we have fought side by 
side where death was staring him in the face, yet he always seemed 



*This was 2nd Lieut. L. F. Alley of Nantucket, with the inherent modesty 
which was a part of his nature, he makes no mention of it here, but Lieut. Summer- 
hayes rescued Alley's body from the battlefield under fire. 

139 



140 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 






shielded from harm — many's the joke he has cracked with me on the field 
of Battle — as unconcerned as thought safe in Camp — But his time had 
come — and I have lost as true a friend as ever trod the earth. Nantucket 
can not show too much respect for him for she knows not his true worth. 
But for what she has done I am truly thankful — at the same time I think 
it her duty. I knew there would be but little alteration as he was well 
embalmed and would keep a year a least— his face zcas dark on one side, 
owing to the arteries being severed and the blood coagulating. I in- 
structed Private Murphy to have that eye covered with a white Patch 
which would have concealed the disfigurement, Capt. Abbott's* letter is 
but a type of himself, Noble, Generous, and as Sensitive as a woman — a 
braver man I do not want to sec. He was wrapped up in Alley — thought 
none like him — I shall never forget when he asked for Volunteers to go 
after him. When he, Alley, was struck down I was out on the right, with 
Six sharp shooters in front of a Battery and Rifle Fit, picking off Gunners 
and keeping their (the enemy's) skirmishers from firing on our right wing, 
the heaviest part of the battle was over, and the night shadows were fall- 
ing, shells exploding lit up the hill like flashes of lightning — Sergt. Holmes 
came creeping up to my post — ' ; Summerhayes' Alley's killed, I am to re- 
lieve you as the Capt. wishes your Services." This was his greeting, you 
can imagine my feelings — I have seen a good many men die — Some Com- 
rades and it has not caused a nerve to tremble — but those words made 
a demon of me in an instant I was on my feet. T pity the Greyback, 
whether well, sick or wounded who should have fallen into my hands then, 
'twould have been short work. Those words awake me some nights from 
a sound slumber — But enough of this, I do not like to think of it — 
His poor Mother, God help her, yet there are many others who must re- 
ceive our pure sympathy — many who will suffer in every sense of the 
word — Well, a soldier has little time to think, he is a machine and each 
day must pursue the same old routine until in the monotony he loses his 
identity. 

Was glad to hear that Murphy was used so well — he is a good boy and 
1 think did his duty — receiving his wound in the first part of the street 
fight he had little chance to see much of the details, yet he can enlighten 
you in a measure as to the wounded and dead of Nantucket. In refer- 
ence to that woman (whom happily I do not know) her conscience will 
punish her on earth, and the Devil will soon claim her as his own — Little 
interest have T with the sanitary Commissions, knowing from experience 
their uselessness to the soldier in the field and the fraudulent manner in 
which your donations given with so free hands and such good motives 



♦Major Henry L. Abbott of Boston who was killed in battle. 



LETTERS OF A SOLDIER 141 

are dispensed. Many of us who as you are aware perhaps have but one 
blanket allowed us would like those nice warm things to cover, and keep 
from the cold night air, our rheumatic persons, but 1 appreciate, you may 
be assured, the feelings which prompt you to work for our comfort— But 
under the present administration of things I think it money thrown 
away — 

While I write you, my Kitty sits purring quietly in my lap enjoying 
h.fe hugely, once in a whole I notice her gazing at me earnestly as though 
she were trying to read my thoughts. I am going to take her with me 
into the next fight to see how she will act — What shall I name her I leave 
the choice open for the present — Many times have I been on the point of 
writing to Aunt Charlotte a letter of thanks, for her kindness in remem- 
bering me — when my box was made up — I threaten to do it yet — my facili- 
ties for writing are better now than before, as being S. M. I have better 
chance to find a warm corner to indite in, and having a clerk only in my 
tent, noise does not trouble me. Should like this Saturday night to have 
stopped at Grandmothers, as of yore — Ey! . . . Give her my love as well 
as grandfather — not forgetting your mother and father. Kiss Hattie and 
pull the Cats. . . . Tomorrow I shall be in a pleasanter mood, and will 
answer Clara's note — be taken that way often — Plow- is your patriotic 
Arthur — or Charles (which is it). Make your letters as long as the last 
for 'twas a treat to read it, interesting and well indited. 

Yours, 

COZ JOHN. 

20ths Camp. Jan. 23. 
********* 

Your ideas in reference to predestination coincide with mine to a 
charm — If 'twas not so I should dread to face the enemy again, but 1 
imagine always that if I am to die by lead, steel, shell or sickness 'tis not 
in my power to evade it. Once only did I ever while under fire think 
there was any danger of losing my life by chance and that was when 
steering the old Pontoon boat across the Rappahanock, the boys lying in 
the bottom except three Rowers. While my body was wholly exposed the 
sharp shooters bullets knocked the splinters off of the boat and oar, yet 
nary one touched me. Alley w r as standing on the Gumvale of his boat 
cheering his men on. What an example! Could T, no matter how much of 
a Coward I might be. flinch then? Thousands of men were cheering us on 
from the bank we had left — 'twas Glorious — 'twas grand — bullets, shells 
?*nd death were forgotten. Hurrah for victory and death to the Rebs — 
Grey backs were at a discount. The boats struck the shore together — 
over our wounded and dead comrades we leaped, up the banks with a 






T i42 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

steel front we charged taking their fire as you would snowballs. Cutting 

' off fifteen or twenty — bayoneting any who resisted. On we went clear- 
ing the Grey backs from the first two row of houses in no time, holding 
them until the rest of the Regiment could cross. That's all well enough, 
but the result is the worst feature— you call the roll and find many loved 
comrades are missing. Where are they — God knows. . . 

Sorry to say I have not as yet rec'd my box although how soon I shall 
is a doubt — they are coming every day into Camp. There's a Confounded 

'Old Methodist raising the devil on the hill behind my tent — he's been 
"going to die no more" for half an hour or more and has seemed to be 

' greatly pleased that "Salvation's free" &c— I believe I shall go raving 
distracted soon, for now he has struck up a medley of Old Hundred. Joy- 
fully, and some other — I wish he'd quit — Have concluded to call my Kit 
"Bob Tale", thinking I have the right to, as I Bobbed her — my love to 

•father and mother. Kiss Clara — no I mean' Hattie — for me. Write. 

Your Coz, 

JACK. 

May 19th. 
Dear Coz : 

I am alive as yet — we started in the 3rd of May with over 500 men and 
21 officers — now we have five officers present and one of them wounded — 
250 men, five men were killed or mortally wounded none got slight 
wounds. These new men will not fight without the officers expose them- 
selves more than they do. Tomorrow we shall probably fight again. 
Since the 3rd of May I have been in thirteen Battles and hard ones too. 
You have nice times at home it seems. Am sorry to hear it. Glad I am 
not there to participate. Do not even wish to be there instead of here. 
Now Mai. Abbott is killed shall not stop three years longer — if Capt. Pat- 
ten is wounded again I shall have command of the Regiment. I hope 
'twill not be so. My turn may come tomorrow. God knows better than 
we. I have been most providentallv spared — men shot all around me yet 
I am spared — one ball went over my shoulder and through Mr. Christian's 
neck — a Nantucket man. Many such cases have happened and if there 
is such a thing as Providence it has been demonstrated in my case — we 
"must have lost 60,000 men. The butchery is horrible and our wounded 
are not properly cared for. If you are strong enough to get off yourself 
you are all right, if not, no one brings you — rough ain't it? 

' Am glad you had so pleasant a time at Sconset. Poor Holmes* got a 
bad wound. His recovery is doubtful. Male is hit through the shoulder 

* *Refers to Capt. Albert B. Holmes of Nantucket. 



LETTERS OF A SOLDIER I43 

— Perkins through the face and neck — Kelliher was hit by a shell yes- 
terday which tore his whole shoulder off and his cheek— Curtis got shot 
through the back — Bond had his jaw broke and in going to the rear, the 
Guerillas shot him through the lungs — Got to move right off — 

J. W. SUMMERHAYES. 



May 22. 
one mile from Milford. 
Dear Lizzie: 

I shall write you two or three lines as I have a chance. I just got 
your letter and you must feel my gratitude. I wish I could answer all 
my letters but it's not possible. I sit now behind the Rifle Pits we threw 
up last night and the pickets are popping away in front of us. Every 
moment Ave expect an attack. We are now separated from the army. 
Have driven the enemy 'through Bowling Green and Milford and shall, 
if the 5th. Corps can get here, go to Hanover Junction. One fight here 
and one at Hanover Junction and if successful, Hurrah for Richmond, 
that is, if any of us are left. I am again one of three left but am now in 
Command of the Regiment. lam heart sick; only think of our loss and 
Maj. Abbott too. I shall not stop in the Army after my time is out if 1 
escape here, and I shall either get killed or wounded before is is over. 
at any rate I shall try to do my duty. I don't want to come home without 
1 am dead, and shall be buried on the Battle field if possible — don't let my 
letter make you feel blue. By — those sharp shooters do shoot close — my 
love to Emmy. Tell her not to get discouraged but keep a good heart and 
she will soon be well. Tell her I am covered with glory — I took a gun the 
other day in the Chg. and fired their own shell and canister back at them. 
I have sent Em. that Trefoil that Mary Eliza gave me, but I wish she 
would give it back to its original owner, as I promised to lend her one 
and can not now do it. It has been in 12 hard fights and does not look 
very fancy. 

Yours with love to all. That fellow fires so I must move, so good 
by. 

JOHN. 

I sent the Trefoil in Uncle Tim's letter and will send some of you a 
piece of our colors which are now rags. 

List of Battles I have been engaged in ; give it to A.unt Hattie. 
1. Balls Bluff — wounded in hand. 2. West Point. 3. Fair Oaks May 
31th. June st. 5. Peace Orchard. 6. Savage Station. 7. Glendale, 



i 4 4 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

— wounded in foot. 8. White Oak Swamp. 9. Malvern Hill. ro. Mal- 
vern Hill. II. Antietam. 12 Fredericksburg nth Dec. 13. Fredericks- 
burg: 13th Dec. 15. Chancellorsville 2 days. 17. Gettysburg 2d. 3d. 4th. 
18 Bristows Station. 19. Mine Run. 20. Yorktown. 

This is from the official acct. I am the only officer in the Regiment 
>vho has been through all of them. What shall be the next — vour aff. 

COUSIN JOHN. 



SUMMERHAYES, John Wyer: 

Lieutenant-colonel. U. S. Army; born in Massachusetts; appointed from New 
York. Private, corporal and sergeant Company I, and sergeant major, Twentieth 
Massachusetts Infantry, Sept. 9, 1861, to March 14, 1S63; second lieutenant, 
Twentieth Massachusetts Infantry, March 14, 1863; first lieutenant, Sept. 8, 1863; 
captam, Oct. 10. 1863: brevet major. Vol nnteers. April 9, lB55, for meritorious ser- 
vice in the campaign terminating with the surrender of the insurgent army under 
General R. E. Lee; honorably mustered out June 6, 1865: second lieutenant Thirty- 
third Infantry, Jan. 22, 1867; transferred to Eighth Infantry, May 3, 1S69; fir-t 
lieutenant, Dec. 15, 1874; regimental adjutant. Jan. 1 to May 10. 1886; regimental 
quartermaster. May 20, 18S6, to March 9, 1889; captain A. Q. M. Feb. 25, 18S9; ma- 
jor chief Q. M. Volunteers, May 12, 1S9S; honorably discharged from volunteers, 
Dec. 2, 1898; major Q. M., Nov. 11. 1898; retired, Jan. 6. 1900; brevet March 2, 
1867, for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Ball's Bluff, Va., and March 
2, 1867, for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Cold Harbor, Va. 

Major Summerhayes was promoted to L'eut. C lonel by an \ct of Congress, 
shortly after his retirement in 1900. 

Col. Summerhayes died in March, 1911, on the island of Nantucket, and is 

buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, Va., where, as you enter the gate, you 

may read at your right, on a bronze tablet the first verse of O'Hara's immortal 

poem: — 

***** 

"The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 
The soldier's last tattoo; 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

That brave and fallen few. 
On fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread, 
And glory guards, with solemn round 
The bivouac of the dead." 



THE 




SACHVSETTS 



MAGA 




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■ 




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g euofcD-fo-(na5sact|U5cft5-Htstovij-Qncftlcoil : ^^5 rfl p M 

PUBLISHED BYTHESALEM PRESS Co.SaLEM,MaSS.U S.A. 



A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 

ASSOCIATED AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 

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PEERFIELD. MASS. SALEM, MASS. SALfW, MA-^. 

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Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 



VOL. VII OCTOBER, 1914 NO. 4. 

©mtfenfs of Hub 400112. 

Ex-Governor John Q. A. Brackktt James J. Cotter . 147 

Portrait of Ex-Governor Brackett 152 

General John Thomas's and Colonel John Bailey's Regiments . . 

. . . F.A.Gardner, M.D. . 15S 

Massachusetts Pioneers . . Charles A. Flagg . 183 

Criticism and Comment 187 

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Ex-Governor JOHN Q. A. BRACKETT 



A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY 



Statesman, scholar, orator — a type of the older school of gentlemen, 
which succeeded so well in combining all these three — John Q. A. Brack- 
ets ex-Governor of Massachusetts, stands out today as one of the most 
interesting figures in the Commonwealth. 

For the past four decades he has been in the public eye. He lias 
held successive municipal and state offices. He has been chief executive 
of the Commonwealth. He has sat at conventions of the Republican 
national party when Presidents were chosen, has been a leader in promo- 
tion of legislation effectively aiding the welfare of the community, has 
thrown himself whole-heartedly into the fight for betterment of condi- 
tions; and even today this gray-haired New Englander, still mentally 
alert and vigorous despite his 72 years of activity, is recognized as one of 
the best informed, well poised authorities on public matters in the Com- 
monwealth. 

To the younger men of the present generation— especially to the 
embryo attorney and to the young man just starting in public lite— the 
career of Ex-Governor Brackett is an inspiration to honest endeavor. It 
is a career that exemplifies clearly the fact that the road to true success 
lies through generous, whole-souled, unswerving devotion to high ideals 
of public service. 

Governor Brackett is essentially a son of New England— born within 
her boundaries, a descendant of her earliest settlers, educationally a 



147 



148 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

product of her schools, vocationally an attorney at her bars of justice and 
throughout all his mature years passionately devoted to the promotion 
of her public welfare. Indeed, he might well be cited as a type of the 
model New Englander. 

He was born up in the sturdy "hill country" of New Hampshire, in 
Bradford, a town of a thousand or less inhabitants, which nestles in a 
dimple of the ridge of hills separating the Merrimac and the Connec- 
ticut valleys. Bradford is still his Summer home, and the people of 
Bradford acclaim him as their most noted son. His birthday was June 
8, 1842. His father, Ambrose Spencer Brackett, was born in Quincy, 
Mass., August 6, 1814, and was a descendant in the seventh generation 
of Captain Richard Brackett, who came over in YYinthrop's fleet which 
arrived in Boston in 1630. Captain Richard Brackett, who was born 
about 1610, supposedly in Scotland, and who died in 1690 in Braintree, 
Mass., was one of the signers, August 27, 1630, of the covenant of the 
First Church in Boston, and the same year was appointed keeper of the 
prison. In 1639 he was admitted into membership of the artillery com- 
pany which has since become famous as the "Ancient and Honorable." 
For six years, too, he was a deputy to the General Court and Chief com- 
mander in Braintree, from which he derived his title. The line of descent 
is-* Richard 1 , James 2 , Joseph 3 - 4 > 5 ' 6 , Ambrose 7 , John Q. A. 8 . 

Governor Brackett's mother was Nancy, daughter of John and Sarah 
(Gregg) Brown and was born in Bradford, December 31, 1816. She was 
a granddaughter of John Brown, the first settler of what was known as 
"John Brown's Corner" and moderator of the first town meeting held in 
Bradford under the charter granted the town in 1787. 

After their marriage on October 4, 1838, the parents of the ex-Gov- 
ernor took up residence in Bradford and the father was soon prominent 
in public affairs of the town and county. In 1855 ne was elected Road 
Commissioner for Merrimac County. A pioneer in the cause of abolition, 
he was a vigorous, as he was an early member of the Republican party 
and until his death in 1878 he remained an interested and active worker 
for the principles of that political party. 

The early life of the future governor was spent in Bradford. He fitted 
for college at Colby Academy, Xew London, N. H., and was graduated 
in 1861. Declining an appointment to West Point tendered by Hon 



EX-GOVERNOR JOHN Q. A. BRACKETT 149 

Mason W. Tappan, then representative in Congress from the district 
in which he lived, the young man decided to pursue his studies at liar 
vard, and that autumn came as a student to the state the destinies ol 
which he was later to aid in deciding". His college course was brilliant. 
Before long he drew attention to himself not only because of his pleas- 
ing personality, but also by virtue of his scholarly attainments and his 
marked ability as an orator. For the class day exercises in 1S65, the 
young New Hampshire student was chosen class orator. 

Having determined on law as a profession, he studied at the Harvard 
Law School, graduated and gained entrance to the Massachusetts Bar in 
1868 and promptly opened up for practice in Boston. 

In the four decades since that time the young lawyer has risen from 
practical obscurity to a success and renown enviable and seldom attained. 
His knowledge of the law, his power of argumentative reasoning, his 
oratorical ability and his impressive personalitv soon began to win him 
recognition in the ranks of attorneys. 

Nor was it long before he began to gain recognition in public life. 
In 1872 he was elected a member of the Common Council of Boston, 
was its president in 1876, and when he finally retired from that body at the 
end of that year it was only to enter the State House as a member of the 
House of Representatives, carrying with him recognition far and wide 
as a man destined to rise to high things in the political life of the Bay 
State. 

He served in the general court from 1877 to 1S81 and again from 1884 
to 1886. His service on important committees led to his selection as 
chairman of the Judiciary committee in 1884 and in 1885 he was elected 
Speaker of the House and reelected in 1886. 

In the fall of 1886 the Republican party nominated him for the office 
of Lieutenant Governor and he was elected. He held that otTice for 
three years, acting as Governor part of the time because of the illness 
of Governor Ames. His public addresses at this time commanded wide- 
spread praise, particularly the eloquent oration which he delivered at 
the dedication of the Pilgrim's monument in Plymouth in 1889 — an ad- 
dress possessing such unusual character that it was widely commented 
upon and the Boston Globe selected an extract to print as one of its 
"Famous Gems of Prose." 

In 1889 he was elected Governor of the Commonwealth. His incum- 






150 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

bency of that office was notable for sane, progressive, patriotic states- 
manship. 

When the time came for him to retire from the gubernatorial chair, 
he returned to the practice of his profession. But he has neve,- lost in- 
terest in public affairs and his finger has always been at the pulse of 
events. He was a delegate-at-large to the Republican national conven- 
tion at Minneapolis in 1892 and in the convention served as the Massa- 
chusetts member of the committee on platform. In 1896 he was chosen 
the first of the two Presidential electors-at-large in Massachusetts and 
at the meeting of the electors of this state in January, 1897, wa5 elected 
their chairman, and as such cast the first electoral vote of Massachusetts 
for William McKinley for President of the United States. In 1901 he 
again served as presidential elector-at-large, being elected to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Ex-Governor Wolcott, who had been 
chosen at the election the preceding November. 

From the very start of his public career, Governor Brackett has been 
the promoter of effective legislation for the welfare of the working 
classes. One of the great works of his public life has been his sturdy 
championship of the establishment of co-operative banks, or building and 
loan associations, in Massachusetts, believing as he does, that in facili- 
tating home ownership among workingmen they not only confer a great 
benefit upon those who through their aid thus become home owners, but 
that they promote good citizenship and good government and are thereby 
rendering an important public service. As House chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Labor in 1877, he reported in behalf of the committee the 
original bill authorizing their . incorporation in this state and has de- 
livered many addresses upon this subject not only in Massachusetts, but 
also in other states, where he is known as a prominent advocate of the 
cause, having in 1907 addressed the United States League of Building 
and Loan Associations at its annual convention in Chicago and in 1909 
and 1910 having addressed the State Leagues of New York, Ohio, Michi- 
gan and Illinois. 

A brilliant exposition of the fundamental principles upon which this 
whole important subject is based was given by Governor Brackett not 
long ago in the following article, contributed by request to one of the 
Boston daily newspapers, following a recommendation contained in the 
inaugural address of the present Governor of the Commonwealth. Th* 



EX-GOVERNOR JOHN Q. A. BRACKETT 15, 

article sets forth in characteristic style Governor Brackett's reasons for 
devoting his energies to the promotion of this work. The article rear!-: 

GOVERNMENT AID TO HOME OWNERSHIP. 

"Governor Walsh in recommending in his inaugural address the 
calling of a constitutional convention suggests as one of 'the propo 
most persistently pressing for constitutional authority' the following: 
'Homestead legislation, whereby the Commonwealth may help people of 
small means to acquire homes of their own.' 

"As the able address of the governor contains so many progressive 
and excellent recommendations this suggestion is liable to be over- 
shadowed by others and to receive less public attention than it deserves. 
It appeals with special force to the writer, as he has for many years been 
interested in the subject of promoting home ownership among the people. 
He is, therefore, glad of this opportunity to state some of the reasons 
in favor of this proposition. 

''While doubtless it will generally be agreed that a man will be better 
off if^ he lives in a comfortable house of his own in the suburbs rather 
than in a crowded, ill-conditioned tenement house in the city, the question 
may be asked why the state should help him to acquire that ownership. 
It will probably be objected that it is not one of the functions of the 
government to render such assistance. 

"The answer to this objection is that in rendering it the government 
would not only be benefiting the man whom it helps to become a home 
owner, but would at the same time be doing a work directly for the 
benefit of the state. It would be promoting the public welfare, as well 
as the welfare of the individual who is aided. 

"Home ownership fosters a conservative, law-abiding spirit. It con- 
duces to good government. The greater the proportion of the citizens 
of the state who own the homes they occupy, the better will be the gov- 
ernment of the state. The man who becomes the owner of his home not 
only thereby acquires a higher social standing, a better opportunity for 
sharing in the good things of life, but he has a stronger incentive for 
being a good citizen. He realizes that he has a greater interest in the 
community, that he is a more important part of the body politic. As a 
tax payer on his home he feels more deeply the neces^itv of good govern- 
ment, of economy in public expenditures, of the maintenance of law and 
order, of the protection of property. 

"The late Hon. Josiah Quincy, the second mayor of Boston of that 
name, who in his old p.ere devoted himself to the work of assisting worlc- 
inemen to become the owners of their homes and as a means to that e id 
when past his seventieth year, became the leader of f he movement which 
resulted in the enactment in 1877 °f tne ^ aw authorising the establish- 



152 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ment of those useful institutions, the co-operative banks, which have dune 
so much for the cause he had at heart, in a book written a *hort time 
before his death, entitled 'Figures of the Past,' relates how ne alter. rlcd, 
when a young man, a session of the Constitutional Convention of 1820, 
and heard a speech by the venerable ex-President John Adams upon a 
proposition to limit the right of suffrage to men possessing property to 
the value of at least $200 

"The arguments in favor of the limitation were that it was the poor 
man who had laboriously earned the $200 who lost his political all when 
those who had no stake whatever in the community were Admitted to 
vote him down; that the rich man by the influence resulting from his 
property over those who had nothing to lose and everything to gain from 
his favor would make himself master of the situation ; that it was to se- 
cure a genuine representation of the poor against the usurpations of the 
rich that it was desired to impose a small pecuniar}- qualification upon 
voters. 

"These arguments, however, forcible as they were, failed in their pur- 
pose, and Mr. Quincy, commenting upon them, says: Tt is perhaps better 
that they should have failed, if we, now realizing the danger that they 
pointed out, shall hasten to remove all obstacles which prevent a man of 
reasonable industry from acquiring an independent home. Who can doubt 
that if those statesmen were with us today they would tell us that this 
was the way to mitigate and finally abolish the evils which they foresaw?' 

"These words should be pondered by the statesman and by all public- 
spirited citizens. If tne possession of property aids in qualifying men for 
wisely exercising the right of suffrage, then whatever is conducive, in a 
sane, legitimate way, to the acquisition of property, especially of real 
estate for homesteads, by those not possessing it but having the right to 
vote, will tend to improve their qualifications as voters and thereby pro- 
mote good government. 

"It follows as a corollary from these considerations that the greater the 
number ot American citizens in whom the ownership of the lands of 
the state and nation is vested the stronger will be that conservative foree 
upon which we mnst depend for a defense against the perils arising from 
the spirit of discontent and unrest that is abroad, the conflicts between 
employers and employed, with their attendant tumult and disorder, the 
anarchistic doctrines that are being disseminated, the antipathies existing 
between classes by reason of inequalities of condition, the graft and cor- 
ruption in public affairs, and all the kindred evils which are today so Ap- 
parent and which are exciting the solicitude of all thoughtful men who 
desire the preservation and perpetuity of our system of government by 
the people. 

"Some may say that, admitting the force of this argument, the ques- 
tion is how as a practical matter is the end sought to be attained. It 




Ex-Governor J. Q. A. BRACKETT. 



EX-GOVERNOR JOHN Q. A. BRACKETT 153 

may be asked if it is intended to have the state buy dwelling houses and 
give them to poor men or give them the money with which to buy such 
homes. 

"The answer is that nothing of the kind is proposed. The proposition, 
as stated in the Governor's address, it will be noticed, is for legislation 
"to help people of small means to acquire homes of their own.' 

''To help people to acquire homes is a very different thing from giving 
them homes. It is simply helping them to help themselves, and this is 
always a better service to men needing assistance than charity. 

"In just what way this help can judiciously be furnished it is not now- 
necessary to specify. The question at present to be considered is whether 
it is desirable for the state to furnish such help in any way. If it is and 
if constitutional authority can be obtained for the legislation required and 
the legislature thereafter deems such legislation expedient, what its form 
shall be can then be determined. 

"The thing to do now is to secure the requisite authority, and to that 
end a specific amendment can be proposed and agreed to at this session 
and referred to the next General Court so that, if agreed to bv the latter, 
it can then be submitted to the people, as provided by the constitution 
for making amendments thereto. That is the first step and in order that 
time may be saved, I trust that it may be taken by the present General 
Court, whatever may be its action upon the question of calling a constitu- 
tional convention as recommended by the Governor." 

Governor Brackett was president of that well-known Republican or- 
ganization, the Middlesex Club, from 1893 to l 9° l - On the occasion of 
his seventy-second birthday, in June, 1914, he was invited by the present 
Governor and by all the other living ex-Governors of the Commonwealth 
to accept a public dinner in recognition of the event. This honor he de- 
clined, but at the annual meeting of the Middlesex Club, held June 6. 
1914, he was made a special guest of the club in honor of. his birthday 
and of the twenty-first anniversary of his election as president of the 
organization in 1893, as well as of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
movement which resulted in his nomination for Governor of the State. 

On the occasion of this dinner the white-haired ex-Governor made a 
masterful address urging that national regulation of labor be made a 
plank in the platform of the reorganized Republican party. To the 
younger statesmen the Governor's clear analysis of conditions, brilliancy 
of rhetorical expression and effectiveness in oratorical delivery were reve- 
lations of the ability wdiich this ever-young statesman still possesses. 

This speech is worthy of preservation in an account of his life and 



154 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

deeds. Almost any other man, on such an occasion, when a great gather- 
ing had been vying- in paying him honor, would have spoken entirely 
from a personal point of view and would have spoken only in pleasure 
and thanks for tjie honors which the noted men around him had tendered 
to him as their special guest. But Governor Brackett is not an ordinary 
man. He seized the oportunity to deliver a message, and when the 
cheers which greeted his introduction had subsided, after expressing his 
thanks for the cordial greeting, he swurg directly into his appeal for 
national labor laws. His speech, as reported in the daily press, was: 

ADDRESS BEFORE MIDDLESEX CLUB. 

"I wish to avail myself of the opportunity which this gathering of 
Republicans affords to present for your consideration a subject which, as 
I believe, is of importance to the industrial interests of the country and 
which offers to the Republican party a field for service to those interests 
directly in" accord with the services it has rendered in the past. I trust, 
therefore, that it may be deemed germane to this occasion. 

"As a preface to my remarks upon this subject I ask your attention 
to a resolution introduced in the last Congress proposing an amendment 
to the Constitution giving Congress the power to pass laws regulating 
the hours of labor throughout the United States. This resolution has 
attracted, so far as I am aw r are, but little public notice. I do not remem- 
ber to have seen it commented upon in the press or on the platform. It 
was introduced by our friend and fellow member of the club, the Hon. 
Samuel W. McCall, and was one of the many evidences of the wise and 
progressive statesmanship which characterized his career in Congress. 

"It was a step in the right direction and should be followed by other 
steps in the same direction. Not only should the national government 
have the power to regulate the hours of labor, but it should also have the 
power to regulate the industries of the United States generally by just 
and comprehensive legislation applicable to the whole country, impartially. 

"The labor question in its various phases is a question of the utmost 
importance. It is a national question and requires for its solution national 
treatment. It cannot be adequately and satisfactorily treated by State leg- 
islation, on account of the competition existing between the industries of 
the several states. A state law, for instance, limiting the hours of labor, 
while just in itself and for the benefit of the workingmen of that state, may, 
by increasing the labor cost of their products, place their employers at a 
disadvantage in competing with the manufacturers of like products in 
other states in which there is no such limitation. 

"Massachusetts stands peerless among the states of the union for its 
legislation for the betterment of the condition of its workingmen. But 



EX-GOVERNOR JOHN Q. A. BRACKETT 155 

there is no doubt that some of these laws operate to the detriment of the 

manufacturers of Massachusetts, for the reasons stated. The remedy to 
be sought for this condition of things is not by repealing these laws but 
by having the National government enact similar laws, so that the manu- 
facturers of all the states may compete on fair and equal terms, in so far 
as this end can be effected by legislation. 

"Take the subject of child labor for illustration. This is cheaper than 
the labor of men. and hence the labor cost of the products of factories in 
which it is employed is less than that of those in which it is not, enabling 
usch products to be sold at a less price and accordingly giving the manu- 
facturers thereof an advantage in the market over those who employ men 
only. Consequently a state law prohibiting child labor in factories, just 
and beneficent as it is, handicaps the manufacturers of such state in their 
competition with those of other states having no such laws. 

"To remedy this inequality and injustice there should be a national 
law, based upon the broad humanitarian principle that the place for the 
child is the schoolhouse and the playground, rather than the mill or the 
mine, prohibiting such labor everywhere in the United States. 

"This is a matter clearly of national significance since it has a bearing 
•upon the welfare of all the people of the nation. A child growing up in 
ignorance becuse working in a mill or mine in one state at the age at 
which he should be in school, when he reaches maturity becomes a citizen. 
not only of that state, but also of the United States, having as such citizen 
the same power as a voter and therefore the same voice in the government 
as the most intelligent citizen ; and as it is essential to the security, progress 
and well being of a government of the people that the people possessing 
the governing power should have the greatest degree of intelligence pos- 
sible, the government of the United States should have and exercise the 
power to prevent the existence anywhere within its domain of a system 
the effect of which is to deprive any portion of the future citizens of the 
Republic of this requisite qualification for citizenship. 

"This, therefore, is not only an industrial, but is also an educational ques- 
tion, and one pertaining to good citizenship and good government. Ac 
cordingly the legislation under consideration is needed not only to pro- 
tect the right of the child to an education and the right of the working- 
man to be exempt from an unfair competition which tends to lower his 
wages and hence to deprive him of his just share of the comforts of life, 
but also to safeguard the character and stability of the government itself. 

"Half a century ago slave labor was abolished by the nation under 
the lead of the Republican party. Child labor should now be abolished 
in the same way. 

"There is another reason for national labor legislation — that furnished 
by the strikes and labor wars constantly occuring, with the attendant tu- 
mult and disorder and revolutionary outbreaks which are so menacing to 



156 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

the public peace and prosperity. Disastrous as these conflicts arc to 
the parties thereto on account oi the losses thereby suffered by both, 
their effects are not confined to these parties, but are felt by all the 
people. 

"A coal strike in Pennsylvania, for instance, does not only affect the 
striking miners and their employers and the affairs of that "state alone, 
but by diminishing the supply of coal and thereby increasing its price, 
imposes an additional burden upon every industry and every home in 
the land in which coal is a necessity. These troubles, therefore, being 
national in their scope, should be dealt with by just and effective national 
laws providing a system for settling the questions involved, in whatever 
section they may arise, in a way that shall be fair and equitable to both 
sides. 

"The general proposition here advocated is one that I believe will ap- 
peal to both workingmen and their employers, because it promises to 
benefit both. It is an old saying that the interests of labor and capital 
are identical. It is not always easy to recognize the truth of the saying, 
but in this case these interests are manifestly identical. 

"This proposition is strictly in conformity with one of the fundamental 
principles of the Republican party — that relating to the functions of the 
national government. That principle is that the nation has, and should 
have, broad and comprehensive powers for promoting the general welfare 
of the people. It is clearly differentiated from the Democratic theory 
that the powers of the nation are extremely limited. 

"This difference was manifested at the birth of the Republican party, 
which was founded upon the principle that the nation had the power 
to save the territories of the United States from the blight of human 
slavery, and that it was the duty of the nation to exercise that power. 
The Democratic party denied both the power and the duty. 

"Upon this issue -the campaign of 1S60 was fought and won by the 
Republican party. The Democratic doctrine as to the powers of the 
nation, which has masqueraded under the name of State Rights, could 
more appropriately be styled the doctrine of national incompetency. This 
was illustrated at the outbreak of the Rebellion, when Mr. Buchanan, the 
then Democratic president, while deprecating the secession movement, 
publicly declared that he had under the constitution no power as Presi- 
dent to prevent it. But his Republican successor, Abraham Lincoln, 
actually did what Mr. Buchanan thought the President could not do. 

"With the aid of the patriotic soldiers of the Republic in the field and 
the support of its loyal citizens at home, he suppressed secession and 
saved the Republic from disintegration and destruction. Instead of spend- 
ing time in searching the Constitution to ascertain whether it gave him, 
in express terms, the power to save the nation, feeling that it was his 
inherent duty as the head of the nation to save it, he proceeded at once 
to the performance of that duty and accomplished that great purpose. 



EX-GOVERNOR JOHN Q. A. BRACKETT 157 

"This difference in their conceptions of the powers of the national 
government between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican, and James Bu- 
chanan, the Democrat, exemplifies one of the cardinal differences between 
the two great parties which they respectively represented. That differ- 
ence has continued to the present time. Against nearly every great 
national measure for the benefit of the people of the nation the Demo- 
cratic party has interposed its worn out theory of State Rights. 

"When the beneficent pure food legislation was proposed in Congress 
one leading Democratic Congressman opposed it on the ground that 'it 
invaded the police authority of the states;' another leading Democratic 
Congressman argued that in passing the bill 'we rob the states of their 
inherent sovereignty.' Of the national law giving to employes of rail- 
roads engaged in interstate commerce the right to compensation for in- 
juries suffered in the course of their employment a Democratic statesman 
of Connecticut, subsequently elected governor of that state, said that 
'the national government has no business thus attempting to usurp pow- 
ers of the states.' Upon the same grounds the Democratic partv will 
doubtless antagonize the proposition for national labor legislation. We 
ought to welcome the issue. 

"If the Republicans of Massachusetts should incorporate in their plat- 
form this year a plank favoring such legislation and make it a prominent 
feature in the campaign, they would, I am confident, thereby contribute 
effectively to Republican success; and should the next Republican 
national convention follow the lead of Massachusetts in this respect, we 
should have in the next presidential campaign a new issue upon which 
we can grandly win/' 

This speech drew forth commendatory editorial comment even from 
the Democratic papers, the Boston Post especially saying of it: "In his 
able and eminently sensible remarks, Mr. Brackett said a great deal worth 
thinking about in this regard." 

Governor Brackett married, June 20, 1878, Angie Moore, daughter of 
Abel G. and Eliza A. Peck, of Arlington. They have two children, John 
Gaylord, born April 12, 1879, and Beatrice, born June 23, 1S88. 

The family residence is in Arlington, where the son, Judge John Gay- 
lord Brackett, has been moderator of the town meetings for several years. 
Judge Brackett was graduated from Harvard in 1901. The family tradi- 
tions of public service bid well to be carried still further by him, for he 
has already held such public positions as that of assistant in the office 
of the district attorney of Middlesex county and has twice been a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives, serving on the Judiciary' committee 
and as chairman of the important committee on BiHs in the Third Reading. 
He was appointed a special justice of the municipal court of Boston in 
1913. Pie married Miss Louise Clark, of Cambridge, April 12. 1914. His 
residence is in Arlington near that of Governor Brackett. 



[This Is the seventeenth of a series of articles, giving the organization nnd history of all the 
Massachusetts regiments which took part in the war of the KeTolution.] 

GENERAL JOHN THOMAS'S 

AND 

COLONEL JOHN BAILEY'S 
REGIMENTS 



ColonelMoiin Bailey's or General John Thomas's Regiment, Apkil 19, 1775. 

General7John"Thomas's 2nd Regiment, Provincial Army. April-July, 1775. 

Colonel JToHNiBAiLEY'sISSTH Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, July-December, 1775. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

The above named organizations are considered together as they 
formed practically one regiment which was reorganized as the different ar- 
mies were formed. The officers and men were almost entirely Plymouth 
county residents. When the Lexington alarm was sounded, April 19, 
1775, eight companies responded as members of Colonel John Bailey's 
Regiment, under the following officers: 



Captain, Robert Orr 

First Lieutenant, Elisha Mitchell. 

Second Lieutenant, Robert Dawes. 



Captain, Josiah Kayden. 

First Lieutenant, Nathan Packard. 

Second Lieutenant, Zachariah Gurney. 



Captain, Daniel Lothrop. 

First Lieutenant Ephraim Jackson. 

Second Lieutenant Nathaniel Packard. 



Captain, Amos Turner. 

(158) 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEY'S REG'T. 159 



First Lieutenant Benjamin Bass. 
Second Lieutenant Seth Bates. 



Captain Samuel Stockbridge. 
First Lieutenant Howard Pierce. 
Second Lieutenant Pickles dishing. 

o 



Captain Freedom Chamberlin. 
First Lieutenant Jno. Turner. 
Ensign Jno. Leavitt. 



Captain John Clapp. 

First Lieutenant Nathaniel Winslow. 

Second Lieutenant Joshua Jacobs. 



Captain William Reed. 

First Lieutenant Samuel Brown. 

Second Lieutenant, Solomon Shaw. 

In the records of the Committee of Safety, under date of April 29, 1775, 
we read: "Voted, That General Thomas be desired to distribute the orders 
which he has received, some time since, for enlisting a regiment, to such 
captains as he thinks proper." Just when the orders above referred to 
were issued we do not know as no record of the same has been found. 
The writer is inclined to believe that Colonel John Bailey's Lexington 
Alarm Regiment and the regiment above referred to as being enlisted 
by General Thomas were one and the same. This opinion is borne out 
by a list which appears upon the roll of Captain Josiah Hayden's Com- 
pany, preserved in the Massachusetts Archives, folio 69, page 2. The field 
and staff officers named were as follows : 

Hon. John Thomas, Coll. April 25, 1775. 

John Bailey, Lt. Col. 

Thomas Mitchell, Major 

John Jacobs, Major 

Luther Bailey, Adjt. 

Adams Bailey, Quartermaster 

Lemuel dishing, Surgeon 
In the other company rolls of this early regiment, Colonel Bailey is 



i6o 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



named as the commander. Two other officers were named in the list 
on Captain Hayden's roil, one of whom— Chaplain Isaac Mansfield had no 
date attached and was marked "absent", while the other— Surgeon's Mate 
Seth Ames was mentioned as joining the regiment September i, 1775. 
Lists of field and staff officers of General Thomas's Regiment in the Pro- 
uncial Army, (April-July 1775) found in the archives, contain the same 
names with the exception of one dated June 30, which names Gad Hitch- 
cock as Surgeon's Mate. 

The company oflcers of the regiment in the Provincial Army were as 
follows : 

Lieutenants. Ensigns. Officers Total 

Jacob Allen 
Prince Studson 
At wood Mott 
Joshua Jacobs 



Captains. 
James Allen 
Amos Turner 
Sam'l Stockbridge 
Nath'l Winslow 
Freedom Chamberlin John Turner Jun 



Eleazer Hamlen 
William Read 
Josiah Hayden 
Daniel Lothrop 
Elisha Crocker 



Amos Shaw r 
Samuel Brown 
Zachariah Gurney 
Ephraim Jackson 
King Lapham 



Ensigns. 
Perez Warren 
Joshua Barstow 
Caleb Xicols 
Nath. Chittenden 
John Leavitt 
Increase Robinson 
Solomon Shaw 
Joseph Cole Jun 
Abner Howard 
Tacob Rocrers 



59 
59 
59 
57 
59 
64 
60 

55 
59 



596 
In another list the name of the ensign in Captain Turner's Com pain- 
is given as John "Barlow", and the name of the ensign in Captain Wins- 
low's Company is spelled "Crittington". 

"In Committee of Safety, May 24, 1775. 
General Thomas having satisfied this Committee that his regiment is 
compleat we recommend to the Congress that said Regiment be Commis- 
sioned accordingly. 

William Cooper Secy." 
The regiment was divided at this period, some of the companies being 
stationed at Roxbury and others in Plymouth County as shown by the 
records the Provincial Congress. A committee of that body appointed to 
"consider by what means the army before Boston, may be effectually 
.and most expeditiously strengthened", reported that they judged it "abso- 
lutely necessary that the eight companies stationed in the County of 
Plymouth, belonging partly to General Thomas's regiment, and partly to 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEYS REGT. 161 

Col. Cotton's regiment, be immediately ordered to joint the army as soon 
as possible, and that directions be immediately given to General Ward 
for that purpose." 

In the records of the Provincial Congress under date of June 30, 1775. 
we read the following: 

"Ordered, That warrants be made out to the following officers, viz. : 
Doct. Lemuel dishing, surgeon; Doct. Gad Hitchcock, surgeon's mate; 
Adam Bayley, quarter master; Luther Bayley, adjutant: in General Thom- 
as's regiment." 

"Thirty-seven small arms, valued at eighty-five pounds seven shillings 
were delivered General Thomas, for the use of his regiment, as by his 
receipt on file", according to the records of the Provincial Congress under 
date of July 5, 1775. 

The following list shows the towns represented in the companies in 
this regiment : 
Captains. 

James Allen, Bridgewater, Halifax. 
Josiah Hayden, Bridgewater, Abington etc. 
Freedom Chamberlain, Pembroke etc. 
Daniel Lothrop, Bridgewater etc. 
William Reed, Abington, Bridgewater, Norton. 
Amos Turner, Hanover, Marshfield. 
Elijah Crocker, Scituate, Marshfield, Middleboro, etc. 
Samuel Stockbridge, Scituate. 

Nathaniel Winslow, Scituate. Hanover. Egg Harbor. 
Eleazer Hamlen, Pembroke, Abington etc. 

When the Army of the United Colonies was formed in July, 1775. this 
regiment became the 35th and was in General Thomas's Brigade. Gen- 
eral Ward's Division. The field officers were promoted as follows: 

Colonel, John Bailey. 

Lieut. Colonel, Thomas Mitchell. 

Major, John Jacobs. 

The regiment under Colonel Bailey served until the end of the year at 
Roxbury. 

Twenty-two of the officers of this regiment had seen service in the 
French war, one serving as colonel, two captain-, one lieutenant, two en- 
signs and one cornet. The ranks attained by the officers during the Amer- 



162 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ican Revolution were as follows: One major-general, two colonels, two 
lieut. colonels, three majors, twenty-two captains, ten first lieutenants, 
four second lieutenants, four ensigns, two surgeons and one chaplain. 

The strength of the regiment is shown each month in. the following 
table. 

Date. Com. Off. Staff. Non Com. Rank and file. Total. 

June 9. 30 4 (field) 62 492 588 

July 34 5 60 500 599 

Aug. 18 24 5 57 485 57 i 

Sept. 23 27 5 50 479 561 

Oct. 17 24 5 44 474 547 

Nov. 18 26 5 51 464 546 

Dec. 30 25 5 49 464 543 

MAJOR GENERAL JOHN THOMAS was the son of John and Lydia 
(Waterman) Thomas and was born in Marshfield in 1724. He became a 
physician in Marshfield and in 1746 was surgeon of a regiment in Xova 
Scotia. In the following year he was appointed on the medical staff of 
General William Shirley's Regiment. He was still a resident of Marsh- 
field in March 12th, 1759, on which date he was appointed Colonel of a 
regiment, commanding that organization at Halifax until May 14, 1760. 
He led the left wing of the detachment under Colonel William Haviland 
from Lake Champlain to cooperate with the army, moving against Mon- 
treal in August, 1760, took part in the capture of that city and later re- 
turned to Massachusetts and practised medicine in Kingston. In Septem- 
ber, 1774, he was one of the delegates from Kingston to the Plymouth 
County Convention and was a member of a committee of nine which drew 
up resolutions condemning the British government for their acts towards 
the inhabitants of the Province. He was a member of the First Provin- 
cial Congress from Kingston, in October, 1774. During the session he 
was appointed on committees to "inquire into the state and operations of 
tffe army" and "to consider what is necessary to be done for the defense 
and safety of the province." Dec. 8, 1774, this same congress appointed 
him one of the general officers. On the following day he was made a 
member of a committee to "take into consideration a plan of military 
exercise, proposed by Captain Timothy Pickering." He represented 
Kingston in the Second Provincial Congress in February, 1775. and served 



■■- 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEY'S REGT. 163 

on many important committees. February 9th he was appointed by this 
body one of five general officers. On the same day he was appointed chair- 
man of a committee "to bring in a resolve, directing how the ordnance of 
the province shall be used." February 10th he was made a member of a 
committee "to revise the commission of the committee of safety, and the 
commission of the committee of supplies, and to point out what amend- 
ments, if any, are necessary." In the Committee of Safety, April 29. 1775, 
orders were given to General Thomas "for seizing Governor Hutchinson's 
papers." In the same committee May 2nd, it was voted "that General 
Thomas be desired to give such orders, respecting the whale boats at 
Falmouth, and other ports southward, as he may judge proper." On the 
same day a resolve w r as passed "that agreeably to a vote of Congress, 
General Thomas be directed and empowered to appoint suitable persons, 
to accompany such people into the country as may be permitted to bring 
their effects into Boston, upon the conditions mentioned in the proclama- 
tions posted up, and that General Thomas give such general orders as he 
may judge the common safety requires." Two days later a vote was 
passed that "a chest of medicine be removed from hence to Roxbury. under 
the care of General Thomas," and on the 13th it was voted "that General 
Thomas be desired to deliver out medicines to such persons as he shall 
think proper, for the. use of the sick soldiers at Roxbury, until the sur- 
geons for the respective regiments are regularly appointed." 

On the ninth of May it was thought that the British intended to make 
a sally and at a council of war, request was made for reinforcements to be 
sent to Roxbury. The officers in the ten towns nearest were ordered 
to send immediately, one-half of their militia and all of the minute-men. 
General Thomas had but seven hundred men under his command and 
Gordon tells us that in order to deceive the British lie "continued march- 
ing his seven hundred men round and round the hill, (which was visible 
from Boston) and by this means multiplied their appearance to any who 
were reconnoitering them." 

May 12th 1775, he wrote to the Committee of Safety, that he "found 
no establishment made by the Congress for such officers as Adjutanfswd- 
Quartermaster General, which officers are as necessary, in a large en- 
campment, as almost ?ny whatever; and where any number of Regiments 
are posted in camp, there cannot be a proper regulation of duty without 
such." He asked whether he might be allowed to give encouragement to any 
suitable persons for such office, that they will receive any reward in future 



164 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

if they will undertake it." He sent a second request, June 17, 1775, that 
such officers be appointed. 

General Thomas sent a letter to the Third Provincial Congress upon 
the subject of advance pay for the soldiers and a committee appointed 
to consider it, reported May 31, 1775. On the following day they brought 
in a full report which stated in part that: "the receiver-general . . . 
had provided all necessary helps, . . . and that he should be able, at least, 
to pay off one- regiment every day, and perhaps more;" General Thomas 
sent a letter to the Third Provincial Congress nominating Mr. Samuel 
Brewer, to be adjutant general in the Massachusetts army; "whereupon 
ordered that a commission be made out to him accordingly." He also 
sent a letter to the congress in regard to the wounded patriots who were 
held as prisoners in Boston and a committee appointed to consider it re- 
ported as follows : "that General Thomas be requested moderately to sup- 
ply said prisoners with fresh meat, in case he can convey it to them, and 
them only." July 2nd an order was passed in the Third Provincial Con- 
gress that "Col. Mitchell deliver the 215 spears, which he has procured for 
the army, to General Thomas, at Roxbury." 

On the 9th of July he was present at a council of war with Generals 
Washington .Ward, Lee, Putnam, Heath, Greene and Gates." General 
Thomas had received his commission as brigadier general in the Continen- 
tal Army, June 23d, 1775. 

Frothingham tells us that: "A long controversy arose in relation to 
some of the appoincments, and particularly because Putnam was advanced 
over Spencer and Pomeroy over Thomas. General Spencer left the army 
without visting General Washington, or making known his intention, and 
General Thomas consented to remain only after the urgent solicitation 
of his friends. At length these, difficulties were, in a great measure re- 
moved, by Spencer's consenting to return, and to take rank after Putnam, 
and Pomeroy's declining to serve." In the records of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives, under date of July 22, we read: "Ordered.. That 
Major Hawley, the Speaker, and Colonel Foster, be a Committee to pre- 
pare *a letter to Generals, Thomas, Whitcomb, and Frye, desiring that they 
would continue in the service of the Colony, and assuring them that they 
shall receive a suitable and adequate reward for their services." This 
letter was prepared the same day, read in closed session and sent to each 
of the officers named. 

His brigade July 22, 1775, was composed of the regiments of Generals 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL JOHN BAILEY'S REGT. 165 

Ward and Thomas and Colonels Fellows, Cotton, Danielson and David 
Brewer. General Thomas continued with his brigade at Roxbury and par- 
ticularly distinguished himself in the operations just prior to the evacua- 
tion of Boston by the British. On the night of March 4th about seven 
o'clock he marched with about two thousand men to take possession 
of Dorchester Heights. Frothingham states that: "A covering party of 
eight hundred led the way; the carts with the entrenching tools followed; 
then twelve hundred troops, under the immediate command of General 
Thomas; and a train of three hundred carts, loaded with fascines and hay 
bring-ing up the rear. The detachment, moving with the greatest silence, 
reached its place of destination about eight o'clock. The covering party 
then divided, — one half proceeding to the point nearest Boston, and the 
other half to the point nearest the castle, — while the working party com- 
menced labor. Bundles of hay were placed along Dorchester Xeck, on 
the side next to the enemy, by which the carts passed, some of them sev- 
eral times during night. . . . About four in the morning, a relief party 
went on. The labors of the night, under the direction of the veteran 
Gridley and his associates, were so efficient, that ere morning dawned, 
two forts were in sufficient forwardness to constitute a good defence 
against small arms and grape shot. 'Perhaps' Heath writes, 'there never 
w 7 as so much work done in so short a space of time.' ' The Patriot lead- 
ers had hoped that the British would attack them on the 5th of March, 
the anniversary of the Boston Massacre and Frothingam tells us that; 
"The command of Genera! Thomas, reinforced by two thousand men, was 
in high spirits, and ready and anxious to receive the enemy." In spite of 
the great preparations made on both sides, however, the attack was not 
made, owing to a severe storm with exceedingly high wind, making it im- 
possible to navigate the boats. The Americans continued to strengthen 
their fortifications and plant new batteries and on the night of the 9th when 
they were discovered in their attempt to fortify Nook's Hill, the disclosure 
of their purpose resulted in severe cannonading during the entire night. A 
strong detachment was sent to Nook's Hill on the night of the 16th which 
succeeded in its purpose notwithstanding a British cannonading, and this 
resulted in the commencing of the embarkation early on the following 
morning. On the sixth of March, General Thomas was promoted to the 
rank of Major General by the Continental Congress and after the death of 
General Montgomery, was given command of the army in Canada. Wash- 
ington Irving in his "Life of Washington" tells us that: "General Thomas 



166 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

arrived at the camp in the course of April, and found the army in a forlorn 
condition, scattered at different posts and on the Island of Orleans. It was 
numerically increased to upward of two thousand men, but several hun- 
dred were unfit for service. The small-pox had made great ravages. They 
had inoculated each other. In their sick and debilitated state they were 
without barracks, and almost without medicine. A portion, whose term of 
enlistment had expired, refused to do duty, and clamored for their dis- 
charge. The winter was over, the river was breaking up, re-inforements 
to the garrison might immediately be expected, and then the case would 
be desperate. Observing that the river about Quebec was clear of ice, Gen- 
eral Thomas determined on a bold effort. It was to send up a fire-ship 
with the flood, and, while the ships in the harbor were in flames and the 
town in confusion, to scale the walls." On the 3d of May, they had every- 
thing in readiness to carry out this plan but after the fire was lighted on 
board the ship, the sails caught fire and burned. Her headway was thus 
checked and she drifted harmlessly with the ebbing tide. The rest of the 
plan was consequently abandoned. 

Retreat seemed the only course left for the Americans and as they were 
preparing to embark the sick and the military stores, five ships, on the 
sixth of May, made their way into the harbor and began to land their troops 
to relieve the British commander. General Carleton. 

In the precipitate retreat which followed, the artillery, baggage and 
everything was abandoned, the sick and w^ounded being also left behind. 
General Thomas came to a halt at Point Deschambault about sixty miles 
above Quebec and called a council of war. The ships of the enemy were 
ascending the river, General Thomas had no cannon and the powder which 
General Schuyler had forwarded had fallen into the hands of the British. 
It was therefore decided to move still further up the river. They came to a 
stand at the mouth of the Sorel where they found General Thompson with 
troops from New York. Shortly after the arrival, General Thomas was 
taken with small pox and w r as removed to Chambley where he died June 
second, 1776. 

COLONEL JOHN BAILEY of Hanover, son of John and Elizabeth 
(Cowen) Bailey, was born in Hanover, Mass., October 30, 1730. He was a 
Lieutenant in Captain David Stoekbridge's Hanover Company. Colonel 
Thomas Clapp's Second Plymouth County Regiment in 1762, and Captain 
in the same regiment later in the year. The name also appears in the same 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEYS REG'T. 167 

rank and regiment in September, 1771. He was Lieutenant Colonel in 
General John Thomas's Second Regiment in the Provincial Army from 
May to July, 1775. July 1, 1775, he was commissioned Colonel of the 35th 
Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, and served through the year. 
When the army was reorganized in 1776, he was commissioned Colonel 
of the 23rd Regiment in the Continental Army. In September, 1776, his 
regiment and two others forming Glover's Brigade, were thanked by Gen- 
eral Washington for gallant conduct, and when Washington resolved to 
make a certain dash upon the Hessians at Trenton, among the "trusted 
men" he picked out Bailey's Regiment. The troops were in two divisions. 
Bailey's was in the first. They crossed the river in the storm amid the 
floating ice and assisted in winning the fight. On the following morning 
Washington "warmly thanked" his army for their brave and steady con- 
duct. January 1, 1777, he became Commander of the Second Regiment. 
Massachusetts Line. At the first Battle of Saratoga his regiment was in a 
brigade which occupied the center. At the second Battle of Saratoga he 
was in the left wing, which attacked the grenadiers and drove them from 
the field. He did not serve through the war as in April. 1780, he wrote to 
Washington asking for his discharge on account of ill health and domestic 
affairs. In October, 1780. an Act of Congress retired him on half pay for 
life, but it is thought it must have been commuted, as he died a poor man. 
Towards th*e close of his life he kept a tavern in Curtis Street, Hanover, 
where Abisha Soul resided in 1853. He died October 27. 1810. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL THOMAS MITCHELL, of Hanover, was 
a Captain of a Crown Point Expedition from September 9 to December 17, 
1755. May 19, 1775. he was commissioned Major of General John Thomas's 
Second Provincial Regiment. When Lieutenant Colonel John Bailey was 
promoted to the rank of Colonel, and given command of the 35th Regiment, 
Army of the United Colonies. Major Mitchell was promoted to the rank 
of Lieutenant Colonel. 

MAJOR JOHN JACOBS of Scituate was the son of Joshua and Mary 
Jacobs and was born May 23, 1735. He was Ensign in Major Theophilus 
Cushing's Second Hingham Company. Colonel Joshua Ouincy's Third Suf- 
folk Regiment, January 21, 1762. He served as Adjutant of the first Bat- 
talion of Colonel Thomas Clapp's Regiment for a time in 1762. He was 
Ensign in the Sutton Company, Colonel John Chandler's first Worcester 



168 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Regiment in 1771. He was first Lieutenant in Colonel Ebenezer Learned's 
Regiment, April 19, 1775, on the Lexington alarm. May 19, 1775, he was 
commissioned Major in General John Thomas's Second Provincial Regi- 
ment. After the army was reorganized in July he held the same rank in 
Colonel John Bailey's 35th Reiment, Army United Colonies. During 1776 
he was Lieutenat Colonel of Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment, Conti- 
nental Army. May 8, 1777, he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of 
Colonel John Robinson's Regiment organized for the defense of Boston 
Harbor. February 2J, 1778, he was chosen by ballot in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, Colonel of the Regiment raised for service in Rhode Island, 
lately commanded by Colonel John Robinson. May 15, 1779, he entered 
service as Colonel of a Regiment of Light Infantry, and served at Rhode 
Island until November 19th of that year. July 9th, 1780, he was appointed 
Colonel of a Regiment raised in Plymouth County to reinforce the Conti- 
nental Army for three months, and served until November 3, 1780. He died 
February 7, 1817, aged 82 years. 

ADJUTANT LUTHER BAILEY of Hanover was the son of Colonel 
John and Ruth (Randall) Bailey. He was born in that town September 
22, 1752. He served as Corporal in Captain Amos Turner's Company, 
Colenel John Bailey's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. 
He was appointed Adjutant of General John Thomas's Second Regiment, 
Provincial Army, In May, 1775, and continued to hold that rank through 
the year, in Colonel John Bailey's 35th Regiment, Army United Colonies. 
In 1776 he was Quartermaster oi his father's Regiment, the 23rd in the 
Continental Army. July 1, 1777, he w r as commissioned First Lieutenant 
and Adjutant in Colonel John Bailey's Second Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line, and was promoted Captain July 7, 1777. He served until the close 
of the war. He was an able officer, serving with honor at Dorchester 
Heights in March, 1776, and in New York later. He was in the Battles of 
Trenton, Princeton and Monmouth, also in the campaign ending in the 
surrender of Burgoyne. Captain Bailey was accomplished in hi- manners. 
and easy and pleasant in conversation and address, and was often called 
upon to serve as chairman of public meetings in his native town. He was 
a member of the Cincinnati. He died in Hanover May 12, 1820. 

QUARTERMASTER ADAMS BAILEY oi Bridgewater was the son 
of Adams and Sarah (Howard ) Bailey. He was born in Scituate, January 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEY S REGT. 169 

27, 1748-9. He served as Quartermaster in General John Thomas*s and 
Colonel John Bailey's Regiment through 1775 and during 1776 was Second 
Lieutenant in Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment, Continental Army. 
January 1, 1777, he was commissioned First Lieutenant and Paymaster 
in Colonel John Bailey's Second Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and was 
promoted to the rank of Captain November 1, 1778. He served until No- 
vember 3, 1783. After the war he lived at Charlestown, Mass., where he 
was Superintendent of the United States Marine Hospital. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of the Cincinnati. He died July 26, 1824. 

SURGEON LEMUEL CUSHING of Hanover was the son of Deacon 
Joseph and Lydia (King) Cushing. His name appears in a list of officers 
"not yet commissioned" January 24, 1775, but in another muster roll, made 
later in the year, the date of his appointment is given as April 19, 1775, 
showing that he served in one of these regiments, either Colonel Bailey's of 
General Thomas's, on the Lexington alarm. During 1776 he was Surgeon 
of Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment in the Continental Army. 

SURGEON'S MATE SETH AMES of Dedham held that rank in 
Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, the date of his enlistment being given 
as September 1, 1775. January 1, 1776, he became Surgeon of Colonel 
Joseph Read's 13th Regiment, Continental Army. 

SURGEON'S MATE GAD. HITCHCOCK of Pembroke was the son 
of Reverend Gad and Dorothy Hitchcock. He was born in Pembroke, No- 
vember 2, 1749, and was appointed Surgeon's Mate April 19, 1775, serving 
through the year under Colonels Thomas and Bailey. In 1776 he was Sur- 
geon of Colonel Simeon Cary's Regiment, according to pay rolls made out 
in October, November and December of that year. 

CHAPLAIN ISAAC MANSFIELD, JR., of Marblehead was chaplain 
im Colonel John Bailey's 35th Regiment. Army of the United Colonies in 
1775, and he preached a Thanksgiving sermon in a camp at Roxbury on 
the 23rd of November of that year. During the following year, 1776, he 
served as Chaplain in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's 6th Regiment, and Colonel 
Israel Hutchinson's 27th Regiment, both of the Massachusetts Line. 

CAPTAIN JAMES ALLEN, JR., of Bridgewater, son of James and 



170 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Mary (Packard) Allen, was born in Bridgewater in 1835. He served as 
private in Captain Josiah Dunbar's company from July 9 to December 10, 
1761. On the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, he marched as Lieutenant 
in Captain Nathan Mitchell's Company, and May 1. 1775, he enlisted as 
Captain in Colonel John Thomas's Second Regiment. Provincial Army, 
receiving his commission April 19, 1775. He continued in this rank 
through the year under Colonel John Bailey. During the latter part of 
1776 he served near New York as Captain in Colonel Simeon Cary's Regi- 
ment. July 30, 1780, he enlisted in Major Eliphet Cary's Regiment and 
served eleven days at Rhode Island. He died of smallpox in 1780, aged 
54 years. 

CAPTAIN FREEDOM CHAMBERLAIN of Pembroke, son of Free- 
dom and Mary (Soul) Chamberlain, was born in that town October 21, 
1730. He was a private in Captain Ezekiel Turner's Company, Colonel 
Thomas Clapp's Regiment, which marched for the relief of Fort William 
Henry in October, 1757. In September, 1771, he was Captain of the First 
Pembroke Company in Colonel David Stockbridge's Regiment. On the 
Lexington alarm. April 19, 1775, he commanded a company in Colonel 
John Bailey's Regiment, and May 3, 1775. was engaged at the same rank 
to command a company in Colonel John Thomas's Regiment. He contin- 
ued to serve in Colonel John Thomas's Regiment, the Second in the Pro- 
vincial Army. Later in the year he held the same rank in Colonel John 
Bailey's 35th Regiment. Army L T nited Colonies. In 1776 he commanded 
a company in Colonel Simeon Cary's Regiment. He died February 3, 
r82i, aged 90 years, 3 months, 3 days. 

CAPTAIN JOHN CLAPP of Scituate, son of John and Mercy Clapp, 
was born in that town, July 5, 1734. From April 16 to December 8, 1756. 
he was a Sergeant in Captain John Clapp, Jr./s company, Colonel Joseph 
Dvvight's Regiment in an expedition to Crown Point. From April 18 to 
December 7, 1761, he was Lieutenant in Captain Lemuel Dunbar's Com- 
pany, and he held the same rank in that company from March 4 to Decem- 
ber 5, 1762. He commanded a company of Minute Men in Colonel John 
Bailey's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, serving fifteen 
days. He lived at Scituate, near the Second Herring Brook, and died in 
that town February 13, 1810. 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEYS REGT. 171 

CAPTAIN ELIJAH CROOKER of Pembroke was a Sergeant in the 
Colonel's Company, in Colonel Joseph Thatcher's Regiment, October 11, 
1756, and was wounded at x\lbany. April 20, 1775, he was engaged as Cap- 
tain in Colonel John Thomas's Regiment, and served through the year 
under Colonels Thomas and Bailey. In 1776 he was Captain of a com- 
pany in Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment, Continental Army. He died 
in New York in August of that year. 

CAPTAIN ELEAZER HAMLIN of Pembroke was the son of Benja- 
min and Anne (Mayo) Hamlin, and was born about July, 1732. He was 
probably born in that part of Eastham known as Wellfleet. He settled in 
Pembroke and was baptized in the Second Church there February 6, 1762. 
He w r as grantee in fifteen deeds of land about there between 1757 and 
1774. He was Second Lieutenant in Captain James Hatch's Company, 
which marched from Pembroke on the Lexington alarm, April 19. 1775. 
and in a company return, made probably in October, 1775, his name ap- 
pears as Captain in General John Thomas's (Colonel Bailey's) Regiment. 
January 1, 1776, he became Captain in Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regi- 
ment, Continental Army. He removed to the town of Harvard about 
April, 1776. He was a member of the Committee of Safety in 1779. and 
delegate at Concord in October of that year. He served as delegate to 
the Convention at Lunenburg, May 19, 1785. Later he received a grant of 
land in the Maine district known as "Hamlin's Grant". This proved 
to be worthless, and his sons received a grant in what is now Waterford, 
Me. He was grandfather of Reverend Doctor Cyrus Hamlin. He died 
December 1, 1807, aged. 75 years, 5 months. 

CAPTAIN JOSIAH HAYDEX of Bridgewater was the son of Benja- 
min Hayden of Braintree, removing to Northbridge in his youth. He was 
a private in Captain Samuel Thaxter's Hingham Company from Septem- 
ber 15 to December 17, 1755, in an expedition to Crown Point. On the 
Lexington Alarm April 19, 1775, he commanded a Company of Minute 
Men in Colonel John Bailey's Regiment. May 1st of that year he was 
engaged as Captain of a Company in General John Thomas' Second Regi- 
ment Provincial Army. He served to October 1, 1775, under General 
Thomas and Colonel Bailey, and on the latter date was reported sick and 
absent. In the History of Bridgewater it is stated that he was a Major 



172 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

in the Revolutionary Army. He removed to Winslow, Me., and died there 
in 1814, aged 84 years. 

CAPTAIN DANIEL LOTHROP of Bridgewater was the son of Sam- 
uel and Abial (Lassell) Lothrop. He was born May 2, 1721. He was 
Captain of a Company of Artillery in Colonel John Bailey's Regiment 
from April 10, 1775, to the 2nd of May following. On May 3rd he was 
engaged to serve in the same rank in Colonel John Thomas's Second Regi- 
ment, Provincial Army, and later in the year served as Captain in Colonel 
John Bailey's 35th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies. May, 1776, 
he was engaged as Captain in Colonel Thomas Crafts's Artillery Regiment. 
serving through May 7, 1777. He died in Leeds, Me.. March 18, 1818. 

' CAPTAIN ROBERT ORR of Bridgewater, son of the Honorable 
Hugh Orr, was born in 1745. He w r as a centinel in Captain William Lith- 
gow's Company from March 17 to July 4, 1757, the Company serving at Port 
Halifax. April 19, 1775, he marched as Captain of a Company of Minute 
Men on the Lexington Alarm. It is stated in a memorandum that Cap- 
tain Orr with his two lieutenants joined Colonel Bailey's Regiment De- 
cember 10, 1775, at Roxbury Camp, and served in said Regiment until 
January 15, 1776. From Tuly 30 to October 9, 1780. he was Adjutant of 
Major Eliphelet Cary's Regiment at Rhode Island and Major of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel-Commandant Enoch Putnam's Regiment from October 1 to 
November 14, 17S1 ; the Regiment raised to reinforce the Continental 
Army for three months and stationed at West Point. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM REED of Abington served as a private in Cap- 
tain Ezekial Turner's Company, Colonel Thomas Clapp's Regiment, which 
inarched for the relief of Fort William Henry in August, 1757. He served 
as Captain of a company in Colonel John Bailey's Regiment on the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775, and April 27, 1775, he was engaged as Cap- 
tain of a company in Colonel John Thomas's Second Provincial Army 
Regiment. He served through the year under General Thomas and 
Colonel Bailey. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL STOCKBRIDGE of Scituate was the son of 
Samuel and Lydia (Barrell) Stockbridge. Pie was born about 1711. In 
1757 he served as Cornet in Captain Benjamin Turner's troop of horse, 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEY'S REGT. 173 

which marched for the relief of Fort William Henry. April [9, 1775. lie 
commanded a company of Minute Men in Colonel John Bailey's Regiment 
and May 19, 1775, was commissioned Captain in Colonel John Thomas's 
Second Provincial Army Regiment. He served through the year under 
these officers. He died June 25th, 1784, aged 73 years, 1 month, 1 day. 

CAPTAIN AMOS TURNER of Hanover was the son of Ezekiel and 
Ruth (Randall) Turner. He was born July 16, 1741. He commanded a 
company of Minute Men in Colonel John Bailey's Regiment which 
marched on the Lexington alarm, April 10. 1775. May 3, 1775, he was 
engaged as Captain of General John Thomas's Second Provincial Army 
Regiment, and served through the year under these officers. May 10, 
1776, he was commissioned Captain in Colonel John dishing, Junior's 
Second Plymouth County Regiment, and later in the year marched to 
Rhode Island in a brigade commanded by Colonel John Cushing. Jr. In 
1777 he served for two months and six days as Captain in Jonathan Tit- 
comb's Regiment in the Rhode Island service from July 10 to October 30, 
1780. He was a Captain in Colonel John Jacobs' Regiment which was 
raised in Plymouth County to reinforce the Continental Army. In 1775 
he served as selectman in the town of Hanover. He died May 14, 1822, 
aged 81 years. 

CAPTAN NATHANIEL WINSLOW of Scituate was born about 
1741. As a resident of Dighton, he served as Ensign in Captain Abel 
Kecne's Company from March 4 to November 18, 1762. Pie was Lieu- 
tenant in Captain John Clapp's Company of Minute Men, Colonel John 
Bailey's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775. May 3, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in General John Thomas's 
Second Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year under 
General Thomas and Colonel Bailey. In the early part of 1776 he served 
as Captain in Colonel Simeon Cary's Regiment, and from April 10, 1776, 
to November, 1776, was Captain in Colonel Josiah Whiting's Regiment. 
November 1, 1777, he was commissioned Major, having served as Captain 
in that command during 1777 up to that time, in Colonel Thomas Mar- 
shall's 10th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and served until December, 
1780. In Heitman's "Historical Register of the Officers of the Continen- 
tal Army," it is stated that he resigned October 6, 17S0, but in the records 



174 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

of the Archives of Massachusetts, he is reported as retired January I, 
1 78 1, on half pay. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JACOB ALLEN of Bridgewater was the son 
of Jacob and Abigail (Kingman) Allen. lie was born about 1739 and was 
a centinal in Captain Simeon Cary's Company, Colonel Thomas Doty's 
Regiment from April 23rd to September 29, 1758. May 29, 1759, at the 
age of twenty-one years he enlisted in Colonel Thomas Clapp's Regiment. 
From March 29 to December 17, 1760, he was a private in Captain Lem- 
uel Dunbar's Company, Colonel John Thomas's Regiment, on duty at 
Halifax. April 19, 1775, he marched as Sergeant in Captain Robert Orr's 
Company, Colonel John Bailey's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, serv- 
ing eleven days. He enlisted as Lieutenant in Captain James Allen's 
Company, General John Thomas's Second Provincial Army Regiment, and 
later in the year served under Colonel John Bailey. During 1776 he was 
a Captain in Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment, Continental Army. 
January 1, 1777, he became Captain in Colonel John Bailey's Second Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts Line, and on September 19, 1777, was killed at the 
Battle of Bemis Heights. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN BASS of Hanover was the son 
of Reverend Benjamin and Mary (Gardner) Bass. April 19, 1775, he 
marched as Lieutenant in Captain Amos Turner's Company, Colonel John 
Bailey's Regiment, serving fourteen days. He was a deacon of the church 
for many years. He served as Representative to the General Court in 
1 7%Z> 95> 96-8, 1 800- 1, 05, .06. He was town clerk from 1798 to 1807, and 
selectman in 1783-5. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SAMUEL BROWN of Abington held that 
rank in Captain William Reed's Company of Minute-Men in Colonel John 
. Bailey's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm, April 19. 
1775. He served eight days. He enlisted May 27, 1775. *" General John 
Thomas's Second Regiment, Provincial Army, and served under these 
officers through the year. He was taken prisoner at Quebec, Dec. 31, 
1775- 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ZACHARIAH GURNEY of Bridgewater was 
the son of Zachariah and Sarah Gurney, and was born in 1729. He was 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEY'S REGT. 175 

a private in Captain William Clark's Company from September 15 to 
December 16, 1755, in an expedition to Crown Point. He was Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Josiah Hayden's Company of Minute-Men, Colonel 
John Bailey's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm April 19, 
1775, serving twelve days. May 1, 1775, he was engaged as Lieutenant 
in General Thomas's Second Regiment Provincial Army and served under 
this commander and Colonel Bailey through the year. July 5, 1776, he 
was commissioned Second Lieutenant in Captain Jacob Pool's Company, 
Colonel John Jacobs's Plymouth County Regiment, and served until his 
discharge, October 31, 1780. He died in 1813, aged 84 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EPHRA1M JACKSON of Bridgewater was 

the son of Ephraim and Lydia (Leach) Jackson. April 10, 175S, he en- 
listed in Captain Samuel Gary's Company, Colonel Thomas Doty's Regi- 
ment, serving until May 30, 1758, and probably longer. From April 10th 
to May 2, 1775, he was First Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Lothrop's 
Artillery Company, Colonel John Bailey and General John Thomas's Regi- 
ments. May 3, 1775, he was engaged to serve under the same company 
commanders, and served through the year in General Thomas's and 
Colonel Bailey's Regiments. April 10, 1776, he was chosen Lieutenant 
Colonel in Colonel Josiah ^Yhitneys Regiment, raised for the defence of 
Boston. He served in that command until November, 1776, and on the 
19th of that month was chosen by a ballot of the House of Representatives, 
Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel Thomas Marshall's 10th Regiment, Massa- 
chusetts Line. He died December 19, 1777, and half pay was allowed to 
his family to December 19, 1784. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSHUA JACOBS of Scituate was the son 
of Joshua Jacobs. He was Second Lieutenant in Captain John Clapp's 
Company of Minute-Men, Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, which marched 
on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. May 3. 1775, he was engaged 
as Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Winslow's Company, General John 
Thomas's Second Regiment, Provincial Army. He served through the 
year under General Thomas and Colonel Bailey. In 1776 he served as 
Captain in Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment, Continental Army. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT KING LAPHAM of Marshfield (also 
given Pembroke) was the son of David Lapham. He was born in Marsh- 



.176 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

field in 1743. He was one of thirteen children, seven of whom were- in 
the Revolutionary Army. From May 6th to November 17, 1761, lie 
a private in Captain Abel Keen's Company, residing- at that time in Scitu- 
ate. He was a private in Captain Silas Brown's Company from Novem- 
ber 16, 1761, to July 19, 1762, residence Marshfield. April 20, 1775, "c was 
engaged as Lieutenant in Captain Elijah Crooker's Company, General John 
Thomas's Regiment. He served through the year under General Thomas 
and Colonel Bailey. May 10th, 1776, he was commissioned First Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Joseph Gift's 10th Marshfield Company in the Second 
Plymouth County Regiment of Massachusetts Militia. July 21, 1776, he 
was engaged as Lieutenant in Captain John Turner's Company, Culcmel 
John Cushing's Second Plymouth County Regiment. He marched to 
Rhode Island under the same commander in the latter part of 1776. From 
April to June, 1777, he was Lieutenant in Captain Amos Turner's Com- 
pany, Colonel Joshua Titcomb's Regiment, and marched to Tiverton, R. I. 
September 28, 1777, he marched as Lieutenant in Captain John Turner's 
Company, Colonel Theophilus Cotton's First Plymouth County Regiment. 
From a document dated April 20, 1779, we know that he was at that 
time a member of Captain James Harlow's Company, Colonel Ezra Wood's 
Regiment. 



FIRST LIEUTENANT ELISHA MITCHELL of Bridgewater was 
the son of Colonel Edward and Elizabeth (Cushing) Mitchell. He was 
born in 1746, and on the Lexington alarm on April 19, 1775, marched as 
First Lieutenant of Captain Robert Orr's Company of Minute-Men in 
Colonel John Bailey's Regiment. In April, 1776, he was a Captain in 
Colonel Simeon Cary's Regiment. He died in 1790, aged 44 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ATWOOD MOTT of Scituate was the son 
of Ebenezer and Deborah Mott. He was born September 18, 1736. He was 
a Corporal in Captain Samuel Stockbrid^e's Company of Minute-Men. 
Colonel John Bailey's Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19. 
1775. serving twenty-one days. May 10, 1775, he was engaged as Lieu- 
tenant under the same Captain in General John Thomas's Second Regi- 
ment, Provincial Army. Fie served through the year under General 
Thomas and Colonel Bailey. During 1776 he was First Lieutenant in 
Colonel John Bailey's 23rd Regiment. Continental Army. 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEYS REG T. 177 

FIRST LIEUTENANT NATHAN PACKARD of Bridgewater was 

the son of Zachariah and Abigail (Davenport) Packard. lie was born 
in l 733- He was m tne Camp at Lake George, November 21, 1755. in 
Captain House's Company, Colonel Seth Pomeroy's Regiment. A note 

in the records says that he "came from Bridgewater" and was among 
those "not like to be of service this Winter". He was First Lieutenant 
in Cautain Josiah Hayden's Company. Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, 
on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. March 14, 1776, he was Captain 
of a Company in Colonel Edward Mitchell's Third Plymouth County 
Regiment. He was probably the man of that name who served as a Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Calvin Partridge's Company, Colonel John Cushing's 
Regiment, being drafted September 18, 1776, and serving two months and 
two days in Rhode Island. He was Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Keith's 
Company, Colonel Theophilus Cotton's First Plymouth County Regiment 
from September 25 to October 30. 1777, on the secret expedition to Tiver- 
ton, R. I. From May 25 to September 9, T778, he served as Captain in 
Colonel Thomas Carpenter's First Bristol County Regiment, and Septem- 
ber 10, 1779, was engaged as Captain in Colonel John Jacob s's Light Infan- 
try Regiment, serving over two months at Rhode Island. He died in 
j 798, aged 65 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT HAYWARD PEIRCE, son of Benjamin, Jr.. 
and Jane Peirce, was born in Scituate, June 22, 1753. He held this rank 
in Captain Samuel Stockbridge's Company, Colonel John Bailey's Regi- 
ment, April 19, 1775. May 10, 1776, he was commissioned Captain of the 
6th (Scituate) Company in Colonel John Cushing's 2nd Plymouth County 
Regiment. December 10, 1776, he marched as Captain in Colonel Jere- 
miah Hall's Regiment for service in Rhode Island and served three months 
and two days. In September; 1777, he was Captain of a Company in 
Colonel Theophilus Cotton's First Plymouth County Regiment for ser- 
vice in Rhode Island. "Hay ward Peirce, Eq.," died in Scituate, October 
18, 1826, aged 73 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT AMOS SFIAW of Abington was a Sergeant 
in Captain Edward Cobb's Company of Militia, Colonel Edward Mitchell's 
Regiment which marched on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775. May 
! 9- 1/75, he was commissioned Lieutenant in Captain Eleazer Hamlin- 



178 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Company General John Thomas's Regiment, and served through the year 
under General Thomas and Colonel Bailey. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT PRINCE STETSON of Hanover was the son 
of Abijah and Deborah (Turner) Stetson. He was born in that town in 
August, 1741. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he inarched 
as Sergeant in Captain Amos Turner's Company of Minute-Men, Colonel 
John Bailey's Regiment. May 3, 1775, he was engaged as Lieutenant 
under the same company commander in General John Thomas's Second 
Regiment Provincial Army. He served probably through the year, under 
General Thomas and Colonel Bailey. He was a First Lieutenant in 
Colonel John Bailey's Continental Army in 1776. June 27, 1777, he was 
commissioned Captain of a matross company stationed at Hanover. He 
later moved to Freeport, Me. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN TURNER, JUNIOR, of Pembroke, 
son of Judge and Mary Turner, was born August 8, 1741. He was Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Freedom Chamberlain's Company, Colonel John Bailey's 
Regiment on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. May 3. 1775, he was 
engaged in the same rank in General John Thomas's 2nd Regiment, Pro- 
vincial Army, and served through the year under General Thomas and 
Colonel Bailey. In a company return dated October 6. 1775. he was 
called ''First Lieutenant''. May 10, 1776, he was commissioned Captain 
in Colonel John Cushing's Second Plymouth County Regiment. He 
served in that rank in this regiment in the Rhode Island service in Sep- 
tember and December of that year. September 28, 1777, he marched as 
Captain in Colonel Theophilus Cotton's First Plymouth County Regiment. 
From November 6, 1777, to April 3, 1778, he was Captain in Colonel 
Eleazor Brooks's Regiment of Guards, and from July 10 to October 30, 
1780, was Captain in Colonel John Jacob's Regiment in the Rhode Island 
service. In the History of the "Descendants of Humphrey Turner", it is 
said of Captain John Turner that he "was distinguished as a man of abil- 
ity, good sense and discriminating judgment, and succeeded to a good 
share of the influence and usefulness possessed by his father." He was 
selectman or assessor thirty-five years, representative in the Legislature 
twenty years, and town clerk twenty-eight years. He was a member of the 
First and Second Provincial Congresses and a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of Massachusetts. He was a lustice of the Peace. 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEYS REGT. 179 

"Pie was decidedly a practical man, affable and liberal , benevolent and 
arduous in his endeavors to promote moral and social enterprise.-, and 
was considered in a metaphorical sense the father of the town." He died 
December 22, 1890, aged 79 years." 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSHUA BARSTOW (given erroneously 
as "John Barlow" in one list) of Hanover was the son of Joshua and Eliza 
beth (Foster) Barstow. He was born June 27 (T. R.) July 7 (Fam. R.) 
1749. He was a Sergeant in Captain Amos Turner's Company, Colonel 
John Bailey's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington Alarm, April 
19, 1775, serving fourteen days. May 3, 1775, he enlisted as Ensign in the 
same Captain's Company, General John Thomas's Second Regiment. Pro- 
vincial Army. In a return dated October, 1775, he was called Second 
Lieutenant in Colonel John Bailey's 35th Regiment, Army United Colonies. 
In a list of officers of the Massachusetts Militia, year not given (proba- 
bly 1776) he was called First Lieutenant in the Artillery Company of the 
2nd Plymouth County Regiment. He conducted Barstow's Forge in 
Hanover, until he removed to Exeter, N. H., about 1795. He lived in the 
latter town until December 22, 1821, when he died at the age of 73 years. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT SETH BATES of Hanover was the son 
of Clement and Anne (Neal) Bates. He was born in October, 1735. He 
held the above rank in Captain Amos Turner's Company, Colonel John 
Bailey's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 
1775, and served fourteen days. In the History of Hanover he was called 
"Colonel Seth Bates". The statement is made that "he was an officer in 
the Revolutionary War, and had the reputation of being brave and effi- 
cient. He built a house on Central Street, later occupied by Enos Bates." 

SECOND LIEUTENANT DAVID COBB of Abington was a private 
in Captain Lemuel Dunber's Company, serving from April 6 to November 
I, 1759. He was twenty-four years old at this time, as a record for service 
the year previous in Canada showed his age twenty-three years. He was 
a Sergeant in Captain William Reed's Company of Minute-Men in Colonel 
John Bailey's Regiment which marched on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 
1775, serving eight days. Fie was an Ensign in General John Thomas's Sec- 
ond Regiment, Provincial Army, and later Second Lieutenant in Colonel 
John Bailey's 35th Regiment, Army United Colonies, serving through 



180 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

the year. He was a Lieutenant serving as volunteer in Colonel Edward 
Mitchell's Third Plymouth County Regiment, in March, 1776. Later in 
the year he served in the same regiment on a Rhode Island alarm. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ROBERT DAWES of Bridge water was 
the son of Robert and Lydia (Harden) Dawes. He was born in 1747. 
He held that rank in Captain Robert Orr's Company of Minute-Men, 
which marched on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775. He joined 
Colonel Bailey's Regiment, December 10, 1775. In August, 1776, his 
name appears on the pay roll in Capfain James Allen's Company, Colonel 
Simeon Cary's Regiment. He removed to Cummington from Bridge- 
water. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT SOLOMON SHAW of Abington was 
given that rank in a list of officers in Captain William Reed's Company, 
Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775. May 19. 1775, he was commissioned Ensign in Captain 
William Reed's Company, Colonel John Thomas's Second Regiment, Pro- 
vincial Army. 

ENSIGN NATHANIEL CHITTENDEN of Scituate was the son of 
Nathaniel and Desire (Otis) Chittenden. He was born in that town 
December 4, 1751. He served as a Sergeant in Captain John Clapp's 
Company of Minute-Men, Colonel John Bailey's Regiment on the Lexing- 
ton Alarm, April 19. 1775. May 3rd of that year he enlisted as Ensign in 
Captain Nathaniel Winslow's Company, General John Thomas's Second 
Regiment, Provincial Army. He served through the year under General 
Thomas and Colonel Bailey. 

ENSIGN JOSEPH COLE, JUNIOR, of Bridgewater was the son of 
Joseph and Mary (Stephens) Cole. He was born in Plympton in 1734- 
From September 11 to December 27, 1755, he was Corporal in Captain 
Joseph Washburn's Company on the Expedition to Crown Point. From 
April 22nd to December 2, 1756, he was Sergeant in Captain John Clapp. 
Junior's Company. April 19, 1775, he marched as Sergeant in Captain 
Josiah Hayden's Company of Minute-Men, Colonel John Bailey's Regi- 
ment, on the Lexington alarm. May 19. 1775. he was commissioned En- 
sign under the same Captain, and held that rank through the year in 



GEN. JOHN THOMAS'S AND COL. JOHN BAILEY'S REGT. 181 

General Thomas's and Colonel Bailey's Regiments. February 21, [778, 

he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Elisha Mitchell's Com- 
pany, Colonel Simeon Gary's Regiment. His name appears on the pay 
roll July 6, 1777, as Captain in Colonel Robinson's Regiment for ser- 
vice in Rhode Island. From January 1.1778, to the end of his term of 
enlistment, January 1, 1775, he was a Captain in Colonel John Jacobs's 
Light Infantry Regiment. 

ENSIGN PICKLES CUSHTNG of Scituate, son of Joseph and Lydia 
(King) Cushing, was born in that town in 1743. He marched on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775, as Ensign in Captain Samuel Stock- 
bridge's Company of Minute-Men, Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, and 
served twenty-one days. He was probably the man of that name who 
served as private for seven days in February, 1776, in Captain Nathaniel 
Winslow's Company, Colonel Simeon Cary's Regiment : and eleven days 
in December, 1776, on a Rhode Island alarm in Captain Francis Cushing's 
Company, Colonel John Cushing's Plymouth County Regiment. 

ENSIGN ABNER HAYWARD (also called Howard) of Bridge- 
water was the son of Abner and Mary (Alger) Hayward. From April 
10th to May 2, 1775, he was Sergeant in Captain Daniel Lothrop's Artil- 
lery Company, Colonel John Bailey's Regiment. May 3, 1775, he enlisted 
as Ensign in Captain Daniel Lothrop's Company, General Thomas's Sec- 
ond Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year under Gen- 
eral Thomas and Colonel Bailey. During 1776 he was First Lieutenant 
in Colonel John Bailey's 23d Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 
1777, he became First Lieutenant in Captain Ephraim Burr's Company, 
Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, Masssachusetts Line, and served nine 
months and nineteen days as Lieutenant, following which he served as 
Captain in this Regiment until December 31, 1780. 

ENSIGN JOFIN LEAVITT of Pembroke, son of John Leavitt. was born 
March 13, 175 1. He was Ensign in Captain Freedom Chamberlain's Com- 
pany, Colonel John Bailey's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 
1/75, and served fourteen days. May 3, 1775, he was engaged as Ensign 
under the same Captain in General John Thomas's Second Regiment, Pro- 
vincial Army. During 1776, he served as Second Lieutenant in Colonel 
John Bailey's 23rd Regiment, Continental Army. June 10, 1778, he was 



i82 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

engaged as First Lieutenant in Captain Nathan Roll's Company, Colonel 
John Jacobs's Light Infantry Regiment and served six months and twenty- 
three days. From July ioth to October 30, 1780, he was Lieutenant in 
Captain John Turner's Company, Colonel John Jacobs's Regiment, for 
service in Rhode Island. 

ENSIGN CALEB NICHOLS oi Scituate served as a private in Captain 
William Turner's Scituate Company of Militia, Colonel Anthony Thomas's 
Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. We 
know that he served as Ensign in Captain Samuel Stockbridge's Company, 
General John Thomas's Regiment, and later through the year in Colonel 
Bailey's Regiment, for an order for a bounty coat, dated January 17. 1776, 
is preserved in the Archives. 

ENSIGN INCREASE ROBINSON, JUNIOR, of Pembroke, was the 
son of Increase Robinson. He served on an expedition to Canada in 1758, 
and from March 30th to November 1, 1759., was a private in Captain Abel 
Keen's Company, Colonel Thomas Clapp's Regiment. From January 1st 
to June 7, 1760, he served under the same Captain in Colonel Thwing's 
Regiment at Nova Scotia. He was a Sergeant in Captain Eleazer Ham- 
lin's Company, General John Thomas's Regiment. June 1, 1775, he was 
engaged as Ensign in the same company and regiment, and served through 
the year under General Thomas and Colonel Bailey. May 10, 1776, he 
was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain James Hatch's Company, 
Colonel John Thomas's Second Plymouth County Regiment. September 
21, 1776, he was Second Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Stetson's Com- 
pany, Colonel Nicholas Dike's Regiment, and served until the latter part 
of the year. 

ENSIGN JACOB (also called ISRAEL) ROGERS of Marshrield held 
that rank in Captain Elijah Crooker's Company, General John Thomas's 
Regiment. He was engaged April 20, 1775, and served through the year. 

ENSIGN PEREZ WARREN was commissioned in that rank May 19. 
1775, to serve in Captain James Allen's Company, General John Thomas's 
Second Regiment, Provincial Army. 



This is the fourteenth instalment of a series of articles on Massachusetts Pioneers to other state* to be 
published by The Massachusetts Magazine.) 

MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS. 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By Charles A. Flagg 



Besides the abbreviations of book titles, (explained on pa^es 76, 77. 78 and 79 of April, and page lS'i of 
July, 1908 issues) the following are used: b. for born; d. for died; m. for married; set. for settled in. 



Underwood, E. E.. of Otis; b. 1806; set. 
N. Y., 1814, Mich., 1832. Jackson Hist.. 

933- 
Edmund, b. 1803; set. O.. 1835? 

Mich., 1870? Clinton Port., 525. 
Samuel, set. N. Y. f 1814; Mich., 

1832. Jackson Hist., 933. 
Upham, Joshua C, set. Vt., O., 1836. 

Kalamazoo Port., 221. 
Upton, Elias, b. Heath, 1790? 1812 

soldier; set. Mich., 1S56 or 1857. Clin- 
ton Past, 421, 486; Clinton Port., 869. 
Frank W., b. Charlemont, 1849; set. 

Mich., 1856. Clinton Past, 420. 
Hart L., b. Heath, 1827; set. N. Y., 

Mich., 1856. Clinton Port.. S69. 
-Henry, set. Mich., 1829. Newaygo, 

252. 
James, b. Heath, 1821; set. N. H., 

Mich. Shiawassee, 518. 
James, set. Mich., 1850? Clinton 

Past, 486. 
Josiah. b. Heath, 1824; set. M ; ch.. 

1856. Clinton Past, 420, 421. 
Mary, m. 1st, 1800? Richard Floyd 

of Vt.; m. 2d, Joseph Fuller, of N. Y. 

Hillsdale Port., 529. 
Sarah, b. Charlemont. 1819; m. 1846 

Justin W. Beckwith of Mass. and 

Mich. Clinton Port.. 820. 
Ure, Margaret E.. m. 1854 Francis L. 

O. Ranks of Mich. Midland, 241. 

Vader, Eliza, m. 1820? Jefferson Louden 
of N. Y. and Mich. Lenawee Port.. 
993- 

Valentine. Augusta M. of Cambridge- 
port ; m. 1848 Ezra T. Nelson of M : ch. 
Grand Rapids Lowell. 464; Kent, 1089. 

Van Dl'sen. S. A., b. Berkshire Co.. 
1838; set. N. Y., Mich., 1861. Bay 
Hist., 151. 



Vansickle, John VV., b. Hunterdon? 

17S7; set. Mich. 1S31. Washtenaw 

Hist., 630. 
Vaugitan, David C. b. New Salem; set. 

N. Y., 1825. Jackson Port., 265. 
Sewell S.. b. Franklin Co., 1820; set. 

N. Y., 1825, Mich., 1836. Jackson 

Hist., 744; Jackson Port., 266. 
Vhay, John, b. New Bedford, 1848; set. 

Mich. Wayne Land., appendix, 279. 
Vilas, Aaron, b. Worcester Co., 1770; 

set. Vt., Canada. Genesee Port., 812. 
Vincent, Edwin H., b. Florida, 1850; 

set. Mich. Berrien Port., 306. 
Isaac M., b. Franklin Co., 1822; set. 

Mich.. 1865. Berrien Port., 306. 
Sarah, b. Coleraine. 1814: m. 1844 

Robert Gragg of Mich. Lenawee Hi^t. 

I, 181. 
Vinton, David. Tr.. b. Hampshire Co., 

1828; set. O., Ind.. Mich.. 1870. Trav- 
erse, 91. 



Hannah, b. t8io? 



Samuel VV. 



Herrington of N. Y.. Penn. and Mich. 

Genesee Port.. 861. 
Vose, Lucy, m. Joseph Shepard of X. 

Y. Berrien Port.. 673. 
Vroman, Mrs. Eliza, b. Salem. Apr. 25, 

1811; set. Mich., 1852. Jackson Hist., 

153. 

Wade. Ebenezer F. b. Franklin Co., 
1S10; set. Mich., 1843 St. Clair, 124. 

John P.. b. Scituate Harbor, 1822; 

set. Mich.. 1S44. Allegan Twent., 147: 
Kalamazoo Port., 363. 

-Jonathan, set. Canada, 1815' New- 
aygo, 296. 

Uriah, b. 179^ set N. Y., 1800. 

Mich., 1835- Jackson Hist., 842. . 



(183) 



184 



MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Wadsworth, Minerva, m. 1830? Silas 

Churchill of N. Y. Sanilac, 390. 
Wait, Asenath, m. 1S25 Ja:ob Hosner 

of X. Y. and Mich. Oakland Port., 

033. 
Waite. Elihu, b. 1796; set. N. Y., Mich. 

Genesee Port., 552. 
Waldo F., b. 1825; set. Mich., 1S50. 

Northern M., 193- 
Wales, Mary, b. Milford, 1833; m. Simon 

Woodbury of O. Clinton Past, 3S9. 
Walker, Mrs. Arethusa (wife of Joel, of 

Mich.) b. Greenfield, 1S1S. Hillsdale 

Port., 486. 
Daniel, set. Vt., 1800? Lenawee 

Port., 613. 
David S.. b. Berkshire Co.; set. N. 

Y., 1810? Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 518. 
Edward, set. X. Y.; d. 1828. Gra- 
tiot, 698. 
Eliakim. b. Taunton, 1801; set. Can- 
ada, 1805, Mich., 1835. Washtenaw 

Hist., 631. 
Emma L., of Northboro; m. 1855 

George F. Warren of Mass. and Mich. 

Saginaw Port., 28S. 
Enos, Revolutionary soldier; set. 

Vt., 1780? Jackson Port., 787. 
George E., b. Berkshire Co.. 1824; 

set. Mich., 1835. Ingham Port.. 454. 
Jonathan, b. Harwich, 1790; set. 

Mich., 1863. Muskegon Hist., 38. 
Myron H., b. Westboro, 1855; set. 

Mich., 1870. Grand Rapids City, 448; 

Grand Rapids Hist., 756. 

Rebecca, b. 1821; m. 1840? Erasmus 

Brown of X. Y. and Mich. Lansing, 
492. 

Silas, of Westboro, b. H olden, i8ri; 

set. Mich., 1870. Grand Rapids City, 
488.; Grand Rapids Hist., 750. 

Tisdal, set. N. Y., 1800? Lenawee 

•Hist. II, 336. 

Wallace, George, b. Townsend, 1808; 



set. N. Y 



Mich., 1837 or 1838. 



Clinton Port., 259; Saginaw Hist., 914; 
Saginaw Port., 8r2. 

Walton, Mrs. Jane B., b. 1809 
Mich., 1838. Cass Twent., 89. 



Ward, Sally, nv. 1S1 5? John Soule of 
X. Y. and Midi. Macomb !li-t. 673 

Trowbridge, 1». Worthington. [816; 

set. ( )., 1S33, Mich., [854 Hill 

Port., 357. 

Ware, Catherine A., of Ware; m 1835 

Jacob M. Howard of Mich. Wayne 
Chron., 176. 

Phebc. of Shelburne Falls; r.i 

Jeduthan Cross of Mass. and N. V. 
Lenawee Hist. I. 324. 

Warn, Abram, b. 1798; set. X. Y., [815? 

Northern P., 70. 
Warner, James, set. X. Y., 1795? Clin- 
ton Port., 428. 
John, b. Conway, 1781; set. X. Y.? 

Wayne Land., 850. 
Oliver, set. X. Y., 1810? d. 1825 

Washtenaw Hist., 1273. 
Stephen, b. Cummington, 1779; set. 

Mich., 1831. Lenawee Hist. I, 351. 
William W., b. Hampden Co.. 1840. 

Allegan Twent., iot. 
Warren. George F., b. Ashby, 1831; set. 

Mich., 1859? Saginaw Port., 288. 
Philip, b. Xorfolk Co., 17S3; set. 

Mich. Hillsdale Port., 232. 

Rachel, b. Cheshire, 1777; m. 1810 

' Jabez Steward of X. Y. Hillsdale 

Hist., 193. 
Robert, S.. b. Pittsfield. 1824; set. 

N. Y., 1840? Berrien Twent.. 724. 
Thankful, b. Boston; m. 1S05? John 

Dawson of X. Y. Clinton Port.. 308. 
Warrener, Eli. set. X. Y., O. 1852. 

Mich.. 1*64. Clinton Port.. 6S7. 
Waterman, Alanson H ., b 1817; set. 

X. Y.. Penn., O . Mich., 1864. Mec <>'n. 

-Oliver, set. X. Y.„ 1820? Penn; d. 

lS58. Mecosta. 350. 
Waters. Jonathan, b. 1784; set Mich 

W'ashtenaw Hist, 591. 
W'atkins Alanson, set. Mich.. 1870 

Branch Twent., 343 

Dollie. b. Berkshire Co, 1785' m. 

Jesse Goodwin of N. Y. Jackson 

Port., 854 
Ephraim, b. Berkshire Co., 1788; 

set. N. Y.. Hillsdale Port.. 446. 589 



PIONEERS FROM MASSACHUSETTS 



'85 



Watkins, Esther, m. 1810? Reuben Slay- 
ton of Mass. and N. Y. Lenawee Tort., 

431- 
Esther, m. Titus R. Read of N. Y. 

and Mich. Berrien Port., 349. 
Gilbert N. Revolutionary soldier; 

set. N. Y.; d. 1827. Cass 'Hist., 176. 
Hannah, m. 1S0S? Elnathan Wing 

of X. Y. Clinton Port., 774. 
Levi, b. Partridgefield, 1785; set. N. 

Y., 1793, Mich., 1832. St. Joseph, 179. 
Watson, A. J., of Boston; set. Mich., 

1876. Berrien Hist., 148. 
John W., of Worcester Co., bought 

land in Mich., 1834. Allegan Hist., 

218. 221. 
Susan, b. 1788; m. James Livermore 

of Me. and Mich. Ingham Port., 198. 
Willliam, set. Mich., 1834. Jackson 

Port., 243. 
Watt, Charles A., b. Pittsfield, 1859; set. 

Mich., 1869. Grand Rapids Hist., 788. 
Clara W., b. Litchfield, 1S61; m. 

Harmon Cowens of Mich. Grand 

Rapids City, 116. 
Watterman, William P., b. Shutesbury, 

1828; set. Mich., 1866. Jackson Hist., 

818. 
Wattles, Eunice, m. 1825? Jeremiah 

Van Wormer, of N. Y. and Mich. 

Jackson Hist., 841. 
Weatiierbv, William, Sr., b. near Bos- 
ton, 1769; set. Vt., 1798, X. Y., 1823, 

Mich., 1831. Lenawee Hist. I, 136.; 

Lenawee Illus., 117; Lenawee Port., 

1020. 
Weaver, Daniel, set. N. Y., Mich., 1855. 

Newaygo, 201. 

Webb. Loomis, b. 1803; set. N. Y., 1851 
Clinton Past, 164. 

Lucy, m. 1805? Jesse Holcomb oi 

N. Y. Ionia Port., 783. 

Newton L., b. Otis, 1840; set. Mich., 

1872. Clinton Past, 164 

Webster, Edwin D., b. Franklin Co., 
T828; set. Mich., 1834. Clinton Port., 
596. 

John, b. Berkshire Co.; set. N. Y, 

1800. Clinton Port., 754. 



set. Mich.; d. i 6 



Aus- 



; sel 
Hist, 



b. Dcerfield, 1 
Lenawee Hist. II, 

Washtenaw 

Adams; m. 1839 
A 

1815. X. J. Ing- 

m. 1810? Joshua 



Webster, Lyman, 

Gratiot, 499. 
Lyman, set. Mich., 1S34, Cal. 

tralia. Clinton Port., 596, 970. 
: Stewart II., b. Berkshire Co 

X. Y., Mich., 1835. Genesee 

186. 

Wellman, Eustis J., b. near Boston, 
1S23; set Vt.. N. H., N. Y., Mich, 
1844. Grand Rapids City, 1074. 

Isaac, b. Mansfield, 1790; set. Vt.. 

1849, N. Y., Mich. Grand Rapids City, 
1074. 

Wells, Charles C, 
set. Mich., 1S33. 
290. 

David, set. Vt., 1810? 

-Hist., 1353. 

Xancy K., b. N. 

Leonard G. Hall oi N. Y. and Mich. 
Lenawee Port., 918. 

Oziah, set. X. Y., 

ham Hist., 491. 

Phoebe, b. 1779; 

Lapham of Mass. and Mich. Oakland 
Port., 789. 

Wenthworth, Lora A., b. Windsor? m. 
1829 Melzar Bird of N. Y. and Mich. 
Ingham Port., 770. 

Sion, b. Sharon, 1769; set. Maine, 

1795? Bay Gansser, 555. 

Wesson, Leonard, set. Mich., 1840: 
Midland, 363. 

Leonard, b. Millbury, 1818; set. 

Mich. Genesee Port., 734. 

William B., b. Hardwick, 1820; set. 

Mich. 1833. Detroit, 1074; Wayne 
Chron., 354. 

West, Lyman, set. O., 1840? Mich. 1S67. 
Clinton Past, 23S. 

Xathan, set. X. Y., O., 1800? Lena- 
wee Hist. II, 491; Lenawee Port.. 109. 

Xathan B., b. Lee, 1816; set. Mich. 

Kalamazoo Port., 557. 

Timothy X., set. Mich., 1836. Kal- 
amazoo Port., 557. 

Weston, Jacob, set. Mich., 1836. Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 715. 

Samuel, set. Me.. 1770' d. 1776? 

Muskegon Hist., 134 



Ig 6 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Westover James, b. l8lO? set. Ind. .Amanda, of Ashfield; m. 1823 Wil- 

Genesee Port., 5 79- liam M. Ferry of Mich. Grand Rap- 
Luther, b. Berkshire Co., 1817; set. »ds Lowell, appendix, 23, Ottawa 

Canada, 1845, Mich., 18G5. Bay Hist., Hist., t,^>- 

I22 - Azuba, b. Douglas, 1807; m. Azariah 

Wetherbee, William, set. N. Y., Mich., Mallory of N. V. and Mich. Hills- 

1830? Berrien Port., 410. dale Hist., 250; Kent. 1222. 

Wetherell, Noah, 1S12 soldier; set. N. Benjamin, b. 1775; set. X. Y., 1800: 

Y., 1810? Osceola. 279. Kent, 1384. 

Wheat, Benjamin, b. Conway, 1720? set. Bryant, set. N. Y., Ind. Hillsdale 

N. Y. Branch Port., 612/ Port., 755. 
Benjamin, b. 1790? set. N. Y.; d. Calvin C, b. Grafton, 1803; set. 

1817. Branch Hist., 193; Branch Port., Mich., 1832. Allegan Twent., 572. 

612. Cynthia, m. 1790? Moses Baker of 

Wheaton, Robert, set. N. Y., 1795? Le- N. Y. and Mich. Lenawee Illus., 148. 

nawee Hist. II, 395. . Erastus, b. 1828; set. Vt., 1850? 

Wilbur, b., 17S7: set. N. Y., Mich., Clinton Port., 527. 

1835- Lenawee Hist. II, 395. J. D., set. N. Y., 1830? Mich.. 1S50. 

Wheeler, Aaron, b. 1770; set. N. Y., Washtenaw Hist., 1055. 

1800? W r ashtenaw Hist., 663. John, b. 1790; set. Mich., 111. Xorth- 

Benjamin, Revolutionary soldier; ern M., 3°4- 

set., N. Y. Oakland Port.,' 768. John, b. Blanford, 1800; set. N. Y., 

Cyrus, b. Berkshire Co.. 1791; set. l820? Saginaw Port., 824. 

N. Y. Kalamazoo Port., 310. Jonas, b. Salton, 1795; set. O. Kal- 

Katy, of Shrewsbury; m. 1777 amazoo Port.. 819. 

Stephen Clapp of N. Y. Lenawee Joseph H., b. 1821; set. O., Mich., 

Hist. I, 492. 1851. Kalamazoo Port., 819. 
Mary, m. 1835? Joseph Harris of -Laura C, b. Berkshire Co.; m. 1825? 

Mich. Washtenaw Port., 355. John Stitt of O. and Mich. Gratiot, 
Reuben, of Gardner; set. Mich., 442, 512. 

1840. Lenawee Port., 844. Leonard, set, N. Y., Mich., 1843. 

Wheelock, Royal, b., 1766; set N. Y., Kent, 602. 

1790? Washtenaw Port., 609. Levi G., b. Plainheld, 1821; set. O., 

Whipple, Abigail J., b. Pelham, 1815; l82 5» Mich., 1865. Gratiot, 543 . 

m. 1836 George W. Chapman of Mass. Lucy m. 1810? Eseck Burlingame 

and Mich. Saginaw Hist., 815. of N. V. Calhoun, 133. 
Adella E., of Douglas; m. 1872 Maria, m. 1815? Caleb Bates 01" O. 

Walter M. Adams of Mass. and Mich. and Mich. Hillsdale 1'ort., 875. 

Detroit, 1394. Marvel A., b. Worcester Co., 1821; 

Jerusha, b. 1806; m. William Crane set. N. Y., Mich., 1846. .Oakland Port, 

of O. and Mich. Hillsdale Port., 720. 780. 
Mason, set. N. Y., 1815, Mich. 1833; Mary A. (or VV.), b. Ashfield, 1813; 

d. 1842. Washtenaw Hist., 819. set. Mich., 1835. Grand Rapids Low- 

Whitaker, Flavilla, b. Springfield, 1805; ell, appendix. 69; Ottawa Hist., 52. 

m. George W. Palmer of Mich. Ne- Samuel, b. Granby, 1798; set. Can- 

waygo, 376. ada, N- Y., Mich., 1833. Branch Port., 

Whitcomb, Charles H., b. Ashby, 1844; 494- 

set. Mich., 1873. Berrien Twent., 602. Thomas \V., b. Ashfield, 1805; set 

White, Abisha, of Douglas; set. N. Y., Mich.. 1833' Crand Rapids City, 

1800? Hillsdale Hist., 250. »oo; Kent. 261. 

(To be continued; 



(&>viim^m $c (Jommrat 



on g>onfytf mtu ^tljec jgubjecl^ 



The original manuscript of "'America''' ("My County, Tis of Thee") 
written hy Rev. Samuel Francis Smith, has been presented to Harvard 
College Library by the surviving children of Dr. Smith. In a happily 
phrased acknowledgment Librarian Lane referred to it as "one of the 
most precious bits of original manuscripts which any American library 
could desire to own." 



Ex-Governor John D. Long is to have a new edition of his poems out 
before Christmas, in modest booklet form. It will be largely a reprint 
of the edition which appeared ten years ago, and will be entitled "At the 
Fireside." I saw, recently, one of these poems included in the "'Hear: 
Throbs" collection, published by a popular magazine. 



The Literary Digest wrote to 367 editors of American newspapers and 
asked their sentiment on the European war. Twenty favored the Ger- 
mans, 105 favored the Allies, 242 declared themselves neutral. Proceeding 
to an anlysis of the geographical distribution of the '•returns," it was found 
that the central states sent in the most votes for Germany, only one East- 
ern state favoring. The Literary Digest concludes that the "marked lean 
ing of New England towards the Allies is possibly due to the lineage of a 
majority of its inhabitants." 



^VYriting for a California newspaper, John D. Barry has recently said: 
"For many years I passed the wide spaces of Boston Common without 
thinking much about them, enjoying the openness and the greenness, and 
the expanse of the sky( but never realizing the marvel of it all, the spirit 
behind, reaching back to a civic consciousness wise and far-seeing, and 
related to the ideal commonwealth that we are working towards and that 
some people are still so foolish as to consider impossible . . . and "the 

(187) 



i88 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

best thing that can be said about Boston Common is that it is used, and 
extensively used, at all times of the waking day." 



The Parker Historic and Genealogical Society met in Wakefield on 
October ioth, and held their annual reunion in the Congregational Church, 
some 30 members from different parts of the state being in attendance. 
An address on "The Parkers of Reading" was given by Theodore Parker 
of Worcester, and the following officers elected: Dr. Moses Greeley Parker 
of Lowell, president; Charles Wallingford Parker of Boston, Herbert Par- 
ker of Lancaster, Willard S. Morse of New York, and Walter L. Parker 
of Lowell, vice-presidents ; Frederick Wesley Parker, treasurer ; Capt. 
John Lord Parker, Lynn, registrar and historian ; Theodore Parker, 
Worcester, correspondent secretary ; Robert Dickson West, secretary for 
English research. 



During the past year Boston's famous old Athenaeum library, en Bea- 
con street, has been entirely rebuilt on the inside with fire-proof materials, 
and has had two new stories built on top. The work has been done while 
the library force and part of the books remained in the building, two- 
thirds of the collection of books being stored in the new vaults of the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, while the work was in prog- 
ress. The architects accomplished the task of replacing the old wooden 
finish of the interior in cement and steel, exactly as it was before. This 
removes from rire hazard one more of the priceless collections of books 
and manuscripts housed in Boston's libraries. In the two new stories 
on top has been built a beautiful new reading room. 



Up on Beacon Hill by the State House there is bustle and activity. 
Derricks and engines of various kinds are dipping and swinging and heav- 
ing; some men are digging and other men are supervising and still others 
are loitering idly near looking on. But if you should leave these scenes 
of the work-a-day world and turn off down Ashburton place and climb 
three flights of quiet stairs you would find yourself far, far away from 
all sight and all thought of today and tomorrow, for you will be in the 
land of yesterday. Books are ranged around this pleasant, gravely-lighted 
room; there are tables where silent readers are sitting; there is a librarian 
in an atmosphere of peace instead of the usual one of pertubation. You 
are in the rooms of the New England Historic Genealogical Society, sur- 



' 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM 189 

rounded by the achives of the past. There is an old man turning the 
leaves of a book wistfully; he seems to be seeking less the record of his 
ancestors than a place for himself in that long catalogue. Here arc two 
young girls — school girls, perhaps — leaning over a great tome together. 
What are they hunting for? How curious those bright heads look so 
close to that symbol of mortality ; how strange the fresh faces seriously 
scanning the records of the past. 

In the visitors' book one reads names of persons from Japan. India 
and the Hawaiian Islands; they came from all the world seeking informa- 
tion in this room. 

There is a decorous atmosphere to the place; almost a cheerful solemn- 
ity; we feel not a sadness, but a proper respect for our ancestors as we 
stand here. The stories which might once have been told by each of those 
men and women whose connection with this earth is now only the letters 
of a name would be no less interesting than those which might be told 
by their living representatives who come here. Indeed many a strange or 
romantic episode is confided to the librarian who is there to listen; but 
he locks them in his confidence and no one knows. 

It is an interesting institution — this library of the past. Outside the 
stir of life is in the air; shoppers hurry down Beacon street to Washing- 
ton ; state officials hurry up toward their place of business. But in this 
untroubled room there is no hurry; the hurrying is done; only the record 
is left for us to turn to in those rare half hours when we fall to musing. — 
Agnes Edzvards in Boston Herald. 



To the trained men of the professions and sciences the ways of news- 
paper writers are frequently a sore trial. 

The newspaper man is always looking for strong, bold statements 
with which to color and enliven his articles. He not only uses legitimate 
hyperbole to excess, but sees little harm in slight variation from the facts 
if he can thereby make out a "good story." While these ''slight'' varia- 
tions often make little or no difference to the general public, they usually 
place the trained expert they are quoting in a ridiculous light before his 
compeers. 

One of the most aggravating misquotations of this kind of which we 
have recently heard fell to the lot of Mr. George Ernest Bowman, editor 
of the Mayflower Descendant. A news article was published in the Boston 
Post, announcing that a great find had been made by the Society of 



igo MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Mayflower Descendants; that a genuine signature of one of the passen- 
gers had been discovered; and that this was the first and onlv one ever 
found. 

A Plymouth paper immediately criticized Mr. Bowman, insinuating 
that he was not familiar with Plymouth records. 

The Sunday Post then, without giving Mr. Bowman an opportunity 
to reply, printed another article which made the case appear still worse. 

Two days later, another paper took the matter up, and this time >tated 
that the Plymouth people challenged the authenticity of the signature. 

As a matter of fact. Mr. Bowman did not claim to have found the only 
Mayflower autograph, and reference to the Plymouth paper and to the 
Sunday Post show that the Plymouth people did not challenge the authen- 
ticity of the autograph. They merely challenged the supposed claim that 
he had found the only Mayflower' autograph. 

In the past sixteen years Mr. Bowman has shown in ''The Mayflower 
Descendant" more than seventeen autographs representing twelve differ- 
ent passengers of the Mayflower, in half tone illustrations, and the 
headings of two of his articles emphasize the fact that this Society now 
owns tzi'o Mayflower autographs. 



This tribute to Gamaliel Bradford is paid by the Boston Beacon: "For 
some vears past, Gamaliel Bradford has been studying American 
personalities, and especially the personalities of men devoted to the cause 
of the south prior to, during and following the Civil War. A northerner 
himself, of an ancestry diametrically opposed in all its sympathies and 
prejudices to the southern points of view both with regard to slavery and 
to state's rights, Mr. Bradford has nevertheless been able to investigate 
and write about southern leaders in a most dispassionate way, and he is 
now accepted as an authority upon the subject. His life of General Lee 
has become a classic of American biographical literature." 

Mr. Bradford has a biographical essay in the Atlantic Monthly for 
October upon General George B. McClellan. 

Tufts College is one of the younger institutions of learning of the 
Eastern states, having been established in 1855 and the faculty is therefore 
much pleased this year over the entrance of a freshman who is the first 
of the college's third generation to appear. The student is Philip Billiard 
Lewis of Somerville, who was born in 1895. Both his father and his 
grandfather were graduates of Tufts. His grandfather graduated with 



COMMENT AND CRITICISM igi 

t ! ie first class to receive degrees, in 1863, at the time when Tufts was a 
Universalist sectarian school, for which the founder, Charles Tufts, in- 
tended it. His father, Prof. Leo R. Lewis, graduated in the class of [887. 
and became instructor in languages and music at the college 



The monument recently erected to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 

Cambridge recalls that this most popular of all American poets received 
some years ago the honor of a bust in the "poets' corner" in Westminster 
Abbey, but this is the first monument to his memory at the hands of his 
fellow countrymen. Honors of this kind are usually to heroes of war, 
statesmen and pioneers. We recall but one other monument to a poet 
in this country — the statue of William Cullen Bryant, in New York, 
on Broadway: and this is probably more in memory of his service as 
editor of a great newspaper, than to his genius as a poet. 



A movement was started a number of years ago to erect a suitable 
memorial to Poe. in Baltimore, and the Edgar Allen Poe Memorial Asso- 
ciation was formed for the purpose of collecting funds to erect such a 
memorial. In August, 191 1, Sir Moses Ezekiel, the Virginia sculptor. 
was commissioned to make the statue, which will be completed during 
the first of the coming year. It is to be a bronze figure of Poe in heroic 
size, seated in the attitude of listening, and will be mounted on a stone 
base. The site for it has not vet been selected. Poe was born in Boston. 



The great work done by horticulturists never receives the reward of 
fame it deserves. Once in a lifetime there arises such a man as Luther 
Burbank, who by the force of a strong individuality as well as the merit 
of his work, rises easily to ^celebrity, but he is an exception. Who. for 
instance, can tell the name of the originator of the Concord grape or the 
Baldwin apple or the Bartlett pear, or who that has not made a special 
study of horticulture can tell what the names of Marshall P. Wilder, 
Edward S. Rogers and Jacob Moore stand for. The horitculturist as a 
rule must be content with his achievements and with a knowledge of the 
great service he has done the world, for his name will be remembered 
and honored only by a few specialists. 

A few days ago there died at his home in Norwood, Mass., one of tlie 
leaders in modern horticultural experiments and developments says the 
American Agriculturist. His name was Nelson Bonney White, and he 



192 MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

lived to be ninety years old. His specialty in horticulture was grape cu! 
ture, and for more than half a century he had studied and labored in the 

origination of new and valuable varities. In his little garden at \<-rv. 
as did Rogers in Salem more than fifty years ago, Mr. White proved what 
can be done by an intelligent mind and a skilful hand, and it is not rash 
to prophesy that even although his name will appear only in nun 
catalogues and perhaps in an out-of-the-way corner of a biographical dic- 
tionary, the varieties of grapes he propagated will become as famous as 
the Concord and the Niagara, the Delaware and the Moore's Early. 

The "King Philip" is perhaps the best and best known of Mr. White's 
discoveries. Other productions of his are the "Early Bird." the "August 
Giant/' the '"Amber Queen," the "Norwood" and the ''Giant Cluster." 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND SUBJECTS FOR 

VOLUME VII. MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Prepared by Charles A. Flagg 



Authors' name s italicized 

"Big Gwynn", 129. Mackinaw boats, 92. 

Clarke, Malcolm, 93. Mansfield's Regiment, 1775, 32. 

Converse, C. Crozat, Thompson in Con- Michigan, Pioneers from Massachu^c: ts, 

necticut, 3. 6, 124. 

Cracon Du Nez, 93. Montana, Seal of, 131. 

Criticism and Comment Department, 46. Nixon's Regiment, 1775, 99. 

Danvers, A negro slave in, 13p. Owen, John, 130. 

Dauphin, Louis, 91. Page, Anne L., A negro slave in Danvers, 
Edgerton, Sidney, first Governor of Mon- 139. 

tana, 135. Reminiscences of Four-Score Years, 11, 
Flagg, Charles A., Pioneers from Mass- 85, 89, 129. 

achusetts in Michigan, 6, 124. Sanders, Wilbur F., 137. 

Fort Bethold, Montana, 91. Slave, A Negro, in Danvers, 139. 

Fort Pierre, Montana, 91. Stuart, Granville, 89. 

Fort Union, Montana, 92. Stuart, James, 89. 

Gardner, Frank A., M. D., Col. John Thompson, (town) in Connecticut. 3. 

Mansfield's Regiment, 1775, 32. Thompson, Judge Francis M., Reminis- 
Col. John Nixon's Regiment, 1775, cences of Four-Score Years, 11, 85, 

99. 89, 129. 
Col. Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, Whitcomb's (Asa), Regiment, 1775, 51. 



1775, 51. 






9 70o 



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