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NOVEMBER 11, 1908 






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Photographed from Clay Model 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 7 ] 

X?fie Reason Why 

ANY who were present at the dedication of the 
monument erected by the State of Massachu- 
setts in the National Cemetery at New Bern 
to the memory of her sons who died in the 
Department of North Carolina in 1861 — 1865, and also 
others who were unable to attend, have expressed a wish 
to obtain a picture of the monument and an account of 
the ceremonies incident to its dedication. 

The balance of the appropriation made by the State, 
after defraying the cost of the dedication, being insuffi- 
cient to meet the expense of such a record, I decided to 
publish an account on my individual responsibility. 

It seems not only appropriate, but even requisite, that 
such an account should be prefaced with a sketch of the 
services performed by Massachusetts troops which induced 
the State to erect this monument. Desiring to make this 
sketch as complete and as accurate as possible I have con- 
sulted various regimental histories and the "Official Rec- 
ord"; in addition, proofs were submitted for suggestion 
and criticism to at least one representative from each reg- 
iment interested, and I believe the chapter contains no 
material error. 

I hope this little book may be of interest to those who 
served in the Department of North Carolina during the 
civil war, and can assure my comrades and others if they 
derive as much pleasure from its perusal as I have in its 
preparation I shall feel amply repaid for my labor. 

Secretary Monument Committee 
Secretary 44th Mass. Reg't Ass'n 







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Massachusetts Memorial to Her S tnd Sailors [ 9 ] 

Services of Massachusetts Troops 

Department of North Carolina 

1861 - 1865 

as* as* 

|N one particular the state of North Carolina is 
unique. Although it is called a seaboard state 
but a small part of the main land actually borders 
on the ocean. A glance at the map shows that 
for about two thirds of its eastern boundary, from the Vir- 
ginia line southerly, the main land is separated from the 
Atlantic by Currituck, Croatan, Pamlico and Core Sounds, 
varying in width from five to forty-five miles, and these 
are in turn separated from the ocean by a narrow strip of 
sand in some places scarcely more than a quarter and sel- 
dom over a mile in width. 

In addition to those mentioned, Albemarle Sound, a 
sheet of water some fifty to sixty miles long and from ten 
to twenty wide, runs westward from Croatan. Emptying 
into these Sounds are the Chowan, Roanoke, Pamlico, Tar 
and Neuse rivers, all of which are navigable to a greater 
or less distance for light draft vessels, besides several 
others navigable only by small boats. 

The sandy strip of land which separates these Sounds 
from the Atlantic is broken in several places, called inlets, 
which form passages connecting the Sounds with the 
ocean. Few however are practicable for any but the 
lightest draft vessels, and except at Old Topsail Inlet, just 
south of Cape Lookout and which is the entrance to the 
harbor of Beaufort, about nine feet is the maximum 
depth. These conditions made this an ideal locality for 








3. V ;N FAN TRY 



Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 9 ] 

Services of Massachusetts Troops 

Department of North Carolina 

1861 - 1865 

'N one particular the state of North Carolina is 
unique. Although it is called a seaboard state 
but a small part of the main land actually borders 
on the ocean. A glance at the map shows that 
for about two thirds of its eastern boundary, from the Vir- 
ginia line southerly, the main land is separated from the 
Atlantic by Currituck, Croatan, Pamlico and Core Sounds, 
varying in width from five to forty-five miles, and these 
are in turn separated from the ocean by a narrow strip of 
sand in some places scarcely more than a quarter and sel- 
dom over a mile in width. 

In addition to those mentioned, Albemarle Sound, a 
sheet of water some fifty to sixty miles long and from ten 
to twenty wide, runs westward from Croatan. Emptying 
into these Sounds are the Chowan, Roanoke, Pamlico, Tar 
and Neuse rivers, all of which are navigable to a greater 
or less distance for light draft vessels, besides several 
others navigable only by small boats. 

The sandy strip of land which separates these Sounds 
from the Atlantic is broken in several places, called inlets, 
which form passages connecting the Sounds with the 
ocean. Few however are practicable for any but the 
lightest draft vessels, and except at Old Topsail Inlet, just 
south of Cape Lookout and which is the entrance to the 
harbor of Beaufort, about nine feet is the maximum 
depth. These conditions made this an ideal locality for 

[ 10 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

blockade runners which were generally of light draft, 
and as the water outside was shallow should a blockade 
runner succeed in passing the fleet, our vessels being 
unable to follow owing to their greater draft, it was 
practically safe from capture. 

As the Confederates depended for a large part of their 
supplies upon imports and as a numerous fleet was needed 
to properly guard and patrol the coast the Navy Depart- 
ment realized very early in the war the advisability of se- 
curing possession of one or more points in this territory, 
not only to enable it to dispense with part of the block- 
ading squadron but to secure a base for future operations. 
Admiral Ammen states that the War Department 
did not at that time grasp the importance of this move- 
ment. However, after considerable solicitation, General 
Wool consented to detail eight hundred men under Gen. 
Benjamin F. Butler, with orders to report to Flag Officer 
Silas H. Stringham and assist in the attempt to capture 
Forts Clark and Hatteras which commanded Hatteras 
Inlet, the passage most generally favored by blockade 
runners. "The object of the expedition being attained' ' 
the troops were to "return to Fort Monroe. " 

The land force consisted of five hundred men of the 
20th and two hundred of the 9th New York; one hundred 
of the Union Coast Guard; and sixty of the 2nd U.S. Ar- 
tillery. The expedition sailed from Fort Monroe on the 
morning of August 26, 1861, and arrived off Hatteras the 
same afternoon. The bombardment of the forts was 
begun on the 28th, discontinued later in the day as Flag 
Officer Stringham feared that unless he could make a 
greater offing some of his vessels might be blown ashore, 
resumed on the 29th, and before noon of that day the forts 
had surrendered. 

Immediately after the articles of capitulation had been 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 11 ] 

signed, Flag Officer Stringham and General Butler re- 
turned to Fort Monroe taking with them some five or six 
hundred captured Confederates, and leaving the Pawnee, 
Monticello, and tug Fanny, with detachments of the 9th 
and 20th New York and the Union Coast Guard, to hold 
the captured territory. Gen. Rush C. Hawkins was 
left in command. 

Sept. 6, Gen. Hawkins wrote Gen. Wool stating that 
the enemy were fortifying Roanoke Island, urged the ne- 
cessity of our taking immediate possession of that place, 
and earnestly called for reinforcements of troops and light 
draft vessels. On Sept. 11, he again wrote to the same 
effect, a copy of the latter letter being sent directly to the 
Secretary of War. Excepting a simple acknowledgment 
no attention was paid to the matter by that official although 
the recommendations were strongly endorsed by General 
Wool. Had these been favorably acted upon by the War 
Department, the battle of Roanoke Island, and perhaps 
that of New Bern also, might have been unnecessary. 

Very early in the war Gen. Burnside suggested the 
formation of a "Coast Division" consisting of about ten 
thousand men for operations on the Potomac and Chesa- 
peake, and to act as an auxiliary to the Army of the Poto- 
mac. He had several conversations with Gen. McClellan 
on this subject, and on Sept. 6, 1861, the latter wrote the 
Secretary of War suggesting that a force of ten regiments 
be recruited from the New England States, the men from 
that section of the country being presumably better qualifi- 
ed for the special service in prospect than would be those 
from an inland state. They were to be provided with 
light draft vessels, and several naval officers were to be 
detailed to accompany them. 

There was great difficulty in getting the requisite num- 
ber of the kind of vessels needed, so although the nu- 

12 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

cleus of such a Division was formed, and on Oct. 23 orders 
were issued for it to assemble at Annapolis, the purpose 
for which it had originally been designed was changed. 

Late in the fall of 1861 the authorities at Washington 
began to realize the strategic advantages of North 
Carolina and the necessity of securing a foothold there. 
The main line of railroad from Richmond south passes 
through that state and her agricultural resources, 
especially during the latter period of the war, were inval- 
uable to the Confederates. One writer speaks of this 
state as "the jugular artery of the confederacy." The 
possession of a base of operations in North Carolina would 
threaten Richmond from the south, and one suggestion 
was made that it might be possible to effect a connection 
with our forces in Tennessee and thus divide the Confed- 

General Orders, No. 14*, Head Quarters Coast Division, 
dated January 3, 1862, assigned the vessels to the differ- 
ent brigades; and General Orders, No. 15 1, January 4, 
directed the embarkation. 

*This order assigned to General Foster's brigade the steamers New Bruns- 
wick, New York and Guide; propellors, Vedette, Zouave, Ranger and Hus- 
sar; bark Guerilla; schooners, Highlander and Recruit. To General Reno's 
brigade, steamers, Northerner and Cossack; propellors, Lancer and Pioneer; 
ships, Kitty Stimson and Ann E. Thompson; brig Dragoon; schooner 
Scout. To General Parke's brigade, steamer Eastern Queen; propellors, 
Sentinel and Chasseur; ships, Arrican and John Trucks; bark, H. D. 
Brookman and Voltigeur; schooner Skirmisher. 

The naval vessels accompanying the expedition, many of which remained in 
the Department throughout the war and whose names as well as those of 
some of the transports were very familiar to all who served in this Department, 
were the Stars and Stripes, Louisiana, Hetzel, Underwriter, Dela- 
ware, Commodore Barney, Hunchback, Southfield, Morse, Whitehead, 
Lockwood, Brinker, L. N. Seymour, Ceres, Putnam, Shazvsheen and Granite. 

tThis Order divided the troops into three brigades, but the organization as 
reported in "The War of the Rebellion, Official Records of the Union and 
Confederate Armies," Series 1, Vol. IX, pp 358, shows, on January 31, 1862, 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 13 ] 

The embarkation began early on the morning of Janu- 
ary 6th and was completed on the 8th. Early on the 
morning of the 9th, the fleet steamed out of Annapolis har- 
bor. The destination of this expedition was one of the 
inconsiderable number of war secrets (?) that was well 
kept. Probably few, if any, of those accompanying it, ex- 
cept Gen. Burnside, knew where it was bound. The on- 
ly instructions received by the several commanders were 
to follow the leading vessel until they reached a certain 
point, when they were to open their sealed orders. 

In a letter from Gen. McClellan, then Commander-in- 
Chief, to Gen. Burnside, the latter was directed, after 
uniting with Flag Officer Goldsborough at Fort Monroe, 
to proceed under his convoy to Hatteras Inlet. In ac- 
cordance with his general instructions he was to take com- 
mand of the Department of North Carolina. His first 
point of attack was to be Roanoke Island. Having occu- 
pied that and erected batteries and defences so that it 
might be held with a comparatively small force, mean- 
while assisting Flag Officer Goldsborough, should he so 
request, in seizing or holding the entrance to the Norfolk 
Canal, he was then to make a descent upon New Bern. 

about a week previous to the battle of Roanoke Island, four brigades under 

the command of General Burnside. 

First brigade, Brig. Gen. John G. Foster: 10th Connecticut, 23d, 24th, 25th 
and 27th Massachusetts. 

Second brigade, Brig. Gen. Jesse L. Reno: 21st Massachusetts, 9th New Jer- 
sey, 51st New York, and 51st Pennsylvania. 

Third brigade, Brig. Gen. John L. Parke: 8th Connecticut, 9th and 53d New 
York, 4th and 5th (battalion) Rhode Island. 

Fourth brigade, Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams: 11th Connecticut, 6th New 
Hampshire, 89th New York, 48th Pennsylvania, Battery F, (Belger's), 
1st Rhode Island Artillery, and Battery C, 1st U. S. Artillery. 
Note. None of those to whom proofs were sent have any recollection of 

Williams' brigade, nor is any mention made of that brigade in the reports of 

the battles of Roanoke Island or New Bern; yet the 11th Connecticut, which 

was attached to this brigade, is mentioned as taking part in the latter action. 

[ 14 ] Massachusetts Memorial to her Soldiers and Sailors 

Gaining possession of that city, he was directed to occupy 
Beaufort and reduce Fort Macon in order to open the port 
which was the seaboard terminus of the railroad to New 
Bern, Kinston and Goldsboro. He was directed to then 
proceed, if possible, to Goldsboro and Raleigh, but was 
told that he must exercise great caution in making such 
an advance. 

The expedition reached Fort Monroe on the afternoon of 
the 9th and left about midnight on the 11th. When well 
at sea the destination was announced to be Hatteras Inlet. 
Sunday, the 12th, while nearing that place, the weather 
was stormy and it continued to grow worse until it be- 
came a regular gale. Some of the vessels succeeded in 
making the Inlet on the 13th, while, of those which failed 
to get through, many decided to attempt riding out the 
gale at anchor, while others, believing that their only 
safety lay in being at a distance from land, stood out to 
sea. The fleet became widely scattered, and it was a 
most anxious experience for both officers and men. For- 
tunately the loss of life was small. 

Between the Inlet and the navigable waters of the 
Sound there was a shifting, sandy bar, called the 
"Swash," across which vessels drawing more than eight 
feet could not pass. One of the conditions of the charters 
was that no vessel when loaded should draw over a stated 
depth, but, as usual, government contractors expected to 
be allowed some latitude in filling their contracts, and 
the result was that many vessels had to be unloaded before 
they could pass the "Swash." By the last day of Janu- 
ary, however, all had safely entered the Sound. 

Roanoke Island which commands Croatan Sound, the 
connecting link between Albemarle and Pamlico, is from 
ten to fifteen miles long and from two to five miles wide. 
It is a place of great strategic importance, commanding 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 15 ] 

the Sounds and the rear defences of Norfolk, Va. It was 
defended by Fort Bartow, at Pork Point, on the west side 
of the island; Fort Blanchard, farther north; and Fort 
Huger, still farther north. About the centre of the is- 
land was Fort Defiance, a redoubt or breastwork some 
seventy to eighty feet long, with three embrasures for can- 
non. One flank of this redoubt was protected by a swamp 
and the other by a marsh, both of which were thought to 
be practically impassable. The main north and south 
road of the island passed through the redoubt. In addi- 
tion to these defenses the Confederates had in Croatan 
Sound a naval force of ten small vessels mounting eighteen 

On February 4th, Burnside reported to Goldsborough 
that everything was ready, and on the morning of the 6th 
they started for Roanoke. The afternoon of the same day 
they were within six miles of the Island. A heavy fog pre- 
vailing made them decide it would be unwise to attempt a 
further advance that night. The Confederate fleet was 
off Fort Bartow. On the 7th, Lieutenant Andrews, of the 
9th New York, with a party of men from the 5th Rhode 
Island, made soundings in Ashby's Harbor, situated near 
the middle of the island on the west side. 

In the afternoon Foster was ordered to land his brigade. 
He embarked five hundred men of the 25th Massachusetts 
on board the Pilot Boy, which towed the boats carrying 
the rest of his brigade, and headed toward Ashby's 
Harbor. Discovering an ambuscade of infantry and artil- 
lery, he changed his proposed destination and made a 
landing in front of Hammond's House, a point just above 
the Harbor, where he encountered no oppositon. He was 
quickly followed by Reno and Parke, and in about twenty 
minutes four thousand men had reached the land safely. 

The force forming the ambuscade, fearing capture, 

[ 16 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

made a hasty retreat and joined the main body at the re- 
doubt. During this time, and throughout the battle, the 
naval division had kept Fort Bartow engaged. The 
steamer carrying the 24th Massachusetts ran aground so 
that regiment did not land till the following day. 

The night of the 7th the 21st Massachusetts was in ad- 
vance and picketed our line. It rained constantly and the 
men suffered considerably. Lieutenant Colonel Maggi 
says in his report, "None of the men slept, and every 
half hour I made the companies fall in in greatest silence." 
At daybreak on the 8th, Foster's brigade moved for- 
ward, the 25th Massachusetts leading They drove in 
the enemy's skirmishers on the main road until, when 
near the middle of the island, they met the confederates 
in a strong position prepared for battle. Their guns had 
a clean sweep of 700 yards. Foster placed six light guns 
from the ships' launches in the road so that two could be 
used at the same time and then advanced to the attack. 
These guns were supported by the 25th Massachusetts in 
line on one side of the road and that regiment was sup- 
ported by the 23d. As the 27th Massachusetts and 10th 
Connecticut came on the ground the latter regiment re- 
lieved the 23d, which, supported by the 27th, was ordered 
to the right with instructions to pass through the marsh 
and turn the enemy's left. 

General Reno soon came up and was ordered to push 
his brigade through the swamp to our left and endeavor 
to turn the enemy's right. Parke followed Reno and he 
was instructed to assist the 23d and 27th Massachusetts on 
the right. 

The engagement in the direct front had been very 
warm. The guns having used all but ten rounds were 
instructed to cease firing; the 25th Massachusetts, having 
expended all its ammunition, was sent to the rear and 



Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 17 ] 

the 10th Connecticut moved to the front. The engage- 
ment began about 8 o'clock. About 11.30 A. m., Foster 
ordered Parke to charge. The enemy fled in great confu- 
sion, partly in consequence of this charge and partly be- 
cause both flanks had been turned. General Reno imme- 
diately started in pursuit, quickly followed by General 
Foster, the 24th Massachusetts being on the right of the 
brigade. He soon overtook and passed Reno, the latter 
being busily engaged in capturing the fleeing enemy who 
were endeavoring to escape by boats to Nag's Head. 

Just before they reached the upper extremity of the 
island, Colonel Shaw, of the 8th North Carolina, who, 
owing to the absence of General Wise, was in command 
of the confederate forces on Roanoke, sent a flag of truce 
to Foster asking on what terms he would accept sur- 
render. "Unconditional," was the answer, and Foster 
added that he would allow but sufficient time for a reply to 
reach him before recommencing hostilities. As the delay 
appeared to be longer than necessary, Foster advanced 
with the 24th Massachusetts, but when near the confeder- 
ate camp he was met by another flag of truce and was in- 
formed that his terms had been accepted. Colonel Kurtz, 
of the 23d Massachusetts, was ordered to secure the camp 
of the 31st North Carolina, but the order had been antici- 
pated by General Reno who was already in possession. 

This battle resulted in the capture of forty-two guns, 
about three thousand prisoners, and the occupation of a 
most important strategic position. 

General Wise, who was nominally in command at Ro- 
anoke Island, but who was ill at Nag's Head at the time 
of the action, felt much aggrieved at the result, claiming 
that General Benjamin Huger, commanding the Depart- 
ment of Norfolk, failed to give him proper support, and by 
countermanding some of his orders and interfering with 

[ 18 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

his plans was responsible for the loss of the Island. A vol- 
uminous and somewhat acrimonious correspondence ensu- 
ed between these officers. It occupies about sixty pages 
of the "Official Records." Wise plainly expressed his 
opinion of the importance to the confederacy of holding 
this position when, February 13, he wrote Jefferson Davis: 

"Such is the importance and value, in a military point 
of view, of Roanoke Island that it ought to have been de- 
fended by all the means in the power of the Government. 
It was the key to all the rear defences of Norfolk. It un- 
locked two Sounds, (Albemarle and Currituck); eight 
rivers, (the North, West, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Little, 
Chowan, Roanoke and Alligator); four canals, (the Albe- 
marle and Chesapeake, Dismal Swamp, Northwest, and 
Suffolk); and two railroads, (the Petersburg and Norfolk, 
and the Seaboard and Roanoke). It guarded more than 
four-fifths of all Norfolk's supply of corn, pork and forage, 
and it cut the command of General Huger off from all its 
most efficient transportation. It endangers the subsist- 
ence of his whole army; threatens the Navy Yard at Gos- 
port; to cut off Norfolk from Richmond, and both from 
railroad communication with the south. It lodges the enemy 
in a safe harbor from the storms of Hatteras, gives them a 
rendezvous, a large, rich range of supplies, and the com- 
mand of the seaboard from Oregon Inlet to Cape Henry. 
It should have been defended at the expense of twenty 
thousand men and many millions of dollars." 

The subject was brought before the Confederate Con- 
gress and the Investigating Committee of the House of 
Representatives made an exhaustive report fully endorsing 
the opinion expressed by General Wise when he wrote: 
"The forts of this island were all out of place; they ought 
to have been at the south end, they were at the north, 
leaving several of the landing points on the south end 
without any defenses against the shot and shell of the 
heavy steamers which came quite up and covered the land- 
ing of their troops. " 

In their finding the Committee place the blame for the 
loss of the Island on General Huger and Secretary of War, 
J. P. Benjamin. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 19 

In connection with the battle of Roanoke Island, and as 
the officer to whom the following letter was addressed at- 
tended the dedication of the New Bern monument as a del- 
egate from the 21st Massachusetts, it does not seem out of 
place to reproduce it in this volume. The letter is self- 

Head Quarters, 21st Mass. Vols. 
Camp Burnside, Dept. N. C, 
Roanoke Island, Feb 10, 1862. 
To Capt. Theodore S. Foster, 
Dear Captain; 

The day before the battle of the 8th inst. , the aide- 
de-camp, Lieutenant Frank Reno, told me he would pre- 
sent a flag to the Company of the Second Brigade who 
would fight most bravely. The day after the battle in 
which our regiment comported itself so gallantly, he gave 
the flag to me, saying, "Give it to the Company which 
has fought the best in your regiment." 

At a meeting of the officers of the 21st regiment, 
presided over by me, it was decided that the flag should be 
given to you alone as a small token of the great courage, 
bravery and intelligence which you displayed on the 8th 

You may inscribe on the flag these words: "The 
Officers of the 21st Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers to 
the brave Captain T. S. Foster, of Company D." I am, 
Your sincere friend, 

A. C. Maggi, 

Lieutenant Colonel Commanding-. 

This flag Capt. Foster later presented to the Fitchburg 
Library, Company D having been mainly recruited from 
that city. 

After the capture of Roanoke, the naval vessels followed 
the enemy's flotilla to Elizabeth City reaching there on 
the 18th, extinguished the fire which the confederates had 
set for the purpose of burning the town, blocked the en- 
trance to the Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal, and de- 
stroyed one schooner, several guns, and a quantity of sup- 
plies. They then proceeded to Edenton and Winton on the 

[ 20 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

Chowan, but accomplished little except the destruction of 
a large amount of supplies. No Massachusetts troops were 
engaged in this expedition. 

The troops remained at Roanoke Island, strengthening 
its defences, until the morning of March 12, when an ex- 
pedition left for the Neuse river, its purpose being the cap- 
ture of New Bern. The river had been blockaded below 
the city, and as Burnside thought it would be difficult to 
make a direct attack, he decided to land below New Bern 
and approach the city by land. That evening he reached 
Slocum's Creek, about sixteen miles below New Bern. 

On the morning of the 13th Foster placed about five 
hundred of the 24th Massachusetts on board the Pilot Boy, 
about six hundred more men from his brigade on boats in 
tow of that steamer, and landed near the mouth of Slocum's 
Creek. The shallowness of the water made the approach 
difficult and many men, in their impatience, jumped over- 
board and waded ashore. The navy had shelled the bank 
so effectually that there was no opposition. 

Foster advanced a short distance, when he halted and 
awaited the arrival of Reno's brigade, which by order of 
General Burnside had been given the advance. Foster then 
proceeded along the old County, or "Beaufort" road, the 
one parallel to and next the Neuse road, the 21st Massa- 
chusetts of Reno's command being at the head of the col- 
umn. About six miles from Slocum's he met Captain 
Williamson, of the Topographical Engineers, accompanied 
by some officers of Burnside 's staff and his own, who were 
just returning from a daring reconnoissance. Captain Wil- 
liamson reported the discovery of a line of breastworks a 
short distance ahead, which they found deserted, extending 
from the Neuse to the railroad. General Reno having ar- 
rived, he and Foster entered these works and the troops 
were halted for dinner. A little distance beyond these 


Taken from roof of Gaston House, looking southeast 


Taken from roof of Gaston House, looking southwest 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 21 ] 

works they bivouacked near the enemy's position, being 
about twelve miles from the point where they landed. It 
had rained hard all day, the mud was deep, the men were 
tired and wet and were perfectly willing to go into camp. 
At daylight on the 14th, Foster advanced his brigade till 
he met the enemy. The confederate left was at Fort 
Thompson, on the Neuse. This fort had been built to de- 
fend the river, and while strong on the water side was 
weak on the land; a line of breastworks extended from the 
fort to the railroad, a distance of a mile and a half; beyond 
the railroad was a series of redoubts for about three quar- 
ters of a mile farther; the confederate right rested on 
Bryce Creek*. Their line crossed the main County, or 
"Beaufort" road, the railroad, and the Weathersby, or 
Pollocksville road, which was between the railroad and 
Bryce Creek. All these roads converged at a point about 
two miles in the rear of the confederate line. Foster was 
followed by Reno on the railroad, and Parke was placed in 
rear of Foster ready to support either, as occasion might 
require. Foster placed the 25th Massachusetts in line on 
the extreme right and the 24th on its left, the left of the 
latter regiment resting on the Beaufort road. A howit- 
zer from the Highlander was placed in the road, supported 
on the left by the 27th Massachusetts in line. On the ar- 
rival of some navy howitzers these were placed to the left 
of the other, and the 23d Massachusetts moved to the left 
of the 27th. The fire from the breast works was at short 
range, incessant, and very severe As the 10th Connecti- 
cut came on to the ground it was placed on the left of the 
23d, and the 27th, having nearly exhausted its ammuni- 
tion, was relieved by the 11th Connecticut, the former 
regiment going a short distance to the rear. 

♦This has generally been called Brice's Creek, but on a sketch of the New 
Bern battle-field, accompanying the report of General Branch, the confederate 
commander, (Official Records Vol. IX, pp 248), it is called Bryce Creek. 

[ 22 ] Massachusetts Memorial to her Soldiers and Sailors 

A little before 8 a.m. Reno, who was following the rail- 
road, heard Foster's brigade hotly engaged and saw what 
he thought an attempt of the confederates to bring a gun 
to bear on the railroad. He sent out his skirmishers and 
as soon as he could get the right wing of his leading regi- 
ment, the 21st Massachusetts, into line he ordered it to 
capture the brick-kiln near the railroad which it did very 
quickly, the enemy fleeing at the first volley. The color 
sergeant of the 21st climbed to the roof of a building in 
the brickyard "and amid a perfect shower of minie balls 
# # # waved the Star Spangled banner presented to 
the regiment by the ladies of Worcester." 

As General Reno did not know the confederate line ex- 
tended beyond the railroad he supposed he had turned 
its right. He found, however, he was opposed by the 
16th and 33d North Carolina who for three hours made a 
most gallant fight. Their ammunition then being ex- 
hausted and their forces between the river and the rail- 
road having been driven back they were finally obliged to 
retire. The right wing of the 21st, which had taken the 
brickyard and later had captured a battery, was attacked 
by an overwhelming force and obliged to fall back, but on 
arrival of reenforcements it regained possession of the 
brickyard. About the same time, Foster, seeing the 
troops in his front waver, charged with his whole brigade. 
The combined attack resulted in the defeat of the enemy 
who made a rapid retreat to New Bern. 

Our troops immediately started in pursuit. Parke was 
ordered forward to save the bridges, if possible, but he did 
not reach them in time. The railroad bridge had been 
burned and the draw of the county bridge destroyed. 
Part of the city had been set on fire by the retreating 
enemy. The naval forces had reached New Bern in ad- 
vance of the troops; with their co-operation Foster's brig- 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 23 ] 

ade was moved over to the city and assisted in extinguish- 
ing the fire which had been partially conquered by the 
citzens and the naval contingent. 

In his report of this battle to Adjutant General Lorenzo 
Thomas, Burnside writes, "I beg to say to the General 
Commanding that I have under my command a division 
that can be relied upon in any emergency." Each of the 
brigade commanders speaks of his own men in equally 
complimentary terms saying virtually what Foster 
said of the 24th Massachusetts, "they behaved with 
marked coolness and steadiness." Several who subse- 
quently saw severe service in Virginia say it was one of 
the hardest fights in which they were ever engaged. 

It is reported that just before the battle, Colonel Jordan, 
who was captured at Roanoke, said to General Branch, 
who was in command at New Bern, "General, you have 
my best hopes and wishes, and were I not on parole you 
would have my assistance. But, General, I will give you 
just twenty-four hours to hold your position. The Yan- 
kees would charge your batteries and entrenchments if the 
obstacles were twice as great. All hell won't keep them 
back. If they can't do better they'll swim the river, (it 
was about two miles wide at this point), and come in on 
your rear. Have the place they will, and you can't help it." 

New Bern, the headquarters of the Department of North 
Carolina during the war, and a city familiar to all who 
served in that state, is situated at the junction of the 
Neuse and Trent rivers, about forty miles from Pamlico 
Sound. It was laid out in 1710. There is but one older 
town in the state, and in commercial importance it is sec- 
ond only to Wilmington. It was named for Bern, Switz- 
erland, the birthplace of its founders, DeGraffenried and 
Mitchell. Here, in 1749, James Davis, of Virginia, 
established the first printing press used in the colony. 

[ 24 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

Today New Bern carries on an extensive lumber industry, 
her cotton business is important, and she makes large 
shipments of early fruits and vegetables to northern cities. 

In 1894, the City Council voted to adopt the armorial 
bearings and colors of Old Bern; in February, 1896, the 
Council of Burghesses of the latter city presented to its 
offspring a beautiful Bernese banner in token of the kindly 
feeling existing between the old and the new Bern. 
The letter of presentation concludes with these words: 

"Let the banner fly under the shadow of the Star 
Spangled Banner; both lead to the peaceful struggle for 
the welfare of mankind." 

Immediately after taking possession of New Bern, Burn- 
side began fortifying the place that it might be success- 
fully defended by a comparatively small garrison against 
any force that would probably ever attempt its recapture. 
The construction of Fort Totten was immediately begun 
under the direction of Captain Williamson, engineer offi- 
cer on Burnside's staff. In "Bearing Arms in the 27th 
Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry," (one of the most 
complete and comprehensive of the many regimental his- 
tories and other volumes consulted by the writer), Fort 
Totten is described as, 

"A pentagon, covering nearly seven acres, with parapets 
eight feet high and twelve feet thick. This massive em- 
bankment was revetted from the bottom of the slope in the 
ditch with sods, one on the other, to the depth of eighteen 
inches, and the embrasures with wicker baskets filled with 
sand. A huge parapet of earth was constructed on the 
terra pleine of the fort, thirty-five feet high, twenty- eight 
feet thick, and four hundred feet long, to shelter the gar- 
rison in case of bombardment. On the top of this huge 
parapet was a series of rifle pits for the use and protection 
of sharp shooters. The ramparts were protected from enfi- 
lading fires by traverses, and complete control of the field 
secured by bastions at each angle. The armament of the 
fort consisted of twenty-eight guns, mostly naval 32- 
pounders and 64-pound Columbiads, the exception being 
two 100-pound Parrotts." 


Taken from roof of Gaston House, looking west 

Taken from roof of Elks Building, looking north 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 25 ] 

This fort was situated on the Trent, commanding the 
approaches from Kinston, and the entire city. A smaller 
work, Fort Rowan, was erected near the railway and com- 
manded the Neuse. Forts Amory and Gaston were on 
the south side of the Trent. The author of "Cayuga in 
the Field", (a history of the 3d New York Artillery, in 
connection with other regiments from Cayuga County), 
states that these forts were completed in January, 1863, 
by Lieutenant Colonel J. Stewart. 

Within a few hours after the occupation of the city, 
some members of the 23d Massachusetts, who were of an 
inquiring mind, discovered a printing office and found two 
forms of a newspaper locked up and ready for the press. 
The press being disabled they immediately struck off 
about one hundred copies with a "planer", a wooden block 
used by printers for levelling type, and this "first edition" 
met a ready sale. A paper was established with George 
Miles Joy, editor. As it was forbidden to publish anything 
that might give information to the enemy the non-arrival 
of mail from the north sometimes caused a great dearth of 
news. No matter what were the conditions, the editor had 
to supply copy, so on one occasion he printed an account 
of a "GREAT BATTLE" which was taken verbatim 
from the Old Testament. This edition had a tremendous 
sale. At another time he published the Declaration of 
Independence in full. 

March 20, Colonel Thomas G. Stevenson, with the 24th 
Massachusetts, started for "Little" Washington. The 
morning of the 21st they were within six miles of the town. 
Deserted batteries were discovered on each side of the Pam- 
lico, and the river itself was barricaded by a row of piles 
cut off three feet below the surface of the water. Colonel 
Stevenson loaded two companies of the regiment on light 
draft boats and pushed to the town, but found no enemy to 

[ 26 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

oppose his landing. He reported having found a strong 
Union feeling among the residents. He left Washington 
the same night and returned to New Bern. 

As soon as practicable after the capture of New Bern, 
Burnside proceeded to carry out the other instructions 
received from McClellan. General Parke was ordered to 
attempt the capture of Fort Macon, and on March 19 left 
Slocum's Creek with part of his brigade. No Massachu- 
setts troops were engaged in this expedition, although 
Lieutenant Prouty, 25th Massachusetts, was in command 
of an 8-inch mortar battery. After an extremely difficult 
march, Parke reached the fort March 23 and immediately 
demanded its surrender, which demand Colonel White, the 
confederate officer in command, promptly refused. 

Fort Macon was situated at the easterly end of Bogue 
Island, and was surrounded by water on three sides. It 
commanded absolutely the entrance from the ocean to the 
town of Beaufort, as well as the entrance to Morehead 
City, the terminus of the railroad to New Bern, Kinston, 
and Goldsboro. Of all the Atlantic forts it was second in 
importance only to Monroe and Sumter, and its occupa- 
tion by us was a military necessity. 

Surrender having been refused, General Parke immedi- 
ately prepared for a siege . Owing to difficult transportation 
and meagre facilities it was about a month before he could 
begin active operations. During part of this time Burn- 
side was present in person. On April 23, Burnside him- 
self demanded its surrender which was again refused by 
Colonel White, and on April 25, Parke was ordered to 
open fire. At 5 p. m. the same day, White capitulated 
and our troops took possession of the fort. This success 
gave us control of practically the whole North Carolina 
coast, with the exception of the entrance to Wilmington. 

On our occupation of New Bern General Foster was 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 27 ] 

assigned to the command of the city. He advanced his 
forces some miles and established strong picket lines at 
Batchelder's Creek on the north, and Bryce Creek on the 
south; later he opened the railroad between Morehead 
City and New Bern. 

In April, Burnside organized the troops in North Caro- 
lina into three divisions, commanded respectively by Fos- 
ter, Reno, and Parke. On April 3 and 7 he wrote Edwin 
M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and on the 17th he wrote 
McClellan also, requesting reenforcements, especially of 
cavalry and artillery, and stated that they would be abso- 
lutely necessary should he attempt an advance on Golds- 
boro and Raleigh, a movement which he advocated very 
strongly if it could be made with a reasonable prospect of 
success. About the middle of April, the 17th Massachu- 
setts, which, since its departure from that state the previous 
autumn, had been on duty in or around Baltimore, arrived 
and was assigned to the first brigade of Foster's division. 

On May 3, and on May 5, Burnside again wrote Stan- 
ton, repeating his suggestion of an advance on Goldsboro, 
and added that should it be successful Wilmington and 
Fort Caswell as a natural sequence would fall into our 

During the rest of the spring and early summer nothing 
of special importance happened in the Department. Fre- 
quent reconnoissances were made, and several skirmishes 
occurred, in most of which Massachusetts troops took a 
prominent part and proved themselves a credit to the state 
from which they had enlisted. 

Among the places visited, and at many of which there 
was more or less fighting, were Newport, Elizabeth City, 
South Mills, Plymouth, Deep Gully, Gates' Mill, Young's 
Cross Roads, Tranter's Creek, Swansborough, Carolina 
City, Trenton, Pollocks ville, and several other localities. 

[ 28 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

These reconnoissances resulted in the capture of a number 
of confederates; the seizure or destruction of large quan- 
tities of supplies; in gaining much valuable information 
regarding the geography and topography of the surround- 
ing country; and more important still, they accustomed 
the men to the hardships of a soldier's life, taught them 
how to take care of themselves on a march, gave them 
confidence in themselves and their comrades; but most 
important of all, they preserved the morale of the troops, 
for there is nothing that will cause deterioration in an 
army quicker than inaction. 

In June, 1862, General Burnside received the following 
message : 

Washington, June 28, 1863. 
General Burnside : 

I think you had better go, with any reinforcements 
you can spare, to Gen. McClellan. 


and this message was supplemented by one to the same 
effect, and of the same date, from the Secretary of War. 

On the 25th, McClellan had notified Burnside that he 
thought Beauregard had withdrawn from North Carolina 
and gone to Richmond, and instructed him to advance on 
Goldsboro with all his available forces, destroying as far 
as possible all railroad connections in the direction of 
Richmond. In view of McClellan's previous order, the 
instructions given by the President and Secretary of War 
were modified by them to "render him (McClellan) any 
aid in your power." 

July 3, Burnside wrote McClellan that he was on his 
way with four thousand infantry, "when I met a messen- 
ger informing me of your important success before Rich- 
mond, which, if true, renders it unnecessary for me to 
join you." 

July 5, Stanton telegraphed Burnside, via Fort Mon- 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 29 ] 

roe: "The Department has no further orders to give, but 
hopes you will with all speed reach General McClellan 
with as large a force as possible." Burnside left on the 
6th with his 2d and 3d Divisions; at 4.40 p. m. on the 7th 
he reported his arrival at Fort Monroe and asked instruc- 
tions. The only Massachusetts regiment that left North 
Carolina with these troops was the 21st. 

After the departure of Burnside, Foster was placed in 
command of the Department. He continued the practice 
of making frequent reconnoissances and of keeping his 
men constantly engaged. Of the less important actions 
one of the most serious was the confederate attack on 
' ' Little ' ' Washington in September. The town was gar- 
risoned by companies B and D of the 24th Massachusetts, 
two companies of the 1st North Carolina, two companies 
of the 3d New York Artillery, and five companies of the 3d 
New York Cavalry. The enemy attacked early in the 
morning, surprised our pickets and entered the town. Col. 
Potter, of the 1st North Carolina, who was in command, 
had just started for Plymouth with Col. Mix, four com- 
panies of cavalry, and one battery, in obedience to orders 
he had received to cooperate with the Navy in an attack on 
Hamilton. Hearing the firing he immediately returned, 
and with the assistance of the gun-boats soon drove the 
enemy from the town and pursued them about eight miles. 
During the fight the magazine of the gun-boat Picket blew 
up, practically destroying the vessel, and killed and 
wounded a large number of men, among the killed being 
the commander, Capt. Nicoll. 

In several communications to the War Department Fos- 
ter mentioned that he was fortifying Washington, build- 
ing block-houses at a number of important points, and 
strengthening his defenses generally. The fortifications 
were but just begun at the time of the above-mentioned 

[ 30 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

In the fall of 1862, the army in North Carolina was 
largely reenforced, eight Massachusetts regiments having 
been sent there. The 3d, 5th, and 44th landed at More- 
head City October 26; the 43d, 45th, and 46th, Novem- 
ber 14; and the 8th and 51st reached New Bern Novem- 
ber 30th. 

October 30, Foster wrote General Halleck that he had 
just learned of three confederate regiments having gone 
into Washington and Hyde counties for the purpose of 
foraging and obtaining conscripts. He says: 

"These counties form a bag, the mouth of which is 
between Washington and Plymouth. If I am not too late, 
(the information was forty hours in reaching me), I hope 
to engage and capture this force. Should I accomplish 
that, I shall push on for Hamilton. * * i am i e d to 

make this attempt from information received (from the 
navy) that iron-clad boats are being constructed there." 

The following day Stevenson's brigade, comprising the 
24th Massachusetts (5 companies), the 44th Massachusetts, 
the 5th Rhode Island (5 companies), the 10th Connecti- 
cut, and Belger's Battery F, 1st Rhode Island Artillery; 
and Lee's brigade, 27th Massachusetts (6 companies), 9th 
New Jersey (6 companies), 5th Massachusetts, and three 
Batteries of the 3d New York Artillery, were embarked 
on vessels and sailed for "Little" Washington. Amory's 
brigade, 23d Massachusetts (5 companies), 27th Massa- 
chusetts (6 companies), 25th Massachusetts (5 4 companies), 
two sections of the 3d New York Artillery, and a detach- 
ment from the 3d New York Cavalry, proceeded to Wash- 
ington overland. Most of the artillery, ambulances, and 
baggage wagons of the other brigades accompanied 
Amory's. Those companies which were not with their 
regiments on this expedition were on detached service or 
formed part of the garrison at New Bern. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 31 ] 

Stevenson's and Lee's brigades reached Washington on 
the morning of November 1 . Foster had intended to 
make an immediate advance, but as Amory's brigade did 
not arrive till late in the afternoon, having been delayed 
by burned bridges and other obstructions, as well as a 
small amount of skirmishing, he was unable to do so. 

Soon after daybreak, Sunday, November 2, the column 
started for Williamston, Stevenson's brigade in advance. 
Although it was engaged in skirmishing more or less 
during the day, it met no opposition of any importance 
until just before dark. Reaching a place called Little 
Creek, the advance, which consisted of the Marine Artil- 
lery, one company of the 10th Connecticut, and a small 
force of cavalry, was fired upon from the far side of the 
stream. These organizations were halted and companies 
H and C of the 44th Massachusetts were sent forward 
as skirmishers. They crossed the creek which was 
nearly arm-pit deep and the water of which was ice cold, 
reached the opposite bank and drove the enemy some dis- 
tance. Most of their ammunition becoming wet while 
crossing the creek, they were relieved by companies B 
and I of the same regiment. Belger's Battery was brought 
into action and shelled the ground in our front very effect- 
ively. About a mile beyond Little Creek was Rawle's 
Mills. Here the confederates made a stand having pre- 
viously burned the bridge. It was nearly 2 A. M. before 
our troops went into bivouac. 

During the night the pioneers rebuilt the bridge and 
early on the morning of November 3 Foster moved for- 
ward to Williamston which he reached about noon. Wil- 
liamston was a pretty, attractive, typically southern town, 
"flowing," if not "with milk," at least "with honey." 
The column left Williamston late in the afternoon and 
camped for the night between that town and Hamilton. 

[ 32 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

On the 4th, the troops reached Rainbow Bluff on the 
Roanoke where the confederates had built a formidable 
earth-work to defend the river, but which was weak on the 
land side. This fortification was deserted. No trace 
could be found of the gun-boats which were reported as 
being in process of construction. After a brief halt the 
column kept on to Hamilton, and remaining but a few 
hours in that place, proceeded a short distance towards 
Tarboro, where it camped for the night. 

A detachment consisting of companies A and G of the 
44th Massachusetts, a few cavalrymen, and two small 
brass howitzers, all under command of Major Gerrard of 
the 3d New York Cavalry, was sent forward on the main 
road as a feint, while the main body took a more circuit- 
ous route. This detachment had quite a lively skirmish; 
it rejoined the main force the following morning. 

Foster was within about four miles of Tarboro when 
learning that the enemy had been heavily reenforced, his 
men being nearly worn out owing to the difficulty of wad- 
ing through the mud, the rapidity of the march, and the 
additional fact that a large part of his force was inexperi- 
enced in this kind of work, he decided to return to Ham- 
ilton, which he reached on the evening of the 6th. That 
night, to their great satisfaction, the men were quartered 
in houses. 

On the morning of the 7th, in the midst of quite a snow 
storm, the troops started for Williamston reaching there 
the same evening. They remained at Williamston till 
the morning of Sunday, November 9, when they moved 
towards Plymouth and camped that night about four miles 
outside. Monday morning they entered the town, and 
as rapidly as transportation could be provided were sent 
back to New Bern. 

Owing to the delay in starting, the expedition failed in 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 33 ] 

its main object which, as previously stated, was the cap- 
ture of the confederate regiments, but it was of great 
advantage in many other respects, and resulted in the de- 
struction of a large quantity of provisions and supplies 
which the enemy could ill afford to lose. 

On the afternoon of November 11, a report reached Col- 
onel Amory, who had just returned from Plymouth with 
the 17th, 24th, part of the 23d, and about one hundred and 
fifty men of the 44th Massachusetts, that the enemy were 
driving in our pickets on the Trent Road. Colonel 
Kurtz, of the 23d Massachusetts, who had been in com- 
mand at New Bern during the absence of General Foster, 
warned the gun-boats and troops as soon as he heard the 
rumor, and before he knew of the arrival of Colonel Am- 
ory, who was the senior officer. The latter, on assuming 
command, drew the pickets in to the edge of the woods in 
front of Fort Totten and formed a line from the Trent to 
the Neuse, making all necessary arrangements to repel an 
attack. The affair was probably a simple reconnoissance 
as the enemy withdrew during the night. 

December 10, a small force of confederates attacked 
Plymouth, then garrisoned by Company I, 3d Massachu- 
setts, and Company C, 1st North Carolina Infantry.* The 
third shot fired by the enemy disabled the boiler of the 
gun-boat Southjield ', on whose aid the garrison had been 
placing considerable reliance. Our troops took refuge in 
the custom house and made as good a defense as possible. 

The confederates were in possession scarcely thirty 
minutes, but before retiring succeeded in burning about 
half the town. 

*Although no mention is made of the North Carolina Cavalry (and the writer 
was unaware that there was a regiment of that branch of the service from that 
state) on pp. 47, of the "Official Records," Vol. XVIJI., Thomas J. Fogarty, 
who signs as "First Lieutenant Comdg, First North Carolina Cavalry." reports 
one man wounded and three taken prisoners. 

[ 34 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

General Orders, No. 65, dated December 4, 1862, con- 
stituted all the artillery in the Department into a brigade 
under command of Colonel James H. Ledlie, 3d New- 
York Artillery. 

General Orders, No. 76, December 9 (?), forbade all strag- 
gling or unauthorized foraging, and appointed Major Jones 
Frankle as Provost Marshal for the coming expedition. 

December 10, Foster wrote Halleck, General-in-Chief, of 
his intention to advance on Goldsboro, and added, "even 
if I do not succeed in my expectations, I hope my move- 
ment may be useful as a demonstration in favor of the 
Army of the Potomac." 

General Foster and General Peck, who was in command 
at Suffolk, Virginia, had been in frequent consultation, 
and on December 2 the latter wrote General Dix, at Fort 
Monroe, "The interview with General Foster today was 
all that could be desired. He is an old friend and we can- 
vassed matters fully. Have memoranda* which will gov- 
ern moves for some days # # # . " 

♦Memorandum of understanding between Major General Peck and General 
Foster, December 2, 1862. 

1. Wessells's brigade to be at the landing on the Chowan, near Gates' 
Mill, some time during the day or night of the 6th, (weather per- 
mitting), the transports being there to receive them. 


Major General. 

2. It is probable that a movement will commence as follows, viz: 

3. Get down at night to the mouth of North River, Albemarle Sound. 

4. Start them— the transports — to the Chowan. 

5. About at mouth of river (Chowan). 

6. Come up river. 

7. Embark. 

8. Start for W. 

9. Arrive at W. 

10. Prepare for march. 

11. Start out 8 miles. 

12. March to K. 

13. Attack K. 

14. March towards G. 

15. Make preliminary attack. 

16. Forcible attack. 

17-18-19. Prettv sure of being before G. 


Major General, Commanding. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 35 ] 

General Dix had promised to lend Poster some troops, 
and on December 5 Wessells' brigade left Suffolk, reach- 
ing New Bern December 9. 

December 11, Foster started for Goldsboro in conformity 
to his understanding with General Peck. His force was 
composed of 

Lee's brigade: 3d, 5th, 27th and 46th Massachusetts. 
Stevenson's brigade: 24th and 44th Massachusetts, 

10th Connecticut and 5th Rhode Island. 
Amory's brigade: 17th, 23d, 43d, 45th and 51st Mas- 
Wessells' brigade: 85th, 92d and 96th New York, 

85th, 101st and 103d Pennsylvania. 
Artillery brigade: Battery F, (Belger's), 1st Rhode 
Island Artillery; six Batteries 3d New York Artil- 
lery; Battery C, 1st United States Artillery; and 
sections of 23d and 24th New York Independent 
Batteries. Total: 40 guns. 
The 9th New Jersey and the 3d New York Cavalry were 
not brigaded. There were about 10,000 infantry, 640 cav- 
alry, and the artillery, making in all about 12,000 men. 
The 8th Massachusetts and some small detachments from 
several of the regiments above mentioned were left to gar- 
rison New Bern. 

A dense fog which prevailed the " morning of the start 
materially delayed the formation of the column so that it 
was quite late in the forenoon before it could be put in 
motion. This delay, added to the bad condition of the 
roads, and obstructions such as felled trees, burned 
bridges, etc., made its progress much slower than had been 
anticipated by General Foster. 

On Friday, December 12, the troops were in motion at 
daylight. The main road to Kinston having been badly 
obstructed and being strongly defended, Foster decided to 

[ 36 ] Massachusetts Memorial to her Soldiers and Sailors 

take a more circuitous route. When Vine Swamp road, 
which turned off to the left, was reached, the column fol- 
lowed that, while three companies of cavalry made a dem- 
onstration on the main road. 

The rebuilding of the bridge over Beaver Creek caused 
a short delay. Leaving the 51st Massachusetts and a sec- 
tion of artillery to protect the bridge, guard the junction 
of the roads, and act as support to the cavalry detachment 
should it need assistance, the main force pushed on several 
miles when it camped for the night. During the afternoon 
it had been rumored among the rank and file that they were 
within five miles of Kinston ) but after marching the rest 
of that day, all day Saturday, and part of Sunday morning, 
they decided that North Carolina miles were the longest 
they had ever known. 

On Saturday morning, December 13, Foster left the 
Vine Swamp road and again bore to the left, leaving the 
46th Massachusetts and a section of a battery to protect 
this junction and to feint on the road he had just left. 

Reaching Southwest Creek, the bridge was found de- 
stroyed and the enemy strongly posted on the opposite bank. 
u The creek ran at the foot of a deep ravine and the stream 
not being fordable at this point made the position diffi- 
cult to attack." The 9th New Jersey, which was in ad- 
vance, crossed, partly by swimming, partly by the remains 
of the bridge, and the 23d Massachusetts, which was or- 
dered to its support, crossed by a mill dam a little distance 
above. The 85th Pennsylvania crossed half a mile below, 
partly by fording, partly by felling trees, attacked the con- 
federate left and forced it to retreat. There was a brisk 
skirmish but the loss on either side was small. 

Sunday, December 14th, the enemy was met in force about 
one mile from Kinston. "They were posted in strong po- 
sition in the woods, taking advantage of the ground which 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 37 

formed a natural breastwork. ' ' Their right was protected 
by a deep swamp and their left by the river Neuse. The 
46th and 51st Massachusetts, which had been detailed to 
guard the roads in the rear, had been ordered to rejoin the 
main body and arrived before the action began. The 
9th New Jersey was sent forward as skirmishers and Wes- 
sells' brigade advanced on the right and left of the road. 
The 17th Massachusetts supported the 9th New Jersey and 
the 23d and 45th Massachusetts moved directly down the 

Stevenson's brigade, with Belger's battery, was then 
ordered forward. The 24th Massachusetts supported the 
battery and with the 10th Connecticut was on the left 
of the road, while the 44th was on the right, the two lat- 
ter supporting the regiments in their front. The 10th 
Connecticut, in connection with the 96th New York, made 
a most gallant charge, and drove the confederates across 
the bridge which they had unsuccessfully attempted to 
destroy. The charge resulted in the capture of about 
four hundred prisoners. The 9th New Jersey and 17th 
Massachusetts at once moved into the town of Kinston 
where they were halted. The other regiments crossed 
later and bivouacked just outside of the town. 

Company K, 3d New York Cavalry, was sent down the 
east side of the Neuse and found a work of great strength 
which had been abandoned. Two heavy guns, which 
could not be moved, were destroyed, and four field pieces 
were taken away. The magazine was blown up. 

Early on the 15th, the troops recrossedto the west bank 
and took the river road to Goldsboro. A strong cavalry 
guard was left in Kinston to make a demonstration on 
that side of the Neuse, which having been made they, too, 
recrossed, and then burned the bridge. 

The column met no opposition and halted for the night 

[ 38 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

within three and a half miles of White Hall. A detach- 
ment of cavalry was sent forward to that place. One reg- 
iment of confederates with four guns was on the west 
bank, but on the approach of this detachment retreated 
across the river and destroyed the bridge. 

On the 16th, five companies of cavalry and a section of 
artillery were sent to Mount Olive, a station about four- 
teen miles below Goldsboro on the Wilmington and Wel- 
don Railroad. They tore up a mile or two of track and 
burned the bridge over Goshen Swamp. 

The bridge being destroyed and the enemy in force on 
the opposite bank, when the main column reached White 
Hall Foster made a strong feint of crossing. The action 
which ensued, though it lasted but a couple of hours and 
only a small part of the force being actively engaged, was 
quite sharp and the loss heavy in proportion to numbers. 
The Massachusetts regiments that suffered the most were 
the 23d, 44th, and 45th. After silencing the enemy's 
guns the column moved on to Goldsboro, a few sharp- 
shooters being left behind to engage the sharpshooters of 
the confederates. 

On December 17, the advance was made on Goldsboro. 
Two companies of cavalry made a feint in the direction of 
Dudley Station and Kverettsville. ' 'They burned two cul- 
verts, destroyed the depot, water station, and a railroad 
train, besides damaging the track." Another raid was 
made to Thompson's Bridge, the 43d Massachusetts sup- 
porting the cavalry. 

Colonel Lee's brigade was in the advance and met the 
enemy near the railroad. The 9th New Jersey and 17th 
Massachusetts were ordered to strike the track and follow 
it to the bridge which they were to burn. They were sup- 
ported by the 3d, 25th, and 27th Massachusetts. Wessells 
was ordered forward, and the rest of the force disposed so 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 39 ] 

it might readily render assistance as needed. In about 
two hours, after several unsuccessful attempts had been 
made, the bridge was fired by Lieutenant Graham, 23d New 
York Independent Battery, assisted by Lieutenant B. N. 
Mann, of the 17th Massachusetts, who was wounded in 
the attempt.* 

After the destruction of the bridge was assured the 
troops were ordered to return to New Bern, Lee's brigade 
acting as rear guard. Considering the fight practically 
over, he was forming his men preparatory to leaving the 
field, when three regimental colors, (confederate), were 
seen across the railroad, the men being protected by the 
embankment. Lee immediately placed Morrison's battery 
in position, re-formed his line, and was joined by Belger's 
battery. The enemy advanced with cheers and made a 
gallant attack but were met by such a severe fire from the 
batteries, aided by that of Riggs, which was placed so as to 
subject the charging column to a cross fire, that it soon 
broke. It was a bold attempt on the part of the confeder- 
ates to capture Lee's brigade and the batteries, but it met 
decided failure. The troops reached New Bern the eve- 
ning of December 20, though many of the men fell out 
as soon as they were inside the picket lines and did not 
come into the city till the following day. 

December 23, Foster telegraphed Halleck from Fort 

*Captain Joseph A. Moore, formerly of the 17th Massachusetts, to whom ad- 
vance sheets were sent for suggestions and criticisms, and who was present at 
this engagement, writes that the 17th was in advance, followed by the 9th New 
Jersey. The 17th skirmishers drove in the enemy's pickets and that regi- 
ment was the first to reach and cross the railroad before advancing to the 
bridge across the Neuse River. Lieutenant Graham made a gallant attempt to 
fire the bridge, but failed. Lieutenant Mann, with volunteers from the 17th, 
did fire the bridge, and was wounded while doing so. The writer has no 
doubt of the correctness of Captain Moore's statement, as it was said at the 
time that the bridge had been burned by an officer of the 17th, but in General 
Foster's official report, which could not have been made from personal knowl- 
edge, the credit is given to Lieutenant Graham. 

[ 40 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

"I have just arrived from New Bern. My expedition 
was a perfect success. I burned three railroad bridges at 
Goldsboro and Mount Olive, and tore up several miles of 
the track of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. We 
fought four engagements, viz; at Southwest Creek, Kins- 
ton, White Hall, and Goldsboro, and whipped the enemy 
handsomely each time. The force of the enemy is now 
largely increased in North Carolina from Fredericksburg, 
rendering the second step in my plan of operations of 
doubtful execution unless I am pretty largely reenforced. 
Can I communicate freely on this point by telegraph, or 
shall I come to Washington for that purpose? I have a 
steamer here and can be there in ten hours." 
Halleck replied the same day, "Consult freely with 
General Dix and then come to Washington." 

On the 24th, Halleck ordered Dix to send twelve thou- 
sand men to Foster, and on the 29th notified Foster that 
Dix would send Ferry's, Spinola's, and Naglee's brigades, 
with an Independent Battalion from New York, a total of 
eleven thousand, nine hundred and thirty men. 

No Corps organization had existed in North Carolina 
previous to December, 1862, when the Eighteenth Corps 
was formed in accordance with the following order: 
General Orders, WAR DEPARTMENT, Adj. Gen. Office 
No. 214. Washington, December 24., 1862. 

By direction of the President, the troops in North Carolina will 
constitute the Eighteenth Army Corps, and Maj. Gen. J. G. Foster 
is assigned to the command. 

By order of the Secretary of War, 


Adjutant General 

On the same day, Brigadier General I. N. Palmer was 
ordered to report to General Foster. 

December 31, 1862, the following Massachusetts regi- 
ments were in North Carolina: 3d, 5th, 8th, 17th, 23d, 
24th, 25th, 27th, 43d, 44th, 45th, 46th, and 51st. 

January 12, 1863, in General Orders, No. 14, General 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 41 ] 

Foster announced his staff, of which Major J. Lewis Stack- 
pole, judge advocate; Major John F. Anderson, senior 
aide-de-camp ; Captain Daniel Messenger, provost mar- 
shal; and Lieutenant Joseph A. Goldthwaite, acting com- 
missary of subsistence, were from Massachusetts. 

Foster had planned an attack on Wilmington and the 
start was to have been made January 8. Various reasons, 
the principal one being unfavorable weather, caused a 
postponement, and this delay, added to the loss of a mon- 
itor on the assistance of which he had placed much de- 
pendence, and the fact that most of the iron-clads were of 
too great draught to pass the bar, induced him to relin- 
quish the proposed attempt. It was then decided that this 
force should be sent to South Carolina to assist Hunter in 
his intended attack on Charleston. Foster reported his 
arrival at Beaufort, South Carolina, February 2. The 
only Massachusetts troops that went on this expedition 
were the 23d and 24th. 

March 6, General Prince with his brigade made a strong 
reconnoissance in the direction of Wilmington for the 
purpose of "ascertaining the roads, the crossings of the 
rivers and creeks, the position of the enemy, etc." The 
3rd and 51st Massachusetts were on this expedition. 
The brigade was absent five or six days, returning before 
the attack on New Bern. 

On the evening of March 13, the enemy appeared in 
force on the Trent Road. General Foster, in his report 
of this attack, which is dated March 15, says: 

* * * the enemy appeared in force on the Trent 
Road, driving in our pickets on that road; the force on the 
road was heavily reenforced and ordered to retire slowly 
and fight if they were pressed. 

At daylight on the 14th, General Pettigrew, with a force 
of seven thousand men and seventeen pieces of artillery, 
attacked a small work on the north side of the Neuse 

[ 42 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

River occupied by the 92d New York Volunteers, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Anderson. They opened a fire from all 
their pieces on the work and held their infantry in reserve 
for assault. Colonel Anderson was ordered to surrender 
several times which he declined doing. Referring to me 
for orders, I instructed him to defend and hold the work. 
The navy gun-boats were in an unfortunate position to be 
of much assistance at first, owing to one being aground 
and the other two damaged. They were, however, towed 
to position by tugs, and assisted by a battery of rifled guns 
on this side of the Neuse, compelled General Pettigrew 
to withdraw his artillery and infantry, mainly remaining 
in a threatening position till this morning, when he retired. 
On the south of Trent River the enemy advanced to within 
six miles of New Kern, but have withdrawn. The attack 
was to have been made with vigor enough by General 
Pettigrew to have taken Fort Anderson , which would have 
enabled him to have planted rifled batteries at that point, 
whence he might have driven the gun-boats from the river 
and shelled the town, during which a strong attack was to 
have been made on the Trent and Neuse Roads. Our pick- 
ets held them on the Trent Road although they were ordered 
to fall back to my defenses where I proposed making the 

The whole affair, meant to be effective and strong, was 
ineffective and weak, inflicting no damage and accomplish- 
ing no object. 

The force of the enemy was about thirteen to fourteen 
thousand infantry and cavalry, and thirty-nine pieces of 
General D. H. Hill, who was in command of the con- 
federate forces, says he accompanied Daniels' brigade on 
the lower Trent Road, and sent Robertson around on the 
upper Trent Road to cut the railroad. Pettigrew was to 
bombard the shipping and barracks from the other side. 

Hill complains bitterly of his treatment by the officials 
at Richmond and of their absolute indifference to his sug- 
gestions and requests. He (and also Pettigrew) claims 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 43 ] 

that the failure of the attack arose from the absence of a 
Whitworth rifled gun which had been promised but which 
had not been sent, and of the poor quality of ammunition 
furnished him. 

March 15, eight companies of the 44th Massachusetts, 
(companies B and F were on picket duty at Batchelder's 
Creek), were sent to "Little" Washington to reenforce 
the garrison. The force, in addition to the 44th, consisted 
of eight companies of the 27th Massachusetts, two compa- 
nies of the 1st North Carolina, (Union), one company of 
the 3d New York Cavalry, and one company of the 3d 
New York Artillery, a total of about twelve hundred men. 

Having learned that General Hill intended to attack 
Washington with his whole corps, Foster left New Bern 
Sunday, March 29, and reached Washington on the morn- 
ing of the 30th. Foster had left orders that reenforce- 
ments should follow immediately, but owing to delay in 
starting them and the transport getting aground, they did 
not reach the mouth of the Pamlico until the investment 
of Washington was complete. 

Immediately after his arrival, Foster sent out a recon- 
noitring party, consisting of Companies A and G, of the 
44th, one piece of artillery, and a few cavalrymen, to learn 
if the Cross Roads, about three miles from the river, were 
held by the enemy. About a mile and a half from the 
river they were fired upon by the confederates and finding 
them in possession the reconnoitering party fell back. 

One company of the 1st North Carolina was sent to 
occupy Rodman's Point, on the south side of the river, 
a mile and a half below the town. They landed, but the 
next morning were driven away by the enemy. While 
trying to get off one of the boats grounded. The men 
were lying flat to escape the heavy musketry fire, when 
one of the negro boatmen exclaimed, "Somebody's got to 

[ 44 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

die to get out of dis, and it may as well be me," deliber- 
ately got out of the boat and pushed it off, then fell, 
pierced with five bullets. 

From March 30 to April 16, the town was in a state of 
siege, and for most of the time the artillery fire was very 
heavy. Foster strengthened the fortifications as much as 
possible, and the defense was materially assisted by the 
gun-boats Louisiana, Commodore Hull, Eagle, and Ceres, 
which protected the water front. 

The consolidated report for March 30 showed eleven 
hundred and thirty-nine men present for duty, a very 
small force to effectually defend from two and a half to 
three miles of breastworks. For more than two weeks 
they were constantly on duty. 

Foster tried to obtain reenforcements. A column under 
General Spinola left New Bern and endeavored to reach 
Washington overland, but at Blount's Creek it found the 
enemy so strong that it had to fall back. The 3d, 5th, 8th, 
17th, and 43d Massachusetts were with this column. 

On the night of April 13, the Escort, (formerly the 
Nellie Baker, which ran between Boston and Nahant), an 
unarmed steamer, on board of which was the 5th Rhode 
Island, successfully ran the blockade and brought rations 
and ammunition to the beleaguered garrison. Consider- 
ing that for about eight miles it was under a heavy artillery 
fire, a large part of the time being within a few hundred 
feet of the enemy's guns, it is thought to have been one 
of the most heroic actions that occurred during the war. 

In the "History of the 5th Rhode Island and Battery F 
Association" it is related that when Colonel Sisson called 
for volunteers every man but one stepped to the front. 
When the regiment went on board the Escort this nega- 
tive voter was the first man on the steamer. Colonel Sis- 
son ordered him back, saying he would allow no one to go 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 45 ] 

except those who volunteered. "It's all right, Colonel," 
replied the man, "I meant to have gone any way, but I 
didn't want the vote too damned unanimous." 

On the morning of the 15th, Foster, on the same steamer, 
ran the blockade down the river. The pilot of the 
Escort, Captain Pedrick, a loyal, brave North Carolinian, 
was killed by a rifle shot just as it was thought the dan- 
ger point had been passed.* The following morning it 
was reported that the enemy had retired. General Potter, 
whom Foster had left in command, sent out several recon- 
noissances and found the report was correct. Three com- 
panies of the 44th Massachusetts were sent to Hill's 
Point where they were joined by three companies of the 
43d. The 5th Rhode Island was sent to take possession 
of Rodman's Point. 

The troops that landed at Hill's Point found the follow- 
ing notice conspicuously posted: 


We leave you, not because we cannot take Washington 
but because it is not worth taking; and besides, the climate 
is not agreeable. A man should be amphibious to inhabit 
it. We leave you a few bursted guns, some stray solid shot, 
and a man and a brother who was rescued from the waves to 
which some foray among his equils consigned him. 

But this tribute we pay you: you have acted with much 
gallantry during this brief siege. We salute the pilot of 
the Escort. 

Company K, 32D Reg't, N. C. Vols. 

*Colonel Francis L. Lee told the writer that General Foster, in giving him 
an account of this incident, said: "I had been told that Pedrick was disloyal 
and that he would try to arrange so that I should be captured. Just before we 
reached Hill's Point I went into the pilot house and stood close to Pedrick, my 
revolver in my hand, determined to shoot him at the first sign of treachery. 
We were passing the last obstruction and Pedrick had just said to me, 'I reckon 
we 're all right now,' when he was shot. He exclaimed, 'I'm killed, General, 
but, by God, I'll get you through!' Colonel, I couldn't help it ; I cried like 
a baby." 

[ 46 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

As soon as Foster reached New Bern he placed himself 
at the head of a relieving force, the advance of which 
reached Hill's Point April 19, but the necessity for assist- 
ance no longer existed. General Foster complains that 
neither Generals Palmer, nor Prince, especially the 
latter, gave him loyal support, and that neither tried 
very hard to send him relief.* General Spinola, in a letter 
to Lieutenant Colonel Hoffman, A. A. G., 18th Corps, 
dated May 15, says he thought General Prince was to 
have commanded the expedition for the relief of Washing- 
ton, as he had been ordered by Foster to proceed with it to 
the relief of the garrison, and was therefore much sur- 
prised when he found the command was to devolve on him. 
He called on Prince, and says: 

"I found General Prince in a state of mind denoting that 
he was very much exercised in regard to the propriety of 
making the contemplated march, and he freely expressed 
his opinion to me that the expedition would not succeed, 
that none of those that accompanied it would return, as 
they would all be captured, and that it was like making 
the rebels a present of all the artillery. 

He writes that Prince asked him to volunteer to take 
command of the expedition, and that he answered that 
while he was entirely willing to take his chance with 
others, the importance of the trust forbade one of his lim- 
ited military experience from assuming the command, ex- 
cept under positive orders from a superior officer. 

Special Orders, No. 90, Department of the South, dated 
April 12, 1863, stated that it having been officially repre- 
sented that General Foster was in danger of being cap- 
tured in Washington, Heckman's brigade should imme- 

*General Sisson, formerly of the 5th Rhode Island, has several times told 
the writer that he took the Escort and ran the blockade against the advice, and 
almost the direct orders, of both Palmer and Prince, although General 
Palmer in one of his letters claims to have instituted the movement, while ac- 
knowledging that Colonel Sisson gave him most enthusiastic support. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 47 ] 

diately go to his relief. The 23d Massachusetts, one of 
the regiments which accompanied Foster to South Caro- 
lina, was in this brigade, and reached New Bern April 16, 
in time to join the expedition which Foster himself led to 
the relief of the garrison at Washington. The other 
Massachusetts regiment, the 24th, never came back to 
North Carolina, although Foster asked for it many times. 

In the latter part of April a demonstration was made 
towards Kinston in which the 5th, 17th, 27th, 43d, 45th 
and 46th Massachusetts regiments took part. Foster 
wrote Dix it was made partly with the hope that it 
might draw off some of the confederate forces then besieg- 
ing Suffolk. 

May 22, Foster ordered another advance toward Kins- 
ton. The force consisted of 5th, 25th, 27th, and 46th 
Massachusetts, and the 58th Pennsylvania. They drove 
the enemy and captured one hundred and sixty-five pris- 
oners. The following day, having been heavily reen- 
forced from Goldsboro, the confederates made an attack, 
but were repulsed all along the line. Colonel J. Richter 
Jones, 58th Pennsylvania, who for a long time had been 
in command of the outposts, a brave, skilful, gallant, offi- 
cer, was killed in this attack.* The 3d Massachusetts, on 
the morning of the 23d, was ordered to join this force but 
did not arrive in time to go into action, although it took 
charge of the prisoners which had been captured the pre- 
vious day. 

May 5, 1863, and again on May 11, Foster wrote Hal- 

*Comrade John D. Whitcomb, 45th Massachusetts, to whom the writer is in- 
debted for valuable suggestions and criticisms, says the 45th Massachusetts 
was turned out after taps on the day Jones was killed, was put on board flat 
cars and sent by railroad to the outposts. The men slept in the trenches 
at the breastworks but having ascertained through a scouting party of their 
regiment sent out during the night that the enemy had retired, the following 
morning they returned to New Bern, carrying with them the body of Colonel 

[ 48 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

leek requesting that Stevenson's brigade be sent back from 
South Carolina, and stated that could he have it he would 
try to capture Smith's Island at the entrance to Wilming- 
ton harbor. His request was not granted. 

The 3d, 5th, 8th, 43d, 44th, 45th, 46th and 51st Massa- 
chusetts were nine months troops and their term of service 
expired in June. The 44th, which was the first of these 
regiments to reach New Bern, was also the first to leave, 
and sailed for home June 6. The 3d followed on the 11th 
and the 5th on the 17th. The 8th, 43d, 45th, 46th and 51st 
left on June 24th. Lee was then making his invasion 
into Maryland and Pennsylvania, a movement which cul- 
minated in the battle of Gettysburg, and as every available 
man was called upon, these regiments were sent to Fort 
Monroe instead of to Boston. Most of them were on duty 
in and around Baltimore but some of them were called 
upon to do very severe marching. They were not mus- 
tered out of service till the latter part of July.* 

The departure of these regiments had so materially re- 
duced the force in the department of North Carolina that 
but few active operations could be undertaken. In the 
summer of 1863, Foster left New Bern and went to Fort 
Monroe, and from July 15 to November 15 was in com- 
mand of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina. 
Major General John J. Peck was assigned to the command 
of the North Carolina district. 

The 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery was recruited 
in 1863 but the organization had not been fully completed 
at the close of the year. Jones Frankle, formerly of the 

*General Benjamin F. Peach, who was adjutant of the 8th Massachusetts, 
writes that after leaving Baltimore the regiment was sent to Frederick City, 
and from there to Maryland Heights, joined the Army of the Potomac at 
Funkstown, was assigned to the 2nd Division, 1st Corps, remaining with it 
until reaching the Rappahannock, when it was ordered home and mustered 
out of service August 7, 1863. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 49 ] 

17th Massachusetts was appointed colonel, and later, 
A. B. R. Sprague, formerly of the 25th and 51st, lieuten- 
ant-colonel. The first battalion, companies A, B, C and 
D, left Boston September 4, and companies E and F fol- 
lowed on November 6. Eight companies of this regiment 
served in North Carolina, the other four companies being 
stationed in Virginia. The head quarters of the regiment 
were at first at Norfolk, Va., but in May, 1864, were 
moved to New Bern. In July, companies B and K were 
transferred from Virginia to North Carolina. 

In October, 1863, Foster ordered the 23d, 25th and 27th 
Massachusetts to report to him at Fort Monroe. Their de- 
parture left the 17th Infantry and 2d Heavy Artillery the 
only Massachusetts troops remaining in North Carolina. 

The force in this Department having been so greatly 
reduced that there were barely sufficient men to garrison 
the places then in our possession, no offensive operations 
were undertaken in the winter of 1863-64. 

Nothing of any especial importance happened till early 
on the morning of February 1, 1864, when the outposts at 
Batchelder's Creek were attacked by Hoke's brigade of 
Early's command, supported by General Pickett's whole 
division. General Pickett in his report states that the 
attack was made by a direct order of General Lee, dated 
January 20. Knowing how greatly our strength in North 
Carolina had been weakened, he probably thought it would 
be a comparatively easy matter to regain possession of New 
Bern, and, if the attempt was successful, it would undoubt- 
edly result in driving our forces out of the state. The 
confederates started from Kinston in three columns. Gen- 
eral Pickett reports his force as thirteen thousand, three 
hundred aud eight; General Palmer, who was then in 
command at New Bern, says he had but thirty-five hun- 
dred effective men with which to meet this attack. 

[ 50 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

The fighting at Batchelder's Creek was very severe and 
Lieutenant Colonel Fellows, eight officers and eighty -three 
men of the 17th Massachusetts, were captured during the 
action.* The confederates on the south side of the Trent 
cut the railroad between Newport and Morehead though 
strongly opposed by Colonel Thomas J. C. Amory, who 
commanded on that side of the river. 

On the morning of February 2, the enemy succeeded in 
capturing and destroying the gunboat Underwriter which 
was lying opposite Fort Anderson. On the night of that 
day they began to fall back, having failed in their attempt 
to capture the city. General Barton (confederate) reports 
that the defenses were too strong to attack, and other con- 
federate officers attribute their failure to lack of co-opera- 
tion between the different columns. The 2d Massachusetts 
Heavy Artillery was highly commended by General Jour- 
dan, who was in command of the Beaufort District, for 
its action during this engagement. 

April 13, 1864, General Wessells, who was in command 
at Plymouth, notified General Peck that he was threatened 
with attack by a force of ten or twelve thousand confeder- 
ates and called for a reenforcement of at least five thou- 
sand men, and also requested that the gunboat Commodore 
Perry be sent to his assistance. It was generally believed 
that the enemy were building an iron clad ram on the 
Roanoke River, and between November, 1863, and April, 
1864, General Peck wrote General Butler at least fifteen 
times calling attention to the defenseless situation of Ply- 
mouth should the ram prove a success. To one of these 
letters Butler replied, "I don't believe in the iron clad." 

*Colonel Henry Splaine, of the 17th, writes "the only regiments engaged in 
the fight at Batchelder's Creek were the 132nd New York and the 17th Massa- 
chusetts. The 132nd was withdrawn by Colonel Classon without any notice 
being given to Lieutenant Colonel Fellows; hence the disaster to the 17th." 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 51 ] 

April 14, Peck notified Butler that the iron clad was 
completed and delayed its attack on Plymouth only because 
the water was not sufficiently high to permit it to pass over 
" the shoals." April 17, a land force consisting of Hoke's, 
Ransom's, and Kemper's brigades, with several field bat- 
teries and a suitable number of cavalry, made an attack on 
Plymouth. Wessells held them at bay till the 19th, suc- 
cessfully repelling five assaults. On that day, the ram 
Albemarle, which had succeeded in passing over "the 
shoals" came down the river. The gunboats Smithfield 
and Miami had been lashed together. When the Albe- 
marle approached very closely one gun was fired; the shell 
rebounded from the ram and killed Captain Flusser, who 
was in command of the gunboats. The Albemarle rammed 
the Smithfield and she sank within five minutes. Captain 
Flusser was perhaps the best known naval officer serving 
in North Carolina. He was absolutely fearless, there was 
no officer in whom the men generally felt more confidence, 
and his death was a severe loss to the Union cause. The 
defeat of our gunboats gave the enemy full possession of 
the river. Wessells, convinced that reenforcements could 
not reach him under existing circumstances, decided it 
was useless to prolong the fight and surrendered on the 
morning of the 20th. April 21, General Peck wrote, "We 
could have held the land force at bay for weeks. ' ' General 
Butler said, "Plymouth really fell because the theory of 
its defense pre-supposed an occupation of the river by our 
gunboats which would cover our flanks. * * * The com- 
mander of our naval forces had expressed the most un- 
bounded confidence [in his ability to hold the river] and 
on this I have no doubt General Wessells relied." Wes- 
sells' report was not made until after he had been ex- 
changed and returned North. It is dated August 18. He 
says he had requested reenforcements from Virginia as he 

[ 52 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

knew it was impossible to get any from North Carolina, 
but that after the enemy had gained possession of the river 
it was impossible for any to reach him. About two hun- 
dred of the 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery were cap- 
tured with Wessells; the rest of the force was principally 
from New York and Pennsylvania. 

April 26, General Harland received orders to evacuate 
Washington, and on April 30, that town was abandoned 
by the Union troops. 

From the capture of Plymouth in April until the follow- 
ing October, the Albemarle held undisputed possession. 
On the night of October 27, Lieut. William B. Cushing, 
in a small steam launch fitted as a torpedo boat, succeeded 
in destroying that vessel. The night was dark and he 
approached within twenty yards before he was discovered 
by the enemy. The single torpedo which was exploded 
destroyed the ram, but the steam launch was lost and only 
one of the men engaged in this attempt, excepting Lieu- 
tenant Cushing himself, escaped. It was a daring under- 
taking and Cushing received due credit for his success. 
Four days later our troops again occupied Plymouth. 

Early in September that dreaded scourge, yellow fever, 
made its appearance in New Bern. The city was placed 
under strict quarantine The regiments and detachments 
at outlying posts did not suffer so severely, but the mortal- 
ity among those stationed in the city itself was very great. 
The first death, that of one of the stevedores, occurred Sept. 
5. Among those who died from this disease were Col. 
Thomas J. C. Amory, of the 17th Massachusetts, who was 
at the time in command of a brigade, and also his wife, 
leaving an infant daughter who afterwards became the wife 
of Mr. Dugan, of New Orleans, and who officiated at the 
unveiling of the monument. The origin of this epidemic 
was credibly traced to some clothing which had been sent 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 53 ] 

for distribution among the poor of New Bern. "Investi- 
gation led to the statement that it had come from Cuba 

and was sent to New Bern by a Dr. Blackburn of 

New York, ostensibly for charitable purposes, but actually 
for the work which it accomplished only too well." The 
ravages of the fever continued with more or less severity 
until the coming of cold weather. 

In September, 1864, the 23d, 25th and 27th regiments, 
which since their departure from North Carolina had been 
on duty around Petersburg, were ordered back to that state. 

November 6, Colonel Jones Frankle, with three com- 
panies of his regiment, the 2nd Massachusetts Heavy Ar- 
tillery, was ordered to Plymouth, and he was appointed 
Military Governor of the Plymouth District. December 6, 
a column under his command made a demonstration to- 
wards Rainbow Bluff , but the movement proved to be of 
small importance. 

About the middle of December, Sherman had reached 
and captured Savannah, and thus had successfully com- 
pleted his "March to the Sea." Although at one time 
Grant seriously considered the idea of having Sherman's 
army transported by sea to Virginia, there to join the Army 
of the Potomac, (this plan was abandoned partly in conse- 
quence of the difficulty of transporting so many thousands 
of men, and partly in consequence of the objections raised 
by General Sherman), it was generally understood that as 
soon as his army had recovered from the fatigue of the 
march from Atlanta, had been supplied with clothing, pro- 
visions, quartermaster's stores, etc., it would probably 
start north through the Carolinas with the intent of join- 
ing Grant in Virginia. The weather in January was very 
unpropitious ; the mud was deep, the roads had to be 
heavily corduroyed, the rivers were so swollen that the 
difficulty of crossing was very much increased, so it was 

[ 54 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

not till February 1, 1865, that Sherman felt he was ready 
to give the order to move north. 

January 31, 1865, General John M. Schofield was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Department of North Car- 
olina, which was extended to embrace the whole state. In 
accordance with General Orders, No. 12, War Depart- 
ment, Schofield was to be in absolute command, subject 
only to orders from General Sherman. On the day of 
Schofield's appointment, Grant wrote him, "Your move- 
ments are intended to co-operate with Sherman's through 
the state of North Carolina." 

February 25, Schofield had ordered Palmer to move at 
once on Kinston, but as the former General thought Pal- 
mer was unnecessarily dilatory he removed him from his 
command and appointed General J. D. Cox in his place. 
On March 8, an engagement occurred at Southwest Creek, 
within a few miles of Kinston. The fighting was very se- 
vere. The 27th Massachusetts and 15th Connecticut held 
Hoke's entire division for fifty-five minutes. The 27th lost 
seven killed, forty wounded and one hundred and forty- 
seven captured, the regiment being practically annihilated.* 

Either Wilmington or New Bern was to have been selected 
as a base of supplies for Sherman in his passage through 
the Carolinas. Owing to the greater depth of water in the 
harbor at Beaufort, the fact that the forty miles of railroad 
from Morehead City to New Bern were already in our pos- 
session, and for several less important reasons, the latter city 
was finally decided upon as being the most desirable base. 

Sherman's Army, in which were but two regiments from 
Massachusetts, the 2nd and 33d, entered North Carolina 

*Colonel Splaine's brigade, the 17th and 25th Massachusetts, 3d New York, 
a provisional battalion from Virginia, and which was re-enforced by the 9th 
New Jersey, held the left of the line. These troops and their Commander 
were complimented on the field by General Cox. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 55 ] 

March 8. On March 16, there was some heavy fighting 
at Fayetteville in which the 33d was engaged ; and the bat- 
tle at Bentonville, in which both the 2nd and the 33d took 
an active part, although it lasted but about an hour, was 
hotly contested and was the only severe battle fought be- 
tween Atlanta and Raleigh. On March 22 and 23, Sher- 
man's army entered Goldsboro, where it united with the 
troops from New Bern under General Schofield. 

Sherman had arranged to resume his northern march 
on April 10. The news of the capture of Richmond and 
Petersburg decided him to go in pursuit of Johnston rather 
than attempt to affect a junction with Grant. The sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, and that of Johnston to Sherman, 
on April 26, virtually ended the war. 

Although no great, decisive battles were fought in North 
Carolina and comparatively little was published regarding 
the movements in that state, our occupancy of Roanoke, 
Beaufort, New Bern and other points, was of great service 
to the Union cause. Had we not taken possession of these 
as we did it would have cost thousands of lives to have 
effected their capture later, even had we been successful in 
the attempt. Our position was a constant menace to the 
confederate lines of communication between the South and 
Virginia and when Sherman made his march through the 
Carolinas our occupancy of New Bern and the other points 
was of inestimable advantage in affording a base from which 
he could open communication with Grant and the authori- 
ties at Washington, and procure many necessary supplies. 

As stated, while no great battles were fought in this 
state, there were numerous minor actions, some of con- 
siderable importance, and all of which were hotly contested; 
a siege as long and severe as any undertaken by the con- 
federates during the war; the losses, in proportion to the 
numbers engaged, as great as in most of the other Depart- 

[ 56 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

ments; and the Massachusetts regiments, which for a long 
time represented the larger part of the force in the state, 
displayed as much endurance, courage and patriotism, as 
any that came from the Old Bay State, many of them later 
winning additional laurels in Virginia and elsewhere. 

Massachusetts may well feel proud of her sons who served 
in North Carolina, and she has not only honored them but has 
honored herself by erecting a monument to their memory. 

Note \_See page jp]. Colonel Henry Splaine writes under date 
of June 28, 1909, [the account of the battle of Goldsboro had then 
been printed]: — 

Even at this late day, I deem it proper to correct an erroneous 
statement about the burning of the railroad bridge at Goldsboro, 
N. C, December 17th, 1862. 

"Your history, and some others, have it that Lieutenant Graham 
burned that bridge. I know, for I was there and saw it, that Lieu- 
tenant Barnabus N. Mann, of the 17th Massachusetts, burned the 
bridge in obedience to orders from Colonel John F. Fellows, com- 
manding the regiment. Two of my own Company, "A," Edmunds 
and Besse, with others from other companies, were detailed with 
Lieutenant Mann for the work. 

"Lieutenant Graham had been detailed by General Foster to fire 
the structure, and although he wore the uniform of a confederate 
officer, made the attempt, failed, and came running from the bridge, 
exclaiming, 'no use, it cannot be done.' Shortly afterwards Lieu- 
tenant Mann and party fired the bridge, Mann being wounded in 
the abdomen, a wound which resulted in his death a few years 

"The 17th Massachusetts had the advance that day, and was the 
the only regiment engaged at or very near the bridge. 

"The writer was within one hundred feet of the bridge in com- 
mand of his company and could have fired it, if ordered. The 
bridge was not fired until after the 17th was swung back from the 
railroad bed and placed in rear of the sand pits, supporting Captain 
Morrison's battery. ' ' 



> 5 

UJ 5 


o 2 

""" "-> 

* I 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 59 ] 

g5e New Bern Cemetery 

An account of its Establishment ; Description 

of the Grounds ; and certain Statistics 

regarding this and other national 


Very soon after the outbreak of the war, Congress 
realized the need of securing suitable burial places for 
such Union soldiers and sailors as were killed in action 
or died of wounds or disease and whose bodies could not 
be sent home to be cared for by friends. 

By Section 18, of u An Act to define the pay and emolu- 
ments of certain officers of the army, and for other purposes, ' ' 
approved July 7, 1862, the President of the United States 
was authorized to purchase cemetery grounds, and cause 
them to be securely enclosed, to be used as a National 
Cemetery for the soldiers who shall die in defense of their 

By Section 1, of "An Act making appropriations for 
sundry civil expenses of the Government for the year 
ending June 30, 1867," approved July 28, 1866, fifty thou- 
sand dollars were appropriated for the establishment of 
National Cemeteries, and for the purchase of sites for the 
same at such points as the President of the United States 
may deem proper, and for the care of the same. 

April 13, 1866, a joint resolution was passed by Con- 
gress authorizing and requiring the Secretary of War to 
take immediate measures to preserve from desecration the 
graves of the soldiers of the United States who fell in 
battle or died of disease in the field, and in hospital, during 

60 1 Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

the rebellion, to secure suitable burial-places in which 
they may be properly interred; and to have the grounds 
enclosed, so that the resting-places of the honored dead 
may be kept sacred forever." Part of these burial-places 
were obtained by purchase ; part were donated ; part were 
on the original military reservation; and part were ob- 
tained by appraisement under the Act of February 22, 

On December 19, 1867, Brevet Major General D. H. 
Rucker, acting Quartermaster- General, U. S. A., made a 
report to the Secretary of War, offering several suggestions 
regarding head stones, fences, lodges for the superintend- 
ents and other matters. This report was returned 
January 3, 1868, endorsed: "Erect the fences and lodges, 
but do nothing about the head stones." 

From a "List of National Cemeteries," issued by the War 
Department, giving data to June 30, 1908, it appears there 
were then eighty-four National Cemeteries under charge 
of that department. Of these, seventeen were in Virginia; 
eight in Tennessee; six in Kentucky; four each in Illinois, 
Louisiana and North Carolina, (New Bern, Raleigh, Sal- 
isbury and Wilmington); three each in the District of 
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, New Jersey, 
New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Texas; and 
one each in Alabama, California, Iowa, Mexico (Mexico 
City), Montana (Custer Battlefield), Nebraska, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma and West Virginia. 

The total area of these cemeteries is fifteen hundred 
and ninety one and a half acres, of which eleven hundred 
and ninety nine and a half acres are enclosed. The largest 
cemetery is that at Arlington, Virginia, four hundred and 
eight and one third acres, all of which are enclosed; and 
the smallest, fifty seven ten thousandths of an acre, or less 
than two hundred and fifty square feet, is at Ball's Bluff, 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 61 ] 

Virginia, where twenty five Union soldiers have found 
their final resting place. 

The total number of burials in all these cemeteries was, 
on June 30, 1908, three hundred and fifty thousand, three 
hundred and thirty two, of which one hundred and fifty 
two thousand, two hundred and seven, or a little more 
than two-fifths of the whole number, are classed as 

The largest number of burials in any one cemetery is 
at Arlington, Virginia, where repose the bodies of twenty 
one thousand, one hundred and six; and the smallest 
number, eleven, at Andrew Johnson Cemetery, Tennessee. 
Of the interments reported, about ninety three hundred 
are of Confederates and mostly in the cemeteries in the 
northern states. 

The deed conveying the land occupied by the National 
Cemetery at New Bern was signed by William P. Moore 
and wife, and was dated March 13, 1869, the area of the 
land being stated as seven acres and five hundred and 
eighty nine thousandths. On July 1, 1874, Isaac N. 
Hughes and wife deeded an additional strip of land the 
area of which is not stated. The "official" area of the 
cemetery is given as seven and six tenths acres. 

March 28, 1870, the Legislature of North Carolina 
granted to the United States Government absolute juris- 
diction over this land; and on November 26, 1888, the city 
of New Bern gave a perpetual right of way, sixty feet 
wide, from the City to the Cemetery. The government 
has constructed a shell road over this right of way and it 
forms a strong contrast to most of the roads in and around 
New Bern. 

The New Bern National Cemetery is situated about an 
eighth of a mile from the Neuse River, on the northern 
edge of what was formerly the old "Fair Ground" and 

[ 62 ] Massachusetts Memorial to her Soldiers and Sailors 

which was used in 1862 and 1863 by the regiments of 
Stevenson's brigade as a drill field. It is within a few 
feet of the creek that emptied into the Neuse at the upper 
end of this field. The bridge that crosses this creek is 
known as " Jack Smith's Bridge," and is on the direct 
road to Swift's Creek and "Little" Washington. The 
cemetery is approximately a mile to a mile and a half 
from the business part of the city. It is rectangular 
in shape, the length being double the width; there 
is a broad drive-way from the gate, through the middle of 
the grounds, extending to the rear of the cemetery. The 
graves are arranged in sections on either side of this drive- 
way, the sections being separated by quite wide paths. 
At present there are laid out nine sections on each side. 
Each section contains five rows and each row about forty- 
five graves. The Massachusetts men are laid principally 
in the fifth and sixth sections on the right, and in the fifth 
section on the left, from the entrance. The monument 
which was erected by Massachusetts is placed about six to 
ten feet from the drive-way on the right and between the 
fifth and sixth sections. There are a few small monuments 
but the only ones erected by states or organizations, in 
addition to that of Massachusetts, are those of New Jersey 
and the 15th Connecticut Regiment. As far as possible, 
the soldiers from each state are laid in the same section. 
Each grave is marked with a neat, simple headstone giving 
the number of the grave and, when known, the name of 
soldier and the state from which he enlisted. 

John A. Reeves, superintendent of the cemetery, to 
whom the committee feel under great obligation for the 
many kindnesses he has shown them and the strong 
personal interest he exhibited in his endeavor to make the 
dedication of the monument a success, has sent a list of 
the Massachusetts soldiers buried in the Cemetery as taken 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 


from his "register of interments." That shows the bur- 
ials from the different Massachusetts regiments to have 
been as follows: 

3d Inf'y, 


5th I 


y, 5. 

8th Inf'y, 


17th " 





21st " " 


23rd " 



( < 


25th " 


27th " 



( < 


38th " 


43d " 



i i 


45th " 


46th " 



i i 




2nd Heavy Artillery, 






Several Massachusetts men who served in the navy are 
laid in this cemetery. When the writer was in New Bern, 
February 21, 1908, he counted five hundred and twenty 
three graves marked as being those of Massachusetts men. 

Superintendent Reeves reports the burials from other 
states : 

Connecticut 137 



Illinois 42 

Indiana 70 



Kentucky 7 

Maine 7 



Michigan 31 

Minnesota 4 



N. Hampshire 24 

New Jersey 61 

New York 


North Carolina 79 

Ohio 88 

Pennsylvania 144 

Rhode Island 55 

South Carolina 26 



Wisconsin 22 

U. S. C. T. 239 

U. S. Navy, 

/ Several no doubt from ~\ 1 O 1 
V Massachusetts / -LOJ. 

Total number 



Reeves does not report number of "unknown," but in 
the four sections devoted mostly to the U. S. C. T., the 
writer counted 744 headstones. A very large majority of 
these troops are marked unknown. The report of the 

[ 64 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

War Department, which has been quoted above, gives 
the full number of interments as three thousand, three 
hundred and sixty-six. Two women were laid in this 
cemetery, the headstone of one being marked " Laundress, 

Most of those who died in New Bern during the war 
and whose bodies were not cared for by friends, were buried 
in the old New Bern (city) cemetery and elsewhere, but 
after the establishment of the National Cemetery, all these 
bodies, as far as possible, were removed to the latter. Gen- 
eral David W. Wardrop, colonel of the 3d Massachusetts 
(three months), and later of the 99th New York, was ap- 
pointed to superintend moving the bodies to the new cem- 
etery. He was assisted by George W. Nason, formerly of 
the 5th Massachusetts (three months service), and later of 
the 23d Massachusetts, who looked after most of the details 
of the work. Comrade Nason remained in New Bern for 
several years after the war, and for ten years he was Post- 
master. In 1864, he was Chief of the Fire Department. 
In consequence of the attack on New Bern in the spring of 
that year he was ordered to arm and equip his men as a 
regiment which was sometimes called the 3d North Car- 
olina, but which was officially known as the Fire De- 
partment regiment. Nason was made colonel of this organ- 
ization. In talking with him he states that one civilian, 
David Heaton, who he thinks received his title of colonel 
from service in the Ohio militia previous to the war, and 
had been for some years active in the politics of that state; 
who was a warm friend of President Lincoln, had served 
two terms in Congress as Representative from the New 
Bern district and who was supervising agent of the Sixth 
Special Treasury Agency, was buried in this cemetery, 

*If there was a name on this stone the writer neglected to record it. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 65 ] 

special permission having been granted by the Secretary 
of War, at Washington. A beautiful headstone has been 
erected by his famify. 

When the cemetery was established it was bare of trees 
or verdure of any description. Comrade Nason, at his own 
expense, planted the first trees.* This first attempt was 
a failure but the second was a success and many of the 
trees planted by Colonel Nason are today from eighteen to 
twenty inches in diameter. Today the cemetery is 
rather attractive, Superintendent Reeves keeps it in excel- 
lent order, and the party who attended the dedication of 
the monument felt pleased that the comrades who had left 
them could lie in such a pleasant place and that they could 
rest there assured that their graves would never be neg- 
lected so long as the Nation existed. 

*An amusing incident is connected with this first attempt. Nason had hired 
a negro to obtain these trees and set them out, specifying they should be not 
less than two inches in diameter at the ground, and telling the man that when 
he had selected the trees he would go with him to attend to setting them out. 
About ten days later, to his surprise, the negro informed him they were all 
planted. Nason visited the cemetery and the trees were there, many of them 
much larger than he had specified and the job looked extremely satisfactory. 
Nason paid the bill. Shortly after New Bern was visited by a violent wind and 
rain storm. Nason went to the cemetery soon after and found most of the trees 
lying on the ground. The negro had cut them off above the ground and stuck 
them in like so many fence posts. Not a single tree had any roots. 

E W 


Governor of Massachusetts 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 67 ] 

Xsfie c^7VIonument 

The Idea Suggested. Legislative Action. 

In the late summer or early fall of 1906, Joseph E. 
Shaw, chief of the District Police of Massachusetts, for- 
merly a member of Company C, 17th Infantry, gratified 
the desire felt by most old soldiers of re-visiting the scenes 
of their army life by spending his vacation in North Car- 
olina. While there he was strongly impressed with the 
feeling that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts should 
erect a monument in the National Cemetery at New Bern 
to the memory of her sons who were there buried. On his 
return he spoke of this to Colonel Henry Splaine and Cap- 
tain Joseph A. Moore, former comrades of the 17th regi- 
ment, who were also associated with him in the District 
Police. The suggestion met their hearty approval as it 
did that of others to whom it was mentioned. 

Among these were General Jones Frankle, late colonel 
of the 2nd Heavy Artillery, and Major Charles B. Amory, 
of the 24th Infantry, whose brother, General Thomas J. C. 
Amory, had died in New Bern, as has previously been re- 
lated. General Frankle became very enthusiastic on the 
subject and as the senior in rank, as well as in age, and 
as commander of the regiment having the largest number 
of men laid in this cemetery, was requested to head the 
movement for the erection of such a monument. It was a 
wise selection, for no one could have put more enthusiasm, 
and love, and disinterested effort into any project than did 
General Frankle into this. Almost every comrade to whom 
the idea was mentioned gave it his unqualified approval, 
as did also several others who were not in the service. 

68 1 Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

As a result of this feeling, the following petition was 
prepared and signed by as many of the old soldiers as could 
be conveniently reached : — 

"To the Honorable Senate and House op Rep- 
resentatives of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, in General Court Assembled: — 

The undersigned petitioners, citizens of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, respectfully request that the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts appropriate the sum of five 
thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the 
Governor and Council, for the erection of a suitable monu- 
ment in the National Cemetery at New Bern, North Caro- 
lina, in memory of the members of the various regiments 
of Massachusetts who lost their lives in the North Carolina 
campaign during the civil war, and respectfully pray for 
the passage of the following resolution : ' ' 

[NOTE. — This resolution was substantially the same as that passed by the 
Legislature; see the resolution below.] 

This petition was presented in the House of Represent- 
atives and referred to the Committee on Military Affairs. 
On Thursday, February 21, 1907, this committee gave the 
petitioners a hearing, which was largely attended, at which 
General Frankle, Captain A. A. Putnam, Captain J. Waldo 
Denny and others spoke advocating the project. A favor- 
able report was made by the committee and in due course of 
time the following resolve was passed by the Legislature : 

"Resolve to provide for the erection of a Monu- 
ment in the National Cemetery at New Bern, * 
North Carolina. 

Resolved, That there shall be allowed and paid out of 
the treasury of the Commonwealth, the sum of five thou- 
sand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the 
governor and council, for the erection of a suitable monu- 
ment in the national cemetery at New Bern, North Caro- 
lina, in memory of the members of the various regiments 
of Massachusetts troops who lost their lives in the North 
Carolina campaign during the civil war." The resolution 
was approved March 22, 1907. 

It was generally understood that the Governor desired 
the selection of the design and the general details 

Sergeant Ephraim Stearns Major Charles B. A mory General A . B. R. Sprague 

Captain Joseph A . Moore 'General Jones Frankle, Chairman Major Daniel IV. Hammond 

Corporal James B. Gardner, Secretary 
*Died, April 15, 1909. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors f 69 

should be placed in charge of those who had served in 
North Carolina and that he wished a number of names 
suggested from which he might select a committee for that 
purpose. Accordingly the following invitation was sent 
to several representative men from each of the regiments 
interested: — 

33 Broad St., Boston, 25 May, 1907. 
The Legislature of Massachusetts having appropriated 
five thousand dollars for a monument in honor of the 
Soldiers and Sailors of that State, to be erected in the Na- 
tional Cemetery at New Bern, the Governor will appoint a 
commission to attend to all the details, and he wishes to 
select its members from those who served in the Old North 

A meeting of representatives of the regiments which 
served there will be held in the G. A. R. room, at the 
State House, on Saturday, June 1, 1907, at 1 p.m., to 
select names to be presented to the Governor for members 
of that Commission, and you are cordially invited to attend 
as a representative of your regiment. 

Please reply to {Late Colonel 2nd Mass. H. Artillery.) 


33 Broad St., Boston. 

At this meeting nearly every regiment interested 
was represented by one or more comrades. The 
character of the proposed monument and various other 
matters in relation to it were thoroughly discussed. A 
nominating committee was appointed and it was decided 
to suggest to the Governor the following names : General 
Jones Frankle, 2nd Heavy Artillery; General A. B. R. 
Sprague, 51st Infantry; Major Daniel W. Hammond, 23d 
Infantry; Major Charles B. Amory, 24th Infantry; Cap- 
tain Joseph A. Moore, 17th Infantry; Sergeant Ephraim 
Stearns, 45th Infantry; and Corporal James B. Gardner, 
44th Infantry. (Comrade Shaw, with whom the idea of 

[ 70 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

the monument originated, had died the previous April). 
This committee met immediately on the adjournment of 
the general meeting and chose General Frankle, chairman, 
and Corporal Gardner, secretary. It also appointed as a 
sub-committee to procure designs and estimates, General 
Frankle, Major Amory and Corporal Gardner. These 
names were immediately sent to the Governor by the sec- 
retary. It was discovered, however, that owing to the 
wording of the resolution the former had no authority to 
delegate this duty to a committee, that is, officially, and 
the committee was so informed ; but he requested the sub- 
committee, as a personal favor, to attend to procuring de- 
signs and estimates and to other necessary details, report- 
ing the results of these endeavors to him, thus relieving 
him of the necessity of giving his personal attention to 
these matters. The committee, of course, willingly acceded 
to his request. Invitations were sent to about twenty firms 
and individuals to submit proposals. Several did not re- 
spond, but a number of very appropriate designs were 
submitted. The general committee held several meetings, 
and, although during the discussions there were many 
differences of opinion, as there always will be in such mat- 
ters, when it came to action the decision was generally 

The design finally reported by the committee, and ac- 
cepted by the Governor and Council, was one submitted hy 
Air. Melzar H. Mosman, of Chicopee, a former member of 
the 46th Massachusetts. While the committee were unan- 
imous in their opinion that his design was the best and 
most satisfactory, they were pleased, as a matter of senti- 
ment, that the contract should be given to one who had 
actually served in the Department and would naturally 
have a strong personal as well as professional interest in 
producing the best of which he was capable. Several who 



OP t1P.j1 

b^ur/iii^j-r op 

ttOXfrl OAJlOimA 


Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 71 ] 

attended the dedication and who were familiar with such 
works, both in Europe and America, pronounced it one of 
the most beautiful they had ever seen ; the proportion, 
modeling and poise were excellent and the artist had 
caught and expressed the full meaning and sentiment of 
the design. 

The monument consists of a base seven feet square, a 
second base five feet square, and a die three feet six inches 
square, the whole six feet high, made of hammered Barre 
granite. On the front of the second base the word 
' ' Massachusetts ' ' is cut in block letters, the face of 
the letters flush with the face of the base. On the front of 
the die is a bronze tablet securely fastened to the granite, 
with the dedicatory inscription : 

"The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Erects 

this Monument in Grateful Memory of 

her Soldiers and Sailors who Died 

in the Department of North 

Carolina, 1861-1865." 

On either side is a tablet bearing the numbers of the 
Massachusetts regiments that served in North Carolina. 
On top of the die is a bronze female figure clad in classic 
costume, her head crowned with a wreath of laurel, repre- 
senting " Peace." Her left arm rests on a pedestal and 
supports a shield on which is inscribed, "After Loyal 
Conflict, Union and Peace." The whole monument 
is about thirteen feet high. 

Soon after the awarding of the contract it was thought 
advisable that some member of the committee be sent to 
New Bern to decide on its location and some other neces- 
sary details, and the secretary, Corporal James B. Gardner, 
was selected. He reached New Bern Friday, February 

[ 72 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

21, 1908, and was most cordially greeted by Mr. James, 
who was then superintendent of the cemetery, as well as 
by many of the old confederates, who, when they learned 
the object of his visit, did everything in their power to 
make it pleasant and tried and succeeded in obliterating 
any disagreeable memories of the late " Unpleasantness." 
He found New Bern, so far as the city proper was con- 
cerned, not much changed though somewhat improved, but 
it had grown very much and what were formerly open fields 
were now covered with factories and railroad tracks. He 
took advantage of being in New Bern to make a trip to 
u Little " Washington, where he was stationed during the 
siege of that place, and there, as at New Bern, received 
the kindest treatment from his one-time enemies. 

An incident occurred during this visit to Washington 
which is worthy of mention. It chanced to be February 

22, Washington's birth-day. Dr. J. M. Gallagher, who 
was a boy at the time of the siege of this town, and who, 
notwithstanding his youth, was a very efficient confederate 
spy, had a large American flag displayed in front of his 
drug store. Every man as he passed under that flag re- 
moved his hat ; if not voluntarily, Dr. Gallagher invited 
him to do so. In response to a remark by the writer 
Dr. Gallagher said: "Although only a boy, I bitterly de- 
tested that flag for years, but today I honor it above every- 
thing else in the world and no one shall pay it disrespect 
in my presence."* 

*Dr. Gallagher was present at the thirty-third annual reunion of the 44th 
Massachusetts Regiment Association, at Young's Hotel, Boston, January 21, 
1909, as guest of the Association. 


President Afassachusctts Senate 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 75 


Itinerary. List of Visitors. Dedicatory 

It was felt that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
and the regiments that served in North Carolina should 
be properly represented at the dedication of the monument, 
so during the session of 1908 an application was made to 
the Legislature for a suitable appropriation to defray the 
necessary expense. One or two hearings were had and the 
result of these was the passage of the following resolution : 

"Resolve to provide for the representation of 
the Commonwealth at the Dedication of the Monu- 

New Bern, North Carolina. 

Resolved ', That there shall be allowed and paid out of 
the treasury of the Commonwealth a sum not exceeding 
four thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction 
of the governor and council for a proper representation of 
the Commonwealth at the dedication of the monument to 
be erected under the provisions of chapter thirty-four of 
the resolves of the year nineteen hundred and seven, on 
the grounds of the national cemetery at New Bern, North 
Carolina, by the following officials: — His excellency, the 
governor; the lieutenant governor; two members of the 
governor's staff; two members of the executive council; 
the president of the senate ; the speaker of the house of 
representatives ; the clerk of the senate and the clerk of 
the house of representatives; the joint committee on mili- 
tary affairs; the monument committee; two members from 
each regiment which served in the department of North 
Carolina, one of whom shall be an officer, and one of whom 
shall be an enlisted man, to be selected by the different or- 
ganizations, or by the senior officer when no regimental 
association exists, or if it has no regular meeting before 
the appointments must be made, except that a member of 
any such regiment who is also a member of the monument 
committee shall be considered as one of the members se- 
lected from that regiment : all to be approved by the gov- 
ernor; and such other guests as the governor may person- 
ally invite." This resolution was approved March 23, 1908. 

[ 76 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

Subsequently the Sergeant-at-Arms, in connection with 
the Finance Committee of the Executive Council, was au- 
thorized to make all necessary arrangements for the visit 
to New Bern. A contract was made with the Raymond & 
Whitcomb Company, and the Official Party left Boston at 
8 P. m., on Monday, November 9, 1908, via. the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford R. R. Four Pullman sleepers 
were placed at their disposal and remained with the party 
during the entire trip. 

Governor Guild had expected to accompany the party, 
but owing to his not having recovered from a severe illness, 
his physician absolutely forbade his going. It was a great 
disappointment to him personally as it was, not only to 
the delegation, but to our southern friends who were so 
desirous of meeting the Governor of our Commonwealth. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 77 ] 

Official Party 


Hon. William D. Chappie, President of the Senate 

Brig. General William H. Brigham. Adjutant General... ) _ , _ „ 

nir ■ t it t. « ■ j j i Governor s Staff 

Major Ira Vaughn, Aide-de-camp ) 

Hon. Albion F. Bemis, ) 

TT e , ,, 7 T , Executive Council 

Hon. Seward W. Jones, ■ • ■ J 

Henry D. Coolidge Clerk of the Senate 

James W. Kimball Clerk of House of Representatives 

Hon. William R. Salter, Senator 1 

Daniel E. Denny, (42ci Mass.) Representative I 

John F. Cook, Representative 

James Oliver {21st Mass.), Representative 1 Joint 

John H. McKenney, Representative )> Militar}' 

Andrew R. Linscott, Representative | Committee 

Charles F. McCarthy, Representative 

Charles T. Holt, Representative 

J. J. Madsen, Representative J 

J. H. Schoonmaker, Representative 

Captain David T. Remington {31st 3Iass.) Sergeant-at-Arms 

Henry Grant Weston {3th Mass.) Color Bearer 


Mrs. Laura A. Dugan ) . . J , . _ 

„. ... „," „ ( Assisted in Unveiling the Monument 

Miss Alice Alden Sprague ) ° 

Lieut. Charles H. Porter, {39th Mass.) Recorder of the M. O. L. L. U. S. 


General Jones Frankle, {2d Mass. H. A.) "1 Sub-Com- 

Major Charles B. Amory {24th Mass.) > mittee on 

Corporal James B. Gardner (44th Mass.) J Monument 

Capt. Theo. K. Parker 2d Mass. Lieut. Nathaniel Morton. . 3d Mass. 

Corp. John E. Foye " Pri v. George A. Grant " 


Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

Capt. Edwin F. Wyer, 

Priv. George E. Mitchell, 

5th Mass. 

Gen. Benjamin F. Peach. . 8th Mass. 
Gen. A. Hun Berry 

Capt. Joseph A. Moore. . . 17th Mass. 
Sgt. John W. McKnight.. 

Lt. Col. Theo. S. Foster . .21st Mass. 
Priv. Luther E. Stewart.. " 

Maj. Dan'l W. Hammond. 23d Mass. 
Com. Sgt. Thos. Swasey. . " 

Capt. William F. Wiley. 
Priv. John C. Cook 

.24th Mass. 

Gen. A. B. R. Sprague. 
Priv. Edwin Wilbur . . . . 

25th Mass. 

Capt. Henry C. Dwight. . .27th Mass. 
Corp. Daniel W. Bates. ... " 

Asst. Surg. M. E. Webb. . .33d Mass. 
Corp. Albert C. Stacy 

Maj. Everett Lane 43d Mass. 

1st Sgt. Brainard Cushing. " 

Capt. Charles Hunt 44th Mass. 

Priv. Horace Forbush.... " 

Priv. Edwin P. Longley. . .45th Mass. 
Sgt. Ephraim Stearns " 

Lieut. Joseph G. Noble. . . .46th Mass. 
Priv. Melzar H. Mosman. . " 

Capt. John S. Baldwin 51st Mass. 

Priv. Albert W. Hersey... " 

Capt. A. A. Putnam. .2d Mass., H. A. 
Priv. Warren Lee Goss ' ' 


Robert G. Amory, (2d Mass. H. A.) 
C. J. Batchellet 

George W. BrooKS, (44th Mass.) 
Loammi B. Carr, (51st Mass.) 
Mrs. Daniel E. Denny 
Charles O. Fellows, (17th Mass.) 
Perley Goddard 
Charles G. Gould, (8 th Mass.) 
Rev. Edw. H. Hall, D.D.,(^M Mass.) 
Mrs. Daniel W. Hammond 
Augustus C. Jordan, (43d Mass.) 
Mrs. Augustus C. Jordan 
Augustus S. Lovett, (43th Mass.) 
Albert W. Mann, (45th Mass.) 
Horace E. Marion, M.D., (5th Mass.) 
Fred K. M. Jones and W. F. Smith, 

Edw. W. Mitchell 

Mrs. George E. Mitchell 

Mrs. M. H. Mosman 

Miss Mosman 

Richard J. Nichols, (8th Mass.) 

Horace W. Otis, (5th Mass.) 

Ward M. Otis, (5th Mass.) 

Mrs. Benjamin F. Peach 

George F. Putnam, (17th Mass.) 

Mrs. George F. Putnam 

Bailey Sargent, (2d Mass. H. A.) 

Henry Splaine, (ijth Mass.) 

Mrs. A. B. R. Sprague 

Samuel O. Staples, (31st Mass.) 

J. W. Wixtead 

of the Raymond & Whitcomb Co. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 79 ] 

Two other excursions were organized. The first was 
arranged by George E Marsters, and the party was com- 
posed of 

Frank M. Alley, {23 d A/ass.) Caleb W. Marsh 

William S. Bowden, {8th Mass.) George E. Marsh, {3th Mass.) 

A. Otis Chamberlain, {23d Mass.) William E. Murdock, {25th Mass.) 

William A. Chaplin, (23d Mass.) George W. Nason, {5th & 236. Mass.) 

Andrew J. Clark, {4th and 23d Mass.) William P. Plimpton, {45th Mass.) 

A. Walter Clark James T. Pool, {8th Mass.) 

George F. Clark William W. Ricker 

Joseph W. Day, {17th Mass.) Louis L. Robbins, {23d Mass.) 

Mrs. Joseph W. Day William S. Sterling, (23d Mass.) 

*Guy B. Flanders,^ and 27th Mass.) Henry Stone, {8th 3fass.) 

William A. Gray, {44th Mass.) Charles F. Tenny, {25th Mass.) 

Mrs. William A. Gray Andrew D. Trout, {23d Mass.) 

Thaddeus Griffin, {23d Mass.) Herbert E. Valentine, {23d Mass.) 

Mrs. Thaddeus Griffin Owen T. Whitney, {3d Mass.) 

Albert T. Hills, (23d Mass.) M. T. Drummey, {Conductor 0/ party) 

Fred L. Jones, {23d Mass.) 

*Returned with the Peirce part}-. 

This party left Boston Sunday, November 8, via the 
Fall River Line, reaching Washington, D. C, at 1.15 p. 
m., Monday. It left Washington at 6.30 p.m., via the 
Potomac River Steamer, arriving at Norfolk Tuesday morn- 
ing and New Bern the same evening. Its quarters were 
at Hotel Hazelton. It left New Bern Friday morning, 
November 13, returning by the same route, arriving at 
Boston Sunday morning. 

The other party was organized by the Peirce Tourist 
Company. This party left Boston on Saturday afternoon, 
November 7, for Providence, where it took a steamer of 
the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company for 
Norfolk, Va., reaching there Monday morning, and ar- 
riving at New Bern the same evening. This party was 
quartered at the Gem Hotel. It returned by the same 

[ 80 ] Massachusetts Memorial to her Soldiers and Sailors 

route, leaving New Bern Friday morning and reaching 
Boston Sunday afternoon. The members of this party 
were : 

Nahum Brewer W. C. Richardson 

Jos. P. Eaton, {25th Mass.) *Fred W. Stackpole, {45th Mass.) 

George A. Howard, (24th Mass.) Melvin O. Walker, {45th Mass.) 

Joseph R. Kendall, {44th Mass.) George P. Walcott, {44th Mass.) 

Fred A. Kent, (44th Mass.) William S. Wellington, {44th Mass.) 

Freeman H. Lothrop, (,45th Mass.) John D. Whitcomb, (45th Mass.) 

Hosea J. Marcy, (25th Mass.) Henry C. Whitcomb 

Edward A. Mason, (45th Mass.) Henry Wheelock, (45th Mass.) 

Edward F. Reed, (45th Mass.) Albert Whitney {45th Mass.) 

Charles F. Peirce, (5th Mass.) Gershom C. Winsor, (45th Mass.) 

F. A. Richardson Francis Wright, (25th Mass.) 
*Returned with the Marsters party. 

Additional to these were Edward R. Blanchard {44th 
Mass.) and son, and E. Perez Smith, {44th Mass.) who 
went independently. 

The "Official" party arrived at Washington, D. C, 
Tuesday forenoon. Three or four ' ' sight-seeing ' ' automo- 
biles were at the station waiting their coining and for about 
three hours they had a most enjoyable ride around Wash- 
ington. To some of the party the city was very familiar ; 
to many the trip was a succession of delightful surprises ; 
while to all it was extremely interesting. The conductor 
of one of the cars was a " play bill " boy at Ford's Thea- 
tre the evening President Lincoln was assassinated, and his 
account of that event and of many incidents occurring in 
Washington during the war was exceedingly graphic. 

After an appetizing dinner at Congress Hall, a compara- 
tively new hotel, near the Capitol, the party returned to 
the train and resumed their journey. At Petersburg they 
were joined by General Julian S. Carr, of Durham, N. C, 
the state commander of the C. S. A. camps in North Caro- 
lina, who had been especially invited by Governor Guild 

•V. C, C.S. A. 


ATnitsi-%* nf A7"„„.. D 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 81 ] 

to attend the dedication. General Carr was most cordially 
welcomed and proved to be as strong a Union man today 
as any of the party, and a fine specimen of the typical old- 
style southern gentleman. Goldsboro was reached early 
Wednesday morning, but instead of waiting for the regular 
train they ran as "special" to New Bern, reaching there 
about 7 A. m. The train did not stop at the station, 
some three-quarters of a mile from the hotel, but continued 
on to South Front street, a little over a block from the 
Gaston House, which was the headquarters during the 
visit, so most of the party walked to the hotel. Rooms 
were assigned and breakfast served immediately after 

About 10 a.m., the Mayor of New Bern, Hon. James A. 
Bryan, an ex-confederate, called at the Gaston House where 
he held a reception and gave the visitors a most cordial as 
well as official welcome to the city of New Bern. 

Mayor Bryan was much disappointed when he learned 
that Governor Guild was not with the delegation, and 
immediately sent him the following telegram : 

Curtis Guild, Jr., 


State House, Boston. 
We greatly regret your absence and extend to you our 
hearty sympathy in your illness and trust that you will be 
speedily restored to health. North Carolina sends greet- 
ing to Massachusetts, as a loving sister and a child of our 
common country. James A. Bryan, 

Mayor of New Bern. 

At 1.30 p.m., the procession formed in front of the Gas- 
ton House, on South Front street. Many former confed- 
erates were in the ranks, among them General Julian S. 
Carr, Colonel J. J. Wolfenden and Colonel Wilson G. 
Lamb. Several wore the old gray uniform but they all 
showed as much interest and sympathy with the occasion 

[ 82 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

as if they had worn the "Army Blue." It was hard to 
realize that almost half a century ago we were on opposite 
sides in the civil war. 

The day was a holiday in New Bern, most of the stores 
and offices being closed. A special train had been provided, 
and headed by the Kinston band of the N. C. N. G., the 
procession proceeded to the cars. Harly in November, 
Colonel Wolfenden had written, ' ' there are two or three 
military companies a little way up the State that have ex- 
pressed a willingness, and not only a willingness but a 
desire, to come on that occasion (at their own expense) to 
help do honor to the dead." The secretary immediately 
replied, "We should welcome the military companies most 
cordially. * * * Such expressions of kindly feeling are 
conclusive evidence that the antagonisms engendered by 
the war are being rapidly forgotten and that the North 
and South are now united as never before." Just as the 
train was ready to start the Kinston company of the North 
Carolina National Guard, Captain Henry Harper, came up 
on the double quick (their train was late in reaching New 
Bern) and joined us. They were a body of fine looking 
young men, clad in khaki uniforms, and their good will 
and sympathy were appreciated by all the visitors. 

The special train landed its passengers within a few 
rods of the cemetery gate when the procession reformed 
and, with the Kinston company as escort, entered the 
grounds. A space around the monument was reserved for 
the school children and their teachers, who, through the 
kindness of Colonel J.J. Wolfenden had consented to take 
part in the exercises, and directly opposite Superintendent 
Reeves had built a platform for the speakers. The monu- 
ment was concealed by American flags, and after the ladies 
who were to assist in the unveiling, Mrs. Dugan, Mrs. 
Hartsfield and Miss Sprague, had taken their positions, 



Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 83 ] 

the school children and their teachers seated on benches 
around the reserved space, and the speakers escorted to the 
platform, the exercises opening with singing by the child- 
ren. Among the songs rendered by them were the "Star 
Spangled Banner," the "Blue and the Gray," and many 
others of equal significance. 

General Frankle, as chairman of the general committee, 
then called the assembly to order and introduced the Rev. 
Edward H. Hall, D.D., formerly chaplain of the Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts, who offered an eloquent and touch- 
ing prayer.* 

Mr. Mosman, the sculptor, then rose and addressing 
General Frankle, said: "As chairman of the committee 
appointed to receive from my hands the monument erected 
by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, now resting upon 
this sacred ground to commemorate the deeds of the heroic 
dead, I present it to you and hope it may stand there to 
testify to the faithfulness and patriotism of the Sons of 
Massachusetts who in this distant land, far from home, 
laid down their lives to preserve the nation." 

Miss Sprague then drew the cord releasing the pins 
which confined the flags and Mrs. Dugan and Mrs. Harts- 
field those which were attached to the latter and the beau- 
tiful monument was displayed to the company, the band 
playing an appropriate selection. 

General Frankle, turning to Mr. Mosman, said : 
Comrade : 

It is highly gratifying to the Committee to whom was 
intrusted the execution of this monument to be able to 
receive it from you with feelings of entire satisfaction. 

In doing so, they desire gratefully to acknowledge their 
indebtedness to you for interpreting in bronze and stone, 

*It is to be regretted that owing to a misunderstanding the prayer could not 
be reported. 

84 ] Massachusetts Memorial to her Soldiers and Sailors 

through this noble work of art, their sentiment and design. 

That you had been yourself a soldier and a comrade of 
those who, after heroic struggle, found here their final 
resting place, would, in the opinion of the Committee, 
lend additional inspiration to your brain and skilful hands. 

That they judged rightly, the unveiling of this statue 
today has fully proved. 

He then requested the secretary to read the following 
letter from His Excellency, Governor Guild : 



Boston, November 5, 1908. 
General Jones Frankle, 

153 Milk Street, Bostou. 

My Dear General Frankle : 

I regret extremely to say that my physicians have 
decided that I cannot, without certainty of a physical re- 
lapse, endure the fatigue incident upon five nights in a 
sleeping car and fare other than the carefully selected diet 
to which at present I am restricted. 

I shall, therefore, be debarred from the privilege of 
assisting at the dedication of the monument at New Bern. 
As the Governor is not in this case to be the orator of the 
day, I have accepted this to me most unpleasant verdict 
with the assurance that I shall not be greatly missed. 

The delegation of the staff and the members of the 
Council will accompany the party and the State color bearer 
will also go with the colors of Massachusetts. The accept- 
ance of the monument by the Commonwealth and its trans- 
fer to the United States authorities will be made by 
President William D. Chappie of the Senate. You can 


Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 85 ] 

rest assured that in his hands that duty will be gracefully 
and patriotically performed. I have been looking forward 
to this trip with the keenest pleasure, and that I should be 
barred from it is a bitter disappointment, I can assure you. 
Nothing but sheer physical inability to endure such a 
strain could keep me away. Will you explain this to your 
comrades and believe me, with deep regret, 

Faithfully yours, 

Curtis Guild, Jr.* 

Addressing the Honorable William D. Chappie, Presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Senate, who in the absence of 
the Governor represented the Commonwealth, General 
Frankle continued: 

And now, may it please your Honor, the Committee to 
whom was intrusted the duty of designing and procuring 
the monument to be erected by the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts at this National Cemetery, in memory of 
her sons who, while serving in the Department of North 
Carolina during the Civil War, laid down their lives in 
defense and for the preservation of our Union, have accom- 
plished their allotted task. The monument, completed 
and in its proper position, awaits dedication under your 
direction. While others may speak of the gallantry of 

*In replv the following letter was sent to the Governor : 

Boston, 6 November, 1908. 
To His Excellency, Curtis Guild, Jr. 
Dear Governor: 

We have learned with deep regret, through your letter to General Frankle, 
that you would be unable to be present at the dedication of the monument at 
New Bern. We were afraid that the condition of your health would prevent 
your attendance, but have been hoping that you might feel strong enough to 
make the trip. 

Your absence will be a great disappointment not only to the party from 
Massachusetts but also to those of the South who have been taking so much 
interest in this matter. 

With the hope that you may soon recover your normal condition of health, 
we remain, most sincerely yours, 

James B. Gardner, Secretary. 

[ 86 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

our comrades who found their last honored resting place 
in this sacred spot, it is for this committee to refer and 
point to the results achieved by their heroism and sacrifices. 
In this regrettable, fratricidal conflict, each side — in ac- 
cordance with its conception of right and duty — served 
the cause to which it was committed and for which with 
equal heroism and sacrifices it battled . The result of this 
deadly struggle was Union and Peace, as yonder monument 
proclaims to all who now and in the future may behold it. 
The inscription on the monument reads : 


happily now acknowledged by all our land, East, West, 
North or South. And it is for this reason that, as the 
events of this unhappy period of our national life recede 
into the dimness of history, the survivors of this gigantic 
struggle can look into each other's faces with pride, stretch 
out their arms toward each other, grasp each other's hands 
in friendship and call each other comrades instead of foes 
— forming a united front against any foes of our beloved 
country, striving unitedly under our glorious banner of 
the Stars and Stripes, for justice, right and liberty. 

Comrades of the Union Camp and of the Confederate 
Camp, it is much to be regretted that our Governor, 
whose letter expressing his own regret you have just 
heard, can not be with us today. He would, by his pres- 
ence, have been a living illustration of the sentiment here 
and on our monument expressed ; for it was he, a North- 
ern citizen soldier, who side by side in comradeship with 
the famous Southern soldier, the gallant General Fitz Hugh 
Lee, battled for justice, right and liberty in bringing inde- 
pendence to our Sister Republic of Cuba. But in his ab- 



Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 87 J 

sence it gives me great pleasure to introduce to you his 
representative, Hon. William D. Chappie, President of the 
Senate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

In accepting the monument for the Commonwealth, Mr. 
Chappie said: 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

By reason of the illness of His Excellency, Curtis Guild, 
Jr., Governor of Massachusetts, which we all so much re- 
gret, it devolves upon me to accept for the Commonwealth 
from the committee having charge of its construction this 
beautiful monument erected to the memory of those sons 
of Massachusetts who laid down their lives in her behalf, 
and who are now sleeping in this peaceful cemetery. 

North Carolina for its assistance today deserves the 
thanks of Massachusetts, as it did in days of old when the 
colonies were struggling for liberty. 

For while Massachusetts was resisting the Stamp Act 
and sacking the home of Lieutenant Governor Hutchinson, 
the men of North Carolina were surrounding the home of 
their royal governor, taking from his very presence the 
comptroller of the province, and compelling him to make 
oath that he would not enforce that unjust law. 

When the blood of Massachusetts was spilled in 1770, 
at the Boston massacre, it was followed in 1771 by a battle 
with the royal authorities in which two hundred of the 
North Carolina patriots, who had been driven into revolt 
against the British by extortion and unlawful imprison- 
ment, lost their lives. As Sam Adams coolly locked the 
door of the chamber in which the Massachusetts Provincial 
Legislature was sitting at Salem, denying admittance to 
the royal governor's secretary who had arrived with a writ 
dissolving the assembly, thereby enabling it to designate 
the meeting place of the first Continental Congress and 

[ 88 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

elect delegates to represent Massachusetts, so did your Pro- 
vincial Assembly, meeting at New Bern in defiance of 
Governor Martin's prohibition, elect delegates to represent 
North Carolina at that Continental Congress. 

It needed but the news from Massachusetts of the battles 
of Lexington and Concord for the citizens of North Caro- 
lina to meet on the 20th day of May, 1775, and declare 
the country independent of Great Britain, sending a copy 
of the resolutions by special messenger to the Continental 
Congress, a date, which to this day is proudly borne upon 
the seal of your state, and it was North Carolina first of all 
the colonies that by formal resolution, adopted on the 12th 
of April, 1776, instructed its delegates in Congress to vote 
for independence. 

In 1861, and the terrible years which followed, it was 
the proud command of our state that Massachusetts ex- 
pects every man to do his duty, and what more could she 
demand of her sons than that they should be willing to 
give up their lives for her sake, and more than forty years 
ago these old soldiers who surround us were willing to 
make even that sacrifice, for they were within the borders 
of North Carolina as northern soldiers fighting for a cause 
they loved as you men of North Carolina love your own 
fair state ; today they return as friends to do homage to the 
beloved comrades they left behind them, with no more 
malice in their hearts than is in yonder figure symbol- 
izing Peace, whose calm eye looks down upon the graves 
of six hundred sons of Massachusetts, who will remain 
resting in the soil of North Carolina till time shall be no 

And now in behalf of Massachusetts, I accept this beau- 
tiful memorial to her soldier dead, and in her behalf as 
well, (turning to Mr. Reeves, superintendent of the ceme- 
tery), I tender it to you, Sir, representing the government 


Orator of the Day 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors f 89 

of the United States and typifying as you do our common 
country, one nation and one flag. 

Mr. Reeves, on behalf of the United States Government, 
accepted the charge, saying: 

( ' In behalf of the Department which I have the honor 
to represent, I cheerfully assume the duty of caring for 
and preserving this beautiful monument from now on." 

The Orator of the Day, Judge A. A. Putnam, formerly 
captain in the 2d Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, Colonel 
Frankle's old regiment, was then introduced by the latter. 
Captain Putnam spoke as follows: 

Ladies, Comrades and Gentlemen : 

In common with all of you who are here, cherishing 
remembrance of old regimental associations, I rejoice ever 
so much in the erection at last of a monument in memory 
of our Massachusetts soldier dead here in this southern 
state. To you as to me it must seem right, salutary and 
beautiful. As it was said by Webster upon the completion 
of Bunker Hill Monument, so may we also not inappropri- 
ately now say, li A duty has been performed." If so, then 
may we all rejoice here together, whether we be of the Old 
Bay State or of the Old North State. 

Assuming, as perhaps we may, that there prevails here 
such an unanimity of sentiment nothing can be much more 
impressive, gratifying and heart-gladdening than this sim- 
ple occasion. A single thought beyond all others at this 
hour must needs possess us as we recall the sanguinary 
and tempestuous past and then consider our mission here 
today, so peaceful, and our treatment here received today, 
so hospitable and fraternal under this Carolina sky. Two 
score and more years it is since I toiled beneath it in the 
hot, sultry summer of sixty-four and almost I am over- 

[ 90 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

come as thought comes over me of the measureless dissimi- 
larity of conditions now and then. 

Verily, it is one of the happiest signs, rather it is the 
happiest of all signs, of the fraternal solidity of our country 
that the people of the northern states, through their rep- 
resentatives, can come down here among the people of the 
southern states for the purpose of erecting and dedicating 
memorials in memory of their soldier dead and feel that 
they come among friends. 

Looking back three and forty years and recalling the 
relations of the two great sections of the land, northern 
and southern, then fresh from a fiery conflict of four years 
duration, how little did we dream that at any time hence 
the country would be so cemented in the bonds of complete 
union as it is today ! Then, to be sure, there was peace; 
arms had ceased to clash ; campaigns were no longer in 
contemplation; soldiers, weary, were retiring to their 
homes and glad, glad to retire and but one flag was recog- 
nized to be in authority. But oh ! what sores were bleed- 
ing, what animosities were still alive, what disappointments 
were still felt and above all, what convictions still remained 
on the one side and the other that the one was right and 
the other wrong in the tremendous struggle. 

How out of so much soreness could there come friendli- 
ness ? How out of so much antagonism could there come 
unity? How out of states discordant, if not dissevered, 
acrimonious, if not still belligerent, should there come a 
republic one and indivisible? None could quite say. 
None could forecast. It was beyond the ken of man to see, 
beyond the scope of statesmanship to devise. 

Nevertheless, all the while from the inception of the 
conflict, through all its entanglements and flaming fields, 
down to the season of ultimate reconciliation, there was a 
divinity shaping our ends, rough hew them how we might. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 91 ] 

If we cannot point to this, that or the other measure of 
human device or any number of human devices combined 
which led us to feel and believe it far better that we should 
dwell together in peace as a people of one blood, we can 
yet somehow understand what manner of Providence it was 
that wrought the consummation. Who shall say that we 
were not inspired by the God of hosts to contemplate afresh 
this continent of our denizenship, so washed by oceans on 
the east and the west, so laved by incomparable lakes on 
the north and bounded so much on the south by the grand 
old gulf ; with mighty rivers coursing from their mountain 
sources in every direction, with manifold mines of untold 
wealth still asleep in their rocky beds, with a soil leaping 
for culture and forests primeval beckoning the axe, and all 
to tempt the hands of a common industry ; and thus con- 
templating, to see and know that Nature herself, here as 
nowhere else, had fashioned a land and bountifully stocked 
it for the abode and growth, the power and happiness of 
one people under one government, the Stars and Stripes 
for its ensign, no star henceforth to be erased, no stripe to 
be polluted, its motto evermore to be, u Liberty and Union, 
now and forever, one and inseparable." 

The exercises concluded with singing and at the close a 
salute was fired by the New Bern company of the N. C. 
N. G., Captain C. J. McSorley. 

Most of those present then returned to the train which 
had been held in waiting, and went back to the city while 
many of the visitors took advantage of the few hours of 
daylight to revisit many of the localities so familiar to 
them forty-five years ago. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 93 ] 

c^Jew Bern Re-visited 

Incidents. Receptions. Homeward Trip. 

After the conclusion of the exercises at the cemetery on 
Wednesday afternoon, the visitors occupied themselves in 
various ways until evening. Many visited the ruins of 
old Fort Totten; many tried to locate their old camp 
grounds and other familiar spots ; while others enjoyed a 
ramble around the old town. 

Upon invitation of Mayor Bryan, Adjutant General 
Brigham and some twenty or thirty others called on the 
former at his residence, which during the war was occu- 
pied by General Burnside as headquarters. They had a 
most enjoyable reception, meeting many of the leading 
citizens of New Bern. The refreshments, both solid and 
liquid, were particularly appetizing. The reception was 
very informal ; there were but two or three brief speeches, 
and those who were present speak of the occasion as one 
long to be remembered with great pleasure. 

Chaplain Hall was very desirous to visit the camp 
ground of his old regiment, and piloted by the Secretary 
who had located it during his visit the previous February, 
his wish was gratified. The scene had materially changed 
during forty years of absence but some few familiar land- 
marks still remained. On their way back to town they 
met Mr. Stewart, one of the most influential of New Bern's 
citizens, who kindly placed his horses, carriage and driver 
at their service, and until it became too dark to see clearly 
they enjoyed driving around the city. 

On November 7, two days before we started for North 
Carolina, a letter was received from Colonel Wolfenden, 
in which he said that New Bern Chapter, Daughters of 

[ 94 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

the Confederacy, wished to give the Northern visitors a 
reception at their hall on Wednesday evening, and in- 
quired if it would interfere with any of our contemplated 
arrangements. The secretary immediately replied that 
it would not interfere with any proposed arrangements; 
but that a circular had been issued, which it was now 
too late to recall, stating that evening dress would not 
be required ; that many of us felt that out of proper 
respect for our hostesses we should appear at such a func- 
tion appropriately clothed, but if the "Daughters" would 
kindly overlook the informality we should only be too 
happy to accept their courtesy. Accordingly, at about 
eight o'clock most of the visitors assembled in front of the 
Gaston House and piloted by General Brigham and Sar- 
geant-at-Arms Remington, proceeded to the hall which 
was but a short distance from the Hotel. 

The ' ' Daughters ' ' occupy a pleasant, commodious room 
and were present in large numbers to welcome their 
"Yankee" guests. In the receiving line were Mrs. 
Charles L. Stevens, (president of the New Bern chapter, 
who had been visiting at quite a distance and came home 
in order to be present at the reception), Mrs. R. B Nixon, 
Mrs. S. W. Hancock, Mrs. George Henderson, Mrs. F. S. 
Duffy, Mrs. T. G. Hyman, Mrs. J. J. Wolfenden, Mrs. J. 
L. Hartsfleld, Mrs. George Henderson, Jr., Miss Eulalia 
Willis, Miss Annie Foy, Miss Carrie Arendall, Miss Janie 
Stewart, Miss Katherine Street, Miss Sara Whitehurst, 
Miss Margaret Bryan and Miss Henrietta Hancock.* 

It was the universal opinion of all the visitors that this 
reception was one of the pleasantest functions of this des- 
cription that any of them had ever attended. After the 
actual ceremony of the reception was over, there was the 

*To this young lady are we indebted for the names of those who were in the 
receiving line. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors f 95 

utmost informality, introductions were regarded as entirely 
superfluous, the "Daughters" vied with each other in 
their wish to make their visitors feel ' ' at home ' ' and their 
reception was even warmer, though of a different kind of 
warmth, from what they would have liked to have given 
us forty years ago. As one of the ladies (and not one of 
the seniors — we are timid about speaking of any of them 
as old) remarked in the course of the evening: " I have 
always been one of the 'un-reconstructed,' but you Yan- 
kees are much better fellows than I ever thought you were 
and if I should meet a few more of you I'm afraid I should 
become as strong 'Union' as you are yourselves." Light 
refreshments were served ; many of the ladies officiated at 
the piano, there was singing in which all joined and there 
was no lull in conversation. It was close upon the " wee 
small hours" before the last guest had left the hall. All 
who were there will ever recall this reception as one of 
the pleasantest memories of their lives. 

Thursday was devoted to general sight seeing. Through 
the kindness of Hon. C. R. Thomas, Representative in 
Congress from the New Bern district, the revenue cutter 
"Pamlico," stationed at that city, was placed at the dis- 
posal of the visitors and a large number enjoyed a sail, or 
perhaps more correctly speaking a "steam," for from fif- 
teen to twenty miles up the Neuse River, towards Kinston. 
Major Amory and a number of others who were present at 
the battle of New Bern visited the old battlefield. Brooks 
and Forbush, of the 44th Massachusetts, drove out to 
Batchelder's and Bryce's Creek. Many spent part of their 
time at the studio of Mrs. Bayard Wootten who was by 
general consent adopted as the "official photographer," 
and secured views of the places in which they were most 
interested. Others visited the houses which they occupied 
while doing provost duty when they were able to locate 

[ 96 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

them. Many rambled around the city and others spent 
their time in visiting some of the acquaintances they had 
made since their arrival. In the afternoon, under the 
guidance of Mr. W. T. Hill, of New Bern, several went to 
the Masonic Hall, which during the war was for a time 
used as a hospital. To the members of the Masonic fra- 
ternity this was one of the most interesting events of the 
trip. The lodge is one of the oldest in the state, if not in 
the country, and it has preserved many documents dating 
back to the eighteenth century. The Bible has been in 
constant use for nearly, if not quite, one hundred and fifty 
years and shows unmistakeable signs of wear. The writer 
regrets exceedingly that he failed to make notes of the 
various papers shown us as a list of these would be of 
much interest to the craft wherever dispersed.* The fres- 
coing of Masonic emblems on the ceiling of the hall was 
practically the same when the building was devoted to 
hospital use, although they have been repainted. One of 
the party recalled having visited a comrade who had been 
very ill and was lying on a cot in the north-west corner. 
Almost the first remark he made as he greeted his visitor 

was : "I think it a d d shame to put a man as sick as 

I've been where every time he looks up he sees a coffin 
hanging over his head." It is needless to say that the 
comrade at that time was not a member of the fraternity. 
On their way back to the hotel they visited the ' ' Elks ' ' 
building, one of the finest in the city, beautifully ap- 
pointed, and which would be a credit to a city many times 
larger than New Bern. 

Shortly after six o'clock Thursday evening the train 
backed down to South Front street and the ' ' official 
party" prepared to start on their homeward journey. 

*A request was made for a list of these papers but no reply had been received 
before it was necessary to go to press. 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 97 

Many of the friends whom they had made during their 
brief stay accompanied them to the train. Colonel Wolf- 
enden, to whom the delegation was under many obliga- 
tions for the great interest he had taken in the dedication 
from its inception was, unfortunately, unable to meet us, 
but Mayor Bryan and others were present, among them 
Mrs. Stevens, president of the New Bern Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, who presented many members of 
the delegation with a small confederate flag as a memento 
of their visit to "Dixie." General Carr accompanied us on 
our return as far as Petersburg. 

Reaching Washington shortly after ten a.m., an appe- 
tizing breakfast was enjoyed at the Congress Hall, when 
the members separated to ramble about the city. One 
party visited the new Senate and Representative buildings 
and Congressional Library, and under the escort of Mr. 
James A. Cuthbert, assistant engineer at the Library, 
formerly of Company A, 44th Massachusetts, were given 
an unusually good opportunity to inspect these buildings, 
being admitted to many rooms which are ordinarily closed 
to the general public. In the afternoon President Roose- 
velt gave the delegation a reception at the White House 
which was attended by most of its members who were glad 
of the opportunity to greet their "strenuous " chief mag- 

Before leaving New Bern the following telegram was 

New Bern, N. C, Nov. 12, 1908. 

To Hon. C. R. Thomas, 

Greenboro, N. C. 
The Massachusetts delegation thank you and the officers 

of the ' ' Pamlico ' ' for a most delightful trip on the cutter. 

The citizens of New Bern have fully demonstrated the true 

meaning of the term " Southern hospitality." 

Wm. D. Chapple, 

President Mass. Senate. 

[ 98 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

From Washington Mayor Bryan was telegraphed : 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 13, 1908. 
To Hon. James A. Bryan, Mayor, 

New Bern, N. C. 
The Massachusetts delegation begs to assure you and 
the citizens of New Bern, of its appreciation of the great 
hospitality and the many graceful courtesies that have so 
materially helped to make its visit an event long to be re- 
membered. Wm. D. Ch apple, 

President Mass. Senate. 

The train left Washington about 3.30 p.m., and reached 
Boston at 7 a.m., Saturday. Breakfast was served at the 
South station restaurant, a few brief speeches were made, 
thanks were tendered to Sergeant-at-Arms Remington, 
Messrs. Jones and Smith, of the Raymond & Whitcomb 
Company, and some others and the delegation separated 
with the feeling that the dedication trip had been in every 
respect most enjoyable and successful. 

The Marsters party had the great advantage of includ- 
ing among its members Colonel George D. Nason, who 
for a long time was a resident of New Bern and for several 
years was Postmaster of that city. His extensive acquaint- 
ance enabled him to materially assist the members of his 
party in finding many places of individual interest which 
otherwise they would have had trouble in locating. 

Some of the members of the Peirce party, especially 
those who were present during the siege, stopped for sev- 
eral hours at " Little " Washington, where they were most 
hospitably entertained by Dr. Gallagher and others. Most 
of this party took a trip to Kinston and were piloted over 
the battle-field by three ' ' Johnnies ' ' who were in that 
action. Although changes had been made in forty-five 
years, many of the locations were readily recognized. 
Previous to their departure from New Bern they formally 
issued the following address : 

Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 99 

New Bern, N. C, Nov. 12, 1908. 
To the residents of the City of New Bern : 
Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Representatives of the 25th, 44th and 45th Massachusetts 
regiments, present at the dedication services of the Massa- 
chusetts Memorial to her buried soldiers in the National 
Cemetery at New Bern, which regiments respectively, 
among others, in addition to their other service in the De- 
partment of North Carolina, served as provost guards of 
the city of New Bern at various periods during its occupa- 
tion by the Federal forces, have, though nearly a half cen- 
tury has passed, vivid and especial memories of persons of 
former times and of ancient landmarks yet remaining 
within the borders of the old and picturesque city. 

On the part of the regiments specified, and we are sure, 
on the part of all soldiers who have visited the city on this 
present occasion in 1908, thanks are due and are hereby 
extended for the kindly reception with which all Massa- 
chusetts soldiers have been received, and for the courtesies 
and hospitalities, so generously extended everywhere and 
by everybody in the city of New Bern. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy thanks are 
specially returned for the courtesy of their reception night, 
an occasion of unalloyed sociability and pleasure to all 
who attended the function. Many of the visiting soldiers 
of the Federal forces who attended the reception knew dur- 
ing their tour of duty in New Bern the grandmothers and 
mothers of the young and lovely ladies whose hospitality 
was enjoyed, some of their maternal ancestors being brave 
enough to remain during Federal occupation at their own 
homes in the city, and to have no fear of the invading 

Yankee. ' ' In this day their daughters may be assured 
that their mothers appreciated the good order kept by the 
provost guards of this good city, and that womanly pres- 
ence in the city was appreciated by the men of the guards. 

Again, thanks ! thanks ! and good-bye. 

• 25th Mass., Chairman. 


45th Mass., Secretary. 

[ 100 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

Although the members of the " Official Party " had both 
individually and collectively expressed their appreciation 
of the courtesies shown them while in New Bern, they 
felt a wish to express that appreciation in some perma- 
nent and tangible form, so soon after leaving that city a 
suggestion was made to that effect. At the breakfast at 
the South Station in Boston, on Saturday morning, a 
committee consisting of Hon. Wm. D. Chappie, Adjutant 
General Brigham, Major Charles B. Amory, Sergeant 
Ephraim Stearns, and Private Horace Forbush, was ap- 
pointed to carry out the suggestion. Accordingly on Dec. 
3, 1908, the following letter was sent to New Bern Chap- 
ter, No. 204, United Daughters of the Confederacy : 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 3, 1908. 
Mrs. Charles L. Stevens, New Bern, N. C. 

Dear Mrs. Stevens — The undersigned were appointed a 
committee by the Massachusetts Delegation to New Bern 
to present to New Bern Chapter, United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, a suitable memorial, that they may realize in 
a slight degree the deep sense of gratitude which the Mas- 
sachusetts Delegation feels toward them ; and we have, 
accordingly, purchased a sterling silver punch bowl and 
ladle, which we are shipping you by express today. 

(Signed) Wm. D. Chapple, 
Wm. H. Brigham, 
Chas. B. Amory, 
Ephraim Stearns, 
Horace Forbush. 

The accompanying engraving will give an idea of the 
testimonial. The bowl, which was gold lined, had a ca- 
pacity of about sixteen pints, and with the ladle which 
accompanied it, was enclosed in a handsome velvet case. 
The inscription engraved on the bowl was : 

Presented to New Bern Chapter, United Daughters of 
the Confederacy, by the Massachusetts Delegation of State 
Officials and Veterans of the War of 1861-1865, in grateful 
appreciation of the hospitality, kindness and sympathy 
shown them at the dedication of the Soldiers' Monument in 
the National Cemetery at New Bern, N. C, Nov. 11, 1908. 


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Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors [ 101 ] 

The ' ' Daughters ' ' acknowledged its receipt in the 
following letter : 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 
New Bern Chapter, No. 204. 

New Bern, N. C, Dec. 21, 1908. 
Mr. Chapple and Members of the Committee. 

Dear Mr. Chappie — On December 19th, at our regular 
monthly meeting, the officers of the U. D. C. gave an in- 
formal reception to the Chapter in honor of the punch 
bowl lately sent them by the Massachusetts Delegation. 
This was done that the Daughters might be the first to see 
and christen the beautiful gift, for indeed it is a thing of 
beauty, and " perfect " is the only word that any Daugh- 
ter could find to express her admiration. 

The unlooked-for but much appreciated acknowledge- 
ment of the Daughters courtesy to the Union Veterans on 
the occasion of their visit to New Bern makes us feel surer 
that that visit will help to a clearer understanding between 
those of the two sections, hence a fuller appreciation of 
each other. Thanking you again, I am very truly, 

Mrs. W. P. M. Bryan, 
Cor. Secretary New Bern Chapter. 

A great deal of interest was felt in the erection of this 
monument by all who had served in North Carolina, 
though but comparatively few were privileged to attend 
the dedication. On the evening of December 2, 1909, by in- 
vitation of the Historical Committee of the Massachusetts 
Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion 
of the United States, Captain Putnam gave a detailed and 
most interesting account of the excursion to the members 
of that body. In speaking of the ladies who assisted in 
the unveiling he said : 

"Mrs. Hartsfield, a New Bern lady, was invited to par- 
ticipate in the ceremony as a representative of the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, and from compliment to her 
father, Colonel J. J. Wolfenden, commander of the local 
Confederate Camp, who had helped greatly in making the 
dedication exercises so successful. 

Miss Alice Alden Sprague, the fair and youthful daugh- 
ter of our commander, General A. B. R. Sprague, (Gen- 

102 ] Massachusetts Memorial to Her Soldiers and Sailors 

eral Sprague was then commander of the Massachusetts 
Commandery), is a lineal descendant of John Alden and 
Priscilla Mullens, of the Mayflower and Plymouth Rock. 
Of the other, Mrs. Laura A. Dugan, there is a tale at 
once pathetic and pleasant. In the time of the yellow fever 
at New Bern, 1864, that scourge that so decimated the 
ranks alike of combatants and non-combatants, one of the 
unwritten chapters, I may say, of the story of the civil 
war; at that time Colonel Amory, of the 17th regiment, 
together with his wife and four children, were at Beaufort. 
Both the father and mother died of the fever, leaving 
Laura, a babe five months old. Colonel Frankle, then in 
command of New Bern in the absence of General Palmer, 
had much to do in caring for the orphan children and more 
than once had this infant in his arms, though Mrs. Palmer, 
wife of the General, had chief charge of the child. As soon 
as transportation could be provided consistently with the 
strict quarantine, the child was taken to her grandparents, 
near Boston, where she lived until adopted by her uncle, 
Major Amory, of our Order. After forty-four years Mrs. 
Dugan returned to New Bern to see her birthplace, even 
the house where she was born, and to aid in unveiling the 
monument erected in memory of comrades in the same local 
service of her gallant father." 

From the inception of the idea until the completion and 
dedication of the monument and return to Massachusetts 
of those who visited New Bern, everything connected with 
the plan was a complete success. Our opponents of nearly- 
half a century ago received us with open arms, and the 
events of the civil war seemed to be but a memory. The 
monument itself is beautiful in design and execution, and 
is a fitting testimonial to those in whose memory it was 
erected. But beautiful and appropriate as it is, the patri- 
otism and devotion displayed by the sons of Massachusetts 
whenever required to serve their country or their state 
will ever be their most expressive and enduring memorial.