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;rJ i(.^P^ C^^'-^ 

librarg of tije ©ibinitg Srijool 


from the library of the late 


Dean of the School, 1878-1900 

19 October 1905 










* Prove all thinKS, hold fast that which is good."-! Thbm. t. S. 






f '■ ^' • 



Many are the controversial works describing 
the diflFerences between the Roman Catholic- 
and Protestant creeds, which have been sent 
forth by the press ; but it has frequently occur- 
red to me as strange, that no work (at least I 
have been unable to' discover any) has been 
pubUshed, descriptive of the forms and services 
of the Roman Mass. This appeared to me to 
be an important "desideratum." There are 
partial translations, published for the use of the 
Roman Catholic laity; but nothing has been 
done to give a translation of, and comments up- 
on, the entire Mass with its Rubrics. This 
want I have endeavored to supply, convinced 
that the plan is most important, and the pro- 
posed object most valuable, as the parties inter- 
ested have the means before them of detecting 


any errors or misstatements, which, if they ex- 
ist, are unintentional. 

• To be understood by the lowest capacity has 
been a chief object, and hence, plainness in 
language and composition has been particularly 
studied. An endeavor has also been made, to 
avoid all harsh and irritating language, being ful- 
ly impressed that it is not by such, truth ought 
to be maintained. Should any expression met 
with in the following pages appear to militate 
against this declaration, I have only again to as- 
sert, such is unintentional on my part, and that 
nothing is ^farther from my wishes than to give 

May 1, 1845. 




My dear Roman Catholic Brethren — 

It ha9 frequently excited the astonishment of 
many, why, in these days of scriptural light, you should 
remain apparently so attached to the religion of the 
Church of Rome ; that you, many of whom are intelli- 
gent and well-informed persons, should, while you pro- 
fess to be servants of the Lord Jesus Christ, hold senti- 
ments and doctrines opposed to those which are clearly* 
and plainly set forth in God's inspired word, by our 
Lord himself and his holy Apostles, whom you profess 
to reverence. You are taught to value yourselves upon 
belonging to the most ancient Church, which you are 
also taught is the mistress of all other churches. It is 
carefully impressed upon you, that every article of faith 
to which you are required to give assent, comes down 
to you from the remotest antiquity ; that all other bodies 
of professing Christians are only upstarts and holders 
of novelties ; and that you are fully justified, as belong- 
ing to a church which cannot err, in looking down upon 
all others with contempt. You are taught to inquire 
triumphantly of us Protestants — " Where was your re- 
ligion before Luther 1" implying that the doctrines we 
hold and the principles we profess, were only known in 
the Christian world since the time of Luther, or little 
more than three hundred years, and consequently must 
be mere modern inventions. 


You are in great ignorance upon this subject. You 
cannot prove any doctrine held hy the Reformed Church- 
es to be a novelty, or less ancient than the times of the 
Apostles. In the great fundamental truths of the Chris- 
tian faith, you profess to agree with us ; and I trust, 
with the Divine aid, to show you, that those doctrines 
upon which your church and ours differ, and which we 
reject as being inconsistent with, nay, contradictory to, 
those fundamentals which we in common admit, are 
those which have been added from time to time by your 
church, at comparatively modem periods. The mode 
I shall adopt to establish this position is as follows. I 
shall translate your own service, which you call the 
" Mass," into English, and prove to you from the prayers 
of the Mass itself— First, that it is contradictory to 
God's own word ; Secondly, that it is at variance with 
the practices of the ancient Christian Church; and, 
Thirdly, that one part contradicts another, and also 
contradicts several of your own favorite doctrines. In 
order to prevent the charge of misrepresentation, I shall 
bring forward your own authorities. Your own trans- 
lation of the Testament, however obscure and corrupt 
we believe it to be in many places, shall be used. 

In the Mass it is intended to celebrate the Lord's 
Supper, or the Eucharist, as it is termed, which word 
signifies " thanksgiving." Our blessed Lord, we learn, 
by reference to the Gospels, instituted his last supper 
the night before his crucifixion. We are told by the 
inspired Evangelists of the mode in which the disciples 
partook of it — ^how the Lord Jesus commanded them to 
do the same for a commemoration of Him. Luke xxii. 
19. And we are also informed, Matt, xxviii. 18, how, * 
previous to his ascension, he commanded his disciples 
to " go and teach all nations to observe all those things 
which he had commanded them ;" and he said, ** Lo, I 
am with you always to the consummation of the world." 
" All power," said he, " is given to me in heaven and 
in earth ;" thus impressing upon his disciples, that he 
would exercise his authority upon his church ; that he 
would watch over the pastors and teachers, that they 


may only inculcate those doctrines which he taught, 
and, as Peter says, 1 Epistle, chap. y. verses 2, 4: 
"When the Prince of pastors shall appear, such as 
faithfully feed the flock of God shall receive a never- 
fading crown of glory." 

Let us now compare the ceremonies of the Mass and 
the Supper of our Lord. Such are the differences, so 
striking are the dissimilarities, that it is impossible to 
say with truth that the one is a representation of the 
other. If I can prove this assertion, how can it be said 
that you comply with the commands of our Lord in its 
celebration? And here I may well complain of the 
additional labor imposed upon me of rendering your 
prayers and formularies into English, in order to be 
understood by you ; and is it not a strange employmeift 
for me to endeavor to make you understand the mean- 
ing of your own Liturgies ? You cannot plead antiquity 
for the use of the J^tin in your public service. If you 
wish for the ancient original language, you should adopt 
the Syriac or Hebrew, as one of these was the lan- 
guage spoken by our blessed Lord to his Apostles at 
the celebration of the last supper. He was addressing 
persons who understood the .language in which he spoke ; 
but you, who are unacquainted with Latin, know noth- 
ing of what the priest is saying. And besides, you 
have the uniform practice of antiquity against you. 
There were several ancient Liturgies in various lan- 
guages from the beginning — St. Cyril's, St. Clement's, 
St. James's, St. Mark's, St. John Chrysostom's, the 
Ethiopic, and 'the Roman. Why was this, but to suit 
the languages of the several persons who were present 
at divine worship T I refer you, upon this subject, to a 
work of the Roman Church called " A Collection of the 
principal Liturgies which are used by Greeks and other 
Schismatics," as your author terms them. All those 
persons who are here termed schismatics by your church, 
positively assert that they have had these various Lit- 
urgies in their own languages from the times of the 
Apostles. I mention this only for the purpose of show- 
ing you that antiquity gives no sanction to one exclu- 


sive Liturgy or langiiage. Origen says, Con. Celsnm, 
lib. viii. p. 403: ''The Grecians use the Greek lan- 
guage in their prayers, and the Romans the Roman, 
and so every one his own.'' The popes or bishops of 
Rome gradually compelled the various European na- 
tions who used their own language in the celebration 
of their public service, to adopt the Roman or Latin. 
This is foUy shown in many parts of church- history. 

We proceed now to , prove from Scripture, that this 
practice of using a language in the service of the 
church, not understood by the people, is absolutely for- 
bidden. I refer you to the 14th chapter of the Ist Epis- 
tle to the Corinthians, where St. Paul says, verse 8 ; 
'' If the trumpet g^ive an uncertain sound, who shall pre- 
pare himself to the battle ? 9 ; So likewise you, ex- 
cept you utter by the tongue plain speech, how shall it 
be known what is spoken ? for you shall be speaking 
into the air." Read on the 10-16. * " Else if thou shalt 
bless with the spirit, how shall he that holdeth the place 
of the unlearned, say Amen to thy blessing, because he 
knoweth not what thou say est." Again St. Paul sayS) 
verse 19 ; ''In the church I had rather speak five words 
with my understanding, that I may instruct others also, 
than ten thousand words in a tongue," a strange tongue. 
Mark the expression in the church — ^that is, at public 
worship. Now, I propose a simple question to you 
here — Does your church follow the precept of the 
Apostle Paul ? — The Saviour saith, " He that heareth 
you, heareth me" — Luke x. 16 ; and yet, you plainly 
and openly disregard the command of one of his chosen 
apostles, who was sent forth to teach and enforce those 
things which the Lord Jesus himself had spoken. " But 
thouffh we, or an angel from heaven, preach a gospel to 
you besides that we have preached, let him be anathe- 
ma," or accursed. — So says St. Paul — Gal. i. 8. In a 
note I read in the Douay Testament upon this passage, 
respecting the use of unknown languages in your pub- 
lic church services, the practice is attempted to be justi- 
fied by saying, that the Latin, so far from being an un- 
known tongue, is perhaps the best known tongue in the 


world. Is the writer of this note serious in supposing 
he can make void the command of the apostle by such 
an assertion ? French, or English, or German, is much 
more extensively spoken and understood by the people 
in Europe. Latin is not spoken as a living language 
now. Many among you would rejoice to hear your 
service in a language you could join in, and repeat the 
Amen. This, the Apostle says, in the above quotation, 
you cannot do, not knowing what is said. The other 
formularies and prayers of your church are also in 
Latin — ^baptisms, marriages, extreme unction — ^by hear- 
ing which you are but little edified. 

The first thing you do when you attend Mass is to 
sprinkle yourselves with " holy water," contained in a 
stone vessel at your chapel door. In what part of the 
history of our Lord's Supper do we find this practice 
mentioned? Where do the apostles of our blessed 
Lord sanction it 1 There were fountains outside the 
churches, or in the courts, where the people bathed 
their faces and hands, in token of the purity they should 
exhibit, when about to join. in the. public worship of 
God. We find several of the ancient fathers alluding 
to this. Chrysostom, in the fourth century, in his 67th 
Homily, speaks of these fountains as things of common 
use ; and Tertullian also alludes to this custom, chap. 
II. De Oratore, where he asks, " What is the use of 
going into prayers with washed hands, but with an un- 
clean spirit V Perhaps this practice was grounded on 
Hebrews x. 23. In process of time, the original de- 
sign and custom were changed, and the present prac^ 
tice was introduced of the priest blessing the water, 
and mixing it with salt to prevent, I suppose, its be- 
coming putrid, and thus teaching you that it was hence- 
forth endued with particular virtues. Challoner, in his 
" Catholic Christian," tells us that its use is " to defend 
those upon whom it is cast from the powers of dark* 
ness." Thus, we find, many of you imagine that you 
are complying with' a most ancient custom, and foolish- 
ly attribute such virtue and efficacy to this water, that 
you even carry it to your houses, and sprinkle it over 


yoQ at yonr private devotion, and use it for many other 
sftperstitious purposes. We repeat the question — 
"Wnere is the sanction of antiquity for doing- so, for 
many hundred years after our blessed Lord 1 And as 
for the scriptural authorities, which your Roman Cath- 
olic writers bring forward from the Old Testament, 
Num. V. 17, and xix. 9, they have nothing in either 
case to do with your practice. In the one instance it 
was drunk — why do not you drink it likewise 1 and I 
have often been surprised that you who profess to value 
it so highly, do not drink it ; that by its thus being 
brought nearer the heart, it might become more effica- 
cious in keeping off the influence of the powers of 
darkness from that which requires the greatest purifica- 
tion. In the other case, it refers to bathing and purify- 
ing the body. See the two passages, and examine for 
yourselves. The only ancient custom which at all re- 
sembles your modem practice, prevailed exclusively in 
the Heathen Temples ; but in the Christian churclies 
we challenge any proof that it prevailed for severed 
hundred years after our Lord. It is a comparative 
novelty, copied from the Heathens. 

You also make the sign of the cross when you cast 
the holy water upon you, and repeat, " In the name oi 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 
One fault we find with this practice is, that it leads 
away your minds from subjects which constitute your 
true protection, and makes you depend upon external 
forms of no value ; and I am not surprised at your doing 
so, when Challoner, in his " Catholic Christian," tells 
you, when speaking about the use of the sign of the 
cross, " that it was used of old by the Holy Fathers as 
an invincible buckler against the devil, and a powerful 
means to dissipate his illusions." 

Now here are two practices of your church — holy 
water and " crossing yourselves" to avert the influence 
of evil spirits — and not a sentence is to be found in the 
writings of the holy apostles to justify your conduct in 
either. When we hear our blessed Lord resisting the 
temptations of the devil, is it by having recourse to snch 


means ? No ; he combated the Evil Spirit by reference 
to the written Word of God; and we are informed, 
Matt. iv. 11, that the devil, thus foiled, left Him ; and 
does not Peter tell us to '^ resist strong in faith" our ad- 
versary the devil, who goeth about as a roaring lion, 
seeking whom he may devour 1 — 1 Pet. v. 8, 9. Hear 
St. Paul's advice also, Eph. vi. 1 1 — " Put you on the 
armor of God, that you may be able to stand against 
the deceits of the devil ;" in verse 16 — " In all things 
taking the shield of faith, wherewith' you may be aUe 
to extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one" 
— ^mark this expression all ; verse 18 — ^'* By all prayer 
and supplications, praying at all times in the spirit." 
Where do you find any of the inspired Apostles recom- 
mending " crossings" or " sprinklings with holy water" 
to keep away evil spirits 1 Reference to God's Word, 
prayer, watchfulness, supplications, strength in the £eiith 
in Jesus, are the means they taught. Were they less 
aUe than you to resist? Upon your principles, you 
have many advantages of which they knew nothing. 
Where, then, in these instances, is your boasted an- 
tiquity ; and how can you condemn those who humbly 
endeavor to follow only those doctrines and practices 
which are set forth in God's own Word 1 

We noyr suppose you arrived within the church or 
chapel to hear what you call " Mass." Do you know 
the meaning of the word? It signifies ''a sending 
away." At the conclusion of your present service, you 
may remember, the priest says, in Latin, " Ite Missa 
est." In the Pocket Missal we find the following^trans- 
lation of the words ; page 43, edition 1805 : — 3)epart, 
mass is finished ; Missa or Missio, are two Latin words, 
signifying " sending awajl" The literal translation is, 
" Ite---depart, Missa est — ^it is the sending away." 
Now, from the place where we find this expression, we 
learn an additional proof of how your church has de< 
parted from ancient custom. How you can pride your- 
selves upon your antiquity is wonderful; as I shall 
prove that you have but little reason for doing so. The 
celebration of the Lord's Supper, however changed it 


may be now, by your yarious iimoTactions and altera- 
tions, was the foundation of what fbu call the Mass. 
And, by examining where these words, " Ite missa est," 
were placed at first,, and examining where they are 
now^ we shall be assisted, not only in discovering some 
of the changes which hare taken place, but also the 
original object and design of the church in adopting the 
expression. Those words were formerly placed at the 
beginning of the Lord's Supper or sacramental service 
in the Roman liturgy. In primitive times there were 
two distinct services ; to the first, all were indiscrimi- 
nately admitted ; such persons as were not yet baptized, 
but were waiting for further instruction, and were called 
catechumens, from being catechized, as the original 
word signifies, and those who came from curiosity to 
learn the nature of the Christian faith ; those also who, 
from having committed some heinous crime, were ex- 
cluded from partaking of the Eucharist, were admissi- 
ble to the first service. These several classes, with 
the sincere and faithful baptized believers, remained to- 
gether during the prayers and the reading of portions 
of the Holy Scriptures and the exhortation or sermon. 
At the conclusion of this service, the ofliciating deacon 
pronounced, in a loud voice, " Ite missa est ;" thus in- 
timating that it was the time for those to depart who^ 
were not to participate in the sacred feast. From this 
circumstance the service which followed was called 
"Mass," which appellation it has retained until the 
present day. 

You will 'find this view of the subject sanctioned by 
Hornihold in his work called " Real Principles of Catho- 
lics," p. 254 to 267, which, in its title-page, contains 
the expressed approbation of Several other Irish Roman 
Catholic prelates. After giving some other explana- 
tions, which appear very forced, and with which the 
doctor himself does not appear satisfied, he adds, that 
others are of opinion that the Mass is derived from the 
Latin word " missio" or '^missa," that is, " dismission," 
or " sending away," because the catechumens and others 
were formerly dismissed, as not being permitted to be 


present at this sacrifice, only from the beginnings till the 
offertory ; and the gospel and the sermon being ended, 
the deacon publicly said, " Ite missa est" — ^go out all 
you who are. infidels, catechumens, and penitents, for 
the McLss of the faithful is now to begin. Hence at the 
end of the Mass the words " Ite missa est" are still 
retained, and now the modern meaning is, " depart, for 
the Mass is ended." The words are now used at the 
end of the sacramental service in one sense ; and an- 
ciently they were used at the commencement with quite 
a different meaning attached to them. 

Consult the writers of antiquity — ^read over the an- 
cient liturgies or formularies of the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper, which are called by the names of St. 
Peter, St. Barnabas, St. James, or that of Jeruscdem, 
of which he was first bishop, or that of St. Mark — ex- 
amine the several liturgies of the early fathers, St. 
Basil, St: Chrysostom, and that of St. Ambrose, &c., 
&c., all of whom flourished not later than the fourth 
century after our blessed Lord, and you will find no 
sanction for persons being present at the communion 
who did not partake of the sacred elements. Justin 
Martyr, who lived «s early as the second century after 
our Lord, gives the following account of the manner in 
which the Eucharist was celebrated in his time. My 
translation is taken from page 44 of the Roman Catho- 
lic work, upon the principal ancient liturgies, published 
in Dublin in the year 1822, by Wogan. " After the 
believer is baptized, and made one with us, we lead him 
to the congregation of the brethren, as we call them, 
and then pour out our souls .with great fervor in common 
prayer, both for ourselves, for the persons baptized, and 
for all others in every part of the world, that, having 
embraced the truth, our lives may be as becometh the 
gospel, and that we may be founa doers of the word, 
and so at length attain eternal salvation. We salute 
one another with a kiss at the end of prayer : after this, 
bread and a chalice of wine and water are brought to 
the bishop, which he takes, and oflfers up praise and 
glory to the Father of all things, through the name of 


His Son and the Holy Ghost ; and the thanksgiving to 
God for vouchsafing to make us worthy of these, his 
creatures, is a prayer of more than ordinary length. 
Wken the bishop has finished the prayers and the 
thanksgiving service, all the people present conclude 
with an audible voice, saying, 'Amen,' which, in the 
Hebrew language, signifies * So be it.' The eucharis- 
tical office l^ing thus performed by the bishop, and con- 
cluded with the acclamations of the people, those we 
can deacons distribute to every one present to partake 
of this eucharistical bread, and wine, and water, and 
then they carry it to the absent." Here, then, you have 
an account of the mode of administering the Lord's Sup- 
per, so far back as the second century. 

I will now quote from higher and more ancient au- 
thority, nay, the highest and most ancient of all. Open 
your Testament, 1 Cor. xi. 23 ; there St. Paul tells us 
the manner he directed it to be administered, and that 
not of his own will, but by the commands of the Lord 
Jesus Christ himself, by whom the Lord's Supper was 
originally instituted ; verse 23 — " For I have received 
of the Lord that which also I delivered to you, that the 
Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, 
took bread, 24; and giving thanks, broke and said, 
* Take ye, and eat : this is my body which shall be de- 
livered for you. This do for the commemoration of 
me.' 25 ; In like manner, also, the chalice, after he 
had suppeid, saying, * This chalice is the New Testa- 
ment in my blood — this do ye as often as you shall drink 
it for the commemoration of me. For as often as you 
shall eat this bread and drink this chalice you show the 
death of the Lord untU he come, 27.'* Wherefore, 
whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of 
the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and 
blood of the Lord, 28 ; but let a man prove himself, and 
so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup, 29 ; 

* How eiitf rely at vuiaiice this expvesslon is wifh tlie doctrine of 
our Lord being "already come/* when, as the Roman Chnrcfa teaches, 
'ih» priest brings and places him upon the altar, and woiahips him in 


for he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and 
drinketh judgment to himself, not discenung the body 
of the Lord." In this translation there are some dif- 
ferences from the Protestant version ; but my object at 
present is not to institute a comparison between the 
relative merits of the two translations, or to prove the 
erroneousness of yours, but to show you, upon the au- 
thority of what you admit to be God's own Word, how 
the Lord's Supper was celebrated in the beginning — 
how his death was commemorated — ^and to prove to you, 
by your own admission, how little claim to antiquity or 
Divine sanction the greater number of those forms and 
ceremonies possess which have been introduced into 
the Mass by the Popes of Ron^e. 

I shall now proceed to translate the various prayers 
of your " Mass," and shall make such comments as we 
advance, as may serve to establish my three positions 
— 1, That the " Mass" contains many prayers opposed 
to God's Word ; 3, To show you that the contents of 
those prayers, and many of its formularies, are contrary 
to the practices of the ancient Christian Church ; 3, 
That one part of the Mass contradicts another part, 
and is also opposed to some of your own favorite 


Rubric. — Sacerdos paratus cum ingreditur ad alt^yre 
facta illi solita reverentia, signat se signo crucis a fronte 
ad pectus et clara voce dicit. 

Translation. — The priest, being prepared when he 
approaches to the altar, having made the accustomed 
reverence to it, signs himself with the sign of the cross, 
from his forehead to his breast ; and, with a loud voice, 
says — 

R. — ^In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. — 

T. — ^In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. — ^Amen. 


R. — ^Deinde junctis manibus ante pectus incipit anti- 
^onam. Introibo ad altare Dei, Minister res. Ad 
Deum qui laetificat juventutem meaih. 

T. — ^Then, having joined his hands before his breast, 
he begins the sentences called the Antiphone — ^I will 
enter to the altar of God. The minister or clerk an- 
swers — ^To God who giveth joy to my youth. 

R. — ^Postea altematim cum ministris dicit sequentem 

T. — ^After this he repeats the following Psalm, alter- 
nately with the ministers or clerks : — 

PsALMUs 42. — Judica me, Deus, et disceme causam 
meam de gente non sancta ; ab homine iniquo et doloso 
erue me. M. Quia tu es Deus fortitudo mea ; quare 
me repulisti, et quare tristis incedo, dum affligit me in- 
imicus 1 S. Emitte lucem tuam et veritatem tuam ; 
ipsa me eduxerunt et adduxerunt in montem sanctum 
tuam et in tabemacula tua. M . Et introibo ad altare 
Dei ; ad Deum qui Isetificat juventutem meam. S. 
Confitebor tibi in cythara, Deus, Deus mens; quare 
tristis es, anima mea, et quare conturbas me. M. Spera 
in Deo, quoniam adhuc confitebor illi, salutare vultus 
mei, et Deus mens. S. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spi- 
ritui Sancto. M. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et 
semper, et in ssecula saeculorum. Amen. 

Psalm 42. — Judge me, O God, and distinguish my 
cause &om the nation that is not holy ; from the unjust 
and deceitful man deliver me. M. Since thou, O God, 
art my strength, why hast thou cast me off, and why do 
I go sorrowful, while the enemy afflicteth me. Priest. 
Send forth thy light and thy truth ; they have conducted 
me and brought me to thy holy mount, and unto thy 
tabernacles. M. And I will go to the altar of God, to 
God who giveth joy to my youth. Priest. I will praise 
Thee upon the harp, Gtd, my God. Why art Thou 
so sad, O my soul ? and why dost thou disquiet me ? 
M. Hope in God, for I will stiU praise Him : the sal- 
vation of my countenance, and my God. Priest. Glory 
be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. 


M. As it was in the begimung, is now, and erer sball 
be, world without end. Amen. 

R. — Sacerdos repetit Antiphonam. Introibo ad al* 
tare Dei. M. Ad Deum qui letificat juventutem 

T. — The priest repeats the Antiphone. I will go 
unto the altar gf God. Rea. To God who gireth joy 
to my youth. 

R. — Signat se dicens. Adjutorium nostrum in no^ 
mine Domini. Res. Qui fecit cslum et tellus. 

T. — He signs himself with the sign of the cross, 
saying — Our help is in th« name of the Lord. Res. 
Who made heaven and earth. 

R. — Deinde junctis manibus, profunde inclinatus facit 

T. — ^Then having joined his hands, and bowing lowly, 
he makes the confession. 

R. — ^In missis defunctorum et in missis de tempore, 
a dominica passionis usque ad sabbatum sanctum ex- 
clusive, omittitur Psalmus ^'Judica me Deus;" cum 
" Gloria Patri" et repetitio AntiphonaB sed dicto " In 
nomine Paths." " Introibo" et " adjutorium" fit con- 
fessio ut sequitur. 

T.< — ^In masses for the dead and in masses during 
Passion week, the Psalm commencing with " Judge me, 
O God," also the " Glory be to the Father," and the 
repetition of the Antiphone, are omitted ; but having 
said " In the name of the Father," &c., the Introibo 
and the adjutorium. Confession is made as follows : — 

R. — Confitcor Deo omnipotenti, beats Maria semper 
Virgini, beato Michaeli Archangelo, beato Johanni Bap- 
tistae, Sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, omnibus Sanctis, 
et vobis fratres, (vel tibi Pater,) quia peecavi nimis 
cogitatione, verbo, et opere, (percutit sibi pectus ter 
dicens :) mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. 
Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Yirginem, beatum 
Michaelum Archangelum, beatum Johannem Baptis- 


tarn, sanctos Apostolos Petrum et Paulum, omnes sanc- 
t08, et Yos fratres, (vel te Pater,) orare pro me ad 
Dominum Deum nostrum. 

T. — ^I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary, ever 
a virgin, to blessed Michael the Archangel, to blessed 
John the Baptist, to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, 
to all the saints, and to you, brethren, (or to yon. Fa- 
ther,) that I have sinned exceedingly, both in thought, 
word, and deed, (he here strikes his breast three times,) 
through my fault, through my fault, through my most 
grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech the blessed Mary, 
ever a virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed 
John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, 
and all the saints, and you brethren, (or you Father,) to 
pray to our Lord God for me. 


Misereatur tui omnipotens Dei, et dimissis peccatis 
tuis, perducat te ad vitam aet^rnam. 

T.— -May Almighty God have mercy upon you, and, 
forgiving all your sins, bring you to everlasting life. 

R. — Sacerdos dicit "Amen," et erigit se. 

T. — ^The priest says " Amen," and raises himself up. 

R. — Deinde ministri repetunt confessionem, et ubi a 
sacerdote dicebatur " Vobis fratres," et " vos fratres," 
a ministris dicitur " tibi. Pater" et "te Pater." 

T. — Then the ministers repeat the confession, and 
where it is said by the priest, " To you, brethren," and 
" you, brethren," the ministers or clerks say, on the 
Wirt of the people, " To you, Father," and " you, 
Father ;" meaning the priest. 

We now challenge the Church of Rome to prove 
that there was any such form of confession, any such 
prayer used in the Church for one thousand years after 
our blessed Lord. The prayer is an innovation contain- 
ing doctrines unknown to the ancient Church. There 
is, in the first place, confession to the saints who are in 


glory. Ton are not content with confession to God, 
but you also introduce a form, for which no warrant 
can be produced either from the word of God or from 
antiquity, and then, not satisfied with confessing to 
them, you call on them to "pray to the Lord our 
God for you.'* Now it will perhaps appear strange 
to you to hear that even your Roman Church does not 
consider the invocation of saints as essential. Milner, 
in his " End of Controversy" — a standard polemical 
book on the Roman Catholic side — speaking on this 
subject, says. Letter 33, part 3 : — ^" The Council of 
Trent, which was held only three hundred years ago 
and since the Reformation, barely teaches that 'it is 
^ood and profitable to invoke the prayers of the saints,' 
hence our divines infer that there is no positive law of 
the Church incumbent on all her children to pray to the 
saints." So that you see it is not considered essential. 
We, Protestants, reject the practice because it is not a 
primitive custom, and above all, not sanctioned by God's 
word ; nay, we shall show that we are specially warned 
against the practice. 

Roman Catholics justify themselves in doing so — > 
mark, we only speak of invoking their help or interces- 
sion ; for, as to confessing to them, we really know not 
upon what rational grounds such a practice is founded 
— ^by the following arguments : 

1. That God is such a glorious and almighty Being, 
that it would be the height of presumption in us to ap- 
proach Him without a mediator, and hence, that it is 
of the greatest consequence to have the blessed saints 
in heaven, to offer up, and advocate the subject matter 
of our prayers. They argue, secondly, that the mother 
of our Lord according to the flesh, must naturally be 
supposed to possess great influence over her son, and 
that our prayers presented by her, and accompanied 
with her intercession, must produce a greater effect 
upon him, than if offered up unaccompanied with such 
recommendation. They also say, thirdly, that if it be 
usefiJ, and sanctioned by the Scriptures, to solicit the 
prayers of the saints upon earth — Ephes. vi. 18, 19 ; 


James t. 16 — ^it must be infinitely more important and 
▼aluable to obtain the assistance of those who are ' in 

I have fairly and impartially stated the chief argu- 
ments used by you in favor of this practice. We as- 
sert that this difference among Roman Catholic divines, 
as alluded to above, in asserting the universal obligation 
of soliciting the intercession of the saints in heaven, 
would be sufficient to justify Protestants from abstain- 
ing from the practice, even supposing they were in- 
fluenced by no other reasons ; but, my dear brethren, 
many causes, derived both from Scripture and antiquity, 
prevent our doing so. I shall endeavor to answer your 
arguments in succession. 

1. Your Church tells you "that God is such a holy 
Being that it would be too presumptuous for us, miser- 
able sinners as we are, to approach without a mediator." 
Blessed be the wisdom and the mercy of God, he has 
not left us without the means of knowmg what his will 
is. Our blessed Lord, when he commanded his disci- 
ples to teach those things which he taught them, sup- 
plied us with means for ascertaining what those things 
were. He promised the Holy Ghost the Comforter, 
who was to come to them, after' he was removed to his 
Father's right hand, as we say in the Apostles' Creed, 
and taught by the Apostle Paul, Heb. i. 3, 4. 1 Peter 
iii. 22 and Mark xvi. 19 ; Luke xxii. 69. Our Lord 
told them, " The Paraclete, the Holy Ghostj whom the 
Father will send in my name. He will teach you all 
things and bring all things to your mind whatsoever I 
shall have said unto you," John xiv. 26. Again, our 
Lord says, " And you shall give testimony because you 
are with me from the beginning," John xv. 27. Again 
he says, " But when he, the Spirit of truth, is come he 
will teach you all truth," John xvi. 13. Nothing can 
be more express and plain than what our Lord s^s : 
** If any man hear my words and keep them not, I do 
not judge him, for I come not to judge the world but to 
save the world. He that despiseth me, and receiveth 
not my words, hath one that judgeth him : the word 


that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last 
day," John xii. 47, 48. 

Thus, the Holy Scriptures — ^books written by God's 
inspired servants, who were prerented by the Holy 
Ghost from setting down any thing but the truth — as 
the Psalmist expresses it, were to serve as " a lamp unto 
our feet and a light unto our paths ;" Psalm cxix. 116. 
Surely our blessed Lord is sufficient authority upon this 
subject. We hear him saying in his sermon on the 
mount, Matt. vii. 8, 9 ; " What man is there among you 
of whom if his son ask bread, -will he give him a stone, 
or if he ask of him a fish, will he reach him a serpent 1 
If you, then, being evil, know how to give good gifts 
to your children, how much more will your Father who 
is in heaven give good things to them that ask himy 
What greater encouragement can we require than this 
invitation. Did our blessed Lord when asked by his 
disciples to teach them to pray, desire them to have re- 
course to the intercession of saints and angels to pre- 
sent their petitions to God 1 No — he taught them to 
go at once to their Father ; he taught them to call him 
by that endearing title — ^that though he was in heaven 
and removed to an infinite degree above them, still they 
were to look upon him as their Father. Instructing us 
to consider God as a Father, reconciled to us through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Mark the expression — ^*' ask 
him.'^ To ask him directly without any other media- 
tion than that which our Lord has supplied in himsel£ 
Where is the necessity of saints in heaven, or angels 
to interfere 1 Must not an earthly father be cqnsider- 
ed harsh and cruel if it be necessary for other persons 
to intercede with him in behalf of his own child, his 
own flesh and blood, to induce him not to sufier that 
child to starve ? There are such instances to be found 
among us, but, thank God, they are but few, though we 
are evil. Can we doubt, then, whether, as our Lord 
himself inquires, we need any further intercessors, any 
further interference with our heavenly Parent, whom 
we are instructed to call and consider our Father, to 
induce him to listen with favor to the petitions of his 


children, for whose sake his blessed Son shed his blood 
upon the cross ? Away, brethren, with such doubts ; 
for, as our Lord says, John iii. 16, " God so loved the 
world, as to give his only begotten Son, that whosoever 
believeth in him may not perish but may have life ever- 

2, The second argument which Roman Catholics 
bring forward to justify their soliciting the intercession 
of the Blessed Virgin, is, " that the mother of our Lord 
according to the flesh, must naturally possess great in- 
fluence with her son, and that our prayers presented by 
her, and accompanied with her intercession, must be 
more successful than if oflfered up by ourselves alone." 
Protestants deny the force of this argument in reference 
to the way God deals with the world as set forth in his 
revealed word. They also deny its force upon princi- 
ples prevailing among men. If any of us who profess 
to be persons of truth and honesty, make a promise, say 
to pay our servants or workmen their wages, would 
those workmen be justified in applying to our mother, 
supposing her to be living, or to any of our friends, to 
entreat them to interfere with us, and to induce us to 
keep our engagements made to them. Should we be 
pleased at such interferences — should we not have rea- 
son to conclude that our workmen distrusted our honor, 
and had greater confidence in that of our mother or our 
friends ] Romanists may here say that though this 
reasoning be" just, provided we did not repeatedly of- 
fend, yet, lest the Divine patience and forbearance may 
be exhausted by renewed transgression, it is more wise 
and prudent to seek after such intercessors. This ar- 
gument, Protestants rejoin, applies not to the relation in 
which man stands to God. The Son of God, Jesus 
Christ, is the only means by which a sinner can be re- 
conciled to God. It is by his blood alone our sins are 
washed away. He paid the ransom of all sins, both 
original and actual, however often repeated, and the 
Church, as the Roman Catholic Catechism of Butler 
states, in support of this view, ofifers, to satisfy the 
offended justice of God for our sins, the merits of 


Christ, which are infinite and superabundant.* The 
Apostle John, 1 Epis. ii. 6, connrms this fundamen- 
tal doctrine where he says — ^*'If any man sin, we 
have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the 
just." St. Paul, also, tells us, 1 Tun. ii. 6, " There is 
one God and one mediator of God and man, the man 
Jesus Christ." Why, after this declaration of the in- 
spired apostles, should we have recourse to any other 1 
— and St. Paul says, Heb. vii. 25 — ^more fully to con- 
firm and explain what he had been teaching, " He is 
able to save for ever them that come unto God by him- 
self, always living to make intercession for us." And 
Jesus himself tells us, John xvi. 23 ; " If you ask the 
Father any thing in my name, he will give it to you." 

Do you believe the assurance here given by the holy 
Apostles and our Lord Jesus Christ ? If you suppose 
that our blessed Lord and his inspired apostles are safe 
guides and sufficient teachers, why have you recourse to 
the intercession of any other? Is there any sin for 
which the blood of Jesus cannot atone ? Is there any 
more merciful than he, any more kind, more compas- 
sionate? Surely he became man like unto us, save 
only as to sin — of whom, as St. Paul says, " Seeing 
then that we have a great High Priest "that hath passed 
into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast 
our confession, for we have not a High Priest, who 
cannot have compassion on our infirmities, but one, 
tempted in all things like as we are, yet without sin. 
Let us go therefore with confidence to the throne of 
grace that we may obtain mercy, and find grace in sea-, 
sonable aid."t Heb. iv. 14, 16 ; see also Heb. ii. 17, 

We next consider the third reason advanced to justify 
the invocation of saints. Your teachers assert, " if it 
be lawful to solicit the prayers of our friends upon earth, 

* The concluding part of this answer is sadly opposed to the be- 

t This is one of many passages in your Testament, which are trans- 
lated, toUfuUy, obscurely ; so that, if possible, the meaning of God's 
wocd may be withheld from you when you read it. 


and ask their intercession in our behalf' — ^which is 
plainly sanctioned in various parts of God's word — 
" why should we not seek the prayers of the saints in 
heaven 1" Great, indeed, is the difference. How can 
we ascertain whether they are in the place you call 
" purgatory," or in heaven/? How can they know our 
thoughts ] Discerning the thoughts constitutes one of 
the attributes of th# godhead. ^' / am Ae," saith the 
Saviour, " who searcheth the reins and the heart,''^ Rev. 
ii. 23, as much as to tell us it was his special attribute 
as God, and not communicated to any other. . Protest- 
ants solicit their Christian friends to pray for them; 
but it is only when they are present, or if absent, by 
writing — " Confess your sins, therefore, one to another, 
and pray for one another, for the continual prayer of a 
just man availeth much," James, v. 26. Mark the ex- 
pression man, not dead saint. Thus we see that our 
prayers must be reciprocals, as if all, in one sense, were 
equal in the sight of God : but this principle of equality, 
or reciprocity, is entirely lost sight of in the Homan 
practice, ^s none of you would think of praying for one 
of the saints of heaven in turn, though such is your 
most inoonsistent practice in the Mass. 

Again, your teachers inquire, if the one practice be 
allowed, why not the other 1 It. is plain, if the Holy 
Spirit permitted both, permission would be expressed 
for both ; but will worship^ or worship of men's inven- 
tion, is plainly and expressly forbidden, " the adoring or 
worshipping of angels, walking in things we have not 
seen, not holding the Head," namely, Jesus our only 
Mediator, Col. ii. 18. And we see the sad consequences 
of your not following the rule of God's word. Your 
church teaches you to address the saints and angels, as 
if they were Gods. You talk of their merits in the 
sight of God, when God's word tells us that our Lord 
Jesus Christ declares, " that after having done every 
thing that has been commanded, still we are but unprofit- 
able servants, having done that only which was our 
duty to do," Luke xvii. 10 ; and for which we have na 
right to demand a recompense. 


The Holy Spirit, it would appear, foreknew the dan- 
gerous errors to which professors of the gospel were 
liable, and how truly remarkable it appears, that we 
should find so many passages in the Gospels cautioning 
us against the very errors into which your church has 
fallen. "Blessed is the womb that bare thee," ex- 
claimed a certain woman, as recorded in the gospel. 
Did our Lord encourage her in these notions respecting 
his mother's high dignity, as taught in the Roman 
church ? " Nay," said he, " yea, rather blessed are 
they that hear the word of God, and keep it," Luke xi. 
26, 27. Mark here, the special blessing pronounced 
upon those who hear, not the voice of your church, but 
" the word of God, and obey it." Again, we find, as 
recorded. Mat. xii. 46, that one said unto our Lord as 
he was speaking to, and teaching the people, " Behold 
thy mother and thy brethren stand without, seeking 
thee." According to the modern Romish doctrine, the 
moment he received the message he would have has- 
tened to his mother, and complied with her request; 
but how did he act \ He answered him that told him, 
" Who is my mother, and who are my brethren 1" and 
stretching forth his hand to his disciples, he said, " Be- 
hold my mother and my brethren, for whosoever shall 
do the will of my Father, which is in heaven, the same 
is my brother, and sister, and mother." 

Here we find two important doctrines taught : one, 
that relationship, according to the flesh, confers no in- 
fluence over our Lord, who, by the way, never called 
her J mother, in any part of Scripture — ^that the only re- 
lationship he acknowledges in his mediatorial capacity, 
is that of his Father, and next, that, doing the will of 
God his Heavenly Father, through divine grace, is the 
only evidence to show that a spiritual relationship has 
been obtained. Again, when he was about to leave this 
world, we find him addressing his mother, who was 
standing beneath the cross, and John, the beloved dis- 
ciple, and saying to her, " Woman, behold thy son ;" 
John xix. 25, as much as to imply, that the relation- 
ship, according to the flesh, was about to terminate, 


and that a final separation in that respect was to take 
place; and in saying to John "behold thy mother,'^ it 
seems clearly shown by our Lord, that he wished to 
discountenance all those vain notions respecting her 
power and influence over him as his mother^ which 
gradually crept into the church. It is also worthy of 
remark, that we hear nothing more of the blessed Vir- 
gin, except a brief mention of her in Acts i. 14. None 
of the apostles speak of her in their Epistles, though, 
according to the Roman Catholic faith, the gospel is but 
very imperfectly preached, if her power and influence 
are not most prominently set forth. 

She says, " all generations shall call me blessed," 
and Elizabeth says, " Blessed art thou among women ;" 
but this proves no special privilege conferred upon her, 
for our Lord, in one of the passages quoted above de- 
clares — ''^Rather blessed are they that hear the word of 
God and keep it." He also says. Mat. v. 2 : ^^ Blessed 
are the poor in spirit.*^ Jael, the wife of Heber, was 
pronounced " blessed above women," Judges v. 2 ; and 
Judith was also declared to be blessed of Almighty God 
for eveiaiore, in the book called after her name, Judith 
XV. 10, and which you receive into your canon, and 
consequently admit as authority. Your church carries 
her errors to such a height, that you repeat, when 
" telling your beads," ten " Hail Marys" to one " Our 
Father." Surely if that blessed saint could hear you, 
such vain and absurd repetitions of the same words — 
condemned by our Lord, Mat. vi. 7 — ^must appear as if 
you were only mocking her. If you addressed an 
earthly king or queen in that apparently senseless man- 
ner, certaiiuy such an impression would be produced. 

One precept we find recorded, as given by the Vir- 
gin, and why is it not obeyed by you who profess to 
reverence her so much ? " Whatsoever he saith unto 
you do ye ;" John ii. 6. She tells you to look to her 
Son Jesus, to follow his commands, as revealed in 
the written word, and not her own. Jesus, when she 
interfered about the wine, said, " Woman, what is it to 
me and to thee, mine hour is not yet come ?" The note 


in the Douay Testament thil^ says, that '* our Lord's 
object, in this reply, was to give a lesson to his disci- 
ples, that in the functions of their ministry they should 
not be put out of their way by any consideration of 
flesh and blood." His mother appeared to be conscious 
of this, and therefore directed the servants to take their 
instructions from him cUone ; and, surely, this is our 
safest way to act. Where does Jesus command you to 
confess your sins to her, and to the saints and angels, 
not merely asking their intercession, the danger of 
which we have clearly proved from God's word, but 
confessing your sins to them, making them equal to 
God, as if it were against them you had transgressed. 

Consult the ancient liturgies ; the only confessions 
we find there, are to God and the several persons of the 
Blessed Trinity. The Apostle Paul, Col. ii. 18, cau- 
tions you against paying religious worship to angels, in- 
fluenced hy false humility, as supposing that God is too 
great to be immediately addressed, and not holding 
Christ as the Head, the only Mediator. And, again, 
we find him speaking in the spirit of prophecy, 1 Tim. 
ii. 5, warning them respecting the invocation of de- 
part#i saints. 

Look to 1 Tim. iii. 3, where he says — a bishop is to 
be the husband of one wife, and to rule his children 
well, and verse 12, deacons, also ; but, in chapter 4, 
verse 1, he says, that great changes will take place in 
the latter times — " Some shall depart from the faith, 
giving heed to spirits of error and doctrines of devils, 
speaking lies in hypocrisy, and having their conscience 
seared, forbidding tp marry, to abstain from meats." 
This is a most remarkable passage. The apostle speaks 
of the lawfulness of the marriage of the clergy in chap- 
ter 3 ; and here, in the commencement of the fourth, 
he says, that the Spirit expressly saith, or foretells, that 
in the last times such permission is to be withheld, and 
also speaks of the forbidding of meats, as your church 
does upon particular days, thus calling the abstaining 
from flesh " fasting," when it is most remarkable, that 
upon the only occasions when our Lord fed the multi- 


tudes, he gave them bread and fish, thus plainly re- 
buking the erroneous practice of your church : for 
surely you cannot say, that when our Lord was thus 
feeding the multitudes he was causing them to fast. " I 
will not send them a,wa.yf asting,^^ said our blessed Lord, 
" lest they faint in the way." Mat. xv. 32. 

The Apostle also says, " that in latter times some are 
to depart from the faith, giving heed to spirits of error 
and doctrines of devils" — ^thus asserting that their do- 
ing so is a departure from the true faith. The original 
in the Latin vulgate, from whence your English trans- 
lation is made, is " doctrines of demons" — ^the render- 
ing of which, by the word " devils," does not convey 
the sense of the passage, or the meaning of the Apos- 
tle. By referring to various authors, you will find 
" demons" mean either good or bad spirits. Demons, 
according to the theology of the Gentiles or heathens, 
were middle powers between the sovereign gods and 
mortal men ; and by consulting various passages of 
holy Scripture, where this word is used, you will find 
its plural translated by the word "gods," as well as by 
the word " devils," Acts xvii. 18, 1 Cor. x. 14, 20, 21, 
Rev. ix. 20. Thus we learn that the apostle, by di- 
vine inspiration, is cautioning those whom he addresses, 
against the worship concerning demons, or of any in- 
termediate powers between God and man, and, speak- 
ing in the spirit of prophecy, plainly declares that this 
heresy will prevail, as we say it does, in your church. 
Epiphanius, one of the fathers of the church, who lived 
in the fourth century, gives the same interpretation to 
this passage, and quotes it against the Collyridians, an- 
cient heretics, so called from offering cakes, as the 
Greek word signifies, to the blessed Virgin, and calling 
her the Qxieen of Heaven* one of those titles which the 
Roman Church of the present day gives to her. He 
says, " she is to be honored and respected, but not to 
be adored or worshipped." This is admitted by Du- 

* The ancient idolaters, as mentioned by Jer. xViv. 17, 18, were 
condemned for burning incense to one of their false goddesses, whom 
they called by this identical title of ** Quetn of Heaven." 


pin, an eminent Roman Catholic writer, toI. I., page 
S97, folio ed. 1723. Numberless other passages can be 
selected from the early fathers of the church to the 
same effect. 

We find also a decree of the council of Laodicea, 
held about the year of our Lord 368, against those who 
forsake the true worship of the one God, and follow the 
idolatrous worship of angels, canon 35 ; and you may 
also learn, by referring to the ancient liturgies, that the 
apostles and saints, instead of being prayed to and con- 
fessed to, are nowhere confessed^o, but are prayed /or 
in several — ^the blessed Virgin herself not excepted, but 
expressly prayed for by name ; and in your Latin 
*'*' Mass" we shall show that you continue this most an- 
cient corrupt practice of praying /or the saints. 

To prevent any mistake as to the reason of my quo- 
ting any of the fathers of ike early church, you must 
understand that I do it only for the purpose of showing, 
by their evidence, what the belief of the church was at 
that particular period when they lived. As to attribute 
any decisive authority to them, it would be absurd, be- 
cause they frequently contradict themselves, and fre- 
quently each other. Their works have been also cor- 
rupted and interpolated in many important places, as 
your own writers admit. The same reasoning will ap- 
ply to the ancient liturgies-irthey were gradually cor-, 
rupted, and doctrines admitted, not to be found in the 
word of God. If we look for truth, let us go to the 
holy scriptures, which have come down to us pure and 
unadulterated, guarded by Christ, the true Head of the 
church. Surely it is foolish, as well as sinful in the 
highest degree, to leave the teaching of God himself, 
as set forth by his inspired apostles, and to follow after 
the sayings of uninspired and fallible men, in opposi- 
tion to his own revealed word. " You err," said our 
Lord to the Sadducees, " not knowing the scriptures ;" 
Matt. XX. 29. If we look for pure water, is it not more 
natural to expect to find it at the fountain-head, than in 
the streams which flow at a distance, which are subject 
to every defilement 1 



But the " confiteor" contains other matters of grave 
importance. You who do not understand Latin, are not 
perhaps aware, that you not only confess to God and to 
the saints, and to Michael the archangel, but also to the 
priest, where you say in the confiteor, " et tibi Pater" 
— " and to you, O Father ;" and strange also to say, 
when the priest repeats the " confiteor" or " confession," 
when he comes to the same place, he says " et Vobis 
Fratres," and " to you, brethren ;" so he confesses to 
you, and you to him. Thus literally fulfilling, so far as 
the priests and you are concerned, the command of St. 
James v. 16, " confess your sins one to another, and 
pray one for another,'*'' and this you do, for, towards the 
conclusion of the " confiteor" or " confession," you call 
upon the priest to pray for you, and the priest calls on 
you to pray for him. 

Now, Challoner, in his Catholic Christian, admits 
this to be the case. He says, page 73, " our adversa- 
ries object against this form of confession, because 
therein wie confess our sins to the saints, as if this was 
giving them an honor which belongs to God alone, not 
considering that the confessing of our sins to any one, 
so far from being an honor peculiar to God, is what we 
are directed in Scripture to do one to another, James v. 
16 ; and accordingly in. that very form which we call 
the confiteor, we not only confess our sins to God and 
to his saints, but the priest'also confesses to the people, 
and the people to the priest." After what has been 
before stated, you can appreciate the value of this rea- 
soning in favor of confessing to the saints and angels. 
The truth is, upon this principle the saints should con- 
fess to you in turn ; and if they pray for you, you are 
called upon to pray for them. No passage in scripture 
is more opposed to your present practices of private 
confession to your priest, or your public confession to 
saints and angels, or your asking. them to pray for you, 
without their confessions to you, and your prayers for 
them in turn. We are thus furnished with valuable in- 
formation respecting the primitive mode of confession) 
and the meaning attached by the ancient Church to this 


passage of St. James. It is an acknowledgment that 
its present application to sanction private, or auricular 
confession, was then unknown, and consequently, that 
private confession of each particular sin to a priest, was 
not then, as you are now taught to believe, essential 
to qualify the penitent for receiving the blessed Eucha- 

Take up your own Bibles, and refer to the passages* 
quoted by your Roman Catholic Church, in support of 
private confession to a priest being essential in order to 
obtain forgiveness from God, and you will find that they, 
as well as every other passage in the Bible upon the 
subject, refer to public, not to private confession to a 
priest of individual sin. And you may learn, also, 
from ecclesiastical history, that for more than eight 
hundred years, such was the general practice of the 
Church, and this is plainly and conclusively proved by 
what follows in the " mass" itself---for immediately af- 
ter the confiteor, there is an absolution pronounced by 
the priest — " signat se signo crucis dicens" — He signs 
himself with the sign of the cross, and says — " Indul- 
gentiam absolutionem et remissionem peccatorum nos- 
trorum tribuat nobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus" 
— ^May the omnipotent and merciful Lord grant us in- 
dulgence, absolution and remission of our sins. The 
Rubric then says — " Postea^^ sacerdos junctis manibus 
facit absolutionem dieens. • Miseriatur vestri Omnipo- 
tens Deus et dimissis peecatis vestris perducat vos ad 
vitam eternam." The translation of which is, " After 
this the priest, his hands being joined together, * facit 
absolutionem,' gives or makes the absolution, saying- — 
May the Almighty God be merciful to you, and, forgiv- 
ing all your sins, bring you to life everlasting." Now 
this absolution is the same as that used at private con- 

* Extract from table of controversies at the end of Douay Testament 
upon the word "confession of sins" — Numbers viii. 6, 7, Matt. iii. 6, 
Acts xi%. 18, St. James v. 16. " The obligation of confession is gathered 
from the judiciary power of binding and loosing, forgiveness, and retain 
ing sins, given to the pastors of Christ's church— St. Matt, xviii. 18 ; St, 
John XX. 32, 583." What authority do these passages give to confession 
of siiu to d0ad »aint0 7 


fession. How is it that it possesses no yirtue when 
repeated and given publicly at Mass after a public con- 
fession, and that it acquires all its efficacy by being re- 
peated in private f According to your views, then, I 
will assume that you make your public confession, and 
that you do so with a sincerely penitent heart, and that 
you obtain the absolution given by the priest ; for what 
purpose then serves private confession 1 By what au- 
thority does your Church, with the greatest inconsisten- 
cy, virtually pronounce that this public absolution is of 
no value, and that this entire confession and absolution 
are but a form, and that a useless one ? 

Private confession of particular sins to a priest as es 
sential to obtain forgiveness of God, is but a modem in- 
vention of your Church, to extend her power over the 
consciences of her members, and thus to keep up that 
spiritual thraldom which she has endeavored to lay 
them under. Public confession was, in the beginning, 
made only to God, and not to saints and angels. Such 
was the primitive practice, and long antecedent to your 
modern system. See the manifest anxiety of your 
Church rulers to keep the knowledge of these acts 
from your people. In many of your manuals or mis- 
sals for the use of the laity, this confession and absolu- 
tion is not given at length, in order, as I suppose, to 
prevent your discovering that confession is made to the 
priest, " et tibi Pater," and " to you, O Father," and 
that the absolution is identically the same as that used 
after private confession. 

The Mass then goes on — "Et inclinatus prosequi- 
tur." The priest bowing down, proceeds and says, 
" Deus tu conversus vivificabis nos." Thou, O God, 
being now favorable to us wilt enliven or refresh us. 
Answer, " Et plebs tua Icetabitur in te," and thy people 
will rejoice in thee — " ostende nobis Domine miseri- 
cordiam tuam." Oh ! Lord, show thy mercy upon us. 
Answer — " et salutare tuum da nobis," and grant us thy 
salvation — " Domine exaudi orationem meam." Lordi 
hear my prayer. Answer — " et clamor mens ad te ve- 
niat," and let my cry come unto thee — ^" Dominus vo^ 


bisciun," Lord be with you — ^" et cum spiritu tuo," and 
with thy spirit. 

R. — Et extendens ac jungens manus clara voce dicit 
** oremus" et ascendens ad altare dicit secreto. 

T. — And the priest extending and then joining his 
liands, says with a loud voice, Let us pray, and going 
up to the altar, repeats secretly to himself — 

R. — ^Aufer a nobis quasumus Domine, iniquitates nos- 
tras, ut ad sancta sanctorum, puris mereamur mentibus 
introire. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

T. — Take away from us we beseech thee, Lord, our 
iniquities, that we may be worthy to enter with pure 
minds into the Holy of Holies, through Christ our Lord. 

R. — Deinde manibus junctis super altare inclinatus 

T. — Then bending or bowing over the altar with joined 
hands the priest says — 

R. — Oramus te Domine per merita sanctorum tuorum 
(osculaiur altare in medio^) quorum reliquia hie sunt, et 
omnium sanctorum, ut indulgere digneris omnia peccata 
mea. Amen.* 

T. — ^We beseech thee, O Lord, by the merits of thy 
saints, (the priest here kisses the altar in the middle,) 
whose relics are here, and of all the saints, that thou 
wouldst vouchsafe to forgive all my offences. 

Here we have two short prayers, and the contents of 
one of them supplies us with some fresh serious charges 
against your Church. The first prayer is said in secret 

* The origin of this practice of having the bones or relics of the 
88iti'ts under the aluirs, arose from the aniiety of the primitive Chris- 
tinns to erect their churches and altars npon those places where the 
sainti and martyrs were buried, or where they commemorated their 
death. This gives no sanction whatever to the present corrupt and 
anti-scriptural practice and doctrine of the Church of Rome, respecting 
relics. Bona, the learned Roman Cathoiic writer, says npon this sub- 
ject. Liber 1, c. 19, 5 ; " Cepit hie primum in Ecclesia Romana obser- 
f^ari et ab ea ad alias dimanavit." *' This practice began first to be ob- 
served in the Roman Catholic Church, and flowed from her to other 
churches." Thus your Church was the means of their corraption. 


by the priest alone ; quite inconsistent with his calling 
upon you aU in a loud voice "clara voce" to pray 
" oremus." The prayer is excellent, but why does he 
repeat it only to himself 1 Perhaps he wishes to pre- 
vent its inconsistency with the following prayer, which 
he repeats aloud, being remarked by the hearers. This 
latter prayer puts forward two doctrines, both opposed 
to God's word ; the merits of the saints, and the spirit- 
ual virtues attached to their relics, each of which doc- 
trines we shall consider. It is unnecessary to bring 
forward the passages from God's word, which proclaina 
in the plainest language, " that man possesses no merit 
in the sight of God." Our blessed Lord himself, than 
whom we cannot have higher authority, says, Luke xvii. 
10, " So you also, when you have done all the things 
that are commanded you, say, ' we are unprofitable ser- 
vants, we have done that we ought to do.' " And he 
says this, remember, to his chosen apostles, taking 
away even from them all merit. In Isaiah Ixiv. 4, we 
read — " but we all are as an unclean thing, and all our 
righteousnesses are but as filthy rags." Such is the 
language of God's saints. Again, Romans iii. 10, 
Douay version ; " There is not any man just." Nu- 
merous passages could be quoted to the same eflfect. 
Why do you not regard what God himself tells you in 
his blessed word ? You admit that God's grace must 
give you the inclination to obey his will, and to do what 
you call g6od works ; therefore, if there be any merit, it 
behmgs to him who supplies you with the means. 

If I send money to a person by my servant, surely 
the merit, so to speak, of the charity, belongs not to the 
servant, but to me. You seem to forget that St. Paul 
tells us, 1 Cor. vi. 19, 30 — " You are not your own, for 
you are bought with a great price ;" every thing we" 
possess we received from God, and are accountable to 
him, the giver, for its use. 

Again, are not the merits of Christ sufiicient to atone 
for your sins ? This you admit, for in all the most an- 
cient prayers of your Mass, supplication is made only 
through him. We are justified in the sight of God by 


his merits and sufferings, through our looking with fiiith 
to Jesus as God's appointed means, by wMch only a 
sinner can be reconciled to his offended God ; and 
therefore must renounce every merit of our own, as 
you profess to do, in part of your coniiteor, where you 
smite your breast and say you have, all without excep- 
tion, " offended by your fault, your very great fault." 
Surely no person born of woman, with the exception 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, but must with truth join in 
this acknowledgment — ^* Enter not into judgment with 
thy servant, Lord, for in thy sight no man living can 
be justified.'* Ps. cxliii. 3. Why do you then attribute 
merit in the sight of God to the saints, which they ut- 
terly renounce -1 No man living can be justified in the 
sight of God by his own merits. For no man is with- 
out sin, and sin deserves God's judgments. Where, 
then, are those human merits upon which he may de- 
pend for justification 1 

Again we ask, if the saints themselves disclaim all 
merit in the sight of God, what benefit can arise from 
having their bones under the altar 1 You justify this 
practice by referring to three passages in the Bible : — 
2 Kings xiii. 21, where it is recorded that the bones 
of Elisha when touched by a dead man restored him to 
life. 2. Your Church refers to the woman touching 
the hem or border of our Lord's garment, and being 
made whole. Matt. ix. 20. And 3, to Acte xi. 11, 12 ; 
where handkerchiefs or aprons were brought to touch 
the body of Paul, and miraculously cured those who 
were touched by them. These references to support 
the use of relics in your Church I find in the table of 
controversies at the end of your Douay Testament, and 
I ask what countenance do they give to your present 
practice ? These passages refer to bodily cures, to 
certain miracles performed upon the bodies of different 
individuals ; if you wish to imitate what these passages 
relate, take the bones and your other holy relics from 
beneath the altars, and let the sick and diseased touch 
them, and if they find themselves restored to health, 
we will admit tluit you have an invaluable possession. 


But, until they are exhibited in this way, and for this 
purpose, you have no right whatsoever to claim the au- 
thority of God's word for a practice totally opposed 
both to the spirit and letter of Scripture. How do you 
ascertain that the bones you possess are the bones of a 
saint ? Various churches of your creed lay claim to 
the possession of the same persofCs head. Several say 
they possess a leg or an arm of a particular saint ; and 
if their assertions be true, that saint must have had 
more than the usual number of legs and arms. 

When St. Stephen was stoned to death the disciples 
did not place his body under the altar, and adore his 
bones ; we are told they buried him. Acts viii. 2. Hez- 
ekiah broke in pieces the brazen serpent made by Mo> 
ses at the appointment of God, when the people burnt 
incense before it. 2 Kings xviii. 4. Are not the merits 
of the saints, even supposing them, contrary to God's 
word, to possess merit in the sight of God, sufl5ciently 
efficacious, unless their bones are raked up from the 
charnel-house or grave ; and instead of being permitted 
to return to dust, are exhibited as a public spectacle 
and show, for the purpose of deceiving you as to their 
miraculous properties, and of thus increasing your ven- 
eration for your Church, as being privileged by God to 
possess such invaluable powers. This prayer is one 
of the many innovations in your Mass ; nor can its ex- 
istence be shown before the eighth century. If the 
early Christians obtained mercy through Jesus only, — 
as must have been the case, because the individuals to 
whom these bones and relics belonged, had not then 
died, — surely you may well be Satisfied with what suf- 
ficed them. This is one of the many instances, not- 
withstanding your boasted antiquity, of your Church 
encouraging you to wander after those vain and empty 
delusions which are entirely opposed to the ancient 
doctrine. Not a sentence do we read in the annals of 
the Primitive Church, about this fondness for relics as 
means of grace. Surely at that early period it would 
have been an easy matter for the early Christiaiis to 
have supplied themselves with pieces of the true cross. 


the nails which fastened our Lord to it, and portions of 
his garment. They might have obtained various arti- 
cles belonging to the Slessed Virgin, and the other 
saints ; all of which were genuine. Such would cer- 
tainly have been the case, if a spirit such as was after- 
wards exhibited in the Roman Church, then prevailed ; 
and how easily could they then have distinguished the 
true from the counterfeit ! 

I would here enumerate some of the present relics 
asserted to be preserved in various of your churches, 
includintr ',^iue of even the Milk of the Blessed Virgin, 
were I not apprehensive that you would suppose I was 
only mocking, and wishing to turn your practices into 
ridicule ; but I am more disposed to grieve over, and 
deplpre the lamentable departure of your Church, in 
this respect, from scriptural truth and common sense. 

R. — ^In missa solemni celebrans antequam legat in- 
troitum benedicit incensum dicens, ab illo bene 4* di- 
caris in cujus honore cremaberis — ^Amen. Et accepto 
thuribulo a Diacono incensat altare nihil dicens Postea 
Diaconus recepto thuriburlo a celebrante incensit ilium 
tantum. Deinde celebrans signans se signo crucis in- 
cipit Introitum quo finite junctis manibus altematim 
cum ministris dicit. 

T. — ^In solemn or high Masses, the officiating priest, 
before he reads the Introite, (consisting of short portions 
of Scripture, different upon different days,) blesses the 
incense, saying, " May you be blessed (signing it with 
the sign of the cross) by him in whose honor you will 
be burnt. Amen." Then taking the thurible, or vessel 
which contains the incense, from the deacon, he in- 
censes the altar in silence. Afterwards the deacon 
taking the incense vessel from the officiating priest, and 
signing himself with the sign of the cross, begins to 
repeat the Introite, which being ended, he repeats alter- 
nately with the ministers or clerks — 

R. — ^Kyiie eleison, Kvrie eleison, Kyrie eleison, 
Christe eleison, Christe eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie 
eleison, Kyrie eleison. 



T. — ^Lord have mercy upon me, 3 times ; Christ have 
mercy upon me, 3 times ; Lord have mercy upon me. 

Here again we have to remark upon some additional 
novelties of your church — the use of " incense," and 
the blessing it, and signing it with the sign of the cross. 
Incense was appointed by God to be burnt upon the 
altar in the Jewish Church, Exod. xxx. 1. It was em- 
blematical of the prayers and thanksgiving offered up 
before the throne of grace, Ps. cxli. 2. We find this 
custom also continued by Zachariah, one of the Jewish 
priests, and father to John the Baptist, Luke i. 9. And 
in the Book of Revelation the same idea is preserved, 
where we are told that the four-and-twenty ancients*and 
the four living creatures have golden vials full of odors, 
which are the prayers of the saints.* 

The law of Moses was, as the apostle Paul says in 
the Hebrews, x. 1, " only the shacdow of things to 
come ;" and therefore when that which was prefig^ured 
by the law — viz. the coming of the Saviour — ^was ac- 
complished, all those rites and ceremonies were no 
longer necessary. Why was not incense used by our 
blessed Lord at the celebration of his last supper? 
Why did not the holy apostles mention it in their epis- 
tles ] Where are you told by God in his word that 
there is any blessing attached to it ? Its introduction is 
modem ; in the Primitive Church we seek for it in vain. 
And again we mquire why is it signed with the sign of 
the cross ? Where is your authority for supposing that 

* Note on this verse in the Douay Testament, verse 8 : " Here we 
see that the saints in heaven offer np to Christ the prayers of the faith- 
ful upon earth." Now we ask does this appear from the text if yon 
interpret it literally ; it was only the twenty-four ancients and the four 
living creatures whose province it was to do so, and therefore you see 
clearly that the saints whose intercession you solicit are not employed 
in that way at all. And by referring to Revelation viii. 3, 4, you will 
find it to be an angel to whom was given much incense, that he should 
offer up the prayers of all the saints ; and the smoke of the incense of 
the prayers of the saints ascended up before God from the hand of the 
angel. Here we are expressly told that the prayers of all the sahUs 
are offered up by the angel. Whether our blessed LohI is her© repre- 
sented, is of little consequence, to confute the Romish doctrine. And 
thus the saints in heaven, to whom you pray, have nothing to say or 
do in the matter, and your prayers to them are thus uadiess. 


inanimate things thus become more holy, by being marked 
with the sign of the cross ? St. Paul tells you that " it 
is by the word of God and prayer that we are to sanc- 
tify any thing," 1 Tim. iv. 5 ; which does not imply 
that it is to be endued with any particular virtue, but 
only to be separated for divine purposes for the service 
of God. What is the .meaning of incense being poured 
upon the altar, and upon the deacons, and upon the offi- 
ciating priest 1 Even in the Jewish worship we find 
nothing of the kind ; the incense was burnt, and not 
poured or cast upon the altar or priest — so that you 
have no authority in God's word for your practice. 
Your church must certainly entertain doubts of the 
efficacy of the preceding sprinklings with holy water, 
and the numerous previous crossings, when this new 
custom is introduced in addition, like the others, upon 
her own sole authority. 

R. — Postea in medio altaris extendens et jungens 
manus caput que aliquantulum inclinans dicit si dicen- 
dum est " Gloria in excelsis Deo," et prosequitur junc- 
tis manibus ; cum dicit, adoramus te, gratias agimus 
tibi, Jcsu Christe, et suscipe deprecationem, inclinat 
caput ; et in fine dicens ^^ cmn sancto spiritu," signat se 
a fronte ad pectus. 

In some Masses this is omitted. 

T. — Next, the priest extending and joining his hands 
over the middle of the altar, bowing his head a little, 
says (if it is to be said on that day) the prayer of 
" Glory to God in the highest," and continues it with 
his hands joined together. When he says " We adore 
thee, we give thee thanks, O Lord Jesus Christ, and re- 
ceive our prayer," or deprecation to avert the conse- 
quence of our sins, he bows his head, and at the con- 
clusion saying " With the Holy Spirit," he makes the 
sign of the cross on his forehead and breast. 

We ask here what is the object of his crossing him- 
self? What reason has he now for supposing he will 
be more favorably listened to on account of his doing 


this ? What eyil spirits does he now think are aboat 
him, who are to be driven or frightened away with the 
sign of the cross ? 


R. — Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra, pax homini- 
bus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te, benedicimus te, 
adoramus te, glorificamus te, gratias agimus tibi propter 
magnam gloriam tuam, Domine Deus, Rex celestis, 
Deus Pater Omnipotens, Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu 
Christe, Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris, qui 
toUis peccata mundi miserere nobis. Qui tollis peccat 
mundi suscipe deprecationem nostram, qui sedes ad 
dexteram patris, miserere nobis quoniam tu solus sanc- 
tus tu solus Dominus tu solus altissimus Jesu Christe 
cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei patris. Amen. 

T.^^lory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace, 
good will towards men. We praise thee, we bless 
thee, we adore thee, we glorify thee. We give thee 
thanks on account of thy great glory. Lord God, 
Heavenly King, God the Father Almighty. O Lord, 
the only begotten Son, Jesus Christ. O Lord God, 
Lamb of God, Son of the Father, who takest away the 
sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou who 
takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. 
Thou that sittest at the right hand of the Father, have 
mercy upon us. Since thou only art holy, thou only 
art the Lord. Thou art the highest, O Lord Jesus 
Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the 
Father. Amen. 

This is a very ancient prayer, and in strict conformi- 
ty with the word of God. Here we are taught to ad- 
dress the several persons of the Eternal Trinity, imme- 
diately ; knowing they have been made favorable to us 
through the blood of Jesus. And why cannot you act 
always upon this principle 1 And do you not perceive 
that you require not the merits and intercession of the 
saints, when the merits and intercession of the Lord 
Jesus Christ are sufficient, and more than sufficient, to 
reconcile a sinner to God. Here, also, remember you 


addiess Jesas, who, you say, sitteth, mark, at the pres- 
ent time, at the right hand of God. 

R. — Sic dicitur " gloria in excelsis" etiam in missis 
h^atse Mariae quando dicenda est. 

T. — Thus is repeated " the Glory in the highest," 
even when it is to be said in the Masses of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. , 

We could make many remarks upon this title, " of 
the Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary," and upon the 
titles of many other of your Masses ; and upon the 
strangeness of calling the supper of the Lord after any 
other name than his own. We could also bring forward 
many prayers, from your own authorized forms, to show 
that you are not satisfied with only seeking the inter- 
cession of the saints, but that you address them direct- 
ly, as if they possessed in themselves the power of 
granting your petitions. But doing so, at present, 
would lead us from the chief object we have in view. 

R. — Deinde osculatur altare in medio, et versus ad 
populum dicit " Dominus vobiscum," R. " et cum spiritu 
tuo," postea dicit " Oremus" et orationes, unam aut 
plores, ut ordo officii postulat : sequitur Epistola, Gra- 
duale, Tractus, vel Alleluia cum versu, aut sequentia, 
ut postulat tempus. His finitis, si est missa solemnis, 
Diaconus deponit Librum Evangeliorum super medium 
altaris, et celebrans benedicit incensum ut supra, deinde 
Diaconus genuflexus ante altare manibus junctis dicit. 

T. — Then the priest kisses the altar in the middle, 
and turning to the peovle, says ; " The Lord be with 
you," (how absurd to address them in Latin of which 
they cannot understand one word !) and they answer by 
the clerk, as they know not what is said — " And with 
thy spirit," meaning the priest's spirit. After this he 
says " Let us pray," and prayers one or more, as the 
order of the particular daily office requires, are said. 
The Epistle follows, then the Gradual, the Tract or 
Alleluia, with a verse or " sequentia," as the time re- 
quires. All these are titles given to several prayers, 
and verses or passages from Holy Scripture, but which 



yary upon the different Sundays and festivals. 8ome 
of the prayers are very good, others highly objection- 
able, as speaking of our obtaining blessings from God 
through the merits and intercession of particular saints. 
Having finished, if it be a Solemn or High Mass, the ' 
deacon lays down the book of the Gospels upon the 
middle of the altar, and the officiating priest blesses the 
incense as before-mentioned ; that is, he does it a sec- 
ond time, as if he were conscious the first were insuf- 
ficient or of no value. Then the deacon kneeling be- 
fore the altar with his hands joined, says — 

R. — ^Munda cor meum ac labia mea, Omnipotens 
Deus, qui labia Isaise prophetae calculo mundasti ignito ; 
ita mea tu^ gratk miseratione dignare mundare, ut sanc- 
tum Evangelium tuum, digne valeam nuntiare, per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

T. — Cleanse my heart and lips, O omnipotent God, 
who cleansed the Ups of the prophet Isaiah with a burn- 
ing coal. So vouchsafe to cleanse me, by thy gracious 
compassion, that I may be enabled worthily to proclaim 
thy blessed Gospel; through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

R. — Postea accipit librum de altare et rursus genu- 
flezus benedictionem petit sacerdote, dicens, "Jube 
Domine, benedicere." 

T. — ^After this, he, the deacon, takes up the book 
from the altar, and again kneeling down beseeches a 
blessing from the priest, saying, *^ O Lord, command 
him to bless me." 

R. — Sacerdos respondet. 

T. — The priest replies — 

R.~*Dominu8 sit in corde tuo et in labiis tuis, nt 
digne et competenter annunties Evangelium suum. In 
nomine Patris et Filii »{• et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

T. — ^May the Lord be in your heart, and in your lips, 
that you may worthily, and competently, proclaim his 
Gospel, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, (he 
crosses himself here, we know not why,) and of the 
Holy Ghost. Amen. 


R. — Et accepta benedictione, osculatur manum Cele- 
brantis et cum aliis ministris, incense et luminaribus, 
accedens ad locum Evangelii, stans junctia manibus 
dicit. — " Dominus vobiscum." Res. Et cum spiritu 
tuo. Et prenuntians sequentia sancti Evangelii secun- 
dum. — N, sive initium, pollic^ destre manus, signat 
librum in principle Evangelii, quod est lecturus, deinde 
seipsum in fronte, ore et pectore ; et tum ministri re- 
spondent *' Gloria tibi Domine :^ incensat ter librum, 
postea prosequitur Evangelium junctis manibus. Quo 
finite subdiaconus defert librum sacerdoti, qui osculatur 
Evangelium dicens. " Per Evangelica dicta deleantur 
nostra delicta. 

T.-^The deacon having received the celebrating 
priest's blessing, kisses his hand, and approaching with 
the other attendants or clerks, with the incense, and 
lights, to the place where the Gospel is, and standing 
with joined hands, says, " The Lord be with you." 
Answer — " And with thy spirit ;" and pronouncing the 
Sequentia, or following, of the Holy Gospel according 
to " N," that is, any of the four Gospels. Or he says 
" The beginning," he signs the sign of the Cross with 
the thumb of his right hand in the beginning of the 
Gospel he is about to read. And he then crosses him- 
self from the forehead, mouth, and breast ; and while 
the attendants reply " Glory be to thee, O Lord," he in- 
censes the book three times, and afterwards reads the 
Gospel, his hands being joined ; which being ended, the 
Bub-deacon takes the book to the priest, who kisses the 
Gospel, saying, " May our sins be forgiven through the 
words contained in the Gospel." 

We ask, what is the advantage to be derived from all 
this crossing, aiid from the book of the Gospel being 
incensed no less than three times, or from one priest 
kissing the hand of another priest ? Does the book of 
the blessed Gospel, or the priests, become more holy by 
these absurd unmeaning forms? We see nothing of 
this in the Word of God ; every thing there is plain and 
simple. We ^an discover no traces of any such practi- 
ces in the Primitive Church. All this " will worship*^ 


was introdaced in comparatiyely modem times into the 
serrice of the Church of Rome. We also remark a 
new practice mentioned in the above passage, namely, 
the use of lighted candles during the celebration of the 
Mass. Where is the authority for such a custom 1 
Wherein consists the advantage of having lighted can- 
dles on your altars ? They are only calculated, with 
your other forms, to withdraw the attention of those 
who witness what is going forward, from spiritual sub- 
jects, and to fix it upon useless external forms. Lights 
were originally used in times of persecution, when the 
early Christians were compelled to celebrate divine 
service in caves, vaults, and cellars. 

R. — Deinde sacerdos incensatur a diacono. Si vero 
sacerdos sine diacono et sub-diacono celebret, delato 
libro ad aliud cornu altaris, inclinatus in medio, junctis 
manibus dicit. " Munda cor meum," ut supra, et jube 
Domine, benedicere, Dominus sit in corde mea et in 
labiis meis, ut digne et competenter annuntiem Evan- 
gelium suum. Amen. 

.T.-7-Then the priest is incensed by the deacon ; but 
if the priest celebrates Mass without the deacon and 
sub-deacon taking the book to the corner of the altar 
and bowirfg towards the middle of it, with joined hands 
he says, " Cleanse my heart," as above, and " Com- 
mand him, O Lord, to bless me. May the Lord be in 
my heart, and in my lips, that I may worthily and com- 
petently declare his Gospel. Amen." 

What is the advantage of this repeated " incensing V 
Nothing like this is to be found in God's word. Surely 
it cannot make the priest more holy, or more fit to cele- 
brate the sacred mysteries. The prayer he offers up 
to God, to enable him worthily to proclaim his Gospel, 
is excellent ; but not satisfied with this, he acts as if he 
supposed God could not grant his petition, unless he 
was also covered with incense. 

R. — Deinde conversus ad librum junctis manibus 
dicit. Dominus vobiscum. R. — Et cum spiritu tuo, 
et pronuntians initium sive seqtientia sancti evangelitj 


signal librum' et se in fronte^ ore^ et pectore, et legit 
evangelium ut dictum est. Quofinito respondet minis- 
ter. Laus tibi, Christe, et sacerdos osctdatur evangeli- 
um dicens. Per evangelica dicta ut supra. In missis 
defunctorum dicituf. Munda cor meum sed non petitur 
benedictiOi non deferuntur luminaria nee celehrans os- 
culatur librum. Deinde ad medium altaris, eatendens, 
elevans, et jungens manus dicit si dicendum est. Credo 
in unum Deum et prosequitur junctis manibus. Cum 
dicit "Deum," caput cruci inclinat. Quod similiter 
facit cum dicit Jesum Christum et simul adoratur. Ad 
ilia autem verba. " Et incamatus est,'* genuflectit usque 
dum dicatur. " Et homo factus est." In fine ad, ** et 
vitam venturi saeculi" signat se signo crucis a fronte 
ad pectus. 

T. — ^Then having turned to the book, and his hands 
being joined, he says, " The Lord be with you." R. — 
" And with thy spirit." And pronouncing " the begin- 
ning" or the *'sequentia of the blessed Gospel," he 
makes the sign of the Cross upon the book, and on his 
forehead, mouthy and breast, and reads the Gospel, as 
was said before ; which being ended, the minister says 
" Praise be to thee, O Christ ;" and the priest kisses the 
Gospel, saying, " May our sins be blotted out by the 
words of the Gospel," as was said before. In Masses 
for the dead, the prayer of " Cleanse my heart, &c." is 
said ; but the " benediction" is not sought for, nor are 
the lights brought over, nor does the officiating priest 
kiss £e book. Then, at the middle of the altar, ex- 
tending, raising, and joining his hands together, he says, 
if it is to be said, •* I believe in one God," (the Nicene 
Creed,) and goes through it with joined hands. When 
he pronounces ^he word " God," he bows his head to 
the Cross. He d^es the same when he pronounces the 
words "Jesus' Christ," and adores at the same time. 
But at the words " He became incarnate," he kneels 
until he repeats the words " And was made Man." At 
the conclusion, when he repeats the words " life ever- 
lasting," he signs himself with the sign of the Cross 
both on his forehead and breast. 


Here we find more useless forms, more crossings, 
and kissings of the book of the Gospel, and bovrings. 
Where is the authority for all these senseless exhibi- 
tions ? But in the Masses for the dead, some of these 
forms are omitted ; I take for granted, if they were 
supposed to be of any value, they would be retained, 
but, in truth, they can be easily dispensed with, as it 
would be difficult to prove their value. See what vari- 
ous attitudes are used in repeating the Nicene Creed ; 
the early fathers, when this Creed was composed at the 
Council of Nice, in the year 325, little contemplated 
these unmeaning forms, introduced in after ages, during 
its repetition. 


Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, facto- 
rem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. 
Et in unum Dominum, Jesum Christum, Filium Dei 
unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. 
Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo 
vero ; genitum non factum ; consubstantialem Patri. 
Per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, 
et propter nostram salutem, descendit de ccbUs, (hie 

fenuflectitur) et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto, ex 
laria Virgine ; et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam 
pro nobis sub Pontic Pilato, passus et sepultus est, et 
resurrexit tertia die, secundum scripturas. Et ascendit 
in coelum, sedet ad dextram Patris ; et iterum venturus 
est cum gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos : cujus regni 
non erit finis. 

Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et viviiicantem, 
qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et 
Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur, qui locutus est 
per prophetas. Et unam Catholicam, et apostolicam 
Eoclesiam. Coniiteor unum baptisma ^n remissionem 
peccatorum. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, 
et vitam venturi sseculi. Amen. 

T. — ^I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, ma- 
ker of heaven and earth, and of all things, visible and 
invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only be- 


gotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all 
worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very (or true) God 
from very (or true) God ; begotten, not made ; being of 
one substance with the Father ; by whom (the Son) all 
things were made. Who, for us men, and our sadva- 
tion, came down from heaven, (here the priest bows or 
kneels,) and was incarnate by th^ Holy Ghost of the 
Virgin Mary, and was made man, and was crucified 
also for us, under Pontius Pilate ; he suffered, and was 
buried, and the third day he rose again according to the 
Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the 
right hand of God, the Father Almighty : from whence 
he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. 

I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and giver of 
life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son : who 
with the Father and the Son, is worshipped and glori- 
fied, who spake by the prophets. And I believe in one 
Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one 
baptism for the remission of sins, and I look for the re- 
surrection of the dead, and the life everlasting. Amen. 

Such is the Creed called " the Nicene Creed," com- 
piled by the bishops and fathers of the Christian Cath- 
olic or Universal Church at the Council of Nice, held, 
as before stated, in the year 325. There is much mat- 
ter contained in this Creed ; it declares the essential 
articles of faith believed at the period when the 
Council was held. It sets forth, clearly and plainly, 
the doctrine of the Trinity, or, that the God-head con- 
sists of three divine Persons, equal and co-eternal — 
that the second Person, the Lord Jesus Christ, " for us 
men, and for our salvation," took upon him the nature 
of man, save only as to sin, and was bom of the Virgin 
Mary — ^was crucified by command of Pontius Pilate, 
was buried, and rose again the third day — and ascended 
into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God to 
make intercession for us, sinners, with his Father, as 
was before stated, and that He will come from thence 
to jndge the quick (those who will be alive at the last 
day) and the dead. We also acknowledge our belief 
in the distinct personality and divinity of the Holy 


Ghost, the Lord and Giver of spiritaal life. We also 
state our belief that he spake to us by the prophets, and 
writers of the Holy Scriptures, as St. Peter tells us 
that '' holy men of God spake inspired by the Holy 
Ghost," 2 Peter i. 21, Douay version. Also our belief 
in the Holy Cath<dic and Apostolic Church. Catholic, 
means universal ; and we believe that our blessed Lord 
wished to establish a church all over the world — ^the 
doctrines and precepts of which should be equally bind- 
ing upon all ; and this conclusion follows from the object 
which our Lord had in view, namely : to die for the whole 
world. As St. Peter says. Acts x. 35, " in every na- 
tion, he that feareth God and worketh justice, is accept- 
able to him." 

Thus we learn that Christ has one universal church, 
which, in God's appointed time, will extend all over the 
world. And, in order to guide us in ascertaining 
whether we belong to this Church, we are taught to 
believe and to admit that it must be '' Apostolical," 
that is, governed by the same doctrines and articles of 
faith which the Apostles taught. To this view agrees 
what our Lord said, immediately before he ascended in- 
to heaven, to his Apostles, Matt, xxviii. 18, 19, 20 — 
'^ And Jesus coming, spoke to them, saying : All power 
is given to me in heaven and in earth. Go ye there- 
fore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have 
commanded you ; and behold I am with you all days, 
even to the consummation of the world." ' Thus you 
see, that following the doctrines of the Apostles, is es- 
sential to constitute a member of the Catholic Church. 
Your calling yourselves by such a title, is not sufficient, 
but you must examine your doctrines as set forth in the 
Mass, the principal part of your religious worship, and 
see what countenance they receive from the writings of 
the Apostles. Again, you learn from this passage, that 
no change of faith was to be permitted ; wKat Jesus 
had commanded, they were to continue to teach to the 
end of the world. 


But, you will ask, is it not impossible for the Church 
of Christ to err, when Jesus has declared *' he will be 
always with it ?" This leads us to the foundation of 
your system, and to inquire, in the first place, into the 
reasons for your belief, that the Roman Catholic 
Church, with the Bishop of Rome, or the Pope, at its 
head) is the Church of Ciirist ; and, consequently, free 
from essential error. Your belief as Roman Catholics 
is, that our Lord committed his Church to the govern- 
ment of St. Peter, and as the Bishops of Rome claim 
to be the successors of St. Peter, that this charge con- 
tinues to them ; and thus the Church of Christ is iden- 
tified by you with the Roman Catholic Church. That, 
as a consequence of that privilege, aU those who sepa- 
rate from her, and do not submit to her authority, peril 
their eternal salvation. 

Your Church claims power over all others, as being 
under the charge of the Pope, St. Peter's successor. 
Where in the Word of God, do you find that the Church 
was placed under the government of St. Peter ? Let us 
lay bare the foundation of this claim, and refer to Mil- 
ner's " End of Religious Controversy," where we shall 
find the arguments in support of it put forward in the 
strongest and most forcible manner of which they are 
capable. " The strongest proof," as the learned Doc- 
tor states, '^ of St. Peter's dignity and jurisdiction con- 
sists in that explicit and energetical declaration of our 
Saviour to him, in the quarters of Cssarea Philippi, 
upon his making that glorious confession of our Lord's 
divinity, * Thou art Christ, the Son of the living 
God,' " Matt. xvi. 16. Now -take up your Douay Tes- 
taments, and open them at that chapter, and judge your- 
selves, whether this " strongest proof" of Milner's is 
sufiicient to bear up the vast superstructure erected 
upon it. You will find at the I3th v., how our Lord 
began to question his disciples : " Whom do men say 
th^ I, the Son of Man, all V After hearing the vari- 
ous opinions, of the people, some of whom said he was 
John the Baptist, and some Elias, and others Jeremiah, 
or one of the prophets ; Jesus said unto them, '' But 
. 6 


whom say you that I am t" Peter answered, and said, 
" Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God." And 
Jesus answering, said to him, " Blessed art thou, Simon 
Barjona, son of Jona, because flesh and blood hath not 
revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven. 
And I say to thee, that thou art Peter; and upon this 
rock I wUl build my Church, and the gates of hell shall 
not prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys 
of the kingdom of heaven ; and whatsoever thou shalt 
bind on earth, shall be bound also in heaven ; and what- 
soever thou shalt loose upon earth, shall be loosed also 
in heaven." 

*' I will build my Church upon this rock" said the 
Saviour. Not surely upon St. Peter ; whom our Lord, 
in a few verses after this, calls " Satan." Not surely 
upon St. Peter ; who denied, with oaths and impreca- 
tions, that he had any knowledge of our Lord, and thus 
for a time was separated from his Master's cause, Mark 
xiv. 71. Not surely upon Peter ; whom St. Paul with- 
stood to the face, Gal. ii. 11, because he was to be 
blamed; and countenanced erroneous doctrines; but 
upon his confession, that Jesus was the Christ, the 
anointed, the Son of the living God. The privilege of 
binding and loosing was not confined exclusively to St. 
Peter ; for we find our Lord extending it to all his dis- 
ciples, only two chapters after. Matt, xviii. 13, and thus 
making them equal to Peter, who thus lost his superi- 
ority, even supposing he ever possessed it. But as a 
reward for his being the first to confess that Jesus was 
the Christ, the Son of the living God, the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven were committed, in one sense, to 
him ; and he had the privilege conferred upon him of 
being the first to preach the Gospel to the Jews, which 
he did upon the day of Pentecost, Acts ii. ; and to the 
Gentiles, when Cornelius the Centurion was converted. 
Acts X. 24 ; and thus the Gospel, which signifies " the 
kingdom of heaven," was uiiocked to both Jews and 
Gentiles by Peter. 

Now, the very nature of this privilege shows it was 
not to descend upon those who claim to be his succes- 


ftors— namely, the BiBhops of Rome. The priyilege 
was his being the^r^^ to preach or unlock the Gospel 
to both Jews and Gentiles, and, therefore, when that 
was accomplished it could not be repeated by a suc- 

But, perhaps, you may inquire — Did not our Lord 
commit the lambs and sheep of his fold three several 
times to Peter, and did he not then, as mentioned by St. 
John xxi. 17, confer on him the supremacy over his en- 
tire Church, both clergy and laity, represented by the 
sheep and the lambs ? We say, open your Douay Tes- 
taments at the above-mentioned chapter, and let the 
text speak for itself. We must remind you that this 
conversation occurred after the resurrection of our 
blessed Lord. Upon a former occasion, as is recorded 
by St. Matthew xxvi. 33, Peter had declared, "Though 
all men should be scandalized in thee, I will never be 
scandalized" — ^that is, as explained by the note in the 
Douay Testament, " shall never be scandalized by his 
running from, and forsaking his Master," when he was 
apprehended by the chief priests and scribes ; and we 
know in what a melancholy way Peter broke that prom- 
ise and denied his Master. It was, therefore, consider- 
ed necessary by our blessed Lord, to restore Peter 
again to his apostleship, from which he had apostatized ; 
and, as Peter had denied our Lord three times, so, in 
this passage, he is three several times restored to his 

We find this view of the subject fully borne out by 
the message given to the women, Mark xvi. 7, by the 
angel — ^**Go and tell his disciples and Peter that he 
goeth before you into Galilee." Here Peter* is not 
called a disciple — he is specially named after the dis- 
ciples, as if to mark how he had forfeited all claim to 
that office, not merely by forsaking our Lord, for that 
they all did at first, and St. John is the only one who 
returned and remained with his Master to the last, but 
on account of his denial. Our Lord, therefore, in the 

* The snmaine " Peter" is still given him, to pievent his atter de- 
spair of being forgiven. 


exercise of his infinite mercy, sent specially for Peter 
to restore him to his ojffice of feeding his flock, in com- 
mon with the other apostles. " When they had dined, 
Jesus saith to Simon Peter — Simon, son of John, lovest 
thou me more than these V* John xxi. 15. In thus ad- 
dressing him he wished to remind him of the vain pre- 
sumptuous manner in which, in the above-mentioned in- 
stance, Matt. xxvi. 33, he had boasted of his own at- 
tachment and fidelity, at the expense of the other disci- 
ples. He does not now call him " Peter,^ signifying 
the stone, of which title bis unsteady conduct proved him 
to be utterly unworthy, but his own proper name, " Si- 
mon, son of John or Jonas." Peter, having been since 
taught a bitter lesson respecting the folly and sinfulness 
of self-confidence, answers with humility, no longer 
making comparisons between himself and the other dis- 
ciples, " Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee." 
He saith to him, " Feed my lambs." He saith to him 
again, " Simon, son of John, lovest thou me !" Peter 
again replies, " Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love 
thee." He saith to him, " Feed my lambs." He saith 
to him the third time, " Simon, son of John, lovest thou 
me 1" Peter was grieved, because he said to him the 
third time, "lovest thou me;" and he said to him, 
" Lord, thou knowest all things — ^thou knowest that I 
love thee." He said to him, " Feed my sheep." 

If any exclusive honor or privilege were conferred 
here upon Peter, must not Peter have been aware of it, 
as having heard the words of our Lord addressed to 
him personally 1 and, certainly, the other apostles had 
also, we may reasonably suppose, better opportunities 
of understanding our Lord's meaning than the com- 
paratively modem aspirants to, and supporters of, the 
supremacy of the Roman Church. Why was he grieved 
when our Lord proposed the question to him the third 
time, instead of being elated with joy at this universal 
authority being conferred upon him 1 He was grieved 
for either one of two reasons, or, perhaps, he was in- 
fluenced by both — ^particularly by the latter : either he 
felt that our Lord doubted his sincerity, notwithstanding 


his profession of love to him ; or that, when the ques- 
tion was proposed to him the third time, he then, and 
not until then^ understood that it had reference to his 
having denied our Lord three times ; and, although he 
wept bitterly, as the Evangelist tells us, when "the 
Lord turned and looked upon him,'' still this was more 
a feeling of sorrow and regret at losing so kind a mas- 
ter, and of his ingratitude towards him. But Jesus 
now speaks to him in a different character. He has 
now risen from the dead, and Peter's feeling of humil- 
iation and self-condemnation must have been, if possi- 
ble, increased, when he knew the real character of that 
Jesus whom he had renounced by denial. 

Why, if this be not the true sense of the passage, 
should JPeter have been questioned three times, and the 
last time have felt grieved? But only three verses 
farther on we find a passage, which proves beyond the 
possibility of doubt, that Peter was to exercise no au- 
thority over the other Apostles. When Peter asked a 
question concerning St. John, the beloved Apostle, and 
said, " Lord, and what shall this man do V Jesus saith 
to him, " If I will have him to remain till I come, what 
is it to thee 1 follow thou me :" thus openly rebuking 
him for presuming to interfere with John in the exer- 
cise of that commission which all the Apostles received 
only from the Saviour himself, and which they held, 
each independently of any other authority but that of 
their Divine Master. Matt, xxviii. 18-20. 

I will now bring before you a few of those passages 
from the Holy Scriptures, which show clearly, how 
your Church is misleading you upon this matter. In 
Matthew xviii. 1, and coming immediately after that 
conver^^ation held with Peter in chap, xvi., we are told, 
"At that hour the disciples came to Jesus, saying. 
Who, thinkest thou, is greatest in the kingdom of hea- 
ven ?" Why did not the disciples, who were present 
at the former conversation with Peter, chap, xvi., un- 
derstand it as giving the supremacy to Peter, and then 
there would be no necessity for proposing this question 
to our Lord ; or, if they could possibly have been so 


dull of comprehension, as to have misunderstood onr 
Lord, why did not he set them right at once, and repeat 
what he had said before 1 We find in his answer he 
makes no allusion whatever to Peter, but takes a little 
child, and sets him in the midst of them, and says, ^ 
*' Unless ye be converted, and become as little children, ' 
you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven." We 
are to suppose that Peter also accompanied the other 
disciples to ask this question ; consequently, if he had 
mistaken the nature of his privilege, that mistake would 
now be corrected. Again, in the 18th verse of the 
same chapter, we find all the Apostles equally endued 
with the power of binding and loosing — ^granted the 
same privilege which Peter had received before, and 
thus made equal to him. That is, that whatever doc- 
trines and precepts they, through the guidance and 
inspiration of the Holy Ghost, should commit to wri- 
ting, should bind the whole Church, and should be 
ratified and confirmed in heaven, as being suggested 
and taught by God himself, John xiv. 26. Not a word 
here about St. Peter^s sanction being necessary. 

Our Lord also mentions. Matt. xix. 23, that the twelve 
Apostles will sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel. Here all are mentioned as being upon 
equal terms. 

We find, John xx. 21, &c., a most direct proof that 
the Apostles obtained their commission, and were to 
exercise it independently of each other, and conse- 
quently, of Peter. After our Lord's resurrection, we 
hear him addressing them, and saying, " As the Father 
hath sent me, I also send you ; and when he had said 
this, he breathed on them, and he said to them, Receive 
ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall {j^rgive, 
they are forgiven them ; and whose sins you shall re- 
tain, they are retained." Here we find them individually 
receiving equal power, equal authority, to make laws 
under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, then breathed 
upon them, to bind the Church. And, as we before 
stated, having committed those precepts and doctrines 
to writing, when they had departed to their eternal rest, 


men would have the means of ascertaining, by reading 
what they had taught, the gospel plan of salvation. 

That the Pope, or Church of Home, possesses this 
power of binding and loosing, of forgiving and retain- 
ing offences or sins, is absurd in the extreme. As, in 
the first place, St. Peter enjoyed no such exclusive 
privilege, as we see in the Council of Jerusalem, and 
by St. Paul resisting him to the face, and also because 
the enjojrment of such a power by any body of men 
succeeding the Apostles, would naturally produce the 
greatest confusion and uncertainty in matters of faith ; 
as WB could never he certain that what the Apostles had 
set forth in the Scriptures had not been repealed hy 
your Church. And this will account for the reluctance 
which your Church, which claims such authority, natu- 
rally entertains against the reading of the Scriptures. 
As many things are practised and sanctioned by her 
which are entirely at variance with what we read there ; 
your Church, in the plenitude of her usurped power, 
having presumed to repeal and change many express 
ordinances of God himself; consequently, with these 
views of your Church's authority, the Holy Scriptures 
must be most dangerous, as calculated to unsettle and 
disturb the minds of her members. 

Again, Matt. xx. 21, the mother of Zebedee's chil- 
dren, with her sons, Mark x. 35, James and John, be- 
sought our Lord, that her two .sons may sit, one on his 
right hand, and the other on his left, in his kingdom. 
Surely they could never have supposed that the pri- 
macy or chieftainship was given to Peter, or such a 
petition would never have been offered ; and in the an- 
swer given by our Lord, not an allusion is made to any 
such grant having been made, or that their request was 
an interference with Peter's alleged supremacy. We 
read, verse 24, " When the ten heard it they were filled 
with indignation against the two brethren." Was this 
feeling produced among them on account of Peter's 
privileges, who was one of the ten, being encroached 
upon, and who himself makes no special complaint in 
consequence t By no means, but at the notion that any 


of the Apostles wished to set themselves above the 
others. ^Tlie answer of our Lord tears up the whole 
of the boasted supremacy of Peter from its very foun- 
dation. Jesus called them to him, and said, "You 
know that the princes of the Gentiles lord it over them, 
and they that are the greater exercise power upon 
tiiem. It shall not be so among you ; but whosoever 
wishes to be greater among you let him be your minis- 
ter, (or servant ;) and he that will be, (or wishes to be,) 
first among you shall be your servant." All the Apos- 
tles were thus encouraged to contend for no primacy, 
but one of humility. Does this give any countei]^nce 
to Peter*s supremacy, or his having any authority over 
the other Apostles | Surely not. 

In Matthew xxiii. 8, we read how Jesus said — " Be 
not you called Rabbi, for one is your master, and all 
you are brethren ; and call none your father upon earth, 
for one is your Father, who is in heaven. Neither be 
ye called masters, for one is your master, Christ." 
How does this agree with the doctrine of one apostle 
being superior to the others "? We also find, after the 
ascension of our blessed Lord, that the apostles acted 
upon this principle of equality, and that it was the reso- 
lution or decree of the body, which was to govern the 
others. Thus, in Acts viii. 14, we read — " Now, when 
the apostles which were in Jerusalem, had heard that 
Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to 
them, Peter and John." Would the other apostles pre- 
sume to have done this, if Peter were considered their 
superior ; and we find St. John and he, spoken of here 
in the same terms. Our blessed Lord mentions this 
very act, as a proof of the inferiority in that respect of 
the person sent, John xiii. 16 — " Amen, Amen, I say 
to you, the servant is not greater than his lord ; neither 
is the apostle, (or person sent) greater than he that sent 
himy Thus Peter and John, who were sent by the 
other apostles to preach the gospel in Samaria, could 
not be considered, as our Lord expresses it, grreater 
than those other apostles who were at Jerusalem, 
and who sent them on their mission. We never hear 


of the Pope, or Bishop of Rome, being sent by the 
Cardinals or his fellow-bishops upon such a mission. 
And why ? Because he claims an authority and power 
never enjoyed or thought of by Peter or the other 

In Acts XV. we read of a council being held at Jeru- 
salem. If Peter were considered chief of the apostles, 
surely he would have presided ; but we find he did not. 
It was after there had been much disputing that Peter 
delivered his opinion, v. 7, which, we learn, was not 
final ; for after that, Paul and Barnabas spoke ; and last- 
ly, St. James, who, it appears, presided at the council, 
delivers his judgment, and sums up all the preceding 
arguments, V. 19. As the result of this judgment, we 
read, v. 22, how *^ it pleased the apostles and ancients, 
with the whole church, to choose men," &c. And 
again, hear the wording of the decree sent forth to the 
brethren of the Gentiles, v. 23 — " The apostles and 
ancients, brethren, to the brethren of the Gentiles," &c. 
In the entire of this decree there is no mention what- 
ever made of Peter, which omission surely could not 
have occurred, were he the chief of the apostolic col- 
lege. In every decree of the Roman Catholic Church, 
for the last several hundred years from the time of his 
usurpation, the name of the Bishop or Pope of Rome 
appears in a very prominent place, as if no decree 
could go forth without his sanction. 

There is another important consideration suggested 
by this apostolic council. Jerusalem was, unquestion- 
ably, the mother church, where the Gospel was first 
preached on the day of Pentecost, and this church was 
presided over, as we see, by St. James, the bishop. 
We ask, as the Roman Church did not exist at that 
time, over what particular church did St. Peter pre- 
side ? You may answer, over the entire Christian 
world. Admitted, for argument sake. Upon what au- 
thority, then, does the Bishop of Rome claim to be the 
only bishop entitled to that supremacy 1 Did Peter 
preside over the bishop of Jerusalem, his brother apos- 
tle ; and if he did, was it not in the capacity of univer- 


sal bishop ? It would appear from this reasoning, that 
the Bishop of Rome has no title to be uniyersal bishop 
or successor to St. Peter — such a title involves a con- 
tradiction of terms — and that the church of Christ 
would exist, even though there were no Bishop of 
Rome — or even though he were a heretic — or even 
though there were two or three claimants for the Pope- 
dom, all of which cases have occurred. There was no 
successor to Peter, in the Roman Catholic sense, and 
upon reference to the first chapter of his second Epis- 
tle, we shall find St. Peter speaking in the plainest 
terms of his death — being assured, as he says, v. 14, 
^' that the laying away of this my tabernacle is at hand, 
according as our Lord Jesus Christ also hath signified 
to me." Why should he not here speak of his succes- 
sor? This would have been the proper time, if he 
were to have any. Why would he not here tell those 
whom he was addressing, that they were to appoint 
some person in his room, to whose advice they were to 
refer, and to whose authority they were to submit 1 
He alludes to nothing of the kind ; he refers to the 
Holy Scriptures, whereunto, he tells them, they wovld 
do well to attend^ v. 19, for prophecy came not by the 
will of man at any time, but holy men of God spoke 
inspired by the Holy Ghost. 

Many other arguments can be brought forward upon 
the subject. I shall only mention two in addition, 
which show the utter inconsistency of the doctrine. 
St. John, we know, survived St. Peter. Was St. Pe- 
ter's alleged successor^ or Bishop of Rome, Linus or 
Cletus — ^for, strange to say, even upon this successor- 
ship, Roman Catholic authors are not agreed — ^superior 
in authority to St. John ? The supposition is absurd. 
And again, was Peter superior in authority to the 
blessed Virgin Mary ? Was she one of the sheep or 
lambs who were given up to his charge, when, on the 
contrary, we read she was given in charge to John, the 
beloved apostle ? 

One favorite argument used by your church, and up- 
on which you lay great stress, is derived from the fol- 

OF THE r4maN catholic CHURCH. 59 

lowing passage — ^** And the Lord said, * Simon, Simon, 
behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may 
sift you as wheat ; but I have prayed for thee, that thy 
faith fail not, and thou, being once converted, confirm 
thy brethren.'" Luke xxii. 31, 32. Satan, said our 
Lord, has desired to have you, (all my disciples,) but I 
have prayed specially for thee, Simon, that thy faith 
fail not utterly, as the word in the original signifies, 
which our Lord knew would ce^inly happen when he 
denied him, but for his merciful interference. Do you, 
then, said our Lord, when you are converted, confirm 
or strengthen thy brethren. Show them in your own 
case, the mercy of God, and teach them the special 
wisdom and knowledge he possesses, by which your 
faults were foreshown. As to its being a proof of supe- 
riority, and confined to Peter alone, we can show that 
such is not the case ; for we read, Acts xiv. 22, how 
Paul and Barnabas " confirmed the souls of the disci- 
ples, and exhorted them to continue in the faith." On- 
ly a few verses farther, we read of the angel who was 
strengthening or confirming our Lord in his agony in 
the garden, v. 43 ; and surely the angel was not supe- 
rior to our Lord. St. Peter speaks of the Prince of 
Pastors, but in doing so he specially alludes to our 
Lord, when he says, 1 Peter v. 4 — ^^ When the Prince 
of Pastors shall appear," &c., meaning the coming of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Thus you see that the belief in the one holy Catholic 
and Apostolic Church is not necessarily connected with 
the belief in St. Peter's supremacy, which we have 
shown from Scripture to be utterly unfounded, and con- 
sequently has nothing to say to your Pope's pretended 
claim. The expression "Apostolic" in the Creed is 
most remarkable. It refers to all the Apostles as being 
the founders of the Catholic Church. St. Paul gives 
us this view very plainly, Ephes. ii. 19, &c. He is 
addressing the saints who are in Ephesus, and the faith- 
fiil in Christ Jesus, i. 1. " You," he says, are " fellow- 
citizens with the saints and the domestics of God, built 
upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus 


Christ himself heing the chief comer-stone, in whom 
all the building framed together groweth up into an 
holy temple unto the Lord." Here we find all the 
Apostles and Prophets are mentioned as being the foun- 
dation of the Church — ^not merely one. What, then, 
becomes of the assertion, that the Church is founded 
and built upon Peter alone ? 

The Roman Church assumes to be infallible : that is, 
that she cannot err. Because our blessed Lord has de- 
clared that the gates of hell shall never prevail against 
his Church, therefore the Roman Church claims to be 
infallible. The Church of Christ is two-fold — ^the visi- 
ble and the invisible ; and one of the causes of your 
falling into error upon this matter arises from your not 
having both these distinctions clear before you: your 
teachers wilfully confound them. There is no promise 
of freedom from error given in Scripture to any visible, 
individual Church. Look to the Jewish Church, under 
the immediate control and government of God himself, 
and surely that Church was not free from error, as its 
history down to the crucifixion of our Lord to the sub- 
sequent destruction of Jerusalem fully shows. Look 
to the history of the early Christian Churches, recorded 
by faithful authors, and you can learn how every visible 
Church erred. Some have altogether ceased to exist. 
Look to your own proud and haughty Church of Rome, 
which claims infallibility. Look to her during the Arian 
heresy which prevailed in the fourth century, and prin- 
cipally against which the Council of Nice was held, 
whose Creed we have been considering. One of your 
Popes or Bishops of Rome, Liberius, was a heretic, 
and affixed his name to the Arian doctrine, that our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was only the highest of 
created beings, and not God. Many other instances I 
could give, but space would not permit. 

Where does this infallibility exist ? In whom does it 
centre ? How is it to be called forth ? Not in coun- 
cils ; for we have council contradicting council. Not 
in Popes; for we have one Pope anathematizing or 
coiaing another Pope. Not in both united; for we 


hare them in direct opposition to each other. If such 
an infallibility, as your Church claims, did exist, surely 
there would be rules given whereby to discover it ; but 
all these rules we search for in vain. The infallibility 
or truth of the invisible Church is a different matter 
altogether ; that Church consists, to use the language 
of St. Peter, Acts x. 35, " of those in every nation who 
fear God and work justice." Our Lord himself, John 
xiv. 16, speaks of this Church, where he says, " I will 
ask the Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete 
or Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever ; the 
Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive because 
it seeth him not, nor knoweth him, but you shall know 
him, because he shall abide with you and shall be in 
you." Here we see a plain distinction between the 
world, the external professors of the Gospel, and those 
who are led by the Spirit of God, who, as our Lord 
said, John xvi. 13, **will teach them all truth." 
"Many," as our Lord says, upon another occasion. 
Matt. xvi. 20, "are called, but few are chosen." 
Christ, as St. Paul tells us, Ephes. v. 35, 27, " loved 
the Church, and delivered hunself for it, that he might 
present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot 
or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy 
and without blemish ;" and this Church is formed by 
the influence and power of the Holy Ghost. " No man 
can say the Lord Jesus," or confess Jesus to be the 
Christ, as St. Paul tells us, 1 Cor. xii. 3, " but by the 
Holy Ghost." " The kingdom of God," said our Lord, 
Lnke xvii. 20, 21, " cometh not with observation ; for 
lo, the kingdom of God is within you." And a^in, 
1 John ii. 20, "you liave an unction from the Holy 
One, (that is, grace and wisdom from the Holy Ghost,) 
and Imow all these things." All those things which 
were taught by our blessed Lord, and by his Apostles 
by his command, are set forth in those inspired writings, 
which Paul tells us, 2 Tim. iii. 15, "are able to in- 
struct us to salvation, through &ith which is in Christ 
Before we leave this subject of the Catholic and 


Apostolic Church, I would make one further remark. 
The fkith of the Church at Rome was spoken of, as 
St. Paul tells us, in, or throughout, the whole world, 
Romans i. 8 ; and he gives thanks to God through Je- 
sus Christ for them all, on this very account : and yet 
we hear the Apostle saying, chap. xi. 21, " for if God 
hath not spared the natural branches, take care, lest 
perhaps he also spare not thee. See, then, the good- 
ness and the severity of God, towards them indeed that 
are fallen the severity, but towards thee, the goodness 
of God, if thou abide in goodness, otherwise thou also 
shalt be cut off.^^ Is it not, then, most remarkable, that 
the Roman Church is the only Church which received 
this caution from St. Paul, as if the Apostle, taught by 
the Spirit of God, had foreseen how that Church would 
apostatize from the pure faith, and introduce into her 
service and doctrines, as we have seen, various unscrip- 
tural novelties. This threat or warning of St. Paul 
can only refer to the Roman Church, considered as a 
particular visible Church, as it was utterly impossible 
for the invisible Church of Christ to fail.* We find in 
this Epistle not even the name of Peter ; though the 
faith of the Roman Church, as we before remarked, 
was spoken of throughout the world — ^and in the con- 
cluding chapter of this Epistle, though many celebrated 
Christians living at Rome are mentioned, yet Peter is 
not — a convincing proof that he could not have been 
exercising his episcopal functions there at that time. 

Sufficient has been said to prove that the Holy Cath- 
olic Apostolic Church, in which we profess our belief 
in the Nicene Creed, cannot be the Church of Rome ; 
as she is neither Catholic, in the scriptural sense of the 
word, nor Apostolic, as following those doctrines set 
forth by the Apostles in their writings. 

We may here remark upon an expression in the 
Apostles' Creed, upon which your Church affects to 
place great stress, as justifying your asking the interces- 

* Many visible Chnrches, however, al»af» rejected the pretenatons 
of the Church of Rome, and differed from her in doctrihe. The Greek 
and other Eastern Churches, &c., for Instance. 


sion of the sainta, namely, " the communion of saints.^* 
You can easily understand the meaning of this expres- 
sion from what we have said concerning the invisible 
Church of Christ ; and it comes immediately after the 

frofession of the belief in the Holy Ghost, and the 
loly Catholic Church. The meaning is, that all God's 
faithful servants are led and instructed by the same 
Spirit, in the one true faith in Jesus, " the way, the 
truth, and the life,'' and that they all drink of the same 
fountain of living waters. St. raul, Eph. iv. 3, alludes 
to this, when he cautions the faithful to keep the unity 
of the Spirit in the bond of peace— one body and one 
spirit — as you are called in one hope of your calling — 
" one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father 
of all, who is above adl, and through all, and in us all." 
St. John says, ' 1 John i. 7, '* But if we walk in the 
light, as he also is in the light, we have fellowship one 
with another, and the blocS of Jesus Christ, his Son, 
cleanseth us from all sin." See also John xvii. 30,31 ; 
1 Cor. X. 16-17. There are many other passages il- 
lustrating this subject ; and thus we see it has nothing 
whatever to say on the invocation of saints. 


Deinde osculatur altare et versus ad populum dicit. 
S. Bominus vobiscum. — R. Et cum spiritu tuo. Pos- 
tea dicit ** Oremus," et ofifertarium. Quo dicto si est 
missa solemnis, Diaconus porrigit celebranti patenam 
cum hostia. Si privata sacerdos ipse accipit patenam 
cum hostia quam offerens dicit. 

T. — Then he (the priestj kisses the altar, and turn- 
ing to the people, says, " The Lord be with you." Re- 
sponse — "And with thy spirit." After this, he says, 
" Let us pray," and the Oflfertory, (which is a verse . 
or verses of Scripture different upon different days.) 
Which, being repeated, if it be a sdemn Mass, the 
deacon eives the paten with the host to the officiating 
priest, if it be a private Mass, the priest himself 
takes the paten with the host, which, offering up, he 
says — 


R. — Suscipe, sancte Pater Omnipotens, aeterae Deus, 
hanc inmaculatam hostiam quam ego indignus famulus 
tuus offero tibi, Deo meo vivo et vero, pro innumera- 
bilibus peccatis et ofiensionibus, et neglegentiis meis et 
pro omnibus circumstantibus, sed et pro omnibus fideli~ 
bus Christianis, vivis atque defunctis, ut mihi et illis 
proficiat ad salutem in vitam seternam. Amen. ' 

T. — Receive, O holy Father Almighty, everlasting 
God, this unspotted host, which I, thine unworthy ser- 
vant, oflfer unto thee, my living and true God, for my 
innumerable faults and offences, and negligences, and 
for all here present, and also for all faitUul Christiana, 
both living and dead, that it may profit me and them for 
our salvation to eternal life. Amen. 

This seems a strange prayer, even upon your own 
principles. The word " host,'*'* which is so familiar to 
you in the Mass, is the translation of " hostia," mean- 
ing a "victim" or "sacrifice." What is this your 
Church calls a host, and which the priest offers to 
God ? Surely it is no more than mere flour and water, 
just as it comes from the hands of the baker. Re- 
member, no change has as yet taken place, no transub- 
stantiating prayer has yet been said ; but it is nothing 
more nor less, even upon Roman Catholic grounds, than 
simple bread or wafer ; and yet your priest, as instructs 
ed by your infallible Church, takes this up and offers it 
to God as a sacrifice for his sins, and for the sins of all 
present, and for those of all the faithful, both living and 
dead. How can you possibly justify such' a prayer in 
such a place ? Show any authority from the Apostles, 
that bread is to be considered as a sacrifice offered to 
God for our sins. No Church but your own, presuming 
upon her infallibility, would attempt such an outrage 
upon even common sense and consistency. 

R. — Deinde 'faciens crucem cum eadem patena, de- 
ponit hostiam super corporale. Diaconus ministrat vi* 
num. Subdiaconus aquam in calice ; vel si privata est 
missa utrumque infundit sacerdos, et aquam miscendam 
in calice benedicit •{• dicens. 


T. — ^Then making the sign of the Cross with the 
same paten, he places the host upon the corporal ; the 
deacon pours the wine, the sub-deacon the water into 
the chalice. But if it be a private Mass, the priest 
pours in both, and blesses the water to be mixed in the 
chalice with the sign of the Cross, saying — 

We perceive here, that water is mixed with the wine ; 
our blessed Lord, we read, did nothing of the sort — and 
St. Paul, in his description of the manner in which the 
Lord's supper was to be celebrated, and to which we 
referred before, 1 Cor. xi. 23, is silent as to any such 
pradtice. Consequently, the Reformed Charch rejected 
the use of water in the Eucharist. We shall hereafter 
show how utterly inconsistent, mixing the water with 
the wine is with your other present tenets ;* for if the 
early Christians believed the wine to be the real blood 
of our Lord, they never would have polluted it with 
mixture of water. 

Oratio. — Deus qui humanae substantiae dignitatem 
mirabiliter condidisti, et mirabilius reformasti. Da no- 
bis per hujus aquae et vini mysterium, ejus divinitatis 
esse consortes, qui humanitatis nostras fieri dignatus est 
particeps, Jesus Christus, Filius tuus, Dominus noster. 
Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti 
Deus, per omnia saecula sseculorum. Amen. 

Prayer. — O God, who hast wonderfully constituted 
the dignity of human nature, and more wonderfully re- 
formed it, grant to us, through the mystery of this water 
and wine, to be partakers of his divinity, who conde- 
scended to be partaker of our humanity, even Jesus 
Christ, thy Son, our Lord, who liveth and reigneth in the 
unity of the Holy Spirit, God, world without end. Amen. 

This prayer, we would remark, where you petition, 

* The practice was introduced at a very early period into the Charch. 
The mixture of water with the wine. Cyprian tells us, " signifies the 
union betwixt Christ and believers/* Epis. 63. Others say it represents 
the water and the blood which flowed from the wounded side of our 
blessed Lord— Athanasius says, " It typifies the union of the Eternal 
Word with the human natnxe.'* This last meaning Is alluded to in 
the piayer following. 



" that through the mystery of this water and wine you 
may be partakers of our Lord's divinity,** if we under- 
stand its meanina correctly, which, in truth, is not very 
easy, namely, the partaking of our Lord's divinity 
through the mystery of this water and wine, appears to 
militate against some of your other doctrines ; for it is 
only his divinity you pray to partake of — not his carnal 
body and blood — a doctrine not known when the prayer 
was made. 

R. — In raissa pro defunctis dicitur predicta oratio sed 
aqua non benedictur. 

T. — In Masses for the dead, the above-mentioned 
prayer is said, but the water is not blessed. 

Here, another novelty of your Church is introduced ; 
" Masses for," and " praying for" the dead. You cer- 
tainly cannot call this an apostolic doctrine, for you find 
nothing to sanction any such practice. Where our 
Lord commanded his apostles to teach all nations those 
things which he had commanded, Mat. xxviii. 20 ; and 
where he also promised that the Holy Spirit or the Pa- 
raclete whom he promised to send, would bring all 
things which he had taught to their remembrance, John 
xiv. 26 ; does it not appear strange, if such a practice 
were to be used, how the inspired apostles could be si- 
lent upon the subject ? They are silent upon the sub- 
ject, and therefore we conclude that such a practice be- 
comes a species of will-worship, against which we are 
.80 forcibly cautioned by St. Paul, Col. ii. 18 ; imagining 
that we can improve the religion of the Gospel as taught 
by the Holy Ghost or God himself. We hear the apos- 
tles and our blessed Lord frequently speaking of prayer 
— exhorting us in numerous passages to pray for our- 
selves, and for our brethren. " Pray for one another," 
says St. James, v. 16 ; implying that our prayers should 
be reciprocal, as I endeavored to show in the preceding^ 
pages. Why then, as they so frequently alluded to the 
subject, did they not mention if prayers for the dead 
were necessary ? 

A natural consequence followed from this practice, 


namely — ^the supposition that they were in some place 
in which they could be helped or assisted — and thus 
purgatory wa& intrO<iuced ; and it was taught, that the 
souls of many who departed, and who were not guilty 
of sins sufficient to condemn them to hell forever, were 
consigned to a place called " purgatory ,'' from the Latin 
word ** purgo,'' to cleanse, and that there they remained 
until all their sins were atoned for. This doctrine led 
to another antiscriptural belief, in the difference be- 
tween mortal and venial sins, a distinction of which we 
find no trace in the word of God ; and also to that which 
is alluded to in the preceding rubric, namely, " offering 
up Masses for the dead." Upon reference to Church 
history, we shall discover that these several doctrines 
shortly followed each other, and were successively in- 
troduced into the public formularies. 

With respect to the difference between ** venial" and 
^* mortal" sin, there is no sin venial in the sight of God. 
Sin has been defined by the apostle Paul, Rom. iv. 15, 
to be ^' a transgression of God^s law." It is not so 
much, what we may consider the magnitude of the sin 
is displeasing to God, as the spirit, or disposition which 
prompts the commission. Thus, what was the offence 
of our first parents 1 only eating " fruit which was for- 
bidden," and still that one offence brought death, tem- 
poral and spiritual, upon the whole world. In Adam 
all die, 1 Cor. xv. 22. St. James tells us, " Now, who- 
soever shall keep the whole law, and yet shall offend in 
one point, shall become guilty of all," James ii. 10 ; and 
Paul says, Rom. iii. 19, ''Now we know that what 
things soever the law speaketh, it speaketh to them that 
are in the law, that every mouth may be stopped." 
God's law has declared, "the soul that sinneth shall die," 
Ezek. xiii. 4. No offence against the authority of an 
infinite Being can be a trivial offence. Our blessed 
Lord tells us that, " even for every idle word men speak, 
they shall render an account of it at the day of judg- 
ment," Mat. xii. 36 ;* where, then, are the grounds 

* Muk, for ''idle woids,** which your church calls venial lina, we 


from Scripture for your making any such distinctions 1 
Where is the man who has not what you call mortal or 
deadly sin to repent of, and for which to seek pardon ? 
And if the blood of Christ can cleanse from greater sins, 
why should it be incapable of cleansing from lesser t 

Your Church has invented this distinction in order to 
prop up her doctrine of purgatory, which she teaches is 
a middle state between this present time and the day of 
judgment, in which the temporal punishment of mortal 
sin will be endured, and venial punished, until God's 
justice is satisfied. 

Because we find that temporal judgments are inflict- 
ed in this world after God has forgiven the sin, as was 
the case of David, 2 Sam. xii. 13, 14, you conclude 
that those temporal penalties are carried on to the next 
world. Is this a doctrine of the Catholic Apostolic 
Church \ if so, we inquire where it is taught by our 
Lord or his holy Apostles t Your Church quotes some 
passages in Scripture, none of which have any refer- 
ence to purgatory, and if you believe they all refer to 
it, you will find they absolutely contradict each other. 
You defend the necessity of purgatory upon the princi- 
ple " that God will render to every man according to 
his works," 2 Cor. v. 10 ; now what would be the con- 
sequence of this declaration being carried out^literally 
with respect to us ? That no man living could be saved. 
You confess your unworthiness in the sight of God for 
your faults, your very grievous faults — and for what do 
you ask ? is it to be treated as you deserve ? no, but for 
* mercy, for pardon — pardon undeserved by you, pur- 
chased for you by Jesus, God's beloved Son, by his own 
most precious blood. Such a doctrine would consign 
you to hell for ever, if Jesus did not interfere in your 

You refer to Matt. xii. 32, where our Lord says, 
" But he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost it 
shall not be forgiven, neither in this world, nor the 
world to come ;" from which you conclude that there 

must account— not in purgatory— but at the day of 
purgatory has ceased. 


are sins which may be remitted in the world to come ; 
a very important conclusion from very insufficient prem- 
ises. You refer again to another passage in support of 
purgatory, where our Lord says, Matt. v. 25 ; "Be at 
agreement with thy adversary quickly whiles thou art 
in the way with him, lest perhaps the adversary deliver 
thee to the judge, and the judge to the officer, and 
thou be cast into prison, 26 ; amen I say unto thee, 
thou shalt not go out from thence till thou pay the last 
farthing." Both these passages, your Church says, re- 
fer to purgatory. In the one you say, sins may be for^ 
given in the next world ; in the other, that a person 
cannot come out thence, that is from purgatory, till he 
has paid the last farthing. Surely if sins are to be/or- 
given, payment for those sins is not required. If I for- 
give a debt, does it not seem absurd to require payment 
to ike last farthing for thaX debt '^ and yet sucn is the 
contradiction involved by the Roman interpretati<9h of 
these two texts. The note in the Douay Testament, 
Matt. i. 25, upon the word " until," says, " these are 
ways of speech common among the Hebrews," as David 
says, Psalm ex. — " The Lord said unto my Lord, sit 
thou on my right hand until I make thine enemies thy 
footstool." Both these texts imply perpetuity. 

Your Church refers to 1 Cor. iii. 13, 14, in support 
of this doctrine. This passage, we shall find, has noth- 
ing to do with the subject. In verse 11, St. Paul says, 
" fox other foundation no man can lay than is laid, which 
is Jesus Christ."* Christ being the son of the living 
God was the foundation of the Catholic and Apostolic 
Church. " Now, if any man build upon this founda- 
tion, gold, silver, preciou&i stones, wood, hay, stubble, 
every man's work shall be manifest ; for the day of the 
Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire, 
and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it 
is. If any man's work abide which he hath built there- 
upon he shall receive a reward. If any man's work 
burn he shall suflfer loss, but he himself shall be saved, 
yet so as by fire." 

* Not Peter, as you are falsely taught |p believe. 


What is meant here by the day of the Lord 1 we 
shall find many passages to show that it refers to the 
destruction of Jerusalem and all those various persecu- 
tions to which the church was to be exposed. See 
Malachi iii. 2, 3 ; also iv. 1 ; Joel ii. 1, 30 ; 1 Thess. 
▼.2. It clearly cannot refer to the fire of purgatory, 
for then all would go there for a time, as it was to try 
every man's work, v. 13, even the blessed apostles and 
the virgin Mary and all the saints of God would be 
subjected to it ; but this we know from various passages 
from God's word is not the case ; John tells us, 1 Epis. 
i. 7, " The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all 
sin,'*'' which includes both mortal and yenial sins. All 
were to be tried by the fire of persecution, and their 
faults would thus be made manifest. If they built on 
Jesus, the one only sure foundation, though some of 
their doctrines may have been erroneous, signified by 
the^ords hay and stubble ; yet still, as their foundation 
was secure, they would be saved through that founda- 
tion, '' yet so as by fire," as brands plucked from the 
fire, or persons escaping with their lives from a fire. 
The fire spoken of here, mark, was not to punish, but 
to try, to prove of what nature every man's work was ; 
and thus you see that this passage gives no sanction to 
jrour belief. The Roman purgatory is to punish, not to 
try, or put to the test, 

A passage is also quoted from 1 Peter, iii. 18, &c. 
to prove the existence of purgatory. We shall find this 
passage, also, gives but little support to your church. 
" Because Christ also died for our sins, the just for the 
unjust, that he might offer us to God ;* being put to 
death, indeed, in the flesh, but brought to life by the 
Spirit. In which, also, he came and preached to those 
spirits that were in prison, which had been sometime 
incredulous, when they waited for the patience of God 
in the days of Noe, when the ark was building, wherein 
a few, that is, eight souls were saved by water." In 
this passage we are told by St. Peter, that Jesus, in 

* See here how Jesas kinudf offers the sinner to God for paidoB, 
and does not reqnire the assistance of the angels or saints. 


order to bring us to God, suffered himself to be put to 
death in the flesh, but was brought to life by the Spirit, 
or Holy Spirit. St. Paul tells us the same thing ; he 
says, Romans, viii. 11 — " If the Spirit of him that raised 
up Jesus from the dead, dwell in you, he that raised up 
Jesus Christ from the dead shall quicken also your 
mortal bodies, because of his spirit that dweUeth in you." 
Now, we shall find that this same spirit strove with 
man before the flood. We read, Gen. vi. 3 — " And the 
Lord said. My spirit shall not always strive with man, 
(to lead him from wickedness to holiness,) for that he 
also is flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and 
twenty years, (that is, until the flood overspread the 
earth,) to give him time for repentance." They were 
said to be " in prison,^^ which is a usual expression, 
descriptive of a person being in bondage to sii^. " The 
spirit of the Lord is upon me," saith the Saviour, Luke, 
iv. 18, quoting from Isaiah, Ixi. 1 — "Wherefore, he 
liath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor. He 
hath sent me to heal the contrite of heart ; to preach 
deliverance to the captives, and sight to the blind ; to 
set at liberty them that are bound." We read, Isaiah, 
xlii. 7, that one of Christ's ofl5ces " is to open the blind 
eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and 
them that sit in darkness out of the prison house." 

According to the doctrine of your church, these people 
were in purgatory, where our blessed Lord preached to 
them ; and yet you say that purgatory is for venial sins. 
Biit these persons were guilty of mortal sin, for we 
read — " And God saw that the wickedness of man was 
great in the earth ;" Gen. vi. 5, 12. Surely, then, ac- 
cording to your doctrines, they could not have been in 
purgatory. But the same apostle, whom you misunder- 
stand in this passage, clears up the difliculty in his second 
epistle. He tells you, ii. 1, that there shall be lying 
teachers, who shall bring in sects of perdition, and that 
heresies will be introduced into the church, on acoount 
of their not attending to that " firm prophetical word,'' 
namely, the Holy Scriptures, which St. Peter had recom- 
mended to them in the preceding chapter, v. 19 — also, iii. 


3. He proceeds then, ▼. 4, to show the certainty of God's 
judgments upon such — ^** For if God spared not the an- 
gels that sinned, but delivered them to infernal ropes, 
drawn down to the lower hell, unto torments, to be reserv- 
ed unto judgment, and spared not the original world, but 
preserved Noe, the eighth person, bringing in the flood up- 
on the world of the ungodly ; and reducing the cities of the 
Sodomites and of the Gomorrhites into ashes, condemned 
them to be overthrown, making them an example to those 
that should after act wickedly." He, then, in verse 9, 
says — ^** The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out 
of temptation, but to reserve the unjust unto the day of 
judgment to he tormented,'*'* Can any thing be clearer 
than that those unhappy persons were not in purgatory 
— that place invented by the Roman Church, where their 
sins could be atoned for by their sufferings — but in a place 
where their condemnation was without remedy, to which 
the benefits of the atonement of Jesus were not to reach, 
being made an example, as St. Jude tells us, v. 7, suf- 
fering the punishment of eternal fire. Can any thing be 
more clear, than that your church, in order to prop up 
her false system, has perverted the meaning of the en- 
tire passage t 

You quote, also, in support of your system, from the 
2d Mac. xii. 45, to justify prajdng for the dead. With- 
out taking advantage of this book not being admitted 
into the canon of Scripture by the Jews, and that, con- 
sequently, it can never be counted amongst those " oracles 
of God," the Holy Scriptures, which were intrusted to 
the Jews, as St. raul tells us, Romans, iii. 3 ; without 
either proving from another passage how the author must 
be a most dangerous guide, where he praises the act of 
suicide, xiv. 43 ; or self-destruction, and thus making it 
appear that he is just as likely to mislead as a teacher 
in one respect as in another ; he says, describing the 
particulars of the death of Razes, v. 46, "When, as his 
blood was now quite gone, he plucked out lus bowels, 
and taking them in both his hands, he cast them upon 
the throng, and, calling upon the Lord of life and spirit 
to restore him those again, he thus died." 


But youT church, in the exercise of her claimed infal- 
libility, has invested this book with an importance the 
author of it never contemplated. He tells his readers^ 
ii. 23 ; that it is only an abridgment of the five books, 
written by Jason. He tells you, v. 26 — ^** Therefore, to 
us that have taken upon us this painful labor of abridg- 
ing, it was not easy, but a matter of sweat and watch- 
ing.*' In his preface, which continues to the end of the 
second chapter, we find not a word said respecting divine 
assistance or spiritual illumination ; he speaks as if he 
were writing an ordinary volume. In the early list of 
canonical works, we do not find this book mentioned 
with the others, by the ancient council of Laodicea, held 
in the fourth century, nor by the early writers of the 
church. We reject the book, therefore, as possessing 
no authority whatever. But, besides, even upon your 
own principles, this passage should possess no weight. 
Those persons for whom Judas Maccabeus, as is stated, 
prayed, were idolaters, and died in mortal sin, and there- 
fore should not have been prayed for. Their idols, as 
we are informed, xii. 40, were found under their coats, 
which the law, Deuteronomy, vii. 25, 26, expressly for- 
bids ; and thus, with the most unaccountable inconsis- 
tency, you are taught to disobey the precepts of that 
book which your church declares to be the Word of 
God, and of equal authority with any other book of Holy 
Scripture. I leave your church to get out of this diffi- 
culty, and to justify her disobedience to what she caUs 
the Word of God. 

There is a question upon this subject I would propose. 
You are in the' practice of saying the " Hail Mary ;" 
at the conclusion of the prayer, you say, " Holy Mary, 
Mother of God, pray for us now and at the hour of our 
death.*' Why do you not solicit her to pray for you 
after death, as well as when you are dying ? Surely, 
the intercession of the Virgin is as powerful at one time 
aa at the other. You are taught in your Catechism^ 
that it was your church added this petition for her to 
pray for you at the hour of death. Why did not your 
church, at the same time, add a petition for her inter- 


cession after death? The reason is plain: no such 
doctrine existed, at the time when this prayer was add- 
edf as purgatory. The invocation of saints preceded 
purgatory by several centuries — a doctrine which many 
of your own writers admit has no scriptural support^ 
and has nothing to uphold it but the bold, presumptuous 
claim to infallibility, which we have seen rests but upon 
such a sandy foundation. 

There was a species of prayer for the dead, which, 
we find, prevailed very early. We are taught in the 
word of God, that there are, if we may so express our- 
selves, two resurrections — the first, of the soul only, 
when it awakes to a state of consciousness after its 
separation from the body, and when it goes to that place 
alluded to by our Lord, where he says to the thief upon 
the cross, Luke, xxiii. 43, *' this day thou sbalt be with 
me in paradise." And the second resurrection, or more 
properly, perhaps, the resurrection, is that of the body, 
and its reunion with the soul ; to which St. Paul al- 
ludes, when he says, 1 Cor. xv. 52, '* In a moment, in 
the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump, for the trum- 
pet shall sound, and the dead shall rise again incorrupt- 
ible, and we shall be changed." He says, also, in verse 
42, speaking of the resurrection of the body, " it is sown 
in corruption, and it is raised in incorruption." See 
also Phil. iii. 2L Thus we see there are two periods 
spoken of in the liturgy of the church of England and 
Ireland — ^this latter period is alluded to in the Litany ; 
we call upon God to dehver us at the hour of deaUi, 
and at the day of judgment — and again, when we piaj 
in our burial service for "perfect consummation and 
bliss both in body and soul, in God's eternal and ever- 
asting glory." It was the not keeping these two 
periods distinct, which led to the error of praying 
for the dead, or supposing that any thing we can do 
for them after they have departed, will better theif 

It would be impossible, within a small compass, to 
bring forward all the passages from Scripture which 
tell us that as we are at the hour of our death, so shall 


we be to all eternity, so far as our pardon and forgive* 
ness are concerned. 

There is only one more passage I will quote, because 
St. John was specially commanded to commit it to wri- 
tingy Rev. xiv. 13 ; "I heard a voice from heaven, say- 
ing to me, Write, * Blessed are the dead who die in the 
Lord, from henceforth ; now saith the Spirit, that they 
may rest from their labor.' " Is there any intimation 
here of purgatory, or a place of punishment 1 Nothing 
of the kind ; those who die in the Lord, in the faith of 
Jesus, have their sins forgiven — they rest from their 
labors — ^their troubles and sorrows are at an end. 

Now, we ask, as purgatory is to be at an end, when . 
the day of judgment arrives, and as we know upon the 
authority of God's word, 1 Thes. iv. 17 ; which we also 
declare in the Creed,* that some will be alive upon 
earth when that tremendous day arrives, how can they 
be purified of venial sins, without purgatory 1 — and if they 
can, as there is no purgatory at that time, where is the 
necessity of your church inventing such a place I Not- 
withstanding these contradictions, your church teaches 
that there is a purgatory, and that those who are there, 
are assisted and helped by the prayers and good works of 
the faithful upon earth, and by the sacrifice of the Mass. 
We have shown you that such a doctrine has no war- 
rant from the word of God ; and that those passages 
which you bring forward have no reference whatever 
to such a place. 

Your church tells you that there is a middle state 
between heaven and hell, and that those who are too 
good for hell, and not sufficiently righteous for heaven, 
are sent into this middle place, in order to be qualified 
for eternal happiness. From the preceding pages you 
may learn how such a doctrine opposes the Gospel plan 
of man's salvation, which is the free and unmerited gift 
of God. The passages from the Holy Scriptures, 
which I have brought before you, prove, most clearly, 
that it is the blood of Jesus alone which cleanses from 

* He sitteth at the right hand of God, flrom thence he shall come to 
judge the fuickj those then alive, and the dead. 


tin. And in all the parables of our Blessed Lord, and 
in all bis teachings, as recorded by his inspired apostles, 
and in all the instructions given as by those apostles 
themselves, we find only two places spoken of— heaven 
and hell. Into the one the wicked wiJl be cast — ^to the 
other the faithful servants of the Lord Jesus will be 
exalted. The parable of the tares, or cockle, Mat. xiii. 
SM ; the net, Mat. xiii. 48 ; the unmerciful servant, Mat. 
xviii. 23 ; the careless servant, Mat. xxiv. 45 ; the 
sheep and the goats, Mat. xxv. 31 ; the ten virgins, 
XXV. 1 ; and many others — ^all show that there are bat 
two places — heaven and hell. Look to those passages, 
and judge for yourselves. 

Surely our Blessed Lord and his inspired apostles 
must have been very insufficient teachers, to have left 
such an important doctrine untaught and unmentioned 
in that sacred volume which is able to ** make the man 
of God perfect^* — as St. Paul tells us, " furnished to 
every good work,'' 2 Tim. iii. 17. Because there is a 
middle space of time between the present and .the day 
of judgment, your church wilfully confuses that with a 
middle place. Mark the distinction — ^there is a middle 
space of time, but not a middle or third place. There 
are only a place of happiness and a place of misery now, 
but that happiness and that misery will be increased 
after the day of judgment. The councils of Florence 
and of Trent — the former held more than 1400 years — 
the latter more than 1500 after the birth of our Blessed 
Lord, made the only authoritative decrees upon this sub- 
ject, and of the means by which the suffering souls may 
be assisted. Prayers for the dead, as we have before 
stated, long preceded the doctrine of purgatory. Thus, 
in what is called " the apostolical constitutions," prayers 
are offered up even for the Blessed Virgin Mary ; and 
your church will not admit, I am sure, that she was in 

There is a false church spoken of in the book of 
Revelation, and the destruction of that church is clear- 
ly foretold ; and one of the marks of that church is her 
making merchandise of the souls ofmen^ Rev. xviii. 13. 

OF TUB rohah catholic chubcb. 77 

Can there be any other church to which it applies bat 
the church of Rome ; who, by her doctrine of purga- 
tory, and by persuading you that there is such a place, 
and that she has power to deliver from that place by 
prayers and by Masses, for which you are compelled to 
pay, carries on a most profitable traffic, and thus makes 
merchandise of the souls of her people I To enter into 
the various prophecies in the Holy Scriptures, which 
describe your church and its errors, and clearly foretel 
her downfall, would lead me from my present purpose. 

R. — Postea accipit calicem et ofFert, dicens. 

T. — He next takes the chalice, and offers it, saying — 

R. — Offerimus tibi, Domine, calicem salutaris, tuam 
deprecantes clementiam ; ut in conspectu divinse majes- 
tatis tuae pro nostra et totius mundi salute cum odore 
suavitatis ascendat. Amen. 

T. — We offer to thee, O Lord, the chalice of salvar 
tion, beseeching your compassion, that it may ascend 
as a sweet odor in the sight of thy divine Majesty, for 
our salvation, and that of the whole world. Amen. 

HesB again we inquire, upon what authority does 
your church present to God plain wine and plain wa- 
ter, mingled together, as an atonement for sin, and for 
man's salvation 1 — ^for, upon your own principles, this 
must be the case, the prayer of consecration not being 
yet said. 

R. — Deinde facit signum crucis cum calice et illam 
ponit super corporale et palla cooperit tum junctis mani- 
bus super altare aliquantulum inclinatus dicit. 

T. — Then he makes the sign of the cross with the 
chalice, and places it upon the corporale, and covers it 
with a napkin ; then joining his hands upon the altar, 
and bending liimself a little towards it, he says — 

R. — In spiritu humilitatis, et in animo contrite, sus- 
cepiamur a te Domine ; et sic fiat sacrificium nostrum 
in conspectu tuo hodie, ut placeat tibi, Domine Deus. 

T. — May we be received with a spirit of humility, 
and with a contrite heart, by thee, O Lord God ; and 


may our sacrifice be made this day in thy sight) O 
Lord God, so as to be acceptable to thee. 

R. — Erectus expandit manus easque in altum porrec- 
tas jungens, elevatur ad coelom oculis, et statim demissis 

T. — Raising himself up, he stretches out his hands 
on high, and then joins them together, raising his eyes 
to heaven, and immediately looking down, he says — 

Where in the Word of God do we find these rules 
for the management of our hands and eyes in prayer 1 
How applicable to such practices is the passage from 
God^s word : — " This people honoreth me with their lips, 
but their heart is far from me ; and in vain do they wor- 
ship me, teaching doctrines and commandments of men," 
Mat. XV. 8, 9. 

R. — Veni, sanctificator, omnipotens aeterne Beus, 
(benedicit oblata prosequendo,) et benedic hoc sacrificium 
tuo nomini sancto prseparatum. 

T. — Come, O Eternal, Almighty God, the sanctifier, 
(he here blesses the oblations in succession,) and bless 
(here makes the sign of the cross) this sacrifice pre- 
pared for your holy name. 

R. — Postea si solemniter celebrat benedicit incensum 

T. — ^Afterwards, if he celebrates a solemn high Mass, 
he blesses the incense, saying — 

R, — Per intercessionem beati Michaelis archangeli 
stantis a dextris altaris incensi et omnium electorum 
suorum, incensum istud dignetur, Dominus bene + 
dicere, et in ordorem suavitatis accipere. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

T. — ^Through the intercession of the blessed Michael 
the archangel, standing at the right side of the altar of 
incense, and of all his elect, may the Lord vouchsafe to 
bless (he makes the sign of the cross) this incense, and 
to receive it as a sweet-smelling savor, through Christ 
our Lord. Amen. 

We were told before that the incense was blessed. 


we may have supposed once was sufficient, but here 
you pray may the Lord again bless it. Where did you 
learn that Michael the archangel had any influence with 
God to procure this second blessing? and then the 
prayer concludes, as if you were conscious of the use- 
lessness, to say no worse of it, of any such intercession, 
by saying, " through Jesus Christ our Lord," as if you 
knew it was through Jesus only, any supplication will 
be attended to. Oh ! why are you guilty of such un- 
scriptural practices ? 

R. — Et accepto thuribulo a diaconp incensat oblata, 
mode in rubricis generalibus prescripto dicens. 

T. — And having received the incense vessel from the 
deacon, he incenses the oblation in the manner pre- 
scribed in the general rubrics, saying — 

R. — ^Incensum istud a te benedictum, ascendat ad te 
Domine, et descendat super nos misericordia tua. 

T. — May that incense, blessed by you, ascend to thee, 
O Lord, and may your compassion descend upon us. 

R. — Deinde incensat altare dicens. 

T. — ^Then he incenses the altar, saying — 

Psalm cxl. — ^Dirigatur Domine, oratio mea, sicut in- 
ceosum in conspectu tuo, elevatio manuum mearum 
sacrificium vespertinum. Pone Domine custodium ori 
meo, et ostium circumstantiae labiis meis, ut non declinet 
cor meum in verba malitiie ad excusandas excusationes 
in peccatis. 

T. — May my prayer, O Lord, be directed as incense 
in thy sight, and may the lifting up of my hands be as 
the evening sacrifice. Place, Lord, a watch upon my 
mouth, and a door of watchfulness upon my lips, so that 
my heart may not incline to words of malice, and to 
making excuses for my faults. 

R. — ^Dum reddit thuribulum Diacono dicit. 

T. — ^While he gives back the incense vessel to the 
deacon, he says — 

R. — ^Accendat in nobis Dominus ignem sui amons et 
flamma-m etomK charitatis. Amen. 


T.— May the Lord kindle in us the fire of his love 
and the flame of eternal charity. Amen. 

R. — Postea incensatnr sacerdos Dl^cono ; deinde alii 
per ordinem. Interim sacerdos layat manus dicens. 

T. — ^After this, the priest is incensed by the deacon ; 
then the others, according to their rank. In the mean 
while, the priest washes his hands, saying — 


Layabo inter innocentes manus meas ; et circumdabo 
altare tuum, Domine. 

Ut audiam vocem laudis ; et enarrem universa miia^ 
bilia tua. 

Domine, dilexi decorem domi^s tuse, et locum habita- 
tionis gloriae tuae. 

Ne perdas cum impiis, Deus, animam meam, et cum 
viris sanguinum vitam meam. 

In quorum manibus iniquitates sunt, dextera eorum 
re^eta est muneribus. 

£go autem in innocenti^ mek ingressus sum, redime 
me et miserere mei. 

Pes mens stetit in directo ; in ecclesiis benedicam te, 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat 
in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula sseculorum. 


I will wash my hands among the innocent, and I will 
repair to thine altar ; 

That I may hear the voice of praise, and tell forth all 
thy wonderful things. 

Lord, I have loved the beauty of thine house, and the 
place of the habitation of thy glory. 

Do not destroy my soul, O God, with the wicked, and 
my life with men of blood ; 

In whose hands are wickedness ; their right hand is 
full of gifts. 

But I have entered in mine innocency ; redeem me 
and have compassion upon me. 


My foot hath stood in the right path ; I will bless thee, 
O Lord, in thy temples. 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy UhoBt : as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever 
shall be, world without end. Amen. 

R. — ^In missis pro defnnctis et tempore passionis in 
missis de tempore omittitur " Gloria Patri." Deinde 
aliquantulmn inclinatus in medio altaris junctis manibus 
super eo dicit. 

T. — ^In Masses for the dead, and daring the time of 
Easter or the Passion, and in Masses at particular 
times, " the Gloria Patri" is omitted ; then the priest 
bending himself a little in the middle of the altar, having 
joined his hands oyer it, says — 

R. — Suscipe, sancta Trinitas, banc oblationem, quam 
tibi ofTerimus ob memoriam passionis resurrectionis et 
ascensionis Jesu Christi, Domini nostri, et in honorem 
beats Maris semper Yirginis, et beati Johannis Bap- 
tists et sanctorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et isto- 
rum et omnium sanctorum ; ut illis proficiat ad hono- 
rem, nobis autem ad salutem, et illi pro nobis interce- 
dere dignentur in cslis, quorum memoriam agimus* in 
terris. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. 

T. — ^Receive, blessed Trinity, this oblation which 
we offer to thee, in memory of the passion, resurrection, 
and ascension of Jesus Christ, our Lord, and in honor 
of the Blessed Mary ever a Virgin, and of the blessed 
John the Baptist, and of the blessed apostles, Peter and 
Paul, and of these and all the saints, that it may ad- 
vance their honor and our salvation, and that they may 
vouchsafe to intercede for us in heaven, whose memory 

* Here we see traces nf the primitive practice respecting the saints 
and martyrs ; the ancient chnrch had annaal commemorations of them, 
that the survivors may be excited, through divine grace, to follow their 
examples of holy living. No person thought of praying to them In 
those days, or soliciting their Intercession. The primitive Christians 
depended, as they were taught by the apostles in their inspired wri- 
tings, upon only one Mediator, who is now at Uie right hand of God, 
~ ) intercession for his people. 


we preserve on «arth, through the same Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

We have some remarks to make upon this prayer, 
the meaning of which we do not understand. How the 
ohlation of the hread and the wine, mixed with water, 
can be offered to the blessed Trinity, in memory of the 
lesion, resurrection, and ascension of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, we can comprehend — ^but how this oblation can 
be made in honor of the Blessed Virgin, or of any 
apostle or saint, we really cannot understand — and how 
such an offering can redound to our salvation — ^how 
bread and wine offered up to God can advance our sal- 
vation, or honor the saints, we know not. Where is 
such an extraordinary doctrine or practice taught in 
Scripture ? Nothing of the kind was known in the an- 
cient church. The church to which you belong is 
bound to give you full information upon this subject, 
and to explain their reason for introducing a prayer 
utterly irreconcilable with Gospel truth and common 

R. — Postea osculatur altare et versus ad populum ex- 
tendens et jungens manus, voce paululum elevata dicit. 

T. — Then he kisses the altar, and turning to the peo- 
ple, extending and joining his hands, he says, in a voice 
moderately loud — 

R. — Orate, fratres, ut meum ac vestrum sacrilicium 
acceptabile fiat apud Deum Patrem omnipotentem. 

T. — Pray, brethren, that mine and your sacrifice may 
oe acceptable with God, the Father Almighty. 

Jl. — Minister sen circumstantes respondent, alioquin 
ipsemet sacerdos. 

T. — The clerk or those who stand around, otherwise 
the priest himself, says — 

R. — Suscipiat Dominus sacrificium de manibus tuis, 
(vel meis,) ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui, ad utilita- 
tem quoque nostram, totiusque ecclesise suae sanctae. 

T. — May the Lord receive this sacrifice from your 
hands, (or mine,) to the praise and glory of his name, 
and for our benefit, and that of the whole Church. 


R. — Sacerdos submissa voce dicit — Amen. 

T. — ^l^he priest says then with a low voice — ^Amen. 

R. — Deinde manibus extensis absolute sine "Ore- 
mus," subjungit orationes secretas. Quibus finitis cum 
pervenerit ad conclusionem clara voce dicit. Per om- 
nia siecnla seculorum cum prefatione, ut in sequentibus. 
Prefatio incipitur ambabus manibus positis hinc inde 
super altare. Quos aliquantulum elevat cum dicit " sur- 
Bum corda," jungit eas ante pectus et caput inclinat, 
com dicit *' gratias agimus Domino Deo nostro." De- 
inde disjungit manus et disjunctas tenet usque ad finem 
mrefationis. Qua finita, iterum jungit cas et inclinatus 
dicit " sanctus/' et cum dicit " benedictus qui venit," 
signum crucis sibi producit a fronte ad pectus. 

T. — ^Then his hands widely extended, without say- 
ing — "Let us pray," he repeats the secret prayers; 
{the^e the people cannot hear,) which being finished, 
when he comes to the end he says with a loud voice — 
'* for ever and ever" with the preface, as is mentioned 
in the " sequences," which are different on different 
days — the preface is begun, both hands being placed 
separately over the altar. He raises them a little when 
he says, "lift up your hearts." He then joins them 
before his breast, and bows his head, when he says, 
" we give thee thanks, O Lord, our God." Then hs 
separates his hands and holds them separate until the 
end of the preface — which being ended, he joins them 
again, and bowing says " the sanctus," or the prayer 
commencing with the word " sanctus," or holy ; and 
when he says " blessed is he that comes," he makes 
the sign of the cross from his forehead to his breast. 

The preface being different at different periods of the 
year, we shall only give one of them ; and we would 
here remark how utterly useless all these forms which 
the priest uses appear, and how unmeaning are the va- 
rious attitudes into which he is taught, by rule, to put 
himself— when we consider the object and design of 

R. — Sequens Prefatio dicitur a nativitate Domini 


usque ad Epiphaniam (preterquam in die S. Johaimis 
Apostoli) et in purifications B. Marie et in festo Cor- 
poris Christi et per octavam, nisi in ea occurrit festum, 
quod propriam prefationem habet et in transfigurations 

T. — The following preface is said from the nativity 
of our Lord to the Epiphany, (except upon the Octaye 
or eighth day of St. John the Apostle,) and also in the 
purification of the blessed Mary, and in the feast of 
Corpus Christi, or of the body of Christ, and through 
the Octave to the eighth day after; unless a festival 
occurs, which has its own proper preface ; and also in 
the transfiguration of our Lord : — 

Priest. — Per omnia siecula seculorum. 

T, — For ever and ever. 

Response. — Amen. 

P. — Dominus vobiscum. 
T.— The Lord be with you. 

R. — Et cum spiritu tuo. 
T. — And with thy spirit. 

P. — Sursum corda. 

T. — Lift up your hearts. 

R. — Habemus ad Dominum. 

T. — ^We lift them up unto the Lord. 

P. — Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 
T. — Let us give thanks to our Lord God. 

R. — Dignum et justum est. 

T. — ^It is just and right to do so 

Vere dignum et justum est, squum et salutare, nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine sancte, 
Pater Omnipotens, aBterne Deus. Quia per incarnati 
verbi mysterium nova mentes nostrae oculis lux tuse 
claritatis in fulsit ut dum visibiliter Deum cognosciraus 
per hunc invisibilium amorem rapiamur. Et ideo cum 
angelis et archangelis cum thronis et dominationibus 
cumque enim militia celestis exercitus hymnum gloria 
tu« canimus sine fine dicentes — 


T. — ^It is truly proper, and right, and just, and health- 
ful, that we should give thanks to thee always and ey- 
erywhere, Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, Eternal 
God, because through the mystery of the incarnate 
Word, a new light of your glory has shone upon the 
eyes of our mind, so that while we behold God visibly 
we are carried away by this love of invisible things ; 
and, therefore, with the angels and archangels, with 
thrones and dominions, and with all the army of the 
heavenly host, we sing forth the hynm of your praise, 
saying : — 

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. 

T.— Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, (or of 

Pleni sunt cceli et terra, glorias tue, Hosanna in ex- 
celsis. ^ 

T. — The heavens and earth are full of thy glory, 
Hosanna in the highest. 

R. — Benedictus, qui venit in nomine Domini, Hosan- 
na in excelsis. 

T. — Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the 
Lord, Hosanna in the highest. 

We now come to what is called the " Canon op the 
BIass ;" the most solemn part of the service. 

R. — Sacerdos extendens et jungens manus, elevans 
ad caelum oculos, et statim demittens profunde inclinatus 
ante altare, manibus super eo positis, dicit. 

T. — ^The priest standing, and joining his hands, and 
raising his eyes to the heavens, and immediately cast- 
ing them down, bending himself very low before the 
altar, and placing his hands over it, says : — 

Priest. — ^Te igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum 
Christum, Filium tuum, Dominum nostrum, supi^ices 
rogamus ac petimus, (osculatur altare,) uti, accepta 
habeas et benedicas, (jungat manus deinde signet ter 
super oblata,) haec 4" dona, haec 4" munera, haec *f> 
sancta sacrificia illibata, (extensis manibus prosequi- 
tur,) in primis, quae tibi ofTerimus pro ecclesia tua 


sancta Catholica, qnam pacificaxe, custodire, adunare, 
et regere digneris, toto orbe terrarum, una cum famulo 
tuo papa nostro, N. et antistite nostro N. et omnibus 
orthodoxis atque catholics et apostolice fidei oultori- 

T. — ^We, as suppliants, beseech thee, O merciful 
Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, thy Son, our Lord; (he 
here kisses the altar,) that thou mayest hold and bless 
these "fi gifts, (let him then join his hands, and after 
that make the sign of the cross three times upon the 
oblation,) these ^ offerings, these holy 4" sacrifices 
poured out, (he proceeds then with extended hands,) 
chiefly which we offer to thee for thy holy Catholic 
Church ; which may you vouchsafe to keep in peace, 
to watch over, and unite in one, and govern all over the 
world, together with your servant N. our pope, (or Ei- 
ther,) and our bishop N., and with all the orthodox 
worshippers of the Catholic and Apostolic faith. 

R. — Commemoratio pro vivis. 

T. — Commemoration for the living. 

P. — Memento, Domine, famulorum famularomqud 
tnorum N. et N. Jungit manus orat aliquantulum pro 
quibus orare intendit, deinde manibus extensis prose- 
quitur. £t omnium circumstantium, quorum tibi fides 
cognita est, et nota devbtio, pro quibus tibi offerimus, 
vel qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificium laudis, pro se suis- 
que omnibus, pro redemptione animarum suarum, pro 
spe salutis et incolumitatis sus, tibique reddunt vota sua 
aeterno Deo, vivo et vero. 

T. — ^Remember, O Lord, thy servants, and thy hand- 
maidens, N. and N. He here joins his hands, and 
prays for a little while for those he intends to pray for ; 
then extending his hands, he proceeds. And also all 
those here present, whose faith is approved of by thee, 
and whose devotion is known, for whom we make this 
offering, or who offer to thee this sacrifice of praise for 
themselves and all their families, for the redemption of 
their souls, for the hope of salvation, and of their safety, 


and for which they pay their rows to thee, the eternal, 
liying, and true God.* 

Next follows the part of the service called the " Infra 
actionem,'''^ The commencement of part of this prayer 
is different upon different festivals. The following "part 
is used on all occasions : — 

P.— ^ommunicantes et meraoriam venerantes, impri- 
mis gloriosae semper Virginis Marie, Genitricis Dei et 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi ; sed et beatorum Apostolo* 
mm ac Martyrum tuorum, Petri et Pauli, Andreas, Ja- 
eobi, Joannis, Thomas, Jacobi, Philippi, Bartholomaei, 
Matthaei, Simonis et Thadaei, Lini, CJeti, dementis, 
Xysti, Corneiii, Cypriani, Laurentii, CJhrysogoni, Joan- 
nis et Pauli, Cosmae et Damiani, et omnium tuorum 
Sanctorum, quorum meritis precibusque concedas, ut in 
omnibus protectionis tuaB muniamur auxilio. (Jungit ma- 
Dus,) per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen^ 

T. — Communicating with, and venerating the memo- 
ry in the first place, t>f the glorious Mary, ever a virgin, 
the mother of God, and of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
also of thy blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and 
Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, 
Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thadeus, Linus, 
Cletus, Clement, Xystus, Cornelius, Cyprianus, Lau- 
lentius, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosnias and Da- 
mian, and of all thy Saints, by whose merits and prayers 
mayest thou grant that in all things we may be tbrtified 
by the help of thy protection, (he here joins his hands,) 
through the same Christ our Lord. Amen. 

It is unnecessary, after all that' has been said upon 
the subject of praying to saints, and depending upon 
their intercession or merits, to make any comment upon 
that part of this most extraordinary and inconsistent 
prayer. The first part of the prayer is sanctioned by 
the ancient church, which was in the practice of com- 
memorating the deaths and martyrdoms of the primitive 

* The Encharist was called, by the Primitive Church, a sacrlAce of 
ptaise and thanksgivihg— not a sacrifice for sin, as your church now 


saints, as we remarked before. And in the prayer for 
the Church Militant, the Reformed Established Church 
has an allusion to this early custom, where it is said, 
*' And we bless thy holy name for all thy servants de- 
parted this life in thy faith and fear, beseeching thee to 
give us grace so to follow their good example, that, with 
them, we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom.'* 
But your Church is not content with this, but calls upon 
God to protect us by ** their merits and prayers." Your 
church not only here asks for their intercession, but 
beseeches Almighty God by their merits. What au- 
thority have you for doing this 1 And then, with the 
most unaccountable inconsistency, you conclude with 
saying, ** through the same Jesus Christ our Lord.'* 
We inquire again, are not the merits of Jesus sufficient? 
is not the intercession of Jesus sufficient? But you 
must needs add to them the merits of the apostles, which 
we know they must disclaim, as our blessed Lord taught 
them to do, Luke xvii. 10 ; and also the merits of a 
number of individuals, of whom you know nothing but 
the names, and some of whom, for aught you can tell to 
the contrary, may have had but small pretensions to the 
character of saints, however called so, or canonized by 
the Pope or Bishop of Rome ; and, only it Aj^ould lead 
us from our present subject, we would bring forward 
proofs of this fact. 

Why do you call the Virgin, " the mother of God?"" 
Where, in the sacred page of Scripture, is she given 
such a title 1 She was the mother of our Lord — but 
only in his human capacity. There is but one God, 
and three Persons constitute the Godhead. Surely she 
was not the mother of the Father, or of the Holy Ghost. 
The Lord Jesus Christ left the bosom of the Father, 
and took upon him the nature of man, and it is only in 
this respect — as man — that the blessed Virgin is his 
mother ; but such is the anti-scriptural anxiety of the 
Roman Church to justify the invocation of saints, and 
particularly of the Virgin, that she has invented this title 
of Mother of God, for the Virgin ; to justify her idola- 
try as possessing a divine nature, or doctrine, which 


hats DO foundation whaterer ii| the writings of the in- 
spired apostles, and was never given to her by the prim- 
itive church. 

R. — Tenens manus^ expansas super oblata, dicit. 

T. — Holding his hands extended over the oblations, 
he says — 

R. — Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostre sed et 
cunctae familiie tus qusesumus Domini, ut placatus ac- 
cipias ; diesque nostros in tua pace disponas, atque. ah 
aeterna damnatione nos eripi, et electoram tuorum jubeas 
grege numerari, ( jungit manus,) per Christum Dominum 
nostrum. Amen. 

T. — ^We beseech thee, therefore, O Lord, that thou 
may est favorably receive this offering of our service 
and of all thy family, and that thou mayest dispose our 
days in thy peace, and that thou mayest command us to 
be delivered from eternal condemnation, and numbered 
in the flock of thine elect, (he joins his hands,) through 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Does it not appear most extraordinary to hare some 
of your prayers perfectly scriptural, as if the interces- 
sion of Jesus were sufficient, and to have others contra- 
dicting this supposition 1 Is it not an open insult to 
Jesus, the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of 
the world, to be spoken of in one prayer as if he were 
the only mediator, the only intercessor with his father, 
through whom your supplications will be granted, and 
immediately after, as if you disbelieved that his media- 
tion were sufficient, to call for the additional mediation 
of those saints who were created and saved by him 
alone 1 May God of his infinite mercy open your eyes, 
my Roman Catholic brethren, and cause you to see the 
errors of your faith. It is thus implied that other in- 
tercessors are necessary, and that without those addi- 
tional mediators your petitions will not be granted ; 
consequently those prayers in which no mention is made 
of the saints' interference as joint intercessors, are in- 
complete : away with such wickedness. 

P. — Quam oblationem tu, Deus ! in omnibus qnaesu- 


mus (signat ter super oblata) bene 4" dictam, ad 4* scrip- 
tarn, ra*f*tam rationabilem acceptabilemque facere dig- 
neris, (signat semel super hostiam ac semel super cali- 
cem,) ut nobis Cor + pus et San + guis fiat dilectissimi 
Filii tu Domini nostri Jesus Christi. 

T. — ^Which oblation do thou, God, we beseech thee 
vouchsafe (the priest makes the sign of the cross three 
times over the oblations) to bless »f«, to approve 4*9 i^ti- 
fy +, and accept, (he makes the sign of the cross once 
over the host and once over the chalice,) that it may 
become to us the body 4" &nd the blood 4* of thy most 
beloved son Jesus Christ our Lord. 

P. — Qui pridie quam pateretur (accipit hostiam) ac- 
cepit panem in sanclas ac venerabiles manus suas, (ele- 
vat oculos ad ccdum,) et elevatis oculis in coelum, ad te 
Deum Patrem suum omnipotentem, tibi gratias agens, 
{signat super hostiam,) bene + dixit, fregit deditque 
discipulis suis, dicens. Accipite et manducate ex hoc 

T. — ^Who, the evening before he suffered, (he here 
takes up the host,) took bread into his holy and venera- 
ble hands, (he here raises his eyes to heaven,) and lift- 
ing up his eyes to heaven, to thee his almighty Father, 
giving thee thanks, (he here makes the sign of the cross 
over the host,) he blessed •!■, brake, and gav« to his dis- 
ciples, saying — ^Take and eat this, all of you. 

We shall have some remarks to make hereafter about 
the word " alP^ being introduced here, which is not to 
be found in your own Testament. 

R. — Tenens ambabus manibus hostiam inter indices 
et pallices profert verba consecrationis, sec):eto, dis- 
tincte, et attento. 

T. — Holding the host with both his hands between 
his forefingers and thumbs, he says the words of conse- 
cration secretly, distinctly, and attentively, or with in- 
tention — 


R. — ^Problatis verbis consecrationis, statim hostiam 


consecratam genuilexus adorat. Surgit, ostendit popu- 
lo, reponit super corporale, iterum adorat. Et non dis- 
jnngit pollices et indices nisi quando Hostia tractanda 
est usque ad ablutionem digitorum. Tunc detecto calice 

T. — Having finished the words of consecration, im- 
mediately kneeling down, he adores the consecrated 
host. He then rises up, shows it to the people, and 
places it upon the corporale and again adores it. And 
he does not separate his fingers and thumbs, only when 
the host is to be laid down, until the oblatiun, or wash- 
ing of his fingers. Then, uncovering the chalice, he 
says — 

R. — Simili modo postquam coenatum est (ambabus 
manibus accipit calicem) accipiens et hunc preclarum 
calicem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas ; item tibi 
gratias agens (sinistra tenens Calicem dextera signal 
super eum) bene •!« dixit deditque discipulis suis, dicens 
— ^Accipite et bibite ex eo omnes. 

T. — In like manner, when supper was ended, (the 
priest takes the chalice with both his hands,) taking this 
glorious chalice also into his holy and venerable hands, 
likewise giving thanks to thee, (holding the chalice in 
his left hand, with the right he makes the sign of the 
cross upon it,) he blessed •{• and gave it to his disciples, 
saying — Take and drink ye all of this. 

R. — Profert verba consecrationis secrete super cali- 
cem tenens ilium parum elevatum. 

T. — He then says the words of consecration secret- 
ly over the chalice, holding it raised up a little. 


T. — For this is the chalice of my blood of the new 
and eternal testament, the mystery of the faith, which 
shall be shed for you and for many, for the remission' of 

R. — ^Prolatis verbis consecrationis deponit calicem 


saper corpontle et dicens secreto, " Hoc, quotiescimqiie 
iaceritis in mei memoriam facietis." 

Genuflexus adorat, surgit, ostendit populo, deponit, 
cooperit, et iterum adorat. Deinde disjunctis manibus 

T. — Having finished the words of consecration, he 
places the chdice upon the corporale, also saying, se- 
cretly — " As often as you shall do these things, you 
shall do them in remembrance of me." Kneeung 
down, he adores it — arises up, shows it to the people ; 
lays it down, covers it, and again adores it ; then hav- 
ing separated his hands, he says — 

Unde et memores, Domine, nos servi tui, sed et plebs 
tna sancta, ejusdem Christi Filii tui Domini nostri tarn 
beats passionis, necnon, et ab inferis resurrectionis, sed 
et in coelos glorios« ascensionis, ofierimus prsclare 
Majestati tuse, de tuis donis ac datis, (jungit manus et 
signal ter super hostiam et calicem simul,) hostiam HF* 
puram, hostiam •{• sanctam, hostiam 4" immaculatam, 
(signat semel super hostiam et semel super calicem,) 
panem •{< sanctum vitae sterns et calicem •{• salutis 

T. — ^Wherefore, also, O Lord, we, thy servants, and 
thine holy people, being mindiul of the blessed passion 
of the same Christ, our Lord, and also of his resurrec- 
tion from the dead, 4" ^^nd also of his glorious ascension 
into heaven, offer to thy divine Majesty, of thy gifts, 
bestowed upon us, (he joins his hands, and makes the 
sign of the cross three times upon the host and chalice 
at the same time,) a pure •{« host, a holy 4" host, an un- 
spotted •{• host, (he makes the sign of the cross once 
over the host and once over the chalice,) the holy "fi 
bread of eternal life, and the chalice •{• of everlasting 

R. — Extensis manibus prosequitur. 

He continues with his hands extended. 

Supra que, propitio ac sereno vultu respicere, digne- 
ris, et accepta habere, sicuti accepta habere dignatus et 
munera pueri tui justi Abel, et sacrificium patriarchs 


nostri Abraham, et qaod tibi summus sacerdos tuus 
Melchisedech, obtulit sanctum sacrificium, immacula- 
turn hostiam. 

T. — ^Upon which vouchsafe to look with a propitious 
and serene countenance, and to accept them, as thou 
vouchsafed to accept the gifts of thy righteous servant, 
Abel, and the sacrifice of our patriarch, Abraham, and 
what the high priest, M elchisedech, offered to thee, a 
holy sacrifice, an unspotted host or victim. 

R. — Profunde inclinatus junctis manibus, et super al- 
tare positis, dicit. 

T. — Bowing lowly with his hands joined, and placed 
upon the altar, he says — 

Supplices te rogamus, omnipotens Deus, jube hee 
perferri per manus sancti angeli tui in sublime altare 
tuum, in conspe6tu divinae Majestatis tuae ; ut quotquot 
(osculatur altare) ex hac altaris participatione sacro- 
sanctum Filii tui, (jungit manus et signat simul super 
hostiam et simul super calicem,) cor •{• pus et san •{" gui- 
nem sumpserimus, (seipsum signal,) omni benedictione 
ccelesti et gratia repleamur. Per eundem Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

T. — ^We, as suppliants, beseech thee, O Omnipotent 
God, to command that these things (namely : the obla- 
tion of what your church calls the body and blood of 
Christ) may be carried by the hands of thy holy angel 
to thine altar on high, in the sight of thy divine Majes- 
ty, that as many of us (he here kisses the altar) as 
shall have taken, by the participation of this altar, of 
the most sacred body 4" a^nd blood 4" of thy Son, (he 
joins his hands, and makes the sign of the cross once 
upon the host and once upon the chalice, then crosses 
himself,) may be filled with all heavenly blessing and 
grace, through the same Christ, our Lord. Amen. 

This part of your service is considered to be the most 
important : and contains much to be remarked upon. 
We discover various' grounds for serious charges against 
your church, which has thought fit to change the en- 
tire design of the Lord's Supper, and has substituted 


Instead thereof a nmnber of prayers and forms unknown 
in Scripture, unheard-of in the ancient church, and ut- 
terly inconsistent with each other. The first remark 
we shall here make, is your not using bread as our Lord 
did — -vou who pretend to follow every thing so very 
literally. He, as you quote in ypur prayer of consecra- 
tion, took bread and broke it, and gave it to his disci- 
ples. Why do you, in this respect, depart from an- 
tiquity ? Again, he told them to take- and eat it. The 
Latin word which you translate " eat" is " manducate," 
which signifies "to chew," to break with the teeth. 
But, contrary to this express command, you desire your 
communicants not " to chew" but " to swallow ;" and 
this they could not do so conveniently, if they had not 
thin wafers. Now we are told that our blessed Lord 
took bread and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, 
Matt. xxvi. 26, Mark xiv. 32, Luke xxii. 19. Of course 
we are to suppose he held a loaf or a large piece of 
bread in his hands, and so broke ofi* pieces of it and 
gave them to his disciples. And, in accordance with 
this view, Paul says, 1 Cor. x. 17, " all partake of one 
bread." The one loaf is typical of the body of Christ 
broken for believers, representing the unity of his mys- 
tical body. Epiphanius tells us that these loaves used 
at the celebration of the Eucharist were round, and di- 
vided amongst the communicants. Justin Martjrr tells 
us, in the passage we quoted before, that bread, or 
loaves, is brought to the bishop for the communicants. 
The change gradually crept into the church, although 
the 16th Council of Toledo, 6 canon, held a. d. 693, 
endeavored to provide against this abuse, and brought 
forward the passages from Scripture quoted above, to 
show that our Lord made use of a whole loaf. In the 
eleventh century, the practice of using wafers became 
general, though greatly opposed, as we find by refer- 
ence to church lustory. And in this your church has 
acted consistently, when she taught them the new doc- 
trine of transubistantiation, as we shall see. Again, 
our blessed Lord said, " Take this," but you do not per- 
mit your people to touch it with their hands ; they open 


their mouths, and the priest places a wafer upon the 
tongue of each. Here you have three practices, all 
mJoiown in the ancient church — 1, contrary to what 
our Messed Lord did, the use of whole or entire wafers, 
instead of bread broken — 2, the not eating or chewing 
the bread or wafer — and 3, the communicant not takii^ 
it in his hand, but ovlj opening his mouth to receiye it 
on his tongue. 

The priest goes on to pray that the oblations, that is^ 
the bread and wine, may become the body and the blood 
of our Lord. He then takes the Host, and repeats the 
words of our Lord, as recorded in the Gospels, in which 
your church has presumed to make a change, for we 
find it stated nowhere that our Lord commanded all to 
eat the bread ; thus blasphemously introducing an ex- 
pression into the language of our Lord, nowhere to be 
found in the Holy Scriptures, even in your own trans- 
lations, for the purpose of justifying your practice of 
withholding the cup from the laity, and of neutralizing 
the force of the word " a//," used, by our Lord when he 
gave the wine. 

Then the priest repeats what your church now teach- 
es is " thgjrayer of consecration,'* and this secretly to 
himself: ^^Tioc est enim corpus meum" — ^**for this is 
my body." Your church now asserts that the bread 
las become the body of our Lord ; and the consequence 
is, that the priest immediately falls down and worships 
what he holds in his hands, and you all foolishly and im- 
piously do the same. He proceeds then to consecrate 
the wine, using the words which are to be found in your 
Testament, secretly, that is, to himself only ; and then 
he falls down and worships what your church teaches 
you has become the blood of our Lord. 

And now I inqaire, why does the priest repeat these 
words secretly, and to himself alone ? Here is another 
departure from Scriptare, for our Lord spoke aloud. Is 
it not sufficient for you to have your services in Latin, 
understood by scarcely any of your people, but you also 
endeavor to wrap them in even greater obscurity, by 
this and other prayers being repeated by the inriest 


alonfe, and that to himself, in order to mystify the mat^ 
ter, and to fill you with greater awel Your church 
has taugh». you that, by virtue of these words of conse- 
cration, the bread has become the body, and the wine 
the blood of our Lord. Even in this, namely, the form 
and w ords of consecration, your church differs from the 
ancient church. St. Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, who 
lived in the fourth century, says, as quoted by Dupin, 1 
vol., page 222 — that " the bread and the wine of the 
Eucharist, before the invocation of the adorable Trinity, 
is but common bread and wine ; but prayer being ended^ 
the bread is the body of Christ, and the wine the blood 
of Christ." We pass over how he explains his mean- 
ing of this expression, which is very different indeed 
from your doctrine of transubstantiation, as it would lead 
us from our present purpose. Gregory the Great, 
Bishop of Rome in the sixth and part of the seventh 
century, says : — " The reason we say the Lord's Prayer 
immediately after the prayer of consecration, (or canon,) 
is, because the apostles were wont to consecrate the host 
of the oblation by that prayer only." Where, then, we 
inquire, is your authority for persuading the people that, 
by pronouncing these secret words, this mighty change 
takes place 1 And does it not appear strange that your 
own writers differ among themselves as to what consti- 
tutes the consecrating power ? — and the more ancient 
these writers are, the more they differ from your pres- 
ent practices ! 

Even admitting, for argument sake, that the bread 
does become the body, and the wine the blood of our 
Lord — by what authority do you say that both body and 
blood are included under either species, by what your 
church calls the doctrine of *^ concomitance," a phrase 
totally unknown in the primitive ages, and which your 
own forms in the Mass entirely refute 1 Now see io 
what a position you are placed by your church, by her 
departure from scriptural truth, in the most unwar- 
rantable manner, you shut up the words of our Lord in 
an unknown language, and in that language the Re- 
deemer invites his faithful followers to partake of his 


sapper, and your church prevents them from hearing or 
ODderstanding the invitation. 

In the Primitive Church, no persons were permitted 
to be present at the celebration of the Eucharist unless 
they partook of the sacred elements. The tenth canon 
of those which are known by the title of the apostolid 
canons, is express upon this point, and says, '^ that those 
persons who assemble at the church to attend at the 
sacred ordinances, should listen to the writings of the 
apostles, the sacred Scriptures, and the Gospel; but 
those who do not remain in prayer until the Mass is fin- 
ished, or who do not partake of the Holy Communion, 
it is right that they should be deprived of communion,^' 
that is, should be eiccommunicated. In the second 
canon of the third council held at Antioch, in the fourth 
century, we have severe ecclcbiasticai censures de* 
nounced against those who were present at the prayers 
and did not partake of the Holy Communion. The 
very words of our blessed Lord used in the Mass con- 
demn your practice ; he says : — " Take, eat, and drink 
ye all of this,'^ a command which all you that are pres- 
ent do not comply with. What are called solitary 
Masses, which your priests frequently celebrate, where 
the people present do not communicate, were utterly 
unknown in the Primitive Church. It remained for 
your Roman Church to introduce such novelties as en- 
tirely changed the nature of the institution, and to mock 
you by an invitation to a feast, of which no person is 
allowed to partake but the priest. 

After the consecration, he adores the consecrated el- 
ements, and elevates them in the sight of the people, 
who also adore. This practice was utterly unknown in 
the Primitive Church. Our blessed Lord says, " Take 
and eat." You depart from this by the command of 
your church ; you neither take it nor eat it, but you fall 
down and worship it. In like manner, with respect to 
the consecrated wine, your church tells you it is changed 
into the blood of our Lord, and our Lord tells you ail to 
drink of it — a direction he does not give respecting the 
bread, notwithstanding the wickedness of your infallible 


ehnrch in inserting that word in reference to the breads 
88 we have before shown, — ^as if, in his infinite wisd<»iiy 
he foresaw the anti-scriptara) practices of yoar charch, 
ftnd wished to guard you against them by his own au* 
thority, and thus the precept of our Lord, as recorded 
by his apostles, and the practice of your church, are in 
complete opposition one to the other. 

Our Lord^s command, for all to drink the chalice, or 
wine, you give in the consecration prayer ; so that out 
of her own month your church is condemned. How 
can you justify your departure from Scripture in this 
instance? Your church admits it was the primitive 
practice, but the reasons she brings forward' to justify 
her change are really unworthy of comment. Our Lord 
commanded both to be given : he commanded his apos- 
tles to teach all nations to observe what he had com- 
manded. Matt, xx^iii. You assert, under one kind both 
the body and blood are taken. Where is this taught ! 
Admitting that the bread is the body, and the wine the 
blood, how do you show that both are the same, as, if 
your church teaches correctly, must be the case 1 — but 
It is evident the Primitive Church understood it in no 
such sense ; for then the words of the consecration of 
both species would be the same ; but the words with yoa 
are dtfierent, using very properly those of our Lord, and 
with the grossest inconsistence making no difference be> 
tween the two species which are called by dfierent names. 

In order to defend communion in one kind you refer 
to several passages in the Gospels, where you say the 
Eucharist is spoken of in the expression of " breaking 
of bread." We could easily show you that such ex- 
pressions do not refer to the JBucharist at all ; but still, 
according to your newly-invented doctrine of "cob- 
comitance," receiving in one hand would be impossible^ 
as the body and blood always go together, and receiving 
both species would be only taking the same thing twice 
over. Thus, all your arguments to show the sufficiency 
of one species fall to the ground. 

Perhaps there is no one departure of your Choich 
fiom the pure doctrines of the gospel more plainly 


against the express command of our Lord. Men were 
to be instructed, as he said, Matt, xxvii. 20, to do as he 
taught. Now the Council of Constance, held in the 
fifteenth century, the first of your infallible councils 
which summoned up sufficient courage expressly to 
contradict our Lord's direct command, admits *Uhat 
Christ did institute this sacrament in both kinds, and 
that the faithful in the Primitive Church did receive in 
both kinds." Gelatius, Bishop of Rome, in the fifth 
century, spoke in the strongest language against the 
Manichees, (ancient heretics,) who would only take the 
bread and rejected the wine. His expression was that 
" such was a dividing of one and the same mystery or 
sacrament, which cannot be done without sacrilege." 

It would be impossible, within a short compass, to 
quote the opinions of the ancifht fathers of the Church, 
and the decrees of various councils testifying to the 
same troth. Your present practice followed, as a ne- 
cessary consequence, from the doctrine of transubstan- 
tiation ; and your Church, in order to work out consis- 
tently that false and absurd novelty, has been compelled 
to disobey the positive, the plain, and express command 
of our Lord, and to violate the uniform practice of the 
ancient Church for more than one thousand years. Be 
assured of this, however highly you are instructed io 
value yourselves upon your orthodoxy, had your Church, 
with its present doctrines, existed in the early ages, 
she would have been considered by the primitive fathers 
as one of those heretical churches of the most danger- 
ous and wicked description, and as most opposed to the 
pure light of gospel truth, and every exertion would 
have been made to convince her of, and to free her 
from, her heresy. 

In part of this prayer of consecration, we have a 
remarkable illustration of the truth of some of our pre- 
ceding observations. We stated that, at the holy com- 
munion, it was the custom of the primitive Christians 
to bring offerings or oblations for the support of the 
Church ; out of these which were offered to God, were 
taken the bread and wine for the celebration of the 


EoehariBt, and this was the offering or oblation : 
tioned sometimes by the early fathers. 

You say, "Wherefore, O Lord, we, thy servants, 
offer unto thy Most Excellent- Majesty, of thy gifts 
bestowed upon us, a pure host, an holy host, an im- 
maculate host ; the blessed bread of eternal life, and 
the chalice of eyerlasting salvation.*' Here we find 
traces of ancient doctrine, though miserably corrupted. 
Both the elements are called the host or victim, bat 
still the one is called the bread, and the other the chai- 
ifte, or cup of eternal life. Surely, when this prayer 
was composed, at least the ancient part of it, the doc* 
trine of the bread and the wine after consecration being 
mrtuaUy the same, or two bodies and two bloods, could 
never have been entertained in the Church — nor could 
the early Christians eveAiave believed thdt they, when 
spoken of in this manner, had become the very body 
and the very blood of our blessed Lord, and therefore 
to be worshipped. 

We come next to remark upon the prayer used after 
consecration, which we gave before, where you call 
upon God to look upon what is offered to him with a 
propitious and serene countenance, and to accept them 
as the gift of Abel was accepted, and the sacrifice of 
Abraham, and what the high priest, Melchisedech, of^ 
fered, a holy sacrifice, an unspotted host or victim. 
What is the meaning of this prayer "? Upon your own 
principles you are taught to believe that the oblation 
you present is the body and blood of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and you call upon God to look upon them with 
a serene and propitious countenance. Surely you must 
forget your own belief in other points. Surely God 
has accepted them — surely God has looked with favor 
upon his Son Jesus, and raised him from the dead ; and 
that same body and blood is now at the right hand of 
God, united with the divinity of Jesus, to make inter* 
cession for us. You call upon God to accept them as 
he accepted AbePs offerings or Abraham's sacrifice, 
presumptuously comparing them to the offering made 
by Jesus upon the cross. Why were these sacrifices 


aeeeptedt as sin-offerings, but because there was a tIc- 
tim slain ? Abel's was the firstling of his flocks ; and 
we also read of the bloody sacrifice made by Abraham, 
Gren. xxii. 13, of the ram, instead of his son Isaac : aU 
which had no merit in tbemselyes, but only as they 
were typical of that one great sacrifice made by Jesos 
upon the cross. 

You also allude to the holy sacrifice, the unspotted 
host of Melchisedech. Where did your infallible Church 
discover that Melchisedech oyer offered a holy sacri- 
fice, an unspotted host to God? Look to your own 
Bible, — and, blessed be God, you can, in these free 
eountries, do so with impunity — open it at Gen. ziv. 18. 
Abraham, we are told in the preceding verses, was re- 
toniing home, after having defeated and slain those 
kings who had taken his nephew Lot captive, and all 
his possessions. But Melchisedech, King of Salem, 
bringing forth bread and wine, for he was 3ie priest of 
the Most High God, blessed him and said — ^" Blessed 
be Abraham, by the Most High God, who created hea- 
ven and earth, and blessed be the Most High God, by 
whose protection your enemies are in your huids. And 
he (Abraham) gave him tithes of all he had taken." 
There is no further mention of the matter. Where 
then is the holy sacrifice, the unspotted host, which 
your Church profanely says Melchisedech offered ta 
God 1 The high priest brought out bread and wine to 
Abraham, and his men, whetewith to refresh them-> 
selves. What is there here to countenance the notion 
of sacrifice ? Your translation and the Protestant trans- 
lation of this passage are not the same. I give you all 
the benefit of your own translation, however erroneous 
we believe it to be. 

I will now show you, upon the authority of St. Paul, 
what thd true meaning of that expression is, of our 
Lord " being a priest forever after the order of Mel- 
chisedech." You can refer to the seventh chapter of 
Hebrews, where he is describing the superior excel- 
lence of the priesthood of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
the Jewish priesthood. Is it not then most remarkable, 

108 rax HAa^ amu bubsios 

tiiat m desoribmg the priesthood of Melchisedeeh, he 
riiould omit that very particular in which the Romaii 
Catholic Church asserts his priesthood to consist ? He 
enumerates every particular related by Moses in Gene- 
sis, respecting hun, with the exception of his bringing 
forth bread and wine ; and why does he omit this, but 
because the apostle considered it constituted no part of 
his priestly office, but did of his kingly office % an allu- 
sion to which was not at all to the purpose that St. 
Paul had in view. It was the custom for nations and 
kings, as we read in Scripture, and elsewhere, to supply 
the armies of their friends with provisions as they 
passed in their neighborhood, Deut. ii. 28, 29 ; xxiii. 4 ; 
Judges viii. 5, 6 ; 3 Sam. xvii. 27. The priestly acts 
of Melchisedeeh are mentioned expressly by the apos- 
tle, namely, his blessing Abraham, and his receiving 
from him tenths or tithes. How was he then likened 
unto the Son of God ? The apostle tells us, verse 3, 
" because he was without father, without mother, with- 
out genealogy ; having neither beginning of days, nor 
«ad of life." Now see the apostle's argument. He 
wished, as we before observed, to show the superior 
excellence of our Lord's priesthood, to that of the 
Jewish. Melchisedeeh, was the priest of the Most 
High God ; and we find him exercising this office, as 
the apostle states, by receiving tithes from Abraham, 
and blessing him. The father and mother of Melchise- 
deeh are. not known ; his genealogy or descent is not 
recorded, rather is purposely omitted^ by the direction 
of the Holy Spirit, by whom Moses was guided in his 
writings; his birth or his death is not ascertained — 
who his predecessor in the priesthood was, or who his 
successor, is not known. Consequently the Jews could 
not argue against our Lord's priesthood, because he 
was not of the family of Levi, but desi^nded from the 
tribe of Judah ; for we find Abraham, the ancestor of 
Levi, receiving a blessing from Melchisedeeh, and pay- 
ing him tithes — ^thus acknowledging his superiority ; as 
the apostle St. Paul expresses it, verse 7 — ^** And with- 
out all contradiction, that which is less is blessed by 
the greater." 


Bat even supposing that Melcfais^dech offered bread 
and wine to God, (which we know he did not,) and not 
to Abraham, surely your church has no warrant for her 
most extraordinary and most unmeaning prayer. In 
what sense can the bread and wine, unconsecrated; as 
brought forth by Melchisedech, be called " a holy sacri- 
fice," an " unspotted host or victim V If it were offered 
to God, it was offered as a free-will offering, as before 
stated, and in the same manner, and with the same in* 
tention, as we have already shown, that the primitive 
Christians offered their oblations, and that bread and 
wine which were afterwards consecrated for the pur- 
pose of the Eucharist. 

Surely you must admit that this is a gross perversion 
of the sacred Scriptures. When the ancient church 
offered up to God the bread and wine, the fruits of the 
earth intended for the Eucharist, they had no idea of 
their being offered up in any other sense than as a free- 
will offering unto the Lord. St. Paul places this mat- 
ter beyond all doubt, in the tenth chapter of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, when he is contrasting the Jewish 
sacrifices with the one sacrifice of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, which they typified. He says, v. 22, ** But he, 
(Jesus,) offering one sacrifice for sins, forever sitteth at 
the right hand of God." How absurd to say, in oppo- 
sition to this assertion, that his body and blood are on 
the altar, and that you are bound to worship them 
there, ** For, v. 14, by one oblation he hath perfected 
forever them that are sanctified ;" and the Holy Ghost 
also doth testify to us — "And this is the covenant 
which I will make with them after those days, saith 
the Lord, I will mve my laws to their hearts, and on 
their minds will 1 write them, and their sins and ini- 
quities I will remember no more." " Now," adds the 
apostle, " where there is a remission of these, there is 
no more an oblation for sin." And yet you call your- 
selves an Apostolic Church, say there is a further ob- 
lation for sin, and thus contradict an inspired apostle—* 
one expressly instructed by the Holy Ghost 1 And 
this conclusion is very plain ; for if all sins and iniqui- 

104 ' tm MASS AHD BUBBI08 

ties are not remembered by Grod agamst those who are 
sanctified by the Holy Ghost through the one sacrifice, 
which is a perfect and finished one, as the apostle tells 
us immediately after — ^if that one sacrifice made by 
Jesus upon the cross, '* exhausted," as you translate it, 
Heb. ix. 28, " the sins of many," what further need is 
there for any other offering, when the one is sufficient ? 
Besides, St. Paul tells you plainly, that even upon your 
own grounds it cannot be an offering for the remission 
of sin, which your church, as she tells you, makes of 
the Sayiour in an uMoody manner ; for he tells you as 
plainly as words can express it, " that without shedding 
of blood there is no remission." By the phrase " she£> 
ding of blood," is implied the slaying of the victim. 

Even the term '* consecration," which is used in your 
Mass to express the change which takes place in the 
elements, shows what the view of the Primitive Church 
was. " Consecrate" means to dedicate to sacred pur- 
poses, and this is what the ancient church did. Why 
not call it the prayer of "Transubstantiationi" Such 
would certainly be a more appropriate title, and suit 
much better with your new doctrines. Thus, you see 
into what absurdities, into what anti-scriptural tenets, 

Sour church has fallen, when she once left the pure 
ght of Scripture, and by wicked inventions sought to 
raise herself in the estimation of her ignorant fol- 

Another practice your priests have at the Mass, 
which, upon your own grounds, is more than absurd, 
the signing with the sign of the cross the consecrated 
elements. This, upon the principles of your church, 
that they have become the body and blood, with the 
soul and divinity of our blessed Lord, is an exhibition 
of presumptuous ignorance and inconsistence utterly 
unaccountable, unless upon the supposition that your 
church practised it before she taught you to believe that 
the elements had become the body and blood of our 
Lord. Could any thing your priests do make Jesus 
more holy, more pure ? While he walked upon earth, 
could his apostles have made him so ? And stiU yoiur 


ehoTch pretends she has such power. One of your pre- 
tended reasons for making the sign of the cross is, to 
keep off the powers of darkness, and here you pretend 
to fright away the evil spirits from that which you are 
taught to believe is the body and blood of our Lord. 
Away with such blasphemous presumption ! 

You pray that these oblations, which have become, 
according to your church, the body and blood of our 
Lord, may be carried by the hands of a blessed angel 
to God's high altar. What authority have you from 
God's word to sanction any such petition 1 You ac- 
knowledge that Jesus is now at the right hand of God, 
having made his sacrifice for the sins of the whole 
world, which sacrifice God has accepted. He is now 
at the right hand of God making intercession for his 
faithful people ; still, although you admit all this to be 
true, you, in addition, invent a new doctrine. You 
teach that your church has power to form a similar 
body to that now at God's right hand, and you employ 
an angel to carry it to heaven, and upon an altar of 
genuine Roman anti-scriptural construction, to offer him 
afresh, as if his first sacrifice were insufficient, and his 
present intercession unavailing. Surely it was Jesus 
offered himself. No created being, angel or man, could 
make such an offering or sacrifice. 

But at the conclusion of that prayer we find traces of 
the ancient pure doctrine ; for you supplicate that as 
many as partake of the body and blood, (and here the 
priest makes the sign of the cross over the host and 
the chalice, plainly implying that one is, as you teach 
— and represents, as we believe — ^the body, and the 
chalice the blood,) should be filled with all heavenly 
benediction and grace. Surely that part of the prayer 
was composed when both were given to the people ; and 
the inference follows, that they were not to be filled 
with these spiritual blessings unless they partook of 
both the bread and the wine. Your church, brethren, 
has fallen into awful error upon this point : the first and 
fundamental error of transubstantiation drew after it 
several others. Do not imagine that this doctrine was 


not opposed when it was first introduced. We &oA 
many eyidences that it was, most fiercely and yehement- 
ly ; we have thus irresistible proofs to show that sucha 
doctrine was not received or submitted to quietly in the 
early ages of the church. 

You have heard of the Arian heresy which prevailed 
in the fourth century after our Lord, the supporters of 
which attacked his divinity, denied him to be God, and 
said he was only a superior angel. This controversy 
was kept up for many years. The Arian side was sup- 
ported by many bishops, even by some of the bishops 
of Rome, heads of your infallible church ; and yet your 
doctrine was never attacked ; and surely if the divinity 
of our Lord were attacked, the consequences of thai 
divinity must have been attacked, namely — ^transubstan- 
tiation. And again, in all the apologies and defences 
for Christianity published in the early ages by Justin 
Martyr, Tertullian, Origen, &c., &c., in which we find 
many strange and wicked charges brought forward by 
the enemies of the Christian faith, among whom was 
Julian the apostate, a crafty and subtle opponent, we 
do not discover any charge connected with this subject ; 
a conclusive evidence that lio such doctrine was enter- 
tained in the church at that period ; for surely had it 
been then taught it wotUd have been fiercely attacked. 
All the ancient liturgies bear testimony to the correct- 
ness of our views ; and the frequent use of the words 
" type," " antitype," " sign," and." mystery," as applied 
to the bread and wine with reference to the body and 
blood of our Lord, show clearly what the Primitive 
Church inculcated. 

The first writer who brought forward the doctrine of 
transubstantiation was Paschasius Radbert, monk of 
Corby, who lived in the eighth century ; he is acknow- 
ledged by Bellarmin and Sirmandus — ^t^nro eminent Ro- 
man Catholic divines — ^to be the first writer who spe- 
cially advanced and explained this doctrine. He was 
opposed by several most eminent men ; by Johannes 
Scotus Erigena, the Irishman, (yes, an Irishman op- 
posed the novel doctrine of transubstantiation when 


int introduced,) Bertram of Ratram, &c., &c., all of 
whose doctrines agree with the reformed church. Be* 
rengarius, in the eleventh century, also opposed it ; but 
the age of darkness had set in upon the church — ^he 
was condemned by several succeeding councils. The 
expression or term, *' transubstantiation,*^ was unknown 
in the ancient church. Manning, a celebrated Roman 
Catholic writer, in his *' Shortest Way to End Dis- 
putes,'' page 134, admits that it was first used at the 
fourth Lateran Council, more than one thousand years 
after the institution of the Last Supper ; and it is truly 
remarkable, that at the period of the grossest darkness 
and ignorance in Europe — ^when few Imew how to read 
—before the art of printing had been discovered — those 
corrupt and monstrous doctrines were forced upon the 
poor, ignorant, and defenceless people, by which the 
power of the Roman Church was extended, and kings 
snd nations grievously oppressed; and this we find 
foretold in the Book of Revelation, xiii. 

Still this tyranny did not entirely suppress the op- 
position, which the false doctrines of the Church of 
Rome received. The Waldenses and the Albigenses 
proclaimed their detestation of those novel principles 
which were then endeavored to be forced upon the 
church ; and for doing so, encountered the unmitigated 
persecution of the church of Rome. The swora and 
the fagot were used, and every effort was made to ex- 
terminate all opposers of the Roman heresy ; and it is 
stated that upwards of one million of those whom you 
call heretics, were destroyed in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, though your teachers would persuade 
you, that your false and usurping church received no 
opposition before Luther. 

We find Wickliflf, in England, protesting against the 
errors of your church in the 14th century ; and John 
Huss, and Jerome of Prague, sealed with their blood 
the sincerity of their belief, at the stake to which they 
were condemned by the Council of Constance, held in 
the 15th century, which set at naught the oath of safety 
which they had obtained from the emperor, SigiBmuiid, 


if they would attend the council, and from which this 
wickeid connci] thought fit to release him, upon the prin- 
ciple that no faith was to be kept with heretics. 

You know how Luther recommenced the attack,* it 
was only recommencing it. The art of printing had 
been discovered ; and by the printing and circulation of 
the Holy Scriptures, the revealed Word of God, the 
opposers of Rome's usurpation had multiplied to such 
an extent, that the old and frequently successfully tried 
system of extermination by fire and sword was unavail- 
ing, and Protestants (so called from protesting against 
the innovations and errors of popery) were enabled, 
with the Divine assistance, to withstand their persecu- 
tors. And the more extensively God's word is spread, 
and is looked upon as the pillar and ground of Divine 
truth, so much the more will Protestantism prevail, be- 
cause it takes for its foundation and rule, that sacred 
volume which is so much opposed to the Roman doc- 
trines which have b^en latterly introduced, and because 
it is " able to make us wise, or instructed, in the way 
of salvation, through feith, which is in Christ Jesus." 

Our Blessed Lord himself has given us warning upon 
this subject ; he, in the exercise of his Divine wisdom, 
foresaw the gross abuses which would prevail in the 
church upon this subject. In the twenty-fourth chapter 
of Matthew, we have a most important caution from our 
Lord himself— we read, v. 23, " then if any man shall 
say unto you : Lo, here is Christ, or there, do not be- 
lieve himr— for there shall arise false Christs and false 
prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders, in- 
somuch as to deceive, if it be possible, even the elect. 
Behold I have told it to you beforehand. If, therefore, 

* Three circumstances, humanly speaking, greatly fayored the R»- 
Airmatioa at the time of Lather. 1.— The discovery of the art of 
printing, by which copies of the Holy Scriptares were placed in the 
hands of multitudes who l)efone could not procure them. 2.— The 
taking of Constantinople by the Turks a short time previous, by which 
many learned men, who ditfered from the Roman fkith, were driven 
into those countries under the Pope*s dominion. And 3.— The flagrast 
violation of nil decency, by Tetzel, in the sale of Indulgences, for 
which lie obtained a commission teom the Pope. 


tliey (those false prophets or teachers) say : Behold, he 
is in the desert, go ye not out. Behold, he (that is, 
Christ) is in the closets, believe it not." Now bring 
your doctrine of transubstantiation to the test of this 
passage. Your church says, Christ is here in the 
priest's hands — fall down and worship him : our Lord 
tells you to believe no such assertion. Your church 
teaches you that her truth and power were confirmed 
by many miracles, and our Lord Jesus Christ tells you 
on that very account^ you should be more upon your 
guard against her teaching, for it is by such means, 
namely, by great signs and wonders men will be de- 
ceived. Your church tells you that the Lord Jesus 
Christ is locked up in a little box or tabernacle, or pyx ; 
and Jesus himself tells you not to credit any such asser- 
tion. The word translated " closets," may be more 
properly rendered by the term " cupboard," which ac- 
curately applies to what the host is preserved in. 
Jesus himself tells you not to believe this — ^your church 
tells you that you must ; which are you to listen to 1 
More than one of the apostles have recorded this warn- 
ing of our Lord. 

Jesus instituted his Last Supper, and desired his ser- 
vants to do the same, in commemoration or remem- 
brance of him ; if he were to be present, bodily, in the 
sacrament, such a reason for celebrating the Eucharist 
would be unintelligible, as we cannot commemorate one 
who is present. When the early Christians commemo- 
rated the martyrs and saints, to which we referred be- 
fore, surely it was upon the supposition of their absence 
ill glory, in order to be excited to imitate their holiness 
and constancy in the faith ; their living bodily presence 
was never contemplated. When the sam^ expression 
in the original is used with reference to our Blessed 
Lord, why should so different a meaning be given, and 
why should you be taught that he is present, bodily, 
in the Eucharist, when the very phrase clearly implies 
his absence ; as we are never said to do any thing in 
remembrance of one who is present with us, and be- 


fore our eyes,* as you say the Lord Jesus is in the 

Jesus tells us, Matt, xxviii. 20, ** Behold I am with 
you all days, even to the consumniation of the world. '^ 
And in chap. xxvi. 11, we find him saying — " Me ye 
have not always." How are you to reconcile this ap- 
parent contradiction, except that in one place he speaks 
of his body, which is ever at the right hand of God, and 
in the other of his Spirit, by which he watches over, 
and listens to the supplications, and supplies the wants 
of the faithful members of his church. But hear what 
our Lord Jesus Christ says. Matt. xv. 13, 14 — ^" Every 
plant which my Heavenly Father hath not planted, 
shaU be rooted up ;" which means, that every doctrine 
attempted to be established by men, without the authori- 
ty of God, will ultimately be destroyed. Teaching for 
doctrines the commandments of men, is only vain wor- 
ship. Matt. XV. 9 ; such a system in vain seeks the favor 
of Grod : to be acceptable to him, it must be reformed 
by the light of his own word. And in the next verse, 
our Lord says of such as teach and support any unscrip- 
tural tenets, unsanctioned by him — " Let them alone, 
they are blind, and leaders of the blind ; and if the 
blind lead the blind, both fall into the pit." You see, 
from this passage, that your following the false teaching 
of your church, is no justification for your falling into 
error. God has given you his word to give you light 
in your course ; and if you turn away from the teaching 
of Christ himself, and of his holy apostles, and foUow 
ai^er blind guides who tell you that they can teach you 
plainer than our Lord and his inspired evangelists, and 
independently of his written word, — ^which those wil- 

* The argument ased by Romanists against this view, fVom the text, 
*' Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth," Eccl. xii. 1, 
fhat'we are desired here to remember God, though he is present, proves 
nothii^ in their favor. If we could see God with our eyes, the case 
would be different. But as " no man hath seen God at any time,** 
J(din, i. 18, we are fH)t to forget his spiritual inresence everywhere ; aiid 
therefore we are called upon to remember him, that is, that his Spirit is 
present with us and about our path and about our bed, spieth out all 
our ways, Psalm cxxzix. 3. This passage strongly supports, not your 
views, but those of Frotestonts. 


fully blind guides say you cannot understand, and must 
therefore take upon trust from those very persons whose 
interest it is to deceive you, — ^what else can you expect 
but to fall into error and heresy, hateful to God^ and 
destructive of your eternal interests 7 

R. — Commemoratio pro functis. 
T.— Commemoration for the dead. 

Memento etiam, Domine, famulorum famularumque 
taorum, N. et N. qui nos precesserunt cum signo fidei, 
et dormiunt in somno pacis. " 

T. — Remember also, O Lord, thy menservants and 
handmaidens who have gone before us with the sign of 
the &ith, and sleep in the sleep of peace. 

R. — Jungit manus, orat aliquantulum pro iis defunctis, 
pro quibus orare intendit, deinde extensis manibus prose- 

T. — He joins his hands, and prays for a short time 
for those dead persons for whom he intends to pray ; 
then with extended hands he proceeds — 

Ipsis, Domine, et omnibus in Christo quiescentibus, 
locum refrigerii, lucis, et pacis, ut indulgeas deprecamur, 
(jungit manus et caput inclinat.) Per eundem Christum 
jbominum nostrum. Amen. 

T. — ^To them, O Lord, and to all who rest in Christ, 
we pray that thou mayest grant a place of refreshment, 
light, and peace, (he joins his hands and bows his head,) 
through the same Christ, our Lord. Amen. 

We admit this to be an ancient prayer ; and our rea- 
son for doing so is, that although it sanctions prayers for 
the dead, an early heresy, which we before showed re- 
ceived no support from our Lord or his holy apostles ; 
still it proves to us, what we have repeatedly remarked 
in the preceding pages, that the errors of your church 
were introduced successively. For whom do you pray 
here ? You answer, for those who have departed or died 
with the sign of the faith, and sleep the sleep of peace. 
Where are such — are they in purgatory I How can 
they be undergoing a process of purifying punishment, 


and, at the same time, sleejping the sleep of peace t 
Those that die in the Lord, in the faith of Jesus, rest 
from their labors, as St. John tells us, Rev. xiv. 13, 
upon the authority of a voice from heaven, to which we 
before referred. Can any thing be more absurd than 
your doctrine 1 If they die in the Lord, they rest from 
their labors. You only pray for those who die in the 
faith of the Lord Jesus ; and though you acknowledge 
they sleep in peace, still you pray that they may obtain 
^hat which you admit they already enjoy. Where is 
purgatory taught here 1— quite the contrary. 

Again, we find a plain proof of what I stated before, 
that your church began to pray /or the departed saints 
before you were taught to pray to them ; and Milner, in 
his " End of Religious Controversy," unintentionally 
bears his testimony to the truth of this assertion. In 
the note on the article " Apostolicity," he is giving a 
sort of epitome of the history of the church, and of the 
errors of those whom he calls heretics. In the fourth 
century, he speaks of " the Arians who impugned, or 
opposed, prayers for the dead." And in the fifth cen- 
tury, he speaks of Vigilantius, " who scoffed at the celi- 
bacy of the clergy, prayers to the saints, and veneration 
for their relics." Thus admitting indirectly that praying 
for, preceded praying to the saints, the one being attack- 
ed before the other. You pray not only for " ipsis N. 
et N.," that is, for those who are individually named, 
but also for *' omnibus in Christe quiescentibus," for itU 
who rest or sleep in Christ, that they may obtain a place 
of refreshment, light, and peace. Now, my Roman 
Catholic brethren, do the saints rest in Christ Jesus 1 
Does the blessed Virgin rest in Christ Jesus ? If you 
believe they do, your church teaches you to pray for 
them ; and how utterly inconsistently, how absurdly are 
you instructed to pra^ for the saints and to the saints in 
the same service. I leave it to your infallible church 
to reconcile this difficulty ; and certainly it requires a 
strong confidence in such infallibility, to believe in as- 
sertions and doctrines so entirely at variance with each 


R. — ^Manu dextera percntit eibi pectus, elata parom 
voce dicens. 

T. — He strikes his breast \iith his right hand, and 
with his Toice a little raised, says — 

Nobis quoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitadine 
miserationum tuarum sperantibus, partem et aliquam et 
societatem donare digneris cum tuis Sanctis apostolis et 
martyribus ; cum Joanne, Stephano, Matthia, Barnaba, 
Ignatio, Alexandre, Marcellino, Petro, Felicitate, Per- 
petua, Agatha, Lucia, Agnete, Cecilia, Anastatia, et 
omnibus Sanctis tuis ; intra quorum nos consortium, non 
estimator meriti, sed veniae qusesumus largitor, admitte, 
(jungitmanus.) Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

T. — To us, also, sinners, thy servants, confiding in 
the multitude of thy mercies, vouchsafe to grant some 
part and fellowship with thy holy apostles and martyrs ; 
with John, Stephen, Mathias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alex- 
ander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicitatis, Perpetua, Agatha, 
Lucia, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, and all the saints; 
into whose company we beseech thee to admit us, not in 
consideration of any of our merits, but the bestower of 
pardon on our offences ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Per quem hsc omnia, Domine, semper bona creas, 
(signat ter super hostiam et calicem simul dicens,) sancti 
4* ficas, vivi -^ ficas, bene "f" dicis, et prestas nobis, 
(discooperit calicem genulflectit, accepit sacramentum 
dextera, tenons sinistra calicem, signat cum hostia ter a 
labia ad labrum calicis, dicens,) Per ipsum, et cum ip •!• 
so, et in ip •{• so, (bis signat inter calicem et pectus,) est 
tibi Deo patri "^ omnipotenti, in unitate Spiritus "fi Sanc- 
ti, (elevans parum calicem cum hostia dicit,) omnis honor 
et gloria, (reponit hostiam, cooperit calicem, genuflectit 
surgifc et dicit,) per omnia siecula saeculorum. Amen. 

T. — By whom, O Lord, thou dost always create all 
these good things, (he makes the sign of the cross three 
times over the host and the chalice, saying at the same 
time,) — Sanctify, 4* enliven, *|" bless, >|a and afford us all 
of them, (he then uncovers the chalice, kneels down, 


takes the sacrameDt in his right hand, holding the 
chalice in his left, he makes the sign of the cross three 
times from edge to edge of the chsdice, saying,) — by •!• 
whom, and with "f" whom, and in 4* whom, (he makes 
the sign of the cross twice between the chalice and his 
breast,) there is to thee, God, the Father "fi Almighty, 
in the unity of the Holy -f* Ghost, (raising the chalice a 
little with the host, he says,) — all honor and glory, (he lays 
down the host, he covers the chalice, kneels down, rises 
up, and says,) — for ever and ever. Res. — ^Amen. 

We have, in this prayer, another remarkable instance 
of the gross inconsistency of some of the prayers in 
your Mass, with your professed doctrines ; and also with 
each other. You call upon God to admit you into the 
fellowship of the blessed saints and apostles and martyrs 
-^and on what do you ground your claim of such a bless- 
ing? Is it on account of your own merits, or the merits 
of those apostles, saints, and martyrs 1 No, you dis- 
claim most properly all such merit ; and you beseech for 
pardon through his merits, who alone possesses any in 
the sight of God, nanjely, Jesus Christ, our Lord. We 
would here inquire, is it not sufficient for you to suppli- 
cate to enjoy the fellowship of the holy apostles and 
saints, and martyrs as a body, but you must needs also 
introduce a number of names of persons of w^hom yon 
know nothing 1 They may be good or bad, for aught 
you know to the contrary ; and I cannot discover by 
what authority your cfiurch, or any church, has to pro- 
nounce, or declare, dogmatically, that any individual is 
in glory. " Judge not before the time," St. Paul says, 
1 Cor. iv. 6, " until the Lord come, who both will bring 
to light the hidden things of darkness, and will manifest 
the counsels of the hearts — and then shall every man 
have praise of God." We may believe^ that our friends 
who have departed in the faith of Jesus, are in peace, 
and heirs of glory. But that is quite another matter 
from the right which your church has usurped of " can- 
onizing," as she terms it, any persons she assumes are 
deserving of such an honor ; several of her canonized 


■ainte have been of very questionable characters; and of 
supposing that the pope's decree alone is sufficient to 
warrant the title of saint being prefixed to their names. 

Your church assumes for her popes the power of 
granting admission to Christ^s glorious kingdom to those 
he approves of; but our Lord himself tells you he has 
delegated that power to no person. " I am," said our 
Lord, *' the first and the last, and am alive, and was 
dead ; and behold I am living forever and eVer, and 
have the keys of death and of hell," Rev. i. 17, 18. He 
here says he retains them in his own possession. He 
gave St. Peter the keys of the kingdom of heaven — 
that is V the privilege, as we before stated, of preaching 
the Gospel, the entranoe to Christ's church upon earth, 
first to Jews and Gentiles; but of death or hell, of 
man's future state after this life, he reserves all in his 
own power. And in the third chapter, v. 7, Rev., we 
read thus : — " Saith the Holy One, and the true One : 
he that hath the key of David, he that openeth and no 
man shutteth, shutteth and no man openeth.*' Can any 
declaration be plainer to show that your popes have 
usurped a power which Jesus, the great shepherd of 
souls, reserves to himself, and communicates to no man 
—mark the expression " man*^ in the above passage. 
** The words," saith our Lord, " which I have spoken, 
the same shall judge him in the last day," John xii. 48. 
How can your church answer this 1 

The concluding part of this prayer is only remarka- 
ble for the numerous crossings and genuflexions used ; 
but when your church appointed all these crossings and 
blessings of the consecrated host and chalice, she 
never could have believed them to be the very body and 
blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus, as requiring any 
of these forms you call means of grace or blessings. 
Thus an unobjectionable prayer is corrupted by these 
unscriptural and absurd forms, opposed by common 
sense' to your own professed principles. 

R. — Jungit manus. Oremus. 

T. — He joins his hands together, and says — Let us 


Prsceptis salutaribus moniti, et divinae institutione 
formati, audemus (extendet manus) dicere. 

T. — Instructed by wholesome precepts, and taught by 
divine appointment, we presume (he extends his hands) 
to say — 

Pater noster, qui es in coelis, sanctificetur nomen 
tuum, adveniat regnum tuum, fiat voluntas tna, sicut in 
ccelo et in terra ; panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis 
hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimit- 
timus debitoribus nostris ; et ne nos inducas in tenta^ 
tionem. R. Sed libera nos a malo. P. Amen. 

T. — Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be 
thy name, thy kingdom come, thy will be done as in 
heaven, so in earth. Give us this day our daily bread ; 
and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And 
lead us not into temptation. Response. — But deliver 
us from evil. 

R. — Sacerdos secrete dicit — ^Amen. 
T. — The priest secretly says — ^Amen. 

Mark the simplicity and clearness of this prayer, 
taught by our Lord Jesus Christ to his disciples. In 
this prayer we find no address to angels for their inter- 
cession, or to OT for departed souls of the faithful. No 
crossings, or other superstitious practices. We are 
thus instructed to go at once to God, the Father of Je- 
sus, our Saviour, and thus the reconciled Father and 
parent of all who trust in him. 

R. — Deinde accipit patenam inter indicem et medium 
digitos et dicit. 

T. — He then takes the paten between his fore and 
middle fingers, and says — 

Libera nos, qussumus, Domine, ab omnibus malis 
praeteritis, praesentibus, et futuris, et intercedente beata 
et gloriosa semper virgine, Dei genitrice Maria, cum 
beatis apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, atque Andrea, et 
omnibus Sanctis, (signat se cum patena a fronte ad pec- 
tus eam osculatur,) da propitius pacem in diebus nostris, 
ut ope misericordiie tuae adjuti, et a peccato simus sem- 


per liberi et ab omni perturbationa securi, {submittit 
patenam hostia discooperit calicem genuflectit surgit, 
accipit hostiam, frangit earn super calicem per medium 
dicens.) Per eundem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christ- 
um Filium tuum, {partem qu<B in dextera est ponit su- 
per patenam, deinde ex parte, qiuB in sinistra remansit, 
frangit particulum dicens,) qui tecum vivit et regnat 
in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus, {aliam mediam partem 
cum ipsa sinistra ponit super patenam, et dextera, te- 
nens particulam super calice, sinistra calicem dicit,) 
per omnia saecula ssRCuIorum. R. — Amen. 

T. — Deliver us, O Lord, from all evils, past, present, 
and to come ; and by the intercession of the blessed 
and glorious Mary, ever a Virgin, the Mother of God, 
and by that of thy blessed Apostles, Peter and Paul, 
and Andrew, and all the saints, (he here makes the sign 
of the cross with the paten from his forehead to Tiis 
breast, and kisses it,) mercifully grant us peace in our 
days, that being assisted by the help of thy compassion, 
we may be always free from sin, and secure from all 
trouble, (he places the paten under the host, he uncov- 
ers the chalice, kneels down, rises up, takes the host, 
breaks it over the chalice in the middle, saying,) through , 
the same our Lord Jesus Christ, thy Son, (he places 
the part which is in his right hand upon the paten, then 
of that which remains in his left he breaks off a small 
piece, saying,) who liveth and reigneth with thee, 
God, in the unity of the Spirit, (the other half lie places 
with his left hand upon the paten, and holding with his 
right the small piece over the chalice, and holding the 
chalice in his left hand, says,) for ever and ever. (An- 
swer) Amen. 

This prayer assumes a new feature respecting the 
intercession of saints ; hitherto you have been only ad- 
dressing the saints, to plead for you with God. You 
have been claiming pardon through their merits ; both 
which practices, we trust, we have fully shown to be 
unwarranted by the word of God, and contrary to prim- 
itive usage. But here your Church introduces a va- 
riety in the system ; and you are instructed to call upon 


God to grant yoiir petition, for deliverance from all 
evils, past, present, and future, which includes every 
possible case, by the intercession of the Virgin, and the 
Apostles and the saints. What has become, brethren, 
of the office of Jesus ? You have acknowledged him 
to be your intercessor, and here you seem to forget 
such to be the case ; and your Church blasphemously 
introduces others, his servants, into that very office, to 
fulfil which was one of the purposes for which he came 
into the world. Can you possibly suppose that God 
will listen with favor to such a prayer 1 From one end 
to the other of Holy Scripture you will search in vain 
for a precedent — antiquity has nothing like it. But it 
has remained for your Church to address the King of 
kings, and Lord of lords, in language totally opposed 
to that Gospel, which declares, in the passage quoted 
before, " that there is only one mediator between God 
and man, the man Christ Jesus," 1 Tim. ii. 5. You 
have been acknowledging in the prayer just preceding, 
that the Lord Jesus Christ was he, through whom Gwi 
gives us all things ; and here you introduce a petition 
as if what you had before stated, you did not believe, 
but required additional intercessors to plead your cause 
with God ; although Jesus himself has told you that 
" whatsoever you ask the Father in his name, that," he 
says, " I will do ; that the Father may be glorified in 
the Son," John xiv. 13 — ^not in those intercessors whom 
your Church so vainly puts forward. Can any thing 
be more condemnatory of your practice? And then 
again at the conclusion, you say — through Jesus Christ, 
our Lord, that this is to be done. What is the mean- 
ing of this ? How is it to be reconciled with what goes 
before? If you profess to believe that Jesus is to in- 
tercede, why, unless you think him to be insufficient, 
make use of the others ? 

While this prayer is saying, your priest is doing 
what seems most strange upon Roman Catholic princi- 
ples. He takes up the host and breaks it in the middle 
over the chalice, and then he breaks off a piece from 
that in his left faAnd ; and thus the host is divided into 


three pieces. Now, here again, your Church departs 
from, what our Lord did, as you yourselves admit. Our 
Lord took the bread, and blessed and brake it, and gave 
it to his disciples, saying, " Take and eat of this, (all 
of you, as you fsdsely assert,) for this is my body." 
Here we find that he broke the bread before the conse- 
cration ; but see what you do, after your Church has 
taught you to believe that it has become the very body 
of our Lord — and in consistence with that belief, has 
taught you to worship or adore it, your priest then 
takes it in his hands, that is, the body of our Lord, and 
breaks it into three pieces. Does each of these pieces 
become an entire body 1 — ^for, if so, the body of our 
Lord is not broken at all ; and, therefore, you cannot 
do what our Lord did ; or, if it is broken into pieces, 
how much of his body goes to one part, how much to 
another 1 You observe to what absurdities your Church 
leads you. It is plain that if each particle becomes the 
entire body, that you practise a most unmeaning form, 
as it can rhever be broken^ for upon each division a new 
entire body is produced or formed. But the truth is, 
we have here another proof, that many of the forms 
and ceremonies of the Mass preceded certain doctrines 
which your Church now professes to enforce. The 
breaking of the host, or bread, certainly preceded the 
belief in the doctrine of transubstantiation ; for you 
never could think of breaking the host into pieces — ^for 
by so doing, when you believe it to be the actual and 
very body of our Lord, you become involved in blas- 
phemous absurdities, as we have shown above. 

R. — Cum ipsa particula signat ter super calicem, di- 

T. — ^With this very particle of the host he makes the 
sign of the cross over the chalice, saying — 

Pax ^ Domini, sit ^ semper vobis ^ cum. Res. — 
£t cum spiritu tuo. 

T. — ^May the peace ^ of the Lord be ^ always with 
•{• you. Kes. — ^And with thy Spirit. 

. Here, again, is a strange inconsistency — ^the priest 


holds a particle of the host in his hand ; this you have 
worshipped, as believing it to be the body and blood of 
our Lord, and of course, as we before remarked, this 
particle must be either the entire body of our Lord, or a 
part. This latter the word " particle," used in your rubric/ 
would seem to imply ; and although you have professed 
to believe one or other of these two doctrines, still you 
take up the body of our Lord and make with it the sign 
of the cross over the chalice. Surely, when this cere- 
mony was commanded, such a belief could not have ex- 
isted. I cannot understand how you can make the sign 
of the cross with the body of Jesus ; it seems so utterly 
absurd — so openly profane, to prefer in one sense the 
sign to the thing signified, that I am at a loss in what 
terms to censure it. You must have unlimited confi- 
dence in your infallible Church, to believe that such a 
practice should be tolerated for a moment. 

R. — Particulam ipsam, immittit in calicem dicens se- 

T. — He casts the same particle into the chalice, say- 
ing, secretly — 

Haec commixtio et consecratio corporis et sanguinis 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fiat accipientibus nobis in 
vitam seteroam. Amen. 

T. — May this mingling together, and the consecra- 
tion of the body and the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
become, to us who receive them, profitable to eternal 

Here you have another gross inconsistency between 
your doctrine and practice. We have already seen that 
your Church teaches that both body and blood are con- 
tained under either species ; and yet here, in opposition 
to that tenet, you mix them, you join and unite them, 
by putting the broken wafer or host into the wine. 
Now, surely, when your church commanded that ming- 
ling together to be used — the other doctrine could not 
have been entertained — she must have believed that the 
bread alone was the body, or represented the body — ^and 
the wine only was the blood, or represented the blood. 


I really cannot understand what you are to call the 
mixed host and wine. What does it become 1 Is not 
the body and blood, in your view, already united ? Ex- 
ercise your own reason, and surely you must admit the 
lamentable confusion that is thus made in the most sa- 
cred matters. 

R. — Cooperit calicem, genuflectit surgit, et inclina- 
tus Sacramento junctis manilms et ter pectus pecutiens 
dicit — Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere 
nobis ; Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere 
nobis ; Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis 

T. — He covers the chalice, he kneels down, rises up, 
and bowing towards the sacrament with joined hands, 
and striking his breast three times, says — Lamb of God, 
who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon 
us; Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the 
world, have mercy upon us ; Lamb of God, who takest 
away the sins of the world, grant us peace. 

Here again we must remark upon the multiplied 
forms used by your church. Do you not think that the 
prayer of your priest to the Saviour, if offered from a 
sincere heart, will be as efficacious without, as if accom* 
panied by the form of beating his breast three times T 
We hear of no such instruction given in God's word, as 
to this accompaniment of prayer. However, we find 
your priest goes here at once to the Saviour. Why 
does he not practise this always? Why does your 
Church at one time teach the necessity of additional 
mediators and intercessors, and here address the Lord 
Jesus as if he were, as, in truth, he is, the only refuge 
for sinners ? '* The Lamb of God," as John the Bap- 
tist calls him, John i. 29, " who taketh away the sins 
of the world." 

R. — In missis pro defunctis, non dicitur " Miserere 
nobis," sed ejus loco " dona eis requiem," et in tertio 
additur *' sempiternam." Deinde junctis manibus super 
altare inclinatus dicit sequentes orationes. 

T.'-^In Masses for the dead, " Have mercy upon us," 


is not said, but '* give them (the dead) rest," in place of 
it ; and the word " everlasting" is added in the third 
place. Then with joined hands and bending over th^ 
altar, he says the following prayers : — 

R. — Domine Jesu Christe, qui dixisti apostolis tuis, 
pacem relinquo vobis, pacem meam do vobis, ne res- 
picias peccata mea, sed fidem ecclesise tuie, eamque 
secundum voluntatem tuam pacificare et coadunare dig- 
neris ; qui vivis et regnas Deus, per omnia saecula ssecu* 
lorum. Amen. 

T. — O Lord Jesus Christ, who saidst unto thine apos- 
tles — ^peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you, 
look not upon my sins, but upon the faith of thy church, 
and vouchsafe, according to thy will, to grant it peace 
and union — who livest and reignest, God, world without 
end. Amen. 

When your Roman church is difering up this prayer, 
ought she not to have serious apprehensions as to the 
view which our Lord will take of those various novel- 
ties and inconsistencies which she has introduced into 
her public formularies, directly opposed to his own ex- 
press words — ^by which the Christian world is now so 
sadly divided and distracted ? 

R. — Si danda est pax, osculatur altare et dans pacem 
dicit. Pax tecum. Res. — Et cum spiritu tuo. 

T. — If the peace is to be given, he kisses the altar, 
and giving the peace, he says — Peace be with you. 
R. — ^And with thy spirit. 

R. — ^In missis defunctorum, non datui pax neque di- 
citur praecedens oratio. 

T. — In Masses for the dead, the peace is not given ; 
neither is the preceding prayer said. 

Domine Jesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi, qui ex volnntato 
Patris, co-operante Spiritu Sanoto, per mortem tuam 
mundum vivificasti, libera me per hoc sacro-sanctum 
corpus etsanguinem tuum ab omnibus iniquitatibus meis 
et universis malis ; et fac me tuis semper inhaerere man* 
datis, et a te nunquam separari permittas ; qui cum eo- 


dem Deo Patre, et Spiritu Sancto viyis et regnas, Deas, 
in saecula sseculorum. Amen. 

T. — O Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God, 
who, by the will of the Father, the Holy Spirit co-ope- 
rating, through thy death hast given life unto the world 
— ^by this sacred body, and by thy blood, free me from 
all mine iniquities, and from all evils, and make me al- 
ways to remain in thy commandments, and suffer me 
never to be separated from thee — who with the same 
God the Father, and the Holy Spirit, livest and reiga« 
est, God, world without end. Amen. 

Is it not here most inconsistent for your priest to pray 
to our Lord to be kept always in obedience to his com- 
mandments, when he submits to the laws of his church, 
which, he must perceive and know, are in direct oppo- 
sition to those commands ? 

Perceptio corporis tui, Domine Jesu Christe, quod 
ego indignus sumere prssumo, non mihi proveniat in 
judicium et condemnationem ; sed pro tua pietate prosit 
mihi ad tutamentum mentis et corporis, et ad medelam 
percipiendam ; qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre, in 
unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia saecula sseculo- 
rum. Amen. 

T. — Let not the participation of thy body, O Lord 
Jesus Christ, which I unworthy presume to take, be 
turned to my judgment and condemnation ; but, accord- 
ing to thy mercy, may it be profitable to the safety and 
healing of my mind and body — who livest and reignest 
with God the Father, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, 
one God, world without end. Amen. 

I must again direct your attention to the entire ab- 
sence of any prayer to saints and angels for their inter- 
cession : your priest goes at once to the Lord Jesus. 
I must, however, remark upon the unmeaning petition 
which he offers up, that he may be freed from all iniqui- 
ties and evils, by means of that consecrated host, and 
what you call the blood of our Lord. Why address such 
a petition ? The body of Jesus, as we have seen from 
Scripture, is now at the right hand of God — ^that you 


aie sore of, an^ admit. Why not allude to that living 
Sayioar who animates that body, and who is making in- 
tercession for his people ? He tells you himself, John 
▼i. 64, '* it is the Spirit that quickeneth ; the flesh profiU 
eth nothing,'*'* Even supposing that the bread and the 
wine were transubstantiated into the body and blood of 
our Lord — ^still it is by the living Saviour, risen from the 
dead, that you have access to God ; and it is by him, 
and through him only, you are to approach the throne 
of grace, and be favorably received. 

R. — Genuflectit surgit et dicit. 

T. — He kneels down, rises up, and says — 

Why does the priest here kneel down without saying 
any thin^, and then rise up ? Can any thing be more 
senseless and unmeaning ? 

Panem ccelestem accipiam, et nomen Domini invocabo. 
T. — I will take the heavenly bread, and call upon the 
name of the Lord. 

R. — Deinde parum inclinatus ambas partes hostis, 
inter pollicem et indicem sinistree manus, et patenam 
inter eundem indicem et medium, et dextera percutiens 
pectus elevata aliquantulum voce, dicit ter devote et 
^lumiliter — Domine, non sum dignus ut intres sub tectum 
meum : sed tantum die verbo et sanabitur anima mea. 

T. — Then bending down a little, he takes both parts 
of tbe host between the thumb and fore finger of his left 
hand, and the paten between the same fore finger and 
the middle finger ; and striking his breast with his right 
hand, and raising his voice a little, he says three times 
with devotion and humility — Lord, I am not worthy that 
thou shouldst enter under the roof of my house, but 
speak the word only, and my soul shall be healed. 

R. — Postea dextera se signans cum hostia super pa- 
tenam dicit. 

T. — ^After this, signing himself with the sign of the 
cross with his right hand, and with the host upon the 
paten, he says — 


Corpus Domini nostrir Jesu Christi castodiat animani 
meam in vitam sternam. Amen. 

T. — May the body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve 
my soul unto everlasting life. Amen. 

R. — Sumit reverenter ambas partes hostis, jungit 
manus et quiescit aliquantulum in meditatione sanctissi- 
mi saeramenti. Deinde discooperit calicem, genuflectit 
colligit fragmenta, si quae sint, extergit patenam, super 
calicem interim dicens. 

T. — He takes with reverence both parts of the host, 
he joins his hands and remains quiet for a short time in 
meditation of the most blessed sacrament ; then he un- 
covers the chalice, kneels down, collects the fragments, 
if there are any, wipes the paten over the chalice, in 
the mean while saying — 

We cannot refrain from inquiring here, what are 
those fragments which the priest gathers up? Are 
they parts of the body of our Lord ? or are they, each 
of them, the entire body 1 If so, in what an extraor- 
dinary position does this rubric place the doctrines of 
your church — the coUecting a number of bodies of our 
Lord together. Be assured, when this rubric was ap- 
pointed, the absurd and blasphemous tenets of transub- 
Btantiation were unknown. And a further proof that 
this doctrine was unknown when these prayers were 
introduced into the canon of the Mass, is evident from 
Se priest calling the host "heavenly bread." Now 
our blessed Lord says that " he is the bread that came 
down from heaven," John vi. 33, 35 ; consequently, the 
heavenly bread cannot be his carnal body which he re- 
ceived of the blessed Virgin, but that spiritual food of 
which he speaks when he says — " he that cometh to me, 
shall not hunger ; and he that believeth in me, shall not 
thirst" — showing that it is by faith we are said to feed 
upon him. " My meat,^^ saith our Lord, John iv. 34, 
" is to do the will of him that sent me." " Not by 
iread alone" saith our Lord in another place, Matt. iv. 
4, " doth man live, but by every word that proeeedeth 
out of the mouth of God." Another instance to show 


how OUT Lord makes use of the expression of " drink- 
inff^*— to describe the spiritual refreshment of the soul. 
We find, John iv. 13 — " he that shall drink of the wa- 
ter I shall give him, shall not thirst for ever." Again, 
he says, Matt. v. 6 — " Blessed are they that hmiger 
and thirst after justice, for they shiall have their fiU." 
These passages show how entirely your church mis- 
represents our blessed Lord's meaning, when he speaks 
of eating and drinking ; and to what wretched absurdi- 
ties and contradictions you are driven by the novel doc» 
trine of transubstantiation, invented only to increase 
^ the power and authority of your Church. 

Quid retribuam Domino pro omnibus que retribuit 
mihi ? Calicem salutaris accipiam, et nomen Domini 
invocabo. Laudans invocabo Dominum, et ab inimicis 
meis salvns ero. 

T. — ^What return shaU I make unto the Lord for all 
he has bestowed upon me ? I will receive the cup of 
salvation, and will call upon the name of the Lord. 
Praising him, I will invoke the Lord, and I will be 6afe 
from mine enemies. 

R. — ^Accipit calicem manu dextera et eo se signus 

T. — He takes the chalice in his right hand, and sign- 
ing himself with it with the sign of the cross, says — 

Sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam 
meam in vitam eternam. Amen. 

T. — ^May the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ pre- 
serve my soul unto everlasting life. Amen. 

R. — Sumit totum sanguinem cum particula. Quo 
sumpto si qui sunt communicandi eos communicet. 
Postea dicit. Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, pura 
mente capiamus, ut de munere temporali fiat nobis re- 
medium sumpsitemam. 

T. — He takes the whole blood with the particle, 
(which was mixed with it before,) which, being taken 
or drunk, if there are any persons to receive the com- 
munion, let him communicate to them. After that he 


flays, *' What we haye takisn with the mouth, may we 
receive with a pure mind, and of a temporal gift, may 
it hecome an eternal medicine to us/* 

Here, again, we have the wine distinctly spoken of, 
as the hlood of our Lord ; and we would here propose 
a similar question to that proposed before — ^What is 
that particle which is mixed with the blood 1 Is it our 
Lord's body, or part of his body ? And the idea of his 
body, or part of his body, being floating in his blood, is 
such a gross, unscriptural thought, that we really are 
at a loss to know how such a supposition could be en- 
tertained for a moment by any reasonable persons. 

You only receive the wafer, or, as you suppose, the 
body of our Lord. If that be sufficient for you, why 
not for the priest ? Why are all those forms of conse- 
cration of the wine made use of, unless in compliance, 
as you teach, with the command of our Lord. Surely, 
upon the same principle, then, you have no excuse for 
withholding the chalice or wine from the people who 
communicate, and commanding the priest to drink the 
entire himself. Antiquity, and the Holy Scriptures, 
the word of our Lord himself, condenm your present 

R. — ^Interim porrigit calicem ministro qui infundit in 
eo, parum vini, quo se purificat deinde prosequitur. 

T. — In the mean while, he holds forth the chalice to 
the attendant, who pours into it a httle wine, with which 
he purifies himself. He then proceeds : 
. What is the meaning here of his pouring into the 
chalice a little wine, and purifying himself with it? 
How can a person be purified with wine ? Besides, 
upon your own principles, this must be quite unneces- 
sary. Remember all the times the priest has made the 
sign of the cross upon himself up to this part of the 
Mass ; and surely if there be any virtue in " crossings," 
the Powers of darkness must have been completely 
driven away long before. Consider, also, the holy wa- 
ter which he has cast upon himself — ^the incense which 
haa been used to purify him. The blessed candles 


ymhkih are lighted also, and which your chnrch teaches 
are endued with many great virtues. Take all these 
holy ceremonies together, and surely you must admit it 
to be very strange, and inconsistent, to say that purifi- 
cation is still necessary. But again, perhaps the object 
of this purification, by the wine being poured into the 
chalice, and upon his fingers in which he has held the 
consecrated host, is to wash away all the particles or 
crumbs which may adhere to his fingers. Could this 
rubric have been made if the belief in the wafer or bread 
being the real body of our Lord prevailed, could it be 
taught that washing away so many bodies of our Lord-^ 
for your church, in her infallible wisdom, teaches that 
each crumb is a separate and distinct body—oan be a 
cleansing or a purification ? Surely such an expression 
would never have been used, for there can be no defile- 
ment in the touch of the body of our Lord. The tru^ 
is, this furnishes us with an additional proof of the nov- 
elty of many of the doctrines of your Mass ; and of the 
inconsistency of one part with the other. 

Corpus tuum, Domine, quod sumpsi, et sanguis quem 
potavi, adhereat visceribus meis, et praesta ut in me non 
remaneat scelerum macula, quem pura et sancta refece- 
runt sacramenta. Qui vivis et regnas in saecula sscu- 
lorum. Amen. 

T. — May thy body, O Lord, which I have taken, and 
thy blood which I have drunk, adhere to my bowels ; 
and grant, that there may not remain a spot of wicked- 
ness in me, whom thy pure and holy sacraments have 
refreshed; who livest and reignest forever and ever. 

Here we find the distinction between the body and 
blood of our Lord still kept up ; but how to explain the 
prayer that that body and blood may adhere or cling to 
the bowels of the priest, I confess is beyond my power 
— even upon Roman Catholic grounds. What, brethren, 
is it for a moment to be supposed that this is possible ? 
I cannot dwell upon all the blasphemous consequences 
to which such a monstrous tenet must give rise ; uox 


can you ayoid those conseqQenoes, unless you totally 
reject, as the Word of God expressly teaches you to do, 
all carnal notions respecting the presence of our Lord 
in the Holy Sacrament. 

There is a very remarkable circumstance recorded in 
the word of God, Exod. xxxii. 20. When Moses went 
np to the mount of God to receive the law, during his 
absence, which continued for forty days, the people be- 
came impatient, and not expecting him to return to them 
any more, persuaded Aaron, the brother of Moses, to 
make a golden calf, similar to what they had witnessed 
in Egypt ; and this golden calf was to be the represent- 
ative of that God who had brought them out of Egypt. 
Mark this well, brethren ; we are not informed by 
Moses that the children of Israel worshipped the golden 
calf— as supposing that there was any peculiar virtue or 
power contained in it — on the contrary, they worshipped 
it only as a personification of the Deity of God the 
Creator. They said, '' These be thy Gods, O Israel, 
which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." And 
Aaron made proclamation and said, To-morrow is a feast 
to the Lord — ^thus showing that it was God, the Lord 
^ Jehovah, whom they wished to worship under this rep- 
resentation. We find St. Stephen, (Acts vii. 41.) when 
alluding to this circumstance of their idolatry, express- 
ing himself thus : — " And they made a calf in those 
days, and offered sacrifice to the idol, and rejoiced in 
the work of their own hands." Now see, is not this 
applicable to you ? You make images, the personifica- 
tion of those whose name they bear — you bow down 
before them, and adore them in open violation of God's 
expressed prohibition, in the first or second command- 
ment, (Exodus xxiv. 2-5 ;) and to sum up all your 
monstrous disobedience to the plain teaching of God's 
inspired apostles, you make a cake or wafer, your 
church say some Latin prayers over it, and then you 
are called upon to worship it as God, and you do wor- 
ship it. 

See how the children of Israel were punished — and 
see how the senselessness of their conduct was shown. 


MThile in the very act of their idolatrous worship of this 
calf, the representative of God — Moses (who had been 
previously informed by God himself of their wickedness) 
returned, and broke the calf in pieces, and burnt it, and 
ground it to powder, strewed it upon water, and made 
Sie people dhnk it. Why was this done ? And why is 
it recorded in the Book of God, but to teach us all the 
folly of worshipping any thing we can drink or eati 
Apply this to your own practice — ^you worship the blood 
of Christ — ^you worship the body of Christ — and you 
think you eat and drink them ; thus you think you are 
doing that very act which the Holy Ghost, in the above 
passage, declares is a proof that such are not proper 
objects for worship at all. Surely, we never should 
have thought of worshipping the dead body of our Lord, 
when it was taken down from the cross. His disciples 
never attempted such a thing until they beheld that body 
again reanimated and filled with the Divinity. God is 
a spirit, saith our Lord, (John iv. 24,) and they that 
worship him must worship him in spirit and truth ; and 
Jesus as God is thus to be worshipped. '^The flesh 
profiteth nothing," John vi. 63. You are only de- 
grading the Deity by such profane and ungodly notions, 
and wilfully shutting your eyes to that clear and ex- 
press testimony given in the written word as to the 
manner of worship God expects from man. 

Let us suppose poison mixed with the consecrated 
bread or consecrated wine, are we to be told that this 
entire poisoned mass is changed into the body and blood 
of Christ, and therefore is deprived of its hurtful pro- 
perties, and may be safely partaken of. This your 
church will not presume to assert, because the test of 
the truth of such an assertion is easily tried, and the 
consecrating priest may himself make the experiment 
in the presence of you all ; and then, surely, if your 
church really possesses, as she asserts she does, the 
power of working miracles — if her followers and chil- 
dren are those who exclusively follow the commands 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ — ^he need not ap- 
prehend any ill consequences. They, said our blessed 


Lord, meaning his faithfhl children, were endued in those 
early days with the power of proving their mission by 
the working of miracles, which your church, as we 
have stated above, asserts has descended to, and con- 
tinues with you. They shall take up serpents, and if 
they shall drink any deadly thing it shall nx}t hurt them^ 
Mark xvi. 18. Thus you see your priest may safely 
make the experiment, and prove the truth of your doc- 
trine in his ov(rn person : and if he fears to do this, and 
I anticipate such will be the case, surely the entire sys- 
tem, even from this circumstance, may be known to be 
fidse, as your own Church History furnishes us with 
many instances of very eminent persons being murdered 
by poisoned hosts being administered to them in the 

R. — Abluit digitos extergit et sumit ablutionem, ex- 
tergit OS et calicem quem operit, et picato corporali col- 
locat in altare ut prius. Deinde prosequitur missam. 

T. — He washes hi? fingers, and wipes them, and 
drinks the oblation. He wipes his mouth and the 
chalice, which he covers, and folding the corporale 
round it, places it upon the altar as at first. Then he 
proceeds with the Mass : — 

R. — Dicto post ultimam orationem : Dominus vobis- 
cum. Res. — Et cum spiritu tuo. 

T.^Having said after the last prayer : The Lord be 
with you. Res. — ^And with thy Spirit. 

R. — Dicit pro qualitate missae vel benedicimus Domi- 
no. Res. — Deo Gratias. 

T. — He says, according to the quality of the Mass, 
either — Let us bless the Lord. Res. — Thanks be to 
God. There are various other endings according to the 
period of the year. 

R. — Dicto ite missa est, vel benedicamus Domino, 
sacerdos inclinat se ante medium, altaris et manibnB 
Junctis super illud dicit. 

T. — Having said — Depart, it is the sending away, 
(meaning Mass is ended,) or, Let us bless the Lord — the 


priest bows himself before the middle of the altar, and 
with his hands joined over it says — 

Placeat tibi, sancta Trinitas, obseqnium servitutia 
meie, et praesta ut sacrificium quod oculis tue majestatis 
indignus obtuli, tibi sit acceptabile, mihique et omnibus 

fro quibus illud obtuli, sit, te miserante, propitiabile. 
^er Christum Dominum nostram. Amen. 
T. — ^May the performance of my service be accept- 
able to thee, O blessed Trinity, and grant that the sac* 
rifice which I, unworthy, have offered before the eyes of 
thy Majesty, may be acceptable to thee,«and that it may 
be propitiatory l^ thy compassion for me, and for aU 
for whom I have offered it ; through Christ, our Lord. 

Mark now, the priest prays, as you are taught by 
your church, that the sacrifice which has been offered, 
may be acceptable and propitiatory, that is, atoning for 
his own sins and those for whom the offering is made. 
This offering, as you are taught, is the body and blood 
of the Lord Jesus. You beseech the blessed Trinity, 
one of the Persons of whom is Jesus himself, to accept 
his own body and blood as an atonement. This atone- 
ment has been made before by Jesus as man ; and then 
you sum up all these inventions of man, by saying, 
through Christ our Lord — calling on Jesus to receive 
himself his own body and blood by his own interces- 
sion. I cannot understand this prayer ; and really, so far 
as understanding the meaning of many of your most in- 
consistent prayers, you may as well have them in Latin 
as in English — ^for in both they are equally unintelligible. 

R. — Deinde osculatur altare, et elevatis oculis et 
jungens manus, caputque cruci inclinans dicit — Bene- 
dicat nos Omnipotens Deus, et versus ad populum se- 
mel tantum benedicens etiam missis solemnibus prose- 
quitur. Pater et Filius, 4* et Spiritus Sanctus. Res.-^ 

T. — Then he kisses the altar, and lifting up his eyes, 
extending, raising, and joining his hands; and bowing his 
head to the cross, says — May the Almighty God UesR 

OP m EoacAN CA*rHouc church. 133 

jon ; and torning to the people, pronouncing tne otess- 
ing only once, even in solemn Masses, ^e proceeds, 
aajring— Father, Son, -f- and Holy Ghost. Amen. 

Here your church has introduced a form totally op- 
posed to God's express commandment — bowing before 
the cross. In the second commandment, which is gen- 
erally omitted in the catechism put into the hands of 
your people by your priests, there is an absolute and 
positive prohibition against making the likeness of any 
thing in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in 
the waters under the earth, for the purpose of bowing 
down before them, or adoring, or worshipping them. 
You may say, you adore not the cross, but him who hung 
thereon, even Jesus. Surely, if that be true, you are 
not to look for him there, but in heaven. Have you not 
sufficiently degraded the Saviour, by teaching that his 
glorious body and blood, which are in heaven, are not 
merely represented, or figured, or typified by the bread 
and the wine, which is the true doctrine of the Bible 
and the ancient church ; but that this wretched wafer 
and this wine are changed into them ; and you pay this 
false body the same divine honor which you should pay 
to the Lord of life and glory himself ; you also in total 
and direct contempt of the positive precepts of God 
himself. Exodus xx. 4, which are their only sure and 
safe guides, and which your church, as far forth as she 
v^n, keeps from the knowledere of her people, bow be- 
fore the image on the cross, identifying that which was 
made by man — the workmanship of man — with Jesus, 
the eternal and living God. 

Hear what Jesus himself says, John iv. S3, 24 : 
^ The hour cometh, and now is, when the true adorers 
shall adore the Father in spirit and in truth ; for the 
Father seeketh all such to adore him. God is a Spirit, 
and they that adore him must adore him in spirit and in 
truth." Again, Jesus says, " I and my Father are one." 
John X. 30. God cannot be represented. Isaiah xl. 18. 
Nothing that we make or paint can resemble him ; and, 
therefore, it is with the heart we must worship, and also 


" in truth ,•" that is, in Strict accord anee .with those 
mles and precepts laid down in the revealed word of 
God — the holy Scriptures — ^the source of all truth. Look 
to Isaiah, also, xliv. 9-20 ; and you will there see the 
folly of image-making and image-worship clearly set 
forth. Hear, also, Habakkuk, iii. 18, 19, where wo is 
expressly denounced against those who excuse the 
making of images and pictures for worship, saying they 
are to teach the ignorant, and are the book of the un- 
learned — ^the very same reasons which your church gives 
to justify your doing so. " What profiteth the graven 
image that the maker thereof hath graven it? The 
molten image and a teacher of lies, t^at the maker of 
his work trusteth therein to make dumb idols. Wo 
unto him that saith to the wood, awake — to the dumb 
stone, arise, it shall teach. Behold it is laid over with 
gold and silver, and there is no truth at all in the midst 
of it." Mark the words following : — "But the Lord is 
in his holy temple, let all the earth keep silence before 
him.'' Here we learn from this passage that the Lord 
does not delegate his authority to any. All the earth 
are to obey his commands, as set forth in his revealed 
word, in silence and with submission ; and we find St. 
Paul, when alluding, as we believe, to your church with 
the pope at its head, says : " that he sitteth in the tem> 
pie of God, showing himself as if he were God.'' 2 
Thess. ii. 4, &c. &c. &c. ; compare also Dan. vii. 25, 
and xi. 36. 

It would lead me too far from my present purpose to 
point out to you those prophecies which describe your 
church most accurately, and foretell the final downfall of 
this antiscriptural power who usurps the place of God, 
and presumes to give new laws contrary to those laid 
down by God in his holy commandments, and in that sa^ 
cred volume, which is able to make us wise unto salva- 
tion through faith in Christ Jesus. 2 Tim. iii. Ifi. 
Your church attempts to justify the use of images by 
the cherubim which God commanded Moses to make, 
and to place over the mercy-seat. Exod. xxv. 18. 
We shall find that so far from this justifying the y»?kl^ 


of images for the purpose of enlivening oar devotion by 
addressing those who are represented by them, that we 
may learn that the very contrary is taught. In the first 
place we may remark, that the people saw not these 
cherubim at all. They were in the hbly of holies, to 
which they had no access, nor the high priest, but once 
a year. They could scarcely be seen by him, the place 
being dark. However, hear what God said to Moses : 
^' And the cherubim shall stretch forth their wings on 
high, covering the mercy-seat with their wings, and 
their faces shall look one to another, toward the mercy* 
seat shall the faces of the cherubim lie, and thou shalt 
put the mercy-seat above upon the ark, and in the ark 
thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee : and 
there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with 
thee from above the mercy- seat, from between the two 
cherubim, which are upon the ark of the testimony, of 
all things which I will give thee in commandment unto 
the children of Israel." Exod. xxv. 20-82. 

When the high priest entered this holy of holies, 
whom did he address ? Was it the cherubim ? No, but 
God declared he would answer from between the cher- 
ubim. Was there any image or likeness made of God, 
as your church blasphemously teaches should be done, 
and which is to be seen in many of your places of wor- 
ship, in open defiance of God's own command ? There 
was nothing of the kind. A voice answered the high 
priest, or Moses, not from the cherubim, but from the 
apace between them. Why were the cherubim placed 
there by God's command, but to teach you the contrast 
between God and any image, and to show you that God 
can be addressed without the intervention of any such 
intermediate beings ; for surely neither Moses nor the 
high priest would ever contemplate the worship of, or 
bowing down to the golden cherubim, in God's presence. 
As even in the presence of an earthly king, all respect 
must centre in his person, so, as God is present every* 
where, it is downright and flagrant idolatry, to give the 
images of saints or angels any species of worship or 
adoration. David, Psalm xxx. 1, calls upon Gud, and 


aays, '* Thoa that dwellest between the cherubim, shine 
forth.'' The truth is, no passage can more strongly 
show the uselessness of images to enliven oar devotion, 
or to make our prayers more acceptable, than this very 
one ; as, though they were there by God's express au- 
thority and command, no worship was paid them : they 
were looked upon in no other light than that of any or- 
dinary ornamental work about the ark. 

But see how your church resembles the Gentiles of 
whom St. Paul speaks, Rom. i. 23. " Professing them- 
selves wise they became fools, and they changed the 
glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the 
image of a corruptible man." And' St. Stephen, Acts 
vii. 42, speaking of the disobedience of the children of 
Israel, says, '^ And God turned, and gave them up to 
serve the host of heaven." Thus you serve, and 
address in prayers, not merely departed saints, but 
the angels, or hosts of God, as your prayers fully 

Scripture cannot contradict itself. God's commands 
are ever the same as to his worship, and it remains for 
you to justify the open breach of one of the plaineatt 
precepts given in the Scriptures. The introduction of 
images into the church was vehemently opposed at vsb- 
rious periods. There was, in the eighth century, a pow- 
erful party called Iconoclasts, or image-breakers, who, 
in their zeal, broke all the idolatrous images which 
were beginning to be introduced into the churches, and 
several councils were held upon the subject, and decrees 
made for and against their use. The opposition of those 
councils to each other, furnishes an additional argument 
against their infallibility, as no third power has been 
fixed upon to decide which council is the true one, or 
what those essentials are which are necessary to consti- 
tute a true council ; each party — ^the supporters and 
opposers of image-worship — asserting that the decree 
in their favor is that which is right. Thus, in order 
to arrive at the truth, we must come to the apostolic 
teaching, as set /orth in Holy Scripture, the only safe 


R. — ^la Misea Pontificali ter beDedicitar ut in Pontifi- 
cali habetur. 

T. — ^In a Pontifical Mass the blessing is three times 
pronounced, as is stated in the pontifical service. 

R. — Deinde in cornu evangelii dicto " Dominas vobis- 
cnm" et initium vel sequentia sancti evangelii. Signans 
altare vel librum et se ut supra in evangelic Misss. 
Legit evangelium secundum Johannem. " In principio 
est verbum" ut infra — ^vel aliud evangelium ut dictum 
est in rubris generalibus. Cum dicit " et verbum caro 
factum est,'* genuflectit. In fine, Res — Gratias. 

T. — Then at the Gospel side of the altar, having said 
" the Lord be with you," and " the initium" (beginning) 
or " the sequentiae" (or the foWow'mg) of the blessed Gos- 
pel, he signs the altar or the book and himself with the 
sign of the cross, as above in the Gospel of the Mass ; 
he then reads the Gospel according to John, chap. i. — 
" In the beginning was the Word," as follows, or an- 
other Gospel as is appointed in the general rubrics. 
When he says " and the Word was made flesh," he 
kneels. At the conclusion, the Response — Thanks be 
to God. 

We have now gone through the canon of the Mass ; 
it has been my sincere wish to magnify or exaggerate 
nothing ; but, avoiding all misrepresentations, to give 
every thing plainly and simply. 

Your church, for her own reasons,— chiefly, we fear, 
for the purpose of aggrandizing herself in your estima- 
tion, — ^has sought to persuade you that your priests 
have received the power from our Lord, of producing 
him before you, in the form of bread and wine. The 
natural consequence follows : you believe, and naturally, 
that that church must be the peculiarly favored church 
of God, which is endowed with such privileges ; that 
God must look with especial favor upon you ; and, con- 
sequently, you believe that it is utterly impossible that 
any erroneous doctrine could be taught by a church so 
peculiarly favored and protected. Alas ! my dear breth- 
ren, how entirely must all this confidence vanish, when 

138 Tms MASS Aim ktuics 

ytn refer to the written Word of Crod, — even to yoor 
own Scriptores, many translations of which I believe 
not only to be incorrect, bat rendered vnlfuUy obecnre, 
in order to impress yon with the idea that they are not 
easily understood ; and you are thus forced to have re- 
course to those guides whose interest it is to keep you 
from the true light, and to give you instead thereof, 
darkness, confusion, and inconsistency. 

I will now proceed to give you a brief description of 
the Protestant views respecting the Blessed Sacrament. 
They are represented to you as destroying tiie essential 
parts of the Sacrament, or of having nothing spiritual 
or religious in their service. Any person who is con» 
yersant with Holy Scripture, must be aware of the 
figurative language so frequently used. Indeed you do 
the same in your Mass, for you constantly make the 
chalice or cup represent his blood. Our blessed Lord 
calls himself a door, John x. 7 — a vine tree, John rv. 1. 
He is called the Morning Star, Rev. xxii. 16 — lamb, 
John xxix. 36 ; and we know that those expressions are 
not to be understood literally. In like manner, out 
Lord describes the spiritual blessings conveyed to the 
soul of the sincere believer, under the figure of water. 
'* He that shall drink of the water that I shall give him, 
shall never thirst," John iv. 14 ; and in John vi. 35, to 
which we alluded before, he says, " I am the bread of 
life ; he that cometh to me shall not hunger, and he that 
believeth in me shall never thirst." Again, verse 47, he 
says, " Amen, amen, I say unto you, he that believeth in 
me hath everlasting life. I am the bread of life." Our 
Lor(l then says, verse 52, '^ If any man eat of this bread, 
he shall live forever ; and the bread which I will give 
is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." 
The Jews, not understanding our Lord's meaning, were 
astonished at what he said, and interpreting him literally, 
as you are taught to do, inquired, " How can this man 

g've us his flesh to eat 1" Our Lord then, instead of 
ying aside his figurative language, goes further, and 
says, ^' Amen, amen, I say unto you, unless you eat the 
flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, you shall 


not have life in you. He that eateth my flesh and 
drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life.'* He had 
said in verse 47, ^\ He that believeth in me hath ever- 
lasting life ;" thus clearly identifying the meaning of 
eating the body and drinking the blood, with believing 
in him ; the doing or neglecting of either being attended 
with the same consequence. 

If you refer the eating his body, or drinking his 
blood, to the partaking of the consecrated elements, 
in a literal sense, certain consequences will necessarily 
follow, to which you cannot assent. One is, that no 
person, young or old, can be saved, who does not par- 
take of the body and blood of our Lord in the Eucha* 
list, at least once. And secondly, that whosoever does, 
is certain of being saved ; and, therefore, that all your 
vain forms and new doctrines, such as purgatory, pri- 
vate confession, absolution, extreme unction, holy wa- 
ter, blessed candles, &c. &c., are entirely useless; as 
the eating the body and drinking the blood, in your 
sense, in the Eucharist, is the grand essential, as the 
doing so will be blessed with eternal life. 

There is another matter, also, to be considered, as 
connected with the literal interpretation of this passage, 
and that is, that you must receive both the body and 
the blood ; to this we alluded before. In vain you say 
you receive both under one kind ; but mark the expres- 
sion — drink the blood, and that you cannot do, while 
you are only eating the wafer or bread. We must, 
therefore, search for some other meaning of this pas- 
sage — "this saying," said they, "is hard, who can 
hear itV v. 61; and so it must liave appeared to 
them, if they supposed our Blessed Lord meant his 
flesh and blood, literally, as the Jews were positively 
prohibited from the drinking or using the blood of any 
manner of fiesh. Lev. xvii. 14. Observe how compre- 
hensive the prohibition — any manner offiesh ; and it is 
most remarkable, that we find this very prohibition 
continued by the Council of the Apostles, where the 
Gentiles were expressly commanded to abstain from 
blood, Acts XV. 20, 39. And no exception whatever is 

140 Tax MAM Aim KOBaios 

made in laTor of drinking the blood of the Lord Jesus, 
as if ^e Spirit of God foresaw the grievous emnra 
which would be introduced into the Church in after 
ages. Even upon your own principles, the body of our 
Lord is not permitted, by the Word of God, to be 
eaten. '* The flesh, with the life thereof, which is the 
blood thereof,*' is forbidden. Gen. ix. 4. So that the 
flesh and the blood mingled together^ are absolutely for- 
bidden ; and this restriction is continued in the abore- 
quoted passages from the Acts of the Apostles — where 
tiie Gentile converts are commanded to abstain from 
eating* things strangled^, or from those animals which 
have not had the h\SoA drawn away. Bring your doc- 
trine of ^^ Concomitance,'' or of both body and Uood 
being united in either species of bread and wine to this 
test, and see whether it wiU bear examination. In your 
sense, then, both the body and blood are absolutely far- 

The Jews, therefore, did not comprehend our Lord's 
meaning ; they understood not the spiritual doctrine of 
the cross, and, therefore, objected to what our Lord 
said. But Jesus knowing that even his own disciples 
(v. 62) were murmuring against him, as they would 
naturally do, from their misunderstanding his expres- 
sions and supposing he was teaching some new doc- 
trines opposed to the law of Moses, said — ^*' Doth this 
scandalize % If, then, ye shall see the Son of Man as- 
cend up where he was before." The Jews, we are 
told, v. 41, murmured, because our Lord said, *' I am 
the living bread which came down from heaven." They 
interpreted his meaning literally, when he called him- 
self bread. He now tells them that they will see a 
more astonishing thing than even that, namely, the Son 
of Man ascending up again into heaven ; and thus 
blowing them, that they were mistaking his meaning 
of eating his body and drinking his blood — ^for they 
would no more have it in their power to do so in a lit- 

* The Latin Vnlgate says, Gen. ix. 4, " Carnem cum sanguine noa 
eomedetis/* ** You shall not eat flesh with the blood •/' tiiat is, to 
gtHkeTf M yoa proflns to do in the Eucharist. 


ml, carnal manner, his body having ascended to hea- 
ven, and being to remain there at his Father^s right 
hand, than to eat that bread, which he calls himself, 
before he came down from heaven. He then proceeds 
to clear up his meaning, v. 64, " It is the Spirit that 
quickeneth — the flesh profiteth nothing ; the words that 
I have spoken unto you are spirit and life." 

Thus the doctrine of literally eating his body, and 
drinking his blood, profits nothing, but leads us into 
errors, mistakes, and absurdities, as we see in your 
Mass ; but the spiritual sense and feeling of his death 
enlivens, and, by divine grace, animates or quickens 
the soul — ^the believer derives consolation and encour- 
agement in his approaches to God, by a consciousness 
of what his Saviour has suffered for him ; and he feels 
that he is the only apparent door or way by which he 
can obtain an entrance to eternal life. 

After our blessed Lord had, by this truly divine dis- 
course, prepared the minds of (lis disciples for his 
death, and by those other discourses recorded by St. 
John, before his Last Supper, John xiii. and following 
chapters ; he instituted that sacred feast which has 
been the chief subject of the preceding pages. And it 
is most remarkable, that the disciples no longer mur- 
mured at his expressions — of eating his body and drink- 
ing his blood, used at his Last Supper. They no longer 
objected to what he said — and why 1 Because our Lord 
had before so fully explained his meaning that he was 
to be understood only in a spiritual sense. Besides, 
only just before the celebration of the Last Supper, a 
circumstance is recorded, which bears upon the ques- 
tion recorded by St. Matthew, xxv. 31 ; and by all the 
ather EvangeUsts — in the house of Simon the leper, a 
certain woman came and poured a box of very precious 
ointment upon our Lord's head, as he sat at meat. The 
disciples complained of this being an act of great waste, . 
and that it might have been sold for much, and given to 
the poor. But our Lord rebuked them for troubling the 
woman who had thus shown her love and her devoted- 
ness to his service, and said — ^^ She hath wrought a 


good work apon me'; for the poor yon have ahrays with 
you, but me ye have not always : for she, in pourinff 
this ointment upon my body, hath done it for my burial.'^ 
Here our blessed Lord plainly speaks of his body, and 
tells his disciples they are not to have it always with 
them ; he tells them it is to be buried — and, upon an- 
other occasion, they are told that it ascended to God^s 
right hand. *' Why stand you looking up to heaven, ye 
men of GalileeV said the two angels in white gar- 
ments. Acts i. 10, 11, '^this Jesus who is taken up 
from you into heaven, shall so come as ye have seen 
him going into heaven." Mark, shall so come ; not in 
the degrading way that your Church falsely tells you 
he is brought by your priest upon the altar in the shape 
of a little round bit of bread, but with glory, majesty, 
and power, to reward his faithful servants, and to pun- 
ish those who have not submitted themselves to his 
commands. Does it not appear truly remarkable, that 
our Lord should, in t^e above-quoted passage, speak of 
'^ his body" in such a manner that when, a short time 
after, he gave the disciples the bread, and said, '' This 
is my body," they never could have confounded the one 
with the other ; they took it and the wine, therefore, as 
the representation of that body and blood which the 
woman had anointed, and which was shortly to be bro- 
ken and shed upon the cross, and to be buried, and as- 
cend to God's right hand. 

Our Lord had, also, upon another oceasion, given 
them instructions which they might profitably apply to 
the present case — ^"Do ye not understand," said our 
Lord, " that whatsoever entereth into the mouth, goeth 
into the belly, and is cast out into the draught ?" Matt. 
XV. 17. To this degradation, your Roman Church 
would reduce the real body and blood of our Lord, 
when you partake of it, as you are taught by her at the 
Eucharist. Thus you see that the Apostles of our 
Lord never contemplated such a doctrine as youra. 
Their blessed Master had fully instructed them upon 
this subject ; and it is also clear that their views con- 
tinued unchanged, as it was some years after these 


laets were committed to writing. May the Lord direct 
you to the study of his word, may it he hlessed to 
your souls, and may you he directed in the right 
path, and delivered from these absurd and wicked de- 

What, then, are we to consider as the eating the 
body, and drinking the blood of our Blessed Lord, in 
the Holy Sacrament 1 Is it the eating the consecrated 
bread, or drinking the consecrated wine ? By no means ; 
for we may press with our teeth the consecrated bread, 
and take with our mouths the consecrated wine, and, at 
the same time, not eat the body, or drink the blood of 
our Lord. The Catechism of the Church of England* 
well and scripturally expresses this, where, in answer 
to the question — ^What is the inward part, or thing sig- 
nified by the outward and Tisible signs of bread an^ 
wine which the Lord commanded to be received 1 We 
are told — ^The body and blood of Christ, which are, 
verily and indeed, taken and received by the faithful ^X 
the Lord's Supper. Mark the expression — only by the 
faithful ; it is by the entire act of faith exhibited by the 
faithful communicant. Reflect what the feelings of 
the believer are, when he comes to the Lord's table ; 
there is an acknowledgment of the authority of the Lord 
Jesus, by whose appointment this feast was instituted. 
There is an acknowledgment, that it is to the sufferings 
of that body, broken and torn by the thorns, the scourg- 
ings, the nails, and the spear, and to -that precious blood 
which flowed from those wounds, that he is indebted for 
pardon. Surely, he will receive with awe and with, 
gratitude, those elements — that bread and that wine, 
consecrated or dedicated for such a holy purpose, by the 
express authority of his Saviour, as reminding him of 
those means by which man's salvation has been accom- 
plished ; and he will feel assured that a special blessing 
will attend his obedience to his Master's dying precept, 
and that a more abundant emanation of divine grace and 

* Part of this question and answer is deceitfally quoted by Roman 
Cftthollc writers to prove the doctrine of Transubstantiation ; whereas, 
if the entire passage were given, it would prove the very revene. 

144 ram mass ahd bvbrios 

energy will be communicated to his soul — ^tlins he truly 
partakes of the body and blood of his Saviour. 

The entire act, done with faith, is eating the body, 
and drinking the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, of 
which the bread an4 the wine are only the emblems es- 
pecially appointed by divine institution. This feeling 
of the mind, constitutes the eating of the body and the 
drinking the blood of the Saviour, to which he himself 
attaches the promise of eternal life ; John vi. 55. And 
that these feelings are not ^ exclusively confined to the 
receiving the Lord's Supper, and that this is the view 
taken by the Protestant churches, is clear from the ru- 
bric at the conmiunion of the sick, in her Book of Com- 
mon Prayer ; where, if for some of those reasons there 
stated, the Communion of the Lord's Supper cannot be 
administered, the curate is enjoined to instruct the sick 
person-—" That if he do truly rejjent him of his sins, 
and steadfastly believe that Jesus Christ hath suffered 
death upon the cross for him, and shed his blood for his 
redemption, earnestly remembering the benefits he hath 
therein, and giving him hearty thanks therefor, he 
doth eat and drink the body and blood of our Saviour 
Christ, profitably to his soul's health, although he does 
not receive the sacrament with his mouth." Nothing 
can be clearer or more to the purpose than this passage. 

I will now bring before you two of those prayers used 
by the Protestant Church ; and you will find how en- 
tirely they agree with Holy Scripture, and what we 
have before shown to be the doctrine of the Primitive 
Apostolic Church ; one is the prayer immediately be- 
fore the consecration, and the other is the prayer of 
consecration : — 

" We do not presume to come to this, thy table, O 
merciftd Lord, trusting in our own righteousness, but in 
thy manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy so 
much as to gather up the crumbs under thy table ; but 
thou art the same Lord, whose property is always to 
have mercy. Grant us, therefore, gracious Lord, so to 
eat the fiesh of thy dear Son, and to drink his blood, 
that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body. 


and our souls washed through his most precious blood ; 
and that we may eyermore dwell in him, and he in us. 
Amen." ^ 

"this prayer op consecration. 

" Almighty Gpd, and Heavenly Father, who, of thy 
tender mercy, didst give thine only Son, Jesus Christ, 
to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption, who 
made there, by his one oblation of himself once offered, 
a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and 
satisfaction for the sins of the whole world ; and did ine 
stitute, and in his holy Gospel conunand us to continue! a 
perpetual memory of that, his most precious death, until 
his coming again. Hear us, most merciful Father, we 
most humbly beseech thee, and grant that we, receiving 
these thy creatures of bread and wine according to thy 
Son, our Saviour, Jesus Christ's holy institution, in re- 
membrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of 
his most blessed body and blood, who, m the same night 
that he was betrayed, took bread, (here the priest is to 
take the paten in his hand,) and when he had given 
thanks, he brake it, (and here to break the bread,) and 
gave it to his disciples, saying : take, eat, this is my 
body, (here to lay his hand upon all the bread,) which 
is given for you ; do this, in remembrance of me. Like- 
wise, after supper, he took the cup, (here he is to take 
the cup into his hand,) and when he had given thanks, 
he gave it to them, saying: Brink ye all of this, for this 
(and here to lay his hand upon every vessel, be it chal- 
ice or flagon, in which there is any wine to be conse- 
crated, that is to be set apart for holy purposes, not 
transubstantiated) is my blood of the New Testament, 
which is shed for you and for many, for the remission 
of sins : do this, as oft as you shall drink of it, in re- 
membrance of me. Amen." 

Thus you see the Protestant Church, in her celebra- 
tion of the Lord's Supper or Eucharist, has endeavored 
to adhere \to the Word of God, and to the practice of 
the ancient church, where that is in conformity with 
Holy Scripture. Can you make the same assertion. 


with troth, as to your own Roman Church ? Alas ! no ; 
your multiplied forms, your bowiogs, your signings with 
the sign of the cross, your holy water, yQur blessed 
candles, your iocense, we seek for in vain in the Word 
of God. The truth is, we cannot conceive any two 
things more unlike than your Mass, as celebrated at 
present by your church, and the institution of our bless- 
ed Lord ; so mucb so, that, as before observed, if one 
of the blessed apostles, who was present at the first 
communion by our Lord, beheld your Mass, he could 
never recognise the one by the other. 

I will now bring before you a few of the differences 
between our Lord's manner of celebration, and that of 
your Roman Church. 

1. — Our Lord addressed those present in a language 
they understood. Your people understand not the Latin 
which is spoken ; the priest calling you " brethren," 
speaks to you in Latin, inviting you to do certain things 
in the Mass. What a mockery 1 How can you comply 1 

2. — ^It was after supper the communion was given. 
You or your priest dare not, under the guilt of mortal 
sin, eat or drink any thing before, though you may eat 
and drink as much as you please immediately after ; and 
thus you confound in your stomachs what you eat and 
drink of your ordinary food with that you believe to be 
the body and blood of our Lord. 

3. — ^We read of no " incense" being used ; we hear 
of no " bells" being rung ; we hear of no " crossings ;" 
we hear of no moving about from one side to another 
of the altar or table, of no kneelings down and gettings 
up — ^making the whole ceremony appear like a theatrical 

4. — ^We hear of no relics, holy bones, or blessed gar- 
ments of saints, being placed under the altar, as neces- 
sary to give increased sanctity to the place and cere- 
mony; upon your own grounds, most inconsistently, 
and, alas ! impiously concluding that the body and blood 
of our Lord are not sufficient for such a purpose. 

6.---0ur Lord took bread and broke it, and gave it to 
his disciples, and told them to eat. Your church can- 


not do this, for you say it has become his body ; and, 
instead of always giving it to the people present, you 
pray that it may be carried up to heaven, by an angel, 
as an offering for sin, when Jesus is there himself al- 
ready, his work being finished, John xvii. 4 ; xix. 30. 

G. — You cannot break the body, as Jesus did the 
bread, because you say it multiplies at every division ; 
so that the smallest crumb or particle you make of the 
bread, becomes a body. 

7. — In solitary Masses, the people eat not, only the 
priest ; and in some public Masses, oftentimes the same 
occurs ; therefore, the words of our Lord, as repeated 
by you in Latin, are only a mockery, and would appear 
more absurd if you understood the invitation to partake, 
which you were not allowed to accept. 

8. — Our Lord gave the chalice to all present, and 
said expressly — " Drink ye all of it." Your church 
does not obey this command. 

9. — Our Lord says : " Take and eat : this is my body." 
You, instead of taking and eating it, fall down and wor- 
ship that piece of bread or wafer, which our Lord meant 
only to represent his body ; as he calls himself a door, 
a vine, &c. 

10. — Our Lord has told us, to do this in remembrance 
of him ; and the apostle tells us that by our doing so, 
that is, eating the bread and drinking the chalice, *' we 
show the Lord's death until he come" from the right 
hand of God, 1 Cor. xi. 26, where he now is. This is 
unintelligible, upon the supposition that his body, blood, 
soul, and divinity are present upon the altar already. 
We are not said to " remember" what we are looking 
at ; and, surely, the apostle could never have spoken of 
the future coming of the Lord, if he were come already, 
and if every officiating priest held him in his hands. 
We may here remark, that. the translation of the original 
words in either Greek or Latin, by the expression, 
•* show," does not convey the true meaning. The words 
signify " declare," " tell forth," " publish," " proclaim." 
Your church makes the Mass a sort of history of the 
Passion of our Lord ; teaching you that each part of the 


Mass has a reference to some cireumetanee of oni 
Lord's sufferings ; and thus yon understand the words. 
Bat in the Eucharist, we proclaim our belief in the 
death of the Saviour. In the Eucharist, we declare 
that he hath* died for sin ; and by our continuing to obey 
his dying command of celebrating his Last Supper in 
the manner appointed by himself, in remembrance of 
him, we admit his authority, we feel his presence ; re- 
membering what he himself has told us, Mat. xviii. idO~^ 
** Where two or three are gathered together in my 
name, there am I in the midst hi them ;" and we feel 
assured that he will fulfil his promise that he will never 
be absent from the government of his church which he 
has established, until the consummation of all things ; 
and that the rules and laws of that government, as set 
forth in Holy Scripture, admit of no change, and that no 
powet in heaven or on earth can interfere with that au- 
thority which Jesus, as mediator, has received from the 

11. — ^Again,the disciples took the bread and the wine 
themselves from the hands of our Lord, and eat or 
chewed the bread, like any ordinary food. Your priest 
takes the wafer and places it upon your tongues, which 
you are expressly commanded not to chew, but to swal- 
low entire — ^the wine is not given at all. 

12. — Every thing our Lord spoke, he uttered in an 
audible voice. Your priest says many of the prayers to 

13. — ^The bread was eaten in our Lord's time. Your 
church frequently locks up in a little box that which she 
calls our Lord's body, and which you worship as such ; 
and against which, as we before observed, you are cau- 
tioned. Mat. xxiv. 26. 

14. — There was no mention by our Lord or his apos- 
tles of prayer for saints' and angels' intercession ; no 
confession to them of sins ; no aUusion made to their 
merits at the Last Supper. 

15. — ^Your church sdso teaches, that in your Mass 
there is a propitiatory sacrifice for both living and dead. 
In the Lord's Supper we find no marks of any such ; as 


was stated in the preceding pages, there was a full and 
complete sacrifice ^^ finished*^ on Calvary. And your 
church teaches, that although our Lord is not offered in 
a " bloody" manner, yet stSl he is in an unbloody man- 
ner in the Mass. Here, again, we have another evi- 
dence of the inconsistence of your doctrines with each 
other. St. Paul, Romans vi. 9, says — " Knowing that 
Christ rising again from the dead, dieth now no more." 
And again, God says. Gen. ix. 4, " the blood is the 
life ;" but to, have his blood drunk by the priests, and 
still to believe his body to be alive, requires the most 
unbounded confidence in the teaching of your church, 
which there supersedes the authority of God himself. 
Nothing, you say, is impossible with God. We admit 
this — except to assert that which is untrue. And we 
fearlessly say, that it is utterly impossible for the God 
of holiness and truth, who caused the Holy Scriptures, 
as he tells us by his inspired servants, to be written for 
our instruction, to require us to believe and to practise 
what he, in those same Scriptures, so openly condemns. 
His word tells you the one sacrifice is perfect and svffir 
cient; by your acts you profess to disbelieve it. St. 
Paul tells you, Heb. x. 18, " there is no more an obla- 
tion for sin :" you disbelieve St. Paul, and adhere to 
the teaching of your false church, which is only leading 
you on to destruction. 

I could easily multiply the differences between your 
Mass and the Lord's Supper ; but sufficient have been 
mentioned to show you how little pretensions your 
church has to call herself apostolical, as being governed 
by the apostolic rules and writings. 

I shall now endeavor to show you, from your own 
writers, at what periods the different parts of the Mass 
were added. 

You can easily discover, by reference to the Gospels, 
how our Blessed Lord instituted it ; you can there learn 
the forms which he used — how few and how simple. 
Next we come to St. Paul, and we find in the eleventh 
chap, of 1 Cor., to which we have frequently referred, 
the manner in which our Lord had commanded his 



Last Supper to be celebrated. '* I hare received from 
the Lord," Paul tells us, ver. 23, " that which also I 
delivered unto you, that," &c. We next bring you to 
the second century, and refer you to the account given 
by Justin Martyr of the manner in which the Eucharist 
was then celebrated ; and the only change or addition 
we find, is water being used, and the meaning of this 
was showed you before : a proof also that the church in 
those days did not believe in the wine being changed 
into the blood of our Lord ; as, if so, they never woidd 
have had water mixed with it. The reason of thi s is plain . 
Mixing the water with the wine, as we observed before, 
had allusion to the water and blood which flowed from 
the wounded side of the Lord Jesus. Surely the church 
never taught that the water was changed into this very 
same water which flowed from his body. It was used 
only to represent the water ; and, in like manner, the 
wine was never considered as becoming the same blood j 
but only representing it, like the water. To believe 
that the water remains only conmion water, and that the 
wine becomes that very same blood, and yet that they 
are to be mixed together, involves absurdities utterly 
repugnant to common sense, as well as to primitive be- 
lief. Both the bread and the wine were given to all ; 
but not a sentence do we find about all those vain, fool- 
- ish, and contradictory forms and ceremonies which were 
subsequently introduced, and upon which we have so 
strongly commented in the preceding pages. No ele- 
vation of the bread and wine ; no adoration of ele- 
ments : all plain and simple. The truth is, the Roman 
Mass gradually assumed its present shape ; and as 
new doctrines were introduced, it became necessary to 
have additional prayers and forms to suit these novel- 
ties. • 

In the fifth century the " Judica me Deus" and the 
Introite were added by Pope Celestine. 

The " Confiteor," as now used, filled with idolatrous 
petitions, is not older than the eleventh century. There 
was a public confession introduced by Bishop Damasas, 
in the fourth century, but it differed widely from yonr 


present one. PriTate confession to a priest, in order to 
obtain absolution, was unknown in those days. 

The " Gloria in Excelsis" was introduced by Pope 
Symmaehus in the sixth century. 

The ** Kyrie Eleison," and several other short prayers, 
were taken from the Greek Liturgies. 

Gregory I., as he is called, who was bishop of Rome 
in the sixth, and beginning of the seventh century, 
brought in several most important additions to the Mass. 
He also introduced the Lord's Prayer immediately after 
the canon ; because, as he said, " the apostles had a 
custom of consecrating the oblation with this prayer 
only," (Dupin, De Vita Gregorii.) There was little 
notion in those times of the doctrine of transubstantia- 

The elevation or adoring the consecrated host is only 
comparatively modem. Bona, a Roman author, to whom 
we have before alluded, and who is considered of high 
authority in the Roman church, admits that this prac- 
tice is of late introduction. If we are asked when the 
host was elevated and adored as the body and blood of 
our Lord, we answer, that the practice was introduced 
in the thirteenth century. The first constitution upon 
the subject, is that of Honorius' III., who was pope in 
the year of our Lord 1316. It is as follows :— " That 
priests should often teach their people that at the cele- 
bration of Mass, when the host is lifted up, they should 
kneel with respect, and that they should also kneel when 
the priest carries it to any sick person." 

Gregory IX., who succeeded Honorius, a. d. 1237, 
invented the custom of ringing a bell to warn the peo- 
ple to fall down upon their knees to adore the conse- 
crated host. Thus you perceive that many of those 
practices which you now use at Mass, and which yon 
are taught to believe were from the beginning, are in- 
novations, and were utterly unknown to the Primitive 
Church. No sooner was the doctrine of transubstan- 
tiation received in the Roman Church, than, as we be- 
fore stated, numerous forms and doctrines succeeded. 
The taking away the cup from the people followed; 

163 THX MA80 AND BU9ft|CS 

ako the doctrine of "concoHutance," or that both the body 
and blood were in each species ; and the elevation and . 
adoration of the host, none of which practices, of coarse, 
we can expect to find before the behef prevailed of the 
substance of bread and the wine being changed into the 
very body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

1 have before me a little book, of which a stereotyped 
edition is published by the Irish Catholic Book Society. 
It is called ^' Manning's Short Way to end Disputes.'* 
I refer you to page 119, &c., where there is an en- 
deavor to show that the Mass was said from the earliest 
times of Christianity. If by Mass, we reply, you mean 
the Lord's Supper, or Eucharist, we admit such to be 
true. The Lord's Supper was celebrated from the be- 
ginning by our Lord himself first. There is a quota- 
tion mAjde, in this book, from Gregory's writings, who 
lived in the sixth and seventh centuries, as follows : (to 
show that Pope Gregory said Mass in the sixth centu* 
ry, and that therefore the Mass is as old as his times,) 
— ^** Since, God willing, I shall say Mass thrice to-day, 
T cannot be very long in my discourse upon the G^wpel." 
But this Mass which Gregory said, was a very differ- 
ent service from what you use in your chapels, as I 
think we have fully shown ; in fact, it was nothing but 
the Lord's Su{$>er. Manning goes on to say, page 120 
— " The most ancient of the fathers have left us an ac- 
count of the manner of celebrating Mass in their days, 
as Justin Martyr." We have already seen, in the 
early part of this work, a quotation by one of your own 
authors, of the manner that, not the Mass, but the 
Eucharist, was celebrated in his day. Surely Justin, 
if now alive, and present at your service, would never 
recognise your present practices as having any resem* 
blance with the forms then used. " The Roman Litur- 
gy," Manning proceeds to tell us, *' is likewise very an- 
cient, as appears from the sacramentary or ritual of 
Pope Gregory I., who abridged the liturgy of Pope 
Gelasius, a father of the fifth age, (this, we must re- 
mind you, was the pope who so expressly commanded 
both species of bread and wine in all cases to be given 


to the people,) and he only pat it into some better order, 
with a few inconsiderable alterations made in it ; so 
that any impartial reader of antiquity will find the 
whole church at Mass in the fourth and fifth centuries, 
and a crowd of venerable witnesses to attest it." 

Thus you have an express admission of what I have 
been endeavoring to prove, that your celebration of 
Mass now is very far from the original mode of cele- 
bration. It is of these, what Manning calls '^ incon- 
siderable alterations," we complain, by which the entire 
scope and tendency of the sacrament have been per- 
verted. Manning says, " The substance or essence of 
the Mass consists precisely in being an unbloody sacri- 
fice offered to God by the priests of the new law, upon 
the altar, or, what amounts to the same, an external 
oblation of the body and blood of Christ, under the 
forms of bread and wine." Surely our Lord, or his 
holy apostles, teach no such doctrine, as we have shown 
before. There is no more sacrifice for sin, St. Paul 
tells us, since the great finished and complete sacrifice 
on Calvary. Heb. ix. 28, x. 18. The Lord's Supper 
was commemorative, as reminding us of what our di- 
vine Redeemer had done for us, and was to b#continued 
a» he had appointed until his coming, again. Manning 
next makes a most important admission, confirmatory 
of what we have been saying all through — ^^ That as 
to the ceremonies, they belong only to the decency or 
solemnity, but are no part of the substance of the 
Mass ; and, therefore, ajs they were gradually intro- 
duced in the primitive ages, so, if the church thought 
fitting, she might even now make alterations in them." 

Here is a full admission of the truth of what we 
have been stating in the preceding pages — ^that the 
composition of your Mass now, is very different from 
what it was when called the " Lord's Supper." Cere- 
mony after ceremony was added — ^new doctrines were 
introduced into the prayers ; so that at length we have 
it, as it is at present, a complete piece of patchwork, 
and even the parts of this patchwork not arranged in 
«ny order, or harmonising with each other. 


We may now perceive the reason why the Mass has 
not heen translated'^since it assumed its present form. 
The Latin is not a living language, and consequently 
its glaring inconsistencies have not been perceived by 
the people, and have been studiously kept from their 
knowledge ; for, as for those translations which are 
placed in your hands, they are only translations of parts 
of the Mass ; a considerable portion remains concealed 
in the Latin, untranslated ; and as for the rubrics, which 
give directions about your multiplied and absurd forms 
and ceremonies, you are left in utter ignorance respect- 

The old Roman ritual differed most essentially from 
the state into which it was altered by Gregory the 
Great, as he is styled in your church ; and although 
Manning admits that your present Mass may be altered 
and restored to its primitive state, by being divested of 
those inconsistent and contradictory patchwork addi- 
tions which were subsequently gradually introduced, 
and some of them imposed by force upon the people, as 
we learn from church history, yet this is a refonnation 
your church never will concede. It was the insisting 
upon thi#being done — ^that the forms and ceremonies 
of the church should be restored to their primitive 
state ; it was the insisting that no doctrines should be 
admitted or entertained, but such as were sanctioned 
and taught by the inspired apostles in the l^oly Scrip* 
tures, which brought down the vengeance of the apos- 
tate Church of Rome upon all who presumed to raise 
their voices against her numerous heresies. To re- 
form, she never wUly never can consent. Her infallible 
councils have sent forth certain decrees, have pro- 
nounced certain anathemas, against all those who refuse 
to submit to her usurped authority ; nor can she, with- 
out openly compromising her claims to infallibility, re- 
trace her steps, and return to primitive and apostolic 
usage. The Pope claims to be Christ's vicar upon 
earth, asserting that our Lord has delegated to him full 
power and authority over his flock ; and, therefore, that 
there can be no human tribunal competent to call in 


question the laws and rules which he adopts in the gov- 
emment of the church. We have seen in the preced- 
ing pages how little sanction this pretended claim of 
your Popes derives from God's word. 

I bring the subject again before your view, only to 
show you that the principles of Protestantism and Ro- 
manism are essentially different; and that although 
they may both hold and do hold the fundamentals of the 
Gospel in their common belief, yet they arrive at these 
truths by means of a totally different process — the one 
takes the Word of God, the Holy Scriptures, for their 
guide, as interpreted by Scripture itself, which is the 
best comment upon doctrinal points — the other, your 
church, refuses to refer to Scripture for that purpose, 
as being taught to believe implicitly that you have a 
livings a present infallible guide which can never lead 
you astray. The pope and the Roman church can 
never sanction the study of God's Word for " instruc- 
tion in righteousness" — can never sanction the belief 
that it is profitable for "doctrine" — can never admit 
that, if blessed by the Spirit of God, its use can " make 
the man of God perfect, thoroughly furnished to every 
good work," 2 Tim. iii. 16. Therefore I repeat, until 
you are determined, with God's assistance, to make use 
of the reason which he has bestowed upon you, unless 
you endeavor to ascertain the grounds of those claims 
by which you are kept under such spiritual thraldom, 
you will continue forever subjugated and enslaved — 
your spiritual bondage will never be broken, and you 
will remaip wilfully shutting your eyes to that glorious 
day-star, that clear and brilliant light which emanates 
from God's revealed word. 

But, you say, as you are taught to do, how can we 
understand these things ? Has not St. Peter told us 
that there are many things "hard to be understood, 
which the unlearned and unstable wrest to their own 
destruction 1" Out of your own mouth you are con- 
demned. You say that the Scriptures are hard to be 
understood — that persons may wrest those Scriptures 
to their own destruction ; and yet by reference to your 


own Mmters, to those whose authority is admitted by 
yoor church, we shall find them endeavoring to prove 
their claims, endeavoring to establish their doctrines, by 
reference to those very Scriptures which your church 
teaches you to believe are very insufficient and danger- 
ous guides ! How can you tell but that you misinterpret 
and misunderstand those very passages 1 How can you 
tell but you wrest them, as in all sincerity we believe you 
do, to your own destruction ? 

Mark, the unstable are spoken of as wresting the 
Scriptures to their own destruction ; alas ! is not your 
church unstable in the extreme? Is she now, by your 
own admission, what she was when Paul addressed his 
Epistle to the Romans ? Was she the same even seven 
hundred years after our Lord, when the title of Univer- 
sal Bishop had been assumed, after Gregory I., who 
was consecrated bishop of Rome in the year 690, said 
that " whosoever used such a title was the forerunner 
of Antichrist.'' At this period also, as we have seen, 
various changes and innovations had been made in the 
mode of celebrating the Eucharist — ^the invocation of 
saints and angels — the use of relics or holy bones and 
garments, &c. &c. — ^prayers for the dead, and other 
vain and ungodly doctrines were creeping in, though 
many were raising their voices against them, as we 
learn when we consult Church History. Let us next 
advance to the thirteenth century, and now we shall 
find the popish weeds flourishing most luxuriously in 
the Lord's vineyard, and attaining an advance in growth 
which their first introducers could never have anticipa- 
ted. The absurd and blasphemous doctrine of transub- 
stantiation, with all its false and wicked accompani- 
ments, was forced upon the people ; and Rome, the 
Babylon of the Book of Revelation, became deeply 
stained with the blood of those faithful witnesses who 
raised their voices for the pure faith of the Gospel. 
Oh ! it is a heart-rending account to read of the dread- 
ful crusades excited by the pope in those days against 
all who rebelled against his authority. Entire armies 
were marched against those falsely called heretics ; smd 


thtis Rome proved her right to appropriate St. John^s 
description to herself: of being '^ drunk with the blood 
of the saints," (Rev. xvii. 6.) 

Let us advance to the sixteenth century — ^we find 
Rome again " unstable ;" we find new doctrines, or 
what you term matters of " discipline," added. The 
Council of Trent, the last Council held, widened the 
breach, if possible, more than ever ; and yopr church, 
Babylon the Great of Scripture, now, my Roman Cath- 
olic brethren, stands forth in those enlightened days an 
unwieldy and tottering structure, assaulted on every 
side by weapons and engines supplied from God^s ar- 
mory, the .Bible, abiding the time when the inspired 
' prophets of God in numerous places declare she will be 
overthrown and utterly destroyed. 

You quote many passages of Scripture, and you say 
these give support to your system. Surely, Scripture 
taught by the Holy Spirit, cannot contradict itself; 
when it apparently does so, that seeming contradiction 
and difficulty must be caused by your not understanding 
the meaning aright. What then should you do 1 Should 
you have recourse to partial and prejudiced guides, 
whose interest and profit it is to deceive you ? No ; • 
you should have recourse to God himself, who has in-, 
vited you to come to him for the counsel and direction 
of his Spirit ; and be assured, if you sincerely and earn- 
estly solicit advice and assistance, the apparent discord 
will soon be resolved into harmony, and the agreement 
in doctrine and faith and practice of the various parts 
of Scripture will become manifest. Your church in- 
quires triumphantly, does not the reading of the Bible, 
without due regard to the churches authority, multiply 
sects and divisions 1 You inquire, do we not see Pro^ 
testantism split into numerous sects and parties, all 
claiming the sanction of the Bible 1 It is to be lamented 
that such divisions exist ; but there were divisions 
among the apostles themselves, to some of which we 
have alluded in the preceding pages. There were ever 
divisions upon various points in the church ; and men 
with minds constituted as they are, can never be 


farongfat to view aD things exactly alike. Why were 
your numerons councils held, but as an attempt to 
.produce uniformity in belief — and has this succeeded t 
You haye council contradicting council ; one repealing 
what the other has determined. 

There are several points upon which your church has 
pronounced no decision, and upon which you are per- 
mitted to entertain various opinions. ^' The immaculate 
conception of the Virgin" is one, respecting which 
there has been the fiercest contention. Even respect- 
ing your doctrine of transubstantiation, your own authors 
differ widely as to the mode of this taking place-— some 
assert one thing, others something different. As to your 
boasted infallibility, as we before remarked, your authors 
are not agreed ; some placing it in a general councO, 
others in the popes, and others again in popes and coun- 
cils united. No council has, nor, from the very nature 
of the decision^ could determine it. 

In your system you have no guide you can safely fol- 
low ; strange to say, you are deprived of even the Scri|K- 
tures, which you admit to be God's own word, by the 
authority of your church, for so unnecessary does she 
^consider them to uphold your system, or rather so hos- 
tile to her professed doctrines and principles does she 
know them to be, that they are suffered to remain locked 
up in tlie Latin language ; and those various translations 
which you have, possess no weight, no authority, but 
must be considered as the workmanship of private indi- 
viduals, and not of the church at large, which never of- 
ficially approved of any of them. 

The first symptoms of doubt expressed by you respect- 
ing thiB competence of your professing guides, are at 
once endeavored to be repressed. The moment you in- 
timate to your confessors the least suspicion of the truth 
of your church, your inquiries are silenced, and you axe 
told you are committing mortal sin to allow your thoughts 
to wander upon forbidden grround. 

But Protestants do not differ as widely as you imagine. 
There are certain matters of discipline, such as church 
government, upon which manv conceive the inspiied 


«po8tle8 have not pronounced decisivdy, hence men 
imagine that upon these points freedom of opinion is 
permitted ; and howeyer we may lament disunion and 
division, surely it is better than to have the minds and 
consciences of men so fettered that where even funda- 
mental error Js proposed, they are forced to assent to it, 
even against their conscientious convictions. How, 
your Church has inquired, will you convince from Scrip- 
ture a Unitarian, that the inten>retation which he gives 
to a passage of Scripture, which apparently states the 
inferiority of the Son to the Father, is not correct. 
Why has not he, you ask, as just a claim to interpret its 
meaning according to his views, as you have ? Where 
is the judge t Who is to decide? We answer, the 
Word of God itself. It is not by reference to insulated 
texts that we are to arrive at truth. By adopting this 
^n, error and heresy have uniformly spread ; but, by 
Divine assistance, endeavoring to view the Scriptures 
as a whole, to ascertain the scope and design of God in 
giving us a revelation of his will, and of the nature of 
that will, and by comparing other passages together, thus 
to arrive at the truth. This we can do, so far as the 
essentials of the Gospel are concerned, and nothing can 
be more express and plain than the teaching of the 
Scriptures themselves upon this subject. Of this we 
have, in the preceding pages, given you many instances ; 
thus the Unitarian can be shown those passages, those 
numerous passages which speak of Jesus as God, which 
give him worship as God ; hence, then, he may learn 
that the contradiction is only apparent — ^the one number 
of passages speaking of him as God, the others as man ; 
both of which the Lord Jesus was. And so powerful 
and so numerous are those passages ; so utterly incon- 
sistent with the Unitarian views are the scope and de- 
sign of God^s word, that, in order to reconcile it to their 
principles, they have expunged large portions of the Bible 
and also given the most erroneous translations — endeav- 
oring not to make their views agree with Scripture, but 
to pare away part, and mould the remainder into a shape 
corresponding with their false and corrupt principles. 


Toar church teaches that the priest can bring the 
body and blood of our Lord upon your altar. The 
Catechism of the Council of Trent says " De sac Eu- 
oharistae." But now the pastors must here explain that 
not only the true 5ody of Christ, and whatsoever apper- 
tains to the true mode of existence of a body, as the 
bones and nerves, (veluti ossa et nervos,) but also that 
entire Christ is contained in this sacrament, and yet we 
hear St. Paul saying, 2 Cor. v. 16, 16, "And Christ 
died for all, that they also who live may not now live to 
themselves, but to him who died for them and rose again. 
Wherefore, because Jesus rose from the dead, hence- 
forth we know no man according to the flesh. And if 
we have known Christ according to the flesh, but nOw we 
know him so no longer." Can any thing be more clear- 
ly contradictory of the above passage, which professes 
to explain the nature of Christ's presence upon the altar, 
extracted from the Catechism of the Council of Trent ? 

When Jesus wished to prove to his disciples that his 
body was really present before them after his resurrec- 
tion, and before his ascension to the right hand of God 
his Father, he says, Luke xxiv. 39 — " Handle mo and 
see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me 
have." Here our Lord appeals to two of the senses 
of hiq disciples — ^sight and touch. You are not per- 
mitted to use either. You see neither his flesh nor his 
bones, but a little round wafer made of flour and water. 
Nor are you suffered to handle it, this you are expressly 
prevented from doing by its being placed upon your 
tongues ; and yet your Church calls upon you to believe 
that his body is before you. You are taught to distrust 
the efficacy of our Lord's intercession, and to suppose 
that you require other intercessors to assist in offering 
up your prayers — ^when Jesus himself tells you that his 
advocacy and his merits alone are sufficient, and that 
" whatsoever we ask the Father in his name, that we 
shall receive," John xvi. 23, 24. You are also taught 
to offer up the most blasphemous prayers to the Virgin, 
and to other saints. The Virgin is called, in one of the 
prayers in the breviary, used upon September 9, " Spes 


nnica peccatorum, &c.," the only h<^ of sinners, " by 
thee we hope for pardon, and in thee, most blessed, is 
the expectation of our rewards." 

I could easily multiply, instances of these wicked and 
unsoriptural prayers to a very great extent, but I con- 
fine mysdf to your Mass. 

You entirely change the design and object of the 
Supper of the Lord. But you will here answer, Have 
we not the authority of the Church? Does not our 
Lord say, " that we are to consider him who does not 
hear the Church as a heathen man and a publican ?" 
Matt, xviii. 17. Yes, our Lord does say so. Now I 
will not assume that our Lord is only here speaking 
concerning those private dissensions and disputes, 
which the members of the Christian community to 
which both parties belong, have a right to settle, and 
not of any grave matters of doctrine, respecting which 
there may be a difference in opinion. I will assume 
that the Church has a^ithority, and I will show you 
from the verse following in whom that authority was to 
centre. "Amen," saith our Lord, "I say unto you, 
whatsoever you shall bind on earth, shall be bound also 
in heaven ; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, 
shall be loosed also in heaven." Thus we see ^ that the 
authority of binding and loosing was delegated or in- 
trusted to the Apostles, who, as we have so often ob- 
served in the preceding pages, were guided by the 
Holy Ghost in their decisions, and were prevented 
from committing any matter to writing but that which 
obtained the sanction of our Lord himself. 

In the New Testament, therefore — ^the inspired com- 
position of Christ's holy Apostles — ^we have our rule 
of faith ; his Church, or assemblage of the faithful be- 
lievers in him, was to be governed by this authority. 
Where was the Church of Rome at this time 1 Where 
was the Pope of Rome ? Where were your infallible 
decrees? Where were all your contradictory forms 
find ceremonies ? Were they taught by the Apostles — 
were they sanctioned by our Lord ? We find no traces 
of any such in the sacred records. The same way of 


salyation was at the begpinning which is now ; and that 
way was taught by our Lord's Apostles, orally or by 
word of mouth, after his ascension ; and was by them 
afterwards committed to writing, and those writings 
were collected together and circulated, to prevent false 
doctrines being imposed upon the people as truth. 

If we hear the Church of Christ, if we obey the 
Church of Christ, we must disobey the Church of 
Rome. If we follow the teaching of the Church of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, as set forth in the writings of 
his servants, we must reject the teaching of your 
Church, for the one is contrary to the other. Why 
does the Roman Catholic Church object to the writings 
of the holy Prophets and Apostles being read and con- 
sulted by you, but because she well knows that her 
doctrines are not to be found there ? She never wiU, 
. nor she never can, notwithstanding all her professions 
tbout permitting you to read the Scriptures — an out- 
ward consent extorted from lier by the increase of 
knowledge and independence in these free Protestant 
countries — cordially suffer you to do so. And see the 
restrictions she lays upon you — she may in certain 
cases permit you to read them, but she fetters your 
judgment, she chains up your intellect, and she requires 
from you the most implicit and unreserved submission 
to the authority of the Church. Thus she seeks to 
neutralize the very object and design of the Scriptures 
being given ; and by a false but craftily designed show 
of liberality, to keep you still in the most degrading 
bondage and superstition. She objects, and consistently 
too, to the use of the Holy Scriptures by the youth of 
the land in schools, well convinced that to the unbiased 
and unprejudiced minds of children, this study must be 
especially injurious to her interests. Choose, therefore, 
between both teachers : the Apostles, or your Roman 
Church. What motive could the Apostles of our Lord 
have in deceiving you! — ^the Church of Rome has 
many. May the Lord direct and guide you, and lead 
you in the right way. 

I have endeavored, I trust, to avoid all imnecessary 


cause of oftence, and to show you the dangerous state 
in which you are while following false teachers, and 
have directed you to that sacred volume from whence, 
with the Divine blessing, you can obtain all necessary 

There are several other erroneous and antiscriptural 
tenets which you are called upon to believe, and which 
the design of this present work does not suffer me to 
notice. For all these you will find a remedy in the 
writings of our Lord^s inspired Apostles; to them, 
therefore, I refer you, and earnestly pray that their 
words may be blessed to your souls. 

I shall now proceed to give a brief statement of part 
of your system, of which the Roman laity know very 
little — I mean what are called in your Roman Missals, 
" Defects in the Mass." The title of this part in the 
beginning of the Missal is — '* de defectibus in cele- 



We have said much about the absurdities and anti- 
scriptural practices of your church at the celebration of 
the Lord's Supper, which she has called the Mass ; but 
the most extraordinary part of her system is, that, after 
having most authoritatively pronounced that the body 
and blood, with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, is upon the altar, or in the priest's hands, (see 
creed of Pope Pius IV. ;) and after having compelled 
you to fall down and worship the host as such, your in- 
fallible church teaches that there are many circumstan- 
ces which may occur, and which do frequently occur, 
which will prevent this change taking place : so that 
you will only adore a little round wafer made of flour 
and water, and a little common wine ! You may start 
at this, but it is no invention of mine ; the church to 
which you belong has, at the commencement of the 
Missal, inserted these several cases, to which you can 
at once refer. It does appear to me to be one of the 
strongest arguments against the preposterous claims of 

164 rax mass asd rvbkicm 

jonr church to iniallibiHty, that you are left, when yon 
attend your place of worship, io doubt as to whether, 
upon your own principles, you are worshipping the Sa- 
yionr in the transubstantiated elements, or are guilty of 
the most debasing idolatry. 

The following are some of the instructions given by 
your church to your officiating priests. You will find 
them at the beginning of the Missal used by the priest 
at Mass v — 

R. — Sacerdos celebraturus omnem adhibeat diligen- 
tiam ne desit aliquid ex requisitis ad sacramentum Eu- 
charistie conficiendum. Potest autem defectus contin- 
gere ex parte materiee consecrands, et ex parte forme 
adhibends, et ex parte ministri conficientis. Quicquid 
enim horum deficit, scilicet materia debita, forma cum 
intentiode et ordo Sacerdotalis in conficiente non confi- 
citur sacramentum. Et his existentibus quibuscunque 
aliis deficientibus, Veritas adest sacramenti. Alii vero 
sunt defectus qui in Missae celebratione occurrentes, etsi 
Teritatem sacramenti non impediant, possunt tamen aut 
cum peccato, aut cum scandsdo, contingere. 

T. — The priest who is about to celebrate Mass, must 
use all diligence, lest any of those things be wanted 
which are requisite for the perfecting the sacrament of 
the Eucharist. A " defect" can happen on the part of 
the materials about to be consecrated, on the part of the 
form to be made use of, and on the part of the officiating 
priest ; for whichever of these are wanting, namely, the 
proper materials, the form with the intention, and the 
priestly order in the person officiating, the sacrament is 
not perfected. But if these several things are there, 
whatever other matters may be wanting, the true sacrar 
ment is present. But there are other defects, which oc- 
cur in the celebration of the Mass ; and although they do 
not impede the truth of the sacrament, yet are attended 
with sin and scandal. 

In these instructions given to your pneats, you per- 
ceive that there are four distinct classes of Refects, and 
that any of theae will vitiate the sacrament, or pieveat 


the tfansubstantiation taking place. These four classes 
refer — 

1. — ^To the materials of the bread and the wine. 

2. — ^To the form used in the consecration of the ele- 

3. — ^To the intention of the officiating priest. 

4. — The priestly order of the person who celebrates. 

With respect to the first class, we read as follows : 

De defectibus raateriae. 

T. — Concerning the defects of the material, 

Defectus ex parte materiae possunt contingere, si ali- 
quid desit ex iis, quae ad ipsam requirantur, requiritur 
enim ut sit panis triticeus et vinum de vite, et ut hujus- 
modi materia consecranda in actu consecrationes sit co- 
ram sacerdote. 

T. — Defects with respect to the material can occur, 
if any thing be wanting of those which are required for 
its composition ; for it is required that the bread should 
be made of wheat, and the wine from the vine or grape ; 
and also that the material of the kind about to be con- 
secrated, should in the act of consecration be before the 

De defectu panis. 

T.—The defect of the bread. 

Si panis non sit triticeus, vel si triticeus admixtus sit 
granis alterius generis in tanta quantitate ut non maneat 
panis triticeus, vel si alioqui corruptus, non conficitur sa- 
cramentum. * 

T. — if the bread he not made of wheat, or if made of 
wheat it be mixed with grains of another kind of corn 
in so large a quantity as not to remain wheaten bread, 
or if it be otherwise corrupted, the sacrament is not 

See now the position in which you are placed. You 
know nothing of the composition of the wafer — you have 
not seen it made ; and yet you are told, upon the autho- 
rity of your infallible Church, that if it be not made of 
wheat, or if there be too large a mixture of other corn,. 


that the words of coDsecratioii go for nothiogi aad thai 

no change into the body of our Lord takes jdace ; as if 
the power of God were limited to the change only of 
wheaten bread into the body of oar Lord. Surely if it 
be true in the one case, it must he true in the other. If 
it be false in the one case, it must he false in the other. 
And yet your church instructs you, that yon can never 
he certain, notwithstanding all the prayers, crossings, 
sprinklings, incensing, &c. &c., that the body of our 
Lord is present at all ; but that you may, and for aught 
you know to the contrary often do, kneel down and adore 
nothing but a cake of bread. I have said sufficient to 
prove to you that no change takes place in any case ; 
that let the composition of the wafer or wine be what it 
may, it still remains the same in substance and proper- 
ties, or ** accidents,*' as your church terms them ; and 
that our Lord merely used bread, not for the purpose 
of becoming his body, but of representing his body. 

The next passage in the list of detects contains^a 
strange and startling declaration for an infallible church 
to make. 

Si sit confectus de aqua rosacea, vol alterius distil- 
lationis, dvhium est, an conficiatur. 

T. — If the bread be made with rose-water, or with 
any other distilled water, it is doubtfid whether the sac* 
lament is perfected. 

So you see that your infallible church, with, as yon 
assert, our Lord^s vicar, the pope, at its head, cannot 
decide in this particular instance. And you know not 
what you worship, whether the Lord Jesus or bread ; 
and if you ask the priest, he is equally ignorant ; and if 
yon go to the pope for information, he can give you none. 
Now, really, I conceive that this passage alone should 
be sufficient to shake your confidence in your guides, 
when they acknowledge that they cannot tell you whe- 
ther you are worshipping God or bread. See the con- 
sequences of your unscriptural and. absurd doctrines ! 

There are some other rubrics or directions under this 
class which I shall pass over, however unmeaning and 


fi)oli8h they appear ; but the seyenth I cannot refirain 
from giving you. 

Si hostia consecrata dispareat vel casu aliquo nt vento 
aut miraculo, vel ab aliquo animali accepta et nequeat 
reperiri tunc altera consecretur ab eo loco incipiendo. 
" Qui pridie qnam pateretur," facta ejus prius oblatione 
ut supra. 

T. — If the consecrated host disappears either by some 
accident, as being blown away by the wind, or by some 
miracle, or taken away by some animal and cannot be 
found, then let another be consecrated, beginning with 
the words in that place — " Who the day before he suf- 
fered ;" having first made the oblation as above.* 

When first I read this rubric I was perfectly aston- 
ished ; in fact, I cannot find words to express my utter 
amazement, how any Christian body of men, professing 
to acknowledge the sacred Scriptures as God's Word, 
could publish such blasphemy as that the body of our 
Lord, accompanied, as you teach, by his soul and di- 
vinity, could be blown away by the wind, could be car- 
ried off and eaten by a dog, a cat, a rat, or a mouse. 
One of the most forcible arguments put forward in the 
Bible against the worship of idols, is that they cannot 
help or defend themselves — ^that they have no sense of 
feeling, no strength. These arguments are used in many 
parts of Scripture : 1 Sam. v. 4 ; Isaiah xliv. 17, xl. 
18, xlv. 20; Jer. x. 6; Jer. jiv. 22, li. 18; Psahn 
cxv. 2 ; and yet here you teach that our Lord cannot 

* We have here » wUAil mistranslation of the words of Holy Scrip- 
tate. It is stated that<4e day before our Lord snflfered, '* Pridie," " he 
took bread," &c., ij^at is, institated the Last tapper. This your church 
states, in order to ijutify your having Mass only in the morning, and as 
an encouragemenfto her rules of tasting which she enforces, before the 
priest celebrates |lai^ and which could not be adhered to until the 
evening. It was $h€ night before he suffered that the Last Supper was 
instituted. How can your church justify herself in thus altering the 
evnressions of God's word to suit her own corrupt and novel views 1 
we gave a similar instance before as to her placing the word " all" in 
Otir Lord's command to his disciples to eat the bread. St Paul tells 
>ou (1 Cor. ii. S3) that it was 'Vt night the Supper was instituted." 
, Qt. Mark also (xlv. 17) says it was eveniog. St Matthew (zxvi. 90) 
lio says the Muoe. 


protect his own body, but that it may be carried off and 
eaten as above mentioned. Be assured, when this ru- 
bric was first appointed, the doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion was unknown. It was merely upon the supposition 
that the bread remained bread ; and this we give you as 
an additional proof of the novelty of this article of your 
creed. I gladly hasten from such a subject, so deroga- 
tory of the power and dignity of the Godhead. 

We now come to consider the " Defects of the Wine" 

Si vinum sit factum penitus acetum, vel penitus pu- 
tridum, vel de uvis acerbis seu non maturis expressum, 
vel ei admixtum tantum aque ut vinum sit corruptum, 
Don conficitur sacramentum. 

T. — If the wine has become entirely sour, or alto- 
gether putrid, or made of sour or unripe grapes, or 
mixed with so much water that the wine is corrupted, 
the sacrament is not perfected ; (that is, as was observed 
before, no transubstaotiation takes place.) 

Now, how is this to be ascertained, whether the wine 
has been made of unripe grapes, or mixed with too 
much water ? Surely you, the members of the congre- 
gation, have no means of knowing the state of the wine ; 
pure, unadulterated wine, the real juice of the grape, is 
most difficult to be obtained. You are not allowed to 
taste it ; but when the chalice is raised up before yon, 
you must kneel and worship you know not what. You 
cannot tell whither the change has taken place. At 
your ordinary stations, a messenger is frequently sent 
by the priest for wine to the nearest public house. You 
cannot tell, nor can the priest, how this wine has been 
adulterated ; and, therefore, you may be called upon to 
worship only a spurious compound or mixture — a strange 
subject for worship ! Thus you see to what mistakes 
you are exposed. There are several other rubrics con- 
cerning the wine, but sufficient have been brought be- 
fore you to show you the uncertain nature of your sys- 

We come next to a new subject — " De defectlbus for- 
m«," or the defects offotm. 


Defectus ex parte formsB possunt contingere si aliqoid 
desit ex lis, quae ad integritatem verborum in ipsa con- 
secralione requiruntur. Verba autem ponsecrationis, 
quae sunt forma bujus sacramenti sunt haec, " Hoc est 
enim corpus meum ;^' et " Hie est enim caiix sanguinis 
mei, novi et eterni testaraenti mysterium fidei, qui pro 
vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccato- 
rum." 8i quis autem aliquid diminueret, vel immutaret 
de forma consecrationis corporis et sanguinis, et in ipsa 
verborum immutatione verba idem non significarent, non 
conficaret sacramentum. Si vero aliquid adderit, quod 
significationem non mutavit, conficeret quidem sed 
gravissime peccaret. 

T. — Defects in respect of " form" can arise, if any 
of those words are wanting which are required for the 
completion of the words which make the consecration. 
The words which constitute " the form" of this sacra- 
ment are as follow — ^^ For this is my body," and " For 
this is the chalice of my blood of the New and Eternal 
Testament which shall be shed for you and for many, 
for the remission of sins." But if any person shall 
diminish or change any thing of the " form" of conse- 
cration of the body and: of the blood, and if in this change 
of the words, the words substituted do not signify the 
same, the sacrament is not perfected. But if any per- 
son adds any thing which does not change the significa- 
tion or meaning, he perfects the sacrament, but at the 
same time he is guilty of very great sin.* 

Now, remember the words of consecration are re- 
peated in a very low voice ; you have, therefore, as you 
cannot hear them, no possible means of knowing whether 
they are correctly repeated or not, or whether the priest 
is guilty of such omissions or additions in the words as 
to vitiate the transubstantiation. Thus you perceive 
here again you are left in doubt ; youworship, for aught 

* We cannot refrain from expressing onr regret here that your church 
has not been npon all occasions equally careftil to follow the exact 
words of Holy Scriptaie. In the preceding note, " upon the rabric 
which directs what is to be done in case of the consecrated host being 
carried ofl^" we have allnded to two remarKable instances of wi^iiS 



you know to the contrary, upon your own grounds, wafei 
or a piece of bread composed of dour and water, and 
common wine, and this your church imperatively com- 
mands you to do, though she tells you at the same time 
that you never can be certain as to the real nature of what 
she compels you to adore ; and you blindly submit to 
this tyranny, though, if you exercised your reason and 
your judgment, you would, from this very circumstance, 
derive sufficient cause to throw off her yoke altogether. 
There are some other rubrics on this subject of 
" form," but sufficient extracts have been brought be- 
fore you ; we now proceed to consider another species 
of Defects. 

De defectibus ministri. 

Concerning the defects of the officiating priest, 

Defectus ex parte ministri, possunt contingere quoad 
ea quae in ipso requiruntur. Haec autem sunt — ^In primis 
intentio ; deinde dispositio animae ; dispositio corporis, 
dispositio vestis mentorum, dispositio in ministerio ipso, 
quoad ea, quae in ipso possunt occurrere. 

T. — Defects on the part of the officiating priest or 
minister may happen with respect to those things which 
are required in himself personally. These are, in the 
first place, intention ; 2dly, disposition of mind ; 3dly, 
disposition of body; 4thly, disposition of vestments; 
5thiy, disposition in the ministration itself as to those 
things which can occur during its performance. 

De defectu Intentionis. 
Of the defect of Intention. 

Si quis non intendit conficere sed delusorie aliquid 
agere. Item si aliquae Hostiae ex oblivione remaneant 
in altari vel aliqua pars vini, vel aliqua Hostia lateat, 
cum non intendat consecrari nisi quas vidit. Item si 
quis habeat coram se undecim Hostias et intendat con- 
secrare solum decem non determinans quas decem in- 
tendit in his casibus non consecrat quia requiratur in- 

T. — 1. If any priest does not intend or design to 


complete the sacrament, or to transubstantiate. 2. In 
like manner, if any hosts from forgetfulness remain upon 
the altar. 3. If any part of the wine or any hosts lie 
concealed, wh^re he only intends to consecrate those 
he sees. 4. Likewise, if the priest has before him ele- 
ven hosts, and intends to consecrate only ten, not de- 
termining which ten, in these cases he does not conse- 
crate, that is, no transubstantiation takes place, because 
his intention is wanting. 

Here you have evidence how entirely dependent you 
are upon the will of your priest. They need never give 
you what they teach you is the body and blood of our 
Lord, and thus a parish priest who wished to punish you, 
can, during the entire time of his ministration, deceive 
you by causing you to worship the untransubstantiated 
wafers an^ wine. We could enlarge upon the conse- 
quences of this most monstrous and absurd doctrine ; in 
fact, such would unsettle the whole of Christianity, be- 
cause intention is taught by your church, not only to be 
necessary in the sacrament of the Eucharist, but in all 
your other six — ^baptism, holy orders, and the others, 
none of which, upon this principle, can you be sure of 
being rightly administered. If this doctrine be true, 
our Lord has suffered i%vain, for he has left his people 
to the will and intention of his erring servants, some of 
whom, as is asserted in the above-quoted rubric, may 
wish to deceive. And it is quite clear, if a priest does 
not believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation, which 
many of them, who have left the Roman Church, give 
convincing proofs that they do not, this change cannot 
take place, and you become guilty of the most degrading 
idolatry. It is vain you say, the fault is the priest's not 
ours — that your intention is sincere. Where is your 
authority for worshipping the host at all! Scrij)ture 
does not teach you to do so ; the practice of the* an- 
cient churches is against you, and if you by modern 
inventions, and the introduction of " will-worship," vol- 
untarily entangle yourselves in falsehood and error, you 
have only to abide by the consequences. 

Can any thing be more absurd than what is said about 

179 THK MABS Ain> RimBICS 

the ten hosts ; of one of them, or of some oi the wine, 
lying concealed, and thus not being changed into the 
body and blood of our Lord ? Surely all these conse- 
quences would be avoided by retaining the primitive 
practice of having a loaf, and from that loaf, conse- 
crated by prayer to God, breaking oflf pieces and giving 

them to the faithful. 


Si sacerdos putans se tenere unam Hostiam, post 
consecrationem invenerit fuisse duas simul junctas, in 
sumptione sumat simul utramque. 

T. — If the priest, supposing that he holds one host, 
after consecration finds that there are two joined to- 
gether, let him take and eat them both at the proper 
time together. 

Here is another instance of the confusion produced 
by this antiscriptural and irrational doctrine. Does 
the priest eat two bodies or one body 1 or if there are a 
number of consecrated hosts heaped together, do they 
all then become only one body, and as they are separa- 
ted do the bodies distinctly and separately multiply 
without a new form of consecration. Surely this rubric 
must have bqen ordained before transubstantiation was 
introduced. The more you examine this doctrine by 
its consequences, the more ftiintelligible it becomes. 
There are several other regulations equally extraordi- 
nary upon this subject, but we have not space to men- 
tion them all. 

De defectibus dispositionis animse. 

Of the defects of the disposition of mind. 

Si quis suspensus, excommunicatus, degradatus, ir- 
regularis, vel alias canonice impeditus celebret, conficit 
quidem sacramentum sed gravissime peccat, tam propter 
communionem, quam indigne sumit, quam propter exe- 
cutionem ordinem, quse sibi erat interdicta. 

T. — If any priest, being suspended, excommunicated, 
degraded, or irregular, or under any other canonical 
impediment, celebrates Mass, he perfects the sacrament, 
but he is guilty of very heinous sin, as well on account 
of the communion which he outivardly partakes of, as 


on that of the exercise of the office of holy orders; 
which he was forbidden to use. 

There are several other rubrics upon the same sub* 

How, we inquire in sober seriousness, is it to be sup- 
posed for a moment that such a character as that de- 
scribed above, could ever receive pow;er from God to 
change the wafer and wine in^o the body and blood of 
the Lord Jesus, to hold him in his hands, and to treat 
that body and that blood perhaps with the greatest in- 
dignity ] We cannot conceive it to be possible. Jesus 
once suffered humiliation ; but that is now over. When 
he comes upon earth again, it will be with power and 
majesty, to reward his faithful servants, and to inflict 
his judgment^ upon those who rejected his authority, as 
set forth in the inspired writings of his prophets and 
apostles. By this doctrine you may perceive that once 
a priest, always a priest ; and that the ministrations of 
any priest who may have rejected the errors of your 
church,'and joined another creed, are, upon this princi- 
ple, equally efficacious as those who still remain in sub- 
jection to her authority. 

De defectibus dispositionis oorporis. 
Concerning the defects of disposition of body. 

Si quis non es jejunus post mediam noctem, etiam post 
sumptionem solius aquse, vel alterius potus aut cibi per 
ihodum etiam medicins, et in quantumcumque parva 
quantitate, non potest communicare nee celebrare. 

If any priest is not fasting from midnight, even after 
the taking of water only, or of any other drink or food 
by way of medicine, and let the quantity be ever so small, 
still he can neither communicate nor celebrate Mass. 

Here, again, you are left subject to the negligence or 
mistake of the priest as to the hour of midnight ; and 
you are told by your infallible church that the priest 
can neither communicate nor celebrate Mass if the small- 
est portion of food or drink has been partaken of after 
that time ; notwithstanding, as we before showed, that 

174 TU VA88 Aim B0BEIC8 

'it was after supper that the Eucharist was originally 
giren and celebrated by our Lord himself. Where did 
your Church of Rome thus receive authority to unsay 
and to forbid what the everlasting Head of the Church, 
^e chief Shepherd himself, allowed and sanctioned by 
his own example ? 

2. — Si autem ante mediam noctem cibum aut potum 
sumpserit, etiam si post modum non dormierit, nee sit 
digestus, non peccat, sed ob perturbationem mentis, ex 
qua devotio tollatur, consulitur aliquando abstinendum. 

T. — But if before midnight the priest shall partake 
of food or drink, even although he has not slept after, 
nor is it digested, yet he does not sin ; but on account 
of the disturbance of his mind, by reason of which his 
devotional spirit is taken away, it is better for him to 
abstain for some time before. 

3. — Si reliquiae cibi remanentes in ore transglutiantur 
oon impediant coramunionem, cum non transglutiantur 
per modum cibi, sed per modam salivie. Idem dicen- 
dum si lavando os deglutiatur stilla aquae, praeter inten- 

T. — If the fragments of food remaining in the mouth 
are swallowed, they do not prevent communion, provi- 
ded they are not swallowed as food, but only as saliva 
or spittle. The same is to be said if a drop of water be 
swallowed in the washing the mouth unintentionally. 

Can any thing be more absurd than this ridiculous 
trifling upon the most solemn subjects, giving thus un- 
due importance to matters of no consequence whatever ; 
inventing and laying down rules which were never so 
much as thought of in the ancient church ; distracting 
the mind, which should be occupied with the most spirit- 
ual contemplations, and giving low, degrading notions 
of the Blessed Sacrament, and making its efficacy con- 
sist in an adherence to outward forms? 

It would occupy too much space to bring before you 
many other rubrics and directions as to how the priest 
is to act when particular circumstances occur. As, for 
instance, what is to be done should the host be discov- 


«red to be broken ; again, should the host, after conse- 
cration, fall into the chalice ; again, should the blood of 
our Lord in winter become frozen ; again, should any 
.of it fall to the ground. All these instances are espe- 
cially provided against ; and thus we are taught an ad- 
.ditional proof of the comparative novelty of your boasted 
transubstantiation, as, surely, such absurdities, such tri- 
fling, could never have been tolerated upon the supposi- 
tion of Jesus himself being there present, body, blood, 
soul, and divinity, and apparently unable to assist or 
protect himself. We also learn from the rubric of what 
is to be done in case of the spilling of the blood, that 
when this charge or direction was given, the church 
knew nothing of your modern doctrine of concomitances, 
or that both body and blood were united under one 

There is one rubric more which I cannot refrain from 
giving you, though I do so with regret, as such a rubric 
is calculated to bring contempt upon the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. However, as it does exist, and as cases to which 
it applies must have occurred, I think it better to do so, 
for the purpose of showing you more clearly the delu- 
sive nature of your system, and, with God's blessing, 
persuading you to provide a remedy : 

Si sacerdos evomat Eucharistiam, si species integrae 
appareant, reverenter sumantur, nisi nausea fiat. Tunc 
enim species consecratae caute separentur, et in aliquo 
loco sacro reponantur, donee corrumpantur et postea in 
sacrarium projiciantur. Quod si species non appareant 
comburatur vomitus, et cineres in sacrarium mittantur, 

T. — Should the priest vomit forth the Eucharist, if 
the species appear whole and entire, let him swallow 
them again, unless his stomach sickens against it. In such 
case, let the consecrated species be cautiously separated 
from whatever else he has vomited forth, and let them 
be laid up in some holy place until they are corrupted,* 

* In the sixteenth Psalm, v. 10, quoted by St. Peter, (Acts iii. !27,) 
God declares he will not suffer his Holy One to see corruption. Com- 
pare this passage with many of your rubrics, and reconcile them if yon 


and after that let them be cast forth • into the sacristy. 
But if the species do not appear, let the entire Tomit be 
burnt, and let the ashes be cast into the sacnsty. 

How to speak on this wretched subject — ^to find lan- 
guage sufficiently strong to describe the feelings which 
should be aroused when we read this rubric, I know not. 
Can you, after reading the above passage, believe in the 
doctrine of transubstantiation T When you see that 
which you have worshipped — ^that which you have 
adored as God, lying in such a state, the minute de- 
scription of which is too loathsome — ^too disgusting to 
enter upon — ^surely your natural reason must show you 
that the King of kings and Lord of lords, by whom 
the heavens and all the hosts of them were created and 
formed, could never be placed under such circumstances. 
When upon earth, he suffered humiliation the most ex- 
treme, ignominies of the most debasing description ; but 
see how, all through, his character and divinity ehone 
forth. The declaration of the dying malefactor; the 
confession of the centurion who guarded him on the 
cross ; the rending of the rocks ; the supernatural dark- 
ness ; the opening of the graves, all proclaimed, with 
voices which never can be silenced, that Jesus was the 
Son of God ; that his humiliation was voluntary, and 
only for a time, to accomplish that for which he came 
into the world, namely, the salvation of sinners. But, 
brethren, only imagine the scene represented in the 
above-mentioned rubric — ^look to the wretched, we say 
the blasphemous doctrine as portrayed in the above pic- 
ture, which your church has invented to aggrandize 
herself, and, we ask, how can you hereafter come be- 
fore the judgment-seat of that same Jesus, whom you 
have insulted, and, by your system, endeavored to de- 
base and degrade ? 1 leave the answer of this question 
to your own consciences. May the Lord direct you to 
form a right judgment. 

eaa. The trath Is, your entire syitem is opposed to the tMMi<»M»g ot 
God in his own word. 


I have now fulfilled what I proposed at the commence- 
ment of this work to demonstrate : — 1. That the Mass 
is opposed to God's own word. 2. That as now cele- 
brated by you, it is entirely different from the preaching 
of the primitive and early Christian Church : and 3. 
That one part contradicts another part, and that there is 
abundance of internal evidence in it, that many of your 
present forms and prayers preceded the invention and 
introduction of several of your favorite doctrines. 

To the Lord's guidance and direction may we all 
commit ourselves. May he lead us in the right way, 
and direct us to him, the only name under heaven given 
us whereby we can be saved, even Jesus Christ our 
Lord, and only mediator and advocate with the Father. 





Sxvst StrxtB. 

The first collection of these popular narratives, 
comprising thirty-five volumes, being now com- 
pleted, a brief analytical notice of the works is 
desirable ; thereby to unfold the claims which the 
" Tales for the People*' have upon the attention of 
that immense multitude of readers, especially 
among youth, who are desirous to b^end the in- 
structive and the useful with that which attracts 
and excites the purest emotions of active benevo- 
lence, fi^ 

Of the volumes wnicn are included in the first 
series of " Tales for the People,'^ whether for di- 
versity or usefulness of subjects, or for their lite- 
rary excellence, or for the beneficial results of 
them, or for the character of their authora, as 
qualified moralists, probably the selection is not 
surpassed in value by any similar domestic library. 
Hannah More has furnished two of them ; Mary 
HowiU has supplied thirteen ; Mrs, ElUs has con- 
tributed/oury Harriet Martineau has given two; 
Mrs. Gvizot has presented three; Mrs, Copley has 
imparted ttoo; Mrs* Cameron and Mrs, Sandham 
each have bestowed one; Captain MarryaU has 
supplied ^ve; Mr. Arthur has furnished one; to 


which is Added the justly-admired volume for ju- 
venile readers — ^the " Looking-glass for the Mind" 

In noticing these thirty different works of which 
the first series of " Tales for the People" is com- 
posed, they may he taken in the order thus given, 
according to the names of the writers ; whence all 
readers may decide upon the adaptation of this 
household library for their own use. 

More Hannah. — The works of that highly 
valued moralist were searched, and two volumes 
of her very instructive biographical and social 
sketches were selected, under the titles of Domes- 
tic Tales and Rural Tales, Those contain some 
of her pictures of real life, which never before 
were issued separate from the entire series of her 
writings. Those narratives originally were pub- 
lished in monthly numbers; and the beneficial 
effects of them in inculcating decorum, industry, 
and sobriety, and in promoting frugality and sub- 
ordination amid the exciting turbulence of the 
earlier period after the commencement of the 
French Revolution, it is impossible duly to esti- 
mate. The salutary information which they impart 
is, like " the moral fitnbss of things," unchange- 
able ; consequently her characteristic delineations 
of the « Shepherd of Salisbury Plain," of " Parley 
the Porter," of " Mr. Fantom the Philosopher," 
and of the " Two Wealthy Farmers," with her 
other graphic portraits, and landscape scenery, 
will retain all their freshness and attraction as 
long as the beauties of nature and art retain their 
capacity to delight us, and domestic enjoyment in 
moral array combines "things wAiich are pure, 
and lovely, and of good report." 

HowiTT Mary.— -The simple-hearted, truthful 
FEiEirD is the authoress of thirteen volumes in this 


sehes; and whether we consider the variety of 
their contents, or the felicity of their execution, or 
their practical instructions, or their beneficial tend- 
ency, they are equally valuable. 

Where all of them are so excellently adapted to 
promote the welfare of those who peruse her de- 
scriptions of English scenery and life, it is difficult 
to discriminate between their comparative merit, 
especially as they are so diversely applicable. 
This general remark will be clearly perceived in 
its suitability, if we advert to the grand design of 
some of them as inscribed on the titles. 

The Two Apprentices are genuine portraits of 
Anglican society in that relation. In fact, we 
have no doubt that Mary Howitt's personages in 
her tales are just as real as her depicted scenery 
is true ; — and we would also in general remark, 
that so faithful are her displays of the landscapes, 
and of the social condition, and of the persons, 
embodied in her tales, that a more lucid and cor- 
rect estimate of the peculiar classes of the people 
to whom her narratives chiefly refer can be ob- 
tained from her illustrations, than from any other 
modern works. Exclusive of all their other claims 
upon perusal, this alone, in our present interna- 
tional relations with Britain, renders them a very 
desirable source of instruction for all our people 
and their children. Of the " Two Apprentices,'^ 
however, it may be remarked, that it is a clearly 
reflecting mirror, in which youth learning busi- 
ness may behold themselves, in their inexperience, 
thoughtlessness, danger, and onlv security from 
being " cast-away." 

My Uncle the Clockmaker. — ^The changes in 
human life, the evils of unthinking profusion, the 
advantages of patient submission to trials which 


are unaToidable, and the infallible certainty im- 
]ilied in the oracular adage — ^^ A man's life con. 
siateth not in the abundance of the things which 
he possesseth*' — all are portrayed in a very en- 
couraging aspect, which speaks at once to the 
judgment and sensibilities of the reader — and the 
mind spontaneously acquiesces in the general im- 
pression, however masked by name and place, that 
the events were as real as they are natural. 

My own Stoby. — This is Mary Howitt's auto- 
biography of her childhood, until she first was sent 
away from parental supervision to a boarding- 
schooL We know not which most to admire in it, 
the feminine delicacy or the infantine simplicity. 
It is the very book for girls from ten to fourteen 
years of age. We cannot comprehend how such 
a book ever was written by a matron who has 
heard and seen so much of earthly vanity. Like 
as was said of Watts, we are not surprised at his 
metaphysical and theological disquisitions, but how 
the renowned philosopher could write his " Songs 
for Children" is almost incomprehensible — so, we 
are not perplexed in accounting for Mary Hewitt's 
higher intellectual exhibitions, but how she could 
have grouped together the associations in ''My 
own Story," playful childhood, or herself alone 
can unravel. 

There are ten other tales in this series by the 
same authoress ; all manifestly designed to culti- 
vate the noblest domestic and social virtues — ^thrift 
and fidelity in employment ; exemption from need- 
less worldly anxiety; assiduity in the path of 
duty ; trustfulness and hope ; the connection be- 
tween the work and the reward , the advantages 
of uprightness, simplicity, and a straightforward 
estimate of worldly things ; and the encourage^ 


ment to persevere in well-doing. The titles, ex- 
cept the story of Alice Franklin, aptly develop 
the prominent theme, which is explained and en- 
forced by apposite examples and admonitions and 
facts — " Hope on, Hope ever — Work and Wages 
— Strive and Thrive — ^Love and Money — Sowing 
and Reaping — Little Coin Much Care — No Sense 
like Common Sense — ^Which is the Wiser ? — and 
Who shall be Greatest?" 

Ellis Si bah Sticknet. — The authoress of the 
" Women, Wives, Mothers, and Daughters of Eng- 
land," has contributed four of the tales in the 
first series ; and they are marked with all the 
moral impressiveness and solicitude to elevate the 
female character and influence, which distinguish 
and render so acceptable her repeated literary 
efibrts to meliorate the condition of her sex and 
thereby of mankind. 

FiEST Impressions. — ^This gallery of portraits 
teaches the necessity of decorum, the value of a 
favorable decision on the minds of others in early 
acquaintance, the liability to deception, and cau- 
tion against being led astray. 

The Minister's Family and Someryille Hall; 
— ^these are intended to exhibit the advantages of 
a prudent and well-ordered domestic establish- 
ment ; and beautifully indeed does the delineator 
of " Home" exemplify the peaceful domicils of 
purity, devotion, and peace. 

Dangers of Dining Out. — ^This is a narrative 
written to promote moderation in eating, and in re- 
ference to drinking toasts, with other appended 
usages of feudal barbarism, to impress the authori- 
tative mandate — " Touch not—Taste not — ^Han- 
dle NOT." 

Maethibau BLiebiet. — The two Narratives 


which the Utilitarian Female Philosopher has sup- 
plied, well contrast with the other tales ; being 
exemplary descriptions of the worth of man when 
he fills up his appointed station in society, as su- 
perior to the merely adventitious circumstances of 
social existence. They are suitable for youth, 
especially the Crofton Boys, teaching them how 
to combine the useful and the agreeable, in the 
most eligible and advantageous manner. The 
other volume contains two historical narratives — 
" The Peasant" is a concise delineation of coun- 
try life in France, amid the interest excited by the 
temporary presence of the nobles. " The Prince" 
is a portrait of the French Dauphin, son of Louis 
XVI. of France, combined with brief details of 
some of the most affecting scenes of the Gallic 
Revolution of 1789 ; and is teplete with historical 
and moral instruction. 

Mrs. Guizot*s Young Student is a tale rich in 
its moral and exemplary impressiveness, adapted 
to all scholars and collegians. The state of 
academical and common society on the European 
Continent, without doubt, essentially differs from 
the condition of America in that respect ^ but the 
cardinal principles of morals are the same ; and 
in the general application of them the lessons to 
be learned are identical. There is noble instruc- 
tion to be derived from the " Young Student," both 
for warning and encouragement. 

Mrs. Copley's two volumes. Early Friendship, 
and especially the Poplar Grove, are rather more 
imaginative than the tales by Mary Howitt. They 
subserve, however, very efficiently the same great 
purpose of amending the dispositions and propen- 
sities of the youth Till reader ; and by illustrating 
the waywardness of human life, in a different form, 


enlarge those views of society by which youth 
may be admonished and benefited. 

Mrs. Sandham's " Twin Sisters," and Mrs. 
Cameron's " Farmer's Daughter," are very in- 
teresting and instructive portraits for junior fe- 
males ; and we know not scarcely how the most 
amiable social qualities and the most useful do- 
mestic habits can be inculcated in the subordinate 
form with more efficacy, than by such almost 
breathing and moving personifications of sisterly 
endearment and enchanting housewifery. Ma- 
trons and maidens, grandmothers, and " girls in 
their teens," all will read these volumes to edifica- 

Mr. Arthur's tale entitled, " Tired of House- 
keeping," is an exact picture from the living ex- 
amples around us, drawn with all the precision of 
daguerreotyped reality. Young women who are 
anticipating marriage, and the wedded ladies just 
commencing the superintendence of domestic af- 
fairs, will learn more household wisdom from Mr. 
Arthur's paintings of kitchens and parlors, and in 
a pleasing form, than a seven years' apprentice- 
ship of fire-side disappointment and vexation could 
teach them. 

Captain Marryat has furnished five volumes, 
comprising a land story and a tale of the sea. 
" Masterman Readt" contains the details of a 
shipwreck, the deliverance of the family of pas- 
sengers, and the daily and countless expedients 
which were adopted in their desolate situation to 
supply their wants and to secure comfort, with the 
account of their rescue from the desert rocky 
island on which they were cast. " Settlers in 
Canada" is the land counterpart of Masterman 
Ready's nautical contrivances. A refined and 


well-educated family leave Britain, migrate firom 
Quebec to the upper end of Lake Ontario, << squaf' 
among the encircling Indians, and during a series 
of years, pass through all the dangers, hardships, 
and privations of that state of life, prior to the in- 
roads of the present rapidly-changing processes of 
civilization. There are great truth and forceful- 
ness, with vivid description and exciting scenes, in 
both these works ; and they are rich in wise sug- 
gestions to produce industry, fortitude, inflexibility 
in vanquishing obstacles, and perseverance with 
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The Poetical Works of Sir Walter Scott, Bart.— Containing Lay 
of ihe Last Minstrel, Marmion, Lady of the Lake, Don Rode- 
rick, Kokeby, Ballads, Lyrics, and Songs, with a Life of th* 
Author. Uniform with Cowper, Bums, 6lc. 1 vol. 16mo Si 25. 
** Wakar Scott is the most popular of all thr poeU of the present day, aiid de- 
•enredly so. Uadescril)es that which is most easily and generally understood 
with more vivacity and effect than any other writer. His style is clear, flowirg 
and transparent ; his sentiments, of which hiM Ktvle is an easy and aakiiiai ii.e 
*^m. iire common to him with hia readers.*'— Jibs Jctl. 

4 A Affkton §- Com Catalogue of VabuibU fforlaw 

Or, Hinta respecting the Principles, Constitution, tnd Oidinancei 
of the Catholic Church. By Frederick Denison Maurics« 
M.A. Chaplain of Guy's Hospital, Professor of English Litera 
tore and History, King's College, London. In one elegant oe 
taTO Tolume of 600 pages, uniform in style with Newman^ 
Sermons, Palmer on the Church, &c. $2 50. 

** Mr. If koriM** worii k •minratly fitted to aiigige th« attention and me«t the wants of al 
Mmaatad in tha aareial inoveineats that are now t&ing place iu the relif ious cemmanitjr ; H 
9Kkm «p the pNtaaaiooa feaeraUyortheaereral Protestant denominations and of theRo- 
■aniete, so ae to commeod itself in the (rowint interest in ttte controversy between the la»> 
tar and their oppoaenta. The political portion of the work contains much that is attractive 
tea |kov(htfyu man, of any or of no raligiooe peisaa«o>, ia refiHeoGe to the eTisling and pea- 
ttkm fbtaie state of oar eoantiy." 


Or th« Order for Administering the Holy Communion ; conveniently as- 
ranged with Meditations and Prayers from Old English Divines, being 
(ha Encharistica of Samuel Wilberforce, M.A., Archdeacon of Suiiy, 
(adapted to the American service.) CouTenient size for the poc^ 
S7^ cents— gilt edges 50 cents. 

*■ lliese meditationa, prayers, and ezpoaitioiii, are fiTeo in the Taqr wopda of the iUesin* 
e«s diriiies. nar^is, confessors, and doctors of the Church; and^y (bra aitofether 
Mch a bo4y of instrsetive matter as w aownare else to be found ia the same eom- 
paaa. Thon^ ooUeeted from ▼ariooe authors, the whole ie perraded by a anitjr of spirit aad 
forpose; and we meet earnestly oomoMad the woifc as better itted thai any other which 
W know, to sahserre the ends of sound edification and fervent and aabelaatial devotkm. 
ffhe American reprint baa been edited by a deacon of great promise ia the Church, and iaap- 
fMpiMe^ dadkaied to the Bishop of tlus diocese."- CAHreAsMM. 


An OntUne on the Argument against the Validity of Lay-Baptism. By the 
Ber. JohnD. Ogilby, A.M., Professor of Ecclesiastical History. One 
volume ISmo., 75 cents. 

*■ We have been fiiroursd with a copy of the above woik,aad toee no time Iu aaaoaadM 
iii pWbliwttaM. ynmaeuraoiy inspection of it, we take it to be a thoroi«|h, Iharlesa, bm 
«MaU» diseussion of the suiject which it yepnotm. aimiuf less to ejDcita inquiry, thau ta 
■M&QrtlV iMMmed and iofeuioaeaifumaat, inquiries airaadr excitad.'*— CAMrsAaMM. 


Cr,an Historical Inquiry into the Ideality and Causation of Scriptural 
Bection, as received and maintained in the Primitive Churca of Chzlstk 
By Gecrge Stanley Faber, B.D., author of ** Difficulties of Romanism,* 
« Difficulties of Infidelity ,» &c. Complete m one volume octavo. $1 7ik 

"Mm Faber verifiee hie opinion by demoastnAioa. We cannot pmr a Ui^ m 
•Mfc than hr reeefDmaadinF it ti« aH "-PAwreA </ Kmglmid QtuAtrl^ j S eJ m 

p. AfpUlon f Cb.'« Caml0guM oj Vahiahle Wort*. f 

Works by Bev, Robert Philip. 


^T Robert Philip. With an Intrnductorr Essay by Rot. Albert Barnes. 1 mL 
12nio. $1 00. 

1/7VE OF THE SPIRIT, Traced in his Work : a Companion to the £i^ 

peiimental Gaides. By Robert Philip. 1 r<A. 18mo. 50 cts. 
With an Introductory Essay by Rev. Albert Barnes. 3 rols. 12mo. $1 75i. 

Guide to the Perplexed I Guide to the Doulitingr. 

Do. do. DeTotional I Do. du. Conscientious. 

Do. do. Thoughtful. | Do. do. Redemption. 


AS follows: • 
THB MARTS; or Beauty of Female Holinese. By Robert Philip. 1 vol 
18mo. SOeents. 

THE MARTHAS ; or Varietiea of Female Piety. By Robert Philip. 1 vol^ 
18mo. 50 cts. 

THE LTDIAS; or Devekpmant of Female Cbaxictor, By Robert PShsl^ 
1 vol. 18mo. 50 cts. 
The MaStmai 5«rte» of the above popular Library is bow ready, entitled, 

THE HANNAHS; or Maternal Inflnenoe of Sons. By Robert Philip 
Ivol. 18mo. Spots. 

**Tliesntlior or thw work u known tp the pabUe ■« one of ths mort proUAe writers ef the 
dhqr, tad sesroelf any writer in tb« departOMut wUcb he oecapiM, Um acquired ao Mten. 
snis aad weU-nwritad a popolarity. Tli* present Tolorae, as ito title denotes, is devoted tc 

' — -- -• ' '^eiaitaeace of r-"- "" " * * 

» aattntioa of Ike iaitaeace of auAhere oa their soas ; and die enbjeeC te treated widi the 
■asM oi^nabty and beautv which characterise the author's other works. It will be fouaa 
te be a moat deli^tfbl end qmAiI companion ia the nursery, and its inAiance can haid|/ 
id ia be fMC; flrit, ia quickeniiig the tense of responsibih^ on the part of motbeie ; tud 
■ait, ia fiarniiaf thaehsraotcrof the mis| geiientioB to a hj|har standard of inteUinaoe 
and virtse.*'-3«iiv«/««. 


BI«strative of various passages in the Holy Scripture, with nearly one hundiedl 
Bagravines. Amongthe authorities quoted vrill be found the following tli»> 
tiagoished names: Harmer, Laborde, Lane, Madden, Clarke, Pucucke, 
Chandler, Malcoinu Hartley, Russel, Jowitt, Came, Shaw, Morier, Neibuhr 
Bmoe, Calmet, H. Blunt, Belzoni, Lord Lindsay, 4:o. Ac 1 vol 12om 
tl 00. 

** The Heir lor fa t ai es coatsia msajrpesssMs Ml of Impeslsaee aad beaeijr, bat act o^ 
■enriljr aadsntoed, becaoae they ooatsin aUaeioa «o naaaafs and eaetoaw, ftmJfiar iadeei 
lattMss t»whom they wars oripasHy addressed, bat imperftctly kaewa ta a». In order la 
siwiats this dUkalty, thJs volame is now preseittsd to the pubUe. eonsisliac of eitraeto ftom 
the nairatiTes of traTeOeiB who have recorded the castoas of the oiieetal aatioas, from 
wlfeai weleftra that some asafcs wars retained aiaoaf them to thkdsy.aaeh ssaoDstad at 
dw tisnes whaa the Scriptores were written, end that these aamee are m maay mstaacas 
■tile etaoiiedsiaea the patriuehalttnsea The compiler of this volams trests that It may bs 
dw isswi, aadsr Ood*s ptoTideoce, of leadiag ualasfaed readers to a moss gaunl ao 
eashHsBrs wWi Isstera castona sad assist them to a clearer pereeptioa of the propvieta 
■id hoae<y efths llaMuiisas eeeAsa liBwn fi(om«iem ia the Bihk 

D. ApfUUm ^ CcJm Catalogue of VabtaiU Wbrfo. 



% Treatise on the Chnrch of Christ. Designed chiefly for Ui« 
use of Students in Theoloiry. By the Rev. William Palmec, 
M JL, of Worcester College, Oxford. Edited, with Notes, Vy 
the Right Rev. W. R. Whittingham, D.D., Bishop of the Pnv 
toitant Episcc^ Church in the Diocese of Maryland. Twm 
vols. 8vo., handsomely printed on fine paper. 9^ ^0* 

*■ nctTHtiae oTMr. Palowr » ths beat mpouiuoa ud viadieatjoa of Chnteb P f iii ci |i »> 
*at w have e««r raad ; •xoelling eoBteraponneoiu treatiaaa in depth of learniac mad eol- 
mtg oT juocnwai. w moeb w Hexecla older UnUnes on the lihe autuerta, in adnptatkm ta 
ft* WBoU and habiu of the a^a. Of it* indaence in EasUnd. where U haa pa/mrd Uuoiiglh 
two editwaa. we have not ibe nocaoa to fom an opinion ; but we believe that in Uiia cx>naUy 
a haa already, evea hefora its rapnnt, dune nnieto nttore the aoimd tone ofCatholk: pri a 
■4ihii aad ludW thaa any other one worfc of the ac** The author's learning and pnwera «t 
eonbiaauott and arrangement, (rent as thcjr obviiiualjr are, are leas remarfcaMe tlian tlie start- 
■f (ood acnse, the vigorous and aoUii judgneot, which is everywhere auunfhst m the ti«»> 
Use. and confers on it lU diatiuctive excelkiioe. The style of the author is dialingoiidi^d Ibr 
dignity and masculine energy, while his tone is everywhere Jiatural ; on proper oeeasiona, 
Mverantad ( and alw^ya, so fiir aa we renw m ber, suBcieutly eonciliatory. 

*■ To our ciaigy and intelligent laity, who desire to s«e the Chnrch jnally diaciiminnM 
torn Hnianuts on the one band, and diaMnting deaominatiODS on thn other, we enrnaetjir 
•MMMnd falMer'b Tcenlieaon the Chwch."— /yC ¥. Chmrdimmu 



Fellow of the Oriel College and Vicar of St. Mazy the VirginX 

Oxford. The mx. volumes of the London edition complete ia 

twoelegantSvcvolumesof upwards of 600 pages each. $5 00. 

90^ Mr- Newman's Sermons hare probably attained a higtier charactei 
than any others ever published in this country. The following recom- 
mendatory letter (is one of the many) received by the publishers during 
their process jthrough the press. 

From$iuBUkip ^ North CaroHnm. 

tttmr letter annovnciog yonr intention to republish the Parochial Sermons of the Rev. Joh« 
Henry ffewmaa, B.D., Oxford, haa given me sincere pleasaie. In conpiyiag with y«»al 
■nqoaat for ny opinion of them, I do not hesitate to say,— aft«r a constant use of tliem m f»j 

ttey are l 

Ikey assert in the strongest manner ilte true doctrines of the Reformatiob in England, t 

ferce with pecoliar sutonnily and effect that holinese of hfe, with the means thereto, so clla^ 
•elenstic ottbe FatlMCS of thet Uying age. With high reepect and esteem, yonr fnend ani 

Sermons to a Country Congregation. By Augustus William 
Hare, A.M., late Fellow of New College, and Rector of Altoa 
Barnes. One volume, royal 8vo. $2 25. 

d highly gifted mmd?»-j:Qu«r. RtoUm, 

U D. JkppUton ^ Co.*« Cataiogw 0/ r<i/«tf 6i« H'orib. 


This unique Library will comprise the best works of the bert 
Authors in prose and poetry; published in an elegant form, 
with a beautiful frontispiece, tastefully ornamented. The 
following are now ready : 

GOLDSMITH.— Essays on Varioub Svbjiotb. By Oliyar CMd- 
smith. 87i cents. 

GOLDSMITH.— The Vicas of WAXiyiBLO. By OUver Golon^Ulk 
Kh cents. 

JOHNSON.~Tbb History or Rassblas, Pbincb or Abyssihia. 
A Tale. By Samuel Johnson, LL.D. 371 cents. 

COTTIN.— Elizabbth, or, tkb Exilbs or Sibbbia. By Madanis 
Ooltiii. The extensive popularity of this little Tale is well known. 31i cte. 
Bach Tolome consists of appropriate Poetical extracts from the principal 
writers of the day. 3U each. 
of short extracts on religioos subjects from the older writers, Bishop Hall, 
Siierlock, Barrow, Paley, Jeremy Taylor, dec. SU c^nta. 

ST. PIERRE.— Paul and Viboinia. From tlie French of J. B. H 
Je St. Pierre. 31i cents. 
H. MO RE'S Privatb Dbtottons. Complete. 31i cents. 
THE SEASONS— By James Thomson. 37i cents. 
CLARKE'S ScBiPTURB Promisbs. Complete. S7i cents. 
>*«* These rolumes will be followed by otbera of attested ment. 

IWI9 ©^(!2)(&[r3'U'SI3S ®? gN(&[LAI^I@B Their Position in 
society, Character, and Responsibilities. Bv Mrs. Ellis, author of " Ths 
Women of England.** Complete in one handsome yolume, ISmo. 50 ets 

71X13 MDVS$d ®? S6!9^^^S9IpB Their relative Duties, Do 
mestic Influences and Social ^Ugatioivs. By Mrs. Ellis, author of 
^ The Women of England,*' *' The Daughters of England.** In one 
bandsome Yolume, ISmo. 50 cents. 

ffiOS W®BOg[^ ©? SN^I!>A&!9I9 B Their Social Duties and 
Domestic Habits. By Mrs. ElUs. One handsome volume, ISmo. 50 cts. 

^^^7Q®B9a By Isaac Taylor, author of <*NataKil 
husiasm," Ac. Ac. Second edition. 1 voL ISmo. f 1 00. 

of uaataeot, WMcnOy, bmnc tof 
f iwidraee; it th« maw tinM, hhitii 

, BOM A>r eanyiBf OB tlw ealtnn ot 

IhaM of tb* tBtalUetoal bevlliM that an tbo oarliMt dovokmd, aadoatbo dw ospoiiiiM ol 
«kkk Hm feieo and adkiaiKjr of tlio natara mind dopoad** 
j; A wj wy walji^teBad, jut, aad Chnatiw vioif of aaoat 

ByFrancis Wayland, D.D. Second edition, fvoi. 18mo. 

Isaac Taylor, author oflfatural Hutory of Enthusiasm.** Tmrdedltioa. 
1 voL ISmo. 87} cents. 
Mio of the «nost learned and extraordinary works of modem times." 

D. JfvpUton ^ Co.'s Catalogue of ValuaM€ Publieatiems, 

Or, RHiph and Victor. By Madame Guizot. From the French, bySamael 
Jacksuu. One eie^nt volume of 5UU pages, with iiluBirationit. Price 75 

**Thi8 volume of biographical incidents is a striking picture of juvenile 
life. To all that numberless class of youth who are passing through their 
literary education, whether in boarding-schools or academies, in the colle- 
giate course, or the preparatory studies ctmnected with them, we know 
nothing more precisely fitted to meliorate their character, and direct their 
eourse, subordinate to the higher authority of Christian ethics, than this 
excellent delineation of * The Young Student,' by Madame Guizot. It is e 
perfect reflecting mirroi,in which the whole race may behold the resolution^ 
the impetuosity, and the disobedient tendencies of their own Dearts, as ex- 
emplifled in the history of Ralph ; and tlie moral daring, dignity, and triumph, 
exhibited by Victor. But it is not tiie son alone who is taught by Madame 
Guizot — every futiier, also, who has children still under the age ot manhood, 
and even 'grandpas,' can derive rich edilication from the example of Ralph's 
father and' Victor's guardianship. Tlie French Academy were correct io 
their judgment when tliey pronounced Madame Guizot's Student the best 
book of the year."— JV*. Y, Courier^ Enquirer. 


Or, Tales and Dialogues foi the Nursery. -,By Mrs. Jerram, (late Jane 
Elizabeth Holmes.) Illustrated with numerous Engravings. Elegantly 
bound, with gold stamp on side. Price 50 cents 

Author's Preface. -In writing the following pages, my most earnest 
desire has been to awaken in the hearts of little children, kindly and affec- 
tionate feelings towards each other, submission and loving confidence to- 
wards their parents^ and reverence and love towards God. This I bare 
attempted in describing scenes and objects most of which must be familiar 
to every child. The language I have used is the easiest I could command, 
BO that a child of three years old may understand it. 


For very Little Children. In single syllables of three and four letters 
From the sixth London edition ; illustrated with num«iOUS en^iavinfs. 
Elegantly bound in cloth. Price 37 1-2 cents. 

The type of this little volume is quite a curiosity, it is so large. 
"The suitableness of this little work to its object, is proved by the fact 
that the first edition went off within three weeks from the day of its publica- 
tion, and that a fourth was required in a few months. It is designed for 
children who have just acquired the knowledge of their alphabet ; a period 
in javenile education which has been hitherto left without any piovision of 
the kind "—EaUraUfrom Priface, 


A Book for Children. Illustrated with numerous engravings, elegancy 

bound in cloth. Price 50 cents. 

CowTEWTs. -I. The Nursery. IL The Little Black Pony. IIL The 
Little Gardens. IV. The Day»s Work. V. The Walk. VI. Hamma»s 
•tories. VII. Papa*s Stories. VIII. Sunday. 

« This is a book in advance of the « Very Little Te.e8/» and intendeJ fci 
•Idet lads and biimwi, to whom it will doubtless prove ak weeptabfe gift.' 


This Library is confided to the editorial care of one of the uiustsuo* 
cessful writers of the day, and commends iii>elt as presenting t« 
the readers of this country a collection of bouics, diiefly confined 
to American subjects of historical interests. 

Volumes already Published^ uniform in style. Price 37 1-2 cents^ each, 
By the author of " Uncle Philip's Conversations.'* 
This little volume furnishes us, from authentic sources, ihemost 

Important facts in this celebrated adventurer's life, and in a style 

that possesses more than ordinary interest.— EvSnin^ Post. 


The Founder of the Colony of Virginia. By the author 

of " Uncle Philip's Conversations." 

It will be read by youth with all the interest of a novel, and cer- 
tainly with much more profit.— iY. Y. American. 


Or, the Early Lives of ^ome Emineiit Persons of the last 
Century. By Anne Pratt. 

CoNTBNTS.— Sir Humphrey Davy— Rev. George Crabbe— Baron 
Cuvier— Sir Joshua Reynolds— Lindley Murray— Sir James Macia 
toah— Dr. Adam Clarke. 


The Conqueror of Mexico, By the author of " Uncle 

Philip's Conversations.'* 

The story is full of interest, and is told in a captivating stvla. 
9uch books add all the charms of Romance to the value of his- 
tory .—Pro». Journal. 


The Kentucky Rifleman. By the author of << Uncle 

J^hilip's Conversations." 

It is an excellent narrative, written In a plain, familiar style, and 
4ts forth the character ^and wild adventures of the hero of the 
Kentucky wilderness in a very attractive light. The boys will all 
be in agony to read it."— Com. Adv. 


By Robert Southey, LL.D. 
This is by far the ablest written Life of this extraordinarv man. 
It exhibitB some strilcing pasRages of his career in a true light. 

VII.— riiiLir :l;^;dolph. 

A Tale of Virginia. By Mary Gertrude. 
An exceedingly interesting work relating to the Early History of 
the Colony of Virginia. 


Its Causes and Consequences. By F. Maclean Rowan. 

A work written in the best spirit, and adapted for universal cir> 

*«* Other works of equal value will b« added to the eenes. 



flM frefttast care has been taken in selecting the works of which 
the collection is composed, so that nothing either medioer* In 
talent, or immoral in tendency, is admitted. 

TIm following are comprised in the series, uniform In sise and ttjtot 

MY UNCLE THE CLOCKMAKER. Br Marf Howitt. S7 1-9 ctK 
THE. SETTLERS itf CANADA; written for Toung People. By 

Capt. Marryat. S vols., 75 cents. 

S7 1-2 cents. 
RURAL TALES ; portraying Social Life. By Hannah Mora. S7 1-t 

THE POPLAR GROVE ; or, Little Hany and bii Uncle 1 

JB^ Mrs^Cojjley. 37J-8 centa._ 

EARLY FRIENDSHIPS. By Mrs, Copley. S7 1-9 cents. 
THE CROFTON BOYS. Bf Harriet Martinean. 87 1-3 cents. 

37 1-8 cents. 
THE FARMER'S DAUGHTER. By Mrs. Cameron. S7 1-9 cents. 
MASTERMAN READY ; or, the Wreck of the Pacific. Written 

for Young People. By Captain Marryat. Three volumes ; each 

37 1-9 cents. 

ror. An elegant collection of Delightful Stories and Tales ( 

many plates. 50 cents. 
HOPE ON, HOPE EVER; or, the Boyhood of Felix Uw. By 

Marv Howitt. 87 1-9 cents. 
STRIVE AND THRIVE ; a Tale. By Mary Howitt. 97 1-9 centik 
SOWING AND REAPING : or, What will Come of it t By BCaiy 

HowiU.' 37 1-9 cents. 
WHO SHALL BE GREATEST ! a Tale. By Mary Howitt 87 l-t 

WHICH IS THE WISER t or, People Abroad. By Mary Howitt 

87 1-9 cenU. _ a 

UTTLE COIN, MUCH CARE ; or, How ^oor People Lire. By 

Mary Howitt. 37 1-9 cents. 
WORK AND WAGES ; or, Life in Service. By Mary Howitt 

37 1-9 cents. 
ALICE FRANKLIN. By Maiy Howitt. r 1-9 cents. 
NO SENSE LIKE COMMON SENSE. ByMacyflowitt 871-9eC«k 
THE DANGERS OF DINING OUT : To which is added the Con- 
fessions of a Maniac. By Mrs. Ellis. 37 1-9 cents. 
80MERVILLE HALL : To which is added the Rising Tide. By Mia^ 

Ellis. 37 1-9 cents. 
FIRST IMPRESSIONS ; or. Hints to th^se who would makeHom* 

Happy. Bj Mrs. Ellis. 37 1-9 cents. 
MINISTER'S FAMILY ; or, Hints to those who would make Hon* 

Hap^. By Mrs. Ellis. 37 1-9 cents. 
TOE TWIN SISTERS ; a Tale. By Mrs. Sandham. 87 1-9 centa. 
TIRED OF HOUSEKEEPING ; aTale. By T. S. Arthur. 37 1-9 ctfc 
^$SS^ STUDENT. By Madame Guizot. 3 vols. $1 19. 
OVE AND MONEY, fiy Mary Howitt 87 1-9 cents. 

V Other works of equal interest wiU be added to the seriM.