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Full text of "The masterpieces of the Centennial international exhibition of 1876 .."

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THE 



MASTERPIECES 

OF THE 

Centennial International 

EXHIBITION 
VOLUME I 





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ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 



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THE 



MASTERPIECES 



Centennial International Exhibition 



ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME I 



FINE ART 



Edward Strahan 



PHILADELPHIA 

GEBBIE & BARRIE 



M3 

v./,c./ 

RfVfZE 



The Table of Contents. 



VOLUME L 



• PAGE. 

On the Fine Art of the Exhibition i 

The Castellani Collection of Antiques 320 

The Masterpieces of Photography 332 

The Fine Art Literature 342 



ENGRAVINGS ON STEEL. 



PAINTINGS. 

Subject. Painter. 

Christ Walking on the Water, (Literature) . . Bida, A. ... 

Western Kansas Bierstadt, Albert 

Oxen Ploughing, (Literature) Boiiheur, Rosa . 

First Step, (Literature) Boiinat, L. y. F. 

Breezy Day off Dieppe Briscoe, F. . . . 

Cienoa Brown, G. L. . 

After the Battle Ca/deron, P. H. 

Roger and Angelica Chartran, T. . . 

Old Mill, The Cropsey, y. F. . 

Heath Field in Holland Elten, K. van . 



Engraver. 

. L. Flame 11 g . . 
. R. Hinshelwood 
. P. Moran . . . 
. A. Masson . . 
. R. Hinshehuflod 
. //. .S". Bcchvilh 
. F. A. Heath . 
. M. Goupil . . 
. R. Hinsltelwood 
. R. Hinslielwood 



Plate. Text. 



344 
39 
336 
346 
1 10 
204 
188 

«4 

232 
260 



356 

39 

366 

354 
1 10 
212 
18S 
366 
250 
252 



LIST OF JLLUSTRATIONS 



Subject. 



Painter. 



Cat Feigning Death Geinpt, B. te . . 

San Giorgio, Venice Gifford, S. R. . 

Landscape and Cattle Hart, J^ames M. 

Brig Hove-to for a Pilot Haas, M. F. H. 

End of the Game Irving, jF. B. 

Covenanter's Marriage yoJuistoii, Alexanu 

"1876" Lewis, Edmund D. 

Ecce Homo Morales, Luis 

Fog on the Grand Banks Norton, W. E. . 

Bather Perrault, A. . . 

Touchstone and Audrey Pettie, J^o/tn . . 

Memorial Hall, (Design) '. . Pifon, Camile 

Feeding the Sacred Ibis Poyntcr, E. j^. . 

Reynold's Portrait Reynolds, Sir y. 

The Last Hope Ronner, Henriette 

Elaine Rosenthal, Toby . 

Trial of Sir Harry Vane Rothermcl, P. T. 

Amulet Seller Semiradsky, H. . 

Angelo and Isabella, (Literature) .... Spiers, A. . . . 

The Scheldt Stanjield, C. . . 

Chesterfield's Ante-Room JVard, E. M. 

Rabbit Hunters Wilkie, Sir David 



icr 



Engraver. 

. P. Moran . . . 
. R. ILinshelwood 
. R. Hinshelwood 

■ R. Hinshelwood 
. S. J. Ferris . 
. F. Lightfoot . . 

■ R. Hinshelwood 
. M. Maillcfer . 

■ R. Hinshelwood 
. S. y. Ferris 
. C. Cottsen . . 
. MeGi'ffin, y. 
. F. jfoubert 
. T. IV. Hunt . 
. P. Moran . . 
. R. Hinshelwood 
. R. Dudcnsing 

. S. y. Ferris 
. W. Schmidt . 
. R. IVallis . . 
. C. IF. Sharpe 
. y. C. Armytage 



Plate. 

252 

5° 
250 

46 
28S 
I So 

30 
218 
212 
292 
140 
Title 
100 
256 
2.^0 
290 
148 
302 
356 
308 
176 



Text. 

PAGE. 
252 

51 
250 

44 
288 
188 

39 



292 

140 

38 

lOI 

252 
250 
290 
149 
302 
344 
366 
189 
123 



SCULPTURE. 



Subject. 



Sculptor. 



Engraver. 



Plate. Text. 



Finding of Moses Barzaglii, F. . 

America Bell, yohn . . 

Ophelia Connelley, P. F. 

American Soldier Conrads, C. . . 

Venus Gibson, yohn 

West Wind Gould, T. R. . . 

Reading Girl Magni, Pictro 

Columbia Mueller, A. M. y. 

Premiere Pose Roberts, H. 

Nydia Rogers, R. . . 

Electricity Rosetti, Antonio 

Steam Rosetti, Antonio 

Medea Storey, W. W. 



G. y. Stodart 114 

W.Roffe 78 

S. y. Ferris 296 

y.Serz 62 

W. Roffe ' . 112 

y. Serz 300 

JV. Roffe . : 172 

y. Serz Frontispiece 

R. Dudensing 126 

y. Serz 29S 

y. H. Baker loS 

y. H. Baker 166 

y. Serz 214 



114 

79 
296 

62 
loS 
296 
172 



29S 
loS 
166 
214 



TO THE FINE ART OF THE EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. 



PAINTINGS. 



Subject. 



Painter. 



Lake of Piedilugo Ashton, F. 

Woods in Autumn Asktoji, F. 

Beacon, The Absaloti, 'y. 

Noon in the Country Bartesago, Emico 

Rizpah Becker, George 

Edge of the Forest Bellee, L. G. de 

Sunday in Devonshire Bellows, F. 

Gale on the Nile Bcrchere, N 

Wheelwrights' Shop Billings, E. T. 

Grandmother's Tales Bliune, Edmund 

Anniversary, The Bompiaiii, R 

Pompeiian Boy Flute-Player Bonipiani, R 

Rome, from the Tiber . . . Bossuet, F. A 

Puritans Going to Church Boughion, G. H. 194- 

The Last Struggle Brackett, IV. M. 

Canal at Courrieres Breton, Emile 

Village at Artois Breton, Emile 

Bringing in the Corn Bridgman, F. E 

Curling in Central Park Brown, 'y. G 

Francesca di Rimini Cabanel, A 

Cassandra Cainorrc, L 

Call on Uncle, the Cardinal Castiglione, G 174- 

Warrant (The), Haddon Hall Castiglione, G 

Your Good Health Champney, J.W. 

Fisherman's Wife of Zuyder-Zee Cogen, F. 

King's Entertainment Cotnte, P. C. u8- 

Lock, The Constable, yolm 

Dream of Carrick Shore Danicll, W. 

Oyster Shipping at Cancale Danbigny, K. 

I and my Pipe Diclitz, K. 

Croizette, M'lle Duran, Carolus 

Visit to the Village Artist Eggcrf, S 

Duet in the Smithy Ewers, ff. •. . . , 

Pan and Bacchantes Felix, E -170- 

Mehncholy Feyen-Pcrrin, F. N. A 

Fisherman's Wife and Child Feyen-Perrin, F. N. A 



LATE. 


Text. 


PAGE. 


PAGE. 


237 • 


264 


259 • 


266 


1S7 . 


185 


197 . 


224 


ii ■ 


66 


129 . 


134 


44 • 


74 


151 ■ 


179 


93 ■ 


45 


165 . 


207 


167 . 


176 


171 . 


176 


125 ■ 


178 


195 • 


219 


12 


47 


76 . 


So 


219 . 


233 


82 . 


96 


13 ■ 


46 


113 • 


148 


179 . 


19S 


175 • 


I So 


98 . 


120 


S . 


51 


29s ■ 


312 


-119 . 


196 


37 ■ 


So 


2S7 . 


310 


267 . 


274 


41 . 


92 


87 . 


100 


153 • 


203 


.65 . 


no 


-271 . 


269 


57 ■ 


120 


301 . 


• 313 



LIST OF J LLiSTR A TI O NS 



Subject. 



Painter. 



Plate. 



Casual Ward, The FilJcs, S. L i88- 

Lady Jane Gray Folingsby, G. F. io6- 

Evocation of Souls Fonlana, R 

Park, The Fotinnois, A 

Mill, The Founnois, T. 

Beware ! Forbes, y. C. 

Cairo Fruit Girl Goodall, F. 146- 

Monastery Garden GuilUni, A 

Luther Intercepted Harrach, Count Voti 

Disputed Toll Hardy, H. 254- 

Keene Valley, Adirondacks Hart, William 

In the Park Hiddcmann, F. 

Returning the Salute Hodgson, y. E ■ . 

Lord (The ), Gave, &:c Hall, F. 

Checkmate Horsley, y. C. 

Sowing the Word Hiiiilington, D 

Lake George Kcnsett, jF- F. 

Unwelcome Guest, The Lance, G 210- 

Fellah Woman Landelle, C. 

Harvest Scene Laporte, E 

La Rota Lehmann, R 

May-Day in the Time of Queen Elizabeth . . . Leslie, C. R 

King Morvan Liiminais, E. V. 190- 

Out in the Cold Mac Uliirter, J. 

Sentinel, The Maignan, Albert 

Venice Doing Homage to Catherine Cornaro . . Makart, H. 

Ornithologist, The Marks, H. S 

"1776" Maynard, G. W. 

During the Sermon Michis, I' 

In the Bay of Naples Millet, F. D 

New York Harbor Moran, E 

Return of the Herd Moran. P. 

Madeleine Flower-Market Aforin, E 234- 

Mountain (iloom, Glencoe Newton, A. P 138- 

Wedding in a Country Church AWdenberg, B 2-;6- 

Moonlight on the Lagoons, Venice Orchardson, W. Q 

Prince Henry, Poins and Falstaff Orchardson, W. Q. . ■ 

Bride in Alsace, A Pabst, C. A 222- 

Charles I. leaving Westminster Hall Pott, L. y. 

Young Bull, The Potter, Paul, (Copy) 

.•\pelles Poynter, E. jF. 

Festival, The Poynter, E. y. 

Golden Age, The Poynter, E. y. 



■107 
121 

133 

289 

61 

•147 
279 

103 

■255 

36 

25° 

309 

77 

90 

25 

52 

■21 1 

163 

73 
95 
191 

305 

275 

4 

307 

29 
1 1 1 

28 

21 

9 

235 

139 

247 

60 



285 
137 
227 
229 



TO THE FINE ART OF THE EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



Subject. 



Painter. 



Plate. 
202-20^ 



241 



56 



Death of Cleopatra Prinsep, V. C. 

Landing of Columbus Puebla, D 

First Proof, The Reichert, F. 

Reverie Romagnole, A 

Reproof, The Sartain, E 20 

Christian Martyr under Diocletian Slingcneyer, E 125 

View of Paintings Spanish Court 241 

Imogen Starr, Louisa 262-263 

Mistress Dorothy Storey, G. A 68 

Only a Rabbit Storey, G. A 1S2-183 

Convalescent, The Tadema, L. A 69 

Vintage Festival Tadema, L. A 17 

Insanity of Queen Juana Valles, L 241 

Sea-Shore at Blankenberghe Verhas, 9^. 28^ 

Christ Blessing Little Children West, Benjamin 213 

Death of General Wolfe West, Benjamin 53 

Venetian Water-Carriers Wulffaert, H. 40 

Old Russian Couple Zagorsky, N. 297 



Text. 

PAGE. 
224 

243 

127 

193 
209 

242 
268 

71 
186 

74 

31 

245 

286 

232 

67 

54 

304 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE FINE ART. 



ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. 



SCULPTURE. 



Subject. 



Sculptor. 



Plate. Text. 



Aurora Bailly, J. A 6 . . 55 

Fleeting Time Barcaglia, Dciiato 161 . . 176 

Spinning-Girl of Megara Barrias, L. E 291 . . 310 

Young Vine-Grower Bartholdi, A 343 ■ 3°^ 

First Friend, The Barzaghi, F. 1S5 . . 198 

Vanity Barzaghi, F. 145 • • i/^ 

Mother's Treasure Borghi,A 281 . . 282 

Rienzi Borghi, A 299 .. 314 

Cleopatra Braga, Enrico 143 • '44 

Mountebank, The Braga, Enrico 293 .. 311 

Young Grape-Gatherer Branca, Giulio 105 . . 145 

Erring Wife, The Cambos, yules 169 . . 200 

Africaine Caroni, E 40 . . 59 

Telegram of Lo\e Caroni, E 32 • • 59 

Shinty Player, The Chilian Court 128 . . 200 

Lucifer Corti, Signor 80 . . 104 

Youthful Hannibal D' Epinay, P. 89 131-152 

Young Mother Fraikin, C. A 249 . . 284 

Venus Gibson, yohn 64 . . loS 

Drunken Moujik . Godebski, C. 217 . . 230 

Apotheosis of Washington . Guarnerio, P. 156 • ■ '^o 

Aronte Guarnerio, P. 265 . . 278 

Forced Prayer, The Guarnerio, P. 48 . . 62 

Last Days of Pompeii Guarnerio, P 3°5 • • 3°° 

Vanity Guarnerio, P. i3" • ■ '44 

Little Samaritan Hartley, y. S. 24 . . 62 

Columbus Italian Court i77 • • 204 

Louis XL at Peronne Martin, Felix 273 .. 281 

Secret from on High Moulin, H. 97 ■ • n? 

Cinderella Nevin, B 16 . . 55 

Eagle and Turkey Pandiani, y. 116 .. 134 

Berenice Pediizzi, R 257 .. 276 

Michael Angelo Pozzi, Egidio 81 . . 94 

The Beggars Rizzardo, G 207 . . 228 



CASTELLAXI COLLECTION AND MASTERPLECES OE PlIOTOGLiAI'IIY. 



Subject. 



Sculptor. 



Ruth Rogers, R. . . 

Bather, The Tantardini , A. 

Reader, The Tantardini, A. 

Bh-d's-Nest, The 



First Step, The Trombetta, Signor 

Affection and Envy Zannoni, U. . . 



Plate. Text. 



Trombetta, Siirnor it 



56 . 


• 127 


72 . 


• 93 


215 • 


. 229 


199 . 


• 258 


225 . 


• 231 


239 • 


. 264 



ENGRAVINGS OF THE CASTELLANI COLLECTION. 



Fic 

^ "'• PAGE. 

1. Gold Ear-ring, Greek Design 321 

2. Dolphin Venus Ear-ring 321 

3. Helix-Shaped Ornament 321 

4. Necklace, B. C. 700 321 

5. Colossal Statue of Bacchus 313 

6. Roman Bondsman's Badge of Slavery 322 

7. Actor with Comic Mask, in Terra-Cotta 323 

8. Toilet Articles of a Lady of Ancient Rome 324 

9. Head of Bacchus — Greek 319 

10. Bust of Euripides 317 

11. Bronze Mirror 325 

12. Mirror-Case • 325 

13. Bronze Clasp 326 

14. Boy Extracting a Thorn 315 

15. Bronze Bull, found at Chiusi 327 

16. Bronze Toilet Box, Duck-Shape 328 

17. Comb, about twenty-one hundred years old 329 



ENGRAVINGS OF THE MASTERPIECES OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 



Subject. 



Painter. 



Winter in Holland Kaemmerer, M. 

Market at Cracow, Portion of Lipinski, H. . . 

Romeo and Juliet Makart, H. . . 



PAGE. 

333 
335 
331 



FINE ART LITERATVRE. 



ENGRAVINGS FROM FINE ART LITERATURE. 



Subject. 



From. 



Plate. Text. 



Attack, The Musee dcs Deux Mondes 355 

Canipo Santo in Pisa, The Italy 341 

Entombment, The Histoire des Peintrcs 363 

Fontaine de r.Vvenue rObservatoire Les Promenades de Paris 345 

Garden Party in the Fifteenth Century .... Les 'jFardins, Histoire 357 

Church Interior Histoire des Peintres 361 

Mirror Lake Le Tour du Monde 338 

Pointers, The Histoire des Peintres 365 

Progress Through Barcelona Christophe Colomb 353 

Riviere de Charenton Les Promenades de Paris 347 

351 
339 
343 
349 
359 



Scene in Batavia Voyage autour du Monde .... 

Terni Cascade, The Italy 

Trieste Italy 

Venus and Mercury Thorhaldsen sa Vie et son CEuvre . 

Wheat Field, The Histoire des Peintres 



354 
346 
360 
348 
360 
360 
346 
360 

352 
349 
352 
346 
348 
350 
360 



ELECTROTYPED BY MACKELLAR, 



RODGERS, PHILADELPHIA. 




INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 




XHIBITIONS undoubtedly date back to a very remote period, even the 
Olympic games of the Greeks might be classed as such, and the ancient 
periodical fairs for the display and sale of natural and industrial products, 
some of them continuing to the present day, although not properly speak- 
ing, true expositions or intended for such, yet gave great encouragement 
to the arts and manufactures of their time. 

After Europe began to recover from the blight of the Dark Ages, the 
arts of civilization and luxury, centering and developing in Italy, rapidly 
found their way into France, a country already prepared for them by its ancient 
Roman education; and from being the recipient, she gradually became the producer, 
early taking a pre-eminent stand among the nations of the earth in almost every 
known branch of manufacture, especially those connected with art. This she has 
' retained to the present day. It is but natural, therefore, that she should have been 

foremost, at least in the modern world, to originate the idea of Industrial Exhibitions. 

The first of which we have any record was that of 1798, born of the Revolution, a reaction 
as it were from the turbulent spirit of the times, back to the pursuits of peace and industry. 
The Marquis d'Aveze, shortly after his appointment in 1797 as Commissioner of the Royal 
Manufactories of the Gobelins, of Sevres, and of the Savonnerie, found the workmen reduced 
nearly to starvation by the neglect of the previous two years, while the storehouses, in the 
mean time, had been filled with their choicest productions. The original idea occurred to 
him to have a display and sale of this large stock of tapestries, china and carpets, and 
obtaining the consent of the government, he made arrangements for an exhibition at the then 
uninhabited Chateau of St. Cloud. On the day, however, appointed for the opening, he was 



HIS TORI CA L 1 .V I'R D U C TI N. 



compelled by a decree of the Directory, banishing the nobility, to quit France, and the project 
was a failure. The following year, however, returning to France, he organized another ex- 
hibition on a larger scale, collecting a great variety of beautiful objects of art and arranging 
them in the house and gardens of the Maison d'Orsay for exhibition and sale. The success 
was so great that the government adopted the idea, and the first official Exposition was esta- 
blished and held on the Champ de Mars, a Temple of Industry being erected, surrounded by 
sixty porticoes, and filled with the most magnificent collection of objects that France could 
produce. Here was first inaugurated the system of awards by juries, composed of gentlemen 
distinguished for their taste in the various departments of art, and prizes were awarded foi 
excellence in design and workmanship. 

The government was so satisfied with the good effects resulting from this exhibition, that 
it resolved to hold them annually; but notwithstanding the circular of the Minister of the 
Interior to this effect, the disturbed state of the country prevented a repetition until i8oi. 
The First Consul taking the greatest interest in the affair, visited the factories and workshops 
of the principal towns in France, to convince the manufacturers of the great importance to 
themselves and their country of favoring the undertaking. A temporary building was 
erected in the quadrangle of the Louvre, and notwithstanding great difficulties attending 
the establishment of the exhibition, there were two hundred competitors for prizes ; ten gold, 
twenty silver, and thirty bronze medals being awarded, — one of the last to Jacquard for his 
now famous loom. Among these prizes, were some for excellence in woollen and cotton 
fabrics, and improvements in the quality of wool as a raw material. 

The third exhibition was in 1802, where there were six hundred prize competitors. These 
expositions became so popular as to result in the formation of a Societe d' Encouragement, 
thus creating a powerful aid to the industrial efforts of the F"rench manufacturers. At the 
fourth exhibition, in 1806, the printed cottons of Mulhausen and Logelbach, and silk-thread 
and cotton-lace were first displayed, and prizes were adjudged for the manufacture of iron by 
means of coke, and of steel by a new process. 

Foreign wars prevented further exhibitions until 1819, after which time they became more 
frequent, being held in 1823, 1827, etc.; the tenth being in 1844, the last, under the reign 
of Louis Philippe, when three thousand nine hundred and sixty manufacturers exhibited 
their productions. It was the most splendid and varied display that had ever been held in 
France. The building, designed by the architect Moreau and erected in the Carre Marigny 




Exhibition Building, Paris, JS44. 

of the Champs Elysees, was an immense timber shed, constructed and entirely completed in 
seventy days, at a cost of about thirty cents per square foot of surface covered. We present 
an elevation showing the royal entrance. It was at this exhibition that the first Nasmyth 
steam-hammer was shown on the continent, and the display of heavy moving machinery was 
much greater than had ever taken place before. 

In 1849, notwithstanding the political revolution through which France had just passed, 
she organized another exhibition on a still grander scale than any preceding. The services 
of the architect Moreau were again called into requisition, and another building, of which 
we give an engraving, erected in the Champs Elysees, more pretentious in its character than 



IX TE R NA TI NA L E XH IB I TI NS. 




Exhibition Builim^ Fins iS4g 



any previous one, covering an area of 220,000 square feet, exclusive of an agricultural annexe, 
and costing about the same price per square foot as the building of 1S44. At this time the 
number of exhibitors had increased from one thousand four hundred, in 1806, to nearly 
five thousand, there being no less than three thousand seven hundred and thirty-eight prizes 
awarded, and the building remained open for sixty days. 

Other nations, noticing the beneficial results of the French exhibitions, became active in 
the matter; the King of Bavaria giving an exhibition at Munich, in 1845, and previous to this 
time occasional ones had been held in Austria, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, 
etc.; those of Belgium being numerous and important. In the British Dominions, exhibi- 
tions had been held in Dublin as early as 1827, and later at Manchester, Leeds, etc.; but they 
partook more of the nature of bazaars, or fairs for the sale of the productions of the sur- 
rounding country; even that of Manchester, 1849, was of this character. 

Each of these previous exhibitions had been strictly national, confined to the products 
of the special country by which it was held. The idea seems to have been suggested, how- 
ever, in France, in 1849, of giving an International feature to that exhibition; M. Buffet, the 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, having addressed a circular letter on the subject to 
various manufacturers, with a view of ascertaining their opinions; but the resulting replies 
were so unfavorable that the project was abandoned, and France lost the opportunity, which 
was reserved to England, of the credit of the first really International Industrial Exhibition, 
in that of London, 1851. 

It may truly be said that the great success of this effort was owing to the indefatigable 
perseverance and indomitable energy of His Royal Highness Prince Albert, who took the 
greatest interest in the proceedings which gave it birth, from the very commencement, bring- 
ing to bear all the influence which attached to his position, his remarkable sagacity in matters 
of business, and his courageous defiance of all risks of failure. At one of the first meetings 
held on the subject, on the 29th of June, 1849, at Buckingham Palace, he communicated to 
those present his views in relation to a proposed exhibition of competition, in 185 1, suggest- 
ing that the articles exhibited should consist of four great divisions, namely, raw materials, 
machinery and mechanical inventions, manufactures, and sculpture and the plastic arts ; and at 
a second meeting, on July 14th of the same year, he gave still further suggestions of a plan 
of operations which he recommended, comprising the formation of a Royal Commission, 
the definition of the nature of the exhibition and of the best mode of conducting its pro- 
ceedings, the determination of a method of deciding prizes and the means of raising a prize 
fund and providing for necessary expenses, etc.; and he also pointed out the site afterwards 
adopted, stating its advantages, and recommending early application to the government for 
permission to appropriate it. 

After various preliminary proceedings, the Royal Commission was issued, and at the first 
meeting of the Commissioners, on January nth, 1850, it was decided to rely entirely upon 
voluntary contributions for means to carry out the plans proposed. 

The appeal made to this effect was answered in a most encouraging manner ; a guarantee 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



the list with §250,000, and con- 



fund of ;$ 1,1 50,000 was subscribed, one gentleman opening 
tributions began to come in from all directions. 

Upon the security thus provided the Bank of England undertook to furnish the necessary 
advances. Invitations were issued to architects of all nations to submit designs for a 
building to cover 700,000 
square feet, and although the 
competitors amounted to two 
hundred and thirty-three in 
number, not one design was 
found entirely suitable for 
adoption. In this dilemma, 
the Building Committee pre- 
pared a design of their own, 
and, notwithstanding it was 
strongly condemned by public 
opinion as inappropriate and 
unsuitable in many respects, 
the committee warmly de- 
fended it and advertised for 
tenders to erect it, requesting 
at the same time, that com- 
petitors would make any sug- 
gestions they saw fit, that 
could in their opinion effect a 
reduction in the cost. 

Messrs. Fox and Hender- 
son availing themselves of 
this clause, presented a tender 
for a building of an entirely 
different character, on a plan 
proposed by Sir Joseph, then 
Mr. Paxton, who was at that 
time engaged in the erection 
of a large plant-house for the 
Duke of Devonshire, at Chats- 
worth. The design fully met 
the approbation of the Com- 
mittee and their tender was 
accepted, on the i6th of May, 
1850. Possession of the ground 
was obtained on the 30th of 
July, and work commenced 
forthwith, — the actual erection 
beginning about the first week 
in September. 

Mr. Fox made the working drawings himself devoting his great experience and skill 
personally to the work for eighteen hours a day, during seven weeks, and the preparation 
of the iron work and other material for the construction of the building was taken charge 
of by Mr. Henderson. As the building progressed, extensive experiments were made to 




INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



xxi 



test its strength for the purposes intended, and it was found fully equal to the severest require- 
ments. The contract was not finally consummated until the end of October; but with a 
courage and enterprise characteristic of this firm, the work was pushed forward for many 




weeks on faith alone, in order to insure the completion of the building at the time fixed for 
the opening, — the first of May, 1851. It was opened at the time appointed, by the Queen in 
person, with great ceremony, although considerable work still remained to be done, A 



HISTORICAL lyTRO DUCTIOX. 



report of the proceedings of the Royal Commissioners was read by Prince Albert as Presi 
dent, which being replied to by the Queen, the blessing of the Almighty was invoked upon the 




Tlu Tmnsept ./ the ExhU'ition of lS^i, from tue .Xortk i,id,. 

undertaking by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and "the ceremonies terminated with the per- 
formance of the Hallelujah Chorus by the united choirs of the Chapel Royal, St. Paul's, 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Westminster Abbey, and St. George's Chapel, Windsor. The inauguration was one of the 
most imposing sights that had ever been witnessed in Great Britain. Our engraving gives a 
view of the building on the south side, extending east and west, and showing the main 
entrance at the great transept. 

In appearance it called to mind one of the old, vast cathedrals, designed, however, in a 
new style of architecture; not massive, dark, and sombre, but light, graceful, airy, and almost 
fairy-like in its proportions, — built as if in a night by the touch of a wand, — a true " Crystal 
Palace," and a noble example of the use of our modern material — iron — for building purposes. 

It was obvious that nothing more suitable could have been designed, and that the modern 
adaptation of one of the oldest architectural ideas — a great rectangular cruciform structure 
with nave and transepts — was just what was desired, possessing many more of the require- 
ments of a building intended for industrial exhibitions than would appear at first glance. The 
old cathedral was a place for great ceremonials, for processions, and for exhibitions, in one 
sense of the word ; its walls were covered with pictures and sculpture, and its windows filled 
with richly stained glass. Extending over a vast area, at the same time it had a grand central 
point of attraction, visible from all parts, and from which all parts were visible. These advan- 
tages were just what was required in an exhibition building, and the fact has been acknowl- 
edged over and over again in succeeding exhibitions. It will be seen, further on, that in our 
exhibition building the same ideas have been carried out, and that the building of 185 1 has 
really been the type for all the most successful buildings erected since. 

Fergusson characterized this building as belonging to a new style of architecture, which 
might be called the " Ferro- Vitreous Style," and states that " no incident in the history of 
architecture was so felicitous as Sir Joseph Paxton's suggestion." "At a time when men were 
puzzling themselves over domes to rival the Pantheon, or halls to surpass those of the Baths of 
Caracalla, it was wonderful that a man could be found to suggest a thing that had no other merit 
than being the best, and, indeed, the only thing then known which would answer the pur- 
pose." 

The light appearance of this structure was so strongly marked that many persons, unedu- 
cated as to the effect which should be produced on the eye by an iron and glass construction 
on such a large scale, expressed grave doubts as to its stability. To satisfy these doubts in 
the public mind, extensive experiments were carried out during the progress of the work, and 
also after its completion, in the presence of the Queen, Prince Albert, and a number of scien- 
tific men, by means of large numbers of workmen, crowding them on the platforms, and 
moving them back and forth, and also by means of companies of troops, arranging them in 
close order and marching them on the floors. Frames holding cannon-balls were also con- 
structed and drawn over the floor, and the results of all these experiments were such as to en- 
tirely satisfy every one that the building was properly planned and constructed for its pur- 
poses. 

Passing into the building at the west end, we enter a grand nave 72 feet wide, 1848 feet 
long, and 64 feet to the roof, crossed by a noble transept of the same width, but crowned by 
a semi-circular vault, increasing its height to 104 feet at the centre. On each side of the nave 
and transept a series of aisles spread out the building to a total width of 456 feet, the entire 
area covered being 772,784 square feet, and, with the addition of the galleries, making a total 
exhibition space of 989,884 square feet. The quantities of materials in the structure were 
as follows : — 

Cast iron, 3,500 tons ; Glass, 896,000 superficial feet, or 400 tons ; 

Wrought iron, 550 tons ; Wood, 600,000 cubic feet ; 

and the total cost was about ;$8so,000; the building remaining the property of the contractors 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



after the exhibition was over. The late Mr. Owen Jones, so well known for his taste in art 
ornamentation, was entrusted with the decoration of this palace, and the result fully justified 
the trust reposed in him, and met wich very general approval. 




It is said that, in designing the structure, the magnificent transept, with its semi-circular 
roof, was suggested in consequence of a desire to retain several lofty trees which were on the 
grounds. Bo that as it may, the trees were retained, and we are glad to be able to give an 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



engraving showing the beautiful effect thereby produced. These enclosed trees made a 
marked feature in the exhibition. 

The United States department was quite well represented, — bearing in mind the compara- 
tively small advances which this country had made, at that time, in the higher departments 
of art manufacture, — and we furnish a view of this department as it appeared. Powers exhibited 
his celebrated " Greek Slave," shown in the foreground of the picture, of which we believe 
there are several originals in existence, — one at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington. He 
also exhibited his " Fisher Boy," a work in every way worthy of the artist, and seen to the 
right of the " Greek Slave." The piano, on the right, was exhibited by Messrs. Nunn & Clark, 
of New York. Messrs. Chickering, of Boston, also exhibited a very fine instrument, and even 
at that time they had obtained a high reputation for power and brilliancy of tone, among 
European professors. Cornelius & Co., of Philadelphia, exhibited two elegant examples of 
gas chandeliers, which were very much admired. Some handsome carriages were shown; our 
celebrated Watson, of Philadelphia, being among the exhibitors. The exhibition of agricul- 
tural implements and raw materials was very creditable. 

We also present a view of the interior of the transept from the south side, which will aid 
in giving the reader some idea of the structure and its exhibits. In the centre is seen the 
curious glass fountain, contributed by the Messrs. Osier, of Birmingham, which attracted so 
much attention by the novelty of its design, its lightness, and its beauty. Passing on through 
the building, the visitor came into contact with objects from India, Africa, Asia, the West 
Indies, and all quarters of the globe ; articles of sculpture, textile fabrics, modern and medi- 
aeval brass and iron work, animal and mineral products, machinery, works of utility and those 
of ornament — everything that could furnish delight to man or add to his comfort : a vast col- 
lection, exemplifying the great progress which civilization had wrought in the world by the 
skill of man adapting the materials of nature to his own use. 

The exhibition of 1851 was in every way a great success. Upwards 01 $200,000 had been 
received from the sale of season tickets alone before the opening. During the six months 
that it remained open, from May to October inclusive, the average daily numberof visitors was 
43,536; the total number for the whole time was 6,170,000, and the amount of receipts, ;g2,625, 
535 ; there being a balance of 1^750,000 in the hands of the Commissioners after all expenses 
were paid. The exhibitors, coming from all parts of the world, amounted to more than 17,000. 

The unique style and acknowledged beauty of this magnificent edifice — the first of its kind 
— and the delightful recollections connected with its use, combined to preserve it from destruc- 
tion ; and visitors now see the same building, more permanently constructed in a modified and 
much improved form, at Sydenham, as one of the great pleasure resorts of London. Of those 
who have been abroad, who does not remember Sydenham? — the beautiful grounds laid out 
with shrubbery, walks, lakes, and fountains, for the special purpose of making the whole as 
attractive as possible ; the splendid band in constant attendance, the delightful concerts, 
amusements of all kinds in the most interesting variety, and the vast crowds, wandering about 
and so thoroughly enjoying themselves. Special excursions are made up, numbering some- 
times thousands of people, for a happy day at the Crystal Palace, — a rest from the bustle and 
turmoil of the city, adding renewed vigor to the tired body to struggle in the battle of life. 
It is not alone, however, as a pleasure resort, but also as a place of education for the masses, 
that Sydenham Crystal Palace is worthy of note. Portions of the building are fitted up to 
represent the styles of architecture of different periods of the world's history, such as the 
Pompeian Court, the Italian Court, the Renaissance Court, the English Mediaeval Court, 
&c. Another portion contains copies of the works of great sculptors of ancient and 
modern times, and of paintings of great artists, and down by the lake in the gardens, 
one finds models, life-size, of the pre-historic animals of the ancient world. 



HISTORICAL IXTRODUCriON. 



KiiUSliiiiiiiiiiiii iiiUniiiiiiijii i 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiaf •!•• mmi^ji^^^m m w iiii^^tiiiiaiiiii 



The success attending this exhibition stimulated other countries in efforts to have some- 
thing of the same kind. Exhibitions, more or less local in character, were projected and held 
in the large manufacturing towns throughout the British Empire, — at Cork, Dublin, Man- 
chester, &c. 

That at Dublin, in 1853, under the auspices of the Royal Dublin Society, which had pre- 
viously had triennial exhibitions, was the result of a proposition made to the Society by Mr. 
William Dargan, a well-known contractor, providing a certain fund for the exhibition under 
certain conditions; and, although international in its features, was not practically as entirely so as 

the exhibition of 185 1. The building consist- 
ed of five large, parallel, arched and dome- 
roofed halls. The great central hall was 
longer, as lofty, and one-fourth wider than 
the transept of the Crystal Palace of 1 851, 
Miin Exhibition BuUdmg, 1853. ^cing 425 feet in length by loo feet in 

breadth and 105 feet in height, with vaulted 
roof and semi-circular domed ends. We give an elevation of this building, which shows 
very clearly its general design. 

The erection commenced August i8th, 1852, and the exhibition was opened by the Irish Vice- 
roy, May 1 2th 1853, the building occupying in construction about two hundred working days. 
The interior effect was spacious and beautiful, and the decoration, notwithstanding the 
small sum appropriated for it, quite effective,— the prevailing tints being light blues, delicate 
buffs, and deep ultramarine, with white and red used very sparingly. The columns of the 
central hall were dark blue, and the skeleton frame of the building was marked out and em- 
phasized by dark and heavy tones of color. The total area covered was 265,000 superficial 
feet, costing, per square foot, about five-sixths of that of the building of 185 1, but the 
exhibition itself was not a financial success. The collection of art productions was large and 
particularly fine, — the works coming principally from Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, and 
France; and the method of lighting the picture gallery was considered very effective, and the 
best that had been as yet devised. 

The most interesting of all the exhibits was the collection of Irish Antiquities, which was 
very large and arranged with admirable skill, forming something at once valuable and unique. 
At the close of the exhibition the building was torn down and sold. The materials, however, 
did not realize more than one-fourth the amount of their valuation; the unwieldy forms of the 
curved parts being so badly adapted for future use, and the timbers being so injured by nails 
and the summer heat, and so shattered in taking apart, that very few portions w&rc ever 
again erected. The result demonstrated two facts: first the expensiveness of temporary build- 
ings for such purposes, and secondly the great increase produced in the cost by the introduc- 
tion of curvilinear work. 

This same year an International Exhibition was also held in the City of New York under 
the organization of a few influential citizens, as a joint stock company, clothed with sufficient 
powers by legislation to carr>' out the objects proposed. This exhibition had in view the 
comparison of the productions of America with those of other countries, with the object of 
the promotion of her advancement, it being acknowledged that she had more to gain by such 
comparison than any other of the great nations of the world. It was liberally assisted by 
contributions of exhibits from European manufacturers and artists, but misfortune seems to 
have attended it from the beginning. 

It labored under the great disadvantage of professing to be a national undertaking, without 
receiving support in any way from the government; of exposing itself to the imputation of 



being a private speculation under the name of a patriotic movement, and was viewed with 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 




jealous feelings by many of the great cities of the Union. Great injustice may have been 
done to the exhibition and its promoters, but still the effect of these adverse influences was 
perceptible. Although recognized in a semi-official way by the President, and by some of 
the foreign powers, it cannot be said to have been by any means a success, many exhibit- 
' ors suffering serious loss. These conse- 
quences seem to be inherent at the outset 
of any great international exhibition that 
may be held here, from the very nature of 
our political institutions. Our present ex- 
hibition has had its difficulties in this respect. 
How nobly it has triumphed over all, its 
record will show. The country is so large, 
and the interests of the different portions 
so various, that it requires an anniver- 
sary like the Centennial to unite all to- Crystal PaUce. New Wnk. ,8^3. 
gether in a common celebration. 

The opening, although advertised to be early in June, did not take place until the middle 
of July, in the midst of our hot season ; President Pierce formally taking part in the exercises, 
in the presence of six commissioners of Great Britain, those of many other foreign govern- 
ments, and all the heads of the various State departments. 

The building was erected from designs furnished in competition by Messrs. Carstensen and 
Gildmeister ; the consulting and executive engineers and architects appointed to carry out 
the plans being Mr. C. E. Detmold, Mr. Horatio Allen, and Mr. Edmund Henry. Although 
much smaller than the exhibition building of 1 851, and possessing considerable originality 
in architectural effect and constructive detail, it was based upon the same general principles 
of construction in glass and iron, then so novel, and considered so appropriate for the pur- 
pose. Located upon an unfavorable piece of ground, 445 by 455 feet in extent, an octagonal 
form of building was adopted, changing at the height of twenty-four feet to a Greek Cross 
with low roofs in the four corners, and crowned by a dome at the centre. The length of 
each arm of the cross was three hundred and sixty-five feet, five inches, and the width, one 
hundred and forty-nine feet, five inches. On one side of the building was placed a rectangular, 
one story annexe, for machinery in motion. The plans which we give, of the ground-floor 
and galleries, will sufficiently explain the mode of construction. The columns indicated on 
these plans were placed twenty-seven feet apart each way ; there being two principal avenues 
or naves, forty-one feet, five inches wide, with side aisles and galleries fifty-four feet wide. The 
dome was one hundred feet in diameter, with a height from the ground-floor to the springing 
of nearly seventy feet, and to the crown of the arch of one hundred and twenty-three feet, 
being at that time, the largest dome erected in this country. 

The roofs of the building, including the dome, were covered with white pine sheathing 
boards and tinned, and light was communicated to the interior by the glass construction of 
the main walls, and by the clerestories of the main avenues and dome. The dome above 
the clerestory contained thirty-two ornamental windows of stained glass, decorated with the 
arms of the Union and of the several States, forming quite a conspicuous feature of the 
interior effect. The exterior walls were constructed of cast-iron framing and panel work, 
filled in with glazed sash, — the glass used being one-eighth inch thick, enameled, and of 
American manufacture. 

Octagonal turrets were placed at the angles of the building, eight feet in diameter, and 
seventy-six feet high, containing circular stairways for the private use of the officers and 
employees of the exhibition. The lower floor was connected with the galleries by twelve 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



stairways, one each side of the four main entrances and four under the dome,— the latter 

being in reahty double stairways with a common half landing. 

The decoration of the building 

J/w,.:--^-y-^^-'^K'^yyy^<y^,w^.^^^^y--^^^'------^ -^ was Considered particularly fine, 

it having been placed in the hands 
of Mr. Henry Greenough of Cam- 
bridge, near Boston, Massachusetts, 
excepting only the interior of the 
dome, which was designed by Signor 
Monte Lilla. Mr. ' Greenough 
started out with the very correct 
assumption, that the only true 
method was to ornament the con- 
structive details, following and 
bringing out the lines therein in- 
dicated, without attempting to con- 
ceal them by useless and unmeaning 
decoration. 

With the exception of the ceiling 
of one of the lower corner roofs, 
and the interior of the dome, which 
were executed in tempera on canvas, 
the whole of the exterior and in- 
terior work was in white lead in oil, 
brought to the various tints desired 




York Ex/tilntion, 1SS3. 



by the admixture of various colors. 

Mr. Greenough has given the following rules, to which he states that he mainly adhered 

in working up the design, and as 
they were productive of such ex- 
cellent results, and are so generally 
applicable, we take the liberty of 
quoting them : — 

" I. Decoration should in all cases 
be subordinate to construction. It 
may be employed to heighten or 
give additional value to architectural 
beauties, but should never counter- 
feit them. Being in the nature of 
an accompaniment, it should keep 
in modest accordance with the air, 
and not drown it with impertinent 
embellishment. Coloring, to be 
employed with good effect on a 
building, should resemble the dra- 
pery of the antique sculptures, which, 
displaying between its folds the forms 
Caiiery Plan. Ne.o York ExhiiiHov. 1853. beneath, serves rather to enhance 

than to conceal their beauty. 

'II. All features of main construction should have one prevailing tint, enriched occasionally 




INTERNA TIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



by the harmonious contrasts of that color. All secondary, or auxiliary construction, may 
be decorated by the employment of a richer variety of the principal color. This mode of 
treatment is suggested by the distinction which nature has made between the coloring of the 
trunk, branches, twigs, and leaves of trees. 




"III. The prevailing color of the ceilings should be sky-blue, thus borrowing from nature 
the covering which she has placed over our heads. Monotony may be prevented by the 
introduction of orange (the natural complement of blue), garnet and vermilion, in such 
quantities only as may be necessary to recall these colors employed elsewhere 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



" IV. Rich and brilliant tints should occur in small quantities, and be employed to attract 
the eye to the articulations and noble portions of the members, rather than to the members 
themselves. As in the human figure, variety of color and form is most displayed in the 
extremities and joints, to which the broader style of the limbs and trunk serve as a foil, so 
in buildings, the bases and capitals of columns, brackets of arches, and the frame-work of 
panels, would seem legitimate objects for the reception of rich coloring. Occurring at fixed 
numerical distances, they are measured out in equal proportions as to space, and afford also 
a due quantity of brilliant and stimulating tints, — sufficient to enliven the large proportion 
of mild color, so essential to a general effect of quiet and repose. 

"V. All natural beauty of color existing in any material, should, if possible, be brought 
into play, by using that color itself, instead of covering it with paint of another hue. 

" VI. The leading feature of beauty in the Crystal Palace, being that of proportion and 
geometrical harmony, rather than elaboration of detail, all ornament introduced should be 
of the same character, mere geometrical outlines and forms, to the exclusion of classical 
decoration, the characteristic of which is an imitation of the organization of foliage. 

"VII. White should be used in large quantities in all cases of simple compositions, not 
only to give value, by contrast, to the few colors employed, but to reflect light and cheerfulness 
to the work." 

The appearance of the building on its e.vterior was a light-colored bronze or olive tint, with 
the purely ornamental features enriched by gilding. The ceilings and dome of the interior 
had the ground-work of a sky-blue, producing loftiness and airiness, the constructive framing 
being painted of a rich buff or cream color, harmonizing with the blue and throwing a 
cheerful tint of sunshine over the whole. These prevailing colors were relieved by the 
judicious use of the positive Colors, red, blue, and yellow, in their several tints of vermilion, 
garnet, and orange, and in certain parts by gold. 

The area covered by the first floor was 157,195 square feet, and by the galleries, 92,496 
square feet, making a total floor space of 249,692 square feet, or about 5^^ acres, and the 
quantities of material used in the structure amounted to 300 tons of wrought iron, 1500 tons 
of cast, 55,000 square feet of glass, and 750,000 feet, board-measure, of timber. 

We give an exterior and also an interior view 
of the building, which has now passed away from 
sight forever, having been entirely destroyed by fire 
in 1858. 

We also present an engraving of the Equestrian 
Statue of Washington by Baron Marochetti, the 
largest work shown at this exhibition, and located 
in a prominent position immediately under the dome. 
The artist was an Italian sculptor of note, born in 
Turin, in 1805, long resident in France, and who 
died in 1S67, in London, where he had removed on 
the outbreak of the French Revolution, in 1848. 
From the criticisms n:ade on this statue at the time, 
we should judge that its merit lay only in its size, 
being two and a half times that of life, and that it 
was lacking in all the fine attributes of a first-class 
work of art. 
In the Mechanical Department, the exhibits of the United States were, as might have 
been expected, exceedingly creditable. The high price paid for labor in this country has 
necessitated the invention of machinery to supersede it, to a much greater extent than in 




Marochelti s statue of General Washington. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



foreign countries, and the result of this is always apparent, — our machines, as a general thing, 
being more numerous, of better quality, and more varied in their application than those from 
abroad. The sewing machine was comparatively a new invention at this time, there being 
in the exhibition of 185 i only three, — one from France, for sewing sacks, one from America, 
and one from England. At this exhibition of 1853, there were not less than ten varieties 
by American inventors alone; some using a double and some a single thread, and some 
adapted to special purposes, as for sewing cloth, leather, etc. 

The United States Coast Survey Department made an exhibit of its various instruments, 
and showed the results of its labors by means of maps, charts, etc., evincing the great pro- 
gress and honorable position which this country had attained, even more than twenty years 
ago, in this work. 

Gas was supplied to the building primarily for policing purposes only; but it was afterwards 
arranged to open the building on certain evenings to visitors, and the effect of the interior, 
when fully illuminated, especially the dome, was exceedingly grand. 

France, encouraged by the great success of the London exhibition of 1851, — regretting, 
perhaps, the opportunity which she lost in 1849, of setting the example of the international 
feature in exhibitions, and conscious that the exclusive or merely national system which she 
had previously adopted, would, if continued, be detrimental to the best interests of herself, 
and contrary to the national pride of her people, — determined to hold an International 
Exhibition in 1855. 

While she had little to fear in the way of competition in those specialties for which she 
had so long been famous, she also knew that, by bringing before her people those productions 
of human skill more especially adapted to the necessities of mankind, and which heretofore 
had received so little attention in France, she would benefit her country immensely. The re- 
sult would be that the French would either improve their own methods of production or 
make such arrangements by more extensive commercial relations as would insure future 
supply from those countries best adapted to furnish it. 

The Emperor had determined, as early as March, 1852, upon the erection of a large per- 
manent building in the great square of the Champs Elysees, for the purposes of national 
expositions, and also to be available for great public ceremonies and civil or military fetes. 
This building, with temporary additions, it was decided to use for the Universal Exposition 
of 1855. 

The site adopted was authorized by the prefect of the Seine to be given over to the State 
in Ju'y, 1852, and a public company was organized in August of the same year, with 
M. Ardoin at its head, as " concessionaires " for the erection of the building — the concession 
to last for thirty-five years, and the receipts from expositions to produce the return for the re- 
quired outlay of capital. 

The buildings for this exposition afford to us an excellent example of the manner in which 
the French undertook the construction of a permanent building in connection with a great in- 
ternational exposition, and might serve, in some respects, as a precedent for our Memorial Hall. 

The first design was prepared by MM. Viel and Desjardins, but it was found to involve 
great expense in the construction, and an amount of work so immense that it could not pos- 
sibly be completed by the time fixed upon for the opening. At last, in December 1852, a 
contract was entered into, by MM. York et Cie. with M. Ardoin et Cie., for the construction 
of a building — all the work except the decorative painting and sculpture to be completed 
by a fixed day for a fixed sum, — the contractors to be at liberty to make any alterations in 
the design they desired, under the conditions that no change was to be made either in " the 
dimensions, the solidity, or the artistic aspect of the building, considered as a national mon- 
ument." 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



The contractors appointed M. Barrault, Chief Engineer to the Palace, and M. Cendrier, 
Architect to the Lyons Railway, to prepare the modified design, assisted by MM. Bridel and 
Villain. M. Viel, one of the authors of the original design, was given charge of the masonry. 




M.iui Enlrance. InUrnatumal ExhiHtum. Pjris. /SjS- 

The adopted design was very similar, in general appearance, to the original of MM. Viel 
find Desjardins. 

Although work was commenced immediately, it advanced but slowly — very little being 
accomplished before February, 1854, and the opening of the Exposition, which was to have 
been on the 1st of May, 1855, did not take place until the 15th of the same month. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



The principal edifice, now known as the " Palais de I'lndustrie," and still in use for national 
exhibition purposes, was a rectangular building, eight hundred and twenty feet long by three 
hundred and sixty feet wide, exclusive of the central and end projections, containing entrances 
and stairways, and covered eight acres of ground. It was built of stone, and quite ornamental 
in appearance, — the main exhibition hall being spanned by a central arched roof of one hundred 
and fifty-seven feet, with two side arches of seventy-eight and a half feet each, parallel to the 
centre one ; and two of the same span running transversely at the ends, and beyond its gables. 
At the corners these latter connected by hips and ridges, leaving a clear space underneath. 
The covering of a large portion of these roofs (about one-third) was roughened glass, which, 
together with great defects in ventilation, appears to have been a serious mistake in the hot 
summer climate of Paris — great inconvenience being experienced in consequence, and it being 
necessary to resort to the expedient of muslin screens. We present an engraving of the front 
entrance on the Champs Elysees, which will give the reader an idea of the style of architecture 
adopted. 

The structure, as a whole, was framed of iron, designed to stand by itself without side- 
walls or anything except the base upon which it rested. The exterior walls were placed 
around this, being of ashlar masonry, designed in a simple, bold style, encasing and conceal- 
ing the framed structure within, but having openings for the admission of light. 

Our engraving does not give a complete idea of the building, as it comprises only the 
central entrance of about two hundred and fifty feet, whereas the total length, formed by ex- 
tensions on each side of this, amounted to over nine hundred feet. The great central roof, 
although possessing some defects, was, at that period, the noblest specimen of arched roof 
that had yet been erected, excelling in magnitude, dignity, and true principles of construction. 
Although Great Britain had then some bold specimens of work, they would not admit of 
comparison with this. 

Fergusson, in giving a criticism on this building, states that the greatest defect in the ex- 
hibition building of 185 1 was its want of solidity, "and that appearance of permanence and 
durability indispensable to make it really architectural in the strict meaning of the word." 
He was of opinion that "the only mode of really overcoming this defect was, probably, by the 
introduction of a third material. Stone was not quite suitable for this purpose — being too 
solid and uniform," and "the designers of the Palais d'Industrie seem to have thought so also, 
as, instead of trying to amalgamate the two elements at their command, they were content to 
hide their crystal palace in an envelope of masonry, which would have served equally well for 
a picture gallery, a concert room, or even for a palace." "Nowhere was the internal arrange- 
ment of the building expressed or even suggested on the outside, and the consequence was 
that, however beautiful either of the parts might be separately, the design was a failure as a 
whole." 

The other buildings attached to this exhibition were temporary in character, and were as 
follows : — a circular building, known as the panorama, in the rear of the permanent building, 
three hundred and thirty feet in diameter, and covering about two acres ; an annexe for 
machinery, 4,000 feet long by 85 feet wide, covering 7^ acres ; and a palace for fine arts, lo- 
cated at a considerable distance from the permanent building and covering 4 acres. The total 
space covered, including the gallery floors, which we have not considered in giving the several 
areas, amounted to 29 acres, and the exterior ground devoted to exposition purposes to 6 
acres additional, the entire spate being greater than used in any previous exhibition. The 
Panorama, which was a pet of the Prince Napoleon and one of the most attractive spots of 
the exhibition, containing the exhibits of the products of the French Imperial manufactories, 
the "Buffet" being also established here, and was a circle of 165 feet diameter; and around 
this a circular gallery was constructed of timber, in three spans, roofed with sheet zinc and 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



glazed with skylights, increasing the building to the total diameter of 300 feet previously 
given, and adding some 97,000 square feet to the exhibition in the short space of thirty days 
from the time that it was first decided upon. A covered passage connected it on the north 
with the Palais de I'lndustrie, and on the south it communicated with the extensive machinery 
annexe by a covered lattice bridge of three spans, thrown over the Chaussee du Cours la 
Reine, covered with glass and approached at each end by grand flights of steps. The ma- 
chinery annexe was built of timber and iron in combination, with masonry foundation, — the 
end portions of the building being solid blocks of timber, brick and plaster, and presenting 
quite an imposing appearance. The length of this building was entirely too great, compared 
with its span, to obtain any good interior effect. 

Far greater prominence was given at this exhibition to the Fine Art Department than had 
ever been previously done. A special building for this purpose was isolated from all the 
others — as much for greater safety to its valuable contents from fire as by the necessity of 
the site — and it contained, in addition to a great hall for paintings of 462 by 198 feet, a dis- 
tinct hall for sculpture of 215 by 72 feet, together with a refreshment department and the 
necessary store-rooms and offices. It was a timber structure covered with zinc and glass, 
and lighted from the roof, with an interior ceiling of glass which tempered the light, pro- 
tected the works of art from leakage, and gave much better opportunities for ventilation than 
in previous arrangements. The hanging or wall surfaces were very much increased by 
numerous screens rising from the floor. 

The number of exhibitors was nearly 21,000, — France contributing about one-half, and 
occupying 13^ acres, while Great Britain had 454^ ; Germany, i ^ ; Austria, i ^ ; Belgium, i ; 
Switzerland, one-half acre ; and the United States, one-third acre ; the balance of the coun- 
tries exhibiting decreasing to quite small spaces, and the Republic of Dominica having only 
two metres. The total cost of the buildings was about $3,373,300. 

The Exhibition was closed by the Emperor in person, on the 15th of November, with 
considerable pomp and ceremonial, and with the distribution of the honors and awards, which 
were as follows: — for the Industrial Department, 112 grand medals of honor, 252 medals of 
honor, 2,300 medals of the first class, 3,900 of the second class, and 4,000 honorable mentions ; 
and for the Fine Art Department, 40 decorations of the Legion of Honor, 16 medals of honor 
voted by the Jury, 67 medals of the first class, 87 of the second class, "jj of the third class, 
and 222 honorable mentions. The main central nave of the building was fitted up and ar- 
ranged for the ceremony by removing all exhibits and placing a throne on one side, with a 
grand central platform, the remaining space being covered with seats rising one above the 
other, and forming — with the galleries — a vast amphitheatre from which the assembled multi- 
tude gazed down upon the gorgeous and exciting spectacle. With such a wonderful advance 
as shown by this exhibition from the small beginning of 1798, France might well be proud. 
Here, as before, were found the exquisite tapestries of the Gobelins and of Beauvais, improved 
and brought to the utmost perfection that art and science combined could make them, — 
the delicate tints so completely wrought and graded, each into its proper place, with 
so much mechanical dexterity and artistic skill, that it was difficult to decide whether 
the original or the copy was most to be admired, — the great softness and perfection of 
tone and color deciding in favor of the latter in almost every case. Also, here again, 
were exhibited the porcelain productions of the famous manufactory of Sevres, excelling all 
competitors, and fairly astonishing the visitor with the capabilities of the material. The chef- 
d'wiivre was a vase commemorative of the great exhibition of 185 1. It was Roman in form, 
ornamented with antique scrolls in white and gold in low relief, upon an Indian red ground. 
A collar or fillet supported the body upon a short shaft, which was broken by four masks 
representing Asia, Africa, Europe, and America ; and the body itself was decorated with de- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



tached groups of figures proceeding from the back to the front, where Peace was represented 
as enthroned, with Plenty on one side and Justice on the other. The groups to the left were 
formed of figures symbolic of England and her colonies, Russia, the United States of America, 
and China ; while those to the right represented France, Belgium, Austria, Prussia, Spain, 
Portugal, and Turkey. At the back, and dividing the groups, was a figure ingeniously posed 
in the attitude of sending them on their mission. Olive-leaves in bronze, with gilt fruit, deco- 
rated the upper curve of the body and neck, and the words " Abondancc" "Concorde^' 
"Eqiiite," were inscribed above the whole. 

Savonniere, also, was again represented by her carpets ; but, although the work on them 
was extraordinary and, in one sense, perfection, yet the designs were wanting in adaptation to 
the true purposes for which carpets are intended, — having too much color, too large forms, 
and too much relief, or, in other words, not showing an improvement in taste which one would 
have been led to expect from the advance in other departments. 

In the Agricultural Department, under the specialty of Reaping Machines, the United 
States was in the front rank, — exhibiting a number of very efficient machines. In the trials 
which were made, that of M'Cormick excelled all others from all countries, — performing the 
most work in the shortest time, and doing it in the most thorough manner, " evincing 
much greater perfection in its operations than any of the others whose powers were brought 
to the test." 

In the Machinery Department, the Ribbon Saw — now so extensively used for scroll-sawing 
— was among the novelties. 

The Paris Exhibition of 1855 differed from all previous ones in the "extent of its 
productions, the variety of its objects, and the facilities afforded for the disposal of the 
exhibited articles at a fair market-price, — conditions of great value to the exhibitors, in the 
immense selection submitted to view." It was really "an immense bazaar, from which might 
be selected every description of manufacture and almost every kind of produce." 

"Nothing surprised the observer more forcibly than the beauty and the extent of the 
articles offered for inspection, and the great skill by which such vast and varied forms of 
manufacture were produced." 

These exhibitions all produced their good results, and in a very marked degree. Fairbairn 
very truly says of the exhibitions of 1851 and 1855, that "they have shown to the world in 
every department of industry and of practical science, wherein consists the prosperity of 
nations, and the happiness of mankind. They have shown how all materials, whether derived 
from the forest, the field, or the mine, may be turned to purposes of utility; how the labor 
of man may be multiplied a thousand-fold ; how the fruits of the earth may be cultivated 
and gathered in for man's necessities; and how works of art may be elaborated to increase 
the happiness and enjoyment of his existence." " All these things were exhibited on a scale 
commensurate with the greatness of an undertaking so vast in extent, so varied in form, and 
so characteristic of all the duties and wants of human existence, as to elicit the admiration 
and praise of astonished multitudes from every country of the civilized world." 

In the year 1857, Manchester, England, held an exhibition of Fine Art and Fine Art 
Manufacture, more particularly confined to the Art Treasures of the United Kingdom, — plans 
being advertised for in May, 1856, with the conditions that the building must be fire-proof, 
must cover about 135,000 square feet, or a little over three acres, at a total cost of not more 
than ^125,000, and must be capable of erection within six months. 

The design and proposal of Me.ssrs. C. D. Young & Co., of Edinburgh, constructors of 
corrugated iron buildings, was accepted for the sum of ^122,500, the building to be completed 
by January 1st, 1857, under penalties for delays beyond the 15th of that month. An archi- 
tect (Mr. Salomons) was appointed- to confer with the contractors and modify the design in 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



some respects, so as to improve the architectural effect, if possible, without material increase 
of cost, and the improved plan, of which we furnish a front elevation, was erected. 

The building, in general plan, was a parallelogram, 700 by 200 feet, covered by five roofs 
running in the direction of the length of the building, the centre and two outer roofs being 
semicircular. The former was 56 feet span, and the two latter each 45 feet. The intermediate 
roofs were of the ordinary triangular construction, and each 24 feet span. A transept crossed 




Industrial and Fine Art Exhibition. Manchester, iS;j. 

the building at a distance of 460 feet from the main-entrance end, consisting of a semicircular 
span of 56 feet, and two side spans of 24 feet each, exactly the same as the centre portion of 
the main roof, and forming a total width of 104 feet. The structure was supported by cast- 
iron columns, and the centre arch had a height of 65 feet, the two side arches 48 feet, and the 
intermediate spans 24 feet. The outside covering was corrugated iron, the sheets being fitted 
into wave-line recesses in the cast-iron columns without bolts or rivets, and the inner walls 
were of wood. 

The walls and roofs were lined internally with boards, upon which was stretched muslin, 
and on the latter ornamental paper decoration was placed, the work being under the direction 
of Mr. Grace, of London. The side-walls of the great halls were a deep maroon, the pan- 
eled surface of the roof a warm grayish tint, the whole being relieved by lines and tracery 
of red and white, and the columns and metal work, bronze with rivet heads, etc., picked out 
in gold. 

The sides of the ribs of the roof were decorated in vermilion on a soft cream-colored 
ground. The walls of the picture-galleries were of a sage green, with the roof a warm gray, 
and the border a cream color. The work was considered a remarkable success, combining 
great repose and beauty. 

The facade of the building, up to the springing of the arches, was built of red and white 
brick, and the ends of the semicircular roofs above were filled in with ornamental work in 
wood, iron, and glass. Skylights, having an opening of about one-third the span, extended 
the whole length of each roof and afforded a most excellent light, especially for the Fine Art 
Department, but the glass required screening with muslin during the summer months. It 
seems to be a great desideratum in all large picture-galleries to have the lighting so arranged 
that, by means of some sort of movable screen or velabrum, it may easily be increased or 
diminished as necessity requires. The quantity of light at our service varies so much at dif- 
ferent periods of the year, and, indeed, at different times of the day, that it is almost impos- 
sible to do the lighting to perfection without some such arrangement, — a matter which, as in 
this case, is too often neglected. The interior effect of the central arched roof — which was 
constructed entirely open, without any ties or braces to interfere with the line of vision — was 
exceedingly light and elegant. The total floor space for exhibition purposes was increased by 
means of galleries, until it amounted to 171,000 square feet. 

The Art Treasures included the works of the old masters — commencing with the oldest 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 





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Exhibition, Florence, iSbi. 



specimens that could be obtained — and were intended to show the gradual progress in Art 
from the earliest epoch, on through the periods of Titian, Correggio, and Rubens, up to the 
modern schools of Art, especially those of England. 

Italy — with its principalities freed from the trammels and tyranny of a foreign yoke, and 
united into one grand nation — resolved upon holding an exhibition at Florence in 1861, for 
the purpose, perhaps, of inaugurating its new birth, and taking its place among the kingdoms 
of Europe. Previous exhibitions had 
been held in various parts of Italy — 
some at a remote period — but they 
partook more of the nature of agricul- 
tural exhibitions. There had also been 
one at Naples some years before, but this 
e.xhibition, now held, was far superior 
to any that preceded it, and forming, 
as it did, an exceedingly attractive 
display of Italian industrial, fine art, 
and agricultural products, it seems 
singular that it did not attract the attention from abroad that its importance deserved. 

The classification adopted was based upon that of London and Paris, but more simplified. 
It was divided into four great departments, — Industrial, Fine Arts, Agricultural, and Horti- 
cultural. The main building consisted of a rectangular front portion, built of masonry, as a 
permanent construction, with a great octagonal building in the rear, covering an interior 
garden. Into this main building the industrial and a portion of the fine art departments were 
placed, a detached building containing the balance of the latter. The agricultural department 
was accommodated in large temporary buildings, and the horticultural display took place in 
hot-houses and in the gardens sur- 
rounding the exhibition. 

We present both exterior and inte- 
rior views of the permanent portion of 
the main building. The display of the 
peculiar agricultural products of north- 
ern and central Italy was particularly 
rich, and the fine art collection could 
not have been otherwise than excel- 
lent. 

It is to be hoped that Italy — once 
the centre of the arts and luxuries of 
the civilized world, and now again rap- 
idly taking her position — will, before long, give another exhibition, showing her progress 
since she has become united under one head, and — this time — in Rome, where the ancient 
and modern may be brought face to face, and the faded magnificence of the eternal city seen 
in contrast with the development and progress of industrial art of the present time. 

The advantages which England had experienced from the Exhibition of 185 1, had been 
very great. Before that time, very little had been accomplished in the department of art in- 
dustry. In fine arts, such men as Reynolds, Gainsborough, Hogarth, Hayman, and Wilson, 
had achieved great reputation. Gibbons, Wedgewood and others had also been celebrated in 
their several specialties. These men were, however, all artists, working for themselves, not 
manufacturers, and their arts died with them. They promulgated no fixed principles and 
nothing was left to their successors. Art was not imbued into the masses. England was con- 




InUrior of Exhibition, Florence, iS6i. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



tent with styles of art industry that would have shamed a South Sea Islander, and not only 
was she making no progress, but there was, at one time, an actual deterioration in public taste. 
She had discovered that, with the mechanical skill and the great producing capabilities which 
she possessed, she could rapidly accumulate wealth without taking time to attend to points of 
artistic design, and, in truth it may be said, that the term " industrial art" was really unknown 
in England before 1832. 

Then she awoke to the fact that the artistic ability of France and the Continent was suc- 
cessfully competing with her mechanical superiority in the markets of the world, and she was 
obliged, in self-defence, to take measures to retain her supremacy. Art schools were accord- 
ingly established, and some efforts made to bring the productions of the country up towards 
the high standard to which the Continental manufacturers had already arrived. But the great 
difficulty with these schools was the want of practicability in their management. Those 
employed as teachers were artists, having sufficient influence to give them position, not prac- 
tical men, and, if an appointment was to be made, it was always a question of blood, not brains. 
A student was taught not to think and study out a design for himself, but to copy from the 
designs of others ; to reproduce from the French — which was considered the highest standard 
of taste — and not to originate. The result was an apathy and want of spirit, and, of course, 
a failure. 

On the Continent, practical men were placed to teach practical subjects. Watchmakers 
were the professors in schools of design for watches. Men of the stamp of Quintin Metsys, 
who could execute as well as design, were the teachers; and, when in the Exhibition of 185 1, 
England came face to face with the work of such men, the result showed her defects. She 
became aware that the course she had pursued was not the correct one, and she was even in a 
worse position, in some respects, than if she had never made any attempts — being obliged not 
only to commence at the beginning, but also to eradicate the false teaching which her artizans 
had already received. What was intended as a great display became, in fact, a great teacher, 
and the improvement in consequence was very marked. The schools of art were reconstructed 
and improved; a collection of art objects made by purchase from the exhibits of the great 
exhibition, forming the nucleus of the present Kensington Museum, and a strong progressive 
movement followed, producing great effects. 

Among the direct results were reduced tariffs, increased postal facilities, and a vast increase 
of industrial prosperity, adding greatly to the commerce of the countr>'. It was but natural, 
therefore, that England, conscious of the great advantages accruing from this Exhibition of 
185 I, and seeing also the good results of the French Exposition of 1855, and of her own 
local exhibitions, should desire, in time, a second great international e.Khibition ; and this desire 
culminated in the London Exhibition of the Art Works of All Nations of 1862. 

On the 14th of March, i860, a Charter of Incorporation was issued by the Queen to 
Royal Commissioners for this e.xhibition, defining their duties and investing them with full 
powers, — the Prince Consort being made President of this Commission. It was decided, in 
anticipation, to test the popularity of the undertaking by public subscriptions, and a Guarantee 
Fund of 51,250,000 was formed with a rapidity beyond all expectation, allowing of the formal 
execution of the Guarantee Deed to the full amount by the 15th of March, the day after the 
incorporation of the Commission. This Guarantee Fund was afterwards signed by 1 157 
persons, in all, to the amount of ^2,255,000, and upon this security, the Bank of England 
advanced $1,250,000 for the expenses of erecting the buildings and making the requisite 
preparations for the Exhibition. 

At South Kensington, within a short distance of the site of the Exhibition of 185 I, and at 
the south end of the new gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society, was a piece of 
ground belonging to the commissioners of the previous e.xhibition, and purchased with their 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



surplus funds. This was selected as the location for the buildings of the present exhibition, 
and arrangements were made for its use. This location was quite favorable in some respects, 
and unfavorable in others. The new gardens of the Horticultural Society were finely situated, 
laid out with considerable dignity of style and in excellent taste, and formed a noble and 
attractive addition to the exhibition. It was imperative, however, in order to provide sufficient 
space, that the whole of the selected ground should be covered with buildings, and the result 
was that they were thrown out to the very verge of the street in front, — the street not being 
of very great width, and already built upon to a considerable extent on the other side, — so that 
no matter what the elevation of a building necessarily so long, it could never be seen to 
advantage, and no opinion could be formed of its proportions, whether good or bad. The 
approaches were also restricted, few, difficult and dangerous for the great multitudes which 
such an exhibition would draw together. In fact, the arguments opposed to the selection of 
this site seemed to preponderate very much over those in favor of it. Having determined 
upon the site, the Commissioners decided not to allow open competition for designs, and 
during a consideration of the propriety of permitting a limited competition, a plan was 
presented to their notice, designed for the site in question by Captain Fowke, of the Royal 
Engineers, an officer of great skill and experience, who had been in the British Department 
of the Paris Exhibition, and who had prepared this plan so as to meet many practical defects, 
found, in his opinion, to exist in the buildings of the exhibitions of 185 i and 1855. This 
plan met with so much favor that it was immediately adopted, and Captain Fowke appointed 
sole and responsible architect for the Exhibition buildings ; the Commission thus passing over 
the whole engineering and architectural professions of the country, including those who had 




F>\tnt Elevatit 



been so honorably connected with the previous exhibition, and creating much jealous feeling 
and disappointment. The plans were somewhat modified, in order to keep the cost within 
certain figures fixed upon by the Commissioners : bids were received, and the work was let on 
the 23d of February, 1861. We present an exterior view of the building from the Albert 
Road, which will give the reader a very fair idea of its appearance. The design was severely 
criticised at the time; the frontage on the Cromwell road,* showing to the right on our picture, 
especially being condemned as featureless and ugly ; and the Art Journal characterized the 
building as "the wretched shed that was the Fowke version of the Paxton Cr>'stal Palace." 
But it must be remembered that the site was determined upon, and that the question of cost 
was fixed, precluding any expense beyond a certain amount. There seems also to have been 



* Vide page xliii. 



xl HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



an intention of making a certain portion of the buildings so permanent that it could be finished 
up after the close of the exhibition as a national gallery of Fine Art. Any architect, under 
these conditions, would have worked to great disadvantage. And in reference to the front on 
the Cromwell road, it may be said that there would have been very little use in finishing it up 
expensively and artistically, as no one could see the building on this side, except in small 
portions at a time. 

Designating the south face of the building on the Cromwell road as the main front, we 
may describe the building as follows: — 

This main front occupied an extreme length of i i 50 feet 9 inches, and a depth of 50 feet, 
and was constructed in brick, with a grand central entrance consisting of three arched openings. 
The wings on either side were built in two stories, the upper being used for picture-galleries ; 
and the face walls were pierced with arched window openings, filled in on the lower story with 
glass, and on the upper with blank panels, so as to allow an uninterrupted wall-space in the 
interior for pictures. At the ends of these wings, as will be seen by the perspective view, 
were double corner towers. Passing into the central entrance, grand stairways led to the 
upper floor, where in the centre was a sculpture gallery, 150 feet in length, with entrances 
leading to the picture-galleries on either side. 

These galleries possessed noble proportions and were effective and useful for their purposes. 
On the east and west sides, on Prince Albert and E.xhibition roads, brick fronts extended north 
from the corner towers, each having a face of about 700 feet and a large central arched entrance, 
and really presenting a better appearance than any other portion of the building. The wings 
on the sides of the central arch were only 25 feet wide, and were built in two floors, the upper 
forming auxiliary picture-galleries, and the lower being used for offices, retiring rooms, etc. 

The picture-galleries, all together, produced about 4600 feet lineal, or two acres superficial, 
of hanging space. A grand nave extended through between the central entrances on the east 
and west sides, 800 feet in length, 85 feet in width, and lOO feet in height from the floor to 
the ridge of the roof. At either end of this were large octagonal spaces 135 feet in diameter 
across the faces of the octagon, crowned by great duodecagonal glass domes 150 feet in 
diameter. We give a view of the interior of the great nave, looking west. 

Two transepts crossed the nave at the domes, extending north and south, having the same 
width, height and manner of construction as the nave, and nearly 600 feet in length, right 
through. The nave and transepts had arched timber roofs, supported by double columns of 
iron. The domes rose to a height of 200 feet, with gilded finials 55 feet higher, and were 
constructed of wrought-iron framing, covered with glass. They presented a very light 
appearance, and were quite transparent when viewed from a near point of sight, showing the 
skeleton of the framing through the glass. The best view of them was that from some point 
a mile or two distant. Between the nave and the south front, and also on the north side of 
the nave up to the gardens of the Horticultural Society, the whole area was roofed over with 
glass and traversed with galleries. 

Annexes, 200 feet in width, extended north for a distance of about 900 feet, on each side of 
the gardens, being prolongations, as it were, of the east and west fronts. That on the west 
front was devoted to machinery, and the one on the east to agriculture, — the latter having an 
open court in the centre. These annexes were of timber framing, very lightly constructed, 
the outside walls being of plaster on lathing, and the roof consisting of a series of four 
consecutive arches of 50 feet span each, boarded and covered with tarred and sanded felt. 
Each arch had a continuous glazed skylight for its whole length. A range of refreshment 
rooms was placed at the north end of the Horticultural Gardens, constructed over the arcades 
of the entrance, and connecting the ends of the two annexes. The view from here over the 
gardens was the most beautiful that the whole ground afforded. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



xli 



The decoration of the building was placed in the hands of Mr. J. G. Grace, a gentleman 
of considerable reputation in his special art ; the same who had decorated the Manchester 




Exhibition Building, and who also had been specially selected by Sir Gharles Barry to carry 
out the decorations of the Houses of Parliament. The work was completed in three months 



xlii HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



and gave, with one or two exceptional points, very general satisfaction. A light gray was 
adopted in the main portion of the building for the interior roof surface, and the timber framing 
marked out in colors more or less decided, each piece forming the polygonal rib, being painted 
in red or blue alternately, so arranged that in consecutive ribs, like sides of the polygon, were 
of different colors, and red showed against blue, or vice versa. It was intended, in taking a 
view of the roof, that these colors should mix and balance each other and produce a soft 
effect. The result was not as expected, and it would have been better to have painted the ribs 
of one uniform color. The sashes, and much of the wood-work on the sides below the roof, 
were of vellum color; the cast-iron work of columns and girders light bronze green ; and the 
capitals of columns picked out red, blue and gold. The portions of the building below the 
arches were made quiet in color, so as not to interfere with the brilliancy and richness of the 
exhibits, while the vividness of coloring in the roof was intended to carry up, in some degree, 
the gaiety of the scene below. 

The walls of the vestibule, stairways, etc., intended for sculpture, were colored in tints of 
maroon and quiet reds, with some green. Those of the picture-galleries were nearly all a 
subdued sage green, relieved along the cornices and string-mouldings by stenciled ornaments 
in a sort of cream or vellum color. Under the domes, the large supporting iron columns — 
nearly lOO feet in height — were a dark maroon, with the capitals gilt; and the panels between 
the arches and frieze were in shades of red, relieved by colored lines, the names of the four 
quarters of the globe being inserted in four of the compartments, with the initials of Victoria 
and Albert below. On the eight spandrils of the four main arches, medallions were placed, 
emblematic of manufactures, commerce and the various arts and sciences. The moulding of 
cornice and facia was of vellum color, relieved by gilding; the trusses gold-color, with the facia 
between them red, and the broad facia below, blue, and inscribed with scriptural sentences in 
gold letters. In the domes proper, the main ribs were painted bright red, with spaced black 
and white at the edges, and a fine gold line in the centre, spreading at intervals into lozenges 
and circles containing gilt stars on a blue ground. At the ring-plate above, the red was carried 
round, the points of intersection being painted black and white, and above that the eight main 
ribs were painted deep blue, relieved with red, gold and black, until they met in the centre 
pendant, which was gilt, bordered with red. The covering above was light blue with gilt rays 
diverging from the centre. 

The domes of this building were by far the most costly part of its construction, and were 
thought by many to be quite a useless and unnecessary expense. The roof covering adopted 
was found much better than the glass covering of previous exhibitions, resulting in a much 
more equable and pleasant temperature in the interior. 

The total area roofed in was 988,000 square feet — larger than that of any previous exhibition ; 
but the total area of space, covered and uncovered, and available for e.xhibition purposes, was 
not as great as that of Paris, 1855 ; the proportions standing 1,023,000 in the present case, to 
1,500,000 in the other. The total cost was not less than $2,150,000, equal to about ;g2.i8 per 
square foot. Including the expenses of the exhibition, during the time it was open, the total 
amounted to $2,298,155, and the entire amount received by the Royal Commissioners 
amounted to precisely the same sum, making no loss or no gain, — the exhibition just self- 
sustaining and no more. 

By great e.xertions, the exhibition was opened upon the day appointed, — the ist of May, 
1862. One great loss was felt in the death of Prince Albert, to whom so much was due 
for the favor and encouragement he had given to international exhibitions, and to whom they 
really owed their origin. 

The contrast between the administration of the Exhibition of 185 I, under his charge, and 
that of 1862, after he had been called away, was very marked ; and of the great throngs who 



IN TER NA TI NA L EXHIB I TI NS. 



crowded into and around the building on that day of opening, not one but felt his absence. 
The Queen, of course, was not there, and although the ceremonies were very stately and 

imposing, a gloom was cast over the whole 
which nothing could entirely dispel. Apart 
from his royalty, Prince Albert was a very 
popular man, — endearing himself to the 
people by the active part he took in all 
industrial and art matters, — and hence the 
loss to the nation was felt all the more keenly. 
The Queen was represented by the Duke 
of Cambridge, who received and replied to 
the address of the Commissioners, and to 
whom was handed the master-key, which 
opened all the different locks on the various 
doors of the exhibition building. After 
this, the grand orchestra, consisting of 400 
instruments and 2000 voices, opened with 
a grand overture by Meyerbeer, followed 
by a chorale, composed by Sterndale Bennett, 
to the words of an ode written for the 
occasion by Tennyson, and then by Auber's 
"Grand March." After a prayer by the 
Bishop of London, Handel's choral hj'mns 
— the "Hallelujah" and "Amen," from the 
Messiah — followed, and the National An- 
them was again sung in conclusion. The 
Duke of Cambridge then rose and pro- 
claimed the exhibition open; a prolonged 
fanfare from the trumpets of the Life- 
Guards saluted the announcement, and the 
ceremony ended. 

The display from the United States at 
this exhibition was very small — owing to 
tlie troubles at home — but what was ex- 
hibited, was very creditable, and — as in the 
Paris Exhibition — agricultural machines 
took a conspicuous position. McCormick's 
Reaper, with its self-raking attachment, was 
exhibited, and published as one of forty 
thousand made and sold from one estab- 
lishment; and Russell's Screw-power Reap- 
ing Machine also • attracted considerable 
attention. A very novel and ingenious 
invention — and one that received much 
notice — was the " Improved Cow-Milker," of Messrs. Kershaw & Colvin, of Philadelphia. 
Two machines for Boot and Shoe Stitching, invented by Mr. L. R. Blake, were remarkable 
for their simplicity of construction and efficiency and rapidity of production. Sewing- 
machines — which were novelties in 185 i — had improved and increased in variety to a very 
great extent, and a large number of United States manufacture were exhibited. 




xliv HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



Hoe & Company, of New York, exhibited their famous Printing Machines, by a model 
provided with ten impression-cylinders, as then used by the London Times and Telegraph; 
and the Composing and Distributing Machines of Mitchell were wonderful specimens of 
American ingenuity. 

In the Machinery Department, Mr. Ramsbottom, of England, exhibited his admirable 
invention for supplying locomotive tenders with water while at full speed, now adopted in 
this country, and used with so much success for express trains on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. It consists of a dip-pipe, or scoop, attached to the bottom of the tender, its upper 
end running into the upper part of the water-tank, and the lower end curved forward and 
dipping into water contained in a shallow, open trough lying longitudinally between the 
rails. The Giffard Injector — now in such universal use — was also among the new inven- 
tions at this exhibition. 

A very efficient apparatus was a Folding, Pressing and Stitching Machine, from Switzerland, 
registering and folding sheets of paper with far greater precision than the most experienced 
hand-labor could do, at the rate of 1400 to 1500 sheets per hour, and at the same time 
pressing and stitching them. 

Among the notable exhibits was Babbage's Calculating Machine, which could work 
quadrations and calculate logarithms up to seven places of figures, and, with the improve- 
ments of Schentz, of Stockholm, print its results. The Calculating Machine of M. Thomas 
— the Babbage of France — was also shown, dividing 16 figures by 8 figures in half a 
minute, or giving the square root of 13 figures in one minute, although not larger than a 
musical snuff-box. 

The exhibits in reference to Electric Telegraphs, and electrical apparatus, showed a 
great advance in this department of science. 

The steel exhibits were remarkably fine ; Bessemer Steel, now so extensively employed 
for railway bars, then just coming into use ; and the greatest progress was shown from the 
time of the previous exhibition. 

The display of Chemicals was the finest that had ever been made, — far exceeding that 
of 185 1. The Pharmaceutical Society, of London, exhibited a splendid collection of drugs. 

The coal-tar dyes, then newly discovered, were among the most important of the 
exhibits. Aniline, but a few years previously so rare as to be known among chemists 
almost only by name, had now become an article of commerce, and a circular block about 
20 inches high and 9 inches in diameter, was shown, which was the whole product of no 
less than 2000 tons of coal, and was sufficient to dye 300 miles of silk fabric. Those 
beautiful blue and purple dyes which are obtained from lichens were also exhibited. 

The number, variety and beauty of the articles in Pottery was very great, although in 
the English department the designs of the ornamentation still showed a predominance of 
French ideas. The Majolica and Tile exhibits of Messrs. Maw & Co., and Messrs. Minton, 
were exceedingly fine. The majolica fountain of the latter — under the eastern dome — the 
largest exhibit of its class, and executed from designs of the sculptor Thomas, although a 
work of great expense, elegant, symmetrical and bold, and, so far as workmanship went, of 
great merit, was not considered a success, and fully exemplified the non-adaptability of the 
material to the purpose for which it was used, giving a lesson of warning what to avoid 
rather than what to copy. The Sevres Porcelain exhibit maintained its standard of 
excellence, the leading feature of this display being the sea-green ware, or celadon changeant, 
which first appeared in the Paris Exhibition of 1855; a gray, dull sea-green as a body- 
color, more like what one might expect to find in old oriental ware — more easily recognized 
than descpibed — on which is penciled with a similar but white paste, designs of leaves and 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. xlv 



flowers, standing out in slight relief, as white upon a celadon ground. The celadon 
changeant is a variety which possesses the singular capability of reflecting local color. 

England made a superb exhibit of Glassware, being first in quality of material and 
artistic development, and far outstripping Austria and France, which, in 185 1, held the 
supremacy. 

In Furniture, the advance made by England since 1851 was very marked, the designs 
departing from the French, or rococo renaissance, which had been the order of the day, 
and partaking of the Italian school, being much purer in tone, simplicity and taste, and 
showing greater progress than by any other nation. 

In Metal Work, the progress had also been rapid, the British outstripping all competi- 
tors, and developing an inherent strength, artistically, as well as mechanically. M. Ducel, 
of Paris, exhibited some remarkajjle figure castings in iron. Works in the precious 
metals showed great advance, and in this department the French were far ahead of the 
English. 

Among the Sculpture exhibits, we may mention Fuller's bronze statue of " The 
Castaway," representing a shipwrecked man — faint, bruised and exhausted — floating on a 
piece of wreck, raising himself up and holding his hand aloft as he makes a last despe- 
rate effort to attract assistance. It was a work of great merit, gaining for its author a 
high reputation. 

The " Reading Girl," by Pietro Magin, of Milan, — which the writer had the pleasure 
of seeing at Milan, several years ago, — was another one of the gems of the exhibition. A 
girl of no decidedly idealized type, loosely draped, as if partly prepared to retire for the 
night, is seated on a common rush.-bottomed chair, sideways, and reading a book, supported 
on its back. The position is so entirely free from affectation, and the attitude and 
expression so natural, that it appeals to the heart at once, and no one could fail to notice 
and appreciate it. Gibson exhibited a colored "Venus," a work of elaborate and exquisite 
execution, and exceeding beauty and refinement, — the coloring, by many, however, was 
considered a failure. It was not merely a tone given to the marble, but polychromatic, 
and too weak, — not approaching nature sufficiently to give human expression, and yet suffi- 
ciently tinted to take away the divine purity of the simple marble.. Miss Hosmer exhibited 
her " Puck," and " Zenobia Captive ;" and Powers, his " California." 

The exhibition closed on November 1st, a day of fog and drizzling rain. There was a 
very large number of persons present, among them Prince Napoleon, the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, and many others of distinguished rank, but no special ceremonial took place, in the 
usual acceptance of the term. As an exhibition, its success was not equal to that of 185 1, 
either in fitness of edifice, novelty of articles exhibited, or in financial results. 

Whatever may be said of the Emperor Napoleon III., all will admit that he systematically 
labored to advance the interests and promote the happiness of the people under him, 
continually engaging in projects for the development of the great natural resources of his 
empire ; originating and giving an impulse to national industries, before unknown, and 
taking every opportunity of pleasing the inherent tastes of his people, and gratifying their 
pride by improving and adorning Paris, until it grew to be called the most beautiful city of the 
modern world — -the very Heaven of the pleasure-seeker. In strict accordance with his' 
expressed views, and with the characteristic features of his reign, he decided upon holding 
a great International Exhibition in Paris, in 1867, and on the 22d of June, 1863, an imperial 
decree was issued to this effect ; the " Universal Exposition," as it was called, being 
intended to comprise typical examples of works of art, and of the industrial products of all 
countries, and to include every branch of human labor or skill. The invitation was extended 
to artists, manufacturers and workers of all nations, to take part in the Exposition, and it 



xlvi 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



was expressly stated that the decree had been issued so early in order to afford all 
desiring to enter the Exposition ample time for mature consideration and reflection, and 
for arranging and carrying out the necessary preparations. This was followed by a second 




decree in February, 1865, confirming the previous one, explaining in full such details as had 
become at that time necessary, and defining the leading features of the proposed exhibition. 
An Imperial Commission was appointed, a Guarantee Fund provided, Commissions and 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. xlvii 



Committees formed — at home and abroad — and a comprehensive system of co-operation 
organized and brought into service. The Presidency of the Commission was confided to 
Prince Napoleon, the Emperor by this selection bearing high testimony to the importance 
which he attached to the success of the Exposition. Formal invitations were issued to 
Foreign Governments ; and in reference to these, it was required as an absolute condition 
for the admission of any exhibitors from any country, that the government of such country 
should first accept the invitation extended to it, and assume the responsibility of forming 
the exhibition of its section. 

In arranging the plan of the exhibition, two fundamental points were determined upon 
by the Commissioners : first, that a two-fold classification should be adopted, allowing the 
contributions from each country to be kept separately in one mass, while, at the same time, 
all the productions of a class from the various countries should be grouped together ; and 
secondly, that the building should be so constructed, and of such ample dimensions that 
the whole display could be made upon the main floor, without the use of the galleries. 

The site selected for the exhibition was the "Champs de Mars" — the same spot upon 
which was located the first French Exposition of 1798 — a rectangle of 119 acres, to which 
was attached, also, the Island of Billancourt, affording an additional area of 52 acres, or 
171 in all. The main building was located upon the former, and the latter was used for 
the Agricultural Department. An elliptical form of building was adopted, or, in reality, a 
rectangle with rounded ends ; the length of the straight portion between the curved ends 
being 360 feet, the total length 1,608 feet, and the width, 1,247 f^et. The total area 
within the outer limits of the building was 37/5 acres, and an open garden of i^ acres 
occupied the centre, reducing the amount under roof to 361^15 acres. The building was 
composed of a series of vast concentric oval compartments, each one story in height, the 
inner one encircling the centre garden as an open colonnade. The whole list of objects 
exhibited was divided into ten groups; of these, seven were provided for in the main 
building, a compartment being appropriated to each special group. There were, therefore, 
seven principal compartments ; and the arrangement of area under roof was as follows, 
proceeding from the centre outwards: — 

Promenade around centre garden 17 feet wide. 

Gallery de I'Histolre du Travail 28 " 

1. Gallery of Fine Arts 49 " 

2. Corridor for the Liberal Arts 20 " 

Passage-way 16 " 

3. Corridor for Furniture 76 " 

Passage-way . , 16 " 

4. Corridor for Textile Fabrics 76 " 

Passage-way 16 " 

5. Corridor for Raw Materials 7^ " 

6. Gallerj' for Machines 115 " 

Gallery for Restaurants 33 " 

The spaces devoted to the different countries were arranged in a wedge-like form, 
radially from the centre of the building to the outer edge, and the visitor, by proceeding 
around one of the concentric oval departments, passed through the different countries 
exhibiting, one after the other, always keeping in the same group of subjects ; but if he 
walked from the centre of the building outwards, radially, he traversed the different groups of 
the same country. The arrangement of double classification required was, therefore, by this plan, 



xlviii HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



completely accomplished, and afforded great convenience and facility for study and 
comparison. 

The area encircling the Industrial Palace — amounting to 8i acres — was divided into the 
Park and the Reserve Garden, and in the former, numerous structures, constructed by the 
different nationalities, grew up, in all varieties of style, — from the hut of the Esquimaux 
to the palace of a Sultan — the workmen or attendants at each being almost universally peculiar 
to the special country, and imparting additional interest to them. The Champs de Mars, in a 
short space of time, changed like magic from a dry and arid plain — useful only as a place 
for manoeuvres of troops — to a charming Park, containing a city in the midst of groves and 
green lawns ; a place such as the author of the " Thousand-and-one Nights " alone could 
have imagined — groups of buildings so violent in their contrasts as to produce harmony 
only by reason of their oddity, and leading the visitor to imagine that he had been trans- 
ported to dream-land. Turkish and Egyptian palaces ; mosques and temples of the 
Pharaohs ; Roman, Norwegian and Danish dwellings by the side of Tyrolese chalets ; here, 
a specimen of the Catacombs of Rome — there, a group of English cottages ; workmen and 
farmers' dwellings, light-houses, theatres, a succession of hundreds of constructions, as unlike 
each other as possible ; restaurants and cafes everywhere, for all classes of people ; noises of all 
kinds filling the air; concerts, orchestras, the ringing of bells and the blowing off of steam- 
boilers; such was the Park of the Champs de Mars during the Exposition Universelle. 

The Reserve Garden contained the botanical, horticultural and piscicultural collections. 
Nothing so charmed or rested the eye as the green lawns spread out so extensively before 
the visitor; nothing so picturesque as the chance glimpses of ground beyond, that inter- 
cepted the horizon ; as the shrubbery, the grottoes, the cascades, the conservatories, some so 
grand, and others so petite and pretty. No one who saw the E.xposition could forget all the 
beauties of this spot; the aquariums, the diorama, the pavilion de I'lmperatrice, or, above all, 
the aristocratic restaurant of the Jardin reserve. 

An iron coliseum grew up in the midst of all this, far exceeding in magnitude the ancient 
Coliseum of Rome itself, gathering beneath its roof nearly 50,000 exhibitors from all parts 
of the world. 

Flowers, statuary and fountains adorned the open garden in the centre, and a central 
pavilion contained an exhibition of the weights, measures and moneys of^all countries. The 
outer compartment of the building was the highest and broadest of all, having a width of 1 1 5 
feet, and a height to top of roof of 81 feet. The roof was of corrugated iron, supported 
by iron columns ; and along the centre of the whole length of the compartment was an 
elevated platform, carried upon iron pillars, and forming a promenade, at once safe and 
convenient, from which to view the machinery below. 

The vast supply of water necessary for the use of the exhibition, for the display of the 
fountains, etc., was obtained from the Seine, and raised by means of powerful steam-pumps to 
a reservoir on high ground on the opposite bank of the river. 

The Government surrendered the site to the Commissioners on the 28th of September, 
1865; the first iron pillar was raised April 3d, 1866; and, although the building was not 
entirely completed by the time fixed — the 1st of April, 1867 — the opening ceremonies, never- 
theless, took place, as per appointment, with considerable pageantrs'. 

The Emperor and Empress arrived at two o clock in the afternoon, accompanied by the 
Mini-sters of State, the Prefect of the Seine and the Imperial Commission. Entering the 
Palace by the Porte d'honneiir, facing the Bridge of Jena, they traversed the grand Gallery 
of Machinery, commencing at the French Department and terminating at the English. 
They then passed through all the galleries, and having received the artists and authors of 
distinction in the Salon des Beaux-Arts, they visited the Imperial Pavilion, and resting a 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



xlix 



while, then entered their carriage 
assembled multitude, and 
the Exhibition was open to 
the world. 

The day was perfect, 
and everything combined 
to make the opening a 
success ; the bright sun, 
the deep Italian blue of 
the sky, the varied and 
rich costumes of the multi- 
tudes, the gorgeous decora- 
tions, the oriflammes wav- 
ing in the breeze, and the 
music from the orchestras 
floating through the air 
— all united to produce that 
elated, happy, contented 
feeling which one experi- 
ences at times — a true en- 
joyment — the struggles 
and toils of this world 
forgotten almost entirely in 
one real day of pleasure. 

In two weeks' time 
everything was in order, 
and the exhibition had 
developed from its unfin- 
ished state into perfection, 
— an object of beauty and 
instruction to all who pass- 
ed within its boundaries. 

In passing through the 



i£asn*-*^^*^^^»a2 



and departed, amidst vociferous acclamations from the 
exhibition, the first por- 
tion that attracted atten- 
tion — after leaving the 
central garden — was the 
Gallery de T Histoire du 
travail. This department 
was intended to exhibit 
the various phases through 
which each country had 
passed before arriving at 
the present era of civiliza- 
tion, and was a grand idea 
as a preface to the Expo- 
sition. It was exceedingly 
interesting, although not 
as complete as it might 
have been, and not carry- 
ing the connecting links 
quite up to the present 
date. The French Depart- 
ment was the most perfect, 
being divided up into a 
series of halls, or apart- 
ments, to represent the dif- 
ferent periods. The first 
hall represented the Stone 
Age, and here one found 
the collections from the 
lake-dwellings of Switzer- 
land, the bone-caverns and 
the peat-bogs. Next came 
the relics of the Bronze 





l^«5^3:^^SS^«56S*^J^r^^ 




HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



Period — objects of ornament and utility, bracelets, agricultural implements, etc., extending 
down to the Gallo-Roman. Following, were the relics of the Celtic and Gallic races ; the 
works of the Middle Ages, seals, caskets, croziers and illuminated missals ; and after that 
came the Renaissance Period, embracing curious locks, spherical watches and a handsome 
exhibit of the enamels of Limoges, from the collection of Baron Rothschild. In the sixth 
hall were productions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In the contributions from 
other countries were some very curious articles — the cradle of Charles XII, of Sweden, 
fine collections of ancient arms and armor, etc. 

The Department of Fine Arts — which occupied the next gallery — was one of great 
interest both to artists and amateurs, the different nations having almost universally furnished 
the best productions of their most eminent artists in both painting and sculpture. Some 
countries were very much crowded in the space assigned to them, and erected special 
buildings — outside the main building — for their exhibits. The statuary, from all countries, 
was very much scattered through different parts of the building, and over all parts of the 
Champ de Mars. 

In Paintings, the French were well represented by Gerome, Meissonier, Corot, Cabanel, 
Hamon, Yvon, in his "Taking of the Malakoff," Rosa Bonheur, Fromentin and others. 
Among the genre subjects, Plassan, Fichel, Toulmouche and Welter were represented by 
some exquisite pictures. The Belgian exhibit — a very fine collection — was outside, and 
consisted of contributions by Leys, Stevens, Willems, Verlat, Clay and others. The govern- 
ment of Holland — also outside — exhibited 170 pictures, the artist Israels standing foremost 
in rank jyiiong the contributors, and distinguished by his delicacy of sentiment and simplicity 
of expression. The Belgian and Holland schools showed strong inclination towards the 
French, neglecting the styles of their ancestors, with the exception of Leys, who was the 
pre-Raphaelite prophet of the Netherlands. Switzerland and Bavaria also had their own 
buildings in the Park, and showed large exhibits. 

It was a little singular that the exhibit from Italy — the cradle of art — consisting of fifty-one 
oil paintings, should have been scarcely above mediocrity. The collection from the United 
States was a very creditable one, the foundry scene of Weir being the best work of its kind 
in the Exposition. Bierstadt, Church, Kensett, Broughton, Huntingdon, Hart, Healy and 
others were well represented. 

The influence of the French school was very apparent in all the Continental collections. 
The English and American pictures were quite different, showing much more character and 
individuality, the difference in system of study throwing the artist entirely on his own 
resources, and thereby bringing out his peculiar style, which, under the Continental method 
of teaching, might never develop. 

The Mosaic Work, contributed by Russia from the atelier of Michael Chmielevski, of St. 
Petersburg, was the finest, by far, in the exhibition. 

The exhibition of Sculpture showed the influence of the realistic school over the classical, 
the best artists availing themselves of the good points, of both schools without binding them- 
selves to either. The gem of the classical school was of American origin, "The Sleeping 
Fawn," by Miss Hosmer. One of the most striking statues of the realistic school was " The 
Last Days of Napoleon I," contributed by an Italian, who received a gold prize for his work. 

Passing on to the corridor for the Liberal Arts, one came into contact with books and 
printing, paper and stationery, lithography, photography, musical instruments of all kinds, 
medical and surgical apparatus, appliances for teaching science, mathematical instruments, 
maps and geographical and cosmographical apparatus. 

Among the Photographic exhibits was a fine series of views of the Yosemite Valley, by E. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Watkins, of San Francisco; also, Rutherford's photographs of 
spectrum, attracting great interest from the savans, and receiving a 

Among the Mu- 
sical Instruments, 
Steinway & Sons, of 
New York, and 
Chickering & Sons, 
of Boston, were con- 
sidered as having 
the best pianos in the 
Exposition, and al- 
though the Jury of 
Awards had only 
four gold medals to 
award to this class, 
they each received a 
gold medal, and the 
fact of two going to 
America, under the 
circumstances, was a 



the 
silver 




moon and the solar 
medal. 

great honor. Mason 
& Hamlin's cabinet 
organs were objects 
of great interest on 
account of their su- 
perior workmanship 
and singularly pure 
tone, and received a 
silver medal. 

The exhibition of 
Surgical Instruments 
made by the Sur- 
geon-General of the 
United States was 
very complete and 
interesting, consist- 
ing of ambulances, 
medicine wagons, 






field-hospitals, artificial limbs, and every species of apparatus which had been invented or 
improved by the exigences of our late war. A very ingenious orrery was exhibited fron^ 



Hi 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



the United 
rotation of 



States, showing the planetary system in a very exact manner, not only giving the 
the earth round the sun, but at the same time that of the moon around the earth. 

In passing through the gal- 
lery devoted to Furniture, one 
could not fail to notice the 
great degree of perfection to 
which the industries here rep- 
resented had arrived. 

The French glass works of 
Baccarat and the Compagnie 
des Cristalleries de St. Louis, 
and those of England and 
Venice ; the Italian /rtzVwcf, the 
art bronzes of Paris, the pro- 
ductions of Sevres, of Beau- 
vais, and the Gobelins, the 
pottery, goldsmith-ware, cut- 
ler}', perfumery and other cele- 
brated articles of Paris, and 
numerous other specialties of 
acknowledged merit, were here 
all displayed in profusion. The 
exhibit of English white crys- 
tal Glass was far finer than at 
any previous exhibition, show- 
ing a remarkable advance since 
the Plxhibition of 1862, and 
distinguished for its purity and 
brilliancy of color. The French 
displayed an immense variety 
of colored, gilded and painted 
glass ; but the white glass,when 
compared with the English, 
had a clouded and gray appear- 
ance, owing to a far less quan- 
tity of lead being used in its 
composition. Baccarat exhib- 
ited some effects in decoration, 
produced by giving to crystal 
glass a deep-colored surface, 
and then etching on this a 
design to different depths, pro- 
ducing different shades of color 
down to the clear, white glass 
itself The effect was excel- 
lent, and the process evinced 
great capabilities. The most 
remarkable exhibit of Austrian 
glass was that of Lobmeyr, of 





INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. liii 



Vienna, the designs being in perfect taste, and the material first-class. The Bohemian glass 
was superb ; the decorations in gold, especially those in raised gold, without an equal in 
either execution or artistic effect; and gilding and coloring were applied in such a way 
as not to be at variance with either the material or the purpose for which the article was 
intended to be used. Dr. Salviati, of Venice, showed some wonderful specimens of modern 
glass manufacture, inaugurating a revival of the glories of the old Venetian glass, and 
imitating the peculiarities of that production, such as gold metallic particles floating in the 
material, thread work, dainty touches of color, etc., in such perfection as to attract the atten- 
tion of all lovers of art work. 

Pottery stands among the earliest of art manufactures, and in none has there been less 
change ; the finest designs of the present day being of the same forms as in use two thousand 
years ago. Taking a material possessing primarily less value than almost any other used in 
the arts, the manufacturer, by the exercise of labor, skill and taste, produces forms ministering 
greatly to the necessities of man, and often of untold value, ranging from objects of every- 
day use to the porcelain of Sevres. We engrave on page xlix a vase produced from the 
Imperial manufactory of Sevres, a beautiful work of art and an excellent specimen of the gems 
which are created in that school of pottery so creditable to the government which has estab- 
lished it. 

In the display of Textile Fabrics, carpets and tapestries occupied a prominent place. 
Carpets from Persia were more like shawls in their exceeding beauty of texture and the 
style and color of their designs ; and in the French Department those of Savonnerie and the 
Gobelins still held their own against all competitors. The Imperial manufactories of the 
Gobelins and of Beauvais had on exhibition exquisite specimens of tapestry, and those of the 
different manufacturers of Aubusson were of the highest merit. Among the varied collec- 
tion of table-covers were those of Philip Haas & Sons, of Vienna, the most eminent and 
extensive manufacturers of Tapestries, Carpets and Curtains in Austria, and we engrave on 
pages xlix and li some specimens of their work, which were of great elegance, and so much 
admired that one exhibit was almost hidden from view by the vast number of cards attached, 
on which were written orders for similar pieces of work. 

Mr. Hariy Emanuel, of London, exhibited in rcpousec silver, Tazze of Night and Morning, 
designed by the eminent artist Pairpoint, of which the engravings we give on page lii convey 
an excellent idea. 

An exquisite dessert service in turquoise and gold was exhibited by Messrs. Goode of 
London, and manufactured for the Duchess of Hamilton— also Princess of Baden — and we 
show engravings on page li of parts of this service, on one of which will be seen represented 
the arms of the Duchess. 

What has been designated by many as the best work of its kind in the exhibition was 
the famous Milton Shield of Messrs. Elkington, London, from a design by Morel Ladeuil, 
one of the grandest works of its class that had ever been produced, admirable in conception, 
and perfect in execution. We understand that this shield will form part of Messrs. Elkington's 
exhibit this year, and give an engraving of it on the following page. 

In Bronzes, France — especially Paris — had at this time achieved the highest reputation, 
which was fully sustained in this exhibition, the French Bronze Court surpassing anything 
of the kind ever before seen, either in extent or variety. The admirable collection of M. 
Barbedienne stood unrivaled, being fine art work in every sense of the term, the use of 
various tints of bronze, and gilding and silvering where required, displaying great decorative 
and artistic taste. M. G. Servant, of Paris, also exhibited excellent specimens of bronze 
work, and the Boudoir Mirror we engrave on page Iv, was one of his productions. 

The display of Furniture proper was veiy extensive, and remarkable for great variety of 



liv 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 




style, excellence of workmanship and rich diversity of material, coming from all quarters of 
the globe, and representing all peculiarities of taste. The English showed simplicity of 



INTERNA TIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Iv 



treatment and improvement in design 
use of caryatides and 
uncouth human fig- 
ures, and although 
perhaps pleasing the 
popular eye, was un- 
questionably degen- 
erate in taste. The 
German was solid 
and heavy, and the 
Belgian bold and ef- 
fective, but too nat- 
uralistic and unart- 
istic in the ornamen- 
tal work. 

An ebony Cabi- 
net, of great beauty, 
and a production of 
the very highest 
order of art manufac- 
ture.was exhibited by 
HerrTiirpe.of Dres- 
den, and is engraved 
on the next page. 
The bas-reliefs were 
of pear-wood, and 
the sculptured fig- 
ures were the handi- 
work of a true artist. 

Some charming 
works in Carved 
Wood were shown 
by Mr. G. A. Rogers, 
whose father, W. G. 
Rogers,had achieved 
a great reputation in 
this specialty. The 
design and carving 
of the specimen we 
show on page Ivii 
were both by Mr. 
Rogers and exhibit 
the same pure feeling 
for which his father 
was so celebrated. 
Svvitzerland has at- 
tained great reputa- 
tion for wood carv- 
mg and none of her 



The French was very lavish in ornanientation, the 

contributors have a 
wider renown than 
MM. WirthBros.,of 
Brienz, whose manu- 
factures are true art 
productions, no two 
of them being ever 
exactly alike, and al- 
ways the work of 
artists. On page Ivii 
will be found several 
specimens of their 
work. 

Mr. Charles J. 
Phillip, of Birming- 
ham, one of the lead- 
ing British manufac- 
turers of ornamental 
gas-fixtures, exhibit- 
ed fine specimens of 
his work, one of 
which we engrave on 
page Iviii. 

Passing on to the 
next gallery, we enter 
the Department of 
Textile Fabrics, com- 
prising articles for 
clothing ; goods in 
cotton, wool, silk, 
flax, hemp, etc. ; ma- 
terials and tissues 
collected together, 
from the most mar- 
vellous silks of 
Lyons to the cheap- 
est cottonades ; from 
the cashmere of the 
Indies — -worked in 
gold — down to the 
merino scarf; from 
the robe of Alen9on 
lace, or the point 
d'Angleterre, to the 
tulle which may be 
purchased for a few 
cents per yard. Here 
jewelry flashes in the 




Ivi 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 




light, gleaming diamonds, emeralds, pearls and coral ; there arc displayed French artificial 
flowers so perfect as to excite even the jealousy of nature. In one portion of this department 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Ivii 



were life-size figures dressed to display the peculiar costumes of the various nations, those of 
Sweden and Norway being distinguished for their perfect execution. 

The display of Lace and Embroidery was very profuse and beautiful. From the time of 
Marie de Medici to the present day, nothing has been found to take the place of this 
costly fabric, lace ; and nothing else can give to a lady's toilette the same finish and elegance. 
Its manufacture has attained great perfection in France, Belgium and England, and it is 
also made to a small court, with the light 

extent in other parts fabrics of Lille and 

of Europe, but not of Arras. The Nor- 

so fine a quality. In >Jra 4,,|^dlEXa^ mandy lace is made 

Italy, the manufacture ^dP^^^S^^i^mk^2^ in the most perfection 

once so extensive, Wm^^^^^^^^^f^m^Rk ^'^ Bayeux. MM. Le- 

has degenerated, and ^^\lP^^5i||i^^^^^»Wk ^9L febure, the eminent 

the point lace of Ve- ^^^3BB^^^^^~^^^^''-^^^^m^9i '^'^^ manufacturers of 

nice and Genoa, so ^\g^^m/ nx'^-X ^I^mP this place, exhibited 

celebt-ated in the six- ■mHR' \\ \ WM some beautiful speci- 



teenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, has 
disappeared. 

In France the prin- 
cipal varieties manu- 
factured are the Point 
d'Alenqon, the black 
lace of Normandy and 
the laces of Auvergne, 
of which Le Puy is 
the centre, and those 
of Lorraine at Mire- 




mens of their work, of 
which we engrave part 
of a curtain on page 
lix, in the style of the 
the old Venetian point, 
of scroll pattern, with 
birds and flowers in- 
troduced. 

In Belgium, which 
may be termed the 
" classic land of lace," 
the manufactories arc 





at Brussels, Mechlin, Valenciennes and Grammont. The especial lace of England is Honiton. 
Embroidery comes from Nancy, Switzerland and Saxony, and an important branch of industry 
in Switzerland is the fabric of net and muslin curtains, embroidered in crochet. 

The display of Cashmere Shawls, both of Indian and French manufacture, was magnificent, 
showing great elegance of pattern and beauty of execution. 

In Goldsmiths' Work and Jewelry, Froment-Meurice — whose father was styled the Cellini 



Iviii 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



of France — exhibited beautiful specimens of work, and we engrave on page Ix three examples 
of his ordinary every-day productions, which are always characterized by beauty, richness 
and great artistic taste. Some excellent and solidly-manufactured work was shown by Messrs. 
Tiffany, of New York. 

The next corridor, adjoining, was that for Raw and Manufactured Materials, obtained 
directly from nature ; products of the soil and mine ; of the forests, and industries pertaining 
to the same ; of the chase and fisheries ; uncultivated products ; agricultural products not used 
as food ; chemical and pharmaceutical products — specimens of chemical processes for 
bleaching, dyeing, printing and dressing of textile fabrics ; leather and skins. Here one found 
collections and specimens of minerals and metals of all kinds, from all countries ; coal 




and fuel of all sorts; rock-salt, sulphur, sponges, metal manufactures, stearine, soap, paints, 
wool, cotton, silk in the raw state, furs, tobacco, seeds, various varieties of wood, etc. 

The Prussian salt-mines of Strassfurt were represented by a quantity of the salt cut 
into large blocks and built up into the form of a half-dorne. Spain exhibited blocks of cin- 
nabar from the famous mine of Almaden ; and Russia displayed large vases and candelabraS 
made from malachite, jasper and rhodonite ; great varieties of rough and polished precious 
stones, models of meteorites, etc. Alibert exhibited remarkable specimens of graphite from 
his mines in Siberia, now in such extensive use for the celebrated Siberian pencils ; and a 
mass of malachite weighing over two tons was shown from the mine of Prince Demidoff. 

There was a large and creditable mineral exhibit from the United States ; coal, iron, 
lead, copper from Lake Superior, quicksilver, silver and gold from Idaho and California, 
and emery from Massachusetts. The exhibit of wrought-iron, in all forms of manufacture, 
was very great; enormous plates, bars and girders-; cast-steel from the Krupp Works of 
Essen, Prussia; ornamental castings, etc. The ornamental cast-iron productions of Durenne, 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS 



of Paris, were particularly noticeable for beauty of design and excellence of work. We 
reproduce on page Ixi a specimen of railing exhibited by him. None had greater renown in 



iron castings at that time 
than Barbezat & Co., of 
Paris, and many fine de- 
signs were exhibited by 
them, of which we en- 
grave one, a street-lamp, 
on page Ixii. Some spe- 
cimens from the estab- 
lishment of Count Diniei- 
del, in Prussian Silesia — 
the famous foundry of 
Lauchaumer — were art 
castings of a high order 
of merit, exquisite in 
design, and remarkably 
sharp and brilliant in 
finish. One of them, a 
stove, which excited uni- 
versal admiration, we en- 
grave on page Ixiii. 

The exhibit of Furs 
was very extensive and 
in great variety, ranging 
from the rarest kinds of 
sable down to the ordi- 
nary, cheap, glossy rabbit 
skins. France and Russia 
had fine assortments ; 
and Messrs. Gunther, of 
New York, displayed 
some excellent specimens 
of North American furs. 

The next gallery was 
that for Machines or 
Apparatus and Processes 
used in the Common 
Arts. This was the high- 
est and largest gallery of 
the Exposition, and on 
entering it for the first 
time, the cotip d'ail 
was certainly striking. 
Gigantic masses of man- 
ufactured metal articles, 
arranged in the form of 




trophies, rose up on all 
sides, and a multitude 
of machines in motion, 
gave forth a thousand 
noises of all kinds, be- 
wildering the mind and 
perplexing the ear. The 
elevated platform — pass- 
ing around in the centre 
of the gallery — was a 
favorite promenade, and 
gave an excellent general 
view of the exhibits. 

It would be impossible, 
in our limited space, to 
enter into any detail con- 
cerning the immense 
number of machines 
which had been brought 
together under one roof 
from all quarters of the 
world, and testifying to 
the inexhaustible invent- 
ive genius of man in its 
endeavors to supply the 
increasing wants of the 
age. We will, however, 
mention a few of the most 
important. Among the 
machines for drilling of 
rocks, the Diamond- 
pointed Drill occupied a 
prominent position, and 
now forms the basis of 
the most important ma- 
chines of this kind in use. 
Traction engines were 
conspicuous in the En- 
glish Department, and 
reapers and mowers in 
the American, the latter 
carrying off the prize in 
two trials made at the 
Emperor's farms at Vin- 
cennes and Touilleusc. 



Under the head of Machine Tools, the principal e.xhibitors were France, England, Prussia and 
America, the novelty of form and excellence of workmanship of America being admitted to be 



Ix 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



equal to that of any other nation. The planing-machines, exhibited by Messrs. Wilham Sellers 
& Co., of Philadelphia, were unsurpassed by any in the Exposition, and were remarkable for 
many novelties. Their screw-cutting machine was also of an entirely new character and an 
excellent tool. The display of Messrs. Bement & Dougherty in machine tools was first-class 
and showed many points of excellence. The lathes of Harris and the American Tool Com- 
pany possessed several very interesting peculiarities. 

The principal improvements which this Exhibition showed to have taken place in 
machine tools during the preceding twelve years may be mentioned as follows : — greater 
simplicity, perfection and solidity of construction, and more frequent adoption of automatic 
motions ; better adaptation of form to the materials employed ; increasing tendency to com- 
pletion of products by mechanical means alone ; adaptation of machines to more universal 






use, allowing several operations to be performed on the same piece of material without dis- 
mounting it ; construction of portable machinery ; increase in rapidity of motion of the tools ; 
and a general improvement in the execution of small tools ; and greater simplicity in the 
means of transmitting motion. 

Apparatus was shown for processes in carding, spinning, weaving and the preparation of 
textile fabrics generally. Sewing-machines, machines for shoemaking and for making of 
felt hats, were especially noticeable — an entire revolution in the machinery for the latter 
industry having been made within a few years. Machinery for furniture manufacture showed 
great improvement, and printing-machines of all varieties — for our daily morning paper, for 
lithographic work, for stamping of te.xtile fabrics, for various kinds of printing and decoration 
on paper, etc. — were displayed in profusion. 

There was a very interesting exhibit of Railway Apparatus, and thirty-two locomotives 
were exhibited ; the Grant locomotive, from Paterson, New Jersey, attracting much attention 
from the general observer, owing to its exceedingly handsome appearance, being covered 
with polished brass and German silver, with ivory handles to the different cocks, and various 
other details of fine workmanship, which, by the more practical men, were considered out of 
place and not particularly adapted to actual service. American ingenuity and invention again 
occupied a prominent place in the exhibition of telegraphic apparatus and processes. 

In Civil Engineering, Public Works and Architecture, the display of France was simply 
superb. There were handsome models — complete in every detail — of bridges, viaducts, 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Ixi 



reservoirs, docks, etc. In the Italian Department were plans and sections of the Mount 
Cenis Tunnel — then not completed; — and in the American Department plans were exhibited 



showing the method adopt- 
ed, and now in use, for 
supplying the city of Chi- 
cago with water from Lake 
Michigan — a bold and most 
successful scheme of engi- 
neering. The Suez Canal 
exhibit was full of detail 
and of great interest. 

The seventh, and outer 
gallery of the buiding, was 
devoted to food, either fresh 
or preserved ; and in almost 
every instance, a restaurant 
was connected with each 
country, where the various 
foods could be practically 
tested. Visitors were wait- 
ed upon by young girls in 
the costumes of the differ- 
ent nationalities, and one 
met here the blondes of 
Bavaria, the gay Austrian, 
the pretty Russian, crown- 
ed with a tinsel diadem, the 
Mulatto offering cocoa and 
guava, Greeks, Swiss, Nea- 
politans, Italians, Indians, 
and even the Chinese 
women, with their little tea 
shop. All languages min- 
gled strangely together on 
this promenade, and all 
nationalities elbowed each 
other, from the elegant Pa- 
risian to the Bedouin in his 
burnous ; and the animated 
aspect of the surroundings 
of the Exposition will al- 
ways be remembered by 
those who were fortunate 
enough to see it. 

Down on the banks of 
the Seine were displayed 



NiNii^^<6ti 




models of all kinds of naval 
artillery, from enormous 
steel cannon for iron-clads, 
to little bronze pivot-guns 
for gunboats, and every spe- 
cialty in reference to mari- 
time affairs, pleasure and 
life-boats, yachts that were 
chefs d'ceitvre of great 
beauty and elegance, gon- 
dolas, Egyptian caiques, 
painted, and gilded and 
manned by their Oriental 
crews, steamers, monitors, 
etc. A complete history 
of naval constructions was 
exhibited in a temporary 
building, by means of 
models in relief. 

We have already spoken 
of the Agricultural annexe 
on the island of Billancourt, 
and this deparment was on 
a much more extensive 
scale than ever given before 
at any international exhibi- 
tion, in fact, forming an 
exhibition of itself, present- 
ing exhibits of all kinds of 
agricultural implements, 
and the finest breeds of 
live-stock — horses, cattle, 
sheep and other domestic 
animals — the exhibits being 
changed every fortnight, 
and making a succession 
of fourteen competitive ex- 
hibitions. 

The distribution of prizes 
took place at the Palais of 
the Champs Elysees, — the 
permanent building which 
remained after the Exhibi- 
tion of 1855, — on the ist 



of July, and was accompanied by all the pomp and ceremony characteristic of the Empire. 
The building had been decorated for this occasion with great magnificence. The stage 
was hung with velvet, covered with gold bees, and surmounted by a gigantic imperial crown. 



Ixii 



HIS TOR I CA L IN TK ODUC T I O N. 



Down the centre of the nave were placed 
each department of the industries 
to which prizes were awarded. 
The glass roof was covered with 
white vellum striped with green 
and starred with gold, and from 
it hung ten banners bearing the 
colors corresponding to the ten 
groups into which the exhibits 
were divided. The columns of 
the gallery were decorated with 
the flags of the various nations 
represented at the exhibition. On 
the imperial platform were seated 
the Emperor and Empress and 
the Prince Imperial, accompanied 
by the grand dignitaries of the 
crown. Around their Majesties 
were the Sultan and three young 
princes of his family, the Prince 
Napoleon and the Princess Clotilde, 
the other members of the Impe- 
rial family, the Prince of Wales 
and Prince Arthur, of England, 
the Prince Royal of Prussia and 
various others of the royal visitors, 
including a brother of the Tycoon 
of Japan. The audience was com- 
posed of representatives from all 
nations, and numbered about 
seventeen thousand persons. At 
the moment of the entry of their 
Majesties, the orchestra executed 
the " Hymn to the Emperor," a 
work composed expressly for the 
occasion by Rossini. M. Rouher, 
Minister of State, then presented 
his report on the Exposition, and 
after an address by the Emperor, 
the names of the persons, the 
establishments and the localities 
to which were decreed the new 
order of awards for " Social Har- 
mony," were read. This order of 
awards had been instituted by the 
Emperor in favor of persons, estab- 
lishments, or localities where, by 
special institutions, good harmony 



city of Paris of $i,200,C00 each, were ;g5, 25 1,361, leavin 



ten trophies, formed of the principal products in 
had been promoted among those 
who carry on the same labors, and 
the material, moral and intellectual 
well-being had been thus secured 
among the operatives. These 
awards were ten prizes of one 
hundred thousand francs each and 
twenty honorable mentions. Fol- 
lowing, were read the names of 
the e.xhibitors who had obtained 
the grand prizes for the groups 
of Beaux-Arts, Agriculture and 
Industry. 

The awards granted by the 
juries of the Exposition were, 
sixty-four grand prizes, eight 
hundred and eighty-three gold 
medals, three thousand six hun- 
dred and fifty-three silver medals, 
five thousand five hundred and 
si.xty five bronze medals, and five 
thousand eight hundred and one 
honorable mentions. The num- 
ber of these awards is not sur- 
prising when it is recollected that 
the exhibitors numbered forty-five 
thou.sand, and that they were 
comprised of the elite of the 
artists and industrial workers of 
the entire world. 

There were at this exhibition 
over twelve millions of entrance 
tickets recorded, representing at 
least four millions of different 
visitors. The total cost of the 
main exhibition building was 
g2, 3 56,605, or $1.43 per square 
foot of surface covered. The total 
expenses of every kind from the 
commencement of the construc- 
tion of the buildings — February 
1st, 1865 — to, and including the 
restoration of the Champs de Mars 
after the close of the exhibition, 
were ^4,688, 705, and the total 
"M'oA receipts, including the subsidies 
from the government and from the 
a net profit of $562,654, of which 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS 



Ixiii 



dividends were declared of 
and finally used for the 
public good. 

During an interval of 
several years after the 
Paris Exposition of 1867, 
a number of minor local 
and general exhibitions 
were held in various places, 
among which we may men- 
tion that of the Central 
Union of the Fine Arts 
applied to Industry, in 
Paris, in the old Palais de 
I'Exposition, in 1869; an 
exhibition in Dublin, and 
also one at Leeds, the latter 
a purely fine art and loan 
exhibition, similar to the 
one held at Manchester in 
1857. Exhibitions were 
also held at Copenhagen 
and Moscow, in 1872, and 
one of Domestic Economy 
in Paris, the same year. 
These exhibitions were all 
more or less of a local 
character, that at Copen- 
hagen being confined to 
the products of Sweden, 
Norway and Denmark. 
The Moscow E.xhibition, 
which was on a consider- 
able scale, was held under 
the auspices of the Moscow 
Polytechnic Society, with 
the favor and protection of 
the government. It was 
too far distant to receive 
much attention from this 
country. 

In England, a series of 
annual international exhi- 
bitions were organized in 
1 87 1, and held regularly 
afterwards, in a permanent 
building erected for the 
purpose at South Kensing- 
ton, flanking the Royal 



$553,200, and 



the balance of $9,456 was held for unforseen events 
Horticultural Gardens. 
These exhibitions were 
only moderate in size, but 
of special interest, great 
care being taken in the 
selection of exhibits, and 
the trade interests always 
set aside in favor of the 
encouragement of pro- 
gress. 

Awards have been given 
at these annual exhibitions 
with great judgment and 
discretion, very much en- 
hancing their value, and 
the exhibitions have re- 
sulted in considerable bene- 
fit to England. 

Austria, anxious to 
keep pace with the other 
great powers of Europe, 
had early had her attention 
drawn to the consideration 
of the subject of Interna- 
tional Exhibitions, even 
previous to the time of 
the Paris E.xhibition of 
1867. Various causes, 
however, had combined to 
prevent any special action 
in the matter for several 
years, until the subject 
again came up in 1870. 
The city of Vienna within 
the last decade had changed 
from an old time town to 
a modern metropolis. The 
ancient fortifications had 
been taken away and re- 
placed by the magnificent 
Ringstrasse. Inducements 
of every kind had been 
offered to those who would 
improve and embellish the 
city, and splendidbuildings 
had grown up in all parts, 
especially along the Ring- 
strasse and its tributaries: 




Ixiv 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



a noble opera-house had been built ; a New Vienna had arisen and a time had arrived to 
display its glories to the world by devising an exhibition which it was proposed should 
outrival all previous efforts in this direction. 

Active measures for an international exhibition to be held in Vienna in 1873, were first 
taken by the Trades' Union of the city, an organization of great opulence and influence, 
having Baron Wertheinier — a wealthy manufacturer — at its head. According to the original 
arrangement, a guarantee fund was formed of g 1,5 00 ,000, and subscriptions to this amount 
were obtained — chiefly among members of the Society — it being supposed that the receipts 
from the exhibition would nearly, if not quite, meet the expenditures, and that this fund 
would cover all possible deficiencies. At this stage of the proceedings, the government was 
induced to give its patronage and support to the undertaking, and a decree was issued by 
the Emperor — May 24th, 1870, — announcing that "under the august patronage of His 
Imperial and Royal Majesty, the Emperor, an International Exhibition would be held at 
Vienna in the year 1873, having for its aim to represent the present state of modern civi- 
lization and the entire sphere of national economy, and to promote its further development 
and progress." 





An Imperial Commission was formed with Archduke Charles Louis as Protector, Arch- 
duke Regnier, President, and Baron William von Schwarz-Senborn as Director-General ; the 
total number of members being one hundred and seventy-five, and selected from the chief 
officers of the departments of the government, and from the leading men of science, art and 
industry in the empire. Money was appropriated by the government to the amount of 
;^3,000,000 towards an exhibition fund, to which was added the guarantee fund previously 
obtained by private subscription, and all income from the exhibition itself One-half of the 
amount furnished by the government was considered a regular appropriation, and the other 
half an advance made, without interest, and it was provided that if the total receipts from 
the exhibition and the government appropriation were not sufficient to cover the total 
expenses, the government would call in the guarantee fund. As the work progressed, it 
was found that the cost was greatly underestimated, and a supplemental grant of $3,000,000 
additional was made by the government, although given under strong protest. 

At no previous exhibition had so much interest been evinced by foreign governments, 
and their commissioners were chosen from their most talented and eminent men. 

The site selected for the buildings was the Imperial Park — called the Prater — situated 
just outside of the city ; as convenient a location as could possibly have been obtained, 
possessing within itself many attractions, and a favorite resort of all classes of citizens. On 
the north side flowed the Danube River, spreading out into numerous arms, some so 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Ixv 




Ixvi 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



shallow as to be entirely unnavigable, others so full as to flood the flat country for miles 
around upon the least rise in the water. To the south lay the Donau Canal, a natural 
arm of the river, improved by art to a uniform width of one hundred and fifty feet, and the 
only available channel for navigation. Great improvements were in progress at this time, 
consisting in straightening and forming a new bed for the river nearly a thousand feet broad 
and one-half mile nearer the city, reclaiming land from floods and properly protecting the 
same by embankments, constructing docks, quays, warehouses, etc., and increasing the facili- 
ties for navigation and commerce in a marked degree. The work performed for the exhi- 
bition was expected to be of permanent value to the Danube improvement, and it was this, 
more than anything else, which induced the government to lend its aid to the enterprise. 
The Machinery Hall was intended to be used eventually as a freight or grain depot for 
the Great Northern Railway, and the grand rotunda of the main building was considered 




Main Entrance, InUrnattonal Exlnbition, I 'i 



'S73- 



the future corn market of the city. The total area of ground for exhibition purposes com- 
prised within the surrounding fence was about 280 acres. 

In arranging a method for grouping the exhibits, the double classification — as used in 
Paris in 1867 — was not considered entirely satisfactory, and it was finally decided to adopt 
a purely geographical arrangement — each nation to be kept to itself — and no systematic 
classification to be recognized except such as might be obtained by providing separate 
buildings for specific purposes, and exemplified in the Machinery Hall, the Art Gallery, etc. 

The principal buildings for the exhibition were the Palace of Industry, or main exhibition 
building, for mi.scellaneous manufactures, the Gallerj' of Fine Arts, the Machinery Hall and 
the Agricultural Building. In addition to these were various other buildings for minor 
purposes, similar to those distributed around the Main Exposition Building of Paris in the 
Champs de Mars. These were of unprecedented variety and importance, representing on a 
scale of great splendor and completeness the habits, manners, customs and methods of con- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



struction of various nations. At the Paris Exposition of 1867 this idea was first worked 
out as an international feature ; here, it was on a still grander scale, and the rivalry of the 
nations of the Orient resulted in producing especial magnificence. The Palace of the Vice- 
roy of Egypt was one of the most noticeable of these buildings. Designed by an Austrian 
architect long resident in the East, and constructed by native Egyptian workmen with great 
skill and truthfulness, it presented an appearance at once interesting and instructive. One 
saw here a sumptuous mosque, decorated in the richest manner, an ordinary dwelling-house, 
and then a regular farm and stable department stocked with dromedaries and other domestic 
animals of Egypt. Then there were also on the grounds specimens of the national habi- 
tations of Turkey, Persia, Morocco, Japan, Sweden, etc. Farmers' or peasants' homes from 
all countries, restaurants and refreshment saloons, the Imperial Pavilion, the Jury Pavilion, 
and special exhibits of all sorts, amounting in the aggregate to more than two thousand 
buildings, each one presenting something novel and pleasing. 

The Palace of Industry was designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance, elaborately 
ornamented and finished on the exterior with that plaster-work which in Vienna has attained 
such perfection. It had for a main central feature a grand rotunda, covered by an immense 




conical wrought-iron dome or roof of 354 feet in diameter, a clief d'cciivrc of its designer, 
Mr. Scott Russell, of England, and the largest by far that had ever been constructed before, 
that of St. Peters, at Rome, being only 156 feet in diameter, and those of the London 
Exhibition of 1862 only 160 feet. It was supported upon 32 wrought-iron rectangular columns 
resting upon base-plates and founded upon concrete, and it was crowned by a central lantern 
of 10 1 feet in diameter and 30 feet high, provided with side-lights and a similar conical roof 
to the main dome. On top of this was another lantern 25 feet in diameter and 30 feet high, 
which was surmounted in turn by a gigantic copy of the crown of Austria, formed of wrought- 
iron plate, gilded, and decorated with glass imitations of the crown jewels. 

Extending east and west from this central rotunda was a nave of 82 feet 10 inches in width 
and 22 feet 6 inches in height, with a total length from east to west through the rotunda of 
2953 feet. A circular corridor or passage, half the width of the nave, ran all around the 
rotunda, connecting with the nave on both sides, and the columns carrying the dome, standing 
between this passage and the rotunda, were finished in ornamental plaster on wooden framing, 
with arches from one to the other, producing an exceedingly handsome effect. The floor of 
the rotunda was lower than that of the rest of the building, and in the centre was a highly 
ornamental fountain, adding very much to the general appearance. The interior of the conical 
roof was covered with canvas, stretched as a velarium over the whole of its under surface. 



Ixviii 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



divided into panels and decorated with colors in oil, each panel having painted on it in the 
centre an angel twenty-one feet long, and the whole of the interior work being elaborately 
picked out in gold and neutral colors. 

There were cross-transepts, thirty-two in number, at intervals throughout the whole length 
of the nave, extending through both on the north and south sides, and having a length from 
face to face of 246 feet 3 inches. At the east and west ends of the nave the pairs of transepts 
adjoining were connected together next to their outer faces, and treated architecturally as one, 
producing an effective exterior appearance. The four transepts next to the circular passage 
around the rotunda, were also joined together by courts parallel to the nave, forming with 
these transepts a square of 676 feet exterior to the rotunda. The main entrance of which we 
give a view on page Ixvi, was in the middle of the south side of this central square. It was 
designed like a grand triumphal arch, having a central arched opening, flanked on the sides 
by pairs of pilasters decorated between with niches, figure-subjects and medallions of the 
Emperor and Empress, and the whole crowned by a group of emblematic figures in plaster. 
The wings on the sides were arranged as arcades, and at the ends or corners of the square 
were small pavilions designed in the same general style although on a smaller scale, as the 
central entrance. 

Concrete foundations were used under the permanent portions of the building, consisting 




of the central dome and its surrounding courts, but the balance of the building was founded 
upon timber piles. The framing of the side walls of the nave and transepts consisted of ver- 
tical wrought-iron lattice columns of the lightest possible construction, standing on cast-iron 
foundation-plates, which rested upon the piles below. Upon these columns were fi.xed the 
trusses of the roof, consisting of segmental arches of the same lattice construction, connected 
by timber purlins covered with sheathing braids and zinc roofing-metal. The spaces on the 
sides of the building, between the vertical columns, were filled in with brickwork, plastered on 
both sides, the outer flanges of the columns being encased in the brick. The weight of the 
brick caused the outer foundations to settle more than the inner, consequently bulging the 
inner flanges of the columns out of position, which was remedied by fixing solid pieces of 
circular timber to them to stiffen them. These were finished with light wooden pedestals 
and mouldings, and plaster capitals painted to resemble bronze, the smooth portion of the 
columns being covered with crimson canvas ornamented with spiral lines of gold. Each 
transept was lighted by twenty-six windows of 1 1 x 14 feet each, and in the nave were five 
windows of 15x16 feet in each wall-space between the transepts, no skylights being used in 
any part of the building. 

The iron-work of the interior was painted an olive-green, the wooden cornices a creamy 
gray color picked out with gold, and the under side of boarding of roof was calsomined. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



The lower portion of the side walls under the windows was painted in panels of a light 
neutral green, and the parts between the windows covered with canvas in its natural color, 
on which was printed an arabesque pattern in dark blue and orange. The interior decorations 
were largely executed with colored canvas, the architect availing himself of an invention of 
an Italian— M. Bossi, of Milan — who discovered how to print patterns on canvas with great 
rapidity, producing, when put in position, all the effects of fresco at a very reasonable cost. 
This style of decoration was exceedingly gorgeous in appearance and accorded well with the 
tastes of the Vienna people. 

The exterior effect of the temporary part of the edifice was not very striking. The plaster 
work was moulded and laid off in blocks to represent stone, and the general appearance was 
that of a long low line of gray buildings, broken at intervals by the transepts, the whole 
covered by the monotonous, arched zinc roof The transepts were of much smaller dimen- 
sions than the nave, the crown of the roof coming just under the eaves of the roof of the 
nave, and in the end of each transept was a doorway surmounted by the coat-of-arms of the 
particular country exhibiting within. The grand central rotunda was a necessity, not only as 



a great hall for the 
opening and other cere- 
monies, but as the one 
redeeming feature in the 
architectural effect to re- 
lieve the tameness that 
would otherwise have 
been produced. After 
the construction of the 
building, many of the 
garden courts, between 
adjacent transepts, were 
covered over to provide 
additional room for the 
vast influx of exhibits. 

In reference to the 
arrangement of the arti- 
cles exhibited, the south- 




ern half of the central 
courts and a portion of 
the nave and eight tran- 
septs east of the centre 
were occupied by Aus- 
tria. The other coun- 
tries were arranged ac- 
cording to their geogra- 
phical positions, east or 
west of Austria. Thus, 
Germany took the cen- 
tral courts north and 
west of the rotunda. 
Then, going west, came 
Holland, Belgium, 
France, etc., to the 
United States, which 
occupied the extreme 



west end ; and on the east — next to Austria — were Hungary, Russia, etc., to Japan which 
occupied the extreme east end. Any one possessing a knowledge of geography could thus 
easily find the exhibits of any country he desired. The effect was to make a little exhibit 
in itself of the display from each nation, the whole being a continuation of a series of small 
exhibitions. The system adopted, however, made it extremely difficult to make comparisons 
of similar products from different countries, especially those at a distance geographically from 
each other. 

To the east of the Palace of Industry was situated the Gallery of Fine Arts, entirely dis- 
connected from it except by two galleries of communication. It was a building of brick, 
covered with cement and plaster so as to produce an ornamental appearance, and about 650 
feet long by 1 1 5 feet wide. It proving too small to contain all the exhibits, two annexes 
were built, connected to it by covered passages, these passages containing works of sculpture. 
Western Europe, Austria, Hungary, Germany, America and Greece were accommodated in 
the Main Art Gallery ; Italy and Northern Europe in the annexes. The arrangements for 
lighting were very successful and a great credit to the architect. 

To the north of the Main Building and lying parallel to it, was the Machinery Hall, a 



Ixx 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



building 2615 feet long and 164 feet wide, consisting of a nave about 92 feet wide and two 
side aisles of 28 feet width in the clear each, the balance of the total width being taken up by 
the walls, which were very heavy. The nave was used for machinery in motion and the side 
aisles for machinery at rest. 

The Agricultural Department was divided into two separate buildings, occupying together 




about 426,500 square feet. They were built of timber, upon pile foundations and answered 
their purposes very well. 

Although the exhibition was far from being ready, yet it was opened at the time specified, 
at twelve, noon, May 1st, with great splendor, notwithstanding an unfavorable state of the 
weather. At the dawn of day immense crowds of people wended their way to the grounds, 
every street and alley leading to the Prater being thronged. By nine o'clock an uninterrupted 
string of carriages blocked the avenues, and many a man who desired to be present, and had 
spent the whole morning on the road, was obliged — notwithstanding the rain and wind — to 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Ixx 



leave his carriage and go on foot in order to reach the site in time for the opening. Thousands 
of people filled the enormous space under the dorne, and precisely at the given hour, the 
coming of the Emperor was announced, and amid hymns from the United Musical Societies 
of Vienna and the acclamations of the people, he passed into the splendidly adorned entrance, 
escorted by the Director-General — Baron Swartz-Senborn — and accompanied by the Crown 
Princess of the German Empire. Following in the train came the Crown Prince of the German 
Empire and the Empress of Austria, then the Prince of Wales, the Crown Prince of Denmark, 




the Duke of Flanders, and numerous other royal personages. The Grand Duke, Carl Ludwig, 
as Protector, then addressed the Emperor and handed in his report of the undertaking. The 
Emperor replied, followed by music. The President-Minister and the Mayor of Vienna then 
addressed the Emperor, thanking him in the name of the people of Austria for the foundation 
of the Exhibition and the assistance extended by the government to the great work. A 
chant composed by Joseph Weiler and set to the "Song of Victory," in Handel's /Wa.r 
Maccabeus, was then executed by the United Societies and the Exhibition was declared open. 
In making a cursory review of the articles exhibited at Vienna, we may state that the dis- 
play was the most extensive that had ever previously been made in any part of the world, and 



Ixxii 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 




the admirable way in which the exhibition had been carried out gave to it additional interest. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Ixxiii 



An examination of the departments of all the nations gave evidence of the rapid extension 
of the knowledge of practical art and science to all parts of the world, equalizing civilization, 
increasing the energy and creative power of mankind in general, and tending to ameliorate 
the condition of the human race. 

In reference to the machinery exhibits, great improvements had been made since the exhi- 
bition of 1867. Germany came out in great force, and the American display, although much 
smaller than that of many other countries, was full of original ideas and devices. Messrs. 
Sharp, Stewart & Co., of the Atlas Works, England, and Messrs. William Sellers & Co., of 
Philadelphia, stood as the typical machine manufacturers of their respective nations, and made 




most admirable displays. The American productions, generally, were noted for originality, 
the novelties being all improvements leading towards precision of work and saving of labor. 
In drills, America still took the lead, and the Sellers' drill-sharpening machine was a work of 
especial merit. 

France made great displays through Deny and Arbey, of Paris, and the finest pair of 
marine engines, perhaps, ever produced by any country were those exhibited by Schneider & 
Co., of Paris. Switzerland exhibited a most remarkable lace-making machine capable of 
working a hundred needles, and an object of great attraction both to experts and the general 
public. Probably the finest and most beautiful heavy lathe was that of F. Zimmermann, of 
Buda-Pesth, in Hungaria. 

In those special and peculiar tools required in the manufacture of sewing-machines, 
revolvers, firearms of every variety and fine instruments of all kinds, two firms, those of 
Pratt & Whitney, of Hartford, and Brown & Sharpe, of Providence made unexcelled displays. 



Ixxiv 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



Messrs. Jones & Laughlin, of Pittsburgh, exhibited specimens of cold-rolled shafting that 
attracted universal attention. A tub or bucket-making machine, by Baxter D. Whitney, was 
one of the most interesting American exhibits, manufacturing a bucket complete in the short 
time of five minutes. In reference to the exhibit of Stationary Engines, one of the most 
noticeable facts was the great favor which the principle of the American Corliss Engine 




seemed to have obtained in Europe, and the numerous imitations and modifications of it 
displayed. 

Never before had there been so fine an exhibit of Agricultural Machinery made as at 
Vienna, and the display from Great Britain was very superior. The American Department 
consisted more particularly of reapers and mowers. 

In Pottery and Porcelain Ware the display was remarkable, and no branch of art had 
shown so much improvement and the beneficial effects of international exhibitions as this did. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



Ixxv 



We illustrate on page Ixvii two elaborate specimens of plates by the Messrs. Mintons, whose 
ceramic display was immense and in the highest style of art. A curious and interesting col- 
lection of Moorish pottery was exhibited by Dr. Maximilian Schmidl, Austro-Hungarian 
Consul in that country, showing the soft, friable potteiy manufactured there in every different 




style of decoration, from the refined moresque to the bizarre mixtures of green, yellow and 
blue enamels. Hans Macht, of Vienna, exhibited a beautiful little box in Limousine enamel, 
of which we. engrave a side view on page Ixviii. Some beautiful water-jars and mugs were 
exhibited by F. W. Merkelbach, which are shown on page Ixix, the designs of which were 
considered remarkably fine. An enameled vase by Christofle & Co., of Paris, engraved on 



HIS T R I CA L IN TRODUC TI N. 



page Ixx, — very graceful in form and beautifully ornamented with birds and flowers, was 
admired by all who saw it. 

In reference to Ornamental Terra-Cotta for building and decorative purposes, the establish- 
ment of Herr Paul March, of Charlottenburg-by-Berlin, had no superior. His principal 
exhibit was a raised garden-alcove seat, the floor laid in encaustic tiles of the most har- 




monious colors and tasteful designs, the seat and its back in. glazed faience, arranged in a 
semicircle and decorated with fruit and leaves in majolica, and on a low wall, terra-cotta 
columns of the most exquisite design, upon which was placed a wooden trellis for climbing 
plants. 

Among the most remarkable of the Porcelain specialties from France were the decorative 
plaques shown by M. Leon Parvillee, a celebrated architect of Paris. The designs were made 
after the very best period of Moorish art, and M. Parvillee's reputation is so great in this 



INTERNA TIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 



respect that even Turkey itself has made use of his skill. The peculiarity in the enamels he 
uses is such that they will not run, however highly they are fired, and the result is that the 
outlines of the designs are preserved in all their beauty, producing almost the effect of 
cloisonne enamels. Japan made one of the most creditable, interesting and instructive dis- 
plays of porcelain and pottery exhibited by any nation, and obtained many medals of award. 

In the Department of Glassware, no previous exhibition ever made a display equal to this. 
Situated as Vienna is, with Hungary, Bohemia, Venice and Bavaria in proximity, it was but 
natural that all should strive to attain great excellence, and anticipation in this matter was not 
disappointed. France and Great Britain, perhaps owing to their greater distance from the 
scene of action, did not make the display that might have been expected of them, although 
what Great Britain did send was good. The exhibits of Mr. James Green and Messrs. Pellatt 
& Co., of London were unsurpassed. A superb chandelier, by the former, and a large ewer and 
wash-hand-basin, by the latter, — probably the largest piece of cut flint-glass ever manufactured 
in England — were among the specimens. Many of the designs exhibited gave evidence of the 
high position which Japanese art has gained within the last few years in the tastes of the 
European world ; and some of the specimens designed in this style were exceedingly charming 
and artistic. 

M. Constant- Vales, of Paris, exhibited imitation pearls so perfect as to deceive the eye 
completely, and for which he obtained a progress medal. MM. Regat & Sons, of Paris, also 
received a medal for their exquisite imitation gems. 

In the Italian Section, the Venetian glass of Dr. Salviati was one of the greatest attrac- 
tions of the Exhibition. By using the works of the old masters as models, studying by every 
means in his power to equal them, Salviati has, year by year, approached nearer and nearer to 
perfection. 

Nothing approaches the Venetian glass in its creative fancy. Professor Archer, in his 
official report on Glass to the British Government, says: "The glass-blower of Venice, like 
a child blowing bubbles, throws them off with ease and rapidity, producing with every touch 
of his fingers new forms of beauty, which gladden his own eyes as much as the ever-differing 
rainbow hues of the child's soap-bubble. In everything appertaining to the blown, pinched 
and moulded glass of the Venetian artist there is an exuberance of fancy, and he conjures up 
forms always new, and always graceful and beautiful." 

The greatest specialty of the Salviati Company was their mosaics, of which they exhibited 
some magnificent pieces. Tomassi e Gelsomini, of Venice, also displayed some beautiful glass 
cloths of spun glass and beads, resembling embroideries. 

Among the German exhibits of glass, which, as a general thing, were not specially remark- 
able, we may mention those of H. Wentzel & Son, of Breslau, of which we engrave specimens 
on page Ixxi. 

The display of Austrian, Hungarian and Bohemian glass was immen.se; but the Bohemian 
glass, although very superior, was not equal to the Venetian, lacking the beautiful transparency 
of the material, and the artistic forms which may be produced. 

We present from the Furniture Department an engraving — shown on page Ixxii — of an 
exceedingly ornate grand-piano in ebony and gilt, after a design by Storcks, executed by 
Boesendorfer, in Vienna. Some chairs in stamped-leather work by B. Ludwig, of Vienna, — 
which we engrave on page l.xxiii — were among the handsome exhibits. We also give an 
engraving on page Ixxiv of a cabinet or case for hunting apparatus, of excellent design, exe- 
cuted in stained oak by H. Irmler, of Vienna, from drawings by C. Graff. 

The display of Carpets v/as very great and varied. We engrave on page Ixxv a design 
exhibited by Shuetz & Juet, of Wurzen, which shows great taste. 

A beautiful flower-vase in gilt-bronze, executed by Hollenbach from a design by Claus, of 



Ixxviii 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



Vienna, was among the exhibits, and we are glad to be able to give a picture of it, which is 
represented on page Ixxvi. 

We close the very few engravings of the exhibits which our limited space has allowed us 




to present, by a representation — seen above — of an Album-cover, in enamel painting, in 
possession of the Grand Duke Rainer, the design for which was made by J. Storch and F. 
Laufberger, of Vienna, and fully explains itself. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. lx> 



There were five different medals awarded at Vienna : — 

1. Medal for Fine Arts. 

2. Medals for Good Taste. 

3. Medals for Progress. 

4. Medals for Co-operators. 

5. Medals for Merit. 

These medals were all of the same size and of bronze, bearing on the obverse the portrait 
of His Majesty, the Emperor, with the inscription, " Franz Joseph I, Kaiser von Oesterreich, 
Koenig von Boehmen, etc. Apost. Koenig von Ungarm ;" and on the reverse side artistic 
emblems, varying with the different medals. 

The announcement of awards was made August i8th, with very little ceremony. There 
were in all two thousand six hundred and two awards, as follows: — 

421 Diplomas of Honor 
3,024 Medals for Progress. 
10,465 Diplomas of Honorable Mention. 
8,800 Medals for Merit. 

326 Medals for Good Taste. 

978 Medals for Fine Arts. 
1,988 Medals awarded to Workmen, etc. 

The Society of Arts and Manufactures in Vienna also distributed, on the 27th of Sep- 
tember, in the beautiful hall of " Gewerbevrein," in the presence of Arch-Duke Charles Louis, 
Arch-Duke Rainer, several Ministers of State, Baron Schwarz-Senborn and others, a number 
of silver medals to deserving foremen of all the countries represented at the Exhibition. 
There were one hundred and thirty-four silver medals, with diplomas, awarded, exercising a 
most excellent moral effect. 

The Exhibition closed on November 2d, the total number of exhibitors being about seven 
thousand. 

The total cost of buildings and accessories amounted to ^7,850,000, and the total receipts 
for visitors, from the opening until the close, amounted to $1,283,648.78. There were con- 
siderable additions to the revenue from other sources — rents for space, concessions for various 
purposes and the sale of the buildings — but far from enough to cover the total cost and 
expenses, and a heavy deficit had to be met by the government. The Main Building itself, 
from its peculiar form and mode of construction, was unnecessarily expensive, and was not 
a success either in interior or exterior effect. 

While the indirect benefits to Vienna and the rest of Au.stria may have been great, the 
direct result was a positive loss and a considerable disappointment. 

In the United States, local exhibitions had been a common event for many years. The 
Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia — founded in 1824 — early initiated a system of exhibitions 
for the purpose of promoting the Mechanic Arts, awarding medals and premiums to inventors, 
manufacturers and mechanics. Its first exhibition was held in Carpenters' Hall, in the autumn 
of 1824, attracting large crowds of people, and was attended with most fortunate results. 

These exhibitions were continued, at intervals, for many years, increasing in public favor 
and usefulness. The last was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Institute in 1874, in a 
building covering an area of two acres available space on the ground-floor, with a large cellar 
for storage, and a four-stor\' corner building for offices. It was the largest exhibition ever 



Ixxx 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



held in Philadelphia, the profits added greatly to the revenues of the Institute, and in every 
respect it was a complete success. 

The American Institute, of New York, has for many years held similar exhibitions with 
the most satisfactory results; and, of late years, both Cincinnati and Chicago have held 
annual Expositions of Industrial Art in large, permanent buildings erected for the purpose, 
resulting in great success, both financi^llv and in regard to the advantages derived from them 
by the exhibitors. 



aSsJ!^-«« 




^;t^ 




HISTORY 

OF THE 

EXHIBITION 

IIY 

|OS. M. WILSON. 



Entered, aeeordUtg to Act of Congest, in the year jSjS. ^Jf GUBBIU & BARRIE, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Otngvtss, at Washinston. 



The International Exhibition, 1876. 




kATHER more than two hundred and fifty years ago, a veteran navigator 
from the old world, in voyaging along the coasts of the then newly-dis- 
covered Western Hemisphere, drifted into a magnificent and hitherto 
unknown inlet, the exit of a noble river. The navigator was Henry 
Hudson — the inlet was Delaware Bay. 

A few years later, the Dutch Government — at that time the great 
commercial nation of the age — perceiving the great advantages that 
might accrue by the ownership of this location, acquired the right to it by purchase, 
and incorporated a company for trading purposes, taking possession of the ground 
and erecting a stockade called Fort Nassau, at a place now known as Gloucester, 
' on the east shore of the river, some three miles below the site of the present city 

of Philadelphia. 

The banks of the river and bay were rapidly colonized, principally by Swedes and 
Dutch, each party claiming for its own government the land upon which it settled, and conten- 
tions continually took place between the two nationalities, until, finally, the whole west bank of 
the river passed under the control of the Dutch, who held possession of it until 1664, when it 
came under the jurisdiction of the English government, on articles of capitulation to Sir 
Robert Carr for his Royal Highness, the Duke of York, afterwards King James the Second. 
In 1672, by the fortunes of war, it again fell into possession of the Dutch, but onl)' for a few 
months, when, by the terms of a treaty of peace between England and the States General, the 
country came back once more under British rule. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century, a religious sect had arisen in England 
under the guidance of one George Fox, whose adherents were remarkable for their sim- 
plicity of manner and dress, great mildness and forbearance, fine moral nature, mutual 
charity, the love of God, and a deep attention to the inward motions and secret operations 
of the spirit. They were characterized by great disposition to peace and opposition to vio- 
lence and warfare, and were in every way a veritable " Society of Friends." Suffering perse- 
cution in their own country, they desired rest and happiness on a foreign shore. 



Ixxxiv 



HISTOR Y OF THE 



In the year 1680, a distinguished member of this fraternity, William Penn, whose father had 
been an admiral in the British Navy, petitioned King Charles the Second, in consideration of 
large public debts due his father by the Crown, to grant him from his possessions in the 
New World that tract of land now known as Pennsylvania, and bounded on the east by the 
Delaware River, including, therefore, the possessions of the Duke of York on the west shore, 
and already settled by Swedes and Dutch. Here he hoped to establish a settlement where 
the members of his society could obtain that peace which they were unable to procure at 
home. 

The King granted the desired letters-patent in 168 1, and the considerations under which 




Jury FavUion. 



the grant was given were " the commendable desire of William Penn to enlarge the British 
Empire and promote useful commodities ; to reduce the savage natives by just and gentle 
manners to the love of civil society and Christian religion," together with " a regard to the 
memory and merits of his late father." 

Penn — having obtained a release from the Duke of York of his previous claim upon the 
province — immediately despatched a small number of emigrants to take possession of the 
country, and the following year sailed himself, landing at New Castle, in Delaware, on the 
24th of October, 1682. The original settlers— of which there were quite a number at various 
points along the coast, the Swedes predominating — received him with every manifestation of 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Ixxxv 



welcome, "judging that all conflicting pretensions to the soil would now cease," promising to 
" love, serve and obey him," and adding " that it was the best day they had ever seen." On 
the 4th of December he called an assembly at Upland (now Chester), and passed all the laws 
which had been agreed upon previously, and also others, the law concerning " Liberty of 
Conscience" being placed at the head of the list. 

Philadelphia, the city of " Brotherly Love," was immediately laid out, and as the site 
selected was already in possession of the Swedes, an exchange was proposed and accepted 




Court of Fmatice Budding, 



by them for other land in the vicinity. The plan, covering a space of twelve and a-half 
square mjles, was afterwards considered on entirely too extensive a scale, and it underwent 
considerable modifications in 1701, reducing the area to two square miles and limiting the 
boundaries to the Delaware on the east, the Schuykill on the west. Vine Street on the north, 
and Cedar (now South) Street on the south. Beyond Cedar Street were the Swedish settle- 
ments, and some of their old landmarks remain to the present day, notably the old Swedes' 
Church, consecrated on the 2d day of July, 1700. 



Ixxxvi HISTORY OF THE 



Time has proved that Penn was wiser than those who came after him, since, in less than 
two hundred years, the city has stretched out far beyond the Hmits imposed upon it in 1701, 
and now the ihickly-inhabited portion alone occupies more than four times the space originally 
determined upon for its area by Penn. 

The city grew and prospered under its friendly and liberal rule, and although it received 
accessions to its inhabitants from all countries and of all sects, yet the Quaker influence 
predominated, and gave that solid, steady tone to society and aversion to mere outward dis- 
play for which Philadelphia was so famous, traces of which may be found to the present day. 
When the troubles arose with the mother-country — nearly a century after its foundation — the 
city took an active part in colonial affairs. It had at this time increased to a population 
of 28,000, contained nearly 5,500 dwellings, had an extensive commerce, and ranked as first 
among the cities of the Colonies. The first Continental Congress assembled here in 1774, 
holding its meetings in Carpenters' Hall, a building situated south of Chestnut Street, 
between Third and Fourth, — .still standing and kept in excellent preservation by the Car- 
penters' Company, to whom it belongs. 

During the Revolution, Congress continued to hold its meetings in Philadelphia with 
but few exceptions, and the Declaration of Independence was adopted here July 4th, 1776, 
and first read publicly from a stand in the State-House yard by John Nixon, July Stli, follow- 
ing. The old Independence Bell, cracked and out of use, is still preserved in the hall of the 
State-House, as a memento of the times when it " proclaimed liberty throughout the land, and 
to all the inhabitants thereof" In this place the present Constitution of the United States 
was adopted by the Convention which met for the purpose in May, 1787 ; the first President of 
the United States resided here; and on this s[)ot Congress assembled for some ten years after 
the adoption of the Constitution, until the removal of the seat of government to Washington. 

When, therefore, the Centennial Anniversary of this great Republic approached, and the 
success of its form of government bad become no longer an experiment, even in the eyes of 
the old monarchies of Europe, but an established fact, it seemed expedient that some effort 
should be made to properly celebrate this great event, — this birthda\' of freedom. A hundred 
years ago this young nation had struggled for existence ; now she has established her 
position as one of the great powers of the -world. What more fitting, then, than that she 
should commemorate this centennial of her life by an International Exhibition of Arts, 
Manufactures and Products of the Soil and Mine. 

Inviting all the other principalities of the globe to unite with her in a competitive display, 
she could show for herself the greatest progress that had ever been made in the world's 
history in the same length of time, — an advancement without a parallel, fully entitling her to 
a foremost position among the nations of the earth. And what locality more eminently suit- 
able for this celebration than Philadelphia? the birth-place of the nation, and the hallowed 
site of so many passages in her early historj'. 

As the anniversary approached, the project was discussed in an informal way by many, 
and it only needed a move to start it into action. This initiatory move was taken by the 
Franklin Institute, the subject having been first brought forward at a regular meeting of 
the Board of Managers, held August nth, 1869, and the discussion which followed led 



INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I T 1 N, 1 8 7 6. Ixxxvii 



to the appointment of a special committee for the purpose of considering the question, 
and the advisability of memorializing Congress in regard to such an exhibition, to be held 
in Philadelphia in 1876 under the auspices of the Institute. At the next regular meetino- 
of the Board, the month following, this committee reported, and stated that it did not 
consider it expedient for the Franklin Institute to place itself in the prominent position 
of patron to this enterprise, although at the same time it was of opinion that the Institute 
should use its utmost efforts to secure the proposed National Exhibition in the city of 
Philadelphia, and the committee also stated that "if such a celebration were combined 
with an exhibition of those arts and manufactures for which this country is so justly 
celebrated, and to which she owes so much of her • material prosperity and greatness, 
there would be an additional reason for adopting this site, as no other city possessed such 
advantages as are afforded by the vast industrial works of Philadelphia." The action 
taken by the Board resulted in the appointment of a new committee to take the subject 
in charge, and this committee was instructed, on December 8th, to prepare a letter to the 
Select and Common Councils of the city of Philadelphia, explaining the action of the 
Institute and the reasons therefor, and requesting Councils to memorialize Congress on 
the subject. This letter, which was duly presented to each chamber of Councils through 
the mayor of the city, so clearly enunciated, even at this early date of the enterprise, the 
objects which are now being carried out, that we consider it worthy of reproduction in 
full, as follows : — 

"The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania (the first founded of institutions 
of its kind in this country), being mindful of what may conduce to the credit and pros- 
perity of thj cit\' of its location, has resolved through its Hoard of Managers that it will 
be expedient to celebrate the Centennial Anniversar)' of our national existence by an 
International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures and Products of Soil and Mines, to be 
held upon grounds which, it is hoped, may be obtained within Fairmount Park for this 
purpose. 

"It would seem eminently proper that such an Hxhibition should be the form of cele- 
bration selected, and that this city should be the spot chosen by the nation for a national 
celebration at that time. There, was written and given to the world that Declaration 
which called our nation into existence ; there, the laws which guided its infancy first took 
place ; there, it began its march to benefit the human race. Under the laws there 
established, and in the nation there created, all arts and sciences have progressed in an 
unparalleled degree, and it is believed that the form of celebration indicated would be 
emblematic of their progress. The historical relations alone of our city should entitle it 
to selection for such a celebration; but apart from its claim as the birthplace of our 
Government, its geographical position, its railroads and navigation facilities, and its abun- 
dant means of accommodation for large numbers of strangers, all add to its claim and 
fitness to be selected for such a purpose. 

" In consequence of these conditions the subscribers have been appointed a committee 
to bring the subject to your notice, and to request that your honorable bodies will 



Ixxxviii 



HISTORY OF THE 



memorialize Congress upon the subject for the purpose of obtaining that aid which will 
make such an Exhibition truly international in its character. 



(Signed), 



William Sellers, 
Frederick Fraley, 
Enoch Lewis, 
Coleman Sellers, 
B. H. Moore." 








Untrance, Main Building. 



The communication was received with favor by Councils and warmly supported, a 
committee of nine being appointed from each chamber to take charge of the matter, and 
to arrange for laying it before Congress. The question was also brought up before the 
State Legislature at Harrisburg, and similar action was taken, a committee being delegated 
from each House to act in conjunction with the committee of City Councils. These com- 
mittees and also a special committee from the Franklin Institute, acting jointly, visited 
Washington and had an interview with the House Committee of Congress on Manufac- 
tures, presenting a memorial prepared for the occasion, which was favorably received, and 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 




^ 



HIS TOR V OF THE 



a draft of an Act prepared and presented to Congress through the committee, resulting 
in the passage of the following Act of Congress, approved March 3d, 1871: — 

"An Act to provide for celebrating the One Hundredth Anniversary of American 
Independence by holding an International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures and Products 
of the Soil and Mine, in the City of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, in the year 
eighteen hundred and seventy-six. 

" Whereas, the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America was pre- 
pared, signed and promulgated in the year seventeen hundred and seventy-six in the city 
of Philadelphia ; and whereas, it behooves the people of the United States to celebrate, by 
appropriate ceremonies, the Centennial Anniversary of this memorable and decisive event, 
which constituted the fourth day of July, Anno Domini seventeen hundred and seventy- 
six, the birthday of the nation; and whereas, it is deemed fitting that the completion of 
the first century of our national existence shall be commemorated by an exhibition of the 
national resources of the country and their development, and of its progress in those 
arts which benefit mankind in comparison with those of older nations; and whereas, no 
place is so appropriate for such an exhibition as the city in which occurred the event it 
is designed to commemorate; and whereas, as the exhibition should be a national cele- 
bration, in which the people of the whole country should participate, it should have the 
sanction of the Congress of the United States ; therefore — 

"Section I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That an exhibition of American and foreign 
arts, products and manufactures shall be held under the auspices of the Government of 
the United States, in the city of Philadelphia, in the year eighteen hundred and 
seventy-six. 

"Section 2. That a Commission, to consist of not more than one delegate from each 
State, and from each territory of the United States, whose functions shall continue until 
the close of the Exhibition, shall be constituted, whose duty it shall be to prepare and 
superintend the execution of a plan for holding the Exhibition; and, after conference with 
the authorities of the city of Philadelphia, to fix upon a suitable site within the corporate 
limits of the said city, where the Exhibition shall be held. 

"Section 3. That the said Commissioners shall be appointed within one year from the 
passage of this Act by the President of the United States, on the nomination of the 
governors of the States and territories respectively. 

"Section 4. That in the same manner there shall be appointed one Commissioner 
from each State and territory' of the United States, who shall assume the place and per- 
form the duties of such Commissioner and Commissioners as may be unable to attend 
the meetings of the Commission. 

"Section 5. That the Commission shall hold its meetings in the city of Philadelphia, 
and that a majority of its members shall have full power to make all needful rules for 
its government. 

"Section 6. That the Commission shall report to Congress, at the first session after 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



its appointment, a suitable date for opening and for closing the Exhibition, a schedule of 
appropriate ceremonies for opening or dedicating the same, a plan or plans of the build- 
ings, a complete plan for the reception and classification of articles intended for exhibition, 
the requisite custom-house regulations for the introduction into this country of the articles 
from foreign countries intended for exhibition, and such other matters as in their judgment 
may be important. 

"Section 7. That no compensation for services shall be paid to the Commissioners or 
other officers provided by this Act, from the treasury of the United States; and the United 
States shall not be liable for any expenses attending such Exhibition, or by reason of 
the same. 

"Section 8. That whenever the President shall be informed by the Governor of the 
State of Pennsylvania that provision has been made for the erection of suitable buildings 
for the purpose, and for the exclusive control by the Commission herein provided for, of 
the proposed Exhibition, the President shall, through the Department of State, make 
proclamation of the same, setting forth the time at which the Exhibition will open, and 
the place at which it will be held; and he shall communicate to the diplomatic represen- 
tatives of all nations copies of the same, together with such regulations as may be adopted 
by the Commissioners, for publication in their respective countries." 

The enterprise had now been placed upon a foundation, and the first really progressive 
step had been made in the work. The various Commissioners were in due time appointed, 
but no provision had been made to call them together until the city of Philadelphia, in 
October, 187 1, issued an invitation for them to meet in March, 1872, and made an appro- 
priation to cover their expenses. This invitation was accepted, and the first meeting of 
the Commission was held March 4th, 1872, at the Continental Hotel in Philadelphia. It 
continued in session until March nth, a thorough organization being effected, the Hon. 
Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut, elected President, and the necessary special committees 
appointed and assigned their respective duties. The location for the proposed Exhibition 
was also fixed at Fairmount Park, and a Committee on Plans and Architecture instructed 
to report at the next session, and furnish sketches of plans for a building adapted to a 
double classification, similar to that of Paris, 1867, and to cover fifty acres of floor-space, 
estimates of cost to be furnished at the same time. 

The second session commenced on May 22d following, and continued until May 29th. 
It was discovered that very little material progress could be made without pecuniary means, 
and that the first requisite was to take some measures for obtaining the funds required. 
This, as the special work of the Executive Committee, the Hon. D. J. Morrell being chair- 
man, received most attentive consideration, and on the recommendation of this committee 
it was decided not to ask for National or State aid, but to rely upon the people, trusting 
that their patriotism, ability and will could be depended upon, under a proper and sys- 
tematic business organization, to provide the money needed for the enterprise, and also to 
furnish that general support and cooperation so essential to secure nationality and success 
to the Centennial celebration. 



HISTOR V OF THE 



To this end "It was concluded to apply to Congress for the charter of a corporation 
to be called the 'Centennial Board of Finance,' which should have power, under the direc- 
tion of the Centennial Commission, to raise money upon the sale of stock, and to attend 







^ 



Horticultural Hall. 



to all duties necessary to bring the work of the Exhibition to a successful issue." The 
Act creating this corporation passed Congress and was approved June 1st, 1872. Its 
distinct purpose was declared to be that of raising funds for the preparation and conduct 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




H. Bisbinl. Dtl. 



Hoi-ticuUural Hall. 



HISTORY OF THE 



of the Exhibition, and it was empowered to secure subscriptions of capital stock not 
exceeding ten millions of dollars, to be divided into shares of ten dollars each, the proceeds 
from the sale of this stock and from all other sources to be used for the erection of suitable 
buildings and fixtures, and for all other expenses required to carry out the Exhibition as 
designed. The Centennial Board of Finance to prepare the grounds and erect the buildings, 
all plans, however, to be previously adopted by the Centennial Commission, and the Com- 
mission also to fix and establish all rules or regulations governing rates for "entrance" 
and "admission" fees, or otherwise affecting the rights, privileges or interests of the 
exhibitors or the public. No grant conferring rights or privileges of any description con- 
nected with the grounds or buildings, or relating to the Exhibition, to be made without 
the consent of the Commission, which would have the power to control, change or revoke 
all such grants, and appoint all judges and examiners, and award all premiums. It was 
also provided that the Centennial Board of Finance should, as soon as practicable after 
the close of the Exhibition, convert its property into cash, and, after the payment of all 
liabilities, divide its remaining assets among the stockholders pro-rata, in full satisfaction 
and discharge of its capital stock. 

At the close of the third session of the Commission, which took place in December, 
1872, very little real progress had been made in the organization of the Centennial Board 
of Finance. The Executive Committee had been occupied in this work, and in publishing 
and issuing circulars and addresses to the people, informing them what had been done, and 
calling their attention to the mode of making stock subscriptions. A design for a seal 
was at this time adopted by the Commission, it being circular in shape, about two inches 
in diameter, with the official title, "The United States Centennial Commission," between 
inner and outer concentric circles, and in the centre a vignette view of Independence Hall 
as it appeared in 1776, and beneath the vignette the prophetic sentence, " Proclaim liberty 
throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof," which was cast on the State- 
house bell that rang out the first announcement of the adoption of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

Nothing had been accomplished by the Committee on Plans and Architecture, as no 
funds were at its disposal, and nothing could be done without them. The Committee 
received instructions, however, to advertise for plans whenever the necessary funds could 
be obtained, expending a sum as they deemed best, not exceeding twenty thousand dollars. 

To cover the incidental expenses of the Commission, Philadelphia appropriated the sum 
of fifty thousand dollars, and permanent offices were secured and books opened for sub- 
scriptions to stock in accordance with the provisions of the Act creating the Centennial 
Board of Finance. At the end of the year 1872, the prospects of the Exhibition looked 
very discouraging, many of those best qualified to give an opinion declaring its success 
exceedingly problematical, and some going so far as to say it was impossible. Fortunately, 
however, the Commission possessed an Executive Committee of great ability and tenacity 
of purpose, who were determined to give the matter a vigorous trial. 

The Citizens' Centennial Finance Committee, which had been previously organized, and 
through whom had been obtained the above-mentioned appropriation of fifty thousand 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1876. 



dollars from the city of Philadelphia, was given charge of the work, and under this Com- 
mittee were placed sub-committees of the citizens of every trade, occupation, profession, 
and interest in Philadelphia, whose object was to obtain subscriptions to the Centennial 
stock. Every means was used to awaken the interest of the city, and through it, that of 
the country at large, and within sixty days all doubts were dispelled and success assured. 
The city of Philadelphia promptly subscribed one-half million of dollars, and the State of 
Pennsylvania one million, conditioned upon the subscription of the city, the whole to be 
appropriated for the erection of a permanent building in Fairmount Park, to remain 
perpetually as the property of the people of the State for their improvement and enjoy- 
ment, a depository of articles valuable either on account of association with important 
national events, or as illustrating the progress of civilization and the arts in this new country, 
and a worthy memorial of an event of which any nation might be proud. 

On the 22d of February, 1873, an imposing mass-meeting was held with the most 
beneficial results, and before the time of the fourth session of the Commission in May, 
more than three millions of dollars had been subscribed, including the State and city 
donations ; public interest had been aroused everywhere ; information had been scattered 
by the press in all directions, and inquiries as to what was proposed to be done came 
pouring in from all quarters, and even from foreign countries. The question was taken up 
by the various States, a number of them strongly commending the project, promising their 
hearty cooperation, and issuing instructions to their members of Congress to support all 
measures requisite for making the Exhibition a success worthy of the nation and of the 
great men and events it was intended to commemorate. 

It seemed especially desirable that full information should be obtained by the Com- 
mission in reference to the organization and working of the Vienna Exhibition then in 
progress, and the Executive Committee for this purpose sent abroad early in March one 
of their own members, Prof W. P. Blake, a gentleman who had been principally in charge 
of the work of classification, and who was thoroughly conversant personally with all details 
of the Paris Exhibition of 1867. It was important also in connection with this that com- 
plete plans should be obtained of the buildings of the Vienna Exposition, and thorough 
data as to their mode of construction, adaptability to their purposes, &c., and that similar 
information should be procured concerning all previous great exhibitions. For this object 
Mr. Henry Pettit, an accomplished civil engineer, highly recommended, was appointed and 
sent abroad about the same time as a special agent. It may be mentioned in this connection 
that Mr. Pettit generously gave his services gratuitously to the Commission, with an allow- 
ance of only actual expenses. 

In the winter of 1873 one of the most effective helps that the cause ever had was 
organized under the auspices of the Citizens' Centennial Finance Committee, in the shape 
of the "Women's Centennial Committee of Pennsylvania." Thirteen patriotic women, 
residents of Philadelphia, were appointed an executive committee and officially recognized 
on F"ebruary 24th. Mrs. E. D. Gillespie, a lady of wonderful talent and administrative 
ability, a descendant of Franklin, was elected president, and continued to occupy that 
position, throughout the entire time of its organization, with marked skill and surprising 



HIS TOR V OF THE 



success — the great work accomplished by Mrs. Gillespie and her zealous aids being one of 
the most prominent features in the history of the Centennial. 

The organization of the Centennial Board of P^inance was fully completed in April, 
1873, ^ board of twenty-five directors being elected by the stockholders — John Welsh 
appointed president; William Sellers, first vice-president; and Thomas Cochran, temporary 
secretary; and the E.xhibition work was fairly started upon a sound business footing, with 
a considerable capital already subscribed, a corps of officers of lemarkable efficiency and 
ability and the highest standing, antl every prospect of success. Mr. Frederick Fraley, 
of Philadelphia, a gentleman distinguished for his abilities and integrity, was afterwards 
regularly ajJiJointed secretary and treasurer, and continued to hold that position permanently. 




Exhibition of Enj^lisk Rhododendrons. 

Funds being now provided, invitations were issued on the first day of April of this 
year for preliminary designs for the Main Exhibition Building and Art Gallery. In order 
to induce any one who had an idea on the subject to bring it forward, so that the Com- 
mission could, if it wished, avail itself of every suggestion that might be offered, whether 
by a professional man or not, this invitation was made as broad as possible, and architects 
and others were requested to submit sketches and plans under an unlimited public com- 
petition. A. detailed specification of what was desired was issued to competing parties, 



INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1S76. 



and it was requested that the designs be handed in before noon on the 15th day of July 
following. 

It was during the fourth session of the Commission in May that the position of 
director-general was created, the Hon. Alfred T. Goshorn of Ohio being chosen at the 
annual election to fill the place. 

The eventful public ceremony of this year was the formal transfer by the Park Com- 
mission, on the 4th of July, of the grounds which had been selected for the use of the 
Exhibition, at Fairmount Park, to the Centennial Commission. The ceremonial was 
performed in the presence of the various official dignities of the Government, the State 




The RU-v,iU\l Railwav across the Rav 



and the city, the members of the Centennial and Park Commissions, and numerous invited 
guests. After assembling at Independence Hall, and being formally presented to the 
mayor of the city, they were driven out to the Park, where a handsomely decorated stand 
had been erected on the site intended for Memorial Hall, and in front of which was a 
flagstaff, with a flag furled at the top and ready to be thrown to the breeze at the proper 
moment. Beyond lay the Lansdowne plateau, scattered over with crowds of people and 
troops. 

After the ceremony had been opened with prayer by Bishop Simpson, the Hon. Morton 
McMichael, President of the Park Conmiission, delivered an eloquent address and made a 



H J STORY OF THE 



formal transfer of the 'grounds to the United States Centennial Commission. President 
Hawley in accepting the transfer, replied by an able speech, closing as follows: "In token 
that the United States Centennial Commission now takes possession of these grounds for 
the purpose we hn\e described, let the flag be unfurled and dul\- saluted." As the last 
words fell from the speaker's lips, the flag of the nation was thrown to the breeze and 
saluted by thirteen guns. Announcement was then made by Governor Hartranft, of the 
State of Pennsylvania, to the effect that in accordance with the conditions of the Act of 
Congress in relation to the Centennial Celebration, as sufficient provision had been made 
for the erection of suitable buildings for the purpose of the International Exhibition, he 
felt it his duty to certify the same to the President of the United States, and had for- 
warded him a certificate to that effect duly signed. The Hon. George M. Robeson, Secretary 
of the Navy, and delegated representative of the President of the United States, who was 
absent on account of the death of his father, then presented, in the President's name, a 
"Proclamation," announcing the holding of an International Exhibition in the city of 
Philadelphia in 1876, and commending the same to the people of the United States and 
to all nations who might be pleased to take part therein. The ceremonies were concluded 
by Secretary Robeson, who stated that " in making this proclamation the President desired 
to express his deep personal interest in the objects of the great enterprise, his .s)-mpathy 
with the patriotic endeavors being made, and his appreciation of the fitness of the place and 
the occasion designated, his earnest desire that 'ail nations' would take part in this triumph 
of human industry and skill, on the great memorial occasion of a people whose energies 
are drawn from every land, ami his hope and confidence that in its spirit and its success 
the ' Exhibition and Celebration' would remain a lasting illustration of peace and civilization, 
of domestic and international friendship and intercourse, and of the vitality of tliose great 
principles which lie at the foundation of human progress, and upon which depend our 
national strength, development and safety." The proclamation and a copy of the general 
regulations of the Commission were forwarded officially to each foreign Government and 
also to each minister of the United States accredited to a foreign Government. 

In response to the invitation issued for plans, it was announced on July i6th that forty- 
three plans had been submitted. Of these, ten were selected as admitted to a second 
competition and worthy of the award of ;$iooo to each. The names of the successful 
competitors were made known on August 8th, and the conditions, requirements and awards 
of the second competition on August iith, not differing materially from those of the first 
competition, which were still in force. 

The second competition designs were put in on September 30th, and the awards upon 
them were decided about the end of October, as follows : — 

Collins and Autenrieth ist award, . . . $4000 

Samuel Sloan 2d award, . . . S3000 

John McArthur, Jr., & Joseph M. Wilson, . . 3d award, . . . S2000 

H. A. & J. P. Sims, 4th award, . . $1000 



INTERNATIONAL EXIIIB ITION, 1876. 



The Committee reported that all of these designs showed great care, skill and labor on 
the part of the several engineers and architects in carrying out the requirements of the 
specifications, each possessing so many points of excellence that the Committee was very 
much embarrassed in its efforts to arrive at a practical conclusion in the matter. It stated 
that many additional points of great importance had presented themselves in regard to the 
buildings, after the issue of the specifications for the second competition, which would neces- 
sitate more or less modification in any design adopted. In making the awards, however, the 
relative merits of the different designs were decided upon, solely with regard to their meeting 
the requirements stated in the specifications. This action was, of course, the only just one 
to the competing parties, but resulted in giving the awards to some designs which were 
radically different from what the Committee at the time of the award deemed it advisable 
to erect. No one of the designs, " in its judgment, could be considered as representing in 
an entirely satisfactory manner what was required for the Centennial buildings;" and the 
Committee, in examining the designs and considering the subject in all its bearings and 
requirements, came to the following conclusions : That it was not feasible to erect an Art 
Building and Memorial Hall as two distinct structures, but that the Memorial Hall should 
be built separate from the Main Exhibition Building, and used during the Exhibition for the 
purposes of an Art Gallery, a building covering one and a half acres of ground being ample 
for the requirements (the original specification required five acres of space in the Memorial 
Hall); that the Main Exhibition Building should be a temporary construction, covering at 
least thirty acres of ground, and capable of extension if required, rectangular in plan and 
without galleries, the interior arrangement to allow of vistas and attractive promenades, and 
in the construction the reduplication of parts to be an essential feature, iron and brick being 
largely used to secure against risk of fire, and the material to be worked up in such details 
of construction that it could be sold for fair prices after the Exhibition closed ; vertical side- 
light to have preference to overhead-light; domes, towers and central massive features to be 
ignored as too ambitious and expensive, and the building to trust for its impressiveness to 
its great size and proper treatment of its elevations, and to its interior vistas and arrange- 
ments, and not to any central feature erected at great expense for only a few months. They 
also decided that there should be a separate building for a Machinery Hall, covering ten 
acres; one for the Agricultural Hall, covering five acres; and a Conservatory. 

The Committee had a modified plan prepared for the Main Exhibition Building and 
presented for adoption, being an adaptation of a plan submitted by Messrs. Calvert Vaux 
and George Kent Radford, of New York, for the first competition, and to which no award 
was given in the second competition, owing to the requirements of the specifications not 
being complied with. This adaptation also embodied the principal idea presented in the 
design of Messrs. H. A. & J. P. Sims. 

In reference to the Memorial Hall, the Committee stated that they "now entertained 
grave doubts as to whether the Centennial Commission had, or were even intended to 
have, any supervision over the plans or construction of the ' Permanent Centennial Exhi- 
bition Building,' or any interest in the manner of the expenditure of the appropriation 
made by the State and city." They considered this a matter for the State Centennial 



HISTOR Y OF THE 



Supervisors, and recommended that the plans for the Memorial Hall be transferred to 
them, with the suggestion tliat if they approved of a plan it should as nearly as possible 
conform to the requirements indicated by the Committee; and if thej' determined not to 
proceed with the construction of a " Permanent Centennial Exhibition Building," as pro- 
vided, then the Committee would at once prepare and submit a design for an Art Gallery. 
The plan for the Main Exhibition Building, as submitted November 6th, 1873, to the 
Executive Committee, was accepted and approved. At the same time the Board of State 
Centennial .Supervisors communicated its desire that the plan for the Memorial Building 
should be prepared under the direction of the Commission, and upon this request the 
Director-General procured a design from Messrs. Collins and Autenrieth, of Philadelphia, 
which was submitted to the Executive Committee, December I7th. The Committee 




InUrior A^ricutturat Halt : Department of Brasil. 



approved of the plan in its general features, but the estimated cost was in excess of the 
appropriation, and it recommended that it be erected only upon the condition of its cost 
being within the appropriated sum, and requested the Director-General to transmit the 
design to the Board of the State Centennial Supervisors, where it remained without farther 
action until the spring of 1874. 

As soon as the Executive Committee had approved of the modified plans submitted tor 
the Main Exhibition Building, they were placed in the hands of Messrs. Vaux and 
Radford, who were selected as the architects, for further elaboration and estimates, the 
results of which were given to the Committee. It wa.s. claimed by these results that 
Messrs. Vau.x and Radford's system of construction throughout would be preferable, and 
not more expensive, than if combined with that of Messrs. Sims. This arrangement was 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. i8y6. 




HISTOR y OF THE 



approved of, and the architects were instructed to obtain propositions from various iron 
firms for tiie furnishin<^ and erection of tiie buikling in iron material, and also for the ])ur- 
chase and renio\-al of the building after the close of the I'^xhibition. 

About this time, the Secretary of State of the (iovernment saw fit to yive such con- 
struction to that portion of the Act incorporating the Centennial Commission which related 
to the participation of foreign nations at the Exhibition as would necessarily cause serious 
embarrassment, and probably entirely defeat the international features connected with it. 
His interpretation of the Act was, that while it stated "that an Exhibition of American and 
foreign arts, products, etc., shall be held," and instructed the President " to make proclama- 
tion, through the Department of State," and to communicate the proclamation and regulations 
of the Commissions "to the diplomatic representatives of all nations," \'et it did not really 
authorize the government to invite ans'boily from abroad to attend; and he consitlered it 
necessary to issue special instructions to this effect, directing the diplomatic officers that 
they must confine them.selves carefully to commending the celebration to all nations who 
might be pleased to take part therein, without inviting them to do so. That " with the 
exception that Congress created the Commission into a body corporate, and that the Com- 
missioners were confirmed by the President, and that Congress authorized the proclamation 
made by the President and sympathized with the people in the success of the I{,\hibition, 
the national government had no connection with the Commission, no control over it, and 
was in no wa)' responsible either for its management or its results." This interpretation 
was at entire variance with the understanding of the Commission on the subject and called 
for immediate action. A bill that would cover the whole question clearly and without 
doubt was at once prepared and introduced into Congress, passing the House almost unani- 
mously, but meeting with delay and postponement in the Senate, until June 5th, 1874, when 
it was finally passed and approved, and the proj)er invitations were extended to the foreign 
governments. They met with a prompt response, and the international features were fully 
and firmh' secured. In the autumn of 1873, that great financial panic, of which the effects 
are still seen, swept over the country, embarrassing all business operations and very seriously 
interfering with the procurement of subscriptions to Centennial stock. It was deemed, 
therefore, by the Executive Committee, of the utmost importance that pecuniary aid should 
be obtained from the Government. Ever\' effort was made in this direction, a bill for the 
purpose being introduced into Congress on April i6th, 1874, but it failed to pass, and the 
Commission was obliged to place its dependence only upon voluntary subscriptions, which, 
up to May 1st, 1874, had amounted to $1,805,200, and the appropriations, which had been 
made by the State and municipal corporations, which were as follows: — 

State of Pennsylvania, for permanent building $1,000,000 

City of Philadelphia, " " 500,000 

City of Philadelphia, for a conservatory, 200,000 

City of Philadelphia, for a machinery hall, 800,000 

State of New Jersey, conditional upon a sufificient sum being 

obtained from other sources to carry out the Exhibition, loopoo 

Total municipal and State appropriations, -. $2,600,000 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



It was, therefore, absolutely essential that the cost of the Main Building should be kept 
to a minimum. Acting on this, bids were received for the work in both wood and iron 
construction, and the excess in cost of iron precluded its use. Another plan was then 
prepared by the architects for wood protected partially by galvanized iron, the cost of which 
was found to be about $103,000 per acre. This plan was approved and handed over to 
the Board of Finance for execution, but the Building Committee refused to erect it on 
account of its combustible nature, and referred it back to the Executive Committee, who 
instructed Messrs. Vaux & Radford to re-design the structure in wrought iron, and by a 
reduction of the spans endeavor to keep within a more reasonable cost. The architects 
were unable, however, to get the cost below about $182,000 per acre, and attention was 
accordingly directed to the consideration of some more simple form of building than had 
as yet been presented. Two prominent manufacturers of iron constructions combining 
together then came forward and laid before the Committee plans and proposals upon two 
separate designs, one of which would cost $182,000 per acre — the same amount as for the 
architects' last plan — and the other $128,000 per acre. The latter was a simple shed con- 
struction of too monotonous and ordinary appearance to be acceptable, and the former was 
not considered so desirable as the architects' plan, although costing the same sum. The 
Executive Committee, therefore, approved of Messrs. Vaux & Radford's last design and 
transmitted the drawings to the Board of Finance, requesting that the work be placed under 
contract by May 15th, 1874, if possible. The Board, however, anxious to decrease the 
cost still further, obtained yet another plan from the architects, the cost of which was now 
reduced to $124,000 per acre. As successive efforts had resulted in successive reductions 
of cost, it seemed feasible to do still more in this direction, and it was decided that the 
building should in no event exceed in cost $100,000 per acre. Messrs. Vaux & Radford 
were then instructed to prepare new plans on this basis, and while these were being fur- 
nished Mr. Henry Pettit, the consulting engineer of the Commission, rcommended to the 
architects and advised the adoption of yet another modification of design for the building, 
embodying pavilions in the centre with wings of shed construction, allowing of any 
extension that the future wants of the Exhibition might make desirable. Messrs. Vaux & 
Radford not working up this idea satisfactorily, Mr. Pettit was requested to prepare plans 
and procure estimates at the same time as the architects. This he refused to do, as the 
Board of Finance already had a contract with Messrs. Vaux & Radford to prepare any 
plans they required, but he willingly offered to co-operate with these gentlemen in every way 
possible to further the work. The designs of the architects were three in number, as follows : — 

No. I. Pavilion plan throughout, with groined arch ribs in iron. 

No. 2. A design consisting of three parallel galleries, each 150 feet span, with inter- 
mediate aisles, the roof of the 150 feet spans being flat arches with parallel extrados and 
intrados filled in with diagonal bracing, and the main tie-rod curved and supported from 
the arch by radial rods. 

No. 3. Same as No. 2, except that straight, triangular roof trusses were used, the 
design being represented by a single tracing, and intended to embody the suggestions of 
Mr. Pettit. 




// Ipl l/l, 



INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, 1 8 76. 




HISTORY OF THE 



The Building Committee, after a full examination of these plans, again requested Mr. 
Pettit to work up a design according to his suggestions, and, under the circumstances, he 
could do nothing else than acquiesce. He accordingly furnished sketches and specifications 
which were designated as Design No. 4. 

These four designs were presented to the public for bids, from June 17th to 25th, 1874, 
In comparing the amounts given by the lowest bidder for the several designs, there appeared 
to be a difference of only $2,824 between Nos. 2 and 4 — in favor of the former — but the 
Committee decided that No. 4 possessed advantages over No. 2, which made it preferable 
even at the same price. The ccst of Plan No. i was in excess of No. 4 by ;^520,733, and 
although the Committee was of opinion that the interior effect of No. i would be superior 
to that of No. 4, still, it felt that the great difference in cost would outweigh any ad\-antages 
in this respect, and it therefore adopted Mr. Pettit's plan on June 30th, the Director-General 
giving his approval on July 4th, by order of the Executive Committee. This was the first 
design upon which the Board of P'inance and E.xecutivc Committee both agreed, and was 
the final result of the successive efforts of many talented in their profession, developing 
step by step from the grand ideas of the original requirements to a practical basis which 
could be met by the resources at hand. All those who contributed towards the attainment 
of this end — be it more or less — are entitled to due credit for it. 

The contract was awarded to the lowest bidder, Mr. Richartl J. Dobbins, of Philadelphia 
for Si,076,OOO^exclusive of drainage, plumbing, decoration and painting — the area to be 
covered being eighteen acres ; and Messrs. Vaux & Radford were authorized to proceed with 
the execution of the design. A professional issue arising, Messrs. Vaux & Radford declined 
to execute the work, and their contract with the Board of Finance was closed. Arrangements 
were then made with IMr. Ilcnrj' Pettit and Vlv. Jo.scph ;\I. Wilson to act as joint engineers 
and architects to the Centennial Board of Finance, for the Main Exhibition Building and for 
the Machinery Hall. 

Actual work commenced immediately, prospects became encouraging from this day 
forward, and it was soon evident that the space allowed for the Main Building was too little. 
It was therefore increased to twenty acres, and, at the same time, the central portion of the 
building was raised and towers added for exterior effect, the co.st being increased to 

$I,420,CX)0. 

According to the agreement made with the contractor, it was provided that one wing of 
the building should be erected by September 1st, the other by October 1st, and the central 
portion by November ist, the whole building to be completed by January 1st, 1876. 

In reference to the Memorial Building, the designs as so far prepared by the selected 
architects did not appear satisfactory, considerably exceeding in cost the appropriations at 
command, and a plan presented by Mr. H. J. Schwarzmann, one of the engineers of Fairmount 
Park, was finally adopted, a contract being effected with Mr. Richard J. Dobbins on July 4, 
1874, for the execution of the same, at a co.st of gi, 199. 273. the sum being covered by the 
appropriations of the State of Pennsylvania and the city of Philadelphia. 

Messrs. Pettit and Wilson proceeded at once under instructions to prepare a design for 
the Machinery Hall, which, being completed and adopted, was submitted to bidders, and the 



INTERNATIONAL EXII IB ITION, 1S76. 



contract awarded to Mr. Philip Quigley, of Wilmington, Delaware, January 27th, 1875, for the 
sum of ^542,300, including drainage, water-pipe, plumbing, etc., but exclusive of outside 
painting, the building to be finished by October ist of the same year. 

A design had already been prepared by Mr. Schwarzmann for a Conservatory Building, 
and bids being received, the contract fell to Mr. John Rice, of Philadelphia, for ^^253, 937, 
exclusive of heating-apparatus, the papers being signed January ist, 1875, and the work to be 
completed by September 15th. 

Mr. James H. Windrim was selected as architect for the Agricultural Building, and his 
design being approved, the contract was awarded to Mr. Philip Quigley on June i6th, 1875, 
for the sum of $250,000, the work to be completed by January 1st, 1876. 

The area covered by these buildings was as follows : — 

Main Building, 21.47 acres. 

Art Building 1.50 " 

Horticultural Building 1.50 " 

Machinery Building 14.00 " 

Agricultural Buikling, lO. 15 " 

Total, 48.62 acres. 

Thus, by indefatigable perseverance on the part of the Board of Finance, the five prin- 
cipal buildings for the great Exhibition were at last fairly under way, and a most important 
step taken in advance towards a successful issue. The work proceeded rapidly, fully realizing 
all expectations, and with far greater speed than many even well versed in such matters 
deemed possible. Additional buildings soon began to spring up ; the United States Govern- 
ment commenced the erection of a building, under Mr. Windrim as architect, for the collective 
exhibits from the different Government departments; offices were projected and started for the 
Executive departments of the Centennial Commission and the Board of Finance; State 
pavilions ; buildings for special exhibits, etc., etc., began to dot the enclosure at point after 
point, increasing rapidly in number as the time for the opening of the Exhibition approached, 
and rivaling those of all previous Exhibitions, at least in multitude if not in architectural 
variety and national characteristics. A fence-line of some sixteen thousand lineal feet was 
constructed around the grounds, enclosing two hundred and thirty-si.x acres, this area being 
exclusive of the stock-grounds for the display of horses, cattle, sheep, etc., and located at 
another site. Walks and roads were laid out within the enclosure, comprising a total length 
of over seven miles ; an artificial lake of water formed, covering an extent of three acres ; 
fountains, statuary and vases erected, and shrubbery planted ; a complete system of drainage 
designed and constructed for buildings and grounds, and the whole area so transformed, 
changed and beautified far beyond the already natural loveliness of the location as to be 
hardly recognizable even by those most familiar with it. 

The necessity of including the Lansdowne and Belmont ravines within the Exhibition 
grounds required the construction of two bridges for the use of the public park roads, which 
were designed by and constructed under the direction of of Messrs. Pettit & Wilson. That 
over the Lansdowne ravine was of considerable engineering pretensions, and afforded an 



HISTORY OF THE 



opportunity for quite an artistic construction. In order to secure an abundant supply of water 
entirely independent of the city department, temporary pumping-works were erected on the 
west bank of the Schuylkill River, a large and commodious brick building being constructed 




Buildings of the British Comii 



and furnished with a Worthington steam-pump of a capacity of six million gallons of water 
per day, and an auxiliary pump of one million gallons additional. The necessary stand-pipe 
and a circulating system of pipes, amounting to about eight miles in total length, were pro- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



vided, the designing and erection of the whole being under the care of Mr. Frederick Graff 
as Chief Engineer. Gas mains were laid out to the principal buildings from the city system, 
so as to afford the full supply desired. 

As to transportation facilities, no previous Exhibition ever had so perfect arrangements. 
About three and a half miles of tracks were laid within the grounds to the several buildings, 
and there connected, by means of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's lines, directly with 
the wharves on the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, and with all the railroads entering the 
city, rendering no transhipments necessary except from vessels to cars. 




0/ British Com 



In the meantime the progress made by the Commission and the Board of Finance in 
their labors during the year 1875 was most satisfactory. The general classification as 
arranged was — 

I. Mining, III. Education and Science, V. Machinery, 

II. Manufactures, IV. Art, VI. Agriculture, 

VII. Horticulture, 

.md the adaptation of this classification to the principal buildings placed the first, second 
and third departments in the Main Building, the fourth in the Art Gallery, the fifth in the 



H J STORY OF THE 



Machinery Building, the sixth in the Agricultural Building, and the seventh in the Horti- 
cultural Building. The public sentiment developed in favor of the Exhibition was such as 
to warrant the most liberal provision for its success, and the increased number of co-operative 
ao-encies established throughout the world tended greatly to overcome all difficulties. 

The usual annual report required from the Commission by Congress was made to the 
President on January 20th, 1875, "setting forth the progress of the preparations for the 
E.xhibition, and respectfully presenting the claims of the Commission for financial aid to 
properly execute their trust." Appropriations were asked for specific purposes, the expenses 
of which it was thought should rightly be borne by the Government, as follows :— 

For expenses of the United States Centennial Commission, . . . $400,000 

Awards and expenses incident thereto 500,000 

Protection (police, etc.), 600,000 

$1,500,000 

But Congress did nothing. It did make an appropriation, however, of $505,000 for the use 
of the Board representing the United States Executive Departments in preparing a col- 
lective exhibition, and the Board, having this appropriation, proceeded to the erection of a 
suitable Government building, previously mentioned, to contain the exhibits. 

The Women's Centennial Executive Committee, under the able direction of Mrs. E. D. 
Gillespie, greatly enlarged its influence and usefulness, forming one of the most important 
volunteer organizations which had come to the aid of the Commission. It rendered 
exceedingly important service not only in procuring stock subscriptions, but in obtaining 
money by other means, and in awakening popular interest, performing a large share of the 
labor towards insuring the success of the undertaking. In addition to the large sums col- 
lected and handed over to the Board of Finance, this Committee raised by voluntary 
contributions of the American women the separate sum of $35,000, which it appropriated to 
the construction of a special building for the exclusive display of women's work, erecting a 
structure creditable to the enterprise of the ladies, and a useful and ornamental addition to 
the list of Exhibition buildings. We hope to give more particulars concerning this Com- 
mittee hereafter. 

It was soon found necessary to organize the various administrative bureaus which 
would be required to properly attend to the direct duties of the Exhibition under the 
supervision of the Director-General. The bureaus formed with their respective functions 
and chiefs were as follows : — 

Foreign — Direction of the foreign representation, The Director-General. 

Installation.— Classification of applications for space-allotment of space in Main 

Building — Supervision of special structures Henr>' Pettit. 

Transportation. — Foreign transportation for goods and visitors — Transportation 
for goods and visitors in the United States — Local transportation — Ware- 
housing and customs regulations Adolphus Torrey. 

Machinery.— Superintendence of the Machinery Department and building, including 

- allotment of space to exhibitors, John S. Albert. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



Agriculture. — Superintendence of the Agricultural Department, building and 

grounds, including allotment of space to exhibitors, .... Burnet Landreth. 

Horticulture. — Superintendence of Horticultural Department, conservatory and 

grounds, including allotment of space to e.xhibitors, .... Charles H. Miller. 

Fine Arts. — Superintendence of the Fine Arts Department and building, including 

allotment of space to exhibitors, . John Sartain. 

The subject of awards received very careful attention from the Executive Committee, 
the experience of those connected with previous Exhibitions being solicited and given due 
consideration. A system was finally decided upon, widely different from any ever used 
before ; and instead of having several grades of awards, causing disputes among the recipi- 
ents as to their comparative importance, a single uniform medal was adopted, which was 
in each case to be accompanied by a report and diploma stating the nature of the merit 
for which it was awarded. It was determined to have only a small body of judges, one- 
half of whom should be foreign and one-half from the United States, and to insure the 
presence and attention of men practically conversant with the subjects on which they 
were to report, it was decided to provide an allowance to each, designed to cover actual 
expenses. 

A final effort was made at the Congressional session of 1875-6 towards obtaining the 
appropriation asked for at the previous session, and after considerable opposition it was 
successful, the sum of ;$i, 500,000 being granted on condition of its being paid back to the 
Government out of the proceeds of the Exhibition in advance of any dividends from profits 
being given to any other claimants. This gave immediate relief from all chance of pecu- 
niary embarrassment, avoiding the necessity of perhaps mortgaging the buildings or receipts 
in advance, which might have been required otherwise. 

The Centennial year began to draw near; the buildings towards which so many eyes 
were turned grew up and approached completion ; events crowded one on the other until 
it was impossible for the coolest head to avoid being stirred up with enthusiasm. The 
1st of January was ushered in with illuminations and rejoicings such as had never before 
been known. Foreign representatives, of which there had been a few for some time, now 
began to arrive in numbers, and exhibits commenced to appear on the grounds. The writer 
well remembers the interest occasioned by a lot of Japanese goods which were among the 
first to come, and were unpacked in Machinery Hall. They came by way of San Fran- 
cisco, and were parts of the building afterwards erected by that Government for the use 
of its ofificers, so curiously put together by native workmen, who appeared to do every- 
thing exactly the opposite way from which it was done in this country, possibly from 
living in a reversed position on the other side of the globe. 

The winter of 1876 was fortunately very mild. Planting was possible almost continu- 
ously, and the erection of the numerous buildings proceeded without interruption. By the 
time of the opening-day, everything was in readiness with the exception of a few of the 
exhibits which had suffered detention. The buildings had all been completed and ready 
for the reception of goods at the dates designated, occasioning no delays on their part, a 



HISTORY OF THE 



fact never before accomplished at any previous Exhibition. Patriotism had been fully 
aroused, and for weeks before the lOth of May the people were busy decorating with flags 
and draping with bunting, until Philadelphia wore a gala look such as she had never done 
before and may never do again. Chesnut Street was one mass of color — red, white and 
blue — as far as the eye could reach. It was a pageant, a raree-show, such as few see 
twice in a life-time. The poorest little shanty in the town had its penny flag hung out, 
and even now the thought of those days stirs up one's feelings and bears evidence of that 
depth of love of country which always shows itself when the occasion arises. 

The 9th of May was dark and cheerless, but all were busy placing the last flag and 




Kansas Building, 



giving the last touch until far into the night. The loth opened at early dawn still cloudy 
and uncertain. Nevertheless all were stirring, for was not this the opening-day of our great 
celebration, where we were to show to the world the progress that a free country under 
self-government could make in a century of life? The rain held off; the crowds began 
to gather. The whole area in front of the Memorial Hall facing the Main Building had 
been arranged with seats on platforms, and apportioned off into sections, and here were 
grouped the President of the United States and Cabinet, the .Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, the Supreme Court, the Diplomatic Corps, the Governors and other officers of 
States, the Centennial Commission and Board of Finance, the Foreign Commissioners, the 
Women's Centennial Committee, the Board of Judges and Awards, other Boards and 
Bureaus of the E.Khibition, the Army and Navy, the various city officers, etc., etc. — 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8y6. 



forming a brilliant assemblage such as only an occasion like this can draw together. In 
the centre of the front was the platform for the President and those distinguished officers 
and guests who were to take active part in the ceremonies. At the entrance to the Main 
Building, opposite and facing Memorial Hall, was the platform for the immense orchestra 
of one hundred and fifty pieces, under the leadership of Theodore Thomas, and around 
this was grouped the grand Centennial chorus of one thousand voices, one of the great 
results of the good work of the Women's Centennial Committee. In the rear, in the 
interior of the Main Building, but with the large arched windows of the facade open, was 




Mississippi Buildifjg. 



the noble Roosevelt Organ, the first instrument of its kind in the history of International 
Exhibitions to take part in the opening ceremonies in combination with the grand orchestra, 
and mingle with it its glorious tones in one melodious whole. 

The Main Building, Memorial Hall and Machinery Hall were reserved for officials, 
invited guests and exhibitors until the conclusion of the ceremonies. Invited guests entered 
through the Main Building, and other gates to the grounds were opened to the public at 
nine o'clock A. M., at the established rate of admission, fifty cents. The avenue between the 
centre exit of the Main Building, on the north side, and the Memorial Hall was kept 
open, and guests passed by this to their places, which were to be occupied by quarter 
past ten o'clock. 



HISTORY OF THE 



Let us take our stand of observation in the outside balcony of tlie Main Building, 
in the rear of the orchestra, where we can see and be above everj-thing. As the hour 
approaches the excitement increases. The clouds lighten up, and the grounds become 
gradually covered with a dense mass of good-humored people, who crowd up towards the 
platforms until they threaten to entirely close the passage between the two buildings, neces- 
sitating the utmost efforts of the police to keep them back, taking the pushing and shoving, 
however, with that remarkable good nature for which the American citizen is so noted. 
As far as the eye can reach, the people are seen pouring forward. A perfect sea of heads 
meets the view on every side. Every one looks pleased, and expectation rises to the 
highest pitch. 

From below, the buzz and hum of the crowd floats up to the ear; the balmy air 
and freshness of the spring morning delights the senses, and one feels perfectly happy. 
The seats on the opposite side are gradually filled ; distinguished visitors arrive one after 
the other, and are received with acclamations. There goes His Excellency Dom Pedro, 
of Brazil, that man who is every inch a true emperor, with the Empress — the only crowned 
heads who grace our opening. We remove our hats in compliment to these our royal 
guests. There comes the British Conmiission in full uniform, and following are the repre- 
sentatives from other countries, all decked in their most gorgeous official dresses, and 
decorated with their medals and honors; the Japanese Embas.sy, the French, the Austrian, 
the Swedish, the German, and all the nations of the earth, to join with us in this our 
triumphal day. The Emperor and ICmpress take seats on the central platform reserved for 
the President of the United States and distinguished visitors. The hour of opening has 
arrived, and the grand orchestra .strikes up the national airs of all nations. The moment 
we have dreamed of for the past three years of labor and toil has come, and our work is 
consummated. One feels in his heart, O happy day! that I have lived to see it and had 
it come in my time ! Music is heard in the distance ; it draws nearer. It is the Presi- 
dent, who comes escorted by Governor Hartranft, of Penn.sylvania, with troops. They 
enter by the rear of Memorial Hall, and passing through to the front, the escort forms 
in two lines down the passage between the buildings, while the President joins the Emperor 
and Empress. Acclamations rend the air, and at this moment the clouds break away, and 
a burst of sunshine illuminates the animated scene — a happy omen for the success of the 
great undertaking. 

The orchestra begins Wagner's Centennial Inauguration March, of which so much was 
expected, another gift from our noble women. To one who is an enthusiastic admirer of 
Wagner, it must be confessed that it is somewhat disappointing. Still, it is Wagner. None 
can dispute that. The grand clashes, the sounds from the brass instruments, the volumes 
of tone swelling up and up until they almost overtop the heavens them.selves. Then all 
is hushed, and Bishop Simpson asks God's blessing on our work, gives thanks for all our 
past successes, and beseeches his kind guidance in the future. Whittier's hymn follows, 
with the grand chorus, the orchestra and the organ. The place, the day, the tumultuous 
feelings within one combine to produce an effect never to be forgotten, as a thousand voices 
swell up on the bright morning air — . . 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1876. 



Our fathers' God ! from out whose hand 
The centuries fall like grains of sand, 
We meet to-day, united, free, 
And loyal to our land and Thee, 
To thank Thee for the era done. 
And trust Thee for the opening one. 

Here, where of old, by Thy design. 
The fathers spake that word of Thine, 
Whose echo is the glad refrain 
Of rended bolt and falling chain, 
To grace our festal time, from all 
The zones of earth our guests we call. 

Be with us while the new world greets 
The old world thronging all its streets. 
Unveiling all the triumphs won 
By art or toil beneath the sun; 
And unto common good ordain 
Thiv rivalahip of hand and brain. 



Thou, who hast here in concord furled 
The war-flags of a gathered world. 
Beneath our Western skies fulfill 
The Orient's mission of good will. 
And, freighted with love's Golden Fleece, 
Send back the Argonauts of peace. 

For art and labor met in truce. 
For beauty made the bride of use 
We thank Thee, while, withal, we crave 
The austere virtues strong to save. 
The honor proof to place or gold, 
The manhood never bought nor sold ! 

O ! make Thou us, through centuries long. 
In peace secure, in justice strong; 
Around our gift of freedom draw 
The safeguards of Thy righteous law ; 
And, cast in some diviner mould. 
Let the new cycle shame the old! 



The buildings are then presented by the Centennial Board of Finance, througli its 
President, Mr. John Welsh, to tlie Centennial Coniniission, and the presentation is followed 
by Sidney Lanier's Cantata — 



From this hundred-terraced height 
Sight more large with nobler light 
Ranges down yon towering years : 
Humbler smiles and lordlier tears 

Shine and fall, shine and fall, 
While old voices rise and call 
Yonder where the to-and-fri) 
Weltering of my Long-Ago 
Moves about the moveless base 
Far below my resting-jilace. 

Mayflower, Mayflower, slowly hither flying. 
Trembling Westward o'er yon balking sea. 
Hearts within Farewell dear Eng''2>ul sighing. 
Winds without But dear in vain replying, 
(jray-lipp'd waves about thee shouted, crying 
Ko I II shall not be! 

Jamestown, out of thee — ' 

Plymouth, thee — thee, Albany — 
Whiter cries. Ye freeze . away! 
Fever cries. Ye burn: away! 
Hunger cries, Ye stai~,'e : away! 
Vengeance cries. Your sf raves shall stay! 

Then old Shapes and Masks of Things, 
F"ramed like Faiths or clothed like Kings — 
Ghosts of Goods once fleshed and fair. 



Grown foul Bads in alien air — 
War, and his most noivy lords, 
Tongued with lithe and poisoned swords — 

Error, Terror, Rage, and Crnne, 
All in a windy night of time 
Cried to nie from land and sea, 
No ! Thou shalt not be ! 

Hark ! 
Huguenots whisiiering rtvj in the dark! 
Puritans answering yea in the dark ! 
Yea, like an arrow shot true to his mark, 
Darts through the tyrannous heart of Denial. 
Patience and Labor and solemn-soiiled Trial, 

Foiled, still beginning. 

Soiled, but not sinning, 
Toil through the stertorous death of the Night, 
Toil, when wild brother-wars new-dark the Light. 
Toil, and forgive, and kiss o'er, and replight. 

Now Praise to God's oft-granted grace. 

Now Praise to Man's undaunted face. 

Despite the land, despite the sea, 

I was: I am: and I shall be — 
How long, Good ."Vngel, O how lung ? 
Sing me from Heaven a man's own song! 



HISTORY OF THE 




INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



' Long as thine Art shall love true love, 
Long as thy Science truth shall know 

Long as tliine Eagle harms no Dove, 
Long as thy Law by law shall grow, 

Long as thy God is God above. 
Thy brother every man below. 



So long, dear Land of all my love. 

Thy name shall shine, thy fame shall glow !" 

O Music, from this height of time my Word unfold : 
In thy large signals all men's hearts Man's Heart behold ! 
Mid-heaven unroll thy chords as friendly flags unfurled, 
And wave the world's best lover's welcome to the world ! 



The basso solo is sung by Myron W. Whitney, of Boston, whose powerful and superb 
voice floats out clearly and distinctly over the space, even to the most distant parts of the 
platforms, and such bravos are raised as to require a repetition to render satisfaction. After 
this the Centennial Commission by its President, General Joseph R. Hawley, presents the 
Exhibition to the President of the United States, who replies in a brief address, and declares 
it open to the world. The flag unfurled, and the sublime Hallelujah Chorus bursts forth 
with orchestra and organ, and the simultaneous salute of one hundred guns and ringing 
of the chimes. 

A procession is formed, and the President of the United States, conducted by the 
Director-General of the Exhibition, and followed by the guests of the day, passes into and 
through the Main Building. The various foreign commissioners, having gone in advance, 
join the procession at the sections of their respective countries, and the whole body passes 
on to the Machinery Hall, through the military escort which forms in two lines between 
the buildings, to the great engine which the President and the Emperor of Brazil, assisted 
by Mr. George H. Corliss, set in motion, starting all the machinery connected with it, and 
completing the ceremonies. The restless, happy crowds separate and wander over the 
buildings and grounds; the restaurants are filled to overflowing and taxed far beyond their 
capacity, the number of visitors exceeding all calculations, and the day closes with a sudden 
shower of rain, dispersing all to their homes. So ended the first day. 

For six months thus the Exhibition continued open — a time long to be remembered 
by those who passed through it — those pleasant days of May and June, when one strolled 
through the aisles of the Main Building and listened to the strains from Gilmore's band, 
or heard the tones from the grand organ swelling up and d)-ing awa\' in the distance. No 
matter where one went, good music delighted the ear at all times, greatly enhancing the 
enjoyment of the visitor. The ever-varying crowds, sometimes more and sometimes less, 
all classes, so interesting as studies, all happy and enjoying themselves; or, when passing 
into Machinery Hall and standing by the famous Krupp guns, one saw the surprise and 
astonishment in the faces of the people at these tremendous messengers of death, or 
observed the curiosity and interest displayed by those around the weaving-machines; or, 
if present among the number who crowded about the great Corliss engine after the mid-day 
rest, one noticed the desire manifested to see it started to work by the movement of a 
hand, so quietly and steadih- — so much power, all so completely under the control of one 
human being. One could not but feel the immense pleasure and benefit given to the 
masses of our people by this method of celebrating our great Centennial, and acknowledge 
the wisdom of those who so strongly defended and labored for it. 

Then the hot days of July, with the grand torchlight procession on the night of the 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



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HISTORY OF THE 



3d, and the military parade and special celebration in Independence Square on the 4t]i ; 
and when the latter days of August came, and the throng of visitors began to swell and 
steadily incre.ise, insuring the financial success of the undertaking, fresh interest was aroused, 
culminating in that red-letter Thursday in September, the great Pennsylvania Day, with its 
two hundred and sixt)-se\-en thousand \ isitors, a result far be}'ond what had been done at 
any previous Exhibition. 

The flowers and plants in the Horticultural grounds grew anti flourished, \\'axing strong 
and beautiful, fully equaling those exquisite disphus made in the roj'al pleasure-grounds 
of Europe, until the frosts of October cut them down and ga\e the first intimation that 
there was to be an end to all this fairy-like spectacle. 

Let us now select a fine day and observe the Exhibition more in detail, passing from 
building to building, aiul noting the particular characteristics of each. To enable the reader 
to follow us more intelligently, we give an engraving on page c.wiii showing a general plan of 
the grounds, on which all the principal features are marked. We will enter from Belmont 
A\cnuc. On the right and left are two similar buildings, used as offices for the Centen- 
nial Commission and the Centennial Board of Finance. They are of one .story, constructed 
of frame and plaster, entirely surrounded b}' porticos, having arched openings filled in with 
sawed scroll-work. Open courts are arranged in the centre of each building, planted out 
with flowers and trailing vines, and one of our engravings siiows the lovely efiect produced 
by them. The buildings are ver\- pretty, and remind one of Vienna. 

Within the grounds we enter a large open sjiace about fi\e huntlred feet square, 
flanked on the east by the Main Building, and on the west by Machineiy Hall, laid out 
geometrically with walks, and having in the centre the great Bartholdi ca.st-iron fountain, 
consisting of female figures standing on dolphins, and supporting a large basin, with gas- 
lamps grouped in among the water-jets, and intended to produce a brilliant and novel 
effect, which does not appear to be completely realized. A few short months before the 
opening, no one would have supposed that this then barren space could have been in so 
little time so thoroughly transformed. We move towards the Main Building as the primary 
object of attraction, and we notice that its outlines are characterized by extreme simplicity. 
In the construction of this building the necessities of the ca.se have required the omission 
of everything which would entail e.xtra expense over what w'as strictl)- essential to satisfy 
the demands of the Exhibition. The problem given to the engineers and architects was to 
cover a rectangular piece of ground of a certain area with a building, constructed of certain 
materials, for the lowest possible cost, and the requirements have been strictly carried out. 
There are no projections, no recesses — all such accessories to architectural effect being 
rigidly excluded on the score of economy, and every foot covered by the building has 
been made fully available for the purposes of the Exhibition. The roofs are made no 
higher than practical use requires, and of the simplest and cheapest forms of trusses ; high 
arched roofs, so effective architecturally, being of course prohibited. It is believed that 
the general efiect of the building is quite satisfactory, taking all of these restrictions into 
account. Nothing like monumental grandeur or solidity was feasible. The amounts of 
material used had to be kept strictly to the requirements for proper strength and no more. 



INTERNATfONAL EXHIB ITION, 1S76. 



The monotony has been very much broken by the manner adopted of working up the facades 
with central features extending to a considerable height, having arcades upon the ground- 
floor and large arched openings above, towers being placed on the corners, connected with 



y^ 




Art-Gatlfry Annex. S/;vnsh Court. 



the central part by low-roofed wings. The arrangement of the roofs in varying heights 
for different spans, and the raising of the central part of the building and introduction of 
four high towers at the corners of this central portion as a crowning feature to the whole 



HISl ORY OF THE 



building, have aided very con.sidcrabl)- in the production of a pleasing and satisfactory 
structure. 

The building is located in the original position selected as its site, with its greatest 
dimension parallel to Elm Avenue, and distant one hundred and seventy feet from it, and 
the ground plan comprises a rectangle of eighteen hundred and eighty feet in length by 
four hundred and sixty-four feet in width, measured to centres of exterior columns. In 
general arrangement it consists of a central longitudinal nave of one hundred and twenty 
feet span, with two side avenues of one hundred feet each, separated from the central 
nave by intermediate spans of forty-eight feet, and having, on the exterior side of each, 
one span of twenty-four feet; the total width of four hundred and sixty-four feet being 
thus made up of two spans of twenty-four feet, two of one hundred feet, two of forty-eight 
feet, and one of one hundred and twenty feet. 

In order to break the great length of the roof-lines, a cross transept of one hundred and 
twenty feet span intersects all of the longitudinal avenues at a distance of nine hundred 
and seventy-six feet from the east end of the building, having on each side of it cross 
avenues of one hundred feet span, separated from it by spaces of forty-eight feet. The 
governing dimension or unit of span of the building is twenty-four feet, nearly all measure- 
ments conforming to this unit, the exceptions being in the case of the spans of one hundred 
feet, the spacing of some of the trusses in the central portion of the building, and the 
arrangement of columns at the main entrances. 

The spans of one hundred and twenty feet in nave and transept have a height to square 
at top of columns of forty-five feet, and to ridge of roof of seventy feet, and at their inter- 
section at centre of building they produce a space of one hundred and twenty feet square, 
which is raised to a height on square of seventy-two feet, or to ridge of ninety-eight feet 
six inches, and is spanned by diagonal trusses, the roofs of nave and transept on each side 
of this square for a distance out of thirty-two feet being raised to the .same height. 

The spans of forty-eight feet on each side of nave have a height to square of twent}'- 
seven feet six inches, and the intersections that would be made by these spans, if extended, 
with the forty-eight feet spaces on each side of the transept, produce four interior courts 
of forty-eight feet square at the four corners of the cenb^al diagonal roof, on which are 
constructed square towers rising to a height of one hundred and twenty feet. This forms 
the central feature before mentioned, adding so much to the effect as a whole. 

The spans of one hundred feet have a height to square of roof of forty-five feet, and at 
their intersections with eaclr other and also with the spans of one hundred and twenty feet, 
they produce eight open spaces, four of them one hundred feet square, and four one hundred 
feet by one hundred and twenty feet, entirely free from columns. The small spans of twenty- 
four feet have a height to square of twenty-two and one-half feet. The main central avenue 
or nave has an extreme length of eighteen hundred and thirty-two feet, exclusive of the 
portions at the ends occupied by entrances, and is the longest avenue of that width ever 
introduced into an exhibition building to this time. 

There are four main entrances in the centres of the four facades, the east entrance forming 
the principal approach for carriages, while the south entrance is the principal approach for 



INTE R NA r I N AL EXHIBIT! 0\\ iSj6. 



those arriving by street-cars. The north and west entrances are within the grounds, the 
former connecting directly with the Art Gallery, and the latter with Machinery Hall. 

Upper floors devoted to offices and galleries of observation have been constructed at the 
main entrances and also in the towers ; but with the exception of some area assigned in 
the west gallery to the American Society of Civil Engineers, and in the eastern one to tliL 
Massachusetts Educational Department, the entire Exhibition space is upon the ground floor. 
The four central towers have stairways, and one of them an elevator, all extending to the 
top, and bridges over the roofs of the building connect the towers together, forming a favorite 
resort for visitors to enjoy the cool breezes and the fine view of the grounds. 

The areas covered by the flooring are as follows : — 

Ground floor, 872,320 square feet = 20.02 acres. 

Upper floors in projections 37,344 " = 0.85 

Upper floors in towers 26,344 " = 0.60 

Total 936,008 " = 21.47 

The foundations of the building consist of piers of solid rubble masonry, well laid, each 
pier under a column, being finished off with a granite block one foot thick, neatly dressed 
on upper and lower faces. Between the piers on the exterior lines of the building, founda- 
tion-walls are laid, finished off with a base course of dressed stone, on which brick-work 
about six feet in height is ccjnstructed, laid in ornamental patterns of red and black, and 
pointed on both faces with colored mortar. The outer columns of the building extend down 
through this brick-work to the foundation niasonr\'. The four main entrances have piers 
and side jambs of ornamental pressed brick and tile, with string courses of stone and ornate 
galvanized iron capitals, there being stone sills between the piers. The wrought-iron columns 
of the building extend through these piers to the foundations. The entire frame-work, or 
skeleton of the building, including towers, is of wrought iron, there being wrought-iron 
vertical columns resting upon the foundation masonry, and connected and braced to each 
other by wrought-iron wind-trusses and beams ; wrought-iron roof-trusses with wrought-iron 
ridge connecting members, and all necessary lateral wrought-iron bracing and ties ; the whole 
structure properly joined together, and stiffened to resist the heaviest winds. 

The two outer rows of columns are connected to the foundation masonr\- by anchor- 
bolts extending nearly to the bottom of the masonry, and all other columns have cast-iron 
bases with lugs let into the cap-stones on piers. The roof-trusses are made entirely of 
wrought iron except the heel-blocks connecting with the columns, which are of cast-iron, 
and these trusses are computed for a load of thirty-five pounds per horizontal square foot 
of surface covered, exclusive of the weight of structure. The roofs of spans of one hundred 
and of one hundred and twenty feet are constiucted upon the French triangular system 
with straight rafters ; the spans of forty-eight feet are straight, double-intersection triangular 
girders, and those of twenty-four feet are sloping triangular trusses. The four main entrances 
have intermediate ornamental cast-iron columns, with brackets, lamps and wrought-iron gates, 
the openings being finished above with arches. These arches and the ornamental face-work 
above the briclc-work up to the foot of the second-storj' balustrade are constructed of galvan- 



HISTORY OF THE 



ized iron and zinc. At the corners and angles of the main entrances and towers, the building 
is finished with octagonal turrets, extending the full height from the ground-level to abo\e 
the roof, those on the towers being surmounted by flag-staffs. The bases of these towers 
are of cast iron, but the balance above is of galvanized iron. 

Above the brick-work and the galvanized iron-work, the walls of the building are com- 
posed of timber framing, with glazed sashes, an upper portion of these sashes swinging on 
centre pivots at the sides, and capable of being opened or shut at pleasure by means of 
cords operated from the floor. The method of laying the floor is difil-rcnt from that of 




A^r'uuUural Hall. Interior Vint}. 



any previous Exhibition building, the planking being nailed to sills firmly bedded in the 
earth, which is also filled in between them, leaving no air-spaces beneath, and vastly 
decreasing the risks from fire. The roofs are covered with tin, and Louvre ventilators and 
skylights with glazed sashes are placed in continuous lengths over the nave, side galleries 
and central aisles, and in shorter lengths over the middle portions of the building. The 
sashes swing horizontally, and are provided with opening and closing apparatus, affording 
ample ventilation. The exterior finish of the building is of wood. Ample entrance- and 
exit-doors are provided at the main entrances, at the corner towers, and in the sides of the 
building. Gas is supplied throughout, for policing purposes alone, however, as the Exhi- 
bition is not opened at night. There are seven thousand burners and over thirty-two thousand 
lineal feet of gas-pipe of the various sizes. Water is also supplied in ample quantity tlirough 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



about twelve thousand eight hundred lineal feet of pipe, and a large number of fire-plugs are 
distributed so as to be most efficient in case of fire. The drainage system is very complete, 
there being about eight hundred lineal fe^t of thirty-inch sewer, and over fourteen thousand 
feet of terra-cotta pipe, varying from six to eighteen inches in diameter. These large figures 
give an exceedingly good idea of the vast e.xtent of the building. 

The exterior of the building is painted in an agreeable tint of buff, relieved by darker 
shades, with bright colors in the chamfers, the rustic and foliated work at the entrances, the 
caps of columns, etc., being of a green bronze picked out with gold. In the interior, the 
wood-work of the roofs is kalsomined in two coats of a light pearl color, and decorated with 




Agriiulluial H.ill—tlie Mill. 



stenciling, the iron-work being painted in buff picked out with crimson, and the pendants in 
crimson, blue and gold. The interior side-work is painted in colors, the body-color of the 
columns and wood-work a light olive-green in several shades, and the decorations in crimson, 
blue and gold. The panel-work and flat sides of the columns are covered with decorated 
work. The ventilating sash with circular openings are ornamented with various emblems and 
figures in such a way as to produce the effect of stained or painted glass. All of the clear 
glass in the parts of the building exposed, to the sun has been tinted with an opaque wash, 
producing the effect of ground glass, and very much relieving the eyes. On entering, the 
effect of the coloring is quite pleasing, harmonizing well with the rich display of exhibits, and 
fully justifying the reasons which led to its adoption. 

Passing down the central aisle, we are lo.st in bewilderment. The construction of the 
building permits us to see all over It; the wealth of the world is before us, and our sight is 
only limited by the exhibits. Where shall we go first? What shall we do? These are the 
questions one hears on every side. On our left is Italy with her Roman and Florentine 



HISTOR Y OF THE 



mosaics, her cabinets and bronzes. Next comes Norway. Oh ! what beautiful silver jewelrj' ! 
wliat handsome furs ! Then Sweden, with her pottery, her rich wealth of iron manufacture, 
her full-size models of domestic peasant life. On our ris^ht is China, the curious carvings, the 
huge porcelain vases; and adjoining it, Japan. What grotesque bronzes! what lovel)- cabinets! 
As we pass on, one country after another comes before us, the exhibits of each more enticing 
than those just left, all demanding our fullest attention— the rich fabrics of India, the magnifi- 
cent silver- and gold-ware of Russia, and the porcelain of Great Britain. We move on, 
passing the Egyptian department, with its enclosure modeled after an old temple of the Nile 
Peeping in, we ask after the Sphinx and mummies, to the evident disfavor of the gentleman in 
fez whom we address, and then go on past the grand facjade of the Spanish section, extending 
almost to the roof We are arrested for a moment by an exquisite porcelain fountain in 
Doulton-ware. On one side of us we are dazzled by the glass-ware of Vienna, and on the 
other the lovely furniture of England recalls some happy tlays across the waters. Finally we 
arc under the great central roof; we sink on to one of the numerous scats and gaze around 
us. The Exhibition is a success ; the building is a success. Resembling somewhat in interior 
effect that of the great Exhibition of 1851, it would have shown to better advantage perhaps 
with a high arched roof over this great central aisle, but that was out of the question, and on 
the whole it is so well adapted to its purposes, so satisfactorj- in e\ery way, so utilitarian, so 
truly an engineer's building, and so perfectly an ornamented construction, that no one can fail 
to be pleased with it. Close by is the famous Elkington exhibit; across the way is the French 
Court with all its wealth ; on our right is Germany, and over there the United States — in the 
front rank the rich exhibits of our American silversmiths, adding largely to the elegance of 
the display. Trul}- this centre is a lovely spot. Thanks to those who arranged that these 
should all group here! a fitting nucleus to the greatest Exhibition the world has ever seen. 
We rest and dream. The soft notes from the great Roosevelt Organ work in harmony with 
our thoughts, and we forget that there is much yet to be done, that we are now only taking a 
general glance, that it is the buildings and not the exhibits with which we have to do. and we 
reluctantly wend our way back towards Machiner\- Hall, 

Machinery Hall is located five hundred and forty-two feet west of the Main Exhibition 
Building, with its north face on the same line. It covers an area of three hundred and sixty 
by fourteen hundred and two feet, ha\ing projections be\-ond these dimensions for doors and 
portals on the east, north and west sides, also an annex on the south of two hundred and eight 
by two hundred and ten feet, connected with the Main Hall by a passage-way ninety feet in 
width. It therefore presents on the north side, in connection with the Main Exhibition 
Building, upon one of the principal avenues within the grounds, the Avenue of the Republic, 
an entire frontage from east to west of three thousand eight huntlred and twenty-four feet. 

The boiler-houses are located as distinct buildings, on the south side of the Main Hall, 
east and west of the southern annex, those on the east side being the British boiler-house, or 
No. I, and the Corliss boiler-house, or No. 2 ; those on the west side, the machine-shop and 
boiler-house No. 3 in one building, and boiler-house No. 4. 

In designing Machinerj- Hall, its width was limited by the maximum distance that it was 
thought advisable to con\'ey steam from the \arious boiler-houses, and in arranging the cross 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



sections of the building a certain amount of low roof was desired, with stiffened tie-beams, for 
the purpose of hanging shafting, while the balance could be made higher, so as to improve 
the effect and afford facilities for light and ventilation. It was therefore arranged in five spans, 
the centre and two outer spans being sixty feet, with a height from floor to tic-beam in clear 
of twenty feet, and to ridge of thirty-three feet, and the two intermediate spans ninety feet, 
with a height to square of forty feet, and to ridge of nearly fifty-nine feet. These avenues 
extend the whole length of the building, and the exterior finish at the east and west ends is 
designed to harmonize with their cross section, low towers or belfries, having a height to apex 
of roof of eighty-one feet, being placed at the ends of the ninety-feet spans. The southern 




MiissM/iusi-lls BuUdiiii;. 



annex consists of three spans — a centre span of ninety feet, and two side spans of sixty feet — 
the heights and outlines corresponding with those of the same dimensions in the main part 
of the building. The centre span of ninety feet continues on across the main portion of the 
building, intersecting with the longitudinal avenues of ninety feet, and forming a transept, at 
the northern end of which the face of the building is finished with a tower and wings similar 
to those at the east and west ends. 

The building furnishes three principal entrances, those on the east, west and north. The 
projections at these entrances on the lower or main floor provide offices, retiring-rooms and 
restaurants, while on the upper floors, offices and galleries, the latter being favorite resorts for 
visitors from which to view the animated scene below. The governing dimension or unit of 
span in the direction of the length of the building is sixteen feet. 

The entire floor-area covered by the Machinery Hall and annex is five hundred and 
eighty-eight thousand four hundred and forty square feet, or twelve and eighty-two hundredths 




Enlniiicc lo Ike Art Galkry^Opciiiii^ Day. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



acres, and the galleries and office-floors in the upper stories increase this total to fourteen 
acres. The annex, which is designed especially for the exhibition of hydraulic machinery in 
motion, and forms one of the greatest features of the display, contains in its central portion 
an open tank, the top of which is level with the floor, covering an area of sixty feet by one 
hundred and fifty-six feet, and having a depth of ten feet. This tank is filled with water, and 
at the south end there is a waterfall of thirty-five feet in height and forty feet in width, sup- 
plied from the tank by pumps on exhibition. There is also a pit at the south end for trial of 
Turbine wheels. During the hours that the waterfall is in operation and the numerous pumps 
along the sides of the tank are raising water and pouring it back again in as many different 
streams, some large, some small, some from fire nozzles up to the ridge of the roof returning 
in spray, this annex forms one of the coolest resorts for a hot summer's day that can be found 
at the Exhibition, and one may sit and listen to the roar of the waters, watching with untiring 
pleasure the ever-varying scene before him. 

The foundations of the building are of good rubble masonry, and are covered with a base 
course of granite, returning at all door-openings through the entire thickness of the walls. On 
this the exterior walls are built of Trenton brown-stone laid in broken range work to a height 
of five feet above the floor, and pointed with dark mortar. All doors are provided with heavy 
stone stills, level with top of flooring, and extending through the whole thickness of walls. 
Foundation-piers are provided for all interior columns and finished off with granite capstones. 
The tank in the annex is built with stone side-walls, and lined inside with brick-work laid in 
cement, the bottom being covered with cement concrete. 

The frame-work of the building, unlike that of the Main Exhibition Building, is con- 
structed entirely in solid timber, excepting only certain members of the roof-trusses, more 
particularly the tension members, which are of wrought iron. All colunms, caps, sills, rafters, 
cornices, sashes, scroll-work, etc., are of white pine. The purlieus, framing of Louvre ventila- 
tors and roof-sheathing are of spruce. The flooring is of yellow pine, the main flooring being 
laid on sills bedded in the earth in the same way as in the Main Building. The outer masonry 
walls are covered on top by a timber sill, securely held to the masonry by anchor-bolts, and 
into it are mortised the main posts with intermediate posts. The system of forming the interior 
columns consists in having a solid square timber of ten by ten inches section in the centre, 
surrounded by four pieces of four by eight inches section on each face, the whole well bolted 
together and acting as one column. Where the low roof joins to the column, three of these 
side pieces stop, the fourth only, on the inside face next to the ninety feet spans, being con- 
tinued up to the top of the column. Stiffening trusses are framed in from column to column 
at the level of the low roof, and above these, up to the roof of the ninety feet span, interme- 
diate framing is introduced, the same as in the outer walls. This intermediate framing is in 
all cases filled in with glass sash, a lower part fixed and an upper part movable for ventilation, 
being hung on centre pivots at the sides, and movable by means of cords operated from the 
floor below. The lower roofs are framed of timber, and the upper ones of iron, with timber 
rafters on the French triangular system, all roofs having Louvre ventilators in continuous 
lengths as in the Main Building. The system of ventilation is exceedingly perfect, giving a 
pleasant temperature within the building during the hottest days of the season. Many of the 



HISTORY OF THE 




INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



lower sash on the exterior walls are made to open on hinges like French casement-windows. 
The roof-covering is of tin. 

Gas is supplied for policing purposes only, there being about five thousand lights and 
over sixteen thousand feet of pipe. The water-service system is very complete, there being 
over ten thousand five hundred feet of pipe, six hundred and twenty-four feet of which is a 
special ten-inch main running from the bottom of the lake north of Machinery Hall to supply 
the boilers of the fourteen hundred and two horse-power Corliss engine. There are thirty- 
four fire-plugs exterior to the building, and forty-eight in the interior. 

The building is painted on the exterior of a pearl tint, relieved by different shades, and by 
a dark maroon color on the chamfers. The interior is very plainly painted, as would become 
a building devoted to the purposes for which this is, the sides and columns of light shades of 
umber and white lead, and the roof kalsomined in two coats of light pearl color, the iron 
work, rods, struts, etc., being painted dark blue. The effect, although not by any means elabo- 
rate, is remarkably good, and has been much admired. 

The boiler-houses are all of the same character of construction as Machinery Hall, 
differing of course somewhat in the details, especially in the sub-structure, sunken areas being 
required for placing the boilers and for fuel; but they present the same exterior appearance. 
They are provided with facilities for unloading coal directly from the cars, and have interior 
platforms so that visitors can have ready access. The Corliss boiler-house is perhaps the most 
interesting to the general visitor. Arranged around three sides of the interior- the fourth side 
next to Machinery Hall being the entrance with visitors' platform — are twenty Corliss upright 
boilers of seventy horse-power each. An underground connection by an eighteen-inch pipe 
three hundred and twenty feet long, passing through a tunnel, carries the steam to the great 
engine which has been fully described under " Mechanics and Science." Two huge brick 
chimneys, quite ornamental in construction, connect with the flues from the boiler furnaces 
and provide the necessary draught. As one leans over the railing around the visitors' platform 
and looks down into the area below, it seems difficult to imagine that the quiet attendants who 
so leisurely pile the coal into the furnaces and try the various gauge-cocks, are the active 
agents in whose control is the generation of that mighty power, steam, which drives all of the 
shafting and gives motion to the numerous machines executing such varied and complicated 
work. And yet so it is. Neglect on their part and all would stop ; the great wheels would 
remain silent, the busy hum would cease, and the curious machinery would lose its life. 
Strolling back into the Machinery Hall, we are startled to find that what was in our thoughts 
has really occurred: the great Corliss engine has stopped ; all activity has come to an end. It 
cannot be that anything is wrong. No ! a moment's reflection assures us that it is only the 
hour of noon. Machines, like men, require repose. Work them continuously and they 
become technically "tired," and will soon fail if not properly cared for. The mid-day rest is 
essential also to the attendants and must be provided for. The vast crowds seek the open air, 
some to the restaurants, and others to employ their time elsewhere until the hour is over. We 
are drawn to the northern part of the building by the sound of singing, which we discover to 
proceed from a party of colored attendants belonging to the great tobacco factory of Rich- 
mond, Virginia, who, during the silence of the machinery, entertain the visitors with plantation 



HISTORY OF THE 



melodies, rendered in that peculiar and attractive manner, as can only be done by natives to 
the soil. After enjoying this for a time, we move on, passing out at a door on the north side, 
and wander along the banks of the charming lake which has been so judiciously placed and 
gives such life to the landscape. The beautiful fountain in the centre sparkles and dances in 
the sun, keeping time to the music of the chimes, as the sounds of "Angels ever bright and 
fair," "Home, sweet Home," etc., float out from the eastern tower and gladden the ear. We 
pass a .statue of Elias Howe, the great sewing-machine inventor, and move on, stopping a 
moment in Fountain Avenue to study Colonel Lienard's relief-plan of the city of Paris. When 
we saw it a few weeks ago it looked very neat and pretty, the ground having been graded to 
represent the undulations of the city, and some of the principal buildings sufficiently correct 







Tl:e Swedish School-house. 



in outline to be recognized, although there was a striking similarity in the various blocks of 
houses in the different streets, which does not appear in Paris itself; and we observed what we 
never knew before, that all the bridges over the Seine were of exactly the same pattern. 
Neglect to cover the ground with asphalt or cement before laying out the city, however, has 
resulted in allowing the weeds to grow up, which although at first resembling trees in the 
streets, have now grown so far beyond the proper proportions for such purpose as to produce 
a very curious effect, a city gone to seed — Paris after a reign of the Communists— and to 
require the speedy advent of a care-taker to restore the model to its original condition. 

A few steps more and we reach the Government Building. This was constructed and 
paid for from a fund specially provided by the Government to furnish a place for the display 
of exhibits from the several Executive departments of the United States. It was desired by 
the Government "that from the Executive departments in which there might be specimens 
suitable for the purpose intended, there should appear such articles and materials as would, 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



when presented in a collective exhibition, illustrate the functions and administrative faculties 
of the Government in time of peace, and its resources as a war power, and thereby serve 
to demonstrate the nature of our institutions and their adaptation to the wants of the 
people." For the purpose of securing this, the President appointed a Board composed of 
a representative from each of the Executive Departments of the Government, except the 
Department of State and the Attorney-General's Department, but including the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the Smithsonian Institution ; and this Board was charged with the 
duty of perfecting the collective exhibit which we see before us. All took great interest 
in the matter, and their efforts have resulted in a display alike creditable to the country 
and attractive to the visitor. The building while of simple construction is quite effective 
in appearance and very creditable to its architect. It is designed in plan in the form of 
a Latin cross, covering an area of one hundred and two thousand eight hundred and forty 
square feet, and is constructed of wood and plaster, with a roof similar to that on Machinery' 
Hall, and a low octagonal tower at the intersection of the nave and transept. Its extreme 
length is four hundred and eighty feet, and width three hundred and forty feet. The tran- 
sept is one hundred feet wide, divided into a centre span of sixty feet, and two side spans 
of twenty feet each. The nave is one hundred and eighty feet wide, and consists of seven 
spans, one of sixty feet in the centre, and three of twenty feet on each side. The short 
arm of the building opposite to the nave has a width of two hundred and twenty feet, 
being increased over that of the nave by two spans of twenty feet each. The roofs are 
supported by columns twenty feet apart, giving an entirely unobstructed open area through 
the whole building. The total floor-surface available for exhibition purposes is eighty-five 
thousand eight hundred square feet, divided up for the several departments as follows : — 

Post-Office Department 6,OOOs quare feet. 

Agricultural Department 6,000 " 

Interior Department 20,600 " 

Smithsonian Institute and Food Fishes 26,600 " 

Navy Department 10,400 " 

War Department, .... 11,200 " 

Treasury Department, 5, 000 " 

Total 85,800 

On entering the building there is found on one side the Post-Office Department, where 
are specimens of all the paraphernalia and apparatus for carrying and distributing the mails, 
maps showing the different mail-routes, all the different kinds of stamps, envelopes, and 
everything pertaining to mail service. Exterior to the building is one of the cars in com- 
plete working order, as built for the fast mail now in operation on our main trunk railroad 
lines, and performing such rapid and effective duty. 

On the other side, in the Agricultural Department, are collected samples of all the 
varieties of grain grown in the United States, stuffed specimens of domestic fowls, sample- 
bottles of the different native wines, etc. ; and on the walls are charts showing the areas 
in which are grown the various products of the soil— cotton, corn, wheat, etc. — with the 



HISTORY OF THE 



comparative amounts in each locality, represented by intensity of color, — giving so much 
instruction at a glance. 

As we advance, we come to the Department of the Interior, where a large space is 




The Chinese Court— Main lluihlini;. 



occupied with models for the Patent Office, also various appliances for educational pur- 
poses, exhibits giving information in reference to the Indian Territory and the Indians, 
their education, occupations, etc. ; and finally in the far corner we come to that collection 
so absorbing to the antiquarian, which shows to the visitor the few evidences that have 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



been discovered in reference to the most remarkable and ancient inhabitants known to 
have existed on this continent — the dwellers of the cave-cities. 

Across the aisle from the Interior Department is the exhibit of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and the splendid collection of food fishes, so interesting and instructive. 

In the front of the building, on one side, is the Navy Department, where are seen 
models of various vessels — the " Constitution," hospital-ships, school-ships, etc. — life-size 
figures of soldiers and sailors in old-time costumes, specimens of the various signals used 
at sea, the different weapons of marine warfare, and numerous other objects of naval 
interest. 

In the War Department the complete machinery for the manufacture of arms, car- 
tridges, etc., is shown, and a very interesting collection of fire-arms from early days to the 
present time. 

In the Engineering Department are to be found many models of fortifications and other 
works, including a very fine one of General Newton's Hell Gate improvements ; also maps 
and statistics of the Coast Survey. 

In the Treasury Department the exhibit of tlie Light-House Board is particularly notice- 
able; and on these hot summer days it is a great relief to look across the aisle at the 
immense refrigerators, through the glass sides of which may be seen fruit, fish c-tc, frozen 
solid, and appearing so refreshingly cool. 

In passing from the building, let us pause at the Trois Freres Restaurant for refresh- 
ment. We obtain it, but are glad to get away. What is furnished is good, but the prices 
are exorbitant, and the waiters insolent. The building itself especially the rear view on 
the lake, is a disgrace to the Exhibition, a blot on the landscape, and should never ha\'e 
been allowed an existence. 

Around the Government Building are grouped several other small buildings connected 
with the Government exhibit, the most important being the Post Hospital of the Medical 
Department, one wing of which is fitted up with twenty-four beds, bedding and other fur- 
niture as for actual service. In the remainder of this building, and in sheds and tents 
adjoining, are exhibited a complete series of the medical supplies used in the army, com- 
prising medicines, medical and surgical instruments, hospital stores, clothing and furniture, 
meteorological instruments, etc., all the various blank forms and record-books of the Medical 
Department, a set of the publications of the Surgeon-General's office, selected medical, sur- 
gical, anatomical, and microscopical specimens, models of barrack hospitals, railroad-cars 
for transportation of sick and wounded, and hospital steamships and steamboats. There is 
also a selection of full-sized ambulances and medicine wagons. 

The Signal Service make an interesting exhibit, to the west of the Government Building, 
showing a full telegraphic train of wagons with outfit complete, telegraphic tower, inter- 
national and cautionary signal outfits, and a full assortment of barometers, thermometers, 
anemometers, etc., etc. 

From here we stroll up Fountain Avenue and on towards Horticultural Hall, past 
lovely parterres of flowers, exquisite sunken beds in masses of color, clusters of shrubberv 
and roses, and groups of sub-tropical plants — the whole Lansdowne plateau between Bel- 



HISTOR Y OF THE 



mont Avenue and the Hall being laid out in a way to equal even European gardens in 
its beauty and effect. As we approach the Hall we see to the north a sort of tent, or 
frame-work covered with canvas, around which a crowd is gathered, and, like all Americans, 
not being able to resist the desire to satisfy our curiosity, we are drawn towards it. Reaching 
the doorway we involuntarily give an exclamation of delight at the beautiful sight which 
bursts upon our view. The interior is arranged with winding walks, and mounds planted 
out with an assortment of English Rhododendrons, covered with lovely flowers, large in 
size, and varying in color from the deepest purple, crimson, pink, and cherr}-, to pure white, — 




The Jiuiiiaii Educalional Deparlmciit — Mnin Building. 



a perfect feast to the eye, and something that one can never forget. These plants were 
brought from England early in the Spring, with great care, and have surpassed all expec- 
tation in the magnificence of their bloom, enabling those who have not already seen them 
abroad to form some idea of the effect that acres of such plants produce at the great 
English country seats. With proper care, shading by groups of trees, and protecting from 
our hot suns and severe winters, these plants will do equally well in this country, contrarj' 
to the usually received ideas on this subject, as has been amply proved by some of our 
best horticulturists and amateurs. Too often they are badly treated, and result only in 
disappointment. The American Rhododendron is the name b)- which it is known abroad. 
These handsome varieties have a common stock in the wild rhododendron of our Alle- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



ghenies, and if treated as that which grows* in the clearings on the borders of the forests, 
they will amply repay cultivation. 

Horticultural Hall is well located on a terrace, and is an extremely ornate and com- 
modious building, constructed in the Moorish style from appropriations made by the city 
of Philadelphia, to whose munificence is due this permanent attraction to the Park. The 
building is three hundred and eighty-three feet long, one hundred and ninety-three feet 
wide, and seventy-two feet high to the top of the lantern. The central portion is a con- 
servatory of two hundred and thirty by eighty feet in area, and fifty-five feet in height, 
surmounted by a lantern one hundred and seventy feet long, twenty feet wide, and fourteen 
feet high. A gallery five feet wide extends entirely around the interior of this conserva- 
tory at a height of twenty feet from the floor. The forcing-houses, four in number, are 
on the north and south sides of this principal room, each covering a space of one hundred 
by thirty feet, and having an entrance vestibule to the conservatory, thirty feet square, 
dividing the two houses on each side. Similar vestibules exist at the centres of the east 
and west ends of the building, on either side of which are restaurants, reception-rooms, etc- 
Ornamental stairways from the vestibules lead to the internal galleries of the conservatory 
and also to four external galleries over the forcing-houses, each one hundred by ten feet. 
The latter connect with large platforms over the roofs of the vestibules and other ground- 
floor rooms, which give a superficial area for promenade purposes of eighteen hundred 
square yards. Flights of blue marble steps lead to the terrace around the building and 
to the entrances, open kiosques twenty feet in diameter being placed at the east and west 
ends. The basement is of fire-proof construction, and here are located the kitchens, store- 
rooms, heating apparatus, coal-houses, ash-pits, etc. The area for exhibition purposes 
amounts to one hundred and twenty-two thousand five hundred square feet. The frame- 
work of the building is of iron, the conservatory walls up to the gallery floor being of 
ornamental brick arches, an excellent specimen of work of this kind, supported on iron 
columns ; and the forcing-houses are covered by curved roofs of iron and glass. The 
fiUing-in and finishing material of the building, where glass is not used, is principally of 
wood, which is very much to be regretted, as the damp atmosphere necessarily required 
in a conservatory will cause it to decay very rapidly, and soon demand its replacement 
with a more permanent material. The collection of plants within the conservatory is quite 
as good as could be expected, considering the extremely short time at command in which 
to make it, and the great difficulty of obtaining such large and capable conservatory plants 
as would here be required to produce an effect. Miss Foley's beautiful fountain in the 
centre adds very much to the tout ensemble. The impression produced by the exterior of 
the building as a whole is quite satisfactory, and the design of the ornamentation and 
coloring very pleasing. The grounds contiguous to the Horticultural Building and com- 
prised within the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Horticulture, comprise over forty acres, 
and the manner in which they have been laid out does the Chief and his committee great 
credit. 

Just south of the Horticultural Hall is an exhibit by a Cuban, of Cacti and kindred 
plants, very nicely arranged, presenting many quite curious varieties, and giving to the 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



visitor an exctiUent idea of the landscape effect of these plants in their native climes. We 
glance over at the Philadelphia City Building, and then wend our way down the path along 
the edge of the Lansdowne Ravine, passing a small building belonging to the Bible Society, 
then quite a picturesque restaurant erected by the Milk Dairy Association, where pure milk 
and, without exception, the best ice cream at the Exhibition may be obtained, and soon 
reach Agricultural Avenue. In front of us is the building of the Brazilian Empire, and 
beyond, that of the German Government. Between the latter and Belmont Avenue is a 
little Moorish villa, and at the door stands an attendant, a Moor from Tangier, possessing 
fine features, thoroughly oriental in style, and dressed in turban and flowing yellow costume. 
Entering, we find the little building arranged and furnished throughout with hangings, 
divans, carpets, and furniture, all genuine and in complete keeping with the house a veri- 
table Moorish villa on a small scale. 

Retracing our way, we see the building of the Centennial Medical Department, a most 
useful and essential agency, where are treated all cases among the many visitors requiring 
prompt attention. Of all the beautiful features in these unrivaled Exhibition grounds, the 
Lansdowne Ravine carries off the palm. Its shady walks, winding in and out between the 
magnificent forest trees and among the undergrowth ; the little babbling brook, as it leaps 
from stone to stone on its way towards the river, and its secluded and romantic aspect, all 
unite in inviting the visitor away from the crowds about him, to a contemplative stroll. 
From the pretty music pavilion on the other side of the ravine float the sweet strains of 
the Government Marine Band as it performs its afternoon programme. As we saunter down 
the walks into the deepest and darkest part of the ravine, we suddenly come upon a hunter's 
camp, perfect in all its details, and we are transported for a moment far away from the 
busy scenes around us to the distant western country, to the aboriginal forests. Here is a 
phase of American life that must be new and interesting not only to most of our foreign 
friends, but also to many of our own people from the eastern States, where civilization is 
rapidly crowding out all traces of colonial life. 

The ravine is crossed by two bridges — one near its upper end, consisting ol two spans 
of a braced arch carriage-bridge, erected as an exhibit by the King Bridge Company of 
Cleveland, Ohio, and used as a means of communication on foot over the ravine ; and the 
other a more pretentious structure, across the lower part, on the boundary-line of the Exhi- 
bition grounds, built by the Centennial Board of Finance, partly as a footway for visitors 
to the Exhibition, and partly as a carriage -bridge for park purposes outside of the grounds, 
connecting the two portions of tlie Lansdowne Ravine which have been separated by the 
arrangement of the Exhibition area. The latter bridge consists of twelve spans, of which 
the three centre spans are eighty feet, the two intermediate ones sixty feet, and the seven 
end spans twenty feet each. The total length of superstructure, including spaces over piers 
and abutments, amounts to five hundred and fifteen feet, and there are approach walls at 
the north and south ends of forty-five and one hundred and twenty-five feet respectively, 
making an extreme length of hand-railing on bridge and approaches of six hundred and 
eighty-five feet. The width of roadway is sixty feet, and thei-e are two outside footways 
of ten feet each, making a total width of bridge of eighty feet. The boundary-fence of 



cxl 



HISTORY OF THE 



the grounds extends over the bridge, including witiiin its jurisdiction one footwalk and 
twenty feet of the roadway for Exhibition use. The distance from centre to centre of con- 
secutive trusses in the same span is fifteen feet, and the projection of footwalks beyond the 
trusses seven and a half feet. The spans of sixty and eighty feet consist of single inter- 




Belmoni Avenue. 



section, deck, Pratt trusses, with timber upper chords and posts, and wrought-iron lower 
chords and other tension members, vertical diagonal bracing being introduced between each 
of the posts in the trusses, and upper lateral bracing between the upper chords of the two 
outer trusses only, and continued to the abutments at the ends. Masonry foundations are 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. cxli 

used throughout, timber trestles being erected on the piers. These are neatly framed with 
combination-posts, the pieces firmly bolted and mortised together, forming a stiff, rigid system, 
and vertical diagonal bracing is placed between each of the posts. Wind-ties connect the 
lower chords of the truss-spans with the trestles, those on the outer ends of the sixty-feet 
spans being firmly bolted to the masonry. The foundations are carefully laid with the best 
quality of stone of good size and shape, and the masonry above ground is of rock range 
work, pointed with dark mortar, the coping and cap-stones being of light sand-stone, 
hammer-dressed, with sloping top and draft on the faces. The bearings at top and bottom 
of posts and on trestles, and the finish to hand-rail over abutments, are of cast iron. The 
lumber used in the structure is nearly all of white pine, that in the trestles,, columns, truss- 
posts, upper chords, and lateral struts being dressed. The flooring on roadway consists of two 
thicknesses of two-inch plank, the lower layer being of white pine laid diagonally, and the 
upper of white oak laid at right angles to the line of travel. The foot-walks are also covered 
with two thicknesses of flooring, the lower layer being two-inch white pine, and the upper, one 
and a quarter inch yellow pine, tongued and grooved and laid longitudinally to the structure. 
The curbs are of white oak. The bridge has been very neatly painted in shades of buff, 
relieved with Indian red in the chamfers and on the ornamental parts, and presents quite a hand- 
some appearance. The height of the floor above the ground at the centre of the structure is 
sixty-eight feet, and a very fine view up the Schuylkill River may be obtained from this point. 

Returning along the avenue on the south side of the ravine, we first pass, with averted 
head, a building devoted to an exhibit exclusively of burial-caskets, very fine, no doubt, but 
hardly attractive to the pleasure-seeking crowd ; then a very creditable structure erected by 
the Singer Sewing-Machine Company for its special exhibit, where is kept a book in which 
some one of all those registering their names may have the good fortune, at the close of the 
Exhibition, to draw a machine. We pause at an octagonal building containing the Pennsyl- 
vania Educational exhibit, where is a most interesting collection of apparatus, furniture and 
all appliances as used in the various grades of public schools in the State ; also specimens 
from the schools of design, institutions for the blind, etc. 

We are warned, however, by the fog-horn stationed near the Government Building, that 
the hour of closing draws near, and we must take our departure for the day. Foremost 
among the many excellent arrangements for the convenience of visitors to the Exhibition may 
be mentioned the numerous cheap routes to and fro, connecting with the very heart of the 
city. There are five lines of street-cars from the front on Elm Avenue, two steam railways — 
the Pennsylvania, and the Philadelphia and Reading — and finally the little pleasure paddle- 
boats on the Schuylkill. Our choice for this evening is the latter, and we turn down into Lans- 
downe Ravine, past the Sudreau restaurant, which, as we glance up to it, looks so invitingly 
cool and pleasant under the canopy over its flat-deck roof, that we inwardly determine to test 
its cuisine on the morrow. Passing down the lovely glen, we emerge into the open park 
beyond the Exhibition boundary, and soon reach the river. We take the opportunity to pause 
for a moment to examine the two large Worthington steam-pumps in a building near by, 
belonging to the water service of the Exhibition, and so efficiently performing their duty, and 
then go on to the little steamboat-landing. As the long summer day has not }-et drawn to a 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. cxliii 



close, we decide to take the steamer up the river to the Falls, about two miles above, and so 
enjoy the round trip. Philadelphia may well be pardoned for boasting of her magnificent 
park. What city in the world has one so lovel}', possessing such great natural advantages, 
and with so beautiful a river winding througli it? We glide on, under the old bridge, past 
the wooded hills sloping down to the water's edge and making such exquisite reflections, and 
as we glance back we see the various buildings of the Exhibition in the distance, rising 
gradually out from among the masses of foliage, calling to mind Lewis's charming picture 
of " 1876," as it now hangs in the Art Gallery. A few days ago one lovely afternoon we 
came this same way, but for how different a purpose ! There are sad as well as joyful 
pictures in every phase of life. Then we landed at Laurel Hill, the " Home of the Dead," 
that we see on our right, with its white monuments peeping out from among the trees, and 
we joined a quiet Httle procession to the chapel. A young Englishman, a member of the 
British Commission to the Exhibition, was being carried to his last resting-place, far away 
from kindred and friends — no! not friends, for during his short stay of barely six months 
he endeared himself to a large circle, and made many warm friends, who mourned his 
untimely death, and sorrowfully paid him those last tributes of respect which are due from 
the living. There on a sunny slope, overlooking one of the loveliest scenes in this fair 
land, they laid him to await the Resurrection morn. 

Another day, and after entering the Main Building we pass directly through to the 
Art Gallery on the north side, erected on the most commanding portion of the great Lans- 
downe Plateau, one hundred and sixteen feet above the river, and intended as a permanent 
memorial of this the Centennial year. Bearing this point in view, it is but natural that 
one should expect the building to represent in itself, in its design and construction, the 
progress that the nation has made in Engineering and Architecture during the past one 
hundred years. In this respect it is a disappointment. There is a want of harmony in 
the proportions ; the dome should have been larger and higher, and a simpler and bolder 
treatment throughout, with less of commonplace ornamentation, would undoubtedly have 
produced a better result. 

Passing up the steps of the approach, we see on our right and left the great bronze 
horses, so mistakenly brought from Vienna several years since, after rejection from the 
Grand Opera House of that city, and here so singularly given a chief place in our World's 
Fair embellishments. Further on and near the building are two handsome bronzes — on 
the right. Wolf's "Dead Lioness," and on the left, Mead's group of "The Navy," for the 
Lincoln monument at Springfield, Illinois. The building covers an area of about an acre 
and a half, and is intended to be fire-proof Its general outline in plan is a rectangle of 
three hundred and sixty-five by two hundred feet, with a pa\'ilion of forty-five feet square 
at each corner, and a central projection ninety-five feet in width on the south, extending 
ten feet beyond the general face of the building. 

The style of architecture is the Renaissance. The central portion of the southern 
front, seventy-two feet in height, contains three colossal arched main-entrance doorways, 
and is connected on each side by groined arch arcades ninety feet long and forty-five feet 
high, witli the corner pavilions, which are si.xty feet in height. In the rear of these arcades 



cxliv 



HISTORY OF THE 



are open courts, ninety by thirty-six feet, paved, ornamented with fountains and plants, and 
intended for the display of statuary. The main cornice of the front is surmounted with a 
balustrade having emblematic figures at the corners and candelabras at intermediate points. 
Over the centre of the structure an octagonal dome, on a square base, rises to a height 
of one hundred and thirty-four feet, crowned with a colossal figure of Columbia, the top 
of which is one hundred and fifty-seven and a half feet above the ground. On the four 
corners of the base are figures typical of the four quarters of the globe. The corner 
pavilions have large windows ; the walls of the east and west sides are relieved by niches 
intended for statues, and the rear or north front is designed in the same general character 




New yersey Stale Building _ 



as the south front, except that the arcades are omitted, and in their place are walls pierced 
with windows. 

The main entrance vestibule on the south is a hall of eighty-two by sixty feet, and 
fifty-three feet high, lighted by windows opening into the courts, and by transoms over the 
entrance-doors. Beyond, under the dome, is the grand central hall, eighty-three feet square, 
with a height of seventy-nine feet to the uppermost point of the ceiling. East and west 
of this are the two main picture-galleries, each ninety-eight feet long by eighty-four feet 
wide, and thirty-five feet high, connected with the central hall by three arched doorways, 
and forming with it a grand area of two hundred and eighty-seven by eighty-four feet, 
capable of containing eight thousand people. Beyond these are smaller picture-galleries of 
twenty-eight by eighty-nine feet, running north and south between the corner pavilions. A 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. cxlv 



corridor of fourteen feet in width extends along the whole length of the north side of the 
central hall and main galleries, opening on its outer line into a series of private rooms 
intended for studios, etc., and having a second story of rooms above. The central hall is 
lighted from the dome, the main picture-galleries from the roof, and the smaller rooms by side 
windows. 

The foundations of the building are of rubble masonry, the exterior walls of granite, 
backed with brick, and the inner walls of brick. On piers of masonry in the basement are 
iron columns supporting wrought-iron beams, which carry the flooring of brick arches and 
tile. Where a second story occurs, the floors are laid in the same way. Over the four corner 
pavilions and the small rooms on the north side of the building, the roofs are carried by light 
boiler-plate girders ; while over the main vestibule, wrought-iron open trusses are used, the 
covering being of tin on sheathing-boards and wooden purlines. Wrought-iron trusses are 
also employed over the picture-galleries, supporting roof-lights of three-eighth inch rolled 
glass. The arrangement of the dome is somewhat unique. Had it rested on the main walls, 
it would have been of the same size as the grand central hall below ; but in order to reduce it, 
four trusses parallel with these walls, and situated at a distance of eight and a half feet from 
them, are used as supports. The frame-work of the dome consists of sixteen, built, wrought- 
iron ribs, resting at their lower ends on these trusses, and meeting at the crown in a heavy 
wrought-iron ring, the whole forming in plan a square figure with the corners cut off Hori- 
zontal tie-rods connect the opposite ribs together, and wind-bracing is introduced above. 
Horizontal struts at four points stiffen the ribs laterally, and assist to carry the iron frame- 
work for the glass. The false dome on the interior is constructed with a light frame-work of 
wrought iron, footing on the supporting trusses of the main dome, and having at the crown a 
ring twelve and a half feet in diameter. 

The interior finish is of plaster, the heavy cornices, ceilings, mouldings, etc., being 
worked on light iron frame-work and wire-netting, and the ceilings of the picture-galleries are 
of glass in wooden frames, suspended from the roof-trusses. Steam-heating is provided from 
boilers in the basement. 

We. cannot stop to examine the pictures. The crowd is too great, and it would take days 
to study them properly. We can therefore only glance at them hurriedly, and move on to 
the next building. The Art Annex, north of Memorial Hall. The latter building having been 
found entirely too small for the vast collection being sent to the Exhibition, it became neces- 
sary at the last moment to erect this additional edifice, which was hurriedly constructed — a 
plain brick building without any pretension, consisting of a number of rooms, opening one 
into the other, and furnishing the requisite wall-space. Two corridors, each twenty feet in 
width, cross each other at right angles at the centre of the building. Passing in at the south 
entrance, we find ourselves in a large gallery, one hundred by fifty-four feet, devoted to 
statuary, paintings, and mosaics from Italy. Moving on through this, we enter the north 
and south corridor, on both sides of which are, first, a series of three, and then one of four 
galleries, those of a series being arranged one beyond the other, each room forty feet square. 
This brings us into the east and west corridor at the centre of the building. North of this 
the arrangement is symmetrical with that on the south, except that at the extreme north end 



cxlvi 



HISTORY OF THE 




Main Building — Unlral Avenne io^'kuig West. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. cxlvii 

the corridor passes through to the entrance, with a gallery on each side, instead of all being 
thrown into one large room, as at the south end. The various galleries communicate with 
each other at their corners — an excellent arrangement, securing the greatest possible amount 
of useful wall-surface. The floor-area of the building amounts to sixty-four thousand two 
hundred square feet, and the available space for paintings to sixty thousand square feet. 

Making our exit at the eastern doorway, we find ourselves in close proximity to three 
buildings connected with the French Government exhibit — one being devoted to Stained 
Glass, another to Lines of Art, and the third and largest to the exhibit of the Department of 
Public Works. The latter building is interesting as being entirely fire-proof, and constructed 
of iron, brick, tiles, and glass, all of which were brought from France for the purpose. The 
collection in it is one of great value and of special interest to the engineer, consisting of 
beautiful models of famous works erected under direction of the Government, a more detailed 
description of which will be found under the head of "Mechanics and Science." 

We are now so close to the Vienna Bakery that we cannot resist the temptation to try 
some of Gaff, Fleischmann & Co.'s world-renowned bread, with one of those delicious cups 
of "Chocolat a la Creme" which so delight the taste. Thus refreshed, after glancing in at the 
large windows and observing the process of bread-making, we move on, and taking a look at 
the police barracks and fire-patrol buildings, so useful if not otherwise interesting, we are 
attracted by a neat structure having the appearance of a railroad station, and which we find to 
be an exhibit of the Empire Transportation Company. Exterior to the building is a section 
of railway track, on which is a beautiful and complete working model of a locomotive, 
one-fourth full size, drawing a train of model freight cars. In the interior are seen a most 
interesting set of models, very fully illustrating the freight shipping business of this Company; 
propellers and grain-elevators of the Lake Transportation ; models of petroleum oil-wells in 
working order, with all the adjuncts; oil pipe lines, showing the method of loading the oil on 
cars; models of shipping piers and depots on the large rivers, and many other matters of 
great interest. 

Near by is the Bankers' exhibit, and further on is the Photographic Building, quite a neat 
structure, well adapted for its purpose, and covering an area of two hundred and fifty-eight by 
one hundred and seven feet. The walls are crowded with admirable displays of photographs 
from almost all parts of the civilized world, and some of the English landscapes are perfectly 
exquisite, far surpassing the most extravagant hopes of the photographer of fifteen years ago. 
Moving through this building, and continuing on the avenue past the front of Memorial Hall, 
we arrive at the Carriage Annex, a building three hundred and fort)'-six b)- two hundred and 
thirty-one feet, constructed of timber-framing, covered with corrugated iron, in which is made 
an exceedingly handsome display of carriages from many of the prominent builders of the 
world. Here are found the famous London drags, Philadelphia phretons, beautiful carriages 
from San Francisco, sleighs from Russia, also Pullman palace-cars, and in one part of the 
building, household appliances, cooking-ranges, etc. 

Just to the rear of the Carriage Annex is the Swedish School-house, one of the most 
thoroughly national buildings on the grounds. It covers an area of about sixty by thirty-six 
feet, and is twenty-five feet high, being designed exactly after the school-houses used in 



cxlviii 



HISTORY OF THE 



Sweden, although more neatly finished on the exterior. It is constructed of white pine logs, 
laid horizontally, with the curved faces visible, and having a bold roof, carried on massive 
brackets formed by the projecting ends of the logs. The material was all framed and brought 




Main BuLldlili:—yapa>US( Ci 



from Sweden ready for erection. We are met at the entrance and conducted through the 
building by a most genial gentleman, Mr. C. J. Meyerberg, the Swedish Commissioner for the 
Educational Department, and one of the first Government school-inspectors of Stockholm. 
Nothing receives so much attention in Sweden as the subject of education, and every inhab- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. cxlix 

itant of the country is placed on an equal footing in this respect, it being not only free but 
obligator)-, the Government paying for the entire cost. No difference is made between the 
children of the peasant and those of the nobleman ; each may acquire precisely the same 
education. If the workman is too poor to clothe his child for school, the Government does 
it. If he refuses to send him, and prefers to keep him at work, he is summoned first before 
his clergyman, and if that fails, then before the Board of Education. If obedience is still 
declined, the Government has the power to put the parents into the work-house, and take the 
children and educate them. 

The building which we see before us represents a country school-house intended for 
primary classes, and capable of accommodating about fifty children. Its dimensions, light 
and ventilation are all regulated by law, the school-room being forty by twenty-two feet, 
and twelve feet high, giving two hundred and eleven and two-tenths cubic feet of air, and 
seventeen and si.x-tenths square feet of floor-space, to each scholar, the area of the windows 
being such as to allow three and si.x-tenths square feet per child. Two rooms on the 
ground-floor next to the main room are provided for the schoolmaster as a dwelling, and 
the upper story gives a sleeping-room and store-room. Outside is a space of ground for 
a garden, where he may practically instruct the scholars in horticulture. 

Every appliance is provided in the school-room that will facilitate the teacher in 
imparting instruction, as well as add to the comfort and health of the children. The science 
of object-teaching appears to have been well considered. We see here cubes and other 
geometrical forms; bundles of sticks for counting; an abacus, or instrument for performing 
calculations by means of balls on wires ; maps of various districts of Sweden, giving the 
mountain-ranges, the political divisions, the water-surface, etc.; and illustrations showing 
the occupations of the inhabitants in the different parts of the country, such as lumbering, 
mining, hunting and fishing. There are also good collections of minerals, fine specimens 
of pressed plants, insects, stuffed animals, shells, etc, ; a cabinet-organ, and good service- 
able and comfortable desks and stools. Everything in the school-room is characterized 
by extreme cheapness, with good quality and solid usefulness, and the brightness and 
attractiveness of the room is in marked contrast with the bare school-rooms of our own 
country. How much more likely is a child rendered willing to go to school and to study 
if everything is made pleasant and cheerful around him, instead of being dull and gloomy. 

The morning hours are occupied in study, and the afternoon, for boys in practical 
instruction in carpentry, cabinet-work, drawing, boot-making, and other trades, while for 
girls, in sewing, knitting or drawing. Every one in Sweden learns at least to read and 
write. No one can be confirmed without so doing, and all must remain at school until 
that time, the minimum age being twelve years. No one can be married, give evidence 
or become a soldier unless confirmed. The conscription takes place in Sweden between 
the ages of twenty and twenty-five, and all must necessarily have received at least an 
elementary education. 

The lowest class of school is the infant, the teachers generally being females; the 
course of instruction comprising reading, writing, arithmetic, history, singing and religion. 
The latter is not taught if the child docs not belong to the established faith, unless it is 



HISTORY OF THE 



particularly so requested. Then follows the primary school, as here seen, where are taught 
in addition, natural history, physics, geography, grammar, drawing, geometry, chemistry, 
gymnastics and drilling. The teachers of the primary schools must have been at least 
three years at the Normal school, and have obtained from it a certificate. Next come the 
higher primary schools, where the same instruction is continued, only of a higher grade, 
and then the grammar or high schools, of which there are two kinds. In one are taught 
German, French and English, mathematics and the natural sciences ; while in the other, 
instruction is given also in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, thus preparing the student for either of 
the two universities, Upsala or Lund. In addition to all of these, there are seven higher 
technical schools, also special schools of navigation, agriculture and forestry. There are also 
national high schools, where persons of from twenty to forty years of age may be taught to 




Ohio Stale BuilJiiu' 



be good citizens, instructed in the laws, municipal institutions, and general administration of 
the country; may be taught surveying, book-keeping, etc., and where once a week a sort of 
court of common council is held in order to train the people to administrative duties. It is to 
these schools, greatly aided by private contributions, that Sweden largely owes her high 
position of independence and truthfulness of character. 

Having, however, spent too long a time already in this interesting spot, we take leave of 
our kind friend, and stepping across the avenue, find ourselves in front of the Japanese Bazaar. 
It is a long, low, wooden building, strictly national in its character and construction, built by 
Japanese workmen with materials brought from the " Kingdom of the Rising Sun." The 
north front is open with overhanging eaves, and here are counters on which are displayed the 
numerous goods for sale. The roof is covered with heavy corrugated earthen tiles, and the 
sides are enclosed with sliding wooden shutters and paper screens. E.xquisite designs in wood- 
work and carvings adorn and beautify the building, and the ceilings, walls and floors are 
painted in tile patterns. The grounds adjoining are laid out as closely as possible in accord- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



cli 



ance with the rules of Japanese landscape-gardening. Two large catalpa trees with their long 
hano-ino- beans stand in the foreground, and lend their aid to the effect, being decidedly in 
keeping with the scene, although natives to the soil. A little fountain occupies a place 




immediately in front of the building, and winding walks among grassy slopes lead down to 
the main avenue. A number of gigantic cranes in antique bronze are placed around under 
the trees, lifting their heads way up almost to the leaves, and one sees also on the ground 
some very curious bronze pigs, exceedingly ludicrous, and without the least particle of beauty, 



clii HISTORY OF THE 



more like infant hippopotamuses than anything else. Lawn vases, urns and other adornments 
of strange design aid in giving a foreign air to the surroundings ; and on the east side of the 
building is a most interesting garden, so quaint and so evidently entirely Japanese, that as we 
wander up and down the regular walks and look at the beds of lilies and strange flowers, it 
takes very little effort to imagine one's self transported to that far-off country in the Pacific 
Ocean. Here is a little square pit sunk in one corner of the garden for the cultivation of 
aquatic plants, and there are curious dwarf-trees, like the figures on the old vases at home, 
planted in pots and stood on odd-looking benches. Under a bamboo awning are certain plants 
which we presume could not be exposed to the strong rays of the sun. The counters in the 
front part of the building are crowded with articles of porcelain, bamboo and lacquered ware, 
which are being disposed of in large quantities, the courteous Japanese attendants attracting a 
large share of attention on their own personal account, many of our country friends having 
evidently never seen a "Jap" before. 

Between us and the Avenue of the Republic is the Department of Public Comfort, a 
building erected for the comfort and convenience of visitors, having a frontage of two hundred 
and seventy-five feet, with a depth of one hundred feet, and containing restaurants and recep- 
tion-rooms, halls and baggage-rooms, telegraph-rooms where messages may be forwarded to 
all parts of the world, and rooms for the United States Centennial Commission. 

Nc.Kt to this building, on the west, is the Judges' Hall, fronting directly on the centre of 
the large open space between the Main Building and Machinery Hall. It is a neat, plain 
building, with rather a pleasing outline, having an arched roof over the centre portion, showing 
the construction lines, and ornamented with two belfries. It is designed for the meetings and 
discussions of the Judges of the P^.xhibition, and for all business connected with the giving of 
awards. It contains a large central hall having a gallcr\', and surrounded with two stories of 
small committee-rooms for the different groups of Judges. It was here in the latter part of 
June that the brilliant and interesting wedding-ceremony of the marriage of the daughter of 
the Swedish Commissioner-General to the Norwegian Commissioner took place — a pleasant 
and novel incident, of the kind seldom recorded in the history of exhibitions, and adding a 
charm to the memories of the year. 

In the corner next to Belmont Avenue is the Pennsylvania Railroad Ticket Office, and 
directly across the way, the establishment of the world-renowned Cook Tourist Agency, a 
little many-sided building, in the rear of which is pitched a Palestine encampment, illustrative 
of the manner in which the " Cookies," as a noted traveller calls them, are taken care of when 
journeying thniugh that country. In the interior of the building is a bazaar for the sale of 
ornaments in olive-wood, and various other oriental articles of bijoutry, and in one little room 
is a genuine mummy, claiming to be a princess of the royal blood, who departed this life some 
two thousand years ago, not exhibiting any special beauty, however, at the present time, nor 
showing stronger credentials than the thousand and one other mummies that have been 
exhumed on the banks of the Nile. 

Nearly opposite to Cook's office is the building of the Centennial Photographic Associa- 
tion, under whose exclusive direction all the photographs of the Exhibition are taken. It 
is very conveniently arranged for its purposes, having facilities for doing a large amount 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 187c 




cliv HISTORY OF THE 



of work, and to one interested in the details of the art, this department of the Exliibition is 
well worth a visit. 

We will close the labors of the day by one of the really most delightful pleasures that 
the Exhibition affords, especially towards evening, when the heated hours are past, and the 
tired body needs a little rest before starting for home. We will take an excursion on the 
narrow-gauge railway. This feature is something entirely new, has never been introduced 
before at an exhibition, and has proved a most signal success. Nothing gives the visitor a 
better idea of the topography and e.vtent of the grounds, and fixes more satisfactorily in his 
mind the locations of the various buildings, than a series of trips on this line. Entering at 
tiie station in front of the Department of Public Comfort and paying our five cents fare, a 
train draws up and we are soon off. The cars are open and airy, being merely platform-cars 
with seats, and roof supported by posts, admitting an unobstructed view on all sides. We 
turn the corner into Belmont Avenue at a rapid rate, the summer breeze fanning our cheeks, 
and the little "Emma," a diminutive locomotive, an infant among engines, as it were, puffing 
and blowing, but coming up nobly to the work. On we go, past the lake with its fountain 
glistening in the setting sun, and we draw up in a few moments at the station near the 
Women's Pavilion, having only just time, before we stop, to glance at the lovely grounds and 
flowers in the direction of Horticultural Hall. Then on we start again, passing the pic- 
turesque New Jersey Building, and suddenly swinging on a curve to our right, around the 
Southern Restaurant, we skirt the upper part of Belmont Ravine, and come out in front of 
the Agricultural Building, where we make another station. Near by is the American Restau- 
rant, and under the trees we see the little tables, all crowded with hungry and thirsty 
occupants. Then by a series of graceful curves we leave all this in the distance, and reach the 
land of wind-mills. Mounting a steep grade, and curving to our left, we approach the north 
side of the Agricultural Building. The grade now descends rapidly; our speed is increased 
until one almost holds his breath, and sweeping round the corner of this building we find 
that we have doubled on ourselves, and are back again at the Southern Restaurant, the four 
tracks all running together for a short distance. Here, however, we take a new departure, 
and darting across Belmont Avenue in the rear of the Government Building, we go through, 
as yet to us, une.xplored ground. On our right are the State Buildings — Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, etc. — one after the other, until the British Government Buildings loom into sight. As 
we turn and look back towards the Main Building, we are treated to one of the most beautiful 
sights it has ever been our fortune to witness. We are on a slightly rising slope, and the 
whole extent of the Main Building and Machinery Hall, nearly four thousand feet in length, 
comes into view. The Main Building is one blaze of light, of flaming fire, from end to end, 
owing to the reflections on the glass of the rays from the departing sun. It is a grand illumi- 
nation. In the foreground the fountain has ceased to play, and the now quiet lake, a bright 
gem in its green setting, reflects every line and flash. The dome of Memorial Hall looks up 
over the trees, and the lesser buildings are grouped at various points. Restless, happy crowds 
are flitting from point to point, and the whole looks like fairy-land, an incantation scene, 
something that we wish would never pass away. 

But our train moves on, and sweeping through a village of buildings, we take another 



I NTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. civ 

great circle, and turning past the west front of Machinery Hall, are back into the Avenue of 
the Republic, soon reaching our starting-point. All in fifteen minutes! is it possible? Round 
the world in miniature in fifteen minutes? It is so exhilarating and so enjoyable that we must 
do it again; and thus it is that nearly every evening during our stay do we close with this 
dessert, as it were, of the day's feast, until every feature of the grounds becomes thoroughly 
impressed upon the mind, never to be effaced. 

On our next visit we pass through the Belmont entrance directly to the Women's 
Pavilion, the site of women's work. Yes, all by women — the money furnished for the 
building, and all of the exhibits made exclusively by women. And much more than this has 
been done by them. Where would the Exhibition have been to-day, and its international 
features, if it had not been for Women ? 

Early in 1873, at the suggestion of the Citizens' Committee of the Board of Finance, it 
was decided to enlist the efforts of women in the cause of the Centennial Exhibition, and on 
the i6th of February of that year, thirteen patriotic ladies, citizens of Philadelphia, were 
named and invited to convene for discussion of the subject. They were met by the President 
of the Centennial Board of Finance and several other gentlemen, and after the objects of the 
meeting had been stated, these gentlemen withdrew, leaving matters entirely in the hands of 
the women to manage for themselves. The ladies came together necessarily without any very 
clear ideas of what was to be their work, and unaccustomed to business management. Their 
first move was to elect Mrs. E. D. Gillespie as President, as they insisted that nothing could be 
done without her in charge. She accepted the honor conferred upon her, but, to use her own 
words, "she felt the position a novel one: she had never before presided, and she did not 
know what to do. She thinks she suggested to some one to adjourn." So the ladies accord- 
ingly adjourned to meet the Monday following, at which time it was agreed that the main 
object was to arrange some plan for raising public enthusiasm. It was decided to commence 
work in the city and to take it by wards, endeavoring to enlist the services of all who could 
give time to the cause, and as thirteen women had been chosen to represent the thirteen 
original States, it was suggested that a chairman be appointed for each ward, with a sub- 
committee of thirty-si.x to represent the preseiit number of States in the Union, and that these 
women should solicit subscriptions to Centennial stock. So the work began, and by the 9th 
of June of the same year the ladies had already collected fifty thousand dollars in stock 
subscriptions. 

In the meantime the Executive Committee of the Commission had sanctioned the 
appointment of the women, and the Commission itself had passed complimentary resolutions, 
not containing much, it is true, but sufficient to give official recognizance to the organization. 

Although the great mass of its work was naturally in Philadelpliia, especially during the 
earlier periods of its existence, yet the Committee soon decided that it would not confine 
itself to local work, but would branch out all over the country. Communications were 
addressed to the Commissioners of the different States and to the Governors of each State 
and Territory, asking for the names of suitable ladies to represent their districts, who would 
be willing to work for the cause. From many of these no answers were received, and from 
others came replies th:it were worth nothing, merely expressing great interest in the 



clvi 



HISTORY OF THE 



Centennial, and containing promises to write wlien the proper person was found. The disap- 
pointments were great, but by continued efforts the ladies were finally rewarded in uniting to 
the organization the women of thirty-one States. 

In starting the work in Philadelphia, each lady took under her charge two or three wards, 
and distributed an appeal written by the President. It was not always possible to form sub- 
committees of thirty -six, but as soon as a sufficient number of capable and willing ladies had 
been found, the work was started. Stock subscriptions were obtained through personal 
solicitation from door to door, a large part of the collections being made in this way. These 
women, many of whom knew nothing of book-keeping nor of business matters, soon learned 
to bring in their accounts showing the stock subscribed, the number of shares, the name of 
the subscriber, the amount of money, and the name of the lady collecting, all in systematic 




Connecticut St.tte Buitdiiig. 



shape. In addition there were proceeds from tea-parties, loan exhibitions and other entertain- 
ments, the success of these being due to hard and continuous labor by women alone. In the 
short space of three months the subscriptions added to the Treasury of the Board of Finance 
by the women amounted to forty-two thousand and sixty dollars, sums being obtained in 
many cases from those who would have been reached in no other way, and in all cases after 
the wealthy and business class had contributed, the women being "patient gleaners in a field 
that had already yielded a rich harvest." 

If prosperity had continued, there is no doubt but that the women of this countr\^ would 
have collected at least a million of dollars, but with the autumn of 1873 came. the panic, and 
the work practically sank to nothing. Application was made to be allowed to collect money 
in smaller sums than the ten-dollar stock subscriptions, but this could not be granted, as the 
Board of Finance had no power to allow it. 

Then came the news from Washington that the International feature of the Exhibition 
was in peril, and fourteen women, representing that number of States, went to Washington, 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clvii 

with Mrs. Gillespie at the head, including also Mrs. Goddard, the grand-daughter of General 
Cass, and Mrs. Etting, the grand-daughter of Roger B. Taney. These patriotic ladies worked 
nobly, using every effort in their power to the sustaining of the international feature of the 
Exhibition. Letters from women all over the country, especially from the Southern States, 
were printed and distributed among the members of Congress. An audience was granted by 
the Committee on Appropriations, and there is no doubt but that the favorable report of this 
Committee for the retention of the international feature was largely owing to the labors of 
these women. 

Then in the midst of this came a time when it was judged essential to petition the 
Councils of Philadelphia for an additional appropriation of one million of dollars. To obtain 
this it seemed necessary to give evidence that the request was approved of by a large number 
of citizens, and the women were the only ones that could be called upon to obtain their 
names. The President was telegraphed to return immediately on important business. She 
was met by one of the prominent gentlemen of the Board of Finance, who said: "Mrs. 
Gillespie, we want signatures of citizens to a petition to go before Councils asking for another 
million. We think that the fact that Philadelphia has given another million will operate on 
the minds of many. The petition must be laid before them in two days. We have no 
authority or organization to collect these signatures, and thee has." The chairmen of the ward 
committees were telegraphed, the work was cheerfully started and vigorously pushed from 
door to door, and on the day appointed the petition was returned with eighty-two thousand 
signatures, and the desired appropriation was granted. 

Mrs. Gillespie then returned to Washington to her duties there, came home, and again 
went back. It was at this time that the meeting with the Appropriation Committee took 
place. One gentleman connected with Congressional matters, who was violently opposed to 
the Exhibition, said to Mrs. Gillespie, with eyes flashing, "I don't like a female lobby!" But 
said Mrs. Gillespie, " Major, we have not lobbied : we merely came here to interview several 
of the Senators." Then said the Major, furiously, "The most effective lobbying is done on the 
other end of the avenue. I can count on my fingers the names of the gentlemen you have 
won over." 

Prominent among the pleasurable incidents in connection with the Centennial were the 
entertainments organized by the ladies for the purpose of adding to their collections. Late 
one afternoon in the autumn of 1873, during a meeting of the ward chairmen of the Ladies' 
Executive Committee, a gentleman from Gloucester, New Jersey, came in and said, " I called 
to ask whether you knew that the Centennial Anniversary of the Boston Tea-Party will take 
place on the l6th of December of this year." The ladies had not thought of it. He then 
said that he " had come to suggest that there should be a tea-party in each ward of the city in 
commemoration of it." This, however, did not seem feasible, but taking the benefit of his 
suggestion, the President thought she could manage to have a "big" tea-party in the Academy 
of Music. So it was finally arranged, and the tea-party was given on the evening of Decem- 
ber 17th, and repeated the night after, the tea being served by the ladies and their aids in 
Martha Washington costume, and special tea-cups, made for the purpose, provided, which 
were sold as mementoes. Three thousand of these cups were ordered, and the President was 



clviii 



HISTORY OF THE 



frightened and thought she would never be able to pay for them, until reassured by a gentle- 
man friend devoted to the cause, who promised to take the responsibility. So far, however, 
from losing on them, more had to be supplied, and ten thousand were disposed of The price 
paid for them was one dollar and fifty cents per dozen, and they were sold at twenty-five cents 
apiece. After this, tea-parties became the rage. The tea-cups used at a party in Cincinnati 
were painted by the ladies with their own fair hands. 

On January 26th, 1874, was held in the Academy of Music the Washington Assembly, a 




0/ the New England Kitche 



superb affair. Then in June there was a Fete Champetre in the Park, a splendid success in 
every respect except financially, as crowds of people came who did not pay. The next year 
stock subscriptions came in more rapidly. On the twenty-second and twenty-third of Feb- 
ruary, 1875, were given two International Assemblies, where the ladies wore costumes repre- 
senting different nationalities. By these two entertainments the sum of fourteen thousand 
dollars was realized after all expenses were paid. On the same dates of the year following, the 
Carnival of Authors netted over eight thousand dollars. 

In other localities the same course was pursued. The work was opened in Rhode Island 
with a Martha Washington Tea-Party at which was cleared thirty-six hundred dollars. After- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clix 



wards the one hundred and third anniversary of the Burning of the "Gaspey" was celebrated 
by a clam-bake, enlivened with music and the actual burning of a rigged vessel representin,"- 
the "Gaspey," the evening closing with fireworks. Everything was arranged and managed 
entirely by the ladies, except the rigging and operating of the boat. Ten thousand people 
were on the grounds, and between two and three thousand dollars were gained for the cause. 

During all this time, in addition to the assistance which the ladies were pledged to give 
to the Board of Finance, one project lay very near their hearts — an exhibit of women's work, 
separate and distinct from all others, by which those who obtain such a scanty subsistence by 
the labor of their needle would have an opportunity of seeing what could be done by their 
se.x in other and higher branches of industry. They would then discover that some women 
had gone far ahead of others, and the more timid would be encouraged to that perseverance 
which is almost always sure to bring success. The first intention was to have a separate space 
in the Main Building, but the proportions of the general exhibition increased so rapidly as 
soon to make it evident that it would be impossible to afford the ladies the area they required. 
Steam-power was wanted by the women of Massachusetts for the female operatives of Lowell, 
the Educational Committee desired to have a Kindergarten, and so many applications came 
pouring in for all sorts of exhibits of women's work, that nothing but a large space would 
satisfy them. The ladies had made up their minds to have plenty of room for a complete 
exhibit, and it was in danger of not being obtained. 

Then it was that the proposition was made for a separate structure, to be paid for from 
the contributions raised by themselves, and such a building, it was found, could be erected for 
the sum of thirty thousand dollars. After proper consideration it was decided upon, and 
application was made to the ladies of the different States for assistance. The first answer 
came from Florida with forty-seven dollars and twenty-five cents. Then Rhode Island pledged 
herself for three thousand dollars, after which Philadelphia gave five thousand dollars which 
she had already raised, and trusted to Providence for more. Massachusetts came forward with 
five thousand, and Trenton and Camden each with one thousand dollars. A noble country- 
woman abroad, on hearing of the project, sent a check for five thousand dollars, and 
subscriptions continued to be given in until the money was raised. While all this was going 
on, the ladies still continued their efforts to obtain stock subscriptions, and succeeded in 
disposing of over a hundred shares. 

America should be proud of her women. From the days of the Revolution until now 
they have always come nobly forward when occasion required, and their work for the Centen- 
nial is their crowning glory. They have obtained subscriptions to ninety-six hundred shares 
of stock, and have collected one hundred and seven thousand three hundred and sixty-three 
dollars and twenty-eight cents additional, of which they gave to the Board of Finance, as a 
free gift, eight thousand four hundred and forty-eight dollars and eleven cents, and from the 
balance paid for their building and all of their expenses, including the running expenses 
during the Exhibition. From this fund also came the cost of the grand Chorus for the 
opening and closing days, and the price of four thousand three hundred and seventy dollars 
for the Centennial March by Wagner. Besides the amount given above, six thousand dollars 
was collected from the sale of commemorative medals. 



clx 



HISTORY OF THE 



The labors that have given these results have been voluntary— for love of countr)- — and 
full credit should be awarded for the patriotism which induced them. It may be proper to 
state that the only pecuniary allowance made by the Board of Finance to the women's 
organization has been fifty dollars per month for a Secretar)', and since the month of June, 
1874, a salary of seventy-five dollars per month to the President — nothing beyond this. Only 
one thing would have perfected the women's work: they slmuld have had a woman for 
architect, and this could have been done if it had been thought of in time. 




The plan of building is not as well adapted to its purpose as it might be, but the ladies 
have endeavored to do their best with it. One-fourth of the area is devoted to foreign 
countries, and among the articles here displayed is some of the handiwork of Queen Victoria 
and also of her daughters. One-third of the building is assigned to works of Art, and the 
Schools of Design of Ne\v York, Boston, Lowell, Cincinnati, and Pittsburgh have their 
exhibits here. Mrs. Wormley's microscopic engravings and the wood-carvings of the women 
of Cincinnati are especially worthy of attention, attracting large crowds. Many lady artists 
refused to have their work classified with that of their own sex, preferring to put it in the 
general Art Department, but still there is much here that is creditable. We find in this building 
a weekly newspaper, called "The New Century for Women," its entire make-up taking place 
here, printed and published exclusively by women, and giving a full and exact account of the 
exhibits of the Women's Department. Here also is "The National Cookerj' Book," compiled 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



from receipts contributed by the women of the whole country. In " The Bureau of Charities" 
are the statistics of a great number of the charitable institutions of the world ; and a large 
album from the Empress Augusta, of Germany, contains the pictures of such institutions 
under her charge in the city of Berlin. The Pharmaceutical Exhibit of the Women's Medical 
College in Philadelphia makes a fine display, showing great care in its preparation and 
scientific ability of the highest order. 

In an annex near the Women's Pavilion is the Kindergarten— a genuine Froebel Kinder- 
garten. The building was erected by the women, the contributions coming largely from the 
organization in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, and the expenses of the school are borne by a few 
ladies who have collected funds for the purpose. It is under the charge of a most able 
teacher. Miss Ruth R. Burritt, and the pupils are from the Nursery of the Northern Home for 
Friendless Children, a Philadelphia institution. They were placed in training with her for 
several months prior to the opening, and now certainly do full justice to her exertions. 
Crowds of visitors throng around the building to see the exemplification of Frocbel's method 
of nature, and to ask questions in reference to it, making it difficult for one to obtain a favor- 
able place of observation. We arrive in time for the opening exercises, and as we enter, the 
little orphans, dressed in pink and blue, so innocent, bright and happy, are standing in a circle, 
singing their morning hymn. This over, they are asked, one by one, for a little story, each 
telling what he or she had done that morning or the day before, or perhaps one of them 
making up a little narrative; exercise being thus given to their memories in an interesting 
way, at the same time teaching them to put their thoughts into shape and to express them- 
selves properly. Then came some songs — " Happy every morning," " Little Mamie loves to 
wander from one child to another," etc. — followed by a vigorous march, also, to a " Happy, 
merry song," the children winding in and out among each other in regular figures, until all 
come opposite to their little tables. Each table has its upper surface laid out in regular 
squares by lines an inch apart running in opposite directions, and there is a comfortable seat 
provided. The squares formed by the lines are the units of measure for the child in all its 
work. To-day is what is called " Clay-Model day." Every day there is something different 
to do ; sometimes it is working in colored papers, folding them into shapes, or weaving mats, 
and gaining a knowledge of colors ; another time blocks are used— cubes, oblongs, cylinders, 
etc. — teaching the solid forms ; or again it is something else. Nothing is made tiresome or 
monotonous. There is always variety, and never too long a time at one thing. It is a point 
never to make the child weary. Clay-modeling is a favorite occupation, and it is wonderful 
what the little children will do. Each one takes its seat, and a restless little boy, full of 
nervous energy, is allowed to work it off by giving him the distribution of the tools. A piece 
of oil-cloth is placed in front of each, and on it a small lump of moist clay. It is a refined 
way of playing mud-pies. First they make balls, then from these cubes, working the sides 
flat alternately, and learning the law of opposites. Afterwards each child is allowed to 
exercise his own invention and to model what he chooses. Some make birds' nests with eggs, 
some apples, and one bright little fellow that we watch makes a little baby in its bath-tub. 
Many of these things are rude, it is true, but all are inventive, all original, and some show 
considerable ability. No copying is allowed or thought of After this is over, the things are 



clxii 



HISTORY OF THE 



put neatly away, hands are washed, and the children are marched again, first in a circle, each 
half passing in opposite directions and chaining into the other; then comes an arm- and foot- 
exercise, all done to singing, and after that rubber balls are brought out and held and tossed 
to song;. 




Main Building — Spanish Court. 



Then the children march back to their seats and have a little lunch. Occasion is taken 
to teach them politeness, and to wait on and help one another. This over, the tiny napkins 
are folded carefully away, and some little play-songs follow, giving gymnastic exercise in the 
most pleasant manner, the songs being acted out. We have the "Jolly little Chickadees," 
"This is right and this is left," etc.; and when the happy play is over, they return to the tables 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxiii 



to have the metallic rings. These are about an inch or more in diameter, some whole, some 
half and some quarter segments. One little boy takes them and lays a certain number of 
each kind, one at a time, before each child, placing them, by direction of the teacher, on the 
intersections of certain of the cross lines with which the table is covered. The teacher mean- 
while takes occasion to explain all about the rings, how they are made, and where the iron to 
make them comes from. The children are then directed to place the rings in position— first a 
whole ring, then a half segment at the bottom, then one at the top, another at the right side, 
a fourth at the left, and so on until a certain figure is formed. Each child then gives his own 
idea of what this figure is like, these ideas for different children being quite varied. One says 
a fountain, and another a brush or a fan. Afterwards they are allowed to make their own 
figures, and it is curious to watch how they study out and work up such original designs. 
Now putting these away and taking up a maple-leaf, the teacher explains all about the tree 
from which it was plucked, shows the form of the leaf, impressing it upon their minds, tells its 
use and everything in reference to it. And afterwards, when the child walks through the 
woods, it picks out the maple-leaf, knows the tree from all the others, and is led to study 
nature as a delightful pastime. 

Then come the closing exercises with song, and the little good-byes are said, and the 
courtesies and bows made, and all depart, bright and cheerful, not tired nor worn out, ready for 
their play, and anxious for the morrow to come with its Kindergarten again. 

By the Froebel Kindergarten system the child is taught, unknown to itself, habits of 
order, attention, application, cheerful obedience, careful manipulation, and a knowledge of 
geometrical and natural forms and figures ; and when the time comes for higher studies, he 
will be found far in advance of those who have not had these preliminary advantages. 

Grouped near the Women's Pavilion are a number of very interesting structures. On the 
north is the New Jersey Building, one of the most picturesque and characteristic of the State 
edifices, and farther on is the Southern Restaurant. Near by is the Kansas Building, for 
which an appropriation of ten thousand dollars was granted by that State, the first of all to 
select a site in the Exhibition grounds for such a purpose. The interior is quite unique in its 
decorations. Around the sides are hung sheaves of wheat, rye and barley ; under the dome 
is a fine bronze fountain from the ladies of Topeka, and above it a full-size model of the Inde- 
pendence bell, formed entirely of agricultural products of the State. Wheat-stalks are on 
exhibition from five to six and a half feet high, with heads, some of them, six inches long, and 
corn is shown up to seventeen and a half feet high, with ears twelve to fifteen inches in length, 
and eight to ten feet above the ground, there being from seven to thirteen ears to the stalk. 
One wing of the building is appropriated to Colorado, whose exhibit is confined exclusively to 
wild animals and birds native to that State. Near by is a very small building which serves to 
give Virginia at least a representation, and next to it is that old-time structure, attracting 
attention from every one, the "New England Log-House" — a little low building, characteristic 
in its appearance of the early colonial days, with a rustic portico in front, over which is a 
quaint sentence. "Ye Olden Time," and on one side is nailed a horse-shoe to scare away the 
witches. On entering wc find ourselves in a room of one hundred years ago. Ancient dames 
in flowered gowns are spinning and performing other domestic duties. In the open fire-place 



clxiv 



HISTORY OF THE 



is a spit with a turkey slowly turning and roasting for a Thanksgi\-ing dinner. There are 
shelves of old crockerj', plain-fashioned furniture of that time, and on one of the tables an old 
clasped Bible. Herbs and other stores of the careful housewife are hanging from the rafters, 
and in the room adjoining is a canopied bed with a patchwork quilt, and alongside a little old 
cradle. All are veritable relics of a farmer's home of a century ago, and it is to Miss South- 
ivick and iier able corps of assistants from New England that we arc indebted for this picture 
of our forefathers' life. We must complete the realization by partaking of some of the New 
England dishes so deftly prepared by the good ladies, such food as the old Puritans grew and 
wa.xed strong on. 




Maui Bialdnig— Egyptian Court. 



In striking contrast to this is the next building, an Algerian bootli, devoted to the sale 
of trinkets. The attendants are dressed in national costume, true to character, but whether 
genuine natives themselves or not, is a doubtful question. 

Passing up the adjacent avenue, we soon reach Agricultural Hall, with its Gothic gables 
and huge green roof not very prepossessing externally, its design, however, exemplifying a 
somewhat novel adaptation of the materials used, wood and glass, to a construction of large 
size, giving economy in cost, capability of rapid erection, and at the same time producing a 
fine interior effect. The building consists of a nave eight hundred and twenty-seven feet in 
length by one hundred feet in width, crossed by three transepts, the central one having a 
breadth of one hundred feet, and the two end ones seventy feet each. These avenues are 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxv 

formed of shallow Howe-truss arches, springing vertically from the ground and laid together 
at the top in Gothic form, the height from floor to point of arch in the nave and central 
transept being seventy-five feet, and in the end transepts seventy feet. • The courts enclosed 
between, and the four spaces at the corners of the building, are covered with roofs of ordinary 
construction, — the whole comprising a rectangular area of about seven acres. 

The exhibits are very profuse, nearly all of the foreign countries being well represented. 
Huge stacks of wine-bottles from Spain, Portugal and other wine-growing countries rise up 
before us. Brazil sends an immense cotton trophy. In the United States section are the great 
mowing-, reaping- and binding-machines, drills, thrashing-machines, and all those farm appli- 
ances for which we are becoming so famous, attracting the notice of a large number of 
agriculturists from abroad. At the upper end of the nave an old wind-mill looms up, and 
near it is a large collection of stuffed animals and some skeleton specimens of the extinct 
fauna of another age. The tobacco exhibit is exceedingly perfect, and just beyond it we find 
a most complete display of the processes of India-rubber manufacture. On one side is the 
plant, next the raw material, and then the different methods of working, and the resulting 
products ready for the market, all exhibited in regular order. 

Leaving by one of the eastern doors, we enter directly into the Pomological Annex, now 
■ being used for a poultry show. Such a chirping and chattering never saluted one's ears 
before. Not only fowls, ducks, geese, etc., of all kinds are shown, but all varieties of pigeons, 
most lovely cooing doves, rare birds of beautiful plumage, canaries, fancy rabbits, etc., making 
a most attractive and unique display. Several hours might well be spent here with profit and 
pleasure if we had but the time at our command. 

Near by is the Wagon Annex, filled with farm vehicles of all descriptions, and on the 
other side is the Brewer's building, where all the operations of manufacturing that favorite 
beverage may be observed. Then on the hill to the east of us are the numerous wind-mills 
for pumping water and performing other duties, and down below them, nearer the Belmont 
Ravine, we come to the butter- and cheese-factory, where we find ourselves among churns of 
all kinds, the industrious exhibitors actively engaged in transforming cream into butter, or 
pretending to do so, the same butter probably doing service for several weeks, each one trying 
to convince you that his churn is the best, and that if you propose starting a large dairy, it is 
the only one you should purchase. In another room are cheese-presses, and in yet another, 
long rows of cheeses drying and seasoning to be ready for the market. Cheese-making in the 
United States has become a very large and growing business, all of the more celebrated Euro- 
pean varieties being successfully imitated, and we are surprised to learn of the great quantities 
annually exported to Great Britain and the West Indies. 

Farther on is the Tea and Coffee Press Building, where are exhibited all the different 
sorts of apparatus as used in our large hotels for making tea and coffee, and where one may 
step in with his pocket-lunch, and sitting down at a small table, or .standing by the counter, 
order a nice hot cup of coffee or tea to take with it; or if he wishes a more extensive repast, 
he can step into the two-story car of the single-rail elevated railway near by, and in an instant, 
almost, be transferred over the ravine, through the tops of the trees, to the other side, where 
the German Restaurant will provide all he can possibly desire. 



clxvi 



HISTORY OF THE 




INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxvii 

Another day we determine to visit the various State and National Buildings, or such of 
them as we have not already seen, and after entering the grounds, we pass up Belmont Avenue 
to its farther end, beyond the Government Building, and turn into what is called State Avenue. 
Just at its entrance is located the Centennial Fire Patrol, where fire-engines are kept in con- 
stant readiness for any necessity, the splendid horses harnessed and the attendants on hand, to 
move at a moment's notice, forming a model exhibit of the Fire Service as now employed in 
all of our great cities. Next in order on our right is the Ohio Building, a substantial cottage- 
like edifice, constructed of Ohio. sandstone, and showing samples from the various quarries in 
the State, of this well-known material. The roof with its alternate squares of tin, painted in 
colors of marked contrasting shades, produces rather a curious effect, not to be conmiended. 
Adjoining this building is that of Indiana, which evidently was never favored with the services 
of an architect in the preparation of its design, the sky-line of the gable front being beyond 
all criticism in ugliness. Then next is Illinois, a plain, neat, frame building, of Gothic outlines, 
painted white and having an open portico around it, a fair specimen of a comfortable residence 
in a Western village, but nothing more. Wisconsin follows, also a simple structure, not pretty, 
merely useful, succeeded by the Michigan Building, quite handsome in contrast with the 
others, having porches and balconies, and ornamented with scroll-work. For fear of exhibiting 
too much good taste in the same neighborhood. New Hampshire steps in next, with a frame 
structure of what might be designated the "no-style" order of architecture — certainly never 
intended as an example for the improvement of our people in sesthetics. We proceed on to 
Connecticut, which presents a good, substantial, rural-like building, somewhat after the old 
Colonial style, having the motto "Qui Transtulit Sustinet" over the entrance-porch; and see 
beyond it, Massachusetts, with an edifice of considerably greater pretensions than most of the 
others, designed in good taste, commodious and well built. Then comes little Delaware with 
a small sea-shore cottage, and Maryland, her sister State, adjoins on the other side with a neat 
and unassuming structure. Next is Tennessee, followed by Iowa and Missouri — all small 
buildings of no special attraction. 

We wander in and out of these various houses, more for the purpose of saying that we 
have seen them than from any particular interest that the mass of them incite. A few contain 
very interesting exhibits of local productions from the States they represent, but generally 
they appear to serve merely as a rendezvous or headquarters for the people of the State, books 
being kept in a conspicuous position for the registering of names and for reference. Many 
curious incidents are told of old-time friends and relations meeting at the Exhibition who had 
not seen or heard of each other for years, each one supposed by the other to have departed 
this life long, long ago. The State buildings have contributed not a little towards this bringing 
together of those originally from the same section of country. The last building in this row 
is Rhode Island. Here we have the work of an architect without doubt — a little gem in its 
way, about twenty by forty feet area, with an addition to the rear, and an open porch in front. 
The construction is in solid timber, the frame-work showing on the outside, and the roof is of 
slate. The architects have done themselves credit. Across the avenue from Rhode Island is 
Mississippi, a pretty, rustic structure, built of native wood still covered with bark, the whole 
decorated with the hanging moss so profuse in the Southern States, and producing quite a 



clxviii 



HISTORY OF THE 



picturesque effect. Retracing our steps, we first refresh ourselves at the Hungarian Wine 
Pavihon, and passing a restaurant nearly opposite the Missouri Building, soon reach the Cali- 
fornia Building, a heavy structure of no beauty, containing in the interior, however, some 
interesting exhibits. Still farther back, opposite to Delaware, is the New York Building, 
designed in the Italian style, with porticoes and a sloping roof with gablets, the whole sur- 
mounted by a sort of tower or cupola, and reminding one forcibly of the frame residences so 
much in vogue several years ago in the neighborhood of the Empire City. 

Turning down an avenue to our right, and passing in front of the New York Building, we 
see, a little beyond, something that strikes the eye at once — a group of three structures in that 
picturesque, half-timbered, sixteenth-century style of Old ICngland, so expressive of the home- 




Vitw of the Intcrtiational Exhibition from George s Hill. 



liness of the English character, that we know at once they can be no other than the buildings 
of the British Commission. The principal one, covering an area of almost five thousand 
square feet, is called St. George's House; the others are the Barrack's and Workmen's Quar- 
ters. The architect of these buildings was Mr. Thomas Harris, of London. The walls are 
of half-timber work, with lath and rough-cast plaster between, the base being a plinth of red 
brick, coped with stone. Lofty chimney-stacks, also of red brick, well grouped together, tower 
above the roofs, which are covered with red plain tiles, tile-ridging, hips, and finials, sent from 
England for the purpose by Messrs. Eastwood & Co. The windows are glazed in lead 
quarries, the opening casements being of wrought iron. A kettle-drum is being given this 
afternoon by the British Commissioners, and we will avail ourselves of a polite invitation to 
visit the interior. The walls of the various apartments are hung with exquisite designs of 
English papers, provided with paneled dados, and the wood-work is stained dark and var- 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxix 

nislied. In the hall and verandas are Minton encaustic tiles, and on the floors of various 
rooms are rich, illuminated Indian carpets, subdued in style, however, to correspond with the 
"lovely" furniture which so enchants everyone. Beautiful ornamental vases, elegant table- 
plate, etc., from Elkington, of London, and damascened works of art, adorn the rooms, while 
English water-color paintings and well-selected engravings are on the walls. Open grates, 
with mantles of artistic tile-patterns, are in every room, enhancing the domestic and home-like 
a.spect— just such a house, we say, as one would like in the country, with the addition of a 
few more porticoes to suit our climate. The artistic manner in which the house is fitted up, 
calling forth the admiration of all who see it, is due, we are informed, to the excellent taste 
of Mr. Henry Cooper, who came specially from London to attend to it, and whose praise is in 
every mouth. After passing from room to room, conversing with our friends and partaking 
of the hospitalities of the occasion, we bid adieu and pass on our way. 

In the rear of the Barracks is the Japanese Dwelling, that curious structure erected by 
those peculiar workmen whose methods of work were to us so novel. It is related that during 
its construction, one of our own people loaned to the Japanese some wheel-barrows for the 
purpose of removing the earth from the foundations. They tried them for a while, but finding 
difficulty in wheeling them according to our custom, finally gave up the attempt and carried 
them, fore and aft, like hand-barrows, to the great amusement of the bystanders. Wc notice 
the odd-looking tiled roof, the entrance-door with its gabled projection, the arrangement of 
the walls of the building so that they may be opened and closed laterally by sliding panels, 
giving an airy house in fine weather, or a close one during storms, and then proceed to 
examine the interior, under the guidance of one of the residents, by whom we are shown the 
various rooms and also some beautiful fans, vases and other Japanese handiwork. 

Across the avenue from the Japanese Dwelling are the buildings of the Spanish Govern- 
ment, one of them used as headquarters for the Spanish soldiers brought to this country, and 
the other containing a most interesting collection of exhibits, notably that of the Spanish War 
Department, consisting of beautifully constructed models of fortresses, barracks, etc., specimens 
of mountain artillery, fire-arms, models of field artillery and pontoon trains, specimens of the 
celebrated Toledo sword-blades, etc. An exceedingly large proportion of the exhibit is on 
the subject of education, and although Spain is far behind most other countries in this respect, 
yet she shows a most commendable desire for advancement. Here are seen specimens of 
pupils' work, desks and other school-furniture, text-books, scientific and philosophical instru- 
ments, engineering and architectural models, maps, also decorations, mosaic, inlaid work, a fine 
collection of woods, and many other things worthy of close study. Near by, West Virginia 
is represented by a very neat building, two stories in height, which, in addition to being the 
headquarters for the State Commissioners and visitors, contains quite a large exhibit of 
minerals, coals, ores, agricultural products, etc. The next building is that of y\rkansas, an 
appropriate octagonal structure of timber and glass, designed as an exhibition building, and 
containing a large display of the agricultural and mineral productions of the State. Just east 
of Arkansas, and close to the narrow-gauge railway, is an edifice that appears modeled after 
an old Grecian temple, but which upon close examination proves to be the Canadian Log- 
House, erected by the Canadian Commission, and constituting an exhibit of the timber of that 



clxx 



HISTORY OF THE 



country. The heavy vertical logs distributed symmetrically, and supporting the roof of the 
portico around the structure, strongly resemble Doric columns, while the arrangement of 
planking, boards and lath, and the construction of the roof with its cupola or ventilator, all 




^^'^'Vv, 



United States Government Pavilion. 



c^^V^,^^ 



show a considerable amount of ingenuity and taste. Close by, at the junction of Fountain 
Avenue with the Avenue of the Republic, is the fountain erected by contributions from the 
numerous societies of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America. It consists of a 
circular platform, from which four arms project out at right angles with each other, each arm 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



terminating in a smaller circular platform. In the centre is a mass of rock-work of marble, 
sixteen feet in height, crowned by a statue of Moses smiting the rock. From this the water 
descends out of numerous fissures into a basin forty feet in diameter. On each of the four 
smaller circular platforms is a drinking-fountain twelve feet in height, surmounted by a statue, 
the four statues being Father Mathew, Charles Carroll, Archbishop John Carroll, and Commo- 
dore John Barry. The work is as yet only partially completed. 

The day is drawing to a close, and we descend the massive flight of steps from the 
Fountain Plateau to the Avenue of the Republic, stopping a moment, as we pass out, to 
glance at the Vermont Building, a small plain structure, and to obtain a cup of warm coffee at 
the Turkish Cafe adjacent, an ornamental octagonal building with a heavy projecting roof, and 
painted in an attractive oriental style. Taking a seat at a small marble table, we are handed a 
beverage that might be considered enjoyable perhaps to one accustomed to Turkish manners 
and customs, but to our own taste proves anything but agreeable. At the Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem Bazaars near by, we find for sale a great variety of trinkets, rosaries, etc., and 
articles made from olive wood, all of which arc evidently genuine, although this cannot be 
said for the wares sold at man}' of the other booths. Wandering on towards the exit-gates, 
wc pass the Pennsylvania State Building facing the lake, quite a pretentious Gothic structure 
of two stories, with tower, and containing the usual reception-rooms and offices observed in 
all of these State buildings. 

There is still a portion of the grounds that we have not seen, and taking another day for 
this purpose, we pass out to the western end of Machinery Hall, first entering a building 
erected by an enterprising manufacturing firm for the exhibition of stoves, ranges, heaters, etc. 
Another, near by, is used by an opposition firm for the same purpose, and a little to the west 
of this is a small building painted in divers colors, like JosephLs coat, which proves to be a 
patent paint exhibit. Still farther on is the Saw-Mill Annex to the Machineiy Hall, a substan- 
tial, open, shed-like structure, covering an area of two hundred and seventy-six by eighty feet, 
and containing a large and interesting display of steam saw-machines, gang-saws, etc., prin- 
cipally for wood, but including also several very excellent stone-cutting machines, where the 
practical use of the black diamond is fully exemplified. A boiler-house close by supplies all 
the steam required for running the machinery of this building. Crossing the narrow-gauge 
railway we come to a large glass-ware exhibit, in a one-story frame building, in which the 
process of the manufacture of various articles in glass is shown on quite an extensive scale. 
The house is always crowded with curious visitors, making it difficult for us to observe the 
work as closely as we would like, but it is marvelous to see with what dexterity the material 
is fashioned into articles of ornament and utility. Purchasing a tiny glass slipper as a 
souvenir, we move on, glancing at a saw-mill near by, and then following the line of the 
narrow-gauge railroad past its engine-house, until we reach an exhibit of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, consisting of a section of railroad double track, laid in complete shape, 
with ballast, ties, steel rails, etc., according to the standard rules and regulations of that Com- 
pany. Just across the narrow-gauge road this same Company exhibits an interesting relic in 
the shape of an old locomotive, the "John Bull," and an attendant train of cars. The engine 
was constructed by Messrs. George and Robert Stephenson, at Ncwcastlc-upon-Tyne, England, 



clxxii 



HISTORY OF THE 



in 1831, for the Camden and Aniboy Railroad Company, and had its first pubUc trial near 
Bordentovvn, on November 12th of the same year. In 1833 it was put into active service, 
continuing in use until 1866. The train consists of two odd-looking passenger-cars, being 
of the identical ones formerly drawn by the "John Bull," and built about the year 1850, the 
whole train presenting quite an old-time appearance. The engine and cars were lately repaired 
and put into working condition, and were actually run from the shops of the Company, near 
Jersey City, to the Exhibition grounds, as we now see them, making the journey of nearly 
ninety miles at an average rate of two minutes and thirty-five seconds per mile. 

In this same locality is a building containing a complete working model ilUistrating the 





r.jiiiMiffi' 




Sew \ork StUe Fu-uilio 



Krohnke Silver Reduction Process as used in Chili for the reduction of the rich ores of the 
sulphurets and antimoniates of silver. This model, which is kept in operation as continuously 
as practicable, is made to one-sixth full size, and was originally constructed for the Valparaiso 
Exhibition, where it was shown last year. The process of working is divided into three parts 
or sections, each having a separate building. The first comprises the crushing-machinery, by 
which the ore is broken up and pulverized. It is passed through a double set of crushing- 
rolls and then into pulverizing-mills, from which it is carried off by a constant stream of water 
into settling-pits. From these it is shoveled out and thoroughly dried, when it is ready for 
chemical treatment, amalgamation, etc., which takes place in the next building. The retorting 
and smelting are carried on in the third building — the silver mass, after the mercury is vola- 
tilized, being melted down and cast into bricks. The model is exceedingly complete, and 
makes a very interesting exhibit to the metallurgist, the process being one of great thorough- 
ness, not leaving behind, it is said, over one ounce of silver per ton of ore treated, and 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxxiii 



sometimes giving even higher resuks than shown by assay. On account of the great cost 
of the plant, however, compared with capacity of working, this does not appear to be an 
available method except for very rich ores. 

North of this exhibit, near Machinery Hall, is a structure containing a display of the 
various printing-presses manufactured by the Campbell Press Company, of Brookl}'n, N. Y., 
together with specimens of type-printing, it is stated, from the date of the invention, and a 
complete printing-office, modeled after those of 1776, in actual operation. 

Returning towards the rear of Machinery Hall, we pass some gas-machines of various 
kinds and iron pipe exhibits, look for a moment at some hoisting machinery, then at pneumatic 
tubes, busy transmitting messages from one end to the other, and stop to examine a gun- 
powder pile-driver, near by, in active operation. Entering a building containing a large exhibit 
of special iron-castings, lamp-posts, hydrants, stop-valves, etc., not, however, of any special 
interest, we soon move on, entering and passing through Annex No. 3 of Machinery Hall, into 
an area devoted to machinery for brick-making, rock-drilling, artesian-well boring, etc., and in 
which, next to Machinery Hall, is located a building of the State of Nevada, containing a 
quartz-mill in full working, separating gold from the rock, according to the most approved 
method. Having satisfied our curiosity on all of these exhibits, we go on through Anne.x 
No. 2 and through the Hydraulic Annex, past the various boiler-houses, to the Shoe and 
Leather Building, a neat structure of about one hundred and sixty feet in width by three 
hundred and fourteen feet in length, devoted to exhibits of all kinds connected with leather 
and its manufacture into the numerous articles of the trade. We are struck, on entering, with 
the tasteful interior decoration of the roof in red, white and blue bunting, and the exhibits 
prove of considerably more interest than we had expected they would be. Near to the rear 
entrance-door is a heavy tanned hide, which we find to be that of the great elephant 
"Empress," which died a short time since at the Zoological Gardens. The material is of 
great use for polishing purposes. We see here excellent trunks, fine harness and saddles, all 
sorts of saddlers' furnishing goods, boots and shoes, including some exceedingly curious and 
handsome varieties from Russia, India-rubber and other fabrics, all kinds of leather, morocco 
and sheepskin, and a large amount of leather and shoe machinery. It is wonderful how far 
machinery has been applied to the making of boots and shoes, so reducing their cost, and 
giving to New England the supremacy of the world in that manufacture. Here is a machine 
for sewing soles to boots and shoes, that will sew nine hundred pairs per day. It is almost 
impossible to believe it, and yet it is said on good authority that thirty-five million pairs are 
annually sewed on these machines in the United States. Near by is a riveting-machine, which 
will rivet on three hundred pairs of soles per day, and around us are numerous machines for 
trimming, heel-burnishing, pegging, etc. We are lost in wonder. Truly, Yankee invention is 
equal to everything. 

We make our exit by the eastern door of the building, and passing through the exhibit 
of the New England Granite Compan}', consisting of various specimens of stone, monuments, 
etc., out in the open air, we find ourselves back again at the plaza of the Bartholdi I*"ouiitain, 
whence we started many days ago to explore the E.xhibition. We ha\'e now been over the 
whole ground. We are through— we have seen everything. Have we ? We hear some one 



clxxiv 



HISTORY OF THE 



say, Yes. No ! we reply, we have not. We might take you again and again, on this pleasure- 
trip, through the various buildings, out on the avenues, down in the ravines and into the shady 
nooks, and you will find many new things, many exhibits, that must have been there before, 
and yet which you passed over and either did not see or have forgotten. It would take the 
full six months of the Exhibition, and perhaps more, to see all thoroughly. The body tires, 
the feet wear out, but the enjoyment of the eyes — never! We are different beings now from 
what we were before we came here. We ha\'e ad\'anced in our ideas fift)- years. We go 




Aew Hampshire and Connecticut State Pavilions. 



home with new inspirations and with enlarged capacities, ready to do our share in the advance- 
ment of our country in the Arts and Manufactures during the new century that has just 
dawned for it. 

While all these happy days are passing, one department connected with the Exhibition 
has been hard at work, that of the Judges, flitting from one building to another, studying this 
exhibit and that one, making comparisons, testing and experimenting, so as to be fully pre- 
pared to give fair and impartial reports. Their work having been accomplished, the evening 
of September 27th is set apart by the Centennial Commission for the announcement of the 
awards. The ceremony takes place in Judges' Hall, in the presence of a brilliant audience of 
invited guests. On the stage are the distinguished officers of the Centennial Commission, the 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxxv 



Board of Finance, the Board of Judges, the various Foreign Commissioners, and many others. 
The exercises are opened with prayer, and after an appropriate anthem is rendered by the 
Temple Quartette, of Boston, Hon. D. J. Morrell, Chairman of the Executive Committee of 
tlie Commission, gives an address. Tiie orchestra then strikes up a medley of national airs, 
and the Director-General follows with some remarks in reference to the Exhibition, its appro- 
priateness, the benefits that will result from it, the profound impression produced by the high 
standing and qualifications of the gentlemen connected with the various Commissions, their 
close attention to their duties, and the great degree in which the Exhibition is indebted to 
them for its success. He also refers to the eminent body of men, both foreign and American, 
selected as Judges, the delicate and difficult task they were called upon to perform, and the 
good will, earnestness and zeal with which they accepted the charge and carried out their 
work. After another interlude of vocal music by the Temple Quartette, the President of the 
Centennial Commission moved forward to the front of the stand and explained the system of 
awards, the departure made from that usual at previous exhibitions, and the advantages 
derived from the change. He dwelt upon the obligations due to the tens of thousands of 
exhibitors, many of whom, not only from the United States, but also from other countries, 
were here to testify their good will in this our fraternal year ; also on the man)- purely govern- 
mental exhibits, and the friendly interest shown by many sovereigns, tending to perpetuate 
international friendship ; and in conclusion he stated that the awards would be announced to 
the several countries in alphabetical order, giving no precedence to one over the other, and 
that if any were warmer friends than others, he trusted they were those with whom we had 
sometimes quarreled. He then called forward in alphabetical order the Chief Commissioners 
of the various governments, and delivered to them copies of the awards made to the exhibitors 
from their several countries. As the list of nations was called, beginning with the Argentine 
Confederation, and as the representative of each, respectively, stepped forward to receive the 
roll containing the list of names for his country, he was received with enthusiastic applause. 
This portion of the exercises took considerable time, after which the evening closed with music. 

The total number of exhibitors amounted to twenty-six thousand nine hundred and 
eighty-six, of which eight thousand five hundred and twenty-five were from the United States. 
There were thirteen thousand one hundred and forty-eight medals awarded, being a little over 
forty-eight per cent, of the number of exhibitors, and five thousand one hundred and tliirty- 
four of these awards were to this country. 

Let us take a glance at some of the results which may be deduced from the Exhibition, 
more particularly in reference to our own country, its capabilities and development. First, in 
reference to that great industry, the Iron Manufacture. The exhibit of minerals is very large, 
and one fact is brought forth above all others, in that the United States give evidence of the 
possession of great mineral wealth. The Smithsonian Institute is represented bj- a magnificent 
collection; very many of the States have on exhibition the natural productions of their respec- 
tive territories, well selected and arranged, and individual manufacturers also furnish numerous 
specimens, immense coal exhibits show the presence of the required fuel to reduce these 
ores, and the displa}'- of finished iron and steel gives proof of the complete ability and metal- 
lurgical knowledge possessed by those connected with the manfacture, and necessary for the 



:lxxvi 



HISTORY OF THE 



production of the best results. The large dimensions and thorough finish of the manufac- 
tured articles are evidence of the strength and perfection of the machinery as well as the skill 
of the men employed in their production. Immense iron-ore deposits exist all over the 
country. The amount of ore smelted in the year 1875 was about four million three hundred 
and seventy thousand tons, of which about one million tons came from Lake Superior, three 
hundred and fifty thousand from Lake Champlain, about one hundred and fifty thousand from 
the great Cornwall ore banks of Pennsylvania, and four hundred thousand tons from little 




New Jersey. Iron Mountain, in Missouri, gave two hundred 
and fifty thousand tons. In 1875 there were seven hundred 
and thirteen blast-furnaces, with a joint capacity of about 
fi\e million four hundred and forty thousand tons, and the 
puddling -furnaces were four thousand four hundred and 
seventy-four in number, the total capacity of the works for 
production of rails and other wrought iron being about four 
million one hundred and ninety thousand tons. American iron manufacture has kept pace 
with the age, and the works appear to be fully up to those of Europe as to the latest and best 
details of manufacture, in fact even serving as examples for the instruction of metallurgists 
from abroad, nearly all of whom have evinced the deepest interest in them, and have 
expressed the greatest surprise at the freedom with which information has been given and 
access allowed to what in Europe would be considered important trade secrets. Some pro- 
cesses were quite novel to them, and among these may be particularly mentioned that of 
cold-rolling, or passing a bar of iron a number of times through rolls when cold, and reducing 
it about si.x per cent, in its section, thereby materially increasing its tenacity and hardness, 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. . clxxvii 

giving it a highly finished surface, and adapting it directly for shafting, piston-rods, etc., with- 
out further manipulation. 

Many fine exhibits are made of American steel, the various processes of blister and 
puddled, crucible, Siemens-Martin, and Bessemer manufacture being fully represented, and the 
qualities of metal produced by the different methods will bear comparison with any in the 
world. The Siemens-Martin method is in very successful use, having an annual production 
of some forty-five thousand tons. The Bessemer process is shown to be fully up to that of 
England in its details of operation. Indeed it even surpasses it in perfection of machinery for 
handling the material. The capacity of tlie various works is about five hundred thousand tons 
annually, principally iron rails, and greater than that demanded by the railroads of the country. 
In the figures we have given on iron and steel, we do not mean to infer that the annual pro- 
duction is up to the full capacity of the various works, as it is not, but only that the works 
have a capability equal to that amount. The perfection to which the Bessemer steel works of 
the United States have arrived is due to the fact that the Government afforded a heavy pro- 
tective tariff on steel rails just when it was most needed. At the time Bessemer works were 
first commenced in this country, steel rails were selling at one hundred and fifty dollars per 
ton, but when these works had gone into operation, the price fell to a hundred and twenty 
dollars, and now, to-day, the manufacturers are able to furnish rails at forty-five dollars per 
ton. This shows the value of a protective tariff and the good results coming from it when 
properly applied. Had there been no duty on steel rails, the works never could have been 
started, England never would have reduced her prices, and we would have been paying to-day 
very nearly what we did ten years ago. Perfection in machinery for these works, owing to 
American invention, has contributed not a little to these results, in enabling our manufactu- 
rers to turn out a greater number of casts per day than at any other works in the world. 

In regard to the exhibits of iron from foreign countries, Sweden is especially conspicuous 
for the number and exceedingly high standard of her specimens, and their excellent arrange- 
ment. Sweden has long been noted for her close dependence upon scientific knowledge m 
reference to the proper manipulation of iron, and it may be said that to her is due the success 
of the Bessemer process, an invention which, on first application in Great Britain to the less 
pure form of pig-iron, was a failure, and it was only when Swedish experts showed its practi- 
cability, and Mushet suggested Spiegel-eisen as a corrective to the impurities in the iron, that 
the difficulties experienced were overcome. We must not omit to mention, in this connection, 
the fine display made by Prussia of this Spiegel-eisen, so essential in the Bessemer manufac- 
ture, one of the few materials of which we are as yet so deficient, only a little coming from 
New Jersey and Connecticut, and almost all that is used has to be imported. 

No one, unless particularly informed on the subject, would have supposed that the United 
States could make much display at the Exhibition in "Ceramic and Glass Wares," and would 
have been much surprised to learn that out of five hundred and ninety-two exhibitors, one 
hundred and ninety-nine were from this country. Such, however, is the case, and the display 
is an important one, not only on account of its extent, but also from the fact of its showing 
the existence of an abundance of excellent natural material, and the requisite mdustrial 
skill to manipulate it. The resulting wares are here in direct competition with those of the 



HISTORY Of THE 



same kind from Great Britain and other European countries, and they challenge comparison 
without fear. Taking into consideration the vast extent of the general display, including por- 
celain of all kinds, hard and soft, biscuit, Parian, stone-ware, glazed and unglazed ; stone china, 
"granite" ware and the softer cream-colored wares, faience, majolica and Palissy wares, terra- 
cotta, tiles, etc., our own exhibits, while more of the practical and useful kind, are really very 
satisfactory. The industry has developed in this country with most wonderful rapidity, 
reflecting great credit on the ability and energy of those who have taken hold of it, most of 
them without previous training or knowledge, and in the face of innumerable difficulties. 




The Art Gallery. 



Heavy and coarse wares were manufactured in the United States as far back as the middle 
of the last century, and more than one hundred years ago porcelain works existed for a short 
time in Philadelphia. During the war of i8i2, numerous potteries were started, but ceased 
to exist under foreign competition after peace was restored. A determined effort was made 
again in 1830 in reference to this industry, by establishing a porcelain manufactory in Phila- 
delphia, but it closed in a few years, involving the founders in considerable loss. After this 
time a number of potteries for coarser wares, gray and yellow stone, sprung up, and they have 
been generally successful. About the year 1854, however, the subject of the manufacture of 
a higher grade of wares, such as the English "white granite," was taken up at Trenton, New 
Jersey, and after long labor, many efforts, and much loss, the industry was established on a 



I NTERX ATIO NAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



firm footing in 1866, resulting in a commercial success about 1870. Other manufactories have 
developed in various parts of the country from this, and there are now works situated in 
Chicago and Philadelphia, at Greenpoint, New York, where porcelain as well as earthenware 
is made, and in Ohio,— Trenton, however, being the chief point of production, and rapidly 
becoming, as it were, the Staffordshire of America. The wares exhibited are of most excel- 
lent body and glaze, entirely free from iron spots or other impurities, showing a high quality 
of material and a great perfection attained in what may be said to be almost a new body in 
pottery wares. The glazes are of good medium hardness, well incorporated with the body, 
and have, it is claimed, little tendency to crackle — far less than foreign wares. They receive 
colors well, and although the decorations as a general rule are deficient in originality, and 
often copies of foreign designs, it is to be hoped that the results of the E.xhibition and the 
efforts of our Art-schools will make a great change for the better in this respect. 

In reference to wares from abroad, Great Britain comes first in importance, displaying a 
large range of manufacture, from objects of the finest texture down to cheap household goods. 
The porcelain, having a body compromised between hard paste, like that of Dresden, and soft, 
like old Sevres, is compact, homogeneous and translucent, and the glaze hard and brilliant. 
Most excellent table-, dessert- and tea-services are shown, and large collections of decorative 
objects of exceedingly artistic design and execution. One variety, called " Ivory" porcelain, is 
very elegant, having a soft rich surface and most agreeable tone of color, some .specimens 
being delicately perforated, showing great skill in manufacture. A large and interesting 
exhibit is made of ornamental .stone-ware, showing its application to architectural decoration, 
a new and most successful use for this material. The specimens of stone-ware for sanitary 
and chemical purposes are very fine, and among these may be mentioned a sewer-pipe fifty- 
four inches in diameter, and a stone-ware jar of six hundred and twenty gallons capacity. 
The terra-cotta exhibit is very large, the most important object being the colossal group of 
"America," in Memorial Hall, reproduced from one of the corner groups of the Albert 
memorial in Hyde Park. A pulpit of combined red terra-cotta and stone-ware produces a 
very striking effect, as also a large wall fountain and a font. One should notice in these the 
elaborately wrought out relief-work, scarcely ever attempted so successfully. Terra-cotta is 
now being quite effectively employed in architectural works for decorative purposes, not only 
in Europe, but in the United States, and a large field is opened for its use. A Chicago firm 
has developed the manufacture in this country to a high degree. The display of English floor 
and wall tiles is very fine, most of the large manufacturers being well represented. 

France has a large and interesting exhibit of porcelain and other ceramic wares, Palissy, 
majolica and decorative faience, and one will never forget the exquisite terra-cotta statuettes 
of M. Eugene Blot & Son, illustrating fishing-life at Boulogne, so full of artistic expression, 
and having such force and freedom of touch. In the Memorial Hall are some very large 
and elaborate vases from the National Manufactory at Sevres, all fine examples of that kind 
of work. Among the other European exhibitors, Sweden is worthy of particular mention 
for an excellent display of porcelain and pottery of various kinds, .showing evidence of 
energy, enterprise and skill fully adequate to make her independent of other nations in this 
industry. 



clxxx 



HISTORY OF THE 



Of course the exhibit of porcelain and pottery from Japan is far beyond that of any other 
nation in importance, not only in the extent of its collection and its varied character, but in 
its general high standard of excellence and in the great superiority of its individual specimens. 
Taking into account the nature of the material, many of the pieces shown are really colossal 
in size, and not only are many curious objects of early date exhibited, but also imitations or 
reproductions of the ancient wares on a large scale, and so accurately as to defy detection. 
Vases are shown six and eight feet in height, perfectly potted, and fine examples of effective 
decoration. Large flat slabs of decorated porcelain are exhibited, one nearly six feet in 
diameter, finished and glazed on both sides, and showing no marks of points of support in the 




TTie Japanae Pavilion. 



oven, being most remarkable pieces of work. It has been stated by one fully capable of 
giving a reliable opinion, that the Japanese display surpasses anything that has ever been 
shown by a single country at any previous International Exhibition. 

Concerning the exhibit of glass, that from the United States is large and important, 
including almost all descriptions of ware, and it is evident that before many years America 
will successfully compete in all branches of this industry with the countries of the world. 

In the exhibition of "Chemical Products," the display is very large, showing great excel- 
lence, particularly in the collections of pharmaceutical chemicals displayed by American firms, 
Philadelphia, especially, having been long celebrated for her chemical manufactures. Impor- 
tant exhibits are made from our own country, as well as England and Germany, in mineral-oil 
products and those of alkali manufacture. 

In textile fabrics, the manufacturers of the United States show very decidedly the vast 
progress they have made in the various branches of this industry, and give striking proof of 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxxxi 

their ability to cope with foreign competition in these goods. The exhibits of cotton, linen 
and other fabrics from abroad arc not nearly so extensive as might have been expected. The 
collection from France is very scanty. Some goods of excellent quality are shown from 
Wiirtemburg and Elberfeld in Germany, and Hanover furnishes a most artistic display of 
cotton velvets and velveteens, resembling silk in appearance, and particularly noticeable for 
their texture and finish, and for the variety and blending of the colors. An admirable and 
unsurpassed display of woolen tweeds and cassimeres, heavy cheviots, flannels, woolen 
blankets, heavy sheetings, etc., comes from Canada, and Ireland takes the lead in linen fabrics, 
although the goods sent from Dresden and other noted European localities are of exceedingly 
high class and fully up to their well-deserved reputation. The exhibit of oil-cloths and other 
enameled tissues is exceptionally fine, and the display of American exhibitors unrivaled, 
nothing contributed by foreign exhibitors being equal to it. The raw cottons are almost all 
American, although some excellent specimens come from Brazil, and small samples from very 
many other localities. 

The United States has a very large and most important exhibit of wool and silk fabrics, 
outrivaling that made by the cotton manufacturers, and the industry as far back as 1870 
involved a capital of about one hundred million of dollars, and nearly three thousand estab- 
lishments. The display of Great Britain is very fine, notwithstanding that some of the most 
enterprising English firms are not represented. 

In carpets our own country makes a very large display of all the leading varieties, the 
specimens being well made and containing a good combination of colors, arranged with taste. 
Too many of the designs are copies of foreign goods, although some are original, but it is 
hoped that this defect will be remedied in time, and that the manufacturers will see the policy 
of employing competent designers of their own. Our carpet industry is becoming very 
rapidly a most important one, entering into competition most successfully with foreign impor- 
tations, and it deserves every encouragement. Great Britain makes a very choice display of 
carpets, also France and Belgium, — the tapestry carpets of the latter being of most admirable 
design and color. 

In jewelry, watches and silver-ware the United States makes a most excellent exhibit, 
and in reference to watches, has caused great consternation among the Swiss manufacturers, 
owing to the superior facilities which this country shows she possesses for their manufacture, 
and the very high standard which she has attained in their quality. 

In paper, stationery, printing and book-making, the majority of the exhibits are from the 
United States. The great natural facilities for paper-making possessed by the country, and the 
ingenious adaptations of machinery to the processes — no hand-paper being now made — have 
added very much to the development of the industry. A very large variet\' of printing-presses 
are shown, from the old original press of Franklin, down to the large and powerful machines 
of the present day, — the English Walter press, and the American Bullock, Hoe, and Campbell 
machines. 

Hardware forms a most prominent display, and the exhibits for building and household 
use from the United States are remarkable for variety, beauty of design and artistic finish, 
surpassing all those from foreign countries in these points. Locks have formed an American 



clxxxii 



HISTORY OF THE 



specialty since the day of the Exhibition of 1 851, when Hobbs picked the famous Bramah 
Lock, and the number and variety that are now manufactured may be called legion. The 
combination- and time-locks for safes seem to be very much admired by our cousins from 
abroad. In edge-tools more than half the exhibitors are from this country, and the quality 
of the material is without any superior. Every one knows the world-wide reputation of the 
American axe, and the enormous demand for it in foreign countries. All hand-tools for car- 
penters' use show marked improvements, due to the inventive genius of the Yankee. In 
agricultural and laborers' tools, very marked advances have been made in the United States, 




United S/afcs Government Building. 



they being much more solidly and permanently constructed, while at the same time possessing 
greatly increased lightness and a freedom of working that is very desirable. Exhibitors in 
cutlery from this country make a most extensive and handsome display, showing great 
improvement both in the style and quality of their goods. There are exceptionally fine 
exhibits from Great Britain, Germany and Russia, and it seems to be generally admitted that 
while America holds the first place in table cutlery, tools, and fire- and burglar-proof safes. 
Great Britain has the pre-eminence in pocket and fine cutlery. 

In railway plant, rolling stock, engines, etc., the number of foreign e.xhibits is very 
limited, although most of those displayed possess peculiar merit. Thus we notice important 
switch-locking and signaling systems from Great Britain, tires and a.xles from Sweden, etc. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. clxxxiii 



As would naturally be expected, however, the mass of the exhibits in this department comes 
from America. We have the permanent way of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the rolling-stock 
of the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Miller platform and coupling, the various styles of 
springs, a most prominent series of car-wheel exhibits, the Westinghouse, Smith's and Hen- 
derson's car-brakes, etc. There is a large exhibit of American locomotives, but only one from 
abroad, a narrow-gauge Swedish engine. To foreigners, our railway exhibits have been most 
interesting, presenting the peculiar features of a system different in many respects from any- 
thing in their own countries. 

The United States is largely represented in hydraulic motors, transmitters and pneumatic 
apparatus. There is an extensive exhibit of Turbines, generally of excellent design and 
workmanship, and although mostly constructed in the usual form, in some cases presenting 
features of novelty. The collection of shafting and belting is specially prominent, and the 
cold-rolled shafting of Messrs. Jones and Laughlin, of Pittsburgh, is particularly noticeable. 
A very large exhibit is made of pumps of the various classes, and the admirable arrangement 
of the Hydraulic Section of Machinery Hall enables them to be shown to the utmost 
advantage. 

The display of machinery is greatly in excess of anything at previous exhibitions, and 
the United States is far ahead of any other country. Those best qualified to judge state that 
it is really a most remarkable exhibit, full of new ideas, refined in mechanism, and most 
encouraging for the future. The display of machine tools, especially, has never been equaled, 
either in number, quality or adaptability, and is full of novelty and progress. Great Britain 
shows a magnificent exhibit of steam hammers and some textile machinery from Leeds, but 
otherwise is exceedingly meagre. Canada, for a young country, makes an excellent exhibit. 
The display from France, although small, is very fine, the wood machinery of Arbey, of Paris, 
being specially worthy of attention. As we have devoted a large space in our "Mechanical 
and Scientific" department, to this branch of the Exhibition, we cannot do more than refer 
to it here. 

A very large exhibit is made in sewing, knitting and embroidering machines, clothes- 
making machinery, etc., sewing-machines of course taking the first position, both in number 
and importance, all, or nearly all, coming from the United States. America has always occu- 
pied a very prominent position in sewing-machines at previous exhibitions, and it was only to 
be expected that she would in this instance make a display surpassing anything that has ever 
been seen before. That she has done this, every one will admit. The competition between 
rival firms is very great; new improvements are constantly being made, and each manufacturer 
endeavors in every way possible to keep a front position with the public. All sorts of 
machines are exhibited. There are the family machines, those for cloth, shoes, and even for 
boots, harness, saddles, etc., all doing most wonderful work ; and to choose a machine, or to 
decide which is the best or most worthy of award, must be the most bewildering work that 
ever mortal man was entrusted with. Some of the knitting-machines are very curious, and a 
very novel apparatus is exhibited for darning stockings. 

In electric and telegraphic apparatus some notable exhibits are made. Gray's, Edison's 
and Bell's Telephones maybe mentioned among others as having a most brilliant future before 



HISTORY OF THE 



them. The end to which they may develop, and the immense value they may prove to the 
world, no one knows. 

The civil engineering exhibit from the United States is a very important one, although 
many most extensive and interesting works are not represented. Many e.xhibits are under the 
charge of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and a number of engineering works 
being prosecuted by the Government are represented by models in the United States Building, 
such as the Hell-Gate improvement in New York Harbor, the construction of breakwaters in 
the great lakes, models of light-houses, etc. France and Holland both make exceedingly fine 
displays of their Public Works. 




In agricultural machinery the exhibits are confined, with a few unimportant exceptions, to 
the United States and Canada. Implements of tillage and planting, machines for thrashing, 
winnowing, corn-husking, and shelling, portable and stationary engines, grinding-mills, dairy 
fittings and appliances, etc. etc., are displayed in great profusion, showing a high degree of 
perfection attained by American manufacturers in this department, and attracting the attention 
of the agricultural world. The E.xhibition will undoubtedly open a large foreign market for 
our people in this industry, particularly in South America and Australia. 

Exterior to the regular E.xhibition grounds, but under the same management, inter- 
national live-stock exhibitions of great interest have been held, a large area having been 
enclosed and arranged with the -necessary sheds, etc. Dogs, horses, cattle, sheep, and swine 
have had their turn in rotation, a few days being given to each, and to those particularly 
interested in live stock, the displays have proved quite an attraction. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



clxx.xv 



At length the time of the Exhibition draws to a close. On the evening of the 9th of 
November the Centennial Commission gives a farewell dinner to the various Foreign Commis- 
sioners and other distinguished guests, making a company of about two hundred and fifty. 
The morning of the lOth dawns, and is announced by thirteen guns from George's Hill and 
from the steamer " Plymouth" in the harbor, simultaneously. Regret is felt by all, and yet it 
is not unmixed with a sensation of relief at the thought of coming rest — of a return to the 
quiet life of former times. But Philadelphia never will fall back to quite the old-fashioned 
routine. She has been thoroughly awakened and enlarged in her ideas, and will undoubtedly 
remain more cosmopolitan. The day sympathizes with the feelings of the people, and a slow 
and steady November rain pours down from the clouds, rendering utterly useless the exten- 
sive preparations that have been made in the open air for the closing ceremonies. There is no 
diminution in the number of visitors to the buildings — the records giving nearly one hundred 
and twenty-two thousand on that day — but the vast rows of temporary seats, one above the 
other, at the west end of the Main Building, facing the Bartholdi Fountain, look cheerless and 
deserted. The ceremonies must take place in the Judge's Hall, a very small building for that 
purpose, and to reduce the number of invited guests, admission is refused to ladies' tickets. 
Some few of the more adventurous, however, pass the guards, one lady claiming the right 
as a descendant of one of the signers, another as having had an ancestor on board the " Bon 
Homme Richard," etc. etc. On a platform at the upper end of the hall are the President of 
the United States, his Cabinet, the various Foreign Legations, the Centennial Commission and 
Board of Finance, etc. — the Philadelphia City Troop acting as Guard of Honor, an office they 
have always performed for every President of the United States when a guest of Philadelphia, 
since the time that they formed the Body- Guard to General Washington in the Revolu- 
tionary War. 

The final ceremonies open with Wagner's Inauguration March, recalling vividly the scene 
of six months before ; then a prayer, and after that a choral and fugue of Bach's. Addresses 
follow from the Chairman of the Executive Committee, from the President of the Centennial 
Board of Finance, the Director-General, and the President of the Centennial Commission, the 
intervals between each being occupied with musical selections by the orchestra and chorus. 
Next comes the hymn, "America" — 



' My country, 'tis of thee. 
Sweet land of liberty. 

Of thee I sing; 
Land where my fathers died. 
Land of the pilgrims' pride. 
From every mountain-side 

Let freedom ring ! 



'Our fathers' God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty. 

To Thee we sing; 
Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light; 
Protect us by Thy might. 

Great God, our King" — 



during the singing of which, the original flag of the American Union, first displayed by Com- 
modore Paul Jones on the "Bon Homme Richard," is unfurled and saluted by forty-seven 
guns, one for each State and Territory of the nation. The President of the United States now 
performs the last act of the drama, by declaring "the International Exhibition of 1876 closed," 
and at the same moment, by a touch of his hand on a telegraphic signal, the great Corliss 



clxxxvi 



HIS TOR V OF THE 



engine — that pulse which has been the hfe of Machinery Hall for six months— is stopped, never 
to resume its work there again ; and the audience rise up, and uniting with the grand orchestra 
and chorus, break forth in the Doxology— "Old Hundred" — 

" Be Thou, O God, exalted high ! 
And as Thy glory filU the sky. 
So let it be on earth displayed. 
Till Thou art here as there obeyed" — 

the chimes on Machiner>- Hall at the same time ringing out their last peal in honor of the 
Exhibition of 1876. 

No such exhibition has ever been held before, either as to extent, number of admissions 
or receipts. From the lOth of May to the lOth of November, inclusive, there was a grand 
total of 9,910,966 visitors, of whom 8,004,274 paid admission fees, amounting to 53,813,724.49, 
1,815,617 were connected with the Exhibition, and 91,075 had com[)limentary tickets. After 
the closing day, up to December' 16th, there were 213,744 visitors, of whom 43,327 paid 
admissions amounting to §19,912 ; 168,900 were connected with the Exhibition, and 1517 had 
complimentary' tickets. The total admissions, therefore, from the lOth of May to the 16th of 
December amounted to 10,164,489, for which the total receipts were §3,833,636.49. The 
largest number of visitors occurred on Pennsylvania Day, September 28th, being 274,919, and 
the smallest number on the 12th of May, being 12,720. There were nearly two hundred 
buildings on the grounds, and the narrow-gauge passenger- railway carried 3.812.794 
passengers. 






I'u-w in the Book DepartineiU. Main Building. 




Fine Art 



International Exhibition 



EDWARD STRAHAN. 



Enttrtd. aetording to Act of CffHpress. >« the year iSjS, h GEBBIE &■ BARRIE, 
in the O^ee of the Librarian of Congress, at H'ashington. 



The International Exhibition, 1876. 




)HE1 people of the nineteenth century find themselves inheritors 
of the great classical revival of the beginning of that century. 
An American, West ; a Frenchman, David ; and a German, 
Mengs, led the aesthetic taste of the civilized world in 1800. 
Every art-school, as has been well observed, starts from a 
pagan revival or renaissance. There is, as it were, a fund of 
the vital principle in Greek sculpture and Roman mural painting and Attic 
vase-painting which immediately goes to work and fortifies a fresh school of 
plastic, just so soon as any accident brings the work of the ancients promi- 
nently before people's attention. At different times the resuscitation of Greek 
specimens creates the career of Nicolo in Pisa, of Leonardo in Milan, of 
Michael Angelo in the Medici gardens, of Raphael when he enfranchises him- 
self from Perugia, of Poussin on leaving France, of Albert Diirer on reaching 
Venice, of Velasquez in Spain, of Rubens in Antwerp, as well as of our triad 
of painters, Mengs, West and David. David, then, in France, and West, in 
England, were restoring classical art with all their force at the beginning of 
this country's career. 

But what is art? A convenient definition, one which Taine the critic is 
fond of using, we owe to one who never meddled with paints or marble, who 
was not, correctly speaking, either a painter or a sculptor, yet who helped on 
the cause of art in his day with an energy of practice and a blaze of enthu- 
siasm which has rarely been equaled before or since. This was Benvenuto 
Cellini, the immortal jeweler of the sixteenth century; and he says in effect that 



FINE ART. 5 



the aim of art is "to produce a representation of a beautiful human figure, 
with correctness of design and in a graceful attitude." If we can approve this 
definition, and keep it in mind, it will greatly simplify our estimate of the men 
and works we shall have to examine during our excursion in the paths ot 
modern art. It is a definition that would have been approved, without much 
modification, by both the able artists who started our century for us. David 
found the French captivated by the shepherdess-pictures of Boucher and Fra- 
gonard. He found them insisting that art was clouds, art was gauze, art was 
roses, art was hearts and darts, art was Cupids and nymphs disporting in the 
sky, art was idiots in white satin who pretended they were herdsmen, art was 
amorous ladies and sexless creatures in silken breeches vacantly giggling in 
flowery gardens, art was the beauties of the Pare avx Ccrfs, the ephemeral 
etchings of Madame de Pompadour, the sweet, liquid Elysium of Watteau. 
David met this warm, steamy, enervated tide of feeling, and said coldly, ''Ari 
is the representation of beautiful human figures, ivith correctness of design and 
in noble attitudes;" and by uttering this theory with perseverance and distinct- 
ness he completely stifled a whole national school of painting and sculpture, set 
in motion an influence that is perfectly distinct in his country to this day, and 
spliced again a cord that was being frittered and fretted away by the French 
of his time — the cord, I wolald say, that united the art of France with the great 
classical line of art ; for the fine arts, if we take this direction of them and 
consider it the central direction, stretch back in one unbroken thread through 
Italy and antiquity. There is not the slightest break — from David to his master, 
Vien, who expressed some recognition of classical correctness at a time when 
the shepherdesses were all in favor, and antique art was a bore, who spent 
much of his time in Rome, and who was beggared by the Revolution — from 
Vien to Poussin, who tried his best to make an Italian of himself, and was glad 
to clean the brushes of Domenichino — from him to the grand masters, Raphael, 
Leonardo, Angelo, who indeed married Clerical Art (the art of the churches) 
with their left hands, but gave their right hands and their whole hearts to the 
pagan renaissance of their day, and whose schoolmasters were the Greek statues 
which the spade then turned out hour by hour in the teeming soil of Italy — 
from Italy to Italy's political captive and intellectual conqueror, Greece, and 
from Greece to her mysterious old oracle, Egypt. There is not the slightest 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



logical hiatus from Egypt four tliousand years ago to David in 1800, and from 
David to Ingres and Gerome, if we take this clear definition of classical art, 
that it is " fhc I'eprcscntaiioii 0/ bamtifnl liuman figures with correctness of design 
and in noble atti- 



tudes T 

If we take any 
other definition we 
shall find the thread 
very short. If we 
say it is Christian 
asceticism, we shall 
indeed see it most 
profoundly express- 
ed by Dijrer and 
Fra Angelico, but it 
is doomed to come 
to a sudden end 
when the hot vital 
flame of the pagan 
renaissance touches 
the thread. If we 
call it mere com [po- 
sition and light-and- 
shade — picturesque- 
ncss, in fact — it 
shows what won- 
ders it can do un- 
der Rembrandt, but 
is unable to assert 
itself in any long 




Aurora: J. A. Bjilly. Sc. 



coherence or his- 
tory; if we call it 
landscape sentiment, 
we find it goes back 
but a little way, 
and under Hobbema 
and Ruisdall soon 
drowns itself in a 
Dutch canal ; if we 
call it still-life, it 
reaches its highest 
development among 
the Dutch flower- 
painters, and buries 
, itself, as Edmond 
About says, in a Rot- 
terdam tulip. These 
specialties make 
very large claims 
now-a-days, and 
have influential 
schools — flower- 
painting and " still- 
life," among the 
vase - painters and 
panel-decorators ! — 
" picturesqueness, " 



among the etchers and workers on the illustrated press ! — Christian acerbity, 
among the pre-Raphaelites ! — and landscape, among the hosts of practitioners. 
To talk to any of these specialists, alone by himself you would fancy there 
was no other kind of art. But the art of tradition and history is the art which 



FINE ART. . 7 

Cellini loved with all his passion and all his turbulence ; and this is the art of 
'' represc7iti}ig a bedutifid hiiniaii Jigure with con'cchiess of design and in a 
graceful attilude." 

Under this tradition, beautified from old Greece and ennobled from Egypt, 
Art has completely filled the south of Europe with a bland, lambent, civilizing 
wave of feeling. Classical art, coming from Egypt and Etruria, invaded Italy 
with a hundred thousand marble statues ; dived under the soil, and reappeared 
in Raphael ; spread eastward to Venice, to revel in the luxury there ; took a 
northward turn, and inspired Correggio in Parma and Rubens in Flanders ; 
and so, modified according to race and clime, visited the grave hidalgos, and 
overshadowed the easels of Murillo and Velasquez ; came finally to France, and 
found a witty nation industriously worshipping artificial flowers. Here, in the 
person of David, it struck down frivolity as with an arm of marble, and pre- 
pared the foundations of the greatest school of art at present existing. Thus 
is art homogeneous and continuous in the south of Europe. 

All the while there was, lying in the cold water, and separated from the 
European continent by an apparatus of chopping, perpendicular waves which 
the best sailors have not often been able to regard without nausea — an island, 
which it is impossible for us to regard with indifference, because it is our 
parent. This island was called Albion, Angle-land or England. It had always 
given the Continent a great deal of trouble. Caesar went over and made it 
partly an Italian island ; Saint Austin went over and made it partly a Christian 
island ; William of Normandy went over and made it partly a French island ; 
none of which reforms are to our purpose until Benjamin West in 1763 put 
on his broadbrim and went over and helped to make it an island of painters. 

The history of England, in relation to European civilization, has been most 
singular. Although insulated by the sea, England has never been willing to 
remain detached from the great mental movements of Christendom. Full of 
originality and the instinct to e.xpress herself, she mingled forcibly with all the 
politics of the Continent ; she visited and colonized savage shores in every part 
of the globe, until to-day, bursting out of Britain to stretch herself over India, 
she is, as Disraeli says, an oriental rather than a European power. The moment 
printing was invented she took her place at the head of modern letters ; but 
in Art her development was extremely fitful and peculiar. 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Let us not for an instant surmise that the Saxon or Gothic mind is inca- 
pable of art ; the cathedrals of Germany and England show a race artistically 
equal — at the time when cathedrals were the expression of art — with the Latin 
race. But England, at the great revival of oil-painting, was found in a very 
strange attitude. Conscious of noble deeds and personal worth, fond of visiting 
but remote from visitors, she needed above all things the portrait-painter. For 




y. »'. Chainfmy. Pin 



liigen Cr Snyder, Eng. 



a long time, instead of forming her own celebrators, advertisers, commemora- 
tors — whatever we choose to call them — she summoned them from the ends 
of the earth. Zucchero was sent for from Italy to paint Queen Elizabeth, as 
Holbein had been sent for from Augsburg to paint Henry VlII ; Vandyck was 
tempted from Antwerp to paint Cliarles I, as Lely was, from the virtues and 
the sugar-cured hams of Westphalia, to [oaint Nelly Gwyn. At the close of 
the last century, however, one great native name in portraiture had risen into 



FINE ART. 



full renown : Reynolds had represented with superb talent the heroes of the 
Augustan age, and he was an Englishman. Unsurpassable in portrait, Reynolds 




was a tyro in all else ; if he tried an ideal scene, it would be good in so far 
as it depended upon the attributes of portraiture, and entirely wanting in force 



lO THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

for its other attributes. Beside him and his rival in portraiture, Gainsborough, 
and the splendid satirist, Hogarth, the artists of the country were hardly noticed; 
there was nobody fit to assert seriously and effectively the principles of classical 
art, and there never had been — nobody able to paint the grand English battles, 
nobody capable of placing a Christian lesson in fresco, with any beauty, in the 
domes of the churches. Dazzled by the splendor of Reynolds's genius, and 
drilled by the influence of all the English tradition, which had been pouring 
imported portraitists into the land for full three hundred years — '' Portraiture ^ 
said the people, "is Art, and Art is Portraiture." "Not quite so," said West, 
in effect, as he stepped quietly upon the scene : ''Art is the representation of 
human beauty, idcallv perfect in design, (graceful and noble in attitude." 

That was what West had to say; that was the eternal burden of his 
preaching. He was a man of influence and success in his day, and England 
would have done well if she could have carried out her academic education on 
his line. Not a great man, nor a perfectly successful follower of Beauty, he 
was eminently sane and sensible. He invented the camera obscura ; he had the 
pleasure of making Reynolds wince, by venturing to paint "The Death of 
Wolfe" with the innovation of modern uniforms, instead of Roman garments. 
His whole course of work was a standing rebuke to the undisciplined fancies 
of FusEi.i. As for portraiture, he cheapened that by painting very poor like- 
nesses himself. It is safe to say that he gave the nation more ideas in the 
way of balanced composition, elegance, sound training, and conception of the 
great thoughts of the renaissance, than she had had up to his time. Under his 
presidency the Academy was a safe school for the study of human beauty, of 
accomplished design and of grace in attitude. Unfortunately, however, what he 
could teach and what he knew was not quite represented in what he wrought. 
His works are left ; his teaching is forgotten. His influence was a strong one 
for half a century; but the English nation could not long rest in the spirit of 
his teachings, and the school of West, after correcting Fuseli, extinguishing 
Barry, and giving a fair start to Allston and Trumbull, fell into utter despair, 
and blew out its brains in Haydon. English art took up the anecdotic vein of 
Hogarth, which was followed with ability by Wilkie and Mulready. Its land- 
scape school, invented by Wilson, became accomplished in Constable, incom- 
mensurable in Turner. On the death lately of Maclise — a rather weak, 



FINE ART. II 

distorted reflection of Paul Delaroche — tlie last classic tradition seemed to die 
out. The prominent men of the moment, like Hunt and Millais, are experi- 
menters, cJicrchcurs. Except Leighton, there is scarce any one capable of 
putting up a correct frescoed figure in an archway of the Kensington Museum. 
The development of the nation, taking another of its strange caprices, has gone 
over to industrial art. There is not an Englishman now living whose endeavor 
could be said to be, in Cellini's sense, to represent a beautifiCl human figure, 
with correctness of design and in a graceful attitude. 

That was the way in which our century of art was started for us in the 
two foremost countries of the world. West and David, in their day, met on 
equal terms, and West received an ovation in the Louvre. Both are bywords 
of a slight contempt in the mouths of unthinking persons now, but not in 
those of considerate men. They found it their business to take their two 
nations by the shoulders, break off old habits suddenly, and set them in the 
eternal way of art, the one way that has produced great works in time gone 
by — the study of beautiful human form, correct design, graceful composition. 
They wished to knit the career of their countries to the great fabric of art 
which has come unbroken from antiquity. The corresponding influence was 
exerted at the same time on Germany by Raphael Mengs, who walked with 
all the accuracy at his command in the footsteps of Raphael Sanzio. He 
painted with the search for classic beauty, and he founded the Dresden Gallery 
of antique statuary. That was the spirit of iSoo — a revival of classicism. 
West's light went out completely in England and this country ; but in France, 
the torch brandished by David was never quite suffered to drop to the ground. 
His principles are assiduously practised at this moment ; and France, let us 
confess, is the first art-producing country to-day. 

It has taken some little time thus to set up these two worthies firmly on 
their legs. But it seemed worth while to do so, because a period has now 
supervened when painters trade on very limited specialties, making reputations 
out of some small attainment that would only be a fraction of the discipline 
of a thorough-going classic artist. But, as we have just said, the traditions of 
David still form an equipment for various painters of reputation in the country 
he adorned. It must not be supposed, however, that David was quite alone. 
There is a whole group of artists belonging to the epoch of the French Revo- 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



lution, whose works compare together with a certain harmony. There was 
Gerard, whose "Cupid and Psyche" is a painting that suggests some pure, cold 
group of ancient sculpture ; there was Prudhon, whose faces caught the subtle, 
penetrating smile so often represented in the works of Correggio. Of Prud- 




hon's women, a critic has said, they are grisettes, of the Restoration period, 
but designed by a painter of Athens ; and there was Girodet, a ripe and 
classic draftsman, but afflicted in his coloring with a tinge of green ; of whose 
famous Bible scene delineating the Flood, Thackeray remarks that it is a 
venerable man in a green Deluge, clinging to a green tree in a green old age. 



FINE ART. 



'3 



The way in which David's time connects with our own time may be quite 




simply explained. Only lately, in 1867, died the most faithful of his pupils, the 
great painter Ingres. We know of no specimen of Ingres in this country 



14 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

except lithographic studies of his figures ; but who that has seen it can forget 
his dignified "Apotheosis of Homer," painted for a ceiHng in the Louvre, but 
replaced by a copy on account of its singular value. In this great compo- 
sition, amidst Homer and his fellow-bards, sit two woman-forms, supposed to 
represent the Iliad and the Odyssey. The sacred anger of the warlike Iliad, 
the deep fatigue of the travel-tossed Odyssey, are something memorable ; they 
look like grand primitive nymphs, conceived in the same spirit that designed 
the vast Fates of the Parthenon. These two female forms, in their austerity 
and uncontaminated beauty, remind us strongly of Dclaroches woman-spirits, 
depicted in the central part of his principal work, "The Hemicycle." The 
figures by Delaroche we refer to are those intended for Greece, Rome and 
Fame. In Delaroche we have nearly the same largeness of style as in Ingres — 
Titan women, each filled and inspired with a single idea. We look at the 
women of Ingres — such as we have named and such as his exquisite Fountain 
(or La Source) — at the women of Delaroche, finding in them a something that 
is not of our time, a something learned from the plain, grand Past, and we say. 
For this thank master David. Observe, there is a certain advance in these 
figures beyond the loftiest thoughts ever reached by David; but the direction 
is the same ; it is not that a disciple is never to get beyond his teacher. 
David, in all he did, kept much of the rigidity, the uncomfortable determination 
never to be caught napping, which always marks the schoolmaster. But shall 
not the pupil, crowned with honor and sympathy, keep up a veneration for the 
wise and cautious old pedagogue ? 

We will just mention some others in whom we believe the school of David 
to be kept up or produced. Delaroche — his works, his Death of Elizabeth, his 
Execution of Jane Gray, his Princes in the Tower, his Hemicycle, are quite 
familiar from engravings — kept the accent of David quite as plainly as he did 
that of his master, Gros. The clean drawing of David has cast an influence 
on the Hebe, the Beatrice and the Marguerite of Ary Scheffer; it has not 
been for nothing in the elegant work of Gleyre — you remember his pictures, 
the Separation of the Apostles, the Pompeian girls washing an infant, and resem- 
bling ivory statuettes, in the gallery of Mr. Johnston, of New York ; and above 
all, his masterpiece, one of the loveliest dreams ever fastened upon canvas, the 
scene where an old poet sits alone on the shore, while past him floats a boat 





H 



r 



:i1ionalKxhibnionie76 



1R.0&ER ARM AMGEMCAc 



(;F.T^!3TF, .VTIARRIK 



FINE ART. 



IS 



in which all the muses are singing. It lingers in the highly-finished work of 
Leopold Robert, whose fame rests chiefly on his Fishermen of the Adriatic 
and the other pendants of that fine group of three pictures, where the life of 
modern Italy is treated with the balanced harmony of antique bas-reliefs. It is 
shown most clearly in the classic work of Gerome and all his school — he and 
they the most legitirpate descendants of David ; yes, in the noble and sculp- 
tural composition of the Death of drsar; in the Gladiators hailing Vitellins in 
the Amphitheatre, in the Alcibiades, the King Candaiiles, and all that line of 
paindngs of the most eminent living classicist, a clear ray of illumination from 
the age of the renaissance is visible. Another painter, who has not forgocten 
this academic influence, though he takes vast liberties in making use of it, is 
Couture. His masterpiece, the Decadence of the Roman Empire, is a vast colora- 
tion of Veronese-gray, spotted here and there with rich blots of brilliancy, like 
ribbons on a plain dress. The figures are life-size, and subjected, without 
slavish fidelity, to the rules of classic design. Another classicist, of singular 
chaste elegance, is Flandrin. His frescoes in the old church of Saint Germain- 
des-Pres are masterpieces of thoughtful simplicity, while he is most analytical 
in portraiture, and his likeness of Napoleon III makes the emperor look like 
the very serpent of wisdom. Cabanel is a classicist in about the same degree 
as Couture, though in a different way. His feeling of grace is very exquisite, 
to an almost effeminate degree ; his conception of Venus is tender as a rose- 
leaf, soft as marrow, without any notion of the dignity of a Queen of Love. 
His Florenthie Poet, Nymph and Fann, and Aglaia are exquisitely beautiful. 
Baudry is a painter almost the equal of Cabanel ; his Fortune and the Infant, 
at the Luxembourg, is a luscious piece of flesh-modeling ; and his interior deco- 
rations of the new opera-house are exceedingly choice. Bouguereau and Merle 
are pseudo-classic in taste, exhibiting to the full that preponderadng search for 
elegant form which shows that the classic graft has taken firmly, and altered 
the nature of the sap in the whole tree. Their style, shows, too, that waxy 
smoothness adopted by the prize scholars who have been sent to Rome, in 
imitation of Raphael and of Angelo. When such scholars return to Paris they 
are called Italians, and wear their nickname often for ever. Their pictures, if 
they go on showing the recollection of the antique rather than a feeling for 
modern life, are called academic studies, or academies, whatever they may rep- 



i6 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

resent. Hebert, with his lovely, consumptive Italian girls, devoured by the 
malaria; and Bonnat, with his healthy, rich transcripts of peasant life in Italy, 
are a pair of admirable painters, whose works, however, can seldom be found 
in this country. And so the influence of the antique dies gradually away, over 
a line of artists of great personal force and originality, like the great Decamps, 
or like Jules Breton, who paints the poetry of pastoral life so tenderly, Or like 
Millet, who paints its grime, its cark and care. In these painters there is but 
a faint reflection of the Greek, or of the dictum of Benvenuto. 

The reader may have been surprised at our tracing a resemblance to David 
in Ar)' Scheffer, in Cabanel ; but these resemblances seem like identity itself 




Blanche Nevin, Sc. 



when we think of the contrasts offered by the I'ebcls to his school. Think of 
Delacroix, with his turbulent riot of color and form. It is the property of an 
academy, we may say, to succeed not only by its successes but by the reac- 
tions against it. Victor Hugo would not have been so great a dramatist but 
for the protest he felt against the classic stage. So Delacroix was forced by 
classicism into his full power and glory of counteraction. The classical painters 
indeed seem to stand together in a mass, when we compare them with Dela- 
croix, or with CouRBET, who paints with massive, vulgar strength the life of the 
senses; or with Manet, who was told in despair by his master, Gleyre, "Ki^m 
TC'/// be the Michael Angela of bad art!" or with the landscape specialists, like 
Rousseau, Dupre, Pasini, and Belly ; or with the incident-painters, the reporters 



FINE ART. 



17 




iS THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

or journalists of the brush, who have painted on every battle-field, from Vernet 
in Africa to Yvon in the Crimea. 

ViBERT and Zamacois are anecdotic or incident painters of another sort, 
the latter now deceased, all too early. His dwarfs and courtiers and monks, 
his matchless Education of a Prince, show how his thoughts and genius survive 
him, still lively and alert. The last great promise to go out in death was 
Regnault, who seemed to have the world of art at his feet. As Zamacois 
came from Spain to fight the Prussians, so did Regnault participate in the 
glory and sadness of the war. In the last sortie from Paris, when the order 
was given to fall back, his undaunted spirit caused him reluctantly to obey, 
and linger for "one shot more," which cost him his life, and us the young and 
talented artist. 

Tennyson lately, in dedicating to the Queen his completed collection of 
"Idylls," took occasion to speak of "art with poisoned honey stolen from 
France," an allusion which it would be hard for him to justify, because very 
litde of the French art-method, whether it be poisonous or not, has ever got 
into England in any way. But the laureate has an old grudge against the 
French nation, which he cannot allude to without the least kittle delicate aqui- 
line curl of a sensitive nose ; and perhaps, after all, he was not speaking of 
the fine arts, to which he seems never to have paid any axtention, but of 
dramas or romances. We are about to leave art in France, at any rate, 
whether dangerous or not, and sny a few words about a new art-development 
which is attracting attention under the name of the Roman school. It must 
be called the Roman school because the practitioners are Spaniards. The 
geographical name is a poor one at any rate, and we had better allude to the 
school as the members themselves designate it, as the school of the spot — the 
spot or blot, or, in the French language, the tachc. 

It is to be observed that one great and unexpected benefit of the French 
Academy has accrued in the education it lias given to other nations. Paris 
has been of late years filled with strangers of every race, who have brought 
into the atelier some of their nadonal artistic habits, and have looked at the 
model in a different way from the way of the French. Thus does a great 
academy receive the benefit of new suggesdons in return for the roudne benefit 
she confers. 



FINE ART. 



19 



Among- these foreign students were Hollanders, recollectino- the secret of 
the old Holland school, which sees nature in a succession of taches, which 
reckons the tree standing against the sky, the herd moving in the lush pasture, 
the distant windmill printed against the vapors of a watery climate, not as so 
many rotundities, but as blots against the groundwork ; that, in fact, is the true 
impression made upon the optical sense, rather than the impression of relief or 
modeling, which is the result of experience and calculation. The Holland 
painters, in their masterly simplicity, often had the courage to paint nature 
precisely as they found it printed on the eye, as a composition of color-patches. 
Something of this kind had been going on in the history of Spanish art. Cer- 
tain masters of Spain, by the exclusive study of "values," had arrived at a 
method of translating all the flash of open-air color upon the canvas. Values, 
you know, are the degrees and reliefs which one tint makes against another 
or against a deeper or lighter shade of itself. The Spaniard Zurbaran's paintino- 
is "melted," as the critics express it, "in a certain interior flame;" and Goya's 
shadows are broad blotted suffusions. Now, a classical painter, like Poussin, 
looking at a group or at any kind of scene, pays special attention to the sweep 
and meaning of the boundary-lines dividing the objects. To dwell upon this 
and refine upon it, as the classicists do, is almost inevitably to forget the 
pursuit of values, the relief of shade upon shade. The new school trains the 
eye differendy. Look, now, upon the scene as a simple mosaic of spots ; get 
the exact tone, the precise degree of light or dark, the actual way in which 
one color relieves against or reflects from another ; make yourself thoroughly 
impartial ; a lady's face is before you : think of it as if it were a figure in a 
kaleidoscope, but study the shapes made by the high-lights against the planes 
of the features, and the precise boundary and tone of the shadow. A child 
is playing in a garden ; study him as if he were a bouquet of roses, but place 
him in his exact relations of tone with the shrubbery and the sky. By watching 
in this spirit, you surprise nature at her secret tricks ; you find how she gives 
emphasis to a tint by an extremely subtile contrast, by saving herself up for 
the point of greatest brilliancy and purest delivery of the color ; you notice 
how objects placed together reflect mutually a thousand audacious hues. Now 
paint these things as a study of tints, and as a study of light and shade, getting 
each hue into place in its proper situation, size and outline, hardly knowing 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



whether you are painting a lady or a camel. You must not set down the tints 
you see in the open air, neither; they will not produce the effect of nature 
so. Painting is not materializing colors : it is translation ; chiaroscuro is not 
matching values : it is translating them. To succeed in all this, you will have 
your hands pretty full ; and you will have been a pretty good draftsman if, 
while attending almost entirely to your patches, you have produced a figure 




The Reproof. 



that will pass muster in drawing. If you succeed, you have turned out a study 
a la tache. Now, Rembrandt could make a figure look bright by manipulating 
his shadows into that tremendous depth he uses. Boldini will make a figure 
look bright when relieved against a brilliant light-blue sky, and without putting 
a speck of black in his picture. Boldini, by-the-by, is driven to strange expe- 
dients in translating (that is the word, not rendering) the reliefs of nature. In 



FINE ART. 



an example of Mr. Cutting's, the lady's satin dresses are set upon a local back- 
ground as opaque and inky as the inkiest shadows sometimes employed by the 




Hungarian painter Munkacsy. Painting "by the spots" need not be done in 
splendid colors either. The photograph is one of the best proficients of the 



22 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

whole school, and the photograph works in monochrome. Nothing can exceed 
the calmness with which the photographs will blend and lose outline in the 
abandoned pursuit of values. Set photography to copying a number of persons 
scattered over a hill, getting berries or nuts. You probably cannot tell whether 
the objects in the picture are people or rocks, or incidents of the ground; 
but the values are relatively right ; trust the camera for that. Photography 
has in this way been a foster-father to the school, and given it many a hint. 
Some of the practitioners are by no means colorists. Madrazo paints under 
a veil, sometimes, of light blue or purple ; perhaps he has been fond of 
watching the broadened, "unified" values in 7}ioonlight. Now when to pro- 
ficiency in translating the spots, you intend to add proficiency in expression 
and character, a sense of beauty, and the plastic feeling for elegant form, you 
had better prepare yourself by being a great man beforehand. You must drazo 
so easily and well that you scarcely think of it as you carelessly sketch with 
your felicitously-chosen colors ; you must color so naturally and easily and 
happily that you know just what two colors to blend for your tint, and what 
the proportion, by a second nature. Of course, if you are working to get the 
richness and directness of nature's colors, you never mix more than two paints 
together; and you cannot go over and mend and pare your outline, for mixing 
the wet tints kills the color. The truth is, in practice, a good picture in this 
style must be made over and over again. It is thus that Furtuny is said to 
have worked ; he made a study in light and shade, or repeated studies in 
color, ruthlessly sacrificing all but the ultimate picture, when the patchwork of 
blots is struck on in just the right way, so as to be perfect in eolor, perfect in 
values, perfect in relief, and at the same time masterly in expression and draiuing. 
The utterly careless-looking sketch of Fortuny's you are looking at may have 
been tried for again and again, like throwing a handfiil of darts through a 
quantity of rings — only when all the rings are filled and all the darts are gone 
home is the task perfect. It was such results as this that Regnault had been 
studying in Fortuny's Roman studio, when he wrote, as we find it in his cor- 
respondence from Rome, "Oh, Fortuny, you keep me from sleeping!" "Ah, 
Fortuny, ta m'empeches de dormir!" We will quote the words of a late French 
critic, in balancing the good and evil of the method in question : "These youthful 
inventors work in imitation of certain Spanish masters. They sacrifice to color 



FINE ART. 23 

their drawing, their relief and their perspective, in hopes of preserving with 
greater freshness the tint, the blot, to use the conventional expression. It would 
be too foolish to argue about this determined exclusion of modeling and paint- 
ing ; we will not reckon up all the qualities which make of this art something 
quite differendy undertaken, and which fill it with a new order of difficulties. 
It is a mania, and time will judge it, alas ! quickly enough. Speaking for our- 
selves alone, we feel that we are the contemporaries, the accomplices of these 
improvisations played upon the pencil ; they bring out with a few touches 
certain accents of modern, contemporary life, and we cannot help finding more 
or less attraction in them." 

The Spanish-Roman mode of painting is an example of the kind of spurts 
which take place in the career of art, whose progress advances not so much 
by a uniform flowing movement as by a series of ebullitions. A young painter 
has been struck by some unnoticed aspect of nature, or by an old master's 
picture in a gallery ; he talks about it in his club, paints a few novel-looking 
studies, excites the emulation of his friends, and behold the formation of a 
fresh sect ! Thus the young Mariano Fortuny, having observed an effect of 
light in a Peter De Hooge, and a dash of color in a Herrera, was equipped 
for the revelation of the "splashy" school. Similarly, in England, thirty years 
since, it occurred very suddenly to Gabriel Rossetti and Millais that the 
masters who wrought before the time of Raphael were sincerer copyists of 
nature than the great Renaissance painters, and safer examples for a tyro to 
follow. They began to work according to their convictions, and formed the 
school of the "pre-Raphaelites." 

The term pre-Raphaelite is a misnomer (besides its awkwardness of form), 
for the practitioners in question do not pretend to follow the technical methods 
of the artists who preceded Raphael. They simply emulate the faithfulness 
and literal fidelity of those pioneers, while they freely deal in subjects con- 
nected with our own more complicated civilization. They apply the keen 
literal eyesight of Perugino and Masaccio to topics which would have made 
Perugino and Masaccio stare. Their peculiarity is their minute copy-work 
after nature as they see it. This addiction has given some of them a curious 
leaning towards the minutiae of natural objects. If Millais paints the drowning 
of Ophelia, we shall find Ophelia not so much the heroine of the scene as the 



24 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



foliage of Ophelia's willow. The copy-work of nature is true beauty — nature 
not selected, nor cured of her irregularities and defects. Millais had rather 
copy an English girl's face for an Eastern scene than imagine an Oriental 
one; and this, artistically, is right enough. In his drawing of the "Pearl of 



Great Price," the 
good man who 
sells his all for the 
jewel is an Orien- 
tal, but his daughter 
standing by his side 
is a London house- 
maid. Other pre- 
Raphaelites, how- 
ever, are more scru- 
pulous than this ; 
they must not only 
have a model to 
copy literally, but 
they will go to the 
ends of the earth 
to obtain the proper 
one. We have had 
described to us with 
minute and inti- 
mate good-fellow- 
ship the handsome 
young Jewish car- 
penter of Bethle- 
hem, from whom 




The LUtU Samaritan. 



H o 1 m a n Hunt 
paints his concep- 
tion of the Saviour. 
This is well ; but 
Mr. Hunt goes 
much further: for 
his picture of "The 
Awakened Con- 
science" he painted 
his background in 
a niaison damnee ; 
and we grieve to 
think of the incon- 
venience to which 
he would put him- 
self if anybody 
should give him an 
order to paint the 
casting out of Mary 
Magdalen's seven 
devils or the shear- 
ing of Samson's 
locks. There are 
certain respects in 
which the British 



pre-Raphaelites follow their exemplars to a degree of pernicious fidelity; the 
masters before Raphael never thought of imitating atmospheric effect ; it was 
the Venetians, with their love of landscape backgrounds, and Rubens, with his 
Flemish traditions, and Velasquez, who developed to a high degree the soft 
breathable sense of air in a picture, and the film of atmospheric distance 



FINE ART. 



25 




26 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

which we feel to stretch between ourselves and any scene we contemplate in 
nature. When a lover of pictures learns to appreciate this quality in a work 
of art he is always on the lookout for it, and always miserable if he misses it. 
But most of the pre-Raphaelites paint away in perfect serenity without it, as 
their models, Perugino and Lippi and Giotto, did in their time. 

We in America have had a very imperfect opportunity to contemplate the 
works of the English school. Some few years back, an importation was made 
of important English oil-paintings, and many of our readers will remember 
how they used to admire them arranged at the old Academy of Fine Arts on 
Chestnut Street — the knightly grace of ''Prince Hal," assuming the Crown, 
from the scene in Shakespeare, the minute carefulness of Holman Hunt's 
scene from the "Eve of Saint Agnes," and the pathos of "Romeo and Juliet 
in the Tomb," by Leighton. The attempt to open a commerce in English 
pictures, in quantity, has not been attempted since. Mr. Henry Blackburn, it 
is true, lately brought over a quantity of good examples of the British water- 
color school ; but difficulties with the custom-house have prevented a repetition 
of the experiment. The English are high appreciators and devoted buyers of 
the worthier works of their own countrymen, and purchase them at rates which 
exclude competition from abroad, so that British pictures are confined to Britain 
with a strictness known to no other national school of art. 

In noticing these successive upheavals in the geology of painting, it is 
impossible to omit allusion to the Munich school. Munich is to-day the most 
formidable rival of Paris as a centre of art, so far as its power to draw off 
the young students of America is concerned. About half a century ago 
Ludwig of Bavaria built the Glyptothek, or sculpture-museum, in the capital 
of his state, and this edifice was followed by an Odeon, a Pinathokek or 
picture-museum, and the Walhalla at Ratisbon. Cornelius, as Director, raised 
the Academy of Arts to a pitch of great eminence, and his successor, Kaul- 
bach, continued to give the city prominence as an art-source, by his very 
imaginative and inventive but ill-colored works. It only remained for Piloty, 
in somewhat later times, to assert his claims as a colorist, for the school to 
unite every kind of importance as an educational nucleus. We shall revert 
immediately to Munich art in considering the talent of its pupil Maekart. It 
remains to notice, as the completion of the list of schools that have obtained 



FINE ART. 



special attention here of late years, the Dusseldorf school, which burst upon 
America all in a mass a few years before the civil war, in the large collection 
of large pictures exhibited in Broadway, New York, and is already sunk in 
oblivion, — and the Belgian school, which has turned out, at its headquarters in 
Brussels, works by Leys, Alfred Stevens, Gallait and Knaus, worthy to rank 
with any productions of the time. 

To revert to the Munich school : its most classical living practitioner is Karl 
Piloty, and its most adventurous offshoot is probably John or Hans Maekart. 
It is easy to recall specimens now-a-days to the recollection of almost any 
wide-awake person who "lives in the world," because the subjects at least of 
all good works are, by means of prints and photographs, so widely dissemi- 
nated. Many readers will accordingly remember Piloty by such compositions 
as his "Assassination of Caesar" and his "Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn." 

His pupil, Maekart, has taken wider flights. He attacks nature on its 
decorative side, and paints works whose destination, like the works of the 
Venetian artists, is primarily that of making fine rooms look finer. We are 
here, be it noted, at the very antipodes of the pre-Raphaelite Englishman, the 
motive of whose work is to make the spectator think, to persuade him to be 
indifferent to apparent ugliness, and to chain his attention to some problem 
of character or intellect. The first works of Maekart's seen in this country 
were a large pair called "Abundantia," representing the riches of the sea 
and land respectively, brought over last winter, and exhibited for a season 
in New York. For splendor of ornamental effect it is safe to say that 
nothing to equal them has ever been imported to our shores. With a 
dazzled pleasure that excluded minute attention, the eye grasped a cluster 
of soft colossal female forms, playing with shells or fruits, displaying the 
richest lustres of blonde flesh and gorgeous tissues, and revealing here and 
there, by a happy ingenuity, the flash of the gold ground on which the figures 
were painted. These were works of his youth, executed for the dining-hall of 
a particular house, and not intended to be judged by the strictest rules of 
plastic accuracy. On examination the eye could detect many a lapse ot 
drawing, which seemed, however, not so much a want of ability as a condition 
of voluptuous carelessness, and a desire to fasten the color and the impression 
in all its freshness immediately upon the canvas. To the painter's youth 



28 THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

likewise belongs his composition of "The Seven Sins." Another of his works 
is "The Cleopatra," another "The Triumph of Ariadne." His "Catherine 
Cornaro," of which we give, from the original in the 1876 International 
Exhibition, the only cut that the public has seen, and a very good one — is 
perhaps his masterpiece. It seems to be inspired by the happiest influence 
from Paul Veronese, and plays the same part as one of that master's crowded 
compositions in elevating the mind to a state of proud and noble happiness 
by the contemplation of an ideal festival-world bathed in heaven's own silver 




/« III,- /i„y of \.iph\ 



light. The subject is that fair Venetian who endowed Venice with the realm 
of Cyprus. Catherine Cornaro, a noblewoman of Venice about the middle of 
the fifteenth century, became the wife and widow of the Cyprian king, James 
de Lusignan. After ruling the island as queen for a quarter of a century, she 
at length conferred the island on her native country by abdication — certainly 
the queenliest gift that Venice ever received. The painter in dealing with the 
subject has pleased his fancy with the various sumptuous images evoked by 
this passage of history^ — the singular idea of a lonely lady governing the 
island consecrated to Venus from the earliest dawn of fable, and then by a 
feminine caprice of abnegation giving up her state and becoming once more a 



FINE ART. 



29 



Venetian republican. He accordingly represents her seated on a wharf, whence 
steps descend into the sea, and whither the argosies of Venice direct their 
sails. Maidens kneel at her feet to offer her flowers and treasure; a statesman 
like a Venetian doge stands at the right hand of her throne ; her courtiers 




C. W. Ahiynard, Pittx, 



177b. 



are women; forms of beauty surround her on every side; musicians peal out 
her praises through their instruments of gold. It is the pomp and wealth of 
the Renaissance in Venice. The appearance of this picture definitely secured 
for Maekart the esteem of his fellow artists, and made friends of some of 
his previous enemies, the critics. Among the latter, Bruno Meyer, who had 



30 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

spoken very severely about some of the artist's earlier work, declared that 
Paul Veronese's paintings must have looked like this when they were fresh 
from the easel. 

Another great pupil ot Munich and Piloty is here represented by Wagner's 
"Chariot Race," a picture already somewhat familiar to the American public 
by means of Moran's admirable etching of this masterpiece of modern genius. 
The admirers of the spirited etching have now the pleasure of beholding the 
original painting in all its beauty of color, and while dazzled with its action 
and splendor, will not forget the success of the American interpreter in his 
dashing engraving. 

When Romulus induced the Sabine women to come to Rome, it was to 
see the chariot-racing that those ladies trusted themselves in the city of the 
"Sanctuary," and this, according to the legend, was the first circus, or exhibition 
for horse-racing, ever held. Another legend informs us that L. Tarquinius, 
about 600 B. c, commemorated his success in arms by an exhibition of races 
and adiletic sports in the Murcian Valley, in which temporary platforms were 
erected by individuals for personal, family or friends' use. These platforms 
surrounding the course gave place, before the death of Tarquinius, to a per- 
manent building with regular tiers of seats in the manner of a theatre ; to this 
the name of "Circus Maximus" was subsequently given, but it was more 
generally known as the Circus, because it surpassed in extent and splendor all 
other similar buildings. A few masses of rubble-work in a circular form are 
now shown the visitor in Rome, as all that remains of the ever-famous Circus 
Maximus ; and although there were ^ considerable number of buildings of a 
like nature in Rome, they are all destroyed now, with the exception of a small 
one on the Via Appia, called the Circus of Caracalla, which is in a good state 
of preservation. 

In the chariot race, each chariot was drawn by four horses ; four, six and 
sometimes eight chariots started at one time ; the charioteer, standing in the 
car, had the reins passed around his back : this enabled him to throw all his 
weight against the horses by leaning backward ; but this rendered his situation 
dangerous in case of an upset, occasionally resulting in serious accidents or 
death ; to avoid this peril, if possible, each driver carried a knile at his waist 
for the purpose of cutting the reins. 




LUIS MORALES. J-IKC" 



H---[LLEFEF. . 



. liitanulioiial "F.xhiliition, 1876 



ECCE HOMOc 






FINE ART. 31 

The foremost driver in Wagner's picture has an air of mad hilarity and 
gratification in his face, and even in his whole bearing ; and as he seems to 
wish to cast his eyes to see how much ahead he is of the driver on his left, 
who is imbued with carefulness and fixity of purpose, he litde recks that one 
of his horses has reared in excitement, and may at any moment cause the loss 
of the race and imperil the lives of all concerned. 

The enthusiasm of the Romans for the races exceeded all bounds. Lists 
of the horses with their names and colors, and those of the drivers, were cir- 
culated, and heavy bets made. The winning drivers were liberally rewarded 
with considerable sums of money, so that many of these charioteers, according 
to Juvenal, were very wealthy. 

In Wagner's delineation of "The Chariot Race," he has embraced as many 
of the prominent features of an ancient circus as could artistically be brought 
within the canvas. To the left of us are the Emperor and his household ; 
opposite to this imperial group, on the low wall, may be the president, or 
judge, and a number of spectators ; near the ground of this low wall there is 
a grating: this undoubtedly is designed by the artist to indicate the proximity 
of the officiating priests' chambers. A portion of the pillar, on which were 
placed the conical balls, is behind this group, and a little further back is shown 
the cylindrical goal. The immense space . between this and the Triumphal 
Gateway, and the great height of the building with its myriads of people, are 
not exaggerations, for according to very early writers this circus was several 
times enlarged until, at the time of Julius Caesar, it was over eighteen hundred 
feet long (the length of the Main Building of the Centennial Exhibition), six 
hundred feet wide, and capable of containing three hundred and eighty-five 
thousand spectators. A further idea of the size of the Circus Maximus is 
formed by comparing it with the capacity of the Coliseum at Rome, which was 
capable of holding only about eighty-seven thousand people. 

The mention of Piloty as a great master of great pupils, represented in 
this Exhibition, suggests another master represented by a pupil famous in the 
contributions already made to art, and worthily here represented in "The 
Vintage Festival," of which a very fine wood engraving furnishes a good 
interpretadon on page 17 — Alma Tadema, a Dutchman by birth, and a pupil 
of the late Baron Leys. His works are most agreeable and varied, and cer- 



32 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 







The Telcgyam of Lovt 



tainly more suggestive and instructive tlian pictures usually seen in public 
galleries, and they throw a light, evidendy the reflection of a careful student, 



FINE ART. 



33 







Rizfah Pt-Qtectlng the Bodies of her So. 



34 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 

on the manners and customs whose eccentricity raised the cry of "O temporal 
O mores!" from Cicero. 

The painter of "The Vintage Festival," whose full name is Lourens Alma 
Tadema, was born in Dronryp, in Frieshmd, and for many years resided in 
Paris, receiving medals in that city and in Brussels for the uncommon merit 
of his works. Since the Franco-Prussian war he has lived in London ; the 
artists and art-lovers there have offered him that warm reception which their 
nation has ever accorded to foreign talent naturalizing itself among them, and 
which is at tliis moment enjoyed as well by Tadema's imitator, Tissot, as by 
the Americans, Boughton, Hennessey, Miss Lea, and Arthur Lumley, while its 
sincerity and cordiality remind us of the honorable treatment in England of 
Lely. Kneller, Vandyck, Rubens, and Holbein. Mr. Tadema is one of the most 
eminent living archaeological painters; his works restore the antique life of 
Greece, Rome and Egypt with that fulness and accuracy of detail which his 
teacher. Baron Leys, conferred on mediaeval subjects. He exhibits now at every 
annual display of the Royal Academ\-, and has contributed no less than six 
of his most important works to the English section of the International Exhi- 
bition. They are "The Vintage Festival," which we engrave, "The Mummy," 
"Convalescence," in oil-color; and "The Picture," "The Three Friends," and 
"History of an Honest Wife," in water-color — the last subject in fact being three 
pictures framed together on account of the connected theme. The "Vintage" 
(page 17) is of all these the most important. It represents the solemn dedi- 
cation to Bacchus of the first fruits of the wine-press, selecting only the more 
elevated and dignified features of the ceremony — those deeply symbolic features, 
connected with the branches and fruits of the vine, the progress of the deity 
as a conqueror of the East, and his descent into hell, which touched the hearts 
of the early Christians, so that the Bacchic mystery was admitted as a type of 
the Christian, and the daughter of the first Christian emperor was buried in a 
casket enwreathed with Bacchic grapes and symbols, carved in enduring por- 
phyry. In Mr. Tadema's exquisite picture we see the sacred procession winding 
into a Roman temple to offer homage to the planter of the vine. A beautiful 
priestess, crowned with grapes and holding a torch, advances toward the statue 
of the god at the left; turning her lovely face to the procession that follows 
her, she awaits the arrival of the offerings, while near the shrine some ardent 



FINE ART. 35 

priests, with panther-skins tied around their throats, wave the cups of Ubation 
in ecstatic expectancy. Three flute-girls, with the double pipe bound to the 
mouth of each, a pair of dancers with tambourines, and a procession solemnly 
bearing wine-jars and grapes, advance along the platform, whose steps are seen 
covered with ascending worshippers and joyous Romans as far as the eye can 
reach through the colonnades of the temple. The perfect execution of a pythos 
or earthen wine-tub, enwreathed with the Bacchic ivy, and planted near the 
tripod in the centre of the scene, attracts attention. The grace and elegance 
of the chief priestess are positively enchanting. She forms as she stands a 
white statue of perfect loveliness, quite outdazzling the Bearded Indian Bacchus 
whose marble purity sheds a light around the shrine. The most unexpected 
success of the artist, however, is that sense of religious calm and solemn grati- 
tude which he has managed to diffuse over a ceremony dedicated to such a 
power as the spirit of the grape. Everything shows that the symbol as accepted 
by the early Church was most prominent in his mind, and that he wished to 
represent the parallelism between the True Vine and its imperfect type. The 
worshippers, elated by a really religious rapture, proceed to the offering with 
all the decorum of the Christian agape or love-feast, and the ornaments of the 
temple — pictures and votive images — hang upon the columns precisely like the 
"stations" and ex-voto offerings of a modern Roman church. The technical 
qualities of the painting are admirable ; the action and character ot the figures 
are completely Roman ; the texture of the different marbles is felicitously given, 
and the silvery flood of light and air deluging the temple successful in the 
extreme. 

We would like to dwell with greater fulness on the works of this artist, 
both because he reveals and teaches so much, and because a certain austerity 
and simplicity in his style keep him a litde above the comprehension of the 
vulgar. The limits of this work, however, have been strained to admit even 
so imperfect a glimpse of his merits, and we must pass to other subjects. We 
cannot quite omit mention, however, of "The Mummy," conspicuous by its 
strangeness and antique truth, in which the interior of an Alexandrian palace, 
filled with funereal preparations, is treated in oil with all the luminous limpidity 
of water-color; nor of "The Picture," in which a Roman painter's shop is 
realized for us; nor of "The History of an Honest Wife," a quaint and moving 



36 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



story connected with the early Christianization of France. It is the peculiar 
distinction of Mr. Tadema to turn out in every picture a composition utterly 
unlike anything that has ever been painted before. The intense devotion of 
his mind to archasoloirical research is rewarded by the unearthing of quantities 




of truths so old that they have the air of novelty; the texture and pattern of 
ancient garments, the ornaments of buildings in mixed transitional periods, the 
habits of a vanished civilization, are made to flash on the eye like a revelation. 
Not a shoe, not a finger-ring, but is of the epoch represented ; the monstrous 



FINE ART. 



37 




frizzled wigs of the latter empresses, the thick plaited ones of Egyptian kings, 
the tastelels cumber of Pompeian or Roman colonial architecture, are set down 



38 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

remorselessly, with a love of the bizarre that sometimes verges upon carica- 
ture. With all this book-learning, his style is generally direct, limpid and 
transparent to a high degree ; the simple sweetness of his coloring, and the 
soft tide of air that is felt to play easily through his interiors, are as perfect 
as in the work of the most ignorant painter of natural appearances, who ever 
confined his copy-work to his "impressions." 

We have in Mr. Tadema the artist of the grand Teutonic blood conferring 
his talent upon the English race ot his adoption. It is singular, ever since the 
"Tedeschi" poured into Italy and revolutionized its architecture, how constandy 
they have enriched the blood of other nations with their intellect and art. The 
Teuton is not very flexible, but whatever he learns to do becomes a fixed fact 
in the world. Not a country of Rlurope but has gained in stable progress from 
the intermixture of the Gothic strain, and in .America he has come to stay, and 
plants himself at every foot of our advance like a sheet-anchor. German talent 
— in the person of Mr. Schwarzmann — has adorned the Centennial Park with 
buildings, arbors and bridges; German talent, in the same personification, has 
furnished to the group of Exhibition buildings its two finest examples — the 
utterly diverse Memorial Hall, with its classic arcades, and Horticultural Hall, 
with its ornate Arabian splendor. ,A German artist, Mr. Pilz, was the author 
of the two statues of Pegasus, in bronze, which restively perch, with clipped 
wings, in front of the Art Building, where are enshrined the treasures we have 
to consider. A German artist, Mr. Mueller, prepared for the dome of the same 
hall the colossal figure of "Columbia," in persistent metal, to welcome the 
nations to the feast of Industry and Commerce, — the international peacemakers. 
This statue, by-the-bye, although it has been sharply criticised, holds forth a 
salutary meaning in the easily-read symbols of its posture : the hand, presentmg 
no sword, but the peaceful bays; the bowed head of salutation and welcome; 
the crown of savage feathers, adorning the forehead of a Cybele of the wil- 
derness, whose diadem has not yet crystalized into towers. As we pause, before 
entering, in the shadow of the shielding wing of the monumental Pegasus, we 
behold the fostering fortitude of Teutonic art realizing, strengthening, solidifying, 
and constructing the shelter of industry for all the world. The Memorial Hall, 
before us, spreading its vistas of circular arches to right and left, is just such 
a patient restoration of Roman architecture as Von Klenze might have drawn 



FINE ART. 39 

upon cardboard to show to his patron, Ludwig of Munich; and, crowning every 
pedestal and pinnacle with art of the same national parentage, we see the 
shadows of the Industries, of America, and of the gigantic mountain eagle, 
throwing themselves from the parapets above to the sward beneath. 

The silhouette or outline of the crest of Exhibition Palaces is a very rich 
and varied one, whether seen from a nearer or a more comprehensive view. 
An American artist, Mr. E. D. Lewis, has been struck with the effect they 
aaake, in crowning Lansdowne Terrace, from the opposite side of the Schuyl- 
kill, and has painted a beautiful, sunshiny, autumn-tinted picture of the same, 
which forms one of the ornaments of the American art department. Mr. Lewis 
has often been praised by Hamilton, the great landscapist, for His ability in 
making a painting "look luminous." This he does by a simple system of 
contrasts, without any heavy Rembrandt shadows or Carravaggio blackness. 
Whatever scene his pencil touches seems to be caressed by a ray of light. 
Some time since he went to Cuba, and painted "The Queen of the Antilles" 
in a large brilliant composition, and the magic sunshine of the tropics seems 
to have clung around his pencil ever since. Mr. Lewis, born to uncommon 
privileges among the best part of the Philadelphia social melange, might have 
excusably sacrificed some portion of his art-industry to the prosecution ot 
drawing-room successes ; but though a genial and agreeable society-man, ready 
for any parlor knight-errantry, he toils at his profession in a steady, prolific 
way that no poor brush-wielder laboring for his pay can possibly surpass. 

The mention of this brilliant landscapist reminds us that the United States 
have long claimed to have one of the foremost among the existing schools of 
landscape art — enthusiastic patriots used to say, the very foremost. Our natural 
scenery is certainly the widest in range, and among the most picturesque in 
detail, possessed by any country- of the globe, and should be the inspiration of 
a noble style of delineation. The proud eminence awarded by native judges 
to our school of scenery-painting began with Thomas Cole, whose poetical and 
imaginative way of introducing allegory into landscape was much to the taste 
of "fifty years syne." His pupil, Church, and the eminent Albert Bierstadt, 
came next into prominence, with what began to be called the "panoramic" 
school of landscape, and the public saw with amazement vast scenes on enor- 
mous canvases, that seemed to compete in dimensions with the original 



40 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



mountains and forests whose portraits were represented. Tliis is not the place 
to speak of the wonderful works of Church — canvases so large and so minutely 
finished that each may be called an accumulation of miniatures. 

Mr. Bierstadt, having established his reputation by a fine study of a 
church-portal, in the Dusseldorf style, called "Sunshine and Shadow," found 
himself famous, and began to turn his atti-ntion to the Titanic scenery of our 




; j;i JUi^fii C' Snyder. £il^. 



L Africaiiu. 



far West, producing several very comprehensive and very striking pictures of 
the Rocky Mountains. To this class of subjects, which still forms the theme 
of his warmest predilection, belongs the scene of "Western Kansas," of which 
we present a careful steel engraving. It is one of the natural "parks" with 
which nature has bestrewn the Arrierican Occident — scenes which, when man first 
bursts upon them, amaze him by their appearance of preparation and deliberate 
culture. Here is the tiny lake, with its trim island, such as kings construct 




*■. Ditlilz. Pin 



I and My Pif 



42 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

with dainty care for the grounds of their palaces. On the Island, which is a 
natural bank of flowers, spreads an umbrageous and symmetrical tree — no 
spindling stem from the forest, but a well-rounded, broad, shadowy "park" 
tree ; it is such a tree as Wordsworth describes in one of his prose prefaces, 
which being recommended to the owner as a profitable subject to fell for 
timber, the peasant replied, "Fell it! I had rather fall on my knees and worship 
it." And, indeed, worship is the natural im[)ulse in the presence of one of 
these gigantic overshadowers of the earth; trees, as Bryant reminds us, were 
the first temples. Mr. Bierstadt's magnificent specimen makes a felicitous fore- 
ground incident for him; and others, only diminished by distance, spread far 
towards the horizon. The scene would be an English nobleman's game-preserve; 
but, advancing ponderously from the left, intrude the mammoth brutes that no 
game-preserve on earth contains, except the Indian's, and stamp it as the natural 
hunting-ground of the Native American. We see there the drinking-place of 
the bison, and the garden ot the primitive red Adam. It is a fortunate thing 
that Mr. Bierstadt was able to spare so characteristic a specimen from his 
easel — though easel-pictures are hardly what this artist's gigantic works gene- 
rally would be called — and that the world of strangers collected here on the 
Adantic seaboard should be able to travel thus, on the magical broomstick of 
one of his colossal brushes, into the heart of the Great West. 

What the Centennial visitor from the ouirc-mer is first apt to see, however, 
is New York harbor, not the grassy ocean of the prairie. An attractive painting 
by Mr. Edward Moran, of New York, copied in the large wood-cut on page 21, 
shows that superb and starry spectacle of the land-lights of America, which first 
causes the immigrant's eye to dance with hope and his heart to swell with 
ambition as he comes to conquer his opportunity among the free. Here is the 
city spread between the mouths of the Hudson and East rivers, here is the dull 
and ponderous fortification on Governor's Island, all pierced and pricked with 
twinkling lights like a fairy scene in the theatre. How many sturdy men have 
looked upon the inspiration of these lights with irrepressible tears! For how 
many has the pause at Sandy Hook, the debarcation at Castle Garden, meant 
success, opportunity, renown even, in contrast with the certain continuance of 
degradation in that darker and older world! The able and successful men we 
can reckon around us, the public men who have risen to command, have in a 



FINE ART. 43 

surprising number of instances been taken from the ranks of those strong, 
muscular, serious, plain men whom we see idling around the walks of Castle 
Garden in the first day of their unaccustomed liberty, waiting to " take occasion 
by the hand." Such are the seed of the new earth. To-day they are of the 
million^ — to-morrow of the millionaires. To-day they are nobodies, rocked over 
the flashing waves of the Bay into the embrace of that twinkling crescent of 
lights : soon they are individuals, entities, sovereigns, with every chance to 
conquer the esteem of their kind by power, wealth, or intellect. This is the 
sort of legend that seems to be whispering forth out of the rippled waves and 
rolling moon of Mr. Moran's picture, a fine augury to greet the subjects of 
European monarchs as they face it. The painter, a man of self-made progress 
in art, belongs to a family of brothers who are all curious instances of inborn 
talent and perseverance conquering a success among the American people, so 
hospitable to ideas. Mr. Edward Moran and his brother Thomas have enjoyed 
the advantages of an Americo-British art-education : they have profited almost 
as much by the English artist Turner as by the American artist Hamilton. 
Thomas Moran, — about equally known by his fine "Yellowstone" scene in the 
Capitol at Washington, as by the remarkable book-illustrations which he scatters 
from his home at Newark to the best magazines and art-publications of the 
land — can be judged in the E.xhibition by five landscapes in widely-separated 
styles. The "Dream of the Orient" plainly shows his extraordinary admiration 
for Turner, of whose works he has made so many copies of the rarest fidelity; 
while "The Mountain of the Holy Cross" is more in the style of his monu- 
mental works at the Capitol. 

Another brother, Peter Moran, is an accomplished practitioner in the more 
difficult line of cattle and figure painting; while a younger one, John, is one 
of the first topographical photographers in the country. By Peter Moran, the 
cattle-painter aforesaid, we present on page 9 the spirited subject, "The Return 
of the Herd." In a pleasant rolling country near the Brandywine or the Wissa- 
hickon the herdsman and his dog are driving home the cows after the soft 
afternoon storm which makes the herbage so tempting for a lingering bite. 
Mr. P. Moran's cattle are always obviously studied from nature. In the present 
picture, the black head of the central animal, relieved against the brightest sky 
where the storm breaks away, makes fine pictorial effect for the artist; and the 



44 



THE INTERN ATIO X AL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



pretty play of the near cow and calf is true to life. The four brothers we 
have named live in different cities, but their starting-point was Philadelphia, of 
whose academic art-training they are creditable alumni. 




The steel-plate engraving from the picture called "Brig hove-to for a Pilot" 
can hardly be a representation of an American scene, from the presence of the 
windmill on the shore — though, for that matter, there are windmills on the 



FINE ART. 



45 



Long Island coast, and upon other exposed parts of the American seaboard. 
Something in the crisp freshness of the air and light — light and air not used 
by so many centuries of sea faring practice as the European — makes us 




connect this picture with E. Moran's "New York Harbor," just above-men- 
tioned, and assign the scene to our own shores. At any rate, it is a spirited 
and telling composition — the small pilot-boat dancing on the waves to get 



46 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

alongside the statelier brig, whose half-lowered sails wrinkle and flutter in the 
wind, awaiting the trustworthy sailor who is to board the vessel as guide. The 
swift, racing wash of the water past the group of boats, without any very 
violent freshness or stormy motion, is given in a true seamanlike manner by 
Mr. M. F. H. De Haas, the artist. Mr. Maurice De Haas, as well as Mr. William 
F. De Haas, is a Holland painter, whose merit having attracted the attention 
of Mr. Belmont, the Rothschild of America, procured an invitation to visit these 
shores, and the promise of a career and a fortune. The Messrs. De Haas are 
doing well, and are not likely ever to forsake the country which has given 
them so pleasant a reception, and which they have beautified with so many 
meritorious works of art. 

Marine artists like Mr. E. Moran or Mr. M. De Haas characteristically find 
their pleasure in beating about New York Harbor. Day after day, in the fine 
summer weather, they may be seen standing, Columbus-like, on the prow of 
some vessel (which is more likely to be a grimy steam-tug than anything hand- 
somer), engaged in their own peculiar kind of exploration. Their game is 
worth the chase, and the booty they collect justifies their taste. Other artists, 
like Mr. Brown in the picture we engrave on page 13, choose the freezing 
winter-time, and the frost-locked mimic sea of Central Park. He has given us 
a careful and variously-discriminated crowd, mainly engaged in the noble old 
Scotch sport of "Curling." The compatriots of Burns, among the hardest 
players and hardest workers of the age, have transported the game to this 
country, where it attracts every winter the delighted wonder of the ignorant 
and the incapable. As the plaid-wrapped athletes send the heavy balls of 
Aberdeen granite vigorously across the ice, or carefully sweep the crystal floor 
to a state of frictionless purity for the ne.\t effort, or measure the distance 
between a couple of stones with noisy and angerless vociferation, they are sure 
to have an admiring crowd around them. The curious Yankee, not "native and 
indued unto that element," pauses to watch the missiles, with a modest convic- 
tion that he could improve them; the little school-girl, sledding with her 
brother, glides slower past the fascinating sports of the good-natured, manly 
contestants. It is a crisp, eager, jolly game, imparting to the tame picture of 
the city lake a spicy flavor of wild loch-sports in North Britain. This animated 
scene, crowded with small faces and figures very difficult to engrave, is one of 



I 




FINE ART. 47 

the most elaborate attempts of Mr. Brown, whose pencil, though loving rustic 
subjects, more generally seeks the softness and refinement of fair child-faces, 
and the delights of lovers, whose very whispers it essays to paint. 

A sport better understood here is angling — a pleasure as cosmopolitan as 
its synonym, coquetry. Mr. W. M. Brackett, in a series one of whose subjects 
we represent on page 12, has delineated "The Rise," "The Leap," "The Last 
Struggle," and "Landed." Here is the suggestion of country streams, hissing 
into foam over the shingly rock, and curling up into peaceful sleep among the 
boulders of the shore. The noble captive, his silver mail availing him nothing 
in this unequal warfare, writhes and twists his flexible body into a semicircle, 
exposing to the air his elegant tail and his panting gills, already half-drowned 
in the long race. It is the last effort for liberty; shortly will come the usual 
reward of unsuccessful heroes in a lost cause — the martyr's fire, the approval 
meted too late to benefit the recipient, and the apotheosis — of the supper-table. 

The painter of the last-named picture, Mr. Brackett, hails from Boston, a 
metropolis whose art-development has always been the pet puzzle of the painting- 
world in America elsewhere. Nobody could tell who took the likenesses of 
Bostonians, who painted the landscapes of their surrounding country, who com- 
posed their battle-pieces, fruit-pieces, picayune-pieces, and masterpieces. A 
rumor got about that the Bostonians, in the moments of leisure they secured 
from the study of Emerson, dashed into the picture-shops and bought up all 
the Corots and Paul Webers they could find. These names represent two 
landscape-painters as opposite in style as anything that can be imagined. It 
would seem impossible that one city should be generous enough to contain them 
both. Corot, the Frenchman, paints vapory, dreamy, invisible landscapes, that 
nobody perhaps can fully understand: by summoning up all your resolution, 
coming up to a Corot very fresh, keeping the catalogue-title very distinct in 
your mind, and if possible turning the picture upside-down, you think you 
distinguish a tree, a fog, a boat, a pond, a bog, and a fisherman. Weber, of 
Philadelphia, on the contrary, is the distinctest of painters: everything with him 
is frank, fair, obvious painting, honest trees, white clouds and green weeds, in 
the style of Lessing. How should the Bostonians love the one and the other? 
Yet it has been generally asserted that each Bostonian had a Corot and a 
Weber on the two sides of the looking-glass in his "keeping-room." The 



48 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Corot was to put him into a state of trance, and the Weber to wake him to 
reahties of Hfe, after an evening of Margaret Fuller and Bronson Alcott. Then 
it was known that one of Couture's pupils, William M. Hunt, was established 




The Farced Prayer. 



in Boston as a portrait-painter, and that the Athenians there, in their ardent 
way of elevating every novelty into a fresh superstition, had convinced them- 
selves that there was no painter in the solar system equal to Hunt. True, he 
sent to the Exposition Lhiiverscllc of 1867 a portrait of Lincoln, so vigorously 



50 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and invidiously thrown into shadow that every Frenchman beholding it came 
away convinced that the martyr President was a man of color. True, too, that 
though not without eccentricity, Mr. Hunt is an artist of ability. But the Bos- 
tonians, epical and self-contained, rarely divulged themselves in art to the citer 
world, Mr. Hunt could send his Lincoln to Paris, but he sent nothing to the 
Philadelphia exhibitions, and very seldom displayed his work in New York. 
Boston landscape, Boston marine, Boston figure-painting, were an Isis-mystery, 
probably intensely enjoyed by the civic mind, but veiled from all the world 
outside. Of late, a little corner of this Isis-curtain has been lifted. It is known 
that every Bostonian lately bought, and hung up in his sanctum sanctorum, a 
specimen from the auction-sale of young Mr. Longfellow's landscapes — the poet's 
son. It is known that Boston has a Millet. Of course. France has a Millet 
— or had — the painter of peasant-groups, so original, so racy of the soil, so 
grimy, so similar to a chapter of Thoreau. England, too, has a Millais, pro- 
nounced just like the French, and equally, the favorite of a certain inmost 
circle of the elect. These postulates being given, it was obvious that Boston 
must in the course of time, and that as soon as possible, have a Millet too. 
She has got one now, and nothing remains to complete her ambition. Young 
Millet is a growing sapling, as yet in the developing stage, but, without joking, 
a young man of very decided promise. He sent to the National Academy 
Exhibition of 1876, a portrait of a lad, very frank, boyish, direct, and painted 
with engaging simplicity and robustness. We very decidedly like his gondel- 
lied in colors, entitled "In the Bay of Naples," and copied by us on page 28 
from the original in the Centennial show. Who that has ever taken that primi- 
tive, antique sail from Naples to Capri in the old market-boat, would not warm 
to the picture of it, especially when executed with such freshness and wit? It 
is like a revived missing chapter from Pliny the Naturalist; behind our backs 
are the phenomena of that great volcano which cost the erudite Roman his 
life ; before us the two-peaked outline of Capri lifting from the blue, and around 
us the peasant-life which has scarcely changed since the days of the ancients. 
Four of the mariners in this picture wear the Phrygian cap that Ulysses wore. 
They roll their arms and legs into the softest convolutions of the dolce far 
niente. They play with the handsome Anacapri girl on the seat that eternal 
game of dalliance and love which is never old. The bare-backed boys, opening 



FINE ART. 51 

and shutting their fingers like flashes of tawny lighting, play the immortal 
game of Morra which the Hebrew slaves played beneath the pyramids. So 
drifting and floating, and letting the wind take care of the dirty old sail, they 
sit with their feet in a bed of fish, and execute that delicious Capri-transit — 
the most luxurious bit of vagabondage, set in the loveliest scenery, that even 
Italian life affords. 

And now that enchanter word "Italian" — most alluring and spell-containing 
adjective in the language — has got so fast hold of us that we must fain leave 
the Boston corner of American art-development, which we had set about to 
elucidate, and sail across forthwith to San Giorgio, at Venice. One word in 
parenthesis, however, before we have utterly lost our train of thought, for 
another Boston artist, the younger Champney. Two Bostonians, both Champ- 
neys, enlivened the American colony in France eight years or so ago — Benjamin, 
the elder, an old-fashioned landscape-painter, with a soul and heart eternally 
young, and a slim youth, J. W. Champney, who in those days lived in a very 
small and very lofty room in the Rue du Dauphin, and carried up his own 
milk in the morning for a home-made breakfast. Those days of student-liberty 
and independent fortune-fighting are over now, and as "Champ," the young 
art-adventurer is famous. His illustrations to Mr. King's work on "The Great 
South," and his charming Centennial American sketches in a French journal, 
have won him admirers in America, England and France, and procured him 
compliments in more than one language. He contributes to the Exhibition, 
among other things, "Your Good Health!", engraved on page 8. It is one of 
the small, single-figure subjects which Meissonier brought into vogue. A cordial 
old bachelor, who has seen life, and who wears the full-bottom wig and gaiters 
of the last century, is just lifting the glass filled from the tall champagne-bottle 
before him ; a smile breaks on his mouth as the bead breaks on the rim. 
"Champ" has caught the freshness, the urbanity, the hospitality of his type' 
"and that," as Nym says, "is the humor of it." With which short digression 
from the Mediterranean, made in the interest of the modern Athens, we revert 
to the enchanted lands, and find ourselves basking on the sunset gold of the 
Adriatic, and gazing at Gifford's " San Giorgio." This church, we may recollect, 
built when Venice was attempting to reconstruct the Athenian orders of archi- 
tecture with more good-will than knowledge, has been contemptuously ridiculed 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



by Ruskin, because the architect, in his intellectual vacancy, put a hole in the 
pediment where Phidias would have put a grand statue. The building, in faith, 




would never attract notice from its classical perfection, if left to honest com- 
petition with other edifices; but in Venice its situation, with the broad mouth 



FINE ART. 



53 



of the Giudecca to isolate it, makes it one of the most conspicuous buildings 




you can see. You paddle across in a gondola to where it lies, separated from 
the bulk of Venice by a breadth of rippled water, which has been reflecting 



54 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

the triangular pediment of San Giorgio before your eyes ever since you dis- 
embarked at tlie Hotel Danieli ; and as you unload at the flat steps of the 
basilica, and proceed inside to see the famous Tintoretto, you feel that this 
formal church, peaked out of the water like Teneriffe, is one of the character- 
features of Venice, as ill to be spared as the nose on the face. Mr. Gifford 
has chosen the sunset-view, when the water around the lonely temple shines 
like chiseled gold. Has he hit the true color of sunset ? We are not sure. 
We recollect, when the picture was first exhibited in New York, walking past 
it with a young French artist, fresh from the atelier of Gerome. He asked 
the author's name of "that 'omelette' yonder," and remarked that sunsets were 
not bad things in art when they were not "false in tone as the dickens." 
" Dickens," as every reader may not know, is diable in French. We defended 
the picture, but the disrespect of the careless young intruder has clung to the 
work in our mind ever since. If the stricture did happen to possess one grain 
of justice, then our engraving, which is one of Mr. Hinshelwood's most lumi- 
nous, liquid successes, is a better art-work than its original — a fact which it 
would be gratifying enough to believe. 

The mention of Sanford Gifford's Venetian subject introduces to our 
thoughts the graceful group of Venetian "Water-carriers," painted by a foreign 
artist, Wulffaert, whose Belgian birth is suggested by his name, and engraved 
for our readers on page 49. The supply of fresh water in the sea-city is none 
too abundant, and the custom is for householders to buy the indispensable 
crystal, like a gem of price, at the hands of water-carriers, who bear it in 
large kettles through the town. These water-porters are young girls, and form 
a race apart. Robust, brown, graceful, and dressed in a traditional costume, 
they are among the most picturesque inhabitants of Venice, and, when they 
happen to be fair in face, recall the women of Veronese, with their full persons 
and liquid, serious, animal eyes. Herr Wulffaert gives us a cluster, as seen 
any morning at one of the large wells in the public squares of Venice. In 
the background rises the vast brick bell-tower of St. Mark's, and around the 
cistern are collected the handsome girls whose ready hands assuage a city's 
thirst. One lowers her bucket by its cord into the well-shaft ; another empties 
the flashing fluid, like a fountain of gems, from one vessel into another; the 
youngest, a pretty little creature, watches the doves, which are publicly fed every 



FINE ART. 55 

day at noon in front of St. Mark's, and which sometimes fly to other public 
squares for variety of diet or for a sip of that fresh water which is rather hard 
of attainment for them, and for which they are often indebted to the indulgence 
of these good-natured water-bearing girls. The picture, besides being true to 
nature and without any flattering idealization, is peculiarly graceful in its grouping 
and the character of its personages. 

At the Academy of Venice, and under the eye of resident Venetian sculp- 
tors, Miss Blanche Nevin, the authoress of "Cinderella" (page i6), received 
her best technical education. This artist is a sister of the Rev. Dr. Nevin, 
whose exertions in building a handsome church for American Protestants in the 
very heart of Rome were so creditable, and so quickly successful upon the 
triumph of the present government over the temporal power of the Pope. 
The lady is still quite young, but several of her figures in marble have been 
successful, as witness her "Maud Muller," and a subject owned by Mrs. Ste- 
phens, the society queen. "Cinderella" sits with an air of discouragement 
among the ashes, in pose as if the Dying Gladiator had shrunk back into 
infancy and femininity. Dreams of the splendors and delights into which her 
luckier sisters have been admitted occupy her little head, while her own future 
seems as dry and cheerless as the faded embers. Cheer up, small Marchioness! 
In a moment the fairy godmother will appear, and you will escape from your 
marble and be a belle, and your tiny Parian foot shall be shod in glass, and 
the pumpkin shall roll with you and the rats shall gallop with you, and the 
Prince shall kiss your little mouth into warmth and color. The creator of this 
^"S^?'"'& figure, who some two years back de-Latinized herself and exchanged 
the shores of Latium for the streets of Philadelphia, is one of the most prom- 
ising of the rising school of lady sculptors. 

Miss Nevin finished her "Maud Muller" in the atelier of another Phila- 
delphia artist, the well-known and highly-successful Joseph A. Bailly, whose 
"Aurora" we copy on page 6. Mr. Bailly exhibits, besides this ideal figure, 
which rises so white and mist-like in the middle ot the great American gallery 
of paintings in Memorial Hall, a portrait work of ponderous importance, the 
likeness of President Blanco, of Venezuela, recently set up in bronze at Caracas. 
Mr. Bailly, as a young Paris revolutionist exiled by the events of 1848, went 
over to England, where he wrought for awhile in the studio of his namesake. 



56 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Edward Hodges Bailly, author of "Eve at the Fountain." Coming to this 
countr)', he attracted immediate attention by the skill with which he could carve 




and "undercut" the most intricate designs, and gradually rose to success as a 
sculptor of portrait and classical subjects. From the corner of Sixth and Chest- 



FINE ART. 



57 




F. Feyen-Perrin, Pinx. 



Melancholy, 



nut streets, in this city, three of Mr. Bailly^s works may be seen at once — the 
Washington in front of Independence Hall, the Franklin on the corner of the 



58 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Ledger building, and die fine horses supporting the escutcheon on the Sixth 
street facade of the same edifice. The technical ability of this prolific artist is 
especially shown in all that relates to the mechanical portion of his art. His 
modeling in the clay of ponderous and elaborate subjects, with assured touch 
and upon a well-calculated skeleton or frame, is so quick and imperative as to 
seem like magic to less skilled practitioners. His labors for the republic of 
Venezuela consisted in the colossal equestrian figure now exhibited, and a 
standing statue of still larger scale. The standing figure was modeled, and the 
equestrian one twice repeated, in the space of four months, to be in readiness 
for a special anniversarj'. It is not likely that any other artist in the country 
would have accepted and fulfilled the commission for such a piece of time- 
work. The "Aurora," likewise, is a piece of magic; the equilibrium of the 
figure, whose feet are folded far above the ground, and who rises just over 
the trailing folds of a vail which merely sweeps the earth, is a powerful stimu- 
lant of our wonder. To have made such a device in bronze would be easy; 
but to carve it out of marble, when a false blow of the hammer would lay the 
beautiful image low at once, seems more than human skill could accomplish. 
Then the transporting of the critically-balanced figure in safety was a remark- 
able event, only to be brought about by a mechanical genius as conspicuous 
as the artistic. But Mr. Bailly has passed through the apprenticeship of every 
art that mechanics includes; and his marble vails and flowers and figure, light 
and perfect as a blossom on the stem, have successfully removed — half standing, 
half overhanging — from the studio to the destined position in the far-away Park 
edifice. The image is like a crystallized mist from daybreak: "Aurora," only 
half disengaged from the Night, whose vail sweeps lingeringly from her fore- 
head to the ground, holds and scatters upon the earth those blossoms whose 
petals are opened by the winds of morning, and whose blushes are copied from 
the blushes of the dawn. Such an evanescent idea ought to be sculptured in 
mist; but Mr. Bailly is able to give a mist-like tenuity to marble. 

An instructive comparison of the overcoming the technical difficulties of 
sculpture may be made by looking first at Mr. Bailly's lightly-poised figure, and 
then at some of the sculptures which Italy has sent over with a lavish hand to 
the Centennial Exhibition. However these statues may disappoint the lovers 
of classicality and repose, there is no question that in overcoming the stub- 



FINE ART. 



59 



bornness of material, they teach many a valuable lesson to our chiselers. We 
would indicate, as special examples of the triumph over this kind of difficulty, 
the hair in Caroni's "Africaine" (page 40), and the dressing-robe in the same 
artist's "Telegram of Love" (page 32). These works, though completely dis- 
severed from the Greek theory of sculpture, have a rich, pictorial, and as it 
were, colored quality of their own which justifies the theory on which they are 
carved. If the success in representing texture were attained by an uncommon 
and worthless degree of mere yfw/j//, it would not be commendable; but exami- 
nation will convince us that it is not the difficulty or the patience, but the live 
flash and expressiveness of the touch that gives the effect. The flowered silk 
of the dressing-gown in "Tlie Telegram" gives no evidence of excessive diffi- 
culty overcome: it is its felicitous invention which strikes us. The heavy 
crisped tresses of the " Africaine" are no more closely finished than the 
smoothest locks and bands of hair sculptured by Chantrey or Westmacott; but 
the sculptor, putting a brain into his chisel, has set it to thinking, and invented 
for his woolly convolutions a glancing, sketchy touch as expressive as the 
brushing of Reynolds on canvas. The Italian cleverness, as a mechanical and 
inventive development of resources, is well worth studying. Signor Caroni has 
chosen subjects well adapted to show off his rich and glittering style. In the 
"Africaine" we have the heroine of Meyerbeer's opera, the black Afric queen 
whose dusky soul was illumined with the light of tenderness at the visit of 
Vasco de Gama. For these primitive intelligences love is the apple of know- 
ledge; when it is once bitten, the nature is changed, the Eden is spoiled, the 
contentment is lost, and the whole soul is thrown into tlie passion of desire, 
for bliss or for despair. In Signor Caroni's picturesque work we have the 
uncultured queen tortured by the pangs of a bootless passion, her supple body 
thrown broodingly beside the couch where her hero dreams of another, and 
watching with jealous eyes the lips that murmur of her rival. In his "Telegram 
of Love" we are amused with a lighter and more hopeful subject: this radiant 
maiden, who confides to the neck of her dove the fluttering message which 
will lead to a rendezvous or an answer, is tortured by no doubt, crushed by 
no despondency. We can imagine the haste and tumult of her telegraphy, a 
tumult indicated by her alert, moving figure; we can see the hurry with which 
she has sprung from her morning dreams, the hair hastily knotted, the peignoir 



Co 



THE IXTKRXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 




quickly thrown on, and the bird briskly dismissed from the cottage steps, with 
a last loviny., brooding bend of the head over its faithful wings. For so large 



FINE ART. 



6i 



a statue this figure has an astonishing Hghtness and bewitchment. The stooping 
posture is a bold, daring contradiction of the rules arranged by the martinets 
of art. It is all grace, spontaneity, sweetness, and pastoral charm. Its technical 




y. C. Farbts, PiKx. 



merits disappear under the gracious elegance of the conception. From "The 
Telegram" to Selika, the "Africaine," there is a gulf of transition, but the maid 
of "The Telegram," lovely as she is, is eclipsed by the strange tropical inten- 



62 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

sky of the "Selika." Equal in the technical part of the carver's art, there is 
no comparison in the lofty scope of the subject. 

A replica, reduced in size, represents in this gallery the celebrated "Reading 
Girl" of Pietro Magni, of Milan. This work, which was one of the charms of 
the London Exhibition of 1862 (see page xlv of our "Historical Introduction"), 
loses litde by being accommodated to a more portable scale. It is seen in the 
Annex, close to the exquisite figure of a girl nursing a sick kitten, by Vela, 
the famous sculptor of "Napoleon Dying." Not unfit to stand beside these 
delicate renderings of child-sentiment is "The Litde Samaritan" (page 24), a 
marble poem by one of our American sculptors, J. S. Hardey. We have here 
a pretty maid of ten years, who, carrying the drink of the harvesters through 
the sunny field, has tempted a bird to taste it, as she stands silent and curi- 
ously watchful, with the cup in her extended hand. Is it water pure? Is it 
something stronger, such as harvesters love to taste behind the hedge? We 
do not know. The bird, shaking its wise, saucy little head with an air of 
doubt on the rim of the cup, shall decide for us. But of all the skillful repre- 
sentations of child-feeling in marble, in which the present Exhibition is so 
remarkably rich, it is probable that "The Forced Prayer" (page 48), by Pietro 
Guarnerio of Milan, bears off the votes of the greatest number of spectators. 
It is an epigram in sculpture, and it is epigrammatic sculpture carried to the 
limits of the permissible. This telling little figure has received a medal. It is 
easier to understand the subject from our spirited engraving than to construct 
it in the mind from a description. The handsome little rebel is standing in 
his shirt, sleepy and ready for bed, but denied the blessings of repose until 
the customary paternoster is gone through with. Conscious that there will be 
no rest for him until the ordeal is over, he begins to mumble the holy words 
with frankest hatred, throwing himself into the prescribed attitude of supplica- 
tion like a trick-dog into his positions, with a skill derived from long practice 
rather than from feeling, while the implied devotion of the routine is belied by 
every line of his face, and from his piously lowered eye escapes the tear of 
temper and not of contrition. Of half-a-score varied works by Signor Guar- 
nerio, this one probably has the most friends. 

These exquisite trifles seem, however, but bijoux, and their manufacture 
but bijouterie or jewelers' work, in comparison with the ponderous "Antietam 



,^s^^ 




THE AMERICAN SOUDIEE. 



FINE ART. 63 

Soldier," in granite, of which we give a steel engraving. Like the nation he 
defends, this colossus is in the bloom of youth, and like it he is hard and firm 
though alert. What art has succeeded in making this monster out of granite? 
He is twenty-one feet six inches in height. What sempster, working with 
needles of thrice-hardened steel, has draped him in those folds of adamant, 
that hang ten feet or farther from his inflexible loins ? The sculptors of ancient 
Egypt, who had their colossi in granite also, worked for years with their 
bronze points and their corundum-dust to achieve their enormous figures, while 
the makers of this titanic image, availing themselves of the appliances of 
American skill, have needed but a few months to change the shapeless mass 
of stone into an idea. Something rocky, rude and large-grained is obvious 
still in this stalwart American; his head, with its masculine chin and moustache 
of barbaric proportions, is rather like the Vatican " Dacian" than like the 
Vatican "Genius." But, whatever may be thought of the artistic delicacy of 
the model, Mr. Conrads' "Soldier" presents the image of a sentinel not to be 
trifled with, as he leans with both hands clasped around his gun-barrel, the 
cape of his overcoat thrown back to free his arm, and the sharp bayonet thrust 
into its sheath at his belt. Rabelais' hero, Pantagruel, whose opponents were 
giants in armor of granite, would have recoiled before our colossus of Antietam, 
because his heart is of granite too. 

The American heroes who have really succeeded in conquering the stub- 
bornness of this mossy stone, and making it bend before them into the 
desired shape by the power of ingenious machinery, are the New England 
Granite Company, of Hartford. Before their wonderful ingenuity the rock 
seems to lose its obstinacy; and, furnish them but an artistic model, they will 
translate its delicacy into the most imperishable stone. 

What Mr. Conrads gives us in granite, Mr. George W. Maynard gives us 
— page 29, "1776" — on canvas. It is the same inflexibility, the same courage, 
the same mature will in stripling body; only in Maynard's revolutionary hero 
these qualities are aggressive, while in Conrads' defender of the Union they 
are conservative. The figure in Mr. Maynard's "1776" is one of the "embattled 
farmers," a homespun patriot, bearing the standard that represented our Union 
before we had a flag — the pine-tree banner of Massachusetts, used as a 
device in the first battles of the Revolution, before the stars and stripes 



64 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



were invented. In his other hand he grasps the ancient musket — perhaps 
the very 

"Old queen's arm. 'MzX Gran'iher Young 
Felclietl back from Concord — Uusled." 

On the wall behind him is seen a placard, with fragments of the date, '76, 
and of the words 
"Union" and "In- 
dependence." This 
manly figure, in the 
picturesque "Con- 
tinental" uniform, 
so rich in angles, 
gables, lappels, and 
revers, who crosses 
his gun-barrel over 
the standard he 
will only yield with 
his life, looks as 
sacred as a cru- 
sader. In his face 
of grief and valor 
we see the rankling 
wrong, the press- 
ure of fate, that 
were the birth- 
throes of our na- 
tion. It is a face 
fit for a philoso- 
pher, transformed 
streets of our cities 




by events into that 
of a warrior. 

And this obser- 
vation leads us to 
interject the ques- 
tion whether any 
country ever yet 
begot a national 
type of face appa- 
rendy able to do 
so much thinking 
and philosophizing 
as the American 
when at its best. 
The problem is 
whether the world 
yields an amount 
of thinking suf- 
cient to equip the 
deep, brain-worn 
visages we see in 
all our national pic- 
tures, or in real 



life in the business 
There is nothing else like thern in the world. Com- 
pared with the American soldier's face, as defined from the testimony of all 
our artists and the very photographs of our officers, the faces of soldiers over 
the rest of the world are those of undeveloped intelligences ; the Greek con- 
testants of the Parthenon frieze are but larsre babies; the English soldiers of 



66 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

Hogarth's "March to Finchley" are good-natured, immature, beef-eating lads; 
the French soldiers of Vernet are dried out of all individuality — a tinder-box 
and a spark — a lean cheek and a glowing eye — food for powder, and then 
nothingness. But our ordinary American phiz has a look of capability, of 
knowingness, and when hamlsome ol intellectual majesty, that it would take a 
vast deal of actual achievement to justify us in wearing. It is walking about 
under false colors to adopt such faces unless we are really the philosophers, 
tacticians and diplomats of the age ! 

Turn we to George Becker, of Paris, whose "Rizpah" is probably the most 
impressive picture in the Exhibition. One lancies this work to emerge from 
some gloomy studio, whose tenant is aged, tall, morose, and poetical. On the 
contrary, little George Becker is one of the least terrific and most likable of 
dwarfish youdis, a mild butt for the raillery of his taller chums among the 
pupils of Gerome. Amid the paint-shops and costume-markets of the Latin 
Quarter is to be seen often a small fresh-faced figure, with a good aquiline 
profile overshadowed by an immensely tall and glossy hat; in the hand an 
artist's box of colors, which is of a size almost to drag upon the ground, and 
which conceals a large proportion of the person of the walker, as he spreads 
his short compasses to their utmost distention in getting briskly over the ground. 
It is Becker. "Come back with )our color-box or in it," says the studio friend 
from whom he parts, alluding to the Spartan and his shield. He takes all 
jests with a quiet, good-natured smile, and goes home to paint tragedy. We 
recollect walking with him to the funeral of the painter Ingres, and the diffi- 
culty of keeping "down" with him, as he stepped with mincing tread among 
the mourners. It was snowing, and he asked a group who paused on the 
pavement near die church, "Shall we not seek a porte-cochere?" — while the 
attendants, opining that the flakes would have uncommon difficulty in finding 
him out, laughed at his anxiety even among the solemnities of the occasion. 
Such is the pleasant litde lad, always mild, neat and conciliating, who goes into 
his studio, seizes his enormous brushes, and turns out for us the almost 
Michael- Angelesque composition of "Rizpah." Ah! in the presence of so 
impressive a work we scarcely think of the physical means by which it was 
created. We think of the idea alone, the terrible ordeal of constancy and 
maternity. Our engraving on page t,2> gives a vivid conception of Mr. Becker's 



FINE ART. 07 

subject, though the imagination has to expand the cut to the size of nature, on 
which scale the original is painted, to get the full vigor of the tragedy. 

The seven sons of Saul, whom David delivered to the Gibeonites to be 
hanged to avert the famine, are seen suspended from a lofty gibbet, in the 
evening of a stormy day. It is the commencement of their exposure, "the 
beginning of the harvest," and Rizpah has just initiated her gloomy watch 
against the eagles, which come sailing toward the corpses from afar. Over her 
head hang the fair young bodies of her sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth, and 
the rest. She is a strong Jewish heroine, a worthy mate for the giant Saul, 
and her posture while she fights the mighty bird with her club is statuesque 
and grand. As she throws up one massive arm as a fence between the 
aggressor and her dead, and looks into the eagle's eye with a glance in which 
grief is temporarily merged in horror and repulsion, we seem to hear the 
hoarse, desolate cry which escapes from her parched mouth to scare the fam- 
ished creature from his prey. The attitudes of the dead youths are supine, 
with a languid and oriental grace even in death, and the curled Assyrian beards 
of the older ones contrast with the pitiful boyishness of the rest, while the 
whole row of princes, tender, elegant and helpless, forms the strongest contra- 
diction to the direct, rigid, and as it were virile force of the woman. Another 
painter might have chosen the misery, the desolation of Rizpah's vigil for his 
theme. But this artist sees, in the whole long tragedy, the peculiar feature 
that it was effective. Rizpah succeeded in defending the relics of her family; 
the incessant watch, by night as well as by day, from the beginning of barley 
harvest until the rainy season, was grand because it was unrelaxed and vigilant. 
Mr. Becker therefore, by sinking the mother's grief in her fierceness and energy, 
has developed the real sentimental force of the situation ; any quiet treatment 
would have lost it. He has delineated for us the first grand example in history 
of maternal devotion, the Mater Dolorosa ot the Old Testament, in lines and 
colors that leave an unfading impression. 

A painting that commemorated a most touching incident, while it formed 
on its production an epoch in historical painting, is West's "Death ot Wolfe." 
Many spectators may have neglected this picture for more showy rivals. Dark- 
ened, overshadowed and of no great size, it makes small effect among the fresh 
and garish productions of the British School, where it is hung. Benjamin West, 



68 



THE JXTERNATIONAL EX H I B 1 T 1 X, 1S76. 



when he painted it, was at the heiyht of his friendly rivalry with Reynolds. 
Reynolds was inaccessible in portrait, but in history West was able to read a 
lesson to Reynolds. Dunlap, in his "History of the Arts of Design," tells the 




incident which made this picture a milestone in art-development. Up to this 
period, the exceedinp^ly feeble efforts of Ensrland in "hiq-h art" had leaned entirely 
to the classical: the statues of her warriors had been draped as Romans or 



FINE ART. 



69 



Greeks, and the few battle-pictures that had been produced were treated in a 
half-symboHc or representative manner, with a pseudo-classical endeavor to 




Almx Tadam Pi. 



llie tonvaUscenf 



make their heroes look like the heroes of Plutarch and Xenophon. A modern 
musket, a modern cap, the uniform of the day, was considered "low art," and 



70 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

left to caricaturists like Hogarth. In the height of this false classicality of the 
"Augustan age," West ventured to represent one of England's best-loved 
heroes, a young and intellectual enthusiast excessively dear to the nation's 
heart, falling exactly as he fell on the heights near Quebec, with the surround- 
ings and equipments treated as nearly as possible in literal fidelity. It was an 
innovation, meant for what we now call realism. Reynolds was alarmed; Fuseli 
was alarmed; the amiable and genial President of the Royal Academy, who 
would have been delighted with the vigor of West's sketch if only he had 
clothed his hero in a helmet and cuirass, dissuaded him for a whole hour from 
introducing the novelty. When he went away he exclaimed that West, if 
the thing "took," was revolutionizing the art of England. The good sense of 
the nation went over to the side of the sensible painter, and this picture, to 
us so dark and dim, was the radiant success and sensation of the day. But 
for West's intelligence, it is hard to tell how much longer the absurd and 
hollow classicality of the period would have lasted; we might have had for an 
indefinitely longer term red-taccd Englishmen draped as Grecian heroes in 
hundreds of pictures, and English verses attempting the false antique in dramas 
like Johnson's "Irene." In France, as we know, the Roman taste endured in 
art to a considerably later date. When David wished to represent the wives 
and mothers of France correcting the discords between the Girondists and the 
Jacobins, he painted Romulus and Tatius reconciled by the women of the 
Sabines; and Guerin, desiring to show the Emigrants of the Revolution return- 
ing to their bereaved homes, invented a "Marcus Sextus" to tell the story. 
But English art, set in the right path b)' West, was forever content, after the 
production ot this picture, to leave the eloquence of facts to produce their 
natural effect; and accordingly, when our own great wars came to be recorded, 
a pupil of West — Trumbull — was empowered by a wise education to represent 
them as they happened, and in the strictest historic sense. 

West's "Death of Wolfe," of which we present a copy on page 53, is a 
touching and solemn composition. On the ground, near the crest of Abra- 
ham's Heights, the young hero is dying in the arms of his friends, at the 
moment of victory. The defences of Quebec are taken, Montcalm's forces are 
in full retreat, and the chain of French strongholds will not much longer bar 
the advance of Anoflo-Saxon civilization across the American wilderness. But 



FINE ART. 71 



this consciousness is only just dawning on the expiring hero. It is the thick 
of the battle. As young Wolfe sinks down with his death-wound, with the 
issue still uncertain around him, an officer cries, "They fly! I protest they fly!" 
"Who fly?" asks Wolfe with terrible anxiety, through the death-ratde. "The 
French" is the reply, and the young chieftain, raising his eyes to heaven as 
West has drawn him, gasps out, "Then I die happy!" and expires. Around 
him kneel the English captains bare-headed ; the brave young colonists, our 
forefathers, who supplied the flower of the Bridsh forces, in fringed leggings 
and moccasins are looking wistfully on ; one of them has just run up with the 
news of the French retreat; and, poindng to the captured flag, with its Bourbon 
lilies, this American rusdc gives Wolfe the news of his success — a form of 
apprisal that w*e somehow like better than it it had come from lips stranger 
to the soil. More completely indigenous, a red-skin brave, one of the few whom 
British diplomacy was able to win from the wily blandishments of the French, 
sadly crouches on the ground to count the last breaths of the expiring martyr. 
Wolfe's figure is young, slender and aristocratic ; the pale, upturned face is 
such an one as might well belong to the literary hero who beguiled the journey 
of the night attack a few hours before by reciting Gray's "Elegy," with the 
remark that he would rather have written that perfect requiem than take 
Quebec. This charming saying, so lull of college-boy enthusiasm, gives reality 
to the character of Wolfe in our minds; the measures of the stately Elegy 
close around him for his own proper epitaph and consecration, and throb, as 
a dead march, among the bowed military figures whom West groups in his 
picture. 

The epoch (as defined by costume) of the bewitching "Mistress Dorothy" 
(page 68) is that of the "Death of Wolfe." We are again at the period, so 
big with changes for the face of the world, when England covered herself with 
victory, and made herself the dictator of Europe, to be brought up with a 
sudden check as soon as she tried to extend her conquests to the Western 
hemisphere. Yes, here is the costume that Gainsborough and Northcote and 
Romney immortalized ; but from the scene of the dying Wolfe and scattering 
French, what a transition! It is like changing our reading from Marlborough's 
Dispatches to the beautiful make-believe antique English of Thackeray's 
"Esmond." The epoch, the period, is there, but we shift from grim work to 



72 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



play. "Mistress Dorothy" is a lovely, simple English girl, of the time when 
Anglo-Saxon simplicity was real simplicity, uncontaminated with superficial 
science and French novels. This round-faced maid, who sits waitino- for her 



palfrey to be 
brought mean- 
while drawing 
on a pair of 
gloves that 
Jugla and Al- 
exandre would 
declare to be 
of frightfully 
bad cut, pos- 
sesses a mind 
healthfully va- 
cant of "Con- 
suelo" and 
"The Prin- 
cess." She 
knows the af- 
fairs of the 
buttery, doubt- 
less, and every 
day counts the 
eggs of her 
father the 
Squire's poul- 
try-yard. The 
crystal pellu- 
cidity of her 



eyes has never 
been crossed 
by ugly shad- 
ows of skep- 
ticism and 
speculation. 
Doubtless she 
has sins of her 
own to ac- 
count for, and 
to ask expia- 
tion from, as 
she humbly 
kneels at her 
tlimity pillow 
by night ; but 
the sins of the 
bluff Hano- 
verian period 
have a certain 
innocence 
about them ; 
one can see 
that the hero- 
ines of Miss 
Burney's nov- 
els have never 

let their teeth quite meet in the apple of knowledge. Now-a-days we should 
have to dive very deep into the country wilderness to meet such a gem of 
simplicity. Ah ! we travel a thousand miles for a wife, and think nothing of 
it; if we could defeat time as easily as space, and plunge into distant epochs 




Tatt xrdttn Scuip 




HYBIA THE BLI^D GIRIL OF FOMFIE" 

u s iptPTTialicnal ExtaTjitioiilSTS. 



GEBBIE & BARBIE. 



FINE ART. 



71 




R. Lthman. P,y. 



La Rota — the Foundhiig Hostitat at Rome. 



74 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

for our mates, what a hurry-scurry there would be to get the first choice! 
Swinburne the poet would make for Cleopatra; Faust the printer would call 
for Helen of Troy; Longfellow would pursue his Evangeline, and Tennyson 
a protracted " Dream" of fair women, while we for our part should be con- 
tented with the dewy rustic buxomness of " Mistress Dorothy." For this sane 
and beautiful creation we have to thank Mr. George A. Storey, a talented 
London artist who has not received the honor of an election to the Academy, 
but who in this picture and in another entitled "Only a Rabbit" displays quali- 
ties that make the highest honors seem not inappropriate. 

A really exalted sentiment of rural tranquillity is poured over Mr. 
Bellows's scene entitled "Sunday in Devonshire" (page 44). It is the vibration 
of the church-going bell expressed in landscape-painting. We seem to see and 
breathe a different atmosphere from the work-a-day air as we mingle with these 
smock-frocked peasants on their way from church, appearing to have just 
received the blessing of .Sir Roger de Coverley. Mr. Bellows is a young 
American painter who has passed much time in England, and whose works, 
both in oil and water-color, take an inspiration from English art rather than 
from that of the Continent. The spirit of English landscape, too, whose nutty 
honest flavor he seizes so perfectly, is a boon he has secured from a residence 
in the tight little island. It is not for him to soar Into Colorado scenery or 
wrestle with the Yo Semite. The stage he loves is set with snug and crisp 
trees and happy cottages; sometimes he Is familiar, and gives a kitchen-garden 
comedy for the benefit of Gaffer and Gammer; but when he is at his best, as 
in the present example, the limpid, translucent touches of his pencil transfer 
the very sentiment of "an English home," with the security, the hereditary 
calm, the 

" Dewy landscape, dewy trees. 

Softer than sleep; all things in order stored, 

A haunt of ancient Peace." 

We have already described and illustrated the wondrous archaeology of 
Mr. Alma Tadema ; but we are sure our readers will readily forgive us for 
recurring to a painter of such marked originality. On page 69 we present an 
engraving of his gem-like picture entitled "The Convalescent." The original 
is not large, and reminds us strangely of some mosaic just dug up from 



FINE ART. 75 

Pompeii — as highly finished as the celebrated "Pliny's Doves," and as dramatic 
as the "Choragus instructing his Actors." We are transported, by the magic 
art of this wizard painter, into the times of the later emperors, when rococo 
had completely usurped the simplicity and ponderousness of early Roman taste, 
when the arts of conquered Greece had rendered the Italians finical without 
rendering them elegant, and when even the false Egyptian and false Hellenic 
of i^drian had been forgotten, and the grandiose had sunk into the triviaF 
throughout all the mansions of Rome. The museums of Europe, the lavas of 
Herculaneum, and the fragmentary busts of the statue-galleries, have to be 
ransacked, for costumes, hints, habits and back-grounds, before such a group 
as "The Convalescent" can be constructed, so true to life in the first century. 
Amid the worst innovations of Pompeian taste — the bewigged toilets, the pillars 
painted part way up and merging into pilasters, the garments chequered with 
a confusion of colors, the household divinities made absurd with barber's-block 
frivolity — he places his group of the invalid dame and her attendants. He 
knows well that the imagination is more easily caught with the every-day litter 
and vulgar ugliness of a period of decline than with the frigid perfection of 
the more elegant epochs. The graceful figures of an Attic vase would touch 
us but slightly, and nothing would come of an effort to interest the mind with 
the Grecian couches and reclining nymphs of the classical period as the French 
restored them in the day of the Revolution. Our artist's persons are direct, 
real, ungraceful, and convinting. The noble dame lounges on her carved seat. 
Her hair is bunched up into a hideous mop, which gives her infinite satisfac- 
tion. Her accomplished slave has dipped her hand into the round box of 
parchments, and has extracted some of the light literature of the day — not that 
story in Virgil which made an empress faint, but the love-poems of Ovid or 
the graceful fancies of Catullus. A younger slave-woman kneels in the fore- 
ground over a tempting luncheon. It is homely and stately at once. It is 
parlor-life in the days when they talked Latin without making it a school- 
exercise, and perhaps, in some cool corner around the pillar, Pliny is writing 
one of his pleasant letters. 

Christian resignation, which soothes the bed of sickness, and finds an 
answer even for the yawning challenge of the grave, is most poetically illus- 
trated by the British artist F. Holl, in his two subjects contributed to the 



76 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Exhibition. One is entitled "The Lord gave, the Lord hatli taken away; 




blessed be the name of the Lord;" the other, "The Village Funeral: 'I am 
the Resurrection and the Life.' " The former, lent by its owner, F. C. Pawle, 



FINE ART. 



77 



Esq., forms the theme of our engraving on this page : it seems to attain the 
very acme of religious pathos. We share in the first meal which unites an 




humble family after some awful bereavement. The watchers who have taken 
their turns at the sick couch are released now — their faithful task is over; the 



78 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 

household whose regular ways, have been overturned by the malady has come 
back to its wonted course again, and the pious nurses have no cares to prevent 
them from meeting at the board as of old. Is there anything more dreadful 
than that first meal after a funeral? The mockery of leisure and ease — the 
sorrowful, decorous regularity of the repast — the security from those hindrances 
and interruptions that so long have marred the order of the attendance — these 
improvements are here indeed, for what they are worth ; but where is the 
tender hand that was wont to break the bread lor the household? — where are 
the lips that used to breathe forth the humble grace before meat? It is the 
very emptiness of a once cheerful form — the bitterness of meat eaten with 
tears. The frugal board is neat and pleasant — 

" But oh for the touch of a vanished liand, 
And the sound of a voice that is still !" 

In Mr. Holl's picture we see this ghastly, unnatural decorum of the table- 
spread with funeral bakemeats : the wan woman beside it, whose hollow eyes 
and tear-worn cheeks tell of faithful watching for many a weary night, is neat 
with the miserable neatness of the funeral evening; the young brother in the 
back-ground is brushed and combed more than his wont, and his attitude has 
an unnatural restraint; the old woman behind is tender and sjmpathetic, beyond 
the customary usage and practice of that kind of old women. Death has come 
among them all like a leveling wind, reducing everything to the regularity of 
desolation. Otit ot this weary scene of frustration and lassitude arise the words 
of the sincere-looking, earnest young curate: "The Lord gave, the Lord hath 
taken away;" he stands by the robbed fireside; he joins the family-circle 
whose most precious link is gone, and he confidently cries, "Blessed be the 
name of the Lord !" It is the very triumph of faith out of the jaws of death ! 
Mr. Holl has uttered that sure word of promise which is the best reliance of 
our religion. In the assurance of the immortality which is to join the family 
at last in a more-enduring mansion, is the highest boon of Christianity. The 
expressions here are so earnest, pure, devout, and full of tenderness, that the 
painting is as elegant as a canto of In Mcinoriam. It is deservedly a great 
favorite, and forms a precious example of the intellectual and moral profundity 
which is the redeemine feature of Enolish art. 




AMERICA 



". IirleTRaliOTial IWiiluUoii 16Y6 



JBBBIB « n* 



FINE ART. 79 

A work of considerable dignity and elegance, and one deserving respectful 
criticism apart from the mere stupefied admiration accorded to its gio-antic 
size, is tlie colossal group of sculpture entitled "America," set up in the great 
Central Hall of the Memorial Building. Besides being an interesting reminder 
of a superb monument, it is noteworthy as probably the largest ceramic work 
ever made, except those Chinese towers confessedly put together out of small 
fragments. However many may be the segments in which the "America" 
group is cast, they must severally be enormously large, and in their grouping 
they produce an effect ol perfect unity, so adroitly are their joints concealed. 
The memorial recently erected to Prince Albert, in Hyde Park, London, has 
occupied the leading sculptors of England for many years. The podium or 
central mass, covered by Mr. Armstead with friezes of the principal poets, 
artists, and musicians, is approached by flights of steps on its four sides, the 
whole forming a vast platform, at whose corners are pedestals, quite remote 
from the central edifice, and respectively crowned with groups of sculpture. 
"Asia" is one of these groups, executed by J. H. Foley; the late P. Macdowell 
designed the group of "Europe;" the veteran John Bell, whose works, says 
Mr. S. C. Hall, "have long given him a leading position in his profession," is 
the inventor of the elaborate allegory dedicated to our own country, a fine 
engraving of which we introduced in an earlier part of the present work. The 
quarters of the globe are backed by other groups of sculpture representing 
human achievement: as, "Agriculture," by W. C. Marshall; "Engineering," by 
J. Lawlor; "Commerce," by J. Thornycroft, and "Manufactures," by H. Weekes. 

The collection of figures representing "America," which are wordiy the 
attention needed to unravel their symbolism, may be thus described. America 
herself, the central and all-embracing type of the continent, rides the bison in 
the centre of the cortege. Her right hand holds the spear, her left the shield, 
decorated with the beaver, the eagle and other Indian signs ; her tiara of eagle 
feathers sweeps backward from her forehead and trails over her shoulders; she 
is the aboriginal earth-goddess, depending upon kindlier forces to illumine her 
path and guide her steps. This office is assumed by the figure representing 
the United States ; the serene virgin, self-confident and austere, wearing the 
lineaments of the Spirit of Liberty, belted with stars, and leading the earth- 
goddess with a sceptre on whose tip shines that planet of empire which 



8o 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



"westward takes its way," is the effiy^y of our own happy country. At her 
feet lies the Indian's quiver, with but one or two arrows left within it. Behind 
the figure oi tiie Republic is that ot Canada, a pure and fresh-faced damsel, 
wearing furs, and pressing the rose of England to her bosom. The figure 



seated on a rock, in 
Iront, is Mexico, rep- 
resented by an Az- 
tec in his radiating 
crown of feathers, 
with the flint a.xe, 
curiously carved, in 
his hand ; a corres- 
ponding sitting per- 
sonage on the other 
side, and not within 
the scope of the 
engraving, is South 
America, a Spanish- 
faced cavalier in the 
broad-brimmed som- 
brero and grace- 
fully folded poncho. 
These are the prin- 
cipal features of the 
lotty and elaborate 
group which casts 
its shadow over the 
Boor of Memorial 
Hall. The artist has 




worked in such evi- 
dent sympathy with 
and admiration for 
the Spirit of Ameri- 
can institutions that 
he deserves the most 
gracious recognition 
of this country; the 
original of this 
mighty group, be- 
held by all who pass 
under the marble 
arch and stroll to- 
wards the Serpent- 
ine, is a perpetual 
appeal for Constitu- 
tional Liberty, as we 
understand it; and 
the lesson taught by 
those sister statues, 
who though crown- 
less subdue the 
rugged forces of the 
West, is not lost 
upon the thronging 



citizens who gaze upon them. The effect of the group as we have it, in - the 
pleasant earth-color of Messrs. Doulton's terra-cotta, is quite unique — something 
more exquisite and piquant than that of white marble, with which the eye 
becomes satiated after a long course of civic monuments. 

English rustic life is well-depicted in Constable's painting of "The Lock" 



FINE ART. 



8i 



(page i"]^, which is a piece of good fortune for us to keep for awhile in 
America. The importance of John Constable's influence and example cannot 
possibly be over-estimated in the progress of landscape art throughout England 




Sculpture by E-^idio Pozzi. 



Tin- Wvitli of Michael Angela. 



and the Continent. His effect on art is in fact considerably greater than that 
of Turner, because, while Turner's individuality cannot be imitated to any 




F. .4. B'-idsi'i.i". r-,:r 



84 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

advantage, the discoveries of Constable are not altogether uncopiable. He was 
born at East Bergholt, in Suffolk, in 1776, and died at his home in Charlotte 
Street, London, on the first of April, 1S37, with Southey's "Cowper," which he 
had been reading an hour before his death, lying at the bed-head on a table. 
Constable found landscape composition enthralled in the noble formality of 
Gainsborough and Wilson; by paying attention to nature, and not to any 
school, he invented a manner of his own, expressed certain phases as they had 
never been expressed before, and lelt behind him a body of works which were 
the code of a new faith in art. The mannered landscapes of his predecessor, 
Wilson, in England, have just the same relation to real scenery that the man- 
nered descriptions of Pope and Shenstone have to actual effects ; it is landscape 
gardening, not lantlscape ; you are among groves that "frown," and "horrid" 
rocks, and "nodding" mountains, and all those other curiosities that are never 
found in nature by those who really love her, but are invariably lent to her 
by artists of the drop-curtain sort; at the same time, on the Continent, the 
grand but baleful infliience of Poussin had set all the world to formalizing 
nature, and that of Claude had established his precedent of artful symmetry 
among those who could never reach his golden air. It was for Constable to 
charm away the whole world trom the shrines of these divinities, and they are 
empty to this very day. His fresh and Hashing style, so true to a single aspect 
ot European climate, set every painter to looking, not upon antique bas-reliefs 
and Italian ruins, but right into the open, windy, showery, capricious sky, and 
among the dewy grasses underfoot. He made the lush and humid leaves 
twinkle with sense of growth and stirring life and mounting sap. He sent the 
scudding clouds flashing and darkening across the changeable sky; he swept' 
this sky with rocking branches and tufted ripples of foliage. Although not , 
altogether unappreciated during his lifetime, his fame has immensely increased 
since his death; along with "Old Crome" and Bonington, he enjoys a sort of 
posthumous elevation to the peerage ; his slightest works are sought out like 
gold, and even the gallery of the Louvre, so very chary of credit to English 
art, has recently received with pride two' or three of his pictures — one of them 
a very noble study of a sea-beach swept with shadows from a storm — and hung 
them in positions of honor. He is the true progenitor of such eminent land- 
scapists as Troyon, Rousseau, Frangais, Dupre, and even Daubigny — some of 



FINE ART 85 



whom find their fortune in appropriating a mere corner of his mantle. "Among 
all landscape-painters, ancient or modern," says the celebrated C. R. Leslie, "no 
one carries me so entirely to nature ; and I can truly say that since I have 
known his works I have never looked at a tree or the sky without being 
reminded of him." In his personal character Constable was winning, and con- 
quered the most unpromising material to his allegiance ; he would say to a 
London cabby, "Now, my good fellow, drive me a shilling fare towards so and 
so, and don't cheat yourself." Constable's picture at the Exposition, generously 
lent by the Royal Academy, is an important example. One of his flashing skies, 
summing up the whole quarrel between storm and sunshine, occupies the 
upper half; against this lean a couple of vigorous, riotous-looking trees, half- 
drunk with potations of superabundant English moisture. Both these features 
are modelled: the sky shows as much light and shade as a study of sculpture, 
and the trees are moulded into their natural dome-like forms, with play of light 
and shade on the mass ; in such a scene, an inferior painter is tempted either 
to keep his sky very thin, in order to get it well back from the invading trees, 
or else, if the sky has much variegation, to turn his trees into a mere dark 
screen, perfectly flat, so as easily to insure the desired contrast and difference 
of values. Constable boldly moulds his clouds, and vigorously lights the sun- 
ward edges of his trees, trusting to his close copywork of nature to get his 
firmament fifty miles away. A man in a boat is guiding the prow by means 
of a rope passing around a post through the brimming reservoir of the lock, 
which the care-taker is raising with a lever applied to the gate. Beyond 
stretches a level view of a flat country, of which a considerable stretch is 
commanded from the elevation of the race-bank. In spirit and idea it is all 
English — homely, familiar, dew-bathed, and tender. It reminds us, in temper, 
feeling and gratitude, of the lines in Matthew Arnold's "Thyrsis": 

" Runs it not here, the track by Childsworth Farm, 

Up past the wood, to where the elm-tree crowns 
The hill behind whose ridge the sunset flames? 

The signal-elm that looks on Isley Downs, 
The vale, the three lone wears, the youthful Thames?" 

In the crowded vegetation with which he fills the foreground of this picture, 
Constable is all himself. Without pedantic analysis of forms and genera, with- 



86 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

out that close attention to vegetable minutis which invariably turns landscape 
art into botany, and destroys the higher truths of atmosphere, the painter gives 
with great success the vital principle of weed-growth — the confusion, the struggle 
for light and air, the soft brushing of leaf against leaf surcharged with moisture. 
This ardent study of a great inventor's, "The Lock," is twice noteworthy: first 
as it hangs, as a hit at nature taken on the fly, and second as a document, 
showing the invasion of realism into academic art early in this century. It is 
in some of its qualides a resume of the advice which West gave Constable in 
his youth, and which it was not his own cue to act upon. "Always remember, 
sir, that light and shadozu never stand still." Hamerton quoting this proverb, 
says, "It thus became one of Constable's main purposes to make people feel 
the motions of cloud-shadows and gleams of light stealing upon objects and 
brightening before we are quite aware of it." 

It is hardly unfair or extravagant to say that Emile Breton's picture of 
"The Canal at Courrieres" results from Constable's "Lock." This sincere and 
simply-viewed landscape effect could Ije traced, through a connected series of 
studies and exemplars, logically and materially back to England and the studio 
of Constable. It is part of the same movement, the championship of pure 
nature, of pure impression as the phrase goes, and the hewing in pieces of 
Claude and Poussin. The simple life of the brothers Breton, one of the most 
charming imaginable examples of gentle existence in rustic France, is an idyl 
in itself, and is in perfect harmony with Constable's rustic way of living in the 
heart of nature. Among the dandies of Paris who throng before the pictures 
at the spring exhibitions, there is seen most years a singular and charming 
figure — a short, solid-looking countryman, tanned and rough, with hat carried 
respectfully in hand, hair blowing about in the utter absence of pomade, a 
preposterous old watch-chain, and a waistcoat of white Marseilles stuff, pro- 
fusely adorned with flowers of all colors: such a make-up would be the fortune 
of a comic actor in the part of a "brave paysan;" but the country farmer 
elbows his way with modest confidence to the most exquisite examples of art 
in the exhibition, and some of the dandies make way for him with unfeigned 
respect, for he is known to b-^ Jules Breton, painter of some of the finest of 
them all. Jules, renowned for his figure-subjects, has a younger brother, Emile, 
a landscapist, in character not unlike himself, and the author of the picture we 



88 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

represent on page 76. From the agreeable pen of Rene Menard we have a 
lifelike sketch of all the brothers. Courrieres, where they live, is a little 
village in French Flanders, Departement du Nord. Of the children who played 
about in the mayor's garden, and watched with delight the house-painter 
touching up the eyes and lips ot the tour wooden garden statues every spring, 
the youngest was Emile, the subject of this paragraph. When he was nine 
months old, however, and before such intelligent watching was possible to him, 
he lost his father, the good mayor, the year being 1827. Nothing can exceed 
the charm and the goodness, the mixture of patriarchal despotism and sub- 
stantial kindness, of a French country mayor in an out-of-the-way province. 
Looking like a market-huckster, he is armed with the majesty of Rhadamanthus 
and graced with the goodness of Sir Roger de Coverley. Another brother now 
inherits the good, simple office of mayor vacated by the father, and conducts 
the; village brewery. Jules, the great ])ainter of "The Benediction of Harvest," 
is some three years older than Emile, which vast advantage in point of time 
has made him treat the junior like a patron and guardian all his life. During 
the ruinous overturnings of 1848, the career of th(' family was clouded by 
poverty, owing to which circumstance, says M. Menard, "the younger brother, 
Emile Breton, enlisted in the army, but after a time he resumed his studies in 
painting, and is now among our most distinguished landscape-painters. Pictures 
like those of Emile Breton charm by a mixture of poetry and reality; his 
moonlight effects and winter scenes assign to him an eminent position among 
our best painters. When the invasion came he separated himself from his family 
to defend his country, and his conduct was such that his general embraced him 
on the field of battle. After the war he returned to art, and in the last exhi- 
bitions his pictures had so much success that public opinion now places him by 
the side of his brother. The talent of the two brothers, though applied to 
different objects, presents nevertheless great affinities, since we find in the 
figures of the one, as in the landscapes of the other, the search after truthful- 
ness combined with an extreme refinement in their way of understanding 
nature." Both the landscapes contributed by Emile Breton belong to the class 
called "impressions;" they are not meant to be examined from the distance of 
a foot and with the aid of a magnifying-glass, but to be viewed for the whole 
effect and from a somewhat remote position. Under these conditions they are 



FINE ART. 89 

found to deliver the aspect of nature with a close verity not often reached by 
painting. The "Village in Winter" records the exact appearance of soft, heavy, 
clogging, and lumpish snow; you can positively see it melt. The "Canal at 
Courrieres" makes capital of the straightness, starkness and uncompromising 




The Youthful Hannibal. 



rigidity of the water-course beside which the artist has played from childhood. 
The two banks, as if laid out with a ruler, recede in perspective towards tl^e 
point of sight as you look up the canal; on each side rise small perpendicular 
trees, trimmed every year in French fashion: it is like looking up a tunnel — 
the straight level bars of cloud closing over the top and completing the effect 
of imprisoning the sight between the bars of a sort of cage. The low and 



92 THE INTERN Al'IO X AL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



rather melancholy light strays as best it can through this all-enclosing prison. 
It will be observed that the water of the canal seems perfectly level, though its 
wedge-shaped boundaries would give it the look of a hill-side in the hands of 
an unskillful artist. Mr. Breton gives us a direct, unadorned, literal page from 
the book of nature: it is the unfeigned report of an impression derived from 
a particular place and hour; this candid scene is wordiy to figure as the back- 
ground of one ot his brother's peasant groups. 

The pathetic subject of which we give a representation on page 73, "L.a 
Rota," is by Mr. Rudolph Lehmann, of London. The picture represents an 
incitlent only too common in Rome, where the scene is laid. A wretched 
mother has brought her babe in the evening to the foundling hospital, and is 
about to place the tiny creature in the "wheel," or turning bo.\ at the window, 
to become henceforth a waif and unclassified citizen. In a little while she will 
have departed, and the good nun within will search the receptacle for the little 
nestling, never more to know mother or kindred. The culpable and weak- 
hearted girl, of course, is not too hardened to part from her offspring without 
a pang; there is genuine grief in her last despairing kiss, and, perhaps, genuine 
pious feeling in the care with which the rosary has been brought along with 
the cradle. It is the resolute endurance of obloquy for the future advantage 
of the infant, of which the impulsive, impressionable Southern character is 
incapable; to tind diis heroism of the depths, we have to seek a sterner and 
more exalted race, among the duty-laden peoples of the North — ex. gr., Hester 
Prynne, and "The Scarlet Letter." Mr. Lehmann has thrown his figure into a 
very graceful pose, without doing violence to that directness ot action and 
uncalculating simplicity which the subject demands, and which these moments 
of soul-outpouring provide. The cradle deserves a note, too — cradle and 
basket at once, with hoop handle for convenient transport, such as the Italian 
poor make use of. How often has this cradle-pannier made its innocent 
journeys from door-step to hearth, and from floor to grass-plot, perhaps for 
generations, without consciousness that it should one night make its stealthy 
trip, along the narrowest, filthiest and loneliest alleys of Rome, to the "Rota" 
m the hospital of infamy! 

Mr. K. Dielitz, of Berlin, shows a piece of hearty, sympathetic genre 
painting, in the subject we illustrate on page 41, entitled "I and my Pipe." 



FINE ART. 



93 



This fine young Bavarian peasant, from liis festal dress, seems to have returned 
from some holiday occasion — perhaps a shooting-match, perhaps a sermon. The 
luxury with which he stretches his stalwart and clean-shaped legs, and concen- 
trates all his attention on the filling and lighting of his pipe, is quite contagious 
in its hearty humor. The pipe, like the magnificent porcelain stove against 
which his broad back is set, is monumental in its dimensions. A witty writer 
says the German peasant's face is composed of the following features : the 
eyes, the nose, and the — pipe. 

We may gratify our national vanity by taking a specimen of American 
industry as a contrast to Bavarian otiiiin cmn dignitatis. Mr. E. T. Billings, of 
Boston, sends to the Exhibition a highly characteristic interior representing a 
wheelwright shop, with the capable-looking master bending his philosopher's 
forehead over a felloe for the wheel that is in process of construction at his 
side. The extraordinary scrupulosity with which every detail of the shop is 
individualized and dwelt upon renders this picture a litde wonder. The artist 
does not spare us a chisel, a saw, a gauge, or a glue-pot. It is Dutch patience 
celebrating American skill. There is capital training for the painter in the 
elaboration of one of these laborious toys of art ; there are provoking little 
problems of drawing, perspective and grouping to be worked out, and the 
general difficulty of giving each item its prominence without losing breadth; 
and one would say that every artist, no matter 'how large a style, how volup- 
tuous a color, how easy a grace, how masterly a generalization he is ultimately 
to attain to, might profitably spend a year of his youth in putting together one 
of these intricate puzzles. It is said that Sir John Gilbert occupied his boyhood 
in drawing the details of ornamental carriages; so the not altogether different 
business of a wheelwright shop may be the training destined to conduct Mr. 
Billings to iame and excellence. 

For the entirely graceful and feminine figure of "The Bather" — engraved 
on page 72 — we are indebted to Professor Antonio Tantardini, of Milan. The 
posture of this shrinking woman — who .seems to tear surprisal — is at first sight 
somewhat like that of Mr. Howard Roberts' statue of "The First Pose." In 
both, the foot is timidly drawn up into the mass of drapery on which the 
figure sits, and the lace is shielded in the right elbow: this is, of course, an 
accidental resemblance, and only proves the fact which has become proverbial 



94 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B IT I ON, 1876. 

among sculptors, that there are very few poses in nature for the artist to select 
from. Immense have been the number of " Bathers" contributed to art by 
sculptors and painters in want of a theme, the plain reason being that the 
situation of bathing is one of the very few in which a modern female subject 
can be treated without any violation of modesty of character. The artist, 
impelled to make a stud)- ot nude flesh — after all, the worthiest exercise afforded 
by nature to the craft — can hardly find another situation in modern life which 
affords him the needed revelation, without the slightest sacrifice of womanly 
character. The variations, too, which may be played on this delicate theme arc 
infinite. Let the careless reader, who is disposed to pass by Tantardini's fine 
work with the hasty remark, "Only another bathing girl!" turn again to the 
glowing and delicate episode of Musidora, in Tliomson's "Seasons," as he reads 
for one more time this gentle pastoral, which the Italian sculptor seems to have 
been familiar with, he will comprehend the resources which art can find in the 
topic of modesty taken at a disadvantage. 

Another sculptor of Milan, Signor Egidio Pozzi, contributes to the Exhibi- 
tion a sitting male figure, supposed to represent Michael Angelo in his youth. 
We present an engraving of this work on page 81. The Milanese artist repre- 
sents his immortal fellow-sculptor at that period of his boyhood when he 
studied all day long in the garden "of Lorenzo de Medici, "the Magnificent,'' 
in Florence, among the treasures of antique statuary which the growing taste 
for such collections had then amassed in that retreat. It is related that the 
first original work of the young genius was a face of an antique satyr, or faun 
— one of those grotesques which the architecture of the period demanded in 
abundance for the decoration of keystones and lintels. The greater the extrava- 
gance of expression, the richer the satisfaction of the architect, and the artists 
of the time exhausted their fancy in giving the look of leering, fantastic intelli- 
gence to these stone faces which peered over arches and portals, and conferred 
an air of conscious slyness and counsel-keeping on the various apertures of an 
edifice. Michael Angelo's first effort was as great a hit as the mature efforts 
of finished sculptors in this line, and the row of mascarons, or grotesque faces 
made by Jean Goujon for the Pont Neuf in Paris, contained no example more 
expressive than this first specimen, which had been made by the elfish stripling 
in Florence. " However, your faun is wrong," said Lorenzo, laughing indulgently 



FINE ART. 



95 



over the boy's shoulder. " He is old and has cracked many a hard nut with 
those crrinnino- teeth; he ought to have lost some of them by this time." 




When the Magnifico passed next into the garden, young Michael had knocked 
out a tooth, and the patron, pleased with his own cleverness and the lad's, was 



96 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1S76. 

unreserved in his praise of a work which now recorded a thought of his own 
within one of Michael Angelo's. The figure sent to us by Signor Pozzi is one 
of intellectual delicacy ; it is hardly that of the fiery young goblin who drew his 
own face, with pointed ears as a satyr, before he was twenty-one, and who, in 
this same garden of Florence, so taunted Torregiano that the latter marked 
him for life with a broken nose. It is a representation of the etherial, creative 
part of Michael Angelo's character. The lad before us seems likely to grow 
up into a sort of seraphic being, more like a Raphael than like the gusty and 
morose recluse who carved the Moses. Yet, it is undeniable that this lonely 
man had his side of ineffable tenderness, and there is artistic justification for 
the artist who chooses to represent that phase of his nature on which his con- 
temporaries were condnually harping, when they played upon his name and said 
that his works were exected by an "Angelo." 

One of the most creditable representatives of our country abroad is Mr. 
Frederick A. Bridgman, whose picture of " Bringing in the Corn " is engraved 
on pages 82 and 83. Mr. Bridgman, when a young lad, became tired of executing 
line-engravings for the Bank Note Company in New York, and determined to 
open for himself a career as an oil painter. He looked like a mere boy when he 
took his seat, in 1867, among the students of one of the large ateliers of Paris; 
but the professor soon noticed that he had uncommon application and advanced 
rapidly out of the hard iitiey style which his apprenticeship to the burin had 
cramped him into. Young Bridgman passed his summers in Brittany, and 
afterwards went to Algiers and Egypt. If ever artist fulfilled Apelles' motto 
of "Nulla dies sine linea" it was this indefatigable worker. Now, his reputa- 
tion is both European and American, and the Liverpool Academy has bought 
one of his pictures as a model to its students and an adornment of its galleries. 
He is a constant contributor to American exhibitions, but he has seldom sent 
to his native country a better scene than the Brittany subject which we intro- 
duce to our readers. The drawing of the padent oxen, with their liquid eyes 
and hides of plush, is worthy of Rosa Bonheur, or any animalistwho ever painted. 
The rustic scenery represents to the life one of those narrow earthy roads of 
Brittany, which have stretchetl between the old town for thousands of \ears, in 
many cases, and whose bed is often worn to a hollow beneath the level of the 
fields from the mere carrving off of its dust, through centuries of travel. The 



FINE ART 



97 



picture basks in a delicious breadth of soft summer sunshine — which in Finis- 
tere is never dry and never too intense — and the type of an honest farmer's 




H. Moulin. Sc. 



boy, who balances the goad in his toughened rustic hands and goes along the 
road singing and contented, is a fresh and pretty thing to see. Mr. Bridg- 



loo THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

man's versatility is shown in the fact that he paints all subjects about equally 
well, whether landscapes, or circus scenes, or life-size Oriental heads, or country 
eclogues, like the example we are considering. 

A French figure-painter, who is no tyro, and is by no means young, yet 
who has made within a few years a quite novel and separate effect for himself 
by a fresh and original style of portraits, is the artist who calls himself " Carolus 
Duran." His old friends remember him as plain Charles Durand. He excites 
attention because in each of his portraits there is a new study of character, 
surroundings, relief and light and shade. To the "Salon" of 1876 he sent a 
portrait of the editor Girardin, in the stuffy seclusion of his study, backed up 
and almost wrapped up with a voluminous red curtain. To a previous one he 
conveyed the portrait of Mile. Croizette, of which we show a representation on 
page 87, in the full liberty of air and space, sitting on horseback, with the long 
beach in front of her and the illimitable sea behind. Mile. Croizette is the 
actress who made her grand sensation by turning green and dying of poison 
every night as the suicide in "The Sphinx." When those of our readers who 
have not seen the original are told that this lovely horsewoman of Monsieur 
Duran's is a woman the size of nature, on a bay hackney the size of nature, 
standing out dark and distinct from an Infinite that is the size of nature too, 
they may conceive that this work — though only a portrait — attracts about as 
much attention as any painting in the French Department. Many visitors, too, 
have seen her great part played in our own theatres and have heard of Mile. 
Croizette as the creator of it, and therefore have a personal interest in this 
gifted and fascinating woman, who is the sister-in-law of the painter. The 
picture, indeed, is one you cannot escape from ; whenever you are in the large 
room where it hangs, the ripe, imperial beauty, turning to you her questioning, 
rallying face reins you up as she does her steed. She impresses each spec- 
tator as if she had something very particular to say to him. This individual 
appeal is the charm of a French society-woman, and it is the charm, too, of 
a certain class of the best portraits of the old masters. For our own part 
we habitually think about this picture — which we have been irresistibly drawn 
to a great many times — that the attractiveness of it resides especially in the 
face, around which all the rest of the composition plays as a mere Arabesque. 
The eyes of the figure strike so directly into the eyes of your own head, and 




r J POTM'IT i^ .A RA^eiYX^ 



]FIEE]D)]IN& TMM SACHilKJU K-BIS HK' TJtKlE fflAlLILS OF IKAHWAC. 



MonallWulitinyi i;-; 



GEBBIE &BAKPaE, 



FINE ART. lOi 

the smiling, appealing, sidelong visage talks to you so intimately, that you 
have but a divided attention left for the neat hackney — with its uncommonly 
short ears — that stands off from the sky like a bronze, or for the iron drapery 
and cast-steel hat, which form the insignificant continuations of the beauty's 
commanding head and sofdy-turning neck. It must be acknowledged that the 
portraitist requires a great deal of space to relate his impression. Is there no 
way of expressing a fine woman's thoughts about the sea, and that sense of 
dominating something which she so much enjoys as the mistress of a fine 
animal, without importing the sea and the fine animal both bodily into the 
canvas? Taken as it stands, however, the picture is a triumph of perfectly 
clear analysis in, and careful relief of, objects against a distant sky. To deter- 
mine merely the right tint of that bright face against that bright sky, so that 
the flesh should look like flesh and the firmanent like light, was a whole volume 
of problems in art. The clearness with which the character, and a special 
mood of a character, is defined is above all a singularity of the picture ; you 
see just how far the painter is impressed by his model, and are reminded of 
some of Alfred de Mussett's analyses. The French are always logical and 
retain their logical expression even when submitting to a charm. 

The gende negro slave-girl, whom one of our prettiest steel-plates shows 
in the act of feeding a flock of storks, is the work of an eminent English 
artist, Edward J. Poynter, A. R. A. It is called "The Ibis Girl," or, more explana- 
torily, " Feeding the Sacred Ibis in the Hall of Karnac." It is a singular and 
lovely picture, and there is a sly, quaint humor in the contrast between the 
ibis-headed god on the elevation of his pillar, with incense rising up to his 
sacred beak, and the real ibises, who display such frank carnivorous appetite 
at his feet. The ibis, it is known, was sacred to Thoth, the Egyptian Mercury. 
Those ancient Africans, with their extraordinary talent for finding hidden 
meanings in things, discovered that the inundation of the Nile was caused by 
the annual coming of the ibis, instead of being the mere pretext of a visit 
when the feathered pilgrims wanted food. Impressed with this idea, they fer- 
vently worshipped the symbol presented by the migrating ibis, and, that the 
sign of their land's fertility might be never wanting, reared the birds in their 
temples with the greatest care. When a chick came out of the e.gg black, he 
was welcomed as a specially fortunate guest, honored during his life and spiced 



I02 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and embalmed after his death. Mr. Poynter's subject is an inferior ministrant 
of the temple feeding these birds with fish. Her posture is simple, natural and 
beautiful, and in its soft rounded form offers a contrast to the varied attitudes 
of ungainliness among the birds around her. Wrapped in transparent linen 
tissue, and covered with heavy symbolic jewelry, she feeds the storks with a 
shower of small fish which she scoops in a patera out of the large basin held 
against her hip. The monstrous pillars of Karnac, painted and covered with 
bas-reliefs, close in the background. The birds, who are bolting their food in 
a gormandizing and irreligious manner, are capitally studied, laying their long 
beaks sideways on the ground to gobble better, or elevating their heads and 
shaking the food into their throats as into a hopper. The innocent interest of 
the simple-minded black novice is very well felt by the artist. It is the precise 
shade of feeling demanded — the reverent care of a sacred thing, modified by 
familiarity, but not obscured — the humility of the Levite who sustains the temple 
service. A well-known French picture, illustrating a well-known French proverb, 
shows two augurs amongst the sacred chickens laughing heartily at the joke 
of the thing, and turning their backs upon the mystical hen-coops. Mr. Poynters' 
gentle priestess will never laugh at her feathered gods. 

Our nearest neighbor, the Dominion of Canada, is represented at the 
Centennial Exhibition by one hundred and fifty-six paintings, among which are 
several of a high order of merit. One of the most versatile exhibitors, whose 
works represent the three styles of portrait, marine and imaginative art, is 
Mr. J. C. Forbes. Of this gentleman's portraits, that delineating his Excellency 
Lord Dufferin, is of a particularly close resemblance, as many of those who 
have been glad to meet the distinguished original on his "Centennial" tour, 
have hastened to testify. His marine painting is an interesting representation 
of the foundering of the ship "Hibernia" in mid-ocean; in his third or "imagi- 
native " ^^«r^, the artist presents himself as the illustrator of an American poet. 
Longfellow's song of "Beware!" from the romance of Hyperion, has been 
accepted for thirty years as the best and standard expression of feminine 
coquetry; and this is the poem which our neighborly contributor chooses to 
embody In a graceful picture, engraved by us on page 61. A lady, whose 
beauty and elegance are not concealed by a somewhat worldly-mannered 
carriage, is touching the feathers of a fan with her pearly teeth, while the 




t -von Harach. Pi 



Luther Intercepted. 



I04 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



fingers of one hand are trifling with the long ciiain she wears, as if she was 
ready to throw it over her victim. The narrow, languid eyes gaze into the 
beholder's with the refinement of tender flirtation. It is the figure we meet in 
the parlor, in the park, in the piazza of the watering-place; one would say 
she was all heart; but 

"Take care ! 
She knows how much 'tis best to show! 
Beware ! Beware ! 

Trust her not, 
She is fooling thee ! " 

Another illustration of English poetry — this time of a loftier and more 
serious nature — is the statue of "Lucifer," in pure white marble, by Signor 
Corti, of Milan. Our cut, on page 80, gives an excellent idea of the original, 
if it be borne in mind tliat the statue is of the full size of an ordinary human 
form. It is one of the most seriously treated and practically conceived figures 
which the prolific Italian sculptors have shown to us. The conception is that 
of Milton's "Paradise Lost," representing the lost angel, not as a base and 
intellectually degraded being, but as the fallen rebel, nothing less than arch- 
angel ruined. The moment chosen is that after the immersion in the lake of 
fire, when the vanquished chieftain first recovers his ethereal strength. 

"Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool 
His mighty statue. On each hand the flames 
Driven backward, slope their pointing spires, and rolled 
In billows, leave i' the 'midst a horrid vale." 

The figure of Lucifer is that of an athlete in the pride of youthful strength, 
yet rather nervous and ethereal in its power than ponderous or solid. Upon 
the haughtily squared shoulders rides a head of most proud and noble carriage, 
surmounting a long boyish neck. The vast wings, covered with disheveled 
feathers, are drooping and half closed behind the shoulders, and the long 
agitated locks, from which heaven's ambrozia has been scorched all away, flow 
wildly back and meet the torn plumage of the pinions. The expression of the 
head, turned proudly to the right with a look of angry investigation, needs no 
description of ours, having been so superbly anticipated by Milton. 



FINE ART. 



I OS 




GiuHo Branca, Sc. The \ou7ig Grape Gatherer. 

Another sort of "Lucifer," or light-bearer, is seen in the pretty bronze 
statue, by Antonio Rosetti, of the "Telegraph," or "Genius of Electricity." This 




G. F. Fo/in^'sf:y. Pinx 



Lady fant 










over Bishop Gardin 



io8 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

figure is one of a pair, of which the other represents with equal felicity the 
idea which Rumsey and John Fitch elaborated so painfully on our shores — the 
idea of the railway-engine. Of the "Electricity" we present a steel engraving. 
Signor Rosetti hails from Rome, — the last city on the face of the globe, one 
would think, into which these modern innovations would penetrate; to anni- 
hilate time, annihilate space, — what interest has Rome in these, or what would 
she be if the time of her enduring or the extension of her ancient sway were 
lost to thought! Yet these disturbances and destructions, doing away with 
distances and periods, have swept at last, by the throne of the Popes and the 
sepulchre of the Caesars, and Rome is modern and pretty, like the rest of the 
world. Signor Rosetti has aimed at representing not so much the power, as 
the agility, delicacy and grace of the electric spark. Just born to illuminate 
the world, the child of light balances in one hand the torch of intelligence, 
while with the other he wraps the wire cables around the glass insulators which 
stud like mushrooms the stems of the trees; the forest of electric masts will 
cover the globe, and time will be shrivelled to nothingness, as the corpulent 
old planet throbs within the girdle of Puck. 

The most celebrated sculptor, whose labors contribute to the embellishment 
of our e.xhibition, is certainly John Gibson, whose death lately caused such deep, 
wide and unfeigned regret in the art-world. Kindly wrapped in his art, 
wonderfully absent-minded — the ideal of an idealist — Gibson was for many years 
the British lion in the circles of Rome, where he abode. His "Venus," executed 
for St. George's Hall, that classical Parthenon of Liverpool, is represented at 
the Centennial by a replica, which occupies the post of honor in the largest 
gallery appropriated to British use, and is represented by our engraving on 
page 64. The original excited a storm of doubt and objection by being stained 
or colored in imitation of life. Gibson's previous works, the details of his 
"Queen Victoria" and "Aurora" were faindy tinted, but the "Venus" showed 
the experiment carried out to its utmost limit. The first "Venus" was exhibited 
in 1854, in a chamber arranged for the special purpose, and the wondering 
crowd saw the marble entirely disguised under a flesh tint, which obscured the 
translucency though it did not affect the form of the marble, while the eyes, 
hair and drapery were stained to imitate the appearance of actual life. In the 
present duplicate, kindly committed by its owner, Richard C. Naylor, Esq., to 




'J S Ir-teinatioiialExlubiUorL,1376. 



THE GENIUS OF ELECTRICITY. 



FROM THE STATUE BY ANTONIO ROSETTI, ROME. 



SEBBIB & BARRI'B. 



FINE ART. 



109 



the risks and perils of exhibition, we have the purity of a beautiful fragment 
of ItaHan marble. The artist represents with dignity, with sweetness, and even 
with somewhat of the lymphatic and sedentary plumpness of the ordinary British 
matron, the charms of Venus Victrix. In her left hand she exhibits the apple, 
dctur pulchriori, which Discord had contributed to the marriage-feast of Peleus. 
The robe she has relinquished hangs over her arm and trails over the carapace 
of that mystical tortoise, which was the attribute of the divinity at Elis. Yes, 
she grasps at length the easily-won apple. Paris will steal Greek Helen, and 
the Grecian ships will dart to the Cape of Sagseum, and Troy will blaze, — but 
what cares Beauty, — supreme in her conquest of smiles and graces, alone on 
her pedestal of white supremacy? 

Few English artists are thought of more admiringly in France than W. Q. 
Orchardson. "Of M. Orchardson," says I'Art, "it may be said that he is 
essentially a painter. Whatever subject he may select, even incompletely 
represented, you see that he has been attracted by some quality sincerely 
picturesque, or by an effect which it belongs to painting to render ably * * * The 
painter is a colorist by race." He contributes two specimens of his skill to the 
Centennial display, one a humorous picture of Falstaff, Poins and the Prince, 
the other a wonderful expression of sentiment in landscape, " Moonlight on the 
Lagoons, Venice." The expression of fleet racing motion communicated to the 
sky full of hurrying clouds, as well as to the darting boat and the sweeping 
water, is worthy of a poet. All the picture hurries together, from left to right, 
yet with a power as soft as love, while inexorable as fate. There is no light 
on the horizon — the last lamps of Murano or the Lido has been left behind, 
and the glittering shore of Venice is outside the picture ; there is nothing but 
the diffused lustre of the moon, whose orb is not visible, but whose brightness 
flashes and waves behind a certain station among the clouds ; immediately 
beneath this brightest spot is drawn the black iron beak of the gondola ; as 
the beak rises towards it and defines the place of the moon, so the stretching 
oar of the gondolier tends directly to it, the bench on which he stands is laid 
toward it, and the two female figures assist, by the brightened folds of their 
drapery, to point to an illuminator which we cannot see. The supreme lone- 
liness of the sea and sky, emphasized rather than contradicted by the black 
darting boat, gives a curious htish to this impressive painting. 



no THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The long, intense, memorable monotone which Orchardson introduces into 
his marine is deeply poetic in its way, and is characteristic of certain modern 
studies and states of feeling. The fine old windy sense of the open sea, — the 
feeling characteristic of the day when Dibdin sang its songs and Stanfield 
painted its tides, — is indicated by an American artist, Mr. Briscoe, with 
peculiar success, in the subject of our steel-plate, "A Breezy Day off Dieppe." 
This excellent picture was long in the principal American room. Gallery C, 
and numbered 158. The picturesque gables and square tower of the town, 
whose chimneys send curling sooty clouds into the dirty weather of the zenith, 
occupy the left : the most sharply serrated roof stands dark against the brightest 
opening in the firmament : the fishing boats are racing in, lowering their sails 
hastily as they make the pier ; the waves are dancing in light and gloom, the 
gulls are blown like foam along their crests, and a row-boat filled with fishy 
ballast is making towards the slippery staircase quay. It is a capital picture 
of amphibious life, and our engraver has been peculiarly felicitous in making 
his contrasts of light and shade do duty for combinations of color. As for the 
painter, his manipulation of forms and values, so that every object is in its 
necessarily right place, and would unhinge the composition if removed, shows a 
mastery of scenic effect. 

The DiJsseklorf schoal of painting, formerly a great favorite for its clever 
scenes of familiar life, is represented by a small constituency in the Fair; is 
this indicative of a waning popularity ? The pleasant feeling of old days, when 
the DiJsseldorf gallery was the vogue of the metropolis, and innocent maidens 
at balls wondered how long it took "Mr. Diisseldorf" to paint so many 
pictures, comes blowing back, a breeze pf youth, as we gaze at Ewers's " Duet 
in the Smithy" of which our elaborate engraving is seen on page 65. It is 
Hogarthism translated into German : each canvas is a page, with an anecdote, 
an epigram, or a witticism, clearly set down — like an acknowledged wit's after- 
dinner story. Of this table-talk of art, the " Smithy " is an amusing specimen. 
The apprentice, who has music in his soul, and whose master is absent, is 
letting the fire go out, the irons cool, the bellows collapse, and the baby 
explode, as he plays his flute from a music-book reared up against the water- 
ing-pot. The capital misfortune is that the tail-board of baby's cart has fallen, 
and the infant, with his plump feet much higher than his head, is howling his 



FINE ART. 




Putro Miihxs, Pinx. 



Uuriiij^' the Ser 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



obligato part in the " duet." A man who will be a Hogarth exposes himself to 
perils through his very ingenuity ; determined to introduce as many graphic 
objects as the space will hold, he forgets their mutual relations; thus Herr 
Ewers, glad to show his ability in poultry, leads a meditative, corn-hooking hen 
a great deal nearer the roaring baby than the most dislrait hen would get in 
nature. But the picture is expressively designed and well painted. As is 
proper to one of these dolce far niente themes, our sympathies are led out 
altogether with the young Beethoven, impelled by the inner god of song to set 
aside present duty, instead of with the utilitarian aspects of the case ; even the 
inverted baby gets but small share of our concern in comparison with the 
possessed, dreaming rhapsodist, who tames the strength of liis burly black- 
smith's arm to die niceties of his playing. His pleasant, whole-souled, round- 
headed figure is interesting and individual, though the face is concealed, and 
there is real ability in which the beautiful velvety, sooty richness of an old 
forge is represented in the background. 

Although the conception of Mr. Gibson is rather correct than original, his 
goddess is smooth and delicate, but hardly divine. It is curious what difficulty 
even the most devoted lovers of the ancients have in producing a work which 
would even at the first glance be taken for an antique. Mr. Gibson observes 
the Greek rules of simplicity; directness; absence of protound expression; but 
these negatives do not result in that position, a deceptive counterfeit of Greek 
plastic art. One of his few pupils in latter times has been Miss Harriet 
Hosmer. John Gibson, born in Wales late in the last century, practised 
wood-carving in Liverpool, studied in Italy under Canova and Thorwaldsen, 
and sent to the Royal Academy at home, in 1827, his "Psyche borne by 
Zephyrs," of which Sir George Beaumont, the artist's best friend then, became 
the owner. This portrait-statue, such as the numerous ones of the Queen, 
those of Peel, of George Stephenson, of Huskisson, are more satisfactory than 
his ideal figures. His great claim to notice is, after all, the idea he conceived 
of tindng his figures, which he defended stoudy by reference to those traces 
of color on Greek and Greco-Roman work which an artist residing in Italy 
must so often see, and by which he must so inevitably be set to speculating. 
Gibson never solved the problem; he never stifled by any supreme success 
the voice of hostile cridcism; but if the triumphs of later men in polychromatic 





-I*ij[lil 



immf'^' 



WM'M^ So 



U S Iiitematioii.al ExhitatLon. 187 6 . 



r.-^.,..j,.:- ■ - 






' '"'^ ''00^^ -/V^' , ;- 




114 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

sculpture should ever cause the taste to prevail, and our statue-galleries of the 
future should shine with colors as in the time of the best Greek art, then 
Gibson will occupy an honorable place as pioneer. 

Amono- the specimens of that flexible, winning, seductive treatment of 
marble which made the Italian sculpture at the Centennial a revelation, a 
favorite specimen was "The Finding of Moses," by Francesco Barzaghi of 
Milan. This group occupied a conspicuous central position in the Fourth 
Room of the Art-Annex, and from its subject secured a general sympathy. It 
was by no means the only contribution of the distinguished Milanese ; his 
"Phryne," after having unveiled her charms at more than one world's fair, 
occupied a prominent neighboring position, and his "Silvia" and "First Ride" 
were ornaments of the Nineteenth Room of the same edifice. "The Child 
Moses," however, was undoubtedly the elect of popular suffrage out of the 
whole contribution of the sculptor. The beautiful child, a model of cherubic 
infancy, is represented by Signor Barzaghi in the arms of his sister Miriam, a 
budding maiden in the formal Egyptian cap. The gende slave girl is holding 
up the litde foundling, with a tearful smile that w^ould disarm cruelty itself, to 
see if she can win the favor of the dread Egyptian princess, whose presence 
must be supplied by imagination. There are some wild legends, quite outside 
the scriptural history, which excite the imagination in considering that strange 
interview between the Pharaoh's daughter — whose name is said to have been 
Thermutis — and the helpless young brother and sister. According to these 
rabbinical tales, Thermutis was a lepress, and had six sisters also in the same 
unpleasant plight. The baby touch of the future Hebrew statesman healed 
them all, and for that reason he was allowed to be reared in the gyneceum of 
the palace. Other singular and rather unbiblical stories cling around the group 
of the slave-lawgiver, his mother Jochabed, and his prophetess-sister Miriam. 
More than one of the Italian sculptors represented at the Exposition has rep- 
resented the incident of Moses trampling on the crown. It is narrated that the 
infant was one day playing boldly with the king, when Rameses placed his 
crown on the litde Hebrew's head ; Moses, inspired with a holy hatred of the 
idols with which the diadem was sculptured, tore it off and dashed it to the 
ground. Such is the fable which Messieurs Cambi and Martegani have illus- 
trated in their spirited statues contributed to the Exposidon. The sequel of 




THE MWDIMG OF MOSESc 



IT. S .Iitt6mational ExhibitiaTL 1876 . 



KEBBIE SlHATSP.IE 



FINE ART. 115 

the crown incident, according to the legend, is that when the courtiers would 
have punished the inspired infant for his revolutionary action, a wise counsellor, 
more merciful than the rest, said, "Show him a ruby and a live coal; if he 
snatches at the coal, he does not know right from wrong, and may be quit 
for the scorching he will get." An opportune angel guided Moses' baby-fingers, 
not to the gem, but to the coal, which he put into his mouth, and gave himself 
that contraction of the tongue which was the life-mark of his career and the 
symbol of his wisdom. These single figures of Moses and the crown are prob- 
ably the work of revolutionary Italians, anxious to express symbolically their 
opposition to royalty; but the group is more classical, and is a work of pure 
and gracious idyllic art. Signor Barzaghi has made a tender, plaintive, appealing 
work, which takes possession of the heart-strings at once. It is gratifying to 
be able to state that this pure and elevating piece of sculpture does not leave 
the city with the close of the festival it was sent to grace. It has become the 
property of the Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. 

While the Bible-leaf is still open, as it were, with the beautiful poem of 
Moses in the arms of Miriam, we may turn back through the pages of the 
present work and consult Huntington's large and impressive subject of Bible- 
reading, entitled "Sowing the Word." This picture, which occupied a com- 
manding position on the south wall of Gallery C, was seen necessarily by all 
who even hastily examined the American department, and will be instantly 
recognized in our elaborate copy on page 25. A venerable man is expounding 
the Scriptures. His auditors are two maidens of the most contrasted types, 
recalling Leonardo's " Modesty and Vanity" in the Sciarra collection. One is 
dark, studious, attentive, and drinks in the Word like thirsty soil ; the other, 
blonde, gay, distraite, and worldly, plays with a flower and looks away from the 
lesson. Immediately above her head, in the tapestry on the wall, the Maid- 
mother nurses her divine infant. The three heads, set so close together, express 
with that instantaneous emphasis which only the sight of a work of art can 
give, the three temperaments with which religion has to do — the didactic, which 
enforces and perpetuates it ; the frivolous, which repels it ; and the receptive, 
which absorbs and illustrates it. The important temperament of the three, so 
far as the vitality of religion on the earth is concerned, is the middle one, — the 
trifling and obstinate. It is the perpetual resistance which tests the tool ; and 



ii6 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



again, our race is more improved by converting one mind from an obstacle into 
an aid, than by letting a good many naturally sober ones go on in their mod- 
eration without conflict. Mr. Huntington has always shown a strong moral 




EagU and Turkey. 



tendency in his more serious works. His masterpieces, produced in youth, were 
the "Mercy's Dream" and "Christian Martyrs," and for these he will always be 
accorded a hio-h niche in American art. 



FINE ART. 117 



William and James Hart, Scotchmen by birth, have long occupied a con- 
spicuous place in the landscape art of this country. Their love of nature, 
educated among the heather and gowans, has turned with frank acceptance to 
the characteristics of American landscape, and has made them valuable inter- 
preters of our rich sunshine and varied leafage. By William Hart, we engrave 
the picture of "Keene Valley," in the Adirondack region, on page 36: the 
chasing lights and shadows of a breezy day, covering the concavity of the 
valley with swift passages of gloom, is indicated by the strong chiaroscuro of 
our engraving, but the color, which is one of Mr. Hart's especial claims to 
distinction, we cannot give. He loves to struggle with one of the most difficult 
feats of landscape-painting, the dazzling tints of our forests in autumn. His 
pictures of those mounds of leafy bloom which the Adirondacks yield in 
November are veritable bouquets of florid color. He is fond of introducing 
cattle into his scenes, — usually contrasting the colors of the animals strongly, 
white against black and black against red, in the style of the German artist 
Voltz. Of this ingenious arrangement, wherein we invariably find a white cow 
in the foreground, like Wouverman's white horse, and another in sables close 
by to relieve it, our cut gives a hint. 

A French sculptor who is coming forward into deserved prominence is 
H. Moulin, of whose bronze statue called "A Secret from on High" we give 
a bold sketch on page 97. This capital work, after exciting unfeigned admira- 
tion at a late Paris sa/oti, has crossed the seas to become one of the favorites 
of the judicious in the collection at Fairmount Park. The elastic poise of the 
Mercury, conveying the sense of Shakespeare's line, 

" New lighted on a heaven-kissing hill," 

indicates admirably the levity of the messenger-god ; it seems to be with diffi- 
culty that his figure can touch the earth. Bending gendy, he confides his 
communication to a terminal image of a satyr, which will presently be consulted 
as an oracle by some credulous mortal. We can fancy the answer, quite satiric, 
which the grinning figure will give. The form of Mercury in this bronze is 
really a masterpiece of simplicity and grace. The natural every-day action of 
the hand which confines the caduceus, the expressive pointing movement of the 
other hand, the whole play and gathering in of the slender young muscles 




P, C. Comte, Ptnx. 



120 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

which slip into each other and give the body a sinuous ease and an arching 
grace as of an erecting serpent, are truly beautiful and rare. Among the very 
great number of excellent studies of adolescence achieved by modern French 
sculptors, this elegant figure deserves to keep a high rank. 

Of M. Feyin-Perrin's gentle and thoughtful painting called "Melancholy" 
(page 57), what need be said, but to cite Milton's immortal numbers? That 
writer's e.xquisite "Penseroso" is a young man's poem; it breathes the sweet 
captious sadness of youth, which is a fantasy of mood, not a necessity of experi- 
ence. As we look at the picture, the unforgetable couplets come stealing 
involuntarily into the thoughts: 

" Come, but keep thy wonted state, 
With even step and musing gait 
And looks commercing with the skies. 
Thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes; 
There held in holy passion still, 
Forget thyself to marble 1" 

In the painting, as in the poem, the sentiment is supplied half by the figure 
and half by the landscape. Milton instances the inimitably close, private, world- 
excluding, thought-compelling effect of a "still shower," "with minute drops 
from off the eves." The painter, not less impressive, gives us the brooding air 
of twilight in a wide landscape, where there is not a bird nor a flower, but 
only the descending wings of crisping leaves to divide the air and stir the 
tideless pool. Besides the "Melancholy," with its title borrowed from Diirer's 
most poetical engraving, M. Feyen-Perrin contributed to Memorial Hall an 
"Antique Dance," with a dozen graceful female forms, and a "Mother and 
Child," representing a fisherman's wife tossing her infant on the sea-shore. 

Another French painter has taken his inspiration from England. M. G. 
Castiglione, of Paris, inspired by the antique manorial beauty of the celebrated 
Haddon Hall, has studied its fine fagade and verdant terrace, which he makes 
the scene ot an incident in the Cromwellian wars. Our large engraving on pages 
98 and 99 gives an accurate idea of this interesting picture. One of Oliver's 
ironsides comes with a search-warrant upon that lawn, sacred heretofore to 
aristocratic mirth, games of tennis, and feudal hospitality. Perhaps the hospi- 
tality to-day has been compromisingly generous ; some royalist refugee, whom 
it is treason to keep, may be peeping from one of the countless windows of 



122 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

the lofty Hall. Whatever the special incident may be, the painter has succeeded 
in giving a piquant human interest to the grand old walls and stately parterre. 
The party surprised by the entrance of the roundhead soldier is a gay and 
stately one, giving the artist opportunity to show his knowledge of costume 
and manners in the brilliant epoch he represents. Nothing — not even a herd 
of dappled deer — could so picturesquely dot the lovely glades of the foreground 
as these stately, bright-robed figures of the historic past. M. Castiglione paints 
with a crisp, finished touch of uncommon delicacy and exactness. Choosing a 
theme exactly in the vein of some of the English water-colorists and anecdote- 
painters, he gives it that air of novelty and fresh candor which is often con- 
ferred on a subject when a foreign commentator approaches and makes his 
statement. His picture is comparatively large, considering the scrupulous minute- 
ness of its touches, and it deserves the elaborate copy which we have caused 
to be presentetl to our readers. 

The paintings sent from Italy made a comparatively feeble effect, falling 
behind the sculpture in impressiveness and accent. Many of the large canvases 
were the work of professors, who are growing rather fusty, and the flaming 
band of brilliant colorists who have sprung up in Rome around the very ashes 
of Fortuny, and who call themselves the "modern Roman school," was com- 
pletely unrepresented. Far be it from us to disparage a collection which 
contained the landscapes of Vertunni and the dramatic subjects of Gastaldi 
and Faruffini ; but a late development of art which has caused a noise in the 
world, and which might have made a timely and appropriate contribution, was 
conspicuous by its absence, and the connoisseur, while straying through the 
solemn works dry with all the dust of the learned academies, could but wish 
that Boldini and Simonetti and Joris had sent some of their audacious and 
expressive splashes of color to liquefy the collection. 

Among the most pleasing Italian paintings were the few comparatively 
unpretending subjects of gcni-c. The humorous element, for instance in "During 
the Sermon," by Pietro Michis, of Milan, though a little out ^ of place is irre- 
sistible. The wood-cut on page 1 1 1 gives the pith of the incident. We see the 
sacristy of an Italian church; these retiring-rooms, in the splendid ecclesiastical 
edifices of Italy, are as richly ornamented as the basilicas themselves, and 
accordingly we have as a foil to our pair of figures the inlaid floor, the caryatid 



FINE ART. 123 

carving, the sculptured panel with its Pax vobis. Here, in a sunny corner, the 
little choir-boys, dressed for the service in their pretty overshirts of lace, are 
beguiling the time till they are wanted to take part in the sacred pageant 
passing in the body of the building. As is the habit in Italy almost from the 
time of weaning, these little rascals are abandoned gamblers, and the most 
unholy emotions are distending their small bosoms while they rattle the dice-box, 
examine their hands, or display the winning card. The one who does this in 
the present instance happens to have taken a kneeling position, but his knees 
are not the knees of humility — rather of unholy exultation. His opponent, a 
seemingly older but not a better player, has dashed his hand of cards in a 
fury on the ground, where the polished thurifer drags its chain and forgets to 
smoke in the preoccupation of the hour. A sketch of manners like this, caught 
on the fly by one who knows the secrets behind the scenes, gives more of an 
idea of Italy than can be had from many a book of travel — nay, even from 
many an actual tour, blindly prosecuted at the heels of a routine courier. 

As a pendant to this boyish comedy we are glad to be able to give 
another, where the humors of boy-life are depicted by so eminent a master as 
Wilkie. Our steel-plate shows to perfection the rich expression and beautiful 
grouping and light and shade of Wilkie's "Boys digging for a Rat," which the 
London Royal Academy was generous enough to spare for our grand com- 
memoration. The reputation of Sir David Wilkie, the next great artistic 
humorist after Hogarth, is built upon a long succession of admirable works, 
and not upon a single example like the present one. His keen eye for 
character, his wholesome happy temperament, the kind family temper which 
distinguishes his humorous scenes, and the more artistic qualities of good color 
and excellent composition, have made him a household-word, and the engravings 
from his pictures household ornaments, wherever English art is known. Of his 
pleasant, innocent, scrupulous personal character, the reminiscences of Haydon 
and Leslie give the most agreeable glimpses. The painting sent to this country 
as a specimen is about twelve by fourteen inches in size, and is agreeably 
toned by age into a dim but powerful harmony. Our readers can observe 
from the highly-finished steel-plate how richly blended are the shadows, how 
soft the gradations. The group of little huntsmen is charming for character 
and naivete. How natural is the attitude of the child on all fours on the orround 




A Christian Marty 



of Diocletian. 



FINE ART. 



125 



by the wall ! How the wliite dog in the loreground relieves against the shadowy 
interior, and how animated is his attitude! This was the genuine, legitimate 
scene de mceurs of fifty years ago, before the strained ingenuity of Diisseldorf 
artists had made painting a mere vehicle for obligatory and cheap sensations. 
With Wilkie and Hogarth we laugh, or feel the stress of pity, all in a genuine 





R nu—tle B t 



it It J SI Ai^ Jo 



inartificial way; with most of the modern genre painters we are sensible of the 
creaking of the machinery, and our laughter, though extorted by real dramatic 
skill, is begrudged and quickly checked. 

A fine subject by Mr. Howard Roberts gives us the opportunity to say a 
word for the beneficial results some of our artists are receiving from study in 
France. The teaching of French professors is above all technical in its nature. 



126 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



The teaching- of Italy is only an "inlluence in the air." The youny sculptor 
who establishes himself in the Eternal City or Florence imbibes delicious ideas 
of the poetry of the antique, "the beauty that was Greece and the glory that 
was Rome ;" but he usually gets little instruction of a lofty order, and is often 
seen strugo-ling for the rest of his life — "full of mammoth thoughts," as the 
o-irl was at whom Hawthorne laughed. In Paris, on the contrary, there is the 
intellicrence that has resolved into a system the best art-teaching of the whole 
world. The student there learns that felicity in many sorts of technic which 
makes him able thereafter to master whatever he has it in him to express. 
Our fine steel-plate of Mr. Roberts's statue entided "La Premiere Pose," or 
"The Model's First Sitting," indicates the peculiar sort of excellence attained 
after faithful French study. The peculiar subject being granted, the figure is 
hifdily meritorious in artistic qualities. The French distinguish works of this 
character from historical subjects or traits of character, by the term ''academic" 
or an academical study; that is to say, a conscientious reproduction of some 
living figure, where faithfiil adherence to nature is more the object sought than 
pathos or humor or dignity. A good academic study, however, may easily 
include a degree of interest in the situation, and this is the case with the statue 
before us. We cannot help sympathizing a litde with this poor girl, driven by 
poverty to exposure in a painter's atelier. Was it not the gifted author of 
"The Sparrowgrass Papers" who had a tender little story of the emigrant girl, 
en(Taged to be married to an honest road-mender of her own green island, 
who when work was scanty consented to unveil her perfect form in the studio 
of an old artist who respected her, and helped her at last to marry the man 
of her choice ? The academic of Mr. Roberts suggests some such delicate 
story. As we study the features we fancy the case of a girl rather saucy and 
scatter-brained by nature, who until the terrible ordeal is proposed scarcely 
knows the sacredness of her womanhood : a situation at first sight simply bad 
may thus be salutary in awakening the life of a dormant good. It this rattle- 
pated grisette, who now perhaps feels a modesty she was hardly conscious of 
when clothed, will keep at the height of virtuous sentiment she has now attained, 
she will be saved to society. It is well known that many of the female models 
of the European studios are good girls, who bare their forms to the artist as 
innocently as to the physician, who take the exceptional situation without abusing 





}{U. 



^<iJlL^^^ 



,1^ A PRE M HERE POSE 



US Imeinational Exhibition liVP 



CEBBIE & BARBIE 



FINE ART. 127 

its temptations, and who often marry well and live on respectably. The dazzling 
social position a professional model may emerge into is instanced in the case 
of Lady Hamilton, who (though not the best specimen of the dignity of the 
profession) was long the favorite exemplar for Romney the painter. The 
technical qualities of Mr. Roberts's work, the highest perhaps of any among 
the American statuary, are, however, what we wish particularly to point out. 
From top to toe the resemblance to vital palpitating life is perfect; the firmness 
of those parts of the flesh which are in tension, the pendant look of those 
which are relaxed, the proportions, the system of lines and general cast of the 
figure, are hardly to be enough admired. Very expressive is the muscular 
action of the drawn-up legs, showing just as much contraction as is to be seen 
under the adipose padding of female flesh. We fancy we detect in our 
engraving, though most carefully and successfully copied from the original, a 
certain look of pettiness about the head, and undue length of the foot. This 
kind of trouble will often get into the most careful drawing after a statue, and 
one the most carefully measured ; it is one of the snpcrstitio7is of the art of 
design, a surmised annoyance that the most convincing proof will not remove. 
Our engraving certainly is not big-footed or little-headed, though it may seem 
to look so; and Mr. Roberts's statue is certainly small-footed, as any of its 
admirers will testify; but a local play of light will frequently play such a trick 
on the most accurately designed figure in a drawing or photograph. The 
harmony of lines in the present statue is singularly good ; although the play 
of all the limbs is so free, the beautiful creature fills a nearly perfect oval. 
The most advanced criticism of the day was freely extended to this figure while 
Mr. Roberts was modeling it in Paris, both for correction and approval. From 
such sagacious eyes as have watched its progress, no serious technical fault 
could well escape; and an unusual amount of toilsome study on the side of 
the artist and of cramping inconvenience on that of the young women who 
successively sat for the part, were required to turn out so finislied a specimen. 
On page 56 we give a representation of Mr. Randolph Rogers's marble 
figure of Ruth, a statue which made the artist's reputadon, and of which the 
repetitions adorn some of the most tasteful American homes. The lovely 
Moabite, "heart-sick amid the alien corn," kneels to Boaz on the barley-field 
of that good Jew. Across her arm lies a handful of ripened ears, and she 



128 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



looks up half desolate and half hopeful, as his words of kindness fall upon her 



wistful ear. Her 
light tunic falls from 
one rounded shoul- 
der, as the hand, 
outstretched to pick 
a stalk of grain, is 
arrested in surprise 
at the beneficent 
invitation. Let not 
the visitor, who 
pauses in admira- 
tion before this fair 
marble, forget that 
Ruth is especially 
interesting as the 
only heathen 
woman introduced 
into the ancestry 
of Christ! and that 
the scene is Beth- 
lehem, where the 
stars that Ruth 
watched in her fa- 
mous night of vigil 
were after- 
wards re- 
placed by 
the dazzle 
of that mir- 
acle- star 
which came 




"and stood over 
the place where the 
young child lay." 

A very old le- 
gend of Normandy 
is illustrated in the 
powerful and ro- 
mantic picture by 
Roberto Fontana, 
of Milan, copied in 
our engraving on 
p a g e 1 2 1 . The 
painting is called 
"The Evocation of 
Souls," and repre- 
sents an incident in 
the myth of Rob- 
ert, duke of Nor- 
mandy, v.^hose wild 
life and irregular 
impulses caused 
him to be named 
"ie Di'abk." Per- 
suaded by the 
pha n toms 
of the wick- 
ed nuns, 
he is about 
to pluck 
the magic 
bouehfrom 



J 



the tomb of St. Rosalia, which will give him power to paralyze all who oppose 
him, until his better impulse warns him to break the branch and put himself 




L. C. G. dc BelU'. Pinx. 



On the- Edge of the Forest. 



130 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

in the way of salvation. Scribe, wlio wrote the Hbretto on which is based the 
"Robert" of Meyerbeer, has not been able to give much coherence to an anti- 
quated and inconsistent fable. Robert, the offspring of the fiend and an unhappy 
mother, arrives in Palermo, and falls in love with the Princess of Sicily. His 
diabolical father, in human disguise, accompanies him, and, after stripping the 
young prodigal of wealth, prestige, honor, and every advantage by which he 
could reasonably appeal to the princess, incites him to gain her by witchcraft. 
The great incantation scene, whose beginning the picture represents, takes place 
near the tomb of .Saint Rosalia, that patroness of Sicily whose statue even now 
overlooks the Mediterranean from the summit of Mount Pellegrino. The con- 
vent bequeathed by Saint Rosalia to the brides of heaven has become the scene 
of profanity and wickedness, where renegade nuns offer incense to evil deities. 
At the summons of Robert's fiend-father, the wicked dead novices rise from 
their tombs, and with bewildering dances lead the infatuated knight to the tomb 
of Saint Rosalia and the tempting branch. The preparations for this orgie 
occupy the picture of Signor Fontana ; directly these beautiful and alluring 
forms, half nuns and half bayaderes, will be mingled with horrible phantoms 
and monsters from the witches' sabbath, and awful thunders will peal over the 
scene as the magic branch breaks. Robert, however, will not be ultimately 
lost; after the accommodating manner of legends, he will be recalled to virtue 
by the opportune revelation of his mother's dying testament, bidding him avoid 
the seductions of the audacious fiend who, having been robbed of his bride by 
heaven, wishes to pluck his son down to an immortality of evil companionship 
below. The princess, too, will be saved for Robert, who will marry her with 
theatrical pomp at the close of the fourth act, in the cathedral of Palermo. 
The unpresentable papa will sink beneath the stage, with a flash of red fire, 
and his orphan will live respectably ever after. In the engraving after Fontana, 
our readers will admire the graceful grouping of the alluring nuns, the well- 
marked hesitancy of Robert, brought on in the distance by the fiend, the weird 
beauty of the landscape which represents the cemetery clustered around the 
crumbling statue of the sainted Rosalia ; it is a skillful assemblage of graceful 
ideas, with just enough of theatrical formality remaining to suggest to opera- 
goers that the painter's conception originated in scenic light and music. 

"Checkmate next Move," of which we give an elaborate engraving on pages 



FINE ART. 131 

90 and 91, is a very carefully finished paintintj by John Calcott Horsley, R. A., 
lent to the Exhibition by Thomas Jessop, Esq. Some of our readers may 
recollect that in the only large and important exhibition of paintings of the 
English school ever previously made in America — the one which was opened 
in New York and Philadelphia shordy before the war of secession, — the prin- 
cipal attracdon was a very large picture of Prince Henry trying on the crown 
of his sleeping father. Mr. Horsley was the author of that painting, as well 
as of three contributions to our Centennial, the best of which we select for 
illustration. It is a picture which explains itself The costumes indicate the 
period of Charles I, and in that epoch, within a beautiful old chamber, before 
the troubles brought upon feudalism by Cromwell, occurs a peaceful scene of 
aristocratic life. The mistress of the house has "checkmated" her elderly visitor, 
who has laid aside his hat and sword to engage in a tranquil game with her 
before the fireside; and in the distance, her fair daughter, demurely knitUng at 
a work-table, has just as effectually "checkmated" his son, who bends over the 
maiden with a rapt air which tells that with him at present all the game is up. 
The latter manoeuvre is intelligendy watched by a page, through the cracks of 
a screen which incloses him as he polishes the glasses which have entertained 
the party. Mr. Horsley has defined the situation with great tact and humor, 
while the excessive finish of his painting makes it a curiosity of manipulation. 
"The Youthful Hannibal" is a bronze group of an exceptional quality. 
After counting with unconquerable dejection the innumerable figures of pretty 
lasses and trivial matrons, the offspring of an enervated sentiment, it was 
grateful to the visitor to find the department of Italian sculpture distinguished 
by a work of so much energy, originality and fire. This spirited production, 
which we represent on page 89, is modeled by the Cavaliere Prospero d'Epinay, 
of Rome. The lean and agile Hannibal, wearing that tress over the ear with 
which certain tropical tribes of antiquity defined the period of youth — and 
wearing nothing else — is represented as a child in years though a man in 
courage, as he combats with sinewy arms an enormous eagle whose span is 
far greater than his own. Without weapons, without defence against the talons 
of the bird, he engages in a primidve struggle, striving with both hands to 
strangle the neck, and keep the cruel beak away from his eyes. The chevalier 
has been successful In every part of his composition : in the eagle, the general 



132 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




sense of roughened feathers, in the highest dishevelment, flutters over the whole 
impression of the action, but does not conceal the lines of power and fierce- 



134 THE INTERNATIONAL EN H 1 11 1 T 1 N, 1 8 76. 

ness in the mad bird's attack ; the agitated feathers, skillfully .cast in the metal 
with lavish undercutting, form a background to the lithe limbs of the boy, with 
young lean muscles in the highest tension, and a fine proud posture. The head 
is full of character and promise. In the infancy of races, nothing is more 
common than these hand-to-hand encounters of defenceless man with Nature 
in all her armor. Millions of young savages have met the fierce creatures of 
the wilderness with this perfection of courage, and with this pitiful disadvan- 
tage ; a great many must fail ; those are the fortunate, the elite, who emerge 
from the struggle and become heroes. 

As it to show that nothing in nature is beyond the powers of Italian 
texture-carving, another sculptor sends an eagle in marble to compete with 
d'Epinay's eagle of bronze. Of course the difficulty of undercutting is still 
greater in stone than in metal, yet Signor Innocente Pandiani, a Milanese artist, 
shows an "Eagle and Turkey" (engraved by us on page 116), which seem 
made up of snowy feathers that a breath would cause to vibrate. Those of 
the carrier-pigeon in the "Telegram of Love" (page 32), and of the plumes in 
"I'Africaine" (page 40), as well as the hair of the latter figure and of several 
others, show the extreme ingenuity of Italian carvers in suggesting texture 
without unnecessary tool-work. Pandiani's pair of enormous birds is imposing 
and artistic ; the turkey, who has had his own days of importance, and has 
spread his suit of scale-armor valiantly in many a morning's sunshine, now 
meets his master ; he raises his head rather in appeal than in resistance ; the 
duel is too unequal, and the eagle's kindest act will be the stroke that deprives 
the poor carpet-knight of consciousness. 

The winter scene which is engraved on page 129 is from a painting by 
M. de Bellee, of Paris, which attracted attention by its fidelity to nature and 
harsh but wholesome truth. The raw, inhospitable aspect of a French farm in 
winter is touched to perfection. "There is but one cloud in the sky" (to use 
the words of Currer Bell), "but it spreads from pole to pole." The thatched 
roofs of the grange are covered with an even coat of soft clinging snow, and 
the rare passers-by trudge sullenly through the white sponge of the foot-path. 
Overhead the trees, with the beautiful mystery of their branch-work stripped 
and revealed, float upward through the dim sky into infinite reticulation, like 
seaweed in an aquarium. Here is not the wholesome, lusty vigor of a rich 



FINE ART. 



I3S 



powdering storm such as is depicted in Whittier's "Snowbound," but a damp, 
cliilling, sullen imprisonment of life-forces, such as makes winter the bane of 
warm climates. The smokeless chimneys, indicating that the farmer's wife has 
taken no pains to supply an antidote to the depressing weather, is another 
character-touch, and indicates the helpless misery in which French and Italian 
peasants live out the cold season. 

The German school furnishes an interesting and spirited scene in the com- 
position of "Luther Intercepted," by Count Von Harach, of Berlin, of which 
we give the engraving on page 103. The incident, which at first sight looks 
dangerous for Luther, is really the means ot his salvation. It shows the 
means taken by the Elector of Saxony to protect, by a show of violence, the 
outspoken and uncompromising reformer. After the Diet of Worms, April 26, 
1 52 1, Luther left that z\\.y, having been condemned by Charles V and a majority 
of the Council. In a forest traversed by Martin and his companion, their wagon 
was stopped by armed horsemen in masks, who conveyed the reformer to the 
mountain casde of Wartburg. In this inaccessible retreat, safe from all moles- 
tation, the immortal thinker wrote those tracts which revoludonized Europe, 
causing hundreds of monks to renounce their vows and enter into the bonds 
of matrimony, and shaking the authority of the Pope with those sturdy argu- 
ments which still form the bulwark of Protestantism. Count Harach's picture 
well represents the confusion, the passion, the tempestuous energy of an unex- 
pected attack. The intrepid reformer betrays no alarm, although to him the 
rencounter must for the moment seem fatal. The cross-lights and dappled 
shadows darting through the noble forest seem to add to the impression of 
contradiction, confusion and cross purposes created by the peculiar circumstances 
of the ambush. 

Another Protestant subject is furnished by a pupil of the Munich school, 
Mr. G. F. Folingsby, in the fine composition seen on pages 106 and 107. Mr. 
Folingsby, though exhibiting as a true disciple of Piloty and the Munich nursery, 
is a German by adopdon rather than by origin, having been born under the 
skies of Britain. In his excellent group we see the well-ordered balance, the 
stately dignity, the classical decorum, of the academy founded by Cornelius. 
Lady Jane and her duenna form a monumental pair on the left, the lines of 
their drapery sweeping towards the centre, while their calm sobriety is balanced 



136 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 




by the single 
figure of the 
prelate, chanccl- 
lant, tottering, 
baffled, and 
worsted, and 
seeming to re- 
volve on itself 
in the despair 
of moral defeat. 
The scene 
throws up into 
beautiful light 
the fragile firm- 
ness of that 
poor girl who 
was queen but 
of a day, yet 
empress of eter- 
nal truth. No 
arguments, per- 
suasions or 
menaces could 
shake that grasp 
of holy convic- 
tion which was 
her stay amid 
the abandon- 
ment of men and 
the prospect of 
approaching 
death. It is well 
known that no 



Vanity. 



weapons than most of her contemporaries, 



efforts were 
spared by the 
Catholic party 
to shake her 
Protestant faith, 
and secure to 
the Romish 
Church the 
jewel of her 
beautiful soul. 
Day by day, as 
she endured the 
confinement 
that preceded 
her execution, 
some emissary 
of Rome, Bish- 
op Gardiner or 
the Abbot 
Takenham, dis- 
turbed her pri- 
vacy and at- 
tempted to 
wrest her faith 
from Protest- 
antism by argu- 
ments, flatteries 
and menaces of 
eternal perdi- 
tion. But the 
fair bride, better 
' "" armed even 

with literary 
successfully resisted her opponents 




FINE ART. 



m 



by reference to the Scriptures or to the early fathers of Christianity. The 
beautiful picture of Mr. Folingsby shows her playing her part of a feminine 
Luther before the embodied power of the Papacy, with an authority made 
awful by the certainty of swiftly-approaching death. 

Another product of German art, by F. Reichert, of Dresden, is devoted 
to celebrating a sister craft which shares with that of painting the privilege of 
charming and enlightening the world. In the composition entided "The First 




Tie \ uiKT r n 



Proof" (page 132), we are shown the nervous moment when printing was to 
be judged for success or unsuccess in its destined task of supplanting the pen. 
In the centre of a group of three, between the workman who furnishes the 
mechanic power and the aristocratic man of letters who decides the victory, 
Gutenberg draws out from the press the first sheet made eloquent with printers' 
ink. The fate of civilization is in his hand. Beside him, holding a stately 
written missal, is the representation of the old order of things, the patient 
schoolman, whose clerks bend their backs over the weary desk, and elaborate 




x^r*^' 



-iVi 




HO THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

in a course of months the work which the new agent will surpass in an hour. 
To the inventor, all is yet doubtful. Will the printed page take the place of 
the vellum manuscript? The old scholar at his elbow doubts it still. But 
within the breast of the innovator speaks that inward monitor which convinces 
him that the novel power is the stronger, and that, in the words of a modern 
writer of eloquence, ''this will overcome that" — 'Vtr/ tueni ceia." 

Shakespeare having created the forest of Arden, that ideal no-man's-land 
where the impossible is the practicable, we are under obligations to Mr. John 
Pettie, of London, Royal Academician, to have realized for the eye one of the 
fantastic scenes of the sj'lvan republic. His picture, of which we give an 
excellent steel-plate engraving, shows the interview between Touchstone, a 
court-clown just wise enough to be spoiled, and Audrey, a peasant girl just 
silly enough to be honest. The love-scene between these well-mated grown 
children is of the truest pastoral-comical : — 

Touchstone. Come apace, good Audrey, I will fetch up your goats, Audrey. And how, Audrey? am I the man 
yet ? Doth my simple feature content you ? 

Audrey. Your features ! Lord warrant us ! what features ? 

Touchstone. I am here with thee and thy goats, xs the most capricious poet, honest Ovid, was among the Goths. . . . 
Truly, I would the gods had made thee poetical ! 

Audrey. I do not know what poetical is: is it honest in deed and word? Is it a true thing? 

Golden proverbs of similar delicious un-wisdom drop every moment from 
the lips of the unconscious Audrey, as she stands for all time the embodiment 
of rustic idiocy, with the deep forest of Arden for a background. Clasping 
her shepherd's wand in both hands, and looking straight into the wicked eyes 
of the jester with smiling vacuity of intellect, she lets fall such kindred pearls 
of speech as: "Well, I am not fair, and therefore I pray the gods make me 
honest;" or, "I am not a slut, although I thank the gods I am foul." Shakes- 
peare's most impermissible, wrong-headed puns — goats and Goths, capricious and 
capra — stud the lines, still wild with the impulse of Rosalind's tameless talk. 
Touchstone, brought up in palaces, puzzles the poor shepherdess with his 
pedantic follies and literary allusions. We see him bowing before her, courtly, 
mocking and malicious, his fingers on his chin, his bauble under his arm. Mr. 
Pettie has succeeded in making more real for us one of the inimitably realistic 
scenes of Shakespearean comedy. 



FINE ART. 



141 



The drama of life in the Elizabethan age has seldom been better depicted 
than by Leslie — first in the "May-day," of which we give an eno-ravino- on 
•page 95, and afterwards in many an illustration of the Shakespearean plays. 
This artist was, in fact, a sort of pioneer in that style of romantic paintino-, 
with strict attention to historical costume and accessories, now so much in voo-ue. 
His "May-day in the time of Queen Elizabeth" was generously lent to the 
American Exhibition by its owner, John Naylor, Esq., of Lei^hton Hall. It was 
painted in 1821, the year in which Leslie was made Associate of the Royal 
Academy ; it won him great honor at the Exhibition of that season, as well as 
the pleasure of an acquaintance with Sir Walter Scott, who called twice at the 
studio to see it, and suggested the group of archers shooting at the butts. It 
went to the Academy with the following extract as a motto : — 

"At Paske began our Morrice, and ere Pentecost our May: 
Then Robin Hood, litell John, Friar Tuck and Marian deftly play, 
And Lord and Ladie gang till Kirke, with lads and lasses gay." 

Of this picture and the incident of Sir Walter's calling, Leslie writes thus 
to his sister, Miss Eliza Leslie, the Philadelphia magazinist : " My friends are 
sanguine as to its success, and I myself consider it the best thing I have done. 
Sir Walter Scott has been lately in London, and came twice to see it when in 
progress ; the first visit I had taken the liberty to request, but the second, 
which you may believe gratified me not a little, was of his own proposing. He 
found fault with nothing in my picture, but suggested the introduction of a few 
archers, a hint of which I took advantage." The principal pair of figures in 
the foreground are a provincial beauty from a country manor-house, and a 
fantastic dandy of the day. This affected gentleman is meant to be a Euphuist, 
that is, a pedant fully capable of talking in the style of John Lilly's " Euphues 
and his England," a work of whose philological influence we are told by Blount, 
"that beauty at court which could not parley Euphuisme was as little regarded 
as she which now there speaks not French." The country belle timidly accepts 
the Euphuist's hand for the dance, hardly comprehending the overstrained 
phrases (like those of Holofernes in "Love's Labour's Lost") with which he 
solicits the honor. At the right hand stands a proud dowager of the period, 
accompanied by her jester, who slyly draws the figure of an ass on the buckler 
of a man-at-arms. Around the may-pole circles the train of maskers, Robin 



142 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 

Hood and Maid Marian, Little John and Friar Tuck, not forgetting Hobby- 
horse and Dragon. Behind the pole is the bower containing the Queen of 
May. At the e.xtreme left, watching the dance, is the black-robed schoolmaster, 
his bundle of birches forgotten in his hand, and his sour face brightened with 
a temporary smile. The landscape, which is very beautiful, bears a larger pro- 
portion to the scope of the picture than was usual with the artist. Leslie 
followed West, as the second gift made by this city to the art-circles of England. 
He was the son of Robert Leslie, who came to Philadelphia from Maryland in 
1786; himself born in 1794, he went to England in 181 1, returned to America 
to take the position of drawing- teacher at West Point, which he filled in 1833 
and 1844, '^''"^1 t\\i~in went back to painting in London, where he died on 
May 5, 1859. 

The grand old Dutch school of the seventeenth century was revealed to 
the visitors at our International Fair by a series of lour large copies of its 
masterpieces, which an Amsterdam artist, S. Altmann, was obliging enough to 
send over, in addition to some original subjects of his own. Rembrandt's 
"Master's of the Drapers," Van der Heist's "Banquet of the Civil tiuard," and 
Franz Hals's " Masters of the Kloveniers" were accordingly seen in imposing 
repetitions the same size as the originals ; and many visitors of limited oppor- 
tunities, whose idea of a Dutch picture was that of something e.xcessively 
diminutive and highly wrought, were amazed at the scale, the freedom, the 
sketchy expressiveness, the photographic reality of those grand pages of history. 
Besides the three we have just mentioned, the artist dispatched his copy of the 
masterpiece of Paul Potter, "The Young Bull," the jjride of the Hague; of 
this we give on page 137 a spirited little study, reversed from left to right for 
the convenience of the engraver. The young genius who achieved this mas- 
terly work painted it in 1647, when only twenty-two years old; and he died 
seven years after, leaving the world to wonder what he would have become if 
his life had been prolonged to the usual span. This precocious lad found time 
to paint over a hundred pictures of mark, and to leave behind him tour books 
of sketches, which the Berlin cabinet of engravings retains in their original 
boar-skin bindings. His subjects are animals and shepherds, suitably set in a 
flat, sunny Holland landscape. The reader who consults our engraving of 
"The Young Bull" must remember that the original portrait is about the size 



FINE ART. 



143 




Enrico Braga Sc 



C/eopafrj. 



of nature, and endowed with an energy and vehemence that makes it pleasanter 
to meet, for nervous people and ladies, than the live subject would be. 



144 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, i8j6. 

Enrico Braga, an industrious sculptor of Milan, sent over so great a 
number of works of uncontested originality, that he can well afford to have 
the master-motive of his "Cleopatra" (page 143) assigned where it belongs — 
to the painting, namely, by the French artist, Gerome. The posture of the 
queen, and of the servant ApoUodorus, are substantially the same as in the 
picture, whose statuesque grouping was so peculiarly adapted for the purposes 
of sculpture, that a French bronze-founder, as well as our Italian artist in marble, 
has produced a repetition of it in statuary. Gerome's painting is now owned 
by a California gentleman ; and as he sent no canvas to the Exhibition, we are 
glad to find a reHection of his skill thus more or less directly displayed. The 
incident is that where Cleopatra, being at war with her brother Ptolemy Dio- 
nysius, had herself conveyed to Julius Ca:sar, then in Alexandria; she was 
brought safely to the dictator through the armies ol her foes, concealed in a 
roll of tapestry which was offered as a tribute to Caesar, and which ApoUo- 
dorus carried in and opened at his feet. This contrasted pair preserves the 
posture of Gerome's group — the slave, who parts the drapery, so supple and 
submissive ; the girl, standing, and leaning on his shoulder as on a piece of 
furniture, already so queenly, confident and regal. Gerome's is one of the few 
French pictures celebrated in English poetry; in "Fifine at the Fair," Mr. 
Browning strings a half-score ot verses in honor ot the painter's heroine, 
beginning : — 

"See Cleopatra! bared, th' entire and sinuous wealth 
O' the shining shape!" 

and dwelling appreciatively on the successive beauties of the form, " traced 
about by jewels," and perfect from head to foot in plastic elegance — 

"Yet, o'er that white and wonder, a Soul's predominance 
I' the head, so high and haught — except one thievish glance 
From back of oblong eye, intent to count the slain !" 

Guarnerio, whose " Forced Prayer" we have already represented, sent also 
a group of two figures, called "Vanity," whose modish grace throws into strong 
contrast the regal calm of such a work as the " Cleopatra." We present an 
engraving on page 136. The attempt here is not so much to secure the sym- 
pathy of the spectator by depth or subtlety of conception, as to dazzle him by 
reckless difficulties of manipulation and by the conquered suavity of kneaded 



FINE ART. 



145 



marble. A ball-room belle, whose flesh seems made of swans' down rather 
than stone, is winding a necklace around her breast, and admiring the jewels 
in a mirror which a little girl holds admiringly before her. Here we have 
Signor Guarnerio, whose range is as wide as Garrick's was in acting, at the 



opposite pole 
from his classical 
style, as revealed 
in the "Aruns 
shooting Camil- 
la." Every touch 
in the "Vanity" 
is softened in 
consonance with 
a boudoir sub- 
ject, and the 
group is rococo 
— luscious, over- 
tender and ener- 
vated. The as- 
tonishing skill 
which can thus 
make Carrara 
look as flexible as 
whipped cream, 
we willingly con- 
cede; but we con- 
sider that rpany 
such successes as 




F- Barsaffhi, Sc 



Vanity. 



this would lead 
Art to a state of 
effeminate nerve- 
lessness. 

In the Nine- 
teenth Room of 
the Art-Annex, 
marked simply 
with a contempt- 
uous "Unknown" 
in their cata- 
logues, many vis- 
itors may have 
noticed a statue 
ot rural grace 
and originality, 
which they will 
recognize from 
our sketch on 
page 105. This 
image of "The 
Young Grape- 
gatherer," which 
figured if we 



mistake not at the Vienna Exposition before showing itself at ours, is the work 
of another Italian artist, Signor Giulio Branca. The posture is entirely uncon- 
ventional ; the youthful vintner, retaining in liis left hand a cluster he has 
gathered, reaches the other hand to the highest part of the trellis within his 
reach, with a gesture which stiffens out his whole figure to a perpendicular 
straight line. He wears the simple breeches and camicia of a lazzarone of 



I 




148 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Naples, and his liead liangs away back between his shoulder-blades with the 
blessed flexibility of youth and a nation of acrobats. An unusual amount of 
supporting marble, cleverly shredded into grape-leaves and bark, is allowed by 
the sculptor to remain beside his figure. Something unconventional and tearless 
about this aspiring youth makes us wish we could have seen more of the work 
of Signor Branca. 

The story of Francesca di Rimini, the most touching in all the pages of 
Dante, is interpreted by Cabanel in the picture we engrave on page 113. The 
event which lent an extraordinary depth of tenderness even to the tenderness 
of Alighieri was one well known to him among the traditions of his home, and 
flowed into his verse with the lava heat of personal sorrow. Francesca, daughter 
of Guido de Polenta, lord of Ravenna, was given in marriage to a harsh, ill- 
favored bridegroom, Lanciotto, son of Malatesta, lord of Rimini. His brother 
Paolo, unhappily for himself and for all, was graceful, gallant and accomplished, 
and while yet a young bride the fair Francesca, with Paolo, was put to death 
by the jealous husband. F"rancesca's inimitably-told love scene, consequent upon 
reading, in the romance, of Lancelot and Guinevere's kiss, we give in Dante's 
numbers as translated by Byron :— 

" We read one day for pastime, seated nigh. 

Of Lancelot, how love possessed him too; 
We were alone, quite unsuspiciously; 

But oft our eyes met, and our cheeks in hue 
All o'er discolored by that reading were. 

But one thing only wholly us o'erthrew; 

"When we read the long-sighed for smile of her 
To be thus kissed by such devoted lover. 
He, who from me shall be divided ne'er, 

Kissed my mouth, trembling in the act all over ! 
Accursed be the book and he who wrote ! 
That day no further leaf we did uncover!" 

Cabanel represents a close, richly-carved and decked chamber in the castle 
of Rimini. A reading-desk is at the left — at the right a curtained door, through 
which Lanciotto, still grasping his reeking sword, looks upon what he has done. 
The young bride sinks back from the lectern, the book of Lancelot falling 
from her fingers ; and Paolo, his hand pressed upon the wound that has trans- 
fixed them both, withdraws his arm from her neck, and rolls to the floor at her 



FINE ART 149 

feet. The story is complete, and painted with pathos and eloquence. We 
believe that doubt has been cast upon the authenticity of the picture exposed 
at the Centennial : a young American artist, familiar with the replica or duplicate 
of the painting- preserved in France, made his suspicions known through the 
columns of the Evening Post. Our own impression on examining the picture 
(which was not contributed by the artist, but lent in good faith by the owner, 
Mrs. A. E. Kidd) , was contrary to that of Mr. Bridgman. The touch appeared 
to us to be in the style of M. Cabanel, but not his best style. French artists 
prepare duplicate examples of a great many of their works, sometimes of the 
same size as the original, sometimes differing in that respect ; and we are sorry 
to say, that when the rcpliche are intended to be sold at a great distance, they 
are not always careful to put their very best powers in action. This concession 
made, which does not forbid the painter to have kept by him another and even 
a better picture of Francesca, we believe the reader may feel that he is enjoying 
a veritable work of the author of the "Venus" and "Florentine Poet." 

The position of P. T. Rothermel in American art is somewhat anomalous. 
He is a colorist, insisting on being a historical painter. We would have him 
saved from all the drudgery of inventing realistic situations, and set to paint 
color-dreams divorced as much as possible from actuality. Born with the subtle 
sense of tone-harmony of an Eugene Delacroix, he is not much more accurate 
than Delacroi.x in the pedantry ot anatomic detail, the rectitude of architectural 
and constructive lines. Capable of flinging together lovely groups, sumptuous 
costumes, and contrasted flesh-tints in the manner of the late painter Diaz, he 
is pained and puzzled, as Diaz would have been, when a perverse and logical 
generation asks him for the historic warrant of just such a group, the justifica- 
tion of this or that expression, gesture or attitude. It has always seemed to 
us that when a great colorist is born to art, the world should be thankful for 
the rare and exquisite boon, and allow him that isolation and freedom from 
care which will keep his gift pure. In practical America, a color-poet has to 
be his own man-of-all-work, vexing himself with the hard drudgery of drawing, 
expression, dramatic propriety, and historical truth — details which he might be 
often saved from by the labors of the commonest illustrating draughtsman. He 
is like a musical genius forced to write the libretti of his own operas. In 
countries more finely cultured, such a poet is allowed to revel in his proper 



I50 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

talent, and feats outside of it, or faults in other departments, are not scruti- 
nized. We have heard Rothermel criticised, and even with acerbity ; artists of 
the Delacroix order especially invite the animadversions of wiseheads ; but we 
confess, on those occasions, the party we pitied was the critic, not Rothermel. 
What is certain is, that when he has sent works to the Paris saloft, they have 
been hung in conspicuous places as noticeable acquisitions. When in Rome, 
about a dozen years ago, his rich color-dreams were highly appreciated. Even 
distant and luxurious Russia, true child of Asia in an inborn and rapid appre- 
ciation of harmonies of tint, owns and prizes a considerable number of his 
paintings, selected in his Italian studio by Muscovite travelers of taste. A New 
York connoisseur and expert said to us, "The secrets of composition, the balance 
of light and shade, the effective contrast of tints, which other artists try for all 
their lives and miss, Rothermel gets at once, without trying." This artist was 
represented at Philadelphia by his enormous "Gettj'sburg," a Veronese-study 
of grays; by his "Christian Martyrs," a series of exquisite stains and lovely 
flesh-tints on a life-like scale; and by small cabinet gems like "The Trial of 
Sir Henry Vane," lent by its owner, Mr. Claghorn, and in our opinion the 
painter's clief d'oeuvre. We give a steel-plate copy of this admirable work, 
which for once is as perfect in dramatic sentiment as in color and chiaroscuro. 
The subject is all the more interesting to Americans since Vane was for some 
time a resident of New England, and narrowly missed being made a Colonial 
governor. The splendid energy of his self-justification, when brought to trial 
after the restoration of Charles II on the charge of treason, yields to the painter 
one of the most striking situations in all the history of the martyrs of popular 
rights. "His spirited defence served as an excuse for his execution," says Mr. 
J. R. Green, in his "Short History of the English People." In the shameless 
court of sycophants and jesters, the paid retainers of Versailles and effeminate 
apes of Paris, Vane thundered with the eloquence of an age that had gone 
before, the age of Pym and Hampden and Cromwell. Evidently this was a 
tongue that must be stilled. "He is too dangerous a man to let live," said 
Charles, with characteristic coolness, "if we can safely put him out of the way." 
The masterly simplicity and dignity, the richness and beauty of Mr. Rothermel's 
composition, worthy of the artist and the occasion, are pardy revealed by our 
engraving; the judicious contrast, arrangement and relief of the figures, the 



"nr[Trf II il 1 llill 







152 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1876. 

dark splendor of lig'ht and shade, are indicated ; but the painting glows with 
a depth and vibration of color and living light which the burin cannot translate. 
If but a single work were left to stake an artist's reputation and a national 
fame upon, we wish it might be Rothermel's " Harry Vane." 

Our readers may by this time have asked, with some little degree of doubt, 
why so many Italian statues were described in this commentary. We have 
alluded in earlier pages to specimens from the atelier of Guarnerio, Caroni, 
Tantardini, Pozzi, Corti, Pandiani, Rosetti, Barzaghi, and Braga ; we have illus- 
trated the masterpiece of D'Epinay (the "Young Hannibal") — the work of an 
artist who, though born in Mauritius, is by residence and education a Roman ; 
Branca's "Un Monello di Campagna," or " Youthful Grape-Gatherer," has traveled 
from the Vienna Exhibition to grace the American World's Fair and our pages. 
But few of these artists were ever previously heard of by our untraveled 
readers. We are about to speak of other sculptors of Italy. To account for 
such a seeming preference of one especial nation in a single branch of art, we 
may properly suggest that the Italians did us the honor to show us a much 
fuller exhibit of die national sculpture than did any other nation. It was there- 
fore our duty, in order to give this exhibit its relative emphasis, to represent 
its masterpieces in proportion. Besides the ambition, so flattering to America, 
of these artists to be fully represented in Columbus's New World, as the 
inheritors of the peerless sculpture of antiquity, and the possessors of those 
immemorial quarries that "teem with human form," there were accidental or 
peculiar incentives added to this patriotic motive. The city where our Expo- 
sition was held happened to have an Italian consul, Signor Viti, who has always, 
like his father before him, felt for Italian sculpture the interest of a connoisseur 
and a patron. 

For another instance, there had happened to be a South American Exhi- 
bition just preceding our own, from which the large contribution of Roman and 
Milanese marbles naturally overflowed to ours. When to these circumstances 
was added the genial determination of the Italians to favor America with a 
royal display, a great emigration of the marble people of Latium was insured. 
The cornucopia of old Rome, filled with stone men and women, was imme- 
diately overturned upon America. Our cordial comrade, the public, having 
listened to what we had to say of several of these shining ones, will please 



154 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

hear of a lew more of the white visitors. We resume our discourse on ItaHan 
art, taking for text our latest-engraved specimens — the steel-plates of Magni's 
"Reading Girl" and Rosetti's "Steam," and the wood-cuts of Barzaghi's "Vanity" 
(page 145), Guarnerio's "Vanity" (page 140) — an identity of titles showing how 
the greatest minds tend alike towards the preacher's vanitas vanitateni — and the 
"Apotheosis of Washington," by the same Guarnerio, whose "Forced Prayer" 
is also to be seen on page 48. These selections rather apdy define certain 
interesting tendencies in Italian sculpture; the "Washington," by its peculiar 
treatment, indicates a school enamored of old classic traditions, yet willing to 
treat them with a picturesque and decorative detail and chiaroscuro ; the world- 
famous "Reading Girl" shows modern genre art exquisitely chastened by a 
remnant of the old classic reserve and severity; and the figure of "Steam," 
with the two illustrations of "Vanity," exhibits that characteristically modern 
boudoir art which is the peculiar invention, and in some of its instances the 
pride, of contemporary Italian carvers. 

Boudoir sculpture, however, though it now shows inventive touches that are 
genuinely recent, is no new thing in Italy. What are Bernini's "St. Longinus," 
and Mochi's "St. Veronica," though they support the very dome of St. Peter's, 
but boudoir statues? What do they display, in their pretty flutter and drawing- 
room grace, but the mannerism of polite society, placed where we should look 
to see the religious sincerity of nature? How does Bernini treat the Greek 
myth of Daphne but in the spirit of a seventeenth-century drawing-room ? It 
is a glitter of dimpled flesh and curling laurel-leaves, as brilliant, and as bereft 
of true emotion, as, for instance, a poem of Dryden's on some classic subject. 
It must be understood that since the day of Bernini, himself the very successor 
of Michael Angelo, Italian sculpture has been constantly characterized by an 
endeavor to play audacious tricks with the marble, or — more accurately — to 
develop modern sculpture away from the style of antique sculpture just as 
freely as modern painting has been developed away from the style of Greek 
painting. 

From what influence, then, do the gay, trifling, over-graceful works of 
Rosetti and Barzaghi and Guarnerio — the "Steam" and "Electricity," the childish 
and the maidenly "\'anity," the "Washington" — proceed? They do not partake 
of the great classic movement of Italian sculpture. They cannot be traced to 



FINE ART. 155 



the influence of Giovanni Dupre, of Pio Fedi, of Canova. Those artists have 
given little to the world that is not distinctly classical in spirit — a careful 
endeavor to continue antique sculpture in its own proper line. But Italy, since 
the wild and reprehensible inventions of Bernini, has ever nourished a line of 
romantic sculpture, running along with the classical line, and setting its traditions 
at naught. From the time of Bernini, do we say? Nay, from long before. 
Already, in his gates for the Baptistery at Florence, Ghiberti had attempted the 
fascinating, dangerous experiment of making the chisel do the work of the 
brush, and vying with the art of painting in the elaborate luxury of its com- 
positions, the narrative eloquence of its scenes, and its deftly calculated light 
and shade. To see the daring originality of Ghiberti and Bernini produced to 
its most startling limit, we may go to the family chapel of the dukes of Sangro 
at Naples, the "Santa Maria della Pieta de' Sangri." Here, in a series of 
works produced about the year 1766, we see the prototypes of all the amazing 
devices which astonish us in the modern Italian marble. A statue of "Modesty," 
having the features of the mother of Raimondo di Sangro, is the original of 
all the "vailed statuary" — the "Vailed Vestals," the "Vailed Brides," the "Bashful 
Maidens," of the Italian studios. It represents the lady swathed in a long 
drapery, with the features of the face and the body showing through the 
apparently diaphanous material. This is by an eighteenth-century artist named 
Corradini. In the same church is the "Man in the Net of Sin," or "Vice 
Undeceived," by Oueiroli. The meshes of an actual marble net, surrounding 
the body of the father of Raimondo, are cut out with incredible patience, knot 
by knot and thread by thread, until the stone of Carrara actually stands out 
transparently in the air, reduced to a reticulated cordage, around the human 
form within. Another artist, Sammartino, has adorned the church with a figure 
of the Dead Christ, lying on a splendid bed of Italian upholstery, and covered 
with a sheet, whose adhesion to the skin by the sweat of death is mimicked 
with fearful ingenuity, and the whole edifice is filled with these strange inven- 
tions, including, over the door, a marble sculpture of a Di Sangro emerging 
from an iron sculpture of a tomb. These carvers have in fact amused them- 
selves with playing upon the character of marble as punsters play upon the 
character of a word ; the more the essential sense of the thing is contradicted, 
the prouder they seem to be. It is hardly wonderful that the compatriots of 



156 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




p. Guarnrria. Si 



Apotheosis of Washington . 



these clever marble-workers should sometimes seek to continue the same line 
of doubtful triumphs; and hence the visitors to the London World's Fair of 



FINE ART. 157 



1862 were greeted with the wonderful group by Monti, "The Sleep of Death 
and Dream of Life," wherein the marble represented to perfection the confusion 
of a thin and transparent entanglement of drapery. 

Thus the peculiar sculpture from Italy, which surprised so many visitors as 
something entirely novel, with its particularized eye-lashes, flying hair and simu- 
lated fabrics, we have shown to be the result of a whole succession of eminent 
national artists — Ghiberti (who chiseled feathers and palm-trees), Bernini (whose 
Daphne is a sculptured laurel-tree), the decorators of the Pieta church in Naples, 
and Monti. 

The national sculpture was in fact committing itself to this rococo style, 
when Canova, a man of sincere but weak classic feeling, introduced a counter- 
acting tendency towards the antique spirit. If he had been stronger, he would 
have left a deeper stamp; but he was one of the false purists, one of the 
pseudo-Augustuses of the first part of this century, the Wests, Davids and 
Raphael Mengs. Nor did he ever have the advantage of studying from the 
very best models — which, whatever the Italians and the guide-books may say, 
are not to be found in Italy. When he saw the Elgin marbles late in life, he 
declared that if it were not too late he would radically change his style. He 
belonged to the day when the Apollo Belvedere and Venus de' Medici were 
praised and sonneteered as the summit of excellence, and when the Theseus, 
Illyssus and Venus of Milo had not made their impression upon the schools. 

But all this, tedious in length as it is, is but our introduction to the state- 
ment of the condition of Italian sculpture at the present epoch, which is one 
of revolution. The statement will be short, however, though the introduction 
is prolix. 

Take, as a very singular instance, Guarnerio, whose "Forced Prayer," 
"Maidenly Vanity" and "Apotheosis of Washington" we show by means of 
engravings. Guarnerio is an art-centaur; he is half classic and lialf rococo; 
he is part Bernini and part Canova. Thus in the single exhibit he made at 
Philadelphia, he showed side by side the statue of "Aruns killing Camilla," 
which was as cold, correct and pseudo-Greek as it could possibly be, and the 
"Washington," which was enveloped in a flutter of drapery and a cloud of 
hair-powder like any portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud. In the "Aruns," the veins, 
the creases and wrinkles, the accidents of humanity, were omitted, so, in an 




4ppl 




to a Casual Hard. 



i6o THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

ultra-antique spirit, was the hair ; everything but the grand, broad masses of 
the body was neglected, and the figure altogether was so intensely Greek that 
it was Egyptian ! It was what Benjamin West and Louis David would have 
made if they had been sculptors. The Washington, alongside, was a fl)'-away 
work, full of merit in its way, but the offspring of a different sentiment. Who 
could tell which represented the real conviction of Guarnerio as a sculptor, the 
rococo "Washington," or the severe "Aruns"? The Americans, by-the-bye, did 
not appreciate the statue of their chieltain, because the lower part of the bust 
was finished off with a gigantic eagle. The more ignorant ones surmised that 
it must be "Washington on a Lark!" It was hardly fair, however, to make 
an Italian artist suffer for the average American's superb ignorance of things 
classic and traditional. Guarnerio had seen a hundred times antique represen- 
tations ot the apotheosis, in which the emperor or hero was borne aloft by the 
eagle of Jove. To cite a single e.xample, which our reader can easily consult, 
there is an "Apotheosis of Homer" engraved in Winckelmann, from a silver 
vase of Hcrculaneum, in which the poet likewise emerges from the spread 
wings of a great eagle; it ma\' be seen in plate 21 of the Paris edition of 
1789. To an Italian like our sculptor, familiar from infancy with this old author- 
ized form of representing immortality, it was but an accepted use of metaphor, 
and the adaptation of the American national bird for aquila yovis was graceful 
and poetic. Leaving out of the question this complaint of the inappropriate- 
ness of the symbol, in which we shall rather betray ignorance than penetration, 
we may contemplate the "Washington" simply as a work of portraiture. In 
this respect, then, we cannot refuse the sculptor very high praise ; the face, as 
we have heard enemies of the statue acknowledge, is singularly good — one of 
the best idealizations of the cast taken by Houdon that sculpture has ever 
furnished; the expression is paternal, benignant; the attitude, with one hand 
showing the Constitution on which we rest our liberties, is well conceived, and 
shows Washington as the peacemaker, in which the warrior is merged. 

Guarnerio's "Maidenly Vanity" is a work which we select rather to show 
the possible extremes to which a school may go, than because we think it one 
of the most beautiful, or one of the noblest, pieces of Italian carving. In this 
instance the key-note of "Vanity," appropriate to the subject, is struck so per- 
fectly that it reflects upon the general attractiveness of the group. The subject 



FINE ART. 



i6i 



is vain, and the work is vain. In the opera, Marguerite adorns herself with 
the jewels, and translates their light and color to music as she regards her 




Fleeting Time. 



pretty face in the glass. The present heroine is rather the chief figure of a 
bath-room scene; this fair Hesh seems to have been just polished with the 



i62 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

sponge and the napkin in order to relieve with proper effect the gHttering 
hardness of the gems. It is a pure effort at Titianesque flesh-painting, in stone. 
But, from the point of view at which the sculptor's aims were directed, how 
perfect his success ! Given a purely boudoir subject — a topic meant to please 
sight as one of the five senses, and not as the key of the brain and the under- 
standing — how well the caressing chisel has understood its task ! No snow 
seems softer than those breadths of moulded marble ; the dimples, the swelling 
contours, the soft pressure of flesh against flesh, are expressed with bewildering 
subtlety. At the damsel's feet, even lazier than herself, leans a youthful assistant 
with a mirror, a promising novice in this religion of the toilette. A pretty 
future, forsooth, seems to open out before this tiny disciple, so early instructed 
in the innermost secrets of the rites of Vanity! The litde ministrant tends with 
willing service upon the caprices of the riper beauty. But, as we contemplate 
the group and enter into its spirit, she hardly seems to tend alone; for all the 
sylphs of the toilet, the little modish beings whom Pope imagined around the 
fair form of Arabella Fermor, seem to be circling about and glancing in the air. 

"Haste then, ye spirits, to your charge repair! 
Her fluttering fan be Zephyretta's care; 
The 'drops' to thee, Brillante, we consign. 
Anil Momentilla, let the watch he thine." 

So completely does Guarnerio change his touch with the style he proposes 
to illustrate, that we may notice his inconsistency in treating the iris of the eye, 
among his various contributions Artists are divided about the proper rendering 
of this important organ, the crucial difficulty of a statue. The purists in sculp- 
ture usually treat the ball according to its actual shape, without noticing the 
marked difference made by the iris and pupil ; such was the habit in the oldest 
and strictest period of Greek art. The romanticists treat the organ as it would 
be treated in a picture, using various devices to represent the blackness of the 
pupil, the ring of the iris, and the little spark of reflected light which gives 
intelligence to the organ. Guarnerio, now a purist and now a romanticist, treats 
the eye of his "Aruns" as a plain ball, while in the "Washington," "Vanity" 
and other figures, he uses the most ingenious devices to deepen the shadow 
of the eyelashes, to sink the profundity of the pupil, and to make the glance 
resemble that speaking one which we find in a good picture. We appreciate 



FINE ART. 



163 



the skill, but we cannot but be struck with the apparent want of conviction on 
the part of the sculptor. It is as if a painter should paint to-day in the style 




CVi. LandelU. Pi 



A Fellah Woman. 



of Raphael, and to-morrow in the style of Watteau, according to the orders 
he received. 



i64 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The fact is, the present art-generation is in a state of revolt in Italy. The 
influence of Canova, whose right hand and chisel are presented to the worship 
of the faithful in Venice, is palpably dying out. The last of his imitators was 
Fedi, whose group of Polixena is installed in the public piazza of Florence, as 
if worthy to share the same sun-ray that strikes upon the works of Michael 
Angelo and Donatello. Dupre is too chastened and pure in style to suggest 
the pagan animalism of the Greeks, and therefore can hardly be called a 
classicist; but he does not belong either to the romantic school — the color of 
Rubens and the Venetians is never suggested by his carving. His "Pieta," like 
Raphael's Sistine Madonna, is a work of pure holiness, transcending all schools, 
and breathing an atmosphere of its own. Being an ideal, and therefore classical 
subject, however, its intense life makes it seem realistic and " romantic." His 
monument to Cavour, being a subject of realistic character, a portrait-study, 
seems by contrast somewhat classic and severe ; thus an artist who soars above 
schools seems in turn, by the force of contrast, and the sheer difference of his 
work from what the conventional spectator looks for, to lean to the opposite 
style. The great inventor of the modern pictorial, or romantic, or realistic 
school in contemporary Italy, is Professor Vincenzio Vela, of Milan, a pupil of 
Cacciatori. His chisel was represented at the Philadelphia Exhibition by "The 
First Sorrow," a charming group of a girl and sick kitten, and his "Dying 
Napoleon," or "Gli Ultimi Giorni di Napoleone," is now in the Corcoran Gal- 
lery at Washington. Vela's style has been misunderstood, because, rather than 
represent nature as the Greeks did, it adds the inventions and new ideas which 
the Greeks might be supposed to use if their art had been prolonged to our 
own time. When the "Napoleon" was exhibited in New York, a monthly 
magazine, whose art-criticisms were at that time contributed by a writer of 
notorious incompetency, went so far as to call it "a work possessing scarcely 
a single good quality;" and said farther that the French "made short work of 
it when exhibited at their last Exposition." The fact is that, in the first place, 
the French regarded it with great jealousy, because the first brilliant success 
in applying the romantic style of Delaroche to sculpture did not happen to 
come from a French statuary ; and that, in the second place, the government 
of the day having chosen to make the figure a Bonapartist emblem, covering 
its feet day by day with fresh violets' and votive poems, the artists, all strong 




The Grandmother s Tales. 



i66 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



anti-Bonapartists, were reluctant to swell the peans of a masterpiece which 
recalled their political aversions, while it aroused their unwilling admiration. 
Dupre and Vela are confessedly at the head of their art in their native country; 
but other sculptors are joined in a friendly confederacy in the experiment of 
pushing sculpture as far as it will go in the romantic and picturesque, or rather 
pictorial, direction. They freely imitate satin, silk, velvet, or frieze, with the 
resources of their clever chisels. It is true the ancients, with as much sincerity, 
represented in their marbles the limited variety of textures which their domestic 
looms afforded. Vela's "Napoleon," because it had a blanket so perfectly carved 
as to deceive the eye, was derided by some sapient persons ; yet in a painting, 
such as Delaroche's "Death of Elizabeth," the realistic treatment of draperies 
and cushions is not held to impair the grand dramatic and tragic impression. 
Too many critics of sculpture are still in the same state of development that 
Reynolds was when he declared that drapery in a historical painting should be 
neither like silk or linen or woolen, but only "drapery," sublimated, or in a 
state of generalization. This seems very ridiculous, as applied to painting, but 
it is still applied, without rebuke, to sculpture. Barzaghi's "Childish Vanity" 
represents to perfection the rich folds of "gros-grain" silk. Let not this affect 
our liking for the simple little maiden, as she innocently trails the grand train 
across the floor. 

The figure of "Steam," by Rosetti, needs no special description apart from 
that of its pendant, "Electricity," already noticed in these pages. Both belong 
to the modern romantic or "boudoir" school of sculpture, seeking to please by 
prettiness and ingenuity rather than by dignified and forcible imaginative 
treatment. 

A painting of a class to make the beholder stop and think, is "The 
Casual Ward," by Fildes, engraved on pages 158 and 159. This picture, which 
attracted a great deal of notice in the English department, was one of the 
greatest and best exhibited. It is the work of a young artist, who achieved 
great popular favor in 1869, and has steadily and worthily maintained his 
position. 

The figures in this picture are portraits of real people. They have nothing 
in common except hunger, destitution and rags, and are fair types of the classes 
who drift into the Casual Wards of EntjHsh cities night after night. 




-# 



|--i*jsu»ijj|||i5i5is:^^ 



:!;!f "T'f 



ALlcaia B««tai,5« . 



THE (&EKIUS OF STEAM. 



Ir.tam^'tioiial Exlnliition 1878 



GEBBIE &BAREIE. 
'-{./jUfXi. 1477. 




Tlie Anniversary. 



iG8 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8y6. 



The poor woman with a Ijaby in ht-r arms, and a ragged boy and poor 
girl running at her side, is the wife of a laborer who is now undergoing three 
weeks' imprisonment for assaulting her, while she is left penniless. Hating the 
thought of separation from her children, the poor mother is on her way to the 
country, where she has friends whom she expects to help her. 

The old man with thin, worn features and a tall hat has been to London 
to look after an erring son, who, from being vicious, has become criminal, and 
the father has given the son every penny of the slender sum he brought with 
him, and carries nothing but a heavy heart back to his native village. 

The wretched lad crouched on the pavement has, literally, no history. He 
never knew father or mother — at least his mother deserted him about the tune 
he could remember anything. He was bred in the gutter, and he lives in the 
streets. There are thousands of such boys in London. 

The two m<Mi who come next in rotation are vagabonds. One calls him- 
self "an odd man on the look-out for a job;" the other avers that his health 
does not allow him to work, and that he subsists mainly on what "ladies and 
gentlemen who are good to him" choose to give. The policeman could tell 
you that this man is a well-known beggar, who must have been unusually 
unsuccessful in his vocation to-day, or he would not condescend to the meagre 
fare of the Casual Ward. Those folded arms, that shrinking mein, those legs 
clinging together as if to strengthen each other's weakness, that face and chin 
burled as they are in the shrugged shoulders, combine to form a tableau, the 
artistic merit of which seldom fails to make the public pay tribute. Very 
different is the "odd man," who assumes a sturdy rough-and-ready air, as if 
anxious to undertake some heavy labor, but this is only another form of pre- 
tence. He is always out of work, always professing a readiness to be employed, 
and is one of the most noted shirkers in the labor-yard, where all these people 
are called upon to perform a prescribed quantity of work before leaving In the 
morning, in return for their shelter and food. 

The central figure, middle-aged, with the Burgundy nose and damaged 
presence, who rears himself against the wall and keeps his hands firmly in his 
trousers pockets, with a half humorous air of philosophic resignation, is one 
of those too-frequent wrecks from unrestrained indulgence in drink, of whom 
every reader, we venture to assert, knows some living example. "What a 



FLKE ART. 169 

fellow this must have been in his time!" How often must he have "seen the 
gas put out!" And was he ever beloved of woman? Doubtless; but as 
doubtless was that love as Dead Sea fruit — disappointment and ashes ! Now 





Tlic Erring' Wife. 



comes the sad down-hill of his career. There is a rich huskiness in his voice, 
and a twinkle in his bleary eyes, which speak forcibly of tap-room eloquence 
and pot-house celebrity. Outcast as he is, this casual pauper is a keen politician 
and will denounce the perfidy of ministers and proclaim the decadence of En^ 
land to any one who will listen. 



I70 THE INTERNATIONAL EX II I B I TI N, 1 8 7 6. 

The mechanic who nurses his sleepy child so tenderly — a child whose 
comely features are full of yirlish beauty — and the bowed and gaunt woman, 
his wife, are looking out for work. He has been ill, and was never very 
expert, so he found his place filled by one younger and more skilful dian 
himself on receiving his discharge from the hospital, and he is now plodding 
his way to the neighborhood of a distant town, where, as he is told, such 
services as he can render are in demand. 

Of the two youths in the corner, one has been respectable, and the other 
belongs to the same type as the crouching boy. Several adilitional years of 
vagabondage have passed over the head of the other, however, and he is past 
reclaiming. He is ridating some thieving e.\ploit to the youth by his side, who 
is too much occupied in pitying himself to heed his companion's stories. There 
is a lurking grin on the face of the scamp in the .Scotch cap which is very 
characteristic; while the air of despairing woe with which the more gently 
nurtured youth peers into vacancy makes one feel that he bitterly repents the 
folly which has brought him to his present pass. 

A little while back, and the Italian artists were zealous supporters of the 
Church, pious defenders of the Pope's temporal power, and humble communi- 
cants at the foot of the Roman altar. They lived and labored in the traditions 
of Michael Angelo, and Raphael and Tinton-tto, whose talents developed them- 
selves in the adornment of sacred edifices. Even Canova, though partaking in 
the classical, Davidian revival of the commencement of our century, made his 
most patriotic "effect" in reclaiming, as "the patrimony of the Church," the 
works of art confiscated by Napoleon ; after which he solemnly dedicated the 
rest of his life to religion, repaired to his native town in the robes of a knight 
of Christ, and had a most orthodox death and burial. In these latter time.s, 
the ideal is changed. We hear nothing of the religion of contemporary Italian 
artists. The bright spirits of the time have for watchword not the Pope's 
political power, but the "unity of Italy." We hear of Vela as "a warm 
patriot," and a fighdng volunteer under Garibaldi. His favorite pupil, Bernas- 
conti, shares his views. The ambidon of a modern Italian artist is to create a 
warm, human, sensuous art, to emulate the dazzling career of Fortuny; the 
cold of the cloister has too long influenced the career of genius in this old 
stronghold of beauty. In adapting the resources of the chisel deliberately to 




Robirlo Bom^utin Pm. 



Pompeuan Boy Flute- Player. 



172 • THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 

what is called geiur art, the Italians have begun a vast and peculiar experiment, 
the most extended that has been made by any nation of sculptors since the 
antique. They sent to Philadelphia a world of figures representing the comedy 
of life, its accidents, mishaps and tleeting graces. Many of the subjects seemed 
fit only for the transitory sketches which an artist makes on his studio wall 
with a morsel of coal. Most of them were etudes — artists' "bits," inspired by 
a happy accident of light and shade, — the whimsical contrast of a splendid 
remnant of oKl silk with a child's naked flesh (as in Barzaghi's figure on 
page 145) — or a fleeting recollection of the carnival, as Borghi's sleepy, imper- 
tinent girl in domino, resembling a guttered ball-candle surprised by the first 
ray of sunrise. The very titles of their groups forsook the individuality of 
former work. Just as water-color artists like .Simonetti or Induno will entitle 
their studies according to the artistic proljlem involved — such as "Effect of 
Satin by Candle-light," or "The Ball-dress," so these sculptors, instead of heroic 
or historic personalities, give us titles such as Pessina's "The Costume of Mary 
Stuart," or Pandiani's "Capricciosa." Antl the topics selected are sketchy, 
ephemeral, accidental — the flutter of a smile, the fall of a tear, the blowing of 
a bubble, the undulation of a veil in the breeze. To expand the capacity of 
their art in a different direction from that of the grand classical works of 
Greece was an admirable and honorable notion ; it is just what the Greeks 
themselves would have done if their civilization had continued without a break 
to our own century ; only, it is a pity that so much of the Italian skill took 
the direction of over-ornament, and rococo and what is called in Rome (Ironi 
the French baroque) "barocchismo." 

But we check this qiierulous complaint in its incipiency on noticing an 
example which shows all the flexible ingenuity of the modern school without 
any of its triviality. Magni's "Reading Girl," of which we present a steel 
engraving, after being more talked of than any statue in the London Exhibition 
of 1862, was represented, in a diminished repetition, at Philadelphia, where it 
was designated as No. 253, and attracted the attention of the judicious in the 
long axis-gallery of the Art Annex. The "Leggitrice," or Reading Maid, has 
divested herself for bed, let her hair pardy down, and prepared her slender 
limbs for the couch ; but ere she seeks its protection, she must give a minute 
to her favorite chapter. And then, of course, the minute becomes an hour, the 




THE RIEABIM^ GIKIL. 



U S .Intematioiial ExMiition 1876 



GEBBIE & BAERiE 



FINE ART. 173 

bare toot grows stone on the chill stone floor, the volume is more than half 
turned over, and the Leggitrice, tairly caught in the bibliophilist's trap — absorbed 
like many an inordinate but less beautiful bookworm — forgets time, duty, cold, 
hunger, and self in the absorption of the page. Prof Magni has caught her 
just as she has become petrified into a marble image ; she has not as yet lost 
the sweet grace of life and the flexible charm of girlhood. There is something 
captivatingly bold and original in the way her lithe figure is thrown sideways 
on the worn rush chair, and her old robe made a reading-cushion as she rests 
the volume upon it. Every observer has yielded to the simple spell of this 
statue, and its repetitions or 7'epliche adorn several galleries ; one of them is 
in the Twelfth Saloon of the Brera Gallery in the sculptor's native city of 
Milan ; another is at Padua, in the convent of San Antonio. Besides his 
"Reading Girl," the artist was represented at Philadelphia by a life-size figure 
of "Angelica," weeping a big marble tear as she clung to her rock, and a figure 
of Mme. Ristori in the character of Mary Stuart. His "Socrates" and "David" 
procured him additional fame, and duplicates of both of them have been recendy 
purchased to adorn the new Hall of Congress of the Chilian Republic. His 
"Reading Girl," "Socrates," "David," "Angelica," and "Ristori" were all at the 
Paris Exhibidon of 1867. While these pages have been in preparation, Pietro 
Magni has ceased to live; he died on the 9th of January, 1877. We learn 
from a correspondent in his own country (Miss Brewster, the admirable news- 
teller — the "public letter-writer," in fact, for fair Italy at large, that "woman 
nation" whose lovers in the West are laid under constant obligations for so 
many skilfully-penned epistles) that his habits were peculiar, and somewhat 
stained with a facile vice of genius, the love of wine. It is even said that he 
rented a half-dozen obscure lodgings in Milan, where he was Professor, that he 
might be conveniently carried to bed from whatever haunt he lost conscious- 
ness in. Whatever his fraildes may have been. Prof Magni had the essential, 
incommunicable quality of genius; and we cannot but feel a measure of regret 
that this humble tribute, which he mieht have liked as comingr from the to him 
mysterious West, can never reach him. 

A young sculptor of Magni's own city of Milan, Donato Barcaglia, sent to 
the Exposition a number of groups most ambitiously conceived and executed — 
works which trifled and toyed with the difficulties of the material as proudh' as 



I 




G. CastielifJiie, Pi 



176 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



any of the singular sculptures of the Neapolitan Church we have spoken of. 
It can hardly be denied, though, that Signor Barcaglia's groups trenched upon 
the rococo, upon "barocchismo." One of them delineated a balcony overrun 
with flowers, a soap-bubble, a pair of children, ribbons, laces — all in the size 
of nature — quite a garden landscape with figures. Another, which though not 
fulfilling our notion of the most tasteful art-theme imaginable is of great tech- 
nical interest, we have considered well worth representing, and exhibit its 
likeness on page 161. It is entided "Meeting Time," and consists of two life- 
size figures in marble. The effect of the principal figure, with his enormous 
hovering wings beating the air and casdng a sinister shadow on the other 
personage, is of a kind seldom derived from the art of sculpture. The femi- 
nine figure, that of a worldly-looking beauty "between two ages," hurried along 
by the half-grotesque fluttering and prancing phantom she so terribly dreads, is 
striking if not pleasant. She resists the influence of Time with an expression 
in which her habitual pouting coquetry is -mixed with a real terror. Executed 
in oils as a picture, this subject would be a universally admired motif if wrought 
by a competent hand. Executed in so many hundred-weight of solemn white 
marble, it contradicts all our old ideas of the decorum of sculpture. It seems 
like fan-painting petrified unkindly into stone. But the new school is deter- 
mined to show that it can indicate all the effects of painting. 

Italian jiainting, too slenderly represented at Fairmount Park, nevertheless 
sent some distinguished contributions which defended its title to stand up on 
even terms with the sculpture. The Chevalier Roberto Bompiani, who sent to 
the "Exposition Universelle" of 1867 a fine picture of "Autumn," contributed 
to the Centennial Anniversary a beautiful pair of painted panel-subjects, of 
upright shape, which, though executed in oil, had almost the effect of bas-reliefs, 
from their statuesque treatment and classic elegance. One, of which we give 
an engraving on page 167, represented "The Anniversary;" the other (see 
page 171), delineated a "Pompeiian Flute-Player." The spirit of ancient Italy 
is revived in these solitary figures, somewhat in the style of Alma-Tadema's 
marvelous restorations of antique life. "The Anniversary" represents a lady 
of rank decorating with flowers a terminal bust of her dead husband, the lost 
head of the household. These memorial busts Avere set up by the Romans as 
family galleries of ancestral painted portraits are arranged in more modern 



FINE ART. 



177 




Christopher Columbus Monument. 



times. The excavations of Pompeii reveal the position and style of these 
busts, usually crowning a term or square monolithic monument, and provided 



178 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



at the shoulders with projections on which wreaths were hung. They were 
common in all houses, and we know that in Rome, at least in the time of the 
Antonines, the Senate took upon itself to decree what emperors should be 
represented in statuary within the mansions of the citizens. The stately lady 
in the picture, whose time for wearing mourning weeds must have long since 
passed, but whose memory recurs on the solemn day of her bereavement to 
the impulse ot affection she telt as a bride, is a person of obvious rank, fit to 
grace the noblest atriums of Rome. The subject of the other composition is 
less aristocratic; the "Flute-Player" steps with bare feet, a poor hired slave, 
over the mosaic pavement he is hardly deemc-d worthy to press. Behind him 
we see a table, copied from a beautiful one unearthed in Pompeii, which has 
served for a model to more than one artist. The instruments on which he is 
about to play are the double clarionet, called fibicr o-aiimcp. One of these tibii2 
was to be seen at the Exposition, in the Cast<dlani collection. The two tubes 
were blown separately; the tube held in the right hand, and blown with the 
right side of the mouth, produced the three high notes, and was called tibia 
dextra; the tibia sinistra produced the four lower notes, and was played with 
the other corner of the mouth. This art of sending the breath alternately 
through two pipes is not yet entirely lost, for the peasants in certain parts of 
Russia still employ, to console their solitude among the vast flocks of the 
steppes, double shepherds' tibicr, called in their language "dutka." Our flute- 
player, crowned with festal wreaths, advances to contribute his share of enter- 
tainment to some great feast, of which the scattered flowers, and the elegant 
wine-vase, yet litter the table ; the classic assemblage of music, wine and gar- 
lands makes us think of Petronius's description of a Roman feast, or of Plato's 
more exquisite drama of a Greek one, in the ".Svmposium." 

Classic Rome — the Rome whose monuments are eternal, and whose modern 
beauties seem but like decorations hung upon the enduring pyramids — is seen 
in the picture by Chevalier Franqois Antoine Bossuet, represented in our cut 
on' page 125. The flute-player in the last-named picture must have often passed 
that Mausoleum of Adrianus and that /Elian bridge — works of the time of 
Hadrian, yet solid still for our own use if we choose. But the centre of the 
picture is occupied by a modern structure, the proudest effort of the renais- 
sance — .St. Peter's. And between the sacred dome and the drum-shaped tomb 



FINE ART. 



179 



is seen the square, many-windowed, factory-like Vatican, where the aged and 
sickly Pope counts the days of his voluntary imprisonment. No view in the 
world is so suggestive, so thought-compelling, as this. M. Bossuet, who takes 
us in this picture to the banks of the Tiber and the shores of the past, is an 
aged painter, born at Ypres in 1800, but residing at Brussels. He sent to 
Philadelphia, besides a Spanish scene, a view of Grenada. The Pennsylvania 




Lton Camorre, Pittx. 



From a drawing by the 



Academy has long possessed one of his beautiful landscapes, and enrolled him 
among its honorary members — a distinction which he mentions in the catalogues, 
just after his installation as Chevalier of the order of Isabella the Catholic 
of Spain. 

But old as is the Tiber, the Nile seems older. By a Paris landscapist, 
N. Berchere, we have a view of the Nile in the time of its inundation — an 
original and striking picture, of which we present a fine engraving on page 
151. The Father of Rivers, which we are accustomed to think of as peaceful, 
sad and somnolent — tedious with the weight of its immemorial history and 



i8o THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

date — is here represented stretching almost to the horizon, and lashed to tur- 
bulence by one of those fierce, rainless storms which are called "gales" on the 
water, "simoons" on the desert. The light fiery cloudlets in the sky are torn to 
fibres in the tremendous blast. In the foreground two boats have become 
entangled, and their broad lateen sails are tearing each other to pieces. This 
novel storm effect, with its element of tremendous heat added, gives one of the 
most startling conceptions of Nile travel ever suggested by art. 

Frederick Goodall's "Cairo Fruit Girl" (pages 146-7) and Charles Lan- 
delle's "Fellah Woman" (page 163) are suitable figures with which to people 
our reveries of modern Egypt. They show the characteristic ways of telling 
travelers' tales indulged in by the English and French artist respectively. The 
Englishman gives us a commonplace, broad-cheeked woman of the people, 
tattooed on the forehead, bearing a basket of bananas and lemons through the 
street (we fancy her crying her wares in a voice as astringent as the first and 
as acid as the second), and smoking a commonplace cigarette. Behind her are 
clustering stalks of maize. She is vulgar, not uncomely, and represented with 
uncompromising truth. Monsieur Landelle (one of the most popular portraitists 
and religious painters of Paris) must give a more poetic turn to his Egyptian 
goddess. In her sphinx-like cap, turning her face full-front upon you, she 
penetrates you with a glance from her long eyes bordered with kohl — a glance 
sad, hazy, mysterious, and suggestive of innumerable generations of servitude 
or unalleviated toil. She leans her hand, whose wrist is loaded with heavy, 
tasteless jewels like fetters, upon the enormous water-vase, whose like she and 
her countrywomen have carried to the Nile from a period long anterior to the 
selling of Joseph into Egypt. Mr. Goodall's Egyptian Avoman is advancing; 
M. Landelle's, even like the Egypt of our dreams, is motionless. Which is the 
truer? or are they both different aspects of a truth? 

The lovely park-scenery and succulent turf of Old England is represented 
in the picture of "Haddon Hall: the Warrant," of which we gave an engraving 
on page 98. By the same painter, Giuseppe Castiglione, a Neapolitan residing 
in Paris and exhibidng at Philadelphia among the French artists, is our selected 
picture of "A Call on our Uncle, the Cardinal," engraved on pages 174-5. Now, 
the character of garden-landscape is totally different in the two countries of 
England and Italy. The Italian trees are harsh, dry and severe-looking ; they 



FINE ART. i8i 

tend to compact, monumental, almost architectural forms; covered with dust, or, 
after a rain, reflecting the deepest ot skies from each leaf suddenly turned into 
a mirror, they are massed in strange grays and blues against the heavens. The 
ilexes, olives, stone-pines, and cypresses seem like sculptural shapes, carved in 
solid clumps, and with the accustomed green of northern vegetation modified 
into shadowy browns and grays. "Turt," as understood in England, cannot be 
obtained in the South ; the grass is irregular, thin and parched, except for a 
short season in the spring, or for the few hours following a storm. A nation 
of artists has known how to harmonize this "monumental" kind of vegetation 
with appropriate effects of architecture, and accordingly the "Italian landscape- 
garden," with its imposing flights of very broad low steps, its balustrades, its 
alleys, statues, and vistas, has been created among the stately villas of Rome, 
and somedmes imitated in the North. But a Southerner suddenly transported, 
on a bright day, into an English park, is simply blinded and overcome. "The 
effect," says Taine of Kew Gardens, "is too strong; in the sun, it is over- 
powering; the incomparable verdure then assumes tones so rich and intense 
that they cannot be transferred to canvas." M. Castiglione has proved himself 
capable of appreciating both types of park-scenery. His " Haddon Hall" is a 
rich tapestry of varied greens, almost covering the space of the canvas, and 
developing a sunny gradation of tones in an infinity of leaf-forms. The present 
composition is a blue sky, dentellated with the noble but sparse forms of the 
stone-pine and cypress, which escape from behind the urns and balustrades of 
an elevated terrace. The grass is a straggling intruder among the pebbles of 
an ill-kept gravel-walk ; and the view is not over a turfy glade, but over a 
gleaming city, like Rome seen from the Pincian. Into this mosaic of lustrous 
and formal shapes, come the figures which M. Castiglione knows so well how 
to distribute : at the right, the Cardinal in his scarlet hat, attended by a monk 
and an aged nobleman ; at the left, his attendant Suisse, halberd in hand and 
salade on head ; and in the middle, ascending the terrace-steps, a bevy of youth 
and beauty, gay mundane youths and maidens in the gallant costumes of the 
epoch of Louis XIII. 

Another landscape-gardening effect is sought by Achille Formis, of Milan, 
whose picture of "The Park," hung in the Exhibition near to Fontana's striking 
scene from "Robert le Diable," we engrave on page 133. In the original, the 



i84 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 

gleam of positive sunsliine, glancing on the stone-work and on the forms of 
the dogs and human beings, was singularly successful. The composition is 
marked off into strata by a horizontal line of balustrades, above which are 
bunched together the thick bundles of perpendicular tree-stems, while beneath 
are parties of ladies in modern Worth dresses, meeting and introducing each 
other. The Cavaliere Formis is a member of the Art Academies of Milan and 
Naples, received a prize at the late World's Fair in Santiago de Chili, and 
exhibited at Philadelphia, besides the present picture, a striking scene on the 
banks of Lake Como, entitled "The Alpine Tourists." 

These qualities of pure translation — the conveying of positive sunshine and 
air, the exact relief and "value" of foliage against the sky, or, in figure-painting, 
the truest representation of flesh in light and shadow, are characteristic of the 
Continental schools of painting. The aim of the intellectual, English school, on 
the contrary, is rather interpretaticnt ; the giving of a meaning to nature, ser- 
mons to stones, its subtle poetry to the ocean or the forest, and, in human 
beings, the look of the soul rather than the look of the body. To paint natural 
objects just as nature's chemistry makes them, and just as nature's air and light 
color and relieve them, is the s^nxjumar of art. The best of the old masters 
sought principally for this ; only, as they were invariably great poets, the 
romance of their souls tinged the work and made their pictures imaginative. 
To represent nature candidly as it is, is the only safe way ; to paint it as you 
fancy it might be, if it were sentient enough to attitudinize for the grand poem 
you think you have in your head, is the tempting way and the perilous way. 
We have no space here to go into this, but would simply point out that a 
practised critic can always find a strained falsetto effect about a picture which 
the artist paints to make you perceive, not the scene he beholds, but his 
thoughts in beholding it. Even the "Mountain Gloom," a large water-color by 
A. P. Newton (pages 138-9), though a patient, pains-taking and impressive 
picture, is perhaps gently tinged with a literary kind of sentimentalism. The 
incident of the shepherd's dog, watching the carcass of the lost sheep against 
the arrival of the birds of prey, is thoroughly Wordsworthian. The title, 
"Mountain Gloom," is unfortunate, as it simply advertises the painter's obses- 
sion by a famous chapter of Ruskin's ; and the whole composition is an 
illustration in colors of these delicate phrases of that author, which best 



FINE ART. 



185 



describe it: "Tiie 
summits of the 
rocky moun- 
tains," says Mr. 
Ruslcin,"are gath- 
ered into solemn 
crowns and cir- 
clets, all flushed 
in that strange, 
faint silence of 
possession by 
the sunshine 
which has in it 
so deep a mel- 
ancholy; full of 
power, yet as 
frail as shadows; 
lifeless, like the 
walls of a sep- 
ulchre, yet beau- 
tiful in tender 
fall of crimson 
folds, like the 
veil of some sea- 
spirit that lives 
and dies as the 
foam flashes; fix- 
ed on a perpet- 
ual throne, stern 
against all 
strength, lifted 




T)ie First Friend. 



above all sorrow, 
and yet effaced 
and melted ut- 
terly into the air 
by that last sun- 
beam that has 
crossed to them 
from between 
the two golden 
clouds." 

Another speci- 
men of the cele- 
brated English 
water-color 
school, of whose 
products we 
never have the 
chance to see as 
many as we 
should like, — 
there having 
been (for in- 
stance) but fifty- 
four of them at 
the Centennial, 
— is "The Bea- 
con," by J. Absa- 
lon, a London 
painter of some 
eminence, though 
no representa- 



tive of the modern "thoughtful" creed. He simply gives us (page 187) a Scotch 
or Cornish girl, the fisher's bride, who holds a flaring torch to guide to shore 
her husband's fishincr-smack. She is not so elegant a figure as "Little Em'ly," 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



watching with the light for her uncle Peggotty ; but she is gentle, sincere and 
good ; and the forgetfulness that makes her stand on the rough rock in the 
salt wind is an earnest of that form of human love which in its unselfishness 
is most like the Divine. 

The charming oil-painting entitled "Mistress Dorothy" was engraved and 
published by us on page 68 of this work. In the merited fulness with which 
we desire to treat the products of the British school of artists, we add (pages 
182-3) a large copy of "Only a Rabbit," by the same artist, Mr. George A. 
Storey, of London. The scene carries us back to the good old days of sport 
in the English greenwood, when every grange kept its pack of beagles, and 
when Cowper and Burns had not yet raised the voice of s\mpathy for animals 
shot at. Before the uprising of our modern humanitarian sentiment, all hearts 
beat in unison with the excitement of the dogs and hunters. 

" What sweeter music would ye hear 
Than hounds and beagles crying? 
The startled hare runs mad with fear, 
Upon her speed relying." 

Only a Rabbit, and a single specimen at that, has been the reward of the 
squire on this luckless day. His wife pleasantly twits him with his want of 
skill, holding the flaccid game-bag in her hand, and pointing to the solitary 
evidence of his prowess. An intelligent dog looks upon the meagre booty 
with obvious shame and disgust. The easy squire, who is getting too stout to 
follow his pack through the bracken, drowns his discomfiture in fast-following 
glasses of ale, which the ne"at serving-maid replenishes from her flagon. Out 
of the unlucky hunter's failure, Mr. Storey contrives an artist's success. His 
picture is well diversified, in a quiet key appropriate to the humbleness of the 
incident, and his personages are distributed with skill. Each figure assists in 
telling the tale, and the composition is dated, as it were, by the assemblage of 
antique costumes and architecture, all homely and countrified, and all appro- 
priate to the epoch when Milton was reviving English pastoral. 

This anecdotic faculty — the skill with which an incident is told — is the grand 
characteristic o( the British school, and is a legacy from the genius of Hogarth. 
Two or three more pictures contributed to the British section we will notice as 
instances of this narrative power, by means of which art with our cousins per- 



iSS THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIB ITIOX, 1S76. 

forms many of the functions of literature. Other schools, we may hint, rather 
understand art as existing through purely plastic qualities. Before an English 
picture we wonder what the personages have been doing, or what they are 
going to do. Before an Italian picture — the saints ol Raphael or the goddesses 
and allegories of the Venetians — we wonder what they a?'c, and are lost in the 
purely artistic contemplation of their form, their essence, and their grace. Mr. 
Calderon, an artist in high repute in London, contributed "After the Battle," a 
touching picture, illustrating fully what we have said of the literary character 
of English art. We have inserted a steel engraving of this work. The sen- 
sation in examining it is the same as that of reading the chapter of "Esmond," 
where the young orphan is found in the deserted house by Dick Steele and his 
fellow-soldiers. We see in Mr. Calderon's picture a French farm-house, of 
which one side has been blasted out, entered by a merry gang of English 
soldiers during the war of the Vendee. Their red coats make spots of color 
against the plastered wall. On an overturned cradle sits a little French child 
of six years, solitary guardian of the devastated home. The soldiers, exam- 
ining and prowling here and there, have stumbled on this incident of war — 
the cradle upset, the undressed child with one wooden shoe, the trimmed and 
useless lamp upon the dresser, the key hanging on the nail, ready for the door 
that has been blown to atoms. A pretty drummer-boy, like Hogarth's young 
drummer in "The March to Finchley," leans over, face to face with the little 
unfortunate, and would ask a question but that their languages are different. 
The painter, in his search for an anecdote in which art could perfectly take the 
place of literary narrative, has actually found a scene where the persons are 
of necessity dumb ! As the French infant is scared and silent, and the English 
intruders are evidendy not the kind to know a word of the language, the nar- 
rative is really as eloquent on canvas as it could have been in reality. English 
tableau-drama can no further go! Art no longer feels its lack of uttered 
speech! The painted novel is perfect, not even a ztwd being lost! 

This tendency to take the place of narrated anecdote by means of art is 
also characteristic of Mr. Alexander Johnston's "Covenanter's Marriage," of 
which we have presented to our readers a careful engraving on steel. It is 
like an act in a drama. The scenery is painted with the rocky fastnesses of 
Scotland, in whose most secret recesses the persecuted Campbellites solemnized 



FINE ART. . . 189 

the union of two of their sect. King Charles's cavaHer troops are on the alert, 
ready to prevent the illegal and hated ceremony. Already, on a distant moun- 
tain path, we see them, their horses spurred and royal standard waving, while 
the band of faithful Calvinists go calmly on with the rite, in the form which 
their conscience approves. Their sentinel, posted on a horse among the group, 
perceives the peril, warned by a breathless lad beside the pine-tree, who waves 
a signal of danger ; but, with characteristic and heroic courage, he raises his 
hand to prevent the boy from shouting, determined that the sacramental rite 
shall be consummated before the group seeks its safety in retreat. In addition 
to this swift, running, tumultuous action of his picture, making it a rival of 
some chapter of Sir Walter Scott at his liveliest, Mr. Johnston has patriotically 
included a set of Scottish types of unimpeachable naturalness, from the shep- 
herd in his plaid who holds the register, to the Scotch hound crouched in the 
foreground, and from the thorny thistle at the left to the buxom bride and 
bridemaidens, worthy to be sung by Burns and Allan Ramsay. 

Nor is the anecdotic quality one would signalize in British art lacking in 
Mr. E. M. Ward's picture, a picture which may justly be called famous, and 
which merits the excellent steel-plate we publish — the painting of "Chester- 
field's Ante-room." Here we have the "anecdote" carried to its utmost limit in 
the art of painting, so that every figure has the epigrammatic point of a good 
after-dinner story, and seems more like a piquant paragraph than a sketch in 
color and light and shade. The yawners and gapers, the poor and swaggering 
captain who lifts his eyeglass to the pretty girl to prove that though his purse 
is lean and preferment would be welcome, he has not forgotten the points of 
a fine woman — the young lady herself, in powder and patches, who totters on 
her high heels, attended by two servants, a negro and a beau, and who laughs 
with delighted curiosity at that rare animal, Dr. Johnson the lexicographer — the 
glimpse of Chesterfield himself, smiling upon a departing client, and the more 
ferocious figure of Johnson — all are touched with the vivacity, the neatness, of 
a finished story-teller. It is a letter of Horace Walpole's in paint. The person 
in the doorway having the interview with Chesterfield is Colley Cibber. "A 
sudden disgust was taken by Johnson," says Boswell, "upon occasion of his 
having been one day kept long in waiting in his lordship's ante-chamber, for 
which the reason assigned was that he had company with him, and at last, when 



192 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



the door opened, out walked Colley Cibher." If tliere is a misconception in 
tlie picture, it is in representing Johnson as somewhat too old. "Seven years, 
my lord, have now passed," he says in his famous letter of 1755, "since I 
waited in your outward rooms, or was repulsed from your door." Seven years 
previous to 1755 would take us back to the year 1748, when Dr. Johnson was 
thirty-nine years of age ; and the painting represents a man in his forties rather 
than a man in his thirties. The quarrel between the author and the lord was 
the sign of a grand revolt; it announced the close of the era of feudalism in 
letters. Before that angry protest, an author was a pensioner, who hastened 
to put himself, with each new work, under the patronage ot some eminent 
person, who reaped a good halt of the glory by advertising the production in 
his circle of acquaintance, and procuring publicity for the cleverness he pro- 
tected. Johnson, by a sturdy blow, showed that one author meant to be 
independent, and could be. "Such treatment I did not expect, for I never had 
a patron before," he said. "He is the proudest man existing," said Johnson 
of Chesterfield, in high glee at the honor ot co[)ing with a rival power of such 
magnitude. "I think by your own account you are tlie prouder man of th<=' 
two," said a listener, Dr. Adams. 

We cannot more fiiirly illustrate this predominance of the literary faculty 
in English artists, than by taking up a good French picture, of a sort which 
likewise seems at tirst sight to be mere anecdotic painting. Let us examine 
"King Morvan" (pages 190-1), by Evariste -Vital Luminals, a painter born at 
Nantes. Here are Morvan, a chief of the Bretons in the ninth century, his 
wife, and the priest Witeher. The holy man appeared at the rude court in 
Brittany as an envoy of Louis the Debonnaire, son of Charlemagne ; Morvan, 
who owes suzerainty to Louis, has long neglected the payment of tribute ; the 
priest has come to persuade him to his duty. As the holy man delivers his 
tedious sermon, the young wife of Morvan emerges from their nuptial apart- 
ment, takes possession of the chief, sits upon his knee, fondles his hand, and 
persuades him to refuse the contribution. The story is told with marvelous 
power, especially in insisting on the pertinacity, the clinging, lingering persua- 
siveness, of the woman. The ambassador may be prolix, but there is a prolixitv 
of affection which always contrives to sit out the most patient pleader whose 
motive is less deep than that of love. Now this anecdote-painting, though not 



FINE ART. 193 

neglected by the French artist, is soon felt to be but a subordinate invention. 
What is really in his eye is the plastic impression, the grouping of the supple 
woman and rigid king, like the bow and the cord, and the monumental support 
which the figure ot Witeher lends to the composition ; the costumes are well 
studied, and they assist the story, but they are seen to be used as artistic deco- 
rations ; not a single artistic motif is neglected which the subject affords, from 
the ecclesiastical embroidery on the priestly garments to the savage buckskin 
suit of the primitive king, sitting so sturdy and sullen upon his wolf-skin. The 
three figures are interwoven into a group that has the stillness and calculated 
grace of sculpture. As for the topic of the picture, it amounts at most to a 
"situation" — a contrast of motives and dispositions; it is hardly a "narrative," 
a sequence of events. A true artist has three chief concerns, the coloring of 
his picture, the lighting of his picture, and its plastic difficulties or difficulties 
of drawing. A literary man astray in the craft of art thinks first of his nar- 
rative. If his expressions are telling and his incident lively and readable, he 
believes he has made a good picture — and the world, little occupied with such 
distinctions, is easily induced to think so too. 

We have delayed thus far to describe the work of a pupil of the last- 
mentioned painter — Miss Emily Sartain — because we wished to give this modest 
but promising young artist some of the reflected credit proceeding from the 
glory of her instructor, Luminais. Miss Sartain is easily at the head of the 
lady engravers on steel in this country, her portraits inserted in many important 
works bearing testimony to the exactitude with which she catches a likeness, 
and the artistic way in which she handles the problems of texture and chia- 
roscuro. It is within a very few years that this accomplished young lady has 
ventured upon the dTfificulties of oil-painting, and the number of works by which 
the public can judge her in her new walk is limited. After many months of 
hard practice under the admirable tuition of M. Luminais, she has produced the 
picture entitled "The Reproof," which certainly does credit to her abilities, and 
has few or no marks of what is called the "prentice hand." The costumes are 
of the time of Henry VIII : a young girl, who gives an indefinable impression 
of having a will of her own beneath the temporary humility of her downcast 
eyes and bowing posture, is listening to the strictures of a stately lady, who 
seems to be the "maiden aunt" of the period. Some suitor, who has perhaps 




. //. Boughtoii, Finx 



196 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



conferred the fine jewels she wears upon her neck, has captivated the heart of 
the maiden, but does not meet the views of her cliaperone. It may result in 
a restoration of the necklace, with the feuds, separation, and heart-burnmgs of 
two noble families, or it may lead to an elopement — who shall say? Miss 
Sartain has sketched the hesitancy, the doubt, of a situation still in abeyance ; 
further than that it is not the province of art to 'go. 

A "situation" — the sudden Hash of artistic vision illuminating a scene, as 
if the lightning were quickly to blaze upon some telling tableau of history, of 
poetry, or of modern manners — that is the Continental conception of pictorial 
art, in opposition to the English, which is apt to look before and after. This 
is the case even with such a painting as Pierre-Charles Comte's "The King's 
(Louis XI) Entertainment" (pages 1 18-19). Although the scene is a passage 
of history — quite as much as the "Chesterfield's Ante-room"-^ — yet the pre-occu- 
pation of the distinguished painter has especially been to build up his compo- 
sition with art and grace, to color it well, to please the eye with the skillful 
arrangement of forms, and to cast over the whole group an agreeable unity 
of light and shade. Still, we do not deny that the painter in this case trenches 
somewhat on the ground of the anecdote-painters, that he occupies himself 
with witty contrasts and effective bits of character, somewhat in the manner of 
Hogarth. The most exacting advocate of "art for art's sake" cannot fairly 
object to this, if the great qualiti<'s of plastik, as the Germans call it, are not 
allowed to suffer, and are kept paramount. M. Comte exhibited this picture in 
the Paris Salon of 1869, attributing his anecdote to the poet Mellin de Saint- 
Gelais, the friend of Ronsard. Whether authentic or not, the incident is very 
droll. The sick king, whose soul was between the hands of his barber-surgeon 
and his priests — the former of whom stands at the bed-head, while a pair of 
the latter are praying at the fireside — has admitted a pair of roving bohemians, 
who entertain him with their dancing pigs. A pair of the absurd animals are 
smirking and bowing to each other, one with knightly sword, the other with 
the high coif of a court lady. The vagrant's wife is preparing three more of the 
trained animals to take part in the exhibition, while Tristan the Hermit and 
his men-at-arms surround her with openly-smiling faces. The sour-visaged king, 
in bed, lets his lean countenance smile, at least on one side of the face; the 
barber-surgeon smiles too, but in mere courtly complaisance, secretly deeming 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



the cure by laughter an infringement of his rights as physician. The best of 
the joke is the expression of the two monks, who cast sheep's eyes of intense 
appreciation at the learned pigs, while muttering their paternosters for dear 
life. The picture glows from margin to margin with the keenest life and humor, 
and is altogether worthy of the artist, whose repute in treating the episodes 
of history is very high. 

The French motto of "art for art's sake" has led the French artists into 
frequent study of the nude — not so much from any unworthy sentiment, we 
fancy, as for the sake of passing off what is really a phase of preparatory, 
academic study, by the introduction of some decorative accessions, as a finished 
work of art, and so getting a litde money to replenish the ever-lean artistic 
purse. The principal studies from the undraped figure in the French depart- 
ment (which scandalized the public, we believe, rather more than the undraped 
statues in Italy's exhibit) were Chartrin's "Angelica," Faivre-Duffer's "Venus," 
Cetner's "Salammbo," Garnier's "Bather," Perrault's "Bather," Tortez's "Echo," 
and Camorre's "Cassandra." Not to neglect entirely a characteristic feature of 
the French contribution, we select a subject purified by history and poetry, 
Camorre's "Cassandra" (page 179). In yFschylus' "Agamemnon" we have a 
moving and gloomy picture of the last hours of Cassandra — her return with 
Agamemnon after the Trojan war to his unfriendly palace at Mycaene — her 
oracular prophecies to him, which Apollo will not suffer to be believed, of 
treachery and death within his home — and then the murderous deed of Clytem- 
nestra, involving Cassandra's own death with the assassination of the King of 
Men. It is one of the gloomiest pages of Hellenic fable, involving the subse- 
quent revenge and madness of Orestes, the Greek Hamlet. M. Camorre's 
noble, all-womanly figure was a strangely impressive one ; the prophetess, whose 
youth had been made wretched by the love of Apollo — for the gods' costliest 
gift is their love — lies at the foot of the smoking tripod of sacrifice, her fate 
having been to see all the woe of the world in vision before it happened, and 
to be laughed at for her discernment. Our sketch has the interest of being an 
artistic autograph — the painter's first thought for his picture, copied by a 
mechanical process in exact facsimile. 

We have already illustrated (page 145) the amusing figure of "Vanity" by 
Francesco Barzaghi, of JMilan, and given a steel-plate of his "Finding of Moses." 



FINE ART. 



199 




Signor Tyontbclht, Sc, 



The Bird's Aesl. 



On page 185 we show a third work by the same artist. "The First Friend" 
represents a WitXe night-gowned girl, fatigued after a day's romp which has 
tumbled her curls all into her eyes, shaking hands for "good-night" with a 



200 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1S76. 

fringy-pawed dog- which is carried in her arms, and for whose hving comrade- 
ship she has contemptuously dirown her doll to the floor. We are reminded 
of the pretty scene in "Les Miserables," where the inn-keeper's daughter of 
Montfermeil, Eponine, plays with her cat: "Do you see, sister, this doll is 
funnier than the real one. She moves about, and cries, and feels warm. Come, 
sister, let us play with her. She will be my litde girl, and I will be a lady, 
and I will come to pay you a visit, and little by litde you will notice her mous- 
taches, and that will surprise you, and then you will notice her ears, and then 
you will notice her tail, and that will surprise you. And you will say, Good 
heavens ! And I v.ill say. Yes, madam, it is a litde girl of mine ; litde girls 
are made so this season." Victor Hugo, reporting this conversation, says that 
the grace of childhood, like the brilliancy of butterflies' wings, vanishes when 
you try to hold it; but our sculptor, at least, seems to have succeeded in 
catching this infantile grace just before its vanishing. 

Childish again in its naivc/c, but of more masculine sendment, is the bronze 
figure of a young "Shinty Player," from Chili, which many visitors to the 
Exposition must have admired in the western end of the Main Building. It 
is truly gratifying to find the arts so advanced in the wealthy republic of the 
South as this excellent statue indicates. The form is capitally poised, the coltish 
look of a boy's unshaped joints and tendons is given without mincing the 
matter, and the type is full of interest. The young half-breed, engaged in a 
native game which might be described as "Polo without the horsemanship," lifts 
his curved sdck over his head with a gesture full of energy and decision, pre- 
paring to strike the ball at his foot; another ball is held provisionally in the 
left hand. His stiff Indian hair is confined with a fillet, and he wears the short 
drawers of the Tropics. Our engraving on page 128 presents the best view 
of the statue — the leaning line which passes through the raised arm to the 
advanced leg, and connects with both of these members the torso so finely 
thrown back, appearing in the cut to great advantage, and marking a pose 
which all artists must admire. 

Likewise in bronze is the figure of "The Erring Wife," by Jules Cambos, 
a French sculptor born in the town of Castres, and now pracdsing at Paris, 
after an assiduous study of his art under the leadership of Jouffroy. The 
present model was first exposed at the Salon of 1869, in the material of 



FINE ART. 20 1 

marble. It has since been cast in bronze, and, lilce nearly all the French sculp- 
ture exhibited in Philadelphia, was sent to us in the latter less fragile material. 
Near by, in the Art Annex, stood the same artist's "Cigale" (or grasshopper — 
from La Fontaine's fables — the improvident minstrel, who "having sung all 
summer, may go and dance all winter"). M. Cambos is also known for a 
statue of Eve, exhibited at Paris in 1872, and a "Young Gaul," executed in 
1868. He has received repeated medals. The statue we represent on page 
169 shows a woman tightly swathed in drapery of a complicated and original 
cast, who has thrown herself on the ground in an agony of terror, and raised 
her bound arms before her face, as a shelter from the terrible Jewish form of 
execution. The fact that she has rushed up to the immediate presence of the 
Saviour is skilfully indicated by her kneeling just upon the celebrated words, 
written in the dust a moment since, and here given in French: "Que celui 
parmi vous qui se trouve sans peche jette la premiere pierre." We should 
remember, in regarding this statue, that it is an historical, not a symbolical 
figure. This immortal culprit, to whom we owe one of the tenderest sayings 
of Jesus, and whose moment of humiliation before the Jerusalem rabble creates 
for us the most merciful edict of the Christian law, really existed. She was 
an historic character, though the splendor of the moral illustruted so absorbs 
the mere actual incident, that she is probably classed by many careless thinkers 
among the shadowy imaginations of Divine Parable; but the Teacher needed 
not to invent a parabolic story for every axiom ; he could evoke the axiom, 
with the most burning impressiveness, out of the actual history of each long 
warm Syrian day. 

We should like to pen some observations illustrating the preparation of 
bronze statues, of which we have just described two. For the history of bronze- 
casting we might go back to Pliny the Naturalist, who gives the pre-eminence 
to this kind of sculpture, though antiquity has not left us nearly so many 
specimens in bronze as in marble. Not to stray into this impertinent kind ot 
antiquarianism, we may say that modern artistic bronze-founding has been most 
successfully practised at Paris, at Munich, and at Florence. In America, also, 
by the importation of skilled artisans, the industry has prospered to admiration, 
and faultless bronzes have been cast at Philadelphia by Robert Wood, as well 
as at Chicopee in Massachusetts. A fair specimen of Paris bronze was the 




V. C. Prinsif. Ft 




leopatra. 



204 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

las*'-i'nentioned statue, "The Erring Wife." It illustrated the French theory of 
leaving the sculptor's touch upon the clay, so far as possible, in all its natural 
spirit and roughness, avoiding in great measure the evidence of the chaser's 
tool, the "riffler." The great foundry of Munich is very celebrated, an example 
of its work being the Probasco fountain at Cincinnati. It is objected to its 
method by French bronze-founders that it casts large statues in separate squarish 
blocks, which though united by invisible seams, may afterwards change color 
unevenly, so as to deface the monument with an arbitrary square patchwork. 
Perhaps the best bronze-establishment in Europe was that of Papi in Florence, 
lately closed by the Government. Its casting of Michael Angelo's "David," in 
the size of the original, was a celebrated achievement. Barbedienne is at the 
head of bronze manufacture in Paris, but his experts look up with envy to the 
flawless moulding and tasteful finish of the Florence bronze statuary. Great 
attention was attracted at our Exposition to the Russian bronzes, cast by Chopin, 
of St. Petersburg, from the inimitable equestrian statuettes of Lanceret. 

A good German bronze is "The Dying Lioness" by Wolff, a Berlin artist, 
a group which, from the time of die Exhibition and since, adorns the grounds 
of Fairmount Park, near Memorial Hall. The figures are at least as large as 
life, and include a lioness, whose shoulder has been pierced by the poisoned 
arrow of the Kabyle hunter, a male lion, and two cubs. There is something 
fine in the true family sentiment of this wilderness group, where the little ones 
pathetically feel at the stiffening body that will shelter and nourish them no 
more, while the desert lord lifts himself in towering but unavailing rage, and 
menaces the hunters with the thunder of his roar. The copper-plate which 
illustrates this piece of sculpture we are glad to be able to declare one of the 
most artistic plates contained in our work. It is by an American etcher and 
painter, Mr. Peter Moran, brother of a whole group of artistic celebrities, and 
himself an animal-painter of distinguished skill, as may be judged from his 
picture seen on page 9, for the engraving of which, however, we had not the 
advantage of his cunning burin. 

Another permanent decoration of Fairmount Park is the monument to 
Columbus, to celebrate the installation of which we have prepared the large 
engraving on page 177. The history of this nif-morial is closely intertissued 
(to use Shakespeare's word) with that of the Exposition. During the year 



FINE ART. 



205 



before the Centennial Anniversary a movement was set on foot among the 
Italian residents of the city of Philadelphia for the raising of a fine monument 




to the Discoverer of America, in the Centennial year, near the commemorative 
Exhibition; the society found themselves able to collect funds with agreeable 



2o6 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

rapidity, and soon an order was sent to Italy for the execution of the first statue 
of the deathless Genoese navigator ever set up by private subscription in any 
one of the United States of America. In January, 1876, Mr. Viti, the Italian 
consul in Philadelphia, who had charge of the enterprise, received photographs 
of the model, and before the end of the Exposition the whole monument, 
including the elaborate pedestal, was in place. It now graces the embowered 
grounds of Fairmount Park, near the site of the International Fair, to which 
Italy, in an especial degree, contributed the impression and stamp of artistic 
distinction. It is very lofty. The statue on the summit is colossal, and of the 
fairest white marble. Columbus is shown in his attributes as discoverer, geogra- 
pher and navigator. He stands resting his hand upon a terrestrial globe, among 
whose Continental divisions his fingers have setded upon the part representing 
America. At his feet is an anchor, signifying that it was through navigation 
his invaluable boon was conferred upon mankind. His name, "Christopher 
Columbus," is carved in large letters on the socle beneath his figure. On the 
pedestal below is seen a bas-relief, representing Columbus leaving the Pinta in 
a boat to plant upon the beach the Castilian flag. During the latter part of 
the Fair's duration this marble Colossus looked calmly out upon the grounds 
peopled with a world's hurrying multitudes. If anything could lend life and 
intelligence to the stone eyes of a portrait, it would be the fact of Columbus, 
standing on the soil of that continent which he gave to Europe as a wilderness 
peopled with barbarians, at length throwing his shadow upon our mighty city, 
where Europe's arts and nations were met in homage to our national existence. 
We have been somewhat neglectful of the prosperous Austrian school of 
painting, since giving a cut of that great masterpiece, the "Catherine Cornaro," 
by Makart, who must be considered an Austrian painter since he has accepted 
a professorship in the Vienna Academy. Makart and Feuerbach, both offshoots 
of the Munich school, are prominent instructors in the Austrian capital, and 
have greatly changed Vienna art for the better. Since the days when Petten- 
koffer and the other old academic spirits were the leading influences, a more 
intelligent and broad manner has been developed, to the obliteration of former 
national distinctions, and the assimilation of Austrian art with the intelligent art 
of the rest of Europe. In fact, the recent tendency is towards the identifica- 
tion of great art principles across the continent, and what we may call a 



FINE ART. 



207 



diffusion of the light of French intelligence throughout the academies. In 
Munich, the great contemporary master, Piloty, is a pupil and imitator of the 
French Delaroche ; and Munich is supplying schoolmasters to the rest of 
Teutonic Europe. The Belgian painters have long been completely French in 



feeling. The ancient 
landmarks are rapid- 
ly dissolving, the old 
hard German man- 
ner, the Diisseldorf 
manner as it is called 
in America, being out 
of favor even in its 
former strongholds. 
Austria made a very 
creditable display at 
Philadelphia of about 
one hundred and 
twenty oil paintings, 
almost all from the 
city of Vienna; about 
thirty water- colors ; 
and some fine etch- 
ings by linger — 
while, again, the sen- 
tinel bronze groups 
in front of the Art 
Building represent- 
ing Pegasus led by 




Signer Riseardo, Sc. 



The Mendicants. 



were by the Vienna 
sculptor, Pilz. We 
select another Aus- 
trian work for illus- 
tration, and take a 
humble domestic 
scene, opining that 
our readers will be 
ready to descend from 
the Pegasus ot Pilz 
and the Venetian 
spendors of Cather- 
ine Cornaro to see 
what more familiar 
fare Vienna art can 
offer him. Here it 
is, simple and genu- 
ine as Vienna bread, 
a rustic group listen- 
ing to "Grandmoth- 
er's Tales," in the 
picture of Edmund 
Blume (page 165). 
The background is 
the familiar porcelain 



History and Music, 
stove. On the bench built around it the grand-dame is sitting, — her spinning- 
wheel stopped, — the flaxen thread floating down out of her fingers as the 
interest of the narrative culminates. The tale, in its progress, has passed 
through the reminiscences of infancy, which are for little Rahel, sitting rapt 
with her baby- wagon ; past the epoch of school-days, which are for young Fritz 



2o8 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

as he leans against the stove; and has attained the period of universal interest, 
the history of love, which the old woman is sensible enough to address, without 
any pretence of beating around the bush, direct to Gretchen, who will under- 
stand it. "His eyes were blue, my dear, his hair was golden." And so on, 
through the eternal, interminable idyl, which to girls like Gretchen is never 
long, and perpetually new. The painter's joke in all this is the parado.K about 
the thread of the story and the thread of the spinning-wheel. When an ancient 
gossip reaches the period of what Disraeli calls "anecdotage," the line of flax 
is often forgotten and is forever in jeopardy; but the line of talk, supernatu- 
rally sustained, spins on perpetual, endless, invulnerable ! 

From the excellent Munich school, which in a single generation has sprung 
up into a formidable rival to Paris, we select for illustration a delightful picture, 
painted in 1875, by .Sigmund Eggert. It is called "A Visit to the Village 
Artist," and is engraved by us on page 153. Here we are in the ground-floor 
work-room of one of those humble Raphaels, common enough in Catholic 
Europe, who paint nothing but saints for churches. Even the tiny child, 
neglecting her doll, plays with a little picture of a real saint, with a real halo. 
The light that comes through the bull's-eye panes falls on nothing but martyrs 
and holy men and women, who swarm upon the walls, stand upon the dresser, 
and rear up against the jack-towel. The artist, a lean and slippered pantaloon, 
is receiving a call from some village magnates — the teacher of the seminary 
and a couple of barefoot monks. The critical expression of the first, as the 
painter exhibits a sacred picture larger, and consequently holier, than any in 
his stock, is exquisite. Against the doorway lean the pictures commonly seen 
in Catholic churches, representing the "Stations," or pauses, on the road to 
Calvary; that which is most plainly visible is the Fainting under the Cross. 
Behind the artist is a wooden statue — some bishop of happy memory — painted 
in the brightest colors which the adjacent palette and bunch of brushes can 
supply. Everything here is routine and custom — the artist's most pious inspi- 
rations savor quite too much of the tracing and the stencil, and the decorous 
critics are people of routine too, and contemplate the most awful subjects in 
this museum of martyrs with professional sang-froid. The artist has interpreted 
very slyly and delicately one of the quaint scenes — or rather one of the quaint 
behind the scenes — afforded by rural Catholicism in the old Fatherland. 



FINE ART. 209 



A picture of real religious interest, which we approach with anything but 
levity, is the large and pathetic composition by Ernest Slingeneyer, of Brussels, 
entitled "A Christian Martyr in the Reign of Diocletian." We present a fine 
engraving on page 125. Fortunately, this important work, the most remarkable 
contribution made by Belgian art to religion of late years, is so widely and 
admiringly known that our task in describing it is almost a sinecure. Some 
of the visitors to the Centennial had already seen the painting in the London 
Exhibition of 1862. Many others were familiar with the fine steel print by 
Demannez. . The story told by the two principal figures, which are life-size, is 
appallingly simple. We are in Ancient Rome — the Coliseum is crowded. The 
lighter preliminary plays are over, and now comes the exhibition of the bcstiarius, 
or fighter with beasts. The slave opens the gateway of the den where are 
confined the lions in their cages, the human antagonists on their beds of straw. 
In the present case the brutal slave pauses surprised — for the victim is sweetly 
sleeping! He is a poor Christian boy, given up naked to the fury of the 
beasts and the Roman lust for blood ; his only wealth is the reed crucifix, the 
symbol of triumphant martyrdom. He grasps his cross, and is not afraid to 
sleep. The rolling applause of the people in the amphitheatre beyond — the 
more disturbing stealth of the pacing beasts, going softly about the cages on 
their velvet feet, — nothing has prevented that innocent, that divine slumber, 
precursor of the eternal repose on high. In another hour a little troop of 
humble people — his Christian friends — will be permitted to visit the spoliaruim 
or dead-room of the circus ; they will find a mangled body, the ruins of life and 
strength in a wreck of bones and flesh ; they will be allowed to compose the 
shattered limbs, to wash the red skin white again, and bear the martyr away 
to his obscure grave in the catacombs. Such mercy Rome could allow to the 
body whose living thoughts and opinions she felt bound to crush — as foreseeing 
that they contained the elements of her own dissolution. Christianity was bound 
to dissolve the government of Caesar ; therefore Caesar, in the natural instinct 
of self-defence, must do what he can against the Christian while it is yet time, 
for the day is coming when Christianity will obliterate Caesar. In dismissing, 
almost without description, M. Slingeneyer's important picture, we would merely 
recall what has often been pointed out by its admirers, the admirable manage- 
ment of the light, which relieves the hot glare of the circus against the deep 



1 




THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



shadows of the cell, and allows one thread of intense sunshine to cross the 
knees of the martyr, so often bent in prayer. We would point out, too, through 
all the stark simplicity of two nude forms, how plainly shows the difference 
between the heavy brutality of the attendant and the distinction of the young 
Christian's figure, in its unconscious grace. 

American art, not yet able to compete with that of European centres in 
producing great figure-subjects, can best sustain comparison in works of marine 
painting. In this line several of our artists have evinced peculiar powers of 
perception and execution. Our selection of masterpieces contains three works 
of decided excellence in marine or water-side study, which may be put with 
some confidence beside the works of even able French painters, because the 
ablest French painter can seldom look at the sea (at least from a vessel) with- 
out becoming ill, and therefore cannot represent it sympathetically. 

"Fog on the Grand Banks," by \V. E. Norton, of Boston, is a painting 
whose very peculiar impressiveness steals on you after a period of contempla- 
tion. The picture is filled with a sense of vapor — an evenness, a clearness of 
mist, not too heavy, which makes a unity of everything in sea and sky. We 
venture to compare it with a clearness, because it simplifies vision, discards the 
emphasis of heavy shadow, and expands a subtle light over the whole face of 
nature. Through this clear-obscure, the distant sails, the top of the light-house, 
are faintly sketched. And out of the zenith of this purity of haze drops one 
furtive ray, just catching in the bows of the nearest vessel, whose sails are 
piled, like a mountain of marble, high into the sky. We have given a steel 
engraving of this very expressive picture. 

A fine coast-scene, with which our engraver has been uncommonly lucky, 
is the view of Genoa, by George L. Brown, likewise a Bostonian. By slightly 
emphasizing the radiance of the sun and its reflection, beyond the emphasis 
used in the painting, the burin has arranged an effect of values compensating 
for the pictorial effect of colors in the original, which of course was beyond its 
grasp. Genoa is known to every picture-lover by the oft-painted amphitheatrical 
view of its crescent of buildings as observed from the sea. Its aspect from a 
near point of land is rather fresh and unfamiliar. Mr. Brown has arranged his 
details with great skill, the bouquet of trees and old tower to the left forming 
an excellent balance for the setting sun and its trail of glory on the other side 




Christ Blessing Little Childr 



y. La-vaielie, hn^. 



214 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

of the picture. The breadth of water, which almost gives the painting the right 
to be called a marine, recedes successfully from the eye, with a perfect sense 
of knowing its right level. 

Compare with either of these the "Lake George" of the late John F. 
Kensett (page 52), in which, by-the-by, the proportion of water is of the smallest. 
We are here in the presence of a talent formed upon the old English models. 
Treatment of sky, treatment of breadths of lake or ocean, treatment and 
drawing of trees, all recall the style of certain English water-colorists contem- 
porary with Stanfield. Throughout his career Kensett worked in oils with the 
traditions of water-color and distemper painting, and his best canvases have a 
thin look in comparison with those of men who have used a more generous 
impasto. In compensation, his works reveal a singular sense of space and 
purity, his skies and sea-beaches seem uncontaminated, large and austere. The 
delicate intricacy of his touch in foliage is partly indicated by our cut. Kensett 
was born in 1818, studied at first in England (after an apprenticeship to the 
engraver Dagget), and learned to sketch foliage by practising in Windsor 
Forest. He died December 14th, 1872. His paintings are highly prized by 
Americans, and with justice. His work has more freshness and realism than 
that of Cole, and attracts to the study of Nature by a certain Wordsworthian 
breadth and dignity of feeling. 

- In the honorable history of American sculpture few names have stood 
higher than that of William Wetmore Story; yet we think it cannot be denied 
that the more intelligent art-lovers, who had heard his fame reported from that 
Italian capital where he has lived so long, were somewhat disappointed in the 
works he exhibited at the Centennial — his "Medea" and "Beethoven." Mr. 
Story's residence abroad has been under circumstances agreeable and perilous 
to an artist — he has kept within the circle of American and English colonists 
at Rome. Here, in the receipt and exercise of good-hearted hospitality, visited 
by American newspaper-correspondents apt to see' the best side of everything 
American, or by English writers attracted by his eminent literary qualifications 
and by the facts of his matrimonial connection — Mr. Story has long enjoyed the 
fatal sweets of a common admiration-society. Those who remember. his delicate 
and pathetic filial tribute at Mount Auburn — a portrait figure of his father, the 
celebrated Judge Story, cut with a most patient and sensitive chisel — will per- 



US. litenvatioiial Xdulitiou 187 6 . 



GEBBIB &BARFrE 



FINE ART. 



215 



haps think he would 
have done better to 
have remained in an 
American atelier. 
The "Medea" (which 
we have engraved 
on steel) in common 
with the "Semiram- 
is," "Sibyl" and 
"Cleopatra," is a 
work which some- 
how convinces the 
spectator of the 
bookish culture of 
its author ; and so 
far it is well ; we 
feel that he has ap- 
proached his con- 
ception through lit- 
erature. As we look 
upon the towering 
and monumental fig- 
ure of the murder- 
ess-mother, through 
whose head a whole 
Fifth Act of stormy 
emotions seems 
sweeping, we feel 
that the statuary has 
compacted his theo- 
ries after intimate 
acquaintance with 
Rome scarcely ever hears severe, 
Munich, who sees the measure of 




the tragedy of the 
Greek Euripides, 
and that of the Ro- 
man Seneca. A mere 
bookman, as in the 
case of all this sculp- 
tor's figures, is 
strongly prepossess- 
ed in contemplating 
the work. An art- 
proficient, however, 
looks for technicali- 
ties ; and it must be 
confessed that in 
matters of manipu- 
lation, flesh-texture, 
the hinges of the 
bones, the stress of 
muscle, the drawing 
and playing of the 
skin, and other such 
requisites, — an art- 
ist's want of ease in 
which is like a coun- 
tryman's want of 
ease in grammar 
or spelling, — Mr. 
Story's work lacked 
any very high dis- 
tinction. How could 
Thf Reader. it be Otherwise ? The 

American artist in 
healthy criticism, l^ilike the American artist in 
his success as in a mirror in the publicity of art- 



2i6 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1876. 



comradeship, in the enthusiastic appreciation of his Bavarian fellow-artists, and in 
the discriminating- encouragement of his professor — unlike the American artist at 
Paris, for whom the harsh grunts of the maitrc and the merciless irony of the 
"school" quickly distinguish every fault and weakness — the Yankee at Rome is a 
litde king, a great diner-out, a frequenter of "At Homes" and "Thursdays," one 
of the sights of the city, and a power that may be cultivated or neglected, but 
never weighed. Mr. Story has brought a better list of results out of this 
unfavorable soil than might have been expected. The unmistakable seal of 
book-culture on a work of art will always make it interesting to literary 
people; and Mr. Story's "Medea" and "Cleopatra," his "Jerusalem" in the 
Philadelphia Academy, his "Semiramis" and "Sibyl," are overgrown with this 
creeping feeling of legend and tradition : no ignorant, unread man would ever 
have conceived them so. As for the " Medea," we see her stand, as a female 
tragedian on the stage, the grimness of murder in her attitude and gesture, 
while the bleeding victims, according to the nice taste of the Greek drama, are 
out of sight. One hand grasps the dagger ; the other, which has been sup- 
porting her chin, is still clenched, as the head is lifted with the firmness of a 
new-born purpose. This is that Medea — somewhat Americanized, as we fancy, 
in type and visage — who stood before the Greeks in many a theatre, the 
embodiment of jealousy and feminine revenge : the mother who could destroy 
her offspring because their father had left her to wed another. We need hardly 
remind the reader of the facts of the old classic story. The murder of Mer- 
merus and Pheres, the children of Jason by Medea, is said by a Roman writer 
to have been really committed by the Corinthians. Finding that Corinth suffered 
in consequence, in reputation and by the scourge of pestilence, the inhabitants 
of that city engaged Euripides, for five talents, to write a tragedy which should 
clear them of the murder, and represent Medea as the assassin of her own 
children. The ruse was a perfect success ; Corinth was rehabilitated, and the 
poetic version has obtained credit with the remotest posterity, to the present 
time; and, more wonderful than all, Euripides' fiction must have imposed upon 
Jupiter himself, who seems to have promptly stopped the pestilence. Jason's 
posterity by his second or Corinthian wife, Creusa, doubtless became the aris- 
tocracy of that city, able to give the best possible reasons for their father's 
having selected their mother as a resource from that violent, impracticable 



FINE ART. 



217 



Medea ; and they doubtless enjoyed without hesitation their fortune derived from 
the golden fleece, though it was all earned by Medea for their father. Mr. 
Story, the sculptor of the "Medea," has just had the peculiar good luck of 
seeing five of his largest statues at once sold and boxed up in his atelier for 



delivery in a single 
week. The other 
day his "Delilah" 
was thus encased, 
awaiting transpor- 
tation to California 
to its purchaser, 
Mr.Shilliber; while 
a copy of his " Cleo- 
patra," with the 
"Vesta," "Alces- 
tis," "Libyan .Sibyl" 
and "Cleopatra" 
were being packed 
for the Pompeiian 
Palace in Paris, for- 
merly Prince Na- 
poleon's, now the 
Hungarian Count 
Palffy's, who now 
owns both the man- 
sion and these val- 
uable fiofures. We 



/t^y/<WV^J^ ^ 




I Godehski, Sculpt. From a draitjtns l-y the 

Moiijik Ivre. 



cannot take leave 
of this statue with- 
out a reference to 
the question of 
damage done to 
works of art in 
the Exposition, of 
which unfortunate- 
ly the "Medea" 
offered an example. 
The knife in the 
right hand, though 
elevated above the 
height of a man's 
head by the dimen- 
sions of the pedes- 
tal, was broken off 
at the hilt — a dis- 
aster easily repair- 
ed. The other in- 
juries, very few, 
considering that 
the rooms were 



generally not at first surrounded with railings, and that the crowds could not 
be deprived of their umbrellas and sticks, were as follows : The Italian statue 
"After the Bath," by Malfatti, had the middle and ring fingers broken ; the 
remaining fingers, extended, accordingly represented a superstitious and vulgar 
gesture in use among the lower Italians. The outrage was probably therefore 
committed by an enemy and a native of Italy. Another Italian statue, "The 
Reader" (439), had the litde book broken off, doubdess by a relic-hunter in 



2i8 THE INTERNATIONAL EXH I B I TIO N, 1 8 76. 



want of a paper-weight. In the Austrian department, a panel-picture called 
"Children's Tenderness," by Berres, was scratched, and the great "Catherine 
Cornaro," by Makart, was blistered, both owing to defective packing. Among 
the German pictures, that of the Crown Prince had a hole pierced through the 
thigh, and one other canvas was slightly marked. These, with a trifling damage 
to a single American painting in the Art-Annex, comprise the sum of the muti- 
lations, and on the whole form a high testimonial to the good manners of an 
almost uncontrolled American crowd. 

The fame of the Spanish school of art, which has been revived of late 
years by the dazzling success of Fortuny and his fellows, caused a deep and 
perhaps an exaggerated interest to be taken in the hardly adequate exhibit 
made at Philadelphia. The picked works of Spanish art, to the number of 
forty-six, occupied a room in Memorial Hall, while about two hundred less 
select examples were arranged in the Art-Annex and in the Spanish Govern- 
mental Pavilion in the Park.' Among the choicer selections, which ranged from 
the religious works of Alonzo Cano and Morales, and the figure-subjects of 
Velasquez and Spagnoletto, to the "Two Friends" of Agrassot and the "Jeanne 
la F'olle" of Valles, we choose the pathetic example of Morales seen in our 
steel engraving. Luis Morales was born at Badajoz in 1509, and died there in 
1586. His life, addicted to the most ascetic kind of sacred art, was not a 
prosperous one, and when Philip II, shortly before fitting out the Invincible 
Armada for the conquest of England, happened to travel through Badajoz, a 
gleam of remorse passed through his not often remorseful heart on finding 
Morales, whom he had commanded to decorate the Escorial and then forgotten, 
suffering from penury, age and neglect. He amended his unpressed orders 
about the Escorial by paying him a pension without commanding any work in 
return. Morales thus enjoyed for the remaining five years of his life an annuity 
of three hundred ducats. He was called "The Divine," from the uniformly 
religious character of his subjects, and is sometimes termed the Spanish Peru- 
gino. His style indeed allies him to this and other "pre-Raphaelite" masters, 
for he exhibits the anxious care in copying nature, the minuteness, and the 
trace of hardness, which characterized the predecessors of the grand Urbinate, 
and which are imitated by the English inventors of the term. It shows, how- 
ever, how topsy-turvy in regard to dates, and how thoroughly independent and 



FINE ART. 



original and sui generis was the career of Spanish art, that this "early" master, 
this exemplifier of the style that preceded Raphael, was literally a post- 
Raphaelite. In his painting of the " Ecce Homo," the cross which the suffering 
Saviour bears is a microscopic copy of a just hewn piece of timber, with all 
the fibres, from which the sap seems to have scarcely dried, assiduously painted 
like a bit of wood-grainer's work. Just so would Holman Hunt, or any other 
modern emulator of the pre-Raphaelite masters, delight in painting. The whole 
style of this picture, both in its quaintly exact drawing and in its pure naive 
color, reminds us of John Bellini or of Perugino ; yet Morales comes into the 
calendar of painters long after Bellini and Perugino, born respectively in 1422 
and 1446. He is even considerably later in date than Raphael and Titian; for 
he survived them both thirty or forty years, and first saw the light in the six- 
teenth century, while they were born in the fifteenth. Fine specimens of "El 
Divino Morales" may be seen in the University of Salamanca, justifying, says 
Augustus J. C. Hare, the title of Morales to be called the Spanish Perugino 
wJiich late ages have accorded him as an honor, but which Morales himself, in 
his high Iberian pride, would have rejected as degrading. 

Mr. George H. Boughton. like Leslie and Benjamin West, is a gift of 
America to England ; he has developed, without seriously changing it, the style 
he formed in this country, and is now pleasing with the results of American 
art-lessons the most cultured classes of the old world. Mr. Boughton, at three 
years of age, was brought to the United States, his parents being residents of 
Norwich, England. His youth was passed at Albany in New York, and already 
during his early life he impressed upon the American public a conviction that 
a painter of uncommonly delicate and refined powers had arisen. One of his 
patrons was Mr. August Belmont, who now exhibits in his gallery "The Lake 
of the Dismal Swamp," our artist's early American work, in which it is easy to 
recognize the wonderfully subtle landscape feeling which still pervades the 
achieved masterpieces of this admirable painter. In the year 1853 Mr. Boughton 
went to visit the family friends in Old England, being then nineteen years of 
age. After some desultory wanderings and studies, he at length definitively 
abandoned his American studio in i860, and passed to France, where he received 
instructive hints in art matters from the accomplished genre painter Edouard 
Frere. He presently crossed the Channel and settled his artistic lares and 




.•! I "dhige of Artois in I [ 'inter. 



FINE ART. 



penates in London, where he still resides. The first picture of Mr. Boughton's 
which made a sensation in England was "Passing into the Shade," exhibited at 
the British Institute in 1863, and representing two old peasant women entering 
the gloom of a forest, which symbolized, with that fine adaptation of landscape 
sentiment to human feeling which Mr. Boughton has made a specialty, the 
autumnal shadow of life. The specimen of which we offer an engraving (pages 
194-5) is taken, with the largest and best class of the artist's works, from the 
history of the Puritans in New England, which seems to have impressed Mr. 
Boughton as forcibly, considered as a repertory of art-effects, as it did Haw- 
thorne the novelist. Our selection is entitled "New England Puritans going to 
Church." It represents a train of wayfarers passing with solemn caution through 
a snowy landscape, the men armed to the teeth, except the venerable pastor, 
whose defences are the holy book he carries and the good angel who walks by 
his side in the person of a lovely daughter. The especial inspiration of this 
picture was the following passage from "Bardett's Pilgrim Fathers": "The few 
villages were almost isolated, being connected only by long miles of blind path- 
way through the woods. . . . The cavalcade proceeding to church, the marriage 
procession (if marriage procession could be thought of in those frightful days) 
was often interrupted by the death-shot of some invisible enemy." Each figure 
in the picture is seen against the snow — a sombre silhouette. Fathers, mothers 
and innocent children proceed with serious. God-fearing expression through the 
desolate landscape, of which any tree may hide a savage enemy. It is strange 
and touching to watch these earnest men, in their peaked hats and leather 
jerkins, each with a Bible in his belt and a musket on his shoulder. Such was 
the terrible preparation which in those days was necessary for worshipping the 
Prince of Peace. Our large engraving gives much of the austere charm of 
this strange painting : it is easy to see, in the whole style of Mr. Boughton's 
composition, the man of culture and broad historical ideas superadded to the 
skilful painter. Every picture which leaves the tasteful studio at "Grove Lodge" 
conveys this agreeable mixed impression, as if a delightful poet, a keen student 
of men and events, and a man of high social position, had somehow got kneaded 
into the clay of the gifted artist. Mr. Boughton has never forgotten the impres- 
sions of his American life, and a large series of his most powerful works 
represents the incidents of Pilgrim history, the finest undoubtedly being the 



I 




224 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

"Return of the Mayflower," to be seen in a Philadelphia gallery, — that of Prof. 
Fairman Rogers. Owing to the mixed destiny which makes Mr. Boughton at 
once a sufficiently good Englishman and a very loyal American, his contribu- 
tions to the Centennial Exposition became mixed through the works delegated 
from both countries. The "Puritans going to Church" and his "Going to Seek 
his Fortune" were exhibited in the department of American art; his "God- 
Speed," a large and important picture illustrating "Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress," 
was exhibited in that of British paintings. 

Our illustration on page 197 represents an Italian painting of merit, "Noon 
in tlu; Country," by Enrico Bartesago, a Milanese artist. P^om this faithful 
transcript of actualities in the land of the Caesars it will be seen that the 
Italian peasant of to-day by no means wears the rich [Mctorial costume to be 
found in diose ideal pictures studied from Roman professional models — the 
embroidered apron, the folded napkin on the head, the laced boddice and lull 
white sleeves for the women, the knee-breeches and goatskin jacket lor the 
men. Those garments are as false to nature as any costume got up for die 
stage of the theatre, and what the Italian of the lower orders really looks like 
is the dull, ill-dressed, slouching being seen in Bartesago's picture. Here is the 
unadorned, every-day life of the contemporary contadino, which is a rather 
sordid and squalid affair. The male laborers are apt to make the noontide 
sicsfa a long chapter in their existence, and lounge with every mark of satis- 
faction beside the implements of their toil, their sense of comfort being 
enhanced with all the piquancy of contrast by the sight of their wives going 
on in a course of labor which is heavy and unintermitted — for in Italy as well 
as nearer home the proverb holds good that "women's work is never done." 
Accordingly our artist shows one matron wheeling a barrow of turf, another 
bending beneath a shoulder-load of faggots, while a stalwart maiden bears a 
basket, and another is industriously hanging clothes to dry on the winter hedge. 
This picture is a piece of good wholesome prose, a page of actual life tran- 
scribed while the impression is fresh, and worth a great many canvases of 
brigands or flower-girls copied from the vagabond actors and actresses who 
lounge in the Piazza di Spagna in impracticable costumes. 

Like most English paintings unsatisfactory in color, the noble design and 
monumental composition of V. C. Prinsep's "Death of Cleopatra" make this 




|li|ii|lt'''"^illf^lrlif()f'f1|lli'^'f fi"''ii' "'1,1/ 'lift j( 'ill 




iiir,,iJ|ll11ilf7,'^fi«v%j|'"^|A 



■■nil sc 



-FLTULtlOBtS lysij- 



Tmrn ©inisr^ ili®^issi 



U, S TiiteiiiatLOiLalExihiJiitLcm.1876. 



FINE ART. 



225 



picture peculiarly suited to the effects of engraving, and justify the ample 
translation into black and white which we give of it on pages 202-3. It is a 
vivid reflection from one of the most impressive pages of Plutarch: "Cleo- 




E. Trovtbetta, Scidpt 



The First Step. 



patra/' says the versatile old historian, who ever seems to laugh or cry at need, 
according to the burden of his subject, "has erected near the temple of Isis 
some monuments of extraordinary size and magnificence. . . . Cleopatra sent 
a letter to Caesar, and, ordering everybody out of the monument except her 



226 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

two women, she made fast the door. . . . They found her quite dead, lying- on 
her golden couch, and dressed in all her royal ornaments. Iras, one of her 
women, lay dead at her feet, and Charmion, hardly able to support herself, was 
adjusting- her mistress's diadem. One of Caesar's messengers .said angrily, 
'Charmion, was this well done?' 'Perfectly well,' said she, 'and wordiy a 
descendant of the kings of Egypt.' She had no sooner said this than she fell 
down dead." Mr. Prinsep omits the incident of the asp, except so far as it is 
suggested by the overturned basket of figs at Iras's feet. Cleopatra, with no 
wound or scar upon the shapely fulness of her arm, sits on a deep-seated chair 
or throne before a tripod, on which incense is burning to die manes of Antony; 
laurels load this portable altar in memory of the warrior, and flowers and gar- 
lands in his honor decorate the scene. In the background, behind the Egyptian 
idol, is the doorway which will quickly give entrance to the emissaries of Octa- 
vius. The queen, stately and superb in death, has just leaned her head back, 
with perfect grace, on the throne, upon which the tottering Charmion supports 
herself, while Iras, a beautifully posed and foreshortened figure, curls around 
her mistress's feet with fond canine fidelity. The picture has the decorous, 
measured harmony of a fine bas-relief. 

Another British artist, Mr. William Ouiller Orchardson, contributed to the 
Exhibition an admirable figure-subject, called "Prince Henry, Poins and Falstaff" 
— as well as the beautiful marine view, which we have already illustrated, of 
"Moonlight on the Lagoons of Venice." An excellent understanding of Shakes- 
peare is evinced in this painter's treatment of the scene with "the wild Prince 
and Poins," which we illustrate on page 205. We need but call to mind those 
passages of "Henry IV" which earliest introduce us to the fat knight, to per- 
ceive the full adequacy of Mr. Orchardson's interpretation. Falstaff is brought 
to notice for the first time as a seedy hanger-on about the royal palace in 
London, declaring that to be a hangman would jump with his humor as well 
as waiting in the court, and idly thinking to make capital out of the brewing 
rebellion of Douglas and Owen Glendower. To lighten the drama which is 
dedicated to such great events, Shakespeare creates the colossal jest of the 
sham highway-robbery at Gadshill ; and our artist delineates its inception. The 
madcap Prince is flinging his wild oats abroad, thinking little of his father's 
cares, and adopting the incorrigible Falstaff as his bear-leader ; Poins is his 



FINE ART. 



227 



chum, the Achates of this 
^neas, the dissolute Horatio 
of this Hamlet out-of-mou ru- 
ing. In the palace guard- 
room is the fine project of the 
amateur highwaymen hatched. 
Poins bursts in with the news, 
"My lads, my lads, early to- 
morrow morning, at Gadshill, 
there are pilgrims going to 
Canterbury with rich offer- 
ings . . . we may do it as se- 
cure as sleep ! If you wjll go, 
I will stuff your purses full 
of crowns ; if you will not, 
tarry at home and be hanged!" 
The Prince listens, and de- 
murs, and consents. "Who, 
I?_rob?— I a thief? Not I, 
by my faith," he says at first; 
and a moment after, "Well, 
then, once in my days I'll be 
a madcap." In another minute 
he is for giving up the scheme, 
upon which Falstaff leaves the 
half-hearted robber for Poins 
to operate on alone. This is 
the moment chosen by the 
painten Falstaft turns his 
broad back upon the pair of 
wild lads, with a devout invo- 
cation to Heaven that the 
Prince may become a thief: 
and young Henry calls after 




Apelles. 



228 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i S 7 6. 

him, "Farewell, thou latter spring, farewell, all-hallown summer!" The brace of 
untamed spirits form a group at the left, and a broad space of wall, which 
somehow links the composition together instead of introducing a dissonance, 
intervenes between them and the huge knight, who leaves the scene with the 
waddling motion common to women of the people and plethoric men of quality. 
We know how it will turn out — that Falstaff and his rabble will commit the 
robbery, to be in turn robbed by Prince Henry, upon which the old rogue will 
invent his magnificent tale ot being set upon by eleven men in buckram. Mr. 
Orchardson's composition is original, peculiar and singularly artistic, notwith- 
standing that it is of the flat order, with little depth and no perspective in 
particular. It is like one of those intermediate scenes in a th(^atrical act, played 
against a wall, while carpenters are operating behind for the next grand set-out 
that will show how deep the stage is. The varied powers evinced in this figure- 
subject and the "Lagoons of Venice" give an interest to the biography of the 
painter. Mr. Orchardson is an Associate of the Royal Academy; he was born 
in Edinburgh in 1835, and '^ consequently forty-two years of age; his portraits 
were noticed in an e.xhibition of the Scottish Academy so early as 1861 ; he 
came to London in 1863; his "Christopher Sly" was favorably regarded in the 
Paris International Exposition of 1867; the present picture of "Falstaff, Poins 
and Henry" was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1868. 

The group illustrated on page 207 — "The Beggars," by R. Galli, of Milan — 
stands out conspicuously from the generality of Italian sculpture by a whole- 
some severity of style, and the entire absence of ornament. It is refreshing 
at length to find an Italian carving that is not baroque. The mother and child 
in this group are clothed from head to foot. The modest and rigid drapery of 
the woman falls in perpendicular folds, skilfully broken by the gesture with which 
she catches up her apron to her bosom, in a bashful way, while she almost 
hides the contribution-cup which mendicants of a bolder sort protrude so 
ofificiously. The little boy, whose lithe Italian figure is quite lost in the rough 
bunchy roundabout and trowsers bungled by the unskillful needle of poverty, 
is provided with a good large hat for collection-taking, but he does not proffer 
it. The traditions of a wholesome family piety, as this is understood in Italy, 
are evinced in the talismans worn by both — the cross hung around the neck 
of the boy, and the sacred medal on the bosom of the woman. Just as these 



FINE ART. 



timid poor folk 
appeal to the 
heart by their 
ignorance of the 
brazen art of 
beggary, so the 
sculptor is at 
some advantage 
over his decora- 
tive compeers by 
his inability or 
intentional neg- 
lect to follow the 
lines of beauty 
and the grimaces 
of grace. 

Another Italian 
piece of sculp- 
ture, Tantarclini's 
"Reader" (page 
215), though con- 
ceived in a vein 
which does not 
admit of such ab- 
solute simplicity 
as the last, is 
likewise distin- 
guished by a 
search after re- 
pose and the 
absence of mere- 
tricious orna- 
ment. A patri- 
cian maiden, at 




The Festival. 



once stately and 
simple, is seen 
walking slowly 
torward reading 
a letter. Her 
dress, of antique 
cut, moulds with- 
in its narrow 
closeness the 
firmness of the 
fair young torso, 
and touches of 
embroidery and 
a hem of lace 
give accent to 
its strictness here 
and there. The 
beautifully -mod- 
eled head, wear- 
ing only the 
honors of its 
abundant hair, is 
slightly bent over 
the written page. 
The spectator 
thinks of Ophelia 
receiving the cel- 
ebrated love-let- 
ter, "Oh, dear 
Ophelia, I am ill 
at these num- 
bers ; I have not 
art to reckon my 
pToans — but that 



230 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

I love thee best, O most best, believe it." We prefer this figure to the same 
artist's "Bather," engraved on page 72. 

A very different artistic problem is that which M. Cyprien Godebski pro- 
poses to himself. His "Drunken Moujik" (page 217) is an effort in the 
direction of the closest realism. This disheveled head is tottering with drunken- 
ness — not the fiery drunkenness of excitable Southern lands, but the colossal, 
concentrated stupor of Russia. This broad pug nose has been dipped for hours 
in the cup of ki^'as, that foaming brown beer which the brewer of Moscow 
knows how to make out of soaked crusts of black rye bread. The narrow 
forehead and the broad Tartar cheek-bones reveal the nationality of this help- 
less subject, whom the artist has succeeded in catching from the very life. The 
spirit of the reproduction is surprising ; the stujjid glance of the dim eyes, the 
helpless roll of the heavy head, have been caught, as it were, on the wing ; 
for once the marble has contrived to play the part of the instantaneous photo- 
graph. Of this odd and characteristic study we are enabled to offer our 
readers the artist's own record. The sketch is from M. Godebski's hand ; and, 
though it may look rough and uncouth to a public spoiled by the professional 
smoothness of the ordinary engraver, to the artistic eye it is peculiarly precious. 
The lines of expression, the indications of texture, are all authentic and at first 
hand. Every touch tells, and the draughtsman contrives, by simply changing 
from a contiguous to a jagged stroke, to express the difference between the 
long brush-like hair of the scalp and the matted and filthy beard, cemented 
with icicles and spattered mud during a whole month's drive in the three- 
horse troika. We are glad to vary, with work of a very different nationality 
and complexion, the full exhibit we feel bound to make of Italian statuary. 
M. Godebski exposed this bust among the contributions from Belgium ; he is, 
however, something of a cosmopolitan, being an academician of Saint Peters- 
burg, and residing at present at Neuilly, on the outskirts of Paris. He was 
born in 1835. 

On page 225 we give an engraving of a Milanese piece of sculpture, by 
Signor Trombetta, who sent less of his work than many of his compatriots of 
Italy, but of whose artistic and agreeable style we should like to see more 
examples. It is called "The First Step" — or, as an inscription on the base, in 
the cosmopolitan language of France, expresses it, "Tihibaiitc," or "Toddling." 



FINE ART. 



231 



The simple grace 
of this figure jus- 
tifies our return 
to the oft- illus- 
trated sculpture 
of Italy. A charm- 
ing little girl, 
whose short skirt 
is artfully drop- 
ped from one 
shoulder so as to 
reveal as much 
as possible of her 
fair chubby per- 
son, is hovering 
over a chicken 
which she wants 
to catch, and 
which steps about 
with the distract- 
ing uncertainty 
and ubiquity and 
elusive fortuitous 
way of chicken- 
kind from time 
immemorial. 
When you stoop 
for a chicken that 
looks as it it had 
made up its mind 
to stay in that 
particular spot 
for a competent 
length of time, 




E. y. r^yiittr, Fi>ix 



The Golden Age, 



the chicken is 
suddenly gone, 
and is picking 
nonchalantly for 
food in a spot 
just alongside. 
This wily beha- 
vior of chicksy's 
will directly bring 
our youthful 
sportswoman 
down upon all- 
fours in a state 
of ruin ; and the 
downy fledgeling, 
not much more 
secure on its feet 
than its pursuer, 
will go on with 
the game, with 
inexhaustible rel- 
ish and enjoy- 
ment, as far as 
baby pleases, or 
as the barn-yard 
extends. Is there 
not something 
strange and baf- 
fling about the 
shyness, the air of 
"keep-your-dis- 
tance," in many 
domestic crea- 
tures? Wherever 



232 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

man settles on the globe, they follow him, and thrive only in his close com- 
panionship; but the,y never permit a real personal intimacy or contact, and they 
keep up, in the very warmth and tenderness of the snuggest human home, the 
untamable Diana-like reserve implanted with their earliest ancestors in the wild- 
wood. The distance which this little chick instinctively maintains between its 
wee self and the baby's gathering grasp is symbolical of the distance between 
ourselves and the vast inexplicable heart of Nature — between, shall we say, the 
civilized gods of Olympus and the wild and mighty Pan. The firm-set barrier 
between two races of Heaven's creatures — a barrier thawing but never warming — 
is what Trombctta's pretty symbol expresses, and is well defined in the cold 
material of sculpture. But sculpture has detained us long enough for the 
present, and we will turn our attention again to the pictures. 

It is high time now that we should represent another work of Benjamin 
West's, a painter who has a peculiar function in connecting the art of Philadel- 
phia with that of the old world. While the Queen and the Royal Academy 
respectively lent to the Exposition his "Death of Wolfe" (engraved by us on 
page 53) and "Christ Blessing Little Children" (page 213), and his "Moses 
.Striking the Rock" was placed by an American owner in the Twelfth Gallery 
of the Art-Annex, these achievements of his maturity were contrasted with the 
crude portrait-work of his youth, in specimens exhibited in the city museums, 
not to say in the houses of city families, representing the half-dozen years he 
supported himself as a likeness-taker in Philadelphia. The "Christ Blessing 
Little Children" Is an uncommonly agreeable specimen of West's occasionally 
dry and formal style. There is, of course, not the slightest oriental cachet about 
it; the Hebrew modiers are English brides of the Mrs. Opie type, and a Roman 
landscape and vault, derived from much study of Poussin, form the background ; 
but the attitude of the Saviour is eminently good, the carriage of his head is 
free and noble, and there is a happy expression of movement about his figure. 
St. Peter, who immediately receives the rebuke, is a fine and even a Jewish per- 
sonage, and the graceful feet of the dandled child, and the confidence with which 
he plays with the Saviour's hand as the latter points, are happily conceived. 
There was much disposition, in the last decade, to ridicule West; but this feeling 
has given way to one of greater justice, and it is conceded that, without being 
endowed with the hot fire of frenius which belongs to the innovators and 



FINE ART. 233 

creators in art, he exerted a valuable conservative influence in England for 
nearly half a century, and evolved a vast life's work with energy and power. 

We have already engraved, on page 76, a fine landscape of Emile Breton's, 
and have described his curious rustic life on page 86. He sent another country 
scene to Philadelphia, in its way not inferior to that we first engraved, and we 
give our readers a representation ot it on page 219, by a newly invented etching 
process which capitally represents the quality of a sky charged with snow, and 
of a perspective of white roofs and slushy roads. "A Village in Winter" is 
painted with infinite skill, in the style called in the latest slang of French studios 
the "impressionist" style. No time is wasted in needless detail, but the effort 
is to stamp, almost at a blow, the virgin imprint of a scene received by the 
eye at its first glance. By recording this, in large, hasty, inspired touches, the 
textures, qualities, reliefs, and colors of the principal masses in a scene are 
fixed ; and if successful, a more vivid suggestion is produced than was always 
possible by the old painful and highly-wrought methods. This picture of Breton's 
gives the aiiimus of a damp, snowy, heavy day. It makes the spectator feel 
exactly as he felt the last time he had to go out in similar weather; and this 
involuntary feeling is just what many an exquisitely-wrought winter-piece never 
gives at all, and is one of the highest triumphs of an artist. We breathe this 
bitter weather. We take the water-mark, as it were, upon the pulp of the 
spirit, and it is thenceforth indelible. It is a success that only a genuine artist 
can achieve. 

Having introduced Mr. Poynter, the English artist, to the good-will of our 
readers with such a beautiful pleader as his "Ibis Girl" (the subject of one of 
our most graceful steel-plates), we will e'en exhaust the contribution made by 
this painter to the Philadelphia Fair, by introducing copies of his other works 
seriatim. The sketch with an arched top on page 227 represents Mr. Poynter's 
cartoon for a fresco to fill one of the spaces in an arcade at the South Ken- 
sington Museum. To the British painter was confided as a subject a great 
painter of old — "Apelles." The artist delineates his predecessor as a young 
Greek, standing in all the gallantry of life's early prime, his locks dark around 
his broad forehead, an archaic decorated vase, representing the origin of Grecian 
painting, at his feet. In his left hand is a square tablet, on which the waxen 
colors were laid, and which led up in time to the modern palette. His left 



236 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



hand rests upon his picture of Venus Anadyomene. This is the first example 
of the painter-courtier — the retainer who multiphes portraits of his royal patrons 
through a lifetime, like Velasquez in the court of Philip IV. Apelles repre- 
sented Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, and subsequendy became the 
portraitist allowed a monopoly of painting Alexander's likeness ; the conqueror, 
and his horse, and his generals, he repeatedly delineated on the walls of Mace- 
donian palaces. Apelles was initiated into the mysteries of Eleusis, a mark of 
culture and aristocracy. It was on the return from this sacred festival, in the 
sofdy-rounded bay of Eleusis, that he saw Phryne, the most beautiful woman 
in Greece, emerging from the sea and wringing out her locks \\\)on the beach. 
He thereupon painted Phryne as Venus, and again in his old age, at Cos, 
endeavored to repeat the delineation on a more faultless scale of perfecdon, 
and died before he could finish it. His repeated attempts to give the Grecians 
an adorable Venus led our artist to represent a panel with this subject in the 
hand of the most accomplished painter of antiquity. Mr. Poynter's cartoon, 
with one or two more by other hands from the same series, occupied at Phila- 
delphia a room entirely dedicated to South Kensington and its course of 
instruction. 

In the end of the long corridor which led to the litde room containing 
Frith's "Marriage of the Prince of Wales" — set up on either side of the door 
like panels, and very neady fitting the space — were Mr. Poynter's "Fesdval" 
and "Golden Age," of which we present engravings on page 229 and page 231. 
Notwithstanding the bricky flesh-color — so litde like English flesh, of all flesh 
in the world — which pervaded almost completely the exhibit of British paintings, 
and was very conspicuous with Mr. Poynter, his pictures pleased, on account of 
their elegant drawing, their happy subjects, and their fortunate and becoming 
position. "The Festival" represented two graceful Greek maids of the andque 
dmes, dressing with garlands an Ionic pordco, perhaps for the recepdon of a 
bride. The "Golden Age" showed again a pair of figures, this time both males. 
Two lads were gathering pears into a basket from an overburdened tree. The 
period was so early that they had not yet invented much costume, and their 
primeval energy had seemingly exhausted itself in constructing the ladder with 
which they reached the fruit, and the basket into which they piled it. The 
harmonv of lines was very satisfactory in these pictures, but most particularly 



(If. 
pil' 




238 THE INTERNATIONAL EXH IB IT I O N, 1S76. 

so in the female subject ; and in this, again, the draperies were of faultless and 
even conspicuous beauty — light, complicated, natural and inventive, without a 
particle of that marble look which results when a painter of antique scenes lets 
himself be too much enamored of antique statues. Our readers, we are sure, 
will especially admire this happy classical subject of "The Festival," wherein 
the two fair figures, closely intertwined, form Hogarth's line of beauty, or the 
"long S." 

Some writers tell us that Toledo was the cradle of Spanish art, fostered 
by the wealthy churchmen of the metropolitan cathedral. Others say that Bar- 
celona and Saragossa, from their early connection with Italy, through commerce, 
were the first places in the peninsula to feel the influence of that country in 
taste for art. Except for anticpiarian purposes, it may be assumed, generally, 
that the latter half of the fifteenth century was die period when Spanish art 
began to assert itself, in a more or less tentative way. The conditions of its 
progress, however, were very different from those of any other school in Europe, 
Elsewhere the revival of intellectual life was accompanied by an awakened 
taste for the Greek and Roman classics and mythology, which supplied artists, 
when they too appeared in the general movement, with an infinity of subjects 
for inventive treatment. 

No such opening presented itself to the Spanish painter. The polidcal 
history of his country debarred him from any knowledge even of the picturesque 
and romantic beliefs of ancient nations. Everything that was not of Christian 
origin had for ages been identified with the dominion of the Moors, aliens in 
blood and in creed. Yet, little as the Spaniard would confess it, in every 
department of secular learning, his country owed much to that Arab immigra- 
tion which had brought in its train a knowledge of astronomy and its kindred 
sciences, and through which even Greek philosophy was once more restored to 
Europe. But a feud, deadly and lasting, separated the native Spaniard from 
the descendants of his ancient oppressors. What was not Christian was Moorish, 
and therefore detested and avoided. Thus limited to a field of small dimen- 
sions, revived art had no choice but to reproduce scenes in the history of 
Christianity, or to paint portraits from the life ; and such, in fact, is a summary 
of Spanish art-subjects, even of the period of its greatest eminence. Land- 
scape, except as an auxiliary to sacred history and portraiture, is comparatively 



FINE ART. 



239 



rare. Another efficient cause of the exclusively relig-ious character which is 
stamped on the art of Spain was the all-powerful and all-pervading influence 
of the Inquisition, dwarfing and withering all originality, all invention, all thought 
that dared to express itself, except in the stereotyped forms permitted to a 
nation that was held in perpetual leading-strings. Nay, even in religious art, 



the rule of the 
"Holy Office" was 
maintained in a 
series of regula- 
tions as to the 
treatment of such 
subjects ; the col- 
ors, the attitudes, 
proper to various 
classes of saints, 
for example, were 
all defined and 
strictly enforced 
under the eyes of 
a hundred cen- 
sors, who kept 
watch on every 
studio, on every 
picture-dealer's 
window. Nor was 
the office of cen- 
sor restricted to 
sacred subjects. 




Affeclion and Envy. 



The most rigid 
prohibition of the 
nude struck a di- 
rect blow at all 
attempts to repro- 
duce scenes from 
classical mythol- 
ogy. A life school, 
in the modern 
sense, was not to 
be thought of 
Considering the 
systematic com- 
pulsion under 
which artists had 
to work, it is a 
matter of wonder 
that they could 
produce what they 
did produce, when 
thus laboring in 
fetters. But so 
it was : and this 



must ever be borne in mind, in estimating the productions of the Spanish 
school. 

Whatever may have been the earliest beginnings of painting in .Spain, after 
the Gothic conventionalities were dropped, the history of its art practically 
resolves itself into three divisions relating to as many chief centres or schools. 
There was the school of Castile, originating at Toledo, at some imperfectly 



240 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

ascertained date in the titteenth century. As Madrid grew in importance, under 
Philip II and his successors, Toledo was superseded, as the art-centre, just as 
Valladolid had ceased to be the political capital ; and Madrid thenceforth gave 
its name to the scliool oi Castile. Then the school of Andalusia, with its centre 
at Seville, entered into rivalry with the other, both in the matter of its antiquity 
and of the eminence of its painters. "The beautiful terra BaticaT says Sir 
W. Stirling Maxwell, "was prolific of genius. The country of Lucan, of Seneca, 
of Trajan, and of Averroes, brought forth Vargas, Velasquez and Murillo." 

Valencia gives its name to the third principal school of Spain, which took 
its rise from two foreign artists ; their nationality is disputed, but they executed 
some important decorative work in the cathedral, near the close of the fifteenth 
century. The school of Castile, also, on several occasions was indebted to the 
visits of artists from Flanders and Italy. It remains a matter undecided whether 
Titian actually visited Charles \ in Spain, or whether their frequent intercourse 
took place only at Bologna and other cities of Italy. Certain it is that the 
intimate connection maintained during the reign of the Emperor, and that of 
his son, Philip, between Spain and Italy, introduced many works of the Italian 
masters into the Peninsula, examples of which, at this da)', adorn the National 
Museum at Madrid. 

Such were the chief schools, or art-centres, of Spain. They had this in 
common, that they were all of them, more or less, connected with the art- 
traditions of Italy, and all were alike distinguished by their severely devotional 
character. The Church was their best patron ; and whether patron or not, the 
Church took care to exercise a maternal superintendence of their style and 
e.xecution. It was under her direct command that Pacheco laid down this canon, 
as his Arte de la Pintura : "It is the chief end of the works of Christian art 
to persuade men to piety, and bring them to God." With so exclusive a motive, 
how could painters much differ one from another ? why should they ever dream 
of leaving the beaten track ? In fact, many of them made a religious exercise 
of their art ; like Fra Angelico, they prepared themselves, by the reception of 
the eucharist, for the commencement of an important work. Others were noted 
for the austerity of their lives and practices. It is related of Vargas, not only 
that he frequendy used the discipline of the scourge, but that he kept a coffin in 
his house, and used to lie down in it, from time to time, to meditate on death. 



'^m^ 



U. i , Intsmalional Exhilitiojiia 7 6 



bV* 



'•sw^ 



li' 11 R J O S H PA K EITT O JI - 



FINE ART. 



241 




242 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Some of the painters were ecclesiastics, and of course saw everything 
through an atmosphere of incense and with the plain-song's distant murmur in 
their ears. Can we wonder that this world and its interests counted for little 
with those men, or that, as a rule, their conceptions, even of tlie future world, 
were gloomy and monotonous, and unattractive to the taste of "Philistines"? 

Wandering through the Spanish Court and glancing again at the "Ecce 
Homo" by Morales, El Divino, one of the best specimens of his divine hand, 
we remember the story of his smart repartee to the king, who, when passing 
through Badajoz, was waited upon by Morales. "You are very old. Morales," 
remarked Philip. "Yes, sire, and very poor," was the reply. On which, the 
king desired his treasurer to pay the artist a pension of two hundred ducats 
"for his dinner." "And for supper, sire?" rejoined the old man — a word 
of repartee which gained him another hundred ducats, as the story goes. 
Morales was never out of Spain ; yet he managed to clothe his devotional 
subjects with the feeling and expression associated with Italian art, and more 
particularly with the school of Rome. The elaborate finish of his pictures, 
always painted on panel, and the purity and grace of their composition, pro- 
cured for Morales the tide of the Parmegiano of Spain. He seems to have 
thrown his best and most characteristic work into representations of the Cru- 
cifixion, and of the dead Redeemer on His Mother's knees, called a Pieta, in 
Italy. Such a picture, among others of his, may be seen in the Spanish Gallery, 
Louvre. The painter's finest works were formerly preserved in his native city, 
but the French pioneers of civilization robbed it of four of them, and time and 
repainting have ruined the rest. Others may be looked for even in compara- 
tively obscure churches in Estremadura. "With Morales," says Sir E. Head, 
"pure Christian feeling ceased in the school of Castile. His son and others 
of his pupils imitated him with little success, yet so as to injure his reputation, 
for their weak productions have not unfrequently been attributed to the master 
himself." 

While the Spanish section, considered as a whole, is most unsatisfactory, it 
nevertheless contains a goodly number of very superior pictures, and so far as 
we are able to judge from these, the traditions of the noblest epoch of the art 
of painting have survived in Spain with greater force than in any other country. 
A considerable portion of the wall-space in the western gallery in the Memorial 



FINE ART. 



243 



Hall allotted to the Spanish pictures is occupied by large works, and several 
of them have merits of a very positive kind. Such pictures as "Torquato 
Tasso Returning to the Monastery of San Onohe," by G. Maureta ; "The 




A. Fartholdi. Sculp. 



Tile Young Vine-Grou 



Landing of Columbus," by D. Puebla ; "Christopher Columbus in the Monastery 
of La Rabida," and "The Last Moments of Don Fernando IV, el Emplazado," 
by I. Casado, are of various degrees of badness, and may be dismissed with a 
mere mention, while "The Landing of the Puritans in America," by A. Gisbert 



244 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHI HITION, 1876. 



although it is a better piece of work than the others named, is chiefly inter- 
esting because no one hereabouts would ever have expected a Spanish artist 
to choose such a theme. "The Landing of Columbus" (see sketch on Spanish 
art view, page 241) is, or ought to be, an entirely congenial theme with a 
Spanish painter, but "The Landing of the Puritans" — that is a very different 
matter. 

Of the paintings which demand notice on account of their merits, "The 
Burial of San Lorenzo at Rome," by A. \'era, is one of the most important. 
The Raphaelesque draperies and statuesque poses of the group which sur- 
rounds the bier of the martyr are reminiscences of a former age and of a 
style of artistic workmanship for which there is but a very limited demand in 
these days. There is much eloquence in these figures, but they are expres- 
sionless, and in seeking for repose the artist has drifted into inanity. The 
figure of the dead deacon who has joined the noble army of martyrs is, how- 
ever, very beautiful. Peacefulness, restfulness and bliss beyond the grave are 
expressed in the slight smile that hovers about the half-parted lips, and it 
needed not the aureole about the head to indicate that, having been faithful 
until death, he has obtained his reward. 

The sentiment whicii is so well expressed in this picture also finds expres- 
sion in "The Translation of .St. Francis of Assisi," by B. Mercade. In this the 
canvas is crowded with figures, a group of nuns being represented standing at 
the foot of the couch, while at the head stands a bishop who is reading the 
service for the dead, and a number of ecclesiastics. Simply considered as a 
composition, this is a very superior work. The story is effectively told, and 
nearly all of the figures are admirable studies — those of the nuns in particular 
being exceedingly fine. Among the individual figures, that of the acolyte beside 
the bishop, who turns his head for a moment to look towards the spectators, 
as if attracted by some occurrence in a distant part of the room, is worthy of 
special praise. 

"The Death of the Count of Mllamediana," by 1\L Castellano, is a very 
dramatic composition. We know nothing of the story, but the situation is 
expressed with great force by the artist : and without knowing who the Count 
of Villamediana was, or what cause he died for, the spectator is able to enter 
into the emotions of the crowd which con^reeates about his bodv. The dead 



FINE ART. 245 

man is represented as lying on the ground, in a pool of blood, under the shadow 
of a gateway. Some one is examining his wound by the light of a lantern 
held by an acolyte in attendance upon a stern-faced priest, who forms one of 
the crowd gathered about the corpse. In the street beyond, a crowd of people 
fill the windows and balconies of the houses, and it is evident that the death 
of the Count has been preceded by a great turmoil of some kind. The gray 
light in the street indicates that it is late in the afternoon of a dark and cloudy 
day, and the different effects of light are most skillfully managed. This is cer- 
tainly one of the best historical pictures in the Exhibition, and is especially 
noteworthy from the fact that, although it deals with such a subject, it is free 
from any suspicion of sensationalism, and is marked by a dignity and a genuine 
dramatic power such as we too seldom see in modern works of kindred 
theme. 

"The Insanity of Donna Juana of Castile," by L. Valles, of which we show 
a sketch on the view of the Spanish section of the Art Gallery, page 241, is 
also a very genuinely dramatic work. The heroine of this picture refused to 
believe that her husband was dead, and would not permit his burial. The artist 
has shown her after having swept away the flowers which had been placed upon 
the dead man's pillow, making a gesture of silence to those who are pleading 
with her. The figure of the mad woman is a thoroughly fine piece of painting, 
but the other figures — especially that of the kneeling old man in the green 
mantle — are rather commonplace. The artist has evidendy expended his 
energies upon the principal figure, and although he has told his story with 
exceptional power, he has failed to achieve a work which will command unre- 
served admiration. 

The "Duel in the Seventeenth Century," which hangs above the north 
doorway, is painted with much force, and the figure of the disarmed man who 
is leaning against the wall is admirably drawn, and is most spirited in action. 
The other figure, however, is not particularly good, and the pose certainly is 
not the most expressive that the artist could have chosen. 

One of the finest works in the section is that entided "The Prayer," by 
A. Munoz Degrain, although there are others that are superior to it in some 
special qualities. In this a group of nuns are shown joining in the evening 
services of a church adjoining their convent, from which they are separated by 




H ^,/.//'/.,- 



248 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

an iron grating. The sentiment of such a scene is expressed with much felicity, 
and simply as a tone study, the picture is one of remarkable merit. 

Near this picture is "The Two Friends" — a litde peasant girl asleep on 
the crround, with a white kid beside her. This is a very clever work — a little 
dingy in color, but finely drawn and skillfully handled. 

The "Capuchin Monk before the Roman Conclave," by Francisco Jover, 
has the appearance of being a very literal record of an interesting scene, 
although it is lacking in picturesqueness. The Pope is shown seated on his 
throne, surrounded by a number of ecclesiastical dignitaries, while before him 
kneels a friar, who is apparently the subject of the paper which one of the 
purple-clad personages is reading. All the figures are full of character and 
individuality, and are doubtless very accurate portraits ot the Pope and his 
immediate councillors. 

The "Choir of Capuchin Monks," by R. Navarette, is a remarkably fine 
interior study, the subdued tones of the dimly illuminated apartment being 
rendered most skillfully. The section, in addition to this picture, contains a 
number of very interesting representations of interiors, the majority of which 
are by Perez Pablo Gonzalvo. Of these, the largest and most elaborate is the 
interior of the Cathedral of Saragossa. 

Few of the landscapes in the Spanish section possess much merit. There 
are a couple, however, in the west gallery in the Memorial Hall by Carlos D. 
Haes, which are rather superior performances. They are entitled "Suburbs of 
Madrid" and "Reminiscences of the Pyrenees." The subjects are similar — 
blue mountains in the distance, a rich and fertile country between them and 
the spectator, and some broken ground in the foreground — and in each the 
effect of a subdued sunlight such as would be due to a vapor-filled atmosphere, 
is very happily expressed. 

The American school of landscape-painting is the only one we can boast 
of as possessing a strongly marked individuality. Our best landscape-painters 
are at least original and distincdy American in their styles, even if in some 
particulars they fail to accomplish all that is accomplished by their European 
rivals. This is something to be grateful for, and there is no pleasanter task 
that a visitor to the Art Department of the Exhibition can put before him than 
to make a comparison between some of the best renderings of natural scenerj' 



FINE ART. 



24y 




The Wiuii^ Motlu. 



250 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

of the American section and those of the French, Belgian, Austrian and Itahan 
sections. 

In ilkistration of our comparison we would recommend to the attention of 
our readers any of the paintings by American landscape artists illustrated in 
our pages, especially the two steel engravings of paintings by James M. Hart 
and J. F. Cropsey, named respectively "Landscape and Catde" and "The Old 
Mill." Mr. Hart's picture bespeaks the earnest enthusiast in every detail of his 
masterly work. The drawing and grouping of the catde, the correct handling 
of perspecdve and atmosphere, the pleasing result of light and shade, all stamp 
the artist as a worker in the very first rank. "The Old Mill" of Cropsey 
shows much of the best qualities common in Hart's ; but the treatment of the 
water in the mill-stream is a little too sparkling, the sheen or gleam absorbing 
the attention of the beholder to the exclusion of the patiently worked details 
of the surroundings ; though, on the whole, hardly equal to Mr. Hart's picture, 
it is far above mediocrity'. 

Compare these landscapes with M. Van Elten's "Heath-Field in Holland," 
or Henrietta Ronner's "The Last Hope" — both of which we engrave on steel — 
two of the best pictures in the Department of the Netherlands, and the reader 
will feel that we have no occasion to fear the comparison. The painting by 
Henrietta Ronner, "The Last Hope," we have named as a masterpiece of land- 
scape art, although it would more properly be classed as an animal-painting. 
The open country in Avhich the hare is chased by the setter-dog is fragrant of 
autumn stubble; the pathway-plank over the brook, towards which "poor puss" 
is hurrying on in hope of escape, is the primitive, insecure "make-shift" with 
which all country frequenters are familiar; the choice of the dog (not the 
English greyhound, which would have made the chase a dead certainty, but a 
thoroughbred setter, who really has no business chasing a hare at all, his proper 
mission, if carefully trained, being to "point" or "set," not to chase, a hare) 
shows that the artist intended that the "Hope" should be hope in reality, for 
the hare's chance of escape from a setter, every sportsman knows, is not a 
forlorn one. We have seen a visitor, on entering the Netherlands Department 
of the Art-Annex during the hot days of July, when few visitors were there, 
place his hands on his knees and stoop to await the result, so interesting and close 
looks the struggle between dog and hare. This picture is in everj' way a success. 



•^s 



^ 








'^if^fi' 






-,-* ^i^T"'^^"^- 










.- 4:: ,v "■ . ■- - 






/« the Pari. 



252 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



"Heath-Field in Holland," by R. Van I'dten, is one of those quiet nooks 
comnion in Europe — the streamlet issuing- from a clump of scrubby trees, 
among which stands a stout and shady giant with gnarled trunk, whose leafy 
shadow over the pool where the stream emerges into the open is suggestive 
of trout and pike ; the rich carpet of heath, variegated with wild flowers, and 
the cool gray atmosphere and cloudy sky account for the sleepy shepherd and 
his dog, and quiet sheep wending their way aimlessly on the distant horizon. 

Turning to the right hand in the Netherlands Art Gallery from Henrietta 
Ronner's "Last Hope," the picture which strikes the beholder most prominently 
is Gempt's illustration of La Fontaine's fable, "The Cat Feigning Death," of 
which we have made a steel engraving. An immense gray and white tabby 
(the white of the cat being exceedingly clean, and the gray correspondingly 
tresh) is suspended by the hind legs, according to the well-known fable, and 
the rats, who have become so cunning as to be next to impossible to catch, 
being cautiously satisfied that the cat is really d<_-ad, proceed to discuss traps 
and cats and other enemies to their loeace in a free and unreserved manner. 
.\ steel spring-trap to the left has been sprung and nearly caught one of the 
largest rats ; indeed it has caught and abridged his tail close to the root. This 
must have been some hours ago, for he has by this time regained his compo- 
sure and returns with the rest, and the picture catches him in the act of 
examining, in a thoughtful mood, the appendage which formerly helped him to 
steer his way in the worUl. Two old fellows, in order to "make assurance 
doubly sure," are on their hind legs, stretched up to see whether the cat be 
really dead, and a white old mother-rat with a family of six is learnedly 
warning her brood of the traps and pitfalls and cat wiles which endanger the 
\outhful prime of inexperienced rathood. An old-fashioned rat-trap appears on 
the right, which two dark gray fellows are engaged in inspecting in a curious 
and contemptuous manner. The cat sees and hears all this — as the cat is alive 
and looks painted alive, for there never was such a healthy skin on a dead 
cat. The light and shadow of the cellar in which the scene is appropriately 
cast are admirably rendered, and we observe that the picture is sold, which 
shows that it has found an appreciative admirer who meant business. 

A most important ])icture is tlie finished steel engraving ol the "Portrait 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds," from a painting by himself. This painting is one 




THE CAT TFEIG-I^i;^© BEATffic 



TJ, S,lateniationalEdiLbltloi-Ll876 



SESBIE * EARKIE . 



FINE ART. 253 

of the few pictures in the north-west gallery, where most of the British 
loan pictures are grouped, that justifies the repute in which the artist was 
held. This is a thoroughly satisfactory example of a good style of painting. 
There is a simplicity, an absence of anything approaching trickiness, and 
a manly vigor in the modeling of this head, that is in marked contrast to 
the work of Sir Thomas Lawrence, who is represented by two pictures— a 
portrait of the late Lord Ashburton, and a large canvas containing the portraits 
of the three first partners of the house of Baring. This last named is the 
best picture of Lawrence's, but there is no such workmanship upon it as we 
find in the portrait of Reynolds, which might with great propriety have been 
catalogued "The Portrait of a Gentleman," for any one who knows anything 
of the history of the Fine Arts need not be informed what a model gendeman 
he was. Is not his life familiar to all readers ?— as the friend and companion 
of Sheridan, of Burke, of Goldsmith, of Johnson, of Garrick, of the Kembles, 
and of Mrs. Siddons, whom he painted as the Muse of Tragedy. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds has been called by his countrymen "die great founder of the British 
School of painters," and he was undoubtedly one of the greatest painters that 
ever lived. The British Government did itself great credit and did us high 
honor in sending the portrait of their first President of the Royal Academy, 
painted by his own hand, to grace our Centennial Exhibition. Indeed, we 
consider this the most important picture of the foreign exhibits, and "the British 
nation," whose property it is, paid us a gracefiil compliment in sending it. 

As Reynolds was foremost among portrait-painters in England, Turner in 
marines. Constable in landscape, so was George Lance in "still life." Emerging 
from the room in which hung the portrait of Reynolds, on the left-hand side 
hung the example illustrated on pages 210 and 211, entided, in the English 
Catalogue, "The Unwelcome Guest," but the picture is known in England as 
"Harold," the name of the pet peacock, we presume. 

Lance was born in 1802, and died in 1864. While a youth he was a pupil 
of Haydon. His peculiar talent for the representation of objects of "still life" 
was first pracdcally noticed by Sir George Beaumont, who purchased his pic- 
tures. After this he soon had patrons in plenty. Though the labor bestowed 
on these paintings was very great, four hundred of them remain to testify to 
his Industry and application. They are found in the best galleries of modern 




tieyivood Hardy, Pi 



256 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



art, and have a high commercial as well as artistic value. In his peculiar style 
Lance rivals the best of the Flemish masters, exhibiting equal brilliancy ot color 
and minuteness and delicacy of touch. 

It is told of Mr. Lance that he became a fruit-painter by accident. He 
was busy with a picture from history, in which it was necessary to introduce 
chalices and grapes — the glories of the hot-house and the goldsmith's shop. 
Like a sensible artist, he made careful studies of every portion of his intended 
picture. His men and women, it is said, promised well, but his metal-work and 
fruit more than realized the expectations of his warmest friends. He trans- 
ferred Benvenuto Cellini and Covent Garden to canvas in a way that delighted 
Jews, antiquaries and fruit-sellers. Critics and connoisseurs foretold in Mr. 
Lance an English \'an Hu\sum or \'an Os, and in this instance their prophe- 
cies have been fulfilled. 

The works in the British section, of whith mention has been made already 
several times in the course of this publication — either because of their import- 
ance as marking the progress of British art, or as possessing characteristic 
merits of their own — form but a small proportion of the entire collection, and 
are far from representing all the pictures that are worthy the attention of the 
visitor. We must therefore content ourselves with a selection of what we 
consider Teprcseiitative examples, one of which, "The Disputed Toll," we illus- 
trate on pages 254 and 255. Mr. Hardy has given us here a rich piece of 
humor. A wandering showman with a huge elephant are disputed passage at 
a turnpike-gate, where the smock-frocked keeper, ready enough to fix the toll 
of a wagon of hay, or the squire's gig, is evidently nonplussed as to the 
price which so unusual a traveler should pay for his right of way. He has 
probably consulted his voluminous tariff which ranges from a herd of bullocks 
to a drove of pigs, but from which the gcmis elephant is only conspicuous by 
its absence. The worthy keeper then determines to be on the safe side, to do 
his duty to his employers, and demands a good round sum. This the showman 
does not feel inclined to pay, and a wordy war is going on between the two 
disputants, while the elephant is apparently inclined to put an end to the dis- 
cussion by lifting the gate off its hinges, and thus setding the question. A 
diminutive terrier belonging to the gate-keeper is evidendy doing his best, as 
far as barking goes, to aid his master. The sketch, we believe, is taken from 




KinMo I'ldutai. ^<'tf- 



258 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

an actual incident, the showman in question making it a practice to dispute the 
toll demanded, at every turnpike-gate. After some discussion he would walk 
on, and the elephant in endeavoring to follow him, would so batter and strain 
the gate that the keeper would be ultimately only too glad to let the animal 
pass at any price. The situation Mr. Hardy has portrayed in the picture before 
us is eminently comical, and the whole subject is humorously and artistically 
treated throughout, the elephant especially being an admirable piece of 
portraiture. 

Italian art is fond of delineating the subject of "Charity;" Del Sarto's 
illustration of it, depicting a lovely woman nourishing a group of children, is 
admired by every visitor to the Louvre. Signor Trombetta has contrived to 
represent the same idea with birds, instead of children, as the subjects of 
benevolence. We give an engraving of "The Bird's Nest," by this artist, on 
page 199. No reliever of human wants could have a lovelier expression, or 
show a mood of heavenlier tenderness, than this maiden who feeds from a quill 
a nest of young and helpless fledgelings. When womanhood's wliole soul goes 
out, as here, in an effusion of love for objects other than self, the most finished 
graces of our imperfect nature are realized, and human beauty takes its fairest 
and completest expression. This Italian maid who leans against a pedestal, and 
warms the litde flock against her pure breast — gathering in one embrace the 
cross that hangs upon her bosom and the downy group of the birds — is actu- 
ated by the same feeling, and expresses the same grace, as the benefactress 
of starving multitudes. For the purposes of art, the type is identical. The 
sculptor therefore has used all his power to give tenderness to the attitude, 
and the brooding patience of a nursing mother to this maiden still in the bud. 
It IS the nature of woman to nourish and to give life ; and these helpless nest- 
lings are unwittingly setting in motion a current of nobler feelings, of more 
developed intelligence, than they could ever have aroused in the mere bird 
who was their real parent. The beauty of the statue is in its perfect repre- 
sentation of the female instinct; whether the objects be winged or wingless it 
matters little. The exquisite outgoing of woman's soul in care for another is 
all there, and the easy grace of the head, the skillful gathering and fall of the 
drapery, and the poise of arrested motion in the hovering hand that confers 
the nourishment, are but subordinate attractions. It is a somewhat hackneyed 



26o THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

subject treated with an essential truth and understanding that gives it as much 
emphasis as originaHty or audacity of treatment would have done. 

The gay costume and solid comeliness of the Alsatian peasantry have long 
proved an attraction to painters, and the picture whose copy we insert on 
pages 222-3 exhibits agreeably the character as well as the effects of color 
visible in a group of those half-French, half-German borderers. The types are 
well chosen, the composition is admirable, and the coloring is rich and grave, 
in M. Pabst's painting entitled "A Bride in Alsace." We see an old-fashioned, 
heavily-timbered room, furnished with the painted wardrobe, the ponderous 
linen-chest, and the rude bench of a German cottage, all of which have a kind 
of sincere and honest beauty beyond the imitative starkness of "Eastlake 
furniture." A bride is being ushered in by her mother to her group of bride- 
maidens, the oldest of whom is about to fit upon the proper finger the marriage 
ring. The intending bride is a simple-looking and comely blonde, who regards 
her ring-finger with a calm and dispassionate air, as if the ring and its implied 
pledge were the responsibility of some one else. She is gaily and tastefully 
dressed ; about her thick waist is tied an embroidered apron ; her frock is 
bordered with velvet, and a breast-knot of fresh flowers rises and falls with 
the heaving of a bosom that no hysterical emotions excite and no morbid 
apprehensions depress. Her little brother comes in at the door with another 
nosegay, while a still larger bouquet reposes on the bench at the side .of the 
youngest bride-maid. The house, all around this quiet group and peaceful 
essay of the ring, is of course in uproar; one fancies the noisy arrival of the 
groom and his young men at the portal, the assemblage of the neighbors, the 
marshaling in array for the church procession. "Nodding their heads before 
them goes the merry minstrelsy." Curious relatives are peeping in at the door 
upon the phlegmatic and hesitating bride. And even in the quiet room, the 
sacred maiden's chamber which no hint of connubial confusion has heretofore 
invaded, we see, beside the bride and her little group, a busy nymph who 
rummages in a coffer for the wedding-scarf and a damsel who dispenses cake 
and wine. The women all have the peculiar head-dress which is the easy 
distinguishing-mark of Alsace, a large bow of black ribbon, like a monstrous 
butterfly, perched on the top of the head ; the bride's alone is colored, the rest 
sombre as Hamlet's cap. M. Pabst's workmanship is peculiarly firm and broad, 



FINE ART. 261 



and has a special harmony with tlie buxom, well-nourished and vigorous style 
of comeliness he represents. 

What is this burst of brilliancy, this seeming flight of all the world along 
the Champs Elysees, this explosion of flowers across the pavement, and sudden 
spotting over earth and heaven of glistening foliage, pink babies, and Easter 
bonnets? It is the "Flower-Market in front of the Madeleine," and the par- 
ticular florist who evokes all the bloom is Edmund Morin. The exuberance of 
spring and the brilliancy of a volatile population could hardly be more cleverly 
hinted. Not a figure is complete, not a single object is in rigidly perfect 
drawing; but there is a purpose in every blunder ot the artist's, and his loosest 
work is done where just the typical feature ol the object is to be made 
emphatic and exaggerated. These extravagant curves are the italic lines with 
which the artist gets his energy. Here is indeed the glancing, quick effect of 
the market held in front of the steps of the Madeleine Church in Paris. The 
liveliest climax of the mart — the moment when the latest housekeeper is going 
home with her gilliflowers, and the earliest lorette is galloping out for her white 
camellias — the time when the sunshine is intensifying, the flowers are bursting 
open, the children are chattering, and the blooded horses are trotting towards 
the "Bois," — is recorded' in M. Morin's glittering picture. The original work, 
be it understood, is a large oil-painting, that hung in one ol the long corridors 
of Memorial Hall ; but it was put on wood for our cut by the painter himself 
(see pages 234-5), '^^'''0 is a constant worker for the better class of illustrated 
periodicals in Paris. Here is the quick walk of the workman, pipe in mouth 
and hotte on back ; here is the exaggerated high-stepping of the boulevard 
horse, the high chin of the flunkey, the theatrical and overdone matronliness 
of the "bonne femme" who sells the roses, the modish elegance of the French 
lady, the hooked moustache of the French beau. How much is expressed by 
this touch-and-go hastiness of drawing ! — what wonderful brilliancy the draughts- 
man secures by a splash and a dot! When we think of it, a spectator really 
could get no better or more distinct view of a changing crowd — a picture 
photographically and minutely finished would really be false to the impression 
created. "I feel as if it was beautiful fireworks being let off in my head," says 
Mrs. Lirriper of Paris in general. Ami M. Morin succeeds in conveying this 
peculiar sensation, not the least characteristic of those which Paris creates. The 



264 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

style of work is suggestive and very skillful. As the reader observes it, how- 
ever, he will be very likely to ask himself if the same art-secret is not embodied 
in work he has often seen before. These spots and surprises of printer's ink — 
these crisp high lights and deeply underlined shadows — he has watched as long 
as he has watched the pages of the London Ilhisti'atcd News, and other publi- 
cations embellished by the talent of John Gilbert. The style is a modification 
of Gilbert's style, and the secret of M. Morin's peculiar brillianc)' is, that he was 
a pupil of Gilbert. 

II Cavalier Ugo Zannoni, of Milan, is the author of the group of three 
individuals, two animals and one human, engraved by us on page 239 — subject, 
"You're Jealous," or "Affection and Envy." It is a pretty little maid, in a laced 
nightgown, who seemingly is taking her kitten to bed, while the pet terrier, in 
a passion of jealousy, yelps around her bare feet. The child looks down gently 
upon the discarded courtier, but like a royal patron, keeps fast hold of the 
reigning favorite while smiling tenderly upon the parasite she rejects. Evidendy, 
Fido's too sincere tongue is what has got him his dismissal. In nurseries as 
in courts, it is the sleek, comfortable toady, that takes all the lavors it can get, 
basks in the warmest bosom it can find, and says nothing, that the caresses go 
to; burly Fidelity, barking and snapping for pleasure at every salute, is too 
noisy for a bedfellow. The cat, in the picture, does not exhibit the least 
triumph, or hate of its rejected rival ; and that is another attribute of the 
finished courtier; even to remind the Throne of a past satellite is an error. 
Anne Boleyn might have lived longer, if she had been just so much more 
kittenish than she was as to resolve never to mention Catlierine's name. 

We publish on page 237 an engraving of a landscape, "The Lake of 
Piedilugo," by Federico Ashton, a Florentine artist. Few scenes convey a sen- 
timent of such uninterrupted peace. A broad expanse of water, led off by a 
succession of low banks to the horizon, reflects a sky of Italian blue, except 
where, pierced by the arrows of sagittate leaves, and overhung by fantastic 
trees, it is stirred by momentary ripples and shadowed by darker reflections. 
A light scow floats on the lake, wherein a solitary fisherman stands to spread 
his net. The mild, basking, grassy shores, the plume of green trees, and the 
blue sky crossed by sailing ranks of white cloud, make up the prospect. If 
there is any one quality which more than all others contains the inner charm 



FINE ART. 



265 



of Italian landscape, it is its idleness. Labor seems banished from that part 
of the world. Those whose lot requires them to work, do so in a leisurely 
and matter-of-course routine, like this still fisherman, whose scow brushes the 




slender stakes that mark the channel of the great lake, and for whom the 
currents and the slow hours will bring- an unforced income. The Italian loves 
an avocation whose secret, like the business of the fishery, is merely watching 
and waiting- and catching. The condition of an effective net, like that of a 
strong but languid soul, is mere receptivity. Let the forces of Nature do half 



266 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

the work, and let man stand ready to hold what they will bring liini ! That 
appears to be the genius of Italian life, and the type of the net seems the 
best mark of character for the populace which to-day covers the western shores 
of America with ingenious fishers — a populace which has sometimes risen, as 
with Masaniello, to momentary supremacy, but which ordinarily likes to be 
strongly governed and regularly fed. Cheery pensioners of ever-bounteous 
Nature, the Italian picbs are the product of their mild skies, their fruitful soil, 
and their beautiful groves. For the work-day Saxon world, this temperament 
seems half guilty, half enviable. We let our invalids and our idlers administer 
to themselves a summer in Italy, like a dose of opiate. Our strong and active 
producers despise the remedy. Yet let a bustling, busy Anglo-Saxon resolutely 
dispose of his carking cares for a single season, and without the fatigue of 
incessant sight-seeing drop into some quiet nest on the shores of old Latium, 
and the fortitude of another and better and stiller kind of strength will gradu- 
ally grow upon him ; the air of a calmer manhood will bathe his being, the 
still waters of contentment will well up in his character, the blue peaks of 
serener purposes will fortify the whole circle of his horizon, and Italy will be 
justified. 

By the same artist is the painting of "Woods in Autumn," or ''Bosco di 
Faggi in Automno'' of which we present the engraving on page 259. Near 
the centre of the scene, beneath a large beech-tree, a couple ol herd-women 
are resting, while in the distance, to the right, browse a dozen cows, too far off 
to be plainly distinguished, but doubtless of that soft mouse-color which Ruskin 
says makes the hides of Italian cattle more beautiful than all the spotted and 
painted glories of tropical animals. Over the heads of these peaceful ruminants 
rises a range of snow-capped mountains. The greater part of the picture is 
occupied by the spreading boughs of this Italian woodland, where in a warm 
and spicy air the immemorial trees drop from season to season their brown, 
dry plumage, 

"Thick as autumnal leaves that strew the glades 
Of Vallambrosa." 

We have very little idea, though we hear so much about it, of the real character 
of Italian foliage. A minute and conscientious study like the present picture is 



FINE ART. 



267 




a valuable contribution to our information. The absence of any true winter in 
Italy makes the foliage for the greater part of the year somewhat sere and 



268 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

dingy ; the blackish green of the ilex and cypress distinguishes the streets, 
gardens and cemeteries ; in summer this already sombre coloring is well pow- 
dered with dust; in the spring, the tender and exquisite green of the youno- 
leaves is largely mixed with the faded hues of the older leafage, which the 
light frosts of winter have not been able to disturb. The green of Italian 
scenery is therefore much tempered with faded browns and dusty grays, yet 
this very reserve of color makes effects more within the reach of art to portray, 
and trains the painter to choose the subder harmonies of his pallette. At 
sunrise and sunset there are fine golden effects, powdering with sparkles of 
yellow light this austere vegetation ; and no landscape-garden that we know 
of can excel in impressiveness the Boboli Park on the Altrarno side of Florence, 
when the long ranks of mighty melancholy patriarchs of the woods are washed 
with rain and then stricken with the golden rod of some long sunset ray 
emerging from the storm. The painter of this autumn woodland has allowed 
his memory and fancy to become thoroughly penetrated with the peculiar 
character of the leafage of North Italy — the region round about Florence — and 
we may refer to his work for a reliable image of the very aspect of nature 
that was in Milton's mind when, old and blind in England, he let his thoughts 
recur to that youthful visit to Galileo on the height overlooking Florence, and 
that immortal comparison of the defeated host to the fallen foliage of Vallam- 
brosa woods. 

One of Shakespeare's loveliest creations, "Imogen," is perhaps less adapted 
for delineation on the stage than by the painter's art. Miss Louisa Starr, a 
talented Englishwoman, was represented at the Centennial by a picture with 
this subject, the painting having been lent for the purpose by the New York 
connoisseur, Mr. H. C. Howells, whose property it was. (See cut on pages 
262—3.) The plight of distressed damsels wandering about in boys' clothes was 
a favorite one with Shakespeare and the other Elizabethan dramatists; since 
female parts were in their time always played by lads, there was something 
appropriate and obvious in the situation, and no doubt most original and piquant 
effects were sometimes got by young actors of genius, whose fame is now lost 
to us, in the equivocal predicament. This desolate lady, who out of the blan- 
dishment of courts has wandered to the miserable shelter of a cave and the 
feast of bare bread, is represented by Miss Starr with grace and sweetness. 



FINE ART. 269 

Her form is posed in an artistic attitude, and her drapery falls in a sculptural, 
noble manner. By her side, in the rough cave, reposes the sword, tlie guardian 
of honor and respect; but Imogen, folding her bare feet together as if each 
sought the protection of the other, and broadening out tiiat helpless woman's 
lap which is one of the most womanly of the features of femininity, and always 
seems adapted for bounty, while the narrow male loins seem intended for agility 
in fight, will make but a poor figure in swordswomanship. 

No picture in the Centennial Exhibition attracted a greater share of admi- 
ration from the art-loving public than the "Pan and Bacchantes" of Eugene 
Felix, represented on pages 270-271 of this work. Hung in the centre of 
the wall, immediately opposite the great painting of "Catherine Cornaro," and 
displaying its nymph-like nudides in the full size of nature, the picture excited 
a popular, and somewhat equivocal, enthusiasm. It is certainly an intricate, 
painstaking, academic study. The attitude of the standing form reminds one 
of an antique statue, and there is ingenuity in the way in which the line of the 
lifted arm of the reposing figure carries out the curve commenced by the 
trailing thigh and ankle of the other one. The theme is rather trivial for so 
large and highly finished a work. A terminal statue of the god of open-air 
nature, Pan, is caressed by a -pair of the feminine followers ot Bacchus; the 
goat-like profile oi the image, and the open-lipped laughter of its mouth, lend 
themselves easily enough to the fancy of the applied cup and offered grape- 
branch. One laughing Bacchante reaches up and sets the goblet to the lips 
of Pan, steadying herself meanwhile by throwing her arm lightly around his 
shoulder. The other, who has sunk upon the ground at the base, lifts up the 
grape-branch, while a goat capers over the overturned amphora, and a blos- 
soming oleander-tree springs from the urn behind the head of the reclining 
nymph. The calculated suavity of the combined forms of this group is offset 
by the pointed and bristling shapes of the foliage all around, and the flesh of 
the figures relieves itself against darkly-shadowed leafage and the bronze of 
the idol. Let us judge such a picture not by any exclusive standard applied 
to its subject, but solely on its merits as a decoration. It is simply an academic 
copy of the nude, promoted into a picture by the addition of the trees and 
other accessories. As such it does not exactly satisfy any standard of criticism. 
The forms of the Bacchantes are conventional. They are studies of the living 



272 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

female model mended out by reminiscences of Raphael and the antique ; but 
they add nothing to the trophies bequeathed to art by the old masters — they 
are not only far beneath the style of Raphael and the Venetians, but they are 
below the eclectics and the satellites of those old painters, below the Carracchi 
and the Albanos of a time of decline. The accumulation of pictures of just 
about this degree of merit is a bane of art — they have no reason for exist- 
ence. The nature-study is not first-rate nature-study, and the objections of the 
rigid and self-denying ascetic cannot be met by the plea of that close and 
instructive discernment of the beauties ot nature which in some works of genius 
is of the nature of a higher revelation, and carries with it its own morale and 
line of duty. We would assign a decidedly secondary place to the "Pan and 
Bacchantes." Yet, to reach even that secondary place in the achievements of 
art, how much study has had to be undergone! — how much patience exer- 
cised ! — how much the hand has had to be limbered and the eye trained ! Art 
has had to culminate with the Greeks, rise again with the Italian painters, and 
be painfully reconstructed by modern experiment, before the common attain- 
ment of the cratt and the every-day trick of trade could give us a conventional 
success like this. The most elegant and noble Egyptian sculptor, carving a 
goddess for a queen, could not have invented one of these poses ; the cunningest 
Phoenician workman of Solomon's, the ablest Etruscan carver, could not have 
reached that commonplace grace which stamps these nymphs, and is by this 
time the easy attainment of every drawing-school. But there is a responsibility 
which goes with an age of intelligence. In painting as in literature, it is not 
permissible to trade on the discoveries of our predecessors. It Is not permissible 
for a newspaper poet to rise into fame by writing a few songs which have the 
smoothness of the smoother songs of Ben Jonson and Beaumont and Fletcher: 
that smoothness was with them the result of an immense strain of the ear, a 
profound research into the mysteries of a language in a state of formation. 
There is no glory in writing smoothly now, when smooth periods are ready- 
made to everybody's tongue. In art, there is no glory in making conventional 
beauty ; without there is something of real piercing insight in our copies from 
nature, they had better not be published. Unless the painter can get at some 
seldom-observed and essential characteristic of his model — something that strikes 
the trained critic as he is struck by some sudden touch, straight from the heart 




THE HAT HUMTERS. 



U. S latemational ExluiniorL 187 6 



FINE ART. 



273 



to the heart, in a drama — there is nothing gained; the world does not become 
the richer by the contribution. But let him once express, with insight and 




Ftlix Ma>-tiH. Sculp. 



Louis XI at Peronne. 



authority, a subtle natural fact; let him indicate the pearly reflection and blood- 
fed quality of human flesh in light or shadow ; let him remind us of the value 



274 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

of natural lights and darks in objects seen against the sky ; let him touch us 
with the reminiscence of his own personal discoveries in the aspects of nature, 
and we recognize him immediately, and forgive a deal of puerility or haste. 
It is the academic, official painters who are hard to forgive — those who are to 
pictorial what a calculating, uninspired author is to literary art — the Bulwers of 
the brush. As for the present painter, he has committed one sin that academic 
art loves dearly and repeats forever: his figures are illuminated by studio light, 
and not by that of the open air in which they are placed. The gradations on 
their limbs and bodies are the gradations observed in a room with a window. 
Around these forms, thus shaded, a landscape is coldly and heardessly painted 
in. The human beings receive no lights, no reflected colors, from the accesso- 
ries ; and the illuminadon upon diem is the tempered illumination of interiors, 
not the bold square impinging of external daylight. 

There are two painters of the name of Daubigny whose reputations are 
well known to American picture-buyers. The father, Charles, who possesses a 
truly remarkable talent for represendng the placid river-scenery of France, was 
not represented by any contribution at the Centennial festival; the son, who 
distinctively signs his name Karl, and who belongs to the class of rising and 
ambitious ardsts, contributed, inter alia, the landscape entitled "Shipping Oysters 
at Cancale." We are enabled to give, on page 267, a memorandum of this 
picture that has a higher interest than would belong to the smoothest engraving 
we could furnish: it is a fac-simile of the artist's own pen-and-ink sketch for 
the picture; his signature will be observed in the right-hand corner. A weather- 
stained old oyster-boat, In i\I. Daublgny's painting, was seen stranded on the 
beach at low tide, and a whole population of oyster-gatherers, consisting of 
robust girls and women with warm stuff dresses and white caps, were distributed 
in every conceivable attitude and order of grouping, engaged in the business 
of loading in the shell-fish. Even in the hasty Indlcadon given by our sketch, 
the life of the postures, as the hard-working fish-wives carry between them the 
heavy baskets, leaning forward as they advance with them from the water's 
edg-e, or clineine together, half entano-led with their wet skirts, Is obvious 
enough ; but the truth of sky and water, in front of which these clever figures 
were set, is left to our reader's imagination — or, if he saw the picture, to his 
memory. M. Daubigny Jiis, educated in the soundest tradidons of art, and 



FINE ART. 



275 




Albert Maignan, Pi. 



2/6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

already able to boast of some legitimate successes, has, we feel sure, a bright 
future before him. His contributions of a "Landscape" (No. 135 at the Cen- 
tennial) and "The Valley of Pourville in Normandy" (No. 175) added to the 
favorable impression made by the more important work which we select. 

The life-size statue of Berenice, by Renato Peduzzi, of Milan, was one of 
the finest examples of imitative technic that the whole Italian exhibit afforded. 
We give an illustration on page 257. The spectator in this case is not to look 
for a severe ideal, nor for a close historical treatment. Signor Peduzzi concerns 
himself but little with the date and place, the probable appearance of this 
Macedonian heroine transplanted into Egypt. Like a true decorative artist, he 
makes it his unique concern to represent in stone that glitter of sunny hair 
which was feigned to have become a constellation. Everything in the compo- 
sition is subordinated to this most difficult of textures, and if the hard marble 
does not suggest the lightness, the crispness, the fleecy sheen of that divine 
chevchur, his work of daring, the challenge of his chisel, has come to naught. 
We think the gage has not been thrown in vain. Of all the Italian statues, 
which represented by many different devices the gossamer grace and separable 
quality of curling hair, his masterpiece is the boldest. Piled in sunlit rings 
upon the lightly-poised head, flowing like a rivulet down the back, and lying 
in straying heaps upon the uplifted arms, the hair of Berenice, in his statue, 
becomes a sort of marble constellation. In flossy lightness, in capricious flow 
from the roots to the extremities, in suggestion of golden color, the locks of 
this singular statue are a wonder. Never has chisel more haughtily insulted 
the marble : under its touches the inert stone loses its weight and massiveness, 
and is trained to gambol, to fly, to scatter, and tangle itself like silk. The 
ancients never attempted any such painting treatment in marble : preferring to 
respect the limitations of the material they worked in ; they were content to 
treat the hair of their stone statues in a distantly suggestive manner; when 
they wrought in bronze they made a different line of attempts, and freely used 
wires or the most vigorous undercutting to imitate the separate strands of the 
locks. Signor Peduzzi has not only adapted the painting method to the hair, 
but to the drapery ; the finely-striped folds of the latter, its clinging softness, 
and the drooping draggle of its fringes, are singular and refined ; delicate as 
the painted draperies of Hebert or Cabanel. The subject of this statue was 



FINE ART. 



277 



a real personage, wh© died 221 B. C. She was one of those descendants of 
the Macedonian conquerors of Egypt who introduced Greek customs and Greek 
civilization into the land of the Pharaohs, and the sculptor represents her in 
her grand historic act of piety, worshiping a Greek divinity. In the fane of 




Angelo Ramagnoli, Pt 



Aphrodite, while Evergetes, at once her brother and her husband, was starting 
on a dangerous expedition, she vowed all her hair to the goddess in case he 
returned, and emerged shorn from the temple. He came back in due time 
victorious, and soon after the queen's hair disappeared from the altar; upon 
this the report of a special miracle was raised, and a complaisant priest, one 



278 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Conon, was found to declare that the locks had been 'seized by Jupiter and 
turned into a constellation. In this form we see even now the begemmed hair 
of Berenice, as when the multitudes of Alexandria first worshipped it on the 
announcement of the prodigy. Poor Berenice, while the humble crowd were 
still paying divine honors to this part of her person, could not save herself 
from the horrible pain of a violent death : she was assassinated by her own 
son. The statue which represents her in her flush of youth and in her moment 
of dedication and ardent piety, was the most important work exhibited by the 
sculptor; his other contributions were of ornamental garden-statuary, distinguished 
by singular brilliancy and skill in the cutting, but hopelessly baroques. 

The statue of Aronte, by Guarnerio, is connected by its subject with that 
supposed settlement of Italy by ^neas, which is still a favorite legend with the 
modern Italians, as it was with Augustus, for whom \'irgil put the story into 
shape. We present a cut of the figure on page 265. Among the opponents 
of y^neas on the soil of his adoption were the king of the Rutuli, Turnus, and 
Camilla, the beautiful queen of the Volsci. This lovely Amazon, who could run 
over the sea without wetting her feet, and "fly o'er th' unbending corn," dis- 
tinguished herself in the war of her all)', Turnus, against i^neas, by the numbers 
who fell under her hand. Aronte, one of yEneas' soldiers, killed the dangerous 
beauty with his arrow, and perhaps decided the triumph of civilization in Italy. 
Guarnerio, the most versatile of the Italian artists, has handled this classic theme 
like a true disciple of Canova. The statue is in the purest classic taste. We 
do not recognize in its treatment the gusty energy of the same artist's 
"Washington," nor the epigrammatic relish of his "Forced Prayer." We have 
before pointed out this singular versatility of a single chisel, which opens out 
strange views of the purpose and end of art. Is the artist to be a being of 
some consistency and some convictions, or is he to change his style radically 
like an actor, and wear with equal readiness the robe of the buffo or the 
tragedian ? 

Recurring to the department of English paintings, we illustrate on page 
285, the only contribution sent by a rising London artist, Mr. Laslet John Pott. 
This painter, who has not yet received Academic honors, seems destined to a 
high place in his country's art-roll, from the ability with which he arranges his 
groups, the propriety of action and expression in his individual figures, and the 



28o THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

care with which he confers the historic imprint of a scene. Mr. Pott's contri- 
bution at Philadelphia, represented "Charles I leaving Westminster Hall after 
his Trial." There is nothing in English history which lends itself so favorably, 
not only to the patriotic choice of the Britons themselves but to the selection 
of foreign painters, as the episode of Charles' history ; not only has Vandyke 
left us his portraits of matchless and melancholy grace, but Delaroche has 
painted "Charles I Insulted in the Guard-Room," and "Cromwell \'ie\ving the 
Body of Charles I." The present painting shows Charles marching with resigned 
and princely step out of the Hall where his hnal condemnation has been pronounced. 
Three times did the self-appointed judges of the Stuart prince require his presence 
before them ; and each time the approaches and outward chambers of the Hall 
of Parliament were carefully filled with a rabble, admitted for the express purpose 
of harassing him. In going through the Hall the soldiers were instigated to cry 
out, "Justice and Execution ! ' Every indignity ot tongue and gesture was visited 
upon the royal victim, and it is recorded that a wretch having spit in his face, 
Charles patiently remarkeci, " Poor souls, they would treat their generals in the 
same manner for sixpence." The martyr-king walks, guarded by a few Parlia- 
mentary soldiers, who, however, are evidently in sympathy, not with their charge, 
but with his accusers and insulters. In the foreground, a lusty smith, with the 
pincers still in his blackened hand, has left his work to persecute his monarch 
with the coarsest jests of the smithy. The picture tells its story well, and arouses 
a lively sympathy for the elegant and patient vicdm. Unfortunately, the reverse 
of the medal is less adapted to artistic purposes, and we have few pictures 
representing the wrongs and tyrannies that goaded an overwrought people to 
revolution. Mr. L. J. Pott, the painter, was born in 1837, ^'^ Newark, a pretty 
town of Nottinghamshire. At the age of sixteen, he was articled to a j^rovincial 
architect, where he laid the foundation for that excellent arrangement of archi- 
tectural backgrounds which now distinguishes many of his compositions. Tiring 
of the bonds of apprenticeship, he persuaded his friends to let him study 
painting, in London, and presently entered the art-school of Mr. Corey. He 
next became a pupil of Mr. Alexander Johnstone. His first Academy picture 
was one of "Effie Deans." With many more years of work probably before 
him, with good judgment and sound methods, Mr. Pott, doubtless, is destined to 
an honorable career in his chosen vocation. 



FINE ART. 



281 



Equally true in historic sentiment, though not otherwise allied to the work 
last cited, is the portrait-statue of Louis XI, by Felix Martin, which attracted 
considerable attention in the French Department of the Art-Annex. Here is, 




The Mother s Treasit 



indeed, the deep, subtle, treacherous soul of Louis XI, done into imperishable 
bronze — the same monarch, whom we have shown in Comte's picture, amusing 
his sickness with dancing pigs. Here is the wily, calculating intriguer, whose 
weak credulity worshipped the leaden amulets fastened upon his hat, and whose 



282 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

strong- will broke the power of his nobles, sending Charles the Bold to his 
bloody grave, at Nanc)', and reserving for France only two recognized powers, 
the King and the People. M. Martin has perfectly caught the feeble attitude 
of the valetudinarian, the lean legs embracing each other as they cross, the 
droop of the figure that hugs itself in its own selfishness. The grand plans 
coursing through the sick man's brain — the energy and patriotism that changed 
a group of warring provinces into a grand and united France — could hardly 
be told in a work of parlor statuary. Louis XI is one of the most strongly- 
marked characters in history. He presents just that mi.xture of foible and 
strength, of eccentricity and strongly-held purpose, which furnish the light and 
shade necessary for an artistic presentment. He has accordingly been the 
subject of various works in romance, the drama and the fine arts. M. Martin 
represents him gathered up in a huge Gothic chair, his left foot resting on a 
cushion, and the other dangling as it is thrown over the opposite knee. His 
head is settled deeply into the ermine of his robe, and rests upon his right 
hand, the other being stretched quite across to grasp the opposite arm of the 
chair; this unconventional posture is full of character and originality. The 
conception and finish of this small figure, are alike manly, vigorous and artistic. 
We engrave this figure on page 273. 

The beautiful girlish head of which we present an engraving on page 277, 
was painted by Angelo Romagnoli, a Florentine artist. A dark-eyed maiden is 
leaning back in a chair of antique shape, and looking vaguely into space, while 
a large rose is held in the hand, as If just plucked and lifted for the purpose 
of inhailing its fragrance. This patrician girl might be Juliet, debating- the 
import of family names, and deciding that 

"that which we call a rose 
By any other name would smell as sweet." 

The elegant creature represented by Signor Romagnoli, is dressed in silk, with 
ruffs of gauze at the -wrist and neck ; the costume is one of those to which it is 
hard to assign a date, being a mode of some antiquity or a modern one imitating, 
as modern ones so capriciously do, the graces and ornaments of a bygone time. 
The marble group called "The Mother's Treasure," by Ambrozio Borghi, 
of Milan, was placed in that central axis of the Art-Annex, so crowded with 
statues, which immediately caught the visitor's eye from the door of entrance, by 



284 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

its long vista of snow-white forms. We give an engraving of Signor Borghi's 
composition on page 281. It is a fashionable lady whom the artist represents 
as yielding to the universal instinct of maternity. Half-undressed, in peignoir 
and pantoiifles, with hair in a mixed state, combined of fashionable scrambling 
and midnight "coming down," the young mother poises, light as a bird, on the 
cradle's edge, and lifts the litde nude boy-baby for a kiss. The abandon with 
which she sits on the rocking crib of her infant, is childlike and pretty ; the 
child's pose, straining up for the kiss, has a bold directness. The pair of figures, 
too strongly marked with the superficial graces of "boudoir art" to be much 
better than the plates in a "Book of Beauty," are redeemed from absolute 
commonplace by that sentiment of mother's love, which, common as humanity, 
is never vulgar. 

Let the reader contrast this with another treatment of the same subject, 
by a Belgian artist of a higher distinction than Signor Borghi can lay claim to. 
Charles Auguste Fraikin, of Brussels, is a sculptor of settled reputation ; casts 
of his beautiful child-subjects have been favorite models for the young artists 
of the Pennsylvania Academy for nearly a score of years ; and he sent to the 
Centennial Exposition a pair of subjects in marble, one of which we engrave on 
page 249. This, like Signor Borghi's group, delineates a young mother looking at 
her first-born with the ineffable thrill of perfect love. But it is rustically simple 
and chaste in design, whereas the Italian work fritters itself away in a host of 
fluttering ornaments, that conflict with the central idea. We do not mean to 
maintain for an instant, that rustic mothers love their children better than society 
mothers do. Of all the affected nonsense that is talked in this age of many 
affectations, the most unloyal and shameful, is perhaps that which perpetually 
goes beyond the bounds of our own class, to find a purity of love and height 
of feeling which do not exist, it is pretended, within it. The assumption is in 
fact a very cheap dramatic trick : the assertor wants to secure the glow of 
contrast by representing ideal scenes outside the limits of his own and his hearers' 
experience. A little reflection will convince the average reader that city parents — 
society parents — constantly make sacrifices, and reveal heroism, in favor of their 
children, that to the boorish rustic, governing by repression and exacting hard 
duty, is unknown. It is not, then, because a country mother is represented, 
that M. Fraikin's group is severe and candid ; but it has an elevated simplicity 



FINE ART. 



28s 



of its own that lifts it quite outside of social spheres and class distribution it 

belongs to maternity pure and simple, the maternity that puts forward its claim 
to make sacrifices and undergo care alike in the primitive ages of the world 




and now. The Belgian artist shows us, in Belgian close coif and coil of blonde 
plaits, a smiling peasant-mother regarding her offspring. The child almost nude, 
excepting the external cap, which, on the Continent, seems to be the one fixed 



286 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



fact of iiifanlinc; existence, and 7ievcr comes off. The mother, too, has been 
undressing; certain unsheathings and irregularities of lier costume — irregularities 
in an evidently modest woman — have the effect, not of loose suggestiveness, but 
of defining, marking, and laying stress on a supposed condition of absolute privacy. 
Supported on one bare knee, the youthful mother holds her babe, and gazes 
directly inlo its face ; and the litde one, no longer hungry, or sleepy, or tired, 
returns the look with that intelligence which mothers always find so extreme and 
precocious. That is the whole composition ; but the details and general taste 
of the group are of a kind that give it a high rank among works of genre 
sculptLlre. The curve of the woman's n(;ck, th(; poise of her head, are perfect 
grace; the harmony of the lines into which the limbs are thrown, tending here 
and there to a seemly and monumental perpendicular, satisfies and rests the eye. 
There is not only the complete absence of meretricious trickery; there is the 
presence of beaudcs that charm by their dcdicacy and give lasting satisfaction by 
their sterling sweetness. The figure of the mother is pure, large and sculptural, 
with something of the free and careless animalism of a primitive nymph. The 
babe has somewhat of diat picjuant, whimsical charm which distinguished the 
artist's othc:r contribution, the " 1 )roneT5ce." 

Peasant life in its comedy-aspect is illustrated by the Dusseldorf painting, 
whose copy we give on page 250. "In die Park" is the dde of a picture by 
F. Hiddemann, a gentleman of the "Dusseldorf School" and Dusseldorf 
nativity. It is a striking picture, and may be called a favorite one ; since the 
artist, after the custom of German studios, has executed more than one replica, 
and gratified a circle of possessors instead of a single connoisseur. The theme 
is an anecdote. A rustic beau and his inamorata out for a holiday, have strayed 
inlo the park of a grandee of their locality. Here, enwreathed with blossoming 
roses, is a globular mirror, of the kind so often found in European gardens. 
These convex looking-glasses distort the faces of beholders in a very ludicrous 
manner, and the country gallant is laughing, between the whiffs of his pipe, at the 
caricature presented as the reflection of his pretty companion. The gentle girl, 
on the contrary, secure in a liberal endowment of village beauty, looks at the 
grimacing image with placid calmness, secure in the knowledge that no distortion 
can quite rob tlie red from her cheeks and the blue from her eyes. 

A Brussels painter, Jean Verhas, contributed the "Sea-shore at Blankenberghe," 



FINE ART. 



287 



which we illustrate on page 283. Two children, a boy and a girl, watch a third, 
a sturdy litde workwoman, at her task of digging a trench in the sand. One 




carries a flag, which will be planted on the fort, when completed : one has 
introduced a hostile man-of-war, which would occupy a very menacing position 



288 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

in front of the stronghold, but that it is laid over on its side, high and dry, in 
a total deficiency of water. How many of us are taken by this pretty scene 
back at once to childhood and innocence ! How many in days of infancy, have 

"Built their castles of dissolving sand 
To watch them overflowed, or following up 
And chasing the white breakers, daily left 
The little footprint daily washed away!" 

The style of painting practiced by M. Verhas in this example was very clever : 
it was broad in the extreme, with great spaces of sunny light and restricted 
shadow. This distribution does not always make a picture luminous; but M. 
Verhas gave us a composition that seemed bathed in real sunshine. 

"The End of the Game," by J. Beaufain Irving, is a painting that attracted 
much notice in the large American room of Memorial Hall. We present an 
e.xcellent engraving of this subject. Seldom has pictorial art explained itself more 
perspicuously than in this composition, where the eye takes in at a glance the 
whole story and the miserable consequences that must follow. The chess- 
board is set for a bout; liquors, which heat the blood, are discerned on the 
chimney-piece and on the side-table ; it is the epoch of duels, as defined by 
the dress characteristic of our grandfathers' day. The younger player has started 
up from the game, and has challenged his adversary, on some accusation of 
cheating or other ungentlemanly conduct ; his fine silken coat lies on the over- 
turned chair, and he fights in his laced shirt-sleeves. This "stripping for action" 
has not saved him at the hands of his older and cooler opponent, who has 
stabbed him to the heart, upon which his hand is pressed, as if to restrain the 
drops of life-blood, that come "like the first of a thunder-shower." He is caught 
in the arms of an elderly spectator, possibly his father. At the other side of 
the room, the cold and dangerous-looking winner of this ugly game glances 
round, the traces of rage just passing from his face in a look of malignity, 
tempered with watchful self-control. He lifts the darkened blade of his sword, 
which he is just about to return to its scabbard, as his adviser — a cool hand who 
thinks of the laws against dueling — points to the door and counsels him to fly the 
neighborhood. In another moment, stepping over the rash boy's scabbard which 
lies at his feet, he will stride from the room, and proceed to place a safe distance 
between himself and the scene of combat. There are a couple of little poems 



p 




290 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



by Browning, which perfectly convey the heat and the after-chill of a duel ; 
that entitled "Before" begins with the line 

" Let them fight it out, friend ! Things have gone too far." 

The other, penetrated with the sentiment of a terrible and ineffaceable regret, 
concludes : 

" I would we were boys as of old, 
In the field, by the fold — 
His outrage — God^s patience — man's scorn 
Were so easily borne!" 

Mr. Irving, who reads us this impressive lesson on so-called "Chivalry," 
has passed away from among men since the Exhibition, where his work was so 
conspicuous. He was a Southerner by birth, but had lived in New York since 
the war of the Rebellion. He excelled in a line of highly-finished, brilliantly- 
costumed pictures, small in scale and illustrating heroic or chivalric life — coming 
nearer in this kind of painting to the style of Meissonier or Zamacois than 
any American artist. His works sold very readily, at high prices ; some were 
owned by Mr. August Belmont, of New York, who upon his decease organized 
an exhibition of his own magnificent gallery for the benefit of the artist's 
family. Among the items of this beneficiary display were several of Mr. Irving's 
works, including his last, a crowded composition representing the curse-scene 
from "Richelieu," the property of ex-governor Stamford of San Francisco. 

Mr. Toby Rosenthal, an artist of San Francisco, contributed the painting 
of "Elaine," which forms the subject of one of our steel plates. It is a noble 
and tragic composition, but so distincdy a representative of the Munich school 
of painting that it neither seems like a picture to be rightly called a work of 
American art, nor an illustration of the legendary epoch of Great Britain. The 
dead girl, with her blonde massiveness, her powerful frame and large jaws, 
would do very well for a character from the Nibelungen Lied, but is less suit- 
able for an illustration of British loveliness. She is depicted floating down the 
river in the barge, rowed by the dumb serving-man, to be brought into the 
presence of Sir Lancelot, whom she had loved without return. The legend 
relates how, when dying, Elaine prepared her farewell missive to the knight, 
while the thought lay all the while in her gentle breast that by means of a 
tender stratagem she could deliver him her own love-letter in her own hand, 




■;^s^^ss^fe- 



FINE ART. 



291 



even after the breath had left her fair body. This hapless testamentary arrange- 
ment is carefully described in the "Morte d'Arthur" of the fifteenth-century 
writer, Mallory. He makes the maid say: "And while my body is hot, let this 




t. t. Barruts. Sculp. 



Spinning-Girl of Mega 



letter be put in my right hand, and my hand bound fast with the letter until 
that I be cold, and let me be put in a fair bed, with all the richest clothes that 
1 have about me, and so let my bed, and all my richest clothes, be laid with 



292 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

me in a chariot unto the next place where Thames is, and there let me be put 
within a barget, and but one man with me, such as ye trust to steer me 
thither, and that my barget be covered with black samite over and over." The 
dying wish of the fair maid of Astolat was carried out, and she arrived with 
her letter where the king and court and Lancelot were. "And there he saw 
the fairest woman lie in a rich bed, covered unto her middle with many rich 
clothes, and all was of cloth of gold, and she lay as though she had smiled." 
A lovely story, worthy the most inspired effort of the painter. We are aware 
of no interpretation of the scene which can compare with Mr. Rosenthal's. 
With all its imperfection, as a conception of British legend, it is far superior 
to M. Dore's, in his illustration of Tennyson's Idyl on the subject. The general 
cast of the subject, the funereal-majesty of the black-draped barge, the solemn 
mournfulness of the servitor, compose one ot the lew paintings which com- 
pletely fill the conditions of the grand style, without a false note in any part. 

The theme of our steel plate entitled "The Bather," after Perrault, is one 
that might at first shock that most ticklish of human organs entitled "the cheek 
of the young person." It is a tropic maid reclining after her bath in a hammock 
that is slung across the stream ; her arms, thrown up over her head, make an 
ivory cradle for one of the sweetest faces that ever entered a painter's dreams, 
and her foot swings down so as just to graze the warm current. It is, in all 
openness, a study of the nude. The subject would exclude M. Perrault's picture 
from any English or American Academy-exhibition, but it and its similarly- 
sinning rivals — the other "bathers" by Courbet and Gamier, the "Echo" of 
Tortez, the "Salammbo" of Cetner, the "Venus" of Faivre-Duffer, the "Angelica" 
of Chartrin, and the "Cassandra" we have already illustrated after Camorre — 
were not amenable to rejection here since they had passed the criticism of 
M. du Sommerard. The motive of young French painters in exhibiting nudities 
is quite misunderstood. It is not from an immodest love of carrying out volup- 
tuous thoughts that Alphonse and Anatole send their nude subjects to the 
expositions; for them,' years of study have made the contemplation of the bare 
form as business-like a matter as the physician's anatomy of the muscles. It 
is simply because "flesh" is the most difficult thing to paint. A professor 
always recommends the pupil in whom he feels a special interest — the pet of 
the year — to try himself on a nude academic figure and see if they will admit 



FINE A R T. 



293 



it in the Salon. "Flesh" is the touch-stone of a painter's abihty. A figure 
covered with drapery is comparatively easy. "Learn to paint flesh," Bonnat or 
Duran or Cabanel or Couture will say to a pupil, "and all the mysteries of art 




Enrico Braga, Sctttft. 



II Saltambancio, 



will be open to you. Paint flesh, with its beating carnation, its rich creamy 
furrows and Rembrandt shadows, its gray Veronese high-lights, its unctuous 
puffs of Rubens fulness, its chiseled firmness, its variety, sympathy and life. 



294 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8y6. 

The envelope in which our souls are encased is the masterpiece of the heavenly 
sculptor on this earth. It follows and translates every mood of our minds. 
When we love it flushes, when we hate it pales, when we prosper it softens, 
when we are impoverished it grows dull. It is our index and demonstration. 
It stands before our will like the dial before the clock, like the algebraist's 
coefficient before his letters. It is the crucial test of the painter, and the 
renown of the most famous masters is respectively ranged almost exactly 
according as they succeded in representing it completely." 

We have thought it right to give a representation of these two fine pieces 
of flesh-painting from the Centennial — the "Cassandra" first, and now this figure 
of Perrault's. There is no immodesty in the subject, as the painter of "The 
Bather" conceives it. The nymph is placed in a hushed privacy, canopied with 
leaves and their shadows, so secretly folded to the heart of the sylvan solitude 
that no indiscreet sunbeam can steal to pry upon her. There are plenty of 
immoral subjects among the works of famous painters, but this is not an 
immoral subject, for if a person may not bathe, all alone, in the heats of 
summer, then righteousness must consist in dirt. Our task, however, is not so 
much to vindicate the morals of the artists we illustrate, as to deal with their 
strictly professional qualities. In this respect "The Bather" is certainly a merito- 
rious work: of the many reclining figures we remember in art, few have the 
restful sentiment of the posture more delicately indicated. The supine languor 
of the general frame, as it yields to the concavity and to the swing of the 
hammock, except where the protrusion of the dabbling foot pulls half the 
yielding form towards a straight line, is imagined with the daintiest truth. This 
expressive attitude is set in a dark mystery of leaves and shaded water, like a 
cameo in some dark and lustrous enamel. Musidora reclines in a happy day- 
dream, as innocent as her eyes, as untroubled as her white brow. 

We would not even seem to forget the abundant and striking display made 
by our native sculptors ; and accordingly we dip, almost at random, into the 
catalogue of American names, sure of alighting upon some work of merit that 
has either satisfied the testy critics at home, or has managed to please the 
capricious, fastidious tribe of traveled Yankees. We give three statues by 
Americans who, living abroad, have won renown here. Mr. T. R. Gould, with 
his contributions of "The West Wind," "The Rose," and "The Lily;" Mr. P. F. 




Fisherman's Wife of Zuyder Zee. 



296 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Connelly, with his "Ophelia," his "Honor arresting the Triumph of Death," and 
a large number of other conceptions; Mr. Randolph Rogers, with his "Nydia," 
"Atala," and "Ruth," were friends already introduced to the Centennial visitor; 
their productions had achieved success (at least among compatriots) in Europe, 
and inspired the trumpets of that inky Fame who blows through the lines of 
the newspaper. Strollers through the Exposition lingered over the works to 
which names were attached that had long been the burden of the correspond- 
ent's budget and the tourist's tale, to see how these samples would bear the 
experiment of inspection outside the studio and of comparison with the craft 
of Europe. It was a work of verification. Of this widely-vaunted merit our 
engravings are the test. On page 127 we spoke of Rogers's figure of "Ruth." 
Since we Inserted that attractive and favorite conception, our engravers have 
prepared other American compositions, which we will proceed to notice. A 
short description will suffice. 

Mr. T. R. Gould's "West Wind" was lent to the Exposition by its owner, Mr. 
Powers, of Rochester, N. Y. This smiling apparition, advancing over the land with 
her soft even step, and the ripple of her flowing skirts, has not the look of a Greek 
creation. Instead of the progeny of the antique religions, with their carefully- 
assigned postures and their rigidly-dictated attributes, we see an original illus- 
tration of one of the powers of nature, made expressive with all the touches 
that modern fancy can invent. .Some offspring of the famed marriage of Zephyr 
and Flora may have followed a ship of passage, lighdy emigrating on the wings 
of the air, and set up in our country a new mythology. The "West Wind" is 
represented as a slender nymph, with hair blowing off from the forehead, catching 
with one hand her fluttering kirde, and fleeting on tip-toe over the leafy sward 
that sleeks its rough herbage at her passing. Careless and American in aspect, 
her pulse-beats throbbing through a belt of Western stars, the glad incarnation 
seems to have just cooled in the Pacific the light foot she sets on the shore 
of an untamed continent. The best quality to be found in Mr. Gould's work 
we think to be the apparent lightness and elasticity he has contrived to give 
to a block of so many hundred-weight of marble. 

Mr. P. F. Connelly sent to Philadelphia a large number of meritorious 
works, of which the "Ophelia" occupied the most conspicuous position, being 
placed in the principal .American gallery (C), of Memorial Hall, along with his 





0' P'M E ILI^i... 



, !iiternat;on.d! 




. Zacorsky, Pinx. 



Old Russian Couple. 



298 THE INTERNATIONAL EX II I B ITl N, 1876. 

own group of "Honor and Death," and the "First Pose" of Mr. Howard 
Roberts. We dedicate a full-page plate to this composition. It is a figure full 
of shrinking modesty and grace, clothed in a well-imagined mediaeval costume — 
the whole statue elaborate and decorative in its effect, without a trace of mental 
disorder. We hear of Hamlets with the part of "Hamlet" left out. Mr. Con- 
nelly's Ophelia is an Ophelia with the madness left out. The incident selected 
is where the wild maid presents the pansies to her brother. The name of 
these flowers being French for "thoughts," and the gift being combined with 
rosemary, the symbol of remembrance, he accepts the token as a reminder of 
the account due from Hamlet, who has killed the father of this foredoomed 
brother and sister. The story will soon terminate in Ophelia's death, as well 
as that of the brother, slain in play by Hamlet's hand with a poisoned weapon 
provided for his own destruction. The moment when Ophelia distributes her 
flowers is one of the most affecting in the tragedy. It is recorded of the great 
.Siddons that in the "pray you, love, remember," she gave a curious exhibition 
of the sudden lapse into intelligence and shrewdness often seen in mad people; 
she looked at Laertes with a penetrating glance that seemed to dispel for a 
moment the cloud of her insanity, leaving a very weird and harrowing effect 
on the minds of her spectators. The sculptor's conception in this statue is 
entirely different. It is the tenderness and hapless lot of the young noble- 
woman that he would represent ; he shrouds her all about with sadness and 
beauty and the premonition of doom, and prepares us for her imminent fate, 
as she will sing and drown among the willows of the brook. 

The statue of "Nydia, the Blind Girl of Pompeii," by Randolph Rogers, 
was contributed by its present owner, Mr. James Douglas, likewise the pos- 
sessor of the before-mentioned figure of "Ruth," by the same artist. Mr. Rogers 
is a native of Virginia. Tall, distinguished in appearance, and a delightful 
companion, he is one of the indispensable members of the American colony at 
Rome. His "Nydia," which has been so great a favorite with his countrymen 
that he has had to execute a number of rep/iche, illustrates the heroine of 
Bulwer's "Last Days of Pompeii." The preface to that work will explain to 
the reader how the novelist conceived the idea of depicting a blind maiden as 
a participant in the catastrophe of the Vesuvian city, her habits of activity 
under her affliction giving her an advantage in the hour of sudden night. 



FINE ART. 



299 



Around this thought of the superiority of an intelligent blind person in time 




Signor Borghi, Sculp. 



parable constructive ability made to revolve the whole procession of Pompeiian 
discoveries as we see them, as well as the plot of an ingenious love-tale. In 
Mr. Rogers' statue we see the sightless slave hurrying through the streets of 



300 THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Pompeii, never heeding the falling- column that the disturbance has hurled at 
her very feet, and intently listening for every trace that will guide her to her 
Greek lover. The figure perfectly represents the act of walking by the sense 
of the ear, not of the sight. Mr. Rogers has been a very successful prac- 
titioner in his beautiful art. He is the designer of the bronze doors (cast at 
Munich) of the new e.xtension of the capitol, at Washington, representing the 
life of Columbus. He was selected to carry out the designs by Crawford of 
the Washington Monument at Richmond, Virginia. His "Angel of Resurrec- 
tion" decorates the Colt Monument, at Harttorti, Connecticut. He is likewise 
the sculptor of the monument to Lincoln in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; the 
Michigan Soldiers' Monument, and the .Soldiers' Monument in Providence, 
Rhode Island. It may be mentioned as a curious ju.xiaposition, showing how 
high an order ot talent can be found stooping to a subordinate position in 
impoverished Italy, that Mr. Rogers had with him for a long time, as assistant, 
the sculptor of the "Telegram of Love" and "Africaine" (see pages 32 and 
40) — Professor Caroni. 

Thackeray, in "Tin; Newcomes," praises ".Sir Bulwer Lytton's delightful 
story, which has become the history of Pompeii" — thus atoning in his latter 
days for the unmerciful ridicule he heaped on "Bulwig" in his youth. But 
Thackeray sees a comic side to the tragedy of the town. "What would be a 
better figure than Pliin's mother, whom the historian describes as exceedingly 
corpulent, and walking away from the catastrophe with slaves holding cushions 
behind her, to shield her plump person from the cinders.?" This deriding notice 
of the misfortunes of a historical family is merely quoted for the grain of 
actuality it contains, in instancing the only available defences which in that day 
of peril were found convenient. The bewildered inhabitants of Pompeii, fleeing 
from their homes, seized the pillows from the bed-room and the cushions from 
the triclinium, as the obvious protection against a shower of cinders. These 
homely shields could not well be represented in art, but Guarnerio has suggested 
something of the kind, in the figLire of the cowering Pompeiian girl who draws 
her tunic over her head, and who may be followed by attendants carrying the 
cushions really employed. The statue illustrating "The Last Day of Pompeii" 
(page 305) — by Guarnerio, whose contributions we have so liberally and with 
so much justice cited — forms a fitting pendant to that of Mr. Rogers, as showing 





'^ 




WEST WIM'. 



U. S.Iiitematioiial ExliibitioiLlST 6 . 



GEBBIE &aASRlE. 



FINE ART. 



301 




A Feyen-Perrin, Pi. 



Fisherman's Wife and Son. 



302 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, i S j6. 

another phase of the calamity. While the "Nydia" expresses above all the 
darkness and the perplexity in finding one's way throughout a city overwhelmed, 
the statue of the Italian sculptor expresses the suffocation and the lethargy. 
His figure of the terrified victim is huddled as if in a corner, crouching, hesi- 
tating and afraid to move. If she steps, it is with the shifting and doubling 
pace of the hunted creature, who feels the toil closing around her. 

Dedicated to the illustration of a corresponding epoch, though of widely 
different feeling, is "The Amulet Seller," a large and brilliant painting by the 
Russian artist, Henry Semiradsky. Our etcher has been uncommonly successful 
in the plate. Semiradsky is one of the young painters who have established 
themselves in Rome, and support that new, brilliant "Roman School" of painting 
which subsists on the traditions and example of Fortuny. "The Amulet Seller" 
was the largest and most important work of this dazzling clique contributed to 
the Centennial Exposition. Indeed, there has not been seen in America any 
other example in life-size of that rich mode of coloring, practised by Fortuny, 
and of which the style is continued in the little masterpieces of Alvares, and 
Boldini, and Simonetti. Our painter has cemented together, like the bird that 
makes its nest out of the gayest materials it can steal, a sort of rich hotch- 
potch of every kind of lustrous and shining marble, gorgeous tissue, and 
glittering jewel. In front, we see a flashing heap of bijoux — ropes of pearl, 
onyx boxes, and enamels set in gold : then, two fair Roman women, in the 
rich Eastern tissues introduced by the emperors who succeeded the Ccesars ; in 
the hand of one of them is a dark peacock fan ; these figures are relieved 
against the polished variegated marbles of a Roman atrium, whose fountain is 
decorated by the beautiful group of the Fawn and Infant Bacchus, now at 
Naples. In the midst, like a bronze statue, crouches a Nubian peddler, who 
has traveled all the way from the Nile to sell these haughty dames the talis- 
mans and amulets of the Egyptian mythology. It was under the Flavian 
emperors, — parvenus of base extraction, — that the taste for oriental religions 
was especially developed in Rome. Under these — under Vespasian, Titus and 
Domitian — the Eastern' faiths, including Judaism, struck firm root in the Latin 
soil, notwithstanding . the Roman conquests and persecutions in Syria. The 
prevalence of our own faith in Europe is directly connected with this Roman 
yearning for religious mysteries, more subtle and subjective than the gross 



FINE ART. 



303 




F I f rt, r 



304 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 

idol-worship of the heathen priests. The Imperial City, wearied with its excesses, 
was turnini^ away from its teachers, and asking for wisdom from the East. 
Juvenal had represented the "sly Jewess," pouring the hints of her religion 
into the mistress's ear while occupied about the toilet. By the "Jewess," 
Juvenal, to whom such distinctions were unknown, may have meant the Chris- 
tian ; and even the dusky African of this picture, intently whispering- some 
charm above the gem he is showing to these stately dames, is not a figure to 
be wholly despised in the providential succession of historical influences. He 
and his like played their part in stirring a current of mysticism and reverie, 
deep down under the exterior hardness of the Roman mind, which was ulti- 
mately to lead to the worship of the One, — and then to Christianity. 

The last school of artists which we would voluntarily seem to neglect 
would be the small and select band of contributors from Russia. No other 
set of exhibitors conferred on the Art Department a more striking and indi- 
vidual set of works. We have described one of these Russian paintings — 
Semiradsky's. We now wish to call attention to another work from a subject 
of the Czar, the "Old Russian Couple," by Nicolas Zagorsky (page 297). We 
are now wafted to the interior of an izba, or Russian peasant's habitation. The 
peasant of the country, or moujik, is here seen, not drunk, as in the sculpture 
by Godebsky illustrated on page 217, but in his right mind and clothed; his 
boots are so huge that he may be said to be interred in them ; and his flowing 
shirt-sleeves are of a peculiar cut. He is occupied in breaking loaf-sugar, from 
the original mass of it on the floor by his side; for this he uses the pincers, 
with prongs terminating in balls, ordinarily employed for the purpose. At his 
elbow his good wife sits at the samovar, whence she draws the family tea, not 
into cups, but into tumblers. The cat waits expectant, with a vigilance that 
would almost seem to be unspoiled by selfish aims, for the tea and sugar will 
not do her much good. It is a pretty piece of Darby and Joan life from the 
banks of the Neva. 

Mr. Nordenberg transports us to .Sweden, with his "Wedding in a Country 
Church" (pages 246-7)-. It is a homely, pleasant scene, with the peculiar 
innocuousness of the village type plainly stamped on every countenance. In 
this rustic temple, — so different from our Fifth Avenue congregations, — all the 
congregation know each other, and all will presently adjourn to dance at the 



306 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

feast. The kneeling couple receive the benediction oi the clergyman, whose 
mind is already running, it may be, on the chosen slice of fat goose that will 
presently be his portion at the wedding-table. The hobbledehoy who holds up 
the evergreen is already practising the glances of courtship on the innocent 
gawk of a school-girl whose large hand is decorated with an unaccustomed 
glove and a bouquet. A very charming group, in this region, is the pair of 
pleased and sober-sided parents, by no means without a kind of unpretending 
dignity, who guard between their knees the little demure maiden who sits on 
the kneeling-cushion and attends to her nosegay of sweet country flowers. 
Mr. Nordenburg's work, somewhat defective in color, rather gains by our large 
and careful engraving. 

M. Augusta Bartholdi is a craftsman born to petrify the world of men with 
astonishment, and turn them into a world of statues. With true Alsatian energy 
(he is a native of Colmar) he flies about the globe in a predestinated way, 
dropping colossi from his pockets as he hovers, affixing bas-reliefs to the top 
of a church-steeple in Boston, planting a lion as big as a hill on the rock at 
Belfort m the Vosges, gratifying New York with a statue of Lafayette, and 
offering to Fairmount Park that titanic Hand of Liberty whose tremendous 
finger-nails were reflected in the shuddering waters of the Lake. Unable to 
do justice to the alarming versatility of this inexhaustible producer, who formed 
an Exposition within an Exposition by the variety of his contributions at Phila- 
delphia, we content ourselves with representing one of his cjuieter subjects, 
more pleasing perhaps because more unpretending. His "Young Vine-Grower," 
a bronze design for a fountain (see engraving on page 243) was exhibited in 
the middle of the principal French room in Memorial Hall. It is too simple 
to need explanation. The strapping young vintner, fatigued with his work of 
treading out the grapes, sits down panting on a stump, his dog beside him, 
and drinks from a keg of new wine, which he lifts with a free action in his 
hands. In the fountain when complete, a stream would run from the bung-hole 
of the keg directly into the open mouth of the figure: this was represented in 
the specimen on exhibition by a slender thread of glass. It is a graceful 
thought gracefully expressed. This is not the place to speak of M. Bartholdi's 
intentions and performances in detail, — of his projected Washington Monument, 
of his projected Statue of Liberty, of his public fountains, his oil-paintings, his 




The Ornithologist. 



3o8 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

plaster-casts. The disconcerting thing about him is that, so prolific, so Protean, 
his works are yet full of merit in every instance. 

The skill of French painters in delineating the figure is shown even in a 
subject so overpoweringly o'ershadowed with landscape as Guillon's Monastery- 
Garden, encrraved on page 279. Here, among these colossal, sponge-like trees, 
solid with years of tufted growth in the balmy Midi, the interest of the scene 
they overshadow is immensely enhanced by the presence, at first hardly dis- 
covered, of the stealing figures of the monks. You pick them out by ones 
and twos and threes at a time, wherever the sylvan shadow is darkest and 
vaguest ; here descending a solitary path, lonely as Dante in the by-ways of 
Florence ; here loitering near a bench ; here grouped beside the narrow 
monastery-wall, over which they look with irrepressible longing, upon that 
world whose fields are whitening to the harvest. The whole sentiment of this 
very able picture depends upon the skill which is thrown into the minute 
human figures; in part, upon the very minuteness of those figures, for it is 
important to the solemnity of the trees that they should look gigantic. These 
cherry-stone carvings of statuesque monks an; done with a purpose and with 
expression: and no wonder they succeed; for M. Guillon, before making him 
self a landscapist, studied human anatomy and figure-painting with all care, 
under the great painter of Le Soir, M. Gleyre. 

The Eastern group called "The Sentinel," engraved on page 275, is by 
Albert Maignan, who sent besides to the Exposition a "Helen at the Fountain," 
and "The God of the Woods." Like Gerome's "Muezzin," this composition 
gains in originality by its 'singular outlook from the roof of a building. On 
the summit of some fortress, such a stronghold as has been manned and 
watched with equal anxiety many a day by the soldiers of the Turk during 
the present invasion of the Russians, the Sentinel and a pair of soldiers are 
turning their heads towards the bay that washes their citadel. The group, 
armed to the teeth, gives the artist a welcome opportunity to expatiate on that 
bric-a-brac which painters love — the helmet with its chain-cape, the yataghan, 
the inlaid pistols, the shield, the batde-ax. High over the fort rise the horrible 
poles, set with strong butchers' hooks, upon which are exposed the heads of 
the enemy. One of these is even now festering there, among the wheeling 
birds of prey. Amid the lower types and baser natures represented in this 



3IO THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

vivid picture, we are interested in the calm scrutiny and thoughtful mien of 
the Sentinel. Charged with a higher duty, he outwatches his baser companions. 
Perhaps his loftier mind is sent out towards the future and towards the North, 
where § mighty and jealous foe is gathering ; and he may calculate the chances 
of resistance, and the length of days that may be granted to his nation among 
the peoples of the earth. 

Of more serious excellence and graver effort is the "Spinning-Girl of Megara" 
(see page 291), by Louis Ernest Barrias, of Paris — a figure that was cast in silver- 
bronze, and placed in one of the long galleries of the Art-Annex. Placed upon 
a beautiful ottoman of silver, which represents oriental inlaid-work, the maiden 
sits cross-legged upon her low pedestal, her lap covered with fine and semi- 
classical folds of drapery. Her right hand twirls the spindle, her left is lifted 
high with the distaff. Something of the old Greek grace and simplicity — the 
simplicity of the heroines of Homer — must be yet lingering among the villagers 
of this half-way station between Athens and Corinth. Although she wears 
Turkish ornaments and sits on a Turkish scat, this damsel addresses herself 
to her task with the free-limbed elegance of one of Penelope's handmaidens. 

"Carrick Shore," of which we give the engraving on page 287, was one of 
those obliging loans with which the Royal Academy illustrated the history and 
the evolution, as well as the present development, of British art. The painter 
of this scene, like several of those upon the English catalogue, is no longer 
among the living. William Daniell died in 1837, at the age of sixty-four years. 
For a long time he traveled- in India, with another painter — to wit, his uncle — 
engaged in the preparation of a series of Eastern views, of which, however, 
our artist executed by far the larger part. The joint work of the nephew and 
uncle appeared in 1808, in six volumes, under the title of "Oriental Scenery." 
The agreeable reminiscence of the Scotch coast which we publish, with its pic- 
turesque castle and far-stretching ocean distance, is one which will be the more 
welcome because those who know Daniell at all, know him best as a delineator 
of tropical scenes. 

Theodore Furmois, a Belgian painter of repute, died at Ixelles in 1871. 
We present on page 289 a copy of his excellent picture of "The Mill," or, as 
its fuller title has it, "Le Moulin en Campine." It is a peaceful, happy scene — 
the ancient mill, patched and mended, but good for service yet, and deriving 



FINE ART. 



3" 



moral support 
from the neigh- 
boring tuft of 
oaks that, hke 
itself, were once 
better thatched 
and showed 
fewer bare beams 
to the sky. Close 
by the wheel sits 
a boy, watching 
the slow system 
of paddles going 
round, and won- 
dering how so 
much work can 
be really done 
by all that sys- 
tematic laziness, 
that eternal drag 
of unwilling 
strength, as ex- 
emplified in the 
heavy following 
of one huge drip- 
ping step aftei 
the other. Th( 
ducks plash ir 
the pond, th( 
broad fields shine 
in the sun, and 
Youth sits ling- 
ering and look- 
ing, unconscious 




Pompeii 



that the mill- 
wheel is a gigan- 
tic and inexor- 
able clock, slow- 
ly turning off his 
best and happi- 
est hours, to be 
succeeded by 
hours of toil, and 
hardship — and 
memory. 

I 'ive la Baga- 
telle! is a watch- 
word that has 
rescued many a 
victim of indi- 
gestion, and we 
relieve the press- 
ure of our more 
tragic illustra- 
tions by the copy 
of Signor Enrico 
Braga's statue of 
a "Mountebank" 
(page 293). This 
figure takes us 
into the wild folly 
of the Neapoli- 
tan throng on 
the Marinella. A 
lively young fel- 
low, in the Italian 
street-juggler's 
costume, makes 



312 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



his trained dog leap over a whip. As die astute creature, with that air of 
intense repressed excitement pecuHar to the trained dog in his hour of busi- 
ness, goes backward and forward over the obstruction, the trainer also starts 
from side to side without moving his feet, throwing his body almost out of 
balance, as the clever sculptor has observed and recorded. 

A beautiful Holland costume has been studied for us in the picture we 
enprave on page 295 — "Fisherman's Wife of the Zuyder Zee." The artist, Felix 
Cogen, is a Belgian, born at St. Nicolas, and now residing at Brussels. The 
painting we illustrate is devoted to the old quiet subject of suspense — the 
patience that can only linger and yearn, while the horizon is clouded, and the 
gathering haze prepares a storm that may separate the anxious watcher and 
her mate for ever. Many a poor fishwife has thus waited, through the lingering 
hours of evening, while "the blinding mist came down and hid the land," for 
the glimpse of a sail that has never appeared. Meanwhile the happy sea-birds, 
whose mates can freely travel with them, come flying out of the impenetrable 
fog, bringing life but no intelligence. The simple peasant looks at the clus- 
tering birds, and thinks it hard that they can pass so easily from her husband's 
boat, and chirp and chatter, but cannot tell. The women of the coasts of 
Brittany have a lugubrious song which they sing to the sea-gulls, the go'dlaiids: 
"Oh, goelands, goelands, bring us back our husbands!" It is a curious thing 
that, while painters and sculptors are constandy representing the wives and 
families of fishermen, so few poets have taken them for a theme. There is no 
more poignant situation for the imagination to work upon than that daily sepa- 
ration of fond bridegroom and bride when the risk is always death. In other 
crafts, when the good woman sends off her husband to his work, with well 
packed kit and parting kiss, she can count on a reasonable certainty of meeting 
again at eventide. But the fisherman's wife dismisses her husband to the 
elements that hate man openly — the storm that is ever trying to wreck him, 
and the sea that always wants to drown. 

Upon those rocks the waves shall beat 

With the same low and murmuring strain, 
Across those waves, with glancing feet. 

The sunset rays shall seek the main, 
But when together shall they meet 

Upon that hither shore again? 



A softer as- 
pect of the same 
relation of lov- 
ing and waiting 
is shown by M. 
Feyen-Perrin 
(see page 301). 
Here we have 
two figures — 
"The Fisher- 
man's Wife and 
Child." This 
time the sky is 
a promise of 
long-continuing 
calm, and the 
sea is glass. 
The fishers 
young wife sits 
on the quay. 
In the distance 
we see the sar- 
dine-boats gaily 
standing in to 
shore, an argu- 
ment that soon 
the boat, the 
vessel that holds 
her heart in it, 
shall grate 
against the 
rough granite 
wharf, and tie 
to that rusty 
iron ring that 




Fig. i-— Colossal St,i/uc of Bacchus. 



hangs at her 
feet. Meantime 
the young mo- 
ther clasps the 
head of her 
child to her 
bosom, and 
looks down 
upon her off- 
spring as if it 
were an omen 
of security. Can 
the elements be 
malignant when 
such a fine babe 
is waiting to be 
dandled by its 
father? Moth- 
ers have an im- 
perious reason- 
ing for such 
cases of the 
heart, and sure- 
ly the heavens 
will never be so 
monstrously il- 
logical as to 
hinder the com- 
pleting of such 
a happy group. 
The canvas of 
M. Feyen-Per- 
rin is excel- 
lently brushed, 

in a somewhat 
313 



314 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

larger and bolder style than the same artist's picture of "Melancholy" we rep- 
resented on page 57. 

The statue of Cola di Rienzi, by Ambrogio Borghi, of Milan (page 299), 
represents that "last of Romans" while still a boy, "mewing his mighty youth," 
to use the words of Milton, and crouching meditatively in his seat, like an 
eagle ready to swoop upon the prey, or a lion about to spring. This piece 
of sculpture has a higher purpose and a better style than the one we lately 
(page 281) introduced by the same artist, "The Mother's Treasure." Modern 
Rome and its environs are full of localities which the cicerone points out as 
connected with the great liberator of the fourteenth century. Between the 
Ghetto and the Temple of Vesta we see the strange house he lived in, and 
which he stuck over with old statues and bric-a-brac, as Scott did Abbotsford — 
Rienzi's reminiscences of his studies of antiquities along with Petrarch. In the 
Lateran Basilica we are shown the ancient Roman font in which he bathed, the 
night before he showed himself to the Romans in the full insignia of knight- 
hood, and summoned the Pope and the electors of Germany to appear before 
him. By this sacrilege — for the font had been consecrated by the baptism of 
Charlemagne — his own soldiers believed that he prepared his downfall. At St. 
Angelo in Pescheria, about the same time, he passed a night of vigils, to issue 
thence in armor, with the Pope's vicar in his train. To the door of St. Giorgio 
in Velabro he nailed the parchment announcing that the Romans were going 
to return to their "good estate." Going out of the Lateran after his bath, the 
gilded nostrils of the great equestrian statue we still admire on the Capitol 
were made to flow with wine and water for the festival of his confirmation as 
Tribune. At Tivoli we see the public square of St. Lorenzo, where he harangued 
the people, and at Palestrina the stout old fortress he was unable to take, so 
ably was it defended by the haughty scion of one of those old Roman patrician 
families he chiefly warred against, a Colonna of the period. Twice made 
Tribune, he died "like a rat in a hole" (as Bulwer makes him say) in a popular 
emeute, in 1354. Visitors to the Centennial noticed an impressive picture of 
the death of Rienzi in Mr. Topham's canvas, in the large room of the British 
exhibit. Italian sculptors are great revolutionists and liberty-lovers, and the 
selection of Rienzi for his subject by Signor Borghi is on a par with the various 
topics, all representing the youth or incipiency of rebellion, of which samples 



FINE ART. 



315 



were seen in the Young Franklin, Young Washington, Moses breaking the 
Crown of Pharaoh, Young Hannibal, and the maturer portraits of Mazzini and 
Garibaldi : every one of them contributions to the eloquence of anti-Roman 
independence, and as full of revolutionary meaning as the editorials of any 
Communist newspaper. The chisel of Young Italy, until lately one of the last 
resources of free expression, reveals strange readings between the lines, and 
knows how to direct its strokes in the way of protest. We recur for another 







CasteUani Anttqu 



Fig^. 14. 



>}' Extracting a Thar 



glance to Borghi's statue, reminded that it is not only meant as a work of art, 
but as a pamphlet : we see that an inscription has been carved upon its base — 
at once a cognomen and a tutelary watchword — 

" Then turn we to the Kuest Tribune's name, 

From Rome's ten thousand Tyrants turn to thee, 
Redeemer of dark centuries of shame, 

The friend of Petrarch, hope of Italy, 
Rienzi, last of Romans and their chief. 
Her new-born Num;i thou, with reign, alas! too brief!" 

The simple methods of antiquity, stupid and charming as when men of the 
Stone Age first struck them out from savagery, still obtain in many parts of 



3i6 THE INTERNATIONAL EX HI B I T I O N, 1 8j 6. 

Western France. In Brittany to-day, scythes are sharpened by hammering out 
the edge upon a httle portable anvil ; and winnowing is done by emptying out ' 
wheat and chaft on a windy morning, alter the grain has been trodden by the 
family cow on a floor of beaten dirt, cemented together by the cow's own 
contributions, in a style we cannot more particularly describe. From this dirt 
floor comes the inordinate share of grit which distinguishes the wheat of that 
part of the country; the miller of Monttermeil, in Lcs Uliscrabics, speaks of 
"the gravel which abounds in certain grains, especially in Breton grain." These 
primitive ways of working are always the delight of the artist, and Emile 
Laporte has made a striking group of his two peasant girls, standing in a 
breezy open space by the sea-shore, to shake out the grain from the large 
sieves, which falls all around, enveloping the winnower with the drops of a 
golden fountain. We present an engraving of this picture on page 303. 
M. Laporte, a Paris artist, exhibited also at the Centennial Fair a Grape- 
gathering scene, which was hung near the present painting. He is, we believe, 
the son of Emile Henri Laporte, painter of a "Faust and Marguerite," who is 
mentioned as his sole instructor. 

We will now pay our duty to certain British artists, whose works did much 
to e.xcite the intert-st and sympathy of a home-bred American crowd. In the 
large Gallery D of Memorial Hall, so imposing to the throng from the weight 
and mass of its ju.xtaposed chcfs-d'ceuvre, three whimsical subjects were often 
dwelt upon with delighted attention by even the careless Gallios of the picture- 
visitors. 

"Returning the Salute" is by J. E. Hodgson, an Associate of the Royal 
Academy, who also contributed "A Needy Knife-Grinder." The picture we 
illustrate represents to the life the happy-go-lucky, ramshackle dignities kept 
up in the ports of the "Porte." Time was when the Moslem navy, comprised 
under the convenient name of "the Algerines," was the terror of European 
commerce. The British Female would scarcely trust herself even to make the 
necessary voyage to India in search of a husband ; she had only a precarious 
choice before her — either to be sunk and drowned with her favorite lap-dog by 
"the Algerines," or, scarcely better, to become the bride of a Bey, or a Dey, 
or a Sofi, or some equally vague and uncomfortable dignitary. Now the glory 
of Islam's navy has departed, and the old war-like port-cities can hardly muster 



FINE ART. 



317 



a sound cannon with which to fire a salute. In Mr. Hodgson's picture a vessel 
entering the harbor, and politely saluting from its well-cleaned, varnished and 
sharp-bellowing caronades, makes it necessary that the compliment should be 




Casietlant Atittqu^ 



Fig. ro. — Bust of Euripides. 



returned. The old crazy cannon is loaded with a heavy charge ; the sons of 
Mohammed look on expectant, from a safe distance ; 



'Whiskered and brown their cheeks are; 
Enormous wide their breeks are ;" 



the military commander pronounces the word "Fire!" or whatever, in the lan- 
guage of the Faithful, corresponds to that incendiary command. The negro 
who bears the linstock advances, multitm rchictans; arriving near the piece of 



3i8 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I T 1 N, 1 8 7 6. 

ordnance he hesitates, and will go no farther; then the commander pokes him 
in the rear with the point of his yataghan ; then the gigantic coward crawls 
step by step to the touch-hole, shielding his face with the palm of his hand, as 
a cook protects herself from a hot stove. It is a scene of oriental ceremony 
which appeals to every one by its side of excessive personal prudence. 
Nobody could help laughing at it. In our opinion, however, the negro is quite 
right; for the gun will infallibly burst. 

Mr. Henry Stacy Marks, another Associate, contributed two pictures of 
goodly size and of taking subject. One was called "The Ornithologist," and 
represented the man of profound bird-lore — himself a capital piece of charac- 
terization — in the seclusion of his house, surrounded by every kind of winged 
biped that can be found in the aviaries of the Zoological Garden. The great 
variety and abundance of the birds introduced into his picture gave Mr. Marks 
a chance to show his own uncommon erudition in this kind of matters; the 
ornithologic specimens were carefully discriminated and learnedly drawn. 
Amongst them all, elated with the study of his latest favorite, the Ornitholo- 
gist resembled Dominie Samson amid the books. The picture, though chalky 
and hard, was distinguished by some very skillful designing and fanciful grouping, 
while in expression and originality it was most conspicuous. Mr. Marks' other 
subject was called "The Three Jolly Post-Boys." They were sitting at an inn- 
table, chaffing and being chaffed by the bar-maid. N. P. Willis used to wonder 
at the eternal youth of post-boys, but these were elderly though well-preserved 
men, hard of feature and shrunken and chapped and baked by eternally riding 
in the wind, while some Rabelaisian fund of "smartness" in the soul kept them 
forever juvenile and downy. We present an engraving of the first-mentioned 
of Mr. Marks' contributions. 

From three subjects sent to Philadelphia by J. MacWhirter, of London, we 
select that known as "Out in the Cold" because of the appeal it makes — we 
dare not say the fellow-feeling it creates — within the heart and consciousness 
of every one. We do not pretend to state just why it is, but people will 
melt to the pathos of donkey-subjects, in art or literature, sooner than they 
will to any other. We know a lady whose husband possesses an excellent 
painting of donkeys by Robbe, the Belgian animalist. When the gentleman is 
about to go to his business in the morning she kisses him, of course, and then, 



FINE ART. 



319 



without a thought of the paradox, as soon as the parlor is a scene of loneli- 
ness she goes and kisses the noses of those donkeys in succession. How 
much more is the donkey a sympathetic creature when locked out, on the wrong 
side of the stable, alone with the frost, like Lear with the thunder. Lear's 
storm, by-the-bye, was a delicious, tepid, enviable sudarium, as proved by the 




CasteUani ^tutig. 



Fig. Q. — Head of Bacchus, Greek. 



allusions to harvest in the play ; it was an august luxury ; a Roman epicure 
would have begrudged it him. But the donkey, as dramatized by MacWhirter, 
has a much more real grievance than the king of tragedy, for he is out in the 
cold with no gloves or boots on. Mr. MacWhirter, then, has well chosen a 
theme, if popularity is his aim. We observe, even in literature, that a pathetic 
writer who would introduce a masterly episode goes to work and describes a 
donkey. Look at Sterne. If Sterne had taken a sheep, or a dog, or a mule, 



320 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

nobody would remember the passage. The donkey is appointed by nature and 
fate as the model that is to sit to us for our masterpieces. Southey tried to 
celebrate a pig, Wordsworth a goldfish, and their efforts are hardly remem- 
bered. Ruskin somewliere asks if any Christian can explain the trials of a 
cab-horse. If he had said a donkey, he would have achieved his immortality 
as a writer — and given us a text for our picture! 

The Castellani Antiques. — One of the most fascinating departments of the 
Paris World's Fair of 1867 — that entitled the "History of Labor," and exhib- 
iting the finer results of human ingenuity from the earliest ages, — was not 
systematically imitated in th<- Philadelphia Exposition. Its place was approxi- 
mately filled, however, by the collections of a single exhibitor, Signor Alessandro 
Castellani, of Rome. 

Castellani has long been known as the most artistic of modern jewelers. 
He is such a classic in Italy, that travelers of education would as soon miss 
one of the fine galleries of paintings as the magnificent display of antique 
jewels and their modern imitations spread out in the splendid shop kept by 
himself and his brother on the Piazza di Spagna. His name has even been 
immortalized in poetry. Mr. Browning's wonderful story ol "The Ring and the 
Book" opens with the following lines: — 

** Vou see this Ring? 'lis Rome-work, inride to match — 
By Castellani's imitative craft — 
Etrurian circlets found, some happy morn, 
After a dropping April : found alive 
Spark-like 'mid unearthed slope-side fig-tree roots 
That roof old tombs at Chussi ; soft, you see. 
Vet crisp as jewel-cutting." 

Castellani is not only a jeweler; the treasures of "old tombs at Chussi" 
and other repositories of antique art are interesting to him not alone as models 
for his clever workmen, but intrinsically for their antiquarian interest. He is a 
collector and an archaeologist as well as a craftsman. In the course of years, 
advantage being taken of his position in the midst of the excavations and dis- 
coveries of Italian treasure-hunters, he has bought and amassed a wonderful 
collection of relics of undoubted antiquity. The whole of his valuable museum 
he was generous enough to bring over to America ; and no part of the Expo- 



CASTELLANI ANTIQUES. 



321 



sition attracted such solid crowds of admirers as the Castellani collection in 
Memorial Hall. Etruscan gold-work ; Greek and Roman jewelry ; engraved 
gems, seals, cameos, intagli ; Byzantine enamels and Papal signets ; old bronzes ; 
Greek marble statuary, in a few well-selected specimens ; and a splendid ceramic 
collection, made up the wealth of this splendid horde. We present engravings 
of several of the specimens, leaving to the recollection of the visitor the vastly 
larger number of airios which our space does not permit us to illustrate. 

No. I represents a single ear-ring of gold, of which the mate is not in the 



collection. It is 
in pure Greek 
taste, though 
found in Italy; 
being either an 
importation, or 
manufactured by 
a Greek artist on 
Italian soil. The 
date assigned to 
it is 350 B.C. It 
is of enormous 

Ciistellani Antiques. 

size, being about ,.. ^ , . „ • r- w r- tj ,■ ; . v^ 

t> I'l^'t. Gold Ear-nng, Greek design. Fig. 3, Helix-shaped Ornament. 

four inches in " 2. Dolplnn I'enus Ear-ring. ■• 4. Necklace. B. C.700. 




haps was never 
worn, bein§- found 
as a votive offer- 
ing in a Roman 
tomb. It consists 
of a curved plate 
of gold, bearing 
several stripes of 
minute rosettes 
executed in grain- 
work soldered on 
to the plate ; so 
admirable is the 
soldering, that 
none of these 
The pendant is a 



length, and per- 

minute beads have been loosened by the action of time 

beautiful Greek face, showing the symmetry of the best period, from whose 

mimic necklace hang the amphorae or wine-jars. Its size, grace and good 

preservation make this object exceedingly attractive. 

No. 2, of which the original is about two inches long, is one of a pair of 
ear-rings in the collection, representing the dolphins which were emblematic of 
Venus as a goddess sprung from the sea. The eyes, fins and other details of 
the figure are executed in the professional materials of the jeweler's art, instead 
of by engraving or moulding ; that is to say, they are sketched upon the 
smooth surface by lines of rope-work, applied and soldered on. The minute 
gold cords of which this rope-work consists, so delicate yet so even, and so 



322 



THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, j S 7 6. 



firmly soldered as to become quite homogeneous with the body of the object, 
constitute the grand technical superiority of antique jewelry, in which no modern 
artisan has even made an approximate approach to the ancients until Castel- 
lani's time. The date of this object is about the same as that of the above- 
mentioned votive ear-ring ; the place of its discovery, Tarentum in Calabria. 

No. 3 is one of a pair of objects from Metapontum, whose precise appli- 
cation has been a matter of question among the archaeologists. These orna- 
ments generally consist of hollow tubes of gold (though specimens of massive 
gold have been found), filled in with copper so as to be completely solid, and 
variously ornamented, but always bent around so as to form a helix-shaped 




tellani Antiquts. 



temale heads ; these four 
heads seem to wear, them- 
selves, similar ornaments ap- 
plied as ear-rings. The coils, 
however, from their size, could 
not be run tJiroiigh the ears; 
and it is difficult to imagine 
just how they could be at- 



coil, like a turn and a half of 
the thread of a screw. The 
present examples are deco- 
rated at the middle of the 
bend with pretty floral de- 
signs, and each of them is fin- '^"" 

Fig. 6. — Roman Bondsmaft'i 
ished at the two ends with Badge 0/ slavery. 

very beautiful and refined 
tached. Signor Castellani himself was wont to declare that he had never been 
able to solve this difficulty to his satisfaction until he inspected the Phoenician 
statuary dug up in the island of Cyprus by the American consul, General" 
Cesnola, and by him brought over to this country. Several of these statues 
wear ear-rings resembling the helix-shaped ornaments represented in No. 3 ; 
and Signor Castellani, after inspecting them, became convinced that the ancients, 
taking advantage of the softness of the metal, simply compressed the lobe of 
the ear between two turns of the coil, which clung by its own elasticity. Some 
of the coins of Sicily, and of that part of Italy settled by the early Greeks and 
called Greater Greece, show finely engraved heads wearing on their ears what 
appear to be silver pendants. It is not quite certain, however, that this theory 
of their application is the right one, or even that they are ear-rings. General 
Cesnola, in speaking of the very same statues which formed the evidence of 
Signor Castellani .(and whose rude workmanship leaves such small details mainly 
conjectural), argues that the ear-rings of double coil there represented are seen 
at right-angles to the direction they would assume if applied as his compatriot 



CASTELLANI ANTIQUES. 



323 



supposes. A great number of similar objects were found in Cyprus by our 
consul forming part of the "Curium Treasure." These objects, sometimes plain 
and sometimes ornamented like our specimen, have attracted the notice of 
antiquarians, and, as the simplest subject becomes tantalizing so long as it 
cannot be explained, essays have been written to investigate the purpose of the 
"heli.x-coils" General Cesnola, in considering the plainer specimens, imagined 



that they were "ring- 
money," from the fact 
of their being found 
deposited in large 
quantities in a treas- 
ure-house where no 
coins of any other kind 
were found. But this 
theory is unsatisfac- 
tory to a British anti- 
quarian, C. W. King, 
M. A., of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, a 
specialist in antique 
gems. The latter ar- 
chseologist reasons 
that if the coils were 
ring-money they would 
be solid, whereas the 




Castctlani Anttques. 

Fig. 7. — Actor with Comic Mask, in Terra-cotia 



majority show the 
copper openly appear- 
ing at each end, either 
from the ornaments 
having dropped off, or 
from none having ever 
existed. "A little light 
seems thrown on the 
difificulty," says Mr. 
King, "by two words 
of Homer, who in de- 
scribing the brooch 
fastening Ulysses' 
mantle, says it 'was 
made with double 
pipes, and in front 
there was a figure in 
relief.' " He there- 
upon concludes that 



the Greeks passed the ends of their draperies through these circlets, as modern 
gentlemen pass their cravats through a scarf-ring. To our mind, the abundance 
of projecting filigree-work about many of the specimens precludes this use of 
them, which would quickly bend and break the fragile ornamentation. Perhaps 
the best theory is one which Mr. King himself offers as an alternative: tlie 
rings may have been used to confine the tresses of hair, which primitive 
Athenians of both sexes were in the habit of collecting, and fastening with a 
gold grasshopper or other ornament. For this use the decorated rings would 
be very serviceable ; and there is no difificulty offered by the fact of their being 



324 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N,- 1 8 7 6. 

found in pairs, as in the case of the specimen we illustrate, considering- that 
the early Greeks wore matched tresses descending from each temple and falling 
upon the shoulders. 

Fig. 4 is the most ancient object we illustrate. It is a primitive necklace 
dating from 700 B.C., and found at Cervetri. It is formed of rods of amber, 
as thick as a common lead-pencil, set in gold at the extremities ; the two end- 
pieces of the amber are separated by four small bullae or globe-shaped beads. 
From the portion in front of the neck hang six ornaments in the shape of the 
antique anchor or boat-cramp. This marine decoration may have been made 




CasUtlani Antiques. 

Fig. 8.— Toilet Articles of a lady of Ancient Rome. 



by an Etruscan jeweler in the days before Italy was called Italy, or it may 
have been given to a beauty of the peninsula by an enamored ship-captain from 
Phoenicia. Such an amber and gold necklace is mentioned in the Odyssey, 
where one of the characters tells how the crafty Phoenician seamen captured 
him in infancy, and led him into bondage. The child, with his mother and her 
maidens, was securely sheltered in the house while a company of these Asiadc 
rovers were visiting the place ; the foreign gentry had taken everything on 
board thdr ships except the little boy they meant to kidnap. At the last 
moment, just as they were preparing to leave, one of the sailors entered the 
mansion where the child's mother sat among her maidens, and gave them a 
necklace "of amber and gold." While the women-folk were gossiping over the 
beauty of the necklace, he signed to the young lad's Phoenician nurse, who was 
his confederate ; and the traitress carried him off to the fleet of her country- 
men, leaving him among the slave-catchers. 

Fig. 5, page 313, is the largest object in the Castellani collection, being a 
colossal statue of Bacchus. It was found in the ruins of the villa of Pollio Vedius 



CASTELLANI ANTIQUES. 



32s 



at Posilippo, near Naples — the region where Saint Paul landed on his way to 
Rome; "and after one day the south wind blew and we came the next day to 
Puteoli." The pleasure-grounds of the old Roman were diligently searched, as well 
as the country for a mile around, for the missing arm (originally separate) which 
is alone necessary to complete this fine figure — a treasure found but a few 
years back. The Papal government, which by law had the first chance, declined 
to pay the price demanded by the discoverer, and the prize thereupon fell to 
the next bidder, Signor Castellani. No such imposing antique has ever been 




Fi^, ti. — Bronze Mirror, 




Fit;. 12. — Mirror- Q 



brought to America, the headless Ceres on the fagade of the Philadelphia 
Academy alone bearing any comparison with it. The subject of the colossus 
is that manifestation of Bacchus which the Greeks fabled as connected with his 
conquest of India — a bloodless victory, with raving priestesses and mischievous 
satyrs for an army, and for trophies the vineyards he planted, the philosophy 
of peace and delight he left, and the communion of the grape. This type of 
Bacchus is the figure of a philosophy that is truly Indian in its equanimity and 
magnanimous repose. The partakers of Nature's festival are happy and at one 
with each other. Accordingly the Indian Bacchus is a figure of benevolence 
and massive calm ; the distinction of sex is obliterated in this exaltation of the 



326 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

idea of universal peace, and he wears female robes and binds his hair in the 
female knot, while the long beard which sweeps his breast still gives the hint 
of a mighty wisdom and a patriarchal goodness. The ties that result from 
feasting, the harmony of the hospitable table, are poetically magnified in the 
ideal of Bacchus the Reconciler. Our statue represents a Sage-God — a figure 
of sublime beauty, with the "two-story" forehead noticed in the heads of 
Olympian Jupiter — the body completely draped like a Ceres, and the hair effemi- 
nately bound in a large clump at the back, while it descends from behind the 
ears in long ringlets. The marble is Greek, and was therefore an importation 
among the ornaments of the Roman's country-seat. The execution is of a high, 
though not the very highest, order of merit. The drapery, while it is nobly 
cast about the figure, is a little hard about the folds. The face, in unusually 
perfect preservation, is of badge of slavery, and appar- 

careful and very elevated ^^i\ _<ggfc ently that of a determined 

workmanship. ^^^ "^VP? lover of freedom, who had 

Castellani Antiques, 

Fig. 6 is a great rarity. p^^ rj.-Bronz. ciasp. twice tried to gain his liberty 
It is a Roman bondsman's by the activity of his heels. 

The original is about twice the diameter of our cut, and as thick as a stout 
card. This very rare slave's tablet has been illustrated by Prof. De Rossi, of 
Rome. He informs us that before the time of the Christian emperor Constan- 
tine, when an escaped slave was returned to his master, he had the right by 
law to brand him on his brow with a red-hot stamp, that he might be easily 
recognized if he tried to repeat his evasion. Constantine passed a law in which 
he said that, "as on the brow of man was the image of God, no man had a 
right to touch it; but instead of that, he should rivet a torque around his neck, 
with a tablet bearing the master's name and residence." On the face of the 
badge shown in the cut, we read the words, apparently inscribed after a first 
escape, "Tene me, et revoca me in Foro Martis, ad Ma.ximianum antiquarium." 
This inscription is placed between two representations of the ChristJion, or 
mark formed of the two first letters of Christ's name, Chi and Rho. On the 
reverse we read another inscription, apparently written after he had been sold 
by Maximianus, and had attempted to escape from a subsequent owner, 
Elpidiius: "Tene me qui afugi, et revoca me in Celimontio, ad domu Elpidiivo 
Bonoso." We are reminded of the proceeding of Saint Paul, whose beautiful 



CASTELLANI ANTIQUES. 



Z27 



letter transmitted with the slave Onesimus, — "whom I have sent again," — and 
who was perhaps decorated with a similar badge, is a lasting command for 
masters to welcome their returning domestics, not as culprits, but as brothers 
in Christianity. 

Fig. 7 is a small Roman figure in terra-cotta. An actor has put on a 
comic mask, at which his little dog barks and leaps upon him. Some Roman 
theatre-lover has laughed at this toy, even as the modern frequenter enjoys his 
plaster cast of the Shaughraun and dog Tatters. 

The group in Fig. 8 is the mundus mulicbris or toilet collection of a lady 



of ancient Rome. 
The objects are all 
of silver, but have 
blackened with time, 
and Signor Castel- 
lani, in the true anti- 
quarian's spirit, pre- 
fers to keep them 
with the evidence of 
their antiquity upon 
them, rather than 
have them polished 
into commonplace. 




CastcHani Antiqittx. 

Bronze Bull found at Chiusi. 



The pair of spoon- 
like objects in front 
are strigils, or 
scrapers, with which 
the ancients of both 
sexes shampooed 
the skin in the bath ; 
they are both at- 
tached, like keys to 
a ring, to the circu- 
lar spring seen im- 
mediately behind 
them. Back of the 



ring is a globular vase for ointment, also of silver ; and behind this is 
a round silver box of four compartments, for cosmetics, with its lid along- 
side. 

With Fig. 9 we revert to the collection of antique marbles. It is a Greek 
head of uncommon beauty, somewhat larger than life, the original scarcely 
suffering in effect from the fact that, like the best of ancient statues, it has lost 
the tip of the nose. The subject, like Fig. 5, is Bacchus, as proved from the 
remains of the ivy-wreath around the hair; yet it is not the Indian, but the 
young Bacchus, divested of all the self-contradicting emblems of mysticism, and 
represented simply as a lovely youth, at the age when the suavity of the forms 
approaches most nearly to a feminine aspect. The eyes are hollowed out, to 
receive those gray or azure gems with which the ancients often counterfeited 



328 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

the limpidity of the iris, but which, in all such specimens, have fallen out iVom 
the disintegrating- influence of time. 

Fig. 10 is a marble portrait-bust of the tragedian Euripides, of vigorous 
character and in perfect preservation. It is remarkable for a slight depression 
at the end of the nose, which does not appear in the portraits engraved by 
Visconti. Euripides is known among the Greek play-writers for his selection 
of family topics, revealing a modern spirit of tenderness scarcely known to the 
other Greek writers whose works have come down to us. His play of Alcestis, 
especially, em- gave herself to 

bodies an un- ^^- ~^~ death for the 

usual picture of ^^t J\ ^^^^^^^^^^^Mf 's,2^^(t of her hus- 

wifely affection, ^==^ -. - ^^^^^^PJ^^^fc^ band, but who 

in presenting ^ — -^^i^ .'. . 4 ^y^ ^^^— -^— vvas brought 

the feelings of ^ ^ back from Ha- 

the devoted Bromt Box. Duck-shape. des bv Hcrcules, 

spouse who and returned to 

the arms of Admetus her lord. Browning has modernized this play of Euripides 
in his poem " Balaustion's Adventure." Elizabeth Browning refers to him as 

" Euripides the human, 
With his droppings of warm tears." 

His death was unusually horrible ; having taken refuge from the jealousies of 
Athens in the court of Archelaus, he was torn to pieces by the dogs of 
the Macedonian monarch, 407 \\. r. It is Plutarch who gives us that exquisite 
story of the distant Sicilians, who so loved the muse of Euripides that they 
restored to liberty those of their war-captives who could repeat his tragedies 
or even passages from them, so that the poet was afterwards waited upon by 
bands of enfranchised Greeks who humbly thanked him for their restoration to 
life and happiness — an incident showing a higher degree of literary civilization 
than is conceivable in our own times. 

Fig. II, a bronze mirror; Fig. 12, a mirror-case; and Fig. 13, a bronze clasp, 
need little special description. The mirror. Fig. 11, is a type of a class quite 
abundant in the Castellani collection, the engraving of bronze with incised lines, 
forming pictures, the traces being made distinct by a white cement anciently 



CASTELLANI ANTIQUES. 



329 



filled into them, anei yet remaining; the decoration on this object represents 
three young men in Phrygian caps, and a female figure standing in their midst. 
The mirror-case or cover. Fig. 12, is, however, not ornamented by incision, but 
in bas-relief, and is selected for illustration because unique in this respect ; the 
figures upon it, in repousse-work, represent Ganymede carried away by Jupiter 
in the form of a large eagle, whose head can be distinctly seen just under the 
handle ; his litde brothers are crouching on the ground at his feet, and his 
young sister stands beside them. The mirrors, to the number of twenty, and 
the cover for one of them, are part of the contents of twelve round bronze 



cistae, or chests, resembling 
small band-boxes, all found 
in tombs of the Etruscan 
period at the necropolis of 
Palestrina, anciently known 
as Praeneste, at a few miles' 
distance from Rome. The 
boxes, still in the Castel- 
lani collection, are a foot 




Casteltatti Aiuwi'es. 

•^. ly. — Comb, about twenty-one 
hundred years old. 



or more in dimensions each 
way, and are engraved with 
the same kind of incised 
lines as those seen on the 
mirror, outlining the picto- 
rial scenes which com- 
pletely cover them, and 
which bear a general re- 
semblance to the designs 



found on the vases of the Etruscan tombs. Names in Etruscan letters 
are found on the boxes, and the scenes sometimes represent Italian legends 
that passed current before the penetration of Greek literature. They 
contained the toilet articles of wealthy ladies buried there, such as the mirrors 
aforesaid, sponges, a child's shoe, combs, and the discerniadimi, a bodkin some- 
times ending in a litde comb, with which the hair was parted. Among the 
treasure, small lumps of bronze, rudely cut into segments, defined the age of 
the tombs, for they were the acs rude, or rough uncoined bronze, which passed 
in Italy about 300 b. c, before the use of stamped dies was known. 

Fig. 14 is the most fascinating of the marbles in the cabinet of Signor 
Castellani, not even excepting the Indian Bacchus. It is a beautiful and nearly 
perfect ancient replica, found at Rome, of the well-known Spinario, or "Boy 
Extracting a Thorn." Many of the finer andques were drelessly reduplicated, 
in the dme of the original ardsts themselves, the modern sense of the obliga- 
tions of copyright having been wanting among those generous inventors. Thus 
there are many antique statues almost precisely in the atdtude of the Venus 



330 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

de Medici, several like the Venus of Milo, etc. The oldest Spinario is evidently 
the bronze of the Capitol at Rome ; the slightly archaic character of the long 
combed-out hair, and of the expressionless face, mark the antiquity of that 
bronze ; the marble copy in the Louvre, and that in the Villa Borghese, are of 
a later period, while this of Signor Castellani's is just sufficiently removed from 
the earliest style to acquire the most achieved graphic force, without a hint of 
the decline of art. The face has a winning expression of boyish trouble and 
intentness ; the hair is in short, curled locks ; both expression and hair quite 
different from the earlier bronze ; the flesh parts breathe with life throughout. 
These characteristics are those of the realistic school of Pergamos, an oriental 
town w^here art flourished, for the three first centuries of our era, in a purely 
picturesque development scarcely trammeled by hieratic traditions. Signor Cas- 
tellani, who would fain attach everything to his beloved Rome by some lien of 
association, is fond of relating, apropos of the Spinario, a pretty story of 
Mortius, the little shepherd, who ran to the Roman Senate by night to give 
them news of an incursion of the Latins, never stopping in his course although 
a great thorn had entered his foot. But the subject of the "boy and thorn," 
or young Olympian foot-racer impeded by a wounded heel, doubtless took shape 
in Greek sculpture before the Roman Senate existed. 

Fig. 15 is a bronze bull, found at Chiusi in Italy. It is about a foot in 
length, and entirely admirable. The finish of the head, with its fine curled 
forehead-locks, is especially in the best style of the Greek workman. It 
resembles the finely designed bulls seen on the old coins of Thurium. The 
stiff-looking support and stand are a modern structure of wood. 

Figs. 16 and 17 are toilet objects found, like the mirrors, in the toilet- 
cases of Preneste, and like them, about twenty-one hundred years old. The 
first is a rouge-box in the form of a duck, carved in cedar, and six inches in 
length. It still contains the old rouge-pellets, which have not forgotten to blush. 
The comb, also of cedar, is about four inches across, and the decorated rib in 
the centre is gilt. 

Forty-five different objects of interest are preserved from the dozen 
dressing-boxes obtained in the tombs of Preneste. 

Twenty-one trays are filled with ancient jewelry, of which the ear-rings and 
necklace of our first engravings are specimens. There are about three hundred 




MasUrpitces o/ Flu^to^rafhy. 



H. Ma^art, PiHx, 



Romeo and jfuliet. 



332 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



engraved gems, and about three hundred and fifty finger-rings, all antique, in 
the Castellani cabinets. 

In addition to these objects in metal or stone, the plastic triumphs of the 
ceramic art occupy by themselves a whole division of Signor Castellani's mag- 
nificent treasure ; three hundred and twenty-one specimens, mosdy very rare, 
of majolica and porcelain are included in it. Besides examples of Hispano and 
Siculo-Moresque ware, showing the fine "iridescence" which the modern potter 
tries in vain to imitate, the Castellani collection contains specimens of the tin- 
glazed ceramic statuary made by Luca Delia Robbia, Majolicas from Caffag- 
o-iuolo, Siena, Gubbio, Faenza, Pesaro, Urbino, Rome, and Castelli, and rare 
antique porcelains of European fabriques. 

Masterpieces of Photography in the Centennial Exposition. — When 
Daguerre, about the year 1835, made public his first experiments in the art of 
picture-making through the agency of the sun, his experiments were directed 
towards landscape and architectural subjects. The slowness of the process, as 
he understood it, made it unsuitable for portraiture. He was immediately 
assailed, however, by hosts of correspondents, demanding of him that his method 
should be extended to the representation of human beings. "Can you not 
realize for us," asked one of the letters he received, "that fantastic idea of the 
German romancer Hoffmann, that a lover should be able to present to his 
mistress a magic mirror, in which she would see, whenever she looked, the 
features of her beloved ?" This is the most accurate description possible of the 
early daguerreotype. But the first experiments were painful to look upon. The 
time then demanded for a sitting was about four or five minutes. The wretched 
victim, after taking at first "a graceful position" perforce, found himself fixed 
as in a vise, without the possibility of budging; the slow minutes, which seemed 
like years, wore on ; shooting pains and cramps began to invade every part of 
his body ; his face soon betrayed the agony of his frame ; it contracted and 
withered with agony ; a grin of despair gradually took the place of the good- 
natured smile he had at first fixed upon his countenance, the perspiration 
started from the pores of his forehead and streamed down his features, and by 
insensible changes a hard fixed look of misery began to pierce through the 
expression he had assumed at the outset, and remained as the distinguishing 



'''■I I".') ',','', 




334 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

trait of the likeness. Daguerre and his nephew were soon enabled to exhibit 
a row of portraits achieved by the new method, but these only frightened the 
originals and their friends. A series of abject individuals, each wearing the 
expression of Belisarius demanding alms, were offered as the types of those 
light-hearted Parisians, so gay, well-mannered and agreeable. 

The immense development that has taken place in the sun -graphic or 
photographic art was well indicated in the large building set up to the east- 
ward of Memorial Hall, with its ample walls and partitions completely papered 
with innumerable works of art, all executed by the pencil of the sun. Here 
were pictures from Japan, from Africa, from Russia, from Germany, Italy and 
France, from .Spain and her distant d<:pendcncies, from South America, from 
Great Britain ; and here the artists of the United States found themselves more 
completely on a l<;vcl with their compeers of the Old World than in the kindred 
departments of painting and sculpture. 

In this place our design is to treat photograjjhy not in its scientific so much 
as in its artistic aspect. It forms a division of our review of the Fine Arts of 
the Fair, and in the gossip we shall proceed to communicate on the Photog- 
raphy of the Ccmtennial Exposition, we shall toucli at will upon those of its 
masterpieces which have most interested us by their beauty and strangeness, 
rather than upon those wliich interest the operator by the difficulties overcome. 

As these pages are to form an Illustrated Catalogue of Masterpieces, it 
would have been an anomaly to let the present portion of our criticisms go to 
the public without illustrations ; but the manner of embellishment presented a 
difficulty; we were unwilling to deface our work widi photograph-mounts; and 
we hope our readers will acknowledge that the best style we could adopt was 
to present illustrations of some of the most notable and extensive of the art- 
photographs included in the Exposition, executed in the usual methods selected 
for the embellishment of other portions of our work. They will understand, 
then, that the engravings we present in this portion are simply given as like- 
nesses of some of the largest and most artistic photographs displayed. 

In this aspect, indeed, one of our earliest engravings may serve a double 
purpose, and be referred to as illustrating the present pordon of our review; 
the cut of "Catherine Cornaro," on page 4, forms a satisfactory representation 
of the grand photograph of the painting from a Viennese firm of heliotypic 



336 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

artists which was hung in Gallery Z of the Art Building, and was so surprising 
for its sharpness even at the edges, although taken from such a gigantic original. 
Our picture is a little lighter in tone than the Austrian photograph, that is all. 
To gain an idea of the care and tact with which French experts now 
conduct the business of copying paintings by photography, one should enter 
the establishment of Bingham, of Paris, who makes a specialty of this process. 
It is true that American painters often get their pictures photographed by the 
nearest camera to be had, as a memorandum or souvenir of their work ; and 
it is equally common to see in the shops photographs of the paintings of old 
masters, whether from Venice, or Munich, or London ; but these are generally 
false and unequal in tone, with a despairing blackness setding down gradually 
upon them towards the corners — hopeless mis-statements, vulgar things, country 
copyists, bungling counterfeiters, and not fit to come within a mile of the aris- 
tocradc society of the metropolitan photograph-forgery. The latter gives the 
threads of the canvas, the relief of the impasto, the counterfeit of the general 
tone, and you have, in all but the color, the precise aspect of the paints laid 
on by the original artist. In the ateliers of Bingham, there are a multitude of 
screens, some semi-transparent, some opaque ; these can be set so as to temper 
the light that falls upon the painting, and make it perfecdy even over every 
part. There are quantities of reflectors, which direct a ray of supernumerary 
light upon those hues in the painting which wouUl "take too black" in the pho- 
tograph. As to the blues in the picture, which would take white, they may be 
rubbed over with a temporary coat of gray transparent water-color. A great 
rriany experiments are made, for the perfect negative is often stubborn, and 
will not come until a long succession of its predecessors have been tested and 
rejected. Finally, the good negative is not the result of a few seconds' expo- 
sure of a highly sensidve surface, as is the case in portrait-work ; it is the 
slower but surer impression made on a slightly sensitive surface, taking hours 
to develop. During a great part of a day the picture, like an invalid in his 
bandages, remains in its elaborate apparatus of screens and reflectors, most 
artfully applied to produce an exacdy equal illumination of all its parts before 
the lens. After so much padence and good nursing, it is no wonder that the 
result is such categorical perfection, and that we receive from Paris the exact 
fac-simile, though in monochrome, of the skillful touches of Meissonier and 



p 







;?,'^'u;i: 



' ' ■ I ' \ ' ' ( I ' ''hi 

i':)i^;;f''';''i';\:;"''i 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF FINE ART. 337 



Gerome. Nay, the business formerly committed to the engravers is carried 
into their own territory, and the copying of scarce old prints photographically 
is so well executed by Amand-Durand in Paris, that we are furnished with 
counterfeits, only to be detected by an expert, of the rarest originals by Diirer 
and Mark Antonio. 

Our illustration on page 335 will give an idea of the great painting of the 
"Market at Cracow," painted in that city by Hippolyte Lipinski, in 1875. We 
see at the right a flock of geese for sale, then seriatim all the humors and 
activities of a crowded market. Long-bearded Jews make change and chaffer ; 
ragged boys play with the stupid pigeons ; countrymen cry their produce, at 
the top of their voices, from the elevation of their wagons ; the miller super- 
intends the weighing of his sacks of grain ; the newly-married countryman 
buys a cradle and marches off with it triumphantly at the side of his barefoot 
bride ; the cooper and wood-carver commends his toy horse and cart to the 
litde girl, and his tubs to her mother. Of all this amusing tumult in M. 
Lipinski's painting, not a particle of the spirit was lost by the mammotli pho- 
tograph of which our cut may remind the reader. 

Tlie representation of figures on page 331 will serve to recall a couple of 
photographs very ably taken from paintings of Makart, the same artist to 
whose "Catherine Cornaro" we have just alluded. One has for subject the 
farewell of Romeo and Juliet, after the former's banishment to Mantua. The 
other (not illustrated) shows Faust and Marguerite — the latter insane and in 
prison by his fault. These copies are interesting as betraying an effort on the 
part of the painter to express more character and individuality in his figures 
than usual. Juliet is a real Italian, with an intense Lombard physiognomy; 
Marguerite is a German, with a powerful Teutonic cheek-bone over which the 
shrunken skin is tensely drawn by misery; in both pictures, however, the breadth 
of treatment, the able contrasts of light and shade, the costume enriched with 
some excess, show the decorative painter campaigning in the fields of expression 
without leaving his baggage of luxury and sumptuousness behind him. 

Finally, our snow-scene, page 333, will recall the photograph representing 
Kaemmerer's painting of "Winter in Holland." M. Kaemmerer is a Hollander, 
long resident in Paris, — or "long" considering his still youthful time of life. 
An eleve of the studio of Gerome, he paints with the minute finish of that 




From "Le Tour du Mo\ 



Mirror Lake, Yo Semite Valley, 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiliiiiiiiijiiiiii^ 

Tlie Tend Cascade. 



340 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, 1 8 7 6. 

master scenes borrowed from the life of his native country. We see some 
peaceful stretch of the River Scheldt, converted into a polished floor by the 
frost, and etched all over with the marks of sleighs and skates. Two plainly- 
noted divisions of society may be discriminated. The ladies to the left are of 
the fashionable world, who get their dresses and their ideas from Paris, and 
timidly put on their skates because it is the mode of the day ; they make the 
most of their awkwardness, as is to be seen from their atdtudes ; they would 
not be taken for those market-wives who skate under loads of provisions with 
all the ease of old habit. The pretty girls to the right, who have levied on 
the supply of quaint old sleighs in the ancestral carriage-house, are of the rich 
burghers who assume no airs of fashion : they still wear the pretty Dutch cap 
of lace, under which gleams the lustre of gold ; and, provided with lusty 
admirers to whom skating is second nature, and who are pushing their sleighs 
over the ice, they are anticipating the joys of a spirited and well- contested 
race. The prevalence of gray wintry tones in M. Kaemmerer's picture, and a 
certain glossy coldness whiclr glazes it all over with an appropriate vitreous 
aspect, have made it an easy prey for the photographer, who has perfectly 
succeeded in translating its peculiar quality. 

Photography, in the matter of the representation of paintings, does not 
always act as the rival of engraving ; it sometimes appears as its ally. In the 
exhibition of art-publications by the famous house of Goupil, in the Main 
Building, could be seen a large representation of Fortuny's picture, "The Mar- 
riage in the Vicaria." This had the appearance of a steel engraving. It is 
really a photo-gravure — or print from a plate whereon the design has a photo- 
graphic basis — heightened to a certain extent by the labor of the burin. The 
forms and tints are blocked out by the photo-gravure, while the engraver's 
tool has been used throughout to deepen the effect and cover the plate with a 
crisp texture; about half the engraver's usual labor is saved by this mixed 
method ; and the publishers are able to supply the print at a much cheaper 
rate than would be charged for an ordinary engraving of the size. Several 
similar prints have been issued by the Messrs. Goupil. In the Photographic 
Hall, also, the Goupils made an exhibit of their admirable reproductions, which 
were arranged in alcove No. 25. 

This Hall, of which the architect was Mr. H. J. Schwarzmann (the same 



342 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 2876. 



who designed Memorial Hall), was a simple one-story building, two hundred 
and forty-two by seventy-seven feet in size, situated to the east of Memorial 
Hall aforesaid, and north of the Main Building. It consisted of a single room, 
whose wall-space was indefinitely increased by screens projecting from die sides 
and forming alcoves for exhibition purposes. In these spacious galleries hung 
the photographic achievements of all the world. 

As most of the exhibitors whose works we shall mention received the 
award of merit, it is hardly necessary to state that fact in the cursory remarks 
we shall make. That the medals were distributed without favoritism, there is a 
pleasing indication : the American exhibitors were rewarded in smaller propor- 
tion than thase of any of the great nationalities. Thus — 

The United States, with 135 exhibitors, got 27 awards; 
Great Britain, " 26 " "11 

Germany, " 24 " " 7 " 

France, "10 " "6 " 

Fine Art Literature of the Exposition. — The illustrated serials, the 
art-editions of classical authors, the sumptuous works in which the purpose of 
the description was developed by means of magnificent plates, the travels 
recorded with pencil as well as widi pen, formed altogether the Fine Art 
Literature of the Centennial Exposition. The surprising wealth of this portion 
of the display was a full reward for those who underwent the toil necessary to 
seek it out, distributed as it was through the nooks and corners of the Main 
Building, the pavilions set up by special publishers, the buildings erected in the 
Park by different nationalides. A review of this diversified literature would 
well be worth the space of a separate volume. Constrained as we are to treat 
it as a mere appendix to our general study of the Fine Arts (with which topic, 
however, it is so closely and appropriately allied), we must portray it simply in 
outline ; happy indeed if so cursory a treatment shall recall to the reader some 
fine work which only slightly imprinted itself on the memory in hurrying by, 
or bring to notice an unknown typographical masterpiece. 

Shakspeare, as the greatest genius arisen since the discovery of printing, 
first claims our attention. Innumerable are the illustrated Shakspeares. Each 
of the civilized nations has found him the inspiration of its art. Of the various 



344 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



countries that have distinguished themselves by fine pictorial editions of his 
dramas, England, as is meet, bears the palm with the superb Boydell Shaks- 
peare, embellished by the labors of the best painters and engravers, and, all 
things considered, the finest expression in this line of works produced by the 
epoch that gave birth to West, Fuseli and Reynolds. France, it is well known, 
is preparing a very elaborate pictorial Shakspeare, at the hands of the mar- 
velously-endowed Gustave Dore ; but Germany, as the country which, after his 
native land, most adequately appreciates the Stratford magician, is to be looked 
to among his most prompt and attentive interpreters in this sort of publication. 
The favorite outline illustrations of Moritz Retzsch, of Dresden, mannered and 
inadequate as they are, have introduced into even English and American homes, 
by the striking and theatral expressiveness of their drama, an interest in 
Shakspeare often unknown before their acquaintance was made. We select a 
specimen of a more elaborate series of illustrations. 

This series is that which embellishes the fine translation of Shakspeare's 
works published by Brockhaus, of Leipsic. The translators are the most 
learned and skillful in Germany, such as Schlegel, Bodenstedt, and Delius. 
More than one edition is published by the house, whether unembellished, or 
made attractive with wood-cuts or steel-plates, according to the purse of the 
purchaser to be tempted. From the richest form in which Brockhaus issues his 
standard version of Shakspeare, we select an illustration, on steel by W. Schmidt, 
after the picture of A. Spiers. It represents the scene between Angelo and 
Isabella, Measure for Measure, Act II, Scene 4: — 

Aitj^eh. Plainly conceive, I love you. 

Isabella. My brother Hid love Juliet; and you tell me 

That he shall die for it. 
An::;elo. He shall not, Isabel, if you j;ive me love. 

The gende "votarist of St. Clare," shocked at die turn the argument is 
taking as she pleads with the Lord Deputy to have her brother taken out of 
prison, is repelling his offer with a decided gesture of her white hand. The 
engraving is finely wrought and well conceived (notwithstanding the ill-advised 
resemblance between the faces of Isabella and the ruler of Vienna), and the 
whole edition a credit to Germany's representation at Philadelphia. 

From illustrated poetry we turn to illustrated traveling. American readers 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



345 




have often had occasion to be gratified with the fine sketches of their own 
native scenery given in the " Tour du Monder an important serial pubhcation 



346 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

of the Paris house of Hachette & Co. This work, which has been appearing 
for years, as a sort 'of pictorial magazine of travel, has been the matrix from 
which have sprung various notable holiday-books, such as Marcoy's South 
American rambles, Wey's "Rome," etc.; the Christmas-keepsake is simply a 
selection from the chapters of the Tour, bound together. The most adventu- 
rous modern travelers and most vivacious writers, whether French or foreign, 
have contributed to the series, — now Hepworth Dixon, with his impressions on 
Russia, now I. 1. Hayes, with his notes of polar voyages. The illustrations have 
levied upon the very best artistic talent of the day ; now it is Gustave Dore 
sketching in Spain, now Valerio with his portfolios filled in the Gipsy camps 
of Wallachia, now Henri Regnault penciling his way through the streets and 
lanes of Rome. Very beautiful studies of travel in the United States have 
from time to time been prepared, such as the embellishments to a paper on 
the relics of Spanish settlements in Florida, and the picture of "Mirror Lake, 
Yo Semite Valley," engraved from a photograph to illustrate some passages of 
California travel. 

We extract the "Mirror Lake," and grace with it our 338th page. 

The French, however, have latterly been hard pressed by the rivalry of 
the Germans in the preparation of sumptuous books of travel. Among the 
splendidly-pictured works of this sort exhibited in the German section, we can 
hardly pass so noble a volume as the "Italy" exhibited by J. Englehorn, of 
Stuttgart. This fine repertory of artistic views yields us three pictures with 
which to adorn our publication. We first extract (page 339) the "Cascade of 
Terni." Two affluents of the Tiber meet to form the volume of water which 
here pours down the flanks of the Abruzzi. The traveler takes Terni on his 
way from Florence to Rome ; after reaching Papigno, the road immediately 
ascends the steep hill above the Falls, so that tourists who wish to visit them 
en route quit the carriage at Papigno, and rejoin it again at the summit. It is 
glorious to see, in a country whose civilization is so old as Italy's, a piece ot 
uncontaminated nature like Terni, rugged as in the days before the race of 
Romulus passed into Etruria. Our next selection shows "The Campo Santo 
at Pisa" (page 341). Every reader knows the vast importance of the relics of 
Pisa to art. The architecture, of the neighboring Carrara marble, is bright and 
elegant compared with that of Pisa's old rival, Florence. The cemetery, which 




Bonnat.p 



iL>.Jtbl\)lUDlLia7b. 



"irailE ffKRST STEPc 

OEbBlE & BAEOUX . 






THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



M7 



is here exhibited, is surrounded by dehcate arcades whose twisted cohimiis are 
slender hke ropes of silver; the earth, brought from Holy Land, is a sheet of 
lovely turf, studded with massive cypresses; and the gallery surrounding the 
old graves is a repository of some ot the most interesting works of art in 




From " Les Prome}tades de F<i 



Riviere de C/iarento. 



Italy. Funereal monuments, like those depicted in the cut, completely surround 
it. Some are of showy Italian work ; some are rare mediaeval relics ; and now 
and then an old Roman sarcophagus or capital — kept there because a beauty- 
loving race has chosen to exhibit its pretty findings in the most public place. 



348 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I Tl N, 187 6. 

intrudes among the Christian dead. One such rehc is the sarcophagus brought 
from Greece in the eleventh century; it is carved with fine bas-reliels of Hip- 
polytus, going to the chase, and rejecting Phaedra ; this Grecian coffin, utiHzed 
as the tomb of Matilda of Tuscany, taught Nicolo Pisano the secret of art in 
1260, and created the Renaissance. On the walls of the same Campo Santo 
are preserved the famous frescoes, culminating in the sublime "Triumph of 
Death" of Orcagna ; works noble in purpose, though fettered in expression, 
for painting was not so quick to find out the Greek carvings as sculpture was, 
and Orcagna, working in the century after Nicolo, is still rigid and mediaeval 
when the sculptor is quite Hellenized and emancipated. Finally, we show 
(page 343), as our last extract from Englehorn's "Italy," a view collaterally 
belonging to the route of the Italian voyager, a panorama of Trieste. Trieste,' 
the great port of Austria, is but seventy miles from Venice, and is Italian in 
appearance. All the engravings in this work are literal and trustworthy, while 
they almost entirely avoid hardness, that besetting vice of German wood-cuts. 
The above is a fair example of a work for the edification of tourists in a 
foreign land. To show, however, the pleasures and surprises that may be yielded 
to the explorer of a single city and its environs, we select the "Promenades 
de Paris," exhibited at Philadelphia by its publisher, J. Rothschild, of Paris. It 
is in two fine folio volumes ; the first, of nearly four hundred pages, contains 
the text and wood-cuts ; the second, a beautiful album, encloses the steel 
engravings and chromo-lithographs. Here are pictures of the twenty small 
Squares of Paris, such as the Chatelet, the Tour St. Jaques, and the Place 
Royale ; and the Woods and Parks, such as the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois 
de Vincennes, the Garden of the Luxembourg, Champs-Elysees, and Trocadero. 
We select from among the wood-cuts two views, illustrating that improvement 
of Paris under Prefect Haussmann which was one of the pacific glories — there 
were few belligerent ones — of the Second Empire. On page 345 we present a 
cut from the Promenades, exhibiting the new fountain on the Avenue de I'Ob- 
servatoire, only completed towards the close of Louis Napoleon's reign. The 
group of sculpture, by the late brilliant artist Carpeaux, represents Europe, 
Asia, Africa and America sustaining the sphere ; each geographical division 
presented in a figure of great energy. Above their heads is seen the dome 
of the Observatory, so renownedly connected with the labors of the closing 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



349 



years of Leverrier. This elaborate fountain now makes the southern part of 
Paris vie with the more early favored portions in elegance and attractiveness. 
A smaller cut Irom the same work, which we show on page 347, of the Riviere 
or rivulet of Charenton, gives to the tired eyes of dusty citizens a refreshing 
piece of country wildness. The work published by M. Rothschild illustrates the 
enormous effect which a few years of intelligent city administration can do in 
opening the lungs of a great metropolis. The determination to ventilate Paris 
led to a mighty expense of power and money, and was a new idea within the 





From " l'hot~waldst*t. sn t'ir et son (Eitvre." 



I'enns and Mercur 



present half-century. Towards the close of Louis XVIII's reign, the crowding 
of the capital began to show itself in a manner hurtful to comfort and health. 
The Champs-Elysees had been invaded with buildings ; and favorite gardens, 
such as those of Tivoli, Beaujon and Marbceuf had been suppressed. The 
constant demand for central building-sites, weakly or avariciously yielded by-the 
city in response to perpetual applications, had resulted in encumbering the heart 
of the metropolis, and rendering the whole capital unhealthy. The transforma- 
tion of Paris, the creation of Squares, the ruthless opening of new boulevards, 
will cause a long posterity to thank the twenty pacific years of the now dead 
and gone Empire. The capital which, first in Europe, had the courage to 



350 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHI BIT/ON, 1S76. 

devour and digest its proud edifices and transform them into groves, remains 
as a healthful example, from which not France alone, but Europe and the 
civilized world will profit. The author of the text in the Provienadcs de Paris 
is the engineer A. Alphand. 

Strictly an art-work is the illustrated life of Thorwaldsen, by Eugene Plon, 
exiiibited in the collection of E. Plon & Co., printers and publishers of Paris. 
It is a fine homage from France to Denmark, and America also can come in 
for a share of the tribute through the translation published by Roberts. The 
two cuts we give, however (page 349), do not appear in the Boston edition. 
Tiiat radiant art-critic, Theophile Gautier, remarks of this work and its embel- 
lishments: "The young author has followed up his sources, has traversed 
Denmark, looking up the traces of his hero, consulting the reminiscences of 
those who knew him, and begging for those particulars of home and family 
which throw a light on a physiognomy kept too far off, too statuesque ; for we 
are apt to figure Thorwaldsen as God Tiior himself striking with his hammer 
a block of marble similar to a lump of polar ice." M. Eugene Plon has com- 
posed a full catalogue of the works of the illustrious Danish sculptor, and has 
added to his text, besides the two beautifiil engravings of Venus and Morury, 
a large number of charming wood-cuts, of the purest design, representing single 
figures, groups, reliefs, and fragments of the master's compositions. We need 
hardly add our approval of a work which has passed the critical muster of 
such a judge. Of the two statues indicated, the "Venus" was executed in 
Rome ; Thorwaldsen employed for it more than thirty models. Casting aside 
a first essay made in 1S05, the sculptor began about 181 2 to labor assiduously 
on this figure, which after more than three years of steady labor he finished 
in 181 6, at the age of forty-six. The first three copies were made for Lord 
Lucan, the Duchess of Devonshire, and Mr. Labouchere. The duchess's pur- 
chase was broken in unloading the vessel carrying it, and the fracture in the 
copy, now at Chatsworth, concealed by a gold bracelet. That of Lord Lucan 
was shipwrecked, and then, in unloading, a rope broke, and the marble dropped 
into a cargo of wheat, Ceres thus saving Venus. The "Mercury" belongs to 
about the same period. Walking one day in the Corso, the ardst saw, seated 
at the curb-stone, a porter, whose attitude was at once so uncommon and so 
natural that he was immediately impressed ; as usual, he made a rapid sketch 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



3S1 




Scene in Bati 



of the figure in his note-book, and this Roman boor became the Greek Mercury, 
finished in 1819. Several copies exist of this beautiful, severe conception: one 



352 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

in Lord Ashburton's collection, one in Count Potocki's, and one purchased by 
the Spanish government. Mercury, having just put Argus to sleep by playing 
on the syrinx, gently moves the instrument from his lips and draws his sword 
to decapitate the spy ; the god is seated, but on the point of rising. Artists 
examine with more than common interest the slight but accurate drawings that 
illustrate Plon's Thorwaldsen ; they are the work of F. Gaillard, an artist who 
has lately carried to unprecedented degrees the excess of manipulation in aqua- 
fortis, and who is now known as the incomparable etcher of Antonello's portrait 
of the Condottiere, of Van Eyck's " Man holding a Carnation-Flower," and of 
Michael Angelo's "Twilight." 

Published by Henri Plon, same address in the rue Garanciere as the last, 
is the illustrated edition of the Count de Beauvoir's "Voyage autour du Monde," 
one of the handsomest novelties exhibited at Philadelphia. From among the 
embellishments we select the torrid-looking picture presented by an "Arroyo" 
in Bangkok (page 351). The Count de Beauvoir is a young diplomate who 
about eight years ago circumnavigated the globe on a voyage of exploration, 
acting as companion to the Duke de Penthievre, a son of the Prince de Join- 
ville. The record of his travels includes the United States, San Francisco, 
Yeddo, Pekin, Canton, Siam, Java, and Australia. It is delightful reading; he 
everywhere shows die tact of a man of the world, and the cheerfulness of a 
philosopher to which the strongest experiences are welcome. Francisque de 
Sarcey, speaking of his work, exclaims, "Come, there are still youthful spirits 
left in France ! M. de Beauvoir is a pleasant companion to know. He does 
the honors of his extreme youthfulness so gracefully, he flashes out with such 
genuine and contagious mirthfulness !" He gives the most piquant details of 
the harems where the sultanas of Java are secluded, and of the well-regulated 
life of the seventy-three princes of Siam, sons of King Mongkut: eats rats 
and dogs, and pides the seven hundred widows of the second Siamese king, 
huddled around the golden bowl which preserves for them the person of their 
defunct lord. The book of M. de Beauvoir has been translated without the 
illustrations, and the typography is superior in the French original. 

In presendng, with all modesty, a specimen engraving from M. Belloy's 
" Christopher Cohmibus" the proprietors of the Illustrated Catalogue are forced 
to speak for a moment of themselves. They can but salute their own image, 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 353 




354 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

as it were, in the glass whicli the Exposition furnished of their hitherto fortu- 
nate enterprises, and in the reflection which this Catalogue transmits of them 
and their illustrious compeers in art publication. Among the noble works made 
rich by art labors, not the least beautiful, not the least appropriate to the subject 
of the Centennial, was surely this monumental tribute to Columbus, ably trans- 
lated by Mr. R. S. Hunter, and enriched by the etchings and designs of the 
famous Leopold Flameng. On page 353 we print one of Flameng's wood-cuts, 
representing the procession in Barcelona in honor of the discovery of our dear 
native country. It is a sumptuous festa, with its train of stout Spanish dis- 
coverers in holiday attire, its waving branches of American palm and maize, its 
tributary troops of naked savages, and the Spanish banners dangling from the 
eaves of the famous Rambla. We are tempted to quote the sparkling passage 
referring to this festival, but forbear in time, partly from a careful sense of 
propriety, partly from a not unnatural desire to send the reader to the volume 
itself. The medal and diploma awarded to the house for the art publications 
shown at the Centennial Exposition were for the following, selected by them 
from among their recently issued books: ''The Masterpieces of European Art," 
by Philip T. Sandhurst and James Stothert, with one hundred and two steel 
plates and nearly two hundred wood engravings; "The Art Treasures of 
England" by J. Vernon Whitaker, with sixteen portraits and one hundred and 
two steel engravings; and " Illustr.ated C.\tal()Gue: the Masterpieces of the 
United States International Exhibition of 1876." 

Our steel engraving of "The First Step," and our wood-cut on page 355 
of "The Attack," are samples of the embellishments of a very sumptuous 
serial publication, the "Mnsee des Deux Mondes," issued and still issuing from 
the office of M. Bachelin-Deflorenne, Paris; in each kind of illustration we are 
willing to show the excellence of this work, for which are engaged both the 
best designers on wood and the best etchers, and whose list of American sub- 
scribers we would willingly increase if we could. "The First Step," etched by 
Masson, represents Bonnat's picture, full of the most serious excellences, of a 
contadina teaching her little boy to walk : we need scarcely insist on the 
unusual merit of the nude figure, which in a telling truthfulness of pose and 
solidity of modeling is more perfect and real than the finest majolica of Delia 
Robbia's. Bonnat's supremacy in flesh painting is now uncontested. The wood- 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



355 




enoraving on page 355 is after a painting of De Neuville's, himself an 
experienced designer on tlie boxwood, but letting himself be copied in this 
instance by his friend Edmond Yon. It represents an episode In the Franco- 



3S6 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Prussian war: we see the small public squares of a village; the French soldiers, 
meaning to occupy and fortify the place, and engaged in carrying faggots for 
chevaiix de /rise, are surprised by a murderous fire from every window that 
looks upon the place, opened by the Germans, who have already taken pos- 
session of the town and concealed themselves in the houses. M. de Neuville, 
known of old as a brilliant designer, is becoming eminent in the more compli- 
cated line of oil-painting, in which specialty his subjects inspired by the late 
war hold a conspicuous place. 

The noble steel-plate of "Christ on the Waters" is a representative illus- 
tration from what probably ought to be called, after all the worthy publications 
to which we have alluded, the finest art-book of our generation. It is published 
by Hachette, from whose display at Philadelphia we have already selected the 
Yo Semite picture taken from the Tour dit IMondc. But the "Bida Bible" is 
a work of monumental importance, projected and destined to be the standard 
and glory of the house. This publication gave special employment to many 
industries. The types used were cut new by \ iel-Cazal, from designs by 
Rossrgneux ; the printing, which frequently combines the impression of the 
steel-plate on the same page with the impression of the type, was done under 
the supervision of Hedouin, the etcher, for the engravings, and of the great 
printer Claye for the typography. The vellum paper, for the choicest editions, 
was made at two different French factories ; the Holland paper, for the rest, 
by the Dutch manufacturer Breet ; the ink was specially made by Lorilleux. 
This carefully distributed responsibility has resulted in one of the masterpieces 
of printing of all time. The printed page is a picture, and the etchings, we 
were going to say, are paintings. A talented Hebrew, M. Bida, well known 
for his travels and studies in the Holy Land, supplied all the illustrations, 
which were etched for the work by the most prominent artists in aqua-fortis, 
such as Leopold Flameng, Celestin Nanteuil, Hedouin, Chaplin, Gaucherel, 
P)odmer, Veyrassat, and Henriette Brown. The Gospels, or "Evangels" may 
be bought separately. The translation of the latter is the fine one of the 
great Bossuet. Very beautiful, in religious sentiment, in artistic sentiment, in 
close oriental sentiment, in suggestion of color and painting quality, is the 
etching we select of "Christ on the Waters." In addition to the etchings, and 
in function half-way between printers' ornaments and illustrations, are the 




THE AMUI.1ET §E-XiI^]BM.o 



U.S. Intemati oaal EAiia Hon 18 7 6 



REBBIE a. BiKRJE . 



*♦ 




From "Les Jardins, Histoire tt Description 



A Garden Party in the Fifteenth Century, 



358 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 

numerous tail-pieces, initial letters and titles: these are no common electro- 
types, such as decorate ordinary works, but are exquisite steel engravings, from 
new desions by Rossigneux, forming the most graceful imaginable combinations 
of palm-branches and willow-leaves with carved scroll-work and shields. The 
Bible, in this most poetic presentment of M. Hachette's, is seen for the first 
time illustrated in a vein of perfect unity and harmony, and with its distinctive 
coloring as an Oriental revelation adequately recognized. 

Nothing can so fidy come after the sacred pre-eminence of such a Picto- 
rial Bible, as the noblest work of our age in general Art-Literature. This is 
L'Art, celebrated already as the most expensive periodical anywhere published, 
and having a merit more than equal to its cost. France possessed, before the 
rise of this splendid serial work, an admirable art-journal, La Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, devoted to criticisms on picture-exhibitions and the elucidation of dark 
passages in art-history ; the Gazette had such a brilliant reputadon that there 
was something audacious in the announcement, some three years ago, of a new 
critical organ intended to follow almost the same course. When L'Art 
appeared, however, it was seen to fill a need not provided for by the journal 
already in the field. The unusual size especially — that of a full folio — gives 
opportunity for ample and adequate copies of pictures, and never before has 
the enterprise of preparing large copper-plate reproductions of works freshly 
exhibited in the Paris Sa/on or the London Royal Academy been carried 
so far. 

L'Art has also represented, among its splendid etchings, fine works by 
the old masters, among which about a dozen belonging to the valuable American 
gallery of the late William T. Blodgett have formed master-attractions. The 
serial in question is the first French journal which has ever given prominence 
to English work; an English editor has been appointed, and regular reports, 
with pictures, are rendered of the London exhibitions. L'Art appears weekly, 
but American subscribers, not liking to have their copies rolled, or defaced in 
the mail, usually wait until the numbers have been collected into quarterly 
volumes, for which reduced terms can be obtained from the American agent, 
Mr. Bouton. 

The criticaster's diatribes against "newsy Illustrations" ought to be silenced 
by so powerful a work, so broad in its minuteness, so silvery and pure in its 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



359 



embellishments, so quietly skillful in its composition. L'Ari was the only work 
exhibited in Philadelphia by its publisher, A, Ballue, 




The Wheat- Field. 



To show that exquisite French typography, and a system of illustrations 
quite up to the demands of the time, issue from the provinces as well as from 
Paris, we give a specimen picture from Arthur Mangin's beautiful work on 



36o THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, 1 8 7 6. 

"Les Jardins" published by Alfred Mame & Son, in what Balzac calls the 
"laughing, slobbering, amorous, cool, flowery and perfumed city of Tours." The 
work of M. Mangin treats of the history of gardening, in different nations, 
from the hanging gardens of Semiramis down to the present time, and gives 
descriptions and views of modern English gardens, Italian gardens, and gardens 
in the style of Le Notre. Our cut, "A Garden Party in the Fifteenth Century," 
(page 357) represents a Flemish enclosed green-house, where the summer light 
falls through the close steamy atmosphere of the place upon plumes and tiaras, 
buff-coats and halberds, lords and ladies, in the cumbrous pomp of Albert 
Diirer's groups. 

The publishing house now managed by H. Loones, in the rue de Tournon, 
Paris, represents a very old establishment of which he is the successor. 
Antoine-Auguste Renouard, a linguist and bibliophilist, founded the business 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century. The present representative pub- 
lishes, in large majority, books dedicated to the fine arts. Among others, the 
safe and methodical works ^of Charles Blanc will long have a peculiar value 
for their careful statement of facts and just criticism. It is not alone for the 
excellence of the engravings with which it is replete, but for the good judg- 
ment of the opinions expressed, that we cite M. Blanc's " Histoire des Peintres." 
A sounder work of criticism it would be hard to find. It is in fourteen volumes, 
with three thousand one hundred and eighty engravings, of which we borrow 
four. Charles Blanc is a brother of Louis Blanc, the polidcal theorist and 
historian. Our specimen pictures are respectively chosen from the English 
school, the Dutch school, the Italian school, and the French school. The first 
represents "The Wheat-Field" (page 359), one of Constable's fine succulent- 
looking landscapes; the next (page 361), one of Roberts' celebrated church 
interiors; the next (page 363), the magnificent "Entombment" by Titian, of 
which the original is in the Louvre; the last (page 365), "The Pointers," by 
the French animalist, Franq:ois Desportes. In the English scene we detect the 
freedom, the motion, the bursting sense of life which, combined with masterly 
technical skill in relief and atmosphere, made Constable the true father of 
modern landscape. The trees seem pushing up from the ground with the vigor 
of the tide of life which animates them. First of landscape painters, Constable 
put sap into his trees. The incidents are charming — the shepherd-boy in shirt- 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



361 




Fro>n Blanc's "Histoire des Peintres." 



Church Interior. 



sleeves, flat on his stomach, and dipping his snub nose into the stream as he 
drinks ; his dog, astutely managing the flock in his stead, yet giving a cursory 
sniff in the direction of his young master, wondering a litde what he would 



362 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

be at; above the dog, so that your attention is guided to him, the farmer, 
scythe on shoulder, half buried in the tall velvety wheat, and just entered 
within the gate-posts, whose broken door he cannot find time to mend in this 
ripe season of harvest; above the farmer, the church. A pleasant combination 
of probable objects, grandly framed in the elastic and rocking trees. The 
church interior is as dry as the other is "juicy." All is spic-and-span ; the 
ragged raptures of the "picturesque" have never lacerated this patient, plodding 
spirit. He loves order, dusdessness, the gradual shading of daylight up the 
long shafts of gray pillars ; his church is in excellent repair, and it is enlivened 
with well-arranged groups of orderly worshippers. In the "Entombment," 
Titian seems to unite the merits of the whole Italian body of painters. You 
do not miss the grace of Raphael, you do not feel the want of the science of 
Michael Angelo, in this noble work, which seems to gather all the learning of 
the more classical schools together with that splendor of color and happy loose- 
ness of movement of which only Venice got the secret. These three grandiose 
bearers, relieved against the sunset like Titans burying a god, and watched by 
female faces of terrible agony, contain all that is majestic in character, move- 
ment and religious constancy. Especially fine is the gesture of St. John's head 
upon his shoulders, giving vent to a world of despair in one broad brusque 
motion, and shaking out the dark wildness of the hair against the gathering 
twilight. The dog-picture by Desportes is a good conscientious representation 
of the breed of Louis XIV's hunting-dogs. The wind must be very strong 
from the right-hand side of the scene to enable them to get so near the partridges. 
It was remarked that in the galleries of Paintings and Sculpture the French 
made a less imposing exhibit than was expected, and the English a finer one. 
In the kindred department of Art publications the balance was the other way, 
and we consider it the more imperative to take up this subject of Fine Art 
literature on that account, while the opportunity to render some justice to the 
greatness of the artistic element in France is embraced by us with the more 
pleasure since it is a necessity for the restoring of a just equilibrium. There 
was, for instance, in the central quarter of the Main Building, an enclosure 
dedicated to the exhibit of the "Cercle de la Librairie" of Paris. We have 
already drawn upon some of the publishers represented in this association, but 
we oueht to mention a few more. 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



363 



Didier & Co. exhibited a specimen of the ''Tresor dc Numismatiqucr a most 
elaborate work illustrated with fac-similes of ancient coins, represented with 




perfect precision by the Collas process. Firmin Didot showed the splendid 
volumes of Paul Lacroix on the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Racinet's "Poly- 



364 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 18 jO. 

chrome Oniamoit" Wallon's ''yeanne D' Arc," etc. The house of Michel Levy 
(now Calmann Levy) exposed Renan's Journey in Phauiicia, with plates, and the 
illustrated French novelists. Mame & Son, of Tours (besides Les Jardins, 
which we have mentioned), sent Dorfs Bible and GraJidville s La Fontaine. 
Morel & Co. sent a long shelf of expensive pictorial works, such as Le Due's 
Architecture, a Dictionary of Furniture, L' Art Pour Tons, De Boutowski's 
Russian Ornament, Bourgoin's Arab Art, and others. Plon & Co. exposed 
(besides the already cited Voyage autour du Monde and Thoiivaldsen) Yriarte's 
Goya and Patricien dc Venise, and Bertall's humorous sketches. 

In the English department we must not omit the Art yournal, now forming 
a long series of bound volumes; the case containing the series of Punch; the 
Illustrated London IVews, and the attractive exhibit made by the Graphic. 

Germany displayed some pictorial works — we have already mentioned 
two — distinguished frequently by painstaking excellence, but not so often by 
felicity and lightness of touch. In the separate edifice erected by Spain we 
noticed, among a rich representation of the Castilian press in general, precious 
examples of the etchings of Goya, gathered in at least three of those often 
sought, seldom found volumes of his. 

America showed plenty of fine editions, and plenty of illustrated editions, 
but not very many of such a strictly artistic character as would fall within the 
line we have mentally traced for this department. Appleton's Picturesque 
America should be mentioned as a highly creditable performance, lavishly embel- 
lished with cuts of high quality. Scribner's serial publications have developed 
a new standard of excellence in wood engraving. Those of Harper & Brother 
contain illustrations, some of which are original and very good. A Cejitury 
After, published by Allen, Lane & Scott, contained a series of cuts rivaling 
those of Pictuj-esque America, with text b)- Richard Henry Stoddard and Edward 
Strahan. We can scarcely include in our category the often clever illustrated 
guide-books to the principal American cities, but we must in justice cite, as 
coming the nearest to similar European weeklies in the vigor of its illustrations, 
Leslie's Newspaper, many of whose cuts are original. 

Our sketchy remarks on the Photography and Fine Art Literature ended, 
we devote a few words to three more steel plates. "The Scheldt, Texel 



THE FINE ART LITERATURE. 



365 



Island," is from a fine painting by the late Charles Stanfield, which was lent by 
the Royal Academy, and hung near Frith's " Marriage of the Prince of Wales." 




It shows that mastery of composition which Stanfield learned from his early 
trade as theatrical decorator and that neatness, nattiness and over-cleanliness 
of which Ruskin complains in Stanfield's pictures. It certainly gives that 



366 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



delicious motion of water dancing in a light wind which nobody ever caught 
like Stanfield. "Oxen Plowing" is an etching by Peter Moran, of Philadelphia, 
from Rosa Bonheur's great picture in the Luxembourg entitled "Labourage 
Nivernais." Mr. Moran exhibited in Gallery 22, Annex, five frames of animal 
subjects in aqua-fortis, of which this was one. All of Mile. Bonheur's thoroughl)'' 
trained draughts-womanship is shown in Mr. Moran's copy, while her imperfect 
color and qiialite are discreetly vailed. When the history of American Etching, 
now an infant, comes to be written, Mr. Moran's name will be famous as that 
of one of the progenitors. "Roger and Angelica," by Theobald Chartran, a 
young pupil of Cabanel, is suitable for a plafond, or ceiling decoration. The 
young Parisian has sent to America, in this graceful and elegant theme from 
Tasso's Jerusalem, an exquisite tribute from French art to Italian literature. 

What we would have had to say about the display in Memorial Hall, and 
the relations of Fine Art to Industrial Art and Art Applied, have been so 
admirably anticipated in the monograph on "Industrial Art," that we can only 
refer our readers to the 508th and following pages of that well-digested treatise. 



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