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Full text of "The masterpieces of French art illustrated : being a biographical history of art in France, from the earliest period to and including the Salon of 1882"

Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 



1980 



THE 



MASTERPIECES 



OF 



FRENCH ART. 



Tp^ /? 



THE 



^ 




MASTERPIECES 



Q7 ^ 



8O2OT 



OF 



FRENCH art" 



ILLUSTRATED. 



BEING 



A BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF ART IN FRANCE, FROM THE EARLIEST 
PERIOD TO AND INCLUDING THE SALON OF 1882. 



BY 

LOUIS VIARDO 



AND OTHER WRITERS. 



1/ 



EDITED BY WM. A. ARMSTRONG. 



VOL. I. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

GEBBIE & CO., Publishers. 
1883. 



COPYRIGHTED. 






^^^ 

^.^" 



LIST OF PHOTOGRAVURES AFTER PAINTINGS. 



VOLUME I. 

TITLE. AKTISI. tOCATIOS OT THB ORIOtyAL. 

BLANCHE BARETTA Lodise Abbeua Theatre Couiedie-Fr»ii(;ai5e, Pari*. 

TERRACE OF THE VILLA DORL\ PAMFILE Auquste Asastasi Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

YOUTH Jeas-Eknest Aubekt Museum of Laon, Franco. 

SARAH BERNHARDT Iules Bastien-Lep.vqe Theatre- Fruiii;aig, Pariii. 

FORTUNE AND THE CHILD Paul-Jacque-Aime BAUDiiy Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA Charles- fiDOUARD de Beaumo.vt .... Salon of 186C. 

THE CAPTAIN'S SHARE Charles-^douard de Beaumo.vt . : . . Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

THE GARDEN OF MONSIEUR LE CURE Etienne Prosper Berhe-Bellecol-r . . Salon of 1875. 

MARGARET TEMPTED James Bertra.nd Salon of 187G. 

MARGARET BETRAYED James Bertrand Salon of 1878. 

OOCOS LAST RATION Pierre-Marie Bevle Salon of 1878. 

MASSACRE OF THE MAMELUKES Ale.xasdre Bida Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

THE CASTLE TERRACE, XVth CENTURY Joseph Celestin Blakx Salon of 1860. 

PLOUGHING IN NIVEKNAIS Rosa Bonheur Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

THE BIRTH OF VENUS William-Adolpue Bouguereau .... Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

PROMENADE IN THE STREET OF TOMBS, POMPEII . Gustave-Bodolphe Boulangek Gallery of M. Leon Andr«, Pari*. 

THE DAY OF BAPTISM Gustave Beion Salon of 1875. 

WAITING ULYssE-Louis-AtTGUsiE Butis Salon of 1875. 

PORTIA: SCENE FROM "MERCHANT OF VENICE" . Alexandre Cabasel Salon of 1881. 

THE ENGLISH PROMENADE AT NICE Joseph C.^stigliose Gallery of the Prince of Saxe-Coberg, Vienna 

EPISODE IN THE SIEGE OF NAUMBURG Jaroslav Cermak Salon of 187fi. 

A GOOD POINT OF VIEW Vincent Chevilliard Salon of 1874. 

SMOKE AFTER VESPERS Vincent Chevilliard Salon of 1872. 

POOR LOVE FRANgois-Ci.AUDius CompteCalix . . . Salon of 1870. 

MARIE TOUCHET Pierre-Charles Comte Gallery of M. Leroy, Paris. 

LES CONFETTI Pierre de Cosinck Salon of 187;^. 

THE WOMAN AND THE PAROQUET Gu.stave Courbet Salon of 18GU. 

MANON LESCAUT P.-A.-J. Daonan-Bouveret Collection of Hon. H. P. Morton, New York. 

EMBARKATION OF MANON LESCAUT Charles-Edoiard Delort Gallery of M Lofevre, Chateau de Chamant. 

THE PASSING REGIMENT £douard Detaille Corcoran Gallery, Washington. [France. 

THE MARSEILLAISE HYMN Gustave Dore Salon of 1870. 

CHARITY L.-Sdouard DuBUFE Salon of 1844. 

MADAME CROIZETTE Carolus Dl'EAS Theatre-Frangais, Paris. 

RETURN OF THE FISHERS AT LOW TIDE Fkak50is'Nicol.\s-A. Feyen-Perrin . . . Salon of 1880. 

THE WARM HAND . Jose Frappa Salon of 187(5. 

FALCON CHASE IN ALGERIA EcofiNE FiioME-vris Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

THE DAY OF THE FETE Jules Garxier Gallery of Mr. Richardson, Glasgow, Scot. 

THE TRIBUTE TO THE MINOTAUR Auquste Gendron Gallery of M. Courtin, Paris. 

THE TWO AUGURS Jean Leon Gerome Salon of 1861. 

ALCIBIADES at THE HOUSE OF ASPASIA Jeas-Leos GiiROME Salon of 1861. 

THE WALL OF SOLOMON Jean-Leos GeromE" Salon of 1868. 

PHRYNE BEFORE THE TRIBUNAL Jean-Leos Gerome Salon of 1861. 

THE PLAIN OF THEBES Jean-Leon Gerome Salon of 1857. 

THE XBDUCTION OF AMYMONE Felix-Henri Giacommotti Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

THE GOD-MOTHER'S GARDEN Firmin Girard Gallery of Mr. T. H. Howell. Brooklyn. 

EPISODE IN THE SIEGE OF SARAGOSSA Jules Qirardet Gallery of Mr. James Galbraith, Glasgow, Scot 

THE DEVIS.A Pierre-Francois-Euoese Giracd . . . . Gallery of the Luxembourg. 

THE CONJURATION Pierre-Paul-Leon Gl.uze Gallery of the Luxembourg, 

HERCULES AND OMPHALE Marc-Charles-Gabriel GlErBE . . . . Museum of Nenfchatel. 

PRESENTING THE TROPHY OF THE FOOT Jean-Richard Qoobie Gallery of Mr. J. H. Stebbins, New York. 



LIST OF WOOD ENGRAVINGS AFTER PAINTINGS. 



VOLUME I . 

TITLE. AETISI. lOCATIOS OF THE OBIOIIAL. 

I'OBTRAIT OK TIr\ry II • Fraru^ Clouct Gallery of the Louvre 1 

Pleasures OF THIS Gardes Pierrt ihgnard Salon of Saint-Cloud 2 

The liAST Judgment Jean Cousin Gallery of the Louvre 2 

TiiE Perfect MA.STEB Eiutache Le Sueur Gallfiry of Rohan Cliubot 4 

Hercules Combatisg the Cestaurs Bon Boulloyne Gallery of the Louvre » 

SuaAHSAH AT THE liATii Jcan-BaptuU SajiUrre Gallery of the Louvre 10 

T-fE Offeriso TO Venus Joteph-Marie V'lcn Gallery of Dresden 10 

Danjou Ifyacinike liiyaud Gallery of Versaille* • . 12 

Lajoue AHD Family Jacque$ Lajouc Gallery of Versailles 16 

Hercules Df^troyino Caous Fraru;ois Le Maine Gallery of the Lonvro 18 

TuE Valley or Tempe Francuqxu Uilet Gallery of ihe Louvre 20 

Game Guarded DY A Doo Franjou Detportct Gallery of tha Louvre 20 

CuriD QuiTTiso PsYcnE T^uu David Gallery of iho Ixjuvre 20 

Death OF ViROiNiA Ouillaume-OuUlon LdJii^re Gallery of the Louvre 20 

IUrboijr OF RiPETTA, Rome JIabcrt Jtobsrt Gallery of the Louvre 2S 

DiooESEs Throwino Away nis Bowl yieolat rbuttin Gallery of the Louvre 22 

Tbajak Givi)»3 Audience Noel Coj/pel Gallery of the Louvre 21 

Tub Sauine VVomes iMuit David Gallery of the Ixjuvre 24 

P'iBST Chapter OF THE Order OF THE Holy Gucir Jean Fran^i* de Troy Gallery of the Louvre 28 

SroRMiNO OF CossTANTlNE ITorace Vernet Gallery of Versailles 28 

The Ratiiers CLaude-Jotrph Virnct Gallery of the Jjouvre 30 

Tin: Bl.vcksmith AT nis FoRiiR The Brother* Le Nain Gallery of the Louvre 32 

Vknus Bisdini the Wings of Ldvj; E'.iz.-Louite Vtyte-Lehrun Gallery of the Iiouvre 32 

Pygmalion and Galatea Anne-Ijonit Oirodri-Trioton . . . . Formerly in the Soramariva Collection . . . 32 

BosAPABTE, as Fibst Consul Jean- BaptitU Ittihcy Gallery of the Louvre 32 

liELisARius /Vonfot* Gerard The Ifcrmitage. St. Petersburg 3(5 

Education OF Achilles Jean- BaptitU Itegnauh Gallery of the Louvre 30 

Kntrance OF IIrsby IV. IKTO Pari.s Fran^i* Oerard Gallery of the Louvre 33 

Napoleon ON THE Rattle-Ground OF Eylau Antoiiu-Jean Ore Gallery of the L"uvre 42 

Justice AND Divine Vengeance PuBSiiiNQ Crime I'icrre Pradhon Gallery of tlie Louvre 4t 

The Raft OF the Medusa Theodore Oerieault Gallery of the Louvre 41 

Monastery BY THE Mediterranean Sea Loui»-Anyusle ComU de Forbin . . . Gallery of tho Louvre 4d 

The Return op Marcus Sextus Pierre- Xareiue Oucrin Gallery of the Louvre 50 

LocusTA Trying Poison on a Slave Xavier Siyalon Mu<eura of Nimes 50 

Assassination op the Duke op Guise Paul Delarorhe Gallery of Uie Duke d'AumaIn 62 

Entrance OF Alexander INTO Rabylon Charlet Le Brun Gallery of the Louvre 52 

Arrival OF THE Reapers IN the Pontine Marshes L-opoll Robert Gallery of the Louvre 5(J 

TiiE Death OF Roland Achille-Etna llichallon Gallery of the Louvre 53 

Don Quixote AND S.vNcno Panza Alex.-Oahrid De Cimpt Gallery of Baron Gutavede Rothschild, Paris 62 

The Sleep OP Endymion A:ine-Louit OirodttTrioton Gallery of the Louvre G2 

Evening Jean-BaptitU Qirot Museum Bruyas, Montpellier, France ... G4 

Lion Devo"ring A (loAT Eugene Delacroix Gallery of the Luxembourg 66 

Charles V. AT the Monastery OF Smnt-Just J istph-NicoUu Robert- Fleury . . . . Gallery of M. £mile Poreire. Paris . ..... 06 

Claude, N. Poussin, and O. Poussin in the Roman Ca.mpagn.v J<:an-Baptitte-Aitgiute Lcloir .... Salon of 1861 TO 

Stella at Rome, in 1093 Claudius Jacquand SaJon of 1877 70 

A Sea Port at Sunset Clawle Lorraine Gallery of the Louvre 72 

The Spring at Ne?lette, Normandy EmUe Van Marcke Gallery of Mr. Alex. Brown. Philadelphia . 72 

The Inn INTHE FoiEST Jean- Louis- Ernat Missonier . . . . Gallery of Sir Richard Wallace, Paris ... 74 

Ths Ordsr OF ths Day Jean- Louis- Ernest Mcissonir . . . . Gallery of Mr. W. H. Vanderbilt. New York 74 

A Spartan's Education Louis Mussini Gallery of the Luxembourg 78 

Rome in its Decadence Thomas Couture Gallery of tlic Luxembourg 80 

Orpheus Frani;ois- Louis Fran^ais SaloT) of 1863 82 

Arab Gavalieb Starting for the Fantasia Henri RegnauU Salon of 1867 82 



A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 




The modern French School of painting so incontestably leads the van of con- 
temporary art, that to select it as the topic of an illustrated work needs 
no excuse and no explanation. To make a theme of an art- nationality 
now in the full career of success, with masters honored the world over, 
and monuments accepted as standards everywhere, might be considered 
somewhat humiliating for an American writer, whose compatriots have not 
yet conquered the attention of the earth at large by their success in the 
craft of design. But rightly considered, the topic is encouraging. French 
art started amid the same deprivation of works of Greek sculpture, of 
gems and vases and museum-curiosities, of galleries filled with Cimabues 
and Bellinis and Durers, as American art. It began with the absence — 
|»orhap8 a healthy absence — of any models but natural objects, any traditions 
but what might be called autochthonic experience. Much more than 
America, France was a sort of intellectual backwoods when it began to 
breed painters. 

Nor do I know any more quaintly fascinating and stimulating experience than to go through the 
mighty galleries of sumptuous paintings in the Louvre, — past all the Rubenses and Veroneses and the 
like, — to commune awhile with the early genius of Clouet. I have lingered long in that pinched-up 
corner of a pincfaed-up room, to inspect him. With one's eye still shaking in one's head from the strong 
vibrations given to it by the color-pieces of the Venetian school, one comes upon the little group of 
his pictures — rigid, timid, minutely picked-out in detail, almost without light and shade on the flesh, 
deprived of the sense of life and motion, with staring, beady eyes and frozen attitudes, with the painted 
gems and pearls in their golden settings, all made out, fraction by fraction, almost like the chasing of the 
jeweler's tool, with cast-iron velvets, and satins of hammered tin, — smooth, ignorant, conscientious and 
■oulless, like Chinese portraits I Yet, when these parchment-like records were perpetrated, Titian had 
already painted the glowing portrait of Francis I. in an adjacent room, and Leonardo, La Belle Ferroniere, 
his mistrem ! What an anachronism, the uprising of a set of portraits like missal-paintings, ajier the 
life-breathing heads of a Titian or a Leonardo were executed I Step over to inspect the last-mentioned 



MKTRAIT or MIOTV ■. 



-2 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

likenesses. The Ferroniere has the unquiet watchfulness of expression proper to Leonardo — his balance 
of the nervous system just ready to start into movement, in fact the full endowment of his intense, 
but controlled vitality. The Titian, of Francis I., is easy, smiling, lordly, sumptuous, with flesh in full 
morbidezza, draperies sketched and expressed with disdainful ease, a collar of golden links flashing, 
scintillating, coruscating — expressed by gushes of light, rather than expressed by tool-touches, like the 
jewelry of honest Clouet. 

Tliere are other Titians, other Leonardos, close by, still further endowed with the finished splendour 
of their genius ; but to point the accurate and diametrical contrast, I have availed myself of portrait- 
works devoted to Clouet's own king and a contemporary, orders presumably given before the orders 
executed by Clouet, and showing that the French court-painter rose stiff and frozen in the full blaze 
of summer, just when the hot sap was rushing in the perfect blossoming of the renaissance all around 
him. No country can be more palpably behind the age, more cold in the hot blast of a contemporary 
conflagration, than was France, whose position in the arts to-day, leaves classic Italy so far behind. A 
succinct account of this originator of French oil-painting will now be in order. 

FRAN(;;OIS CLOUET was born at Tours, the city of Rabelais, in the year 1510, when Titian wu 
thirty-three years old, Raphael twenty-seven, and even Correggio, a painter so completely modem in 
feeling, numbered six years of life. His father, Jehan, (1518-1541) had come over from Flanders, 
bringing the secret of oil-painting derived from John Van Eyck. The clever and patient Jehan settled in 
sunny France ; forgot the fogs of the Low Countries, astonished the grandees with the rich and \'i8cid colors 
possible to oil-painting, executed their portraits according to his lights, was made court-painter and vald-de- 
cliainhre to Francis L, and begat his son Fran9ois. What tortures his soul experienced by the importation 
into France of such finished painters as Pinturiccio, Nicolo Abbate, Rossi, and Leonardo, and such jacks- 
of-all-trades as Cellini, he has left no memoirs to show. Among the native enamel-painters like Bernard 
Limousin, and modelers like Palissy, he did well "enough. He died and left few or no gallery-pictures 
of uncontested authenticity. But the son, Francois — named after the great king with fond adulation — 
is shown at the Louvre in a little galaxy of paintings of quaintest intere'fet. One of them shows a 
Court Ball; it is a precious little chronicle of palace life in the epoch; Henri III., then king is shown, 
in the tight trunk-hose, the little flying velvet cloak on one shoulder, associated in our minds with the 
costume of Mephistopheles, and matchlessly goblin-like and piquant: the queen-mother, the proud, bigoted 
Catharine de Medicis, with young Henry of Navarre, are present at the festivities, and the stiff sixteenth- 
century dames and spider-legged gallants are going through a formal antique dance. Another little 
picture shows the Marruxge of Margard of Lorraine, sister of the Guises, with Duke Anne of Joyeuse. 
On a larger scale, though of less size as a picture, is the valuable and evidently faithful portrait of 
Charles IX., the weak young king who precipitated the massacre of St. Bartholomew. This priceless 
contemporary document, this unchallengeable portrait by the court-painter, though no larger than the leaf 
of a common book, has been used by a greater number of modern artists than tongue can tell, as the 
authority for a quantity of subjects in which Charles and the massacre are to figure; Gallait, for example, 
has employed it in a blood-curdling picture representing the boyish king, with convulsed features, 
listening at a curtain while the murders are going on. Other portrait subjects, hung near by, are the 
likeness of Henri II (see initial), of the Duke of Guise, called the scarred, or U hahfre, of the prudent 
chancellor Michel de I'Hapital, and even a valuable and charming one of Henri lY., as a child — the 
warrior of the League, whose portrait recurs so many times along with Marie de Medicis in the sumptuous 



' FRANCOIS CLOUET. 3 

series by Rubens in the Long Gallery, is seen young, small, timid and queer, in this faithful documentary 
work by Clouet, and thus serves as a link connecting the embryonic birth of French painting with 
the fullness of artistic splendour under the brush of the other Fleming. Another of Clouet's portraits in 
the group is Elizabeth of Austria, the queen of Charles IX., a work as minute, delicate, and conscience- 
stricken as the photograph-like head of her husband ; and thus there are eight small miniature works 
by the faithful court-likeness-taker, by which to estimate him, all together, in an almost unvisited corner 
of the Louvre collection. Their style is very similar to that of Holbein. French art is so far almost 
Teutonic — not a breath of Italian freedom has yet come to spoil its virgin stupidity. There is not 
the toss of a sixpence to choose between the little Elizabeth of Aitstria and yonder Holbein, Ann of 
Cleves, kept as such a jewel in the Salon Carre, and supposed to be the one which beguiled Henry 
VIII. into taking the lady to wife, — with such an unlucky subsequent repudiation of the " Flanders 
Mare." when her true appearance became known. 

Our Francois Clouet was the fourth of his family, — born, as was mentioned, in the year 1510, 
he died in 1574. 

Wliile standing before the works of Clouet, with all their faithfulness and limitations, I have 
frequently been impelled to applaud the native vigor that could withstand so many solicitations, and 
die with, as it were, the old oil-brush of Van Eyck in the fingers. France was then filling up with 
foreign art. Francis I., (who died in 1547, just four years after Holbein sank into his unknown London 
grave) had been especially zealous in cramming his palaces with the novelties of the renaissance. Even 
before his day, the military expeditions of Charles VIII. and of Louis XII., had introduced the French 
to the civilization of Italy ; and with the campaigns of Francis I., the French dynasties, in person, 
were sDCcessively made acquainted with the whole of the Italian peninsula, from Milan down to Naples, 
and were inspired with the most fruitful astonisiiment before the buildings and decorations of tlie Italian 
cities. Soon Francis I. brought to his capital the great works which even now remain the criterions 
— the Holy Family of Francis I., by Haphael ; the Joconde, by Leonardo ; the Charity, by Del Sarto. 
Then began that pregnant counter-invasion by Italy of France, which was to sow the seed of a future 
civilization. Leonardo went at the bidding of the French monarch, in old age, and with his health in 
sach an enfeebled condition that he could not summon resolution to finish even the /St. Ann and the 
Virgin, which exists as a revered embryo in the room of honor in the Louvre. He died in liis exile, 
at Cloux, near Amboise, (May 2d, 1519, after a French residence of three years), where the fragments 
of his tombstone, discovered but of late years, alone remain to enclose the voice of his message to French 
art. Del Sarto, too, was an unproductive visitor, staying but for a short time, and then squandering 
the money given him by Francis, who constituted him the purveyor for purchasing Italian works des- 
tined to the embellishment of France. His false and beautiful wife, — the model for the fine Charity 
purchased by King Francis, and still in its proper place in the Louvre — diverted the trust-money and 
spent it on her pleasures. These two invitations of Francis were barren. But Primaticcio, one of the 
school of Raphael, went to France for a long sojourn, and worked on the decorations of Fontainebleau, 
while Nicolo del' Abati finished the frescoes of Primaticcio, and II Rosso was their intractable coadjutor. 
The date of Leonardo's visit to France was 1516, (when our tenacious little Clouet was svs. years old) ; 
Del Sarto went thither in 1518; Primaticcio in 1531, Rosso in 1538, and Abati in 1552, while Cellini 
for much of the same space of time worked there in jewelry, giving a lasting lesson to French disciples 
of St. Eloi. Leonardo, nor Del Sarto, did not really acclimate themselves or become workers in the country 
they visited ; bat the others did. Primaticcio executed a large number of frescoes at Fontainebleau ; 



4 A COMPLETE HIS TO BY OF FRENCH ART. 

though the greater part of those mural paintings, with which Francis I. wished to decorate the palace 
of his choice, were not finished until after the monarch's death. Owing to jealousy, an ill feeling arose 
between Primaticcio and the Rosso, or Maitre Roux, as the French called him ; the latter was painting 
away with great industry and in full royal favor, when the grudge of Primaticcio formed expression, 
and the good-natured king sent Primaticcio to Rome to collect antique works of art. While thus 
enii)loyed, the death of II Rosso left the field clear, and he was recalled to finish some paintings which 
tlie decease of the latter artist left uncompleted. Rosso had brought to France a friend, one Francesco 
Pelligrino; and, while working industriously on the Fontainebleau frescoes, became the loser of a con- 
siderable sum of money; he charged the theft upon his friend and assistant Pellegrino, who was 
accordingly put to the torture, but declared not to be guilty. That he should have accused an innocent 
man, it is said, caused Rosso such remorse, that shortly afterwards (1541) he died, by putting an end 
to his own life. Upon this disaster Primaticcio, burying his jealousy in his rival's grave, abandoned 
the collection of Roman marbles for Francis in Italy, and returned to complete II Rosso's paintings. 
The most renowned of Primaticcio's works in France were the scenes from the Odyssey, in the 
Fontainebleau palace, — paintings entirely destroyed in 1738 when the great gallery was pulled down to 
make room for some new apartments; this Raphaelesque painter enjoyed a French career coeval with 
Ciouot's; died just before him, in 1570, after painting under Henri I., under Francis II. (Imsband of 
Mary Queen of Scots), and Charles IX. He was made by Francis, Abbot of St. Martin of Troyes, 
and given a revenue of eight thousand crowns. His assistant, Abati, helped with these frescoes, painted 
the Advailurcs of Ulyfmes and other works from the Odyssey designs of Primaticcio, and died con- 
temporaneously with him in Paris, in 1571. His pictures shared the fate of his master's, perishing 
in 1738, whoa the building was removed to make room for some improved architecture. Such fruit- 
cultivation was going on at the edge of the woods of Fontjvinebleau — such mounting of sap and 
bursting of pulp and scattering of seed, — during the very years when dry and faithful Clouet, adhering 
to the paint-brush transmitted from old Van Eyek, turned out his Holbein-like portraits in the 
French method. 

A life-size Clouet, representing Charles IX., and accurately copying in large scale tlie one in the 
Louvre, is in the Imperial Qnllery of Vienna, bearing the inscription, " Charles Villi., tres chretien, Roy 
de France, en I'aage de xx ans, peinct au vif par Jannet, 1563." 

At the Louvre, besides the masterly portraits of Charles IX. and his queen, of undoubted authen- 
ticity, there are several other pictures, attributed with various shades of doubt, to Clouet; three of these 
represent Francis I. The largest is certainly from the old cahind dore of Fontainebleau, and the earliest 
inventory attributes it to "Jehannet;" possibly it is by the elder painter of the family, the Fleming; 
it is painted on a gold background, rubbed over with red. A second, of the same king, was painted 
on a walnut panel, and removed to a canvas backing in 1828 ; it was then attributed to Holbein ; 
an analogous portrait is in England, in Lord Ward's collection, assigned to Leonardo da Vinci. A 
small one, not resembling Francis at all, yet bearing the legend, " Francois I., Roy de Fr.," is attributed 
to Jannet in the Louvre Notice of 1841, but is entirely doubtful. 

Back of the Clouets, as we regard in perspective the attainments of French taste among the 
nations, we observe the works of glass-painters and missal-painters, of potters and enamellers, such as 
Limousin, — whose style matches so well with the contemporary Clouet's. As far away as the history 
of France extends we can observe some trace of that exquisite fancy, that neatness and elegance of 



JACQUEMIN GBINGONNEUR. 5 

handiwork, that geniiis for manipulation, which in its modern development places France at the head of 
art-production. Emeric David reminds us that even in the time of Charlemagne it was the custom to 
cover the walls of churches with paintings {circuiiu dextra Icevaque, intus et extra), "in order to instruct 
the people, and to decorate the buildings. It was in France about the middle of the ninth century, that 
painters first endeavored to represent the Almighty Father himself in human form, an attempt which 
was not made in Italy before the thirteenth century, and is not to be found at all in Byzantine painting. 
Painting on glass for church windows was likewise invented or perfected in France. A great number 
of French prelates and abbots also decorated their churches and monasteries with paintings of all sorts ; 
amongst these were the bishops Hincmar of Rheims, Hoel of Mans, Geoflroy of Auxerre, and the abbots 
Angilbert of Saint-Riquier, Ancesige of Fontenelle, Richard of Saint- Venne, and Bernard of Saint-Sauveur. 
After the conquest of England by WilUam of Normandy, the French carried the art of church 
decoration, and a taste for it, into England with Lanfranc and Anselm of Canterbury. Tradition has even 
preserved the names of several celebrated French painters of the Middle Ages, the greater part of whom 
were monks, belonging especially to the order of St. Basil. Of this number were Madalulphe of Cam- 
bray, Adelard of Louvain, Emule of Rouen, Herbert and Roger of Rheims, and Thiemon, who was also 
a sculptor and professor of the fine arts. But these crude essays, which did not culminate in a dis- 
tinctive national style, are not worthy of a lengthened account. French as well as Spanish art, both 
the papils of Italy, can only be said to have really commenced after the slow and laborious development 
of the Middle Ages, when all the knowledge possessed by antiquity sprang out of the soil at one time, 
and produced the revival known by tlie name of the Renaissance. The influence which Italy exerted 
on French painting made itself felt as eswly as the middle of the fifteenth century — as we have seen, 
under Leonardo, Del Sarto, Primaticcio, Rosso, and Abati — although it was nearly a hundred years later, 
before the French school may be said to have commenced. 

RENt! OF ANJOU, Count of Provence, the prince successively despoiled of Naples, Lorraine, and 
Anjoa, and who consoled himself for his political disgraces by cultivating poetry, music, and painting, — 
this good King Rene, who was bom about 1408, learnt painting in Italy, either under II Zingaro at 
Naples, when disputing the crown of the Two Sicilies with the kings of Aragon, or under Bartolommeo 
della Gatta at Florence, when forming an alliance with the Duke of Milan against the Venetians. " He 
composed," says the chronicler Nostradamus, " several beautiful and elegant romances, such as La Conquests 
de la Doulce Merei, and the MoHiJieinenl He Vaine Plaisance, but he loved painting in particular with a 
pasnonate love, and was gifted by nature with such an uncommon aptitude for this noble profession that 
he was famous among the most excellent painters and illuminators of his time, which may be perceived 
by several masterpieces accomplished by his divine and royal hand." In the Cluny Museum there is 
a picture by Rene, which, although not worthy of being called a " divine masterpiece " of the period that 
had produced Fra Angelico da Fiesole and Mesaccio, is yet valuable and remarkable. The subject is the 
Preaching of the Magdalen at MaraaUes, where tradition asserts that she was the first to proclaim the 
Gospel. In the background, and in Chinese perspective, is the port of the old Phocian colony ; in the 
foreground is the audience of the converted sinner, in which Rene has introduced himself wltli his wife 
Jeanne de Laval. The scene is well conceived, clear and animated. Rene died in 1480. 

JACQUEIIN OBINOONNEUB painted packs of cards, to afford Charles VI. an easy amusement in 
the lucid intervals which his madness allowed hitn. Gringonneur has been called tlio invcnitor of cards; 



6 A COMFLETE HIHTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

but til is invention — which is also attributed to another ymavgier, Nicolas Pepyn — belongs to a much earlier 
period ; it dates back as far as the thirteenth century. 

JEHAN FOUijUET, born at Tours between 1415-1420, painted the portrait of Pope Eugenius IV. 
at Rome, and studied the Italian artists of the time of Masaccio. .His works, or at least those of them 
which remain, are to be found at Munich, Frankfort, and in the large library at Paris ; they are composed 
only of manuscript ornamentation, so that Fouquet is merely a superior ymaigier. 

JEAN COUSIN, was born at Soucy, near Sens, about 1500. Unfortunately, he waa more 
occupied with painting church windows than with his easel ; and, as he devoted a part of his time to 
engraving, to sculpture, and even to literature, he has left but a small number of pictures. The principal 
of these is a Last Judgment, and it is doubtless the similarity of subject rather than of style or manner, 
which has given its author the name of the " French Michelangelo." Although it waa the first picture 
by a French artist which had the honour of being engraved, this masterpiece of Jean Cousin was for 
a long time forgotten in the Sacristy of Minimes at Vinceunes. It has now found a worthy place in 
the Louvre. As far as a number of small figures assembled in an easel picture can be compared to 
the gigantic figures covering the wall of the Sistiue, so much may Jean Cousin be said to resemble 
Michelangelo. The whole is harmonious, although powerful and terrible ; the groups are skilfully formed 
and varied ; the jiude figures, a new thing in France, are well studied and well rendered, and these raerite 
of composition and drawing are enhanced by a warm Venetian coloring, and still more so, by a unity 
and symmetry of thought which is wanting in the model. As Michelangelo finished his celebrated fresco 
in 1541, it is probable that Jean Cousin treated this vast subject at a later period, for he would have 
been able before leaving France to become acquainted with the Last Judgment of the Vatican by copies 
or engravings, amongst others, that by Martin Rota. But his version of the same subject was at least 
a very free one, composed of different details, and with a totally different spirit running tlirough it. 
Jean Cousin lived to bo nearly ninety years of age. 

MARTIN FRlilMINET, the son of a painter, was born at Paris in 1567. After a long sojourn 
in Italy, he brought back with him the taste which prevailed there at the close of the great age, a 
little before the foundation of the Carracci school. Leaving the calm and simple beauty which Leonardo 
da Vinci, Raphael and Correggio luwl taught, he adopted, like the mistaken imitators of Michelangelo, 
an ostentatious display of the science of anatomy, and a mania for foreshortening. At the same time 
his great pictures in the Louvre — both the Veniis vxtitmg for Mars, who is disarmed by Cupids, or 
Ericas abandoning Dido by order of Mercury — are remarkable for several reasons. In the first place, 
because, after the small figures of Frauyois Clouet and Jean Cousin, he painted his figures the size of 
life, and also, that, after a long and continuous series of sacred subjects, he produced a mythological 
scene. Henry IV. appointed Fr^minet painter to the court, and commissioned him to decorate the ceiling 
of the chapel at Fontainebleau. Fr^minet died at Paris in 1619. 

SIMON VOUET, the son of a painter, was born in Paris in 1592 (?). He had been, from his 
earliest youth, remarkable for his precocious talents ; and after fourteen years' residence at Rome he 
carried with him the lessons of the Carracci school to Paris. In his great composition, the Presentation 
in the Temple — in the Entombment, the Madonna, the Roman Charity (a young woman feeding an old 



NIC0LA8 F0U88IN, 7 

man), we trace clearly the influence of the Bolognese school, although he possesses neither the profound 
expression of Domenichino, the elegance of Guido, nor the powerful chiaroscuro of Guercino. The style 
of his masters is impaired by poorness of design and insufficiency of coloring — -in short, by too much 
haste ; for Vouet, who soon became the first painter of Louis XIII., to whom he gave lessons, over- 
whelmed with honors and laden with orders, accepted labors beyond his power to perform. Pictures 
for churches or palaces, portraits, ceilings, wainscotings, tapestry, all were undertaken in order to keep 
the work fix)m others ; and in this universal monopoly, his early talent, instead of increasing with riper 
age, continually decreased. We must do him the justice to add that it was his lessons and example 
which taught Eustache Lesueur, Charles Lebrun, and Pierre Mignard ; and that thus, like the Garracci, 
he was greater through his pupils than through his own works. Vouet died in Paris in 1641. 

JACQUES CALLOT, the son of a noble family, was born at Nancy in Lorraine in 1592. He was 
an enemy to all discipline, ahd, in order to give free course to his fancy, fled from his father's house 
in the train of a troop of mountebanks. Entirely occupied with etching according to processes of his 
own invention — his Beggars, Gipsies, loobies, Devils and scenes descriptive of the Miseries of War, Callot 
finished but a very small number of paintings. Thus, while he has left fifteen or sixteen hundred 
engravings, both large and small, we have not met with more than two pictures bearing his name, the 
MUitary ELcecuiion, at Dresden, and the Village Fair, at Vienna ; both are on copper, with very small 
figures, and such pale coloring that at the first glance one is not favourably impressed. Gailot's talent 
has remained ao thoroughly tui generis that he has had no descendants. He was a great' artist, who 
has no place in the history of the fine arts, even of his own country. He died at Nancy in 1635. 

NICOLAS FOUSSIMy the prince of the French school, was born at Andelys in Normandy in 1594. 
He was deacende<l from a noble family of Soissons, who lost their property in the civil wars. His 
fiatber served under Henri IV. An admirable example of the power of natural taste, Poussin, who was 
almost without a master, remained a long time without a patron. Braving poverty, although twice 
interrupted by it on his way to Italy, he at length reached Rome on foot and almost destitute. Here 
his talent was first developeil before the masterpieces of past ages; and although at a subsequent period 
the king recalled him to Paris, in order to add the lustre of a great painter to his own fame, Poussin 
soon tired of the annoyances caused by the Court painters and the Court fools, and went back to liis 
dear hermitage at Rome, which he did not again leave — not even bequeathing his ashes to his native 
country. There, in solitary study, and always avoiding, with a force of judgment in which he is scarcely 
equalled, the bad taste of his country and of his time, he progressed step by step towards perfection. 
Poossin has been called tlie painter of intellect; this name is just, especially if it be meant to convey 
the idea that Poussin can only be understood and admired by high and cultivated intellects. 

The only reproach which the traducers of I'^oussin in the French school have been able to bring 
against him is, that he is wanting in grace. Certainly in the execution of his most usual subjects, he 
showed rather the gravity and austerity natural to his genius, but he has shown grace, and even jjlayful 
grace, when it was suitable. To be convinced of this, it is only necessary to examine some of liis 
numerous bacchanalian scenes. Two of his best are in the National Galhsry in London. One is a 
forcible painting, simply called a Bacchanalian Dance, but varied and full of pleasant incident; all tlie 
figures are in harmony, from the nymph tripped up by the satyr, to the little tipsy childn'ii quarreling 
for the cup into which a bacchante is squeezing grapes. The other, a Bacclianalian FcstivaJ, although 



8 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

less finished in execution, is one of the most important works of Poussin, who shared the love of the 
ancients for this subject. The details are graceful and spirited, and, being perfectly harmonious, form a 
most charming comedy. Here we see the fat, tipsy Silenus, supported with difficulty by two fauns; 
there, a gay and animated dance ; further off, an insolent ass attacks the haunches of a centaui", who 
punishes him with a stick for his impudence ; then a laughing female satyr endeavoring to ride on a 
refractory goat. In fact, all the ancient comedy is revived, so that we could almost fancy it a repre- 
sentation of one of those gay and riotous AteUanoe brought into Rome from the Campania. 

With regard to the other subjects treated by Poussin, Paris has no reason to envy England or any 
other country, as she possesses his masterpieces. We will first speak of Poussin s portrait, by himself, 
taken, when fifty-six years of age, for his friend Chantelou ; the only one which he would have painted 
if his patron at Rome, Cardinal Rospigliosi (afterwards Clement IX.) had not some time later ordered 
another. The inscription placed on the tomb of Poussin, In tainUis vivii et doquiiur, might also be written 
over this portrait, for we can clearly trace in it the artist's soul, the nature of his genius, and the character 
of his works. We find in the modest dignity of his noble countenance a powerful intellect, a strong 
will, and that great power of application which justifies the saying of Buffon, " Genius consista of a 
great power of attention." 

At the Louvre there are some immense pictures by Poussin, with full-length figures : the LcUt 
Supper, Francis Xavier in India, and the Virgin appearing to St. John. His only painting of this size 
out of France is the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, the pendent in St. Peter's at Rome to the Martyrdom 
of Sa7i Processo, by his friend Valentin. But these large pictures are by no means the greatest works 
of Poussin. Loving to restrict a vast subject to a small space, Poussin seems to wax greater as his 
difiiculties increase, and his best works are certainly simply easel-pictures. 

Having now come to the real domain of Poussin, we may classify his works by their subjects, 
or, as he himself said, by modes. He designated by this name, in the manner of the Greeks, the style, 
colour, measure — in fact, the general arrangement of a picture according to its subject. The religious 
compositions are taken from the Old and New Testaments. Among those from the former, we must 
notice the charming group of Rebecca at the Well, when Eliezer, Abraham's messenger, recognizes her 
among her companions, and offers her the ring ; Moses exposed on the Nile by his mother and sister ; 
Moses saved from the Water by Thermutis, the daughter of Pharaoh ; the Manna in the Desert, a scene 
admirable in the grandeur of the whole, and the interest of the details ; and lastly, the Jwigm/ml of 
Solomon. 

We must also class amongst the Old Testament subjects the four celebrated pendents named 
Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winier, but which are far better known by the names of the subjects 
chosen to represent the seasons allegorically. Spring is typified by Adam and Eve in Paradise, before 
their fall ; summer, by Ruth gleaning in the field of Boat : autumn, by the Return of the Spies from the 
Promised Land, bringing back the wonderful bunch of grapes, which two men can scarcely carry ; winter, 
by the Deluge. There is no need of any word of explanation or praise for this picture ; it was Poussin's 
last work ; he was seventy -one years of age when he painted it, and he died soon afterwards. 

Amongst the subjects taken from the Gospels and from the Acts of the Apostles, we must call 
attention to the Adoration of the Magi, the Repose in Egypt, the Blind Men of Jericho, the Woman 
taken in Adultery, the Deaih of Sapphira, the St. Paul caught up into the Seventh Heaven. But Poussin 
tlid not confine himself to biblical subjects, which he treated with philosophical freedom and in a purely 
human character; he also, like all the great masters, treated subjects from profane history, as the U't// 



AMBROISE DUBOIS. 9 

of Eadamidas, in England, and the Bape of the Sabines, at Paris ; he entered the regions of pure mythology, 
as may be seen by the Death of Burydice, and the Triumph of Flora, at Paris. He also treated 
sometimes of allegory, for instance the Triumph of Truth, which he left, as a proud homage to his own 
genius, when he quitted France, a victim to envy, without hope of return. Lastly, he penetrated, as we 
have already seen, into the licence of bacchanalian scenes. But whatever he undertook, or from whatever 
source his subjects were taken, Poussin was always an historical painter. 

He was so even in his landscapes, as if he had no idea that nature could be represented alone 
and without man. When, by the power of his genius, he has revived one of the primitive landscapes 
trodden by the gods and heroes, he brings into it the giant Polyphemus, 

"Sar son roc assis, 
Giantuit aaz Tents sea amoureux soucis;" 

and when he is painting a landscape in the vicinity of Athens ho introduces the figure of the cynic 
philosopher Diogenes throwing away his bowl as superfluous on seeing a boy drink out of lils hand. 
When he wishes to show, in the smiling and pastoral Arcadia, the image of earthly happiness, a tomb 
amongst the flowers reminds us that life must have a termination. Certainly, in this career of historical 
landscape painting. Poussin was preceded by Annibale Carracci and Doraenichino, but he carried it much 
further than they did. 

There is not, perhaps, in any school of painting, a master the mere sight of whose works is more 
capable of explaining the three words so difficult to define, though so often repeated — style, composition, 
an^ expression. For style we may examine the Bavi8sem,ent de St. Paul, when, in his ecstacy, " he 
heard wonls unlawful for a man to utter." This magnificent group, crowning a delicious landscape, 
reminds us, by the grandeur of the figures, of one of the masterpieces of Raphael, the Vision of Bzekiel. 
The almost inexplicable science of composition may be studied in the Rebecca, and Moses saved from the 
WaUr$: it is carried to the greatest height in the Shepherds of Arcadia, a charming pastoral, full of 
deep poetry and touching morality. To surprise the secrets of movement and expression, we have only 
to look at tlie Judgment of Snlommi, the Woman taken in Adultery, the Blind Men of Jericho. For the 
anion of these different and superior qualities of painting we must come to the Deluge, where art may 
be seen to perfection. 

Poussin died at Rome in 1665, and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo. 

DrOHET, (CASPAR), calWl Oaspar Ponssln, was born of French parents in Rome in 1613. The 
great Nicholas Poussin married Gaxpar's sister, and Dughet became, under the instruct-on of his brother- 
in-law, an excellent landscape painter. His subjects are usually taken from the picturesque country in 
the neighbourhoofl of Rome. He died in that city in 1675. There are six of his best works in the 
National (Jallery, London. 

DUBOIS, CAIBROISE), bom at Anvers in 1543. died at Fontainebleau January 29, 1614, according 
to the Registers of the parish of Avon, and the 27th day of December, 1615, according to tlie inscription 
on his tombstone. 

The name of his preceptor is unknown, but when he came to Paris in 1568 at the age of twenty- 
five, he was then known to be an expert, his productions having obtained for him great popularity. He 
wa«i employofl at Font^iinebleau, as well as the Louvre, and obtained from Henry IV. the positions of painter- 



10 A COMPLETE H 18 TORY OF FRENCH ART. 

.ordinary and king's vakt-de-c/tambre. Naturalized in 1601, and apjx)inted painter to the Queen Marie de 
Medicis in 1606, he afterwards worked at the Luxembourg under the regency ot" that princess. Amhroise 
Dubois was interred in the Church of Avon, a viUage situated at tlie end of the park of the Castle of 
Fontainebleau, and his tombstone is still to be seen. He instituted a school of painters who resided at 
Fontainebleau. Among his most esteemed pupils were, besides his two sons, Jean and Louis Dubois; 
Paul Dubois, his nephew ; Ninet, (Flemish), and Mogras of Fontainebleau. Of the numerous works which 
Ambroise executed at Fontainebleau, nothing remains but a few paintings in the high chapel of 8t. 8a- 
turniii, the sequel of the paintings of the History of Th6ig6ne and of Charicl4e, and a few of the History 
of Tancr^de and Clorinde, which had been executed for the apartments of the Queen, Marie de Medicia. 
The Gallery of Diana, entirely decorated by this artist, was destroyed during the Empire ; but a few 
fragments of his paintings, placed on canvas and repainted under Louis PhilipjK;, have been restored at 
the Castle in 1840. About the middle of the XVHI^ century, the grandson of Fr^minet allied himself 
to the grandson of Ambroise ; from this alliance originated a family who adopted the name of Dubois de 
Fr^minet. Jean Dubois, (first of that name), painter to the king obtained in survivance of his mother, 
widow of Ambroise, the care of the paintings executed by his father, at the Castle of Fontainebleau, a 
position which brought an income of 1,200 livres. December 26, 1635. Louis XIII., accepting the 
resignation of his painter, Claude de Hoey, who had the care of the paintings and of the old tableaux of 
the chambers, parlors, galleries and closets of Fontainebleau, gave this new charge in survivance and at a 
salary of 1,200 livres, to Jean Dubois, his nephew, without prejudice to the first appointment, which he 
kept. Letters patent, dated October 26, 1644, limited Jean's occupation to the sole charge of the paintings 
of Ambroise, his father, reducing at the same time his salary to 1,000 livres. July 14, 1651, his former 
charge was restored, and again placed him on the increased pay he had received at first, and to which was 
added, at an additional salary of 200 livres, the care of the Chapel of the Trinity, painted by Fr^minet, 
entrusted since October 26, 1644, to his brother Louis; finally the porter's-lodge to the stables of the 
Queen, at the same castle, was also placed in his charge. He died at Fontainebleau, in 1679, aged 
seventy-seven years. Louis Dubois, other son of Ambroise, received by Letters Patent of October 26, 1644, 
the maintenance of Fr(^rainet's works in the Chapel of the Trinity at Fontainebleau, for which services he 
received 200 livres, but having on July 14, 1651, conferred upon him the pension of 2,000 livTes which 
Fr^minet, fils, — his half brother on the mother's side — enjoyed, and who had died, he resigned in favour 
of his brother Jean. Jean Dubois, (second of that name), son of Jean (the first), was also porter to the 
stables of the Queen, under Louis XV., and is found comprised among the officers on the muster-roll of 
the castle of Fontainebleau, (commissioned February 21st, 1674), for the survivance of the charge possessed 
by his fatlier, of the maintenance of all the paintings at the castle and its dependencies. It seems 
that the salary had been much reduced in later years, as it appears in the following extract taken fi-om 
the Report of Accounts at the Royal Buildings in 1673 : " To Jean Dubois, painter, having the care 
and cleaning of the paintings, frescoes as well as those in oil, both ancient and modern, in the parlors, 
apartments and closets of the castle of Fontainebleau, the sum of 600 livres for his salary for the year 
1673, to the care of restoring those damaged and cleaning the frames of said paintings, and to furnish 
wood, charcoal and brushwood to burn in said parlors, apartments, galleries and closets, wherein are 
contained the said paintings, for the purpose of their preservation." He died at Fontainebleau, in his 
forty-ninth year. Louis Dubois, brother to the last-mentioned, was also painter-ordinary to the king at 
Fontainebleau, and Porter to the House of Fountains. He died at the above-mentioned castle. April 12, 
1702, aged fifty-six. 



JACQUE8 8 TELL A. 11 

BLANCHARD, (JACQUES,) born at Paris in September, IBOO. Died in the same city in 1638. 
Wa3 pupil of Nicolas BoUery, his uncle, painter to the king. At the age of twenty he went to 
Italy, but stopped at Lyons four years, working under the tutorship of Horace le Blanc ; went to Rome 
in October, 1624, remaining there eighteen months, from whence he journeyed to Venice, where he made 
a special study of Titian's works, after a two years' stay, spent some time in Turin and Lyons before 
establishing himself in Paris. Here he piinted for his reception at the Academy of Saint Luc, a Saint 
John in the Island of Patnws, which established his reputation. Blanchard had the faculty of working 
with great facility, and his .fiTo/y Families were much sought after. Most of hie works have been destroyed, 
still, quite a number have been engraved and are to be found. Grabriel Blanchard, son of Jacques, 
boni in Paris in 1650, died April 30, 1704, pupil of his uncle, Jean Baptiste Blanchard, was known as 
Blanchard the nephew. Jean Baptiste Blanchard, known as the uncle, an elder brother of Jacques, historical 
painter, bom in Paris in 1595, went to Italy with his brother, was received Academician June 30, 1663, 
and died April 5, 1665, without leaving anything worthy of note. 

PEBRIER, (FRANCOIS,) sumamed le Bourguignon, (the Burgundian), painter and engraver, born at 
8aint-Jean-de-Lorne, (in Burgundy), in 1590, died at Paris, in July 1656. 

To ascertain the place of his birth, as well as the date of his death, we will follow the intelli- 
gence furnished by the Register of the Academy, observing in the meantime, however, that Guillet de 
fiaiot-Qeorges, who has written of that artist an historical memoir, claims that he was born at Mdcon. 
F6libi6n and Gu^rin, perpetual secretaries of the Academy, both give him Salins (in Franche-Comt6), as 
birth-place, and the last above-mentioned adds that he died in May, 1650. Perrier was the son of a 
jeweler, but an irresistible inclination for painting prevented him from embracing his father's calling. 
While very young he left his parents and went to Lyons, where he executed a few paintings for the 
Chartreux. Desirous of studying the works of Italian artists, he submitted to dire necessity in order 
to obtain the necessary wherewithal to accomplish his project, and for this purpose consented to lead a 
blind man, who was going to Rome. In the city he entered a painter's establishment — a dealer in 
paintings — who had him copy those of the best masters. Lanfranc, with whom he became acquainted, 
employed hira, and he was greatly benefited by the advice he received. After remaining for a length 
of time at Rome, he returned to France in 1630, stopped at Lyons, and made a great number of 
paintings at the Chartreux; then traveled by way of Mdcon, where his two brothers were living, one 
a painter, the other a sculptor. The works which he executed in those cities began to establish his 
reputation. Finally he came to Paris, and painted after the designs of Vouet, but seeing that tliis artist 
obtained nearly all the large works, he returned to Italy. It was during this stay he engraved that 
collection of antique statues, better known than his paintings. After remaining ten years in Rome, he 
returned to Paris, where he established himself permanently, and accomplished some masterpieces. He 
was one of the ancient twelve, who founded the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, opened February 
1, 1648. Among his pupils, Le Brun and his nephew are the most noted. 

STELLA, (JACQUES,) born at Lyons in 1596, died at the Louvre, April 29, 1657. 

The Stella family originated in Flanders. Jacques was only nine years old when his father, 
Fran9ois Stella, returning from Italy, died very young at Lyons, where he had established himself. Jacques 
Stella manifested early a strong and great disposition for the arts. At twenty he went to Florence, 
and the Grand Duke, CJ6me de Medicis, after having employed him decorating at the feasts celebrated 
in honour of the marriage of his son, Ferdinand, made him an aHache of his court, gave him a lodging 



12 A COMPLETE HI8T0RY OF FRENCH ART. 

and granted him a pension, similar to that which he was giving to the celebrated engraver, Jacques 
Callot. Stella, after a seven years' stay at Florence, went to Rome in 1623, accompanied by his brother, 
Fran9oi8 Stella, a painter, inferior to himself. He remained twelve years at Rome, studied the antiques, made 
numerous large and small paintings, and was intimate with Poussin, whose style he tried to imitate. His pupils 
were George Charraeton and Antoine Bouzonnet, alias Stella, his nephew, who followed entirely in his style. 

HIRE or HYRE, (LAURENT DE LA), painter and engraver. Born at Paris, February 27, 1606, 

died December 28, 1656. 

Hire's father, Etienne de la Hire, who had followed the profession of jjainter, and executed some 
fair specimens in Poland, taught him the first lessons in drawing, made him learn the rules of perspective, 
architecture, and sent him to Fontainebleau to study the works of the great masters collected there. He 
copied after Lc Primatice, whom he greatly admired, and executed several designs in the style of that 
master. He spent some time at the school of Lallemand, a painter then in high repute, after which 
he painted a great number of masterpieces, was employed by Cardinal Richelieu and other notables, by 
whom his works were in demand. He was, in 1648, one of the twelve who founded the Royal Academy 
of Painting and Sculpture, and who took the title of " Ancienla," and exercised the functions of professors. 
During the last days of his life he became possessed of a great fancy for painting landscapes embellished 
with architectural designs, and small easel paintings, of a careful execution. De la Hire had for pupils 
Cliauveau, an engraver of merit, and his eldest son, named Philippe, born March 18, 1640, died April 21, 
1718, who studied painting but a short time, and applied himself exclusively to astronomy. He became 
Royal Professor, and held also a similar position at the Academy of Sciences. Hire's works have been 
engraved by Chauveau, Rousselet, Boulanger, Daret, Lasne, de la Court and Faitorne. He had a younger 
brother, named Louis, who was a talented painter, so says Mariette. 

FRESNOY, (CHARLKS ALPHOXSE DU), painter and writer, born at Paris in 1611, died in the 

village of Villiers-le-Bel, near Paris, in 1665. 

His futlier, who was an apothecary, desired he should study medicine, but young Du Fresnoy soon 
abandoned a vocation for which he had no taste, and gave his whole attention to the study of the 
ancient languages, mathematics and painting. During two years Perrier and Vouet were his guides. He 
went to Italy in 1633*, and, deprived of all means of support, painted at Rome, various ruins and 
architectural pictures, to enable him to live. After sojourning two years in that city, his " studio-mate," 
Mignard, from Vouct's, met him ; the two friends delighted finding each other, lodged together and lived 
in common. Du Fresnoy, a less practical painter than Mignard, but more erudite, devoted himself to 
poetry, and commenced his Latin poem on painting, entitled, " De Arte Graphica," which he completed 
some years after. This didactic poem, which has done more to establish Du Fresnoy 's reputation, than 
his paintings, has been translated in French, by De Piles, his friend, and also into several other languages. 
He went to Venice and remained there eighteen months, then sent for Mignard ; the two friends worked 
together for seven or eight months. Mignard returned to Rome and Du Fresnoy to Paris; executing 
a number of paintings while living with his friend Mr. Potel in that city, he, after Mignard's return, 
took lodgings with him, nor did they separate until a short time previous to his death, when he removed 
to his brother's house. Absorbed in the composition of his poem, Du Fresnoy has only produced some 
fifty paintings in all, including the copies made after Titian and the other masters. He had no pupil, 
and only one engraving is known to have been made from his designs, by Francois Poilly, and that is 
Leander Swimming axiross the Hellespont. 



NOEL COY PEL. 13 

COURTOIS, (JACiJUES), surnamed " The Burgundian" painter and engraver, born at St. Hippolyte 
(Franche-Comt6), in 1621, died at Rome, November 14, 1676. 

His father, Jean Courtois, who was a painter, gave him the preliminary instruction of the art. 
At fifteen he went to Italy, and at Milan became the friend of the Baron Vatteville (a Burgundian 
like himself), who was mestre-de-camp to the king, followed the army for three years, sketching the 
battles, marches and sieges in which he took part. From thence he journeyed to Bologna, and entered 
the studio of Jerome, a painter, native of Lorraine, became acquainted with Guido, who was so much 
pleased with his works, that he took him in charge and gave him valuable advice. L'Albane, also 
became his friend, and shortly after he traveled to Florence, and Sienna, and then to Rome. He was 
received in the Convent of t^ Oroix-en-Jerusalem, and in one year painted several historical pieces, which 
won him the praises and friendship of Pi6tre de Cortone, and Pierre de Laar. He had not, to this time, 
confined himself to any particular style, when the sight of the Battle of Oonstantine, at the Vatican, 
revealed to him his real vocation. After seven years of married life, he lost his wife, daughter of the 
Florentine painter, Orazio Vajani, and was suspected of poisoning her. About 1655 he retired with the 
Jesuits, and became one of them, painting several pieces of sacred subjects for their convent. He has 
often signed his name in Italian, Giacomo Oortese. He was known to Italian authors as " il padre Jacopo 
Cortesi." Guillaume Courtois, painter and engraver, was a brother of Jacques, born in 1628, died at 
Rome, in 1679. Besides Guillaume, Jacques had another brother, a monk and a good painter, whose 
first name is unknown ; nothing is known, biographically, of him ; his paintings were for the cloisters 
belonging to his order. 

OOYPEL, (NOEL,) painter and engraver, born at Paris, December 25, 1628, died in the same city, 
December 24, 1707. 

Coypel's first studies were made with Poncet, a painter at Orleans, who was a pupil of Vouet. 
Coypel, when fourteen, left him to enter the studio of Quillerier (or Guilleri^). He made rapid progress, 
and although but eighteen, was employed at the decorations which were being prepared for the Opera of 
Orpheus. Charles Errard, who had charge of the decorations which were being executed at the Louvre, 
employed him, and from that time he invariably received a share of the king's orders. It was in this 
manner, he, in 1655 painted several pieces for the king's apartments, the Louvre, and Cardinal Mazarin, 
the ceiling of the queen's apartments, at the marriage of Louis XIV., and a number of other important 
works. Being extremely busy, he deferred his reception at the Academy, from the 6tli of September, 
1662, (when he had presented himself for admission), to March 3, 1663, and gave his presentation-piece. The 
Murder of Abel, a long time afterwards. He was appointed adjunct-professor in 1664, and professor 
March Ist of the same year; worked at the Palais-Royal, and obtained, in 1672, lodging at the Louvre, 
and was appointed, under Colbert's superintendence, director of the Academy of Rome. He was admitted 
April 13, 1673, to the Academy of St. Luc. He was subsequently elected adjunct-rector, July 2, 1689, 
and Rector, July 1, 1690; director of the Academy, August 13, 1695, in the stead of Pierre Mignard, 
deceased, and again Rector in 1702. At seventy-seven he undertook the fresco work at the Church 
of the Invalides. This difficult and painful work was the cause of the long illness, of which he died 
on the eve of Christmas, which day would have been the anniversary of his birth. 

The Louvre contains of his works the following : — 

Solon upholding the Justice of his Lawa against the Objections of the Athenians. 

Ptolemy Philadelphus Liberates the Jews, as a token of gratitude for the translation of the Holy 
Books by the fifventy. 



14 . A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

Trajan holding Public Receptions. 

Foresight of Alexander Severus, in causing a distribution of wheal to the Roman poptdation, during 
a famine. > 

FOSSE, (CHARLES DE LA), born at, Paris in 1636, died in the same city, December 13. 1716. 

His father, who was a jeweler, employed Chauveau, draughtsman and engraver, to instruct him 
in the first elements of design. Young De la Fosse then entered at Le Brun's studio, where he remained 
until twenty-two years of ago, went to Italy, studied Raphael, and the antiques, and copied the Sacrijice of 
Ma^H at the Vatican, which he sent to the celebrated amateur Jabach, and made several drawings which 
his father showed to Colbert, superintendent of buildings, who was so well pleased with them that he 
obtained for him the king's pension to continue his studies in Italy ; on his return to France, after 
spending some three years in Venice, he painted a number of remarkable works : pictures, frescoes, ceilings, 
etc., etc., in churches, the castles at Versailles, Meudon, and elsewhere. He was received at the Academy, 
June 23, 1673 ; was appointed adjunct-professor, tSeptember 2, on his picture, The Abdtiction of Proserpine 
by Pluto, wlilcli was a masterpiece, and became professor, October 6, 1674; counsellor-ancient profeaaor, 
January 26, 1692; director, April 7, 1699; adjunct- rector, July 2, 1701; rector, July 24, 1702; chancellor. 
September 28, 1715 ; He painted Lord Montague's palace in London, assisted by Rousseaa and Baptistc- 
Monnoyer, in the flowers and the architecture of this great undertaking. Delighted by the work, George 
III., who had twice visited him while working, proposed to have Hampton Court decorated in like 
manner, but he was unable to avail himself of the generous offer of this sovereign. His works 
have been reproduced by Thomassin, Chatillon, Ch. Simonneau. Audran, P. Picart and Ch.-N. Cochin, 
who has engraved the paintings of the dome of the Invalides. He exhibited at the salons of 1699 
and 1704. 

CORNEILLE, (MICHEL), called the Elder. Painter and engraver, bo'rn at Paris in 1642. died at 

Gobelins, August 16, 1708. 

He was the son of Michel Corneille, one cff the ancient twelve of the Academy of Painting. At 
an early age his father taught him to copy intelligently the works of the great masters; He won a prize 
for painting, was appointed pensioner at the school of Rome ; but he soon left the Academy, to have 
no restraint to the study of antiquities and of paintings, which pleased him best. The Carrachii were his 
favorite masters. Upon his return from Italy he was admitted to the Academy, September 19, 1663. 
His presentation picture was The Apparition of the Lord Jesus Christ to St. Peter, after His Resurrection. 
on the border of the Sea of Tiberia.fi, now in the Museum of Rennes. He did quite a number of pieces, 
among whioli were, a painting offered by the jeweler's association to the Church of Notre Dame, copied 
in tint for Mignard, whose daughter he had expected to marry. Finally he painted for the king at 
Versailles, Trianon, Mendou and Fontainebleau, and was employed for a long time, with his brother Jean 
Baptiste and other young rhen, by Jabach, the famous amateur, in reproducing a part of the drawings 
contained in his magnificent collection, copies, which, according to Mariette, he would sell as originals. 
He had but one pupil, Desormeaux. who did him but little honour. Miohei. CorneAlle. (father of the 
preceding), painter and engraver, born at Orleans in 1603, died in Paris, July 16, 1664. Brought to 
Paris by Simon Vouet's re})utation, who was first painter to the king, he placed himself under his instruc- 
tion and became one of his best disciples, and mkrried one of his nieces. He was one of the twelve 
artists who in 1648 founded the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, and called themselves, the 
ancients. 



ETIEKNE ALLEGE A IN. - 15 

I'OLOXBEL, (.NICOLAS), born at 8otteville, near Rouen, in 1646, died in Paris, May 27, 1717. 

It has been wrongfully stated by biographers that he was the pupil of Eustache le Sueur, from 
the fact that he was only nine years old when that celebrated artist died, in 1655. Colombel journeyed 
to Italy, remaining in Rome for" a long time, studying with assiduity Raphael and Poussin's works, of 
which he only and ever remained a cold imitator. Having achieved success with some of his paintings 
in Rome, he was received at tlie Academy of St. Luc in 1686. In 1692 lie sent four paintings to 
Paris, to become known, and arrived himself in that city in 1694. Pierre Mignard. then first painter 
to the king and director of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, caused him to be received 
Academician, March 6, 1694. He gave for his reception picture. The Lores of Mars and Rhea, 
He was nominated adjunct-professor, August 27. 1701, and professor, June ;W. 1705. The king 
employed him at various works at the Menageries of A'ersailles and Meudon. He has also made several 
paintings for churches, and portraits. Colombel, wished to imitivte Poussin, whom he had taken as 
model; he died without having even wished to make a pupil, nor have any one to help him. Claude Dufloc 
and Michel Dossier have engraved several of iiis compositions. He e.\hibiteil in the salons of 1699 
and 1704. 

HALL^ (CLArDE-GUT), bom at Paris in 1651, died in the same city November 5, 1736. 

His preceptor was his (JAther, Daniel Hall«^. He won the first prize at the Academy in 1675, 
(the subject of the composition, was the Transgression of Adam). He was received Academician December 
28, 1682, on a painting of the He-establishment of the Catholic Religion in the Oity of Strasburg. He 
obtained saccessively the grades of adjunct-professor, September 26. 1693; professor, July 24, 1702; adjunct- 
rector. May 6, 1730; rector. May 30, 1733. Made a number of wall paintings, but few easel ones. 
Hall^ was interred at Saint Sulpice. His works have been engraved by E/lelinck, Thomassin, Charles 
Bimonneaa, and exhibited in the salons from 1699 to 1704. Daniel Hall(5, the father, died at Paris. 
in 1674, at an advanced age. The date of his birth is not recorded, but it is known that he served 
an apprenticeship of five years at Rouen in 1631, under Robin Bunel. Daniel Hall6 has produced a 
number of notable paintings. Noel Halle, son of Claude Guy Hall^, born at Paris September 2, 1711, 
died June 5, 1781. His father was desirous of his studying architecture, but the great taste and ability 
displayed by him for painting, soon won the case in his favour. He obtained the second prize at the 
Academy in 1734, on a painting of Delilah ctiiting Samson's hair, then, in 1736, the first bronze — the 
subject of the competition being. Crossing the Red 8ea. After his four years of pension, spent in Rome, 
he was ordered to copy for the king several of Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, which were intended 
for the manufactory of the Gobelins. On his return to France he was received at the Academy in 1747, 
admitted May 31, 1748, elected adjunct-professor July 6th of the same year; profes.sor. July 5, 1755, 
adjunct-rector, September 27, 1777, treasurer the same year, and rector, March 3, 1781. 

ALLEORAIN, CETIBHHE), painter and engraver, born at Paris in 1653. died in the same city 
April 1st, 1736. 

He was adniitted to the Academy, October 30, 1677, and gave as his reception piece, a landscape, 
The Flight into Egypt. His style is somewhat analogous to that of Francisque Millet. Gabriel Allegrain. 
his son and pupil, was bom at Paris in 1670, died February 24, 1748, admitted to the Academy, September 
26, 1716, on a landscape, also, of The Flight into Egypt. He exhibited in the salons of 1737, 1738, 
1739, 1740. 1745 and 1747. He was the father of Gabriel-Christophe Allegrain, sculptor to the king, 
who died in 1795, and whom most authors erroneously state as being the son of Etienne. 



16 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

BERTIN, (NICHOLAS,) born in Paris, 1667, died in the same city, April 11, 1736. 

He was only four years of age when his father, who was a sculptor, died. His brother, also a 
sculptor to King Louis XIV., and valei-de-chamhre of the Prince Cond(5, noticing his taste for drawing, 
instructed him in the first elements of that art, and after he had attained the age of ten and a half 
years, placed him with Vernansalle, painter of the Academy. He afterwards entered Jouvenet's studio, 
then, lastly, that of Bologne. He made such rapid progress under the tuition of this last preceptor, that 
at the age of thirteen, he took the first prize in painting, which was a gold medal valued at 1,200 
livres ; his picture represented The Comtruction of Noah's Ark. M. de Louvois, then Superintendent of 
Buildings, sent him as the king's-pensioner to Rome, where he remained four years, returning to France 
after having studied for some time the masters of the Lombardy School. He tarried at Lyons, where 
he painted for a few amateurs, and arrived in Paris in 1689. He was accepted at the Royal Academy 
of Painting and Sculpture, December 30, 1702, and received as Academician, April 28, 1703, giving as 
his presentation picture, Hercvdes delivering Promethev^a. He was elected adjunct-professor, June 30, 1705, 
professor, October 26, 1715, and adjunct-rector. May 30, 1733. After the death of Louvois, the Due 
d'Antin, who succeeded him as Superintendent of Buildings, caused Bertin to be appointed Director of 
the Roman Academy ; but he declined the position. He worked a great deal for the decorations of 
Versailles, Trianon and Meudon. He also painted for several churches, and his works were much sought 
after by the electors of Mayence and Bavaria. Among his pupils Toqu6 is especially noticeable. His 
pieces have been engraved by Chereau the younger, N. Tardieu, Duchange, Duflos, B. Picart, Horthemels 
and N. Cochin. He exhibited in the salon of 1704. 

CLAUDE GEL!^E of Lorraine, usually called (laiide Lorraine, was bom of very poor parents at 
Cha,teau de Chamagne, a village in the Vosges, in 1600. When quite a lad he was apprenticed to a 
baker and pastry cook, and before he was twenty years of age accompanied some fellow-workmen to Rome 
and became the servant of Agostino Tassi, a landscape painter of eminence. It is said that young 
Claude prepared his master's dinner and ground his colours ; at all events, from Tassi he first acquired 
that love of art which rendered his name so famous. He received lessons also from Sandrart, who was 
at Rome at the same time. His earliest pictures and etchings bear dates varying from 1630 to 1670. 
Claude died at Rome in 1682, an 1 was buried in the church of La Trinity de' Monti. 

Although he did not resemble Poussin in learning, as he scarcely knew how to read or to sign 
his name, Claude at all events resembled him in his pertinacity at work, his power of application, and, 
in his own fashion, by his depth of thought, as well as by his correctness of observation. He also 
received a surname, the Raphael of Landscape Painting. And this surname is for once, appropriate. 

Less fortunate than with the works of Poussin, France has not retained the best of Claude's pictures. 
There was formerly in the Louvre one of his principal works, universally admired and celebrated. It 
was called the Ford. This beautiful picture has perished under the hands of restorers. 

Let us see what remains. In the first place, there are two small pictures, in the form of the 
lunettes of Annibale Carracci, a calm Landscape and a Marine piece, glittering with the TQ,ys, of the 
noonday sun, which Claude alone, like the eagle, dared to face ; then an interesting view of the Oampo 
Vaccino at Rome (that is to say, the ancient forum where the affairs of the world were formerly transacted, 
now used as a cattle market) ; — then two pendents, also a Marine piece and a Landscape of rather larger 
dimensions, lighted by the rays of the rising sun ; then two other still larger pendents — Marine pieces — 
warm and golden in the setting sun. The figures they contain, by the pencil of some of the usual 



CLAUDE GELEE. 17 

assistants of Claude — Guillaume Courtois, Jean Miel, Filippo Lauri, or Francesco AUegrini — are intended to 
show in one the Landing of Cleopatra at Tarsus, where she had been summoned by Mark Antony ; in 
the other, Ulysses restoring Chrt/seis to her Father. These two marine pieces are in the style that 
Claude was especially fond of, in spite, or perhaps on account of, its extreme difficulty, and which belongs 
especially to him, as no one since his time has dared to practice it; the sea in the distance, shut-in in 
the foreground by two rows of palaces and gardens, which form a port in perspective, and the sun beyond, 
low on the horizon, illuminating the surface of the waves which are agitated by the breeze. 

These works are worthy of Claude, and suffice to show his claim to be considered the first 
landscape-painter of the world, or perhaps, more correctly, as the most skilful composer of landscapes, 
the greatest poet of nature, who adorned it with the language which speaks to the eye. Yet these 
fine works have not the importance of some of those of which France has been deprived. Besides the 
Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba (known as the " Bouillon Claude,") the National Gallery, London, pos- 
sesses the Embarkation of St. Ursida, and another marine piece, a Seaport at Sunset, with palaces in the 
'foreground, a wonderful masterpiece; and eight landscapes with figures, representing Hagar in the Desert: 
David in the Cave of AdvUam ; the Death of Procris ; I/arcissus falling in love with his own image — an 
exquisite work, a sort of summary of all the familiar marvels of Claude, — and four others. 

The Museo del Rey, among nine works by his hand, has two of importance. One shows us an 
Aitchoret ai Prayer in one of those barren and rocky desert landscapes always given as the retreat of 
the first Christian hermits, such as St. Paul the Hermit, St. Antony and St. Jerome. In the other picture 
is seen another victim of voluntary penance, the Magdalen, kneeling before a cross supported by the trunk 
of a tree. This is also a desert, but one more suited for a woman, more gracious and inviting. Between 
the rocks, where sheets of water fall in natural cascades, and the clumps of trees, which overshadow the 
valley to which the repentant sinner has retired, a vast horizon is seen, where in the extreme distance 
there may be seen the edifices of a great town, the sight of which would doubtless make her sigh with 
repentance and shame. Passing on to St. Petersburg, we find a magnificent series of four pendents, which 
the Hermitage obtained from Malmaison, with the ArquSusiers of Teniers and the Cow of Paul Potter. 
They are called Morning, Noon, Evening and Night. We will not attempt any insufficient description or 
superfluous praise ; it is enough to say that this precious series of paintings equals the naost famous 
masterpieces at Madrid, Paris, or London. 

But Claude is not merely to be found in public museums ; many of his pictures are in private 
cabinets, especially in England, where the great landscape-painter is much admired. We did not see more 
than six pictures by Claude in Italy — where he passed the whole of his long artistic life, and where he 
died at the age of 82 — while in London alone, we counted more than fifty. By means of her gold, 
England has obtained nearly all his works, leaving only a few specimens for the rest of the world, The 
cabinet of the Marquis of Westminster contains as many as the museums of France or Madrid. Two 
pendente in this collection are the largest pictures known by Claude. This size adds to their intrinsic 
value. The subject of one is the Worship of the Oolden Calf, that of the other, the Sermon on the Mount. 
Neither scene is in a desert; both, on the contrary, have all the luxury and splendour of Italian scenery. 
In the former, the landscape is flat, of immense depth, broken by clumps of trees and sheets of water. 
One of the assistants of Claude put in the golden calf, adored, not by Jews, but by a small group of 
people clothed in Grecian costume. In the second, a rock crowned by several trees rises in front of a 
large plain which extends as far as the eye can reach. Under these trees stands Christ, in the midst of 
his disciple?, and from there addresses to the crowd assembled at the foot of thi.s natural pulpit His won- 



18 A COMPLETE HIS TOBY OF FRENCH ART. 

derful discourse on human brotherhood. The figures in these two pictures are, in this case, very beautiful, 
and do honour to the assistant painter, whether it were FiHppo Lauri, Francesco Allegrini, Guillaume 
Courtois, or any other. As for the landscapes themselves, no language could describe the brilliancy of the 
sky, the beauty of the earth, the scientific aerial perspective, the happy contrast of light and shadow, the 
majesty of the whole, in short, everything that can delight the eye, " Claude Lorraine," wrote Gbethe, 
*' knew the material world thoroughly, even to the slightest detail, and he used it as a means of expressing 
the world in his own soul." 

A series of sketches which he made for his pictures are pre8er%'ed in a book which he called Liher 
Veritatis ; these are now in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire. They were engraved by Earlom 
in 1777. 

VALENTIN, (MOiiSE), was born at Colomiers en Brie in 1600. He attended the school of Simon 
Vouet for some years, and then went to Italy, where he was a friend of Poussin and of Claude. He 
died of a fever in 1632. A rival of Ribera in the imitation of the turbulent Caravaggio, Valentin 
deserted entirely the traditions of French art, and only belongs to the French school from the circum- 
stance of his birth. At the Louvre, in the Trihuie Money — which is not treated like that by Titian 
— in the Judgment of Solomon — very unlike that by Poussin — in the Four Evangdiats — far inferior to 
the 8t. Mark of Fra Bartolommeo — Valentin displays the same incapability as his model Caravaggio of 
making his works equal to their titles ; and, like Caravaggio also, when he treats simple and common- 
place subjects, as in his two Family Concerts, which appear to be held in very suspicious places, amongst 
courtesans and hravi, he shows wonderful energy and execution. But to judge Valentin justly, and to 
appreciate the loss art sustained in his early death, occasioned by the excesses of a fiery temperament, 
we must be acquainted with his better and nobler works, which show thought and reflection ; the Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Lavrrence in the Museum of Madrid, and the Martyrdom of San Procesao, in the Vatican. 
We then see what progress his talent might have made with the example and advice of Poussin, and 
what certain excellence he would have attained at a riper age. 

BOURDON, (SEBASTIEN), another of the French disciples of Italy, was born at Montpellier in 
1616 (?). He received his first education from his father, who was a painter on glass, and when still a 
boy was taken by his uncle to Paris, where he studied art for some years. At eighteen years of age he 
went to Italy, and painted both at Rome and Venice. He afterwards returned to Paris, and painted 
there his celebrated picture of the Crucifixion of St. Peter. In 1652 he was prevailed upon to visit 
Sweden, and executed several important works for Queen Christina. He again returned to Paris and 
died there in 1671 (?). Without having taken any direct lessons from Poussin during his residence at 
Rome, Bourdon succeeded, after several attempts in an easier style, in adopting the style and manner 
of the master, and becoming, like Gaspar Dughet, the happy imitator of the painter of Andelys. Although 
with less depth and grandeur than Poussin, he possesses his scientific correctness and sentiment. 

LESUEUR, (EUSTACHE), the son of a simple artisan, never quitted Paris, where he was born in 
1617, and where he died in 1655. Driven from the court bji Lebrun, as Poussin had been by Vouet, 
he lived in voluntary solitude ; and it was when shut up in the convent of the Carthusians, where he 
died so young, that he produced his principal works. He was thus able to obtain the independence 
necessary for an artist, and could give free scope to his genius. Tliough he lived but few years, he 
displayed all the brilliant qualities to which Poussin only attained at a riper age — wisdom, grandeur, 



CRARLE8 LEBRUN. 19 

power of expression, depth of thougtt, and a touching sensibility and tenderness, which sometimes raises 
him to the subUme. 

Lesueur has left all his works at Paris. The Louvre has obtained fifty of these, including all of 
any importance. There he may be seen from his austere and studious youth to his early death ; from the 
dwk and fantastic History of St. Bruno, which he commenced in 1647, when thirty years old, to the gay 
and laughing History of Love, which was his last work. Although he modestly gave the title of sketches 
to the pictures which compose the legend of the founder of the Carthusians, the History of /St. Bruno 
forms, as a whole, the chef-d'oeuvre of this master. Without going into a detailed explanation of these 
twenty-two pictures, all alike in shape and size, we shall merely direct special attention to the first, the 
Preaching of Raymond Diocres ; to the third, the Resurrection of the Canon, who half opens the cover 
of his coflSn, during the service for the dead, to announce to those present that he is lost ; to the four 
following, representing the Vocation of St. Bruno, who is calling to his friends to retire from the world, 
and is directed by a vision of three angels; to the tenth, the Journey to La Chartreuse, where St. 
Bruno is pointing out the place to be occupied by the Convent in the midst of the wildest desert of 
the Alps (painted perhaps by Patel) ; and lastly, the twenty -first, the Death of St. Bruno, a masterpiece 
of pathetic expression. 

When Lesueur was intrusted with a part of the decorations of the mansion of the president 
Lambert de Thorigny, the Salon des Muses and the Salon de l Amour fell to his share. He had to pass 
from the Christian to the mythological poem, from austere asceticism to worldly grace ; and this complete 
change of mode, as Pousain would have called it, was not too great for his genius. In the six paint- 
ings representing the History of Love; and in the five pictures in which the nine Muses are grouped, 
Lesaeor merely gave a difiFerent direction to his mind, to his scientific combinations, passionate expression, 
and natural grace. He varied his style without ceasing to be himself. 

But between the two extreme modes required by the subjects of a series of pictures for a Car- 
thusian convent, and for the sumptuous mansion of a millionaire, Lesueur painted many separate compositions 
of an intermediate and varied style, although they were all on religious subjects, in which he shows 
all the fulness and pliancy of his genius. Of these are — the Descent from the Cross, the 3fass of St. 
Martin, the brother martyrs St. Oervasitis and St. Protasius refusing to worship false gods. The latter 
picture, which was painted as a pendent to the works of Philippe de Champagne on the same legend, 
is as large as the largest works of Lebrun or Jouvenet. To this number also belong two small pictures, 
Chriat d, la coUmne and Christ hearing the Cross, which seems to us, as in the works of Poussin, preferable 
in style and perfection to larger works. The Preaching of St. Paul at Ephesus, painted in 1649, and 
offered to Notre Dame of Paris by the guild of goldsmiths, may likewise be placed here. It represents 
the apostle of the Gentiles causing the books of magic, the books of curious arts, to be burnt at his 
feet. This has been very rightly placed in the salle des chefs-d'oeuvre, for it is the masterpiece of Lesueur. 

LEBRUN, (CHARLES), the son of a sculptor, was bom at Paris in 1619. As he showed a decided 
talent for drawing, he was placed under Simon Vouet, with whom he remained for some years. He 
then went to Italy, and under the tuition of Poussin studied the works of the great masters. Shortly 
after his return to Paris, Lebrun received the patronage of Louis XIV., who made him painter to the 
court, and director of the Gobelins manufactory. The King also decorated him with the order of St. 
Michael. Lebrun died in Paris in 1690. 

As Velasquez is to be seen in the Museum of Madrid, so Lebrun is to bo found entirely in the 



20. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

Louvre. Twenty-two pictures represent him there, at the head of which stands the History of Alexander. 
This famous series, which was ordered by Louis XIV. in 1660, and which was completed in 1668, »« 
no less important among his works than the History of St. Bruno among those of Lesueur. To make 
known and to popularize this great poem in five cantos — the Passage of the Granicus, the Rattle of 
Arbela, the Family of Darius made captive, the Defeat of Porus, and the Triumph of Alexander at 
Babylon — an evident allegorical flattery of the early triumphs of the great Louis. Lebrun had the good 
fortune to have it engraved by Edelinck and Audran. 

The other great paintings of Lebrun, the Day of Pentecost (where he has introduced himself in 
the figure of the disciple standing on the left); the Christ with Angels, painted to immortalise a dream 
of the queen mother; and the Repentant Ifagdalcn, which every one calls Mademoiselle de la 
ValliSre ; show us once more the official painter suiting himself to his master's tastes like a skilful 
courtier. He is more natural and true in the Stoning of St. Stephen, as well as in the small pictures 
on profane history, Cato and Muiitis Scoevola, works of his youth, which were attributed to the great 
Poussin. At last when, delivered from the master's eye, he descended from royal pomp and reduced 
his subjects to small figures, Lebrun seems to ascend in art in proportion as he becomes humble and 
modest. If any one look at three small pictures representing the Entrance of Jesus into JeruMJUm; 
Jesus on his way to Calvary; and a Crucifixion, especially the second, which reminds us in its subject 
of the Spasiino, he will find finer and more varied painting, a simpler though not less noble style, and 
a deeper and more touching expression. 

BOULLONGNE, (BON), the son of an historical painter, Louis BouUongne, was bom at Paris in 

1649. He was much patronized by Louis XIV., who sent him to Rome to study the old masters. 
He painted many of the decorations of Versailles. He died at Paris in 1717. His younger brother, 
Louis BouIIougne, the younger, was also a good painter. He died in 1734. 

JOUYENET, (JEAN), the son of a painter, was born at Rouen in 1644. At seventeen years of 
age he went to Paris, where he quickly rose to fame. He was a pupil and assistant of Lebrun, and 
followed his style. In old age he lost the use of his right hand by palsy, and, to the astonishment 
of his brother artists, painted with his left hand the Magnificat, now in Notre Dame. Nearly all his 
pictures were of sacred subjects. He died at Paris, in 1717. Jouvenet's art is theatrical, carried almost 
to the style of scene-painting. By what other name could we call the enormous sheets of canvas on 
which the Miraculous Draught of Fishes, the Christ driving the Money-Changers out of the Temple, and 
even the famous Raising of Liazarm, are described? The dramatic arrangement, the exaggerated expres- 
sion, the angular drawing, the pale and almost monochromatic colouring, all make his works resemble 
the decorations of a theatre, only intended to be looked at from a distance and to be taken in at a 
glance, but which will not sustain a closer examination. It is only fair to add, however, that Jouvenet's 
less ambitious compositions, such as the Descent from the Cross, which he painted for the Convent of 
the Capucines, and an Ascension for the Church of St. Paul, are simpler and calmer in their style, 
besides being better in every other respect. 

SANTERRE, (JEAN B.iPTISTE), was born at Magny, near Pontoise, in 1651. He went early in 
life to Paris, where he studied under BouUongne. His pictures are carefully composed and harmoniously 
coloured. He died in Paris in 1717. 

At the same time that, in order to flatter the pompous taste of Louis XIV., Jouvenet was 
exaggerating the exaggeration of Lebrun, there was one artist who religiously observed the worship of 



NICOLAS BE LABGILLIEEE. 2i 

the beautiful. This was Jean Baptiste Santerre. Like Lesueur before him, and Prud'hon after him, 
he escaped from academic tyranny, as well as from the slavery of the court. He sought for real 
greatness more than for fame or fortune, and found it, far from theatrical effect, in delicacy and grace. 
Always set aside, almost unknown, and doing scarcely anything but studies, which he destroyed before 
his death, Santerre, in a tolerably long life, completed but few works, and the Louvre has only succeeded 
in obtaining one, the modest Susannah at the Bath, which seems to make the link in the chain uniting 
Correggio to Prud'hon. A St. Theresa by him is in the chapel at Versailles. 

PATEL, (PETER), who was born about the middle of the seventeenth century, is a painter of 
whom next to nothing is known. His Christian name is, by some, said to be Peter, and by others, 
Paul. Neither the date of his birth nor that of his death is undisputed. He is supposed to have 
visited Rome, because he painted scenes near that city. Patel's Landscapes are executed in a good 
imitation of Claude Lorraine, and make one wish that one knew more of the author. Patel had a son, 
who was also a painter. 

To bring into one gronp the best portrait-painters of the age to which Louis XIV. has given 
hia name, we must go back a few years, and commence with 

HIGNABD, (PIERRE}, although born in 1612 at Troyes in Champagne, was called the " Roman," 
because after having studied under Simon Vouet, he passed twenty-two years at Rome. Pierre Mignard 
was not merely a portrait-painter ; he also painted historical pictures and even in the dome of Val-de- 
OrAce painted frescoes larger in size if not really greater, than that of Correggio in the duomo of Parma. 
He succeeded the disgraced Lebrun in the oflBce of king's painter ; he was ennobled, made a Chevalier 
de Saint-Michael, a professor, rector, director, and chancellor of the Academy. He even entered into 
direct rivalry with Lebrun in a Family of Daritis at the feet of Alexander, now in the Hermitage of St. 
Petersburg ; and in the Louvre we may see the charming Vierge it la Grappe, brought from Italy, in 
which he imitated the style of Annibale Carracci, whilst exaggerating the studied grace of Albani. But 
the compositions of Mignard, with the exception of this Madonna with the Grapes, have not retained 
their passing celebrity ; he is now only remembered by his portraits, to be found in the galleries of 
many noble fiamilies. In the Louvre, where we are surprised to see no portrait of Louis XIV., whom 
Mignard painted very frequently and at nearly every period of his life except old age, there are a great 
number of historical portraits, the Grand Dauphin, the Duke of Burgundy, the Duke of Anjou, Madame 
de Maintmnn, and Mignard himself. In all these works — historical paintings as well as portraits — he 
displays the same cold correctness, the same skilfulness in the art of Hattery, the same care in minute 
details, carried to the extreme which has made his name a proverb in France, at first in praise, and 
now in blame ; but they also show a lightness of touch and vivacity of colouring which, in that period 
of systematic abandonment of colouring, easily rendered him the first colourist amongst the court painters 
'^f France. He died at Paris in 1695. 

LEFEVRE, (CXAUDE), was born at Fontainebleau in 1633. He was a pupil of Lesueur and 
Lebrun, and painted portraits which remind ua of Philippe of Champagne. He visited England in the 
reign of Charles II., and it is l)elieved that he died in London in 1675. 

DE LARQILLIERE, (NICOLAS), though born at Paris in 1656, received his early education in art 
at Antwerp, where his father settled as a merchant. He visited England, and painted portraits of 
Charles II., James II., and many of the nobility. Louis Quatorze also sat to him. He died at Paris 
in 1746. 



22 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

RIGAUD, (HYACINTHE), the son of an artist, was bom at Perpignan, in 1659. Rigaud has 
deserved his name, the French Vandyck, at all events through his fertility. Amongst his pictures in 
the Louvre, Louis XIV. figures in the front rank ; and Bossuet, who seems to be holding a court in 
his bishop's robes as the chief of the church and the king of eloquence. They are known everywhere, 
thanks to engraving ; for Rigaud, no less fortunate than Lebrun, who had been engraved by Edelinck 
and Audran, found the illustrious Pierre Drevet as his interpreter. By the advice of the jealous Lebrun, 
Rigaud became and remained a portrait painter, studying from nature, and seeking truth not merely in 
living figures, but also in the inanimate objects of the accessories. He has been reproached, and not 
without reason, with having given such amplitude to the dresses that the persons always seem taking 
part in some ceremony. He also, like Vandyck, imparted such an expression of nobility and dignity 
to all his models that it may be thought he usually gave it gratuitously. Under his pencil even the 
Cardinal Dubois assumes the moral grandeur of an upright man. Rigaud died in 1743. 

We illustrate, by a wood engraving, a characteristic example of Rigaud's, from the Versailles 
Gallery — in the portrait of The Marquis de Dangcau, adorned in the robes of the order of " The Holy 
Spirit," the grand distinction of the time of Louis XIV. Bruy^re says, " Dangeau was not only a 
nobleman, but a statesman and historian, a man distinguished for his ability, modesty, politeness, hnnpsty 
and goodness ; all these characteristics are discernible in Rigaud's admirable portrait." 

COYPEL, (ANTOINE), the son of Noel Coypel, an artist of some celebrity, was born at Paris in 
1661. He accompanied his father to Rome, and studied the style of Bernini. On his return to Paris, 
he became a very popular artist, and was much employed in painting royal palaces. He treated history 
in a theatrical manner, and clothed the ancient Greeks in silk breeches. Ooypel died at Paris in 1722. 

NAIN, (LES FRERES, [the brothers] LE), worked about the middle of the 17th century. 
No biography is more obscure and unsatisfactory than that of the brothers Nain, whom historians 
have paid no attention to for a long time ; and until something more definite can be had which will 
throw available Ijght on the subject, we will limit our information to the dates and facts furnished 
by authentic documents, lately found. From notes and manuscripts of M. le Len on the city of Laon, 
recently discovered, quoted by Dom Grenier, friar of the society of Saint-Maur, among the papers he 
had collected to be used in writing a History of Picardie, we learn that the three brothers, Louis, 
Antoine, and Mathieu lo Nain, born at Laon, were instructed in that city by an unknown painter, 
who taught them the elements of painting for the period of one year. They afterwards went to Paris 
and lived in the same house. Antoine, who was the oldest, was received painter March 16, 1629, in 
the Abbey of St. Germain des Pr6s, by the sire Plantin, a lawyer, who was its bailiff. He excelled in 
miniature painting and small pictures. Louis executed bust portraits. Mathieu had been appointed painter 
to the city of Paris August 22, 1633, and Lieutenant of the militia company of sire Dori, under 
Colonel M. de S6ve. The three brothers were received at the Royal Academy of Painting, instituted 
by a decree of the Council of State (dated January 20, 1648), March let of the same year. Their 
letters of Reception are signed by le Brun. Louis died three days after Antoine, his senior brother; 
neither were married. Mathieu survived, and obtained, September 13, 1662, letters of " commiiiimtts" 
in right of his title of painter to the Royal Academy. It is said that he painted the portrait of 
the queen, mother of Louis XIII. Such are the facts gleaned from Dom Grenier's documents. The 
following are from the papers found at the Academy and School of Fine Arts. The three brothers 
Louis, Antoine and Mathieu are registered as Academicians, taking part in the seance of March, 164S. 



" JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH PATER I3 

These same Registers at November 6, 1649, only mention Mathieu as Academician. According to a 
manuscript preserved by the school of the fine arts, Louis, the elder (and not Antoine. as Grenier 
states.) painter of rustic scenery, surnamed the- Roman, died March 23, 1648, at 55 years of age ; 
Antoine the younger alias the chevalier, also painter of rustic scenery, died two years after, March 
25, 1648 (another manuscript has that date, May 25, 1658, but this is evidently a clerical error) at 
the age of 70. M. Hultz, secretary of the Academy, adopts the same date in a note, but states 
that Antoine was only 60 at the time of his death. Finally, Mathieu, the younger, painter in the 
same style as his brothers, died August 20, 1677. The dates of admission and death at the Aca- 
demy are correct, without doubt, but such is not the case with that of their births, which could be 
deduced from their age at the time they died. Great confusion exists in regard to the aliases, or 
surnames, which they received, since that of chevalier is indiscriminately given to Antoine and Mathieu. 
It is not difficult to distinguish and recognize a painting of the le Nains. The sad and serious ex- 
pressions of the faces introduced by them, even in rustic scenes, those of taverns or of the station 
or guard-houses ; the type of heads ; a general prevalence of a greenish-gray ; numerous bright lights, 
relieved by a few draperies ordinarily of a light red ; to sum up, a species of imitation of the Spanish 
school, are the characteristic traits of their style. Still we are unable to distinguish which one of the 
three brothers any one painting is by, so similar in style are they. A considerable number of very 
large paintings, ceiling and domes for various public edifices and churches, give proof of their artistic 
talent in reproducing heads, in which they excelled. Several engravers have reproduced their works. 
The Louvre contains four paintings by this family. 

WATTEAU, (ANTOINE), the son of a poor thatcher of Valenciennes, was born in the year 1684. 
He was placed with an obscure artist, in his native city, and for a long time painted pictures of 8t. 
Nicholaa for three francs a week and his soup. In 1702, he went to Paris — where the scene-painter, 
Claude Gillot, introduced him to the green-room of the opera — and founded a school of painting ; or 
rather, he was so superior to the other imitators of this genre that he has been called its foiinder ; 
yet his name, whatever amount of blame he may have incurred, must occupy an honourable place amongst 
those of French artists. It was in the hands of his plagiarists — the Van Loos, the Paters, Lancrets, 
Natoires, and the long train of their followers — that the decay was most manifest ; that art was moru 
degraded and dishonoured in ridiculous and licentious paintings of aheepfolds decorated with satin ribbons; 
and pictures were merely used as ornaments for boudoirs. 

Watteau only attempted very small genre subjects ; but he has imparted such elevation and grandeur 
to them that he will always be considered far above a mere decorator of ladies' boudoirs. In the 
work."* of this painter of Felea Oalanten, besides the exquisite colouring taken from Rubens, we shall 
always have to admire his invention, fun, wit, and even propriety ; for we feel that he was, as hi? 
biographer Gcrsaint says, a "libertine in mind, though of good morality." 

The Louvre has his great work The Embarkment Jor the Isle of CyiKere. 

LANCBET, (NICHOLAS), a painter of FetPH Oalantes, who was born at Paris in 1690, studied 
under one Pierre d'Alin, but took Watteau as his model, and became an ignoble disciple of that master, 
though in his own time his works were very popular. He died in Paris in 1743. 

In the National Gallery, London, is a series of four paintings — mentioned by D'Argenville among 
the principal works of Lancret. They are the four ages of man — Infancy, Youth, Manhood and Old Age. 

PATKR, 'JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH), who was born at Valenciennes in 1696, went, when still 



24 A COMPLETE H 18 TORY OF FRENCH ART. 

young, to Paris, and entered the studio of Watteau, whom he copied both in subject and, as far as 
possible, in style. His works are somewhat scarce. Pater died in 1736. 

BOUCHER, (FRANCOIS), who was born at Paris in 1704, was one of the most popular artists 
of his time, was appointed painter to the king, and acquired a great reputation, which did not long 
survive him. Hu died at Paris in 1768. Boucher was called the " Painter of the Graces," because, 
in the midst of landscapes as weak and false as the scenes at the opera, he introduced, as the 
shepherdesses of his be-ribboned sheep, veritable dolls, without modesty, fat, and only fresh-looking from 
the vermilion of their toilette, or because they are reposing in the style of goddesses on clouds of cotton. 
How surprised the Greeks would have been to see these Graces ! 

DESPORTES, (FRANQOIS), who was the first in France to make a special domain for himself 

by imitating Snyders, and who became the historiographer of the hunts of Louis XIV., was born at 

Champigneul in 1661. It is said that he visited and painted sporting scenes in England. He died 
in 1743. 

VAN LOO, (JEAN BAPTISTE), the grandson of an artist, was bom at Aix in Provence, in 1684. 
He painted in public buildings at Toulon, Turin, and Rome, and was made a member of the Academy 
at Paris. In 1737 he paid a visit to England, and was patronized by Sir Robert Walpole. He painted 
many portraits of the nobility. In 1742, he returned to his native land, and there he died in 1746. 

OUDRY, (JEAN BAPTISTE), whose genre was the same as that of Desportes, was born at Paris 

in 1686. He became in his turn the historian of the hunts of Louis XV. His works, which are 
very numerous in the Louvre — Hunts of stags, wolves, boars, pheasants, and partridges — and also simple 
portraits of dogs and groups of game, show that he had neither the invention nor the movement of 
Snyders, nor tlie exquisite skill and touch of Fyt and Weenix. But the habits of the animals have 
been well studied, the forms are well given, and they compose very good hunting-pictures, much sought 
after by the possessors of country houses. Oudry died at Beauvais in 1755. 

CHARDIN, (SIMEON), the worthy rival of Willem Kalf, the painter of Dutch kitchens, was bom 
in 1699. Chardin, who was a powerful colourist, rivals the Dutch school in the vigour of his tints. 
until then unknown in the French school. " Oh, Chardin ! " cries the enthusiastic Diderot, " it is not 
colours alone that you mix on your palette ; it is the very substance of the objects, it is air and light 
with which you paint." Chardin died in 1779. 

VAN LOO, (CARLE), the younger brother of Jean Baptiste, was born at Nice in 1705. He was 

the best of the four painters in his family, and showed to what a depth of decay an artist, endowed 
by nature with great and solid qualities, may be led by the bad taste of his age. Had Carle van Loo 
been born two centuries earlier, he would probably have been one of the masters of his art. In his 
early years he was noted for his correct drawing, his severe style, and his antique elegance. " He 
had all the signs of genius,' affirms Diderot, who yet calls his works "masterpieces of dyeing;" and 
no painter of the time acquired greater renown, fortune, or honours, than he. Van Loo should have 
restricted himself to the anecdotal style, or to genre painting ; but he attempted history and sacred 
subjects, and failed utterly. He died at Paris in 1765. 

TO^UE, (LOUIS), born in 1696; died at the Louvre, February 10, 1772. 

His father, a distinguished architectural painter, placed him at an early age at Nicolas Bertin's 
school. The young pupil was not long in attracting attention by his great ability and ease in paint- 



LOUIS- JEAN-FRANC0I8 LAGRENEE. 25 

ing portraits. He continued to study that style, and was received at the Academy August 13, 1731. 
He was directed to paint for his reception picture the portraits of Galloche and Lemoine senior, Sculp- 
tor, and he was elected Academician January 30, 1734. It was about this time he executed, on an 
order from the court, the portrait of the dauphin ; and after tlie marriage of that prince the picture 
of his wife, as well as that of the Queen. He became counsellor of the Academy January 31, 1744. 
The numerous portraits he exposed at the salon, and which each time obtained great success, extended 
his reputation abroad. He was called by the Empress to St. Petersburg; remained there from 1757 
to 1758, and painted the Empress' picture, engraved by Schmidt. He then went to Stockholm, then 
to Denmark, where he painted the Royal family. Back to Paris in 1760. The Academy presented 
him with a picture of Charles Coypel, representing the destruction of the Palace of Armida. This 
painting was given to him as a token of thanks for the portraits of M. de Tournehem and of the 
Marquis de Marigny, directors and superintendents of the king's buildings, which he had presented to 
the Academy. Toqu6 made a second trip to Denmark in 1769 and received the title of Free Associate 
of the Copenhagen Academy. His design is correct, his touch light, his color agreeable, without a great 
vigor: he painted, singularly well, gold and silver cloths, and flowered satins and embroideries. He ex- 
hibited in the salons from 1737 to 1759. Several of his works have been engraved by Larmessin, J. C. 
Teucher, Wille, Dupuis, Schmidt, Cathelin, Muller, Daull»'\ 

Si'BLEYRAS, (PIERRE), Painter and Engraver, born at Uzes in 1699, died in Rome May 28, 
1749. His father, Mathieu Subleyras, a mediocre painter, after having taught him the elements of paint- 
ing, sent him to Toulouse at the age of fifteen and placed him under Antoine Rivalz. In 1724 Sub- 
leyras came to Paris, and advertised himself advantageously, exhibiting designs for ceilings he had 
executed at Toulouse. He competed two years after for the grand prize at the Academy and won 
it. He went to Rome in 1728 as king's pensioner, remained there seven years and a half, and 
married, in 1739, Maria-Felice Tibaldi, celebrated miniature painter and sister to the wife of Tr^mol- 
lidre. He was received a short time after at the Academy of St. Luc as a member. He executed 
a large namber of paintings for the crowned heads of Europe and the Pope, besides numerous churches 
and public buildings. His health becoming impaired, he traveled to Naples, remained there seven 
months, then returned to Rome, where he died of a lingering illness. He made no exhibits. 

TEBNET, (CLAtDE JOSEPH), the celebrated marine painter, was born at Avignon in 1714. A 
whole room in the Louvre is devoted to his works ; there are nearly fifty of them ranged on the 
walls round his bust in marble. These are, in the first place, Views of the Principal Erench Seaports, 
fiainted in 1754 to 1765, by order of Louis XV.; an ungrateful task, which would have required a mind 
inexhaustible in its resources. There is a large number of Marine Pieces, properly so called, in which he 
has represented the sea in all its forms, in all its aspects, in the south and the north, by day and by 
night, in the morning and in the evening, with the sun and the moon, the fog and fire, in rain and in 
fine weather, in calm and tempest. These marine pieces certainly do not possess the intoxicating poetry 
of Claude, or the dreamy poetry of Ruysdael, or the powerful reality of Willem van de Velde, or Back- 
huysen. Claude Joseph Vemet died in 1789. He had a son. Carle Vemet, who painted battle-pieces, and 
who died in 1836 at the age of seventy-eight, who was the father of the celebrated Horace Vemet, of 
whom we shall speak hereafter. 

LAGRElfilE, (LOnS-JEAN-FRANCOIS), called L' Ain<^- (the elder), born in Paris December 30, 
1794, died at the Louvre, June 19, 1805. 

He was pupil to Carl Van Loo, made the voyage to Rome as king's pensioner, and returned to 



2Q A COMPLETE HIS TO BY OF FRENCH ART. 

Paris in 1753, was received at the Academy, and became a member May 31, 1755; gave as his recep- 
tion piece The Abduction of Dejanire by the Centaur Nessus. He afterwards obtained successively the 
following grades: adjunct-professor, April 29, 1758; Professor, October 2, 1762; adjunct-rector, July 7. 
1781 ; and Rector, September 3, 1785. The Empress Elizabeth Petrowna, having called him to her 
court, he went to St. Petersburg in 1760, took the place of Le Ix)rrain as Director in charge of the 
Academy of Painting, and became first painter to the Empress. He returned to Paris in 1763. The 
king appointed him in 1781 Director of the Academy of Rome, and he obtained from the same source a 
pension of 2,400 livres, (as a reward for his' painting. The Widow of Malabar), which was made void 
by the Revolution a short time after. In July, 1804, Napoleon gave him the cross of the Legion 
of Honor. He executed a great number of paintings for the royal residences, hotels belonging to the 
notables and others. Many of his works were exported. He died while professor-rector of the School 
of the Fine Arts and honorary member of the Museum. Most of his works have been engraved. He 
exhibited at the salons from 1755 to 1798. His son Anthelme-Franfois Lagren6e, born in Paris in 1775, 
died in the same city April 27, 1832 ; was Vincent's pupil, served in the army, and went to Russia 
in 1823, painted for the Emperor Alexander, then returned to France and devoted himself to painting 
miniatures and imitations of cameos. He exhibited from 1799 to 1819. 

BACHELIER, (JEAN-JACqUES). Born in 1724. Died April 13, 1806. 

He was accepted at the Academy in 1751, received September 2, 1752, as a painter of flowers, 
and September 24, 1763, as an historical painter, on presentation of his picture, The Death of Abel, 
for which he was authorized to substitute A Roman Charity. He was elected adjunct-professor 
November 29th of the same year, became professor July 7, 1770, and adjunct-rector July 7, 1792. 
In 1765 Bachelier expended 60,000 francs in founding a free school of design for mechanics. This 
institution was incorporated in 1766 by Letters Patent, granted by King Louis XV., and is still in 
existence. The Count of Caylus having devoted himself to the research of processes for painting in 
wax or encaustic, Bachelier, with the same object in view, made a great many experiments and 
exhibited, in divers Salons, the results of his labors. He was director of the Sevres Porcelain Manu- 
factory, Life Director of the Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Naval Architecture of Marseilles, and 
continued to the time of his death to superintend the institution of which he was the founder. He 
exhibited in the Salons from 1751 to 1767. 

GREUZE, (JEAN BAPTISTE), was bom at Tournai in 1725. The contemporary literary school 

of the day inculcated a return to nature. Greuze listened to this advice, and approached nature, not 
in the manner of Boucher, by ridiculous pastoral caricatures, but by taking his figures from rural life, 
and tepresenting simple and touching village scenes. Diderot says : " He was the first who thought of 
bringing morality into art." 

Some of these village scenes contain merely a comic incident, such as The Broken Pitcher; others 
rise to pathetic drama, like the Father's Curse. The Village Pride is of intermediate style, more simple 
atid graceful, and may be considered as the masterpiece of his transition style. These choice works are 
in the Louvre, and France may consider herself fortunate to have secured them beforehand from the ama- 
teurs, who now dispute with eagerness for the slightest sketches of a painter, whose old age was passed in 
extreme poverty, He died at Paris in 1805. The gallery of Sir Richard Wallace contains twenty- 
two paintings by Greuze, several of which have been engraved. There are three in the National Gral- 
lery of London, two of which were bequeathed by Mr. Wynn Ellis. 



JACQUES LEWI 8 DAVID. 27 

TIEN, (JOSEPH MARIE), was born at Montpellier in 1710. He studied first in Paris, and it 
was he who in historical painting gave the signal for reform when, in 1771 to 1781, he directed the 
French school at Rome. In studying the works of the earlier ages he learned to understand the great- 
ness of the art which had almost perished. He endeavoured to return to the style of the great mas- 
ters. To Vien, then, belongs the honour of having clearly seen the evil and its remedy, and of having 
been the first to attempt the part of a reformer, which was accomplished by his pupil, Louis David. 
This honourable attempt may be seen in his fine composition, 8t. Germain of Auxerre and 8t. Vincent 
of Saragosaa receiving martyrs' crowns fix)m an angel ; and for chastened and powerful execution, in the 
Hermit adeep. It is said of this last picture that one day, in his studio at Rome, the hermit who served 
him for a model went asleep whilst playing on the viohn. The artist took his portrait in this attitude 
and with much success. 

Vien said: "I have only half opened the door; it is M. David who will throw it wide open." 
Vien, the regenerator of painting in France, died at Paris in 1809. 

DOYEN, (GABRIEL FRANpOISE), born at Paris in 1726, died at St. Petersburg June 5, 1806. 

Doyen entered Carle van Loo's school before he was twelve years of age, and won the prize of 
Rome at twenty. He journeyed to Rome in 1748, copied a great number of designs from the Farn(5se 
Gallery, especially the best of Lanfranc's productions, as well as those of Bachiche and Pietre de Cortone, 
whom he greatly loved. Studied Solim^ne at Naples, then visited Venice, Bologna, Parma, Plaisance and 
Turin. On his return to France at twenty-nine, wishing to establish a reputation by producing a painting 
with all the talent he possessed, he chose for his subject the Deaih of Virginia, which proved a great suc- 
cess and caused him to be received at the Academy in 1758; was admitted Aug. 23, 1759, on a painting 
of Jupiter attended by Hthe; obtained an adjunct-professorship Aug. 29, and then a professorship July 27, 
1776. He executed a number of works of great merit, among which may be mentioned TJic Plague of 
the Ardenta. After the death of his Tutor, Van Loo, he was chosen to decorate the Chapel of St. Gre- 
gory at the Invalides; made a voyage to Russia, and was received with distinction by Catharine II., who 
endowed him with a pension of 1,200 roubles, gave him a lodging-room in her imperial palace, and 
appointed him Professor of the Academy of Painting. After the death of the Empress, her successor, 
Paul I., increased his pension and gave him several large and important works to execute. Doyen 
remained in Rania for over sixteen years, and painted until eighty years of age. He exhibited at 
the Salons from 1759 to 1787. 

DAYID, (JACQUES LEWIS), the nephew of Fran9oi8 Boucher, the Fainter of the Graces, was born 
at Paris in 1748. He accompanied Vien to Rome, and with him studied the works of the great mas- 
ters. Following the rapid incline which urges every reaction to an extreme, Lewis David resolved to 
bring art not merely to an equality with the finest epoch of the French school in the times of Poussin 
and Lesueur, or the finest period of Italian art in the times of Raphael and Titian, but to antiquity. 
In order to delineate Roman subjects and Roman manners, he sought his models in the ruins of ancient 
Rome; he studied the statues and the bas-reliefs, — Tacitus and Plutarch. 

As long as David painted merely in his studio and before his pupils, his works and lessons were, 
in some degree, a public good ; by the severity of his taste and forms, by the admiration of noble 
thought* and fine actions, he brought back art to dignity and true grandeur. But when the Empire 
had overthrown the Republic, when David, painter to the emperor, had become, less from character 
than from position, the regulator of taste, the dispenser of favours — in short, the prefect of the de- 



28 A COMPLETE HIS TOBY OF FRENCH ART. 

partment of the Fine Arts — there reappeared the usual tyranny. All works of art, from the histori- 
cal picture down to ornamental furniture, all works of literature, from the epic poem to the couplet 
of romance, received the order of the day, a watchword, which was called the style of the Empire. 
" Art," says Plato, " is a forest bird which hates the cage, and can only live at liberty." 

We will rapidly mention the best works of David to be found in the Louvre, placing them in 
chronological order, so that we may be able to appreciate the modifications made on the talent of the 
painter. The Oath of the Horatii was painted at Kome in 1784. It is said that Louis XVL ordered this 
first republican picture. When it was first produced, it was as if David had passed at a single bound 
to the very antipodes of the licentious paintings with which, until then, both the court and the town 
had been satisfied. Its appearance caused, indeed, such sensation, even in the frivolous world of the 
Parisian salons, that from this time we may date the commencement of the fashion for Roman forms 
in garments, hangings and furniture. The second republican picture is that of Marcus Bndus, to whom 
the lictors arc bringing the corpses of his two sons, whom he had condemned to death. In this work, 
dated 1789, David also foretells the future, for this horribly grand action of Brutus seems to announce, 
alas! the frightful hetacomb which the France of 1793 would make of her children. It is as well 
that the artist placed the face of Brutus in the shade near the statue of Romulus with the Wolf, for 
the struggle in him between the heroism of the citizen and the grief of a father is almost too great 
to conceive, and the human mind hesitates to decide what should be the predominating feeling of the 
unhappy father. He next painted the Sahine Women throwing themselves into the midst of the con- 
flict between the Romans and the Sabines : it was after having passed five months in prison after the 
9th Thermidor, as the friend of Robespierre and St. Just, that David commenced this picture, wishing 
to commemorate, it is said, the perilous efforts made by his own wife to save him. Between tlie Bruiua 
and the /Sabine Women, whilst sitting among the Convention, David had sketched out the Oaih of the 
Jeu-de-Paume, a vast composition, as full of fire and energy as that first scene of the great drama of 
the Revolution, and he had also painted the Deaih of Marat, struck by Charlotte Corday. This latter 
work is by some considered his masterpiece in point of execution. 

We next come to the Leonidas at Thermapyhx. Although between this picture and the SaMnea 
the whole interval of the Empire intervenes, we may yet call them twin pictures. What has been said 
of the one will do for the other, weakened, however, in execution. All the details of Leonidas are 
borrowed from the narrative of the fight at Thermopylae, placed by the Abb^ Barth^lemy in the intro- 
duction to his " Travels of Anacharsis in Greece." David has simply placed his narration in painting. 

The works of David which we have just been considering show all his good qualities and defects in 
the clearest light. On one hand the fine subjects, noble sentiments, austere forms, correct drawing, and 
chastened painting ; on the other, in the composition may be seen an academic, or, rather, sculptural stiflF- 
ness, making the living beings look as if cut out in marble, and of a painted picture a sort of bas-relief; 
and in the execution a sad and monotonous colouring, increased still more by the bad distribution of light. 
In addition to the historical pictures, there are a number of portraits. One of the most celebrated of 
these is that of Pope Pius VII. It is, like all David's portraits, well copied from nature, and full of 
physical life ; but the breath of poetry and of the ideal has not passed over the brow of the prisoner of 
Fontainebleau. 

After the fall of Napoleon, David took refuge in Brussels, where he continued to paint for many 
years. He died in 1825, in his seventy-eighth year. His chief pupils form a brilliant assemblage around 
him in the Louvre. 



FJiAXgOIS CASANOVA. 29 

LETHIEBE, (GUILLAITME GUILLON), one of David's pupils, was born in Guadeloupe in 1760. 
He is represented in' the Louvre by those enormous pictures, nine yards in length, the Death of Virgi- 
nia and Death of the Sons of Brutus. These pictures were exhibited in London in 1816 and received with 
much applause. Lethi^re died in 1832. 

TRIOSON, (ANNA LOUISE GIRODET), was born in 1767. His most important works may be found 
in the Louvre. The Revolt in Cairo, a theatrical combat; the Interment of Atala, describing with great 
simplicity a scene from Chateaubriand; a Scene from tite J)eluge, which took the prize in 1810; a fine 
group of nudes, reminding us a little of the convulsive enlacements of the Laocoon, but which, unfor- 
tunately, provokes comparison with the calm masterpiece of Poussin ; the Sleep of Endymion, an agreeable 
mythological scene, offering a new and charming idea. Trioson died in 1824. 

GERARD, (FRANCOIS), was born at Rome in 1770. His celebrated group of Cupid and Psyche 
may dispute the prize of prettiness with the Dido; but he has painted larger and far better works 
in the Entrance of Henry IV. into Paris, and his Blind Belisanus. Gerard, to whom many of the 
meet illustrious characters of Europe sat for their likeness, was rather a portrait than an historical painter, 
and was still more an intellectual man than an artist of genius. With Gerard, who died in 1837, 
ends the direct school of David, for we cannot count the sad and frozen imitations of those who are 
called in politics the queue d'un parti. 

DROUAIS, (FRANCOIS-HUHERT), born at Paris December 14, 1727; died in the same city 
October 21, 1775. 

He received his precepts in painting from his father, Hubert Drouais, afterwards studied successively 
under Xonotte, Carl van Loo, Natoire and Boucher. He presented himself at the Academy, and was re- 
ceived at twenty-seven years of age and admitted November 25, 1758, on the portraits of Messrs. Cous- 
tou and Bouchardon (the first being now at Versailles, the second at the school of the fine arts). The 
■access attending his pictures caused him to be summoned to Versailles. He made his first appearance 
and work at the court in 1757 by painting the portraits of the Duke de Berry and of the Count 
of Provence, then of all the royal family; from that time no celebrity or beauty existed, but he had 
their features to reproduce on canvas. He became painter to the king, and consequently of His Lord- 
ship and Her Ladyship ; he was raised by his contemporary brethren of the craft to the dignity of Coun- 
sellor of the Academy July 2, 1774. He exhibited in the Salons from 1755 to 1775. Hubert Drouais, 
his father, bom in 1699, died February 9, 1767, achieved some renown as portrait painter in oil colors, 
and gained great celebrity in miniature portraits, a very unusual and rare distinction in this branch of 
the art He also executed some crayon drawings. » 

CASANOTA, CFRANCOIS), Painter and Engraver. Born in London in 1730; died at Bruhl, near 
Vienna, (Austria), in March. 1805. 

His family was of Venitian origin, and it was hinted that he was the son of George II. king of 
England. He went to Venice before he was six years old, received a good education, and manifested 
marked taste and aptitude for drawing. Guardi was his first preceptor; he afterwards studied under Si- 
monelli. painter of landscapes and battles. He came to Paris about 1751, remained there only one year, 
traveled in Gfrrnany, remaining four years in Dresden, copying Wouwerman's pictures and battle scenes 
which were to be found there in the collection of the Elector: he became acquainted with Dietrich in that 
city and profited by the advice given him by that artist. Returning to Paris, he exhibited at the Luxem- 



•«0 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

bourg a Battle painting, which gained him much celebrity, and from that date he produced a great many, 
high-priced pictures ; but the large sums realized were insufficient to keep pace with the luxury, extra- 
vagance and prodigality he displayed in his mode of living. He was received at the Academy May 28, 
1763, on a painting of a Cavalry encounter, now placed at Vincennes. To escape his creditors he gladly 
accepted an offer made by Catharine II. of Russia to paint her victories over the Turks, and finally set- 
tled in Vienna. Besides battle scenes he produced landscapes, animals and familiar scenes after the style of 
the Holland masters. His younger brother, Jean Casanova, was an historical painter of but mediocre ta- 
lent. Jacques Casanova, also a brother, was known as de SeingaU, a celebrated adventurer, who left some 
very curious notes. Francois exhibited in the Salons from 17G3 to 1783. 

FRAGONARD, (JEAN HONORE), Painter and Engraver. Born at Grasse in 1732; died at Paris 

August 22, 1806. 

At eighteen years of age he left Provence with his family, summoned to Paris to attend a 
lawsuit, by which he was ruined. At first clerk for a notary, he showed so little taste for that 
profession, and such a marked inclination for drawing, his mother consented to present him to Boucher, 
who, at first, would not receive him in his studio, but advised him to enter that of Cliardin. This 
preceptor at once placed the palette in the young scholar's hands, and at the end of six months, Frago- 
nard presented himself a second time to Boucher, who, astonished at his progress, admitted him among 
his pupils, before even having been received at the "school of models" at the Academy. He competed 
for the prize of Rome and won it in 1752. At Rome a friendship was establishe<l between himself 
and Hubert Robert, and they worked assiduously, copying the most celebrated pictures of all the 
schools. The first painting Fragonard executed on his return from Rome to France was La CaUirhoe, 
exhibited at the salon of 1765, on which he was received at the Academy March 30th of the same 
year. Satisfied with that honor, he did not endeavor to obtain the grade of Academician. The salon 
of 1767 was the second and last in which Fragonard exhibited. Disgusted with official work, owing 
to the trouble he had experienced in collecting moneys due him for his CaUirhoe, he henceforth 
worked for amateurs only, who fought over the pos-session of the least of his comjwsitions. Working 
constantly, he produced an enormous amount of paintings and drawings, which commanded high prices. 
The Revolution ruined him, and the rage which commenced for the " David School " left him with- 
out occupation. Fragonard had one son, Alexandre-Evariste, historical painter and sculptor, born at 
Grasse in October, 1780, died at Paris November 10, 1850, who was the father of M. Teophile Fra- 
gonard, now at the Manufactory of Sevres. Miss Marguerite Gerard. Fragonard's sister-in-law. born 
at Grasse in 1761, was his favorite pupil, and often painted with her tutor on the same canvas. 
He has signed his works sometimes with his full name, and often merely Frago. His works have 
been engraved by Danzel, Flipart, Saint-Non. Beauvarlet, Halbou, de Launay, Macret, Mathieu, Mi- 
ger, Vidal, Ponce, etc. 

ROBERT, (HUBERT), Painter and Engraver, born at Paris in 1733, died in the same city 

April 15, 1808. 

His parents had intended thflt he should become a clergyman, and it is owing to the inter- 
ference of Michel-Ange-Sloodtz, the sculptor, on his behalf, that he was permitted, at last, to follow 
his vocation of painting, and to start for Rome. The praises that were spoken in regard to his 
talent, by some young artists who were returning from that city, decided M. de Marigny, then Su- 
perintendent of the King's Buildings, to write to M. de Choiseul. French ambassador to the Pope, to 



JEAN JACqUE8 B0I88IEU. 31 

aak Robert for a painting of his own composition. He was so well pleased with the painting sent 
that he allowed him a pupil's pension under the directorship of Isatoire. For twelve years Robert 
worked incessantly, drawing and painting the most precious monuments of Italy, and the number of 
his studies during that period is immense. His ardor for work and his venturesome spirit at times, 
nearly cost him his life. He scaled the walls of the Coliseum of Rome, made an excursion on the 
cornice of St. Peter's, and came near perishing in the labyrinth of the catacombs. It is this last event 
that inspired Delille with the episode which terminates the fourth canto of the poem, "The Imagination." 
On his return to France he was received at the Academy July 26, 1766, as painter of architecture, and 
gave for his reception picture View of the Port of Rlpeita at Rome. The Empress Catharine II. in 
1782 and 1791 invited him to St. Petersburg to establish himself; but notwithstanding her magnifi- 
cent offers, he could not form the resolution of leaving his country, but sent her paintings, which 
were royally paid for. Robert never ceased to paint; even while in prison, during the Revolution 
and reign of terror, he had paints smuggled to him in the handles of the saucepans, and after being 
restored to liberty, continued his industrious life, and died of an apoplectic stroke, brush in hand. 
His works are very numerous. His friends were among the most notable persons of the 18th century : 
Visconti, Greuze, Vernet, Hall, Madame Le Brun, Gr^try, Delille, Le Kain, and Voltaire (for whom 
he painted at Femey the decorations of his theatre). His works have been numerously engraved. 
He exhibited at the salons from 1767 to 1798. 

BOISSIEU, (JEAN JACQUES), Painter and engraver, born at Lyons in 1736, died in the same 
city March 1, 1810. 

He belonged to a family of the nobility, originally from Auvergne, and had for paternal an- 
cestor Jean de Boissieu, secretary of the mandates of Marguerite de Valois. Although manifesting at 
an early age a taste for drawing, his parents did not wish to encourage his inclination f as they had 
destined him for the legal profession. Yielding unwillingly to his entreaties, they however permitted 
him to resort frequently to the studio of Lombard, then to that of Frontier, historical painter, who 
settled at Lyons about this time. Far more advantageous to him were the studies he was enabled 
to pursue from the Flemish and Holland paintings owned by M. Vialis, his maternal uncle, which to 
him were more profitable teaching than his lessons. At the time of the sale of the collection of M. 
Bathtoa de Verrieux, 1.000 crowns were paid for one of his drawings, executed after a painting by 
Woawerman. This success overcame the repugnance his parents manifested for the artist's career that 
Boissieu showed so much perseverance in following. He arrived in Paris at the age of twenty-four, 
and continued to study the Holland School, which he preferred to all others, became the friend of 
Joseph Vernet, Watelet, Greuze, and Soufflot. Received at first with kindness by M. de Larochefou- 
canlt, he wa>4 soon after admitted to the intimacy of this great lord, who had appreciated his extreme 
modesty and talent. Boissieu, during his sojoiu-n in Paris, would often paint from nature, going for 
this purpose to Fontainebleau, Marly, and Saint Germain. He returned to Lyons with M. de La- 
rochefoucault's promise of taking him as a compagnon de voyage on an excursion to Italy he was 
then contemplating. In the expectancy of the realization of this promise, he busied himself drawing 
views from the environs of Lyons, and at the instigation of Parizet, a dealer in paintings in that 
city, he began experimenting at etching with aqua-fortis. However, M. de Larochefoucault, faithful 
to his promise, arrived at Lyons at the time he had appointed, and took Boissieu with him to Italy 
io 1765. He made numerous studies at Florence and at Rome, where he became intimate with 



32 A COMPLETE HI8T0EY OF FRENCH ART. 

Winkelman; he then went to Naples. Upon his return to Lyons, he painted Bome few pictures, but Liu 
very dehcate health compelled him to abandon oil colors. He then devoted himself entirely to draw- 
ing. He executed red-chalk j)ortraits with remarkable fineness of finish, and landscapes in lead pen- 
cil, or wash, which were much sought after, even abroad. After his marriage in 1772, he retired to 
the country and devoted his attention more particularly to engraving. In vain influential friends en- 
deavored to bring him back to Paris. Laborious as he was modest, he never would leave his 
native city. 

BARBIER, [known as the elder], (JEAN-JACi^UES-FRANCJOrS LE), Painter and Writer, born in 

Rouen in 17:^8, died June 7, 1826. 

He won the first prizes for drawings in 1756 and 1758 offered by the Academy of Roueu, 
then came to Paris, where he became the student of Pierre, first painter to the king. He was sent 
by the government to make drawings for the works of Zurlauben, entitled Topogniphical Table of 
Switzerland ; it was then that an intimacy sprang up between himself and Gessner. He proceeded 
from thence to Rome ; upon his return to Paris was received by the Academy May 28, 1785. He 
was a member of the Fine-Art class at the time of the founding of the Institute in 1795. Le 
Barbier has produced a large series of studies for schools of design, which prepared the revolution 
begun by Vien and completed by David. He illustrated a great number of compositions from the 
works of Ovid, Racine, Rousseau, Delille, etc., and exhibited in the salons from 1781 to 1817. 

CALLET, (ANTOINE-FRANCOIS), born in 1741, died in 1823. 

He won the grand prize for painting at the Academy in 1764. The subject to be painted 
for competition had been given as Cl6obis and Biton conducting their mother to the temple of Juno. 
He was accepted by the Academy in 1779, and admitted November 25. 1780; he painted as his 
reception picture a ceiling representing Spring, destined to decorate the Apollo Gallery, where it is 
still to be found. He has also painted pictures and executed some pastel work. Callet has exhi- 
bited in the salons from 1779 to 1817. 

BRUN (ELIZABETH-LOUISE VIGEE LE), born in Paris April 16. 1755; died in the same city 

March 30, 1842. 

She was only twelve when her father, who was a portrait painter, died. Briard. a mediocre 
artist, gave her a few lessons, and she received excellent adWce from Doyen, Greuze, and Joseph 
Vernet. Her progress was rapid. At fifteen she executed artistic portraits. Mile. Vig<^e married, 
while quite young, Le Brun, who was then doing a large business in paintings, and studied with ad- 
vantage the remarkably good paintings with which she wa^ surrounded. She was admitted to the Royal 
Academy of Painting May 31, 1783. Frightened by the events preceding the Revolution, Madame 
Le Brim went to Itjily, where her success was as complete a* it had been in Franco. travele<l fire- 
quently to Rome, Naples, Venice and Milan, established herself at Vienna for three years, visited the 
Prague in April, 1795, thence, by Dresden and Berlin, arriving in St. Petersburg in July of the same 
year, and only returned to France in 1801. Some time afterwards she took a trip to England, where 
she remained three years, from thence passed through Holland and Switzerland, in 180S and 1809. cam-^ 
back to Franco never to leave it aaain. Accordinc to a momomndum written bv herself, Madame 
Le Bruu has painted 662 portraits, 15 pictures, and nearlv 200 landscapes ; also made a great many 
pastel drawings. She was received in all her travels with distinction by eminent persons, and looked 
upon as an artist of great merit. She was a member of the Academies of Rome. Arcadia, Parma, 



JEAN-GERMAIN DROUAIS. 33 

Bologna, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Greneva, Rouen and Avignon, exhibiting in 1783, 1785, 1787, 1789, 
1791, 1798 and 1824. Several of her paintings have been reproduced by engravings. 

BOILLY (LOUIS-LEOPOLD), born in the small city of La Bassee, near Lille, July 5, 1761: 
died at Paris, January 5, 1845. 

Boilly had for preceptor only his father, Arnould Boilly, a Sculptor in wood, who intended he 
should follow house-painting as a trade. At eleven a^d a half years of age he undertook to paint, 
for a chapel of the Brotherhood of Saint Roch, a picture representing that saint healing those 
infected with the plague. This work, far beyond his capacity, singularly enough pleased the Brethren 
wonderfully, who, the following year, ordered him to paint a funeral, the Brotherhood attending and 
the clergy at the head ; every figure was a portrait. Already he manifested great aptitude in trans- 
ferring to his canvas the resemblance of his subject. These two pictures still exist in his native 
city. At thirteen and a half years of age, he left his parents, came to Douai, to visit a prior of 
the Augustins; he made a few portraits in the convent. In 1777, forming the acquaintance of M. de 
Go\iz\6, Bishop of Arras, he went thither, and in two years painted more than three hundred portraits, 
each of which he finished in two hours. At twenty-fivo he arrived in Paris, where he established him- 
self, and from that time executed an infinite number of paintings in various styles, the best of which 
were reproduced by the engraver. Ho made five thousand pictures, composed an incredible number 
of designs painted during seventy-two years, and died, it might be said, brush in hand. He obtained 
a number of prizes and rewards ; was decorated with the Order of the Legion of Honor. He had, 
by his second wife, three sons, who followed the fine arts as a profession : M. Jules Boilly, painter 
and lithographer ; M. Edouard Boilly, composer of music ; M. Alphonse Boilly, engraver. He, the 
father, exhibited in 1793, 1795, 1798, 1799, 1800. 1804, 1808, 1812, 1814, 1819, 1822 and 1824. 

DROUAIS (JEAN-GEBMAIN), bom at Paris November 25, 1763; died in Rome, February 13, 
1788. 

Several biographers state that he is the son of Henri Drouais, a portrait-painter, of whom 
no satisfactory account is given, nor identity proven ; but who they claim was the son of either 
Hubert Drooais or Fran9oi8-Hubert Drouais, becjiuso they are even at variance in regard to this 
fact. Mr. Ctiaussard, who has published an autobiographical sketch of Jean-Germain Drouais, and 
who obtained all the facts contained therein from David, whose love for his pupil was truly of a 
paternal nature, calls him the son of Fmnijois-Hubert Drouais. Young Germain, from childhood, 
handled the pencil with ease, and at ten years of ago his attempts were truly remarkable. His 
father, having instructtnl him in the first rudiments, placed him with Brenct, from whence ho entered 
David's school. He competed for the prize offered by the Academy in 1783; but, dissatisfied with 
his production, he tore it to pieces and showed them to his preceptor, who, judging from one of the 
fragments of the worth of the composition, censured him for renouncing voluntarily a victory he cer- 
tainly would have achieved. No first prize was given that year; but at the next competition, in 
1784, he a-stonished the whole Academy by his painting, the Canaanitish woman at the feet of our 
Lord Jesus Christ; it was unanimously voted the grand prize for painting. Never before had such a 
gem appeared at a competition ; the enthusiasm produced was never before equalled. Young Drouais 
started for Rome in 1785. David, who could not be without him, accompanied and remained one 
year with his pupil in Italy, where he studied the Antique and Raphael; sent several works home, 
which won him great popularity. An inflammatory fever supervened, as he was sketching a Gracchi 



34 A COMPLETE HIS TOUT OF FRENCH ART. 

issuing from his house to suppress the insurrection by which he perished. Drouais died aged twenty- 
five, lamented as a brother by his comrades, who buried him in St. Mary's Church, in via Lata, 
and erected a monument sculptured by his friend Claude Michallon. 

Tlio Louvre contains, Marius at Minturnes, which we illustrate. The picture representa Marius 
seated in a room at Minturnes turning towards the Graulish slave who was sent to assassinate him. The 
latter, a naked sword in his hand, is hiding his face with his mantle and drawing back, at the imposing 
aspect of the conquered warrior. 

HENNEQUIN (PHIIIPPE-ArGUSTE), Painter and Engraver; bom at Lyons in 1763; died at 

Leuze, near Tournay, May 12, 1833. 

After having received elementiiry instruction in the art at Lyons, lie came to Paris, studied 
under Taraval, Gois, Brcnnct, and entered David's school, becoming one of its best Bcholars. He was 
ill Rome at the outburst of the French Revolution. Persecuted by the Papal government on account 
of ilia political opinions, ho succeeded in returning to France only after overcoming great difficulties. 
On his airival at Lyons, he was incarcerated in that city, after the 9th Thcrmidor, year IL (July 
27, 1794), and was fortunate in making good his escape a few days previous to the date of the 
massacre of the prisoners. Hennequin took refuge in Paris, and was again arrested, and escaped 
death only by the protection of the minister and the efforts of a few devoted friends. Having 
regained liin liberty, lie renounced all political partisanship and busied himself solely with his pro- 
fession. \\\ ItSl j, ho removed to Li<^ge. He received encouragement from the government of the 
Pays Bas, retiring finally to Tournay, where he became director of the Acatlemy of Design, retaining 
that ]>osition to tlic time of his death. He exhibited at the salons of 1798, 1799, 1800, 1804, 
1806 and 1814. 

GROS (ANTOINE JEAN), who was born in 1771, suddenly quitted the usual track, to open a 
fresh career for himself. Gros marks the second phase, the passage between the imprisoned art of 
the Empire and the emancipated art of the Restoration. Without returning to sacred history, he aban- 
doned mythology and ancient historj', and formed himself on his own country and time, and painted 
tlio men and the things before his eyes. To this radical change of subject ho had to join a similar 
change in style and taste, and oven to give the conteraporarj' costumes picturesque aspects ; and what 
completes his originality is, that ho introduced two fresh elements in the execution, too much neg- 
lected by the old school — color and movement. The style of Gros was an undoubted progress. The 
proof of this is to bo found in some fine works taken to the Louvre from the galleries of Versailles, 
sucli as Jaffa Plague-stricken, the Battle of Aboukir, and especially the BaUlc-Jveld of Eyiau, a great 
work as well as an instructive lesson, the most heart-rending image of the desolation caused by war 
ever traced by pencil. Gros died in 1835. 

GUERIN (PIERRE NARCISSE), born at Paris in 1774, was the pupil of Jean Regnault, who 
followed the track thrown open by David. His Marcus Sextus returning from exile and finding his 
hearth devastated by misery and death, a fine painting, (see illustrative wood engraving), which made 
the artist known in 1798, has remained his principal work. His later pictures are scenes rather theatrical 
than truly dramatic, and the last in date, Dido Listening to the Narrative of .Mneas, falls completely into 
the style of the "pretty," the worst enemy of the beautiful. Gu^rin died in 1833. Many of his works 
have been cno;raved. 



L0UI8-NIC0LA8-PHILIPPE-AUGU8TE COMTE DE FORBIN. 35 

PRUIFHOX (PIERRE PAUL), the thirteenth child of a mason of Burgundy, was born in 1758. 
Brought up by charity, and inventing for himself the processes of painting, waging a continual war with 
poverty, obliged, in order to gain a livelihood for his family, to devote his days and nights to unworthy 
labors, such as drawing vignettes for books and designs for sugar-plum boxes, Prud'hon was long neglected. 
In early life he went to Rome, and formed acquaintance with Canova. In 1799 he returned to France, 
and he was already forty-nine when, in 1807, his fellow-countryman Prochot, the prefect of the Seine, 
ordered a picture of him. his first composition in high art, the celebrated allegory of Divine Justice and 
Vejigeance Pursuing Orime. Notwithstanding the prevailing taste of the time, this painting attracted great 
notice. The admirers of ancient sculpture placed on canvas condescended to acknowledge that there were 
great qualities of execution, a happy arrangement, correct expression, skillful touch, harmonious and 
powerful effect. The Louvre has acquired this work, and it has also taken a Christ on Calvary, from the 
cathedral of Strasburg. Notwithstanding the usual figures around, the Virgin, Mary Magdalene and John, 
a group of wonderful beauty, this dying Christ, whose countenance is to a certain degree lost in the 
darkness, raminds us of the wonderful Christ on the Cross which Velasquez has painted like a pale 
spectre in the gloom of night. In both these works there is the same melancholy and solemn 
majesty. 

Bat both these pictures are pathetic, and we have said that the special merit of Prud'hon was 
grace. His favorite model was Leonardo da Vinci, from whom he derived his moving and smiling grace, 
and whom he called " my master and my hero." Prud'hon is, therefore, incomplete in the Louvre ; we 
most seek in private collections for other works — such as Zephyr Pocked on the Waters, the Pape of 
Psyche by the Zephyrs, or the Desolate Family, to show how he treated the antique, and that he could 
impart as much poetry to contemporary sufferings as to the fictions of mythology. Prud'hon died at Paris 
in 1823. (See wood engraving of Spring Time, illustrated from the collection of the Duke D'Aumale). 

GRANET (FRAN9OLS MARIUS), another mason's son, was born at Aix-en-Provence, in 1775. 
He is celebrated for his Interiors, two of which may be seen in the Louvre, the Cloister of the Church 
of Aatin, and the Fathers of Mercy redeeming captives. Granet, differing in this from Peter Neefs and 
Emmanuel de Witt, animated his portraits of buildings by scenes from human life, and, like Pieter de 
Hooch, raised his less familiar subjects to the rank of historical pictures. Granet died in 1849. 

FORBIX (LOCIS-XICOLAS-PHIIJPPE-AUGISTE, COMTE DE), Painter and Writer, born at La 
Roque-<l'Antheron (Bouches-du-Rhone), August 19, 1777; died at Paris, February 23, 1841. 

A refugee in Lyons at the time that city was besieged, young Forbin witnessed the sad spec- 
tacle of the killing of his father and uncle. Penniless, alone and without support, through the friend- 
ship of M. de Boissieu, the great Lyonese artist, who taught him the elements of the art, he was 
afforded the means of earning a livelihood. Forced to enlist in a battalion sent to Nice and Toulon, 
he became intimate with M. Granet, of the latter city ; this friendship continued for life. At the 
end of the campaign, he went to Paris, and studied at David's studio, where he remained until ho 
attained the conscription age. Forced again to abandon his profession, ho, in 1799, enlisted in the 
Twenty-first Regiment of Chasseurn, and two years after in the Ninth dragoons. Having obtained 
his discharge, he went to Italy, and was received in a very friendly manner by the Bonaparte family. 
On his return to Paris, at the time of the crowning of Bonaparte, M. de Forbin was, in 1803, appointed 
Chamberlain to the Princess Pauline ; he afterwards enlisted, and took part in the first campaign in Portugal, 
where he received the cross of the Legion of Honor for gallant conduct; then in the Austrian campaign, 



36 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

under Marshal due d'Istrie. After the conclusion of peace, ho resigned hie commission, left the army and 
the court, returned to Rome, where he gave his entire attention to painting. In 1814, a few months after 
the re-accession of the Bourbons, he returned to Paris, became, in 1816, member of the Instilute, and 
Director-General of the Royal Museums. In 1817, traveled through Syria, Greece and Egypt; then to 
Sicily ; the first journey he published an account of, in parts, the second of which was embellished with 
numerous designs. In 1821, M. de Forbin was Inspector-General of the Fine Arts and Monuments 
throughout France. The Museum of the Louvre is indebted to his able administration, who obtained the 
incorporation of the Luxembourg Museum, devoted to living artists. M. de Forbin became Lieutenant- 
Colonel, was Knight of the Order of St. Michael, etc., etc. He exhibited in the salons of 1796, 1799, 
1800, 1801, 1806, 1817, 1819, 1822, 1824, 1831, 1834, 1835, 1839 and 1840. 

From the Louvre we illustrate A Monaatery by tJie Mediterranean Sea. This monument, built 
in the thirteenth century, on the shores of the Mediterranean, a few leagues from Carrara, has been 
invaded by the sea, which now surrounds it, making it an island, distant about half a league from 
the shore. 

SIGALON (XAVIER), born in 1788, at Uz<58 (departement du Gard); died in Rome, August 18, 1837. 

Bigalon learned the elements of painting from a mediocre pupil of David, named Monrose, who 
had estiiblished himself at Nlmes. -Ho came to Paris at twenty-nine, to complete his studies, and entered 
the studio of Pierre Gu6rin, whom he left at the end of six months, to work in company with M. 
Souchon, one of his countrymen. It is to the continued contemplation of the masterpieces gathered at the 
Louvre that Sigalon owed the development of his talent. After painting numerous works of great merit, 
for one among which he received the cross of the Legion of Honor, Sigalon found liimself without work 
and without money ; left Paris, returned to Nlmes, renounced large painting, and made only portraits. 
M. Thiers, who was then Minister, recalled him to Paris, and then gave him the order to copy, at 
Rome, for one of the parlors in the Palace of the Fine Arts, the fresco representing the Last Judg- 
ment, by Michael Angolo. He was awarded for this gigantic work 58,000 fmncs, to which was added 
an indemnity of 20,000 francs and a life-pension of 3000 francs, which the artist wa.s destined to 
enjoy but a short timo. Bigalon started for Rome in July, 1833 ; commenced liis labors, aided by 
his pupil, M. Numa Boucoiran. His copy, on exhibition in Rome, created a great sensation. The 
Pope, Gregory XVI., followed by cardinals, came to see it, and extended his hand to the courageous 
artist, honors bestowed on sovereigns only, complimented him on the success of his enterprise, which 
had been full of obstacles of all kinds to overcome. Sigalon brought his copy to Paris in February, 
1837, and returned a short time after to copy the pendentives of the Sixtine Chapel ; but he was unable 
to finish that work, and died from an attack of cholera; was interred at St. Louis-des-Franyais. He 
exhibited in the salons of 1822, 1824, 1827 and 1831. 

GERICAUIT (THEODORE), who was born at Rouen in 1791. wa.s a pupil first of Carle Vernet, 
and next of Pierre Gudrin. At first he was a simple amateur, cultivating art only as a pastime, and 
as he died very young, leaving scarcely anything but sketches, it is difficult to understand how it 
happened that he played so important a part in French art, and exerted such influence on the whole 
school. But he came forward at the time when literary liberty was reviving with political liberty, and 
tlie whole of society was advancing. The example of GtJricault coining in at this moment was suffi- 
cient to urse French art forward in this general movement of the human mind. 

His works in the Louvre mark the commencement and close of his short fife. The Chasseur 



EMILE JEAN HORACE VERNET. 37 

de la Garde and the Cuirassier blesse belong to the period when, still following on the traces of Carle 
Vemet, he was simply a painter of horses. 

It was towards the close of his life that G^ricault painted the only great work of his life, the 
Raft of the Medusa. After the destruction of a frigate of that name on the coasts of Senegal, the crew 
endeavored to save themselves on a raft made from the wreck of the ship, and scarcely fifteen men, 
kept alive with the flesh of the dead, survived the horrors of revolts, combats, stormy seas, hunger and 
thirst. It is the moment preceding their deliverance that the artist, after some hesitation, chose for his 
subject. This picture was at first received with a storm of reproaches, but when it was exhibited in 
London it won much praise, and is now one of the celebrities of the Louvre. Gericault died when but 
thirty-three years of age, in 1824. (See illustration.) 

INGRES (JEAN AUGUSTE DOMINIQUE), was born at Montauban, about 1780, and in his 
early boyhood showed an equal taste for music and painting. At the age of sixteen, he chose art as 
his profession, and entered the studio of the stem classic master David, where he remained four years, 
and gained many proselytes to his own peculiar ideas amongst his fellow pupils. In 1800 he won the 
second, and in 1801 the first Academic prize, and received a pension of 1000 francs. In 1802, Ingres 
painted his first important work, Bonaparte Passing the Bridge of Kehl, and in 1806 realized a long- 
cherished dream of visiting Rome, where he remained until 1820, studying the works of Raphael and 
the other great masters of the golden age of painting with eager and unceasing enthusiasm. In 1820 
he removed to Florence, where he resided four years, painting the Entry of Charles V. into Paris, and 
the Vow of Louia XIII., now in a church at Montauban. In 1824 he returned to Paris, to find the 
school of David supplanted by that of Delacroix, and to begin that struggle with public opinion which 
lasted until his death. His works were ridiculed in the journals, and the honors, such as the decora- 
tion of the Legion of Honor, seem to have but slightly atoned for the pain inflicted by the pens of 
the reviewers. 

In 1827 he completed his Apotheosis of Homer, on a ceiling in the Louvre ; in 1829 was elected 
Professor of Painting in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts ; in 1833 became an officer of the Legion of Honor, 
aad in 1835 Director of the French Academy in Rome ; the last-named appointment enabling him to 
return to the city of his affections. But his spirit seems to have been broken by the heartlessness 
of his countrymen ; he painted but few pictures ; declined a commission for which £16,000 was oflfered 
him, and devoted the remainder of his life rather to implanting his principles in the breasts of his 
pupils than to carrying them out himself. He returned to France in 1840; in 1845 was nominated 
Commander, and in 1855 Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor. 

Ingres died in January, 1867, leaving behind him, in addition to the masterpieces wo have men- 
tioned, several great works, including the Odalesque, which appeared in 1819 ; the Martyrdom of St. 
Symphorien ; Christ Delivering the Keys to St. Peter; Roger Rescuing Angelique; Stratonice; (Edipus Ex- 
plaining the lUdelle of the Sphinx; and La Source, the picture which attracted such universal admiration 
in the London Exhibition of 1862. 

TEBNET (EMILE JEAN HORACE), the son of Carle Vemet, was born in the Louvre, where his 
father had apartments, in 1789. His first teacher was his father, the second was M. Vincent. When 
quite a child he drew a good deal, and it is said that his first successful essay was the decoration 
of a banting card for the emperor; even in boyhood he sold whatever works he could execute, portraits, 






38 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

vignettes, and the like ; at thirteen he was able to support himself. He continued painting with assiduity, 
but gave a good deal of his time to drawing for the "Journal des Modes;" he failed to win the grand 
prix, which enables a student to go to Rome, and it was not likely he would succeed in a school which 
was administered by the admirers of David ; he married Mdlle. Louise de Pujol, before either party 
was of age. Vernet served in the .army for a time, and thus not only signalized his military spirit, 
but obtained practical knowledge of regimental details and training, which was of inestimable use to 
him in producing those intensely vigorous battle-pieces which have, aptly enough, been called " stupendous," 
and of which every private soldier is a competent critic. 

As may be imagined, from the tremendous amount of painting executed by this artist, during 
a life which was not remarkably long, he was an industrious man, laboring with indefatigable energy 
and assiduity ; and, above all, his executive power approached the marvellous by its rapidity, its precision, 
its comprehensiveness, its tact, its vigor. He is said to have reckoned his portraits by more than one 
hundred, his drawings by more than fifteen hundred, his pictures, some of which are of large sizes, by 
four hundred at least. He obtained a medal of the first class for historical paintmg in 1812. In 1814. 
he enlisted in a regiment of hussars with O^ricault, and distinguished himself in the defence of Paris, at 
the Barrier of Clichy. Napoleon I. decorated him with his own hand, in acknowledgment of liis services. 
Tlie enthusiasm of Vernet, the Han with which he threw himself into the course he had advocated, 
may be judged from the fact that, after the downfall of Napoleon, he occupied himself in producing 
satires and caricatures of the invaders, which wore lithographed and disseminated throughout France. 
It is said that the directors of the Salon of 1822 excluded Vernet's pictures; but this is, no doubt, 
a mistake, if we are to understand that these gentlemen acted in this manner from political reasons. 
At any rate, Vernet opened a private exhibition for his pictures, and attracted crowds to see them. These 
works comprised a Portrait of Napoleon, draped in black, and representations of the Defence of the Barrier 
of Clichy, the Battle of Oenappe, etc. 

Vernet's popularity at this time was great ; his exertions were indomitable and illimitable ; he 
became a person of considerable political importance, to whom it is said to have been worth Charles the 
Tenth's while to bo civil. The king was unsuccessful in converting the artist to his side, for the latter 
continued to paint the victories of Napoleon while he lived under the reign of his successor and enemy. 
Everyone knows those tremendous battle-pieces, each of which exalts the star of Buonaparte, and dis- 
plays the military glory of the French nation. There are acres of these intensely energetic pictures with 
thousands of figures bleeding or shedding blood ; they are marvels of elan, fountains of fierce, warlike spirit. 
the pictorial apotheoses of sanguinary heroism. The Farewell ai Fotitainebleau has made some of Napoleon's 
enemies sigh ; at one time there was no picture so popular in England as this one, and it is still 
admired for its pathos, not as a record of a great national triumph. This, and the contracted Batile 
of Montmirail, now in the collection of Sir R. Wallace, an intensely dramatic work, and the admirable 
Battle of Fontenoy, are, we think, Vernet's best productions. 

If wc are to take a man and judge him according to the standard which he has endeavored to 
attain, honoring him if he is successful, without taking the height of that standard into question, then 
Horace Vernet was a very great painter indeed ; but, as we cannot quite do so, we are compelled to 
declare, in addition to what we have said before, that he seems to have been a very successful artist, of 
prodigiously brilliant qualities, and possessed of amazing skill. 

In 1826, Vernet was elected a member of the Institute, a fact which does not affirm the reported 
antagonism of Charles the Tenth ; still less does it show that that not very brilliant monarch dreaded the 



LilOPOLD ROBERT. 39 

indomitable Horace. In 1828, the painter was appointed Director of the French Academy in Rome, where 
he remainetl till 1835. lu 1830 he resigned this post, and actually proposed to Louis-Philippe the sup- 
pression of the Academy which he had directed. The friends of Vernet relate these events with a sort 
of awe, giving a notion that Paris was convulsed when the news came that Vernet had resigned. He 
recalled bis resignation, and remained till 1835, when he was succeeded by Ingres, a much fitter man 
or sacb a post. On his return, the Citizen King employed Vernet to paint those interminable pictures 
of the campaigns in Africa, which exhaust the hunxan mind in the galleries at Versailles ; he also painted 
subjects of the war in Belgium. He labored six years on these things, and accomplished a wonderful 
amount of work in the time. In 1839 he went to the East, afterwards he went to Russia, and repeated 
this visit twice — once at the siege of Sebastopol. He painted more and ever more battle-pieces, portraits, 
and interiors. In 1845 he lost his daughter, who had married Paul Delaroche, and in 1855 his wife 
died; he married again in 1858, but a long and painful illness * prostrated the vigorous and energetic 
designer, who concluded the battle of life January 17, 1863.* 

DBOLUNO (MICHAEL MARTIN), was born at Paris in 1786; he was the son of Martin Drolling, 
several of whose pictures are in the Louvre. Young Drolling entered the school of David and soon dis- 
tinguished himself. In 1811 he won the Grand Prize of the Salon by his picture. The Wrcdh of Achilles. 
In later years he established a school of painting in Paris, and is distinguished by having instructed many 
eminent painters. His best known works are The Death of Abel, The Conversion of St. Paul, and Orpheiis 
and Eurydice. He died at Paris, 1851. 

PICOT -FRANCIS EDWARD;, was born at Paris 1786; studied under M. Vincent, won the second 
prize of the Salon, 1811, and the prize of Rome, 1819, by his picture, The Death of Sapphira. Like 
Drolling and Cognet, he was a successful instructor of his art, and numbers among his scholars many dis- 
tingnished names. His best known works are The Delivery of St. Peter, Raphael and the Pomarina and 
l%e Duke of Orleam and Family — the latter in the Palais Royal. He was decorated Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour, 1832. He died 1868. 

Dl'BUFE (CLAUDE MARIE\ was bom in Paris in 1793, and took his first lessons in art in the 

studio of the great classic master, David. His earliest independent works were historical, and included 
the well-known Roman Family Dying of Famine, and Achilles Taking Iphigenia under his Protection. 
They were succeeded by Christ Stilling the Tempest: Apollo and Cyparissus; the Birth of the Duke of 
Bordeaux; Christ Walking on the Sea of Galilee, • The Deliverance of St. Peter, which attracted so much 
attention as to induce the French government to confide to their gifted author the decoration of the 
Brst saloon of the state council chamber. Tlie pictures painted for this purpose were symbolical rather 
than historical, and reprcsentetl Egj-pt, Greece, Italy and France. In 1827 Dubufe changed his style 
and class of subjects; his Remembrances, Regrets, the Nest, the Slave Merchant, taking high rank as 
genre pictures. His portraits, especially thof>e of the Queen of the Belgians, the Duchess of Istria, and 
Mdlle. Vernon as Fenella, are also greatly admired. Dubufe died in April, 1864. 

ROBERT 'LEOPOLD^ was born in Swltzeriand in 1794. At first an engraver, then a pupil 
of David and Gerard at Paris, whilst Gc^ricault was studying under Pierre Gudrin, he went very late to 

' Th* b«t aeeonnt of the lifa of Iloracn VernH in thai from whirh wo have borrowe>l materials for the above sketch This 
biography wm piihli«h«4 in "The Fine Art* Quarterly Review," No. Ill,, 1861; it i< Mgned " M. C. If." To the same souice we are much 
ind«ht«4 for the momoir of Delarorhe 8c« No IV. of the Fame review. 



40 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

Italy to become an original painter, and almost immediately after gave up art by a voluntary and 
premature death. In Italy he returned to the tradition of historical landscape — ^scenes of history mixed 
with the scenes of nature. His subjects varied, are chosen intelligently, and carefully studied even in 
their slightest detail, and are full of poetry. We always feel in them his love of the beautiful as 
well as of the true ; and the country round Rome, as he represents it, becomes as noble as ancient 
Arcadia. Three of his most important works were presented to the Louvre by King Louis-Philippe — 
the Italian Improvisatore, the Feast of the Madonna di Pie-di-grotta, and the Harvest Feast in the Roman 
Oampagna. This Agro Romano, where the handsome mountaineers have come down for the harvest, 
with their pifferari, as they had come down for the sowing, flying off again to escape the attacks of 
malaria — this Agro Romano, which has been popularised by the fine engraving of Mercuri, contains a 
complete summary of the merits of its author. It is a pity that to these three magnificent pictures, 
full of sunshine and joy, the Louvre has not been able to add one which the painter has, on the con- 
trary, covered with a veil of melancholy, the Departure of Fishing Boats in the Adriatic, in which L6o- 
pold Robert seems to foretell a departure without a return, and which he completed at Venice just 
before he ended his own life in the year 1835. 

COGNIET (LEON), was born at Paris, August 29th, 1794. A pupil of Gu6rin. won the Prire 
of Rome in 1817 by his picture, Helen delivered by Castor and Pollux. His best known pictures 
are Marius amid the Rains of Carthage, Tlie Massacre of the Innocents, and Tintoretto pcuniing his 
Daughter's Portrait from Iter Corpse. 

Cognict was decorated Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 1823 ; Grand OflScer, 1846, and was 
elected Member of the Institute, 1855. His fame, however, will rest most securely on the fact of his 
successful school, from which he can count such illustrious names as Miiissonier, Jules Lefebvre, Hugo 
Merle, Charles L. MuUer, Tony Robert- Fleury, and a host of others. 

SCHEFFER (ARY), who was born at Dordrecht, of French parents, in 1795, had the misfortune 

when quite young to lose his father, who had, however, given him an elementary education in art. 
His widowed mother took him, in 1811, to Paris, and apprenticed him to Pierre Gu^rin, from whom 
he learned his art, though he acquired but little of that master's style. He died at Argenteuil, near 
Paris, in 1858. 

Ary SchefFer might complain with justice of having nothing in the Louvre but works painted 
during his youth, the Famines Souliotes, and the Larmoyeur ; however distinguished these works may be, 
they cannot compare with the works of a riper age. Tliey are far from equalling the FVanoesca di 
Rimini, in the possession of the Due d'Aumale — his Oaston de Foix Found Dead, now in the Gkillery 
at Versailles — or the four subjects taken from Gbethe's Famt; and certainly they give no indications 
of what might be expected in the Christ the Comforter, the 8t. Monica, and the Temptation of Christ, 
in all of which, leaving dogma for morality, and reconciling sacred history with the ideas of his own 
century, Ary Scheffer endeavored to found a fresh school of religious philosophy. 

COROT (JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE), one of the best of modern French landscape painters, was 
born at Paris, in 1796. He was apprenticed to a draper, but young Corot was determined to be a 
painter, and, in spite of all that his parents did to dissuade him, entered, in 1822. the studio of 
Michallon. When that artist died, Corot studied for a time under Victor Bertin ; but, quitting that 
master, he went to Italy, where, during a stay of several years, he applied himself diligently to study 



JEAN BAPTIST CAMILLE CO ROT. 41 

landscape painting from nature. In 1827 appeared Corot's first works, a View of Nami, and the Cam- 
pagjut of Rome; in the Paris Exhibition of 1855, he exhibited Morning Effect and Evening, and in the 
same year received a first-class medal; in the London Exhibition of 1862, he was one cf the artists 
who represented the French school; and again in 1871, in which year he exhibited no less than twenty- 
one pictures. He was also a frequent exhibitor in the French GkiUery, Pall Mall. He died in 1875. 
" Corot was a poet, and his canvases are the expression of ideas, refined almost to sentimentality, full of 
£euicy and imagination, yet, still somewhat late in life, wanting in that delicacy of execution which seema 
almost essential to the appropriatene33 of his subjects — moonlight scenes, peaceful sunsets, and cool, gray 
\aorDings." We illustrate his picture of Evening referred to above. 

R^ne Menard says of Corot: "Of late, no painter has been so much exalted by criticism; he was 
not even reproached with the uniformity of his pictures, nor with the calculated absence of colored tones 
and rigid forms. Everybody knows that mythology is now banished from our landscapes, and that it is 
the fashion to laugh at the nymphs whose cadenced steps had so much charm for our fathers ; still it is 
one of the not infrequent inconsistencies of French criticism that it does not hesitate to praise, in 
Corot, a choice of subjects that it condemns in theory. It is true that his nymphs add no great 
valae to his pictures, but they are placed with so much judgment that it is impossible to realize his 
landscapes without them. However, he sometimes sought to render nature without alteration : for instance, 
in his Vue» de VUle-d Avray et des Environs de Paris : but, like all true artists, Corot assimilates all he 
sees to his inward dream, and the varied effects of nature uniformly appear to him under the same poeti- 
cal vision. Had he been painting in Egypt by the Pyramids, he would have found there his silvery 
tones and his mysterious bowers. Whether he works out of mythology some graceful tale, or whether 
he renders, in a manner that he intends to be positive, some particular and familiar scene, Corot 
always leaves in his work a poetical perfrime, which is his personality, and is as good as a signature. 
.... Corot is par excellence the painter of morning. He can render with more felicity than anybody 
else the silvery light on dewy fields, the vague foliage of trees mirrored in calm water. He was not 
fond of the noonday light, and it was always in the earliest morning that he went out to paint from 
nature. He has himself described his artistic impressions in letters which foreshadow his pictures, and 
we cannot end this article better than by giving one extract out of them : ' A landscape painter's 
day is delightful. He gets up early, at three in the morning, before sunrise ; he goes to sit under 
a tree, and watches and waits. There is not much to be seen at first. Nature is like a white veil, 
upon which some masses are vaguely sketched in profile. Everything smells sweet, everything trembles 
nnder the freshening breeze of the dawn. Bingl^ The sun gets clearer; he has not yet torn the veil 
of gauze behind which hide the meadow, the valley, the hills on the horizon. The nocturnal vapors 
■till hang like silvery tufts upon the cold green grass. Ring! Ring! The first ray of the sun . . » . 
another ray. The small flowerets seem to awake joyously; each of them has its trembling drop of deW. 
The chilly leaves are moved by the morning air. One sees nothing: everything is there. The landscape 
lies entirely behind the transparent gauze of the ascending mist, gradually sucked by the sun, and permits 
as to see, as it ascends, the silver-striped river, the meadows, the cottages, the far-receding distance. At 
last yon can see what you imagined at first. Ram! The sun has risen. Rami The peasant passes at 
the bottom of the field, with his cart and oxen. Ding! Ring! It is the bell of the ram which leads 
the flock. Bam! Everything sparkles, shines; everything is in lull light, light soft and caressing as yet 

»Wi pnMnr* Corofi iiit«j«ctioM, Bing! But! Ding! Bonm! where it pleased him to ineert tiiem. They mean nothing, except 
dbal tktr* ii a dtaaga ia the character of the Mm*, which he ehooM* to mark in thie wajr. 



42 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

The backgroundp with their simple contour and hartnoniouB tone are lost in the infinite sky, through 
an atmosphere of azure and mist. The flowers lift up their heads ; the birds fly here and there. A rustic, 
mounted on a white horse, disappears in the narrowing path. The rounded willows seem to turn like 
wheels on the river edge. And the artist paints away .... paints away. Ah ! the beautiful bay cow, 
chest-deep in the wet grasses; I will paint her. Cracf there she is I Famous! Capital! What a good 
likeness she is! Bourn! Bourn f The sun scorches the earth. Bourn! All becomes heavy and grave. 
The flowers hang down their heads, the birds are silent, the noises of the village reach us. These are the 
heavy works; the blacksmith whose hammer sounds on the anvil. Bourn! Let us go back. All is 
visible, there is no longer anything. Let us get some breakfast at the farm. A good slice of home-made 
bread, with butter newly churned ; some eggs, cream, and ham ! Bourn ! Work away, my friends ; I rest 
myself. I enjoy my siesta, and dream about my morning landscape. I dream my picture, later I 
shall paint my dream.' Is not this Corot himself?" 

DELAROCHE (PJlTJL), was born in Paris, July 16, 1797; his real name was Hippolyte, that 
of Paul being a pet name. His uncle was Keeper of the Prints in the Biblioth6que and deeply 
learned in art, his father was an able connoisseur. Delaroche's first master was Watelet, the landscape 
painter, his second insti-uctor Gros, under whom he made rapid progress, exhibiting in 1822 a Detceni 
from the Cross, and Je/ioshcba kxving Joash, the former is in the chapel of the Palais Royal, Paris. 
He continued in successive years to advance from the somewhat cold manner of the above-named 
works to the development which was marked by Fdippo lAppi and Lucrezia Buti, 1824. In 1827 
he produced the Death of President Duranii, which was burnt by the Communists, we believe, with 
the building of the Consoil d'Etat, Paris. It was ii fine work, well worthy of the painter, and 
marked by energy of design which was not the less admirable because under the restraint of good 
taste. He was the antithesis of Horace Vcrnet, and wa3 a most laborious painter. Ho was admitted 
to the Institute in 1833. In this year he was commissioned to paint the whole of the interior of 
the Madeleine, and went to Italy in order to prepare for this tremendous task ; bat two years after- 
wards ha learnt that part of this gigantic trust had been withdrawn from him, so he returned home 
immediately, repaid the 1,000/. he had received for prefatory studies, and declined to paint as he 
had been appointed to do. This was a most honorable exercise of a noble spirit, for Delaroche was 
anything but a rich man, and had not long before married H. Vemet's daughter. In 1836 he 
exhibited his Charles I. insulted by the Soldiers, and Strafford going to Execution, two highly popular 
works, and" both well known in this country; the St. C3cilia came next, then, in 1841, the Hemicycle, 
before named, — -this was the last picture he exhibited. Wounded by what he considered an unjust 
criticism, he determined to exhibit no more, and kept his word. In 1841 he produced Charlenuigne 
crossing the Alps, now in the Museum at Versailles. After this he painted Napoleon in his Cabinet, 
Pilgrims in the Piazza di S. Pietro, Rome. In 1848 he went to Rome again. He produced about this 
time Napoleon at Fontainebleau, and some pictures of minor importance. In 1845 his wife's health declined, 
and she died at the end of the year. From this time Delaroche. always of a retiring disposition, 
lived more secluded than ever, but he did not cease to work ; the events of 1848 disturbed him 
greatly, and he conceived the idea of going to Russia or America, but his friends dissuaded him from 
putting this sufficiently unfortunate idea into execution. The picture called the Oirondins was his chief 
work after this period ; it is well known by engravings. He produced several more examples, «dl of them 
marked by despondent choice of subject and a mournfiil mode of design : e. g. the Young Martyr, the 



F. V. E. DELACROIX. 43 

anfinished series of pictures associated with the Passion of Christ, of which The Virrjin contemplating the 
Crown of Thorns, was a member, and the last picture Delaroche worked on. He died of a liver complaint, 
after great suflFering, November 4, 1856. 

DELACROIX (F T. E.), was born in 1799, near Paris, his father was a performer in the great 
drama of the Revolution, a member of the Convention who distinguished himself in the " Thermidor," 
a minister of foreign aflfairs, ambassador to Holland, and prefect. Delacroix entered the arts under the 
direction of Gu^rin, and had for his companions the famous painters whose names we have already 
mentioned. He obtained little beyond opportunities of study while he was under the charge of the 
classical master in painting, for he was from the first a rebel, and refused to accept the traditions 
of art which were in' those days offered to students. The appearance in 1822 of Delacroix's first 
picture, Dant£ and J^rgil, was to the then reigning school like an alarm of fire to the inhabitants of a 
cathedral city, who are conscious that the engines are out of order, and suspect the supply of watgr will 
be tardy in arriving, and insufficient in quantity. This portent, was, however, not wholly unexpected, 
dismal rumors that the son was as ardent a revolutionist as his father had been, had moved the 
heart* of many accomplished Academicians. It is not too much to say that the picture violated all 
the conventions of the day ; in fact, it exceeded even more widely on one side than the classicists had 
overstepped on the other. It became the subject of hot controversy, and the disputes which it provolved 
were not allayed by the appearance in the following year of ITie Massacre at /Scio, which, like the Dante 
and Virgil, is now in the Louvre, and testifies to the intensely energetic turn of the artist's genius, and 
his ancompromising vigor of painting ; it also proves that vigor may become violence, and genius grow 
extravagant. So it appears to us of these days ; but the spectacle must have been an astounding one to 
the classicists of those times. Delacroix's name became, on the other hand, a battle-cry for all who 
desired freedom in design, and were determined to throw off what they not unreasonably considered 
shackles of convention. Delacroix had the young men on his side, and therefore victory was assured 
to him in course of time. It would be difficult to give an idea of the fierceness with which the contest 
was carried on, — the attacks, more frequently abusive than reasonable, and seldom temperate, which were 
made on the Pre-Raphaelites in 1848-50, were ignoble in comparison ; besides, the war in the latter case 
was conducted by one party only. In the former, two large hosts joined issue, and as the prize was felt 
to be nothing less than the leadership of art in Europe during at least a generation, the contest was waged 
with corresponding spirit. Time was, as we have said, in favor of the rebels, not only in removing 
their antagonists from the scene, but by moderating the tone of their new leader. Ultimately, some- 
thing like a compromise took place, and both sides lowered their pretensions. 

Meanwhile, Delacroix produced a considerable number of large and pretending works, such as 
J£g>kuiophile8 appearing to Faust, Justinian, Oomhat of the Oiaour and the Pasha, from Byron, a poet 
whom, as might be anticipated, the artist greatly admired. Between these men of genius there was 
much in common. Also, the political picture. La Liberte guidant le Peuple sur les Barricades. Of 
coarse this work appeared after 1830. A government mission to Morocco gave Delacroix an oppor- 
tunity for finding a new field of art; he accordingly produced Les Femmes d Alger, a fine and richly 
painted work, which has, however, been much overpraised. His next important labor was in decorating 
the walls of the Palaia du Corps L^^gislatif with large symbolical pictures. On these tasks he spent 
three years, until 1837. The applause which attended the completion of these works was great, and 
eqtial to their merits. Delacroix from this time was largely engaged in similar commissions, which 



44 A COMPLETE HIS TO BY OF FRENCH ART. 

received unbounded admiration. He produced many smaller pictures, one of the moat famous of which 
represents the murder of the Bishop of Li6ge, as described in Scott's " Quentin Durward." He died 
in 1863. 

BELLANGE (JOSEPH LOUIS HIPPOLTTE), was born in Paris, in 1800, and took his earliest 
lessons in art from Qros, acquiring some reputation for his lithographic drawings of military figures 
when scarcely more than a boy. In 1824 Bellang6 won a second-class medal for an historical picture ; 
in 1834, he was made a member of the Legion of Honour ; in 1855, he obtained one of the prizes 
of the French International Exhibition ; and in 1861 was created an oflScer of the Legion of Honour. 
He is chiefly known in England by two pictures sent to the International Exhibition of 1862 : the 
Two Friends, belonging to the Duke of Hamilton, a small but highly finished work, and A Square 
of Republican Infantry repulsing Au^strian Dragoons, 1795. His most important pictures, however, axe 
to be seen in the Collections at Versailles, and include his Bailie of the Alma, Painfvd Adieux, the 
Departure from the Cantonment, the Cuirassiers at Waterloo, the Battle of Fleurus, the Return from Elba, 
the Morning after the Battle of Oemappes, the DeJUe after the Victory. This popular painter of battle- 
scenes died in May, 1865. 

MILLET (JEAN FRANCOIS), was born at Qreville. near Cherbourg, in 1815. As his parents 
were but peasants, and unable to afford to give their son an art education — which bis early-displayed 
talent showed would not be thrown away upon hira — the authorities of Greville furnished him with 
the means of going to Paris, and entering the studio of Paul Delaroche. But young Millet showed 
neither taste nor aptitude for historic painting, and accordingly, after a short sojourn with Delaroche, 
he left that master and sought instruction from nature alone. He married, and settled at Barbizon 
near the Forest of Fontainebleau, and there from the fields and woods, and from the peasants he 
took the subjects of his works. His first exhibited picture, the Milkwoman, appeared at the Paris 
Salon in 1844; to the Paris Exhibition of 1855 he sent his Peasant grafting a Tree: in the London 
Exhibition of 1862 appeared a Rustic Scene; and in the Paris Exhibition of 1867, no less than nine 
pictures of rustic life. The Flax Crushers, one of his best pictures, was exhibited in the French Gallery, 
Pall Mall, in 1874. In 1870 he sent works to the Salons for the last time : November and A Woman 
churning Buffer. In the Luxembourg are, The Church at Qreville (for which 12,200 francs was paid after 
Millet's death), The Bathers, and a number of designs or studies in pencil, crayon, and pen drawing. 
Among his works we would also mention, A Bit of the Village of Qreville, sold at the Faure sale in 1873 
for 20,300 francs ; A Woman with a Lamp at the Laurent- Richard sale, 38,500 francs ; The Evening 
Angelas, The Potato- Oaf hering, The Motlver cradling her Child, etc. In the Harvest of Beans, Millet 
introduced the portrait of his mother, and the cottage in which he was bom. This artist executed only 
about eighty pictures. When we consider that he painted thirty-one years this is not a large number. 
He gave much thought to his subjects ; he retained his canvases in his studio, and returned to them from 
time to time, in order to give to them exactly the sentiment he wished them to express, Millet wjis in 
one way extremely remarkable, we might almost say unique ; he never painted from A model. What 
acuteness of observation was required in order to reproduce from memory, as he did, not only the charac- 
teristics of attitude and aspect in his figures, but the details of his landscapes ! He left, besides his pic- 
tures, numerous designs and studies in different modes of execution. After his death all that were in his 
studio (many unfinished) were sold at the Hotel Drouot ; they numbered fifty-sii, and brought 321,034 
francs. M. Gkvet had a collection of designs by Millet, numbering ninety-five, which were also sold at 



JEAN LOUIS HAM ON. ^ 

the Hotel Drouot, a short time after the sale above mentioned. Previously, however, M. Gavet had generously 
placed half his collection on exhibition for one month, for the benefit of the family of the artist. The sale 
brought 431,050 francs; there were not more than twenty purchasers, and but one who was not 
French. Millet had also executed quite a number of etchings and a few wood-engravings. The fol- 
lowiag plates have been made by others from his works : The Angdus, engraved by Waltner ; Death and 
the Wood-OuUer, CEHipus, and the Harvest of Beans, by Edmond Hedouin. The Rudic Labors and 
la qucUre heurea du jour (fourteen pieces) have been copied in wood-cuts by Adrien Lavielle. 

Edwin About Bays : " The late M. Millet, besides being a landscape-painter, was a great figure- 
painter. In the opinion of many, and those not the admirers of the newest phase of French art, 
the Courbet-Manet-Corot school, he was the first French painter of his time. Certainly the French 
school has never produced an artist with such thorough devotion to nature, or who has so trutlifully 
rendered scenes and emotions of natural life. His works have nothing theatrical or cynical about 
them. To an Englishman they are suggestive of the poetry and sentiment of Burns, and the sympa- 
thetic feeling for nature of Wordsworth. He had the art of introducing into pictures of modern 
French pastoral life, while retaining the truthfulness of nature, all the elevated qualities of tlie best 
artistic culture to be found in the works of the great masters. Those who remember the Angelua 
du Soir, in the Exposition of 1867, well know this is no exaggeration. The picture represents a 
coaple of peasants, man and woman, who, while at work in the field, hear the bell of the distant 
charch tolling the Angeliu. They stop work, reverently bowing their heads in silent prayer. For 
expression of devotion equally genuine we must go back to the works of the early Italian masters. 

" Many of your readers who delighted in Millet's works will probably be interested in hearing 
of some of the pictures he was last engaged on, but of which few, alas, we may hope, were quite 
completed. For he kept his works long in the studio, always endeavoring to make them as perfect as 
possible, not only in their execution but in their sentiment. I remember his showing me a picture 
of a village church of Normandy, the one in which he was christened. On my speaking of it as 
completed, ' No,* he said, ' there is an impression of this scene as it struck my imagination when a 
child which I have not succeeded in rendering, but which I hope to get some day.' 

" Barbizon is one of those French villages we know so well, a long street of cottages and 
small farm-houses, with their picturesque bassecours. At the top of the village, approaching the forest 
of Fontainebleau, is a range of modest buildings, one of which has a large window. This is the 
residence and stodio of Millet. One day last autumn, being at Barbizon, I sent my card to M. Millet, 
and asked permission to see any work he might have finished. He very kindly acceded to my request, 
and led the way along a shaded alley to his studio. His appearance was decidedly more provincial 
than Parisian. He wore a straw hat, loose shooting-coat, and sabots. His manner was especially courteous 
and genial, though very quiet. He gave me the impression of being nearer fifty than sixty years 
of age." 

Millet died at Barbizon 1875, 

HAION (JEAN LOUIS) was bom at Plouha, Cotes-du-Nord, in 1821, and was educated for the 
priesthood. His love of art, however, led him to renounce the sacred profession ; and having obtained a 
grant of five hundred francs from his native place, he made his way to Paris, and began the study of 
painting under Paul Delaroche and M. Gleyre. In 1848 appeared his first pictures, one a genre subject 
cail«d Le Danu de Parle, and the other a sacred work. Christ's Tomb, succeeded a little later by y 



46 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

Roman placard, the Seraglio, and other similar productions which scarcely met with the recognition they 
deserved. Compelled to earn his daily bread, Hamon now for a time gave up easel painting, and accepted 
employment in the Sevres manufactory, where ho succeeded so well, that in 1852 he was able to resume 
oil-painting — producing, in the same yeur his Comedie Hamaine which made his reputation. The most 
noteworthy of his later work-j are Ma sceur ny est pas; Ce nest pas moi; Les Orphelins; L' amour de 
son Troupeau. In 1856 Hamoii went to the East, and most of the pictures subsequently painted are on 
Oriental subjects. He resided some years at Capri, but returned to France shortly before his death, which 
took place at St. Raphael, in the department of the Var, in 1874. 

REGNAULT (ALEXANDRE-GEORGES-HENRI), was born at Paris in 1847, and was the pupil of 
MM. Lamothe and Cabanel. In 1866 Regnault won the prize of Rome, and in 1869 a gold medal. In 
the succeeding years he attracted much notice by his /Still Life, his portrait of General Prim, and An 
Execution at the Alhamhra, all exhibited at the Gallery of the Society of French Artists in New Bond 
Street, and Salome la danseiise, exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1870, in which the first art critics 
of the day recognised an originality of design, and force of execution, likely to entitle their possessor 
to the highest rank amongst contemporary painters; but the terrible war of 1870-1, which frustrated 
so many hopes, and cut short so many careers, broke out just as Regnault was attaining to celebrity. 
The news of the declaration of hostilities reached him when he was studying at Tangier, and leaving 
his unfinished work upon his easel, he returned to France, took service as a national guard, and waa 
killed in the sortie from Paris. He was only twenty-four years old. 

Paul Mantz closes his account of Regnault thus: "It will soon be a year since these fatal things 
occurred ; but the remembrance of Regnault remains .as fresh as on the day of his death, and yesterday, 
when at the exhibition of the works of the pensioners at Rome, we saw in the place where his contri- 
bution for the fourth year should have been, an easel draped in black and decorated with green 
boughs, each one felt an oppression of the heart at this spectacle, which told too well of human injus- 
tice, and of the cruelty of the times. Regnault, crowned already with a precocious glory, was scarcely 
at the first chapter of his book ; his art was young, like his soul : he knew little of painful experiences, 
and in the constant holiday of his life could not yet understand them. He would without doubt have 
advanced in the sentiment of manner, as in that of the drama. But the dream is ended : the pre- 
sent and the future, both have perished together. There remains to us only his work, which is but a 
radiant beginning, and the example of his death, which plainly shows that the culture of art extin- 
guishes not the religion of patriotism in the soul. Let us guard faithfully the memory of the artist 
and the citizen, and on this tomb, where so many hopes are buried, let us read, with our regrets for 
the departed master, our hatred for those who killed him." — Qazette des Beaux-Arts, January, 1872. 

DECAMPS (ALEXANDRE GABRIEL\ who was born in Paris, March 3, 1803, was one of the 

greatest of European artists, a man whose pictures, taking them as a whole, justify us in placing him at 
the head of the French school. He received his first instructions in art from M. Bouchet, but se- 
condly from Abel de Pujol, and afterwards, it is supposed, from David and Ingres. His works confirm 
the report that Decamps obtained but a small share of advantage from his studies under either of these 
artists. "The Athenaeum," No. 1,714, September, 1860, gave the following account of this painter, which, 
as it summarizes the whole of the subject now before us, we cannot do better than repeat. " French 
art has recently lost one of its greatest and most characteristic ornaments by the decease of M. Alex- 
dre Gabriel Decamps. There was something so peculiarly French about his works that the least experi- 



ALEXANDRE GABRIEL DECAMPS. 47 

enced critic would at once designate them as the productions of one of that nation. Bold, picturesque, 
impressive, by vigorous dealing with the qualities of light and shade and tone, and exhibiting extraordi- 
nary dramatic power of conception, they take the fancy and feelings of the spectator in a manner which 
is quite indescribable. When you look into very many of these, tliere seems to be nothing more than an 
active fancy could shape when brooding over some time-stained wall, or vision in the household fire. 
We feel the spirit of the designer impressed on us at once as that of a man to whom eflPect and 
light and shade have the same poetic tissociations as those to which music links itself in most minds. 
Yet, again, their dramatic spirit is marvellous, and whether dealing with the passage of a line of Arabs 
across a ford after sundown, or the grim line of the dead that are chained against the wall in his 
Tour de Bordeaux, the end achieved is the same, and the tale is impressively related ; and the long, dark 
lances held on high tell as picturesquely and suggestively in the one, as does the unsteady glimmer of the 
lamp-flame that does but reveal ghastly corpses propped against the dungeon wall in the other. With 
these remarkable faculties of design, he united the even rarer quality of superb and deep colouring, and 
vigorous, unconventional drawing in his pictures. The best known among these is the famous Defeat of 
the Cimbri, a work which realized to the utmost the ideas of a desperate and savage fight of vast masses 
of men, disciplined against undisciplined. All who have seen this extraordinary work speak in terms of 
admiration of the impressive character of the background, a part of a picture which is sure to display the 
art-tone of the painter. Among the most frequent subjects of his choice were French and Algerian domes- 
tic themes, in which be showed rare feeling for what we can find no better name than picturesque hu- 
mour in the highest sense. In 1829 he travelled in the East, and produced as the result several pic- 
tures of Cairene and Constantinopolitan life. His monkey studies, wherein are seen monkeys with a 
perfectly fascinating grotesque resemblance to the human countenance on their faces, are famous in France. 
They mostly represent apes going through various critical or artistic operations and manoeuvres. Some 
of the most celebrated of his productions comprise the series of nine illustrations of the life of Samson, 
astonishingly vigorous works, executed in charcoal hoiglitened with white. Besides these, his Watch-guard 
at Smyrna, Turki/t/i Guard Room, and 7%« Siege of Clermont are the best. Decamps was born in Paris, 
and lived a gf)0<l deal in the environs thereof, and was fond of dogs and field sports. It is related 
of him, that he was in the habit of modelling little wax figures to suit the designs ho had in hand, 
and having dressed them, to employ them as models for use in his pictures. An immense number 
of his sketches and pictures are known in England through the lithographic drawings of Eugene 
Le Roux." 

The manner of Decamps' death illustrates what is said above respecting his fondness for field 
sports. He was hunting in the forest of Fontainebleau and riding a vicious horse, which, in spite of 
remonstrances, he mounted ; the beast took fright at something in the road and ran away with his 
rider, ultimately falling against a tree and "crushing the artist's head and entire body. He fell, and 
was crawling painfully along the road, furrowing it with his nails in agony, when two Enghshmen came 
up, and were the first to assist poor Decamps, who was brought back in a dying state."' 

The richest display of the genius and labours of Decamps took place at- the Paris Exposition, 
1855, when not fewer than forty-four paintings (Nos. 2855-99) were brought together. The effect of 
this collection on the minds of students was prodigious. It will be seen by means of the above 
account of his works that by the hands of Decamps an entirely new quality had been produced, or 
rather a fusion of noble qualities had been effected of the riches of French art; no one, before his 

» -The Athemram," No 1717. Sept. 22. 1860. p. 391. 



48 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

time, had achieved any thing like a great measure of success in regard to chiaroscuro, no one has surpassed 
and few have approached him in colour, as few have reached his standard in respect to tone, none have 
excelled him in dramatic force of conception, in vigorously designing his subjects. His honour remains 
unabated in France, and gathers more and more admiration as the world grows in knowledge of art. 

TROYON (CONSTANT) was born at Sevres, August 25, 1810. He had the advantage of re- 
ceiving the instruction of Riocreux ; and, what was better than all, devoted himself to the study of nature 
in many districts of France, especially those which afforded subjects suited to his taste, and displayed 
wide meadows, deep, bright, full streams, fringed by lines of willows, and, in the distance, gently rising 
uplands, over the surface of which cloud-shadows pass swiftly ; where cows loiter in the sun-flecked vistas 
of woodland sward, and in narrow lanes that are traversed by rivulets, which were Troyon's best-furnished 
studios. With his love for such materials, it is not wonderful that he made an excursion into the coun- 
try of Cuyp, and profited by studying nature in the same phase, and with similar forms to those which 
she presented to our subject's antitype. In comparing Troyon with Cuyp, which is simply inevitable, 
it should be added to the above criticism, that the former painted with more solidity, more firmness, 
and greater precision than the latter ; his cattle are examples of this, and the facta go far to com- 
pensate for the relative inferiority of nis colouring. On the other hand. Cuyp is a colourist of high 
degree, even his minor studies and sketches prove this ; for example, in Mr. John Henderson's collec- 
tion is a little study of two dun red cows reclining in a meadow, with a deep green-tinted hillside 
rising behind them ; a noble piece of colouring is thus produced, one which is perfectly sober and 
broad, and as rich as possible. His greater pictures, to which we have already referred, are only 
better in degree than the less famous specimens of the skill of this long-neglected painter. 

If any other teacher than nature instructed Troyon to think in the manner of Cuyp, it was 
the Englishman Constable, some of whose pictures were in France at a comparatively early period of 
his career, where they produced a great effect when exhibited at Paris. We find Constable writing 
in his letters with great interest and evident satisfaction at the applause his works obtained in France ; 
he would be still more delighted if he could now see in every Salon proofs of the value of the les- 
sons French landscape painters have derived from him. One phase of the French school of landscape, 
and this is second to none, owes its existence to Constable ; it must be admitted, however, that the 
teachings of the English painter have been received by most capable pupils with corresponding profit. 

Troyon's first picture at the Salon was styled La Maison Colas a Sevres; this appeared in 1833, 
when the artist was twenty-three years of age. At the same period he produced La Fete de Sevres, and 
Un Coin du Pare de St.-Cloxid. He produced many pictures, deriving their subjects from the environs 
of Paris, and he was thus shown to be studying in the locality. M. Daubigny has adopted, and is 
still using, home scenes in all their richness and beauty Among these pictures are views of Sevres, 
of D' Argentan, La Fert'e, St.-Auhin, likewise La Valiee de Chevreruie, Fontaine de Caudebec, Site des en- 
virons dcs Vanves, Les environs de la Haye, Les environs d Amsterdam, painted in 1847 ; La Foire Li- 
mousine, Lcs Baigneuses, Les Bceufs au labeitr, which is in the Luxembourg ; Tm VaUee du Tonque en 
Normandie; both of these were at the Exposition Universelle, with Les Ckiena courants, Les Chiens 
courants lances, and Les Chiens d'arret. He painted also La Vache blanche and La vache rouge, Le 
retour a la Ferme, a charming and masculine picture, Le depart pour le Marche, Paysage avec animaux, 
a noble picture, one of the masterpieces of modern landscape, now in the Luxembourg, the gift of the 
artist's mother after his death. This event happened at Paris, February 21, 1865. 



JEAN BAFTISTE ISABEl'. 49 

VINCENT cFBANCOIS-AXDREj, born in 1746, died in 1816. Vincent began in the eighteenth 
century tliat which . Paul Delaroche has practised with so much success in the nineteenth, and what is 
now called the " historical genre." He was a pupil of Vien and at one time David's rival. At the 
time when the false-antique had been restored to honor, he won the grand prize with his painting 
Germanicus haranguant ses troupers, and accomplished his studies under the directorship of Natoire. 
On his return to Paris he was accepted by the Academy in 1777, and was received in 1782. The 
Louvre possesses his initiation piece, which is stored in the attics, I Enlevement d Orythie. At this 
time tlie ideal was more thought of than the execution. The critics of this period held Vincent to 
account for having painted before David the subject of Belisarim Begging, and before Peyron that of 
Socrates reprimanding Alcibiades. These paintings which were not in harmony with the usages of 
the school, obtained nevertheless great success. Vincent received the order to paint for the king, the 
picture, President Mole resistant aux fa-timr, a painting which was to be reproduced in tapestry at 
the Gobelins. 

To conform liimself, as others had done, to the reform which his master Vien had outlined, he 
painted Alcibiades, Socrates, Belisarius and Zeuxis among the most beautiful girls of Crotona, but his 
talent, again once more, wa-s to see nature and reality rather than to feel the style and to elevate himself 
to the ideal. Henry IV. rencontrant Sidli/ bless'e, was eminently a painting within the full scope of 
his powers. His design, though easy, was full of sentiment, devoid of the clumsy and measured 
hatchings seen in the works of the Vanloo.?, the striking features noticeable in those of Greuze, 
and the lifeless stippling, pertaining to that of artists doomed to a trade of patience. To sum up, 
his best works are those where he has cast off the influence of Vien and David. He was never 
more inspired than when he painted the Leron de Lahourage. 

While David was becoming lioman, Vincent remained French, and it is not astonishing that 
from his studio emerged the most modem as well as the most popular of our painters, Horace 
Vernet. Among his numerous pupils, are distinguished, Meynier, M(5rim(^e, Pajou, son of tlie sculptor, 
Ansiaux and Picot. Vincent died in 1816 member of the Institute and professor to the Polytechnic 
School. Intelligent and well read, he was confided the writing of the articles on the subject of 
Painting by the Academy of fine arts for their Dictionary. To his school also belongs Mme. Guyard, 
n6e Labille des Vertus, who wa3 married to Vincent her preceptor, but who was known only by the 
name of her first husband. 

IS.UIKV 'JEAN BAPTISTE), an eminent miniature painter, was born at Nancy in 1767. Ho 
repaired to Paris, in 1786, being then nineteen years of age ; and, while he was studying miniature 
under Damont, supported himself by painting snuff-boxes. When David returned from Rome, Isabey 
entered his studio as a pupil, and finished his art-education. David helped him to live, as well as 
to improve himself in Art. When the Revolution came, Isabey had his hands full of portraits of 
the Constituent Assembly. A remark by Mirabeau is said to have taken firm hold of the painter's 
mind: — "I would rather make sure of being first in a branch of Art, than suspect I was only 
second in another." In consequence of the remark, Isabey renounced historical painting and took to 
portraiture. The agitated times, no doubt, suggested the change, and the artists marriage with a poor 
gentlewoman confirmed it, as the surest path to a competency. Under the Directory, he became the 
most popular miniature painter in Paris. Some of his best portraits were of that date. " Iney 
represent some incredible oddities, with dog's ears ; and, as for his women, they an- the boldest 



50 A COMPLETE HIS TO BY OF FRENCH ART. . 

and the most licentious," says M. Charles Blanc. Isabey became Hortense Beauharnais' drawing- 
master, and thus established a connection with the Bonaparte family. 

He was a kind-hearted man both in word and deed. When Gerard was starving, after the 
Revolution, Isabey bought his Relisarius for £120, and immediately afterwards sold it to the Dutch 
minister for double the sum. He was met by some one, on his way back to hand over to his 
poor brother-artist the whole of the profit he had made by his bargain. A number of Isabey 's 
drawings of the Coronation of Napoleon are now at the Louvre. He executed a splendid drawing, 
in stumped crayon, for Talleyrand, representing all the members of the Congress of Vienna, 1815. 
A valuable picture, on Sdvres porcelain, of Napoleon surrounded by his Marshals, once the property of 
the city of Paris, is now in England. 

PUJOL (ABEL DE ALEXANDER DENIS), son of the Baron de la Grave et de Pujol, was 
born at Valenciennes, 1785. Officer of the Legion of Honor, Member of the Institute. 

At the age of 18, Pujol entered the School of David; won the Prize of Rome in 1811. He 
was distinguished for his historical works : T/ie Baptism of C/ovis, in the Cathedral of Rheims. HU 
Death of Britannicus, is in the Museum of Dijon. He died on September 28th, 1861. 

HESSE (NICOLAS AUGUSTE), born in Paris, 1795, became a pupil of Gros, and, at two-and- 

twenty, carried off the prize of Rome. His health did not permit him to remain there his full 
time. On his return to Paris he occupied himself with historical and religious art; and subsequently 
with cartoons, frescoes, and the decoration of churches. He exhibited comparatively few pictures, 
hence his reputation never equalled the sterling merit of the artist. It is in the churches he 
decorated that his work may be best appreciated ; as in that of Notre Dame de Lorette, of St. 
Clotilde, and of St. Eustache, in Paris, and in the cathedral of Avranches. Both at the Louvre and 
the Luxembourg his decorative art was employed; and in what was once the principal hall of th( 
Hdtel de Ville. 

Hesse was elected to Delacroix's vacant place at the Academy of the Beaux Arts in 1863. He 
died m 1869. 

mCHALLON (ACHILLE-ETNA), born October 22d, 1796, died September 23d, 1822. At the grave 

of Michallon on the 22d day of September, 1822, his cousin, M. Vanier, delivered the funeral oration, in 
which he said: "Let one portray to himself Michallon, twelve years of age, whipping a wooden shoe, 
spinning a top or flying a kite in the yard of the Sorbonne, while an illustrious stranger, the prince 
Jossoupoff, is admiring his paintings in the studio of the celebrated David, whom he has come to 
visit. The prince cannot believe his eyes, he must see the child, crosses the threshold, enters the 
ji-ard ; a group is pointed out to him, Michallon is introduced, he receives caresses, compliments and a 
pension from the prince " 

It is thus tliat ]\I. Vanier describes the beginnings of this artist, who when nothing but a 
mere child made drawings for which his mother found a ready sale. His precocity however was not 
only the fact of a decided vocation, but also that it originated from his having been born in a 
family of artists. His father, Claude Michallon, originally from Lyons, was a distinguished sculptor. 
He had received the prize of Rome in 1785, and while at the Academy won the prize, to be 
awarded for a monument to be erected to tlie memory of Germain Drouais, which he executed 
gratuitously after having contributed like his fellow-artists in the purchase of the materials for the 



LES JOHANNOT. 51 

mausoleum. Claude Mlchallon was on the high-road to feme when he died suddenly, from a fell 
while sculpturing some decomtions at the Theatre de la Republique, September 17, 1799. 

His most celebrated landscape is La Mart de Roland a Roncevdux. This romantic subject 
was conceived alter the manner of Poussin, with something of the feeling of Salvator, consequently 
every one was pleased, the youths by the intention, the academicians by the style. Some were 
delighted to see painting bring out the grand figure of Roland who had filled the middle-ages 
with his poetry, while others were satisfied with the poussmic style of this landscape. Nothing less 
was expected from a young man who had won this prize of a new creation ; the prize of historical 
landscape. (See illustration). Michallou then held the first rank and no one dreamed of contesting 
it. To-day, though not entirely forgotten, still he is at least eclipsed, for how can we think of the 
dead, when we have not eyes enough to look at the living? 



BERTIN (FBAXCOIS EDOUARD), was corn at Paris in 1797. He studied under Girodet and 
Bidault. He was Inspector of the Beaux-Arts under Louis Philippe, and in this capacity spent a 
considerable time in Italy. Among his works are, A View of a Hermitage in an Ancient Etruscan 
Excavation, near Viterbe, at the Luxembourg, T/ie Temptation of Christ, and A View of the Ancient 
Tombs en the Banks of the Nile. This last was exhibited in 1853, and he did not contribute to 
any Salon after that date; he died in 1871 Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and commander of 
the order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. 

ALIONY (CXAl'DE FELIX THEODORE CAREULLE D'), was born at Charomes in 1798. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor and Director of I'Ecole des Beaux Arts, at Lyons. He studied under 
Regnault and Watelet ; he died in 1871. The noblest sites of Greece and Italy have been sketched 
by him with a firm, correct, and sober hand, with a quality of imperious austerity and severe elegance. 
The beautiful blocks of marble, the green oaks, the olives, the rose laurels, the trees with shining 
leaves, all the precise vegetation of the noble countries which are loved by the Sun, preserve under 
his pure brush, their native grandeur. The Luxembourg contains his pictures of The Chase; Setting 
Sun, and several etchings which are much admired. 

JOHAXNOT (LES), Alfred, bom 1800, died 1837. Tony, born 1803, died 1852. The two 
brothers Alfred and Tony, bom at Offenbach, on the Main began as engravers. Excellent engravings 
by Alfred are still to be found here and there in the portfolios of collectors : the Trompette mort, 
after Horace Vernet, the Orphans, after Ary Scheffer, and also the not less beautiful ones by Tony, 
Infants egar'es, after Scheffer, the Portrait du General Foy, after G(5rard. It is singular that these 
artists so well drilled in the patient practices of such an art, could ever succeed in so far emancipating 
themselves as to become painters of great ease and facility, and above all, authors of endless compo- 
sitions. Inseparable friends, the brothers at first worked together, and together composed twenty-four 
pictures destined to be engraved for Fume's edition of Sir Walter Scott. Soon the love of painting 
became a ruling passion with Alfred ; and making a great many water colors and sepias as themes 
for the draughtsmen employed by the great booksellers, he allowed Tony to pursue alone the speciiil 
career in which he has acquired such renown, that of book illustration. 

At the salon of 1831, Alfred Johannot was already proclaimed by competent judges the first of 
anecdotical painters. He had exhibited that year the Arrestation deM.de Crcspiere. But where he 



52 A COMrLETE HISTORY OF FREXd! ART. 

bore off the palm in his genre was in the Salon of 1833, where he had sent his masterpiece : the 
Anncmce de la vidoire d' Hastenheck. The prodigious talent he possessed and which Delaroche Las 
probably never exceeded, was that of approaching history by the detail. Alfred Johannot manifested 
this power in all his pictures, notably in the Entree de Mile, de Montpensier a Orleans. He Lad 
not, like Paul Delaroche, the ambition nor the power to elevate the genre to the height of history, 
but he has been only the more amiable for it. Francois \si ei Charles- Quint, 3Iarie Stuart quittant la 
Prance, Henri II. et sa famille, Francois de Lorraine presentant see officiers a Charles IX. apres la 
bataille de Dreux, such were the subjects in which Alfred Johannot delighted. 

As did his brother, Tony Johannot, who had also tired of engraving, exhibited at the Salon 
remarkable paintings, a little weak of design it is true, but still charming, full of warmth and 
brilliancy, of an execution at times unexceptionable. He also painted Minna et Brenda, La Mart de 
Lu Guesclin, Charles VI. et Odette and the Battles of Fontenoy, and of Rosback for the Museum at 
Versailles. The death of Alfred in 1837 discouraged him completely, and from that time lie made 
only illustrations. About this time the demand for illustrated books became so great that it was 
found necessary to obtain a cheaper and more rapid process than the tedious graver afforded. Wood 
engraving was substituted, thereby ensuring economy in time and cost, and to facilitate still more its 
reproductions the designs were drawn on the wood. Tony found himself ready for this eaay and 
abundant work, and like his brother had the talent of graceful improvisation. 

The number of plates executed by Tony Johannot is innumerable. Don Quichotte, Manon Les- 
caut, le Diable boiieux, le Vicaire de Wakefield, Walter Scott, Fenimore Cooper and Moli6re, among the 
very many other works testify to an inexhaustible and fruitful source without parallel. His death in 
1852, in his forty-ninth year caused a general mourning in all the Libraries, the Literary and the 
Art-world. And his loss is still more deeply felt to-day, when the large publishers have trouble 
in filling his place. 

ISABEY (EUGENE LOUIS GABRIEl), born 1804, son and pupil of his more eminent father, 
Jean Baptiste, carries on his traditions of art, but as a painter of genre and sea pieces. His works, 
which are highly appreciated, have been exhibited in successive Salons during the last half century. 
His Embarkation of Puyter and William de Witt, and several water colors are in the Luxembourg 

Gallery. 

BRASCASSAT (JACQUES RAYMOND), was born at Bordeaux in 1805. Studied under Richanl 
and Harsent. Brascassat has been called " the poet of Animals," several of his best pictures, among 
which are his Fighting Bulls, are in the Museum of Nantes. He died in 1867, a member of the 
Institute and Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

De Saint-Santin writes, " no one not a Dutchman paints so broadly, nor with a more sure and 
firm touch, the speckled, rough .skins of bulls and cows. No one has modeled with more energy and 
boldness their necks and shoulders, their dewlaps, their bespattered rumps, and those horned-heads in 
which the fronts are all bristling, frowninc: and furious, and those fine feet, like the feet of Goats, 
which bear bodies of monstrous size, nor those eyes, sometimes sweet and dreamy, and sometimes 
cruel and frightful." 

DEYERIA (EUGENE FRANCOIS), born in Paris, 1805; he died at Pan 1865. When he was 
no more than two-and-twenty, he took the art world of Paris by surprise in hij great picture of the 



JEAN FRANCIS GIGOUX. 53 

Birth of Henry IV., an immense canvas, full of life-like figures, who press forward to salute the 
little B'eamaia. It was pronounced a masterpiece, full of breadth, of dazzling colour, and great cha- 
racter. The enthusiasm it excited was remarkable. Artists and critics hailed the arrival of the 
master of modern art, as though Delacroix and Ingres had abdicated their supremacy. Stramre to 
relate, he never could paint another picture. It was the first and the last reproductive effect of his 
talent. He exhibited other works, indeed; but they were hopeless failures. His admirers were silent; 
some jealous rivals took advantage of the catixstrophe to hint things discreditable to the artist. He 
had to accept the encouragement of his friends, who held out hopes of a brighter future. Dev^ria 
himself knew, by repeated trials, that his power was gone from him. He quitted Paris, sought retire- 
ment and peace in B^arn, and but rarely took up his pencil. A few portraits of merit must be 
enumerated among the artist's successes. Death at last came to put a period to his melancholy sense 
of fJEiilure. 

GLEYRE (MABK-CHARLES^ABRIEL), French painter of Swiss origin, born at Chevilly (Canton 

Vaud) May 2d, 1806. He entered in 1824 the school of Mr. Hersent, the next year he left for Italy, 
and firom thence proceeded to the East. He did not return until 1833, and in 1840 was represented 
ia the Salon by Saint Jean sous ^inspiration de la Vision apocalyptique. He exhibited in 1843 Le 8oir 
wbicb was bought for the Luxembourg; in 1846 Les Apotres allant precher I'Evangile; in 1849 la 
Dante de» Bacchantes which was reproduced several times by engraving. 

Mr. Gleyre's absence from the French school was remarked at the exhibition in 1855. He 
had discontinued sending his works to the Salons for six years, being dissatisfied with the jury who, 
he thought, had judged one of his pictures unfairly. However, he never ceased producing. There are 
still quoted the following works of his: L Echo, bought for Russia; Pentecote, ordered for the Church 
of Saint Marguerite; then several other paintings, whereof, some for Germany and others for Switzer- 
land, among these latter, must be mentioned La Mort dxi, major Davel, Les Romains passant sous le 
joug (1854), for the museum at Lausanne, Pcnthee el les Jlenades, for the museum at Bale, etc. We 
represent him by his picture Hercules at the feet of Omphale. 

The countrymen of Gleyre propose to erect a monument to him. Certainly he has well merited 
this honor, the serious artist whose life, consecrated entirely to meditation and labor, has been passed 
in silence, but has been fruitful. Gleyre has not mingled his name in the noise of our disputes ; 
be has assisted without taking part in the grand romantic battle ; he has not wished to serve as 
chief of the little school of neo-Greeks, whose scanty ideal accorded so little with his aspirations ; he 
has fought alone, without thought of public applause, having his friends alone as witnesses. His 
talent had less of force than of elegance, less of energy than of delicacy ; but if Gleyre is essentially 
the painter of Omphale, of Sappho of the Charmer, let us not forget that he has left us The battle of 
Lemon and the Pentheus. He has thus shown, by some powerful works, that outside of the grace which 
was his incontestable domain he was able sometimes to make the victorious sally and the grand flight." 
Jarvis Art Notes. M. Gleyre died in Paris May 5th, 1874. 

OlOOrX (JEAN FRANCIS), is a native of Besanyon, born in 1806. From Besanfon he removed 
to Paris, and exhibited, in 1831, several lead-pencil portraits. A year or two later he appeared as a 
painter of genre and of portraits. The romantic school claimed him, and perhaps excessively vaunted 
his merits, which produced corresponding depreciation of his talent in other quarters. Gigoux has been 



54 A COiMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. . 

a diligent exhibitcr, and has worked honestly and hard to improve both his drawing and colouring. 
The Death of Cleopatra now in the Luxembourg Gallery, is generally considered his best work. His 
subjects are historical and religious. 

Gigoux is also favourably known as a portraitist in various styles of oil, crayon, and pastel. 
His drawings and lithographs are in request among collectors. In short, remarks a critic, " if Gigoux 
has never reached the first rank in Art, he has at least shown talent and practical ability which 
place him among the chiefs of the Romantic School. Although often wanting in taste, in splendour, 
and charm, he is felt to be a master. He prefers strength to beauty, as a rule ; and disdains to 
imitate the ancient travellers who now and then would stop by the ro<adside and sacrifice to the 
Graces." But, in an age like ours, when manliness in Art is by no means too common, we must 
not refuse to honour a painter who paints man like a man. Gigoux has this additional claim to 
distinction, that he has instructed several of the best artists of the contemporary school. 

HESSE (ALEXANDRE JEAN BAPTISE), born at Paris 1806, a nephew of Nicolas-Auguste 
Hesse, and only eleven years his junior, was also a pupil of Gros, and completed liis studies in Italy. 
A picture of Titian's funeral honours, painted at Venice, 1833, laid the foundation of his repute. 
The Chapel of St. Francis de Sales, at St. Sulpice, attests his powers as a church decorator. History, 
religion, and genre, in turn, engaged his pencil. He was elected, in 1867, member of the Institute 
in the room of Ingres. He died in 1879. His Triumph of Pisani is in the Luxembourg. 

BOULANGER (LOUIS), was born at Verceil in 1806. Pupil of Guillon-Lethiere. Died in 1867, 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and Director of I'Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Dijon. He made his 
d6but at the Salon of 1828 with Mazeppa and TJie Departure, among his best works are, Fear 
nothing thou hearest Caesar and his Fortunes, Othello and 3facbeth, and Holy Family, he also jiainted 
a water color of the last scene in Intcrezia Borgia, which was purchased by the Duke of Orleans. 
He died in 1867. 

BEAUME (JOSEPH), historical and genre painter, was born at Marseilles in 1790; went to 
Paris at the age of eighteen, where he entered the atelier of Gros. He made a favorable impres- 
sion with a picture of Eliezer and Naphtali, which he produced in 1819, and which is now in the 
Gallery of Fontaiubleau. He first exhibited in 1822, and some years afterwards had many commissions 
for the Gallery of Versailles, besides portraits and marine subjects. His principal historical works, 
painted between 1836 and 1843 are in the Museum at Versailles, and represent some of the more 
recent subjects in the Gallery of Battles : The Passage of the Rhine at Dusseldorff. The Battle of 
Diemstein. The Day of Albreto. The Battle of Lutzcn. Tlie Taking of Halle. The Battle of 
Oporto. The Battle of Bautzen. Battle of Toulouse. The series concluding with Napoleon I. embark- 
ing at Porto Ferrajo, on his return to France from Elba. He received a second-class medal in 1824, 
a first-class medal in 1827, and the decoration of the Legion of Honor in 1836. 

ROBERT-FLEURY (JOSEPH NICHOLAS), was born at Cologne, of French parents, on the 8th 
August, 1797. His family falling into reduced circumstances through the action of troublous times, 
he, at an early age, made his way to Paris, Avhere with strong art impulses, he was soon initiated into 
the elements of drawing. The first thing that came in his way he made good use of: it was a 
book of heraldry ; and ere long he became so expert in the designing of coats of arms, that th'* 



ROBERT-FLEURY {JOSEPH NICHOLAS). 55 

Count de Forbin, Director of the Museum of the Louvre, remarking his talents, wished to procure 
hira a license as painter of armorial bearings. But soon, perceiving in tlie young man, now nineteen, 
buddings of genius yet to shoot up beyond heraldic trees, the Count took a higher view of the case, 
and introduced his protege to the atelier of Horace Vernet. It was not long ere the pupil won the 
regard of his master, who placed him to work alongside of his own easel ; putting the palette and 
brush into his hand, giving him some of his own studies to copy, he would stop in his work to 
counsel and encourage the young art-student. It was at this time that Gall, just commencing his 
phrenological courses and experiences, arrived at Paris. Being acquainted with Horace Vernet, he paid 
a visit to his atelier, and scrutinizing, in his way, the three or four pupils who were there, — " This 
one." he said, speaking of Robert, "has the organ of colour." "Now then," said Horace, "let us 
see you justify the prophecy of the Doctor." And certainly the Doctor foretold rightly. But the 
atelier of Vernet bad not those advantages for study which the young pnpil required. That master 
employed the living model but little for his compositions. Gifted with large perception and unfailing 
memory, he grasped the realization of his idea in the mind's eye, and planted it on the canvas with 
a certainty of a hand accustomed to every movement and expression of the form. It is related thai 
a person who had stood to hira for a model having gone to him one day to ask employment, 
Horace replied, "I have no nee<l of you just now, but I owe you a sitting." "Me, sir! you mistake, 
surely; I never had the honor to sit to you." 'Aye, no matter; do you know that?" pointing to 
a figure in a picture. And there, sure cnougii he recognized himself, rendered from memory : for 
Horace had only met hira in the road, or somewhere by accident ; one glance sufficing for liis quick, 
comprehensive eye. However, the beginner is not thus emancipated from the necessity of being 
guided by the substantial form of nature ; and Horace himself was the first to recognize, in the 
essays of Robert Fleary, a promise of talent worthy of serious cultivation. " You are losing your 
time here," said he to him, after a few months ; " you must work after the model ; I will take you 
to the atelier of Girodet." "But to stay there costs thirty francs a month; and how procure this?" 
Yet the young man, hopeful, trustful, resolute, was not to be put down by this difficulty; and, spite 
of all its cost, he remained there from 1815 to the end of 1819, when he changed professors, and 
entered under Gros ; with whora, however, he remained only some months. But it was neither with 
Vernet, with Girodet, nor with Gros, that our young artist felt himself most iu his element. There 
was another who for hira was a leading spirit, with whom ho felt a profound sympathy ; and many 
a time did he play truant from the schools of all the three to work a hearty hour with Gericault. It 
was at this time that the latter was engaged in studies for his famous Raft of tlie Medusa and in 
living models, and the dead preparations bought from the School of Anatomy for the peopling of this 
extraordinary canva<), Robert Fleury found ample subject for work ; and an intimacy based upon true 
artistic sympathy was established between Gericault and the young aspirant, who was treated rather as 
a friend than as an ordinary pupil ; a friendship which was only cut short by the premature death oi 
the former. Wlien scarcely twenty-one years of age, Robert Fleury experienced a severe disappointment 
in an affair of the heart, which occasioned a melancholy which he sought to dissipate by travel. The 
desired occasion presented itself t propos, and Robert journeyed into Switzerland as drawing-tutor to an 
English family who hud a residence there. What more glorious country for the lifting up of a 
drooping heart ? Rome afterwards became the object of his thoughts and efforts ; so he cleared the 
Alps, and found himself in the Eternal City. Just at the time of Robert Fleury 's arrival at Rome, 
a circumstance took place which struck him aa a subject for a picture ; a band of brigands, with 



56 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

most outrageous daring, had entered a convent, and sacrilegiously pillaged the holy fathers. He had 
the good fortune to get the very actors in the scene to sit for his picture, and he determined that 
this, his ddbut in the artistic career, should be at the height of his powers for truth and effect. 
Thrice did he depict the scene, and bring his labours to a termination, and thrice, unsatisfied, did he 
resolutely destroy the pictures he had spent nearly four years upon. The picture being at length 
finished, and to the artist's satisfaction, the young painter, whose exchequer hatl become in a very 
exhausted state, began thinking anxiously how he was to get it to Paris, and how it was to produce 
him the needful resources, with all the chances which an unknown artist runs of remaining undis- 
tinguished and unbought, among the crowd of competitors struggling for honour and existence on the 
walls of the Louvre Exhibition. At that moment a step sounded on the floor of the atelier, and 
broke the reverie of the student. The first words of the new comer were an exclamation of admira- 
tion, and an offer to purchase the picture. Robert, his head half-turned with the suddenness and 
welcome of the good fortune, and ignorant besides of the value of his work, knew not what to reply ; 
so, abruptly leaving the amateur, off he ran to ask counsel of M. Granet, then one of the 
most distinguished of French artists at Rome. "Well," said Granet, "you are, after all, you see, but 
a beginner ; and however valuable in itself, your work has not yet acquired a value by reputation ; 
you cannot be exacting — ask 1200 francs." This he did, and the bargain was at once concluded, 
and the money paid. Exhibited in the Louvre in 1824, the picture attract-ed so much admiration 
that the Count de Forbin sent for the artist (who had returned to Paris in the interim), and gave 
him to understand that the king (Charles X.) desired to acquire the picture, at the price of 5,000 
francs. Its present possessor, however, declaring his disinclination to depart from his bargain, Robert- 
Fleury was honoured with a commission from the king for another picture on the subject of Tasso 
arriving at the Convent of St. Onofario, on the occasion of the poet'.s last and fatal illness on his 
way to Rome, Nov. 1594. The artist returned to Rome to paint this picture, which was exhibited 
in 1827. Returned to France, Robert-Fleury in 1829, finding himself in the country, painted a study 
of sheop, which he gave to an exhibition for the benefit of the Greeks. Its success was such, that 
an idea entered the mind of the painter, that, perhaps, hitherto he had not found the true direction 
of his genius ; whicli, cultivated with the necessary means, might place him in the position of the 
Paul Potter of France. Under this impression he set off to Holland ; and there, for a year, studied 
the subjects of the celebrated animal painter, on his own ground, dreaming over future pictures of 
cattle, pensively ruminating in their green meadows, or quietly standing in the homestead ; — of horses 
munching their hay in the farm-yard, or tugging the plough through the furrow ; — of all that quiet 
and homely life of the cultivator, which so charms by its simplicity, and closer communion with nature. 
On his return to France he took up his head-quarters at a farm, determined to make his d^but with 
^clat, in the new career he had foreshadoAved for himself, and on a twelve foot canvas. But whilst he 
was engaged upon this great work, the Revolution of July, 1830, burst forth, and he hurried off to Paris 
to watch and mingle in the movements of that stirring time. His cattle studies thus interrupted, 
he employed his pencil for some time on several portraits, one of which, that of M. Gu4nin, had the 
honours of the Sa.on Carr^. In 1833, was exhibited the Scene from St. Bartholomews Eve, in 
which the young Prince of Conti endeavours, but fruitlessly, to save his tutor Brion, by throwing 
himself over him, and warding off the spears and daggers of the assassins. This picture was bought 
for the gallery of the Luxembourg. On the distinguished success which attended this picture, his 
friends took occasion to dissuade him from further devoting his study to animal painting, and he 



RAPHAEL CHAMLK^ MAUECHAL. 57 

yielded to their counsels. Of the soundness of their advice he was still further enabled to judge, 
when at the next years exhibition, his Procemon of the Jjeague obtained a first medal from Govern- 
ment, and was sold at once to a gentleman, a native of Belgium, where it still is. The large cattle 
picture was thus abandoned ; and some time after, he had it sent to Paris, and, cutting out the parts 
he wished to preserve, abandoned for the rest, his aspirations of Paul-Potterism. In 1835 he painted 
for Versailles several portraits, and the Arrived of Baldwin Count of Flanders at Odessa. The fol- 
lowing year he received the decoration of the Legion of Honour, on the exhibition of his " ITenry 
IV. brought to the Louvre-Palace, after his Assassination. In 1837 appeared, Bernard de Palissy in 
his Workshop, a small picture, which was unanimously praised by the journals. A large collection of 
his works was seen at the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1855 ; and in 1857 he exhibited Charles V. 
at the Monastery of 8t. Juste. He obtained a second medal in 1824, two first-class medals in 1834 
and 1835 respectively. He was elected a member of the Academic des Beaux Arts in 1850, and 
succeeded Blondel as Professor in 1855. We illustrate his Pillage of a house in the Jewish Quarter, 
at Venice, in the Middle Ages, from the Luxembourg Gallery. 

BIARD (AUGUSTUS FRANCOIS), wa.s born at Lyons in the year 1800. He was originally 
intended for the ecclesiastical calling, and passed many years of his life as a chorister in different 
churches in his -native town. When about sixteen or .seventeen years of age he passed a few 
months in the school of M. R<5voil, head master of the Lyons School of Design, and then went into 
a stained paper factory in the vicinity, where he remained eight months, being employed to soften 
down the points of junction in the pictures printed for the decoration of village churches. This 
employment, bumble as it was, awakened within hira the suggestion of the nobler vocation to which 
his pencil was afterwards destined. With the exception, however, of another half year passed by 
him in the School of Painting at Lyons, then conducted by M. Richard, he was almost wholly self- 
taught. In 1827 he was appointed professor of drawing on board a corvette, in which he succes- 
Hively touched at Malta, the Archipelago, Syria, and Egypt ; but obtained his discharge in the fol- 
lowing year, and then visited successively, England, Scotland, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Africa, 
Hu.Hsia, Norway, Lapland, Finland, Spitzbergen, Ac, collecting both at sea and on land iimumerable 
subjects in landscapes, portraiture, and costuine. The first picture produced by M. Biard was one of 
The Babes in the Wood, which was purchased by the Society of the Friends of Art at Lyons. ^l. 
Biard is represented in the Luxembourg Gallery by his painting, Da Coriedic taking Leave of Jm 
Crew. He was decorated Chevalier of the Legio;i of Honour in 1838. 

HARECHAL ^RAPHAEL CHARLES), was born of poor parents at Metz in 1800. He was 
brought up as a saddler, but his bent for art took him early to Paris, where during several years 
he was a pupil of Regnault. In 1825 he returned to Metz, and in the following year exhibited at 
the Exposition of the Department of the Moselle, a picture of Job, which procured him the first- 
class silver medal. In 1831, on the visit of King Louis Philippe to Metz, he presented to that 
sovereign a picture of his painting entitled Prayer, which obtained honourable mention at the salon 
of the current year. Amongst his remaining paintings in oil are Masaccio as a boy, The Harvest, 
and the Apotheosis of Si. Catherine painted in 1842 for the cathedral of Metz. He, however, even- 
tually abandoned oil, as a vehicle, in favour of pastel, as being better adapted to his free and 
aketchy style. In this medium lie produced a vast number of subjects of the Boliemian type — 
i\ic\i as the Sisters of Misery, Hungarian Woodtnitterx, La Petite Gitana (1841), Leisure, Distress, The 



58 A COAIFLETE HIS TO BY OF FRENCH ART. 

Adepts, &c., for which he received successively medals of the third, second, and- first class. But more 
important than all these labours was the new industry which he was enabled to establish in his 
native town — in glass painting. His productions in this line, exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 
1851, obtained for him a medal of the first-class; and the two vast h(?raicycles, which he executed 
for the Palace of Industry of Paris in 1855, obtained for him the grade of officer of the Legion of 
Honour, he having received the first decoration in 1846. M. Marechal has since decorated with 
painted windows a great number of the principal churches in France ; at Paris, St. Vincent de Paul, 
8i. Clotilda, St. Valere ; the cathedrals of Troyes, Metz, Cambray, Limoges, and parish churches too 
numerous to mention. His son, Charles Raphael, born at Metz in 1830, is a clever painter of genre. 
His Simoom, Halt at Evening, and T/t£ Shipwrecked, were exhibited in 1853 and 1857. 

TASSAERT (NICHOLAS F. 0.), a French painter, born at Paris in July, 1800. He commenced 

his studies in art in 1817, under P. Girard and Guillon Le Thidre, as well as in the Exiole des 
Beaux Arts, where he remained till 1825. He first exhibited in portraiture in 1831, and afterwards 
pursued historical painting, working for the Museum at Versailles, for which, amongst others he exe- 
cuted the Fhneral of Dagobert at St. Denis. He also painted genre subjects. Amongst his exhibited 
works are The Death of Correggio, Diana at the Bath, The Death of Heloise, The FaUen Angel, 
The Magdalen in the Desert, Christ on the Mount of Olives, Heaven and Fktrth, The Slave Dealer, 
The Two Mothers, and The Old Musician. At the Universal Exhibition, 1865, amongst several others 
by him, were The Sleep of the Infant Jesus, The Son of Louis XVI. in the Temple. Many of this 
artist's works have been engraved, or lithographed. He has received two medals in historical painting ; 
one of the second-class in 1838, and one of the first-class in 1849. He died in 1874. 

ADAM (JOHN TICTOR), a French painter and lithographer, born at Paris in 1801, was the 
son of John Adam, an esteemed engraver. During the years 1814 to 1818 he studied at the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, and also in the ateliers of Meynier and Regnault. In 1819 he exhibited Herminia 
succouring Tancred. He was almost immediately afterwards employed to paint various subjects for 
the Museum at Versailles, amongst which are. The Fhitry of the French into Mayenc^. The Battle of 
Varroux. The Taking of Menin. The Battle of Castiglione. The Passage of the ,Cluse. The Battle 
of Montehello. The Capitulation of Meiningen. The last three in association with M. Alaux. He 
also exhibited down to the year 1838 : Henry IV, after the Battle of Chutras. Trait of Kindness 
in the Duke de Berri, The Postillion. The Vivandidre. The Road to Poissy. The Return from the 
Chase. Horse-fair at Caen. And numerous other subjects. He then retired from publicity, till 1846, 
when he appeared as the exhibitor of some works in lithography, to which branch of art he after- 
wards restricted himself. In this line he has produced a lithographic album, Views in the Environs 
of Paris. Studies of Animals, (1833), Design for an edition of Biiffon. dc. He obtained a gold 
medal in 1824, a second-class medal in 1836, besides several others from Lille, Douai, etc. He died 
1865. His son, Alfred Albert, also works in lithography. 

GIROUX (ANDRE), born at Paris, April 30, 1801, son of the painter Alphonse Giroux, who 
became a dealer in paintings and children's toys. He made his debut at the Salon when eighteen 
years of age, by a few subjects of genre ; he gradually inclined to landscape painting which he studied 
under Thibault, and followed the courses of the School of Fine Arts, where he carried off the grand 



CLAUDE JULES ZIEGLER. 59 

prize for historical landscape in 1825. On his return from Rome, he has continued, while traveling, 
his contributions to the Salon. He is represented in tlie Luxembourg Gallery by The Plain of 
Gresivaudan near Grenoble. This artist obtained a second-class medal in 1822, a first-class one in 
1831, and was decorated in August, 1831. M. Andre Giroux died at Paris, November 18, 1879. 

FLEFRY (LEON), landscape painter, son of Claude Anthony Fleury, was born at Paris in 1804 ; 
and after acquiring the first rudiments of art from his father, became successively the pupil of Victor 
Bestin, and Hersent. On quitting the studio of the latter, he set out upon a lengthened sketching 
tour, and between the years 1827 and 1830, travelled over Italy, Belgium, and a large part of his 
native country. Returning to Paris, he there exhibited, in 1861, four pictures, A Vieiv of the Poiite 
Ratio, Rome, A View in the Environs of Rome, and two views of Watten, in the environs of /St. 
Omer. From that year his name was seldom absent from any of the public exhibitions of the 
French Academy. His last appearance was at the Universal Exposition, in 1855, to which he contri- 
buted two pictures. Although chiefly known a.s a landscape painter, he occasionally employed his 
pencil on other subjects. In the church of St. Marguerite is a Baptism of Christ, by him, and in 
that of St. Etienne-du-ilont, a St. Genevieve. Several of his works have been purchased by the French 
government for presentation to provincial Museums ; a Wood in Normandy, presented to the 
Museum of Bar-le-Duc, and a View on the Road to Genoa, near Nice, presented to the Museum of 
Amiens. His works are held in high esteem by his countrymen for their truth, picturesque character, 
and careful treatment. In 1834 M. Fleury was awarded by the council of the Fine Arts in Paris, 
a medal of the third-class ; in 1837 one of the second-class ; and in 1845 one of the first-class. In 
1851 he was made a member of the Legion of Honour. He died in the winter of 1858. 

8I0N0L (EXILE), member of the Imtitut, bom at Paris, March 11, 1804, was pupil of Blondel 
and Baron Gros, and of the School of Fine Arts, where he carried off the second prize in 1829 and 
the grand prize in 1830, his subject was : Mi'Uagre prenant les armea a la soUicitation de son epouse. 
He had made his debut at the Salon of 1824 by the painting of Joseph i-acontant son r&ve a ses 
frtres. During his sojourn at Rome he sent equally to the Salons of 1834 and 1835, several contri- 
butions : a Portrait, Le Couveni de Santa Scholastica, in the possession of M. Asse. 

This artist executed for the galleries of Versailles (1838-1844), La deuxi^me croisade prechce 
d Vazelay, Le Sucre de Louis XV. the portraits of Louis VII. Philippe Augiiste, Louis IX. (equestrian), 
Qodefroy de Bouillon. Requested in 1840 to contribute to the decoration of the Church of the 
Madeleine he painted therein La Mort de Saphira, and has worked assiduously, from that time, in 
the several chapels of the churches of Saint Roch, Saint S<5v6rin and Saint Eustache, and was ordered 
in 1864 to decorate the new church of Saint Augustin. He has also executed four large paintings 
{Jesm Christ soriant du tombeau. Ascension, etc.), for the transept of the church Saint-Sulpice (1876). 
M. Signol is represented in the Gallery of the Luxembourg by his picture La femme adultdre. M. 
Emile Signol has obtained a second-class medal in 1834, and a first-class one in 1835. He was 
elected, in November, 1860, member of the Academy of Fine Arts, in place of d'Hersent, over thirteen 
competitors, after balloting ten times. Knight of the Legion of Honor in June, 1841, he was 
promoted to the rank of officer August 13, 1865. 

ZIEOLER (CLAUDE JULI'>J), a French painter, was born at Langres in 1804. He was one of 
the most distinguished pupils of Ingres, and after travelling in Italy and Germany for improvement, 



r 



60 A COMPLETE HI8T0EY OF FRENCH AMI. 

studied under the celebrated Cornelius at Munich, where he acquired a complete knowledge of the 
technicalities of fresco-painting. He began to exhibit in the winter of 1830, and four years later 
produced a remarkable portrait of Marshal de 8aiicerre, in full armour on horseback, now in the 
Versailles Gallery. This having been highly approved by the king, Ziegler was appointed to decorate 
the cupola of the church of La Madeleine, in place of Paul Delaroche, to whom the commission had 
been promised by the ministry. Between 1835 and 1838 he executed a grand epic composition, illustrative 
of the growth and influence of Christianity and covering the whole extent of tlie hemicycle, upon the 
completion of which the king (Louis Philippe) presented him personally with the order of the Legion 
of Honour. This great work having familiarized him with the requirements of every branch of painting, 
he afterwards modelled and decorated, for commercial purposes, a number of porcelain vases, which are 
much esteemed. Amongst his jiaintings may be mentioned: Venice at Night (1831), Oiotto and 
Oimabice (now in the Luxembourg Gallery), The Death of Foscari (1833), the portrait of Kdlerrnan, 
for Versailles (1835); The Prophet Daniel (1838), T/i^ Dew on the Poses (1844), Jacob's Dream 
(1847), Charles V. giving Directions for his Fmeral (1848), The Peace of Amiens for the hall in 
which the congress was held in that town (1853), Notre Dame de Bourgogne, exhibited posthumously 
at the Louvre in 1857, and purchased by the state. Between 1833 and 1848 he obtained two 
second-class medals, and one first-class, and in 1832 was appointed Director of tiie Museum at Dijon. 
He was author of an esteemed work entitled, " Recherches des Principes du Beau dans I'Art Cera- 
mique, I'Architecture, et la Forme en g4n6ral," 8vo. with plates (1850). He died December 29 1856- 

JACqUAND (CLAUDIUS), born at Lyons in 1805. Studied in the Academy of that city, and 
made his debut at the Salon of 1824. Entirely given to grand historical painting at first, he sub- 
sequently cultivated genre. From 1852 to 1855, he lived at Boulogne-sur-Mer, and executed among 
other notable and important works Le Maire de Boidogne refttsani la capitulatiofi de Henri VIII. en 
1544, for the chamber of honor in the City Hall. On his return to Paris he undertook and finished 
the mural paintings in the Chapel of the Virgin at the Church of Saint Philippe du Roule. 

M. Jacquand has obtained a second-class medal in 1824, a first-class one in 1836, and was 
decorated in May 1839, he also received numerous medals at the foreign expositions where he exhibited. 
He died in Paris, April 3d, 1878. 

DUCORNET (LOUIS CiESAR JOSEPH), a Jrench painter of some repute, was born of poor 
parents, at Lille, in January, 1806. He was naturally deformed, having neither arms nor thighs, and 
only four toes to his right foot. Being as a child often left to roll about the floor alone, whilst 
the rest of the family were engaged in their daily vocations, he used to pick up bits of charcoal, 
and amuse himself by drawing on the wall various objects which surrounded him. H<> fortunately 
received some instruction from M. Wateau the professor of drawing at the school ; and the Mayor of 
Lille, the Count de Muyssard, perceiving his talent, procured for him a pension of 300 francs from 
the municipality. Some time afterwards M. Potteau, deputy of the department, with the assistance of 
M. de Muyssard, caused him to be sent to Paris, and placed in the atelier of Lethiere, where he 
was treated by that painter as a son, and by the pupils as a brother. Charles X. assigned him a 
pension of 1200 francs, which, however, was discontinued at the Revolution in 1830, and never after- 
wards renewed. Before 1830 he painted the Parting of Hector and Andromache, and several portraits. 
At Cambray he gained a bronze medal for his picture of Repentance; in 1840 a gold medal, third- 
class, for the Death of Mary Magdalen; in 1841 one of the second-class in gold for the Repose in 



NARCI88E-VIRGILE DIAZ BE LA PEN A. 61 

Egypt, and in 1845 a gold medal, first-class, for Christ in the Sepulchre. In 1855 he exhibited his 
painting, Edith, a commission from the Emperor Napoleon III. These paintings are all large life- 
size. He also gained several medals at various provincial exhibitions. Ducornet died in the arms 
of his venerable father in the early part of the year 1856. The latter liad never deserted the son 
of whom he was justly proud ; and at the Paris Exhibition might frequently have been seen the 
spectacle of a poor aged man, with a short, middle-aged man on his back, mounting slowly the steps 
of the Palais des Beaux Arts — this interesting group was Ducornet and his father. 

POITEYIN [or Poidevin], LE (EDMUNI) M. EUGENE), a genre painter, was born in Paris, on the 
31st July, 1806. At twenty years of age he went to the Ecole des Beaux Arts, as pupil of M. 
Hersent, and two years afterwards carried off the first medal for historic landscape. He had 
previously — 1826 and 1827 — exhibited with the Society of the Friends of Art, Harvest Making (pur- 
chased by the Duchess of Bern), and several other landscapes. He made frequent journeys in 
England, Nonnandy, Holland, and Italy, whence he always sent a supply of works for the annual 
exhibitions, principally sea-pieces. Low Water, painted in 1833, and The Shipwreck, painted in 1839, 
are in the Luxembourg Grallery. Amongst his other works may be mentioned Adrian Vander Velde 
landing at Blanckenborg (1840), \V7iere there's Smoke t/iere's Eire, The First Wound, The Honeymoon 
(1848), The Bights of Power, T/ie Turkey Drover (1853), Wint>'r in Holland, (1855), which was pur- 
chased by the State; Dutch Pilots, and Norman Cottage (1859), &c. He has painted for Versailles, 
17te taking of Baireuih, Naval Engagment at Emhro, Tlie battle of Wei'tingen, beside several maritime 
episodes ; and for King Louis Phillipe's collection at the Castle of En, A Breakfast on Mount Orleans. 
He obtained two medals of the second-class in 1831 and 1848 respectively, a first-class in 1836, 
and a third-class in 1855, and was decorated of the Legion of Honour, in 1843. 

DIAZ DE LA PENA (NARCISSE-VIRGILE), born at Bordeaux. August 20, 1807, exhibited for 
tiie first time at the Salon of 1831, some landscape sketches, then presented les Environs de Saragosse 
(1834); la Bataille de Medina Cceli (1835); H Adoration des Bergers (1836) le vieux Ben-Emeck 
(1838) Les Nymphes de Calypso (1840) ; Le B&ve, (1841) he manifested a cliange of manner, and in 
1844, his mte du Baa-Briau, I' Orientate, le Malejice, les Bohemiens se rendant a une fete, showed those 
peculiar effects of light in which consist the originality of this painter. At the same time abandoning 
himself to his fancy, he would fill his small pictures, with nymphs, odalisks and cupids. M. Diaz 
now set himself in earnest to the study of form, and exhibited in the Salon of 1851 two of his best 
pieces, a Baigneuse and I Ammir drsarmt. He sent to the Universal Exposition of 1855 several of 
his former paintings, among others Les Presents d! Amour, La Rivale, La jin dun beau jour, Nymphc 
endormie, Nymphe taurmentee par fAmour, and a large canvass, Les Derni^res Larmes, the pale 
colouring of which excited general criticism. At this time he sold his studio and his collections, and 
reappeared at the Salon of 1859 with Oalathre, L' Education de I' Amour, Venus et Adonis, L'Armur 
puni, Eentrez pas. La Fee aux joujoux, La Marc avx vip^es and two Portraits. Mr. Diaz obtained 
a third-class medal in 1844, one of the second-class in 1846, and a first-class one in 1848, was 
decorated in May, 1851. 

"The versatile, unequal, impetuous Diaz, a brilliant colorist by blood, so much so as to obscure 
design, but charming in his genre landscape motives, in which he introduces little children, lovely women, 
or classical nymphs, amorini, or whatever best affords him scope for his rich flesh-tints, in contrast with 



62 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

magnificently colored draperies on the deep greens and browns of vegetation. His fancy is peculiarly 
delicate and playful, not serious, which is a defect, because tlie want of earnestness of purpose seema 
to have prevented him from realizing complete returns of his uncommon promise." 

ACHARD (ALEXIS JOHN), was born at Voreppe (IsSre) in 1807 ; came to Paris in 1835, and 
devoted himself to painting as a profession. He afterwards made a voyage to Egypt, and on his 
return (1839, made his first appearance as an exhibitor, with a landscape. His Caiieade in the 
Ravine of Gernary-la, Ville, is in the Luxembourg Grallery. Auturmi Effectt in tJie VaUey of the 
Istre. Purchased by the State, 1853, for the Luxembourg. He obtained a third-class medal in 1844, 
two second-class medals in 1845 and 1848, respectively, and a third-class in 1855. 

FLANDRIN (AUGUSTUS), was born at Lyons, in 1807. He commenced working at Lithography, 
designing vignettes, and other book illustrations. In 1832 he came to Paris, where he worked for 
two years under M. Ingres. He afterwards accompanied his two brothers to Italy ; and on his 
return to France went l)ack to his native town, where he died in 1842. He exhibited in 1840 
Savanarola preaching at Florence, Reposing after the Bath, Inlerior of the Church of San MinicUo 
at Florence, (for which he was awarded a gold medal), and several portraits in 1841, 1842, and 1843. 

AMAURY-DUVAL (EUGENE-EMMANUEL-AMAURY-PINEU-DUTAL, known as), born at Montrouge, 
April 16, 1808, son of Amaury Duval a diplomatist and archaeologist who died in 1839, and m-phow 
of Alexander Duval author. From 1826 he frequented the studio of M. Ingres and in the mean- 
while made a trip to Morea. He made his first appearance, which was attended with success, at the 
Salon of 1833, by his Portrait of M. Marc-Hurt-Binet, and h's Enfanbt de NourrU, also several other 
portraits which gained him at the time a great reputation. Later, he was entrusted with important works 
for the churches of Paris, and its suburbs. Towards the end of the year 1855 he undertook an eight 
months' trip to Italy. 

Outside of tlie Salons, this artist executed in fresco, the decoration of the church of Saint 
Germain en Laye (1848-1853) and preceding this (1840) tlio Chapelle de la Vierge at Saint-Germain 
I'Auxerrois; he painted, in oil, the ClvapeUe (le Sainte Phihnwne, at Saint Merry (18.39). M. Amaurv 
Duval obtained a second-class medal for historical painting in 1834, and a first-class one for jwrtraits 
in 1839. Decorated with the Legion d'honneur in April 1845, he was promoted to the rank of 
officer August 12, 1865- He has also written Memorials, of which a fragment Wius published, and 
appeared under tlie title of, H Atelier ilIngreH, (1878). 

FRERE (CHARES THEODORE), was born in Paris in 1808, studied under Coignet and Roque- 
plan, and first exhibited in 1834. In 1836 he went to Algiers, was present at the tsiking of C'on- 
stantine, and afterwards travelled through the desert, and other parts of the East ; and the greater 
number of his works are souvenirs of tlie scenes which lio there beheld. Amongst others lie produced 
The Faxihourg Bah-a-Zoum, The Fountain of Bah-el-Ouat, The Jetvs Street at Gomtantine, The Assault 
on Constantine, The Market at Constantine, (1848), A Halt of Arabs, purchased by the Ministry of 
the Interior in 1850). A Street in Constantinople, A Mosqv£ at Be^/routh, Bazaar at Damascus, Tlie 
Pyramids of Gizeh, (1857), A Harem at Cairo, &c. He obtained a medal of the second class in 
1848, and another second class in 1865. He exhibited last in tlio salon of 1878. 

JEANRON (PHILIPPE- AUGUSTE), Born May 1809 at Boulogne-sur-Mer, son of a soldier who 
was chief of the regimental workshops at the camp of that city ; he spent several years in the iron 



EUGENE NAPOLEON FLAN DIN. 63 

works of the Haute Vienne, came to Paris about the year 1828, became intimate with Sigalou, and 
engaged simultaneously in painting and Hterature. Friend of Godefroy Cavaignac, he took part in the 
days of July, and presided shortly after over the Free Painting and Sculpture Society. 

In 1848 the provisional government "requested the citizen Jeanron to watch the treasures of 
the Louvre and the National Museums:"' not satisfie<l with preserving the Louvre, lie organized- at 
the Tuileries [Exposition libre, embracing more than 5000 objects of art, placing in the same rooms 
paintings and sculptures. He presented a report to the Comtikuinte, prepared by himself and Messrs. 
Merim^ and Duban, and obtained the two millions necessary for the restoration of the Louvre, the 
garden and the gallery of Apollo. It was owing to his initiative move that the completion of the 
8odon dea Sept chemin^es for the Ecok Eraru^aise and that of the first floor of the gallery, at the 
water's edge, in which he intended exhibiting 20,000 " drawings, was accomplished. He made also 
several tripa in behalf of the provincial museums. To him is due, during these two years, the clas- 
sifying of the paintings of the Louvre in chronological order and according to schools, the reorgani- 
zation of copper plate engraving, and also creating a branch in the same at the Luxembourg, and 
opening of the Egyptian Museum, &c. 

After retiring to private life Mr. Jeanron was for some time director of the Museum of Marseilles. 
He was appointed in 1863 correspondent of the Iiistitut. He died at the chateau of Oomborn, 
(Corr^ze), April 8, 1877. 

FLAXDIN (EUGENE NAPOLEON), was bom the 15th of August, 1809, at Naples, where his 
father was attached to a military department under King Joachim Murat. After' a tour in Italy he 
exhibited in 1836 a large view of TVte Piarjetia at Venice, which was purchased by the government 
out of the civil list, and another of The Briflge of 6'ighs, which was purchased by the Societe des 
Amis des Arts at Paris. After this he visited Belgium, and made a voyage to Algeria ; and in 
1837 he exhibited A Vieto of the Coanl at Algiers, which was purchased out of the Civil List, and 
further rewarded with a medal of the second class. He shortly ' afterwards returned to Africa, and 
was an amateur spectator of the campsiign against Constantine, being present at the assault upon 
that town, which fonued the subject of a picture exhibited by him in 1838. This picture was pur- 
chased by King Louis Phillippe, and placed in the chatetiu of Neuilly, where it was pierced with 
bullets in the revolutionary days of 1848, and tl)e remains sold off witli other ilebris, but afterwards 
repurchased by Queen Marie-Amelie. In the following year he produced another picture representing 
The Breach at Qmstanline, and the g»ite where Col. Lamorecidre, at the licad of the Zouaves, was 
knocked down by the explosion ; which was also purchased out of the Civil List. In the same year 
(1839) he was selected by tiie Academy of Fine Arts to accompany an archaeological expedition into 
Persia, a country in which he remained until 1841 ; and collected a vast amount of interesting ma- 
terials, which were submitted to a Commission of the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Academy of 
Inscriptions and Belles Lettres. Upon the appearance of the report of this commission in 1842, M. 
Flandin receivetl the decoration of the Legion of Honour. Shortly aftfi- his return to France, 
he was selected by the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, to undertake another mission 
to Khorsabad, on the eastern bank of the Tiber, the supposed site of ancient Nineveh. He started 
upon this expedition in Nov. 1843 and returned in 1845. After the completion of these public 
works, M. Flandin returned to painting, and exhibited, in 1853, a View of Stamboid, and a View 
of the Royal. Mosffue al Ispahan. In 1855 he re-exhibited these two works, adding to them a Omerai 
View of Constantinople, and a view of the Entrance of the Bosphorua. 



64 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

FLANDRIN (JOHN HIPPOLYTUS), was born in Lyons in 1809, and was a younger brother 
of Augustus Fiandrin. He commenced his studies under Messrs. Legeadre and Maquin, and afterwards 
placed himself under M. Revoil. In 1829 he came to Paris with his younger brother Paul, and 
entered the studio of Ingres. In 1832 he carried off the great prize in painting, and started for 
Italy ; where, in the ensuing year, he was followed by his two brothers, Paul and Augustus ; and all 
three studied assiduously under Ingres, who had been appointed Director of the Academy at Rome. 
In 1838 the three brothers returned to France ; Paul and Hippolytus taking up their ground at 
Paris, where they worked in the same studio ; the latter, however, alone following the counsels of 
Ingres, and remaining faithful to the historic style. His works are generally finely conceived, display 
learning and rx.dmirable study ; but combined with an austerity which sometimes approaches to coldness. 
His design is pure, but somewhat mannered, and wanting in variety. His principal works are Theseus 
reaognized by his Father in the midst of a Festivity, for which he received the great prize ; Euripides 
writing his Tragedies, Dante conducted by Virgil, offering Consolation to t/ie ^Souls of the Envious (1836), 
/St. Clair Healing the Blind, (1837), Christ and tJie Young Children, (1839), St. Louis dictating his 
Code of Laws, (1842), a grand composition, painted for the Chamber of Peers ; Portrait of Count A. 
(1843), Mater Dolorosa, (1845), several portraits (1845-6), Najwleon as a Legislator, (1847), painted by 
command for the Hall of the Home Department in the Conseil dEtat; portraits, and a female study, 
(1848). M. Fiandrin also executed a great number of monumentjil paintings : — as, the interior of the 
chapel of St. John in the church of St. Severin, completed in 1840 ; a coloured window for the town of 
Dreux, representing St. Louis taking up the Cross for the second time, (1843), and two encauatic paintings 
in the choir of the churcli of St. Germain-des-Pr6s, on the subjects of The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, 
and Christ led to His Crucifixion, and the frieze on the entablature of the nave of St. Vincent de Paul, 
representing groups of Angels and Saints advancing towards Christ. M. Fiandrin obtained a second-class 
medal in 1836 ; a first-class medal in 1838 ; was appointed to the Legion of Honour in 1841, of which 
he became an officer in 1853 ; and in the same year was elected to the Academy. At the Universal 
Exposition in 1855, he obtained a medal of the first-class. He died at Rome on the 21»t March, 1864. 

FLANDRIN (JOHN PAUL), brother of the preceding, was born in Lyons in 1811, and also 
received lessons in painting from Legendre, Maquin and Revoil, in his native city, and from Ingres 
at Paris. In 1834 he followed his brother to Rome, and commenced painting both landscape and 
figure subjects. On returning with his brother to Paris, he, under the advice of Ingres, took to the 
walk of historical landscapes, in order not to clash with his brother in the same field. His works 
in this line have considerable merit, showing much of poetry in the conception of his subject, taste 
and skill in the arrangement of his materials, and a severe correctness, somewhat chargeable with 
coldness, in the execution. He also, like his brother, painted portraits. He first exhibited in 1839, 
The Proscribed taking leave of his Family, and Campagna of Rome; and subsequently produced Views 
in the Environs of Lyons, Saint Jerome, (1841), The Banks of the Tiber, called at Rome the Promenade 
of Poussin, (1843), Tivoli, Banks of the Rhone, Twilight, (1844); Shepherds Quarrelling, Peace, {18i7) ; 
the Sabine Mountain, (1852) ; Environs of Vienne, {Dauphine) and the Reverie (1853). In 1855 he 
contributed to tlie Universal Exhibition, Gorge of Mount Atlas, Solitude, Valley of Montmorency, and 
several others. He also painted the gallery of the baptistry in the church of St. Severin, and some 
of the views of the environs of Paris, in the Hotel de Ville. He received second-class medals in 
1839 and 1848, and a first-class medal in 1847. 



CHARLES LAURENT MARECHAL. 65 

LAJOUE (JACQIIES\ several of whose pictures grace the Galleries of Versailles, was born at 
Paris in 1686, and died there in 1761. Besides executing many excellent paintings entirely liimself, he 
aided Watteau by painting into his compositions (now generally credited to Watteau) some of the most 
successful arcliitectural effects. His best paintings are allegorical subjects, of which we may mention 
EloqueTice, Geography, Astronomy, Force, History, Music, itc. One of his most prominent pictures at 
Versailles is Lajoue and his Family. 

DUYAL-LE-CAMUS (PIERRE). Born at Lisieux (1790-1854). Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour. Pupil of David, and. for many years, Painter in Ordinary to the Duchesse de Berri. His 
pictures were highly finished ; many of them have been engraved. Several of his works are in the 
Louvre. 

DUVAL-IE-CAMUS (JULES-ALEXANDRE . Born at Paris, 1817. Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour. Son of the preceding. Pupil of Drolling and Delaroche. His picture of Jacqms Clement 
(1861), is in the Luxembourg. In 1867 he exhibited The Martyrdom of St. Laurence; in 1863, St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary dispensing lier Charities; in 1857, The Flight into Egypt, &c. 

SEBBON (HIPPOLYTE'. Born at Caudebec (Seine-Inf6rieure) in August, 1801. Studied under 
Daguerre, and made his debxd as genre painter at the Lebrun Gallery, in 1824. He worked for a 
long time with his preceptor at the tableaux of the Diorama, and visited, at various times, Holland, 
Switzerland, Italy, England and Spain, and finally the United States, (1852). His principal exhibits are 
Interior of Saint Wanrlrdle, The Palace of Farnesi, Saint Paul of Antwerp, View of Broadway and New 
Orleans, at the Universal Exposition of 1855. 

M. H. Sebron obtained a medal of the third class in 1838, two of the second class in 1848 
and 1849, one of the first class in 1844, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1867. He 
died September Ist, 1879. 

HARECHAL (CHARLES LAURENT), born at Metz (Moselle), in 1801, of poor parents, learned a 
tnide and remained for some time a journeyman saddler. His aptitude and strong will rescued him 
from this position ; he started for Paris and there accomplished all the studies possible, while earning 
a scant living. After having been, for several years, pupil of Regnault, he returned (in 1825), and 
settled at Metz; the following year he exhibited at the Exposition of the Moselle, a painting of Job, 
which won for him the silver medal of the first class, and inaugurated his popularity among his fellow- 
citizens. He opened at this period a studio which was very successful. In 1831 M. Mardchal, whose 
talent bad developed, presented to the king, Louis Philippe, who was then visiting Metz, a painting of 
genre. The Prayer, and obtained honourable mention at the Salon of that year. But after having 
executed a few more paintings in oil, among others. The Harvest, he sought in the crayon a jneans of 
execution more prompt, and more in harmony with the animation and fiery ardor of his talent. The 
original type of the gipsy families he had met, among the mountains of Bitche, proved to him an 
element of success at the expositions of Paris, Brussels and London. He contributed to the Paris Salons, 
among other pastels, The Sisters of the Poor, The Hungarian Wo'id-choppers, The Little Oipsy, (1841), 
Leisure Moments, Distress, The Adepts, by which he won successively a medal of the third, one of the 
second, and one of the first class. 

Ho was the originator, in his native city, of a new and important industry, that of painting on 
glass. Those he exhibited at the Crystal Palace, in London, (1851) won a first class medal, and the 



66 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

two immense hemicycles he executed for the Palace of Industry of Paris in 1855 caused the artist, 
who had been decorated in 1846, to be promoted to the rank of an officer of the Legion of Honour. 
He was elected in 1861 correspondent of the Institute. 

Among his pupils we cite his son, M. Charles Raphael Mar^chal, born at Metz in 1830, author 
of The Simoon, The Night Halt, Tlie Shipwrecked, which were exhibited at the Salons of 1853 and 
1857. It is he who has made the cartoons of the paintings of the great parlor of the Minister of 
State, at the Louvre. He obtained a medal of the second class in 1853. 

GUDIN (THEODORE*, was born in Paris on the loth August, 1802. He attended for some 
time the atelier of Girodet-Trioson, but left it upon enrolling himself in the romantic school, in company 
with Gerieault and Delacroi.x;. He restricts himself entirely to landscape and marine subjects ; his first 
success dating about the year 1822. In 1824 he obtained a gold medal, and in 1827 produced The 
Burning of the Kent East Indiaman, now in the Qullery of the Luxembourg, and The Return of the 
Fishermen, two of his best pictures, which obtained for him the decoration of the Legion of Honour 
in the following year. Between 1830 and 1842 he exhibited A Oale in the Roads of Algiers, The 
Frigate Syren taken in a Oale, The Ship in 'Distress, Explosion of the Fort of the Emperor ai Algiers, A 
View of Constantinople taken from Pera, Boarding of the English Oaleot, "Hazard" by the " Courier," Ac. 
These works are all remarkable for vigorous treatment ; and, with some others, made an imposing array 
at the Universal Exhibition of 1855. M. Gudin also painted, between the years 1838 and 1848, up- 
wards of eighty marine subjects in the Museum of Versailles. 

LEHOUX (PETER-FRANCIS), born at Paris in 1803, studied under Horace Vernet, made a voyage 
to the East, and made his debut at the Salon of 1831. His principal exhibits are View of Alexandria, 
Ruins of Thebes (1831), Souvenir of the Plains of Thebes (1866), Mercury and Argus (1869), etc. He 
obtained a medal of the second class in 1833. 

SCHOPIN (HENRY-FREDERICK), was born of French parents, at Lubeck, (Germany), June 12, 
1804, entered the School of Fine Arts in the year 1821 as pupil of Baron Gros, and won the grand 
prize of Rome for painting, in 1831, by the subject, Achilles pursued by Xanthus. On his return from 
Rome, in 1835, he made his debut at the Salon of that year with The Last Moments of the Cenci, 
Charles IX. signing the Edict of the Saint Bartholomew, A Fountain at Albano, and A Young Girl 
and her Goat, etc., etc. 

M. Henry Schopin executed for the Galleries of Versailles, The Battle of Hohenlinden, Taking of 
Antioch, the Picture of Berthier, Prince of Wagram, and various others. The majority of the works of 
this artist have been frequently reproduced by engravings and lithographs. He obtained a medal of the 
first class in 1835, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour in August, 1854. 

BLANOHARD (HENRY L. PHARAMOND\ was born at La Guillotiere (Rhone), in February, 1805, 
and went to Paris in 1819, where he studied under Chasselat and Gros. He undertook several voyages 
in almost every part of the globe ; in Spain in 1833 ; in Africa and Mexico, where he formed part of 
the French Expedition, in 1838 ; in Germany, in the south of France ; and in 1856 in Russia, where 
he was present at the coronation of tlie Emperor Alexander II. Notwithstanding being so frequently 
absent from his native country, he has exhibited almost every year from 1833. His principal works 
are as varied in subject and style, as the various climates and localities he visited; as Btdl Hunting, 
The Chapelle Ardente, The Smugglers, 1836, The Brigand Jose Maria, The Disarmament of Vera Cruz, 



AUGUSTUS BARTHOLOMEW GLAIZE. 67 

1840, ^ which is at Versailles), Fernando Coriez, The Street of El-Almi at Tangiers, Funeral of a Moor, 
Arab Musician, Mexican Gamblers, San Isidro Labrador, the Patron Saint of Madrid, Souvenirs of the 
Rhine, Interior of the Church of Chatou. He sent to the Universal Exhibition of Paris, 1855, Vasco 
Nvnez de Balboa Discovering the South Sea, (purchased by the State) ; and Tlie Valley of Jehosaphat. 
He has also contributed largely to " L'lllustration," and in 1855 published " L'ltin^raire Historique et 
Descriptif de Paris ^ Constantinople," (12 plates). He obtained a third class medal for Landscape in 
1836, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1840. 

LEFEBYBE (CHARLES), was born at Paris, October 16th, 1805, studied under Gros and Abel 
de Pujol, and made his d^but at the Salon of 1827. He has exhibited, at the end of several voya<^es 
in Spain, Switzerland and Germany, The Prisoner of Chillon (1827), The Penitent Magdalene (1831), 
Louis XL refusing the thanks of Nemours (1833), The Miraculous Virgin (1838), Souvenirs of Normandy 
(1841) WiRvam the Conqueror, Young Baxxhancdian, purchased by the Minister of the Interior (1850), 
an Ecce Homo, The Wife of Candaule, Doctor Adelon (1855), The Triumph of Amphitrite, Gipsy, In- 
habitants of Brittany, St. Louis disembarking at Damietta (1859), A Feast to Bacchus, Penitent Magda- 
lene, cartoons of two windows executed in the Church of Saint-Leu ; ten drawings, (1861) ; Death of 
William the Conqueror, A Study, (1863)"; Moses on the Mount, (1864); St. Sebastian, Martyr, (1866). 
Let U8 cite also the paintings executed in the Church of St. Louis en-l'Ile, Chapel of St. Madeleine, 
Ac, Ac. This artist obtained a medal of the second class in 1833, one of the first class in 1845, 
one of the third class at the Universal Exposition of 1855, and the decoration of the Legion of 
Honour in 1859. 

OIBAUD (PETER-FRANCLS-EUGENE), painter and engraver, was born at Paris, August 9, 1806. 
Wias a pupil in the studios of Theodore Richomme and of M. Hersent, and entered at the latter part 
of 1821, the School of Fine Arts, where he won the grand prize for engraving at the competition of 
1826. He engraved The Virgin with the Green Cushion, of Andrea Solari, (1830), then executed crayon 
work as well as historical painting, and returned, in 1832, to Paris, where he exhibited a series of 
canvasses in genre painting and portraits. In 1841 he visited Spain, and in 1847 the East and Algiers. 
He has contributed to the Salons, since 1835, two master-pieces, A Terrace on the banks of the Nile, 
and The Agreeable Meeting. Honourably noticed at the Salon of 1878. 

M. Giraud has hardly signed as an engraver, with the exception of two important works, both 
exhibited in 1833, his contribution from Rome, The Virgin with the Green Cushion, and the Portrait of 
John Richardot, after P. P. Rubens. He obtained for painting a medal of the third class in 1833, 
one of the second in 1863, Knight of the Legion of Honour, May, 1851, and he was promoted to the 
rank of Officer, August 13, 1866. 

OL.iIZE (AUGUSTUS-BARTHOLOMEW), born at Montpellier, on the 15th day of December, 1807, 
pupil of Achilles and Eugene Deveria, made his debut at the Salon of 1836, and established himself 
at Paris. After having first executed genre paintings and religious subjects, he sought in literature and 
romantic ideas, inspirations which often proved happy ones. He cultivated successfully, lithography and 
crayon pastel drawing. 

M. Glaize exhibited, among his most notable works: Luca-Signorelli, (1836); After the War, 
Faust and Marguerite, Poor Family, Psyche, The Flight m Ejypt, (1842); Salome, Death of St. John, 
A Path at Reseboii, (1874); The Adulteroujt Womun dragged before Christ, The Conjuraiion (1875), 



68 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

purchased for the Gallery of the Luxembourg ; Cynic and Philanthropist, (1876) ; The Blind Man and 
the Paralytic, (1877); Force, (1878); The Two Neighbors, (1879), etc. 

M. Glaize obtained a medal in 1842, three second class ones in 1844, 1848 and 1855, and one 
of the first class in 1845, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour, in November, 1877. 

LELOIR (JOHN-BAPTIST-AUGUSTUS), born at Paris, July 27th, 1809, entered tlie studio of M. 
Picot about 1827, and the year following, the School of Fine Arts. On his return from a journey to 
Italy, he made his debut at the Salon of 1835, with a portrait. He has exhibited among other notable 
works : Rvith and Naomi, The Parable of the Ten Virgins, T/ie Good Artgel, Saint Cecilia, Marguerite 
in Prison, (1839); Young Peasants at the foot of the Sacred Way. Homer, at the Luxembourg Museum. 
(1842); The Last Supper, executed for the Minister of the Interior; Christian Family exposed to Wild 
Beasts, Christ and the Woman of Samxtria, All-Sainfji' Night, Christians in tlie Catacombs, The Captive 
Athenians at Syracuse, and a great number of portraits. Among which three fancy portraits on one 
canvas of Claude, Nicholas and Gaspar Poussin. 

He has also executed numerous decorations, notably tho.se at the cliurches of Saint-Germain- 
I'Auxerrois, Saint-M6ry and Napoleon-Saint-Leu. He obtained a third class medal in 1839, and a second 
class one in 1841. 

BUTTURA (EUGENE FERDINAND), historical landscape painter, son of the poet, was born at Paris 
in 1812, and died in the same city, in 1852. He commenced his studies in the atelier of Bertin, 
from which he went to that of Delaroche. He carried off the great prize of Rome in landscape, in 
1837, for his picture of Apollo Inventing the Seven Stringed Lyre. On his return from Rome in 1842, 
he exhibited The Ravine, and in 1848 Daphne and Chloe at the Fountain of the Nymphs, for both of 
which he was rewarded with a gold medal. Amongst his other more important works are Nansioaa 
and Ulysses, Saint Jerome in the Desert, and A View of Tivoli. He also produced some small pictures, 
in the style of the realistic school, such as Campo Vicino, (1845), which was lithographed by M. Anastasi, 
The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. (1846), a View of the Cascades of Tivoli, and A Park Interior, 
which by their neatness and sharpness of effect and minuteness of detail rival the productions of 
photography. 

CABAT (LOUIS NICHOLAS), a landscape painter, was born at Paris in 1812, and studied under 
M. Camille Flers. Early in life he travelled through the most picturesque parts of France, more par- 
ticularly the banks of the Indre, the Meurthe, and the Calvados. He made his debut at the Salon of 
1833, with some landscapes which were accused of " realism,' (then an evidence of heterodoxy in art), 
but persevered, nevertheless, till 1837, in the style in which he had commenced, and which afterwards 
became that of a school. During some years after the last-named date, he appeared at the exhibition 
only twice, (in 1840 ami 1841 respectively,) making in the meantime two voyages to Italy. He re- 
commenced exhibiting in 1848, and has continued regularly to do so since, but his later works havr> 
not the same originality as was displayed in his first efforts. Amongst his works, besides several land- 
scapes of local scenery in France, are T/ie Good Samaritan, a historic landscape; You7ig Tobii and the 
Angel, The Lake Nemi; at Genzano, near Rotne, (the last two purchased by the late Duke of Orleans), 
The Disciples at Emmaus, The Ravine of Villeray, under three effects of light. Morning, Twihght and 
Moonlight, (exhibited in 1855), the Po7td in the Wood, 1859. His picture Evening, was in the Inter- 
national Exhibition 1862. M. Cabat obtained a medal of the second class in 1834 ; and the decoration 



FELIX EMMANUEL HEN BY PHILIFPOTEAUX. 69 

of the Legion of Honour in 1843 ; officer in 1855 ; member of the Institute, 1867 ; and director of 
the French Academy at Kome, 1879. 

JACQUE (CHABLES-EMILE), painter and engraver, born at Paris, May 23d, 1813, was at first 
employed by a geographical engraver, then enlisted in a regiment of the line, and took part at the 
siege of Antwerp. At the end of seven years, having finished his term of service, he designed, from 
1837 to 1843, a considerable number of subjects on stone and on wood for illustrated publications, after 
which he engraved, by the aqua fortis process, rustic compositions which met with great success, their 
number being no less than four hundred. M. Charles Jacque, who has contributed but irregularly to 
the annual Salons, has exhibited paintings and pen drawings equallj' remarkable. He has obtained, as 
engraver, three medals, in 1851. 1861 and 1863, and as painter o. landsocipes and animals, three other 
medals, in 1861, 1863 and 1861. He was decorated Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1867. 
Being for a long time engaged in the raising of {wultry, he has published the Poulailler (Hen-House), 
a monography of indigenous and exotic fowls, etc., (1858. 8vo. 2d edition, 1861, 18m6., illustrated by 
the author). His brother, M. Emile Jacque, and his son, M. Leon Jacque, born in 1841, died in 1871, 
have both engraved with aqua-fortis. 

COMPTE-CAUX (FRANnS-ClAUDIUS), born at Lyons, August 28, 1813, entered the School of 

Fine Arts of his native city, and followed peculiarly the teachings of J. CI. Bonnefond. He essayed 
his talent in various styles, but succeeded above all in genre painting. His first contribution to the 
Salon was in 1840. Among his compositions, often received with favor and reproduced by lithography, 
we cite, The Mother and Step-Mother, (1845); Love at the Castle and Love in the Cottage, (1846); 
Alone in the World, (1848); A Simple Story, (1873); A Little Road which Leads Ear. Where in the 

deuce are they going? (1875); He told me etc.. besides a number of portraits. This artist 

has obtained a medal of the thinl class in 1844 for the historical genre and rappeh in 1857, 1859 
and 1863. 

LEROirX (CHARLES-MARY-WILLIAM), painter and politician, born at Nantes, April 25, 1814, at 
Brst embraced the profession of barrister, then studied landscape painting at Paris, in the studio of M. 
Corot, and made his dehxii at the Salon of 1834. After living in Paris for a time he returned, in 
1842. to liis native city, from whence he contributed to the Salons : Souvenir of Fontainehleau, (1834) ; 
A Brook, View of Q-oisie, (1848); Jiising of Fog near Faimbceuf, (1879), etc. This artist obtained a 
medal of the third class in 1840, one of the second in 1846 and 1848 and a raippd in 1859. Knight 
of the Legion of Honour in 1859, he was promoted to the rank of officer, August 14, 1868. 

His son, M. Celestin Leroux, also established at Nantes, where ho Wiis born, studied under his 
father and Rousseau and made his debid as landscape painter at the Salon of 1853; at that of 1861 
he exhibited two paintings: Sunrise, Edge of Wood in the Haut-Poitou. 

PHILIFPOTEAUX (FELIX-EMMANVEL-HENRY), historical painter, born at Paris, April 3, 1815, 
entered while quite young, the studio of M. L6on Cogniet, with whom he subsequently worked for the 
Galleries of Versailles, notably on the Battle of Monthahor, exhibited in 1843. His first exhibition 
picture appeared at the Salon of 1833 ; the works which he has since frequently exhibited now decorate 
the best museums, the Luxembourg, Versailles, Rouen, Strasburg and Marseilles. The principal ones are, 
The Iceberg, Episode of the Wars of America, (1833); The Retreat from Moscow, (1835); The Capture 
of Ypres. (1837); Drxith of Tarenne. Th-: Siege of Antwerp in 1792, Colonel Fr. Ponsonby rescued on 



70 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

tlie BatUe-Jield of Waterloo, by a French Officer, at the Universal Exposition of 1878; They are vn our 
House, (1880), etc. He was the principal author of the vast and remarkable panorama representing 
the Bombardment of Paris by the German Armies, painted in 1872. 

M. Philippoteaux also contributed some genre paintings: The Periwinkle, The Deception, The Blade 
of Gh'ass, The Return from the Dram-shop, (1853) ; a few military pictures ; a certain number of drawings 
in the "Journal for all," and other illustrated works. There are to be seen at Versaille.'*, T/ie BaMe 
of the Raab, The Passage of the Tagliamento, The /Siege of Anttoerp in 1832. He obtained a medal 
of the second class in 1837, one of the first class in 1840, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour 
in July, 1846. 

COUTURE (THOMAS;, historical and genre painter, born at Senlis, December 21, 1815, received 

his first lessons from Gros, then passed into the studio of Paul Delaroche. He obtained, in 1837, a 
second prize at the competition of the Institute, and made his d^but at the Salon of 1840, with the 
Young Venetian after an Orgy. The following year he exhibited a Prodigal Son, a ]Vidow, The 
Return from the Fields; in 1843 a Troubadour and two Portraits; in 1844 a Jocunda and The Love 
of Gold, (Museum of Toulouse), which revealed in that artist an originality and gave him a reputation 
as a colourist. Rewarded by a medal of the third class, he undertook a work of some magnitude, 
and sent to the iSalon of 1847, The Romans of the De-dine, now in the Grallery of the Luxembourg, 
ad immense c.mvas, inspired by two verses of Juvenal, 

" Nunc patimur longae pacis mala : saevior armis 
Luxuria incubuit, victumque ulciscitur orbem." 

This painting was the grand success of the Exposition, and won for M. Couture a medal of the 
first class, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour. 

After this brilliant stroke, M. Couture permitted four Expositions to take place without his taking 
any part whatever, and only sent to the Salon of 1852 two portraits and a head. The Gipsy Girl. At 
the Universal Exposition of 1857 he gave a painting of remarkable design and coloring. The Falconer, 
and re-exhibit(>d his Romans of the Decline. Pie has undertaken since a large painting, Enrolment of 
Volunteers, and (executed two orders, Tlie Return of the TVoops from the Crimea, and The Baptism of 
the Prince Imperial. He decorated the chapel of the Virgin at Saint Eustache, and thereafter only 
appeared in public in 1872, by a painting entitled Damocles, which attracted but little attention. Having 
retired, several years ago, to his Castle of Villiers-le-Bel, (Seine-et-Oise), M. Th. Couture has had pub- 
lished a small edition of each of his two books, in which he has expressed his opinion of contemporary 
art: "Method, and Studio Chat, (1867: 18rao.); "Landscape. Studio Chat, (1869: 18mo). He died at 
Villiers-le-Bel, March 31, 1879. 

DESJOBERT (LOUIS-REMY-EUGENE^ born at Chateauroux, April 16, 1817, was son of M. Desjo- 
bert, Registrar of that city, descendant of a family originally from Tssoudun, and who was a prominent 
barrister. On his motlier'a side. Mile. Eugenie Duris de Vineuil, ho was related to several political and 
literary notabilities of de Berry, among others, the deputy Duris- Dufresne, and the poet Henri de la 
Fouche, author of ' Fragoletta, the Celebrated Host," in the romance of the " Wolfs Valley." 

From 1840, the first year in which he exhibited, to 1863, Desjobert has competed in nearly all 
the Salons. His paintings, exiiibited durin<T this period, arc too numerous to mention, chiefly forests 
and. landscapes ; it will suffice to say, that from the beginning he manifested a remarkable elegance of 



CHARLE8 FE. BAUBIGSY. 71 

design, truthfulness of colouring and an exquisite distinction of style, whicii never left liiui, even when 
handling subjects of the most familiar kind. He received medals in 1855, 1857, 1861 and 1863, which 
year he was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Since 1862 he had been suffering from a 
disease of the eyes, which caused his friends great alarm, and just at the time when these fears were 
subsiding by tue amelioration of the symptoms, he was stricken by the cruel malady, cancer, to which 
he succumbed, after one month of suffering. 

H££ERT (AXTHOXT-AUGrSTUS-EBNEST), member of the Institute, born at Grenoble, November 
3, 1817, ca;ue to Paris in 1838, and studied law, during which time he was under the tutorship of 
David D' Angers, in the latter's studio. In 1839 he exhibited at the Louvre, Tasso in Prison, his 
maideu eflfort, which was bought by the government for the Museum of Grenoble. Encouraged by the 
counsel and kindness of Paul Delaroche, he competed at the School of Fine Arts, and won the grand 
prize of Rome. The subject was: The Cup found in Benjamin's Sack, (1839). After having spent 
live years at the villa Medici, from whence he sent to Paris two Odalisks and a copy of The Sybil, 
called Ddphica, he prolonged his sojourn in Italy three more years ; brought back with him the sketches 
for his best paintings. After returning from Italy he exhibited Oriental Reverie, executed in Rome ; 
The Siesta, Italian Shepherd, (1848); The Mwte of the Woods, (1877); T/ie Sultana, (1879), etc., etc., 
not mentioning numerous anonymous paintuigs. 

M. Hubert obtaine<l two medals of the first class, one in 1851, the other in 1855, and one of 
the second class at the Universal Exposition of 1867, knight of the Legion of Honour in July, 1853. 
He was promoted to the rank of officer, August 7. 1867, and commander, July 7, 1874. Towards the 
end of December, 1866, he was appointed Director of the Academy of France, at Rome, in the place 
of M. Robert Fleury ; he remained in that city until 1873. He was elected member of the Institute, 
March 21, 1874, in place of Conder. 

6UI0XET (ADRIAN', was l)om December, 1817, at Annecy, in Savoy, where his father was the 
steward of a chateau. Impelled by invincible aspirations for distinction in art, he, against the wish of 
his Cather, made his way to Paris, where he entered the studio of Blondel. After experiencing a long 
course of privations, he succeeded in making himself a name somewhat in the line of Salvator Rosa, 
and of the French artist Decamps. He has exhibited, amongst others in 1840, Moses exposed ov the 
Nile, Travellers surprised hy a Bear, Joseph explaining his Dream to his Brothers, Hagar in the Desert; 
in 1842, John the Baptist Preaching; in 1843, Episode in the Retreat of the Ten Thousand; in 1844, 
Balvaijor Rosa amongst the Brigands; in 1845, Jossph explaining the Dream of Pharaoh; in 1846, 
Xerxes bewailing his Army; in 1847, a Ixindscape, and a For-st Scene. In 1848, Don Quixote Playing 
the Fool, The Flight into Egypt. He also executed for the Duke de Luynes, Chateau de Dampierre, 
The Defeat of Attila by Aetvus, Belshazzar's Fea^t, and The Gardens of Armida; the last of which was 
not quite finished when he died, at Paris, 19th of May, 1851. 

D.VrBIOXY <PETER), a miniature painter, was born at Paris in October, 1793. He became a 
pupil of d'Aubry. and commence<l e-xhibiting in 1822, having been a pretty regular contributor to the 
Exhibitions ever since. Amongst his numerous miniatures, which have attracted notice, were those of 
M. L. Madame Alfred fie Vigny, and General Gourgand. 

DAUBIONY (CHAHLES FB.\ nephew of the above; landscape painter, and engraver upon copper 
inil wocxl ; was born at Paris in 1817, At the age of eighteen he visited Italy, and on his return 



72 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

exhibited, in 1838, A View of the Church of Notre Dame, at Paris. Four landscapes painted by him, 
The Banks of the River Oulins, View of tJie Seine at Charenton, The Island oj Bezons, and The Beiiie 
at Bezons, were purchased by the Minister of the Interior. A View on the Banks of the Seine, painted 
in 1852, is in the Museuffi at Nantes ; and The Pool of Gilieu, near Optevoz, (Isere), was purchased 
by the Emperor Napoleon III., and is in the Palais of St. Cloud. As a copper-plate engraver, he has 
produced the illustrations for several works published by Curmer, such as " Le Jardin des Plantes," 
" Revue des Beaux Arts," &i\ He has engraved on wood for " L'lllustration," " Journal des 
Artistes," &c. In 1855 he exhibited A Scene on the Istre; 1857, Springtime; and The Vintage, 1865; 
all three of which are in the Gallery of the Luxembourg. He was decorated Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honour, 1859; Officer, 1874; he died in 1878. 

YVON fADOLPHUS, historical and battle painter, was born at Eschwiller, on the Moselle, in 
1817. He came to Paris, and entered the atelier of Paul Delaroche, contrary to the wishes of his 
family, who intended him for the government service. He first exhibited in 1842, a portrait of 
Madame Ancelot. In 1843, during a journey, he made a series of designs, which were exhibited at 
the Salon in Paris in 1847 and 1848. Amongst other works which he exhibited, are, Portrait of 
General Neumayer (1844), The Remorse of Judas (1846), The BaMle of Koulikowo (1850), A Fallen 
Angel (1852), The First Consul Descending the Alps, which is in the Palais of Compiegne. In 1855, 
M. Yvon sent to the Universal Exposition Marshal Ney supporting the rear guard in the Russian 
Campaign, a large and effective work ; and The Seven Capital Sins, in illustration of Dante. M. 
Yvon having been sent by the Emperor Napoleon III. to the Crimea, at the time of the Siege of 
Sebastopol, exhibited in 1857 his great battle picture. The Taking of the Malakoff, (intended for the 
Gallery of Versailles); and in 1859 The Gorge of the Malakoff, and The Curtain of the Malakoff. Tliis 
artist, who displays a perfect knowledge of his art, and a free and forcible pencil, received a medal 
of the first class in 1848, and one of the second class 1855; and the great med^l of Honour in 
1857, and officer of the Legion of Honour in 1867. 

GUILLEMIN (ALEXANDRE MARIE\ born at Paris in October, 1817. He was a pupil of Gros, 
and exhibited in 1840 a work called First Success, being a souvenir of the studio; and Chasseurs and 
a Milk Woman/ in 1844, God and the King, T/ie Blues are there, an episode of the Vendean War, 
The Consultation, and The Old Sailor; in 1845, T/ie Miser, Reading the Bible, The Vendor of Images; 
in 1849, Milton, An Hour of Liberty ; in 1852, The Empiric, The Virgin, and After the Repast, subjects 
of sufficient variety. Correctness of design, a truthful study of nature, and great freshness and purity 
of colour distinguish the work of this artist. He was decorated Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 
1852. He exhibited as recently as 1877. 

ANTIGNA (JEAN PIERRE ALEXANDER\ born in 1818 at Orleans, at the College of which 
lown he was educated, being taught drawing by M. Sahnon, a professor of merit, who, discovering the 
lalent of his pupil, induced him in 1836 to go into the atelier of M. Norblin. After remaining here 
a twelvemonth, he placed himself under Delaroche, from whom, during seven years, he received instruc- 
tion and counsel. Under his influence he made, in 1841, his d%ut in religious subjects, which he 
continued to paint until the year 1845 inclusive. After this he adopted a more independent course, 
and a pamphlet which appeared at that time, entitled, " L'Art de devenir Depute, Ministre, &c.,' 
suggested his picture of The Poor Family, one of his most original productions, which at once revealed 



AUGUSTUS G END RON. 73 

the bent of his talent. M. Antigna obtained a third class medal in genre-historique in 1847, a second 
class medal in 1848, a first class in 1851, and a third class, with the decoration of the Legion of 
Honour at the Exposition Universelle in 1855. He died in 1878. 

LELEVX (ADOLPHE), born at Paris, 1812. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He studied 
his art absolutely alone. He traveled in France and Algiers, and met with remarkable success in his 
pictures of manners and customs, which is principally due to his exactness of representation. His 
Wedding in Brittany (1863) is at the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited A Salon of 
CreniUe and The Family of a Maker of Wooden Shoes in Lower Brittany. Among his pictures are, 
A Market-Day at Finist^e, Spring Flowers, A Fhineral in Brittany, Arab Women in the Desert, Bedouins 
attacked by Dogs, etc. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited Washerwomen in Berry and The Departure. 

LELEUX (ARMAND), genre painter, brother of Adolphe Leleux, (also an artist), was born at Paris 
in 1818, entered in 1832 the studio of M. Ingres, and followed him to the villa Medici, in 1834. 
After sojourning two yeturs in Italy, he exhibited at the Salon of 1839 a small Scene in Brittany and 
a Saint Jerome Beading the Bible, then gave his attention to genre painting, in which his brother, 
Adolphe, had already gained a reputation. He contributed from tliat time ; Return from the Chase 
(1840); Interior of a Stable (1841); Swiss Dance, Interior of a Studio, Alpine Hunter (1846) etc. 
Whilst in the midst of these works, M. Leleux made two subsequent voyages to Italy, and one to 
Germany. In 1846, he was entrusted with a mission to Madrid. 

M. Arraand Leleux obtained a medal of the third class in 1844, two of the second class in 
1847 and 1848, a rappd in 1857, a medal of the first class in 1859, and the decoration of the 
Legion of Honor in 1860. 

HAFFNER (FEIIX), born at Strasburg in 1818, studied under M. Sandman, and devoted himself 
to genre and landscape painting. At the end of ' a voyage made to Germany, he made his dtbut 
at the Salon of 1844, and has exhibited since then: A Brewery near Munich (1845J ; Rohertzau, 
environs of Strasburg (186(i); Pond of the Mineau (1867); Apple Trees in Alsace (1868); Watching 
far Ducks (1869); The Double Shot (1870). 

He obtained a medal of the third class in 1849, and one of the second class in 1852. M. 
Haffner died at Mcsnil Amelot (Seine-et-Marne), in January, 1875. 

HILLEMACHER (EUGENE-ERNEST), born at Paris in 1818, entered the studio of M. Leon Cogniet, 
and adopted his style. Among his principal works is to be found : Saint Sebastian Dying, 1854 ; 
The Cmfeasumal in St. Peter's at Rome, (1855) ; General Duval, (1873) ; The Young Turenne, (1874) ; 
Archimedes, (1877), and Phidias, (1878). 

M. Hillemacher has obtained a medal of the second class in 1848, a mention at the Universal 
Exposition of 1855, a medal of the first class in 1861 and renewal of the medal of the second class 
in 1857, also renewal of a medal of the first class in 1863, and the decoration of the Legion of 
Honour in 1865. 

OENDRON (AUGUSTUS), historical painter, born at Paris in 1818, was pupil of Paul Delaroche, 
and spent six years in Italy, where he executed his first paintings, among others, Dante Criticised by 
Boccacio, (Salon of 1844); The Willises, several times reproduced by lithography; The Nereids, etc. On 
his return to France he executed and exhibited successively Saint Catharine Buried by Angels, After 



74 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

Death, (1847) ; Tke Athenian Tribute to the Minotaur, (1876) ; Mr. Pwrgon arrives inopportunely, (1877), 
etc. This artist painted in 1850 a Frieze executed on porcelain at the manufactory of Sevres, used 
as an ornamentation on a jardiniere, eight cases for the decoration of a waiting room of the Exchequer, 
and the ceiUng of the little parlor of the Minister of State, at the Louvre, (1861), he obtained a third 
class medal in 1846, one of the second class in 1849, and another of the third class, with the decoration 
of tiie legion of Honour at the Universal Exposition of 1855. 

CHASSERIEAU (THEODORE), was born at Samana (in the Antilles), in 1819; and being brought 
whilst quite a boy, to France, was placed in the studio of M. Ingres, and afterwards followed that 
master to the French school at Rome, but subsequently quitted him in order to give himself up more 
freely to his own inspirations. He next fell under the influence of the leader of another great school, 
M. Pekiroche. M. Chasserieau executed several large mural paintings in the staircase of the Palace 
of the Council of State, and in the churches of St. Merry, St. Roch, and St. Philipp du-Rucole at Paris. 
Of his various works may bo cited The Tepidarium at Pompeii, in the Museum at the Luxembourg : 
Arab Cavaliers carryin'j away their Dead, /Susannah and tlie Elders, Christ in tlic Garden of Olives, 
Mary /Stuart defending Rizzio against his Assassins. He also left behind him fifteen etchings of subjects 
from Shakespeare's Othello, and thirty from Hamlet. He died in 1856. 

COIJRBET (GUSTATE), was born at Ornans (Denbs.), in June, 1819, and was educated at the 
seminary of his natal town, and afterwards at the College of Besancon. His father destined him for 
the bar, and sent him to Paris in 1839, to pursue his legal studies. But our subject, neglecting the 
latter, took to painting with groat ardour, his first picture being admitted to the exhibition of 1844. 
He then took some lessons from Steuben, and M. Hesse, but depended still chiefly upon his own studies, 
which were founded chiefly upon the schools of Holland, Florence, and Venice. He was at this time 
also led away to a considerable extent by the spirit of romanticism, read Goethe, and painted an alle- 
gorical picture, suggested by " Walpurgis's Dream. ' The revolution of 1848 only increased his ardour 
and his ambitious aspirations, and he sent to the exhibition of that year ten pictures or designs, which 
met with distinguished success. He now began to accomplish in painting a revolution analogous to that 
which had taken place in literature ; the culture of the ideal, in combination with the sentiment of 
realism. To the same criticisms which greeted his Afternoon at Ornans, 1849, and The Burial at 
Ornans, 1850, he replied with Tlie BatJiers, 1853. In 1855, being dissatisfied with the places in the 
Universal Exposition, which had been assigned to his pictures, he withdrew his pictures, and opened a 
separate exhibition of his own. On the other hand, at the exhibition of 1860, £t Munich, the jury 
showed their estimate of his pretensions by reserving for him an entire room. Amongst his exhibited 
works were, in 1848, The Violincella Player, three landscapes — Morning, Mid-day, and Evening; and in 
1819, The Common of Champagne by Sunset; in 1850, Ruins of the Castle of 8cey {ex Vavais) ; Peasants 
of Flagey returning from the Fair, and Stone-breakers, one of his best performances ; in 1852, The Young 
Girls of the Villages; in 1853. Womun Spinning; in 1857, The Deer Hunt, and Hind forced to take 
to the Water, both very remarkably effective. One of his finest pictures represents Deer in the Forest 
of Fontainebleau. His better pictures are much appreciated by connoisseurs, and command high prices, 
which will be increased by his death. One is forced to add, in giving an account of Courbet, that 
he was a Communist in 1871, and authorized the destruction of the column Vend6me. He was tried 
at Versailles, and sentenced to six months in prison, and a fine. He was first confined in St. Pierre 
at Versailles, then in Sainte-Pelagie, and, his health failing, he was placed in the care of Dr. Duval, 



CHARLES FRANCIS JALA BERT. 75 

who performed on Lira a serious operation. In May, 1872, the jury of admission, at the suggestion of 
Meissonier, decided that the works of Courbet could not be received at the Salon. Many violent articles 
in the Paris journals were occasioned by this decision. In 1870 he exhibited The Stormy Sea and 
The Reach at Etreiat after a Storm; in 1869, The Stag Whoop, — an Episode of the Chase, and The 
Siesta in the HayiTig-season, Mountains, Doubs; in 1868, The Charity of a Beggar, Springtime; in 1866, 
Woman vrith a Parrot. After his liberation from prison, Courbet lived in Switzerland, and in the summer 
of 1876 he exhibited his later works at Chaux de Fonds. He died at Paris, December 31, 1877. 

FRERE (PIERRE EDOUARD), younger brother of Theodore, is a distinguished painter of the 
modern French school, and was born at Paris, on January 10th, 1819. In 1836 he became the pupil 
of Paul Delaroche, pursuing concurrently his studies in the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Notwithstanding the 
elevated stage upon which he commenced his artistic life, and the grand example before liira, M. Frere 
appears to have determined from the commencement of his practice (he first exhibited in 1843) to 
restrict himself to the genre school of painting ; his subjects being for the most part selected from 
amongst the characteristics and incidents of domestic life ; and these he paints with a truthfulness, and 
a loving tenderness, which constitute them a school entirely his own ; and in which, as yet, he has 
bad no successful imitators. It may be sufficient to enumerate a few of his favorite creations, many 
of which are well known, from having been exhibited in this country, and some of them engraved : — 
The Little Glutton, The Little Mountebank, The Cook, The Hen with her Golden Eggs, The Workshop, 
The Washerwoman, Womsn Knitting, The Rjading Lesson, The Sunday Toilette, Going to School, The 
Mute Lesson, &c. M. Frdre received two third class medals in 1850 and 1855 respectively, a second 
class medal in 1852 ; and the decoration of the Legion of Honour after the Universal Exposition of 1855. 

FRERE (CHARLES-EDOUARD), born at Paris. Pupil of E. Frdre and of Couture. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited L'Embatage and A Bit of Paris; in 1876, The Snow; in 1875, Before the 
Rain; in 1878, a portrait and Machine d battre, d FrcpUhn. 

JALABERT 'CHARLES- FRANCIS), born at Nlmes in 1819, studied under Paul Delaroche. After 
three successive competitions he only succeeded in obtaining a second prize. He spent three years in 
Italy, and brought back his picture of Virgil Reading his Georgics, which appeared at the Salon of 
1847, and was afterwards placed at the Luxembourg. M. Jalabert then practiced, at the same time, 
portrait, genre and religious painting. In this last style, he produced a Saint Luke, which was ordered 
for Sevres, (1852); an Annunciation, for the Minister of State, (1853) ; Christ on the Mount of Olives, 
(1855), etc. As landscape or genre painter, we cite. La Villanella, A Souvenir of Romj, The Nymphs 
Listening to Orpheus, Romeo and Jvdiet, Raphael, (1849-1857) ; A Widow, (1861) ; Christ Walking on 
the Sea, Maria Ahruzeze, (1863) ; seven Portraits of women, (1864-1869), etc. He obtained a medal 
of the third class in 1847, one of the second class in 1850; two of the first class, one in 1853, tlio 
other in 1855, and a second class medal at the Universal Exposition of 1867. Knight of the Legion , 
of Honour since 1855, he was promoted to the rank of officer, June 29th, 1867. 

"The practical work of such a painter as Jalabert depends greatly on the use of the razor. 
First, the dead-colour is laid of about equal thickness throughout, and then scraped down with a very 
sharp razor till it presents a |)erfectly smooth and even surface everywhere. On this surface, slightly 
oiled, the artist proceeds to work, this time in thinner colour, and after successive scrapings and repaint- 
ings the picture arrives, finally, at a sort of finish remarkable for an extreme equality of surface, which 



76 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

has always a certain charm for the popular mi ml. And the popular mind is right to some extent, 
for, although roughness of loading would not signify in the least if the picture were always to be seen 
by a light equally diffused over the whole of its area, it is true, nevertheless, that since pictures are 
always seen by a light either coming from above or from one side, many of the rough projections of 
paint will catch lights and project shadows of their own quite independently of the light and shade of 
the picture, and often altogether destructive to it. Horace Veniet said, and truly, that light resides in 
the quality of the tone and not in the thickness of the pigment ; and the love for smoothness of sur- 
face which marks Jalabert and some others is perfectly compatible with artistic power, both in colour 
and chiaroscuro, whilst it is more than ' compatible ' with drawing, being positively favourable to form. 
Of Jalabert's works I like his portraits best, and the single figures which resemble portraits, and are, 
in fact, portraits of models, more or less idealized." — P. 6. Hamerton, Painting in France. 

GIRAUD (SEBASTIAN-CHARLES), brother of Peter-Francis-Eugene Giraud, and uncle to Victor 
Giraud, both artists mentioned in this work, was born at Paris, January 18th, 1819, entered, in the 
latter part of 1835 at the School of Fine Arts. He visited America, after an expedition to the 
Marquesas Islands, (1843-47) and participated in the artistic commission conducted by the Prince Na- 
poleon in the northern latitudes, (1856). M. Charles Giraud was decorated with the Legion of Honour 
on his return from Tahiti, December 19th, 1847. He exhibited numerous paintings at the Salons, 
including genre and interiors, (1850-1878). 

GIRARDET (EDWARD-HENRY), painter and engraver, being the second of three artists of the 
same name, was born at Neufch^tel, July 21, 1819, came, at an early age, to Paris, with his elder 
brother Karl, studied under the direction of his father, then travelled, principally in Egj'pt and Algeria. 
The paintings which M. Edward Girardet has exhibited since 1839 all pertain to genre. 

M. Edward Girardet obtained, as genre painter, a medal of the third class in 1842, one of the 
second class in 1847, with a rappel in 1859, the decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1866, and 
a medal of the first class for engraving in 1861, a rappel in 1863, and a medal of the second class 
at the Universal Exposition of 1867. 

BERCHERE (NARCISSE), landscape painter, born at Etampes (Seine-et-Oise), September 11, 1819, 
studied painting in the studios of Renoux and Charles Esmond, and made his first contribution to the 
Salon of 1844. He travelled through Spain, and three years after sailed for the East. Among his 
principal works we notice, a Landscape, taken from "Gil Bias," (1844); Nubia, in the Grallery of the 
Luxembourg. 

M. Berchere has published, "The Desert of Suez, Five Months at the Isthmus." (1863. 18mo.) 
He obtained for landscape painting, a medal of the third class in 1859, a renewal in 1861, a medal 
in 1864, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour, June 22, 1870. 

ANASTASI (AUGUSTUS-PAUL-CHARLES), landscape painter and lithographer, born at Paris, No- 
vember 15, 1820, studied painting under Messrs. Delarochc and Corot, and made his dehid at the Salon 
of 1843. Since 1849 he has been a very successful lithographer. He exhibited as landscape painter, 
Democritm and the Ahderitans, Road of Normandy, Roch and Heather, Under the Trees, Craivs Marsh, 
taken from the woods of Fontainebleau, (1848); Return of the Flock, (1861); Terrace of the Villa Pam- 
philia, purchased for the Luxembourg Museum ; Aqueducts of Claudius, (18&4) ; The Forum at Suns-f. 
and T/ie Banhs of the Tiber, ai Rome, (1865); the last of these appeared at the Universal Exposition 



FRANCOIS LEON BENOUVILLE. 77 

of 1867; Terrace of a Convent at Rome, (1866); A Nook in a Village at /Sunset, (1863); J/ay, 
(1869), etc. 

He obtained, as a painter, a medal of the second class in 1848 and in 1865, as lithographer, 
a medal of the third class in 1850, and honourable mention in 1855. He won the decoration of the 
Legion of Honour in 1868. Stricken with blindness in 1869, M. Anastasi was aided by his fellow- 
artists, who organized two sales, one of his own works, the other of objects of art which they proffered 
him, and the amount realized from these sales, placed beyond the reach of want the artist so cruelly 
afflicted. 

CUEZON (PAUL ALFRED DE), was born at Moulinet, near Poictiers, in 1820; he entered the 
atelier of Drolling, about the year 1840, and that of M. Cabat in 1842, and made his first appearance 
at the exhibition of 1843, with a small landscape. After passing a year in Italy, he obtained at the 
Ecole de Beaux Arts the second prize in historic landscape in 1849, and through the influence of M. 
Chenavard, was sent again for two years to Italy. Before his return home he visited Greece, the 
Morea, and Syria. M. Curzon has produced a great number of landscapes of spots in his native land. 
and of various places visited in his travels ; also Democritus in Meditation, Dante and Virgil on the 
Confinea of Purgatory, Women of Pleiniaco, A Garden in the Convent, Albanian Woman, Psyche, Tasso 
at Sorreido, Pandora, dc. He has also executed several sketches in lithography, water-colours, and 
pastel ; as. The Baihera, The Serenade, Ac. He obtained a second class medal in 1857, and decoration 
of the Legion of Honour, 1865. 

DUBUFFE (LOUIS-EDWARD), was bom in Paris, 1820. He studied first under his father, and 
afterwards under Paul Delaroche. He made his debut at the Salon of 1839, with an Annunciation, 
and HufUreas. In the following year he exhibited The Miracle of the Roses, conceived in the same 
spirit of sentiment as his fiatber's two succebsful works, Lot Souvenirs, and Les Regrets. In 1841 Mr. 
Eldward Dubuffe took to scriptural subjects, which during five years he trea,ted with considerable success ; 
Tobii, Charity, BathaJieba, Morning Prayer, and The Prodigal Son belong to this period. Eventually, 
however, he commenced devoting himself to portrait painting, a department of art in which his father 
had made so great a reputation, and with a success quite equal to his. In 1846 he exhibited the 
portraits of M. Jules Janin, and M. Paul Grayrard ; and in 1853 a portrait of the Empress Eugenie, 
and four other female portraits, which attracted general admiration. At the Universal Exhibition of 
1855 he contributed seven portraits ; in 1857 he exhibited seven portraits, including a very fine one 
of Mile. Rosa Bonheur, the eminent landscape and animal painter, which has been engraved; in 1859, 
The Portrait- Group Picture of the Congress of Paris, and six other portraits. M. E. Dubuffe obtained a 
third class medal in 1839, two second class medals in 1840 and 1855 respectively ; a first class medal 
in 1814, and was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1853, and officer in 1869. 

BENOUVILLE (FRANCOIS LEON), historical painter, was born at Paris, March 30, 1821. He 
became a pupil of M. Picot. His earliest exhibited works were. Mercury and Argus, in 1839; The 
Hermit and the Slothful Knights, (1841), taken from an incident in Sir Walter Scott's "Ivanhoe;" 
Judith, (1844); Esther, (1845); in the last named year he obtained the great prize of Rome, with 
his picture of Jejtus in the Judgment Hall. In 1852 he exhibited a large picture of The Death of 
St. Francis of Assist, which at once placed him in a distinguished rank in his art; it was purchased 
for the Luxembourg Gallery. To the Universal Exhibition of 1855, M. Benouville sent Christian Martyrs. 
Hp died in 1859. 



78 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

LUMINAIS (EVARISTE- VITAL), born at Nantes, October 18, 1821, is the eon of a Deputy of 
the National Assembly of 1848, who died in 1869, and grand-son of a member of the Council of Five 
Hundred. He came to Paris and studied under M. Leon Cogniet, and made his first contribution by 
a few subjects of genre painting at the Salon of 1843. His principal works which have been exhibited 
are, Civil War Scene under the Republic, Inierior of a Stable, A Fair in Brittany, Young Girls Crossing 
a Ford, Sick Young Girl, After the Battle, (1843-1847); Deaih of Chramn, (1879), etc., with some por- 
traits, and a great number of drawings, etc. M. E. Luminals has obtained two third class medals in 
1852 and 1855, two rappels, one in 1857, the other in 1861, and the decoration of the Legion of 
Honour, August 12, 1869. 

LECOMTE-VERNET (CHARLES-HIPPOLTTE-EMILE), born at Paris, in 1821, studied genre and 
historical painting under H. Vernet and M. Leon Cogniet, and made his debxd at the Salon of 1833. 
We will cite from this artist : an Eace Homo, Tlie Departure, inspired by a Grerraan ballad ; Studies 
and Souvenirs of a Double Voyage in Italy and Syria, (1846) ; Dawn, Night, Ugolin, The Visitation, 
Young Styrian Girl Playing with a Panther, Orpheus and Eurydice, (1843-1853); Penelope, Ahnee, 
(1874), etc. M. Lecorate obtained a medal of the third class in 1846, a rappel in 1863, and the 
decoration of the Legion of Honour iu 1864. 

LAMI (LOUIS EUGENE\ Born at Paris, 1800. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 1837, officer 
since 1862. Pupil of Gros, Horace Vernet, and I'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. He has engraved on stone, 
made lithographs, and painted in water-colours and in oils. A Supper in the Salle de Spectacle at 
Versailles and An Interior of a Church (water-colours), are at the Luxembourg. He has given much 
time to water-colours, and seems most fond of that mode of representation. But he has also painted 
live or more battle-pieces, in oils, for the Gallery at Versailles, and has a facility of execution in 
whatever he undertakes. 

LAMBINET (EMILE). Born at Versailles (1810-1878). Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 
Pupil of Drolling. Made his debut at the Salon of 1833. A Landscape (1855) is at the Luxembourg. 
His views are those of his own country, such as. The Seine at Bougeval, Norman Meadows, Coasts of 
Normandy, The Valley of Arqucs, etc. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited Tlie Village of Quinevillc; 
in 1876, Summer and Le Bas-Prunay. Mrs. H. E. Maynard, of Boston, has three landscapes by this 
artist in her collection. Two of his works were exhibited at the Salon of 1878. 

" Lambinet is a man of less power, but in his limited choice of lowland scenery, natural and 
simple, having a refined taste and defined execution, suggesting details by emphasis of brush rather than 
by accurate finish. He fills his pictures with clear, bright light, rivaling Nature's tones as fully as 
pigments may. But it is a hazardous process, and no way so satisfactory as the lower tone of Corot, 
whose treatment of light is unequaled. Those who follow Lambinet in this respect would do well to 
recall Leonardo's maxim in regard to pure white, ' Use it as if it were a gem.' Lambinet's landscape, 
although ever repeating himself, is fresh and fragrant, like a bouquet of flowers." — Jaeve3, Art Tlioujhts. 

LANDELLE (CHARLES), born at Lavalle, (Mayenne), in 1821, studied under P. Delaroche, and 
made his debut with a Portrait of the Author, at the Salon of 1311. He has since devoted himself 
to historical painting and religious subjects, and has oft-times exhibited while travelling afar off; among 
the most notable of his works, we cite, Fra Angelica of Fiesole, (1842), a large number of portraits, 
among others, those of Mile. Fix, Alfred de Musset, (1855), etc. Hi also executed six paintings for 



ROSALIE BOj^HEUB. 79 

the parlor of the aides-de-camp at the Palace of the Elysium. M. Ch. Landelle has obtained two medals 
of the third class in 1842 and 1855, one of the second in 1815, one of the first in 1848, and the 
decoration of the Legion of Honour in December, 1855. 

" This distinguished painter has a commonplace facility, which he dispenses in a perpetual repetition 
of himself. He is consecrated for the rest of his days to what is called character figures, young 
gypsies, Egyptian women, Moorish women, Ethiopian women. As he knows how to mix the right dose, 
and in very decent proportions, of the romantic and picturesque, with gravity and classic correctness, 
he never fails to please the public." — Ernest Duverqier de Haurannb, Bevm des Deux Mondes, 
June, 1871. 

"If, carried away by the sympathy which the artist inspires, one said that the decoration of the 
chapel of Saint-Joseph was a work of the first order, he might be accused of thoughtless enthusiasm; 
but he would be unjust not to see in it one of those works which hold an equilibrium between dis- 
paragement and eulogy. M. Landelle, whom the public of the Salons knows so well, has wished to 
make himself appreciated on a larger scale. Without being presumptuous he had the right to make 
the attempt, as he has now the right to repeat it. The charming painter of Fellahs and Moors quitted, 
one fine day, the gallery, already long, of his Oriental beauties. He has elevated his art by ascending 
the steps of the church. Only an exigency could demand of him to leave forever the voluptuous seraglio 
that he has created and peopled ; but, now that he has penetrated the temple, he owes it to himself to 
return there to work and to purify his profane talent. His name, it is true, would not be more celebrated, 
but it would be more enduring." — Roger Ballu, Gazette dea Beaux-Arts, February, 1878. 

BEAUIONT (CHABLES-EDWABD DE), painter and designer, born at Lannion (Cotes-du-Nord), 
about the year 1821, is son of a distinguished sculptor, and pupil of A. F. Boisselier. His first contribu- 
tions were landscapes taken from the environs of Cernay and Senlis (1838, 1839, 1840), then after 
frequent withdrawals from trials of mythological subjects, he exhibited Andromeda, (1866); Clrc^, (1867); 
Leda, (1868); he has also executed some allegorical and genre paintings; The Beefs of Life, (1855); Women 
Chasing Truth, (1864); The Captain's Part, (1868), one of the finest pictures of the Luxembourg; The 
Women are Dear, (1870); The End of a Song, and Where in the devil does Love go to Boost? (1873)' 
and numerous lithographic and water-colour pieces. He illustrated an edition of "The Devil in Love," 
Cazotte, (1845, 12rao.), of " Celebrated Dwarfs," by d'Alban^s and G. Fath, (1845, 12mo.), and several 
chapters of the edition of "Our Lady of Paris," published by Perrotin, (1845, large 8vo.), and that of 
a great many invitation and menu cards, afterwards reproduced by chromo-lithography, which have been 
in vogue for some years. M. de Beaumont has received a medal at the Salon of 1870, a medal of 
the second class at that of 1873, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1877. 

BONHEUB (ROSALIE), commonly called Rosa ; animal and landscape painter, was born at Bordeaux, 
on the 22d of March, 1822. Her father, Raymond Bonheur, (who died in 1849,) an artist of some merit, 
was her instructor in the art of painting, in which she was destined to attain so distinguished a position. 
To show the unity and persistency of her talent, we enumerate some of her earlier works. Her first 
appearance before the public, was in 1811, when she exhibited two small pictures: Two Babbits and Sheep 
and Ooats. In the following year she exhibited: Cattle in a Pasture — Evening, A Cow lying down in a 
Field. A Horse for Sale. 

In 1849 appeared. Ploughing in the Nivernais, a chef-d'oeuvre, which justly obtained the honours of 
the Luxemlx)urg. During the next two years, Mile. Bonheur did not send anything to the annual exhibi- 



80 A COMPLETE HISTORY OF FRENCH ART. 

tion, so completely was her time engrossed in executing the commissions of private collectors, but in 1853 
she crowned her fame by the production of the famous Horse Fair, which has been engraved by Landseer, 
and published in London ; and Cows and Sheep in a Roadway Hollow. The International Exhibition, 
1862, contained this artist's Ploughing in tlue Neighbourhood of Nevemaia. Mile. Rosa Bonheur 
belongs to a family peculiarly gifted in art. Her father, as already stated, was a painter of no mean 
accomplishment, and all his children are artists also; Augustus, a painter, Isidor, a sculptor, and Juliette, 
(married to M. Peyrol,) a painter in the same walk as that adopted with such distinguished success by her 
sister Rosa. It remains to be added, that Mile. Rosa Bonheur is directress of a gratuitous school of 
design for girls, confided to her in 1849, by the city of Paris, in which she is assisted by her sister. 

This eminent artist obtained a first class medal in 1848, rappel in 1855, in 1867 was chosen 
member of the Institute of Anvers — in 1868 she returned to Fontainebleau, where, during the German- 
Franco war of 1870-71, the Prince Royal of Prussia specially instructed that her property should be 
unmolested and herself protected. 

BONHEUR (FRANCOIS-AUGUSTE). Born at Bordeaux, 1824. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
Brother of Rosa Bonheur and pupil of his father. At the Salon of 1845 he exhibited Children and 
CocJcchafers. He travelled in the Pyrenees, Auvergne, etc., and made sketches for his finest pictures. 
His portraits of his father and sister (1847 and '48) are his best efforts in portraiture. Like his sister 
he paints oxen with remarkable truthfulness, but in her overshadowing fame that of her brother has 
been lessened, and he has not always received the praise justly his due. The following are some of his 
works : The Ruins of Apchon (purchased by M. de Morny) ; The Coasts of Brageac (Museum of Amiens) ; 
The Gorges of Fuij-Grion, (purchased by the State) ; Herd of Caws, (1859) ; Meeting of two Herds in the 
Pyrenees, (1861); Return from the Fair, (1864); The Sleeper, Souvenir of the Pyrenees, (1867); En- 
virons of Jalleyrac, The Shepherd and the Sea (1868) ; The Lost Road, a souvenir of the Pyrenees 
(1869) ; Souvenir of Auvergne, (1874) ; Avant la pluie, (1875). At a London sale, 1872, Caitle returning 
Home, sold for 240 guineas. This artist has sometimes sent his works to the London Academy exhi- 
bitions. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited the Valley of the Jordane and a Landscape with Animals. 
He died in 1881. 

" Bonheur is a hearty realistic painter, fresh in color, healthful in feeling, with an out-door 
consciousness of work about his pictures ; not imaginative, inclined to the literal, but possessing the 
ability — in which his sister is deficient — of giving vitality to his work." — Jarves, Art TJwughts. 

Auguste Bonheur has dared — and it is great audacity — to unvarnish nature, to take away the 
smoke and the dirt, to wash off the bitumen sauce with which art ordinarily covers it, and he has 
painted it as he sees it. His animals have the soft and satin-like skin of well-to-do animals ; his foliage, 
the bright freshness of plants washed by the rain and dried by the sun. Certain parts are complete 
in deception, and produce the illusion of relief like the stereoscope ; , . • . doubtless this illusion is 
unnecessary in historical painting, where the ideal and style should predominate ; but it adds a charm 
to the representation of physical nature. — Theophile Gautiee, Abccidaire du Salon de 1861. 

BONHEUR, (JUIIIETTE now MADAME PETROL\ Born at Paris, 1830. Sister of Rosa Bonheur 
and also a pupil of her father. Her pictures are A Flock of Geese, A Flock of Sheep lying down, and 
kindred subjects. The last was much remarked at the Salon of 1875. Madame Peyrol is well known 
by her association vvith her sister in the care of the Free School of Design, founded in 1849 by the 
latter. To the Salon of 1878 she sent The Pool and The Mother's Kiss. 



EMILE LEVY. 81 

BONHEUR (JTliES ISIDORE\ Born at Bordeaux, 1827. Medals 1865 and 1867. Brother of 
Rosa Bonheur. Sculptor and painter. He studied with his father, and made his debut at the Salon of 
1848 with a canvas and a marble, each representing a Cov^bat between a Lioness and an African 
Horseman. Since then he has abandoned painting. His specialty is the representation of animals. 
The Zebra and Panther has been cast in bronze for the government. The Bull (1865), Dromedary 
and Royal Tiger (1868), A Lioness and her Young (1869), An Ox and a Dog (1870), A Mare and 
Colt (1872), Pepin le Bref in the Arena (1874), and The Tiger-Hunter (1877), may be mentioned among 
his most important works. At the London Academy, in 1875, he exhibited Tlie Head of a Running 
Dog and The Head of a Dog at Rest, both in bronze. In 1878 he exhibited two groups in plaster, 
Cheval de Course and Cheval de Man^'ge. 

TOULMOUCHE (AUGUSTUS^ born at Nantes, September 21, 1829, was a pupil of Gleyre and 
made his debut at the Salon of 1818 with a Portrait. After having for several years searched 
for his style, and even attempted historical painting with his Joseph and the Wife of Potiphar (1852), 
he finally adopted genre painting, as applied to priv^ate and worldly life, and rapidly made himself a 
reputation. Among his most notable productions since 1852, we notice Forbidden Fruit, After Break- 
fast, FUrtatum,- etc. 

M. Toulmouche obtained a medal of the third class in 1852, with a rappel in 1859 ; one of 
the second class in 1861, a medal of the third class at the Universal Exposition of 1878, and the 
decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1870. 

CHAPLIN rCHABLES), painter and engraver, born at Andelys (Eure), June 8. 1825 ; of English 
origin ; was pupil to Drolling, and made his dehid with landscapes endowed with wonderful life-like 
eentimcnt of reality. Soon changing his style, he devoted himself to the reproduction of beautiful 
types of women or graceful allegories. Among his most remarkable works, we cite : 8t. Sebastian 
pierced with Arrows (1847); A Street in a Village of the Basse- Auvergne (1848); Portrait of the 
Duke d Audiffret-Pa;8quier (1877); Soap Bubbles (at the Luxembourg); Aurora (1878). 

M. Chaplin has engraved a certain number of aqua- fortes, after his own paintings or drawings, 
as well as from those of Rubens, The Endxirkment for Oythera, after Watteau, for the copper-plate 
print of the Louvre, and The Foolish Virgins, after M. Bida, for the large edition of the Scriptures. 
In 1861 he painted the ceiling and the door designs of the Salon of Flowers at the Tuileries ; also 
the ceiling of the salon of the hemicycle at the Elyseum ; in 1864 he executed on glass, in the 
same palace, eight panels for the baths of the Empress. M. Chaplin obtained a medal of the third 
class in 1851, one of the second class in 1852, a medal in 1865 ; receiving the decoration of the 
Legion of Honour in August, 1865, he was promoted to the rank of officer in 1877. 

LEVY (EMILE), born in Paris, August 29, 1826; entered the School of Fine Arts as pupil of 
Abel de Pujol and of Picot, and won the Prize of Rome in 1854. He contributed, from Rome, 
the following year, to the Universal Exposition, his painting of Noah Cursing Ham, bought by the 
State. He contributed to the following Salons works, some of which attracted much attention : in 
1859, The Free Supper; 1866, The Deaih of Orpheus, which received the honours of the Luxem- 
bourg, and Rtdh and Naomi; in 1878, Caligula; in 1879, The Young Husband and Wife, etc. Several 
of his paintings were exhibited a second time at the Universal Exposition of 1878. M. Emile Levy 
obtained a medal of the third class in 1859, two medals in 1864 and 1866, a medal of the third 
class at the Universal Exposition of 1867, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour the samo year. 



82 A COMPLETE HIS TO BY OF FRENCH ART. 

LAMBERT (EUGENE LOUIS), born at Paris in September, 1825, was pupil of Eugene Delacroix. 
He has earned a brilliant reputation in genre painting, by illustrating familiar scenes of domestic life, 
where the principal subjects are almost exclusively dogs and cats. Among his most remarkable con- 
tributions to the annual Salons, we cite: Interior of a Stable (1852); Jack Sam Shot in the Salon 
of 1875 ; T/ie Cats of the Cardinal de Richelieu,, Fallen Greatness (1878), etc. M. Eugene Lambert 
obtained medals in 1865, 1866 and 1870, and the decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1874. 

BERTRAND (JAMES), painter, born at Lyons in 1825; pupil of M. A. Perrin ; made his debut 
at the Salon of 1857 with An Idyl, and devoted himself to religious and historical painting. The 
Conversion of Sainte Thais (1861); Death of Virginia, in the Luxembourg Grallery (1869); Dawn, 
and the Marguerite of Faust (1876), won for him in 1861 a medal of the third class, which was 
followed by a rappel in 1863, another medal in 1869, and the decomtiou of the Legion of Honour in 1876. 

GARNIER (JULES-ARSENEj, born at Paris, January 22, 1847, was a pupil at the Academy of 
Toulouse and of M. G6rome. He made his debut at the Salon of 1869, with a Bather, and soon 
sought in subjects of genre and history a success which in no wise proved fruitless. We will cite : 
The Right of the Lord (1872); The Tithe (1873); The King Amuses Himself (1874); A Capital 
Execution (1875) ; The Punishment of the Adulterers (1876), and especially T/te Liberator of the Terri- 
tory (1878), a grand political contemporary scene ; The Day of the Fete, which has been popularized 
by engravings and photographs. We are also indebted to him for the designs of a series of aqua- 
fortis plates for an edition of the " Tales of the Queen of Navarre." 

BIDA (ALEXANDER), was born at Toulouse in 1823, and, when young, went to Paris, where 
he studied drawing and water-colour painting under Eugene Delacroix. He visited Constantinople 
and the East in 1844-1846, where he picked up an immense mass of materials, which form the 
subjects of works which he has produced since; amongst others — A Turkish Shop, Arab Coffee- 
house, The Slave Market, Armenian Barber, Beturn from Mecca (purchased by the State), Sohmans 
Wall, etc. He has also executed several portraits, amongst the rest one of the Duke de Morny. 
Since 1860 he has been one of the principal illustrators of " Le Tour du Monde, Journal des Voyages." 
He obtained a medal of the second class in 1848, and one of the first class, together with the 
decoration of the Legion of Honour, in 1855 ; officer 1870. His last and greatest work is a series 
of one hundred drawings for the illustration of The Four Gospels, which have been copied by first- 
class etchers, and published by Hachette & Co., of Paris. 

HENNER (JEAN-JACQUES), born at Bernwiller (Alsace), March 5, 1829; pupil of Gabriel Gu6rin, 
Drolling, Picot and M. Goutzwiller ; entered in 1848 at the School of Fine Arts, but was compelled 
by ill-healtli to leave temporarily, and passed two years at his home, where he painted portraits. 
Readmitted at the School, he carried ofi", in 1854, the prize at the competition for the Prize of 
Rome with Adam and Eve Discovering the Body of Abel. While at Rome, where he profited by 
the counsels of Hippolyte Flandrin, M. Henner painted four pieces for the Museum of Colmar : The 
Penitent Magdalen, Christ in Prison, Young Roman Girl, Young Bather Asleep. He made his dcbvi 
at the Salon of 1863 with this last painting and a portrait of Victor Schnetz, which attracted much 
attention. He has since contributed. The Chaste Susannah (1865), purchased by the State for the Luxem- 
bourg Gallery ; The Dead Christ, Evening, • and several portraits, already known, reappeared at the 
Universal Exposition of 1878, with the portrait of M. C. Hayem. 



HUGUE8 MERLE. 83 

M. Henner obtained medals at the Salons of 1863, 1865 and 1868. Decorated with the Legion 
of Honour November 1, 1873, he was promoted to the rank of officer July 10, 1878. 

BOULAXGER (GUSTAYUS-RODOLPHE-CLARENCE), born at Paris April 25, 1824, was a pupil of 
P. Delaroche and M. Jollivet ; attended the School of Fine Arts, where he carried off the Prize of 
Rome in 1849, by his painting of Ulysses Recognized by Eurydes. On his return from Italy, in 
1856, he participated successfully at the annual Salons, where he has exhibited Jvlius Cassar at the 
Rubicon, The Choaasce, The House of the Tragic Poet at Pompeii, A Scene in the /Street of the Tombs, 
Maestro Palestrina. M. Boulanger obtained a medal of the second class in 1857, in 1859 and in 1863, 
and was decorated with the cross of the Legion of Honour in August, 1865. 

YOLLON (ANTOINE), born at Lyons April 20, 1833, was a pupil at the School of Fine Arts 
of that city, and made his dehui at the Salon of 1864 with a vigorous study of inanimate nature : 
Art and GluMony. He has since given in that style, in which he was not long in attaining the 
foremost rank : Interior of Kitchen (1865) ; The Return from Market, The Ape and the Accordeon, 
now to be seen at the Lyons' Museum, (1866) ; Sea Eish, /Southern Grapes, (1867) ; Curiosities, 
Portrait of Peter Plachat. Fisherman at Mera near Trtpcrrt, (1868); After the Ball, (1869); A 
Comer of my Studio, Sea Fish (1870); New Years Day, The Cauldron (1872); A Market Comer 
(1874); ^rwior (1875); The Chicken Woman (1876); Rdrn^t of Henry II., A Spaniard (1878). M. 
Vollon has also contributed to exhibitions of lesser note landscapes and water-colors which have attracted 
considerable attention. 

Tliis artist obtained three medals, in 1865, 1868 and 1869, and a medal of the first class at 
the Universal Exposition of 1878. Decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1870, he was promoted 
to the rank of officer October 20, 1878. 

BERMER (CAMILLE), bom at Colmar in 1823, pupil of M. L. Fleury, has become known since 
1848, at the annual Salons, by landscapes representing principally scenes in Brittany. Such are : 
Moor near Rannalec, Approaches to a Farm in Brittany (1867); Pathway among the Weeds (1868); 
Moor of Kergaladrie, Spring in Brittany (1869); From Anndour to Bannalec (1873). The first three 
contributions won for him three medals, and the last the decoration of the Legion of Honour. 

LAU6EE (DESIRE-FRANX'OIS), born at Maromme (Seine-Inf(5rieure), January 25, 1823, entered in 
1840 the studio of M. Picot, and followed that same year the courses of the School of Fine Arts. 
He afterwarrls made his debut at the Salon of 1845. and at once undertook both historical and por- 
trait painting. Besides numberless Portraits (1845-1853), he has executed, among other remarkable 
works at the Salons : Van Dyck at Savdthem, The Assassination of Rizzio, Death of Zurbaran, ordered 
by the Minister of the Interior (1850), and a great number of others too numerous to mention ; he 
has also executed mural decorations for many churches, etc. M. Laug^e obtained a medal of the third 
class in 1850, one of the second in 1855 and in 1859, a medal of the first class in 1861 and in 1863. 
He received the decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1865. 

MERLE rmJOUES), bom at Saint-Marcellin (Is^re) in 1823, was pupil of M. L^on Cogniet, and 
made hifl debut at the Salon of 1843 with The Willises. He has since exhibited : Migration of the 
Alpine Shepherds (1850); A Recreation (1852); Pxheccas Farewell to Lady Rowena, Berangers Lisette, 
Alpine Shepherdess (1855) ; In DefauU of Keys here are the Doors, Episode of JVapoleon I. at Grenoble 
in 1815 (1857); Resting of the Holy Family in Egypt (1859); The Beggar Woman (1861), bought by 



8t .A COMPLETE HT^TOh^ OF FRENCH ART. 

the State and placed in the Luxembourg ; Assassincilon of Henry III. (1863) ; Primavera, The Fird 
Thorns of Science (1864) ; A Young Mother, Portraits of the Sons of the Duke of Momy (1865) ; Mar- 
guerite Trying on Jewels (1866) ; Women and the Secret (1867) ; The Bather, Young Girl of Etretat 
(1870); The Straight Road (1873); Pemetta the Spinner (1874); Night and Day, a fragment of decora- 
tion (1875); Odetta and Charles VI. (1878); The Redeemer (1879); Hebe after her Fall, Carmosine 
(1880), etc. M. Hugh Merle obtained a medal of the second class in 1863 and in 1865, and the 
decoration of the Legion of Honour in 1866. 

George Merle, pupil of his father, made his debut at the Salon of 1876, by an historical 
painting : The Passage of Arms of the Tree of GouJ He has since exhibited : Faust and the Three 
Braves (1877) ; Death of Philip Arteveld (1878) ; Timon of Athens, The League (1879) ; Contrast, The 
Fishermjans Daughter (1880), etc. 

RIBOT (THEODULE-AUGUSTIN), born at Saint-Nicolas-d'Ath^ze (Eure), in 1823, son of a civil 

engineer, began with geometrical work and linear drawing. He was making the necessary preparations 
to enter the artistic career, when the death of his father forced him to seek remunerative employ- 
ment. After having painted frames for a manufacturer of mirrors, and followed the teachings of Glaize 
in the latter's studio, he set out for, and spent thr'^e years in, Algeria, superintending the erection of 
works being constructed there. On his return, in 18i)l, he executed for manufacturers a great number 
of designs. He was able to appear in the Salon '>nly from 1861 ; he contributed for his deind six 
canvases, representing interiors of kitchens and poultry-yards. He has since exhibited : The Prayer of 
the Little Girls, Morning Toilet (1864) ; Singing of th" Canticle, The Tinkers, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian 
(1865), bought by the State for the Luxembourg; Christ in the Midst of the Doctors, The Fluiist (1866); 
Old Fishermen of TrouviUe (1877) ; Housekeeper Balxf^cing her Accounts, Mother Morieu, (1878), etc. M. 
Theo. Eibot has also successfully handled aqua-fortis and water-colors. He obtained two medals, in 
1864 and 1865, a medal of the third class at the Universal Exposition of 1878, and the decoration 
of the Legion of Honour the same year. 



THE END OF VOL. I. 




I OU!SK AllIiEMA. PI»!7., 



ORAVURE, OOUPIL ET C«» 



M ]L A N C ]H[ E B AM ]ti Jfl T TAo 



KROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE ORBKN HOOM OF THE THEATRE COMEDIE-FRJlNCAISE- 
mCES OF FRENCH A UT. 



Blanche Barretta. 

(PROX THE OBIOISAL MCTCBE IS THE OREE^I KOOM OF THE THEATRE COMEDIE PBANOAISE.) 



Louise Abbema, Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 




ODERN Histrionic French Art is represented by many brilliant names, foremost 
among the feminine, are Sarah Bernhardt, Sophie Croizette and Blanche 
Barretta. The latter, a pupil and protegee of Mile. Bernhardt. 

Blanche Barretta was bom in Paris in 1862, and made her debut at 
the Theatre Comedie-Franpaise, in 1878, and immediately captured the hearts 
of the Parisians. 

The talented Painter Louise Abbema, is remarkable for her successful 
portrait painting, and having identified her career with the theatrical fraternity, 
is known in Paris as the theatrical portrait painter, par excellence. 

A more pleasing portrait of a beautiful woman it has seldom been our good fortune to behold. 
especially " The liquid loveliness of eye," and no wonder that it was the chief favorite among portraits 

in the Salon of 1880. ' 

Mile. Abbema is so young, that we will be forgiven the admission, that we do not know her 
age — she is however old enough to have earned a distinguished and honorable fame. 




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Terrace of the Villa Doria Pamfili, Rome. 

(FBOX THE OKIOIKAL PAJ5TISQ IH THE OAXLEBT OF THB LUXEMBODKO.) 



AuQUSTE Anastasi, Finx. 



GoupiL (fe Co., Gravure. 




ONG, LONG AGO!" is the idea first suggested by the mention of Rome; but in this elegant 
painting we have a picture of Rome of the modern time. The Villa Doria 
Pamfili, the most extensive and delightful of the Roman villas, was laid out 
in the seventeenth century by Prince Camillo Pamfili, nephew of Pope Innocent 
X., under the direction of the celebrated sculptor Algardi. A favorite part 
of these lovely grounds is the Terrace, of which the artist has given us a 
representation so faithful, that it almost imparts the delicious sensations peculiar 
to the spot itself. In the background, looming through an atmosphere charged 
with light and heat, is the giant dome of St. Peter's ; to the left is Mount 
Mario, while between these elevations the campagna stretches away in dim 
vista, and finally melts into the horizon. But as the eye returns from that panorama bathed in the 
garish light of a Southern sun, how it refreshes itself in this garden retreat ! How mind and body 
alike find repose and delectation on this smooth and lofty floor, fanned by the pure, upper air, shaded 
by noble trees, beautified by statues, stately plants, and the bloom and fragrance of flowers! To be 
there were joy indeed ! But next to that is the satisfaction of a perfect picture such as this. 

First exhibited in the Salon of 1864, the original painting was acquired by the State and added 
to the treasures of the Luxembourg. M. Anastasi was awarded medals in 1848 and 1865, and was 
made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1868. 



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G ' ^ J 1 >:■ 




J. AUBERT, I'irj.X 



GRAVURE GOUPIL ET C" 



YOUT 



THE MASTERPIKCES OF TRENCH ART 



Youth. 



Jean -Ernest Aubekt, Pinx. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




HE maiden, from her basket of flowers, has adorned her dress with a choice spray. 
which the young man (sly rogue) wishes to inspect very closely, which inspection 
the maiden gently deprecates, conscious, no doubt, that on the edge of the flower 
T decoration 



" Underneath the muslin lid, 
Jost showed the treasures that it hid." 



Modest and beautiful as all this artist's pictures are, we think this his chef d'osuvre. 

"Oh, for one day of youthful joy; 
Give back my twentieth spring; 
I'd rather dance, a bare- legged boy, 
Tlian reign a grey-haired king." 

So sung Oliver Wendell Holmes, and, doubtless, so also thought Aubert, when in his fiftieth year 
he drew on his remembrance such a draft as the picture before us. 

Aubert was bom in Paris, in 1824, and after winning the Prize of Rome, as an engraver, in 
1844, he entered the studio of Paul Delaroche. adding another to his illustrious list of pupils. 



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i 




JULES BASTIE?; LriA'-.K !'!Ny. 



SARAH BERNHARBTo 



TilE MASTERPIECES OF FRENCH ART. 



Sarah Bernhardt. 



(PBOM THJS OKiaiKAL VAlVTTaQ IS TH» OAUERT OF THE THEATER COMEDIE, FBAKCE.) 



Jules Bastien-Lepaoe, PItix. 



GJouPiL & Co., Oravure. 




^ARAH BERNHARDT, whose recent visit to the United States must be fresh in the 
memory of many of our subscribers, was born at Paris on the 22d day of October, 
1844. Her parents were Hollandaise Jews, but she was baptized and educated in 
a convent ; she commenced her career on the stage in her fourteenth year, and has 
ever since held a prominent position. 

She has also achieved some distinction as a painter and sculptor, but we question 
very much whether she would ever have been heard of in either, had she not been 
famous as an artist on the mimic stage. She holds in her hand a clay model of 
a piece of sculpture which she is moulding. 

The great portrait painter, J. Bastien-Lepage, was born at Danvilliers in 1846. He entered 

the studio of M. Cabanel in 1868, and speedily showed his great talent. He was represented in the 

Exhibition of 1878 by four paintings, where he received a first class medal and decoration of the 

Legion of Honor, having previously, in 1874, received a third class medal, and in 1875 a second class. 

Mademoiselle Bemhardt's portrait was painted in 1879. 




P J ABAUDRY. PINX 



GRAVUHE, GOUPIL ET C» 



F (DETUNE AND TEE INFANT o 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE GALLERY OF THE LUXEMBOURG. 



THE MASTERJIECES OF FRENCH ART 



GEBBIE 8tC0 



Fortune and the Infant 

(raO)! THE 0M0I5AL PAI5TINO jm THE OALLERY OF THE LUXEMBOURCr.) 



Paul-Jacques-Aime Baudry, Firix. 



GoupiL & Co., Gh-avure. 




N depicting Infancy caressed by Fortune, our artist has responded to the involuntary 
prayer of every kindly heart. A little child is the most interesting of objects, from 
the fact that all things are possible unto it. Its life is all unlived, and what will be 
the unfoldings of its destiny ? Will it be success or failure, virtue or vice, happiness 
or misery ? Who can surely tell ? What cause for rejoicing then when the budding 
life is favored by auspicious circumstances ; and how sad the spectacle of an infancy 
clouded by adversity, and frowned upon by Fortune. 

Happy child in the picture before us ! The serene and sunny sky, the sheltering 
trees, the refreshing fountain, the endearments of Fortune, all affirm a blissful present and prophesy a 
happy fiiture. 

There are reminiscences at once of Titian and of Corregt^io in this pleasing composition. The 
child is notably fine in all its traits, and both of the figures exemplify that mastery in flesh-paint- 
ing for which M. Baudry is distinguished. The original was first exhibited in the Salon of 1857, 
when the artist was awarded a medal of the first class. It is now one of the treasures of the 
Luxembourg. 




\Ai^u ^„ BEAuwoxr. riNx 



WRAVimE. OOL'PII, ET C« 



PERSEUS AND AFDK OMED A. 



THE ICAaTKRPIEt^KS OP FHENCH ART. 



Perseus and Andromeda. 



Charles Edward De Beaumont Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co. Gravure. 



'ABLED in Greek mythology, Andromeda was the daughter of Cephus, King of Libya. 
who boasted that she was fairer than the daughters of Nereus. 

Nereus, in revenge for thi.s, requested King Poseidea to make the Libyan 
plains into a sea, which he did, till only the hills remained above them; and 
a mighty monster came forth and devoured all the fruits of the land, while 
Andromeda was fastened to a desolate rock, and each day the monster came 
nearer to her as the waters rose. 

But, Perseus, the son of Zeus and Danae, after having cut off the head 
of Medusa by the aid of Hermes and Minerva, among other adventures, slew the monster, rescued 
Andromeda, and married her. 

De Beaumont's picture shows Perseus equipped and in the act of rescuing the maiden. 
De Beaumont will be further represented by his Luxembourg picture " The Captain's /Share of 
Ike Booty." 





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The Captain's Share. 



(FBOM the OEtGISAT. PAISTINO IN THE LUXKMBOt'fiO GALLfl.Vl 



Charles Edward de Beaumont, Pinx. 



GoupiL &. Co., Gramire. 




^ jf] r ET the student of history turn to the pages of Gibbon, and he may there take his 

^r"/^^'^ choice of events in which Huns, Vandals, Gauls, Goths and other barbarian tribes 

-^ and nations, pillaged Rome and other cities during the early centuries of the 

' '\ Christian era, from which De Beaumont may have drawn his picture of The 

Captains Part. 

It is a scene of riot and pillage, and a scene which we, who live in 
happier times, look on with disgust and dismay. But such scenes in times of 
war and anarchy, were of common occurrence. 
This picture is one of the grandest in the Luxembourg, and illustrates the artist's power in his 
best and strongest points, the rendering of the nude. The central attraction is the two female captives 
tied to a stake in the market-place, against which either the Captain or some witty friend has hoisted 
a rude advertisement, " La Part du Oapitaine," and in the painting the bare pole is decorated with a 
palm-branch, the bright green leaves of which make a beautiful colour contrast with the yellow hair 
and flesh tints of the unfortunate girls. 

The totU-en-semble is all in keeping, although to the Captain has fallen the lion's share ; yet 
other prizes are evident. The duck hoisted aloft, the pig, red-eared and fat, tied by a string to the 
short trooper, who is stretching his short neck to get a look at the Captain's prize. 

De Beaumont was bom at Lannion (Cotes-du-Nord), in 1832. Studied in the school of Boisselier; 
decorated Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1877. 







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"^"4' 



The Garden of Monsieur the Cure. 



Etienne-Prosper Berne-Bellecour. Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 




['R Curfe, evidently, is not a professional gardener; the unkempt appearance of 
the ground shows that. One article of his creed, we fancy, is "a sound 
mind in a healthy body," and this exercise among the trees and flowers, 
is a welcome change from the cares and confinement of his priestly office. 
His good, intelligent, contemplative face assures us, too, that he is one wlio 
can find both companionship and instruction in observance of bird, and bee, 
and butterfly, and tlie myriad creatures whose wonderful structure and habits 
proclaim creative wisdom ; and that be is no less apt to find 



" tongues In trees, 
Books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, 
And good in everything." 



Every accessory of this well-composed picture conspires to produce the effect of tranquil enjoy- 
ment ; yet the artist has equal facility in portraying scenes of war and carnage. He won Salon 
medals in 1869 and 1872. 



•*Vi -•T ■'■-."( • 




JAMES DERTHA"H:.>, PINX. 






MARGUERITE TEMPTED. 



THE MASTERPIECES OF PREWCH ART. 



Marguerite Tempted. 



James Bertilvxd, Pinx 



GoUPiL & Co., Gravure. 




OETHE, in his masterpiece of "Faust," has furnished modern artists with 
a fruitful field from which to glean subjects for pictures, and among 
the many who have illustrated Marguerite's temptation and fall, none 
have done it more gracefully than James Bertrand. 

The scene of the Temptation is chosen as illustrative of the fol- 
lowing passage, when, after Faust has mysteriously placed the jewels 
in her chamber, they are discovered by Marguerite, who soliloquises : 

" How comes this casquet here to me ? 
I locked the press most certainly, 
'Tis truly wonderful, what can it be? 
And here there hangs a key to fit it. 
I have a mind to open it. 

What is that ? God in the Heaven ! whence came 
Such things. Never beheld I aught so fair. 
Rich ornaments such as a noble dame 
On highest holidays might wear. 
How would this chain of pearls suit my hair? 
Ah! who may all this splendour own? 
[5^ steps before tfie mirror, adorning herself with the jewelry^] 
Oh, were the ear-rings only mine. 
They give their wearer such an air ! 
What helps one's beauty ? Youthful blood. 
One may possess that, — well and good, 
But jewels make one twice as feir?" 




JAMES PERTRAKD. PINX 



GRAVURE, OOUPI 



MARGUERITE BETEAYEBc 



THE MASTERPIECES OF FRTOTCH AHT. 



Marguerite Betrayed. 



James Bertrand, PIjix. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




EVER has such a warning been given to inexperienced maidenhood as is given 
in the story of Faust and Marguerite. Bewildering in its grandeur, but painfully 
truthful in its human picture of the inevitable result of unguided paspion. 

The sequel of the Jewels is in this companion picture ; when, after hearing, 
at the town pump, the story of Barbara, meant to warn her that her secret is 
known — she returns home much disturbed in mind, and soliloquises, as she reaches 
her mother's door : 



" How scornfully I once reviled, 
When some poor maiden was beguiled, 
More speech than any tongue suflBces 
I craved to censure other's vices. 
Black a.s it seemed, I blackened still 
And blacker yet was in my will ; 
And blessed myself and boasted high, 
And now, a living sin am I ! 
Yet — all that drove my heart thereto, 
God! was so good, so dear, so true." 

James Bertrand, born at Lyons, in 1840, was a pupil of P6rin, was made Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour, 1876, on the occasion of the purchase of his Death of Virginia for the Luxembourg. 




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COCO'S Last Ration. 



Pierre-Marie Beyle, Pinx. Goupil & Co., Gravure. 




ERILY ! here is serious trouble. 

"A most poor" family "made tame by Fortune's blows; 
Who, by the art of known and feeling sorrows, 
Are pregnant to good pity." 

All that they have in the world is with them on this bleak spot. 
Evidently their humble peddler's trade has not thriven of late ; and driven 
to this journey in mid-winter, their faithful beast, faint with toil and age 
and scanty nourishment, has fallen on the icy road. The wagon-shaft is 
broken : but no one thinks of that : the poor horse claims their anxious attention. He tries in vain 
to rise, and after a few faint struggles and convulsive gasps, he lies dead at their feet. This is a 
heavy blow, paculiarly oppressive from their isolated position, far from the haunts of men, amidst ice 
and snow, and under a frowning .sky that threatens momently to break in storm upon their heads. 
We are very sure, however, from the attitude and expression of these unfortunate people, that they feel 
a sorrow deeper than the sense of pecuniary loss and physical inconvenience, though surely that were 
enough to weigh them down. This dead animal, over which they grieve, was something more than a 
beast of burden. For long years the sharer of their exposures and vicissitudes, he became in effect 
one of themselves; and their bereaved feeling, as they behold him dead, will be readily appreciated 
by any one who has lost a pet animal or bird. What pathos in the attitude of the kneeling woman ! 
Her cla.sped hands and the pained, though submissive expression of a face furrowed by many cares, are 
more eloquent than words. And the man, coarse and rude though he be, has a heart deeply touched 
by this affliction. Even the thoughtless boy is infected with the sorrow. And the dog ! perhaps, after 
all, he is the chief mourner. Between the two dumb creatures the closest intimacy, the most intel- 
ligible fellowship, subsisted. What despondency is in the look and posture of the dog as he leans over 
his fallen comrade ! Ah well I this is altogether a sad picture, but a typical one ; for the prevailing 
chords in life's great symphony are in a minor key. 

The original of this admirable picture was exhibited in the Salon of 1878. 




ALEXANDRE BinA,PlHX, 



ORAVURE. GOUPIL ET CS 



MASSACRE OF T)HIE MAMELUKES, 

FROM THK OR!G!NAIi PAINTI>fC, '.N THE GALLERY Of THE LUXEMBOURG 



GI-:l!H!!': »rCO 



Massacre of the Mamelukes. 



(FROM THE ORinlSAL IN THE GALLERY OF THE LtTXEMBOURO.) 



Alexandre Bida, Pinx. 



GotTpiL & Co., Gravure. 




GYPT has produced in her long career many strange and significant historical 
characters. Although the Mamelukes (as the name imports) were originally a 
slave class in Egypt, they became, about the middle of the thirteenth century, 
masters of the country, and maintained their dominance until the beginning of 
the present century. Napoleon found them formidable antagonists at the battle 
of the Pyramids, and in subsequent encounters, but he almost annihilated 
them. When Mehemet AH became Viceroy of Egypt he found the proud and 
turbulent Mamelukes a serious obstacle to the peace and prosperity of the 
country, and at length, in 1811, he adopted a decidedly Asiatic remedy for 
the evil. Inviting a great number of the Mameluke chiefs to a banquet in 

Cairo, the guests, after being feasted, were shot down in the corridors and courts of the palace. About 

one thousand were thus massacred. 

M. Bida has given us a vivid picture of this high-carnival of death. Hemmed in on every side 

the helpless victims are shot at from the housetop and the windows. Terrified and plunging horses ; 

" riders and horses in one red burial bleat " ; the groans of the dying ; the shrieks of despair and of 

defiance and hate ; the pitiless rain of death-dealing bullets — such are the elements of this graphic and 

bloody episode. 

The original is one of a number of M. Bida's crayon drawings that have been honored with a 

place in the Luxembourg. 




CO 



The Castle Terrace, xvth Century. 



JasEPH-C^LEsTiN Blanc, Pvnx. 



GrOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 



P^ I We are here enabled, by the magic wand of the painter, to gaze on a picturesque phase 

of life four centuries ago. The rich dress and easy elegance of the aristocratic 
youths whose pastime we witness, indicate the pride and luxury of a privileged 
life. The presence of the dwarf — an important adjunct of the establishments 
of kings and wealthy nobles in former ages — witnesses to the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of the castle whose terrace furnishes the scene of our picture. The 
youth on the extreme left seems to be afflicted with ennui, and one or two of 
__ his comrades show signs of indolence, — possibly, however, their languor may be 
~ tx. the result of previous exercise, for we observe some hunting-hawks, or falcons, 
and some battledores and shuttles by the balustrade on which one of the lads 
is negligently leaning. The figures are all skilfully drawn ; but two of them are exceptionally distinguished 
in character. The boy in the left foreground who leans forward, hand on knee, watching the game in 
which he is engaged, has both a fine, manly form and a noble head, while his companion with the close- 
fitting cap, lias a presence of rare dignity and grace, and a beauty recalling that of Raphael in his youth- 
ful days. The picture is admirably composed ; the architectural mass on the right being balanced by the 
cluster of figures on the left, while the open central space discloses the commanding view from the terrace, 
and gives due eflFect to the luminous expanse of sky. 





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Ploughing in Nivernais. 



(from the original PAISTISa IN THE LUXEMBOURG GALLERY.) 



Rosa Bonheur, Pinx. 



GoiTPiL & Co., Gravure. 




describing this picture we cannot do better than quote Mr. Hamerton's enthusiastic 
description : 

" I hear, as I write, the cry of the ox-drivers — incessant, musical, monotonous. 
I hear it not in imagination, but coming to my open window from the fields. 
The morning air is fresh and pure, the scene is wide and fair, and the Autumn 
sunshine filters through an expanse of broken, silvery cloud. 

They are ploughing not far off with two teams of six oxen each — white oxen 
of the noble Charolais breed — sleek, powerful beasts, whose moving muscles show 
under their skins like the muscles of trained athletes. Where the gleams of sunshine fall on these 
changing groups, I see in nature that picture of Rosa Bonheur's Ploughing in JVivernais." 

There is a touching anecdote in connection with this picture. Her father, also an artist, when 
on his death-bed, and feeling his end approaching, desired to see his already famous daughter's latest 
work, and there was brought to his bed-side, Ploughing in Nivernais. The dying artist beheld and 
WEPT. A silent tribute, it is recorded, more prized by his daughter than all the world's applause in 
after years. 

An appreciative biography of Rosa Bonheur will be found in the Historical Text. 



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A W BOUGEREAU.FINX 



GRAVURE, GOUFIL ET C" 



THE BIRTH OF VENUS, 



THE MASTERPIECES OF FRENCH ART 



The Birth of Venus. 

(rBOM THE OKIOINAL PAISTISa IN THE OALLEBY OF TBE LUXEMBOUBQ.) 



Wm. AiX)LPHE BoUQUEREAU, PlTlX, 



GoupiL & Co., Qravure. 




REATEST among the great paintings of the year 1879, was Bouguereau's Birth of 
Venus. This picture came very near (more than once) gracing an American col- 
lection — the price was high and required some courageous consideration, and on each 
occasion, as two Americans, to our knowledge, each in his turn, concluded to 
give the price asked, behold ! its price had been, during the time of considera- 
tion, advanced, till finally it found its most appropriate place in the National 
QuUery of the Luxembourg, where it attracts crowds of gazers and copyists. 

A biography of this artist will be found in the text in the body of the 
history. 

Of Venus, the goddess of love and beauty of the Romans, identical with Aphrodite of Olympia, 
tradition says that she sprung from the foam of the sea. According to Hesiod, the goddess, after rising 
from the foam, first approached the island of Cythera, and thence went to Cyprus, and as she was 
walking on the sea-coast, flowers sprung up under her feet, and Eros and Himeros accompanied her to 
the assembly of the other great gods. According to the Cosmozonic view of the nature of Venus (or 
Aphrodite) she was the personification of the generative powers of nature, and the mother of all living 
beings. 

The surrounding Nymphs and Cupids are, of course, the privileged license of the poet and painter. 




C; K BOULANGEK , PINX. 



GRAVURE , GOUPIL ET. C>« 



A PROMENADE IN THE STREET OF THE TOMBS .[ POMPEII. 



THE MASTERPIECES OF FREKCH ART 



The Promenade in the Street of the Tombs. 



G. R. BOULANGER, Pinx. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




lOMPEII, by excavations on its site, reveals to us of the present day a representation 
of the manners and customs of that Roman city of two thousand years ago, as 
vividly as a fly cased in amber, preserves its form for all time. 

Gustave Rodolphe Boulanger, born in Paris, 1824. Pupil of Paul Delaroche, 
and Chevalier of the Legion of Honour ; has made ancient Rome his particular study. 
Tlie Street of the Tombs was manifestly a fashionable Pompeiian promenade, and 
one would say, especially, a fitting promenade for a widow. It appears, however, that Boulanger believed 
that envy and all uncharitableness existed 2,000 years ago, as naturally as now, for the jeer and the 
titter of the ladies who are passing on the upper sidewalk, is offensive and rude as the ogle of the 
Pompeiian gallant, who has slackened his pace, evidently to have something to say to her. 

Widows are a difficult and delicate theme to discuss, and the healthy, vigorous woman (like the 
widow in our picture), left alone, with her experience gained, is generally a more attractive mark for 
the marrying man, than the " maiden coy," even with advantages of beauty and position in her favour. 
Why? We cannot say. 




QUSTAVE BlUOK, X'linv. 



iHAVrrRB, GOUPIL ET CM 



THE IDAY OF BAPTISM. 



■.'/■:"'''KiipiKci';B oi-' i-'ni':nc'ii Aicr 



The Day of Baptism. 



GusTAVE Brion, Pinx. 



GoTJPIl. & Co., Gh-avure. 




ABIES, under any circumstances, are the most interesting objects in the world, 
and, apart from the religious association a charming picture of infancy is here 
given. The artist has expended much labor upon the laces and rich, quilted 
coverlet, and has therein achieved a fine piece of texture-work ; but that is 
only a setting for the precious jewel of a babe, whose dimpled face and 
hands, soft, pulpy flesh, large, liquid, wondering eyes, and rosebud mouth, con- 
quer all hearts by their cherubic loveliness. 



Who can tell what a baby thinks? 
Who can follow the gossamer links 

By which the manikin feels his way 
Out from the shore of the great unknown, 
Blind, and wailing, and alone, 

Into the light of day? 
Out from the shore of the unknown sea. 
Tossing in pitiful agony ; 
Of the unknown sea that reels and rolls. 
Specked with the barks of little souls, — 
Barks that were launched on the other side, 
And slipped from heaven on an ebbing tide ! 

What does he think of his mother's eyes ? 
What does he think of his mother's hair? 

What of the cradle-roof that flies 
Forward and backward through the air? 

What does he think of his mother's breast, 
Bare and beautiful, smooth and white. 



Seeking it ever with fresh delight, 

Cup of his life and couch of his rest? 
What does he think when her quick embrace 
Presses his hand and buries his face 
Deep where the heart-throbs sink and swell, 
With a tenderness she can never tell, 

Though she murmur the words 

Of all the birds,— 
Words she has learned to murmur well ? 

Now he thinks he'll go to sleep ! 

I can see the shadow creep 

Over his eyes in soft eclipse, 

Over his brow and over his lips, 

Out to his little finger-tips ! 

Softly sinking, down he goes! 

Down he goes ! down he goes ! 

Seel he's hushed in sweet repose. 

— Dr. Holland. 



This painting was the artist's contribution to the Salon of 1875. 
honors of the Salon. See Biography. 



M. Brion has won the highest 







k 



Waiting. 



Ulysse-Loots-Auguste Butin, Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 




lAN we look on this masterly picture, and not be touched by the feeling 
that "there is sorrow on the sea?" These toiling women, accustomed 
to the exposures and anxieties peculiar to their lot, are at present 
moved by no common solicitude. The fishers, — their husbands and 
sons, — have so long over-stayed the time of their return, that the 
watchers are distressed by fears of every conceivable danger. Too un- 
happy to remain in their cabin homes, they have abandoned their do- 
mestic cares, and have come to the beach to wait, and watch, and 
pray. How vividly Kingsley's pathetic lines are suggested, with that dirge-like refrain: 

For men must work, and women must weep, 
And the sooner it's over, the sooner to sleep, 
And the harbor bar is moaning! 

The mother in the foreground has brought her children with her; and even the little ones are 
infected with the general sadness. Apart from its telling sentiment, how admirable is the picture as 
a work of art I How perfect the drawing and pose of the principal figure ! How fine the rendition 
of the surf and the wet sand, the sea-mist, and the effect of distance I The picture was painted in 
1875, and secured for the artist a Salon medal. M. Butin also gained a medal in 1878. 



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Portia. 



THE CASKET SCENE, FROM THE MERCHANT OF VENICE. 



Alexandre Cabanel, Plnx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




OTWITHSTANDING her dislikes or her predilections, Portia, a young heiress, 
richly dowered as well with beauty and accomplishments as with estates, must, 
in compliance with her father's will, marry only the suitor who shall make 
a fortunate choice from among three caskets, one of gold, one of silver, and 
one of lead. The first bears the inscription : " Who chooseth me shall gain 
what many men desire"; the second, "Who chooseth me shall get as much 
as he deserves"; the third, "Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he 
hath." Many illustrious suitors have made trial, chosen amiss, and greatly 
to the lady's relief, have gone their ways. But at length comes Bassanio, 
who passionately loves her, and whom she as deeply loves. She dreads the 
ordeal that must decide their destiny, and therefore says : 

" I pray you tarry ; pause a day or two, 
Before you hazard; for in choosing wrong 
I lose your company ; therefore, forbear a while : 
There's something tells me (but it is not love), 
I would not lose you; and you know yourself, 
Hate counsels not in such a quality." 

But Bassanio cannot endure the strain of this uncertainty. "Hope deferred maketh" his "heart 
sick"; and so we arrive at the crucial moment. Portia consents with fainting heart, and says: 

"Let music sound, while he doth make his choice; 
Then, if he lose, be makes a swan-like end, 
Fading in music: that the comparison 
May stand more proper, my eye shall be the stream, 
And watery death-bed for him." 

And now behold the lover standing upon the brink of Paradise or of perdition, he knows not 
which. Regard the gentle Portia averting her gaze from the too painful sight, and striving to quiet 
her agitated heart. Witness the eager, tense observance of the spectators ; and, in imagination, hear 
the strains of music that will soon become either a Te Deum for Love's victory, or a requiem for 
lost hopes I 

All this the painter has expressed in a picture characterized by masterly drawing, effective grouping, 
and a superb setting of architecture and costumes — a tout ensemble worthy of his great reputation. 

M. Cabanel has received many honors, including the Prize of Rome in 1845, the Salon Medal 
of Honour in 1865, and the Medal of Honour at the Universal Exposition of 1867, and a rappel of 
the latter in 1878. He is an officer of the Legion of Honour, and a member of the Institute. 




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The English Promenade at Nice. 



Joseph Castiglione, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gh-avure. 




ATELY, Nice, on the south coast of France, has become one of the favorite resorts for 
/^ English and American invalids. 

This ancient city has undergone many changes of masters and 
frequently changed its nationality ; it is now the capital of the Department 
of the Alpes-Maratimes, and is beautifully situated at the foot of the Alps 
on both sides of the mouth of the Paglione. It belonged to the family 
of the Duke of Savoy until 1388, and after frequently changing hands was 
ceded to France after the battle of Solferino, as part payment of the 
services rendered by Napoleon III. and France in the cause of Italian 
unity. The waters of the Mediterranean wash its walls on the South, 
while on the North and the East the mountains enclose it in the form of 
an amphitheatre. The height in the rear is crowned by an old castle enclosed by bastioned walls. 
Nice has two noble squares, one of them surrounded with porticos; and adjacent to the other is a 
raised terrace, which serves as a defence for the town against the sea, and affords a delightful 
promenade — this is called, from the large number of English speaking frequenters, The English 
Promenade. 

Castiglione was born in Italy but early went to France, and is now a naturalized Frenchman. 
He exhibits with Frenchmen at all International Exhibitions. 

The beautiful sweep of ocean beach coming smoothly up to the line of the promenade, along 
which orange trees in leaf and blossom make the scene a perfect paradise — and when we are informed 
of the glorious company of English and American sojourners who are always to be found in this 
quaint, comfortable old city — we are almost tempted to envy the sick people who have to go there. 



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Episode in the Siege of Naumburg. 



Jaroslav Cermak, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Oravure. 




N the religious wars of the fifteenth century, Andrew Prokop, the leader 
of the Hussites, exhibited the highest military skill. He defeated, in turn, 
the most formidable armies that Austria or Germany could marshal against 
him, and for several years achieved an unbroken series of successes. He 
overran Bohemia and various parts of Germany, laying waste many towns, 
capturing prisoners, and seizing vast stores of treasure. He was particularly 
harsh in his dealing with all places that were in any wise implicated in 
the martyrdom of Huss. Among the towns that were represented in the 
Council that condemned Husa to the stake was Naumburg. The terror 
and despair of the people of this town may therefore be conceived, when the dreaded Chieftain with 
his victorious army appeared beneath their walls, and began operations for the destruction of the place. 
The embassy that they sent to sue for mercy was so sternly treated as to rob them of all hope. 
While some of the people abandoned themselves to grief and terror, and others with calm desperation 
prepared to sell their lives as dearly as possible; a venerable schoolmaster proposed a last possible 
means of touching the hard heart of their foe. His proposition w^as nothing less than to lead out 
all the little children to the hostile camp, that their infant lips might plead for the salvation of the 
town. At first the parents were horrified at the thought of exposing their tender lambs to ihe ravenous 
wolf; but, on reflection, it was clear that the children would surely perish in the general destruction 
that was soon to come, and how could they bear the sight ! And then, possibly, though they scarcely 
dared indulge the hope, the children's prayers would not be unavailing. And so the little ones went 
forth from the town — the strange procession, including the tiniest prattlers, dressed mostly in white 
and carrying flowers and palm branches, marched fearlessly through the ranks of the stern soldiery 
up to the general's tent, and there fell on their knees in the attitude of suppliants. The rude warrior 
had sufi'ered many assaults, but none so formidable as this. He, at first, assumed anger, and threat- 
ened to kill the audacious schoolmaster ; but, finally, his heart utterly relented. The whole camp 
caught the infection of mercy and grace. The children were petted, fed with cherries, and sent back 
to their agonized parents with messages of peace. For several centuries the anniversary of this event 
was celebrated in Naumburg by a procession of children to the site of Prokop's camp. The in- 
cident, a worthy theme for poet or painter, is most naturally and effectively treated in the excellent 
composition before us. It was exhibited in the Salon of 1876. Though of Bohemian birth, M. 
Cermak finished his art education under a French master, and resided continuously for twenty years 
in Paris, and thus became closely identified with the French school. 




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A Good Point of View. 



V. Chevilliakd. Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 




HIS artist was lately a neglected genius, wandering rather aimlessly among the troops 
of artists who populate the woods of Fontainebleau and drink cheap claret at its humble 
taverns. Whatever he painted was admired, but would not sell. One day an artist friend 
happened to come along with a bundle of priest's robes, which he had borrowed for a religious 
subject he was painting. Chevilliard persuaded him to put on the costume, and made a 
painting of the young, laughing, impudent face and figure of the Paris artist in its inappropriate clerical 
garb. The picture sold, more like it were ordered, and soon the dealers could not get enough of the 
" priests of Chevilliard." He paints priests, not of the heaven-aspiring order, but priests as they really 
appear in their every day life " off duty," and with a kindly satire, never approaching ofFensiveness. 
In the present example one of the gay priests turns the tables on Art, which has so often satirized 
him. He has found a ruined piece of masonry over which to peep, an abandoned artist's stool and 
easel, and a litter of wrappings that seems to indicate a scene of the artist and his wife taking a bath. 
Needless to say that he peeps, and thoroughly enjoys the scene. 




CHEVlLLIAKb . VlUyi 



OKAVUKE. GOUPIL ET C« 



OKE AFTER VESPERS. 



7- w i^r !■■ '■!!■ q or- ^r^T.vcit^ at^'i 



Smoke after Vespers. 



V. Chevilliard, Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 




^'HOEVER has enjoyed a pleasure, either wholly or partially forbidden, secretly, 
will sympathize with the quiet delight of Chevilliard's priest in his Smoke 
after Vespers. The little, droll, kindly figure has sought the seclusion of his 
garden wall, and there, shut out from the world, and every eye, he devotes 
himself to a blissful reverie and his sinful pipe. 

Even the difficulty in securing a " good light," with his two hands 
formed into a protecting lantern, and the evidence of his successful endeavour 
in the fine cloud that arises against the garden wall, are enough to make a smoker's mouth water. 

His intent at devotional study has not been overlooked, as may be seen in the religious-looking 
book on the bench beside him. But that is to be enjoyed after his smoke has been securely set a-going. 
Pleasure before business, in this case. 




F. C. COMPTR-CALnCPraX. 



anjcvBs. ooupiL et c" 



POOH 7_.0VE, 



T^F, WAPTP-iMIECKS OF KIIV.MCI! AH"' 



"Poor Love! 



Frakcois-Clauditjs Compte-Calix, I\nx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




OOR LOVE"! 

However much unfeeling observers may be disposed to smile at the suffer- 
ings of the timid lover, those pangs are serious enough to the subject of them. 
Truly, as a poet sings, 

"A mighty pain to love it is." 

Deep sadness shadows the handsome features of this young man, yet we 

have lively hopes in his favor. His lovely companion — innocent cause of 

his distress — is very sympathetic. She appreciates his trouble, and would fain 

minister consolation. As they pass Cupid's image, she presses her lover's arm and, with a gentle 

gesture, ejaculates, "Poor Love!" Unless we greatly mistake, this proof of sympathy will so inspire the 

youth's confidence that ere long he will be as supremely happy as he is now profoundly dejected. 

The painter has treated the subject with refined and poetic taste. How beautiful the shaded 
walk, and what a charming play of light there is among the trees ! 

Compte-Calix (born at Lyons in 1813) was honored with Salon medals in 1844, 1857, and 1863. 




p. c. coMTE, pnr/.. 



WURE, OOtrPIL ET CIE 



MARIE TOUCHETo 



GBBBrE & CO, 



Marie Touchet. 

(IH THE GALLERY OF M. LEBOr, BOULEVARD ITALIESS, PARIS.) 



P. C. COMTR, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




she did until liis death. 



ARIE TOUCHET, the mistress of Charles IX., though noted for her beauty, amia- 
bility and spirit, was even more remarkable for the domesticity of her 
nature, and the entire absence of those passions for political intrigue and 
the acquisition of wealth, which commonly characterizes the favorites of 
Kings. She seemed content to possess the heart of her royal lover, which 
She was probably the only person whom Charles ever truly loved, and the 
constancy of his affection for her, all selfish though it were, is the most pleasing feature in the wretched 
and sanguinary career of this King. The two daughters whom she bore the King, were reared by Marie 
with motherly devotion and severe morality. But unhappily, these daughters followed the example rather 
than the precepts of their mother. One of them, the Marquise de Verneuil, is well known as the mistress 
of Henri IV.; the other was long the mistress of Marshal Bassompierre, With the exception of her 
unlawful relation to the King, Marie Touchet appears to have been a woman of pure life and elevated 
character, especially if we consider the moral laxity of the age in which she lived. After the deatli of 
Charles, she became the wife of Francois de Balsac d'Entraigues; and on the death of Henri IV., 
she forsook the court and devoted her life to meditation and serious studies. In this pleasing picture 
the artist has judiciously presented his subject in the most winning and characteristic of her traits — 
that of a mother, content and happy in her home. 




PIERRE DE CONINCK., PIIIX. 



aOUPlL ET C?s 



LES CONFETTI, 



oBiinij-; & CO. 



Les Confetti. 



Pierre DeConinck. Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




S 



A BELLE France and her sister Italy, especially Rome, are treasure houses of costume 
and artistic scenery and picturesque events. M. DeConinck has more than once illus- 
trated the scenes of the Carnival, his MoccoU; or, Feast of Tapers, is a well known and 
much admired picture. Les Confetti {Confections) is a worthy companion. For three days 
preceding Ash Wednesday, beginning on Saturday, when a great bell is tolled on 
the Hill of the Capitol announcing the commencement of the festivities, a 
succession of processions fill the Via del Popolo. From the balconies of this 
thoroughfare, fashion and beauty, with curiosity witness the parading and varied 
multitude. It is a privilege of the Carnival time for friends to pelt friends with souvenirs, which 
generally take the form of sweetmeats. Les Confetti. Hence the picture. This is a day-time amuse- 
ment. There is a kind of confit manufactured for this pelting, which is not eatable, but composed 
of flour and plaster-of-paris, and it is not considered outrageous for the best society of noble Roman 
dames to shower indiscriminately these missiles on the promiscuous good-natured crowd. The three 
Roman damsels doing duty in M. DeConinck's picture might be the three graces disguised in Roman 
costume, so fresh and beautiful are they. This picture was exhibited in the Salon of 1873, and won for 
its exhibitor a medal of the third class. 




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The Woman and the Paroquet. 



GUSTAVE COURBET, Pinx. 



GoTJPiL & Co., Gravure. 




J<^^ LOWING with healthful beauty, a woman, prepared for the bath, falls back 
' upon her couch, in the abandon of perfect privacy, and amuses herself with 

a pet bird. The chief motive of the picture, however, is the study of the 
human form which it involves. A work of this character necessarily loses 
much of its charm in being translated into black and white. The delicate 
rose-tint of the flesh, as distinguished from the white drapery, and as con- 
trasted with the dark, warm colors of the background, are here wanting ; but 
there remain the perfect drawing and superb modelling of the voluptuous form; 
the velvety texture of the skin ; the firm yet tender quality of the flesh ; 
the light entangled in the meshes of the dark, luxuriant hair; the expansive masses of light and shade 
which impart breadth and brilliancy to the composition, — all these attributes conspire to make an 
efiective picture, and to suggest the still greater charms of the original. 

The painting was exhibited in the Salon of 1866. M. Courbet obtained a second-class medal in 
1849, and rappels in 1857 and 1861. 






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Manon Lescaut. 



p. A. J. DaGKAN BOUVERET, P'mx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Grmmre. 



'NDOUBTEDLY one of the most popular of tlie minor French classics is the Abh^ 
Provost's novel, "Manon Lescaut," taking rank with " Paul and Virginia," " Pic- 
ciola" and "The Exiles of Siberia." "Manon Lescaut" is a story of stormy, 
passionate love, amounting to infatuation — repulsive in its immorality, but en- 
thralling in its interest. 

After many vicissitudes, the heroine is transported to Louisiana, at tire time 
of the novel one of the French penal colonies, whither she is voluntarily accom- 
panied by her infatuated lover, who is a gentleman of good family. On their 
arrival there he declares Manon Lescaut to be his wife, and she is treated with 
much consideration by the Governor. They, for a time, enjoy a season of real 
felicity, till the nephew of the Governor discovers, accidentally, their real rela- 
tionship, and having been inspired with a passion for the beauty of Manon, he 
takes steps for the separation of the lovers, in the furtherance of his selfish ends. 

The lovers, becoming aware of their danger, escape into the w'lderness, where, in two days Manon 
is seized with a malignant fever and dies. Her lover, in mournful despair, buries her in the sand, 
digging hc-r grave with his hands. 

The story of Manon Lescaut has long been a favourite witn French painters, and many of the 
incidents of her painful story have been illustrated by first-class artists. 








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The Embarkation of Manon Lescaut. 



Charles-Edouard Delort. Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




lEETINGrS and farewells. How largely these enter into our unstable 
lives ; but how infinitely they vary in their degrees of joy or of 
sorrow I This picture presents a critical incident in the Abb6 Prevost's 
tragic romance of Manon Lescaut. Manon's idolatrous passion for her 
lover impels her to every sacrifice, even that of honor. Her devotion 
is ardently reciprocated. The parents of the young man, who is of 
excellent family, at length procure an order for Manon's transportation, 
with a view to the effectual separation of the lovers. But the Cheva- 
lier follows Manon from Paris to Havre, where he rejoins her at the 
moment of embarkation, and resolves to abandon every other tie and 
link his destiny to hers. In his well-studied and masterly picture, M. Delort portrays the scene in 
which the lovers look for the last time on their native land, which they are now to exchange for 
the unknown trials of a penal colony. Our attention is first arrested by the grand old Transport-ship, a 
splendid specimen of the naval architecture of the last century. We next revert naturally to the 
passengers mounting the ship's side, and to those in the boats below, whose movements and exchange 
of greetings and adieus are so faithfully portrayed that the scene is made real to us. But soon our 
sympathetic regards are riveted upon the nearest boat, which is itself a picture of rare excellence and 
pathos. Here are the hapless lovers, who, perhaps, with all their present pain and anxious forebodings, 
httle think how soon Death will remorselessly tear them asunder. The picture has a deep, general 
interest, independent of its special motive. It won a medal in the Salon of 1875. The artist studied 
under Gleyre and Gerome. See Biography, 




THE PASSING REGIMEFTo 



IF. MJR'PKHPIFXES O? FBr.KCd ART. 



I'anM Tnn oHiomAi, paint;no in the corcohan oallery, washmoton, d.c. 



The Passing Regiment. 



[FEOM the COKCOEAJf GALLEEY, WASHIKOTON, D. c] 



Edward Detaille, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Graw,re. 




PiANCE, although vanquished in the war with Germany in 1870, ia now a greater 
, military power than she was in her more boastful days of the third Napoleon ; 
in full preparation, that she shall have no more "regiments on paper" when the 
next war time comes. 

The visitor to Paris may witness, any day, the scene painted by Detaille, 
passing along the Boulevards Italian, Poissoniere and St. Martin. 

The exact spot chosen by the painter is opposite one of those splendid 
arches erected by " Louis the Grand," several of which are scattered about Paris, 
as memorials of the "Grand Monarch." 

The arch in the picture is known as "The Porte St. Martin," being 
at the entrance to the Rue St. Martin, branching from the Boulevard St. Martin. 
The great marvel of this painting is its wonderful perspective. Viewed through a hand glass, 
you can see the miniature-finished perfect heads of the soldiers and their escorts stretch away along 
the boulevards, as far as the eye can reach. The snow-covered roof, the umbrellas and omnibusses, 
and the mount<>d officers in the middle of the marching infantry, aid the illusion ; on the extreme right 
is Detaille's preceptor, Messonier, his hands in his coat pockets. Altogether this is one of Detaille's 
best pictures, and the gem of the Corcoran Gallery, at Washington. 




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The Marseillaise Hymn 



GUSTAVE DORE, PlTlX. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




S the French people, driven to despair, were rising against wrongs that made Ufa 
insupportable, a young officer, Roget de L'Isle, composed a song that 
thrilled all his countrymen with a wild passion of patriotism. In the 
language of Carlyle, "the sound of it did tingle in men's veins, and 
whole armies and assemblies did sing it, with eyes weeping and burn- 
ing, with hearts defiant of death, despot, and devil." Dor6's stirring 
picture tells its own story. The central figure is the very incarnation 
of outraged Liberty come to avenge her wrongs. The people crave but 
a leader, and under Liberty's standard they rush to death as to a banquet. From every house, 

from the streets, and from every sphere of life, old and young, men and boys, flock to swell the 

ranks of the troops. And as they march they sing : 



Ye sons of France, awake to glory I 

Hark ! hark ! what myriads bid you rise ! 
Your children, wives, and grandsires hoary, — 

Behold their tears, and hear their cries ! 
Shall hateful tyrants, mischief breeding. 

With hireling hosts, a ruffian band, 

Affright and desolate the land, 
While liberty and peace lie bleeding ? 

To arms ! to arms ! ye brave ! 

The avenging sword unsheathe ! 
March on ! march on ! all hearts resolved 

On victory or death 1 

Now, now, the dangerous storm is rolling, 
Which treacherous kings confederate raise ; 

The dogs of war, let loose, are howling, 
And lo ! our fields and cities blaze. 

And shall we basely view the ruin. 
While lawless force, with guilty stride, 
Spreads desolation far and wide, 



With crimes and blood, his hands imbruing? 
To arms ! to arms ! ye brave ! etc. 

With luxury and pride surrounded. 

The bold, insatiate despots dare — 
Their thirst of gold and power unbounded — 

To mete and vend the light and air. 
Like beasts of burden would they load us, 

Like gods would bid their slaves adore ; 

But man is man, and who is more ? 
Then shall they longer lash and goad us? 
To arms ! to arms 1 ye brave I etc. 

Liberty, can man resign thee. 

Once having felt thy generous flame? 
Can dungeons, bolts, or bars confine thee. 

Or whips thy noble spirit tame ? 
Too long the world has wept, bewailing, 

That Falsehood's dagger tyrants wield ; 

But Freedom is our sword and shield, 
And all their arts are unavailing. 

To arms I to arms ! ye brave I etc. 




L E IjEBUFE:, P'!:x 



CRAVURE, GOUPIL ET Cl = 



C H A R I T Yo 



THE MASTERPIECES OP FRENCH ART. 



Charity. 



L. Edwaed Dl'bufe, Pinx. 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 



EDWARD DUBUFE, born in Paris in 1818, officer of the Legion of Honour, studied under 
Paul Delaroche ; in his earher career he devoted himself to religious subjects, but of late 
gives his whole attention to portrait painting. 

The noble example of this artist which we have chosen as a representation 
of his style, is a theme grateful to all generous minds. 

The Lady Bountiful moves in her unostentatious mission like a veritable angel, 
and the beautiful face of the missionary, the practical evidence of her kindness, 
and the grateful attitude and expression of the recipients, all mark a result that 
can only be accomplished where the artist's whole heart goes with his work. 

We are reminded of the words of Holy Writ, " And now there remain, Faith, Hope, Charity, 
these three ; but the greatest of these is Charity." 




M'LLE CROIZETTE. 



(feom ihe oriqinal paintino in the green boom of the theaibe fbancais, paejs 1 



Carlos Duran, PItix. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




HIS conihinalion of a study of a very pretty lady on a splendid 
horse by the fresh blue sea may be called a family picture. 
M. Carlos Duran married the sister of Mad'lle Sophie Croizette, 
the celebrated French actress. Her brother-in-law, in this portrait, 
has placed her on horseback by the sea, with its long line of 
coast and its endless perspective. In our collection of French 
Art we have given three portraits of their most celebrated actresses, viz. : Sarah Bernhardt, by Bastien- 
Lapage ; Blanche Barretta, by Louisa Abbema ; and Sophie Croizette, by Carlos Duran. 

The career of Sophie Croizette has been one of steady increase in the public favour. Born at 
St. Petersburg, in March, 1847, of French parentage, she was educated in the schools of Versailles, 
passed her examination for a teacher in Paris, and, for a time, hesitated in the choice of a career, 
but becoming acquainted with M. Bressant, he introduced her to the public in the Gymnase Theater, 
and after playing in minor parts, she quickly controlled the " leading business" till her supreme 
triumph in The /Sphinx, in which, dying by poison, she, by some chemical mystery, contrived to turn 
a pale-green colour after death. This picture was one of the most prominent in the French section 
of the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and won for its master a medal of the first class. Mad'lle. 
Croizette has figured as model to several artists, among others, to M. Jules Lefebvre, who exhibited her 
beautiful form at the Salon of 1870, as Truth. This painting now, in its superb nudity, graces The 
Gallery of the Luxembourg. 




p. N. A. FEYRN PERHIN, PINX. 



GRAVCTRE. OOUPIL ET Cff 



IRE TURN OF THE FISHERS AT LOW TIDEo 



(■-■■l^JiTJC ft CO. 



Return of the Fishers at Low Tide. 



PRANpOIS-NlCOLAS-AuGUSTIN FeYEN-PeERIN, PlTlX. 



GotrpiL (fe Co., Oravwre. 




FEYEN-PERRIN has invested his homely subject with a poetic charm. The 
composition, though so simple, could hardly be more effective. The curve 
given to the procession of fishers is very pleasing to the eye, while the 
sense of distance is admirably conveyed l)y the lessening figures and by the 
dim, watery horizon, where "the stately ships go by." The realism of 
the picture is noble and refined. So much* depends upon the spectator's eye 
and heart! Those who look for what is coarse and common, seldom fail 
to find it; but our artist has detected in these humble "toilers of the sea," 
a certain dignity, — a something worthy of our thoughtful regard. The 
girls in the foreground are of a fine physical type. If we look through the throng of faces we find a 
variety of expressions, but the prevailing one is denoted by the grave countenance of the man with the 
pipe. These, evidently, are people who feel the pressure of life's burdens. They symbolize the myriads 
of earth's toiling masses, and as we listen to their passing footfalls, we seem to hear 

" The still sad music of humanity." 



This painting was the artist's contribution to the Salon of 1880. 



The Warm Hand. 



Jose Frappa, Pinx. 



GoL'PiL & Co.. Oravwre. 




MORE excellent illustration of the caustic passage, " Men are but children, of a larger 
growth," was never more faithfully portrayed than in Frappa's picture of 
The Warm Hand. 

Every schoolboy knows the game of " Buck ! Buck !! Buck !!! How many 
horns do I hold up?" To which question the kneeler in the position of the 
guesser, in the picture, ventures the guess, and if right he is released, if wrong, 
he has to bear the infliction of a stipulated number of slaps. 

It is perhaps a daring innovation to introduce priests as participators in such 
a game, but human nature is human nature, in prince, priest, or protestant alike, 
and a more likely game, for a lot of solemnity oppressed monks, debarred from nearly every pleasure 
common to the rest of mankind, in a period of recreation, than " Hot Hand " or Warm Hand could 
not be suggested. Every face and figure is a study, from tlie "slipper wielder," whose brawny arm is 
laying it on "with a will," to the "Cushion" who hastily points to the coming Abbot, lifting his 
hands in holy horror, at such a scene ! 

Frappa was born at St. Etienne in 1845 ; was a pupil of M. Cerate, and is now a resident in 
Paris. 




EUGENE FROMENim, PINX. 



GRAVURE, GOUPIL ET C"? 



FALCON CHASE IM ALGIERS » 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE GALLERY OF THE LUXEMBOURG 



GEBBIE 8t CO. 



Falcon Chase in Algeria 

THE HAWK'S REWARD. 

(fP.OM the OEIGIXAL PAIIfTIXG IN THF, GALLERY OF THE LUXEMBOURG.) 



EuGEXF, Fromentix. Pinx. GorPTL & Co., Gravure. 




ALCON-HUNTIXG was introduced into Europe from the East, and the pastime has 
a peculiar interest from the fact that it was almost the only out-door 
sport in which women of rank in the Middle Ages took an active part. 
While this sport has now almost disappeared from Europe, it is still in 
high favor in its ancient home, the East. The Italian historian, Cibrario, 
gives the following interesting account of a falcon-chase : 

" Tlie sportsmen rode out with their falcons resting on their strongly- 
gloved wrists. When a bird was discovered suited to the nature and the habits of the falcon, the 
little hood which covered its eyes was drawn oflP, and the falcon rose in rapid circles high above 
its destined prey ; if the quarry was a small bird, she then suddenly swooped (or stooped as the 
phrase was) directly upon her victim ; but if the latter was a large and powerful bird, formidable 
in beak and wing, the falcon was cautious and cunning in her advances, turned and wheeled with 
great dexterity, seizing only the favorable moment to strike. Having secured the prize, she swept 
in large circles over the head of the falconer, and finally presented him the booty ; the falconer put 
it in the game-bag, and then set before his falcon the food prepared for her. Falcons which soared 
high and pursued birds of. lofty flight were called altani; others took a lower but more extended 
range ; some were for the inland country, others for aquatic birds. These last were assisted by dogs. 
When, for example, a flock of herons is discovered, the falconer approaches them secretly and sud- 
denly beats a drum before the • herons can get sight of the falcon, otherwise they would not dare to 
rise. Frightened by the drum, they take to flight; then the sportsman lets loose his falcon, and 
while she prepares to seize the herons in the air, the barking of the dogs prevents the poor birds 
from hiding again in the water. Eagles and falcons of the largest species may be trained for this 
chase, and they will even take foxes and hares." 

In M. Fiomentin's spirited painting we observe on the right a group of mounted chiefs wiih 
falcons on their wrists, watching some Arabs in the foreground who deliver to the falcons the hare that 
they have just seized. The picture is replete with charms of color. The brilliant costumes and rich 
caparisons, and the luminous landscape, form a harmonious ennemhle. M. Fromentin is unequalled in 
the delineation of African subjects. He lias achieved literary as well as artistic renown. 




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The Day of the Fete. 



JtTLES Garnier, P'mx. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




NE of the most interesting pictures of the Salon of 1879 was Jules Garnier's picture 

iS of The Day of the Fete, wonderful in its brilliancy of color, motion and animation. 

The scene is in Flanders at the height of the Carnival. Young men and 

women are going about singing and dancing, and in skilful contrast, monks are 

reciting their prayers. 

The youngest monk carrying the wallet, in which he has collected alms for the 
community, looks wistfully, timidly and nervously at the enjoyment which he in his 
austerity has forsworn. 

The Falstaffian monk in the centre is perhaps " on the fence," whether to bestow some kindly 
sympathy on the innocent enjoyment of the scene, or join his left-hand friend in deep disgust at 
such levity. Altogether the picture is one that once seen can never be forgotten, for all parties, 
(priests included) are enjoying themselves in their own way with a remarkable unanimity. 

Garnier, decidedly one of the best painters of France, will receive due notice at the proper 
place in the History. 



The Tribute to the Minotaur. 



AuQusTE Gendeon, Pinx. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




LUTARCH has furnished the artist with the subject for this painting. Gendron was 
one of Paul Delaroche's favourite pupils who, neariy thirty years ago, in 1855, achieved 
the distinction of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. " The Tribute to the Mino- 
taur " is one of his latest pictures, and the reader need not be told how well it 
tells the sad story of mythology attributed to the polished but superstitious Greeks 
of the legendary age. The Minotaur was believed to be a monster with a human 
body and a bull's head, the offspring of the intercourse of Pasiphae with the bull, sent from the sea 
to Minos, who shut him up in a Crossian labyrinth, and fed him with the bodies of the youths and 
maidens whom the Athenians, at fixed times, were obliged to send to Minos as tribute. The monster 
was slain by Theseus. 

The picture shows the arrival of the boat from Athens, at the entrance to the labyrinth with 
the periodical tribute, and the boatman winds his horn down the foul cave to announce his presence 
with his hopeless victims. 




J L GEROME, PINX 



GRAVURE, GOUPIL ET C?? 



THE TWO AUGURS, 



THE MASTERPIECES OF FRENCH ART. 



The Two Augurs. 



J. L. Geeome, Pinx. 



GouPiL <fe Co., Gravure. 




IHERE is an ancient saying which has come down to modern times, " Two augurs can never 

encounter each other without laughing." 

G^rome has reproduced the Roman sanctum, the sacred chickens fed with consecrated 

oats, a bag of which one of the worthies has dropped, in his "appreciative roar" at the 

funny comment his brother is making concerning the divining wand, or lituus, which he 

gingerly holds between his finger and thumb. 

The plain meaning of the two ancient priests is simply this, " What jolly humbugs 

we are — and how softly the people accept our humbug." This satire of G6rome's is a 
many-edged weapon — though pointed directly at the exploded ancient Roman mythology, it has a far 
wider application. The Delphic Oracle of the Greeks, the mysteries of Isis and Osiris of the Egyptians, . 
and the faiths of other mighty nations have been shown to be no sounder than that represented by 
Augurs of the Romans ; and in our own days, we each who differ from each, believe that the tongue 
of the priest of the sect in which we don't believe, may be found in his cheek as he meets his brother 
— our own belief being the only truthful and genuine faith in which no tongues in the cheek 'are to 
be found. 




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Alcibiades at the House of Aspasia. 



J. L. Gerome, Fiiix. 



GouPiL <fc Co.. Gravure. 




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N Plutarch the story is told of that wonderful Greek dandy, that privileged char- 
acter who was allowed to commit every prank that came into his head, 
to prowl through the city at night with his fellow-revelers and upset the 
marble statues, to invite himself to everybody's dinner-table and be cons'dered 
an acquisition and a boon, to create a blockade in the middle of the road 
by flinging himself into the dust before the carts, to outshine all the men 
and captivate all the women. When Aspasia the blue-stocking, the fair 
islander from Miletos, came to Athens, with little baggage but her wise head 
and her fair face, Alcibiades, the most impudent lad in Athens, was sub- 
jugated in the court of wit and learning she set up. Brilliant conversazi- 
ones, contests of riddling and levity, recitation of the verses of Sappho and Corinna, the stimulating 
rivalship of intellect, the pleasant half-dressed carelessness of hot climates and primitive manners, all 
combined to make Aspasia's receptions the delight of the elite. An exquisite of the third century B. 
C., could go to the most distinguished salon of Athens without other toilet than a tunic and a glossy 
skin fresh from the baths. Alcibiades, in his boyhood, found out the wise and easy-mannered islander, 
and frequented her lodging before that dazzling day when she became known to the older and wiser 
Pericles, and was promoted to the most exalted equality of consortship that had then occurred in the 
history of the world. The idle hours of an aristocratic boy, however, are full of snares and unpro- 
ductive dreams. When the hours of happy lesson teaching began to grow too long, and it seemed as 
if the young patrician were ready to offer marriage and an equal alliance to the clever, mature stranger, 
Socrates, who anticipated for his young friend the greatest honors in state and war, was accustomed 
to go and gradually attract the capricious boy to himself by the charms of a still more brilliant and 
winning faculty of dialogue. 

Although the handsome and gifted Alcibiades is made the central figure of the scene, he, in 
point of fact, receives less attention from the spectator than Socrates, whose familiar features and burly 
form are at once recognized. This is rather gay company for an old philosopher to be found in. If 
the aged and sober woman in the doorway be Xantippe, she can hardly be blamed for being impatient 
to withdraw her husband from such surroundings. Xantippe has the reputation of being a scold ; and 
no doubt she earned it: but who knows the amount of provocation she had? She was doubtless a 
much neglected woman, and if the whole story of her life were told, perhaps we might pity as much 
as blame her. The architectural accessories, at once realistic and tasteful, are an important and 
delightful element in the charms of the picture. 




j GKROME. F!NX 



JRAVURE GOUPIL ET C" 



THE 



b,J' ^ JLJ > 



THK MASTERPIKCBS-OF FRKNCH ART 



The Wall of Solomon. 



J. L. Gerome, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




^HE Jews of Jerusalem and the neighboring cities are in the habit of 
going on a certain day, once a year, to weep and wail before a wall 
which they believe to be a part of the original Temple of King Solomon, 
unaltered by Herod and unspoiled by Titus. Here we see the types 
of venerable Rabbis, with their Semitic profiles, their wealth of crisped 
locks, their rich and trailing gaberdines, fondly caressing the venerable 
stones, kissing the joints of the wall, carrying off the tufts of weeds for 
souvenirs, bruising themselves against the rough ruins in fond embraces. 
Through their thoughts passes that exquisite series of psalms which used 
to be sung by pilgrim Hebrews as they walked in happy bands to the Temple at Pentecost, in the day 
of its splendor and greatness. " I had rather be the doorkeeper in the house of the Lord than dwell 
in the tents of wickedness." The glories of the day when the Temple was a sacred trysting-place, a 
mystery of holiness with its incense and impenetrable Veil, has changed in these days to devastation 
and ruin. But the stones remain, one upon the other, and the ancient Hebrew can magnify them through 
his tears into the rich masterpiece of Tyrian architecture which arose in grandeur for Solomon, without 
noise of hammer or of saw. 



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Phryne Before the Tribunal. 



(FBOM the OEIGINAL PAINTING IN THE GALLERY OF M. SCHRODER, LONDON.) 



J. L. Gerome, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




HRYNE, one of those brilliant women -whom an era of comparative female 
bondage drove to a desperate publicity of manners and freedom of 
career — in no other way could a Greek woman secure an education 
or study the conversation of eminent men — was so celebrated for her 
beauty that she was received by the dazzled populace when she appeared 
like a revelation of the divinity. Artists scrupled not to make her 
portrait and call it- a goddess. Her beauty procured for her so much 
wealth, that she is said to have offered to rebuild the walls of Thebes, 
after they had been destroyed by Alexander, if she might be allowed to put up this inscription on 
the walls: — "Alexander destroyed them but Phryne, the hetiara, rebuilt them." 

She had among her admirers, Alexander and Philip, and the beauty of her form served as 
models for some of the greatest works of art. When brought before the courts on an accusation of 
disease, by Eutheus, the fortunate Phryne was saved by the lucky presence of mind of her lawyer 
Hyperides. When the tribunal was on the point of deciding against his client, the orator suddenly 
snatched aside her mantle, and bared that perfect form which every artist had declared worthy of a 
goddess. Unable to keep up their judicial gravity, the whole areopagus yielded to a gallant impulse, 
and acquitted the white soft captive, whose defenceless nudity cowered before them. Tlie artist repre- 
sents with vivid force this master-stroke of forensic skill. A more beautiful, a more pitiful and 
appealing attitude than Phryne's, has hardly ever been invented by a modern artist. The tender 
shuddering approach with which the dimpled knees and feet cower against and liug each other, — 
a new pose in art — the beautiful shelter which the rounded elbows form for the face, out of which 
looks an eye not quite unconscious of conquest, altogether impress one with a form of novelty 
and unexpected grace. The flying drapery, switched aside for a moment by tlie advocate, is a thing 
immensely difficult to design, and perfectly successful in its sense of movement and accidental lines. 
The benches of gray-beard archons and areopagites, convinced of her blooming health and dazzled out 
of all decorum, and helpless before the vision of beauty as the old men of Troy, when Helen came 
upon the wall, are painted with variety and bravura, even rare for Gerome. 




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The Plain of Thebes. 



J. L. Gerome, Piiix. GoupiL & Co., Gh-avure. 




^VEN the most prosaic mind must swell with emotion on beholding the ruins of Thebes, 
in the Bible called No, or No Ammen. It is situated in the central part of upper 
Egypt, on both banks of the Nile. This gigantic city, whose ruins still excite as- 
tonishment, was believed to be the most ancient town of Egypt, and its original 
metropolis. Its original circumference is stated to have been 140 stadia. Its most 
flourishing period appears to have been about 1600 B.C., when, according to Aristotle, 
'^W.fi the whole country of Egypt bore the name of Thebes. 

Homer speaks of the splendour, greatness and wealth of Thebes, and calls it 
" the city of a hundred gates," each of which sent out " two hundred men with horses 
and chariots." The Persians, under Cambyses, captured and destroyed the city. After this calamity 
the city never recovered its former greatness. What remained of it was in turn pillaged by the Greeks 
and afterwards by the Romans, and finally, the Christians, in their religious zeal, destroyed as much as 
they could of what remained of the works of the ancient idolaters. 

At present, in its desolation,, the site of the city is occupied by four villages. Luxor and Carnac 
on the eastern, and Gournon and Medi-net-Abou on the western side of the river. The buildings and 
sculptures extant are the most ancient in Egypt. The ruins, chiefly consisting of colossal sphinxes and 
obelisks, occupy nearly the whole extent of the valley of the Nile. 

Now, the ruined statues of King Meranon, fabled of old to sing at sunrise, form the conspicuous 
heroes of this wide desert scene, where all seems colossal, strange, adapted to another scale than that 
of humanity. The "beasts of mountain back" wander in caravans through the solitude, their large 
gaunt forms adding to the unfamiliar weirdness of the view, without making it seem more hospitable 
or adapted to mankind, and without comforting its awful loneliness. Another civilization has supervened 
upon that represented by these statues ; but it is that of the nomad, the caravan, of the unfixed, un- 
housed Ishmael, straying from point to point, where the old kings of the country " made desolate houses 
for themselves." For thousands of years previous to the conquest of Alexander, the dynasties of ancient 
Egypt developed themselves without race-change, and during centuries of this succession the effigies of 
Meranon sang to the audience of faithful Egyptian loyalists. But the silence of Egypt, now that the 
idols are broken and the longest of known dynasties is ended, is no improvement on the primitive 
fantastic civilization. The sepulchre of a race that has bloomed and faded. Egypt meets the eye with 
a lesson of lasting death. Other lands tempt by their beauty, by their capacity of improvement ; Egypt 
fascinates by its stability of ruin, and bv its story of a splendid past, written in granite. Of all the 
artists whom genius has given a mission to penetrate into this place of awe, and bring back the record 
of its desolation, none equals G6r6me in the tangible distinctness of the impression he leaves ; he seems 
to carve his national types in adamant, and fetch them up to the eye as a series of images that can 
be weighed, felt, and estimated. 



1 

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FF.UX-HKNRl GlAC0MQ7ri PI! 



RE. OeUFiLET C? 



ABDUCT lOF OF AMYMONE. 

fROM THE DRIOIMAL PAINTING IN THE GALLERY CF THE LUXEMBOURG 



The Abduction of Amymone. 

(from the OEIOISAL PAISTISCr IX THE GALLERY OF THE LUXEMBOIIKG), 



Fklix-Henri Giacomotti, P'lnx. 



GoupiL (fe Co., Gravure. 




X the classic myths, offspring of a fervid imagination, half religious and half romantic, 
poets and artists find a peculiar fascination and an exhaustless supply 
of themes for poetic and pictorial representation. The gods of those early 
days were almost everything but moral ; and that being the case we can 
only wonder that the people were in any degree strict in their virtues ; for 
it is not usual for votaries to equal, much less to exceed, the morality of 
the divinities they worship. 

Our artist depicts an incident in the life of Amymone, the beautiful 
daughter of Danaus and Elephantis. Her parents had just moved into 
Argos, which country, in consequence of some offence given to Poseidon 
(the chief sea god, — the Neptune of the Romans), was suffering from a 
drought. Amymone was therefore sent out in search of water. While on this quest, she espied a 
stag, and being something of a huntress she could not resist the temptation to have a shot at it. 
Alas ! she little dreamed of the trouble that this attempt to combine busiruess and pleasure was to 
make for her. Missing the stag, her arrow struck a sleeping satyr, who at once furiously pursued 
her. The terrified maid cried aloud to the god Poseidon for succor. Her cries were heard ; the 
god appeared ; and he delivered her, did he not ? Oh, yes ! but only that ho might appropriate 
her to his own use. A great deliverance, truly ! As disinterested as that of the friendly shark who 
took the poor sailor in out of the wet. 

The artist has conceived the heroine as borne over the waves by Poseidon's ministers, the 
tritons, towards his abode beneath the sea. The grouping of the figures, the skillful treatment of 
the drapery, the liquid and transparent water, the effect of distance and, above all, the superb draw- 
ing, form an admirable ensemble. 




PIRMIN OIBARIj. PINX.. 



ORAVURE, GOUPIL ET Cff 



THE GOD "MOTHERS GARDENo 



Tin-: MA3TBRPLBCES OP FRENCH ART. 



The God-mother's Garden. 



Firman Girard, Pinx. 



GoUPiL & Co., Gravure. 



/ET us describe one of the prettiest and freshest pictures of modern times. Firman Girard 
has, undoubtedly, the eye of a {)oet, as well as the hand of the expert painter, to 
stamp an occurrence and subject of the most commonplace character with all the 
genius of everlasting beauty. 

The simple story is, a mother, with her little daughter, pays the child's god- 
mother a visit, and are invited into the godmother's garden to gather a nosegay. 
Every-day enough the subject is to be sure, and in the hands of many artists, 
common-place enough would the representation have been, but here we have the 
trees and shrubs crisp with elegance, the white and pink chrysanthemum, con- 
trasted with the dark trailing velvet costume of the godmother, and that again 
contrasted with the flulFy fur-trimmed white jacket of the god-child, led by the hand by her elegantly 
dressed, splendidly developed, mamma. 

Perfection everywhere, and the crowning perfection, the picture of youthful loveliness in the young 
womanhood in the god-mother. 

Firman Girard was born at Poucin and was a pupil of Gleyre. He won a medal of the third 
class in 1863, and one of the second class in 1874. He was decorated Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour in 1880. 



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Episode in the Siege of Saragossa. 



Jules Giraedet, Pinx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




_ ^, ARLY in the nineteenth century, during the Peninsular War, Saragossa was 
'^ twice besieged by the French, and its defence was one of the bravest and 
most stubborn on record. The city was first invested June loth, 1808, but 
after forty-nine days of fierce attack and resistance, the siege was raised, only 
to be recommenced December 20th of the same year. After thirty-nine days 
more of bombardment, the city was entered by the enemy, January 27th, 1809. 
The defence, however, did not cease. The citizens fought from street to street 
and from house to house, until February 22d, when, after a loss, by disease and 
war, of some 60,000 lives, the city capitulated. M. Jules Girardet has illus- 
trated, with signal ability, one of the terrible incidents in this memorable 

struggle. The soldiery have forced their way into a church that had furnished a strong cover of defence ; 

and, maddened by the unyielding resistance, they have spared not even the priests at the altar. The 

record which furnished the painter's text is as follows : 



" Fire ! said an officer. 



The monk, supporting himself with one hand on the edge 
Of the altar, still essayed to bless us. 

' Tit Spiritus sanctus I ' 
Amen ! cried a drummer, with a burst of laughter." 



The painting is an eloquent witness to the dehumanizing influence of war. As a picture, the 
work takes high rank. The composition is excellent ; the figures are vitalized with appropriate action ; 
the piers and vaulting of the grand edifice are rendered with rare fidelity ; the lighting is superb. It 
was the artist's contribution to the Salon of 1881. 




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The Devtsa. 

(from the original PAIKTISQ in the gallery of the LUXEMBOURG.) 



Pierre-Francois-Eugene Giraud, PItix. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




s IKE brothers in taste, if not in greatness of character, we may apply the accusing 
irase " butchered to make a Roman holiday," in spirit to the Spaniards 
as well as to the Romans. As the populace of ancient Rome — women as well as 
men — crowded the arena and witnessed with delight bloody and mortal com- 
bats between man and beast and man and man, and surveyed with heartless 
unconcern the mangled corses that strewed the ground, even so the people 
of Spain flock with enthusiasm to their national sport of bull-fighting and find 
a savage delight m the torture and slaughter of the animals, and a still 
more exquisite thrill in the wanton destruction of human lives. 
Our artist introduces us to one of these tragic amusements, and a painful scene it is. A torreador 
mortally wounded is conducted into the chapel (strange combination of chapel and arena !) to die. 
Pausing at the door of the sanctuary, his eyes, in which the death film is already seen, turn with 
lingering fondness to his fainting loved one, while he reaches towards her, as a last token of honor and 
devotion, the devisa (a knot of ribbons) which he has torn from the bull. 

Such a scene might well sober the excited crowd and send them in sadness home. But not so. 
Their sport is not even interrupted. Look but a few paces beyond this dying man and this agonized 
woman, and see the waving caps and hear the frenzied shouts of the multitude as the sport goes madly 
on. Surely this picture tells its story and points its moral with signal power. 

M. Eugene Giraud was represented in the Luxembourg Gallery by three important works until 
1879, when one of them — Dance in a Grenada Poseda — received the higher honor of admission to the 
Louvre. He died in 1871 during the siege of Paris. 




5 § 






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The Conjuration 



(fBOM the original PAIHTINO in the LUXEMBOURG OALLEBT.) 



Pierre Paul Leon Glaize, Finx. 



GoupiL & Co., Gravure. 




IVY in his Early History of Rome has furnished the subject from which M. Glaize has 
painted The Conjuration. 

After the expulsion of the Tarquins several young men, of the first families of 
Rome, conspired together for the restoration of the exiles. In furtherance of this inten- 
tion, they met at the house of Aquillius, one of the conspirators, in a lonely part of the 
city, and according to the custom of the times, took an oath over the dying body 
of a slave, sacrificed for the purpose, to faithfully, secretly and loyally perform their mission to destroy 
the Republicans and restore the Royal Tarquins. 

The artist has chosen the time when in their mad enthusiasm they pledge each other by 
drmkinsj the blood of their unfortunate sacrifice. 

M. Glaize was born in Paris in 1842, was a pupil of Gerome, and was decorated Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor in 1877. 



\ 




O- GLEYREL, PINX.. 



i^I-cA-VJlvE, J-OLTII. ET C» 



HERCULES AND OMPHALE< 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE MUSEUM OF NE UFCHATEL. 



THE MAnTERPIECEa OF FRENCH ART. 



Hercules and Omphale. 

[in the Ml/SEUM OF NEDFCHAtE' ] 



G. Gleyee, Pinx. 



GouPiL & Co., Gravure. 




"FTER the accomplishment of his Twelve Labours, Hercules was unfortunate enough 
to kill, in a fit of anger, his friend Iphitus, and although purified from the 
murder by Dephobus, yet on consulting the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, he 
was refused an answer, and learned from the priests that the gods would 
not be propitiated till he had earned pardon for his crime by three years 
of absolute slavery. 

He accordingly sold himself for three years to Omphale, the widowed 

< Queen of Lydia, and became doubly enslaved by her beauty, he fell so 

deeply in love with her, as to lead an effeminate life ; in order to fulfill his expiation and at the 

same time be uear her person, he spun wool while Omphale wore the lion's skin, his trophy from the 

Numidian lion. 

Gleyre has very skillfully illustrated the story, showing forcibly, by the introduction of Cupid, how 
love leads the giant by a silken thread. The club of Hercules lies idle on the ground, and the basket 
filled with spools occupies his attention beside the Queen. 

The picture was sold by Messrs. Goupil & Co., of Paris, in 1874, to the directors of the Museun 
of Neufch^tel. 




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Presenting the Trophy of the Foot. 

(FEOM the gallery of MR. JAMES H. STEBBINS, NEW YORK.) 



J. R. GouBiE, Pinx 



GOUPIL & Co., Gravure. 




IKE an illustration for the pages of " Handley Cross;" M. Goubie, with all the 
cunning of John Leech, gives this charming sporting view. 

Dogs and horses, and high-toned "lords and ladies gay," on pampered 
steeds, have reached the finish of the hunt in the death of the stag. 

This health-giving sport is not practiced to any extent in America, but 
in the British Isles, and in France it is the weekly custom of ladies and 
gentlemen of leisure, to meet, with a pack of hounds, to chase the fox or stag 
across the country, and in France the stag hunt is most popular. We cannot 
better describe the scene, than by quoting Scott's celebrated "Hunting Song:" 



"Waken, lords and ladies gay, 

On the mountain dawns the day, 

All the jolly chase is here 

"With hawk, and horse, and hunting spear; 

Hounds are in their couples yelling, 

Hawks are whistling, horns are kneUing, 

Merrily, merrily, mingle they, 
'Waken, lords and ladies gay.' 

Waken, lords and ladies gay. 
The mist has left the mountain grey, 
Springlets in the dawn are steaming, 
Diamonds on the brake are gleaming; 
And foresters have busy been, 
To track the buck in thicket green; 
Now we come to f'haut our lay, 
' Waken, lords and ladies gay.' 

In M. Goubie's picture the stag has been run 
seated with the right front foot of the stag, " The 



Waken, lords and ladies gay, > 
To the green-wood haste away ; 
We can show you where he lies, 
Fleet of foot, and tall of siz3 ; 
We can show the marks he made, 
When 'gainst the oak his antlers frayed ; 
You shall see him brought to bay, 
'Waken, lords and ladies gay.' 

Louder, louder chant the lay. 

Waken, lords and ladies gay ! 

Tell them youth, and mirth, and glee, 

Run a course as well as vve; 

Time, stern huntsman ! who can baulk, 

Staunch as hound ! and fleet as hawk ; 

Think of this, and rise with day, 

Gentle lords and hidies gay." 

down, and the Diana of the Hunt is being pro- 
Trophy of the Hunt." 




PLEASURES OF THE GARDEN. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY PIERRE MIGNARD IN THE PALON OF SAINT-CLOUD. 




THE LAST JUDGMENT. (FRAGMENT.) 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY JEAN COUSIN, IN THE LOUVRE 




THE PERFECT MASTER. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL ALLEGORICAL PAINTING BY EUSTACHE LE SUEUR, IN THE GALLERY OF ROHAN CHABOT. 



SEE LE SUEUR'S BIOORAPHY 
IN THE HISTORY. 






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DANJOU. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE GALLERY OF VERSAILLES, BY HYACINTH RIGAUD. 



iEE RIOAUO'3 BIOGRAPHY 
IN THE HlffrORV. 




LAJOUE AND FAMILY. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE GALLERY AT VERSAILLES, BY JACQUES LAJOUE. 



WE LAJOUE'S BIOORAPHY 
IN THE HISTORY. 




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VIEW OF THE HARBOUR OF RIPETTA, ROME. 

FROM THE PAINTING BY HUBERT ROBERT IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




DIOGENES THROWING AWAY HIS BOWL ON SEEING A PEASANT DRINK FROM HIS HAND. 



FROM THE PAINTING BY NICOLAS POUSSIN IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




Trajan Giving Audience. 



FROM THE PAINTING BY N. COYPEL IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




i,^esBs^gs3s^^^S:;^^.;2a.iH[tkIlll_^^^^ 



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THE SABINE WOMEN. 



FROM THE PAINTING BY L. DAVID IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 






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Venus Binding the Wings of Love. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY 
MME. ELIZABETH-LOUISE VIGETE-LEBRUN. 




The Blacksmith at his Forge. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY THE BROTHERS 
LE NAIN, IN THE LOUVRE. 





Bonaparte, as First Consul. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY JEAN-BAPTISTE ISABE/. 



PYGMALION AND GALATEA. 

i'ROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY GIRODET-TRIOSON. 




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THE RAFT OF THE MEDUSA. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY J.-L.-A.-T. GERICAULT IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




JUSTICE AND DIVINE VENGEANCE PURSUING CRIME. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY PIERRE PRUD'HON IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF A MONASTERY BY THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA 

IN THE i3TH CENTURY. 

FROM. THK PAINTING IN THE LOUVRE, BY FORBIN. 



Me FORBIN'3 BIOORAPHY 
IN THE HISTORY. 




THE RETURN OF MARCUS SEXTUS. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY PIERRE-NARCISSE GU^RIN, IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




LOCUSTA TRYING ON A SLAVE THE POISON PREPARED FOR BRITANNICUS. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY XAVIER SIGALON, IN THE MUSEUM OF NIMES. 




Assassination of the Duke of Guise. 

FROM THE PAINTING BY PAUL DELAROCHE IN THE GALLERY OF THE DUG DE AUMALE. 




Entrance of Alexander into Babylon. 



FROM THE PAINTING BY C. LE BRUN IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




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DON QUIXOTE AND SANCHO PANZA. 

FPOM THE PAINTING DY ALEXANDRE-GABRIEL DECAMPS, IN THE GALLERY OF THE BARON GUSTAVE DE ROTHSCHILD, PARIS. 




The Sleep of Endymion. 



FROM THE PAINTING BY GIRODET-TROISON IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




EVENING. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY JEAN BAPTISTE COROT, IN THE MUSilE BRUYAS MONTPELLIER. 




CHARLES V. AT THE MONASTERY OF SAINT-JUSTE. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY JOSEPH-NICOLAS RnBERT-FLEURY. IN THE COLLECTION OF M. P^RIERE, PARIS. 




LION DEVOURING A GOAT. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY EUGfeNE DELACROIX, IN THE GALLERY OF THE LUXEMBOURG. 




CLAUDE LORRAINE, NICOLAS POUSSJN AND GASPAR POUSSIN IN THE 

ROMAN CAMPAGNA 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY JEAN-BAPTISTE-AUGUSTE LELOIR. 




STELLA AT ROME, IN 1698. 



FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY CLAUDIUS JACQUAND. 




A SEA PORT AT SUNSET. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY CLAUDE LORRAIN IN THE GALLERY OF THE LOUVRE. 




The Spring at Neslette, in Mormandy. 

?ROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY ^MILE VAN MARCKE, IN THE GALLERY OF MR. ALEXANDER BROWN, OF PHILADELPHIA. 




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