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*Toi minute investigation of the peculiar virtues of certain plants 
and herbs, the Indians of old were naturally incited by the vast 
variety and beauty of the innumerable vegetable productions which 
cover the face of their fertile territory : these in some places grow 
up spontaneously ; many applied to sacred purposes, the ministers 
of religion reverently cherished; and many the hand of traffic di- 
ligently cultivated for exportation." 

Indiak AwriQUiTtts, voL vii. p. 624. 


Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode, 

New- Street- Square. 




Preliminary Observations ...... t 

Names in some of the Oriental Languages of the descrip- 
tion of Plants, and the parts of Plants, that are used in 
medicine in India ...... xxxvii 


Medicines in use amongst the Hindoos, and other Eastern 
nations .........i 


Books in various Eastern languages connected with Medicine 
and other sciences - - - - - - 491 

A List of Sanscrit Medical and other Books, verbatim as it 
was given to me by a celebrated Hindoo physician of 
Southern India, and written by a learned native of the 
name of Ramaswamy Naig -.--.- 491 

A List of Tamool Medical and Scientific Books - 499 

A List of Persian and Arabic Medical and Scientific Books ; 
the names of some of which were taken from Stewart's de- 
scriptive Catalogue of Tippoo Sultan's Library - - 504 

A further List of Tamool Books, procured for me by a learned 
Vytian of Southern India - 520 

3List of Medical Works in the hands of the native practitioners 
of Ceylon; they are mostly in Sanscrit, which in that island 
is written in the Cyngalese character; many of them, how- 
ever, are translated into Cyngalese. The list was procured 
for me by the late much-lamented W. Tolfrey, Esq. of 
Ceylon 525 

CHAP. in. 

Karnes of Diseases m various Eastern languages - - 528 

Addenda ' - 543 

A 2 


It is much to be lamented that it was ever found 
necessary to include the sciences, and arts, amongst 
those subjects which are treated of in the sacred 
writings of the Hindoos ; a circumstance which has 
been hitherto an insurmountable obstacle to improve- 
ment j and is, no doubt, one of the causes why me* 
dicine in India is still sunk in a state of empirical 

" The Ayvr Veda, as the medical writings of the 
highest antiquity are called, is considered to be a 
portion of the fourth or Atharva Veda, and is con- 
sequently the work of Brahma *, who composed the 
four immortal Vedas; this Ayvr Veda was com- 
municated by Brahma to Dacsha the prqjapati, and 
by him the two Asnvins, or sons of Sun/a (the sun) 
were instructed in it; and they then became the 
medical attendants of the Gods : a genealogy which 
cannot fail recalling to our remembrance the two 
sons of Esculapius, and their descent from Apollo." 
The Aswins, it is believed by some, first made Indra 
acquainted with the medical science contained in the 

* See an interesting account of the medical and surgical 
sciences of the Hindoos, in the Oriental Magazine for March 

A 3 


Ayur Veda, and that he was the precepter of Dhaiu 
wantrie ; others are of opinion that Atreya, Bharad- 
wqja, and Charaka were instructed in the mysteries 
of the healing art prior to Dhanwantrie ; be that as 
it may, CharaM *> work is still extant, and goes by 
his name. Dhanwantrie is sometimes called Kasi- 
rqja (Prince of Kasi or Benares) j his disciple was 
Susruta, son of Viswamitra, a contemporary of Rama ; 
his work (Susruta's) still exists ; it is supposed to be 
of great antiquity, perhaps the oldest, with the ex- 
ception of that of Charaka *, which the Hindoos yet 

The Ayur Veda itself is said to have originally 
consisted of one hundred sections of a thousand 
stanzas each ; it was adapted to the limited faculties 
of man, and was divided into eight parts, com- 
prising the whole of the ars medendi amongst the 
Hindoos ; according to the valuable account above 
mentioned, they were the following : — 

I. Salya, which instructed in the art of extract- 
ing extraneous substances that chance or mischief 
may have forced into the human frame. 

II. Salakya. This treated of external organic af- 
fections, such as diseases of the eyes, ears, &c. 

III. Kaya Chikitsa. This treated of the application 
of the healing art to the body in general. 

IV. Bhutavidya. This treated of the restoration 
of the faculties from a deranged state, induced by 
demoniacal possession. 

V. Kaumarabhritya. The subject of this was the 
care of infancy ; it also embraced the treatment of 
puerperal disorders in mothers and nurses. 

* This some imagine to have been inspired by Seeva ; other 
Sanscrit medical works of great celebrity, but of more modern 
date are the Roganirupana and Nidana. (As. Res. vol. i. p. 350.) 


VI. Agadtu This taught the best mode of ad* 
ministering antidotes. 

VII. Rasayancu This treated of chemistry, or 
more properly speaking, alchemy* 

VIII. Rqjikarana. This taught how the increase' 
of the human race could best be promoted. 

Sir William JotfEd informs us, that the Ayvr 
Veda has been almost entirely lost in the lapse of 
ages * ; but that he had met with a curious fragment 
of it ; in which he was surprized to find an account 
of the internal structure of the human frame. What- 
ever may have been done, however, in this way, in 
former times, it is to be regretted that the custom 
of dissecting and examining the dead subject, does 
not now exist amongst the Hindoos ; indeed it is, I 
believe, contrary to the Brahminical tenets of the 
present day : so that all the knowledge they have of 
the anatomy of man, can be little else than conjecture, 
formed from what they may have seen in looking 
into the bodies of brute animals.t 

With regard to the surgical knowledge the ancient 
Hindoos possessed, however neglected that branch 
of medicine may now be in India, it will I think be 
allowed, from what has been advanced respecting 


* In the hermetic writings, or bible of Egypt, the Zend-Avesta 
of Iran, the Vedas and Upavedas of Hindoostan, Mr. Miller in- 
forms us, are discovered, respectively, complete sections on the 
subject of medicine ; and which must be considered as incom- 
parably the most ancient monuments of that science. See 
Mille/s Disquisition on the History of Medicine, part i. p. 249. 

■f The present Rajah of Tanjore is a most enlightened and 
learned prince, and particularly distinguished by his attachment 
to scientific research ; anxious to make himself acquainted with 
the structure of the human body, but too rigid a Hindoo to 
satisfy his curiosity at the expence of his religious opinions, he 
ordered a complete skeleton made of ivory to be sent to him from 
England. The Rajah is, besides, a tolerable chemist ; and, what 
is better, a very worthy and amiable man. 

A 4 


the two first subdivisions of the Ayur Veda, viz. 
Salya and Salakya, that those must have treated of 
surgery, strictly so called ; and it has as clearly been 
ascertained, that in the first portion of a comment- 
ary * on Sudruta's work, already noticed, many va- 
luable surgical definitions are distinctly detailed : this 
portion is entitled Sutra Sfhana or chirurgical de- 
finitions. The second portion of the commentary is 
the Nidana Sfhana, or section on symptoms or dia- 
gnosis. The third is the Sarira Sfhana, the subject 
of which is anatomy. The fourth, Chikitsa Sfhana, 
treats of the internal use of medicines. The fifth, 
Kalpa Sfhana, gives a copious list of antidotes. 
The sixth and last is the XJttara ; it is a supplemen- 
tary section on various local diseases or affections of 
the eye, ear, &c. In all those portions, however, it 
would appear from the testimony last quoted, that 
surgery, and not general medicine, is the principal 
object of the commentary. 

The instrumental part of surgery, was, according 
to the best authority, of eight kinds, chedhana, cut- 
ting, or excision ; lekhana, which signifies drawing 
lines, appears to be applicable to scarification and in- 
oculation - y vyadhana, puncturing ; eshyam, probing, 
or sounding; aharya, extraction, of solid bodies; 
visravana, extraction t of fluids ; sevana, or sewing, 
and bhedana, division, or excision. 

* This commentary was made by Ubhatta, a Cashmfrian, and 
may be as old as the twelfth century. See Asiatic Journal for 
September 1823, p. 242. 

t Under this head, extracting of fluids, are included the use of 
leeches (jalauka) and bleeding or venesection. On the subject 
of leeches some of the surgical sastrums of Upper India treat 
fully. Twelve species of leech are therein enumerated, six of 
which are said to be poisonous ; and their names in Sanscrit are 
the karbura, alagarda, indrayudha, samudrika, and the gobondana. 
The six that are fit for use are the kapila, or tawny leech ; the* 


The mechanical means employed in Hindoo sur- 
gery seem to have been numerous ; these were ge- 
nerally termed yantras, including a great variety of 
instruments (sastras), and having distinct names, cor- 
responding with the purposes for which they were 
intended ; such as tongs (sandansas), needles (jsuchi), 
teeth instruments (danta sanku), saws (Jcarapatrd), 
tabular instruments (nari), lancets (mandalagra), 
knives (ardhadaras), histories (kucharicd) j of ban- 
dages according to Ubliatta, or Baghbatta, there were 
no less than fourteen kinds j of rods and sounds, and 
instruments for eradicating nasal polypi (nakra) so 
common and troublesome in India, there were also 
a great variety ; then again in their surgical phar- 
macy they appear to have had, frequently, recourse to 
kshara, which signifies alkaline salts, or solutions, as 
are directed in the saranghadra. The actual cau- 
tery, with heated metals (agni) is very commonly 
employed by the Hindoos of the present age, who 
also not unfrequently use a cautery prepared with 
hot seeds, combustible substances, or inflamed boiling 
fluids of a gelatinous or mucous consistence ; but as 
has been said in speaking of anatomy, whatever may 
have been done in former times, it may be justly ob- 
served, that no operations in surgery of any nicety, 
are now ventured on by the medical men of India ; 
certainly, not by the Tamool or Tellingoo practition- 
ers of the Southern provinces, where, however, dis- 
located joints are replaced, and fractured limbs set 

pingala, which has a red tinge ; the sanka mukki* which is yellow f 
and has a long sharp head ; the muskika, which is dun; the pa»- 
darika mukki, which has the hue of the mudga (phaseolus moong) ; 
and the savarika, which resembles the leaf of the lotus in its- 
colour. See Oriental Magazine for March 1823. 


with tolerable skill, by a class of men called in Tamool 
kayvngkatugara atuvamen, who also apply leeches, 
&c. The Mahometan doctors, Hakeems (*>£=*, oc- 
casionally bleed, and couch * for the cataract, which 
last is done in a very clumsy and uncertain manner. 
We learn from Mr, Crawford's excellent History of 
the Eastern Archipelago (vol. i. p. 329.), that neither 
are the Malay doctors much in the habit of taking 
away blood ; like the Hindoos they have much faith 
in incantations, but never feel the pulse ; in this last 
respect differing essentially from the Indians, who 
distinguish no fewer than " twenty kinds of pulse." t 

The Vitians or Vydias (physicians) being sudras, 
are not permitted to peruse the sacred J medical 
Writings (vedas), which are guarded with religious 
awe by the Shastree Brahmins ; but they have free 
access to many professional tracts (sastras), which 
correspond with, and are, in fact, commentaries on 
them. These are said to have been composed by 
prophets and holy men of antiquity (Maharshies), 
to whom is generally given a divine origin, such as 
Aghastier, whose work has just been quoted. 

This is no place to enter minutely into the dis- 
cussion, which has so long engaged the attention of 
mankind, regarding the claims of priority of Hin- 
doostan over other countries, with respect to the cul- 
tivation of the human mind ; nor have I sufficient 
of Eastern lore to enter with confidence on the sub* 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 408. (Calcutta edition.) 
f See a medical sastrutn by Aghastier, entitled Aghastier Vytia 
Any our oo. 

X Sir William Jones informs us, that there is a vast collection 
of them from the Charaka, which is considered as a work of 
Seeva, to the Roganirupana and Nidana, which are compara- 
tively modern. 


jectj much has been said on either side, and we 
know that there are some very enlightened in- 
dividuals, who acknowledge, that they begin to lose 
faith in the assumption, that the Hindoos had made 
great progress in the arts and sciences, at a lime 
when other nations were, if I may use the expres- 
sion, still in their cradle. Nay, these gentlemen 
further state, that they "have now the strongest 
grounds to suspect, that in many cases the know- 
ledge of the Indians was borrowed at second hand, 
from the communication of their Persian and Arabic 
conquerors; who themselves had been instructed 
by the creative genius of the Greeks." (See Edin- 
burgh Review, for May 1811.) 

In opposition to this, Mr. Maurice observes, in 
his History qf ffindoostan, (voL i. p. 79.) " the 
genius of the Hindoos was ever too proud to borrow 
either ceremonies of religion, or maxims of policy 
from their neighbours ; the Egyptians, if they did 
not appropriate to themselves the ancient mytholo- 
gical rites, and symbols, of India, have perhaps de- 
rived both from one primitive source of Cuthite pro* 
fanation;" and it may be further noticed, that I 
have not been able to hear of any translations that 
ever were made of medical writings from the Arabic 
into the Sanscrit ; but there is existing evidence of 
the borrowing of the Arabians from the Hindoos, 
which the reader may convince himself of, by re- 
ferring to the list of Arabic books, in the second 
volume of this work. 

Let us see what the learned Mr. Bryant has said 
on this point, in his New System qf Ancient Mytho- 
logy (yo\. iv. pp. 256, 2570 : " From circumstances of 
this nature many learned men have contended, that 


the Indians and even the Chinese * were a colony 
from Egypt, while others have proceeded as warmly 
upon the opposite principle j and have insisted, that 
the Egyptians, at least their learning, and customs, 
are to be derived from the Indi and Seres; but 
neither opinion is quite true : nor need we be brought 
to this alternative, for they both proceed from one 
central place j and the same people who imported 
their religion, rites, and science into Egypt, carried 
the same to the Indies and the Ganges, and still 
farther into China, and Japan ; not but that some 
colonies undoubtedly came from Egypt But the 
arts and sciences imported into India, were derived 
from another family, even the Cuthites of Caldea, 
by whom the Mizraim themselves were instructed, 
and from Egypt they passed westward." 

The Hindoo medical treatises ( Faghdum), we are 
told, were all written many hundred years ago, but 
at what exact periods it is next to impossible to ascer- 
tain ; as dates are very rarely affixed to the manu- 

* John Davis, Esq., in his admirable " Memoir concerning the 
Chinese," says, that from the race of Choto (B. C. 1 100 years) we 
may date the authentic history of the Chinese ; but that the 
empire of China cannot be dated earlier than about 200 years 
before Christ. The period of Choto, Mr. Davis observes*, was 
distinguished by the birth of Confucius; though M. Chatfield 
is rather inclined to think, that he was cotemporary with Hero- 
dotus, who wrote 450 years B. C. : be that as it may, it was not 
till after the death of that great legislator that idol worship was 
introduced into China. Mr. Davis states, that it was at the same 
period (B.C. 1100 years) that Buddha was born in India; but 
that his religion was not introduced into China before the first 
century of the Christian era. Mr. Davis further notices, that, 
with the exception of this heresy, the Chinese appear to have 
borrowed nothing from their Western neighbours. The Hindoos 
did not impart their knowledge of astronomy to the Chinese, 
that was first introduced into China by the Arabians, and subse- 
quently by European missionaries. See Transactions of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. p. 1. 


scripts, and whatever questions are put, touching 
particular eras, to those Brahmins who might be sup- 
posed best able to reply to them, they are invariably 
answered in an unsatisfactory manner j a lamentable 
fact, which is, I perceive, also noticed by Dr. Bucha- 
nan (now Hamilton), in his Journey through Mysore, 
<§xr. (vol. i. p. 335.) 

The different nations or tribes of India have their 
respective medical authors, whose writings are of 
more or less repute. Those of the Hindoos of Up- 
per Hindoostan are numerous, and are nearly all in 
Sanscrit. They are highly venerated, the natural 
consequence, we must conclude, of the very dignified 
character which the Brahminical institutions have long 
maintained. But the medical books which more par- 
ticularly call our attention are those of the Tellingas 
and Tamools. Few of the first are composed in Tel- 
lingoo *, but in Sanscrit, and are either transcripts of 
tracts, common in the higher provinces, or written 
by some of the Makarshies (saints) of Lower In- 
dia. They are all in verse, and remarkable for 
the minute, though strange descriptions they give of 
the symptoms of diseases j they at the same time be- 
tray a woeful ignorance of* the internal economy and 
nicer functions of the human frame ; and are but too 
often obscured by mystical illusions, and a blind be- 
lief in the powers of magic and enchantment. 

The Tamool medical works, on the other hand, 
are many of them originally written in what is called 
high Tamool (Y^llacdnum), which is allowed to be a 

* The Tellingoo, though not the most energetic, is, certainly, 
from the frequency of vowel terminations, the softest of all the 
Eastern languages, with the exception of the Malay, which has 
been called the Italian of Asia, and is, no doubt, the sweetest and 
most musical language in the world, not even excepting the 


richly cultivated language, and peculiarly energetic. 
The poetry* (Cavi), in which all scientific works are 
written, is much admired by those who have made it 
a study ; so liberal would appear to be the poetical 
license in permitting, as in the Greek, the transposing, 
altering, and occasionallyaltogethertakingaway certain 
letters, in order to harmonize and vary the rhythm } and 
so much care is ever bestowed on the construction of 
the various measures. Those sastrums are supposed 
to be more valuable than many which are written in 
Sanscrit ; they are said to be less shackled with the 
mythological doctrines of the original Ayur Veda % to 
contain a greater number of valuable formulae^ and 
to show a still more minute attention to the enumer- 
ation of morbid symptoms ; but, like them, they 
evince a firm conviction in the belief and intervention 
of evil spirits, and offer many curious rules for avert- 
ing their machinations. 

Before proceeding to offer to the reader a few ex- 
tracts from a medical sastrum of high repute in Lower 
India, I shall lay before him a brief outline of the 
religious institutions of the Hindoos, with some 
account of the state of general science amongst 
them, which, although such discussions may not 
be immediately connected with the subjects treated 
of in the Materia Indica, will, I trust, be not 
altogether unacceptable, when it is recollected that 
the chronology, science, literature, &c. of this singu- 
larly interesting people, are all intimately interwoven 
with their mystical theology. 

Mr. Chatfield, in his admirable work t, observes, 

* There is this singularity in some of the yellacanum poetry, 
that the rhyme depends not on the last word of the line, but on 
the first ;- and the effect it has on the ear once accustomed to it 
ts by no means unpleasant. 

f See Chatfield's Review of Hindoostan, p. 153. 


• :in r,t 

that, « whether the Hindoo mythology was 
on the dark enigmas of their astronomers, or the fic- 
tions of their poets disguising natural light, it is 
proved from the authority of a learned Orientalist, 
that their history, notwithstanding its claims to a 
much higher antiquity, cannot be traced farther bade 
than 2000 years before Christ. Their early historians, 
as in all infant states, were their poets, their priests, 
and their philosophers ; and therefore, whatever they 
relate is so much enveloped in mystery and fable, 
that belief is violated, and the path to truth is lost in 
the mazes of vague and uncertain conjecture."* 

The Hindoos believe that all things have been de- 
rived from Brahma, who is their God Creator; 
Veeshnu is their God Preserver ; and Seeva (or 
Mahdeo) their God Destroyert ; yet it is singular, 
that however supreme the first-mentioned being is, 
there exists throughout all India not one templet 
devoted to his particular worship as Creator; nor, 
amidst the numerous festivals of the Hindoos, is 
there one peculiarly consecrated to Brahma. In 

* According to the system of the Hindoos, it would appear, 
with respect to the age of the world, that from the commence- 
ment of the satya vug, which is the first of the four yugs, or 
great periods, to the present time, is comprehended a space of 
3,892,91 9 yean. Bharot is said by some to have been the first 
universal sovereign of India. Sir William Jones, however, sop- 
poses that Rama the son of Cmsh (who was preceded by Bharai) 
was he who established the first regular government in India; but 
the name, as Mills observes, by which chiefly the idea of univer- 
sal sovereignty of India, and of the glory of art and science is 
combined, is that of Vieramaditya, who reigned till about the 
year of the caliyug (the fourth yug) 3101, which corresponds to 
the first of the Christian era. See Mills's History of British 
India, voL i. p. 439. And this, as we have above stated, is about 
the period that the sect of Fo, or Buddha, was introduced into 
China from India, whence it was expelled by a bigotted priesthood. 

f Also called the avenging god. 

± At Pooskhur, near Ajmere, however, one is said to have been 
dedicated to Brahma. 


conversation once with a learned, I may say en- 
lightened, pundit, I ventured, with some hesitation, 
to question him on this point, when he, with an air 
of candour, informed me, that much had been misun- 
derstood, and much misrepresented on the subject 
of his religion, owing, perhaps, in a great measure, 
to the difficulty of rightly understanding the myste- 
ries contained in the institutes of Menu, who was the 
first of created beings, the son of Brahma, and their 
oldest and most holy lawgiver. He continued to 
state, that a fabulous account existed, which pro- 
fanely represented Brahma, while in the heavens, 
before the world was, to have, in one instance, acted 
improperly, and so to have it denounced against him 
as a punishment, that no temple should ever be built 
to him on earth : how strange, said he, to have any 
infirmity whatever ascribed to that great and wise 
being, who, in after time, was to be hailed Creator I 
and who is known first to have sprang from the Su- 
preme Essence, the principle of Truth ! " No*! " added 
the intelligent Brahmin, "I believe it may be otherwise 
and more justly explained. Brahma has no visible 
church on earth; and why? because nothing that 
mortals could erect could ever be worthy of him : he 
is the Almighty one, the first, the best; the most 
glorious, whose shrine must be the heart qf man, not 
built by his impotent hands! Veeshnu, Seeva, and 
Crishna*, sacred and powerful as they are, can only 
properly be considered as so many emanations from, 

* Crishna is supposed to have been the son of Devaci, by Vasu- 
deva ; and is enthusiastically worshipped by the Hindoos ; he is 
the darling god of the Hindoo women ; is allowed to be equally 
heroic and lovely ; and is by some conjectured to be Veeshnu him- 
self in a human form. See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 260, €61. 
Calcutta edition. The life of Crishna may be found in the 
poem called Bagavad Geta, composed by Vyasa. 


so many types and symbols of, the higher divinity, 
and to them occasional incarnations have been allow- 
ed for the instruction and improvement of mankind J 
Brahma it was who formed the four great castes or 
tribes, into which the Hindoos are divided. The 
first, the Brakmans, or priests, who proceeded from 
Brahma's mouth, and who, notwithstanding their 
holy duties, are not prohibited from holding civil 
appointments. The second, the Cshatrit/as, or 
Kshatriyas, these are the modern rajpoots, whose 
profession is war, to draw the bow, to fight and 
command, also to receive and give alms. The 
third, the Visa, or Vaisyas, destined to the employ- 
ments of agriculture and traffic ; and the last, the 
Sudras, doomed to servitude, labour, and subjection. 
The sects of Veeshnu and Seeva have their peculiar 
characteristics, and not a little jealousy exists between 
them. The ceremonies at their respective fanes are 
very different, and their varying tenets, some have 
imagined, to have a corresponding influence on indi- 
vidual dispositions and habits of thinking : Veeshnu 
is appeased with the simple fruits of the earth, with 
milk, flowers, and herbs, and is worshipped as the 
munificent, the humane, the placid, and the Pre- 
server : Seeva, on the other hand, is ever adored with 
a degree of fear and trembling ; known as he is to be 
fierce and vindictive*, and distinguished, as the elo- 
quent Mr. Chatfield has observed, " by penances and 
austerities the most revolting to the feelings of our 
nature ; his shrines are generally darkened with 
gloomy horrors ; his appearance is terrible ; his fea- 
tures distorted ; and even at the present day, peace- 
able and gentle as the spirit of the Hindoo ritual 

* Corresponding with the Ahriman of the ancient Persians. 

vol. ii. a 


is, the Mahrattas, in other respects the most scrupu- 
lous observers of the religion of Brahma, are not 
exempt from the suspicion of an occasional, but 
secret, sacrifice of a human victim to Cali 9 the wife 
of Seeva, in his character of the Stygian Jove j and 
to this black goddess, with a collar of golden skulls, 
as she is seen exhibited in all her temples, it is known 
from the Vedas, that human sacrifices were anciently 
offered." * 

Although the zeal of proselytism never seems to 
have animated the breast of the Brahmin, his reli- 
gion, as Mr. Chatfield states, under various forms 
and modifications, has been widely diffused over Asia; 
it is not only the principal mode of faith of the 
Northern and Western provinces of India, but it has 
penetrated the mountains of Thibet, the kingdoms of 
Ava, Pegu, Siam, Arracan, and Laos, in fact, the 
Birman empire ; nay, extended to the islands of the 
Indian ocean, to Tonquin, Cochin, and even China 
itself. It would seem that at some very remote pe- 
riod, certain differences having taken place amongst 
the followers of Brahma, a dreadful persecution en- 
sued, which was the means of spreading the Brah- 
minical tenets into other countries, as has been above 
mentioned ; and the name of Buddhists became the 
distinguishing title of the dissenting sectf When the 
great personage (Buddh) first made his appearance in 

* What are called the munis in the Carnata, are demons of the 
first magnitude, and are, in fact, the male spirits of destruction, 
as the sakiis are the female destroying spirits ; the Brahmins do 
not worship them openly, but fear them, and make offerings pri- 
vately to them to avert their vengeance. See Buchanan's Journey 
in Southern India , vol. ii. p. 168. 

f The great change introduced by Buddha into Hindoo super- 
stition, was to render it less sanguinary; he prohibited immo- 
lation of human sacrifices. See Miller's Disquisition on the 
History of Medicine (p. 97.) 


the world is a disputed point : some authors would 
have it upwards of 3000 years ago, and that he was 
an incarnation of the Deity. The Thibetians suppose 
him to have been a native of Cashmire, and assign 
his birth to 1100 years before Christ, which corre- 
sponds with Mr. Davis's opinion. He has also been 
said to have been born a Siamite, but Kcempher 
makes him out of African extraction. See Miller's 
Disquisition on the History qf Medicine, p. 96. 
Pebcival, in his Account ofCeylvn, informs us, that 
the religion of Buddha* was introduced into that 
island about forty years before the Christian era, at 
the time of the Brahminical persecution. Another 
and singular notion respecting the sect in question is 
that entertained by Hyde (Vet. Rel Pers. cap. v.), 
which is, that the name of the idol Budd was carried 
from Persia t to India, and that he is the same that 

* Klaproth, in his Asia Polyglotta, would seem to give & pre- 
ference to the date adopted by the Chinese for the birth of 
Buddha, viz. 1027 years before our era* The Cyngalese era, 
according to Dr. Davy, is A. C. 619. That of the Bhagavad- 
Amrita is 2099 years A. C In pursuance of the Hiodoo belief 
of the transmigration of souls, we are informed, that Bmddha 
himself now exists in Thibet, under the form of the grand lama* 
See a valuable paper on this subject, in the Oriental Herald for 
May 1825, p. 390. 

f The Siamese, who, as well as the Burmese, profess the Budd- 
hist faith, say, that they received their religion from Kamboja, 
and from thence they trace it to Magadha in Hindoostan ; and it 
is a curious fact, that the Bali character of Siam is the same as 
the Kamboja character, and differs from the Bali character of the 
Cyngalese, the Burman, or that of any other Buddhist nation. 
The Buddhists believe in the doctrine of metempsychosis, and 
will on no account destroy animal life. The statues of Buddha, 
in Siam, have the African features and curled hair, but the ears 
have not the distended lobes they have in the Burman empire. 
Perfect religious toleration exists in Siam, and proselytes are 
admitted by the Siamese from any other sect. For some account 
of the life of Buddha, the reader is referred to M. Klaproth 's 
Asia Polyglottay and an excellent memoir by M, Remusat, On the 



is worshipped on Ceylon; and it is a truth which 
many testimonies conduce to substantiate, that the 
religion of the ancient Persians and that of the Brah- 
mins were derived from the same source. Mr. Scot- 
waring, in his Journey to Sfieeraz, says, it might be 
proved that the Brahmins once prevailed in Persia : 
and Sir W. Jones has remarked, that in the Shah 
Namu of Ferdusi, Ky-kaoos f one of their kings, is 
accused of being a Brahmin ; added to all this, we 
may mention the early intercourse which certainly 
existed betwixt Iran and India ; the resemblance 
which Che ancient Persian, Zend (in which Zoroaster 
wrote), bears to the Sanscrit language ; the division 
of the people into four castes or orders ; the incarna- 
tions or appearances of Mdhabdd like those of Menu ; 
their dread of polluting their rivers; and the peculiar 
regard shewn in their ancient temples to the preserv- 
ation of the sacred fire. 

I have already touched on the claims of priority 
which have been advanced in favour of the Hindoos, 
with respect to the cultivation of science and liters 
ture, as those come blended with the peculiar cast 
of their religious opinions; and here it may be consi- 
dered as not irrelevant to quote again from Mr. 
Chatfield, " Whether it is to be believed that colonies 
were anciently sent from the Nile to the Ganges, and 
to China, or that the Western shores of the Red Sea 
and the plain of Thebaid were planted from India, 
there can be no hesitation in agreeing with Sir W. 
Jones, that the Egyptian, Indian, Grecian, and Italian 
superstitions proceeded from one central point, and 

Origin of the Lamaic Hierarchy ; both of which may be found 
amongst the valuable and erudite Transactions of the Astatic 
Society of Paris* 


that the same people carried their religion and sci- 
ences to Japan." 

We learn from a Dissertation on the Gods of Greece, 
Italy y and India # , by Sir W. Jones, that Sonnerat 
has referred to a publication by M. Schmit, which 
gained the prize at the Academy of Inscriptions: 
"On an Egyptian Colony established in India." 
This establishment Sir William is not inclined to dis- 
pute, but seems to hold it more probable that they 
(Egyptians) visited the Sarmans of India, as the sages 
of Greece visited them, rather to acquire than impart 
knowledge. But however all that may be, continues 
the great Orientalist, " I am persuaded, that a con- 
nection subsisted between the old idolatrous nations 
of Egypt, India, Greece, and Italy, long before the 
birth of Moses ; but the proof of this position will, 
in no degree, affect the truth and sanctity of the' 
Mosaic history; which, if confirmation were required, 
it would rather tend to confirm. "t At another part 
of the same dissertation Sir William Jones observes, 
" That the Vedas were actually written before the 
flood I shall never believe ; nor have we good reason 
to suppose that the Hindoos themselves believe it ; 
but that they are very ancient, and far older than 
other Sanscrit compositions, I will venture to assert 
from my own examination of them, and a comparison 
of their style with that of the Purans\ and the 
Dermah Sastra" § 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 221, Calcutta edition. 

\ See same work and vol. p. 271. 

% Eighteen Puranas are said to have been composed by the 
poet Vyasa, for the instruction and information of mankind. 

§ Hindoo laws, a valuable comment on this sastra is entitled 
the Mitacshera. The word dharma signifying justice or the 
genius of justice. See As. Res. vol. i. p. 392, Calcutta edition. 

a3 * 


Mr. Colebrooke, in his admirable Essay • on the 
Philosophy qf the Hindoos, informs us, that there 
are two schools of metaphysics, called Mimdnsa t, re- 
cognised by them : the prior one (jturvd), which has 
Jaimini for its founder, teaches the art of reasoning ; 
the latter (vedanta) is attributed to Vyasa, and goes 
to a denial of the material world. The Nyaya of 
G6tama teaches the strict rules of reasoning, and 
there is another course of philosophy, connected 
with this last, which is termed Vaiseshica, said to be 
composed by Canade, who, like Democritus, main- 
tained the doctrine of atoms. Mr.Colebrooke observes, 
in the memoir just mentioned, that heretical treatises 
of philosophy are very numerous in Hindoos tan ; 
amongst these the Charvaca, which exhibits the doc- 
trine of the jaina sect, is conspicuous, and next to it 
the pas up at a. A collection of succinct aphorisms 
(sutras), in six lectures, is attributed to Capila, 
under the title of Sane 9 hya»Pravachana. It would 
not be consistent with the limited view to which I 
must here confine myself, to follow Mr. Colebrooke 
through all his learned discussion, enough that I 
should refer the reader to it. In it he will find the 
doctrine of the schools of the Sanchya, which pro- 
fesses to instruct regarding the means by which 
eternal beatitude may be obtained after death, fully 
explained ; and the abstract, and certainly very inte- 
resting notions of the Hindoo philosophers elucidated 
in the ablest manner, regarding nature, intelligence, 
consciousness ; the organs of sense and action ; the 
five elements; the soul, and the body; passions; 
errors ; illusions, &c. The paper finishing with this 

* See Transactions qf the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. p. 19. 
\ Mr. Elphinston, in his Account of Cabul (p. 189.), says, that 
the Afghanis are fond of metaphysics and dialectics. 


remarkable sentence, taken from the Carica .• " When 
the separation of the informed soul from its corporeal 
frame at length takes place, and nature, in respect 
to it, ceases, then is absolute and final deliverance 
accomplished!! " 

In another essay on the same subject, or rather in 
the second division * of the same essay, Mr. Cole- 
brooke observes, that having, in the first part, ex- 
amined the Sanchya, theistical as well atheistical, he 
will now proceed to say something of the dialectic t 
philosophy of G6tama, and the atomical of Candde, 
respectively called the Nyaya, reasoning, and Vaise- 
shica, particular . To this learned memoir I refer the 
reader, and to much more curious information regard- 
ing the subjects in question. It would appear, that 
the order observed by both (Gotama and Can£de), 
in delivering the precepts of the science they engage 
to teach, is three-fold ; enunciation, definition, and 
investigation. G6tama seems to confine his investi- 
gation to reasoning. Nyaya, like the Sanc*hya 9 in- 
structs us regarding the truth and conviction of the 
soul's eternal existence separable from the body. 
The Vaiseshica of Canade, or, what is called above 
particular, chiefly relates to corporeal and organic 
substances, though it is not unmixed with much 
logical discussion. 

With respect to the epic poetry of the Hindoos, 
if so it may be called, embracing as it does at once 
history, religion, and philosophy, it would appear 
that ancient existing fables had generally been 
chosen for the subjects of such compositions; and 
the reader may find an excellent account of them in 

* Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. p. 92. 
f See note ( f ) in the preceding page. 

a 4 


a paper " On the Polite Literature of the Hindoos," 
in the Oriental Herald for September 1825. It is 
there stated, that " Kalidasa was the most cele- 
brated of all the poets of this class, and equally dis- 
tinguished as a dramatist; he was, according to a 
common tradition, one of the nine gems, or cele- 
brated literary characters, at the court of Vikrama. 
Amongst the works ascribed to him, are 1. the 
Raghuvansa, or narration of the life and exploits of 
the family of Raghu, of which family Rama was 
one ; this poem, therefore, includes, as a part, the 
same events which forms the specific subject of the 
Ramayna^ which was composed by Valmic, translated 
into English prose by Dr. Cary, and which Mr. 
Shlegel is now employed in translating into French 
or German. 2. The Kumara Sambhava> or birth of 
Kartikeya (the god of war) ; this is a mythological 
poem, founded on a tale which is recorded in the 
first book of the Ramayana. 3. His Nalodaya, 
which contains the same story, as it is found in one 
of the episodes of the Mahabharata * ; in this poem 
(Nalodaya), Kalidasa is said to appear to disadvan- 
tage, when compared with the simple narration of his 
antient predecessor (the author of the Mahabharata) 

* It would appear, that a translation of the Mahabharata into 
Persian has lately attracted much attention from the Asiatic So- 
ciety of Paris, and that a paper on the subject had been laid 
before the society by Schulz. See Transactions of the Asiatic 
Society of Paris (cahier quaranti&me). Professor Bopp, who 
seems to be well acquainted with the translation in question, tells 
me, that the writer has altogether failed in giving the high poetical 
tone of the original. The Mahabharata is a well known Sanscrit 
epic poem, consisting of 100,000 slokas, or metrical verses; it 
describes the wars of the rival houses of Pandu and Kuru for the 
sovereignty of India, and was composed by Krishna Divaipayna. 
Mr. Wilkins has translated several beautiful episodes of it ; and 
Professor Bopp is now engaged in editing portions of the same 


though the Nalodaya does contain some fine poetry. 
One of the minor pieces of Kalidasa, and one of the 
best, is called the Megha-Duta, or cloud messenger ; 
it has been translated into English verse by Horace 
Hayman Wilson, Esq*, Secretary to the Asiatic So* 

" The next poet of the epic order is Sariharsta, 
remarkable for the merits and faults peculiar to 
Indian poets ; this author has chosen the same story 
as Kalidasa, in his Nalodaya, and extended his poem 
to twenty cantos, though the original consists but of 
five. It would be tedious to give a long list of the 
names and titles of the other poets belonging to this 
class, we shall only mention that the two most cele- 
brated are Magha, the author of the SUsupala, and 
Phairari, whose work is entitled Kiratarjuniya, or 
combat of Arjtcna with the Kirata, a tribe of moun- 

" Amongst the poets of a later age, imitators of 
the greater epic authors of antiquity, we may reckon 
Kaviraja, who wrote the work entitled Ragkupanda 
(king of the poets). Another is Bhartrihari, who 
wrote the Bhattikavya ; it treats of the same subjects 
as those contained in the Ramayana ; but what is sin* 
gular in this poem is, that the author has made it his 
study, that in this composition should be found all 
the inflections of the Sanscrit language, and particular* 
ly all anomalous exceptions from the general rules." 

The Heetopades of Vishnoa-sarma, a most inter- 
esting work, containing a series of connected fables, 
and many excellent moral sentiments, it has been 
translated into English by Mr. Wilkins, the same 
Oriental scholar who translated the Bhagavad GSta, 
or dialogue betwixt Krishna and Aqoon, upwards 
of forty years ago. 


As to dramatic poetry, the Sakontala of Calidas, 
a work of great merit, has been translated by Sir 
William Jones, who calls its author the Shakspeare 
of India. The story upon which the play was 
founded has also been translated into English by 
Mr. Wilkins. 

On the subjects, of arithmetic and geometry, the 
natives of India have many works : on the first, 
perhaps, the most celebrated is the Lilavaft, translated 
into English by Dr. John Taylor # ; a treatise on alge- 
bra, the Vija~Ganita 9 and so accurately translated, 
by every account, by Mr. Colebrooke, has excited 
sufficient sensation in Europe ; and there is, I 
fancy, little doubt, but that the algebraic characters 
brought into Europe from Arabia were originally 
from India. 

It is by no means my business here to enter upon 
the great question connected with the astronomy of 
the Hindoos, having neither science nor oriental 
lore sufficient for the discussion ; I shall therefore 
merely observe, that there have been v6ry serious 
differences of opinion with respect to the age in which 
the great astronomical work, the Sun/a Siddhanta, 
was written. Mr. Bentley, at one period, affirmed 
that he believed it to have been composed by VaraJia, 
A. D. 1060; in a posthumous work, however, he 
appears to have altered his opinion, and adopted the 
notion of Varaha's being an impostor of a recent 
date ; indeed, he would seem altogether latterly to 
have become thoroughly sceptical on such points, 
going so far as to doubt if the avatars or descents of 
the Hindoo deities, under various forms of incarna- 

* The same excellent scholar also translated a drama called 
the Prabodha Chandrodya, or the Rise of the Moon of Intel- 


tion, were not an invention of the Brahmins, parti- 
culariy that of Krishna (in imitation of Christ). 
But, to return to the Surya Siddhanta, Mr. Cole- 
brooke, and we desire no better authority, has told 
us, that he believes the work to be 1300 years old. 
Mr. Mill, in his History qf India, very justly re* 
marks, that of all the arguments in favour of the 
antiquity of the Hindoo astronomy, the strongest is 
that of Le GentiJ, having brought home with him, 
from Hindoostan, an ancient zodiac. On the other 
hand, Mr. Playfair declares, that the astronomy 
of that people gives no theory, nor even descrip- 
tion of the celestial phenomena, but merely satisfies 
itself with the calculation of the changes in the 

In botany, with regard to arrangement, little or 
nothing has been done by the inhabitants of the 
Indian continent, but they have been great observers 
of the natural qualities of plants. In geography 
they have, perhaps, done still less. In many of the 
arts *, on the other hand, they are not surpassed by 
any nation on earth : witness the perfection to which 
they have brought, with the simplest implements 
possible, their weaving t, dyeing J, stone-cutting, 
bleaching, agriculture, &c. But, to sum up the 

* The Silpey Sastra is the Sanscrit name of a book in high 
repute in Lower India, and which is said to treat of the arts and 
manufactures of the Hindoos. Mr. Colebrooke informs me, that 
such is the proper title of all or any treatise on the mechanical 
arte in India ; but that he had, in the North of Hindoostan, only 
met with one small tract which might be classed under this head* 
it was on architecture. 

+ See Sonnerat's Voyages, book iii. chap. viii. 

X See Goquet's Origin qf Laws, book li. chap. ii. ; see also 
Plutarch's . Life of Alexander, Tennant's Indian Recreations, 
Crawford's Sketches qf the Hindoos, &c» 


whole, and what is, perhaps, more to their credit than 
all their other inventions, behold the Sanscrit language ! 
which, certainly, for the perfection of its construction, 
its richness, its copiousness, its energy, its harmony, 
and, above all, the peculiar grace of its various in- 
flections, is without an equal in the world : truths 
to be best understood, by an attentive study of the 
philological and critical writings * of those men of 
whom England is justly proud, and whose names 
must ever live while talent can dignify, or oriental 
literature be revered. Perhaps I cannot conclude 
this part of my Preliminary Observations better 
than by an eloquent eulogy on India, which I have 
found, in a foreign work (Religions de FAntiquite, par 
J. D. Guigniaut) : " If there is a country on earth 
which may claim the honour of having been the 
cradle of the human race, that country is India ; if 
there is a religion which explains itself by the power- 
ful impression of nature, and by the free inspirations 
of the mind, the forms and conceptions of which are at 
once simple and profound j that religion we find still 
flourishing on the banks of the Ganges, with its 
priests and its fanes, its sacred books, its poetry, and 
its moral doctrines. Always ancient, yet always new, 
India stands over her ruins, like an eternally luminous 
focus, in which are concentrated those rays which 
for ages enlightened the world, and which can never 
cease to shine ! " 

The following extracts are taken from a translation 
of Aghastier Vytia Anyowroo^ a medical sastra, 
written in yellacanum, or Tamool verse j they are 

* Amongst these may be reckoned the Sanscrit Grammars of 
Mr. Wilkins and Mr. Colebrooke, the Amera Cosha of the latter, 
the Sanscrit Dictionary of Horace Hayman Wilson, Esq., &c. 


brief, but may be sufficient to convey some idea of 
the manner of such performances. Should the 
reader be curious to see quotations more in detail of 
an Indian medical writing (Kalpastanwn), he is re* 
ferred to Dr. Heyne's Tracts on India, pp. 125 — 

" Signs qf a bilious and irritable habit. A person 
of what is called a bilious habit, generally becomes 
grey very early in life ; he is easily made to per* 
spire ; his eyes are often inflamed, while his body is 
pale; he is impatient, perverse, opimative, and 
consequential ; and for the most part very amorous j 
the conversation of such an individual is unguarded ; 
he is addicted to falsehood, fond of abstruse studies, 
yet is he more partial still to the praises that are 
bestowed on himself/' 

" Causes officer. An exposure to the heat of 
the sun, at an early hour of the morning, while 
fasting ; eating voraciously any food of a very hot 
nature, when the body has been previously weakened 
by extreme hunger or fatigue ; drinking stagnated 
water, into which withered leaves have fallen ; taking 
a full meal without appetite ; unseasonable weather ; 
sudden vicissitudes of temperature ; wooded, ill- 
ventilated valleys ; neglected adoration of Crishna ; 
air we have not been accustomed to, whether that 
of the plains or mountains; the malign influence 
of an evil spirit or dewta ; checked perspiration ; 
fear; grief; sleepless nights; long-continued con- 
stipation ; in a word, whatever exposes our mortal 
frame to deviations from its natural and accustomed 
movements! or clogs nature so much, that it re- 
quires great agitation, and consequent heat to bring 
die body back to sound health/ 9 


" What constitutes a good physician. The sages 
of antiquity {maharshies) have thus handed down 
to us the qualities which constitute a good physician : 
he must be a person of strict veracity, and of the 
greatest sobriety and decorum, holding sexual inter- 
course with no woman, except his own wife ; he 
ought to be thoroughly skilled in all the commen- 
taries on the ayurveddy and be otherwise a man of 
sense and benevolence ; his heart must be charitable ; 
his temper calm ; and his constant study how to do 
good. Such an individual is properly called a good 
physician, and such a physician ought still daily to 
improve his mind by an attentive perusal of scien- 
tific books (vaghadum). 

" When a patient expresses himself peevishly or 
hastily, a Vytian, so endowed, will not thereby be 
provoked to impatience ; he remains mild, yet cou- 
rageous, and cherishes a cheerful hope of being able 
to save the sufferer's life ; he is frank, communi- 
cative, impartial and liberal, yet ever rigid in exact- 
ing an adherence to whatever regimen or rules he 
may think it necessary to enjoin. Should death 
come upon us, under the care of this earthly saint, 
it can only be considered as inevitable fate, and not 
the consequence of presumptuous ignorance." 

The Hindoo medical writers generally preface 
their works with an account of climate, weather, 
situation, soil, &c. ; they are very particular in their 
directions regarding the proper time of the year for 
collecting medicines, as well as the mode of prepar- 
ing them, ascertaining their doses, and prescribing 
them ; they are most minute observers of the state 
of the pulse, and place great faith on a strict observ- 
ance of proper diet. Diagnosis they arrange under 


the seven following heads : temperature of the body ; 
the appearance of the eyes j the mode of speaking j 
the colour of the face and body j the state of the 
urine ; of the stools ; and of the tongue. Some of 
their notions of prognosis are excellent, others very 
strange, nay, truly absurd. As an example of the 
first, I would mention those favourable symptoms: 
when the natural tones of the patient's voice remain 
unaltered j when he wakes from sleep without agita- 
tion; and when eating rather cools than heats his 
frame. Amongst the second I have been amused 
with this, " Attention to the position of stars may like- 
wise give us considerable information respecting 
the fate * of our patient." But one of their most 
happy indications of returning health (and the sen- 
timent is virtuous and laudable) is, when the sick 
person forgets not his God amongst his sufferings, 
but daily prostrates himself in prayer with humility 
and resignation. 

I shall not, perhaps, find a better occasion than 
the present to do what I conceive to be a justice to 
the Hindoo medical men, attacked as they have been 
somewhat roughly by Monsieur Sonnerat, in his ex- 
cellent and interesting " Voyage to the East Indies," 
(vol. ii. pp. 136, 137- English Trans.) That gen- 
tleman says, that the Indians are mostly all pretenders 
to some knowledge of medicine ; that there is not 
one physician amongst them more learned than 
another; that they are generally individuals who 
have been washermen, weavers, or blacksmiths, but 
a few months before ; and, to crown all, that they 
administer few remedies internally, and make little 

* See a translation of the Kalpadanum by Dr. B. Heyne, in 
his Tracts on India* 


use of ointments or cataplasms. In reply to the 
latter part of this gentleman's remarks, I shall only 
offer a perusal of the second chapter of this part of 
the work, and the list of Tamool medical books in 
that chapter ; to the former I must say, that either 
Mr. Sonnerat has been a little remiss in his inquiries ; 
or that I have been peculiarly fortunate in meeting 
with Vytians of a very different description from 
those he alludes to. That there may be occasionally 
found in India, as well as other countries, men, who 
with more impudence than education or talents, 
push themselves into notice, will not be disputed; 
but it is as certain that there are many Hindoo 
physicians who are doctors by long descent, who 
from their early youth have been intended for the 
profession, and taught every thing that was necessary 
respecting it Not a few of them have I known, 
who were not only intimately acquainted with all 
the medical Sastras, great part of which they knew 
by heart, but who, in other respects, were in their 
lives and manners correct, obliging, and commu- 
nicative. And I am happy to see that a character 
nearly similar to this, has been given of the same 
description of people in Bengal, by Sir William 
Jones, who speaks of them in the following terms : 
" All the tracts on medicine must indeed be studied 
by the Vydyas (doctors), and they have often more 
learning and far less pride than any qf the Brahmins ; 
they are usually poets, grammarians, rhetoricians, 
and moralists} and may, in fact, be deemed the 
most virtuous and amiable of the Hindoos." And 
are we not told, that so highly has medical skill been 
prized by the Indians, that one of the fourteen 
r etnas , or precious things, which their Gods are be- 


lieved to have produced by churning the ocean, was 
a learned physician ! * 

There are no medical tracts of any note in Dukha- 
nie t. Such of the Hakeems (Mahometan doctors) 
as have any pretensions to learning are sufficiently 
well accquainted with the Persian and Arabic, to 
read with ease the professional works that are written 
in those languages ; and some of them, by combin- 
ing a knowledge of the Tamool Materia Medica, 
with the opinions and doctrines which they find in 
the books they peruse, possess a great deal of inform- 
ation, and are, in general, men of polite manners, 
unassuming, liberal minded, and humane. 

It is with great diffidence that I enter upon the 
subject proposed in this volume of the work, yet 
when I consider now little attention has hitherto 
been paid to the Materia Medica of the Hindoos, 
and how scanty are, consequently, the sources of 
knowledge regarding it, I am induced to hope, that 
every allowance will be made for whatever defects 
may appear. Anxious I certainly have been to pro- 
cure some guide in the investigation, some manual 
in one or other of the languages of Europe, that 
might have aided me in the prosecution of so 
interesting an inquiry; but I looked in vain. I 
have, therefore, been under the necessity of alto- 
gether trusting to what information I could collect 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 408, Calcutta edition. 

f Dukhanie is the language currently spoken by the Mahome- 
tans of Lower Hindoostan. It has a great affinity with the Hin- 
doostanie of the higher provinces ; like it too, it has two different 
styles, viz. the low jargon o£ the common people, which is a very 
poor dialect, and that in use amongst the more enlightened and 
high-cast Moosulmans, which, by containing a great many Persian, 
Arabic, and even Sanscrit words, is rich, copious, expressive, and 

VOL. II. b 


from Aghastier*s work, already mentioned, and other 
Sastrums, as also from .the general botanical works 
of Rheede, Rumphius, and Loureiro, and from such 
Vytians and Hakeems as appeared to be the best 
suited to assist me, with occasional hints from the 
writings of Dr. Roxburgh and the travels of Bu- 
chanan* (now Hamilton). For the Hindoostanie 
names of many articles, as well as much useful inform- 
ation, I am indebted to Dr. Fleming's " Catalogue 
qf Indian Medicinal Plants and Drugs* 9 a work so 
admirably executed, that it is only to be regretted 
that it is not more voluminous ; and since the pub- 
lication of my " Materia Medica qf Hindoostan" I 
have to state, that I have seep Dr. Heyne's " Tracts 
Historical and Statistical on India" in which the 
names of several native medicines are given, but 
scarcely one word of their virtues, or external ap- 

The articles employed by the Hindoos in medicine 
are extremely numerous, much more so than those 
of any Materia Medica in Europe t ; and in the 

* Journey through Mysore, Canara, &c., also Through some qf 
the more Northern Tracts qf Hindoostan. 

f Baron Humboldt has informed us (Journal qf Science, 
No. xxiv. p. 338.), that of cryptogamous and phanerogamous 
plants we now have discovered upwards of 56,000; might it not 
be interesting to ascertain what proportion of those had medicinal 
or other virtues ? I am acquainted with no modern writer, except 
Mr. Catteau (in his General View of Sweden, p. 5.), who has 
turned his attention particularly to tnis subject ; he tells us, that 
out of 1300 plants that arc in that country, 200 are possessed of 
medicinal properties. The ancients, with much less science, seem 
to have been more observant of such matters : Theophrastus, 
who wrote about 300 years before Christ, in bis history of plants, 
entitled Utpi Qvtqv wToftac, describes 500 that were officinal. 
Dioscorides, who was a native of Anagarba in Cilisia, and who 
flourished in the time of Nero, wrote a work on the Materia 
Medica, called Tltpi vkm larpljftf, m which he gives some account 
of 600 plants. And Pliny, who lived a short time before Christ, 


state of empirical obscurity in which the science is 
still sunk in India, it will readily be believed that 
many substances* are daily prescribed with but 
trifling virtues, if, indeed, any to recommend them. 
As for those of which I am now about to give some 
account, I can only say, that in my selection, I have 
been entirely influenced by the opinions of the 
native practitioners, whom I consulted in the re- 
search ; nor can I, from any positive practice of my 
own, aver that the properties of many of the dif- 
ferent drugs are such as they are said to possess. It 
is true, that to gain the best verbal information re- 
specting them, every exertion in my power has been 
made ; yet it must be confessed, that much is still to 
be performed to bring this branch of Hindoo medi- 
cine to a state even approaching to perfection. Nay, 
in the present attempt, I am well aware that I have 
done little more than call the attention of the medi- 
cal men of India to a subject, which has, hitherto, 
perhaps, been too much neglected ; and I shall, 
therefore, consider myself as not ill requited for my 
efforts, if these pages should prove but the happy 
means of exciting in others a curiosity that may 
ultimately lead to greater undertakings and more 
definite and valuable results. In the mean time 1 
cannot too strongly inculcate the greatest caution in 
administering many of the medicines included in this 
chapter j the greater number by far of which can be 

with all the accumulated information of his predecessors, has only 
noticed 1000. See Dr. A. T. Thomson's Lectures on the Element* 
of Botany, vol. i. p. 7, &c 

* The reader may find a nearly similar character given of the 
Materia Medica of the Indian islanders hy Dr. Horsfield. See 
his account of the medical plants of Java, in the eighth volume 
«f the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 



viewed in no other light than as objects for further 
and patient investigation. The crude notions of the 
Vytians (industrious and well-meaning, however, 
those individuals may be), though they may ulti- 
mately lead to important truths, are not to be taken 
without distrust. That various substances, possessing 
powerful qualities, have been brought forward, will 
not, I presume, be disputed ; that others, of more 
dubious or trifling properties, have also found a place, 
I am willing to admit. Let it be the business, then, 
of future experience to confirm or reject whatever 
may be ascertained to be in its nature sanative, 
benign, narcotic, or altogether inefficacious. 

There are other embarrassments which I must here 
notice, amongst those which I have had to encounter 
on the present occasion ; for instance, the imperfect 
condition in which a great many of the medicines 
are found in the bazars ; old, dry, and not seldom 
decayed. I have frequently been obliged to take on 
trust a description of their characterizing taste and 
smell ; at other times, the root, or bark, or lea£ 
called for, was not to be found ; so that I was under 
the necessity of giving an account of it from the ob- 
servation of others. With no pretensions whatever 
to any critical knowledge of botany, I have, in every 
instance, trusted to the best descriptions which it 
was in my power to obtain from other sources. Such 
obstacles being in my way, it can easily be conceived 
how great the difficulties * I must have combated, in 
ascertaining the scientific names of the different 
plants, several of which, it will be observed, I have 
altogether failed in discovering ; and for many of 
those inserted, I am indebted to the kind friendship 

* A difficulty, increased by different names being often given 
to the same plant in different districts. 


of the Rev. Dr. Rottler, whose scientific skill and ac- 
curate acquaintance with the native languages, so pe- 
culiarly fit him for Indian research. 
' The greater number of the articles mentioned in 
this volume, are parts of plants which grow in India; 
and are to be met with in the jungles, amongst the 
woods of Malabar, and mountains of the lower tracts 
of the peninsula, and, more especially, in Travan- 
core *, that country so beautiful, so rich, I may say, 
in vegetable productions ; others are the produce of 
neighbouring or distant Asiatic territories, a circum- 
stance which adds greatly to the difficulty in ascer- 
taining the botanical appellations of the plants to 
which they belong. 


I. A tree. Morton uyTLD (Tam.) JarX^*. 
(Duk.) Shujur ^s- (Arab.) Gaha, also Ghas 

* I cannot help expressing a regret, that in that singular country, 
Gtted by climate and soil for the cultivation, perhaps, of every 
vegetable produce which any part of the torrid zone affords, it 
has never been attempted to rear those articles of the Materia 
Medica for which the world is now solely indebted to America. 
Travancore, and Malabar also, no doubt, possess (notwithstanding 
the great exertions of Rheede) many curious and useful plants 
which have not yet come within the reach of scientific investi- 

f It may be further here noticed with regard to names bestowed 
often on plants in Ceylon, that kin is little ; hen is high ground ; 
kalu, black; batu, thorny; rasa, sweet; rata, foreign; ratha, red; 
sudu, white ; tool, wild ; and eea, white. 


2. A shrub. Cheddie q&^-q. (Tam.) Roope Wj 
(Duk.) NabSt oUS (Arab.) Stamba \r{^ (Sans.) 

3. A creeper. CSdie Qv>rc^Q. (Tam.) Bayl 
lx> (Duk.) Kkuzzib-bath cAx^i (Arab.) Valtie 
(Sans.) Wcel (Cyng.) 

4. Root, bulbous. Kdltmg g^yy^© (Tam.) 
Gudda *m£> (Duk.) Cft#7fe sitabur ^tt~ J*»l 

5. Root, common. Vayr Ccrud 1- (Tam.) Jwr 
j*. (Duk.) tfo*7 ,y~1 (Arab.) Mul (Cyng.) 

6. Bark. Pt«//ay i_.»_<23>l_ (Tam.) C%5t$>/ ,il^ 
(Duk.) Kushir ;£> (Arab.) 

7. Milky juice. Pawl _nrcro (Tam.) Doorf 
Aji (Duk.) La'foi yAl (Arab.) Kiry (Cyng.) 

8. Seed. FJW<? ctlS^o- (Tam.) Beenge ^ 
(Duk.) Buzztrjji (Arab.) 

9. Tender shoots. Kdlmdoo Qmn-^r^uP 
(Tam.) Kaunglapat cA£yi (Duk.) Vurk-bjin 
trtJ «l» (Arab.) 

10. Leaf. EUey aSs^o (Tam.) Paat cL. 
(Duk.) Vurk 3# (Arab.) Patra *V% (Sans.) 

11. Bud. Aroombu aj<Q>LOi_j (Tam.) KrdR JS 
(Duk.) Zuhir^j, (Arab.) Jofcfoi -SI M* (Sans.) 

12. Flower. Poo yjj (Tam.) PAoo/ ^ (Duk.) 
F«r</^ (Arab.) Afa/(Cyng.) PtwApo ^^ (Sans.) 


13. Fruit. Pttftum ljl^lo (Tam.) Phull ^ 
(Duk.) Swnrnir j*i (Arab.) Phala ^^i (Sans*) 

14. Gum. Pisin lSzPovt (Tam.) Gond «xJjT 
(Duk.) Sumagh £♦* (Arab.) 

15. Nut. Cottay Gey/TL_fi2>L_ (Tam.) Pull $** 







AAT-ALARIE ajSFapvrG^) (Tam.) Velutta- 
modela-mucu (Rheede).* Bartiger knoterig (Norn* 
Triv. Willd.) RatukimbuLwenna (Cyng.) LeUo-xi 
(Chin.) Rio (Jap.) Bearded polygonum. 

Polygonum Barbatum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 

This annual plant, which has " an herbaceous 
rufous stem; stipules loose and sheathing, set with 
strong bristles almost the length of the stipule itself; 
flowers hexandrous, trigynoiis, and spikes rod-like, 


•Mai. 12. 146. t.77. 



is common in the Coromandel woods. Retzius and 
Thunberg have both distinguished three varieties; 
the latter remarks, that what is peculiar to the Ma- 
labar variety is, " that it is smooth all over, the sti- 
pules only toothletted, and the bractes quite entire." 
The seeds of the aat-alarie are dark and shining ; 
the leaves, which are longish and lanceolate, are 
used as medicine by the Hindoo practitioners ; they 
are ordered in infusion to ease the pain of griping in 
colic. The plant is the kunda*mallier of the Tel- 
lingoos.* Fourteen species of polygonum grow in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta, ten of which are 
indigenous to India, t 


elley \_j&<2?ffu£%l/®o (Tam.). 

This is a Tamool name, which signifies " the green 
leaves of Acheen." They, as they are seen in the 
medicine bazars, are dry and wrinkled, and have a 
yeTy pleasant and sub-astringent flavour, not unlike 
black tea ; all I can learn respecting them is, that 
they are held in high estimation amongst the Hindoo 
medical men as stomachic and sedative, given in in- 
fusion. Another sort is, I understand, brought from 
Ceylon, of nearly similar virtues, and is called c#- 
lumbo patchie elley (Tam.), 

* The species of polygonum Perskaria is a medicinal plant in 
the West Indies; an infusion of the leaves is considered as a 
powerful discutient. See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 32. 

f The species axdculare (knot grass) is considered as a medi- 
cinal plant in Bahar ; its Sanscrit name is miromali ; in Hindoo- 
stanie it is machoti (Hamilton's MS&). 



^ADATODEY ELLEY v^nVmn-^ua** 
(lam.) Addsdrd pSkoo (Tel.) Adhoioda (Cyng.) 
Leaves of the Malabar nut. Uroos, also Vauca 
also Attarusha (Sans.) 

Jusitcia* Adhatoba (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Personate. Treibende Justice (Nom. Trnr. WffldA 

This large shrub, which is the bakus of the Ben- 
galeae, is common in Lower India, but is, properly 
speaking, a native of Ceylon, and is the odhotoda 
zeylanensium (Herm. Lugd. b.). Of the essential 
character, Willdenow says, " CaL simplex, s. duplex ; 
cor. 1-petala irregularis; caps, ungue elastico dis- 
siliens, dissepimentum. contrarium adnatum" f Spec 
PL i. 48.). v ^~ 

On Ceylon, the Malabar nut tree is said to grow 
to the height of fourteen or fifteen feet, and is there 
called xcan-cepala ; but I have never seen it in the 
peninsula more than seven or eight " It rises 
with a strong woody stem, sending forth numerous 
branches ; the leaves are about five inches long and 
three broad, opposite, and lance-shaped ; the flowers 
on short spikes at the end c£ the branches ; the co- 
rolla is white with some darkish spots/ 9 

The flowers, leaves, and roott, but especially the 

* A species of justicta (pectoral is) is held in high repute in 
Jamaica, as a pectoral medicine; a syrup is made of it. The 
bruised leaves are serviceable in cots. The French name of the 
plant is herbe d charpentibre. See Lunan's Flora Jamaicensis, 
▼ol. i. p. 432. 

f To which (roof) Revinus gave the name of ecbolism. 

B « 


first, are supposed to possess antispasmodic qualities ; 
and are prescribed in certain cases of asthma, and 
to prevent the return of rigour in intermittent fever; 
they are bitterish and sub-aromatic, and are admini- 
stered in infusioa and electuary. In the last-men- 
tioned form, the flowers are given to the quantity of 
about a tea-spoonful twice daily. The wood of the 
plant is soft, and well fitted for making charcoal for 
gunpowder. See Flora Indica, vol. i. p. 138. 


ADDATINAPALAY 6^®^6^r^^Ljrr^ovv 
(Tam. Gadiday gudda purra (Tel.) Floral-leaved 
birtkwort. Cattrdbunghd (.Sans.) 

Aristolochia Bracteata (Retz.). 

CI. and Ord. Gynandria Hexandria. Nat. Ord. 
Sarmentaceas. Beblatterte Osterluzey (Nom. Triv. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cal.Q ; 
car. 1 -petal a, lingulata, basi ventricosa ; caps. 0-locu- 
laris, polysperma lnfera" (Spec. Plant iv. 1609.)- 

This species of birthwort, which may be seen in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta, appears to have., 
been first noticed by Koenig, in the neighbourhood 
of Madras ; it usually " grows to the height of 
about four or five feet, with a flexuose, striated stem ; 
the leaves, which are of a pale-green, are obtuse, 
heart-shaped, with wavy edges, and about an inch 
and a half long, and nearly as broad ; the Jiowers 
are solitary ; and the bractes cordate petioled." The 
plant has the bitterness which distinguishes many of 



its congeners. An infusion of the dried leaves is 
given by the native practitioners as an anthelmintic j 
the medium dose about |ij., twice daily. When 
fresh* bruised, and mixed with castor-oil, they are 
considered as a valuable external remedy in obstinate 
psora.f Dr. Fleming informs us, that the root of 
the aristolochia Indica is supposed, by the Hindoos 
of Upper India, to possess emmenagogue and antar- 
thritic virtues ; and from its bitterness, he thinks, it 
may be useful in dyspepsia. The plant is isarmel in 
Hindoostanie ; dulago-vila in Tellingoo; cay-kho- 
aica in Chinese ; hart in Sanscrit ; and sat sanda in 
Cyngalese. The aristolochia odoratissima, a native 
of the West Indies, Lunant says, is, as a bitter and 
alexipharmic, a most valuable medicine, being 
powerfully tonic, and stomachic ; he adds, that the 
roots and seeds cure the bites of snakes, and make 
the best bitter wine in the world ! ! ! 


(Tam.) Obab <*** (Arab.) Nela ameda (Tel.) 

Oil of the glaucous-leaved physic nut. Nikumba 


Jatropha Glauca (Vahl.). 

* The fresh leaves of this plant, applied to the navel of a child, 
are said to have the effect of moving the bowels. The same, fried 
with castor-oil, and made into a ball of the size of an orange, and 
given to a horse suffering from the gripes, are said to produce 
evacuations, and relieve when other medicines have failed. 

f What the,Tamools call carpang. 

X See Lunan's Hortus Jamatcens. vol. i. p. 232. 

B 3 



CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 
Tricocpafc. Meergrune Brechnuss (Nom. Triv. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 
" Masculi. Cal.Oy s. 5-phyllus; cor. 1-petala, 

infundibuliformis ; stam. 10, alterna breviora. 

" Feminei. Col. ; cor. 5-petala, patens ; styli 3, 

bifidi; caps, trilocularis ; sem. 1." (Spec. Plant, iv. 

This plant, which is a native of Arabia* as well 

as India, has an herbaceous stem, which " rises to the 
height of about one foot, and is quite erect and pu- 
bescent ; the leaves, which are five, and sometimes 
three-cleft and serrate-toothed, are smooth, glaucus; 
and almost veinless ; petioles subvillose, longer than 
the leaves, without glandular hairs ; bractes lanceo- 
late, awl-shaped; petals of the female flower the 
length of the calyx, ovate j capsule nearly as large 
as a hazel nut, muricated ; seed, the size of a pea, 
and in shape like that of the ricinus" (Miller). 

From the seeds the Vytians (Hindoo doctors) pre- 
pare, by careful expression, an oil which, from its 
stimulating quality, they recommend as an external 
application in cases of chronic rheumatism and 
paralytic affections. 

Four species of jatropha grow in the Honourable 
Company's botanical garden at Calcutta ; two of 
which are natives of India, and two of America. 

* Forskahl, in his Account of Arabian Plants, has called it 
crotan lobatum. 



ADIEVEDYUM aj^o^SL-uuLo (Tam.) 
also Polie adieoedyvm (Tam.) Uttie vussa (Tel. and 

Adivedyum is the name of a root which is found 
in the native druggists' shops, in pieces about an inch 
long, and of a whitish colour j it is intensely bitter, 
and is prescribed in powder and in infusion as a tonic 
and stomachic, especially in long-protracted bowel 
complaints. I could not procure a sight of the 
fresh plant Of the powder, the quarter of a pa- 
goda weight is given twice daily. 


AGASATAMARAY (Tam.) UntarA-tamdra 
(Tel.) Kodda pail (Rheede). Untergungha l££u! 
(Duk.) Toka-pana (Hind.) Water soldier? Unta- 
rei-tamdrd (Sans.) 

Pistia Stratiotes (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Octandria. Nat Ord. 
Miscellaneas. Sckwimmende Muschelblume (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

This beautiful and stemless annual plant does 
not appear, hitherto, to have got any very distinct 
English name, but is the plantago aqualica of Rhum- 
phius (Arab. 6. t 74.). It would seem to be equally 
a native of Asia, America, Jamaica, and Africa, 

b 4 


and is constantly found floating on stagnant pools.* 
Miller says, " Roots many, a foot and a half long, 
put forth simple fibres from their circumference an 
ihch and a half in length and numerous/' The 
leaves are sub-sessile, wedge-shaped at the base, el- 
liptic, radiate- veined, and, when the plant is young, 
are about twenty in number, spread out in a circle 
like a rose ; the flowers are white, inodorous, and 
axillary. The pistia stratiotes is the only species of 
its genus. 

The essential character is, cal. spatha tubuloso, 
cucullata lingulata ; cor. ; filamentum^ laterale ; 
anther (By 3-8 ; styl. 1 ; caps. 1-locularis polysperma 
(Spec. Plant Willd. iii. 1265.). 

The Hindoo doctors consider a decoction or 
infusion of this plant as cooling and demulcent, 
(though Brown seems to think the Jamaica plant 
acrid), and prescribe it in cases of dysuria (mootray 
kritchie), in the quantity of about ten pagodas 
weight twice daily ; the leaves are made into a poul- 
tice for the piles. 


A yellowish, subaromatic tasted bark, used in 
decoction in fevers. The botanical name of the 


plant is not ascertained, the bark is brought from 
the woods.t 

* Browne (330.) found the plant in Jamaica ; and by Moon's 
Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, it appears to be a native of that 
island, and known by the name of diya-parancUel. 

f I am told it is also sometimes called tolziputtay ; the bark, 
beaten, is applied, externally, for rheumatic pains. 




I give this a place here merely from having seen 
it growing in great luxuriance in the Mission garden 
at Tranquebar ; and, therefore, supposing it may be 
a native of some of our Indian woods. It is the 
pwrgirende Allamanda of Willdenow (Nom. Triv.), 
who says of its generic character, " Contorta, caps. 
lentiformis, e recta, echinata, 1-locularis, 2-valvis, 
polysperma" (Spec. Plant, i. 4>79.)» It is a beautiful 
milky shrub, with a twining stem, and climbs high on 
trees ; " its leaves, which are shining and quite entire, 
are arranged in fours round the stem, on very short 
petioles, and are elliptic, lanceolate ; the Jlowers are 
large, terminate, and the corolla yellow." Like the 
last-mentioned article but one, it is the only species 
of its genus, and is of the cL and ord. Pentandria 
Monogynia. The plant grows wild at Surinam, 
where the Dutch consider an infusion of its leaves as 
a valuable cathartic ; it got the name of orelia gran~ 
diflora from Aublet, in his " Histoire des Plantes de 
la Guian£." 

The Alamanda cathartica is growing on Ceylon ; 
it also, I find, is in the Honourable Company's bo- 
tanical garden at Calcutta, introduced, it would 
appear, by W. Hamilton, Esq. in 1803. See Hortus 
Bengalensis, p. 19. 



ALAVEREI 2±jTecn*G2>rr (Tam.) Marrivit- 

tiloo (Tel.) B6r ka beenge ^j \£j> (Duk.) Seed 

qf the Indianjig-tree. Nyagrodha> also Vatta, alsq 

ChiravrutchaU (Sans.),. 

Ficus Indica (Lin.), 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Dioecia. Nat. Ord, 
Scabridae. Ostindtsche Feige (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The tree which produces the seeds in question is 
one of the largest and most beautiful in the world. 
Of the essential character Will denow says, " Recepta- 
culum commune turbinatum, carnosum, conveniens, 
occultans flosculos vel in eodem vel distincto, 
Masculi. CaL 3-partitus j cor. j stain. 3. 
Feminei. CaL 5-partitus ; cor. ; p is t ilium 1 j 
sent. 1., calyce persistenti clauso subcarnoso tectum'* 
(Spec- Plant, iv. 1931.). 

It has got, in India, the English name of the 
great banyan tree 9 and is the arbor de rayz of the 
Portuguese, that is to ,say, the rooting tree 9 from the 
circumstance that it propagates itself by letting a 
kind of gummy string fall from its branches, which 
takes root, grows large, and by this means the 
branches are often spread to a v^st circuit, affording 
a most delightful shade in a hot climate. This tree 
is noticed both by Strabo and Pliny * ; and is almost 
as much venerated by the Hindoos as the jicus reli- 
giosa itself. It is called in Cyngalese Mri-pceUa, 
in Hindoostanie but C^ ; the Mahratta appellation 

L.12. c. 5. 


for it is bergot ; the Arabs term it thaab ^^ ; it is 
common in China, and is there termed yang-tchoo ; 
and in Cochin-China cay sank ; it is the tsiela of the 
Hort. Malab. (iii. t. 63.) " The leaves, which are 
acuminate, with a blunt point, are obscurely waved 
and marked with parallel nerves ; the fruit is about 
the size of a large hazel nut, round, and, when ripe, 
of a pale-red colour, containing many seeds ; these 
seeds are prescribed, by the Tamool practitioners, 
in the form of electuary, as a cooling and tonic 
remedy, in the quantity of about one pagoda weight 
twice daily. The white glutinous juice which ex- 
udes from the tender stalks when pricked or bruised, 
is applied to the teeth and gums to ease the tooth- 
ache j it is also considered as a valuable application 
to the soles of the feet when cracked and inflamed j 
with it, and a similar juice obtained from the ardsum 
mdrum (ficus religiosa), the natives prepare a kind of 
bird-lime. The bark of the ficus Indices given in 
infusion, is supposed to be a powerful tonic, and is 
administered in neer alivoo (diabetes). The Sanscrit 
name vatta has also been bestowed on another 
species of banyan * tree, thejicus Bengalensis (Lin.^ 
and which the Tamools call kuU-eicJtee mar am; it 
is the ficus vasta of Forskdl, the peralu of Rheede.t 
In Malayalie it is ittialu, and in Dukhanie her. 

* For a classical and very interesting account of tbe banyan 
tree, by Dr. Noehden, see Transactions of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. i. part i. p. 119. 

t Roxburgh, in his excellent Commentary on the Hortus Mar 
labaricus, contained in the xiii. vol. and part ii. of the Transac- 
tions of the Linnaean Society, says, that peralu ought to get the 
name of ficus Indica, as in the Hort. Beng. 



ALIVERIE* %± 3 i s pcFL2a2)rr (Tam.) Haleem 
*A* (Duk.) Huriiff eJ£* (Arab.) Adalavittiloo 
(Tel.) China wall-cress. Rohita sdrushapa (Sans.). 

Arabis Chinensis (Rottler)* 

CI. and Ord. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Nat. Ord. 

Aliverie is the name of a small reddish coloured, 
and not unpleasant tasted seed, which is common in 
every bazar in Lower India, and which is said to be 
brought from China. I have repeatedly sown it, 
but it never came up. Dr. Rottler, however, in- 
formed me, that it was a new species of Arabis, to 
which he had given the name of Chinensis. The 
Hakeems are in the habit of prescribing it as a 
stomachic and gentle stimulant ; but doubt whether 
it does not sometimes, if imprudently given, bring 
on abortion. The Vytians consider it, when bruised' 
and mixed with lime juice, as a valuable repellent in 
cases of local inflammation. Of the essential cha- 
racter, Willdenow says, " Glandules nectariferae 4, 
singular intra calycis foliola, squamae instar reflexae" 
(Spec. Plant iii. 1243.). May it not be this species 
of cress which Morier speaks of as common in 
Persia, and there called ispedan w b^l ? See his 
Second Journey to Persia, p. 108. 

* Sometimes called saliverie. 



ALPAM (Malealei). 

This I have given a place here on the authority of 
Bartolomeo, who, in his " Voyage to the East Indies" 
(p. 41 6.), informs us, that it is the name of a shrub 
which grows on the Malabar coast, and which he 
can, with certainty, call an " antidote to poison ;" 
the root, he says, is pounded and administered in 
warm water. What it is, I had not ascertained on 
leaving India ; but, so recommended, it will, I trust, 
ere long be brought under scientific investigation. 
In all probability the appellation has been incor- 
rectly printed. 


bearing spurge. 

Euphorbia Pilulipera (Lin.) 

CX and Ord. Dodecandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricocc*. Pillen-tragende Wolfsmikh (Norn. Triv. 


Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor A ; 
s.5-petala, calyci insidens; caL 1-phyllus, ventrico- 
sus ; caps. 8-cocca" (Spec. Plant ii. 959-)* 

This species of spurge does not grow more than a 
foot high, with " a tender, simple, round stem, co- 
vered with reddish brown hairs ; the leaves are oppo- 
site^ bluntly, and scarcely serrate j peduncles an inch 


long, coming out alternately from the axils, bear two 
heads of flowers, small, and lilac-coloured (see Burm. 
Zeyl.224. t. 105. f.l.). 

The native practitioners consider the juice of the 
fresh plant as a useful external application in apthous 

, By Moon's account, the Cyngalese call the plant 
sudoo-boo-dada-kiriya ; eight species are growing in 
Ceylon (Cat. Ceylon Plants, p. S8«). 


^ijyru^s (Tam.) Asgund «xx£j (Duk. and Hind.) 
Bekmun (sJ ^ (Arab.) P4nirroogudda (Tel.) Root 
qf the jtexuose branched winter cherry. Usk&oa 
ghendi (Sans.) also Wqjie ganahd (Sans.) 

Physalis Flexuosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Luridas. Biegsame Schlute (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor* 
rotata ; starn. conniventia ; bacca intra calycem infla- 
turn bilocularis ,, (Spec. PI. i. 382.). 

" The plant, which is ushwa-gundha in Bengalese, 
and amukkara in Cyngalese, rises to the height com- 
monly of four or five feet; the stem is shrubby; 
branches flexuose ; leaves oblong, ovate, and often 
opposite ; thejlowers are scattered at the axils of the 
leaves ; the calyxes grow out and involve the berry, 
which is usually about the size of a pea ; it is not 
eaten, and, when ripe, is of a purplish colour, having 
ten cells, each including one seed." 

The root, as found in the medicine bazars, is of a 



pale colour, and, in external appearance, not unlike 
our gentian ; but it has little sensible taste or smell, 
though the Tamool Vytians suppose it to have de- 
obstruent and diuretic qualities, given in decoction 
to the quantity of about half a tea-cupful twiqe 
daily ; the Tellingoo physicians consider it as alexi- 
pharmic (see Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 241.). The 
leaves, moistened with a little warm castor-oil, are a 
useful external application in cases of carbuncle. 
The plant is the pevetti of the Hort. Malab. (iv. 
p. 113. t.55.) # ; and may be seen growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta.! See Hort. Benga- 
lensis, p. 16. 


ANANERINGIE ^a/rotfrGrgrf^eP (Tam.) 

Burr ay gokeroo ^i yg 1^ (Duk. and Hind.) Khus- 

sukS kubeer (Arab.) Yeanugapulldroo (Tel.) Mt- 

nerenchi (Cyng.) Prickhf : firuited pedalium. Ghejo- 

soodumoostra (Sans.) 

Pedalium Murex (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Lurid®. Oftindische Fussangel (Nom. Triv. 

This low growing plant (which is the caca-muttu 
of the Hort. Mai., x. p. 143. t. 72.) " has a simple 

* There is another plant of the same genus, physalis minima, 
which, according to Dr. Heyne, the Hindoos consider as medi- 
cinal, but he says nothing of its supposed virtues ; its Sanscrit 
name is latchmie divHaya ; its Tellingoo appellation kuvanti. 

f Five species of physalis grow in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta, two of which are natives of India, one of Peru, one of 
Persia, and one of Malacca. 


stem, with leaves obovate, blunt, toothed, truncated, 
naked, with the petioles glandular on each side ; the 
flowers are axillary, solitary, and small, and of a 
beautiful straw colour." The whole plant, when in 
full flower, as has been noticed by Rottboell*> has a 
smell of musk ; it is the only species of its genus. 
Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
5-partitus ; cor. subringens. limbo 5-fido ; mix sube- 
rosa, tetragona, angulis spinosa, 2-locularis ; sent. 
bina" (Spec. Plant, iii. 1214.). 

The fresh leaf of this plant when agitated in 
water renders it mucilaginous, in which state it is 
prescribed by the Vytians in dysuria and gonorrhoea. 
The seeds, which are contained in the prickly cap- 
sule, possess similar virtues, and are administered in 
decoction, in the quantity of about one tea-cupful 
twice daily. Rheede, in speaking of the plant, has 
these words : " Foliorum succus uti et aqua viscosa 
calorem in renebus praeternaturalem temperat, urinae 
ardorem restringit, stranguriam amovet, calculam fran- 
git" (vide Hort. Mai. x. p. 143. t. 72.). It would 
seem to be a valuable medicine in all such cases as 
require mucilaginous mixtures. The plant is the 
<zt-nerenchi of the Cyngalese. 

Our article grows in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta, introduced by Dr. A. Berry, in 1811. See 
Hortus Bengalensis, p. 47* 

• Vide Rottboell Collect. Societ. Med. Havn. ii. p. 256. R. 



ANA-SHOVADI Qje&svrQ&rrox-i&P (Malealey). 
Shdm-dulim (Bengalese). Prickh/Jeaved Elephant's 

Elephantopus Scaber (Lieu), 

CI* and Ord. Syngenesia Segregate Nat Ord. 
Composite Capitate. Rauher Ekphantenfuss (Norn. 
Triv. Willd.) 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cafy- 
culus 4-florus ; corottulce lingulatae, hermaphrodite ; 
reeept. nudum ; pappus setaceus" (Spec. Plant iii. 


I have given this species of elephant's foot a place 
here on the authority of Rheede, who tells us, that 
a decoction of the root and leaves is given, on the 
Malabar coast, in cases of dysuria; he says, the 
Brahmins there call it astipata, " quia folia in orbem 
se explicant," which, indeed, they appear to do by 
the engraving given to us in the Hort Mai. x, p. 13* 
t7* It is the wtadhfa of the Cyngalese. I have 
never seen the plant, of which different descriptions 
seem to have been given by Dillenius, Browne, Vail- 
lant, &c. It would appear, that from a perennial 
root many oblong rough leaves are sent forth, which 
spread near the ground ; between these, in the 
spring, arises a branching stalk, little more than a 
foot high ; the side branches are short, and generally 
terminated by two heads of flowers, each on a short 
peduncle ; the florets are of a pale purple colour 

VOL. II. c 


(Miller). Shane and Browne # , in speaking of this 
plant, say, it is accounted a good vulnerary, and 
grows in the woods of Jamaica very plentifully ; he 
adds, that the leaves are frequently employed instead 
of carduus benedictus, amongst the inhabitants of the 
French West India Islands, of which country the 
species scaber would seem to be a native, as well 
as of India, though Dillenius doubts whether the 
East and West India plants may not be different 

The elephantopus scaber grows in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, introduced, it would appear, 
by Dr. W. Carey. See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 62. 
It also grows* in Ceylon. See Moon's Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 59. 


ANASEE-POO aitfS)GPLJU) (Tarn.) Andspool 
fo> u-UJ (Duk.) Badiane hidtaie (Arab.) Skimmi 
(Japan.) also Somo (Jap.) Pa-co-hu-hueuhiam 
(Chin.) YeJkmJkmered Aniseed, or Star Anise. 

Illicium Anisatum (Lin.). 

Ci. and Ord. Polyandria Polygyria. Nat Ord. 
Coadunatae. Aechter Sternanis (Nom. Triv. Willd.), 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says; " Cat. 
6-phyllus j petala 27 ; caps, plures in orbem digestae, 
bivalves j 1-spermae" (Spec. Plant ii. 1072.)- 

The illicium anisatum is not a native of India, but 

* Browne (Patrick), M.D., has written an interesting work, 
though now of old date, a Civil and Natural History of Jamaica, 
1756, fol. See Lunan's Flora Jamaicensis, vol.i. p. 281. 


of China and Japan, and has been described by 
Thunberg*, Loureirot, and Gaertnent The first 
tells us, that it has an arboreous stem of a fathom 
or more in height j trichotomous branches, which are 
wrinkled and angular from spreading upwards, with 
aggregate leaves, in threes or fours, elliptic, quite 
entire, evergreen, and paler underneath ; yellow 
flowers, axillary, peduncled, and solitary. The se^ 
cond, that it has eight or more germs ; and Gaertner, 
that it has capsules six or eight,' ovate-lanceolate, 
compressed a little, horizontal, of a substance like 
cork, rugged without and even within, and having 
a strong smell of anise when rubbed ; seed, elliptic, 
lens-shaped, smooth and glossy, and cinnamon co- 

Bauhirty in his " Hisloria Plantarum Universalis" 
in speaking of this plant, calls it " zingijructus steU 
lotos" and, perhaps, no name could be better ap- 
plied. The capsules, as they appear in the Indian 
bazars, exactly resemble stars in shape, with six or 
eight points, of a pale-brown colour, leather-like 
substance, about the size of a sixpence, and nearly 
a quarter of an inch thick ; they, as well as the seeds 
they contain, have a very strong smell of anise ; but 
would appear to be hitherto very little known to 
Europeans in India. The Vytians consider them as 
powerfully stomachic and carminative, and prescribe 
them accordingly. The Mahometans season some 


* In his Flora Japonica. 

f Loureiro gives nearly the same description of the plant; it 
grows, by his account, in the neighbourhood of » Canton, and is 
much prized by the Chinese, as a carminative and stomachic, 
proving also beneficial in rheumatism, colic, and cough ; they 
besides use it as a condiment for their food. • Vide Flor. Cochin- . 

Chin. vol. i. p. 353. . , „ 

% In his work " De Plantarum Fructikus et Semtntbus. 

C 2 


of their dishes with the capsules, and occasionally 
prepare with them a veiy fragrant volatile oil. Thun- 
berg tells us, that in Japan they prepare liqueurs 
with them, and place bundles and garlands of the 
aniseed tree in their temples before their idols, and 
on the tombs of their friends ; he also seems to 
doubt whether this, and another species, Jtoridanum, 
be distinct, or only varieties. 


ANDJANG-ANDJANG (Javanese). Eleeocar- 
pus redjosso (Horsfield). 

. Ci. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. 

The fruit of this tree is employed as a diuretic by 
the Javanese : the bark is a strong bitter. 


ANDONG (Javanese). Wcedukok-gaha (Cyng.) 
Terminating Dracama. Granzen Drachenbawn 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Dracaena Terminalis (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

We are told by Dr. Horsfield, in his " Account of 
the Medicinal Plants of Java," that the Javanese 
consider the root of this shrub as a valuable me- 
dicine in dysenteric affections. 



says, " habitat in India," and Fortter* 
informs us, that it is a native of the Society Isles; 
and we know it to be a native of the Moluccas and 
Ceylon. I perceive, by the Hortus Bengalensis 
(p. 24.), that in 1814 it was growing in the botanic 
garden at Calcutta, there introduced from the Mo- 
luccas, by C. Smith, Esq., in 1798. It would seem 
that " the leaves are lanceolate, almost like those 
of carina ; raceme terminating, composed of a few 
branched racemes; pedicles alternate, solitary, shorter 
than the flower, surrounded at the base by an obtuse 
giume." It is the terminate of Rumphius ( Amb. 4. 
t. 34.). Of the essential character, WUldenow saysy 
" Cor. 6-partita, erecta j Jilam. medio subcrassiora ; 
bacca 3-locularis, 1-sperma" (Spec* Plant. WiUd* vu 



ovj^i^prK/© (Tarn.) Root qf the Beaked Bryony. 

Bryonia Rostkata (Rottler). 

CL and Ord. Moncecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Cucurbitacete, Geschnabelte Zawrube (Norn. Triv. 

This root, as it appears in the medicine bazars, is 

• In his work " De Plantis Esoulentls Inaularuni Oceani Aus- 
tralis Commentatio." 

J- Seven species of dracaena grow in the botanical garden of 
cutta, three of which are natives of India. The species ferrea 
is the bijoolee-chutuk of the Bcngalese, and the tatsio of the Chi- 
nese, who consider it as a beautiful garden plant, owing to its fine 
purple flowers. 

c 3 


about the size of a finger, and of a light-grey colour; 
it has no particular smell, but a slightly sweetish and 
mucilaginous taste ; it is prescribed, internally, in 
electuary, in cases of piles ; in powder, it Is some- 
times ordered as a demulcent in humoral asthma : 
dose of the electuary, two tea-spoonfuls thrice daily. 

This annual plant was first scientifically described 
by my much respected friend, Dr. Rottler, of Ma- 
dras, who found it growing in the vicinity of Tran- 
quebar ; in his communication to Willdenow respect- 
ing it, he says, " Foliis cordatis obtusis denticulatis, 
baccis angulatis acuminatis." Of the essential cha- 
racter, Willdenow observes : 

" Masculi. Cal. 5-dentatus; cor. 5-partita; Ji- 

latn. 3. 

" Feminei. Cal. 5-dentatus ; cor. 5-partita ; stylus 
3-fidus ; bacca subglobosa ; polysperma" (Spec. Plant 

iv. 1742.)- 

Dr. Horsfield, in his Account of " Medicinal 
-Plants of Java" informs us, that another species, 
cordifolia, and which the Javanese call papassam, is 
prized on that island, from its root being considered 
as cooling, and to possess virtues in complaints re- 
quiring expectorants ; it is also a native of Ceylon 
(Flor. Zeylonica, 854.). The leaves of the appako- 
vay (Tam.) are eaten as greens in Southern India. 

Four species grow in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta, two* of which are natives of India. 

* These are the agumukee (Hind,), bryonia scabreUa, and the 
gheedi maraloo (Tel.), which is the bryonia garcini, a Ceylon 



ARALIVAYR <sijcrav<2a^d L (Tam.) or Ala- 
rievayr (Tam.) Kaneerkfiur j^Jyii (Duk.) Gfofo- 
n^rw wzyroo (Tel.) " JTo««" (Hindooie). KdrravircL, 
also Pratihasa, also Chandata (Sans.) Root of the 
Sweet-scented Oleander. 

- Nerium Odorum (Ait) (Hort Kew. i. p. 297.). 

- CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat* Ord. 
Contorts. Wohhriechender Oleander (Nom. Triv. 

The bark of the root, and the sweet-smelling 
leaves of this beautiful shrub*, are considered, by the 
VyttariSy as powerful repellents, applied externally. 
The root itself, taken internally, acts as a poison, and 
is but too often resorted to for the purpose of self- 
destruction, by the Hindoo women, when tormented 
with jealousy. Of the essential character, Willde- 
now says, " Contorta. JbUiculi 2, erecti ; sem. plu. 
mosa j cor. tubus terminatus, corona lacera" (Spec. 
Plant i. 481.). 

It rises to the height of about six or seven feet ; 
the leaves are rigid, and about three or four inches 
long, and little more than a quarter of an inch broad ; 
the leaves are produced in loose bunches at the end 

* Roques, in his Phytographie Medicale, vol. i. p. 273, informs 
us, that the plant was known to Dioscorides, Galen, and Apuleius, 
and believes it to have been the rhododendron of Pliny ; he might 
have added, that writer imagined that while the leaves were a 
poison to all four-footed animals, they were a preservative and 
counter poison against serpents. See Natural History, book xxiv. 
chapter ad, 

c 4 


of the branches, and have a most delightful smell. 
Of this species, Willdenow observes, " Foliis lineari, 
lanceolatis ternis subtus costatis, laciniis calycinis 
erectis, nectariis multipartitis, laciniis filiformibus/* 
It has been often confounded with the nerium olean- 
der* (Lin.) j of that, however, Willdenow says, 
" Nectariis plants tricuspidatis," and which may suf- 
ficiently distinguish them. 

There are several varieties of the nerium odorum 
in India and in Ceylon, according as they may be 
white, red, crimson, double, or single. In the bo- 
tanical garden at Calcutta there are the following : 
The single red, which in Hind, and Beng. is called 
laUkvrubee ; it is a native of Syria, The double redt 
which is in the same languages termed pudma kit* 
rubee. The single white (shwet kurubee). The 
double white; and the single crimson. Barrow 
found the plant common in China (Travels, p. 505.); 
and we are told, by Sir W. Jones, that, from the 
poisonous quality of the root, it has got from the 
Hindoos of Upper India the singular epithet of hay- 
maraca, or hare-killer. Rheede (Mai. 9. t 1, 2.) 
has given us some account of this plant, tsjovarma. 
It is common in the Southern parts of Spain $ and 
may be found in Avicerma, under the name of ^)J> 
(p, l$8.)«t 

* The kjotjefato of the Japanese, the Qay-dao-U of the Cochin- 
Chinese, and the belutta aureU (Rheed). 

+ Twelve species of nerium are cultivated in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta. The species oleander, which is a native of 
the Levant, has leaves, Mr. Gray informs us, which, when infused 
in oil, are a good application for the itch ; the wood, he says, is 
used to clear muddy water. See his Supplement to the Phar- 
macopoeias, p. 65. I find the modern Greeks gall this species 
*Api;XXo$0. Forskahl Flor. Cpnstantin. 



Anipeepul Hbeenge ^ J y^ j (D uk.) Raghi- 
vittiho (TeL) Peeptd (Mahr.) Pippul (Hind.) 
Pipala (Sana.) Seed of the Poplar-leaved Fig4ree. 

Ficus Religiosa (Lin.) 

CL and Ord. Polygamia Dioecia. Nat Ord. 
Scabrid«. Heitige Feige (Nona. Triv. Willd.).' 

The small, smooth, whitish, and globular seeds 
of this large, beautiful, and sacred tree are supposed, 
by the Vytians, to possess cooling and alterative 
qualities, and are prescribed in electuary and in 
powder; of the latter, to the quantity of a quarter 
of a pagoda weight twice daily. The essential cha- 
racter of JicUs has already been given. Of the 
species in question it may be observed, that the 
leaves are smooth, ovate, cuspidate, of a light-green 
colour, about five inches long, and three broad at the 
base, diminishing gradually to a narrow point, which 
is in itself an inch and a half long ; the fruit is 
small, round, and, when ripe, of a darkish hue j it 
comes out on the branches. The tree is the arealu * 
of the Hort. Malab. (3. p. 47* t. 27.), and the arbor 
conciliorum of Rumphius (Amb. iii. p. 142. tab. 91, 

On pricking the stem of Xhzjicus religiosa a white 
glutinous juice is poured out, with which the natives 

• Dr. F. Hamilton, in his Commentary on the Hortus Malabari- 
cus, informs us that the arealu is the bodhiban of the Avanese. 


prepare a kind of bird-limey which is termed in 
Dukhanie shelirn. The Cyngalese call this noble 
tree bogaha, and the Malays cqjurbodi ; it is the cay- 
bo-de of the Cochin-Chinese ; ahd does not rarely 
get, from the Brahmins of Upper Hindoostan, the 
expressive appellation of chaladala, from the circum- 
stance of the almost constant trembling of its beau- 
tiful leaves, which is occasioned by the great length 
and delicacy of the foot-stalks; it is sacred to 
Veesknu. I shall conclude what I have to say of 
this article, by stating what Bartolomeo, in his 
Voyage to the East Indies*, tells us respecting the 
dried fruit : " Pulverised, and taken in water for 
fourteen days together, it removes asthma, and pro- 
motes fruitfulness in women ! !" 

The species septica, the cay-lauc-cho of the Cochin- 
Chinese, and the ccwar-awar of the Javanese, is a 
medicinal plant of Java j its leaves are emetic, as 
noticed by Rumphius and Horsfield. The plant 
grows in Otaheite, there called matte ; the Cochin- 
Chinese consider it as caustic and anthelmintic. 


ARK or ORK £J (Arab.) also uus, also S\j 
(Arab.) also v V (Arab.) 

Cissus Arborea (Forsk.). 
Salvadora Persica (Vahl.). 

This is a tree mentioned by Forskahl, in his De- 
scriptiones Floras Egyptiaco- Arabic©, p. 32, which 

* Page 96, English translation. 


was, in his days, held in high estimation amongst the 
Arabian-Egyptians ; so much so as to be celebrated 
by their poets. Of it he says, " In magno est 
pretio ; jructus, &L£, maturus edulis ; folia contusa 
imponuntur tumoribus uaram dictis, et bubonibus • 
sed vis antitoxka adeo famosa, ut carmine quoque 
celebretur :— 

j0** (^,UJ £Iaj QjU*B *Sf,f 

tfUi' jupi ^ (Jus ^ *J 

See article Ooghai Put toy, in this Part and Chapter. 


XRl}GXM VAYR m&ymuXZcru'f' (Tam.) 
Root qf the Linear Bent-grass. 

Agrostis Linearis (Lin.). 

CL and Ord. Triandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Gramina. Linienfbrmiger Wbxdhahn (Nom. Triv. 

The roots of this beautiful grass, which the Cyn- 
galese call heetana, the Hindoo doctors use in pre- 
paring* by decoction, a pleasant-tasted and cooling 
drink. The grass itself is held in high estimation 
by the Indians, who have celebrated it in their 
sacred* writings; it is supposed to be particularly 
acceptable to Ganisha (the Janus of the Romans), 
to whom it is offered under the Sanscrit name of 
doorva or doorwal, by the Brahmins of Lower Hin- 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. ir. p. 248. 


doostan. Ardgkm grass is considered as the sweet- 
est and most nutritive food for cattle of all descrip- 
tions, and is made into hay.* Besides this last, 
which is its Tamool name, it is called gherika (Tel.); 
doorba (Beng.) ; dub (Hind.), which, however, Dr. 

Hunter thinks, is a Sanscrit word; hdrialie JU%* 

•■ * 

(Duk.)j beUgaraga (Rheede); doorva also bhar- 
gOvee (Sans.). It grows most luxuriantly in moist 
situations, and differs from its congener, the florin 
grass (agrostis stolonifera), chiefly by the latter having 
a panicle, while the former has " spicas subquaternas 
digitatas et culmum repentem." 

Of the essential character of agrostis, Willdenow 
says, " Col. 2-vaivis, unifloris, corolla paulo minor ; 
stigmata longitudinaliter hispida" (Spec. Plant, i. 


Roxburgh f, who speaks of the plant under con- 
sideration by the name of panicum dactylon (Lin.), 
says, it has " root creeping ; culms creeping j leaves 
small and smooth ; spikes from three to five, termi- 
nal^ sessile, filiform, expanding; Jlowers alternate, 
single, disposed in twos on the underside ; calyx 
much smaller than the corol ; corol, the large or ex- 
terior valve, boot-shaped, keel slightly ciliate ; stig- 
mas, villous, purple."! 

* See article Hay in Part III. of this work. 

f See Flora Indica, edited by Carey, vol. i. p. 292. 

J Three species of agrostis were growing in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta in 1814, two of which are indigenous to- 
India; the panee doorba (Beng.), which is the ag* tenacissima 
(Lin.), and the bena-joni (Beng.), which is the ag. diandra (Lin.). 
Since that several species nave been noticed by Dr. Roxburgh, in 
the Flora Indica, vol, i. p. SI 8, 




ajUXTvxsL-n-e^UD (Hort. Mai.) Ayiyapana (Cyng.) 
Adulasso (Sans.) Two-vatved Justicia. 

Justicia Bivalvis (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Manogyma. Nat Ord. 
Personate* Stmkende Justice (Nona. Triv. Willd.> 

We are told by Rheede (Mai. 9. t. 43.), that, oh 
the Malabar coast, a juice is extracted from the root 
and leaves of the adel-odagam> which is thought to 
possess great virtues in asthmatic complaints. 

Willdenow*, though with a grain of hesitation, 
grants, that the plant just mentioned is the justicia 
bivalvis (Lin.), agreeing with the justicia jwtida of 
Forskahl, and the folium tinctorium of Rumphius 
(Amb.6. p. 51. t. 22. f. 1.). Roxburght, however, 
thinks differently, and says, that he is of opinion that 
the adeUodagam is altogether distinct. 

Vahly in his Symboke Botarucce (i. p. &), has these 
words: "Justicia bivalvis; fructiosa, foliis ovato- 
lanceolatis, pedunculis subtrifidis, pedicellis bifiori- 
bus, bracteis ovatis." 

Miller observes, " This is a shrubby plant, with 
leaves ovate-lanceolate; peduncles axillary, trifid; 
lateral pedicels two-flowered j bractes ovate, awned, 
nerved ; the flowers covered with two quite entire 
mucronate veined, three-nerved, unequal unguicular 

* Spec Piatt, i. p. 82. 

J Elor. Indict, voL i. p. 125., where may be seen the j. bivalrii 
(Lm.) described. 


bractes ; the side ones two-flowered, the middle one 
one-flowered; both calyxes equal in length, five- 
parted; segments lanceolate, villose ; capsule villose." 
Having never seen the plant described by Rheede 
on the Malabar coast, I have thus done all I can do, 
leaving the truth to future investigation. The jus- 
ticia bivalvis of Roxburgh, or rather as noticed by 
him, is, he tells us, a native of the Moluccas* The 
plant, under the same botanical appellation, as no- 
ticed by Willdenow, is, by his account, a native of 
Arabia and India. The essential character of jus- 
ticia has already been given. See Spec. Plant Willd.' 
L p. 82. for the species in question. 


ATTIE PUTTAY (Tam.) aifftf\-JLJi_fig>u. 
GuUerkSchawl ^^J'^CDnk.) Kusheer Jemeez 

y**>jJ& (Arab.) Maydiputta (Tel.) Bark of the 
Red-wooded Fig-tree.* 

Ficus Racemosa (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Poiygamia Dioecia. Nat. Ord. 
Scabridae. TrauUge Feige (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The bark of this species of Jicus, the native prac- 
titioners suppose to have particular virtues when 
prescribed in hematuria and menorrhagiaf, given in 
electuary and decoction ; of the latter, about half a 
tea-cupful twice daily. It is slightly aslringent, and 
is sometimes used in the form of fine powder ; and, 

* It also often gets the name of country Jig tree, in India. 

f Given also in such cases with the greatest advantage, in the 
form of powder, to the quantity of gss. daily, and in conjunction 
with rice flower, kaurarasce. 


in combination with a little warm gingilie * oily as an 
external application in cancerous affections. 

The tree is the atti-alu of Rheedet (Mal.l. p. 43. 
t S3.) ; it is the grossularia domestica of Rumphius, 
and has got the Sanscrit name of odumburra. The 
generic character has already been given. Of this 
species, Miller says, " The leaves are ovate, quite 
entire, sharp, impressed with whitish dots ; stem ar- 
boreous." It grows to a pretty large size, and pro- 
duces fruit (in racemes), which is nearly round, of 
a reddish colour when ripe, and about the size of a 
small plum; it is eaten by the common people. 
The leaves, as I have observed them in India, are 
about four or five inches long, pointed, and beauti- 
fully veined. See Spec. Plant Wiild. iv. p. 1146. 

I shall conclude what I have to say of this article^ 
by observing, that from the root of the tree, which 
in Tamool is called attie vayr, there exudes, on its 
being cut, a fluid, which is caught in earthen pots, 
and which the Vytians consider as a culpdm (Tam.), 
that is, a powerful tonic, when drank for several 
days together. This culpdm is termed attie vayr 
tannee (Tam.). 


AVARY <3Bicrun-c2S)rr (Tam.) Turner ^ 

(Duk.) Tangayree (Can.) Tanghedoo (Tel.) 

Rana-wara (Cyng.) Mayharie also Talopota (Sans.) 

Eared Cassia. 

Cassia Auriculata (Lin.). 

* Oil obtained from the sesamum orientale (Lin.). 

+ Dr. F. Hamilton, in his Commentary on the Hortus Mala- 
baricus, says he considers this to be properly f. glomerata, bo 
differing with Willdenow. 


CL and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Lomentacese. Geokrte Cassie (Norn. Triv. Willd,). 

The small, fiat, pleasant-tasted, heart-shaped seeds 
of this species of cassia, the Vytians reckon amongst 
their Refrigerants and Attenuants, and prescribe 
them in electuary, in cases in which the habit is pre- 
ternaturally heated, or depraved. They also con- 
sider the powder of the dry seeds as a valuable ex- 
ternal remedy (blown into the eye), in certain stages 
of ophthalmia ; of the electuary the dose is a small 
tea-spoonflil twice daily.* For the use of this plant 
in the arts, the reader is referred to another part of 
this work. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, "CaL 
5-phyllus ; petala 5 ; antherce supremas 3-steriles ; 
infimaa 3-rostratae j Lomentum" (Spec. Plant Willd. 
iL 818.). 

" Leaflets, twelve pairs, obtuse, mucronate, several 
subulate glands, stipules kidney-formed, bearded. 
The leaflets; are oval-oblong, smooth petioled, 
nearly equal. The flowers of this shrub are of a 
beautiful orange colour, three, four, or five on a 
corymb." The shrub itself is one of the most com- 
mon in Lower India, generally found growing on 
dry, waste, but not poor land. 

The cassia auriculata, with many other species, 
grow in the botanical garden of Calcutta. (See Hor- 
tus Bengalensis, p. 31.) 

* I have been informed by my friend Dr. Sherwood, that the 
native doctors are in the habit of prescribing this medicine with 
the article immediately preceding, in diabetic cases. 



AVERIE a>«urr (Tam.) Neelie (Tel.) Vishdso 
dame (Sans.) Indigo plant. 

Indigofera Anil (Lin.), 

Spec. Plant Willd. iii., p. 1236. 

In addition to what is said of this plant, under the 
head of Indigo, in other parts of this work, I shall 
here mention, that the root of it is reckoned amongst 
those medicines, which have the power of counter- 
acting poisons ; and hence its Sanscrit appellation ; 
the leaf* is considered to have virtues of an alterative 
nature, and is prescribed in pukka-soolay (Hepatitis), 
but I very much suspect its efficacy. The root is 
ordered in decoction, to the quantity of about a tea- 
cupful twice daily. 

The plant in question has much the habit and ap- 
pearance of the Indigofera * tinctoria. Though it 
has got the name of wild indigo plant, it is that 
from which most of the oriental Indigo is made ; 
of it Miller says, " it grows to the height of five 
or six feet ; and being large, it will afford a greater 
quantity of indigo from the same eompass of ground 
than any of the other species." It is common at 
the Pilippine Islands and in Persia, especially in the 
province of Kuzistan, and in the neighbourhood of 
Dezphoul, also in Mekran.t Barrow X tells us, that 

* Which is the ameri of Rheede (Mai. 1. t. 54.), and the nil- 
moari of the Cyngalese. 

f See Macdonald Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of Persia, 
pp. 38 and 225. 

X See his Southern Africa, p. 17. 


- \ 


two kinds of the Indigo plant grow wild at the Cape 
of Good Hope ; and we have Niebhur's * authority 
for saying that it is cultivated in abundance all over 
Arabia, and that when the crop fails they find an 
excellent substitute in a species of polygala. In 
some of the mountainous tracts of Lower India, the 
natives procure a kind of indigo from the plant called 
by the Tamools caat-averie, which signifies wild in- 
digo. Is it the indigofera argentea (Lin.), or silvery- 
leaved indigo ? I am inclined to think so ; it grows 
to the height of three or four feet, and has a singular 
looking angular stem ; and altogether the shrub has 
greatly the appearance of that described by V Here- 
tier, " silky and glaucous" ; if it be that species, it 
is,* according to professor Louiche Desfontaines, 
much cultivated at Tunis for dyeing, and is what the 
Arabs call hab-nil. 

' Betwixt the two species most prized in India, the 
hid. anil, andind. tinctoria, (cham-noh-la Coch. Chin.), 
the principal distinction is, that the latter has leaflets 
obovate, blunt, naked on both sides, while the first 
has leaflets oblong, bluntish, naked above, hoary un- 
derneath, all equal. The last is the ameri of Rheede 
(Mai. i. 101. t. 54.); and I have reason to believe, 
is the same which used to be formerly raised in great 
abundance at Javat, whence indigo was sent to 

Twenty-one species of indigofera were growing 
in the botanical garden, in 1814 j all of Eastern 
countries, except one from Cuba (see Hortus Ben- 
gaiensis, p. 57.). 

* See Niebhur's Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. p. 346. 
t See Sketches Civil and Military of Java, pp. 41, 42. 




Ficus Septica (Forst. Flor. Aust). 

Dr. Horsfield mentions this plant, as a well known 
emetic in Java, which confirms Rumphius's account 
of it; Loureiro has given the same name to a 
Cochin-Chinese fig; there used for destroying 
proud flesh ; leaves oblong lanceolate, fruit oblong 
turbinate and wrinkled. See Burm. Ind. 226. 


AYAPANIE ajuuLJLj/T(20or (Tam.) Aypame 


Eupatorium Ayapana (Ventenat). 

CI. and Ord. Synganesia yEqualis. Nat Ord. 
Composite Discoideae. Heilsamer Wasserdqft (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). Spec. Plant Willd. iii. 1454. 

This smaU shrub, which was originally brought to 
India from the Isle of France, is as yet but little 
known to the native practitioners ; though, from its 
pleasant, subaromatic, but peculiar smell, they be- 
lieve it to possess medicinal qualities. At the Mau- 
ritius it is in great repute, and there considered as 
alterative and antiscorbutic ; as an internal remedy 
it has certainly hitherto much disappointed the ex- 
pectations of European Physicians. An infusion of 

d 2 


the leaves has an agreeable and somewhat spicy * 
taste, and is a good diet drink; when fresh and 
bruised, they are one of the best applications I know 
for cleaning the face of a foul ulcer. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Re- 
cept. nudum ; pappus pilosus vel scaber ; Calyx im- 
bricatus, oblongus ; Stylus semibifidus, longus." 

It would seem, that the plant has only hitherto 
been scientifically described by Ventenat^ who tells 
us, "Caulis erectus firmus, ramosus fuscus tripe- 
dalis crassitie pennae anserinae ; folia subsessilia lan- 
ceolata intigerrima, flores purpurei corymbosi termi- 
nalis." The plant is now growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta (with three other species), and was 
introduced, in 1801, by Captain B. Blake, from Brazil. 

The leaves resemble much those of the caar noo- 
chie (Tam.) 9 jatropha curcas (Lin.), but are not quite 
so long, being seldom, in the plants I have seen, 
more than three inches in length, sharp-pointed, and 
have this to distinguish them ; that they are edged 
with a narrow border of green, somewhat darker 
than the rest of the leaf. The species Zeylanicum 
is a native of Ceylon, and there called tvceLpupula. 

Horsfield, in his acount of the medicinal plants of 
Java, mentions, that there is common on that island, 
a species of eupatorium, which the Javenese call 
tegunung, that much resembles the shrub in question ; 
its odour is aromatic, and the natives employ an in- 

* I have been informed by Mr. Dyer, already mentioned in 
this work, that the plant is now chiefly cultivated at the island of 
Bourbon, for the purpose of being dried and sent to France, 
where it is used as a substitute for the tea of China. A species 
of eupatorium (satureic^blium, Lamarck) is said, by Mutis and 
Humboldt, to be considered as a powerful counterpoison to the 
Doison of serpents in the United States. See Virey's " Histoire 
NaturelJe dee Mldicamens," p. 200. 


fusion of it in fevers ; or may it not be the eupat 
aromaticum, or eupat. odoratum (Lin,) ? the first is a 
native of Virginia, the other of Jamaica. Ventenat 
found the eupatorium ayapana growing on the banks 
of the river of the Amazones, and we know it to 
be a native of Cayenne. Virey, in his " Histoire 
Naturelle des Medicamens," tells us, that another 
species perfoliatum is considered as a febrifuge in 
America, p. 200. 


AYMPADOO or AMPADOO (Sumat.) Bar. 
rowing (Mai.) Lussa-radja (Rumph. Amb. Actuar. 

27- t.15.). 

Brucea Sumatrana (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Tetrandria. 

I have given this article a place here, on the au- 
thority of Roxburgh, who in his Flora Indica *, edited 
by Dr. Carey, tells us, that it is a native of Sumatra, 
whence the seeds were some years ago sent to Cal- 
cutta, by Mr. Ewer ; where plants from them, in four 
years, grew to the height of four feet, with straight 
ligneous stems, and few branches. The plant is 
growing in Ceylon (Moon's Catalogue, p. 68.). 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cat 4-partit. ; cor. 4-petala ; nect. 

" Feminei. CaU cor. et nect. maris, pericarp. 4- 
monosperma (Spec. Plant, iv., 1776.)* 

" The leaves are scattered, unequally-pinnate, from 

• Vol. i. p. 469. 

d 3 


twelve to eighteen inches long ; leaflets from four to 
six pair, opposite, short, petioled, obliquely ovate- 
lanceolate ; petioles common, round ; stipules none ; 
racemes axillary, solitary, from one to six, or eight 
inches; flowers numerous, dark purple, and very 
minute." Should the reader wish for a more minute 
account of the brucea samatrana f he may turn to 
the work just quoted. 

Dr. Roxburgh observes, that from the sensible 
qualities of the plant, which are foetid, and simply, 
though intensely bitter, it promises to be as good an 
antedysentiric medicine, as Brace's Abyssinian species, 
(wooginos /) the bark, he adds, he intended to com- 
pare with the angustura bark, which is supposed by 
some to be the brucea antedysenterica * of Bruce's 
Travels (vol. v. p. 69. ), and described by L'Heretier, 
under the name of brucea Jerruginea* The reader 
is referred to Virey's " Histoire Naturelle des Me- 
dicamens," p. 824. ; for some interesting particulars 
respecting these plants. See article Fraualot, in this 
part and chapter. 


BABRENG (Hind.). 

This is the Hindooie name of a vermifuge seed, 
common, I have been given to understand, in the 

* An alkaline substance has lately been prepared from this 
species of brucea, called brucine; it is about the consistence of 
wax and narcotic, about six times weaker than strychnine : dose 
from one to three grains. Daubuisson gave the following in para" 
Ivsis : Jt Brucina? grs. xxxvi., conserv. rosar. q. s. ; misce, fiant 
pilul. xii., one for a dose. Magendie gave this : £> Brucina? 
grs. vi., alcoholis Ji. ; fiat tinctura ; the dose from six drops to 
thirty, in muscular debility. 


higher provinces of Bengal ; the Sanscrit name of 
which is chitratandoola. What the plant is, I know 


Stdgah L**-, (Duk. and Hind.). 


This is an inebriating liquor, which is prepared 
with the leaves of the gdnjah plant (canabis Indteay, 
it is chiefly drank by the Mahometans and Mahrat- 
tas; the Tamools and Telingas of Lower India, 
who are comparatively sober, use it but little. See 
articles Majwn andGanjah in this chapter, zxASutjah, 
in another part of this work. 


BELAMCANDA (Tarn.) Sholarmim (Hort. 
Mai.) China Monro. 

Moraea Chixensis (Thunb.). 

Ci. and Ord. Triandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Ensatse. Bwtfe Morcea (Nom. Triv. TFilld.) 

We are told by Rheede in the Hort. Malab. (11. 
p. 73. t. 37.), that the root of this plant, ground and 
applied to any part bitten by a poisonous snake, is 
said to prevent fatal consequences. The leaves are 
given to cattle on the Malabar coast, that have by 
chance eaten vegetables of a deleterious nature. 

d 4 


Of the essential character, Willdenow says, "cor. 
hexapetala ; petala 3. interiora paten tia ; angustiora ; 
stigma 8-fidum" (Spec. Plant i. 98.). 

There has been some difference of opinion amongst 
botanists regarding this plant, which, however, may 
be considered as settled, by Willdenow having placed 
it where it now stands. Mr. Curtis ventured a no- 
tion, that it had scarcely any affinity with morcea ; 
Thunberg*, however, observes, that it cannot be 
referred to the Ixias, as they have a tube ; now in 
this shrub the flower is not in the least tubular, but 
six petal led. In India, it rises to about four feet 
high or more, the stalk is thick, smooth, and jointed ; 
the root fleshy, divided into joints of a yellowish 
colour; leaves* nearly a foot long, sword-shaped; 
flowers beautifully stained with yellow. It is com- 
mon in the woods of Malabar, is also a native of 
China and Japan, and is now growing in the botani- 
cal garden of Calcutta, and is called in Hindoostanie 


This, Dr. Francis Hamilton informs us, is the 
Nepaulese name of a root, which is a poison taken 
internally, and the juice of it is used for poisoning 
arrows. Another plant with a tuberous root is called 
bishma and bickma ; the botanical character of the 
genus, not differing from the genus caltha of Europe ; 
in fact, they are all three of the same genus. Nir- 

* Who describes it amongst his Japanese plants ; the Japanese 
call it jakan, also karasu oogi. See Flor. Japon. p. 34. 


bishie is another plant of the same genus, but it is 
not deleterious, and is used in medicine. This must 
not be confounded with the word nirbisi, which is 
the Sanscrit name of the curcuma zedoaria ; it bears 
no resemblance whatever to the nir bishie of the 
Indian Alps. 


BIT-LABAN ^LS C* also Sochtd, also Kala* 
nemek (Hind.). 

This medicine Dr. Fleming * informs us, is of great 
repute amongst the Hindoos of Upper India. It 
is prepared by melting together for about six or 
seven hours, in an earthen pot, an impure muriate of 
soda, called samur, (from a salt lake of that name, 
near Mirzapore,) and emblic myrobalans (aonlas), in 
the proportion of fifty-six pounds of the muriate, 
to twenty ounces of the dried myrobalans. 

Bit-laban, which is also sometimes termed bit-nobenf 
is generally used as a tonic in dyspepsia and gout, as 
a deobstruent in obstruction of the spleen, and my- 
senteric glands ; and as a stimulant in chronic rheu- 
matism and palsy : it is also considered as a ver- 

It would appear, that Mr. Accum, on analysing 
480 grains of this medicine, which had been sent to 
England, found, that that quantity contained black 
oxide of iron six grains, sulphur fourteen grains, 
muriate of lime twelve grains, muriate of soda four 
hundred and forty-four grains, loss four grains. 

* See Catalogue of Indian plants, 53, 54. 
f See a dissertation on it by John Henderson of the Bengal 
Medical Establishment, 8vo. Lond. 1803. 



BONGKO (Jav.). 

Hernandia Sonora. 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Triandria. Nat. Ord. 

This is a lofty tree, with alternate, peltate leaves, 
and pale y&lowjlowers, succeeded by a large swollen 
hollow fruit, formed of the calyx, having a hole 
open at the end, and a hard, but oily nut within j 
the wind blowing in at the opening, makes a noise, 
hence the specific name sonora. The plant is a 
native of Java, of the West Indies, Friendly Islands, 
&c. Horsfield places it amongst the Javanese ca- 
thartics. Rumphius says, that the root applied either 
externally or taken internally, is a certain antidote 
against poison. See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. 
p. 389* 

fcONRAKA (Siam). 

A root sometimes brought to the Coromandel 
coast from Siam, of a greyish-brown colour, and 
Very astringent ; it is % said to be used as a tonic in 
Siam and Cochin-China* but what the plant is I 
know notv 




BO-DA YNG (Slam.). 

Root used in decoction, in cases of paralysis, 
found by Dr. Finlayson, in Siam. What it is I know 


BRUMADUNDOO cr^^Lorr^sror© (Tarn.) 
also brumarakash (Tam.) Faringie datura Ji^y 
IjJ\* (Duk.) Shiai cdnta (Beng.) Berband .xJtfc^ 
(Hind.) Dotury (Can.) Brumadandie (Tel.) 
Brumadandie (Sans.) also Bramhi (Sans.) Jamaica 
Yellow Thistle, or Prickly Argemone. 

Argemone Mexicana (Lin.)* 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Rhoeadeae. Mexicanische Argemone (Norn. Triv. 
WiUd.) (Syst Plant ii. p. 1148.). 

The bitter-tasted, yellow juice, of the tender stalks 
and leaves of this annual thorny plant, (the seed of 
which, in the West Indies * is used as a substitute 
for ipecacuan,) is considered by the Indians as a 
valuable remedy in opthalmia, dropt into the eye, 
and over the tarsus ; and as a good application to 
chancres. There is an oil prepared from the small 
dark-coloured seeds, called brumadundoo urmay, 
which the Hakeems (Mahometan Doctors) employ, 

* See Dr. Wright's Medicinal Plants of the West Indies. 


as an external application in such head-achs as are 
brought on by exposure to the sun's rays. The Vy- 
tians recommend it, as a liniment for a species of 
carpang which attacks the head, and is called p6do- 
ghoo (scald head). It is besides purgative and de- 
obstruent ; and is also used for the domestic purpose 
of burning in lamps. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " cor. 
G-petala; cal. 3-phyllus ; caps, semi val vis." 

The species in question, which is a native of 
Mexico, but now grows in Ceylon, rises to the height 
of two or three feet, having stems armed with prick- 
les, and a beautiful yellow Jlower, with six petals j 
the leaves are jagged, soft, shining ; stem clasping ; 
the points of the jags ending in sharp yellowish 
spines ; the flowers are solitary at the end of the 
stem and branches ; the seeds are numerous, round, 
black, with a slightly compressed scar on one side, 
and have a somewhat pungent, warmish taste. 

The whole plant abounds with a v milky glutinous 
juice, which turns in the air to a fine bright yellow, 
not easily to be distinguished from gamboge ; and 
which, according to Long's * account, may be of 
equal efficacy in dropsies, jaundice and cutaneous 
eruptions. The argemone Mexicana, is a native of 
Jamaica, the Caribee islands, India, and Mexico, 
from which last country, the Spaniards sent it to 
Europe under the name ofjigo del infermo. Long 
further informs us, which, however, agrees but ill 
with their reputed emetic quality, that the seeds are 
said to be. a much stronger narcotic than opium. 

* See his History of Jamaica, vol. ill, p. 845. 



BUZZIR KHESHOOT c^ij^ (Arab.). 

A seed brought from Syria to Cairo ; and chiefly 
used by the Jews as a cosmetic, but also taken in. 
ternally. See ForskahFs Mat Med. kahirina. What 
it is I know not. 


CAAT AMUNAK wn-i-L-T-«^>5roiB?@(Tam.) 
Nepala, also Adivie amida (Tel.) Mara hdrulu 
(Can.) Rata endaru (Cyng.) Bagberenda (Hind.) 
Dsharrak pagger (Jav.) Xanana kerundum, also 
Nepala (Sans.) Angular-leaved Phi/sic Nut. 

Jatropha Curcas* (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 
Tricoccae. Schwarze Brechnuss (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The essential character is thus given by Willde- 
now : 

" Masculi. Cal. ; s. 5-phyllus ; cor. 1-petala, 
infiindibuliformis ; stam. 10, alterna breviora. 

." Feminei. Cal. 0; cor. 5-petala, patens; styli 3, 
bifidi; caps, tricolaris; sem. 1." (System. Plant iv. 


The seeds of this species of jatropha are called in 

* The species janipha, Louretro says, is considered as a medi- 
cinal plant in Cochin-China, where it is called pefutsu. The root 
is supposed to be califacient and resolvent. Vide Flor. Cochin- 
Chin, vol. ii. p. 585. 


Tamool coat amunaka moottoo ; they are of a pur- 
gative quality, but, like those of the nervalum (croton 
tiglium), somewhat uncertain in their operation, and 
occasionally excite vomiting. Before using them 
they ought to be carefully cleared* from the thin 
filament in which they are closely enveloped, after 
which two or three may be taken as a dose. They 
consist, according to Pelletier, of a fixed oil ; an acrid 
principle, which is poisonous ; and of an acid, acide 
jatrophique. The leaves, which are five-angled, from 
three to six inches long, and from three to five wide, 
are considered as discutient ; and the milky juice of 
the plant is supposed to have a detergent and healing 
quality, and dyes linen black. The leaves are rubi- 
facient. The capsule or nut is called in Dukhanie 
jungtie erundie ke beenge ^l** J> £«x3,1 ^Sil^ , and in 

Arabic dund-Urrie <s^j «3Ja ; it is about the size of 
a large nutmeg : this, when the three seeds within 
are ripe, dries, and the contents drop out. . They are 
each (the seeds) about the size of an olive, and dark 
coloured, convex on one side, and on the other ob- 
scurely angular j from them a fixed or expressed oil 
is prepared by the Vytiansj called in Canarese mora 
karalu unnay, which is reckoned a valuable external 
application in cases of itch and herpes ; it is also 
used, a little diluted, in chronic rheumatism t, and 
for burning in lamps. 

# This I particularly mention, as Roques, in his most valuable 
•work, entitled Phytographie Medicale, says, that, according to 
the testimony of Bancroft, the seeds may be safely eaten, when 
deprived of their outward tegument. See Phyl. Med. vol. ii. p. 288. 

f One Vytian informed me that he was in the habit of giving 
the oil internally, in cases requiring purgatives and alteratives, 
in doses of about one gold fanam and a quarter weight. It would 
appear, by the Journal of Science, Literature, and the Arts 
.(I think in vol. xxix.), that the varnish used by the Chinese for co* 
vering boxes, &c. is mode by boiling this oil with oxide of iron. 


The plant seldom rises higher than seven or eight 
feet, and has generally a scraggy appearance; its 
jl&wers are in terminating cymes; peduncles alter- 
nate, upright, many-flowered ; flowers almost aggre- 
gate, on very short pedicels : males copious ; females 
fewer, sessile (Miller). It is the " noix des Bar- 
bades" of the French writers. 

It is a common shrub in Lower India, and is fre- 
quently seen growing in the hedges round the little 
gardens of the natives. That species of jatropha 
called by the English the coral plant, or French 
physic nut bush (jatropha 4 multifida), is cultivated in 
many gentlemen's pleasure grounds, but merely for 
the beauty of its red flowers, which come out in 
large bunches. It appears that from the solitary 
seed of this species, multifida, an expressed oil is 
obtained, in Brazil, called emetic or pinhoenf oil ; 
it is known to be powerfully both purgative and 
emetic, and was at one time much used for the latter 
purpose by the Spaniards of South America : each 
seed is. about the size of a small marble, round on 
one side and a little flatter on the other. I shall con- 
clude what I have to say of the article jat. curcas, 
by observing, that Orfilat places the seeds of it 
amongst his Poisons; he is of opinion,, that the 
poison is not absorbed, but acts by the inflammation 
it excites, and sympathetic action on the nervous 

Mr. Lunan, in his Hortus Jarhaicensis (vol. ii. 
p. 62.), tells us, that an ointment prepared with the 

* The avellana purgatrix, Bauh. pin. 418. 

t See Journal of Science, Literature, and the Arts, No. xxxix. 

E. 195, and Dr. Copland's excellent Medical Repository for Fe- 
ruary 1826. 
% See Traitl des Poisons, vol. ii. part i. p. 85. 


milk of the physic nut, and half the quantity of 
melted hog's lard, is an excellent application in cases 
of inflamed and indurated piles. 


CAAT ATTIEPOO 0>rr^L-n-^5TL.L =b (Tam.) 
Chanschena-pou (Malealie). Usmadugha (Sans.) 
Flower qf the Downy Mountain Ebony. 

Bauhinia Tomkntosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Lomentaceae. Filzige Bauhinie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The small dried buds and young flowers of this 
plant, the native practitioners prescribe* in certain 
dysenteric affections ; they have little sensible taste 
or smell, though the leaves, when fresh and bruised 
or rubbed, have a strong but not unpleasant odour. 
Rheedet tells us, that a decoction of the root of 
the bark of the chansckena-pou f which is the name 
given to the shrub on the Malabar coast, is admi- 
nistered in cases in which the liver is inflamed. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cat. 
5- fid us, diciduus; petala patula, oblonga, unguicu- 
lata ; superiore magis distante, omnia calyci inserta" 
(Spec. Plant. Willd. ii. 810.). 

The species in question is a native of Malabar, 
and the petan of the Cyngalese ; it grows usually 
to the height of two fathoms or more, with a trunk 
about six inches in diameter, and divides into many 
branches. It is common in Ceylon, and is there 

* In the dose of a small tea-cupful of the infusion, twice daily, 
t See Hort. Mai. i. p. 63, 64. t. 35. 


called may la ; besides its Tamool name already 
given, it is often called triviat-ptitrunu The leaves, 
which are much smaller than those of most other of 
the Bauhinias, are cordate, lobes semiorbicolate, to- 
mentose, and clasp together during the night ; the 
flowers have a greenish calyx, and a bell-shaped yel- 
lowish-white corolla* 

The present article grows in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, introduced by W; Hamilton, Esq. Thir- 
teen other species, all of Eastern countries, were in 
that garden in 1814. 


CAAT KOLINGIE 0>rr L -G&n-<*S'W# r (Tam.) 
or Kdlungie (Tarn.) also Koottu kavaylie (Tarn.) 
VaympoMe (Tel.) Gampila (Cyng.) Poonkhie (Sans.) 

Purple Galega. 

Galega Purpurea (Lin-). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papitionaceae. Rothe Geisraute (Nom. Triv. WillcL). 

A decoction of the bitter root of this galega the 
Vytians prescribe in cases of dyspepsia, lientery, and 
tympanitis ; it is a low-growing plant, with an her- 
baceous and somewhat angular stalk, seldom more 
than three feet high ; the pinnated leaves have eight 
or nine pairs of oblong smooth leaflets ; the flowers 
are small, purple, in a loose spike, and are succeeded 
by slender, erect legumes, each about an inch and a 

hair in length. 

The essential character is thus given by Willde, 
now : " Cal. dentibus subulatis, subaeqyalibus ; fe- 



gumen striis obliquis, seminibus interjeetis" (Spec. 

Plant iii. 1377- > 
The species in question is a native of Ceylon, and 

also of the Coromandel coast of India. 

The leaves and branches of a species of galega 
(taricaria), Lunan tells us, are employed in the West 
Indies for intoxicating fish. See his Hortus Jamai- 
oensis, vol. ii. p. 217* 


kandi kd, gada «*f If g«xtf J&*> (Duk.) Adkrie 

cunda gudda (Tel.) Kanana canda ^H^FT ^^ 
(Sans.) Root qf the Purple-stalked Dragon. 

Dracontium Polyphyllum (Lin.). 


CI. and Ord. Heptandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Piperita?. Vielblattrige Zehrwurz (Nom. Triv. 

This root, which is large, rugged, and irregular, 
after having undergone certain preparations to sub- 
due its acrimony, is supposed to possess antispas- 
modic virtues, and is considered as a valuable remedy 
in asthmatic affections, given to the quantity of 
twelve or fifteen grains in the day ; it is also one of 
the many remedies the natives use in hcemorrhois 
(piles). In the dry condition in which we find it in 
the medicine bazars, it has, though faint, a smell not 
unlike that of musk. 

Thunberg, in his Account of Japan, tells us, that 
a medicine, called in Javanese koryakf, is prepared 
from the acrid roots of this dracontium, esteemed as 


a powerful emmenagogue, and which abandoned 
women use there to procure an abortion. And I 
perceive that Forster, in his Commentatio de Plantis 
Esculentis Insularum Oceans Australis, mentions, that 
at the Society Islands this root is eaten as bread* 
when the bread-fruit is scarce, notwithstanding its 
great acrimony, but that they have, no doubt, the 
art of subduing. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, "Spatha 
cymbiibrmis; spadix floribus densetectus; caL 0; 
ear. 5*petala ; bacca polysperma" (Spec Plant, iu 
p. 288.> 

The stalk of the species in question seldom rises 
more than a foot and a half high, and is of a pur- 
plish hue, full of sharp protuberances of different 
colours, which give it somewhat the appearance of a 
snake's skin. Miller, in speaking of it, observes, 
that the scape is very short, petiole rooted, torn; 
leaflets three-parted divisions, pinnated ; the stem is 
naked to the top, where it has a tuft of leaves ; the 
flower-stalk rises immediately from the root, and is 
seldom more than three inches high, having a swell- 
ing spathe at top, which opens lengthwise, showing 
the short thick style within, on which the flowers are 
closely ranged. The plant is a native of Ceylon 
(Moon's Catalogue, p. SO.), and is there called kana~ 
kidaran. See also Hort. Mai. ii. t. 18, 19. 

* A fact, I see, also noticed by Virey, in his " Histoire Natu- 
reBe da Medicament" p. 144. 

E 2 



CAAT MALLICA VAYR v>rri_®\jyjva&& 
QcD-jr? (Tam.) Walsaman pichcha (Cyng.) Adivie 
mallevayroo (Tel.) Kanana-maUika *Wnft ^RN^hl 
also Vana-malli ^T nfel (Sans.) Boot of the Nor- 

row-leaved Jasmine. 

Jasminum Angustifolium (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Sepiariae. Schmalblattriger Jasmin (Nom. Triv. 

Willd.). .. 

This bitter root, ground small, and mixed with 
powdered vassumboo (root of the acorus calamus) 
and lime juice, is considered as a valuable external 
application in cases of ring-worm. The Hindoo- 
stanie name of the plant is banmallica f and a third 

Sanscrit appellajtion for it is asphota 3fT^Ft^" 

Miller places this shrub amongst the Nyctanthes. 
It is the nyctanthes triflora of Burman (Flor. Ind. iv. 
t. 2.)- In the Hort ' Malab. (vi. p. 93. t 53.) it is 
described under the name of katu-pitsjegam-mulla. 

Of thp essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor. 
hypocrateriformis ; 5-8-fida ; bacca dicocca ; semma 
solitaria arttlata" (Spec. Plant, i. p. 35.). 

Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica, edited by Dr. 
Carey (p. 95.), informs us, that this species of jas- 
mine is shrubby, twining, polished, with leaves pe- 
tioled, ovate, smooth, of a shining deep green ; 
flowers terminal, generally three-fold, peduncled, 
large, white, with a faint tinge of red, star-shaped, 
having a peculiar, but very pleasant fragrance $ he 


adds, that it is constantly covered with leaves, which, 
owing to their beauty and character, are particularly 
well fitted for screening windows, covering arbours, 

Twenty species of jasminum were growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814, all of which 
were oriental plants, except one, the simpticifoUum, 
introduced in 1799, from the South.Sea Isles. 


G&B>G&u r f' (Tam.) Junglaie moongMe he jurr 
y*> ^ *£u JX&=* (Duk.) Adivie moonaga vayroo 

(Tel.) Kanana shSkhara *\\\*\*\ SU4$J< (Sans.) 
Root of the Senna-leaved Hedysarum. 

Hedysarum Sennoides (Willd.). 

This root, as it appears in the bazars, has a con- 
siderable degree of warmth ; and is prescribed by 
the Vytians, as a tonic and stimulant in fevers, to 
the quantity of an ounce of the decoction twice or 
thrice daily. With the bark of the root, ground 
small, and mixed with the oil of the sesamum orien- 
tate, is prepared a liniment ; recommended as an 
external application in paralytic complaints and 

The shrub, which grows on Ceylon, seems only 
hitherto to have been scientifically described by 
Willdenow : it is of the CI. and Ord. Diadelphia 
Decandria, and Nat Ord. PapiKonaceae ; the trivial 
name he has given to it is sennenartiger hahnenhopf. 

The essential character is, " Cal. ,5-fidus j cor. 

' - ' e 3 


carina transverse obtnsa ; lomentum articulis, 1-sper- 
mis compresats » (Spea Plant ixL 1375.)* 

The hedysarum aennoides has leaves pinnated, 
leaflets alternate, smooth, obovate, retuse; racemes 
axillary, flowers scanty, aad the lament, or pericarp, 
articulated and covered with small spines. 

Forty»six species of hed* were growing in the bota- 
nical garden of Calcutta, in 1814, almost all Oriental 
plants. Our article is a native of the woods of the 
Coromandel coast. Two species* of this genus are 
medicinal in Jamaica, the supinum and tortuosum ; a 
decoction of the first, according to Piso, is of use in 
cold, flux cases ; the leaves of the last purge. Bar- 
ham tells us that all sorts of hedysarum are more or 
less bitter and stomachic. See Lunan's Hortus Ja~ 
maicensis, vol. i. p. 905. 


CAAT SIRAGUM e*n-i_©e^ora>u> (Tam.) 
Kalie zeerie 4Sj# JS (Duk.) Adavie zeela kara 
(Tel.) Buckchie iS ^L (Hind.) Kanana itraka 
cRFFT 3ft^J (Sans.) Purple Fleabane. 

Vernonia Anthelmintica (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia iEqualis. Nat. Ord. 
Composite Discoideae. Wormbreibende Vernonie 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The small, dark-coloured, and extremely bitter, 
seeds of this annual plant are considered as power- 

* The hedysarum diphyUum is a native of Ceylon and the 
Malabar coast ; in the first, it is called maha kakaiioana ; on the 
latter, it is termed nelam-mari, and is described by Browne 
(p. SOL) and Loureiro. 



fully anthelmintic, and are also an ingredient of a 
compound powder prescribed in make-bites. Rheede 
tells us that an infusion of them is given on the Ma* 
labar coast for coughs, and against flatulency (Hart. 
Mai. ii. pp. 80—40. t. 24.), and that the shrub is 
there called cattuschiragam ; its Hindoostanie name 
is buckcMe <^*£; > which, I am inclined to think, is 

rather a Sanscrit word. 

The dose of the seed in powder, when adminis- 
tered in worm-cases, is one pagoda weight twice 

The essential character is' thus given by Willde- 
now: "Recept. nudum; caL ovatus imbricatus; pappus 
duplex; exterior paleaceus; interior capillaris" (Spec 
Plant, iii. 1430.). 

The species in question is the sonni-nayon of the 
Cingalese and the com/za anthebmntica of Barman 
(Ind. 178.); it has an erect stem, roundish, branched, 
slightly tomentose, and spotted with purple leaves, 
alternate, serrate, with acute unequal teeth, nar- 
rowed at the base into the peddle ; common calyx 
ovate, converging at top ; the corolla uniform, and 
consisting of twenty or more hermaphrodite red 
florets ; the flowers in panicles at the end of the 
branches, on long peduncles, thickening towards the 
flower; a solitary peduncle terminates the stalk 


arTLj^rff& (Tarn.) Buth&drha #^o^(Duk.) 
KhiMeas^hvtnht^bashid (Arsb.) Samghapwtoom 

neeloo (Tel.) Wnegar of the Scmagabu 

£ 4 


The dews of the night falling tm muslin cloths, 
spread over the Bengal horse-grain, cicer arietinum 
(Lin.), are thereby rendered slightly acid, and most 
refreshing to the taste ; this liquor wrung out of the 
clothes is recommended by the native practitioners 
as a cooling drink, and is used by them as a common 
menstruum for medical purposes. The acid juice, 
Dr. Heyne tells us, on having been analysed by Vau- 
quelin, was found to contain oxalic, malic, and a little 
acetic acid. See his Tracts on India, pp. 28, 29* 


CADAPUM VAYR wi_ljlj^)Go\j'J- (Tam.) 

Kctnitee-vayroo (Tel.) Neepa (Sans.) Long-raeemed 


Eugenia Racemosa (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Mbnogynia. Nat OrcL 
Hesperidffi. Langtraubiger Jambuseribaum (Norn* 
Triv. Willd.). 

The root of this beautiful eugenia, as it appears in 
the medicine bazars, has a slightly bitter, but not un- 
pleasant taste, and is considered by the Hindoo doc* 
tors a valuable medicine on account of its aperient, 
deobstruent, and cooling qualities ; it is given in de- 
coction to the quantity of half a tea-cupful twice 
daily. The seeds and bark are also employed ; the 
latter, which is of a reddish colour, is supposed to 
possess virtues similar to those of the cinchona offici- 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cal. 
4-partitus, superus; petala 4; bacca 1-1 ocularis, 1- 
sperma" (Spec. Plant, ii. 972.). 


In the species now under consideration die leaves 
are crenate, racemes very long, pomes ovate, quad- 
rangular; the peduncles, which are longer than the 
leaves, are pendulous and simple (See Flor. ZeyL 
191. and Miller). 

Jussieu refers this shrub to another genus, butonica, 
on account of its having alternate leaves, and many 
flowers together in racemes. It is the samstravadi of 
Rheede (HorL Mai. iv. p. 11. L 6.), and may be 
found described by Rumphius ( Amb. iiL p. 181 . t. 
116.), under the name of butonica sylvestris aBxu 

Twenty-eight species of eugenia were growing in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta, in 1814, almost all 
of them Oriental plants. See Hortus Bengalensis, 
p. 37. Seven species grow in Ceylon (See Moon's 
Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 38.). 


CAMMITTA e>rruFi_i_n- (Malealie> Ouro? 

I have given this article a place here merely from 
what has been said of its milky juice by Rheede, who 
tells us, that it is considered by the Hindoo doctors 
of Malabar to have wonderful virtues in dropsical 
cases. I have never seen the tree, which, it would 
seem, is very large, nor am I aware that its exact 
place in botany has as yet been properly ascertained 
(See HorL Mai. v. p. 90.), though I think it must 
soon come under the notice of the admirable Dr. R 
Hamilton, in his Commentary on the Hortus Mala- 



(Tarn,) also Wassinapilloo, also Cavatum pitloo 
(Tam.) Kamachie kussoo (Tel.) Gund beyl (Hind.) 
Gorvr geea (Pers.) Askhur j^J (Arab*) Seeree 
(Jav.) Gundhobena (Beng.) Rtanacciam (Rheede 
Mai. 12. p, 137- 1 72.) MaicUrinnkam tTkU<jUW 
(Sans.) Sweet Rush, Lemon Grass, or Qxmfs-hay. 

Andropogon Schoenanthus (Lin.)* 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord; 
Gramina. JVohhrieckendes Bartgras (Norn. Triv. 

An infusion of the long, striated, scabrous leaves 
of this sweet-smelling, bitterish, aromatic grass*, they 
being previously toasted, is given to children who 
have weak digestion; they are considered by the 
Vytians as excellent stomachics. The fresh leaves 
are frequently used as a substitute for tea by the 
English j and the white succulent centre of the leaf- 
bearing culms is often put into curries to give them 
an agreeable flavour. 

Dr. Carey informs us, that the natives of the Mo- 

* In Dukhanie it is warned Lr Ji^i Ud^l^ J> <fiM Barin J kebift 

kighans (orange-scented grass). I conceive toasmnapMootQ be the 
proper Tamool name of it ; camachie-pillow being, perhaps, more 
applicable to what is commonly called, by the English, spice-grass, 
and which I believe to he a variety of the cy penis odoratus (Supp. 
Spec. Plant. 68.); it is a narrow-stalked, spiky grass, growing to the 
height of a foot or more, of a warm, aromatic taste, and is given, 
in infusion, as a stomachic ; in Dukhanie it is kunchanie ka gha* 


hicca islands extract a pleasant-tasted essential oil 
from tiie leaves; and I perceive that Horsfield, in hig 
list of Javanese medicinal plants, observes, that the 
Javanese prize this plant much as a mild aromatic 
and stimulant. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 
€< Hermaphrod. col. gluma 1-flora; cor. gluma vel 
*pice aristaU; stam. 3; sfyli £; sem. 1." (Spec. 
Plant iv. 1863.). 

. The sweet-rush, which formerly had a place in the 
European Pharmacopoeias under the name of Juncus 
odoratus, is much cultivated in gardens on the Coro- 
mandel coast; and in the north of Bengal large 
tracts of waste land are covered with it. It is the 
schamantkum ambohdcum of Humph. (Amb. v. p. 181. 

L 7*. f. «.) 

The spike of the panicle of this species is conju- 
gate, ovate-oblong; rachis bubescent, floscules sessile, 
with a twisted awn; root, perennial ; culms, from five 
to seven feet high, erect, smooth, and about the 
thickness of a goose-quill ; leaves, many near the 
root bifarious, but few on the upper part of the culm, 
of a soft texture, pale green colour, and from three 
to four feet long, including their sheaths, and three- 
quarters of an inch broad ; Jforal leaves small; panicle 
linear ; spikes generally paired on a common pedun- 
cle; rachis articulated, much- waved, hairy ; Jl&wers 
in pairs, one hermaphrodite and sessile; the other 
male and pedicelled (See Flora Indica, Roxb., edited 
by Carey, p. 278.). The plant was formerly an in- 
gredient in the mithridate and thcrakcu Virey, in 
his " Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens" (p. 148.), 
tells us, that this plant contains a resin similar to 
myrrh, and that the leaves are attenuant and tonic- 


A species of andropogon (insul&re) is considered in 
Jamaica* as a most useful application to ulcers, and 
called by Browne, sour grass. 


CANARI £>Utf (Mai.) Rata-kcekuna (Cyng.) 

Java Almond. 

Canarium Commune (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Pentandria. Gemeiner Co* 
narienbaum (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

We are told by Horsfield, in his list of the medici- 
nal plants of Java, that the gum of this shrub has the 
same virtues as those of the balsamum copaibas ; that 
the three-cornered nuts are eaten both raw and 
dressed by the natives of Java, and that an oil is ex- 
pressed from them, which is used at table when fresh, 
and for burning when stale : it would also appear that 
bread is occasionally made from them on the island 
of Celebes.t Rumphius, who calls it can. vulgare, 
informs us, that when eaten raw, the nuts are apt to 
bring on diarrhoeas; and to occasion an oppression of 
the breast (Amb. ii. p. 145. t 47.). See also p. 155. 
t 49. and p. 148. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. CaL 2-phyllus ; cor. 3-petaIa. 

" Feminei. Cat. 2-phyllus ; cor. S-petala ; stigma 

* See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 623. 
t A fact, I see, noticed by Sprengel, in his Historia Rei Herbaria, 
vol. ii. p. 270, who tells us, that the plant is mentioned by Avicenna 
(212.), under the name of £*»+*• Crawfurd speaks of the tree 
and tells us, that it is large and handsome, and generally found in 
places where the sago trees grow. See his Indian Archipelago, 
vol. i. p. 383. r ^ 


; drupa mice trigona triloculari" (Spec. Plant. 

iv. 17870- 

The plant has been described by Rumphius ( Amb. 
iL t. 47.), Gaertner, and Linnaeus; the last-mentioned 
informs us, that the leaves are alternate, pinnated, with 
an odd fbliole ; the common petioles striated; folioles 
nine, petioled, ovate-oblong, acuminate, even ; pani- 
cles with divaricate, rigid branches ; flowers sessile. 
Rumphius calls it a tree, but Willdenow has added 
to his description of it the mark by which he distin- 
guishes shrubs. It is a native of the Molucca Islands, 
and takes its name from its Malay appellation, canari. 
We are told by Virey, in his " Histoire Naturelle des 
Medicamens," that this plant furnishes to the people 
of Amboyna a resin which they burn to give light 
(p. 289. )• The species balsamiferum grows on Cey- 
lon, there called mala-kcekuna. 


CANCHORIE VAYR e*n-^(2gwft3cru'*-, 
(Tarn*) Doolaghbndi vayroo (Tel.) Schorigeram 
(Rheede, Mai. 2. p. 72. t. 39*) 'Boost parisha (Sans.) 
Root of the Irwolucrated Tragia* 

Traoia Involucrata (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Moncecia Triandria. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Eingehullte Tragic (Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

This small root has in its dry state, in which only 
I have seen it in the bazars, no sensible taste nor 
smell ; the Vytians, however, reckon it amongst those 
medicines which they conceive to possess virtues in 


altering and correcting the habit, in cases of mayghum 
(cachexia), and in old venereal complaints, attended 
with anomalous symptoms* Rheede, speaking of it, 
has these words : " Conducit in febre ossium, ac 
servit pro pruritu corporis ;" he further adds, €€ in 
decocto data urinam soppressam movet" By the 
Hindoo doctors of the Coromandel coast it is given 
to the quantity of half a tea-cupful of the decoction 
twice daily. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cal. 3-partitus ; cor. 0. 

Cf Feminei. Cal 5-partitus ; cor. ; styl 3-fidus ; 
caps. 8»cocca, S-locularis; sem. solitaria" (Spec. 

Plant iv. 1646.). 

Thi& species of tragia is an annual plant, indige- 
nous in India, and rises with an erect stem to the 
height of about three feet, and rarely sends out any 
side branches ; the leaves are oblong-lanceolate, run- 
ning out in very long acute points, sharply serrated, 
alternate, and are closely covered with stinging hairs ; 
female bractes five-leaved, pinnated; the flowers, 
which I never saw, Miller says, are in small axillary 
clusters, standing several together upon the same 
foot-stalk; the upper ones all male, and the under 
female. Burman, in his Thesaurus Zeylanicus (202. 
t. 92.), speaks of it under the name of " Ricinocarpos 
Zeylanica hirsuta, foliis lanceolatis serratis." Our ar- 
ticle grows on Ceylon, there called nxelkahambiliya. 
The species cannabina and camoHa are in the botani- 
cal garden of Calcutta. 



CARAY CHEDDY e>n-fig>m*©*-i>. (Tam.) 
Tsjt rou hard ( Mai.) Bdtusoo ckettoo (TeL) <N%» 
M/a nHWCOI. Thorny Webera. 

Webera Tetrandra (Willd.). 

CL and Ord. Pentandria Mooogynku VicrfmBge 
Webere (Nam. Triv. WillcL> 

A decoction of the edible leaves, as well as root of 
this plant, is prescribed in certain stages of flax, and 
the last is supposed to have anthelmintic qualities, 
though neither have much sensible taste or smell* Of 
the decoction about three ounces is given twice daily. 
A variety of the webera tetrandra is called in Tamool, 
mddoocard, the bark of which (Madoocare puttay), 
as well as the young shoots (K61indoo), the Vytians 
order for dysenteric complaints* The fruit is eaten 
by the natives, and is noticed in another part of this 
work ; the leaves are also used as food. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Con- 
tort* ; bacca infers, 2*locularis» loculis 1-spermis; 
stylus elevatus; stigma clavatum; caL 5-fidus" (Spec 
Phmt. L p. 1««4.> 

The species under consideration is a little scraggy, 
thorny bush, very frequently met with on the Coro- 
mandel coast : it has scarcely any trunk, but innu- 
merable branches ; the leaves are roundish, opposite, 
fascicled, and of different sizes; cymes few, flowered, 
axillary, peduncled; flowers tet ra nd o us, small and 
yellow; the fruit is an obcordate drupe, compressed 
a little, and about the size of a small marble ; when 
ripe, it is of a reddish-brown colour, is fleshy, and 


sweet to the taste, double-celled, having two small 
stones or seeds inside ; it is eaten by the natives, and 
the leaves are put in curries as seasoners. 

The shrub is the canthium parviflorum of Lamarck, 
and also of Roxburgh (Corom. i. p. 39* t. 51.). 
Rheede notices it under* the appellation of kanden- 
. kara (Mai. v. p. 71 • t. 36.). 

Three species of webera were growing in the bota- 
nical garden of Calcutta, in 1814, all Indian plants ; 
the scandens, corymbose^ and odorata ; the Bengalese 
names of which are giyu-kuta, kanwra, and patagruja. 
See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 15. Five species of we- 
bera grow in Ceylon, according to Moon. 


CARUN CHEMBAI wot«Gflms>lj (Tarn.) 

Nulla somuttie (Tel.) Krishna rqjam chfcU| XT5T 
(Sans.) Painted CoroniUa. 

Coronilla Picta (Willd. Var. Flore Purpureo.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Bunte Peltschen (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This plant is held in high estimation amongst the 
Hindoos, as well on account of the great beauty of 
its purple flowers, as from the virtues its leaves are 
said to possess in hastening suppuration, when ap- 
plied in the form of a poultice, that is, simply made 
warm and moistened with a little castor-oil; the 
leaves smell like fresh clover, and are food for cattle. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
£-labiatus. § > dentibus superioribus connatis ; vexiU 
turn vix alis longius ; lomentum teres articulatum rec- 
tum" (Spec. Plant, iii. p. 1145.). 


Of this species the racemes are many-flowered and 
hanging; kqflets Knear, obtuse, the elongated peri* 
carp or laments filiform, roundish, and necklace-like * 
stem herbaceous. It is a biennial plant, common in 
the woods of Coromandel, and is a native also of New 
Spain. What is called simply chembe in Tamool, ap» 
pears to be the variety described by Willdenow, with 
yellow flowers : " Corolla flava vexillo externe punc 
tis nigris variegate" (System- vol. iii. p. 1 148.). The 
plant is the ^Eschynomene of Cavan, Ic. iv. p. 7. 

The species car. sanguinea, we are told, grows in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta, a plant I cannot 
find noticed by Willdenow, nor is it given as a 
new species of Roxburgh. See Hortus Bengalensis, 
p. 56. 


CAR A CANIR AM &rr<zru>ut/T&jro-rrLc (Hort 
Mai. 9. p. 110.) MaJia-nelu (Cyng.) 


CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

Rheede informs us, that the whole of this plant, 
macerated with an infusion of rice, is said, on the 
Malabar coast, to be a useful remedy in cases of bites 
from' poisonous snakes; 

It seems doubtful whether that described by 
Rheede be, or be not, the justicia btcalyctdata of 
Vahl: Willdenow would rather appear to think it is 
not (" excluso synonymo Rhedii et descriptione cau- 
lis") : having never been able to see the caniram of 

VOL. II. f 


the Malabar coast, I am in no way entitled to give 
an opinion. Thejusticia bicalyculata is the plant no* 
ticed by Cavanilles, in his description of Spanish 
plants (p. 52. t. 71.), under the name of justicia 
Ugulafa, and is the diantltera malabarica of Retz. (Obs. 
Bot i. p. 10.) Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica, (vol. 
i. p. 127*)' gives us a full account of it: it is an an- 
nual, erect shrub, with a six-sided, scabrous stem, of 
the CI.. and Ord» Diandria Monogynia, and Nat. Ord. 
Personatae. Willdenow has given it the trivial appel- 
lation of Malabarische justice ; it is a native equally 
of Malabar and Arabia Felix, and may be termed in 
English the double-calyxed justicia ; " its leaves are 
short-petioled, ovate-cordate, oblong, and pointed; 
the calyx double ;. seeds solitary;, and the tube of the 
corolla twisted ; the flowers are terminal, axillary, nu- 
merous and red/' Its Bengalie name is nasa-bhaga, 
its Telingoo, chebiera. It is growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, introduced in 1802. Twenty- 
two species of justicia grow on Ceylon (Moon's Ca- 
talogue, p. 3.). 


C ARAMBU (Hort. Mai.) Bhalava anga (Sans.) 
Shrubby Jussieua* 

Jussieua Suffruticosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Calycanthemae. Standige Jussieua (Nom. Triv. 

Carambu is the Malealie name of a shrub, common 
in the woods of Malabar, and which Rheede tells us 
(Mai. ii. p. 55. 1 49.) when ground small, and steeped 


in butter-milk* is supposed to be of use in dysentery ; 
he adds, that a decoction of it is said to dissipate fla- 
tulency, promote urine, purge the body, and destroy 
worms. See also Rheede (Mai. ii. p. 96.). 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cal. 
4 ; s. 5-partitus, superus ; petala 4. s. 5 ; caps. 4. 
s. 5-locularis, oblongata, angulis dehiscens ; sem. nu- 
raerosa, miiiuta" (Spec. Plant, ii. p; 574.); 

The shrub in question is the hcemarago of the Cyn- 
galese, and commonly rises to the height of three 
feet, with a villose stem, and "sends out several side 
branches; the leaves are oblong, alternate, hairy, and 
scarcely petioled ; the flowers, which come out on the 
side of the stalks singly, on short peduncles, are yellow, 
four-petalled and eight-stamened. Miller says, that 
the capsule has a great resemblance to cloves, and 
that the plant is" a native of Campeachy, though 
Willdenow confines it to India. See Rumphius 
(Amb. 6. t 41.). 

In the West Indies the juice of the species repens 
is supposed to be a useful remedy in cases of spitting 
of blood and flux. Lunan, in his Hortus Jamaicensis 
(vol. ii. p. 99.), informs us, that Browne considers all 
the species of this genus as sub-astringents and vul- 


CAROO NOCHIE e> crsGcs -re=eP (Tam.) Kali 
shzcmbaii JLm-k J\£ (Duk.) Jugut-mudun (Beng.) 
Nulla vavilee (Tel.) Vada-lcodi (Rheede Mai. ix. 
p. 79. t. 42.) Nila-nirgandi f^f^P^t (Sans.) 

Gundharusa Justkia. 

Justicia Gendarussa (Lin.)» 

f 2 


CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia* Nat Ord*. 
Personate. WeidenbUtttrige Justice (Nona. Triv. 

The leaves and tender stalks of this beautiful 

shrub, the specific name of which is a Sanscrit word, 
have, when rubbed, a strong, but not unpleasant 
smell ; and are, after being toasted, prescribed by 
the Vytiansy in cases of chronic rheumatism attended 
with swellings in the joints ; they are given in de- 
coction to the quantity of. half a tea-cupful twice 
daily, which sometimes nauseates. The essential 
character of the justicias has already been men- 
tioned. This species is diffuse and smooth ; the 
leaves are opposite, lanceolate, elongated, and about 
four or five inches long ; spikes terminating ; flowers 
in whorls; bractes. minute ; upper lip undivided; 
lower anthers calcarate ; it has scarcely any stem ; 
branches numerous, long, and straggling ; the bark 
of the young parts is generally of a dark purple, 
whence it derives its Tamool name. It is well de- 
scribed by the excellent Dr. Roxburgh, in his Flora 
Indica (p. 129.)> who tells us, that the shrub is in-, 
digenous in the Malay islands ; and I perceive, by 
Dr. Horsfield's list of the medicinal plants of Java, 
that the medical men of that island call it ganrusa,. 
and place it amongst their Emetics. I cannot con- 
clude what I have to say of the car noochie without 
observing, that the leaves are commonly scattered 
by the Indians amongst their clothes, to preserve 
them from being destroyed by insects. 

The species in question is growing in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta ; it grows also on Ceylon, and i& 
there called in Cyngalese kalu-xvcera-niya. 



, CAROOKOOVA ELLEY ^Q>e><gavja-Li£<>/ot) 
(Tam.) Kakoopala (Tel.) VatadaUa^vas.} Leqf 
of the Three-nerved Zizyphus. 

Zizyphus Trinervius (Rottler.). 

CL and Orel. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat OrcL 

The leaves of this species of zizyphus, which are 
alternate, bifarious, short petioled, and ovate-oblong, 
have but little sensible taste or smell j a decoction of 
them is occasionally prescribed to purify the blood, 
in cases of cachexia, and as an alterative in old vene- 
real affections ; given, in decoction, to the quantity 
of three or four ounces twice daily. 

Of the essential character of this genus, Willde- 
now tells us, that " the calyx is tubular ; scales de- 
fending the stamens inserted into the calyx. The 
drupe is a two-seeded nut" (Spec. Plant, i. p. 1102.). 

The species in question was first noticed, scienti- 
fically*, by my much respected friend, Dr. Rottler tj 
it is a native of Mysore and the Coromandel coast. 
The ziz.jujuba is peculiar to the Indian continent ; 
though both the napeca and oenoplia now grow on 
the Indian continent, they were, I am inclined to 
think, brought from Ceylon originally. The shrub 

♦It has been since extremely well described by Dr. Roxburgh, 
in the second volume of the Flora Indica, p. 234. The excellent 
Dr. N. Wallich informs us, in the same vol. and page, that this 
plant is identically the t. trinervia var. glabrata, Roth. (Nov. 
Spec. 159.); he adds, it must not be confounded with the z. tri- 
nervia Poiret (Rhamnus. Cavan.). 

+ Of it he saySyCauli inermi, nudo ;Jbl. cordato, oval ib ; jlorib- 
axillarib ; drupa menosperma. 

F 3 


in question may be distinguished from the other 
species by having three-nerved leaves. 

The zizyphus trinervius is growing in the botani- 
cal garden at Calcutta, introduced from Mysore by 
Dr. F. Hamilton in 1801 ; fifteen other species also 
grow there. See Hort. Bengalensis, p. 17- 


CARPOORA SELASUTTOO g>&\-il = #t^<js5 
rr&fSBij (Tam.) Carpoora sillqjittoo (Sans, and Tel,)* 

These are names given to a beautiful foliated gra- 
nular gypsum of a reddish grey colour, soft, trans- 
lucent, and easily broken. The specimens brought 
me were obtained in the medicine bazar of Trichi- 
nopoly ; but whether got in any part of India, or 
imported from Persia, where we know this fossil is 
common, I know not. 

It is used by the natives for the same purposed 
that it is resorted to by the Africans*, viz. when 
pounded, it is sprinkled over excoriations and icho- 
rous ulcers, in the way that we employ prepared 
calamine stone. Foliated gypsum, when perfectly 
pure and white, is what is commonly called alabaster, 
and which, by KirwarCs analysis, contains, in 100 
parts, 32 of lime, 30 of sulphuric acid, and 38 of 
water. The varieties that contain portions of sele- 
nite are beautiful, and are named gypseous opal, 
from exhibiting an iridescent appearance when cut 
across. The most important use of the pure white 
granular gypsum is in the preparation of stucco. 

* See Thunberg's Travels, vol. i. p. 167. 




Cu-i<5nBra^nfr (Tam.) Oil of the Thorny Trichilia. 

Trichilia Spiitosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Trihilatae. JDornige Trichilie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). " 

From the berry of this thorny plant the Vytians 
.. prepare a warm, pleasant-smeHing oil, which they 
consider as a valuable external remedy in chronic 
rheumatism and paralytic affections. 

The essential character of the genus is, " Calyx 
mostly five-toothed ; pet. five ; nect. toothed, cylin- 
drical, bearing the anthers at the top of the teeth ; 
caps, three-celled, three-valved ; seeds berried." 

The species in question is a beautiful small tree, 
or rather large shrub, having simple, ovate, emargi- 
nate leaves. It would appear, that Dr. Klein, of 
Tranquebar, had sent a description of the plant to 
Willdenow, who tells us, that the fruit is " bacca 
trilocularis, locttlis monospermis, ut ipse observari, 
et amicus meus Indicus Dr. Klein adnotavit. medium 
itaque tenet inter Trichliam et Limoniam ; rami sunt 
spinosi" (Spec. Plant ii. p. 554. ).• 

The cat-korundoo is a native of the Southern 
tracts of the Indian peninsula. 

* The species moschata, distinguished by its having a strong 
smell of musk, is a native of Jamaica, where it grows to the height 
of twenty feet. See Lunan's Hortus Jaraaicensis, vol. i. p. .536* 

F 4 




CATRIGHONDOO^f tf/ 3lT (Duk.> 

♦ Catrighondoo is the Dukhanie name of a light- 
coloured gum resin, found in the druggists* shops 
of Lower India ; it is in small irregular pieces, and 
has a slightly acid taste. The Hakeems consider it 
as possessing stomachic and tonic properties, and 
prescribe it in electuary, in conjunction with certain 
aromatics. It well merits, I am induced to think,, 
further investigation. 


CATTU-GASTURI (Mai.) Kala-kustooree 

(Hind.) Kapu kinaissa (Cyng.) Target-leaved 

Hibiscus, or Musk Okro. 

Hibiscus Abelmoschus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. Ord. 
Columniferae. Bisam Hibiscus (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This species of hibiscus is a native, it would ap- 
pear, of the Society Isles and the West Indies, as 
well as Ceylon and India ; it rises, with an herba- 
ceous stem, to the height of four feet. The flowers 
come out from the wings of the stalk j they are large 
and of a sulphur colour, with dark-purple bottoms, 
and are succeeded by five-comered capsules filled 
with large seeds, of so musky an odour that they 
certainly might be used to scent powders and poma- 
tums, when musk cannot be obtained. In Arabia 


they are considered as cordial and stomachic, and 
are mixed with coffee. Barbara, in his Hort. Ame- 
ricans, speaks of the cordial qualities of the seeds; 
so does Browne, in his Natural History of Jamaica, 
in which he calls it musk ockra. But how can we 
reconcile all this with what Dancer has said of it, in 
his Medical Assistant, viz. that they are emetic*! 
The genus hibiscus is very numerous, and several 
other species will be noticed in other parts of this 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
duplex, exterior polyphyllus j stigmata 5 ; caps. 
5-locularis, polyspermy (Spec Plant vol. iii. p. 806.). 

The plant is growing in the botanical garden of 

CHERIS, or CHERRIS (Nepaul). . 

Is the name given to a most powerfully narcotic 
gum resin, obtained from a plant called, in Nepaul, 
Jeeaj when clarified, it is termed momea, from its 
resemblance to wax. Kirkpatrick says, it would 
appear to differ from the hemp chiefly in the very 
strong odour of its leaves, and by its yielding cherris, 
which the hemp does not ; he adds, however, that 
from the grosser parts of the plant banghie majum 
and sulya can be prepared. See the two first men- 
tioned in this Chapter, and the last in another part 
of the work. 

It is, I think, in all probability, a variety of the 

* See Lunan'g Hortus Jamaiceraie, vol. i. p. 534s 


cannabis sativa; and what puts the matter almost 
beyond a doubt, is the similarity of the Sanscrit 
names j the one being Jeea, the other vbjeea* 


CAY-CALAVA (Coch. Chin). 

Panax Fruticosum (Lin,), 

CL and Ord. Polygamia Dioecia. Nat. Ord. 
Aralliae (Juss.). 

This is .an upright shrub, about six feet in height, 
with leaves bipinnate and an odd t>ne ; and flowers 
red and green, terminating in a diffused panicle. 
The plant is the stercularia tertia of Rhumphius; 
its leaves and root, Loureiro says, have diuretic vir- 
tues : " Prodestque in hydrope, dysuria, et mictu 
-cruento." Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 656. 


€HEFPOO NERINGIE (Tam.) Cherra-gad- 
dam (Tel.) Bin-awari (Cyng.) Trailing Indigo. 

Indigofera Enneaphylla (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Kleiner Indigo (Nom v Triv. Willd.). 

The juice of this low-growing plant, the Vytians 
prescribe, as an antiscorbutic and alterative, in old 
venereal affections ; it is subacid and pleasant tasted. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Cat. patens ; coroUce carina utrinque 


calcari stibulato patulo ! Legumen Kneare" (Spec 
Plant Hi. p. 1220.). 

The species in question was, in the older editions 
of Linnaeus, called hedysarum prostratum, from its 
lying prostrate on the ground. The leaves are pin- 
nate, wedge-shaped, in sevens ; stems depressed to 
the earth ; spikes lateral $ calyx almost five-parted ; 
corolla dark-purple, with the back of the standard 
paler; legumes ovate-cylindric, even, equal; seeds 
two (Lin. Mant- i. p. 102.). It is an annual plant, 
common in waste lands, in the Southern provinces 
of Hindoostan, and is growing, with many others of 
the genus, in the botanical garden of Calcutta, in- 
troduced by Henry Russel, Esq. (See Hortus Ben- 
galensis, p. 57., also Burm. Ind. 1 55. f. 1 .) 


> • 

€HEEANK (Siam.) 

A root found by Dr. Finlayson in Siam, and con- 
sidered, by the natives, as diuretic. Quaere. 


also Sittrapaladi (Tarn.) Biddarie nana beeum (Tel. ) 
Shwet-Kheerooge (Beng.) Bin-dada keeriya (Cyng.) 
Itakta vindu chada Tftfa*% 15^ (Sans.) Thyme- 
leaved Spurge. 

Euphorbia Thymifolia (Lin*> 


CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 
'Tricoccae. Thynuanblattrige Wolftmikh (Nora. 
Triv. Wflld.). 

The very small leaves and seeds of this low-grow- 
ing annual plant, which, in their dried state, are 
slightly aromatic and a little astringent, are given, 
by the Tamool doctors, in worm cases, and in certain 
bowel affections of children ; they are commonly 
^administered in the form of powder, and in butter- 
milk, to the quantity of one pagoda and a quarter 
weight in the -course of the day on an empty sto- 
mach. The leaves, when carefhlly dried, smell some- 
thing like tea. 

- Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
-says, " Cor. 4; s. 5-petala, calyci insidens; ml. 1- 
r phyllus, ventriculosus $ cap. 3-cocca" (Spec. Plant, 
ii. p. 881.> 

This species is a native of India, and is growing, 
"with many others, in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta; it has a slender stem, somewhat hairy, and 
breaking out, near the ground, into many very de- 
3icate branches; leaves at the joints, and divisions of 
the stem and branches, very small, opposite, oblique, 
^cordate, serrate, oval-oblong ; heads axillary, glome- 
rate, subsesslle ; stem procumbent (Miller and JFlor. 
.Zeyl. 198.). 

The plant seems to delight in dry situations, on 
the skirts of woods, and has altogether much the 
^appearance of thyme. The milky juice of a species 
of euphorbia (maculata) is supposed to have wonder- 
ful effects, in the West Indies, in removing spots and 
itlms from the eyes, consequent of small-pox. See 
Barham, p. 82., also Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensif, 
vol. i. p. 286. 



CITTRAMOOLUM, ^tfvrorovrLo also; 
KODIVAYLIE (Tarn.) Chitturmol ^^ (Duk.> 
Chita U*> (Hind.) Ckitrcf (Beng.) Shiiurudge^ 
(Arab.) Tumba-codiveli (Horfc Mai. x; p. 15. t 8.)/ 
Chitraca * pq^ch (Sans.) Ceylone Leadwort> 

Plumbago Zetlanica (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord.. 
Plumbagines. (Juss.) Zeylcmische Bleywurz (Nohk. 
Triy. WillcL). 

The native practitioners prepare a kind of paste 
with the bruised fresh bark of the root of this plant, 
and rice congie, which they apply to buboes in their 
incipient state ; it acts as a vesicatory, and I per- 
ceive its virtues as such are Sir W. Jonest' 
and Dr. Fleming. $ 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow. 
says, " Cor. infundibulif. ; stamina squamis basinr 
corolla* claudentibus inserta;. stigma £»fidum ; sent. 1* 
obloogum tunicatum." 

The cittramoolum (the elarathnetul of the Cyn*- 
galese§)is a perennial shrubby plant, and is now"- 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, intro- 
duced before 1794 j. it seldom rises higher than four 
feet, shooting up from the strong fibrous root in nit* 
merous. tender stalks, which, are darkish coloured^ 

* Asiatic Res. iv. 255.- 

f See Sir W. Jones's works, vol. v. p. 88.. 

% See Fleming's Catalogue of Indian Medicinal, Plants, p. 32;. 

$ See Flor. Zeyl. 73. 


and smell not unlike hemlock ; the leaves are about 
three inches long and two broad, terminating in 
sharp points, alternate, and on short foot-stalks; 
flowers pure white,* The upper part of the stalk 
and the calyx of the flower are very glutinous, stick- 
ing to the fingers, and entangling small flies that 
settle on them. The plant, which has another Sans- 
crit name, vahni (and both signify fire), is not very 
common, and certainly possesses qualities deserving 
a minute investigation. The plum bago rosea (schetti 
eodiveli, Rheede), which is noticed in this Chapter, 
under the Tamool name Shencodie-vaylie, possesses 
virtues somewhat similar to those of the plum. Zey- 
lonica. For some account of two other species, viz. 
the plum. Europea and plum, scandens, the reader is 
referred to Virey's " Histoire Naturelle des Medica- 
mens" (p. 170.). The first, he tells us, is employed 
by the poor to make ulcers on the body to excite 
pity ; the last is the devil's herb of St. Domingo, 
and is remarkably acrid. We are told by ViUars, in 
his " Histoire des Plantes de Dauphin^," that the 
plumbago Europeai used formerly to be employed 
ki curing the itch ; it was called dentallaria by the 
Romans (toothwort), from its virtues in easing the 
tooth-ache; like others of its genus, it acts as a 


• Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 38. 

t The plumbago Europea is mentioned by Duroques as well as 
by Murray (vol.i. p. 772.) as having been used with considerable 
advantage in cases of cancer, for which purpose, the ulcers were 
dressed twice daily with olive oil, in which the leaves had been 
infused. Now, as the virtues of this plant coincide exactly, ac- 
cording to Dr. Fleming, with those of the p. rosea and/). Zeylonica, 
it becomes a question, whether they might not be used in similar 
afflictions? See article Shencodie Vaylie in this Chapter; see 
also Fleming's Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 32. 


The species scandens is considered, in Jamaica*, 

as a valuable vulnerary herb j Browne says, it is of 
an acrid corrosive nature*. 


<TLjrr (Tam.) Ghoorie-Ghenza (TeL> Koonck 
(Beng.) Cam-thao-do-hot (Coch. Chin.) Goonja 

also Kaka chinchi ^fl^f^ft (Sans.) Wild Jamaica 
Liquorice Root. 

Abrus Precatorius (Lin.). 

CX and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat Ord. 
Leguminosae. Gemeine Paiernostererbse (Nom 
Triv. Willd.). 

This root when driedj coincides so exactly with 
die liquorice-rbot of the shops, that it is often sold for 
-it in the bazars in Bengal, where its small seeds are 
used as weights.t The name given to the beautiful* 
climbing shrub in Java is saga, where we are told by 
Horsfield, in his account of the medicinal plants of 
that island, that it is considered as demulcent, and 
the mucilage is usually combined with some bitter. 
It is the konni of Rheede (Mai. iii. p. 71. t. 39.), the 
otinda of the Cyngalese, and the glycine scandens of 
Browne (Jamaic 2970* The seeds are considered by 
some as ophthalmic and cephalic, externally applied. 

* See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 235. 

f Sir William Jones found, from the average of numerous trials, 
the weight of one gunja (seed) to be a grain and five sixteenths ; 
the reUi weight (as it is called from the Hindoostanie name or 
the same seed), used by the jewellers and druggists, is equal to 
two grains, three sixteenths nearly. See Fleming's Catalogue or 
Indian Plants, p. 3. 


According to WiUdenow it is the only species of 
its genus, the essential characters of which are, " CaL 
obsolete quadrilobus : superiore latiore ; JUamenta 9* 
basi infima connata, dorso hiantia ; stigma obtusum ; 
semina sphaMica'* (Spec. Plant voL iii. p. 91 1.)» 

" It is a perennial, twining shrub*, with branching 
stalks, by which it will rise to the height of eight or 
ten feet j the leaves are pinnated, about three quar- 
ters of an inch long, and a third part as broad, blunt, 
or rather round at the end j the flowers, which are of 
a pale purple colour, are succeeded by short pods,, 
each containing three or four hard seeds, smooth, and 
of a glowing scarlet colour." The Persians call them 
khakshie >(S z£\±- y they are employed as ornaments by the 

Hindoos, and are noticed in another part of this work. 
Lunan, in his Hort Jamaicensis (vol. i. p. 457,) tells 
us, that the leaves are sometimes used as tea in Ja- 
maica; he adds, that the seeds are of a most deleterious 
nature, and that Herman is of opinion that three is a 
mortal dose, but that is in powder, for they may be 
swallowed whole with safety. 


COORUVINGIE VAYR &&<ns<&* s% G(»-J'f- 
(Tam.) Pali hejurr y» J *IL (Duk.) Root of the 
Box-leaved Ehretia. 

Eheetia Buxifolia (Roxb.), 

* Three varieties of this ihrub were growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta in 1814: viz. the one with red seed, koonch 
(Beng.); the one with white seed, sueta koonch (Beng.); and a* 
variety with black seed ; the last introduced by Dr. Heyne, from 
Mysore, in 1800. See Hort. Bengalensis, p. 54. Three varieties 
of the ab. precatorius, by Moon's account, grow in Ceylon. See 
Moon's Catalogue, p. 52. 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
AsperifoluB. Bvchsbaumblattrige Ehretic (Nom # 
Triv. Willd.). 

This root, in its succulent state, has a sweetish and 
somewhat warm taste, and is reckoned by the Vytians 
amongst those medicines which assist in altering and 
purifying the habit in cases of cachexia and venereal 
affections of long standing: it is commonly prescribed 
in decoction to the quantity of half a tea-cupful twice 
daily. The Mahometan practitioners consider it is 
an antidote to vegetable poisons. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, « Drupa 2-locularis; nuces solitariae 2-loculares; 
stigma emarginatum" (Spec, Plant, i. p. IO77.). 

This shrub, which is the heen-tambala of the Cyn- 
galese, has first been accurately described by Rox- 
burgh, in his " Coromandel Plants*," and seems to 
be closely allied to what Vahl (Symb. ii. p. 42.) de- 
scribes under the appellation of " cordia retnsa foliis 
fasciculatis cuniformibus retusis tridentatis." Rox- 
burgh informs us, that it is a middle-sized ramous 
shrub, with leaves on the young shoots alternate, on 
the former branchlets fascicled, sessile, reflected, 
wedge-formed, scabrous; flowers small, white; calyx 
five-parted; coroL campanulate; stamens five or six; 
style two-cleft ; stigma simple ; berry, size of a pea, 
succulent, red ; nut, five or six-celled. The tree is the 
bapana boory of the Telingoos, and is growing with 
five other species in the botanical garden t of Cal- 

• Vol. i. p. 42. t. 57. See also Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 343. 
f See Hortus Bengalensifi, p. 17. 




COOTIVELLA ©i_Lj&tnA*rrrr (Tarn.) also 
Nilavoolla (Tam.) Booien-k&vite ^ ^ (Duk.) 

NSlaveldgd (Tel.) Bhu-kapittham iT^Rf^T (Sans.). 

Feronia Elephantum (Var.). 

CI. and. Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 


The young leaves of this variety of feronia ele- 
phantum have, when bruised, a most delightful smell, 
very much resembling anise ; they are about three- 
quarters of an inch long, and round at the end. The 
native practitioners consider them as stomachic and 
carminative, and prescribe them in the indigestions 
and slight bowel affections of children. The leaves 
of the vidlam mdrum (Tam.), feronia elephantum 
(Roxb.), have the same virtues, being the produce 
of a variety of the F. E., and which is the tree that 
yields much of the gum Arabic which is used in 
Lower India, and which differs not essentially from 
that obtained from the acacia Arabica in Bengal.* 
It does not appear that the acacia vera is a native of 
Hindoostan. Of the feronia elephantum, the dewul 
of the Cyngalese, Roxburgh! says, it is an erect, pretty 
large tree ; branches few, irregular, forming an ill- 
looking top j leaves in the young shoots alternate, 
leaflets opposite ; petiole articulated, and somewhat 
winged ; flowers tinged with red, hermaphrodite and 
male mixed ; calyx small j petals five, oblong, spread- 

* See Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 4. 
f Coromandel Plants, ii. 1. 141. 


ing, many times longer than the calyx j berry globm 
lar; seeds many. The variety of feronia etephantiim 
which Roxburgh describes ha* got quite different 
names from our present article ; his is the balong of 
the Portuguese, the yellanga of the Telingoos, and 
the veUangay of the Tamools. In speaking of its 
gum, already mentioned under the head of gum Ara- 
bic, in another part of this work, he says, that a cele- 
brated painter mentioned to him that it answers bet- 
ter for mixing with colours than gum Arabic. 


(Tarn.) Coorinja (Tel.) Untamool (Hind.) Kuring- 
yan (Cyng.) Automel J*?! (Hind.) Vomiting SwaU 

Asclepias Vomitoria (Koenig.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 

The root of this plant,* as it appears in the Indian 
bazars, is thick, twisted, of a pale colour, and of a 
bitterish and somewhat nauseous taste ; the Vytians 
prize it for its expectorant and diaphoretic proper- 

* Dr. Sherwood informs me, that the natives distinguish two 
varieties, a large and a small ; and the roots of both are used, 
externally, against the bites of scorpions and centipedes, being 
previously pounded, and formed into a paste with a little water. 
Twenty-five species of asclepias were growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta in 1814, all of Eastern countries, except one 
from America (curassavica), introduced by Mr. White, and one 
from Pegu (tingens), introduced by Dr. F. Hamilton. See Hortus 
Bengalensis, pp. 20, 21. 

G 2 


ties, and often prescribe it in infusion to the quantity 
of half a tea-cupful, for the purpose of vomiting 
children who suffer much from phlegm. 

From possessing virtues somewhat similar to those 
of ipecacuan, it has been found an extremely useful 
medicine in dysenteric complaints, and has at times 
been administered with the greatest success by the 
European practitioners of Lower India. It would 
appear that this perennial plant is not found in Ben- 
gal, but is a native of the northern Circars and of 
Ceylon: it is, according to Fleming", the asctepias 
asthmatka of Willdenow, who says of the essential 
character of the genus, " Contorta ; nect. 5 ; ovata, 
concava, corniculum exserentia" (Spec. Plant, i. 
p. 12b"2.). 

The species t in question has a shrubby, twisting, 
villose stem, with leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate- 
ovate, smooth above, but below covered with short 
fine white hairs, they are sharp at the end, and, upon 
the whole, very much resemble laurel leaves; the 
umbels are shorter than the leaves, often proleferous; 
flowers small (See Miller). The species curassaoka, 
which now grows on Ceylon, is much extolled by 
Barham (p. 22.) and Lunan: in Jamaica, of which 
island the plant is a native, the flower of it is called 
bloodjlower, from its efficacy in stopping bloody flux 

* See Fleming's Catalogue of Indian Plants, p. 8 ; also some 
int of it by Mr. Underwood, of Madras, in the Madras 
irnment Gazette for August 22, 1816. 

It would appear to resemble much, in its medical virtues, the 
tiat tuberota, the rootof which, Dr. Barton says, is mildly ch- 
ic, expectorant, and diaphoretic, and particularly indicated 
hjldren's complaints. See Barton's " Vegetable Materia 
lea of the United States," vol. i. pp. 243, 244. Moon, in his 
ogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 21, adopts a new genus, marsdenia, 
tiiiliei the spec, vomitoria mars, vomit., or kuringyan of the 
alctu ; the spec, atthmatica he makes mar. asthmatka, or 
inj/riW of the Cyngalcse. 


and other bleedings ; a decoction of it is also said to 
be efficacious in gleets and fluor albus. See Lunan's 
Hortns Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 64. 


CORUTTEI Gwt^xsjL- (Tam.) Avdgoodd 

(TeL) Malchal (Beng. and Hind.) Palmated 


Trichosanthes Palmata (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 

The fruit of this species of trichosanthes, pounded 
small, and intimately blended with warm cocoa-nut 
oil, is considered as a valuable application for clean- 
ing and healing those offensive sores which sometimes 
take place inside of the ears. The same preparation 
is supposed to be a useful remedy, poured up the 
nostrils, in cases of ozoena. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 

" Masculi. Cat. 5-dentatus ; cor. 5-partita, cili- 
ata ; Jilam. 3. 

"Feminei. CaL 5-dentatus; cor. 5-partita; styl. 
S-fidus ; pepo oblongus" (Spec. Plant, iv. p. 598.). 

This species of gourd is evidently the trichosanthes 
tuberosa of Willdenow, distinguished from all others 
" foliis quinquelobo-palmatis intigerrimus." It is the 
trich. corniculata of Lamarck (Encycl. i. p. 189.)» 
Seven species* of trichosanthes are growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. 

* Four species of trichosanthes, by fyf oonV account, grow on 
Ceylon, the anguina, caudata, cucumerina, and incisa ; the two 

G 3 


The species amara is indigenous in Jamaica; it has 
a beautiful fringed flower, and bears a fruit somewhat 
resembling a pear, containing a white pulp, with 
many long narrow seeds of a dusky ash colour. The 
plant in the West Indies is used for destroying rats 
(See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 175.)- 


COVALAM Gmrro^nvrruo (Hort Mai. iii. 
p. 37. t. 37.) Tdnghuh (Malay). Beti (Cyng.) 

Prickly Crateva. 

Crat-eva Marmelos (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Putamineae. Dornige Cratceve (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Rheede says (Hort Mai. iii. p. 37, 38. t. 37.) that 
a decoction of the bark and root of this tree, is sup- 
posed, on the Malabar coast, to be a sovereign reme- 
dy in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpitation 
of the heart ; that the leaves in decoction are used in 
asthmatic complaints ; and that the fruit, a little un- 
ripe, is of use in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Of the essential character of the genus crataeva, 
Willdenow observes, "Cor. 4-petala*; caL 4-fidus; 
bacca 1-locularis, polyspermia" (Spec. Plant ii. p. 

The species in question I have never seen ; Miller 

last of which are the scheru-padavalam, and the pacta valum of 
Rheede, Mai. viii. p. 31. 1. 16. and Mai. yiii. p. 39. t. 15. See 
Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 66. 

* Miller, in his Botanical Dictionary, edition by Martyn, says, 


(though he quotes some doubt regarding the genus 
from Linnaeus) says> "that it grows to a great height; 
that the leaves are serrated ; leaflets oblong, entire, 
and end in acute points, and that between these the 
branches are armed with long sharp thorns, which 
come out by pairs and spread asunder j the flowers 
are produced in small clusters from the side of the 
branches, green outside, white within, and have a 
grateful odour ; the fruit, the size of an orange, 
having a hard shell, inclosing a fleshy pulp, which, 
when ripe, has an agreeable flavour, and, with the 
addition of a little sugar, is eaten in India." The 
tree is mentioned thus by Plukenett, in his Almages- 
turn Botanicum, « Cucurbitifera trifolia spinosa me- 
dica, fructu pulpa cydonia aemula." The Sanscrit 
name of it is bilva. It is the cydonia exotica of JBau- 
hin, the covalam of Rheede*, the bilanus of Rumphius 
(Amb. i. p. 197. t 81.), the modjo or modsho of the 
Javanese, who, by Horsfield's account (in his " List 
of Javanese Plants") place the fruit amongst their 
astringents. Roxburgh t speaks of it under the ap- 
pellation of cegle marmelos, placing it in the class and 
order Polyandria Monogyniaj he tells us that it is " a 
pretty large tree, from the rind of which the Dutch 
on Ceylon prepare perfume. The wood is light-co- 
loured, variegated with veins ; fruit considerably 
larger than that of the feronia elephantum, smooth ; 
Shell much harder ; most delicious to the taste, and 
exquisitely fragrant, nutritious, laxative; mucus of 
the seed a good cement for some purposes." It 
would appear that Serapio (c. 261.) mentions this 
tree under the name of sill or mil J**. See " His tori a 
Rei Herbariae," vol. i. p. 263. 

* Mai. Hi. p. 97. t. 37. 
f Corona. Plants, 143. vol. ii. p. 23. 

G 4 


Two species of crateva are natives of Jamaica, the 
tapia and gynandra. Dancer, in his Medical Assist- 
ant, informs us, that the bark of the root of the latter 
blisters like cantharides. See Lunan's Hortus Ja- 
maicensis, vol. i. p. 318, 



Obadali (Sans.) Thorny Zronwood. 

Sideroxylon Spinosum ? Mant. 48. 

Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. Dumosae. 

Courou-moelli* is the name of a shrub on the Mala- 
bar coast ; the leaves and root of which, boiled in 
milk, are supposed to be an antidote to the bites of 
poisonous snakes ; the bark, ground with oil, forms a 
useful liniment in rheumatic affections. 

In the first edition of this work, I, at the suggestion 
of my learned friend Dr. Rottler, asked a question, 
Whether he supposed this ought or ought not to be 
called sideroxylon spinosum? and this query I still 
permit to stand. Of the sideroxylon spinoswn, Will- 
denow says there is no specimen in Linnaeus's Herb- 
arium sufficiently perfect to ascertain the species, and 
he adds, that he, under the name of sideroxylon spi- 
nosum, had received from Koenig, bond Jide, the Jla- 
courtia sepiaria, a plant which is noticed in another 
part of this work (amongst the fruits), and there is 
certainly a resemblance in the names courou and can- 
reu, which may have led to mistake. The reader is 
referred to the article syderoxylon decandrumi of 

* See Hort. Mai. v. p. 77. t. 39. 

t The syd, spinosum foliis deciduis ellipticis, Mant. 48. 


Willdenow (Spec. Plant i. p. 1091. ), where he may 
find matter for settling or continuing his doubts on 
this question: he may also consult Miller, article 
syderoarylon decandrum* 


CUMB1 PISIN EfrLaJTi-jiJr^tfur (Tam.) Dik- 
miHie J*£$ (Duk.) Cumbi Gum. 

This is a strong smelling gum-resin, not unlike 
myrrh in appearance, and possessing, the Hakeems 
say, nearly similar virtues ; it is, however, far more 
active, and ought, on that account, to be administered . 
in very small doses ; as an external application, it is 
employed, dissolved in spirits, for cleaning foul ul- 
cers, and, where the balsam of Perut cannot be 
obtained, might be used as a substitute for arresting 
the progress of sphacelous and phagedenic affections, 
which that medicine has the power of doing (at least 
in hot climates) in a very wonderful manner : I have 
laboured in vain to ascertain whence it comes from, 
or from what plant it is procured. 

* The species sideroxylon tomentosum (Willd.) and the sid. 
grandiflorum (Wall.) are both natives of mountainous countries in 
Upper India. * See Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 348. 

f While in India, the author of this work wrote a paper on the 
virtues of balsam of Peru in arresting mortification and sphace- 
lous ulcers, and which, on his return to India, was published in 
the first number of the Asiatic Journal. 



CUNDUNGHATRIE VAYR ar<tfoTi-/K/eyfftf* 
rT'Gyucf- (Tam.) Kootaya (Hind,) Dorle ke jur 
>*</gL&* ( Duk Van-kudavayroo (Tel.) ZZsaJir- 
badergdn-burrie (Arab.) also Nela mulaka (Tel.) 
Katu-wcel batu (Cyng.) Chudra also Kantakdri 
^f\ u € cflKjt (Sans. Beng. and Hind.) jRoo/ ^ Joc- 
yum's Nightshade. 

Solan um Jacquini (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Luridae. Jacquinischer Nachtschatten (Nom. Triv« 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor. 
rotata ; antherce subcoalitae, apice poro gemino dehi- 
scentes ; bacca &-Iocularis." (Spec. Plant. 383.) 

The species which is growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta has a decumbent stem, diffused 
and prickly ; leaves pinnatifid and prickly all over ; 
segments sinuate, obtuse, naked at the edge j calyxes 
prickly (Miller). Willdenow tells us, that he has 
seen a variety " laciniisjbliorum via: sinuatis."* 

The small, bitterish, and subacid fruit, as well as 
the root, of this species of solatium, the native practi- 
tioners consider as expectorant, and prescribe them 
accordingly in coughs and consumptive complaints, 
also in humoral asthma, in the form of decoction, 
electuary, and pill; of the first, half an ounce is given 

* Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 251, gives a very 
different description of the same plant, observing, mat it has no 
stem, and smooth oblong leaves, often in pairs. 


twice daily* The juice of the berry of the species 
bakamense* is bitterish, and is used in the West 
Indies in cases of sore throat. See Lunan f s Hortus 
Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 152. 


CUNJA KORAY e>w&n-Qe>rraz)rr (Tarn.) 
Suffhid toohie ^JLs juL* (Duk.) Badrooge Abbeex 
(Arab.) Kooka tblasie (Tel.) Viswa tulaA 

R^qwff (Sans.) White Basil, or Indian Tea. 

Ocimum Album (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia, Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae. Weisses BasiUenkraut (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

Of the essentials of the genus,. Willdenow says, 
" Calyx labio superiore orbiculato ; inferiore quadri- 
fido y Corolla: resupinatae alterum labium 4-fidum j 
alterum indivisum ; Jilamenta exteriora basi proces- 
sura emittentia." Spec. Plant. 1121. 

The species in question seldom rises more than a 
foot high; the stem of a greenish- white colour, woody 
at the base ; the leaves, which are commonly broader 
and thicker than those of the other species, are from 
two to three inches long, and of a pale-green colour, 
ovate, and bluntly serrated; the whorls of the racemes 
approximating, the mature ones four-cornered; the 
corollas, large, white, crenate. ' It is a native of Java 
as well as India. 

• Another species, manosum, is considered as a medicinal plant 
in the West Indies ; a decoction of the root is bitter, and is reck- 
oned a valuable diuretic ; the juice of it is given, with sugar, in 
consumptions. See Barham's Jamaica Plants, p. 117. 


The leaves have a most pleasant aromatic taste and 
an agreeable smell ; they are considered by the na- 
tives as stomachic, and the juice of them is prescribed 
in the catarrhs of children : an infusion of them 
(they having been carefully dried in the shade) is 
used as a pleasant and wholesome tea* by such Eu- 
ropeans in India as cannot afford the China article. 

I find another Sanscrit name for the plant is 3fZsT^R 
arjaca. Of the juice of the leaves about a tea-spoon- 
ful may be given twice in the day to a child suffer- 
ing from catarrh. 


DAUD-MAREE (Beng.) also Bun-murich 

(Beng.) Aghundra-pakoo (Tel.) Blistering Am- 

Ammania Vesicatoria (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monpgynia. Nat. Ord. 

Of the essential character, Roxburgh says, " Corol. 
fbur-petalled, or none ; when present, inserted in the 
plaited mouth of the calyx, which is from four to 
eight toothed; capsule superior, from one to four- 
celled; seeds numerous. Flora Indica 9 vol. i. p. 447. 

The species in question is an annual plant, found 
in wet cultivated land during the rainy season; it 
rises to the height of from six to thirty-six inches 
high; the branches, below opposite, decussated; above 

* The leaves of various plants are used as substitutes for tea in 
different parts of the world : the Peruvians, for this purpose, em- 
ploy those of the xuarezia biblora (Ruiz), which they call by the 
name of The de Peru. See Flora Peruviana, vol.ii. p. 13. See 
article Tea, in Part I. Chap. I. of his work. 


frequently alternate ; leaves opposite, sessile, lanceo- 
lar, smooth ; Jloral leaves many times smaller than 
those below; coral none; pericarp one-celled, one- 
valved, half-covered with the calyx. Five species of 
am mania are growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta. Three species are natives of Ceylon 
(Moon's Catalogue, p. 11.). 

Our present article has a strong muriatic smell, but 
not disagreeable ; the leaves are extremely acrid, and 
are used by the natives to raise blisters in rheumatism, 
fevers, &c. ; the fresh leaves, bruised and applied to 
the part intended to be blistered, perform their office 
in half an hour, and most effectually.* 

Of this genus there are two species, natives of Ja- 
maica, viz. latifolia and sanguinolentaf ', the first is 
Browne's ismardia. 


DAUN GUNDI (Mai.) Bandura (Cyng.) Ur* 
ticaria (Rumph.) Distilling Nepenthes. 

Nepenthes Destillatoria (Lin,). 

CI. and Ord. Dicecia Monadelphia. Zeylonischer 
Kanntnstrauch (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cat. 4-partitus patens interne colora- 
tus ; cor. ; Jilament. columnare ; anth. 15-17 con- 

" Feminei. Cal. and cor. maris ; stigma pellatum 
sessile ; caps. 4-locul. ; polysperma" (Spec. Plant, vol. 

iv. 1853.). 

• See Flora Indica, vol. i. p. 447. 

f See Lunan's Hortui Jamaicensis, vol. i. pp.18, 19. 


The species in question is a beautiful plant, and 
was first brought from Ceylon, but is now common 
in some of the mission-gardens of Lower India j it 
has a fungous, thick, round stalk ; leaves alternate, 
sessile, broad, oblong, smooth, with a very strong 
nerve running along the middle, ending in a long ten- 
dril, generally twisted, to which hangs a long recep- 
tacle or bag, which, on being pressed, yields a sweet, 
limpid, pleasant, refreshing liquor, in such quantity, 
that the contents of six or eight of them are sufficient 
to quench the thirst of a man.* A very good descrip- 
tion of it may be found in Pennant, vol. vi. p. 236., 
who tells us, that the bag or cylindrical tube is some- 
times six inches long, and is furnished with a circular 
valve, completely at times closing the orifice; this 
tube is filled with the liquor, and which continues 
during the time the valve is shut ; when it is open, 
the liquor is dried up, but the stock is renewed at 
night, when the valve is again closed. Of this pecu- 
liarity, Willdenow observes, " Genus singulare cujus 
speciebus folia sunt lanceolata, cirrho terminate et in 
apice cirrhi ascidium aqua repletum." Spec. Plant. 
voL iv. p. 873. See also Burm. Zeyl. t. 17. 


ELANDEI VAYR LLSo^r^sGo^id 1 - (Tarn.) 
Kool (Beng.) Bayr Mjurr^ J ^ (Duk.) Usslie 
suddir (Arab.) Reygowayroo (Tel.) Vadafi 
^KO (Sans.) Root of the BlunUlewoed Buckthorn. 

Zizyphus Jujuba (Lin.). 

• See Miller's Bot. Dictionary, article Nepenthes. 



CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Dumosae. Jujuba Judendorn (Nona. Triv. Willd.). 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cal. 
tubulosus; cor. squamae stamina munientes calyci 
inserts ; drupa nuce mono vel disperma. Spec- 
Plant- vol. i. species 406. 

The species, the root of which is the article now 
under discussion, is a very beautiful little tree, com* 
mon on the Coromandel coast, and which was grow- 
ing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, in 1814. 
The leaves are small, roundish-ovate, blunt, tomen* 
tous underneath, peduncles aggregate > flowers semi- 
digynous. It is the malum indicium of Rumphius, and 
perim toddal of Rheed. (Mai. iv. p. 85. t. 41.) At 
the lower part of each leaf (which is of a bright-green 
colour outside, and whitish within), and close to the 
petiole, there is commonly a small recurved prickle, 
that peculiarly distinguishes this species, which, in 
addition to the names already given for it — I may 
mention has the Bengalie one of kool; it is in some 
parts of Arabia called zatuzze-wdnib trJ^AJISte ; its 
Hindooie appellation is bir #. It grows on Ceylon, 
and is there called ilanda. See Hort. Mai. iv. t 41. 
for Rheede's account of it 

The root, which is rather insipid to the taste, is 
prescribed in decoction by the Vytians, in conjunc- 
tion with sundry warm seeds, as a drink in certain 
cases of fever ; but I am inclined to think that it has 
little virtue. The timber of the tree is noticed in 
another part of this work. The dose of the decoc- 
tion is about four ounces twice daily. 

Somewhat different descriptions have been given of 
this plant by Loureiro, Gaertner, and others, but per- 
haps the best is by Dr. Roxburgh, in vol. ii. of the 
Flora Indica, p. 357, who tells us, that it has a trunk 


seldom straight, yet not much bent, scabrous bark ; 
branches spreading in every direction ; thorns stipu- 
latory, the under one recurved, the upper sharp; 
leaves short-petioled, alternate, obliquely-oval and 
serrate ; flowers axillary j drupe globular, size of a 
cherry, yellow when ripe, and eaten by all classes. 
The excellent Dr. Wallich informs us that there is a 
variety of this species, which produces fruit of a long 
form, about the size of a ben's egg, and which is ex- 
cellent Its Bengalie is narikelee kool; its Sanscrit 
rqjuvudura. See same vol. and page just quoted. 


Haitian ka gond JJ 3 f IT (jJ^l (Duk.) Shwet~ 

shimool (Beng.) Booragabunka (Tel.) Gum of the 
Cotton Tree. 

Bombax Pentandrum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat Ord. 
Columniferae. Funffudiger Wollbaum (Nom. Triv. 

A solution of this gum is given in conjunction with 
spices in certain stages of bowel-complaints. We are 
told by Rumphius (Amb. i. p. 194. t. 80.), who speaks 
of the tree under the name of eriophoros Javana, that 
the inhabitants of the island of Celebes eat the seeds 
of it It is the capock of the Malays. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaU 
3-fidus; stam. 5 s. multa; caps* lignosa 5-locularis, 
5-valvis ; sem. canata, recept. S^onum.'* Spec. 
Plant vol. iii. p. 731. 


Of the species in question, which is the puluruhnbul 
of the Cingalese, it may be here observed, that it is 
a most singular looking, but beautiful tree; the 
branches growing out nearly horizontally * from the 
stem, three from one point, making amongst them 
three equal angles; the flowers five-stamened ; leaves 
in sets of seven, the two smallest at the bottom. For 
further accounts of this tree and its fruit (containing 
cotton) the reader is referred to other parts of this 
work. In Sanscrit the tree is called mullie : it is the 
pania-paniala of the Hort. Mai. (iii. p. 59. t. 49, 50, 
51.) This species, with three others, are growing in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta, the species hepta- 
phyUum is there called in Bengalese ruckta shimooL 


ELEKULLIE u£M5vz>e>o>rr<xrf> (Tam.) Shi? 
(Beng. and Hind.) Putteoon kd saynd oJ~ ^fcyO 
(Duk.) Susuru (Jav.) VurJd zukkoom (Arab.) 
Akoqjemoodoo (Tel.) Daun sudu-sudu (Mai.) Pa. 
JWfc(Cyng.) Puttakarie, also Seg (Sans.) Okaru 

der-leooed Spurge. 

Euphorbia Nerufolia (Lin.). 

CL and Ord. Dodecandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 
Tricocae. Oltanderblattrige Wotfbmtch (Nom. Triv. 


The somewhat acrid tasted juice of the leaves of 
this plant the native practitioners prescribe internally 
as a purge and deobstruent, in those visceral obstruc 

♦Folii* digitalif, brachiis horisontalitcr porrecti*. Browne, 
Jamaic. p. 277. 



tions and dropsical affections which are consequent of 
long continued intermittent fever: the quantity given 
for a dose is about a quarter of a pagoda weight It 
is also used, mixed with margosa oil, as an external 
application in such cases of contracted limb as are 
induced by ill-treated rheumatic affections.* The 
plant is the eUa caUi of Rheed (Mai. ii. p. 83. t 43.). 
and the Ugularia of Rumphius ( Amb. iv. p. 88. t. 40.), 
who tells us, that the Javanese reckon the young 
leaves as stomachic. On the western coast of India, 
the bark of the root boiled in rice-water and arrack, 
is considered a useful medicine in dropsy ; the leaves, 
no doubt, have a diuretic quality- The milky juice, 
boiled with butter-milk, is often given to loosen the 
bowels. Horsfield, in his " List of Javanese Medical 
Plants," places this article amongst the cathartics. 
Avicenna speaks of it under the name of Ua^ 
(Avicen. 210.), observing " Lactescentem et subve- 
nenosam esse plantam, cujus folia rariora Nerio simile 
sunt." Vide Historia rei Herbariae, vol. i. p. 263. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, "Cor. 4-s. 5-petala, calyci insidens; cal. 1-phyl- 
lus, ventricosus ; caps. 3-cocca." 

The species + in question grows to a greater height 
than most of the others; " sometimes as high as seven 
or eight feet or more ; with a strong upright stem, 
irregular angles, and protuberances oblique to the 
angles ; at every protuberance, and at the top, ' are 
oblong leaves, smooth, entire, and round at the end ; 
the flowers sit close to the branches, and are of a 

* Loureiro, in his Flora Cochin-Chin., observes, in speaking of 
the virtues of this plant, emetica, purgans, acris, nee tuta. See 

vol. i. p. 299. 

f It is growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta with many 
other species. See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 36. - Eight species 
would appear, by Moon's Catalogue, p. 37. to grow on Ceylon. ^ 



greenish- white colour" (Miller's Die). The EUkultie 
would appear to have got this (its Tamool) name from 
the circumstance of its leaves being of considerable 
size.. It is the amongraongrao of the Cochin Chinese. 
Of the species of euphorbia that grow in Jamaica*, 
two appear to be medicinal, the euphorb. tithymaloides 
and euplu hirta; the first, according to Jaquin, is 
supposed by the Americans to possess virtues in ve- 
nereal affections and in cases of obstructed menses, 
given in the form of strong decoction ; the second, if 
we may believe Piso\ and Barham (p. 180.), &c, 
possesses most extraordinary qualities, such as a few 
drops of the juice of it killing serpents j its efficacy 
in venereal complaints and dry belly-ache; and its 
being an antidote to poisons. 


See article Lime (Lemon), in Part I. Chap. L 
Vol. I. 


ELOOPEI PUTTAY ®cm/lj<e>ljljl-G2>l. 
(Tam.) Mohe he chawl Jl^ J ^ (Duk.) Ippa 
puttay (Tel.) TeUmee (Cyng.) Bark qf the long- 
leaved Bassia. 

Bassia Longifolta (Lin.)* 

* See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 198. 
f See his work, De Medicina Brasiliensi. 

H 2 


CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Monogynia. Nat 
Ord. Dumosae. Langblattrige-Bassie (Nom. Triv. 

The juice of the bark of this lofty tree is prescribed 
by Vytians in rheumatic affections, in the quantity of 
a table-spoonful twice daily : for an account of the 
uses of the oil and flowers the reader is referred to 
other divisions of this work. 

Of the essential character of the genus, to which 
Koenig gave the name of Bassia, in honor of Fer- 
nando Bas$i 9 curator of the botanic garden of Bologna, 
Willdenow says, " Col. 4-phyllus ; cor. 8-fida, tubo 
inflato; stamina 16 $ drupa 5-sperma." Spec. Plant. 
Willd. 930. 

Of the species in question, the best description is 
that by Dr. Klein, in the eighth volume of the Asiatic 
Researches, p. 502. : " Folia sparsa, petiolata, lan- 
ceolata, acuta, integerrima glabra venosa ; Jlores 
longe pedunculati, axillares, solitarii et aggregati, 
&c." It has been said to be confounded with the 
Bassia latifolia of Roxburgh*, and is sometimes 
called the Mahwah tree. The Bassia latifolia we 
know is the coat, eloopie of the Coromandel coast, and 
is, I am inclined to think, only a variety of the Bassia 
longifolia. It is well described in the Transactions 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (vol. i. p. 300.). I 
shall merely state further, at this time, that the flow- 
era of our present article (B. longifolia), while they 
are offensive smelling, are sweetish to the taste ; an in- 
toxicating spirit is made from them, and they are eaten 
by the natives; the fruit is olive-shaped and five- 
celled, with a seed in each cell (Gaertner). The 
Sanscrit name of the tree is mddooka ; the Cyngalese 

•Coram.], p. 20. 1. 19. 


call it miele, also teLmee, but we shall say more of it 
in another part of this work. 

Moon, in his Catalogue, takes no notice of Bassia 
latjfolia, but gives a place to the Bassia longifolia. 
Wiildenow, notwithstanding, makes them distinct 
plants, but his distinction is merely a shade. See 
Spec Plant vol. ii. part ii. p. 284. 


EMBOOREL llSIo^j^XKs (Tam.) Tsheri-velloo 
(Tel.) also Saya-wer (Tam.) also Ramiseram vayr 
(Tam.) Chayroot Plant, or Indian Madder. 

Oldenlandia Umbejljlata (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. SteU 
latce. Doldenblutige Oldenlandie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The small, narrow, pale-green leaves of this low- 
growing plant the native doctors consider as expec- 
torant, and prescribe them accordingly : of the virtues 
of the root in poisonous bites, colds, and cutaneous 
disorders, as mentioned by Miller in his Dictionary, 
I know nothing. When dried and pounded the leaves 
are sometimes mixed with flour and made into cakes, 
which are eaten by such as suffer from consumptive 
or asthmatic affections. The dose of the decoction 
of the leaves is about an ounce twice daily. For the 
use of the root in dyeing the reader is referred to 
another part of this work*': suffice it here to say that 
it is employed for giving the best and most durable 
red to cotton cloth. 

* In the upper prorinces of Bengal, the ipeciet bijlora is com- 
mon, and is called Aj in Hindoostanie ; in Sanscrit kshetra-pur^ 

H S 


Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor. 
tetrapetala; caL 4-partitus, super us; caps. 2-locularis, 
infera, polysperma." Spec. Plant, torn. i. p. 674*. 

The species in question is " a small biennial plant, 
having an erect stem, and a long slender root, with a 
few lateral fibres ; the leaves opposed, tern and qua- 
tern, linear and scabrous ; umbels terminal, inside of 
the corol hairy. See Corom. Plants (i. p. 2. t.3.), also 
Flora Indica (vol. i. p. 442.); in which work Dr. 
Roxburgh notices eight species of Oldenlandia, but 
this is the only one used in medicine or the arts. 

Roxburgh has described four species, which he 
calls alata y crystallina, biflora, and herbacea, under 
the names of gundha-bhadalee (Beng.) ; pooriklia 
(Beng.)j khet-papura and verUneUa-vemos (Tel.). See 
Hortus Bengal ensis, p. 11. 


ERUPOVEL LL£Q>L-'L_.cruov> (Tam.) Erima 
pavel (Mai.). 

The root of this plant, which, as it appears in the 
bazars, has but little sensible taste or smell, is rec- 
koned amongst those medicines which possess altera- 
tive qualities, and are prescribed in cases of cachexia, 
scrophula, and syphilis. Rheede says that the plant 
of itself is truly cephalic ; what its place in botany 
may be has not "yet been ascertained. The dose of 
the decoction is about half an ounce twice daily. 

putee; in Bengalie khet-papura; and would appear to be the 
heenkaududala of the CyngaJese, and the antirrhinum humile of 
Burra. Zeyl. xxii. 1. 11. 



ERUMIE PAWL sr^yuFLjn-cro (Tam.) Milk 
of the Buffalo. 

Bos Bubalus (Lin.). 

The milk of the buffalo is of an inferior quality to 
that of the cow, but is extremely abundant, and of 
the greatest use to such of the natives as cannot afford 
cow's milk ; indeed, they in general seem to give it 
a preference ; it has a somewhat peculiar taste and 
smell, and affords a great deal of a coarse kind of 
butter, of which the natives make ghee, noticed in 
another part of this work, also much curd*: this 
curd, when dried and powdered, is called by the 
Tamools kooghaneer, also palaconda, and is prescribed 
as a cooling medicine. 

Dr. Buchanan, in his Journey through Mysore, 
Canara, and Malabar, tells us, that the buffalo of 
Lower India is exactly the same as that of Europe, 
and differs* altogether from the Cape animal of the. 
same name. The buffalo of India is of a dirty, 
blueish-black colour, very ugly, with horns lying 
backwards, and at the tips curving inwards. The. 
Cape buffalo, bos Caffer, has horns very broad at the 
base, then spreading downwards, next upwards, and 
at the tips curving inwards. 

The Sanscrit name for buffalo is mahisha. It is t/er- 
roomie (Tam.) Bhyns u»ku (Hind.) Jamoos o-^L* 
(Arab.) Yermomoo (Tel.) (i>^( p ers.)^r( Malay). 

• Virey, in his Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, says, that it 
is from the milk of the buffalo that Pannasan ckees€ is made, 
p. 112. 

H 4 




This is the name of the fruit of a plant, Forskahl 
found growing in the gardens of Cairo : he says it 
(the plant) somewhat resembles the Mimosa Nilotica, 
and is used for fumigating the sick. It may be found 
worthy of further investigation. See Flor. Egypt. 
Arab. (p. 151.) 


FRAUALOT (Javanese). 

Brucea (Spec. Nov.) 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Tetrandria. 

I give this a place here from authority from Dr. 
Horsfield, who, in his " List of Medicinal Plants of 
Java," notices it, and says that he believes it to be a 
new species* of Brucea which he has discovered; 
now we know that there are but two species of this 
genus hitherto ascertained, the Brucea ferrugtneaf 

* See some account of another species of Brucea, which Dr. 
Horsfield discovered in Java, under the head P5tti4allar 9 in this 

t The Brucea antidysenterica of Bruce (Abyssinia, v. 69.). It 
is in the bark of this plant that Pelletier discovered, in 1819, an 
organic salifiable base, to which is given the name of Brucina 
(Bructne) ; it is intensely bitter, but slightly soluble in water • it 
unites with acids, forming neutral salts ; its action on the animal 
aconomy is similar to strychnine, but weaker; it is narcotic: 
dose from one to six grains ; it is given in pills, tincture, and 
mixture, in paralysis and muscular debility. (Magendie.) 


(L'Herit Stirp. Nov. p. 19. t. 10. Ait Kew, iiL 
p. 397«)> and the Brucea Sumatrana. See article 
Aympadoo in this Chapter. 

Dr. Horsfield informs us that the plant in question 
(Jraualot) is of a bitter nature, and that it possesses 
properties somewhat similar to those of the quassia 
stmaroubcty the bark of which is one of our best tonics, 
and has been employed with great advantage in ob- 
stinate diarrhoeas, dysentery, and dyspeptic affections. 

The essential character of the genus is, 

" Masculi. Col. 4-partit. ; cor. 4-petala j nect. 

" Feminei. CaL cor. and nect. maris ; pericarp. 4 ; 
monospermy" Spec. Plant, torn. iv. p. 7*2. 

The species Jerrugtnea, the only species noticed by 
Willdenow, was imperfectly described by Bruce, but 
well by Mons. L'Heretier, who tells us, that it is a 
middling-sized shrub, with branches, few, alternate, 
patulous, round, and thick j leaves alternate, spread- 
ing, unequally pinnate ; the Jlowers, which are 
crowded together, are of an herbaceous colour, 
tinged with red or russet* 

Bruce says that it is a native of Abyssinia, and 
there called wooginoos ; the root is valuable in dy- 
sentery, and is a plain simple bitter, without any aro- 
matic or resinous taste, leaving in the throat a rough- 
ness resembling that from ipecacuanha. 


GAMBEER (Malay). Gambeer, or Bastard 


Nauclea Gambir (Hunter). 

* See Miller'i Bot. Dictionary. 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

Gambeer is the Malay name of a lightish-brown, 
bitter, and powerfully astringent extract, which is 
occasionally brought to India from Malay countries, 
chiefly from Malacca, the west coast of Borneo, 
Palembang, Rhio, and Bintang, and which is, I am 
much inclined to think, the substance cuttocamboo 
(Tarn.), which I have mentioned under the head of 
Catechu at page 65 of volume first of this work, as 
being obtained from the betel-nut tree ; now, leaving 
the cashcuttie to be got from that tree, let us conclude 
that the cuttacamboo is the same as the gambir. See 
vol. ii. of the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 
The gambeer is employed by the Malays in all cases 
requiring astringent medicines, and is chewed by 
them with the betel-leaves : it is procured from the 
leaves of the tree by boiling. Crawford gives a 
somewhat different account of gambeer in his History 
of the Indian Archipelago (vol. i. p. 405.) ; he says 
it is got from two different plants, but usually from 
the Junis uncatus of Rumphius. Gambeer, he adds, 
is* properly speaking, the Malay name of the tree ; 
the extract, the natives' name gutta gambeer (gutta 
signifying any gum), and hence, by corruption, our 
Indian appellation cutta camboo. 



Andromeda (Spec. Nov.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 


I give this on the authority . of Dr. Horsfield, 
who, in his list of Javanese medicinal plants, simply 
informs us, that the oil obtained from it has a pe- 
culiar odour, is very volatile and heating, and is used 
by the natives (Javanese) in rheumatic affections. 
It may be the andromeda Japonica described by 
Thunberg (Jap. p. 181. t. 22.), as all the other 
species, except the andromeda Jamaicensis, are either 
natives of America, or of some of the most Northern 
countries of Europe. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
5-partitus ; cor. ovata ; ore 5-fido ; caps. 5-locularis, 
valvulis dissepimento, contrariis" (Spec. Plant, torn. ii. 

p. 6070- 

Should it prove to be the Japan plant, it is a tree 

Thunberg found growing near Nagasaki, " with 

branches coming out by threes or more in a sort of 

umbel ; racemes panicled, cylindric, bracted ; leaves 

frequent on the twigs, obovate-lanceolate, serrate at 

the top; capsule ovate-globose, five-flowered, with 

obtuse angles smooth ; seeds minute." It is the 

sis qwas of the Japanese. * 


GANDOO (Jav.). 


CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 

Lomentaceae. Kletternde Acacie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Dr. Horsfield, in his list of Javanese plants, in- 

* Since writing the above, and on more minute inquiry, I find, 
that the gandapooro is a shrub (and not a tree, which the and. 
Japonica is) ; it grows in Java, in elevated situations, and, it would 
appear, that the whole of its parts are penetrated with its peculiar 
flavour ; it may, therefore, be considered as a new species. 


forms us, that this plant is considered amongst the 
emetics of the Javanese ; but he does not mention, 
what part of the plant is used, so that it must be- 
come the object of future research. 
. Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Hermaph. Cal. 5- den tat us ; cor. 5-fida vel 5-pe- 
tala ; stam. 4-100 j pist. 1 ; legumen bivalve. 

Masculi. Cal. 5-dentatus j cor. 5-fida seu 5-petala; 
stam. 4-100 " (Spec. Plant, torn. iv. p. 1049.)- 

The species in question " climbs to the tops of the 
tallest trees, with slender but tough and flexile 
withes. It is unarmed, leaves conjugate, terminated 
by a tendril ; leaflets two-paired, with small subsessile, 
approximating Jlowers, most of which are abortive ; 
what would appear particularly to distinguish this 
acacia, is the great size of its legume ; the seeds are 
orbicular, somewhat compressed, with a hard, brown, 
shining rind, and a black mark (Vide Spec. Plant. 
1501, Swartz Observ. 389.)- It is a native of both 
the Indies and Cochin-China ; and is, by Miller's ac- 
count, called in the West Indies cocoon. It is the maha- 
pus-wcela of the Cyngalese, (Moon's Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 73.). Faba marina of Rumph. 
(Amb. 5. p. 9. t. 4.), and the perim-kaku-valli of 
Rheed. (Mai. viii. p. 59. t. 32, 33, 34.), and puscetha, 
Flor. Zeyl. 644. Burm. Ind. 222. 


. GANJA^<©eF/T(Tam.) GingulachulacU (Mai.) 
Ganjah chettoo (Tel.) Kanub ^u* (Arab.) Gary a 
(Beng.) Gindshe (Jav.) Sjararik (Egypt.) Kanop 
(Armen.) Mafnen, Chutsao (Chinese). Ganjica 
also Bijeeah (Sans.) Hemp. 

Cannabis Sativa (Willd.). 


CI. and Ord. Dioecia Pentandria. Nat Ord. 
Scabricke. Gemeiner Hanf (Nona, Triv. Willd.). 

The leaves of the hemp in India, are frequently 
added to tobacco, and smoked to increase its intoxi- 
cating power ; they are also sometimes prescribed iu 
cases of diarrhoea ; and inc on junction with turmeric, 
onions, and warm gingilie oil, are made into an unc- 
tion for painful, protruded piles. 

Though some people have bestowed on the plant 
now under our notice, the botanical appellation of 
cannabis Indica ; yet, as it does not appear, except 
in size, to differ at all from the cannabis saliva of 
Europe, we have retained the original specific name. 
It would seem, however, to be applied to very dif- 
ferent purposes in Eastern countries from those for 
which it is resorted to in colder territories j being chief- 
ly employed in the former, for its inebriating and nar- 
cotic qualities. Of late years, however, I undersold, 
that in some districts of central India, cordage and 
a coarse kind of cloth are occasionally prepared with 
it ; in Nepaid too, by Kirkpatrick* s account * of that 
country, it would seem, that linens and sackcloth are 
sometimes made with it; the Chinese, from what 
Barrow t says, use it little for such purposes, but are 
acquainted with its intoxicating powers. The Ma- 
lays, Qrmjwrd X informs us, cultivate the plant only 
for smoking. The Turks know well its stupifying 
effects, and call it malach.% Linnaeus speaks of its 
"tw narcoticdj phantastica, dementens, anodyna, et 
repellens" It would appear, that even the Hotten- 
tots use it to get drunk with, and call it dacha. We 

• See his work, p. 143. 

f See his Travels in China, p. 504. 

± See his History of the Indian Archipelago, vol.i. p. 443. 

$ See Virey's Hutoire Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 311. 


are told by Avicenna (131.), that the seeds of the 
«yU5 (cannabis sativaj, are termed by the Arabians 
^Sa^S, and that the inebriating substance, prepared 
from the bruised leaves * they name ji^ie* huskish. 
Some account has been given of a liquid preparation, 
made from the leaves of the plant under the headifan- 
ghie in this chapter. For some particulars respecting 
a sort of electuary into which the leaves enter as an 
ingredient, the reader is referred to the article Ma- 
jum, also in this chapter. See also Subjah U^ 
(Duk.), in another part of this work. 

The cannabis sativa is ah annual plant, which often 
grows in India to the height of nine feet or more ; and 
is much cultivated by the Mahometans in their gar- 
dens ; the leaves, which vary from one and a half to 
four inches in length, are alternate, digitate, slender, 
serrate, and of a pale-green colour. There has been 
considerable difference of opinion with respect to 
the true native country of the Ganjah. Willdenow 
says, habitat in Persia. Gmelin* thinks it is a 
native of Tartary. Thunberg found it in Japan, t 
Miller, with his usual intelligence, remarks, that its 
Greek appellation is evidently taken from its Oriental 
one <-j$. Reichard, by whom Willdenow has no 
doubt- been guided, assigns it to Persia; notwith- 
standing what has been affirmed by Pliny and Dios- 
corides, of its growing wild in Europe. Miller no- 
tices some curious, perhaps absurd circumstances, re- 
specting the seeds $ such as that when eaten by fowls, 
they make them lay many eggs ; and that when bull- 
finches and goldfinches take them in considerable 
quantity as food, they have the effect of changing 

1 See Historia Rei Herbaria, Springe!, vol.i. p. 270. 
T See his Flora Siberica. 
J There called ma, also asa. 


the red and yellow of those birds to total blackness. 
No oil is extracted from them in India. Some of 
the Hakeems of the lower provinces, are in the 
habit of preparing with the seeds a kind of emulsion, 
which they prescribe in gonorrhoea. See articles, 
bangie, mqjnm 9 and subja. The reader will find the 
cannabis sativa noticed by Rumph. (Amb. 5. 1. 180.) 
under the name of c. foliis digitatis) ; the plant ac- 
cording to Moon is the mat-kansha of the Cyngalese j 
it is the ma-fiien of the Cochin-Chinese. 


This is the Javanese name of what Dr. Horsfield 
tells us, in his account of the medicinal plants of 
Java, is considered by the natives of that island, as 
a most valuable diuretic, he believes it to be a species 
of artemisia ; and I think it not at all improbable, 
that it may be the artemisia maderaspatna, already 
described under the head of Wormwood, in Part I. 
of this work. 

GOEULA or GEWLA (Tarn.) */(Duk.) 

This, strictly speaking, is the Dukhanie appella- 
tion of brown coloured seeds, about the size of those 
of the coriandrum sativum, but oval ; they have a 
pleasant, sub-aromatic, and mucilaginous taste ; and 
are considered as cardiac and stomachic. They are 


prescribed in powder, in doses of half a pagoda 
weight, by both the Hindoo and Mahometan prac- 
titioners. From what plant they are obtained I 
have not been able to trace, they are only occasion- 
ally to be found in the medicine bazars of Lower 


This is the Tamool name of a small, knobby, 
somewhat warm and slightly bitterish-tasted root, 
which I found in the Madras custom-house; and 
which, I understand, the natives prescribe in fevers 
and catarrhs. I am inclined to think that it is brought 
from some Eastern country to India; or perhaps 
from Arabia. I mention it here, that it may become 
an object of further research. The word paringhie 
implies that the article is brought from a foreign 


This is the name given amongst the Rajmhal 
mountains to a kind of bread, which is very palat- 
able, and is prepared with three different grains, 
junerah, bootah, and boora ; holcus saccharatus, zea 
mays, and holcus spicatus (Hamilton's MSS.). 



Gtff-pippuli (Beng.) Gtga-pippulee, also Vushir 


Pothos Officinalis (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat Qrd. 

I give this on the authority of Dr. Roxburgh, 
who in his Flora Indica * mentions, that the fruit of 
it, cut into transverse pieces, and dried, is an article 
of some importance in the Hindoo Materia Medica ; 
I wish he had gone further, and said something re- 
specting what its natural and medicinal qualities were. 

The plant is a perennial creeper, mounting up to the 
top of the tallest trees ^ and, like ivy, taking firm hold 
with its innumerable roots. " The leaves are alternate 
sub-bifarous, petioled, oblong-cordate, entire, filiform, 
pointed, and smooth on both sides. Dr. Roxburgh, 
in his long description of the plant, says, that the 
substance of the germs, which are numerous, is re- 
plete with rigid, sharp, vertical bristles, which are 
readily detached, and stick in the skin, causing pain 
and itching ;" the virtue of the drug, he adds, may 
reside in these, as it does in the short stiff hairs of 
the legumes of carpopogan pruriens. The pericarps 
are as numerous as the germs, and of the same form, 
but larger ; a few only are fertile, of a soft fleshy 
texture, one-celled, one-valved ; when the fruit is 
ripe, they detach themselves from the receptacle, and 

* Page 452. Serampore edition. 



drop oflj leaving the seed behind atill attached to it 
Willdenow gives us twelve species of this genus, which 
are all natives of hot climates, and most of them para- 
sitical plants. Of the essential character, he says, 

"Spatka, epadix simplex floribus tectus; caLO. 
petula quatuor ; bacca disperma." Spec Plant tottuu 

p. 684. 

Eight species of pothos grow in the botanical gar- 
den of Calcutta, all oriental plants, except the cor- 
data> which is a native of America, introduced in 



This is a fruit much used in the northern tracts 
of Egypt ; it is brought by ForskahPs account from 
Abyssinia, and is a valuable substitute for pepper. 
It becomes a question from what plant it is obtained. 
Vide ForskahPs Flora Egypt. Arab. p. 151. 


IBHARANKUSHA (Beng. and Hind.> 

Andropogon Iwarancusa (Philosoph. Trans- 
act, vol. 80. 284. 1. 16.). 

CI. and Ord, Triandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 

This plant the reader may find particularly de- 
scribed by Dr. Roxburgh in bis Mora Indica, p. 279- 


It is also noticed in the Asiatic Researches (vol. iv. 
p. 109.); an d theVirtues of its root have been the sub- 
ject of a paper by Dr. Blane, in the second part of the 
80th vol. of the Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society of London. It is an erect perennial, 
with long slender leaves, and is a native of the skirts 
of the northern mountains • of India. It grows in 
large tufts, each tuft composed of a number of plants 
adhering together by their roots, in which roots the 
medicinal virtue would seem to reside; they are 
marked with annular cicatrices, and have an agreeable 
aromatic taste, with a certain degree of bitterness, 
indicative of its stomachic qualities. The species in 
question, by all accounts, comes very near to the an- 
dropogon schcenanthus, which is the camachie pilioo 
of the Tamools, already treated of in this chapter, t 


IDOU MOULLI ©(^GLorrovS (Hort. Mai.) 
Elaticanto (Sans.) 

These are names of a tree growing on the Malabar 
coast, from the bark of the root of which, and also 
from the flowers and fruit, various preparations are 
made, which are prescribed in cases of phrensy and 
madness (See Hort. Mai. part. iv. p. 42.). 

• Dr. Blane found it betwixt the river Haptee and the moun- 
tains, and Dr. Boyd about Hurdwar. 

t Twenty-three species of andropogon are growing in the bo- 
tanical garden at Calcutta, almost all natives of India. See 
Hortus Bengalensis, pp. 6, 7. Eight species, t>y Moon's account, 
grow on Ceylon (Cat. p. 72.). 

l 2 



ISPOGHOL VEREI uS&ri-&& rrovcrLSGStrr 

(Tam.) Ispoghul &u~\ (Pers. and Duk.) Buzray 

kotuna l*y£ %jy* (Arab.) Ipagool (Beng. also 

Hind.) Spogel Seed. 

Plantago Ispaghula (Flem.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Plantagines, Juss. 

These seeds are of a very cooling nature, and, 
like those of another species, the plantago psyllium, 
form a rich mucilage with boiling water, which is 
much used by the native practitioners, and indeed of 
late years by the European medical men of India, 
in cases of catarrh, gonorrhoea, and nephritic affec- 
tions ; a pint of boiling water to about two or three 
drams of the seeds ; the seeds are small, ovate-ellip- 
tic, convex on the outside, and concave within. 

The plant is not cultivated in the lower provinces 
of India ; and, what is singular, I laboured in vain 
to get the seeds to grow near Madras. Dr. Rox- 
burgh, in his flora Indica, edited by the excellent 
Dr. Wallich, tells us, that the native place of thi3 
species of plantago is uncertain, but that it is culti- 
vated in Bengal in the cool season. I perceive 
eight species of plantago grow in the botanical gar- 
den of Calcutta. 

The plantago ispaghula is an annual, caulescent, with 
leaves linear-lanceolar, three-nerved, slightly woolly ; 
peduncles axillary, naked, simple, the length of the 
leaves ; heads cylindric, capsules. The root is ramous 



and annual; stem, if any, very short \flvwers numerous, 
imbricated, small, dull, white, withering. The species 
major (the made-xa-tien of the Cochin-Chinese), we 
are told by Lunan in his Hortus Jamaicensis (vol. ii. 
p. 71.), is considered amongst the medicinal plants of 
Jamaica ; the root and leaves are given in decoction 
in pulmonic complaints ; the first is also supposed to 
have virtues in cases of intermittent fever. The 
same plant, he adds, is amongst those remedies pre- 
scribed in the bites of rattle-snakes j it is a native of 
Japan, there called sin-sin-so. 


INDRABOVUM (Tam.) also Tumbte poochie 
(Tam.) Soorypootum poorugoo (Tel.) also Aroo- 
drapooragoo (Tel.) Beerbotie ^o^ (Duk.) Kir- 
mie Aroose ^^^ ^ (Arab.) Endraboga-crimie 


Mutella Occidentals ? (Shaw.) 

This is a most beautiful scarlet-velvet coloured 
insect, about the size of a large pea, but flattish, 
and commonly found, in rainy weather, on reddish 
sandy soil, near grass ; it is one of those medicines 
which the native doctors consider as efficacious in 
snake bites, and as a tonic when dried and mixed 
with a certain portion of the root of the kolung 
kovay (Tam.), which the Tellingoos call aga- 
sagerooda, bryonia epigcea (Rottler). This in- 
sect would appear to be also a native of North 
America, and is called by Linnaeus mutella Antigu- 
ensis. The dose of the compound powder just men- 
tioned is about twelve or thirteen grains, but not to 

1 3 


be repeated. The powder is made according to 
the following proportions : five of the dried insects 
are well rubbed with half a pollam weight (about the 
weight of five star pagodas) of the finely powdered 
root of the bryonia epigcea (Rottler). See article 
Kolung kovay kalung in this Chapter. MuteUa is 
the name of the species ; the order is hymenoptera ; 
and the variety in question is the occidentals. The 
antennae, eyes, legs, and under part of the body are 
black ; sting long and filiform j its colour a beautiful 
scarlet ; abdomen marked with a black belt ; it has 
no wings. 



(Tarn.) Yermapotoo nalikehjemmodoo (Tel.) Lisan 
id saitrjyiS (^UJ (Arab.) Gowziban (^jl^ (Pers.) 
Hart's Ear, or Oleander-leaved Cacalia. 

Cacalia Kleinia (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia ^Equalis. Nat. Ord. 
Composite Discoideae. Oanarische Pestwurz (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

This plant, which has got its oriental names from 
the leaves resembling in shape the tongue of a cow 
or a buffalo, has sometimes been called in Europe 
the cabbage tree, from a notion that its stalks in ap- 
pearance were somewhat like those of the cabbage } 
it has also another Tamool name, maunsewie ; it rises 
with a thick, fleshy stem ; the leaves are long, Ian- 
ceolate, flat, scars of the petioles obsolete. The 
leaves have a strong, somewhat fetid smell, not un- 
like that of hemlock. The Vytiam suppose them 


to be efficacious in rheumatic complaints, and give 
them in decoction; they also prepare an extract 
from them, which they prescribe in leprous affec- 

For further particulars respecting the cacalia klei- 
nioy the reader is referred to Gartner (De Fructibus 
et Seminibus Plantarum), also to Miller's Botanical 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Recept. nudum j pappus pilosus j col. 
cylindricus, oblongus, basi tantum subcalyculatus." 
Spec. Plant torn. iii. p. 1725. 

See article MueLschevy> in this Chapter. 

Four species of this genus grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, all oriental plants. Our article 
grows on Ceylon, but Mr. Moon gives us no native 
name for it 


JANG-KANG (Jav.) Chim-chim-rung (Cochin- 

Sterculia Fcetida (Lin.). 

Its legume, according to Horsfield, is employed 
in gonorrhoea, in Java. The sterculia foetida is a 
middle-sized tree of the class and order Dodecandria 
Monogynia, and natural order Tricoccse ; the flowers 
have a most offensive smell ; the leaves are con- 
sidered as repellent and aperient Loureiro* informs 
us, that the seeds are oily, and that when swaHowed 
incautiously, they bring on nausea and vertigo. 
Horsfield adds, that the decoction of the legume is 
mucilaginous and astringent 

* See Flora Cochin-Chinens. vol. ii. p. 586. 

I 4 



JUBABA LU*> (Arab.) 

This is the name of a bark occasionally to be met 
with in the medicine bazars of Western India, and 
which, I have been told, is brought from Arabia; 
it is, in general, in pieces about four inches long, of 
unequal thickness, and concave on one side, fur- 
rowed with longitudinal wrinkles, of an iron colour 
outside, but paler within. I perceive it is noticed 
by Virey, in his " Histoire Naturelle des Medico* 
mens" p. 323, who mentions, that it approaches va- 
nille in taste and smell, though more faint, with a 
certain degree of bitterness. It is supposed to be 
antispasmodic, but I cannot speak with confidence 
about it, and have conversed with no one who had 
much experience of its medicinal qualities. 


JUWASA Uiy* (Hind.) Hedysarum alhagL 
See article Manna, in Chapter I. 


KAAT TOOTTIE (Tarn.) Obtuse-leaoed Hibiscus. 

Hibiscus Obtusifolia (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. Ord. 
Columniferae. Stimpfblattriger Hibiscus (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). V 


This plant the Tamools call kS3t toottie, from its 
resemblance to the common toottie (sida Mauritiana\ 
noticed under the head of Mallow, Substitute Jbr, 
and there is certainly a similarity in the leaves, both 
in appearance and virtues. Those of our present 
article are soft, toothed, angular, and emollient ; and 
as such they are prized by the Hindoo practitioners. 

Of the hibisc* obt. Willdenow says, " Foliis 
subtus tomentosis crenatis cordatis, inferioribus sub- 
rotundis, superioribus acuminatis trilobis obtusis, 
floribus cernuis." Of the essential character, " CaL 
duplex, exterior polyphyllus; stigmata S; caps. 
5-locularis, polysperma" (Spec. Plant, torn. iii. 
p. 806.). 


KADEN PULLU e*ajB0WLJL,<To(M/ (Hort. 


CI. and Ord. Monoecia Triandria. Nat Ord. 
Calamariffi. Gfanzenfruchtiges Qeisselgrass. 

The knotty root of this grass Rheede t tells us, 
is supposed on the Malabar coast to have anti- 
nephritic virtues, but I can say nothing of it from 
my own experience. 

Of the genus, Willdenow observes, 

" Masculi. Col. gluma 2. s. 6-valvis multiflora ; 
car, glumae muticae. 

" Feminei. Col. gluma 2. s. 6-valvis uniflora 1-3 ; 
nux colorata subglobosa." 

* It bears a close resemblance to another species, the hibiscus 

f See Hort. Mai. part xii. p. 89. t. 48. 


The species in question is the carex amboinica of 
Rumphius ( Amb. 6. 20.) ; it is a perennial plant, it is 
distinguished by a three-sided somewhat rugged erect 
culm, leaves linear, rugged at the edge, flowers small, 
panicled, rachis rough. It appears by Lunan's 
Hortus Jamaicensis, that there are six species of this 
genus natives of Jamaica. 

But one species of scleria was growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta in 1814, the bjftora 
(Roxb.) ; our article, by Moon's account, grows on 
Ceylon (Catalogue, p. 62.). 


KAKAPU a>n-ej0>/TLjy> (Hort. Mai.) WatL 
kotala (Cyng.) Caela dob (Sans.) Smooth Torenia. 

Torenia A'siatica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat Ord. 
Personate. Asiatische Toreme (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

I give this plant on the authority of Rheede *, 
which is at all times good j he says, that the juice of 
the leaves is considered on the Malabar coast as a 
cure for gonorrhoea. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Miller says, 

"Cal. two-lipped, upper-lip three-cusped ; Jllam. 
the lower with a sterile branchlet j caps, two-celled." 

The species in question is a low-growing peren- 
nial plant, with a creeping stem, and smooth all over, 
by which it is. distinguished from the tor. hirsuta, 
which is hairy ; our article has leaves ovate, emar- 
ginate, on long petioles, with flowers considerably 
larger than those of the hirsuta. Another species of 

* See Hort. Malab. part ix. p. 103. t. S3. 


this genus has been noticed, the cordtfbUa of Rox- 
burgh,* it is hairy, erect, with heart-shaped leaves 
on short petioles. 

Four species of this genus grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta. 

KANARI (Malay). 

This is the name of a large handsome tree, which, 
in the Eastern islands, is highly prized for the de- 
licious edible oil it yields, and which is also used for 
medicinal purposes ; the nut it is expressed from is 
oblong, and nearly the size of a walnut. The ker- 
nels, mixed up with sugar, are made into cakes and 
eaten as bread. See Crawford's History of the 
Eastern Archipelago, vol. i. p. 381* 


KATAPA «l_G^— ujujrr (Tarn.) Kdri (Sans.). 

Rhamnus ? (Spec.) 

Further research must determine what this is ; but 
katapa is the name given on the Malabar coast, ac- 
cording to Rheede, to a small tree, a decoction of 
the root of which, he says, is supposed to have vir- 
tues in maniacal cases (see Hortus Mai. part 5th 
p. 94>.). Whether this is really a rhamnus is very 
doubtful. Of the thirty-one species noticed by 
Willdenow, it does not appear that one is a native of 
India, and but one of China, the rhamnus theezmsA 

* See Coromandel Plants, val.ii. p«32« U161. 
f Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 1094. 



KATOU-KADALI e>rrL_(Fe>i_2/TO(Hort. Mai.) 
Chota phootica (Beng.) Heen-bomtiya (Cyng.) G7- 
naqueri (Sans.) Rough Melastoma. 

Melastoma* Aspera (Willd.). 

. CI. and Ord. Decandria Mpnogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Calycanthemas. Scharf-blattriger Schwarschlund 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Katou-kadaU is the name given on the Malabar 
coast to a little tree, the leaves of which, rubbed 
and reduced to powder, with dry pepper leaves, and 
the whole mixed with sugar, is said to ease coughs 
and relieve the lungs from phlegm. I give the 
article on the authority of Rheede. See also Burm. 
Zeyl. 1 72. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, 

« Cat. 5-fidus, campanulatus ; petctia 5, calyci in- 
serta; bacca 5-locularis, calyce obvulata." Spec. Plant 
vol.ii. p. 581. 

The species in question is distinguished by 
having leaves ovate-lanceolate, three-nerved, and 
rugged; 4t is the jragarius ruber of Rumphius 
(Amb. 4. p. 91. t. 43.). Four species are natives of 
Ceylon, It would appear by Lunan's Hortus Ja^ 
maicensis t, that no less than thirty-two species of 
this genus have been discovered in Jamaica; the 

• Mr. Gray, in his Supplement to the Pharmacopoeias, informs 
us, that the berries of various species of melastoma dye a very 
durable black, p. 104*. 

f See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p,403. 


common English name of the genus, is Indian 
currant-busk.; though I believe that, according to 
Browne, this appellation is with most propriety be- 
stowed on the species laevigata. Of the thirty-two 
kinds above spoken of, the only one that appears to 
be there used in medicine * is the melastoma hirta ; 
the powder of the leaves of which, according to 
Pisot, is a useful application for foul ulcers; he 
also mentions, that soap is extracted from the berries; 
it is a plant about a fathom high, with a shrubby 
stem, and leaves ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, five- 
nerved, wrinkled, soft, and very hirsute. Our article 
is growing in the Honorable Company's botanical 
garden in Calcutta, introduced by the excellent and 
enlightened Dr. W. Carey, in the year 1810; its 
Bengalie name is chota-phootica. 


t_p\x&2/ (Hort Mai.) also Kotsjiletri (Hort. Mai.) 
Dadimari (Sans.) Indian Xyris* 

Xyris Indica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Triandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Personates. Indisches Degenkraut (Norn. Triv. 

This would appear by Rheede's X acccount, to be 

* The species malabathrica is a native of Java; it is there 
called siggane, and is ranked by the natives amongst their Tonics; 
it is also a native of Ceylon, and is there named in Cyngalese 

, See Lunai^* Hortus Jamaicensis, voJ.i. p. 406. 

% See Hort. Mai. ix. 139. t. 71. 


considered as a plant of great virtue on the Malabar 
coast ; his words are " Foliorum succus cum aceto 
mixtus impetigini resistit ; folia cum radice oleo in- 
cocta, contra lepram sumantur ; cum mungo (phaseo- 
lus mungo), decocta et epota somnum conciliant." 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, u Cor. S-petala, squalis, crenata ; glitmce 
bivalvis in capitulum j caps, supera." Spec Plant 

vol. i. p. 254. 

Vahl and Gaertner have both given some account 
of this perennial plant ; we shall merely here notice, 
that it rises about a foot high, its leaves are ensiform, 
sheathing the scape, (the leaves being sometimes 
almost the length of the scape), head globular, scales 
roundish. But four species of this genus have 
hitherto been described, two of which are natives of 


KADDIL TAYNGAI WL_0\3Gff n&wnruu (Tam.) 

DirycL kd naril ^U lfi> L/& (Duk.) Samatrapoo 

tainkdya (Tel.) Cocotier de Maldives (Fr.) Sea 


Cocos t Maldivica (Willi). 
Lodoicea Sechellarum (LabilL). 

* The xyris Americana of Willdenow, is the plant noticed by 
Ruiz and ravon, under the name of xyris subutata. See Flora 
Peruviana, torn. i. p. 46. 

f Since writing this article, I have had, fortunately, put into 
my hands by that distinguished botanist, Mr. R. Brown, the 
ninth vol. of the " Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle;" in 
it there is a paper (p. 140.) by Labillardiere, by which it appears, 
that this palm nas got the new scientific appellation of lodoicea 
sechellarum. The kernel, he says, is but indifferent food; the 
trunk of the tree resembles that of the common cocoa-nut tree. 


CL and OrcL Monoecia Hexandria. Nat. Ord. 
Palms* Maldivische Kokospalme ( Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This species of cocoa-nut, is generally brought to 
India from the Maldives and Sechelles islands; is 
convex on one side, and almost flat on the other, 
oblong, and somewhat pointed at both ends. The 
shell is dark-coloured, and contains a kernel, not 
unlike that of the ordinary cocoa-nut, but drier and 
more itisipid. The nuts are often seen floating in 
the sea, off the coasts of Africa and Arabia, and 
are in India called in Sanscrit ubdie narikayhan. 
The Vyttans occasionally prescribe the kernel given 
in woman's milk, in cases of typhus fever, the dose a 
quarter of a pagoda weight, twice daily ; it is also 
reputed antiscorbutic, and antivenereal. On Ceylon 
these nuts are termed zee calappers, at the Maldives 
tavarcare. Elmore, in his " Guide to the Trade qf 
India," says, that this species of cocoa-nut is es- 
pecially the produce of the island of ParsHn, which 
makes a part of the Archipelago now called See- 
cJielle. The shells are made into drinking-cups by 
the Indian devotees j others suppose them to have 
the power of counteracting poison ! 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Spatha universalis univalvis ; spadix ramosus. 

Mascull Cat. triphyllus ; cor. tripetala. 

Peminei. Cal 2-phyllus ; cor. 6-petala, styl. ; 
stigma fovea ; drupa fibrosa" (Spec. Plant, torn. iv. 

p. 400.)* 

The species in question would appear to differ 

The palm is noticed by Rumphius, Herb. Amb. lib- xii. chap. viii., 
and by Sonnerat, in his Voyage to New Guinea, pLiii.; the leaves 
are used for covering houses, are of a consistence more durable 
-than those of the corypha umbraculifera. 


from all the others, in the two particulai^pf its 
hzvingfronds which are bipinnated, and folioks bifid. 
For further information respecting the cocosMaldivka, 
the reader may consult Sonnerat's 4 ^pyage to New 
Guinea, and Gmelin Syst Natur. ii. p. 569. I shall 
merely now add, that the inhabitants of the Mal- 
dives find the wood very valuable- for ship building. 
The species aculeata is the macaw tree of Jamaica. 
Sloane (vol. ii. p. 121.), says, that the husks of the 
fruit (which is a small, black, round nut) are full of 
oil, which some consider as the real palm oil.* 


KADUKAI G>&&&>rrLLj (Tarn.) Haritakee 
(Sans.) Chebulic Myrobolan, or Ink nut. 

Terminalia Chebula (Retz.). 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 
Elaeagni (Juss.). 

The flower of this plant in powder, is prescribed 
by the Vytians as a slight astringent t in diarrhoea. 

The tree has been already noticed under the head 
of myrobolan chebulic, in the first chapter. It is the 
araloo of the Cyngalese, and is common in the 
woods of Malabar ; it rises generally to the height 
of twenty feet, with rather scattered branches, having 

* See Lunan's Hortus Jaraaicensis, vol.i. p. 468. 
\ f Roxburgh, in vol. ii. p. 52. of the Flora Indica, gives an ac- 
count of the galls which are found on the leaves of this terminalia; 
they are called aldecay by the Hindoos of the Circars ; are of an 
irregular shape, and are sold in every bazar, highly valued by the 
dyers ; with alum, they give a durable yellow ; and, with a ferru- 
ginous mud, an excellent black ; they are considered as even more 
astringent than the fruit, and are much sought after by the chintz 




an asfr-coloured bark. The leaves are mostly (Oppo- 
site, obovate-oblong, naked; petioles biglandular, 
racemes simple. Thejlower-stalks are racemed, with 
the Jlowers sessile in whorls at the end of the branch- 
lets* Like the rest of the species of this genus the 
calyx is five-parted, there is no corolla, and the sta* 
mina are ten in number. The calyx of the species 
in question is bell-shaped and short The flowers 
are all hermaphrodite,* The species latifbUa, is a 
native of the inland woods of Jamaica ; it is a large 
tree. Lunan, in his Hortus Jamaicensia (vol. i. 
p. 116.), informs us, that the kernel of the fruit is 
as good as an almond, and that the root in decoction 
is a useful medicine in diarrhoea. 


KAIANTAGARIE (Tam.) also Kursalankurmie 
(Tain.) Goontagelinjeroo (Tel.) Keshooriya (Beng, 
and Hind.) Bungrah 1>&^ (Duk.) Brmrqj £>£>& 
(Hind.) Sudu-kirindi (Cyng.) Cqynu ao ttong 
(Coch. Chin.) Brinrqja (Sans.) Trailing Eclipta. 

Eclipta Phostbata (Lin.)* 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat Ord« 
Corymbiferae. Liegende Mehlbume (Norn. Triv. 


The whole of this plant, in its green state, and 
ground small, with the addition of a little of the oil 

• See Miller's Botanical Dictionary, also Spec. Plant. Willden. 
torn. iv. p. 969 ; a somewhat different description is given in the 
Flora Ladica, voLii. p»5& 



of the sesamum orientale, is considered, by the 
native practitioners, as a useful external application 
in the disease, or morbid enlargement of the leg, 
called by the Tamools anaykaal, or elephant leg 
(Barbadoes leg); the dailjil* of the modern Arabs. 
It has a peculiar somewhat bitterish taste, and strong 


Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Re- 
cept. paleaceum ; pappus nullus ; coroUute disci 
4-fidae" (Spec Plant, tom.iii. p. 22170- 

The species in question, which is an annual plant, 
and a native of Ceylon, Japan, and Cochin-China, as 
well as of India, has a prostrate stalk, though it is 
also often erect, with leaves lanceolate, serrated, 
somewhat waved, and subpetioled; the Jlowers, which 
are subsessile, come out alternately in pairs, corolla 
white, anthers brownish grey ; calyx simple. It is 
the micrelium tolak of Forskahl ; see his " Descrip- 
tions Plantarum," &c, \5% 153. The plant has 
also been called verbisina prostrata ; and, by Phike- 
nette, in the " Leonard. Amaltheum Botanicum," 
chrysanthemum Maderaspatanum. 

It is indigenous in India, and is growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. The species eclipta 
erecta is a native of Cochin-China, where the natives 
use the juice of the leaves to dye the hair black 
(Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 505.), and call the 
plant itself co-muc. 


cnSG^rr (Tam.) Kakichempoo vtttiloo (Tel.) Ka* 

* It' is the elephas of Haly-Abbas. 


Jcamari (Sans.) Kakmari he beenge ^ < & \^SM 
(Duk.) Cocculus Indicus.* 

Menispermum Cocculus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Dodecandria. Nat Ord. 
Sarmentaceae. Fischetodtender Mondsame (Nona. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The name cocculus Indicus is, in all probability, 
taken from the Tamool appellation of the article, 
which signifies the " crow-killing seed." The plant 
is the tuba\ Udji of the Malays, and the natsjatam 
of the Hort. Malab. 

This narcotic berry, which grows in abundance in 
the woods of the Southern provinces, in the Travan- 
core country, and in Ceylon, is employed by the 
Vytians as a useful external application in cases of 
inveterate itch and herpes ; on such occasions, it is 
beat into a fine powder, and mixed with a little warm 
castor-oil. It is also formed into a sort of paste, 
with moistened rice, for intoxicating birds and fish, 
in order to catch them. 

Of the essential character, Willderiow says, 

" Masculi. Cal. 2-phyllus ; petala 4 j s. 6 ex- 
teriora, 8 interiora ; stam. 16. 

" Feminei. Cor. maris; stam. 8-sterilia; ger- 
minal ; s.S; baccce binae, monospermy" (Spec. Plant. 

torn. iv. p.829.)- 

The species in question is a tree with twisting 
stems, which are usually about the thickness of the 
human arm, and covered with a scabrous wrinkled 
bark; the leaves are cordate, retuse, mucronate, 
stem jagged; the jUmers> which are in bunches^ a 

• It has also got the English name of jagged moonseed. 
f See Marsden's Sumatra, p. 186. 

K 2 


foot and a half long, dividing into sereral lateral 
ones, have an unpleasant smell ; the jruit in bunches, 
like grapes, but smaller* first red, then white, and 
finally blackish purple ; pulp soft ; stone round, like 
that of a cherry. The tree, according to Avicenna 
(21 \.\ was the S/ ^L« mahurge of the Arabians of 
his day, who were then acquainted with the effect of 
the berries in intoxicating fish : " Seminibus pieces 
inebriari." * It is the coque de Levant of the 
French > and may be, perhaps, the same plant 
which, Niebhurt says, the natives of some of the 
provinces of Arabia call symel horat % and which they 
use for intoxicating fish. It would appear, that in 
Java, and also in Ternate, the fruit of the Barring- 
tonia speciosat is used for similar purposes. The 
Bar. spec, is a large and most beautiful tree, of the 
class and order Monadelphia Polyandria, and natural 
order Hesperida? ; it is the butonica of Rumpfu 
( Amb. iiL 179* t 114i.) ; and is a native of many 
places within the tropics, such as the Southern coasts 
of China, Molucca Islands, Otaheite, &c» In Ja- 
maica the galega toxicaria is employed for intoxicat- 
ing fish. In the South Sea Islands the lepidium 
piscidium is used for the same purpose. 

Our present article is the tuba baecifera of Rum- 
phius. Orphila places the fruit of it amongst his 
Poisons ; and, in his work§, tells us, that Monsieur 
Goupil has given to the Society of Medicine of 
Paris some interesting facts, proving that it is not 

* See Hfstoria Rei Herbaria* Sprengd, torn. i. p. 271. 

f See hk Travels, vol. ii. p. 361. 

% The Barringtonia speciosa, I have been told, but from some- 
what doubtful authority, grows on Ceylon, and is there called 
Jcadol. I do not see that it is mentioned in Mr. Moon's Catalogue 
of Ceyloa Phurts, 

$ See Traite* des Poisons, vol. ii. part ii. p. 2& 


only a poison for fish, bat for other animals; he sup- 
poses it to act like camphor. Nay, Maroet # informs 
as, that it is a poison for even vegetable substances 

Fourteen species of menisperamm are growing ia 
the Honourable Company's garden at Calcutta, eight 
of which are natives of India. The species twrsco- 
*mm (Roxb.), a native of Sumatra, was introduced 
by Captain Wright, and is the putra-waJti «f the 
Malays. The men. triandrum, a native of the 
Malay Islands, was introduced by Mr. C. Smith, in 
1797- See Hortus Bengalensis (p. 72.)* The tewes 
of the species hirsutum (Roxb.), when agitated in 
water, render it mucilaginous. 


KALLI BjOVtovT (Tam.) Lvnkas/uj (Seng.) 
Kayoo-oorb (Jav.) Gas-now a-kandi (Cyng.) Coy- 
*cm~ho~xanh (Cock Chin.) Milk Hedge, or Indian 

Euphorbia Tirucalli (Lin.). 

CL and Ord. Dodecandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Malabarische Woybmlch (Nora. Triv. 


The Hindoo practitioners use the fresh acrid juice 
of this plant as a vesicatory. By Rheede's Horttss 
Malabarictist it appears, that a decoction of the 

* It appears, by Marcet's excellent Memoir on the Action of 
Poisons oe Vegetable Substances, that a solution P^* "!* 
«n ^rtfract made with the seeds of the wsvnf^ 
^eTabel^Sat in twenty- four hours. See Journal of Science 

Literature, and the Arts, No. xxxix. p. 194. 
+ See Hort. Mai. part ii. p. 86. 
T x 8 


tender branches is given in certain cases of colic, 
and that the milky juice of them mixed with a little 
butter*, is prescribed as a purge on the Malabar coast, 
where the plant is called thru calli. It is the osstfraga 
lactea of Rumphius, Amb. vii. p. 62. t. 29. Rheede 
supposes the virtues of this species of euphorbia to 
resemble those of the shadraycully (euphorbia anti- 
quorum). I see, by Dr. Horsfield's Account of the 
Medicinal Plants of Java, that the Javanese also use 
the kalli, which they call kayoo-oorb, as a vesica- 
tory. The French term the plant euphorbe antive- 
nerien. Vireyt, in speaking of it, says, " Guerit 
tres bien PaSection venerienne; il est aussi purgative 
et vomative." Loureiro notices the caustic nature 
of our article : " Oculos si tangat excaecat." Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 299. 

The essentials of the genus are, " Cor. 4 ; s. 5-pe- 
tala, calyci insidens; cal. 1-phyllus, ventricosus; 
caps. 3-cocca" (Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 881.). 

The species in question rises to the height of 
twelve or fourteen feet, or more, with numerous 
slender branches, smooth, and of a bright green 
colour, having a very few, most minute leaves at the 
extremity, which soon fall off; as the plant grows 
older the stalks become stronger and less succulent, 
especially towards the bottom, where they turn to a 
brown colour, and become a little woody. Forskahl, 
in his Description of Arabian Plants, mentions the 
kalli under the name of ^ . It is employed by the 
Hindoos in the arts, also for making hedges round 
their gardens, and as manure ; it is singular, that, 

* Butter, Hamilton found given with honey, as a remedy for 
coughs in Barar. It is haiyang in Sanscrit, and makkham in Hin- 
doostanee. Ghee is habi in Sanscrit, and ghiy in Hind. MSS. 

+ See his « Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens," p. 299. 


notwithstanding the peculiar acrimony of the juice, 
goats eat the plant with impunity. For further par- 
ticulars respecting the euphor. tiric. see other parts 
of this work. 

No less than twenty-one species of euphorbia are 
growing in the Honourable Company's botanical 
garden of Calcutta. The sessiflora (Roxb.) was in- 
troduced from Pegu by Mr. F. Carey, in 1808 ; 
the hyberna and maculata, by W. Hamilton, Esq* 
See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 35. See article ElekuUi, 
in this Chapter. 


KALICHIKAI e>ovnrg^e5^/TLU (Tam.) Gud- 
giga lC*£ (Duk.) Getsakaia (Tel.) Qtt-caleji 
(Hind.) also Natacaranja (Hind.) Klichi (Javan.) 
Wcel-kumbvru (Cyng.) KoobayratchU also Pro* 
kirya (Sans.) also CaUmaraca (Sans.) Grey Bonduc 


CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Loraentaceae. ZweystachUcke Gtdlandine (Nom.Triv. 


The kernels of the ash-coloured nuts of this 
species of gvilandma are very bitter, but not un- 
pleasant to the taste; they are supposed, by the 
native practitioners, to possess powerful tonic virtues, 
and are prescribed in cases of intermittent fever, 
in conjunction with some powdered spice, with the 
happiest effects. When pounded small, and mixed 
with castor-oil, they form a valuable external appli- 

k 4 

186 M AT&Hl A liSVlC A. PART IU 

cation in incipient hydrocele. The dose of the ker- 
nels is commonly half of a kernel in the course of 
twenty-four hours in divided doses, but the medicine 
may be given in greater quantities. At Amboyna 
the seeds are considered as anthelmintic, and the 
root is a good tonic in dyspeptic complaints.* 

The following is the essential character of the 
genus : " Cal. one-leaved, salver-shaped ; petals in- 
serted into the neck of the calyx, nearly equal; 
seed vessel a legume/ 9 

Our present article is a weakly plant, which fre- 
quently rises amongst neighbouring bushes, if it finds 
due support. The stalk and branches are full of 
thorns that arch backwards > the pinnas are oblong- 
ovate, with double prickles at the leaflets j and in 
these two last particulars it seems chiefly to differ 
from the guilandina bonduc\, which has (according 
to Lamarck) pinnas simply ovate, and only solitary 
prickles at the leaflets j but there is also this differ- 
ence in the plants, the colour of the nut of our 
article is grey> whilst that of the other is yellow, 
finely variegated with annular saffron-coloured zones. 
In India the nuts are worn as beads, and the boys 
use them as marbles. The tree is the caretti of 
Rheede, Mai. ii, p. 35. t, 22. j and the catti colli of 
the Malays, Rumphius says, that at Amboyna the 
seeds are considered as of a binding quality, and 
that the inhabitants are in the habit of eating them, 
from a notion that they will make them hardy f 

* Since writing the above, an able medical practitioner, 
Dr. bherwood, informs me, that he found the leaves a valuable 
discutient m cases of hernia humoralis, fried with a little castor- 

t. Called inCyngalese kalu-wawul jbtiya, and in Hindoo- 
ttanie lotah. 

t See Rumph. Amb. torn. v. p. 90* 


and inyulnerahte in war. We shall say more of 
the guilandina bonducelk in another part of this 

The plant is growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta. It is the nam-sie-lac of the Cochin- 
Chinese, by whom the haves are considered as 
deobstruent and emmenagogue; the root astringent; 
nuts emetic ; and the oil obtained from them useful, 
externally, in convulsions and palsy. See Flon 
Cochin-Chin. vol. L p. 865. 


KAMADU (Malay). Great Nettle. 

Urtica Urens (Ger.). 

The broad leaf of this plant, Mr. Crawfurd tells 
us, in his History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. i. 
p. 467-> is a powerful stimulant, the least touch of it 
producing great irritation and pain. It is of the Class 
and Order Monoecia Tetrandria, and Nat Ord. Ur- 
ticae (Juss.). 


KAMBODSHA (Javanese). Blunt-leaned Plu- 
meria. Hoa~sutlang (Coch. Chin.). 

Plumeeia Obtusa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Contortce. Stumpfblattrige Plumierie (Nom. Triv. 

This is given on the authority of Dr. Horsfield, 


who tells us, in his Account of the Medicinal Plants 
of Java, that it is used as a cathartic by the inha- 
bitants of that island ; it is the root of the plant 
that is used.* 

The essential character of this genus is, " Con- 
torte, follicuke 2, reflexi ; semina membranae propria 

Our article is described by Loureiro, in his Flora 
CochinensiSy as a large thick tree, with an ash-coloured 
smooth milky bark, and twisting branches ; leaves 
large, quite entire, flat, smooth ; Jlowers, or, more 
properly speaking, the corollas, sweet-smelling, white, 
mixed on the outside with red, and in the inside with 
yellow. Plumier found it in South America, and it 
would seem to be a native also of Amboyna, China, 
and Cochin-China, as well as Java. There would 
appear, from what Miller says, to be some doubt 
whether it is the Jlos convolulus of Rumphius, Amb. 
iv. p. 85. t. 38 ; indeed, Willdenow himself does 
not say it is, with much confidence. All the species 
of this genus are characterized by containing more 
or less of a milky juice. The P. acuminata is a 
native of India ; its Bengalese name gobur champa. 
Our article is distinguished from the others by having 
leaves " lanceolatis peteolatis obtusis." Spec. Plant 
Willd. torn. i. p. 1243. 

* Moon, in his Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, notices but one 
species of Plumeria as growing in that island, the P. acuminata, 
which has got the Cyngalese names of alariya and kaneru. See 
Cat. p. 20., also Rumph. (Amb* iv. t.38.) 



KARAWAY PILLAY (Tam.) Karay paak 
tTUjjT (Duk.) Karrivaympakoo (Tel.) Kristna 
nimbao (Sans.) Leaf of the Bergera of Kcenig. 

Bergera Kcenigii (Roxb.). 

This is the leaf * of a veiy lofty and leafy tree, of 
the class and order Decandria Pentagynia. The Hin- 
doos consider the leaves as stomachic j and tonic an 
infusion of them toasted, stops vomiting j the bark t 
and root are used internally as stimuli. 


KARKAKARTAN VAYR e>rre>mri-^_rr&x 

Qy^j& (Tam.) Ntdla-ghentuna vayroo (Tel.) Ka- 

Uzer M IcSjurr j*.^ <-T j\J& (Duk.) Katarodu 

(Cyng.) Neela-gherie kumee (Sans.) Winged-leaved 

CUtoria Root. 

Clitoria Ternatea (Lin.) 

CJ. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionacese. Molukfcische Clitorisblume (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The sweetish tasted, yet somewhat warm, white, 

* The green leaves fire used raw in dysentery ; they are also 
much employed by the Hindoos to season their food with. Morfe 
will be said of this most useful tree in another part of this work, 
though I may here add, that the leaves are alternate, petioled, un- 
equally pinnated, about two inches long and half as broad, and, 
when rubbed, have a singular, as it were 1 , burnt smell and warmish 

f See Roxburgh's Cor. Plants, vol. ii. p. 7. 


root of the cUtoria ternatea as it appears in the In. 
dian bazars, is about the thickness of two quills, and 
is given in substance ground into powder in croup 
cases ; it sickens and sometimes vomits ; the dose is 
about half a pagoda weight for a child of two or 
three years old. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor. 
fiuptnata ; vexillo maximo patente alas obumbrante." 
Spec. Plant torn. iii. p. 1068* 

The species in question is noticed by Rumph. 
(Amb.v. 31.), and is a shrub which commonly rises 
to the height of five or six feet, with twining branches; 
leaves quinato-pinnate, and peduncles axillary and 
uniflorous. There are two varieties of this species, 
the one with white, the other blue flowers; the 
latter is the article now under consideration, and is 
the niUkatarodu of the Cyngalese. The corolla is 
a blue dye, but not permanent. The legume is 
narrow, and about the length of the finger, the seeds 
solitary, from seven to eight in number, and of an 
ovate kidney form. The plant is common in Cochin- 
China # , there termed cay-dau-biec y also in the woods 
of Malabar, and there called shlonga-kuspi ; it is 
too a native of Cochin-China and the Molucca Islands, 
especially Ternate, hence the specific name was 
given to it by Tournefort. 

Lunan, in his Hortus Jamaicensis, informs us (vol. 
L p. 102.), that this species of clitoria is indigenous 
in Jamaica. Five species of clitoria grow in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta ; our article which is 
indigenous in India, is called in Bengalese upurqjita. 

* t 7*\ e Cochin-Chinese use the flowers as a blue dye, but do not 
find it lasting. Flor, Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 454. 



K ARPOOGA AHISEE (Tam.) Bapungie (Tel.) 
Bawchan (^>L^L (Duk.) Vakoochie (Sans.) Hazel- 
nut-leaved Psoralea, Seed of. 


CL and Ord. DiadeJphia Decandria. Nat Ord. 

This is- a dark brown coloured seed, about the size 
of a large pin's head, and somewhat oval.shaped ; it 
has an aromatic yet unctuous taste, and a certain 
degree of bitterness. The native practitioners con- 
sider it as stomachic and deobstruent, and prescribe 
it in cases of lepra, and other inveterate cutaneous 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
longitudine leguminis ; stamina diadelphia ; legumen 
monospermum, subrostratum evalve." Spec. Plant, 
torn. iii. p. 1342. 

The species in question is an annual plant, seldom 
rising higher than three feet ; and common in South- 
ern India. It has at each joint one leaf about two 
inches long, and one and a half broad, the flowers are 
of a pale flesh colour, and are produced on long, slen- 
der, axillary peduncles.* It may be distinguished from 
all the other species ; " fbliis simplicibus ovatis, sub* 
dentatis: spicis ovatis." t See Burm. Ind. t. 40. f. 2. 

There are three species of psoralea growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta : our article is called in 

• See Miller. 

f Spec. Plant, Willd. torn. Hi* p. 1351. 


Bengalese and Hindoostanie hakooch. See Hortus 
Bengalensis, p. 58. Our article, by Moon's account, 
(Cat p. 55.), grows on Ceylon, and is noticed by 
Burman, Ind. t. 49* f. 2. 




02)L_ (Tam.) Nullatooma puttay (Tel.) KaUke- 

ktrkichawl ##% J SjS JIT (Duk.) Cushercum- 

— • •• 

ghylan assced (Arab.) Bark of the Acacia Arabica. 

Acacia Arabica (Willd.). 

Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. Lomentaceae. 
Arabische Acacie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This bark is considered by the native doctors as a 
powerful tonic, and an infusion of it prescribed in 
cases requiring medicines of this description, in the 
quantity of about three or four ounces twice daily j 
it is supposed to be particularly indicated in the ex- 
treme languor and sinking consequent of the bites 
of certain snakes, which are sometimes accompanied 
with spitting of blood and voiding it by urine. A 
strong decoction of it, the Vytians order as a wash for 
foul ulcers ; and the fine powder of it mixed with gin- 
gilie oil, they recommend as a valuable external ap- 
plication in cancerous affections. The gum * karoo- 
velum pisin (Tam.), is substituted occasionally for the 

* We are told by Roxburgh, in his Corom. Plants, vol. ii. p. 26., 
that the natives mix this gum with the seeds of the sesamum ori- 
entate, left after the oil is expressed, and use it as food ; and also, 
that a decoction of the pods are used as a substitute for that of 
the seeds of the mimosa saponaria for washing. 


real gum Arabic, all over India, particularly in Ben- 
gal (See article gum Arab, in vol. i. p. 160.). 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, 

Hermaph. CaL 5-dentatus; cor. 5-fida, vel 5- 
petala; stam. 4-100; pist. 1 ; legumen bivalve. 

" Masculi. Cat. 5-dentatus ; cor. 5-fida, seu 5- 
petala ; stam. 4-100. Spec. Plant, torn. iv. p. 1049. 

The species in question is a large and most useful 
tree, common in the woods on the Coromandel coast, 
and well described by Roxburgh, in his Corom. 
Plants (vol. ii. p. 26.) ; it is the mimosa Arabica of 
Lamarck, (Encycl. i. p.19.) ; of the cl. and ord. 
Polj/gamia Monoecia, and nat. ord. Lomentacece ; 
the trivial name given to it by Willdenow is Ara- 
bische A cade. It has several names in Sanscrit; 
the three most common are Jcristnah cadira, babura 
and arimada; in Bengal the tree is called babul 
(Hind.) For the uses of the wood, flowers, and 
bark in the arts, the reader is referred to other parts 
of this work. 

The following distinguishing character of the 
species differs from Willdenow's in some particulars; 
"Spines in pairs; leaves trijugate and quadrijugate ; t /S- 
liations multijugate \folioles linear, acute, contiguous; 
petioles pubescent, with a gland below the foliations ; 
legumina moniliform, compressed, tomentose." * 

It would appear, by Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon 
Plants, that the acacia, vera or Egyptian thorn, was 
growing on Ceylon, and there called in Cyngalese 
katuandaru ; so we must conclude, that the real gum 
Arabic may there be procured (See Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 73.). 

• See Stokes's Botanical Materia Medica, vol.iii. pp. 170, 171- 



KARPOORAWULLIE w/v?U)Crc5\jOvrrc3\rr 
(Tam.) Kuruwehloo, or Karpoortcwullie (Tel.) 
Sitaki pungerie <syc&* v^**" (Duk.) Vurdefra- 
tfioow (Arab.) Waluka (Sans.) Thick-leaved La- 

Lavendula Carnosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillate. Dick-lattriger Lavendel (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The fresh juice squeezed from the leaves of this 
biennial plant, mixed with pounded sugarcandy, 
the native practitioners prescribe in cases of cy- 
nanche ; they also prepare with it, in conjunction 
with the juices of other herbs and gingilie oil, a cool- 
ing liniment for the head. The plant has nearly the 
same character in taste and smell with others of the 
genus ; the essentials of which genus are, according 
to Willdenow, "CaL ovatus, subdentatus, bractea 
suflultus; cor. resupinata; stamina intra tubum." 
Spec. Plant, torn. iii. p. 60. 

Koenig found the plant in question growing in 
rocky places near Sadras ; and Rheede # in sandy 
situations in Malabar ; where it is called katu-kurka ; 
the stems are quadrangular, with the angles rounded, 
scarcely pubescent ; leaves veined, very finely pub- 
escent, deciduous in the time of flowering, on pe- 
tioles, the length of the leaves j they are ovate, cor- 
date, serrate, fleshy ; spikes four cornered ; calyxes 

* See Rheede, Mai. x. p. 179. t, 90. 


recurved. Dr. Heyne, in his « Tracts Historical 
and Statistical on India •," informs us, that the San- 
scrit name of this plant is Waluka, and that the 
Telingoos of Mysore call it kurteooehlu, but he says, 
that he had not well examined it It is the gaUJcap- 
pra-walU of the Cyngalese. 

The Tamool name karpoorawullie is also bestowed 
on the common borage (borago officinalis), which is 
cultivated by Europeans in their gardens, chiefly for 
throwing into country beer, to give it a pleasant 

Our article and the species spica grow in Ceylon ; 
see Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 44. 


KARRUWA PUTTAY e> /v^/oun- i_ii_jt_c2)i_ 
(Tarn.) Cinnamon. 

Laueus Cinnamomum (Lin.). 

This is much used in medicine by the Hindoos, as 
noticed already, in the first volume, under the article 
Cinnamon. The Arabians of Egypt hold it almost in 
veneration, and call it **JiU» *y, distinguishing it 
from the cassia lignea, which they term AsyJU. 


moola (Beng.) Humtitil (Beng.) also Chundra- 

• See the work, p. ISO. 


moola (Beng.) Thien-lien (Cochin-China). Chundra 
moolika (Sans.)- ^ , T . x 


CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Scitamineae. Sitzende Kampferie (Nom. Triv. 


The species * in question is a native of the Ma- 
labar coast, and also of the mountains near Chitta- 
gong. It has leaves sessile, round, ovate, cordate ; 
the root is biennial, tuberous, with fleshy fibres ; no 
stem. The roots have a pleasant fragrant smell, and 
warm, bitterish, aromatic taste ; and are used me*, 
dicinally, and as a perfume, by the Hindoos. 


KAUNDUM er/rrs^LO (Tarn.) Chtmuk pvitbr 
jZqj JL*2»t (Hind, and Duk.) Magnet, or Magnetic 
Iron Stone (Kirwin). Huzere meknates kauntum 
(TeL also Sans.). 

The Vytians suppose this stone to possess tonic and 
deobstruent qualities ; and prescribe the powder of 
it, in conjunction with aromatics and sulphur, in 
cases of consumption and dropsy. The dose a gold 
fanam weight of the powder twice daily, that is, 
about five grains. 

• See Flora Indica, vol.i. pp. 14, 15. Besides our article, four 
other species of this genus grow in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta. The species in question is cultivated in Ceylon, and is 
there called in Cingalese hinguru-piyali. (Moon, p. 2.) ; see also 
Rheede, Mai. (ii. t. 41.) The species rotunda, the Cyngalese call 
sau-kenda. Moon, (p. 2.) ; see also Rheede, Mai. (ii. t. 9.) 

f Also called in Tamool oosie kaundum. 


I have already noticed, under the head of iron, 
that the magnetic iroiustone was discovered in My- 
sore by Captain Arthur. I believe in general he 
found it of an iron black colour, inclining to 
grey. I am not aware, that any of it has as yet 
been analysed. Dr. Jameson * informs us, that Dr. 
Thompson analysed a specimen of this ore, which 
was brought from Greenland, and which was found 
to contain besides the iron, a small portion of tita- 
nium. The author just quoted observes, that when 
pure, magnetic iron-stone ore affords excellent bar- 
iron, but indifferent cast-iron; and as it is easily 
fusible, requires but little flux. It is some- 
times intermixed with copper or iron pyrites ; such 
affords a red-shot iron, sulphur never failing to 
deteriorate iron; but careful roasting diminishes 
the bad effects of the sulphur. In addition to 
the different places in which the magnetic iron- 
stone occurs, it may be added, that it is found in 
Ava, and in Armenia, t 



This is a root which Dr. Finlayson found in Siam, 
and which, he was informed, possessed aperient, ex- 
pectorant, and resolvent qualities. 

* See Jameson's Mineralogy, vol. Hi. p. 227. m 

f See Macdonald Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of Persia, 

p. 319. 

L 2 



KHA-PHAIM (Siam.). 

Name of a root which Dr. Finlayson found in 
Siam, and which he was informed was administered 
in decoction in lumbago, in conjunction with car- 

KHUZ N1B1L ALFIE J&\ & -^ (Arab.). 

Khuz nihil alfie, is the name of a root common 
in several parts of Arabia, and which the natives of 
that country are in the habit of taking in cases of 
colic (see ForskahPs Materia Med. Kahirina). What 
it is, may be desirable to know. 


KHURISH CHURIN ilAf ^ & (Hind.) Bar- 
badoes Flower fence. 


This is the Hindoostanie name of a medicinal 
plant, in great repute, I understand, in the upper 
provinces of Hindoostan, and which is known to be 
the poinciana pukherrima (Lin.), a genus now re- 
moved to the genus ccesalpinia by Swartz j what are 
its particular properties, I know not j I merely give 


it a place here, that it may become subject to future 
inquiry. Browne, in his Natural History of Jamaica, 
says, that all parts of the plant are powerfully emme- 
nagogue (Hort. Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 51-52.). 

The essential character of the genus, is " Col. five- 
parted, the lowest segment longer, and slightly arch- 
ed j stam. woolly at the base j petals 5 ; legume 
compressed." The class and order are, Decandria 
Monogynia, and Nat. Ord. Lomentaceae. 

The species in question is a most beautiful tree, 
which commonly rises to about twelve or fourteen feet 
high, with leaves doubly pinnate, and leaflets oblong- 
oval, emarginate ; they and the calyxes smooth ; corymbs 
simple ; petals fringed j stamens very long. It would 
appear to be a native of both the Indies j it is the 
hoa-phung of the Cochin-Chinese : on the Malabar 
coast it is called tsietti mandaru ; in Ceylon, its com- . 
mon name is monara-mal ; and from its extreme # 
beauty, Burmann t gave it the appellation of " crista 
pavonisjlore elegantissimo variegato" The French in 
the West Indies call it Jleur de paradis. The flowers 
come out in loose spikes at the extremity of the 
branches ; the petals, which have an agreeable odour, 
are beautifully variegated with a deep red or orange- 
colour, yellow, and some spots of green. Our article 
with another species, the poinciana elata, grows in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta, introduced in 1 792 
and 1799; the last time by Dr. Berry. Moon 
has two distinct varieties, the ratu and kaha, or 
red and yellow (Cat. p. 34.). 

* Rheede, Mai. v., vi., p. 1. 1. 1. 
f See his Thesaurus Zeylonicus, 79. 

L 3 



KEBIR jj£ (Pers.) Capers. 

Capparis Spinosa (Lin.)* 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Nat Ord- 
Capparides, Juss. 

Capers do not grow in India : they are well known 
to be the flower-buds of the bush, and make an ex- 
cellent pickle. The root of the plant is a medicine 
amongst the Arabs, who get it from the Levant : the 
Persians call it j*& £u> , the Arabians sJ**$\ y*>\ . They 
consider it as having virtues* applied externally to 
malignant ulcers. Of the same root, I perceive 
Avicenna says, " attenuat, purgat aperit," See 
Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract, ii. p. 169. 


KILANELLY erL^rrQr&ov&S (Tam.) Sada- 
hazar-muni (Beng.) Nela ooshirikeh (Tel.) Booien 
aoonlah *tij ^ (Duk.) Pita-*wakka (Cyng.) 
Boovishirum (Sans.) also Arjata (Sans.) Annual 
Indian Phyllanthus. 

Phylanthus Niruri (Lin*). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Weisser Phyllanthus (Norn. Triv. WilfcL). 

The white root, small bitter leaves, and tender 
shoots, of this low growing plant, are all used in 
medicine by the Indian practitioners, who consider 


them as deobstruent, diuretic, and healing ; the two 
first are commonly prescribed in powder or decoc- 
tion, in cases of an over-secreted acrid bile, and in 
jaundice j an infusion of the latter, together with 
vendeum* seed, is supposed to be a valuable me- 
dicine in chronic dysentery ; the leaves, from their 
bitterness, are a good stomachic ; the dose of the 
powder is about a tea-spoonful in any simple vehicle. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

Masculi. Col. 6-partitusj cor.O; filament co- 
lumnare ; antk. 8. 

Feminei. Cal. 6-partitus; cor.O; nect. margo 
12-angulatus; styli 3; caps, tricocca {Spec. Plant. 
voL iv. p. 573.). 

The species under consideration is indigenous 
in India, and is an erect annual plant j it has a stalk 
not more than a foot and a half high, with small 
alternate elliptic-obtuse leaves ; the fiawers, which 
are on very short peduncles, are produced on the 
under side of the leaves, along the midrib ; and the 
seeds, when perfectly ripe, are thrown from the cap- 
sule with considerable force. The plant is a native 
of the West Indies and Japan, as well as India. 
On the Malabar coast it is called kirganeli f ; it 
is the herba mceroris alba of Rumph, Amb. 6. 
p. 41. 1. 17* f 1«> and the nemuri of the Japanese. 
Dr. Horsfield, in his account of Javanese Me- 
dicinal Plants, informs us, that the natives of 
Java consider it as diuretic, as well as its congener, 
phyllantkus urinaria, a plant which is also common 
on the Malabar coast, where it is called tsieru-kirga- 
neli; it is the herba mceroris rubra of Rumphius* 

* Seed of the trigonella foenura grsecura, 
f Rheed. Mai. x. p. 29. 1. 15. 

L 4 


and may be found described by Willdenow, in vol- iv. 
p. 584, of his Spec. Plant, with even more than his 
usual care* 

Our article with many others of its genus, is grow- 
ing in the botanical garden at Calcutta ; ten species, 
according to Moon, grow in Ceylon (Cat. p. 65.). 
Effectual and useful diuretics are rare in all parts of 
the world. I perceive, by the " Vegetable Materia 
Medica of the United States," by Dr. Barton, that 
in America a strong infusion of the whole plant 
chimaphilia umbellate, to the extent of a pint in 
the twenty-four hours, is a valuable diuretic ; 
though, by the experience that my excellent friend 
Dr. Somerville * had of it in the case of Sir James 
Craig, its good effects were not very lasting. Dr. 
Marcet found, it would seem, striking effects from 
the use of the extract in dropsical cases, in doses 
of fifteen grains. 


GS>i— (Tarn.) Patanie lode *£ ^JUo Kaiyphul (Hind.) 
Darshishan (Arab.) Soogundie (Sans.) Kilioorum 

This is a white, slightly aromatic, pleasant-tasted 
bark, found in many Indian bazars. It is held in 
high estimation by the native doctors, for its virtues 
rfs a stomachic, and bears a strong resemblance, in its 

* See Dr. W. Somerville's account of the chimaphilia wnbel- 
lata, in the Medico-Chirurgical Transactions of London, vol. v. 

P# ^ **„ also Dr ' Barton ' 8 work, above mentioned, vol. i. 
pp. 24, 25, 26. ' 


external appearance, to our canella alba ; but is not 
nearly so warm or pungent The botanical name 
of the tree from which it is obtained has not, I be- 
lieve, been as yet ascertained. General Hardwick # 
saw the kaiyphul growing amongst the mountains, 
betwixt Shinagur and Hurdwar, and places it in the 
class cryptogamia, and order Alices; the red fruit 
of it, he adds, is much esteemed by the natives. 
The milky juice of the plant is escharotic, and is 
reckoned as a powerful application for removing 
warts, and other excrescences. 


KIRENDINYAGUM ePoni ^29Luesu> (Tam.) 
Grendie tagarum (Sans.) WhorUfhywered Buellia. 

Ruellia Strepens (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Personate. Rauschendie Ruejlie (Nom. Triv. 


The small, purple-coloured leaves of this low-grow- 
ing plant are sub-acrid, and bitterish to the taste ; 
when bruised and mixed with castor oil, they form a 
valuable application in cases of children's eruptions 
consequent of teething. 

Of the essential character of the genus we are 
told, " Cal. 5-parted ; cor. subcampanulate j stam. 
approximating by pairs ; caps, opening by elastic 

The plant in question seldom rises more than a 
foot high j the stem is four-cornered, with two longi- 

* See Asiatic. Researches, p. 380. 


tudinal furrows, one on each side ; the joints are 
three or four inches asunder, and, at each there are 
two oval leaves upon very short footstalks. Flowers 
axillary, two or three from the same point, sitting 
close to the stalk, very small, and, as already men- 
tioned, of a purple colour ; very fugacious, opening 
early, and gone by ten or eleven of the forenoon. 
Its specific name was given, from the crashing noise 
which the leaves make when handled. Willdenow 
tells us, that this species is also a native of Virginia 
and Carolina. It appears byForskahl to have two 
Arabic names, kossif UuaoS and ghobar^Ui. 

There is another species * of this genus, common 
at Java, and there called kroknangsi ; the natives of 
that island reckon it amongst their diuretics. It is 
the rueUia antipoda of Lin. ; Rumphius bestowed on 
it the name of crusta ollce, and it may be found in 
Rheed. MaL> under the name of pectianga pulpanie 
(9. 115. t.59.). The species tuberosaf is a native 
of Jamaica ; it is an herbaceous plant, sometimes 
made into an ointment by being boiled with suet. 

KODIE PALAY (Tam.) Nukchikne 

mm v 

(Duk.) Teet-conga (Hind.) Palay (Tel.) Madhu- 
malati (Sans.) Twining Swallow-wort. 

Asclepias Volubilis (Lin.). 

* It appears, by the Hort. Beng., that fifteen species of ruellia 
are growing in the Company's botanical garden at Calcutta, almost 
all of which are natives of India. Our article, with five other 
species, grow in Ceylon (Moon's Catalogue, p. 46.). 

f See Lunan's Hort. Jamafcensis, vol. ii. p. 192. 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat Ord. 
Contort®. Rankende Schwalbenwurz (Nom. Triv. 

Of the" essential character, Willdenow says, "con- 
torta j nect. 5. ovata concava, corniculum, exseren- 
tia." Spec. Plant, torn. i. p. 1262. 

The plant in question, which is common in the 
woods of Malabar, rises with a tall, twining, arboreous 
stem, and smooth-shining branches; the leaves are 
petioled, sub-cordate, veined; umbels quite simple 
on peduncles, the length of the petiole ; JUmers 
greenish. The root and tender stalks are supposed 
by the Vytians to possess virtues in dropsical cases ; 
they sicken, and excite expectoration ; though I 
could not obtain much information of a certain 
nature respecting them ; it is to be presumed, that 
they operate in a manner somewhat similar to the 
root of the asclepias curassceoica ; which, according 
to Browne, in his Natural History of Jamaica, the 
negroes use as a vomit. I have been informed, that 
the leaves of the asclepias volubilis are amongst those 
which are occasionally eaten as greens by the na- 
tives of Lower India ; but I am doubtful of this, 
considering the general character of the genus. The 
plant is a native of Malabar and also of Ceylon. 

Thirteen species of asclepias grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta. The Tellingoo name there given 
to our article is doodi-palla (see Hortus Bengalensis, 
p. 20. 



KODAGA SALEH (Tam.) Sulunayi (Cyng.) 
Burm. Zeyl. t. 3. f. 2. Creeping Justicia. 

Justicia Repens (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Personate. Gestreckte Justice (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Of the essentials of the genus, Miller says, " Cor. 
ringent; caps, two-celled, opening with an elastic 
claw ; stam. with a single anther ;" from which, how- 
ever, Willdenow's description differs somewhat. 

The plant under consideration is an herbaceous, 
diffuse, procumbent shrub ; leaves subsessile, lanceo- 
late ; spikes axillary^ terminating, comprised, and 
bractes ovate, white ; lower anthers crescent-shaped. 

Botanists, such as Herman, Burman, and Vahl, 
have given differing descriptions of the justicia re- 
pens ; which may be seen, on referring to Willdenow, 
Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 96, and Roxburgh's excellent 
Flora Indica, vol. i. p. 133. Miller compares its 
general appearance to that of the basil thyme, thymus 
acinos, and there is certainly also a degree of re- 
semblance in the taste of the leaves ; though most 
people compare the taste of those of our article to 
that of mustard-seed. 

The native doctors bruise the leaves fresh, and 
mix them with dastor oil ; thereby preparing an ap. 
plication for tinea capitis. The pJant is growing 
with many other species in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta. It is the sulunayi of the Cyngalese. See 
Burm. Zeyl. 7. t. 3. f. 2., where it is noticed under 
the name of adhatoda, spicata flosculos ex foliolis 
membranaceis producens. 



KOOLINGIE Ge>rr&S*&&> (Tam.) Surpunkha 
(Beng.) also Koolloo kcwaylie (Tam.) VaympaUe 
(Tel.) Gam-pila (Cyng.) Poonkhie (Sans.) Pur- 
pie Galega. 

Galega Purpurea (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Rothe Geisraute (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Col. 
dentibus subulatis, subaequalibus ; Legumen striis ob- 
liquis, seminibus interjectis." Spec. Plant, iii. p. 1239. 

The root of the galega purpurea the native practi- 
tioners prescribe in decoction in cases of dyspepsia 
and tympanites. It is a perennial plant, which seldom 
rises more than two feet high, with small pinnated 
leaves, and flowers narrower than the leaves, and of 
a purple colour, succeeded by slender, erect, stiff 
pods or legumes, of an inch and a half or two inches 
long. This plant has got the trivial name of wild 
indigo, from Europeans in India j it is also a native 
of Ceylon, and is called by Burman • coromlla ze- 
lanica herbacea, Jlore purpurascente. The plant is 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, in- 
troduced, it would appear, from the Hort. Bengalen- 
sis, in 1799. (See p. 57.) 

• Burm. Zeyl. 17. t. S3. 




■ wn-22)<yuffi'05 r> yy-K/<@j (Tana.) Akasagherooda gudda 

(TeL) Rawkus gudda *~>S ir S\ f (Duk.) Air-living 

Bryonia Epioea (Rottler) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 
Cucurbitacese Saftige. Zaunrube (Nom.Triv.Willd.). 

This root, as it appears in the bazars, is of varying 
thickness and length} in shape somewhat like an 
English garden turnip, but more pointed at top ; it 
has a bitterish, mucilaginous, subacid taste, and is 
partially marked on the outside with whitish raised 
circular rings } it is chiefly used as an external ap- 
plication, in conjunction with siragum seeds (cummin 
seed), onions, and castor-oil, thereby forming a kind 
of liniment, for chronic rheumatism and contracted 
joints ; it is also considered as anthelmintic and de- 
obstruent, alterative and gently aperient, when given 
internally. The Vytians hold it in great estimation,* 
and also prescribe it in the latter stages of dysentery 
and old venereal complaints. It is usually admi- 
nistered in powder, which is of a very pale colour, 
in doses of a pagoda weight in the twenty-four 
hours, and continued for eight or ten days together • 
this quantity generally produces one or two loose 
motions. The root, when dried, very much re- 
sembles the columbo root, to which it approaches 
also in medicinal qualities. In Persian the plant is 
called IfjJ loofa; in Arabic azanulfeel J-iJJ)l. The 

* It certainly possesses virtues worthy of more definite investig- 
ation; and, as such, I here call the attention of my brethren fa 
India particularly to it. J 


root of it not only lives in the air, without water, but 
actually grows in it, and sends forth shoots, and 
hence its Tellingoo name. 

The essential character of the genus is thus given 
by Willdenow : 

" Masculi. CaL 5-dentatus; cor. 5-partitaj^iwit 3. 

" Feminei. CaL 5-dentatus ; cor. 5-partita ; sty- 
lus 3-fidus ; bacca subglobosa, polysperma." (Spec. 
Plant, torn. iv. p. 6 16.) 

Of the species in question the best account has 
been written by Dr. Rottler, of Madras*, who says,. 
" The leaves are somewhat fleshy, cordate, trilobate, 
dentate, rough ; the lateral lobes sub-bilobate. The 
flowers in a raceme : male flowers five, small -, female 
flower single, pedunculate, proceeding from the same 
axilla as the male flowers." It is a native of the 
Coromandel coast 

Four species of bn/onia are growing in the bota- 
nical garden of Calcutta. The species gabreUa and 
garcini are called in Hindoostanie and Tellingoo 
agumukee and gheedi-morahol Six species of bryonia, 
by Moon's account, are natives of Ceylon (Cata- 
logue, p. 67»)» 


^(joTBje^ujviv© (Tarn.) 

This is a sweet-smelling, yellowish-coloured root, 
with which the natives prepare a fragrant liniment 
for the head. 

I have not been able to ascertain the plant of 
which it is the root. 

• In his Herbarium, MSS. 



KOOLIMITAN (Tam.) Rough or Hairy Basil 

Ocimum Hirsutum (Rottler). 

CL and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat 
Ord. Verticillatae. 

The whole of this low-growing plant, called by 
the Tamools koolimitan, is sweet-smelling, and, to a 
certain degree, aromatic; it is prescribed, by the 
Hindoo practitioners, in the form of decoction, in 
those bowel complaints that children have occasion- 
ally during dentition. 

The essentials of the genus have been mentioned 
in speaking of cunjam koray, in this section. The 
Jlowers of the species in question are small, and in 
whorls, forming a loose spike ; the leaves opposite, 
and, like the other species, it has " corollas resupi- 
natae alterum labium 4-fidum ; alteram indivisum." 
The ocimum hirsutum was first scientifically described 
by Dr. Rottler*, and is a native of the Coromandel 
coast. The species tuberosum is a native of Java, 
and is there called kentang dohawa, and placed 
amongst the tonic medicines. 

Eleven species of ocimum are growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta, mostly all of which are 
natives of different parts of India, and for which the 
almost universal Indian generic name is toolshee % or 
toolasee. See Hort Bengalensis, pp. 44, 45. 

* Of it he says in his Herbarium (MSS.), " Caul suffiruticoe, 
angulat, ramos. hirsutissimo ; fol. breviter, petiolat. ovat. crenat. 
subtuB venos. hirsut. ; subviscidis florib. raceme*, terminatib. ver- 
ticill. sexnoris, corollarum labio superiore emarginato inferiore 



KOOPAMAYNIE ©i_J23)L-iGLosTjn (Tam.) 
Kooppie ke jurr j* J ^ (Duk.) Skwet-busunta 
(Beng.) Koopamenya (Cyng.) WceUkupameniya 
(Cyng.) ArUtamunjayrie (Sans.) Indian Aca- 

Acalypha Indica (Lin.;. 

CI. and Ord. M onoecia Monadelphia (Lin.). Nat. 
Ord. Tricoccae. Indisches Brenkraut (Nom. Triv. 

The root, leaves, and tender shoots of this plant; 
are all used in medicine by the Hindoos. The 
powder of the dry leaves is given to children in 
worm cases, as also a decoction of them with the 
addition of a little garlic. The juice of the same 
part of the plant, together with that of the tender 
shoots, is occasionally mixed with a small portion of 
margosa oil, and rubbed on the tongues of infants 
for the purpose of sickening them and clearing their 
stomachs of viscid phlegm. The Hakeems prescribe 
the koopamaynie in consumption. It would appear 
from Rheede's account of this plant, that, on the 
Malabar coast, the root is supposed to have a purga- 
tive quality ; his words are, " Radix trita, et cum 
aqua calida assumpta, cathartica est folia trita et cum 
aqua epota ventrem laxant ; illorum decoctum auri- 
bus immissum mitigat dolorem # ;" he calls it cupa- 


* Hon. Mai. x. p, 161, t.81 
VOL. 11. M 


Of the essential character, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Col. 3 ; s. 4-phillus ; cor. ; stam. 


« Feminei. Cal. S-phillus ; cor. ; styliS ; caps. 

3-cocca, 3-locularis ; sent. 1." 

The plant in question is an annual, seldom rising 
higher than a foot and a half, with an herbaceous 
stem. The best description of it appears to be 
Willdenow's : " Spicis axillaribus superne masculis 
inferne feminis, involucris glabriusculis serratis, foliis 
ovatis acuminatis serratis basi cuneatis."* Herman t, 
in his Flora Zeylonica, says, " That the female invo- 
lucres are heart-shaped and slightly notched j leaves 
ovate, shorter than the petiole." .The plant is a 
native, by Dr. Houstoun's account, of La Vera Cruz. 
On the Coromandel coast the Tellingoos call it 
kuppy ; another Sanscrit name, in addition to that 
already given, is manshinka, according to Dr. Heyne 
(Tracts on India, p. 132.). The dose of the powder 
of the dry leaves is about a scruple and a half, or two 
scruples, to be taken in a little syrup and water. 

Seven species of acalypha are growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta, two of which are natives 
of India. 


KORAY KALUNG G^^<2/re>eryY-K/& 
(Tam.) Nagur mot ha *3^ j£±>\j (Duk.) Toonga 
gudda (Tel.) Sadcoqfie (Arab.) Musta *pFrTT 
(Sans.) Root of the Rush-leaved Cyperus. 

Cyperus Juncifolius (Rottler.). 

* Spec. Plant, torn. iv. p. 523. 
t See Flora Zeyl. 341. 


Triandria Monogynia. Nat Of A Calamarue. 

This fibrous root, with its small sweet-smelling bulb- 
ous extremities, is supposed by the Hindoo prac- 
titioners to have diaphoretic virtues ; and also to act 
as a diuretic ; they recommend them in decoction in 
fevers, and where ,there is a tendency to dropsy ; in 
the quantity of half a tea-cupful twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, it has 
been said, " Glumes chaffy, imbricate in two rows j 
coroL none j seed one, naked/' 

With regard to the species under consideration, 
I must here state, that I never saw the plant, but 
have given its scientific name, on the authority of 
my much respected friend Dr. Rottler ; I do not see 
it, however, mentioned by Willdenow. It becomes 
a question, whether it may not be the same species 
to which Roxburgh has given the specific name of 
pertenuis # , the Bengalese name of which is the same 
as our Dukhanie one, viz, nagur mootha, or motha. 

It has like it a tuberous root, with many dark 
villous fibres. The root of the cyp. junc., is some- 
times confounded with that of the cyperus rotundus 
(Lin.), and the same Sanscrit name is given to both ; 
though from the shape of the leaves of the first- 
mentioned species, it would rather appear to ap- 
proach to the cyperus spathaceus, a native of Vir- 
ginia, and which Plukenett describes, "Gramen 
junceum, elatius, &c. (Aim. Bot 179* t.301. f. i.).t 
The species articulatus is a native of Jamaica, the 

* See Flora Indica, Roxb. vol. i. p. 202. 

f Twenty-five species of cyperus are growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta ; and, it would appear, by the Flora Indica, 
that Dr. Roxburgh notices many others that had not been 
brought into the garden in 1814. See Flor. Indica. Twelve 
species are noticed by Moon as growing in Ceylon (Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 6.). 

M 2 


roots have a very pleasant odour, and are considered 
as cordial and cephalic ; Dancer* says, that they may 
be used as a substitute for the Virginian snake-root 
See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis (vol.i. p.8.).t 


Gkyroon c^^lTCDuk.) Goroshanum (Tel.) Hgr- 
ulbuckir yulljo^ (Arab.) Gawzereh *j*jJS (Pers.) 
GGrdchana iftO^^I ( Sans Biliary Calculus qf a 

Cow or Ox. 

Calculus Cysticus (Bovis). 

Korosfumum, is the Tamool name given to those 
biliary concretions, occasionally found in the gall- 
bladder of cows or oxen in India ; they are gener- 
ally contained in a little bag, which holds two or 
three small ones, each about the size of a tamarind 
stone, or one large one, as big as a large marble. 
They are of a bright-yellow colour, and are con- 
sidered by the native practitioners as highly valuable 
in. certain indispositions of young children, accom- 
panied with acidity and a deficiency of bile ; they are 
besides reckoned cordial and alexipharrnic. A piece 
about the size of a mustard seed, is commonly given 
for a dose to a babe of two months old, in conjunction 
with an infusion of cumin seed. This substance is 
also employed in conjunction with the chebulic my- 

* See his Medical Assistant, p. 387. 

f I understand from General Hardwicke, that the cypenu ro~ 
fundus is considered, in Bengal, as febrifuge and stomachic ; and 
that the tuberous roots, bruised and mixed with water, are giveit 
in cholera morbus. The species pertenuis, he tells me, the Indian 
ladies use as a cosmetic, and for scouring their hair. 


robolan (kadukai, Tarn.), and galls (machakai) ; in 
preparing a mixture for cleansing the inside of the 
mouths of new-born infants. The Vytiam prescribe 
a solution of it in warm ghee, to be poured up the 
nose in cases of head-ache ; and administer it some- 
times in doskum (typhus fever), made into a draught 
with woman's milk. 

This substance is also prepared from the urine of 
a cow, and is much used in India as a pigment. 


KORAS or KRASTULUNG (Javanese). 

Chloranthus Spicatus (Horsfield). 

Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. Aggregate. 

The leaves of this plant have an odour, resembling 
that of snake-root, and an infusion of them, Dr. 
Horsfield tells us, in his Account of Java Medicinal 
Plants, is considered as corroborant. I believe it to 
be the plant mentioned by Loureiro, under the name 
of creodus odoriferus, and the hoasoi of the Cochin- 
Chinese. See Flor. Coch. Chin. (vol. i. p. 89.) 


KOSTUM Ga>rr2_aL_L-L£> (Tam.) Changala 
hbstam (Tel.) Kust L~5 (Arab.) Goda mahanel 
(Cyng.) Sepuddy (Malay), also Putchuk (Tam.) 

Kushtam cg% (Sans.) Arabian Costus. 

Costus Arabicus (Lin.). 

CL and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat Ord# 
Scitamine®. Glatte Costzvurz (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

m 3 


Ari it^mon of the pleasant smelling, and dome, 
what warm, but singular tasted, and knotty root of 
this plant, is prescribed by the native practitioners, 
as * stomachic and tonic j and is given in the ad- 
voiced stages of typhus fever, to the quantity of 
three or four ounces or more twice daily. Judging 
from the root, the plant would appear to differ from 
that described in the 11th volume of the Asiatic 
Researches, p. S4£. What of it • is found in the 
Indian bazars, I am inclined to think is brought 
from Persia and Sumatra. See Marsden's Sumatra, 

p. 75. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Cal. 3-fidus gibbus ; cor. 3-partita, rin- 
gens ; nectar. 2-labiatum : labio inferiore maximo 3- 
lobo." Spec. Plant. i. p. 10. The species in ques- 
tion, he tells us, is a native of South America, and 
distinguishes it from the costus spicatus, by the latter 
h&ving spica multiftora subovata, the other spica 
pauciflora. The only species of this genus growing 
in India, as far as I know, is the costus speciosus ; 
and which would appear, by what Willdenow says, to 
be the plant described so circumstantially by Jacqidn, 
in his Collectanea ad Botanicam, under the name of 
costus Arabicus ; a particular account of it may be 
seen in the Flora Indica of Roxburgh (vol. i. p. 57.). 
It is the {jana-kua of Rheede, and the herba spiralis 
hirsuta of Rumphius (Amb. vi. p. 143. U 64. f. i.) ; 
its Sanscrit name is kemooka ; the Hindoos of Upper 

* The costus Arabicus is now but little employed in medicine, 
in Europe ; formerly, there were two sorts prescribed, the bitter 
and the sweet ; the first is common in the higher provinces of 

India, called in Arabic cfJjLA W?» and in Persian L*\5 Lu*S, 

though Mr. Gray, in his Supplement to the Pharmacopoeias, 
'-says, the bitter is merely the plant becoming bitter and strong by 



India call it keoo. It is one of the most beautiful 
plants of the natural order to which it belongs, with 
subsessile leaves spirally arranged, oblong, cuspidate, 
villous underneath ; its root, however, is insipid, so 
far not resembling our article ; the natives prepare 
a kind of preserve with it, which Roxburgh says, 
they deem very wholesome ; he adds, that the dry 
root has not at all the appearance of the coitus Arabi* 
cus of the shops, which, by the way, is no longer ad- 
mitted into the London Dispensatory. The Arab- 
ians place kust * k*J amongst their Mobheiat ui^ 

The costus speciosus (Lin.) is growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta ; and is, by Moon's ac- 
count, a native of Ceylon, and there called tebu-gas. 
Brown, in his History of Jamaica, terms our article 
the lesser amomum with a foliated stalk : he says, it 
is found every where in the woods of Jamaica, and 
that the root is a substitute for ginger, but very in- 
ferior to it. (See Hortus Jamaic. vol. ii. p. 281.) 


KOTTANG KARUNDEI Ge*n-L-i_n-n*e>'r/s 
C22>5" (Tam.) Moondie <g JJU (Duk.) Dookkoo >*a 
(Arab.) Chagnl-nadi (Beng.) Bodat arum (Tel.) 
Mt-muda-mahana (Cyng.) Mundi *jPsi (Sans.) 

Indian Spfueranthus. 

SpHiERANTHUS Indicus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Segregata. Nat Ord. 
Composite Capitate. Indische Kugelblume (Nom. 
Triv. WiUd.). 

* See Ulfaz Udwiyeh, Introduction. 

M 4 


The small oblong seeds are of a brown colour, 
with delicate whitish bristles scattered over them ; 
they, as well as the receptacles, are reckoned by the 
Indians amotigst their Anthelmintics, and are pre- 
scribed in powder. Rheede •, who speaks of this 
plant under the name of adaca manier, tells us, that 
the powder of the root is considered as stomachic ; 
and that the bark ground small and mixed with whey, 
is a valuable remedy for the piles. The plant is a 
native of Lower India, on both coasts; also of 
Ceylon, of the islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
and of Egypt. Burman t, calls it sphceranthus pur* 
purea, alata serrata. Forskahl (Egypt p. 154. R.) 
speaks of it under the name of polycephalos, and Dr. 
Horsfield, in his Account of Javanese Medicinal 
Plants, informs us, that the inhabitants of Java con- 
sider it as a useful diuretic. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
8-flori ; cor. tubulosae hermaphrodite et obsolete 
femineae ; recepL squamosum ; pappus nullus." 
Spec. Plant, (torn. iii. p. 2394.) 

The species, in question is a low growing plant, 
not more than a foot and a half high, with an her- 
baceous stem ; leaves decurrent, lanceolate, serrate, 
of a deep green colour, alternate, and about three 
inches long; peduncles curled; flowers a purplish 
red, solitary, terminating and sub-globular (Miller ). 
The dose of the powder in India, as an anthelmin- 
tic is about a scruple and a half or a scruple twice 
daily; though more, I understand, is sometimes given t, 

• Hort. Mai. x. p. 85. t. 43. 

f Burm. Zeyl. t. 94. f. S. 

% The sphceranthus Indicus is growing in the botanical garden 
at Calcutta, introduced, it would appear, by Dr. W. Carey. See 
Hort. Bengalensis, p. 62. The species Cochin-Chinensis is the 
co-bo-xit of Loureiro, who tells us, that the whole herb is used in 
Cochin-China for preparing a cataplasm for resolving tumours in 
the breast. 



. KUTTALAY e^g-B^O^up or Sirrooghoo hutta- 

lay (Tarn.) Chota hunwar ha putta &\S Jyt l%* 

(Duk.) Vurdmbbbr (Arab.) Chini kala bunda 

(Tel.) Kumari gi*llO (Sans.) Seaside, or Small 


Aloe Littoralis (Koenig). 

A. Perfoliata (Var.) ? 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

The pulp of the leaves of this small and very suc- 
culent aloe, when well washed in cold water, is pre- 
scribed as a refregirant medicine, in conjunction with 
a small quantity of sugar candy. The same pulp, 
so purified, and with the addition of a little burnt 
alum, the native practitioners consider as a valuable 
remedy in cases of ophthalmia ; they are put into a 
piece of fine muslin cloth, which is applied frequently 
to the eyes, the pain of which is relieved by their 
coldness and freshness. The second Tamool name 
sirrooghoo kuttalay, is the proper one, the other 
being usually bestowed on the aloe perfoliata. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " Cor. 
erecta, ore patulo, fundo nectarifero ; JUarn. recepta- 
culo inserta." Spec. Plant, (torn. ii. p. 184.) 

The species in question was first particularly 
noticed by Koenig, growing in situations near the 
sea ; but Dr. Rottler believes it to be only a variety 
of the aloe perfoliata, mentioned in the first chapter 
of this work, under the head of Aloe ; it is particu- 


larly to be distinguished by its small or rather narrow 
leaves, which are peculiarly succulent* 


KULL PASHIE e>a\*_|i_jnr£r (Tarn.) Puttir 
ka pool $y&\&j&* (Duk.) Hinnaey koreish (Arab,) 
Ratipanchie (Tel.) Rounded Lichen. 

Lichen Rotund atus (Rottler). 

CL and Ord. Ciyptogamia Lichen. Nat. Ord. 


KulUpashie is the Tamool name given to a dried 
pale-coloured rock moss, which the Vytians suppose 
to possess a peculiar cooling quality, and prepare 
with it a liniment for the head ; it was first scien- 
tifically described by Rottler. t 

The generic character of the lichens is, according 
to Miller male flowers? Vesicles conglomerated, 
extremely small, crowded or scattered on the disk, 
margin, or tips of the fronds. 

"Female flowers? on the same, or on a distinct 
plant ; receptacle roundish, flattish, convex (tubercle)* 
concave (scutelld) ; subrevolute, affixed to the margin 
(pelta) f often differing from the frond in colour, with- 
in containing the seeds disposed in rows." 

Dr. Stokes t of the generic character, says simply j 
" Receptacle orbicular and globose/ 9 

* By Moon's account, two species of aloe grow in Ceylon, the 
vulgaris and picta 9 and two species of agave, the Americana and 
iurtda i the two last are American plants. See his Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 25. 

j Of it Rottler says, in his Herbarium (MSS.), " Imbricatus, 
foliaceus, cinereus foliolis decumbentibus, laciniis." 

\ See his Botanical Materia Medica, vol. iv. p. 618. 


The species of this genus are extremely numer- 
ous; Dr. Withering has enumerated no fewer than two 
hundred and sixteen species besides varieties, many of 
which are of use in dyeing. The only one admitted 
into the London Dispensatory, is the lichen islandicus, 
well described by Mr. Thomson, in his excellent 
third edition of the London Dispensatory, p. 864. 

Of the two hundred and sixteen species above- 
mentioned, twenty are natives of Jamaica ; many 
of the plants of this genus are useful in dyeing. 
With the lichen calcareus, when dried and powdered, 
the Welsh dye scarlet, and the colour is said to be 
very fine, 



Chlobanthus Spicatus, 

Horsfield says, that the root of this plant resembles 
the seneka, and that the leaves are generally em- 
ployed as a corroborant in Java, 

LACK-BEET (Siam.). 

Name of a capsule with its seeds j used by the 
Siamese in decoction, in cases of diarrhoea and weak 




This is the broad leaf of a large and most beauti- 
ful tree, a native of the deep woods on the Coro- 
mandel coast, which, when made warm and moistened 
with a little castor-oil, is reckoned a most efficacious 
application to joints affected with rheumatism ; while 
young, the leaves are also said to be eaten. The 
Portuguese call them folia de bunkood, and prize 
them highly. I have never seen the tree, and under- 
stand from Dr. Rottler, that he had never been able 
to get a sight of the flower, nor does he believe that 
the plant has been hitherto scientifically described. 
Anxious, however, that as much as possible should 
be noticed in this work, which might lead to more 
minute investigation, I have given the article the 
place which it now holds; being convinced that 
it is better that many things be brought forward, 
although some of them may ultimately prove of 
little value, than that one should be omitted 
which might become a valuable acquisition to me- 


LONTAS, also BOLONTAS (Javanese). Indian 
Ploughman's Spikenard. 

Baccharis Indica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. 


Lontas is the Javanese, as well as Malay name of 
a plant held in high estimation, in the islands of the 
Eastern Archipelago, as a safe and gently stimulating 
aromatic. It is, by Dr. Horsfield's # account, ge- 
nerally employed in Java for preparing baths and 
fomentations ; he adds, that it forms an ingredient 
in the mixtures which are employed by the natives in 
various diseases. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Recept. nudum j pappus pilosus ; calyx im- 
bricatus, cylindricus ; Jlosculi feminei hermaphrodi- 
tes immixti" (Spec* Plant, torn. iii. p. 1913.). 

The species under consideration is distinguished 
by having branches with raised streaks; smooth, 
obovate, toothletted, petioled leaves ; a corymb large 
and terminating ; peduncles angular, with some awl- 
shaped bractes ; calyxes cylindrical and smooth j it 
is a native «also of Ceylon t and the Cape of Good 
Hope, and got the German name of ostindische bae- 
charis from Willdenow. Three species grow in 
Cochin-China ; the species salvia, which is there 
called cay-dai-bi> Loureiro says, has stomachic and 
tonic virtues. Vide Flora Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. 
p. 49*. 


LOPEZKA JAAR J^ 1*^1 (Duk.). 

Radix Indica Lopezina. 

Lopez is the Dukhanie name of a root which is, 

• See Dr. Horsfield's account of medicinal plants of Java, in 
the Asiatic Journal for March 1819, p. 262. 

f Moon does not, however, give us its Cyngalese name (Cata- 
logue, p. 58.). 


I understand, sometimes to be met with at Goa and 
other places on the Malabar coast, but whether it is 
an Indian produce or not, I cannot say* I have 
never been able to get a sight of it, but understand, 
that though neither the bark nor wood of the root 
has any sensible smell or taste, it is supposed to have 
virtues in colliquative diarrhoeas, and in the last 
stages of consumptions. Gaubius describes it, and 
compares its action to that of the simarouba. 

LUFFA ABUNAFA £ liU y>\ lil (Arab.). 

This is the Arabic name of an aphrodisiac root, 
mentioned by Forskahl, in his Materia Medica Kahi- 
rina ; it does not appear to have been hitherto ex- 
actly ascertained what it is. 


MADANAKAMEH POO (Tam.) Flowers of 
the Madanakameh. 

This is the Tamool name given to the dried cap- 
sules and flowers obtained from a tree which grows 
in the M ission garden of Tranquebar, and which, in 
its leaves, much resembles the date tree. I never 
saw the mandanakameh, nor heard it described. 
I understand that the flowers are used in medicine 
by the Hindoos. They are merely mentioned here 
that they may lead to further inquiry. 



MAD ALUM VAYR LDrr^asrr\ r DQcru& (Tam.) 
Root qfthe Pomegranate tree. 

Punica Granatum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Pomace®. Gemein Granate (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The efficacy of the bark of the root of the pome- 
granate tree*, as a remedy for the tape-worm, is now 
well established in India. It is given in decoction 
prepared with two ounces of the fresh bark, boiled in 
a pint and a half of water, till but three quarters of a 
pint remain ; of this, when cold, a wine-glassful may 
be drank every half-hour till the whole is taken. 
This quantity occasionally sickens the stomach a 
little, but seldom fails to destroy the worm, which is 
soon after passed. 

Of the essential character of this genus, of which 
there are but two species, Willdenow says, "Cat. 
5- fid us, superus; petala 5; pomum multiculare, poly- 
spermum." Spec. Plant, torn. ii. p. 981. 

The species in question, the Sanscrit name of 
which is dadima-dalim (Beng.), rises to the height of 
from 10 to 18 feet or more, with an arboreous stem ; 
leaves opposite, narrow, lanceolate, about three inches 
long, and half an inch broad at the middle, drawing 
to a point at each end ; Jlowers sessile, coming out at 
the end of the branches ; the fruit is well-known, 
and is noticed in other parts of this work. I shall 

* Is the sakuro of the Japanese, and the cay-thach-luu of the 
Cochin-Chinese. Vide Flor. Japon. p. 199, et Flor. Cochin-Chin, 
▼ol.i. p. 313. 


merely here state, that the rind of the fruit and flow- 
ers, which have been called balaustine flowers, are 
powerful astringents j and have long been used both 
internally and externally in gargles*, diarrhoea, &c ; 
dose in substance from half a drachm to a drachm ; 
infusion or decoction half an ounce. The plant is a 
native of the South of Europe, and of many Eastern 
countries. The other species is pun. nana (Lin.) or 
dwarf pomegranate tree ; it has fruit not longer than 
a nutmeg, and with but little flavour. It is a native 
of the Antilles. Miller, in his Botanical Dictionary, 
mentions four varieties of the punica granatum: 
two varieties have double flowers of a beautiful red, 
for which they are much prized in India, and, 
by way of distinction, have got the Hindoostanie 
name of gool-anar. The pomegranate tree was 
introduced into India from Persia some time before 
1791 : it is called anarjj\ in that country, and (^jU, 
in Arabia. The Cyngalese bestow on the tree the 
name of delun. 


MAJUM LorrahiD (Tam.) Mqjoom +y*Lo 
(Duk.), also Mqjoom (Sans.) Madjoon (Turkish). 

These are names of an electuary which is much 
used by the Mahometans, particularly the more dis- 
solute, who take it to intoxicate and ease pain — the 
chief ingredients employed in making it are, ganjat 
leaves (cannabis saliva), milk, ghee, poppy seeds, 
flowers of the thorn-apple, the powder of the nux 

* See Woodville's Medical Botany, 
f See article Ganja, in this section. 


vomica, and sugar— an overdose of it has been known 
to bring on a total derangement of intellect See 
article Banghie in this Chapter, and Subjah in another 
part of this work. Madjoon* besides being the Turkish 
name for an inebriating preparation made with opium, 
is also often bestowed by the Turks on opium itself, 
which, by the way, is much less indulged in now than 
it was some years ago at Constantinople. See Anas- 
tasius, vol. i. p. 233. 


MADOOCARJE PUTTAY uoB/ffff ^(E^ljlj 
lo31- (Tam.) Maducare Bark. 

Webera Tetrakdra (Van). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. 

The young shoots of this plant, as also the bark, 
the Vy turns prescribe in the latter stages of dysentery. 
See article Caray Cheddie in this Chapter. 


MAGH ALI KALUNG (Tarn.) Mamma (Tel.) 
Purdanika (Sans.) Maghali Root. 

This root, which I have never seen, is said to be 
of a reddish brown colour outside, and white within. 
In its fresh state it is made into pickle. A decoction 
of the dried root is given by the Hindoo doctors in 
certain mlghums, cachexies, to the quantity of half a 
tea-cupful twice daily. I should not have given it a 



place here, but that it is spoken of with much con- 
fidence by some of the most enlightened Vytians, 
with whom I have conversed ; it is very scarce. 


MALLAM TODDALI (Mai.) Gaedumba 
(Cyng.) Je-no~ki (Japan.) Oriental Nettle Tree. 

Celtis Orientalis (Lin.). 

Cl. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 

Mallam toddali* is the name given on the Ma- 
labar coast to this tree, which yields a gum which re- 
sembles much that of the cherry tree ; it rises to 
about twelve or fourteen feet high, dividing into 
many branches, which spread horizontally; the leaves 
are obliquely cordate, serrate, villose underneath ; the 
fruit is oval, and when ripe, yellow. It is a native 
of Japan, Ceylon, and the Society Isles, as well as 
India, and is the papyrus spuria of Ksemph., Amaen. 
(p. 474. t.472.) 


crud*" also Arrooa manoopoondoo (Tam.) Pat a 
(Sans.) Root of the Lance-leaved Sida. 

Sid a Lanceolata (Retzl). 

* See Rheede, Mai. iv. p. 85. 


CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat Ord. 
Colomniferse. Lanzettblattrige Sida (Nom. Triv. 

This root, which is not unlike the common liquorice 
root, in appearance, is intensely bitter ; and is pre- 
scribed in infusion, and in conjunction with ginger, in 
cases of intermittent fever ; it is considered by the 
Hindoo practitioners as a valuable stomachic, and a 
useful remedy in chronic bowel complaints ; the dose 
a small tea-cupful twice daily. The leaves made 
warm, and moistened with a little gingilie oil, are 
employed to hasten suppuration. 

Of the essential character, Willdenow says, " CaL 
simplex, angulatus; stylus multipartita ; caps, plures, 
mono-seu trispermse." Spec. Plant, (torn. iii. p. 734.) 

The species in question is an annual plant, which 
rises with an erect stem ; and is a native of some of the 
louver tracts of India as well as the Mauritius and Cey- 
lon.* Its specific distinctions are, leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, toothed, smoothish; peduncles axillary, 
solitary ; capsules two-beaked ; stipules linear, nerv- 
ed, longer than the peduncle. The Telingas call it 
vis/ui boddee. Five species grow in Cochin-China. t 

Twelve species are natives of Jamaica, of which 
three are medicinal, viz. althcecefolia, rkombifolia> and 
Jamaicemis. The flowers and tender buds of the 
first are used instead of marshmallow; the second 
is considered as diuretic ; and the last is distinguish- 
ed by its leaves and buds containing a kind of mu- 

* Where, I think, it is called hin-anoda, though Moon gives it 
no Cyngalese name. 

f Two of which, Loureiro says, are used medicinally, as emol- 
lients and resolvents ; the sid. alnnifolia (cay-bay-doung'tien) and 
sida scoparia (cay-bay-choi)* Flor. Cochin-tihin. vol. ii. p. 4 IS. 

N 2 


cilage, which lathers like soap, and may be used as 
such. See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, (vol. i. p. 493, 
494, 495.) 


CLXIX. *■• 

MANSIADI (Mai.) Madathya-mara (Cyng.). 

These are names on the Malabar coast and on 
Ceylon •, for the adenanthera pavonina of Linnaeus. 
It is the coralaria parviflora of Rumphius. The 
very large, doubly pinnate leaves are given in de- 
coction for chronic rheumatism. 


MANEERAM (Javanese, also Malay), Eella 
(Cyng.) Woolly Callicarp. 

Callicappa Lanata (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

This very singular tree is a native of Malabar, as 
well as Ceylon and Java ; the Javanese reckon it 
amongst their Emollients, but I am disposed to think 
that it possesses far other virtues ; the bark has a 
peculiar sub-aromatic and slightly bitterish taste, and 
is chewed by the Cyngalese when they cannot ob- 
tain the betel leaves ; the Malays reckon the plant 
amongst their diuretics. 

• See Rheede, Mai. vi. p. 25. t.14., also Eor. Zeyl. 160. We 
are told by Ray, in his Philosophical Letters, that a cement may 
be made with the seeds of the aden* pavon., by beating them with 
borax and water. 


Of the essential character, it has been simply said, 
that the " Calyx is four-cleft; corolla four-cleft; 
berry four-seeded." 

The species in question has been described by 
Gaertner and Burman (Zeyl. 26. ind. 36) ; it was the 
callicarpa tomentosa of Linnaeus (Ed. Murr. p. 153.), 
and the tomex tomentosa of the Flor. Zeyl. 59. 
But Willdenow, and with propriety, gave it the spe- 
cific appellation of lanata, from the circumstance of 
the branches, peduncles, and leaves being covered 
with a kind of woolly nap ; which occasioned also its 
trivial German name, Wootige Schonheere. It is a na- 
tive of Ceylon as well as India ; the leaves are ovate, 
the size of the hand ; the peduncles axillary and soli- 
tary ; the berry the size of a pepper-corn, black, 
one-celled, and contains four bony seeds, which are 
convex on one side, and concave on the other, 
with an obscurely elevated ridge. There are three 
other species of this genus in India, the cal. villosa *, 
caL macrophyUa, and callicarpa Americana ; which 
last is also a native of Cochin-China, and there called 
cay-nang-nang.i The root of it in Upper Hindoos- 
tan, is supposed to have virtues of an alterative na- 
ture in certain cutaneous complaints, there named 
masha ; the plant itself in Sanscrit is masJiandari, in 
Hindoostanie it is bastra, and in Bengalese massan- 
dari. Sir William Jones speaks of it as a most beau- 
tiful shrub, with a corolla monopetalous, funnel- 
formed, and of a fine lilac colour. 

Of this genus there are two species natives of Ja- 
maica, according to Swartz ; viz. the ferruginea, and 
reticulata (See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. 

* Though of this Willdenow appears to entertain some doubt. 
See Spec. Plant, torn. i. p. 621. 
+ Flor. Cochin-Chin, (vol.i. p. 70.) 

N 3 


p. 144.). Eleven species are growing in the botani- 
cal garden of Calcutta, eight of which are natives of 


MANJITTIE VAYR lot^lslCovj't (Tanu) 

Poo-ut vayr (Mai.) Munjistha *tf^H8T (Sans.) 

Bengal Madder Root. 

Rubia Munjista (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandia Monogynia. 

In addition to what is said of this in the first 
volume, it may be observed, that the Hakeems are in 
the habit of prescribing an infusion of it as a grateful 
and deobstruent drink, in cases of scanty lochial 
discharge after lying-in. Another Tamool name for 
this plant is sawil codie. The species in question is 
minutely described by Dr. Roxburgh, in his Flora 
Indica. Of the essential character of the genus, he 
says, " Calyx scarcely any ; cor. one-petalled, from 
four to five-parted ; berries inferior, twin ; seeds so- 
litary ; embryo erect and furnished with a perisperm." 
He has given us not less than twelve Sanscrit names 
for the plant: I shall here be satisfied with two, 
munjistha, and bhundeeree ; in Bengalese it is mun- 
jit 9 and is of the natural order Stellatae. 

It is, properly speaking, a native of Nepaul # , and 
is kept alive, it would appear, with great difficulty in 
the rainy season, at Calcutta. It has a perennial 
root, and rises with a woody stem, climbing over 

• Dr. Clarke tells us, that the Greeks, in the Defile of Tempe, 
use for dyeing wool a kind of madder root "(rubia), found at 
Churdiz and Bachir, in Asia, and which is brought to them from 
Smyrna ; the Ampelakians call it lizar. See Travels. (Vol. vii. 
p. S67.) 


trees and bushes ; leaves four-fold, petioled, one of 
the pairs always much larger than the other, with 
longer petioles ; all are beautifully cordate, entire, 
acute, pointed, generally five or seven-nerved ; jlow- 
ers numerous, minute ; cor. flat, five-parted j berries 
two or none, size of a small grain of pepper ; seed 
single, round, smooth.* By Moon's Catalogue of 
Cyngalese plants, there is but one species of rubia 
a native of Ceylon, the rubia secunda, the manda- 
mandina-xwela of the natives. 


MARA MUNJIL loctlowhto (Tam.) Jar 
he huidie t*xU ^jW (Duk.) Manipussupoo (Tel.) 
Darvee (Sans.) Tree Turmeric. 

Mara munjil is the Tamool name of a round, 
yellow- coloured, bitterish root, commonly met with 
in bazars, about an inch in circumference ; it is em- 
ployed in preparing certain cooling liniments for the 
head, and is also sometimes used as a yellow dye j it 
is brought for sale from the mountains, but I have 
endeavoured in vain to ascertain the plant 


MARA OOPPOO LC77aji_j M (Tarn.). Jar 
ka nernuck S** If J^» (Duk.) Manie Ooppoo (Tel.) 


• See Flora Indica, p. 383. 

N 4 


This a few of the more enlightened VyHans are in 
the habit of preparing, though in a clumsy way,. from 
the ashes of certain vegetables; chiefly from plantain 
and coooa-nut leaves. They make with it a kind of 
traoagvm (strong liquor), in conjunction with dif- 
ferent hot seeds, which they administer as a diuretic. 
The salt made in Travancore from the stalks of the 
cocoa-nut branches is there called termam muttay 

Carbonate of potassa is of great importance in the 
arts and manufactures, especially in dyeing and 
bleaching, and is commonly called pearl, or wood 
ash ; it may be obtained by passing carbonic acid 
into a solution of potassa, evaporating to dryness, 
and exposing the dry mass to a red heat ; it consists, 
according to Brande,* of 

1 Proportional acid - - 20 # 7 
1 potassa - 45 


The pearl-ash of commerce contains a variety of 
impurities, which render it of variable value. Kir- 
wan says, that, in general, weeds yield more. ashes 
than wood ; and that those of America and Trieste 
have no superiority over the Irish. Of all weeds, 
jwmxtory produces most salt ; next to it, wormwood. 
The metal potassium was discovered in 1807, by Sir 
Humphry Davy, by submitting potash to the action 
of voltaic electricity ; it is of great lustre and ductile, 
but instantly tarnishes on being exposed to the air j 
its specific gravity is 0*85. ; if heate'd in air, it burns 
with a brilliant flame, and is an excellent conductor 
of electricity and of heat. 

* See Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. pp. 43, 44. 



MAR ATI A MOOGHOO udth- l_i_oluCld 
n-K(g (Tam.) Junglie loong JU^J J&a> (Duk.) 

Mara/ay moghooloo (Tel.) Madanakamiskard 

Maratia mooghoo is the Tamool name of certain 
broken down, dried capsules and small seeds, to be 
procured in many of the medicine bazars of Lower 
India ; and which are said to possess a sedative and 
slightly intoxicating quality. They are prescribed in 
electuary to stop purging and ease pain ; they are 
also given in milk ; one capsule, with its seed, in 
powder, is the common dose. I have endeavoured, 
in vain, to ascertain from what plant they are pro- 
cured, and would recommend their being used with 


MARUKARUNG KAI u>j&&&>rrrrrRjv>rruj 

(Tam.) Myn phut fa £+« (Hind.) Jowzul kowsid 

(Arab.) Mangha kaia (Tel.) Emetic Nut, or Nut 

qf the Bushy Gardenia. 

Gardenia Dumetorum (Retz.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Contort®. Heeken Gardenie (Nom. Triv. Wifld.). 
This, as it appears in the bazars, is a nut about the 


size of a small nutmeg*, containing numerous sweet- 
ish-tasted, strong-smelling seeds. The Vytians con- 
sider it amongst their best Emetics, and prescribe it 
accordingly, in the quantity of about one pagoda 
weight. It is given commonly in the form of 
powder, the whole nut, seeds included, being 
pounded. An infusion of the bark of the root is 
administered to nauseate in bowel complaints. 

The essential character of the genus is thus given 
by Willdenow, " Contorta ; bacca infera 2-locularis 
polysperma ; stylus elevatus, bilobus ; cal. lacinis 
verticalibus" (Spec. Plant, i. p. 1225.). 

The species in question is a small, thorny shrub, 
having stiff, round, smooth branches* with leaves 
opposite, obovate entire ; Jlowers lateral and terminal, 
solitary, small, on short pedicels at the end of each 
twig; calyx smooth, bell-shaped; and a corolla, 
leathery, and scarcely longer than the calyx. It 
is a native of Ceylon, and there called weli-lcukura- 
man ; it is also common on the Coromandel coast, 
and was first noticed particularly by Koenig. 

Dr. Heyne, in his Tractst on India, speaks of a me- 
dicinal plant under the name of gardenia pavetta, class- 
ing it amongst the astringent and acrid vegetables ; 
but what it is, I know not, nor have I ever heard 
that there was any gardenia of that specific name. 
Ruiz and Pavon, in their Flora J Peruviana et Chi- 
lensis, mention a plant under the name of gardenia 
longiflora, the fruit of which is eaten by the American 
Indians ; it is the randia hngiflora of Lamarck, now 

* Roxburgh, in the second volume of his Flora Indica, (p. 564.), 
describes the plant particularly, and says, that the fruit, when 
ripe, looks like a small yellow apple. 

f See Heyne's work. (p. 1S7.) 

\ See Flora Peruviana and Chilensis. (Tom. ii. p. 66.) 


the gardenia rmdtifiora of Willdenow j it would ap. 
pear to be a native of both Asia and America. Lou- 
reiro, in his Flor. Cochin-Chinen. vol. i. p. 147. notices 
three species ; the g. grandiflora, the cay-deanh-nam 
of the Cochin-Chinese, he says, has medicinal virtues : 
" Refrigerans, emolliens, prodest pracipue, in febri- 
bus hecticis et phthisicis, dysuria, et scabie." 

Mr. Lunan, in his Hortus * Jamaicemis, informs 
us, that the pulp of the berries of a species of 
gardenia, (aculeatd) stains paper and linen of a fine 
blue colour; and which, he thinks, would prove 
an excellent fixed blue in all manner of paints and 
prints ; the plant is the gardenia randia of Willdenow 
(Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 1230.), but the gardenia acu- 
leata of Miller. 

Roxburgh, in his Coromandelt Plants, when speak- 
ing of the gardenia dvmetorum, our immediate article, 
observes, that the nut bruised and thrown into pools 
where there are fish, intoxicates them, in the same 
way that the Coccukis Indicus does. I perceive that 
it has a place in the Ulfaz Udwiyeh, under the 
names of }S 3 ii\j^jowzalkusil and Jil\ jy* jowz alkie, 
Arabic and Persian, and that it is there considered 
as diaphoretic and provocative. 

It would appear by Deslongchamp* s account of 
the plants that might be substituted in Europe for 
the ipecacuan of the shops, that the most efficacious 
are the roots of three species of euphorbia, viz. 
euphorbia gerardiana, of which the dose is about 
xviii. or xxiv. grs. ; euphorbia cyparissias, of which 
the dose is from xii. to xviii. or xx. grs. ; euphorbia 
sylvatica, of which the dose is nearly the same as 

* See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 427. 
f See Coromandel Plants, vol.ii. p. 19. 


that of the last mentioned. The author speaks of the 
root of the narcissus odorus as deserving attention for 
a similar purpose, in doses of from xviii. to 1. grs. He 
also notices loignion du lis narcisse (pancratium maii- 
tinum) as a valuable substitute, in doses of from xL 
to lx. grs. The leaves of the asarum Europceum* 
are, he says, more decidedly emetic than all those 
mentioned, in doses of the powder of from xx. to 
xl. grs.t 

Eighteen species of gardenia are growing in the 
botanical garden at Calcutta, ten of which are na- 
tives of India. 


MAREDOC (Tel.) CdvcUum (Hort. Mai.) Tan- 
ghulo (Malay). Bilanus (Rumph.) Modjo (Jav.) 
Beli (Cyng.) Bivalva (Sans.) Bengal Quince. 

^Egle Marmelos (Roxb.). 

CI. andOrd. Dodecandria Monogynia. NatOrd. 
Putaminese. Dornige Cratceve (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This, by Roxburgh's account (Cor. PL vol. ii. 
p. 23.), is a pretty large tree, from the rind of which 
the Dutch, on Ceylon, prepare perfume. Rheede, in 
his Hort Malab.t, says, that a decoction of the bark 

* See Manuel des Plantes Usuelles Indigines de France, torn. ii. 
p. 27. 

f Of the emetics of the western world, two of the most 
powerful appear to be the root of the sanguinaria Canadensis, in 
doses of xv. or xx. grs. (the plant is the pucoon of the Indians), 
and the root of the gillenia trifoliata, in doses of xxx. grs.; 
which last is said not to be inferior to ipecacuanha. See Barton's 
Materia Medica of the United States, vol. i. p. 34., and same 
volume, pp. 66, 67. 

% See Hort. Mai. part iii. p. 38. 


of the root is considered, on the Malabar coast, as a 
sovereign remedy in hypochondriasis, melancholia, 
and palpitation at the heart ; that the leaves, in de- 
coction, are used in asthmatic complaints ; and that 
the fruit, a little unripe, is of use in diarrhoea. The 
fruit is considerably larger than that of the feronia 
elephantum, and the shell much harder. Roxburgh 
observes, that the fruit, when ripe, is delicious to 
the taste, and exquisitely fragrant. Horsfield, on 
the other hand, in his Account of the Medicinal 
Plants of Java, informs us, that it is considered, by 
the Javanese, as of a very astringent quality. The 
mucus which surrounds the seeds is a good cement. 
The tree is the cratceoa marmelos of Linnaeus, and 
the belt of the Cyngalese. Moon notices two va- 
rieties on Ceylon, the kana and eta; the first of 
which is esculent. The wood of it is light-coloured, 
and beautifully variegated with veins. 

Of the essential qualities of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Con 4-petala ; caL 4-fidus ; bacca 1-locularis, 
polysperma" (Spec Plant, vol. ii. p. 852.). 

The species in question is a thorny plant with 
serrated leaves ; the flowers are produced in small 
clusters from the side of the branches, five or seven 
standing on a common branching peduncle. See 
Burm. Zeyl. 84. 


MAROODANIE uxr B ®rr<mP (Tam.) MarU 
tondi (Cyng.) Mayridie goo^ (Duk.) Henna U*. 
(Pers.) Urkan ^JSJ (Arab.; Daun hem (Malay)* 
Gorunta chettoo (Tel.) Mail anschi (Hort. MaL) 


Cyprus alcanna (Rumph. Amb.) Sakachera (Sans.) 

Henna, or Ivenie, or Broad Egyptian Privet. , 

Lawsonia Spinosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Salicarise. Dornige Alkarma (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The Vt/tians prepare a kind of extract from the 
pale-yellow, strong-smelling flowers of this shrub \ 
as also from the leaves and tender shoots, which they 
consider as a valuable remedy in cases of lepra, and 
other depraved habits of body ; prescribing it in the 
quantity of half a tea-spoonful twice in the twenty- 
four hours ; the leaves are also used as an external 
application in cutaneous affections, and, by the Ma- 
hometan women, for dyeing their nails red ; the 
same thing is done with them, it appears, by the ac- 
counts of Niebhurt and Desfontainest, in Arabia 
and Barbary : in which last-mentioned country the 
natives, besides, use them for staining their horses* 
manes and tails of a red colour. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Cat. 4-fidus ; petala 4 ; stamina 4-parium ; 
caps. 4-locularis, polysperma" (Spec. Plant, vol ii. 
p. 844.). 

Desfontaines, above quoted, is of opinion, that the 
Lawsonia spinosa and L. inermis are the same plants §; 
but that the plant, when young, has no thorns, and 

* Which, Dr. Francis Hamilton thinks, ought with more pro- 
priety be termed Lawsonia Cyprus. See Dr. F. Hamilton's ad- 
mirable Commentary on the Hortus Malabaricus, in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Linnaean Society, vol. xiii. part ii. 

f See his Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. p. 236. 

t See his Flora Atlantica, vol. i. p. 326. 

§ And the same name is given to both in Hindoostanie and 
Bengalese, mindee. 


I am inclined to be of the same opinion *, though 
Willdenow makes them distinct species ; but it must 
be allowed, that the only distinction he notices is 
that the one is ramis spinosis and the other not 
Our article usually rises to the height, in India, of 
about twelve or fourteen feet ; it is often employed 
for making garden hedges. 

Horsfield, in his Account of the Javanese Medi- 
cinal Plants, says, that the Lawsonia inermis grows 
in Java, where it is called pachar, and is considered 
as a mild astringent. On the Malabar coast it has 
got the name of pontaletsce. The flowers of the 
ivenie (Laws, spinos.), though not unpleasant to the 
smell when quite close, are peculiarly so at a little 
distance ; they come out in loose bunches from the 
sides of the branches. The leaves are small, of an 
oblong oval shape, and pale green colour. The 
shrub is the Cyprus alcanna of Rumphius (Amb. iv. 
p. 42. 1 17.). For further particulars regarding it, 
the reader is referred to Abulfadli, apud Cels. i. 
224., to Avicenna, 173., and ajso to SprengeFs 
" Historia Rei Herbaria*." (Vol. i. p. 258.) 

Our article is growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, introduced before the year 1794. In 
Cochin-China it is cultivated in gardens, and is there 
called caymaong tay nJiuom ; the natives believe it 
to have virtues at once astringent and refrigerant. 
Blor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 229. 

* The Egyptians have different Arabic names for them ; for the 
Laws, spinosa it is t*\l£jl> for the other AJb» *+j • Vide Forsk. 
Flor. Egypt. 


> v* is. r* v: ^ L ^ XVIII# 

M AROOL K ALUNG irxrsovr^yYK,® (Tam.) 

Moorgabie led gudda **t \£ g&y , Tshama-cada, or 

Changa gudda (Tel.) Mwrowa (Sans.) Marool 

Root, or itoo/ gf M<? Sanseviera of Ceylon, or J5o»- 

*/rm# Hemp. 

Sanseviera Zeylonica (Thunb.). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Coronariae. Zeylonische Sanseviere (Nom. Triv. 


This fleshy creeping root is, in a slight degree, 
warm to the taste, and of a not unpleasant odour ; 
and is prescribed, by the native practitioners, in the 
form of an electuary, in consumptive complaints and 
coughs of long standing, to the quantity of a small 
tea-spoonful twice daily. The juice of the tender 
shoots of the plant, which, by the way, is the katu 
Jcapel of the Hort. Mai. (ii. p. 83.), they administer 
to children to clear their throats of viscid phlegm. 

Of the. essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Cor. infera monopetala tubo filiformi limbo 
6-partito revoluto. ; stam. limbo inserta; bacca 1- 
sperma" (Spec. Plant, vol. ii. p. 159.)* 

The plant* in question is the shoochi mookhee of 
the Bengalese, the aletris hyacinthoides of Linnseus 
(Spec. 456.), and the aletris Zeylonica of the first 

* Of it Willdenow says, " S. foliis lanciolatis uniformibus, stylo 
staminibus duplo longiore, bracteis tubo corollas triplo brevioribus, 
floribu8 sessihbus." The plant appears to be the sanseviera thyr- 
sifiora of Thunberg. (Prod. 65.) 


editions of Miller's Dictionary ; it seldom rises 
higher than six or eight inches, and is much prized 
on account of its nar, or tough stringy fibres, of 
which cordage is made on the Coromandel coast. 
See article Marool nar> in Chapter I. Vol. III. 

It is growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, 
and is indigenous in India $ it is cultivated in great 
abundance at Cumbum, and on the Vursenaud moun- 
tains in the Dindigul district; it also grows in Ceylon, 
called by the Cyngalese maha-niyanda ; it has pe- 
rennial, stole-bearing roots, and is well described by 
Dr. Roxburgh (Cor. Plants, ii. p. 83.). 


(Tarn.) Muddie putta (Tel.) Urjocm (Hind.) 

Arjuna 3J^^T (Sans.) Winged Terminatia Bark, or 

Marddum Bark. 

Terminalia Alata (Koenig.)* 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat Ord. 
Elseagni (Juss.). 

This bark, as it appears in most of the Indian 
bazars, is of a reddish brown colour, and has a 
strong, but not unpleasant, astringent taste; it is 
considered by the Vytians as possessing antifebrile 
qualities, and the powder of it, in conjunction with 
gingilie oil, is used as a valuable application for kin- 
datalie (Tarn.), (aphthae of adults), and the akkirum 
(Tam.) or aphthae of infants. The juice of the leaves 
is poured into the ears, to allay the pain of the ear- 



Of the essential character of the genus, WOlde- 


« Mascul. Col 5-partitus j cor. ; stam. 10. 

« Hbemaph. Jftw. masculi j *#/. 1 J *-ujw "> 
fera, cymbiformis.*' 

The species in question would appear hitherto to 
have been only noticed by Koenig. Like its two 
congener* latffbUa and catappa, it is a very large 
tree ; its bark is employed in the process of dyeing 
black ; the wood for making the long beams in house 
building.* In the Northern parts of Canara boats 
and canoes are made of it. The tree is a native of 
Ceylon, and is there called kumbuk by the Cyngalese ; 
three other species of terminalia grow in that island 
(See Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 73.). 


MASHIPUTRIE uon-^uj^^ff 9 (Tain.) Se- 

roni (Malay). 4fstmteen i3 JS^i\ (Arab.) Must*. 

roo (Duk.) Duna (Hind.) Burunjasif kouhee 

(Pers.) Domolo (Jav.) Dana (Sans.) Indian 


Artemisia Indica (Willd.). 

Q. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua, Nat Ord. 
Composite Nucumentaceae. Indischer Beyjv* (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

This strong-smelling bitter plant the Tamoofe con- 
sider as a valuable stomachic medicine; they also 
suppose it to possess deobstruent and antispasmodic 

* Of it Rottler says, in his " Herbarium Rottlerianum'' fMSS.), 
« Fol. cordato-eliptic, serrulat, glabris, obtusis, ad petiolum bi- 
glandulosis ; florib. racemosis, fructib. alatis ." 


virtues, and prescribe it in infusion and electuary, in 
cases of obstructed menses and hysteria j they some- 
times, too, use it in preparing antiseptic foment- 
ations, as they also do its congener art. abrotonurru 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Recept. subvillosum, vel nudicusculum; 
pappus nullus; caL imbricatus squamis rotundatis, 
convenientibus ; cor. radii null©." Spec. Plant 
voL iii. p. 1815. 

The species in question has been particularly de- 
scribed by the author just quoted (vol. iii. p. 1840.), 
and differs from the art. austriaca (which is also 
common in many parts of Hindoostan), by the latter 
having "foliis incanosericeis, inferioribus pinnatis, 
pinnis tripartibus linearibus," &c. This species (art. 
oust.) is also a native of Japan, China, and Java j in 
which last-mentioned country it is named domola, 
and by the Malays seroni. Our article is the katu- 
t$etti-pu of Rheede (Mai. 10. p. 89* 1 45.) and the 
waLkolondu of the Cyngalese. 

We are told by Thunberg, in his Travels # , that 
in Japan, what is called moxa, is prepared from the 
dried tops and leaves of the artemisia vulgaris (g8i, 
Japanese) t, these being beat in a mortar till they be- 
come like tow ; this substance is rubbed betwixt the 
hands till the harder fibres and membranes are se- 
parated, and there remains nothing but a very fine 
cotton j the Japanese use it as tinder, and people of 
all ages burn themselves with it occasionally, to pre- 
vent or cure rheumatism. In China, as we are in- 
formed by Loureiro, in his Flor. Cochin-Chin., 

* Set vol. itr. p. 74. 

f Which ia in Hindooie nagdona, and in Sanscrit nagadamana. 
Oar article, the art. Indica, with eight other species, grow in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. 

o 2 


vol.ii. p. 492., another species is employed to pre- 
pare the same substance (moxd)* , and that is the 
art. Chkiensis ; it is the khi-ngai, and also the gae- 
tsaou of the Chinese, and the nelampala of the Hort 
Makbaricus (x. p. 97- t.49.), distinguished by a 
simple herbaceous stem, and leaves simple, tomentose, 
obtuse, lanceolate, the lower ones wedge-shaped and 
three-lobed. Moxa is highly prized in China for 
curing many disorders, by being burnt upon the 
affected part. The Laplanders, we are told, use a 
fungous substance, found in the fissures of old birch 
trees, for the same purpose. 

For an account of the various diseases cured or 
relieved by the moxa at Japan and in China, where 
the artem. vulgaris has got the names of jutz and 
jamoggi, the reader is referred to Kempher's "Amce- 
nit. Exotic." (p. 600-604.), where he speaks of its use 
in cephalalgia, rheumatism, &c, and to Abel's Jour- 
ney into China (p. 216.). 



I give this a place here, on the authority of Virey, 
who in speaking of it has these words ; " Ecorce 
mince, presque plane, de couleur de canelle, ayant 
un 6piderme grisatre stri6. Son odeur est tr&s balsa- 

* See an account of the virtues of moxa, as an external ap- 
plication in gout, by Sir W. Temple, in Thornton's Family Herbal, 
p. 692. ; also of its virtues in head-ache, vertigo, endemic colic, 
gout, and hypochondriasis, in Kamph. Amanit. Exotic Fascic. iii. 
p. 601. A valuable treatise on the subject of moxa has been 
written by Dr. James Boyle, who has also given us a well-detailed 
case of anchylosis cured by a modified application of it. See 
London Medical and Physical Journal for Feb. 1826, p. 112. 


mique, sa saveur douce, puisquepiquante; elledonne 
en la brulant une vapeur d'odeur de canelle. On 
1'apportait jadis de PInde Orientate. C'est un to* 
nique" (Hist. Nat de Medicamens, p. 321.)* 

The same author informs us, that it is supposed to 
be obtained from the laurus culilaban, which is the 
cortex caryophyUoides of Rumph. (Amb. ii. p. 65. 
1 14.), and may be distinguished from all the other 
laurels by having opposite leaves * ; but it would 
seem that they are not constantly so $ and the fructi- 
fication is evidently that of the laurus. It is a 
native of CochiruChina as well as India, and Verey 
thinks resembles in its virtues the leaves of tne evodia 
ravensara of Gaertner. 


LOLJL_a2>i— (Tam.) Birmike-chawl i\#% J g*j* 
(Duk.) Maredoo putta (Tel.) Tapia (Hind.) 
Varuna S**M, also Varana ^1*1 (Sans.) Bark of 

the Smooth Tapia, or Garlic Pear. 

Cratjeva Tapia (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Monogynia. Nat. 
Ord. Putamineae. Spitzblattrige Cratceve (Nom. 

Triv. Willd.). 

The juice of the astringent bark of this tree, though 
Dr. Buchanan t says it is useless, the Vytians prescribe 
as a tonic in intermittent fever, and in typhus: a 

* See Willd. Spec. Plant, vol. ii. p. 47a 

t See his Journey through Mysore and Malabar, vol. ii. p. 349. 

o 3 


decoction of the bark itself is also used for a similar 
purpose : of the latter the dose is half a tea-cupful 
twice or thrice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdeaaw 
says, " Cor. 4-petala ; col. 4-fidus ; bacca 1-locularis, 
polyspenna." Spec Plant, vol. iL p. 852* 

The species in question grows on Ceylon to the 
height of about thirty feet, with a large trunk ; it is 
unarmed; leaflets ovate, acuminate; petals ovate- 
roundish, blunt j germs globular ; the Jtowers are 
produced at the end of the branches, standing on 
long peduncles ; the fruit, which is edible, but not 
very good, is about the size of an orange, having a 
hard brown shell, inclosing a mealy pulp, filled with 
kidney-shaped seeds ; it has a strong smell of garlic, 
which it communicates to the animals which feed on 
it. Hence it is sometimes called garlic-pear. Que- 
ry, Is it not the nurvala of the Hortus Malab. ? 

Of this genus, two species are natives of Jamaica*, 
viz. our article, and the cratceva gynandra. Of the 
first, Braham says, the fruit is cooling, and the leaves 
are applied externally to take away inflammations 
about the anus, and also for the ear-ache : with re- 
gard to the last, we are informed by Dancer, in his 
Medical Assistant for Jamaica, that the root blisters 
like cantharides. 


MENDI (Cyng.), also Wal-eka-weriya (Cyng,). 
Kajo-Ular (Jav.). 

Ophiorhiza Mungos (Lin.). 

* See Lunan'g Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 317. 


CL and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat OwL 
Stellate. Indische Schlangenwwrz (Norn, Triv # 

Mendi is one of the Cyngalese names of a tree 
which the natives of Ceylon use in cases of snake* 
bites ; the leaves, root, and bark are made into de- 
coction, and administered in doses of half an ounce. 
I find another Cyngalese name amongst my papers 
for ophioriza, ekawerya.* 

Of the essential character of the genus, WiUdenow 
says, " Car. infundibulif. ; germen 2-fidum ; stigmata 
2; fructus bilobus." Spec. Plant Willd. vol. i. 
p. 826. 

The species in question has a simple stem ; leaves 
opposite, lanceolate-ovate, quite entire, smooth, with 
obliquely transverse nerves petioled ; flowers sessile, 
from the upper side of the horizontal spike (See 
Miller.). A better description of it however, may 
be found in the Flora Indica, vol ii. p. 544, with 
some observations from Dr. Wallich ; Roxburgh does 
not appear to think that the plant has any medicinal 
virtues whatever. The ophiorhiza Mangos f is 
treated of by Avicenna under the name of ***$ L6- 
heihy and may be found well-described by Kaempher, 
in his Amoen. Exot 577. Horsfield, in his Account 
of Java Medicinal Plants, says, that the ophior. 
Mung.X has been confounded with the ophioxylum 
serpentinwn (chundra Beng.) both by Murray and 

+ We also learn from Gartner that it has got the Cyngalese 
name of nagawdli, from the circumstance of the leaves being 
considered as a specific for the bite of the ribband snake. For 
further particulars see Rumph. (Amb. vii. u 16.). 

f See Sprengel's Historia Rei Herbaria, vol. i. p. 249. 

X It has been said to be the plant that the Mungoos have re- 
course to when bitten by the coluber naja, hot this, I am inclined 
to think, is not the case. The mangos is the viverra ichneumon 
of Shaw. Zool. PL 92. 

O 4 


Bui-man, but that they are very distinct in every 
respect The stem of the first, he adds, is strictly 
herbaceous, and the pericarp a compressed, two-lobed 
capsule ; and while he is of opinion that the ophior. 
Mung. is altogether insipid and inert, he thinks the 
ophioxyktm serpentinum may prove a valuable acqui- 
sition to medicine. See it mentioned in this Part and 
Chapter under the name of Tsj ovanna Amelpodi. It 
is admirably described in the Flora Indica (vol. ii. 
p. 530.). 


MILE UNNAY (Tam.) Mbhurkdtail J^l^ 

(Duk.) Dohunool taxvoos ijhJUSq** (Arab.) Memilie 

noonay (Tel.) Peacock's Fat* 

Abeps Pavonis. 

The fat of the peacock (which is a common bird 
in the woods of India) the native practitioners consi- 
der as a valuable external application in cases of rigid 
joints, and in certain paralytic affections. The San* 

scrit name of it is mayura tailam *i^<n<fl. 


MOLAKARUNNAY o?3\^e>o-2/ffrar (Tam.) 
Qyndorcashinda (Tel.) Kakatoddati (Rheede). 
Prickly Scopolia. 

Scopolia Aculeata (Smith). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Stachliche 
ScopoUe (Norn. Triv. Willd.). 


Molaharunm^\& the Tamool name of a small white 
root, about the third part of an inch in diameter, the 
bark of which is bitter, pungent, and sub-aromatic, 
and is considered as stomachic and tonic. It is given 
in a weak infusion to the quantity of half a tea-cupful 
in the course of the day ; the leaves are also some- 
times used for the same purposes.* 

Of the essential character of the genus, Miller 
says, "Cal. 5-cleft; nect. none; stigma capitate; 
caps, berried, 5-celled $ seeds solitary." 

The species in question is now growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta, and is a climbing shrub, 
common in the woods of Malabar, with a round stem, 
which is covered with prickles, and, according to 
Willdenow, has leaves ovate-acuminate. Rheedef 
particularly describes the plant, and tells us, that the 
flowers are white and sweet-smelling j the fruit, ac- 
cording to Burman, is tricoccous, saffron-coloured, 
with black spots, and has an acrid taste, with some 
sweetness. The shrub is the pauUinia Asiatica of 
Limueus, the cranzia of Schreber, and would appear, 
hitherto, to have been best described by Smith in his 
" Plantarum Icones. hactenus ineditce" The plant 
is, by Moon's account, the kudu-miris of the Cynga. 
lese. See Cat of Ceylon Plants, p. 17., also Burm. 
Zey. t 24. 

* Roxburgh, in the second vol. of the flora Indica (p. S80.) 
describes the plant fully ; it is one of the most common on 
the coast of Cororaandel ; it has an irregular stem, corky bark ; 
branches numerous; prickles innumerable; leaves alternate, ter- 
nate, armed ; flowers small, white ; berry, the size of a small 
cherry, and fully as pungent as black pepper. The berries make 
an excellent pickle; the fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in 
the bowels. 

f See Hort. Mai. v. p. 81. t,41. 



MODIRA CANIRAM (Hort Mai.) Maha- 
penala (Cyng.) Widoro-pait (Jav.) Serpents Wood, 
KoocldUuluta (Beng.)* 

Strtchnos Colubrina (Lin*). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

I have given this a place here, chiefly on the 
authority of Rutnphius and Dr. Horsfield ; the first 
informs us, that the plant is used on Java, in cases 
of intermittent fever, and as an anthelmintic, and 
externally in certain diseases of the skin ; it is also em* 
ployed, Dr. Horsfield tells us, externally in cutaneous 
aflections, and to alleviate the pain and swelling from 
confluent small-pox* The latter adds, that the phy- 
sicians in Malay countries occasionally prepare with 
it an excellent bitter tincture. It is supposed to be 
the arbor ligni colubrini * of Rumphius.t Avicenna % 
mentions it under the name of /J^eM «*>*> "ob ve- 
nenatam ligni qualitatem memorabilia." Seraph % 
and others speak of its purgative quality ; the part of 
the plant commonly employed in medicine, is the 
root, which is woody and covered with an iron-co- 

* I say, supposed to be, because Dr. Roxburgh conjectures 
that there is still another species of ttrychnos (differing both 
from the s. colub. and s. nux vomic), which yields the real lignum 
colubrinum, or at least another sort of it. Flor. Ind. vol. iL 
p. 265. 

f Amb.iL c.46. t. 37. 

J Avicenna, ii. 125. 

§ See Serapio, c. 358* 


loured bark. Virey *, in his " Histoire Naturelle des 
M6dicamens, " informs us, that in an over-dose it oc- 
casions tremors and vomiting, but mentions at the 
same time, that in smaller doses it may be considered 
as a useful vermifuge, and given also with advantage in 
obstinate quartan agues. Some authors seem to think, 
that this is the same plant with the strycknos nux-vomica, 
which yields nux- vomica, the poison-nut already men- 
tioned in the first volume of this work, I perceive, 
however, that Roxburgh as well as Wilidenow gives 
both species (see Spec. Rant. vol. i. p. 1052.), in which 
the last-mentioned author distinguishes them, by the 
strych. nux vom. having " leaves ovate, stem unarmed", 
and the strych. cohbrina t " leaves ovate acute, ten- 
drils simple." Of the essential character of the genus, 
he says, " Cor. 5-fida ; bacca 1-locularis ; cortice lig- 
noso." I shall conclude by observing, that Rheede J, 
too, makes them different plants ; the one he calls 
cantram, the other modira caniram. 

The plant is growing with two others of the genua, 
viz. the nux vomica (koochila, Beng.), and the pota- 
torum (nirmulee, Beng.), in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta ; introduced in 1800. 

* See his work, p. 191* 

f It is well described by Roxburgh, in the second vol. of the 
Flora Indies, at p. 964.; it is, he says, scandent; stem of great size, 
often from eight to twelve inches m diameter ; leaves opposite* 
from oval to oblong; flowers small, greenish-yellow ; berry round 
and as large as an orange. 

% See Hort. Mai. vii. p. 20. t.5. f and L p. 67. t.87. 



(Tam.) Boodda kanka rOkoo (TeL) Karax* 
^K^fl (Sans.) Smooth-leaved Heart-pea. 

Cardiospermum Halicacabum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 
Trihilatse. Glatter Herzsame (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The root of this twining plant is considered by 
the native practitioners as aperient, given in decoc- 
tion to the quantity of half a tea-cupful twice daily; 
it is mucilaginous, and in a slight degree nauseous to 
the taste. The species is the ulinja of the Hortus 
Malabaricus, and the anty of the Malays. Rheede 
informs us, that on the Malabar coast the leaves 
are administered in pulmonic complaints (Mai. viii. 
t. 23.). 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Cat. 4-phyllus j pet. 4 ; nectar. 4-phyl- 
lum inaequale; caps. 3, connate, inflate." Spec 
Plant, vol. ii. p. 467. 

The mooda cotton (Tam.), is a twining, herbaceous, 
annual plant, with leaves broad-lanceolate, sinnuate- 
gashed, smooth and biternate. Browne (Jam. 213), 
says, "foliis ternato, ternatis acuminatis serratis." 
The flowers are " axillary, solitary, small, white, and 
on long peduncles ; the receptacle a white fungous 
tubercle, and the seeds solitary, globular, black, and 
marked with a white, heart-shaped, umbilical scar" 
(Loureiro and Gaertner). By Miller's account, the 
plant would appear to be a native not only of the 
East and West Indies, but of the Society islands. 


It grows on Ceylon, and is there called maha penala 
by the Cingalese, also wceLpenela. It is the hatica- 
cabum Rumph .(Amb. vi. p. 60. t 24. f. 2.), and the 
tay-tam phoung of the Cochin-Chinese (Flor. Coch. 
Chin., vol. i. p. 239.)- 


MOOKARUTTY VAYR GPe>a>/v>i_c®L_(2 
o^j'X (Tarn.) Tikrie he jurr ^ J gfc (Duk.) 
Attika mameddie vayroo (Tel.) Sinadika, also Pu- 

narnava y*in<=n (Sans.) Root qf the Spreading 

Boerhavia Diffusa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Aggregate. Mstige Boerhavie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This root the native practitioners consider amongst 
their laxative medicines, and prescribe it in powder, 
in the quantity of a tea-spoonful twice daily. It is 
single, oblong, hard within, with a soft thin bark, on 
the outside of a dusky colour ; and of a slightly 
bitter and somewhat nauseous taste. The leaves, 
which vary in size, are ovate, or rather roundish, they 
are of a bright green colour and whitish underneath, 
and are sometimes curled at the edges} they are 
eaten by the Indians. * 

Qf the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Col. margo intigerrimus ; cor. 1 -petal a, 
campanulata, plicata ; sem. 1-nudum, inferum (stain. 
1. f. «./• (Spec. Plant, vol i. p. 18.). 

* The Peruvians give an infusion of the Boerhavia scandens in 
cases of gonorrhoea (see Flora Peruviana, vol. iv. p. 4.) ; they 
call the plant " yerba de la purgation." 


The species in question, which is the houngsi-sm 
of the Cochin-Chinese, " has many diffiised stalks, 
about two feet long ; the jkrwers are of a pale red 
colour outside, deeper within, grow very scatteringly 
upon long branching peduncles from the axils, and 
at the end of the branches ; and are succeeded by 
brown, oblong, striated, and very rough seeds/' Mr. 
Lunan, * in his Hortus Jamaicensis, informs us, that 
the weed in Jamaica is commonly gathered for the 
hogs, which, however, seldom eat the root; this 
scraped, and made into decoction, he says, is admini- 
stered in flux cases. 

Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica t, describes a spe- 
cies of Boerhavia under the specific name of pro- 
cumbens, which seems to differ in some particulars 
from our article, though he doubts whether they 
may not be in fact the same ; his plant has leaves 
variously cordate, sometimes acute and sometimes 
obtuse ; which the Boerhavia diffusa of Swartz (Ob. 
p. 10.), and, as described by Browne (Jam. p. 123.), 
certainly have not. Roxburgh, however, concludes 
by saying, that the Boerhav. procim. is the only one 
be has seen in India. The Boerhavia diffusa appears 
to be the jan lopes of the Cyngalese, and the ta- 
ludama of the Hortus Mai. (vii. p. 105. 1 56.). 

I cannot conclude this article, without mentioning 
that Horsfield, in his account of Java medicinal 
plants, informs us, that the Boerhavia diandria is 
considered on that island as emetic ; it is the Boer- 
havia hirsuta of Willd. (Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 20.). 
It is also a native of Jamaica, and is distinguished 
by sending out many trailing hairy stalks, which 

* Sec Lunan 's Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 377. 
t See Flora Indica, p. 148. 


divide into smaller branches* Two species # of 
Boerhavia are now growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, the procumbens and repanda ; the first 
is the gadhfrpoorna of the Bengalese, the other 
is a native of St Helena, introduced by Mr. Burchel 
in 1809. 


MOOLLIE VAYR arasTo^Gexj'f- (Tam.) 
Telia mulaka vayro (Tel.) Kobi kSjurr ^ J ^JiJ 
(Duk.) Trong-ngor (Jav.) Frihatt ^m (Sans.) 
Root qf the Indian Night Shade. 

Solanum Indicum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Luridae. Indischer Nachtschatten (Nom. Triv. 


This root has little sensible taste or smell, but is 
amongst the medicines which the Indian doctors 
prescribe in cases of dysuria and ischuria, in the 
form of decoction, to the quantity of half a tea-cup- 
ful twice daily. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, "Cor. rottata; 
antherce subcoalitae, apice poro gemino dehiscentes j 
bacca 2-locularis." Spec. Plant vol. L p. 1025. 

The species t in question, which is the tib-batu of 

* Moon, in his Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, notices a species 
of Boerhavia, which he calls glutinosa, which I can find nowhere 
else mentioned, and which the Cyngalese name pUa-sudu-pala 
(p. 5.). The species scandens, Lunan says, is considered as an 
emollient plant In Jamaica. 

t We are tojd by-Ruis, in Ms Flora Peruviana (vol. ii. pp. 31— 
39*), that what he calls solanum crispum is used, in Peru, in de- 


the Cingalese # and the vyakool of the Bengalese, 
has "a shrubby and prickly stem, about two or 
three feet high, with leaves wedge-shaped t, angular, 
subvillose, quite entire, prickles straight; the flowers, 
which are of a purplish blue colour, come out in 
longish bunches from the sides of the stalks ; berries 
round, of a golden colour, and as large as cherries" 

Horsfleld, in his account of Java medicinal plants 
says, that the root taken internally possesses strongly 
exciting qualities. Rumphius tells us, that it is em- 
ployed in difficult parturition. I know it to be also 
employed in the tooth-ache. The plant is the sol. 
frutescen. Burm. Zeyl. p. 220. t. 36, and the cheru- 
chunda, Rheede, Mai. ii. t. 36. 


(ruff- (Tam.) ^ Root of the Prickly Galega, or 
Goat Rue. 

Galeoa Spinosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat Ord. 
Papilionacese. Dornige Geisraute (Nom. Triv, 
Willd.). Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 1230. 

coction, in inflammatory fevers ; and that the solanum scabrum 
(Ruiz.) bears a berry which has the virtues of soap ; the name of 
the first in Peru is natre, that ef the other casimuru. 

• See Burm. Zey. 1. 102. 

f Roxburgh gives a somewhat different description of the same 
plant, and says, « leaves ovate, lobate, and downy." Flor. Ind. 
vol. ii. p. 252. 


This small root, in its succulent state, has a 
pleasant taste, and somewhat fragrant smell ; and 
prescribed in conjunction with ginger, by the Vytians* 
in cases of dyspepsia, in decoction, to the quantity 
of half a tea-cupful, twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, "CaL dentibus subulatis,. subaequalibus ; 
legumen striis obliquis, seminibus interjectis." Spec. 
Plant voLiii. p. 1239. 

The species in question has its stems or branches 
white with down ; of the plant in other respects, ; 
somewhat differing accounts are given by Willdenow 
and Linnaeus (Suppl. 335.). The former says, "foliis 
pinnatis, foliolis cuneatis emarginatis, stipulis spines* 
centibus, leguminibus falcatis axillaribus subsolitariis." 
In the latter (and it altogether corresponds with the 
plant as I have seen it near Madras), we are told, 
that tfie stem is diffused ; the legumes hanging, soli- , 
tary, back-sickled, compressed ; stipules spinescent, 
and leaflets wedge-shaped, hoary; the Jlowers are 
upright and small. 

Ten species of galega now grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta ; the g. purperea *, is amongst 
them, and called in Bengalese surpunka. See Hort. 
Bengalensis, p.- 57. The galega toxicaria is a native 
of South America, the pounded leaves and branches 
of which are used for poisoning fish. 

• It U the gam-pUa of the Cyngalese. See Moon's Catalogue, 
p.£&, alio Burm. Zeyl. 1 32. 




MOONNEE VAYR (j^cOTS/^Gcn^ (T*P*) 
GtebboomUie vayroo (Tel.) 4fif W-rnmM s^rfWRFBT 
(Sana.) Jfcxtf o/ 1 tf* Undivided-leaved Premncu 

Fremna Integrieoua (Lib.), 

CL wd. Q*d. Didy^amui Angiospasms Nat 
Qf4. Pei?8#Bfttw». Qan^blflttrige gr^mm (Norn*, 

Triv. WiUd.). 

This root haa 4 somewhat warm and bitterish t^ste* 
and sua agreeable sna^U; and is prescribed in decoction, 
as * g^ntJLe gordiajt and stpapachie in fevers, ;»pd on 
Other occasions reqitfruag medicines of thiq nature* 
t# tfrp qijantity of half a teapcupfijl, twice (Jaiiy- TW 
plant would, appear to be the appel of the fiort. 
A/^i, iq which ifc 13 mentioned by R,hee<fc. who saySj 
th^t a decoction of the leaves ia giveq for patps aud 
Wind in the stomach ; they are eaten by the inhabit* 
a#ts of tjie Coromandel coast 

Of the essentia), character pf the genp% Willde* 
n#w *ays, " CaL bilobus. ; cor 4-fid^ ; $qcw 4-locu- 
lai^v. s^nu soUtaria^' (Spec. Plant vol. iii, p, 314w), 

The species ia question is the folu^m hirci of 
Rumph. ( Amb. iii. p. 28. t 134*) i It is mentioned 
in Burman Ind. under the name of comutia corym- 
bosa. It is a small tree with ovate or ovate-cordate 
leaves, obtuse and quite entire. Willdenow ex- 
presses a doubt whether it be different, or only a 
variety of the premna serratifolia ; but both Herman 
and Burman seem to consider them as distinct ; the 
first of these has called it sambucus Zeylanica odorata 
Uromatica from its agreeable smell. 


Our article grows in Ceylon, with four other 
species ; it is the maha midi of the Cyngalese. 
Burra. Ind. t 41. f. 1. It, with six other species, 
are growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 


MOROO CLonro (Tarn.) ChaktcH %[#* £Duk.) 
Dogk ^ (Arab.) TsdUa (Tel.) Takram* rfcR 
also dandahatam ^U^l^rt (Sans.) Butter Milk. 

Lac Ebutyratum. 

The natives of India vahje butter milk very highly 
as a cooling t drink, in cases requiring refrigerants. 
It appears to me in a peculiar manner to allay the 
irritability of the stomach in certain dyspeptic affec- 
tions ; and to possess considerable efficacy in. calming 
the nerves of those suffering from having taken too 
much green tea. In India it is of a superior quality* 
being light and extremely pleasant to the taste, 
owing* perhaps, to the butter there being generally 
made from sweet milk. In cases of incipient phthisis 
I have known it of the greatest advantage, drank 
early in the naming, in bed j it must be tafeetn in a 
small quantity at & st* and gradually increased, 

* The term takram is only used when mixed with water. 

t I have in several eases of ardent remittent fever, i» India* 
where proper evacuations had been previously procured* allowed, 
its free use with the very happiest effects. 

T 2 



MORUNGHIE* VAYR. Wild Morungy Root, 
or Root qf the Senna-leaved Hedysantm. 

See article Horse-Radish Country, in Part I. 
Chap. I. of this work. 


MOSUMOOSKI CLon-ffrCLon-ef e>s2>& (Tam.) 
Musmusd *»« u~y (Duk.) Noodhosa (Tel.) Ahi» 
laykum (Sans.) Rough Bryony. 

Bryonia Scabra (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. 1 Nat. Ord. 
Cucurbitaceas Scharfblattrige Zaunrube (Nom. Triv. 

The tender shoots and rough cordate angular 
leaves of this species of bryony, are considered by 
the natives as gently aperient, and are also eaten oc- 
casionally ; when used medicinally, they are previously 
toasted. t The essentials of the genus have been 
already noticed. The mosumaoski has a beautiful 
small yellow flower, which, as do the leaves, springs 
from the joints. The fruit is a small red streaked 
berry, which is slightly bitter, and is considered as 
stomachic and aperient. The plant is also a native 

* Dierbach, in his Materia Medica of Hippocrates, says, thai 
the hyperanthera moringa was the BaAarof Aixv*7m{ of Hippo- 
crates ; bee his work, chap. v. 

\ The dose is half a cupful of the infusion, twice daily. 


of the Cape of Good Hope, where it was found by 

It has been described by Lin. Suppl. (423.), by 
Thunb. Prod. 13., and in Ait. Kew. (iii. p. 385.) 
The last observes, that it has " leaves cordate angled, 
villose underneath, callous-scabrous on the upper 
surface ; tendrils simple ; berries globular ; seeds 
smooth." Six species of bryonia grow in Ceylon, 
but this is not noticed in Moon's Catalogue. 


MUEL-SCHEVY uPujpvsPcns (Hort. Mai.) 
Patta camudi (Malay.) Boo-kadu-para (Cyng.) 
Shudi-mudi (Beng.) Cay-maUtlang (Cocb. Chin.) 
Udiram-panum (Sans.) Sow-thistle-leaved Cacalia. 

Cacalia Sonchifolia (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia iEqualis. Nat. Ord. 
Corymbiferae (Juss.). Gansedistelblattrige Pestwurz 
(Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

Rheede* tells us, that a decoction of this plant is 
considered as antifebrile, on the Malabar coast ; and 
that the juice of it, mixed with sugar, is given in 
bowel complaints. I perceive that Virey, in his 
" Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens" (p. 199), in- 
forms us, that the leaves of two other species, the 
cac. alpinia and cac. saracenica are recommended in 


Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Recept. nudum ; pappus pilosus j cal. 

* See Hort. Mai. p.x. p. 185. 

P 8 


cyJindrums, oblongus* basi tantum subcalyculatus" 
(Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 1725.). 

The species in question, which is the sonehus dmboi- 
ewis of Rumphius (Amb. v. p. 297- t. 103.), haa an 
amiual root, and an herbaceous stem about two feet 
high, branching a little towards the top, with te&ces 
lyrate, stem clasping and toothed (Willd.) j it baa 
usually but few flowers, which are about the size of 
those of common groundsel, in a terminating panicle* 
cylindrical, with the proper peduncles, bristle-shaped j 
the calyx entirely simple ; the florets, as described by 
Loureiro, are blood-coloured and minute. Murray * 
and he both speak of the medicinal qualities of this 
plant; the first says, that it is used both in the 
inedicine and oeconomy of the Indians ; the lattert, 
that it is deemed detergent, and its leaves eaten raw 
in salads. It is ft native of China, Cochin-China,, 
and Amboyna, as well as of India $ and is at this time 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. See 
Hortus Bengalensis, p. 60. In the Flor. Zeyl. (305.) 
it is noticed under the head of Klenia caule her- 
iaceo foUis lyratus ; in the Burnu ZeyL 61. under 
that of chondrilla Zeytanica y minor marina, JbUo 


MYLJE COND AY (Tarn.) Nemilie shega (TsL) 
May*** skikkanda HQifii^QZ (Sans.) Peacock* 
tailed Adiantum, or Maiden Hair. 

Adiantum Melanacaulon ? 

» See Murray Comm. Goett. Nov., torn. iii. p, 79. t. 7* 
i See Flor. Cochin-Chin, vri.iu (t 486. - 

CfcA*. t. MATfeftIA IftftniA. ftlS 

CI. and Ord. Cryptogamia Filices. Nat Ord. 

This very low fern, which seldom rises higher than 
five inches, is commonly found on the face of rocks, 
or mountain cliffs ; it has very stnall delicate opposite 
leaves, and has got its Tamool name from the resem- 
Wanoe it bears to a peacock's tail. Thfc teaves are 
sweetish) With a slight degrete of bitterness and astrhi- 
gency, and are considered, by the natives, &s pos- 
sessing tome powers ; they are given in powder, to 
the Quantity of ©fce pagoda treight daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " sori oblongi vel subrotundi indusiis 
membranaceis, e margine ortis, interius dehiscentibus, 
inserti" (Spec. Plant, vol. v. p. 427.). 

It would appear, by Lunan'« Hortus Jamaicensis, 
that no less than fourteen species of adiantum are 
Datives of Jamaica j three of Which are there ranked 
atnoftgst their medicinal plants, Viz. the adiatit. 
villosium, which, Sloane says, Piso refcommeftded in 
coughs ; the adiant trapezifbrme, the syrup of which, 
Dancer says (in his Medical Assistant), resembles 
that of the maiden hair of Europe ; and the a&iknt 
Jhagile, which Browne declares to be effic&tiotfs in 
purulent consumptions, and in an ulcerated and re- 
Jaxed state of the glands of the throat. This Ust- 
mentioned author would seem to think that all the 
species* of this genus are more or less tight sub- 
astringent vulneraries. 

* Set Irunato's Hort. Jataaicenws, vol.** j>. 475. 

P 4 




This is the Tamool name of a gum, or gum resin, 
which I found in the custom-house at Madras, the 
day before I left India, but which I had no leisure 
to examine ; it was said to be brought from Arabia* 
I give it a place here in the hope that it may become 
a subject of inquiry. 


NAGAMULLIE VAYR nzrr&uxKxySGe^'f- 
(Tam.) Kdbuter ke jar ke jur y*^ J&* <£ *>y& 
(Duk.) Nagdmdltie vayroo (Tel.) Nagamullie 
Root, or Root qf the White-flowered Justicia. 

Justicia Nasuta (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord« 
Personate. Schnabelfbrmige Justice (Nom. Triv* 


This root fresh, when bruised and mixed with 
lime juice, is considered as a sovereign application 
for ring- worms and other cutaneous affections ; the 
leaves are also employed for the same purposes. The 
plant is the palek joohie ^Ay* &\* of Upper India, 
and the pulcotti also peekolU of the Hortus MaL 
(ix. p. 135. t. 69.) I have taken the liberty of 
giving it the English name of nagamullie, by which 
it is universally known in lower India. The essential 
character of the genus has been already noticed. 


The species in question does not rise higher than 
four or five feet j its stem is green, shrubby, and some- 
what angular, the leaves are opposite, lanceolate, 
and on short foot stalks ; and the peduncles dicho- 
tomous (Sup. pi. 23,) ; the flowers are pure white, 
but altogether inodorous. Should further particulars 
be required respecting the justicia nasida*, the reader 
is referred to Miller and Willdenow (Spec. Plant, 
vol i. p. 90.). It is called in Cingalese anitia, and 
in Bengslesejooi-pana. 

Twenty-nine species of justicia grow in the bota- 
nical garden of Calcutta, all natives of India, except 
two, the justicia alba, and the justicia peruviana. 
See Hortus Bengalensis, pp. 3, 4. Twenty-three 
species grow in Ceylon. See Moon's Catalogue 
p. 8. 


NAGATALIE KULLIE rsrrv>®rrosrFu>& 
0\rrov~r (Tam.) Juppal saynd *j*m J^ (Duk.) 
Straight Thorned Opuntia, or Oblong Indian Fig. 

Cactus Ficus Indica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Succulent®. Indische Fackeldistel (Nom. Triv. 

This species of opuntia is indigenous in India, and 

is what the Silvester cochineal insect fed on so 

voraciously as almost to have rendered the plant ex- 

* Six species of justicia are natives of Jamaica, one of which 
is medicinal, the just, pectoralis ; the plant is made a syrup of, 
which is of use in disorders of the breast; the bruised leaves are 
applied to wounds and cuts. See Lunan's Hort. 
vol.ii. p. 452. 

218 IfATUIA IKimto VtLUT Uh 

timet tai tbfe CorrjmancW coast; the coctos tefca* 
they would not touch, neither would thfey the oact. 
pereski*, nor *act. optmtia* these however hav* ail 
the atone name in Tamool. The fruit of the c. oj*m* 
tia ift eaten, and the leaves are Considered as refrige* 
rant and amdied to alley external heat aad inf 


Of the essential character of the genus WUide- 
now saya, " eel. 1-phylus, aupems, imbfioatus ; cor. 
multiplex ; bacca 1-locularis, polyspermy" (Spec. 
Plant vol. ii. p. 938. > 

The species in question is the cay-luoi^rouftg of 
the Cochin-Chinese, and is distinguished by being 
proliferous jointed ; joints ovate oblong ; spines seta* 
ceous (Spec, Plant. GG9J. It is a very common plant 
in India, at least was so before it was so destructively 
fed on by the Silvester cochineal insect. The flowers, 
which are yellow, come out from the upper edges of 
the leaves, as in the species opuntia, but the fruit 
is larger, and of a deeper purple colour, and has the 
effect, to a certain degree, of dyeing the urine red 
(Miller). It would seem, that in some parts of the 
world the fruit of the cactus Jicus Indica is held iti 

* The celebrated and excellent Baron Humboldt, in his Essay 
on the Kingdom of New Spain, voUiiiw «p. 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 
and 72, informs us, that thejine differs from the Silvester or wild 
sort of cochineal, by the first insect being mealy, or covered wkh 
a white powder, while the other is enveloped in a thick cotton- 
kind of stuff, which prevents the rings of the insect from being 
seen. Although the wihl insect would not touch the cactus tuna 
in India, the same author says it indiscriminately feeds on fit, the 
cactus opuntia, and cactus ficus Indica, in America. He appears 
to have many doubts respecting the real species on which the 

frana Jina feeds, and seems half inclined to think, that the grana 
na msects, which tfc* Indians of Qaxana cultivate wkh so much 
care, do ftot actually reed on the orato* cechtmliybr, as hat been 
supposed. Mttch certain information verms yet to be obtained 
on time iatereotmg point*. For more on this subject, die reactor 
is referred to Long's History of Jamaica. 


high estimation* Jackson* in his account of the 
Empire of Morocco*, says that it is there con- 
metered as refrigerant and a gratefttl restorative to 
relaxed bowels; but it is probable he may have 
nofbuiukd this species with the cactus triangularis, 
which Browne t calls the strawberry peon, and the 
fruit of which, according to Sleane, is the pleasantest 
of any of its kind, The cactus ficus Indtca grows 
in Ceylon, with four other species, and is called by 
the Cyngalese judu-kata-patuk. See Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceytan Plants, p. 88. 


gara-movkutly kai (Tel.) Mmdcwalli (Rheede) 
Mai. ii. p. 103. t. 50. Pvtkmapoo todemie (Sans.) 
Larger/lowered Bindweed, or Moonjlower. 

Convolvulus Ghandiflorus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Campanaceae. Grosblutige Winde (Nom. Triv* 

Kagha mooghatZi lcai is the Tamool name of the 
capsule or pericarpium of this species of convol- 
vulus, containing usually four seeds about the size 
of kidney beans ; and which are eaten when young. 
Dried, these capsules and seeds, as well as the 
flowers, leaves, and root, are amongst the medicines 
which are supposed to have virtues in snake-bites. 
The dose of the seeds is about three daily, adminis- 

* See his work. 

f 8ee Lunaa's Hmt. Jmriceasts, vol. ii. p. 416* 


tered in powder. Another Taraool name of the 
plant is vuUidemboo. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, "Cor. campanulata, plicata; stigm. 2- 
caps. 2-locularis: loculis dispermis." Spec. Plant 
vol. i. p. 844. 

The species in question, which the Cingalese call 
alanga, is common on the Coromandel coast ; it has 
an arboreous, erect, twining pubescent stem ; the 
leaves, which are large, are* ovate cordate, bluntish, 
quite, entire, and peduncled j it seldom bears more 
than two or three flowers, which are so large as to 
have caused the species to be called grandiflorus: 
calyxes corraceous; stem and petioles pubescent 
(Lin. Supp. ISC). 

With the medicinal qualities of the convolvulus 
scammonia, and convolvulus jalappa, my readers are 
well acquainted. Lunan, in his Hort Jamaicensis, 
speaks of two other species, natives of Jamaica, as 
possessing virtues of a peculiar nature, viz. the con- 
volvulus repens, and convolvulus Brasiliensis ; the root 
of the first, he tells us, is, according to Sloane, 
powerfully purgative ; and is useful in working off 
hydropic humours; given in powder or boiled in 
broth. The same writer informs us, that the leaves 
of the- second are used in baths for dropsies ; and 
are "put on issues to drew them ;" and Phonier * 
says, that the inspissated, and strong-smelling, milky 
juice of the same plant is extremely purgative, in 
fact a kind of scammony ; and may be given as such 
to the quantity of from twelve to fourteen grains j 
and corrected, if necessary, by means of sulphur or 
cream of tartar. The convolvulus repens is common 

* See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, voLiu p. 107* 


in India, add its leaves, which are sagittate and ob- 
tuse behind, are eaten by the Hindoos. This spe- 
cies has a creeping stem, and a perennial root, with 
large sulphur-coloured flowers on long peduncles, 
from the sides of the stalks. It may be found in 
Rheede's Hortus Mai.* under the name of mandccodlH. 
Thirty-seven species of convolvulus are growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta, twenty-six of 
which are natives of India. See Hortus Bengalensis, 
p. Id, 14. 


(Tam.) Oni-noja (Japan). Agarih ke jurr #j-£=>t 
y* J (Duk.) Ooteraynie vayroo. (Tel.) *JU (Arab.) 
also bj*yo (Arab. Forsk. Flor. Arab.) (ma» (Egypt.) 
Lalchirchirit (Hind.) Apamarga sSJMWI j l : (Sans.) 
Root qf the Rough Achyranthes.* 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Miscellanese. Scharfe Sproublume (Nom.Triv. Willd.). 

An infusion of this root the native practitioners 
suppose to be useful in bowel complaints, from its 
slight astringency; but I conceive it to have but 
very trifling virtues if any. 

Of the genus Willdenow says, " Cal 5-phyllus ; 
cor. ; stigma 3-fidum ; sent, solitaria." Spec. Plant 
vol.i. p. 1191. 

* See Rheede, Mai. ii. p. 103. t. 50. 

f This plant was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton while in Bahar,' 
as one of those employed in medicine. The flowering spike, 
rubbed with a little sugar, is made into pills, and given to those 
who have been bitten by a mad dog. Hamilton's MSS. 


The species ia question rises to about the height 
of three or four feet, with an erect shrubby stem, 
oalyxeg repressed, and leaves resembling those of 
tb&plumhxgQ Zey toxica, in being green and smooth on 
both, .sides j they are oblong, pointed, and dotted 
tuederaeath ; the flowers ape in spike* at the end el 
the branches, appearing first like short reddish hairs, 
after which follow rough, prickly, green, reflected 
capsular containing five seeds, oblongv reddish- 
(Browne). The plant, as it grows in Sicily, differ* 
a little from the Indian variety just described * ; but 
they are no doubt but one species. Our article may 
be found particularly noticed by Browne, in his 
History of Jamaica (p., 180.) 3 it with two others 
are natives of that island, but do not appear to be 
tjiqre considered amongst their medicinal plants. I 
shall cQnclude by observing, that the achyranthes 
aspera appears to be the cadeli or cadelari of Rheedef 
and the aurkuta cams, mas. of Rumphius ( Amb.- vi. 
p. 17- 1. 12. f. 1.). Its. Sanscrit nam* is apSmSrgaX, 
atta agangob. its Bengalee chi-chi-ria apang. The 
inhabitants of the Coromandel coast use the root 
for cleaning their teeth, by forming it into a sort of 
taoth brush. In Cyngalese the plant is called gas- 
karal-swbo> and it would appear that two varieties, 
a ned and white* are distinguished in Ceylon. 

Ten speeies of achyranthes are growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta, five of which are na- 
tives of India. See Hortus Bengalensis, page 
1& Eight speetes, by Moon's account, grow on 

* See Hot. Zey \Q5, K ah* B4rm. Zey. Jg. UC t & for ama- 
nmtfi. spicat. Z^jToiucus. 

■f Ste*Hort Mrf- x. p. 1&. t. 78. • 
• f See Roc5ta»rgh>. por* Jhctica* vol ii. p. 496,. 



NAYAYAYLE1 /^^LjuCc^a^vr (Tam.) Wok 
aba (Cyn.) Aria Veefa (Rheede). Hoor*howya 
(Hind.) Kooka vaivinta, also Kooka Fumitie, SvSnS 
hvrbdrcL (Sans.) Viscid Cleome. 

Cleome Viscosa (Lin.). 

CI. and OrA Tetractynamkt SiKquosa. Nat. Ord. 
Ptrtamineaev Ktebvig* Cleome> (Norn. Triv; WHld,). 

The small, compressed, netted surfaced, hottish- 
tasted seeds, of this low-growing* plant, have got the 
Tamool 1 name of NShi kudddghoo op dog** mustard ; 
and are considered by the Vytians as anthelmintic, 
and carminative ; they *re administered m the quan- 
tity of about a tea-spoonful, twice daily In Duk- 
hanie the seeds are called chSrie cfyooan i^y^S (S jy ^ 
and in Arabic buzrool bunge chemur j** f^^jji^ 

The juice of the leaves, lUieede * says, is useful in 
deafness, poured into the ears. Of the essential 
character of the genus, Wiiyenow observes, " Glan- 
duloe nectariferse 3, ad singulum sinum calycis sin- 
gular, excepto infimo ; petala oipniq, adscendentia ; 
siliqua unilocularis, bivalvis." Spec. Plant, vol. Hi. 
p. 564. 

The species in question is an annual plant, a na- 
tive of India, and Cfeylon, and seldom rises more 
than a foot high ; with a simple, erect^ round, striat- 
ed, villose, viscid stem ; which is usually of a red or 
rather reddish colour. The flowers* wlgph are 
axillary, gedunoied* at th* top of the ylaqfe ane 

* Rheede (Mai. ix. 2S.). 


twelve-stamened, and of a yellow white colour, and 
the leaves are quinate, except the uppermost, which 
are ternate (see Miller) ; thev much resemble in this 
respect those of the cleome pentaphyUa, which is 
the vayley of the Tamools, and maiumantia of the 
Cochin-Chinese, but have not the same fetid smell, 
and are smaller. 

Of the four species of this plant, natives of Ja- 
maica, two it would seem, are considered in that 
island as medicinal, that just mentioned (pentaph.), 
and the cleome polygama. Browne, in his account 
of that country, informs us, that the first is a whole- 
some green, but from its being a little bitterish, re- 
quires repeated boilings to make it palatable; he 
adds, that it is then considered as a preserv- 
ative against the dry belly-ache. In Barbadoes*, 
Hughes tells us, that the juice of it mixed with 
sweet oil, and poured into the ear, cures the ear- 
ache ; and this virtue, according to Lunan (Hort. 
Jamaica, vol. i. p. 68.), is confirmed by the testimony 
of Dr. A. Robinson. 

With regard to the cleome potygama, Barham 
maintains (Hort. Amer., p. 108.), that the whole 
plant is balsamic and vulnerary, and that the leaves 
boiled in water provoke appetite, comfort the stomach, 
and expel wind ! The species cleome dodecahdria 
and cleome icosandria, are both natives of India; 
the first is the sinapistrum of Burm. (Zeyl.216.), 
the root of which is a vermifuge ; the second is the 
lagansa of Rumph. (Amb. v. t 96.) j and is em- 
ployed for blistering.t 

* See Hughes's Barbadoes, p. 210. 

t Seven species of cleome appear to grow on Ceylon. Lou- 
reiro notices but two in Cochin-China. JJfar. GacJun-Chja. vol, iL 
p. 397. 



*g>&rr(5orQjy L jrf- (Tam.) also Ndryeramoorchum 
(Rheede). Prolific Swallow-wort Root. 

Asclepias Prolifera # (Rottler). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat Ord. 

This small fibrous root operates as an emetic, and 
is usually given as such in the quantity of about half 
a pagoda weight for a dose ; it is of a pale brown 
colour and somewhat nauseous taste. It is one of 
those medicines the Vytians have most reliance on, 
in cases of hydrophobia! j but I fear, they are often 

* Of it Rottler says, in his Herbarium (MSS.), kindly lent me 
by Sir Alexander Johnston, " Caul, volubili, pubescente ; Jbl. 
opposit. petiolat. cordato-ovat. acut. venos, supra glabris, infra 
sub pubescentibus ; Jlorib. axillarib. umbellatis; umbellis folio 
longioribus omnibus proliferis." 

f I regret to say, that hydrophobia is of very frequent occur* 
rence in India ; some twenty years ago, it was there supposed 
that copious bleeding was a remedy to be relied on, but, alas ! 
that was found to be but a delusion. On the person bitten being 
immediately brought to me, I have never failed to prevent the 
malady ensuing ; by first washing the part with warm water, and 
then searing it effectually with a red-hot iron ; but when the dis- 
ease had once come on, I have yet seen none of the many things 
given to arrest its progress have the smallest good effect. It is 
singular enough, that hydrophobia should be so much more com- 
mon in some countries than others, though in nearly similar la- 
titudes. The late Dr. Harris, of Madras, told me, that it was 
altogether unknown on any of the Eastern islands. Sonnerat, I 
think, says, they have it not at the Isle of France. Brown, in his 
Travels in Africa, p. 338., observes, that in Egypt they are exempt 
from it. Genlis avers, that it never occurs at Manilla. The 
Abbl Don J. Ignatius has declared, in his History of Chili (vol. i. 
p. 34.), .that there is no instance of its ever having appeared in 



disappointed in their treatment of this most awful 


Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Contorta, nect. 
5-ovata, concava, corniculum exserentia. 

The species in question has been scientifically de- 
scribed by Rottler, who first brought it to the espe- 
cial notice of botanists ; though it appears evidently 
to be the nansjerapatja of the Hort. Mai. 

Twenty species of asclepias, are growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. See Hortus Benga- 
lensis, p. 20, 21 . 

that part of the world. And Mr. De la Condamine states, that in 
South America cats and dogs never go mad ! 

It was believed, some half dozen years ago, that Mr. Mara- 
chotti, of the hospital at Moscow, had discovered that, this dis- 
order manifested itself by certain small knots under the tongue, 
containing the poison, and that it was only necessary to open 
these and scarify them with a red-hot iron, to obviate all mischief; 
it does not appear, however, that this certainly simple method of 
cure has been confirmed by subsequent testimony, nor can I learn 
that any medical man of this country has ever yet seen such knots 
as are above-mentioned. So late as the year 1822, Mr. Previssal, 
of Paris, was said, by some ingenious experiments, to have found 
that the oxyginated muriatic acid, in doses of from f£i to f5tss., 
given in citron water, removed the disease even after the symp- 
toms were advanced; but I do not hear that this treatment, either, 
has borne the test of further experience. Considering that 
hydrophobia is a malady of violent excitement, an excitement 
which none of our antispasmodics or sedatives has hitherto been 
found powerful enough to subdue, might it not lead, perhaps, to 
some interesting result, since the evil cannot be remedied by any 
medicinal means within our reach, were we to try what could be 
done by combating one disease with another. As hydrophobia 
is then that which is marked by the most unmanageable excite- 
ment, I should recommend that recourse should be had to that 
which is distinguished as being most direct and deadly sedative 
known, I mean the bite of a coverkapel. This, to some it may 
seem strange, proposition I suggested to a medical friend whfc 
lately returned to India, who. agreed with me that for a desperate 
disease we may be excused in looking towards a desperate re- 




Tetranthera Monopetala (Roxb.). 

This is a middle-sized tree, a native of the vallies, 
and first scientifically described by Roxburgh in his 
« Coromandel Plants " (vol. ii. p. 26.) It has an 
erect stem, with a dark-greenish rusty coloured 
smooth bark; the leaves are alternate, short-petioled, 
oblong, entire, above pretty smooth, below downy, 
and from four to six inches long, and from two to 
three broad; there are male and female Jiowers; the 
peduncles are axillary, numerous, short, undivided ; 
bractes small, rusty-coloured, downy at the insertion 
of each peduncle. The bark is mildly astringent, 
and has a considerable degree of balsamic sweetness ; 
it is used by the hill people in the cure of diarrhoea : 
for particulars I refer to the work above cited. The 
tree is indigenous in Hindoostan, and has got the 
Bengalese name of kookoorcMtta, and is of the class 
and order Dioiecia Enneandria. Nine species of the 
genus are growing in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta, but two species appear to be natives of 

<* 8 




Laurus Involucrata* (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Enneandria Monogynia. 

This is a small tree, found on the tops of the 
mountains in the Northern Circars, and is only no- 
ticed here from the circumstance of the natives em- 
ploying the fresh bark mixed with pepper as an 
application to wounds : for botanical particulars the 
reader is referred to vol. ii. p. 46. of the Coromandel 
Plants of Roxburgh. 

Of the genus Laurus, Loureiro found ten species 
in Cochin-China ; four are in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta; four in Ceylon, and six in Japan (Flor* 
Japan, p. 172.). 


NATTOO SOWCARUM ^nri_(^*si4e>e>n-/rLo 
(Tam.) Saboon (jj^U» (Duk.) Indian Soap. 

Sapo Jndica. 

Soap is employed by the native practitioners of 
India nearly for the same purposes that we use it : 
they imagine, with what propriety is doubtful, that it 
is particularly efficacious in timpanites, or what the 

* I perceive, in Dr. Horsfield's Account of the Medicinal 
Plants of Java, mention made of a species of laurus, which he 
calls malabralum, but which I know nothing of; the Javanese call 
it sintok, and place it amongst their Stimulants. 


Taraools call coonma vaivoo. It is purgative and 
lithontriptic, and externally applied, it is an excellent 
stimulant and detergent : the dose is generally from 
five or six grains to five-and-twenty or thirty. 

The different articles employed by the Vytians and 
soap-makers on the Coromandel Coast, in the process 
of making soap, are overmunnoo * (Tam.), poon- 
Jieert, ooppoo (common salt), pottle ooppoo (saltpetre) 
and chunamboo (quick-lime): proper proportions of 
each of these being chosen, they are all bruised toge- 
ther, and to the whole is added a certain quantity of 
pure water, the mixture is then well agitated for se- 
veral hours, and allowed to stand for three days ; the 
feculent matter having fallen to the bottom, the lixivi- 
um is strained off and boiled to form the sowcarum, a 
sufficient proportion of gingilie oil (oil of the sesa- 
mum Orientate) having been previously added when 
it first began to boil. This process, in fact, differs 
but little from that given by Macquer, and is perhaps 
the best for preparing what is called the oil-soap* 
There are varying formula for making other kinds, 

* Overmunnoo is a saline earthy substance, found in many parts 
of Lower India, which contains a great deal of soda> and is em- 
ployed by the Hindoos in the preparation of the lac dye, in 
bleaching, washing, dyeing, and soap-making ; also in the manu- 
facture of glass. In some parts of the Mysore country this sub- 
stance (there called soolu munnoo) is seen in the form of a white 
efflorescence on the surface of sandy fields; and, in all proba- 
bility, differs but little in its nature from the natron Sonnini speaks 
of as being common in the middle of a desart in Egypt, and from 
which an impure mineral alkali is prepared, used in bleaching. 
See Sonnini's Travels in Egypt, also Brown's. 

f This is a very light, white-coloured, earthy matter, and, like 
the above-mentioned, contains a considerable portion of soda ; it 
is employed in making glass, in dyeing, and by the chucklers 
(tanners) in tanning. I conceive it to resemble much that species 
of impure fossil alkali, called at Tripoli irona, found near the 
surface of the earth in the province of Mendrab, and which the 
Africans of Morocco use in the process of dyeing their leather 
red. See Lucas's Travels into the Interior of Africa. 

Q S 


such as brown or yellow soap, white, black, and green 
ditto, all of which are distinctly detailed by Mr. Ni- 
cholson in his admirable work on chemistry applied 

to the arts. 

The reader may find the virtues of soap considered 
as a medicine amongst the Persians and Arabians well 
detailed in a work, entitled Krabadinie Masumie 
^yex* &#*ih'> or the Complete Dispensatory, writ- 
ten by Masum Ben Ibrahim, a native of Shiraz, in 


rKju^Q^rr]^^ £&[__ (Tam.) Badamie hindie cfoOA ^laU 
(Duk.) Adamaram (Rheede). Cotumba (Cyng.) 
Vadomvittiloo (Tel.) Catappa (Malays)* Inggudi 

^JpO (Sans.) Indian Almond. 

Terminalia Catappa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Moncecia. Nat OrcL 
Elseagni. Gemeiner Catappenbaunu 

The kernel of the drupe of this species of ter- 
minalia has the taste and virtues of the almond, 
though perhaps, the flavour is more that of the 
English filbert. The drupe is nearly three inches 
long, egg-shaped, grooved, and contains but one ker- 
nel, which is considered as a nourishing food for 
weak people, and from which a pleasant edible oil is 
prepared, called in Tamool vadomcattay unnay. 

Of the essential character of the genus Willde- 
now says, 

" Mascul. CaL ,5-partitus ; cor. j stam. 10- 


" Hermaph. Flos, masculi ; styl. 1 ; drupa infera, 
cymbifbrmis" (Spec. Plant vol. iv. p. 967.). 

The species now under our consideration is a large, 
tall, leafy, and most beautiful tree, (of which there 
are two varieties, a red and a white), with spreading 
branches in whorls. The leaves, which are obovate, 
and somewhat tomentose beneath, come out at the 
end of the branches in clusters. They are marked 
with a notch, and on short roundish petioles. The 
" hermaphrodite flowers," Willdenow observes, " are 
few, more remote, at the base of the racemelet, 
smaller than those of the currant ; the kernel has 
the taste of a hazel nut." • Cotamba, inggudl, and 
catappa, are the Cyngalese, Sanscrit, and Malay 
names of the tree, not of the kernel. At Ran da 
and Batavia, the tree grows wild in the woods : and 
we learn from Rheede, that it bears fruit three times 
in the year on the Malabar coast. I shall further 
notice respecting the terminatia catappa, that it is a 
valuable timber tree, and is what the levers of the 
draw-wells (jpikottas) are usually made of at Madras. 
Foster (George), in his work " De Plantis Esculentis 
Insularum Oceani Australis," tells us that the bark 
and leaves yield a black pigment, with which the 
Indians dye their teeth, and of which Indian ink is 
sometimes made. Of the two species, natives of 
Jamaica, term, latifolia and term, arbuscula, the first 
only is medicinal, and bears, in its appearance, it 
would seem, a strong resemblance to our article j 
differing from it chiefly in having leaves only half 
the size, and the nut only one third, oval, and not at 
all grooved or margined. By Foster's account, in his 
work above cited, we learn that the term, latifol. is a 

# See Willdenow Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 968. 

Q, 4 


native of the Society and Friendly Islands, and that 
at Otaheite it is called auwiri ; the kernels, he says, 
are eaten, and have the flavour of almonds. At 
Jamaica they are much prized; and Mr. Lunan* 
observes, that a decoction of the root of the tree is 
in that Island given in cases of diarrhoea. Our ar- 
ticle appears to be the adamaram of Rheede (Mai. iv. 
t 5.). It, with three other species, grows in Ceylon 
(Moon's Catalogue, p. 73.). 


NAWEL PUTTAYr5n-c^jj^LJL^i-c23)L-(Tam.) 
Jamoon ke chdwl Jl^ Jt cn^W- (Duk.) Nereddie 


putta (Tel.) Kakajambu ^1^*51 *<s[ (Sans.) Bark 

qf the Clove-tree-leaved Calyptranthes. 

Calyptranthes Caryophyllifolia (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Hesperideae. Gewurznagleinblattarige Deckelmyrte 
(Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

This astringent bark is occasionally prescribed by 
the Vytians, in decoction, in fevers, and in certain 
bowel affections, in the quantity of half a tea-cupful 
twice daily ; it is also employed in the same form as 
a wash for foul ulcers. The bark is of a brownish 
colour, thick, and cloven, and has something of an 
aromatic smell. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cal superus trun- 
catus ante anthesin tectus operculo integerrimo de- 
ciduo; cor. 0; bacca unilocularis 1 — 4 sperma" 
(Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 974.). 

* See Lunan ^s Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 116. 


The species in question is the peria njara of 
Rheede, * and the eugenia corticosa of Loureiro 
(Cochin, p. 376.)* I* * s a ^arge tree with spreading 
branches. The author just cited, in speaking of it, 
observes, " foliis ovatis acuminatis racemis corymbosis 
filantentis brevissimis." We may further say, that 
the plant is the jambosa cer arnica of Rumphius (Amb. 
1. p. 130. t 41.), and is distinguished, " paniculis 
lateralibus foliis eliptico-ovatus integerrimis." f It ap- 
pears to me, that our present article well merits a 
more minute investigation than it has yet had ; all 
who have yet hitherto written any account of the 
tree, speak of its aromatic properties. Burman 
(Zey. 27.) calls it arbor Zeylonica cuminum redolens ; 
and Plukenette t (Leonard) in his Ahnagestum Bota- 
nicum, terms 'it caryophillus languescente yi aroma- 

Our article, with four other species, grows on Cey- 
lon, called there bata-domba and must not be con- 
founded with the calyp. caryophillata, which is the 
gceta-dan of the Cyngalese. See also Rheede (Mai. 
5. 27.). 


NEDEL KALUNG G > r 3 us&<J>ov>0Pi s prKj<& 
(Tam.) Root of a variety qf the Egyptian Water 


Nymphjea Lotus § (Var.) 

• See Hort. Mai. v. p. 57. t. 29. 

f See Willd. in Uster, neue Annalen, ii» stuch. p. 22. 

\ See Aim. 88. 1 274. f. 2. 

§ The nymphsa lotus is growing in the Company's garden at 
Calcutta, and has got the Bengalie name of shalook / it is also a 
native of Ceylon, and is called in Cyngalese *t-oul ; two kinds are 
there distinguished, the white and red. Avicenna, in his Canon. 


CL and Ord. Polyahdria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Succulents JEgyptissche Seerose (Nona. Triv. 

This tuberous root, which is in its nature mucila- 
ginous and demulcent, is amongst the medicines 
which the native practitioners prescribe internally in 
pile cases ; it is ordered in the form of powder, de- 
coction, and electuary ; of the latter a tea-spoonful 
is given twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, "Cor. polypetala; cal. 4, s. 5-phyllusj 
bacca multilocularis, loculis polyspermism Spec. 
Plant, vol. ii. p. 1151. 

I have never seen the plant of which our article 
is the root, but have called it a variety of the nym- 
phaea lotus # , on certain excellent authority, that of 
my much esteemed friend Dr. Rottler; though I 
think it bears a question whether it may not be 
the root of quite a different plant, I mean the 
menyanthes Indica, which is the nymphcea ceramica of 
Rumphius t, and what Browne J, in his Natural His- 
tory of Jamaica, calls " menyan. aquatica nymphce 
Jbliis cordato-orbiculatis, petiolis Jloriferis" To this 
conjecture I am especially led, by the name of the 
last-mentioned plant being, according to Rheede §, 
nidiUumbel, which is nearly the same as that of the 

Med. lib. ii. tract ii, p. 137., speaks of three species or sorts of 
lotus (khandakokie JS^SaJsL ), the silvestris, the sativa, and the 
Egypt. ; of the seed 'of which last kind, he says, bread is made. 
* The nymph, lotus is jju nuphar of the Arabians ; the ancient 

Egyptians made a sort of bread of its seed; it is the ambel of 
Rheede, ii. t. 26. 

f See his Arab. vi. p. 1YS. t. 72. f. 3. 

j History of Jamaica, p. 151. 

$ See Hort. Mai. ii. p. 55. U 28. 


aquatic plant now under our immediate considera- 
tion ; ambel being, it would seem, the common generic 
appellation for many water plants on the Malabar 
coast, in a similar manner as we find that cumuda (or 
delight of the water) is a common Sanscrit term for 
many of the same kind of plants in the higher pro- 
vinces of Bengal, and which, by the way, Sir W. 
Jones bestows on a variety of the menyanthes Indica. 
The menyan. Indica ov Indian buckbean, has leaves cor- 
date, subcrenate, and by Sloane's account resembling 
those of the colt'sfoot ; the petioles are floriferous, and 
the corollas hairy within : it is a native of Malabar.* 


NEER ADIMOOTTOO rg^L-je-OT srs/ (Tam.) 
also Neervettie moottoo f Tam.) Junglie badam J&* 
JaL (Duk.) Adivie vadum vittiloo (Tel.) 

This is an oval-shaped brown nut, about the size 
of a filbert, but flattish ; from its kernel, which has 
a nauseous smell, and tastes unctuous and a little 
acrid, an oil is prepared, that is supposed by the na- 
tive doctors to possess . virtues in leprous affections, 
given in doses of half a tea-spoonful twice daily j it 
for the most part sickens a good deal at first The 
kernels and thin shells are sometimes ground together, 
and after being mixed with a little castor-oil are ap- 
plied externally to cure the itch. I have not been 

* What Loureiro calls the nymphcea nelumbo, the cay-sen of the 
Cochin-Chinese, but which is the nelumbium speciosum of Will- 
denow, is a native of Cochin-China, where both the root and 
seeds are eaten ; it is the tamara of Rheede (Hort. Mai. iL p. 59. 
t. 80.)> and the ren, also foists of the Japanese. Flor. Japon. 
p. 223. 


able to ascertain from what plant this article is ob- 
tained (it being usually brought from the woods) ; but 
conjecture, that it may be from a species of jatropha. 


(Tam.) Gokshura \j^ J^f (Hind.) * Neer goobbie 

vayroo (Tel.) Itehugandha S$\*\**X\ (Sans.)t 
Root qf the Long-leaved Barleria. 

Barleria Longifolia (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Personate. Langblattrige Barlerie (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

This root, which has got its Tamool name from 
growing near water, is supposed to have virtues 
similar to those of the moollie vayr already men- 
tioned. The plant is the baheUschuUi of Rheede t, 
who tells us, that on the Malabar coast a decoction 
of the root of the biennial shrub is considered as 
diuretic, and given in dropsical cases and gravelish 
affections ; the dose is about half a tea-cupful twice 
daily. The species in question has an erect, bluntly 
quadrangular, hisped stem; leaves opposite, ensi- 
form, and very long; flowers on whorls blue or 
bright violet, axillary (Miller). It is a native of 
the Western coast of India ; whence the root is 
brought across the peninsula to the medicine bazars 
of the Carnatic. 

* Another 5 Hindoostanie name is talmukhana Ul^CcJj. 

+ The plant has got still another Sanscrit name palangkasha. 

% See Hort. Malab. par. ii. p. 88. 


I shall conclude by observing, that of the genus 
of which but twelve species have hitherto been no- 
ticed, Willdenow says, " Cal. 4-partitus j stamina 2- 
longe minora j caps. 4-angularis, 2-locularis ? 2-vaIvis, 
elastica absque unguibus; sent. 2." Spec. Plant, 
vol. iii. p. 875. 

Seven species of barleria are growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta. Four species grow on 
Ceylon, where our article is called katu-iriki by the 


NEER-NOCHIE rg>&G>£9&&* (Tam.) Panie 
ke Shumbalie JUli ^ ^L (Duk.) Ussel ke abee 
^L£ J*J (Arab.) Nisindha (Hind.) also Seduari 
(Hind.) Lagoondi (Javan.) Thuoc-on (Coch. Chin.) 
Neela vavilie (Tel.) Caranosi* (Rheede). Jala- 

nirgwtdi ST^jf^Wf^? a* 80 Sinduvara f^pi^TC 
(Sans.) Three-leaved Chaste Tree. 

Vitex Trifolia (Lin.). 

CL and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Personate. Dreyblattrige Mullen (Nom. Triv. 

The tender shoots and leaves of this beautiful 
species of chaste tree (the last of which have a 
slightly bitter but delightful aromatic taste and smell), 
are considered by the native practitioners of India 
as powerfully discutient; and are in consequence 

* See Hort. Mal.ii. p. IS. 1. 10. 


used in the form of fomentation, or simply ap- 
plied warm in cases of sprains, rheumatism, swelled 
testicles, contusions*, contractions of the limbs, &c. ; 
and it is a fact, that Bontius himself, who calls the 
plant Indian privet, extols it highly for the same 
virtues. Both Rumphius and Rheede particularly 
notice it ; the first, according to Horsfield t, recom- 
mends it externally in swellings and diseases of the 
skin; the latter asserts, that the leaves powdered 
taken with water cure intermittent fever, and the root, 
an(T a bath or cataplasm of the leaves, he adds, are 
applied externally in rheumatism and local pains. 
The small, smooth, round, dark-coloured fruit is sup- 
posed by the Vytians to be nervine, cephalic, and 
emmenagogue, and is prescribed in powder, elec- 
tuary, and decoction, the latter in closes of half a 
tea-cupful twice daily. Of the essential character 
of the geniis, Willdenow says, "Cal. 5-dentatus; 
cor. limbus 6-fidus ; drupa 1-sperma, nuce 4-loculari." 
Spec. Plant Willd. vol. iii. p. 390. 

The species in question, which is the meean-milila 
of the Cyngalese, and the thuoc-on of the Cochin- 
Chinese, rises to about the height of ten feet, being 
shrubby, branched, and round, and not thicker than 
the finger; it is often procumbent, and sometimes 
even creeping. " The leaves are ternate and quinate; 
leaflets ovate, acute, quite entire, hoary beneath, 
panicle with a straight rachis, pedicels dichoto- 
mous" (Lin. Supp. 293.). The flowers are violet in 
terminating racemes. The three-leaved chaste tree 
is the lagondium vulgare of Rumphius J ; it is a com- 

* See Hist. Aromat Garcia ab Horto, p. 191. 
f See his account of Java medicinal plants, in the Asiatic 
Journal for March 1819, p. 261. 
X See Amb. iv. p. 48. t. 18. 


mon Indian plant j was found by Loureiro * in 
Cochin-China* and has been well described by Sir 
William Jones t, who informs us, that in Upper 
Hindoostan, the leaves of it are used to stuff pil- 
lows, in order to cure cold in the head and head- 
ache. See article Noochie in this Chapter. 


NEERPIRIMIE rg^dH-S^uF (Tarn.) Skwet- 
chamni (Hind.) Sambranichittoo (Tel.) Adha-birni 
(Beng.) Jala brimmi (Sans.) Thyme-leaved Gratiola. 

Gratiola Monnieria (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Personate. Westindisches Purgierkraut (Nom.Triv. 

The jointed root, as well as the stalks and leaves, 
of this creeping annual plant, are all used in medi- 
cine by the Hindoos, who consider them as diuretic 
and aperient, and to be particularly useful in that 
sort of stoppage of urine which is accompanied with 
obstinate costiveness j and Dr. 'Roxburgh, in his 
Flora Indica, informs us, that the expressed juice of 
it, mixed with petrolium, is rubbed on parts affected 
with rheumatism. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 

* Of the fruit Loureiro says, " Califaciens, discutiens, nervina, 
cephalic a, emmenagoga, prodest in paralysi, et artuum debilitate." 
Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 390. Dr. F. Hamilton (MSS.) found 
the flowers (sinduyarphul) prescribed, in Behar, in conjunction 
with a little honey, in fevers attended with vomiting and much 

f See his account of select Indian plants, in the Asiatic Re- 
searches, vol. iv. p. 293. 


says, " Cor. Irregularis, resupinata ; stam. 2-sterilia ; 
caps. 2-locularis ; cal 7-phyllus, 2 exterioribus pa- 
tulis" (Spec. Plant vol. i. p. 102.). 

The species in question, which is only found in 
moist situations, and which the Tellingoos call sam- 
brani-chittoo, in Bengalie has got the name of adha- 
birrti, sticks close to the ground, and casts a few 
slender fibres from every joint as it creeps. The 
leaves are opposite, sessile, obovate, wedge-shaped 
or oblong, smooth, entire, obtuse, fleshy, and dotted 
with minute spots ; and the flowers are blue.* The 
plant has been described by Sloane, in his Natural 
History of Jamaica t, under the name of anagaUis 
aquatica. Browne t, in his Natural History of the 
same island, says of it, monniera minima repens. It 
is a native of Ceylon, where fifteen species grow ; 
our article is there called lunuswila. 


NEELACOOMUL - V AYR tfc^e> <&g?ovtG 
crud 1 " (Tam.) Nild goomadi vayroo (Tel.) Waren 

(Javan.) Biddari (Sans.) Root of the Asiatic 

Gmelina Asiatic a (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Persoimtae. Ostindische Gmettne (Nom. Triv. 

* See Roxburgh's Flora Indica, voLi. pp. HI, 142., also Cor. 
PI. ii. 1. 178. 
t See History, i. p,203. 1. 129. f. 1. 
t See work, 269. 


This root, which, as it appears in the bazars, is 
mucilaginous and demulcent, the Vytians reckon 
amongst those medicines which purify the blood, in 
cases of depraved habit of body ; given in the form 
of electuary, to the quantity of a tea-spoonful twice 

Dr. Horsfield, in his Account of the Medicinal 
Plants of Java, informs us, that the plant was for- 
merly in high esteem amongst the Portuguese, who 
call it rats madre de deos ; he adds, that it is men- 
tioned by Rumphius (on the authority of a commu- 
nication he received from Malacca), who calls it 
jambusa sylvestris parviflora.* The Javanese term it 
waren, and would appear to consider it as of a dele- 
terious nature. Loureiro speaks of its virtues : 
" Valent in doloribus articulorum, et affectibus ner- 
vorum, radix interne sumpta; folia externe appli- 
cata." Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 376. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Cal. sub 4-dentatus ; cor. 4-fida, campanulata; 
antherce 2-bipartitae, 2-simplices ; drupa nuce 2-locu- 
1 an" (Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 313.). 

Our article is the only species that has yet been 
noticed by Willdenow, and was first scientifically 
described by Professor Gmelin, of Petersburgh, who 
wr#te the Flora Siberica. It is the gceta-demata of 
the Cyngalese, and is " a tree with round, stiff, upright 
branches; leaves opposite, petioled, ovate, tomen- 
tose underneath, having frequently a sharp short lobe 
on each side ; spines axillary, opposite, horizontal, 
pubescent at the tip, the length of the petioles ; 
Jhwers from the end of the tender twigs on pedun- 
cles t; the Jruit is a berried drupe the size of jujubes, 

* See Rumph. Amb. i. p. 129. t. 40. 
f See Willd. Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. SIS. 



black and smooth ; it contains two small lateral 
lobes, in each of the two upper cells is a single seed, 
thickish, convex on the one side and flattish on the 

I shall conclude what I have to say of this plant 
by a remark from Miller; viz. that the cumbula of the 
Hort. Mai. (i. p. 75. t. 41.) is by no means a bigno- 
nia (catalpct), but a genuine species of Gmetina, as 
the fruit evinces. 

Four species of Gmelina are growing in the bota- 
nical garden of Calcutta*, all natives of India. The 
leaves of the species parviflora (Roxb.), gently 
bruised and agitated in water, render it mucilagi- 
nous and demulcent, and useful as a drink in gonor- 
rhoea. See article Shieri Goomoodoo, in this Part 
and Chapter. 



Ljyn® (Tam.) Siah Mooslie J**}* «U* (Duk.) 

•« * 

TaUmoolie (Beng.) Nalla tady gudda (Tel.) Wo- 
rahit (Sans.) Nelepannay Root, or Root of the 
Orchis-like Curcutigo. 

Curculigo Orchioides (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Ragwur- 
zartige Russellilie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This tuberous and wrinkled root, as it appears in 
the medicine bazars, is about four inches long ; in a 
slight degree bitter and mucilaginous to the taste, 
and is supposed to possess virtues nearly similar to 

* See Hort. Bengalensis, p. 46. 
f Also moossalie (Sans.). 


the last- mentioned article. It is prescribed in elec- 
tuary, in the quantity of a tea-spoonful twice daily ; 
it is also considered as possessing tonic qualities, 
and sometimes given with milk and sugar, in doses 
of two drachms in the twenty-four hours, in cases 
requiring such medicines. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cor. 6-petala 
plana; spatha 1 -val vis ; stylus brevissimus ; stigmata 
3-divergentia ; caps. 1-locul., 4-sperma spongiosa 
rostrata" (Spec. Plant, vol. ii. p. 105.). 

The plant in question has been particularly de- 
scribed by Roxburgh, in his Corom. Plants (i. p. 14. 
t IS.), and by Gcertner, in his work " De Fructibus 
et Seminibus Plantarum." " It is a low-growing plant 
with a tuberous root, which has many fleshy vermi. 
cular fibres ; numerous leaves, all radical, petioled, 
and sword-shaped ; with long, yellow, pedunculated 
flowers." Willdenow seems to consider it as the 
orchis amboinica major of Rumphius (Amb. vi. 
p. 116. t.54. f. l.)j and Gaertner observes, that it 
differs from every other vegetable production in the 
singular structure of its style and capsule, and the 
roundish horny process from the outer and upper 
part of the seed, resembling the beak of a curculio, 
a coleopterous insect. 

In the Hortus Bengalensis we find three species 
of curcuUgo mentioned, two of which are natives of 
India ; see p. 29. of that work. Four species are 
natives of Ceylon. 

ft * 



NELLIE POO Gr53v<*>^u> (Tam.) Anooli 

ka pool ^ tf J»fl (Duk.) Vurdi amludge (Arab.) 

Wooshertki poo~ (Tel.) Flower of the Etnbttc My- 

robolan, or Shrubby Phyllanthus. 

Phyllanthus Emblica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 
Tricoccae. Baumartiger Phyllanthus (Nom t Triv. 


The umbelled yellow flowers of this species of 
phyllanthus have an odour much resembling that of 
lemon-peel, and are supposed, by the Vytians, to 
have virtues of a cooling and aperient nature ; they 
are prescribed, in conjunction with other articles, in 
the form of an electuary, in the quantity of about a 
tea- spoonful twice daily. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cal. 6-partitus ; cor. ; filament. 
columnare ; anth. 3. 

" Feminei. Cal. 6-partitus ; cor. ; nect. margo 
12-angulatus; styliS; caps, tricocca." 

The species in question is the amla of the Benga- 
lese, and the melloko of the Javanese ; has a tree-like 
stem, which rises to the height of twelve or fourteen 
feet, with leaves, according to Sir William Jones, 
opposite, in general, oblong and lanced. The fruit 
is eaten by the Indians ; has a place amongst the 
Astringents of the Javanese ; and has been particu- 
larly described in the first volume of this work, 
under the head of Myrobolan, Emblic ; it is also 


noticed in speaking of the medicine Bitlaban, in 
this chapter. The plant has two Sanscrit names, 
amffldka and amrita ; it is a native of India, Java, 
Cochin-China, and China ; in which laskmentioned 
country, Loureiro tells us, its fruit has little or no 
juice. It is the cay-boung-ngot of the Cochin- 
Chinese ; boa Malacca nilicai of Rumph. ( Amb. c. ii. 
tab. i.) ; the mUi-camarum (Rheede) and the myra- 
bolanus in Java (Bont. Jav. i. 6. c. 24.). 


NEELA CADAMBOO (Tarn.) NaUa-usfrgki 
(Tel.) Madras Phyllanthus. 

Phyllanthus Maderaspatensis (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Madrassisher Phyllanthus (Norn. Triv. 

The leaves of this plant which are wedge-shaped, 
alternate, and mucronate, are used in infusion by 
the Vytians, which is drank as a useful medicine in 

The essential character of the genus has been no- 
ticed in treating of our last article. The species in 
question has its name from growing near Madras ; 
it does not rise higher than two or three feet, 
and may be found particularly described by Gsert- 
ner (De Fructibus 2. 125.), and is called by 
Pitever, in his Gozophylacium Naturae and Artes, 
nirouri maderaspat. senna folio longiore. The calyxes 
of the female flowers are six-toothed and blunt, of 
the male, five-toothed ; these latter have five small 

r 3 


petals and three stamens. For further and more 
minute particulars the reader is referred to Willde- 
now's Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 575, and also to Ret- 
chard, from Forsk. Egypt, vi. 159. 

Twenty-one species of phyllanthus are growing in 
the Honorable Company's garden at Calcutta, almost 
all natives of India. See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 69. 
Ten species are natives of Ceylon. 


NEREIPOOTTIE (Tarn.) Nakapootta chittoo 
(Tel.) Manayi (Cyng.) Procumbent Justicia. 

Justicia Procumbens (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Personate. Liegende Justice (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The juice of the leaves of this plant is squeezed 
into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia. The essential 
character of the genus has been already given. The 
species in question has herbaceous diffuse branches, 
with sessile, linear-lanceolate, opposite leaves ; spikes 
terminal, four-sided ; bractes lanceolate, rigid; lower 
anthers calcarate. The justicia procumbens is com- 
mon on pasture ground on the Coromandel coast, and 
seldom rises higher than seven or eight feet, with 
beautiful rose-coloured flowers, which are small, 
opposite, and decussate.* Twenty-nine species of 
justicia are growing in the Company's botanical 
garden at Calcutta, twenty-eight of which are natives 
of India. See Hort. Bengalensis. 

* See Roxburgh's Flora Indies, vol.i. pp. 133, 134. 



NERINGIE G3d^^^ (Tam.) Gokoroo >J£ 
(Duk. also Hind.) Khusuck Ju**: (Pers.) Bustee- 
taj roomee ^ s UJu^ (Arab.) Putleroo (Tel.) 
Cay-ma vuong (Coch. Chin.) Soodumstra (Sans.) 
Small Caltrops. 

Tribulus Terrestris (Lin.). 

CL and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Gruinales. Gemeinar Burzeldron. 

The pleasant-smelling and sweetish -tasted leaves, 
as well as the fibrous root of this annual, horizontal- 
growing plant, are said by the native practitioners to 
possess diuretic qualities ; and are prescribed by 
them in decoction in the quantity of half a tea-cup- 
full twice or thrice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Cat. 5-partitus : petala 5, paten tia ; 
stylus. 0> caps. 5, gibbse, spinosae, polyspermy." 
Spec. Plant, vol. ii. p. 566. 

The species in question is a common plant near 
the Dardanelles, and called in modern Greek Tg*0<faiA; 
" it has a slender fibrous root, from which spring four 
or five delicate stalks, spreading flat on the ground ; 
these are hairy, and extend two feet and a half in 
length, the leaves are pinnated, six-paired, and 
nearly round. The flowers are axillary, on short 
peduncles, and composed of five broad, obtuse, 
yellow petals ; these are succeeded by a roundish 
five-cornered fruit about the size of a marble, armed 
with prickles, the bane of foot-travellers ; this ripen- 

r 4 


nig, divides into five cells, each containing one or 
two four-horned seeds." For further particulars re- 
specting this plant, see Hort. Cliff. 160, and Brown's 
Jamaica 220. It grows on many parts of the Coro- 
mandel coast, as well as in China and Cochin-China, 
and according to Willdenow, in Europa australi ad 
semitas. Browne, however, according to Lunan, has 
confounded it with the tribulus cistioides, a mistake 
rectified by Swartz. The seeds of our article are 
considered by the Cochinese as possessing medicinal 
virtues, from their astringency being useful in dy- 
sentery, " aliis sanguinis profluviis" (Flor. Cochin- 
Chin, vol. i. p. 270.). 

The species tribulus maximus is a medicinal plant 
of Jamaica; with it, according to Sloane *, a salve is 
prepared of use in cases of ring worm. There is a 
small variety of the tribulus terrestris common in the 
Southern tracts of the Peninsula of India, with 
beautiful red flowers, called in Tamool yerra pul/ero, 
and in Sanscrit racta suadanshtra ; its leaves have the 
smell of clover. The trib. lannginosus is a native of 
India, and is called in Bengalie gokhoor. 


n-L_G2>i— (Tam.) 

See article Croton, Purging Seed of, vol. i. p. 101. 

* See Sloane's Natural History of Jamaica. 



NILAVEREI r6"cron-(yun-cs)a- (Tam.) Senna. 

Cassia Senna (Wood). 

So much has been said of senna in the first volume 
of this work, .that little more is required here. I have 
lately been asked if what is commonly sold in the 
shops under the name of " East India senna" is the 
actual produce of our Indian dominions. No ; it is 
not, but a product of Arabia, either of Arabia Felix 
(about Mocho), or from a more northern part of that 
country, the territory of Abuarish. It is, in feet, the 
sharp-pointed- leaved senna, the cassia lanceolata of 
Forskaly which he distinguishes, "foliis 5jtigis 9 Ian- 
ceolatis*, cequalibus" and tells us that it is common 
at Surdud, and near Mor. The general name of 
senna in Arabia is suna U*,, but this more particularly 
applies to that of Yemen (Arabia Felix). What is 
obtained farther North, and brought to Mecca for 
sale, is called suna Mecki *£* U~, indicative of its 
being sold at Mecca; it is also sometimes termed 
hedjazi e^Ujkt : both have sharp-pointed leaves, and 
are powerfully cathartic ; as I have already noticed in 
the first volume, the senna in common use amongst 
the Indian practitioners is the blunt-leaved senna 
(senna Italica. s. foliis obtusis. Bauh. pin. S970* ** 
is a common plant on the Coromandel coast, but is 
not near so valuable a medicine as the sharp-pointed 
senna of ForskahL 

* Vide Forskahl, Descriptions Plantarum, Florae Egyptiaca, 
Arabics, p. 85. 
f Vide Forskahl Florae Egyptiaca, p. 66. 


An alkaline substance has lately been found by 
MM. Lassaigne and Feneulle in the pods and leaves 
of senna: it is solid, yellowish brown, of a peculiar 
odour, and nauseously bitter, soluble in water, alco- 
hol, and ether ; its medical properties are not yet 
rightly ascertained ; they call it cathartine. 



This is the name of a root which Dr. Finlayson 
found in Siaiti : it is rubbed up with water and used 
in cases of aphtha?, commonly in conjunction with 
another root, soong-koong. 



NIRPULLI G'3^L_cvro\rP (Tam.) (Hort 
Mai.) Axillary Spiderwort. 

Tradescantia Axillaris (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Ensatae. Winkelblutige Tradescantie (Norn. Triv. 

Rheede * tells us that a decoction of this plant is 
considered as a useful remedy on the Malabar coast in 
cases of timpani tes. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Cal. 8-phyllus ; petala 3 ; Jilamenta villis 
articulatis ; caps. S-locularis" (Spec. Plant torn. ii. 
p. 16. )• 

* Rheede, Mai. x. pp.25 — 28. t, IS. 


The species* in question is called bgha-nulla in 
Hindoostanie : it is an annual plant, with a stem, 
creeping -at the base, but soon ascending, Kosnig 
informs us, that the leaves are linear, acute-spreading; 
having coloured sheaths, ciliate, with long hairs ; the 
Jlorvers are axillary and solitary; the calyx three- 
parted and keeled, corolla one-petalled, of a funnel 
form, and deep-blue colour ; the tube twice as long 
as the calyx ; segments three, shorter, blue ; Jilaments 
with jointed hairs ; style club-shaped. The plant is 
a native of the Malabar coast. 

Four species of it are indigenous to Jamaica f, and 
are there considered to have virtues against the poi- 
sons of all sorts of spiders. Five species are growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 


NITTAH, or MITHA BISH (Sans.) Jdhdr 

This substance was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton 
while in Behar, where he was told that in about the 
quantity of one grain it is serviceable in the worst 
stages of typhus fever : the professional men of that 
district informed him, that it was a poison to all animals, 
man excepted. What it may be in a botanical point 
of view does not appear. Hamilton's MSS. 

* Five species of tradescantia grow in Ceylon. The species 
Malabarica (the tali-pulli of Rheede) is quite common in most 
parts of India. 

f Barham, p. 177., also Flora Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 189. 



NOOCHIE Grsrr&sP (Tarn.) Nirgundi (Beng.) 

Shumbalie J^jAz (Duk.) Fenjengisht £*£&*& ( Arab.) 

Nisinda (Hind.) CJ&S ^ (Pers.) Waydtakoo 

(Tel.) Sinduya (Sans.), also Sindhooka (Sans.) 

Five leaved Chaste Tree. 

Vitex Negundo (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Personate. Negundo-mullen (Nom. Triv. 


The essential character of the genus has been given 
under article Neer-Noochie ; see p. 237. 

The medicinal qualities of the plant in question are 
similar to those of the vitex trifolia, but somewhat 
weaker ; the dose of the decoction of the root is about 
half a tea-cupful given twice daily : it is a pleasant 
bitter, and is administered in cases of intermittent 
and typhus fever. 

The vitex negundo is the thuoc-on-rung of the 
Cochin-Chinese, the hemnosi of Rheede (Mai. ii. p. 15. 
t. 11.), the lagofidium litoreum of Rumph. (Amb. iv. 
p. 50. t. 19*)' an d the sudu-nika of the Cyngalese. 
" It has an arboreous twisted stem, about the size of 
the human arm, rising ten feet high, with a grey bark; 
the leaves, which are from one to three inches long, 
are opposite, on long foot-stalks, they are quinnate, 
and tern ate- serrate, and have a pleasant smell ; the 
flowers, which are of a purplish colour, are raceme- 
panicled; the calyx, corolla, and fruit, resemble those 
of the vitex trifbUa." The plant is a native of China 


and Cochin-China, as well as Ceylon and Southern 
India: it is the "wtex trifolia Indica cordata" of 
Burm. (Zeyl. p. 229. R ) My friend Mr. Sherwood 
tells me that the leaves simply warmed he found an 
excellent application in cases of rheumatism or 
sprains. The Mahometans are in the habit of 
smoaking the dried leaves in cases of head-ache and 
catarrh. Dr. F. Hamilton found the dried fruit 
considered as vermifuge in Behar. MSS. 

Nine species of vitex are growing in the Honourable 
Company's botanical garden at Calcutta, natives of 
India. See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 46. Six species 
grow on Ceylon. 


(Tarn.), also Nona marum eUey. . Chota alka paat 
£>\J& 311%* (Duk.) Mdhoghoodoo akoo (Tel.) 
Kleeba (Sans.) Leaf of the narrow-leaved Mortnda. 

Morinda Umbellata (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Aggregate. DoldenbZutige Morinde (Nom. Triv. 

There are two varieties of this tree in India ; our 
present article is the lesser, and would appear to be 
the bancudoo lakki of the Malays. The lanceolate- 
ovate leaves of it, in conjunction with certain aroma- 
tics, the Tamool doctors use in decoction, in cases of 
diarrhoea and lientery, in the quantity of half a tea- 
cupful twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 


says, "jF/o*waggregati, monopetalei; stigma 2-fidum ; 
drupce aggregate." Spec, Plant vol. i. p. 991. 

The noona is the cay nge-ba of the Cochin-Chinese, 
and the bancuda angustifolia of Rumphius (Amb. iii. 
p. 157. t 98.), but Willdenow seems inclined to 
consider it rather as a variety of the morinda citrifolia 
than a distinct species : " est potius varietas seqventis 
vel nova species." Its root (as well as that of the 
morinda citrifblia*, the cay-nhau of the Cochin-Chi- 
nese, and ahugaha of the Cyngalese, and which, by 
the way, the Tamools also call noona mdrdm) is used 
in many parts of India as a red dye, but we shall say 
more of its use in the arts in another part of this 
work. Willdenow has hitherto noticed but three 
species of morinda, viz. the two above specified, and 
the morinda royoc: this last is an American plant, 
but is also a native of Jamaica, where, according to 
Browne (p. 159.)> its roots are employed for dyeing 
linens of a dark hue. Buchanan, in his " Journey 
through Mysore, &c." speaks, however, of a fourth 
species, on which he has bestowed the appellation of 
m. ternifolia; the root of which, he informs us, is 
considered as a valuable red dye in the central tracts 
of the Peninsula. The species citrifolia the Cochin- 
Chinese place amongst their medicinal plants, believ- 
ing the fruit to be deobstruent and emmenagogue, 
" in dysuria dolorem mitigat." Flor. Cochin. Chin, 
vol. i. p. 140. 

In the Flora Zeylanica, 81 and 82, both species 
(m. umbellata, and m. citrifolia) are noticed; of 
the first it is said, " M. erecta, foliis lanceolato- 
ovatis, pedunculis confer tis ;" of the other, " M. ar- 

* This root is called in Mysore, where it is much prized, muddi; 
in the Sumatran language it is termed macudoo. 


borea, pedunculis solitariis." The last is the coda 
pilava of Rheede (Mai. i. p. 97. t 52.), and may be 
found described at length by Gaertner, in his work, 
" De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum." The mo- 
rinda umbellata is common in the woods of Cochin- 
China. Loureiro informs us, that a decoction of the 
root is an excellent and permanent yellow dye : it is 
also, he says, a red dye, with the addition of a little 
sappan wood. Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol.. i. p. 140. 


NULL UNNAY ^^-(^tfoTTra/oTjTrr (Tam.) 
Munchie noonay (Tel.) Mitta tail J^r l^, (Duk.) 
Oil of the Oriental Sesamum, or GingiUe Oil. 

Sesamum Orientale (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Luridae. Orientalischer Sesam (Nom. Triv. 

This fixed or expressed oil, besides being eaten by 
the natives, is used in medicine * in cases where cool- 
ing and bland oils are required ; it is obtained, by ex- 
pression, from the seed, called in Tamoolt yelloo ; 
in Guzerattie tal; in Hindooie till; in Dukhanie 
JJ Jitjl* ; in Tellingoo noowoloo ; in Arabic **«+«. 
sumsum; in Persian «Ne*££> kunjid; in Canarese 
ettu ; and in Sanscrit taila. The seeds are whitish, 

* It is considered, by some native practitioners, to possess em- 
menagogue virtues, and to be capable, if incautiously used,' of 
causing abortion. 

f There is a dark-coloured and somewhat larger variety called 
in Tamool car yelloo, also a white sort termed sambranie yellow 
and vullay yelloo. 


not larger than those of the mustard plant, flat, and 
heart-shaped, and are used as food by the Hindoos, 
after having been toasted and ground into meal, 
which meal is called in Arabic i /u^ J rehshee. The 
expressed oil, when fresh, has a very pleasant taste, 
and is much employed by the Indians in preparing 
their victuals ; it is highly estemed by the Japanese, 
who cultivate the seed from which it is obtained in 
great abundance. On Java the plant is named Weed- 
sken ; it is the salit Lui>^ of Forskahl, or rather he 
found it growing in Lower Egypt, under that name. 
Virey, in his " Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens," * 
tells us, that the seed " est visqueuse, emolliente, 
paregorique, utile dans les coliques, et autres dou- 
leurs." The French of Eastern countries call the 
plant Jujeoline ; the Japanese gotna gara. 

Our pre&ent article, which is the schit-elu of the 
Hort. Mai. and, according to Dierbach, the S^Vafwv 
of Hippocrates, and another species, the sesamum 
Indicum, are cultivated much in Jamaica. Lunan t 
says, from the authority of Barham (p. 121.), that 
the seed and herb itself, boiled in honey, make a good 
cataplasm for indurated tumours. In Greece the 
seeds are made into cakes, and, according to Sir H. 
Sloan e, what is called the bean or mandarine broth of 
China, is nothing else than an emulsion made of these 
seeds and hot water. There is a kind of oil much 
used in dressing food in Mysore ; and obtained from 
seeds, called by the Canarese huts yelloo, and in Du- 
khanie tt*j Jj ram tilla. It is got from no species of 
sesamum, but from the verbesina saliva of Roxburgh. 
Dr. Heyne seems to have thought that this plant was 

* Page 186. 

f See Flora Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 252. 


peculiar to the Bengal provinces, and not known on 
the coast, but he was mistaken ; he speaks .of it 
under the Indian name of the werhmna, and has 
given a minute botanical * description of it ; he adds, 
that the oil expressed from the larger seeds is the 
common lamp oil of Upper India, and that it is ex* 
tremely cheap. 

Of the essential character of the genus sesamum, 
Willdenow says, " Cat 5-partita ; car* campanulata, 
5-fida; lobo infimo majore; rudimentum filament! 
quinti ; stigma lanceolatum ; caps. 4-locularis* ' (Spec. 
Plant, vol. iii. p. 358. ). 

Of the species which produces the gingilie oil, I shall 
only mention that it is an annual plant, rising to the 
height of two feet, with an herbaceous four-cornered 
stalk ; leaves opposite, petioled, ovate-oblong, entire j 
and Jbwers axillary and solitary ; these are of a dirty 
white colour, and shaped not unlike that of the fox- 
glove. The sesamum orientale is the gomo, also 
gomo gara of the Japanese, and the cay-me of the 
Cochin-Chinese, who consider the oil as resolvent, 
and to be particularly indicated in convulsions (Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 882.). The plant is the teU 
tola of the Cyngalese. 


NUNDIAVUTTEI r5riJ^Yun-cruL-<22>L_ (Tarn.) 

also (Tel.) Nandivriksha I^Vl^ (Sans.) Broad- 
leaved Rosebay. 

Nerium Coronaeium (Jacq.)» 

* See Heyne'g Tracts on India, p. 49. 
VOL. II. s 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Contort®. Breitbattriger Oleander (Nom. Triv. 


The juice of the white leaves of this handsome 
shrub, the Hindoo doctors drop into the eyes in 
cases of ophthalmia ; it is supposed to be of a very 

cooling nature. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now observes, "Contorta\ JblUculi 2, erecti; sent. 
plumosa; cor. tubus terminatus corona lacera." 
Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 1234. 

The species in question is of a milky nature, and 
rises to the height of about five feet, with an ash- 
coloured bark. The leaves are elliptic, peduncles 
in pairs, from the forks of the branches ; two flower- 
ed.* The flowers, though beautiful, are without 
odour, unless it be in the morning early; the perianth 
is green j tube of the corolla a greenish yellow, and 
the boarder snow white. The plant is common in 
many parts of India, and is the nandi-ervatam of 
Rheede (Mai. ii. p. 105. t. 54. and 55.) 9 the jftos ma- 
nilhanus of Rumph. ( Amb. iv. p. 87. t. 39*)> and the 
jasminum Zeylanicum folio oblongo % Jlore albo pleno 
odoratissimo of Burm. (Zeyl. 129* t. 59.) Our 
article with seven other species are growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. 

* See Willdenow, vol. i. p. 1236. 



NURRI-VUNG YUM r5rr>Gcyuav;^n-LULo(Tain.) 
Jungtte piaz^ J&+ (Duk.) SqtdU, substitute for . 

Erythronium Indicum (Rottler.). 

See article Squill, at p. 402 of Vol. I. 


dona ghenti (Tel.) Madana-bunta>kada (Hort- 
Bengal.) Madana ghanti *\<\*\ *|F*1 (Sans.) Root 
Of the Shaggy Button Weed. 

Spermacoce Hispida (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Stellate. Borstiger Zahnwirbel (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This root, as it appears in the medicine bazars, is a 
little thicker than our sarsaparilla, and not unlike it 
in taste ; it is also used for similar purposes ; viz. as 
an alterative and purifier of the blood ; given in de- 
coction to the quantity of about four ounces or more 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, "Cor. 1-petala, in- 
fundibulif ; Sem. 2, bidentata." 

The species # in question, which is the heen-modoo 
gcetakola of the Cyngalese, is an annual plant, with 

• Eight species are growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta ; 
but two appear, by Moon's Catalogue, to be natives of Ceylon. 



difluse, obsoletely, four-sided, hairy branches ; leaves 
obovate* cuneate, waved, and scabrous j Jlowrs ver- 
ticelled, two, three, or four in each axil ; tube of 
the corol. twice the length of the calyx ; stamens 
and style erect * Roxburgh speaks of it under the 
Telingooname of madana-bunta-kada, and tells us, that 
it is common in sandy places near the sea on the Coro- 
mandel coast ; it is the galiopsis Zeylanica of Burman 
(Zeyl. 163. t. 20. f. 3.), and apparently the tardaul 
of Rheede (Mai. ix. p. 149. t 76.). Of the genus 
there are five species natives of Jamaica, but none 
of them are considered as medicinal. 


ODALLAM (Malayalie). Coat aralie (Tam.) 

Mango-like Cerbera. 

Cerbera Manghas (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Contortae. Ostindischer Schellenbaum (Nom. Triv. 

Oddllam, or, as Rheede has it, odollam (Mai. i. p. 71. 
t. S9*)> i s the name given on the Malabar coast to a 
milky tree, the seeds of the fruit of which are power- 
fully narcotic, resembling in their effect that arising 
from the datura. The fruit itself is not un- 
like a mango both in colour and shape, but has 
one side more concave than the other ; the seeds, 
which are two in number, are the size of large ches- 
nuts. Dr. Horsfield informs us, in his account of 

" : *'S«e Roxburgh's Flora Indies, p. 879. vol. i- ii. . 


the medicinal plants of Java *, that the leaves and 
bark are both considered on that island as purgative j 
and that the fruit is externally applied as a cataplasm 
in diseases of the skin. Vireyf, in his "Histoire 
Naturelle des MSdicamens," notices the same virtues 
in the bark, adding, that the fruit is emetic. 

The cerbera manghas is the manghas lactescent of 
Burman (Zeyl. 150. t. 70. f. 1.), and the arbor lactaria 
of Rumphius (Amb. ii. 243. t. 81.), who speaks of 
the bark as being powerfully cathartic. It moreover 
appears to be the cerbera salutaris of Loureiro, the 
gonkaduru of the Cyngalese, the Untaro of the 
Javanese, and the cay-muop-sac of Cochin-China, 
where it grows near the seashore. Vide Flor Coch. 
Chin. (vol. i. p. 136.) I am much inclined to think, 
that it is this tree which Avicenna (152) mentions 
under the Arabic name of <&* tkx*.jubla hunk, adding, 
" Arbor venenata lactescens Indica, flore luteo, cujus 
succus inspissatus cum turbith congruat;" and I 
shall take this opportunity of stating, as I have had 
occasion to mention this celebrated Arabian phy- 
sician and author, that his writings are known in 
Eastern countries, under the name of «-JJI ^ qj^JU 
canoonijm tibb ; they treat of medicine and diseases 
in general, and the qualities and virtues of compound 
and simple medicines, and also of anatomy. The 
work consists of twelve books, by the author Abu 
Ah/ Hussein Ben Abdalla Ben Sina (Avicenna), who 
was born in the city of Bokhara, A.D. 980, and 
died at Hamadan, A. D. 1 036. An edition of his 
writings was printed at Rome, in 1595, afterwards 

• See Asiatic Journal for March 1819, p. 262. 
f See Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 192. 

S 3 


translated into Latin, and published at Venice, in 


Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now observes simply, " Contorta drupe monosperma" 
(Spec. Plant vol. L p. 1222.). 

The species in question, which grows in sandy si- 
tuations on the shores of Singapore, and some of the 
adjacent islands, has leaves closely approximate, 
scattered, oblong, acute, attenuate, downwards; 
lacinue of the corolla ovate, with an incurved, sub- 
retuse apex. The tree is rather small, and the 
branches remarkably thick and subcylindric \ drupes 
two, ovate, oblong.* 

I shall conclude what I have to say of this article, 
by mentioning what Dr. Horsfield relates in speak- 
ing of the fruit of the cerbera manghas in Java. I 
quote his words : " I was once witness of the -effects 
of a small dose upon a Javanese woman, who had 
swallowed, out of curiosity, about a scruple of the 
external part of the fruit, in the absence of her 
dukung (physician); it produced partial delirium; 
she could no longer distinguish the persons and ob- 
jects that surrounded her, but retained the faculty 
of speech t; and so far corresponding with Avicenna's 

+ The reader must observe, that the plant here described is the 
cerbera manghas, Roxburgh (Flor. Ind. vol.ii. p. 529.). The 
cerbera odollam, mentioned at page 529. of the work just quoted, 
is a different plant, being a large tree with alternate lanceolate 
leaves, crowded about the ends of the branchlets, and having large, 
white, fragrant-smelling flowers. Odallam is, therefore, perhaps, 
not the proper name to have bestowed on the milky narcotic species, 
but it was long known by that appellation, till more accurate bo- 
tanical examination ascertained distinctions. 

f See Horsfield's account of Java medicinal plants, in the 
Asiatic Journal for March 1819. 



ORK JENA C U*. 3j* (Arab.). 

A root mentioned by Forskahl, in his Mat. Med. 
Kahirina j used in cases of colic 


OODOOMBOO s—^lom (Tam.) Ghbre pore 
JH%4 (Duk.) Ooodoomoo (Tel.) Zip (Arab.) 

Ghoda Sola, also GaudhZra wXK (Sans.) Guana. 

Lacerta Iguana (Shaw.)* 

The body of the dried guana, made into an elec- 
tuary with a certain portion of ghee (clarified butter), 
the Vytians recommend as a strengthening medicine 
in consumptive complaints, and for that state of de- 
bility into which camel-riders often fall, from the 
shaking and sickening* motion of that large animal. 
The head, tail, and feet of the guana are not em- 
ployed in medicine. 

The guana of India is generally found about old 
walls and ruinous buildings; it is about two feet long, 
and very much resembles in shape the lacerta alliga- 
tor ; the belly is protuberant j the tail long and round, 
thick at its commencement, and tapering gradually 
towards a sharp point; its back, tail, and throat 
are serrated, and its whole surface is covered with 

* It is a curious fact, that camel-riders seldom attain to a great 
age : this is not the case with those who conduct elephants, the 
motion of that animal being altogether different. 

s 4 


numerous shining scales, reflecting various colours in 
sun-shine. The flesh is relished by the Mahometan 
inhabitants of India, and is supposed to be very 
strengthening ; in the West Indies it is even salted 
and barrelled up for exportation. This animal may 
with care be made so tame, that it will follow a man 
like a dog. The animal lays between fifty and sixty 
eggs* which, at Panama, and other parts of South 
America, are considered as great delicacies. An 
old Spanish writer, Herrera*, tells us, that in 
the city of Mexico guanas are brought to market 
for sale as food; the Spanish say, that the flesh 
tastes like that of pheasants ; I myself have eaten 
in India soup made of the guana, and found it 
far from unpalatable. Virey, in his Histoire des 
M£dicamens, tells us, that in America the flesh is 
considered as antivenereal and purifying. See work 

(p. H70- 


OODERIE VAYNGHIE (Tam.) Peet shah 
(Hind.) Yeangasha (Tel.) The WaUeted Pilo- 

Pterocarpus Marsupium (Roxb.). 

This is a very beautiful large tree, common in the 
mountainous tracts of the Coromandel coast, from 
which there exudes, at particular seasons, a reddish 
gum-resin, which, as well as the bark of the tree, 
the natives suppose to have virtues in the tooth-ache. 

Of the essential character of the genus, it has 
been said, " Calyx a one-leafed perianth, five-toothed j 

Sec his History, vol.ii. p. 14-. 


corolla papilionaceous ; stamens ten filaments, with 
roundish anthers ; the pistil has a roundish germ, 
awl-shaped style, and simple stigma ; the pericarp a 
sickle-shaped legume ; seeds few, solitary/ 9 

Of the species in question, Willdenow observes, 
" Arbor magno, ligno duro, aurantii colons ; folia 
pinnata, foliolis ellipticis, alternis, petiolatis, emargi- 
natis ; panicula terminalis ampla ; Jlores albi ; jila- 
menta decern in cylindrum bipartitum connata ; le- 
gumen falcatum acutum ala cinetum, mono vel 
dispermum." I shall only add, that the leaves are 
most perfectly oval, about three inches long, and 
not quite two broad. The tree * is of the CI. and 
Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. papUionaeece ; 
and to it Willdenow has given the trivial name of 
au&gerandetejhigelfirucht. It may be found minutely 
described in Roxburgh's Coromandel Plants (ii. p. 9. 
t 116.). 

The species draco is common at Java, and is there 
called sono-ansana ; its exudation, dragon's blood, 
the natives consider as tonic. 


OOMATAY, or OOMATIE, Thorn Apple, 

Is the general Tamool name for all the daturas in 
Lower India. The d. fastuosa is called karoo ooma* 
tay v> C52l£nt ld^cE)®" (Tam.), or black datura, and 
is that sometimes smoked for asthma; the vullay 
oomatay, or white datura, is the datura metel ; and 
the mungil oomatay, or yellow-flowered datura, is the 

* It is not unfrequently made into rafters for crossing rivers. 


datura ferox, which is also occasionally smoked, and 
the leaves of which are sometimes employed to 
make arrack more intoxicating. See article Thorn 
Apple (vol. i. p. 442., also at p. 686., vol i.)« 

In the datura stramonium Brandes has discovered 
a new principle, to which he has given the name of 
dat urine. 


OOGHAI PUTTAY ^wh^julji_i_^l_ 
(Tam.) Ghoonie putta (Tel.) Bark qf the Persian 

Salvadora Persica (Vahl.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandia Monogynia. Nat. 
Ord. Atriplices. Persiche Salvadore (Nom. Triv. 

This bark, which is a little warm and somewhat 
acrid, is recommended by the Hindoo doctors, in 
decoction, in cases of low fever, and as a tonic and 
stimulant in amenorrhea. The bark of the root, 
when fresh bruised, acts as a vesicatory. The small, 
red, edible berries, have an aromatic smell and taste, 
not unlike the garden cress. The dose of the decoc- 
tion is half a tea-cupful twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, « Cal 4-fidus ; corolla. 4-fida ; bacca 1- 
sperma ; sem. arillo vestitum." (Spec. Plant, vol. i. 
p. 695.). 

The species in question, which is the rivina panicu- 
lata of the Syst. Nat (x. p. 899.)* is the pjlu of the 
Hindoos of Upper India, and is mentioned by Fors- 


kohl # (Desc. p. 32. n. 8.) under the name ofcissus ar- 
borea. It is a middle sized tree, a native of most parts 
of the Circars, though Roxburgh tells us, by no means 
common ; it is also a native of the Persian Gulph, 
and for the most part rises to the height of about ten 
feet, with a crooked trunk, which is one foot in dia- 
meter ; bark scabrous and cracked ; branches nu- 
merous, spreading, and their extremities pendulous, 
like those of the weeping willow ; leaves opposite, 
petioled, oval or oblong, shining on both sides, and 
from one to two inches long, and one broad ; Jlowers 
minute, very numerous, and of a greenish yellow ; 
the berry very minute, much smaller than a grain of 
pepper, smooth, red, juicy, with one seed, t It 
would appear that the tree has another Telingoo 
name besides that given above, as Roxburgh calls it 
pedda-warago wenki (Tel.). See Hort. Bengalensis, 
p. 83. X 


ORIL AT AM AR AY dyr-a/rog- g- rr loost (Tam.) 
Ruthin purtiss ^yj ^ (Duk.) Poorusharatanum 

(Tel.) Cfiarafl ^TKjcft (Sans.) Suffruticose Violet. 

Viola Suffruticosa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Campananceae. Strauchartiges Veilchen (Nom.Triv. 


* For an account of the virtues of this plant, according to the 
notions of the Cochin-Chinese, see article Ark or Ork of this 

Part of the work ; the edible fruit is the CrUT of the Arabians. 

+ See Flora Indica, vol. i. p. 404?. . 

% Our article is growing in the botanical garden of caicuua. 
Two species are natives of Ceylon. 


The leaves and tender stalks of this low-growing 
violet are demulcent, and are used by the natives 
in decoction and electuary ; they are also employed, in 
conjunction with some mild oil, in preparing a cool- 
ing liniment for the head. Of the decoction about 
an ounce and a half is given, twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " CaL 5-phyllus ; car. 5-petala irregularis 
postice cornuta ; anth. cohaerentes ; caps, supera, 
S-valvis, 1-locularis" (Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 1159-)* 

Our present article the rmhayotu-weerma of the Cin- 
galese, is a rugged and somewhat prickly procumbent 
herb, much branched, and hard, as in die Helian- 
themum, with leaves lanceolate, subserrate, clustered, 
and calyxes equal behind. See Flor. Zeylan. (318.) 
It is common in the Southern tracts of India, and 
has a small crimson flower much like that of the 
viola enneasperma, which is the nelam-parenda of 
Rheede(Hort. Malab ix. 117. t. 60.).* 


PAAK Ljn-B>@ (Tarn.) Supearie tsj+jy* (Duk.) 
Foqful Ji^J (Arab.) Vukka (Tel.) Pumak (Cyng.) 
Penang (Malay.) Jambi (Jav.) Kramukat cffiSp^T 

also Giwakaf i\^ l^ft (Sans.) Betel Nut. 

Areca Catechu (Lin.). 

* Of this plant Roxburgh says, " Stem scarcely any, but many 
diffuse, round, smooth branches ; leaves alternate, subsessile, lan- 
ceolate ; stipules small, and peduncles axillary, solitary, and one- 
flowered ; petals five, rosy.' Flor. Ind. vol. ii. p. 447- 

f The two Sanscrit names apply to the tree only : the fruit is 

called ^%7J. 


CL and Ord. JMonoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 
Palnue. Gemeine Arccapalme (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The betel nuts, when young and tender, are, in 
conjunction with other articles, occasionally made 
into decoction, and prescribed for such people as 
suffer from costiveness consequent of dyspepsia ; the 
dose aboiit half a tea-cupfiil twice daily. When full 
grown they are chewed with the betel leaf, which is 
the leaf of the piper betel, and their common name 
in commerce is kali-paak. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, 

" Masculi. CaL 3-partitus ; cor. S-petala j stam. 
6-basi cohaerentia. 

" Feminei. CaL 8-phyllus j cor. 3-petala j nect. 
6-dentatum j styL 3-brevissimi, drupa monosperma" 
(Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 594.)- 

The species in question is the nux faufel of Bontius, 
the pinanga arica of Rumph. (Amb. i. p. 26. t. 4.), 
the pin-lam of the Cochin-Chinese, and the launga of 
Rheede (Mai. i. p. 9. t. 5, 6, 7, 8.). It is a palm 
which grows to the height of fifty feet or more j it 
has no branches, but its leaves are very beautiful, 
forming a round tuft at the top of the trunk, which 
is usually about six or eight inches in diameter, 
straight, round, and marked with parallel rings. 

" The fronds, which are pinnated, spring forth in 
pairs, decussated, encircling the top of the trunk at 
their base, and thus producing an oblong head, larger 
than the trunk itself; they are not more in number 
than six or seven, unarmed, reclining, six feet long, 
on a stipe four feet in length. These fronds break 
and fall off in succession, and from' their axils issue 
the sheaths which inclose the flowers and fruits. The 
fruit is a drupe of an ovate form, smooth, about the 


size of a pullet's egg, and does not fall from the tree 
even when ripe, in which state it is astringent, but 
not unpalatable; it has a yellowish shell, which is thin, 
brittle, white, with arched red veins cohering with 
the pulp all round." 

The betel nuts, when dry, are consumed in great 
quantity, in India, being chewed with the betel leaf 
as a luxury; the nuts are usually cut into four 
equal parts, one of which is put into a leaf, over which 
a little quick lime * (chunam) is laid, then rolled up 
and chewed altogether. This provokes much spit- 
ting of a reddish-coloured saliva, occasioned by the 
areca. The Indians have an idea, that by this means 
the teeth are fastened, the gums cleaned, and the 
mouth cooled. 

The betel nut tree grows in most parts of India ; 
the produce is also brought to that country from 
Achin, f Malacca, Borneo, X and Cochin-China. Be- 
sides the purposes already mentioned, it may be 
observed here, that a strong decoction of the nuts is 
used in dyeing. A red variety is common at Joanha, 
and in Malabar, there employed in dyeing that 
colour. The average number of nuts growing on 
one tree, on the Coromandel coast, is usually about 
three hundred. 

The Arabian writers mention the areca nut fre- 
quently in their works : Avicenna § under the name 
of xksj ; Serapio || under that of JJy j both con- 

* In some parts of India, as in Canara, in place of quick-lime 
they use the ashes of the bark of a common tree (chuncoa muttia) 
(Buch.), these ashes they call mutii. See Buchanan's Journey 
through Mysore and Canara, vol. iii. p. 202. 

f See Elmore's Guide to the Indian Trade, p. 59. 

% See Dr. Leyden's sketch of that island, in the seventh volume 
of the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 

§ See Avicenna, 236. 

|f See Serapio, cap. 345. 



sidered it as astringent and tonic. In the West 
Indies they suppose that the juice of the dry, ripe 
nut, mixed, as above noticed, with the leaf, and a 
small quantity of lime, strengthens the stomach when 
swallowed, but that when taken by itself it irnpo* 
verishes* the blood, and causes jaundice. I shall 
conclude, by here stating, that the modern Arabs, 
while they occasionally chew the betel nut in the 
same manner as the Indians do, would seem to give 
a preference to what they call a IT kad 9 an appellation 
given to the buds of a plant they term l^U> ; this, they 
think, sweetens the breath, and preserves the gums. 

Loureiro, in his Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 567. 
gives a full account of the virtues of the areca 
catechu j he also notices another species, areca 
silvestris (cay-rung), the leaves of which are chewed 
with the betel nut. Three species of areca grow in 


PADDICARUMLJL^.^0jnrrrLo(Tam.) Alum. 


In addition to what I have said of alum, in the 
first volume of this work, I shall here observe, that the 
native practitioners use it for nearly the same pur- 
poses that we do, as an astringent in repellent lotions 
and collyria. For the. different oriental names, the 
reader is referred to the volume j ust mentioned. Che- 
mically, it may be said that alum dissolves in about 
five parts of water at 60°, and the solution reddens 

* See Lujian's Hortus Jamaicenais, vol. i. p. 86. 


blues ; in its crystalline form, R. Phillips, by recent 
experiments, found it consisted of two proportions 
of sulphate of alumina, one of bi-sulphate of potass, 
and twenty-two of water. See Brande's Manual of 
Chemistry vol. ii. p. 310. 


PADRIE VAYR Ljn-tfvf Gcruo- (Tam.) Kd, 
Ughotoo (Tel.) Root qf the Chelonoid Trumpet - 


Bignonia Chelonoides (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Bignoniae (Juss.) Schildblumenartige Trom^ 
petenblume (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This pleasant-tasted root, as well as the fragrant 
flowers of the tree, the Vytians prescribe in infusion 
as a cooling drink in fevers. Rheede, who speaks of 
the tree under the name of padrie, informs us*, that 
the juice of the leaves, mixed with lime-juice, is of 
use in maniacal cases : of the infusion above noticed 
the dose is about half a tea-cupful twice daily. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cat. 5-fidus, cya- 
thiformis ; cor. fauce campunalata, 5-fida, subtus 
ventricosa; siliqua 2-locularis; sent, membranaceo- 
alata." Spec. Plant (vol. iii. p. 289.) 

The species in question is the ela-palol of the 
Cyngalese : it is a large tree, with a whitish ash- 
coloured bark, with spreading leaves, petioled, with 
about five pairs of opposite petioled leaflets; panicle 
terminating ; pedicels opposite, dichotomous ; flowers 

• See Hort. Mai. (vi. pp.47, 48. t.26.) 


solitary from the divisions ; calyx hoary ; border of 
the corolla a little arched, rough with hairs, red cleft.* 
The beautiful purple sweet-smelling flowers of the 
bignonia chelonoides are amongst those which the 
Hindoos think are acceptable to their gods, and are in 
consequence offered by them at their temples ; when 
immersed in water, they give it an agreeable odour. 
Sir William Jones, in the fifth volume of his works 
(p. 133, 134 ), gives us a description of a plant called 
in Sanscrit patali, and in Hindoostanie parala, which 
.resembles in many respects the padrie of the Coro- 
mandel and Malabar coasts; but the pericarp and 
the form of the seeds are very different. Of this 
genus four species grow in Jamaica ; one of which, 
the bignonia leucoxylon or wfiite-wood, is medicinal, 
and is particularly noticed by Sloane in his Catalogue 
Plantarum Jamaic., the bitter juice and tender buds 
of it are supposed there to be an antidote against the 
poisonous juice of the Manchioneel.t Another spe- 
cies, the b. longissima, is considered one of the most 
useful timber trees in the West Indies, and is pe 
liarly distinguished by its beautiful numerous flowers 
and slender siliques : the French call it chene noir. 
Four species of bignonia appear to be natives of Cey- 
lon (Moon's Catalogue, p. 45.). Three are natives 
of Japan, and three of Cochin-China. Flor, Coch. 
Chin. (vol. ii. p. 378.) 

* See Willd. Spec. Plant, torn. Ill- p. 305. 

f See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 279, 

VOL. !!• 



fl^y^tv© (Tarn.) Agokara, also Angalcdrd gudda 
(Tel.) Root of the Dioicus Momordica. 

Momordica Dioica (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Cucurbitaceae. Getrenter Balsamapfel (Nom. Triv. 


This mucilaginous-tasted root, the Hindoo doctors 
prescribe in the form of electuary in cases of bleeding- 
piles, and in certain bowel-affections connected with 
such complaints: the dose about two drachms or 
more twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 

" Masculi. Cat. 5-fidus ; cor. 5-partita ; fiL 3. 

" Feminei. Cat. 5-fidus ; cor. 5-partita : stylus 
8-fidus ; pepo elastice dissiliens." Spec. Plant* 
vol. iv. p. 601. 

Of the species itself, the same author observes* 
" Pom is ellipticis muricatis, floribus diocis, foliis 
cordatis acuminatis dentatis." Again, " Caulis 
scandens angulatus ; folia cordata indivisa acuminata 
dentata utrinque glabra bipollicaria ; cirrhi oppositi- 
folii simplices fileformes ; fores dioici, feminei axil- 
lares solitarii; fructus magnitudine primse speciei 
ellipticus tuberculis acutis densissime obsitus." See 
Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 605. 

The plant, the Sanscrit name of which is vahisee, 
and the Cyngalese tamba-karawilla, is a native of the 
Coromandel coast, and its fruit is considered amongst 


the pot-vegetables of the Hindoos, though it is not 
held by them in so much estimation as the produce 
of another species, of which there are two varieties in 
India, the momordica charantia or hairy momordica j 
nay, I believe, there is also a third species used for 
similar purposes, the momordica muricata, which is 
the- pavel of Rheede (Malab. viii. p. 19. t 10.). In 
the western world there are two species of this genus 
(both annuals), considered as medicinal : they are 
not, however, natives, but introduced from India j 
I mean the momordica balsamina and mom. charantia. 
The fruit of the first, Hasselquist informs us, in his 
Iter Palestinum, is famous in Syria for curing wounds; 
it is a fleshy ovate berry, ending in acute points! 
The natives cut it open and infuse it in sweet oil, 
which they expose to the sun for some days, until it 
becomes red, and then preserve it for use j dropped 
on cotton, and applied to a fresh wound, they consider 
it as a vulnerary little inferior to the balsam of Mecca. 
Of the second (which is the pandipavel* of Rheede, 
Mai. viii. p. 17. t 9.) and the amara Indica of 
Rumph. (Amb. v. p. 410. t. 151.), Browne, in his 
History of Jamaica, tells- us, that at Kingston in 
Jamaica, the boiled leaves, as well as a decoction of 
the plant itself, are equally used to promote the 

From the Hortus Bengalensis we learn that seven 
species of momordica are now growing in the Com- 
pany's botanical garden at Calcutta, all natives of 
different parts of India. (See work, p. 70.) 

* Of this, the mom. charantia, more will be said in another part 
of this work; it is the muop-dang of the Cochin-Chinese, who 
prize the fruit much as a pot-herb ; the pagulkai of the Tarapols, 
and the kariwila of the Cingalese. 

T t 



PAILLIE (Tam.) Bultie (Tel.) Musall^^t 
also Sarata ^T2" (Sau».) Chilpasah xJJl* (Pers.) 
Chapkatl J&<% (Duk.) Chipkulee (Hind.) Gecko 



Lacerta Gecko (Shaw). 

The bruised body of this animal, made into electu- 
ary, in conjunction with certain aromatics, the Hindoo 
doctors think possesses virtues in leprous affections : 
this notion seems to us the more extraordinary, when 
we are informed that one of the causes assigned for 
the Cochin leg (elephas\ that morbid enlargement of 
the limb so common in Eastern countries, is the lick- 
ing with the tongue of a species of lizard, which the 
native practitioners reckon as poisonous, and which 
is termed in Tamool paumboo-aranay ; nay, I know, 
that a very unpleasant scurfy and slightly itchy erup- 
tion is certainly produced by the acrid water or 
juice which a lizard secretes, the best remedy for 
which is frequent washing with soap and water, and 
a subsequent application of a little castor- oil ; mala- 
dies of this nature are fully treated of in a work in 
high Tamool, entitled Aghastier Ahirum. 

The gecko is apt to be confounded with a variety 
of the common grey lizard (lacerta agilis}, and the 
natives sometimes indiscriminately give the same 
names to both ; but the first is much larger, makes a 
strange chucking noise, especially in the evenings, is 
not so lively, and on a minute examination will be 
found otherwise very different; so much so, that 
lately it has been placed in a different genus. The 
geckos are found in South America, Africa, China, and 


the East Indies, and are distinguished by the noxious 
fluid they secrete : the head is thick, muzzle taper, 
tongue thick, flat, and slightly cleft at its tip, eyes 
like the chameleon's, body long and thin, tail com- 
monly cylindrical; the feet have five broad toes, 
flattened along their margins, and of a light-grey 
colour. What is singular in the gecko lizard is, that 
"it can walk down the smoothest chunam walls, which 
it does in search of flies; how it accomplishes this, 
by its anatomical formation, is fully explained in a 
very interesting paper by Sir Everard Home, to be 
found in the Phil. Trans, for 1816 (p. 149.). Mr. 
C. Stewart, in his Elements of Natural History, 
informs us, that with the acrid fluid secreted by the 
gecko lizard the Japanese poison their arrows. The 
lacerta agilis, or grey lizard, is comparatively inno- 
cent, is very lively, is quite dumb, and has the back 
marked with a longitudinal dotted brottnkh line, 
tongue forked, and capable of being thrust out of the 
mouth ; the tail is at least as lotig as the body, quite 
cylindrical, and composed of gombo rings, while the 
belly is covered with imbricated scales. In Europe 
the internal use of the common green lizard had been 
extolled in cases of leprosy, scrophula, and cancer 
(see Flores Specifique nouvellement decouvert, &c, 
Lausanne, 1785.) ; but from trials made of it by 
Carminali, its virtues appear to be very doubtful. 
Virey, in his Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens 
(p. 117.), informs us, that in Spain and at Naples the 
lacerta agilis (Lin.), when deprived of the skin, head, 
tail and entrails, is administered in venereal cases, 
and quotes Florez as his authority (1782.), who says 
of its specific virtues, " espicifico descubierto en el 
regno de quatiluana," adding, that it produces saliva- 
tion and sweating. The lacerta scincus (Lin.), the 

t S 


officinal scink of Shaw, iii. pi. lxxix. is eaten by the 
Egyptians as a restorative and aphrodisiac ; the flesh 
used formerly to be an ingredient in old compound 
preparations, which went under the name of theriaca 
andromacki. * 


PANICHEKAI LJ^fF0=are>rruLj also Toom- 
bikai (Tam.) Fruita^da grude (Port.) Tumika 
(Tel.) Gaub (Hind.) Sindica (Sans.) Fruit of 
the Glue-bearing Embryopteris. 

Diosperos Glutinosa (Kcenig). 

Embryopteris Glutinifera (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Polyandria. Indischer 
Schleimapfel (Norn. Triv* Willd.). 

Panichekai is the Tamool name given to the fruit 
of a tree common in the Indian woods, and which, 
is the embryopteris glutinifera (Lin.). See Cor. i. 
p. 49. t. 70. It Was till lately taken, in India, for 
a species of garcinia ; though it is well known that 
Gaertner, in his work " De Fructibus et Semiiubus 
Plantarum" had sufficiently well described it, so far 
back as 1788, under the name of embryopteris pere- 
grina (see his work, i. p. 145.). It is the lym. appel 
of the Dutch, and the mangostan utan of the Ma- 
lays ; its Sanscrit name is sindica also tenth iri ; the 
Persians call it c «^aJL* panichie. 

The fruit, in external appearance, is not unlike a 
russet apple, pulpy, of a rusty yellow colour, and 
covered with a rUst-coloured farina ; on being punc- 
tured, it gives out a juice of peculiar astringency, 


and which the Hindoo doctors sometimes employ as 
an application to fresh wounds ; it is, besides, occa- 
sionally eaten, but is not palatable, and is often used 
by the carpenters of the Malabar coast as an excel- 
lent glue. The whole fruit, pounded, is employed 
in the Bengal provinces for paying the bottoms of 
boats, and called there gab. 

The embryopteris glutinifera is the only species of 
the genus yet discovered, of which genus the essen- 
tial character is thus given by Willdenow : 

'* Masculi. Cat. 4-dentatus j cor. 4-fida; stam. 20; 
antlierce bifida. 

" Feminei. Cal. 4-dentatus ; cor. 4-fida } stigma 
cruciatum, sessile ; pomum, 8-spermum." 

Of the plant in question (the panitsjika rnarum, 
Hort Mai.) we learn from Willdenow : " Arbor 
mediocris, ramis teretibus pallidas fuscis \ folia alterna 
semipedalia oblongo, lanceolata acuta integerrima 
glabra venosa rigidiuscula ; fores ochroleuci, masculi 
in pedunculis multifloris axillaribus ; feminei in pe- 
dunculis unifloris solitariis." See Spec. Plant vol. iv. 
p. 836. 

Rheede, speaking of the tree, says, " Arboris 
cortex in pulverem redactus ac cum oryzae infuso, 
et expresso e matura nuce Indica lacteo succo mix- 
tus, atque febricatantibus exhibitus aestum potenter 
extinguit ; ex seminibus oleum exprimitur." Vide 
Hort. Mai. part iii. p* 46. t. 41. 

It is to be found in the woods of Ceylon, and is 
there called by the natives mahatimbiri. Roxburgh 
tells us, in his Cor. Plants (i. No. 70.), that it is a 
middle sized tree, growing in the Circar mountains ; 
it has a straight erect trunk ; leaves alternate, oblong, 
pointed, short petioled ; wood not much worth; See 
article Gab, in Part III. of this work. 

t 4 



PANNANGKULLOO uawnaerovTeaos (Tam> 
Tone tf jU (Duk.) T5/i Ar«//oo (Tel.) Tola rUC*> 

(Sans.) Palmyra Toddy. 

Bokassus FlabelLiformis* 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Hexandria. Nat Ord. 
Palmes. Facherformige Weinpalme (Norn. Triv. 


The wine, or rather the sweet and pleasant tasted 

fresh liquor called Palmyra toddy, which is drawn 

from this tree, though far inferior to that got from 

the cocoa-nut tree, is of a very cooling and gently 

aperient quality ; and is ordered to be drank by the 

Tamool physicians in such cases as require drinks of 

that nature. 

The tree, which is called lot both in Bengalie and 
Hindoostanie, is one of the most useful in India, and 
will be further noticed in other parts of this work. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, 

" Masculi. CaL triphyllus ; cor. hypocraterifbr- 
mis limbo tripartite. 

" Feminei. Cal. 8 ; s. 9-phyllus, imbricatus ; 
cor. ; slant. 8-monadelphia j styl ; drupa tripy- 
rena" (Spec. Plant, vol, iv. p, 800.). 

There is but one species, which is, of course, our 
article. The male plant is the ampana of Rheede 
(Mai. i. p. 13. 1 10. mas.); the female plant he 
mentions under the name of carimpana, at page 11. 


and table 9* Rumphius speaks of it under the ap- 
pellation ofhntarus domestica (Amb. i. p. 45. 1. 10.). 
It is the murume of the Cochin-Chinese, and the tal- 
gaha of the Cyngalese. 

The borassus flabelliformis is very common in 
India, growing generally in sandy situations near the 
sea ; it rises to the height of about thirty feet, or 
more, with a trunk about a foot and a half thick, 
covered with a very dark-coloured bark, and con- 
taining a soft pith in the middle. The fronds are 
palmate, plaited, and cowled; stipes serrate, near 
six feet in length, flat, and somewhat hollow and 
rough, with spines along the edges ; the leaf part is 
large and wide, and folded like a fan or umbrella, 
for which purpose it is sometimes used j the fruit 
varies in size, from a small orange to that of a child's 
head. From the sap, or sweet liquor, a coarse sugar 
is made ; the liquor, though it may be drank when 
fresh drawn from the tree without danger, on 
being kept some hours after the sun is up, undergoes 
a fermentation, and intoxicates. According to Spren- 
gel, in his " Historia rei Herbaria" (vol. i. p. 272.), 
+ 3 $ is the Arabic word given by Avicenna (206.) for 
the borassus flabelliformis, supposing it, certainly 
erroneously, to be that tree which yields bdellium ; 
see that article, in Vol. I. of this work. Crawfurd # , 
in his Account of the Eastern Archipelago, informs 
us, that at Celebes, and other parts of those coun- 
tries, the toddy of the borassus flab, is called tar 
and tala> names similar, or nearly so, to the Dukha- 
nie and Sanscrit ones of India ; in Timor it is termed 
suwalen, also koli. Roxburgh, in his Coromandel 
Plants, vol. L p. 50., tells us, that the male plant is 

• See his History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. I p. 443. 


called in Tellingoo poota tali; the female, penty. 
After the caryota urens, it is one of the largest 
palms on the Coromandel coast 


PARATIE VAYR LJZj^srCcru^ also Vun 
paratie vayr (Tam.) Kapas he jurr ^ ^ u*y 
(Duk.) Ussululkoten Je%\ >*t (Arab.) Puttie 
vayr oo (Tel.) WaUa (Japan.) Cay-boung (Cochin- 
Chin.) Bo/a 0ax* (Mod. Greek). Karpasl 3f?m*ft 

or Karpasl c^|l||Bt (Sans.) Root qf the Cotton 


Gossypium Herbaceum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. Ord, 
Columniferae. Krautartige Baumrcolle (Norn. Triv. 


This root, which is woody, with numerous fibres, 
tapering and annual, has but little taste or smell, 
and, I much suspect, possesses little real medicinal 
Virtue. The Tamool doctors are in the habit of pre- 
scribing it, however, in the form of decoction, in 
cases of strangury and gravel, from a notion that it 
is demulcent ; the dose is about half a tea-cupful or 
more, twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Cat. duplex, exterior 3-fidus 5 caps, ^ocu- 
laris ; sera, lana obvulata." 

The common cotton bush of India, which this is, 
rises to the height of about three or four feet, with a 
round, upright, pubescent stem, at the bottom brown, 


with straight chinks, and spotted with black at the 
top; the branches are axillary; leaves five-lobed, 
without* gland underneath, though, Willdenow says, 
uniglandulosis t; the corolla is monopetalous, with a 
very short tube and a five-parted spreading border ; 
the segments blunt, crenate at the side, pale yellow, 
with five red spots at bottom, and deciduous ; capsule 
bluntly three-cornered, three-valved, three-celled ; 
seeds, which are a fattening food for cattle, are ovate, 
about three in each cell, convex on one side, more 
flat on the other, and immersed in fine cotton, This 
species is common not only in India, but in the Levant, 
in several Islands of the Archipelago, Sicily, Malta, 
&c. There is a beautiful variety of it on the Coro- 
mandel coast, which has a dark red, sweet-smelling 

The uses of the cotton bush are well known, and 
will be noticed in another part of this work, where 
the superior quality of the Bourbon cotton shall also 
be adverted to ; this is the produce of a bush which 
sometimes rises (at least in the West Indies J, whither 
it was taken in 1795) to the height of eighteen 
feet or more. 

One of the two species of the cotton-bush, culti- 
vated in Jamaica, is considered as medicinal, viz. 
the gossypium barbadense ; an emulsion of the seed 
of it is given in dysentery, and is also supposed to be 
pectoral. The seeds yield, by expression, an oil 
which is much used, and is considered to have, in 
a peculiar manner, the virtues, when externally ap- 
plied, of clearing the skin of spots and freckles. A 
tea made of the young leaves is recommended in 

# Vide Murray Prodromus, 170. 

f Vide Willdenow, Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 80S. 

% See Lunaa's Hortus Jamaicensis, vo). i. p. 24?I» 


lax habits # , and for preparing a vapour-bath for the 
anus, in cases of tenesmus. 

Of the second species, cultivated in Jamaica, the 
g. hirsutum, I shall simply here say, that it- is from a 
variety of it that the finest and most silky kind of 
cotton is obtained in America, and which has pro- 
cured for it amongst the French, the name of " co* 
tonier de soi." This is the more remarkable, as the 
cotton obtained from the other species is, according 
to Browne, the least esteemed of any in Jamaica. 

The cotton from the sfiem paratie (Tarn.), gos- 
sypium arboreum, will also be noticed in another 
part of this work. Nine species of gossypium are 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. By 
Moon's Catalogue, it would appear, that but two are 
natives of Ceylon, theg. Indicum and g. religioswm* 


PATRASHI (Tarn.) Keso (Japan.) Gul abbas 
u-LW (Hind, and Duk.) Rambal po/cul ampat 
(Malay.) Krishna-keli (Beng.) Hoan-phan (Cochin* 
Chin.) Marvel qf Peru. 

Mirabilis JaLapa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentaridria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Nyctagines (Juss.) Gemeine Jalape (Nom. Triv. 

* The excellent Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue of 
Indian Medicinal Plants, says (p. 28.), " This is 
not an indigenous plant of Hindoostan, but all the 
varieties of it are now cultivated as an ornament to 

* See work last quoted, p. 242. 


the gardens in Bengal." Now we know that Willde- 
now # observes, in speaking of it, " Habitat in In- 
dia t," and Miller informs us, that it is a native of 
both the East and West Indies, as well as of China, 
Cochin-China, Africa, and Peru. It was once sup- 
posed that the root of this plant was the jalap of 
the shops, but that is now ascertained to be the root 
of a convolvulus. The tuberous root of the plant in 
question, which is the sindrikka of the Cingalese, 
often grows to a large size, and has a faint, and rather 
sickly smell and taste. The native doctors consider 
it as gently aperient; and it was imagined at one time, 
by the European medical men of India, that it might 
be useful in practice ; it would appear, however, by 
the accounts of both Dri Hunter and Dr. Shool- 
bredt, who prescribed it, and my own experience 
leads me to the same result, that its purgative virtues 
are not sufficient to entitle it to any consideration j 
and we moreover know, that Loureiro said of it, in 
his Flora Cochin-Chin. (vol. i. p. 101.) " Hcec radix 
non est apt a ad medicinam" 

Of the essential character of the genus Willde- 
now says, " Cor. infundibuli, supera ; caL inferus j 
nectarium globosum, germen includens." 

The species mirabilis is a beautiful perennial plant, 
distinguished by its smooth leaves, and the variety of 
colour in the flowers, red, white, yellow, &c. ; these 
are heaped, terminating, erect, sitting close together 
without any leaflets between them, and not longer 
than the leaf. The reader may find a more particu- 

* See Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 999. 

f By the Hortus Bengalensis, in which five varieties of the 
plant are noticed, it would appear that it was not introduced into 
the botanical garden of Calcutta much before 1794. 

\ See Fleming's Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 29* 


lar account of it in Parkinson's Paradisius, published 
in 1629. We are told by Thunberg that with the 
seeds of this plant the Japonese prepare a sort of 
white paint for their complexions. 


PASSELIE KEERAY »_^rf*3>ar<2>n- (Tain.) 
Chowly Jy* (Duk.) Bucklutulmobarik \JT,UJ!*VjL 
(Arab.) Batsalilcoora (Tel.) also Pedda-poilpaiU 
kura (Tel.) Oopadykee (Sans.) Creeping Annual 


CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Succulentae. Viertheiliger Portulac (Norn. Triv. 

The bruised fresh leaves of this acid and pleasant 
tasted purslane are prescribed, by the Tamool prac- 
titioners, as an external application in akki (Tarn. ), 
erysipelas ; an infusion of them is also ordered as a 
diuretic in dysuria, to the extent of half a tea-cupful 
twice daily. 

Of the essential character of the genus Willde- 
now says, " Cor. 5-petala ; cal. 2-fidus ; caps 1-locu- 
laris, circumscissa." 

The species in question, which is the heen-gendar 
kola of the Cyngalese, is a creeping, annual plant, a 
native of the Indian woods, distinguished by bractes 
in fours, Jlowers quadrifid, and a stem with hairy 
joints ; it has a fibrous root ; leaves opposite, spread- 
ing, distant, ovate, lanceolate, fleshy, even, «esaile, 


quite entire, concave underneath, with transparent 
micas scattered over them ; the Jlowers are sessile, 
yellow, and surrounded with white hairs like the 
joints; and the seeds are rounded and muricate.* 
The plant is the portulaca linifolia of Forskahl 
(Egypt. 92.). Five species of portulaca are in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. 

Of the four that are indigenous in Jamaica, two 
appear to be there employed in medicine ; the portu- 
laca oleracea, or pot-herb, and the p. pilosa. The 
first, Mr. Lunant tells us, " is a cooling and moisten- 
ing herb, and of use in burning fevers." Barham 
says (p. 154.), " that bruised, and applied to the tem- 
ples, it allays excessive heat, and such pains as occa- 
sion want of rest and sleep ;" adding, " that the juice 
made up into pills, with gum tragacanth, is of use in 
spitting of blood/* The plant is common also in 
India, and is eaten by the Hindoos. In Tamool it is 
called corilkeeray; the Canarese name is doda gorai; 
its Sanscrit and Hindoostanie appellation lo^J loonia. 
The other species employed in medicine in the West 
Indies (the p. pilosa), is, we are told by Browne, 
" very bitter in all its parts, and is frequently used 
as a stomachic and provocative of the menses, as well 
as a diuretic." Three species of portulaca are na- 
tives of Ceylon, but one was found by Loureiro in 
Cochin-China, the p. oleracea (rau sam) 9 where the 
seed is considered as emollient and diuretic. 

* See Willdenow Spec. Plant, vol. ii. pp. 860, 861. 
f Sec Lunan'8 Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 109. 




Brucea (Nov. Spec). 

Patti lallar is the Javanese name of a new species 
of brucea, discovered on Java by Dr. Horsfield ; it 
resembles, he says, in its nature the other species, 
which he discovered in the same island, and, like all 
of that genus, is distinguished by its bitter and 
stomachic qualities. 


PAVALA POOLA (Tarn.) also Pagdrd pula 

(Tarn.) Gas-kayila (Cyng.) Buckthorn-like PhyU 

Ian thus. 

Phyllanthus Rhamnoides (Retz.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 
Tricoccae. Wegdornatiger PhyUanthus (Nom. Triv. 

The leaves of this beautiful plant, the Tamool 
doctors suppose to have virtues in discussing tumours, 
especially what they call pukka poolavay, which is 
our carbuncle * (anthrax) ; they are applied warm, 
moistened with a little castor-oil, and frequently in 
conjunction with yettie kolindoo (tender shoots of 
the strychnos nux vomica), and the leaves of the 
sittamoonalca\ (ricinus communis). 

* A disease very common amongst the wealthy Hindoos, who 
eat much ghee (clarified butter) and get fat. 

f See a medical aastrum, entitled Aghastier PermooL 


Of the essential character of the genus, we have 
already spoken under article Nellie poo in this chap- 
ter ; the species in question is distinguished by its 
numerous leaves, which are alternate, and which aie 
generally about an inch and a half long, and a little 
more than an inch broad. Retz, in his "Observ- 
aiiones Batanicce"* has given the best description of 
it (p. SO.); he says, " Phyllanthus caule suffrtiticosa, 
foliis pinnatis, foliolis alternis ovatis floriferis, pedun- 
culis inferioribus geminis masculi, superioribus soli- 
tariis femineis ;" the fruit is a black berry. It is a 
native of Java and Ceylon as well as India. Thirty- 
six species of this genus have been scientifically de- 
scribed, sixteen of which are natives of India, and 
but one of Jamaica, the p. nutans. Twenty-one 
species are growing in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta ; ten species are natives of Ceylon. Moon's 
Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 65. 


PAVUTTAY VAYR Lj^cn-ji-L-Gcn-i^r (Tarn.) 
Pccucatta (Cyng.) Paputta vayroo (Tel.) Cancra 
(Hind.) Root of the Indian Pavetta. 

Pavetta Indica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Stellatae. Scheeikorn (Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

This is a bitter but not unpleasant tasted root, 
possessing at the same time aperient qualities, and 
is one of those medicines commonly prescribed by 
the native doctors in visceral obstructions; given 
in powder to children, the dose about a drachm 
or more. 

VOL. II. u 


Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cor. 1-petala in- 
fundibilif. supera ; stigma curvum ; bacca 2-sperma. 

The species in question, which is the pavatha of 
the Cyngalese, is a middle-sized shrub common on 
road sides, and uncultivated lands; Roxburgh, 
under the name of ixora pavetta, has minutely de- 
scribed it in his Flora Indica (Vol. i. .p. 395,396.), 
and tells us, that its " branches are cross-armed and 
ascending; leaves opposite petioled and oblong; 
stipules within the leaves, with a long awled process 
on each side ; Jlowers white ^ and somewhat fragrant ; 
stigma clubbed ; berry globular, size of a pea, one or 
two-celled/' The fruit, which is of a green colour, 
is eaten by the Natives, but is oftener made into 
pickle* The shrub is in Sanscrit called pappdna, 
also carnicara; it is the malleamotke of Rheede 
(Hort Mai. v. 19. 20. 1. 10.). In Bengalese it is froo- 
koora-choora ; the Tellingoos sometimes term it 
nooni papoota, in addition to the name already men- 
tioned. Rumphius speaks of it under the appella- 
tion of flammula sylvarum (Amb. iv. p. 107. t 47-). 
Loureiro notices two species of pavetta, one a na- 
tive of China (pav. arenosa), the other (pav. parasi- 
tica) as cultivated in the gardens of Cochin-China, 
vol. i. p. 74. : our article he professes to have no 
knowledge of. 


PAUMBOO ljtloi_ (Tam.) Samp u^U (Duk.) 
Samp (Hind.) Uf-iey j&\ (Arab.) MarJ^ (Pers.) 

Sarppa ^nj (Sans.) A Snake. 



The flesh as well as skin of certain snakes are 
supposed to possess medicinal qualities in some 
Eastern countries. In the Ulfaz Udwiyeh we are 
told (article 230.), that its quality (rte flesh) is hot and 
dry, and its property attenuant. The Hindoos have 
a notion that the dried flesh of a hill-snake, which is 
termed in Tamool Malay paumboo # , has virtues in 
that dreadful malady which is called in Tamool 
koostum (Leprosy of the Arabians), as we learn 
from the Medical Sastrum, entitled, Aghastier Per- 
nool; and it also appears by the Medical Sastrum, 
called Tumnundrie Vaghadwn, that the cast off coat 
of a snake, reduced to powder, and blended with 
a fixed oil, obtained from the seeds of the dalbergia 
arborea, has virtues as an external application in 
what the Tamools term kcLcazrullie (Epilepsy). But 
we shall say mor.e of snakes under the head of 
poisons, in another part of this work. 

Serpent's slough, externa serpentis, spolium serpentis, 
was formerly used as a ligature in intermittent fevers, 
a practice lately revived ; but, as Mr. Gray says, 
without the mummery of the serpent's slough, by 
Mr. G. Kellie. See Gray's Supplement to the Phar- 
macopoeia, p. 160. 


PAYMOOSTEY (Tam.) Malabar Convolvulus. 

Convolvulus Malabaricus (Lin.)* 

* It is a beautiful and inoffensive snake, about tbree feet long, 
with one hundred and ninety-two abdominal plates, and eighty* 
four subcaudal scales; the colour of the ground is a blueish 
green, with three or five brown linear stripes, of which the middle 
one is the broadest. These distinctions agreeing well, indeed 
exactly, with the coluber lineatus (Shaw). 

U 9 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Campanaceas. Malabarische Winde (Nom. Triv. 


This is a plant with a twining, round, villose, per- 
ennial stem, and leaves cordate, acuminate, and quite 
entire ; the corolla which has a pleasant aromatic 
odour, is bell- shaped, with a long tube, white, with 
a dusky purple base. 

The plant is the kattu-kelungu of Rheede, Mai. ii. 
p. 205. t. 51. It is a native of the Malabar coast, 
and also of Cochin-China, and may be found de- 
scribed by Loureiro, in his Flora Cochin-Chinensis. 

Of the genus, Willdenow observes, " Cor. cam- 
panulata, plicata ; stigm. 2 ; caps. 2-locularis loculis 
dispermis." Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 844. 

I have given this article a place here, not from 
any specific information I can offer with regard to 
its virtues, but merely because it is considered by 
the farriers in India, as a valuable horse medicine ; 
and in the hope that it may become an object of 
more minute investigation. 


A root found in Siam, by Dr. Finlayson, considered 
as diuretic by the native inhabitants. 



PEERAHI VAYR (Tarn.) Pukkie vayroo 
(Tel.) Seeura \ jy »» (Hind.) Nuckchihiie ke jurr 
^.^^U^ti (Duk.) Sheora (Beng.) Sprukka 
(Sans.) Gceta-rtitul (Cyng.) Root of the Rough- 
leaved Trophis. 

Trophis Aspera (Koenig.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Tetrandria. Nat. Ord. 
Calyciflore. Scarf blattrige Trophis (Norn. Triv. 

All I can say of this root is, that it was sent to 
me together with some other articles from the Ma- 
labar coast a very short time before my leaving India, 
and mentioned in general terms as a valuable medi- 
cine, but for what specific purpose was not said. The 
milky juice of the fresh plant, the natives apply to 
sand-cracks in the feet and excoriations in the skin. 
A very minute description of the trophis aspera, may 
be found in the fourth volume of the Asiatic Re- 
searches, by Sir William Jones j it grows, by his ac- 
count, to a tree of considerable magnitude j there are 
male and female plants ; the female Jlowers are axil- 
lary, from one to four or five in an axil ; the leaves 
vary, some being obovate, some oblong, some oval, 
pointed, irregularly notched, alternate (some opposite), 
crowded, crisp, very rough veined, and paler beneath, 
smoother, and dark above ; berry very deep yellow ; 
he adds, that the Pandits of India having only ob- 
served the male plant, suppose that it never bears 
fruit; he further observes, that the Hindoos, from a 
notion of its astringent and antiseptic quality, use 

u 3 


little pieces of the wood, split at one end into a kind 
of brush, for cleaning their teeth. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cat. ; cor. 4-petala. 

"Feminei. CaL 0; eor. 0; stylus 2-partitus; 
bacca 1-sperma. See Spec. Rant vol. iv. p. 783. 

In Jamaica there is but one species, the trophis 
Americana, or ramoon tree, the leaves and tops of 
which, Browne informs usj in his ** Civil and Natural 
History of Jamaica*, are fodder for all sorts of horses 
and cattle ; the berries, which are about the size of 
large grapes, have a very pleasant flavour. But four 
species of this genus have hitherto been brought 
into the system, two of which are natives of India. 


PEMAYRUTIE GljuuGloo-l-L-ij: (Tarn.), also 
Nettay PSmayrutie (Tam.) Mogd beerdkoo (Tel.) 
Bootankooshum (Sans.) Malabar Cat Mint. 

Nepeta Malabarica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae. Malabarische Katzenmunze 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The leaves of this plant, which are generally about 
five inches long, one inch and a half broad, and of an 
ovate-lanceolate shape, have a bitter and somewhat 
aromatic taste, and are prescribed in infusion in sto- 
machic complaints, and in the later stages of dysen- 
teric affections, also in intermittent fevers, to the 
quantity of an ounce and a half twice daily : the 

* Page 357. t.S7. fig. 1. 


juice, squeezed from leaves which have been slightly 
warmed, is prescribed for children in their febrile 
attacks from teething. Rumphius*, in speaking of 
the juice of this tree, which he tells us the Malays 
call daun-bati-bati, has these words, " Idem quoque 
succus cum binis guttis olei sesamini, propinatus 
prodest mirificfc asthmaticis, vel tussi mala laboranti- 
bus, quern in finem syrupus quoque prseparatur ex 
foliorum succo cum saccharo cocto." It is remarked 
by the Tamool practitioners that the leaves of the 
vuttei-pemayruttie (ballota distkha) have nearly simi- 
lar virtues : it is a plant of the same class and order. 

Of the genus nep eta, Willdenow says, " Corolke 
labium inferius lacinula intermedia crenata, faux 
margine reflexo ; stamina approximata." Spec. 
Plant, vol. iii. p. 49* 

The species in question has been minutely described 
by K&nig, who informs us, that it has stems erect, 
obtuse-angled, tomentose $ leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
tomentose, serrate, quite entire; calyx villose, five- 
toothed, and a corolla of a pale-violet colour. It is a 
native of Malabar, where it has got the name ofcarim. 
tumba. See Rheede, Mai. x. p. 185. t. 93. Loureirot 
notices but one species, the kirsuta* I find in Moon's 
Catalogue of Ceylon Plants but two, the nep. Indica 
and nep. Madagascariensis. The species cataria 
grows in Jamaica, and is there considered as a medi- 
cinal plant. The bitter infusion of it is reckoned a 
good cephalic and emmenagogue. See Hortus 
Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 168» 

* VideRumph. Amb.tom.v. lib.viii. cap.lnxr* 
+ See Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 866 

U 4 



PEPOODEL C— 'ULiLJL-;L-cro (Tam.) Chaynd 
polla (Tel.) Patola M£K^ (Sans.) Laciniated y or 
Torn Trichosanthes, or Hair-Flower. 

Trichosanthes Laciniosa (Klein). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Cucurbitacaae. Handformige Haarblume (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The tender shoots and dried capsules of this low- 
growing gourd are very bitter and aperient, and are 
reckoned amongst the stomachic laxative medicines 
of the Tamools ; they are used in infusion to the 
extent of two ounces, twice daily. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cal 5-dentatus; cor. 5-partita, ciliataj 
Jilam. 3. 

" Feminei. Cal. 5-dentatus; cor. 5-partita, ciliata; 
styl. 3-fidus ; pepo oblongus." 

The plant was first scientifically. described by Dr. 
Klein of Tranquebar, who transmitted his account of 
it to Willdenow. He says of it, " Trich. pomis ova- 
tis acutis, foliis cordatis quinque-veUseptemblo-pal- 
matis dentatis glabris." 

" Caulis filiformis scandens angulatus glaber ; foUa 
bi-vel tripollicaria profunda cordata palmata quinque- 
vel septemloba remote dentata utrinque glabra ; 
fores masculi in pendiculis corymbosis sexfloris axil- 
laribus, petalis ovatis dentatis : feminei in pedunculis 
solitariis axillaribus ; petalis simbriato-ciliatis." See 
Spec. Plant vol. iv. p. 601 . 



Of this genus, eleven species are noticed by Will- 
denow, without including the trichosanthes dioca of 
Roxburgh, which has got the name of j^ in upper 
Hindoostan. The T. Cucumerina is the pacta valam 
of Rheede (Mai. viii. p, 3<).)> and the kooalunin of 
the Japanese : it is in high repute on the Malabar 
coast for the stomachic virtues of the seeds. The 
t. amara is the only species found in Jamaica, and 
has got the character of being. poisonous. Mr. Ro- 
binson*, in his interesting manuscripts regarding the 
Natural History of Jamaica, observes that it is used 
for destroying rats. It would appear by the Hortus 
Bengalensis (p. 70.), that seven species are growing 
in the Company's botanical garden at Calcutta, all 
natives of India. Four species grow in Ceylon. 


PERAMOOTIE VAYR Glj/t/t^l-i^G^/t- 
(Tam.) Mootopolagum vayroo (Tel.) Batd affif 
(Sans.) Root of the Sweet-smelling Pavorua. 

Pavonia Odorata (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. 
Ord. Columniferse. Wohlriechende Pavonie (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

An infusion of this sweet, pleasant-smelling root is 
used as a diet-drink by the Hindoos in cases of fever, 
half a tea- cupful occasionally : the root, as it appears 
in the medicine-bazars, is light-coloured, and about 
the thickness of a quill. 

# See Address to Subscribers by Mr. Lunan, in the first volume 
of his Hortus Jamaicensis. 


Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Col. duplex : ex- 
terior polyphyllus; stigmata 10; capsuUe 5-bivalves 
monospermy" Of the species, he adds, " P.jfaZiM 
ovatis 9ubcordatis tricuspidatis subdentatis, ramisque 
piloso-viscosis, pedunculis, calycibus polyphyllis ; co- 
rolla inter parvas videtur rubra, magnitudine Hibisci 
phoenicei, campannulata; stylus decemfidus; capsuUe 
quinque acuminata^ cavinatae venosae." Vide Spec. 
Plant vol. iii. p. 837.. 

But one species of pavonia grows in Ceylon, the 
pav. Zeylonica, which the natives call gas-bcewila. 
The species urens is a native of the Mauritius. 


PERUMARUNDOO &— 'OLocptbs/ (Tam.) 
Isarmel (Hind.) Cay khoaica (Coch. Chin.) Isrie- 
vayl b*.*<$yA (Duk.) Wallas (jav.) Sacasander 
(Cyng.) Doolagovila Eesdrdvayroo (Tel.) Sat* 

sanda (Cyng.) Ishwari \'W^\ also Hart ^f^ 
(Sans.) Indian Birthwood. 

Aristolochia Indica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Gynandria Hexandria. Nat. Ord. 
Sarmentaceae. Ostindische Osterluzey (Nom. Triv. 

The root, and indeed the leaves, stalks, and bark 
of this shrub are bitter ; the taste of the first is ac- 
companied with a slight degree of aromatic warmth, 
and is on this account reckoned by the Tamool doc- 
tors (who sometimes call it talashrooHvayr) to possess 
virtues which render it a valuable medicine in those 
bowel affections which children are subject to, in 


consequence of indigestion and teething. Loureiro * 
mentions it as attenuant and deobstruent : it is, be* 
sides, amongst the many remedies which are employed 
on the Malabar coast in cases of snake-bites, the pow- 
der being both taken internally and applied to the 
part that is bitten. Dr. Fleming, in his " Catalogue 
of Indian Plants" (p. 8.), says that the isarmeU oj 
rather its root, is considered by the Hindoos of Upper 
India to possess emmenagogue and antarthritic virtues* 
The shrub is the catelce-vegon of Rheede (Mai. viii, 
p. 48. t. 2*5.), and the radix ptdoronka of Rumphius, 
who asserts that in Banda the bitter root of it is 
employed in decoction in diseases of the intestines, 
and also in intermittent fevers. t The dose in India 
of the decoction of the root is an ounce and a half 
twice daily. 

The aristolochia longa (the konuwto-susu of the 
Japonese), as well as the aristolochia rotunda\ are 
both included in the Materia Medica of the .Arabians; 
the first is considered as discutient and healing, and 
is called by the Arabians Ju^ «*i>!>> *nd by the 
Persians j]j> **£jj '• the second is supposed to be 
attenuant and deobstruent, and is termed in Arabic 
g> >«\« *ij>)jjf and in Persian $£ Oy^. Virey, in 
his " Histoire NatureUe des Medicament" (p. 160.), 
says of them, " elles passent pour puissantes inci* 


Of the genus, Willdenow observes, " Cor. 1-petala, 
ligulata, basi vetricosa ; caps. 6-locularis, polysperma 
infera." Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 16O0. 

* Adding, " Prodest in colica, cibi inappetentia, febribtfs inter- 
mittentibus, obstructiooibus, hydrope." Flor. Cochin-Chin, vol. \u 

p. 526. 

f See Horsfield's Account of the Medicinal Plants of Java. 

% They are natives of Italy and Spain. 


The species in question (Indica) is the cay-khoaica 
(Coch. Chin.), and the ispurmool of Upper Hindoo- 
stan : it has stems shrubby, round, slender, branched, 
long, and interwoven ; leaves cordate, rather acute ; 
corolla of a dusky-purple colour ; anthers six, on a 
very short thick style, and a capsule roundish and 

Two species are natives of Jamaica, and .are both 
considered there as medicinal plants — the a. odora- 
tissima and a. trilolata. Barham (p. 44.) speaks most 
highly of the first as an admirable bitter, alexipharmic 
(counter-poison) and stomachic, of superior virtue 
even to the Spanish contrayerva*, in dropsical cases; 
and Browne would seem to ascribe nearly the same 
virtues to the other species (a. trilolata). The arts- 
tolachia serpentaria, or Virginian snake-root, is not a 
native of India: its virtues are sufficiently well-known, 
and are, like those of the contrayerva-root, perhaps 
held in more estimation on the continentt than in 
England. See Alibert's " New Elements of Phar- 
macy" (vol. i. p. 116. French edition). Niehbur, 
in his Travels in Arabia (vol. ii. p. 348.), tells us, 
that the Arabians consider the root of the a. semper- 
virens as a powerful remedy in cases of snake-bites, 
taken in decoction for forty days together, the ab- 
surdity of which is evident, when we reflect how 
rapidly death usually succeeds to the bite, sometimes 

* By this he means, I presume, the root of the dorstenia con- 
trayerva, so long known as a valuable stimulant, sudorific, and 
tonic, and which is a native of Mexico and Peru ; its virtues ap- 
pear to be more highly prized by the French practitioners than 
by us. See Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutic ue, par Alibert, 
torn. i. p. 114. r 

f The reader may find its virtues highly praised in this respect, 
in an old book, published in Paris in 1635, by J. Cornutus, en- 
titled " Canadensium Plantarum, aliorumque nondum editarium 


in a few minutes. The same author mentions another 
remedy for such maladies, which some of the expert 
native practitioners have often recourse to, and, I 
think, with greater probability of success; that is, 
immediately sucking the wound, and which may be 
done with impunity, if the mouth or tongue is not at 
the time excoriated : the plant is a native of Crete, 
as well as Arabia. Of the thirty-nine species of aris- 
tolochia hitherto noticed, but two appear to be natives 
of India, our present article and the a. bracteata 9 
mentioned under the head of addutanapalay (its Ta- 
mool name) in this part of the work. Five species 
are in the botanical garden of Calcutta. Our article 
is the only one growing in Ceylon. 

Very various are the medicines which have been 
at different times resorted to for the bites of poisonous 
snakes, but few or almost none, I am sorry to say, 
with any certain advantage. In America the root of 
the poli/gala Senega or Seneka root* has long been 
vaunted for its virtues in cases of rattle-snake-bite, 
and was first brought to the notice of European prac- 
titioners by Dr. Tennant j but Dr. Barton t speaks 
by no means decidedly of its efficacy in that dreadful 
affliction, and seems to think that it is more useful in 
croup than in any other complaint. No article of the 
whole Materia Medica has had assigned to it so many 
good qualities as the p. senega ; it has been said to 
be at once stimulant, diuretic, sialogogue, expecto- 


• Dr. Horsfield, in his Account of the Medicinal Plants of 
Java, tells us, that the root of the chloranthus inconspicuus (the 
only species yet discovered) has much the odour of seneka root. 
The plant is the kras tulang of Batavia; the leaves are considered 
there as corroborant, and are given, in decoction, in gleets and 
intermittent fever. 

t See Barton's Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States, 

vol. ii. p. 117* 


rant, emetic, and sudorific j Dr. Cullen has treated of 
it both under the head of cathartics and diuretics ; 
Dr. Brandreth of Liverpool recommends it in lethar- 
gy ; Dr. Chapman has given it a place amongst the 
emmenagogues ; and Woodville himself extols it in 
peripneumonic affections and in rheumatism. The 
ar. bracteata is common on the Coromandel coast, and 
called in Tellingoo gardi-garapa : the ar. acuminata 
grows at Chittagong. See Hort. Bengalensis. 


ljl-jl-cejl— (Tam.) Peddamanieputta (Tel.) Aralu 
3f^75 (Sans.) Bark qf the Ailanthns excelsa. 

Ailanthus Excelsa (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Hoher Goet- 
terbaum (Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

This bark has a pleasant and somewhat aromatic 
taste, and is prescribed by the native practitioners in 
infusion, in dyspeptic complaints, to the extent of 
three ounces twice daily. 

Of the genus, this is said by Willdenow : * 

" Hermaph. Cal. 5-partit ; cor. 5-petala ; statu* 
% 3 ; germ. 3. 5 ; styli laterales j samara mono- 

" Masculi. Cat. 5-partit ; cor. 5-petala ; stam. 

" Feminei. CaL 5-partit ; cor. 5-petak ; germ. 3. 
5 j styli laterales ; samara* monospermy." 

• See Spec. Plant, (vol. iv. p. 974.) 


The species in question is a very large tree, and 
has been particularly described by Roxburgh, in his 
Coromandel Plants; it would not appear to differ 
very much from the other species, for there are but 
two, the ailanthus glandido$a> which is also a large 
tree, a native of China. Of the ailanthus excelsa +, 
Roxburgh says, that it rises with a straight trunk, 
like a fig-tree ; the leaves, which are three feet long, 
are abruptly pinnated ; leaflets short- petiolated, from 
ten to fourteen pairs ; flowers exceedingly numerous, 
small, slightly tinged with yellow ; capsules from one 
to four; one seed flattened. The tree grows in 
Ceylon, and is found in many parts of the Cora- 
mandel circars, but is oftenest met with among the 
open valleys of the mountains ; the wood, which is 
light and white, is commonly made into catamarans. 


(Tam.) Nillwr jXJ (Duk.) Harjora, also Har 
(Beng.) Har J* (Pers.) NuUerootingeh (Tel.) 
WaLkeercessa (Cyng.) Vqjra valli ^^sjq^ff (Sans.) 
Four-angled Cissus. 


CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Hederace*. Viereckige KUmme (Nom.Triv.Willd.). 

The leaves and quadrangular shaped stalks of this 
rather nauseous smelling climbing plant, are, when 
young and tender, sometimes eaten by the natives ; 
ami when dried and powdered, are prescribed by the 

* Bee Coromandel Plants, voL i. pp. 2$, 24. 


Tamool practitioners in certain bowel affections, con- 
nected with indigestion ; they are also considered as 
powerful alteratives ; of the powder about two scru- 
ples may be given twice daily, in a little rice-water. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " bacca 1-sperma, 
cinta calyce coroliaque quadripartita." (Spec. Plant, 
vol. i. p. 655.) 

The species in question is the Jit n is quadrangularis 
of Rumphius (Amb. v. p. 83. t. 44. f. #.), and has 
been well described by Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica 
(p. 426.), who tells us, that it is common over every 
part of India. The roots are fibrous ; stern and 
branches perennial, scandent, and often very long ; 
leaves alternate, one at each joint, cordate serrulate 
dentate, an inch or an inch and a half each way; the 
berry is round, the size of a pea, smooth, red, suc- 
culent, and one celled ; seed solitary, obovate, and 
covered with a dark-brown spongy integument ; the 
perisperms conform to the seed. 

Of the eighteen species of cissus, noticed by Will- 
denow, six, he says, are natives of India* and other 
Eastern countries. Four species grow in Jamaica, 
none of which, however, appear to be there considered 
as medical. But Barhamt tells us, that he thinks 
the berry of the cissus acida might be turned to 
account in dyeing, staining or colouring, from the 
appearance of the dark coloured lamp-black looking 
substance, which can be squeezed out of it. The 
cissus latifolia is common in Ceylon, and is there 
called galberaya ; it is the schunambu vaUi of Rheede 
(Mai. vii. p. 21. t 11.). Our article is noticed by 

* Roxburgh, however, mentions several others not spoken of 
by Willdenow, and gives an account of no less than fifteen 
species as natives of Hindoostan. See Flor. Iudica, p. 423. 

f See his Hortus Americanus, p. 175. 


Loureiro, who tells us, that the Cochin-Chinese call 
it dee-xank-voung, but he says nothing of its medi- 
cinal virtues. Eleven species of cissus are growing 
in Ceylon, and nineteen are in the Hortus Benga* 
lensis, p. 11. 


PEETANDALE-COTTI (MaL) Vuttei khilloo- 
Mulloopie LS&&rrrB&*noG&iTLju m q. (Tam ) Ghe- 
legherinta (Tel.) KiUgitippe (Cyng.) Bun-sun 
(Hind) Bluejlowered Crotularia. 

Crotularia Verrucosa (Lin.), 

CL and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Vierkantige Klapperschotte (Nom. 
Triv. Willd,). 

I have given this plant a place here, on the autho- 
rity of Rheede *, who informs us, that the juice of 
the leaves is supposed to he efficacious in diminish- 
ing salivation : It is an annual, common in the woods 
of Malabar, but appears to be also a native of Java, 
the Philippine Islands, and Ceylon. 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Legumen turgidum, inflatum, pedicilla- 
tum ; jilamenta connata, cum fissura dorsali" (Spec. 
Plant vol. iii. p. 972.)- 

The species in question has a four-cornered herba- 
ceous stem, which is erect and flectuose, and rises to 
the height of about three feet or more ; the leaves 

• See Hort Malab. ix. p. 53. t- 29. 


are simply ovate, * waited, of a pale green, and 
on short leaf stalks ; the Jlowers are alternate, smooth, 
and of a light-blue colour, succeeded by short, tur- 
gid pods inclosing one row of kidney-shaped seeds. 
The plant is common on Ceylon, and called by the 
Cyngalese niUadana-hiriya. 


PERIN PANEL G\-irr<Gsac\-irro*<xv (Hort 

Perm panel is the name of a shrub which grows 
in Malabar ; with the dried leaves of it the natives 
prepare a fumigation t, that it is supposed to be of 
use in hysteria. I am uncertain whether this plant 
has as yet been botanic ally examined. 


PHAINA - SCHELLI ljllS^G^svcnS or PAI- 
NA-SCHULLI (Malealie). Holly -leaved Acan- 

Acanthus Illicifolus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Personatae. Hulsenblattrige Barenklaye. 

Paina Schulli is the name given on the Malabar 
coast, to an ever-green shrub, which rises to the 
height of four or five feet, and divides into many 

* See Flor. Zeyl. 277. 

f See Hort. Malab. part v. p. 90. 


branches. We are told by Rheede *, that the tender 
shoots and leaves, when ground small and soaked in 
water, are supposed to possess virtues, as ai* exter- 
nal application in cases of snake-bites. 

Of the genus, Willctenow says, " Oil. bifol, bifidas; 
cor. 1-labiata, deflexa, 3-fida; caps. 2-locularis^ 
(Spec. Plant vol. iii. p* 397.)- 

The species in question has, as the name indicates, 
leaves much resembling those of the common holly, 
and which like them are armed with spines; the 
Jlowers come out singly, in an upright raceme, at the 
end of the stalk ; they are white, and are shaped like 
those of the common acanthus. Our article would 
appear to be the aquifolium Indicum of Rumph. 
(Amb. vi. p. 163. t. 71.)- ** * s thejertffo of the Ja- 
vanese, and was recommended by Bpntius for it$ ex? 
pectorant qualities.! 


PHAL-MODECCA Ljnr<roGLon-u^we5/r (Ma- 

lealie). VidSri f^?[I?!t (Sans.) P ankle d Bind- 

Convolvulus Paniculatus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogyniiu. Nat Ord. 
Campanaceae. Itispenblutige Winde (Nom. Triv. 

The root of this species of convolvulus, when 

* See Hort. Mai. part ii. pp. 93, 94. t. 48. 

t It is a plant in great request amongst the Siamese and Cochin- 
Chinese, and called by the latter cay-o-ro* who consider it as 
cordial, attenuant, and useful in paralysis and asthma. See Flora 
Cochin-Chin* vol. ii. p. 375. 

X 2 


dried in the sun, reduced to powder, and boiled with 
augar and butter, Rheede * says, is supposed on the 
Malabar coast to promote obesity, and moderate the 
menstrual discharge. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cor. campanu- 
la^ plicata ; stigm. 2 \ caps. 2-loccularis ; loculis 
dispermis" (Spec, Plant, vol. i. p. 844.). 

Of the species, he adds, " c. foliis palmatis ; lobis 
septenis ovatis acutis integerrimus, pedunculis pani- 
culatis." And Miller observes, that it varies with 
three or five-lobed leaves, in sandy situations in Ma- 
labar. It would appear to be the ipomoea mauritiana 
of Jacq. Collect iv. p. 216, and the ha-angilla of the 

Convolvulus is a most numerous genus, one hun- 
dred and twenty species having been already scien- 
tifically described, of which twenty-two are natives 
of India. Neither the convolvulus scammonia, nor 
convol. jalap a grow in India, though I have no 
doubt but that they would both thrive in that coun- 
try ; and I think it a pity, that the experiment is not 
made ; the first is a native of Syria and Cochin- 
China, the last of Mexico ! 

The convolvulus turpethum (to be more particularly 
mentioned under the head ShevadeiVayr) in this chap- 
ter, is esteemed as a valuable and powerful cathartic 
amongst the Hindoos ; and I have no doubt, but that 
the resinous substance which exudes from the root 
when wounded, would be found a most valuable me- 
dicine if properly prepared. The convol. repens is also 
a native of India, and its leaves are occasionally eaten; 
it is the battel of Rheede ; but we are told by Sloane, 
according to Lunan, that the plant in Jamaica is con- 

* See Hart. Malab. ii. pp. 101, 102. t.49. 


sidered as of a very purging quality ; the powder 
being given in broths. 

The species BrasiHensis, which has got in Jamaica 
the trivial name of the seaside potatoeslip, according 
to the testimony of Browne and Sloane, is a pecu- 
liarly strong cathartic j the root, th&> first tells us, is 
used in dropsical cases ; the second informs us, that 
the leaves, which are temperately warm and emol- 
lient, are employed in preparing baths for similar 
affections: Plumier* recommends the inspissated 
juice as a drastic purge, in doses of tfrom twelve to 
fourteen grains $ its severity being tempered, if ne- 
cessary, with almonds, sulphur, or cream of tartar. 

PI A . AMOU-LECK (Siam). 

This is the name of a very bitter medicinal root, 
which Dr. Finlayson found in Siam ; it is of a soft 
texture, with a smoothish bark, its colour yellow, and 
it is supposed to be cooling in fevers ; it is used 
grated down with water upon a stone, and the 
mixture then smeared upon the body j it is also given 
internally; its Portuguese name is pargu marga 
u e. lignum amarunu 

* See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, toL ii. p. 107* 


x 8 





This is a very scarce, small, light, yellow-coloured, 
very bitter root, which the native doctors suppose to 
have virtues in strengthening the eyes ; a strong in- 
fusion is used as a colyrium. Of what plant it is 
the root, I have not been able to ascertain ; several 
Vytians have told me, that its operation taken in- 
ternally is violent and drastic •; future research may 
prove more successful. I have been informed, that 
the same name is also given to the white hellebore 
(veratrum album), and the roots may be confounded. 
The v. album is, we know, a native of the Southern 
and Eastern tracts of Russia and of Italy. 


PINNA Y UNNAY iS<yursj^rGLU6^5rs^7^r 
(Tam.) Surpunka tail J^l^^ (Duk.) Ponna 
noonay (Tel.) Oil qf the Calophyllum Inophyllum. 

Calophyllum Inophyllum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Grosses 
Schonblatt (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The kernels of the nuts of this large and most 
beautiful tree, have a bitterish, and,' when ripe, a 
somewhat unctuous taste. The native Indians, like 

* It is used by the farriers to purge horses. 


the inhabitants of the Philippine islands, occasionally 
prepare from them a fixed oil, which has a grateful 
smeJJ, and which they highly prize as a valuable 
external application in rheumatic affections. In 
Travancore it is much used for burning in lamps. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, "Cor. 4-petala; 
Cal. 4-phyllus, coloratus; drupa globosa" (Spec. 
Plant vol. ii. p. 1159.)- 

The species which is our present article, is the 
sultan champa of the Hindoos of the higher pro- 
vinces, it sometimes rises to near one hundred feet 
high, and of proportionate thickness; the leaves, 
which are oval, are nearly a span long, and about four 
inches broad j from the root exudes a whitish clear 
gum, without any scent ; but the Jtowers 9 which are 
white, eight petalled, and grow in racemes, have a 
most delightful odour; the Jruit is about the size of 
a walnut, under a fleshy cover and a woody shell, 
having a very oily kernel, which is bitter, and yields 
a yellow resinous juice* Dr. Horsfield, in his Ac- 
count of Java Medicinal Plants, informs us, that on 
that island this tree is said to possess diuretic and 
expellent properties. It may be found minutely 
described by Burman in his Thesaurus Zeylanicus 
(113.). Rumphius* speaks of it under the name 
of bintanger maritina. It is the ponna-maram of 
Rheede t (Mai. iv. p. 76. t. 38.), and the teldomba of 
the Cyngalese ; the appellation, however, they bestow 
on the only other species, the cahphyllum calaba, is 
gceta-keena, which also grows in Malabar, and is the 
tsierou-ponna of Rheede (Mai. iv. p. 81. t. 39.)- The 
calophylum calaba is a lofty tree ; the wood of which 

* Arab. ii. p. 211. t. 71- 

\ Rheede says, that the tears which distil from the tree and 
its fruit are emetic and purgative. Hort. Mai. part iv. p. 8a 

x 4 


is useful for ship building, and making masts ; the tree 
itself is called the Santa Maria m Jamaica ; and 
Barham, in his Hortus Americanos (p. 18.)> extols it 
much, on account of its yielding an admirable balsam 
of great efficacy in healing green wounds* 

I shall conclude what I have got to say of the 
talophylhim InopJiyttum, at this time, by observing, 
that from the authority of Lamarck, it appears to be 
from this tree that the resin called tacamdkaea is ob- 
tained: " Ex hac arbore venit resina tacamdkaea dicta, 
quae in insulis Borboniae, Madagascariae colligetur * j 
and by stating also, that the English in India some- 
times bestow on it the name of the Alexandrian 
laurel ; it grows to an enormous size in Malabar, but 
by all accounts, still larger in the island of Balam- 
bangan, and along the shores of Banguey and Sam- 
panmangio, where it has got the appellation of palo- 
maria and dancawn. With respect to its uses in ship 
building, the reader is referred to Dalrymple's Orien- 
tal Repository (voLii. p. 18.). I am somewhat in- 
clined to think, that this is the tree which Alexan- 
der's army found growing in the country of the 
Gadrossi t ; and which Arrian describes as resemb- 
ling a laurel with white blossoms of a most delight- 
ful odour (See Arrian by Mr. Rooke, vol. ii. p. 15.)'! 
and hence, perhaps, its English name in India. See 
article Calophyllum Inophyllum, m other parts of 
this work. 

* Lamarcky Eocycl. i. p. 457. 

t The ancient Gedrosia is the present Mekran, which lies be- 
twixt the province of Kerman, in Persia, and the country of 
Scind. See a Geographical Account of the Persian Empire* bf 
Major Macdonald Kinneir. 



PLAOU-GAI (Siam.). 

Name of an astringent root which Dr. Finlayson 
found in Siam, employed by the natives for checking 

FLUN-M AI (Siam.). 

A root considered in Siam as diuretic j found by 
Dr. Finlayson in that country* 


P0DOOTALE1 Gi-J^S^a**) (Tarn,) Tan 
(^j\J (Duk.) Bokenakoo (Tel.) Hirimandetta 
(Cyng.) Bhooi-okra (Hind.) Vashlra ^S[ft^ 
(Sans.) Creeping Vervain. 

Vervena Nodiixora (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord, Diandria Monogynfa. Nat. Ord. 
Personate. Kopfblutiger Eisenhart (Nom. Triv, 

The tender stalks and leaves of this low-growing 
plant, which last are in a slight degree bitter, the 
native practitioners prescribe, when toasted, in infu* 
sion, in cases of children's indigestions, to the ex- 
tent of two ounces twice daily } it is also sometimes 
ordered as a drink fotf wonten after lyiftg*in. 


Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cor. infundibulif. 
subaequalis curva ; calysis uncio dente truncato ; 
semina 2; s. 4-nuda (stam. 2. s. 4.)," (Spec. Plant, 
vol. i. p. 115.). 

The species in question is a native of Southern 
Italy and Sicily, as well as India, and has, at different 
times, had very different appellations bestowed on 
it ; it being the blairia nodiflora of Gaertner, and the 
zapania nodiflora, of Lamarck, and I think, the ca~ 
pitata (Forsk.). The stem is herbaceous, creeping, 
ascending from three inches to a foot in length, 
subdivided, rounded, marked with lines and smooth. 
Willdenow says of it, " V. tetrandra, spicis capitato- 
conicis, foliis cuniformibus dentatis, caulerepente." 
The spike is terminating, roundish, composed of 
small whitish or rose-coloured Jlowers ; it has two 
seeds, roundish, flatter on one side than the other. 
The verbena officinalis, which, at one time, was in- 
cluded in our Materia Medica, and was supposed to 
be efficacious in scrophula, according to Morley, is 
not a native of India ; it grows at Corfu, and is 
held in high estimation in several disorders by the 
modern Greeks (who caH it Xrcwpo %oproit ; as we 
learn from Michelis Flora Delia Corcirese, p. 4.) ; 
it would also appear to be a native of Cochin-China, 
and Peru, where, according to Ruiz *, it is supposed 
to be useful when given in decoction, in cases of 
obstructed menses. The ancients f are known to 
have put a high value on vervain ; it was not only 
considered as having powerful virtues in cases of 
snake-bites, but as a sovereign remedy in various 
other diseases ; and was employed in sacrificial rites 
And incantations, and worn as an amulet 

* See Flora Peruviana, vol. iv. p. 22. 
f Sec Pliny, i. 25. cap. 9. 


Of the seven species of verbena found in Jamaica, 
two seem to be medicinal, the verbena Jamaicensis 
and the verb, lappulacea; the first, according to 
Shane and Jaquin, is much used in the belly-ache, 
and in poultices for the dropsy. Sloane* informs us, 
that a decoction of it, with spikenard (ballota sua- 
veolens), cures dropsy; and Hughes t seems to believe 
it to be a powerful deobstruent. The second species, 
lappulacea, or burry vervain, has got in the West 
Indies the name of the styptic or velvet bur, and is 
there reckoned a valuable vulnerary subastringent, 
commonly applied to bleeding wounds ; and is also, 
according to Lunan, esteemed as an excellent appli- 
cation in all manner of sores where the habit is 

The Cochin- Chinese call the verbena officinalis 
co-roi-ngua, and consider it is useful in nervous com- 
plaints, and as a deobstruent in dropsy (Vide Lou- 
reiro Flor. Coch.-Chin. vol. i. p. 27.). 


POI MOOSHTIE also Poon mooshtie (Tam.) 

also Vata tirupie (Tam.) Velvet-leaf. 

Cissampelos Pareira (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Sarmentacece. Steintreibende Grieswurt (Nom.Triv. 

Willd.). A j _ 

The leaves of this plant are considered, by the 

Vytians, as of a peculiarly cooling quality, but the 

* See his " Catalogus Hantarum qua in Insula Jamaica sponte 
P 7 C £e Un his Natural History of Barbadoes. 


root is the part the most esteemed j it has an agree- 
able bitterish taste, and is considered as a valuable 
stomachic ; it is frequently prescribed in the latter 
stages of bowel complaints, in conjunction with 

The ctssampelos pareira has been very highly ex- 
tolled by several writers for its medical virtues, par- 
ticularly by Shane, Marcgraqfi Barham> and Wright* 
The first speaks of the efficacy of the leaves, as a 
vulnerary for a green wound ; the second recom- 
mends the root given in decoction, in the stone. 
Lunan notices its powers as an antidote against 
poisons. Barham (p. 200.), as quoted* by the 
gentleman last mentioned, has this remarkable sen- 
tence respecting it : "I knew a physician who had 
performed great cures on consumptive persons, who 
informed me, that his remedy was simply a syrup 
made of the leaves and root of this plant, for which 
he had a pistole a bottle." 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, 

" Masculi. Cal. 4-phyllus ; cor. ; necL rota- 
turn ; stam. 5 ; Jilam. connatis, 

" Femin'ei. Cal. 1-phyllus, legulato, subrotundus; 
cor. ; sty It. 3 ; bacca. 1-sperma" (Spec. Plant 
vol. iv. p. 861.). 

The species t in question, which is equally a na* 
tive of the East and West Indies, has a climbing and 
twisting stem of considerable length ; the leaves are 
subpeltate, cordate, roundish, and tomentose, and as 
smooth as velvet ; the fruit is a roundish, compressed 

* See Hort. Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 255* 

f Five species are to be found in the Honourable Company's 
botanical garden at Calcutta, three of which have got Hindoo- 
stanie names ; but two species appear to grow on Ceylon, the her* 
nandifolia and convolvulacea. 


scarlet drupe, containing a single, very hard nut, 
which is two-ceiled. Brorvne, in his Natural History 
of Jamaica (p. £570' describes the plant thus, under 
the name of ciss. scandens, " foliis peltatis orbicu* 
lato ; cordatis villosis, floribus, masculis racemosis ; 
femineis spicatis, spicis foliosis." I shall finish what 
I have to observe of our present article by noting, 
that Dr. W. Wright, in his Account of the Medicinal 
Plants of Jamaica, has these words in speaking of 
the roots : " They are black, stringy, and as thick as 
sarsaparilla, agreeably aromatic and bitter, and have 
been ordered in nephritic disorders, in ulcers of the 
kidneys and bladder, in humural asthma, and in 
some species of jaundice ; a decoction of them is 
used for pains and weakness of the stomach." See 
Hortus Jamaicensis (vol. ii. p. 855.). 


kebukdluckrie <s v ftjyjj (Duk.) Urene (Cyng.) 
Bhudinarti (Mai.) Pau de merda, also Pau sigo 
(Port.) Fetid Bark. 

This bark the natives suppose to have sovereign 
virtues in cases of carapang •, as an external appli- 
cation, pounded fine and mixed with a little castor- 
oil. The smell of the dark-coloured wood and bark 
exactly resembles that of human ordure. I at first 
concluded that they must, of course, belong either 
to the anagyris fctttda or sterculia fostida ; but, it 

* The Tamool name of an inveterate tort of itch. 


would appear, that Thunberg • had ascertained that 
our article was a part of neither : what it absolutely 
is, becomes a subject for future research. The ster- 
culia fcetida will be noticed in another part and 
volume of the Materia Indica ; its fruit is edible, 
and is particularly spoken of by Rheede (Hort 
Mai. iv. p. 7^0* 


0S)i_ also Manay poongung kai (Tam.) Ritah ***j 
(Duk.) also Rishta \\}± (Sans.) Bindake hindee 
<sojj> tf&A* (Pers.) Koomutti ghenzaloo (Tel.) 

Arishta^ffJX (Sans.) also PhSrula qf%^ (Sans.) 
Notck-leccoed Soap-nut Tree. 

Sapindus Emarginatus (Vahl.). 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 
Sapindi (Juss.) Ausgerandeter Seifenbaum (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The capsule which covers the black seeds of this 
tree has, in its succulent state, a very singular sweet- 
ish-bitter taste, and a smell not unlike that of an 
over-ripe mango j it is considered by the Vytians, 
and I believe justly, as a valuable expectorantt, and 
is prescribed accordingly in humoral asthma, in the 
quantity of a quarter of a pagoda weight twice 
daily ; it has also a very detergent quality, forming, 

* See Thunberg's Travels, vol. iv. p. 234. 

+ We learn from the Flora Peruviana of Ruiz, vol. iii. p. 2., and 
vol. in. p. 78., that in South America the plants possessing similar 
virtues are the sauvagesia erecta (Ruiz.) and the Oenothera gran- 
dywortL (JL Hent.). 


when bruised and agitated in hot water, a kind of 
suds, like that of common soap, which the natives 
use for washing their heads, &c. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, <c CaL 4-phylius ; 
pet. 4 ; caps, carnosae, connatse, ventricosae" (Spec. 
Plant, vol. ii. p. 468.). 

The species in question is the gas-penela of the 
Cyngalese, and is distinguished from all the others 
by its notched leaves. Vahl says of it (Symb. iii. 
p. 54.), "Leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong, emargi- 
nate, viliose beneath ; rachis simple ; petals tomen- 
tose at the edge." Its branches are unarmed, round; 
the capsules are trilocular, subturbinate, coadunate, 
each subglobular, one or two* frequently abortive, 
covered with dense yellow hairs*; the seeds, as I 
have already said, are black; the dried nut, as it 
appears in the bazars, with its shrivelled exterior, is 
altogether not unlike a small dried prune. I have 
been informed by my friend Dr. Sherwood, that he 
has known several instances of the good effects of 
putting a little of the suds formed by the soap-nut 
of this tree into the mouth of a person in an epileptic 
fit, by which means he was instantly brought to his 

The sapindus emarginatus is very apt to be con- 
founded with the sapind. saponaria, from this cir- 
cumstance, that the seed vessels of both possess 
a detergent quality, and are equally used as soap ; 
but this last has not as yet, I believe, been discovered 
in Hindoostan, but grows at Cocfiin-China, and is 
there called cay-bon-hm> and the fruit used as soap ; 
it is also common in Java, and is there termed by 
the natives rarak ; it is found on all the South-side 

• See Miller. 


hills of Jamaica, and has been particularly described 
by Sloane (v. p. 131.), likewise by Browne, in his 
" Natural History of Jamaica" (p. 206.), The me- 
dicinal properties of the fruit of the sapind. sapon. 
have been noticed by Lewis, in his Mat Med, who 
tells us, that a tincture or extract prepared from it 
is of great efficacy in chlorosis, and that such virtues 
were first published by Marloe, in a letter to Mr. 
Boyle. For further particulars, the reader may con- 
sult Barham's Hortus Americanus (p. 175.) ; he may 
also refer to an account of it, which was published 
by Dr. Horsfield, in the Transactions of the Batavian 
Society (vol. vii.), in which is detailed a chemical 
analysis of the fruit The Dutch call the tree rarak 
boom, and use the fruit of it as soap, in the same way 
that the native Malays do ; indeed, I believe that 
rarak * is the proper Malay name of the tree. 


POLLOKEYU (Javanese). 

Dais Octandria (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

The seeds of this is a common purge amongst the 

* See Crawford's History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. i. 
p. 457* 



UjLDO-ctlj^Q (Hort. MaJ.) Swarna pushpa ^1? 
TJSq (Sans.) also Vanda, S[7^J (Sans.) Spatulatt- 
leaved Limodorum. 

Limodokum Spatulatum ( Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Gynandria Monandria. Nat. Ord. 
Orchideae. Spateblattriger Dingel (Nom. Triv. 

Rheede says of this plant, that the powder of it 
mixed with honey is supposed, on the Malabar coast, 
to temper the bile and abate phrenzy; that the 
flowers, which are of a golden colour, reduced into 
powder, are of use in consumptive cases, also in 
asthma and mania.* 

The genus is thus described by Willdenow : " Cor. 
5-petala subpatens; labeUvm basi antice in cornu 
liberum p rod uc turn ; anthera terminalis." (Spec. 
Plant, vol. iv. p. 122.) 

Our article is a parasitical plant, which does not 
appear hitherto to have particularly called the atten- 
tion of many botanists j it was formerly placed by 
Linnaeus in another genus, Epidendrum (Spec. Plant. 
1348.), but removed by Willdenow to where it now 
is. Miller informs us, that this, with twenty- two 
other species t, are natives of India, and are de- 

* See Hort. Mai. part xii. pp.7, 8. t.S. 

f Four species are natives of Jamaica, one of which is medi- 
cinal, according to Browne, the limodorum altum ; the root of 
which, he says, is somewhat transparent ; its taste bitterish and a 

voj- II. y 


scribed by Koenig at great length, as may be seen in 
the sixthjaseiculus of Retzius's Observations. Will- 
denow's account of it is briefly, " L. caulescens, 
foliis oblongo-spathulatis obtusis, race mis axillaribus 
labello bifido, cornu abbreviate." Spec. Plant, vol. iv. 
p. 125. Sir W. Jones, in speaking of it, says, that 
the leaves are sheathing, opposite, equally curved, 
-and sword-formed j and that it commonly attaches 
itself to the mango and cratava religiosa trees. See 
his works, vol. v. p. 150. 


PONGOLAM GLjrrGvcG&nrsvmr) (Mai.). 

Pongolam is the name given on the Malabar coast 
to a plant which, Rheede tells us, has great medical 
virtues ; of it he says, " Calefacit, exsiccat, discutit, 
omnia vitia exfrigore orta, ut et humores pituitosos ac 
febres." • 

I have not been able correctly to ascertain what it is. 


ran.) Citron-leaved Tabernmnontana. 
Tabern^montana Citrifolia (Van). 

£2 « T' i ™ ay * e usc , d . WIth « rwt propriety as a stomachic. 

See Hort. Jamaicensis, vol. i. pp. 395, 396. Nine species of 
Lmodorum have aplace id the rfortus Bengalees, see p. 63. 
* Vide Hort. Mai. nni* vi'S « 11 r 

* Vide Hort. Mai. part vii. p. H. 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

This is a small tree, which rises to the height of 
sixteen feet, covered with a grey bark, abounding in 
milky juice ; it has opposite ovate leaves, bears a few 
white flowers, and has brown seeds lodged in a soft 
orange coloured pulp. The tree has a place amongst 
the Tonics of the Javanese j the bark, which is a 
pure bitter, is used. Rumphius speaks of the anti- 
febrile virtues of the plant j it is a native of Mar- 
tinico as well as Java ; the French call it bois-laiteux. 


POOLAVAYR PUTTAY u0w-<^* m ljl. 
<22)i— (Tam.) Poolugooda-putta (Tel.) Wcelkayilla 
(CyngJ Krishna kambqji ^HTf ^fF^tsft (Sans.) 
Bark of the Mam/flowered PhyUanthus. 

Phtllanthus Multiflorus (Klein.)* 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monodelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Vielblumiger PhyUanthus (Nona. Triv. 

This bark, as it appears in the Indian bazars, is 
commonly in pieces about a foot long, and as thick 
as the wrist, of a dark colour outside, and of a faint 
sweetish taste ; it is considered as alterative and at- 
tenuant, and is prescribed in decoction, in the quan- 
tity of four ounces or more twice daily. 

The genus as described by Willdenow, has already 
been given under article Nellie poo in this vol. an£ 

Our specie^ which is in Bengalie called PanJcoos- 

y 2 


hee, and in Cyngalese wceLkayila, would appear to have 
been hitherto only particularly noticed by Dr. Klein 
of Tranquebar, who being the friend of Willdenow, 
transmitted to him such information as enabled the 
great botanist to speak of it as he does, in the System, 
(vol. iv. p. 581 .) ; who says, " P. foliis oblongis acutis- 
culis, pedunculis axillaribus aggregatis, ramulis 
pinnaeformibus teretiusculis pubescentibus :" again, 
" Rami teretes lignosi fusci laeves crassitiae fere pen- 
nae anserinae ; folia semipollicaria vel minora oblonga 
apice et basi parum angustata, interdum etiam rotun- 
data, semper glabra; flores axillares pedunculati3 
ad 6. ; ob ramulos pinnasformes copiosos floribus 
numerosioribus videtur instructus." I find the plant 
is a native of Ceylon* See Moon's Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants. 


POOLEAN (Jav.). 

Ophioxylon Spinosa (Lin.). 

This is, I find, placed amongst the Tonics, in Dr. 
Horsfield's list of Java Medicinal Planted 


POOLI AR AY L-orfuurrestrr (Tarn.) Chua-mi- 
ba-chia (Coch. Chin.) Umbuti J>y*j\ (Duk.) Pool 
Ue chinta (Tel.) alsoPafla chinta (Tel.) Amrool 
{Hind.) C hukrikS^ [q\ct\\ 9 also Ambashta 3^«T 
also AmUka 3Tf^f (Sans.) Yelkm- Wood Sorrel 



CI. and Ord. Decandria Pentagynia. Nat Qrd. 
Gruinales. Gehornter Sauerklee (Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

The small sour leaves, tender stalks, and flowers 
of this plant, are prescribed by the Hindoos, as by 
the Cochin-Chinese, in electuary, in cases in which 
cooling medicines are required, to the quantity of 
two tea-spoonfuls twice daily. Of the genus, WiUde- 
now observes, " Col. 5-phyllus ; petala unguibus con- 
nexa ; stam. inaequalia, 5-breviora exteriora basi con- 
nata ; caps, angulis dehiscens, 5-gona." Spec. Plant, 
vol. ii. p. 772. See Flor. Coch. Chin. (vol. L p. 285.) 
Thunb. Japon. (p. 187* )> anc ^ Humph. Amb. (i. 8. 
c. 64. p. 277.) 

The species in question is an annual plant, with a 
prostrate rooting stem j peduncles two-flowered, styles 
almost equal; the leaves are alternate, ternate, 
collected in a small number at the rooting part 
of the stems. It grows in the woods of the Co- 
romandel coast, but is also a native of South- 
ern Europe, of Cochin-China, and Japan. It would 
seem to be the oxys lutea of Bauh. Hist. (iL p. 388.), 
and the oxysjlavojlore of Claus. Hist. (ii. p. 248.). 

The oxalis sensitiva is a native of Cochin-China, 
and there called chan-tsu ; it is also a native of Java, 
and is there called kating-ang, and placed by the 
natives amongst their tonics ; it is. common 011 the 
Malabar coast, where it is termed todda-vaddi 
(Rheede, Mai. ix. p. 33. t. 19- )• 

There is but one species of this genus in Jamaica, 
oralis stricta, and which, according to Sloane and 
Browne, has medical virtues ; the first informs us, 
that the leaves bruised and mixed with a little fine 
salt, remove films, funguses, and proud flesh from 
the eye ; and the last tells us, that it is a pleasant 

y 3 


cooler and diuretic,* Eight species of oxalis grow 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta, .Our article 
is indigenous in India, and is called in Bengalese 
and Hindoostanie AmrooL Three species grow in 


pala (Tel.) Three-leaved Cissus. 

Cissus Acida (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Hederaceae. Saur KUmme (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 
' The bulbous roots of this plant are sliced and ap- 
plied to buboes to drive them back ; they are also 
sometimes prescribed internally, ground small, and 
in conjunction with sugar in pile cases. 

The genus, according to Willdenow, has already 
been noticed under the head of perundei codi. The 
species in question, is common in the woods of the 
Coromandel coast ; and has been minutely described 
by Browne, (Jamaica, 147.), and Swartz, also by 
Barham (p. 175.) ; it is a scandent shrub, with a 
flexuose, round stem, tinged with purple, succulent 
and jointed, with short branches, and leaves alternate 
and petioled; the umbeUs are five-cleft; umbellets 
five-flowered ; corolla four-parted ; germ truncate ; 
berry black, and surrounded by the calyx. 

Of the use that the cissus acida might be turned 
to in the arts, according to Barham, I have taken 
some notice under the head of perundei codi in this 

* See Hort. Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 304. 


chapter. The species setosa (Roxb.)t the barubut- 
sali of the Tellinghoos, is an extremely acrid plant ; 
the leaves toasted and oiled, are applied to tumours 
to bring them to suppuration. See Flora Indica, 
vol. i. p. 428. Nineteen species of cissus are grow- 
ing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 


POOLLIUM VEREI L-&rf\uuxri£32)0- (Tam.) 
Vmtika ctencha U^lT JU» (Duk.) Tokmitamari 
(Persian). Chinta vittiloo (Tellingoo). Tintitt *vga 
f^f^cWt3T (Sans.) Cay-me (Cochin- Chin.) 

Stone qf the Tamarind Tree. 

Tamarindus Indica (Lin.). 

This very astringent substance is sometimes pre- 
scribed by the Vytians in dysenteric complaints, and 
also as a tonic in rutta varie (Tam.J, menorrhagia ; 
it is usually given in the form of an electuary, in the 
quantity of two pagodas weight, twice daily. In 
times of scarcity the poor eat the tamarind stones ; 
after being roasted, and then soaked for a few hours 
in water, the dark outer skin comes off, leaving the 
seeds below, white, soft, and in taste not unlike a 
field bean ; these are boiled or fried, and eaten. See 
article Tamarind*, in vol. i. of this work. 

* A confection prepared with the flowers is supposed, in 
Ceylon, to have virtues in obstructions of the liver and spleen. 
See Scott's excellent Inaugural Dissertation on the Medicinal 

Plants of Ceylon, p. 30. 

• ... 

Y 4 



POOLLUGHOO SHUTTUM m 0-<&gfi-.i_lo 
(Tarn.) ZubSd aUj (Arab.) Javad *\y* (Duk.) 
Gandhamarjara r$a TT^Hl^Wi^^ (Sans.) Zibet 


Poollughoo shut turn, as it appears in the bazars, is 
the Tamool name of a large, glandular, dried recep- 
tacle with contents, which is procured from a species 
of civet-cat, found occasionally in Lower Hindoo- 
stan. The animal itself is called in Tamool pool* 
lughoo pooney, and in Tellingoo poonzigkoo pilie. 
The article is chiefly used, when diluted, as a per- 
fume, but is also considered by the Hindoos as having 
anodyne and antispasmodic properties, resembling 
cactor. The animal is by no means uncommon on 
the Malabar coast, where it is called memva, in the 
Malayalie language. Turpin, in his " Histoire de 
Siam," informs us, that the civet-cat is a native of 
that country ; it is to be found in Brazil, and used 
formerly to be brought into Holland as an article 
of commerce. The civet, which, in the northern 
tracts of Hindoostan, is called katas, is secreted 
in the large glandular receptacle above mentioned, 
situated beneath the tail of the animal, which has 
the power, by means of muscular compression, of 
squeezing out the perfume when it pleases : when 
good, it is of a clear yellowish white colour, sofl^ 
unctuous, and of about the consistence of honey ; 
like musk, its smell is unpleasant till diluted ; it is 
sometimes adulterated with ox-gall, storax, or honey. 


Though certainly antispasmodic to a certain degree, 
it is scarcely ever used now, in Europe, but as a 
perfume to augment the smell of odoriferous sub- 
stances, chiefly waters and spirits, such as the lilly 
qf the valley, roses, rhodium, orange flowers, yellow 
saunders, &c. The Italians make it an occasional 
ingredient in perfumed oils, and in this way obtain 
the whole of the scent, for oils dissolve the entire 
substance of the civet 

Seven species of this animal have been noticed 
by writers on natural history ; we shall mention but 
three, from all of which the civet is procured of the 
same quality. 1. Our article, which is peculiar to 
the Asiatic continent, from Arabia to Malabar, and, 
according to Dr. Horsfield*, in the large islands 
of the Indian Archipelago ; it is the tanggalung of 
the Malays, and frequently grows to the length of 
two feet six inches, and, compared with the other 
two, is a stout animal ; its neck is short and thick, 
and breast full and distended ; it is chiefly distin- 
guished by having only a single black longitudinal 
dark-coloured line along the back, bounded on each 
side by a white one, and its comparatively mild dis- 
position. 2. The viverra rassia (Horsf.), a name 
bestowed by Dr. Horsfield on this species from the 
Javanese word rasa (perfume) ; it is not more than 
one foot eleven inches from the end of the muzzle 
to the root of the tail ; it is very ferocious, and has, 
in place of one, no less than eight regular parallel 
dark-coloured lines along the back; the marks or 
spots on the other parts of the body are the same 
with those of the zibetha, with this exception, that in 
the zibetha they are very dark, and in the rasse more 

* See his excellent Zoological Researches on Java, No* tL 


feint In the rassia the rings of the tail are strongly 
marked, and go uniformly round the tail ; in the 
zibetha they are scarcely perceptible in the under 
side. 3. The v. civetta (Lin.), which is peculiar 
to Africa, and which is known at once by its chesnut- 
coloured mane, and its back being spotted with a 
cinerous brown. 


tnisakkera gudda (Tel.) Bhu-sarkara OTJ%^ (Sans.) 

This root, in external appearance, is not unlike 
liquorice root ; it also somewhat resembles it in taste, 
but is not nearly so sweet ; it is prescribed, in decoc- 
tion, as an alterative and diet drink. I have not 
been able to ascertain from what plant it is procured, 
but hope that future research may be more fortunate. 
What I saw of the poomichacarei halting was brought 
to me from the medicine bazar of Trichinopoly, and 
was said to have been gathered in the woods of 


PONAVERIE G lj nroor^sovjaso- (Tam.) 
Pydu tenghadoo (Tel.) Kulkashinda (Beng.) Ooroo- 
tora (Cyng.) j see Burin. Zey. t. 98. Swarnamaya- 
hart *c|UH4J^nC (Sans.) Sophera Cassia. 

Cassia Sophera (Lin.)- 


CI. and OrcL Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Lomentaceae. Sopheraartige Came (Nom. Triv. 

The juice of the leaves of this low-growing plant, 
as well as of the fresh root, is reckoned a sovereign 
application in ring-worm, commonly prescribed in 
conjunction with lime-juice. The plant is the pon- 
nam t&gh&ra of Rheede (Mai. 2. p. 101. t. 52.), and 
the gaUinaria acutiflora of Rumphius (Amb. v. 
p. 283. t. 97- £ 1 •) > it is the cambang-hming of the 
Malays, and, Dr. Horsfield informs us, is ranked by 
the Javanese amongst their cathartics. The genus 
has been already noticed. The species in question 
is best described in the Flor.' Zeyl. " Facies foli- 
arum g. ligustrinas ; folia pinnata, foliolis circiter 10 
parium, coriariae facie, foliolis lanceolatis, sive ovato- 
lanceolatis, acutis viridibus herbaceis glabris sub- 
aequalibus subpetiolatis ; racemus parvus ex alis, 
corollas albido flavescentes venis fuscis." The three 
upper anthers are small and barren, the three lowest 
bowed, and the four middle ones straight. The 
■cassia sophera is also a native of China, and of the 
South Sea Island Tongalabu. It is indigenous in 
India, and may be seen growing in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta. See Hortus Bengalensis (p. 32.). 
The plant is the xy-tsi-tau of the Chinese, but who 
do not appear to attach to it any peculiar virtues, and 
may be seen mentioned by Forskahl in his Flor* 
Egypt. Arab, under the name of ^Ju* zufeer. 



POONGA-MARUM l_/k/9> ldtlo (Tam.) Kur- 

runje ke jar J+*> ^ *<&/ (Duk.) Canaga (Can.) 

Kanoogamanoo (Tel.) Caranj (Hind.) Kararga 

^JTS[ (Sans.) also Naktamala *\r^\Wi (Sans.) 

Woody Dalbergia. 

Dalbergia Arborea (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Baumartige Dalbergie (Nona. Triv. 

The juice of the fresh root of this beautiful tree 
the Vytians use for the purpose of cleaning foul 
ulcers, and consider it as particularly applicable in 
cases of fistulous sores, disposing them to close, and 
heal. A fixed oil is prepared from the seed of the 
legume, called in Taraool poonga unnay, and in Cana- 
rese hoingay unnay> supposed to be an efficacious 
application in the itch, and as an unction in rheu- 
matic affections. The tree is the caju galedupa of 
Aumphius (Amb. vol. ii. p. 59*), and is the pongam 
or minari of Rheede (Hort Mai. 6. p. 5. t. 3.). 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " CaL obsolete, 
5-dentatus ; legumen foliaceum planum non dehis- 
cens ; semina solitaria vel bina (See Spec Plant 
vol. iii. p. 900.). 

The species in question is remarkable for the thick 
and grateful shade it affords, and its profusion of 
fine deep-green leaves, which are about three inches 
long, and pointed ; the flowers are small, white and 
pink mixed ; but we shall, for the reader's satisfaction, 


give Wifldenow's description : " Arbor excelsa ; 
folia alterna pinnata ; foliola quinque petiolata op- 
posita ovata acuminata venosa glabra bi vel tripol- 
licaria; racemi axillares solitarii longitudine folio- 
rum, quandoque longiores ; germen pilosum ; stigma 
simplex capitatum ; legumen oblongum utrinque 
acutum submonospermum." 

The tree is a native of Ceylon, and is there 
called magulrkaranda. Fourteen species grow in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta. 



This is a sweet-smelling, pleasant tasted, fila- 
mentous, brownish bark, which was brought to me 
by a Vytian of Negapatam, and which, he informed 
me, was much prized for its alterative qualities, 
given in decoction ; at the same time he told 
me, that it was brought from the Malabar woods. 
It is hoped that future investigation will lead to more 
satisfactory information. 


POURSUNGHAI i^ixyu^T^Ov/^n-LU (Tam.) 
Parspipal (Hind.) Ghengheravie kaia (Tel.) Pa- 
riska pull J^. IT ^L (Duk.) Cay-tla (Cochin-Chin.) 
Sooparshavaka (Sans.) Fruit qf the Poplar-leaved 

Hibiscus, or Portia Tree. 

Hibiscus Populneus (Iin.)* 


CL and OrcL Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. Ord. 
Coluranifene. TappelUattriger Hibiscus (Nora. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The bright yellow juice of the fruit of this tree, 
is, in its nature, a little glutinous, and of a taste 
somewhat resembling gamboge ; it is employed as 
an external application in various cutaneous affec- 
tions, particularly in that variety of carpang called 
the Malabar itch; and a strong decoction of the bark 
is used as a wash in the same complaints. A decoc- 
tion of the bark is given by the Vytians internally, 
as an alterative, in the quantity of three or four 
ounces, twice daily. The tree is the cay-tla of the 
Cochin-Chinese, the novella lit tore a of Rumphius 
(Amb. ii. p. 224.), and the buparite of Rheede 
(Mai. i. p. 51. t 29.)- It grows large on Ceylon, 
and is there called sooriya-gaha ; with the juice of 
the fruit the Cyngalese dye yellow. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cal. duplex 
exterior pollyphyllus ; stigmata 5 ; caps 5-locularis, 
polysperma" (Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 806.). 

The species in question grows to the height of a 
small tree, with a thick trunk ; the leaves, which 
are about four or five inches long, are heart-shaped 
and pointed, smooth, and of a solid texture; the 
corolla is large, without scent, and of a yellowish- 
white colour ; the fruit a pericarp, in appearance, 
it is not unlike a small yellowish-brown shrivelled 
apple, five-celled, and contains many seeds, and a 
good deal of the yellow juice above mentioned. 
This plant is distinguished from most of its con- 
geners by its " caule arboreo ;" by far the greater 
part of the species are perennials, many have 
shrubby stalks, but some only herbaceous. The 
poursunghai-mdrum shall be noticed in another part 


of this work. Of the six species of hibiscus growing 
in Jamaica, three, according to Lunan's Hortus Ja- 
maicensis, are medicinal ; viz. hib. sabdariffa # , the root 
of which, according to Dancer, is purgative, in doses 
of 31J. ; the hib. abehnosckus, the seeds of which 
smell strong of musk, and are, according to Dancer, 
emetic; and lastly, the hib. ochra, the leaves and 
pods of which, in infusion, is a substitute for linseed 
tea. Six species of this genus were growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814. See Hort 
Bengal, (p. 96*)* 

Our article, with the species sinensis mutabilu, 
and tibiaceus, are natives of Java, and placed by the 
native doctors amongst their Emollients. 


PORASUM VEREI mi0&LBcnsa9T or PO- 

R ASUM COTTAY (Tarn.) Mddugd vittiloo (Tel.) 

Palasa Mc^UI (Sans.) also Kinsuka fqj^JSR (Sans.) 

Seed qfthe Butea Frondosa. 

Bute a Frondosa (Koenig.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Belaubte 
Butea (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The juice of the seeds, which are contained within the 
very flat, oval, chesnut-coloured legume of the butea 
frondosa, is a medicine held in high estimation by the 
Tamool practitioners as an anthelmintic, in the quan- 
tity of a table-spoonful and a half twice daily, both 

• The calyx of the fruit of this species has a most pleasant 
acid taste, and is made into jelly and tarts ; the species has been 
lately brought to India from Jamaica. 


in cases of tape-worm and ascarides. Dr. Roxburgh, 
in his account of the plant (Car. PL i. t21.)t 
informs us, that from wounds made in the bark of 
the tree, a beautiful red juice issues, which soon 
hardens into a ruby-coloured, brittle astringent 
gum •, which seems to contain a small quantity of 
resin, so differing from gum kino ; an infusion of 
the flowers dyes cotton, which has been previously 
impregnated with a solution of alum, a beautiful 
bright yellow t'; a little alkalie added to the infusion, 
changes it to a deep reddish orange, which dyes un- 
prepared cotton cloth of the same colour. Lac in- 
sects are frequently found on the small branches and 
petioles of the leaves. The natives appear to make 
no use of either the gum or flowers. 

Of the genus, Willdenow says, " CaL subbilabia- 
tus; corolla vexillum longissimum; legumen com- 
pressum membranaceum apice monospermum. " 
Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 917- 

The species in question is the gas-kcela of the 
Cyngalese ; it is middle-sized, but sometimes a large 
tree, generally a little crooked, having an ash-co- 
loured scabrous bark ; leaves alternate, threeed, from 
eight to sixteen inches long, leaflets emarginated, or 
rounded at the apex ; flowers J papilionaceous, pen- 
dulous, numerous, large; seed one, lodged at the 
end of the legume. 

By the Hortus Malabaricus (vol. i. p. 29.), it ap- 
pears, that the wood and leaves of this tree which, 

• A solution of it in water is of a deep-red colour, and this 
solution, by the addition of sal martis, changes into a good durable 

f See Dr. Kerr's account of the butea frondosa, in the Asiatic 
Journal for March 1817. 

% They are of a deep-red, shaded with orange, and silver- 
coloured down. 


is there called plaso, are used in religious ceremonies, 
and that the fruit is anthelmintic ; the bark is given 
in conjunction with ginger in the cases of snake- 
bites. Dr. Sherwood informs me, that he has known 
a decoction of the seed, to which a little nitre had 
been added, prescribed with advantage in gravelly 
complaints. The tree is called ^Xj polos in Ben- 
galie and Hindoostaiiie, and »^L ^^L palas pdpard 
in Dukhanie: the Mahometans of Upper India 
name it dhak. 

Another species, butea superba, is a large twining 
shrub, a native of the Circar mountains; it also 
yields a similar kind of ruby-coloured astringent 
gum ; the flowers may in like manner be used for 
dyeing yellow, and for preparing a yellow pigment 
The shrub is the tiga mdduga of the Tellingoos. 
Dr. Roxburgh, in speaking of it (Cor. Plants, vol. i. 
p. 23.), says, that he does not believe that the veget- 
able world produces any thing so gaudy ; the flowers 
are incomparably beautiful, large, numerous, and of 
so vivid a red, that one of his best painters laboured 
in vain to imitate it See Brutea Frondosa in other 
parts of this work. 



Dr. Horsfield, in his "Account of Medicinal 
Plants of Java," observes, that the natives of that 
country consider this plant as an antidote, in all 
cases in which poison has been swallowed : it is one 
of the remedies, he adds, in which they place most 
confidence. It is only found in elevated situations $ 

VOL. II. z 


the stem is shrubby, declining, and divided into a few 
slender branches, all its parts are penetrated with in- 
tense bitterness; the seeds are employed; one of 
them triturated in water is taken to counteract the 
poison. It would appear, that the genus of the 
shrub is doubtful ; it has, however, evidently some 
affinity to the geqffrcea. 


£iDe>ijurEoro7Qtf>'x (Tarn,) Peela bhungara *^&$* *** 
(Duk.) Keshooriya (Beng.) Bhungareh asjur %/x^» 
AJ (Ters.) Patsoopoopulatagheliryerakoo (Tel.) 

Pita-bhringi TftrT*{f*r (Sans.) Mary gold-like 

Verbesina Calendulacea (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Corymbiferae (Juss.) Ringelblumenartige Verbesini 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The leaves, seeds, yellow flowers, in a word, the 
whole of this low-growing plant, which is pleasant 
and somewhat aromatic to the taste, is used in medi- 
cines ; it is considered as deobstruent, and is pre- 
scribed in decoction, in the quantity of half a tea- 
cupful twice daily. It is the pee-cqjoni of Rheede 
(Hort. Mai. x. p. 83. t.42.), and the ran-wankeeki- 
rindiya of the Cyngalese. It has " an herbaceous 
stem, a foot high, and nearly erect; leaves quite 
entire, . opposite, lanceolate, bluntish, with yellow 
flowers, terminating solitary, and on a very long 
peduncle." It is a native of China as well as India. 


Three species of verbesina grow in Ceylon ; five 
have a place in the Hortus Bengalensis. ^ J% ^ 
biringhie raj is the Hindoostanie name of the species 
verbesina prostrata. 


POSTAKAI CLjn-crUff^e?/rLju (Tarn.) Post 
,yj (Duk.) Capsules of the Poppy Plant. 

Papaver Somniferum (Lin.). 

This is the dried capsule of the poppy, with which 
the native practitioners of India make an infusion, 
administered as a restrainer in bowel complaints. 


Nitrous Acid. 

In addition to what I have said of this medicine at 
pages 2 and 580 of Vol. L, I may here add, with 
reference to Dr. Scot's nitrous acid bath, that that 
application of the mineral acid seems to gain ground 
amongst many of the medical men of England, some 
of whom think that in certain hepatic derangements 
it answers the purpose of mercury : it is believed to 
keep the bowels open, and so far it may give relief to 
internal congestion j but I should be sorry to trust to 
it in any acute case of hepatitis in India, and still 
must caution against its influence on the nervous 
system, (in peculiar habits perhaps.) There is another 

z 2 


remark, which I must in justice to Dr. Scot's disco- 
very make, and that is, that the two individuals I 
alluded to, as suffering from the use of the bath, kept 
their legs in it for nearly an hour each time; this may 
be too long. Indeed, I find that a quarter of an hour 
or twenty minutes is usually recommended, and to be 
continued for some days together. The nitro-muriatic 
bath is made by first pouring four ounces of water 
into a glass vessel, to this is to be slowly added two 
ounces of the muriatic acid, and the same quantity of 
nitric acid ; one ounce of this mixture will be enough ' 
for a gallon of water, or generally speaking, it may 
be made of the strength of weak vinegar. The water 
should be tepid, and the proper heat may be renewed 
daily, by taking away a gallon of the bath mixture, 
and adding a gallon of water sufficiently warm to give 
a proper temperature to the whole, adding of course 
at the same time a proportion of the mixture to make 
up for what has been removed. The best form of a 
bath for the feet and legs is a long narrow one, in 
which three gallons of the mixture will be enough to 
reach nearly up to the patient's knees. 


PQCHANAVIE LjvFag&asxns (Tam.) Butch. 


nak S\i?*i (Duk.) Beesh (j*** (Pers.) Agel gheea 
(Arab.)* Vatsanabie (Tel.) ' Nabhi ^TlfH (Sans.) 
Poison Boot. 

This root somewhat resembles that of the sweet- 
scented flag, but is very different in its absolute qua- 
lity, being reckoned of a very poisonous nature, par- 


ticularly when fresh, in which state, or nearly so, the 
native druggists contrive to preserve it by means of 
oil. There is a variety of this root found in the ba- 
zars, which is dark-coloured, and therefore called in 
Tamool karoo-navie. It is a most powerful poison : 
it is also sometimes named ven-navie. 


PUNDAROO, also BUNDAROO (Tel.) Kola 
buchnak SM^fSM (Duk.) 

Cinchona Excelsa (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat OrcL 

Pundaroo is the Tellinghoo name of a tree, a na- 
tive of the Circar mountains, having a straight trunk 
of considerable thickness, with opposite, oblong, pe- 
tioled leaves, andjlowers fasciled, small, and greenish- 
white. " The inner coat of the bark," Roxburgh tells 
us, " possesses the bitterness and astringency of the 
Peruvian bark ; the bitter, however, on chewing, is not 
easily perceived, but is more lasting/ 9 The bark is 
used by the tanners, and is also a medicine in use 
amongst the Hindoos, in cases requiring astringents 

(See Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 149.)- This is & e on ty 
species of Cinchona noticed by Pennant in his Flora 
Indica ; and it is a curious fact that Humboldt tells 
us that hitherto no species of Cinchona has been dis- 
covered in the equinoctial part of New Spain. See 
his Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, 
vol. ii. p. 401. 

z 3 



PUT-SAI, or PE-TSI (Chinese.) Water-Ches- 


Scirpus Tuberosus (Roxb.)- 

CI. and Ord. Triandria "Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

Put-sai is the Chinese name of a plant transmitted 
some years ago from Canton to Calcutta, where it 
now thrives in the botanical garden, flowering about 
the close of the rains : it has a " fibrous root, with 
stolon iferous shoots, and round turnip-shaped tubers; 
culms erect, naked ; leaves none ; seed obcordate, 
surrounded with bristles." Abb6 Grosier gives a 
particular account of the economical uses of the tube- 
rous roots of the plant : the nut is in high estimation 
either for the pot or as a medicine. See Flora Indi- 
ca, (vol. i. p. 21.3.) 

PULEE (Javan.) Citron-leaved Taberruemontana. 

TaBERNjEMONTANA Citrifolia. 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

At Batavia the bark of this tree is considered to 
have tonic virtues given in fevers : in Java it is be- 
lieved to be anthelmintic. The tree "rises to the 
height of fifteen or sixteen feet ; the bark of the 
trunk is of a smooth-grey colour, and abounds in 


milky juice, which has obtained for the tree the name 
of bois laiteux, from the French ; the /eaves are oppo- 
site, ovate j JUmers lateral, glomerate-umbelled, of a 
bright-yellow colour and pleasant smell ; seeds brown, 
lodged in a soft orange pulp." The tree is a native 
of America as well as Batavia and Java. The genus 
is thus described by Willdenow, Spec. Plant vol. i. 
p. 1244. "Contorta; folUculi 2, horizontals ; sent. 
pulpae immersa." 

Three species grow in Jamaica, and five in Ceylon, 
but one of which, the dichotoma (Roxb.), appears to 
be indigenous in that island : it also appears to be a 
native of Ceylon and Malabar. The reader may find 
the plant fully described, and somewhat differently 
from the above, in the Flora Indica MSS., a descrip- 
tion I saw too late to enable me to avail myself of the 
master-hand of Roxburgh here. 


(Tam.) Papaya L~ (Hind.) Papaya marum 
(Rheeje, Mai. i. t 15.) Amba Hindi $**& *aa* 
(Arab.) Pcepol (Cyng.) Common Papai or Papaw. 

Carica Papaya (WUld.). 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Tricecia. 

The milky juice* of the fruit, when unripe, is sup- 
posed by the natives of the isle of France to possess 
powerful anthelmintic properties, but I perceive by 

* This juice was ascertained, by Sir H. Davy, to abound in 
albumen. (Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, p. 82.) 

z 4 


the Hortus Jamaicensis (vol. ii. p. S70> that in Ja- 
maica it is reckoned as most injurious to the intestines: 
the same fruit, ripe, is excellent and wholesome, and 
will be noticed more fully in another part of this 
work. The tree " rises to the height of sixteen or 
twenty feet, with a thick, soft, herbaceous stem, and 
naked till within two or three feet of the top ; the 
very large leaves come out on each side of the stem ; 
the flowers of the male are produced from between 
the leaves on the upper part of the plant on every 
side, are pure white, and have a pleasant odour: 
those of the female also come out between the leaves, 
but have much shorter peduncles; they are large and 
bell-shaped, composed of six petals, which are com- 
monly yellow, but those of the pyramidal sort are 
purple ; the fruit, which is of varying forms, is about 
the size of a small melon " * (Miller). The tree is a 
native of both Indies. There is a male, female, and 
hermaphrodite plant, distinguished in Ceylon by the 
names mal> bada 9 and walu. The tree is common in 
Cochin-China, and there called cay-du-du (Flor. 
Coch. Chin. vol. ii p. 628.). The species prosoposa 
grows in Jamaica, and may be found described in the 
Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 38. 

Dr. Roxburgh at one time had a doubt whether 
the female trees would bear without the male being 
near ; from some curious information given him by 
Major Wynch, he ascertained that the female tree 
would not yield ripe fruit if a male tree was not close 
to it. Flora Indica (MSS.). 

* The small seeds it contains, Horsfield informs us, the Javanese 
consider as anthelmintic. 



PURPADAGUM i_jcri_]L-ji_rre>Lo (Tarn.) 
Purpatakum (Tel.) Parpata Tjrfe- (Sans.) Urn- 
belled Pharnaceum. 

Pharnaceum Cerviana? (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 
Caryophyllei. Doldenblutiges Pharnaceum (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The tender shoots and flowers of this low-growing 
annual plant are prescribed in infusion to the quantity 
of half a tea-cupful twice daily in fever cases requiring 
mild diaphoretics, and the same qualities appear to be 
ascribed to it in the (Hort. Mai. p. 10. p. 60.) It is a 
low-growing plant ; but seems hitherto to have been 
but imperfectly described. Of the genus, Willde- 
now says, " Cal. 5-phyllus ; cor. ; caps. 3-locularis, 
polysperma." Gaertner informs us, that our species 
differs but little from the species mollugo * ; it has a 
thin-ovate capsule, with eight or ten small round 
seeds in each cell, and is a native of Spain. I per- 
ceive by Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, that 
the pharnaceum trtflora has got the Cyngalese name 
of patpadagan ; a name so near the Tamool appella. 
tion of our article, that I am inclined to think they 
are the same plant, and that it is therefore doubtful 
whether phar. triflora may not be the more correct 
Three species of pharnaceum grow in Ceylon : two are 
in the Hortus Bengalensis. I observe in the Flora 
Indica (MSS.), that Roxburgh describes at length 
the pharnaceum pentagynum, a common pot-herb in 
Upper India, and called in Bengalese doosera-sag. 

* Which is the co-dang of the Cochin-Chinese. 




This is the name of a kind of liquor much relished 
amongst the Rajmhal mountains, prepared with dried 
grain, and rendered more intoxicating by an admix- 
ture of a small grain called backhun ; and which is, 
I believe, the dokhn of the Arabians (panicum * Ital- 
icum). (Hamilton's MSS.) 


QUPAS, or UPAS (Malay), Poison. 

Upas is a common Malay name for any mortal 
poison, such as upas antiar, the poison of the antiaris 
toxicaria : upas tshettik, that of the cerbera opposi- 
tifolia. The first-mentioned plant is one of the 
largest trees of the Indian Archipelago, and is com- 
mon all over it ; the poison is a milky juice, of the 
colour of dirty cream, which flows from the outer 
bark on its being wounded, and which, if inserted 
into a buffalo by means of a dart, will destroy it in 
little more than two hours. The cerbera oppositi- 
folia, which yields the upas tshettik, is a large creep- 
ing shrub confined to Java alone ; it is from the bark 
of its root that the poison is got, and which is infi- 
nitely more powerful than the first mentioned; so 
much so, that it destroys animal life in a very short 
time (see Crawfurd's History of the Indian Archipe- 
lago, also Horsfield's account of the upas poison, 

* Made, it must be presumed, into a sort of malt : it is a very 
delicate and wholesome grain. 


in the Transactions of the Batavian Society, vol. viL). 
These two poisons have both been examined by 
Pelletier, who discovered, that the active ingredient 
of the upas tshettik appeared to be strychnia, united 
with igasuric acid, and two colouring matters ; and 
that the upas antiar is composed of a peculiar elastic 
resin, a gummy principle, and a bitter ingredient, 
concentrating in itself all the noxious qualities of 
the poison (See Ann. de Chim. et de Phys., Mai, 

Orfila informs us, in his work on Poisons (vol. ii. 
part i. p. 308.), that the first, upas tieute (tshettik), 
which was brought to France from Java, was by 
Leshenault, and that it was scientifically examined 
by Magendie and Delille in 1809. Eight drops of a 
solution of the upas, injected into the jugular vein 
of a horse, killed him in three minutes, acting, ap- 
parently, chiefly on the spinal marrow. The poison 
of the upas antiar, injected into a vein in a dog's neck 
killed him in five minutes ; he at first cried vehe- 
mently, by Orfila's account, but did not vomit. 
Those poisons are noticed here in the hope that fur- 
ther experiments may be made with them, and that 
in these times of curious and interesting discoveries 
they may be even turned to some useful account in 
the practice of medicine. 



This is the Javanese name of a plant, which, Dr. 
Horsfield ?ays, belongs to a doubtfid genus j I give 
it a place here that it may become an object of fur- 


ther inquiry, there is no doubt but that it contains 
a large portion of aromatic oil. The tung-gulung 
is another Javanese plant which contains an aro- 
matic oil, which might be a useful substitute for 
oil of turpentine ; it is the amyris protium (Lin.), 
the protium Javanicum of Burm. (Indie 88.), and 
the tingulong of Rumph. ( Amb. vii. p. 54. 1 23.). 


RAJRITE (Hind.) Justah bhasma (Sans.). 

This is a preparation of zinc which Hamilton 
found in Berar, and which was there prescribed in 
violent gonorrhoea, accompanied with discharge of 
blood (MSS.). 


RASSUM rre=LD (Tam. and Tel.) Abuc Jbt 
(Arab.) Rassa (Malay). Suta JJcT (Sans.) Mercury. 

The preparations of mercury found in use amongst 
the Tamool practitioners give us but a poor opinion of 
their knowledge of chemistry. Their pharmaceu- 
tical operations are crude and unscientific ; and so 
little do they appear to be aware of the effects of 
attraction and new combination, that articles, the most 
opposite and heterogeneous in their nature, are added 
at random. Yet, after all, however much we may 
be inclined to smile at some of their strange mixtures, 
it must be confessed that the characterizing prin- 
ciples are generally correct, and that, every thing 


considered, there is, in the present state of know- 
ledge amongst the Vytians and Hakeems, more to 
call forth our wonder than excite our contempt. I 
shall, therefore, without further comment, lay before 
the reader the prescribed rules for making several 
of the preparations of mercury, employed by the 
Tamool doctors (translated literally from their works 
on Pharmacy and the Materia Medica) ; by which 
it will be seen how far such compositions may be 
trusted to, in situations where the nicer chemical 
productions of Europe cannot be obtained. * 

* The Hindoos reckon mercury one of their most powerful 
medicines, but are very apt, not always intentionally, to induce 
by its use most frightful salivations ; I say frightful, for, however 
desirable it may be that the mouth should be touched before we 
can be certain of much lasting good having been done, few things 
are more distressing than severe ptyalism. The more mercury 
purges the more slowly will it be found to get into the habit : 
different cathartics are evidently best suited for particular pur- 
poses. Aloes appears, while in the stomach, to be almost a tonic, 
and to exert little or no aperient quality till it reaches the rec- 
tum. Castor-oil, if good, evacuates the intestinal canal with less 
irritation than any other medicine. Jalap, like senna, would seem 
to act more on the colon, griping and effectually emptying the 
large intestines, while it at the same time, by a singular kind of 
revulsion, just before it operates, often sickens the stomach, and 
throws the patient into a salutary perspiration.* Mercury (calo- 
mel), given as a purge, performs its office evidently by stimulating 
the mouth of the ductus communis choledocus, so causing it to dis- 
charge a greater than usual quantity of bile, which bile, being 
more than is required for the process of digestion, must, neces- 
sarily, act as a purge. I consider, however, calomel given in this 
way as merely an evacuant, nor do I believe its use, simply as 
such, can ever produce any healthy change in the nature of the 
secretions, or fluids of the human body, either as to colour or 
consistence; that this good end should be accomplished, the 
metal, in whatever shape it is given, must have exerted its influ- 
ence on the general frame as an alterative. 

• A peculiarity in this medicine, which has not, perhaps, been sufficiently 
appreciated ; indicative at once of a purgative and diaphoretic quality. 



Rassapuspum 0"g-i_,2J3l _ji_-Ljd (Tam.). 

This is a sort of muriate of mercury, in great 
repute amongst the Tamools, and which appears to 
be administered by them in larger doses than any of 
the other preparations of this metal. The follow- 
ing is taken from " Aghastier Vytiah Anyoisroo:" 
" Twelve pagodas weight of sulphur is to be put 
into an earthen pot, and fused over a slow, but 
strong, fire : when in a state of fusion, eighty pago- 
das weight of quick-silver must be added to it, and 
kept gently stirred till the whole is reduced to a 
black powder : another pot is then to be taken, and 
filled half full of small pieces of brick, over which 
is to be laid one measure of common salt : on the 
top of this salt is to be put the black powder just 
mentioned ; covering the whole with another earthen 
vessel ; the part where the mouths of the two vessels 
meet is to be well coated over with soft clay, and 
afterwards bound round with five plies of coarse 
cloth ; the pots, thus joined, are then to be placed 
on a strong fire, and there to be kept for twelve 
hours; after which time they are to be taken off 
and left to cool, when the rassapuspum will be found 
collected in the uppermost." 

Mode of administering the rassapuspum : " Four 
pagodas weight of woraum (seed of the sison ammi) 
must be roasted, and reduced to a powder: four 
pagodas weight of Palmyra jaggary is to be added to 
this, and the whole to be well ground : eight fanams 
weight of the rassapuspum is then to be mixed with 



the other two ingredients ; when all are to be rubbed 
together for a considerable time, and afterwards 
made into sixteen boluses : one of which is to be 
taken, morning and evening, for eight days ; at the 
end of which period the mouth will generally be 
found to be much affected. The rassapuspum is a 
most useful and efficacious remedy in eighteen dif- 
ferent kinds of contractions of the sinews, the same 
number of kirandies (venereal affections), twenty 
sorts of scurfy eruptions, that dangerous species of 
ulcer which makes its appearance over, or near, 
the back-bone, that dreadful boil which assumes the 
the appearance of an ant-hill, in spreading or cor- 
roding sores, swellings on the neck (scrophulous 
affections), and leprosies. ,, 


Rassacarpoorum o~^r^n^o\ = ^ r T{S) (Tarn,). 

This also is a sort of muriate of mercury. The 
following method of preparing it is taken from a 
work entitled the " Poorna Soostrwn," which is an 
abridgment of a voluminous work, which treats of 
Religious Ceremonies and the Materia Medica, &c. 
&c. : " Sixteen pagodas weight of sulphur is to be 
fused in an earthen pot j after which, eighty pagodas 
weight of quick-silver is to be added to it, and the 
whole to be kept stirred until reduced to a black 
powder. Another earthen vessel is then to be taken, 
and filled half full of small pieces of brick, over 
which is to be laid half a measure of common salt : 
upon the top of this salt is to be put the black 
powder, and the whole to be covered with another 


empty earthen pot : the part where the mouths of 
the two pots meet is now to be well coated with soft 
clay, and bound round with seven plies of coarse 
cloth. The two vessels, thus joined, with their con- 
tents, are to be kept on a strong fire for twelve hours, 
and then the pots are to be taken off, and left to 
cool. When perfectly cool, the uppermost is to be 
carefully removed from the other ; when in it (the 
uppermost) will be found a whitish saline substance, 
in a lump. A sort of phial, called cooppie, is then to 
be well coated over, in every part, with clay •, which 
phial is to be half filled with the white saline sub- 
stance just mentioned. An open, hollow, earthen 
vessel is now to be taken, and, after being filled 
quarter-full of river sand, is to be placed upon a 
strong fire ; into this sand, thus heated, is to be set 
the bottom of the cooppie ; at the same time heap- 
ing up fresh sand to near its mouth. In this situ- 
ation, the white saline substance is to be kept purify- 
ing (subliming), from six in the morning until twelve 
in the middle of the day ; at which time the fire is 
to be extinguished, and the whole left to cool, until 
six in the evening, then again, the fire is to be lighted 
and kept burning until twelve o'clock at night ; and 
in this manner is the process to be continued for 
three days successively ; after which period the ras- 
sacarpoorum will be found in the upper part of the 


Mode of administering the rassacarpoorum : " One 
cash (copper) weight of Palmyra jaggary, and a 
quarter of a silver fanam weight of the rassacarpoorum 
are to be well mixed together, and made into a 
bolus ; one half of which is to be taken in the morn- 
ing, and the other half in the evening, till the mouth is 
properly affected. In stronger habits double this dose 


may be given. When the rassacarpoorum is admi- 
nistered in nervous or convulsive habits, or when the 
stomach is weak, five grains of long pepper (tipilie) 
must be added to the bolus. Rassacarpoorum is a 
medicine of great efficacy in all the eighteen kinds 
of leprosy, in twenty sorts of scurvy eruptions, in 
contractions of the sinews, in the venereal disease, 
in the dangerous ulcer which comes over the back- 
bone, in spreading ulcers, in deep-seated sores, in 
fistulas, in infectious itches, and in a certain species 
of hypochondriasis." 


Shadilingum e=rr^<3\S/Tv/95'LD (Tam.). 

This is a sort of factitious cinnabar, and is used 
by the native Indians in fumigations. The following 
method of preparing it is taken from the " Poorna 
Soostrum :" " Twelve pagodas weight of sulphur 
is to be put into an earthen pot, and fused over a 
slow fire ; when in a state of fusion, eighty pagodas 
weight of rassum must be added to it, and the whole 
kept gently stirred until it is reduced to a black 
powder. Twelve pagodas weight more of sulphur, 
and four pagodas weight of vellie eeum (pewter, 
literally silver lead), cut into small pieces, are to be 
added to the black powder, and the whole to be 
mixed with the same quantity of pottle ooppoo (salt- 
petre). All of these are to be put into a phial, 
called cooppie, which must be sufficiently large to 
contain the medicines in the half of it. This vessel 
is then to be coated over with clay, in the most 
perfect manner. An oven is now to be made in the 

VOL. II. a A 


ground, over the mouth of which is to be put a 
broad hollow earthen pot, and in this pot is to be 
placed the cooppie (containing the medicines), which 
is to be next covered over with sand up to its neck. 
The fire is then to be put into the oven, and kept 
burning for twelve hours j after which the cooppie 
is to be taken off, and kept till it is cool, when it 
may be broken, and in the neck of it will be found 
the shadilingum, in a lump." 

Mode of fumigating with the shadilingum : " Eight 
pagodas weight of yercum vayr puttay (the bark of 
the root of the asclepias gigantea), four pagodas 
weight of the charcoal of the yercum wood, four 
pagodas weight of shadilingum, and one pagoda 
weight of pepper, are all to be ground together, with 
the juice of the leaves of the paratie cheddie (gossy- 
pium herbaceum), and, when well rubbed, to be 
formed into twelve cakes and dried. The fumes of 
one of these cakes, while burning, to be inhaled 
daily, through a smoking pipe, either all at once, or 
at two different periods in the twenty-four hours. 
Fumigation of this sort may be continued for five or 
six days, according to circumstances ; and is effica- 
cious in the two disorders called by the Tamools 
kannosie and kanna poottoo (cancerous affections), 
in venereal ulcers of the throat and nose, and in a 
disease attended with a singular pricking pain in the 


Shavirtm 3=cn2TLo (Tarn.). 

This strange compound is administered by the 
Tamools in very small quantities j and well it ought 


to be, as it is evidently a harsh, uncertain, and 
dangerous preparation. The following process for 
making it is taken from the " Poorna Soostrum :" 
" First, make rassapuspum, of the strength that will 
be formed by using the proportions of sixteen pa- 
godas weight of sulphur, eighty pagodas weight of 
quick-silver, and half a measure of common salt 
Then, to eighty pagodas weight of this rassapuspum, 
add the same quantity of roasted salt : to these, 
again, are to be added the following substances ; 
forty pagodas weight of roasted toorushoo (sulphate 
of copper), twenty pagodas weight of paddicarum 
(alum), twenty pagodas weight of pottle ooppoo 
(nitre), twenty pagodas weight of poonheer (a sort 
of alkaline earth), ten pagodas weight of anna 
bay die (sulphas ferri), and five pagodas weight of 
navacharum (sal ammoniac). All these to be well 
rubbed together till formed into an uniform powder, 
which is to be put into a cooppie sufficiently large 
to hold the whole in one half of it ; after which, it 
is to be well coated round with clay, and set over an 
oven like the shadilingum, where it is to be kept for 
thirty-six hours, taking care that the fire, though 
slow, is strong ; the cooppie is then to be broken, 
and in the mouth of it will be found the shavirum, 
in a lump." 

Mode of administering the shavirum : " The 
weight of a grain of paddy* of shavirum may be 
given, for three days together, morning and evening, 
mixed with a little of the juice of green ginger, or 
about half a pagoda weight of common jaggary. 
This quantity, taken for the period mentioned, will 

* A grain of paddy, which » rice in the husk, is the smallest 
weight la use amongst the Tamools. 

A A 2 


affect the mouth ; and is efficacious in thirteen kinds 
of convulsion, in disorders attended with much 
phlegm, in venereal affections, in some kinds of 
asthma, and in scrophulous complaints." 


Rassa Sindoorum, or Cenduram T&Q&r&gi/rn-Lc> 

This substance is used by the native practitioners 
for nearly the same purposes that we employ red 
precipitate, viz. as an escharotic, and for cleaning 
foul ulcers. The Vytians prepare it in the following 
manner : " Ten pagodas weight of tuttanagum (zinc) 
is first to be melted in an earthen pot, in a sand 
bath ; after which, ten pagodas weight of rassum 
(quick-silver) must be added to it Two and a half 
pagodas weight of toorushoo (blue vitriol) and twenty 
pagodas weight of nitre, are then to be reduced to 
fine powder ; which fine powder is to be sprinkled 
over the metals, at the same time stirring the whole 
with the root of the plant called sirrookeeray (ama- 
ranthis campestris) ; this having been done, the heat 
of the sand-bath is to be increased, and the process 
continued till such time as the rassa sindoorum is 


RUKAFE *Xj (Arab.) 

Rukafe is the Arabic name of the root of an Afri- 
can plant, mentioned by Forskal in his " Materia 


Medica Kaherina" (p. 152.), and which is consi- 
dered, when in powder, as a valuable sternutatory. 
Another plant, of a somewhat similar name, cerk. 
djenah ^li*. 6^x, the Arab doctors prescribe in cases 
of colic. It is much to be regretted that the botani- 
cal names of many of the medicines mentioned by 
that author have not yet been ascertained. 


(Tarn.) Samutra patsa (Tel.) Maha-dumuda (Cyng.) 
Samudra pair a *1*J£,M^" (Sans.) Broad-leaved Bind- 

Convolvulus Speciosus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Convolvuli (Juss.) Priichtige Winde (Nom. Triv. 

Samutra cheddie is the Tamool name of a most 
beautiful creeping plant, common in the Coromandel 
woods, whose broad, soft, heart-shaped leaves (the 
under part of which has the appearance of white 
velvet), the natives use in preparing emollient poul- 
tices ; they also consider them to possess virtues in 
cutaneous complaints, rubbed on the parts affected ; 
the stem is arboreous, at first erect, then twining. 

No fewer than thirty species of convolvulus are 
described by Dr. Roxburgh in his Flora Indica 

a a 3 



(Tarn.) Chawntrie ka pull J^ l£ £7%* (Duk.) 
Sumatra pundoo (Tel.) Sea-Fruit. 

The Sumatra puttum, which literally signifies sea- 
fruit* as it appears in the Indian bazars, is about the 
size of a large lemon, but is commonly found cut 
into four sections, which are of a very dry texture 
and bitter taste. In cases of ozcena, and other affec- 
tions of the nose, the powder is recommended to be 
snuffed up the nostrils. It is said to be brought to 
India from the Eastern islands. 


SANGKHAPHULI. Sangkhi (Sans.) Small- 

Jlowered Periwinkle. 

Vinca Parviflora (Retz.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

This is common on the Coromandel coast, and is 
the only annual of the genus : it rises to the height 
of about five or six inches, with a quadrangular stem. 
It is the cupa-veela of Rheede (Hort Mai. ix. 61. 
t. 33.), and has leaves lanceolate-acute; flowers at 
the sides, and often at the top in pairs, peduncled 
(Lin. Suppl.), and a corolla very much resembling 
that of the lithospermum officinale, and of a pale 
yellowish hue. 


Dr. F. Hamilton informs us (MSS.) that the sangkhi 
is a medicinal plant in Upper India, and that a de- 
coction of the dried plant boiled in oil is rubbed on 
the loins in cases of lumbago. 


SAPATOO CHEDDIE ^l^ljo-^s/^G^l-q. 
(Tam.) Scherupariti (Hort. Mai. p. 25. fig. 17.) 
Waribun (Jav.) Hotmg kan (Cochin. Chin.) Jasoon 
qj^mU. (Duk.) Kambang sapatos (Malay.) Dasanie 
(Tel.) Japa 3FJT (Sans.) Shoe-FUmer* Plant, or 

China Rose. 

Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis (Lin.). 

We are told by Rheede, in the Hortus Malabari- 
cus (ii. 25. t. 15.), that the root of this plant, tritu- 
rated with oil, is considered as a medicine of value in 
menorrhagia. Of the use of the flowers in the arts, 
notice will be taken in another part of this work 
(Part III.) : the natives prepare with them a kind of 
achar or pickle. 

The plant is the Jlos festalis of Rumph. (Amb. iv. 
p. 24. t. 8.), and grows in India to the size of a small 
tree, with leaves ovate, acuminate, serrate ; stem ar- 
boreous and erect ; leaves cordated at the base, ser- 
rated, and five-nerved ; Jlowers axillary, solitary, 
peduncled, large, and of a deep scarlet. There are 
several varieties of the hibiscus rosa Chinensis. The 
leaves are considered by the Cochin-Chinese as emol- 
lient, resolvent, and anodyne, and useful in strangury 

* So called on account of the leaves being usually employed 
for blacking shoes. 

A A 4 


and dysuria, at the same time gently opening the 
bowels : the flowers they use for giving a red tinge 
to certain spirituous liquors. 

Twenty-seven species of hibiscus are described by 
Dr. Roxburgh in his Flora Indica (MSS.). 


SARAY PARAPOO ^rra^LJ<r5LJui (Tam.) 
Saray puppoo (Tel.) Pridlu lM*JI<5 (Sans.) 


All I can say of this is, that it is a sort of small 
pulse, brought from the woods of Malabar, which the 
natives bruise and make into an electuary, which they 
consider as tonic. 


SAVARNAKSHIRA (Hind.) SwarnaksfSra 

tSift<fk (Sans.) CaPs Cleome. 

Cleome Felina (Keen.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Nat. Ord. 
Putamineae. Katzen-Cleome (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

Dr. F. Hamilton had this plant given him as medi- 
cinal in the upper provinces of India, where it appears 
to grow, as well as on Ceylon. The fresh and dry 
plant are equally used, pounded, together with a little 
milk and sugar: it is prescribed in epistaxis (ractapiti). 
The plant appears to have been first noticed on Cey- 
lon by Koenig : Moon, however, gives us no Cynga- 


lese name for it. It is described by Willdenow 
Spec. Plant (vol. iii. p. l. p . 567.) as being small 
and strtgose, with wedge-shaped sub-retuse leaves, 
and a small angular-formed red corolla. 


I find this given in Virey's « Histoire Naturelle 
de Medicamens peu connus" (p. 321.), as the Arabic 
name of a root common amongst the Arabians, and 
considered by them as aromatic and stomachic : he 
supposes it may be a species of sium, perhaps the sium 
siarum (Lin.). 


SEEMIE AGHATEE ^a2Loajwfftf\ also 
Wandu-kolli (Tam.) Velatie aghatie ^Ut ^^ 
(Duk.) Seema avisee, also Metta tamara (Tel.) 
JEtora (Cyng.) Cassia herpetica (Rumph. Amb. vii. 
t 35, 36.) Dadmerden (^y^b (Duk.) Dadru- 
ghna <\£^J (Sans.) Broad-leaved Cassia, or Ring- 

Cassia Alata (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Lomentaceae. Gtflugelte Cassie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This plant, which has a thick, yet herbaceous 
stem, is but short-lived; and would appear to be 
equally a native of Amboyna, the warmer parts of 


America, Ceylon, and India: it rises to the height of 
six or eight feet j has leaves about five inches long, 
and one and a half broad; racemes terminating, 
spiked, and many-flowered; Jlowers large, yellow, 
Swartz has given a description of the plant, which 
Willdenow appears not to have adopted, and I do not 
wonder, for certainly the leaves are not two feet 
long. The juice of the leaves, mixed with lime-juice, 
is considered as a sovereign remedy for ring- worm ; 
the fresh leaves, simply bruised, and rubbed upon 
the eruption, are also found in many instances to 
remove it Dr. Wright tells us, in his Medicinal 
Plants of Jamaica, that a poultice made of the flowers, 
the natives of that island use in cases of ringworms. 
Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica (MSS.), gives an ad- 
mirable description of the cassia alata, which I saw 
too late to avail myself of here : he observes that the 
Hindoo doctors say it cures all poisonous bites, bu- 
boes, and other venereal affections, and strengthens 
the body. 


SEEM IE SHEVADIE sF02)LdGfo^-jq2>® (Tam.) 
Seemie T&gadd (Tel. ) Kumbha ^^T (Sans.) 

This is a root of a brownish colour outside, and 
white within : it is slightly bitter, and is considered 
as gently aperient and stomachic. Whence it comes 
1 have not been able to ascertain : from its Tamool 
appellation, we must conclude, it is not a product of 
India, but probably of China. 



kamma (Tel.) Sahadevi tt^^fl (Sans.) Ash- 
coloured Flea-bane. 


CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat Ord. 
Composite Discoideae. Graue Durrwurz (Nom. 
Triv. WUld.). 

This is an annual, having oblong leaves, flowers 
panicled, and corollas purple, cylindrical, and twice 
the length of the calyx. The plant appears to be 
the olus scrophinum of Rumph. (Amb. vi. t. 14. f. 1.) 
It has got another Tamool name neidsedtie, and is 
quite common on the Coromandel coast. 

The whole of this low-growing plant, with its 
small, round, downy, tasteless flowers, is used in 
medicine by the Hindoos, in decoction, to promote 
perspiration in febrile affections. 

The plant is the heen monara kudimbiya of the 
Cyngalese, and may be found noticed in Burm. 
(Zeyl. t.96. f. 1.). It has no place in the Hortus 
Bengalensis, where, however, I find thirteen other 
species, all Indian plants, except the c. repanda, a 
native of Pegu. Five species grow in Cochin-China, 
where the conyza odorata is considered as a sto- 
machic. But three species grow in Ceylon. The 
species arborescens is a native of Jamaica, and is 
there considered as a medicinal plant. Piso informs 
us, that the bruised leaves were useful in inflamma- 
tions of the eyes ; and that they, together with the 
pappous seed 9 owing to their aromatic nature, were 


employed in preparing baths (Hort Jamaic. vol. i. 

p. 299.). 

I find ten species of conyza described in Dr. 

Roxburgh's Flora Indica (Manuscript Copy.). 


SENDOORKUMG^CB^(r3^^Lo(Tam.) Koo- 
sum ~»j£ (Hind.) Koosumba chettoo (Tel.) Ka- 
sumbu (Mai.) Cossumba (Can.) jiuas also u**^ 
(Arab.) Kajeerah (Beng.) ^djS (Egypt.) Cu- 

sumbha 5RTT>T (Sans.) also Kamalottara <=h*1WrH 
(Sans.) Sqfflower or Bastard Saffron. 

Carthamus Tinctorius (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia iEqualis. Nat Ord. 
Composites. Gemeiner Sqflor (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

A fixed oil is prepared with this plant, which the 
Vytians use as an external application in rheumatic 
pains, and paralytic affections, also for bad ulcers ; 
the small seeds are reckoned amongst their laxative 
medicines, for which purpose, I see they are also 
used in Jamaica (the kernels beat into an emulsion 
with honeyed water). Barham (p. 163.), tells us, 
that a drachm of the dried flowers taken, cures 
the jaundice (Hort. Jamaic. vol. i. p. 72.)- I ^ 
the plant is in the Hortus Bengalensis, but it does 
not appear to grow on Ceylon. Our species is a 
native of Japan, and is there called beruno fanm 
(Flor. Japon. p. 307.). It is also a native of Cochin- 
China and China ; in the first-mentioned 'country it 
is termed cay rum. Loureiro tells us, that the seeds 
are considered as purgative, or eccoprotic resolvent, 


and emenagogue ; and that the flowers are used for 
dyeing a rose colour, also purple and violet (Flor. 
Cochin-Chin.). The plant is an annual, rising with 
a stiff, ligneous stalk, to the height of about three 
feet, having leaves ovate, entire, serrate, aculeate ; the 
Jlowers grow single at the extremity of each branch, 
are of a beautiful saffron colour, and will be further 
noticed, as well as the oil, in another part of this 
work. In South America, as well as in Jamaica, the 
flowers are much usedfor colouring broths and ragouts. 
The earth am us tinctorius is indigenous to the Indian 
islands ; but it is, by Mr. Crawfurd's account, most 
successfully cultivated as a dye in Bali, and grows 
in great perfection in Macassar and Celebes (Hist. 
Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 461.). It is the cnicus 
Indicus of Rumph. ( Amb. v. t. 59.) 


SENDRIKKA (Cyng.) Goolabas u-L»f (Duk. 

and Hind.) also Saryi (Hind.) Bahubami (Sans.) 

Marvel of Peru. 

Mirabilis Jalapa (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Nyctagines (Juss.). Gemeine Jalape (Nom. Triv. 


We are told by Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue 
of Indian Medicinal Plants (p. 28, 29), that this is 
not indigenous in India ; but that all the varieties 
are now cultivated in Bengal. The root at one time 
was supposed to have a considerable purgative qua- 
lity ; but from the reports of Dr. Hunter, and Dr. 
Shoolbred at Calcutta, it does not appear to be of 


much value.* The plant is a native of Ceylon, of 
Japan, of Cochin-China, of China, as well as Ja- 
maica j on Ceylon four t varieties are noticed. The 
plant has a round herbaceous stem, and a tuberous 
root, so like that of -the convolvulus jalap a, that it 
is difficult to distinguish them ; " the leaves are cor- 
date, acute, opposite, and petioled," and the Jlowers 
terminating close together, erect (Spec, Plant. 252.); 
outer calyx bell-shaped, spreading cleft entire ; inner 
large and funnel-formed (Loureiro) ; seed globular, 
covered with the coriaceous base of the inner calyx 
(Miller). In speaking of our article, Loureiro says, 
" Haec radix non est apta ad medicinam (Flora 
Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 101.). Thunberg on the 
other hand informs us, that the females of Japan 
prepare with the powder of the seeds, a kind of 
white paint for their faces ; in that country the mi- 
rabilis jalapa is termed keso, alsofoosen : it is com- 
mon at Satsuma (Flor. Japon. p. 91.). It was one 
of the medicinal plants brought to Dr. F. Hamilton, 
while in Behar ; where he was told, that the whole 
herb, bruised and mixed with a little salt, was ap- 
plied warm to phlegmons, to bring them to suppur- 
ation, MSS. 

* It is curious to observe the different reports regarding 
the same thing, and it is unfortunate when that should be a 
medicine. Barham, in speaking of the root of the mirabilis 
jalapa, says, " It xvorks as toell as the true jalap, but requires to 
be given in four times the quantity." See his Natural History of 
Jamaica, p. 62. 

t Purple, yellow, white, and variegated. 



SHADAMANGIE B=i_n-uyr«>aP (Tam.) J&- 
tamansi ^1*1%* (Duk.) Sumbel ut teib *-*aUI $***»* 
(Arab.) Chehur (Hind) Juttamamsi (Tel.) 

Jatamansi *s\d \*\ |tf| (Sans.) Jatamansi Valerian, 
or Spikenard. 

Valeriana Jatamansi (Sir W. Jones) ? 

CL and Ord. Triandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

In the first edition of this work, I gave cyperus 
stoloniferus (Koenig), as the scientific name of this 
plant, on the authority of Rottler, and it may still 
be a question, whether it is not the right appellation. 
With the hairy portion of the stem of the plant, im- 
mediately above the root (as it appears in the medi- 
cine bazars of Lower India), when dried, in con- 
junction with certain oils, the Vytians prepare a 
fragrant and cooling liniment for the head; they 
also prescribe it occasionally internally as a purifier t 
of the blood, and consider it as a valuable perfume. 
Sir William Jones has expressed an opinion, that the 
spikenard ointment of the ancients might have been 
made from the Valeriana jatamansi J (^Asiat. Res. 
vol. ii. p. 405. also vol. iv. p. 109. ; Roxb. ibid. 433.) 
This notion, however, is strongly combated by some, 
and doubted by very high authority. Dr. Francis 

* A more common Arabic name is g^***! usrurch. 

f One pagoda weight, in powder, twice daily. 

% Mr. Lambert, in his admirable illustration of the genus cin- 
chona, tells us, that the " Valeriana jatamansi is identical with 
the spikenard of the ancients." 


Hamilton, found the plant growing in Nepaul, 
whence, he tells us, it is sent to the plains of India. 
It is also noticed by Kirkpatrick, in his account of 
that kingdom (p. 182.). The Valeriana jatamansi*, 
we are informed briefly, by Roxburgh, in his Flora 
Indica (vol. i. p. 166.), has triandrousJlowers$ leaves 
entire, four-fold, the inner radical pair petioled and 
cordate ; cauline sessile, lanceolate ; seeds crowned 
with a pappus. 

Mr. Phillips seems to have no doubt but that 
lavender (Lavendula) was the nardus, vapSo^, of the 
Greeks ; and that the Indian sort, yapSao-ra^^, quasi 
nardi spica, was the spikenard of the ancients (Cul- 
tivated Vegetables, vol. i. p. 298.). Where the truth 
may lie amongst those various opinions, it may be 
difficult to say ; the writers on the Continent seem, 
however, to have taken, without distrust, the senti- 
ments of Sir W. Jones. Virey observes, in his His- 
toire Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 207, " Spica nard 
Indien, vrai, Valeriana jatamansi ; il est utile dans 
l'lndostan, contre epilepsie, hysterie, et affections 

Loureiro has no doubt but that his nardus Indica, 
or the cam-sum-hiam of the Cochin-Chinese, is the 
bona fide nardum Indicum of the ancients, or in 
other words, the spikenard, so much vaunted as sto- 
machic, cardiac, &c, and by Bontius as alexitoric 
(See Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 45.). 

* The Valeriana Hardwichei; the chammaha of the Nepalese, is a 
medicinal plant amongst that people. (Flor. Ind. vol. ii. p. 167.)» 



SHANGAM COOPPY *vK/e?fK/©LjU (Tam.) 
Sungkoopie ^dt**. (Duk.) Nalla oopie (Tel.) 
also Pissingkie (Tel.) GamMr-laut (Jav.) WceU 

boo-rcenda (Cyng.) KundaR ckj^jf) (Sans.) Ovate* 
leaved Smooth Volkameria* 

Volkameria Ineemis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. Ord. 

The juice of the root, and the leaves of this plant 
are bitter, and is prescribed by the Hindoo Doctors as 
an alterative, in scrophulous and venereal affections ; 
dose, a table-spoonful j it is given either pure, or in 
conjunction with a small quantify of castor-oil. The 
plant is the jasminum litoreum of Rumph. ( Amb. v. 
p. 86. t 46.), and the nir-notsjit of Rheed. (Mai v. 
p. 97. t. 49.) I* grows in most of the jungles of 
Southern India, and is also a native of Java, Cochin- 
China, and Ceylon ; the Javanese consider it amongst 
their bitter tonics, and call it gambir-laut ; the Co- 
chin-Chinese do not seem to rank it amongst their 
medicines, they name it sanfu num. From the ex- 
treme beauty of this shrub, it is often of late years 
cultivated for hedges in India ; it has " leaves ovate, 
quite entire, shining ; petioles, peduncles, and calyxes 
smooth ; the leaves often grow round the branches 
in whorls, and are of a fine deep grg?n colour j when 
slightly bruised, they have a somewhat aromatic 
smell ; the beautiful white Jlowers are on long axil- 
lary peduncles." Gaertner made the plant the clero- 



dendrum inerme ; it is the bunjoma of the Bengalese. 
I find eleven species of volkameria in the Hortus 
Bengalensis; the unfortunata (Roxb.), the «TJI$j bhant 
of the Bengalese, is a beautiful shrub, and held in 
high estimation by the Hindoos. 


SHARUNNAY VAYR v=rr*o&tmvrGcKsr 
(Tam.) Nasurjinghi he jurr ^ ^ Jj^jAj (Duk.) 
Ghelijehroo vayroo (Tel.) Punarnavl Tppfat 
(Sans.) Root qf the One-styled Trianthenui. 

Tri anthem a Monogynia (Roxb.). 

Decandria Digynia. Nat Ord. Succulents. Port- 
lachblattrige Dreyblume (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This root, as it appears in the bazars, is of a pale 
colour, and much wrinkled ; to the taste it is a little 
bitterish and somewhat nauseous ; the Vytians con- 
aider it amongst their Cathartics, and give it in pow- 
der, in the quantity of about two tea-spoonsful twice 
daily, in combination with a small quantity of ginger; 
when taken fresh it has a somewhat sweetish taste. 

The sharunnay is " a procumbent plant, not unlike 
purslane,sending out many trailing branches; thekaves 
which are eat by the natives, are opposite, oval, petioled, 
obtuse, and one leaf always less than the other ; the 
Jlowers, which are five-stamened and one-styled, come 
out from the joints, and are of a purple colour; the 
seeds round and black." The plant is a native of 
the West Indies as well as of India } it is the portu- 
laca curassavica of Herman. (Par. 213. t. 213.). Of 
this genus three species are in the Hortus Bengalen- 


sis. There is a white sort of sharxmnay (vullay sha- 
runnay, Tarn.), the root of which is about the size of 
a small finger, light brown outside and white within ; 
it is aperient, and is mentioned in some of the 
Tamooi sastrums, as useful in hepatitis, asthma, and 
suppression of the menses. Four pagodas' weight of 
the bark of the root, made into a decoction, by boil- 
ing it in lb. i. of water till lb. ss. remains, will open 
the bowels ; its Tellingoo name is tella ghetiyehroo 
vqyroo, the Sanscrit one is swSta punarnavi.* 


SHAYNG COTTAY Offn^Q^ ^l_ce>!_ (Tam.) 
Gheru (Canar.) also Shayrang cottay (Tarn.) Bela- 
wine rfj^te (Duk.) Belader ^aiL (Arab.) Nella- 
jiedie (Tel.) also Jeedighenzaloo (Tel.) Bheela ^ 
(Hind.) BhaUaiaka ^in^i, also Arushkara 
^i^ bc b< (Sans.) Marking nut, or Malacca Bean. 

Semecarpus ANACARDiuMt (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Trigynia (Polygamia 
Dicecia, Roxb. Cor. PL 1. 1 2.). Aechter Acajou 
(Nom.Triv. Willd.). 

The acrid juice contained in the cells between the 
laminae of the shell of this nut is considered as a 
valuable medicine, by the Hindoos, in scrophulous, 
venereal, and leprous affections, given in very small 
doses. An oil is also . prepared with the nut, by 
boiling, which is used, externally, in rheumatism and 

• It is the trianthema decandra (Willd.), and in Dukhanie is 
termed bees-khupra \y».^S u ^» 

f The anacardium orientale of the Materia Medica. 

B B 2 


sprains j it is of a very stimulating nature, so much 
so, that, undiluted, it acts as a blister. 

The nut or seed of the tree is about the size of a 
small common bean ; it rests upon the receptacle, 
and is heart-shaped, flattened on both sides, smooth, 
shining, black. The corrosive resinous juice, at first, 
is of a pale milky colour till matured, when it be- 
comes black. The green fruit*, pounded into a 
pulp, makes good bird-lime. The fleshy receptacle, 
which is about the size of the nut itself, is roasted in 
the ashes and eaten by the natives : Roxburgh, in 
his Coromandel Plants (vol. i. p. 14.), tells us, that 
it tastes like roasted apples. The acrid t black 
juice of the shell is employed, by the Tellihgoos, in 
every sort of venereal complaint, aches, sprains, &c ; 
it is mixed with the expressed juice of garlic, each 
an ounce; expressed juice of fresh tamarind tree 
leaves, cocoa-nut oil, and sugar, of each two ounces; 
mix and boil them for a few minutes ; of this a 
table-spoonful is given twice daily. The tree is very 
large, straight, and high ; branches numerous and 
spreading ; leaves about the extremities of the branch- 
lets, alternate, petioled, wedge-formed, and rounded 
at the apex, from nine to eighteen inches long ; re- 
ceptacle erect, shear-shaped, smooth. Besides being 
useful as a medicine, the black juice of the shell is 
employed for marking all sorts of cotton cloths ; the 
colour improved and prevented from running by a 
mixture of a little quick-lime and water. 

Three species of semecarpus are in the Hortus 
Bengalensis ; two grow in Ceylon. 

* And, if we mistake not, is one of the ingredients employed 
in making the target varnish, as noticed by Mr. Colebrooke, 
in one of the early numbers of the Journal of Science and the Arts. 

f This is, if handled incautiously, said to occasion a general 
eruption over the body, of an herpetic-like appearance. 



SHAYRAET COOCHIE ^^Lusrs/a><g>e=^ 
(Tarn.) «^yt~*» (Arab.) Chiraeta *%l^ (Duk. 
and Hind.) Sheeldsuttoo-coieUoo (Tel.) Kirataticta, 

r^^lrlR^ 1 (Sans.) Chirayit Gentian, or Worm- 
seed Plant. 

Gentian a Chirayita (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Gentianae ( Juss.)* 

What appear in the bazars of Lower. India, under 
this Tamool name, are small stalks of a light-grey 
colour, and very bitter, but pleasant taste; the 
natives consider them as tonic, stomachic, and fe- 
brifuge, and prescribe a decoction or infusion of 
them, in the quantity of a small tea-cupful, twice 

This species of gentian, the excellent Dr. Fleming 
tells us, is indigenous in the mountains to the West- 
ward of the Ganges; it is an herbaceous plant, 
having leaves stem-clasping, lanceolate, 3-5-nerved ; 
corol. rotate, four-cleft, smooth ; stamens four ; cap- 
sule ovate, bifurcate, as long as the calyx (Roxb. 
MSS.). It would appear to be much used, in decoc- 
tion and infusion, by the European practitioners of 
Bengal, and found efficacious, in combination with 
the caranja* nut, in curing intermittent fevers; a 
tincture of it is also prepared. 

* The guilandina bonducella (Lin.), the ialichiof the Tamools. 
See article Kalichikai^n this Chapter. 

B B 3 


Dr. P. Hamilton found two plants growing in 
Nepaul, under the name of chirayita ; the largest 
seemed to him to be a swertia, and, perhaps, it was 
that which has been considered by some authors as 
more properly a gentiana ; he thought it came 
nearer, in appearance, to the gentian of the shops 
than to any other known plant. The smallest of 
the chirayitas, however, Dr. H. # found most com- 
mon, and this we believe to be our present article ; 
and, perhaps, that which Kirkpatrick met with in- 
digenous in the same country, and termed by the 
natives bickma (see his Account of Nepaul, p. 182.) 

I perceive that an alkali has lately be<en discovered 
in the gentiana lutea, by M. M. Henry and Caventou; 
it is of a yellowish hue, is extremely bitter, inodo- 
rous, yet aromatic j they have given it the name of 
gentianine ; the dose is from two to four grains, 
given in syrup or alcohol. The leaves and root of 
the species g. scandens (Lour.) is considered, in 
Cochin-China, as tonic and. stomachic ; they also, if 
taken largely, excite nausea and vomiting (Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 171 •)• 


SHEEAKAI €^Lue>e>n-LLj (Tam.) Seekekat 

tflTJu- (Duk.) Sheeikaia (Tel.) 

Mimosa Abstergens? 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat Ord. 

* While in Bahar, Dr. Hamilton had a plant brought to him, 
called in Hindoostanie hema, and which he considered as the gen- 
tiana chirayita; it was ordered in worm cases. MSS. 


Sheeakai is the name given by the Tamools to a 
long, flat pod, or legume, containing separate, small, 
oval, dark-coloured seeds, and which is considered 
by the native practitioners as a most valuable me- 
dicine ; in taste it somewhat resembles the soap-nut 
(pooindie cottar/*), but is more acid, less bitter, and 
has a singular pungency ; its qualities are allowed to 
be deobstruent and detergent, and, I am inclined to 
think, expectorant ; it is commonly ordered in cases 
of jaundice and other biliary derangements, and is, 
besides, used by the Indians like soap-nut, for wash- 
ing the head. The small leaves of the prickly 
shrub have a pleasant acidity, and are frequently put 
into pepper-water, when it is found necessary to 
keep the bowels open or work off bile. The pod is 
usually prescribed in electuary, in doses of about the 
size of a small walnut, every morning for three suc- 
cessive days. The mimosa saponaria of Loureiro 
(Flor. Cochin-Chinensis, vol. ii. p. 653.) is considered 
as a valuable plant in Cochin-China ; it is the cortex' 
saponarius of Rumphius (Arab. 1. 6. c. 72. t. 66.), 
and is an arboreous shrub, with spreading unarmed 
branches ; leaves bigeminate and pinnate j and pa- 
nicle terminating. In speaking of the bark of the 
mimosa saponaria, which is used as soap, Loureiro 
says, " Hujus cortex braebet optimum saponem, in 
foro venalem, ad lintea, capillos, et corpora a sor- 
dibu8 mundanda ; manibus in aqua fiicatus in spu- 
raas resolvitur." The Cochin-Chinese call the shrub 

* See Pooindie Cottay, in this Chapter. 

B B 4 


SHEMMARUM Qpunsyric (Tam.) 
See Febrifuge, Swetenian, Vol. I. p. 123. 



uSa/oo (Tam.) Moolloogorunteh (Tel.) Katuka- 

randu (Cyng.) Landul (Jav.) Kwrantaka *§\V6^ 

(Sans.) Leqf of the Thorny Barleria. 

Barleria Prionitis, 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Personate. Fussangelformige Barlerie (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The juice of this leaf, which is slightly bitter and 
rather pleasant to the taste, is a favourite medicine 
of the Hindoos of Lower India, in those catarrhal 
affections of children which are accompanied with 
fever and much phlegm ; it is generally administered 
in a little honey or sugar and water, in the quantity 
of two table-spoonfuls twice daily. The plant is 
also sometimes called in Tamool vara mooUie ; it is 
the coletta-veetla of Rheede (Mai. ix. p. 77. t. 41.)- 
It grows to the height of four feet, " has a round, 
stiff, herbaceous stem ; leaves opposite, quite entire, 
lanceolate-ovate ; between the branch and the leaf 
there is a spine with four sharp rays from the same 
centre; flowers sessile, in the axils, large, yellow; 
the capsule has a longish solid point, and bursts 



without such internal elastic points as are in the 
justicia" (Lin.). The barleria prionitis is a native 
of India; this, and two other species, grow in 
Ceylon. I find but one, the longiflora, in the Hortus 
Bengalensis.. The b. procumbens, Loureiro met with 
in China ; it is there called kam-qua-tsu. 

Since writing the above, I have seen, through the 
kindness of my much-respected friend, Mr. Cole- 
brooke, the complete copy (manuscript) of the Flora 
Indica, in which the b. prionitis is fully described by 
Roxburgh ; it is the canta-jathi of the Bengalese ; 
the hystrix frutex (Rumph. Amb. vii. t IS.), and 
the moollo-gorinta of the Tellingoos. 


SHEENDI CODIE &>&&*>(&: n-^j). (Tam.) 
Cit-amerdoo (Malealie.) Goolbayl ^jf (Duk.) 
Gurcha (Hind.) Tippatingay (Tel.) Guduchl 
^J^ofT, also Amrita ^^T^TT (Sans.) Heart-leaved 


Menispermum Cordifolium (Russell). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Dodecandria. Nat. Ord. 
Menisperma (Juss.). Herzblattriger Mondsame. 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The powder of the dried tender shoots of this 
creeping plant is bitter, and a little nauseous to the 
taste: the Tamool practitioners prescribe it as an 
alterative in cases of depraved habit of body, pro- 
ceeding from visceral obstructions, and jaundice. 
Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue of Indian Medicinal 
Plants (p. 2C), informs us, that the Hindoo physi- 


cians consider a decoction of the leaves as a febrifuge, 
and as a tonic in gout j and I understand that the 
plant (which, in some districts, is called somalata*), 
is often bruised and put into water, which is drank 
by the Brahmins at some of their religious ceremo- 
nies. The root is a powerful emetic, given to the 
extent of grs. xv. or 3i. : to any person bitten by a 
coverkapell snake this dose is repeated three times, at 
the interval of twenty minutes betwixt each dose: it is 
one of the remedies, Mr. Sherwood tells me, that the 
Vytians of the Chittore district trust most to on such 
occasions. The species menispermum vemtcosum 
(Roxb. MS.), which is the putra waly of the Java- 
nese, and the funis fellius of Rumph. ( Amb. v. 82.), 
was, about twenty-six years ago, introduced into 
Bengal by Captain Wright. Every part of the plant 
is extremely bitter, particularly the stalk, which is 
a remedy much resorted to in Malay countries in 
cases of intermittent fever, and, according to Captain 
Wright's account, is as powerful as the Peruvian bark.f 
Our present article, the men. cordifolium, is the 
citamerdu of Rheede (Mai. vii. p. 39. t. 21.), and the 
menispermum glabrum (Klein in litt). Of it, Will- 
denow says, " Caulis teres glaber volubilis ; folia 
alterna petiolata tripollicaria et ultra orbiculata pro- 
funde cordata acuminata cuspidata integerrima glabra 
septemnervia venosa ; petioli folio parum breviores ; 
racemi axillares subcompositi folio longiores vel Ion- 
gitudine folii." J 

* Somalata is the moon plant, or asclepias acida of Rox. 

f See Fleming's Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants, 
pp. 26, 27. 

\ We are informed by Virey, in his excellent " Histoire Na- 
turelle des Medicamens," que " les baies du men. edule (La- 
marck), sont sucres, se mangent en Egypt, et on en tire une 
boisson spiritueuse" (p. 254.). 



SHEERUDEK ^yvyQs^& (Tarn.) Cundba- 
runghie JjJS±& (Duk.) Varangl c| {\if\ (Sans.) 

An infusion or decoction of the leaves and tender 
stalks and roots of this plant the Vytians consider as 
attenuant and diaphoretic; they are said to be slightly 
bitter, and not unpleasant to the taste. I have given 
shcerudek a place here that it may perhaps at some 
future period become an object of further inquiry. 
Dose of the infusion given by the Vytians is half a 
tea-cupful twice daily. 


(Tarn.) Lai chita xU* J3> (Duk.) Yerra cittramoo- 
lum (Tel.) Lai chitta (Hind, and Beng.) Kambang 
gennee (Jav.) Rathnetul (Cyng.) Rose-coloured 

Plumbago Rosea (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Plumbagines (Juss.). Rosenrothe Bleywurz (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The bruised root of this plant is, in its natural 
state, acrid and stimulating, but when tempered with 
a little bland oil it is used as an external application 
in rheumatic and paralytic affections ; it is also pre- 


scribed internally in small doses for the same com- 
plaints, in combination with some other simple pow- 
der. Dr. Horsfield, in his account of the Medicinal 
Plants of Java, informs us, that the root is used by 
the Javanese for the purpose of blistering, and that it 
excites more inflammation than cantharides, but pro- 
duces less effusion. The plumbago rosea would 
appear to resemble a good deal the cittramoolvm 
(plum. Zeylanica) in its natural qualities (see that 
Article in this Chapter). The shencoodie vaylk is 
the schetti codiveli of Rheede (Mai. xii. t 9.)> and 
the radix vesicatoria of Rumph. (Amb. v. p. 453, 
t 163.) It is a shrubby plant, generally rising to the 
height of six feet, with leaves petioled, ovate, smooth, 
somewhat toothletted, and a stem with gibbous joints 
(Spec. Plant. 215,). See also Gasrtner and Curt 

I perceive but two species of plumbago in the 
Hortus Bengalensis, our article, and the plumbago 
Zeylanica ; they are also the only two which appear 
to grow on Ceylon : the species scandens is a native 
of South America, also of Jamaica, where it is sup- 
posed to have medicinal properties, drying and 
restringent, and, by Browne's account, corrosive. 
See Hort Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 235. Since writing 
the above I have seen the complete copy (manuscript) 
of the invaluable Flora Indica of Roxburgh, in which 
I perceive the plumbago rosea (Lin.) is minutely de- 
scribed. I regret much that the information came to 
hand too late to enable me to take that advantage of 
it I otherwise should have done. 



0>dTyyK;(B (Tarn,) Kaloovagudda (Tel.) Raktdt- 
pala T^ft&fft (Sans.) Root qf the sweet-smelling 


Nymph^a Odorata (Ait). 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Nat Ord, 
Succulents. Wohttriechende Seerose (Nom. Triv. 

With this fragrant root the Hindoos prepare a kind 
of cooling liniment for the head. Knowing that the 
species odorata was, properly speaking, an American 
plant, I should have doubted about referring the root 
in question to it, but for the high authority of Dr. 
Rottler, by which it would appear that the shengala- 
neeris also a native of Southern India, though I cannot 
say that I have ever seen it : the root, as it appears 
in the medicine bazars, is long, tapering, and of a 
pale colour. The plant would seem to be the nym- 
phcea abba minor, of Gmelin. (Syst Nat. Lin.) Of 
it, Willdenow says (Spec. Plant, vol. ii. p. 1153.), 
" Foliis cordatis integerrimis emarginatis, lobis divari- 
catis, acumine obtuso, calyce tetraphyllo." Six spe- 
cies of nymphaea have a place in the Hortus Bengal- 
ensis, all Indian plants. Mr. Moon notices but two 
as natives of Ceylon, the stellata, of which there are 
three varieties, and the lotus (Egyptian), of which 
there is a red (rata) and a white (sudu). The species 
nymphaea nelumbo, tamaray (Tam.) will soon be 
mentioned under the article Tamaray (Tam.). 



SHENGATARIPUTTAY G*^e>0>grn-rfui_ 
CS)i_ (Tarn.). 

This yellowish coloured, but rather insipid bark, 
ground into powder, and mixed with a certain portion 
of castor-oil, is considered as a useful application in 
cases of carpang (scabies), and other cutaneous af- 
fections. I should not imagine that it was a medi- 
cine of much efficacy, nor have I been able to trace 
from what plant it is obtained ; but I think it pro- 
bable that it comes from Malabar. 


SHEVADIE VAYR ^<yuQzsG<yu& (Tam.) 
Doodh-kulmee (Hind.) Tikura !}& (Duk.) Te- 
gadu vayroo (Tel.) Trasta-walu (Cyng.) Niswut 
(Hindooie). also TeUa-tagada vayroo (Tel.) Teoree 
(Beng.) Triputa f%^2T (Sans.) Square-stalked 
Bind-weed Root, or Indian Jalap. 

Convolvulus Turpethum (Lin.). 

CI. stfid Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Convolvuli (Juss.) Turpeth Winde (Nom. Triv. 

This root, as it appears in the Indian bazars, is 
long, somewhat fleshy, about the thickness of the 
finger, and of a brownish colour ; in its dried 
state it has a somewhat sweetish yet nauseous taste, 


but when quite fresh contains a milky * juice, which 
is in a slight degree acid. It is reckoned by the 
Vytians and Hakeems as one of their most valuable 
cathartics, considerably more active than the sha- 
runnay vayr (Trianthema Monogynia). 

The convolv. turpethum is common in many parts 
of India } it has a twining stem, several fathoms long ; 
leaves alternate, petioled, of differing forms, from cor- 
date to linear; they are all, however, pointed and lobate 
or angular ; Jhwers large, white ; capsules involved 
in the dry calyx, four-sided, four-celled, and one- 
valved ; seeds round and black, one in each cell (See 
Flora Indica, voLii. p. 58-). Wallich, in some ju- 
dicious observations on this plant in that part of the 
Flora Indica just cited, informs us, as well from his 
own experience, as that of his friends Mr. G. J. Gor- 
don, and Mr. J. Glass, that the root is a medicine of 
very considerable value as a cathartic ; it would ap- 
pear, that it is in its bark that the medicinal virtue 
exists, and that thisj in its dried state, has little per- 
ceptible taste or smell. An extract may be obtained 
in the proportion of one ounce to a pound of the 
dried root, and the dose of this, as well as of the 
powder of the bark of the root, may be a little 
larger than that of the common jalap ; a small quan- 
tity of cream of tartar, added to the powder, or 
calomel to the extract, ajxi much their operation. 
In the valuable Sanscrit Dictionary, the Amara 
Kosha, and also in the Bhava-pralcasa and Raja- 
nighantu, t may be found many synonymes for this 
plant : in the last of these the root in question, teoree 

* Which hardens into a resinous substance altogether soluble 
in spirit of wine. 

f These Mr. Colebrooke mentions as amongst the best writings 
of the Hindoos on the Materia Medica. 


(Beng.)f is recommended as of use in removing 
worms and phlegm. 

Under the head of jalap, in the first volume of 
this work (p. 183.), I enumerated several plants 
which might be substituted for that medicine, all of 
them however inferior to the convolv. jalapa of Vera 
Cruz and Mexico. Our present article had long a 
place in the British Materia Medica (convolvulus 
Indicus, alatus maximus), but of late years has fallen 
into disuse. I find it mentioned by Avicenna (264), 
under the name of **j3 turbad ; but the first 
amongst the Arabs who prescribed itwasMesue* 
(see Rei Herbariae, Spring, vol. i. p. 249.)> also Rha- 
zes (c. 173.). Alston, in his Materia Medica (vol. ii. 
p. 530.), speaks of turbith as a strong and resinous 
cathartic, and recommended in his days in gout, 
dropsy, and leprosy. The plant is known to the 
modern Greeks by the name of rovpTred", it is a na- 
tive of the Society and Friendly Isles, as well as of 
India, of the New Hebrides, and of New Holland.t 
Virey, in his " Histoire Naturelle des MSdicamens 
(p. 184.), speaks of the root of the convolvulus tur- 
pethum as more drastic than the common jalap, 
which, however, it does not seem to be found in 
India. Dr. Barton, in his interesting work on the 
Vegetable Materia Medica of America (vol. ii. p. 9.)> 
informs us, that the root of the Polophyllum peltatm 
(Lin.), is, as a purge, every way equal to jalap, and 
less irritating; the dose a scruple. Might it not 
grow in England? It certainly would, in cool situ- 
ations, in India. 

* Who gave the root, in powder, to the extent of from $• ^h 
and of the decoction, from 51J. to 5iv. 

f Brown, Prodr. Nov. Holl. i. 485., as cited in the Flora In- 
dica, vol. ii. p. 57. 



SHEVENAR VA YMBOO &>c?^£v>&G<?ulo^ 
(Tam.) SUvammba. HNlPlH" (Sans.) Small. 
Jloxoered Aspalathus. 

Aspalathus Indica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. DiadeJphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionacese. Ostindische Wttschen (Nom. Triv. 

The leaves, small, pale, red Jlowers, and tender 
shoots of this low-growing plant, are supposed by the 
Hindoo practitioners to possess a cooling, demulcent, 
and alterative quality, and are prescribed in decoc- 
tion in leprous and cancerous affections ; half a tea- 
cupful is given twice daily. The root is said to 
have virtues, when chewed, in easing the tooth-ache, 
and in cases of aphthse. 

The shevenar is the manelU of Rheed. (Hort. Mai. 
ix. p. 69. t 370 I ** k " a shrub about four feet high, 
with slender hard round twigs, and short, alternate 
branches; leaves quinate sessile; peduncles one- 
flowered," a native of many parts of Lower India, 



SHEVIUM G9=<5\j5x£uju> (Tam.) Chola keejur 

»JUys (Duk.) ShivikS ftlf^iT (Sans.) Root 

of the Black Pepper Plant. 

Piper Nigrum (Lin.). 

Shevium is the Tamool name of thfr root of the 
black pepper plant, it has a peculiar and slightly 



warm taste, and is considered by the native doctors 
as stimulant, tonic, and cordial ; they prescribe it 
accordingly in certain cases of fever, and other af- 
fections requiring medicines of this description ; m 
doses of half a tea-cupful of the decoction twice 
daily. See article Pepper, Black, in vol. i. p. 302. 



(Tam.) Koomatha (Can.). 

Gmelina Parvifloka (Roxb.). 

CL and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 

Ord. Personate. 

This is a tree with roundish, stiff, upright branches, 
and altogether very much resembling the gmelina 
Asiatica.* It may be found described in Rox- 
burgh's Coromandel Plants, vol. ii. p. 32. Its leaves 
would appear to have the quality of thickening 
water, and rendering it mucilaginous when agitated 
in it, so becoming a useful drink in gonorrhoea, 
and other maladies requiring demulcents ; the leaves 
of the pedalium murex (see article Ananeringie in 
this Chapter), and menispermum hirsutum t, have the 
same property ; with this difference, that when our 
article is gently stirred in water, and the leaves at 
the same time a little bruised, the thickening of the 
water by these means produced, does not pass away, 
as in the other instances, but remains ; so it must be 
considered as a much more valuable medicine. 

* See article Nelacumulvayr, in this Chapter. 
+ This is indigenous in India ; in Hindoostanie it is called 
or fttir, and in Teilingoo doosera-tiga. 



(Beng.) Bristly-leaved Jew's Mallow. 

Corchorus Olitoriub (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia* Gemusear* 
tiger Corchorus (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This is a plant which Dr. Francis Hamilton had 
brought to him in Behar, as one of the many used 
in that country by the Hindoo doctors as medicine ; 
the fresh, or dry herb, he was told, after being 
toasted and reduced to ashes, is mixed with a little 
honey, and given twice daily in petal (obstructions 
of the abdominal viscera). The sing-gika (Sans.) 
is " a low-growing annual, seldom rising higher than 
two feet; the leaves, which vary in shape, from 
spear-shaped to oval and heart-shaped, are on long 
petioles, they are of a deep-green colour, and are 
slightly indented at the edges ; the Jlowers are ses- 
sile, solitary, and yellow ; seeds of an almost pyra- 
midal form, and dark-brown" (Lin. Mant.). Three 
species of corchorus have a place in " Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants ;" six are noticed in the 
Hortus Bengalensis, by which it appears that two 
varieties of our article are known in the Bengal 
provinces, a green (pat, Beng.) and a reddish (bun 
pat, Beng.). The corchorus olitorius is sown in 
great plenty about Aleppo as a pot-herb, and the 
Jews there boil the leaves and eat them with their 
meat. The speeies capsidaris (Lour.) is much cul- 

c c 2 


tivated in China, particularly in the neighbourhood 
of Canton, where it is used for the same purposes 
that hemp is ; the fibres of the stalks being woven 
into cloth (Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 334.). 

Since writing the above, I have seen, but too late 
to take full advantage of it here, a description of 
the corchorus olitorius by the master-hand of Rox- 
burgh, in the Flora Indica (manuscript); he ob- 
serves, that it is a well-known plant, much cultivated 
in Bengal for the fibres of its bark, which are used 
as in China. 


SINNEE ELLEY ePcorGvfMSsi&v (Tam.) Chin- 

nie kapat oU^ (Duk.) Tsinniakoo (Tel.) 

Leaf qf the Birch-leaved Acalypha. 

Acalypha Betulina (Retz.). 

CI. and Orel. Monoecia Monodelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Birkenartiges Brennkraut (Nom. Triv. 

The leaves of the ac. betulma are about two inches 
long, and an inch and a half broad, acuminate, and 
deeply serrate; they are placed on petioles, from 
half an inch to an inch in length, and have a most 
pleasant and aromatic taste and odour. As a medi- 
cine they are much esteemed by the native practi- 
tioners, who prescribe them as a grateful stomachic 
in dyspeptic affections, and in cholera ; they are be- 
sides considered as attenuant and alterative, and are 
accordingly administered when it is necessary to 


correct the habit The plant appears to have been 
first particularly noticed by Koenig, in Ceylon, and 
is well described by Retzius (Ob. v. SO. n 85.). It 
is the caudafelis agressh of Rumphius (Arab. iv. 
p. 84. t 37.), and commonly rises to the height of 
six feet, with round branches, and a light brown 
bark ; it differs from the acalypha betulce Jblia, chiefly 
from the length of its petioles. I find five species 
of acalypha in the Hortus Bengalensis, five in the 
Flora Indica (MSS.), and three in Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants. The dose of the infusion 
of the leaves of the acalypha betulina, as ordered 
by the Vytians, is half a tea-cupful given twice in 
the day. 



&rrupGtyu& (Tam.) Kanchkoori he jurr j.» J 
fSj^sss^ (Duk.) Tsinna doolagondie vayroo (Tel.) 
Casaghinnie (Sans.) Root qf the Hemp-leaved 


Tragia Cannabina (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord, Moncecia Triandria. Nat Ord. 
Euphorbiae (Juss.). Hanfartige Tragie (Nom. Triv. 

This root, which is sometimes called coorundootie 
vayr, has, in its dried state, but little taste or smell, 
though, in its more succulent condition, it has a 
rather pleasant odour : it is considered as diaphoretic 
and alterative* and is prescribed in decoction, toge* 
ther with other articles of like virtues to correct the 

c c 3 


habit : an infusion of it is also given as a drink in 
ardent fever, in the quantity of half a tea-cupful 
twice daily. The tragia cannabina "has an erect, 
round, hispid stem; the leaves, which are hairy, 
stinging, are three-parted, alternate, andpetioled; the 
segments lanceolate and simulate; peduncles lateral, 
solitary, one-flowered, the length of the leaves." It 
is a native of Malabar, and would appear to be the 
croton hastatum of Burm. (Ind. 305. t. 63. f. 2.) I 
perceive but two species of tragia in the Hortus 
Bengalensis, and three in Moon's Catalogue of Cey- 
lon Plants, but the trag. cannabina is not mentioned. 
The species tr. involucrata is the canchorie of the 
Tamools. See that Article in this Chapter. The 
tragia volubilis is a medicinal plant of Jamaica, being 
there considered as diuretic and aperient (See 
Browne's Hist, of Jamaica, p. 336.). 

Our article is mentioned with two other species in 
the Flora Indica (manuscript), the tragia involucrata 
and the t acalypha. 


SIRROO COORINJA VAYR ^/v><&v><®3=n- 
Gcru;f- (Tam.) Root of the Periphca qf the 


Periploca Sylvestbis (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat Ord. 
Contort©* Wald SckUnge (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This bitterish root is supposed by the native prac- 
titioners to possess virtues in cases of snake-bite \ the 
powder applied to the part bitten : internally, it is 
prescribed in decoction to the quantity of half a tea- 


cupful twice daily* The plant, of which our article 
is the root, is called by the Cingalese binnugc j the 
root itself they suppose to have virtues similar to our 
ipecacuanha. The periploca sylvestris is "a shrub 
with a tomentose stem ; * leaves ovate, somewhat hir> 
sute on both sides, entire ; flowers small, in opposite 
axillary umbels, smooth within/' It was found in 
India by Koenig, and is described by Retzius and 
Willdenow.t I find four species of periploca in the 
Hortus Bengalensis, amongst which our article 19 
not : it is one of the two noticed in Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants, but no native name is affixed. 
The periploca emetica is a native of the mountains of 
Malabar : its root is emetic, and might be used as a 
substitute for ipecacuanha. 


CSJL-Gaxj'^ (Tarn.) Birme he jurr y* ^ <g*ji 
(Duk.) Tsirma avagooda vayroo (Tel.) Gashed 


Trichosanthes Incisa (Rotti.)* 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat Ord. 

This species of trichosanthes seems to have been 
first particularly noticed and described by Rottler, in 
bis Herbarium (MS.) ; its root, as it appears in the 
medicine bazars of Lower India, is light-coloured, 

• Burman, however, makes the stem rugged, with many small 
f Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. \2l% 

' C C 4 


and very bitter to the taste: pounded small, and 
mixed with margosa oil, it is considered as a valuable 
remedy, applied to those painful sores which some- 
times take place inside of the ears. I find in Moon's 
Catalogue of Ceylon Plants four species of trichosan- 
thes noticed, amongst these is our article, but no 
native name is given. The species anguina (the 
poodalungai of the Tamools) is called in Ceylon 
podi-wilanga : it is an excellent pot-herb. The spe- 
cies lacinosa I have already spoken of, under the 
head of Pepoodel, in this Chapter, and also of the 
species palmata under that of Coruttei. Seven species 
of trichosanthes are in the Hortus Bengalensis. The 
trich. amara would seem to be the only species grow- 
ing in Jamaica, where it is considered as a poison, 
and is used for killing rats (Hort Jamaicensis, vol. ii. 
p. 175.). 



<x^J r f' (Tarn.) Tseerikoora vayroo (Tel.) May- 

kanada (Sans.) Root qf the Amaranth qf the 


Amaranthus Campestris (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Moncecia Pentandria. Nat. Ord. 
Amarinthi (Juss.). Feld Amaranth (Nom. Triv. 

This root has but little sensible taste or smell i it 
is considered by the Vytians as demulcent, and is 
prescribed in decoction, in cases of strangury, in 
doses of half a tea-cupful twice daily. The leaf 
sinroo-keeray is amongst the pot-herbs of the Hin- 


doos. Nine species of amaranthus have a place in 
Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants : fifteen are in 
the Hortus Bengalensis; but our article is mentioned 
in neither. I find in Willdenow (Spec. Plant, vol. iv. 
p. 382.) another Tamool name for it, qnai-totu-kura, 
which I am not acquainted with. Of the plant 
itself, he says, " Caulis erectis ramosus ; folia alterna 
petiolata, vix semipollicaria ovata emarginata obtusa 
mucronata viridia; petioli longitudine. foliorum, &c. 
Habitat in India Orientali." In Jamaica the species 
viridis is used in clysters, in the belly-ache, as the 
best emollient herb that country affords : the species 
spinosus is a pot-herb in several of the West India 



(Tam.) Khul he jurr y* J $g (Duk.) Astma 

bayda (Sans.) Root of the Woolly Illecebrum. 

Illecebrum Lanatum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Holoraceae. Filzige Knorpelblume (Nom. Triv. 

This root the Vytians reckon amongst their demul- 
cents, and prescribe it accordingly in strangury, in 
doses of half a tea-cupful. The Tellingoo name of 
the plant is pindie conda; it is the stherubala of 
Rheede (Mai. x. p. 75. t. £{).)> and the achyranthes 
lanata of Roxburgh, who describes it as an erect, 
ramous, woolly annual, with alternate kaves y whicfc 
are orbicular; spikes crowded; nectary ten-parted, 

and stigmas two-cleft : it is common every-where : 
in Bengalese it is called chaga. It is a stout, hardy 
plant, not more than from one to two feet high, 
Roxburgh objects to its being made an illecebrum 
(see Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 504.). The reader may 
find a somewhat different description of it in Lourei- 
ro's Flora Cochin-Chinensis (vol. i. p. 162.). The 
Cochin-Chinese name it rau-chieo, but do not appear 
to consider it as medicinal. The Cyngalese call the 
illecebrum lanatum pol-kuda-pala : it is quite common 
in the neighbourhood of Colombo: three species 
grow in that island. I find but two in the Hortus 


SIRROOTALIE ELLEY &>/&®rrosrFu£2fix> 
(Tarn.) Tsinnalaliakoo (TeL) Leqfqfthe Con- 
volvulus Gemellus. 

Convolvulus Gemellus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Campanaceae. Zwillingsblutige Winde (Nom. Triv. 

The leaves of this twining plant have a pleasant 
smell, and mucilaginous taste; when toasted, pow- 
dered, and boiled with a certain portion of ghee, 
they are considered as a valuable application in 
aphthous affections. 

The plant would appear to have been first scien- 
tifically noticed by Koenig. " The stem is tender 
and pubescent at top ; the leaves are cordate, some- 
what villose underneath; peduncles two-flowered" 
(Vahl. Symb. 3. p. 27.). Of it Burman observes ; 


" Caule volubili, foliis cordatis giabris ; pedanculis 
bifloris" (Ind. 46. t 41. f. 1.). It is a native of 
Java and the coast of Cororaandel, and is remark- 
able for the size of its bell-shaped corolla ; which 
is six times as large as the calyx; also because 
" floret ante meridiem usque ad 12 horam quod 
raro in calidis regionibus" (Koenig). 


(Tarn.) Tsinna mootopoldghum vayroo (TeL) 
Root of the Ceylon Pavonia. 

Pavonia Zeylanica. 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. OrcL 
Columnifere. Zeylonsche Pavonie (Nom. Triv. 

This root, as it appears in the medicine bazars of 
India, has little sensible taste or smell ; an infusion 
of it is, I understand, ordered to be drank in fevers, 
but I do not believe it possesses much virtue of any 
kind. The plant is " an annual, with an herbaceous 
stem; leaves cordate-hastate; peduncles alternate, 
one-flowered, jointed" (Bunn. Ind. 153. t. 48. 
f. 2.). The corolla is of a beautiful flesh-colour, 
and about the size of that of the potentilla anserina. 
In the Flora Zeylanica, I perceive, it is said to re- 
semble much the verbascum blattaria ; it is there 
spoken of (266.) under the name of hibiscus Zey- 
lanicus. The Cyngalese call it gasbewila, but do 
not seem to use it medicinally. Since writing the 


above, I find the pavonia Zeylanica described by 
Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica (MSS.) ; he observes, 
stem erect, four feet high, ramous, and all the young 
parts covered with much glutinous down ; leaves 
scattered, horizontal, petioled, deeply three-lobed; 
and flowers pale rose colour in the morning, and 
gradually changing to a deep rose colour in the 


SOOMBOONG (Javanese). Red-stalked, or Bal- 
sam-bearing Conyza. 

Conyza Balsamifera (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Corymbiferae (Juss.). Harzige Dumvurz (Norn. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The soomboong is a plant of very great repute 
amongst the Javanese ; it has a pleasant balsamic 
odour, and a taste a little pungent, and according to 
Dr. Horsfield's account, its exciting qualities are 
combined with a considerable portion of mucilage : 
a warm infusion of it acts powerfully as a sudorific, 
and it is very often employed as a pectoral, as well 
by the Javanese as the Chinese. Several physicians 
of Samarang assured Dr. Horsfield, that they con- 
stantly employed it in complaints of the breast, 
colds, &c. The plant appears to be confounded 
with the baccharis salvia* (the cay-dai-U of the 
Cochin-Chinese), or, perhaps, they are one and the 
same plant ; and we know that the conyza balsam* 

* See Hora Cdchin-ChinensiB, vol. ii. p. 494. 


ifera is the conyza odorata (Rumph. Amb. vi. t 24. 
f. I.), though we find them differently described in 
Willdenow (Spec. Plant, vol. iii. pp. 1924. and 
1944.). What would seem particularly to distinguish 
our article is its tomentose or downy leaves ; hence 
it was named by Plukenett (Amath. 64.) : "Conyza 
arbor Zeylanensis subrotundo folio maxime tomen- 
toso." On Ceylon, where three species of conyza 
grow, it is termed lewcercella ; it is also a native of 
India, and, amongst twelve other species, has a place 
in the Hortus Bengalensis. Since writing the above, 
I have seen the description of the conyza balsamif era 
in the Flora Indica (MSS.) : Roxburgh says of it, 
that it is shrubby, erect, leaves alternate, short 
petioled, lanceolate, petioles short, corymbs termi- 
nal, bearing numerous bright yellow flowers, which, 
when bruised, smell strongly of camphor. 



This is the lightish coloured bark of, I am told, 
a large tree which grows in the remote jungles ; it 
is sweetish to the taste, and is one of the many 
medicines prescribed by the Vytians to purify the 
blood. I have not been able to ascertain what the 
tree is. 



SONBALLI (Hind.) Suryavarti, ^Nft 

(Sans.) Folded Croton. 

Croton Plicatum (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Euphorbiae (Juss.). Gefaltetes Croton (Nom. Triv. 

This is a plant which Dr. F. Hamilton (MSS.) 
had brought to him in Bekar, as one of those which 
was supposed to have virtues in leprous affections ; 
the dry plant is made into decoction, to which is 
added a little mustard. 

, The plant is common in Upper India, but I have 
not met with it in the lower provinces ; it is called 
in Bengalese, as well as in Hindoostanie, Khoodi- 
Ohra ; and it was, according to Vahl, observed by 
Forskahl in Arabia j it is the croton tinctorium of 
Burman (Ind. 30*. t. 62. f. 1.) j it has been fully 
described by Vahl, so I shall briefly here state, from 
him, that it has a round, herbaceous, and somewhat 
rugged stem, and hoary branches ; leaves, ovate, 
plated, crenate hirsute; the inflorescence as in the 
c. tinctorium. There are seven species of croton in 
the Hortus Bengalensis, and eight in Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants. Fourteen species grow in 
Jamaica, three of which are medicinal plants ; viz. 
the c. lineare, the powder of the dried leaves of 
which, Barham says, is a specific in cholicj the c. 
humile, which, according to Browne (Hist p. 374. 
c. 2.), is frequently used in baths and fomentations 
for nervous weakness ; and the c. elateria, the bark 
of which is the cascariUa* 


The croton plicatum has been fully described by 
Roxburgh, in his Flor. Ind. (MSS.) : it, by his ac- 
count, and there is no better authority, is a straggling 
annual, common in India ; it has a hoary appear- 
ance ; stem and branches round, dichotamous, from 
one to two feet long ; leaves alternate, petioled, 
broad-cordate ; flowers pale yellow, male ones above 
the female ; capsules scabrous. It would appear, 
that cloth, moistened with the juice of the green 
capsules, becomes blue after exposure to the open 
air ; they, no doubt, contain colouring matter, which 
might be turned to good account in the arts. 

SONG-KOONG (Siamese), 

This is a root which Dr. Finlayson found in Siam, 
and which the natives were in the habit of grinding 
down, with a little water, and using in aphthous af- 
fections, commonly used together with another root 
called nirapousee (Jav.). 

Future research may ascertain what these plants 


SOORA.MEEN &&\j&<*x (Tam.) Shark. 

Squalus Carcharias (Var.). 

The flesh of the shark-fish, is supposed by the 
Hindoo medical writers, to have peculiar virtues in 
several diseases; and is particularly noticed by 
Aghastier, in his work entitled Ahirum, as a diet to 
.ha had recoune to in rheumatic affections. - 



SOU-LINE, or CHYN-LEN (Ciiinese). 

This is the Chinese name of a bitter root, sometimes 
brought for sale from China to India ; it is of a pale 
yellow colour, and not much thicker than a quill. 
It is considered as possessing stomachic virtues, and 
is said to be held in high estimation by the Chinese, 
I perceive that it is noticed by Virey, in his His- 
toire Naturelie des M^dicamens (p. 322. ), who says, 
that the decoction of it is powerfully febrifuge (see 
Bulletin de Pharm.pour 1813, p. 395.). 


SOTHALI (Hind.) Damana, 2^T (Sans.) 
Rough-stemmed JEschynomene. 


CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat Ord. 
Leguminosae. Scharfsttelige Schampjlanze (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

Dr. F. Hamilton had this plant brought to him by 
a Hindoo physician in Behar, from whom he learnt 
that it was used in decoction in dropsical affections. 

"The plant rises to the height of five or six feet, 
with an herbaceous rugged stem ; the leaves, which 
are composed of a great number of glaucus pinnas, 
come out in every side of the stem towards the top, 
forming a sort of head ; the flowers are yellow, and 
come out between the leaves, two or three. together 


on long petioles ; the legume is about four inches 
long" (Miller). The plant called by the Tamools 
in the lower provinces of India netty cheddie Q^ux 
&\ q 9 in Tellingoo bendoo chettoo, in Dukhanie 
bhend «xj*gj, in Sanscrit damana, and in Hindoostanie 
shoola *Jy£, is very apt to be confounded with our 
present article. It is the aeschynomene arborea, and 
grows to a much greater size ; the use of its wood 
in the arts, will be noticed in another part of this 
work. I find nine species of aeschynomene noticed 
in the Hortus Bengalensis ; three have a place in 
" Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants," where our 
article has (in Cyngalese) the name of mahadiya 
siyambala. In Cochin- China, the stem of the species 
lagenaria is used to cork bottles with. 

The aeschynomene aspera is fully described in the 
Flora Indica (MSS.), where Roxburgh tells us, that 
the Bengalese call the plant fool-sola ; and that, from 
its extreme lightness, it is used by fishermen to 
float their nets, and for making what are called 


(Tam.) Ginger Grass, or Spice Grass, or False 


Andropogon Nardus ? 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia* Nat Ord. 

This grass, on being chewed, has exactly the flavour 
of ginger ; it is very common in the Cautalum hilb, 
and in the Tinnivelly district, where the natives oc- 
casionally prepare with it an essential oil, useful in 



rheumatism ; they also consider an infusion of it as 
stomachic and febrifuge. In the first edition of this 
work, I, on the authority of Dr. Rottler, gave this 
as the andropogan nardus, he, however, implying a 
doubt about it; a doubt which, I presume, stillremains. 
The andropogon nardus, is a medicinal plant on 
Ceylon, there called watusaewendara in Cyngalese, 
and may be found described by Burman (Zey. 35.), 
under the title of arundo Zeylonica* " Fracta 
odore et sapore, calomi aromatici ;" it is the calo- 
mus odoratus mathioli (Bauh. Pin. 17- theatr. 263.); 
and the narden-bartgras of the Germans. I have 
only seen it in its dried state, so can vouch for little 
more than its aromatic and stimulant properties. I 
am much inclined to think that the sukkunaroo pilloo 
is what the French know under the name of nard. 


Quere, whether it may not be the same fragrant 
grass, which Mr. Assist. Surgeon Maxwell notices in 
the Transactions of the Medical Society of Calcutta, 
(p. 367), and which the excellent Dr. Wallich believes 
to be the andropogon parancura (Dr. Blane) ; from 
the leaves of which we know the natives of Malacca 
extract a pleasant-tasted essential oil. 


SOTTRAJ (Hind.) Axillary Spiderwort. 

Tradescantia Axillaris (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Ensatae. Junci (Juss.). 
* This plant was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton while 


in Behar, by a native doctor, and said to be of great 
use as an external application in cases of ascites, 
when mixed with a little oil. On the Malabar coast, 
Rheede tells us, it is employed in tympanites. 

"It is a creeping and ascending annual, with 
acute, linear leaves ; Jfowers axillary and solitary; 
corolla one-petalled, of a deep blue purple, and of 
the shape of a funnel. The plant may be found 
well described in Roxburgh's Coromandel Plants 
(2. 1 107.) ; it is the nir-pulli of Rheede (Mai. x. 
p. 28. 1. 13.), and is known by the Germans, by the 
trivial name of winkelblulige tradescantie ; the Hin- 
doostanie name of this plant is bagha-nulla ; it is in- 
digenous in India, and has a place with four other 
of the species in the Hortus Bengalensis. Five spe- 
cies of tradescantia grow in Ceylon, one of which is 
our article. 


SURASARUNI (Hind.) Aruni 3J5pjft (Sans.) 

Rhamnus-tike Phyllanthus. 

Phyllanthus Rhamnoides (Willd.). 

This is a plant which Dr. F. Hamilton (MSS.), 
had brought to him while in Behar, and is said by 
the Hindoo medical men of that province to be a 
medicine of some note ; the dried leaves are smoked 
like tobacco, in cases in which the uvula and tonsils 
are swelled. It is a plant of the class and order 
Monoecia Monadelphia, and natural order Euphorbiae 
(Juss.)j it is the tvegdornartiger phyllanthus of the 
Germans, and the phyl. Zeylanica of Burman (Zeyl. 
198. t. 88.) ; Of it Willdenow says, "P.foliis ovatis 

d d 2 


obtusiusculis ; pedunculis axillaribus ; inferioribus ge- 
minis masculis ; superioribus solitariis femineis, ra- 
mulis pinnaeformibus semiteretibus." It is a native 
of Java, as well as of the Coromandel coast and 
Ceylon, in which last-mentioned couatry the Cyn- 
galese call it gas-kayila. Nine other species of phyl. 
grow in that island ; twenty-one are in the Hortua 
Bengalensis ; all, except four, Indian plants. 

The phyll an thus rhamnoides is described by Rox- 
burgh, in his Flora Indica (MSS.), who tells us, 
that it is a small shrub, often found on waste lands, 
scarce any stem; branches numerous, leaves scat- 
tered, spreading, feathered ; petioles angular, and 
male flowers racemed. 


SUNG.ELLEY^TvBfr2^)(Tam.) Te-canta-jolty 
(Beng.) Sukkapat £,\J££*» (Duk.) Canta-goor- 
cannay (Hind.) Oopi-akoo (Tel.) also TeUavuppi 
(Tel.) Katu-myada (Cyng.) Kundati ^UJofi 
(Sans.) Leaf of the Four-spined Monetia. 

Monetia Barlerioides (Heret). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Vierdornige 
Monetie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

• The juice of this bitterish leaf is supposed by 
the native practitioners to possess virtues in cases of 
cough, consumption, and humoral asthma; it is 
commonly prescribed in the form of electuary, in 
conjunction with some other medicines. The pow» 
der of the root is sometimes also prescribed fo* 
similar complaints. 


The shrub which bears the leaf in question is 
common on the Coromandel coast, and is also a na- 
tive of the Cape, and of Ceylon, found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Matura ; " it is prickly, with an up- 
right ash-coloured stem, full of chinks j the branches 
are opposite, dense, and diffused ; leaves opposite, 
spreading, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, entire ; petiole 
very short, and Jlowers axillary on the shoots, gene- 
rally in clusters, in threes at the top" (FH6r6tier). 
See also Thunb. (Prod. 28.) The monetia barlerioi- 
des, is described by Roxburgh in his Flor. Indica 
(MSS.), who tells us, that it has scarce any stem ; 
thorns axillary, and leaves opposite, short-petioled, 
oval-acute ; male flowers axillary, small, yellow ; 
berries eat by men and birds. 


TAGARAY-ELLEY g&c&o-uSswo (Tam.) 

also Tagashay-eUey (Tam.) T&garish*ahoo (Tel.) 

Kulktil JJUlS (Arab.) also ^ SM^a (Arab. Forskahl). 

Prabhiln^Uha^i^VP^ (Sans.) Leaf qf the OvaLleaved 


Cassia Tor a (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Lomentaceae. Viereckigfruchtige Cassie (Nom. Triv. 

The mucilaginous and fetid-smelling leaves of 
the cassia tora, are gently aperient, and are prescribed 
in the form of decoction j and in doses of about two 
ounces, for such children as suffer from feverish 

d d 3 


attacks while teething : fried in castor-oil they are 
considered as a good application to foul ulcers; 
the seeds, ground with sour butter-milk, are used to 
ease the irritation of itchy eruptions ; and the root, 
rubbed on a stone with lime-juice, the Vytians sup- 
pose to be one of the best remedies for ring-worms. 
In the more western tracts of the Peninsula the 
leaves are often employed for making a warm poul- 
tice, to hasten the suppuration of boils ; and in 
Combatore the seeds are had recourse to in combin- 
ation with the pala (nerium tinctorium f Roxb.), in 
preparing a blue dye. 

The plant is the peti-tora of the Cyngalese; it 
seldom rises higher than five feet, with an erect, 
roughish stem; "leaflets three pairs obovate, the 
outer ones larger, a subulate gland between the 
lower ; flowers axillary, formed into close short 
spikes, and of a bright yellow colour" (Flor. Zeyl. 
152.). It is a native of most parts of India, and 
was found at Campeachy by Houstoun. It is also 
by Thunberg's account a native of Japan, growing 
near the city of Nagasaki (Flor. Japon. p. 179-)- 
The Cochin-Chinese, in whose country it seems to 
be very common, call it dao-muong, but do not con- 
sider it amongst their medicines ; in the upper pro. 
vinces of Bengal it is named chakoonda, and with 
thirty-three other species has a place in the Hortus 
Bengalensis ; twelve species grow in Ceylon, 



TALISHAPUTRIE ^rrosrf^LJfftfYf* (Tarn, 
and Tel.) TaUsputrie tf^jJlJ (Duk.) ^^ (Arab,) 
Paniyala (Beng. and Hind.) Tdtisha, cfUflUl also 
Vidara T^XT (Sans.). 

Flacourtia Cataphracta (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Icosandria. Nat. Ord. Fi- 
liacese (Juss.). Zugespitzte Flacourtie (Nom. Triv. 

The small leaves and tender shoots of this fragrant- 
smelling plant have a taste not unlike that of rhu- 
barb, but without its bitterness ; they are considered 
as stomachic, are in a slight degree astringent, and 
are ordered in powder, in doses of half a drachm, 
in diarrhoea, general weakness^ and consumption. We 
are informed by Dr. F. Hamilton (MSS.), that he 
found in Behar an infusion of the bark in cold water, 
in use amongst the Hindoo doctors of that pro- 
vince, in cases of hoarseness, given twice daily. 

Of the plant, Willdenow says, " Habitat in India ; 
Jrutex ramis cinereis alternis forte inermis / folia al- 
terna petiolata ovato-oblonga acuminata adpresso, 
serrata ; racemi masculi et feminei laterales copiose 
subsexflori" (Spec. Plant, vol.iv. p. 830.). Eight 
species have a place in the Hortus Bengalensis. I 
perceive but one a native of Ceylon, the nivea. The 
other growing there was brought to it from Molucca, 
the inermis ; it is the tomutomi of the Malays, the fruit 
of which is edible. 

d d 4 



TALOODALEI ^O^^n-^up (Tarn.) Nellie 
(Tel) also Teloki (TeL) Vata-ghra q|fl*fl 
(Sans.) Phlomis-like Clerodendrum. 

Clerodendrum Phlomoides (Vahl.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Personate. Phlomisartiger Loosbaum (Nom. 
Triv. Willi). 

The juice of the leaves of this hoary shrub is 
somewhat bitter, and is considered by the Indian 
practitioners as an alterative; they prescribe it in 
those obstinate pains, which but too often accompany 
neglected syphilitic complaints in India, in doses 
of half an ounce or more twice daily. The plant 
is a native of Hindoostan, the volkameria multiflora of 
Burman (Ind. 137- t. 45. f. i.) j it has been well de- 
scribed by Vahl. (Symb. ii. p. 74.), who tells us, that 
the leaves are ovate, toothed, and angular ; pedun- 
cles axillary, sub-triflorous. For further particulars 
the reader may consult Willdenow (Spec. Plant 
vol. iii. p. 386.). The Clerod. Phlomoides and four 
other species are growing in Ceylon. Two varieties 
are mentioned in the Hortus Bengalensis (p. 46.). 



rr<n£'\ /rnve^yyK/© (Tam.) Suffdid Moostie 

JL.^. aJu, (Duk.) TsuUa ghedaloo (Tel.) Root 

qf the Linear-leaved Asparagus. 

Asparagus Sarmentosus (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Sarmentaceae. Rankendir Spargel (Nom. Triv. 


This long, fleshy, whitish root, is used as food by 

the inhabitants of Ceylon (eaten with milk), where 
the plant grows, with two other species. In the 
Southern provinces of India it is (the root) beat and 
afterwards soaked in cold water, which water, when 
drank, is supposed by the Vytians to have the effect 
of filling the small-pox, and preventing the confluent 

The aspar. sarmentosus is the schcedaveU kelungu 
of Rheede (Mai. x. p. 19.) ; " it sends out from the 
root many weak climbing branches, which rise five or 
six feet high; the shoots are armed with crooked 
spines j the leaves, which are solitary, linear -lanceo- 
late, are larger than in any of the rest of the genus; 
the flowers are small and pale, and are succeeded by 
red berries, which have generally three angular 

The species racemosus, Heyne tells us, in his His- 
torical Tracts on India (p, 29.)> has a buibouS root, 
which, according to the medical sastmm Kalpa&ia- 


num, is medicinal ; its Sanscrit name is wart; its Tel- 
lingoo one challa : this species is the shutamoolee of 
the Bengalese. I find five species of asparagus in 
the Hortus Bengalensis. 


TAMARAY KALUNG ^rrixKH^^e^yy*/© 
(Tam.) Lall-pudma (Beng.) Kungwelka gudda 
%& \&y£ (Duk.) UssulneelufirHindee <s jJ^Jiy^Lil^l 
(Arab. ) Beykhneelufir Hindee <s,yJJ> ji^LJ^ (Pers.) 
Yerra tamaray -gudda (Tel. ) Padmachari H<&\r*\\\ 
also Satapatra WFtt (Sans.) Lalkamal (Hind.), 
also Kamal y£ (Hind.), also Padam f Jy. (Hind.) 
Root of tJie Peltated Water-lily. 

Nelumbium Speciosum (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Succulentae. Prachtige Nelumbo (Nom. Triv, 

This is an esculent root, much sought after in 
many Eastern countries, such as China, Cochin- 
China, Persia, and India ; it is also supposed to pos- 
sess medicinal properties as a demulcent I believe 
the plant to be the Kua/to? Aiywnos of Hippocrates : 
it is the nymphasa nelumbo of Loureiro (Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 3 10.), who informs us, 
" Radix seminaque esculenta sunt, sapida et salu- 
bria : in re medica virtutem habent refrigirantem et 
roborantem." It is the tamara, also bem-tamara, of 
Rheede (Mai. ii. p. 61. t. 30.), and the taratti of 
Rumphius (Amb. vi. p. 168. t 73.). The best de* 


scription of the plant is supposed to be given by 
Loureiro, to which I refer the reader, as above-cited, 
merely here observing, that the root, which is the 
cay-sen of the Cochin-Chinese, is long, horizontal, 
creeping, and fleshy ; the leaves exactly peltate ; the 
petioles erect, and very straight; and the l&rgejlowers 
purple, Nymphaeas and nelumbiums were, till of 
late years, often confounded : Willdenow has placed 
them in distinct orders, Monogynia and Polygynia, 
and his arrangement was the result of botanical 
accuracy. The nelumbium speciosum is a native of 
Ceylon, and is there called -nelum in Cyngalese: it 
would appear that two varieties are found on that 
island, a white and a purple : in the Hortus Bengal- 
ensis three varieties are noticed, the third of which, 
of a crimson colour, is not an Indian plant, but was 
brought from China, where it is named hung-Un. 
The Chinese, as well as Japanese, hold this beautiful 
plant in great veneration ; the last-mentioned people, 
by Thunberg's account, consider the long stalks 
amongst their pot-herbs. Dr. F. Hamilton, while in 
Behar, had the petals brought to him as a medicine, 
and was informed that they were given in the form of 
powder, and in conjunction with a little sugar, in 
cases of dysuria (Hamilton's MSS.). 

Since writing the above I have read Dr. Roxburgh's 
description of the nelumbium speciosum, in his Flora 
Indica (MSS.), a description I regret I did not sooner 




G3)U> (Tam.), also Poonakapoondoo. Pindi Koonda 
(Tel.) Pindi f^rf^J (Sans.) Tranquebar Justicia. 

Justicia Tranquebariensis (Iin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Personate. Tranquebarische Justice (Nom. Triv. 


The juice of the small and somewhat fleshy leaves 
of this species of justicia is considered by the natives 
of India as cooling and aperient, and is prescribed for 
children in the small-pox, in doses of a table-spoonful 
or two twice daily; the bruised leaves are also applied 
to blows and other external injuries. The plant has 
a place amongst many others in the Hortus Bengal- 
ensis, and is common on the Coromandel coast. It 
has an herbaceous stem* with round leaves, which are 
broad-cordate ; the spikes are terminal and four- 
sided j the Jlowers solitary, in two rows on the fore- 
part of the spikes; and the anthers are calcarate 
(Flora Indica, vol. i. p. 131.). It would appear to 
have been first particularly observed by Koenig, near 
Tranquebar, and is, perhaps, the justicia parvifotia of 
Lamarck. In the Flora Peruviana of Ruiz I perceive 
a species of justicia, which he calls sericcea, considered 
in Peru as of great use in pleurisy. 



TAVATIKY (Tel.), also Tantichi (Tel.) 

Obnitrophe Serrata (Roxb.). 

CI. and Ord, Octandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Dumosae. Gesagter Vogelpfester (Nom. Triv, 

Tavatiky is the Tellingoo name of a plant common 
oh the Coromandel coast, the root of which, Dr. 
Roxburgh tells us (Cor. Plant, vol. i. t. 61.), is astrin- 
gent, and is used by the native practitioners of the 
Circars in diarrhoea; the berries, which are about 
the size of peas, are eaten by the natives. The tava- 
tiky is a small mountain tree; the leaves threeed; 
leaflets oval ; and Jlowers numerous and white. Of 
it, Willdenow observes, " O. foliis ternatis scabris, 
foliolis petiolatis ovatis acuminatis serratis, racemis 
simplicibus" (Spec. Plant vol. ii. p. 322.). The plant 
is the moodu-kobbw of the Cyngalese, and has a place, 
with two other species, cobbe and allophylus, in 
" Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants :" in the 
higher provinces of Hindoostan it is known by the 
name of rakhaUphul (Beng.), and has, with three 
other species, a place in the Hortus Bengalensis 
(p. 27.). The ornitrophe serrata may be found 
described by Dr. Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica 



TAYL-KODUGOO C^ovT0?Gw n "©»©(Tam.) 
TayUmunnie (TeL) EJc-scetiya (Cyng.) Hatee- 
shoora (Beng.) Benapatsja Rheede (Mai. x. p. 95. 
t. 48.) Siriari (Hind.) SrUhastirii Wl^Rtl^H 
(Sans.), also Bhurundl V$$3T3\ (Sans.) ifidtat 

Heliotropium Indicum (Lin,). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Asperifolise. Indischer Scorpionschwanz (Nora. Triv. 

The juice of the leaves of this plant, which is a 
little bitter, the native practitioners apply to painful 
gum-boils, and to repel pimples on the face ; it is also 
prescribed as an external application to that species 
of ophthalmia in which the tarsus is inflamed or ex- 

The plant is quite common in India, and is often 
found in out-of-the-way corners and amongst rubbish, 
where the soil is rich. It is an annual, having a dif- 
fuse, ramous stem; leaves generally alternate, petioled, 
cordate, wrinkled and curled at the margins j spikes 
leaf-opposed, solitary, peduncled, and longer than the 
leaves ; Jlowers sessile, minute, and in two rows on 
the upper side of the spikes ; corol longer than the 
calyx ; tube gibbous.* It, with three other species, 
have a place in " Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants." 
Five species of the genus are in the Hortus Bengal- 

* Flora Indica, vol.ii. p. 1. 


ensis (p. 13.). The heliotropium Indicum is also a 
native of Cochin-China, and of the West Indies : in 
the first-mentioned country the natives call it cay- 
boi-boi. Of its virtues, Loureiro says, " Folia istius 
herbae contusa maxime conducunt ad majores anthra- 
ces, vel, quando incipiunt, resolvendos, vel postea 
suppurandos " (Flor. Coch.-Chin. vol. L p. 103.). 
It is well described by Browne, in his History of Ja- 
maica (p. 150.), and I find Barham (p. 42.) tells us 
that it cleans and consolidates wounds and ulcers, 
and that boiled with castor-oil it relieves the pain 
from the sting of a scorpion, and cures the bite of a 
mad dog ! It would appear that four species of helio- 
tropium grow in Arabia Felix; but Forskal does 
not mention them as medicinal plants (Vide Flor. 
Egyptiaco-Arabica Descriptiones, p. 38.). 


TAYNGA UNNAY GmrK&rrQ^Gxx&nsvr 
(Tam.) Naril ha tail ^3 IT J^li (Duk.) Ten- 

kciia noonay (Tel.) Cocoa-nut Oil 

Cocos Nucifera (Lin.). 

This oil, which has been already slightly noticed 
at p. 78. vol. i., is used for culinary* purposes in 
some parts of the Indian peninsula, especially in 
Travancore, and is then prepared with great care by 
boiling the bruised kernels in water j on other oc- 
casions, it is obtained by expression. In the more 
northern tracts this oil is chiefly used for burning 

* Of what is got by simple expression, even in Cochin-China, 
Loureiro says, " In medicina oleum hujus palmae recenter ex- 
pressum ex fructu, non est inferius oleo olivarum." 


in lamps ; it is also employed to softeii tbe hair, and 
in the preparation of certain plaisters (kalimboo). 
The cocos nucifera is the jowz-hind *l* ^ of the 
Arabians, and the cay-dua of the Cochin-Chinese. 
The reader may find it well described in the Flora 
Cochin-Chin. (vol. ii. p. 506.), and all the uses of 
this most useful tree admirably detailed by Lou- 



TAYSHAVARUM Qs&rrvumsy (Tam.) Root 

qf the Piper Dichotomicm. 

Piper Dichotomum (Rottler.). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 

This is a jointed, warm, sub-aromatic root, found 
in the native druggist shops of Lower India j pre- 
scribed by the natives in fevers and in dyspeptic 
complaints, in infusion, in the quantity of half a 
tea-cupful twice daily. I find that several species 
of pepper are considered as medicinal at Java ; by 
Horsfield's account, the piper peltatum, gegombo 
(Jav.), the piper terrestre, katchur (Jav.), and the 
piper medium, wode (Jav.), are all considered amongst 
their stimulants. 

The piper dichotomum (Rottler) must not be con- 
founded with the piper methysticum of the Friendly 
Islands, the stem of which is dichotomous, and the 
root yields, in Otaheite, the intoxicating liquor called 
ava or kava. Of the p. dichotomum Rottler says, 
in his Herbarium (MS.) : " Caul, geniculate sul- 
cato, ramoso ; ram. dichotomis ; fol. cordato-ovat. ; 
septemnerviis, venosis." 



TELINI ^ (Hind.) TeUni Fly. 

Meloe Cichorei (Lin.). 

Mylabris Cichorei (Fabric. Spec. Insect i. 830.). 

Telini is the Hindoostanie name of a kind of fly, 
first brought to the notice of Europeans by General 
Hardwicke, and which, in the higher provinces of 
India, is found to be an excellent substitute for the 
Spanish fly 4 it abounds in Guzerat, Behar, and 
Oude, particularly in the rainy season, during which 
period, Dr. Fleming tells us, it is seen feeding on 
the flowers of cucurbitaceous plants, but more espe- 
cially, I understand, on that species of cucumis 
called in those districts turiey, also on the ram turiey 
(hibiscus esculentis). We are moreover informed by 
Dr. Fleming, that another species of meloe, which 
has got the scientific name of meloe trianthemce, from 
being frequently observed in fields overrun with the 
common plant, trianthema decandria* (Willd.), is 
now much used as a safe and efficacious epispastic in 
the medical hospitals of the upper provinces; its 
peculiar qualities appear to have been first discovered 
by Dr. Adam Burt, superintending surgeon of the 
Bengal establishment, in 1809, who noticed the fly 
in fields around Muttra ; it has since, however, 
been ascertained that it is frequently to be met with 
in every part of the Doab, and in tracts on the right 

* Called in Hindoostanie 1w^ u*f ( D » 8 copra), this name, 

however, is also bestowed on another species of trianthema com- 
mon in Upper India. 



banks of the Jumna. I cannot learn that this valu- 
able fly is ever seen in Lower India, where, however, 
several species of trianthema grow, and amongst 
which, perhaps, it might be found if carefully 
searched for. I have been informed, that the Ara- 
bians have some insect which they occasionally sub- 
stitute for the common cantharides, £*Jj± zarareekh 
(Arab.), but whether a meloe or cantharis I know 


The reader will find an interesting report on the 
meloe cichorei, by the late distinguished Dr. W. 
Hunter, in the fifth volume of the Asiatic Researches, 
(p. 216.). It may also, before concluding, be observed, 
that the meloe cichorei is mentioned in " Travels to 
Naples," by Charles Ulisse, by which it appears, that 
Dr. Manni, by experiments, found that forty-five 
grains of meloe and fifteen of euphorbium, fermented 
and mixed up with flour and vinegar, made an ex- 
cellent blistering plaister (As. Res. vol. 5. p. 423.). 

I perceive that Forskahl, in his Materia Medica 
Kahirina, speaks of a green cantharides, and tells us, 
that from its being brought to Egypt from India, 
it has also got the appellation of <s JJL* (^Ua, what it 
may be it is difficult to say. 


Tff^i_j^er (Tam.) Tenkaia chettoo putthie 
(Tel.) Cotton of the Cocoa-nut Tree. 

Cocos Nucifera (Lin.). 

This is a soft, downy, light-brown coloured sub- 
stance, found on the outside of the lower part of 


the branches of the cocoa-nut tree, where they 
spring from the stem, and are partially covered with 
what is called panaday, or coarse vegetable matting 
of the tree. The cocoa-nut cotton is used by the 
Indians for stopping blood, in cases of wounds, 
bruises, leech-bites, &c. ; for which purpose it is 
admirably fitted by its peculiar texture. Another 
produce of nearly the same nature, but softer, and 
of* a darker colour, is procured from between the 
trunk and the branches of the Palmyra tree, and is 
termed in Tamool pamamaruttoo punjie. 
would appear, that the gomutti palm (gomutus go- 
muto, Rumphius) yields a somewhat similar sub- 
stance, with which the natives of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago make a useful cordage (see vol. L p. 863. of 
this work, note at the bottom of the page). 


TENNANG KULLOO GscJorcrornv^ovTo^P 
(Tam.) Narillie JL,U (Duk.) NargiUe ^JL^U 

(Arab.) Tenkaia khuttoo. Cocoa-nut Toddy. 

Cocos Nucipera (Lin.). 

This sweet, aperient, and most delicious drink has 
been already noticed under article Toddy, in the 
first volume of this work, p. 451 . 

e e 2 



TETTAN COTTAY Gsr^5rn-nx<29>rn_cH)L_ 

(Tam.) Tettamperel (Malayalie)- Gtil binge ka 

phutttet tf *<i*i 3^. Tsillaghenzaloo (Tel.), also 

Induga (TeL) Chittu (Can.) NirmulU (Beng.) 

Strychnos tetankotta (Retz. Obs. ii. p. 18.)* Payah- 

pras&H ^:R*nf£, also Kataha ^tt (Sans.) 

Clearing Nut. 

Strychnos Potatorum (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat OnL 
Apotineae (Juss.). 

The fruit, though when very young it is made 
into a preserve and eaten, is reckoned, «in its mature 
state, amongst the Emetics* of the Tamool doctors 
of Southern India ; given, in powder, in the quan- 
tity of about half a tea-spoonful. The dried seeds 
are used for the purpose of clearing muddy water t: 
one of them being usually rubbed hard for a short 
time round the inside of the earthen pot, the water 
is afterwards poured into it, and left to settle ; the 
impurities soon subsiding, the water will be found 
clear, tasteless, and wholesome. They are (the 
seeds), as Roxburgh properly remarks, easier to be 
obtained than alum (which also has this clearing 
quality), and are probably less injurious to the con- 
stitution. The strychnos potatorum grows to be a 

* I am aware that Roxburgh says, that the pulp of the fruit 
is eaten by the natives ; and I do not wonder at his adding, that 
the taste of it to him was disagreeable ! 

f See Bartolomeo's Voyage to the East Indies, p. 400. 


larger tree than the species mix vomica,' and is riot 
near so common*; it has leaves opposite, from ovate 
to oval, smooth, pointed ; bark deeply cracked (see 
Kcenig's Supplementum Plahtarum of Linnaeus, 
p. 148.) ; the Jlowers are small, erect, fragrant, and 
of a greenish-yellow colour ; the seeds are not larger 
than a small marble, nearly round, and of a pale- 
brown colour. 

The strychnos potatorum is the ingitti of the 
Cingalese, and, with four other species, grows in 
Ceylon. Three species are noticed in the Hortiis 

Niebhur, in his Travels through' Arabia; informs 
us (vol. i. pp. 71, 72., English edition), that the in- 
habitants of Cairo in Egypt, render the muddy 
water of the Nile quite clear by rubbing bitter t 
almonds, prepared in a particular manner, on the 
inside of the earthen jars in which the water is 


TEVADARUM G^<ru^rrrriD (Tarn.), also 
Devadarum (Tarn.) Bewudar J$yj>$ (Duk.) also 
Semmanattymarum G^^>LO<5OTrgr^LOrr/XLD (Tam.) 
Dewadari (Tel.) Amara-buruhi (Sans.) Eryoth- 

roxylon Areolatum. 

Eryothroxylon Areolatum (Willd.). 

* Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 263. 

f Louzmur ^oj^J (bitter almond). The sweet almonds the 

Arabians call Je*j£* The first they reckon amongst their 
Deobstruents ; the second amongst their Provocatives. See the 
Materia Medica of Noureddeen Mohammed Abdulla Shirazy, 
article Almond. 

E E 3 


Q. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Malpighiae (Juss.). WeichstachUges Rothhoh (Nom. 
Triv. WiUd.). 

The young leaves and tender shoots of this fra- 
grant-smelling tree are supposed to be of a cooling 
nature ; and, when bruised and mixed with a certain 
portion of gingilie oil, form a kind of refreshing 
liniment for the head. The bark is also occasionally 
ordered, in infusion, as a tonic. The tree is a native 
of Malabar, where it is sometimes called by the 
English the ceder tree ; also red wood tree, from its 
colour; though the term red wood tree is, more 
properly applied to the shemmarum (swietenia febri- 
fuga). The tree, which is beautiful, but small, " has 
long, spreading, and somewhat rugged branches; 
leaves alternate, petioled, obovate; with Jfawers 
small and white, in alternate bundles, on short pe- 
duncles; the fruit is an oblong drupe, not unlike 
that of the barberry" (Swartz). The reader will 
find the tree described by Browne, in his History of 
Jamaica (p. 378. t. 38. f. 2.). It is a native of the 
West Indies, as well as of Malabar, and commonly, 
in the first-mentioned country, is called red wood, 
or iron wood. See Lunan's Hortus Jamaicensis, 
vol. ii. p. 115. 

I find two species of eryth. in Moon's Catalogue 
of Ceylon Plants, the monogyrwm and lucidum ; and 
but one, the monogynum, in the Hortus Ben- 



L-j-jfF(22)fF<Tiri22)cr (Tam.) Subzikebeenge isyx*. 
T&nJ (Duk.) Vepoodipatsa vittiloo (Tel.) Deban 
Shab V U ^La (Pers.) Kalee tvhee (Hind.) 
f ^u*4> Is ( Arab.) Manjtrika *|^1 |\ch (Sans.) £<?<?</ 
gf Me Sweet Basil. 

Ocimum Basilicum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Labiatae ( Juss.). Gemeines BasiUenkraut (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The small seeds of the ocymum basilicum, which 
is a very fragrant shrub, are considered by the 
Vytians as of a cooling and mucilaginous nature ; 
an infusion of them they consequently order as a 
remedy in gonorrhoea, heat of urine, and nephritic 
affections, in the dose of half a tea-cupful twice 
daily. The juice of the leaves is squeezed into the 
ear, in the ear-ache. The species ocymum pilosum 
(Roxb.) is common in Upper Hindoostan, where it 
is called in Arabic habak S\xs> 9 and in Persian 
raihan ^j^j and naz-boo y> jli ; its seeds, (^J^j^y»f 
are in their nature similar to those of the ocymum 
basilicum, but somewhat more aromatic, and are a 
favourite medicine, Dr. Fleming tells us, with the 
Hindoo women for relieving the after-pains of par- 
turition. The ocymum basilicum would appear to 
be the £^aL of Avicenna (146.), and of Serapio 
(c. 157.). Sweet basil is noticed by several of the 

£ £ 4 


ancient writers, such as Galen, Dioscorides, and 
Pliny, who say it is recommended in cases of scor- 
pion's stings, and for head-ache. The plant is com- 
mon in Persia*; and is the komang-gi of the Java- 
nese. It has an erect, round, fraticose stem, rising 
to about the height of three or four feet ; with leaves 
ovate and smooth ; calyxes ciliate ; and small white 
flowers. There are, however, several varieties of 
ocymum hasilicum, varying in shape, odour, and 
colour of the leaves. Our article is the swvanda-tala 
of the Cyngalese, and grows, with eight other 
species, on Ceylon : in Cochin-China it is cultivated 
in gardens, and is called by the natives rau-que ; 
they consider the leaves amongst their medicines; 
of them Loureiro says, " Attenuans, pellens, ex- 
titans f, et cephalica" (Flora Cochin-Chin, vol.ii. 
p. 370.). Eleven species have a place in the Hortus 
Bengalensis. The species tenuifiorum is. called by 
the Javanese lampes ; it, and the ocymum gratissi-. 
mum, which they term selasse, are amongst their 
mild aromatic stimulants. 


TIRROOGHUCALLIE; gpc]jig>gra>ovTovr^ 
(Tam,) Peetesqynd' : Sir.J*j(Duk.) Azfur zukkooen 
ff& -irti' ( Arab.) Tirrooghoo jemmoodoo (Tel.) 
Vajrattayia <*ssJrjU;3" (Sans.) Twisted Spurge. 

Euphorbia T/qrtilis (Rottler). 

in iioo! U8ht fr ° m ttat country t0 India ' by Sir John M* 1001 ". 

.J. V „u e h l u h * " Hi8toire Naturelle de» Medicamens," p. 176, 
«ay«, that it ha» emmenagogue qualities. 


CI. and, Ord. Dodecandria Trigynia. Nat Ord. 
Euphorbias (Juss.). 

The milky juice of this species of euphorbia, which 
has got its Taraool name from being, as it were, 
twisted and scolloped, is very similar in Hs appearance 
and nature to that of the euphorbium antiquorum, 
and is considered by the Vytians as a very drastic 
cathartic and deobstruent ; it is prescribed in small 
doses (about two gold fanams weight) in conjunction 
with palmyra jaggary : in its undiluted state it acts 
as a vesicatory, but when mixed with a certain por- 
tion of castor oil it forms a useful embrocation in 
cases of palsy and chronic rheumatism. This jungle 
plant* I have never seen ; Dr. Rottler tells me, that 
it differs chiefly from the euphorbia antiquorum in 
the shape of its branches, which, in place of being 
three-sided and distinct, are contorted and undulating; 
they are of a green colour, and contain much more 
milky juice. The kalli (Tarn.), or milk-hedge, which 
is the euphorbia tirucalli (Lin.), is also used as a vesi- 
catory : this plant is the kayoo-oorb of the Javanese, 
who, according to Horsfield's account, reckon it 
amongst their most valuable medicines, applied ex- 
ternally in cases of herpes ; they also employ it as a 
cathartic. The root, as appears by the Hortus Mala- 
baricus (8. t. 44.), is given in decoction for the belly, 
ache, in which work Rheede moreover informs us, 
that the milk of the plant is considered as a purga- 
tive, and to have virtues similar to the shadraij-kullie 
(euphorbium antiquorum). I find the euph. tirucalli 
is noticed by Virey in his " Histoire Naturelle des 

* Quaere, whether the tirrooghucallie may not be a variety of 
the quol -quail of the Abyssinians, with the description of which 
it agrees, in some respects. See Bruce's Travels, vol. v., Appen- 
dix, p. 41. 


Medicamens" (p. 299.)> under the French name eu^ 
phorbes antiveneriennes ; he says it cures the venereal 
disease, and is at the same time emetic and purgative: 
it is the gas-nawahandi of the Cingalese, the cay-san- 
ho-xanh of the Cochin-Chinese, and the lunka-shu of 
the Bengalese. Rumphius gives a particular account 
of it under the appellation of ossifraga lactea ( Am- 
boina, vii. p. 62. t. 29.)- 


TOOLASEE VAYR s ^ovt^Q^j& (Tam.) 

Toolsikejurr ^» f^^Xs (Duk.) Root of the Purple- 

stalked Basil. 

Ocimum Sanctum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat 
Ord. Labiatae (Juss.). Heitiges Basilienkraut (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.). 

This root the Tamool practitioners are occasionally 
in the habit of prescribing in fevers in the form of 
decoction, in the quantity of half a tea-cupful twice 
daily. Like that of the cunjam koray (ocimum 
album), the juice of the leaves of the tolasee is recom- 
mended to be given internally in catarrhal affections. 
The plant is, in the upper provinces, known by the 
Hindoostanie and Bengalie name of kala toolsee ; its 
Sanscrit appellation is arjaka, also parnasa; it is the 
nalla-tirtava (Rheede), Mai. x. t* 85. The hairy 
stem of this species of ocimum seldom rises higher 
than a foot and a half; with somewhat oblong, bluntish 
serrate waved leaves; the petioles are rough-haired, 
and of a dark-purple colour ; corolla bright-purple, 
scarcely longer than the calyx (Willd. Spec. Plant. 


vol. iii. p. 162.). It is a native of India. In the 
Eastern islands it is called sulasi in Malay, and is, by 
Crawford's account, cultivated with care for the pur- 
pose of strewing on graves. The plant is described 
by Roxburgh, in his Flor. Indica (MSS.), where he 
tells us it is considered by the Brahmins as sacred to 


TOODAVULLAY s/rBr^o^-ffi/ovr (Tam.) 
Moondlamoosteh (Tel.) Alarka >4{^^ (Sans.) 
Three-lobed Nightshade. 

Solanum Trilobatum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Luridae. Dreylappiger NachitshaUen (Nom. Triv. 

The root, leaves, and tender shoots of this creeper, 
are all used in medicine by the Tamools ; the two 
first, which are bitter, are occasionally prescribed in 
consumptive cases in the form of electuary, decoc- 
tion, or powder ; of the electuary a tea-spoonful and 
a half are given twice daily. The stem is prickly, 
shrubby; leaves wedge-form, angular, subtrilobate, 
obtuse-smooth ; Jlowers large, violet-coloured, ra- 
cemed ; berries small, like those of the elder (Lin,), 
also Willd. (Spec. Plant vol. i. p. 1049.) 

This species of solanum is the wceLtib-batu of the 
Cyngalese, and may be found described by Biirman 
(Ind. t. *2. s. 2.). The Tellingoos of the Northern 
Circars call it oochinta-kura. Roxburgh notices it in 
his Flora Indica (vol. ii. p. 253.), and gives a descrip- 
tion of the plant somewhat different from the above, 


which the reader rtiay perceive by turning to the vo- 
lume and page just mentioned. The leaves of the 
plant are eaten by the Hindoos. 

The plant is described by Roxburgh in his Flor. 
Indica (MSS.), as shrubby and scandent, with 
scattered, petioled, sub-ovate leaves, large, purple, 
blue flowers j and berries resembling red currants. 


TOOMUTTIKAI e&'LrQ*i--i_e.roe*n-Lu (Tarn.) 
Boddama kaia (Tel.) Fruit of the Callous-leaved 

Bryonia* Callosa (Rottler). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 

The small bitter seeds of this fruit are sometimes 
prescribed by the native practitioners in worm cases, 
in conjunction with castor oil; they are also em- 
ployed by the farriers in some of the diseases of 
horses. A fixed oil is prepared from the seeds by 
boiling, which the poor use for burning in their 
lamps. The plant is a creeper, spreading wide, with 
small yellow flowers, and leaves of a rather fetid 
odour; but let us give Dr. Rottler's own words, 
kindly furnished me by Sir Alexander Johnston, and 
taken from a manuscript copy of Dr. R.'s Herbarium: 

* Of the species bryonia dioica much has been said by many 
medical writers, at different times. Virey, in his Histoire Na- 
turelle des Medicamens, has these words : " Racme Ipaisse, 
blanche ; odeur nauseuse ; purge violemment par haut et bas, 
est splenique, hdpatique, et les secousses qu'elle produit dissipent 
les obstructions et l'hydropisie" (p. 305.). 


"Caul, filiform; sulcat; caliis setosis scaberfiroo ; JbL 
large petioiat; cordatj 3-5 lobat, rotundat, dentat, 
callos. scahris subtus venos. venis hispidis; baccte 
globos, magnis, glabris." 


TOON MARUM be/t^ldo- (Tam.) Tunda 
(Can.) Toon, also Tood (Beng.) Tunna rffix 
(Sans.) Toon Tree. 

Cedrela Toon a (Roxb.)- 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Meliae (JTuss.). 

The cedrela foona is described by Roxburgh at 
great length, in the second volume of the Flora 
Indica (p. 423.). It is a beautiful, large timber 
tree, common in Bengal ; the trunk is erect j bark 
smooth and grey ; branches numerous, and forming 
a large shady head ; leaves alternate, abruptly pin- 
nate, drooping, from twelve to eighteen inches long ; 
jftowers very numerous, small, white, and smelling 
like honey. The bark is powerfully astringent, and, 
though not bitter, is reckoned a very good substitute 
for Peruvian bark, particularly when joined with a 
small portion of the powdered seed of the cesalpinia 
bonducellq, which is the kutkulegi of the Bengalese, 
and is most powerfully bitter. We shall say more of 
the cedrela toona in another part of this work* 
There are but two other species of the genus, the 
c. villosa (Roxb.), and the cedrela odorata, a native 
of South America ; the last is nearly allied to the 
cedrela rosmarinus of Loureiro (called by the Chi- 


nese ti-phu-pi), and of which he says, " Virtus pne- 
8ertim foliorum, et florum cephalica, nervina, de- 
obstruens j valet contra catarrhum" (Flor. Cochin- 
Chinensis, vol. i. p. 160.). 


TUNG-GULUNG (Javanese)- Tungulung. 

Amyris Protium (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Terebentaceae. Ostindischer Balsamstrauch (Norn. 
Triv. Willd.). 

The shells of the fruit of this species of amyris 
yield an aromatic essential oil, which is useful, 
Roxburgh tells us, at Java, as a substitute for tur- 
pentine and other stimulating oils. The tree is the 
protium Javanicum of Burman (Ind. 88.), and the 
tungultmg of Rumphius (Amb. vii. p. 54,). It is a 
perennial plant, a native of several of the Eastern 
islands, having opposite, pinnate, leaves ; leaflets 
smooth, petiolate, resembling those of the laurel ; 
panicle manifold ; and a nectary from a marginated 
receptacle, surrounding the germ, within the stamens 
(Spec. Plant Willd vol. ii. p. 387.). I find two 
species of amyris are natives of Ceylon, the Zeylan- 
tea (waeta-hik-gaha) and agallocha (gugul.). Nine 
species have a place in the Hortus Bengalensis, 
amongst which our article is not The species am- 
brosiaca is a native of Cochin-China, and is there 
called to-hap-binh-khang. The whole tree is sweet- 
scented; the trunk, on being wounded, yields a 
balsam, useful in dysentery ; the dose about a drachm 


in red wine. The tree would appear also to grow 
in the woods of Guiana ; the Caribbee name of it 
is arouaou ; the French call it arbre de Pencens. 


TOOR A ELLEY s/rcr/ruite/o\3 (Tarn.) Chat/n~ 
tdrashiakoo (Tel.) Goom +£ (Pers.) Grtshmqja 
*%V»\*S\\ (Sans.) Leaf qf the Pharnaceum Mollugo, 
or Bed-straw-like Mottugo. 

Pharnaceum Mollugo (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Caryophyllei. Welches Pharnaceum (Nom. Triv. 

The leaves of the phar. mollugo are bitter, but 
not unpleasant to the taste, and are justly held in 
estimation by the native practitioners, who consider 
them as stomachic, aperient, and antiseptic, and 
prescribe them accordingly j an infusion is given in 
the quantity of half a tea-cupful, twice daily ; they 
are especially supposed to be indicated in suppres- 
sions of the lochia, and are also, when applied warm 
and moistened with a little castor* oil, reckoned a 
good application for the ear-ache. 

The plant has an herbaceous, procumbent dicho- 
tomous, jointed, round stem ; and leaves in whorls, 
four or five, unequal in size, somewhat fleshy, rugged 
at the edge, and elliptic-lanceolate.* It is a native of 
India, as well of Ceylon and Cochin-China j the 
Cyngalese call it, heen-tettka-pala ; and it may be 

* Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1508. 


found described by Burraan (Zeylon. t. 7-)> rf8 ° ift 
the Hort Malab. m. 10- t 24., where it gets the 
appellation of kalpa-tejera. In the higher provinces 
of India it has got the Hindoostanie and Bengalese 
name of gima. Loureiro tells us, that the Cochin- 
Chinese, who name it co-dang, believe the herb to 
have refrigerant properties. Two species of phar. 
have a place in the Hortus Beng. ; three grow in 


TOTAL VADIEC&n-L_L.rravc5\j-rL-u.(Tam.) 
Moonooghoo tamara (Tel.) SamanggS ^T*PIT 
(Sans.) Humble Plant. 

Mimosa Pudica (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 
Leguminosae (Juss.). Gemeine Sirmpfhanze (Nom. 

Triv. Willd.). 

A decoction of the root of this plant is considered 
on the Malabar coast, to be useful in gravellish com- 
plaints. The Vytians of the Coromandel side of 
India prescribe the leaves and root in cases of piles 
and fistula : the first are given in powder, in a little 
milk, to the quantity of two pagodas weight or more, 
during the day. 

The total vadie (Tarn.), is a low-growing prickly 
plant, with a hispid stem; leaves subdigitate and 
pinnate ; root composed of many hairy fibres, which 
mat close together ; legume oblong and compressed ; 
seeds solitary, rounded, lens-shaped, and shining. See 
Spec. Plant Willd. (vol. iv. p. 1031. ), also Miller's 


Dictionary, in which we are informed, that Parkinson 
gave this species of mimosa the name of mimic sen- 
sitive plant j it is a native of Brazil, as well as of 
India, and appears to be the daun-tocoLmanusia of 
Rumphius ; it grows on Ceylon, where it is named 
VDcel-nidi-kumba by the Cyngalese. 

No less than thirty-seven species of mimosa are 
noticed by Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica (manu- 
script copy). 


TOYAP1PPALI d^ftj^M) (Sans.) PippaU 
yang (Hind.) Poplar-lewoed Croton, or Talloxv-tree. 

Croton Sebiferum (Lin.), 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monodelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Euphorbias (Juss.). 

I find this noticed in Dr. F. Hamilton's MSS., and 
appears to have been a medicine brought to him 
while in Behar j where he learnt, that the native 
practitioners of that district were in the habit of 
preparing with the dry and fresh plant and mustard- 
seed oil a decoction, with which those are rubbed 
who suffer from nocturnal fever. Previous to seeing 
this plant mentioned by authority so unquestionable, 
I was not aware that the croton sebiferum grew in 
India. Abel * met with it in China, called by the 
Chinese ya-ricou. It is a large beautiful tree ; the 
leaves, which are rhomb-ovate, acuminate, flat, and 
smooth, are said to dye a fine black.t The famous 

* See vol. i. p. 424?. of his work. 

f See Du Halde, also Grcsicr, p. 438., English edition. 



vegetable tallow is obtained from the kernels by ex- 
pression, and which by boiling becomes as hard as 


TRIANGGULI (Hind.) Bin-mw (Cyng.J 
TryangguU 94JJjlc4 (Sans.) Three-hbed Kidney- 

Phaseolus Trilobus (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. 

This plant was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton in 
Bahar, where he was informed by the Viftums of 
that district, that the fresh herb was given in de- 
coction in cases of irregular fever. 


TRINPALI (Hind.) Palanggini M^P l Pl 

Manisuris Granularis (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Triandria Digyiria. Nat. Ord. 

This is a plant which was brought to Dr. F. Ha- 

ion while in Behar, where it was considered as 

$cinal, and prescribed internally in conjunction 

■ , a little sweet-oil, in cases of enlarged spleen 

(liver (MSS.> 

ie m. granularis may be found described by 

burgh, in the first volume of his Flora Indies, 

2. It rises to about the height of two feet, 

a ramous, sub-erect, hairy culm ; spikes fas- 


cicled ; leaves numerous, very hairy, stiff, and sharp ; 
rachis jointed and much waved ; flowers from four to 
ten of each sort, male and hermaphrodite. Willde- 
now places this plant in his class and order Polyga- 
mia Monoecia ; it is described by Swartz, Prod. 25. 
and in the Flor. Ind. Occident, i. p. 186. ; to it 
Willdenow has given the trivial German name of 
rtmdkornigesfadengras. There are yet known but 
two species of the genus, our article and the mani- 
surus myurtis, for which, see Roxburgh's Flora 
Indica (manuscript copy). 


TRIPUNGKHI <Hind.) Tripakshi Rjl|f^i 


Coldenia Procumbens (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Tetragynia. Nat Ord. 

Asperifoliae. Liegende Coldenie (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This is a plant which was brought to Dr. F. Ha- 
milton in Behar, as one of the many which are used 
in medicine in that province ; equal parts of the dry 
plant and fenugreek seeds rubbed to a fine powder, 
and applied warm to boils, quickly brings them to 

The coldenia procumbens, and it is the only spe- 
cies of its. genus, has a place both in the Hortus 
Bengalensis, and Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, 
but in neither of them is there affixed any native 
name. It is a small annual, spreading flat on the 
ground, common on dry rice grounds * j the leaves 
are alternate, short, and sessile, deeply crenate, and 

* Flora Indica, vol- i. p. 466. 
F P 2 

456 MATERIA 1NDICA. * A *T XI - 

of a glaucous appearance; corolla a pale blue, and very 
small ; fruit composed of four cells, and wrapped 
up in the calyx, with a single seed in each cell 


t^(Tam.) Koondorie ggjjtf (Duk .) Donda (Tel.) 
Jlvaka 3ft3Pft also Vimba f^, also Patuparrd 
Tj^Tjtftf (Sans.) Large flowered Bryony- 

° Brtonia * Grandis (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Syngynesia. Nat. Ord. 


This plant was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton while 
in Behar, where he learnt, from the Hindoo doctors 
of that district, that the juice of the leaves was sue- 
cessfully applied to the bites of all animals, which 
are apt to be succeeded by a sore difficult to heaL 

It is " a large, smooth, climbing shrub, with 
leaves cordate, angular, smoothish, glandular at the 
base underneath j tendrils simple; ihejlowers are 
large, white, androgynous, lateral, on one-flowered 
peduncles ; berry roundish, smooth, red, five-celled ; 
seeds few, oblong, obtuse" (Loureiro). The plant 
is common in India, and is also a native of Cochin- 
China and Ceylon ; in the first-mentioned country 
it is called deom-a-nguchia 9 in the last ken-lccekiri ; I 
find it with five other species in Moon's Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants. Four species have a place in theHortus 

* Five species of bryonia are described by Roxburgh, in the 
manuscript copy of the Flora Indica. 



Bengalensis, but our article is none of them. The 
reader may find it in Rumphius (Amb. v. p. 448. 
t. 166. f. i.), under the name of vitis alba Indica. 


TSIERU. KIRGANELI (Hort. Mai. x. p. viii. 
t. 16.) Herba Mosroris Rubra (Rumph.) Bin-nelli 
(Cyng.) Diuretic Phyllanthus. 

Phyllanthus Urinaria (Willd.). 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monodelphia. Nat. Ord. 

This an herbaceous annual, seldom rising higher 
than a loot; leaves many-paired j leaflets ovate-lan- 
ceolate; Jlowers heaped, axillary, sessile; stamens 
three; styles three, bifid; capsule, three-cornered, 
three-valved, and three-grained ; the whole plant is 
milky, the stem, leaves, and calyx reddish (Loureiro). 
It has got its name from- its supposed diuretic qua- 
lities, allowed both in Malabar and Cochin- China ; 
in the last-mentioned country it is called co-sua, and 
also reckoned emmenagogue (Flor. Coch. Chin, 
vol. ii. p. 554.). 



DAY (Tam.) Cay lieodo (Coch. Chin.) Notched* 
leaved Exccecaria. 

Excgecaria Cochin-Chinensis (Lour, and Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Triandria. Nat. Ord. Tri- 

f f 3 • 


A decoction of the leaves of this tree is occasion- 
ally given by the Hindoo doctors in epilepsy, in the 
quantity of a quarter of a tea-cupful, twice daily j 
the leaves in their fresh state are said to possess a 
considerable degree of acrimony. 

The tillay cheddie is a native of Cochin-China as 
well as of India and China ; in which last-mentioned 
country it would seem to be chiefly cultivated, by 
Loureiro's account, « propter foliorum rubrorum pul- 
chritudinem ;" and is called cay-lieodo. It is a shrub 
having an arborous stem, rising to about eight feet 
high, with lanceolate, slightly serrated leaves, the 
female Jlowers with three, long, awl-shaped, reflex 
stigmas, a red, three-lobed fleshy capsule, and ovate 
seeds, smooth and even.* Loureiro observes, that 
the whole plant possesses an agglutinating astringent 
quality. The excoecaria agallocha is frequently 
found in the Southern tracts of the Peninsula, and 
on Ceylon about Pantura, where it is termed tela* 
Jceeriya (See Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, 
p. 68.) ; a name so similar to that of our article, that 
I am lead to suspect, there may be some mistake ; 
though, it must be remarked, that no one has yet 
noticed any medicinal properties in the excoecaria 
agallochum ; whatever may be the virtues of the 
aloexylumt agallochum, or aloes- wood, this much we 
may add, that Loureiro says, in speaking of the ex- 
coecaria Cochin-Chinensis, "nee agallochum, quam- 
vis spurium, in ilia inveniri" (Lin.). See article 

Wood, Aloes, vol. i. p. 479. of this Work, 

* Flora Cochin-Chinens. vol.ii. p. 61 2. 

\ See article Wood, Aloes, vol. i. p. 479» of this work. 



crou^) (Hort. Mai.) Small-leaved Epidendrum* 

Epidendrum Tekuifolium (Lin.). 

CJ. and Ord. Gynandria Monandria. Nat Ord. 

Rheede, in speaking of this parasitical plant, with 
its leaves on the stem subulate and channelled, 
says, that the powder of it, mixed with vinegar, is 
supposed, on the Malabar coast, to have the power 
of removing mucus from the bladder and kidneys ; 
of relieving heat of urine and gonorrhoea ; and of 
moderating an overflow of the menstrual discharge. 
See Hort. Mai. xii. t. 5. 

I find but one species of epidendrum in Moon's 
Catalogue of Ceylon Plants. The epid. amabile, 
which is noticed by Rumphius (Amb. vi. t. 43.), 
and none in the Hort Bengalensis j two are men* 
tioned by Loureiro as Cochin-Chinese plants, but 
they are not medicinal. I perceive, that no fewer 
than fifty-one species of this genus are to be found 
in Jamaica ; but one of which, the claviculattim, is 
medicinal ; and, according to the authority of Dr. 
Drummond, is a powerful vermifuge, in doses of a 
table-spoonful of the juice ; he also states, that it is 
useful in dropsical affections. See Hort. Jamaicensis 

vol. i. p. 839. 

The . species vanilla, which has lately been trans- 
ferred to a distinct genus, vanilla aromatica (Willde- 
ilow, Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 121.), is a native of 

f f 4 


Ceylon, and is called by the Cyngalese hin-niLwcella ; 
but I do not know whether the fruit is there gathered 
and prepared as it is in South America, where it is 
considered, by medical men, to be a grateful sto- 
machic. As an ingredient for giving a pleasant 
flavour to chocolate, it would seem that vanilla is 
only used in England. 

We are told by Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica 
(MSS.), that the species tessellatum is a very beau- 
tiful parasitic perennial, common amongst the Circar 
mountains ; it has this peculiarity, that it continues 
to grow, after having been hung up in a room. 


TSJERROO UREN ePouj/n** (Hort. Mai.) 
also Chirupuram (Tam.) HinguLkura (Cyng.) Red 

Melochia Corchorifolia (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Pentandria. Nat Ord. 
Malvacceae (Juss.). Cortchorus Blattrige Melochie 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The whole of this plant (with the exception of 
the root), boiled in oil, is supposed, on the Malabar 
coast, to be an efficacious remedy for preventing the 
bad consequences from the bite of water-snakes 
(Hort. Mai. ix. p. 143. t> 73.). It is an annual, 
having rugged, red-like branches; and Jlowers in 
sessile heads ; capsules roundish ; and leaves sub- 
cordate sublobate (Flor. Zeyl. 246.). In Willdenow 
(Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 604,), I moreover find, 
" Flores capitate, sessiles, terminates j coroike dilute 


purpurascentes fundo flavo." The m. corchorifolia 
is a native also of Ceylon, called by the Cyngalese 
keen-gal-koora j in Moon's Catalogue I find two 
other species. Our article is named by the Benga- 
lese tikuopra ; it is the only species noticed in the 
Hortus Bengalensis. Amongst the Cochin-Chinese 
it is considered as a medicinal plant; they have 
given it the appellation of cay-bay-giei, and order it 
in cases requiring emollients. See Flor. Coch.-Chin. 
vol. ii. 407. 


Q\-jrr\ q (Malealie) or Chivan amelpodi (Tam.) 
Chota Chand oJU l5y^ (Hind.) Ratu-eka-xveriya 
(Cyng.) Chandra (Beng.) Patalganm (Tel.) Chan- 
drika ^Tr?^\T (Sans.) Ophioxylon of Serpents. 

Ophioxylon Serpentinum (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

Tsjovanna amelpodi is the name given, on the 
Malabar coast (Rheede Mai. vi. 81. t. 47.), to a 
plant, the bitter root of which is supposed to have 
sovereign virtues in cases of snake bites and scorpion 
stings ; it is ordered, in decoction, to the extent of 
a pint in twenty-four hours, and the powder is ap- 
plied, externally, to the injured part 

The reader may find the ophioxylon serpentinum 
admirably described by Roxburgh, in fiis Flora 
Indica, vol. ii* p. 530. We are there told, that it is 
a native of the Circar mountains ; the stem is woody 


erect, climbing or twining; the bark ash coloured; 
leaves three, four, or fivefold, short petioled, oblong, 
pointed, waving, entire, nearly five inches long and 
two broad; stipules none ; fascicles axillary; peduncles 
long, smooth, and round. The hermaphrodite flowers 
are well described in the Genera Plantariura, except 
that the corolla is always contracted. The berry is 
two-lobed, shining, and black; seed solitary and 
somewhat trapeziform. The same author adds, that 
it is used by the Tellingoos as a febrifuge, also for 
the bites of poisonous animals, and to promote de- 
livery in tedious cases. The plant is the radix mus- 
tela of Rumphius (Amb. vii. 29. t 16.). I have 
mentioned, under the head of Mendi (ophiorhiza 
mungos), that that plant had often been confounded 
with the one now under consideration, but that they 
are altogether distinct. Horsfield observes, that the 
ophior. mungos is nearly insipid and inert, while the 
ophioxylon serpentinum may prove a valuable acqui- 
sition to medicine. The Javanese class it amongst 
their Anthelmintics, and give it the name of puli 
pandak. It may be found noticed both by Burman 
in his Thesaur. Zeylan. (t 64.), and Garcias (Ab. 
Hort Hist. Oromat.) ; the latter recommends it as 
stomachic. Rumphius speaks of it as an antidote to 
poisons ; and Bontius, in his Hist Mat Med, InA, 
tells us, that it cures fever. It would appear that 
pulan and krodukras are Javanese names for two 
other species of ophioxylon. Our article is growing 
on Ceylon, about Caltura ; and has a place in the 
Hortus Bengalensis (p. 19.). It does not appear to 
be known on the Malayan peninsula, or in Cochin- 

The ophioxylon serpentinum is certainly one of 
those plants which have got the greatest repute for 


the bites of poisonous snakes. I cannot myself say 
that I have had any experience of its use on such 
occasions, having invariably, trusted to the promp 
administration of Madeira wine, and generally with 
success ; one bottle, given at two different draughts, 
with the intermission of but a few minutes between 
them, saved a young man bitten by a coverkapeL In 
the excellent Transactions of the Medical Society of 
Bengal, vol. i. p. ££., is a well-detailed case of a per- 
son having been bitten by the very poisonous snake 
called siah chanda, also amaitra, and who was cured 
by Mr. Breton's giving him the caustic volatile 
alkali (aqua ammonias caustics, Dub.), in doses of 
fifteen drops, frequently repeated. I have known 
the volatile alkali to fail in the bites of the cover- 
kapeL Madeira wine is a more quick, generous, and 
diffusible stimulus, and appears to avert death by 
giving tone, for a time, to the heart and arteries, till 
the sinking influence of the poison shall have passed 


TSHOMORRO (Javanese). Kasagaha (Cyng.) 

Tinian Pine, or Horse-tail Casuarina. 

Casuarina Equisitifolia (Lin.). 

CI. and Orel* Monoecia Monandria. Nat. Ord. 
Coniferse. Indischer StreitkolbenbaUm (Nom. Triv. 


The Javanese medical men, according to Horsfield, 
in his account of the Medicinal Plants of Java, con- 
sider the bark of the tshomorro amongst their mild 
astringents. The tree is very lofty and beautiful, and 


may be found described by Rumphius (iii. t. 57.), 
under the name of c. littorea. The leaves, if they 
may be so called, or rather branchlets, hang down in 
bunches from twelve to eighteen inches in length, like 
a horse's tail, a peculiarity which sometimes gets the 
tree the name of the horse-tail casuarina (Smith). It 
would appear to be a native of the islands of the 
Pacific Ocean, as well as of Java and the East Indies. 
It grows on Ceylon, and may also be seen in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta, whither it was brought 
by Colonel Paterson from the South-sea islands ; five 
other species of this genus have a place in the Hortus 
Bengalensis (See work, p. 66.). 


TURKOLUM ararGe^vLO (Tarn, and TeL) 
also Takkelam (Tarn,) Jamoun ke dimdi our tockem 

f*> j£ <£*** J qj>-°W- (Duk.) Turkolum (Sans.) 

Jambolana tree. 

Calyptranthes Jambolana? 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Hesperideae. Ausgerandete Deckebnyrte (Nom. 
Triv. WiEd.). 

Turkolum is the Tamool name of certain small, 
dried, pleasant-tasted flowers and capsules,, found in 
the medicine bazars of Lower India, and which the 
Vytians consider as cooling and sudorific, and pre- 
scribe them accordingly. Dr. Rottler believed that 
they were obtained from the calyptranthes jambolana, 
but was not altogether certain. This is a middle- 
sized tree, with spreading branches, the smaller ones 
brachiate ; leaves opposite, ovate- em arginate j Jlowers 



terminating j fruit ovate-oblong, about the size of an 
orange, dark-coloured, sweetish, esculent Loureiro 
notices the species under the scientific appellation of 
jambolifera odorata j it is the rau-ton of the Cochin- 
Chinese, who often mix the pleasant-tasted leaves 
with salad (See Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 231.). 
The calyptranthes jambolona may be found described 
by Rumphius under the name jambolana (Amb. i. 
t. 42.). It is, moreover, a native of Ceylon, and 
called by the Cyngalese alu-bo-daru 


TYRE &uS& (Tarn.) Bhyn ^ (Duk.) P<?- 
rooghoo (Tel.) Dadhi <^fV (Sans.). 

I have already noticed this article at pages €20 
and 460 of the first volume of this work. It is inva- 
riably ordered as a diet by the Mahometan medical 
men for such as have the body heated 'from the irri- 
tation of an over-secreted and acrid bile. 


TURYAK ABIZ ^1 JV (Arab.). 

This is the name of a root which I find mentioned 
by Forskal, in his Materia Medica Kahirina, as pos- 
sessing alterative and antirheumatic qualities, but it 
does not appear that it has as yet been ascertained 
what it is. I merely notice it here to add a hope 
that it. may soon be more particularly inquired after. 



VAIVELUNGHUM <^rrLU<5^cvrr^B>u> (Tarn, 
and Tel.) Baibarung &j*g\a (Duk.) Vahmgka 

This is a small, round, brown seed, about the size 
of black pepper, and which, in its dry state, appears 
to have but little sensible taste or smell. The pow- 
der of it, in conjunction with certain aromatics, is 
prescribed as a gentle restrainer in flux cases. I have 
not been able to ascertain from what plant it is ob- 



This bark, as it appears in the bazars of Lower 
India, is somewhat warm to the taste, and in a slight 
degree acrid ; the powder of it, in conjunction with 
gingilie oil, is occasionally used as a stimulating ap- 
plication in rheumatic affections. Plant unknown to 



VALULUVY-ARISEE <*jn-cia/oiCRS»4rr>#» 
(Tam.) Mai kunghinie J^sS JU (Duk.) Bavunjic 
(Tel.) Bacochie (Sans.) Valuluvy seed. 

This very bitter and brownish seed is prescribed, 
in conjunction with other ingredients, in cases requir- 
ing stomachics, and in those diarrhoeas that are sup- 
posed to arise from want of tone in the abdominal 
viscera. I have never seen the plant. 


VALUMBIRIKAI o\-»3>cLDL-Srr^^rrLu(Tam.) 
Merawrie <$jy}*> (Hind.) Valumbrikaca (Tel.) 
Avurtunme (Sans.) Capsule qf the great-fhuted 
Scretv-tree, or Hazel-leaved Helecteres. 

Helictebes Isora (Lin.). 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Dodecandria. Nat. 
Ord. Colomniferae. Haselnussblattriger Schrauben- 
baum (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

This is a singular-looking contorted capsule, con- 
sisting of five fibres closely twisted together, in the 
form of a screw. It is of various lengths, from one 
inch to two and a half. The Vytians prepare a lini- 
ment with the powder of" it, which is supposed to be 
a valuable application, in cases of offensive sores inside 
of the ears ; it is usually mixed with a good portion 


of castor-oil. The plant is the isora murri of Rheed. 
(Mai. vi. p. 55. t. 30.), it is the Jructus regis (Rumph. 
Amb.vii. p. 32.), and is somewhat differently de- 
scribed by Jaquin and Brown * (Jam. 330.). The 
first tells us, that it is a small upright tree about 
twelve feet high, with leaves alternate, petioled, 
acute; peduncles many-flowered and terminating; 
calyx subcampanulate, unequally five-toothed ; petals 
white, obtuse, reflex ; capsules twisted spirally into 
an ovate fruit; seeds angular, 6vate. The Helec- 
teres isora is the liniya-gaha of the Cyngalese, and 
has a place in the Hortus Bengalensis ; it is a native 
of Jamaica as well as Malabar, and Sloane speaks of 
the juice of the root having virtues in empyema and 
stomach affections. The leaves, in Jamaica, are em- 
ployed for making decoctions for glysters. »See 
Hortus Jamaicensis. 

VALLE-KARA cYja/roaresrrrAo (Hort. Mai.). 

This is the Malealie name of a tree, which grows 
on the Malabar coast near Cochin ; the seed of 
which, boiled with saffron and oil, Rheede informs 
us, is said to be an efficacious remedy for preventing 
fatal consequences from the bite of a mad dog, pro- 
vided it is timely administered (Hort. Mai. partix. 
p. 143.). 


* Also by Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica (MSS.), who tells us, 
that the plant is called ky-iuaUah-nara by the Malabars of Wynad, 
and that the strong fibres of the bark of the twigs are employed 
for making cordage and twine. 



VARAPOOLA VAYR cru/^LJLjjowrGcru'f- 
(Tarn.) Saffaid Muhammad «x**»* <\Ju» (Duk.) Tefia 
Poolugoodu vayroo (Tellingoo). &W£fa cambqjl 

*%rI^F^t3ft (Sans.) itoo/ g/* /Ae Fluggea Leu- 

Fluggea Leucopyrus (Willd.) ? 

This is a pleasant-tasted root, found occasionally 
in the medicine bazars of Lower India* and which 
the Vytians rank amongst their mild astringents j the 
small round whitish-coloured fruit is a little bitter to 
the taste, and is eaten by the poor. I have never 
seen the plant, but give the botanical appellation on 
the authority of Dr. Rottler j the dose of the pow- 
dered root is said to be about a pagoda weight given 
twice daily. 

The plant is of the CI. and Ord. Dicecia Pentan- 
dria, Nat. Ord. Tricoccae, and would appear to have 
been first particularly noticed by Dr. Klein of Tran- 
quebar, who transmitted it to Willdenow, and may 
be found well described in vol. iv. p. 757* of his 
Spec. Plant j of it he says, " Folia alterna, quadri- 
linearia, orbiculato-obovata petiolata, integerrima 
glabra; Jlores axillares, pedunculati, parvi. Mas- 
culi. Calyx pentaphyllus ; corolla nulla ; Jilamenta 
5 subulata calyce duplo longiora. Feminei. Calyx 
et corolla maris; germen ovatum; bacca globosa 
nivia tetrasperma, semina triquetra, externe, convexa 
axillata." Willdenow named the genus, of which 
there is but one species (our article), after the cele- 
brated botanist Flugge. 

VOL. II. G o 



VATUNGHE CUTTAY ovj^ff /K<Sera«i->soL- 
nfeo PaHngacuttay (Tam.) Tsktpangnm (Matedie> 
Offn Sappan (Malay). Bukum jJu (Arab.) Pa- 
tangee (Cyng.) Patanga U|r|i| (Sans.) Narrow- 

leaved Sappan. 

Gssalpinia Sappan (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

The Vytians consider a decoction of this wood as 
a powerful emmenagogtfe ; a virtue, I perceive, it is 
also supposed to possess by the Cochin-Chinese ; in 
whose country the tree grows in great abundance, 
and is called by the natives cay-vang also to-mouc. 
It is the tsiapangam of Rheede (Mai. vi. p. 3. 1 2.)> 
and the lignum sappan of Rutnph. (Amb. iv. p. 56. 


The caesalpima sappan is a middling-sized tree, 
having many short recurved prickles on it ; leaves 
alternate, unequally bipiimate, consisting of twelve 
pairs of small emarginate sessile leaflets; Jlowers 
yellow, sweet-scented, in loose terminating racemes ; 
the legume is somewhat woody, ovate-rhomboidal, 
beaked, brown, smooth ; the seeds three, turbinate^ 
oblong, horny. (Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 262.) 
But the reader may find a fuller and somewhat dif- 
fering account of the tree in Roxburgh's Coromandel 
Hants (1. 1. 16.) It would appear, that it grows in 
Sumatra*, and in Pegu ; on Ceylon two varieties are 

• See Marsden's Sumatra, p. 78, 



common, a red (ratu), and a white (ela) ; it is the 
only species of the genus that is found in the island, 
except the mimosoides, which is the coda-wawul-tBtiya 
of the Cyngalese. No less than fourteen species 
have a place in the Hortus Bengalensis, one of which 
is our article, called in Bengalese bukum ; the same 
name, by the way, that is given to it by the Arab 
writer Abulfaldi (apud Cels. 176.) 

With regard to the use of the wood as a red-dye, 
notice shall be taken in another part of this work. 


VAYLEE (Tam.) Vaivinta, also WammU (Tel.) 
Hurhurhfa (Beng.) Caraila (Hind, and Beng.) 
Hoolhool y&y& (Duk.) Caravetta cfrj^^ f also 

Vwvar <=<s\| (Sans.) Fivt-leaved Cleome. 

Cleome Pentaphilla (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetradynamia Siliquosa.. Nat. Ord. 
Capparides (Juss.) Funfiblattrige Cleome (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) 

The leaves of this plant (which is sometimes 
called nellei vaylie, to distinguish it from the nahivay- 
tie, Tarn., cleome viscosa), on the stem and branches 
are all quinate j " the leaflets obovate acute, very 
finely serrate. It is a beautiful upright annual, gener- 
ally smooth, but sometimes there are a few hairs at 
the bottom." Loureiro has described it in his Flor* 
Cochin-Chin. (vol. ii. p. 397- ), and tells us, that the 
Cochin-Chinese call it man-man-tia ; of it he says, 
" Flos albicans, spica longa, erecta, terminali } calyx 

o o 2 


inferos, 4-phillus ; foliolis oblongis, erectis, deciduis; 
corolla petala 4-rotunda, inaequalia, patentia ; \fila- 
menta 6-longa, filiforma ; pericarpium siliqua 3-poli- 
caris, seminibus plurimus." 

The small, numerous, wannish, kidney-formed 
black seeds, as well as leaves of this plant, are ad- 
ministered in decoction in convulsive affections and 
typhus fever, to the quantity of half a tea-cupful 
twice daily. 

The cleome pentaphylla appears to be the carra- 
veela of Rheede (Mai. ix. p. 43. t. 24.), I find it has 
a place, according to Dr. Heyne*, in the Tellingoo 
Medical Sastrum, entitled Kalpastanum ; where 
another species, viscosa (JShunqcabarbara, Sans.), is 
also noticed. The Cyngalese physicians use our 
article for nearly the same purposes that the Vytians 
do, and have bestowed on it the name of awusada- 
xvela-kola. Seven species of cleome have a place in 
Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants ; five are in the 
Hortus Bengalensis. 

Since writing the above I* have seen the Flora ln- 
dica of Roxburgh (manuscript copy), in which this 
plant is rather differently described ; he says, the 
leaves are eaten by the natives. 


VAYLIE PARTIE CcruoSi-jLJCPff^ (Tam.), 
also Ootamunnie (Tam.) Utrun ^jti (Duk.) Zoo- 
tup akoo (Tel) Yugaphala ^H-htf (Sans.) Hairy, 
flowered Cynanchum. 

Cynanchum Extensum (Iin.) 

* Heyne's Tracts on India, pp. ISO. and 136. 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Apocineae (Juss.). Ausgebreiteter Hundswurger 
(Norn. Triv. Willd.) 

A decoction of the leaves of this plant is given to 
children as an anthelmintic, in doses not exceeding 
three table-spoonfuls; the juice of the leaves is or- 
dered in asthma. A long description of the plant 
has been given by Jaquin. I shall merely here ob- 
serve, that it is a beautiful twining plant, rising from 
an annual, whitish, fibrous root, which is about a foot 
and a half long ; but let Willdenow speak, " Caule 
volubili frutescente, foliis cordatis acutis, pedunculis 
elongatis, pedicellis filiformibus, corollis margine hir- 
sutism folliculis ramentaceis." The plant is a native 
of the Coromandel coast. On referring to the 
Hortus Bengalensis for the cynanchum extensura, 
I perceive he directs his reader to asclepias echinata, 
the Hindoostanie name of which is sagwanee, and 
the Tellingoo jutuga. Altogether I fear there is a 
little confusion regarding the vayUe partie, the scien- 
tific name of which I gave on the authority of my 
much respected friend Dr. Rottler qjf Madras. 



Nim (Hind, and Beng.) Neem ke chawl Jl^ J ^J 

(Duk.) Vaympa putta (Tel.) Neem (Mahratta). 

Bewa (Can.) Telkohomba (Cyng.), also Nimba 

(Cyng.) Aria-bepou (Rheede, Mai. iv. p. 107* 

t. 52. ) Nimba f^P^" (Sans.) Bark of the Margosa 


Melia Azadirachta (Lin.) 

g o 3 


CL and Ord. Decandria Mooogyma. Nat, Ord. 
Meli* (Juse.) GrasbUatriger Zedraeh (Norn. Triv. 


This bark is bitter and astringent, and by no 
means unpleasant to the taste: it is considered by 
the native practitioners as amongst their most valu- 
able Tonics. They generally prescribe it in powder 
or in decoction, in conjunction with some aromatic, 
in fevers, and also in chronic rheumatism ; in fact, it 
is ordered for almost every purpose that the cinchona 
is in Europe. Dr. D. White, late Superintending 
Surgeon on the Bombay establishment, informed me, 
that from the bark of the vaypwn mUrum he witnessed 
success nearfy equal to what might have been expected 
from the cinchona officinalis. It would appear to be 
somewhat similar in its effects to the comus Jtorida, 
or great-flowered dogwood of Virginia, which many 
think little inferior to the true bark; Barton says, 
that their sensible qualities, their chemical analysis, and 
their action on the dead fibre, prove an identity m 
their medical virtues. Dr. Gregg gave the powder 
of the cornus florida in doses of thirty-five grains. 
Dr. Walker, who made it a subject of his inaugural 
dissertation, observes, that he found it equal to the 
Peruvian bark, given with other bitters, as a stomachic. 
See Barton's Materia Medica of the United States 
(vol. i pp. 51, 52, 53.) 

Our article is called by the Javanese imba; the 
bark they consider as a valuable anthelmintic ; the 
leaves are vulnerary, vermifuge, and, to a certain de- 
gree, diuretic; and the tree yields much gum. From 
the fruit, which, when full-grown, is not unlike a 
small French olive, a most valuable, bitter, fixed oil 
is prepared, which is not only justly esteemed as a 
good worm medicine, but is much prized as an exter- 


nal application ih cases of fool ulcer ; it is also used 
as a Ummetot in rheumatic and spasmodic affections^ 
and in those violent head-aches brought on by the 
rays of the sun. Taken before exposure to cold and 
wet it is supposed to have the effect of preventing 
fever or catarrh. The small white flowers are sup- 
posed to have virtues in cbofota morbus Them is* 
besides, a sort of toddy obtained from healthy young 
margbs* trees, which is occasionally prescribed by 
the Vytfans as a stomaohie; of this toddy* vaypurn 
kulloo (Tam.), the dose is an ounce and a half every 
inonrirtg; of the decoction of the bark itself the dose 
is about half a tea-cupful twice daily; 

Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue of Indian Medicinal 
Plants (p. S6«), notices two species of metia* having 
nearly similar virtues, the m. azocbraehta arid the 
m. sempervirens : * he states, that the leaves of both 
have a bitter taste (devoid of astringeney) ; the de* 
coctkm of them is used internally in cases m Which 
tome and stomachic bitters ate required, and they 
ate moreover employed externally as discutdente and 
gmollieifts. In tlie Transactions of the Medical and 
Physical Society of Calcutta (vol. i. p. 138,) may be 
seen a case of hysteria distinctly detailed by G. 
Skipton, Esq., in which a decoction of the leave* of 
tbe raelia azadirachta was given with the happiest 
effect Five species of meiia grow on Ceylon. Five 
have also a place in the Hortos Bengalensis; The 
species azedarach is a native of Japan, and called by 
the natives' by the names of din, oofs, or sedan; this 
species is also a native of Cochin-China, afird named 
m that coofftry eay*$au>dau : the medical men 

* Which fe hi HitidoOBtanfe bacain, etoi to Santfcrft maha 

G G 4 


there consider it as anthelmintic, but give it cau- 
tiously internally: "quia nimia dosi vertiginem, et 
convulsiones affert." (Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. 

p. 269.) 

Now it may be fall time to observe, that the melia 
azadirachta is a large and beautiful tree, common in 
most parts of India ; trunk often crooked, but thick; 
wood of a pale yellow, and the bark of a dark-purple 
colour; the branches extend very wide; the leaves 
are scattered about the extremities of the branches, 
and are from one to two inches long ; leaflets oppo- 
site, or nearly so, about six pair, sickle-lanced, serrate, 
of a light-green colour, and not of an unpleasant 
odour. As Miller states, " the flowers, which are 
smaU, white, and fragrant, are produced on long 
branching panicles from the side of the branches; 
the fruit (drupe) is kidney-formed, at first green, then 
turning yellow, and at last changing to a purple." * 

I have no doubt but that a vegetable alkali, similar 
perhaps to that got from the yellow cinchona bark 
(quinine), might be obtained from the bark of melia 
azadirachta ; it certainly would be worth a trial : it, 
for this purpose, should be boiled in alcohol till it 
loses its bitter taste ; evaporate to dryness ; dissolve 
the extract thus procured in boiling water, strongly 
acidulated with hydro-chloric acid ; to this add mag- 
nesia in excess, which, after a few minutes 9 boiling, 
will fix the red matter and clear the liquor ; when 
cold, filter and wash the magnesian precipitate with 
cold water ; dry it on a stove ; digest in boiling alco- 
hol till all the bitter principle is separated ; mix the 
alcoholic liquors, and the vegetable alkali, of whatever 

* From Roxburgh's Flora Indica fMSS.), we learn that the 
wood is hard, durable, and fit for ship-building, and esteemed 
next in quality to the mimosa Arabica on the Cororoandel coast. 


nature, will separate as it cools: this is the mode 
ordered by Magendie for preparing the quinine from 
the yellow bark, and would in all probability answer 
for the margosa bark. I may take this opportunity 
of noticing the increasing high character of quinine, 
not only as a febrifuge, but as a stomachic : the fol- 
lowing formula, as ordered by Dr. Burnet of London, 
was of the greatest service in a case of dyspepsia, ac- 
companied with hepatic derangement, for which the 
mtro-muriatic bath had been prescribed : 

R Sulphatis quinae - - gtt ij. 

Acid, sulph. dilut - - gtt. ij. 

Spirit, myristicae - - fgi. 

Aquae distillates - - fjx. 

Misce, fiat haustus ; to be taken daily at mid-day. 



i— 02)1— (Tam.) Soorooghoodu putta (Tel.) Rak- 
tavalti ^lq^Tl (Sans.) Vaymbadum Bath. 

The powder of this dark-coloured and pleasant 
tasted bark, in conjunction with gingilie oil, is some- 
times used as an external application for the itch, 
and other cutaneous eruptions ; but the chief use 
of it appears to be as a reddish-brown dye, the 
tint of which is fixed by means of kadukai andpaddi- 
carum (chebulic myrobolan and alum). What the 
root is, I have not been able to ascertain. 

468 MAMMA IITOftA. *A« «• 


VAYPUM UNKAY 6(5^uiuL^uX2uj<5^2^rtrf 
(Tam.) Margosa OiL 

See article Vaypum Puttay. 


rRjQmrrorrBiss (Tam.) Vurtulika kaungla pawt 
ZLV^^Js (Hind.) VeUitooroo fconaloo (Tel.), 
also Yettroo (Tel.) Utavriksha *f\i$# (Sans.) 

Yicwng' Shoots qf the Asfccotoured Mimosa. 

Mimosa Cinerea (Lin.) 


CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoeciar Nat* Ord. 
Leguminosae (Juss.) Grauer Buschelzopf (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) 

These young shoots are of a cooling nature, and 
are bruised and applied to the eyes in cases of 

The minosa cinerea (Lin.), or, as it has been called 
by Willdenow, desmanthus ckiereus, is- a prickly 
tree, with an even-branched stem / lem&Sy bipinnate ; 
and flowers in spikes. (Flor. ZeyL 215.) It would 
seem to be a native of most of the West India 
Islands; where, Browne tells us, that the leaves 
are frequently mixed with corn for the riding horses, 
and it is thought to free them from both bots and 


worms; it also grows in Ceylon, by Moon's account, 
but he he& affixed no CyngaleM ffame. (Catalogue 
p. 7»0 

This tree is described at great length by Dr. 
Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica, MSS^ as also in his 
Cor. Plants, xi. No. 174* j he mentions the hardness 
of the wood. 


VEELVIE ELLEY <r*S9vas&m (Tam.> Bel ha 
pat c L If ^ (Duk.) Bitva-akoQ (Tel.) Vifwa-patrn 
R^SMI (Sans.) Leqf qf the Religious Gratava. 

Cratava Religiosa (Vahl.) 

CL and Ord. Dodecandria Monogynia* Nat Ord. 
Putamineae. LanzeUenbhUtrige Cratceve (Nona. 
Triv. Willd.) 

The leaves of the cratsva religiosa are somewhat 
aromatic, in a slight degree bitter, and are considered 
by the native practitioners' as stomachic. The root, 
as it appears in the bazars, has a singular subaro- 
matic and bitterish taste, and is supposed to possess 
an alterative quality. 

With regard to another species,, marmelos*, the 
aegle marmelos (Lin.), the very glutinous transparent 
juice, which is found round the small white seeds, con- 
tained within the hard shell of the fruit, has much 
the smell of turpentine, and tastes warmish, not 
unlike balsam of Peru ; the Vytians use it for 
cleaning foul ulcers ; it is, in other respects, a 

* It is ako, when boiled in. gingilie oil, employed, in ewei of 


substance which, I fear, has not yet sufficiently been 
examined. More will be said of the paste of the 
fruit, and of its use in the arts, in another part and 
volume of this work. 

Our article is the leaf of the niivala of Rheede (Mai. 
iii. p. 49. t. 42.), and the lunuAvarna of the Cyngalese: 
the plant is a native of India and Otaheite * ; and 
usually rises to the height of about twenty feet, with an 
upright trunk, and spreading branches ; leaves scat- 
tered at the end of the branches ; and leaflets and 
petals lanceolate-elliptic, acute at both ends ; JUmers 
an inch and a half in diameter, greenish-white, with 
red stamens (Miller). 


VELLUM G<5\-k3V)Ov>lo (Tam.), also in Tamool 
Nulla vellum A Goor " 3 { (Duk.) Bellum (Tel.) 
Kund *SS (Arab.) Guda, or Gura JJ3 also Matsy- 
andi HtfejftJZ? (Sans.) Jaggary, or Coarse Sugar. 

Saccharum Officinarum (JLin.) 

See article Sugar, in vol. i. p. 407. 

As sugar in India is obtained not only from the 
sugar-cane, but from cocoa-nut and Palmyra toddy, 
so it naturally follows thatjaggaries, or coarse sugars, 
must be procured from the same toddies ; they are 
used by the Vytians for medicinal purposes, and 
also by the natives to sweeten their drinks. The 
jaggary of the Palmyra tree toddy is called ift 
Tamool karapootie. 

* Where the fruit is called pura-au. 

•f Nulla vellum is, properly speaking, the jaggery of the sugar- 
cane, and is so called from being the best. 



VELLIE EEUM GavjovT-avrr@uuuuLD (Tam.) 
oaU.*,, also ^itiS Kula-i (Arab.) Pewter. 

This the Vytians use in the preparation of Shadi- 
lingum, which article see, in this part and volume. 
The literal meaning of vellie eeum is silver lead ; in 
the same way that the Arabians sometimes call it 
oajI o*^ rusas abeez, or white tin. 



Menispermum Fenestratum (Gaert.) 
Coscinium Fenestratum (Colebrooke). 

This is a large Ceylon tree, having a yellow, bitter 
wood, and leaves alternate, petioled, and entire; 
the natives consider the wood*, sliced small, as a 
valuable bitter. 

. ccccx* 


VEPPALEI GovjLJLjn-£/oY> (Tarn.) Codaga- 
j>ala (Mai.) Pala codija, also Manoopala (Tel.) 

Curayja \**Aj> (Hind.) Kutaja <$d^[ (Sans.) Oval- 
leaved Rose bay. 

Nerium Antidysentericum (Lin.) 

* See a paper by Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian species of 
menispermum, in the Transactions of the Linnaean Society, vol. xiii. 
pp. 65) 66. 


CL and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Apocineae (Juss.) Ruchstillender Oleander (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) 

The bark of this tree is lately admitted into the 
British Materia Medica, under the appellation of 
cormessi bark. On the Malabar coast it is called palla 
patah / and by the Portuguese corte de pala> -who 
consider it as a valuable febrifuge medicine. On the 
Coromandel coast it seems chiefly to be given in 
dysenteric affections, and is commonly administered 
in decoction, in the quantity of an ounce and a half 
or two ounces twice daily. The bark is of a red- 
dish-brown colour, astringent, and bitter, and has 
been much vaunted by Rheede (Mai. i. p. 85. t. 47.) 
and others in dysenteric affections. In Cochin-China, 
where the tree is termed cay-mok-koa-tlang, it would 
appear, by Loureiro's account, that it is chiefly 
prized for its beautiful white wood, which is of a fine 
grain, and fit for making furniture ; with regard to 
the medicinal properties, for which the bark of the 
tree is so much in repute, he adds, " De virtute 
arboris, antidysenterica testari, non audeo experien- 
tia destitutus." I perceive it is noticed by Alibert 
in his " Nouveaux Elemens de Th6rapeutique," 
vol. i. p. 112., and an electuary of it recommended. 
Virey • also speaks of it under the appellation of 
cropaU observing, that it is eminently antidysenteric 
and febrifuge. 

The seeds, which in Tamool have got the name of 
veppalei arisee, in Persian that of ^J, or ^t, akir, 
in Arabic tissan-ul-usafeer, and in Dukhanie and 
Hindoostanie >^xij anderjou, have a pleasant taste, 
not unlike that of oats, which they also resemble in 

• See his « Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, w p. 188. 


appearance; they are contained in round, slender 
follicles, each about eight inches long, two of which 
often joined at both ends ; an infusion of them, they 
being previously toasted, is a safe and gentle re* 
strainer in bowel complaints, and ia given to allay the 
irritation of the stomach in cholera morbus ; a decoc- 
tion of them, Kheede tells us, is also employed in 
ardent fever and gout Roxburgh makes our article 
belong to a different genus, from the circumstances 
of its seeds being covered with a kind of coma or 
hair, and the form of the corolla, which is " irifim- 
dibul{f.Jauce nuda" while that of the other is " tubus 
termnatus corona lacera" The nerium antidy- 
sentericum " is a middle-sized tree, with brachials 
branches; leaves opposite, oblong-ovate; andjfowers 
of a greenish white, in short terminating racemes ; 
the fruit has already been described/' 


mj<g) (Tam.) BaUoorakashie gudda, Abara, also 
Habarala (Cyng-) Ape (Otaheite). Hastid Camid 

^ftrt chlui (Sans.) Long-rooted Arum. 

Arum Macrorhizon (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Polyandria. Nat Ord. 
Aroideae ( Juss.) Grosswurzticher Aron {Nom. Triv. 

This root, in its raw state, like most of the arums, 
possesses a degree of acrimony ; in conjunction with 
gingilie oil, the native practitioners prepare a kind of 
liniment with it, which, they allege, when rubbed on 


the head, sometimes cures intermittent fevers after 
every other remedy has failed. When dressed the 
verrughung kahmg is eaten, but is far inferior to the 
root of the arum esculentum (Lin,), which is the 
caladium esculentum (Willd.), and to be noticed in 
another part of this work. Our article is the dea- 
vew of the Chinese, and the kappe of the Sandwich 
Islands ; it is a large root, about the thickness and 
length of a man's arm ; the leaves also are large and 
wide, peltate, cordate, two-parted at the base j the 
Jlower is white and very sweet ; the spatJie cowled 
and short ; and the berries roundish and red (Lou- 
retro, Foster, and Ray). On Ceylon they distinguish 
no less than four varieties of the plant, the white, 
black, spotted, and variegated. (Moon's Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 64.) Roques, in his Phytographie 
Mqdicale (vol. i. p. 65.), i speaks of both the arum 
dracunculus and arum maculatum as poisonous. 


e^cvSa/ro (Tarn.) Sookh-dursum (Hind.) Veshcu- 
mangalupakoo (Tel.) Belutta pola-taly (Rheed.*) 
t^^C* (Duk.) Heentolabo (Cyng.) Visfiaman- 

dala (qq^u^rt (Sans.) Asiatic Crinum. 

Crinum AsiATicuMt (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Naf. Ord. 
Narcissi (Juss.) Asiatische HakentiUe (Nom. Triv. 

* Mai. vol. ii. t. S8. 

f The plant may be found admirably described by Dr. Rox- 
burgh, in his Flora Indica, MSS. 


The succulent bitterish leaves of this plant, which 
are about two inches broad and three feet long, the 
natives bruise and mix with a little castor-oil, so 
forming an application which they think useful for 
repelling whitlows, and other inflammations that 
come at the end of the toes and fingers ; the juice 
of the leaves is employed for the ear-ache in Upper 
India. On Java, by Horsfield's account, this plant 
is reckoned one of the most satisfactory emetics the 
inhabitants have. Eumphius, who calls it radix 
toxicaria (Amb. ii. p. 155. t. 69.)> speaks highly of 
its virtues in curing the disease occasioned hy the 
poisoned arrows of the Macassers in their wars ; it 
is the root chewed that is the emetic, provided a 
little of the juice is swallowed. The crinum Asia- 
ticum is the man-sy-lan of the Cochin-Chinese, and 
its virtues may be found lauded by Loureiro. (Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. L p. 198.) It is a native of 
Malabar, Java, Ceylon, and America. The stem is 
short, thick, coated, white and single; the root is 
solid, turbinate, surrounded toith long branching 
fibres ; the leaves have already been mentioned ; the 
flowers are white, large, in a simple flat umbel (Lou- 
reiro). The species foxicarum (Roxb.) is the maha- 
tolabo of the Cy ngalese. 


VETTILEI Gsu^0Fffi/ro (Tam.) Pan ^J* 

(Duk.) Tanbool J^JU (Arab. Avicen. 263.) Barg 

tambool J^U J^ (Pers.) Pan ^Lj^Hind.) Tama- 

lap-akoo (Tel.) Tambull cTF^Tf (Sans.) Betel 


Piper Betle (Lin.) 



CI. and OrcL Diandria Digynia. Nat. OrcL Pi- 
perita;. Betle PJeffer (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

The warm juice of the betel leaf is prescribed by 
the Vytians as a febrifuge, in the quantity of a small 
spoonful twice daily ; it is also given in the indiges- 
tions of children ; and, in conjunction with musk, in 
cases of hysteria. The leaf, which the Javanese call 
suroo, is chewed in most Eastern countries in the 
way that tobacco is in Europe. The Malays term 
it sireh y the Ternatese bido, the Balinese base ; at 
Amboyna they distinguish it by the name of amo. The 
vine itself is the betala-codi of Rheede (Mai. vii. p.29* 
1 15.), and the tanbool Jj^ajU of Avicenna* (263.) 

The plant, according to Roxburgh's description, is 
perennial, dioecous, creeping ; leaves, alternate, bifar- 
eous, cordate, from five to seven-nerved, smooth, 
entire, female arnents, sttbcylindric, drooping; the 
root and stem woody (Flora Indica, vol. i. p. 160.) 
The piper betle has got the name of bulat wela on 
Ceylon, where no less than seven species are dis- 
tinguished ; it is the caytlau of the Cochin-Chinese, 
who reckon the leaf " califaciens, stomachica, bal- 
samica, vulneraria" (Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 39.) 


VID1 MAR AM (Tam.) (Rheede Mai. iv. t. 37.) 
Kendal (Jav.) Lebtick ^ (Avicen.) Mochayet 
t^i* (Forskal). Lolu (Cyng.) Buhooarie (Beng.) 
Lesura (Hind.) Nekra (TeL) Bukampadaruka 

^^MAJtfli (S 8118 -) Smooth-leaved Myxa. 


* See Hist. Rei Herbar. Springe). 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Borraginese. Schwarze Cardie (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

This is, by Roxburgh's account, " a pretty large 
tree, growing in the Circars; trunk about twelve 
feet high, crooked ; bark grey ; branches numerous, 
spreading, affording a dense shade ; leaves scattered, 
petioled, ovate, oval, or obovate; bractes none; Jlowers 
small, white ; drupe globular, smooth, the size of a 
cherry, when ripe yellow, pulp almost transparent, 
tough and viscid; nut cordate ; seeds solitary ; smell 
of the nut when cut is heavy and disagreeable ; 
taste of the kernels like that of fresh filberts ;" he 
adds, " the fruit not used in the Circars for medical 
purposes ; when ripe it is eaten by the natives" (Flora 
Indica, MSS.) 

The cordia myxia was known to some of the old 
writers on the Materia Medica, by the name of $e- 
besten; the dried fruit is occasionally brought to 
Europe, but, as Horsfield * observes, generally in a 
damaged and worm-eaten state; that writer adds, 
that it yields on maceration a plentiful mucilage, of 
an emollient nature, useful in diseases of the breast 
and the urethra. The fruit is gently aperient ; ten 
or twelve drachms of the pulp have the same effect 
as the same quantity of the pulp of cassia. The 
bark is a mild tonic, and is one of the chief reme- 
dies of the Javanese in fever cases. The wood itself 
is tough and solid, and is employed for procuring 
fire by friction. I perceive the species sebestena is 
in the list of medicinal plants, given by Dr. Heyne, 
in his Tracts Historical and Statistical of India, 
p. 135. ; its Tellingoo names are skaeshtmantaka and 

* See his account of the medicinal plants of Java, in the Amtic 
Journal for February 1819, p. 149. 

H H 2 



VISTNOOKRANDIE <n^2-a22ff)^ / x'5gr 
(Tam.) Vistnoohrandum (Tel.) Wisnu kranti 

(Cyng.) Vaishnavatfeff (Sans.) Chickweed-leaved 


Evolvulus Alsinoides (Lin,) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Tetragynia. Nat. Ord. 
Convolvuli (Juss.) Vogelmierartliger JEvohulus 
(Nora. Triv. Willd.) 

The leaves, stalks, and root of this low-growing 
plant, are all used in medicine by the Tamools, and 
are supposed to possess virtues in certain bowel af- 
fections ; they are prescribed in infusion, in the 
quantity of half a tea-cupful twice daily. The 
species in question, with two others, are growing in 
Ceylon. I find two grow in the botanical garden at 
Calcutta ; our article, introduced by General Hard- 
wick, and the evol. pilosus (Roxb.) introduced by 
Sir A. Hesleridge. 

The evolvulus alsinoides is a little annual plant 
with a creeping root ; the stems, leaves, and pedun- 
cles are covered with rufous hairs ; " leaves obcor- 
date, obtuse, hairy, petioled, stem diffuse, peduncles 
three-flowered" (Flor. Zeylan. 76.) Our article is 
described by Dr. Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica 
(MSS.), with his usual intelligence ; he says, it has 
scarce any stem, alternate, bifarious, subsessile, oblong 
leaves ; and peduncles axillary, solitary, and longer 
than the leaves. 



VILPALEI (Tam.) Milky Swallo^wort. 

Asclepias Lactifera (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Contortae. Milchende Sckwalbenwurz (Nom. Triv. 


The root of this species of asclepias I found 
mentioned in a list of medicines, presented to me 
by a learned Vytian ; but what its particular virtues 
are I had no opportunity of ascertaining. I per- 
ceive the plant grows in Ceylon, but Mr. Moon has 
affixed no native name to it ; it does not appear to 
be in the botanical garden of Calcutta, where twenty 
species of this genus are noticed. Miller, in his 
Dictionary says, it is so like the common or officinal 
swallow-wort, asclepias vincetoxicum, that it is dif- 
ficult to distinguish the one from the other ; of it 
Willdenow says, " Foliis ovatis acuminatis margine 
tenuissime ciliatis, caule erecto, umbellis proliferis." 
The root of the common swallow-wort was formerly 
used in medicine, and suspected to have alexiphar- 
mic properties ; but it is now out of Use and per- 
haps deservedly. It is touched very cautiously by 
any animal, and is suspected of being poisonous ; it 
might become a subject of more minute inquiry in 
these more enlightened days, when even poisons are 
turned to good account. 

h h 3 



VITTIE VAYR G<^ji-L-&Qr>-> r f- (Tam.) 
Bala *JL (Duk.) Cooroo vayroo (Tel.) ^^ 
(Pers.) " Useer ^1 (Hind.) Viratara <=»Kn<. 

(Saas.) Cuscus Root. 

Andropogon Muricatus (Retz.) 

CL and Ord Triandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. Gra- 

An infusion of this fragrant-smelling root, the 
Vytians consider as diaphoretic and gently stimulant, 
in the quantity of a quarter of a tea-cupful twice 
daily j and prescribe it more diluted as a grateful 
drink in certain fever cases. It is made into fans by 
the natives ; and after being thinly worked into large 
bamboo frames, and watered, is also employed for 
the purpose of cooling the land wind ; which, on 
passing through the wetted roots, is lowered many 
degrees in temperature, owing to the evaporation 
that is produced. 

The plant in Bengalie is called bena ; it is com- 
mon in most parts of India, but likes best a low rich 
soil. It may be found accurately described by 
Roxburgh (Flor. Indica, vol. i. p. 270.) Root con- 
sists of many perennial, long, spongy, brown fibres ; 
culms many, smooth, simple rigid, a little compressed 
at the base, from four to six feet high, and as thick as 
a goose-quill ; leaves, near the base bifarious, narrow, 
erect, from two to three feet long ; flowers paired, 
awnless ; they are hermaphrodite and male. Eight 
species of andropogon grow in Ceylon, but our article 


is not amongst them. In the Flora Indica no less 
than thirty-five species are described by Dr. Box* 
burgh. The grass itself the Tamools call vakil and 
the Tellingoos kassavoo. 


VUELIE VAYR crxsyPGo^J^ (Tam.) Vee- 
Uvie vayroo (Tel.) Root qf the Stroemia Te- 

Stroemia Tetrandra (VahL) 

CI. and Ord. Penjtandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Putaminese. Vierfadige Stroemie (Nom. Triv. 

The root and leaves of the stroemia tetrandra, 
which is sometimes in Tamool called werkoodie, are 
considered as deobstruent and anthelmintic, and are 
prescribed by the native practitioners in uterine ob- 
structions ; the first is generally ordered in .decoc- 
tion, in the quantity of half a tea-cupful twice 
daily j the juice of the latter is given in a little 

The stroemia tetrandra has a round, branching, 
shrubby stem ; and would appear to have been first 
described by Vahlj who says of it, " Foliis oblongis, 
mucronatis nudis, floribus petaloideis tetrandris." 
It is the cleome fruticosa (Lin. Spec* 937.), also 
Burm. Ind. 140* t* 46. f. 3. For further particulars 
respecting this species of stroemia, the reader may 
consult Spec. Plant Willd; vol. i. pp. 998, 994. But 
three other species of stroemia have been hitherto 
particularly noticed, all natives of Arabia Felix, 

h h 4 


viz. /orifto**, ^ttfow, and rotundifotia; oar ar- 
ticle is. a native of India, and may be found L by 
the reader most admirably described by Dr. Rox- 
burgh, in his Flora Indica, MSS. ; he tells us, that 
it £ a large, straggling, ramous shrub, with scarce 
any stem ; alternate, oblong, entire leaves ; minute 
stipules ; racemes terminal ; and has several kidney- 
formed seeds. 


VULLAK UNNAY <sx£<xrr e>G&<sm x&™xr 
(Tarn.) Amidum (Tel.) Eranda CT°3 (Sans.) 
Lamp Oil, or Oil qf the large-leaved Pahta Christi. 

Ricinus Communis (Fruct. Major.) 

This oil differs from the castor-oil in having a 
heavy, disagreeable smell, and a considerable degree 
of empyreuma ; in all probability owing to the seeds 
being toasted previously to the operation of boiling, 
for the purpose of extracting the oil : it is, besides, 
of a darker colour, and altogether of a more gross 
nature. They are both prepared, however, from 
the fruit of the ricinus communis, with this differ- 
ence, that the castor-oil is made from that variety 
which is distinguished fructibus minoribus, and the 
other from the variety distinguished fructibus majori- 
bus. We are informed by Forskahl (Egypt, p. 75.) 
that the plant is common in Egypt, and there called 

c^a.; it has been described under the head of 

Castor-oil, Vol. I. p. 255. of this work. 

The lamp-oil, like the castor-oil, is of .a purgative 

quality, but it is chiefly employed for burning in 





VULLAB.EI a--JTv-3N=-22- T*=-*. *^ 
6assa (Tam. and TeL) Panzgzrz 'Jw.* Hos*- 

gotu-kola (Cyng.) Manduia-pann *j W4^\ 3 % 

(Sans.), also Bheka-panu af^f q jff jSanft.^ Astnrk 

Hydbocottle Asiatic* TriiriO 

CI. and Or(L Pentandria Digrnix. Xax. OttL 
Umbellatae, Asiatischcr Jfaffbrnabel (Xoxn. Triv. 

An infusion of the toasted bitter leaves of this 

low-growing plant, in conjunction with vendeum 

(fenugreek), is given to children in bowel complaints 

and fever cases, in doses of half a tea-cupfuL It 

appears to be the codagam of Rheede (MaL x. p. 91* 

t- 4<3.), and the pesequinus of Rumphius (Amb. v. 

p. 4s5«5. t. 169* £ 1.); in Bengalese it is called thalU 

Arurt* Thunberg, in his flora Japonica (p. 116.), 

notices the plant as growing at Papenberg, and called 

by the Japanese sakusets, also kakidoro. 

The leaves are kidney-formed, toothletted, very 
bitter, and their substance is much thicker than that 
of the species hirsuta. The hydrocotyle Asiatica is 
a native €>f the Cape of Good Hope *, Japan, and 
Jamaica t, as well as of Ceylon and the Indian con- 
tinent. It would appear, by Horsfield's account 
that our article is also a native of Java, there c*l * 

it in ascending the Tabic land *i f 

TrsTck in Sooth Africa (vol. i. p. 42.)- 
f Sec H«rtn» JFiniinniia yoI. ii. p- 50. 


panggaga (Jav.), and considered by the medical men 
of that island as an excellent diuretic. The leaves, 
on the Coromandel coast, are applied to parts that 
have suffered from blows and bruises, having, it is 
supposed, the power of keeping off inflammation. 

Our article may be found described by Dr. Rox- 
burgh, in his Flora Indica (MSS.) 



wwn-WB?<5or(S(rLj+ (Tarn.) Sufaidzerke he 

jur ^ J Jjj**" (Duk.) Ussul hubuhteil abeez 

y*j\ yjSl^ >>* (Arab.) Telia ghentana vayroo 

(Tel) Asphota, ^\^Z (Sans.) Root qf the 

of the winged-leaved Clitoria. 

Clitoria Ternatea (Lin.) 
(Var. Flore Albo.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat* Ord. 

The root and the small dark-coloured seeds of the 
winged clitoria are both used in medicine by the 
native practitioners : the first, in powder, is given as 
an emetic, in the quantity of one pagoda weight } 
the second are said to possess an anthelmintic 
quality, and to be gently purgative. One learned 
Vytian informed me, that about two drachms of the 
powder of the root, ground with two ounces of cow's 
milk, was an excellent medicine in dropsical affec- 
tions, given two mornings successively. The plant 
in question is the shet upurajita of the Bengalese, 
a name distinguishing it from the variety with a blue 


flower, which is simply upuraiita ; this last is the flos 
cseruleus of Rumphius (Amb. v. p. 56. t.81.), aad 
the schlonga-cuspi of Rheede (Mai. viii. p. 69* 1 38.) 
The CyngaJese term the white flowered variety mU 
katarodu ; the blue they term sudu-katarodu. The 
clitoria ternatea is both wild and cultivated in Co- 
chin-China; the natives name it cay-dau-biec. Of 
the blue flowers Loureiro says, " Succo hujus floris 
solent indigense tingera liba, aliaque edulia colore 
cyano, pulcherrimo quidem, sed breviter evanes- 
cente, ideoque ab imbuendas telas inepto" (Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 455.) The plant seldom 
rises higher than four or five feet ; with a twining, 
herbaceous stalk, and winged leaves, composed of 
two or three pairs of leaflets, terminated by an odd 
one ; the flowers vary in colour ; the legume is 
narrow, elongated, a finger's length and more ; seeds 
solitary, seven to twelve, ovate kidney-form (Miller). 
Our article is the only species growing in Ceylon. 
In the Hortus Jamaicensis I find five species noticed 
(pp. 55, 56.) 


VULLAY POONDOO Cav>c^n-2Lc^L^ux5OTrt& 

(Tarn.) Lassun ^ (Duk. and Hind.) Lasuna 

<?55n«T (Sans.) Garlic. 

Allium Sativum (Lin.) 

In addition to what is said of garlic at p. 150. 
Vol. I* I have to observe, that an expressed oil is 
prepared from it, called vullay poondoo unnay 
(Tarn.), which is of a very stimulating quality, and 


which the Vytians prescribe internally to prevent the 
recurrence of intermittent fever; externally it is used 
in paralytic and rheumatic affections. 


VULLERKOO Cc^jcsnttCov-t^^® (Tam.) 

Suffaid*akre ^JTUJu* (Duk.) Akand JulTJ ? (Hind.) 
Telia jelledee or jelladoo (Tel.) Sweta-arka 
*3dl<$ (Sans.) 

In the first edition of this work I was led to give 
this plant as an actual variety of the asclepias gigan- 
tea, but now hesitate, and think that it may be the 
akund of Upper Hindoostan, and which is, we are 
told, there often confounded, from its general outward 
appearance, with the real arka (Sans.), the root of 
which is the madar of Upper India. I have never 
seen the akand or akund, but I understand that the 
resemblance betwixt it and the arka (Sans.) is very 
great, and continually leading to mistakes. I cannot 
close this article without again alluding to the great 
similarity of Tamool name betwixt our article and 
that of a plant which was mentioned to me by Dr. 
Klein of Tranquebar, viz. the voellarekoo, on which 
he bestowed the scientific appellation exacum hys- 
sopifolium : it may be found fully described by 
Willdenow in vol. i. of his Species Plant, p. 640. It 
would appear by Klein's account to be bitter, re- 
solvent, tonic, and febrifuge. 



l_ £3>U- (Tarn. ) Tellatoomma putt a (Tel. ) Khadira 
^T^C (Sans.) Bark of the Rusty Mimosa. 

Mimosa Ferruginea (Rottier). 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Moncecia. Nat. Ord. 

A strong decoction of the bark of this thorny mi- 
mosa, in conjunction with maradum-puttay (bark of 
the terminalia alata) and ginger, is frequently em- 
ployed as a wash for fastening the teeth. 

The mimosa ferruginea was first botanically de- 
scribed by Dr. Rottier; from whose Herbarium 
(MSS.) Sir Alexander Johnston has kindly allowed 
me to take the following account : " Caul, arbor- 
aculeato ; ram. angulatis, tomentosis ; aculeis spars., 
recurvatis ; fol. bibinnatis 13-jugis; partialib. multi- 
jugis pinnulis linearibus; petiol. commun. aculeato, 
ad basin glandula excurvata, oblonga ; Jlores in pan- 
nicula composita ; spicffi globosa." 


lqh- l ._i ^ also Vaydoobooriki (Tarn.), also in Ta- 
mool, Erumoottie. Andabeerakoo (Tel.) Bhuta-ghni 
JJffEft ? (Sans.) Betony-leaved Black Horehound. 

Ballota Disticha (Lin.) 


CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillata?. Indische BaUote (Nom. Triv. 


This plant, which grows to about the height of two 
feet or more, possesses virtues nearly similar to those 
of the pemayruttie (nepeta Malabarica), and it is of 
the same class and order ; " the stem is pubescent ; 
leaves petioled, subcordate, serrate, tomentose; xvhorls 
single on each side ; ./lowers alternate, sessile, rising 
on a simple, flexuose rachis; seeds four, roundish, 
and shining ; the leaves, which only are used in me- 
dicine, have a bitterish sub-aromatic taste, and smell 
somewhat like camphor, but less pleasant." . The 
ballota disticha is the heen~yak-wanassa of the Cynga- 
lese, and is the only species of the genus growing in 


glierinta (Tel.) NiUandana-hiriya (Cyng.) Blue- 
Jlowered Crotalaria. 

Crotalaria Verrucosa (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Leguminosae. Vierkantige Klapperschote (Nora. 
Triv. Willd.) 

The slightly bitter, but not unpleasant-tasted, juice 
of the leaves and tender stalks of this low-growing 
plant is prescribed, by the Tamool doctors, both inter- 
nally and externally, in cases of scabies and impetigo; 
the common killo-killupei differs from our article in 
having broader leaves. 


The crotalakia verrucosa is the pee-tandale-cotti of 
Rheede (Mai. ix. p. 53. t. 29.) ; is in Bengalese and 
Hindoostanie called bun-sun ; it is an annual plant, 
with an herbaceous four-cornered stem, about two 
feet high ; leaves warted, pale, green, on very short 
petioles ; Jlowers alternate, smooth, and of a light- 
blue colour, succeeded by short, turgid pods, inclos- 
ing one row of kidney-shaped seeds. No less than 
fifteen species of crotalaria grow in Ceylon, the whole 
of them indigenous. Thirty-two have a place in the 
Hortus Jamaicensis. Our article is a native of Ma- 
labar, Ceylon, Java, and the Philippine Islands. 


VYAGRASTTfTCSans.) r^(Hind.) Bagh^ 

(Duk.) tbl* (Pers.) Machun ^U (Malay). 

Royal Tyger. 

Felis Tigris. 

The Vytians have a notion, that the flesh of the 
royal tyger, boiled in mustard seed oil, used as an 
unguent for the body, is a remedy for emaciation.* 
Hamilton's MSS., written in Berar. 

* It is amusing enough to contemplate the strange notions en- 
tertained by some of the Hindoo medical men respecting the 
virtues of their medicines; and, perhaps, one of the most singular 
is their conviction that the flesh of the elephant, boiled in mustard 
seed oilj is a sovereign remedy for the Barbadoes leg, which is the 
dail-jU of the Arabians, and is called by the Bengalese idipad. 
The Sanscrit name for the elephant itself is hasti; the Hindoo- 
stanie one is hathi. Bcars-JUsh, Dr. Hamilton found the doctors 
in Berar prescribing for certain affections of the eyes, especially 
cataract. The bear in Hindoostanie is reech gj^; in Tamool 



VYAGHRACHITRA* (Sans.) Chita (Hind.) 


Felis Leopardus. 

The flesh of the leopard (boiled in milk) the 
Vytians suppose to have virtues in epilepsy (mri- 
girog) (Hamilton's MSS.) 

The leopard and Indian panther (felis pardus) 
have the same name bestowed upon them by the 

karradie; in Tellingoo elite goodoo ; in Arabic <j*v* ; in Persian 
i^a ; and in Malay g}jjj* He also discovered that in that dis- 
trict a decoction of the flesh of the antelope, in conjunction with 
a little coriander and mustard seed, was thought to be a remedy 
for the species of lepra called in Sanscrit bat r acta y see names for 
antelope (vol. i. p. 111.) The flesh of the jackal, boiled in oil 
and rubbed on the loins, in the same province, is believed to have 
virtues in cases of hssmorrhois (arsa). The jackal in Sanscrit is 

srigal ; in Hindoostanie gidarkamash ; in Malay is^y^i and in 
Persian ' JUL£ . Nay, even the flesh of the rhinoceros, Dr. 
Hamilton ascertained, was reckoned medicinal, and ordered, boiled, 
and in combination with ghee, in the last stages of typhus fever 
(Hamilton's MSS.) In Sanscrit this animal is gandaka, and in 
Hindoostanie gengra ; it is the S*V> of the Malays, and the Si 
and (fi^r* of the Persians and Arabians ; it is never met with in 

Lower Hindoostan. The flesh of the male camel, which is ush- 
tara in Sanscrit, vit in Hindoostanie, j^* in Arabic, Jui in Per- 
sian, also oonte in Hindoostanie, is supposed, in Berar, to have 
virtues in diabetes (Hamilton's MSS.) 

In other parts of Dr. F. Hamilton's manuscript, I perceive that 
the flesh of the buffalo (bhingesh), of the dog (kulta), musk deer 
(harina), monkey (bamar), black partridge (titer), and peacock 
(mor), have all specific properties attached to them by the Vytians 
of the Berar province. -^ 

* Or, correctly, chitra-vyaghra frap^SJTTT the spotted tiger. 


natives, and the animals differ but little in essentials. 
The panther, however, is the most formidable, 
though not quite so beautifully spotted. The chitak, 
which the English call the leopard, is the sirooteh 
poolhie &>£& gr^cFLj^ov) of the Tamools, and the 
chitul yus* of the Mahometans of Lower India ; it 

is the JT;L of the Persians, and the hariman AkSr 


j*\ y+Jij*' of the Malays. The hunting leopard is a 
very handsome animal (felis jubeta) ; it is what is 
known to the Persians by the name of ^ yooz, and 

in Sanscrit by that of chitraka r^H^. 


UNDIMANDARI ^^sTLDn-r5^rr^a-(Tam.) 
Rujuni-ghundha (Beng.) GooUshaboo (Hind.) Hoa- 
hue (Cochin-Chin.) Sandhyaraga fl^^fHTPT (Sans.) 
Tuberose Poly ant hes. 


CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Narcissi (Juss.) Gemeine Tuberose (Nom.Triv. Willd.) 

This plant, which appears to be the only one of 
its genus, is, I believe, but do not give it with con- 
fidence, the andi malleri of Rheede, who says nothing 
of its medicinal virtues ; it is the sandal malam of the 
Malays which signifies " mistress of the night" and 
hence the name that Rumphius bestowed on it arnica 
nocturna. (Amph. 5. p. 285. t. 98.) Moon gives us 
no native name for it, but speaks of two varieties, a 
single, and a double. The polyanthes tuberosa was 
brought to me, with many other plants, and was said 
to be medicinal, though I much question the asser- 
tion. It appears to have been more fully described 

VOL. II. i J 


by Loureiro than any other writer; he says of it, 
" Radix bulbus, tunicatus albus ; folia radicalia 
subulata, longa, curva, reflexaglabra ;flos albus ador- 
atissimus, altemus, spica longa terminali." It is a 
native of Java, of Ceylon, and of India, and is 
much cultivated in some parts of Italy, on account 
of the beauty and fragrancy of the flowers ; and 
from that country the bulbus roots are sent annually 
to England. Of it Loureiro says, " Habitat ubique 
in Cochin-Chin© hortis ; et quanquam ob eximiam 
fragrantiam aestimabilis facillime colitur et propaga, 
tur per bulbos." (Flor. Cochin-Chin, vol. i. p. 205.) 


UPU-DALI fiuLjL.4t-.n-ov) (Malealie). NilpUr 
ruk (Cyng.) Ringent flowered Rue Ilia. 


CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat. Ord. 
Personate- i^Ae^n?i^iii^//ie(Nom.Triv.Willd.) 

The juice of the leaves of this plant, boiled with 
a little salt, Rheede says (Mai. 9. p. 225. t. 64..), 
is supposed, on the Malabar coast, to correct a de- 
'praved state of the humours.* The plant is procum- 
bent ; stem a span long, jointed ; leaves oblong, quite 
entire ; flowers solitary, sessile (Flor. Zeyl. 234.) 

The ruellia ringens is described by Dr. Roxburgh, 
in his Flor. Indica (MSS.), who tells us, that it is a 
perennial creeping plant, with opposite, oblong leaves 
and flowers axiflary and short peduncled. 

* Sometimes given in conjunction with pundurn, or liquid copal, 
which is got from the Vateria Indica (Lin.), and is supposed to 
have virtues in gonorrhoea ; this pundurn is also occasionally called 
peynie varnish, and will be noticed in another part of this work. 



URKASI (Hind.) Vandari ^^}(\ (Sans.) 
Heart-shaped leaved Tragia. 

Tragia Cordata. 

Tragia Cordifolia (Vahl.) 

CL and Ord. Moncecia Triandria. Nat Ord. 

This shrubby, twining plant, was brought' to Dr. 
F. Hamilton while in Berar, where he was informed, 
that the powder of the leaves, given in milk, was a 
remedy for making people grow fat, and to increase 
the seminal secretions. The leaves are cordate ser- 
rate, acuminate, paler underneath; spikes terminating. 
The plant is the jatropha pungens of Forskahl (De» 
scriptiones p. 163.), a name given from its stinging 
like the nettle ; it is a native of Arabia Felix, and 
is called by the natives of that country horekrek 
iSjS^j also meherkaha axjw^** 

/find three species of tmgia grow in Ceylon , two 
have a place in the Hortus Bengalensis, one of which 
we have already noticed, the canchorie (Tarn.), see 
Vol. I. p. 61., and which is the Uchittie of the Ben- 

galese, called in Sanscrit vrishchi-putri <=l IV^R. 


UTTIMARINI (Hind.) Karambha ^TT^TT 
(Sans.) Ivy -leaved Toad Flax, or Snap Dragon. 

Antirrhinum Cymbal aria (Lin,) 
1 1 % 


CI. and Ord. Didynamia Angiospermia. Nat 
Ord. Personate. Eckiges Lowenmaul (Nom. Triv. 


This is a plant which Dr. F. Hamilton had brought 
to him while in Berar, where he was told by a Hin- 
doo medical man, that the dry herb was given, in 
combination with sugar, twice daily in diabetes (Ha- 

xnilton, MSS.) 

The antirrhinum cymbalaria has a perennial fi- 
brous root, and numerous stalks, growing in a tuft, 
creeping at bottom, branches round, purplish, and 
stringy ; leaves heart-shaped, five-lobed, alternate ; 
petioles long, grooved above ; tube of the corolla 
short, the upper lip purple, with two deeper veins ; 
segments of the lower whitish ; the palate yellow ; 
nectary purple, concealed j germ purple ; capsules 
wrinkled ; seeds blackish, roundish, wrinkled, like 
the nut of the walnut ; the whole plant is smooth, 
with a rather disagreeable smell (Curtis), it varies 
with a white flower (Lin.) 

The antirrhinum cymbalaria is a native of Ger- 
many, Switzerland, and Holland, which makes it the 
more singular that Hamilton should have found it in 
the heart of the Indian continent ; a circumstance 
I should scarcely have credited, if I had not seen it 
mentioned in his manuscript, as above stated. Of 
the seventy species of the genus mentioned by Will- 
denow, I can find but one growing so far East* as 
Persia, and that is the papilionaceum. The oldenlandia 
biflora (Lin.), which is the antirrhinum humile of 
Burm. Zeyl. (22. t 11.), is a native of most parts 
of India, and is called by the fiengalese khet-papura, 

and in Sanscrit ^^Mtfl kshetra parppati. 

* Loureiro, however, notices five species, three of which are 
natives of Cochin-China, and two of China proper. See Flora 
Cochin-Chin, vol.ii. p.S8S. 


Our article is the Linaria cymbalaria of the first 
edition of Miller's Dictionary, and the cymbalaria 
vulgaris of Tournefort (Inst 169.) 


WASSINAPILLOO <yun-eP&^[UL£<T&$&/ 

See article Camachie Pilloo, Vol. I. p. 58. 


WIDDATILAM cnSL-frffo\Dflru> (Tarn.) Poo- 
dina *^*x (Duk.) Mint. 

Mentha Sativa (Var») 

See article Mint, in VoL I. p. 241. 



This plant, Dr. Horsfield informs us, in his Account 
of the Medicinal Plants of Java, forms a new genus. 
It acts particularly on the salivary glands; and is 
used by the Javanese for the tooth-ache and strength- 
ening the gums. The peculiar virtue, it would ap- 
pear, lies in the bark, which is rough, pungent, and 

* See Asiatic Journal for April 1819, p. 560. 




rr2/rorePy>nFx/<B (Hart Mai.) Yew-leaved Poly- 

Polypodium Taxifolium (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Cryptogamia Felices, Nat Ord. 
Felices- Taxusblattriger Engelsuss (Nona. Triv. 

We are informed by Rheede (Hort. Mai. part 12. 
p. 25.), that the leaves of this fern, reduced to pow- 
der and taken in honey, are powerful emmenagogues, 
and bring on abortions; he therefore adds, "mulieres 
ergo cavete vobis." Of it, Linnaeus says (Spec* 
Plant. 1545.), "Jronds pinnate; lobes approximating, 
enstform, parallel, acute, ascending ; root rough- 


WOODIAM PUTTAY 63^lljldlj<2>l_ (Tam.) 

WoddiptUta (Tel.) Ajasringgt 3J3Pjjft (Sans.) 

Bark of the Woodia Tree. 

Ooina Pinnata (Koenig). 

Odina Wodier (Roxb.) 

This bark, pounded very fine, and mixed with a 
little margosa oil, the Vytians consider as a valu- 
able application for old and obstinate ulcers. The 
tree is common on the Coromandel coast, where its 
wood is much used for common carpenters' purposes. 


It is of the CL and Ord. Dioeria Octandria, and Nat 
Ord. Dub. Ordinis : it appears to have hitherto been 
only described by Koenig. In Willdenow, of the 
aame class and order, I find only the genus populus. 

Since writing the above I have seen Dr. Roxburgh's 
description of this tree in a manuscript copy of the 
Flora Indica ; he informs us, that it is a very large 
tree, of which nothing can be said in favour, but that 
it grows quick. Of the essential character, he ob- 

" Hermaph. Calyx four-toothed ; coroL four-pe- 
talled; stam. 8; drupe above, one-celled. 

" Male. Coral, calyx, and stamens, as in the her- 
maphrodite.' 9 

The tree is the jewul of the Bengalese ; it is cush- 
mulla in Hindoostanie, and compina in Tellingoo. 


WODOOWUNGHAI 65^cn^K/^nrLu (Tam.) 
Nulloopoo-moostikaia (Tel.) Vishcvoriksha fqq^j^ 

(Sans.) Cadishaw Andrachne. 

Andrachne Cadishaw (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Moncecia Gynandria. Nat. Ord* 

Wodoowunghai is a small nut, nearly the size of a 
filbert, which the Tamools reckon one of their strong, 
est poisons : about one pagoda weight pounded they 
believe to be sufficient to kill a man : the leaves and 
root of the plant are also considered as poisonous j 
the first, which no animal will touch, is, in conjunc- 
tion with kadukai (chebulic myrobalan) supposed to 
be a good application for foul ulcers. 

1 1 4 


Of the genus, of which Wifldenow notices but two 
species, the telephioides mdjhaicosa, the same author 


"Masculi. Cat 5-phyllus; cor. 5-petaIa; stam. 

5 ; styti rudimento inserta. 

" Feminei. Cat. 5-phyllus j cor. ; styli 3 ; caps. 
S-locularis ; sent. 2." 


YERCUM VAYR Qjj&*>&icG&lj'3- (Tarn.) 
Root of the Gigantic Swallow-wort. 


In addition to what I have said of this plant, under 
the head of Mudar-root (vol. i. p. 227.), and Yemim 
Pawl, and Yercum Vayr (vol. i. pp. 486, 487, 488.% 
I shall simply observe, that the reader may find some 
recent information respecting its medicinal properties 
in a valuable paper by G. Playfair, Esq., in the first 
volume of the Transactions of the Medical and Phy- 
sical Society of Calcutta (p. 77*) "• that gentleman 
gives a botanical description of the plant, and describes 
the best method of preparing the mudar (or madar*); 
he says the diseases in which it has been given with 
advantage are various; syphilis, lepra, cutaneous 
eruptions, hectic fever, dropsy, rheumatism, glandu- 
lar obstructions, tape worm, and intermittent fevers. 
The form in which Dr. P. seems chiefly to have pre- 
scribed the medicine is powder, in doses of five or 
six grains twice daily. 

* Which is the rind of the root, equally distinct from the brown 
external crust and the woody part. 


The charcoal of the wood of the yercum (Tarn.), 
and the bark of the root, are much used by the na- 
tives of the Coromandel coast in some of their phar- 
maceutical preparations. The plant is said to be a 
poison for goats and sheep, and is called in Canarese 
yecada. Rheede says (Hort Mai. part 2. p. 55.) 
that a decoction of the root of the ericu is given in 
intermittent fever, and that it is also of advantage 
when prescribed for those swellings which women 
are subject to after confinement. The asclepias 
gigantea was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton, with other 
medicinal plants, while in Behar, and there called ak, 
and in Sanscrit axka : the dry leaves the Vytians of 
that province told him were burnt for the purpose of 
fumigating obstinate sores (dushtraban, Hamilton's 


YETTIE COTTAY GLO_i^e?Ge*n-t_fl®u 
(Tam.) Poison Nut, or Nux Vomica. 

Strychnos Nux Vomica (Lin.) 

See article Poison Nut, Vol. I. p. 317«» or article 


ZUKHUM HYAT oL* j^j. Hemsagar 
(Hind.) Mala-kuttie (Tam.) Homedet ahrobah 
c Lpi uAp. (Forsk.) Hemasagara ^HWFTK (Sans.) 

Cut-leaved Navel-wort. 

Cotyledon Laciniata (Lin.) 


CL and Ord. Decandria Pentagynia. Nat. Ord. 
Succulents. SchUtzblattriges Nabelkraut (Nona. 

Triv. Willd.) 

This is a plant, the bruised, succulent leaves of 
which are considered as a valuable application in cases 
of foul ulcer : they are chiefly employed by the Ma- 
hometan practitioners; and I can myself speak of 
their good effects in cleaning and allaying inflamma- 
tion. It is called by the Cochin-Chinese truongsinh- 
rach-Ia, who consider it as refrigerant (Flor. Cochin- 
Chin, vol. i. p. 286, 2870 lt » weU described by 
Dr. Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica (MSS.) ; but be 
does not appear to have been aware that it was con- 
sidered as possessing any medicinal properties: he 
says of it, " The roots and lower parts of the stem, 
which often rest on the ground, are perennial ; sterns 
several, erect, branchy; lecwes opposite, petioled; 
JUmer large, in an oval pannicle, the divisions gene- 
rally three-fold." The cotyledon laciniata is the 
telephium Africanum (Pluk. Aim. 362. t. 228.) and 
the planta anatis of Rumphius ( Amb. v. p. 275. 
t 95.) In the Hortus Bengalensis I find three spe- 
cies have a place. Willdenow notices twenty-four 
species of cotyledon : most of them are African 
plants. Our article is an African plant ; but seems 
to grow also in India and Cochin-China. 





verbatim as it was given to me by a celebrated Hindoo physi- 
cian of Southern India, and written by a learned native of the 
name of Ramaswamy Naig. 

1. Vydia Chintamunny. 

A r medical work said to be composed by Durmun- 
trie.* The book treats of the pulse, fevers, spas- 
modic and nervous affections, derangements of the 
urinary organs, &c. 

2. Vydia Shattasloikie. 

Another work by the same author, on the Materia 

3. Gonna Pattern. 

Another work by Dhanwantrie, on natural history 
and the nature of the different aliments. 

* The Telliogoos give to this celebrated author a divine origin; 
or, perhaps, by DurmUntrie they mean Dhantoantari, of whom 
some notice is taken in the preliminary observations to this volume. 
Be that as it may, several works of great repute are ascribed to 
him ; Commentaries on the Sacred Medical Sastras. 


4. Curma Candum. 

Another work by the same author, on the causes 
of diseases. 

5. Roga Needanwn. 

Another work of Dkanwantari's, on peculiar con- 
stitutions and temperaments, and the diseases arising 

6. Silpey Sastrum. 

This work treats of the arts and manufactures of 
the Hindoos. It is held in the highest estimation in 
the Southern provinces, and has been translated 
into Tamool and Tellingoo. 

7. Vydia Sastrum. 

A celebrated work on the Materia Medico, by 

For some account of the following Sanscrit books I am 
indebted to the same learned Hindoo*, who gave me the 
list as it now stands ; whether the spelling of the words may 
be conformable to what is adopted in Upper India, I much 

8. Sooskrootum. 

A work by Dhanwantari, one of the incarnations 
6f Vishnoo, consisting of six distinct heads: L 
Relates to terms and definitions j 2. to the different 
parts of the body ; 3. to the nature of diseases ; 
4. to the remedies ; 5. to the diet ; and 6. to general 

* Raroaswamy Naig. 


9. Ustangha Heroodyem. 

The author of this work is Vackbutta Vydeya. 
It consists 'of six parts : 1. the general principles, or 
theory of physic ; 2. relates to the human frame ; 3. 
to the nature of fever and other diseases ; 4. to the re- 
medies for them ; 5. contains the art of compound* 
ing medicine j the 6th, and last, treats of children's 

10. Padardha CJiendrelcah. 

The author of this work is Hamadry. It is also 
called Ayur-Veda Rasayanum, and is a medical sas- 
trum, taken from the Ayur-Veda. 

11. Servangascondary Teeka. 

The author of this is Aruna Dutta. It is a com- 
mentary on the two last-mentioned books. 

12. Heroodya Deepeka Neguntoo. 

The author of this is Boshadavah. It is a diction- 
ary or book of reference for the Ustangha Heroo- 

13. Sekitcha Sara Sungraham. 

The author of this is Vungasha. It treats of the 
nature of fever, and many other diseases, with their 

14. Sekitchah Meroota Sagaram. 

The author of this is Devy Dasah. Its subject is 
nearly the same as that of the last-mentioned work j 
but it also includes such ailments as are brought on 
mankind by their iniquities. 


15. RasanOna Samoochayem. 

The author's name is Vakbuttah. It treats of the 
medicines which are prepared with quicksilver, arse- 
nic, and nine other metals ; also of sulphur, and pre- 
cious stones, and contains, besides, numerous formulae, 
applicable to various diseases. 

16. Rassa Rutnacaram. 

The author is Nitteyananda Siddah. It also treats 
of medicines prepared with various metals. 

17* Rasa Sarum. 

The author's name is Govhndacharry. It treats of 
the metals, likewise of precious stones, pharmacy, 
and many curious mysteries. 

18. Videya Chintamoney. 

The author's name is Vullabendrah. It is a general 
treatise on diseases and their remedies. 

19. Bhalum. 

The author's name is Bhalacharyah Reshie. It is 
a work on nosology, and the practice of medicine. 

20. Sharunga Dareyam. 

The author's name is Sharunga. It is a work 
nearly similar to the last-mentioned. 

SI. Bhashqjah Serwaswam. 

This is a work composed by one of the sages of 
antiquity, name unknown. It treats of the medicines 
applicable to a number of diseases. 


22. Vydeyah Saravafy, and Sidayoga Retnccaaly, 
are two works similar to the last-mentioned. 

23. KxdUanah Carakah Bhashqjam. 

The author is W oograditteya Chareya Reshie. A 
general work on medicine. 

24. Shikritcha Kalekah. 

A work on medicine, by Tee sat. 

25. Sarasungraham. 

A medical sastrum, author's name not known. 

26. Vydeyamrootum. 

A medical work, by Shevah. 

27. Bummmtry Saranedy. 

A medical work, by Veyasdh Maha Reshie. 

28. Aurogyah Chintamoney . 

A work on medicine, by Pundetah Damodareh, 

29. Roogvy Nechayem. 

A medical work, by Madava Chareyah. 

SO. Shatashooloky* 

A medical work, by an ancient writer, whose 
name is Hot correctly ascertained. 

31. Chendracalah. 

A medical work, by Bopa Dawah. 


82. Bavardah Dauyekah. 

The author's name Vanyduttafu This and the pre- 
ceding work are commentaries on the Shatashooloty. 

33. Vydeyah Jeevanam. 

The author's name is Solimbah Rajah. A short 
treatise on medicine. 

34. Yoga Shatacum. 

A short treatise on medicine, by Vararoochy. 

35. Bashajah Sungrahum. 

This work is also sometimes named Shatasubky. 
It is a medical work by an ancient Doctor. 

36. Chunnypatah Pada Chendrelca. 

The author's name is Manikeyah* It is a com- 
mentary on the last-mentioned work. 

37. Chunnypatarn Avum. 

This is a short work on thirteen different kinds of 

38. Bhojanakootoohalum. 

An interesting work, composed by Ragoonadah 
Soory, on the nature of alimentary substances 5 it 
has frequent reference to the celebrated Derma 
Shastrum y and treats besides on the constitutions of 
women as differing from those of men. 

39. Ayoorvada Pracashum. 

A work on the venereal disease, by Madvopaddeycey. 


40. Ayoorvada Mahodady. 

A work on diet, by StreemooJcah. 

41. Chamutcara Chintamany. 

This is a manual for the treatment of many diseases, 
and written by Govindah Rajah. 

42. Vydeyavatumsum. 

A work on diet and general management of pa- 
tients during the time they are taking medicine, by 
Lolimba Rajah. 

43. Bhashaja Culpum. 

This is a curious work, giving the trivial names of 
the medicines, to make them accessible to common 
people j it is composed by a celebrated maha re- 
shie (prophet) called Bharedvqjah. 

44. Rajah Neguntoo. 

A work consisting of different medical tracts 
composed by Narasimma Pundit ; it is also sometimes 
called Abkydana Chudamony. 

45. Putleyah Pulley ah Vebodaha Neguntoo. 
A work very similar to the last. 

46. Dunvuntry Neguntoo* 

A work on medicine of very great antiquity, and 
extremely scarce in Lower India, composed by a 
maha reshie whose name is unknown. 
• V0L» II, k k 


47. Abhydana Retnamalah. 

This is a work like the last ; it is also sometimes 
named Skudrasa Negunto ; it treats of several me- 
dicines not in common use, and also of various 
minerals and metals* 

48. Mahapatum* 

This work is said to have been dictated by Pakh 
caveya to Romapada Rajah ; it treats of elephants, 
their breeding, diseases, &c 

49. Sara Sindhoo. 

This is a usefiil and curious work, which treats of 
horses, the best mode of breeding them, their dis- 
eases, &c- 

50. Siddayogah Retnavahjf. 

A rather desultory work on various diseases, by 
an ancient author. 

51. Kalpastanum. 

This is the name of a medical work, part of which 
was translated by Dr. Heyne, and to which he makes 
frequent reference in his " Tracts Historical and 
Statistical on India." 

52. Amerah Cosha. 

This is a celebrated Sanscrit Dictionary, which 
gives an interesting account of many things con- 
nected with natural history, &c. ; it was written by 
Amera Sinhah, and has been admirably translated 
into English by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq.* 

* Mr, Ward, in his excellent « View of the History of the 
Literature and Mythology of the Hindoos" (vol. ir. p. S41.)> in- 


58. Rqjabattabba. 

This is a work on the Materia Medica of the 
Indians j it is written by Naryanadasa in the Ben- 
galese character. 

54*. Agni Purana. 

This is a celebrated work, pretended to have been 
delivered by Agni, the god of fire. Sir W. Jones 
has called it an epitome of the Hindoo learning. 
Amongst many other subjects it contains a valuable 
treatise on the healing art, applicable to man and 
beast ; it is written in the Bengalese characters. See 
Sir W. Jones's works, vol. xiii. pp. 405, 406. 



The greater number of these were originally written in high 
Tamool Terse {yeUacanum) ; others were composed in Sanscrit, 
and subsequently translated into Tamool. 

1. V$tia Vdghddum Ayrit Any our oo <ruu£&&\u 

A medical work by Reesh6 Aghastier * : it is 
written in Tamool poetry, and consists of 1,500 verses. 

forms us of the names of sixteen original medical writers, taken 
from the Makundeyou Pooranu ; he also, in the same work, and 
yolume and page, gives some account of the medical tracts still 
extant in the higher provinces of India: these appear some- 
what to differ from the writings above mentioned, which are 
common in Lower Hindoostan. 

* I have been at much pains to ascertain the period at which 
Aghastier lived, but have not been able to procure any information 

KK 2 


2. Tunmundrie Vdghddum &&xLDCB&r'rr&LjrcG> 

A medical work, originally written by Tunmundrie 
m Sanscrit, and translated into Tamool verse by 
Aghastier. It consists of 2000 verses. The Hindoo 
practitioners hold it in high veneration, for the 
particular account it gives of many diseases, and the 
valuable receipts it contains. 

3. Cunda Pooranum 05755 i^L^n-aooTLo * 

A work on ancient history, originally written in 
Sanscrit verse, by Reeshe Aghaslier, and afterwards 
translated into Tamools by Cuchidpd Brammy. It 
consists of 1000 stanzas. 

that it satisfactory. He, like some other great writers of anti- 
quity amongst the Hindoos, is said to have had a divine origin ; 
and the account of his birth (which may be found amongst the 
sacred records of the great pagoda at Madura, in a book entitled 
" Voolhra Ranmoynom," composed by Vaultneegar) is a very ex- 
traordinary one, out too indelicate to be inserted here. This 
much, however, may be told, that he had two fathers, both gods; 
the one named Mittheren, and the other Vdranen (the deity of 
rain) ; and that the beautiful dancing woman, Voorveshee, was the 
incitement to his creation, but not his mother. The infant child 
was baptised Aghastier, by the seven holy prophets, and Penu- 
latheebagavain (the high priest of the gods) ; who, having per- 
formed certain religious ceremonies over him, put round him the 
braminical and sacerdotal string, and ordered that he should be 
instructed in every science. With increasing years, Aghaxtier 
became a most wonderful and enlightened personage ; and was 
not less celebrated for his great learning, than for his chanty, 
piety, and benevolence. He worked numerous miracles ; and»- 
besides many valuable medical books, he wrote various dis- 
sertations on moral and natural philosophy. He composed in 
high Tamool verse, according to the custom of the age in 
which he lived ; and is said to have greatly improved and refined 
his native language. This mdgha reeshe, or saint, is supposed to 
have been born in the Southern part of the peninsula ; and Re- 
ligion relate, that he is even now, at times, visible, and that his 
healing spirit hovers amongst the mountains of Courtalum. 


4. Tiroaouleaudel Pooranum ^ts?c5is»Aivruj/rL- 

A work on moral philosophy, originally written in 
Sanscrit, by Aghastier, and subsequently translated 
into Tamool verse by Pururyovdy, a Pundarum. It 
consists of 3,367 stanzas. 

5. Poosavedy i^^rrcnS^ 

This book treats of the religious rites and ceremo- 
nies of the Hindoos. It was written by Aghastier, 
and consists of 200 verses. 

6. Deekshaavedy g^w 2_ftn-cnj£3P 

* A work which treats of magic and enchantment, 
on the use and virtues of the rosary, and on the edu- 
cation of youth. It consists of 200 verses, and was 
written by Aghastier. 

7. Pernool Gl-jq^C&tcv) 


A medical work, written by Aghastier, in high 
Tamool. It consists of 10,000 verses, and treats 
fully of all diseases, regimen, &c 

8. Poorna Nool \^&63&rs/r\±i&o 

This book consists of 200 verses. It was written 
by Aghastier, and treats chiefly of exorcising; it also 
contains many forms of prayer. 

9- Poorna Soostrum \ c j[) r f6&x$5>2J}3)$r r T\£> 

A work on the intuition of religious disciples, and 

on their forms of devotion, and which also treats of 

the materia medica and regimen. It was written by 

Agha$tier 9 and consists of 216 verses, 

kk 3 


10. Thrnookr Vptia Vdghddum ^^Q^a^rra^JLiS 


A medical work by Tirmooler, a great prophet of 
antiquity. It treats particularly of the symptoms of 
diseases, and of the diet that ought to be observed 
during the administration of medicine. It was written 
in Tamool verse, and consists of upwards of 2000 

11. Curma CSndum Byt^sLo^rrs^rL^io 

A medical shaster by Aghastier, written in Tamool 
verse, and consisting of 300 stanzas ; supposed to 
be translated from the Sanscrit of Durrmmtrie. It 
treats of those diseases which are inflicted on mankind 
for their follies and vices. 

12. Aghastier Vptia Ernoot Unjie ai9^2-Ci5*ES\u 

'f-o^jLLffg-gpLus aaC5 

A work on medicine and chemistry, written by 
Aghastier, in Tamool verse, and consisting of 205 

13. Aghastier Vytia Nootieumbid ^e?2uQ3'gpuj'? a 

A work in Tamool verse, written by Aghastier. It 
consists of 150 stanzas; and treats of the purification* 
or rendering innocent, of sixty-four different kinds of 
poison (animal, metallic, and vegetable), so as to 
make them safe, and fit to be administered as medi- 


14. Aghastier Vytia Vaghddwn Napotdttoo o|gro 9 
•5* BPlu d^cruLL^s-g^Luavj/r 05" I— LDe=2J 

A medical shaster, written by Aghastier, in Tamool 
verse, on the cure of gonorrhoea ; and consisting of 
48 stanzas, 

15. Aghastier Vytia Padinarroo 2je72J25"STuu'f* 

A medical shaster, written by Aghastier, in Ta- 
mool, and consisting of 16 verses. It treats of the 
diseases of the head, and their remedies. 

16. Aghastier Viftia Erdnoor 24 e> 2-0-5" SPuj^cnJ 

A medical shaster, written by Aghastier, in 200 
Tamool verses. It treats of chemistry and alchymy. 

17. Calikidnum e^s/tro eygpLun-tfrorLo 

A work on theology, written, in Tamool verse, by 
Aghastier, and consisting of 200 stanzas. 

18. MoOgpOO OPL- IL-1 

A medical shaster, written by Aghastier, in Ta- 
mool verse, and consisting of 50 stanzas. It treats 
of the eighteen different kinds of leprosy, and their 

19. Aghastier Vytia Ayrit Erdnoor ajsr2-C^g\u 


A medical shaster, written by Aghastier* in Ta- 
mool verse, and consisting of 1 ,200 stanzas. It treats 
ef botany and the Materia Medica* 


30. Agkastier V$tia Anyouroo ^&2JZ®&\urt'<TLj 

A valuable work on medicine, written by Agkastier, 
in Tamool verse, and consisting of 500 stanzas. It 
treats very fully of many diseases, and contains a 
great variety of useful formulas. 

21. Agkastier Vfyia Moon-noor aje> 2J^g^jLjd L 

A work on pharmacy, written by Agkastier, in 
Tamool verse, and consisting of 300 stanzas.* 

SCIENTIFIC BOOKS; the name* of some of which were 
taken from Stewart's descriptive Catalogue of Tippoo Sultan's' 


1. Canoonie Secundrie ^ssS^^y^AS 

The medical rules of Secunder. A Persian work 
originally written in Syrian, by Ydhiakoord, and 
translated into Persian by Secunder. It treats fully 
of all diseases, and their remedies. 

2. Krabadmi Secundrie £;JoC»^Uj» 

The pharmacy of Secunder, A Persian work, 
originally written in Syrian by Yahiakoorb, and 
translated into Persian by Secunder.i 

* The account of the medical and other works of Agkastier in 
the foregoing list, was obligingly procured for me by Dr. M. 
Christy, from a learned Brahmin belonging to the great pagoda 
at Madura. 

f A beautiful copy of this celebrated work, in four volumes 
folio was presented to the Royal Asiatic Society by H, T. Cole* 
brooke, Esq. 


3. Tibbal Akhtr ^\^ 

A celebrated Persian medical work, written by 
Akbar (commonly known by the name of Mahumud 
Arzanie), which treats fully of diseases and their 

4. Krabadini Shefaie 'ijIA&^aUjS 

The pharmacy of ShSfcUe, compiled in Persian by 
Hakeem Muzitffer, son of Hussenie Shefaie. 

5. Mtf/urdatie Secunderee <sj>jLȣ,hjiuo 

A work on the Materia Medica, originally written 
in Syrian, by Yahidkoorb, and translated into Persian 
by Secunder. It seems to be a curious and interest- 
ing work, as it not only gives us the opinions of the 
old Arabian physicians regarding the articles of the 
Materia Medica, but also many of the later notions 
of the Medical men of Europe. 

6. Mtifurdatie Moomina Lu^ot^U 

A work on the Materia Medica by Moomna* in 
Persian, but originally written in Arabic* 

* It is well known, that the Arabians, at a very early period, 
cultivated the science of medicine; but little information has 
reached us regarding any of their physicians of note, previous to 
Serapion and Avenzoar, who lived in the seventh and eighth 
centuries. These were followed by Rhazes, Avicenna, Mesue> 
Rabbi Moise, Halt Abbas, Aharamus and others, who flourished 
during the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries. It is true, thai 
they were almost mere copiers of the Greeks (many of whose 
valuable writings fell into their hands, after having miraculously 
escaped the fury of the Saracens, at the destruction of the se- 
cond f library at Alexandria), yet it is to them that the world 
stands indebted for many articles of high repute in the Materia 

t See « Cabani'i Sketch of the Rewlutumt of Medical Science," g. 10* 


7. Kitab Uladweea wul AgzeeSht Aboo Yakoob 
Ishaak bin SoUmaan VI IsraiUe 

A work in Arabic on medicine and regimen, by 
Aboo Yakoob Ishaak, the son of SoUmaan Ul IsraiUe. 

8. Kitab Uladweea Bin B$tar Jz».tf*b*&£& 

A medical work in Arabic, which treats of all 
simple medicines, by Bin By tar* 

9. Kitab utjudrie wul Husbah aboo Giqfur Ahum- 
mud Bin Mahumud 

A work in Arabic on small-pox and measles, by 
Aboo Giqfur Bin Mahumud. 

10. Kitabi Sirsam wo Birsam Aboo Giqfur Ahum- 
mud Bin Mahumud 

A work in Arabic on phrensy and madness, by 
Aboo Giqfur Bin Mahumud. 

Medica, and for having first encouraged that research into the 
vegetable kingdom, which has, in later ages, proved so beneficial 

to mankind. 

It would seem as if the Syrians had been antecedent to the 
Arabs in translating from the Greek ; and there are extant many 
Arabic tracts, professedly taken from the Syrian, which are 
known to have been originally .written by Hippocrates* Nor did 
the industrious followers of Mahomet rest contented with borrow- 
ing from the Greeks, the then most enlightened nation of Europe ; 
we find that they were also in the habit of looking. towards the 
more remote regions of the East, to increase their stock of know- 
ledge, and of translating into their own language some of the 
medico-theological compositions of the Indian physicians. 


11. Kitab Ulsoomoom 

A work in Arabic on poisons ; originally written 
by the Indian * Shanak, afterwards translated into 
Persian by Aboo Hatem, and subsequently into Arabic 
by Abbas Said Uljowh4rie. 

12. Kitdbi Shawshoord Alhindie ^oa^bysl£ v ur 

An Arabic work, which treats of the articles of 
the Materia Medica, and gives rules by which they 
may be distinguished. Originally written by the 
Indian Shawshoord, and afterwards translated into 

13. Kitab Ulghuza wul Mughtozie Aboo Giqfur 
Uttobeeb *t>Mjm*x\$±5kfy\toto^ 

A book in Arabic, which treats of aliments, and 
of the sick who use them, by Aboo Giqfur Utto- 

14. Kitab Ulnubz Ul Aristoo J^JS\y^\^ 

A work in Arabic on the pulse, originally written 
by Aristotle; first translated into the Syrian language, 
and subsequently into Arabic. 

15. Mujurdatie Ghumiie Mahumtld j^^^iitA^JU 

A work in Arabic on the Materia Medica, by 
Ghunnie Mahumud. 

* A curious fact, ascertaining the borrowing of the Arabian* 
from the Indians. 

508 KATBftiA. none*. ww ro 

10. Ulfaz Udwiyih 

The Materia Medica, in the Arabic, Persian, and 
Hindooie languages ; compiled by Noureddeen Mo- 
hammed Abdullah Shirazy, physician to the Emperor 
Shdkjehan; with an English translation by Mr. 
Francis Gladwin. 

17. Jami SI UWm *>Wt £«U> 

. A treatise, in Persian, on universal science (viz.), 
on astrology, geography, physic, music, theology, 
war, agriculture and horticulture, omens, talismans, 
chemistry, magnets, &c, composed by Sujy Moham- 
med Ghos, of Gwaliar. 

18. Juahir Nameh **\i 

The science of precious stones, and minerals of 
all kinds, written in Persian, by Mohammed Ben- 
munsur, and dedicated to Abul Nusur Hassen Be- 
hadur Khan.* 

19. Khuds al HejarJ>c*a£\ <j*tj^ 

A treatise on gems and mineralogy, translated into 
Persian from the Arabic by Allamy Tuff ashy. 

20. Khuds al Htvan ^y^\ u*l>£ 

A very excellent natural history of animals, trans- 
lated into Persian from the Arabic of Hayyet al Hat* 
van, by Mohammed Tuky Tabrizy, and dedicated to 
Shah Abass the second, of Persia. 

* Another valuable work on the same subject is entitled 

iJiJjAjJ^s* Wj*ly*J>J&i 5M j[&)\ wU£ ; it is composed by 

Achmed Teifascite, and Has been admirably translated into Italian 
by Antonio Rained, Professor of Oriental Languages at Florence.' 


21. Mtgmua al Senayi *jU*rfl «♦«*« 

The repository of arts, in Persian ; containing in- 
structions for making artificial gems or .stones, co- 
lours or paints of all kinds, also fire-works j to which 
is added, the art of dyeing cloths, silks, &c. This 
work was compiled during the reign of Aurung* 
zebe j the author is Zein al Aabidin 

22. Resaleh Rung va Buy gy* ^Jj aJU, 

A treatise, in Persian, on the art of dyeing cloths, 
and of composing perfumes ; it is a collection of re- 
ceipts on these subjects, made by order of Tippoo 

23. Muferredat Der Ilmi Tibb c*k JUp wbjic 

A treatise, in Persian, on botany and natural 
history, translated from French and English books, 
by order of Tippoo Sultan. 

24. Itmam al Dirayet Shereh Lughdyet 

A very diffuse Arabic treatise on general science. 

25. Zekhlrek Khuarizm Shay ^Ls fj^l^ *j*£* 

The preface of this Persian work gives a descrip- 
tion of the kingdom of Khuarizin, its climate, water, 
soil, and products. The ten chapters of the work 
treat of many diseases, general as well as local, 
surgery, eruptions, poisons and their antidotes, and 
of medicines simple and compound. The first chap- 
ter particularly details the various sciences and sub- 
jects requisite to be known by a physician previous 
to commencing his practice. The author is Isrnael 
JBen Hussein Ben Mohamed Jorany, and the work i$ 
dedicated to Khuarizim Shaw. 


26. KhffiAtti*** 

A treatise, in Persian, on the preservation of 
health ; containing well written essays on air, seasons, 
houses, clothing, food, water, wine, sleep, exercise, 
emetics and purgatives, involuntary vomiting, bleed- 
ing, shavirig, and disease in general ; to which are 
added precautions to be observed when exposed to 
the inclemency of the weather ; by the above author 
(Ismael Ben Hussein), in A. D. 11 13. 

27- TOM YadgarjSsLt 

A sensible Persian treatise on medicine, in four* 
teen chapters, to which is added an extensive phar- 
macopoeia ; by the above author. 

28. Kifaieti Mujahidtn ^j^Uyo CJJ& 

An exposition of diseases, in Persian, particularly 
those to which women are subject, with the proper 
mode of treating them ; to which is added an essay 
on the management and care of children. Author, 
Munsur Mohammed; dedicated to Sekunder Shah 
the second, of Dehly. Composed A. D. 1300c 

29. Dustur al Ilaj gJWtj^a 

- A diffuse work, in Persian, on the practice of 
physic, by Sultan Aly of Korassan, A. D. 1334., 
dedicated to Abu Said Behaudur Khan, Emperor 
of the Moguls. 

30. Maadeni Shtfa ULs 

The mine of remedies, or the physician's vade 
tnecum ; containing a long list of diseases, with the 
proper method of cure, alphabetically arranged; it 
is in Persian ; the author Aly Ben Hussen, of Bok- 
hara j A. D. 1368. 


31. Bahet al Insan /^UJ y\ c&S. 

A general treatise on medicine, in Persian j to which 
are added, prayers, charms, &c. for averting sickness. 
Author, Abd al Cuvvy Ben Shehdd, A. D. 1376. 

32. Tohfet Khany ^JU Si**? 

A volume containing the whole science of medi- 
cine. The first chapter treats of the knowledge and 
learning requisite for a physician, and the four other 
chapters treat of all diseases, general as well as local, 
to which both sexes are subject ; of their cures, and 
also of medicines, simple and compound, and poisons 
and stings of noxious animals, with the cures for 
them j it is in Persian. The author is Mahmud Ben 
Mohammed, physician of Shiraz; written A. D. 1496. 

S3. Madden al Shefai Sekunder Shaky 

^Us j<y&» <fU£ll (.yXx* 

The mine of remedies, a general treatise on the 
science of physic, in Persian. Author, Beva Ben 
Khuas Khan ; A. D. 1512. $ and dedicated to Sekun- 
der Shah the second. 

*»• M 

34. Tohfet al Mominin ^^\ 
The whole science of medicine, compiled from 

various authorities, both Sanscrit and Arabic ; it is 
in Persian. Author, Mohammed Momin Vuld Mo» 
hammed Dilimy.* 

35. Muntekhab Tohfet al Mdminin 

An abridgment of the above work, held in much esti- 
mation. The author is Hussen Nasir Allah ; A.D. 1587* 

* A copy of this work has been presented to the Royal Asiatic 
Society by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq* 

3512 • MATKBIA INDICA. • *A»T II. 

36. Tucuim al Adviah ^^\ ^yu 

The apothecaries* vade mecum, in Persian, con- 
tains an extensive list of medicines, with a description 
of their qualities and uses, arranged in regular tables. 
Author unknown. 

87- Gorabhttny Masumy ^y^x^utd^j* 

The complete dispensatory, in Persian ; in which 
the various qualities of medicines are defined, and 
proper modes of compounding them fully explained. 
Author, Masum Ben Ibrahim Shlrdzy ; A. D. 1649. 

38. Ikhtiarati Bedid va Aghrdz al Tibb 

Two volumes, in Persian. The first contains a 
long list of medicines, simple and compound, and 
describes their uses. The second comprises the 
whole science of physic, uniting the theory of the 
ancients with the practice of the moderns. Authors, 
Aly Ben Hussein of Bagdad, and IsmdSl Ben Hus- 
sein al Jorany. 

39. Tdshrih £j m j&J 

The whole anatomy of the human frame : a work, 
in Persian, held in great estimation, and of consider- 
able merit. Author, Munsur Ben Mohammed. 
Dedicated to Pir-Mohammed Jehangir, grandson of 
Timur, in A. D. 1396. 

40. Tucuim al Abdan ^tooJM pjytt 

An analysis, in Persian, of the human frame ; with 
a discussion of the various complaints each member 
is separately liable to, and the proper remedies for 


every disease explained. The whole is in ruled co- 
lumns, and arranged in tables. Author, Yaheja Ben 
Jssa Aly Jezzar. 

41. Tibbi Akbery. Tejnrribati Akbery. Corabi- 
dmi Cadery ^IS ^Jul^S. e^l oL^J. g^fl 4^ 

Three different works, in Persian. The first is a 
translation of the Arabic work Shereh al Asbab, a 
celebrated tract on the causes, signs, and remedies 
of diseases. The second is a general treatise on 
physic. And the third contains an extensive pharma- 
copoeia of the medicines used in Hindoostan. The 
author of the above works was Mohammed Akbar 
Arzany, physician to the Emperor Aurungzebe, to 
whom they are dedicated. 

42. RiSz Alumgiry $*£{&* o^u 

An esteemed treatise, in Persian, on medicines, 
food, and clothing ; by Mohammed Riza : dedicated 
to the Emperor Aurungzebe. 

43. Sehet al Amrdz va Corabidim Shtfai 

Two volumes, in Persian. The first is said to con- 
tain prescriptions for the cure of all disorders ; and 
the latter the complete dispensatory, alphabetically ar- 
ranged. The authors are Pir-Mohammed Guzerdtty, 
A. D. 1726., and Muzuffer Shtfa. 

44. Kanutii Sekmdery. Mualijeh Sehmdery* 
Corabadini Sehmdery 

Three volumes, in Persian. The first contains a 
treatise on all disorders to which mankind are subject, 



with the proper modes of cure. Tfie second is an 
appendix to the last The third contains a complete 
pharmacopoeia of the medicines used in the Camatic. 
The author, Sekunder Ben IsmdSl of Constantinople, 
physician to Nabob Mohammed Aly Khan of Arcot, 
to whom the three volumes are dedicated ; the first 
in 1747, and the last in 1751. 

45. Maadeni Tejerrebat oLj 

The mine of experience; an esteemed Persian 
treatise on medicine, alphabetically arranged, in 
which the virtues of each drug are particularly ex- 
plained. Author, Mohammed Mahdy, A. D. 1756. 

46. Fertmgi Tdbiban. Mizani Tibb. Nuskheh 

Adviah iu^S a&wJ* <-J* (jjjf** Ci>^t^ *&*j* 

Three volumes. The first is a Persian medical 
dictionary, containing a very extensive list of medi- 
cines, with a description of their qualities, alphabeti- 
cally arranged. The second contains a well-written 
treatise, in Persian, on heat, cold, drought, moisture, 
and pregnancy. The third is a collection of medical 
receipts on different subjects. Authors, not known. 
It is also in Persian, 

47. Tqerribeh Hakim Aly Akbar va Resaleh Tibb 

Two volumes, in Persian. The first is a diffuse 
treatise on physic, compiled chiefly from actual prac- 
tice. The other is a treatise on medicine, in which 
the danger of trusting an ignorant person to com- 
pound is strongly dwelt on. Authors, Ah/ Akbar, 
and Mohammed Masum. 


48. Funrii duum der Tibb va Mujmui Retail 

Two volumes. The first is a general treatise, in 
Persian, on the disorders to which the human species 
is incident. The other contains three essays, also in 
Persian, on the following subjects; viz. medicine, 
astrology, and interpretation of dreams. Authors, 
Aly Ydr KhSn, and Abul Fuzl Hussein. 

49. JSm at FOaid va Fdideh al Akbar 

Two volumes, in. Persian. Both works are com- 
pendiums of, or selections from, the most esteemed 
books of physic Author, YusitfBen Mohammed. . 

50. Kholdseh al Tejerrebat va ResaJeh Chob Chiny 

Two volumes, in Persian. The first contains three 
short treatises on medicine, and the art of dyeing 
cloths, and making paper. The latter is an essay on 
the virtues of the chob chiny. Author, Mohammed 
Ben Musaud. < 

51. Asrari Atibba va Shtfai al Bejel 

Two volumes, in Persian. The first contains essays 
on the virtues of medical amulets and charms, for 
averting or removing disease ; the other is a curioua 
treatise on medicine, in verse. Author, Shehab Ad» 

l l a 


52. Tejerrebeh ^X^ ^UU 

A general treatise in Persian, on physic $ with 
observations derived from actual practice. Author's 
name Jamasp. 

53. Bihr al Munqfi £&♦!! ^ 

The sea of profit A diffuse Persian work on 
midwifery, treatment of children, enchantments, 
exorcising devils, &c. 

54. Tokfet Mohammedy £«x»ay« 

A general treatise on Medicine, alphabetically ar* 
ranged, dedicated to Tippoo Sultan, by Mohammed 
Nasir Turk. The work is in Persian. 

55. Kanun Der Ilmi Tibb *-& fl*j* UJ*^* 

A translation into Persian of the complete London 
Dispensatory. Translated by order of Tippoo Sultan. 

56. Terjumeh Ketabi Angriz y.fa v^ 
Terjumeh Ketabi Fring Jiij* lJj& 

Two volumes, in Persian. The first is a translation 
in Persian, of an English treatise on electricity and 
medical experiments ; the other is a translation of 
Dr. Cockburne's treatise on the disease called intus- 


ST. Tohfeh Kant Ilqj s iU ^jtf ***£ 

The whole system of farriery, or veterinary art, 
in Persian, describing all the diseases of horses, and 
their cure. It is a translation from the Hindi, by 
Mohammed Cassim Ben Sherif Khan. 


58. Resaleh Tibbi Aspan ^UJ ^ *JU, 

A much esteemed work on farriery, in Persian. 
Translated from Sanscrit by Zein al Amin, A. D. 
1519, and dedicated to Shdms Addeen Muzuffir Shah. 

59. Conun Fil Tibb «-*U» ^ ^.^1$ 

In two volumes. This Arabic work is well known 
in Europe under the name of the Canons of Avicenna. 
It treats of medicine and diseases in general, simple 
and compound medicine, their qualities and virtues, 
also of anatomy ; it consists of five books. The author 
is the celebrated Abu Aly Hussein Ben Abd Allah 
Ben Sina, or Avicenna ; he was born in the city of 
Bokhara, A. D. 980, and died at Hamadan in Persia, 
A. D. 1036 ; he was considered as the greatest phi- 
losopher and physician of his age. An edition of 
his work in Arabic was printed at Rome, in 1595, 
afterwards translated into Latin, and published at 
Venice, in 1608. 

60. Hulli Mujiz al Canum ^j^UUI y»yo fc> 

Annotations, in Arabic, on the Commentary of Ala 
Addeen Aly Al Coreishy Ibn Nafis, who died A. D. 
1288 j termed, Miffiz al Canum Fil Tibb, being an 
epitome of the Canons of Avicenna : the work con- 
sists of four chapters. The author is Nqfiz Ben 
Avix 9 who resided at the court of Ulugh Beig, about 
the middle of the 15th century. 

61. Shereh Nqfisy ^^iS && 

A commentary, in Arabic, on the above work, by 

the same author. 



68. Ahnoghny Fi Shereh alMiffiz y»y}\ ^& g <J*J\ 

A commentary, in Arabic, on the Mujiz of Ala 
Addeen Aly Ben Abu al Hazhn al Coreishy, being a 
compendium of the science of physic, compiled from 
the works of Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna, HoruSn 
AlrUzy, and others. It is divided into four chapters. 
The author is Sedid Addeen Gazeruny. 

63. Shereh Asbab va Itctmut a-.M* 3 v 1 ***' cr 

A commentary on the Asbab va Ilamut of Nejb Ad- 
deen Mohammed Omar. It is a celebrated Arabic treap 
tise on the causes, signs, and remedies of diseases, by 
NqfisBenAviz, dedicated toSultanUlugh BeigGurgan. 

64. Tezkireh Tastfdeh va Havy Saghtr 

Two volumes, in Arabic These are both general 
treatises on medicine. Authors 9 names, Mohammed 
IshaJc and Hqfiz Mohammed. 

65. Bihr al JUahir va Sihx>a al Mustaham 

Two volumes, in Arabic. Two diffuse treatises 
on medicine in general. Author, Mohammed Ben 
Yusiifof Herat. 

66. Durr al Mmt&khub va Rescdeh Tibb 

Two volumes, in Arabic. Abridgements or com- 
pendiums of the foregoing works. Authors unknown. 

67. Masir id Amra *\f8\ jiL$ 

Memoirs of illustrious men, composed byShahnavaz 
Khm^J±j\y%\£- Is a work in Persian, in great repute. 


68. Tucvlm al Advtah va Mokhteser Jdttnus. 

The physician and apothecary's tables, in Arabic j 
in which the disorders of the human frame are de- 
scribed and proper remedies detailed j to which is 
added an abridgement of the works of Galen. Author 
A bul Fazil Ben Ibrahim of Tabriz* 

69. Zubdeh al Hikim, va KhuSs al FSakik 

Two volumes, in Arabic. The first contains rules for 
the preservation of health, by a proper attention to 
food, dress, cleanliness, &c. j also a treatise on far- 
riery. The second is an essay on fruits, describing 
their good and bad qualities. Author's name, Ahmed 
Ben Mohammed> and dedicated to Secunder Pasha. 

70. Sudr Shereh Hedayet al Hifanut 

A very copious commentary, in Arabic, oft the 
Hedayet al Hikmut, comprising the whole course of 
the sciences read in the schools. A work much es- 
teemed amongst the Mohametans of Hindoostan. 
Author, Mohammed Ben Ibrahim Sudr, Chief Judge 
of Shiraz. 

71. Ketab al She/a ULSJl v ltf 

A celebrated system of natural philosophy, in 
Arabic (twenty-four chapters), theology, metaphy- 
sics, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, mathematics, geo- 
metry, astrology, anatomy, poetry, and music, by 
Abu Aby Ben Sind (Avicennd). 

Lh 4 


72. Bihr al Ut/Un qj^iJI ^ 

A Persian treatise, translated into Arabic, on the 
formation of the elixir, or philosopher's stone, geo- 
money, talismans, &c. Author unknown ; the work 
is dedicated to Amir Syed Casim. 

N. B. Russel, in his History of Aleppo, speaks of 
a valuable Persian manuscript, entitled "The History 
of Philosophers who lived in the Year 1973 of the 
Heejera ;" he also mentions a " History of Physi- 
cians," by all accounts a curious work, written by 
Ua*?I ^ I w jI Ebn Abi Aseiba.* 

by a learned Vytian of Southern India. 

1. Kylasa Chuttamoony VadanooL 

This work explains the art of making nine metals 
into strong powders. It also treats of arsenic and 
other powerful medicines. 

2. Boger Elnooroo (700 verses). 

This teaches the mode of compounding many 
powerful medicines. 

3. Caresel Punjady of Aghasiier Moonooroo (300 

This teaches how to compound strong powders, 
pills, and other forms of medicine. 

* The reader who is anxious about Arabic and Persian liter- 
ature, is particularly referred to. Stewart's admirable Descriptive 
Catalogue of Tippoo Sultan's library. 


4. Nadysdstrum. 

- This work treats of the pulse. 

5. Vydeya Vagadum. 

This work enumerates the names and nature of 
many diseases and medicines. 

6. Concananinar N55L 

This teaches how to compound many powerful 

7. Ctcmbaiy Chuttamoony Neguntoo. 

A dictionary of drugs, and the art of compounding 

8. Soger yogamarga MVSlelca. 

Coyasiddy, or the art of strengthening the body : 
Yogtisiddy, or the art of making culpums * and seve- 
ral other medicines. 

9. Aghastier Vydeyah Moondoroo (300 verses). 

This chiefly instructs us in the art of making various 

10. Boganinar Teroomtmtrum. 

This explains the art of preparing several medi- 
cines, into which the metals enter. 

11. Pxmnamaday SeUady. 

This treats of several medicines prescribed for dif- 
ferent diseases. 

* Culpumr 9 are any preparations made to strengthen the bddy. 


If. Bogur Noguntoo. 

Tresis of corrosive and soluble drugs, also of pre- 
cious stones, and of various animals. It moreover 
instructs us how to mitigate the violence of powerful 
drugs, and to make spirits and tinctures. 

13. Yoo Yee Moony Enriooroo (800 verses). 

This explains the art of preparing several medicines 
in general. 

14. Dunvuntry Vagada Vydeya Chintamoney. 

This teaches us how to judge of the pulse ; . and 
also treats of fever and other diseases, and of the 
best mode of prescribing for them. 

15. VeySdy Goona Vdgadum. 

^ Treats of the pulse j it also treats of many diseases, 
and of the nature of animals, and contains some 
valuable receipts. 

16. Ponnamuttay Palaculembwn Attaoany. 

This enumerates several medicines, and treats of a 
few diseases ; it is not a book much sought after. 

17* Attccvarty VSgadam. 
_ A work similar to the last 

18. Agarady Neguntoo. 

A dictionary of medicine, of good repute. 

19. Aghostier Auyerutty Annddroo. (1500 verses). 
A general work on the Materia Medica, 


20. Aghastier AranSoroo (600 verses)* 

21. Aghastier MUdpoo Anbadoo (50 verses). 

22. Aghastier Goonnoovagadam MoonSOr (500 

23. Aghastier Dundakum NSdroo (100 verses). 

These are various works of Aghastier on che- 
mistry and physic They also treat of theology, and 
of the best means of strengthening the human frame. 

24. Netra Vydeam Moonoor (300 verses) 

On the nature of the diseases of the eyes, and 
the best remedies for such complaints. 

25. Kermapdcum MoondSr (300 verses). 

On the diseases occasioned by sin in this world, or 
occasioned by man's imprudence. 

26. Cestrwoedy MoondSr (300 verses). 

The art of surgery is explained in this work. 

27. Detch&oedy ErnoSr (200 verses). 

A work on physic, said to be from divine inspir- 

28. Shessyam NSOroo (100 verses), 

29. Wotteyam Moopatyrendoo (32 verses). 

The following six arts * are explained in these two 
books, viz., vussyam, stumbanam, moganam, auker* 
shanam, oochatanam, maranam. 

* What the arte arc, the manuscript does net mention* 


30. Yoogy Moony Chintamany EbfiSSr (700 

Both chemistry and the science of physic are 
treated of in this work. 

31. Cdraker Vypoo NSOroo (100 verses). 
A work similar to the last mentioned. 

32. Concaner Goonavagadam Armooroo (500 

The good and bad effects of medicines are here 
treated of, and medicine in general. 

33. Chuttamooneyar Ganam ErnSSr (200 verses). 

A curious work, being partly theological and 
partly medical. 

34. Chuttamooneyar Culpum Nffiroo (100 verses). 

The art of making strengthening medicines from 
various plants. 

* 35. Ramadaoer Annooroo (500 verses). 

36. Ramadaver Ernffiroo (200 verses). 

Both of these books treat of corrosive and soluble 
drugs, also of chemistry and general medicine. 

37. Camdlamoony Sootrum Elvatelloo (77 verses). 
This treats of chemistry and physics. 

38. Edacattoo Sidderpaudel Moopattwryoo (35 

A work similar to the last. 


LIST OF MEDICAL* WORKS in the hands of the native 
' practitioners of Ceylon ; they are mostly in Sanscrit, which 
in that island is written in the Cyngalese character; many of 
them, however, are translated into Cyngalese. The list was 
procured for me by the late much-lamented W. Tolfrey, Esq. 
of Ceylon* 



" 1. Wasudeva Negkandoo, 938 verses. 2. Saswati 
TfrighandoOy 336 verses. 3. Namwwali Neghandoo, 
290 verses. 4. Sara Neghandoo, 112 stanzas. 


1. Arishtd Sataka, 100 stanzas. 2. Madhcdva 
Nidhana, 1375 verses. 3. Sarirashana. 4. Sutras- 
thana. 5. Rup&l&ksh&nd. The number of stanzas 
in the three last unknown. 



1. Guna Pat ha, 700 stanzas. 2. Siddhanshadhti 
JSftghdnddd, 331 verses. 

* In Ceylon, as Mr. Tolfrey writes me, it is affirmed by the 
Shastree Brahmins, that the science of medicine was communi* 
cated by M&hX Br&hma to the Br&hma D&kshX Prajavat* ; by 
Prqjapati it was communicated to the Asvnns, (who, in Mr. Cole- 
brooke's Amera Cosha, are termed the physicians of heaven) ; the 
two Aswins communicated it to Satora, the chief of the gods 
inhabiting the six lower heavens, by whom it was communicated 
to the nine sages (under written), mentioned on their going to 
him with one accord to seek a remedy for the evils brought upon 
mankind by their iniquities ; they communicated it to the King 
of Casi (Benares), whose descendants caused it to be committed 
-to writing : 

1. DXnuXntSrX. 2. SusrutS. 3. M&M. 4. PZna'm&sX. 
5. BharadxvajakX. 6. Maha-kasyXpti. 7. KasyXpS. 8. Lainha- 
4tW&. 9. AfcriW*. 



1. Maryusa, 4770 stanzas. 2. YQgam&vIL Wo. 
rasarasangrahcu Sarasangsepa. ChtntamikiL Wax- 
dydUmkarOy 278 stanzas. 



1. YSg&pitHJcl. 2. Bhaishqjja Kalpa. 3. Lak- 
shana Jfy&d&wtL 4. Wfarfydgd sara, 5000 sen- 
tences. 5. KWhOdhU. 6. Rtttnakfoid ; the former 
400 sentences, the latter 4000 verses. 



1. Bhaishajia Man* Malawa, 1 166 stanzas. 2. Scu 
tasloka, 100 stanzas. 3. Y5g& S&t&ki, 100 stanzas. 

N.B. For the compilation of the Mcuyusa, which, 
it would appear, is considered as a treatise of great 
merit, no less than sixty-three medical sastrums were 
analysed, and the most valuable parts of them selected. 
Some of the most remarkable of the works, are the 
EhRlSyb, the Abudane, the SarS S&ngr&kd, and the 
iPatha Suddhiya. I cannot conclude what I have to 
-say of the Ceylon medical books, without mention- 
ing Marshall's excellent work on the topography of 
Ceylon, in which he notices many diseases which 
are of frequent occurrence in that island, and speaks 
at a medical sastrum (Veda Patta), part of which 
was translated into English, by the Rev. M. Lam- 
brick, but who could not ascertain the author's 
name. I merely put a question here, whether it may 
not be the Guna Paths, which, as we have seen 
above, is one of the two books which treats of me* 


dicihal plants ; or it may be, perhaps, the Patha Sud- 
dhiyoy one of the sixty-three had recourse to in com- 
piling the Manjusa. Nor is less praise due to Mr. 
Hoaston, of Ceylon, for his researches, respecting 
both the Materia Medica, and the practice of medi- 
cine of the Cyngalese, as contained in a paper lately 
laid before the literary Society of Ceylon. 




ABSCESS. Vipoordie axSLJUCT^ (Tarn.) 
uU (Arab.) Bwrra porah \jy^ \^> (Duk.) 77- 
poordie (Tel.) Mayha vrdnum (Sans.) 

ANASARCA. Neer coven/ r^&eyQeynrQsxr^ 
(Tam.) f\ U33u (Malay). Istiskha Uu£J (Duk. 
also Arab.) Vtshd pandoo (Tel. and Sans.) also 

APOPLEXY. Assddie SSnnie *n&&WQ2&vF y 
(Tain.) Sannivadam (Malayalie). SarvangiIa(M3\zyy 
Sdhumna U*$~ (Duk.) RoodrcL vaioo (Tel.) aZC* 
(Arab.) also o<x*4 (Arab.) Hooroodrogum (Sans.) ♦ 

ASCITES. Maghodrum LoG^n-^rrLD (Tam. 
and Malayalie). Jellunder j**Jl*> (Duk.) Magho- 
drum (Tel. and Sans.) 

ASTHMA. Stfvasa cashum erG\jn-0=e5rrre=Lo 
(Tam.) Isak (Malay). Dummd **> (Duk.) £u- 
vasa cashum (Tel. and Sans.) 

ASTHMA, SPASMODIC. Mundara cashum 
U>r5&rrrTe>n-&io (Tam.) JEngab (Malayalie). 


Dumma ^ (Duk.) Mdndctrd cashum (Tel.) ^ 
(Malay). MayhcL cashum (Sans.) U*(Pers.) ULA 

BOIL. SiU&ndie gPov*/^ (Tam.) Doomool 
y*s (Duk. and Arab.) ^Ut (Pers.) Koorpoo 
(Tel.) Aroohoo (Sans.) 2?i$o/ (Malay). Urtfar 

poolavay lj^^lJlSlj^2Sxtlj (Tam.) tUg porah 
*>*H zl> (Duk.) Pukka poondoo (Tel.) Kdtipama 

BUBO. Ariapoo ajo/TLLjn-LjL-i (Tam.) Bud 
Ju (Duk.) jsj (Pers.) 61^ (Arab.) Wodishe 

gheddd (Tel.) VunkshSnaroohoo (Sans.) Arak- 
lesham (Malayalie). 

BURN. Nerr6poo puttd pdon Gtbcjjl-m LJt-j 
U-ljm<5TOt (Tam.) *** (Pers.) ^^ (Arab.) 
Angar sie Jilnah \&s»y»J&\ (Duk.) Inghdlum 
pddda poondoo (Tel.) Aghniduktdvrdnum (Sans.) 

CANCER. Poottoo 455/ (Tam.) Arbuda 
(Malayalie). Nasoor^miS (Duk.) Nasur (Malay), 
also oaA^jjji (Malay). Nagarapa (Bali). Poottd 
(Tel.) Vulmaykum (Sans.) {jjpoy* (Arab.) 


VOL. If. mm 


CARPANG.* CdrdpSng a>rr-LJLJ/T<*jr (Tam.) 
Kurpdn (^./ (Duk.) CarapSnie (TeL) Rooski- 
tum (Sans.) 

* This is an appellation given, in India, to those eruptions on 
children, which are unaccompanied with fever, and which shew 
themselves at different periods, during the first three or four 
years of their life. The Tamool practitioners reckon a great 
variety of them ; but, perhaps, they may, with propriety, be con- 
fined to the five following : — 

1. Cheng carpang. This corresponds with our red gum 
(strophulus interiinctus). It usually shews itself at some period 
during the first two months ; seldom later ; and can hardly be 
considered as a disease. 

2. Collie carpang. This commonly shews itself betwixt 
the age of two and four years ; coming out on the face and fore- 
head, under the ears and arms, and on the hands and legs, in red 
spots, each about the size of a six-pence, consisting of innumer- 
able small papule. It terminates in a brownish itchy scab. 

3. Carpang, common. This makes its appearance at any 
period from the age of three or four months to that of three 
years. It differs, in many respects, from the two last mentioned, 
and spreads, in some cases, over, every part of the body. It 
comes out in clusters of from three to five, or more, tight coloured 
papuls, each of which is about the size of a mustard seed ; and 
terminates in large, loose, yellowish or brown scabs. 

4. Munday carpang. This corresponds with our crusta 
lactea, or milk cap. It invariably comes out on the forehead and 
scalp, extending, occasionally, a little over the face; and first 
shews itself in small, whitish, watery vesicles, of different sizes, 
which are itchy, and soon become of a dark-brown colour; 
running, at length, into large, oozy scabs, set close together; and 
which continue, for many days, to discharge a glutinous ichor, 
from small apertures. This complaint sometimes appears as 
early as the middle of the first month, and is often speedily re- 
moved ; at other times, it is more obstinate, and continues daring 
the whole period of dentition. 

5. Cadooang carpang. This is by no means so common as 
the other carpangs. It generally shews itself about the age of 
from six months to one year, and is confined solely to the space 
between the knees and the ancles ; in fact, to the legs. 

N. B. The use of all repellent applications, of whatever land, 
for the removal of such complaints, is dangerous; as those 
eruptions can be considered in no other light than as the oper- 
ations of nature to throw off some offending acrimony. Clean- 
liness, and frequent tepid fomentations, prepared with the tootti* 
elley (sida populifolia), are all that is required ; attending, at the 


CATARACT. Pad alum ljl_ovlo (Tarn.) 
CJjU (Arab.) ^^, (Pers.) Mootiabin ^Uj>* 
(Duk.) Pattaium (Tel.) Naytra pattalum (Sans.) 

CHANCRE. Kirandy poon ^/^r&gTLJi_i<STOr 
(Tarn.) TS/cie J\5 (Duk.) Pokooloo (Tel.) 
Ghrendi (Sans.) ^ (Arab.) <£fiJ! fej (Pers.) 

CHICKEN-POX. Cottamillie urrnnay Go>n-&& 
LD^oovSajLOCLSPUD (Tam.) Range ntdhn ^UiajAT 
(Duk.) CottchmUie unrma (TeL) Pittamdsoorika 

CHOLERA MORBUS. Ermirum vandie Gu-j/e 
Gr3rrL£>cyurrr5& s (Tam.) Dank-kigna UU3 &Ss 
(Duk.) Chtrdie-rogum (Sans.) Vantie (Tel.) -Nir- 
tiripa (Malayalie). 

COCHIN LEG. Anay kaal* g^a/ffBrar^/Tov) 
(Tam.) Huttie ka pawng qj^UT Jfo (Duk.) Yea- 
nugay kaloo (TeL) Ghtjapddhd vayoo (Sans.) 

same time, to the state of the bowels ; and taking care to touch 
any parts that may be excoriated and painful, with a little finely 
prepared castor-oil. 

* The Taraool name of this disease (which is sometimes in 
English called « Barbadoes leg") signifies " elephant leg. 19 It is 

the dail JX JcaaJUU of the modern Arabians, and is a malady al- 
together distinct from the lepra Arabum* Dr. Hillary, in his 
"Diseases of Barbadoes" (p. 301.), says, he thinks the Greek 
physicians have given us no description of this morbid enlarge- 
ment of the limb ; but I am inclined to believe, that it was to this 
they gave the name of elephas ; thereby distinguishing it from 
the elephantiasis* It appears to be the elephantia of Vogel ; who, 
however, notices it only as a variety of elephantiasis. 

M M 2 


CONSUMPTION. Shpum grjuLO (Tarn.) », 
(Malay). JU« (Arab.) Booree khansee ^4 £** 
(Duk.) Chyum (Tel.) Raja yetchma (Sans.), also 
Kshaya (Sans.), also Kshaya (Malayalie). 

senate uDrrrs&tFGtxc&n (Tam.) Bukmarna Uj£> 
(Duk.) Monday Dzennie (Tel.) Mandum (Sans.) 
^si^j (Arab.) fjj (Malay). 

COSTIVENESS. 2%a malum ^j^Lrm-LD 
(Tam.) JCute o^»3 (Duk.) Sooskinjinamalum (Tel.) 
Bwrfrfa wio/wnt (Sans.) Prot-kras (Malay), also 
yiA* y-y cip (Malay). 

COUGH. £eroomM/LLSoLro\'(Tam.) Khansee 
^l^T (Duk.) Dughoo (Tel.) Cawwi (Sans.) 
iiL» (Pers.) Oa^ (Arab.) Batok uS\j (Malay). 
Ciuma (Malayalie). 

COUGH, HOOPING. Kdkoovan e>a?®c5vj 
rrcjor (Tam.) Buchioon ke khansee g~Jlg£ o&jfw 
(Duk.) XaAroo dughoo (Tel.) Gm<* churdie (Sans.) 
.^L. $xm (Arab.) 

COW-POX. Passuvoo utnmay LjersuaiLosSLO 
(Tam.) Gyke seetla 5>tf*» J<s\S (Duk.) Aoo-umma 


(Tel. ) Ghomasoorikeh (Sans.) 

CROUP. EUu ndhir Gu-€FC5n-LU/Y> (Tam.) 
SokJia l^ (Hindooie). Ellu nahir (Tel-) TauJ- 
shoontie (Sans.) 


A more severe and dangerous sort of croup is 
called in TamooJ, and also in Tellingoo, pddu 

DANDRIFF. Shoondoo m <sott^ (Tam.) Buffa 
Uu (Duk.) Tsoondoo (Tel.) 

DIABETES. Neer ativoo r^a-yPcaj (Tam.) 
Silsilibol J^JIJuJL, (Duk.) Boloo mootrum (Tel.) 
Bdhoo mootrum (Sans.) La (Arab.) uJku (Pers.) 
JUL* (Malay). 

DIARRHCEA. Crdnie kdlkhul ef^tfrnrPesw 
y^GFRFOV) (Tam.) ^ (Malay). Khdlie juldb 
v iL* ^U (Duk.) Granie (Tel. and Sans.) £,U> *JCk 
(Pers.) Jl^J (Arab.) 

DYSENTERY. Seeda kdddupoo sPsFsr0>(i?t_jL_i 

(Tam.) Ku-ayer-dara (Malay). Ghranni (Malealie). 

Pe-chish (&&u (Duk.) Netooru bunka (Tel.) Amd, 

ch&l&ium (Sans.) -^*~ (Arab.) i^yt J^' (Pers.) 

^ o^^, (Malay), 

EAR-ACHE. KaMhoo ^rr^Q r 3 rr ^ (Tam.) 
Kan dookna Ufa (^>lf (Duk.) Chevie potoo (Tel.) 
Kurnd soola (Sans.) 

EPILEPSY. Kacaivullie e> n- e> &> /tllj<5\jonS 
(Tam.) Pangsan (Malay), also SLi qj^U (Malay), 
also vW f^f* (Malay). Mirghie J^ (Duk.) Kdkie 
teepoo (Tel.) Kdkarogum (Sans.) Sanivalli (Ma- 
layalie). ^ye (Arab.) 

M M 3 


ERYSIPELAS. Akki ajerar- (Tam.) Shirjah 
U^Duk.) Akki (Tel.) Pitta vickdrchikd (Sans.) 
SoorM C/ ~ (Pers.) Kaszalapani (Malayalie). 

<&<xrrrf-Q>rT&m™ (Tam.) C^3 (Pers.) U* 
(Arab.) Tundtup ^1$ (Duk.) S3fc? joflriw 
(Tel.) Seem jorum (Sans.) Drmaradenpani (Ma- 


jorum ^n-i_.B? au) (Tam.) Z>«won (^Ui (Malay), 
^b tf U* (Arab.) Gurm tup «J f / (Duk.) TSpah 

joarum (Tel. and Sans.) Tridoshagioram (Ma- 

FEVER, TYPHUS. Kistnah doshum e£*2-ttL_ 
tf3BrGS n "a-QLD (Tam.) OS^k £U*» (Arab.) Titp- 
pie mohireka *5^<, «5 (Duk.) Kristnah doshum 
(TeL) Kristndjimika doshum (Sans.) 

FISTULA. Powtrum L-jfiuff^TU) (Tam.) 
Bhugundur j**& (Duk.) Paveetrum (Tel. and 
Sans.) jsjJU (Pers.) ^ip (Arab.) 

GONORRHOEA. Tttflay Cov^o^ayovr (Tam> 
^jij-wjl (Pers.) Purmah tJ»jt, (Duk.) ol ^ (Arab.) 
VittS (Tel.) Sweta mayhum (Sans.) Crameham 

* To a remittent fever particularly distinguished by bilious 
vomitings, is given the name of ractapiltam in the Malayalie 


GRAVEL. Kutt-addypoo e>crv*roig}i-L-M 
(Tam.) oU*> (Arab.) a*Ls JL>j (Pers.) Putrika 
rnurz <jcy ^e/k (Duk.) Ratie mayghum (Tel.) 
Ushmerie (Sans.) Calladapa (Malayalie). 

GUINEA WORM. Ndrdmboo seltandie c&o-lo 
M^o^EOP (Tam.) Naroo ^Ji (Duk.) N3ra 
poondoo (Tel.) Nadie vranurn (Sans-), also Julsoot 
iTwJL^. (Sans.) 

HEAD-ACHE. TuUay novoo s^sa^noG^ nr^u 
(Tam.) Sakit-kepla (Malay). Sirkd dird ^ l£^# 
(Duk.) Tala nopie (Tel.) Sherorookooh (Sans.) 
^.^a (Pers.; *U*> (Arab.) also JUJT *o5 (Malay). 

HEART-BURN. Kolay Mvoo &«ro(^rr<su 
(Tam.) Maydekamoo iilnah UJL> ^^otfcfjou, (Duk.) 
iss\j~* £*> (Pers.) Romoo muntd (Tel.) Khirddr 
hdhd (Sans.) 

HERPES, VENEREAL. Cheng kirandy Qf^j 
e£*4X5^ (Tam.) Atashuk £&3S (Duk.) Maygha 
ghrfridie (Tel. and Sans.) 

HICKUP. Vikkil cnJ?e>e>ov> (Tam.) Hitchkie 
J^ (Duk.) Vekoolloo (Tel.) Mikka (Sans.) 

HYDROCELE. Neer sooUy rg»^(fea^> (Tam.) 
Pelemipam ootria \yf ^JL^^ (Duk.) Neer soola 
(Tel.) Jed® wo/3 (Sans.) y*y (Arab.) Pefer 
gembung (Malay). 

M M 4 


ai^a-<5ror(TLjn-ajfiU (Tam.) Huzm-nfihona ?*+ 
U^U (Duk.) Oostna vaivoo (Tel. and Sans.) 
Mesrak (Malay). 

ITCH. CUrmgoo EPcrna© (Tam.) CHori 
(Malayalie). Kharisht CJLJ* (Duk.) & (Arab.), 
also >s (Arab.) GA#ee (Tel.) PSma (Sans.) 
>nf (Malay). 

JAUNDICE. Camalay e>rrLonra/ro (Tam.) 
Peelik&murz o^-# IJCJL, (Duk.) ^ j (Arab.) ^U^l 
(Pers.) £Sy> C3U- (Malay). Khamalay (Tel.) 
Kdmila (Sans.) Kamala (Malayalie). 

©2_q.i_.l_lx) (Tam.) Ruggit pittee ^ £&j (Duk.) 
Pedda-rogum(Te\.) Vhenghum, also Koosthum (Sans.) 

LEPROSY, WHITE. VuLlay koostumt Go-vjontt 
£yow<i72LCL— l_lo (Tam.) Suffaid kkore jj£ «xJw» 
(Duk.) T<e#8 koostum (Tel.) tfwe/a koosthum 
(Sans.) Velupa (Malayalie). 

?~ > 

* Thig is the elephantiasis of the Greeks, the dzudham * 1«3_*. 

or daubasad of the Arabian physicians, the Ichor ah of the Hindoos 
of Upper Hindoostajto and the mo/ rotcg?, or lepre des jointures, 
of a late celebrated French writer (Pierre Campet). Of the 
ancients, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and Paul of Egina, have written 
the best on this disease ; of the moderns, perhaps, Hillary and 

f This is the white albaras of the Arabians, and • the leuce of 
the Greeks ; and is a disease altogether distinct from that white 
coloured affection of the skin, which the Tamools call vullay 
taymble, the Mahometans of Lower India syfiaid saym, the Ara- 
bians white albohak, and which the ancient Greeks distinguished 
by the name of alpho*. 


LIENTERY. Azirna Pedie si^/r<5OTr(2t-j^ 

(Tam.) Gtranie ^ (Duk.) AzeernS tedie (TeL) 


Azirnum (Sans.) 


soolay l_j9> esr^a/ro (Tam.) Kullyike SzarJijWSi^JS 
(Duk.) Pukka soola (Tel.) Parsoo soola (Sans.) 

g^Ui^C*. (Arab.) 


rumbadoo G>L-i<r$LDL-jrr(fr (Tam.) ZiadS nefas 
fjJJu *>L»j (Duk.) Bohoo ruktum (TeL) Praddrum 

kuttoo <Qj gTT er &> \—& (Tam.) Husbi nefas u-UJj***. 
(Duk.) Soodagha kuttoo (Tel.) Soodika ructS 
buddum (Sans.) 

LOCK-JAW. Semite ^tforsoP (Tam.) Daat 
kilie JL£ ch (Duk.) Jennie (Tel.) Sunnie (Sans.) 

MADNESS, Verie pyteeum G&U&PL-US&&' 
lulo (Tam.) Deewana ajI^a (Duk.) <jV*^ 
(Arab.), also CI> (Arab.) ^jy^ (Pers.) Verie 
pyteeum (Tel.) Oonmadim (Sans.) Lyt a^j (Malay). 

MEASLES. Chin ummay ^cjorcjorLDCEPUD (Tam.) 
Gobrie i*^ (Duk.) <jj>±* jJU* (Malay), also 
Chumpak el*** (Malay.) a^**^ ( Arab.), also £**a*> 
(Arab.) Chin urnma (Tel.) Khrusvd mdsoorikdh 


teeum <®n-&xuiuS&&iuLO (Tam.) ZimSUhooGa 
LJ^iJUtfS, also Dewana pun (Duk.) bj-. (Arab.), 
sdso **t (Arab.) 'NianSh pyteetm (Tel.) Chita 
veebrama (Sans.) *J> (Malay). 


varie Grr^ SoX jrrrr (Tam.) y4&. o&j* (Arab.) 
Ztoda ftwiw o*l» «iL.j (Duk.) KusoomS (Tel.) 
BShoo rtffhS (Sans.) 

moottoo $&5-e>OTi— (^ (Tam.) IfoAsi tam* ^^ 
* ,t. (Duk.) Sooddga soold. (Sans.) Moottoo koot- 
too (Tel.) *i&t* jWo^r (Pers.) 

MUMPS. Koolwnay kuttie ©Q'agLQffi'gi i O 
(Tarn.) Gulleana uTj^ (Duk.) TsaUava gkedda 
(Tel.) Seeds pittum (Sana.) 

NIGHT BLINDNESS. Afafay komolay u>t 
a/roe> 3> o-LDTaATO (Tam.) Rut-andla YoJlo, (Duk.) 
Raytsing kuttie (Tel.) Neeshandum (Sans.) 

NODE. Kuttoo sooley e>i_(i?©2/TO (Tam.) 
Huddisujna a* (Duk.) Kuttoo soolS (Tel.) 
ui^J (Arab.) 

OPHTHALMIA. JTSn nwoo wdocrCiBEXsy 
(Tam.) Ankianah lilJCiJ (Duk.) tfu» nopa? (Tel.) 
Afe/r5 soofa (Sans.) jJLJ jjU (Malay). 


PAINS, VENEREAL. Mayghl sholoy Clo ^ 
(&2/ot> (Tarn.) Atashuk he w&-i V W &&& (Duk.) 
Maygha soola (Sans.), also Udkung (Sans.) May- 
gha nopie (Tel.) 

PALSY. Pdtche vdivoo i^^=a\jn-aj<sy (Tarn.) 
Jdhla *)^ (Duk.) Patcka vcUwn (Tel.) ^Uj 
(Arab.) *+«j (Pers.) *y*r«^ (Malay). Ptikshagatum 

PILES. Moolum o?ov>L£> (Tarn.) Bdwaseer 
*»\jj (Duk.) Bawasir (Malay). Moolum (Tel.) 
yjyj (Arab.) Arishdhd (Sans.) Aadram (Malay- 

RHEUMATISM. Seeddvada kudddpoo e^ovj 
n-jyefrK^LJM (Tarn.) Guttiabai tfLLS^ (Duk.) 
Seeta vata nopie (Tel.) Vatft rogum (Sans.) Penia- 
kit-dari-angin (Malay). 

RING WORM. Pddoothamdray l_j ®& rruys&rr 

(Tam.) Dad *b (Duk.) cJu^ (Arab.) (jjyj^t 

(Pers.) Kurap£>\j£ (Malay). Padootamdra (Tel.) 

Mundaldknm (Sans.) 

RUPTURE. Vdbepdodiku cjxjgvI^ljl-i ®b>& 
(Tam.) Utrika dirpila %> tf sjJt (Duk.) 
Boodda (Tel.) Auntra vridhi (Sans.) *jUaL(Pers.) 

SCALD. Soodddtdnnie poonnoo er^^sronsror 
d^-i— <50or (Tam.) GurmpanisiffilnS IU^m^R^ 
(Duk.) Vtneela padda poondu (Tel.) Oostnodukhd 
dugdhd vrdnum (Sans.) 


SCALD HEAD. Paddghoo Gl-jht©© (Tam.) 
Gootff *£ (Duk.) Podooghoo Karapcknie (Tel.) 
Badkhora J^a^U (Pers.) 

SCORPION, STING OF. TaylkottinSdoo 

Q&cxrrQ&rrL^ i_Q.<3nrgj/ (Tam.) Beechukatnd 
UAfH^ (Duk.) Ifcyfoo karichinadie (Tel.) Fm- 
cA;££ dushtum (Sans.) 

SCROPHULA. Kunddmatie efrSOTTL-Lon-s/ro 
(Tam.) Gundmal jU^f (Duk.) Kuntamali (Tel.) 
JyUfe (Arab.) ^i^ai (Persian). Ghendamala 

SMALL POX. Per** uflwiwry G^ r ^-usMi-0<E)LO 
(Tam.) jJL» (Arab.), also tty (Arab.) Burriseetie 
***«*?j* (Duk.) Pedumma (Tel.) Kruwan (Bali). 
Mdsoorikeh (Sans.), also ( Malay alie). Kelwmbuan- 
Chachar (Malay). 

SNAKE, BITE OF. Pamboo kuddie L-jnrux^ 
efbfl-q. (Tam.) Sawpkatna U3&-A** (Duk.) Pa- 
mookatoo (Tel.) Surpa dushtum (Sans.) 

SORE-THROAT. Tbnday ndvoo Q^ rr <sm'a3> 
L-Grg^ficu (Tam.) Gullika dird $j> \£J6 (Duk.) 
Gontoo nopie (Tel.) Kunturrook (Sans.) Saktf- 
leher (Malay). 

TESTICLE, SWELLED. Virei veekum ct^sq^ 
rrcnset&io (Tam.) Derpela %j^ (Duk.) Unda 
nopie (Tel.) Unda shoba (Sans.) 


THRUSH. Achirum mF&TSSh a ' so Parititooroo 
LJOB'tflE/ro (Tam.) Achir ^^\ (Duk.) Ache* 
rum (Tel.) Mookapakum (Sans.) Ninamwan 
(^Jy\JJ (Hind.) 

TOOTH- ACH E. Pulloo novoo ljsvkjs/ Gcd tsu 
(Tam.) Bat ha dird sp \S ch (Duk.) Pantie nopie 
(Tel.) V^ (Arab.) ^^^ (Pers.) Dtmtharook 
(Sans.) Sakit-gigi (Malay). 

TYMPANITES. Vaitie pooroomdl oyjluao/v^ 
ujC^— i^OLDTv-* also Coonma vaivoo (Tam.) Pay/ 
bysusoojah ju*>y»y„ts\j £+* (Duk.) ^Uk *Uu*3uJ 
(Arab.) Kadoopu-oobasum (Tel.) Anahum (Sans.) 

VENEREAL DISEASE. Mayghaveeadie Qld 
e><53LSujn-aP (Tam.) Khrab murz yay v|^ (Duk.) 
May ha veeadie (Tel. and Sails.) «£Sui» (Arab.) 
Deman-ganti-hari (Malay). 

ULCER, SIMPLE. Poonnoo m<*ott (Tam.) 
*orah \j^i s (Duk. and Malay). Cy S (Arab.) p# 
Pers.) Poondoo (Tel.) Vrdnum (Sans.) 

TTT rif?U T?/YTTT y#7;^ ~wwi*.**sw* «iavC. . /crmr f TfllTl^ 

ULCER, FOUL. Alie poonnoo <z\&Sla <sbot (Tam.) 

^(Arab.) J»ra6jp0ralkl}Htvl^( Duk *) <**«»**« 
poondoo (Tel.) iWwnwa wvfottm (Sans.) Ceravarpa 


tray kritchie $j?®&rrmB>rFB:&> (Tam.) PeeshS- 
byek ySk boond tapukna U&i *J>< ^j ^v 1 ^ 
(Duk.) Mootra kritchum (Tel. and Sans.) 



r&&&>^<& (Tam.) Peeshabbundhona U^J^v^t* 
(Duk.) J^o^ (Arab.) Neer kuttoo (Tel.) Moo- 
trabudhum (Sans.) 

mayghum e^cr^GtvrrrLjL-iCLoeBrLD (Tam.) Telloo- 
yekkay mceroodikkey mayghum (Tel.) Ashoomootray 
mayghum (Sans.) Sikilay bole }ju J*JL. (Duk.) 
Nirvaszicia (Mai ay alum). 

WHITES. YiUumb-oorkie Qlu(%2/ux-&*b>&> 
also Vidlay mayghum (Tam.) Puggir jSL (Duk.) 
Ustie roghum (Tel.) Ustie strccvum (Sans.) 

WORMS, ASCARIDES. Keerie poochie errr- 
lj\ c £&&> (Tam.) Kirrum *£ (Duk.) Cfieerie poo- 
roogoolu (Tel.) Khrusva kreemie (Sans.) 

WORMS, TERES. N ah poochie r3rrBy®L^i 
(Tam.) Caching (Malay). Gendeway £y)a>f (Duk.) 
Yealika pamoo (Tel.) Surpa kreemie (Sans.) 

WORM, TAPE. Neld poochie rg^rrLJ._ 
(Tam.) Lumte-gdndeway &±±£^ (Duk.) Nee- 
divie poorooghu (Tel.) Deerkha kreemie (Sans.) 



Since writing the foregoing Parts of the Materia 
Indica, I have seen the first Fasciculus of Dr. C. F. P. 
de Marti us's work, entitled ** Specimen Materiae 
Medicae Rasiliensis ;" in it he notices several plants 
as possessing emetic properties which have not hi- 
therto attracted much attention ; some of the most 
remarkable are : — 

1 . Cephcelis Ipecacuanha. 

Ipecacuanha, Piso. Edit. 1648. p. 101. Callicocca 
Ipecacuanha Jusca do "BrasiL 

2. Poaya 9 s. Ipecacuanha branca, s. do campo. 

3. Richardsonia Scabra. 

Richardia Scabra. Lin. Spec. ed. Willd. ii. p. 222. 

4. Richardsonia Emetica. 

5. Poly gala Poaya. 

The dose of the root of this, he says, is from two 
thirds of a drachm to a whole one. 


6. Ionidiwn Ipecacuanha. 

This plant is the Ipecacuanha branca of Piso, and 
is used by the Brazilians as a substitute for the com- 
mon ipecacuanha. Piso praises its virtues against 

7. lonidium Urticafolium. 

8. Chiococca Anguifuga. 

9. Chiococca Densjfolia. 

This and the foregoing species of Chiococca appear 
to have virtues in cases of snake-bites, and are sup- 
posed to do good chiefly by exciting vomiting. 

10. Manettia Cordifolia. 

This plant is considered by the Brazilians as pos- 
sessing great efficacy in cases of dropsy and dysen- 
tery. The dose of the powder of the bark of the 
root is from half a drachm to a drachm and a half. 



• # * The Roman numerals refer to the volume, and the Arabic figures 

to the page. 


Abbreviations explained, preface, page xviii. 

Abel, his " Journey to China;" he recommends a good edible oil, 

i. 269. 
Abscess, its name in various languages, ii. 528. 
Acacia Arabics, root of, tonic ; gum resembles the gum Arabic 
of the shops; wood, flowers, and bark, used in the arts, ii. 
142, 143. 
Acalypha, birch-leaved, ii. 588. 

, Indian, its use in nauseating children, and in consump- 

tion, u. 161. 
Acanthus, holly-leaved, its use in snake bites, ii. 306, 307* 
Accum, analyses bitlaban, ii. 41. 
Achie patchie elley, stomachic and sedative, ii. 2. 
Achyranthes, rough, root of, a slight astringent, ii. 221. 
Acid, vitriolic, i. 2. 
-, nitrous, i. 2. 
-, muriatic, i. 4. 

•, hydrocyanic, another name for Prussic acid, which see, L 582. 
-, oxalic, i. 399. 
Prussic, preface, page xxiii., see also i. 582. 
— — , for. Granville's Treatise on, i. 582. 
of sugar, analysed by Brezelius, i. 399. 
-, sulphuric diluted, formulae for its use, i. 579, 580. 
-, nitric diluted, formulae for its use ; bath prepared with, i. 580 
, nitrous bath, ii. 339. 

-, muriatic diluted, formulae for its use, i. 581 • 
Adair ascribes bad qualities to tea, i.433. 
Adiantum, peacock-tailed, ii. 214. 



Adievedvom, powder and infusion of, ii. 7. 
Aetius first mentions musk as a medicine, 1. zro- 
Affganistan, inhabitants of, i. 29. 

Artier, his Tamool medical work, LI 17. 
Aghilcuttay (Tarn.) is aloes wood, i. 378. 
Aiken, Dr., praises tea,i. 433. # mm 

Ailanthus excelsa, bark of, m dyspepsia, u. 302. 
Alamanda cathartic, its use at Surinam, n. 9. 
Alexander, Dr., his opinion of saflron, i. 35b. 

Alibert, i. 42. 

Almond, Persian, i. 6. . 

r oil of, formulae for its use, l. 582. 

m \ Indian, as food ; its oil, ii. 230. 

, Java, see article Canari, ii. 60. 

Aloe, sea-side, its use in ophthalmia, ii. 169. m . 

Mok thought by Braconnot to be a substance sm genera, u 10. 

w formulae for the use of, i. 582, 583, 584. 
Alsaravius, i. 211. 
Alston, X. 177. 356. 
Alum,i. 11, 12, 13. 
slate, i. 12. 

. worfi, when first established in England, i. 13. 

, how used by the Hindoos, ii. 271. 

. prescriptions for its use, i. 584. ^ 

Amaranth of the fields, root of, in strangury, n. 392. 

Amber, where found, conjectures respecting its nature, now \isea 

as a medicine, i. 14, 15. 585. a _k;«* 

Ambergris, its nature, where found, how used by the Arabian* 

i. 15, 16, 17. . 

Ammonia, how prescribed, i. 627. 
Ampadoo, antidysenteric, ii. 38. ## 

Anasarca, names of, «m various languages, n. 533. 
Andjang-andjang, diuretic, ii. 20. 
Andong, its use in dysentery, ii. 20. 
Andrachne cadishaw, a poison, ii. 487. 
Anise seed, use of, amongst the Hindoos and Arabians, i. 17, i* 

• a good carminative, i. 585. 

Anise, star, stomachic and carminative, ii. 19- 
Annesley, Mr., recommends calomel m large doses, i. »9. 
, . — , his valuable work on calomel, i. 561. 

Antelope, ii. 19. 111. 

_- -, virtues of its flesh, ii. 480. . . 

Antimony, sulphuret of, a galena of lead often sold for it m a 

mistake, i. 495. _ n . 4/tf . 

. f tartari2e&, a dangerous medicine in typhus-fever, t. 497. 

_ formulae for prescribing, i. 639. 

Apoplexy, names of, ii. 528. ^.Y-jo 

Argemone, prickly, its juice a aubatitute for ipecacuanha, u. 48. 


Ark, its use amongst the Egyptian Arabs, ii. 27. 
Arrian, his account of myrrh trees, i. 248. 
Arrow root, East Indian, i. 19. 
Arsenic, different kinds of, i. 498, 499. 

, found by Mr. Elphinstone, at Bulkh, in CabuJ, i. 500. 

, Realger found in the Burmah dominions, and in Japan, 

-, poisoning from, see excellent account of, in London Dis- 

i. 501. 

pensatory*, i. 504. 

, in leprosy, recommended by Dr. Robinson, i. 504. 

■, opinions of medical writers, modern and ancient, regard- 

ing it, i. 640, 641. 

-, its use amongst the Hindoos, i. 641. 

Arthur, Captain, found alum in Travancore, L 12. 

Artichoke, i. 22. 

Artus, Geysels, governor of Amboyna, his opinion of the root of 

the croton tighum, i. 106. 
Arum, long-rooted, root how used, ii. 464. 
Asarabacca, i. 23. 586* 
Ascarides, i. 42. 

Ascites, names of, in different languages, ii. 528. 
Asclepiades, his eulogy on onions, i. 270. 
Aspalathus, small-flowered, leaves and flowers demulcent, ii. 385. 
Asparagus, i. 24. 
— — , linear-leaved, ii. 409. 
Assafoetida, i. 20. 585. 
Assam, gold in, i. 515. 
Asthma, names of, ii. 528. 
Atharva veda, what, ii. prel. obs. page J. 
Atropia, a new alkali discovered by Brandos in deadly night-shade, 

Aublet, his Histoire de la Guyane, i. 17* 
Augusta, Empress, i. 74. 
Auguste de St. Hilaire, i. 486. 
Augustus, Emperor, i. 25. 
Avenzoar, i, 86. 
Avicenna, Canons of, i. 11. 
Awar-awar, an emetic, ii. 85. 
Ayapanie, alterative and antiscorbutic, ii. 35. 
Ayur-veda, what, ii prel. obs. pages i— *vi. 

Babington, Dr. B., Jun^ his account of a vegetable tallow, i. 424. 

— — ^ expression of thanks to him, pref. (postscript). 

Balsam of Gilead, i. 26. 
, Canada, i. 458. 
Bamfield, Mr., recommends scruple doses of calomel, i. 553. 
Bangalore, what might grow well there, preface, pages xxi, xxii. 
Banghie, an inebriating liquor, ii. 39. 
Barbeng, vermifuge, ii. 38. 

N N 2 


Barbara, bis Hortus Americanus, i. 72. 

Barilla of commerce, i. 397* 

Bark, Peruvian, i. 28. 

., febrifuge, Italians use that of the quina bicolorata, i. 600. 
-, foetid, use in psora, ii. 317* 

Barleria, long-leaved, root of, ii. 236. 

, thorny, juice of the leaf, ii. 376. 

Barthea, his opinion of sulphur, i. 413. 

Bartoletti invents sugar of milk, i. 225. 

Barton's Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States, i. 129. 

Basil, rough-haired, decoction of in bowel complaints, ii. 160. 
, white, leaves, a pleasant tea, ii. 92. 
-, sweet, seed of, cooling and mucilaginous, ii. 423. 
purple-stalked, root of, in fevers, ii. 426. 

Bassia, long-leaved, juice of the bark in rheumatism, ii. 100^ 

Bath, nitrous, how prepared, ii. 340. 

Bdellium, i. 29. 

Bean, i. 28. 

plant destroyed by a solution of opium, i. 277. 

Bear's flesh, virtues of, ii. 480. 

Beckman, his History of Inventions, i. 13. 225. 

Beef, i. 32. 

■ ■ ■ tea, how made, i. 587. 

Beiamcanda, its root in snake bites, ii. 39. 

Bent grass, linear, root of 9 in decoction, ii. 27. 

Benzoic acid, how used in medicine, i. 587. 

Benzoin, i. S3. 

Berangarius, Jacobus, first cures syphilis by mercury, i. 543. 

Bergera of Koenig, infusion of the leaves stops vomiting, bark and 

• Foot stimulants, ii. 139. 

Bergman, his opinion of gold, i. 515. 

- , his notion of fulminating sold, i. 520. 

Bernard, Jussieu, his description of ginseng, ii. 155. 

Berry, Dr., i. 26. 

Betel nut, its use as a medicine, ii. 269. 

— leaf, juice of, febrifuge, also ordered in indigestions of chil- 
dren, and in hysteria, ii. 466. 

Bezoar, i. 35. 

Bindweed, panicled, root of, promotes obesity, ii. 307. 

, broad-leaved, leaves used for preparing emollient poul- 
tices, ii. 357. 

Bird-lime of the ficus religiosa, ii. 26. 

Bkthwort, Indian, its use in the indigestions of children, ii. 299. 
> floral-leaved, infusion of the dried leaves, their use 
when fresh bruised, ii. 5. 

Bish, or bick, its root a poison taken internally, ii. 40. 

Bishop's weed, i. 38. 

Bismuth, its use in medicine, preface, page xxiii* 

Bitlaban, a medicine in dyspepsia, ii. 41. 

Bitumen, petrolium, i. 39. 


Bitumen, naptha, i. 89. 

Blane, Sir Gilbert, i. 486. 

Bleeding, copious and repeated, dangerous, i. 556. 

Blistering, flies which blister in India, i. 622. 

Bloodstone, the hujraldum of the Arabians, i. 528. 

Blumenbach, i. 14. 

Blunt-leaved buck-thorn, root of, in fevers, ii. 95. 

Bo-dayng, a root used in paralysis, in Siam, ii. 43. 

Boerhaaye thought saffron dissolved the blood, i. 356. 

Boerhavia diandria, an emetic in Java, ii. 206. 

Bofferio, Dr., prescribes strychnine, i. 653. 

Boil, names of, in different languages, ii. 529. 

, rajah, names of, in different languages, ii. 529. 

Bol armenic, i. 42. 

Bombay, literary society of, i. 396. 

Bonduc-nut, grey, its virtues as a medicine, ii. 135, 136. 

Bongko, a Javanese cathartic, ii. 42. 

Bonjar, gold of 9 mentioned by Ley den, i. 517. 

Bonraka, an astringent root of Siam, ii. 42. 

Bontequoe praises tea* i. 433. 

Bontius, his opinion of the nutmeg, i. 201, 202. 

Books, Sanscrit medical, &c. ii. 491. 

, Tamool medical and scientific, ii. 499. 520. 

, Arabic and Persian medical and scientific, ii. 504. 

-, Cyngalese medical, ii. 525. 

Borax, how used in medicine, i. 587. 
Boris, his account of Cochin-China, gold there, i. 878. 517. 
Borneo, cassia bark of, i. 58. 

Botany amongst the Hindoos, ii. prel. obs. page xxvi. 
Bouillong la Grange, i. 6. 16. 
Boullay, i. 8. 

Bow-string hemp of Ceylon, root of, used in electuary in con- 
sumption ; juice of the tender shoots as a medicine, ii. 192. 
Braconnot, his analysis of myrrh, i. 245. 

> his opinion of aloes, i. 10. 
Brahma, religion of, ii. prel. obs. page xv. 
Brahmins of Lower India, i. 110. 
Brande, Mr., i. 80. 
Brewster, his account of artificial camphor, i. 51. 

■-, his account of tabasheer, i. 420. 
Brous8onet, his opinion of sandarach, i. 379. 
Brown, Mr. R., i. 460. 484. 

Bruce, Mr., speaks of the balm of Gilead tree, i. 26. 
-■ noticed euphorbium in Egypt, i. 121. 

Brucina, or brucine, by whom discovered, ii. 104. 
Brunnich found crystallized gold in Transylvania, i. 515. 
Brydon, i. 14. 

Bryony, air-living, a valuable medicine, ii. 158. 
, rough, tender shoots aperient, ii. 212. 
, beaked, root of, in electuary, ii. 2£. 

N N 3 


Bryony, callous-leaved, bitter seeds, vermifuge, ii. 428. 

- 9 large-flowered, juice of the leaves, in cases of poisonous 

bites, ii. 436. 
Bubo, ii. 529. 

Bucholtz of Weimar, i. 247. 
Buddha, religion of, ii. prel. obs. page xviii. 
Buffalo flesh, ii. 480. 

Burchell saw colocynth melons on the ground in Roodezand, i. 85. 
Burn, ii. 529. 

Burrel, where found, i. 234. 
Bushy gardenia, nut of, prized by the Vytians as an emetic, 

ii. 186. 
Butea frondosa, juice of the seed, anthelmintic, ii. 335. 
Button weed, shaggy, root of, in decoction, ii. 259. 


Cabbage, i. 46. 

Cacalia, sow-thistle-leaved, ii. 213. 

Cacao nut, i. 47. 

Cadet, his method of detecting impurity in wine, i. 478. 

Caesar found corn growing in England, i. 134. 

Cairo, fenugreek of, i. 131. 

Calculus, biliary, of a cow, ii. 164. 

Calderini discovers a most valuable cathartic quality in the euphor- 
bia lathy ris, preferable to the croton oil, i. 599. 

Calomel gives relief by stimulating and unloading the biliary 
ducts, i. 650* 

i , its use in the feverish attacks of children, i. 552. 

-, in cholera morbus, i. 554. 
-, scruple doses of, i. 553. 

Calophyllum inophyllum, medical virtues of the oil of the nuts, 
ii. 311. 

Caltrops, small, root and leaves diuretic, ii. 247. 

Calyptranthes, clove-tree-leaved, decoction "of, in bowel com- 
plaints, ii. 232. 

Camel, virtues of its flesh, ii. 480. 

Cammitta, of use in dropsy, ii. 57. 

Camphor, formulae for prescribing, i. 588* 

Canari or Java almond, gum of the tree resembles balsam copaiva? 
in virtue ; an edible oil extracted from the nuts, ii. 60* 

Cancer, use of mercury in, i. 553. 

» ■ ^ » names of, in different languages, ii. 529. 

Candles made of the berries of the candle-berry myrtle tree, 
i- 471. . 

Capers, the notions of the Arabians and Persians respecting them, 
ii. 150. 

Capillaire, syrup of, i. 52. 

Cara caniram, its use in snake bites, ii. 65. 

Carbuncle, names of, in different languages, ii. 529* 

Cardamum, greater, i. 54. 



Cardamum, lesser, L 52. 
Carey, Dr., i. 231. 

, Flora Indica edited by, i. 19. 

Carp, common, i. 55. 
Carpang, names of, ii. 53(X 

Carpoora selassut, a foliated granular gypsum* ii. 70. 
Carrots, much cultivated in the Mahratta countries, L 57. 
Carter, Dr., his chemical experiments on croton oil, i. 108. 
Cartwright, Dr., recommends large doses of calomel, i. 649. 
Cashcuttie, a kind of catechu, i. 65. 
Cassia fistula, known* to Avicenna, i. 60. 
ulp, its use as a medicine, i. 389* 
ark, i. 58. 

, eared, use of the seeds, ii. 32* 

, oval-leaved, leaves aperient, ii. 405. 
Castor, prescriptions for using it, i. 590. 

, brought to Rome from Galatia, i. 63. 

Casuarina, horse-tail, astringent, ii. 443. 
Cataract, names of, ii. 531. 
Catechu, how used as a medicine, i. 590. 
, from what tree obtained, i. 64*, 65. 
, bastard, ii. 105. 
Cathartic, valuable, discovered by Calderini, i. 599. 
Cathartine, what, ii. 250. 

Cat mint, Malabar, infusion of the leaves, stomachic, ii. 2£4. 
Cat's cleome, prescribed in epistasas, ii. 360. 
Cattrighondoo, stomachic, ii. 72* 
Cay-calava, leaves and root diuretic, ii. 74?. 
Cayenne pepper, the opinions of the Vytians respecting it, i. 307. 
Celsus mentions the carrot seeds of Crete, i. 57. 
Cendurams, what, i. 530* 
Cerbera, mango-like, singular effect produced by the external part 

of the fruit taken internally, ii. 262. 
Ceylon, literary society of, i. 524. 
Chalk, prepared, formulae for using, i. 591* 

■ , brought to India from England, i. 66. 
Chamomile Sowers, how used by the Arabians, i. 67. 
Chancre, names of, ii. 531. 
Charcoal, i. 68, 6a 
_— poultice, how made, i. 592. 
Charpentier, Cossigny, thinks the tea plant would thrive at the 

Cape of Good Hope, i. 439* 
Chaste tree, three-leaved, leaves discutient, ii. 287. 

, five-leaved, virtues similar to those of the neer-no#- 

chie, ii. 252. 
Cheeank, diuretic, ii. 75. 
Cheris, a powerfully narcotic gum-resin, ii. 73. 
Chesnut water, ii. 342. 
Chevreul analyses the nux vomica, i. 320. 

N N 4» 


China root, how used bj the Hindoos, Japanese, and Chinese, 

i.70, 71. 
— — — , much esteemed in China, and Japan, i. 592. 

, good description of, i. 154. 
Chirayit, gentian, tonic and stomachic, ii. 373. 
Chocolate, safe drink in dyspepsia, i. 48, 
Cholera morbus, virtues of toasted black pepper in, i. SO*. 

, how treated by the Tamool doctors, i. 93. 

-, virtues of coffee in, i. 82. 

-, names of, ii. 531. 

•, virtues of magnesia in, i. 304. 

Chrichton, sir Alex., employs the vapour of burning tar in con- 
sumption, i. 459. 
Cicero notices dittany of Crete, i. 112. 
Cinchona, i. 72. 

Cinchonine, from what species of bark obtained, i. 126. 
Cinnamon, ii. 145. 

-, varieties of, in Ceylon, i. 72, 73. 
— — , formulae for prescribing, i. 593. 
Cissus, three-leaved, roots discutient, ii. 326. 
— -, four-angled, leaves in powder in bowel affections, ii. 

Clarke, Dr., is lavish in praise ef tea, i. 433. 

Clarke's account of the copper mine of Fahlun in Dalecarlia, 
i. 506. 

Clay, potters, i. 74. 

Cleome, viscid, seeds anthelmintic, ii. 223. 

, five-leaved, seeds in convulsions, ii. 451. 

Clerodendrum, phlomis-like, juice of the leaves bitter and alter- 
ative, ii. 408, 

Clitoria, winged«leaved, root emetic, flower a blue dye, ii. 140, 141. 

—i — , winged-leaved, root of and seeds anthelmintic, ii. 474. 

Clove, how used by the Indians, and Arabians, i. 76, 77. 

— — -, bestmode of administering, i. 593. 

Cocculus Indicus, its use in herpes, and for intoxicating fish, ii. 131. 

Cochin-China* i. 89. 

leg, names of, in different languages, ii. 531. 

Cochineal, i. 79. 

Cochrane, captain C. Stuart, his Journal of a Residence in Colom- 
bia, i. 297. 

Cocoa-nut, i. 77. 

' — , sea, its medicinal use among the Hindoos, where found, 

ii. 127. 

Coffee, i. 81. 

■ , made by toasting the chick pea, i. 299. 

Colebrooke, his opinion of culinjan, i. 142. 

-, H. T. Esq., i. 19. 

, Mr., ii. 377. 

Coloquintida, found in Nubia, by Burckhardt, i. 85. 
«■ , how used by the Arabians, i. 84. 


Coloquintida, formulae for prescribing, i. 594. 

Columba root, formulas for prescribing, i. 595. 

, tonic, antiseptic, and astringent, i. 87. 

Comyn, (de Comyn,) his State of the Philippine Islands, i. 47. 

Conessi bark, its use on the Malabar coast, i. 88. 

Consumption, names of, ii. 532. 

Convolvulus of Brazil, a powerful cathartic, ii. 309. 

. Malabar, ii. 291. 

Convulsions of infants, names of, ii. 532. 

Conyza, balsam-bearing, sudorific and pectoral, ii. 396. 

Copal of the Vateria Indica, ii. 482. 

— sold for amber, i. 14. 

Copeland, his History of Madagascar, i. 478. 

Copper, formulae for prescribing, i. 642. 

— — , -brought to India from Persia in large cakes, i. 507* 

, sulphate, and acetate of, i. 510. 

, different countries found in, i. 506, 507- 

, white, analysed by Fyfe and Dinwiddie, i. 508. 

— — , of Sumatra, combined with a considerable portion of gold, 
i. 506. 

■^— mine in Lower India, i. 504. 

— — mine in the Nahan country, i. 505. 

— — - mines at Callastry, i. 505. 

ore, native of Japan, the purest in the world, i. 506. 

Coral, Arabian gulph almost filled up with it, i. 90. 

Corbyn, Mr., his opinion of calomel, i. 554. 

Coriander, seeds or, i. 91. 595. 

Coronilla, painted, ii. 64. 

Costus, Arabian, its tonic virtues, ii. 166. 

■ speciosus, its properties, i. 167. 
Cotton bush, decoction of the root in gravel, ii. 282. 

- of the cocoa-nut tree, ii. 419. 
-■ tree, gum of, a solution of it in bowel affections, ii. 96. 
Cough, names of, ii. 532. 
— , hooping, ii. 532. 
Courtois discovers Iodine, i. 633. 
Cowhage, how used, i. 596. 
Cow pox, names of, ii. 532. 
Crab's eyes used by the Persians, i. 94. 
Crataeva, religiosus, leaves of, stomachic, ii. 459. 
Crateva, prickly, root in decoction, in melancholy, ii. 86. 
Crawford, Mr., i. 16, 
Cresses, garden, prized by the Mahometans of India, i. 195. 

, water, in the Eastern islands, i. 95. 
Creyat root, how used, i. 596. 
r— , valuable stomachic and tonic, i. 96. 
Crinum, Asiatic, use of the leaves and root, ii. 465. 
Crotolaria, blue-flowered, juice of the leaves ordered in scabies, 
ii. 478. 
■■ , blue-flowered, checks salivation, ii, 305. 


Croton, purging, similarity of the evacuations produced by it, and 
calomel, i. 597. 

, purging, seed of, how used by tlie Indian doctors, i. 

101, 102, 108. 
■ , folded, in lepra, ii. 398. 
■ oil, from whom the best and safest may be had, i. 599. 

seed, powerfully emmenagogue, i. 108. 

Croup, names of, ii. 532. 

Cubebs, how used by the Hindoos and Arabians, i. 98. 

Cullen says fumitory is tonic, i. 139. 

Cumbi-pisen, its virtues in cleaning ulcers, ii. 89. 

Cumin seed, used by Celsus in affections of the spleen, i. 100. 

Curculigo, orchis-like, root demulcent, ii. 242. 

Curry, Dr., prescribes with success the tincture of the rnatany 

root, i. 127* 
Cu8cus root, virtues and uses of, ii. 470. 
Cutler, Mr., his account of Ginseng, i. 155. 
Cuttacamboo, a kind of catechu, i. 65. 
Cynanchum, hairy-flowered, decoction of the leaves anthelmintic, 

ii. 453. 
Cyperus, rush-leaved, its medicinal properties, ii. 163* 

D'Acosta, i. 14a 

Dalbergia, woody, juice of the root cleans ulcers, ii. 332. 
Dalton, John, Esq., his account of indigo, i. 180. 
Dandelion, common, where it might grow, preface, page xxii. 
Dandriff, names of, ii. 533. 
Davy, his analysis of snake stones, i. 37* 

, Dr., found alum in Ceylon, i. 12. 
— , Sir Humphrey, his Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, 

i. 327. 

, his analysis of gall nut, i. 146. 
Deer, spotted, flesh of used in medicine, ii. 480. 

, i. 110. 

Dehaen thought belladona injurious in cancer, i. 247. 
De Hillefeld compares the nux vomica with the upas tieute, i. 320. 
D'Herbelot, i. 20. 

Delile, his experiments on the nux vomica, i. 321. 
Desfontaines says the pistacia Atlantica yields mastich, u 216, 217. 
Desportes' analyses the nux vomica, i. 320. 
De Wepfer compares nux vomica with the upas tieute, L 320. 
Diarrhoea, names of, ii. 533. 

Dierbach, his Materia Medica of Hippocrates, i. 254. 
Dill seed often prescribed by the Tamool doctors, i. 109* 
— — - — , prescribed by Brande, i. 599. 
Dinwidie, Dr., analyses white copper, i. 508. 
Dioscorides speaks of indigo, i. 179. 
Diseases, names of, in different languages, ii. 528. 
, conversion of, i. 555, 


Dittany of Crete, a medicine esteemed by the Persians and Ara- 
bians, i. 112. 

Diuretics, rare in all parts of the world, ii. 152. 

Dog's flesh used as a medicine, ii. 480. 

Dragon, purple-stalked, root of, antispasmodic and emmenagogne, 
ii. 50, 51. 

Dragon's blood, not astringent, i. 114. 

Duck, brahminy, i. 116. 

Du Halde notices croton sebiferum, i. 427. 

Duncan, Dr., Junior, i. 22. 114. 124. 185. 

Dyer, Dr., his account of the gamboge tree, L 148. 

Dysentery, names of, ii. 533. 


Ear-ache, names of, ii. 533. 
Earth, acid, analysed by Pepys, i. 283. 
Eaton, Mr., his account of boletus igniarius, i. 6. 
Eau de trois noix, prepared from walnuts, hydragogue, i. 464. 
Eau medicinale, what, i. 607* 

Ebony, downy mountain, buds, flowers, and root, medicinal, ii. 48. 
Eclipta, trailing, its use in the elephas or Barbadoes leg, ii. 130. 
EggB, fowls', not eaten by the Brahmins, i. 117. 
Ehretia, box -leaved, root alterative, ii. 81. 
Elder plant, a native of Japan, i. 118* 
Elecampane, a medicine of the Arabians, i. 119* 
Elephant, virtues of the flesh, ii. 479* 
Elephant's foot, prickly-leaved, decoction of the root, ii. 17* 
Elizabeth, Queen, how the bean was called in her time, i. 28. 
Elmore, his Directory to the Indian Trade, i. 12. 143. 
Elphinston, Mr., notices alum in Cabul, i. 1 2. 
-, his account of Cabul, i. Ill, 112* 
Embryopteris, glue-bearing, ii* 278* 
Emetine, doses of, i. 610. 
Englehart, of Gottingen, his discovery respecting the nature of 

the blood, i. 644. 
English nation, objects interesting to, i. 16. 
Epidendrum, small-leaved, in diseases of the bladder, ii. 439* 
Epilepsy, names of, ii. 533. 
Eroopovel, its alterative quality, ii. 102. 
Erysipelas, ii. 534. 

Erythroxylon areolatum, leaves cooling, ii. 422. 
Eschynomene, rough-stemmed, ii. 400. 
Eugenia, long racemed, root aperient and deobstruent, ii. 56* 
Euphorbia (lathyris), valuable cathartic obtained from ; Caldermi 

and Grimaud's opinion of it, i. 599. 
Euphorbium, Pliny 8 account of its origin, i. 120. 
* Evolvulus, chickweed -leaved, virtues of the stalks, leaves, and 

root, ii. 468. 
Excoecaria, notched-leaved, ii« 437. 



Fara-ufarfara, its use for fumigating, ii. 104. m „ 

Febrifuge, Swietenian, bark tonic, modes of prescribing it, u. 

124. 600. 
Feneulle analyses senna, i. 392. 
Fennel, sweet, mode of prescribing it, i. 129. 601. 
. flower seed, i. 128. 

Fenugreek, coffee made with the seed in Egypt, i. 131. 
Feronia, elephant (variety of), virtues of the leaves, ii. 82. 
Ferrier, his excellent Treatise on the Conversion of Diseases, 

i. 555. 
Fever, ardent, names of, ii. 534. 
— -, intermittent, names of, ii. 534. 

, typhus, names of, ii. 534. 
Fhilebert, his reflections on the sensible effects of opium, u 272. 
Fig, ordered by the Vytians in consumption, i. 132. 
Fig tree, Indian, use of the seed, ii. 11. 
, poplar-leaved, seeds in electuary, ii. 35. 

, red-wooded, virtues of the bark in hematuria, ii. 30. 

Finlayson, roots found by him of a febrifuge nature, at Siam, 

i. 127. 
Fischer, de potus coffee, usu et abusu, i. 82. # 
Fish, different substances used for intoxicating, ii. 132, 133» 
Fistula, names of, ii. 534. 

Flacourtia cataphracta, leaves of, astringent, ii. 407* 
Fleabane, ash-coloured, decoction of, in fevers, ii. 363. 

, purple, anthelmintic, ii. 55* 
Fleming, his Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants, ii. prel. obs. 

page xxxiv. 

-, Dr., notices mirabilis jalapa, ii. 284. 

Floriken, a great delicacy, i. 133. 

Flour of wheat, i. 133. 

Fluggea leucopyrus, root of, a mild astringent, ii. 449. 

Forrest found gold in Mindano, i. 517* 

Forskahl's account of sison ammi, i. 38. 

Fothergil, i. 81. 

Fouquier, of Paris, employs the alcolic extract of poison nut in 

paraplegia, i. 622. 
Fowler, Dr., recommends an infusion of tobacco in dropsy and 

dysuria, i. 449. 
Fowl, common, i. 135. 

, gigantic (g. giganteus), common at Sumatra, i. 135. 
, wild, i. 135. 
Foxglove, preface, page xxi. 
Frankincense, i. 136. 

Franklin, Mr. William, his Tracts on Ava, i. 190. 
Frazer, Mr., finds the burrel in the Hemalaya mountains, i. 234, 
Frederick, Captain Edward, i. 212. 
Frost, Mr. John, his account of croton tiglium, i. 108. 


Fumitory, the opinion of the Hakeems respecting it) i. 138. 
Fyfe, Dr. Andrew, analysed white copper, i. 508. 


Gaertner, i. 246. 

Galangal, Ksempherian, ii. 146* 
»- , lesser, i. 140. 

— — — , greater, i. 140. 

Galbanum, formula? for prescribing, i. 601. 

, brought from Syria to Bombay, i. 143. 

Galega, prickly, root of, in decoction, ii. 209. 

, purple, use of the root in dyspepsia and tympanites, 
ii. 157. 

— — , root in dyspepsia, lientery, and tympanites, ii. 49. 

Galileo, Poliotta, discovers an active principle m sarsaparilla (pa- 
ri gline), i. 383. 

Galls, Kinneir found the tree which yields them in Kurdistan and 
Armenia, i. 144, 145. 

, how used in medicine, i. 602. 

Gambeer, or bastard catechu, ii. 105, 106. 

Gamboge obtained in the Wynade, i» 148. 
, formula? for prescribing, i. 602# 

Gandapooro, its use in rheumatism, ii. 107* 

Gandoo, or climbing acacia, an emetic of the Javanese, iu 107, 

Gardener, Mr., discovers the camellia on the mountains of Sheo- 
pore, i. 439. 

Garlic, much used in India, ii. 475. 

-, how considered by the Arabians, i. 151 « 

-, syrup of, used by the Hindoos in catarrh, i. 603. 

Garrard, Colonel W., discovers a mineral water at Bangalore, 
analysed by Dr. P. Scott, i. 466, 467. 

Garstin, Colonel, brought the sinapis nigra from England to Ben- 
gal, i. 231. 

Geber purified sal ammoniac in the eighth century, i. 366. 

Gemellus, convolvulus, in aphthous affections, ii. 894. 

Gems, a work in Arabic on, by Achmed Feifaseite, translated into 
Italian by Raineri of Florence, i. 293. 

Gentil, his Voyage in the Indian Seas, i. 517* 

Gerarde speaks of coloquintida, i. 85. 

Gesner compares the nux vomica with the poison of the upas 
tieute, i. 320. 

Gillies, Dr., of Bath, i. 390. 

Ginger, i. 603. 

— , dry and green, i. 152. 

, how used by the Persians, i. 153. 

Ginseng, extraordinary virtues ascribed to it by the Chinese, 
i. 154. 

Glad wine, his Asiatic Miscellany, i. 515. 

Gmelina, Asiatic, root of, demulcent, ii. 241. 


Goat, straqge notion of the Vytians respecting the flesh of it, 

i. 156. 
Goeula, gewla, cardiac and stomachic, ii. 111. 
Gold, alloys of, i. 522. 

-, discovered in the Madura district by Mr. Mainwaring, L 514?. 

-, different countries found in, i. 515, 516, 517* 

found by Captain Arthur in Mysore, i. 514. 
-, fulminating, i. 520. 

-, of China, mentioned by Landresse, i. 517. 
leaf, i. 518. 

mine discovered by Captain Warren in Mysore, in 1800, 
i. 514. 

mines in Russia, Sir Alexander Crich ton's account of, i. 

517, 518. 

of South America, L 519. 

Goldenia, procumbent, for bringing boils to suppuration, ii. 4S5. 

Gomuti palm, singular account of it, i. 363. 

Goncalo first notices the pine-apple in 1513, i. 316. 

Gonorrhoea, names of, ii. 534. 

Good, Dr., his valuable work, " The Study of Medicine," L 

223. 502. 
Gordon, Dr. John, his account of croton seeds, i. 107. 

, Dr. Theodore, i. 607* 
Got, his opinion of the butter of the butter tree, i. 424. 401. 
Gourd, palmated, its use in sores, ii. 85. 
Grape, cultivated by the French in India with great success 

i. 157. 

Grass tree of Port Jackson, i. 485. 

Gratiola, thyme-leaved, root, stalks, and leaves, all used in medi- 
cine, diuretic, ii. 239* 

Gravel, names of, ii. 535. 

Gray, his Supplement to the Pharmacopoeias., i. 83. 

Grading thought night-shade useful in epilepsy, i. 247* 

Grenfers Observations on the Copper Coinage, i. 506- 

Grimaud announces to the Royal Academy a valuable discovery 
of Calderini, an Italian physician, i. 599. 

Grosier notices croton sebiferum, i. 425. 

Guaic, where it might be produced, preface, page xx. 

Guana, its flesh as food and as medicine, ii. 263, 264. 

Guignes (de Guignes), his Voyage to Pekin, i. 73. 

Gum ammoniac, an account of the tree which yields it in Persia, 
i. 159. 

, formulae for prescribing, i. 604. 
Arabic, got in Morocco from the attaleh tree, i. 161. 
<-, mode of prescribing, i. 605. 

tragacanth, formulae for it, recommended by Dr. 
i. 605. 

, got in Persia from the hum tree,i. 163. 

resin, a powerfully narcotic one, ii. 73 
Gums, simple, the different trees yielding, i. 162. 


Gundharusa justicia, its use in rheumatism, iL 68. 

Gunti paringhie, its use in fevers, ii. 112* 

Gutta, a sort of bread, ii. 112. 

Guyj-pippul, its dried fruit a medicine of the Hindoos, ii. 113. 

Habb-hal habbeschi, a substitute for pepper, ii. 1 14. 
Hahneman, his treatment of poisoning with arsenic, u 508. 
Hair-flower, tender shoots and dried capsules, aperient and sto- 
machic, ii. 296. 
Hali abbas, i. 211. 
Hall, Captain Basil, found the Corean name of tobacco the same 

as ours, i. 448. 
Hamilton, Dr. F., his account of the Puraniya district, i. 112. 

i , his admirable account of the Shahabad country 
(a manuscript at the India house), i. 266* 
., Dr. Francis, i. 55. 

Hanway, i. 40. 

■ ascribes pernicious qualities to tea, i. 488. 
Hardwicke, General, i. 145. 

■ ■ says gold can be procured from certain sands in the 
Sirinagur country, i- 515. 

Hare, fleeter in India than in Europe, i. 164* 

Hartman, his strange notion respecting dittany, i. 1 13. 

Hart's ear, decoction of the leaves useful in rheumatism,. ii. 

Hasselquist, i. 213. 
Hatchett, his analysis of lac, i. 190. 
Head-ache, names of, ii. 535. 

Heart-pea, smooth-leaved, its root in decoction, ii. 204. 
Heart-burn, names of, ii. 535. 

Hedysarum, senna-leaved, medical virtues of the root, ii* S5» 
Heister, his opinion of night shade, i. 247* 
Hellebore, black, formulae for prescribing, i. 606. 
■ , its use in melancholy, i. 167* 

■ white, how ordered, i. 606,607* 

-, its use in mania, i. 166. 

Hemalaya mountains, sheep of, i. 238. 

Hemlock, where it might grow, preface, page xxiu 

Hempseed in gonorrhoea, jL 111. 

, how used in eastern countries, ii. 109, 110. 

Henbane, formulae for prescribing, i. 607. 

■ seed ordered by Celsus to procure sleep in mania, i. 169 

Henderson, Mr. J., his dissertation on the bitlaban, ii. 41. 

, Dr. A., his wort on wine, i» 4*75. 
Henna, extract of the flowers, in lepra, ii* 190. 
Hepatitis, proximate causes of, i. 548. 

Hepatic derangement, a variety of, extremely insidious, i. 549* 
Herbelot, D', his Bibliotheque Orientale, i. 144. 


Hernandes de Toledo first brought tobacco to Europe, i. 448. 
Herpes, names of, ii. 535. 
Hewison, Dr., i. 508. 

Hejde compares poison nut with the upas tieute, i. S20. 
Heyne, Dr., i. 66. 

Hibiscus, target-leaved, seeds musk-flavoured and cordial, ii. 
72, 73. 

, sabdarifia, calyx of the fruit made into tarts, ii. S35. 
Hickup, names of, ii. 535* 

Hill, Mr., of Chester, recommends arsenic, i. 502. 
Himly, professor, i. 607* 

Hindoos, their claims of priority to the cultivation of science, 
ii. prel. obs. page x. 

, their medical works, ii. pre!, obs. page xii, xiii, xiv. 
, their philosophy, ii. prfl. obs. page xxii, xxiii. 
, their knowledge of botany, geography, and the arts, iL 
preL obs* page xxvii. 

■, their religion, ii. prel. obs. page xiv. 
, their polite literature, ii. prel. obs. page xxiv. 
, their knowlege of arithmetic, geometry, algebra, &c-> 
ii. prel. obs. page xxvi. 
Hippocrates notices cinnamon, i. 74s 
Hodgson, Captain, discovers a hot spring which boiled rice, 

Hoffman praises fumitory, i. 1 39. 

Hog, tame and wild, the last much prized as food, i. 170, 17i. 
Hog-weed, spreading, its root how used, ii. 205. 
Honey, the various trees that make it, i. 172. 
Hooper, Dr., i. 222. 

, his opinion of sandarach, i. 370* 
Hop, where it might grow, preface, page xxii. 
Hope, Dr., i. 22. 

Horehound, betony-leaved, black, ii. 477* 
Horsfield, i. 52. 
Horse-radish, i. 175. 

» , formulas for prescribing, i« 608. 

Huet praises tea, i. 433. 

Hufeland, his opinion of atropa belladona, i. 24*7* 

Humboldt, Baron, i. 44. 174-. 

, his account of the cochineal plants of America, 
ii. 218. 
Humble plant, decoction of the root in gravel, ii. 4-32. 
Hume, Mr. junior, discovers jalapine, i. 183. 
Hunt mentions the gold mines of Laura in Borneo, i. 517. 
Huttman, Mr., his paper on tea, i. 439. 
Hydrophobia, plant used in, ii. 448. 

, opinions respecting it, ii. 225, 226. 
Hydrocele, names of, ii. 535. 
Hyssop, i. 177. 



Idou moulli, root of it, a medicine in phrenzy, ii. 115. 
Iliff, Mr. W. T., his account of croton seeds, i. 107* 
Ulecebrum, woolly, root of, in strangury, ii. 393. 
Ipecacuanha, see article Brumadundoo for a substitute for it, 
u. 43. 

, Deslongchamp's account of plants that might be 

used for it, i. 180. 

preferable to tartar emetic in pleurisy and peripneu- 

monia, i. 497* 

, where it might grow, pref. page xx. 
, its great value in India, i. 609. 

Imison, his work on science and art, i. 542. 
India, eulogy on, ii. prel. obs. page xxviii. 
Indian fig, oblong, its leaves refrigerant, ii. 218. 
Indigestion, names of, ii. 536. 
Indigo, i. 178. 

plant, its root a medicine, ii. 33. 

■ ■, trailing, its antiscorbutic qualities, ii. 74. 
Indrabovum, a scarlet insect used in medicines, ii. 117* 
Iodine, who first obtained ; its use in goitre, white swellings, &c. ; 

different plants got from, i. 633.' 
Irac Arabi, i. 67. 

Iris, Florentine, the irsa of the Arabians, i. 182. 
Iron, amongst the ancients, amongst the Arabians, i. 532. 

— filings ; iron, rust of; iron, sulphate of, i. 527* 529. 
— — gives the red colour to the blood, i. 644. 

— , its use in scrophula, i. 529. 643. 

— , in what different eastern countries found, i. 523, 524, 525* 

mines of Presberg, Dr. Clarke's fine description of 9 i. 525. 

— of Ceylon, of a superior quality, malleable immediately on 
being taken out of the furnace, i. 524. 

— , preparations of, called by the Hindoos Ccndoorums, i. 530. 

wood, thorny, leaves and root antidotes for snake bites, ii. 88* 

Itch, names of, ii. 536. 

Jackal, virtues of its flesh, ii. 480. 

Jackson, his account of euphorbium, in Morocco, i. 121. 
Jalap, reflections on, ii. 308. 

-, where it might grow, preface, page xx. 
, Indian, or square-stalked bind-weed, root of, a valuable ca- 
thartic, ii. 383. 
— , substitutes for, i. 183. 

, perhaps the best purge at the beginning of fevers in India, 

i. 611. 
Jalapine discovered by Mr. Hume, i. 183. 
Jambolana tree, flowers and capsules cooling, ii. 444* 
Jameson, his account of Bale and of gold mines, i. 43. 519. 



Jang-kang, leaves of, repellant; seeds bring on vertigo, ii. 119. 

Jasmine, narrow-leaved, root of, useful for ring-worms, ii. 52. 

Jaundice, names of, ii. 536. 

Jeffreys, Mr. Henry, his work on cubebs, i. 98. 

Jews' mallow, bristly-leaved, its virtues in visceral obstructions, 

it* 387. 
John, Dr., i. 80. 

, digests together bees* wax and myrtle wax, i. 471. 
Johnston, Colonel John, C. B., his account of the gum ammoniac 

plant, i. 159. 

., Sir Alexander, i. 483. 

Jones, Sir William, i. 5. 

Jubaba, a bark supposed to have antispasmodic virtues, ii. 12G. 

Jussieua, shrubby, its use in dysentery, ii. 67. 

Justicia, two-valved, juice of the root, ii. 29. 

, creeping, use of the leaves in tinlai capitis, ii. 156. 
, Tranquebar, juice of the leaves aperient, fi. 412. 

, procumbent, juice of the leaves in opthalmia, ii. 246. 

, white-flowered, root of, ii. 216. 

Juwasa, ii. 120. 

Kaat toottie, ii. 120. 
Kaden-pullu, a knotty root, ii. 121. 
Ksempher, his Amcenit. Exotic. L 43S. 
Kamadu, leaf of, powerfully stimulating, ii. 187. 
Kambodsha, see Plumeria, blunt-leaved, ii. 137. 
Kanari, valuable edible oil of, 123. 

Kantang, a kind of potatoe cultivated by the Javanese, i. 331. 
Katapa, decoction of its root, of use in mania, ii. 123. 
Kawan, Malay name of a tree, the nut of which yields a kind of 

tallow, i. 425. 
Keferstein, his curious account of white copper, i. 509. 
Keir, Dr., estimates the produce of opium in Bengal, i. 272. 
Kendal, Mr., his account of the burrel, i. 284. 
Kerr, Mr., his valuable discovery, i. 63. 
Kha-phaim, its use in lumbago, ii. 148. 
Khawan-pican, aperient and expectorant, ii. 147* 
Khurish, churin, reckoned emmenagogue in Jamaica, ii. 149* 
Khuz, nibil alfie, its use in colic, ii. 148. 
Kid, excellent in India, i. 184. 
Kidney bean, three-Iobed, in (ever, ii. 434. 
Kilisorum bark, ii. 152. 
Kind, Mr., his artificial camphor, i. 151. 
Kinneir, Captain Macdonald, i. 21. 145. 
Kino, formulas for prescribing, i* 611. 

, various opinions regarding, i. 185, 186. 

Kirckpatrick, Colonel, i. 33. 457- 

Kirwan, his opinion of the solution of gold, k 520* 

Kott-qual, Egyptian name for euphorbtum, i. 121. 


Kondoshony, liniment for the head made with, ii. 159. 
Krameric acid, a peculiar principle in rhatany root, i. 127* 
Krastulang, a corroborant in Java, ii. 171. 


Labdanum, Arabians use it as perfume, i. 188* 

Lac, trees in India on which the insect is found, L. 1891 

Lack beet, its use in diarrhoea, ii. 171. 

Lambert, Mr*, has the Paraguay tea plant growing in his garden, 

at Boyton house in Wilts, i. 437. 
Langsdorff, his Travels, i. 115. 
Lassaigne analyses senna, i. 392. 

Latham, Dr., his employment of turpentine in epilepsy, L 458. 
La Tolfa, Roman alum made there, i. 12. 
Laurel, Alexandrian, ii. 812. 
Lavender, thick-leaved, juice of the leaves in cynanche, and in 

preparing a liniment for the head, ii. 144. 
Leachenault, M., his details on tanaampoo, i. 44. 
Lead, solution of acetate of, a poison for vegetables, i. 596. 
, how used by the natives of India, i. 5S6, 537. 

., formulas for prescribing, i. 644. 

., Romans knew refrigerant property of, L 537* 
mines of Nirtchensk in Russia, L 534. 

-, where found in Eastern countries, i. 532, 533* 

., galena of, often sold for sulphur of antimony in the Indian 
bazars, i. 495. 
— , poisoning from, how it may be treated, i. 537. 

-, its use in the arts, i. 587. 

-, white ; lead, red, i. 534, 535. 
Lead wort, Ceylon, paste prepared with the fresh bark, a vesica- 
tory, ii. 77. 

, rose coloured, bruised root, an external and internal 

stimulant, ii. 379, 380. 
Le Clerc, his Histoire de la Medicine, i. 343. 
Leech, different kinds, i. 192. 
Leeches, how made to fix in India, i. 612* 

, poisonous, of Ceylon, i. 612. 

Legrange analyses senna leaves, i. 391. 
Lemon grass, or sweet-rush, used as tea, ii. 58. 
Leopard, virtues of its flesh, ii. 480. 
Leprosy, white, names of, ii. 53b*. 

, of the Arabians, names of, ii. 536. 
Letchicuttay elley, its use in rheumatism, ii. 172. 
Letour and Co. praise Ndgherry hills opium, i. 277. 
Lettsom, his experiments on tea, i. 438. 
Lettuce, opium of, preface, page xxii. 
Leyden, Dr., speaks of black pepper in Eastern countries, i. SQ9L 

, Ins Sketches of Borneo, L 36. 336. 

Lichen, rounded, liniment prepared with, ii. 170. 
Lientery, names of, ii. 537. 

O O 2 


Lime and lemon, i. 1 93. 
— , quick, i. 194. 

— water, i. 195. ... 
Limodorum, spatulate-leaved, flowers used in consumption, u. 

Link's Travels in Spain, i. 299. 
Linseed, its use, i. 61% 613. 

, i. 195. 

Liquor, spirituous, different articles from which distilled, i. 196* 
Liquorice, wild Jamaica, resembles in taste and virtues the com- 
mon liquorice root, ii. 79. 
■ root, i. 199. 

Litharge, i. 535. 

Liver, inflammation of, names of, it. 537* 
Lizard, opinions respecting, ii. 276. 
Lochia, suppression of, names of, ii. 537. 

- , immoderate flow of, names of, ii. 537. 
Lockjaw, names of, ii. 537. 

Lockman's Travels of the Jesuits, i. 243. 

Loiseleur Des Longchamps, his excellent Manuel des Plantes 

Usuelles, i. 122. 
Lokyer's Account of the Trade of India, i. 373. 
Long, his History of Jamaica, i. 315. 
thinks the argemone Mexicana might be useful in dropsies, 

ii. 44. 
Lopez, Gaubius's opinion of it, ii. 174. 
Loss says hogs may eat poison nuts with impunity, i. 320. 
Ludovici testi, i. 225* 

Luna, abunafa, an aphrodisiac root, ii. 174. 
Lumsdain, Mr. I., i. 76. 
Lunan, his Hortus Jamaicensis, i. 46. 
Lussac, Gay, analyses wax, i. 472. 

Macdonald, Mr., his Account of the Products of Sumatra, i. 50. 
Mace, its use in consumption, i. 201. 
Macleod, Dr. R., his valuable Medical and Physical Journal, i. 

Macullock, Dr., his Remarks on the Art of making Wine, i. 477. 
Madder of Bengal, bartered for rock-salt in Nepaul, i. 203. 

— , use of, in scanty lochial discharge, ii. 182. 

., Indian, ii. 101. 

MadnBM, names of, ii. £37. 

Maducare bark, use of, in dysentery, ii. 177* 

Magee, Dr., of Dublin, his opinion of the oil of turpentine, i. 459* 

Magendie finds morphia soluble in olive oil, i.<275. 

Maghali root, its use in cachexies, ii. 177- 

Magnesia, sulphate of, an alterative medicine of great value* 

i. 629. 

— , use of, in cholera morbus, i, 304. * 

Magnetic iron stone, ii. 146. 


Mahometan doctors, ii. pre]* obs. page xxxiii. 

Mai-dayng (Siam), root of, a febrifuge, i. 127* 

Maium intoxicates and eases pain, ii. 176. 

Malabar nut, flowers of, in electuary, ii. 4. 

Malcolm, Sir John, notices a custom of the Bhllls, i. 536. 

., his account of the discovery of wine, i. 477. 
Mandanakameh flowers, ii. 174. 

Mandrake plant, ancients put the fruit under their pillows, i. 207* 
Manganese, for fumigating, its use in the arts, i. 599, 540. 

■ , first particularly noticed by Boyle, i. 538. 

■ , known to the ancients, but confounded with the mag- 
net, i. 538. 

, found in Mysore by Captain Arthur, i. 538. 
, found by.Peirouse in its native state, i. 539. 

Manisurus granular, ii. 434. 

Manna, different trees from which it is got, i. 209, 210. 

— —- , formulae for prescribing, ii. 613. 

Mansiadi, its use in Malabar and Ceylon, ii. 1 77* 

Manuscript, a valuable one at the India house, i. 441. 

Maratia mooghoo, sedative and slightly intoxicating, ii. 185. 

Marcet, his Memoir on Vegetable Poisons, i. 273. 

Margosa tree, bark of, a tonic ; leaves, a valuable bitter, ii. 

454, 455. 
Marjoram, sweet, i. 213. 

Marking nut, juice of, in lepra, scrophula, &c, ii. 371* 
Marris praises rhatany root, i. 127. 
Marsden, i. 34. 

Marshal, Thomas, his account of croton, i. 105. 
Martin, Dr., of Stutton, in Suffolk, prescribes the nux vomica 

with success in dysentery, i. 321. 
Marvel of Peru, virtues of, doubtful, ii. 285. 
Massoy, Virey's account of its medicinal qualities, ii. 196, 197* 
Mastich, a masticatory of the Mahometan women, i. 215. 
Materia Medica of the Hindoos, ii. prel. obs. page xxxiii. 
Maton, Dr., fixes the cajuputi tree as a new species, i. 260. 
Measles, names of, ii. 537* - 
Medical books in Arabic, ii. 504. 
■ Cyngalese, ii. 525. 

— — — — - Persian, ii. 504. 

Sanscrit, i. 560. ii. 591. 

men, Hindoo, their defence, ii. prel. obs. page xxxi. 

— writers, Hindoo, ii. prel. obs. page xxx, 

Medicine, state of, amongst the Hindoos, ii. prel. obs. page xiii. 

Medicines of value, desirable to ascertain, ii. 172. 

Meerza, Jiafer Tabeeb, discovers a new manna, i. 213. 

Melancholy, names of, &c, ii. 538. 

Melastoma, leaves of, in powder, in coughs, ii. 124. 

Meli, M., employs black pepper as a febrifuge, i. 622. * 

Melinda, aloes of, i. 9. 

Melochia, red, ii. 440. 

O O 3 


Melon water, refreshing in hot weather, i. 216* 
Mendi (ophiorhiza raungos), virtues of the leaves, root, and bark 
in snake bites ; often confounded with ophioxytam serpentinum, 

ii. 199, 200. 
Menses, immoderate flow of, names of, ii. 538. 

. , suppression of, names of, ii. 538. 

Mercury, factitious Cinnaber, i. 541. 

, diseases in which it may do harm, i. 551* 

, formula? for prescribing, i. 645, 646. 

, has the effect of liquifying the secretions, and rendering 

the blood dark coloured, i. 544. 
■ , how does it operate in removing diseases ? u 546* 

, its nse in the arts, i. 558. 
-, in the preparation of calomel, acts as a purge, by stimul- 

ating the mouth of the great biliary duct ; for bile most purge 
when the quantity made to flow is greater than what the portion 
of food in the intestinal canal requires for its digestion, i. 65Q» 
, its great value as a medicine in India, i. 647* 
>, large doses of objected to, cautions against its indisv 

criminate use, i. 553. 

, native Cinnaber, i. 541* 
■ " ■» not sedative, i. 648. 
, often adulterated, i. 559. 

•, preparations of, in use amongst the Hindoos, i. 557 — 
660. ii. 348—356. 

removes disease by its influence on the general habit, 

best testified by a degree of soreness of mouth, i. 649, 650. 
', rubbed in, in the form of unguent, i. 651. 
>, salivation from, its use snatches a dysenteric patient 

from the grave, i. 650. 

-, suggestions regarding its modus operandi, i. 547* 648, 

649. ii. 349. 

-, the most universal stimulant and alterative in the Ma- 

teria Medica, i. 648. 

-, the good effects arising from its aflecting the mouth, 

i. 550. ii. 349. 

, when to he avoided, i. 647, 648. 

-, when the physicians of Europe first employed it, i. 545- 
-, when first used in venereal complaints, u 543* 
-, where found, i.541. 

Mesue, i. 211. 

Mica, i. 421, 422, 423. 

Michael, Captain, thanks to him, postscript to preface, p. xix. 

Michele's Delia Corctrese Flora, i. 119. 

Milburn, his excellent work on Oriental Commerce, i. 267. 

Milk, asses', i. 122. 

— , butter, its properties useful in consumption, ii. 211. 

-, cow's, 219. 

», goat's, i. 221 r 

', sugar of, chiefly made in Switzerland, i. 225. 


Milk of the buftal*, ii. 108. 

— tree of South America, tasted by Humboldt, i. 4*30. 
Milk-hedge, milky juice of, used as a purge and vesicatory, 

ii. 133, 134. 

Millet, Italian, much prised by the Brahmins, i. 226. 

Mimosa, ash-coloured, young shoots cooling, ii. 458. 

— — ., rusty, decoction of the bark fastens the teeth, ii. 477. 

Mint, i. 241. 

, how used, i. 615. 

Missee, an oxyde of copper, used by the natives of India in tooth- 
ache, i. 513. 

Mitah bish, a poison, ii. 251. 

Mollugo, bed -straw-like, leaves stomachic, ii. 431. 

Momordica dioicus, root of y its use in piles, ii. 274. 

Monetia, leaf of the four-spined, ii. 404. 

Monkey, flesh of, used in medicine, ii. 480. 

Moon, his Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, i. 231. 

Moonflower, capsules and seeds in snake bites, ii. 219. 

Moonseed, heart-leaved, powder of the dried tender shoots alte- 
rative, and root an emetic, ii. 377, 378. 

Moorcroft, his account of the sheep of Ladakh, i. 233. 

Morier tells us where pearls are found in Persia, i. 293. 

Morinda, narrow-leaved, its leaves in decoction, ii. 100. 

Moxa, its use in Japan, is 622. 

-, prepared from the artemisia Chinensis, i, 482. 

, what, and where used, ii. 195, 196. 

Mudar root, or root of. the yeroocum (Tarn.), i. 227. 486. 

— — may be of use m cancer, i. 553. 

Muench, M. M ., recommends night shade in hydrophobia, i. 247. 

Muhammed Hosen Shirazi, his Persian Treatise on Medicine, 

i. 241. 
Muller seeks out the origin of white copper, i. 509. 

Mullet, i. 227. 

Mumps, names of, ii. 538. 

Mungoos, ii. 199. 

Murray, his Apparatus Medicaminum, i. 86. 

Musk, i. 228. 

■■ , formulas for prescribing, i. 614. 

Mustard, i. 230. 

, formulas for prescribing, i. 615. 

Mutis, his opinion of the yellow bark, i. 126. 

Mutton, i. 232. 

Myrobolan chebulic* flower of, astringent, ii. 128. 

Myrobolans, i. 236, 237. 239. 

Myrrh, Alston thought it rarified the blood, i. 617* 

- , formulas for prescribing, i. 616. 

, tree not yet exactly known that yields it, i. 243. 

Mysachie, an Arabian gum resin, ii. 216. 
Mysore country, what might. grow tliere, pre&ce, page xxi. , 

O O 4 


Myxa, smooth-leaved, dried fruit mucilaginous and emollient; 
fresh and ripe, an aperient, ii. 467. 

Nam mamady, bark mildly astringent, ii. 227. 
Narrba, fresh bark of, used for wound*, ii. 228. 
Natchenny, a grain much eaten by the Hindoos, i. 245. 
Navel-wort, cut4eaved, its use in foul ulcerous cases, ii. 488. 
Neereddimoottoo, used in lepra, ii. 235. 
Neilson, Captain, brought the cochineal insect to India, i. 79. 
Nepenthes, distilling liquor of, ii. 94. 
Niatu tree yields a kind of tallow, i. 423. 
Nicholson, Mr., i. 39. 

., his Dictionary of Chemistry applied to the Arts, i. 379- 

Nicot, Jean, sends tobacco seeds to Catharine de Medicis, i. 448. 
Niebhur speaks of the balm of Gilead tree, i. 27. 
Night blindness, names of, ii. 538. 
Night-shade, deadly, L 246. 

-, where it might grow, preface, page xxii. 
-> Indian, its root in dysuria, ii. 207. 

, in gout, epilepsy, and convulsions, i. 617. ii. 247. 

, Jacquins, fruit expectorant, ii. 90. 

, three-lobed, root and leaves in consumption, ii. 427. 
Nillghery mountains, what might grow there, preface, page xxiu. 
Niopo, an intoxicating powder used by the Otomacs, i. 450. 
Nira poosee, a Siam root, used for apthae, ii« 250. 
Nisbet, his opinion of rhatany root, i. 127* 
Nitre, formulas for prescribing, ii. 628. 
Node, names of, ii. 538. 

Noeke sells the best croton oil in London, i. 599. 
Nouredden, Mohammed Abdullah, his work on Materia Medica, 

i. 335. 
Noyeau, how made, 8. 
Nut, clearing, for clearing water, ii. 420. 
Nutmeg, its power of diminishing the poisonous quality of the nux 

vomica, i. 622 
— , like mace, produces stupor, i. 250. 

-, when and by whom introduced into Sumatra, i. 250. 
Nux vomica, or poison nut, ii. 489. 


Observations, preliminary, ii. page v. 

Odier, physician of Geneva, his opinion of castor-oil, i. 256. 

Oerstadt discovers a peculiar principle in black pepper, i. 622. 

Oil, castor, lauded in a Chinese book, i. 618. 

— _-, mode of making, i. 256. 

-, highly prized in India, i. 253. 

- , its conversion into wax, i. 257. 
— , cocoa-nut, its uses, ii. 415, 416. 
— , common lamp, in India, i. 257. 


Oil 9 gingilie, its various names and uses, ii. 255, 256* 
— , Kanari, its nut as delicate as the Elbert, i. 259. 
— , Kyapootie, used by the Malays for palsy, i. 261* 

, its use in palsy, i. 618. 
— , lamp, ii, 472. 
— , margosa, ii. 458. 
— , Pinhoen, purgative and emetic, ii* 47. 
— , rock, its use in rheumatism, i. 41. 

- of mustard seed, used for culinary purposes, i. 26S. 
— — *almonds, i. 252. 

cloves, prepared by the Dutch, i. 258. 

nutmeg, prepared by the Dutch at Banda, i. 262. 

■ mace, an expressed oil from the nutmeg, i* 262. 
Oleander, sweet-scented, leaves and bark of die root, externally, 

repellent ; internally, the root is a poison, iL 23. 
Olibanum, the tree which yields it ascertained by Colebrooke, 

Olive tree, not cultivated in India ; Pliny's character of it, i. 

Olivier, his discovery respecting galls, i. 145* 

praises the pomegranates of Ghemlek, i. 32S. 

Onions of Bombay, very fine, i. 269* 

Ophioxylon of serpents, its virtues in snake bites, ii.441. 

Opium, formulae for prescribing, i. 619. 

-, little known in China before the year 1600, since that 

time given in dysentery (joy-fc), i. 621. 

— , its habitual use reprobated, i. 273. 

impairs the digestive organs, and weakens the mind, i. 


Opobalsamum, a panacea in Egypt, i. 278* 
Opoponax, analysed bv Pelletier, i. 281. 
Opthalmia, names of, ii. 338. 
Oranges, Hindoos think they purify the blood ; they make the 

safest and best sherbet, i. 283. 
Oriental nettle tree, its gum, ii. 178. 
Ork,jjena 9 a root used at Cairo for the colic, ii. 263. 
Orphila, his work on Poisons, i. 49. 

Orris, common amongst the deobstrtfents of the Arabians, i. 284. 
Ortalon, common in the Puraniya district ; General Hardwicke 

painted several species of emberiza, i. 286. 
Orthography adopted in this work, preface, page xii. 
Oxen of Eastern countries, i. 32, S3. 
Oysters of the Coromandel coast inferior to none in the world, 

i. 287. 

Paak-foak, root, a febrifuge, i. 127. 
Pains, venereal, names of7 ii. 539. m # % t> 

Pfcpai, common, unripe juice of the fruit anthelmintic, u. 343. 


Puis, Dr., recommends aloes, i. 10. 

Park, Mango, sends hone a specimen of the plant which yields 

kino, i. 186. 
Parkinson, bis notion of amber, i. 15. 
Parmentier analyses milks of different kinds, L 224. 
Partridge, black, flesh of, a medicine, ii. 480. 

, Hindoos say, the cock bird eaten occasions too much 

bile, the hen strengthens the body, i. 289. 
Passpom, white, a preparation of copper, i. 513. 
Patra waly, used by the Malays in intermittent fever, equal to 

Peruvian bark, ii. 378. 
Patti lallar (Jar.)' bitter a™* stomachic, ii. 288. 
Pavetta, root of the Indian, in visceral obstructions, ii. 289. 
Pavon found the nutmeg in Pens, i. 252. 
Pevonia of Ceylon, root of, ii. 395. 

-, sweet-smelling, root of, an ianssion of it a drink in fever, 

ii. 297. 

Pea, much cultivated in Japan, prized by the Afghans, i. 298. 
Peach, i. 7. 

— — , of good quality in Mysore, i. 299. 
Peacock, flesh ot\ a medicine, n. 480. 
— — , when introduced into Rome; flesh amongst the Hmdoo 

medicines, i. 291. 
Peacock's frit, supposed virtues of, ii. 200* 
Pear, garlic, its bark as a medicine, ii* 197, 198. 
Pearl fishery of Colombia of great value, i. 297* 
oyster, eaten in Persia, i. 296. 

seed, arranged round the lip of the oyster shell, i. 296. 
, Hatchett's analysis of, i. 292. 
, mother of, of the Eastern islands, i. 294. 
Pearls, glass, Jaquine's mode of making, i. 295. 
— — , Smith's method of imitating the best, i. 296. 
Pearson, Dr., his Materia Alimentaria, L 56. 
Pedalium, prickly-fruited, its leaf thickens water, ii. 16. 
Pelletier, i. 126. 

Pellitory, ordered by the Vytians in palsy, i. 301. 
Pennant, his View of Hindoostan, i. 17. 
Pennywort, Asiatic, virtues of the leaves, ii. 473. 
Pepper, black, root of, ii. 385. 

■ > peculiar chemical principle in, i. 622. 
, a febrifuge, i. 622. 

, different kinds of in Sumatra, i. 303. 

-, virtues of, in cholera morbus, i. 304. 

., Cayenne, i. 306. 
-, long, highly prized by the Cochin-Chinese, i 309. 
-, prescribed by the Vytians in catarrh, i. 309. 

-, white, i. 304. 

Pepys analyses an acid earth, i. 283. 

Perm-panel, used for fumigating, ii. 306. 

Periptoca, of the woods, root ot y its virtues in snake bites, ii.390. 


i, smalUAevrered, decoction of, in lumbago, ii. 559. 

Peru, marvel of, or wonderful jalap, root but slightly purgative, 
ii, 365. 

, balsam of, arrests sphacelous ulcers, u 65. 406. 

Petrolium, see Oil, rock, L 264. 

Pewter, ii. 461. 

Pharnaceum, umbelled, infusion of the shoots and flowers diapho- 
retic, ii. 345. 

Pheasant, General Hardwicke's account of, i. 311. 

Philebert, his Voyage in the Indian and Asiatic seas, i. 363. 

Philip the Second, pearls for, i. 297. 

Phillips, his History of Cultivated Vegetables, i. 28. 

Phyllanthus, annual Indian, root, leaves, and tender shoots, medi- 
cinal, ii. 150, 151. 

_»*., bucktborn»like, virtues of the leaves in discussing 

tumours, ii. 288. * 

■ ■ , diuretic, ii* 437* 

■ ■ > , many-flowered, bark of, an alterative, ii. 323. 
, Madras, infusion of the leaves in head-ache, ii. "245. 

, Ramnus*like, dried leaves, smoked, ii. 403. 

■■ , shrubby, flowers cooling, ii. 244. 

Physic nut, glaucous-leaved, expressed oil from the seeds, ii. 6. 

, angular-leaved, seeds of the plant purgative ; leaves 
discutient ; fixed oil of the seeds used for burning in lamps, also 
as a medicine in rheumatism, ii. 46* 

Pia-amou-leck, a medicinal root of Siam, ii. 309* 

Pidaroghanie, violently cathartic, ii. 310. 

Pigeon, domestic, and green, i. 313, 314. 

Piles, names of, ii. 539. 

Pine apple, when introduced into Bengal, i. 315. 

. of Brazil the finest in the world, L 315* 

Pinhoen, or emetic oil of South America, u 597. 

Piper dichotomum, root of, in dyspepsia, ii. 416. 

Piperine, the peculiar chemical principle discovered by Perstarit 
in black pepper, and alluded to at, i. 622. 

Pitch, Burgundy, i. 458. 

Plantain, flavour of, improved by milk and sugar, i. 316. 

Plants, description of, and parts of used in medicine by the Hin- 
doos, ii. prel. obs. page xxxvii. 

Plaon-gaii, an astringent Siamese root, ii. SIS. 

Playfair, his opinion of the bark of the root of the asclepias gigan- 

tea, i. 488. 
Pliny, his account of artichokes, i. 23. 
■ ■ - praises onions, i. 270. 

Plumeria, blunt-leaved, root of, cathartic, ii. 137, 138. 
Plutarch, i. 244. 

Pocock found the carob tree in Palestine, i. 365. 
Poetry amongst the Hindoos, ii. preL obs. page msm, xw, kx*. 
Poison nut, its peculiar action on the spinal marrow, L 321. 
_ f catalepsy produced by ka use, i. 628. 


Poison nut, the Chinese think nutmeg has the power of d imini s h i n g 
its poisonous quality, i. 622. 

Poisons, in Malay countries ; upas antiar and upas tshettik, ana- 
lyzed by Pelletier, ii. $4-6. 

Pouokeyu, seeds of, a purge in Java, ii. 320. 

Polyantnes, tuberose, ii. 481 . 

Polygonum, bearded, infusion of the leaves, ii. 1. 

Polypody, yew-leaved, leaves powerfully emmenagogue, u. 486. 

Pomegranate, bark of the root, a speci6c for tape-worm, i. 323. 

Pomegranate tree, root of, its use in cases of tape- worm, ii. 175. 

Pomphlet, lightest fish in India after whiting, i. 325. 

Pongolam, ii. 322. 

Pool (Jav.), a Javanese tonic, ii. 322. 

Poolean, a Javanese tonic, ii. 324. 

Poomichacarei kalung, decoction of, a diet drink, ii. 330. 

Poonjandeputtay, bark of, an alterative, ii. 333. 

Pope, Dr., his account of the Idria mines of Germany, i. 541. 
, Mr., discovers the best method of preparing the croton oil, 

i. 599. 
Poppy seeds, prescribed by the Vytians in diarrhcea, i. 326. 
Porono jiwa, (Jav.), ii. 337. 

Portia tree, juice of the fruit in the Malabar itch, ii. 334. 
Postakai, ii. 339. 
Postscript, preface, page xjx. 
Potass, formulae for using, i, 624. 

■■, the name of impure carbonate of, i. 327. 
■ ■■, impure, analysed by Brande, ii. 184. 
Potatoes, those of Bangalore excellent ; the natives get over their 

prejudices respecting them, i. 329. 
Potatoe, sweet, extremely nourishing, i. 330. 
Potters' earth, English, analysed by Kirwan, i. 75. 
Prawns, excellent in India; notions of the Hindoos respecting 

them, i. 332. 
Proust's method of detecting impurities in wine, i. 478. 
Premna, undivided-leaved, root of, in decoction, stomachic, ii. 210. 
Prescriptions, forms of, preface, page xvii. 
Psoralea, hazelnut-leaved, seeds of, deobstruent, ii. 141. 
Pterocarpus walleted, bark of, of use in the tooth-ache, ii. 264. 
Puchanavie, a poisonous root, ii. 340. 
Pundaroo, bark, an astringent medicine, also used by tanners, iL 

Pundum, a liquid peynie varnish, ii. 482. 
Purslhne, annual, creeping, use of in erysipelas, ii. 286* 
Putchwey, an intoxicating liquor prepared with dried grain, ii. 346. 

Quince, Bengal, its rind a perfume on Ceylon ; decoction of the 

bark given in melancholia, ii. 188, 189. 
■ seed, reckoned by the Persians stomachic, i. 332. 

Quinine, from what obtained, i. 600. 


Quinine, sulphate of, quere whether a similar salt might not be 
procured from the margosa bark ; use of quinine in dyspepsia, 
ii. 456, 457. 

- , syrup of, tincture of, i. 600. 

Qupas, or upas, a common Malay word for poison ; upas antiar, 
upas tshettik, ii. S46, 347. 


Raffles, Sir Stamford, his excellent History of Jay a, i. 423. 

Rahn, a physician of Zurick, i. 247. 

Raisins (kishmish), brought to India from Persia, i. 333. 

Rajrite, a preparation of zinc used in gonorrhoea, ii. s • H. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, brings tobacco to England in 1585, i. 448. 

Randu, basin, contains a great deal of aromatic oil, ii. 348. 

Raynal, Abb£, i. 82. 

, praises tea, i. 433. 

Razes, ii. 36. 239. 

Read, Mr. George, i. 277. 

Reece, Dr., i. 127. 

Rennel notices a rock salt so hard as to be made into vessels, 
i. 372. 

Rennet, various kinds of, i. 335. 

Resin, common ; resin, yellow, i. 458. 
, Indian, or dammar, i. 336. 

Reynard recommends sugar in cases of poisoning from acetate of 
lead, i. 537. 

Rhatany root, Peschier's analysis of, i. 127* 

Rheumatism, names of, ii. 539. 

Rhinoceros, virtues of its flesh, ii. 480. 

Rhubarb, formula? for using, i. 624. 

- first brought into practice by the Arabians, i. 343. 

_ strange to say, is scarce in the Indian bazars, i. 343. 

Rice, Celsus's opinion of it, i. 341. 

, mode of cultivating ; different kinds of, i. 339. 

, oose ; what, i. 338. 

Riddle prescribes white hellebore in mania, i. 607. 

Ring-worm, names of, ii. 539. 

Rivers, Lord, i. 153. 

Robinson, his paper on elephantiasis, i. 487. 

Robiquet, his analysis of opium, i. 275. 

Rochan, AbW, his Voyage to Madagascar, i. 45. 541. 

Rose, different species of, in Bootan, India and Nepaul, i. 347* 
-, beautiful lines on, by Smedley, i. 346. 
, uttir of, who first discovered, in 1020, i. 347. 
water, made in the higher provinces of India, i. 345. 

Rosebay, broad-leaved, juice of the leaves, in opthalmia, ii. 258. 

Rosemary, Proust found ten parte out of one hundred to be cam- 
phor in it, i. 350. 

. opinions of the physicians of the continent respecting 

it, i. 625. 


Rosemary, its virtues amongst the Chinese, amongst the Preach, 

and Italians, i. 35a 
Roque, his opinion of the angular physic nut, ii. 46. 
Roque's FhytographieMedicale,his eulogium on senna, his c a ution s 

against it in certain cases, L 390. 
Bottler, Dr., ii. 38. 

Roux, Joseph, his opinion of opium, i. 272. 
Roxburgh first noticed the virtues of the Swietenia febrifuge, 

i. 124. 
Rue, common, how prescribed, i. 626. 
— , lines on it in the Scbola Salerni, i. 352. 
— , much valued by Celsus, i. 352. 
Ruellia, ringent-flowered, juice of its leaves alterative, it, 482. 

, whorl-flowered, use of its leaves in eruptions, iL 153. 

Ruiz found the nutmeg tree in Peru, i. 252. 

Rukafe, powder of, a sternutatory, ii. 357* 

Rundell, Bridges, and Rundell, their pearl fishery at Colombia, 

Rupture, ii. 539. 

Rush, his opinion of garlic, L 151. 
Russel, his History of Aleppo, and Account of Tabasheer, i. 209. 

- , Mr., his account of the iron of Ceylon, i. 524. 

Safflower, use of the fixed oil in rheumatism ; seeds laxative, ii. 

Saffron, meadow, where it might grow, preface, page xxiii. 

. , in what Eastern countries produced; often adulterated, 

i. 355. 

-, ordered by the Hindoo physicians in typhus fever, i. 354* 

-, praised by Thornton, i. 356. 

Sagapenum, the Arabians consider lithontriptic ; is praised by 

Avicenna, i. 358. 
Sage, leaves abound so much in camphor that the Mahometans 

call the leaf camphor leaf, L 359. 
Sago, various trees that yield it, i. 361, 362, 363. 
Saint John's bread : Link, in his Travels in Portugal, says, the 

tree which yields the fruit is beautiful, i. 365. 
Sainte Marie, recommends castor oil in colica pictonuro, i. 256. 
Sal ammoniac, found native at Mooshky, in the province of 

Mekran, i. 367. 
Salep deprives sea-water of its salt taste, i. 369. 

, ordered by the Arabians in consumption, i. 368* 

Salt, common, how prepared in inland countries, i. 370. 

— , Brahmins say without it they would die, i. 371- 

, Glauber, i. 629. 

-, a coarse sort found by Dr. Hamilton in the Puraiya 

district, brought, he understood, from Patna, i. 376. 
— , rock, countries it is a product of, i. 372. 


Safe* rock, that of Vich, in France, of superior quality, i« 373. 

Saltpetre obtained in various countries, i. 374. . 

Salvadora, Persian, bark of it, of use in low fever ; bark of the 

root a vesicatory, ii. 266. 
Sandal wood, prescribed by the Vytiaos in ardent remittent fever, 

Sandarach, ordered by the Arabians in diarrhoea, i. 380. 
Sapan, narrow-leaved, decoction of the wood emmenagogue ; 

wood, a red dye, ii. 450. 
Saray parapoo, in electuary, ii. 360. 
Sarcacolla, i. 629. 

, Mesue considered it cathartic, i. 381 . 

Sarsaparilla, substitute for, i. 381.630. 

Sassafras, wood and bark, medicines o^ the Cochin-Chinese, i. 384. 
Sastra, medical extracts from, ii. prel. obs. pages xxviii — xxx. 
Saunders, red, the sundel of Avicenna, i. 386. 
Scald, names of, ii. 539. 
Scald-head, names of, ii. 540. 

Scammony, formulas for prescribing, i. 631. * 

-, the plant which yields it grows wild in the woods of 

Cochin -China, i. 387* 
Schousboe, a Danish traveller, his opinion of sandarach, i. 379. 
Scolopia, prickly, the bark of the root a tonic ; berries make a 

pickle, ii. 201. 
Scorpion sting, ii. 540. 
Scot, Dr., his nitric acid bath, i. 580. 
, his excellent inaugural Dissertation on the Medicinal 

Plants of Ceylon, ii. 327. 

•, of Bombay, his nitrous acid bath, i. 3* 

— , Mr. W., his admirable report of the epidemic cholera, 
i. 338. 
-, Waring, his account of the Persian women in his Tour to 

Shiraz, i. 496. 
Scrophula, ii. 540. 

■ ', use of mercury in, i. 56%* 
Sea-bathing, its use in scrophula, i. 632. 
Sea-fruit, ii. 358. 

Seemie aghatee, juice of the leaves, in ringworm, ii. 362. 
— — — shevadie, root aperient and stomachic, ii. 362. 
Senna, best mode of giving tfie infusion, i. 390* 
— , formulae for prescribing, i. 631. 
— -, various sorts of, ii. 249. 
Serteurner discovers morphia, i. 275. 
Shamier, Mr. Nazier, cultivates flax at Madras, i. 197. 
Shark fish, ii. 400. 
Sheeakai (Tarn.), ii. 374. 
Sheep, various kinds in India, i. 233. 
Sheerudek, infusion of the leaves diaphoretic, ii. 379.. 
Shengatariputtay, bark of, in scabies, ii* 382. 
Sherbet, made in Persia from an acid earth, i. 283. 


Shieri goonioodoo, leaves thicken water when agitated in it, de- 
mulcent, ii. 386. 
Shoe-flower plant, root of, in menorrhagia, ii* 359. 
Si-fankhonthei, i. 127* 
Siam, gamboge tree of, i. 149. 
Sida, lance-leaved, root of, its use in fever and bowel complaints, 

ii. 179. 
Stiver, Humboldt's account of argentiferous deposits, i. 567. 
, nitrate of, darkens the colour of the skin, i. 565* 

-, prescribed, i. 651. 
-, where the Romans got, i. 566. 
., where found in Eastern countries, i. 562, 563, 564-. 
-, use of, in the arts, i. 566, 567* 
mines in India, in Mexico, in Peru, in China, i. 563, 564. 

Simmon, his use of sulphate of copper as an emetic in 

i. 511. 

Simmons, his Medical Facts, i. 20. 
Sinclair, Sir John, his praises of ginger, i. 153. 
Skinner, Mr. S., i. 282. 
Small pox, ii. 540. 
Smith, Christopher, first sends to England the cajuputi tree, i. 


-, James, his admirable work on the Fevers of Jamaica, i. 

— , Mr. R. M., i. 71. 
Smithson, his account of tabasheer, i. 420. 
Snake bite, ii. 540. 
— — -, its flesh a medicine, ii. 291. 
Snap dragon, virtues in diabetes, ii. 484. 
Snipe ; snipe, jack ; snipe, painted, i. 392, 393. 
Soap, Indian, i. 393. 

-, how made, materials for making, ii. 229. 
nut tree, notch-leaved, the capsule which covers the seeds 

expectorant, ii. 318. 
Soda, carbonate of, found by Captain J. Stewart on the banks of 

the Chumbul river, i. 396. 

, carbonate of, its use in scrophula, i. 632. 
, impure carbonate of, i. 395. 
Soemmering, bis opinion of sulphur, i. 413. 
Soldier, water, its use in decoction, ii. 8. 
Sole fish, one of the best fish in India, i. 395. 
Somerville, Dr., his account of the chimapbilia umbellata, ii. 152. 
Song«koong (Siamese), in aphthous affections, ii. 399. 
Sonini, i. 131. 

Sonnerat speaks of the sulphur of Pegu, i. 412. 
Soodoo torutty, bark, ii. 397. 

Sophera cassia, juice of the leaves, in ringworm, ii. 331. 
Sore throat, names of, i. 540. 

Sorrel, Boerhaave extols its virtues, as does Pliny, i. 399. 
■ ■, salt of, made in Switzerland, i. 399. 



Sou line, stomachic, ii. 400. 

Southernwood, Indian, i. 400. 

Sphaeranthus, Indian, powder of the root anthelmintic, ii. 168. 

Spikenard, false, a stomachic, ii. 402. 

■ » , ploughman's, a gently stimulating stomachic, ii* 173. 

■ », use of in medicine, ii. 367. 
Spogel seed, valuable mucilage made with, ii. 1 16. 
Sponge, its real nature ascertained by Ellis, i. 401. 
Sprengel, his Hist. Raei Herbaria, i. 78. 
Spurge, oleander-leaved, its use as a medicine, ii. 98. 

, pill-bearing, use of the juice of, ii. 14?. 

, thyme-leaved, leaves and seeds ordered in worm cases, 
ii. 76. 

, twisted, milky juice of, cathartic and deobstruent, ii. 425. 

Squill, formulas for prescribing, i. 634. 

, the true analysed by Vogel, who discovers scillitin, i. 403. 

, substitute for, i. 402. 

Starch, its conversion into sugar by Kirchof£ De la Rive, Saussure, 

&c, i. 404. 
-— , placed by the Arabians amongst their anodynes, L 404. 
Staunton, Sir George, i. 508. 
Steel, Wootzy how made by the Hindoos, Mr. Stodart's opinion of 

it, Mr. Brande's, i. 525, 526. 
Storax, balsam, placed by the Arabians amongst their stimulantia, 

i. 405. 
Stroemia Tetrandra, root of, this as well as the leaves anthelmintic, 

ii. 471. 
Strychnia, prescribed by Bofferio in epilepsy, i. 623. 
Strychnine, discovered by Pelletier, i. 320. 

, how prescribed, i. 623. 
Suet, mutton, i. 406. 
Sugar cane, first brought from the Canary islands to St. Domingo ; 

and first planted in 1520, by Peter d'Atienza, at Conception de 

la Vega, i. 407. 
, acid of, a dangerous name sometimes given to a poison, 

i. 399. 

, analysed by Thenard and by Berxelius, i. 410. 

, coarse (Jaggary), ii. 460. 

, different kinds of, i. 409. 

of the Palmyra tree, ii. 281. ' . . . 

, strange opinions of the Arabian writers respecting it, i. 408. 

Sulphate of magnesia, a most valuable alterative medicine, i. 629. 
Sulphur of different eastern countries, i. 411, 412. 

, formulae for prescribing, i. 635. 

Sultan Ulugh Beeg Gurgan, an Arabic medical work dedicated to 

him, i. 301. 
Sumach, of all astringents it comes nearest to galls, i. 41 5. 
. , elm-leaved, bark of the stem a yellow dye, that of the root 

a brown, i. 415. 
Surgery of the Hindoos, ii. pre!, obs. page vii. viii. ix. 



Sutton, Dr., his opinion of milk, i. 221. 
Swallow- wort, milky, root of it medicinal, ii. 469. 

gigantic, ii. 488. 

., gigantic, see Yercum Pawl and Yercum Vayr, i.416. 
— , twining, root and tender stalks of in dropsy, ii. 155. 
~-, vomiting, root of, resembles somewhat ipecacuanha 

in virtues, ii. 84. 

-, prolific, root of, emetic prescribed in hydrophobia, 

ii. 225. 

Sweet-flag, root of, a favourite medicine of the Hindoos and Ame- 
ricans, i. 417, 418. 

Symes's embassy to Ava, i. 496. 

Tabasheer, nearly identical with siliceous earth, i. 420. 

, Persians prize it as cardiac and strengthening, i. 420* 
Tabernosmontana, citron-leaved, a Javanese tome, ii. 322. 
Tail-kodugoo, or Indian turnsole, juice of the leaves applied to 

gum -boils, ii. 414. 
Talk, ornaments made of it in China, i. 422. 
■ , varieties of, ingredient in rouge, i. 422. 
Tallow, obtained from different plants, i. 423, 424. 

■ tree, its use in nocturnal fever, . 433. 
(Fulwa), i. 424. 

Tamarinds of Java reckoned the best, i. 426. 
■ the best of all vegetable acids, i. 426. 

Tamarind tree, stone of, astringent, ii. 327. 

Tanjore, Rajah of, studies anatomy, his acquirements and charac- 
ter, ii. prel. obs. page vii. 

Tapioca, made from the root of the Iatropha Manihot, the juca of 
the Mexicans, i. 429. 

Tar, vapour of, when burning, recommended by Sir Alexander 
Crichton in consumption, i. 459. 

Tavatiky used in diarrhoea, berries eaten, ii. 413. 

Tavermer, i. 7. 

■ ■ speaks of Japan pearls, i. 293. 
Tea, characters of, i. 433, 434. 

, countries produced in, i. 433. 

, different kinds of, i. 432, 433. 

— of Paraguay, or Matte, much drank in certain parts of South 

America, i. 436. 
— -, substitutes for, amongst the Mongols, i. 438. 

, the best situations in India for growing, i. 489. 

Teal, grey, no less than nineteen different species of anas in India, 

noticed and painted by General Hard wide, i. 441. 
Teliny fly, used for blistering, i. 417. 
Tellicherry bark, see conessi bark, i. 88, 89. 
Temple, Sir William, his opinion of garlic, i. 151. 
Terebinthinous medicines, a paper on, by Dr. Copland, i. 458. 
Terminalia, broad-leaved, its nut as good as an almond, ii. 129. 



Terminalia, winged, bark of, its use in apthae, ii. 19$. 

Testicle, swelled, names of, ii. 540. 

Theophrastus, i. 74. 

Thibet, natives of, i. 33. 

Thomson, Dr. A. T, analyses myrrh, i. 245. 

-> his botanical description of the black and 
green tea-plants, i. 440. 
Thorn-apple, an engine of artifice amongst die Chinese, i. 446. 

> alkaline principle procured from, i. 636, 637. 

, different sorts of, ii. 265, 266. 
, the datura fastuosa is smoked in the Chittore district 
for asthma, Rumphius's opinion of datura, Rheede's, i. 444, 445* 
-, the fruit made into a poultice for cancer and scrofula, 

i. 445. 

Thornton, Dr., i. 112. 139. 
Thrush, names of, ii. 541. 
Thunberg, his Travels, i. 1 7. 
Thus, i. 458. 

, what the ancients called, i. 138. 

Tin, in what books mentioned, i. 572, 573. 
— — prescribed, i. 652. 

, uses of, in the arts, i. 571- 

, where found in eastern countries, i. 568 f 569. 

Tobacco, empyreumatic oil of, poisonous to sundry animals, i. 

_— — , first discovered in Yucatan in 1520, i. 447* 
Tod, Major, his account of hot springs, i. 469. 
Toddy of the cocoa-nut tree, i. 419. 

, Palmyra, cooling and aperient, ii. 280. 

, sugar and arrack made from it, i. 453. 

, the various trees it is got from, i. 451, 452. 

Toon tree, bark astringent, a substitute for cinchona, ii. 429. 

Tooth-ache, names of 9 ii. 541. 

Torenia, smooth, ii. 122. 

Tragia, hemp-leaved, root diaphoretic, ii. 389. 

, heart-shaped-leaved, powder of the leaves in milk taken to 

produce fatness, ii. 483. 
Tragria, root of the involucrated, its alterative property, ii. 62. 
Travancore, what would there grow, i. prefl page xx. ii. prel. 

obs. page xxxvii. 

— — , alum in, i. 12. 

Travers, J. B„ discovers a copper mine, i. 504. 

Trianthcma, one-styled, root of, considered purgative, ii. 370. 

Trichilia, thorny, its use in palsy and rheumatism, ii. 71. 

Trichosantbes, cashed, use of, in cases of sores in the ears, ii. 392. 

Trophis, rough •leaved, root of, ii. 293. 

Trumpet-flower, chelengid, root of, infusion of in fevers, ii. 272. 

Tung gulung ( Jav.), shells of the fruit yield an oil, a substitute for 

turpentine, ii. 430. 
Turmeric, much used in India as a medicine and dye, i. 454. 

P P 2 


Turmeric tree, its root a yellow dye, ii. 183. 
Turner speaks of rock-salt in Bootan and Nepaul, in his Xl Em- 
bassy to the Court of the Tishoo Lama," i. 372. 
Turnip-seedV a medicine amongst the Arabians, i. 4*56. 
Turpentine of the Sula pine, in the bazars of Nepaul, its use in 
tape-worm, i, 467, 458. 

, its various uses in medicine, i. 4*58. 637. 
-, Venice, i. 458. 
■ , oil of, how made, i. 458. 
— of Chio, i. 458. 

Turpin found ambergris in Siam, i. 16. 

Turyak Abiz, a poisonous root, ii. 445. 

Tyger, royal, virtues of its flesh, ii. 479. 

Tympanites, names of, ii. 541. 

Tyre, cooling, iL 445. 

— , a preparation of milk, a useful diet in typhus fever, i. 460. 

Ulcer, foul, names of, ii. 541. 

, phagedenic, healed by balsam of Peru, i. 406. 

, simple names of, ii. 541. 
Ungarelli, professor, disapproves of saffron, i. 356. 
Upas, see Qupas. 
Ure, Mr., i. 91. 

Urine, difficulty of voiding, names of, ii. 541. 
—i total suppression of, names of, ii. 542. 


Vaivelunghum, ii. 446. 

Vakanatie puttay, in rheumatism, ii. 446. 

Vallekara (Malealie), in hydrophobia, ii. 448. 

Valuluvy seed, ii. 447. 

Varnish, Peynie, in gonorrhoea, ii. 482. 

Vauquelin analyses cubebs, i. 99. 

Vaymbadum bark, powder of, in itch, i. 457. 

Velvet leaf, stomachic, ii. 316. 

Venereal disease, names of, ii. 541. 

Venison, in India, i. 1 10, 1 11. 

Veni-vell-getta, (Cyng.), a valuable bitter, ii. 461. 

Veratrine, active part of white hellebore, i. 607. 

Verbesina, marygold-like, deobstruent, ii. 338. 

Vervain, common, ii. 314, 315. 

. -, creeping, its use as a medicine, ii. 313. 

Vincent, Dr., his Account of the Commerce and Navigation of 

Ancient India, i. 248. 
Vine plant, growing wild in Caucasus, and the Levant, i. 477. 
Vinegar, its use in medicine, i. 638. 

, senndgdlu, what, i. 463. ii. 55. 
Violet, suffruticose, leaves and tender stalks demulcent, ii. 268. 
Virey, i. 11. ii. 378. 


Virgil praises dittany; i. 112. 

Vogel analyses squills, i. 403. 

Vogel's analysis of Rhatany root, i. 127. 

Volkameria, smooth, ovate-leaved, juice of the leaves alterative) 

ii. 369. 
Vullerkoo, ii. 476. 


Waddington, his Journey to Ethiopia, i. 390. 

Wallcress, China, ii. 12. 

Wallichy'Dr., his opinion of plantago ispaghula, ii. 116. 

, i. 21 1. ii. 383. 

; , his opinion regarding the tea plant, i. 439. 

Walnuts grow in Bootan, Nepaul, and Thibet ; those of Kusistan 
excellent, i. 464. 

Water, hot springs of, i. 469. 

, mineral, at Bangalore, i. 466. 

- of Fort St. George, perhaps the purest in the world, i. 467. 

Water-lily, sweet-smelling, with the root of it is prepared a cool- 
ing liniment, ii. 381 . 

9 Egyptian, root of, demulcent, ii.234. 

, peltated, root edible, ii. 410. 

Wax, artificial, paper on, by Dr. Tytler, i. 471. 

, trees that yield it, i. 471. 

Webera, thorny, medicinal qualities of, ii. 63. 

Weights and measures, preface, page xiii. 

Werner, i. 66. 

White, Dr. D., i. 54. 

— , of Bombay, i. 148. 

Whites, names of, ii. 542. 

White's Voyage to New Holland, his account of the acarois re- 

sinifera, i. 485. 
Whiting, fish, the only one the Vytians allow their leprous patients 

to eat, i. 478. 
Wilkins, Mr. C, preface, page xix. m 

. , his account of silver-wire working in the nigner 

provinces of India, i. 566. 
Wilks, Colonel, information from, regarding the gamboge tree, 

i. 14a . oaQ 

Willan recommends solution of potass in lepra, i. 328. 
Wilson, H. H. Esq., his valuable paper on the leprosy ol the Hin- 

doos, i.545. 641. , m . 

Wine, antimonial, an invaluable medicine in the croup, i. 497- 

, of Shiraz, a red and a white, i. 473. 

Wines, different kinds of, used in India, i. 474, 475. 
Winter cherry, root of the flexuose branched, ii. 14. 
Withering describes the acorus calamus, i. 418. 
Witman, his Travels in Turkey, i. 215. 

, Dr., his Travels, i. 161. 

PP 3 


Wood aloes, tree, a native of the mountainous district South- East 
of Silhet ; also of Asam, i. 480. 
- apple, i. 162. 

, serpents, its various uses in Malay countries, ii. 202, 203. 
Woodia tree, bark of, of use in old ulcers, ii. 486. 
Woodville, i. 165. 265. 
Worms, ascarides, ii. 542. 

, names of, ii. 542. 
— , tape, ii. 542. 

, teres, ii. 542. 
Wormwood, Indian, its virtues as a medicine, ii. 194, 195. 

, Madras, i. 481. 

Wright, Colonel, brings to England an acid earth, i. 283. 
■ , Dr. recommends capsicum in dropsies, i. 307- 

, his medicinal plants of the West indies, L. 48. 


Xyris, Indian, the use of the leaves in lepra, ii. 125, 126, 


Yam, see article Potatoe, i. 329. 

Yelloly, Dr., suggests the propriety of bleeding in poisoning from 

arsenic, i. 503. 
Yellow gum resin of New Holland, a new medicine, i. 483. 
Yemen, aloes brought from, i. 10. 

Yercum, or yeroocum pawl, and yercum vayr, root of the plant, the 
mudar root of Bengal, i. 486. 


Zarareekh {Arab.), an insect used for blistering, ii. 418. 
Zea, his opinion of the yellow bark, i. 1 26. 
Zedoarius, i. 489—494. 

Zibet perfume, anodyne and antispasmodic, ii. 328. 
Zinc, except manganese, no known body unites so readily with 
oxygen, i. 578. 
*, fonnulflB for prescribing, i. 653, 654. 
>, oxyde of, i. 574, 653. 

-, sulphate of, Pearson says it evacuates the stomach without 
weakening it, i. 577. 
— , use of, in the arts, i. 577, 578. 
., what countries got in, i. 573, 574. 
Zizyphus, three-nerved, use of the leaves in old venereal cases, 

if. 69. 
Zocotora, island of, L 9. 


Abrus precatorius, ii. 79. 
Acacia Arabica, ii. 142. 

catechu, i. 63. 

. scandens, ii. 107. 

Acalypha betulina, ii. 888. 

■ Indica, ii. 161. 
Acanthus illicifolius, ii. S06. 
Acetum, i. 461. 637. 
Achyranthcs aspera, ii. 221. 
Acidura benzoicum, i. 587. 
. hydrocyanicum, preface, 

page xxiii. 
■■ muriaticum, i. 4* 

- dilutura, i. 

— — nitricum dilutum. i. 580. 

■ nitrosum, i; 2. 

— sulphuricum, i. 2; 

— — dilutum, i. 

Acorns calamus, i. 417- 
Addenda, ii. 543. 
Adeps juvenci, i. 423. 
■ pavonis, ii. 200. 
Adiantum capillus veneris, i. 52. 
— — — fragile, ii. 215. 
■ melanacaulon, ii. 214. 

— trapeziforme, uV215. 

■ villosum, ii. 215. 
iEgle manrielos, ii. 188. 
JEschynomene aspera, ii. 400. 
Agrostis linearis, ii. 27. 

Ailanthus excelsa, ii. 302. 

— glandulosa, ii. 303. 
Alamanda cathartica, ii. 9. 
Allium, i. 603. 

cepa, i. 269. 

_— - sativum, i. 150. ii. 475. 
Aloe littoralis, ii. 169* 

perfoliata, ii. 169. 

spicata, i. 9. 

Aloes extractura, i. 582. 
Alpinia galanga, i« 140. 
Alumen, i. 11. 584. ii. 271. 
Amaranthus eampestris, ii. 392. 
__— spinosus, ii. 393. 

■ viridi8, ii. 393. 
Ambragrisea, i. 16. 
Amenorrhea, ii. 266* ^ 
Ammania vesicatoria, ii. 92. 
Ammoniacum, i. 604. 
Amomum granum'paradisi,i. 55- 
. zedoaria, i. 493. 

. zingiber, i. 152. 

Amydalus communis, i. 7. 582. 

. Persica, i. 299. 

Amylum, i. 404. 
Amyris Gileadensis, i. 26. 277. 
— — protium, ii. 430. • — 
Anas crecca, i. 441. 

domestica, i. 116. 

Andrachne cadishaw, ii. 487* 
Andromeda, ii. 107. 
Andropogon Iwarancusa^iL 114. 

P P 4 



Andropogon muricatos, ii. 470. 
■ nardus, ii. 401. 

__— parancura, ii. 402. 

■ scheenanthus,ii.58. 

Anethi semina, i. 599. 
Anethum foeniculum, i. 129.601. 
grareolens, i. 109. 

Anisi semen, i. 585. 
Anthemidis flores, i. 591. 
Anthemis nobilis, i. 67. 

pyrethrum, i. 300 

Asclepias curassavica, ii. 155. 
■ gigantea, i.486. ii.488 

lactifera, ii. 469. 

prolifera, ii* 225. 

■ volubilis, ii. 154, 
— — — vomitoria, ii. 85. 
Aspalathus Indica, ii. 385. 
Asparagus officinalis, i. 24. 
■ racemosus, ii, 409. 

- sarmentosus, ii. 409. 

1 Assafcetida, i. 585. 

I Astragalus verus, i. 162. 
Antimonium, i. 639. I Atropa belladona, preface, page 

Antirthinum cymbalaria, ii. 483. | xxi. i. 246. 617- 

Aqua, i. 465. 
Aquilaria ovata, i. 479. 
Arabis Chinensis, ii. 12. 
Areca catechu, ii. 268. 
Argemone Mexicana, ii. 43. 
Argentum, i. 562. 651* 
Argilla figuli, i. 74. 
Anstolocnia acuminata, ii. 302. 
_— bracteata, ii. 4. 301. 

■ Indica, ii. 5. 298. 

— — — • tonga, ii.- 299. 

1 odoratis8ima, ii. 5. 

— — rotunda, ii. 299. 

» sempervirens, ii.300. 

serpentaria, ii. 300. 

trilobata, ii. 300. 

Arracum, i. 197. 

Arsenici oxydum, i. 499. 

Arsenicum, i. 640. 

— — auripigmentum, i.499. 

■■ flavura, i. 499. 
Artemisia abrotonum, ii. 195* 
— — Austriaca, i. 400. ii. 

■ Chinensis, ii. 196. 

■ Indica, ii. 194. 

1 Maderas-patna, i. 481. 

vulgaris, ii. 196. 

Arum dracunculus, ii. 464. 

- esculentum, ii. 464. 

- macrorhizon, ii. 463* 

- maculatum, ii. 464. 
Asarum Europawm, i. 23. 586. 

ii. 188. 
Asclepias acida, ii. 378. 

Aurum, i. 514. 

mandragora, i. 207. 


Baccharis Indica, ii. 172. 
Bambusa arundinacea, i. 419. 

1 ■ baccifera, ii. 420. 
Barleria longifolia, ii. 236. 
— — prionitis, iL 376. 
Barringtonia speciosa, ii. 132. 
Bassia latifolia, ii. 100. 

— longifolia, iu 99. 
Bauhinia tomentosa, ii. 48. 
Bdellium, i. 29. 
Bergera Koenigii, ii. 139. 
Bezoar orientate, i. 35. 
Bignonia chelonoides, ii. 272. 

■ longissima, ii. 273. 

— leucoxylon, ii. 273. 

Bismuthi oxydum album, pref. 

page xxtiL 
Bitumen petrolium, i. 39. 
Boerhaavia diffusa, ii. 205. 
Boletus igniarius, i. 5. 
Bolus, i. 43. 

Bombax pen tan drum, ii. 96. 
Borassus flabelliformis, ii. 280. 

, toddy of, 
i. 452 
Bos bubalus, ii. 103. 

— taurus, i. 32. 
Boswellia glabra, i. 136. 
Brassica oleracea, i. 46. 

rapa, i. 456. 

Bromelia ananas, i. 314. 
Brucea, ii. 104. 



Brucea antedysenterica, ii. 38. 

ferruginea, ii. 38. 105. 

Sumatrana, ii. 37. 105. 

Bryonia callosa, ii. 428. 
— — epigeea, ii. 158. 

■ garcini, ii. 22. 

■ grandis, ii. 436. 

■ scabra. ii. 212. 

1 scabrella, ii. 22. 

rostrata, ii. 21. 

Bubon galbanum, i. 142. 
Butea frondosa, ii. 335. 
— — superba, ii. 337. 

Cacalia alpinia, ii. 213. 

■ kleinia, ii. 118. 

saracenica, ii. 213.. 

-^— sonchifolia, ii. 213. 
Cactus cochenillifer, ii. 218. 

■ ficus Indica, ii. 217, 218. 

■ opuntia, ii. 218. 

■ pereskia, ii. 218. 
— — tuna, ii. 218. 
Cajaputi oleum, i. 618. 
Calamus draco, i. 114. 
Calculus cysticus, ii. 164. 
Callicarpa Americana, ii. 181. 
ferruginea, ii. 181. 

■ Janata, ii. 180. 
macrophylla, ii. 181. 

■ reticulata, ii. 181. 

villosa, ii. 181. 

Calophyllum inophyllum, ii. 310. 
Calumbse radix, i. 86. 595. 
Calyptranthes cariophyllifolia, ii. 


— jambolana, ii. 444. 

Calx, i. 194. 

Calliococca ipecacuanha, pref. 

page xx. 
Camelli oleifcra, i. 435. 
Camphora, i. 588. 
Canarium commune, ii. 60. 
Cancer pagurus, i. 94. 
— — serratus, i. 331. 
Cannabis sativa, ii. 108. 
Capparis spinosa, ii. 150. 
Capra hircus, i. 156. 

Capsicum frutescens, i. 306. 
Carbo ligni, i.69. 592. 
Carbonas potassae impura, i. 327. 
■ sods, i. 396. 

Cardamomum minus, i. 589. 
Cardiospermum haliocacabum, 

ii. 204. 
Carica papaya, ii. 343. 

■ prosoposa, ii. 344* 
Carnis bubulae infusum, i. 587. 
Caro hoedina, i. 184* 
— ovilia, i. 233. 
Carthamus tinctorius, ii. 284.364. 
Caryophillus aromaticus, i. 593. 
Caryota urens, toddy of, i. 452. 
Cassia alata, ii. 361. 

auriculata, ii. 31 . 

___ fistula, i. 61. 

■- lanceolata, ii. 249. 
— senna, i. 389. ii. 249. 
tora, ii. 405. 

Castor fiber, i. 62. 
Castoreum, i. 590. 
Casuarina equisitifolia, ii. 443. 
Catechu ex tract tun, i. 590. 
Ceanothus Americanus, i. 436. 
Cedrela toona, ii. 429. 
Celtis orientalis, ii. 178. 
Cephcelis ipecacuanha, ii. 543. 
Cera, i. 470. 
Ceratonia siliqua, i. 364. 
Cerbera manghas, ii. 260. 262. 
Cervus axis, i. 1 10. 
Chimaphilia umbellata, ii. 152. 
Chiococca densifolia, ii. 544. 
Chloranthus inconspicuus,ii.301. 

—^spicatus,ii.l 65. 171* 

Chloroxylon Dupada, i. 336. 
Cinchona excelsa, ii* 341. 
Cinnamomum, i. 593. 
Cissampelos pareira, ii. 315. 
Cissus acida. ii. 304. 326. 
arborea, ii. 26. 267. 

■- quadrangularis, ii. 303* 
Cistus creticus, i. 187. 
Citrus aurantium, i. 281. 
— — medica, i. 193. 
Cleome felina, ii. 360. 
pentaphylla, ii.224. 451. 

■ ■ polygama, ii. 224. 



Cleome viscosa, ii. 223. 
Clerodendrum phlomoides, ii. 

Clitoria ternatea, ii. 139. 
Coccus cacti, i. 79. 
Cocoa aculeata, ii. 128. 
— — — Maldivica, ii. 126. 

■ nueifera,i.77. ii. 415.4*18, 
, toddy of, i. 451. 
Csesalpina sappan, ii. 450. N Mj 

Costus Arabicus, ii. 165. 

speciosus, ii. 166. 

spicatus, ii. 166. 

Crateva gynandra, ii. 198. 

marmelos, ii. 86. 189* 

— — religiosa. ii. 459. 
— — tapia, ii. 197- 
Creta alba, i. 66. 

preparata, L 591. 

Crinum AjBiaticum, iL 464. 
toxicaruro, ii. 465v 

Coffea Arabica, i. 81. 
Colchicum autumale, preface, 

page xxu 

Coldenia procumbens, ii. 435. 
Colocynthidis pulpa, i. 594. 
Colophyllum calaba, ii. 311. 
Coluber, ii. 290. 
Columba domestica, i. 313. 
Conium maculatum, preface, 

page xxii. 
Convolvulus Brasiliensis, ii. 220. 


■ gemellus, ii. 394. 

, grandiflorus, ii. 219. 

jalapa, preface, page 
xx. ii. 220. 308. 

■ Malabaricus, ii. 291. 
— — — — paniculatus, ii. 307. 

repens, ii. 220. 308. 

— — — — scammonia, i. 386. 

ii. 220. 308. 

■ speciosus, ii. 357. 

■ turpethum, ii* 308. 

Conyza anthelmintica, ii. 55. 
_ arborescens, ii. 363. 

balsamifera, ii. 396. 

— — cinerea, ii. 363. 
— odorata, ii. 363. 
Corallium, i. 90. 
Corchorus capsularis, ii. 387. 
__^— olitorius, ii. 387* 
Cordia myxa, ii. 466. 
Coriandri semina, i. 595. 
Coriandrum sativum, i. 92. 
Coronilla picta, ii. 64. 
Cornus florida, ii. 454. 
Corraea alba, i. 436. 
Coscinium fenestratum, ii. 461. 

Crocus 8ativus, i. 354. 
Crotalaria verrucosa, ii. 305. 478. 
Croton, i. 596. 

elateria, ii. 398. 

humile, ii. 398. 

— — . lineare, ii. 398. 

■ plicatum, ii. 398. 
— — . sebifemm, ii. 433. 

tiglium, i. 101. 

Cucumis colocynthis, i. 84. 
Cucurbita citrullus, i. 217. 
Cumioum cyminum, i. 100. 
Cuprum, i. 504. 642. 
Curculigo orchioides, ii. 242. 
Curcuma angustifolia, i. 19. 
— — — loDga, i. 454. 
_— — zedoaria, i. 490. ii. 41. 

■ zerumbet, i. 490. 
Cycas circinalis, i. 361. 
Cynanchum extensum, ii. 452. 
Cynara scolymus, i. 22. 
Cynosurus coracanus, i. 245. 
Cyperus articulatus, ii. 163, 164* 

juncifolius, ii. 162. 

— pertenuis, ii. 164. 

— rotundus, ii. 163, 164. 

spathaceus, ii. 163. 

Cyprinus carpio, i. 5& 
Cyprus alcanna, ii. 191. 

Dais octandra, ii. 320. 
Dalbergia arborea, ii. 332. 
Datura, i. 636. 

■ fastuosa, i. 442. 

■ metel, i. 443. 

m stramonium, i. 443. 446. 

Caucus carota, i. 57. 
Desmanthus cincrcus, ii. 458. 




Digitalis purpurea, preface, page 

Diosperos glutinosa, ii. 278. 
Dolichi prurientis pubes, i. 596. 
Dolichos pruriens, l. 93. 
Dorstenia contrayerva, ii. 300. 
Dracaena terminalis, ii. 20. 
Dracontium polyphyllum, ii. 50. 
Dryobalanops camphors, i. 49. 

E I 

Eclipta prostrate, ii. 129. 
Ehrctia buxifolia, ii. 80. 
Elate silvestris, toddy of, i. 452. 
Elettaria cardamomum, i. 53. 
Eleeocarpus redjosso, ii. 20. 
Elephantopus scaber, ii. 17. 
Emberiza nortulana, i. 286. 
Embryopteros glutinifera, ii.278. 
Epidendrum claviculatum, ii. 

■ tenuifolium, ii. 439. 

— _— — vanilla, ii. 439* 
Eryothroxylon areolatum,ii.421. 
Erythronium Indicum, i.259. 402. 
Eucalyptus resinifera, i. 185. 
Eugenia caryophyllata, i. 75. 
— — racemosa, iL 56* 
Eupatorium aromaticum, ii. 37. 

ayapana, ii. 35. 

perfoliatum, i. 37. 
Euphorbia antiquorum, i. 120. 
ii. 425. 

cyparissus, ii. 187. 

gerardiana, ii. 187* 

hirta, ii. 99. 

■ hyberna, ii. 135. 

lathy ris,.i. 599. 

» maculata, ii. 135. 

neriifolia, ii. 97. 

pilulifera, ii. 13. 

sessi flora, ii. 135. 

.. sylvatica, ii. 187. 

thymifolia, ii. 75. 

tirucalli, ii. 133. 425. 

r- tithymaloides, ii. 99. 

— — — tortilis, .ii. 424. 
Evolvulus alsinoidcs, ii. 468. 
Excaecuria agallocha, ii. 438. 

Excaecaria Cochin-Chinensis, ii. 

Exuvia serpentis, iL 291. 

Faba, i. 28. 

Felis leopardus, ii. 480. 

— tigris, ii. 479. 

Feronia elephantum»i. 161. ii. 82. 
Ferri rubigo, i. 527. 
Ferfum, i. 522. 643. 
4brula assafcetida, i. 20. 
'Ficus carica, i. 131. 

Indica, ii. 10. 

racemosa, ii. 30. 

religiosa, ii. 25. 

sepfica, ii. 35. 

Flacourtia cataphracta, ii. 407. 
Fluggea leucopyrus, ii. 449. 
Fucus digitatus, i. 633. 

- saccharinus, i. 633. 
■ serratus, i. 633. 
Fumaria officinalis, i. 1 38. 


Gadus merlingus, i. 478. 
Galega purpurea, ii. 49. 157. 

gpinosa, ii. 208. 

toxicaria, ii. 132. 

Galls, i. 602. 
Gambogia, i. 602. 
Gardenia aculeata, ii. 187. 

— dumetorum, ii. 185. 

longiflora, ii. 186. 

— — muftiflora, ii. 187. 
Gaultheria procumbens, i. 437. 
Gentiana cbirayita, ii. 373. 
lutea, ii. 374. 

— scandens, ii. 374. 
Gillenia trifoliata, ii. 188. 
Glicyrrhiza hirsute, i. 438. 
___- glabra, i. 199. 
Gmelina Asiatica, ii. 240. 

parviflora, ii. 242. 386. 

Gossypium arboreum, ii. 284. 
barbadense, ii. 283. 

— herbaceum, ii. 282. 

__ hirsutum, ii. 284. 

religiosum. ii. 284. 

Indicum, ii. 284. 



Grana fina, ii. 218. 
Gratiola monnieria. ii. 239. 
Guaiacum officinalis, pref. page 


Guilandina bonduc, ii. 26. 1 36. 
— ■ bonducella, ii. 135. 

Gummi Arabicum, i. 605. 

Hedysarum prostratum, ii. 75. 
. sennoides, iL 53. 

tortuosum supinum 
et diphyllum, ii. 54. 
Helicteres isora, ii. 447. 
Heliotropium Indicum, ii. 414. 
Helleborus niger, i. 164. 606. 
Heracleum gummiferum, i. 158. 
Hemandia sonora, ii. 42. 
Hernia humoral is, ii. 136. 
Hibiscus abelmoschus, ii.72. 335. 

- obtusifolia, ii. 120. 

■ ochra, ii. 335. 

■ populneus, ii. 333. 
— — -- rosa Chinensis, ii. 359. 

■ sabdariffa, ii. 335. 

- sinensis mutabilis, ii. 

tibiaceus, ii. 335. 

Hirudo, i. 612. 

■ medicinalis, i. 191. 
Historia rei herbaria, ii. 281. 
Holcus saccharatus, ii. 112. 

— spicatus, ii. 112. 

Hydrargyrum, i.540. 645. ii. 348. 
Hydrocotyle Asiatica, ii. 473. 
Hyoscyamus, i. 607- 

* niger, i. 167. 

Hyperanthera moringha, i. 175. 
Hyssopus officinalis, i. 177. 

I &J 

Jalaps radix, i. 61 1. 
Jasminum angustifolium, ii. 52. 

■ simplicifolium, ii. 53. 
Jatropha curcas, n. 45. 

- glauca, ii. 5. 
— manihot, i. 428. 

— multifida, ii. 47. 

Ilex Paraguensis, i. 437. 
Illecebrura lanatum, ii. 393. 

Illicium anisatum, ii. 18. 
Indigofera anil, i. 178. ii* 39. 
. argfentea, ii. 84. 

■ enneaphylla, u. 74- 
. tinctoria, ii. 33. 
Inula helenium, i. 119. 
Iodine, i. 633. 

Ionidium urticjefoUum, ii. 544. 

■ ■ ■ ipecacuanha, ii. 544. 
Ipecacuanha, i. 180. 608. 

Iris Florentina, i. 182. 285. 
Juglans regia, i. 463* 
Juniperus communis, i. 379. 
Justicia adhatoda, ii. 3. 

bicalyculata, ii. 65. 

_— bivalvis, ii. 29. 

gendarussa, ii. 67. 

nasuta, ii. 216. 

paniculata, i. 96. 

parviflora, ii. 412. 

pectoralis, ii. 217. 

procumbens, ii. 246. 

— — repens, ii. 156. 

Tranquebariensis, ii.412. 

Jussieua sufiructicosa, ii. 66. 
Ixora pavetta, ii. 290. 


Kaempferia galanga, ii. 146. 
Ksempheria rotunda, i. 489. 
Kino, i. 611. 

Lac asms, i. 22S. 
— » caprinum, i. 221. 

ebutyratum, ii. 211. 

vaccinum, i. 219. 

Lacca, i. 188. 
Lacerta agilis, ii. 277* 

alligator, ii. 263. 

■ gecko, ii. 276. 

■ iquana, ii. 263. 

scincus, ii. 277- 

Lactucarium (Lettuce opium), 

preface, page xxiii. 
Laurus cassia, i. 58. 

■ - cinnamomum, i. 72. ii. 


- culilaban, ii. 197. 

- involucrata, ii. 228. 



Laurus sassafras, i. 883. 
Lavendula carnosa, ii. 144. 
Lawsonia inermis, ii. 191* 

spinosa, ii. 190. 

Ledum latifolium, i. 437. 
Leontodon taraxacum, preface, 

page xxiii. 
Lepidium piscidium, ii. 182. 
. sativum, i. 95. 
Lepra timidus, i. 164. 
Lichen calcareus, ii. 171. 
■ islandicus, ii. 171. 
picta, ii. 170. 

— rotundatus, ii. 170* 

— vulgaris, ii. 170. 
Limodrum spatidatum, ii. 321. 
Limatura ferri, i. 527. 
Linum usitatissimum, i. 196. 
Lithargyrum, i. 535. 
Lodoicea sechellarum, ii. 126. 

I Menyanthes Indica, ii. 234. 
Mimosa abstergens, ii. 374. 

cinerea, ii. 458. 

. ferruginea, ii. 477. 

pudica, ii. 432. 

— saponaria, ii. 375. 
Mirabilis jalapa, ii. 284. 
Momordica balsamina, ii. 275. 
., charantia, ii. 275. 

■ dioica, ii. 274. 
- muricata, ii. 275. 
Monetia barlerioides, ii. 404* 
Moraea Chinensis, ii. 39. 
Morinda citrifolia, ii. 254. 

■' umbellata, ii. 253. 

■ ternifolia, ii. 254. 
Moschus, i. 614. 
■■ moschiferus, i. 228. 

Mugil cephalus, i. 227. 
Murias ammonia?, i. 365. 626. 

sodce, i. 370. 


Manettia cordifolia, ii. 544. 
Manganesium, i. 538. 
Manisurus granulans, ii. 434. 

■ ■ myurus, ii. 434. 
Manna, i. 613. 

— Persica, i. 209. 
Margarita, i. 292. 
Mel, i. 172. 

Melaleuca cajuputi, i. 259. 
Melastoma aspera, ii. 124. 
Melia azadirachta, toddy of, i. 

- sempervivens, toddy of, 

i. 453. 
Melissa officinalis, ii. 25. 
Melochia corchorifolia, ii. 440. 
Meloe cichorei, ii. 417. 

trianthemae, ii. 417. 

Menispermum cocculus, ii* 131. 

■ cordifolium, ii. 

■ fenestratum, ii. 

. hirsutum, it. 133. 

■ verrucosum, ii. 


Musa paradisiaca, i. 316. 
Mutelfa occidentalis, ii. 117. 
Mylabris cichorei, ii. 417. 
Myristica moschata, i. 201. 249. 
Myrrha, i. 243. 616. 

Narcissus odorus, ii. 188. 
Nauciea gambir, ii. 105. 
Nelumbium speciosum, ii. 235* 

Nepenthes distillatoria, ii . 93. 
Nepeta hirsuta, iL 295. 

Indica, ii. 295. 

— — Madagascariensis, ii. 295. 

Malabarica, ii. 294. 

Nerium antidysentericum, i. 88. 
ii. 461. 
■ - coronarium, ii. 257. 
odorum, ii. 23. 

- oleander, ii. 24. 

Nicotiana tabaccum, i. 447. 
Nigella sativa, i. 128. 
Nitras potassae, i. 374. 
Nitrum, i. 628. 
Nux vomica, i. 622. ii. 421. 
Nymphaea lotus, ii. 233. 381 
odorata, ii. 381. 

Mentha sativa, i. 241.615. ii, 485. \ stellata, ii. 381. 





Ocimum album, ii. 91. 426. 
■ basilicum, ii. 423. 

■ hirsutum, ii. 160. 

■ manosum, ii. 91* 
— — piloaum, ii. 423. 
— — sanctum, ii. 426. 
— tenuifolium, ii. 424. 
Odina Wodier, ii. 486. 
Oldenlandia alata, ii. 102. 

■ biflora, ii. 102. 

— crystallina, ii. 102. 

__ herbacea, ii. 102. 

■ umbellate, ii. 101. 

Olea Europea, i. 268. 
Oleum amygdali, i. 252. 

> caryophilli, i. 258. 

> macis, i. 262. 

■ nucis moschates, i. 262. 

ricini, i. 253. 618. 

— — sinapeos, i. 263. 
Olibanum, l. 264. 
Ophiorhiza mungos, ii.198. 442. 
Ophioxylon spinosa, ii. 324. 

■ serpentinum,ii.441. 
Ophioxylum serpentinum, ii. 

Opium, i. 271.619. 
Orchis mascula, i. 368. 
Origanum dictamnus, i. 112. 

majorana, i. 213. 

Ornithrope serrata, ii. 413. 
Oryza sativa, i. 338. 
Ostrea edulis, i. 287. 
Otis campestris, i. 132. 
Ovum, i. 117. 
Oxalis corniculata, ii. 324. 
— — sensitiva, ii. 325. 

stricta, ii. 325. 

Oxidum plumbi rubrum, i. 535. 

Panax fruticosum, ii. 74. 

quinquefolium, i. 154. 

Panicum Italicum, i. 226. 
Papaver somniferum, i. 326. ii. 

Pastinaca opoponax, i. 280. 
Pavetta Indica, ii. 289. 

Pavetta arenosa, ii. 290^ 
Pavo cristatus, i. 290. 
Pavonia odorata, ii. 297. 

Zeylanica, ii. 395. 

Pedalium murex, ii. 15. 386. 
Pedicularis lanata, i. 436* 
Penaea mucronata, i. 380. 
Periploca Indica, i. 381. 630. 

sylvestris, ii. S90. 

Petroleum, i. 264. 
Pharnaceum cerviana, ii. 345. 
■ — mollugo, ii. 431. 
Phaseolus trilobus, ii. 434. 
Pbyllanthus emblica, i. 240. iL 

. Maderaspatensis, ii. 

— multiflorus, ii. 323. 
■ — nutans, ii. 289. 

_— _ niruri, ii. 150. 
— — — rhamnoides, ii. 288. 

urinaria, ii. 1 5 1 . 437. 

Physalis flexuosa, ii. 14. 
Physianus, i. 310. 
Pimpinella anisum, i. 18. 
Pinus abies, i. 458. 
balsamea, i. 458. 

larix, i. 458. 

silvestris, i. 457. 

Piper betel, ii. 465. 

cubeba, i. 97. 

dichotomum, ii. 416. 

longum, i. 309. 
-■ — nigrum, i. 302. 621. ii. 385. 
Pistacia lentiscus, i. 214. 
■ terebinthus, i. 458. 

Pistia stratiotes, ii. 7. 
Pisum sativum, i. 297. 
Plantago ispaghula, ii. 116. 
Pleuronectes solea, i. 395. 
Plumbago Europea, ii. 78. 

rosea, ii. 78. 379. 

scandens, ii. 79. 380. 

■ Zeylanica, ii. 77. 

Plumbi subcarbonas, i. 535. 
Plumbum, i. 532. 644. 
Plumeria obtusa, ii. 137. 
Poaya, ii. 543. 
Poinciana elata, ii. 149. 



Poinciana pulcherrima, ii. 148. 
Polyanthes tuberosa, ii. 481. 
Polygala poaya, ii. 543. 
■ senega, ii. SOI. 

Polygonum barbatura, ii. 1. 
Polyphyllum peltatum, ii. 384. 
Polypodium fragrans, i. 438. 

taxifolium, ii. 486. 

Portulaca quadrifida, ii. 286. 
Potaasa, i. 623. 

impura, ii. 183. 

Potentilla rupestris, i. 438. 
Pothos officinalis, ii. 113. 
Premna integrifoJia, ii. 210. 
Prucea, ii. 288. 
Psoralea corylifolia, ii. 141. 
■ glandulosa, i. 437. 
Pterocarpus marsupium, ii. 264. 
— — — santalinus, i. 385. 
Pubon galbanum, i. 601. 
Punica granatum, i. 322. ii. 175. 
Pyrus cydonia, i. 332. 

Quercus infectoria, i. 144. 


Radix Indlba Lopezina, ii. 173. 
■ - justiciar paniculatae, i. 596. 
Raphanus rusticanus radix, i. 

Rhamnus, ii. 123. 
Rbeum, i. 624. 

palmatum, i. 342. 

Rbu8 coriaria, i. 414. 
Richardia scabra, ii. 543. 
Richardsonia scabra, ii. 543. 
Ricinus communis, ii. 472. 
Rosa centifolia, i. 345. 
Rosmarina herba, i. 625. 
Rubia manjista, i. 202. ii. 182. 

secunda, ii. 183. 

Ruellia ringens, ii. 482. 
— — strepens, ii. 153. 

tuberosa, ii. 154. 

Rumex vesicarius, i. 398. 
Ruta, i 626. 

graveolens, i. 351. 

Saccbarum officinarum, i. 407. 

ii. 460. 
Sacocalla, i. 629. 
Sagapenum, i. 357. 
Salvadora Persica, ii. 26. 266. 
Salvia Bengalensis, i. 359. 
Sambucus nigra, i. 118. 
Sanguinaria Canadensis, ii. 188. 
Sanseviera Zeylonica, ii. 192. 
Santalum album, i. 376. 
Sapindus emarginatus, ii. 318. 
Sapo, i. 393. 

Indica, ii. 228. 

Saxifraga crassifolia, i. 438. 
Scammonia, i. 631. 
Scilla, i. 634. 

Scirpus tuberosus, ii. 342. 
Scleria lithospermia, ii. 121. 
Scopolia aculeata, ii. 200. 
Scolopax gallinago, i. 392. 
Semen lini, i.612. 
Semecarpus anacardium, ii. 371 • 
Senna, i. 631. 

Italica, ii. 249. 

Sesamum In die una, ii. 256. 

— orientale, ii. 53. 255. 
Sevum ovillum, i. 406. 

Sida althaeaefolia, ii. 179. 

Jamaicensis, ii. 179. 

lanceolata, ii. 178. 

Mauritiana, i. 205. ii. 121. 

rhombifolia, ii. 179. 

Sideroxylon spinosum, ii. 88. 
Sinapis, i. 615. 

Chinensis, i. 230. 

Sison ammi, i. 38. 
Smilax China, i. 70. 592. 
Solanum jacquini, ii. 90. 

« Indicum, ii. 207- 
■ trilobatum, ii. 427. 

■ tuberosum, i. 329. 
Spermacoce hispida, ii. 259. 
Sphaeranthus Cochin- Chinensis, 

ii. 16$. 
— — — Indicus, ii. 167. 
Spongia, i. 401. 
Squalus carcharias, ii. 399. 
Stalagmitb gambogioides, i. 147. 



Stannum, i. 568. 652.. 
Sterculia fcetida, ii. 119. 
Stroemia farinosa, ii. 472. 
_ glandulosa, ii. 472. 

- rotundifolia, ii. 472. 
tetrandra, ii. 471. 

Stromateus paru, i. 325. 
Strychnos colubrina, ii. 202. 
■' nux vomica, i. 318. ii. 


— potatorum, ii. 420. 
Styrax benzoin, i. 33. 

■ officinale, i. 405. 
Subacetas cuuri, i. 510. 
Sub-boras sods, i. 45. 587. 
Succinum, i. 14. 585. 
Sulphas cupri, i. 510. 

■ ■ ferri, i. 529. 

sods, i. 375. 629. 

Sulphur, i. 411.635. 
Sulphuretum antimonii, i. 495. 
Sus scorfa, i. 170. 
Swietenia febrifuga, i. 123. 599. 

ii. 422. 
Symplocos alstonia, i. 437. 

Tradescantia axillaris,ii. 250402. 
Tragacantha, i. 605. 
Tragia caraolia, ii. 62. 

. cannabina, ii. 62. 389. 

>- cordata, ii. 483. 

-- involucrata, ii. 6L 

- volubilia, ii. 390. 

Trianthema monogynia, ii, 370. 
Tribulus cistioides, ii. 248. 

- lanuginosa, ii. 248. 
maximus, ii. 248. 

— terrestris, ii. 247. 

Tabernannontana citrifolia, ii. 

322. 342. 
Talcum, i. 421. 
Tamarindus Indica, i. 425. ii. 


Tamarix Germanica, i. 438. 

Taraxacum. See Leontodon ta- 

Terebinthina, i. 637* 

Terminalia aJata, ii. 193. 

■ bellerica, i. 236. 

catappa, ii. 194.230. 

chebula, i. 237. ii. 128. 

. latifolia, ii. 129. 194. 

Tetranthera monopetala, ii. 227. 
Tetrao cinerea, i. 288. 
Thea Cochin-Chinensis, i. 435. 

oleosa, i. 435. 

viridis, i. 430. 

Theobroma, i. 47. 
Toddy (English), i. 451. 
Torenia Asiatica, ii. 122. 

Trichilia spinosa, ii. 71 
Trichosanthes amara,ii. 297.392. 

. anguina, ii. 392. 

. cucumerina, ii. 

— — -- dioica, ii. 297. 

■ incisa, ii. 391. 

laciniosa, ii. 296. 


__ palmata, ii. 85. 

Trigonella fcenum Graecum, i. 

Tritici aestivi farina, i. 133. 
Trophis Americana, ii 294. 

aspera, ii. 293. 

Tyre, i. 460. 


Urtica urens, ii. 137. 

Valeriana jatamansi, ii. 367. 
Vateria Indica, ii. 482. 
Veratrum album, i. 606. 
Verbesina calendulacea, ii. 338. 
— — — sativa, ii. 256. 
Vernonia anthelmintica, ii. 54. 
Vervena nodiflora, ii. 313. 
Vinca parviflora, ii. 358. 
Vinum, i. 472. 
Viola suffruticosa, ii. 267* 
Vitex negundo, ii. 252. 

trifolia, ii. 237. 

Vitis vinifera, i. 157. 333. 
Viverra civetta, ii. 320. 

rassia, ii. 329. 

zibetha, ii. 328. 

Volkameria inermis, ii. 369. 


w I z 

Webera tetrandra, ii. 68. 177. Zincum, i. 573. 653. 

Zingiber, i. 60S. 

v *u u i_ ., . Zizyphus jujuba, ii. 9*. 

Xanthorrhowi hastile, i. 483. triiiervius, ii. 69. 

Xuarezia biflora, i. 437. ii. 92. 
Xyris Indica, ii. 125. 



Aat-Alarie, U. 1. 
Aatoo irichie, i. 232. 

- kolupoo, i. 406. 

- koottie, i. 184. 

- paal, i. 221. 
Abgoon (Arab.), i. 404. 
Achie-patchie-elley, ii. 2. 
Achirum, ii. 541. 
Adapoo currie, i. 68* 
Adatoda-elley^ ii. 3. 
Addaley-unnay, ii. 5. 
Addatinapalay, ii. 4. 
Addimodrum, i. 199. 
Adievedyum, ii. 7. 
Agasatamaray, ii. 7- 
Ail-puttay, ii. 8. 
Akiroot (Arab.), i. 463. 
Akk&r&karum, i. 300. 
Akki, ii. 534. 
Akooyeelasemoonrooraie (Arab.) 

i. 26. 
Akooyeela aemooa-i-roomie, i. 

Alamanda cathartica (Lat.), ii. 9. 
Alaverli, ii. 10. 
Alie, i. 287. 
■ pQonnoo, ii. 54L. 
AHverie, ii. 12. 
Allgvgrei, i. 195. 
Alpam (MaleaK/e), ii. 13. 
Amaum patcheh arisee, ii. 13. 
Amkoolang-kalung, ii. 14. 


IAnaneringie, ii. 15. 
Anasee-poo, ii. 18. 
Ana-shovadi, ii. 17. 
Anasie pullum, i. 314. 
Anay kaal, ii. 531. 
Andjang-andjang <Jav^, ii. 20. 
Andong (Jav.), h. 20. 
Anjana kalloo, i. 495* 
Anna baydie, i. 529. 
Apini, i. 27 K 

Appakovay kalung, ii. 21* 
Appr&cum, i. 421. 
Aralivayr, ii. 23. 
Arasum verei, ii. 25. 
Ardel-odagam, iL 29* 
Ariapoo, ii» 529. 
Aridarum, i. 499* 
Arteee, L 338. 
Ark (Arab.), ii. 26. 
Arooda, i. 351* 
Arttgam vayr, ii. 27. 
Ashbutchlgan (Arab.), i. 62. 
Ass&die sennie, ii. 528* 
Attei,i. 191. 
Attie puttay, ii. SO. 
Avary, ii. 31. 
Avene, ii. 33. 
Awar-awar (Jav.), ii. 35. 
Ayapanie, ii. 35. 
Aympadoo (Samat.), ii. 37* 
Azirna pedie, ii. 537. 
— — vaivoo, ii* 536. 

Q 2 




Babreng (Hind.), ii. 38. 
Banghie, iL 39. 
B&lhana, i. 332. 
Beerzud (Pert.), i. 142. 
Belamcanda, ii. 39. 
Bergherie (Hind.), i. 286. 
Bish, ii. 40. 

Bitlaban (Hind.), ii. 41. 
Bodayng (Siam.}, ii. 43. 
Bongko ( Jav.), ii. 42. 
Bonraka (Siam.), ii. 42. 
Brumadundoo, ii. 43. 
Bucklutulgezal (Arab.), i. 112. 
Buzzir kheshoot (Arab.), ii. 45. 

Caat amunak, ii. 45. 

attie poo, ii. 48. 

karnay kalung, ii. 50. 

kolingie, ii. 49. 

mallica vayr, ii* 52. 

morunghie vayr, ii. 53. 

siragum, ii. 54. 
Cacao-nut (English), i. 47. 
Cadalay-poolipoo-neer, ii. 55* 
Cadapum vayr, ii. 56. 
Camachie-pilloo, ii. 58. 
Camalay, ii. 536. 
Cammitta (Malealie), iL 57. 
Canari (Malay), ii. 60. 
Canchorie vayr, ii. 61. 
Capie cottay, i. 81. 
Capillaire (English), i. 52. 
Caracaniram, ii. 65. 
Cararobu, ii. 66. 
C&r&pang, ii. 530. 
Caray-cheddy, ii. 63. 
Caro bubula (Latin), i. 32. 
Carookoova elley, ii. 69. 
Caroonochie, ii. 67* 
Carpoora selasutoo, ii. 70. 
Carpoorum, i. 48. 
Camabolura, i. 8. 
Carrot kalung, i. 56. 
Carun chembai, ii. 64. 
Casa casa, i. 326. 
Castoori, i. 228. 
Castoorie munjel, i. 490. 

Cat korundoo unnay, ii. 71. 
Catrighondoo (Duk.), ii. 72. 
Cattu-gasturi (Malay), ii. 72. 
Cay-calava (Cochin-Chin.), iL 

Cay-vang-dee (Cochin-Chin.), i. 

Chamaindoo poo, i. 67. 
Chandanum, i. 376. 
Charayum, L 197. 
Cheeank (Siam.), ii. 75. 
Cheng kirandy, ii. 535. 
Cheppoo neringte, ii. 74. 
Cheringoo, ii. 536. 
Cheris (Nepaulese), ii. 73. 
Chim-aman-patchey ariaee, ii. 

Chin ummay, iL 537. 
Chunamboo, i. 194. 
Cittramoolum, ii. 77. 
Cochineel poochie, i. 79. 
Cocoa-nut, milk of (English), L 

Columboo vayr, L 86. 
Coondumunnie vayr, ii. 79. 
Coongkilium, i. 336. 
Coorinja, ii. 83. 
Cooruvingie vayr, ii. 80. 
Cootivella, ii. 82. 
Coruttei, ii. 85. 
CSttamlllie, L 91. 
Cottamillie ummay, iL 531. 
Courou moelli, ii. 88. 
Covalam, ii. 86. 
Cowdarie, i. 288. 
Cranie kalichul, iL 533. 
Cumbi pisin, ii. 89. 
Cundunghatrie-vayr, ii. 90. 
Cunja koray, ii. 91. 
C ushaium, preface, page xvii. 
Cutt (Can.), i. 63. 


Daud-maree (Beng.), ii. 92. 
Daun gundi (Mai.), ii. 93. 
Dividatsip&lavuttil, i. 333. 


Eeral, i. 331. 
Eeroomul, ii. 532. 



Eenlmboo, i. 522. 

• podie, i. 527. 

tuppoo, i. 527. 

Eeum, i. 532. 

Elandei-vayr, ii. 94. 

Elavum pisin, ii. 96. 

Elekullie, ii. 97. 

Elimitchum pullum, i. 193. ii. 99. 

Eloopei puttay, ii. 99. 

Ellu mahir, ii. 532. 

Emboorel, ii. 101. 

Ennerum vandie, ii. 531 • 

Erumie pawl, ii. 103. 

Erupovel, ii. 102. 

Faba (Latin), i. 28. 

Fara ufarfara (Arab.), ii. 104. 

Fraualot (Jav.), ii. 104. 


Gambeer (Malay), ii. 105. 
Gandapooro (Jav.), ii. 106. 
Gandoo (Jav.), ii. 107. 
Ganja, ii. 108. 
Gankoon, i. 5. 
Gendg&gutn, i. 411. 
GhSndaga Travagum, i. 2. 
Godomolla (Jav.), ii. 1 1 1. 
Godurobay mao, i. 133. 
Goeula, ii. 111. 
Goolabu-poo, i. 345. 
G untie paringhie, ii. 112. 
Gutta, ii. 112. 
Guyj-pippul (Beng.), ii. 113. 


Habb-hal (Arab.), ii. 114. 
Halim (Duk.), i. 95. 
Hirshuf (Arab.), i. 22. 

I J 
Jadicai, i. 249. 
Jadikai tvlum, i. 262. 
Jadiputrie, i. 200. 

tylum, i. 262. 

Jalap (English), i. 183. 
Jang-kang (Jav.), ii. 119. 
Jaw&heer (Arab.), i. 280. 
lbharankusha (Hind.), ii. 1 14. 

Idou moulli, ii. 115. 
Indoopoo, i. 372. 
Indrabovum, ii. 117. 
Injie, i. 152. 
Irminakullie, ii. 118. 
Iraa (Hind.), i. 284. 
Isfenj (Arab.), i. 401. 
Ispoghol verei, ii. 116. 
Jubaba (Arab.), ii* 120. 
Juwasa (Hind.), ii. 120. 

Kacaivullie, ii. 533. 
Kad&g&roganie, i. 164. 
K&daghoo, i. 230. 
K&d&ghoo-yunnay, i. 263. 
K&ddil nundoo, i. 94. 
Kaddil tayngai, ii. 126. 
Kaden pullu, ii. 121. 
Kadi, i. 461. 
Kadukai, ii. 128. 
K&dukai, i. 237. 
Kahd'hoo, ii. 533. 
Kaiantagarie, ii. 129. 
Kakacollie verei, ii. 130. 
Kakapu (Malay), ii. 122. 
Kakoovan, ii. 532. 
Kakiite krbbar (Arab.), i. 54. 
K&l&dy paal, i. 222. 
Kali munnu, i. 74. 
Kalichikai, ii. 135. 
Kalimboo, preface, page xvii. 
Kalli, ii. 133. 
Kamadu (Malay), ii. 137* 
Kambodsna (Jav.), ii. 137. 
Kanari, ii. 123. 
Kanari ote (Malay), i. 258. 
Kand&moorgarittum, i. 113. 
Karaway pifiay, ii. 139. 
Karkakartan vayr, ii. 139. 
Karoo oomatay, i. 442. 
Karoovelum puttay, ii. 142. 
Karpooga arisee, ii. 141. 
Karpoorawullie, ii. 144. 
Karriiwa puttay, i. 72. 
Karruwa puttay, ii. 145. 
Karum, i. 395. 
Katapa, ii. 123. 
Katou-kadali, ii. 124. 
Katsjula kellengu, ii. 145. 



Kaundum, ii. 146b 
Kayyapooti tayilum, i. 259* 
Kebw (Pers.), ii. 150. 
Keerie poochie, ii. 542. 
K£Uunga-meen, i. 478. 
Kelw&ragoo, i. 245. 
Kha-phaitn (Siam.), ii. 148. 
Khawan-pican, (Siam.), ii. 147. 
Khirnoob nubti (Arab.), i. 864. 
Khoongoomapoo, i. 854. 
Khowkh ^Arab.), I 299. 
Khulloo, t. 451. 
KhurgooBh (Duk.), i. 164. 
Khunsh-churin (Hind.), ii. 148. 
Khuz nibil alfie, ii. 148. 
Kichlie pullum, i. 281. 
Kilanelly, ii. 150. 
Kilioorura-puttay, ii. 152. 

Killoovey, i. 441. 
Kiramboo taylura, i. 257. 
Kirandy poon, ii. 531. 
Kirendinyagum, ii. 153. 
Kiriat, i. 96. 
Kimub (Arab.), i. 46. 
Kistnah doshum, ii. 534. 
Kodaga-saleh, ii. 156. 
Kodie palay, ii. 154. 
K5dimoondrie pullum, i. 156. 
Kolay erivoo, ii. 535. 
Koli, i. 134. 

Kolung-kovay-kalung, ii. 158. 
K5mb urruk, i. 188. 
Kondoshonay-kalung, ii. 159. 
Konnekai, i. 60. 
Kooamaoo, i. 19. 
Koodineer, preface, page xvii. 
Koodray pal-pasbanum, i. 499. 
Kookool, i. 29. 
Kooiimitan, ii. 160. 
Koolingie, ii. 157- 
Koolloor kachill, ii. 534. 
Koolumay kuttie, ii. 538. 
Koondricum, i. 136. 
Kooparaaynie, ii. 161. 
Koostum, ii. 536. 
Koras (Jav.), ii. 165- 
Korasanie oraura, i. 167. 
Koray kalung, ii. 162. 

mootay, i. 117. 

Koroshanum, ii. 164. 

Kortum, ii. 165. 
Kota (Nepaulese), i. 457. 
KoUjUletti-pullu, ii. 125. 
Kottang kaniDdei, iL 167. 
Krastulang (Jar.) ii. 171. 
Kull-addypoo, ii. 535. 
Kull pashi, ii. 170. 
KaUeripoo maygbum, ii. 54£. 
Kun novoo, ii. 538. 
Kundanialie, ii. 540. 
Kuttalay, ii. 169. 
Kuttoo sooley, ii. 538. 

Lack-beet (Siam.), ii. 171. 
Ladun (Arab.), i. 187. 
Lawanga puttay, i. 58. 
Layghium, preface, page xvii. 
Letchicuttay elley, ii. 172. 
Lontas (Jav.), ii. 172. 
Lopezka jaar (Duk.), ii. 173. 
Luffa abunafa (Arab.), iL 174. 

Maat kolupoo, i. 423. 
Macb&kai, i. 144. 
Madalum vayr, ii. 175. 
Madanakameh poo, ii. 174. 
Maddavey-meen, i. 227. 
Madoocare puttay, ii. 177. 
Maghali kalung, ii. 177. 
Magbodrum, ii. 528. 
Magilam pullum, i. 322. 
Majum, ii. 176. 
Malacca sambranie, i. S3. 
Malan-kua, i. 489. 
Malay kamalay, ii. 538. 
Malay tangbie vayr, ii. 178. 
Mallam toddali (Mai.), ii. 178. 
Mandara cashum, ii. 528. 
Manday sennie, ii. 532. 
Maneeram, ii. 180. 
Manganese (English), i. 538. 
Manjittee vayr, ii. 182. 
Manjittie, i. 202. • 
Mansiadi(Mal.),ii. 180. 
Mara munjil, ii. 183. 

ooppoo, ii. 183. 

Maradum- puttay, ii. 193. 
Maratia mooghoo, ii. 185. 



Maredoc (Tel.), ii. 188* 
Mankftlindoo, i. 406. 
Maroodanii, ii. 189. 
Marool kalung, ii. 192. 
Marra ooppoo, i. 327. 
Marudar singhie, i. 5S5. 
Marukarung kai, ii. 185. 
Mashipattin, i. 481. 
Mashiputrie, ii. 194. 
Massoy, ii. 196. 
Matray, preface, page xvii. 
Mavilinghum puttay, ii. 197- 
Mayghaveeadie, ii. 541. 
Mayghi sholay, ii. 539. 
MeTlaghoo, i. 302. 
MSHugoo, i. 470. 
Mendi (Cyng.), ii. 198. 
Mile unnay, ii. 200. 
Min umbir, i. 15. 
Mfrzunjoosh (Arab.), i. 213. 
Modira caniram, ii. 202. 
Molakarunnay, ii. 200. 
M511aghai, i. 306. 
Mooda cottan, ii. 204. 
Mookarutty vayr, ii. 205. 
MookavulJie vayr, ii. 208. 
Moolum, ii. 539. 
Moollie vayr, ii. 207. 
Moonnee vayr, ii. 210- 
Moonghil ooppoo, i. 419. 
Mooriinghy vayr, i. 175. 
Mootray kritcnie, ii. 541. 
Mootricunjayvie, i. 23. 
Mootthoo, i. 292. 
Moroo, ii. 211. 
Morunghie vayr, ii. 212. 
Mosumooski, ii. 212. 
Muel-sclievy, ii. 213. 
Mukki, i. 147* 
Munjil, i. 454. 
Muntylum, i. 39. 
Mun tylum, i. 264. 
Myle, i. 290. 
Myle conday, ii. 214. 
Mysachie, ii. 216. 

Naak-meen, i. 395. 
Nagamullie vayr, ii. 216. 

Nagatalie kullie, ii. 217. 
Nagha mooghatei kai, ii. 219. 
Nan poochie, ii. 542* 
Nahiooroovie vayr, ii. 221. 
Nakdown (Hind.), i. 24. 
Nanjarapanjan vayr, ii. 225. 
Naramboo s el Ian die, ii. 535. 
Narra mamady, ii. 227. 
Narrha (Tel.), ii. 228. 
Nat-flowcarum, i. 393. 
Nattoo sowcarura, ii. 228. 

vadomcottay, ii. 230. 

N&v&ch&rum, i. 365. 
Nawel puttay, ii. 232. 
Nayavaylei, ii. 223. 
Nedel kalung, ii. 233. 
Neela cadamboo, ii. 245. 
Neelacoomul vayr, ii. 240. 
Neelum, i. 178. 
Neer alivoo, iL 533. 

covay, ii. 528. 

kuttoo, ii. 542. 

moollie vayr, ii. 236. 

nochie, ii. 237. 

pirimie, ii. 239. 

sooley, ii. 535- 

Neeraddimoottoo, ii. 235. 

Nela poochie, ii. 542. 

Nelepannay kalung, ii. 242. 

Nellie kai, i. 239. 

Nellie poo, ii. 244. 

Nereipoottie, ii. 246. 

Neringie, ii. 247* 

Nerrepoo putta poon, ii. 529* 

Ngrvalum cottay, i. 101. ii. 248. 

Nilavgrei, i. 389. 

Nilaverei, ii. 249. 

Nira poosee (Siam.), ii. 250* 

Nirpulli, ii. 250. 

Nittah, ii. 251. 

Niyana pyteeum, ii. 538. 

Noochie, ii. 252. 

Noona marum elley, ii. 253. 

Null unnay, ii. 255. 

Nundiavuttei, ii. 257* 

Nunnarivayr, i. 381. 

Nurrivungyum, i. 402. 

Nurri-vungyum, ii. 259l 

Nuttei choorie vayr, ii. 259. 



Odallam (Malar), iL 26a 
Ooderie vayngbie, ii. 264. 
Oodoomboo, ii. 263. 
Ooghai puttay, ii. 266. 
Oomatay, ii. 265. 
Ooppoo, i. 370. 

trayaghum, i. 4. 

Orilatamaray, ii. 267. 
Ork-jena (Arab.), ii. 263. 

Paak, ii. 268. 
P&Ulum, ii. 531. 
P&ddicarum, i. 11. 
Rridicarum, ii. 271. 
FXdoothim&ray 9 ii. 539. 
Padrie-vayr, ii. 272. 
Pae de aloes (Port.), i. 479. 
Fullie, ii. 276. 
Piloo paghel kalung, ii. 274. 
Pamboo kuddie, ii. 540. 
Panichekai, ii. 278. 
Fannangkulloo, ii. 280. 
Paratie vayr, ii. 282. 
P&ringay puttay, i. 70. 
PBrlnghi s&mbrani, i. 264. 
Parsee cunjamkoray, i. 25. 
Paraie vadomcottay, i. 6. 
PBsbuin paal, i. 219. 
Passelie keeray, ii. 286. 
P&88uvoo ummay, ii. 532. 
Patchy vaivoo, ii. 539. 
Patraabi, ii. 284. 
Patti lallar (Jav.), ii. 288. 
Paumboo, ii. 290. 
Pavala poola, ii. 288. 
P&v&lum, i. 89. 
Pavuttay vayr, ii. 289. 
Paymooatey, ii. 291. 
Peea-rack-eliou (Siam.), ii. 292. 
Peerahi vayr, ii. 293. 
Peetandale-cotti, ii. 305. 
Pemayrutie, ii. 294. 
Pepoodel, ii. 296. 
Peramootie vayr, ii. 297. 
Pere &r&ei, i. 140. 
Perie ummay, ii. 540. 

Perm panel, ii. 306. 
Perumarundoo, ii. 298. 
Perumarutto puttay, ii. 302. 
Perumbadoo, ii. 557. 
Perundei codie, ii. 303. 
Perungyum, i. 20. 
Perun alragum, i. 129. 
Peycoomuttikai, i. 83. 
Phaina-schelli, ii. 306. 
Phal-modecca, ii. 307* 
Pia-amou-leck(Siam.), ii. 309. 
Pidarogbanie, ii. 310. 
Pinnay unnay, ii. 310. 
Pitch* pullum , i. 216. 
Plaou-gai (Siam.), ii. 213. 
Plun-mai (Siam.), ii. 213. 
Podogboo, ii. 540. 
Podootalei, ii. 213. 
Poghei elley, i. 447* 
Poi mooahu, ii. 215. 
Pollee mauD, i. 110. 
Pollokeyu (Jav.), ii. 32a 
Ponamdarum, i. 499. 
Poiwampou-maravara, ii. 321. 
Ponngolam (Malealie), ii. 322. 
Poodacarapan puttay, ii. 317. 
Pool (Jav.), ii. 322. 
Poolang-killunggu, i. 49a 
Poolavayr puttay, ii. 328. 
Pooleao, ii. 324. 
Pooliaray, ii. 324. 
Pooliarileb kalung, ii. 326. 
Poolie, i. 425. 
Poollium verei, ii. 327. 
Poollugboo abuttum, ii. 328. 
Poomichacarei kalung, ii. 33a 
Poonaverie, ii. 330. 
Poonaykallie, i. 92. 
Poonga-marum, ii. 332. 
Poonjandeputtay, ii. 333. 
Poonnoo, ii. 541. 
Poottoo, it. 529. 
Poovandie cottay, ii. 318. 
Porasum verei, ii. 335* 
Porono jiwa (Jav.), ii. 337. 
Portayla kaiantagerei, ii. 338. 
Postakai, ii. 339. 
Pottil-ooppoo, i. 373. 
Pottle ooppoo travagum, ii. 339. 





Pottle ooppoo trivagura, i. 2. 
Poursungbai, ii. 333. 
Powtrum, ii. 534. 
Prra, i. 313. 
Puchanavie, ii. 340. 
Pukka poolavay, ii. 529. 

■ soolay, ii. 537. 
Pulee (Jav.), ii. 342. 
Pulloo novoo, ii. 541. 
Pundaroo, ii. 341. 
Puneermayeh (Pers.), i. 334. 
Punnie, i. 170. 
Puppali pullum, ii. 343. 
Purpadagum, ii. 345. 
Putchwey, ii. 346. 
Putsai, ii. 342. 
Puttanie, i. 297* 
Pwonn, i. 514. 

Qupas or upas (Malay.), ii. 346. 

Rajrite (Hind.), ii. 348. 
Randu basin (Jav.), ii. 347. 
Raaam, i. 540. 
Rassacarpooruin, ii. 351. 
Rassapuspum, ii. 350. 
Rassa sindoorum, ii. 356. 
Rassum, ii. 348. 
Roomie mustiki, i. 214. 
Rukafe (Arab.), ii. 356. 
Rutta varie, ii. 538. 

Saddacoopei, i. 109. 
Sakkara, i. 407* 
Salamisrie, i. 368. 
Samutra cheddie, ii. 357. 
— — — pullum, ii. 358. 
Sangkhaphuli, ii. 358. 
Sapoota cheddie, ii. 359. 
Saray paranoo, ii. 360. 
Savarnakshira (Hind.), ii. 360. 
Sayl kund£, i. 55. 
Say selley, i. 359. 
Secacul, ii. 361. 
Seeda kaddupoo, ii. 533. 

vol. ii. a 

Seedavada kuddapoo, ii. 539. 
Seemie aghatee, ii. 361. 

shevadi, ii. 362. 

Seera shengalaneer, ii. 363. 
Segapoo sendsoerum, i. 535. 
Segapoo-sh&nd&num, i. 385. 
Sellandae, ii. 529. 
Sendoorkum, ii. 364. 
Sendrikka, ii. 365. 
Sennie, ii. 537. 
Shadamangie, ii. 367. 
Shadilingum, ii. 353. 
Shadray kiil lie paal, i. 120L 
Shahtra (Pers.), i. 138. 
Shangam cooppy, ii. 369. 
Sharunnay vayr, ii. 370. 
Shavirum, ii. 354. 
Sbayng cottay, ii. 371* 
Shayraet coochie, ii. 373* 
Sheeakai, ii. 374. 
Sheendi codie, ii. 377* 
Sheerudek, ii. 379* 
Shgmboo, i. 504. 
Shemm&rum, i. 123. 
Shemmarum, iu 376. 
Shemmoollie elley, ii. 376. 
Shencoodie vaylte, ii. 379. 
Shengalaneer kalung, ii. 381. 
Shengatariputtay, ii. 382. 
Shgrab ungpoorie (Duk.), i. 472. 
Shevadie vayr, ii. 382. 
Shevenar vaymboo, ii. 385. 
Shevium, ii. 385. 
Shieri goomoodoo (Tel.), ii. 386 
Shrrkisht (Pers.), i. 208. 
Shoondoo, ii. 533. 
Shoorunum, preface, page xvii. 
Show arisee, i. 361. 
Shyum, ii. 532. 
Simie at tie pullum, i. 131. 

chttnamboo, i. 66. 

— kavikulloo, u 42. 
Singginjanascha (Hind.), ii. 387* 
Slragum, i. 100. 

Sirroo canchoorie vayr, ii. 389 
corinja vayr, ii. 390. 

coruttei vayr, ii. 391. 

keeray vayr, ii. 392. 



Yansam (Chin.), i. 154. 

Yaylersie, i. 52. 

Yellow gum resin (English), i. 

Yellumboorkie, ii. 542. 
Yeroocum, oryercum pawl,i.486. 

Yercura vayr, i. 227* ii. 488. 
Yettie cottay, i. 317. ii. 489. 


Zietoon (Arab.), i. 268. 
Zufaiy yeabus (Arab.), L 177. 
Zukhum hyat, ii. 489. 



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