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Full text of "Materia medica of India and their therapeutics"

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MATERIA MEDICA OF INDIA 



AND THEIR 



THERAPEUTICS. 



By 

RUSTOMJEE NASERWANJEE KHORY, 

Honorary Physician^ Sir J, J. Hostital and attached to Bat Motlibai and Sir Dinska Petit 
Hospitals ; Member of the Royal College of PhvsicianSy London; Fellow and Licentiate 
of Medicine of the University of Bombay ; Voctor of Medicine (Brux,); Late Syn- 
dic and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Bombay ; Late Presi- 
dent. Grant College Medical Society ; Fellow of the Koyai Medical and 
Chirurgical Society of London ; Fellow of the Obstetric Society, Lon- 
don ; Justice ofthe Peace for the City of Bombay ; Author of 
" The Digest of Medicine,'' ''The Principles and Practice of 
Medicine,'' " The Bombay Materia Medica and Their 
Therapeutics "/ Examiner in Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics and in Midwifery and Diseases of 
Women and Children, University, Bombay ; 



AND 

NANABHAI NAVROSJI KATRAK, 

Licentiate of Medicine and Surgery (Bombay), Justice of the Peace for ihe Ctty of Bombay ; 

Late Chairman of the Standing Committee and Member of the Municipal 

Corporation of Bom lay ; Late Secretary and Vice-President of 

the Grant College Medical Society, Bombay. 



BOMBAY : 
PRINTED AT THE CAXTON WORKS. 

1903. 



UJis' 



To 

The Right Honourablk 

LORD REAY, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., LL.U., &c., 

Late Governor of Bombay. 

In grateful recognition of eminent services rendered 
to the cause of education in general and medical education 
in particular, and of many and beneficent medical reforms 
introduced in the Bombay Presidency, and the sym- 
pathetic solicitude evinced for raising the status and 
position of the local medical profession, 

This work has been, by permission, respectfully 
dedicated. 



Organic Drugs from the Vegetable Kingdom. 



The drugs belonging to this kingdom are treated in this work 
according to the system of natural orders, as this is the most scientific 
and practical of the various systems made use of in works on botany. 
At any rate the importance of this system so far as medicine is con- 
cerned cannot be questioned. The arrangement and sequence of the 
various natural orders have been determined after consulting various 
authors, under the hope that they will be found convenient. 

Rananoulaceee. 

Bachanaga, buttercup or crowfoot family. 

Ranunculaceae is derived from Ranunculus, a little frog, as many 
species grow in moist places where frogs abound. 

Habitat, — Cold, damp climates. Mountainous places. 

Characters, — Herbs or shrubs with an acrid watery juice ; when 
applied fresh quickly produce a blister. Leaves alternate or opposite, 
generally much divided, sometimes entire with dilated and sheathing 
petioles. Stipules generally absent or united to the base of the petiole. 
Flowers small yellow, most complete ; sepals, petals and stamens all 
distinct hypogynous, Corolla 5 with imbricate aestivation, seeds without 
an aril, embryo minute at the base of homogeneous horny albumen, 
roots tuberous. 

Properties, — The leaves and roots of many species when taken in 
excess produce symptoms of irritant poisoning. The different parts 
of the plant at diflferent seasons abound in a volatile acrid principle 
which possesses local irritant, and in some cases even vesicant pro- 
perties ; the acrid principle being volatile is dissipated by drying or 
by infusing it in boiling or even cold water. Some plants contain in 
addition a narcotic principle. A few plants are simply bitter tonics, 
alteratives and stimulants. Among the natives the poisonous plants 
are known as Bish naga. The word is derived from bish — poison, and 
naga — a root, a plant with poisonous root. The non-poisonous plants 
are known by the name of Nirbishi ; nir — against, and bisha — a poison. 

Aoonitum Ferox. 

Habitat, — Himalaya mountains, Northern India, Nepaul, Cash- 
mere and Sikkim. 

Parts used, — The dried tuberous root. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Bish, khanikeel, namir. Beng. — Batsnib, 
Bish, Mitha, telia Ati-singiabish. Bomb. — Bachnab. Cing. — 



2 ACONITUM FEROX. 

Vachanabhi. Duk. — Bachnig. Guz. — Shingadio-vachnig. Hind. — 
Teliy^-bis, Bishnab. Kalabachnig Singya-bis, Mithi-Zahar, Bish, 
Bikh. Malay.— Vatsa-n^bhi. Mar. — Wuchnzlk. Punj. — Moura-bikh. 
Pers. — Bishnag. Sans. — Vatsanibhaj Visham. Shringi-bish. Tam. — 
Visha-navi, Vasha-nabhi. Tel. — Ati-vassa, Vasanabhi. 

Teliya means greased or oiled, to preserve them from the action 
of the air. Vatsa-nabhi means navel of children, as the root resem- 
bles in appearance the navel of children. Shringebish from shingia 
or shingdan, which means a horn, and bish a poison. The smooth and 
tapering root of aconite resembles in appearance a goat's horn. 

Characters* — ^The tubef is heavy, horny, fusiform or conical, 
generally wrinkled, dark or yellowish brown externally, and shining 
black within ; in shape it resembles a deer's horn. It is from 2 to 4 
inches long and about an inch wide at the crown or base ; it breaks 
with a resinous fracture and could be reduced to a coarse powder ; the 
smell is very disagreeable, resembling that of cat's urine, the taste 
acrid and stimulating ,' a portion of it when chewed causes a tingling 
sensation and numbness on the tongtie, the sensation remaining 
unabated for a long time. £)ose of the root i to 2 grains. 

Constituents. — A crystalline alkaloid called napelline or pseudo 
aconitine, similar to aconitine (one pound yielding one drachm). It 
has a transparent vitreous appearance, soluble in boiling water, less 
soluble in ether, chloroform and alcohol. Is weaker than Aconitine. 
A valuable hypnotic. Dose, i to J gr. A good substitute for opium 
and chloral. 

Preparations. — (i) Liniment. (2) Tincture 1 in 8 of alcohol. Dose, 

2 to s ms. 

Actions and uses. — Aconitum ferox is diaphoretic, diuretic, anti- 
pyretic and anodyne. It is more diuretic and less antipyretic than 
A. napellus. The tincture is antiphlogistic and useful in nasal catarrh ; 
also in tonsillitis, sore throat, coryza, neuralgia and acute gout. The 
liniment is used for chilblains. 

Aoonitum HeterophyUum. 

ffabitat.^lndi^t Himalaya. 

Ihrts used. — The dried tuberous roots. 

r^rw^c«/^r.— Duk.— Ativish, Ataicha, Atvik4, Vajje-Turki. Guz. 
— Atavakha-ni-kali. Atvasek. Hind.— Atis, Patis-Batis. Mar.— 
Ativish. Pers.— Vajje-Turki, Tam.— Ati vadayam. Tel.— Ati-vasa. 

Ativisha — meaning counteracting poison. 

Characters, — Two varieties, grey and white. White tubers are 
young, plump, of a pale ash colour, ovoid and half an inch to an inch 
long. External surface wrinkled and marked with scars of rootlets. 
At the broad end there are 2 or 3 scale-like rings, the remains of fallen 
scaly leaf buds. Grey tubers are longer and shrivelled ; both 
break with a resinous fracture, their interior is white, taste very bitter. 
Dose of the powder as a tonic, 5 to 15 grs. As an anthelmintic, 

3 to 5 grs. As an antiperiodic, 20 to 30 grs. 



ACONITUM LYCOCTONUM, 3 

Cofistiiuents. — An intensely bitter alkaloid— rAtisine, Aconitic 
acid, Tannic acid, Pectous substance, abundant starch, fat, a mixture 
of oleic, palmitic-stearic glycerides, vegetable mucilage, cane-sugar 
and ash, 2 p.c. 

Preparation — Tincture (l in. 8). Dose lo to 60 nis. Bdligolia given 
to infants for restlessness and to keep them quiet. It contains 3 
narcotics namely. Cannabis, Opium, and Dhatura, and the remainder 
28 bitters and aromatics. 

Devdir yidi kvith. — Decoction. 

Ativish, ShiijirOn, Rito Dhamaso Gokharu, each one part, fry 
the mass and add Sunth, Kaephal, Nagarmoth, Kariatun, Kadu, 
Dhini, Himaj, Gajapipli, Dhamiso, Ringani, Galo, Kakdasingi, 
of each one part make a decoction (1 in 20). Dose, 4 to 12 drs. used 
during convalescence from fever, acute diseases, parturition, &c. 

Actions and uses. — Bitter, stomachic, aphrodisiac, tonit, and 
antiperiodic, given during convalescence froth such debilitating diseases 
as fevers, acute inflammatory affections, &c., uSed also in cough, 
dyspepsia and in diarrhoea depending thereupon, in which case ft is 
given in combination with aromatifcs^ bitters, and astringents such as 
Tinospora, Bonduc-nuts, Holarrheha, kt. It has been given as an 
antiperiodic in malarial fevers with sofne sutce^s, but is much inferior 
to quinine. Combined with vivadin^ it is given to expel worms. 

Aconitum iiy6o6tontim. 

Habitat, — Europe, N. Asia, Himalaya. 

Part used.^-The tubers. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Khanik-el-zeb, Hind. — Bika. 

Cotistituents. — It contains two alkaloids : Lycoctonine, soluble in 
ether, but sparingly so in water ; and acolyctine, soluble in water, but 
insoluble in ether. 

Aoonltam MapeUus, B. P. 

Aconite — meaning a rock, as the root grows upon steep rocks. 
Napellus — meaning a little turnip, the shape of the root being 
like that of the turnip. 

Habitat* — Europe, Himalaya, Alps, North America. 

Parts used. — ^The tuberous root, Aconiti Radix, B. P., and 
Aconiti Folia. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Wolf's-bane, Monk*s-hood, mousebane, 
Indian Aconite, Nepaul Aconite. Arab. — Khanik-el-nemer. Beng. — 
Dudhia bikha. Guz. — Nagapuri Bachanaga, Dudhio Vachanaga, 

Hind. — Dudhia bikha, Kota bikha, Batsnab-bish, Mahoor. Panj. 

Telia Kachang. Bomb. — Bachnab, Tel Vasanabha. Can. — Vasanabhi. 

Khanik-el-zeib and Khanik-el-nemir. Khanik, the slayer, and 
Zeib, a wolf. Nemir, a panther. It means slayer of wolf and 
panther. Aconite was used to destroy wild beasts. 

Visham, visha, a name common to any poison. 



4 ArONITlTM NAPFLl.US. 

C^^r^^/^rj. —rFlowers deep blue, helmet shaped. Leaves in 
segment, wedge-shaped and deeply cut, and when chewed giving a 
sensation of tingling on the tongue and lips. Root of a brown colour, 
tuberous, horny, irregular and roughly wrinkled, conical, 2 to 3 inches 
long and one inch in thickness at the crown, the lower portion taper- 
ing and marked with a few scars and fragments of rootlets; on the 
top are the remains of leaflets. The root bark is thick and enclosing 
a seven-rayed star-shaped pith, which is whitish and starchy. The cut 
surface is yellowish white and resinous and made up of wedges. It is 
without any marked odour, the taste is somewhat sweetish at first, 
then becomes acrid and radish like ; when chewed it leaves a tingling 
sensation on the tongue for a long time. Dose, i to 2 grs. 

Constiiiteuts. — The chief active principle is the alkaloid aconitine 
in the proportion of '03 p.c. Pseudo aconitine or napelline or 
Veratroyl Aconine, Pseudo aconine, and Aconella, which resembles 
narcotine, also Picraconitine, aconitic acid, resin, fat, and 
sugar. 

Pseudo aconitine or Veratroyl Aconine or Napellina or 
Napelline is weaker than aconitine. It is more soluble in hot water 
and less soluble in ether and chloroform. 

Aconitina, B. P., aconitine, aconitia is identical with benzoyl 
aconine. To obtain it mix the alcoholic extract with hot water, re- 
move the oil and resin, cool and filter, then precipitate with ammonia, 
exhaust the precipitate with ether, distil and dry. Met with in 
colourless hexagonal, or rhombic prisms, or white amorphous 
solid of alkaline reaction. With acids it forms salts. It is readily 
soluble in alcohol or chloroform, less so in ether, nearly 
insoluble in cold water (i in 150), in hot water fiinso), and in 
petroleum spirit; melts at a temperature of 375® F. A drop of 
even a very weak solution causes a tingling sensation on the 
tongue. yJo K^« o^ aconitine is equivalent to about i grain of 
aconite root Dose, j\^ to ^q grain. The salts of aconitine, namely 
hydrochloride and hydrobromide are both crystalline. 

Preparation, — Of the leaves, Extractum aconiti. Extract of 
aconite. Dose, i to J grain. Of the root, Extractum aconiti fluidum, 
each drop contains one grain of the powdered root. Dose, J to 2 ms. 

Tinctura aconiti, B. P. (i in 20). Dose, 5 to 15 ms., if frequently 
repeated 2 to 5 ms. 

Linimentum aconiti,' B. P. (2 in 3). 

St. Jacob's Oil. — It probably contains aconite liniment, ether, 
alcohol, turpentine, red colouring matter and water. According to 
another formula it contains turpentine, aconite liniment, carbolic acid, 
alcohol, ether, capsicum and origanum. 

Preparaiion.'—Oi aconitina. Unguentum aconitinae, aconitine 
ointment, B. P., contains aconitine (2 p. c.) 



ACOSITUM NAI»ltLLUS. 



contains i grain in 240 ms. 



Injectio aconiltn:e hypodermica, 
Dose» I to 2 ms. 

Oleatuni aconitinac, oleate of aconitine. Contains 2 p.c. of atoniline 
10 oleic acid rt»r external use. 

Anodyne arayl colloid. It contains aconitine, veratrirje, and 
liydride of amy I dissolved in collodion* A good application in 
neuralgia &c, 

Bacbnag Powder, To prepare it, soak small pieces of the root in 
milk for several hours» dry and powder. Dose. ^ to J gn 

PhyshUigkai achon, — Aconite is sedative, anodyne, mydriatic and 
poisonous. U depresses circulation and respiration. It is a powerful 
depressant of the sensory nerve ends of nervous and of muscular apparatus 
of the heart, respiration and the spinal nervous system. It docs not 
aiTect the cerebrum. At first it stimulates the vagus centre in the 
medulla, and lowers the heart-beat, the respiration, and arterial tension. 
This is soon followed by cardiac depression and paralysis of the 
vasomotor centre. As a sedative upon the nerve ends in small 
quantity it produces a little tingling and then numbness as on the 
tongue and lips. It also produces diaphoresis and diuresis. It 
acts upon the stomach and intestines, producing increased i>ecrelion. 
It causes constriction in the fauces, and produces nausea, vomiting 
and more or less salivation. 

In toxic doses there is loss of sight and hearing, with 
dilated, sometimes contracted pupils, cold clammy sweats, great 
numhness, lowering of the body heat, loss of motion, sensation and 
impairment of reflexes, ending in convulsions, syncope and death ; 
consciousness is generally retained to the last* Locally it is a powerful 
sedative, paralysing the sensory nerves around painful areas and 
producing numbness. 

Therapeutics. — ^As a powerful antiphlogistic, its chief use is in the 
early stages of acute cararrhal or sthenic fevers, acute catarrhal inflam- 
mation and vascular excitement* In inflammation of serous mt^mbrancs 
as acute pleurisy, in pericarditis, in orchitis, in acute peritonitis, 
and in acute rheumatism, if given early, it is very useful. 

It should not be given in asthenic patients, in weak, fatty, or dilated 
hearty in continued fevers, in gastro-intestinal irritation and pulmonary 
inflammation^ As a powerful vascular and cardiac sedative, it is 
given in cardiac hypertrophy without any organic lesion, and in nervous 
palpitation. It is also given in scarlet fever, measles, erysipelas, acute 
catarrh^ acute bronchial affections, in coryza, tonsillitis, exophthalmic 
goitre, and asthma ; also in croup, either spasmodic or inflammatory. 
Given with Dover's powder, it is very useful in breaking up a cold 
ar zn attack of influenza. It is a popular remedy with singers. 
They take it occasionally to clear their voice. It is very beneticial 



given m 
' ETling th 



gestive neuralgia, as 



of the fifth nerve; i 



Igia 



ifi 



or those 

sentery 

ppfcatjcd mLnhtruatiun folluvvlng a chill or exposure to 



local con 
iranc 



facial neura 
arrhoea 



or 



6 ACONITITM PALMATUM. 

cold and in congestive dysmenorrhea. Given in gonorrhoea it 
prevents chordee. In cases requiring the passage of a catheter, 
tincture of aconite in drop doses prevents the chill following 
the cathetrism. Aconitine in ,ijy grain doses is used hypoderniical- 
ly in acute inflammations, accompanied with high fever. As a local 
anodyne the liniment is applied to relieve the pain and itching in 
herpes zoster, pruritis and chilblain ; in neuralgia and chronic 
rheumatism. Aconitine ointment is a powerful local sedative and 
used locally in facial neuralgia, also in orchitis and painful affec- 
tions of the joints. In odontalgia the tincture may be rubbed on the 
gums. It should not be used on an abraded surface. Aconitine oint- 
ment is very efficient in trigeminal neuralgia. 

AoonitaiQ Pa)mMmPr 

Habitat, — Himalaya, Mishmi. 

Parts used, — The tubers. 

Vernacular, — Bomb. — Bikhma, Vakhafiia ; Guz. — Vakhamo ; 
Hind. — Bishama. 

Characters^ — Tuber generally branc}ipd, colour light brown, hard 
and horny and breaking with a short starchy fracture. Externally the 
surface is longitudipally furrowpd. Internally compact, shining and 
yellowish. Taste iqtensely bitter, but not acrid. Smell somewhat 
pungent and aromatic. Qos^, 5 to lo grs. 

Constituents, — Ap alkaloid identical with atisine, starch, &c. 

Preparation, — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, i to 4 drs. 

Actions and //j^.— Stomachic, bitter, antiperiodic and anthel- 
mintic; used in fevers, dyspepsia and diarrhoea. It has been also tried 
in cholera. 

Adonis Yemalia. 

False hellebore or the pheasant's eye. 

Habitat, — Southern Europe and Asia. 

Parts used. — The leaves and stalks. 

Characters, — A perennial l^erb of a wild growth. Dose 3 to 6 grs. 

Constituents, — The active principle is a bitter hygroscopic 
glucoside, called adonidin, aconitjc {icid, — adonido quercitrin, adonidic 
acid and sugar (adonido-dulcite). 

Adonidinum-adonjdin. A canary-yellow powder cf intensely 
bitter taste and neutral reaction. It is soluble in water, ether 
and alcohol. Dose ^^ to ^ gr. 

Preparations, — Extractum adonidis liquidum. Dose, i to 2 ms. 
Tinctura adonidis. Tincture of adonis (i in 8). Dose, 10 to 30 ms. 
Infusum adonidis. Infusion of adonis (1 in 40). Dose, i to 4 drs. 



ANhMOSi 



LLA* 



PJk}* ' aciiotis. — Fresh plant is ncrid, irritant and vesicant; 

firv nlatii _ . .. ..lac aUmuUnt, tonic and diufetic, similar in action to 

It acts more promptly, slowing the heart beats, increasing 

and raising the blood pressure in the aiteries. It is rapidly 

xl in the urine. It is not cumulative and can be given for 

I- ti^ lime without danger. In large or poisonous doses it at first 

Kciics the heart and then causes paralysis of the cardiac motor 

'nerves. Adonidin is more energetic than degitoxtn. It is also a 

cardiac sedative like belladonna. 

Thtfijpfutics, — As 3 diuretic it is used to remove oedema or dropsy 
loe to diseases of the hearti chiefly the dilated heart wiih mitral 
eguxgitation. It slows the respiration, relieves throbbing headache, 
ipsration and dyspncea. In epilepsy it may be given with potassium 
lide. 

Anamona Pulsatilla. 

A, praleiuis (pali^tilla ni^ri-cans.) A. patens (pulsatilla vulgaris.) 
Basque flower. Wind flower. Meadow anemone, 

Ancotonc, from an<Jmos the wind, wind flower, the herb grows 
rtndy places. 

Fulsatilla, from puUerei to beat or strike^ it pulsatet from the 
Willi I or be;iting against the tree. 

I : ; , from pratum, a meadow or belonE^inir to meadow ; its 
pkice iA growth* 

fi'iliUit, — HngUnd, Siberia, Temperate untl Aljniie Himalaya. 

/ arls! us^d. — The Hfiwcring herb, 

iWuacuiaK — Pers.— Shakaykel-naamaa. 

CAanicUrs, — Stems simple and erect, with l.irgc terminal flowcrSt 

Flnwcrabcll-shapcfi* vidlt-l or purple. Fruits nchenes, numerous, Koott 

brown» oiilique. Leaves silky and villmis. All parts covered 

t ioft silky hairs. Without any odour and of an acrid taste* 

Dose, 3 to to grs. 

O^nstiiiieNis, — An nci id yellow oil» aiictnonal, winch is converted 
in the pre«rnce of water into ariemonin or pulsatilla camphor ; the 
■ f)le anemunic acid j and acrid anemone camphor, 
iioninnm or pulsatilla camphor is obtained from 
^ ol anemone. Distil the herb with water, and evaporate 
It resembles camphor and is neutral white, friable, 
Hs or needles without odour, of an exceedingly acrid taste, 
lie in chloroform and hot alcohol and sparingly so in ether 
irater j on the addition of alkalies it is converted into ancmoninic 
jd« a crystalline insoluble powder; dissolves in alkalies with a 
How colour* Oose^ i ^^ t fin** i" pi^^* 

VffniratifiH. — Extract um puUalilUe liquidum. Dose, i to 5 ms* 
Tinciura pulsattila (i in lo\* Dose, 2 to 10 !os. Infusion 
(i fo 40). Dose, I to 4 dr 



8 CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA. 

Physiological action. — Diuretic, general stimulant, antispasmodic 
sedative, mydriatic, expectorant, galactagogue and emmenagogue ; 
in toxic doses irritant. When chewed it increases the secretion of 
saliva. It lowers the heart, and arterial tension, reduces the respira- 
tion and the body heat. In large doses it causes nausea, vomiting 
and diarrhoea, and in toxic doses paralysis with stupor followed by 
convulsions and death. Locally it causes numbness, tingling, skin 
inflammation and eruptions. 

Therapeutics. — The root is mixed with milk and given 
internally. Pulsatilla is now particularly used in functional uterine 
derangements as leucorrhcea, amenorrhcea, dysmenorrhoea, and 
other painful affections of the pelvic organs ; also in rheumatism, 
gout, nervous headache, orchitis and epididymitis, in both of which 
it relieves inflammation and also the pain. As an antispasmodic 
it is used in coryza, rhinitis, bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough, 
and hysteria ; as a gastric sedative it is given in dyspepsia, gastritis, 
flatulence, &c. Anemonin is used in asthma, bronchitis, whoop- 
ing cough, &c. 

Locally, i of tincture to lo of water is used as an injection for 
leucorrhoea ; mixed with walnut husk, it is used for dyeing the hair 
black. It is applied to scaly skin diseases and to unhealthy ulcers, 
syphilitic sores &c. 

Cimioifuga Racemosa, B. P. 

Syn — Actaea Racemosa, Bugbane, black snake root, black cohosh, 
rattle root. 

Cimicifuga, that which drives away bugs, in allusion to the use 
of one variety to drive away bugs. 

Habitat, — Rich woodlands. Cashmere, Temperate Himalaya, 
United States. 

Parts used. — The dried rhizome with the attached rootlets. 
Cimicifugae — Rhizoma-Cimicifuga syn. Actaeae Racemosae Radix, B. P. 

Characters. — Rhizome 2 to 6 inches long and \ inch to i inch in 
diameter, horizontal, thick, hard and covered with cup-shaped scars ; 
the roots are brittle, especially near the rhizome ; on section they form 
3 to 5 wedge-shaped woody bundles, separated by medullary rays, 
colour brownish-black, odour slight, taste bitter and nauseous like that 
of opium. 

Constituents. — Resins (3^ p. c), fat, starch, gum, tannic and gallic 
acids, sugar, volatile oil (when fresh), and an acrid crystallizabls 
neutral principle known as cimicifugin. Of the two resins, one is 
soluble in alcohol, but not in ether, and the other soluble in ether and 
alcohol as well. 

Cimicifugin. To obtain it act upon the rhizomes with alcohol, 
precipitate the solution with acetate of lead, remove the lead with 
sulphuretted hydrogen and evaporate. 



CLEMATIS TRILOBA. 



9 



CAa racier s*-^ A powder of a yellowish-brow a colour, soluble in 
aliolial and dilorofomii slightly so in ether and water* Dose, ^ 
to z gr5, 

I^ffsaraif^n, — Extractuni cimtctfugde liquidum, B. P. Dose, 5 
to 50 ms. Extractum cimidfugae. Dose, 1 to 4 grs« Tinctura cimicifugie, 
TitKture of Act^ea Racemosa, B. P. (1 iu 10). Dose, 30 to 60 ms. 

/^v / ' I action. — The root is alterative, stomachic, cnimena- 
|0^ie. {i[ ic, diuretic, diaphoretic, arid antispasmodic. Its action 

iLaii, ijiiculation^ and the nervous system is similar to that of 
On the un.Htriped muscular fibres its action resembles that 
In small dnse<> it is a gastric stimulant. It increases the 
'4 the generative organs and the menstrual flow, also stimu* 
ite the bronchial mucous membranes and the kidneys. In brge 
JoAev it ».lows the heart, but increases its force, also raises the arterial 
ctt^lon. In toxic doses it acts as an irritant, dilates the pupils, 
r^r...f.v .^ dimness of sight, headache, nervous tremor, violent delirium, 
, nausea, vomiting, and depression of pulse. 

IJurapentks. — It has been given in chronic muscular rheumatism, 
lumhagn. torticollis, intercostal neuralgia, sciatica, pleurodynia, and 
^ to fatigue. As a stomachic tonic it is given in dyspepsia 

»l iisnn and as a nervine tonic in delirium ireuieiB, hysteria, 

uvafian neuralgic pains, chorea and impotence or seminal discharges ; 
a* :\n irhciljt: it increases the flow of menses. It is also useful in 
T and metrorrhagia, subinvolution of the uterus, and in 

u,..-;^*^ T,,..i,b affections, Ac, As an expectorant it is of benefit in 
acute and chronic bronchitis and phthisis. In puerperal mania 
Of pyerperai pet itonitis^ also in puerperal hypochondriasis, its good 
eflbcu are well marked. Cimicifugin is given to excite the contraction 
of th< \o check or allay after-pains of delivery. 

,icata, or baneberry (Eng.)^ possesses properties similar 
lo cimjciiuga racemosa. 

ClematJA Triloba. 

/b^i/ri A— Mountains of Western India. 

Aitj usiii. — The leaves* 

Vernacular^ — Gux. — Rlojii. Hind. — Rdnj4i. Mar. — Morvel. 
Saiii.-»Lagbu*kardni. 

L^ghia*karani. — Laghu, small or tight, and knrani, ear, in allusion 
to the shape of the leaves. 

CkaractfTs, — A climber, young branches tonieiuose .md silky, 
leaves on longish petioles, simple or alternately divided, elliptical, or 
ovale and lanceolate, flowers large and white. 

Preparation, — Infusion (1 in 20), Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Achomaptiiusis. — Alterative and sedative, used like sarsaparilla in 
Wood diKasea, such as syphilis, chronic fevers and scrofula. It is also 
given in Icptusy. The juice of the leaver coinbined with that of the 



lO corns TFETA. 

leaves of holarrhena antidysenterica, is dropped into the eye for the 
rcflief of pain in staphyloma. 

Coptis Teeta. 

C. trifoliatt — Coptis or mishmi teeta. 

Habitat. — Assam, China, Thibet, Mishmee Mountains. 

Parts used. — The dried rhizome. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Urfik, M^hamirftn Assam. — Mishmee, 
Teeta ; Chin. — Sou-lene or Chynlen, Honglane ; Cing. — Pita-karo-. 
Sana. Eng. — Goden thread root. Gu4. — Haladio Vachnag. Hind. 
Bomb. — Mishmitita and Maha-miran. 

Urak, a kind of turmeric ; Miami means bitter. 

Characters. — Two varieties — superior rhizome, creeping, golden 
yellow, thick as a cane and marked with spinous projections where the 
rootlets have been broken off. Jointed, nuckle-like at the upper end; 
knotty, perfectly dry and brittle. Inferior rhizome, as thick as a goose- 
quill, rootlets thin and wiry, breaks with a short fracture, centre 
spongy, taste intensely bitter, without any odour. The root, when 
cnewed, tinges the saliva yellow. Dose, 15 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — Berberine, 8| p.c., a colourless alkaloid coptine and 
resin. 

Berberine, a yellow, hitter crystalline alkaloidi also found in 
Hydrastis, calumba root, berberry and Thalictrum foliolum. 

Preparation, — ^Tinctura coptidis (1 in lo). Dose, 30 to 60 ms. 
Infusum coptidis (i in 20). Dose, | to a fid. ozs. 

Actions and uses, — Bitter, stomachic tonic, antiperiodic and altera- 
tive; also local stimulant. As a tonic its influence in restoring appetite 
and increasing the digestive power is very marked. largely used, in 
native practice, in dyspepsia and in convalescence from acute diseases. 
It has a gentle action on the bowels. In ague and other fevers it may 
be given both during and after the paroxysms. Under its use patients 
recover from acute diseases manifestly improved in strength. As an 
alterative it is used in enlarged liver and spleen. Esp^ially used in 
jaundice. Locally it stimulates the mucous membranes, and is used as 
a gargle in sore throat and ulcers in the niouth, It is also used, 
combined with Berberis asiatica, in conjunctivitis and as a snuff in 
coryza. 

DelphiniQm Denadatum. 

Habitat, — Sirmoor, Lahore, Punjab. 
Parts used.— ^Tubers and seeds. 

Vernacular, — Greek — Saturyno. Arab — Zhadvar, antila. Bom. — 
Jadwar Nirbishi. Pers. — M4h-pftrvin, Mafarfin. Sans. — Jadavar. 

Jadwar. — The great purifier of blood or antidote. Mah-parwin. — 
Moon and Pleiades, the plant blossoms in summer when the Pleiades 
rise. 



DBLPHlNltnf OFNtlOATUM, 



If 



_ Nirbbhi, Nir opposed to and Bisi belonging to Bis or poison, 
lti3il 15, t{ is opposed lo, or an antidote to, poison* 

Ciinmc/rrs. — Tubers small, blackish -brown, irregularly ovoid, 
wrinkled, somewhat conical, seldoni more than an inch long and ^ 
iiKh in diameter, having u few horn-like projections at the top, the 
remains of rootlets. Cut surface^ solttsh, of a dark-brown colour and 
hom^ . unctuous to the touch, taste bitter, odour fruity. 

r rjfx. — Some species contain delphinine and staphisagrine- 

I liohol, staphisagrine is insoluble in ether in which 

>■'■ , .;i-...L ..L . ..ble, 

Pte^rathn. — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

its. — Alterative, stomachic tonic, and anodyne. Asa 
Jfmit I ling convalescence from fevers; as an alterative in 

phihs and rheumatism. The root is chewed to relieve toothache* 
clphinc r«embles aconitine» and is antidotal against muscarine and 
dtgtialinc. Staphisagrine acts like curare and paralyses the motor nerves. 
fiennsrks. — A :, to Persian medical works Jadwar is found 

^mng fogether h (A. ferox), to which and to snake poison 

Jadirir b considered an antidote. 

DelphiniuD) Brunoniajium. 
VffnacnlttT^ — Samp-phali (Hind). 
HaHtaU — Punjab* Himalaya. 
Characi^rs. — The root has a strong scent of musk* 
Actiafit and uses, — The juice is used to destroy ticks in animals. 
Delphinium Cciruleum. 
WiQ^rir/ifr^^Dakhan-ghut a Punjab plant» used to kill maggots. 

lih^ nri«. — The marsh marigold found in marshes in the 

t. The rtx>t is poisonous, 

Delphiniuni Zalil. 

ffiM/fiL — Rhorasan and Badghis* 

Pari$ J»i^i/.— The herb. 

Vernacular^ ^ Arab. — Zireer* Hind — Astruck Trayamuna. 

B<>tiib, — ^Traya-mAn^Oul-Jalil. Gur,— Trayaman. Mah- — 

Pcr*.^ — Zaiel, Asfrak. Punj. — Asbarga-yafiz-Gifiz, Sans — 

Bol4 deva, Bala-bhadraf Arjaka, Mangalyarha. 

I. — Herb light -brown or yellow, placed m water it tinges 

}W ; stents anf^ular and furrowed* a span high and 

■■ Tigthwise ; flowers pubescent, perfect, ribbed, yellow 

i-biirri and surrounded by pointed follicles. Taste 

lat aromatic; odour honey-like. 

C'^ffsfifTtrfTft—A r»nrk*redd»sh acid resin ; two neutral principles 

indtwo bitter alkaloids, somewhat similar 



Western 



\d. 



*njij ^^Jincv.iii 



DgLFHlMlUM STAPHISAGklA. 



Preparation. — Ash and decoction (i in 20), Doze— 2 to 6drs. 

Actions ami uses, — A bitter tonic, alterative, anodyne, din f 

parasiticide. As a tonic it is used in fevers and dyspepsia; as ; 1^ 

Live and diuretic in enlargement of the abdominal viscera, as liver and 
spleen, in jaundice and dropsy. Locally, mixed with lime-juice, the ash i» 
used in parasitic afleclions of the skin, as scabies^ itch, &c. With barley 
meat a poultice of it is used in inflammatory swellings* 

Remarks. — Sometimes the rhizomes of Valeriana hardwickii arc 
sold by native druggists for this drug* 

Delphinium Siaphisagria, B. P. 

Staphisagria means wild dried grape. The fruits are in cluj^tcrs 
and resemble wild grapes. 

Delphinium, a dolphin. — The shape of unopened flowers is like 
that of a dolphin's head. 

Habitat, — Mediterranean Coast| France, Italy, L-evant, Asia Minor. 

Piijrts used, — The seeds. Staphisagri«e Seniina^ B.P, — Semen 
Pedicularis, stavesacre seeds. 

Characters* — An annual or biennial plant. Flowers in racefncs. 
They are bluish or purple, the seeds are irregularly triangular 
or obscurely quadrangular, arched or straight, blackish brown, 
becoming dull, greyish brown by keeping. Test^i brownish gjcy, 
wrinkled and deeply pitted with reticulated ridges. The interior of 
the seeds is soft, whitish, and contains oily albumen, enclosing a small 
embryOi The taste is nauseous, bitttr and acrid, without any odour, _ 
Dose of the powder, i to 2 grs. 

Consfituents^^Set^s contain sevcrai alkaloids — delphinine, ng| 
phinoidin, delphisine, and staphisagrine. It also contains rcsii^ 
fatty matters, a bitter principle, volatile oil| and fixed oil 25 p. c,< malic" 
acid, proteids, mucilage. The fatty oil could be extracted by ether* 

Delphinine, Delphinina, Delphia, 

Characters, — An amorphous, brownij^h while or yellowish crysta 

Manufacture. — Obtained by builing the decoction of the !iee^ 
with magnesia, ireaiing the precipitate with alcohol and evapoiatinjf. 
It IS insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, iIIImiu it iM . md 
chloroform. Dose i to J gr. 

Staph tsagrine.—.\n amorphous yellow alkaloid ul a bitter auul 
lasle. Insoluble in ether, soluble in chloroform and alcohol. 

Preparation, — Oflhcseed; unguentuni stapliiMgria-, utniment of 
staphisagria, stavesacre ointment, B.P, (4 in. 23). Oleum staphisagria:. 
Tincture (10 p. c.) Dose, 5 to 10 ms. 

Preparation 0/ Deipkimne,^0\n\mcni {20 grs. to 1 ox.) 

Physi^toj^icat action* — The seeds arc parafilicrde (owiitg (lieir m**- 
pctty to the fixed oil), Nioleni emctit, diutelic «ind caihariiL. The 



HRU.FnORUS KIGRR, 



dilkaloid dclpbinine, which is a local irritant, produces tingling, burning, 
aintlrnH.immntion of theskfn. It is a heart poison, and, like aconitine and 
veratrine, it depresses the heart and respiration. In large doses it leads 
UM ^ ►t I he spinal cord and asphyxia* Internally it has to be 

UKi iiiirdedly. 

Therapeutic wi^5.— The powdered seeds are used, as an ointment. 
In destroy scabio, pediculi, vermin, lice, &c.; as a liniment for 
rhctjmatism, neuralgia, kc, 

rviphininc is ^ivcn internally in dropsy, rheumatism, spasmodic 
acsUimi <ind neuralgia ; externally the ointment or an alcoholic solution 
is applied i»vcr the painlul ner\^e areas» in neuralgia, toothache and 
cirache. Dclphinine and staphisagrine are antidotes to muscarine and 
digttalin pcnsoning. 

Helleborua Ni^eft Helleborus Offlcinalia. Black Hellebore. 

Nabiiat. — South Europe, Germany, Nepaul Mountains. 

Part used, — ^Thc dried rootlets and rhi^rome. 

1^ Vrfnacnhr. — Arab — Khartik Kuerbeck Kharbec-ul-aswad* Bomb. 
Cutkf. Duk. — Kutki, Eng. — Hellebore, Guz. — Kuddu. Hind.^ — 
Kitt' Ju. Mar.— Rila-kadu. Pers. — Kh;ltbek-e-hindi. Tam. — 

Ka: srti. Sans. — Kalaka-rohani, Katuruni. Singh, — Calurana. 

Character s,^YiooX^ black, and hence the name. As met with in the 
biiiaar it is tit two different colours, each having a different name, the 
rrd kmiwn as Kadu and black, Kali Kutaki. In both the rhizome ts 
kuDtty, io short broken pieces I to 3 inches long, in sixe resembling a 
goo4c i|uit). Externally smooth and of a brownish white colour, slightly 
lihrivclicd and marked with scars of fallen rootlets. Very fragile, 
light soft, and can be compressed between the fingers. On section 
the cut surface appears as if made up of layers or scales. Has 
a white broken ring between the centre and the external surface ; 
udour heavy, resembling that of majith or tobacco. Taste somewhat 
acrid ;ind very bitter. The c<»lMur is brownish dark. In siiee some- 
wlut thicker/ Externally each piece is covered over with numerous 
(ftom 3 to 4) longitudinally nerved scales, or marks of leaflets, 

Do«c, powdered rhizome as a tonic, 10 to 30 grs,; as a 
piirgative, \ to I dr. 

r'>my///irM/f,— Hellehorine, Helleborein — both crystalline and 
|KitM>ji()u%, re^in, fat, &c. 

Hclleborme. — Insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and 
chlornform. 

Helleborein.— It is crystalline, very soluble in water, slighty so in 
itcoltol and insoluble in ether. Dose, |V '^ iV' S^* ^^^ ^ ' P-^* 
\ aulutioR. 

t^fntiatnm.—VXmA extract of black hellebore. Dose, 3 to to m%. 



14 HEPATICA TRILOBA. 

Extract of black hellebore. Dose, i to 4 grs., cautiously. 

Physiological action. — In small dose it is a bitter tonic, stomachic, 
also antiperiodic. In large doses a drastic hydragogue, cathartic and 
an emmenagogue. In toxic doses a violent, gastro-intestinal irritant, 
giving rise to vomiting, purging, vertigo, cramps and convulsions, 
often ending in death. As a purgative it resembles colocynth. 
Helleborin is an active poison ; when applied to the tongue it 
causes, like aconite, tingling sensation. Internally as a narcotic it 
causes paralysis of motion and sensation, congestion of the brain and 
spinal cord, dilated pupib, and death. 

Helleborein is an irritant of the mucous membranes of the eyes, 
nose, stomach, intestines, giving rise to conjunctivitis, sneezing, saliva- 
tion, nausea, vomiting and purging. In small doses, like digitalis, it 
acts as a cardiac tonic, but slows the frequency of the pulse. In largie 
"doses it quickens the pulse, ultimately paralysing the heart. The 
respiration is. at first increased, then slowed, and at last becomes 
laborious, there is increased activity of the kidneys and uterus. 
In toxic doses there is gradual paralysis, followed by convulsions, 
and death. 

Therapeutics, — ^Hellebore is given in acute cerebral affections, 
fevers, dyspepsia and in jaundice; the natives give it in combination 
with holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in amenorrhcea, melancholia, 
mania, insanity , worms, dropsies, skin diseases. Helleborein, as a sub- 
stitute for digitalis, is hypodermically injected or given internally in 
smaller doses in diseases of the heart. As a local ansesthetic it is more 
powerful than cocaine ; 3 to 4 drops of I p. c. solution of helleborein 
causes complete anaesthesia of the cornea; on the addition of a little 
erythrophlcein, the anaesthetic effect lasts for a very long time. • 

Helleborus Fcetidus. — Bear's foot. Decoction or syrup of leaves 
used for asthma, hysteria, hypochondriasis. Dose 5 to 20 grs. 

Helleborus Viridis is the green hellebore. The root is used like 
the root of H. Niger. 

Hepatioa Triloba.— Liver wort. 

Habitat. — North America, Europe. 

Part used. — ^The leaves. 

Characters. — Leaves reniform, 3-lobed, 2 inches long. Dose, \ to 
2 drs. 

Constituents. — ^Tannin, mucilage. 

/^^/^ra//b;/.— Decoction (i in 20). Dose, 1 to 2 02s. Infusion 
(i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and use Ss — Demulcent, tonic deobslruenl ; given in liver 
disorders and in respiratory diseases^ such as phthisis, bronchitis, &c. 



nVDRASTlS CANADENSIS, 



«5 



Hydrastis Canadensis^ B.P. 

Golden seal, eye balm» orange root, yellow paint, ohio curcuma. 

^ IS. — So called because its active properties are found in 

the V. lice, or because it grows in marshy or watery places. 

Golden SGiL— In allusion to the yellow rhizome, once used as a 

paint and dye. 
hatntat, — North America^ Canada, &c, 

/fer/i used, — The dried rhtJEome and rootlets. Hydrastis Rhizoma 
Hydrastis Rhtiome» 6. F. 

Characten. — Rhizome, yellowish brown, tortuous, 2 inches long 

\ o\ an inch thick, longitudinally wrinkled and breaking with 

short resinuus fracture ; bark thick and reddish-yellow, with 

nodulbry fays» pith large, of a grccuish-yellow colt)ur, exhibiting 

ring of 10 bright yellow wood bundles; roots thin and brittle ; taste 

bitter and odour slight. Dose, 5 to 30 grs, 

r -' 'rnts^ — Hydrastinc, berberine, xantbopuccine, canadtue, 
&tat4. . resin, and a fluorescent compound, 

aa, liydraitine* — To obtain it» add hydrochloric acid 
and the powdered root. Filter and remove the precipitate uf 

err ->nia to the filtrate. To puriiy hydrastine 

id 1 charcoal and crystallize. It occurs in the 

rcioC iv the extent ul 15 p.c. 

CA<tr^<r/rrjf.— In white crystals^ resembling strychnine in appear- 
ance* very sparingly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether and 
rm. Taste very bitter; combined with acids it forms salts ; on 
illation, it is converted into trimethylamine and meconin. 
qr. From hydrastine is prepared an oxidation product, 

^astinine, oxidize hydrastine with binoxide of 
man. luric acid. Hydrastinine hydrochloride, the salt 

|cncraiiy uacd, occurs as light yellow crystals deliquescent, of bitter 
aslc, Kilublt! in water (i in i)and alcohol (i in 3). Dose, J to 1 grain j 
in a to p.c. suKiiion it ts used as an injection hypodermically for 
^ytcrinc hjrmurrhagcs. 

Bcrberinc. — Occurs as yellow crystalst soluble in alcohol and water, 
and insoluble in ether. Cajiadine. — In while needles ; Canadine 
iulph^te is soluble in water and alcohol. Xanthopuccine. — In yellow 
% It unites with acids to form salts. It is probably impure 

1-- 

Prc/uiraticm 0/ Hydraslu. — Extractum hydrastis liquidum, B, P. — 
''LiqtT- ^ '-net of hydrastis. Dose, 5 t<^ '5 ™s* 

11. — A dry extractive. It is obtained by evaporating 
it bydrasti> Hquidum. It consists chiefly of hydrochloride of 
lL lj, It should not be confounded with the crystalline 

rtd-*Hydnsline, A a bright yellow colour. Do*e 



16 



KrOETXA SATIVA 



Trnctnra Hydrastis, B.R Tincture of Hydrastis (i in lo), 
to I ;inn. 

Physiohgicat actmn, — Alterative aperient, antiperiodic, dianede 
and antiseptic. In small doses it is a bitter and stomachic tonic. 
It has a stimulating action on the mucous membrane of the stomach and 
intestines. It promotes appetite^ increases gastro-inteslinal secretions, 
and stimulates the flow of bile. It is a good deobstruent to the glandular 
sy:>tem* It causes uterine contractions If long continued, 
it deranges digestion and leads to constipation. It is a poison la 
the protoplasm and arrests the movements of the white corpuscles, 
Hydrastine is simitar in action to quinine. It produces edects on the 
nervous system and causes ringing in the ears, 

Hydrastinine is utero vaso constrictor, antispasmodic and cardiac 
stimulant. 

Therapeutics, — As a stomachic tonic it is used in atonic dyspepsia 
gastrO'intestinal catarrh, jaundice, in catarrh of the bladder^ uterus^ 
vagina. &c.» and in chronic alcoholism. It stimulates the liver in habi- 
tual constipation. In menorrhagia and other uterine hasmorrhages, it 
is given in preference to ergot and iron, also used in lismoptysis and 
night sweats of phthisis. 

Hydrastine^ the alkaloid, and hydrastint the dry extractive, are 
both used as antiperiodics like quinine, in chronic malaria and in 
intermittent fevers- As alteratives they are given internally in all 
forms of catarrh, chiefly of the stomach, duodenum, h ' ' >, 
bladder, uterus, vagina, &c. As cholagogue it is given ir. \* 

tioM and in sluggish liver. Externally as an injection, the soluiioa 
nf the extract (i in 50), or the infusion of hydrastis (1 in 50) is 
used in chronic gonorrhoea, leucorrhoeav gleet, and in chronic nasal 
catarrh. The solution is also applied to syphilitic sores in the 
mouth, throat, &c., to rectal fissures and fistula, to aital prolapse^ 
haemorrhoids, cracks and fissures o( the nipples, abrasions, erosion and 
ulceration of the os and cervix. As an ointment (1 in z^) it b 
used in eczema. It is also used asa local antiseptic dressing for unhealthy 
wc^unds and cancerous ulcers, 

Hydrastinine hydrochloride is used hypodermically in !•• 

al irregularities a lew days before the expected lime. Comb ii 

ergot and cannabis it has been used in uterine haemorrhages, such ^m 
congestive dysmenrrhaa, mtinorrhagia and metrorrhagia, also In mctn- 
lis, endometritis, pyosalpingitis, &c, ; also to induce abortion. Given 
also in epilepsy, hydrophobia, strychnine poisoning, with g«>od 
results. Externally applied in acne and hyperidrosis. 

Ni^ella Sativa-H. Indlea. 

I/ijbitaL — The Mediterranean countries. Cultivated in India, 
J*arts uscii, — The seeds. Mugrela seeds* 

Vernacular. — Arab.— Kamune-asvad, Hubha tussoudi* Benfi..— * 
KAI-Zira, Bomb, — Kelanji, Bur.^Safi . t. Can. — Kare^jiragAH 

Cing.— Kaluduni, Duk. — Kalauji. i mall fennel flow^ 



FiEONIA OrKICIN'ALis 



Bgvi*t — Habes-souda. Guz. — Kalijiri. Hind. — ^Kalajira, mugriia. 

*lalyal.— Karum-chirakam, Mar. — Kalajire, Pers. — Siyah-berang, 
1iuncz« Sans, — Krishna-jiraka^ Karavi, Sushavi. Tarn, — Karin- 
kiragum. TeK — Nalla-jilakara, Singh. — Kaloo-dooroo, 

Characters, — ^It is probably the black curtiin of the Bible The seeds 
resemble coarse gunpowder and are triangular, the umbilical end 
^m&Der than the other. Surface, black, wrinkled and marked by 
irregukir dcpre^iona. Testa rough. Internally the seeds contain a 
white oily kernel of a strong aromatic odour, resembling lemons, 
sassafras or cubebs* The taste is oily at first, after a time it resembles 
that of garlic. Dose, 4 to 8 grs. 

CoNsMucnfs. — The seeds contain a fixed oil 37,5 and volatile oil 1.5, 
albumen 8.25, mucilage 2, albumen r.8, organicacids 0*9, metarabiii 
i«4, melanthtn, resembling helteborin, 1,4^ ash 45, moisture 74, sugar 
glucose 2*S> and arabic acid ^,2^ &c. 

PrtparatioH^ — Medicated oil (oleum mugrel.-e) Tincture (i in 8). 
Doflie, 30 10 boms. Decoction mugrela (1 in 20), Dose, 4 to 8 fluid drs- 

AcHi^Hi a$td uses* — Anthelmintic, diuretic, galactagogue, emmena- 
and carminative. It as an aromatic adjunct to purgative and 
remedies. A decoction of the seeds just after delivery is given 
to stimulate the uterus to contraction and to increase the secretion of 
llie milk ; also tn worms. As a carminative and stomachic with 
p]ilint)ago«root, it b given in dyspepsia^ loss of appetite, diarrhcea 
and intermittent fevers* As an emmenagogue it is used inamenerrhcra 
and in d) smcnorrhnea. In large doses it causes abortion. Locally it 
IS kargety used brayed in water to remove painful swellings of 
Ittiidft and feet* 

Rrmarks.-^Th^ seeds are scattered between woollen shawU and 
clothe as a protection against insects. 

Paeonia Offloinalis. 

/fahiai* — Temperate Himalaya and Europe, 
lutrts uifd, — ^The tubers. 

/ s, and Arab. — Fawania Aod-el-Salib. Bomb. — 

LMS.J :. _ ^y rose, ofBcinal Peony. Hind. — Ud salap. 

Udesalam is a corruption of Aod-el-salib, meaning wood of the 
crots/* The wood on section shows two lines crossing each other like 
acrou. Acd<«l-salib is also the name of Peony corallina or male peony, 
the roots of which is turnip shaped. 

Picoiii the physician of the gods. 

CharacUrs^ — Tubers irregular, flattened^ turtlip shaped, one to two 
iticbes ill length and from \ an inch to t inch in thickness. Hardt 
heavy* and conical ; external surface or epidermis brownish, shrivelled, 
tough, and fibrous or rugous» with numerous fissures radiating from 
the ceiUre« At the top is a hard conical pointi the lem^iiis of a stem* 



1 8 THALICTRUM FOUOLOSUM. 

When cut, the tuber is starchy and presents a bluish surface, 
resembling catechu or chobchini, and consists of 2 or 3 rings. Smell 
peculiar, acrid, and resembles that of ipecacuanha. Taste slightly acrid 
and nauseous. Dose, 3 to 10 grs. 

Constituents. — Tuber contains malates, oxalates and phosphates, a 
little tannin, sugar, starch and a volatile oil. 

Actions and uses, — Acrid, alterative, antispasmodic, and emmena- 
gogue. As an antispasmodic it is used in uterine obstructions, biliary, 
intestinal and renal colic, hysteria, epilepsy, palpitation of the heart, 
asthma and convulsive affections. It is, however, in great repute as an 
emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea and amenorrhoea, to stimulate the 
secretion of menses. As an alterative, it is used m syphilis, torpor 
of the liver and ascites. In large doses it is poisonous, causing 
giddiness, vomiting, &c. 

Remarks. — The peasantry of Europe, even nowadays, put a garland 
of these seeds round the necks of children during dentition, or a 
bag containing pieces of the root is suspended from the neck, under 
the superstitious belief that it wards off convulsions. 

P»nia Emodl. 

Habitat, — Panjab. 

Part used, — The tuber. 

Vernacular, — Mamekh. 

Actions and uses, — Similar to those of Paeonia officinalis. 

Ranunoalas bulbOBus. Crowfoot. 

Habitat, — Europe, North America. 

Parts used. — The herb and corm. 

Characters. — The plant is hairy, 6 to 18 inches high. The bulb 
at the stem base. Dose — ^ to i drs. 

Constituents, — A volatile oil, anemonine, and anemonic acid. 

Preparation. — Decoction, infusion (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses, — Irritant, diuretic and narcotic Locally 
applied to the chest in bronchitis. Also in rheumatism, sciatica, 
neuralgia, &c. 

Thalictram Foliolosum. 

Z^^^//^/.— Temperate Himalaya, Khosia Hills, Sutlej Valleys, 
Kamaon Mountains. 

Paris used. — The root. 

Vernacular, ^Bomh, — Piaranga, Mimeeree. Eng.— Gold thread, 
Meadow rue, Poorman's rhubarb. Hind.— Shuprak Mamiran, 
Pilijari. Punj.— Bur-moti, Gurbiani. Sans.— Pitaka. Pilijari— pili, 
yellow, and jari, jar, a root. The root is yellow. 



MAGNOLIACEiC. 19 

Characters. — The root, often mistaken for Coptis Teeta. It is 
creeping and of yellow colour, as thick as a goose quill; surface slightly 
contorted, knotty, and covered with scales, the remains of rootlets. 
Cut surface is resinous, of a deep yellow colour and hollow in the centre. 
Light yellow rings arranged in wedges, found between the hollow and 
the external portion. Taste bitter, odour resembling that of Fel 
bovinum. Dose — 5 to 10 grs. 

Cbiu/f/E/^/f/lf.— Berberine and a yellow bitter extractive. 

Preparation, — ^Tincture (i in 8). Dose, 20 to 30 ms. Liquid 
extract. Dose, 5 to 20 ms., and snufF. 

Actions and uses, — Aperient, bitter tonic and febrifuge, used in 
atonic dyspepsia, jaundice and flatulence, in the interval of intermittent 
fever and during convalescence from fevers and acute diseases, as 
an aperient, it acts gently on the bowels, a good substitute for rhubarb. 
The snuff is used in coryza. It is a febrifuge of some power. 

HagnoIIaoeA. 

The magnolia or Bidiana family. 

Trees or shrubs, leaves alternate, beautiful leathery and stipulate. 
Flowers sweet and fragrant, white or red, and distinct, handsome with 
large sepals and petals in two or more rows. Fruits cone-like, stellate or 
capsular, with numerous carpels, one-celled, dry or succulent, dehiscent 
or indehiscent and distinct or somewhat coherent ; seeds solitary or 
several, albumen fleshy and homogeneous. 

Habitat. — Temperate climates, Tropics, Hindustan, Japan, China. 

Properties, — Plants in this order are remarkable for their bitter, 
tonic, astringent, and aromatic properties; they contain an essential oil, 
a bitter principle and sometimes tannic acid. 

Drimys Winteri or Wintora Aromatioa:. 

Habitat — South America. 

Part used, — ^The bark. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Winter's Bark. 

Characters, — Bark in quills or curves, in thickness 2 to 4 lines. 
Colour greyish brown, with granular fracture ; odour similar to that 
of canella or cinnamon, often substituted for cinnamon and sometimes 
called Winter's cinnamon. Canella bark has been termed spurious 
Winter's bark. Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constituents, — Winterene — a volatile oil, Resin 10 p.c. ; tannin 
9p.c. 

/V«r///rtf/irb«.— Tincture (i in 10). Dose, \ to i dr. Infusion 
(i in 20). Dose, 4 to 12 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Tonic, aromatic, and stimulant ; given for colic, 
flatulence, scurvy, &c. 



20 ILLICIUM VERUM. 

Illioiam Yeram, B. P. 

Illiciuniy meanrng allurement, t\e,^ from its odour and attractive 
appearance. Verum, verus, true, genuine, or real type. 

Habitat — Cochin China. 

Parts used, — The fruit and oil, oleum anisi, oil of anise, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Raziyanaje, Badiani Khatai. Bomb.— 
Badian. Burm. — Nanat-paen. Duk.-^Anas-phala. Eng. — Star-anise, 
Chinese anise, aniseed. Hind. — Anasphil. Pers. — Badia-ni-Khatai. 
Tarn. — Anashdpu. Tel. — Marati-mogga. 

Star anise.— The manner in which they grow is peculiar, the pods 
being in small clusters joined together at one end and diverging in 
8 rays. 

Characters. — A shrub ; Fruit pedunculate, of an iron-brown 
colour, formed of 8 carpels arranged like stafs. Each carpel oval, 
with a broad base, compressed on both walls, and having a boat-4ike 
prominence at the top, woody, wrinkled and hard to the touch. The 
cavity reddish-brown and glossy, opening by a slit at its upper margin ; 
seed, one in each carpel, smooth, shining, ovato oval, ribbed only on one 
side and glossy, of a brown or chestnut colour and oily ; taste of 
the seeds like that of anisum, sweet , aromatic, acrid at first, then 
astringent and, lastly, bitter. Taste of carpel like that of kabab chini. 
Dose £ to 30 grs. It contains integuments or capsules, 78 p. c, and 
seeds 22 p.c. 

Constituents, — Star anise contains volatile oil, 4 to 5 p.c. Saponin, 
proto catechuic acid, shikimic acid, resin, mucilage, cane-sugar and 
ash, 2 p.c. The volatile oil is chemically identical with the oil distilled 
from the fruits of pimpenella anisum and is obtained by distillation 
with water. 

Oleum anisi, B. P., a clear colourless or pale-yellow liquid, of fruity 
odour and mildly aromatic sweet taste, becomes red on exposure to 
air, the colour resembles that of ol. foeniculi, composed of a parts, j^ 
being a liquid anethol or anese camphor isomeric with oil of turpentine 
and ^ solid anethol with small amount of terpene, safrol, anisic acid, 
&c. Dose i to 3 ms. 

Preparatton.^-lvdM^xon (i in. 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant carminative, anodyne, and diuretic. 
Internally an infusion of the fruits is of great service in flatulent colic, 
spasmodic affections of the intestinal canal ; also in infantile retention 
of urine. The powdered capsules are stimulant and carminative. For 
oil see Pimpinella anisum. An inferior variety is occasionally sold by 
Mahomadan or Bohree druggists as true Badiana. The fruits are 
abortive, with hardly any odour, narrow, and have 13 carpels instead of 
eight. The colour is darker, reddish-brown and they are much wrinkled 
on the under surface. The ends of the carpels are more turned 
up than in the true variety. The taste is feebly aromatic and slightly 
bitter and astringent. It contains only a bitter principle and tannin. 



ILLICIUM RBLIGIOSUM. 2 1 

lUieiom Reli^osam. 

HaKtaU — Cultivated round Buddhist temples in China and Japan, 

Part used. — The fruit. 

Vernacular, — Shikimi . 

Characters, — Fruit similar to Star-anise, having 8 carpels, thin, 
more woody, shrivelled wrinkled, and end in a curved beak, odour 
clove-like and faint ; taste unpleasant. 

Constttuents. — It contains a liquid volatile oil, Protocatechuic acid, 
Shikiminic acid, Sikimipicrin, shikimin ( poisonous ). The volatile oil 
of the leaves contains saffrol, eugenol, shikimofand liquid anethol. 

Actions and uses. — The fruits have poisonous properties causing 
vomiting, dilated pupils, epileptiform convulsions and even cyanosis. 

lUicium floridanum and L par viflorum have fruits with 13 and 8 
carpels respectively. Bark is substituted for cascarilla. 

Liriodendron. Tolipifera. 

Hahttat, — United States, China. 

Parts used,^'The bark. 

Vernacula r, — Eng. — Tulip- tree. 

Chafactets. — Bark in quills or curved pieces, a line or two in 
thickness, colour purplish-brown, fissured and covered with thin ridges. 
Inner surface smooth and whitish. Taste astringent. Dose, ^ to i 
drachm. 

Qmstituents, — Volatile oil, resins, liriodendrin, tulipiferine, tannin. 

Preparation. — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 drs. Decoction 
(i in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 drs. ; fluid extract, 20 to 40 ms. 

Action and uses, — Bitter tonic, given in dyspepsia, intermittent 
fever, also in chronic rheumatism. 

Magnolia Olaaoa. 

Swamp sa&safras, beaver tree, sweet bay. 

I/abttat,'^lJnited States. 

Putt used. — The bark. 

Characters.'^The bark in thin quills or curved pieces ; colour 
orange brown, externally fissured and warty. Taste astringent, bitter; 
used as a po.wder. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Constituents. — Volatile oil, resin, tannin and a crystalline principle 
magnolin which is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether and alcohol. 

/Reparation, — Infusion (i in 20). Decoction (i in 20). Dose, 
I to 2 fl, ozs. 

Actions ^iiiflffww.— Tonic, aromatic, bitter, antiperiodic,diaphoretic, 
alterative. Resembling cinchona, and given in fevers, malaria, gout, 
chronic rheumatism, catarrhs. In fever it arrests the paroxysms. 



22 MICHELIA CHAMPACA. 

Hichelia Champaoa— H. Nllagirioa, HUl Champa. 

///?^//^/.— India, Nilgiris, temperate Himalaya. It is cultivated 
for the sake of its yellow sweet-scented tulip-like flowers, which are 
offered to the Hindu deities. 

Paris used, — The bark, leaves and flowers. 

Vernacular, — Burm. — Sa-ga. Eng. — Golden or yellow champa. 
Beng. — Champaka. Can. — Sumpagahy. Cing. — Sappu (M. Nilagirica). 
Guz. — Rae champa. Hind. — Champa. Duk. — Champa. Mar. — Pivala 
Champa. Malyal. — Bongas jampacca. Sans. — Piti. champaka suvarna, 
champaka-pushpam. Tarn. — Shempang shembugha. Tel. — Champa 
Kamu R. Dipapushpa, (lamp flower), from depa, bright, shining; and 
pushpa, flowers. The flowers are shining and bright. 

Characters. — M. Champaca, leaves fall off during the cold season, 
when the tree is full of flowers. Bark light-brown externally, and can 
easily be removed from the wood by mere scratching ; inner surface 
reddish brown; mottled with longitudinal green stripes and irregular 
pale yellow dots or scars ; taste sortiewhat bitter and very acrid; odour 
faint. M. Nilagirica. Bark light-brown, also brittle and covered with 
lichens and mosses, of bitter taste and odour. Dose of the bark, \ to 
I dr. 

Consittuents, — M. Champaca. The bark contains a volatile oil, fixed 
oil, resin, tannin, mucilage, starch and sugar. M. Nilagirica contains a 
volatile and fixed oil, acrid resin, tannin, sugar, starch, calcium oxalate 
.&c. 

Preparation. — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, J to i ounce. Decoction 
(i in 20). Dose, ^ to i ounce. 

Actions and uses. — Deobstruent alterative, bitter, stomachic^ 
emmenagogue and demulcent. The leaves are applied to indolent 
swellings; the bark is febrifuge and alterative and used as a substitute for 
guaiacum in chronic rheumatism. The root is an emmenagogue ; it is 
used in disordered menstruation to increase the flow, and as an aromatic 
bitter during convalescence from fevers. The infusion of flowers is 
demulcent and diuretic and given in gonorrhcea to relieve scalding. 
Flowers beaten up with sweet-oil are applied to the nose in foetid nasal 
discharges. The oil of the seeds is rubbed over the abdomen to relieve 
flatulence. 

Anonaoea. 

The custard-apple or Sitdphala order. 

Trees or shrubs with powerful aromatic taste and smell. Leaves 
alternate, simple and exstipulate. Flowers usually green or brown ; 
fruit dry, or succulent; carpels distinct or united, so as to form a 
fleshy mass. Seeds one or more, albumen ruminated, anatropal. 

Properties. — Generally aromatic and fragrant, in all their parts. 
The order furnishes some edible fruit». Varieties Anona squamosa, 
Custard-apple, Sweetsop, Sitaphal ; Anona muricata, Soursop ; A. 
reticutala,Ramphal, Bullock-heart. 



Anona Squamosa. 

hj:ital —Western India ; cultivated in India and America. 
I^rls used, — The leaves, root and seeds. 

Vtwfiacular, — Arab. — Shurifa. Beng. — Luna, meba. Burni. — Ame- 
auaca* Ctng. — Atta. Eng. — Custard apple, sweet sop, Duk. — ^Sita- 
\\. Hind* — ^Sitaphal. Malay. — Buwah-nona, shri-kaya, Mar,^ — 
'' ., — Shurifah. Sans. — Ganda gutea. Tain. — Sitapallam. 
'1 alij, Maleal, — Ata-chika. 

ChitracUrs^ — The root is dark-brown^ bark scabrous* Seeds dark 
brown and polished with bi-laieral ridges, one end umbilicaled, or with 
a ring ind a central pit» the interior contains ruminate albumen of a 
brownish colour ; taste acrid and oily; odour nauseous, leaves lanceolate, 
ftoiouth, glaucous* of a dark-green colour and of a pungent and 
ofl*eii ' ' ur. Dose, 5 to 10 grs. 

t uU\ — Oil and resins. The seeds, leaves and immature 

[rutl contam an acrid principle, 
'V 'Mratton. — Ointment. 

ns and uses* — Insecticide. The seeds and leaves arc poisonous 
^ The crushed leaves are applied to the nostrils ill 

!\^ . ; 1. " i mixed with salt and made into a poultice are applied to 
Mjfcs iniolccf with maggots; an ointment of pounded seeds is used 
Tiv ill ouiaea worm, and for removing lice from the hair; also 
cesses to hasten maturation. The natives apply to the 
ied seed^ to procure abortion. The root is used as a 
tive and given in melancholia. The drug rccjuires to be 
a vvitn caution. 

Bocagea Dalzellii and GuaUeria LaurifoUa. 

//"^^lAsr/,— Concin, Travancore* 

*4iH M$ed, — Leaves, 

Wnacnlar. — Mar.— Sageri, Kochrik» Harkinjal* 

CkaracUrs* — Leaves polished, narrow, oblong, acute or obtuse^ 5 to 
9 in* ' ' T I to 2 inches broadp coriaceous, serrated, the base 

acut i, taste pungent and bitter. Flowers white, carpels 

j^c, contain 2 mature seeds* 

... i -fi/j, — Tannin and gallic acid. A crystalline body, related 
to stntgrin of mustard seed. 

and uses. — Leaves are used as fomentation in 
rheu 

Henispermacdffi. 

■ »on-sced, or cocculus family. 
, irom mene, the moon, and sperm, a seed, the 
finiU bang kidney or moon (crescent) shaped. 

Genemf chmncUrs. — Shrub, climbing^ trailing or woody. Leaves 
ilmple, entire, cx*tipulate» alternate* Flowers rarely unisexual. 



24 ANAMIRTA PANICULATA. 

generally dioecious, petals shorter than sepals, stamens distinct, some- 
times monadelphous, imperfectly developed or wanting, seeds solitary, 
moon or kidney -shaped fruits, small carpels, distinct, some species 
contain a narcotic and a bitter principle, mucilage or starch and a 
yellow colouring matter. 

HahitaL — Tropics, 

Properties. — Generally they are bitter tonics, and antiperiodic. 
One species, kakamari, contains an excess of narcotic principle in 
its seeds. 

Anamirta Panioulata, B.P. 

A, cocculus. Menispermum cocculus. Cocculus Indicus. 
CqccuIus is a diminutive of coccum— -a berry. Indian berry. 
Paniculata, having Panicles or flowers. 

HahitaU — East India, Caylon, Malayan Islands, East Indies, 
Malabar, Assam, Concan Islands, Travancore, Bengal. 

Farts used. — A neutral principle obtained from the fruits. 
Picrotoxinum, Picrotoxin, B. P. 

Vernaculaf.^YsXig. — Levant nut, Indian berry, fish berry. 
Burm.— Hong. Arab, — Khanak-ul-kalb. Beng. — Bakain-ka-phal Kaka 
miri. Bomb. — Karvatzad. Can. — K^ka miri. Cing. — Tittaval. Duk, 
— Kaka mari. Guz. — Kok phala, jermai . Maleal. — Gaarla-phalla, 
Polla, Hind. — Kakmari. Malay. — -Tuba bidji, Pallak-kaya. Mar. — 
Karwi, Pers. — Zeheri mahit Punj.— Neti mala. Tam. — Kakka- 
calli-maram. Tel. — Kakichampa. Sans, — Kika-phala. Zeheri mahi, 
from Zeher a poison, and mahi, a fish. The seeds, when given to fishes, 
are intoxicating and poisonous. ^ 

Characters. — A climbing shrub. Berries in a long bunch, when 
dry, larger in size than a pea or a small grape, kidney-shaped wrinkled, 
and of a dark-brown purple colour, surface rough, highly tubercled 
or wrinkled, and marked with a circular scar at the hilum ; seed oily 
and yellow ; kernel brown, resinous and oily ; taste acrid and bitter ; 
smell rancid and oily. Dose, i to 9 grains. 

Constituents ^ — The berries or seed-kernels contain picrotoxin, 
an active, neutral, non-nitrogepous crystalline principle ; anamirtin or 
cocculin, and a fixed oil in large quantities. The pericarp or shell 
contains an alkaloid menispermin united with cocculinic acid; para 
menispermin, a neutral ciystalline principle ; hypopicro-toxic acid ; 
also resin, fat and gum. 

Picrotoxin, picrotoxinum, from picros bitter, and toxikon, poison. 
It has properties of a bitter poison. To obtain it triturate aqueous 
extract of seeds with magnesia, exhaust in hot alcohol, evaporate and 
purify; seeds contain from J to i p. c. of picrotoxin. 

Characters, — Neutral, colourless, shining, prismatic crystals, with- 
out any odour, and of a very bitter taste ; soluble in cold water (i in 
330), in boiling water (i in 35), in cold alcohol (i in 13), in boiling 



ANAMIRTA rANICULATA, 



Icoliol (i in 3), freely soluble in glacial acetic acid, in solution of 
l^ish, in olive oil or lard (1 in 500), and in glycerine (^lin&o). It 
not fortn salts. Dose internallyj ^0*^^ to ^^ grain. 

Prepnraiinn of Pkrotoxitu — TJquor picrotoxini aceticus, about 2 
grains to 1 fluid ounce. Dose, 2 to 8 minims. Pigmentura picrotoxini 
(1 grain in r drachm) contains picrotoxin, acetic acid, castor oil 
and eucalyptus Pilula picrotoxini, ^\ grain of picrotoxin with milki 
sugar and glycerine of iragacanth to make one pill — unguenium 
^krotoxini^ 10 grains to l ounce. Injeclio picrotoxini hypodermica, 
i in 360 of water. Dose, 5 to 6 minims, equal to ^q of a grain, 

Ih-tparattuns of the ^^nr^j.— Ex tract urn cocculi fiuidum; fluid 

extract of cocculus. Dose, i to 3 minims. Unguentum cocculi — ointment 

Fofcocculus (80 grains to 1 ounce). DecocLura cocculi — decoction of 

cculus (1 to 20). Dose, j to 2 fluid drachms, Tinctura cocculi, — 

tioct >cculus(i to 8). Dose^ 2 to 15 minims. 

laical actitn. — Insecticide, nervine sedative, cerebro-spinal 
and intoxicant. Used in Europe to adulterate beer, and 
to increase intoxicating effects of country liquors, also to 
(? or poison fish and to stupefy wild cattle for capture. As 
a vv . . . . u*sptnat excitant its action simulates those of belladonna 
and nux vomica, and gives rise to the symptoms resembling those of 
t^ "lepiiform convulsions. It is a powerful stimulant of the 
is of the skin, saliva^ intestines, of all the motor and inhibitory 
lUCS in the medulla, especially of the respiratory centres and also of 
tie Vlgtis* At first it stimulates the heart and respiration; after a time 
tie heart becomes slower, and there is stoppage of the action of the 
iJAphrRgm. In large doses it causes muscular twitchings, in co-ordina* 
lion of the flexors, of a tonic alternating with clonic, or of 

a tr character, stupor, epileptiform convulsions, trembling, 

c3(tJtc<l reflexes followed by insensibility, coma and death, 

TA^rafittttiCS. — As an insecticide, the tincture is used as a vvabh to 
icitrov Dcdiculi which may infest the body. The ointment is used in 
Bft;* 1 flections of the skin, such as prurigo, itch and ring* 

rofi p, care being taken to avoid the application over an 

tbraccd iiLiu. I he natives use the juice of the leaves with that of the 
[^oot of jjflorioHa sunerba to kill guinea-worm. In India the seeds are 
Ki illyi like belladonna and nux vomica, to stimulate the 

the skin, saliva, intestines, 

Picrotoxin is a nervine tonic; and it Is used in chronic paralysis 
*- mralysis of the sphinctor ani and of the sphincter vesicas ; in 
when the attacks are nocturnal, in other spasmodic diseases, 
iij r iM. It is a valuable remedy in j},7 of a grain in nightsweats 

ph:i : .Also given in flatulent colic, and in dysmenorrhcea (given 
I days before tJie term), in leucorrhoea with mucopurulent discharge 
accompanied with lumbar pain) ; in vomiting, with headache 
It is an antidtJte to morphine, chloral, and 
; iiiing, A dose of one jo grain is equivalent 1030 
gratm oi diloraU 



36 



C» lONrmODENDRO H TOM BNTOSU M ^ 



ChoQdrodendFon TomentoBam, B« P« Pareira Brava* 

Chondrodendron — chondros, a carliJagc or grain, and dcndroiii 
tree, in allusion to the grain-like or cartilaginous warty protuberances 
on the bark. 

Toraentosum, meaning woolly. — The under side of the leaves 
being grey and hairy. 

l/aMaL—BrsLzil, Peru, West Indies, 

Paris C'sci^,— 'The root. Pareirae radiJC, Pareira Root, B.P, 

Characters, — Climbing woody plant ; leaves very large ; fruits 
grape-like, root cylindrical, twisted, from J of an inch to 4 inches in 
diameter and from 4 inches to 4 feet in length, covered with a thin 
blackish-brown bark, with longitudinal furrows and transver.se ridges 
and fissures ; internally 3^ellowish-brovvn or grey, with wclUmarkrd 
concentric or eccentric zones and radiating rays, without odour and of a 
bitter taste. Dose of the powdered root, 30 to 60 grs. 

Constituents, — Pelosiiie or cissampeline, an alkaloid, said to be 
identical with berberine ; Tannin, some resin, bitter vflinw itrirf^T, 
starch and ash 4 p.c- 

Pelosine or cissarnpeline. — Boil the root in water, add 
acid, precipitate with potassium carbonate, purify by il 
in solution of sulphuric acid ; finally treat with chnrcoaL Ch*ir.i 
lers* — Amorphous^ insoluble in water, sparingly si^lublc in ether and 
carbon sulphide, freely soluble in chloroform,acct'one, benzol and alcohol 

/^e/xiratton.^Exirzctum pareineliquidum, B* P. — liquid f 

Pareira. Dose, J to 2 fluid drs* Decoction pareira; — Dc\ i 

Pareira (i in 20). Dose, 1 to 2 ozs. 

Physiohgical aciions — Laxative, diuretic and bitter tonic, similar 
to uva ursi and chimaphila. Its chief action is, however, on the 
mucous merabrane of the urinary organs^ which it stimulates. 

Therapeutics, -^li is given in painful micturition due to catarrh of 
the bladder, ureters or the kidneys or to the presence of gravel. In dropsy, 
and in chronic cystitis it increases the flow of urine* In suppurative 
kidneys* in gonorrhcea, gleet and leucorrha:a, it diminishes the 
unhealthy discharges. As a tonic it is used like any vegetable bitter, 
and like caluraba given during convalescence from fevers,, In poisonous 
biles the leaves are applied externally, 

Cissampdos Pareira. 

Parts used. — The root. 

Habitati — West Indies, common in hedges. Singapore^ Ceylon. 

f Vr«ryrw/f^r.— Bcng.— ' ' * *; r •• ' v " , 

Eng*— Wlvel leaf, Guz.— K 

Mar.— Paharvel. Punj. — iikn, K.iti>ru Sani>.- ! 

Patha, Vcnivcl, Pahadamul.t, V^anaiiktika — :. 

Tam.*-Ponaiootootai« Tel. — Pata. 



cotevtm viLLosus. 



27 



Venivel means a braided creeper, so called in allusion to the 
]argc% foundish bracts of the female flowers, resembling plaited hairs 
of children and women 

Characicrs. — It is a tall» woody creeper^ root-bark of a dark-brown 
colour^ rough, crooked, with prominences, stem tortuous, knotty and 
■ ' bark soft, light and slightly furrowed. On section the 
V and presents a radiating menispermal ring of a 
;oU>ur; the ring is similar to that found m calumba. The 
t i.h, aromatic at first, then becomes intensely bitter; smell 

aromatic. Dusc 30 to 60 grs. 

Comtiluents — Cifisampeline or Pelosine, ^ p*c. in the root* It is 
identical with bebeerine, 

i^epajatimt — Decoction (l in 20)* Dose, I to 2 ozs, 

Actioiu and usis*—^\\X^r tonici diuretic and antilithic* Given 
in chronic cystitis, fever, and in diarrhoea. The powdered root 
is dusted over ulcers with benefit. 

Coooulnt Leaba. 

HahitaL — Punjab, Sindh and Carnatic, Arabia, Persia, Afghani- 



Uan. 



Part used* — The jihrub. 

Vernacular. — Punjab — Ullar-bellar, Parvati, 

C^iffik-/^j*— Scandant shrub. 

AtHant and uses. — Bitter toinc ; similar to those of Tioospora 



cordifoUa* 



CoccnluB VUloaofl* 



liabitaL — ^Tropical India- 

Ihris used, — The roots and leaves. 

f'>nKici#/tfn— Bcng. — Huyer, Haer. Can, — Dagadi. Guz, — Patala 
ri. Hind* — Farid-butii Dier, Jamte-ki-beh Mar.^ — Vasanvel» 
ratuu Satu. — Jil-Jamni» Vasa-dani, Patalagarudi, Vasana-valli* 
iTam,— KaUuk-kodi» Tel.^ — Chipura-tige, Katle-tige. Duk.— Jamti' 

fk.i-L*r4tta. 

inv^illi, from vas, fragrance, giving a fragrant perfume* 
J,., Jamni, — Jala, water and Jam, Jamvoun, to coagulate, in 
illusion to the property of the juice of the leaves of forming a 
^coiKuJum or jelly, 

Farid butii in allusion to the legend of Shaik Farid having 
jstainod his life upon the water rendered thick and mucilaginous by 
. baking the leaver of this plant. According to some^ Pedalum murcx 
(Gokharu) is the plant which they name Farid-butit 

CharacUm. — A widely distributed climbing plant, root \^ry 
twining round on itself and giving oflf few fibrous rootlets ; 
Mv^ -^moolh, colour light-brown, odour peculiar and taste bitter and 
Ibagrecable ; leaver on old branthes» thick, succulent, oblong or ovate, 



28 COSCINIUM FENESTRATUM. 

cordate, orbicular or sagitate, obtuse, and more or less downy. Dose, 
I to 1^ drm. 

Constituents^ — Resin, alkaloid and an acid. Resin is yellowish«^reen 
and soft ; odour fragrant, of that of tolu balsam. Soluble in benzine. 

Preparation, — The mucilage of leaves and decoction of root (i in 
lo). Dose, I to 2 ounces. 

Action and uses* — Alterative and demulcent. The juice of the 
leaves coagulates in water into a green jelly, which is applied exter- 
nally as a cooling application in prurigo eczema, impetigo, &c. Sweeten- 
ed with sugar it is given in gonorrhoea to soothe the smarting and 
scalding. The root is an alterative, and mixed with pepper and milk is 
used by the natives for the same purposes as sarsaparilla. With bon« 
due nut (sagorgota) it is a favourite remedy in dyspepsia and colic in 
children. Experience has shown that the use of the root as an alterative, 
laxative and sudorific is beneficial in chronic rheumatism and syphili- 
tic cachexia. 

CoBoiniam Fenestratiim. 

Hibitat. — Ceylon. Western Peninsula. 

Part used. — ^The stem. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Tree turmeric, False calumba. Bomb. — ^Jhar- 
ki-haldi. Can. — Doda mara-darasina. Cing. — ^VeniveL Duk. — Huldi- 
ka-jhar. Hind. — Jhar-ki Haldi. Malyal. — Mara Manjjal. Mar.— 
Jhade-halede. Sans. — Daru-haridrakam. Tarn. — Mara-munjil. Tel. — 
Mani-pasupu. 

Characters. — Stem cylindrical and woody, bark pale and corky, 
wood of a greenish-yellow colour ; on section porous, with medullary 
rays and no concentric rings. Taste bitter. Dose, ^ to i drachm. 

Constituents. — Berberine. 

Preparation. — ^Infusion (i in 20). Dose, 4 to 12 drs. Tincture (i in 10). 
Dose, ^ to I dr. 

Actions and usesr^X bitter stomachic and tonic, used in fevers 
during convalescence; like calumba, it is found very usefuL The natives 
apply a paste of it to the head as a codling application. 

Jateorhiza Colomba, B. P.— Cooonliia Pmlmata. 

Jateorhiza, meaning healing root ; palmata, the palm of the hand 
The leaves are palmately lobed. Calumba, from Colombo in 
Ceylon, the oriffinsu habitat of the plant. 

Habitat. — Mozambique Forests, East India Islands, Ohio. 

Arty aM#«f.— The dried root Calumbae Radix, Calumba Root, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Sakel hamam . Bomb. — Kalamb>kachri 
Cing.— Kalumbu. Duk.— Kalamb-ki-jer. Eng.— Calumba rooti 
Columbo. Guz.— Kalumbo, Hind Kalamb-ki jer. Pers.— Bikle. 
Kalambah. Tarn.— Kalamba-ver. Tel. — Kalamba veru. 

Sak-el-hamam, means dove*s foot, from the resemblance of the 
hairy ovaries and three parted stigmas to the leg and foot of a dove. 



JATZOUHVtA CALUMBA 



19 



CiafOCUn, — The fresh roots are fleshy and fusiform, cut in 
verse slices or circular discs* The dry root is raet with in 
Hat, circular or ovali transverse slices, about i to 2 inches in diameter^ 
^antl from 3 to 6 lines in thickness. Each slice is Very light-brown 
externally and yellow internally. It is corky looking and shrunken 
I lk« centre. The most central portion is formed of tubular corky 
eternal to it is another layer, which is also corky and made up 
rial or tape-like fibres cut transversely. This portion is surrounded by 
nother outermost layer, which is nearly flat, of a yellow colour, and 
hard, and to which the bark is firmly adherent. Each slice breaks very 
eadily and with a short mealy fracture. The taste is very bitter, 
Iromatic and mucilaginous. The odour resembles that of azadarach; 
Ihc root is often more or less worm-eaten. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

CnmHluents, — A non-nitrogenous, crystalline, neutral, bitter 
I principle, calumbin; an alkaloid, berberine; calumbic acid, starch 35 p,c„ 
fiucilagcand ash 6 px. 

Calumbin. — Exhaust the root with alcohol or ether; evaporate 
*and crystallize. In white crystals, slightly soluble in water, of a 
bitter taste. 

Calumbic acid is found in combination with berberine. It is 
obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to the extract of calumba, 
and treated with hme water. 

CharacUrs* — White crystalline flakes ; sparingly soluble in cold 
watcr^ akohoi and ether* 

Ptefaratiom of the root.^ — Infusum calumbao, B- P, (i in 20). 
e, I to 1 OJE, Liquor calumba: concent rat us, B.P, (i in 2), Dose^ J to 
X dr. Tinrtura calumbae, B. P. Tincture of calumba (i in 10), 
^ Dose, I to 1 dr. 

Extractum calumbae fluidum. Fluid attract of calumba* Dose 
5 to 30 ms. 

Physmlngicai action, — ^A non-irritant bitter, without astrin^ 
Igency, a good stomachic tonic like quassia, and gentian. It is a 
Itlimulant of the mucous membranes of the mouth, salivary glands, 
lir>opliagus, stomach and intestines, and increases their secretion. It 
[increases appetite and digestion, and thus promotes the constructive 
Ifissue changes. If in large doses and long continued, it produces 
^catarrh of the stomach and intestines and interferes with digestion. 

ThffaM'dcs.^h^ a tonic it is generally given in hectic fever and 

Irom acute and chronic fevers and other diseases. 

i ... ^ with loss ot appetite and deficient secretions of 

the stomach ;ind intestines. In diarrhoea, cholera, in vomiting, and in 

latuk-nce, the infusion is given with benefit* A nice vehicle for 

ering acids, alkalies, aromatics and cathartics. Externally the 

I: ; iise the powder of the root as an antiseptic on ulcers and 

wounds. 

Remarh.^li is one of the few bitter tonics which do not contain 
tannic or gallic awid, hence can be combined with iron salts. 



30 STEPHANIA HERNANDIFOLIA 

Meniflpermnm Canadenve and M. Fenestratam. 

Syn, — Canadian moon-seed, Texas or yellow parilla, vine maple. 

Habitat — Eastern United States. 

Parts used. — ^The rhizome and rootlets. 

Characters.-— A woody climbing pUnt, stems round and striated, 
rhizome thick, yellowish -brown, knotty and wrinkled externally. — 
Roots brittle, break with a tough fracture, yellow within. Bark thick 
and porous, without any odour, and of a bitter taste. Dose lo to 30 
grains. 

Constituents. — Berberine, Menispine— s tarch, resin and tannin. 
Menispine is a white powder, soluble in alcohol and ether. 

Preparation. — Extractum menispermi fiuidum — fluid extract of 
menispermum. Dose, 30 to 60 ms. Menispermino — a dry extractive. 
Dose, I to 5 grs. 

Actions and uses, — Stomachic, bitter tonic, alterative and 
diuretic ; used for the same purposes as calumba. A good substitute 
for sarsaparilla in scrofulous conditions, gout and rheumatism and 
in gravel affections. It stimulates the intestinal glands, but not 
the liver ; and is given in dyspepsia, general debility, &c. 

Stephania Hernandifolia. 

Habitat, — Nepal, Singapore, Ceylon. 

Part used. — Stems. 

Vernacular. — Beng — Agnad-akanadi. Sans. — Vanatiktika. 

Characters. — Striated stems. 

Actions and uses, — Similar to those of Cissampelos pareira. 

Tinospora CopdifoIla« T. Crispa. Coooalns Copdifolins. 

Habitat, — Konkan, forests of Tropical India ; Konkan, Western 
Coast of India. 

Parts used, — The stem and fecula (starchy extract Gulancha). 

Vernacular, — ^Arab. — Gilo. Beng, — Gadancha. Bomb.— Gulavela 
Gilo, Giroli. Burm. Singo-mone. Can. — Amrita-balli. Cing. — Rasa- 
kinda. Duk. — Gulbel, Gulwail. Goa. — Amritvel. Guz.— Gado, gulvel. 
Hind. — Guluncha, Gulbel, Giloe. Maleal. — Amrita, chitramruta. 
Malay. — Citamerdu. Mar.— Gulwail Gharol. Pers. — Gulbel. Panj. — ak- 
Gillo, Gularich. Sans. — Somavalli, Amurta, Guduchi, Pittaghni, Bhish 
ak-pryia, Nirjara,Chinnaruha. Tam.— Shendilkodi. Tel. — ^Tippa-tinge, 

Starchy extract (^Fecula). — Beng.— Palo, Sat-i-giloe. Bomb. — 
Galo satta. Duk. — Gulancha, satva. Sikkim. — Gurjo. Hind. — Giloe-ka- 
sat. Pers.— Sake gilo. Tel. — Tuppa sattu. 

Pittaghni — pit means bile, and agne, fire or destroying ; bile 
destroying. 

Bishak pryia, dear to physicians ; Nirjara, not perishing. 



TINOSPORA CORnrFOUA 



.^t 



Chin irnrhua means growing when cut. The stem, when placed 
upon a bush in the open air, will retain its vitality thioughout the 
hot season and pot forth leaves and roots duruig the rains. 

Ckaracitrs. — Climbing shrub. Those spreading, on trees of 
Mangtfcra Indtca and Azadirachta Indica are used for medicinal pur- 
poses. Fresh bark is papery ; dry bark is externally of a dull -brown 
colour, inner portion green and succulent and easily separable from 
the wood ; woodt of a light white colour and presents wedges separated 
sFicd radiating menispermal medullary rays ; taste very bitter 
laginous* 

CoHstiiu^tits, — ^The root and Stem contains starchy extract, bitter 
jdlKiple and a trace of berherine. 

— Infusion of Guiancha ( I tn lo;. Dose i to 2 oajs. 

Tim : ha (l in 8). Dose, J to 2 th"s. Starchy extract or fecula 

io lu ZQ grs. The extract is prepared by powdering the 

lem and washing out the starch with water and drying the sediment. 

"^ioces of various shapes and sizes, of a pure white colour ; taste 

bitter and mucilaginous^ and it adheres to the tongue like Vansa 

Lochana. 

Actions and uu%. — Fresh stem is more efficacious than the dry and 

iiagood substitute for calumba. It is a stomachic bitter tonic, alterative, 

aphrudiiijic, antiperiodic and demulcent, given in dy±»pepsia and in 

drhilitv cauMsd by repeated attacks of fever. Like Peruvian barks 

"d febrifuge ; used in enlarged spleen. As an alterative given in 

- , i.y *yphilis, rheumatism, leprosy, skin diseases, such as impetigo, 

nd m jaundice. As a diuretic and demulcent it is given in 

^suria, in scanty high-coloured urine due to catarrh of the bladder, 

lie juice of the stcni» combined with pAkhanbhed and honey, is 

[ivra in gooorrhaca. The fecula is nutritious, largely used in native 

pfacticG in cold, feircrs, and seminal weakness, also in urittary 

tions, 

A*#w<i^i*jr.— Herbalists sell the stems of cocculus malabaricus for 
^ilavcla.but the stem of cocculus malabaricus is hard, thick, less fleshy 
ad not so cfHcactous as gulavela. 

A wreath, known as kamla-in-m^la or jaundice wreath, and 
of the fresh stem, each piece about an inch long and tied in 
t middle in loose knots with a piece of thrciid, and being 
an inch apart from one another, is put round the neck of 
lldiccd patients, under a common belief among the credulous 
itivcs that the wreath has the property of lessening the force of 
H that its good effects are manifested by the wreath in 
length in proportion as the force of jaundice dimin- 
^nc^, iin^isa mere delusion. The increase in the length of the 
^ rreath i^ due to the drying up of the stems by lapse of time and to 
"llie narrowing of the knots of the thread over the stems. 



3i BEKBERIS AQUIFOLIUM 

Tiliaoora raoemosa. 

HahtiaU — Tropical India, Ceylon. 

Pari used. — The shrub. 

Characters, ^^ A. climbing shrub» 

F^m<tcw/ar.--^TeL— Mushadi. Beng. — Tiliakora. Hind. — Bagor 
Mushadi. 

Actions and usis. — Bitter and stonlaChic, used like other bitters. 
Among the natives it passes for a remedy for snake-bite. 

Berberidao6». 

The daruhalada or barberry family. 

Shrubs or herbs, leaves alternate, compound| usually ^xstipulate, 
stem generally free from hairs, but otten spiny ; stamens hypogynous ; 
equal to petals in number; anthers two-celled, each opening by a valve 
from the bottom to the top. Fruit baccate or dry and capsular. 
Seeds with minute embryo, albumen, fleshy and horny. 

^a^tito/.— 'Temperate parts of Europe, America and Asia and 
mountains of North India. 

Propertiis. — ^Acid, bitter and astringent ; acid properties are due to 
the presence of oxalic acid. 

Berbeiis Aqoifidiiim. 

NMiat—Vziddc Sk>pe of the United Sutes, Western United 
States. 

fhtrt used. — The root. 

Vernacular. — ^American barberry. HoUy-leaved barberry, moun- 
tain grape, Oregon grape* 

Ckmrmcttrs^ — ^Root, i to 2 feet or more in length and about one* 
fourth in breadth, extremely hard and tough ; colour, bright golden 
yellow, cortical portion thin and pap^Taceous, dull-greenish or 
brownish-yellow. Intense, but pleasant bitter taste. Dose, lo to 30 grs. 

ComstiiMients^ — It contains an alkaloid berberina or berberine, also 
a peculiar lesiuous matter. 

Pref>4mit»ou of the root. — Liquid extract. Dose^ 10 to 30 ms. 
Tincturx (^1 to xo>* Dose, 10 to 40 ms. 

Pfystoio^aJ mctHm. — In small doses, bitter took, stomachic 
astringent aiMi antiperiodic ; in Urge doses catnartk and diuretic, 
producing watary motions accompanied with pain. 

71rr«^^miics.— Used in malarial intermittent, remittent and 
typhoid feven, diarrhosft, and dyspepsia ; as an alterative and tonic 
it is given in scrolukHis and cancerous afiectioiis and 
in secondary or tertiary syphilitic .d i sease s , in syphiatk cachexia 
and in chronic scaly or squamous erupiioov more paiticiilarly 
in psoriasis and pit\Ttasb : also useful alter a kMog merciurial course 
to ehminate mercury trom the system. As a citnarttc and diuretic 
it inareaaes the secretions and this relie\xs heputK vx^ngestioQ and 



afiRDF.RlS AJIISTATA 



33 



free* imestinal secretions ; hence, in habitual constipation, it i$ 
combined with cascara sagrada. In pain, soreness and burning 
sensation along the urinary or biliary tracts, with a tendency 
to gall-stone or urinary' calculi, it is a very useful remedy. As a 
glinduUr stimulant it is given in chronic tonsilitis and in enlargements 
of the prosute. 

Berberia Aristata. 

Berberis Lyciunit raisin barberry, Indian Lycium (ophthalmic 
barberry), B, Asiatica and B. Canadensis or B. vulgaris (European 
variety;, 

HabitaL — Mountainous parts in North India, Nepaul, Nilgiri, 
Piountains of Ceylon, Various species of barberry occur on the Nilgiri 
mountains. 

Batts used, — The stem, wood and root-bark (Berberis cortex), 
fruit or dry berries, and extract. 

Vernacular. — The root bark. Arab. — ^Dar-hald. Bomb. — Dar- 
haJad. Hind^ — Dar-halad, Dar-chob. Daru-haridra (the wood). Pers, 
^^Dar-hald, Dar-chob. Eng, — Indian Barberry, Nepaul barberry, 
vdlow wood, turmeric wood. Sans. — Daru haridra. Tam. — MuUa- 
bubU. Puttar. 

The extract. Arab. — Huzari-Hindi, Bomb. — Rusot, R^wanti. 
H'tnd. — Rusot, Raswat. Sind, — Raswal. Pers.— Fil-rahrah, 

The fruit or berries. Arab. — Ambar-baris. Bomb. — Zarishk^ 
Duk. — Zarish. Hind*^ — Zarishk chitra, Hydrabad — Vilayati aniali, 
Pers, — Zarishk, 

Rtsot^Rasuth — Ras^juice^ and uthna to boil; Raswanti^Rasa* 
a juice, and v^anti, a pulp; Daruhalad — Daru, wood, and halad, 
turmeric. The wood is yellow. This term is also applied to the 
yellow root or wood of curcuma aromatica, curcuma longa and 
cocciaiufii fenestratum. 

Characters, — ^The stem is met with in circular pieces, each from i 
to 2 or 4 inches long, and about r to 2 inches in diameter ; very 
bitter and of an astringent taste. The root-bark is smooth and brittle 
and of a dull crey or yellow colour ; on section the stem presents 
a ccniml ring with numerous radiating wedge^like projections, made 
up of fibrous cells ; between these projections is a spongy substance 
perforated by small holes* The fruits are larger than English 
DaibcnieSw shrivelled, much compressed, often oval and of a bright-red 
colour ; most of them abortive, but a few contain oblong seeds ; 
they resemble raisins ; they are met with in black, moist, sticky masses. 
Taste very acid and astringent, owing to the presence of tartaric, 
oxalic and malic acids ; most of them are abort ive» The extract rusota 
b a dark brown, lumpy mass of a bitter, astringent taste, and of the 
cooslsteoce of opium* Dose of the root-bark, 20 to 30 grs. 

Constihuntx. — The root and wood contain in great abundance 1 
yellow alkaloid berbcrine or berberina, oxyacanthine, fat, resin, tannin, 
also b' and another alkaloid. The fruit contains malic and 



citric 



i tanmn. 



34 CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES 

Berberine, Berberina. — A bitter, orange-yellow, acicular cryst3s, 
soluble in hot water and alchol, insoluble in ether. With acids forms 
salts ; with chloroform, ether and alcohol forms crystalline compounds. 
Dose, I to 5 grs. Berberine is also contained in the root of 
calumba, coptis teeta, #hydrastis, podophyllum, menispermum, 
xanthoxylum, &c. 

/Vtf/^r^/ib;/.— Decoction of the root (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 
Infusion of the stem (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Tincture of the 
cortex (i in 4). Dose as a tonic, ^ to 2 drs ; as an antiperiodic, 4 to 6 
drs. Syrup or preserves of fruit ; liquid extract not miscible with 
water. Dose, J to 2 drs. 

Rusot, an impure watery extract prepared from powdered stem or 
wood, by exhaustion with water, filtration and admixture with cow^s 
milk and final evaporation. It is readily soluble in water, partly so in 
rectified spirit, forming a yellow solution. 

Actions and uses. — The bark and stem — Tonic, diaphoretic, 
stomachic, antiperiodic, and a gentle but certain aperient, used in 
malarial fevers, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, ague, during con- 
valescence from fevers and acute diseases. As an alterative, it is used in 
bilious complaints, torpid liver, dropsy and jaundice. With gypsum, 
it is given in metrorrhagia. The berries are cooling and acid, and 
used as refrigerant in febrile diseases, diarrhoea, &c. The extract 
(Rusot) is an anodyne, tonic and febrifuge, internally used like the 
bark. Externally, rusot, mixed with alum, rock salt, chebulic 
myrabolams and opium, is applied round the orbit in painful affections 
of the eye, as in black eye, &c. Mixed with honey, it is applied to 
ulcers in the mouth. It is also applied to relieve pain of cancer 
and of neuralgia. Berberine.— The alkaloid is given internally in 
malaria, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, sickness of pregnancy, &c. Berberine 
carbonate, berberine hydrochlorate, berberine phosphate and 
berberine sulphate, are used . in malarial affections, amenorrhoea, 
enlargement of spleen, anorexia, vomiting of pregnancy and intestinal 
catarrh. 

Caulophyllam Thaliotroides. 

Verftacular. — Blue cohosh, papoose or squaw root, blueberry, blue 
or yellow ginsing. 

Habitat, — Rich woodlands, Canada, Northern United States. 
Patts used. — ^The rhizome and rootlets, 

Charactets, — Rhizomes are horizontal, 4 inches long, ^ of an inch 
thick, knotty on the_ upper surface with stem-scars and branches; 
externally greyish-brown, inside whitish and tough. Rootlets many and 
matted, without any odour, and of a sweetish and acrid taste« Dose i S 
to 20 grs. 

Constituents* — A resin-caulophyllin, I2p,c. saponin or leontin, a 
glucoside, tannin, wax and an alkaloid-caulophylline. The alkaloid is 
colourless, tasteless and without any odour. Caulophyllin. — To obtain 



PODOPMVLLUAI KMODI 



.^c 



11^ 6xh^«*t the root with alcohol, jiour theakohoHc exiract into water. 
It vn resinoid powder. Dose, i to 4 grs., in pill with glycerine 

oJ . ^ iih. 

Prcf^arnhon, — ^Tinclura caulophyHin^i Tincture of caulophyllum 
(1 in 4), Dose, J to 4 drs, Extractum caulopliyUin:t! hquidum^ — 
liquid extract of cauJophyllum. Dose, ^ to i dr. Liquor caulo- 
phyUin ct Pulsatillas co. Dose, ^ to dr. Infusion and decoction (1 in 
10) Dose 2 to 4 drs. 

/' ;, — CaulophyUin is stimulant, tonic, demulcent, 

diurc: ;. ;, e and antispasmodic; also tKirturient ; it causes 

intermittent contraction of the gravid utem 

Thetapeutks. — Used in deficient labour pam^, m menstrual derange- 
ments, a* spasmodic dystnenorrlicEa. It checks muscular contrac- 
Itoii m cases of threatened abc»rlion» and also relieves spasmodic after* 
paim. It is given in atony of the uterus^ in prolapsus uteri, and in 
$ij lion. Combined with pubatilla it is found u.'^eful 111 acute 

rii NiJcucorrha:M> vaginitis, urethritis and in hysteria. Saponin 

b a itcroutatory. 

Podophyllum Emodl. 

Hahiiat. — Interior range of Himalaya, Ca^hmcrei Shikim 
llazara, &c. 

I\iris tivrd. — The rhizome, roots, fruits, and the resin* 
fVr«/icju/</r.— Hind.^Papra or papri, Bhavan-bakra nr Bakra, 
Chimyaka. San&. — Parpata, vakra. 

CharacUrsi. — Khi/omes similar to those of podophyllum pcuatuni 
except that tl»e rhizfime of P. Eniodi is cylindrical, more crowded 
above with tuf and .stem scars, the under surface covered 

with many dc] val or circular roots. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. 

Cofsstituenis: — Resin, 10 to 12 p. c, sugar, fat, gum, &c., the resin 
is in much greater quantity than in podophyllum peltatum* 

Pftfktrtition, — Tincture (i in 30), Dose, 5 to 20 ms ; resin-podo- 
phyllin, i to i gr. 

Actions and us^s. — Cholagogue, alterative, bitter tonic, given as a 
sure purge, with s-light griping in torpid liver. Uses similar tu those of 
podophyllum peltatum. 

Podophyllum Pdltattimp B. P. 

/Wo/Ay//iii». — Podos foot^and phyllon, *Meaf.-' The leaf is 5 to 7 
.partite^ which resembles the fout of aquatic ducks or domestic fowls* 

/^/iaium* — Pcita, a light shield. The leaf petioles are attached 

to the middle of lamina like a shield. 

HabiUiL — United States. Rich woods of Canada - 

I^tl uud, — The rhizome and rootlets, Podophylli Rhizoma, 

Podoplnllum Root, B. P., the resin; Podophylli Rcsina,' Podophyllum 

Roin, B* P. 



Xb 



POnOFHVLt17M PFtTATtm 



5 px. ; an alkaloid berber Jnci 
and sugar. PodophyJIum 



Vepnacular^ — Eng. — The American May-apple, wild tnandrake or 
vegetable mercury, so called » as it is a powerful biliary purgative* 

Characters. — A perennial herb, stem pale green, with a white flower 
at its summit. The root is dark reddish-brown, smooth or sligluly 
wrinkled, in nearly cylindrical pieces, which are knotty, each knot tt 
marked on its upper surface by a circular depressed scar ; on tbe 
under surface are numerous brittle, brownish rootlets. It breaks with 
a short starchy fracture; on section it is white or pale^yellow or 
brown. It has a characteristic odour and a bitter acrid taste« Dosms^ 
powdered root, 5 to 20 grs. 

Constituents. — Resin podophyllin 4 to 
Podophyllo quercetin, starch, gum, fat, 

Resine, podophylii Resina, B,P., is obtained from the root when a con- 
centrated tincture is precipitated by acidulated water* It is an amor- 
phous powder of a herby odour, acrid bitter taste; colour varies from pale- 
yellow to deep orangC'-brown* soluble in alcohol, alkaline liquids, and 
partly so in ether. Dose, \ to \ gr. It is an ingredient of various 
cathartic pills. The active portion of the resin consists of podophyllo- 
loxin, which contains 70 to 80 p,c. of the cathartic principle, and 
is made up of picropodophyllin held in solution by picropodophyllic 
acid. There is also another inactive acid — podophyUic acid. Picro- 
podophyllin is obtained by treating podophyllotoxin with an alkali. It 
is a neutral, crystalline, bitter mas.s of a white colour* soluble in chloro- 
form, acetone, sparingly soluble in ether, benzin, hot water and weak 
alcohol. PodophyUic acid — an inactive resin acid, soluble in alcnh^yl, 
Podopliyllo quercetin is the colouring matter— occurs in yellow ne 
soluble in alcohol, sparingly so in chloroform and insoluble in w 
The Indian plant yields 10 to 12 p»c. of podophyltin rtfsin and 56 p.c, i/f 
podophyllotoxin, whereas the American species yield's s p.c. of resin 
and 40 p.c. of podophyllotoxin. 

Preparation, — Tinctura podophylii, B.P. (1 ol ihe re*>in in 30 ms.) 
Dosei 5 to I 5 ms. Pikila podophyllin composita. Podophyllin J i!r., aloes 

1 gn, capsicum J gr,, belladonna extract { gr,, glycerin tr !i 
q.s. tomakc one pill. Pilula podophyllin et quinin;e-^Quininc ^. 1 l- 
^ &^*i podophyllin ^j gn, milk sugar ^^ g^% extract of belladonna 
aloes ^ gr. Make one pilL Extractum podophylii fluidum^^u *.- 
extract of podophyllin. Dose» 5 to 20 ms, Tinctura podophyllin 
ammoniata made with aromatic spirit of ammonia (i in 50), Dose, 

2 to 6 ms. Pjlula podophyllin, J of a grain of resin triturated 
with milk sugar, acacia, in pne pill. Pilula podophylii cum 
belladonnse et strychntnae, otherwise known as Tonic liver pills — 
contains: Podophyllin J grain, extract belladonna J grain, slry/ 'y 

grain in one pill Pilula podophylii et pepsinia — Digestive gr . \ 

of a grain in each; Liquor podophylii cum belladonna et strychuiaa* 
Dose, I dr. Liquor podophylii et pepsins. Dose, i dr. 

Actions and uses-^ — Podophyllin is an active chobgnguc and 
c " In small dosea it is given in sick h* '1 

V ucntbilcin the stools^ in habilualcon d 



WMFH.^CACE.'P 



fBfHl in bilious vomiting. It is generally combined with henbane, 
[ionnri or cannabis to counteract its griping effects. In dropsy, 
|r -yphilis, it is generally given along with other purgatives 

kl.^ ynth^ &c,, or combined with cream of tartar and calomel- 

Is'ki derivative it is given in catarrhal or malarial jaundice. In large 
doses it acts as a gastric irritant. The root may be given as an 
alterative. 

NymphsaaoeflB* 

The water lily family ] aquatic herbs ; leaves cordate and 
fi(xating ; flowers solitary ; Thalamus » large, fleshy, forming a disc-like 
expansion^ more or less sur'rounding the ovary ; carpels numerous^ 
united, forming one compound ovary ; frUit indeniscentf many-celled ; 
seeds numerous ; embryo ntinute- 

Habitat, — Northern temperate regions and tropics* 

Properties, — Bitter tad astringent ; rhizomes and seeds of many 
species contain starch. 

Nymphaaa Alba. 

N. Versicolor, Poini. N. Odorata, sweei-scented water lily (Eng.) 

/://<?/•— Bengal, Ajmir, Pastkur Lak^. 

-' \^fts used, — 7*hc flowers and seeds* 

f VyiwrM^^tr.— Beng,— Buro Sundli. Bomb, — Poini, The ii^^d% 
kumabija. 

Characters. — ^The flowers are smaller than those of kamala, and of 
variegated colours. The seeds are very small ^nd tuberclcd. Dose, 
to to 30 grs. 

P^eparaiiatt,'^SyTnp of flowers. Dose, I to 3 drachms^ 

Achoft.% aw</ f/jtf j.~ Demulcentj astringent and refrigerant, and 
u*ed in dysentery in combination with sugar ; other properties are 
simiUr IQ those of N; speciosum, for which it is often substituted. 

Eoryale Ferox* 

• phaea stellata. 

....J;/^/,-^Calcutta, North India. 

Partj used, — The seeds* 

(Vrnaru/aK — Beng. — Makana, Bomb.— Makhana. Hind.-— 
lakana. Kash.^ — Jawur rinn — Kien-shih, k»*tu- Teh— Nallani 
admam. 

Charactfts, — The iniit, large orange or pear-shaped, inde- 
hUcrntt interior white, hard, starchy, contains 8 to 1 5 round black 
he size of pea* and full of flour. The seeds are farinaceous^ 
.i I Iried, roasted or rather baked, they aje known as Dhani* 

Actions and uses. — Dhani is invigorating and used as an article of 
food ; also as an astringent, nutritive, and tonic, used in seminal dis- 
charges* In Bombay makaoa is imported ffom Mathura and Benares. 



3^ NELUMBIACFiC 

NelumbiaoesB. 

The water bean family. 

Aquatic plants, creeping in the horizontal direction, attached to the 
earth by numerous fibres ; leaves, peltate, floating on the surface of water 
and are mucilaginous ; flowers large and showy, thalamus very large* 
flattened at the top, excavated, presenting numerous cavities, each 
containing a single carpel ; fruit nut-like, half buried in the cavity ; 
Seeds solitary, without albumen, embryo large ; plumule well developed. 

Habitat. — Northern temperate and tropical regions, stagnant waters. 

Properties. — Fruit of all species are edible; rhizomes, starchy, 
astringent and bitter. 

Nymphasa Edulis. N. Escalanta. 

Castalia Edulis. 

Hahitat,^\\\d\'di, 

Parts used, — The roots and flowers. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Nilu-far. Beng.— Choto Sundhi, Kanval- 
Bur. — Kiyan-nu, Can,— Nyadale-huvu. Cing. — Nalun. Duk. — AUi- 
phul, Chhota-kanval. Eng. — Edible lotus, pond lily. Guz. — Kanval. 
Hind.—Chhota-kanval. Malyal. — Allit-tamara, Anpala. Mar. — Kamula. 
Pers. — Nilufar. Sans.— Kamala. Tarn, — Ambal, Allitamarai. Tel. — 
Kotika, Kalharomu. 

Characters. — Aquatic plant, leaves oval, entire, downy underneatht 
margin slightly waved, petioles attached to the margin, flowers white, 
seeds numerous. The root, very bitter and astringent. Dose lo 
to 30 grs. 

Constituents, — The root contains gallic and tannic acids, starch, 
gum, &c. 

Syrup. Dose, i to 2 drs. Decoction (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses, — Demulcent, diuretic and nutrient. Other 
characters same as those of Nelumbium speciosum. The roots are 
used as an article of diet. 

Nelambium Speoiosum. 

Nymphaea Lotus. N. Pubescens. 

Habitat, — India, Persia, China, Thibet, Japan, Ceylon. 

Parts used, — The flowers, filaments and anthers. 

Vernacular, — Eng. — Egyptian lotus, Egyptian or Pythagorian 
bean. Arab. — Nilufar. Assam. — Kyrob. Beng. — Burrshaluk, Komol, 
Padma. Bur. — Kyah-phyn. Cing. — Juda-tebolu. Duk. — Kung evelka. 
Hind — Kamala, Koi-podoma, Kanbal-kukri. Malyal. — Tamara. 
Pers. — Nilofer (the seeds). Sind. — Pabban, Kooni. Guz. — Nilofara, 
the seeds, kamar kakali. Goa. — Seveka. Can. — Nyadale-huvu. Tam. — 
Tamaray-Ambal. Tel. — Telia kaluva, Alli-kolung. Mar. — Kanial. 
Sans. — Padma, Kamala, Pundarik, Kakonada, Indwara. 



^AVkVFRACF,M 



3P 



CItariiiUrrs. — An aquatic heiD, leaves floatiiii^, pdtaic and 
foundbh, upper surface green, under surface btutsh ; fl(>weii>, when 
fresh, are large, while and showy. The dry flowers have a brown 
coJoiir, sepals 4 or 5, the petals numerous, and in several whorls, 
fiiamenti petaloid, seeds (Kamala kakari) solitary, without albumen. 
The structure of the seed receptacle has been compared to a wasp's 
nest, or a pomegranate, cut in half; in shape oval Externally smooth 
ind brownish or greyish-black ; surface covered with numerous minute 
whitish dots, testa homy^ cotyledons white and starchy and covered 
with a thin almond-coloured membrane, embryo green. Dose, 
powdered seeds, 10 to 30 grs, 

Omxttiuents. — The rhi/ome and seeds contain resins, glucose^ 
metaribin, tannin, fat and an alkaloid, similar to nupharine, identical 
with that obtained from nuphar luteum. 

PiefiarattoH, — Syrup of flowers. Dried flow^ers 2 ounces, sugar i 
ouace, and water 5 fluid ounces. Dose, 1 to 3 drs. Compound de- 
coction of flowers and filaments with liquorice (l in 10). Dose, 4 to 12 
dr$. 

Achons and uses, — The seeds are demulcent and nutritive ; the 
ilmmcnts and flowers are cooling, astringent, bitter and expectorant. 
Syrun of flowers is used in coughs, to check haemorrhage from 
biecaing piles, in sanguineous fluxes from the bowels, and in 
menorrhagta. TheJoius flowers and fresh leaves with sandalwood or 
embli^ -"'^ ^ulan* are used as a cooling application to the forehead 
in ic ui, to the skin in erysipelas and to other external 

inflamnianans. A cooling bed sheet made of kamala is used for fever 
patienis with high fever. The seeds, with those of Euryale ferox 
rr ' i^), are used as an article of diet. The starch contained in the 
r when collected, constitutes a sort of arrowroot known to 

Chinese as Ghaanfeen, The powder of the seeds, Kamarkakri, is known 
by the name of Bhesabola, These two products come from Shanghai, 
and arc largely used by native women as a demulcent in leucorrht^a. 
'ihcsabola should not be mistaken for Rhosabula, which is a variety 
HIrabol. 

PapaveraoeaB* 
7he Alitna or Poppy family, 

Papaver is derived from papa, pap, or thick milk, in aflttsion to its 
use for children, to nourish and cause sleep. 

Gfnnai Chanicters. — Herbs or shrubs, usually with a milky 
white, yellow or blood coloured, acrid and narcotic juice ; leaves alter* 
iiatc» more or less divided, peduncles long, one-flowered; flowers white, 
pink, yellow, rose or red coloured, also showy, regular and sym- 
metrical ; sepals 2 or 3. Fruit one-celled, either pod-shaped with two 
parietal placentas or capsular, with several placentas, dehiscing by 
valves or pores, seeds numerous, albuminous, with minute embryo 
near the bate of fleshy albumen ; seeds contain a bl;tnd, nutnnve fixed 
oiL Taste bland and wholesome. 



40 



ARGBMOKE MSXICANA 



Pfvpt'ilii'b* — Many plants are narcotiL, some arc aK^rul ^ni 
poisoDous, a few emetic, and others cathartic^ 

Argemone Mexioana. 

Habitat, — West Indies, all over India. 

Parts used> — ^The milky juice of the fresh plant and a fixed oil 
of the fresh seeds. 

Vernaculan — Beng. — BuroShyala-kanta. Burm.-*Matr; i(x* 

Can. — Bolurakkisa, Datturi. Duk. — Bharamdandi, Pi« . ra* 

Eng. — Mexican poppy» yelJow thistle, gamboge thistle. Guz. — Pilit 
Dhatura. Hind. — Bharbhand, Shiyal-kanda, Satyanasa, Faringi^Dho- 
tra, Pivola-Dhotra, MalyaK— Brahma-danti. Mar, — Daruri- Spa- 
nish. — Figo del inferno. Sans. — Himavatel Bramha danda* Tam,— 
Birama-dandUf Kurukkam-chedi. Tel. — Bramha-dandl-chettu, 

Remarks. — Daruri. The word Daru means gunpowder, the 
seeds resemble the grains of gunpowder, 

Pivala Dhotra— Pivala, yellow, and Dhotra, corruption of 
dhatura. The flowers and leaves of dhotra are yellowi and resemble 
flowers and leaves of Dhatura. 

Kante Dhotra— the herb is prickly or full of kantas or prickles. 

Figo del inferno, ** The fig of hell/' on account of its strong 
prickles. 

Faring! Dhotra — The plant having been first introduced into 
India by Firingis (Portuguese)* 

Characters. — The yellow milky juice resembles gamboge; leaves 
thick, glaucous^ of a greenish colour and marked with whitish veins on 
the posterior surface ; the mid rib and the veins are here and there 
studded with prickly thistles, which are also found on the borders of the 
leaves; flowers bright yellow, capsules oblong, oval, about i lo ij inch 
long and five partite ; convex portions covered with prickles ; the 
depressions are free ; seeds many, round and of a dark-brown colour^ 
corrugated and tubcrcfed with a thick while band and resemble Kuma 
hija. On section they are resinous and oily; oil» nale-yellow, clear, and 
of a nauseous odour, but without any disagreeanle taste. Dose of the 
oil, 20 to 60 ms. 

Constituents. — The leaves and capsules contain morphia, the seeds 
contain an oil 3^ pc. carbohydrates and albumen 49 p.c, moisture 9 p.c»| 
and ash 6 p.c, The ash contains alkaline phosphates and sulphates* 

Actions and uses, — The juice is alterative and used in syphilid, 

leprosy and gonorrhcea along with the juice of aristolochia bracteatt. 
The seeds are narcotico-acrid. The oil and extract from the seeds arc 
laxative and sedative* combining the action of m1 and 

cannabis Indica. The oil is used in cholera* dropsy, p lie. As 

substitute for ipecacuanha, the seeds are given in ' her 

intestinal afl"ections. Locally the juice or theoil i jng 

anpHcation to indolent ulcers, herpetic eruptions, leucodemia^ syphilitic 
ulcers and warts. It relieves strangury caubL-d bv bIl^lLMH. Frcrab 
root is apph'ed to scorpion bitefi* 



CHELIDONIUM MAJUS 



41 



Chelidonium Majus. 

Great or garden celandine, Tetter wort. 

Habitat — Europe, North America, waste lands and rocky places. 
Chelrdonium. It is derived from chelidon» a swallow, as it flowers at 
the coming of, and dries up at the departure of, the swallows. 

Pari usid. — The whole plant 

Characters. — Perennial herb; leaves pinnate; flowers yield safTron- 
vdlow milky juice ; root reddish-brown, branching, several headed ; 
fruit a capiiule, iwo-valved ; seeds numerous ;. odour unpleasant; taste 
acrid. Dose, lo to 40 grs,; fresh juice, 5 to 20 ms, 

OmsHtiunts, — Chelerylhrine, sanguinarine ; chelidonine, pro- 
topinci chelidoxanthin (a yellow crystalline substance), chelidonic 
(jervic or malic) acid, chelidoninic add, gum, and chlorophyll. 

Chelcr\*thrfne.^ — ^To obtain it, shake the extract with ether. The 
solution contains chekrythrinei leaving behind chelidonine. 

Chelidontne — Digest the extract in hydrochloric acid and preci- 
pitate with ammonia. 

Chelidoxanthin, a bitter neutral principle, occurs in yellow 
needles. 

Preparatim* — Fluid extract. Dose, 10 lo 30 ms. ; Extract — Dosei 
IOgr%. ; Infusion (i in 40). Dose, r to 2 02s.; Expressed juice, 5 to 
20 m»* 

Aciiont and tises* — Drastic cathartic, expectorant, diuretic and dia- 
phoretic. In over doses poisonous ; given in jaundice, liver diseascs» 
whoopintf cough, dropsy, scrofula, intermittent fever and phthisis. 
E as an irritant it is used for warts, opacity of cornea, cornsi 

ur..^.. ..,, .cching, kc, 

Glftucium luteoni (Horn poppy) and Qlaaciam ooFnioulatum. ^ 
Both contain alkaloids similar lo those in chelidonium majus. 

EBohaoholtzia Californlca.— Chamiaao* 

^«,— California poppy. 

HtfAf%t/.^Caltfornia. 

Ihri emf^loyed — The whole plant. 

CharacUrs. — An herbaceous, glabrous^ glaucoscent plant ; leaves 
lte» petiotated and multiBcd^ with linear lobes and no stipules ; 
s supported on long peduncles, terminal, regular and hermaphro- 
dite* The receptacle is a hollow cone, upper border bears a calyx, coralla. 
pcrigynous golden -yellow, sepals two valvate united throughout 
llicir entire length, but detached at the base in the form of a funnel. 
Fruit dtihiscent, linear, oblong, dry and capsular, traversed longi- 
tudinally by ten projecting ribs extending as far as the base into two 
th :; the seed at the edges ; seeds contain an albumi- 

Oi enveloping the embryo, 

Crjmtit2i€nii*'^ll contains morphine and a glucosidc* 



42 MECONOPSIS WALLICHII. 

/V^/tfn?/ibii.— Fluid extract of the plant 15 to 30 ms. 

Actions and uses. — Soporific, the same as that of morphine. It does 
oot cause any bad taste nor does it cause any dr3mess in the mouth, 
nausea, vomitmg, difficulty during urination, &c. ; given in headache. 

Meoonoptis Walliohii, M. Aoolaata, M. Hepalenais. 

Habitat, — ^Temperate Himalaya. 
Part used. — The plant. 

Vernacular — Hind. Guddikum, Gudia. Eng. — Prickly poppy. 
Panj. — Kanta. 

Characters. — A large herbaceous plant, flowers blue, purple, and 
showy root tapering, 6 inches long and bifurcated i^ inch in breadth. 
Smooth below and scaly at the upper part from the scar remains of 
leaves ; between the scales are stiff yellow bristles. It is brown 
externally, and white, soft and spongy within, containing a large central 
pith ; odour somewhat musky. 

Constituents, — Manganese and ash 12.7 p;c.; a yellow viscid 
extract containing crystalhne matter. 

Actions and uses, — Narcotic. Possess very poisonous properties. 

PapaTer Rhcsas, B. P. 

Habitat, — Europe. 

Parts used, — The fresh petals. Rhceados'Petala, Redpoppy petals, 
B. P. 

Vernacular, — Eng. — Common red poray or com poppy. Bom. — 
Janglidrika. Arab. — Nabatul-khash, khashul-ahmar. Beng. — Lai- 
poshta. Bur. — Hin4>in-ami. Can. — Kempu khasa-khasi-gida. Duk. — 
Lal-khaskhas. Guz. — ^Lal-khas-khas, Lala. Hind — GuUala, jangli 
mudrika, Malyal.—Chovanna. Mar. — Tambada-khasa-khasa. Pers. — 
Kohnare surk-khas-khas-i-mansur. Sans. — ^Rakla-postu Mudrika. 
Tam. — Shivappugacha. Tel. — Erra-posta-kaya-chetta. 

Kaskhas>i-mansur, — because it sheds its petals very quickly. 

Mudrika, Mudra (a seal or mark) stamped with the mudra or seal, 
which resembles the capsule in shape. This is in allusion to the 
stigma of the capsules of lala used by the Hindus, after bathing, as a 
mark or Tilaka impressed upon the middle of their forehead. The 
stigma resembles in shape mudra, a seal or a chaknu 

Characters. — ^Flowers large, of a reddish colour, and resemble those 
of opium, fresh petals of a bright scarlet colour mainly used for their 
colouring matter, odour characteristic and \*ery impleasant; taste bitter; 
capsules smaller than those of poppy, globular, 2 inches broad, smooth 
and baring a lustrous surface and entire margin; odour heavy, like that 
of poppy. 

Comstitmemts. — Milky juice, containing a red crystallixable colouring 
matter, and an alkaloid called rhceadine. 

Rhoeadine is tasteless, noo-poisonous, insduble in water, alcohol, 
eiher, chloroform, benjrol or liquor ammonia : soluble in weak acids. 



PAPAVFR SOMNIPHHUM, 



43 



Pirfiuration. — Syrupus rhaeados, B. P* (i in4»5). Dose, 4 ^^ ^ dr. 
Actiofix and uses, — ^The petals arc sHghty expectorant, other 



properties are similar to those of poppy capsules, but much milder 
&ynjp i$ used as a coloiif ing agent. 



The Opium or Garden Poppy. 

China, Africa, Italy, Greece, 



Papavar Sonmirerajn, B. P* 

HabiiaL — Asia Minor, Persia, 
England, United States and India, 

P^rU used, — The nearly ripe and dried capsules — ^Papaveris capsuUe, 
Poppy capsules BP,, petals, seeds and the inspissated juice, Opium B*P« 

Sommferum. — To bring sleep. This drug causes sleep* 

Vernncuhr* — Arab. — Bazrul-khas-khas. Beng.^ — Poshto* Burm. — 
Bhin*si. Eng. — Ntaw seeds (black), white poppy ^ Malay, — Banga-pion, 
Pcrs, — Tukhme-koonar, Khas-khas. bans. — Chosa, Postu bijani, 
Tiim.-^Gasa-gasalu. Tel. — Kasa kasa. Mar. Guz. Duk, Hind. — 
Koknar, post, Khas-khas, MalayaL — Khas-khas-karu, Can. — Khas* 
khasi. 

The vernacular names for the tree, capsules and seeds of poppy 
arc nude up by affixing the vernacular for tne tree» capsules and seeds 
to the vcrnacuhr for the poppy* 

Sfe^j.— Two varieties, P. Somniferum,or poppy with black seeds ; 
tA P* Album, or poppy with white seeds. 

CAaracters, — P. Somniferum is an annual plant, with thick branch- 
ing yellow root, stem a to 4 inches high, leaves thick, smooth and 
^Uucous^ 6 to 10 inches long; sessile, oval, tapering at the base, toothed 
»iutd ^reen, with pronnnent veins, and white midrib. Flowers 
grey; sepals 2 green, petals 4, yellow or violet; 
liar, I lo 3 inches wide, flat at the top, the bottom 
* 1 he puricarp is pale brown externally and marked with dark 
!: has :\ bitter taste. Unripe capsule is marked in 3 or 4 places 
^»th ji or 4 !inal incisions, from which the juice or opium i» 

obtained, tli* 1^ being limited to the middle third of the capsufes^ 

^avoiding the mner capsular diaphragm, as, otherwise, the juice would 
escape into the centra) cavitic> of the capsules. Kach capsule has a 
very stnall, thick stalk at the bottom, with a large radiating sessile stellate 
ittgma at the top, which distinguishes them from colocynth^or bael fruits. 
Seeds numerous, reniform, very small, reticulated, whitish<grey or 
T — ^ h black, taste sweet and oily. Black seed poppy (maw seed) 
I'ic or red flowers, capsules smaller and rounder, seeds black. 
\vniu- *ecd poppy has white flowers and white seeds. 

Contihients. — Capsules and seeds contain a large percentage of a 
fabuid fixed oil, used as food and for burning in lamps. The 
oil is of a pale golden colour, dries easily, and of an agreeable odour ; 
partially soluble in cold alcohol (i in 25) and in boiling alcohol (i in 6), 
and u^khI hke olive oil. Dose, ^ to i dr. 



44 OPIUM. 

Preparation. — Of the capsules (deprived of the seeds). Syrupus 
papaveris (i in 3). £)ose,| to i fluid dr. Of the capsules, including 
seeds^Decoction papaveris (i in 10). Extractum papaveris. Dose, 
2 to 5 grs. 

Actions and uses. — The unripe capsules are active medicinal agents, 
but their narcotic e£fects are less powerful and less certain than those ojf 
opium. They are given for the relief of cough and to check diarrhoea 
in infants. Locally the capsules are used as anodjrne fomentations^ 
and also as emollients. Their poultice is applied to bruised, inflamed, 
excoriated and swollen parts, to tender and irritable ulcers, and to the 
eyes in ophthalmia. Seeds are demulcent and nutritive, also mild 
astringent ; mixed with sugarcandy and cardamoms they are given 
in diarrhcea and dysentery. Decoction is used externally to sprains, 
contusions, bruises, &c. 

Opium, B. P. 

Opium, the juice, obtained by incision from the capsules, inspis- 
sated by spontaneous evaporation. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Afim, Afyun, Labnul, Ahi-phen. Beng.— 
Aphim, Aphin. Bom. — ^Aphim« appoa Burm. — Bein, Bhain. Can. — 
Aphimu. Chin — Ofii^yung, Opien. Cing. — ^Abim. Eng. — Opium. 
Duk. — ^Afim. Greek. — Opion. Guz.— Chasa, Aphion. Himi. — Afyun. 
Malyal.— Kasha-kasha, Kanippa. Mar. — Afmin. Pers. — Mahanul 
Tiryake. Shir i-khuskhus. Sans. — Aphina, Apay^num, Chasa, Aphim. 
Tam. — CasluHpal, Apini. TeL — Gasha-gashala-palu. 

The Arabs converted opion, from Greek opos, into Afiun, opos 
meaning sap or juice of plants. 

Ahi-phena — ^Ahi, a snake, and Phena, the foam, from the belief 
that afima was not a vegetable product, but a produce obtained from 
the foam of snakes. Tirivake, the juice which Rustam obtained from 
Kaikaos to give to Sohrab. It is »id to have contained opium in its 
composition. 

Ckaraciers. — Fresh opium is homogeneous, milky and of the 
ciMSsistence of gum. On keeping it for some time it becomes dry, of 
a brown colour, and hard, oUy and dark. Opium is found in irr^;iilar 
lumj^ or gli^ular cakes covered with agglutinated mass ofpoppy leaves, 
or with the capsules of a species of rumex ; each cake wdgtu 00 the 
average about 2 lbs. and upwards. A fresh cake is plastic, somewhat 
moist, coarsely granular externally, internally smooth and of a 
reddish-brown colour. The taste is bitter, and it has a strong diarac- 
teristic narcotic odour. Dry cake contains from 13 to 15 p.c. of 
morphine. Fresh cake yidds about 9 p.c Dose, | to 2 grs. 

AAilierutfcms. — Sand, stones, litharge, diarcoal, camel's dung, 
tragacanth, molasses, acacia leaves and stems, poppy capsules, also 
the juice of opuntia dellenta, and calatropis gigantea, the extract of 
tobacco plant, dhatura« honp : gum and resinous matter from figs 
called Ussa : resin from sliorea robusia, pulp of tamariiid and bael 
fruit, gum aiid the »eeds of hygrophiU^ spincsa: starchy substances as 
linseed, poppy-^eed, &c. 



MORPHIN'A. 



4S 



rarifHft^^-TiXTkey^ Asia Minor, and Smyrna opium yields from 

la to 13 p.c of morphine; Constantinople from 10 to 13 px. ; 

I Egyptian from 6 to 7 p.c, ; East Indian (Malwa and Garden Paina) 

from 5 to 7 px. ; Persian 8 to 10 px., and European varieties, such as 

English, French, 14 to 23 px. 

In the British Phai macopccia any variety of opium^ containing not 
Ics* than 7*5 px. of anhydrous morphine when dry is directed to be 
ujed in the preparations of tincture of opium and extract of opium ; 
for other preparations it has been directed that opium when dried and 
powdered should contain not less than 9I px. and not more than lo^ 
px. of anhydrous morphine. In the case of opium of a higher strength 
It is directed to bring it to the required strength by diluting it 
with another specimen of opium containing between 75 px. and 10 
px. of morphine or with milk-sugar. 

(hmtiitttfiis, ^Opium contains a large number of alkaloids, 
" ; acids, and neutral substances. 

most prominent alkaloids are morphine ; narcotine 2 to 8 
px, ; codeine 0*2 to 07 p.c. ; thebaine or paramorphine 015 to i px, ; 
pj»fcuJ(Jtnoiphine 0*2 px. ; papaverine 1 p. c. ; narceine 02 to 7 px. 
i h> acids are mecouic acid 4 px. ; lactic acid 125 p c*, which 

e%i^; .. ii^aibittation with the alkaloids. Bitter neutral principles, as 
meconin 03 px., meconosin and porphyroxine. Opium also contains 
Tcsin^t a trace of volatile oil, glucose, sugar, gum, pectin, caoutchouc, 
wax, fat, colouring matter, odorous principles, and ash 6 p. c, 

Morphlna, B.P. -Morphine— Morphia. 

Occurs as a white amorphous powder, or shining, transparent 
adcular prism*, without any odour, and of a bitter taste, insoluble 
in water and ether, soluble in hot alcohol (i in 36), soluble in oleic 
acid and fixed oils. Dose, ^\, to ^ gr. ; J of a grain of morphine is 
equal ID I grain of opium used in chemical testing* 

/Vr^m/fc/M.— Oleatum Morphinae,a local sedatives in 60 to l in 10, 
M" hydrochloridurn, B, P., morphine hydrochloride. — In 

icicitb. "I'-d silky lustre or a white crystalline amorphous powder 

t>f 4&ie and neutral reaction, soluble in cold water (1 in 24), 

in .1 (1 in 50) boiling water (1 in 1). Dose, i^ to ^ gr. ; one 

grain is equ»I to f^{ grains of crude opium, 8 grains of powdered 
opium, -if train of 'extract of opium, and 117 minims of tincture of 



ii grains, 
;■). nuid 



Of morphine hydrochloride. B, P. — Liquor raor- 
s, B. P. (1 gr. in 1 10 ms.) Dose» 10 to 60 ms. ; Sup- 
B. P. J grain of morphine hydrochloride in each ; 
fiina! cum sapone (J grain each) ; Tinctura 
liina? composita, B, P. (i gr. of morphine hydro- 
Chloroform 1 1 fluid ounces, morphine hydro- 
diluted hydrocyanic acid i fluid ounce, tincture 
ounce tliici uie of InJJaii hemp 2 fluid ounces, oil 



4^ 



MORPHINE 



of peppermint 14 minims, glycerine 5 fluid ounces, alcohol 90 p.c* to 
make one pint. Dose, 5 to 15 ms, Trochisciis morphinje, B. P* 
in 3^ grain in each ; Trochiscus morphinae el ipecacusmh^e, B. P^ 
^j grain in each, with y'^ ofa grain of ipecacuanha, 

Morphinic Acetas, 6* P., Morphine Acetate,^ — To obtain it, neu- 
trali^ce morphine with acetic acid- 

Chamcters, — A white crystalline or amorphous powder of a bitter 
taste, acetous odour, and of a neutral reaction; loses acetic acid on 
exposure to the air, soluble in water (i in 2|), in alcohol (l in loo). 
It spoils by keeping. Dose, | to \ gr. 

Preparatiofis. — Liquor morphintC acetalis, B. P< (1 gr. in no ms.) 
Dose, 10 to 60 ms. Injectio morphina? acetatis hypodermica (1 gr. in h 
ms.) Dose, i to 2 ms, Injectio morphince et atropine? hypodermica 
— Injectio morphinae acetas 3 drachms, atropine sulphate i griin. 
Dose I to 3 minims. ( 3 ms, contain \ grain morphine acetate and 
^V grain of atropine.) Atropine, although antagonistic to morphtik;, 
increases the sedative action and counteracts di5^agreeable effects of 
morphine as headache and constipation. 

Morphine Hydrobromidum, a white amorphous powder, soluble 
in water. Dose, J to A gr. ; Morphinx Lactas, a white crystalline salt* 
soluble in water (i m.%). Dose, ^ to ^ gr, 

Morphinx Meconas. — White needles, soluble in water (i in 34). 
Less disagreeable in its effects than other opium salts. Dose, | to \ gr. 
Used as hypodermic tablets. Liquor morpninx bimeconatis (t.35 p.c*) 
about the same strength as tincture of opium. Dose, 5 to 4a mu 

Nepenthe*— An alcoholic solution of morphine mcconate iq sherry* 
wine= strength of tinctute of opium. 

Morphina* Sulphas, Morphine sulphate.^ In tvhite acicular crystals, 
wttlumt any odour, taste bitter and of a neutral reaction, soluble in 
water (1 in 21), contains 80 p.c. of morphine. Dose, ^ to | gr« 
Liquor morphime sulphatis (i p.c.) Dose, 10 to 60 ms, 

Morphinae tartras» B* P., Morphine tartrate^ — prepared by the 
combination of morphine and tartaric acid in molecular proportiom. 
White crystalline powder or tufts of acicular crystals, soluble in cold 
water (1 in 11), almost insoluble in alcohol. Dose, ^ to \ gr., T ■ 
morphinae hypodermica, B. P. i gr* in 22 ms. Dose, 2 to 5 ms. 
morphinac tartratis, B. P. (i in no). Dose, 10 to 60 ms. Wmaiuv? * 
soothing syrup. — Morphine, essence of anise, and syrup of tolu. Each 
ounce contains morphmc ^ grain. 

Morphin^e Phthalas,— In glassy scales, soluble in water (l in j> 
for hypcxJermic injection. Dose, i ^^ i gf • 

Apomorphinas Hydrochlofidum, B, 
chloride, Apomorphine hydrochlorate. 

Manufacture. — Heat morphine or cx:)dtiin€ nyiiriK.iuunuc niin 
hydrochloric acid without access of air, dissolve in water ; to the 
solution add sodium c,v he precipitate thus fof met! 

with ether and add little J l. 



P, -Apomorphine hvdfo* 



CODEINA 



47 



CharacUn, — SmaH greyish, white shining crystals of a bitter 
la^' vithout any odour. It has a neutral or faintly acid reaction. 

It L' in water (i in 50), more readily so in alcohol, is insoluble 

in riht?T and chloroform. The solution becomes green by exposure 
lo the air. Dose, ^^ to -j^ of a grain hypodermically ; by the mouth, 
^ to i of grain* Mistura aproniorphin*e et terebeni, y^ grain in i 
Oafice« Do&e, J oz. Syrupus apomorphinae hydrochloridi^ \ grain in 
I ounce. Dose, \ to i dr. Inject io apomorphinae hypodermica, B. P. 
I grmtx in tio minims. Dose, 5 to 10 ms. 

Pipinc, an active principle of opium; an anodyne without any 
narcotic or convulsive elements, A safe opiate for children, free 
from its bad after effects, as nausea, vomiting, constipation, Ac. Dose, 
adults I dr.; children, i year or under, 2 ms. 

Codeina, B. P. Codeine, Codea, Hethylmorphine. 

Treat morphine with caustic soda and chloride or iodide of 
methyl (•3 or '5 px\ in opiunj). 

Characttrs. — Frequently contaminated with other alkaloids; 
colourless, or yellowish white^ octohedral crystals or rhombic prisms, 
translucent, witliout odour ; taste bitter, alkaline reaction, soluble in 
water (1 in 80), boiling water (i in 17); readily soluble in alcohol, 
clikiioform, dilute acids and in excess of ammonia water, soluble in 
ether (1 in 30). Dose, J to 2 grs. 

Codcinar phosphas, B.P., Codeine phosphate.— The phosphate of 
the alkaloid obtained from opium or morphine. 

Characters* — White crystals of a slight bitter taste, soluble in 
water (1 in 4)* much less soluble in alcohol ; suitable for hypodermic 
injection (1 grain in 6 minims). Does not cause any local irritation ; 
ctiotains 70 (».c. of the alkaloid. Dose, } to 2 grs. Syrupus codein<e, 
B. Pm one fluid drachm contains ^ grain of codeine phosphate. Dose, 
\ \o 2 drs. 

Hypodermic tablets contain \ gr. of codeine in each j Codeine and 
glyccnne jelly. Dose, 1 dr, ; Lozenzes { gr, each ; Pastils \ gr. each 
for cough ; Ptlula codeinx composita. Codeine ^ gr,; Extract of nux 
ftimica I gr. : Extract of lettuce \ gr. ; make a pill — for diabetes. 
Apocodeinc, prepared from codeine. — An amorphous powder, soluble 
in water ; hydrochloride of codeine acts as an emetic ; used hypodermt* 
cally. Dose» |V to i gi'* 

Narceina. 

Narcane difficult to obtain in a pure state* 

CA*jr<»c/jrri.— Occurs as white silky acicular crystals, neutral, taste 
sltghlly hitler : readily soluble in boiling water, in water (1 in 400), 
veiy soluble tn alcohol, and insoluble in ether. Dose, i to ^ gr. 

/V^/^rif/ioM.^Sodium narceine salicylate, otherwise known as 
antispasmtn. A white powder, soluble in water ; contains 50 px. of 
narceine* Dose, ^ to 1 gr. 



4» 



A1KC0NICUM* 



Aoidum Meconieom. 
Meconic acid 4 p. c* 10 opium. To obtain it, add chlutuii: or 
calcititn to iofusion of opium, the precipitate of calcium mcconate h 
washed with hot water and treated with hydrochloric acid ; n 
acid is deposited. Pearly scales, sparingly soluble in water, re.. 
in alcohol. 

Narootina. Narootiiie. 

Characters. — Brilliant white* inodorous, neutral crystalline prisnie j 
contained in opium (2 to 8 p, c), insoluble in water or potash solutioo, 
soluble in chloroform (i in 3), alcohol (i in 100), and ether (1 in 
125), freely soluble in benzol. Dose i to 3 grains. As an antiperiodic 
it has been used in India for ague, Narcotin^ hydrochloride, Narcotioe 
hydrochloride. Dose, 2 to 10 grs. 

Cotarnine Hydrochloride (stypticin*) — A salt of Cotimine, a base 
obtained from narcotine* Occurs as yellow crystals soluble in water 
and alcohol. Dose, J to ^ gr. 

Papaverina, Papaverine. 

Characters. — Delicate, colourless crystals or prisms, does not form 
salts with acids. Insoluble in water, slightly so in alcohol and ether* 

Dose, Vff ^^ A fi'*^*"- 

Preparations of Opitim. 

Acetum opii. — Black drop — vinegar of opium; opium 10 p. c. 
macerate with nutmeg 3, sugar 20, dilute acetic acid, to make 100* 
Dose, 5 to 20 ms. 

Denarcotized opium, Deodorized opium, Opium deodoratum; tt 
contains morphine t4 p. c. To obtain it, add ether to opium to remore 
the constituents, which are soluble in ether, as narcotine and odoroui 
principles which leave bad after effects. Mix the dry residue ^'ith 
milk-sugar. Dose, \ to % grs. 

Extractum opii, B. P<, extract of opium; standardized to contain 
20 p. c. of morphine. Dose, J to 1 gr. 

Extractum opii liquidum, B. P^., contains } grain of morphine 
in 110 minims. Dose, 5 to 30 ms. 

Emplastrum opii, B. P., opium plaster (i in lo), contains opium and 
resin plaster. 

Emplastnim cephalicumi contains extract of opium 6, Burgundy 
pitch 18, lead plaster 76. 

Linimentum opii, B. P,, contains equal parts of tinctum opii and 
liniment um saponis. 

Pilula saponis composita, B« P. (20 p, c. of opium), contains 
opium !♦ hard soap 3 and sytup of glucose i. Dose, 2 to 4 grs, 

Pilula plumbi cum opio, B. P*, contains 12^ p« c. of optuin — opium 
1> acetate of lead 6, and syrup of glucose 0.7, Dose, 2 to 4 grs- 

Pilula ipecacuanha cum scilla, B. P. ; pill of ipecacuanha with squill« 
contains 5 p. c. of opium and 5 p. c of ipecacuanha — Dover's powder 3. 
squill I, an<^ ni i. Duse, 4 to S grs, 

Pulvis I us, B. P., contains io p, c. of opium— opium 3, 

black pepper 4, gingei to, carrnway fruit la, tragicanth powder 1. 
Dose, 2 to 10 gr*. 



OI'lUM. 



40 



urn opio, B, 1\ {2\ p*c. of opium), coiKaius 
aromatic powder vi chalk 39 and opium I. Dose 10 to 40 grs. 

Pv icuanhae compositus, B. P., Pulvis ipecacuanha et*npii,, 

Dover : (1 in jo) contains ipecacuanha 1, opium powder 1, 

and potas?>Jum sulphate 8. Dose 5 to 15 grs- 

Pulvis kino composilus, B. P. (5 p- c. ofopliim)» contains kino 
7Si opium S» and cinnaniou bark 20, Dose 5 to 20 grs. 

Suppositoria plum hi composita, B. P., contains 1 grain of opium, 
3 graim of acetate of lead in each, made in oil of Theobroma. 

Tinctura opii, B. P,, Tincture of opium (laudanum)i i grain of 
opium in 15 minims. Dose 5 to 15 nvs. 

Tinctura camphora: composita, B. P» — Camphorated tincture of 
opium — compound tincture of camphor. — Paregoric elixir — i grain of 
upiuni in 60 minims; contains tincture of opium 60-9, benzoic acid 
4*6| caniphur 3*4, oil of anise 3*1, diluted alcohol to make 1,000. Dose ^ 
to I dr. ; for children, 5 to 20 ins. 

Tinctura opii ammoniata, B, P., ammoniated tincture of opiura 
(5 ' opium in one fluid ounce) — contains tincture of opium 3 

oi- , iL acid 3 drs., oil of anise i dr., solution of ammonia 4 ozs., 

and aknhol to make 20 ozs. Dose 30 to 60 m$. 

Vinum opii— Wine of opium {22 grs. of ext. op- in i oz,) Dose 
10 to 40 ms. 

Ungucntum gallae cum opio^^ — B. P„ Gall and opium ointment 
contains 7J p, c, of opium* 

Baii* goli — A native prcparauon, extensively used^ contains opium 
and other n.ircotics, aromatics and bitters. 

Tfochisci glyccrrhizas ct opii» Troches of glycyrrhiza and opium — 
contain* ext. glycyrrhiza?, opium powder^ oil of anise and sugar, 
(oj '::r, in each)- 

Vs diarrhcea mixture contains : Tinct, opii 1^ spt. camphonc 
j^iapMCii, chloroform ^^ alcohol to make 5. Dose for children, 1 
to 10 ms. ; for adults, J to 1 dr. 

Liquor opii sedutivus — sedative solution of opium (Battley's 
sedative) resembles Kxt. opii. liq. B. P. 

Pkysiohgical aciion. — It depends upon the combined efTects of 
the various alkaloiiis 3iiu\ other principles obtained from it* 
Opium in medicinal doses at first stimulates the braini heart and 
respiration; this efTect is soon followed by general depression. Generally 
opium is analgesic, hypnotic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, narcotic and 
eerebml depressant. Its chief action is on the cerebro-spinal system 
and through the nerves it acts upon all the organs of the 
body. It affects the ganglia at the base of the brain, giving rise 
to contiBCted pTipiU. vomiting, and slow respir^ition. Under its use 
the grey m ^rd is first jr -re are increased 

refiexcs ' llosvcdbydci ced by the lower- 

ing of : iisation. 'Ihe cutaneous vessels are dilated at 

6rit,a'r J of heat felt on the external ear, itching and 

rotecoloured skin eruptions. This is followed by pallor and coldness 
of the limbs and fingers. The genet ative organs are stimulated. In 
raedieiual do^es, taken for some lime, it affects all the secretions except 



50 OPIUM. 

milk and sweat, which are increased. It causes dryness of the mouth 
and throat, lessens the secretion of the stomach and thus impairs 
appetite. The secretion of bile is also diminished and constipation 
results. The action of the heart is increased, and there is increased 
arterial tension. The cerebral functions are at first exhilarated, 
the ideas flow rapidly, and there is a sort of mild intoxication. 
This is soon followed by drowsiness and sound sleep, often dis- 
turbed by dreams, and often followed, on waking, by headache, 
constipation, indigestion and depression of spirits. If any pain 
be present it is relieved, but a larger dose will be necessary on 
subsequent occasions. In full doses the cerebral symptoms are 
accentuated, but the stimulation is of short duration. The after- 
effects become more marked. The mouth becomes very dry, digestion is 
impaired, there is nausea, vomiting and profuse sweat. The heart is 
depressed, the circulation lowered, the oxidation is interfered with, and 
there is loss of body heat. The pupils are contracted, there is intense 
itching of the nose with retention of urine. The cerebral depression 
is soon followed by headache, vertigo, slow and laborious respiration. 
In poisonous doses, sterterous breathing and coma supervene, followed 
by feeble pulse, cold clammy perspiration, contracted pupils followed 
by dilation as the end approaches, cyanosis of the face and fingers, 
followed by abolished reflexes, deep coma, paralysis of respiratory 
centres, and death. 

Therapeutic uses. — Opium is given to relieve severe pain from 
any cause, except in cerebritis and to allay any irritation. As an 
antispasmodic it is extensively used. It allays irritation and produces 
sleep in insomnia, sciatica, neuralgia, lumbago, cancer, intestinal, 
renal, or hepatic colic, calculi, &c. ; also in tetanus, in morbid states of 
the abdominal viscera, as gastritis, gastrodynia, in hernia and in diseases 
of the urino-genital system. To check excessive secretion it is largely 
used in diarrhoea, dysentery, nervous and sympathetic vomiting, 
and in excessive expectoration ; also in diabetes, ptyalism and 
lecorrhoea, &c. In diabetes and polyuria, codeine is invariably pre- 
ferred. As a support to the general system it is given in low fevers, in 
low states of the system accompanied by tremors, in low muttering 
delirium, and in surgical cases to promote the healing of wounds and 
ulcers. In high fevers it is combined with mercury, aconite, camphor, 
antimony, &c. As a narcotic it is used in all inflammatory conditions, 
acute and chronic, except in those of the respiratory tract and in 
albuminuria, where its administration has led to deaths by coma or by 
apncea. In peritonitis it is highly beneficial. As a sudorific, combined 
with ipecacuanha and camphor, it is given to promote diaphoresis in 
fevers, harassing cough and in coryza. In India it is largely used by 
chundoolees for its aphrodisiac effects. As a haemostatic it is useful to 
check haemorrhages, chiefly from the uterine fibroids and cancer, 
combined with other haemostatics. As a soporific, in spite of all 
its defects, it is the drug most extensively used as being certain in its 
effects. Opium is given to quiet the nervous system ; hence it checks 
or controls the reactionary fevers. In threatened abortion its use is 
extremely beneficial. Externally it has a sedative action upon the 



CODEINK. ^I 

cutaneous nerves, and as anodyne poultices it is largely used to relieve 
pain. It forms an important ingredient in all anodyne applications 
used in gout, rheumatism, and ophthalmia. It is also used as plaster, 
suppository, and as a paint in painful piles, ulcers, &c. For hypo- 
dermic purposes its alkaloids alone are used. 

Bala goli is given to children in wakefulness, diarrhoea, colic and 
general irritability, but its use as a rule should be deprecated, as disastrous 
consequences sometimes result from its use. Young children arc more 
susceptible to opium than adults, and women more so than men. Some 
have idiosyncrasy for it, and cannot tolerate even the smallest dose. 
In persons taking opium medicinally or for the first time, the exhilarat- 
ing effects are of short duration, and they often pass into a state of 
drowsiness ; but with habitual opium-eaters the exhilarating symptoms 
are of longer duration. Thecoma of opium narcosis can be diagnosed 
from that due to alcohol, and apoplexy. In opium poisoning pupils 
are contracted. In alcohol they are dilated. In apoplexy thry are 
contracted unequally. 

Morphine hydrochloride is an anodyne, hypnotic and narcotic. 
The soporific effect of opium as a whole is mostly due to this 
alkaloid ; it is four times as strong as the crude opium. It produces less 
vascular and arterial excitement, less headache, less vertigo, less 
subsequent depression and less constipation. It allays nervous irrita- 
bility, diminishes pain, induces sleep, arrests secretions, except that of 
the skin, which it promotes. Full effects are speedily induced b}^ its 
hypodermic injection. Jt is given in cardiac dyspnoea, in rheumatism, 
gout and in puerperal convulsions; also in aortic stenosis and in 
paroxysms of angina pectoris. In large doses it is a narcotic poison. 

Morphine Acetas is given in diabetes like codeine, and like it 
controls the formation of sugar. 

Apomofphine Hydrochloride, — In small doses it is a valuable expect- 
orant ; in large doses a safe, certain and quick emetic when given 
hypodermically and also when taken by the mouth ; vomiting 
is generally followed by sleep. It is useful in cases of irritant and 
narcotic poisoning, alcoholic intoxication, impaction of foreign bodies 
in the air passages, &c. Although a derivative of morphine, it can be 
used in cases of poisoning by morphine salts. As an expectorant, 
combined with morphine, it is used in hacking cough, bronchial 
asthma and in phthisis. It relieves hiccough, spasms of chorea, 
epilepsy, &c. In catarrh of the larynx and of bronchi and in 
capillary bronchitis it is given with salicylate of ammonia with good 
result. 

Codeine is a respiratory sedative and hypnotic, It is not a very 
active alkaloid, its soporific effects being feeble, while tetanic effects 
being altogether absent. Its chief value depends upon its power of 
lessening the quantity of sugar in the urine in diabetes. It is given in 
various affections of the heart, as a palliative for cough in phthisis and 
for the relief of abdominal pains, in nervous insomnia, and in cases 
where sleep is prevented by the pain of rheumatism or canr( r or by 
distressing cough. In ovarian neuralgia, codeine in \ grain doses 



52 SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. 

three times a day is given with good results. As a gastro-intestinal 
sedative, it lessens irritability of the stomach and intestines, hence 
useful in nausea, vomiting (from any cause), diarrhoea, gastrodynia, &c. 
Par amor phine or thebaine is a powerful spinal excitant and 
tetanizer, resembling strychnine in action. 

Narcottne, — Hypnotic, tonic, and an ti periodic, only next to 
quinine. Used in ague, in general debility due to prolonged lactation, 
and during convalescence from acute diseases. Also given in headache, 
constipation, &c. 

Papaverine is narcotic and convulsant. It is free from the ill effects 
of opium, as headache, giddiness, &c. It contracts the pupils. 

Narceine is hypnotic, but is without the bad after-effects of 
morphine. 

Treak Farook. — A native preparation containing opium. It occurs 
as an oily, unctuous semifluid, of a darkish blue or brownish dark 
colour. The taste is sweet. The odour is sweet and resembles that of 
liquorice. Used as a tonic, stimulant and antispasmodic, in myxcedema 
beriberi, anasarca, rheumatism, vomiting, diarrhoea, tetanus, seminal 
debility, &c. It is also given in the collapse stage of cholera and in 
poisoning by venomous animals. 

Sangainaria Canadensis. 

Indian (red) paint, Blood-root, Red Puccoon. 

Sanguinaria, from sanguis, blood. The plant, when incised, emits 
blood -like juice. 

Habitat — United States, North America, Canada. 
Part used, — The rhizome. 

Characters, — A perennial plant ; flower white, single on an erect 
stalk ; petals tinged with rose or purple ; rhizome 2 inches long, I of an 
inch thick, cylindrical, somewhat branched and wrinkled, colour reddish 
brown ; on section whitish internally, with numerous small reddish 
resin cells ; bark thin ; odour faint ; taste bitter and acrid. Dose, i to 3 
grs. ; as an emetic, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constituents, — Sanguinarine, chelerythrine. protopine, homo- 
chclidonine, citric and malic acids, resin, starch, gum, albumen, sugar, 
and ash, 8 p. c* 

Sanguinarine, an alkaloid is the active principle of the prfant. 

To obtain it, infuse the root in hot water and add acetic or dilute 
hydrochloricacid to the hot solution and precipitate the solution with 
ammonia. Boil the residue with charcoal and evaporate. It is a white 
powder, of a coffee-brown colour ; taste acrid ; soluble in alcohol, ether, 
benzene. Dose, -jV ^^ ^ gr. ; as an emetic ^ gr. 

Chelerythrine. — To obtain it, pass hydrochloric acid gas through 
the ethereal tincture, dry the precipitated hydrochlorate, and dissolve 
it into hot water, filter and add liquor ammoniae. 

A lemon- coloured salt. Also found in chelidonium majus. 



VI«1.ACI?^ 



T * gives, with sulphuric acid, iJccp purple cciluur. It 

.also t ! papaver somniJermn and chelidonium inajus. 

Pfv^tntiions, — Extractum sanguinariae fluidum ; fluid extracL of 
*^angtiin.inn. Dose^2 to 5 ms, ; as expectorant and stimubnL 

Tinctuni s;inguinari3e, tincture of sanguinaria, ( i in 8 )• Dtisc^ 
32 an expectorant, 5 to 60 ms. ; as an emetic, 1 to 2 drs, 
Acrtum sanguhiarinae. Dose — 10 to 30 ms. 
ifinac nitras. Dose^ — ^^ gr, 
«rin*T sulphas. Dose — ^^ gr. 

Phystolopctil action — Locally it is a feeble escharotic. Internal- 
ly cmciic, stimulant tonic^ alterative, narcotic» stern uatatory, emnicna* 
gogue and expectorant- In small doses it stimulates the stomach and 
increases the circulation. In large doses it depresses the pulse and causes 
n^ittSiea. In full doses it depresses the heart and respiration and produces 
ition, anceiuig, vomiting, purging and great prostration. In cxcc^- 
ir toxic dtjscs it is a violent irriiani ; at first it stimulates the 
ift and iticitasies the arterial tt;iiSton, then it depresses the heart, 
bwrr^ the arterial tension and fmally paralyses the heart; it also lowers 
c-s ; pupils are dilated, there are active vomiting, diarrhcra, 
^ 10 the stomach, faintness, vertigo, dim vision, cold sweats, great 
1 1 rsi and paralysis of the heart and respiration, followed by collapse 
[id death « 

TherapfufHS. — It is used in pneumonia, rheumatism, chronic 
na^al catarrh, croup, bronchitis, whooping cough and in throat affections; 
also in atony of the stomach and in torpid liver, jaundice and duodenal 
catarrh. Given as an aphrodisiac in sperniatorrha-a, as an em- 
mt-nnp;(^nuc in anienorrhcua due to anaemia, and in syphilis. When 
f c-iuiies violent sneezing- Externally it is applied to intlolent 
J *^al polypi » wartJ^, chancres, and also over fungous qranuhitiiins 
and scaiy eruptions 

Vlol&ceis. The Banaphasha or Violet Family. 

Herbs %n shrubs, leaves simple, .siipuJate, with involute vernation, 
alternate or opposite ; flowers blue, pink or white, handsome, irregu- 
[ilar ; Iniit one-celled, c*apsular, threc-valved, dehiscent, loculidd<il ; 
k?cds numerous ; embryo straight ; albumen fleshy. 

//rf^Vrr/,— Europe. Siberia, America, Africa and Malacca. 

/Vi^rr/iV-j:.— Some species have a delicate fragrance, some contain 
an emetic principle known as emetine or violinc ', a few are 
mucibginou5, others are reputed to he anodyne; some arc purgative. 

Viola Trioolor. 

l'.-ni;>y, 

/ J /-/ /^//tf/ii.— Blue violet. 

iii^^iisL — Noiih /\njeiica, Europe. 

Parts fij/-//,— The flowering herb and rhizome. 

Ckarffcfewx,-^Th^ flowering herb is from 4 to 12 inches high and 
! and cordate; flowers yellow, while, blue or 
I. Dose, 10 to 60 grs. 



54 VIOLA onORATA 

Consiiittents. — An active principle, Violin allied to emetine 
Salicylic acid^ resin, &c. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Mucilaginous, expectorant, emollient and laxa- 
tive. Violine is emeto-cathartic. Poultice of the herb in milk is used 
in impetigo, also in eczema of the face and head. Given internally 
in constitutional syphilis, scrofula and bronchitis. 

Viola Odorata. 

HahHai, — Temperate climates, Europe, North America. 

Parts used. — The flowering herb. 

Vernacular.-- Kr 7^. — Banaphasa, Behusscj. Bcng. — Bonosa. Duk. 
— Banaphashaka. Eng. — March violet, sweet violet. Guz. — Banapha- 
sha. Hind.— Bagabanoshsa. Mar. — Baga-banosa. Pers. — Bag-i- 
Banaphasha. Tam. — Vayilettu. 

Bagh-i-Banaphasha — Big, garden, and Banafsha, violet. 
Kashamiri Banaphasha is the name given to the whole plant, and the 
Pul-i- Banaphasha, to the flowers only. 

Characters — A dry herb, colour brownish, without any stem, con- 
sists of leaves and sometimes flowers, variegated, yellow, white, blue or 
purplish, with long filiform stalks. Roots dry, thready, fibrous, pale yellow, 
knotty, slender, some as thick as a quill, and slightly furrowed. Leaves 
cordate at the base, reniform or heart-shaped and dentate at the upper 
part. Flowers purple, violet, blue or pink and irregular. Carpels three 
nervtd and brown. Corolla, with a long, narrow tapering spur, which 
extends beyond the calyx. Smell sweet, nauseous, and resembling that 
of ipecacuanha. Taste nauseous, bitter and mucilaginous. Dose — 1 5 
to 6ogrs. 

Constituents. — The flowers contain a colouring matter, a volatile 
oil, three acids, viz , violenic and salicylic acids and another 
red acid, and an emetic principle called violin, identical with 
emetine ; viola quercitrin allied to rutin (mandelin), sugar, &c. 

Preparations. — Infusion of the root ( i in 10). Dose, i to 2 
ozs. Decoc'ion (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Syrup of flowers (i in 6). 
Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actiuis and uses. — The root is nauseating and diaphoretic, some- 
what similar 10 ipecacuanha, given in fevers. The petals, especially of 
the purple flowers, are diuretic, refrigerant and expectorant, also 
laxative, given along with other aperients as tamarind, myrobalans, &c., 
in coughs, nephritis, with ^calding and scanty urine, fevers, syphilis 
scrofula, skin diseases, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. 

lonidium Saffruticosum, Viola Sufbraticosa. 

Habitat. — Tropical parts of Asia and Australia. 

Parts used.o^Root and leaves. 

rV;-;/^r///<7r — Beng.— Nunbora. Buim — Ke( ki-bin. Duk. — 
Ruttonpuruss Rutianpuras. Hind.— Ratanpurs. Mar. — Ratanpurs. 



BIXCACE/E. 55 

Mai. — Oorela tamara. Sans. — Padma charini, charati. Tam. — Urela 
tamara. Tel. — Purusha ratnam Nela Kobbari, 

Characters. — Roots yellowish white, tapering downwards, 3 to 4 
inches in length and covered with a corky bark ; leaves small, lanceo- 
late, subsessile and alternate ; taste of the plant mucilaginous. Dose — 
20 to 60 grs. 

Constituents — The root contains an alkaloid, soluble in ether and 
alcohol, forming salts with mineral and vegetable acids ; Quercitrine, 
another colouring matter, soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol, 
mucilage ; acid resin, and oxalates. 

Preparation. — Infusion or decoction (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 6 
drs. Liniment and electuary. 

Actions and uses, — Tonic, demulcent and diuretic, used in gonor- 
rhoea, general debility aiid in affections of the urinary organs; externally, 
with some mild oil, it is used as a cooling application for the head. 

lonidium Parviflorum. — In South Americ i it is used as a specific 
in elephantiasis. It is there known as ** Cuchunchulli de Cuen^a." 

BixaoeeB. 

Bixineae or Flacourtiaceae. The Kesar or chaulmogara family, 
shrubs or small trees, leaves alternate, exstipulate, leathery and often 
dotted ; fruit dehiscent or indehiscent, with a thin pulp in the centre ; 
pulp differently coloured ; seeds numerous, and often covered with 
withered pulp ; albumen fleshy and oily, 

//aditat.'-Hoittst parts of E. and W. Indies and Africa. 

Properties. — Many species, are feebly bitter, stomachic and astrin- 
gent. The fruits of some are edible and wholesome. The bark of 
one variety is emetic. 

HydnocarpuB Anthelmintica, False Chaulmugra. 

Habitat, — China. 

Part used. — Seeds. 

Vernacular,~Qh\nQSQ Lukrabo or Ta-Fung-Tsze, Dai-Phong-tu. 

Characters. — The seed is about half the length of chaulmugra seed, 
but of equal diameter. The shell thicker and harder and marked with 
raised ridges. The seeds, after extraction of the oil, are used as vermifuge. 

Actions and uses. — Used in leprosy, lepra, itch, pityriasis, psoriasis, 
syphilis, cracks on hands, &c. 

Hydnooarpus Wrightiana. H. Inebrians. 

Habitat, — Western Peninsula, Concan. 

Paris used. — The seeds and oil. 

Vernacular. — Cing, — Rata kekuna, makulu. Duk. — Jangli- 
Badam. Eng. — Jungle almond. Hind. — Jangli-Badam. Mar. — Kowtee. 
Maleal. — Moratti, Tanina. Mar. — Kadu-kavatha, Kowtee. Tam. — Mara- 
vattay. Tel. — Niradi-Vittulu. 



56 GYNOCARDIA ODOR ATA. 

Characters. — Fruit globose and of the size of an apple ; rind rough, 
occasionally tubercled and of a brown colour ; seeds numerous, obtusely 
angular, of a dark-brown colour and embedded in a scanty white pulp, 
which is firmly adherent to the testa ; albumen oily, white when fresh, 
and dark-brown in the dry seeds. On expression the seeds yield an 
oil of a pale sherry colour ; odour resembles that of chaulmogra. 

Constituents, — The seeds contain about 44 p. c. of the fixed oil, 
which also, contains some gynocardic acid. Does not give any crystalline 
or fatty deposit on long keeping. 

Preparations, — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Oil. Dose — 
10 to 30 ms. Paste containing Hydnocarpus Wrightiana 2, Jatropha 
Curcas-oil 2, Sulphur 4, Camphor I, Lime-juice 20 ; used for rubbing 
on scaly eruptions. 

Actions and uses. — The oil is used as a substitute for chaulmogra 
oil. It is an alterative, stimulant and parasiticide. The seeds, like 
chaulmogra, are used externally in obstinate skin diseases, such as 
scabies, lichen and prurigo. An infusion of seeds is used as a wash or 
injection in gonorrhoea, or into the vagina in foetid discharges after 
delivery. The oil, with lime-water, is used as a liniment for scurf on 
the head, and, like chaulmogra, in the treatment of leprosy 
and for rheumatic joints. With alkaline ashes it is used in certain parts 
of India as a stimulant dressing for phagedenic ulcers, foul sores, and 
to remove maggots. By some authors this species is regarded as 
belonging to the natural order Pangiaceae allied to Papayaceae. 

Oynooardia Odorata. Syn Hydnooarpas Odoratas. 

Habitat, — Rangoon Forests, Malayan Peninsula, Sikkim and 
Khassia Hill. 

Parts used, — The seeds and oil from the seeds. 

Vernacular. — Burm. — Talien-noe. Chin. — Tafung-tsze. Hind. — 
Chaulmogra, Petarkura. Pers. — Chaulmogra. Lepcha. — Tuk-Hung. 

Characters, — The fruits grow upon the stem and main branches, 
and are globular, each contains 3 or 4 seeds ; seeds rough-skinned, hard, 
about I inch in diameter, many, ovoid, irregular, more or less angular 
and round or flattened ; testa thin, smooth and brittle ; albumen 
plenty. When expressed yield 30 to 50 p. c. of the oil. 

Constituents, — Oleum Gynocardiae, Chaulmogra oil. — It is a fixed 
oil, very bulky, of a sherry wine or brownish colour. The odour is 
nauseous and peculiar. Dose, 2 to 15 nis. The oil deposits on keeping 
crystalline fat, and contains palmitic acid 60 p. c, and 
therefore solid in cold climates. It contains Gynocardic acid 1 1 p. c, 
the active ingredient; cocinic acid 2*5 p. c, and hypogoeic acid 4 p. c. 
Both of the latter acids are found either combined with glycerides as 
fats or in a free state. Gynocardic acid is a fatty acid, crystallizes 
in yellowish flakes, and has an an acrid burning taste. Dose, \ to 
2 grs. 

Preparations. — Of the oil, pearls or pills, and unguentum 
gynocardias (i in 4). 



•'WCOVftTIA. 



Actifms and uses. — The seeds and oil are alterative and tonic, 
u*cd lo improve the state of the blood as in leprosy, phthisis, skin 
diite3j(e», &c. By some the oil is regarded as a specific in leprosy, 
and, no doubt, in some cases it has very beneficial effects. It is also 
used hi scrofula, secondary syphilis, phthisis and rheumatism with 
slilf joints, both exiernally as an inunction or ointment, and internal- 
ly with mucilage, or as capsules or pearls. Gyiiocardic acid ointment, 15 
to 55 gT;iins lo an ounce of vaseline is used in herpes, tinea, leprosy 
anil other skin ufFections. It should be given alter meals in milk or 
with cod-livcT oil. 

Flacoartia Cataphracta. 

f/ahitiiL — India, Assam» Nepaul, Behar. 

Paris used. — ^The fruit, leaves and bark. 

/* '.-—-Arab. — Zarnab. Bomb. — Juggam. Can. — ^Talisap.itri. 

Cing*- :iuru. Duk. — 7*jijpat. Barmi. Eng. — Many spined 

FUucortta. Bcn^, and Hind. — Talispatri, Barahmi, Paniala, 
lanijala, Man — lambat. Sans, — Talisha, Prachinamalaka. Tani. — 
PaniiaUf Talishapairi. Tel. — Talisapatri. Port, — Joggam. 

Characters. — Leaves oblong or lanceolate, long, annulate, glabrous, 
crcfiaiO'SerraLe; petiole short. Leaves and shoots resemble rhubarb in 
flavour ; fruit of the size of a pUim, indehiscent, purple, containing 5 to 
6 seeds ; seeds obovoid; endocarp hard ; testa coriaceous, taste acid* 
All oil \^ i^xtmcted from the seeds. Dose of the leaves — 30 to 60 
grains. 

/yefiamtioN. — Infusion of the bark (i in 10), Dose, 4 to 12 drs. 

Acthrts and uses, — The hark is refrigerant and astringent, used in 
fevets to allay thirst, correct foul taste and prevent nausea and 
bittcmsness. Leaves and young shoots are stomachic, and given in 
diairhceat dysentery and even in consumption. Infusion of the bark 
b used in hoarseness of the voice. The fruit is edible, 

Cochlasperintiin Gossyplam, Bombax Qosayplum* 

Habitat. — Belinr, Orissa, Dcccan, Garwal and Bundclkhand. 

l\trts ustd, — The gum (Indian Tragacanth). 

I'r ' .'. — Arab — Kaserae-hindi Kather, Samaghul*qatade- 

hindi. ^Elhutmhul. Eng,— Golden silk-cotton tree, yellow* 

lUiwercJ LiiUuii tree, Duk. and Hind.— Pili Kapas, Katcra-gond (the 
gum)* Mar. — Kalhaho gunda* Maleal. — Sluma-punji, Tachema- 
mingec. Pers, — Katerae-hindi, Kathera. Tam,^ — Tanaku marara. 
Tei- — Konda-gogu chettu. 

Ciarncters. — Large trees, bearing large golden-yellow flowers 
apr " when the tree is destitute of leaves; Fruit capsular, 

o* , containing within them cotton ; seeds kidney- 

shafit-U, iciLi Hard* The gum, known as kateera, is obtained from the 
trunk of thrtree. It is greyish white in colour, translucent, in large 
wn . ish, irregular or twisted veimicular pieces or tears, 

Wii , to s[ilii up readily into Hat scales ; when moistened it 



58 CAPPARlDACEiE 

swells into transparent jelly ; taste mucilaginous ; a good substitute 
for tragacanth. 

Preparation. — Lozenges and mucilage. 

Actions and uses. — The gum is demulcent and astringent, used in 
cough, hoarse throat and scalding in the. urine ; mixed with curd or 
whey it is largely used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Experience has 
verified its good results in the cases of the last-named diseases. 

Remarks, — In Bombay the gum of sterculia urens, known as 
karii gunda, is sold for katira gunda. 

Bixa Orellana, B. Indica. Annatto Bash. 

Habitat. — America ; cultivated in India. 

Parts used, — The pulp and seeds. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Annatto bush, arnotto. Brazilian — Uracuara. 
Beng. — Nutkaner, Latkan, Burm. — Thidew. Can.— Kuppa Manhala. 
Cini^. — Kaha-gaha. Duk, — Kisti. Hind.— iCapurji, Latkan. Malay, 
— Kasumba-kling. Maleal. — Kurungu-munga. Mar. — Sendri, Kisree, 
Tam. — Kuragu-manjal. Tel. — Jafra chettu. 

Characters. — The plant does not thrive without plenty of sun. The 
pulp covering the seeds is of a deep red colour, from this the colouring 
matter, known as arnotta or annatto, is made The annatto exists in 
cakes of a black colour, becoming red-brown on exposure to air. It has a 
peculiar odour and a disagreeable bitter taste. The seeds are triangular, 
compressed on two sides and chanelled lengthwise. On one side 
the top is obtusely mucronate ; the kernel is white and oily. Dose of 
the seeds, 5 to 20 grs. 

Constituents,y—A colouring matter, called bixin, obtained from 
minute red leaflets, soluble in alcohol, concentrated sulphuric acid and 
ether. Insoluble in water. 

Fhrcparation, — Powder of seeds and pulp. Dose, 5 to 10 grs. 

Actions and uses. — The root and seeds are febrifuge, astringent 
and slightly purgative, used in dysentery and in. diseases of the kid- 
neys ; as a stomachic tonic they are given in convalescence from 
fevers and in general debility. Its principal use is as a dyeing agent 
and used to colour butter, cheese, chocolate, &c. 

CapparidaceeB. 

The Hurahura, or caper family. 

Herbs, shrubs or rarely trees ; leaves simple or lobed, alternate, 
generally exstipulate, rarely spiny with stipulate appendages ; flowers 
yellow, white or purple ; fruit dehiscent and pod-shaped or indehiscent 
and baccate; seeds one or many, usually reniform and without albumen, 
cotyledons leafy. 

Habitat. — Chiefly tropical, may be found in temperate climates. 
Properties, — Similar to those of cruciferae, i.e.^ pungent, stomachic, 
stimulant and antiscorbutic. Some are aperient, diuretic arid anthel- 
mintic, and some are poisonous, owing to the acrid principle being large 
in quantity. 



GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA 59 

Gynandropsis Pentaphylla, Cleome Pentaphylla. 

Hahiiai, — India and all tropical countries. 

Patis used. — The plant and seeds. 

Vernacular, — Eng. — The five leaved cleome. Bong. — Kama!, 
Katkoduku, Shada-hurburija. Bomb. — Kanphuti. Cing — WaiJa. 
Duk. — Hulhul. Hind.— Karaila, Hulhul. Maleal. — Kara-vella, Tai- 
vala. Mar. — Tilavana, Mabli. Sans.— Surjavarta, Arkapushpika. 
Sind. — Beghara. Tam. — Nai-kaduga, Nai-vella. Tel. — Vaminta. 

Characters. — A five-leaved cleome, a weed ; flowers whitish or 
purple ; seeds black, small, numerous and kiSney-shaped, resembling 
those of cleome viscosa, and having a faint flavour of mustard ; leaves 
5 foliolate, and leaflets obovale. The whole plant is viscid and covered 
with glandular hairs ; odour peculiar, like that of asafetida. Dose of 
the powdered seeds, 15 to 25 grs. 

Constituents. — The plant contains a fixed oil ; seeds, when crushed, 
develop an acrid volatile oil, similar in properties to mustard oil, also 
a resin. 

Preparation, — Decoction (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. ; medicated 
oil. 

Actions and uses, — Seeds are antispasmodic, sudorific, and carmi- 
native, used in fevers, bilious affections and infantile convulsions. 
Bruised leaves rubefacient and even vesicant, applied to the boils and 
buboes to promote suppuration. The juice of the leaves, beaten with 
salt, is used as drops in earache. The whole plant, boiled in sweet 
oil, is used in leprosy. As an antispasmodic it is given in hysteria. 
The seeds are used as a substitute for mustard seeds. 

CrateBva Religiosa, Capparis Trifoliata, C. Roxsbarghii. 

Keligiosa — The leaves being used for religious purposes. 
Habitat. — Malabar, Canara, Tropical Africa. 
Parts used, — The leaves and bark. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Holy garlic pear, three-leaved caper. 
Burm — Ka-dat. Duk.— Burmi-ki-jhar. Beng.— Bai un, Tiktoshak. 
Can. — Nirvala,Bilapatri. Cing. — Bilapatra. Guj. — Vaivaruna. Hind. — 
Bilasi, Varvunna. Malyal. — Vilva-patrani, Mar. — Koomla, Haravarana, 
Kurwan Vayavarana. Sans. — Koom Varuna Ashamarighana (the 
leaves), Belpatra, Tapia. Tam. — Mavilinga-maram. Tel. — Vivapatri, 
Usik manu. Panj. — Barna. 

Ashamarighana — Ashamari, means gravel or stone, and Ghdn, 
to kill or to remove. This is in allusion to the use of the drug as 
lilhontriptic in urinary diseases, renal calculi, &c. 

Bela-patra, which means like the leaves of Bela. The leaves in 
both are three-foliolate. 

Characters, — The tree is planted around tombs and temples in 
India ; root -bark soft, when fresh of a dirty white colour, outer surface 
wrinkled and here and there marked with fissures of a dirty brown 
colour, internally white, soft and fragile ; odour heating, nauseous and 



6o CLEOME YISCOSA. 

disagreeable ; taste bitter and pungent. Leaves three-foliolated, leaflets 
lanceolate, fine-pointed and smooth, upper surface dark green, under 
surface of a light colour. When bruised the leaves have a disagreeable 
smell like that of hellebore ; taste bitter and pungent. Dose, s to 20 
grs. 

Constituents, — The bark contains a principle similar to saponin. 

Preparations, — Varuna ashes ; Decoction'of the root-bark (i in 10). 
Dose, I to 2 ozs. Infusion of the leaves (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 
Compound decoction. — C. Religiosa, tribulus terrestris, ginger, car- 
bonate of potash, honey and water. Dose, i oz. A conipound powder, 
known as Varunadya-churna, contains ashes, bark powder of C 
Religiosa and potassium carbonate. Varunadyaguda, a confection con- 
tains bark, treacle and a number of aromatics and diuretic substances. 

Actions and uses. — Stomachic tonic, laxative and lithontriptic 
Given to promote appetite and to increase the secretion of bile. As a 
diuretic the root-bark is used in dropsy and urinary disorders, in 
calculous affections, combined with tribulus terrestris. As an altera- 
tive the compound powder is given in ascites, calculus, in chronic en- 
largements of glands, as liver, spleen, and in affections of the bladder 
and uterus. Fresh leaves and roots, mixed with cocoanut juice and ghee, 
is given in rheumatism, also as food to reduce corpulence. A paste 
of the leaves is applied to soles of the feet to relieve swelling and 
burning sensation. The leaf is smoked in caries of the bones of the 
nose. 

Cleome Yisoosa. G. loosandra, Polanisia Yisoosa. P. loosandra, 
Sticky Cleome (Eng.) 

^/j3j/^/.— Tropical India and other warm countries. 

Parts used. — The seeds and plant. 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Hurhurya. Can. — Hucha-sasavi. Duk. — 
Chowri-ajawana. Eng. — Dog mustard, sticky cleome. Hind. — Hurhura, 
Halhul. Malyal. — Kat Kuddaghoo. Mar.— Hulahul, Kanphuti, Pivala 
Tilavana. Port. — Bredo mamma. Sans. — Adity-a-bhakta, Arka Kanta. 
Tarn. — Naaveli. Tamool. — Nahi Kuddaghoo. Tel. — Kukka-vaminta. 

Nahi-kuddaghoo. — Dog mustard. 

Kan-phuti, from kan, ear, and phuti to tear or burst ; the juice is 
a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. 

Characters, — An annual viscous weed, from one to two feet high? 
stem furrowed and studded with glandular capitate hairs ; leaves digitate 
on long petioles, channelled and of a reddish colour ; leaflets three to 
five, obovate, finely serrated at the margin. The leaves have a pungent 
flavour. Flowers yellow and axillary, capsules long, striated and hairy; 
seeds of the size of mustard seeds, 'small, many, reticulated, black and 
reniform, compressed and netted with a white scar near the hilum ; 
taste, on chewing the seeds, hot, and mucilaginous like Mullabija. The 
fresh plant, when crushed, gives out a volatile oil like that of garlic or 
mustard. Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Preparation, — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, i to i oz. 



CAtTARIS SPiNOSA, 



61 



I^A^mr awf wjif^*—Carnif native, pungent, anthelmintic and 

intiseptic ; seciJs are used in round worms^ to expel flatus in 

1 children, also in fever and diarrhoea- The juice of leaves is rubefacient 

^likc muUard ; mixed with salt it is dropped into the ear in otorrhcea. 

An infustoo of the ^ecds is used for unhealthy ulcers and to kill 

maggots. 

Capparis Splnosa. 
HaMtai, — Atgiuinjsiuiii West Asia, Deccan, Gujerat, 
Parts usf4t — The bark of the root. 

Fferw/fcwAii',— Eng. — Caper plant* Syrian — Kabur. Turkish — 
Kabarlet. Arab.— Kiabara. Pcrs.— Kabar-Karak (fruit). Sans.— 
KakJiilini'karira (fruil). Hind, — Karu, Karer (the oil). Duk. — Karya 
(the oil). 

Chili actcrs* — The bark is like half quills, outer surface smooth» 
ired and greyish brown, within hrown and resinous ; 

f,- •*> bitter and pungent. DosCi lo to 30 grs. 

C^nsittutnts . — The bark contains a neutral bitter principle of a 
ir e, resembling senegin. The flower bud'* contain 

iioside which yield, on boiling with sul[)hunc acid, 
.1 volouring matter similar to quercetin ; also ,vome 
. mcc. The fresh plant contains a volatile uil, having 
prcipt:rticd ul garlic oil. 

P^eparatifmn— Infusion (\ in to). Dose, f to I oz. 

Actions and uses* — Similar to that of senega ; alterative, 
antiscorbutic, stimuLmt, expectorant and diuretic. The root- bark i& 
uaed in palsy, gout, rheumatism, cough and dropsy. Locally the 
powder is applied to malignant sores, also to boils and swellrngs. 
The juice of fresh plant, like clcorae juice, is dropptil into the ear !d 
kiU vrorms \ t fair sustitutc for senega* 

Capparis Zeylanlca 0. Acuminata. 

RTiidae«i/<ir.— Ben-^.— Kalukcra. Tel. — Paliki. Mar, — ^Waghauli- 
Hiud.— Go%*indphal. Tarn. — Authinidi-kai. Used as refrigerant and 
cooling, 

C- Aphylta* Eng. — ^Thorny caper bush. Hind. — Ardanda. San». 

— n * u Tam.—Katallikai, Tel,^ — Adonda, arudoiida. Thc^e are 
use intcr-irritanls. The fruits are used as a pickle, 

Cadaba Indica. C. Farinosa^ 
HabitaL — Western India, 
r' rr. r. f. , j .-. — Eng. — Indian Cadaba. 
ni' onadi» Chimurudu. The 

aOu AiJLiic«iiiiJiUC* 

C, Trifollata. 

yZ^Aiikr/.— Camatic, Ceylon. 
Paris used. — Leaves and flower-buds, 
Kmro^j/iAif.— Tarn.— V^iluthcc, Maumhak-kooroonthu. 



Tarn, — Velivi. Tcl. — Ada 
root is reputed as aperient 



62 CRUCIFKRiC OR BRASSICACKiE. 

Characters. — Cadaba Trifoliata — leaves palmate, three-foliate, leaf- 
lets oblong, lanceolate and 2 inches long. 

C. Indica — leaves simple, ovate, oblong, acute and mucroiiate, 
from I to i^ inches long. C. Farinosa — leaves hoar}', ovate or oblong, 
obtuse and about i inch long. Dose of the leaves, 2 to 4 drs 

Constituents. — Leaves contain a bitter alkaloid, soluble in ether 
and alcohol and two organic acids — one resembling cathartic acid. Also 
nitrates and carbonates of lime. The ash contains alkaline chlorides, 
sulphates and carbonates. 

Preparation. — Decoction of leaves (1 in 10) Dose, 2 to 4 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, antiscorbutic and aperient. 
Decoction of leaves of C. Indica is used as anthelmintic in round 
worms. The juice of C. Trifoliata is given in dyspepsia in 
children. Leaves are used as purgative, emmenagogue and antiph- 
logistic, combined with myrobalans and ginger, or with senna and 
Epsom salt. In amenorrhaea and dysmenorrhoea a decoction of 
the leaves, combined with castor- oil and turmeric, is found useful. 
It is also given in syphilis, scrofula and rheumatism. Externally the 
leaves are used as varalians with the leaves of odina wodier to 
relieve rheumatic pains, and as a poultice to boils to promote suppu- 
ration. The leaves are used by the natives in preparing medicated oils. 

Cruoiferffi or BrasBioaceffi. 

Mustard (Rai) turnip and cabbage family. 

Cruciferae, from crux, a cross in allusion to the Maltese cross 
like arrangement of the four petals. 

General Characters, — Herbs or, rarely shrubs, leaves alternate and 
exstipXilate. Flowers cruciform, yellow, white or pink, rarely purple; 
and generally a mixture of these colours. Stamens tetradynamous, 
Inflorescence in racemes or corymbose. Racemes opposite the leaves or 
terminal and ebracteated. Fruit a siliqua or silicula. Seeds many, 
each seed superior, generally stalked and pendulous. All plants have 
a pungent bitter and acrid juice. The seeds are acrid and contain a 
fixed and volatile oil. The plants contain starch, sugar, iodine and 
sulphur. 

Habitat. — They are met with in temperate, frigid and tropical 
climates. 

Properties. — Many are nutritive, some pungent acrid, others anti- 
scorbutic ; some used as ordinary vegetables. 

Sisymbrium Irio. 

//aditat. — Korih India, Persia and Europe. 

Part used. — The seeds. 

Fer7iacu^ar.—Eng.— Hedge mustard, London rocket. Bom.— 
Khakshi. Arab.— Khubab. Fars.— Shafterak. Hind.— Khub-kalan, 
Khaksi. Mar.— Rantikhi. Mezenderan. — Shalumbi. Pcrs.— Khakshi. 
Tabriz — Surdan. Turkistan- Shiwaran, 



RAPHANUS SATIVUS. * 63 

Khuba-kalan — Khuba means good and Kalan Kallo or Maror 
(Guz.) means beauty. This drug is used by women to increase their 
beauty and promote fat. 

Characters. — The seeds resemble those of asalio, but are smaller and 
of a yellowish red colour. They are small, oblong or oval, and mark- 
ed with a groove. When placed in water the}' become coaled with a 
transparent mucilage ; taste is mucilaginous and oily, not so pungent as 
asalio and has a hot flavour like that of mustaid. Dose of the powdered 
seed — 15 to 45 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Expectorant, stimulant and antiscorbutic. An 
ingredient in many tonic confections used by the natives; given in 
coughs, asthma, hoarsenesis, and to prcmc te expectoration. Native 
women use it under the belief that they thereby fatten the body. Ex- 
ternally they are used as poultice over boils and inflammatory 
swellings. 

Baphanus Sativus. 

Garden radish. R. Caudatus. Raphanus Raphanistrum — wild 
radish. 

Ilahiiat, — G ujerat , Punjab. 

Parts used. — The plant, root. 

Vcrnacniar. — Eng.— Long-podded radish. Garden radish. Bom. 
— Mulo, Muro. Arab. — Bazr-el-Fujl. Beng, — Mula, Mull. Burni.— 
Moula or Moula. Can. — Mullangi. Duk. — Mulli. Hind. — Mula, Muro. 
Pcrs. — Turb. Sans. — Mulaka. Tarn., Tel. — Mullangi. 

Characters. — Root tapering, seldom branched, of a white colour 
and a pungent taste; leaves long and generally lyrate, petiole broadly 
channelled ; taste somewhat pungent ; seeds resemble those of sarasun, 
but are larger and of a reddish brown colour ; testa very minutely 
reticulated. On trituration the roots and seeds yield, with water, a 
fixed oil. 

Constituents. — Seeds and root contain a fixed oil, a sulphuretted 
volatile oil, lesembling mustard-seed oil. The oil is colourless and has 
the taste of radishes. It contains sulphur and phosphoric acid. 

Preparation — Juice of leaves. Dose, J to i dr. ; infusion of seeds 
(1 in 10). Dose, 1 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — The seeds and leaves are diuretic, laxative and 
lithontriplic. The root is used as an edible vegetable. All parts of the 
p'ant are used in urinary diseases and in cases of gravel, 

Lepidiam Sativum. 

Habitat. — North of Asia, Persia, cultivated in all countries. 
Part used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Hab-el-rashad, Half. Beng — Alivcri, 

Bom. — Ahaliva, Asalia. Burm. — Samah-ni, Samung-ni. Duk. — Halim. 
Guz. — Assalia. Hind. — Tara-lezak, Halim, Chansar, Chandrika. Eng.— 



64 LEPIDIUM IBERIS. 

Common garden cress. Mar. — Ahaliva. Pers. — Turrah-tezak. Sans. — 
Chandrasura, Tam.— Alivirai. Tel,— Adiyali» Adala Vitala. 

Characters^ — The seeds resemble in size those of Khubakalan, 
but are larger. They are of a reddish colour, oblong, somewhat angular 
and curved slightly on one side, surface rugous. Near the point of 
attachment there is a white scar, from which a small channel extends 
to ^ the length of the seeds. They are without odour, but of a pungent 
and mucilaginous taste. Doses — as alterative, 5 to 15 grs. ; as 
aperient, 20 to 40 grs. 

Constituents,-^ A volatile, aromatic oil and a fatty oil. 

Preparation. — Infusion cold (i in 10). Dose, 4 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Aperient, alterative, tonic, aphrodisiac and car- 
minative* A cold infusion is used to relieve hiccough. As an alterative 
the seeds are used in chronic enlargements of the liver and spleen. 
As a restorative tonic they form an mgredient in aphrodisiac confec- 
tion or rabree, and are given in seminal debility and leucorrhcea. As 
a carminative they are given as an adjunct to purgatives. The bruised 
seeds, mixed with lime-juice, are used as application for the relief of 
local inflammatory and rheumatic pains. Taken alone jthey act as 
aperient. 

Lepidiom Iberis. 

Habitat. — Persia. 
Part used.-^The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Bazr-el-khum-khum, Bazr-el-hawah, Kasisas. 
Eng, — Pepper grass. Pepper wort. Hind. — Towdri, Todari. Ispahan — 
Kaduma . Kirman — Mardarakht. Pers. — Tondripha-Towdri. Tabriz. — 
Darina. 

Characters. — The drug consists of white, yellow or black seeds, with 
some portion of rhomboid-shaped pods. In shape the seeds resemble 
lentils, but are smaller. They are yellowish red, ovate, flat or roundish, 
convex on both surfaces, and have a membranous white ring springing 
from the hilum. The ring spreads on both sides and separates the 
surfaces. A small groove extends from the hilum and disappears about 
the middle of both the surfaces. The taste is mucilaginous, slightly 
pungent, and resembles that of asalio ; that of the cotyledons, burning. 
When soaked in water the seeds become thickly coated with 
mucilage. Dose, 20 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — An amorphous bitter principle. — Lepidin, a sul- 
phuretted volatile oil and gum. 

Preparations. — Confection and tea. 

Actions and uses. — The seeds are diuretic, carminative* sudorific 
and stimulant. The confection is given in dropsy, bronchitis, fevers 
and with pepper in atonic dyspepsia, accompanied with flatus 
Externally tne seeds are used as a rubefacient in rheumatism. 



COCBLCARU ARMOR AHA. 64 

Belianthenitiin Canadense.— Frost wort. 

I^adi/aL—SoTiU America. 

Part used, — The herb. 

CkaracUrs.—The herb, perennial^ 6 to 15 inches high^ hairy; 
leavesi ioag and woolly beneath ; flowers broaU, yeliow : calyx 
pubescent ; taste bitter and astringent. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Cottstiiuents, — A bitter glucostde and tannin 1 1 p. c. I ^ed as 
Infusion, decoction, extract. 

AfiiotiS and usrs. — Tonic, astringent and alterative : in large doses 
letic ; given in scrofula, syphilis^ diarrhoea ; as a gnrgle in sore ihroaL 

CapMlla Bursa Pastom. — Shepherd's purse* 

Habitat* — Europe and widely naturalized. 

P»ft <mphytd.--Tht herb. Dose. 20 to 60 grs. 

Frr/<irfl/;<;wx.*- Fluid extract* Dose, \ to i fl, dn ; Tincture 
(s in a)« 1 to 4 d. drs. 

Aciiom and uses. — ^Diuretic, haemostatic, stimulant and tonic, 
recommended in iilt forms of kidney affectiotis, in chronic diarrhcea^ 
dropsy of the abdomen, &c. 

Coohlearia Jlrmoraoia, B. P., Armoracia RoBttoana, NastuHiam 

Armoraoia* 



J^a:'t:aL — Europe, cultivated in Britain. 

Parti ustiL — The fresh root, Arraoraciie Radix — Horseradish 
foot, B. i\ 

r A/r, — Fng. — Common horseradish. Hind* — Muli. 

/ fS. — Koot nearly cylindrical and marked with leaf-scars at 

ibc crow»» about half an inch to an mch in breadth and one foot long^ 
ydlowtsh externally and whitish internally ; has a characteristic pun- 
gent odour and pungent taste when scraped, cut or bruised. Dose, 
10 to 30 grs. 

CottsiituaUs, — A volatile oil, identical with oil of tnustard| and 
resiin. The oil is dissipated by drying, 

Pre^atatimi, — Spiritus armoraciae compositus, B. P. — Horseradish 
5 ounces, dried bitter orange peel 5 ounces, bruised nutmeg 55 
gT;&ias, alcohol 25 ounces, and distilled water 25 ounces ; distilled to a 
pints. Dose, i to 2 drs, 

Actimu and uses. — ^Stimulant, masticatory and diuretic ; externally 
rubefacient, irritant and vesicant ; used in atonic dyspepsia, rheu- 
matism, dropsy and hoarseness of voice. Locally used tor the same 
purposes as mustard in the form of liniment or catapJasm. Us 
action is due to the volatile oil, and hence should be used fresh. 

Remarks. — Sometimes aconite or monkshood is sold for fiorse- 
tadisJi, which it resembles; accidents have occurred, 

a 



66 CHIERANTHUS CHEIRI. 

Gheiranthas Cheiri. 

/^^i3/Va/.— Northern India. 

Part used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — The wallflower. Hind. — Tcdri surkh. Panj.— 
Lahori subu, 

Characteis, — Seeds small, linear, acute and reddish. They con- 
tain myrosine and an oil like that found in Raphanussativus. Dose, 
10 to 30 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Emmenagogue and deobstruent ; used in 
paralysis, uterine disorders and disordered liver, also for enlarged 
glands. 

Brassica (Sinapis). 

Varieties.— B, Alba, B. P., B. Nigra, B. P. Syn. — Sinapb Alba 
and Sinapis Nigra. 

Habitat — Asia, South of Europe, United States. 

Parts used. — The seeds, sinapis albae Seinina B. P., Sinapis Nigrae 
Semina B. P., powder of the mixed seeds. Sinapis. Mustard B. P. and 
a volatile oil, oleum Sinapis volatile B. P. 

Brassica — cabbage ; the fruit resembles cabbage. 

Mustard — mustum ardens, burning must, in allusion to the seeds, 
which were once pounded with must or vinegar ; also in allusion to its 
burning and pungent taste. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Khardal. Beng. — Rai. Burm. — Moung-ngyin 
kung ziyen. Can. — Sasave. Cing. — Rata aba, Ganaba. Duk. — Rayan. 
Eng — Mustard. Guz. — Rayi. Hind. — Rayi. Malay. — Savi Sasavi. 
Mar, — Mohari. Pers. — Sipandan, Sarshaf Sans. — Rajika, Tuverica. 
Sarshapaha, Asuri. Tam. — Kadagu. Tel. — Avalu. 

Characters. — White mustard — flowers yellow and in racemes, 
pods ribbed with a long ensiform beak; fruit a siliqua ij^ inch long, 
sword-shaped and four to six seeded ; seeds A of an inch thick 
and globular, with circular hilum ; testa yellowisn, finely pitted and 
hard; embryo oily; two cotyledons, one folded over the otner.. It is 
without odour when entire or powdered, almost inodorous when triturat- 
ed with water. Taste pungent, but less acrid than that of the black 
variety. Black mustard — flowers small, yellow, on peduncles 
at the end of the branches ; pods smooth, erect, and with a short beak. 
The fruit \ of an inch long, oblong, globular and tapering, 3 to 7 
seeded ; seeds smaller than those of the white variety (y^ inch in 
diameter) ; testa hard, minutely pitted and reddish brown or dark. 
It is without any odour when entire or powdered, but, when triturat- 
ed with water, the odour becomes pungent and penetrating. The 
taste is smarting, pungent and acrid. Dose, 15 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — Sinapis Alba contains a bland fixed oil, 20 to 25 p.c, 
a crystalline substance Sinalbin ; Sinapine sulpho-cyanide. Lecithin, 
mucilage (only in testa) ; Myrosin, a ferment ; proteids, ash 
4 p. c. The ash consists of potassium phosphate, magnesium 



BRASaiCA JHNrRA, 



fihoffhate ;ind cilcium phosphate. Sinalbin and myrosin, icting on 
trach other in the presence oi water, produce sugar, sinapine sulphate 
arttl sulpbo-c}-anide of acrinyUa rubefacient principle, similar to that 
Ibutiii in the volatile oil of black mustard* Black mustard contains 
myro&jf] and stnigrin (potassium myronate), 0*5 p.Cr Myrosin and 
»tnigrm. when acted upon by water, form sulphocyanide of allyl* 
which is the volatile oil of mustard. It also contains lixed oil 25 p. lv 
ninapine solphocyaxtide, lecithin mucilage, proteids and ash 4 px. 

The fixed oil, obtained by expression is a yellowish green, 
uan*drytng Ouid of a slight odour and bland mild taste. It solidifies on 
cooHng. It cc'nlainsglyceiides of oleic, steaiic and erucic or brassic 
sack. It is used as a diet in certain parts of India* 

Sirnlbin, only found in the while variety, in pearly cr>*stals, or 
colotJT nis, .soluble in water, sparingly so in alcohol, 

^^ il of mustard B, P.— A yellowish limpid liquid, highly 

fL of a pungent and acrid odour and taste. It contains chiefly 

Mj.j -. - . nidc oi allyl, with traces of carbon sulphide. 

i^tfiWatirms, — Charta sinapis B.P. or mubtard paper. Linimentum 
^fiapis, B, P,— volatile oil of mustard, li fluid drachm ; camphor, 2 
drdchms \ castor-oil 5 fluid drachms, and alcohol, 4 fluid ounces. 

I al aciions. — Flour of mustard is nervine, stimulaiit, 

cmcti' otic ; externally rubefacient, counter irritant and vesicant. 

In sni t promotes digestion and removes flatus ; in large dose& it 

i»a b! I g and sure emetic in over-feeding, indigestion and in 

narcotic poisoning, when given with hot %vater. It is an irritaijt to 
the^kin* Itichief use, however, is as an external remedy to relieve 
local pain, to stimulate the viscera and to act as a counter-irritant, 
Tl" 1 'tie oil, in tlte fortti of charta or planter, acts as a stimulant 
»' nt lu whatever part it is applied* Its application causes 

fru3<i^-; heal and severe burning pain. If applied lor a long time 
tl cau>«a \T^cation by setting up local inflammation. It is extensively 
ii»ed as .1 ' Inild remedy to rouse patients from syncope, low 

states oiti 11 and from unconsciousness. Asa counter-irritant 

tl tt Largely u^cU in all internal inflammations. 

Tktra^tk mes. — It is applied to remove muscular^ neu- 
ralj?jc, ana rheumaiic pains, in colic» gastralgia, in inflammation of 
tf. - -'*sages of the lung, pleura, pericardium, &c. The volatile oil 
t rritant* Taken internally it produces gastro-enteritis. The 

liMin-cni i3 applied as a rubefacient and also as a vesicant to swollen 
|4nnt»4 Asa defivative, mustard foot-baths or hip-baths are largely used 
tu fevers, uterine derangements, especially amenorrhoea and dysmenor- 
rh'fA ; in headache, cerebral congestion, in cardiac and in chci>t pains, 
' !• fixed oil is applied to promote the growth of hair* The 

- often mixed with wheat flour to weaken its irritant eflTects 

BrasBica Juncea. 

kincea, Sinapis Kansosa, Brassica Ramosa, 

/. — India, South Russia* 

i\tris ttJ/t/.—Thc seeds. 



6S BRASSICA COMPESTRIS. 

Vernacular. — Burm. — Moung-ngyin. Can. — ^Lasane. Ging^-rrGan^ 
aba, Rataaba. Eng. — Indian mustard, Russian sarepta mustard. Hind. — 
Sursun. Malyal. — Kadiya. Mar. — Mc^are. Pers. — Saurshuf. Saas« 
— ^Rajika Tuvarica. Sind. — Suraibij. 

Characters. — Seeds oblong, light, reddish brown, clean and bright, 
closely resembling those of sinapis nigra, but larger. 

Actions and uses. — similar to those of sinapb nigra, for which k 
is a good substitute. If previously deprived of its fixed oil, its activity 
» increased. If kept for a long time, it loses its pungency. 

RrauBsiea CampestriB. 

Habitat, — Europe and Russian Asia* 
Parts used. — Root and seeds. 

Vernacular.^ Eng. — Swedish turnip Can. — Sasave. Guz.— 

Sarasava. Hind. — Surson» Mar. — Sherus. Pers. — Sarshuf. 

Other varieties also produce edible roots and seeds and resemble 
black mustard in property, and probably in constituents. 

Brassica Napus — Cultivated rape-seed or cole seed. The seeds are 
black, but larger than mustard seeds, finely pitted and lightly 
acrid. A large quantity of bland fixed (^ is expressed from the seeds 
known as turnip seed oil. The cake, left after expression of the ofl, fs 
known as oil-cake. 

Brassica Rutabaga — seeds small and contain a pungent oil. 
Brassica Chmensis yields* Shanghai oil. 

Brassica Rapa — ^Rape or colza. The turnip. 

Vernacular. — Hind. — Sarsun, sursr, surras* Duk. — Rayan* Arab. 
— Luft. Beng. — Shalgam, Gonghi, Sarsho. Burm. — MuBg>!a-do-waing« 
Eog. — Rape or colza. Guz.— ^ursul. Pers. — Gouglu. Sans. — ^Asuri 
shershape. Sind. — Gohheu. 

Asuri. — Means Sorceress. Village witches were detected by 
means of this oil. The oil was dropped intacups filled with water, 
each cup bearing the name of the suspected woman. If the oil takes 
the form of a woman in any of the cups, the person whose name is oo 
the cup is declared to be a witch. 

Characters. — The seeds are blue-black and pitted, larger than 
mustard or turnip seeds. They are slightly acrid. The}' yield a bland oil 
known as rapeseed oil. This oil — Sursun tel, b largely used in India 
as an emollient and rubbed over the whole body in leucoderma, 
paralysis and rheumatism. It keeps the skin soft and clean, and is 
believed to promote the growth of hair and to remove lice and scurl 
The natives use the oil as an article of diet. 

Anastatioa Hieroohuntiiia. 

Habitat. — Deserts of Syria, Palestine, Arabia. 
Pkirt usedn — ^Thc dried herb. 



SIA 



!|3<IAUS 



Vernacuiar. — Arab. — Kaphe-Miryana, Raphe- Aye^ha. Hintl.— 
Garbhaphufa* Eng,^ — Mary*s flower, Rose of Jerichot Pcrs*^ — Panja-i- 
Mariam. Gu2. — Garbhaphul. 

Garbha phula — Garbha, a womb, and phiila a flower- The opening 
ftbc plant when put in water, and its closina; in again when drVi is 
Symbolical of the opening of the womb in childbirth and the closing 
oC it after delivery. In Palestine, it is termed Kaf Maryan, Mary's 
flower, in allusion to the tradition that the piant blossomed on 
the Chriiitmas eve to salute the birth of the Redeemer and paid 
hoi&a|[c to his resurrection by remaining expanded till Easter. Raphe 
Ayesha, so called by the Mohamedans, in allusion to the tradition that 
the plant expanded at the birth of Ayesba, who was the favourite 
wiin of the Prophet and mother of the faithful, 

CkaracUrs, — Dry herb of brownish white colour and of the shape 
of a fig. The stem Is short and woody and branched in a corymbose 
ntanucr. The branches when fresh spread out straight upon the 
ground^ but after withering, the hyprometric stems curve inward sci 
IS to form a round ball ; in this state they arc blown out by the winds 
Irom place to place. Hence they are supposed to be the Gurgal, 
rolling things or wheel of Isaiah. The root is thin and occupies 
the ^me place as the stalk of a fig. Each branch is studded with 
Qiimerous small capsules which are white and hairy. In shape the whole 
herb f eseTubics a water goblet The top of it is formed of two margi- 
nal concave wings, between which a curved prickle-like process projects. 
Il pir»^v«e*i«»es a curious hygrometrical property, lis, when placed in 
unti^r it )kprcads Hat by absorbing it. This property is preserved for 
ytars 

J^eparattQn. — Cold infusion (i in lo). Dose, t to 6 drs. 

Aciif^fis and nse$^—'\\\Q cold infusion is given in difficult labour in 
wbich the effects seem to be more mental than physiologicaK 

Fam&rlaceae. 

The Fumiton' order. 

If' ' lootn, with brittle stems and a watery juice; leaves multi- 
ple, 1 » , often with tendrils, alternate much divided ; tlowers 
irt uiisymmetrical, in pink, red, yellow, or white inflorescence, 
at . ise ; fruits small, pod4ike» dehiscent or intehiscent, one or 
Iwy >cc^oJ and succulent ; seeds shining and crested ; albumen fleshy. 

HahitaL — India, Japan, Persia, and in temperate climates. 
ProptHi^, — All plants possess bitter, acrid, astringent^ emmena- 
gngue and apct tent properties. 

Fumaria Officinalis^ 
HahilaU — Persia, Nepaul, Bombay. 
f^riu%cd, — The plant. 

Ftimaria. — From fumus, fume or smoke. The plant irritates the 
«yei like smoke, 

Vernacular. — A rab. — Shahteraj, Baklat-ul-malik. Bomb. — Pita- 
pipra. Chin.^Tsie-hwa-tiaing. Eng.^Common fumitory. Hind. — 



70 CORYDALIS CAVA. 

Pitapapra. Pers. — Shahturuz. Sans. — Ksheteraparapatiyyavanapaipata 
Beng.— Shatera Pitpapra. 

Characters. — The drug is of a greyish yellow colour and resembles 
in appearance trayamana. It consists of broken leaves, stems, capsules, 
flowers and seeds; leaves green ish,t hick and narrow; stems greyish yellow, 
one to two inches long, furrowed and rather quadrangular ; capsules 
very small, gryish green, tubercled, slightly compressed and with a 
transverse ridge scar to the apex; flowers irregular, uns^-mmetrical and 
either \nolet coloured or white; seeds very small and consist of fleshy 
albumen ; taste bitter, acrid and astringent, odour acrid and disagreeable. 

Constituents. — Fumaric acid, and fumarine, — a cr^'stalline organic 
base. 

Fumaric acid is isomeric with maleic acid. It may be obtained by 
de -hydration of malic acid ; it exists readv formed in several plants, 
namely, Corydalis bulbosa, Glaucium flavum, Lichen Islandicus, 
It is also found among the products of the oxidation of protein 
compounds by niiro-hydrochloric acid. 

Fumarine exists in irregular 6-sided crystals or monoclinic 
prisms. Insoluble in alcohol, chloroform, benzol, bisulphide of 
carbon and amyl alcohol ; sparingly soluble in water and soluble in 
ether. 

Preparation, — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, i to 2 ozs 

Actions and uses. — Diuretic, diaphoretic, tonic, alterative, 
anthelmintic, and aperient ; useful in syphilis, scrofula, constipation 
and dyspepsia, due to torpor of the liver or intestines. It is allied in 
its properties to taraxacum. With black pepper it is given in ague and 
jaundice ; also given to purify the blood in skin diseases. 

Remarks. — What is sold under the name of Ghati-pita-papado is 
an acanthaceous plant often substituted for Pita-papado. The true 
Pita-papado is sold in the bazaar under the Persian name Shahtira. 

Corydalis CaTa. C. Tnberoea. 

Syn. — Hollow-rooted fumitory-. 

Habitat. — United States. 

FUrt used. — The root (tuber). 

Constituents, — Cor\*daline, corAxravine and other bases. 

/Vr/<i/a/wii.— Powdered root (tuber), lo to 40 grains. Fluid 
extract. Dose — 10 f 40 ms. Dry extract Dose 1 to 5 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Alterative, antisyphilitic, aDtiperiodic, tonic, 
diuretic and resolvent. It seldom disagrees with the stomach, and 
may be employed as a tonic in irritable condition of that organ. 
It is especially given in scrofula, syphilis, cutaneous affections, urinar>' 
diseases and debility. 

Corydalis GoTaniana. 

//ii^it.tt. — Wester n H imalav-a. 
P,srt u^ca\ — Veilow i^ixc. 



Acttom and uses, — Alterative ; given in scrofula, skin dbeases &c. 

PolygalacecQ. 

Milk wnrt family* 

I' i;€ frtjni poly, much, and gal;;!, milk; it is believed to 

ilicrc^^^ tnlk in female animals. 

Shrubs, ur Kerbs. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple and ex^tipu- 
late* Flnwei:i IT regular, unsym metrical and apparently papilionaceous 
(wing» btnng fcirmed hv the calyx). Fruit indehiscent, loculicidal 
and occasionally winped ; seeds pendulous, smoolli or hairy, with a 
caruncuh next the hi I urn ; albumen copious and fleshy, 

liiihiiat, — Fou n d every w h ere . 

/^ A,.r/i*^5,— Bitter and acrid; roots milky, and used as tonic, 
ff and siitnuhnt ; some are emetic, purgativ*;, diuretic, 

iL-j.MkntUC and expectorant. Some have edible fruit^^ and others 
contain a saponaceous principle. 

Krameria Triandra B> P.— Peruvian Rhatany* Krarneria Argentea 
B. P. Fara Rhatany. 

HahiiaL — Peru^ South America, New * rranada, Bolivia and Para. 

Part med, — The dried root. Kramcri.e Radix— Krameria root^ 
nthatany root B. P. 

Cilrf?r^i<r/rri*— Shrubs. Root in cylindrical pieces. Para Rhatany — 
hark smooth, thick, of a purplish brown colour, marked with deep 
traitsvcfsc fissures or cracks. Internally rough and scaly. W<Jod pale 
and of a reddish browu colc)ur and firmly adherent to the bark, 
frjcture >hon and splintery. Taste astringent and tinges the saliva 
ydlow. Drise^ lo to 60 grs. Peruvian Rhatany — bark dark, reddish 
liroKirn, t lo from the yellowish wood, thinner, astringent* 

in la$lt!, i saliva red. Dose, 10 to 60 grs, 

Gifu%btHe$tis. — The bark contains krameric acid, Tannin 40 p.c, 
Rhalattic nid, Uarch, sugar, gum, wax and calcium oxalate. 
Rhatanic red or ratanhia red. 

.* nirr. — Hoil kramero tannic acid with diluted sulphuric 

acid . I splits up into glucose and the colouring principle, which 

it similar to that found in horsechestnut and tomcntiila. With 
potash it is converted into protocatcchuic acid and phloroglucin* 

PteparaiioMt. — Liquor Krameria^ Concent rat us B. P. (l in 2.) 
Do*c, f lo I dr. Extractum Krameri^e B, P. — Extract of Krameria. 
Extract of Rhatany- Dose, 5 to 1 5 grs. Infusum Kramcriic (iniin). 
D 1 ox, Trochiscus KrameriavB.P, — Rhatany ln?:cnges (1 grain 

c in eiirH.) Trochiscus Krameti<c ct Cocain*^ B. P, (Extract I 

I /„ grain in each.) Tinctura Krameride B. P. — 

* ny \,i JIB'S)- Do!»e, ^ to I dr. 

AcfiOHJ and uses, — A powerful astringent, alterative and tonic ; 
tncd in chronic diarrhcra and dysentery ; also to check passive 
iismuffhagC4 a> mcnoirhagia, Icucorrhcea and gleet. In incontinence 



72 POLYGALA SENEGA 

of urine it is also beneficial. Externally, as gargle or lozenges^ it is 
given in sore throat ; as an injection or enema, for fissure of the anu», 
leucorrhoea, and as a wash in cracked nipples. It is also used a9 
dentifrice. Locally it is applied to spongy gums. As an alterative it 
IS given in rheumatism, syphilis and scrofula. It is also used as an 
application for the bites of venomous reptiles. 

Polygala Crotalarioides. — In India the root is used as an 
expectorant. 

P. Tenuifolia, a Chinese plant, the root of which in contorted 
quilled pieces, is used in cough; the leaves are given in spermatorrhcea. 

Polygala Chinensis, HahitaL — Pasture lands throughout India. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Lubanat. Hind. — Maradu. Man— Negli. 
Pers. — Furfur. 

Polygala Alba. — White or false senega. — The root contains 
polygalic acid 3 p. c. Used as infusion and tincture. 

P. Polygama. — ?• Rubella. — Bitter polygala^ the root and herb 
contains a bitter principle similar to senegin, and is used as a diaphore- 
tic» laxative and tonic in bronchial catarrh &c. 

Polygala Senega B. P. 

Habitat, — Woods, rocky soil, United States, Honan, Shensi. 

Part used, — The dried root, Senegae Redix — Senega Root B. P. 

Sengh. — Snake root, milk wort^ mountain flax. 

Senega. — The term is derived from Seneca, an American Indian 
tribe who used it for snake-bite. 

Characters, — Indigenous perennial plant, FJowers small and 
white and at the summit of the stem ; root 4 or 5 inches long, slender 
and of a yellowish brown colour, enlarged at the top into a knotty 
crown, contorted and often curved, longitudinally wrinkled^ breaking 
with a short fracture ; cortex horny^ translucent, free from starch 
grains, and enclosing a white or yellowish porous wood ; taste at first 
somewhat sweety and afterwards acrid ; odour distinctive. Dose — 
3 to 20 grs. 

Adulterations. — Ginsing root, cypripedium root, Gentian root, 
and Cynanchum Vincetoxicum root ; but they all di&r in odour and 
taste. 

Constituents, — A neutral glucoside called Senegin^ 2 to ^ p. c, 
probably identical with saponin ; PoVygalic acid, a volatile oil, a fixed 
oil, 8 to 9 p.c. ; tannin, gum^ resin, sugar 7 p.c. ; pectin, malates, and 
yellow colouring matter. 

Senegin. — To obtain it exhaust the root with alcohol, concentrate 
and precipitate with ether. A white amorphous powder, without 
any odour^ freely soluble in alcohol and cold water, forming a soapy 
emulsion with boiling water ; with hydrochloric acid it is decomposed 
into glucose and sapogenin. 



SCHLFJCHERA TRIJUGA. 



73 



PoZygalic acid^ sparingly soluble inakoholj insoluble in ether and 
chloroiorm. 

Fixed oil, — Obtained from the root by ether — contains virginic 
acid« to which the: aroma h due* Volatile oil contains valerianic ether 

and mctliyl salicylate. 

f^e/yarations.—lnfiisum Senega? B, P. (i in 20), Dose, } to i or. 
Liquor Senegar Concentratus B» P. (l in 2). Dose, ( to 1 dn 
Tinciura Senegae B,P. (1 in 5). Dose» \ to I dr. Extractum Senegse 
fluidum — Fluid extract oF senega. Dose, lo to 20 ois* 

Syrupus senegac contains iluid extract of senega 20, ammonia 
water 5, and suga? 10. Dose, i to 2 drs. Syrupus scill«e compositus — 
compound ^yrup of sc^uill — 8 p, c. Dose, 20 1030 ms. 

Pkys$<iltigiiiil aciion. — Stimulating expectorant, emmenagogue, 
diuretic and diaphurettc. Iti large doses gastro-intestinal and throat 
irritant^ producing coughs increased salivation, 5nee2ing and nasal 
catarrh. In small doses it removes the tightness and feeling of oppression 
friMJi the chest. Scnegtn has a stimulating action on the mucous 
membranei^i especially of the pulmonary tract. It is a powerful 
depr^sant of the heart and of the muscular and nervous systems. 
It t^ ctiminated by the kidneys, skin and bronchial mucous membrane^ 
i^hich it stimulates and irritates. 

Tketaptuikst, — As a stimulatmg expectorant it is largely used alone 
Of in combination with ammonium cart>onate in chronic bronchitis, 
poeumouia, asthma, croup and whooping cough ; it relieves the cough 
and prorn^ : ctoration. It is not of much use if the bronchial 

raucii% L ion is tough and scanty; as a diaphoretic and 

dhirclic. It ii sumetimes employed in anas^arca and dropsy dvie to 
albuminuria * as an cmmenagogue it is used v^ith benefit in amenorrhura, 

Bapind&cm.— The Aritha or Soap Wort Family. 

Sapindacas from sapo, soap, and Ind, ** Indian," Indian soap. The 
frtiil is saponaceous and contains a vegetable principle named sapontoc. 

[jirge trees or twining shrubs, and rarely climbing herbs; leaves 
generally compound, rarely simple, alternate cr opposite, often dotted 
and with or without stipules. Flowers unsymmetrical, generally poly- 
gamous ; ovary, getierally two to three-celled. Fruit capsular ur fleshy 
and irjdehi!^cnt, some sweet are with an acid flavour ; seedii exalbu- 
mioouis superior arillate. Most prominent property of this family is the 
presence of a &apt»naceous principle. 

Hnhit4it^ — ^'1 Vop i ls. 

The plants are astringent^ aromatic, diuretic, diaphoretic and 
aperient. Some species are poisonous. 

Schleichera Trijuga. 

//tf^'/ji/,— Burma, Ceylon, S. India, Himalayas, 
l^arh used, — ^Tlie bark and oil. 



74 SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS. 

Vernacular, — Eng.— Ceylon oak. Hind. — Kosimb. Tarn. — Pu- 
maram. Tel. — May Rahatangah. Mai. — Puvatn. Can. — Sagade, 
Chakota. 

Characters. — Fruit a drupe of the size of a nutmeg ; the husk is 
grey, fragile, covered with soft, blunt prickles; seeds I to 3, oblong, 
smooth, truncated at the base and surrounded with pulpy arilla \ 
taste acid ; bark thick, with a soft, outer corky layer ; inner bark 
firm, hard and breaks with a short fracture ; colour pale red ; taste 
astringent. 

Constituents. — The bark contains tannin and ash. 

Actions and uses, — The pulpy arilla is sub-acid. The bark is 
astringent, and mixed with oil, it is applied to cure itch and other 
skin eruptions ; the oil under the name of Macassar oil is used as a 
stimulant application to the scalp to promote the growth of the hair. 

SapindoB TrifoliatoB. S. Rnbiginosas. 

Habitat. — South India, Ceylon, Bengal. 

Part used. — The pulp of the fruit. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Finduk-i-hindi, Bandak-e-hindi. Beng. — 
Buro-ritha. Bur. — Miavenen-suc-khe-si. Can. — Kukate-kayi, Thaly 
marathu, artala. Cing. — Penela. Duk. — Rithah. Eng.— Indian filbert, 
Soapnut tree, soap berry. Guz. — Aritha. Hind. — Ringin, Dodan, 
Ritha. Malay. — Punnan-kotta. Mar. — Ritha, Areeta Ringin. Pers, — 
Ratah. Sans. — Phenila, Arishta. Tam. — Pannan-kottai, Puvandi. 
Tel. — Kunkudu-kayalu. 

Characters. — Berries dry, generally three, united together, or 
separate ; skin thin, shrivelled and of the colour of raisins; when ripe 
soft and of a greenish colour. In shape somewhat resembling a 
kidney. When united together, points of attachment are marked by 
a heart-shaped scar ; pulp translucent ; berry one-seeded ; seed round, 
smooth, black and shining ; testa hard and bony ; kernel yellowish 
brown and oily ; smell of the berry like that of burnt sugar, and that 
of the pulp resembling that of Khajura ; taste sweet at first, afterwards 
becoming bitter. Dose of the pulp, 2 to 6 grs. 

Constituents, — Saponin ii'S p.c. Glucose and pectin; The thick 
cotyledons contain white fat 30 p.c. It saponifies readily. 

Actions and uses. — Expectorant, emetic,anthelmintic and purgative. 
Externally stimulant and irritant ; used in asthma, colic, worms, 
and as a purge combined with scammony. Externally applied to the 
mucous membrane of the nose to rouse patients from insensibility 
in hysteria, epilepsy, hemicrania and melancholia ; also applied to 
scrofulous and other glandular swellings and to bites of yenomous 
reptiles ; used also to destroy pediculi and to wash and cleanse the 
hairs of the head. Pessaries made of the kernel of the seeds are 
used in amenorrhcea and after childbirth to stimulate the uterus to a 
healthy contraction. 



RAIJLttlfTA SORBttlS — GUARANA — IIRAZltlAN COCOA. 



Rrm^rks, — It rcbenibles sikakai. The fruit pulp is said to he 
fff^- f;t..,>i, more powerful in cleaning linen than soap. Berries of S. 
■' . S. Rttrak, S. Emarginatus, S, Detergens arc all used Un 

i\xx juirjusesof soap-making owing to the presence of Saponin. S. 
Afukora^M is the soap-nut of Northern India, and is called Dodan in 
the Punjab, 

PauUiiiia Sorbilis—Guarana— Brazilian Cocoa* 

HnhiiiU.—^. and W. BraziK 

/\irt Hs^d. — Guarana, a dried paste ofcrn&hed seeds deprived uf 
arif and iiioulded into cylinders and dried by sun or fire. 

Charnctrrs* — A climbing plant ; fruit of the size of grape or 
I' . nvoid, pyriform, 6*ribbed, seeds resembling hazel nut seeds, 2 

' '^ the fruit. Aniluswiiitc; taste bitter ands astringent Guarana 

n Hi*iiic by slightly roasting and powdering the dried seeds and then 
itudc into a St i0^ paste or dough with water; with this paste broken 
seeds arc also rtnngled and made into cylindrical rolls or elliptical 
ciJces or sticks. The paste is dark -brown or of a fawn-yellow 
colour ; odour slight, resembling chocolate ; taste bitter and astriiigentp 
paiUy soluble in water and alcohol. Dose, lo to 60 grs. 

0>mtit$ifnlji, — Contains a bitter crystalline principle ; guaranine 
J - p. c, identical with cafTeinc or theine. Tannin — ^Paullini 

t tf c6 p, c^, resin, greenish fixed oil, fat, albumen^ starch, 

gum nin, ash 2*5. px* 

ts ijc* — Powder the paste. Boil it with litharge and 

inter. Killer the solution, pass sulphuretted hydrogen through the 
sotuiion to precipttaCe lead ; evaporate and erystolli^e^ Dose, 
I to 5 gr». 

PauUini tannic acid precipitates ferric salts^ gelatin, gold and 
Ulvcr salts* 

/^rfiaratfons,^ — Extractum guaran^e fluidum — fluid extract of 
guanna, not miscible with water. Dose, 10 lo 60 grs. Tinctura 
suiriinse (i in 4). Dose, t to 1 dr. Syrup* Dose, 3 104 dis. Elixir 
Guaran«T^ — a tincture of guarana treated with magnesia to liberate 
t id, and flavoured. Dose, ^ to 2 drs. Elixir Eryihroxyli <--t 

i:^^,^..^ contains coca and Guarana 7^ grains each in ooe fluid 
dnchm. Dose, i to 2 drs* 

/" ira/ at/ihfts. — Nervine stimulant, tonic and astringent* 

ft iff .1 the sensory and motor nerves, but more so the sensory 

'^. k causes hyper^eslhesia and also convulsions. Its action 
*-• heart and respiration is to stimulate them at first and then 
|t ns them. It produces restlessnses, and quick perceptiun, 

§%. pulse^ impairs digestion and causes irritation of the bladder* 

Tt is gtvcn chiefly in relieving neuralgic aft'cctions, such as hemicrania, 
ikk lieadache occurring during menstruation or after a debauch. As 
a tonic it is given in diarrhcea and phthisis ; also in convalescence 
from acate diseases, &c. Guaranine may be employed in the same 
way aa ctfleine. 



Dadonaa Viscosa. D. Augostifolia. 

Bahitai, — Throughout India, Neilgherries, and Punjab. 

Pari used, — ^The leaves. 

Vernacular. — Can. — Bandarika. H ind, — SanattAf Banmen Jm^ 
Eng. — ^Jamaica-switch sorrel. Mar. — Jakhmi^ Bandari. 

Ckartickfs. — Leaves green» more or less viscid, cootaiiiing &hinm^ 
yellowish resin ; taste sour and astringent. 

Consttttttut^, — Guhii acid resins 27'j. Albumen, Tannin. Of the 
two resins one is insoluble in ether ; both are soluble in chlorolomi^ 
alcohol, liquid ammonia and in fixed alkalies; 

Preparation. — Tincture (l in 10). Dose^ 15 to 30 ms. 

Actions and uses, — Alterative, laxative, febrifuge and tonic, given 
in rheumatism, gout and fevers. The leaves make excellent poultice 
and varalians and retain heal for a long time when applied to painful 
swellings and rheumatic joints. 

/^sculus Indica. — Himalayan horse-chestnut^ made into a paste 
and applied to rheumatic joints ; the seeds are used as food, 

Acer pictum and accr aesium. — The knots in the stems arc, like 
Quassia, made into cups and used for drinking water in rheumalibm* 

CardiasimFmum Halioaoabum. 



Ha hita /. — India. 

Part used. — The herb. 

leniacuiar, — Eng, Heart's pea. Arab, — Taftaf^ Habb-el-KulkuK 
Beng. — Nayaphataki, Lotaphatakari, (seeds), Burni, — Mala mai. Can,— 
Kanakaia, Cing- — Jyotish-muttee. Dak.— Shib-Jub. Gnz. — Karodio, 
Hind. — Kanaphata. Mai— Ulinja. Mar. — Kanphuti, Shib-jal. Sans.^ — 
Karnasphota, Paravata-padi, Jyantisha mati. Tarn. — ^Modda coatan* 
Tel. — Budha-kakara, NelJa Gulisi-tenda, Vekkudutige* 

Paravata-padi. Pigeon^s foot, Karansphota-karan, an car, and 
sphota, or phota a crack. It is used for the cure of crack to the ear. 

Characters. — A climbing plant, leaves glabrous, biternate : leaflets 
oblong, coarsely cut and serrated; root white and fibrous, of a disagree- 
able odour and of an acrid ^ nauseous and bitter taste. 

Constituents. — Saponin, 

P^eparation.^DecoQiion of the root (i in io).Dose, 4 toiodrs. 
A compound powder containing leavei of C. Halicacabunt ' laie 
of potash, root of acorus calamus^ root-bark of Terminalia i in 

equal pans ; mix, make powder. Dose, 1 drachm in amcnorrha-a* 

Actions and uses, — Diuretic, laxative, stomachic, alterative and 
rubefacient, given in rheumatism, nervous diseases, piles, chronic 
bronchitis and phthisis ; also in amenorrhie .1. The leaves fried are also 
applied to the pubes to increase the menstrual flow in anicnorfhoea;the 



HVPERICUM PERFORATUM. 



77 



eaves, besmeared with caslor-oil, are applied over rheumatic pains, 
^wcUuigs and tumours of various kinds. The juice of the plant b 
dropped into the ear in earache and discharge from the meatus, 

Hyperioaceee. 

The St. John's wort family. Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves 
opposite, rarely alternate, exstipulate. simple dotted and bordered 
with bUck glands ; flowers regular ; sepals 4 or 5, unequal, united at 
the }xi$e, unbricated ; petals hypogynous ; stamens numerous ; fruit 
capsular ; seeds minute, numerous and exalbuminous, 

HahitaL — Both temperate and hot regions. 

/^<^rllrV*,— They contain resinous yellow juice, which is 
pttrpittTe; M>me3re tonic, astringent and diuretic. 

Hypericum Perforatum* 

Habitat — Hilly parts of India. 

Pnri tfj^//.— The juice. 

Ffrtiacu/ar.^AT'db, — Hyufarikun. Pers.^ — Dadi, Jao-i-Jadu, 

Jao-i-Jadu means magic barley. 

Conshtucnts. — A volatile oil, hypericum-red — a blood-red resin, 
having the odour of chamomile. 

Acitomanii uses, — Nennne tonic, and astringent, given in hypo- 
chondriasis ; also used as an anthelmintic emmenagogue and diuretic. 
The juice was used as an application to wounds. 

OuttlferaQ or Clusiacea. 

The Kokama or Mangosteen family. Guttiferae — from gutta, 
a drop, and ftrre to bear. Plants yield gum, or resinous juice in drops. 

General characttrs. ^-Trets or shrubs, sometimes parasitical, %vith 
refinous juice ; leaves entire, simple, coriaceous, opposite and exstipu- 
lite. Flowers perfect, sometimes unisexual ; stamens monadelphous, 
distinct, of a fragrant Oilour, Fruits globular, dehiscent or indehiscent, 
edible, of delicious flavour and astringent taste ; seeds solitary or 
numierous, frequently arillate, oily and without albumen. 

Z/aMnL — Tropical parts, specially S. America and Africa. 

/Voi8rr/y. — Many contain a yellow gum resin, of an acrid and pur- 
»tivc character, and some cmitain edible fruits, 

Ochrocarpus LongifoUus. 

f/ahitai, — Western Peninsula. 

/^iri tis^fit — The dried flower buds* 

I VrwatwAii'.^Bomb. — Tarabra Nagakesara. Eng.^ — Cobra's saffron. 
Guz. — Rati Naga-kesara, Gor iundi (the fruit). Hind. — Nagesura. 
Mar, — r.imbra Naga kesara, Punnag, Suringi, Pets. — Nara*Mushka 
Saas«— Naga kesaia, Punnaga. 



7« MESUA PERREA. 

Naga kesara — Naga, a cobra, and kesara, saffron. Cobras are 
said to be fond of these blossoms on account of their fragrance. The 
true Naga-kesara is Mesua Ferrea. 

Characters, — Flower buds resemble kababchini in size and form ; 
and are of a cinnamon colour ; some are hermaphrodite ; others male 
only. On opening the male bud a group of anthers, adherent to one 
another and forming a small ball, is seen. The colour of the anthers 
is deeper than that of the calyx. In the hermaphrodite variety, on re- 
moving the anthers, is seen" the ovary with a large stigma. The seed, 
is large as an acorn, exudes a viscid, gummy fluid when cut. The 
smell is aromatic and taste acrid. Dose, i to 2 grs. 

Actions and uses, — The flower-buds are used as fragrant adjuncts to 
decoctions and medicated oils. They are stimulant, aromatic, stomachic, 
bitter and astringent ; used, like taja, elachi, tamalapatra, in great 
thirst, irritability of the stomach and excessive perspiration, and also 
given in dysentery with benefit. A pasfe of it is used to fill up 
the cavities of caried teeth to relieve toothache. 

Hesoa Ferrea: H. Boxbargha, H. Coromandalina. 

Habitat, — Bengal, Himalaya and An damans. 

Parts used. — The flower-buds, root, bark and oiL 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Nag-kesar ; Burm. — Ken-gan Gungan. 
Can. — Naga-ampagi .Eng. — Iron wood tree. Hind. — Nagesar, Nagkasar. 
Malyal. — Beluta, Champagum-veila. Mar. — Nag-champa. Sans. — 
Kesaramu, Nagasara, Naga-kesaram, Kangal, Kanna. Tam. — Irul- 
maram, Nagashappu, Shirunagappu. Tel. — Chikati-manu Nag-kesa- 
ram. 

Characters. — Flower buds are large and white ; sepals thick, mem- 
branous and orbicular ; petals spreading ; anthers large and golden- 
yellow ; fruit ovoid, conical shaped and chestnut like in size, the base 
surrounded by the persistent sepals; seeds i to 4, dark-brown; testa 
smooth round the base of the young fruits. Dose, i to 2 grs. 

Constituents — The fruit contains an oleo resin and an essential 
oil. The seeds contain a fixed oil. The hard pericarp contains tannin. 
The resin is in tears ; it sinks in water. It is partially dissolved in 
rectified spirit, amyl alcohol and ether, but wholly in benzol. The 
essential oil is very fragrant, of a pale yellow colour and of the 
odour of flowers, and resembles chian turpentine. 

Preparations. ^Syxuip (i in 10). Dose, \ to i dr. Ointment 
and oil. Decoction of root (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actions and uses.— The dried blossoms, root, and bark are 
bitter, aromatic and sudorific. Unripe fruits are aromatic, acrid and 
purgative. Flower-buds are used in dysentery. The oil is used as 
2ln application for rheumatic joints; an ointment of the powder of 
blossoms, with butter, is applied to bleeding piles and for burning 
sensation of the feet. 



OAKCINfA MANCOSTAKA, 



}ar€iiiia XanthechymuB. Xanthochymus Pictorius. 
//aitila/. — Hastei n liengal^ Eastern Hinialayasi Western Peninsula. 
Parf used, — T h e f r u i t . 

Vermanhif. — Beng — Outh orosht. Assam — Tcpor. Burni, — 
. — Daiiipel. Tii\. — Iswara-nianiaiii. Tani.— Tamalamu, 



HitK! 



Matun. 
diiUka. 

Chamrtir:i*^>\ yujiow truii, very acrid, oi liie size of a small 
apple. 

/V^^r/m/4>>w»— Compound syrup, contains^ in addilion to osht, rock 
salt| pepper, ginger, cumiu-secds and sugar. 

ArhoHS auii uses, — Same ns those of G, Indica* 

Garcina Mangostana. 

//alntaL — Malacca, Malayan Peniiibtjla, Singapore, India, Arclii- 
ilago. 

Part4 used, — Tfje rind of the fruit and pulp., 

Vfru^tcuiiir, — Beng, — Mangusatan, Bomb. — Mungeestun. Burm* 
— ■Mcn-pu-young, Zalai Mango-si. Chin. — Shan-chuhikwo* Eng. — 
Manitosttne. Hind* — Mangustan. Malay. — Manggusta. 

r^itri-T^frrs, — Fruit, a drupe as large as a small apple* When fresh 
l^ i* soft, fibrous, and of a red colour; pulp is snow-white, en- 

V' ^ ^ cds;flavour very grateful and delicate; dry fruit is globular 

aiidol a dark-brown colour, with a radiating flat or compressed six-parted 
'tivmia at I lie lop, with a four-parted hard and thick adherent calyx 

e bottom. When cut the interior is hollow and occasion- 
.Mi> contain* a small quantity of dark coloured dried pulp. The rind 
11 corky-looking and sprinkled with a yellow colouring matter. The 
odntir h somewhat aramaiic. The taste is acidulous and astringent. 
Dosci lo to ,^o grs- 

( its* — The rind contains mangostin^ resin and tanntn. 

K To obtaiti it, boil the rind in water ; to remove tannin, 
t ^ alcohol, and evaporate. The resulting product is 

Tij... p, .^.... «,.^ .V in, To precipitate the lesiu re-dissolve in alcohol and 
w**tcr. 

U occurs m fmall yellow scales, without any taste, neutral reac- 
don, iRSotuble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol and ether; also in 
hot dilmc acids. Concentrated nitric acid converts it into oxalic 
acid. With alkalies il forms yellow solutions. 

Preparaimts.—ExiTALt. Dose. 3 to jo grs. Tincture of the rind 

^1 in 10)'. Dosc^ i to I dr. SyTup of the pulp (i in 5)* Dose, | to 1 dr. 

AcHons and usts, — The rind is a powerful astringent and a good 

iibitt: * 1ianbacl,and is used, in intestinal catarrh, advanced 

cajifeA nd chronic diarrhoea ; also in leucorrho^a. gonorrhura 

ol children. Locally the solution of pulp is 

^Afgle in tunsilitis, and as a local application in 

pf^L|#»u^ 4a^ i^\^ vaguia:. 



Qarcina Indica and 0. t^orpurea^ 

Habitat, — Western Peninsula, Araboyna. 

Parts u$rd, — ^The concrete oil, fruit, seeds and bark, 

Vtmacular. — Eng.— The fruit, ^z6. mango. Bomb.— Ainsul^ 
kokuma, Goa.^Brindao. Man — Ratambi — Bhirand, The concrete 
oiL Eng» — Kokuma butter, Guz. — Brindao is a corruption of Bbn-inJ* 
Kokumbela, kokamanu-ghee. Mar. — Birandela, KokunichaleU. 

Cliaraciers. — The concrete oil is extracted from the poundci r ; 
by boiling, and then moulded into ovaUshaped balls, whenil is knowi. .iv 
kokuma butter. It resembles in appearance country soap (kappai ivmji- 
sabu)* It is hard, of a dirty white colour, dry, easily pulvtnsah! .ir>d 
unctuoiis to the touch. The fruit is globular in size, and res* niltif 
an orange. It is of a yellow colour and contains an acid pjip nn i 
several seeds. The seeds are black, reniform, wrinkled and conr 
laterally, and resemble amali seeds in size, and contain a hv 
Each seed has a 4-parted wing-like calyx, with si short stalk at its b;ue« 
Kokama or amsul is the pulp of the fruit cleared of ihe seeds and dried 
in the sun and slightly salted. It is of a black colour and an oval shape* 
The epidermis is wrinkled. At the base of kokama the calyx and thi: 
remainder of the stalk are often seen* The smell and taste «re add* 

Constttuents, — The concrete oil boiled with soda yields hard loap* 
%vhich is decomposed by sulphuric acid, tearing fatly acids as stearic 
acidj myristic acid and oleic acid. The seeds contain fat 50 p.c. The 
fruit contains cellulose, an extractive and insoluble residue* 

J^e/aration.~^Syr\xp of the juice (1 in 5), Dose» ^ to i teaspoonfut. 
Decoction of the bark (i in 10). Dose, 4 to 6 drs. 

Actions and tises. — Cooling* demulcent, emollient and antiscorbu* 
tic. It is used in the form of syrup in irritation of bowels, leading to 
diarrhoea and dysentery and as a refrigerant in fevers. In scurvy 
it is used in place of lemon -juice. The oil — kokum butter — is an 
excellent emollient application to cracks and fissures of the lips, handii 
and feet, and over the nipples and to excoriations in other places. U&cd 
by the natives as an ointment base combined with lard, and ^ 
suppositories and pessaries, and no doubt is a good substitute for oil oC 
theobroma and for simple ointment. It keeps well in India ' i!c»* 
The bark and leaves are astringent and used a& ad. tti 

dysentery* 

Qarciaia Hanburii, B.P. 

G. Morell var. Pedicellata, Gt Pictoria, Hebradcndron Cam* 

bogioides, 

Habitxit. — Camboja, Bengal, Assam, S. India, Cochin Chinai Siam* 

Part used,-— Gum resin Cambogta, B. P., Gutta Gamba« Gamboge^ 

Vffnacii/ar,^ Eng. — Gamboge. Arab. — Kubbe-Rc\%md, Gotagati- 
ba. Beng. — Tamal* Bur* — Tanoto asi, Sanato-pin. Can*^*Jartgt^« 



aARCIKU HAN6URII, B.P. 



8f 



ulfmara Tamal (juice). Ciiig.^ — Gokatu, Melliyani, Kana-Goraha, 
Duk *— Ussarehe-Rcwand. Guz» — Revinchini Khatai* Hind.—* 
Gota-ganba, Tamal. Mar.— Rewanchini, Tamal Pers. — Gotaganba, 
XJ^^rehe-i-rewand. Sans.— Tapinja, Tapiccha» The, Tamala, the 
jaicc* Tam. — Ireval» Karakapuli. Tel. — Revalchini-pal. 

Tamala. — A pigment for making sectarial mark on the forehead* 
Ussarh-i-rewand* — An extract of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum). Both* 
arc similar in colour and properties. : 

CAamr/^ri.— Si am gamboge is the true gamboge of commerce/ 
A yellow juice ^hich exudes in drops from leaves or ducts of the 
middle bark or branchlets when broken or from wounds in the trunk* 
The gum re^in when hardened is called Rawanchni Khatai« and the 
juice when in a fluid state Ra%^anchinio-siro, The gum resin is brittle 
ahd of a deep orange colour. It is met with In two diflPerent varieties. 
The cake or lump or caarse gamboge. It is the gum resin collected 
on the leaver of the tree or in cocoanut-shclls and then transferred 
into 1.-iTPt flut earthen vessels, in which it is exposed to the air for* 
V , and before it hardens completely, it is moulded into cakes» 

'I ..^ v^.>^> or amorphous masses are of earthy fracture, their external* 
surf.*icc is br«»wnish yellow and marked with blue spots, due to the 
mixture of foreign bodies with the resin In this state it is known as 
Revanchini khatai or Gamathi-rhubarb, so called on account of its 
botng moulded into the shape and size ot true rhubarb^ and of being 
simUar to it in taste and odour. The cylindrical, pipe or roll gamboge 
h superior ; and hence officinal ; its surface is longitudinally striated 
fironi the impressions of the bamboo reeds into which the liquid iuice 
Im poured ; is met with in round, solid or hollow and striated pieces,' 
which break with a smooth glistening conchoidal frai ture ; the fractured 
iurface is dull smooth and of a uniform reddish yellow colour. When 
pcmrdered it is bright and yellow ; rubbed with water it forms a yellow 
emulsion. The lasre is acrid. It has no odour. Dose, ^ to 2 grs^ 

Comiitnents — Gum resin contains gum 25 pc, resin or gambogic 
acid 70 p.c, on which its activity chiefly depends, wax and ash 
li "^ne resin i^ soluble in alcohol and ether. In it resides the 

^ matter and medicinal properties. 

faration. — Pilula cambogiae composita, B.P., contains Gatii- 

Irbados aloes, compound cinnamon powder, each j oz , hard 

soap 2 ois.^ and syrup of glucose 1 oz. (1 in 6). Dose, 4 to 8 grS, 
Compound powder contains gamboge 3 drs*» powdered rock-salt 3 drs., 
galangal and ginger each 2 drs. Dose, 10 to 40 grs Pil. Catharticae Co. 
contains Ext. Colocynth Co. 3 grs., calomel 1 gr., Ext* jalap i gr.,: 
G^^mboge ^ gr» for one pilL Dose, I to 2 pills. 

^^yimhgicai actions. — The gum resin is an efficient and active 

i^oguc and dr^^tic purgative, and anthelmintic In large doses 

^ a% an acrid pfvi^on. causes gasiro-enteritis and even death. In 

es it is a cathartic, accompanied with nausea 

a pain, and watery stools* The powder ij^ 

&tmiiutau>fy. ' 



38 CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM. 

Therapeutic t^^^.-^Seldom given alone ; generally in combinntion 
with pirikajali, rock-salt and galangal, or with calomel, jalap, and 
c^ream of tartar. Given to relieve torpor of the liver due to malaria, and 
in dysentery in very small doses, (gr. -^ at short intervals. It should 
never be given in irritable condition of the stomach and bowels, nor in 
cases where there is a tendency to abortion or to uterine haemorrhage. 
A paste of it, combined with zedoary, is used as an application to 
sprains, bruises, and swollen parts. The natives use it locally with 
cashew-nut as an application for the removal of piles. 

Calophyllum Wight ianum. 
Habitat — Canara, Travancore. 
Part used, — The gum. 

Vernacular. — ^Tam. — Sirra Punnai. Malay. — Sira Punnai. Can. 
— Babbe. 

Characters. — Large translucent, irregular lumps ; colour yellow, 
of horny texture, and brittle ; without any odour ; the taste is soapy. 
Mixed with water it softens, and disintegrates into granular matter and 
oil globules. The water dissolves a portion of it and becomes viscid. 

Calophyllum Tomentosum. 

Habitat — Western Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Parts used. — The gum. 

Vernacular, — Mar. — Pannai. 

Characters, — Black and opaque ; taste feebly astringent ; soluble 
in cold water. 

CalophyllaiD Inophyllam. Balsamavia iBophyUnm. 

Alexandrian laurel, sweet scented calophyllum. 

Calophyllum, Kalos beautiful and Phullon a leaf. 

Habitat. — Tranvancore, Ceylon, Andamans. 

Parts used. — The bitter oil from the seeds and resin. 

Vernacular. — Bomb. — Undi, undel. Burm. — Phung-o)ret. Can. — 
Wuma mara. Cinjf. — S. Domba-gass. Malyal. — Punna. Mar. — 
Undi. Sans. — Punnaga, Kesova. Tam. — Punnaigam. Tel. — Panne- 
gachettu. Ceylon — Domba oil. Duk, — Surfan. Beng.— Sultana- 
champa. Eng. — Laurel nut oil. 

Characters. — Fruit dry, ovoid or round and greenish yellow ; skin 
brown or black and much wrinkled; nut hard, woody and white; seeds 
oily consisting of two hemispherical cotyledons closely united ; the 
kernel contains 60 p. c of oil. The oil is obtained from the seeds by 
expression, and is known as bitter oil or oil of Weandee. It is yellow- 
green, bitter and aromatic. 

Constituents. — ^A resinous substance and oil. The resin is soft, of 
a parsley odour, and resembles myrrh. It melts easily and dissolves 
readily in alcohol. Does not 3deld umbelliferone by dry distillation. 



CHIMA \V AI III MM. 



85 



/^ IS. — Liniment and paste. The paste is made by mixing 

ttht , led seeds of undi, seeds of cashew-nut, borax andgamboge- 

Aciions and wx^i*,— Only used externa] ly. The oil is rubefacient 
* riiant ; mixed with hydnocarpus oil it is used forrheumaticjoints, 
gbnds, &c. ; also in certain skin diseases as scabies and 
exant1ieni;itou& eruptions, A paste of the seeds is iised to hasten 
maturation of enlarged glands, abscesses, and boils. The pounded 
hark it used as an application for swelled testicles. 

Schfma Wallichii. 

HahitM, — Eastern Himalaya, Nepaul^ Assam» Burmah* 

Part w/i/,— The baric, 

I'Vmrficw/cfr,— Hind, — Makriya Chilauni. 

Chilatmt.^ — Mi^ns that which causes itch, 

Ckattacters — Tbe bark* with its liber cells like glistening needles, 
resanUeft ^ The bark is thick and smooth ; external surface 

incfttbr, I J vith fissures and exfoliations ; colour brown, 

Cottshtitfuts. — The parenchyma contains starch and a red colour- 
ing matter. Dose of the powdered bark^ 1 to 3 grst 

Actions and yses* — A mechanical irritant and vermicide ; given in 
taprworms. To be followed by castor*oil. 

Ttrnatrcamfaceffi or Camelliacea. 

The Tea or Camellia family. 

Trees or shrubs ; leavt'» four, leathery, alternate stjptjlale, some- 
limes dotted* Flowers regular, showy, rarely polgyamous : sepals 5 to 
7, coriaceous ; petals 5 tog, imbricated ; stamens, hypogynous. Fruit 
capsular, dehiscent ; seeds few, aril late ; albumen scanty. 

Hahitat. — South America, North America, Chinai East Indies, 

Jhnptrtus* — Stimulant and astringent. 

Camellia Thaifera. B.P. 

Camelea Thea. The teaplant. 

/Ai^f^A— England, India, China, Upper Assam, Japan, Ceylon. 

Part5 tfs<*r/.— The leaves and the alkaloid, (Theineor caflTcina, B P.) 

Virnacuiar. — Eng, — China rea plant, Ind. — Cha, Chai* Mai. — 
Blach tea. Pers. — Chaba Chai Kosh. 

There are three varieties ol this genus. — ^Thea Bohea and l*hea 
viridis, native of China and Thea Assamica, which furnishes Assam 
tea. ITiese are not distinct species but varieties of one termed Thea 
aioetisis. At one time Thea Bohea was supposed to be the source 
of bbck tea and that green tea was obtained from Thea Viridis, 

Characters. — Leaves i to 3 inches long, petiolate, acute at 
both ends, irregularly serrate, of a peculiar odour and bitter, 
aitringent taaic. They are often scented with orange, rose, jismine 
and sweet scented olive. Green tea consists of the leaves, quickly 



8^. DIPTbRACEie — DIPTEROCARPEiE. 

dried after gathering. Black tea—the leaves are dried some time 
lAer they are gathered, or after they have undergone some kind 
of fermentation by which thev change from green to black. Green 
tea is often artificially coloured black by a mixture of prussian blue 
and gypsum, or of gypsum and indigo and a little turmeric. The aroma 
in tea is due to the volatile oil separated during the process of drying 
by heat. Dose, a teaspoonful. 

Constituents. — Manufactured tea contains a peculiar volatile oil, 
tannic and gallic acids ; quercetin so called boheic acid ; theine 
an alkaloid identical with caffeine ; also the alkaloids xanthine and 
theophylline (dimethylxanthine). The volatile oil is most abundant in 
green tea. Xanthine is also found in muscles along with creatine, 
as products of muscular waste. Theophylline is similar in character 
to theobromine It forms salts with hydrochloric or nitric 
acid, wich platinum and gold chloride and a double salt with 
mercuric chloride. It occurs in acicular crystals soluble in warm 
water. Theine is obtained from coffee, cocoa seeds, guarana, paraguay 
tea, kola nuts. &c. It occurs in the form of beautiful silky prisms. 
Soluble in water. Dose, 3 to 5 grains ; hypodermically, \ to i g^in 
for the relief of neuralgic pains. 

Preparation. — Infusion. Dose, 2 to 6 oz. 

Physiological actions. — Tea is a refreshing and stimulating beve- 
rage, soothing, analgesic and sudorific. When indulged in to excess 
it affects the heart, the vaso-motor centre and motor nerves and also 
the stomach, giving rise to nausea, vomiting, flatulent dyspepsia, 
tremulousness ot the limbs, pallor of the face, feeble pulse, supra-orbital 
headache, hallucinations and nightmare. It diminishes the waste of 
the body, and is therefore indirectly nutritive. It increases the 
assimilation of nitrogenous and hydro-carbon food. 

Therapeutics — Given as a household drink. Among the natives 
an infusion of tea with trikatu is used as a carminative and diaphoretic 
in fevers, dyspepsia, in mental overwork. &c. Its tannin combines 
with the gelatine of the food, and hence its excess leads to dyspepsia and 
also to constipation. Its use should be avoided in hysteria, insomnia, 
in those suffering from cardiac valvular disease. Theine is a nervine 
stimulant and is very beneficial in headache, neuralgia, nervous 
depression. It is often combined with benzoate of sodium, which 
increases its solubility. Like curare, it causes muscular contractility 
when brought in contact with it. Compared with coffee its action 
upon the excretions is to diminish the elimination of carbonic acid, 
and also of urea, uric acid and waters. 

Dipteraoea—Dipterooarpaa. 

The Sumatra camphor or the Garajan family. 

Large trees wuh resinous juice ; leaves feat her- veined, involute 
and alternate ; calyx tubular, ultimately enlarged into wing-like ex- 
pansion ; fruits dehiscent or indehiscent, one-seeded j seed solitary and 
ex-albuminous. 



DIPTEROCARPUS TURBINATUS. 



Hahiiat* — Tropical parts of the East Indies, Ja% a. 

Proferttts. — These plants contain an oleo*resin, to which they 
owe their properties. 

Dipterooarpus TurbinatuB, D. Incanas, D. Alatoa. 

Habitat, — Chittagong, Pegu, Burma, Tenasserim. 

Part used. — The oleo resin (balsam). 

Vernacular* — Eng. — Wood-oil tree. Beng, — Batisal Shweta-j 
aryan. Bomb.— Garajana-tela. Burm. — Kanyin. Cing,— Hora-gaha* 
Eng* — Wood-oil tree, Gurjun balsam. Hind. — Jayan-ka-tel. Garajana- 
ka-teta . Mar. — Duhun-el-garjan. Tarn, — Yennar. 

Characters, ^Th^ trunk exudes or yields on incision the oleo resin 
or balsam, which when fresh, is an opaque grey fluid, which soon 
separates into two layers ; the upper one viscid, transparent liquid 
of a dark-brown colour, and lighter than water j the lower one thick 
and of consistence of dirty white sediment; taste bitter aromatic, 
and the odour resembles that of copaiba. It is soluble in pure benzoli 
chloroform, bisulphide of carbon and essential oils. Partially soluble 
in methy lie, et hylic and amylic alcohols, ether, acetic acid, carbolic 
acid or caustic potash. Dose, \ to 2 drs, 

Constituents. — The balsam contains an essential volatile oil of a 
pale straw colour ; also dry semi-transparent resin : and a crystallizable 
acid — Garjanic acid ; and volatile matters. 

P$eparation. — Emulsion (i to 4 of extract of malt). Dose, \ to 
2 drs. Liniment (i in i of lime water.) 

Physiohgical action, — Alterative and stimulant. It has a stimulant 
action upon the mucous membranes, especially that of the urinary 
tract, and is excreted by the kidneys. Like copaiba, it forms glycu- 
ronic acid in the system which appears in the urine ; with nitric acid 
it forms a pecipitate of gurjanic acid, which is mistaken for albumen. 
The precipitate, however, disappears when heated. The glycuronic 
acid renders the urine antiseptic and prevents the development of 
bacteria. 

Therapeutics^ — ^Given in leprosy, both internally and externally; 
so in gonorrhoea, menorrhagia, gleet and various other afifections of 
the urinary organs and in skin diseases ; also used in cough with puru- 
lent expectoration like copaiba, for which it forms a good substitute* 

Yateria Indica. V. Malabarica. Chloroxyloii dtipada* 

Habitat* — Western Peninsula. 

Parts used, — ^The resin and fat. 

Vernacular. — Eng*— White dammer Indian copal, Piney tallow 
tree. Can,— Dupamara. Cing,^ — Halgass. Hind* — Safed Dammar, 
Maleal — Payani Kunlurukaru» Tarn, — Vellay-Kungilium, Dupada. 
Tel.^ — Dupadamaru, Telia. — Damaru. 



8b SHOR£A ROBUSTA. 

Characters, — The resin, which is light greenish or amber coloured , 
exudes from the tree. It burns with a steady light and gives off plea- 
sant smell. The seeds yield an oil known as Piney tallow of Caoara. 

Cotistituents. — The seeds contain solid fat 49*2 p. c, which 
resembles the solid fatt of Garcinia and Bassia. It is a greenish yellow, 
bleaches rapidly on exposure to light, and has a peculiar balsamic 
odour. It contains oleic and other fatty acids. 

Actions and uses. — The tallow is emollient and stimulant, used 
locally for chronic rheumatic joints ; its chief use is, however, as a 
general ointment base but more especially in the preparation of nitrate 
of mercury and other ointments. The resin is used as an incense. 

Shorea Bobnsta. 

Habitat, — Central India, Western Bengal. 
Part itsed.'^The resin. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Qanqahar. Beng. — Dhuna, Rala* Bomb.— - 
Sala, Rala ( the resin ). Can. — Guggala. Cing. — Dummala. Hind. — 
Dhuna, Dhona, Rala, Damar, Rosina. Eng.— ^he saul tree. Malyal. — 
Kungiliyam. Duk. — Rala. Mar. — Rala, Guggilu, Dhuna. Pers.— 
Loalemonatehari. Sans. — Asva-karana, Sal Guggilam, Konshi-kaha« 
Tam. — Kungiliyam. Tel. — Guggilamu. 

Asva-karana, Asva, a horse, and karana, an ear, in allusion to 
the leaves resembling in shape the horse's ear. 

Characters. — Resin obtained from the tree is a deposit between the 
bark and the wood. It occurs in irregularly cylindrical pieces marked 
with longitudinal striae on its surface. Sometimes the pieces are 
colourless, the colour often varying from dark brown to pale ambej or 
yellow, and red. It is very brittle, and consists of small granules, which 
can easily be reduced to a fine powder. Generally tasteless, but some- 
times the taste resembles nearly that of turpentine. Its powder is easily 
fusible. When thrown into the flame of a candle it soon takes fire and 
gives out thick volumes of fragrant smoke or a big blaze. Dose, 10 to 
30grs. 

Preparations. — Ointment (1 in 3), and plaster (i in 2). 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant and demulcent. The natives use it for 
fumigating sick rooms. Externally, as plaster or ointment, it acts as a 
stimulant. A paste of it mixed with brandy and white of eggs is a very 
useful and soothing application for the relief of lumbago and other 
rheumatic pains. The natives use the powder of Rala as an astringent 
application to the relaxed uvula ; it has also been tried in dysentery 
with some good results. 

Dryobalanops Camphora, D. Aromatioa. Shorea Camphorifenu 

Habitat. — Sumatra, Borneo. 

Part used.'^Q,zra]}\iox having a different odour from that of 
ordinary camphor and being less volatile. 



TtLIACe^. 



»7 



Vernacnlar.'-^¥.ng. — Borneo camphor, Borneol or camphyl 
alcohol. BombM Hind. — Baras Kapurap Bhimsani Kapara, Kafur. 
SftOS. — Pakva and Apukva Kapur. 

Characters. — It occurs in small pieces, resembling those of ordinary 
camphor, but is harder and heavier, and sinks in water. It is also less 
-volatile and has a somewhat diflferent odour, the odour resembling that 
If coromon c<imphor^ with the additional smell of patchouli or amber- 
If. It is converted into ordinary camphor by the addition of nitric 
acid. It may be prepared from ordinary camphor by heating it with 
potash* Besides camphor, the tree yields a liquid known as camphor 
oil or Borneene» which is isomeric with oil of turpentine* It must not 
bi ' inded with the ordinary camphor oil, which drains out of crude 

I,. iphor. The odour resembles that of "cajuput, camphor and 

caidji nibined. The higji price of this camphor prohibits its 

use a> V camphor. 

Pr^paratimt. — A compound powder called by the Jains Vasak- 
thepa (Sam.)t or Kabir (Abir)» which contains sandalwood^ Bornea 
camphor, saffron and musk* Dose, ^ to 2 grs* 

Acitons ami itsts, — Stimulant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac. As t 
ittmulant application it is used in conjunctivitis. 

TiliaceeB* 

The Itmc tree, Linden or the Bahuphali family. 

Tree*, shrubs, or rarely herbs ; leaves stipulate. $imple> lobed and 
ah^Tt^it.. . lowers generally yellow ; sepals distinct or coherent, valvate 
ti on and deciduous; fruits samaroid and many-celled, dry 

Of i'uiji^ ; seeds solitary or numerous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo erect- 

Habitat — Chiefly found in the tropics, a few being found in the 
northern parti* r*l the world. 

f^*erti€s. — ^Allied to those of Malvaceae ; they are mucilaginous, 
C" and demulcent ; some bear edible fruits ; many yield useful 

fiuicd wn manufacturing purposes, and valuable timber. 

Corchoras OUtorius.— C. TrilocolariB. 

Hahiiat'—h^\^^ Africa, Peninsula, Bengal, Punjab, 

I^ts used, — The seeds and leaves. 

t^ertmcuJar, — Beng. — Banpat Kooshta, Bhaogipat. Bomb. — 
fit{i}itm leeds, Isband. Burm.— Phetwun. Chin. — Dimoa. Eng,— 
Jew*! smllovir, jute. Guz.— Rajajira. Hind— Pat, the plant Baphalli. 
Malay. — Raroit<jaa. Mar. — Kurru Chuniz. Sans.^ — Nadika, Peta» 
Putta. Tarn.— Perinta. Tel.^Parinu Kura. 

Characters, — Seeds similar in shape to those of Bhauphali^ but 
smaller, angular, darker, harder and extremely hitter ; leaves oblong ; 
cip»uleft, triloculare Dose of the seeds, 30 to 90 grs. 

Pteparation^ — Infusion of leaves (1 in 10)- Dose, t to 2 oz. 



^8 GREWIA TILiiEFOLIA. 

Actions and uses, — The leaves and seeds are bitter* mudlaginoiis 
and demulcent. The infusion of the leaves is given in fevers and in 
congested liver. The plant, reduced to ashes, is used as an alterative in 
congestion of the liver and dyspepsia. 

Orevia Tiliafolia, 0. ArborM, 0. Elasttea. 

HahitaL — Western India, Ceylon, Burma. 

Part used.— The bark. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Dhamani. Can. — Butaleas, Thadsal. Hind. — 
Dhaman. Mar. — Dhaman. Sans.— Dharmanau Tanu — Thada. Tel. — 
CharachL 

Characters. — Leaves hoary beneath, cordate, dentate ; flowers 
yellow ; berries of an acid flavour ; bark thick, white internally and 
:grey externally ; tuber papery, peeling off", leaving a rough green 
surfoce beneath ; very mucilaginous and sweetish to the taste. 

Preparation. — Infusion (i in lo). Dose, i to a oz. 

Actions and uses. — Demulcent, given in d3rsentery. 

Ore via ftwliitlo. 

Habitat —Ceylon, Burma. 

Parts used. — Fruit and bark. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Shukri. Cing. — Dowanijra. Hind.— Phalsa. 
Mar.— Phals. Sans.— Parusha-PhalaTraya. TeL— Putiki. 

Characters. — Fruits acid, colour dark brown ; kernel hard. 

Preparation. — Infusion (i in lo). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions ana uses. — Cooling and refrigerant ; the bark is demulcent, 
and given in fever and dysentery. 

Orevia Boabnq^ylla. 

Balntat.— West Indies. 

Parts used, — Leaves, stem and fruit. 

Vernacular. — Mar. — Khat-khate. 

Characters. — Leaves scabrous. 

Actions and uses. — Mucilaginous ; used as a substitute for althaea. 

CorohoraB Hnmilia, C. Faadeolarit, C ABtiehonia. 

llaiita i.^TropicaA India, Bengal, Africa* 
Arts used. — The whole plant* 

Vernacular. — Poona. — Mogarmithi, Beng. — ^Jangli-pat, Bilnalita. 
Bomb. — Bhaphali. Duk.— Magar Mithi. Hind. — ^Hirankhari. 

Herankhari — Haran, deer, and khan\ a hoof, from its resemUance 
to deer's hoof. 



CAHVOPHYLLACEjE. 



89 



^^^CharacUri. — Small prostrate weed; root woody; branches 
lettrtl, sinall, slender and spreading out from the root ; leaves oblong, 
serrated, small, wrinkled, thick, mucilaginous and of a greenish dark 
colour ; flowers small, yellow, in the axils of leaves and in bunches of 
two or three ; capsules about \ to i inch in length and hairy 
tr ; e^ich capsule composed of three carpels, containing many 

:; >;al«r, dark-red coloured seeds ; seeds very bitter. 

Preparation, — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, l to 2 0Z9. 

Actions and uses, — The plant is mucilaginous, somewhat astringent 
sd nervine tonic. It is a common ingredient in aphrodisiac confec- 
tions. It h used in gonorrhoea, seminal debility and urinary diseases, 

Remarks. — BhaphaM. This name should not be mistaken for 
Bhiphali, the M<irathi name for Feucedanum grande, an umbiliferous 
plant. In peucedanum grande, the whole plant, including leaves, 
capsule)^, kc.y arc diminutive ; not so in corchorus fascicularis. 

FrankeniaoeA. — The Frankenia or sea heath order. 

Herbs or shrubs; leaves opposite, exstipulate ; 6owcr5 sessile; 
calyx tubular and persistent ; petals 4 or 5, hypogynous ; stamens 
difttinct ; ovary superior, one- eel led ; fruit capsular, dehiscent ; seeds 
numerous, minute ; embryo straight in the middle of albumen. 

W^^iV^/.^South Europe, North Africa. 

Properties, — Mucilaginous, aromatic. 

Frankeiiia OrandifoUa, Yerba B6imia,^Flax Herb. 

Habitat, — California, South of Europe. 

Parts med.—Th^ herb, 

Chafacfers, — The herb is mucilaginous and slightly aromatic- 

Comniuenlv, — It contains a peculiar astringent principle and a 
large amount of sodium chloridc- 

/* v;«. — Fluid extract. Dose, 10 to 20 ros,, chieOy used aa 

an 11' 7 as a gargle, much diluted. 

Action and uses. — Generally used as an injection in catarrhal 
affections of the nares and the genito-urinary tract. In vaginal leucor^ 
thc^ the injection is said to be peculiarly beneficial. 

CaFyopbyllacaaD. 

T' "V or clove wort, or the zaharasa family. 

1 rct, low or prostrate ; stems smaller at the joints ; leaves 

opposite, eniue, exstipulate and connate at the base; flowers heinia- 
phrodite or rarely unisexual, white or pink coloured; fruits utic- 
Galled, rarely more ; seeds numerous and small ; embryo curved round 
albumen; albumen meaty. 

fiahitai* — Temperate and cold climates, 

Prfifiertiei. — ^Most of them have nn important medicinal properti^ 
fioroe arc galactagogue and others alterative. 



90 DIANTHUS ANATOLICUS. 

DianthilB Anatolioas. 

HahiiaL — Thibet, Armenia. 

Part used, — ^The plant. 

Vernacular. — Hind. — Kanturiyun. Pers. — Kanturiyun. 

Characters, — Plant densely tufted ; stalk short, woody and bran- 
ched ; stems slender, with one or more flowers ; leaves rigid, slender, 
with thick midrib and margin. 

Constituents. — Contains a little saponin. 

/Reparation. — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, i to a fluid ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Similar in property to common centaury 
(Erythrcea centaurium ). Also stomachic and tonic like gentian. 
Polycarpaea Corymbosa. — A small plant. 

Habitat. — India. 

Part used, — The plant. 

Vernacular. — Tam. — Nilaisedachi. 

Actions and uses. — Used internally and externally for the bites 
of venomous insects and reptiles. 

Saponaria Yaooaria— Oypaoptaila Yaooaria. 

Habitat. — ^India, Central Europe. 

Part used. — The root. 

Saponaria, soapy, that is, its mucilaginous juice forms a lather with 
water. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — El-sabuniyeh. Beng. — Sabusie. Eng. — 
Perfoliate soap wort« Hind. — Sabuni. Romans. — Struthium, Radi- 
cula. 

Characters, — The entire plant is bitter and of a saline taste; roots 
long, of the size of a qUill, cylindrical and branching ; bark thick, easily 
separable, reddish externally and white within. 

Comstituents. — Saponin — ^is obtained by exhausting the powdered 
root with boiling alcohol : on cooling saponin is deposited as a white 
amorphous friable substance, without any odour, having an acrid 
taste ; soluble in weak -alcohol ; insoluble in water, forming au emulsion ; 
heated with an acid and boiled, the solution is converted into Sapogenin, 
which, on evaporation, gives needle-shaped crystals. Saponin is also 
found in Gypsophila struthium, saponana officinale, illidum anisatum, 
caulophyllum, senega, quillaja, &c. 

PreparmOon. — Infusion ( i in 20 ). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions and uses, — Alteratix^ stimulant, purgative, diuretic and 
sternutatory-. It stimulates the mucous membranes, and may be used 
in ODugh, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy* asthma, &c It is also used in 
liver d h ca ses , jaundice, syphUis, gout and dirociic skin diseases. 



ABELMOCHUS KSCtrtKNTtTS. 



QT 



HalYaces. 

XheBhinda or Mallow family. Malvaceae, — Derived from Malva, 
nnHthfOr soltf the plants having soft and downy leaves and emollient 
properties. 

CharacUi-s^ — Herbs, shrubs or treesi often with hairs ; leaves 
alternate, stipulate, downy, palmate ; flowers showy, regular and 
uutlar)% surrounded by an mvolucre of variegated colours ; fruits 
indehisccnt or dehiscent, capsular or baccate ; carpels one, two or many* 
Mcided ; seeds rtnifurm or ovate and hairy, generally without albumen ; 
imbryo curved, cotyledoni, twisted like chrysalis 

JfaMat — ^Temperate climate, tropics. 

Prt^p^rtiex — Demulcent and mucibginous ; from the liber of many 
species, tough tibreii arc obtained. The hairs covering the seeds 
constitute cotton. 

AbtlmochQa Eftculentus,— Hebiscus Esoulentus. 
HahtiaU — East Indies. 

i\kfts used, — TTie immature capsules and ripe seeds or unripe 
it. 
Vernacular, — East Indies — Ochro, Gombo, Bandikai. Arab. — 
lya. Beng. — Ramturai, Dhenrus, Bomb. — Bhinda, Burm, — 
*ltt*iV3, yung-ma-da. Can*^Bendekayi. Ciug,^ — Bandaka. Duk. — 
Btiendi. Eng — ^Edible Hibiscus, Okro, Gombo, Guz. — Bhindu, 
Hind.^ — BhcnJi, Hamturai. MaleaK— Ventak Kaya, Venda. Mar. — 
Bhcnda. Fers. — Banm-a. Sans. — Darwikai Teridisha, Bhinda. Tarn. — 
Vcudaik-kay ; Tel. — Benda-kaya, 

Hamaturai (the fruit) resembles in shape Turai, the fruit of 
Lufia acutangula (Palwal), The fruit also resembles in shape the 
Crtslt of Trichoiyanthes dioica. 

Chamciers. — Fresh immature capsules are from a to mches 
long, broad L*t the baie and tapering at the apex, furrowed and some- 
^l Micularly at the ridges, abounding in copious bland and 

VI -, each capsule consisting of from 6 to 9 valves or cells, 

c» a single row of smooth^ white, round seedis, turning black 

%i ^ . and dry. 

I fmtituents^ — Fresh capsules contain pectin, starch, muc*ilage 
and aihcs, rich in saiti* of potash, lime and magnesia. The ripe seeds 
uiotaiu phosphoric acid. 

Pr^j^tfTOAbi**— Decoction (1 in lo). Dose, i to a ozs. 

AcHom and uses. — Emollient, demulcent, diuretic, cooling and 
ipfarodisiaCt given in irritation uf the throat, catarrh of the bladder, 
dysurift and gonorrhcea* 

Abutilon Indioom. 

A. Asiaticumy Sida Indica^ Sida Mauntiana, Sida populifolia, 

JifaMat — Tnmtcal India, Ceylon, waste grounds. 
Aris med. — The bark, leaves and seeds. 




9t 



ALTH.CA OI'KICISAUS. 



Vernacular, — ^Arab. — Masht*el-ghoul. Beng. — Gungi-potari, Ealbij. 
Bomb. — Chakra-bhenda, Madami-pitari (the &€cds). Burm. — Thanta 
Khai-ok. Can. — ^Shri-mudrigida, Cing, — Anoda-gaha. Duk, — 
Kangoij Dabbe Gunjij Eng. — Country mallow. Goa» — Tubocutv, 
Guz. — Kangoyi Kapatai Daboli. Hind.^Kali Kanghi, Anter-vel** 
Maleal. — Petaka-putti, Oram, Pers- — Darakhie-shanab. Mar. — 
Petari, Madmi Chakra-bhenda. ^a^j- — ^Ali, Khiratipala, Pataka^ 
Limbal. Tam,— Payruntuthi. TeL— Tutti, Tutttiru-beoda^ Nagu* 
benda. 

Characters. — Bark thin, long, lough and fibrous, also stripedt 
externally cinnamon-coloured, covered with a silky, hoary tometicum, 
internally white ; taste bitter and astringent ; leaves roundish, cordat€| , 
acuminate^ serrated, velvety on both sides, of a pale green colour ana 
mucilaginous; seeds reniforra; testa dull brown and hairy; in size resem- 
bling Elachi dana. On section yellowish white within ; taste mucila- 
ginous and pea-like; Two varieties of seeds are met with — (i) tomento*© 
and hoary, jSulabija of the shops, and (2) with purple stems called Kalo 
Kanghf. 

Comitliients. — The leaves contain mucilage, tannin* organic acid 
and traces of asparagin and ash containing alkaline sulphates^ 
chlorides, magnesium phosphate and calcium carbonate* 

Preparation — Decoction of the seeds and bark ( I in lo). Do^» I 
to 2 02t, and mucilage of bruised leaves. 

Actions and uses. — Seeds demulcent ; the bark diuretic and 
cooling^ used, like althaea, in gonorrha'a strangury, &c, 

AlthflBa OfBcinalis. 

The mallow. Marsh mallow. 

^a^ito/.— Temperate climates, Europe, Wcsteni and Northern 
Asia; salt marshes, New York. 

Pari used. — The flowers, leaves, roots and carpels. 

Mortification root, sweet weed, Wymote, Marsh mallow, 

Verftacular. — Pers, and Hind, — Gul-Khairu (flowers). PcfMan*— 
Tukhm-i-Khitimi (carpels); Risha-i-Khinni (the root)» 

CAflraf/^rj.— Flowers from 1 to 2 inches long with three difFerent 
colours — yellowish at the base, green in the middle, and pink or \'iQlct 
at the top ; caJyx five partite, thick and covered with whitish hatrs ; 
petals five and bearded at the base and on their inner suriace. In 
the centre of the flower is a conical-five-angled projection, the 
stamenal column and pistil ; root hairy, of a whitisti colour, both 
externally and inlernaliy, cylindrical and somewhat tapering, hreakin^ 
with a short granular fracture ; parenchyma is filled wttli 
contains also scattered cells of calcium oxalate crystals. "I 
a faint, peculiar, aromatic odour and asweet mucilaginous t 
of a dark-brown colour, reniform and hairy, with a gru 
back, having two surfaces jointed together at the hilum by a notch, 
A portion of it near the hilum is convex and reticulated. Beyond 
this the surface is studded with hairs. Near the margin the aurfMO 



OOSSiVPllfM BARBADENSK. 



n 



is marked with fan^like ridges* It encloses one seed. The taste is 
mucilaginous. Dose of the root, J to i dr« 

Censlitttents* — Dry root contains an organic principlct althein 
or a.tparagin 2 px-; mucilage called bassorin or althsea 25 p.c; 
Pectoos matter or pectin 10 p.c. ; fixed oiU sugar 8 p.c. ; fatty oil, 
starch, 35 p,c. ; ash 5 p.c. Tannin only in the outer bark, containing 
phosphates* Mucilage is precipitated by neutral acetate of lead, and 
hence differs from gum arabic* It differs from cellulose, as althaea does 
not turn blue by iodine when moistened with sulphuric acid, and 
if nor soluble in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper. 

Bassorin can be obtained from asparagus, liquorice, beUadonna 
rooca and sweet aJmonds. 

Asparagin occurs as hard, transparent, colourless crystals; soluble in 
cold water (i in 50); insoluble in alcohol and ether. An aqueous 
solution of it dissolves in yellow oxide of mercury, hence recommended 
as a vehicle for hypodermic injection of yellow oxide of mercury. 
Dose — I 10 t grs. 

Althaea root is a constituent of Massa Hydrargyri (25 d.c). Dose* 
I to ] 5 grs. 

f^eparatium, — Decoction of the root (i in 10,) used as an emollient, 
enema, poultices and ointment. Infusum alth^a contain carpels 
and Howcrs (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs, Syrupus alihsea, syrup of marsh 
nidiUow. Contains althaia, alcohol, glycerine and sugar. Dose ad Hbiium* 

At'tions and uses* — The different parts of the plant are 
mucilaginous, cmollitrni and demulcent. Althaea acts mechanically ; it 
iotm% a soothing covering over the inflamed parts and protects them 
from friction. The root is given internally in inflimimatrou of the lungs, 
irr L litadJer. It forms an useiul ingredient of various cough 

n '>ral syrups, i&c. Mixed with sweet oil, the leaves and 

floacrs arc 4i)f»lictl as poultices an J fomentations to burns and to parts 
bitten by ven >mous animals. As a demulcent the decoction is 
iis«d as an enema in irritable and tnflameJ state of the vagina 
and rectum. Althein is a good diuretic and given in cystitis^ 
in irritabic cough due to congestion of the pharynXi in ascitist in 
anasarca due to Bright ^s disease*, and in gout. 

In pharmacy the powdered root, being very absorbent, is used to 
harden pilU, electuaries, &c. 

Gossypium Barbadenae B.P.— Qossypium Herbaoeum 
0. Arboreum. G. Indicum— G* Stockaii and other Species. 

MaMtiL'^-Hoi countries, Asia, Africa, Egypt^ America. 

J ./. — Rout bark, LOtion seed-oil, and the hairy covering of 

the i<- ypium, Cotton, cotton wool, B* P. 

Vemacuiar^ — Arab.^ — Kuttun^ Nabut-ul-gutu, Shagratulgutu. 






^Urpas, Rui, Shuttr-gucht. Durm. — Wabin, Gim. Can. — 
4, Concani. — Denkapus (sacred cotton). Cing. — Kapu. 



94 GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE. 

Duk. — Rui-kapas. Eng. — Cotton. Guz. — Ru-vona (hairy covering),- 
kapasia (seeds). Hind. — Rui, Binola. Malyal. — Paintai. Mar.— 
Kapasi, kapas. Pers. — Pambah. Sans. — Karapasaha, Karpasi. Tam.— 
Punji, Van-paruti. Tel. — Patti-chettu, Karpasamu. 

Characters, — ^Herb from 2 to 6 feet high ; leaves long petioled, 
palmate, 3 to 5 lobed, and of a green or darkish green colour ; flowers 
yellow, capsular, 3 to 4 celled, opening by many valves, acute, oblong 
or ovate, and containing numerous seeds ; seeds oblong or ovate, 
pointed at one end and covered with silvery white hairs ; hairs 
or covering of seeds, or purified cotton, is not easily separable ; testa 
hard and ot a blackish colour. On section the seeds are oily ; the bark of 
the washed root (G. radicis cortex,) in thin flexible bands or quills, of a 
brownish yellow colour, externally slightly ridged and marked with 
black dots or transverse lines ; the inner surface is whitish and of a silky 
lustre, tough and fibrous ; fibres, separating into papery layers ; no 
odour ; taste slightly pungent and astringent. Dose of the root 30 to 
6ogrs. •,. 

Gossypium. — Hairs of the seeds freed from other impurities and 
deprived of fatty matter. They are pure white, soft, fine filaments, 
hollow, spirally twisted and slightly thick at edges. They are without 
any odour or taste. 

Oil of the seed — Oleum Gossypii Seminis (cotton-seed oil.) The 
fixed oil is obtained by cracking oft testa, grinding kernels and express- 
ing and purifying. Its amount varies from 10 to 30 p.c. It is 
often substituted for olive oil, brazil or para-nut oil, and for beech oil 
or oil from Fagus sylvetica ; It is sometimes used in the preparation 
of camphor and ammonia liniments. 

Constiiuents. — The root-bark contains starch, chromogene 28 p.c. ; 
fixed oil, resin, glucose, tannin, starch and ash 6 p.c. Chromogene, a 
yellow substance, becoming red and resinous by age ; soluble in alcohol 
(i in 14), chloroform (i in 15), ether (i in 23), and benzol ii in 22). 
The oil, oleum gossypii seminis— cotton-seed oil, as expressed from the 
seeds, is of a yellow colour, highly viscous, without any odour, of bland 
taste and neutral reaction ; soluble in ether, but slightly soluble in 
alcohol. It contains oleine, and a green feeble yellow colouring matter. 

The hairs contain cellulose inorganic matter, fixed oil, album- 
inoids lignin, &c. 

Preparation, — of the bark. Decoctum Gossypii (i in 5). 
Dose, I to 2 ozs. ; used as an emmenagogue. As a parturient, it is 
superior to ergot. Extractum gossypii radicis fiuidum — fluid extract of 
cotton root bark ; macerate the bark with glycerine and alcohol and 
percolate. It is not miscible with water. Dose — 10 to 60 ms. Of the 
nairs, purified cotton, absorbent cotton or cotton wool. To prepare it, 
add alkalies to cotton to remove greasiness, adherent impurities and 
moisture ; then add solution of chlorinald lime and hydrochloric acid. 
Cotton is insoluble in ordinary solvents, but soluble in solutions of 
ammonium sulphate of copper. Under the microscope these hairs 
are found to be hollow and twisted bands spirally striate and slightly 



GOSSVPtUM BARBABtlNSB. 



95 



tbickened it the edges. Absorbent cotton^ which is now the official 
cotton or cotton wooU B. P., is used in the preparation of pyroxylin 
or gun coilon. Cotton gauze or cottcm wool tissue consists of a thin 
>hcci of absorbent cotton wool between two layers of gauze. Medicated 
eotton is cotton wool medicated with the following, viz , alum, arnica, 
benjEoic acidt camphor, chrysophanic acid, cubebs, caibolic acid, 
illicyUc acid, boractc acid^ krameria^ opium, resorcin and tannic acid. 

ArtilJcid) Sponges. — Absorbent cotton formed into balls and 
cOYcrcd with antiseptic gauze. Also made of absorbent cotton 
covering a gkss capsule filled with an antiseptic as eucalyptus, carbolic 
acid, thymol, kc,^ to be broken by pressure, 

Pyroxylinum. — B. P, Pyroxylin ; soluble gun cotton ; coUoxylin — 
collodion cotton. It is prepared by the action of sulphuric and nitric 
adds and water on cotton, by macerating, washing, draining and 
di^iM ; chiefly used in the preparation of coHodium, collodion B. P. 

Collodion — to prepare it dissolve pyroxylin i in a mixture of 
ether 36 and alcohol 12. It is a sympy col(»urless liquid of an ethereal 
odour, is highly inflammable, and dries quickly on eyposuie to air,» 
leaving o thin transparent film, whrch contracts rapidly un drying. 
It is insoluble in water or alcohol. 

Camphoid, 1 substitute for collodion. It is a solution (i in 40) of 
pyioxyUn* It contains pyroxylin !» camphor and absolute alcohol 20 
each. Used as a vehicle for the application to the skin of such drugs 
m iodoform V phenol, salicylic acid, resorcin, chrysophanic acid and 
idithyol. 

Haemostatic collodion, — To obtain it, mix together collodion too, 
Cirbotic zdd >o^ and tannic acid 5, or acid benzoic 5. 

Styptic collodion. — ^To prepare it, take absolute alcohol io» 
benxioiii 1, and dissolve. To the solution add tannic acid lo, ether 40, 
and gun cotton 1 . 

Collodium Flexile, B. P., elastic collodion, flexible collodion. To 
prawire it. mix thori>ughIy collodion 13 with Canada turpentine i, 
anil castor-oil j. Flexible collodion is used in the preparation of collo- 
dium canihaiidatum ur collodium vesicans« 

Collodium Vesicans, B. P* — Blistering collodion, cantharidal collo* 
dion* To prepare it, take blistering Buid 20 and pyroxylin ^, and mix. 

Collodium novum, a new kmd of collodion — To obtain it, mix 
and mukc a solution of mastiche 3, Balsam of Peru i, narcotine t, 
and chloroform 5, 

Anodyne colloid ; syn.^-Amyl colloid. To obtain it, take amyl 
hydride 1 ounce, aconitine 1 grain, veratrine 6 grains, collodion 2 
oaoccs ; very often half the quantity of amyl hydride is replaced 
by alcohol (absolute) or by amy he alcohol. 

Ccllotdin — it is pyroxylin purified by solution in alcohol and ether, 
Photoxylin — Dinitrocellulose — prepared by nitrating wood wool ; 
diasolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether, it resembles collodion j 
|g»ed to form artificial aural tympana. 

Carbolic collodion : 20 grains carbolic acid to i ounce of styptic 
GOlloid; used for toothache. Collodium cum oleo crotonis i in 7, used 



96 . GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE. 

as a counter-irritant. Collodium callosum. — ^A mixture of flexible 
collodion 60 with extract of Indian hemp i and salicylic acid 8, 
used as an application for corns, warts, and lupus. Collodinm com 
iodoformo (i to 12), for venereal sores. Collodium ichthyol (7 to 1). 
Collodium iodi, iodine i to flexible collodion 15. Collodmm Peruvia- 
num — Balsam of Peru i to collodion 9. Collodium Salicylicum — 
Salicylic acid 1, flexible collodion 5. Collodium Salicylicum cum zind 
chlorido. — Zinc chloride i, salicylic aad 3, collodion 15. Collodium 
Salicylicum et lacticum — salicylic and lactic acids, each 10, collodion 
80. Collodium Salol, Salol collodion. — Ether 4, salol 4, collodion 30 ; 
For acute rheumatism. Crystallin. — A combination of ether and 
methyl alcohol, a good substitute for collodium. 

Actions and uses. — A syrup of cotton flowers is given in hypochon- 
driasis ; their poultice is applied to burns and scalds. The carpels 
are astringent. An unripe Capsule, with opium and nutmeg inserted 
into its interior, incinerated and reduced to powder, is used in dysen- 
tery. Decoction of the root-bark is used as abortifacient, emmenagogue 
and oxytocic, it increases labour pains during delivery, and is given in 
amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhcea, uterine haemorrhages and to procure 
abortion. The seeds, made into tea, are mucilaginous, and used in 
dysentery and diarrhoea. They are demulcent, laxative, aphrodisiac* 
expectorant and K^l^ctagogue. The juice of the leaves is used in 
scanty lactation. Pounded cotton seeds mixed with ginger, is applied to 
orchitic swelling. The leaves, with oil, are applied to gouty joints. The 
fibres are protective, and used to cover up wounds, on which they act 
mechanically by keeping ofl* dirt and germs. Burnt cotton is applied 
round dropsical and paralyzed limbs, swollen legs, rheumatic and 
gouty joints, and in children to the chest in bronchitis and pneumonia 
to preserve heat and moisture and also to act as a sort of fomentation. 

Absorbent cotton is a good absorbent of water, and used for 
excluding air from injured surfaces and to allay pain, as in burns, scalds, 
erysipelas, and articular rheumatism. Soaked in antiseptic solutions, it 
is applied directly to wounds and ulcers,to absorb the discharges. Among 
the natives burnt cotton is used to stop blood as well as to cure ulcers. 
Sometimes spider's web is used as a substitute for cotton. Pyroxylin is 
highly inflammable and explosive. Collodion is inflammable, and when 
applied, there is rapid evaporation of its ether ; and it leaves a thin film 
of pyroxylin on the surface. It is used as a protective application over 
wounds, burns, ulcers, slight cuts, cracks and fissures, over inflamed 
surfaces, as in erysipelas, in skin diseases, chapped nipples, &c. Styptic 
collodion is an haemostatic and protective. It contains tannin, and 
is therefore used to stop bleeding from leech bites ; as an antiseptic it 
is used for cuts and wounds and for arresting haemorrhages. Flexible 
collodion is used in drawing edges of a wound together, bringing 
pressure on buboes, boils, carbuncles, &c. In acute orchitis the chord 
and scrotum are coated with it with benefit. 

Vesicant collodion is a more convenient form of applying liquor 
epispasicus, the advantage being that it does not spread to the sur- 
rounding parts. It is used in neuralgia, lumbago and muscular pains. 



HIBISCUS A6KLMOSCUUS. 



97 



OIevmgDSsypium»eminiSy like olive oil* is demulcent, and used 
as a lubricant in prctparing various liniments. Collodium novum is an 
antiseptic and used to relieve pain in neuralgia, and acute or chronic 
fheumatism. 



HiblscoB AbelmoschuBt A. Hoachatua (Bamia Moachata). 

^#iJV//4i/.— Tropical countries. 

Pari tutd, — The seeds. 

Veruiuular, — Arab.— Hub-ul-Mishk Kabbamisk. Burm.^ — Ba-lu- 
wa*ki. Beng, — Mushak-danah, Kasturi-dana. Bomb.— i\Iishka-dana, 
Cing.-^Kapu-kinais&a. Duk. — Musek, Kalakasturi bhcndi-ke-bing. 
Eng* — Musk-mallow. Guz. — Mushak-dana, Hind, — Mushak-daiiah, 
Pcrs* — Mu&hk-danah, Malyal. — Katta-kasturi. Mar. — Bhenda-che-bij, 
Sans. — TataKasaturika. Tarn. — Kattuk*kasturi. TeL — Kasturi-bend«. 
East and West Indies. — Ochro, Gombo, Bandikai. 

At>*^1ni' "<^hus is a corruption of Hub-ul-mishk, 

K k, a grain of musk. 

'\\k... -,.v.>aturik4»^ — Tata, creeping^ and Kasturika, musk-plant, in 
allusion to this musk-smelling plant rising above the ground at first 
swid then bending upon itseH like a creeper. The seeds of Ramturai 
are ofien passed off for Mishka dana, being similar in shape and size. 

Ouir^jr^rj?.— Seeds aromatic* resembling Bhenda-seeds in size. 
They arc of a brown coluur. irregularly kidney-shaped, their surface 
marked with concentric rings, pointed at one end. Odour musky but 
QiOC perci?ptible unless well bruised, 

Constiimnis. — Gum, albument fixed oil, a solid crystalline inatteri 
odorous principle and resin. The fixed oil is a greenish yellow 
Buid« which solidifies on exposure to the air. The solid crystalline 
matter is whilc» pearly^ of a pleasant tastei and soluble in ether* The 
odonius matter is a light green fluid, of the strong smell of musk. It 
ia not volatik. 

Acihtis andtnci. — Stimulant, carminative, cooling and demulcent, 

fiven in Ronorrhura, catarrh of the bladder and hoarseness of voice. 
** Is are stomachic and used after being niixed with coffee* 

I 1 sc^ds steeped in alcohol are used as an application for 

1 r A serpents, 

/\ r.-irfrib. — Abdmoschusesculentus, hibii;;us esculentus, Eng,— 
. Qui* — Bhmda, Egyp.^Bamia. The capsules are ^hcld in 
^,„,m z& a vegetable. 

Hibiacaa Cannabinus* 

//iidi/4i/w^ Western India> Tropics, 

f^rt$ ttsid, — Flowers and seeds. 

Vewnacniar. — Arab, — Hab-el-zalim. Beng.— Mesta-pat, Nalki. 
Can,— Punday, Pundrika. Ch»n.— Hiang*ma. Duk. — Ambari. Eng, — 
The fibres^ brawn Indian hcmpi Dukhani hemp, hemp cuved hibisleas. 

T _ 



98 HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS. 

HiDd. — Patsan, Sunnee. Mar. — ^Ambari. Panj. — Sankokla-patsan. 
Pers.— Hab-el-zalim. Tam.— Palungo, ReUcha. Tel.— Grongiikuni. 
Sind. — Sujjado. 

Characters. — The plant has white flowers with purple stamens; 
pods prickly, seeds like cardamoms, with a black skin and white kemeL 
jThe Qbres are known under the name of stinnie or sunn hemp. True 
sunn is derived from crotolaria juncea, or Dukhani hemp. The 
seeds yield an edible fixed oil. Dose of the seeds, 5 to 15 grs. 

Actions and uses. — The juice of the flowers, with sugar and black 
pepper, is used as a remedy in biliousness and fevers. The seeds are 
fiaittening, tonic, and aphrodisiac, being an ingredient in aphrodisiac 
confections. 

Remarks. — Hab-el-zalim is also an Arabic name for artichoke 
seeds, as well as for the fruit of Habzelia oethiopica (monkey-pepper.) 

fliblsoas Rosa Binenab. 

Habitat. — India, Konkan. 

Parts used. — The roots and flowers. 

Vernacular. — ^Arab. — Anghar-e<hindi. Beng. — Orphul, Joba, 
Uni, Juva. Bomb. — Jasund, Jasus. Burm. — Khounyan. Can. — 
Dasvalada huvn. Chin.-^Chukin. Duk. — ^Jasut Gudhel. Eng. — 
Shoeflower. Guz. — Jasutnu-phul. Hind. — Jasim, Juva. Malyal. — 
Shempariti, Kambangsaptu. Madras. — Shappathupu. Mar. — Jasa- 
vanda. Pers. — Angharac Hindi. Sans. — ^Jaba or Japa-pushpam. 
Tam. — Sapatta-cherri. Tel. — Dasana-japa-pushpam. 

Jasovanda is also a name given to Jonesia-asoka, for which this 
should not be mistaken. 

Shoe-flower. The petals are used by the Chinese to blacken their 
eyebrows and to blacken their shoe leather. 

Characters. — A common garden shrub. Leaves ovate, cordate, 
closely serrate, acuminate and of a green or darkish green colour ; 
flowers large, of a red colour, mucilaginous and fleshy ; roots long, 
tapering, of a whitish colour and mucilaginous in taste. There are 
several varieties, some with single white or yellow flowers, others with 
double red flowers. The root of the white flower variety is mostly 
preferred and used in medicine. 

Preparation. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 ozs., and mucilage« 

Actions and uses. — ^The petals are demulcent, and emollient. As a 
refrigerant drink its infusion is given in fevers, as a demulcent in cough 
and cystitis ; combined with milk, sugar and cumin, it b given in 
gonorrhoea. In menorfhagia, combing with lotus root and the bark 
of eriodendron anfractuosum, it is of benefit. 

HibUous Sabdariffa. 

HahitaL — Tropics. 

Partuud. — The fleshy red calyx. 



MALVA SYLVESTRll. 



OQ 



Towdri 
Pers. — Kitrni'i- 



Vernacular. — Beng, — Lai- m est a. B urm . — Thambau- khy enbou ng . 
Can. — Pundi-soppu. Eng. — Red sorrel, Roselle, Duk, — Lal-ambara, 
Htnd. — Palwa. Mar — Lal-ambari. Tarn. — Pulychay-kire, Shemay- 
kaihli'kire* Tel. — Yaragogu, Panj Patwa, 

Ckaracltrs. — The fleshy red calyx, when dried, is used as a fruit 
andts ao article of diet like tamarind. 

Constilmriis. — Potash, tartaric and malic acids, watery extract, 
cellulose, &c. Dose, 15 to 25 grs. 

Preparation. — Jelly and syrup, i to 1 drs. 

Acthns and f/je^.— Demulcent and coohng, used as a cooling 
drink in biUousncss» fevers and cough. It is sometimes combined with 
common salt, pepper, molasses and asafetida, 

HalTa SylYestris—M. Rotundifolia-M. Vulgaris. 

Habitat. — Temperate cUmates, 

Part used, — The fruit, 

Vernacuiar, — Arab. — Khubazi, Anjil, Bomb. — Khubazi 

itlie secdt).^ Eng. — Common mallow, marsh mallow, 
Cacbak) Nan*i-Kul»gh, The seed Towdri, 

Character i*—Vr MM of a light brown colour; carpels from 10 to 12, 
reniform, very beautifully reticulated, and closdy arranged on the 
lU, givtng the whole fruit the form of an artificially made thread 
ftuitun ; in the centre or at its top there is a conical projection, which 
l^^e remnant of styles, and at the base a leathery calyx with or 
without a !*mall ocditle adherent to the fruit. The taste is mucilagi- 
nooSt and rcsemoles that of Gul-i-khitmi. 

Constituents ^ — Mucilage and a bitter extractive, 

/-yr/tfrn/ibfi.— Decoction and infusion (i in 20), Dose, 1 to z dm. 

Actions and uses — Mucilaginous, demulcent and cooling, used in 
cf»uj;hs and other irritable conditions of the mucous membranes of 
f t and pulmonary tract, in inflammation of the bladder and 

3 irhoids ; other properties are similar to those of althxa* 

Pavonia Odorata. 

^aAi/tf/.— N.-W. Provinces, Sind, W, Peninsula^ Burma and 
Ceylon. 

^^ /. — The root. 

i»r, — Beng. — Bala. Can. — Balarakkasi-gida. Hind.^ — 
h i. Mar, — Kala Vala. Pers, — Bulla Hrivera. Sans. — 

L„ :.^ a. Tarn. — Peramutiepu- Tel, — Erra-kati, Chitli-benda. 

Characters, — Root 7 to 8 inches long, twisted, giving off numerous 
tthitl fibres, having a delicate musky odour ; bark light brown, and 
iliDoath; wood hard and yellowish ; plant covered with sticky hairs; 
flowers pink ; seeds brown, and oily ; odour delightful* 



100 SIDA CORDIFOLIA* 

/V^//7m/Srb»5.— Infusion (i in lo). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Compound 
decoction, known as Shadanga Paniya. It contains the roots of 
Pavonia odorata, andropogon muricatus, cvperus rotundus, or 
CyperusperteQius^and red sandalwoods; herbs of oldenlandia herbacea, 
and dry ginger, each i drachm make decoction ; used in fevers as 
a cooling and stomachic acid drink. Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Demulcent, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic 
and diuretic ; used in flatulent dyspepsia, hysteria, nervous headache 
and in low state of the system ; also in fevers, gout, rheumatism and 
cough. 

Sida Conlifolia. 

S. Acuta, S. Retusa, S. Rhombifolia, S. Carpinifolia, S. Spinosa. 
Habitat. — ^The tropics, Australia, Bengal. 
Parts used. — ^The roots and leaves. 

Vernacular. — ^Arab. — Hulbahe-barri. Australia — Queensland 

hemp, jelly leaf, Beng. — Barjala, Bijband, Chuka, Hamaz, Kowar, 
Sirivadi, Babila. Cing. — Katekan, Babila Sirivadi. Guz. — ^Balu- 
Jangli-methi. Hind. — Bariara, Gulsakari, Kharenti, simak (seeds). 
Malyal. — Cheru, paruva. Mar. — Chikana-pata, Tupa Karia, Tukati. 
Pers. — Shanbalide-barri, Shamlite-dashti. Sans. — Bala, Bala-Baty 
alaka, Pat. Tam.—iMalai-tangi, Pilambasi, Visha-badi. Tel. — Chitia 
Mutti, Subadevi. 

Jelly leaf. The leaves being mucilaginous. Chiknapata— chikna, 
means mucilaginous, and pat, a leaf. Bala is the general name for 
plants of this genus. There are five such balas, viz., Bala, Maha bala, 
Atibala, Naga bala, and Rajabala. 

Characters. — Roots woody, hard and fibrous ; taste sweetish, and 
resembling common liquorice root ; bark light, yellowish brown ; leaves 
cordate, rhomboid or lanceolate, tomentose or more or less dentate, 
highly mucilaginous. 

Constituents. — The root contains asparagin and gelatine. 

Preparation. — Infusion of root (1 in 10). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses, — The roots are cooling, astringent, bitter tonic, 
febrifuge, demulcent and diuretic. Given with ginger in fevers 
and urinary diseases; also in rheumatism. As a demulcent the 
juice is given in gonorrhoea, leucorrhcea and chronic diarrhoea. The 
root of S. carpinifolia is locally used by the Hindoos as a paste, with 
sparrow*s dung, to burst boils. The leaves of S. cordifolia are made 
into varaliams and applied to the eyes in ophthalmia. 

Thespeaia Popnlnea. HibiioiiB PopalnM. 

Habitat, — Bengal and Ceylon. 

Pafts used. — ^The leaves, bark, firuit and seeds. 

Vemaculmr. — Eng. — Portia-tree, Tulip tree. Beng. — Poresh. 
Bomb. — Bhiudi. Can, — ^Kandarola-mara, Pooarasoo. Cing. — Gansuri, 
Suria-gmss. Duk« — Paras-pippaL Guz. — Paraai-pipalo. Hind* — ^Pftras- 



ABROMA AUGUSTA 



lOX 



E'pal, Pahari-pipal. Mar, — Bhendi, Parasa. MalyaL — Puvva-rasha, 
ins. — Parisa, Gargha^ Bhanda^ Supara Shavaka. Tarn, — Puvarasa 
roaram. TeK— Gangaravi. 

Characters. — Leaves thick, cordate, broad, acuminate, with long 
petioles, darkish green above and pale beneath ; flotvers large* yellowr 
and bell-shaped; fruit a capsule of the size of a common lemon, oblong, 
dapressed and coriaceous, when dry of a darkish brown colour ; fresh 
fruits abound in a viscid yellow juice, which is highly glutinoua* and 
resembles gamboge ; the seeds contain a dark red oil, known as huile- 
am^e. 

Constiiurnis.-^The heart wood contains a garnet-red resin in- 
soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, chloroform and alkalies; sparingly 
soluble in benzol and in ether. 

Pinparation, — Juice of leaves; decoction of the bark (i in lo). 
Dose, I to 7 ounces, 

AcHons and uses* — Alterative and stimulant ; the decoction is 
given internally in scabies and Other skin diseases. Externally the 
juice of leaves \% applied in scabies, psoriasis, &c.; varalians of leaves 
arc applied to rheumatic and painful swollen joints, 

Starouliaoea. — The silk-cotton^ or Murada Singa family* 
Sterculiaceae, from stercus, *' excrement/* in allusion to the foetid 
OdOUT of flowers or fruits of some of the species. 

ChararUrs, — Trees or shrubs, Leaves alternate, simple or 
compound ; flowers white, red or yellow, regular or irregular, perfect 
or abortive and unisexual ; petals sometimes absent ; stamens united 
by their filaments into a column, indefinite ; anthers, 2-celled, extrose; 
fruits a number of follicles or capsular, rarely baccate ; seeds with 
fleshy and oily albumen : embryo straight or curved. 

Hahiiat. — Tropics and temperate climates. 

Properties similar to those of malvaceae, generally mucilaginous, 
demulcent and emollient ; some are considered emetic, diuretic and 
purgative. 

Abroma Auguata* 

MahitaL — India. 

Parts used, — The root and sap of the bark* 

Fifnacular. — Beng. — Ulat-Kambal. Bomb. — Olak Tambol. 
Rng. — DeviTs cotton. 

Characters* — Small tree or shrub ; leaves ovate, oblong and 
serrulate^ under*side tomencose or scabrous ; flowers dark-purple and 
drooping ; fruit dry, 5<eUed. capsular, with 5 truncated wings^ 
dehiscent when ripe, each cell containing numerous black seeds ; 
roots with thick, brown, fibrous bark, exuding, when cut, a thick 
gummy substance. Dose of the root^ 30 to 60 grs. The sap, 10 to 30 
grs. 

Constituents. — The root-bark contains gum, wax, a non-crystalUne 
extractive matter and ash 11*64 px.« but no manganese. 



I02 ADANSONIA DIGITATA. 

Actions and uses. — The root and the sap are uterine tonic and 
emmenagogue ; with black pepper {riven in congestive and neuralgic 
dysmenorrhoea and amenorrhoea, either given a week before or during 
menstruation. It is a very valuable substitute for hydrastis, viburnunii 
and Pulsatilla. 

Adansonia Di^tata— The Baobab tree. 

Habitat — Cultivated in India. 

Parts used. — The pulp of the fruit, bark and leaves. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Habhabu, Bahobab. Burm. — ^Bila-magjisi. 
Duk. — Gorikha-amali, khatyan. Eng. — Monkey bread, Ethiopian 
sour gourd. Guz. — Chora Amala, Gorakha Chincha, Sum- 
pura (the fruit). Hind. — Rookha, Hathi-khatiyan, Gorak-amli, 
Mar. — Churi Chintza, Gorakh-chinch. Tarn. — Papara pulia maram. 
Anai-puliya. Senegal — El-omarah, oufa. The fruits El-Kongles. 

Gorukha chinch. — Gorukha, the name of a Hindoo monk of 
old, and chinch, tamarind. In allusion to the old monk, who is said 
to have taught his disciples under this tree. The fruits, when dried 
(shells), are used as water pots by the monks, 

Hathi Khatiyan — Hathi, elephant, and Katiyan, fibre. It 
means elephant's flax, in allusion to the great strength of the fibre 
prepared from its bark. 

Characters. — Tree with trunk of an enormous size ; fruit, bottle 
or cucumber-shaped ; shell hard, woody, light and covered with dull 
green felt-like yellowish down or brown hairs. The interior of the 
fruit consists of a soft, corky substance, tough and fibrous in structure 
and a sub-acid pulp, of a brownish red colour. It consists of mucilage, 
which is firmly adherent to and surrounds the seed. The seeds are 
enclosed in a horny shell ; they are kidney-shaped, rough externally, 
of a rusty red colour, acid flavour and sour taste. The bark 3delds a white 
semi-fluid gum, which is colourless, tasteless and insoluble in water. It 
contains calcium oxalate and resin. 

Constituents. — ^The pulp contains phlobaphenes, mucilage and 
gum, glucose, tartrate and acetate of potash, and other salts, &c. The 
pericarp contains phlobaphene, albuminoids, gum, colouring matter, 
carbonate of potash and soda, &c. The leaves contain wax, glucose, 
salts, gum and albuminoids. The bark contains wax, tannin, gum, 
albuminoids, carbonate and chloride of sodium and potassium and a 
glucoside adansonin antagonistic to strophanthus. 

Preparation. — Decoction of bark (i in lo). Dose, i to a ozs. 

Actions and uses. — ^The pulp of the fruit is astringent and demul- 
cent, given in dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough and other pul- 
monary affections. The bark is demulcent and aperient and given for 
similar purposes. As a refrigerant (acid drink), like tamarind, the 
pulp is used in fevers. The leaves are used as varalians in painfal 
swellings. The dr^ powder of the leaves, called LaUO| is used to t ' 
excessive perspiration. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. 



BOMBAX MALABARICUM. 



103 



Bombar Malabaricum— B. Heptaphyllufn. 

Hahiiai, — India, tropical. 

PafU med. — The gum and root . 

I'erttacular. — Beng, — Rakto-semul, Bomb. — Musta-semul (the 
gum), Supari-ka-phuL Burm. — Lapan-La-i. Can. — Mullu, Biirraul- 
mara, Mach&ras. Cing. — Kattu-Imbat Duk. — Sopari-ka-phul, 
K ' t-Khaiyan* Eng. — Red silk-cotton tree. Guz, — Shemalo 

(i ,1), Mocharas. Hind. — Ragat-semul^ Mocharas, Supari-ka- 

SliuL Max. — Sairi. Malyal. — Mulu-elavu, Panj. — Sum. Sans.^ — 
foclia, Rjuta-kadruma, Shemaloi Solmali- mocharas. Duk, — Semal, 
Kantonka Khatyan. Tarn, — Illavam. Tel, — Buruga-manu, Mocharas 
(gumV 

KanU-kudruma, means a tree with hard conical prickles. Sopari- 
lui'phul^^' ' s a name given to the gum, is fiom sopari— areca 
dtcchu, i n to the fact that children masticate the jlunt 

thorns of B. ^Malab.iricum* 

CkaracUrs. — Tree large, remarkable for its height, and covered 
with hard conical prickles, deciduous when in flowers ; flowers large^ 
rt/i 1,T;ftlHjwilh a green cup-shaped calyx, followed by egg-shaped 
^ 5ules ; seeds numerous, of a black colour, and covered by long 

%ut^\ li^iis, or a quantity of 6ne cotton; this cotton is not used like 
cirdmary cotton on account of smoothness and want of adhesion 
between fibres. 

Mocharas is not a normal juice, but the product of diseased action, 
which cfjtLsists in the proliferation of the cells of the bark ; the gum 
unly exudes from the bark, which has been so injured by decay or by 
insects. On incisions into the diseased barki a number of small cavities 
•re seen, which contain a jelly-like substance, some granular matter and 
lUrch. Thus in appearance Mocharas resembles galls more than gum ; 
when tint exuded it is in whitish fungous pieces, which gradually turn 
led, and finally mahogany-like. In some pieces holes made by msects 
Are dbtinctly seen, the galls thus resembling kakada-singa. It is 
veiy brittle, the fractured surface being resinous-looking and red. 
The taste istringent« and resembles cbikani sopari. The root is as 
larjye us a carrot ; bark dark-brown externally and reddish within, 
fit and studded with a soft spongy substance. The taste is 

kt jit, and cutnmy or mucilaginous. Dose of the gum, 10 

to 40 grs. 

Cc^»4///.'//«n.— i iic bceds yield 25 p.c, of a sweet non-drying oil, of 
a light yellowish brown colour which contains crystalline, insoluble fatty 
adds 9a*S p.c. The cake of the seeds contains nitrogenous compounds, 
fet, extractive matter, woody fibre and ash. 

Pnt^mthn, — Decoction of root (i in 20). Dose, l to 2 ois. 

yf : lid mes* — The root is astringent, alterative, demulcent and 
(tor. jd in diarrhora, dysentery and menorrhagia ; also in high- 
er ' with copious deposit. As an alterative and restorative, 
ll. >t^ a pakh (confection) in tuberculosis of the lungs and 



I04 KRIODENDRON ANPRACTUOSXnif. 

Other wasting diseases. The gum is used as an astringent and 
demulcent for the same purposes, but more especially in dysentery, 
menorrhagia and in diarrhoea of children. Native women use it 
largely after delivery to stop menses during lactation. It is a chief 
ingredient in various restorative, expectorant and aphrodbiac 
confections* Found to be a valuable substitute Ifor gum kino, red 
gum, &c. 

Eriodendron Anfraotaosum. 

Habtiat.— Asxdi and Africa. 

Parts used. — The root and gum. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Sh wet Shimool. Burm. — Tembo-lc-bin . 
Can. — Buramara. Cing. — Imbul, Pulim. Duk. — Khatya'n. Eng. — 
White silk cotton tree. Hind. — Hattian, Safed-semul, Tulaper. 
Guz. — Dholo-shemlo. Maleal. — Paniala, MuUila-pula. Mar.— Shami- 
eula, Pandhra Saur. Sans.; — Sveta-shelmah. Tam. — ^Elavum-maram. 
Tel. — ^Buruga-chettu. 

Characters.'-^TYie tree yields a dark coloured opaque gum, in- 
soluble in water. This plant is sometimes preferred to the red silk 
variety. 

Constituents. — ^Albuminoids, fat, non-nitrogenous extractive. The 
ash contains potash and phosphoric acid. 

Preparation. — Decoction of root (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 4 dn. 
Gum. — Dose, 10 to 90 grs. 

Actions and uses. — ^The young roots and fruits are demulcent and 
astringent, and used in diarrhoea, dysentery and menorrhagia. The 
gum (Hattian ka-gond) is used in bowel complaints. 

Heliotares Isora. 

J/aditat.-^CenUdl and Western India, Western Peninsula, 
Ceylon. 

Parts used. — ^The fruit and root-bark. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Atmorha. Bomb. — Murada Siaga. Duk.^ 
Dhamni Kavuna. Eng. — East Indian screw plant. Cing. — Leeviya gaha. 
Guz. — Mriga Shing. Hind.— Kupaise, Joa-ka-phal, Marorphali. 
Mar. — Varkati, Dhamani, Maedasingi. Sans. — Avurtuni Mrigashinga. 
Tel. — Sayamali. Tam. — Valambirikai. Pers.— Pechak, Burkisht 
Hisht bar. 

Mriga Shinga, mruga,-deer, and shenga, a horn, deer's horn, from 
the twisted form of the carpels. 

Characters. — The tree resembles common hazel tree ; fruit 
covered with a yellowish brown tomentum, thickest at the base. 
The stalk is long and club-shaped; carpels five, slender, angular 
and extending from the stalk. Each carpel is of a greenish 
brown colour, and twined round the other, giving^ Hm wfaote 
fruit the shape of a corkscrew, and opening loomtildilial^ in 
fi-ont; seeds many, in a single row, black rhomboid, hiipAj poHmri.' 



PKMTAPETHS PHCENTCFA 



105 



la^tc mucilaginous and slightly bitter ; root-bark dark brow^ and 
studded with round tubercles. Dose of the powdered fruit, 5 to 15 grs. 

Pn^aratton. — Liniment from powdered fruit. Decoction of root 
(t in 10;- Dose, | to i oz. 

Act$ons and tises, — Demulcent and mildly astringent. Powdered 
fruit is given with other drugs to stop griping in the bowels and 
flttulence in children. The root-bark is given in diabetes. The root 
may be substituted for that of althaea. The Hindus use the powder of 
the root with castor^otl as an application inside the ears in offensive 
sores and discharges. 

Pentapates Phmnioea. 

Habitat, — The hotter parts of India. 

Part used. — The capsules, 

Verttacular, — Hind, — Dopahariya. Beng. — Katcula, Bandhuli . 
Mar.— Timbri-dufari. Tarn.— Naga-pu» Sans. — Bandhuka, Bandhu- 
jiv% Arka V^allubha Pushparakta. 

Bhandhujiva^ living in association or groups. Arka Vallabha* 
bdOTed of the sun, Pushparakta, red flowered. 

^ Ckaracttrs.~-P\2Lni found in wet places during the monsoon, 
nit capsular; capsules mucilaginous, sub-globose, bristly, s-^elled, 
i-valreo; calyx inferior, 5-partite» bristly ; cell containing 8 to 12 
seeds* arranged in vertical rows. 

Ac^m and uses. — Demulcent, given in coughs and scalding in 
the urtne. 

PterosperniQii] Suberifolltun. 

/r^^f/!(i/.— ilndia. Godaveri forests^ Ginji Hills, 

Part used^ — Flowers. 

Vernacular, — Cing. — Welaug gas. Tarn, — Teddi maram* Tel — 
Nolika-diettu. Hind, — Muchkand. Sans,^ — Much-kunda. 

Much Kunda muchu^mungo, means mucus, and kund, a sweet 
smelling flower. 

Characters. — Flowers white, fragrant* They render water 
geUtinous. 

Actions and nses.^The, flowers are used externally, [as a paste 
in hetni'crania. 

Pterospermam Aoerifoliam. 

Hahttat. — India, Assam. 

Parts tij^^.— Flowers, bark and leaf. 

Vernacuiar. — Sans.— Kami kara. Hind, — Kamar-Kath-champa. 
Beng.— ^Kanak<hampa. Sikktm — Hathepaila. Nagee. Burm, — 
Toung-jihet'iroon. 

/V<^if Ab>i.— Bhasm (ash). 



I06 STERCULIA ACUMINATA 

Acttofis and uses.^Tht white tomentum from the under surface 
of the leaf is used as a haemostatic to stop bleeding. The Bhasm, mixed 
with kamala, is used as an application in suppurating small-pox. 

Staroulia Aoaminata--Kola Aouminata. 

Female Kola. — Gongo nuts, kola nuts, guru nuts, 

-^/jW^/.— Tropical forests of West Indies, Africa, SoudaD« 
Senegambia, Angola. 

Parts used, — The seed or nut. 

Characters. — Tree handsome and large ; flowers yellow, with 
5 follicles, each containing one seed. Seeds, one inch long, and 
flattened testa, brownish with blackish spots ; odour nutmeg like ; 
taste aromatic. The green canals are present in the pith and bark. 
Dose, powdered nuts, 1 5 to 20 grains. 

Constituents. — Caffeine, in much larger proportion than in any 
member of the group except guarana. Theobromine and a gluco- 
side — kolanin, which splits up in the presence of a ferment into 
free caffeine and glucose ; also starch, sugar, gum, proteids, fat, 
volatile oil, and tannic acid. Kolanin is decomposed by saliva and 
gastric juice. 

Preparations, — ^Tincture (i in 5). Dose, ^ to 1 drm. Extract. 
Dose, 3 to 10 grains. Fluid extract. Dose, 10 to 30 minims. Kola 
Wine. Dose, i to 2 ounces. Neo Kola is a coloured powder from 
kola nuts, flavoured with vanilla and used as a beverage. Kolatina, 
paste of Kola nuts. Dose, i to 2 drs. 

Physiological Action, — Kola is a nervine stimulant, tonic and 
astringent. The fresh nuts are used as food and as aphrodisiac. This 
latter property is due to their containing essential oil which is absent 
in the dry nuts. It is eaten to ward off fatigue and depression, 
to support the strength, to allay inordinate appetite, to assuage 
thirst, to promote digestion, and render those usmg it cheerful in 
spirits and capable of prolonged fatigue in the same manner as coca 
leaves. 

Therapeutics. ^\A\i<t guarana and coca it is used in gastric catarrh 
dyspepsia of alcoholism, sea sickness and syphilis. It counteracts 
the intoxicating influence of alcohol, and the depressing effects 
of tobacco. It is employed in cardiac and nervous asthma. It 
contains tannin, and hence given in chronic diarrhoea and in gastro- 
intestinal irritation. As an aphrodisiac kola is used to allay the 
fense of exhaustion, and thus stimulate the sexual appetite. In 
dipsomania, wasting diseases, neurasthenia, and cephalalgia where 
caffeine is indicated, it is of benefit. It is a valuable adjunct to the 
administration of mercury and iodides, and a good substitute for tea 
or coffee. Kolanin is a tonic and stimulant given for neurasthenia 
and migraine. 

Remarks. — ^The preparations of Kola should be taken at or 
between meals. 



STBRCULIA URENS. 



107 



Sterculia Foetida. 

Habifaf, — Concan, Malabar, Ceylon. 

Parts «Mrrf.^The leaves, fruit and bark. 

Vernticular. — Eng. — Hell's Incense, Wild alnoond. Hind»— Jaogli 
badnm Mah— Narakha Uda, Narkya Uda. Tarn. — Pinari maram, 
Kudrip dukhu. 

Kudrap*dukku — resenciblance of its large follicle to the testicle of 
a hofiie. 

CAflfwtiJrr^.^Lcaves compound, peltate, leaflets 7 to 9, oblong 
lanceolate, acuminate ; wood of a light brown colour, soft and fibrous ; 
the odour resembles that of human ordure, and hence the name. 
carpels oblong, many seeded; seeds elJiptical, an inch long and covered 
with a hard brown shell which is velvety within, covered by a felt like 
skin, and enclosing an oily white kernel. The^kin softens in water like 
bassorin* Flowers panicled, brownish red at the base, and of a 
sterooraceous odour* 

Q' 'V. — The kernel contains fixed oil, 40 p.c, and 

Uairch. 1 is thick^ pale yellow, bland and non-drying, depositing 

cryttallinc sohd fats, anci fiitty acids, consisting of oleic, and small 
quantity of lauric acids. 

Aeimtts and uses* — The fruit is demulcent and astringent, and 
In gonorrhofa. l^he leaves and bark are aperient, diaphoretic, 
ctiCt and used in dropsy, rheumatism &c. The seeds are used for 
eittag^ 

Stercolia Urens. 

Hahitat — ^Throughout India, Ceylon. 

Pm ustd. — Tile gum. 

Fer$Mcu/an — Beng. — Buli. Can. — Penari. Hind. — BAH, g£iI6, 
k(il6, karai, kalru, kur katila, katira. Gust. — Karai. Mar, — Pandnik. 
Uvali, kiinduL Sans.— Balika. Tel— Kalvi, ThabsO* Tarn.— Valley 
puiali. 

Ckaracteri. — Often confounded with cochlosperraum gossypium. 
The seeds yield an oil containing much stearin. A gum exudes from 
young branches, from panicled inflorescence and from petioles of leaves ; 
also from large canals in the oith and bark, where it is contained in 
the tissues. It is a soft solio mass, soluble in cold water, forming a 
milky solution. 

CTustitHtnis. — Mucic acid, obtained by treating gum with nitric 
ici4, and ash 4 p.c. 

jici^ns and uses* — The gum is used for making native sweet- 
nieau ; the mucilage has no adhesive power. Its uses are similar to 
those of Tragacanth. 



to8 



THBOBROMA CACAO, 



StaiHmlia ScapUgerm. 
Vernacular, — Chinese— Ta-hai-tszc, Boatam-paijang. 

Characters. — The fruit contains large quantity of gura. The fruit _ 
is elongated, ovoid and terminates at the lower extremity by a 
oblique cicatrix ; externally dark brown, deeply wrinkled ; pericar 
like thin epidermis, containing dark resinous looking pulp aod 
cotyledons covered by a thin fragile shell. On maceration, the pericarp^ 
swells, forming a large gelationous mass. 

Constituents. — The pericarp contains a green oil, bas»onn« a brown 
astringent matter and mucilage ; the nucleus contains cellular tistyfl 
fatty matter, bitter extractive and starch. 

Actions and uses. — Similar to those of Tragacanltt* 

ByttnariaoesB* 

The chocolate family. Trees, shrubs, or under shrubs, sometiroet^ 
climbing. Leaves simple, alternate; calyx valvate, corolla absent ' 
stamens hypogynous, definite ; filaments united ; anthers 2-eellc ' 
introse. Confounded with sterculiaceae, malvacea, and Tiliaceac. 

Habitat, — Tropical plants. 

Properties, — Mucilaginous. Some species bear edible firuitiw 

Theobroma Caoaa, B. P. 

Theobroma. Theos, a god j and Broma, food — food for the Gc 
in allusion to its delicious qualities. 

Habitat, — South America, Brazil, Mexico, West Indies, Tropica* 

Parts used. — A concrete oil expressed from the seed$, oleitm 
theobromatis, B. P., cacao butter or oil of Theobroma. 

Characters, — Fruit large, fusiform, with ten shallow furrows and 
With blunt ridges covered with tubercles^ single or 2 or 3 t 
Pericarp or shell thick, tough and 5-celled, Seeds many* c!n<;e! t| 

in tears, size that of an almond; they are angular and p 
another and immersed in the pulp, which is copious, ^ 
From the pulp is prepared a beverage or a distilled spirit, too parts \ 
seeds contain is parts of shells or thin husks which envelope the sec 
and %% parts of kernels. In the seed is found theobromine, rcsenibltn| 
caffeine, Cocoa, otherwise known as rock cocoa, consists of the 
with husks roasted, deprived of the oil, ground in a mill mixed with 
flour of rice, barley and sugar, and put up in a powdered form. CV ' Vi 
contains cocoa mixed with sugar, cloves, sassafras nuts, van i 

amatto as a colouring agent, made into a paste and cast into mcjLiJd^ 
or pressed in cakes. The aroma in chocolate is due to the aromatic 
principle which develops when the leaves are roasted. 

Chocolate is often adulterated with starch, barley, rice ft^mr, 
lard he. Both cocoa and chocolate are used in the p T 

agreeable beverages. The beverages often disagree, as 1 

fatty and oily substances. 



TAMARICACKjR. 



109 



Cofutitumfs, — The seeds contain about 50 p.c. of a concrete fat or a 
fixed oil, which is known as butter of cocao or oleum theobromatis ; 
fttarthib p.c. ; an alkaloid theobromine 2 to 4 p.c, ; caffeine and proteids 
t8 px* : sugar, colouring matter and ash 3 to 4 p.c. Butter of cocao, 
oil df ihcobtoma. To obtain it, warm or drv the seeds or bury them in 
1 heap for a few days in a box, and then dry ; next press them 
through rollers and extract the oiL The oil may also be extracted by 
expression, by decoction or by solution in chloroform or ether. 

Characters, — A yellowish white solid concrete mass, breaking 
with a smooth fracture, and has the faint odour of cocoa ; the taste is 
bland and agreeable ; it has a neutral reaction. It is soluble in alcoholi 
ether and oil of turpentine and insoluble in water. The oil contains 
sicarine^ and a little oicine laurin, arachin, resin, and glycerides of 
formic and butyric acids* Dose, A to i dr. 

Theobromine — Demethylxantnine is an alkaloid forming salt 
(closely allied to caffeiu). To obtain it, exhaust the kernels with 
hot water, add acetate of lead and filter the precipitate ; then 
Temove lead by sulphuretted hydrogen, treat the residue with alcohol 
and evaporate. It may be synthetically obtained from xanthine, a 
substance nearly related to uric acid. A crystalline white pow^der of 
a bitter taste ; sparingly soluble in alcohol, chloroform , water and 
ellii^r. Dose, i to $ grs. 

Preparations of the oiL — Emulsion; suppositories ; Ceratum 
theobromine or red salve ; to prepare which melt together, cocoa butter 
35, white wax 33, oil of almonds 30, carmine, oil of rose and ammonia 
water. 

Prefiaratiom of Theotrommt. — Diuretin — a combination with 
sodium !*alicylate. Uropherine, a combination of theobromine with 
lithium salicylate or with lithium benzoate. lodo theobromine^ a 
combination of sodium salicylate and sodium iodide with iheobro- 
mtnc, 

Ictmtts and uses. — The concrete oil is nutrient, emollient and 
ij t, generally used as an excipient for suppositories, pessaries, 

ij ^ &c. ; used externally for abrasioni* and inflamed surfaces. 

The ,;u sil i! theobromine and its salts are diuretic and nervine 
stimn? ! .rnerally given with nitro-glycerine, menthol, cocaine, 
s; caffein, &c. Cocoa is used as a nutritious beverage like 

iL . but is less stimulant than the latter. As a diuretic and 

stmiuUnt it is used in Bright's disease. 

TamarioaoeaB. 

Tamriricaccjc— The Padvasa or Tamarisk family, 

r herbs. — Leaves alternate, entire scale-like ; flowers 
Jl, ei spiked; fruits dehiscent and one-celled : seeds numerous 

eomosci and without albumen ; embryo straight. 

Habitat, — Northern Hemisphere and Mediterranean basm. 
Pro^rrty. — ^The bark of some of these plants is astringent, bitter 
and tonio. Some species, as Tamarix Manniferai contain a saccharine 



no TAMARIX GALLICA. 

substance known as Mount Sinai Manna, supposed to be an exudation 
produced in conseouence of punctures of species of coccus insects which 
infest this plant. The ashes of some species contain large quantities 
of sulphate of soda. 

Tamarix Oallioa— T. Indloa. T. Orientalls. T. Artioalata. 

Habitat — Sind, Panjab, Asia, Africa, Europe. 

Parts used. — The galls and sugary exudation or manna. The 
galls are called the Tamar fruits in Persian works. 

Vernacular, —^T^. — Asl, Tarfa-Jaz, Mazaj (exudation) gazanjebin. 
Beng. — Jhav. Bomb. — Mayun (galls). Duk.— Jhav, Ferash. Eng. — 
Tamarisk. Guz.— Jhav, Hind. — ^Jhav, Padvas, Ferash. Panj. — Phar- 
wan, Pilchi, Rukh. Pers. — Darakhte zamarisk (manna), Gaz. Sans. — 
Jhavuka, Shor-gaz. Tarn. — Shavukku. Tel. — Shiri-Saru Manu. 

Burree mai. — The galls on T. Gallica are smaller than those of 
Majuphala or true galls. These are of a dirty brown colour, roundish or 
ovate, irregularly shaped or angled and knotty. They are of various sizes. 
Sometimes 2 or 3 are united together; some of them present a slender 
(stalk-like) woody portion at their base ; surface tubercled and also 
wrinkled; the cut surface brownish red ; the cavity sometimes contain- 
ing the insect (coccus manniparus) or a resinous-looking exudation, 
which is nothing more than excrementitious matter. 

C^oA' iwtii*.— The galls on T. articaluta. The galls are of a darkish 
brown colour and knotty, resembling a pea in size. They are smaller 
than those of Burree mai. The shape is globular, not angled. The 
surface is resinous-looking,. round, knotty, of the size of a pea and of 
yellowish brown colour, of a slight balsamic smell. 

The manna occurs in small grains, which are white at £rst, but 
have a tendency to liquefy and form a yellow fluid-like honey. The 
taste is astringent at first, but after a time becomes glutinous. Manna 
is produced upon tamarisk willow, or oak, in consequence of the 
puncture of an insect (coccus manniparus). Dose of manna, i to 8 drs. 
Dose of the galls, S to 15 grs. 

Constituents, — Manna; a thick yellow syrupy liquid containing 
cane-sugar, glucose, levulose, dextrin and water. Galls contain tannin 
SO p. c. 

Preparations, — Decoction of galls (i in 10). Dose, ^ to 4 drs. 
Tincture (i in 8). Dose, ^ to i dr. Ointment ( i in 5 ). Compound 
ointment with opium ( 14 in i of opium). 

Actions and uses, — Galls are astringent, used in chronic discharges 
and watery fluxes, as leucorrhcea, diarrhoea and dysentery; also in 
haemorrhagic diathesis. Locally used as pessaries. The manna is a 
mild aperient and expectorant, and forms an ingredient in aperient and 
cough mixtures. These galls are as effective as, or rather superior to, 
the true galls. 



COCAINA* 



111 



Erythrozylaoeat 

General characters, — Tree or shrubs often climbing ; leaves usutUy 
i qpporitcor whorled, rarely alternate, stipulate and furnished with peltate 
' hatff ; flowcn. perfect or polygamous, arising from imbricated scale-like 
brftcts; calyx persistent without glands; petals with two parallel mem- 
branous plates at their base ; stigma capitate ; fruits drupaceous, woody 
nui or utntroid ; seeds solitary; ovules sessile and anatiopal ; embryo 
!ftr%tght. 

Hahiiai, — Brazilt West Indies. 

Protperties. — Some are tonic, others purgative, and others stU 
mulant and sedative. The wood of some is used for dyes. 

Erythroxylum Coca, B. P. 

flabttaL—V^T\A^ Bolivia, Tea districts of India, Ceylon, Java, 
South America 

Pkirh Mir//— The dried leaves of En^^throxylum coca, and other 
VMictie* <" " 1- Folia, Coca leaves, B, R, and an alkaloid — Cocaina, B. P. 

Ej im — from erythros red and xylon, wood. The wood 

has a fcvi (.f.i'jut . 

Characiers, — A small shrub; leaver small, thin, with short petioles 
1^ to y inches long and I to ij inches broad, obovate, entire, glabrous, 
obtuse or cmarginate, both sides reticulate, midrib prominent and with 
a curved line running on each side from base to apex; colour brownish 
ffreen ; odour tc3-like; taste slightly bitter and aromatic \ on chewing 
tt benumbs the lips and tongue. Should not be confounded wtth cocao, 
th« leaves of Thcobtoma cacao* Dose of the leaves, | to 2 drs. 

CnmviitHrnls — Coco leav^ contain hygrine, truxil cocaine (trmciU 
Itf" me (a crystalline alkaloid). Benzoyl ecgonine 

(a ) I aromatic oil, coca tannic acid, coca wax, 

cinnaaiy kuv *ii nc, 4kc. In the Java leaves is found an alkaloid tropo- 
cocaine, a compound of benzoic acid and a base. 

Hs'grinc, — A volatile liquid alkaloid; colour yellow; taste burnings 
odour that of trimethylamine. 

Ecgonine is obtained by heating cocaine with hydrochloric acid, 
when cocaine will split up into methylic alcohol, benzoic acid and 
ecgonine. 

Cocaina^ B. P*, Benzoyl methyl-ecgonine. 

To obtain Cocaine treat coca leaves with alcohol and acidulate 
with sulphuric acid ; treat the precipitate or the colouring matter 
wi'*' »'"-v The aqueous solution contains cocaine sulphate; to this 
ad ym carbonate, then agitate it with ether and alcohol and 

dccu.i n/c with animal charcoal, evaporate and crystallize. The leaves 
contain more cocaine than other parts, and a small quantity of other 
alkaloids. India and Java leaves contain less cocaine and more of the 
other alkaloids. It <x'curs in colourless monoclinic prisms, of a bitter 
tist£| ! tion of tingling and numbness on the tongue. 

It has .^ ton on uU mucous membranes. It has decided 

basic proper tie»f combining with acids to form salts* It is almost 



na 



COCAINA. 



insoluble in water* insoluble in glycerine^ soluble in alcohol (i in lo), 
ether (i in 4), chloroform (1 in i), castor-oil, olive^oil and other ftxed 
oils (i in 12X oil of turpentine (i in 14), benzol, toluol aod amyUc 
alcohol (1 in 3)» petroleum spirit ( 1 in 80). Hot water decompose* U, 
forming an acid solution which contains benzoylecgonine, ecgoniue and 
cocaine benzoate. Cocaine solution kept for a time becomes mouldy 
and covered with fungi. To avoid this, it is recommended to add 
boric acid* perchloride of mercury, salicylic acid, camphor, chloroform, 
thy molt &c. Dose, ^^q to ^ gr. in pills or tablets. As pure cocaine 
is soluble in fats and oils, it is always used externally as local an«esthetic 
combined with fatty substances, 

PrtparattQUs. — Ceratum cocainae (1 in 30) of petroleum ; used for 
burns, pruritis, scalds, urticaria, &c, Bougies of cocaine contains \ 
grain with cocao butter, used in urethritis. Obstetric cones or supposi- 
tories of cocaine. These contain cocaine with boracic acid and butter of 
cocao. Coilodmm cocaines contains z p.c. of cocaine with flexible 
collodion. It allays itching Emf>iastrum cocainae — 1 in 50, of lead 
plaster used for sciatica, neuralgia, corns, bruises, &c. Coca: — 

Cocaine oleate contains oleic acid with 5 p.c. of the alkaloid. ► -urn 

Cocamec contains cocaine i px. Tabellit cocaitur — Cocaine tiiblct /(^ 
grain in each with chocolate, given in sea sickness and tn sickness of 
pregnancy ; also in chloroform or alcoholic vomiting. 

Sails of cocaine. Cocainm citras. — Hygroscopic crystals, used by 
dentists. Dose, ^q to \ gr. Cocainm kydrobmmidum^ Dose, tV ^^ i gf* 
Cocaitue hydroiodidum — Colourless cr^^stals, slightly soluble m water* 
Dose^ A to I gr. Cocaimt hydrockioridum B. P, cocaine hydrochlonie, 
cocaine muriate, cocaine hydrochloride. To obtain it, acidulate the 
extract of coca leaves with sulphuric acid, neutralize with lime and 
filter. To the 5ltrate add hydrcohloric acid and recrysiallize. Itocctifii 
in colourless ciystals or white crystalline powder, ha:^ a neutral reac- 
tion ; taste bitter, producing a tingling sensaiion on the tongue 
followed by numbness. Applied to the eye, it dilates the pupil. 
Soluble in cold water u in i), alcohol (1 in 4), in glycerine (1 in 
4}. Insoluble in olive oil and ahnost insoluble in ether. Dose. % 
10 \ gr. 

Cocaine and c/f/oroform anotstkesia. It < n the u>^ xA 

chloroform inhalation and at the same time cillv iniccting 

cocaine as in operations on the eye and throat. J- b! 

P., contains 3*0 grain of cocaine hydrochloride* / ^ rJCr, 

tV 8^* t*^ 6 g*"* **^ each. Pi/u/a cocainet hydrochhndt^ ^ gr, in each 
witn milk-sugar. Trochisci cocamtx hydrochioridi^ ^ gr. tti each. 
InjectiQ cacamtt hvpadtrmica^ B. P„ 11 mininw contain I grain tA 
cocaine hydrochloride, known also as Liquor cocaine - • "^ ^ - 7/11, 
contains about lop.c. ol the salt mixed with half a grain id 

to make 6 drachms of the liquor. Dose, 2 to 5 ms. i \>r 

hydrochlfiridi. — Each contaitis ^ grain of the salt, 7>or i 

et cocamar^ B.R, contams extract of krameria i gr, and cocaine hv^lro- 
chloride ^^ of a gr, tn each* Used to allay irritation oE the tliroat, 
CQcaim lactas-^A white thick honey-like mass, easily soluble In 



COCAlKA. 



^3 



water : used locally along with the treatment of tuberculous cystitis 
with lactic acid, Oicains nitras — Cocaine nitrate. Large colour- 
less crystals^ freely soluble ill water. Dose, ^ to ^ gr. for hypodermic 
tfsjecuoD (i in $0). Cocaine salkylas^ cocaine salicylate, minute. 
»no IV -white crystals, deliquescent. Used hypodermical ly in spasmodic 
ajithma. Dose, ^ to \ gr. Cocainee sulphas. Dose, j'^^ to \ gr, CocmmB 
phcmn — Cocaine carbolate, a combination of cocaine and carbolic acid. 
Honey-like fluid, soluble in alcohol; used as solution i p.c. Dose» 

tto \ gr. in pill. Given internally in catarrh of the stomach, 
cally the solution is applied to caried tooth to relieve the pain. 
Preparations of coco leaves* 

£xtrncttim coca hqutdumy B.P.^ — Liquid extract of coca, Syn, — 
Extractum crythroxyli fluidum. It is not raiscible with water unless 
fice from wax. Dose, \ to i dr. Elixir cocm, — i in 6 of simple elixir. 
Dose, J to 4 drs. Elixir crythroxyli et Guar anm — Each fiuid drachm 
contains 7^ grains of coca and guarana each. Dose, i to 2 drs. Exintc- 
ium crtcar (solid). In pills or pastils (4 of leaves to i of spirit). Dose, 
2 CO 1 5 grs< fnfusum cocm (1 in 50). Dose* ^ to 2 02s. Tmctura 
*!0c*» (1 in 5V Dose, i to 2 fluid drs. Fitmm cocm i in 8 of sherry. 
Stimulant, checks vomiting caused by irritable stomach and relieves the 
pain of gastralgia. Dose, i to J oz. Pusiilius cocte cxiractt 2 J grs. of 
the extraa in each* Used in aphonia due to relaxed vocal cords, 

Physiftlogical actions, — Coca leaves and their preparations are 
remirkable for their food-replacing properties. They are stimulant, 
muscular and nervine tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, and narcotic. Locally 
ansevthetic and nervine sedative. Coca is anoalgous to tea or coffee, 
but is more sustaining. In small doses it is an aromatic bitter tonic. 
It stimulates the stomach, the nervous system, kidneys, respiration 
and the heart and raises the arterial tension ; as a stimulant to the 
brain it increases its blood*supply, produces wakefulness, also appeases 
iattgue, hunger and thirst and increases muscular strength and power 
of endurance. It checks the process of tissue waste and also lessens 
the quantity of urea. As a diuretic it increases the flow of urine, and 
also stimulates the intestinal peristalsis. Locally it acts on a limited 
ar€a« When applied or hypodt;rmically injected its effect on the mucous 
meoibranc and the skin is to cause profound an;3esthesia. On the tongue 
it destroys its taste and its sensibility. On the eye it causes dilatatitju of 
the pupilf paralysis of accommodation and sometimes ptosis. It resem- 
bles in its general action atropine In both the eff*ects on the heart, 
respitation, bl^od, pupils, salivary glands, skin and intestines are alike. 

C ^ •'■ 'Ti, or a cocaine habit^ is marked by loss of appetite, loss of 
sleep, ^'S of mind and body, emaciation, general marasniu:>« 

udtt :h, hallucinations, debasing habits, selfishness, great 

depr.. .inity. 

ThftaptuUcs, — The liquid extract of coca leaves is given in sea 
sickness, vomiting of pregnancy, in pains due to ulcer of the stomach, 
gastric indigestion and in hemorrhage from the bowels* The leaves 
are smoked to relieve asthma, hay fever and sore throat. The extract is 
given internally in melancholia, epilepsy, insanity, diabetes, sperma* 



114 ERYTHROXYLON MONOGYNUM. 

torrhcea, &c. In excessive doses coca is injurious like opium or 
fermented liquors. In moderate doses it counteracts the injurious 
effects of tobacco and alcohol. Coca wine is an agreeable stomachic 
stimulant. It checks gastric irritation and vomiting, and relieves the 
pain of gastralgia. It relieves hoarseness of voice in singers and speakers; 
and is also given in seminal debility. In diabetes it has been tried in 
place of codea. It steadies the nerves of excitable persons. Its leaves 
may be smoked as cigars. Cocaine hydrochloride is used as a paint or 
as an hypodermic injection to benumb the pains of inflamed parts ; 
also applied to deaden the sensibility of healthy parts, as the eye, ear, 
nose, urethra, uterus, &c. In coryza a 4 p. c. solution is applied to 
the nostrils. In gonorrhoea 2 p.c. solution is injected into the urethra. 
It is sometimes used as an injection into the back in hydrophobia, 
tetanus, incontinence of urine, lead colic, sciatica, lumbago, 
in ophthalmic surgery and also in minor operations. Locally the 
solution or the oleate is applied to burns, painful ulcers, fissures of 
anus, haemorrhoids, &c. As vaginal pessaries it is used in 
various forms of retarded parturition where the expulsive pains 
are absent or deficient. Its infusion is likewise used as an application 
to the throat or as an injection into the bladder before lithotrity or 
into the urethra before the passage of sounds or catheters, and to 
the gums for teeth extraction. To have a marked effect it should 
reach the terminal filaments of sensory nerves. In moles and warts 6 
grains to a drachm of glycerine should be used locally before the 
application of nitric acid. The oleate of cocaine is a good application 
in pruritis ani or vaginae and in skin diseases attended with itching. 

Erjrthroxylon Monogynum. E. Indioum. 

Habitat. — Western Peninsula, Ceylon, Cuddapah District. 

Parts used. — The wood bark and leaves. 

Vernacular, — Can. — Adavi, goranti. Eng. — Red cedar, bastard 
sandal or cedar. Tam. — Tevadarum, Devdarune. 

Cedar in allusion to the wood being fragrant like cedar. 

Characters. — Shrub. Bark pale and resinous ; leaves cuneate, 
obovate ; wood fragrant. 

Constituents, — No cocaine, but the leaves contain a bitter and 
tonic alkaloid which may have sustaining property. 

Preparations. — Infusion of leaves ( I in 20). Dose, ^ to i oz. Decoc- 
tion of the bark (i in to). Dose, J to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — Leaves are refrigerant, bitter tonic and 
nutrient, possessing properties similar to those of coca. The bark 
is also a tonic ; the leaves are eaten during famine times in India. 

Cedrelaces. 

The mahogany or Toon tree, or Rohana chhala family. It is 
composed of large trees: leaves alternate, pinnate, exstipulate and 
entire ; flowers generally numerous ; fruits capsular, dehiscent. 



CEDRELA TOONA. II5 

HabtiaL — Tropical parts of America and India. 

The properties of this order are aromatic, tonic, astringent , 
febrifuge and fragrant. Many are valuable timber trees. 

Cedrela Toona. 

Habitat. — Peninsula and Bengal. 

Parts used. — The bark, gum and flowers. 

J^ii<»c«/<»r.— Bombay. — Kooruk. Beng. — Toon. Burm. — Thit- 
ka-du. Can. — Sauolamara Tanda. Eng. — Indian mahogany, or white 
cedar, or toon tree. Hind. — Toona. Malyal. — Arana maram. Mar. — 
Rooruk. Sans. — Tunna-Nandevreksha. Tam . — Wunjooli maram. 
Tel.— Nandi. 

Characters, — Bark smooth and grey ; flowers small, yellow and 
sweet scented like honey ; gum transparent, in stalactiform masses, 
colour yellow, surface polished. It first swells and then dissolves in 
water, forming a thick gelatinous mucilage ; seeds numerous, imbri- 
cated and winged. 

Constituents. — Resin, extractive matter, gum, &c. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Fruit and bark astringent, but not bitter. 
With bonduc nut as a tonic and antiperiodic it is given in fevers, 
rheumatism and dysentery ; flowers are emmenagogue, and given in 
disordered menstruation ; the wood is used in making surgical instru- 
ments ; it must not be mistaken for thuja, which is incorrectly called 
white cedar. 

ChloFOxylon Swietenla. 

Habitat.^ CtyXoii^ Western Peninsula. 
Part used. — The bark.- 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Satin wood. Cing. — Buruta. Hind. — Rakata 
Rohidi, Ragatrora. Mar.— Haladarava, Bhiree. Tam. — Mududa Vum- 
maai, Kodavah. Tel, — Biluda-parasham. 

Characters. — The tuber of the bark is dark-brown and very 
rough from the presence of elliptical corky lentils, which are loosely 
attached. When separated they leave a smooth pale surface within. 
It yields a kind of gum, dark reddish brown or amber coloured, which is 
allied to gum-arabic, is insoluble in water, swells and becomes a whitish 
jelly. The wood is the satin wood of India used in making stetho- 
scopes. 

Constituents, — The bark contains tannin. 

Preparation, — Decoction (i in 20). Dose, J to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent and anodyne, used for sprains, con- 
tusions and for painful joints. 



Il6 CANBLLA ALBA. 

Soymida Febrifaga, Bwietenla Febrifiija, B. Rubra. 

Habitat. — Indiai Ceyloiu 

Parts used. — ^The bark. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Bastard cedar, redwood * tree. Beng.— 
Rohana. Hind. — Rohana, Rohitaka. Sans. — Patranga. Can.— 
Swamy. Mur. — Rohine Rheyu. Tam. — Shem. Tel. — Sunu, Sonuda. 

Characters^ — Bark in tubular quills, about an inch in diameter. 
Externally of a brown colour, smooth, with numerous cracks and 
covered with small warty growths, which, when they fall off, leave 
brown rings ; taste bitter and astrrngent. Dose, lo to 20 grs. 

Constituents.'^It contains a bitter principle, colourless resinous 
matter, starch and tannic and gallic acids* 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 20). Dose, J to i oz. Tinaure 
(i in 8). Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Actions and uses. — Bitter tonic, astringent and antiperiodic, like 
Peruvian bark ; in large doses it leads to vertigo and stupor ; given 
in intermittent fevers, dysentery, general debility and diarrhoea. As 
an injection or a wash, its decoction is used in leucorrhoea, 
gonorrhoea and as a gargle in sore throat. 

Canellaoaa. 

The canella order. Leaves alternate ; anthers longitudinal and 
dehiscent ; absence of disk, presence of a style ; seeds albuminous ; 
flowers unsymmetrical ; albumen horny. 

Habitat. — ^West Indies and America. 

Properties. — Aromatic, stimulant and tonic. 

Canella Alba. 

Laurel-leaved canella, wild cinnamon. 

Habitat.— 'Vf est Indies. 

Part used. — The bark canellae cortex— canella bark. Spurious 
winter's bark. 

Characters. — Flowers white and aromatic; fruit (berries) blackish; 
bark whitish, in quills, 6 to 24 inches long, grey coloured. The corky 
layer is orange-red and marked with scars ; inside striated with rjsin 
cells ; the odour between that of cloves and cinnamon ; taste bitter and 
biting. Dose, 15 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — Volatile oil, resin, bitter principle, starch, mannite 
sugar ; the oil is sometimes substituted for oil of cloves. 
Preparation. — Powder. 

Actions and uses. — Aromatic, tonic and stimulant ; given in 
gout, rheumatism, secondary syphilis, menorrhagia, amenorrhoea, and 
gastric debility ; generally given with aloes. 



AMOORA ROHITUKA. 



HeUacese. 



The bead tree, nima or margosa family. 
Trees or shrubs ; leaves exslipulate, alternate, pinnate, or simple, 
raierally oblique and serrated ; flowers small and very fragrant ; fruits 
baccate, capsular or drupaceous ; seeds few, arillate, exalbuminous. 

^^if/fl/.— Tropics. 

'. — ^The plants of this order are remarkable for their 
bittci lid astringent properties ; some are powerful purgatives ; 

some bear edible fruits ; some species are poisonous, 

Aglaia Roxbarghiana. 

Habtiat. — Western India, Ceylon. 

Part ns€*i. — The seeds. 

Femacu/ar. — Can. — Totilla-kayi. Hind.— Priangu. Sans. — 
PrtyaogSf Syama, Kantatva, Nandtni, 

Characters — Fruit subglobose or pilose, i to 2 -celled and I to 2- 
seeded ; bu(F-coloured when fresh, brown and wrinkled when dry ; 
shell thin» with an aril, pink and fleshy ; seeds flat, irregular and 
slightly convex, ^ inch in diameter ; odour aromatic and astringent. 

Constituents* — Querci tannic acid and ash. 

Prtparathn. — Infusion (1 in 20). Dose^ i to % OES. 

Actirm.\ mid uses. — Refrigerant and astringent; used in fevers, 
|tirTh(ra and liver aflections ; as an alterative it is given in leprosy. 

Carapa moluccensis, Granatum littoreum. A tree of the muddy 
coasts of India and Ceylon. The Malays use the bark, which is 
letter and astringent, in colic, diarrhoea and other abdominal 
difictscs 

Amoora Bohituka, Andersonia Rohituka, Maleacea Wightiana 

Habitat* — Assam, Oudh, Western Peninsula. 
Part used, — The bark. 

Vernacular. — Assam. — Amora-amari. Beng.— Tiktaraj. Burm.— 
CNyaii-ka yn Can.— Muttala gida. Cing. — HinguUgas. Hind.— 
H ii:a. Maleal. — Chemmara Mar.— Rohituka Sans. 

■^ hi, Rohera, Piihagna, Plihashatru. Tarn, — Shem-raa- 

raai. IW* — Chawa-manu, Rohitaka. 

Ptiha*ghna, spleen destroyer ; Pliha-shatru, enemy to spleen. 

Ckameters^—FTyxxi dull-yellow or reddish, 3-celIed, containing 
5 seeds ; seeds chestnut-coloured, enclosed in thick fleshy arilla ; 
bark blaeki.^h brown, externally covered with very rough elliptical 
1* >ns and minute fissures; substance of the bark deep, 

TL and of a striated short fracture. Fresh bark soft and 

can tutsily be cut. Taste very astringent. 

Comtiiuents, — Two yellow resins, starchy colouring matter, tannin 
and salts ; both resins are soluble in ether, but one is insoluble in alcohol 



Il8 MELIA AZEDARACH. 

and alkaline solutions the other is soluble in both these liquids, and 
is of an acid nature. 

/Reparation.— Vecoction ( i in lo ). Dose, i to i oz. 

Actions and uses, — ^Alterative, astringent and tonic, given in en- 
larged glands, as liver and spleen, in corpulence and in general debility. 

Melia Azedarach, H. Bukayun, M. BemperTires. 

Habitat. — North of India, Bengal, Mysore, Bombay, China, 
United States. 

Paris used. — The root-bark, gum, leaves, flowers, fruit and oil of 
the seeds. 

Vernacular — Arab. — Mab-ul-dan (the seed). Beng. — Maha nimb, 
Ghora nim. Burm. — Simbo Karva. Can. — Bavena Betta-da. Cing. — 
Luna-middella. Duk. — Gora nimb. Eng. — Persian lilac. Pride of 
China, Evergreen bead tree. Guz. — Bakayan. Hind. — Bakayan, Maha 
nimb. Malayal. — Malai vempu. Mar. — Goru-niraa, Dongracha lim. 
Panj. — Drek. Pers. — Darakat-i-azad, Tak. Sans. — Hemadruma 
Parvat nimba, Arishta. Tarn, — Male Vembu. Tel. — Vepa manu, 
Nimbarun. Tabrishtan. — Takhak. Shiraz— Taghak. 

Characters. — T he root-bark, when fresh is curved or quilled, thick 
spongy and warty; externally of a dark-brown colour, with irregular 
ndges ; internally brown or covered with white striae ; taste astring- 
ent, also bitter and nauseous. The bark yields a gum,which is in large 
tears, the surface cracked and fissured, the pieces are vermiform, 
colour pale yellow or amber. It is soluble in water, forming 
a pale-coloured mucilage ; leaves bi-pinnate ; leaflets obliquely 
ovate, lanceolate, acute, serrated and glabrous ; flowers small, 
purple, lilac-coloured, sweet-scented and fragrant ; fruit a drupe 
when dry, oblong or elliptical, colour reddish, dark brown or 
yellow of the size of cherries ; epidermis, shining and wrinkled ; pulp 
poisonous, glutinous to the touch and of a disagreeable smell ; nut hard, 
of a yellowish brown colour, 5-celled, each cell containing a seed 
enclosed in a dark coloured testa ; seed of the shape and size of a 
wheat grain, oblong, compressed at the upper part and slightly 
pointed, generally of a pale brown colour; cotyledon greyish white and 
oily; on crushing the seed the odour is very acid ana disagreeable. 
Dose of the root, 15 to 60 grs. 

Constituents, — Noncrystalline resinous substance — the active 
principle, sugar, tannin, &c. 

Preparation. — Decoction of the fresh bark ( i in 10 ). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — In small doses, the bark is a bitter tonic, astrin- 
ent, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, given to children in round worms, and lo 
adults in fever and indigestion ; leaves and flowers are alterative and 
diuretic. The juice of the leaves is used in fevers, dyspepsia, general 
debility, jaundice, worms, scrofula, boils, leprosy, &c. Externally the 
flowers and leaves are discutients ; as a poultice they are made warm 
and applied to the head in nervous headaches. A poultice of the 



AZADIRACHTA INDICA. 



U9 



flowcTfi^Sia to kill lice and to cure eruptions of the scalp ; a paste of the 
leaves is applied hot to unhealthy ulcers, to indolent scrofulous glands 
and to pustular eruptions. The drug is a narcotic poison in large doses, 
producing giddiness, dimness of sights mental confusion^ stupor, dilated 
pupils and sterior. It also acts as a gastro-tntestinal i nritanti producing 
vomiting and purging. 

Azadiraehta Indioa. Halia Azadirachta. 

ffabttat. — Himalaya, Persia* 

jRrjr/5 li^^-r/.— The root-bark, fruit, flowers, leaves, gum and oil of 
ieedK 

Ffrnacu/ar, — ^Ceylon — Kohoraba^ Duk, Beng. — Nim. Burm, — 
Kamakba^ Them-bauma, Can, — Bevinamara, Isa-bevu. Cing. — 
TelkO'homba. Chin. — Lientaze, Ku-lien-taze. Eng. — Ash-leaved 
bead tree, morgosa, Indian lilac. Guz. — Limbado. Hind — Nim. 
Malea! — VVeppa, Aria Bepon. Mar, — Limba. Pers.^ — Azaddarakhti- 
Hindt. Sans — Nimba. Tarn. — Vembu^ Vepa Veypam. Tel — Yeppa 
Nimbarnu. 

Chiirnciers, — Bark coarsely fibrous ; externally roughs fissured and 
oC a ru&ly grey colour ; internally yellow and foliaceous, readily 
st"^"* ! into thin layers ; taste bitter and astringent. The petioles are 
t at the base, slender, round and about a foot in length; surface 

c! * colour and longitudinally furrowed, taste bitter ; flowers 

»• brown when dry and tubular ; leaves pinnate; leaflets 

oblii^uc, detualc, lanceolate and smooth on both surfaces, taste very 
bitter, fruit when ripe is purple, one^celled, one-seeded, fleshy within, 
with a hard, woody shell containing an oily bitter kernel, greenish white 
with a brown tesia ; dried fruit resembling small raisin, dark» oval 
and slightly oblong; surface wrinkled; pulp adherent to the stone; seeds 
of a ^T.iivniih white colour, angular and pointed at the top, surface 
ri i and fibrous ; epicarp very brittle and containing one or twa 

ah.-^i. * coloured kernels, which are oily and nauseously bitter ; the 
expn^sed oil from the seeds contains a large amount of sulphur; 
iht c«)lour is pale yellow, odour garlic-like, taste very bitter. It 
coagulates at a low temperature without losing its transparency* The 
glim :" " ir»h. in vermiform pieces. 

i :ts. — ^The seeds contain a resinous oil known as margosa 

or netm o\L The bark contains a neutral resinous bitter principle, 
Alatgosiue, non-crystalline and without alkaloidal properties, catechiji, 
gum, sugar asd tannin. 

A! - is obtained by exhausting the bark with alcohol, and 

Erecif^ he solution with water. The precipitate is next purified 

y «oluii<^n uf benzene, carbon sulphide, ether and alcohol. 

R..*;», t.c ^ii^ Margosa or neem oil. The recently expressed oil 
from t , when exposed for some time, deposits a white sediment 

(:jr ■ ' I L Ditler extract). It is easily soluble in ether, chloroform* 

ca ilphidc, benzole. &c. WhenVepeatedly agitated with alcohol 




III 



m 



120 MBLIA DUBIA. 

it loses its bitterness and its alliaceous odour. It consists of fixed fatty 
acids, probably oleic, stearic and lauric acids, also butyric and valeric 
acids. Dose, 2 to 5 ms. 

The cake, left after expression of the oil, contains another neutral 
principle; insoluble in ether or alkaline solution but solouble in 
chloroform. 

Preparations, — linctura Azadirachtce (i in 8), — Dose, \ to i dr. 
Decoctum Azadirachtce of the root -bark and fruit (i in 5). Dose, i 
to 2 ozs. as an antiperiodic. 

Punch-nimb-churnu. — A compound powder of five parts of the 
tree. These are — leaves, bark, root, flowers and fruit — all pounded to- 
gether and used. Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 

Actions and uses, — The birk and leaf stalks are astringent bitter 
tonic and antiperiodic, and used in intermittent and paroxysmal fevers 
and for general debility and convalescence after febrile and other 
diseases. The leaves are discutient. and Ipcal stimulant and used 
as varalians or poultices to disperse indolent glands and swellings. 
The young trees yield a kind of sweet i nice* (toddy) which, when 
fermented, is used as stomachic and anthelmintic and is given in 
worms and jaundice. The pulp is applied to boils, pustular eruptions, 
opens sores and bruised joints. The compound powder pancha 
nimba churun is tonic, and given in convalescence after fever. The 
fruit is a purgative, anthelmintic and alterative. The oil of 
the seeds is bitter, anthelmintic and stimulant, given in leprosy, 
intestinal worms, piles and urinary diseases. The gum is used by 
lying-in women as a uterine stimulant. The seeds are used for 
killing pediculi, and the powdered kernel for washing the hair and 
as a remedy for mange in dogs. The oil, mixed with other oils, is 
applied to skin diseases, suppurating scrofulous glands, and leprous 
ulcers. It is rubbed on the skin in rheumatic affections and to the head 
in headache. The oil contains sulphur, add therefore, with alkalies, it 
is used in skin diseases. 

Remarks. — The Nimba is one of the pancha-tikta, or five bitters. 

MeliaDubia, M. Buperba, M. CompoBita, M. SobuBta. 

Habitat. — E. and W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Part used, — The pulp of the fruit. 

Vernacular, — Bomb. — Kodu-khajura. Can. — Kad-bevu Ara-bevu. 
Cin^. — Lunu-midella. Guz. — Lembarro, Kadukbajur. Hind. — Din- 
karling. Mar. — Nimbarra. Sans. — Arangaka. Tam. — Mallay 
Vemboo. 

Kadukhajur means bitter khajur (dates). Kalakhajur is black 
dates. The fruits resemble dates. 

Characters, — Tree smaller than Melia-azadirach ; fruit, when dry, 
resembling a date in size, shape and colour ; epidermis, dark-brown and 
deeply wrinkled, also rugous ; apex blunt and studded with small 
tubercles, with a stalk and a five partite calyx at the base* Pulp firmly 



SYCACAHPtJS RUSBYr, 



121 



adherent to a large and very hard stone, it is sticky and of a brownish 
fed colour, swelling when soaked in water ; taste of the pulp bitter 
and nauseous ; seed covered with a dark- brown polished testa ; kernel 
very oily and of sweet taste. Dose of the pulp, 30 to 60 grs. 

CotistitHtttis, — A glucoside, a fatty oil, wax, malic acid, glucose, 
inucilige and pectin. The glucosidef is a crystalline bitter principle^ 
af a slightly acid reaction, soluble in alcohol, ether and water. 

Acticms and uses^ — Bitter carminative and anthelmintic, given in 
colic and other bowel complaints, and also in worms. Locally an 
ohument niade of the juice of fresh fruit, with sulphur and curd heated 
together, is used for scabies and wounds affected with maggots. 

Naregamia Alata 

The Goanese ipecacuanha. 

HahitaU — Western Peninsula, India. 

/hr/j used, — The stem and roots. 

Vernacular, — Can.— Nela-Narigu, Nalakanu-gida. Goa. — Trifolio, 
lvac;tft. Mah, — Kapur Bhendi. Malay — Nela naregam. Mar. — Pittve. 
Plrtpapra. Pittmari, Tinapana. 

Avicari (Goa). a corruption of the wordocari, which means emesis. 
The root is used as an emetic, 

CharacUrs, — Stem dirty green, bark firmly adherent, slender^ 
sparingly branched and rising from the root-stalks ; root-stalks knotty, 
contracted and warty; tubers mealy; powder light-brown; odour like 
that of valerian, pungent and aromatic ; taste slightly bitter and 
nauseous* Dose, 5 to 10 grs. 

Conshiuntts. — It contains an alkaloid — ^Naregamine, an oxidizable 
fixed oil, wax, sugar, resin and alcoholic extract (containing asparagin), 
gctm, ttarch, pectin, albuminous and colouring matters and ash 10 p*c. 

Naregamine. — To obtain it, agitate the extract with dilute 
sulphuric -icid. It is an amorphous, slightly coloured residue. It forms 
lalts w ^ uric, nitric and hydrochloric acids. The solution is 

precipi. aanin, potassio mercuric iodide, and iodine. 

/Vij>ifr#?/»b/*x.— Tincture (i in S)* Dose, \ to 1 dr. Liquid 
extract of a golden brown colour. Dose. 45 to 75 ms. Decoction 
(1 in 10), Dose, J to i to oz. 

AciiQns and uses, — Diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, and stimulant 
to the mucous membranes ; given in dysentery with success. It is 
alio given in rheumatism and biliousness. It is a fair substitute for 
^ecaoianha. 

Syoaoarpoa Raabyi. 
Salt tat •^SoxMh America. 
Bart usedn — ^The bark. 



122 AURANTIACEiE. 

Characters, — The odour of the bark is slight^but peculiar, and 
the taste unpleasant, not bitter, and slightly nauseous. 

Constituents: — Oxalate of lime in large monoclinic crystals. 
Gutta-percha, a resinous secretion, a yellowish-white, amorphous, 
sometimes slightly granular substance ; caoutchouc ; and an active 
principle. 

Preparation, — Fluid extract. Dose, 5 to 30 ms. Tincture (i 
in 10). Dose, \ to i dr. 

Actions and uses.— At first stimulant, expectorant like apomor- 
phine, carbonate of ammonia, and strychnine and then sedative ; given 
m acute bronchitis and in chronic pulmonary cases accompanied with 
viscid secretion, or when the cough is dry and harsh. 

Walsura Pisoidia, Triohilia Trifoliate, T. Emetioa. 

Habitat, — Travancore, Ceylon, Malabar. 

Parts used. — The bark and nut. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Jauz-el-kai, Rukeh. Burm . — Joe-boe. 
Tam. — Walsura . Tel. — Walurasi. 
Jauzel-Kai means an emetic nut. 

Characters. — Bark J inch thick, brown, irregularly and longitudi- 
nally fissured, separated in flakes. The liber is cinnamon coloured, 
hard and compact ; taste bitter and astringent. 

Constituents. — Saponin, a resin of a light brown colour and 
tannin. 

Preparations. — Ointment of the powdered nut. 

Actions and uses, — The bark is stimulant, expectorant, emmena- 
gogue and violent emetic. The nut is used as a hair- wash to kill lice. 
The ointment is used to cure itch. The bark is used to poison fish. 

Remarks. — The fruit of Randia dumetorum is often used as a 
substitute for emetic nut. 

AurantiaoeaB. — The orange family. 

Aurantiacae — aurum (gold), from the yellow colour of the firuit. 

Characters, — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, exstipylate, 
dotted, and with the blade articulated to the winged petiole ; 
flowers regular, fragrant ; calyx short, urn shaped, 3 to 5 -toothed ; petals 
or sepals equal in number ; stamens equal, or some multiple of tnem ; 
disk hypogynous and annular ; fruit indehiscent; seeds solitary or 
numerous, ex-albuminous ; cotyledons thick and fleshy. 

Habitat, — Chiefly natives of East Indies, cultivated throughout the 
warmer regions of the globe. 

Properties. — ^The plants have receptacles containing an essential oilf 
which renders them fragrant ; used m perfumery and fqr flayuWfilllg 
purposes. The volatile oil is found in leaves, petals and rinds or IntftSi' 
The rind contains also a bitter principle. The pulp is acidaod SMMMfli^;: ''Jik 



CITRUS AURANTJUM. 



193 



CitruB Aurantium. var. Bigaradia, B. P. 

?, Vulgaris, — The bitter orange. 

Aurantium, from aurum, gold. From the colour of the fruit. 
Orange, from Arabic naranj. 

Habitat. — North India, Circars, Aurangabad, West Indies, United 
lies, Spain. 
Parts used, — The fresh outer part of the pericarp— Aurantii 
Cortex Rccena B* P. The dried outer part of the pericarp— Aurantii 
Cortisx Scccatus B. P., orange flower* B. P, And the volatile oil 
distilled from fresh flowers. 

V^rnactiiar* — Arab.— Naranj. Beng. — Kumla-neebu, Narangi. 
Bium. — Liet)g*mau, Sung-zen. Chin. — Kan, Kiuh. Can, — KittaTe* 
Cine. — Ntrang-ka. Duk.^ — Narangi. Eng. — C. aurantium, the sweet 
or Portugal orange and Citrus vulgaris, the bitter orange or Caracoa 
orange. Hind, — Narangi, Kamlaneeboo, Indian Cintra. Malay. — 
Simio, Jeruk-manis, Maleal. — Madra^ Narranji, Mar, — Naringa. 
Pcrs.— Karang. Ponuguese— Porto-gallatto. Sans.— Swadu-naringa, 
N* ira» Karuna-nerabu. Tarn.— Kitchili Kolinjy* 

Ti: iili^ Narangamu. 

CiiiUa ib Uic iuroe of the mountain valley near Lisbon^ 

Characters,— A small tree, with beautiful foliage ; spines axillary, 
solitary, young shoots glabrous ] leaves ovali elongated ^ acute, 
somcttraeji slightly toothed ; petioles more or less dilated and winged ; 
flowers fragrant » large and white ; fruit nourishing, roundish or ovoid, 
usually ' d, reef or yellow, terminated by a small knob ; cells 9 to 

I2t mar \\ rind convex, containing vesicles of oil ; colour deep 

or*r Lxtcrnally, rough and glandular; inner surface covered with 

^nv It of spongy portion \ pulp sweet. Epidermis glandular 

inner layer spongy , of a fragrant pleasant odour and 
: :dc taste. Dried rind in thin strips or bands. Dose of the 
rind, 15 to jogrs. 

Cr--' ' — f^. — The rind of tlie Iruit Lontams a volatile oil, 
iBoniefi tl of turpentine ; gum resin, a fixed oil, hesperidin^ a 

bitt jjine principle, tannin, ash 4-5 px. The flowers and rind 

of fruit contain a volatile oil called oil of neroli ; a fragrant 

veUoU' 1 of a bitter aromatic taste ; soluble in alcohol (i to !)♦ 

It glVT: Liliar odour to eau-de-cologne or to Spirilus odoratus. 

Dose, I lu 3 nis. The leaves and young unripe fruit contain a volatile 
oil called the oil of orange leaf or neroU petit grain^ or essence de petit 
grain. This oil contains Limonene 20 px., Nerolol 30 px*, Nerolyl 
acetate 40 p.c, Geraniul 3 p.c. 

J^ifiarafktfu.'— Of the rind, Infusum aurantii^ B. P. (1 in 10). 
Dose, ^ to I oat. Ex true turn aurantii amtiri fimdum. — Fluid extract 
of bitter '^♦n^t^e pecL Dose, ^ to I dr. Infuutm aurantii composifum^ 
B^ P.— ' peel \ ounce, fresh lemon peel ] ounce, cloves 

55 ?n^' ^it. Duse, I to 1 oz, Syru/^tts atvmaticm^ B* P., 

Tir 2*, aqua cinnamomi 5 ozs.^ syrup 10 ozs. Dose, 

^ ! :itiSftiii fhrix B. P. (i of orange flower water m o). 



124 CITRUS MEDICA. 

Dose, i to I dr. Syrupus aurantii{i of tincture in 8). Dose, ^ to i dr. 
Tinctura aurantii, B. P. — Tincture of orange peel (i in 4). Dose, 30 
to 60 ms. Elixir aromaticum, — Aromatic elixir contains compound 
spirit of orange, precipitated calcium phosphate, syrup, alcohol and 
water. Dose, i to 3 drs. Vtnum aurantii, 6. P. (10 p.c. of alcohol). 
Dose, 60 to 120 ms. Aqua aurantii floris, B. P. Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Orange peel is also an ingredient in the preparation of tinctura 
gentianae composita. Dose, i to 4 drs. Tinctura cinchonse composita. 
Dose, I to 4 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Aromatic bitter, stomachic, carminative 
and stimulant of the nervous system. These properties are due to the 
volatile oil it contains. Its preparations are valuable additions to bitter 
infusions used in dyspepsia and flatulence, but they are used mostly as 
adjunct to other stomachics as a flavouring agent. It is invaluable in 
scurvy. The oil, in large doses, produces violent colic and even con- 
vulsions. 

Citrus Hedioa, var. Limonum, B. P. 

Habitat, — North India, Mediterranean, foot of Himalaya; cultivated 
in Southern Europe. 

Parts used. — Juice — Succus Limonis, B. P., and the fresh outer part 
of the pericarp, Limonis cortex, B. P., and volatile oil, oleum Limonis, 
B. P. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Lemu Qalambak. Beng. — Karna-nebu. 
Bur. — Kigi-samyasi. Can. — Dodda-nimbe. Cing. — Lokka-dehi. Eng. 
— ^Truc lemons. Guz. — Motu-limbu. Hind.; — Korina-neboo. Malyd. 
— Valya-cheru narauna. Mar. — Thora-limbu. Pers. — Kalanbak. Sans, 
— Limpaka, Maha-Jambira, Nimbuka, Vijapura, Madhukarkatika. 
Tam. — Periya-elumihcham. Tel. — Pedda-ninuna-pandu. 

Characters— A straggling bush or tree, more tender than the 
orange tree, having many angular branches ; colour of the bark 
grey, that of branches green, and that of twigs reddish ; leaves 
spiny, evergreen, ovate, acute and serrate ; flowers sweet scented ; 
colour from white to purplish pink ; fruit ovoid, berry with nipple- 
shaped extremity, the rind — Limonis Cortex is smooth and marked 
with punctations over the oil glands ; pulp acid and yellowish. 
The natives use in medicine two varieties — Godaria Limbu thick- 
rinded ; the Kagaji limbu has a thin rind. In shape both are 
globular, their size varying from walnut to that of a small orange; 
colour also varies from shades of green to yellow ; their interior 
is juicy. The juice succus limonis, lemon juice is acid ; each 
lemon yields from 6 to 8 drs. It is contained in conglomerated 
cells separated in different layers or carpels. On the margin of each 
layer one or two seeds are attached ; seeds smaller than those of orange ; 
rind or the peel is in narrow thin bands, adherent to their spongy 
white inner layer. It has a deep yellow colour and is glandular, odour 
fragrant, taste bitter aromatic. The fragrancy is due to the presence 
of the volatile oil in the rind. 



Citrus iiedica. 



1^5 



Citrus Hedica. Yar* Citron. 

//ahtlat^Foot of the Himalaya, Peninsulat 

f^tiii used, — The rind, juice and oil. 

Vertiacular, — Arab. — Utraj. Beng. — Honsa nebu Begpura- 
Borob.— Mahal uag. Bur. — Sh-Onsakhava. Can. — Mada-lada-hannu. — 
Eog. — Citron. Guz. — ^Turtnj, Bijorun. Hind, — Mahalung Leemoo. 
Maleal — Narauna. Pers. — Duk-Turanj Liraoo. Sans. — Phalapural 
karima MahaJunga, Tarn. — Nartlamlpaihara, TeU— Mahipala, 

Btj^aJpura. 

CkaracUn, — The fruit is pineapple shaped, large and oblong; 
peel pale yellow, rough, from the presence of oiKglands, inner surface 
naving only a small quantity of white spongy portion. The juice 
cootnim 7 to 9 p. c. of citric acid and is a slightly turbid yellowish 
liquid. 

Constiiuent^. — Lemon juice contains citric acid 7 to 10 p,c., 
phosphoric and malic acids ; also citrates of potassium and other bases; 
ftugmr, mucilage and ash. Dose, 4 to 6 drs. Lemon peel contains 
a volatile oil, hesperidin, a bitter crystalline glucoside, chiefly in the 
while of the rind ; and ash 4 p.c. Hesperidin, a bitter principle 
5 10 S p« c. in yellow crystals, sparingly soluble in boiling water and 
^th«r, readily soluble in hot acetic acid, also in alkaline solutions. 
Volatile oil. Oleum limonis, B, P,, is obtained by expression from 
fresh lemon peel, and is isomeric with oil of turpentine. It is a pale- 
ycUow limpid liquid of a fragrant odour and aromatic bitter taste, 
foluble in alcohol (i in 3)* It contains citrene or limonene 76 p.c, 
citrol 7^ p.c.» cymene and citronellaJ- Dose^ 1 to 3 mi, 

Prtparatiom^ — Spiritus limonis, spirit of lemon ; used for flavour- 
iog purposes. Spiritus ammoniae aromaticus, B, P. Spiritus aurantii 
compositus. Acidura Citricum — Citric acid— obtained from the juice 
of the lemon or the Itme, by adding chalk to form calcium citrate and 
by decomposing by sulphuric acid. It occurs in colourless rhombic 
crystals, soluble in water. The solution of 17 grs. in 4 drs. of 
water is equal to 4 drs. of lime juice; or sufficient to neutralize potas- 
sium bicarbonate 25 grs* or sodium bicarbonate 20 grs., or Am- 
monium carbonate 15 grs. Dose, 10 to 30 grs. Tinctura limonis, B.P, 
tf id 4)* Dose, 30L0 60 ms. Syrupus limonis, B.P, Lemon peel j ounce, 
emon juice 25 ounces, sugar 38 ounces, alcohol q.s. to weigh 4 pounds 
and one ounce* Dose, | to i dr. 

Actions a fid uses* — The juice, rind of the fruits and volatile oil 
are used in medicine. The peel is bitter tonic and stomachic, used 
(oc flavouring cinctures and infusions* It is also stimulant and 
cartainative, given in indigestion, flatulence, and as a corrective to 
purgatives. It is also extensively used to disguise the taste of 
nicilicines such as quinitie, &c. The lemon juice is refrigerant, 
couliug and antistorbutic, analogous to orange juice, but it contains 
more citric acid and less syrup, and hence called acid of lemons, 
T- l: taken internally enters the blood as alkaline citrates, 

\ I salts and phosphoric acid. The citrates are partly oxidized 



I2b CITRUS BERGAMIA, C. LIMETTA. 

into carbonic acid and water. The potassium salts and phosphoric 
acid act upon the red corpuscles. They precipitate uric acid and 
thus promote the formation of calculi. If long continued, the 
juice or citric acid impairs digestion and impoverishes the blood. 
It is supposed to dissolve organic matters in the system; hence used in 
the treatment of atheroma. Fresh juice is useful in scurvy. It is an 
ingredient in many refrigerant and diuretic effervescing drinks, 
used in allaying febrile heat and thirst, in subduing restlessness, 
promoting the action, of the skin and kidneys. It is given in inflam- 
matory affections and in dyspepsia with vomiting. Its power of 
conveying alkalies into the blood renders it useful in acute rheumatic 
affections, sciatica, lumbago, &c., also given in obesity in large 
quantities with good results. It is often used with potassium bicar- 
bonate and honey by the natives as a gargle in diphtheria and sore 
throat. Externally it relieves itching if applied in pruritis of the vulva, 
scrotum, is applied in sun-burn, and to check post partem haemorrhage. 
The essential oil is a stimulating liniment for the relief of rheumatic 
pains. The juice of baked lemon is used in bilious affections and to 
stop diarrhoea. 

Seville or Bigardi orange comes from Spain, Madura, China 
and India. Mandarin (citrus levensis) comes from South of Europe ; the 
latter is very small in size, flattened at both ends and has a very thin 
rind. 

Citms Bergamia, C. Limetta. 

//abttaL^ltsLly^ Sicily, France, Jamaica, Indian Peninsula, Bengal. 

Pari used, — The soluble oil from the rind of the fresh fruit. 

Vernacular, — Arab; — Limu, Limu Hamiz. Beng, — Niboo. 
Burm. — Than-ba-ya, Shouk. Chin. — Tan-pu-lo. Can. — Nimbe-hanun. 
Cing. — Dehi. Duk. — Limboo. Eng. — Acid lime, Bergamotto lime, 
AdamVapple, common sour lime. Guz. — Nimbu. Hind. — Neemboo. 
Mar. — Zimbu. Malay. — Eroomitchee-narakam cheru-narama. Pers. — 
Limue-rtush. Sans. — Nimbooka, Jambira-phalam. Tam. — Elumich, 
Elimicham. Tel. — Gaja-nimma, Jambira-nimma. 

Characters.— A. small tree, resembling in characters lemon, orange, 
&c. Flowers small, of a delicious peculiar odour ; fruit paler coloured 
than lemon, pyriform or globose, and smooth; rind with receptacles for 
oil ; pulp greenish, aromatic and of an acid taste. 

Constituents. — The rind of the fresh fruit contains a volatile oil, 
hesperidin and ash. The volatile oil, Oil of Bergamot is obtained from 
unripe greenish but full-grown fruits by expression and distillation 
of the outer rind. It is a greenish thick liquid, faintly acid, of a 
peculiar fragrant odour and aromatic bitter taste ; soluble in alcohol, 
liquor potassae and glacial acetic acid. It contains several hydrocarbons, 
such as Cilrene, Bergaptene or Bergamot camphor ; Linalool and 
linalool acetate (or bergamiol), upon which its value chiefly depends. 
It is an ingredient of spiritus odoratus. 



^GLE MARMCLOS. 



Actions and uses. — Stimulant and aromatic* The natives use the 
juke as refrigerant, antiscorbutic and antiseptic in dyspepsia, fevers, 
and vomitini;. The oil is chiefly used externally as a perfume in the 
manufactuT' ofrnrlct articles. 

Butac68Q. 

The rue family. 

Trc€s» shrubs* or rarely herbs. Leaves alternate or opposite, 
exstipuhte, simple or pinnated and dotted; flowers regular or irregular 
and perfect ; calyx and corolla with a quaternary or quinary dis- 
Iribuiion of their parts ; ovary sessile or elevated on a gynophore ; 
fruits capsular, carpels united or distinct ; seeds solitary* or in pairs» 
radicle superior. 

//uplift?*,— *South of temperate zone; cultivated in the East. 

/¥o/tfr/ilpi.— Antispasmodic, febrifuge, diuretic and tonic, 

^gle Marmelos. 

Cratie\a marmelos, Feronia pellucida. 

Habitat, — Malabar, Coromande!, drj^ forests in India* 

/^r/i ined. — The fruit (pulp), 

Vemacuiar, — Arab — Sapharajale-hindi, ShuL Beng, — Shriphal, 
Beta. Bomb. — Shriphah Burm.^ — Oosheet. Can. — Bila-patri-hannu, 
Cing.— Bellika. Duk — BelphaK Eng. — Bael, Bengal Quince. Gnz. — 
Bilinu-phjil. Hind. — Shriphal» Bda. Malay.^ — Taoghai, Mar, — Bela, 
Pcrs*— Saphnrn-jale-hindi. Maleal — Kuvelam. Sans. — Bilva-phalam, 
Mahura. Tam. — Vilva-maram* TeL — Maradu-pandu, Malu-reniu- 
chcttu. 

Shriphal is derived from Sbri — the goddess of abundance^ and 
phali a fruit. It is an emblem of increase and fertility. The tree is 
sacred to the goddess of riches, :ind is cultivated everywhere in Hindu 
gardetu. "^ is also the nanje given to cocoanut, in allusion to 

IM fruit p< ^ ^n abundance of good properties. 

Ckaractsrs. — Fruit of various shapes and sizes, ovaJ, oblong^ 
elliptical, roundish. Smallonesof thesizeof a hen*s egg, large ones being 
as big as cocoanuts. Rind very hard, woody, nearly smooth, becoming 
%v ■ » dry and of a lightish yellow, cherry-red or brown colour,* 

StAf cTcled and dotted ; pulp of a brownish red colour, firm, and 

haviiig ii or more stony carpels, and in the cavities between the 
carpels and surrounding the seeds is a ten aceous transparent gluten like 
or a gummy resinous substance in angular fragments, of a reddish 
brown colour, which becomes hard on drying, but continues transparent. 
It is insoluble in water. The carpel contains seeds» which are hairy^ one 
or more in each carpel; odour (of the pulp) aromatic and agreeable; taste 
astringent and resembling that of jambu ; leaves pinnate or ternate, 
IcaHets oblong, broad Janccolate and crenulate ; green or dark green 
lit colour, itnntiih» shining and thick, and of an aromatic smell and 
la^' r; thin, of a light pink colour and somewhat astringent, 

D' [I, IS tosogrs. 



128 ATALANTIA MONOPHYLLA 

Constituents. — The pulp contains mucilage, pectin, sugar, tannin, 
a volatile oil, bitter principle, and ash 2 p.c. The wood ash contains 
potassium and sodium compounds, phosphates of lime and iron, 
calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, silica, sand, &c. The fresh 
leaves, on distillation, yield an oil of a yellowish green colour and 
neutral reaction, of an aromatic odour and bitter taste ; soluble in 
alcohol and miscible with carbon bisulphide. 

Preparations. -'¥,yitT2LQt}im bela liquidum. Dose, i to 2 drs. 
Decoction (i in 5). Dose, J to i oz. 

Aciiofis and uses.— -The ripe fruit is nutritious, delicious, aromatic, 
alterative, and laxative. It is given with sugarcandy to prevent 
the growth of piles and to remove habitual constipation. A 
decoction of unripe or half ripe fruits, or unripe fruit baked for 6 hours 
is astringent, digestive and stomachic, and is given in diarrhoea and 
dysentery. When taken in excess it often causes flatulence. Syrup 
of ripe fruits is used in dyspepsia. The root-bark is refrigerant, and 
is given in fevers, asthma with palpitation of the heart. In native 
practice a poultice of the leaves is applied to the head in the delirium 
of fever, and to the chest in acute bronchitis. The decoction of the 
leaves is given in asthma. A marmalade of bael fruit is a household 
remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Remarks. — The root is one of the ingredients of the decoction of 
dasa mula^ or the ten roots. 

Atalantia Monophylla. 

Limonia Monophylla, Trichilia Spinosa. 

Habitat -VJestQxn Peninsula, Ceylon, Malabar Coast, Ghauts, 
Bombay Presidency, Mahableshwar^ Coromandel. 

Part ^^flf.— The oil. 

Vertiacular. — Eng. — Wild lime. Can.— Katunimbe. Maleal. 
— Malvaregam. Mar. — Makhur-limbu. Tam. — Katelle-nucha. Tel. 
— Konda-nimma. 

Characters. — Leaves fragrant like those of orange ; berry globular, 
yellow, divided into 4 cells by membranous septa ; pulp like that of 
lime, but scanty, each cell containing one seed ; rind, of a faint 
odour of orange peel and full of oil cells ; oil is aromatic and of a dark 
green colour. 

Preparation. — Decoction of the leaves. 

Actiofis and uses. — The oil is only used externally as a stimulant 
in rheumatic joints, paralytic limbs, &c. The root is antispasmodic 
and btimulant. Decoction of the leaves is applied in itch. 

Barosma Betolina, B. P. 

B. Crenulata. B. Serratifolia. 

Habitat. — South Africa, Cape Colony. 

Part used. — The dried leaves. Buchu folia, B. P. Buchu leaves. 



PERONIA ELEPHANTCM. 



rs9 



HBTo&ma, from baros, heavy, and osme, smell or odour. The 
*ot ihe leaves is heavy and powerful, Betulina, from Betu»birch» 
the Icaveii resemble those of birch tree* Creaulata, from crena» a 
tioicht the leaves are crenulate or notched. 

CkaracUrx. — Shrub. R Bctulina leaves i to | inch long^ of a 
duK ' colour, rhomboid, ovate, rigid, and cartilaginous 

wli glabrous, somewhat warty, margin denticulate^ 

apcjc bluui fiiiil recurved; oil glands visible near the margin ; odour 
liid Uusie strong and characteristic. Dose of the leaves, 15 to 30 grs. 

Ccmtihunts, — Volatile oil, resin^ ligain, bitter extractive principle, 
(rutin, or baraismin) gum and salts. 

V^latiU oily obtained by the distillation of the leaves is the acuse 
principle and contains a body of a peculiar, penetrating, peppermint- 
like odour ; on cooling it separates barosma camphor or mosphenol, a 
Iteoropten occurring in white needle-like crystals. 

Pfeparati^jfis. — Intusum Buchu B. P, — Infusion of Buchu (1 in 
30). Dosei I to 1 oz. Exiractum buchu tluidumi fluid extract of 
buchu. Dose, 10 to 60 ms, Tinctura Buchu, B, P, — Tincture of 
Buchu (I in 5). Dose, J to i dr. 

PkyxioJogical action, — Diuretic, diaphoretic, and stimulant. In 
Ansalt doses it causes a sense of heat in the stomach, increases 
appetite^ uimuTatcs the heart beat, and increases the action of the 
&kto by can 'U diaphoresis* It is eliminated by the kidneys, the 

urine bcco r;er and of a strong aromatic odouri leaving a 

brownish deposit- In large doses it is a gastro-intestinal and renal 
iirttanti producing vomiting, purging and strangury. 

Thttaptiidci* — Given in gravel* chronic pyelitis^chronic bronchitis, 
ciurrh ul the bladder and in urethritis ; also in diseased prostate^ 
in litbia»T9, and in retention or incontinence of urine. In atonic 
dyspepdia, chronic rheumatism it is generally combined with alkalies. 

Fiitmia Elepbantum, Anisiphalins Rumphli, Crateeva Yallanga* 
HahiiaL — India, Gujerat, Bengal, Travancore. 
Psrts used, — The leaves, ripe and unripe fruit and gum. 

Vernacular, — Arab.— Kabit. Beng, — Kat-bel. Burm. — H^man. 
Can^— Hi V tUrf.i^ Kavita V'nksea. Cnig,— Dewul. Duk.— Kavit, 
Eog,— c apple or wood apple, London — Ararad (gum). Guz. — 

Kavit K n *- gund (gum). Hind, — Bhuin-koit, Katbel, Kawit. 

Maly*L— \ i^m. Mar* — Kavitha. Pers.— Kabit. Portuguese, — 

Balong, b^ns- Bhu-kabid-thazi, Kupitha, Kapiprya, Dadhiphala. 
Tarn.— Vela Villa Vila, Vellanga. Tel.— Kapihamu Nola, Puli. 

Elephant ;ipplc or wood apple. The pericarp of the fruit is hard 
like wa(>d nr elephant skin, 

Rapitha^ the apple on which tnonkeys dwell, Kapipriya, that 
which \s dear to monkeys. Dadhiphaia, Dadhi or Dahi means^ 
coagulated milk» and Phal, the fruit. The taste of the fruit resembles 
thai «if LtKH'uliiteLi nvilk. 



130 LIMONIA ACIDtSSIMA. 

Characters. — Leaves with from S to 7 leaflets, pinnate, cuneate or 
obovate, crenate at the top, pellucid and dotted. When crushed they 
smell like fennel, varialee ; fruit light grey or dirty white in colour, 
globose and covered with a scurfy epidermis; rind dull green, woody, 
granular and very fragile ; pulp of a pale greyish pink colour ; seeds 
numerous, oblong, compressed, thick and fleshy; smell aromatic ; taste 
somewhat acid and astringent. The gum, ghati gund^ is semitrans- 
parent, and in roundish tears or irregular masses, colourless, or 
of a yellow or brownish red colour. With water it is readily 
soluble without residue, and forms a thick, tasteless, viscid mucilage 
like that of Bavala gund (gum acacia), the major portion is different 
from gum-arabic, and contains abundant crystals of mucic acid. 
Dose of the pulp, 15 to 25 grs. 

Constituents. — The pulp contains a large quantity of citric acid 
with potash, lime and iron. The leaves yield an essential oil similar 
to that obtained from bael leaves. 

Preparation. — Fluid extract. Dose, ^ to i dr. medicated oil. 
Puncha Kapittha. Composed of the five allied products, viz. flowers, 
bark, fruit, leaves and root, made into a medicated oil and applied to 
the whole body in fevers. Compound powder. Kapith Ashtaka — 
Kapith — Elephant apple. Ashtaka, eight. A compound preparation 
of eight drugs, which are highly astringent. These contain 
Kapith or Koth (the pulp) 8, Sakar 6. Dalimba-chhal 4, Amali- 
chhal 3, Bela-phal 3, Dhauri-phul 4, Naga-kesar i, Taj 4. Mix 
and make a powder. To this add Ajamod 3, Pipali 3, Miri 4. Jirun 
4, Dhana 4, Pipali-mula 3, Valo 2, Sanchal 2, Elachi 4, Tamala- 
patra 2, Chitrk i, Sunth 2. Mix and make a powder. Astringent 
carminative and stomachic. ' Dose, i to 2 drs. Used in chronic 
dysentery and diarrhoea. 

Actions and uses. — The young leaves are stomachic, lithontriptic, 
and carminative, used in d)rspepsia and diarrhoea ; also used in lessen- 
ing red sand from the urine. The unripe fruit is astringent, and, like bael, 
is used in diarrhoea and dysentery. The ripe fruit is refreshing, anti- 
scorbutic, digestive and tonic, the syrup is used in salivation, sore 
throat and in strengthening the gums. The gum is a good substitute 
for gum-arabic, the mucilage is more viscid than that of gum-arabic, and 
is used with honey in diarrhoea, dysentery, and to relieve tenesmus of 
the bowels. The pulp or the powdered rind is used as a local application 
for bites of venomous insects. 

Limonia Aoidtosima, L. Crenolata. 

Habitat. — Himalaya, Coromandel, Malabar, Assam, W. Peninsula 
Hurdwar. 

Parts used. — The fruit, leaves and root. 

Vernacular. — Hind. — Beli. Mar. — Naibel. Malyal. — Jerukat 
narigam. Tel. — Torelaga, 

Naibel. — Nai, Navi, barber. Barber's bael fruit, used by barbers in 
Java instead of soap. 



MURIiAVA KXOnCA. 



nt 



CharacUrs, —Shrub, with pinnate leaves^ with a or 3 pairs of 
lets ; leaflets oblong, crenatea ; with solitary spines, and winged 
Kioles ; flowers corymbose, corymb unibelliform, small, white and 
Bgrant ; root yellow, bitter and aromatic, fruit small, globular, 
of the size of a nutmeg or pea or grape, yellowish, but red when 
pctfectly ripe ; structure bimilar to that of the lime j pulp 
flesh 'Coloured, highly acid and somewhat bitter and aromatic ; 
cells four ; seeds three. 

Prcfara tiofs.^— iniyxuon of leaves and decoction of root (1 in lo). 
Dose. J to a ozs. 

nt^ uses. — The leaves are antispasmodic, given in epilepsy. 
The ; ifgative and antispasmodic, giv^en in colicy pains ; the dried 

fmil is <i tonic and is given in fever and dyspepsia associated with flatus. 

Remarks, — The fruit is considered by the Arabs as a prophylactic 
agminst small-pox, malignant fever and pfague. 

Murraya Exotica. CheUia paniculata. 
//i/A//i»/,— Himalaya, Ceylon, Bengal, China, 
Purls useti. — Flowers and leaves. 

Ventacu Ian— B&ng, — Kamini. Burm* — Thanat-kha, May-kay. 
Cing»— Attaireya-ga^s. Eng. — Honey-bush, Cosmelic-box, China-box. 
Hind, — Bibzar, Koonti, Konkan, — Kanioun, Murchgle. Mar. — 
Kciuiiti. TcL— Noga-golunga* 

HoQcy-bush,— The fragrance of its white flowers is like that of honey. 

CharacUrs, — An ornamental shrub with beautiful dark^green 

leaves. Leaflets coriaceous, flowers white and sweet-smelling, 
■ \g in taste and odour Murraya ka-nigii. 

Omsiituents. — Flowers contain a glucoside named Murrayin, 

rwparatiun, — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, \ to I ozs. 

Actimis and uses. — Tonic and stomachic, like Murraya kcenigii 
«t)d u^d similarly. 

Marraya (Bergera) Koaoigil. 

//"tfi^i/a/.*— Himalaya, Bengal, Ceylon, W. Peninsula. 
Parts med* — The leaves, root and bark* 

Ftniacular^ — Beng. — Barsunga Karia-phalee. Burm,^ — Pindo-sin. 
Can- — Karibevu. Cing. — Kara-pinchee-gass. Duk, — Karya-pak. Eng. 
— Curry*leaf tree* Guz. — Gora-nimb. Hind. — Katnim, Karripak, 
Kwdia-fitrn. Malayal. — ^Karu-veppa, Panj.— Ganda-nimb. Mar, — 
I rub, Jhlrang, Jirani. Maleal. — Barsanga. Sans*— Knshna- 

I; lurabhi-niniba. Tarn, — Karu-vembu. Tel. — Nalyal Karivepa. 

Suurabhi nimb. — Sorab, soram, fragrant smell. The ncem is 
fragraiit Joran, Jirana, to digest. The plant is digestive. 

CA«7/ric/tfrj.— Leaves pinnate with numerous leaflets, alternate^ 
[icqually oblique and serrated, upper surface dark green and dotted, 
ader surface of a light colour; odour powerful; taste pungent, 



132 PEGANUM HARM ALA. 

bitter and acidulous ; root spreading, with numerous suckers ; bark 
soft and thick, odour agreeable; taste like that of fresh ginger. 

Constttuents.^TYkt leaves contain a volatile oil resembling the oil 
of iGgle Marmelos ; a resin; and a crystalline principle named koenigin 
(glucoside). 

Preparation, — ^Infusion (i in lo). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Tonic, stomachic, and febrifuge, given with 
bitters in dyspepsia, loss of appetite, and in general debility ; also in 
dysentery and to stop vomiting. The bark and root are local stimu- 
lants and used as application to wounds by venomous animals. 

Peganum Harmala. 

Habitat. — N. W. India, Western Deccan. 

Part used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Syrian Rue. Arab. — Harmal. Beng. — Isband. 
Bomb. — Haramaro, Ispanda. Diik. — Ispand, Harmaro. Hind. — 
Islamlahori, Ispand. Pers. — Isband, Sipand. Tam. — Vanai-virai. 
Tel— Shima, Garante, Vittulu. 

Characters. — The drug consists of seeds mixed with a few pedicles 
and portions of capsules ; seeds are of a dull greyish brown colour, 
several, irregularly angular, curved on one side. Each covered with a 
rough tomentum, easily separable from the testa by scratch- 
ing ; odour strong, heavy and disagreeable, resembling that of 
cannabis or govarni-sing ; taste resinous, persistent and bitter. 

Constituents, — A resin of a narcotic odour and two alkaloids 
viz., Harmaline and Harmine ; Harmaline when treated with 
hydrochloric acid, yields Hermatol, in orange-red cr3^tals sparingly 
soluble in water ; Harmine may be obtained by oxidizing 
harmaline with nitric acid ; It occurs as colourless crystals, insoluble 
in water ; very little soluble in alcohol and ether. Fuming 
hydrochloric acid converts it into harmal. When oxidized by means 
of chromic acid, it yields herminic acid — silky tufts. 

Preparations, — Decoction (i in 20). Dose, ^ to i oz. Tincture 
(i in 8). Dose, 30 to 60 ms. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant of the sexual organs, alterative, 
also emmenagogue like ergot, savine and sitap used internally in 
amenorrhcea and as a fumigatory in palsy, and lumbago ; it increases 
the flow of milk and menses* 

Remarks. — Native midwives use it for procuring abortion. 
Mendi seeds are often substituted for Ispanda ; both are alike in form 
and colour. 



PARAMYGKYA MONOPHYLLA. 



m 



Paramygnya Honophylla. 
SahtM. — ^Sikkira, Himalaya, Bhutan, Ceylon* 
A/is ustd. — Frutts and root. 
Vernacular. — Mar, — Karru-wagete. 

Characters.-^ The root-bark is brown and scabrous ; taste bitter ; 
fruits resemble those of capparis zeylanica. The bark contains large 
CTj'Stah of oxalate of lime. 

Actions and mcs. — Diuretic and alterative, 

LuYimga Boandana. 

HabitaU — Himalaya, Bengal. 

Part used.^The fruit or berry. 

FemacuIar.^^SMi^, — Kakkola. Beng. — (the oil) Kakala. 

Characters, — Berries glandular, papillose, of a terebenthinata 
oAo^t and taste. Contain i to 4 dark*green oily seeds f testa 
membranous. 

Prt^aratkm* — Perfumed medicinal oil (kakkolaka). Hair oiK 

Rata Graveolena— var. AngustifoUa. 

JJaintat,^ Cultivated in the East, South Europe, 

l*afts tfj^^.— The plant, fresh leaves and oil. 

Vtfnacular^ — Arab* — Sudaba. Bomb, — Satapa« Can, — Nagadali- 
'Mppu* Cing.^ — Aruda. Duk. — Saaf. Eng. — Peganon of Scripture. 
Garden rue, Herb of grace. Guz. — Scradab, Sitapa. Hind. — batari 
Amda. Mar. — Sudab. Malay, — Sadab* Pers, — Sudap. Sans.^ — Somala- 
ta» Brahmu Sadapata. Tarn, — Arvada. Tel. — Arudu. 

0^r^<r/*rrj,— Herb, perennial, about 3 or 3 feet high, glaucous- 
men, smooth or tubcrcled ; leaves long, petioled ; leaflets small, 
dotted, linear, oblong or obovate and very minutely crenate ; under 
surface pale, upper surface glaucous green or dark-green; flowers yellow; 
fruit capsule obtuse, shortly pedicelled ^ or 5lobed ; corymbs spreading, 
bracts lanceolate; sepals triangular, acute ; petals ciliatt; ; seeds black, 
many; odour peculiar and resembling somewhat that of Tulasi ; 
tifte pungent, nauseous and slightly bitter. Dose, powdered leaves, 
5 to 10 gri. 

Cfmstittitnts. — An essential volatile oil (Oleum Rutae), and Rutin— 
a Wttcr, yellow glucosidc. The oil is a viscid fluid of a greenish yellow 
colour and neutral reaction, solidifies in crystalline laminae resembling 
tlioec of anl&e oil. The chief volatile constituents are methyl-non}^ 
ketone The ketone was formerly regarded as capric or rutic aldehyde. 
It alio contains lauric aldehyde and a hydrocarbon, analogous to oil of 
lurpentine and bomeol. Dose, 1 to 5 ms. 

-/^<5iMrrt/^iw.^Decoction(i in 10). Dose, i to 2 ois», and essential oiU 

Physif^hgicaJ actions, — Locally an active irritant. In small doses 
tonic, digestive, and aphrodisiac, causes heat in the throat, nausea. 



134 LEBA MACROPHVLLA. 

eructations, and flatulence. It irritates the skin, kidneys and bronchi, 
and increases their secretions. It stmulates the heart, increases the 
frequency of its action and diminishes its tension. It also leads to 
h3rperaemia of the uterus and ovaries, and increases the menstrual flow. 
It IS promptly diffused, and may be found in the urine, sweat and 
breath. In large doses it sets up gastro-enteritis, with violent vomiting, 
purging, bloody urine and dysuria. In poisonous doses it is a narcotic 
and irritant poison, causing great prostration, convulsions, suppression 
of urine, often giving rise to abortion. 

Therapeutics. — ^It is a most powerful aphrodisiac. The juice or 
the decoction of fresh leaves is used as an anthelmintic in children, and 
as an injection (rectal) against thread-worms. The oil is stimulant, 
carminative and antispasmodic, given with aromatics in colic, hysteria, 
epilepsy, and flatulence; as an emmenagogue in amenorrhoea. Extern- 
ally the oil is applied to the chest in chronic bronchitis, to glandular 
enlargements, to rheumatic painful parts and to scaly eruptions. 
jUocally it produces inflammation and vesication. The natives give it 
extensively to increase the flow of urine and menses. The varalians 
of the leaves and oil are used in tympanitis. 

AmpelldaoeaB or Yitaoea. 

The vine family. Climbing shrubs — juice watery; joints swollen and 
separate from each other ; leaves simple or compound, alternate above 
and opposite below ; flowers regular, green, small and stalked ; fruit 
succulent, 2-celled ; seeds erect, few — 2 in each cell ; testa hoviy ; 
ialbumen hard. 

Habitat, — Warm regions, Caspian ; cultivated in the South of 
Europe. 

Properties, — Leaves, stems and unripe fruits are juicy, the juice 
being acid, owing to the presence of tartaric acid and acid potassium 
bitartrate. Ripe fruits are also juicy, but sweet owing to the forma- 
tion of glucose or grape-sugar, 

Leea Maofophylla. 

Habitat. — Hotter parts of India. 

Part /Ay^flT.— Tuberous root. 

Verna cular, — Beng. — Tolsu mudriya. Burm. — Kya-bet-gyec|i 
Mar. — Dinda. Sans. — Dholsa Mudra, Dholusa-mudrika. 

Characters, — Herbaceous plant ; leaves large; flowers small, and 
white, stems straight and pointed ; root woody, porous and tough, 
of a deep red colour and very bulky ; bark dark-brown, scabrous and 
striated. Internally the bark is deep-red. The odour is astringent 
and agreeable. The tubers are mucilaginous. 

Preparations, — Poultice of the root and paste. 

Actions and uses, — Local stimulant. The root is applied over 
guineaworm and to obstinate chronic sores to promote their 
healing. A paste of it is applied in ringworm. 



LEEA SAMBUCINA. 



»3S 



Bea Sambucina. L. Staphylea, Staphylea Indtoa* 

Habitat. — Hotter parts of India, Burmah. 

Finria used. — The roots and leaves. 

Vtrnacuiar. — Beng. — Kurkur-Jihwa- Burm. — Ka-let, Goa. — 
r OtORO. Htnd . — Kurkurgihwa. Mar* — Karkani, Portuguese. — 
latanhia, Tel. — An kadoo. 

ri-.*^Stems shrubby with straight branches ; leaves pin- 
ottc stalked ; flowers greenish white ; fruit the size of a small 

cherry ; root porous, woody and tough ; bark scabrous, of a dark-brown 
colouTi taste astringent and odour agreeable. 

I^tparaHons, — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions and uses, — Stomachic, tonic and astringent, used in 
diarrhoea, dysentery, colic ; also used to relieve thirst during fever. 
Externally it is used for ringworm. Roasted leaves are applied to the 
head in vertigo. The juice of fresh leaves is digestive, and given in 
diarrhoea and chronic dysentery. 

Titil* — Different species of vitis are remarkable for their contain- 
ing tannin ; hence useful as astringents. Some of them are acrid, owing 
to their containing needle-shaped crystals of oxalate of lime, which 
cause mechanical irritation ; nence used to promote suppuration of 
boiis. The dried tubers and stems are not acrid. In them the oxalate 
cr)-stals mat together and thus become blunt* They contain large 
quantities of potash and lime salts^ and are therefore used as diuretic 
ind antacid in urinary diseases. 

VitlB Aranaosos. 

Vimaculmr. — Hind.^ — Kamraj, Chamar-Musli. Mar, — Bendri, 
Bender vel| Ghorvel. 

Ghoravela^ from ghora, a horse, and vel, vine. The young shoois 
and leaves arc given to horses as a cooling medicine. The root i% used 
as astringent in diarrhoea. 

YItis Caraosa.^ — V\ Cordata, Cissus Carnosa; found in the hedges 
and forests in Bengal. 

Vtrnacuiar, — Beng. — AmaUata. Eng. — ^Fleshy wild wine. Gur, — 
Khatumbro. Hiud.^ — Kassar Amal-beK Mah, — Odi, Ambat-veL 
Tel«*-Mandula-mari-tigae, Kani-apa-tige. 

Actions aftd $(scs, — The root is remarkably acrid ; used as an 
application to boils. 

YtUsIndlca. Yltis Hugosa. 
Habitat. — Western Peninsula India, Deccan, Tennaserim, 
Parts used, — The leaves and tubers. 

Vernacular. ^Kng. — Indian wild vine. Hind. — Amdhuka*Beng.— 
.'Vmdhiaka^ Amoluka. Duk. — Jangali Draksha. Maleal. — Shem* 
bravuUi. Mar- — Randraksh, Kolejan. 



136 VmS PEDATA. 

Characters. — Climbing plant, slightly hairy ; stem striated, rather 
contorted especially at the joints, and smooth; leaves trifoliate, smooth 
and succulent; leaflets lateral, obliquely cordate, acuminate, oblong and 
serrated on the top ; tubers i to 2 feet long, tapering at both ends, 
brown externally, having wart-likeprotuberances arranged in circular 
rings, internally red and juicy. The leaves are rich in salts of potash 
and lime ; fresh leaves are acrid owing to the irritation caused by the 
presence of needles of oxalate of lime ; berries black when ripe, full 
of purple juice, taste acrid, somewhat sweet and mucilaginous. 

Preparation. — Decoction of tubers (i in 10). Dose, } to i oz. 
Actions and uses. — Antiscorbutic, alterative and stimulant; used in 
syphilis, scrofula, scurvy, general weakness, chronic skin diseases, &c. 

Vitis Padata. 

Vernacular. — Beng, — Goali-lata. Mar. — Gorpadvel. Sans. — 
Godhapadi or Iguano*s foot. 

Godhapadi, Godha, — the reptile, lizard, and padi-pedis foot, from 
the fancied resemblance of the leaves to the foot of the reptile Galoli. 

Actions and uses* — The leaves are astringent. The decoction is 
used to check uterine and other fluxes. 

YituB Quadrangnlaris— CiBsas Quadran^laris. 

Habitat. — India, Arabia. 

Parts used. — The dried stalk, leaves and juice. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Harajora, Hasjora. Burm. — Shazavu-lese. 
Can. — Mangaruli. Duk. — Mailer. Guz. — Hadashankar, Chodhari. 
Hind. — Nallar, Harsankar. Malay. — ^Jungilam-parinda. Mar. — Hera 
Shankar, Hada Jodi, Chodhari-kandavel. oans. — Ashti-sandhna, 
Vagra-valli. Tam. — Piranda-kodi. Tel. — Nalla-ratiga. 

Hara Shankar. — Hara or Hada, a bone, and Sankar, a chain, in 
allusion to the jointed stems like a chain of bones. 

Asthi Sandhana — Asthi, bone, and Sandhana, to join or to heal, 
in allusion to the stem having a resemblance to the articulations of 
bones, from this it is supposed to be useful in healing or reducing 
fractures and dislocations. 

Characters, — Stem obtusely quadrangular, smooth, greenish, 
generally dichotomously branched, nodes jointed ; leaves thick, entire 
or three-lobed ; juice acrid. Dose of the powder, 20 to 40 grs. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 5). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions and uses, — Alterative and stimulant, given in dyspepsia, loss 
of appetite and scurvy; also in irregular menstruation. The juice is 

Sven mixed with gopi chandan, ghee and sugar. Paste of the 
esh stem is astringent, and locally applied to dislocations, sores and 
fractured limbs ; juice of the stem is dropped into the ear in otorrhoea 
and into the nose to check epistaxis. 



VmS VINIFBRA. 



137 



Vitis Setosa— CiBSQa Setosa— C Cardata 

^/iiViti/.— Peninsula. 

P'ematular, — Hind.^ — Harmml, Haljar. Mah.^ — Khaj-goHcha-vel- 
Tam.— Puli naravi. Tel.— Bara-butsali. 

Actions and uses* — The leaves are very acrid; roasted and 
Oiled they are applied to indolent tumours to promote suppuration, 
ad to painful swelling to assist in the extraction of guinea-worms, 

Shamraj and Bhojraj are short pieces of stems of the two species 
of Viti6, and used as an astringent in gonorrhoea* 

YitlB Ylnifera. 

HabitaL — Himalayas ; cultivated in Europe, ic. 

PSarts used, — Grapes and raisins, or dried grapes without stones. 

Vernacular.-^hrzh, — Kerm. Beng. — Angur, Drakhya. Burm* — 
Sabisii Sabya-si, Bomb, — Drakhsha, Kishamisha, Can.—Drakshi- 
tunnti. Cing. — Mudra-palam. Duk — Angura Daka. Eng. — Grapes, 
Grape vinc^ the vine- Guz. — Draksha, Hind. — Angura, Dakha, 
Ktshamisha, Monakha (raisins) Malyal. — Munteri. Mar, — Draksha. 
Pcrs. — Angura, Gureb (the juice). Sans. — Draksha phalama, Mridoica. 
Tarn. — Diraksha-pazham, Dirippa Zham, Tel. — Gostini-pondu, 

CharacUrs.—Bernes succulent^ of an ovoid form, often globose ; 
ovarv, 2 cellrd, ovules two in each. There are two varieties — Kali draksh 
and K '). The former is black in colour and large* Kishamisha 

IS sm. .\ nish red or pale yellowish brown. The fruity not being 

articulated with the rachis or the rachis with the branch, remains at- 
tadied to the plant and withers on it. The dry fruits are called raisins* 
In lar^e and old raisins the pulp is found crystallized in nodular masses. 
Varieties of raisins, — Sultanas, muscatels and currants. Muscatels are 
raisins dried in the sun. Sultanas are remarkable for the absence of 
ic«ds« Currants, corruption of Corinth, where they were originally 
grown, arc a very small variety of raisins. 

( ^:ts. — The pulp contains grape sugar, cream of tartar, 

gum .1 EC acid. The seeds contain a bland fixed oil and tannic 

add ; skin oi the fruit contains tannic acid. 

PreparaHons, — ^Juice, ashes of the wood, and Asava or wine 
** Draksha arrshta/* Used in the preparation of fermented liquors, 
▼ini^r, &c. 

Drak!iha ari^hca-*a spirituous preparation (Medicinal Wine), 
Make a •! of Raisins 20, and water 60. To the filtrate 

add treaci imon, cardamom, Folia malabarica, flowers of mesua 

ferrea — Fruit ot AgJaia Roxburgh i ana — Black pepper, long pepper, 
and seeds of embelia ribes each 2 parts. The whole is then set 
aside for a fortnight and allowed to ferment. Dose i to 4 drachms. 
As a stimulant given in congh, consumption and enlarged glands. 

Actions and usrs, — Skin and stones from the grapes should be 
r before use. Raisins are refrigerant, demulcent, cooling, and 

a: ^nt, generally used to sweeten medicinal preparations and 



138 PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM. 

given to relieve thirst in fever, and inflammatory affections and in consti- 
pation. The leaves are astringent, and used in diarrhoea. The ashes 
of the wood are used as prophylactic against stone and in uric acid 
diathesis. The natives apply the paste of the ashes to swellings of 
testicles and to piles. Black raisin is generally used as an ingredient in 
purgative mixtures. Kishamish is used also as an ingredient of several 
confections. 

PittoBporaoesB.— The PittoBporam family. 

Characters, — Trees or shrub. Leaves simple, alternate and exsti- 
pulate ; flowers regular ; sepals and petals hypogynous ; stamens 5 ; 
ovary superior ; fruit baccate or loculicidal capsule ; seeds numerous ; 
embryo minute ; albumen fleshy. 

Habitat, — Australia, Africa. 

Properties. — Resinous properties. Some bear edible fruits. 

PittoBpomm Floribandam, P. Ceylonioiim. CelastraB 
YertioillataB, Senaoia lepalensiB. 

Habitat. — Himalayas, Western Ghauts, Peninsula. 

Part used, — The bark. 

Vernacular. — Mar. — Vekhali Vishari. Hind. — Vel-kali, Vchyentc* 
Cing. — Katteya-goss. 

Vikhari means specific for poison. 

Characters. — Bark in quills ; external surface grey and marked by 
warty prominences forming circular rings ; inner surface smooth of 
ight-brown colour ; odour aromatic, resembling carraways ; taste very 
bitter. Dose, as a febrifuge, S to 10 grs. 

Constituents. — A bitter glucoside — Pittosporin, and an aromatic 
oleo resin. 

Pn?/«w/!rb«.— Decoction (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — Bitter, aromatic, febrifuge and expectorant* 
In large doses narcotic; used in fevers and in chronic bronchitis with 
good results. It is used by the natives as an antidote against snake 
poison. 

Xanthoxylaoett. 

The prickly ash family. Trees or shrubs; resembling in their charac- 
ters Rutaceae. Differing from it in having polygamous flowers. 
Fruits sometimes baccate and indehiscent. In rutaceae universally 
capsular. Seeds always albuminous in xanthoxylaceae. In rutacese some 
are albuminous while others are exalbuminous. 

Habitat. — Temperate climates and tropics, especially America. 

Properties. — Pungent, aromatic and bitter, stimulant, febrifugCt 
tonic, sudorific, sialogogue and emmenagogue. 



TODDALIA ACULEATA. 

Toddalia ioaleata, T. RnbrioaaliA. Scopalia AGuleata, T. Asiatioa, 
T, Nitlda, Paulinia Aaiatioa. 

Hnhitat — Himalaya, Ceylon, W. PeniQsula, Coromandel Coast* 

P^rts HSfd. — The root-bark and fruit (berries). 

Vemacitiar, — Cing. — Kudu-miris, Duk. — Jangli kali mirachi. 
Eog* — Lopcx root. Hind. — Jangli kali mirch, Dahao- Mai. — Kaka 
ToddaJi, MuUkatajii. Mar. — Limri, Sans, — Kanchan, Dahan. 
Tarn-— Kaka-ioddali, Mirla-karan-maram. Tel. — ^Konda-kashinda, 
Varra-kasimii 

Kanchana (Sanskrit word) means golden — the orange colour of 
the fruit. Dahan means burning^ in allusion to the burning taste or 
pungency of berries* 

Charatiers, — Stem and branches prickly ; fruit of the size of a pea, 
orange coloured, highly pungent. When ripe, dried berries are dark- 
brovrn or black and of the odour of citron; root small, white, woody and 
c^'lindrical ; hark soft, yellow, with a corky external layer, wrinkled 
tongitudinallyt and containing cells filled with oleo-resin j taste hot 
and peppery. 

Comtiiuftits* — The bark contains a resin^ essential oil, and a bitter 
principle* The oil is limpid, oft green colour : oJour that of citron 
and of a bitter aromatic taste. 

Preparations, — Infusion (l in loj. Dose, ^ to i oz. Tincture 
(i in 10). Dose, I to i dr. Liniment of the root* 

Aciions and use:i, — Berries pungent, like black pepper. The bark 
bitter hlomachic, carminative, tonic atid ant i periodic. The bark is 
I^Ken in hill and jungle fever. The whole plant is febrifuge, carmina- 
Itve, ionic and stimulant. Internally the root is given in general debility 
ifKl during con\"ale^cence from fever and other chronic diseases. Under 
ihc name of Lopez root, it had once some reputation for diarrhoea in 
Europe. The liniment is used in rheumatism. 

Zfiiifaoxylon Rhetoa^ X. Alatum. X. Budranga. X. JLcanthopodium. 
X. Hamiltonianam. X. Oxyphyllum. 

UabUaL — \V. Peninsula^ Tropical Himalaya, Assam, Colombo. 

/Vr/i used, — The carpels and bark. 

Vernacular. — Burm. — ^Toung-than. Arab,— Faghireh. Beng. — 
TambuU Can.^Jimmi*mara» Cing*^ — Kattoo-kcenagaso, Chinese^ 
Hwatseaui Tsm-tsian. Eng. — ^Japanese pepper or Indian prickly-ash, 
Mpperwort. Hind.^ — Nepali-dhanyia, Tejphala, Durmur, Bud rang. 
Mafyai.— Mulila, Mar.— Tisal Trephal, ChirphaK Pers.— Kababeh, 
Ruaoadeh. Sans.— Tumburu (carpels). Tam.— Rhetsa-roaram. Tel. — 
Rfa«tia-marami Tisal chira phola kokali. 

Tumburu^ means coriander. It has the peculiar flavour of coriander 
and IS similar in size and shape* Hwa-tseau — pepper flower. Faghireh — 
opsD-mouthed, the dried carpels adhering atone end and open at the 



140 XANTHOXYLON PRAXINBUM. 

Other. Kababeh Kushadeh— open-mouthed cubebs. Rhetsa-inaram 
(Tel.) means a council tree. The hill people held their council or 
panchayet under this tree to settle their disputes. Prickly ash. 
The bark is prickly. The aromatic, pungent property is confined to 
the pericarp. 

Characters, — The tree is armed with prickles ; fruits dehiscenti 
small and oval {\ of an inch in diameter), resembling malkagani: 
surface wrinkled and pitted ; colour brownish, dark externally and 
brown within. It has a small woody stalk at its base and is bifid 
from the top down to more than half its length. Seeds black, very hard 
and shining, resembling pepper ; odour lemon-like. and oily ; taste 
acidulous ; bark in irregular flat pieces of various sizes, externally 
brownish^ consisting of several layers of a brownish red colour, corky 
and spongy. Dose of the seeds, lo to 20 grs. 

Constituents, — ^The bark contains a bitter crystalline principle, 
identical with berberine ; a volatile oil, and resin. The carpels 
contain a volatile oil, resin, a yellow acid principle and a crystalline 
solid body, xanthoxylin, consisting of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, 
but devoid of nitrogen. Xanthoxylin is isomeric with oil of turpentine. 
It is a stearopten, a pale, viscid non-<irying oil ; a pure hydrocarbon, 
to which its aroma is due. 

Preparations, — Infusion of bark and decoction (i in 10). Dose, 
z to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, aromatic, carminative, and altera- 
tive. The seeds are used like pepper as condiment. As a stimulant 
they are given in dyspepsia, diarrhoea. The bark is tonic and aromatic; 
the seeds are used as an ingredient in guraku (tobacco for the hukka), 
and given in atonic dyspepsia, fevers, rheumatism. Sometimes the 
essential oil is used as stimulant, especially in cholera. 

Xanthoxylon Frazlneom. 

X. Americanum, X. Carolinianum, X. Clava Herculis, Toothache 
shrub (Eng.) ; Prickly-ash. 

JIabitat'-li. America, United States, Canada. 

Parts used.^The bark and berries. 

Clava Herculis — Clava, club ; in allusion to the resemblance of 
the strong cone-like warts on the bark to the club of Herculis. 

Characters, — X. Americanum — prickly shrub, bark in curved 
or quilled fragments, outer surface brownish grey, with whitish 
patches and minute black dots, faintly furrowed, with some 
brown, glossy, straight two-edged spines, linear at the base, inner 
surface whitish, smooth, without any odour ; taste aromatic, but soon 
becoming bitterish and pungent. Dose, powdered bark, 5 to 30 grs. 
Powdered berries, 10 to 40 grs. 

X. Fraxineum — Shrub covered with sharp scattered prickles ; leaves 
imparipinnate ; leaflets ovate, downy. Bark with prickles protruding 
through the corky cones ; branches covered with large pnckles, X. 



AILANTHUS EXCfeLSA 



14! 



Clava Herculis, or souihern bark, very thick, with conical projections 
and stout brown spines* 

Cofisttiuents^ — Two resins. — A bitter principle, probably identical 
with berberine ; a volatile oil, tanniot a fixed oil, colouring matter, gum, 
sugar and ash, 1 2 p. c. 

Prt^paratinns. — Extract um Xanthoxyli Fluid um. Dose, \ to I dr. 
Decocium Xanthoxyli (i in 20)* Dose, i to 2 ozs, 

FHiyshhgical action. — Alterative, diffusible stimulant, aromatic* 
bitter, carminative, sialogogue, emmenagogue, sudorific and masticatory. 
In the mouth it causes tingling sensation. It increases the secretions 
of the salivary glands, hver, stomach, intestines and pancreas. It 
stimulates the heart, increases the arterial tension. As an alterative 
its action is similar to that of mezerion, guaiacum, stiJltngia, &c. 

7//rra/*<*//^aj*— Indicated in rheumatism, scrofula, syphilis, jaundice 
due to catarrh of the bile ducts, indigestion, intestinal colic, general 
debility and dropsy ; also in low forms of fevers, diphtheria, 
haemorrhage from the stomach, bowels or urinary organs. Locally it is 
applied to old and indolent ulcers, and used as masticatory in 
toothache, and hence the name toothache shrub. In pharyngitis 
gargle of the decoction is useful. 

Xanthoxylon piperitum, Fagara pipenta, Chin-iva-chu-ya grows in 
India and China; a powerful aromatic, used in placeofginger and pepper. 
The active principle resides in the bark, leaves and pericarp. A 
poultice made of its bruised leaves and rice*flour is used io sore throat ; 
mixed with camphor the powdered leaves are applied to porrigo 
decalvans. 

Bimartibace®. 

The Maharukha or Quassia family. 

Shrubs Lir large trees, leaves without glands or dots, alternate, 
compound or simple, sometimes exstipuiate ; flowers regular, axillary 
or terminal ;disk conspicuous ; ovary stalked, 4 or 5lobed, 4 or 5-celled 
fruit indchiscent one seeded and drupaceous ; carpels 4 or 5. 

Habitut, — Tropical parts of India, America and Africa. 

f^Qpfrtifs, — A bitter principle, characteristic of this orderj many 
are tonic and febrifuge, 

Allan thus ExcelBa. 

Habitat. — Baroda, Broach, Coimbatore, Ceylon* Ghauts, Behar, 

Parts used, — ^The bark and leaves. 

Vernacular. — Bomb. — Maharukh. Can. — Dodda-mari. Guz. — 
Mahtn Araduso ; Hind,— Mahanib, Arna. Maleal,^ — Peru-mara. Mar. 
— Maruk, Pers. — Samaga. Sans, — Arala* Tarn, — Peru-maram. TeL 
— Pedda*manu Peyyapa. 

Characters. — This tree resembles the prickly ash. The bark is of 
an ash colour. Externally very thick and rough and marked by 
numerous ridges; internally yellow or white and fibrous, taste 
aromatic, pleasant, but bitter ; leaves tomentose when young, old 



142 AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA. 

leaves glabrous, long and abruptly pinnated ; taste bitter ; leaflets 
from 10 to 14, in pairs and coarsely toothed at the base. Dose, 15 to 
60 grs. 

Constituents. — The bark contains an acid principle, ailantic acid. 
It is wax-like, reddish brown and very bitter ; very easily soluble in 
water, less so in alcohol and ether, and insoluble in chloroform and 
benzol. 

/Reparations, — Infusion of the bark (i in 20). Dose, 1 to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Bitter, stomachic, tonic, febrifuge and astrin- 
gent. An infusion of the bark is given with curd in atonic d^yspepsia, 
diarrhoea and fever. As a tonic it is given in general debility and 
anorexia; generally combined with other vegetable bitters. The juice 
of the fresh bark is given with cocoanul milk and aromatics in general 
debility in women^hiefly after child-birth — to stop after-pains. 
The infusion of the bark is used as rectal enema to destroy ascarides. 

Remarks. — It is a good substitute for Kuda Chhala. 

AilanthuB Olandnlosa. 
Habitat.^Chim.^ South Europe, France, United States. 
Part used. — The bark. 
Vernacular. — Chin. — Chau-chu, Chua-chu. 

Characters. — The tree, called the tree of heaven — forms the food 
of the silk-producing insect, Bombyx Cynthia. The bark is thick 
externally and rough internally ; the colour is pale-yellow and of a 
fibrous texture. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — Volatile oil and an oleo resin. 

Preparations. — ^Tinctura ailanthus, tincture of ailanthus (i in lo). 
Dose, 10 to 60 ms. Inhalation of the oil. Dose, 5 to 10 ms. Extractum 
ailanthus fluidum. — Fluid extract of ailanthus. Dose, 15 to 30 ms. 
Decoctum ailanthus (i in 25). Dose, 4 to 8 drs. 

Physiological actions. — The properties are similar to those of to- 
bacco. They depend on the presence of oleo resin. It is a decided nauseant, 
drastic cathartic and vermifuge. The volatile oil is antispasmodic 
and nauseant. It causes vertigo, dull headache, pain in the back, 
weakness, numbness in the lim^, cold and clammy skin, impairment of 
mobility, depression of the heart, cerebrum and of the spinal cord, 
leading to small and weak pulse, slow and laborious respiration, &c. 

Therapeutics. — Used as an inhalation in palpitation of the heart, 
spasmodic asthma and hiccough. As an anthelmintic the decoction 
of the fresh bark (i to 20) or the oleo resin in drachm doses is given 
against tape worms. It is also given in scarlatina with dark eruptions 
and delirium. 



BALANITES ROXDURGHIt. 



H3 



AilanthtiB Malabarioas. 

HMiat, — Western Ghauts of the Indian Peninsula, Cevlon 
Petrts used. — The bark and resinous juice. 

Fdprrwff//it7r.— Sans.— Sarala. Can, — Doop, Baga dhup, Hera-mara 
(resiD). Malval. — Peru-maratoli Mattip^paK Mar. — Ood, Cing. — 
WaJbeltngas^ Kumbalu. Tam.^ — Peru-roaram. Tel. — MuttipaL Travan- 
core — Mutti-paL 

Sarala is regarded as a substitute for pine resin (pinus longifolta). 

Characters^ — Bark roughs very thick and studded with bright 
gmrnel-looliing resinous grains ; taste pleasant and slightly bitter ; 
the bark yields a fragrant resinous juice, dark-brown or grey, of 
the consistence of thick treacle, known as Mutti-pal. 

C^iTisHiuents* — Commercial resin contains 77 p. c* of pure resin, 
and the rest impurities. Resin is soluble in alcohol, and, on evaporationi 
leaves a very viscous, transparent, light-brown liquid. 

Preparalion. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, \ to 1 oz, 

Acfi'jm and uses , — Bark bitter, tonic and febrifuge, given in 
dyspepsia and fever. The resin is demulcent, and mixed with milk it is 
given in dysentery and bronchitis. The resin is also used for incense, 
as, when burnt, it gives out fragrance, 

BaUnitea Hoxburghi!» B. Indioa, B. Egyptica, 

HMtat*—\^Tn:i parts of India and Egypt. 

flart fisfd. — The fruit pulp, 

yernacuiar^ — Africa — Saum, Arab. — Haleluz, Beng. — Hingana- 
bita, Hinggo. G\xt. — Hingoria. Hind, — Hinggo Hingan, bet. Mar. — 
Hingana. Malyal. — Nanchunta. Sans — Ingudi Vrikshaha, Ingua, 
T*"^'- *'i munipadapa, Gauri-tvac. Egypt — desert date (ripe), Egyptian 
III 1, (unripe). Tarn. — Nanjundan. Tel. — Gan-chettu, Ringri. 

r i,K iivac is derived from Gauri, goddess of abundance, and twac, 
' Nv I h'p *' Gurus (Hindu priests) prepare an oil from the seeds and 
use It m the ceremony of initiating a Hindu. 

Characters* — A small thorny tree, leaves bifoliate ; flowers, 
greenish white ; fniit wrinkled and tuberculated on the surface, of a 
pale yellow or brownish yellow colour » of the shape of bijorun or egg 
or Itroc, oblong and slightly compressed at the base, where a short 
woody stalk is attached. The surface is marked with ^v^ longitudinal 
grooves; rind very thin and highly brittle, containing within it a soapy 
pulp or me5Dcairp» which is unctuous and oily when touched, and 
adherent to the woody shell ; the nut is fibrous, of a pale white colour, 
ai * "ns one large seed ; seed homogeneous, oily, resinous and of a 

di . colour, and having a disagreeable odour ; pulp exceedingly 

billet and of an offensive greasy smell. Dose of the pulp, 2 to 20 grs. 

The shell is 61Ied with gunpowder and is used in Itidia for 
fireworks. 

Constituents, — The bark yields a principle allied to saponin* 
Fiom the seeds is extracted the oil known as Zachun oil or Zaitun 



ri^HBtf 



144 PICRiCKA EXCELSA. 

oil of Africa. The oil resembles that of Arachis hypogoea ; it congeab 
at zero. It contains fatty acids. It is a slow drying oil, and becomes 
white when exposed to the sunlight. The pulp contains an organic 
acid, saponin, mucilage and sugar. 

Actions and uses. — Leaves acrid, purgative, anthelmintic and 
expectorant, used in worms in children, cough and irritation of the 
throat. It is a good emulsifier. In action it resembles senega. The 
oil expressed from the seeds is applied to burns and excoriations, and 
also to freckles. 

Casoara Amarga, Pioramnia Anttdesma. 

Honduras Bark, Picramnia Bark. 

Habitat. — Mexico, West Indies. 

Part used. — ^The bark. 

Characters. — Bark from five to six inches in length, firm and heavy, 
of a brownish grey colour, outer layer striated and longitudinally 
fissured ; inner bart of the trunk is from one quarter to three-eightKs 
of an inch in thickness. In taste the bark, when chewed, imparts a 
moderate degree of bitterness with a slightly yellow saliva. 

Preparations. — Extractum cascara amarga liquidum. Dose, 30 to 
60 ms. The dry extract. Dose, 3 to 5 grs. 

Actions and uses. — A powerful tonic, alterative, diuretic and 
antisyphilitic, used in syphilis, rheumatism and chronic skin diseases, 
as eczema, psoriasis &c., also in chronic hepatic disorders and chronic 
nasal catarrh. The use of tobacco and alcohol seems to counteract its 
usefulness. 

PiorsBna ExoelBa, B. P. 

Picrana, from Pikros, bitter. The plant is extremely bitter. 
Excelsa, from ex out, and celsus, beyond meaning surpassing in 
bitterness. 

Quassia or Quassy, the name of a negro who first used this bark as 
a remedy against malignant fever. 

Habitat. — ^Jamaica, Guiana. West Indian Islands. Surinam. 

Part used. — The bark. The wood of the trunk and branches, 
Quassise Lignum — Quassia wood, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Bharangi (the bark). Hind.-^Kashshing. 
Jamaica. — Bitter ash or bitter wood. 

Characters. — Bark brownish grey, smooth and wrinkled ; wood 
yellowish white, thick, dense, tough, hard, and porous, used as chips 
or raspings; the taste is intensely and purely bitter. It is without 
any odour ; on longitudinal section the wood exhibiting elongated cells 
containing crystals of calcium oxalate. Dose, 20 to 60 grs. Wood 
is made into cups and sold as bitter cups or quassia cups. 

Constituents. — A bitter principle, picrasminor quassin ; an alkaloid, 
resin, mucilage and pectin. 

Picrasmin or quassin is obtained by adding soda to the Quassia 
infusion, precipitating with tannin, decomposing the precipitate with 



PICRASMA QITASSIOIDES. 



MS 



03tide of lead or lime and dissolving with alcohoL Occurs in crystals, 
very bitter, soluble in hot alcohol, chloroform ; sparingly so in cold 
water, soluble in alkaline or acid solutions* 

Ptefiarafiof/s, — ^Liquor quassiae concentratus, B. P. (i in lo). 
Doie, i to J dr, ; Infusum quassiae, infusion of quassia, B P* (i in joo). 
Dose, I to I 02. ; Tinctura quassiae, tincture of quassia, B. P, (1 in lO), 
Dose, \ to I dr. ; Exti actum uuassi;e, extract of quassia. Dose, t to 

Actjotix aijri uses. — A pure outer, febrituge and anthelminuc, 
chiefly med in ;»tonic dyspepsia, with pain after eating, in vomiting, in 
Ttv "H of food I in atonic diarrhoea, and in loss of appetite ; as an 

mi)' c, an enema made of its infusion is used against threadworms. 

In e from intermittent fever with bilious vomiting, in 

at* J in dropsy from debility, it has been much employed 

combined with sodium bicarbonate. It contains no tannin ; hence it 
can be combined with persalts of iron without producing black culour. 

Picratma Qaassioides— Brucea QnasaioideB. 
HaMaUSuh tropical Himalaya, South China, 
/^^s used, — The wood and bark. 
P'emacuian — Hind. — ^Kashshing. Beng. — Bharangi, 

Characters. — Wood, in pieces, centered with a dark-brown bark, 
having a netted surface and marked with transverse scars of a light 
yelloiv colour with a central pith* 

Oimttiuents,^Vh& bark contains resinous deposits and crystals of 
oxalate of lime. The wood contains a crystalliz^ble principle, probably 
qtMssiti< a bUter resin- like principle, a nun-crystalliicable resinous 
body and an alkaloid. 

Pf //r— Infusion (i in 40). Dose, ^ to i oz. Tincture 

(1 In 1' h to 1 dr, 

ActvAisatui Hse$. — The bark is bitter tonic, less bitter than true 
quassia, and used for the same purposes As a parasiticide the wood 
'\h used 10 kill insects. As a febrifuge it is given m fevers. 

/^€Mi/ir^**— Bharangi is also the name of the roots and stems of 
Clerodendron serratum « 



Samadera Indica— 8 Pen tape tala. 

Habitat — Western Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Pigri usaL—th^ bark, 

^Vrt<jir«/,/r.— Satis.— Lokhandi. Cing.— Somadasa-gass» Eng. — 
NJepa bark, liixh — Karinghota. Tarn. — Niepa. 

Characters, — A tree, very high ; leaves Urge, alternate, and oblong ; 
■I a drupe-oval and compressed, one seeded, colour brown, surface 
ath or rt:ticulaied and coriaceous. Tlie wood is yellow and 
19 



146 SIMABA CEDRON. 

bitter like quassia wood. The bark is in quills, externally minutely 
fissured; colour dark-brown, with light-coloured patches here and 
there ; suber exfoliated. It has a short fibrous fracture. 

Constituents. — A bitter oil from the seeds. The oil contains olein 
palmitin, stearin ; and a bitter principle, saraaderin. yellowish, -soluble 
in water and alcohol. 

Preparation — Decoction (i in 10). Jto i oz. 

Actions and uses* — The decoction of the bark and wood is given 
with myrobolans in fever. The oil is a good application in 
rheumatism. The bark is a good substitute for quassia. 

Simaba Cedron. 

Habitat. — Central and South America. 

Part used, — The seeds. 

Characters. — Flowers hermaphrodite ; fruit pear-shaped, of the 
size of hen's egg; other characters similar to those of simaruba. 

Constituents, — An active principle — Cedrine. 

Preparation. — Fluid extract. Dose, 1 to 10 ms. Powdered seeds. 
Dose, I to 10 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Tonic, stomachic and antiperiodic, much 
valued as a remedy for the bites of serpents and insects. It is taken in- 
ternally and also applied to the wound. As an antiperiodic it is given 
in intermittent fevers and in neuralgia. It is also given in dyspepsia 
and colic of the intestines. 

ZygophyllaceflB. 

The Dhamaso, Guaicum or Bean caper family. Zygophillaceae, 
3roke-leaf. The leaves are bifoliate, yoked and in pairs. 

Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees. Leaves stipulate, opposite, 
usually imparipinnate or rarely simple, dotless ; flowers perfect, 
regular and symmetrical, bearing a fleshy disk, white, red or yellow ; 
sepals 5, glandless; filaments 8 or 10, having small scales : ovary 
looed, 4 or 5-celled, surrounded by glands ; ovules 2, filiform ; 
albumen little or none ; fruit capsular^ dehiscent or separating into 
cocci, with winged expansions ; seeds albuminous ; cotyledons 
foliaceous. 

Habitat. — Beyond the tropics. 

Properties. — Some of the plants are resinous and possess stimulant 
and alterative properties ; others are diaphoretics and anthelmintics. 
Some have hard and durable wood. 

Fagonia Arabica. F. Bragnieri. F. Oretioa. 

Habitat.^^N. W. India, Sind, Panjab, W. Peninsula, Egypt. 
Part used. — ^The plant. 



GUAEACUM OFFICINALE. 



14T 



Vernacular, — Bomb, — Dhamasa, Gu2. — Dhaniasa, Dhamaso. Him* 
— Spabghzai. Hind. — Usiar-khar, Damahan, Damahar. Mah.— 
Dhrnnasa. Pers. — Bad-aurd, Sans. — Dusparsha. Sind. — Dramahui. 

Dusparsha. — The term is derived from Du or Duha, which signifies 
painful or frightful, and Sparsha^ to touch. The plant is prickly or 
thorny, and hence painful to the touch. Bad-aurd means carried 
by the wind, 

Ckaractcra. — Plant prickly and of a greyish brown colour. 
The drug consists of stems, leaves and thorns, all in broken pieces. 
The stem is slender and of a greyish colour, surface marked with 
longitudinal furrows ; bark tough. On section the wood is soft^ 
light, and brittle ; stem is hollow in the centre and containing 
a white pith ; leaves linear^ oblong and narrowed, specially at 
ba*c, thick and succulent when fresh ; their margin is curved 
ruyish, dark ; surface wrinkled ; thorns conical^ 
\ved and a little below the apex, jointed, and of a 
la^te bitterish and astringent ; odour somewhat 



the 

b:»* ^^ 

Ion. 

rcdiluii toluur; 

aromatic. 



A'tf^am/rorts.^'Infusion and decoction (i in lo). Dose, I to 2 ozs* 

/f (uses. — Local sedative . Stimulant, febrifuge, bitter 

and ai Its poultice is used to promote suppuration of 

ibsces»c7 ; an nifusionof it is used as a gargle in sore mouth. Steam 
inhalation i^ useful in fevers. As a bath it is used in irritability of the 
skin, wtth intense scratching. 

Gnaiacom Offlcinale, B. P. — 0. Sanctum, B. P. 

Sanctum, sanctus, consecrated, used as incense in worship, 

HahitaL — West Indies, South America. 

i\irt$ used — Tlie heart wood^Guaiaci Lignum* B.P„ Lignum vitae 
sod this resin of the wood Guaiaci Resina, or Guaiac, B« P. 

Lignum Vitx means the wood of life, because of its durability 
like Rock*irood« 

C' *'" I hard, of a brown or greenish brown colour, 

hetvk: lioui, with irregular concentric rings surrounded 

by yellow aJbuiiien; when heated or boiled in salt water, or burning it 
in a fire, it emits a balsamic resin, whose odour is feebly aromatic and 
ta^e slightly acrid and disagreeable. The resin is in irregular masses 
or globular tears, very brittle, of a greenish brown colour j when 
broken it has a glassy lustre within. Almost insoluble in water, soluble 
in alcohol and ether, chloroform and alkaline 6uids. Dose of the 
r^ifi, 5 to ifgrs. It should not be given with mineral acids and 
iwoet spirit of nitre. 

C*yristffrfftsf$. — The wood contains resin 20 to 2S p. c, yellow 
colour er, water}' extract 3 to 4 p. c, and ash 1 p. c* 

Tbe * .sists of guaiacic acid, resembling benzoic acid, 

^1 cid I op. c*, gun laconic *icid 70 p. c,, beta resin 10 p. c, gum 

an - ^ vrllnw Tlie guaiac yields by dry or destructive distillation 



148 TRIBULUS TKRRBSTRIS. 

<}uaiacene, of the odour of bitter almonds ; and Guaiacol, a colour- 
less aromatic oil ; Pyroguaiacin (in green scales) ; creosol, which re- 
sembles guaiacol. It also contains yellow colouring matter, gum &c. 

Preparations of guaiacium resin. Mistura guaiaci, B. P. (i in 40). 
Dose, ^ to I oz. Tinctura guaiaci ammoniata, B. P. (20 p. c) contains 
Guaiacum resin 4 ozs., oil of nutmeg 30 ms., oil of lemon 20 ms., strong 
solution of ammonia \\ ozs.; alcohol to make a pint. Dose, ^ to i dr. 
in mucilage or syrup. Trochischus Guaiaci Resins, B. P. (3 grs. in 
each). Extractum Guaiaci Fluidur. — Fluid extract of guaiacunu 
Dose, 10 to 20 ros. Of the wood. Liquor sarsae compositus concentratus, 
B. P. (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Physiological action. — Diaphoretic, alterative, stimulant, expecto- 
rant, antirheumatic and antisyphilitic in large doses laxative. Taken 
internally it acts as a local stimulant, producing acrid sensation in the 
throat, salivation, warmth in the epigastrim, increase of the gastric 
juice, bile and intestinal secretions. If long continued it acts as a gastro- 
intestinal irritant, leading to nausea, vomiting, purging and severe 
headache. It enters the blood and is excreted by the liver, bronchi, 
^in and kidneys. 

Therapeutics. — It is used in the treatment of chronic gout, chronic 
rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, scrofula, syphilis, amenorrhoea and 
neuralgic dysmenorrhcea. A special remedy in tonsilitis, given in \ dr. 
4oses of the tincture, as an emulsion with yolk of egg to abort the 
disease, or to cure inflammation. 

TribuluB terrestriB, T. Zeylanious, T, Lanaginosus. 

Habitat — India and other warm countries. 

Paris used. — The fruit and root. 

Vcmactdar. — Chin. — Peh-tsih li. Eng. — Woolly caltrops. Arab. — 
Khasak-us-saghir. Beng. — Ghokhuri. Burm. — Sule-anen. Can. — 
Negalu-gida. Cin. — Niranche, Sembu, Niringhi. Duk. — Ghokni. 
Guz. — Mitha Gokharu. Hind.— Chhota Gokhru. Maleal. — Neringil. 
Mar. — I-X)han Ghokaru. Panj, — ^Bhukhri. Bakhra-kokullak. Pers. — 
Gokhru-k urd, Khare-khasaka, Hasak Shagkir. Sans. — ^Trikantaka, 
Ikshugandha, Vanasrangata, Gokshura, Gokshuraka. Tam. — Kokullah- 
neringi. Tel.— Chiri Palleru. 

Gokshura, derived from Go-gao, a cow and Ksura, a divided hoo^ 
in allusion to the cloven shaped appearance of the carpels or cocci of 
the fruit, which, like a cloven hoof, adhere together in pairs. 
Ikshugandha means aroma of the plant. 

Characters. — Fruits roundish, somewhat compressed, five-cornered, 
and covered with prickles or thorns, of a lightish yellow colour, and of 
the size of a marble. At the base is a furrowed club-shaped stalk ; car- 
pels, five. Each carpel has four strong prickles, two on each side ; seeds 
several, oily, enclosed in hard stony cells, taste astringent and 
agreeable, odour aromatic ; the root when fresh is slender, fibrous, 
about 4 or 5 inches long, cylindrical and of a light brown colour. 
Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 



LINACS^. 



Comiitu^ntf, — The extract of the powdered fruits contains an 
alkaloid* a resin, probably the source of the ;iroina, fat and mineral 
tnttter, 14 p.c. 

Ptt^ratiorn — CuiiJeciiun, Dose, i to 2 ari. Infusion and decoc* 
lion (i in lo). Dose, i to 2 ozs, 

Actiomafiduscs, — Alterative, diuretic, demulcent^ and aphrodisiaoi 
An infusion is used to relieve painful micturition, to increase the flow 
of urine, and as a vehicle for diuretic medicines in dysuria, gonorrhoea, 
yrinary disorders^ and for the relief of nocturnal emissions, incontinence 
of urine and impotence \ its action closely resembles that of buchu 
ami uva ursi. It is generally given with hyoscyamus and opium. 

/^rmarJis, — The root is one of the ten drugs which go to form 
a compound decoction known as Dasamula dakvatha. 

Vun€ti4fs, — Mitha (sweet), and Kadava (bitter) Gokharu. Mitha 
Ciikbaru, or true Gokharu of old writers, is also known as 
Chh^^^ ^^ Bethha Gokharu. The Kadava Gokharu, otherwise known 
a» Miitha or Ubha Gukharu, is the fruit of Pedalium Murex. Like 
111 1 iru, its fruits are provided with thorns or prickles, but its 

Cii e no resemblance to cow's hoof* Kadva Gokharu is bitter 

and mucilaginous, while the true Gokharu is astringent and alterative 

Tribulas Alatns, 

iiabttaU — Grown in Sindh, Punjab, Beloochistan. 
VtrnAcnlar* — ^Eng. — WingeJ Laltrops* Punjab. — Hasak. Sind — 
Niodo trtkund, Latak* 

CharticUrsi. — Fruit pyramidal, Dr<j;idly winged, cocci and 2-seeded| 
spines conUuent* The fruit has some aperient properties, 

LinaoeaB. 

T or Flax family. 

Li trom Linum, flax or linen thread. 

Hcrb^, or rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate, opposite or rarely verti- 
ctlbtL iiitirc and cxstipulaic ; flowers hypogynous, regular, very showy; 
t icatcd ; ovary 3 to 5 celled ; fruit capsular, many celled ; 

Ui^... ... ^ in each cell, with little or no albumen, embryo straight. 

Habitat — Temperate climates- 

f^vfitrtifi, — Mucilaginous, demulcent and sedative* A few of 
them are stimulant, bitter tonic and purgative. The seeds contain 
mucibge and an oil, and hence they are demulcent and emollient. The 
plants are rem:irkable for the tenacity nf their liber-tibres. 

Limtm UBitatiBsimam, B.P. 



Linumf a thread. Eng. — linen, that is, its fabric 
Uiitatus, most useful, common or familiar. 

JfahitaL — Common in 
Egypt, South of Europe, 



Usitatissimum, 

most temperate countries, Central Asia, 



150 LINUM USITATISSIMUM. 

Parts used. — ^The dried ripe seeds. Linum. Linseed B. P. ; Linum 
<:ontusum— crushed linseed B. P., and the oil, oleum lini B. P. 
expressed from them. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Bazen, Dhonul-kattau. Bang. — Tesi- 
Mosina. Bomb.— Alashi. Burm. — Humatoze. Can. — Aloshi-yaune. 
rhin. — Hu-ma-tsze. Eng. — Flax-seed, Linseed or Lintseed. Hind. — 
Suf Ulsi, Tisi. Mar. — Alshi javas. Maleal. — Bidgierammi. Malyal. — 
Cheru-chana Vittiute-eima. Pers.— Tukhm-i-Katau, Tukhame-zaghira. 
Sans. — Atasi. Tam. — ^Alishi-verai-yenney. Tel. — AUivi-tuUu. 

Characters, — A cultivated annual plant ; seeds small, flat, ovoid, 
with an acute edge, and an oblique blunt point at one end, of a brownish 
red colour, shining on the surface and white within;the seed coat contains 
mucilage, the surface is studded with fine pits or depressions, with a 
ridge just below the apex, having thehilum in the hollow. Seed nuclei 
or cotyledons are two, large and oily, and contained within the external 
covering, within which is a thin mucous envelope. The flax seed 
or linseed oil cake is the cake left after the expression of the 
oil. It contains nitrogen and a little oil and ash 6 p.c. The whole 
linseed, when powdered or ground, is known as linseed meal. It 
yields about 25 p.c. of the fixed oil. 

Constituents, — The seed-nucleus contains a fixed oil 30 to 35 p.c; 
the epithelium contains mucilage'is p.c, proteid 25 p.c, amygdalin, 
resin, wax, sugar and ash 3 to 5 p.c. The ash contains phosphates, 
sulphates and chlorides of potassium, calcium, and magnesium. 

Oleum Lini B.P. — Oil of flax seed, linseed oil. To obtain it, the 
seeds, when fresh, are expressed, without the use of heat or dried with 
heat, and then crushed and pressed. It is a yellowish, oily, limpid liquid 
without any colour. It has a neutral reaction, a peculiar odour and bland 
taste. It becomes thick or solidifies when at a very low temperature. 
It is soluble in ether (i in 3), chloroform and oil of turpentine and 
absolute alcohol (i in 10), Consists chiefly of the glyceride of linoleic 
acid ; heated with oxide of lead it dries up into a transparent varnish, 
known as Linoxyn. By saponification it yields glycerin and fatty acids, 
namely linoleic, oleic, palmitic and myristic acids. On exposure to the 
air the linoleic acid has agreat affinity for oxygen, becomes resinoid and 
converted into oxylinoleic acid, making it a drying oil. Linoleic acid 
is also found on drying poppy seed oil, wnich is also a drying 
oil. Dose. ^ to 2 ozs. 

Mucilage.— It contains in the dry state mineral substances 10 p. c, 
which, when removed, the linseed mucilage is allied to althaea 
mucilage. On mixing with boiling nitric acid the mucilage yields 
mucic acid . 

Preparations of the oil. — Emulsion ; Linimentum calcis B.P (50 p.c), 
known as lime liniment, carron oil liniment. For external use for bums ; 
Sapo mollis — soft soap — Potassium oleate. To obtain it, mix linseed oil 
400, potassa 90, alcohol 40 and water, apply heat till the mixture becomes 
soluble. It is a soft unctuous mass ; colour brownish yellow, soluble in 
hot water (i in 5), alcohol (i in 2). The officinal soft soap is made with 
olive oil. 



OXAUX>ACEM, 



151 



Pre/>arau'-nA hj tiic wed. — Decocium linl (i in 50), infusum lini, 
Itoseetl tea (r in 30) ad libitum. 

PAyno/o^cal action. — Demulcent, expectorant, diuretic and 
emolHent, In large doses it is laxative. In small doses it stimulates the 
kidneys. It is oxidised in the system and excreted as a resinoid body in 
the urine. Its infusion is given in inflammation of the mucous mem- 
branes of the respiratory, digestive and urinary organs ; also in vesical 
and renal irritation * 

Theraj^euttcs. — As it contains a mucilaginous principle and a little 
ail il is given with honey in coughs and catarrh. As a demulcent and 
diuretic il is given in renal colic, cystitis, vesical irritation, strangury, 
vesical catarrh and calculi. Fumigation with the smoke of linseed-oil is 
u>cd for colds in the head and hysteria. The decoction, owing to the 
oil it contains, is useful for enema. Ground meal is chiefly used for 
pouktcts appHed to enlarged glands, boils, gouty and rheumatic swell- 
ings^ to the chest in pneumonia, &c. The oil is laxative and given in 
piles. Locally made into an emulsion with lime water it is a valuable 
tiorHoil irritant application in burns and scalds* Linimentum calcis or 
carron liniment, is so called from having been first very extensively 
used in the Carron iron foundry. The oil is often added to purgative 
enenuta instead of the castor.oiL Liber fibres are cooling to the body 
and lessen perspiration^ and hence used as an article of dress. Lint or 
ghanu kaparun and tow are prepared from fibres and used in surgery. 
Linum catharticum or purging flax possesses purgative properties. 
Bird lime, a brown turpentine-like substance, is the residue left 00 
btiniing the linseed oiU 

OxaJidaoesB* 

The amboti or wood sorrel liamily. Herbs rarely shrubs or trees, 
generally with an acid juice. Leaves non-glandular, punctate, rarely 
opposite, alternate^ usually compound or occasionally simple and witri 
or without stipules ; flowers yellow or pink colouredi regular and 
symmctricat ; fruits capsular, three to five-celled, generally angular, 
occasionally drupaceous ; carpels distinct and indehiscent ; seeds 
few, with fleshy albumen* 

ifr/^/^/.— Tropics and temperate regions ; most abundant at the 
Cape of Good Hope and tropical America. 

p9v/sfr{us*— 'The plants generally possess refrigerant properties 
and are remarkable for their juice. 

Averrhoa Bilimbl. 

Hahi^it, — Cultivated in hotter parts of India on account of their 
acid fruits ; and Burmah. 

J^ifi u$£^, — Fruit. 

Vcfuacular. — Ben^-— Blimbi. Bomb. — Anvuila. Bur.— Kala- 
20un*y3H«i, Cing. — Bilin, Eng.^ — Bitimbi cucumber. Guz. — 
BUambdt. Duk. — Bilambu. Sans., Hind, — Kamaranga. Malay,— 



152 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA. 

Blimbing.tasi, Maleal. — Wilumpi, Kari-chakka. Tarn, — Pulich- 
chakkay. Tel. — Pulusu-kayalu. Portuguese — Bilimbinos. 

Averrhoa Garambola. 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Kamaranga, kamarak. Burm. — Zoungyah. 
Chin. — Wu-lien-taze. Can. — Kamarak. Duk. — Khamrag. Eng. — 
Chinese gooseberry. Guz. — Kamarak. Hind. — Kamaranga, Kamrak. 
Malay. — Blim-bing-manis karmal. — Maleal. — Tamaratonga; Por- 
tuguese— Carambola, Tam. — Tamarttam-maram. Tel. — Tamarta-kaya. 

Characters. — A. Bilimbi, fruits yellowish, smooth, fleshy, green, 
five-lobed, rounded, of the size of a small mango, hence the English 
name cucumber tree ; unripe fruit is intensely acid ; ripe fruit acid- 
sweet. A. Carambola. — Fruits sweet and sour, yellow, with five 
acute angles and a yellowish, thin, smooth rind, the size of a hen's 
egg. 

Constituents. — They contain a watery pulp, which contains much 
acid potassium oxalate. 

Preparations, — Syrup (i in lo). Dose, i to 2 drs. ; and conserve 
of the fruits. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Actions and uses. — Antiscorbutic. Fruits are used as an acid 
vegetable and for preserve. The syrup is used as a cooling medicine in 
fevers. The juice is used to remove iron moulds or stains. The 
leaves are a good substitute for sorrel. 

Biophytam SensitiYam— Oxalis Bensitiva. 

Habitat, — Tropical India, Java, Asia, Africa, Moluccas. 

Part used. — The plant. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Bunmaranga. Guz. — Zarer. Hind, — Lajalu, 
Lak-chana, Maleal.— Toda-wadi. Mar. — Lagri. 

Characters, — Plant 6 to 10 inches long; leaves resembling those 
of Bhui amala ; flowers small, greenish brown and in umbels, coming 
out of the axils of leaves, smell resembling that of bhanga or of 
decaying grass ; taste at first acidous, mucilaginous and astringent, 
becoming, after a time, bitter ; seeds red and shining. 

Preparations, — Infusion and decoction of the root ( i in 20). Dose, 
4 to 12 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Acid, refrigerant and cholagogue ; used in 
fever and torpid liver ; mixed with gingelly oil it is given in gonorrhoea 
and in lithic acid diathesis. It is a constant ingredient in various altera- 
tive decoctions. Mixed with butter, the powdered seeds are applied to 
wounds and abscesses. 

Oxalis Comicnlata, 0. Honadelpha, 0. Pasilla. 

Habitat. — Asia, Europe, India, Malay Islands. 
- , Parts used.'T'The plant and fresh juice. 



aEHANIACSiC. 



153 



r 'rr. — Arab. — Hemenbab, Hemba» Homad-mad. Beng, — 

Cbuk . . Amrulsak, Omlote. Bomb, — Amboti* Bhin-surpati, 

Amrulsak. Can, — Pullam-purachi sappu. Duk, — Ambuti, Eng, — 
Indian surrel, horned-vrood-sorreL Hirid.—Amboti, AmruUchuka^ 
Khatta-metha, Set-paiti. Malyal. — Puliyarai. Sans. — Shuk-lika, 
Chuk-rika, Chaugeri Shata-ambusta, Amlika, Shata, Danta. Tam.— 
Puli-yari kiray. Tel, — ^Pulla-chinta. Siam. — Amla-lonika. 

Amla-lonika i$ derived from am ^ acid, and tonika, like loni 
or punlaoe. 

( ' v.^Leaves sknder, prostrate and harry, on long petioles, 

dividt liree segments, each obcordate and finely fringed with 

white hAirs or ciliated at the margins ; upper surface glabrous, lower 
hiir>' ; flowers yellow ; capsule very hairy, conical and furrowed; seeds 
manyi transversely ribbed ; taste very acid and astringent. 

C^MtHiuents.^^ll contains acid potassium oxalate. 

I^gparaHom, — Fresh juice. Dose, J to i dr. Decoction of leaves 
(i in lo}. Oofi«» I to 3 ozs. 

A ^ ifiusts^ — Cooling, refrigerant, appetizing and astringent; 

given ase* of dysentery, prolapse of the rectum and vagina, 

md a ■ , in fever and biliousness. The fresh juice is given 

It an , jisoning by dhatura. 

The crane's bill family, 

Geranosy a crane, from the resemblance of the elongated beak of 
the seed or capsule to a crane's bill. 

Herbs or shrubs, with articulate swollen joints ; leaves simple, 
opposite or alternate, with membranous stipules ; flowers symmetrical 
ancl showy ; sepals 5 imbricate ; petals 5^ twisted, in aestivation ; fruit, 5 
caipdft attached by means of their styles to an elongated axis or 
carpo{)hore. from which they separate (ufhen ripe) from below upwards 
by the curling up of the styles ; seed one in each carpel, ex-albumin* 
Dus; embryo convoluted. 

Hnbitat. — The Cape of Good Hope* 

^ /V<j^r/i>j.— Astringent, resinous and aromatic. 

Geranium Hacalatum. 

Habitat, — North America. 

Part utf(t. — Rhizome. 

Syn. — Crane's bill, Alum root, American kino. Astringent root, 
Ajtierican Torment ilia, crow foot, dove foot* 

Alacuiatum— macula, spotted. Leaves acquire white spots by 
aige. Alum root, because it contains tannic and gallic acids or 
bein^ =» "'^ '* substitute for kino and catechu, 

G Nepalense— G. Oscillatum. Found in Himalaya, 

NilgiiM. wuvinn. The rhizome is used in medicine, and is known as 
fihanda Hewil (Hind ); and used in diseases of the kidneys. 



154 GERANIUM WALLICHIANUM. 

Geranium Robertianum. — Robert herb. — grows in Europe, 
Himalaya. Ther rhizome is used as astringent and diuretic in haemor* 
rhages and gravel. 

Geranium Moscatum, Erodium Moschatum, stoik's bill. A good 
diaphoretic. 

Erodium cicutariura. — A good diuretic given in dropsy. 

Oeraniam VaUiohianiim. 

Habitat. — Temperate Himalayas, Afghanistan, Kuram Valley. 

Part used. — Rhizome. 

Vernacular. — Afghan . — Mamir an. Arab.— Ibrat- ur-raai ; 
Ibrat ur-raai means shepherd's needle. 

Characters. — Indigenous perennial plant. The rhizome is hori- 
zontal, cylindrical, two to three inches long, half an inch or less thick, 
tuberculated longitudinally, wrinkled and dark brown ; the bark is 
thin ; wood wedges yellowish, forming a circle near the cambium line ; 
medullary rays broad, central pith large ; rootlets thin and fragile ; 
taste pleasant and astringent ; no odour. Dose, powdered rhizome, 20 
to 40 grs. 

Constituents, — Tannin 12 to 27 p. c. Gallic acid, red colouring 
matter, starch, pectin, sugar. 

Preparations. — Extractum Geranii Fluidum. — Fluid extract of 

feranium. Dose, 10 to 40 ms. Dried extract, otherwise called Geranin. 
)ose, I to s grs. Tincture (1 in 10). Dose, 20 to 40 ms. Decoction 
(i in 20). Dose, \ to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — Powerful and efficient astringent like tannic 
acid. As a tonic it is given with hydrastine in chronic diarrhoea and 
dysentery, passive haemorrhages, in relaxed condition of the mucous 
membranes, as gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, diabetes, cholera, &c. 
Locally used as a gargle in sore throat and in ulceration of the mouth ; 
as an injection to relaxed vagina, uvula, rectum, &c. 

Celastraceea. 

The Malakangani or spindle tree family. 

General characters. — Shrubs or small trees; leaves simple, generally 
alternate, and rarely opposite ; stipules small and deciduous ; flowers 
small, regular, perfect and rarely unisexual ; stamens opposite the sepals; 
fruits 2, 3 to 5 -celled, drupaceous and indehiscent or capsular ; seeds 
ascending, arillate ; disk large, flat, surrounding the ovary and 
albuminous. 

Habitat. — Warmer parts of Asia. India. 

Properties. — Seeds contain an acrid principle ; the seeds of some 
contain an oil of a stimulating nature. 

Celastras Paniculatiui, C. Montana, G. Bothlana, G. Sene^ensls, 
C. Nutans, Soutla puiicnlata. 

Habitat. — Hilly districts, Himalaya and Ceylon. 



CELASTRUS PANICULATUS- 



»55 



nsed, — Tlie seeds and the oil. 

Vemaatiar, — Bomb. — Malakanguni. Eng— (the oil) oleum 
nigrum, Stjff tree. Guz. — Malakaguni. Hind.— Malakangani* Mar.^ — 
Kanguni. Sans. — Vanhiruchi, Katumbhi, Jyotish-mati, Tarn. — 
Ati'parich-chami Malkang-unt, Tel.^ — Mala-erikata, Bavungi, Gundu 
Mida, \^aluluvai Danti-chettu* 

Jyotiih-mati, meaning light possessing. In allusion to their sup- 
posed property of stimulating intellectual powers and sharpening 
memory, 

CkaracUm* — Fruit resembling tirphal in size^ three-celled 
and globose. In form resembling the open-mouthed fruits ot kapus* 
Fruit with a small stalk at the base, surface rugous and of a faint 
yellow colour ; seeds hard, angular, and somewhat pointed at one end. 
In form and size similar to draksha bija colour brownish red, 
S'ltrficc wrinkled and covered with a kind of brownish powdery 
iwb^t^iTtcc ; kernel oily and almond-like ; taste biting and hot ; embryo 
gr itcd in the middle of the kernel ; oil of a deep reddish-yellow 

cr' aning, when kept for a time, thick like honey. Dosc% 3 to 

10 gr^* 

Consniuftifs, — ^The seeds contain an oil, a bitter resinous principle, 
taiuiiu and a-sh 5 p. c The oil is obtained from the seeds by 
exhiiudtion with ether. It is a thick, reddish, bitter oil, of an aromatic 
odour. Oleum nigrum — an empyreumatic black oil^ — is obtained by 
the destructive distillation of the seeds of C, paniculatus» to which 
Loban, lavang, jaiphal, and javantri are often addedt Dose, 5 to 15 ms- 

The bitter resinous principle resembles glucosidal resin. It is 
extracted from the seeds with proof spirit or ether, or by shaking 
the oil with alcohol. It is insoluble in cold and boiling water. 

l^t^mtinm, — ^Decoction of seeds (i to 10). Dose, i to i 02s. 

/^*" '" "• =-1 in 8 of butter known as Magz sudhi or brain polisherg 
•o na;i r the belief that it promotes the intelligence of pundits 

and Ic Ti who use it as an application for the head, 

.? ind tises. — The ^^Qd% are alterative, stimulant and 

lie* combined with aromatics and given in rheumatism, gout» 
iid leprosy. The oil is used as pomade and also as rube- 
cnt tor relieving rheumatic pains of a malarious character 
and in paralysis. Oleum nigrum has been tried in berberi with some 
benefit* 

Elttodendron Qlaacam, £. Paniculatum, E. Roxburghiii Neerij 

Dichotoma. 

ffabitat, — India. Ceylon, Darjeeling* 

flw/F iirw^/.— The bark and leaves. 

Kirnidcw/irn— Can, — Tamrooj. Hind. — Bakra, Chauri. Jamrasi 
Mar* — Bhut-pal, Tamrooj. Punj. — Marandu, Jamoa, Tam. — Karkava, 
Irkoii* Tel, — Nerija-Ncradi, 



mow 



IS6 BLiEODENDRON GLAUCUM. 

Bhut-pal — Bhut, a demon, and pal, palo the plant. The leaves 
are used to remove the Bhut or demon of which women are supposed 
to become possessed in hysteria. 

Characters. — Leaves opposite, short petioled, acutely oblong or 
obtusely serrate, both surfaces polished, upper surface shining ; root- 
bark compact and brittle, in small fragments of a dull reddish colour, 
and covered by a scabrous suber, which is yellowish externally and 
brick-red internally ; bark and leaves bitter and astringent to taste. 

Constituents. — The bark contains an alkaloid, 2 resins, tannin 8 p.c, 
glucose 5 p.c. and ash 18 p.c. The ash contains calcium carbonate and 
calcium oxalate. The alkaloid is separated by lime and chloroform. It 
gives a purplish colour with sulphuric acid, and yellow with nitric 
acid. With acids, it forms salts, which are soluble m water. 

Resins, — One is soluble in ether and amylic alcohol ; the other in 
rectified spirit. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, stimulant and deobstruent. The 
dried leaves are used as a fumigatory in hysteria ; also as a sternuta- 
tory to relieve headache. The bark rubbed with water is used to 
remove any sort of swelling, and used as a deobstruent in enlargement 
of glands. The natives use it as a remedy for snake-bites. Both the 
leaves and bark are astringent like matico. 

Enonymus Atroparpnrens B.P., Eaonymos Crenalatas, E. 
Pendulus, E. Tingens, E. Eoropoaas, E. Amerioanus. 

Bitter ash, Peg wood, Indian arrow wood, prick wood, burning 
bushy strawberry tree. 

Habitat — Western Peninsula, Himalaya, Nilgiri, shady places. 

Part used. — ^The bark of the root — wahoo bark. 

Vernacular, Hind. — Barphali, Sikhi, Rangchul, Guli, Papar, 
()hopra, Kunku Kesari. 

Characters. — Ornamental shrub ; branches slightly quadrangular ; 
flowers dark-purple, in cymes ; fruit capsular, smooth, 4-lobed. 

The dried bark in quill or curved pieces, outer surface covered 
with a thin scaly suber, which is soft, corky and friable, colour ash- 
grey, with dark ridges or patches ; inner surface smooth, pale, tawny 
and white. It breaks with a short fracture ; odour is faint and 
characteristic ; taste mucilaginous bitter and acrid. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

E. Crenulata bark is almost white. The inner portion of the bark 
of E. Tingens is also white and the arillus yellow. 

Constituents. — The bark contains tannin, sugar, but no alkaloid. 
An amorphous bitter principle, euonymin ; atropurpurin identical 
with dulcite ; resins, asparagin ; euonic acid, fixed oil, albumen, wax, 
starch and ash 14 p.c. 

Euonymin.— To obtain it add chloroform to the dried extract 
or the tincture, shake the solution and evaporate ; then add to the 
residue ether or alcohol and acetate of lead. Dissolve the precipitate 



RHAMNACBvE. 



,toy ^ "1 hydrogen and evaporate. It is soluble io water, 
'ifc- Lf. Dose, i to 2 grs. 

Rci-in. — Amorphoas* of a greenish colour, without any taste, 
insoluble in water, and soluble in ether, Atropurpurin. — A glucoside, 
identical with dulcite. 

/Reparations. — Extractum euonymi. Dose, i to 5 grs. Extractum 
euonymi siccum, B. P. Euonymin. Dose, 1 to 2 grs* Extractum 
euonymi liquidum, riot miscible with water. Dose, to i dr. Tinctura 
euotiymi. — ^Tinctute of enonymi (i in 5). Dose, 10 to 40 ms. 

Compound Pills.^Enonymin, gr. i ; Extract of Henbane, gr. 1 ; 
Extract of Rhubarb, gr. i ; Extract of Nux vomica, gr. ^ ; Aloin, ^r. J ; 
Make one pill — as a cholagogue, Liquid preparations containing 
enonymin with pepsine, cascara sagrada and bismuth are used in pro^ 
prictary medicines. 

Actions and HSfs* — Euonymus is cholagogue, hepatic stimulant, 
diuretic, anlipcrindic, antiparasitic, and tonic. The action is similar 
Io that of pndophvlHn. As a cathartic it is similar to rhubarb, 
but only weaker, ft is generally associated with aloes, jalap, rhubarb, 
Of eolocjmth. It increases the flow of bile and promotes other secre- 
tions. In over-dosciit is a gastro-intesttnal irritant, TherapeuticK, — A 
good remedy for torpid liver, bilious diarrhoea, habitual constipation, 
dropsy, pulmuuary aiTtclion and pcdiculi. With pepsin it is a valuable 
hepatic and digestive agent ; hence given in indigestion, ilatulence. 
The fruit af E. Europcus is used to destroy lice. 

Remarks. — The inner bark of E, tingensis used to make sectarial 
marks on the forehead by the Hindus. The vernacular name, Kunkun, 
Itis reference to the colour of the arillus, Kunku being the red powder 
used to make a mark on the foreliead of the Hindus. E. Europeus 
bthe common spindle tree ; the wood is used to make spindles. 

Rhamnaoea. 

The Boedi, buckthorn, Christ's thorn familyt 

General Characters, — Shrubs or small trees. Leaves spiny, 
3in ■ ernate or rarely opposite ; flowers small, perfect; stamens 

p^ J3 ; petalb involute, sepals valvate ; fruits dfy, capsular 

ficdliy and indehiscent ; seed erect, one io each cell ; albumen fleshy. 

Ha Sitat. — U n i vc rsal- 

Properiies. — ^Some plants have acrid and purgative properties, A 
few are used in the preparation of dyeing materials. The bark in some 
ol the species is highly astringent. In others it is bitter, Ionic and 
febrifuge. 

Rhamnua Frangula. 

\\A..^ buckthorn, black alder, dog wood, Persian berries. 

UtL — Europe, Holland. 
/^ariused, — ^The bark. 



158 RHAMNUS FRANGULA. 

Characters, — Bark from the trunk and branches ; in small quilk, 
smooth, of a purplish or of a greyish brown or black colour, with white 
lenticles ; outer layer corky, with many whitish elongated transverse 
markings; inner layer brownish yellow and fibrous. When chewed it 
colours the saliva yellow; taste pleasant, sweetish bitter, no odour. 
Gives red colour to lime water, yellow colour to cold water, and 
brown to hot water. 

Constttuents, — A glucoside — frangulin or rhamnoxanthin,emodin, 
isoemodin, resin, tannin, ash 5 p. c. Frangulin, a glucoside. To obtain 
it, macerate the bark in solution of carbon bisulphide, evaporate, add 
alcohol and again evaporate. Occurs in crystals, of a lemon yellow 
colour, without any odour or taste; insoluble in water, sparingly soluble 
in alcohol or ether; identical with cathartin. With hydrochloric 
acid it splits up into glucose and frangulic acid. Emodin. — Trioxy- 
methyl anthraquinone, a reddish crystalline principle, a decomposi- 
tion product of frangulin. Isoemodin or frangulic acid, is a bitter 
laxative. 

Preparations, — Extractum Rhamni Frangulae. Dose, 1 5 to 60 grs. 
Extractum Rhamni Frangulae liquidum — Fluid extract of frangulae. 
Dose, I to 4 drs. Trochisci Rhamni Frangulae, otherwise known as 
aperient fruit lozenges. Syrupus Rhamni Frangulae. Dose, i to 4 drs. 
Decoction (i in 40). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Ointment (i to 8 of lard). 

Physiological action, — ^The bark is purgative ; when fresh it is a 
violent gastro-intestinal irritant, producing vomiting, purging and 
much pain. Dried bark is not irritant; a safe purgative, alterative, 
tonic and diuretic. 

Therapeutics. — Given in dropsy, in constipation of pregnancy, also 
in chronic cutaneous affections, in rheumatism and in secondary 
syphilis. Ointment is used for itch and parasitic affections. Frangulin 
is identical with cathartin (the active principle of senna). 

Remarks, — Emodin is also found in rhubarb root. 

Rhajnnus Parshianus, B. P. 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of the United States, California. 

. Part used, — The dried bark. Cascara sagrada or Rhamni 
Purshiani cortex or sacred bark, B. P. chittem bark, Bearberry 
Persiana or Purchiana bark. 

Characters. — A small tree. The bark in curved quills or nearly 
flat pieces, thick, brownish or greyish white externally, and whitish 
within, easily separable, marked with spots of adherent lichen, without 
any odour and of bitter taste. Dose of the powdered bark, 3 to 15 grs. 

Constituents, — Neutral, bitter, crystalline, yellowi principle, resem» 
bling frangulin; three resins : — Emodin, tannin, oxalic and malic acids, 
and a white crystalline sublimate. 

Preparations, — Extractum Cascarae Sagradae liquidum, Extractum 
Rhamni Purshiani liquidum, B. P. — Liquid extract of cascara sagrada. 
Dose, i to I dr. Extractum cascarae sagradae, B. P, Dose, 2 to 
8 grs. Syrupus cascarae aromaticus, B. P. Dose, ^ to 2 drs. Elixir 



RHAMNrs vvffVMTn. 



159 



sagnuja contains liquid extract of cascara 8, tincture of 
^ 2, ulcohol I, cinnamon water 3^ syrup 6. Dose, ^ to 2 drs, 
Ctsc^ra cordial contains cascara sagrada, Berber is aquifolmm root, 
coriander seeds gr. 15, Angelica root gr. 2, oil of anise gtt. 10, oil of 
01 10, oil of cassia gtt, 2j extract liquorice gr». 12, sugar 5 

dr in constipalioD^ dyspepsia* haemorrhoids, and as an excipient 

for Da ^ugs. Dose, i to. i dr. Cascara capsules J dr. of liquid 

extract - , __.a or 3 grs* of solid extract. Some contain, in addition, 
Euonymin. 1 gr, in each. Dose, i to 2. Cascara lozenges contain 
^jv-.-x.r^ ^Jt>, 2 grs of solid extract in each. Pilula Cascarae 
C' I. — Extract of cascara ij, Extract of nux vomica ^, alcoholic 

cxtf-n.1 I'f belladonna I, milk-sugar 1, in one pill; a nice aperient ; 
Syrupus Cascara Sagrada — Liquid extract of cascara 4 oZ!>., liquid 
extract of Hquoricc 3 ozs., carminati%'e tincture 2 drs., syrup 20 ozs. 
Dose, I to 4 drs. Tinctura laxativa contains liquid extract of cascara 
sagrada 2^ aromatic spirit of ammonia 2, spirit of chloroform 2, 
Itnaure of belladonna j, tincture of nux vomica i,mi5ciblc with water. 
Dos>e, 20 I060 ins.» used as a laxative. Liquor cascara aromalicus 
oontaiDS aromaticSf alcohol and saccharine. Dose, i lo 3 drs , used 
la id adjuvant to constipating drugs. 

Actions and nscs^^ The dried bark is purgative, tonic, and 
fcbnfuge. In Inrgc doses cathartic. It improves the appetite and 
di^ettioD* It promotes the gastric, hepatic and pancreatic secretions, 
produces large, softg and painless evacuations. Useful in chronic 
constipation due to torpor of the liver in catarrhal jaundice, and 
aiooy of the stomach and intestines; after its disuse the bowels act 
oaitirally. It acts best on an empty stomach and in a concentrated 
form« Purgative action is due to the resins, and the tonic effects to 
th< bitttr principle. Given as a tonic and laxative in habitual consti- 
piatton, associated with haemorrhoids, dyspepsia, &c. It sometimes 
cures goot or iheumalism where salicylate of soda has failed, 

Rhamxiiis Wightil, R. Catharticus 

haUtat, — Western Peninsala, Ceylon, Nilgiris 
J^rts iii5/r/-— The bark and berries* 

Fernacular, — Eng. — Buckthorn. Bomb. — ^Rukta Rohida. Guz. 
<— Rakta Rohido. MaL — Rakla Rohida. Mar. — Ragatrora. 

Characttrs.^V^^jk in thick hard pieces ; colour brownish red. 
The texture tough and fibrous, bark from the young wood fragile 
and soft; taste highly astringent ; berries black, siie of a p^a, 3 to 4 
seeded; taste bitter and acrid. Dose, ^ to 2 drs. 

C^nshtiients, — h crysiallioe principle ; resim, tannin, a bitter 
p^ malic and cathartic acids, su^ar, starch, albuminous 

fj aUs and ash The ash contains silica, alumina, lime, iron, 

luagnesia, &c. 

I^paraihns. — Fluid extract. Dose> J to 2 drs. Decoction (j in 
I^)^ Dose, J to I 01, S>Tup. Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 



y^i^i^ 



l60 ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, tonic and deobstruent, given in 
relaxed condition of the system like cinchona bark. Combined with 
@oedi chhala, it is given in bloody fluxes ; locally it is applied to 
swollen glands and tumours. 

Remarks. — The name Raktarohida properly belongs to Ampora 
Rohituka, order Meliaceae. This name is popularly applied to several 
astringent drugs. 

Zizyphus J^juba. Z. Trinervla. Bhamnus Jujnba, 

Habitat, — South of Asia. 

Parts used. — The bark, leaves and lac. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Zruf, Ussli Suddir, Sidra Nabig, Unabe 
Hindi. Beng. — Kul, Budri. Burm. — Hyi-bin, Hzee zugi. Can. — Elonji- 
mara, Gub-mara. Cing. — Maha-debara, Duk. — Ber-chuni. Eng. — 
Jujube tree. Guz. — Boedi, Bora, Goud. Hind. — Ber, Boer. Maleal. — 
Elantha Perintpdali. Malay. — Bidara. Mar. — Bora. Pers. — Kumara. 
Sans. — Wadari or Badari, Dir, Parni, Vanokoli. Tarn. — Ellendi. Tel. — 
Regu-pandu. 

Characters, — Bark scabrous, externally (like Babul chhal) darkish 
brown and deeply and longitudinally fissured. Internally pinkish or 
reddish, very tough and fibrous, taste highly astringent, odour rather 
disagreeable ; leaves one to two inches long, short petioled, alternate, 
three-toothed, oblong, obtuse, glabrous above and tomentose beneath, 
margins serrated, thick, coriacious and very mucilaginous when bruised. 
Dose, i to I dr. 

Constituents* — The bark and leaves contain tannin and a crystalliz- 
able principle, ziziphic acid and sugar. 

Preparations, — Paste of leaves ; infusion of leaves (i in lo). Dose, 
^ to I oz., and decoction of the bark (i in lo). Dose, i to i oz. 

Actions and uses, — The bark is astringent, used in leucorrhoea, 
diarrhoea and haemorrhagic fluxes, generally combined with Talabija. 
The paste of the leaves, with those of Ficus glomerata, is used locally 
for scorpion bites ; and as a poultice to promote suppuration of boils. 
With catechu the leaves are given as cooling and refrigerant. The 
root is used in fevers. 

Remarks. — A kind of lac known as Bhuri lak or Bora lak, is found 
as excrescence upon the branches. It is an ingredient in the prepara- 
tion known as Lakha shadi tela. 

Zizyphus Yalgaris. 

Habitat.- ^India, Persia, China. 
Part used. — The dried fruit. 

Vernacular.— ATdh.—lJnmb. Bomb.— Unnab-khorasani. Eng. — 
Jujube. Hind.— Fetni, Pitui. Pers.—Unnab, Sinjid-i-jilani, Sutlg. — 
Amlai. 



VENTILAGO MADRASPATANA. l6l 

Characters^ — Fruit dry, oblong and of a red colour, in size resem- 
bling small nutmeg or dried date ; surface smooth, shining and 
wrinkled and presenting a small cup-shaped depression at its base, in 
the centre of which a small stalk is attached ; pulp greyish yellow, 
spongy, unctuous and lumpy to the touch. In the centre of the 
fruit is a small stone, which is pointed on both sides and adherent to 
the pulp; taste sweet, sub-acid and moderately astringent like that of 
fresh apple. A fine gum lac is obtained from this tree. 

Constituents, — ^The fruit contains mucilage and sugar ; the bark 
and leaves contain tannin ; the wood contains a crystallizable acid 
(ziziphic acid), tannin and sugar. 

Preparation, — Decoction of the bark (i in 20;, Dose, J to i oz. 

Acttovs and uses. — Similar to those of dried raisins or prunes. 
The fruit is aperient, demulcent, expectorant and tonic ; used in 
habitual constipation, rheumatism and chronic skin diseases. It is a 
chief and constant ingredient in pectoral syrups and confections. The 
leaves, when chewed, are said to destroy the sense of taste of disagree- 
able medicines. The decoction of the bark is used externally as an 
astringent wash to wounds and ulcers. 

Yentilago Madraspatana. Funis Yiminalis. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Burma, and Southern India. 

Part used. — The root-bark. 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Ruktupita. Can. — Popli-chukai. Mar. — 
Khandvel, Lokhandi. Sans. — Rakta^valli. Tam. — Vambadam. Tel. — 
Surugundu, Erra-chiratali. 

Raktavalli. — Red creeper. 

Characters. — A climbing shrub ; root J to i inch in diameter, 
rough and scaly ; colour reddish, of a metallic lustre. 

Preparation. ^M^dLXQZttd oil. The powdered bark, with gingelly 
oil. 

Actions and uses, — Parasiticide. The oil is used locally for itch 
and other skin eruptions. 

Anaoardiaoe». 

The Bhilamo or Cashew (Kaju) family. 

Anacardiaceae, from ana, alike or according to, and cardia, the 
heart, in allusion to the fruit, which is heart-shaped. 

General characters. — Trees or shrubs abounding in resinous 
gummy, acrid milky and sometines poisonous juice, which becomes 
black on drying ; leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple or compound and 
dotless ; flowers regular, often small and unisexual ; fruit indehiscent 
drupe or nut-like ; seeds edible, without albumen. 

Prrtperties. — Many plants contain a milky juice of a resinous, 
gummy and acrid character. In some the juice is poisonous. In 
pistachio nut the seeds are solitary, without albumen. Seeds of some 

U 



Ib2 ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE. 

species are used as food. Theiuice of Kaju and Bhilama is acrid, cbrro- 
sive and of a black colour. The mango (Amba) of India is a luscious 
fruit. Some plants yield turpentine. Many furnish varnishes and dyes. 

Anaoardiam Ocoidentale. Aoaiuba Ocoidentalis. CassnTiom 

Pomiierom. 

Habitat — An American plant, cultivated on sea-coasts of India, 
Tropics. Imported from Goa. 

Parts used. — Seeds or kernels (almond fruits). Bajk, tar, and 
spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the torus. 

Vernacular, — Amboyna. — Boafrangi. Beng. — Kaju Hidjii badam. 
Bur. — ^The-ho-thayat. Can. — Gerapoppu. Cing. — Kaju-atta. Duk. — 
Kajuki-Jutli. Eng. — Cashew-nut. Guz. — Kaju. Hind. — Kaju, Hijli- 
badam. Mar. — Kaju. Maleal. — Parunki-mavah, Keppal Cherum. 
Malay. — Jambu-monat. Pers. — Badam-i-Pharangi. Sans. — Bijara-sala. 
Tam. — Kala-mavah, Kothai-mundiri. Tel. — Jedi-mamedi, Mamedi- 
vittu. 

Boa frangi — Portuguese fruit. 

Characters, — Flowers sweet smelling, pea-shaped, yellow or red ; 
peduncle or torus, enlarged and fleshy, containing a sweet and 
astringent juice and used as edible fruit each peduncle having 
at its end a small kidney-shaped nut (kaju). The nut is an inch 
long, flattened on both sides, smooth and shining ; the pericarp 
contains quantities of acrid, caustic and vesicating oily liquid. The 
acridity is destroyed by roasting the nut, when it becomes edible, as 
an article of food and as an ingredient in chocolate; hence, when ground 
up with cocoa, the nuts make a good chocolate. The tarry, acrid, oily 
fluid is obtained by heating the pericarp. From the fermented juice 
expressed from the torus or thalamus, a kind of spirit is distilled. 
The spirit has a peculiar flavour due to the volatile, aromatic principle 
contained in the rind of the torus. It is similar to the fermented cedar, 
but is superior to rum or arrack. A kind of astringent gum is exuded 
from the trunk, which is a fair substitute' for gum-arabic. The gum 
occurs in reddish, yellow or brown stalactiform masses ; with water it 
forms glairy, turbid mucilage. The tar lis obtained from the pericarp 
by roasting the fruit. 

Cotistituents. — The tar contains anacardic acid 90 p.c. and cardol 
10 p.c, to the latter the blistering property is due. The kernel 
contains a sweet, bland, pale yellow oil, similar to olive oil, that from 
the mesocarp is thick, brown and viscid. It becomes darker when 
exposed to the air, and is soluble in alcohol and ether. The wood 
contains catechin. 

Anacardic Acid. — The pericarps are exhausted with ether and 
distilled. The solution contains anacardic acid and cardol ; the residue 
is next washed with water to free it from tannin. It is then dissolved in 
alcohol. To the solution is next added oxide of lead, which precipitates 
insoluble lead salts of anacardic acid. The acid thus obtained occurs 
as white crystalline mass without any odour. On heating it is 



BUCHANANIA LATIFOUA, 



J 03 



decomposed, producing colourless Buid oil of the odour of rancid fat 
when Durned. Cardol. — To obtain it, the alcoholic solution of the 
pem-4f p, after removing anacardic acid^ is next distilled ; to the distillate 
;idd acetate of lead and sulphuric acid. The precipitate contains cardol 
A5 a yellow oily liquid, insoluble in water» soluble in alcohol and ether. 

Pre/farattons* — Infusion of bark (1 in 20), Dose, i to 1 oz, 
Tinclura anacurdii (i in 10) of the pericarp. Dose, 2 to Jo minims ; 
used as a vermifuge. Unguentum anacardii, — ^Blistering ointment 
(i of the tar in 10 of ^-aseline). 

Aciiom and uses. — ^The tar is a powerful irritants a good, rapid 
and safe vesicant and a blistering agent* It gives rise to a dark- 
coloured stain and an eczematous inflammation of the skin, 
producing copious flow of serum* It is used in tuberculous 
leprnfv* ringworra» corns, obstinate ulcers, piles, &c. The oil being 
it! n} Uie fluid of the alimentary canal, 3 or 4 drops of it can be 

s\\ 1 Hith iinpunity. It is also used to preserve wood from the 

attack ot insects. The tincture is used as a vermifuge. The bark is given 
in diabcteis insipidus. The spirit is a powerful diuretic and soporific, 
given 10 promote secretion of urine. It is also used as an application 
for rheumatism. Cardol is eliminated with the urine and fieces, 

Bachanania Latifolia, Chirongia Sapida, Spondias Elliptica. 

//aifttitt. — Hotter parts of India, Jumna, Ajmir, Panjab. 
fitri used, — The seeds. 

J' ir, — Burm. — Thitsai, Lambo. Beng. — Chironji^ Piyala. 

Can*— Li, Noas Kool. Guz.— Charoli, Pia-Tal, Hind.— Piyal, 

Charoh. Mar. — Charoli^ Panj. Mai. — Mura, munga, peru, Panj.^ — 
Chirauli. Sans.*-Poyala, Chara, Tapasa-priya. Tarn. — Mowda, Aima. 
Tel. — C h a r a - m a m i d L 

Tapasa-pnya — dear to hermits. 

C/tijrfirf^rs^^FTuit sub-globose, drupe, slightly compressed^ ^ 
if ' *r, colour deep purple; stone hard, 2 valved ; kernels 

lit icssed, brovvn^ or mottled dark brown, 1 inch in length 

and ^ 111 breadth ; cotyledons oily ; flavour agreeable and nutty. 

C'iustitucfits. — Albuminoids 28 p.c., mucilage Ts p.c., oil 58 p.c, 
and fibre and a:>h 3*; p.c. The expressed oil is straw coloured, of a 
sweet Ustc and limpid. It congeals into a white semi-solid mass at a 
low temperature. 

/' ilsion, which contains almonds, dales without 

stotit\ lt and scssamum, made into a paste, in tjiitk or 

water. Dooet a lo 4 drs. 

Atiiiits and n^scs, — Demulcent , nutritive and expectorant, givtn 
in oough and in general debility. The oil is used as an application 
for bilffnes^. 

Mangifera, Indica, M. Montana, H. Domestica* 
Uabitai% — E»iSt Indies and other tropical countries. 



164 ODINA WODIBR. 

Parts used. — The kernel, gum, resin, fruit, leaves, flowers, 
bark, &c. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Maghzak Ambaj. Beng. — Ama, Amgachh. 
Bomb. — Amba. Burm. — Siyapin, That-yat. Can. — Mavena. Chin. — 
Mang-wo. Cing. — Amba-attamba. Duk. — Am. Eng. — Mango tree, 
Guz. — Amba, Keri, Ambosi (dried raw decorticated fruit). Hind. — 
Am, Amba-kaper, Ambosi Amchur Am khusk (dried fruit). 
Mar.— Amachura, Amba. Maly. — Mushchi. Pers. — Darakhte Ambah. 
San. — Ammara-chutu, Sahakara, Prajapati, Makau-lamu. Tarn. — 
Manga-maram. Tel, — Mamidi-chettu. 

Characters, — Fruit juicy, drupe of various shapes and sizes of several 
varieties, differing very much in flavour ; stone compressed and fibrous. 
The kernel is large and covered with a papery testa ; cotyledons two, plano- 
convex, lobed and often unequal, bitter and astringent ; gum resin found 
in pieces exuding from the fruit at the time of flowering and just before 
ripening ; generally found deposited upon tender portions of the plant ; 
leaves long, lanceolate, stiff and of a darkish green colour ; young leaves 
very delicate and of a pale or pale reddish colour, of an astringent taste 
and an acidulous aromatic smell ; bark dark-brown and longitudinally 
fissured, inner part of a light, white, pale yellowish or reddish colour, 
of an agreeable aroma and an astringent taste. A kind of spirit is pre- 
pared from the mango. It is used for the same purpose as whisky. 
It gives about 60 p. c. of alcohol. Dose of the kernel, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — The dried unripe peeled fruit contains water 21 
p.c„ watery extract 6i'S p.c, cellulose 5 p. c, insoluble ash 15, soluble 
ash 1*9 The soluble ash contains alkalies as potash i, tartaric and citric 
acids 7, and malic acid I2'6. The ripe fruit contains yellow colouring 
matter, chlorophyll product, soluble in ether, bisulphide of carbon and 
benzol, less readily soluble in alcohol. The bark contains tannin. 
The kernel contains gallic acid and tannin, fat, sugar, gum and ash. 

Preparation. — Fluid extract of the bark. Dose, S to 1 5 ms. 

Physiological action. — The bark is astringent and tonic. The ripe 
fruit is invigorating, refreshing and nutrient, also somewhat laxative. 
The unripe fruit is acid, astringent and antiscorbutic. Ambosi is a 
valuable antiscorbutic owing to its containing citric acid. The ashes 
oi the leaves are applied to burns and scalds. Tender leaves, dried 
and made into a powder, are used in diabetes. The kernel is astringent 
and anthelmintic. Amba-no-chick, or the gum resin, mixed with lime 
juice, is used locally in scabies. The bark is astringent,; anthelmintic 
and used in nasal catarrh and for lumbrici. As an astringent it is 
given in diarrhoea, also to check haemorrhages from the nose, stomach, 
intestines, uterus, and lungs. It also checks profuse muco-pui ulent 
discharges as leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, &c, 

Odina Wodier. 

Habitat, — Hotter parts of India. 
Parts useci. — The bark and gum. 



PISTACIA INTEGERRIMA. 



J65 



Fern/icuhr, — ^Beng. — Jival. Bomb. — Sbimpti* Burm.^Hnaubai 
Nabhay. Can. — Sbimtee Poonu. Cing, — Hick-gass. Diik, — Besba- 
TAm Kashmal. Guz. — Shembat, Jingna-gund (gum). Hind. — Sbimpti. 
Kiniul^ — Moye-chhala. Mai. — Utbi. Malyal, — Udi maram. Mar.— 
Magcer, moye. Sans, — Aja Shringi, Jiyal, Jingini Nelra-usbadhi. 
Tarn.— Oaday maram, anicarra. Tcl. — Oddi-manu Garapina* 

Aja Shringi. — Goat*shorn; Nctra-ushadhi, Netra eyes, and aoshad 
mcdiane. It is a collyriuin for the eyes- 

Characters. — Gum in large tears or stalactiform masses of a 
yellowish tttigeor amber colour, very brittle and friable or in angubr 
IMeces, each piece marked with fissures ; taste disgreeable and mucila- 
ginous, one half of it soluble in water^ the remaining forming a slimy 
or glairy and turbid mucilage on account of the oil it contains ; the 
bark externally is ash -coloured, scabrous, fissured, fibrous and soft ; in* 
li " he fibres are covered with a reddish powdery substance; 
u itly astringent. 

Constituents* — ^Thebark contains tannin and ash, the ash contains 
considerable quantity of potassium, carbonate, and hence deliquescent. 

I^efiaration. — Decoction of bark (i in lo). Dose, i to i oz, 

Actmns and usrs, — Astringent, used as a gargle for the mouth; also 
ms a lotion l^jr skin eruptions. The bark mixed with Morgosa oil 
(Neem oil) is said to be a very useful application for chronic ulcers* 
Til*' f^im beaten up with brandy is used as an application to sprains 
;i i. The gum is given internally in asthma and as a cordial 

to *>viuvif during lactation, 

Plstaola Integerrima, Rhus Kakraslngl, Rhus Suoaedanea. 

Habitats — Sub- Alpine Himalaya, Punjab, 
Part used, — The galls. 

Fifrii<ici»/ijr,*^Beng. — Kakara Sringi. Can. — Dushtapu-chattu. 
Duk*^ — Kakada-singi. Eng. — Zebra wood tree. Guz. — Kakara-singi, 
Sumak (the fruit). Hind. — Kakar-singi, Mah* — Kakada-shingi, 
Sam.*— Kara«kata-sringi. Teh — Kakara -shingi* Tarn. — Kakkata* 
shingi, 

Characters.-^OdXls large» hollow, horn-like andcurved^ rough, pale 
grceniih grey externally, single or sometimes lobed. They vary in size 
aod shape, 5ome of them resembling bivalve shells, others obovate or 
obco?' ncrally purse-like, cylindrical and tapering at either tnd, 

Ncaf 1 or at the attached end is the midrib of the leaf, upon which 

Ihe ^ led ; it appears to have split into two. Between 

the li. lie, which is the passage for the insect ; surface 

ATOOOth and here and there wrinkled, furrowed and marked with 
toboxles. It is brittle, and breaks with a crackling noise. Internal 
surface of the sac has bright yellow colour like that of dried blood ; 
odour slightly aciduous ; taste strongly astringent, bitter and similar to 
that of mmaja. Dose of the powder, lo to 30 grs. 



Ifli 



166 PISTACIA LENnscus. 

Co;}^/r'/i/^f7/j.~-Tannin. 

Preparations. — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, J to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, tonic and stimulant, generally 
given with demulcents and aromatics in cough, bronchitis, phthisis, 
asthma, difficulty of breathing, and as a tonic in fevers and want of 
appetite. It allays thirst, difficulty of breathing and to check vomiting. 
As an astringent it is largely used in diarrhoea, dysentery, piles, &c. 
A paste of them is applied in psoriasis. 

Pistacia Lentisons. 

HahitaL — South of Europe, Asia Minor, Calcutta, Levant, Island 
of Scio. 

Parts used. — The bud, bark, leaves, fruit and a concrete resin- 
ous exudation (mastiche). 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Uluk-bagh-dame, Kinnak, Rumi-mastaka 
(resin). Guz., Beng. — Rumi-mastaki. Eng. — Gum Mastiche. Hind.^ 
Rumimostike, Kundar-rumi« Mar. — Rumi-mastaki. Pers. — Kinnah, 
Kinnoli. Tam.— Irumi-malait-taki. Tel, — Rumaroha Ramu. 

Characters. — ^True mastiche obtained from the stem by incision 
is rarely met with in the Indian market. It occurs as small, oval, 
smooth, yellowish white tears, brittle, being usually covered with its 
own dust, resembling gum resin, friable, of a vitreous fracture, soft- 
ening in the mouth and becoming ductile when chewed, shining and 
transparent ; larger tears of an inferior variety are found mixed with 
bark and earthy matter; taste slightly terebinthinous; odour agreeable, 
flavour weak and balsamic ; it melts at moderate heat and exhales a 
sweet odour. Insoluble in water, soluble about 80 p.c. in alcohol, 
leaving a substance resembling caoutchouc, which isdissolvedby ether. 
It gives its name to the process of mastication, being largely chewed in 
the East. Isasa or sveta kundola, is sometimes passed off as true 
mastiche. Dose of the powder, 20 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — A trace of volatile oil, two resins, Alpha resin 
or mastichic acid 90 p. c, and Beta resin or mastichine 10 p.c, also 
an ethereal oil. Mastichic acid is soluble in alcohol. Mastichine 
resembles copal, is insoluble in cold but soluble in hot alcohol and 
soluble in ether. 

Actions and uses. — It is a mild stimulant and diuretic, used in 
catarrhs of the respiratory and urinary passages ; as an aphrodisiac 
combined with salep it is given in genital debility ; also used as a 
masticatory. It is used by dentists for filling cavities in caried teeth. 
When kept in the mouth it perfumes the breath. The paste is applied 
to the chest in catarrh, bronchitis or to relieve local pain. 

Pistaida Yera, Pistaoia Khlnjok, Pistaoia Cabolioa, P. Poshtn. 

* Habitat. — N.-W. India, Beloochistan, Sind, Syria, Persia, 
Afghanistan. 

Parts used. — ^The fruit, galls, husks and oleo-resin. 



KSTACIA TE8EBINTHUS. 



167 



Vernacular. — Pers. — Darakht-i-Pistah ; the oleo resin, Saker, 
(kundrune Taikh). Baluchi, — Kabul i mastaki. Bombay — Mastic, 
Beng. — Pistan, Bomb, the nuts — Pistan. Eng.^ — Pistachio nuts. Arab. — 
Fusiuk, Guz.— Pistam. Hind — Pistan. Ind.— Pisteh. Pers.— The 
outer husk, Posti-pi^ta ; (the galls), Gul-i-Pisteh Buzgunj. 

GuUi-pisteh means flowers of pista. The term is applied to the 
gmlU of P. Khinjak and P. Cabulica. natives of Scinde, from their sup- 
posed resemblance to the flov^ers. 

Characters, — The fruit is of the size of an olive ; husk 
reddish j taste astringent, and odour terebinthinate ; within the fruit 
is a woody shell or nut of a brownish white colour, with hard, horny 
and polished texture and ovoid shape ; the kernel or almond is of a pale 
greenish colour and covered with a thin brownish red and brittle skin» 
which can easily be removed by scratching* It contains much oil, 
the taste is sweet and balsamic, flavour agreeable and resinous. 
Gall \% a small, ovoid, fig shaped, spherical excrescence, of a 
brownish red colour, about half an inch long and half an inch in 
diameter at the apex, having a hole at the base communicating with 
a hollow cavity within, thus resembling a small fig bud. At one end 
of the gall is a scar, the remains of a fallen leaf. The walls are thin, 
brittle and translucent ; taste acidulous and astringent ; odour lerebin- 
thinous ; oleo resin is similar in appearance, characters and properties 
to true mastiche, but more opaque and less clean. Dose of the fruit, 
I to a drs. ; of the gatlSi to to 30 grs. 

C^mHtuents,^GMs and husks contain tannic acid ^5 p.c, gallic 
^e^in or oleo resin 7 p.c,| to which the odour is due. Kerne! 
08 an aromatic oil, which soon becomes rancid. Galls are 
toI^Ue in water 65 p.c, in spirit 75 p.c, and in ether 31 p.c, 

Pteparatvm, — Confection. Dose, I to 2 drs, 

Acttunx and uses. — The kernel is nutrient, demulcent and res- 
torative. The galls are astringent and demutcenti used in diarrhcDai 
dysentery and in excessive expectoration. 

Platacla Tereblnthus, Terebinthua VuIgaHSt P. Atlantica, 
P, Palestina. 

Mji^^iM/. —Europe, South of France, Algeria* Asia, Mediterranean 
Basin. Africa, Inland of Scto or Chio, and Cyprus. 

Parts i/.K'f/.— The concrete oil ; liquid oleo-resinous exudation; 
(terebinth ina chia) and galls* 

Vernacular, — Arab. — (The oil) Butum, Ilak-el Ambat, 
Kalingc-rumi (Galls^, Hab-ul Khizra. Afjghan. — Khinjak. Hind. — 
(Oleo resin) Cabuli Mistaki. Eng. — Chian turpentine, Cj'press 
tuqjcntinc, East Indian mastich. Pers,— Zunghari, Sukhur. Baluch — 
G^ran. 

Characters^ — The oleo-resin is a thick tenacious, greenish yellow 
liquid, becomes hard by keeping, loses its volatile oil, and becomes a 
concrete, soft, translucent mass or tears, with a fennel, citron or jasinine- 





'nm'^rrt 



l£m 



Iktt^L 



l68 RHUS AROMATICA, 

like terebinthinate odour and faintly bitter, mastiche-like. agreeable 
taste. It is free from the bitterness and acridity of turpentine. Galls 
are small sacs found on the margin of the leaves, smgle, or three 
or four combined, of a pink colour, terebinthinate odour and astringent 
taste; used as an emulsion. Dose of the oleo-resin, 5 to 15 grs., and 
of the galls. Dose, 3 to 10 grs. 

Constituents — Volatile oil, resin, mastichic acid, and masticin. 

Preparation. — Mistura Terebinthinae chise, contains 30 grains in 
I ounce, emulsified with tragacanth and acacia. 

Pilula Terebinth inae chiae contains chian turpentine 3, and 
sublimed sulphur 2 in each. Dose, i to 2 pills. 

Pilula Terebinthinae et zinci contains chian turpentine 4, zinc 
sulphatis J. Dose, i to 3 pills. 

Actions and uses.SxmWzx to those of Rumi mastachi. Its chief 
use is, however, as a remedy for cancer of the female pelvic organs. It 
is said to cause disappearance of the cancerous infiltration. Galb are 
astringent. 

Bhas Aromatioa, R. Aouminata. 

Fragrant sumach, sweet sumach. 

//ij^'/fl/.— United States, Cashmere Valley. 

Part used, — ^The root bark. 

Characters. — Shrub, 2 to 6 feet high, stems straight, branching 
at the top ; flowers yellow, in spikes ; fruit irt clusters, red and 
acid ; when broken the odour is very strong and fragrant ; root-bark 
contains a volatile oil. Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — The root-bark contains several resins, calcium and 
potassium salts, malates, tannin, a volatile oil, fat, mucilage, &c. 

Preparations. — ^Tincture (1 in 5). Dose, 5 to 30 ms. ; fluid extract, not 
miscible with water. Dose, 5 to 30 minims; solid extract, i to S grs. 

Actions and uses. — Pungent, aromatic, astringent, tonic, diuretic 
and stimulant, exerting its influence principally on the urinary organs. 
Used in diabetes, cystitis, hsematuria, albuminuria; in nocturnal 
incontinence of urine in children ; in hysterical eneuresis in adults ; in 
involuntary painful micturition, where the urine is loaded with mucus 
and pus or as is found in old persons due to loss of tone in the bladder 
to retain the urine ; also given in night sweats, in haemorrhage from 
the kidneys, bladder or uterus and in other passive discharges, as 
leucorrhoea, atonic diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. 

Rhos Goriaria. 

Habitat. — Persia, Syria, Asia Minor, Mediterranean Basin. 

Parts used. — The fruit, leaves and bark. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Sumaka, Tumtum. Eng. — Blue-leaved 
Sumach, Star-leaved Sumach. Hind.— Tratraka. Panj. — Talri. 
Pers. — Sumaka Mahi. 



CORL^RIA, 



169 



Characters, — Fruit a drupe, small, flat, of the size of Guvara-bija or 
lentil, hairy and of a reddish colour, surface smooth, shining and 

fiitled here and there ; calyx small and of a brown colour ; epidermis 
riigilc, so that thc^ seed escapes readily; seed greyish brown, very hard, 
Aat^ rcnifnrm, and resembling a pea, having a white scar at the centre; 
leaves about a foot long and pinnate, with 5 to 7 hairy leaflets; 
dUpticalt woolly and serrate, Dose» 20 to 30 grs* 

' fits* — The leaves contain a colouring matter, and tannm. 

The \' latns bimalate of lime* 

/^efarattom. — Decoction (1 in 10). Dose, ^ to i oz. Paste of 
leaves; gargle; liquid extract, dose ^ to 1 dr. Infusion (i in lo), 
Do^i ^ to I 02. 

Actt^ms and uses. — A good substitute for Rhus aromatica, 
fe^riccrant and astringent, used in scurvy, diarrhoea, dysentery, and to 
check bilious vomitinc ; in catarrh of the stomach and bowels, 
indigestion, cholera, in nsematemesis and in haemoptysis ; also used in 
leucorrhoca. k strengthens the gums. Locally the paste is applied 
over the pubes to check diuresis ; mixed with charcoal powder it is 
applied to unhealthy sores and in piles A gargle is used in catarrhal 
ancctions of the pharyuix and in ulcers of the mouth. The bark is a 
powerful astringent. The liquid extract prepared by boiling the leaves, 
isirk and fruit is given to check diarrhoea. Poultices of the leaves are 
used as apphc;iUons to the abdomen in the diarrhcea of children. 

/^r marks* — The leavus are used as a substitute for gall nuts in the 
production of grey colours for dyeing and tanning leathers. 

Rhus Glabra. -rStnooth sumach* 

//til/ttaL — America, California. 

I^dris used, — The fruit, leaves and bark. 

Characters, — Bark smooth, greyish red, covered with scattered 

Truit a drupe in clusters, of small crimson berries, sub* 
t ly hairy ; seeds roundish or oblong and smooth. With* 
«tlt St and of an acidulous taste Dose, \ to i dr. 

L . ... ..;;/*. — The fruit contains acid calcium and potassium mal- 

atc*, tannin 6 p. c* and colouring matter. The seeds contain a fixed 
oil ; galU contain lannin 60 to 70 p.c 

f^^aratj'ofts, — Infusion and decoction (1 in 20). Dose, i to a ozs. 
Fluid extract, not miscible with water. Dose, 1 to 2 drs. ; gargle. 

Actions and r/ses, — Astringent, refrigerant, diuretic, and antiseptic, 

fiven tn catarrh of the stomach and bowels, in dysentery, gonorrhoea, 
X.; also as a diuretic and refrigerant in fe%*er and diabetes. In catarrh 
of the throat, in pharyngitis and other mouth affections it is used as 
a gargle. The infusion is used as a wash for ulcers, wounds, &c. 

Rhus Toxicodendron. 

Trailmg sumach, poison ivy, 
/&^fi!o/,— Canada, United Sutea« 



I70 SEMICARPUS ANACARDIUM. 

Part used. — The fresh leaves. 

Characters, — Shrub, erect, leaves long, petiolate, trifoliate; lateral 
leaflets sessile, long, obliquely ovate, pointed, terminal at the base, 
wedge shaped or rounded ; leaflets entire, downy, glabrous and notched ; 
dried leaves papery, brittle, without any odour ; taste astringent and 
acrid ; applied to the skin they set up erysipelatous inflammation. On 
incision the plant yields an acrid poisonous juice, which turns black by 
exposure to the air. Dose of the powdered leaves, i to 4 grs. 

Constituents. — A poisonous principle — Toxicodendric acid, tannin » 
fixed oil, mucilage, and wax. 

Toxicodendric acid. — To obtain it bruise the leaves with slaked 
lime, macerate with water, add sulphuric acid and distil. The distillate 
is an acid, which is a colourless solution, highly volatile ; almost absent 
in dried leaves. The poisonous principle is also found in Rhuspumila 
and Rhus diversiloba and Rhus venenata (swamp sumach). The last 
is most poisonous. 

Preparation. — Tinctura Rhois Toxicodendri. — Tincture of Rhus 
toxicodendron (i in 2). Dose, 2 to 5 ms. Emplastrum Rhois Toxi- 
opdendri. 

Physiological action. — A cutaneous irritant ; locally applied, it 
causes redness and swelling of the afiected part, with itching and vesi- 
cular eruptions. It is also an irritant of the mucous membranes, causing 
conjunctivitis, redness and tumefaction of the mouth and throat, great 
thirst, nausea, vomiting often choking pain, worse at night, diarrhoea, 
with bloody stools and diureris. In favourable cases desquamation 
of the epidermis follows, lasting some time. It is given internally 
in chronic eczema, in vesicular erysipelas, in typhoid fever, and even in 
rheumatism. In affections of the fibrous tissue, in erythema, herpes 
and pemphigus and in nocturnal rheumatic pains, the adminis- 
tration of Kb us is attended with benefit. In paralysis, due to rheu- 
matic diathesis or to exposure to cold and wet, it is useful. As a 
local application it is used as a lotion in sprains, superficial burns, 
bites and stings of in|ects. 

femioarpaB Anaoardium. 

Anacardium Latifolium, A. Officinarum — Marking-nut tree 
(Eng.) 

Habitat — Hotter parts of India, Ceylon, Burmah. 

Parts used. — ^The fruit or nut and oil. 

F^nwc«Ajr.— Arab,— Baladar (nut), Hab-al-kalb, Hatul-phahama, 
Inkar-diya. Beng. — Bhela, Bhelava. Burm. — Khi-si chailem khyd. 
Can. — Ghera-mara Giru Duk . — Bhilawan. Eng. — Marking-nut. 
Guz.— Arushu Bhilamu. Hind. — Bhela, Bhilava. Mar.— Bhilamai 
Bilba, Bibnava. Malyal. — Kanpura Cherun-kuru. Mai. — Sambiri, 
Thembari. Pers. — Biladuro. Sans. — Bhallataka, Arshoghani, Bhella- 
tike Bijama, Arush-kara. Sing.— Kiri Badulla. Tam. — Shayug cottay, 
Sheran-kottai. Tel. — Bhallatamu-jodi, Chettu Tumnaoda Mamedi. 

Arush-kara means causing sores. 



SEMICAKPUS AKACA^DIUM. 



I7t 



Arshagani — Arsha or Harasha (Guz). piles and gni, to destroy. 
Bhtlamo is a destroyer of piles, and hence the name. Marking-nut 
ii so called as the nuts are used extensively for marking linen. It is 
tliO tised in the preparation of a black varnish. 

ChnracUrs, — Fruit, a nut resting upon a receptacle, the whole 
in shape the heart of an animal. Nut obliquely cordate, 
it u both sides, smooth, shining and wrinkled ; colour blacky 

epidermis mmutely pitted with a small broad stalk at its base where 
Ine receptacle is attached ; pericarp in two layers, the inner one hard 
and ihe outer one leathery ; between these layers are cells which con- 
tain a black resinous, viscid, acrid juice or vesicating oil, which 
is known as marking ink. The oil can be obtained by boiling the 
Yrhole nut without depriving it of its pericarp. The nut is prepared 
for internal use by first boiling it and then washing with cold water. 
Dose of the oil, \ to 2 ms. 

0>nsHiuents, — The almonds contain a smallquantity of sweet oil; 
the pericarp contains a vesicating oil 32 p.c., soluble in etheri which 
blackens on exposure to the air. It resembles the oil obtained from 
Atiicardium occidentale. 

Preparation, — Paste, containing juice of marking*nut 1, plumbago 



2)eylanica 1, baliospermum montanum 



nertifolia 
Used 



Euphorbia 
Asdcpias gigantea 1, sulphate of iron i, molasses i, mix. 
an application to scrofulous glands of the neck. 

Aeiifms and us^s. — The black thick juice of Bhilamo, is chiefly 
used as a stimulant ; locally caustic and vesicant. As a local stimulant 
It U applied for the relief of rheumatic pains, leprous affections, 
ififlainmation of bones and joints, bruises and sprains- When applied 
over the skin it causes intense pain and stvelling, its thin epidermis 
causes deep bluish coloured vesicles and intractable sore. The mark 
does not disappear for many months or even for life. The pain of the 
application is best relieved by salines interna 11 v and lead lotion ex- 
ternally J the whole fruit or the seed is edible, like that of the cashew. 
It is boiled and then washed with cold water before use. The oil obtain- 
ed from it, mixed with butter or oil » is used by the natives as stimulant, 
narcotic, digestive, alterative and nervine tonic, and given in dyspepsia, 
worms, nervous debility, asthma and epilepsy* As an alterative it is 
given in scrofula, venereal diseases and leprosy, and to relieve asthmatic 
attacks. Sometimes the fruit is heated in the flame of a lamp and the 
oil allowed to drop in milk. This is given in cough due to relaxed 
uvula and palate. Its internal use requires great caution. It is used 
locally to procure abortion. The vapour of the burning pericarp is 
applied to cold swelling and to cure piles* The mature receptacle 
U fleshy and sweetish-sour ; boiled and eaten with cocoanut and 
charonji as an aphrodisiac. 

Remarks, — The natives mix Bilama in the preparation of mercurial 
compounds under the belief that it counteracts the dangerous eSect 
of mercury, namely, salivation. 



asQis 



172 SPONDIAS MANGIFBRA. 

Spondias Hangifera. 

Habitat — Throughout India, 

Parts used. — The fruit, bark and gum. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Amrai. Burtn. — Gue-bin. Can. — ^Amate- 
mara, Fundi. Duk, — Jangh'tam. Eng. — Wild manffo, Hog plum-tree. 
Hind. — Ambra, Amra, Maryam Kaiphar. Malyal. — Ampazham. 
Mar. — Ambada. Pers. — Darakhte Maryam. Sans. — ^Amrataka, Amrat, 
Adhvaga-bhog3ra, Pitta- Vriksha. Tam. — Mare-man-chedi. Tel.— 
Pita-vruk shamu, Toura-manudi. 

Adhvaga-bhogya means travellers* delight. 

Pittavriksha. — ^Bile tree. The bark is used to lessen biliousness. 

Characters. — Fruit a drupe of the size of a pullet's egg, oval, fleshy, 
yellow when ripe ; gum smooth, shining, reddish brown or yellowish, 
m stalactiform pieces, resembling tragacanth ; with water it forms 
transparent jelly, or incompletely soluble mucilage. Dose of the bark, 
lo to 30 grs. 

Preparation. — Decoction (1 in 10), Dose, J to i oz. Extract, 
5 to 15 grs. 

Actions and uses, — ^The pulp is astringent, stomachic and acid, and 
used in dyspepsia. The bark and gum astringent and demulcent, and 
used in dysentery. 

BorseraoaB or Amyridaoa. 

Myrrh (Hirabola) and frankincense family. 

General characters. — Trees or shrubs, leaves compound, frequent^ 
ly dotted ; flowers small, perfect and rarely unisexual ; disk and 
stamens perigynous ; ovary sessile, superior, from i to s-celled ; ovules 
in pairs ; fruit dry, 1 to 5-celled ; seeds ex-albuminous, superior. The 
plants secrete a fragrant gum resin or a resinous juice and turpentine. 

Habitat. — ^Tropical regions of America, Africa and India. 

Properties, — Some plants are bitter purgative and anthelmintic ; 
others are tonic, stimulants and antispasmodic. 

Balsamodendrons. 

Trees of this family yield a gum resin similar in characters 
and properties to that obtained from the trees of the Boswellian 
family. The same remarks apply to the arrangement and classification 
of the plants of this order as in the case of Boswellia. 

Commiphora (Balsamodendron) Opobalsamiim, Balnaimim 
Oileadense. 

Habitat. — ^Arabia. 

Parts used. — The balsam or oleo-resin, known as Balm of Gilead 
or Balm of Mecca, fruit and wood. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — ^Akulla Balasin, Habel-Balasana, Dhonul- 
balsan. Bomb. — Roghan-i-Balsan, the wood Ud-i-Balasana. Duk. — 



BALSAMODENDKON PLAYFAIRII. 



1/3 



ftlasan kmteb. Eog. — Balm of Gelead. Mecca — gum balsam tree, 
Indian bdellium. Egypt* — Belasan. Hind. — Roghaii-i-Baisan, Ind. — 
Dohnula BaI*Uhhana ; uleo resin, Roghaiie-bulsan. 

Chiitacter$, — The balsam is collected by making deep incision 
Ihrough the bark down lo the wood. Another method is to extract it 
by boiling the leaves and wood in water. A greenish turbid balsam, 
re^mblet copaiba in colour and consistence- The genuine oleo-resin is 
greentsh lurbtd fluid, sinks in water. It burns like naphtha without 
injuring the wood. Cotton dipped in it can be washed quite clean in 
water. lis odfiur is similar to that of chini-kababa or oil of rosemary. 
The ta^tc is acrid, aromatic and bitter. When rubbed on the palm of 
the hand it Inscs its essential oil and becomes sticky. Hence, if kept 
for some time, ft becomes 3*ellow and sticky. The fruit is ovate, 
oblong or obovate, elevated on a very small stalk and with a ring-like 
calyx at the base ; surface wrinkled and of a reddish brown colour. 
There is a small projecting style at the top» from which four longi- 
tudinal rtdgcs spread downwards and extend to the calyx ; pericarp is 
brittle ; seed one* resinous looking ; oily and of a brown colour, taste 
balsamic, odour resembling that of turpentine ; wood of a pinkish 
colour and heavy, met with in pieces ; covered with layers of papery 
bark ; bark yellow, tubercled ; odour fragrant ; taste oily. Dose of the 
balsam, 3 to 15 ms, 

C^^nstihtents* — The balsam contains a volatile oil 30 px,, hard 
restn 64 p.c , soft resin 4 p.c, and bitter principles 0*4 px. 

The volatile oil is mobile, without any colour and of a fragrant 
^door, >c>|ublc in alcohol and ether ; sulphuric or nitric acid gives it a 
deep red colotir and i>n the addition of water it is precipitated as a resin. 

Resin is honey yellow, transparent and brittle, dissolves with 
difficuky in alcohol and ether, dissolves readily by heat; also soluble in 
oiK Soft resin is brown, very glutinous and without any odour or 
laue. 

Ptcfaratmt. — Decoction of wood and fruits (1 in 30). Dose, 4 to 
8 drs. balsam and oiL 

Athons and tats. — The fruit is carminative, stomachic, expecto- 
rant, and stimulant, given in combination with gum acacia, in chrom'c 
coughiii, diarrhuM and dysentery, A paste of it is locally applied to 
" ' * ,ind on recent cuts or bleeding wounds. The balsam is 

demulcent, given in profuse mucous discharges from 
43 as goiiorrlura, glt.ct, Icucjrrhfxu aid chjc.ijic 
ins. The wood has properties similar to those of 



Balsamodendron Playfairiit 

tfabitau — Arabia, N. Africa. 

f^trt useii. — Gum rtain, 

Vfrnncuhr. — Somalis — Hattai. Muscat — Dukh. Arab,— Dijj. 



J 74 BALSAMODKNDRON MYRRHA| B. P. 

Ckaracters.'^The gum resin resembles myrrh. It occurs in 
irregular pieces of wax-like appearance, cracked in all directions^ 
externally yellowish brown or liver-coloured and incrusted on one 
side with reddish sand ; inodorous and of a bitter acrid taste. Agitated 
with water it forms an emulsion, frothy and milky. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. 

Preparation. — Plaster. 

Actions and uses. — Similar to those of other balsams, used as 
plaster for the chest and limbs in rheumatic pain« Also as a stimulating 
application to wounds, in coughs and as a suppository for piles. 
Internally it is used as demulcent and expectorant. 

Balsamodendron Hyrrha, B. P., Commiphora HyrrluL 

Habitat — ^Arabia, Somali Country, Africa, Socotra, Yamen. 

Part used. — The gum resin from the stem. Myrrha — myrrh, B.P. 

Vernacular. — ^Arab. — Mukala, Murr, Habak, Hadee (Bdellium, 
perfumed). Beng. — Bola, Bomb. — Bysabole, Bhensabole,Mhaisagaggul 
(Indian Bdellium). Can. — Bola. Cing. — Gauda-rasa, Bolam. Duk. 
— Bol. Eng.— Myrrh, Bole. Guz.— Bol. Hind.— Bal. Mar.— 
Hirabola, Balata, Bola. Mahomedans — ^Batareh. Pers. — Bola. Sans. 
— Vola Minaharma, Gandha Rosaha, Rasaghandhaha, Saindhava, 
Samudra gugul. Tarn. — Vellaip-paam. Tel. — Balimtra-polam. 

Bhensa means a buffalo, and Bola myrrh. It is called buffalo 
myrrh, because it is given to buffaloes to increase the flow of milk. 

Sindhava Gugula or Samudra Gugula means resin coming from 
beyond the sea. 

Characters. — Low bush or small tree. Trunk very large, branches 
many, knotty, irregular and at right angles, terminating in sharp 
spines ; leaves trifoliate and long, leaflets sessile, obovate ; fruit long 
and pyriform. Gum resin is found in the bark and pith and may exude 
spontaneously as a juice. It is soft, oily, yellowish at first, then 
becomes roundish, irregular tears or hard masses of a brownish or 
reddish brown colour, waxy looking ; odour balsamic ; taste bitter, acrid 
and aromatic. With water it gives a brownish yellow emulsion. 
With nitric acid a purple colour. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Varieties. — Turkish is the best. The Arabian, is called by the 
Arabs " Mur " and by Somalis Hirabul or Mul-mul. The Indian 
myrrh is called Bissaool or Bhesabol. It is very impure. Meena- 
hurnia, another variety. It is of a yellowish white colour, very 
opaque, like aramoniacum and of a bitter taste. It is used tib extract 
guineaworms. It acts by poisoning the animal and making it 
loosen its hold upon the tissues. 

Constituents. — ^A volatile oil, also called myrrhenol or myrrhol, an 
oxygenated etherial volatile oil 2 p.c, resin myrrhin, 25 to 40 p. c, 
which by fusion becomes converted into myrrhic acid, gum 40 
to 60 p.c, bitter principle — a glucoside, salts as calcium phos- 
phate, and carbonate, &c. 



BOSWfiLLIA. 



»7S 



The volatile oil^ obtained on distillation from m>Trh, is neutral in 
reaction, and of the odour of myrrh. It is a pale yellow coloured thick 
viscid liquid, identical in formula with thymol and carvoK 

The resin, called myrrhin, which by fusion becomes r on verted into 
myrrhic acid, is soluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether. Fused with 
potash it gives protocatechuic acid and pyrocatechin. The bitter 
principle, obtained by exhausting the resin with warm water, is an 
amorphous, brittle, brown substance, sparingly soluble in water, of an 
intensely bitter taste. It is a glucoside. 

The gum ii soluble in water. It is adhesive, making a stable paste. 
It is partially precipitated by acetate of lead, and hence differs from 
gum-arabic. 

f^reparatiotK — Pilula aloes et myrrhae, B.P. {2 in 9). Dose, 4 
to ^ grs, Tinctura myrrhae, B.P. Tincture of myrrh (1 in 5), Dose, 
1 to I dr. Decoctum aloes compositum, B.P. Dose^ ^ to 2 ozs, 
Ptlula rhei composita, B.P. Dose, 4 to 8 grs. Mislura ferri composlta, 
B.P, Do^je, i to X oZt 

Physio logical action, — D i s i n fee t a n t , ant ispas mod ic , era m e n ag ogu e , 
expectorant and tonic. Externally astringent and stimulant. In small 
do6es as a gastric stimulant it promotes appetite and digestion* In 
large doses it is a gastro-intestinal irritant and causes nausea^ vomiting 
and dtarr bora. It quickens the cardiac action, diminishes bronchial 
secretions^ stimulates the uterus^ and is a good emraenagogue, 

//ti-.— Given in fevers^ epilepsy, generally combined 
with I . bitters; mixed with molasses it is given for anxmia, 

amcnurrhu;a and bronchial catarrh, and to native women, for ii days 
after confinement, for involution of the uterus. As stimulant to 
mucous membranes it diminishes excessive secretion from mucous 
surfaces of the pharynx, bronchi, vagina, uterus, and bladder, hence it 
is largely used as expectorant in chronic bronchitis and phthisis ; also 
in Icucorrhcca ; as an antispasmodic, combined with tonics, it is given 
in hystcriai asthma, epilepsy. As a tonic it is given in fiatulencc, 
L >n, and atonic dyspepsia. In diphtheria the tincture ofmyrrh, 

L with glycerine, is given internally every one or two hours 

uuh bcuctit. It prevents the hair failing oft* Lucally as a stimulant 
to the mucous membrane of the mouth, it is used as a gargle for 
^: urns, relaxed throat, aphthae and sore mouth; also as a 

tj in loolh-powder ; as a stimulant and disinfectant its fumes 

arc applied on sores and foul ulcers. Dissolved in asses* or women's 
milk it i^ <1t in[>.jd into the eye in purulent ophthalmia. 

Eoswellia. 

The gum rcain — olibanum or fiankincense, is derived from species 
nf thr? ^enus. These are found in Eastern Africa, Socotra, Arabia, and 
ciesofthis family yield olibanum more or less similar in 
; and properties. From the similarity of the vernacular name^ 
oft the gum resin Irom boswellia trees to the names of that obtained 
from Balsamodendrons, some confusion has arisen, but it is of no practical 
importance, because all have similar, if not identical, properties, and 



176 BOSNVELLIA CARTERU. 

are used for nearly the same purposes. Attempts will be made here 
to keep the matter, as far as possible, clear of ambiguity. They will all 
be described under three heads 

BoBwellia Glabra. 

A gum resin from Somali Country in Africa, Arabia. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Luban, Kundar. Burm. — Bringi-lobao. 
Duk. — Farangi aud. Eng. — Indian frankincense. Malyal. — Koonthre- 
Kuni. Pers. — Kundur. Tarn. — Kungli, Parangi Shambirani. Tel.— 
Gugulu, Parangi Shambrani. • 

BoBwellia Tharifera, B. Serrata, Ganaram Hirsatam. 

Deccan, Konkan jungles, Belgaum, Ajmir, East India. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Zuchir, Guj Kundur, Yakar. Bombay 
Market. — Laban Meyeti, Pandhri Esesh, Pandhri Loban, Dhup. 
Beng. — Kundro, Salai-gund. Cing. — Kundrikam. Duk. — Luban 
Kundur. Eng. — Olibanum. Guz. — Gujar-gugar. Hind. — Gugal, 
Awul, Kundur, Dupsalai Sukha, Bizoza, Chandel-ghar, Ganda Biroza. 
Indian. — Guggul. Mahometan. — Mukul. Malyal. — Kundurukkan. 
Sans. — Kundurya-salaki-neryasan. Tel. — Kunduruk Kam-pishin, 
Anduga pisunni. 

BoBwellia Carterii, B. Floribunda, Boswellia Papyrifera. 

The gum resin from Abyssinia. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Bastaja, Kishar, Kundur, Koshfa. Bomb. — 
Esesh- Visech. Eng. — Frankincense, African or Arabian oHbi^num, 
frankincense tree. Guz. — Isasa. Hind.^Seta Kundura, Selagonda. 
Mah. — Visesha. Sans. — Kundari or Sveta Kunduru. 

Characters, — Olibanum. According to the native classification 
there are several kinds. Kundura zakara, male frankincense, is 
in reddish white or deep yellow and circular tears. Kundura 
Unsa^ female frankincense, is yellowish white, translucent or in pale 
tears. Madahraja Kundur^ artificial spherical tears made by shaking 
the moist exudation in a basket. Kishar Kundur or Dhupa 
(India Bazaar) or Kashfa-resin, in flat and scaly pieces, obtained 
from the bark of the tree, which is coated with the exudation or scurf, 
known as Dhupa. The exudation in powder is known as Dukok Kundura 
or dust of olibanum. Dhupa (Guz.) is used in the Indian temples as an 
incense. Visesha^ olibanum, the gum resin obtained by making 
incisions in the bark when the gum is exuded resembles Babula 
gunda or Kera gunda; has the colour and consistence of Canada- 
balsam. It occurs in large, clean, detached, yellowish tears or flat pieces, 
globular or pear-shaped, and often translucent. Papery bark is 
sometimes found adherent to flat pieces, colour whitish, pale yellow or 
brown, and unctuous to the touch ; before the flame of a lamp it burns 
very readily and is reduced to a black mass; does not emit much 
smoke ; odour rather disagreeable, balsamic and terebinthinate ; it 
softens in the mouth ; soluble in ether and spirit of wine ; taste 
slightly pungent and bitter and terebinthinate ; kept for a time in 



CANAmUM COMMUNE. 



J77 



, Vftt^T} It turns into a milk-white opaque and sticky mass^ a soft 
%faitt$h pulp, and then rubbed Into a mortar, it forms an emulsion, 
Gaindha Biro2;i, which is frigrant and transparent, is prepared from the 
gum resin as soft ductile pieces of a greenish or white colour, similar in 
appeirsince to Venice turpentine. Dose, lo to 30 grs, 

Constiiuents. — Olibanum contains volatile oil 4 to 7 p. c, mostly 
(otibene) resin, s6 to 71 p. c, guro 30 p. c, a bitter principle and 
ash 3 p, c, 

Prtpar&tmt. — Olibanum ointmeDt<^olibanum, sesamum oil and 
white wax, equal parts, melted together* Lepa or paste, EniuJsion, 
ptasier or fumigation. 

A€ih$is and uses* — Properties similar to those of the products of 
pinci and firs as Burgundy pitch, &c.; stimulant, expectorant, demul- 
cent, cmmenagogue and discutient. As a discutient Visesha, or 
Gunda^biroza is applied to indolent swellings, buboes, &c,; as stimu- 
Ian! expectorant, chiefly used in chronic pulmonary affections, in 
bt , bronchorrhcea and chronic laryngitis, pharyngitis, &c. As 

SI nt it is used in bloody fluxes; an oil distilled from Gunda- 

btfoza u given in gonorrhoea. Native women take it to increase 
menstruation. As fumigation it is much used in bronchitis and fevers, 
Itf lepa or ointment is a useful stimulant application for sprains, 
bruiites, dislocations, carbuncles, boils and ulcers. 

Ciuiarium Commune, Bursera Paniculata. 

Balfttmodendron Zeylanicum. 

Haffi'tai^^Pemngn Moluccas, Mauritius, Ceylon, Southern India, 
MaDitla. 

Part ti$cd, — The concrete oleo resin, which exudes by excision— 
Elemi. 

Feraacuiar. — Eng. — Java Almond. Elerai tree, East Indian 
Ekmi. Hind. — Jangii badam. Malay. — Kanart. 

Characters. — Bark yields a concrete resin in conical tears or large 
piece* hanging from the trunk and branches. At first it is a limpid, 
oily liquid, while and sticky or soft and yellowish, but 
soon becomes thick, wax-like and yellow. It readily softens when 
hi id has the odour of fennel and lemon or terebinthinate ; 

t: T. and pungent. Kernels or almonds are three-angled ; seeds 

limU -c o* Pistacia tcrebinihus. They yield a bland oil and 

tome of an agreeable sweet taste, and smell of turpentine, 

C^miUuenis, — Volatile oil 10 p. c. and resin (brein) 60 p.c, resin 
(amyrin) 25 p. c„ bryoidin, breidin, and clemic acid. 

/V^/<trtf/K^*r,— Unguentum elemi (1 in 5) ; emulsion of nuts or 
seeds, and oiL Dose of the emulsion, 4 to 8 drs. 

Aci$ons a$td usts.^ Demulcent, stimulant and expectorant, given in 
gonorthcra, gleet, and leucorrhcea. The emulsion of the kernels i$ 
used as n substitute for Mistura amygdala. The ointment is used as a 
sitmiulant application to ulcers and chronic skin diseases. 



178 CANARIUM STRICTUM. 

Canarium Bengalense^ Darjeeling Gokal Dhup, a native of 
Sylhet. Resin exudes from fissures or wounds in the bark. It is 
dear amber-coloured and soft; after a time becomes hard and brittle ; 
resembles copal. 

Gardenia cancamum is a gum resin obtained from a Gardenia. 
It is fragrant like myrrh, and used for fumigation. Medicinally it is 

g'ven in corpulence and to reduce spleen ; also used as an emmenagogue. 
is locally applied to cure toothache. 

Canarium Striotom. 

/?tf3//a/.— Western Peninsula, Tinavelly, Malabar, Philippine 
Islands. 

Part used. — Resin. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — K^la-damar, Manda dup, Gugal, Dup. 
Duk.-*Kala dammar. Eng. — Black dammer. Guz. — Kalo-domar. 
Hind. — Kala dammar. Maleal.— Canari, Thelli-mara. Tam. — Karrapu* 
damar, Kongalam-maram. Tel. — Nalla-rajan. 

Characters. — Dammar, an oleo resin, exudes from incisions or is 
obtained by lighting fire at the base of the tree till the bark has 
become charred, when the resin begins to exude in large stalactitic 
mass, of a shining colour when viewed en masse ; it is deep red-brown 
when held between the eye and the light ; odour strong, terebinth! n ate 
and resembling fennel and lemons, taste bitter and pungent. Insoluble 
in cold, partially soluble in boiling alcohol on the addition of camphor. 
Its powder is readily soluble in oil of turpentine. When burnt it 
emits a more resinous smell and burns with more smoke than white 
dammar. It is chiefly used in the manufacture of bottling wax^ 
varnishes, &c. ; a good substitute for Burgundy pitch. 

Constituents. — It contains volatile oil and resin. Used as plaster 
and ointment. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant to the skin ; used as an ointment in 
chronic skin diseases, as psoriasis, ptyriasis, dec. 

Remarks. — Vateria Indica is the white dammer tree. 

Commiphora HakaJ, C. Atricana. 

Balsamodendron Mukul, B. Agallocha, B. Pubscence, B. Rox* 
burghii. 

Habitat. — Indigenous in Sind ; W. Himalaya, Central India. 
Part used. — The gum resin. 

Vernacular, — Resin : Arab. — Moql, Aflatunum Kundur. Beng.^ 
Goobdee, Gugala. Bomb. — Athaisa gugula. Can. — Guggala. Cing. — 
Gugula, Rata Dummula. Duk. — Gugula. Eng. — East Indian myrrh, 
Indian and African Bdellium. Salaitree. Guz.— Gugala. Hind. — 
Gugal, Gubdee, Mukul Athaisa Gugala, Salai-gogil. Mar — Guggula. 
Pers. — Bae-ja hudan, Muql. Sans. — Guggalaha-sallake, Drava-Sihla-i- 
Guggula. Tam. — Gukkul, Kukkulu. Tel. — Maisakshi^ Gobgula. 



GARUGA PINNATA. 

Characters. — Gugal occurs as yellowish, viscid, brown tears, 
or in fragrant pieces, mixed with hairs, stems, pieces of bark, &c,; colour 
brownish dark or golden yellow. Each piece is translucent. It 
hardens very slowly, and resembles Gulakanda. It is more oily than 
Himbola and burns very readily. With water it forms a milky emul- 
sion. The odour is that of olibanum, or terebinthinate, but fainter. 
The ta^te is bitter. Mhaisa Gugal is in vermiform pieces and thrck^ 
colour lighter and greenish pieces with papery bark attached to tbeni. 

Cons ft tu aits, — Volatile oil, gum resin, bitter principle, 

Prepnratim. — Unguentum gugalae (i in 8), tinctura gugalse 
(i in 5), Dose, \ to r dr. Compound pill, known as Yogaraja Gugala^ 
contains Gugala 25, Triphala 15, Suntha, Pipali. Chavaka, Pipali-mula^ 
Chitraka. Htnga, Ajamoda, Sirasa, Jirun, Shahjirun Ranuka-bija, 
Indra-java, Pahada mula, Baberang, Kutaki, Atisha, Bharingi, 
Vckhanda, of each i, Moravela 2, mix and make a pill mass. Dose^ 

3 to 5 grs. To be given in decoction of Gorakhamundi (Sphoeranthus 
Indicus). Used as an alterative in syphilis, chronic gonorrhoea, piles^ 
fistglaet scrofulous skin diseases, chronic rheumatism, consumption and 
lcpro*y^ Kanchanara Gugala contains Gugala 12, Kanchana-chhala 
I <>• Triphala 2, Trikatu 1, Vayavarana i, Elachi, Taja, Tamala-paira, 
oich |, Madha q. s. Mix and make a paste or a pill mass. Dose, 

4 to 6 grs. To be given in -decoction of Triph^l, or infusion of 
Khcra-chhala. Used as an alterative in enlarged glands in the neck, 
chronic rheumatism, dropsy, gleet, &c. 

Actifjtts and uica* — Alterative, demulcent, stimulant, tonic, anti- 
ipasmctdic and emraenagogue, often combined with aromatics and given 
in rheumatism, scrofulous affections, and nervous diseases ; locally the 
ointment is used as a stimulant to indolent ulcers, to painful joints, com* 
bined with sulphur, catechu and borax, 

Rfmtfrks. — It is confounded with salaigond obtained from Bos- 
weJlia Glabra and B. Serrata. 




Oaro^a Pinnata. 

HahiiaL — India, Madras and Bengal. 

Ar/f HSid. — The fruit and juice. 

Vernacular, — Beng.— Toom. Burm. — Khyong-youk, Hind. — 
Gbog-'O', Kharpat. Mar, — Kaoghur, Kuruk, Kusar, Panj. — Kharpal, 
Tmn* — Kjivi-vcmbu maram. TeU— Garuga-chettu, Kalu*gudu, 

rkAtti^rJers. — Fruit greenish yellow, of the size of gooseberry^ 
rom the leaves gummy and resinous, greenish yellow and 
L, generally in small mamiliform masses. 

0>mhhirnts, — Gum resin contains 76-5 p.c- of gum, 13*9 of rcsin^ 

e, including volatile oil. The gum is ptecipitaied by 
i IS similar to that of myrrh ; resin is neutral, soluble in 



A 



I So 



AfiRUS FRECATDRIUS. 



Pteparation* — ^Elixir containing the juice of Garuga Pinnatai 
Adhaloda vesica, Vitex trifolia, mixed with honey. 

Actions and uses* — The fruii is eaten and is cooling and stomacbic* 
The juice is expectorant* given in asthma and coughs* Dose of the 
juice, I to a drs. 

Leguminoan or Fabaoese. 

The Aghathia, pulse, and Babula family. 

Legumen, from legere, to gather. That which may be easily 
gathered by the hand and not cut. 

Trees, herbs or shrubs ; leaves pdioled, altematet usually stipu- 
late, simple or variously compound ; flowers of various colours, ofieo 
papilionaceous or globose ; fruit sometimes a tomentum and rarely a 
drupe, usually a legume ; hence the name of the order ; seeds arillate, 
one or more sometimes attached to the upper or ventral suture. Tbe 
albumen is absent or present. The cotyledons arc leafy or fleshy^ 

Properties. — Numerous species are greyish coloured and most 
graceful plants. Generally this order is poisonous ; a few are used as 
nutritious food by men or animals. In tnem the poisonous properties 
are replaced by sugar or starch. The gum exuded by most plants is 
generally demulcent. The leaves are aperient, and some are used as 
dyes ; the wood is used as timber, 

AbruB Precatoriae. A. Minor. A. Pauolflorai. 

Habitat — Indigenous in India, wild in tropical countries^ West 
Indies, 

Parts tised. — The seeds, root and leaves. 

Vernacuiar, — Arab. — Ain-eddik. Beng. — Kunchgula, Guiijucin. 
Burm.— Khyen^rwce, Yove-si. Can. — Gul-ganji. Cing.— Olinda. 
Duk. — Gumchi, Eng. — Bead seed tree, Abrus, Jamaica wild 
liquorice, Indian or country liquorice, Jumble beads, American seeds, 
Jequirity, prayer-bcadi, Guz. — Lal-chanothi. Hind. — Gunch-rutli* 
Malay. — Dan-sot-ga. Malyal. — Kunnl-kuru. Mar. — Guu^ha. Pcrs,— 
Khak-shi, Chasma-khuros. Sans. — Gunja, Kaka*chinchi*bajama. Tanu 
Gundumani. Tel. — Guruvenda, Yashti Madbu. 

Ain-ed-dik, cock's eye. The seeds resemble cock's eye. 
Characters. — Leaves 2 or 3 inches long; leaflets many. Saudis 

linear and oval ; taste sweet ; root woody, hard, much bnmchea and c- 
an acrid odour and taste; seeds albuminous, small, globose, of abrUIiant 
scarlet colour, with a black (scar) patch on the hilum Three varieties: 
red, white and black ; red seeds bright scarlet, polished, as large as pets 
and egg-shaped, having black spot containing a white scar at one end, 
which indicates the place where they were attached to the pods; white 
seeds (which are used medicinally) larger than those of ^' - ' " -ly^ 
ivory-white, very hard and highly polished, having a v ch- 

meat at the hilum. The black seeds are never used meaicmaily ; odour 
of the seeds disagreeable. 



ACACIA SENEGAL 



l8S 



Constituents, — The seeds contain some fixed oil, arabic add, two 
protctd poisons, called a-phyt-aJbuminose and paraglobulin, closely 
allied to principles found in snake venom, like ncin and to proteids 
COQUtned in papaw juice. The root, leaves and branches contain 
iugar» and glycyrrhizic acid. 

Prff^arations.—Utd'xQZi^d oil, ** Gunjtel/'— Boil together Til-tel 4, 
and the juice ofBhangro 14. and addGunj 2 (i in 10). Infusura Abri.— 
lofusion of Jcquirity (i of the seeds in 12^), for external application. 

Actions and uses, — The seeds are harmless when eaten^ hut 
poisonous when a paste of them is applied to open wounds. Applied to 
the eyes they set up inflammation^ cedenia of tne lids and ulceration of 
the cornea. The face and neck become swollen and the maxillary 
glands enlarged. 

Internally the seeds are demulcent, expectorant like liquorice ; 
nsed in cough, and gonorrhoea. The fresh leaves are chewed with cubebs 
and ^ugar 10 relieve hoarseness of voice as in sore throat and aphthae 
in the mouth. In spermaiorrhcea with bloody discharges, the white 
abru» leaves and henna leaves triturated with the powder of the root of 
holoslemma rhecdit with cumin seeds and sugar are given internally. 
With chitraka mula the paste of the leaves is applied in skin diseases as 
Icucoderma, and also recommended as a cure for baldness over the scalj). 
The infusion of the seeds should be used fresh, as in a short time it 
decomposes and swarms with bacteria. Boric acid may be added to 
prevent decomposition. It is used as application for the eyes for the 
cure of pan n us and old granular lids. Its use should be followed by 
weak solution of alum or borax. When applied to the inner surface it 
produces artificial purulent ophthalmia, varying in intensity with the 
h of the applications. It is also used for the cure of lupus and 

11 ulcers. The paste of the seed (1 in 4) is used as a rubefacient 

i: 1^ Stiff shoulders and paralysis ; the oil is used in remoxing 

^. he scalp* in prurigo, in exuberant granulations and proliferat- 

ing 1 1 I js. The dried roots are made use of in the same manner 

as tht ; e root. Being sweet like liquorice root, it is called 

liquorice by the Indians. 

The Lai Gunza is used by jewellers and goldsmiths as Ratti 
weiglitStto weigh gold, diamonds and pearls* In some parts of India 
the natives use the paste of the seeds to kill bullocks to obtain a supply 
of hides- Thev prepare small spikes of the paste of powdered seeds bv 
drying tli v the sun and use them after the manner of a drivers 

^oad. Ti are called sui (needles) or suitari (awls). 

Aeauia Senegal, B. P. Acacia Arabica. Mimosa Arabica. 

//^3/A!i/«— India, Arabia, Abyssinia, Africa, 
/ •/. — The bark extract and leaves, gummy exudation 

from J and branches. Acaciae Gummi, gum acacia, B. P. 

Verttacular, — ^Arab. — Amghantan Akakia (extract), Mughilan, 

ighi arabi (gum)» Beng. — Babular. Bomb. — Kalo-bavala, Maswai- 

ind, Makiai gond (gum). Burm.— Nan-lung-kyen. Cing. — Andere, 



Can, — Kare golbale mara. Duk. — Kali-kikar. Eng. — Indian gum 
tree, Babul bark. Guz. — Kaio, Bavala-kikar, Oomravare-gund (g^um). 
Hind. — Kikar, Babul. Mar. — Babli^ Tamra-gond, Malyal, — Karu- 
vebkam. Pars. — Kharo, Mughilan. Sans, — Kala-babal. Senegal. — 
Red gum. Tarn,— Karu-veL Tel. — Nalla umona. 

Bark fissured, scabrous, tough and woody ; colour dark^rcd 
externally and pale*red within. Whole bark can be easily sepamtcd 
into layers ; taste astringent, Gtim^ an exudation from stem and 
branches, a result of the transformation of tell contents under the 
bark where the gum remains in pouches, obtained by making 
incisions into the bark ; occurs in irregular or broken tear&i of pale 
yellow or deep reddish brown colour, of various sizes, agglutinated or 
stalactiform masses and angular fragments or pieces. Thick picccjs 
opaque, thin ones transparent; each tear about \ an inch to an inch in 
'diameler ; gum brittle, breaks with a glassy iridescent fracture ; 
tasle bland and mucilaginous, without odour, entirely soluTile In water 
and insoluble in alcohol. 

Makai or Maklai gund is brought from Aden, is of the best 
quality, colourless, in large round tears ot twisted, or in vermicular 
pieces, of a white-yellow or reddish colour, allied to gum Senegal. 
Ataswai gund is of inferior quality, heavy, hard, fissured and in 
angular pieces, shining, )eilowish rea or straw-coloured or brownish 
yeUow or black with a tinge of white, of agreeable odour and 
mucilaginous and astringent taste, soluble in water, forming a 
sticky solution. It is free from fungus, Seeds in a single row 
along the whole length of the pod ; on both the margins of the 
pod and between each seed there is a constriction. Pod about 4 
to 5 or 6 inches long, compressed and of a grey, glaucous colour, 
containing the pulp (Akakia), in which are embedded several seeds, 
Akakia (extract) is yellowish white mass, resembling Sardaceous pus. 
AVhcn dry, of a bottle-green or daromer colour, heavy, hard and eauly 
pulverizable, having the smell of Rajama, It sticks between the fioger»» 
Generally prepared from the juice of ^^ra^, the fruit of A. Ni lot tea 
and A. Vera. The juice is left to thicken in the pods, which are 
steeped in water for the purpose, and then pressed and dried in the sua. 
Dose of the gum ad libitum of the extract^ 2 to 5 grs. 

Comtitumts, — Gum contains arabic acid, combined with caJctuni 
magnesium and potassium ; also small quantity of malic acnd, sugar, 

moisture 14 px., ash 3-4 px* 

Preparation* — Mucilago acaciae B. P. Mucilage of gum acacti 
(a in 3), Decoction of bark (i in jo). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Poultice of 
leaves* Mistura glycerrhiz^ coniposita. Dose, i to 4 drs Ptilvis 
cretse composiius ; Trothisci cubeb<e ; Trochisci glyccrrhirac ct opii* 

Actions and uses ^ — The bark is astringent and tonic, a su1»^«'^*'«» for 
oak bark. The decoction is used as a gargle in sore throat, in < 1 i- 

vatioD, and as a wash for ulcers; externally applied it all'iV^ nii;*uun 
of excoriations of sores and ulcers by formmg a coaimg. The gum ii 
used as food for diabetic patients, as it is not convertible 
into sugar. In pharmacy it is used to suspend heavy insoluble* 



ACACIA CATKCUV. 



183 



powders ia mixtures and in making pills. Akakia is astringent, styptic 
mnd tonic. A paste of it, with the white of an egg, is applied to burns 
and scalds and to relaxed condition of the mucous membrane, and as 
a collyrium for the eyes in conjunctivitis. It is also used to 
arrest haemorrhages. Powdered bark with gingelly oil is used externally 
in cancerous affections. Pods are given in cough* Leaves are local 
stimultnti poultices of bruised tender leaves are applied to ulcers with 
saniotis discharges. The gum is also demulcent emollient and nutritive 
and ttsed for irritated condition of the mucous membranes^ as ia 
cough, sore throat, catarrh of the stomach and intestines, as diarrhoea, 
dysentery* leucorrhaea, cyfititis, urethritis^ &c.; also in irritant poisons. 

Acacia Cateoho. A. Walliohiana. A. Polyaoantha. 
Uimosa Cataohu. 

Habitat — India, Cutch, Ceylon, Malabar, Bengal and Pegu* 

Parti used. — The bark, extract prepared from the wood, catechu 
ni^mm, gum, and khairsala. 

Acacia. — From Akakta, a thorn, i.e. a tree studded with thorns. 
Catechu^ from cuth, "Kaitha, *^an Indian name for extract or the juice. 

Vernacular* — Beng. — Khair (wood). Bomb. — Khera-sara. Burm. — 
Shta-dza, Sha-shi, Shazibin (wood). Can. — Cuth-k3nli(wood). Cing, — 
Kiheri, Khadir (wood). Duk.^ — Kath. Eng. — Red catechu, black China 
oitcchu. Guz,— Katho, Kheriogund, Hind, — Khera-sara, Kath. 
Mar* — Khadir, Khair. Malay. — Kachu, Gambia, Kadaram* Panj.— 
Kwarech. Sans, — Khadira-sara, Mekashaha, Khadi-ramu (wood). 
Tam*— Wodalai, Kashketti. Tel. — Khadi-ramu. 

Characters. — Bark rough, of a dark -brown colour externally, 
imooth and reddish within. It resembles Bavala chhala* In some 
specimens the bark is smooth, of a yellowish colour, rather thin, 
extrrnal surface here and there denuded of its epidermis; taste highly 
asT Catechu — an extract prepared by removing sap, wood and 

bai .e a decoction of these, strain and finally evaporate to the 

coni3stejice of jaggary and pour into clay moulds. Divide into 
squares by string and dry in the sun. Similar product is obtained by 
boiling Wiiler Irom the unripe pods or twigs. 

Ktimir-sala or Khairsar is a natural catechu, obtained from cavities 
in the wood of acacia catechu. It is of a pale brownish colour, and 
an astringent taste. It occurs in small irregular fragments mixed with 
chips of reddish wood* It is found by persons who split the wood. It 
has a sweetish but feeble astringent taste. It is also found in the WiX>d 
<rf callophyilum tomentosum. Gum Kerio-gunda is of a light yellow 
or ■ lour, and resembles the commtrcial inferior gum. It is 

mc I spheroidal teats or agglutinated masses. The tears are 

hriltk ajid porous* It occurs in minute needle-shaped crystals, and 
does not dissolve in cold water, and forms thick pale-coloured mucilage, 

Commercial catechu is often adulterated with fragments of leaves, 
matSy clothe, ferrous carbonate ; or artificially prepared by roasting 
powdered mahogany ^ walnut and other coloimed woods and then boiC 
tog and evaporating the decoction. Dose^ 5 to 15 grs. of catechu. 



l84 



ACACIA 



Comtitttents. — Catechu tannic acid 35 p, c., catechuic acid of 
catechinf catechu red, gum, quercetin and ash* 

Catechu Tanmc Add, — Mix catechu with cold water and evaporate 
the solution* It is a dark, reddish brown powder oxidising in the air 
and insoluble in ether. 

Catcchin or catechuic acid — make a hot solution of catechu ^ 
strain and allow to settle. Another method: — Dissolve caterfm in 
dilute alcoboU shake the solution with ether, evaporate and ci , 
Occurs as white needles or crystals ; taste sweetish ; soluble 1 
On heating it isconveited into catechu tannic acid. On dr) di^ > 

it >nelds pyrocatechin or catechol, phenol and acetic acid. Fused i>itci 
potash it gives phloroglucin and proto-catechuic acid. 

/>r^^m/?'o«.— Infusion (i in 30). Dose, i to 3 fl, ozs. Kaihhai, — 
A combination of catechu and myrrh. Kathhn, — A confection con- 
taining khairsal, rose buds and sugar. Tmctura catechu ci t 

nigrum (i in 5). Dose, ^ to i fl. dr. Pulvis catechu camft:. ,4 

in to), Dose» 10 to 40 grs. Catechu ointment (i in 8). Trockisct 
€al€ckt*^ I gr. in each* 

Actions and uses. — Powerful astringent stronger than kino, 
antiperiodic and digestive. Its action is due to the tannic add it 
contains. It is a powerful astringent to the mucous membranes, gtvcii. 
in dyspepsia attended with pyrosis, and also in diarrhoea in children, if 
dysentery, intermittent fever and scurvy; as a gargic in hoarienesff^ 
of voice and sore throat. Locally as a dusting powder to hypertrophicd 
relaxed tonsils, ulcerated and spongy gums ; as a gargle in fiaJivatio 
and as an injection in leucorrhaa and to control passive hacmorrhat 
The ointment is used in chancres, sore or cracked nipples and 
eczematous eruptions on the skin ; also leprous indurated ulcers* Its 
powder is used as a snuff in epistaxis, Kher-sal is a stimulant^ J 
expectorant and astringent, given to promote expectoration and taf 
check internal haemorrhages as haemoptysis ; also in diarrhoea aiid" 
dysentery. Kathbal ts a tonic and galactogogue, and given as si 
tonic to women after confinement. KathaUn is used by parturient 
women after delivery. 

Varieties. — The black catechu, Khadira, is in circular flat 
cakes or round balls, of a dark. brown or reddish colour, with a 
shining fracture and of a granular appearance. When in inesular 
masses or square cakes it is known as Box catechu. It 1% liard 
and brittle. The granules resemble those of Htra*dakhnna. Tlie 
taste is highly astringent. It sticks to the tongue. It is u»edj 
for industrial purposes. The pale or pinkish brown catechut Papr 
khar, prepareci from nuts of areca catechu, used as a masticate 
for chewing with beteMeaf* In preparing this, instead of evaporating 
the decoction till it solid iBeSt the inspissation is stopped at a 
certain point and the liquor allowed to cool. It is next all< 
coagulate and crystallize over twigs and leaves thrown into 1 
for the purpose* It occurs in irregular 
porotis earthy appearancei with a lamioai . 



ACACIA COXCINNA* 



i8s 



of alight pinkish brown colour. It is less astringent and less sticky 
than the black catechu* C/nnai Kath or pale caiechu. The extract from 
the leaves and young shoots of uncaria gambier, prepared at Malacca, 
Singapore and Penang. There are two varieties, known as true and 
false. The true Chinai Katha or Gambier catechu is imported from 
China, and is an earthy-looking substance, of a h'ght brown colour, 
consisting of cubes, more or less agglutinatedr They are dark, reddish 
brown externally and of a paJe cinnamon hue within and porous, 
friable, and marked with ridge. The taste is bitter and earthy, also 
aiighlly astringent, becoming subsequently sweetish. It has no odour. 
The false variety is not imported from China. It is disc-like or resem- 
bling lozenges of a pale white colour, and chiefly composed of Mulatani 
Mati flavoured with catechu water. Vadino Katho. — Like Chinai Kath, 
if met with in two forms, true and false. Both occur in irregular 
lampis of about an inch in diameter. The true form is dark-brown 
aba\'e and pale within* The false is pale or pinkish above and earthy 
within, Cnaki-no-katho. — It oceurs in quadrangular squares, of a 
reddish or pale brown colour above and pale white within ; the taste 
rei«inbles that of clay. 

Aoaoia Conoinna. 

A. Rugata, Mimosa Saponaria, M. Concinna* 

fjabitat. — India, Burmah, Nepaul, Assam, 

Pari used,— The pods. 

Vemacuiar, — Seng. — Banritha. Bom. — Sikekat. Burm. — Ken 
Chou-se. Can. — Shige-Kayi, Duk. — Sikekai. Eng. — Soap acacia. 
Hind.«-Ai[a« Rassaul. Malyal. — Chinik-kaya. Mar. — Shika, Tela- 
ibenga. Sans* — Saptala, Charmakasa. Tarn. — Shika. Tel. — ^Shikaya, 
Gogu. 

Charmakasa. — The word is derived from charnia, the skin, and 
kasato injure* It means, skin-injurer. The pods have numerous thorn- 
like projections, which injure the skin when handled roughly. 

Chiiracien, — Pods or legumes, long and flat, colour darkish or 
brownish red, surface rugous and highly wrinkled, from 4 to 5 inches 
in length, and about i to t^ inches in breadth* each pod is bi-valved ; 
valves much wrinkled, marked by a transverse depression on both 
surfaces and much contracted between the seeds ; odour aciduous ; 
tasfe astringent, sourish and nauseous, and resembling that of kokama 
or soap-nut **Aritha;" seeds numerous, separate^ shining, dark 
coloured, small and ovaL 

< its. — Pods, freed from seeds, contain saponin 1 1-2, malic 

icid 3 in J, glucose 13*0, gum and colouring matter ii'S^ 

crude bbre a 2, and ash 375. 

Pteparathm. — Mucilage; infusion (i in 20), Dose, i to fj or, 

Achons .^nd uses. — Pods are used by native women as a detergent 
and a wash for the head* M an expectorant and cholagogue the 




-^ I - U .IJ 



|86 ACACIA PKNNATA. 

infusion is given in torpid liver, jaundice and other biliary complaints. 
It is used by the natives as an adjunct to other purgative medicines. 
It does not cause griping in the bowels as senna. 

A. Faniesiaiia. 

A. Indica, Mimosa Indica, M. Farnesiana. 

Habitat. — Panjab, Sind, Assam. Bengal. 

Parts used. — The bark, gum and extract. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Guh-babul. Burm. — Nauloon-mien, Can.— 
Jalli. Duk.— Ghu-kikar. Guz. — Gu-baval. Hind. — Ghu-babul, Iri- 
babul. Malay. — Pyvelam, Mar. — Iri-babul. Panj. — Vialayeti Kikar. 
Sind. — Baver. Tam. — ^Vaday-vulli maram, Kampa-tumma. Tel. — 
Naga-tumma. 

Ghu-baval, Ghu-kikar.— Ghu, means human ordure. The fresh 
bark, wood and gum having the smell of ordure. 

Characters, — The plant contains yellow sweet-scented flowers. 
The baik exudes a large quantity of gum. The gum is met with in 
spheroidal tears or in stalactiform masses, of a pale-yellow or dark- 
reddish brown colour. With water it partially dissolves, forming a 
gelatinous mucilage. 

Preparations. — Decoction of bark (i in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 drs., 
and mucilage. 

Actions and uses, — Gum is demulcent and emollient ; other pro- 
perties similar to those of A. Arabica. The bark is astringent. Dose, 
of the powdered gum, 10 to 30 grs. 

Acacia Modesta, Amritsar or Binhori gund, similar to Acacia 
Arabica or Acacia Farnesiana— occurs in small tears, angular fragments 
Or vermiform pieces, marked with transverse lines. The colour is 
yellow or it is translucent. With water it forms a soluble mucilage of a 
pale colour. 

Aoaoia Pennata. 

Habitat, — India. 

Parts used, — Bark and leaf juice. 

Vernacular. — Can. — Arar. Hind. — Biswul. Mar . — Shemb. 

Characters, — Scandant shrub, numerous prickles ; leaflets 30 
in pairs, narrow, linear, glabrous ; bark in strips, 3 feet long. 

Cofistituents, — Tannin 8-8 p.c. 

Preparation. — Decoction of bark (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. Juice 
of leaves. Dose, a teaspoonful. 

Actions and uses. — Leaf juice and bark are astringent and alterative. 
The juice is civen with milk in diarrhoea with green stools in 
children. In bleeding from spongy gums, the leaves, with cumin and 
sugar, are chewed. In dysuria the pulp of leaves, with cow^s milk, 
cumin and sugar, is given wiUi benefit. 



.ALBIZZfA LEBBEK. 



187 



Agati Orandiflora. 

iEschymomene Coccinca, Sesbania Grandiflora. 

//ahtiat^W eslcrn India. 
- Jhi/is used, — ^The bark, flowers, leaves and gum, 

Vernacular, — Beng. — ^Bak. Can, — Agashi. Duk, — Agasthu 
Gtfi. — ^Agosthia. Hind, — Basna* Mar.— Agashta. Sans, — Sthula- 
pushpa, Vranari Vaka^ Agasti. Tarn. — Agatli. Tel — Avisi. 

C^<fr/jr//'rjf.— Leaves pinnate, oblong ; taste slightly acrid a.nd 
astringent ; flowers large and fieshy» of a white pale-pink or purplish 
coloury and acidulous bitterish taste ; bark fissured longitudinally and of 
a jEfeyish brown colour externally; gum in tears, adhering to the bark, 
of 1 Clark-brown colour and resembling Damula Akhavcna, for which it 
i&a good substitute. It merely softens in cold water ; is insoluble in 
boUtog water and also in alcohol, but soluble in dilute alkalies* 

Conshiucfits, — The bark contains tannin and gum. 
Preparation, — Decoction (1 in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 grs. 
ActiQfts and uses. — The bark is tonic and astringent, given in 
dcbUtty« dyspepsia, diairhoea, &c. The juice of the leaves is poured 
iatu iKe nose in nasal catarrh with headache ; poultice of leaves is a 
popular remedy for bruises and sores. The root is given with honey 
in catarrh of the respiratory passages. 

iUbizzia Lebbek. A. Odoratigsima. A. LatifoLia. A. Serissa. Aoacla 
Speciosa. Mimosa Sarissa. 

HabitaL — Throughout India, Travancore, Coimbatore, 

Parts iisfdn — The seeds, bark, leaves and flowers. 

Verttaculars. — Beng* — Sirish. Burm. — Seet, Tseek-the. Can. — 
Sirasala, Bengha. Duk. — ^Sirish. E"g* — Sirisas tree. Gut. — 
Siris. Hind. — Siriss Bussa Kapitana, Bisniar. Jabelpore — Sarin. 
Mar. — Sinsha, Chichva. Malay, — Chichva, Viln vakc. Sans — 
Seri^ha, aihuka-priya, Muridu-pushpa. Tarn. — Kattuvagai. TeK — 
Poddadu cherram. 

Shuka-priya — dear 
flowerY. 



to parrots. Mridupushpa — having soft 



O^irrtc-//-/!.— Seeds oblong, flat, smooth, of a reddish brown colour, 
Tcry hard, like those of Cassia Fistula, but smaller in size, resembling 
Turanj-bin, Botli surfaces marked by a depression in the middle, the 
depression is limited by a distinct, narrow, obloitg, broken ring; testa very 
hard; cotyledons yellow; smell of the cotyledon disagreeable; taste bitter- 
iih sweet ; flowers large, globular yellowish white on short pedicles* 
The bilk is yellowish brown ; suber in large flakes, much pitted and 
fis^ttredy on separating the suber a red surface is exposed. The bark is 
hard and gritty, externally red and ivhiie within, taste acidulous and 
astringent; leaves bipinnate, in 4 pairs, obtuse, oval^ glabrous and 
uneqtol. From the trunk a kind of gum, Kuruna&*seras-gond, is 



188 ALHAGI NAURORUM« 

Eroduced. It occurs in stalactiform masses; colour light to deep reddish 
rown, translucent and with a smooth and polished surface ; very little 
soluble in water ; the mucilage swells into a gelatinous mass. Dose 
of the seed, 5 to lo grs.; of the bark, 10 to 20 grs. 

Albizzia Porcera. — The gum, is in granular or warty masses or in 
tears or vermiform pieces, colour reddish brown, transparent and 
polished ; water completely dissolves it, and the mucilage is thick and 
gelatinous. 

Albizzia Stipulata produces gum, which is tough and dark-colour- 
ed ; water dissolves very little of it. It swells into a cartilage-like mass. 

Albizzia Odoratissimus. — The gum is in large transparent tears 
and superficially fissured. The colour is like that of amber, very 
little soluble in water ; it swells into a tough colourless mass. 

Constituents. — Bark contains tannin, resin 7.5 p.c., and ash 9 p.c. 

Preparation, — Decoction of bark (i to 10). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 
anjana. 

Actions and uses. — ^The seeds are astringent, tonic, and used in 
diarrhoea and in seminal debility. Leaves are used as poultices over 
boils, skin eruptions and swelling. The powdered bark is used as 
anjana in eye diseases. A decoction of the bark is used as a gargle in 
sore mouth. Internally it is a tonic and alterative. 

Alha^ Manroram, HedyBaram Alha^. A. Cameloram. 

Habitat. — Khorasan, Concan, N. W. Provinces. 
Parts used.^-The plant, juice and manna. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Camelthorn. Arab.— Unani Farakeyun or 
Athariyun, Shonkul-Jamal, Algoul. Beng. — Javasha. Guz. — Algaul, 
Javaso, Turaujlein (manna). Hind. — Juvansa. Pers. — Khare Shutar, 
Ushtar-khar. Sans. — Dura-labha, Yavosa (manna). Tel. — Giri-karmika. 

Khare Shutar, camel's thorn. Duralabha — Dur, distant, and 
alabha, diflScult to lay hold of. The plant is found in the wide desert 
of Persia, Syria, Egypt. 

Characters. — The plant with hard spines, leaves oblong, obtuse, 
coriacious and of a reddish brown colour ; an oil is obtained from 
the leaves ; the pod is constricted ; flowers reddish, flower-stalks thorny. 
Manna or sugary exudation in lump or in small whitish and saccharine 
granular powder mixed with thorns, pods and leaves ; colour dirty- 
white, smell sugary ; taste sweet, afterwards slightly acrid and bitter. 

Constituents. — Manna contains mannite and cane-sugar. 

Preparations. — Decoction (i in 10), Dose, ^ to i oz., fresh juice. 
Manna. Dose, 1 5 to 40 grs. Extract obtained by evaporating the 
decoction. It is called ya\^sakara, and is of a bitter sweet taste. 

Actiofts and uses. — The plant is laxative, diuretic and expectorant. 
The manna and the extract is laxative, cholagogue, aphrodisiac and 
demulcent ; given in coughs. The fresh juice is diuretic, and given, in 
combination with aroma tics, in the suppression of urine ; also used 



ARACHIS HYPAG^AS. 



189 



m " ' s of the cornea, and snuflfed up the nose in migraine, 

A , c of the plant or its fumigation is used in the cure of piles. 

The pUiu is smoked with black dhaturay tobacco and bishops-weed 
seeds in asthma. 

Andira jUraroba, B« P. 
Habitat, — Br az il , 

Part used, — A powdery deposit in cavities in the trunk, Araroba 
Goa powder, crude chrysarobin B. P. is obtained by cutting down the 
tree ind scraping the powder from the clefts. The powder is rough, 
tawny*coloured and bitter. 

Constituents, — Goa powder contains chrysarobin about 80 p.c, 
gum 7 p.c, resin 2 px., bitter extractive 7 p.c, woody fibre 5 p.c, 
Hah 05 px. 

Chrysamhinum^ B, P. commonly, but erroneously, called chry- 
sophanic acid, obtained from crude araroba by extracting it with hot 
chloroform or hot benzene, evaporating to dryness and powdering. 
It h a crystalline, yellow or pale orange or ochre coloured powder, 
hcconiing brown or dark on exposure to the air» It is without any odour 
or tastCf entirely soluble in hot benzol, hot alcohol, hot chloroform, ether, 
lolution of alkalies, sulphuric acid, hot oil of turpentine ; partially so in 
petroleum spirit, amylic alcohol, collodion, and various hydrocarbons* 
aoltible in water 7 px*, benzene 80 p. c. 

Pteparations. — Unguentum chrysarobini, B. P, (i in 25), chry- 
$2irobtn ointment. Pigmentum Crysaro&im(i in 10 of liquor Gutta 
Ptrcha or collodion). 

Oxidized Crysarobine. — Obtained by the action ©f sodium 
peroxide on chrysarobin suspended in boiling water ; used in eczema 
of tin: face, genitals, &c., where chrysarobin is contra-indicated. 

Piaster Mulls ^V ^^ \ ^' in every square inch. The Goa powder 
should be mixed with lime juice or vinegar. 

Physiological actiom. — ^Parasiiicide. It is a gastro*intestina] irritant, 
pfoducmg large watery bilious stools and vomiting. It irritates the 
skin and sets up dermiiiiis and follicular inflammation. Ihetapeniics. — 
As a parasiiicidc the ointment is used in superficial skin diseases of 
vegetable origin, as ringworm, herpes, circinatus, cloasma and inter- 
trigo ; also in dhobie*s itch, psoriasis and in haemorrhoids ; 

Remarks* — Chrysarobin is incorrectly termed crysophanicacid. It 
discolours the skin and nails dark yellow ; but the stain can be removed 
by benzene md by chlorinated lime or by potash solution. 

Araohla Hypagsea* 

HahitaU-^lti&\^^ Africa. 

Parts used* — The seeds and oil (oleum arachis), 

Verfmcniar, — Eng.— Ground-nut, pta-nut, monkey-nut, Beng. — 
Chioi-badam. Burm. — Nubi. Can. — Nilagale, Nelakadali, Cing, — 
Baia Khaju. Duk. — Bhui Sing. Guz* — Chmia badam, Bhui chana, 



I90 ASTRAGALUS SARCOCOLLA. 

^he oil) Mithun tela. Hind. — Bhui Sing, Mung-phali, Gror teL 
Malay. — Nelak Katala. Mar. — Bhoi-chane. Bhui Sing. Sindh.*- 
•Bhui Mung. Tarn. — Verk Kadalai. Tel. — Varu Shanaga Kaya. 

Chinai Badam. — Being first introduced from China. Gortd^ 
Mithun-tel — Gor, mithun, sweet ; tel, oil. 

Characters.— The fruit when mature is a pale yellow, wrinkled 
and oblong pod often contracted in the middle and containing 2 or 3 
seeds of the size of hazelnut ; seeds brownish red ; testa papery ; kernel 
white and sweet ; cotyledons plano-convex and more pointed at one 
end than at the other. The seeds when pressed yield an oil known 
as Arachis oil, which is used as a substitute for olive oil. The oil is 
limpid, clear, of a pale yellow colour, of an agreeable odour and olive- 
oil like taste. It is a non-drying oil. The nuts yielding from 40 to 
50 p.c. of the oil. 

Constituents. — The oil contains glycerides of palmitin and olein^ 
hypogseic and arachidic acids. The seeds contain, besides the oil, 
nitrogenous substances, starch, phosphoric acid, potash, magnesia, &c. 

Actions and uses, — The seeds are eaten like nuts ; the oil is a 
good substitute for olive oil ; used as demulcent and emollient in 
burns, scalds, cracks and fissures ; also used for soap making. 

Astragalus Sarcooolla. 

Habitat, — Persia, Western Asia. 

Part used.^—A gummy exudation* 

SarcocoUa, from sarkos, flesh, and kolla, a glue, from the colour of 
the gum being like that of the flesh. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Gujara, Anzeruta Kohl-ktrmani. Jahu- 
daneh. Ispahan — Kunjad, Agardhak. Bomb. — Gugara. Eng. — 
SarcocoUa. Hind. — Gujara. Ind. — Lai. Lat. — SarcocoUa. Pers.— 
Runjudeb, Guzhad. Kohl-Farsi, Persian coUyrium. Shiraj. — Kunderu. 

Characters. — The gum is highly adhesive, like powdered 
frankincense, of a colour varying from deep red to yellowish white^ 
becoming grey when powdered ; met with in agglomerated friable 
grains, which are opaque or semi-transparent, without any odour and of 
a bitter-sweet taste. When heated it swells and emits a heavy smell of 
burnt sugar. Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 

Constituents, — SarcocoUinc 65, gum 4*5, gelatinous matter 3*5, 
woody matter 27. Sarcocolline is soluble in 40 of cold and 20 of 
boiling water. 

Preparation, — Compound dusting powder, contains Gujar, white- 
lead, each one part and starch 6 parts. 

Plaster or Z^.— Lepa (a native plaster) contains various stimulant 
gum resins, anodyne and adhesive ingredients, namely : Gfijar 9, jadwar 
I, aloes 16, alum 8, isas 8, medalakdi 4, Singa-puri dammar 4, frank- 
incense 7, ambahalad 7, gamboge 1 2. To be mixed intimately in 
Mohvra spirit; used by the bone-setters as plaster for fracture, dis* 
location, subluxation, contusions, sprains, &c. 



ASTRAGALUS QUMMIFER. 



in 



Actions and uses. — Styptic, anthelmintic and alterative, used as 
dusting powder in wounds and ulcers. It is non-irritant. The com* 
pMnd powder is used to check purulent discharges from the eyes- 
Roasted with onions, its juice is dropped into the ear in otorrnoBa 
and earache. It is internally given to children as an anthelmintic 
and aperient, and also as an alterative to adults in rheumatism* It acts 
besi when combined with trikatu and nishota. 

Afltragalua Gummifer, B. P. 

Habitat^ — Asia Minor and Persia. 

Part used, — A gummy exudation obtained by incision from the 
stem. Tragacantha B, P. 

Asiragaius, from osteon ^ bone ; and gala, milk. The milky 
exudation S(X)n becoming horny or bony, or from the seeds being 
squeezed into the shape of vtrttbrte, Tragacanth, from Tragos, a goat; 
and acantha, a thorn— pl;inu thorny, like goat's head* Hedges made 
of chb plant resist the onslaughts of the goat. 

C^iir<3cf^f5.— Semi-transparent flakes, or contorted bands, dif5cult 
to powder, without any odour or taste, insoluble in alcohol or ether, 
sparingly soluble in cold water, swelling into a thick gelatinous 
mucilage. It also contains a little starch. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — Tragacanthin 30 p. c„ calcium compound of 
giimmic acid 50 p. c, starch, cell fragments, moisture 14 p, c,^ ash 
3 p.c* containing calcium carbonate. 

/^ttarati'on. — Glycerinum tragacanthie B, P. (t in 5), a trans- 
, homogeneous jelly. Mucilago Tragacanihas, B. R, mucilage 
icanth (6 grains to i ounce). Dose, i to 2 02S. Pulvis Traga- 

cmnthx Compo^itus. B> P., tra^acanth, gum acacia and starch, each 

Oae part, i^ugar tliree parts. Dose, 20 to 60 grs< 

Attt^ns and uses, — Tragacanth is demulcent and nutritious, like 
o:' T*, but mostly used to suspend resin, heavy powders, 

ai. emulsions and mixtures. In large doses it is a vehicle for 

a^ i in gargles. It is given in diarrhoea and dysentery; 

ab . . cj-ngles in pharyngitis. 

Aatrajalas Heratensis. A. Strobilifero. 

Mi^//;^/.— Persia, 

Ihiris f/i^//.— Gummy exudation ; country tragacanth or gum 
Katira. 

KmM<rw/<yr.— Arab — Miswak-elabbas, Samagul-kasad, Kathira. 
Hind. — Katera.gond. Per*, — Katcra, Zalzada, Gabina. Tam.^ 
Bodam-piihm* Tel — Bodjm Bunka, 

CAiitactcrs, — It is similar to English tragacanth* Katera-gund 
is nut s.mply the dried juice uf the plant, but is produced by 
metatnorphosLs of the cell membranes. The stems, when cut trans- 



J9S .BAUHINIA VARtEGATA. 

versely, exhibit tough, concentric annual layers»i which tear length* 
wise into filaments. These enclose a central column containing hard 
translucent gum-like mass. The gum consists of different layers, 
spirally twisted, or of tear-like masses or of broad bands, made up 
of several strata* When in the shape of leaf it is known as flake 
tragacanth or leaf gum. The superior quality is white and more 
translucent. It is chiefly imported from Persia. The vermiform 
tragacanth, also called vermicelli gum, is in string-like pieces. It is 
very hard, tough, difficult to powder. Inodorous and tasteless. 
With water it forms a jelly-like mucilage. Dose, 20 to 60 grs. 

CotisHtuents, — Contains an insoluble gum or bassorine, a soluble 
gum, a little starch and ash. 

Bassorin is an isomer of starch. It forms sugar when bolied 
with dilute acids and mucic acid when heated with nitric acid. 

Soluble gum. The gum is different to arabin, being rendered 
turbid by acetate of lead and jelly-like with alcohol. 

Preparation.— 'lAucWzge and a compound powder. 

Actions and uses. — Demulcent and emollient, used in diarrhoea 
and dysentery, in which it is generally given in curd (Dahi) ; other 
properties similar to those of official tragacanth. 

BaptiBia Tinotoria. 

Wild or false indigo. 

Habitat, — North America. 

Part used, — The root, bark or the whole plant. 

Characters, — Plant 2 to 3 feet high, smooth, succulent, glaucous ; 
flowers yellow, branches knotty, odour disagreeable. When bruised, 
taste bitter, acrid and nauseous. Dose, 3 to 10 grs. 

Constituents, — Baptisine, acrid and poisonous. Baptisin, a bitter 
glucoside. Baptin a purgative glucoside, a brownish powder, soluble 
in alcohol. 

Preparation, — Infusion and decoction ; Extract um Baptisiae liqui- 
dum. Dose, 3 to 10 ms. Baptisin. Dose, i to 5 grs. Tinciura 
Baptisiae (i in 10). Dose, 5 to 30 ms. 

Actions and uses, — In small doses alterative, stimulant, em- 
menagogue, tonic, antiseptic and mild laxative. In large doses 
a powerful emetic and cathartic, leading to gastro-intestinal 
irritation and inflammation. Given in amenorrhcea, hepatic disorders, 
scrofula, diphtheria, scarlatina, and dysentery ; in continued fever or in 
the early stage of typhoid fever ; cataplasm, or the decoction is used 
locally in obstinate ulcers and gangrenous sores. Baptisin in small 
doses is tonic and astringent. In large doses purgative. Given in 
dysentery. 

Baohinia Yariegata. B. Porporeaoenflu B. Candida. 

Habitat. — India. 

Parts used. — The bark, buds and gum. 



BAUHINrA RACCMOSA. 



J93 



Vemacuiar, — Can. — Sheinpag, Kauchivala. Hind. — Kuchnar* 
Kuvidarat Sona-kauraj. Mar. — Kanchana (the gum Sem or 
Semla). Malay, — Chovana-numdari. Saos, — Kuvidara. Tarn .^-Segapu- 
McnOuri, Bcng. — Kanchan, Bedat. Burm.— Mahahloegce-ni. 

GBr<rri?<:/«T^*— Bark of the trunk scabrous and tuberded, darkish 
brown externally and tough, fibrous and reddish iniemalJy, On the 
branches the bark is smooth, of an ash colour externally, and very tough 
and green or white within ; taste feebly astringent, resembling that 
of babula bark. The gum (semla gum) is in irregular broken pieces, 
of amber colour. It sparingly dissolves in water, but soon swells 
forming a mucilage, which is turbid, milky or jellyUike, containing 
starch or other insoluble substances. 

C^nsUtuents, — The bark contains tannin, 

/Vd^/ora/ibif,— Decoction (i in lo). Dose, 4 to 8 drs, 

Actions and m€s — The bark and buds are alterative and astringent* 
The decoction of the bark is given in leprosy, scrofula, skin diseases and 
ulcers. In scrofulous enlargements of the cervical glands, the bark, 
with suntha and rice-water, is given as an emulsion, or in combination 
with Boswellia scrrata, myrobalans, and a number of aromatics. A 
gargle of the bark with pomegranate flowers and akakia is used in 
aofe throat and salivation. A decoction of the buds is given in 
menorrhagia, hemorrhoids and bleeding from the mucous surfaces. 
A decoction of the buds is giv^en in cough, bleeding piles, hxraaturia 
and mcnorrhagia. 

Bauhinla Racemosa. B. Panriflora. Piliostigma Racemosa. 

Habitat. — Konkan, Mysore, Bengal, Assam. 

B^is iwi*^.— The bark, leaves and dry extract. 

Femnculan — Bcng. — Bauraj, Burm, — Bivai-gin, Hpa-lan. Cing. 
— ^Alyla^ Hind. — Mawil-Ghila, Matu. Mar, — Apta, Patwa, Pan],— 
Murta. Sans.— Vannaraj, Apta. Tarn.— Atcha maram. Tel. — 
Patwa, Adavt Avi&a. 

CharacUrs^^A climber; leaves cordate at the base, glabrous above 
and pubescent below. Leaflets roundish or broadly ovate ; flowers in 
degant fe&toons ; bark reddish brown ; gum in purplish red fragments 
roscmbtiDg kino in appearance and properties ; soluble in water and 
partially so in spirit. 

ConstiUnrnts, — The gum contains tannin and glucose. Dose, 5 to 

iCgTS. 

PnefarattQtt^ — Decoction of bark (i in 10). Dose, a to 8 drs. 

Actions and mes^ — Astringent, given in chronic dysentery and 
diarrlioHi^ 

13 



194 BUTBA FRONDOSA. 

Banhinia Tomentosa.— Yellow bauhinia. 

Habitat — Ceylon, Malabar. 

Parts used. — The leaves, bark, seeds and flowers. 

Vernacular. — Burm. — Ma-ha-hloe- ga-wa. Can. — Shempage. 

Cing. — Petan. Eng. — Wild ebony. Malyal. — Kahchana. Sans.^> 
Usa*maduga. Tarn. — Kat-ati. Tnviat-putrara, 

Kat-ati. — Kat, dark«coloured, and ati, wood. The wood is strong 
and black, like ebony. 

Characters, — Flowers large and sulphur-coloured ; leaves ovate or 
roundish at the base, under surface villous ; leaflets oval and obtuse ; 
peduncles 2 flowered ; calyx spathaceous, 5 toothed ; petals oval ; 
legumes flat and lanceolote ; seeds 5 or more. 

Constituents. — ^Tannin . 

/Reparation. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent ; given in chronic diarrhoea and 
dysentery ; the decoction of the bark and seeds is given as a tonic in 
hepatic congestion. Bruised bark is applied to tumours and wounds. 

Botea Frondosa. B. Soperba. Erythriiia Monospemuu 

Habitat. — Plains of India. 

Parts used. — The leaves, flowers, seeds and gum. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Palasha-kinaka, Kamarkas. Burm. — Ponk- 
uway. Can. — Muttaga-mara, Chhiul-mootr. Cing. — Kaliya. Duk. 
^Palasaka, Chinai-gond, Kinya-gond (gum), Palas-papado (seeds). 
Eng. — Bastard teak, Bengal kino (gum). Guz. — Palas-papdo (seeds), 
Khakro, Chinia-gond. Hind. — Dhak, Palas, Kamarka (gum). Malyal. 
— ^Murukha monum. Mar. — Palasha-kakra. Panj. — Chuchra. Pers. 
— Palah. Sans. — Palasha, Lakshataru Kin^nka. Tam. — Murukkam, 
Palas muram. Tel,— Maduga, Kimshuka. The flowers. — Guz. — Palas 
phul. Hind. — Kesurina phul (flowers). 

Lakshataru. — The lac tree. The branches contain lac in large 
quantities. 

Characters. — Leaves ternate, from 9 to 12 inches long, leathery, 
shining above, and hairy below ; floweis large and irregular, fresh 
ones of a btrautiful, deep yellowish -red colour, and shaded with silver- 
coloured down, when dry becoming paler in colour ; seeds flat, each 
about 2 inches long and about i^ inches in breadth, in shape resembling 
shell lac ; surface shining, colour of dried blood or reddish ; testa 
very thin and containing a yellowish brow i. -coloured leafy cotyledon ; 
taste somewhat acrid. The inspissated juice obtained from the stem by 
incision constitutes Bengal kino. Gum when pure, is either translucent 
and in tears, or in small, flat or irregular fragments ot a brilliant •ruby- 
red colour, softening between the teeth, and highly astringent. 
Generally mixed with numerous small pieces of corky bark, of a light 
grey colour; not freely soluble in water and alcohol. 



CASSIA ABSUS. 



m 



ConstHuettts. — ^Tlie gum contains kino, tannic and gallic acids 
50 p. c, mucilage and ash 2 p, c; on dry distillation it yields pyrocate- 
chifi. The seeds contain a tasteless oil of a yellow colour ; wax, or fat 
1$ p. c, albuminoid, gum, glucose, organic acids, metarabic acid and 
phlobapheue, cellulose, ash 5 p. c. 

Preparation — Of the giimp compound powder containing 5 p. c, 
of opium. Dose, 5 10 20 grs* Tincture (i in 10). Dose, ^ to 2 drs. 
Of the leaves and flowers, decoction (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 fld* ozs. 
Infusion ut Howers (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 fid. ozs. Decoction of the 
seeds (1 in 10). Dose» I to 2 ozs. Paste^ — Take the roots of butea 
aitperba, nyctanthes and woodfordia floribunda, the seeds of cassia 
tum and vernonia anthelmintica, the stem and juice of trichosanthes 
palmtta. Make a paste in water and apply in bites and slings of 
animals. 

Actions and uses, — Leaves astringent and alterative, used m 
dtarrha^a, pyrosiss, sweating of phthisis, diabetes, menorrhagia, worms 
and colic. A hot poultice made of leaves is used to disperse boils and 
pimples. The decoction is used as an injection into the rectum in 
diarrhoea, dysentery, and into the vagina in leucorrhaa ; also used as 
A gargle in sore throat and ulcers of the mouth. The seeds are aperient 
ind anthelmintic, used with success in tape-worms and round-worms. 
A decoction of teeds and infusion of flowers is used with nitre as a 
diuretic in dysuria and in retention of urine. Externally the seeds 
are irritant^ and used with lime juice in dhobie's itch, ringworm, 
indolent ulcers, and fistula* Gum. — A powerful astringent and a good 
substitute for kino^ and may be used for all the purposes for which 
kino \* lifted. The natives use this gunii combined with rotk^^alt and 
ti nls» in pterygium and opacities of the cornea. Flowers 

ill igent and diuretic. Varalians of flowers are applied to 

the pub» in dysuria and retention of unne and to promote menses, 

Casala Absus. Senna AbsUB. 
Nah'tat.^^W, Himalaya, Ceylon^ 
Part used, — The seeds. 

Vernacuiar, — Arab. — Tash Mezaj, Kushnu Zunk, Habek Sudan. 
Cing.-"K»lu-Kallu, Bu-tora. Duk.*— Cha-kuta. Guz. — Chinol. 
Hind. — Chakasu (seeds). Egypt. — Allakalis. Malyal.— Karin-killa. 
Mar — Chamada, Kankuti, Chime. Pers. — Che^mak* Chast-migah. 
Tam,^KaTunkanum-kalLukkoK Avarai-pattai. Tel.— Chukuddi-pal. 
Sam^^-Chaksu. 

Chaka&u is a corruption of the Sanskrit word chakihu, which 
means an eve. 

Kalu-KaUu means black horse-gram. The seeds are black and 
bear resemblance to horse-gram. 

Characters, — Seeds black, fl-^t and highly polished, in size resem- 
bling big-!»ued bugs, shape obliquclv ovate and flat on both surf**ccs ; 
test a horny, lough and ti)ick ; cotyfedona yellow ; taste bitter. Dose, 
10 to xo grs. 



19^ 



CASSIA ALATA. 



ConsHiuents. — The seeds contain a trace of manganese, extractive 
matter, resin and ash* 

Prtparatirm. — Powder. Confection, Dose, ^ to I dr. 

Actions and HSts.^Seeds very bitter, aromatic and mudUigiiioas, 
As an aphrodisiac they form one of the ingredients of methtno*bdu 
and vakerio-ladUi The seeds, wheJi baked and reduced to powder, are 

applied under the eyelids in purulent ophthalmia. 

Cassia Alata« C, Bracteata. C. Herpitica. Senna Alata. 

/T^^iVtf/.— Travancore ; cultivated in India, 

Pari lised. — The leaves* 

Vernacular. — ^Beng.— Dadmurdan* Dadmari. Burm, — ^Sim-Do- 
maiza-li. Can, — Shime-agase. Cing. — Attora. Duk, — V^elaiti-agali. 
Eng. — Ringworm shrub, winged cassia. Hind» — Daomurdan. Malay,— 
Shima-akatti. Sans.--Divipagustia-Dadrughua. Tarn. — Simai-agattL 
Teh — Sima-avisi. 

Characters. — Handsome shrub ; flowers in racemes and yellow ; 
leaves 2 feet long, petiole triangular ; leaflets 8 to 14 pairs, obovale, 
oblong, obtuse, mucronate and glabrous ; legumes long and enlarged 
sideways ; taste like senna, but less nauseous. 

Preparation, — Extract of leaves. Dose, i to 4 grs. Tincture (i 
in 5). Dose, J to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Aperient, general tonic and parasiticidei used 
like senna ; extract of leaves is a good substitute for extract of 
colocynth- Externally the juice of the leaves^ with or without lime 
juice, is applied to ringworm and to poisoned bites. Internally given 
in venereal diseases. 

Cassia Acutifolia, B. P. Alexandrian Senna. 
C. Angustifolia, B. P. 

Indian or Tinnevelly senna, C* Officinalis, C, Lanceolau, C, 
Oborata, Jungle senna, C. Elot^ate, Mecca or Bombay senna. 
Habitat. — Africa, India, 
Part used. — ^The leaves. 

Vernacular, — Arab — Pero-sana-e*Hindi. Beng. — Shon-pat. Dok. — 
Nat-ki-sanapat. Eng. — S<fnna. Hind., Guz, — Sona-njukhi. Tam.— 
Nela-ponna. Tel. — Nela Tanged u. 

Leaves of Solenostemma argel, Tephroaia appoUinea, and coriarit 
myrtifolia, are often substituted for senna leaves, 

Acutifolia — Acutus, sharp; and folium, leaf. Leaves sharp- pointed. 

AngusiifoUa — Angustus, narrow; and fulium, leaf. Leaves narrow. 

Characters. — Alexandrian senna. Leaflets pale ^ n 

and brittle, size f to i\ inch in length, mostly r, 

entire, unequal at the base, surface finely pubescent, veins distinct ; 
epidermis hairy, odour characteristic, nauseous and faint ; taste 
mucilaginous and somewhat unpleasant, nauseous. Senna Indies 
or Tinnc%'elly senna, one to two inches in length, lanceoljitfl 



CASSIA. ACUTIFOtlA. 



197 



aqd acute, unequal at the base, thin, entire, yellowish green, 
and smooth above^ somewhat duller beneath, glabrous or pubescent; 
taste and odour nauseous. Senna pods or legumes 7 to S 
lines broad at the base, style prominent on its upper edge ; seeds 
obovate, cuneate ajid compressed. Dose of the powdered leaves 
I to 2 drs. 

Conw/i/^i^fi/i*— The fruit contains cathartic acid^ but no resin or 
oil. The leaflets contain an active principle cathartin — a combina- 
tion of cathartic acid with one or two earthy bases* Also 
s^maptcrin ; a peculiar unfermentable sugar — cathartomannit or 
senna sugar or sennit, a trace of volatile oil ; setmacroi ; colour « 
ing matter allied to chrysarobin — chrysophani ph^oretin ; mucilage^ 
vegetable salts and ash 10 p* c. 

Cathartic acid. — An amorphous glucoside. To obtain it, precipitate 
concentrated infusion with alcohol. Dissolve the precipitate in water, 
add hydrochloric acid to separate the albumen, purify and filter and 
precipitate the 6ltrate with ethen It is formea of carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur ; a brown powder, soluble in water and 
quite insoluble in spirit. Decomposed mto glucose and cathartogenic 
acid by mineral acids* Does not possess nauseous or griping properties- 
Do6e, 4 to 8 grs. 

Senna ^icrith — Bitter principle (glucoside), insoluble in ether. 

Sennacro/. — Acrid resinous principle (glucoside), soluble in ether^ 
causes griping. The nauseating and griping properties of senna 
leav^ arc due to the presence of this resin and of an oil which have 
no purgative properties, 

Cathartomannit. — To the concentrated infusion of leaves, add 
alcohol and precipitate. Dilute the residue with water, add 
OTiide of lead and evaporate and crystallize. Colourless, rhombic 
CTy$tab, mosily spheroidal, with curved sides, of a sweet taste, soluble 
in water (i in 2), alcohol (j in 450), ether (1 in 10). 

Preparation*^Oi the leaves. Liquor senna: conceniratus^ B» P, 
(1 in I), concentrated solution of senna. Dose, \ to i dr. Confectio 
SeuNor, B. P., Electuarium Lenitivum, contains senna eaves 7 ozs. 
coriander fruit 3,025., figs 1 2 ozs., tamarind 9 ozs., cassia pulplg ozs., prunes 
6 CZA., extract of liquorice t oz,, sugar 30 ozs., water sufficient to 
make 75 ors. in weight. Dose, i to 2 drs. { i in 11) Infusum Sennce 
B. P. (I in 10). Dose, ^ to i oz. Mtstura sennet compositus^ B. P.— 
Black draught — magnesium sulphate 5 ozs, liquid extract of liquorice 
f oz., cx^mpound tincture of cardamoms 2 fid, ozs., aromatic spirit of 
ammonia i dd. oz.^ infusion of senna to make i pint« Dose, t lb 2 
oil. (i in 10). Syrnpm senna: B. P. (i in 2), contains senna 40 oz, oil» 
of coriander 10 ms., alcohol 40 ms,, sugar 50 oz., alcohol (20 p.c.) 

g\OZ, Dose, \ to 2 drs. Tine tura senna: comfiosita^h^F. (f in 5). 
ose, i to I df , Piiivis Glycerrhisce compositus^B, P. compound 
liquorice powtler, contains senna (1 in 6). Dose, 60 to lao grs. 
Elixir sennas, — Dose, i to 3 drs. In this the cathartic acid is preserved 
in its full activity, and the nauseating and griping properties are 



'19^ CASSIA AURICOLATA. 

•obviated. Extractum senna fluidum^ fluid extract of senna. Prepared 
by maceration and pressure and flavoured with aromatics. In it the 
^^athartic acid is unoxidised and resin left behind. Dose, 2 drs. 
Extractum Senna Fluidum Deodoratum. Exhaust senna with alcohol 
to remove the resin and oil, dry the solution and exhaust the dried mass 
with water to dissolve cathartic acid. Dose, i to 2 drs. Preparation.'^^ 
-Of the legumes. Extractum senna: leguminum liqutdum. — Contains 
cathartic acid, but no resin or oil. Dose, ^ to i dr. for children. 
The Arabians prefer the pods as a sure and safe purgative as they 
do not gripe. They contain more cathartic acid than the leaflets* 
.and no resin and no volatile oil. 

Physiological action. — Eflicient and safe cathartic, acting on the 
•small intestines, and producing copious yellow stools with griping and 
.flatulence, generally given combined with carminatives to lessen grip- 
ing. In small doses it is non-irritant, acts on the intestines, increasing 
peristalsis and secretions. It does not cause constipation as its after- 
efiects. Given in large doses it is a gastro-intestinal irritant, sets up nausea, 
vomiting and purging with great flatulence and severe tenesmus. In 
women it increases the menstrual flow. It often causes purging in 
•children when' suckling mothers take it. Some people have an 
idiosyncrasy for senna, and even the smell of the drug causes nausea, 
vomiting or purging. It is a very safe cathartic when prompt evacuation 
of the bowels is required. 

Therapeutics, — It is given in constipation, determination of blood 
to the head, biliousness, gout, haemorrhoids, fissures in the rectum, 
fevers and rheumatism. It produces soft and easy motions. It 
should not be given alone, as it causes nausea, griping, flatulence and 
depression of the pulse. It is a stimulant of the abdominal and 
pelvic viscera, and as such acts on the small intestines and increases 
peristalsis and their secretion. It is less powerful than scammony and 
gamboge, more irritating and stronger in its purgative efiects than 
salines and rhubarb. Unlike rhubarb, it is devoid of tonic properties. 
It should not be given in inflammatory conditions of the alimentary canal, 
if there is tendency to intestinal haemorrhage, in haemorrhoids, men- 
orrhagia, threatening abortion and prolapse of the uterusor of therectum. 
The natives take the leaves with betel leaves, coriander, tamarind 
manna, fetmel, Epsom or Rochelle salts as a corrective and aromatic. 

Cassia Aorionlata, Senna Anricnlata. 

Auriculata. — In allusion to the shape of the seeds resembling the 
auricles of the heart. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Madras, Dekkan, Western Peninsula. 

Parts used, — ^The bark, leaves and seeds. 

Vernacular, — Can. — Tangayree, Avara Taravada. Cing. — Rana« 
wora. Duk. — Tarvar, Aval. Eng. — Mature tea tree. Guz. — Avala. 
Hind. — Tarwar-aval Dantvan (sticks). Malyal. — Ponna-viram, Avar. 
Mar. — Taravada. Sans. — Mayhari, Talopodo. Tam. — Avarai. Tel. — 
Tangadu Avar-gidda. 



CASSIA FISTULA. 



199 



Datavaii, from dant, tooth» and van, stick — native tooth sticks, are 
msde of the stems or wood of this plant, which are as thick as the little 
finger* 

Characttrs. — Bark in pieces or quills, folded like pancakes, in size, 
colour and form resembling cinnamon. Each piece 2 to 3 or 4 inches 
long* External surface dark-brown and slightly tubercled. Internally 
cf a reddish colour, surface rugous, very bittle ; taste astringent and 
sweetish ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets oblong, about an inch long and from 
3 to 4 lines in breadth^ short petioled, upper suface of the leaves 
smooth, under surface hairy ; colour dark-brown when dry ; flowers 
>'etlow; legumes compressed and straight, thus diflfering from those of 
mendhi aN^ala, which are curved like sheep's horn ; seeds heart-shaped, 
smalLf flat, obtusely pointed at one extremity, and of a dark-brown 
colour, without taste or odour. 

ConsHiuents.^'The bark contains tannin 25 p.c. and ash 5 px. 

Preparation. — Infusion of leaves (1 in 20). Dose, 4 drs. to 2 ozs, 

^Compound syrup contains the flowers mixed with mocharas and 
BUiaparilta. Dose, 2 to 4 drs* Decoction of root (i in 20). Dose, a 
to % drs. 

Actions and uses. — The bark is tonic and astringent ; the powder of 
the seeds is blown into the eyes in ophthalmia. The infusion is used 
as a cooling drink in fevers. A powder made with all parts of the 

Elant is given in diabetes and chyloserous urine, and also used 
y Gujanti women to check excessive menstrual flow. A compound 
syrup is given for nocturnal emissions. 

Cassia Fistula B. P* Cathartioarpus Fistala* 
' iiaL — Asia, America, Egypt, W. Indies, Africa, 
nts used* — The fruit, the pulp surrounding the seeds — ^Cassise 
pulpa. B. P. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Katha-el-hinde, Asl-e-Kheyarsambar. 
Bcng. — Sondhali, Honalu. Burm — Gnoogyee Nusi* Cing, — Ahilla. 
Can.— Kakke-kaye, Kunare. Duk, — Girmalah-amaltas, Eng, — Purging 
cassia, Indian laburnum (pulp), drumstick, pudding pipe. Guz. — 
Garmatu, Hind. — Amaltas, Bhawa« Kathel Mai, — Konnan. Malay. — 
Mcntus. Mar, — Bhava Baya. Pers. — Khiya-chambar. Sans. — Arag* 
budha, Suvarnuka. Tam. — Rajataru or Nripadruma Mambala-konnai. 
Tel. — Suvamamu Kayalu. 

Khiyar Chambare — chambara, a necklace, in allusion to the 
structure of the pods, which resembles ** a necklace/' Katha-el* 
Hind means Indian cucumber, the pods having some resemblance, in 
shape, to fresh and young cucumber, 

Asal-i-Khiyara Chambara. — Asal means honey. The pulp of 

^Khijrara Chambara tastes like honey. Suvarnaka, from suvern-gold 10 

Ilu340u to the golden-yellow flowers, Rajataru — Raj means royal; and 

J, a tree, the tree being uncommonly beautiful when in flowers, 

CharacUrs^ — Pod cylindrical, of a dark^brown colour, about 2 feet 

in Length and i to i| inch in diameter ; stalk short, but woody, 

blunt end or the apex is contracted into a point ; within the pod are 



200 C. OBOVATA. 

numerous cells, arranged one upon the other transversely ; each cell is 
thin, membranous, flat on both surfaces, and contains a seed, which is 
oval, flat, and of a reddish brown colour and surrounded by pulp which 
is soft, glutinous and of a dark colour, in smell and taste resembling 
Khajura. It becomes mouldy and sour by keeping. 

Constituents. — ^The pulp consists of sugar 60 p. c, mucilage, astrin- 
gent matter, gluten, colounng matter pectin, calcium oxalate and ash. 

Preparations, — Confectio sennae, B. P. Dose, i to 2 drs. Decoc- 
tion (i m lo). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Compound decoction — ^known as 
Aragbadhadi— <:ontains cassia pulp, picorrhiza kurroa, chebulic 
myrobalans, long pepper-root, and cyperus rotundus. Used as a 
cathartic. Dose, 4 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Laxative — pulp seldom used alone, as it causes 
colic, griping and flatulence. Used as an adjunct to other purgatives. 
When given for a long time it tinges the urine dark-brown. The 
pulp is employed to adulterate essence of coffee. The seeds are emetic 

Therapeutics. — The bark and leaves, mixed with oil, are applied 
to pustules. The root is a strong purgative. The pulp recommended 
to persons of dyspeptic habits. Dose of the pulp as a laxative, 30 to 
80 grs. 

Cassia Obovata. C. iBthiopioa. C. Obtasa. 

Habitat. — Punjab, Sindh, W. Peninsula. Mysore, Egypt, Arabia 
Senegal, Jamaica 

Part used. — The herb. 

Vernacular. — ^Arab. — Senna-baladi. Burm. — Puve-kam-yoe. 

Can. — Nela-varike. Cing.^-Sena-kela, Nilavari. Eng. — Italian senna, 
jungle senna, Jamaica senna, Tripoli senna. Guz. — Mendhi- 
avala, Surtisunamukhi, Bhui Taravara. Hind* — Bhui Taravara. 
Mar. — Mulkacha Shona-makhi. Malayal. — Nila-vaka. Tam. — Nila- 
vagai. 

Senna baladi. — Wild senna. The plant is said to grow in wild 
places. Mendhi-avala. — Mendhi, a sheep ; and avala (C. Auriculata), 
a name of the plant, in allusion to the [shape of the pods 
resembling the horns of a sheep. 

Characters. — The drug consists of pieces of stems, flowers, pods, 
and leaves; stems slender, hairy, and of a greenish brown colour ; 
pods curved, resembling the horn of sheep (Mendhi) ; leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets from 4 to 6 pairs, obovate, glabrous above and dark 
beneath ; colour darkish green ; taste and odour of the leaves 
resembling those of sonamukhi. 

Preparation. — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Leaves purgative ; other actions and uses 
similar to those of senna. The whole plant is used locally as an 
application in pityriasis, psoriasis, &c. 



CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS. 



Caatifli Occidentalis. S«niia Occidentalism C« SopherE. 

/fo^i7<?/.— India. 

PifrU used,— The leaves and seeds. 

Venmcuiar, — Eng, — Negro coffee, round-podded cassia. Beng,-^ 
KaU'kasunda. Bomb. — Kasonda, Hikala. Burnt, — Mezalt, Can.— 
Dodda*(agase. Cing, — Peni-tara, Uru tora. Duk. — ^Kasundi, Gajarsag, 
Gufc^— Kasundi. Hind* — Kasa-niurda, Bribat-chitra-kasundi, Gajar 
sag. Mar. — RonU-koIa, Hikalabija, Malyal. — Peya-vera, Ponnam 
Takiira. Sans. — Kasa marda, Sourna May harie. Tarn. — Ponna verai, 
Naltam Gokarai. Tel. — NutiKosinda, Kush-mardha. 

Kasa Marda, Kasa, Khaus, meaning cough, and marda, destroyer. 
Destroyer of Cough, 

Ciaraciers, — An herbaceous plant or a small shrub, 3 to 5 feet 
high, leaves pinnate; leaflets in 3 to 5 pairs, obliquely oblong or 
lanceolate, finely pointed, green, glabrous abo%'e and pale beneath. On 
bruising the leaves the smell is very foetid ; taste pungent and very 
acrid ; root tapering^ fibrous^ of a brownish white colour and very 
bitter ; smell aromatic, musk-like ; legumes linear, turgid or glabrous 
and many-seeded ; seeds horizontal with cellular partitions. Dose of 
the seeds, 4 to 10 grs. in children f of the leaves, I to 2 drs. 

CmntittutiU. — The root contains a resinous substance ; a bitter, 
DOO*alkaloid principle. Leaves contain cathartin, colouring matter 
and salts* The seeds contain tannin, sugar, gum, starch, cellulose, 
chrysophanic acid, calcium sulphate and phosphate and fatty matter 
(olein and margarin )| malic acid, sodium chloride, magnesium 
sulphate, iron, silica, &c. 

Pttf^araUffU. — Infusion of root (i in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 drs* 
Deeoction of whole plant (i in io)« Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — The whole plant is purgative, alterative and 
escpectorant, given in liy>teria, anct whooping cough. The seeds are 
pur^tive and given to children with cow's or human milk in con- 
iruJsions. The root is ant i periodic, and given in fevers and neuralgia. 
The whok plant is used in cutaneous maladies, as ringworm, scabies, 
pityriasis and psoriasis ; also as an application over boils and carbuncles* 



C. FcBtida, C. Obtasi folia, Senna Tora. 



Cante Tora, C* Tajara, 

//ioAiV^/.— India. 

Partt used. — The leaves and seeds. 

Vermtiutar. — Sans. ^ — Prabh unai ha, Chakramarda, Dradr ugna , 
Arab*— Kul-kul, Sanji, Saboyah, Aines-saratin, Beng. — Takola» Cha- 
kondia. Burm.— Dan-ky-wai* Can.^ — Takkarike. Cing* —Tora, Duk. — 
Tarotah. Guz, — Kowaria. Hind. — Chakaund, Pan war, Dadmardan. 
Malyal.— Takara. Mar. — Tankli, Tarota. Sans, — Chakra marda, Pra- 

Kunata, Pranunada, Uranakeha. Mahometan — Sanjasoboyah, Pers — 
[ulkul-sanji. Tam» — Takaruni, Ushit Tagaria. TcL — Tantepu chettu* 
Chakra-marda — Chakra, a ring or wheel, Murda to destroy. Des- 
troying ringworm, and Aines-saratin, crab's eyes* 



:S02 CiESALPINIA BONBUCSLLA. 

Characters. — The leaves generally close at night time. They are 
in three pairs, the uppermost pair heing largest and longest ; leaflets 
obovate and obtuse ; taste mucilaginous and nauseous ; seeds greyish 
brown or darkish. They are of various shapes, some cylindrical and 
pointed at one end, others roundish or ovate, others again rhomboid, 
m size resembling methi, but somewhat larger ; surface tubercled and 
marked with yellowish or greenish yellow narrow stripes, the stripes 
occupying the upper and lower surfaces of the seed. 

Constituents. — The seeds contain a glucosidal substance similar to 
emodin which agrees with crysophanic acid in most of its properties. 
The leaves contain a principle similar to cathartin and a red oelouring 
matter as in senna leaves ; also mineral matters. 

Preparation, — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, 4 to 12 fld. dfi. Paste 
contains Cassia tora 6 parts, psoralia corylifolia 4 parts, and carrot 
seeds 2 parts. To be soaked for 8 days and then locally applied in itch. 

Actions and uses, — It has a great reputation as an alterative in all 
kinds of skin diseases accompanied with induration, as leprosy, cheloid, 
psoriasis, &c. The juice of the leaves is applied to relieve cutaneous 
mflammation caused by bhilamo. The seeds, mixed with karanja- 
tela (pongamia glabra), are used locally as an application for ring- 
worm. With sour milk it is used externally in eczema. A paste 
of the root with lime juice is used for ringworm, also for buboes in 
plague. The decoction of the leaves is aperient and given to children 
during teething. Locally they are used as a poultice over boils to 
hasten suppuration. 

Remarks. — Lately the seeds have been used as a substitute for 
coffee. 

CsBsalpinia Bonduoella. 

Syn.^ Bonducella Guilandina. 

Habitat. — India, tropical parts of Asia and Africa. 

Parts used. — ^The kernel of the seeds, oil and leaves. 

Vernacular. — ^Arab. — Akit-makit, Bonduk-i-Hindi. Beng. — ^Nata, 
Koranja, Jhagra-gula. Bomb. — Sagura-ghota. Gajaga-kakachia. 
Can.— Gajaga-kayi. Cing. — Kumburu-atta. Duk. — Gajga. Bng. — 
Bonduc-nut, Nicker tree. Guz. — Sagara-gota, Gajga-atchka, Kaka- 
chia. Hind. — Kat-karanj, Kat-kaleja, Karaijo Sagargota. Malay.— 
Kalan-chick-kuru. Mar. — Gajra, Sagaragota. Pers. — Khaya-i-Iblis. 
Sans. — Kubarakshi-phalami Keti-aranja. Tam. — Kazhar-shikkay. 
Tel. — Gach-chakaya. 

Khaya-i-Iblis — Khaya means testicle, and Iblis the devil. It 
means the devil's testicle, from the resemblance of the seeds in shape 
and appearance to human testicles. Bonduc. — The Arabic word 
Bondaka, or the Persian Funduk, means a ball of earth or a filbert. 

Characters. — Seeds globular, very smooth, shining and of a dull 
grey colour ; shell thick and bony; surface traversed by minute 
brownish coloured stripes, cotyledon, or the kernel dull white, wrinkkd 



C/KSALPmiA CORURtA. 



2as 



1 hard" taste bitter and rather mucilaginous ; leaves large, pinnate 
prickly ; leaflets small, glabrous and of a dark-green colour. The 
ot] i^ obtained by expression of seeds. 

Consittu€nts> — The kernels contain a non-alkaloidal bitter principle^ 
guibndina* The cotyledons of the seeds contain a fixed oil z^y bitter 

^principle or resin 2, sugar 6, salts 3, albuminoid matter 20, starch 35, 
ind tannin. Bitter principle, — A white bitter powder without acridity, 
entirely soluble in essential and fatty acids, in alcohol, acetone, chloro- 

^forro and glacial acetic acid ; very little soluble in ether, bisulphide of 

carbon ; almost insoluble in petroleum and water. 

ffion, — Pulvis Bonducellse compositus. Compound powder 
cam, undue 2 parts, black pepper 1 part, and pipli i part. Dose, 

5 to io gr5. 

f^//. fTv and ma\ — ^The kernels are bitter tonic, antiperiodic 
istic. The juice of fresh leaves is febrifuge and used in 
cbruri. JtNcis. The seeds, powdered and mixed with black pepper 
\ arc febrifuge and alterative tonic and are given in general debility to 
cV ' irhagcs, and in quotidian, tertian, quartan fevers. As 

:itic the kernels, mixed with leaves and flowers of butea 
31^4 and with flowering lops of Artemisia maritima are given 
intestinal worms. The fixed oil is emollient and used as an 
lion and to remove freckles from the face and to stop the 
_C6 ffom thcear ; sagaragota, with powdered cloves, is given 
to relieve the pain of colic and vomiting* 

Jiemarks, — The seeds are worn as necklaces by pregnant women 
lEider the belief that it prevents abortion. 

The soap-nut ^Sapindus triphatus) is also known by the name of 
.Bunduk-i-liindi, with which bonducella should not be confounded. 

CttsaJplnia Coriaria, Poinciana Coriaria* 

Syn, — American sumach — Divi-divi or Libi-dibi (Eng,) 

Habitat^ — H imalaya. 

Par^ tistd. — The legumes* 

Vtmacular ,^~T\\x\i. — Amriqka Sumaq. Pers, — Shumage-amriqah 
.Tani.--Shumak. 

Characters. — Dried pods oblong, compressed, somewhat obtuse, 
3r\*cd laterally; externally of a dark-brown colour, Undetneath the 
loutcr skin of the pods and between it and the inner layer is an astrio- 
iX matter, an impure tannin of a light yellow colour. Dose, 30 to 6d 

Comtitutntt. — Pods contain 60 p. c* of -tannin, starch, gum and 
wocxiy Ebre. 

/^ijrir/ibff*— Decoction (i in 40) as injection* 

Actions a9id uses, — The powder is antiperiodic, and given in inter* 
inittent fevers. Tlic decoction of the legumes is astringent* and used 
as an Injection in bleeding piles and for prolapsus ani in children. 



:J04 CiESALPNIA SAPPAN. 

toftalpinia Di jyna. 

Habitat, — Himalaya, Ceylon. 

Paris used, — The root. 

Vernacular. — Vakeri-mula. 

Characters.— The, root is tuberous. 

Preparation, — Infusion (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Alterative and astringent, given with milk, 
cumin, sugar and ghee, in diarrhoea and other chronic fluxes ; also in 
phthisis and scrofulous afiections. 

CcBsalpinia Sappan. 

Habitat. — E. and W. Peninsula. 

Part used, — The wood. 

Vernacular, — ^Arab. — Bukam. Beng^Bokom. Duk., Guz. 
Hind., Mar., Bomb. — Patanga. Burm.— Tainniy. Cing.— Patangi. 
Eng. — Sappan wood. Bookum or Bukhum wood, Brazil wood. 
Malyal. — Chappannam. Pers. — Bakam. Sans. — Patong. Tam.— 
Vartangi, Vpttekku. Tel.— Okanu katta, PaUng, Bakaup chekka. 
Can • — ratanga-chekke. 

Characters, — ^The wood hard, heavy, of a light reddish colour, 
here and there sprinkled with a reddish resinous substance ; taste oily 
and acrid ; odour acrid ; often used as logwood. 

Constituents. — Red colouring matter — sappan red or brazillin, gallic 
and tannic acids. Sappan red occurs in colourless rhombohedron 
or monoclinic prisms. It resembles hsematoxylin, and, like it, i» 
soluble in ether, alcohol and water ; contains carbon 67*11 p.c, hydro- 
gen 5*43 p.c„ and oxygen 27*46 p.c. 

Guiala or red powder contains patanga and phataki, mixed with 
tavakhir (arrowroot), cheap aniline dyes are now used instead. The 
dry powder of Gulal is used by the Hindus during the Holi festival 
and in other religious ceremonies. It is also used by a sect of Hindus 
for teka mark on their forehead. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, given in intestinal and pulmonary 
haemorrhages and in menorrhagia ; also in diarrhoea and dysentery. A 
decoction of it is a good substitute for logwood, and used for the same 
purposes as Rakta-chandana. Guiala is used as a dusting powder in 
otorrhoea. 

Cioer Arietinum. 

Habitat, — Warm climates, India. 

Parts used, — Seeds, acidulous water or acid exudation. 

F(ff7iiicttZ!7f.— Arab.— Humuq. Beng. — Chana, But-kale, Batoola. 
Bomb. — Harabara-chana. Burm. — Ku-lo-pan. Can. — Kadali. Duk. — 
Harbarah. Eng. — ^The Bengal gram, common chick-pea, parched gram 
(the pulse). Guz. — Chaya, Channa, Chuna-no-Khato (acidulated 
water). Hind.^Chana, fiuroarmani. Italian — Cece. Mar. — Herbera^ 



CLITORIA TERNATKA. 



aos 



Ch^na. Pan]. — Nakbud. Pers. — Chola. Sans, — Chana-kamal, 

Chennaka. Tam. — Kadalai, Tel. — Sana-galoo-chanaka. 

Spurious chanano khato is merely sulphuric acid diluted and 
tinged with kimiaja* 

Characters. — An annual small plant ; leaves pinnate; stems covered 

lith glandular hairs, containing oxalic acid and acid oxalates. With 

_liedew these exude and hang in drops, ultimately forming crystals ; 

leaflets amall and hairy, of a greenish grey colour and of an acidulous 

taste ; seeds or pulse gibbous, mucronate, of a yellowish or reddish 

brawn colour ; testa brittle^ containing yellow cotyledons. Chana-no* 

Khato or the vinegar is an acid liquid of a dull, dirty colour — an 

nidation from the hairs» stem, leaves and other parts of the plant. 

lie vinegar is collected by spreading white cloth upon the plant 

luring the season of dew, when the exudation becomes mixed with the 

fc! •* t *1 is taken up by the cloth and finally wrung out in a vessel* 

iulaied water, when evaporated, is known as Chana-no>Khara, 

lUrnKH lA a white powder, which exists in fine needle-shaped crystals 

[id has an acidulous taste* 

Consti/ueft/s^ — The fluid contains water holding in solution oxalic, 
Icelic and perhaps malic acids. The husked seeds or the pulse con- 
iins water 1 1*5, albuminoids 21, starch 5g, phosphoric acid i, oil 4, 
2t fibre 1, &c* Nitrogen per ounce is 14 grains. 

Actions and uses* — The vinegar is an acid liquid similar to thai 
found in Kamarakha, bilambi, &c. Jt is used as stomachic, refrigerant 
and laxative in dyspepsia and to promote digestion and to remove 
flatulctice and costiveness. The juice of leaves possesses' similar pro- 
perty:; ; medicated vapour baths, prepared by adding the plant to 
.vaicr» are used to relieve dysmenorrhoea, A poultice of the 
1. . apptitd to sprained and dislocated limbs. The seeds are as- 
tnngcnt» and given in dysentery. Ghana is the most favourite pulse 
with the natives. It is taken raw or parched, in green or ripe state. 

CUtoria Ternatea. 

HabifaL—lndx^^ Ceylon. 

Paris used, — The root and seeds. 

Ventacuhr. — Arab. — Buzrula, Mazariynne-hindi. Beng, — Kalizer, 
Shavct-upurajita, Vish-mi-karanti. Burm.— Oung-maiphyoo, Can.— 
Karnike. Cing. — Nil^katarodu. Duk* — Gokarna, Phiki kijar Ghutti, 
i^Eng.— Wingcd-l^ved Clitona- Guz.^Garaoi, Hind, — Gokaranai 
ijtta. Mar. — Kajali, Gokarana* Maleal. — Kaka-valli, Pers, — 
Itebikhe'hayat. Mazeriyun-i-Hindi (Indian rnezereon). Sans. — 
{hcria, Aparjita, Ashphota« Vishnu Karanta Gokarna. Tam* — 
4nan-kodi. Tel. — Tella-Dintana. 

Ckaracters.^^ooi white, tapering, branched and fleshy; taate acrid 
bitter; root-bark soft and thick; seeds generally black or greyish 
irn, minutely mottled green and black, oblong, round or nearly 
jTraiilbrm, with a white scar at one margin, sHghtly compressed near the 
^e4gOit The &!i^^ of some seeds are smooth as if cut off by a knife; testa 



206 . COPAIFERA LANSDORFII. 

brittle, containing two cotyledons, which are full of granular starch, 
thus resembling sena-bij ; taste oily, acrid, bitter and disagreeable. 

Constituents, — The root-bark contains starch, tannin and resins^ 
The seeds contain a fixed oil, a bitter resin, which is the active princi- 
ple, tannic acid, glucose a light-brown resin, and ash 6 p. c. 

Preparation, — Infusion (i in 8). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Alcoholic 
extract. Dose, 5 to 10 grs. A compound powder containing clitorea 
seed I, acid tartrate of potassium 2, ginger i. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Actions and uses . — The root is demulcent, diuretic and laxative, 
apd is given in fever, croup, chronic bronchitis, ascites, dropsy, and 
enlargements of the abdominal viscera. As a demulcent the infusion 
is used to relieve irritation of the bladder and urethra, and also given 
in bronchitis. The juice of fresh root is blown up the nostrils in 
hemicrania. The extract is a brisk purgative — a good substituter for 
kala-danah, gulbas bija and jalap. 

Copatfera LansdorfU, B. P. C. OflScInalis. 

Habitat, — Brazil, Amazon Valley. 

Part used. — The oleo-resin obtained from the trunk — Copaiba, 
Copaiva, B.P. 

Characters. — The exudation is thick, brown and viscid, generally 
translucent, of a characteristic aromatic odour and bitter acrid 
taste. Entirely soluble in absolute alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, 
fixed and volatile oils, in petroleum spirit (i in 4) ; insoluble in water. 
Dose, 30 to 60 ms. It is erroneously named balsam ; it does not 
contain cinnamic or benzoic acid. 

Constituents, — Volatile oil, bitter principle and resin. The resin 
contains capaivic acid. The volatile oil — Oleum copaibae, B. P., 
oil of copaiba. To obtain it, distil the exudation with water or 
steam. A colourless or pale-yellow oily liquid, with the aromatic, 
bitter, nauseous taste and odour of copaiba; soluble in absolute alcohol 
(I in i). Dose, 5 to 20 ms. Resin copaiba. — A residue left after 
distilling off the volatile oil from copaiba, A yellowish body, brittle, 
of acid reaction. Soluble in amylic alcohol, and benzol. It contains 
copaivic acid, which is crystailizable, and a trace of viscid resin. 
Dose, 1 5 to 20 grs. 

Preparations, — Mistura copaibas composita — compound copaiba 
mixture. Copaibas i, spiritus aetheris nistrosi i, Liq. potassae ^ ; 
mix and stir. Then add Tinct. lavandulae Co. i, syrup 2, water 8. 
Dose, I dr. Emulsion, pills, capsules, electuary. 

Physiological action, — Laxative, expectorant, diuretic, and stimu* 
lant of the genito-urinary organs. Taken into the stomach it causes 
heat, acid eructations, loss of appetite, heaviness and diarrhoea. 
The urine is increased in quantity and loaded with solid constituents* 
In large doses it irritates the skin, stomach, intestines and kidneys. 
It causes gastric catarrh and nephritis. The urine becomes scanty. 



CROTALARIA JUNECA. 



■ior 



Mastan-pat. 
Can. — Pundi- 
Eng, — Sun 
Mar, — Taga, 
Pulivanji. Tarn. — Wakkoo- 

a fibre obtained from 



stainiDg albumen casts and even blood, with pain in the loins ; 

m the skin it produces itching and even eruptions, as psoriasis, 

inicaria* &c. The oil and resin are soon absorbed into the blood. 

rhe>* are eliminated by the excretions and may be found in the 

urine, breath* milk and perspiration, 

Th^raptuiics^ — As a diuretic it is given in ascites, not depending 
upon :^Jhumrnuri^, Chiefly used in gonorrhoea after the acute symptoms 
\ itcd, in acute and chronic bronchitis with excessive expec- 

t and in heemorrhoids, Jn cystitis in the female it may be 

injected into the bladder* In chronic skin diseases, as psoriasis and 
urticaria, it is used with great benefit. The volatile oil is good for 
throat affections, while the oleo-resin is used for diuretic purposes. 

Crotalaria Jtmcea, C. Bengalensis, C. Fenestrata, 
C. Tenul folia, 
^fe^ito/.— Throughout the plains of India. 
Parts ustii. — The seeds, leaves and fibres. 
Vernacular, — Beng,— Shonpat, Ghoresun. 

Bomb.^-^Maesta-pat, Taag-ambharee. Burm.^ — Paisan, 
nartt. Shana-bina. Cmg,— Keshia. Duk. — Janab, 
or Bengal hemp. Gur. — Sun, Hind, — Sann» shunum. 
^Sooalla, Sam. Malay — Jenapa-vcra, 
^gana-pam, Shanambo, 

Sun is often confounded with sunnee. 
Hibiscus canuabinus. 

Characters. —Seeds compressed, markedly reniform, of a light or 
^fTMvJ^h brown colour ; surface shining, glabrous and slightly lubercled ; 
!!!> hard, bony and yellowish red ; taste and smell like that of 
|n**»>c i^uii mungo. 

Cmistituentt, — ^The leaves contain abundance of mucilage, a little 
solid fitf and a resin soluble in ether. 

Pr€pitr&tiun.^^\w\yx%\K>xi (i in lo). Dose, I to 2 ounces. 

Actions and uses. — Refrigerant, demulcent and cmmenagogue, 
" in fevers and in skin diseases, such as impetigo, and psoriasis. As 
fiemmcnagogue it is used to increase the flow of menses ; sometimes 
tbcy cause abortion. Dose of the seeds, lo to 30 grs. 

Remarls.—Ttih plant furnishes a coarse fibre called Sana, Taaga, 
or Bengal hemp. It ts used for making oakum and surgical tow. 

Cylifita Scarioaa. 

Habitat* — Concan, Ori^s^» Deccan, 

I\srt used. — The roots. 

Vemacu/an — Con can — Rangheuad. 

Ran-gevad Ran, wild ; and Ghevadas a kind of Dolichos* 
tabbb. u resembles Dohchos. 

Characters, — Root tapering, woody^ upper portion 2 inches in 
diameter^ dark brown and covered here and there with circular 



206 DERRIS ULIGINOSA. 

light-browD scars; on section, the central portion is pithy, surrounded 
by medullary rays of a light colour ; the woody tissue is porous and 
red; taste astringent and bitterish. 

C(mstituents. — Tannin, starch, and soft yellow resin but no 
alkaloid. 

Preparation. — Decoction of the root (i in lo). Dose, 4 to 8 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, given in dysentery and leucorrhcea. 
Applied externally to reduce swellings. 

Dalbergia Sympathetioa. D. Yolubilis. 

Habitat^^Vf . Peninsula. 

Part used. — The plant. 

Vernacular. — Goa. — Titabli. Mar. — Pentgul, D. Volubilis, Alei. 

Characters. — A scandent shrub, stems covered with thick, large, 
blunt thorns ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets obtuse, silky beneath ; flowers 
axillary, in cymes ; calyx, silky ; corolla yellowish white, pod one-seeded 
and obtuse. * 

Preparation. — Infusion of leaves (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 
Decoction of root (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Actions and uses. — The leaves are alterative, and used in syphilis and 
rheumatism. The bark is stimulant and used locally to remove pimples. 
The juice of the leaves is used in aphthae as a gargle in sore throat. 
The root is demulcent. Internally the juice or decoction bf the root 
is given with cumin seeds in gonorrhoea. 

Derpis Uliginosa. 

Habitat. — E. Himalaya, Ceylon, W, Peninsula. 

Part used. — The Bark. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Panlata. Mar. — Kajarvel, Kirtana. 

Kirtana. — Worm creeper. It is a poison to worms and their 
larvae creeping in the fields. 

Characters. — The bark dark-brown and scabrous, thickly studded 
with corky warts. Taste astringent and acrid. 

Constituents. — The bark contains a neutral crystalline principle, 
wax, two resins, two colouring matters, an alkaloid, an acrid glucoside, 
allied to saponin, gum, and mineral matter 8 p.c. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 20), Dose, 2 to 8 drs.; a medicated oil. 

Actiom and uses. — Alterative and insecticide; the bark is used as a 
fish poison and also as a poison to kill worms and insects which infest 
leaves and flowers; as an alterative, it is given in rheumatism, 
chronic paralysis and dysmenorrhoea combined with asafetida, garlic, 
plumbago root and used externally in rheumatism. 



DESMODIUM GANGETICUM. 



f09 



Deemodiam Oangetioum, 

Habitat — India. Burma, Ceylon. 

I^rts used. — ^Tbe root and bark. 

Fernacu/ar, — Beng.— Salaparni. Guz. — Salavan, Hind,— Sari van. 
Mar^^^^alparni^ Diiye, Sans. — Daye, Shalparni, 

Shalparni. — Having leaves Hke the Shal (Shorea robusta.) 

Characters.^ Plant sub-erect ; stems angular, from 5 to 4 feet high^ 
mad largely covered at the top with short grey hairs ; leaves oblong, 
from 3 to 6 iDGht^?», long, rounded at the base and narrowed towards the 
point; flowers pale and purple; legumes 6 to 8, jointed and compressed-^ 
joints small, rather roundish or kidney-shaped, and covered with minute 
hooked hairs ; fresh root of a light white colour ; taste of the root-bark 
astringent ; odour slightly aromatic. 

Constituents — The root contains extractives, resin, oil, an alkaloid, 
ash 6 p.c, containing a trace of manganese* 

Preparation, — Decoction (i in 16). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. Compound 
dccociion. Dasamula de Kvatha. — Dasa, ten ; mula, the root j and 
quath. a decoction A decoction often plants. Containing: Salavan k 
Pithvan 1, Bhui*ringani i, Dorali-mula i, Chotta Gaklioru i, Bcia j, 
Tctu mula I, Shevana I, Patola 1, Takla 1. The first five plants are 
known as minor plants, called Hrasva pancha-mula or Laghu pancha- 
mula. The la« five are called Vrihat pancha-mula or the five major 
planti». Doi^e, I to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses^ — Febrifugep alterative and tonic. Given in fever, 
derangements of thc'bile, during convalescence from chtonic fevers; 
also in remittent and puerperal fevers, inflammatory diseases of the 
lungs, and in diseases of the brain; also in catarrhal aflfections, vomiting,. 
cou^h» asthma and dysentery. 

Ormocarpum Sennoides, 

ifalfiiMit, — Western Peninsula, Ceylon, 

Vernacular. — Can,— Kadunugge. Tarn.— Katmorunga. TeL— 
Adai-imunaga. 

Characters, — A low shrub, young shoots and flowering parts are 
hairy and of a pale yellow colour, and covered with glutinous secretion. 
Leaves pinnate, alternate* oblong and obtuse ; flowers 3 to 6, yellow ; 
racemes short and axillary ; pods jointed, pendulous, muricaced and 
glminous. 

PrtparaiiQu, — Decoction of the root (i in 10), Dose, 4 to 6 drs. 
Linimeot. 

Actitmi and mes* — ^Tonic and stimulant. The liniment is used in 
paralysis and lumbago. 

D^amodlom Trifloram. D. Heterophyllum* Hedysarum 
Triflorum. 

Mahiiat, — Bengal and Peninsula India* 

flfW med, — The plant. 

14 



no DOLICHOS BIFLOftUS. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Kulalaia. Hind. — Kadalaya. Mar«— Ran- 
methi. Tarn.— Senipullady. Tel. — Moonoodoo-moordoa 

Characters. — Stems procumbent ; leaves trifoliate ; leaflets obovate 
or obcordate, pubescent or hairy ; peduncles axillary, solitary, i to 3 
flowered ; legumes hispidly pubescent, 3 to 6-jointed ; joints truncated ; 
flowers, small and blue. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Actions and uses. — ^The leaves with milk are used as galacta^ogue. 
iand as carminative they are used in diarrhcea and convulsions in 
children. The fresh plant bruised is applied to indolent ulcers. 

DoliohoB BifloPOB. 

Habitat. — India. 

Part used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Kulthi, Kultho-kuUe. Can. — Hurali. 
Eng. — Madras horse-gram Guz., Hind.— Kulthi. Mai. — Muthenif 
Mxdiri. Sans. — Rahitha, Culutu ; Mar. — Kulitha, Kultha. Tarn. — 
Kollu. Tel.— Walawalli, Ulava. 

Characters.^Tvro varieties — red and white. The seeds are of 
different colours, varying from light red to dark red and black. Those 
which are light red are mottled green or dark. In size they resemble 
chaksu, are highly polished and shining, having a white scar about the 
middle of the margin ; testa very thin and brittle ; cotyledons whitish. 

Cofistituents. — Albuminoids, starch, oil, ash and phosphoric acid. 

Preparation, — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, 4 to 8 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, diuretic and tonic The decoction 
is used in urmary diseases and menstrual derangements. Parturient 
women luse it to promote lochia ; also given to check profuse 
leucorrhoea and menstrual fluxes. Like Ankola powder, a powder 
of these seeds is applied to the skin to check cold sweats. 

Entada SoandenB, Aoaoia Soandens, Mimosa Entada. 

IfoAitat.'^TTopics, 

Part used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — ^Bomb. — Gardul , Beng. — Gila-gach. Cing.— Pus 
wael. Duk. — Gradul. Guz. — Suvali-amli. Hind.— Garabi. Mar. — 
-Garambi, Gartdul. Maleal. — Parin-kaka-vuUi. Panj. — Kastori-kaman. 
TeL — Gila-tiga. Sikkim Pangra. Lepcha, Takdokhyen. 

Characters. — Legunies several feet long and 4 to 5 inches broad, 
surrounded with thick, firm, polished, entire rim ; joints 10 to 30, one- 
seeded, ligneous, swelled in the centre and transversely furrowed ; seeds 
very large, each ab6ut 2 inches in diameter, flat or compressed* and 
roundish or heart-shaped ; surface very shining, smooth and of adark« 
red colour, having a blackish scar at thehilum; testa of a reddish colour 
and thick ; cotyledons two, like that of Bhui-singa ; taste slightly 



KRYTHRINA INDICA, 



biltertsh ; a drop of water placed on it becomes milky owing to the 
escape of oil globules and granular matter. 

Camiituents^ — Contains a viscid^ turbid oil 7 px., and a little 
saponin. 

Actions and uses* — ^Irritant and emetic. A paste of them is applied 
to relieve inflammatory glandular swellings in the axilla, known to the 
natives as Kakha Bilari. It is applied to swollen hands and feet in 
cases of general debility with marked relief. The seeds are used as 
soap to wash the hair. 

Erythrophlcaam Guinense, E. Jadloiaie. 

/Af^iY/f/. — Central and Western Africa. 

J^rt used* — The bark. 

Vtrrniaiiar- Eng.^ — Casca bark, doom bark, sassy bark, ordeal 
bark. 

Characters, — The bark has an astringent, acrid, bitter taste, and 
when powdered excites violent and persistent sneesing, 

CoHsdiiitnts — ^An active glucosidal principle.called Erythrophlc3eine. 

Erythtophlcsina; Hydrochloridum — yellowish white granular, 
crystals, soluble in water. The solution has an acrid, bitier taste« 
Dose, ify 10 ij gr, 

/V^<jrtf/Sib«,— TincturaErythrophloei, (i in 10)* Dose, 5 to 10 ma 

Pkysmhgical achmts. — Cardiac tonic, sedative, hydragogue 
and diuretic. In large doses emetic and narcotic, producing nausea, 
vomitrnj^, intense htadache, narcosis ami death* Erythrophlceinae 
hydrochloridum combines ihe actions of Diuitalin and ^icrotoxin* It 
strengthens and slows tl»e heart's action, contracts the arterioles and 
incrtM[*e*^ the secretion of urine. It is not cumulative. It is given in 
mi' tse and cardiac dropsy ; also ftiven in diarrhcea, dysenteryj 

int \i fever, colic, &c. Some believe it to be a local anseuhetici 

cveii superior to cticaine. 

Remarks. — The bark is used by the negroes as an ordeal in trials 
for witchcraft. 

Erythrina Indjoa. E* Corallodendron. 

HabiiaL — Throughout India, 

Parts used. — The leaves and bark. 

Moochy wood tree. Indian coral tree (Eng.) 

Vertmrular, — Eng. — Moochy wood tree. India coral tree. 
Beng>- oandar* Burm. — Katheet, Kasi. Can. — Paravalada- 

mara, i a« Warjippe* Cing.— Erabadu. Duk. — Pangra, Hind. 

& Sian — Pangrai Furrud. Sans. — Parnata, Parijalaka, Mandara, 
Tarn* — Kaltyana, Murukku, Teh — aad-chippa-chettu. Malay. — 
lCalyaiia*murukku. 

C4</rtfc/rf J.— Fresh bark covered with smooth, grey suber and 
having »mall| corky and Assured lenticels ; outer portion of the bark 
granular and brittle ; odour very disagreeable ; leaves pinnatdy 
Uifoliatc ; leaflets entire. 



212 PLEMINGIA TUBKROSA. 

'Constituents. — ^The bark contains two resins and a bitter alkaloid 
erjrtherine. 

Preparation. — Infusion of leaves (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 
Decoction of bark (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actions and uses. — The leaves are alterative, laxative, diuretic, 
galactagogue and emmenagogue ; used in syphilis, fevers, in amenor- 
rhoea, &c. With cocoanut milk they are used as galactagogue. The 
bark is astringent and tonic, and given in dysentery, fevers, &c. The 
leaves made hot (varalians) are applied to disperse buboes. Erytherine 
has actions antagonistic to those of strychnine, and may be used as an 
antidote. 

Flamin^a Tuberosa. 

Habitat.— Tht Concan. 

Part used. — The tubers. 

Vernacular.^ Mar.— Birmova. 

Characters. — Small herb in grassy places; leaves trifoliate, studded 
with minute golden elands ; flowers small and pea-like ; pods rounded, 
containing a single black seed ; roots tuberous, ovoid, oblong and 
tapering at the lower-end ; skin dark-brown and smooth externally, 
white within ; the tubers yield a sticky juice when injured ; taste 
sweet and astringent. 

^ When boiled the taste of the tubers resembles that of chestnuL 

Constituents. — Yellow resin 1-5 p. c, sugar and ^m 25 p. c^ 
asparagin 4-3 p.c, tannin a trace, starch 40 p. c, albuminoids 13 p.c., 
and ash 3-5 p.c. 

/Reparation. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent. The tubers are used in dysentery 
and leucorrhcea. 

Flamin^a Grahamiana. 

Habitat. — Nilgiris, Concan, Canara. 

Part used, — The glands from the pods, (wars) 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Wars. Hind . — ^W ars. 

Characters. — Fruits are covered with peculiar garnet-coloured 
glands. Wars is obtained by drymg the pods and rubbing them 
together over leaves.' It is a granular mobile powder ,* colour 
deep purple-red, without any odour or taste. It ignites like lycopo- 
dium. It is insoluble in water, soluble in ether, > warm alcohol and 
caustic alkalies. 

Constituettts. — A trace of volatile oil, of the odour between that of 
carraway and lemons ; resinous colouring matter 72 p.c, the resinous 
matter is of a brittle consistence, soluble in ether, alcohol, benzol, 
chloroform, carbon sulphide, acetic acid, alkaline solution and 
alkaline carbonates ; also soluble in lime, magnesia. Diluted alcohol 
separates resinous matter into 2 resins. It also contains ash 6 p.c., 
albuminous matter 8 p.c.y cellulose 9*5 p.c. 



CLYCYRRHJZA GLABRA* 



213 



Yeparatton, — Dusting powder. 
Actions and m€s, — The same as those of lycopodium, used to 
cure scaly eruptions of the skin. 

Glyoyrrhiza Glabra, B. P., 0. Olandulifera. 

Sweet wood, Italian juice root, Spanish juice root, 

Glvcyrrhixai from Glykys, sweet, and rhiza, root, from the sweet 
taste of the root. Glabra, from Glaber, smooth, without hair or dowii« 
leaves ire smooth on both surfaces. Glandulifera — Glandula, a gland j 
^Jid ferro, 10 bear. The pods are covered with thick glandular spines. 

Mahitair^ Northern Asia, Arabia^ Persia, Punjab, Sindh, Southern 
EuropCi Candia, China. 

Faris used, — The peeled root and peeled subterranean stem— 
Glycyrrhizae Radtx^ Liquorice root, B.P. 

Vemaculur. — Arab. — Asl-us-sus, Kobesus. Beng. — Jaishtomodhu. 
Burm — N*wy-K'hye, Shinbo-noegiyu. Can. — ^Ate-madhura, Duk. — 
Milhi-Iakri. Eng, — Liquorice root, the juice, Spanish juice, Italian 
juice. Guz.— Jethi-Madh. Hind. — Jathi raadha. Mar, — Jeshti- 
madha, Irkisus. Pers* — Bekh-Mekeh. Sans — Yashti-matJhu-kam, 
Madhu ytshttkam. Tarn,— Ati-madhramu. Tel- — Yashti-madukam, 
Malay, UriLhmadhuram, Cing. — Atimaduram, Velmi, 

Characters. — The roots abound in saccharine and mucilaginous 
matter, which is slightly bitter and readily soluble in water. It 
is brown on the surface and yellow within j occurs in cylindrical 
branched pieces of various sizes, of the thickness of a finger. It is tough 
md friable ; the taste is sweet at first, after a time it becomes somewhat 
mucilaginous, acrid and bitter ; the odour is earthy and rather sickly ; 
when peeled and sliced, the pieces are yellow and smooth, the fracture 
b coarsely fibrous. Dose, of liquorice root, 15 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — The glucoside — glycyrrhizin 6 p. c», glycyramarin, 
su^r, starchy resin, gum, mucilage and asparagin. 

Glycyrrhizin. — The sweet principle of liquorice. To obtain it heat 
cold infusion of the root^ add sulphuric acid, when albumen will 
copulate; to dissolve the precipitate add alcohol and ether, filter and 
evmporate. An amorphous yellow powder, of a strong bitter taste and 
acici reaction, soluble m water and sparingly so in spirit and ether. In 
hot water it fotms a jelly* It is precipitated on the addition of acid or 
solution of cream tartar or of neutral acetate of lead. By boiling with 
dilute hydrochloric acid it resolves into glyc)Tretin and an uncrys- 
Uliixable sugar of the characters of glucose. 

Glycyrrhizin combined with ammonia forms ammoniated glycyr* 
rhizin nr glycyrrhizic acid. A glucoside prepared by treating liquorice 
root '' "T and ammonia and precipitating with sulphuric acid and 

^edi^^ ^ dilute ammonia and allowing it to dry. Dark brown or 

red gai ucL coloured scaltrs^ taste sweet, soluble in water and alcohoU 
One ^rain flavours six ounces of water; the sweet taste of the root is due 
to this glucoside. Dose, ^ to 5 grs. 




A^ 



^^id 



114 HARDWICItIA PIKNATA. 

Preparation. — ^Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus, B.P. Compound 
diquorice powder. 

Senna 2« Liquorice root 2, Fennel i, sublimed sulphur I, and 
sugar 6. Dose, 60 to 120 grs. For constipation and hepatic disease. 
Extractum Glycyrrhiza B. P. extract of Liquorice. Dose ad libitum. 
Extractum Glycyrrhiza liquidum. B. P. Fluid extract of glycerrhiza. 
Dose, i to I fld, dr. Decoction (i in \o\ Dose, 4 to 12 fld. dr. 
Mistura glycyrrhizaeComposita— Compound mixture of Glycynrhiza. 
'Brown mixture — Liquorice extract 3, Syrup S, acaciae 10, Tinctura 
opii camphorata 12, Vinum antimoniales 6, spirit etheris nitrost 3, 
water 100. Dose i to 4 dr. 

Action and uses. — Demulcent, expectorant, and a mild laxative, 
also local stimulant. When chewed or sucked it increases the flow of 
saliva and mucus, hence acts as a throat emollient. It stimulates the 
mucous membrane, especially of the air passages where its action is 
more local than general. It; is given in inflammatory affections, 
catarrhs, cough, hoarseness of voice, asthma, and in irritation of the 
.larynx, bronchi and of the urinary passages. The compound powder is 
used as a laxative in constipation. Glycyrrhizic acid is used for flavouring 
decoctions, also covering the taste of nauseous drugs in a liquid form 
as quinine, chloride of ammonium, sulphate of magnesia, senna, senega, 
hyoscyamus, ipecacuanha, aloes &c. The powder is used as an exci- 
pient in pills. 

Remarks, — ^The Indian liquorice is the root of Abrus Precatorius, 
Sab-us-sus ; kubas-susa (Arab.) ; the inspissated juice of Glycyrrhiza 
Triphylla is sold in the bazaar in the shape of black pencils. It is 
an ingredient in various laxative powders, confections and lozenges. 

Hardwiokia Pinnata. 

Habitat — Ghats of Canara, Travancore and Carnatic. 

Part used. — A dark red balsam. 

Vernacular. — Can. — Yenne. Mai. — Kalla, shurale. Tam. — 
Madeyan, Sampirani. Tinnevelly — Kolavu. 

Characters, — The tree yields an oleo-resin — a black or yellowish 
transparent viscid fluid of the smell and taste of copaiba. A deep notch 
is made into the heart of the tree, and after a time the balsam begins to 
flow. Dose, 20 to 60 ms. 

Constituents^ — An essential oil 25 p. c. similar in composition to 
that obtained from copaiba, and 2 resins, of which one has acrid pro- 
perties — does not contain any copaivic acid. 

Actions and uses. — Demulcent, stimulant and expectorant ; like 
copaiba, used in gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhcea, bronchorrhoea, etc* 

Ebunatozylon Campeohianum, B. P. 

The Logwood tree. — 

Syn. — Black wood, campeachy wood. 



INDIGO FERA TINCTORIA. 



315 



Haematoxylon from Hsenia, ** blood,** froin blood like colour of 
the heart wood ; Logwood — wood being imported in logs. 

^abiiaL^^W. Indies, Jamaica, India. 

Parts used. — The Heartwood-^H^matoxyli Lignum, B. P. 

Ckamcters, — Wood in chips or coarse powder, thick, heavy and 
hard, externally of a purplish red colour^ iniernally reddish brownish, 
marked with irregular concentric rings, odour faint and agreeable, taste 
■ttringent and sweet. Dose of the powder, lo to 30 grs. 

Constitnent^. — Hiematoxylin, 12 p. c. volatile oil, tannin, fat, 
resin* Hicmatoxylin.^ — To obtain it mix powdered extract with sand 
And exhaust with ether, add water and crystallize. A crystalline 
principle^ pale yellow, sweet like liquorice, soluble in alcohol and ether, 

Pteparations. — Decoctum Hsematoxyli B, P. (i in 20), Dose, ^ to 
a fld« oZ!». Logwood chips 50, cinnamon bark 8, and water tooo^ 
boiK Givtfn in diarrhoea and hiematuri.-!* Extraclum Haematoxyli 
Uauio e, I to 2 drs. It contains Hematoxylin, hiematein and 

ollici nt properties of the wood unchanged. 

Actions and uses, — Astringent and tODic ; under its use faeces 
becomes dark and urine blood red and sweet. Given in chronic 
diarrhoea, dysentery and hemorrhages ; also in atonic dyspepsia, 

Indigofera Tlnctoria, Indigo fera Sumatrana, Indigofera Indioa. 

HabttaL — \V. India, Bengal, Madagascar, 

f^tri used, — The plant and the expressed juice. 

F'tmacular^'^Asab, — Nilaj. Beng. — Nil Guli. Burm.— Mai 
may. Shan — May. Can.— Nili. Cing. — Nila. Chin.— Lan-tian 
Duk.^NiL Eng. — Dogbite shrub. Guz. — Gali, Nil. Hind, — Nil. 
Mah.— Nili, Guli. MalyaL— Nilam, Ameri, Tarun. Pers — NilaJu- 
Ausiralienil, Sans. — Nilam Banig Bandhu. Tam. — Nilam Avari-ckli 
Tayura. Tel. — Nili-mandu. Aviri. Panj. — Wasma, Basma. 

Shrub 2 to 5 feet high. Leaves pinnate j leaflets in pairs, cuneate at 
the ba»e, rather pointed towards the apex, of dark green colour. On 
Squec^ring a dark green juice oozes out ; flowers many, of a pink or pur- 
ple rose colour ; legumes nearly cylindrical deflexed and curved up* 
wards ; seeds truncated at both ends. Dried juice or extract met with 
in hard pieces of an indigo colour. When mixed with water it 
forms a mixture of blue and purple. To obtain Indigo. — The plant is 
cut, steeped in water, and kept or allowed to ferment till the liquid 
becomes charged with the colouring matter. The liquid on evapora- 
tion i.s mixed with air with the result that oxidation takes place and 
the indigo is set free^ which is next collected in shallow wooden boxes 
and moulded into small pieces one inch square. Dose, 1 to 3 grains* 

f fits. — Indican (a glucoside). 

^m. — Decoction of the plant (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 8 drs, 

id uses. — Plant stimulant, alterative and purgative ; used 

in eiil ^ Ml of the liver and spleen, dropsy, affections of the lungs 

aad kidneys, whooping cough and palpiutions of the heart. 



'«l6 INDIGOFERA TRIFOLIATA. 

Indigo is given in epilepsy and erysipelas and also in amenorrhcea. The 
natives apply indigo to the navel with castor oil in constipation also to 
the pubes and hypogastrium in relieving retention of urine. A poul- 
tice of the plant is used to relieve haemorrhoids. Indigo is a soothing 
application to burns and scalds, and the juice of the leaves is used as a 
ploultice externally and given internally as a prophylactic against bites 
of venomous animals and hydrophobia. 
Indigofara Aflpalatboides. Aapalathus Indions. Lespedeza Jonoaa. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Carnatlc. 

Parts used, — The plant. 

Vernacular — Maleal. — Manili, manneli. Mar. — Shiva nimb« 
Sans. — Shiva nimba. Tam. — Shevenar vaymbu. 

Characters. — A low shrub ; branches slender, one flowered ; leaflets 
pale green, oblong and lanceolate. Pods straight, glabrous, turgid, 6 
to 8 seeded. Flowers, rose coloured. 

Preparation, — Decoction of the plant (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 fld. ois. 
Oil extracted from the root. Paste and ashes. 

Actions and uses. — Cooling, demulcent and alterative. The paste 
of the plant is used to reduce oedematous swellmgs. The ashes of the 
burnt plant are used to remove dandruff" from the hair. The decoction 
is used in cancerous affections and leprosy. The root is chewed to 
relieve toothache and aphthae. The oil is used in erysipelas. 

Indigofera Trifoliata. 

Habitat, — Ceylon. 

Part used, — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Guz. — ^Vekari. 

Characters. — Seeds oblong, very smooth, shining and beautifully 
mottled with dull red or black points; colour varying from yellow to 
dark red or pink. In size they resemble mustard seeds ; cotyledons of a 
yellow colour ; taste that of Maga-ni-dala (Phaseolus mungo). 

Preparations. — Confection i to 2 drs. and decoction (i in 10). 
Dose, 4 to 12 fld. drs. 

Actions and uses. — Tonic and restorative. A confection of these 
seeds with other mucilaginous drugs is used in rheumatism, lumbago, 
general debility after delivery, in seminal weakness and leucorrhcea. 
The decoction is used for relieving pain in the back and waist 

Indigofera Pauoifolia. 

Habitat, — Bengal, Madagascar. 

Part used, — The plant. 

Vernacular. — Tam. — Kuthekar, summattee. 

Characters. — Leaves covered with a hoary pubescence ; root small 
and twisted. 

Preparation, — Decoction, (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 os« 



LUPINUS ALfiUS* 



217 



Acthns and uses. — Alterative, antiphlogistic, antisyphilitic and 
deobstrucnt. The decoction is used locally to foraent the joints and 
Intcmaily in rheumatism. 

Jonesia Asoka. 

J, Pinnata. Saracalndica. S. Arborescens* 

HahiiaL^\{\mii\^y^t Ceylon, East Indies. 

I^iris used, — The bark. 

P'tfftacuMir, — Beng. — Jasundi, Asoka, Burm, — A-thau-ka-pho, 
Can. — Asoka, ashunkar. Cing. — Diya-rat mayL Chin, — Wu-yu-wha, 
Eng. — The Asoka tree, Guz, — Asupila. Hind. — ^Jasundi, Asok. 
Mar — Jasundii Asoka. Sans. — Asoka, Gundapushpa, Kankelif 
Anganapriy^ Tarn. — Ashogam. 

A&hok;i — a ** without/* and **5hoka/* sorrow or pain, meaning free 
Irom pain, Gundapushpa — Gundh smell or odour, and pushpa flowers. 
It mcjins odor»3us flowers. Angana-priya — dear to women. It is an 
embkm of love, 

CAaracltrs.^B;kTk externally smooth, of a dark brown or ash 
colour. Internalty fibrous and of a pale reddish colour. Tastet 
astringent. 

Constituents. — Tannin and catechin. 

fyiparatton. — Decoction (] in 10} made in milk. Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent ; the decoction with a number of 
aromatics h mvcn m uterine affections. Chiefly in menurrhagia. 

Remarks* — Jasundi is the name for Hibiscus Rosa sinensis» for 
which it should not be mistaken. 

Lupinus AlbiiB, 
Habitat — Egypt, Italy, Sicily, and Mediterranean countries. 
Parts used. — The seeds. 

V<rnacutar, — Arab, Hind. — Turmus, B^ila^t-misri, Zurmish, 
Eng, — WhMc lupine, Horse beans. Pers, — Tira niisha. 

Characters. — Seeds white outside and yellow inter najly, globiUar 
and bard, with a depression at the centre of both surfaces. They have 
a hole on the top, taste bitter. Dose, to to 15 grs. 

Constituents, — Mah'c, oxalic and citric acids ; a golden yellow oil 5 
px, and wax containing a liltle phosphorus, no starch, no inulin, but a 
peculiar jnubstance related to dextrine (a white hygroscopic powder 
soluble in w.«ter and insoluble in ether). Gal act ane, a hydrocarbon, a 
principle similar to galactifie obtained from Lucerne ; also a hydrocarbon 
Parai^alaUine — which is soluble in water; atid when boiled with acid 
it is convertrd into galactose. The albuminous portion of the seeds 
consists of cunji^1utin« legumin and vegetable albumen, also three 
alkaloids, uamuly, lu^ininc, luzanine and lupulidinol. Germinated seeds 
contain asparagin, phenyl ami do- propionic acid, amido -valerianic acid, 
Jeudne, tyrosin, xanthine, hypoxanthine, lecithine, peptone, argininei 
aiKi choline, also vanillin. 




91 8 MIMOSA PlTbiCA. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Acttons and uses. — Carminative and emmenagogue. The decoction 
with rue and pepper is given in fever, loss of appetite and nausea« 
also in leprosy. As an emmenagogue it is given in disordered mens- 
truation ; boiled in vinegar the seeds are applied to disperse swollen^ 
scrofulous or parotid glands. 

Vida Faba. 

Habitat — Persia. 

Part used. — The beans. 

Vernacular, — Eng. — Field bean. Pers. — ^Bakila. 

Constituents, — The beans contain proteids, phosphoric acid, also 
amylaceous and saccharine matter. 

Actions and uses. — The beans are nutritive, tonic and expectorant. 
The root is diuretic. 

Mimosa Pudioa. 

Habitat. — Hotter parts of India. 

Parts used. — The leaves and root. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Sensitive plant. Beng. — Lajak, Lajiwant. 
Burm. — Hte-ka-yung. Can. — ^Mudugudavre. Hind. — Lajftia, Lajuk, 
Lajwanti. Mar. — Lajri. Sans. — Khaderi, Anjali-Karika. Tam. — 
Totavadi. Tel. — Attapatti, Pedda-Nidra-kante. 

Anjali-karika — ^Joining hands as in prayer or worship ; the leaves 
join together on the slightest touch. 

Characters. — Flowers purple or pale pink ; root fibrous ; leaves 
pinnate, falling off on the slightest touch. Taste pungent. 

Constituents. — The root contains tannin 10 p.c. and ash 5.5 p.c. 

Preparations, — Infusion of leaves (i in 20). Dose, 4 to 8 drs. 
Decoction of root (i in 10). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Alterative given in torpor of the liver, fever, 
piles, aud jaundice. The decoction of the root is given in urinary 
diseases. 

Maoona PrarienB, M. Frarita, Doliohos Pniriaiui. 

Habitat. — India, Ceylon and Burmah. 

Part used. — The seeds and hairs covering the pods. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Cowage or Cowitch. Beng. — Bichhoti, 
Alkusi, Kam^ch. Bomb. — Kuhiii, Kavacha. Burm. — Khwae-lae, Khu-e- 
le. Can.— Nasa-guni-Turichi. Cing. — Achiryi. Duk — Ktoch-kiiri. 
Guz. — KAv^nch. Hind. — KAwicha. Mar. — Kuhiii, Kavacha. Pers. 
— Hub-el-Kulai, Sans — Atma^upta, Kopikach-chhu, Vanary. Mai. — 
Nayi, Karona. Tam. — Puna-Kali. Tel. — Pelliadugu Kaia, Dulagondi. 

At ma Gupta — Having hidden properties, Kapikachchhu— 
monkey's itch. Vanari — monkey plant. 



ItTTCUKA MOKOSPERMA. 



21^ 



i?cf/rr.— Pods curved like the letter / 3; or 4 inches long, 

rith rigid »brown hairs and filled with brown matter which 

soon penetrate the skin and irritate it if handled. Skin of the pod hard 

id of a dark colour ; seeds 3 to 5, dark brown or dark coloured, kidney- 

baped« compressed, shining anci smooth ;5ome mottled on the surface 

ich having large white oblong ring, wrinkled at the margin and 

ccupying the hilum ; testa thin and brittle ; cotyledons greyish- whit e> 

rd ; of a disagreeable smelt and taste. 

ConstiiuenU, — Resin, tannin and fat, and a trace of manganese. 

Preparatiom. — Hairs of the pods or powder. Confection (i in 2), 
[ucuna seeds boiled in milk, then decorticated pounded and fried in 
^arified butter, and made into a confection with twice the weight of 
ijgar and aromatics. Dose, 60 to 180 grs. A compound powder, 
Cavacha Pushtika — contains' M ucuna seeds, Tribulus Terrestris, root of 
^hite silk tree. Asparagus adscendens^ Emblic myrobalans^ Tinospora, 
irch, sugar candy in equal proportion. Dose, 10 grs. in milk 
3r spermatcirrhcea, 

Actmm and wj^^.— The seeds are nervine tonic, emmenagogue and 
phrodisiac, used in leucorrhcea, menstrual derangemc^nts, and 
iralysi^. The confection is given in paralysis and seminal 
ability. The hairs of the pods are vermifuge and given in round 

fi». They work mechanically by injuring the worms and promot- 
^^ bcir expulsion. When applied to the skin or to the mucous 
ciembrane, the hairs produce a painful irritation and eruption, and 
Bocc arc very dangerous if left in the intestines. In such cases their 
Imintstration should always be followed by a purge of calomel and 
Dose uf the hairs, I to 3 grs. 

Httouna Monosperma. 

ffabiiaL — Eastern Himalaya, tropics, Western Peninsula, Ceylon, 
f\irt used. — Tlie seeds. 

Vernacular. — Mar. — Songaivi, Mothtkuhilt« Tam.— Thelukodi^ 

Characters, — The seeds are large, flat and circular; testa rough and 

*L colour. The whole convex margin is occupied by the hilum ; 

f-seeded, semtovat, and armed with bristly hairs of a brown 

Used as paste* 

Actians and uses, — Expectorant and sedative, given in cough 

asthma ; externally as a sedative it is applied to painful jointa. 

lljFOxyloQ Pereirs B« P. Tolnifera Pereirai* 

jffahiiat^CGuirdl America (Salvador.) 

Part used. ^h balsam exuded from the trunk after the bark has 
ecn beaten and scorched. Balsamum Peruvianum, Balsam of 
^eru, B. P., Black balsatnp Balsamum Indicum. 

Characters, — It occurs as a thick^ viscid, brownish liquid of a 
benzoin and vanilla odour, and persistent bitter taste. It is black when 
in bulk, but in thin layers it is deep orange-brown or reddish brown 




«20 MYROXYLON TOLUIPBRA. 

and transparent. Insoluble in water, soluble in chloroform and alcohol 
and in spirit (i in 5). Dose, 5 to 15 ms. in emulsion. 

Constituents, — Cinnamein, Metacinnamein, a crystaliizable solid* 
Resins, cinnamic acid, styracin (which is cinnamate of cinnyl), &c. 

Cinnamein or benzyl cinnamate obtained by treating the bakam 
with potash, is a colourless aromatic oil, known as Peru balsam oil ; on 
dry or fractional distillation the oil yields benzyl alcohol, benzylic 
benzoate, benzylic cinnamate, all colourless aromatic oils. With potash 
it saponifies and yields benzalcohol 20 p.c. and cinnamic acid 40 p.c. 

Preparation. — Syrup, emulsion, solution, ointment. 

Actions and uses.^ln small doses antiseptic, disinfectant, vascular 
and nervine sedative, tonic, expectorant, diaphoretic, and diuretic. It 
stimulates the mucous membranes. Its action closely resembles that 
of styrax and benzoin. In large doses it causes nausea, vomiting, 
stomach pain, intestinal colic and diarrhoea. 

Therapeutics. — As a disinfectant stimulant and expectorant it is 
used in catarrh of the mucous membranes, as in chronic bronchitis, 
asthma, phthisis, gonorrhoea, gleet and leucorrhoea ; used externally as a 
stimulant in chronic skin diseases, to relieve jtching in indolent ulcers, 
eczema, sore nipples, freshly-made wounds, also in otorrhoea and 
alopecia. 

/Remarks. — The balsam partially covers the odour of iodoform. 

Myroxylon Tolnifera, B. P. 

Habitat. — Central America, Carthagena, Mountains of Tolu. 

Part used. — The balsam, obtained by making incisions in the 
trunk. Balsamum Tolutanum, Balsam of Tolu, B. P. 

Characters. — It occurs as a soft, tenacious solid, in thin film of a 
•yellowish brown colour and transparent. Becoming harder and 
brittle on keeping ; odour highly fragrant ; taste acid and aromatic ; 
soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. 

Constituents- — Styracin, cinnamic acid, resin, and a volatile oil* 
Resin — amorphous, black, brittle, soluble in alcohol. 

Preparation. — Syrupus tolutanus, B. P., syrup of balsam of Tolu 
(i in 38). Dose, J to i dr. Tinctura tolutana, B. P. ^i in 10), Tincture 
of balsam of Tolu. Dose, J to i dr. An ingredient m the preparation 
of Tinctura benzoini composita. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, and expectorant, used, like balsam of 
Peru, in bronchial affections, catarrh, coughs, &c. The syrup is used 
in cough mixtures. 

Remarks. — ^The syrup is used to cover the taste of chloral 
hydrate. 



OKMOCARPinvf SENNOIDES, 



Ui 



Tel 



Ormooarpmn Sennoidea. 

HahitaL — Western Peninsul.i, Ceylon. 

P^rtuifd, — YouDg shoots and flowering parts. 

Vernacular. — Tamil. — Katmorungi, Can, — Kadunugge* 
Adavimunga. 

Ckaracten. — Young shoots are covered with soft glutinous haifi 
und a glutinous secretion of a go)d yellow colour ; leaves pinnate; 
leaflets alternate, oblong, obtuse and membranous. Racemes short 
axillary. Flowers yellow. 

/Vr^^r^/ionf.— Decoction of the root (i in jo). Dose, a to 6 drs. 
Lioiinciit — made by boiling the flower tops and young shoots to 
fiwect oil. 

Aciwns and uses. — Tonic and stimulant; the decoction is given in 
fivers. The liniment is used in paralysis and lumbago* 

PhyaoBtigma Venanosnm B, P. 

Calabar bean» ordeal bean^ chop nut. 

Physostigma from physa an ** air bubble '* or •* bladder ** and 
stigroa a ** mark by a pointed instrument/' The stigmatic appendage 
is hollow and inflated like a bladder. Venenosum from Venum a 
poison^ — the plant is poisonous. 

Habitat. — W. Africa, India, Brazil, Calabar. 

J^ris used—Tht ripe seeds or bean — physostigmatis seraina, 
Calabar bean, BR 

Characters* — A woody creeper ; seeds thick, oblong and reniform : 
twta hard, granular and of chocolate brown colour; hilum broad ana 
black with a groove along the whole length of the convex edge ; 
cotykdon!> two, firm, white, starchy and convex ; without any odour 
and of a bean- like taste. Dose, dry powder i to 4grs. The ripe seeds 
conisin in the integument physostigmine to which alkaloid its poisonous 
properties are due. 

Constituents* — Calabar bean contains physostigmine or eserine ; 
Hid calabarinc or cseridmc ; Phytostcrin, starch 48 p» c, proteids 23 
p^C, mucilage, fat and ash 3 p.c. 

Physostigmine or eserinc, 

U is obtained from the alcoholic extract of the seeds 
by treating it with an alkali and dissolving the alkaloid in ether. 
Colourless or pinkish rectangular crystals slightly soluble in water, freely 
soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and dilute acids. The solutioa 
rapidly becomes red by exposure to air and light* Dose, j^j^ to ^ of 
a gr, Physusti^mmx H^drobromidum. Physostiminc Hydrobromide, 
Eserine Hydrobromaie — an hygroscopic white amorphous po%vder, 
ver>* soluble in water. Dose, ^^ to i*d gr. 

Physo^tigminte Salicylas Physostigmine Salicylate. Colourless 
shining ntedie shaped crystals without odour, of a bitter taste and 
neutral reaclion, soluble in water (i in 150) in alcohol (1 in it) be- 
coming red on exposure to air* Dosei ^ to ^ gr. Solution 5 p.c. is 



2^Z PHYSOSTIGMA VBNENOSUM. 

used as Injectio Physostigminae Salicylas Hypodermica (i in loo). 
Dose 1 to 6 minims. Physostigminae Sulphas B. P. Physostiffmine 
sulphate or Eserine sulphate, a deliquescent amorphous powder or 
yellow-whitish minute crystals, becoming red by exposure to air and 
Mght, of bitter taste, very soluble in water, soluble in alcohol. Dose, 
bV ^o «V o^* S**- Used as Gutter Physostigmina (2 grs. to i ounce). 
Guttce Physostigmtnas cum Cocaina — i gr. of sulphate of physostig- 
inine, S grs. cocaine Hydrochloras to water one ounce. Lamelhat 
Physostigminae B. P. Discs of Physostigmine, physostigmine sulphate 
tcAjit &' ^° ^^^^* injectio physostigminoR sulphatis Hypodermica — 4 grs. 
to I ounce. Dose, i to 4 discs. 

Calabarine or Eseridine — Eseridina — An alkaloid antagonistic to 
physostigmine and allied to strychnine in its action. Exists ready for- 
med in Calabar bean ; also obtained from the mother liquor by pre- 
cipitation with subacetate of lead and ammonia. It is a white crystalline 
powder, sparingly soluble in water and ether, soluble in dilute 
acids. Dose, 3,^ to ^ of a gr. 

Phyiosterin, — Obtained by exhausting beans with petroleum ether. 
Resembles cholesterine. Has \ the toxic action of physostigmine, has 
a tetanic action on the spinal cord and produces abundant mucous 
discharges from the intestines 

Preparations. — Of Calabar bean. Extractum physostigmatis, B.P, 
Extract of Calabar bean, an alcoholic extract, containing milk sugar 75 

gc. Dose, i to 1 gr. given in tetanus. Tinctura physostigmatis 5 p.c. 
ose, 5 to 15 ms. 

Physiological action, — Physostigma is a powerful nervine sedative, 
myotic, paralyzant of the spmal cord, antiseptic, emetic, purgative 
and diaphoretic. In large doses poisonous. It produces complete 
paralysis with abolition of reflex sensibilities, but does not affect the 
brain. In medicinal doses it stimulates the secretions of the skin, the 
lachrymal and salivary glands, the stomach and intestines, setting 
tip nausea, vomiting, purging, increased intestinal peristalsis, saliva- 
tion and diaphoresis. It is eliminated in the urine. It raises the arterial 
tension and increases the heart beats. Its action on the muscles of 
respiration is at first to cause spasm settmg up dyspnoea followed by 
paralysis of respiration. It also causes carbonic acid narcosis, and death. 
The alkaloids physostigmine and calabarine have different actions. 
They produce contradictory results. Physostigmine paralyses the 
nerve centres and stimulates the muscular fibres, calabarine causes 
convulsions and is allied in action to strychnine. Physostigmine acts 
on the cord like gelsimium, but is antagonistic to strychnine and 
picrotoxine ; Calabar acts on the cord like strychnine and picrotoxin. 

Therapeutics. — The preparations of physostigma and its alkaloid 
physostigmine, applied locally to the eyes, contract the pupils and are 
antagonistic to atropine. The extract of physostigma may be given 
by the mouth, anus or subcutaneouslv in tetanus, and the dose should be 
repeated and increased every hour till paralysis short of arrest of breath- 
ing is produced. In chorea it may be ^iven in small doses. In para- 
lysis it arrests muscular wasting, and improves muscular power. In 



PlSCinU ER\THRINA. 



113 



obstinate constipation it is sometimes given combined with uux 

vomica and belladonna. Locally it is applied to neuralgic and rheumatic 

painful part<». Physostigmine should be used with great care and should 

be at once stopped if paralysis sets in. It contracts the pupils and is 

am^gonistic to atropine, and hence used in eye diseases to diminish 

reflex excitability. Physostigmine is given in large doses gr. ^ to J 

I ijouth, rectum or subcutaueously in tetanus, chorea and tonic 

t US. In small doses it is of benefit in locomotor ataxia, 

V riicrs' cfjrnpand progressive paralysis of the insane and paraplegia 

! ; to myelitis^ ; often given in profuse sweating in phthisis. 

In. mute or salicylate of eserine is preferable to the sulphate 

;i,;iodcrmic purposes. It is also locally applied in affections of the 

eye as glaucoma, in scrofulous ulcers of the cornea, in presbyopia and 

in iritis, Eserine drops (^ to 2 grs. of physostigmine sulphate 

to an ounce of water) cause contraction of the pupils and are 

antagonistic to atropine. Eserine salicylate is a spinal depressant, 

antlteunicand myotic, used hypodermically in tetanus, chorea, atonic 

convulsions. In South Africa calabar bean is used as an ordeal for 

witches. Taken internally, if vomiting occurs it establishes Innocence 

[fit the accused. 
^ Piacldla Erythrina. The fish catching coral tree, 
Pi%cidia. — Ptscis a fish — its effect on fish being intoxicating, 
HabttaL — West Indies, chiefly growing in arid districts on the 
mountains of the Antilles. Most common in Jamaica, 
Part tnrd, — The root bark, 
CA/imc/icr.— The bark is tough and fibrous, in pieces of two to four 
inches in length. Irom one to two inches wide and about one-eighth of 
[»n inch in thickness. The outer surface is dark grey or brown 
frequently studded with flattened protuberances of a lighter colour 
than the surrounding bark ; central portion much lighter coloured^ 
and when wet or freshly broken of a peculiar blue green colour ; its 
inner surlacc is dark brown and very fibrous ; odour narcotic, strong, 
iblc and opium like. When chewed it produces a burning 
II in the mouth and pharynx. Dose oi the powder, 20 to 

CQmiihienh,—Th^ active principle Piscidin, a yellowish resisoid 
amorphous powder. 

ihon, — Extractum Piscidrae liquid um, fluid extract of 
Pii- I miscibie with water. Dose, 20 to 120 ms. Extractum 

Pisciui^, ««n alcoholic extract. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 

Physiologtcal actions. — ^Narcotic, general sedative, anodyne and 
hypnotic, similar in many properties to opium, but free from its 
objectionable after-effects, viz., constipation, disturbance of the secretory 
organs, headache and other nervous symptoms ; also free from the 
liability to the formaiion of a habit. It differs from opium in that it 
dilates the pupils ; as an analgesic and anodyne it is inferior to opium, 
yet iu hypnotic action is more decisive ; as a narcotic it relaxes the 




224 POINCIANA PULCHBRRIMA. 

muscles, produces inco-ordination of movements, lowers the sensibility, 
stimulates the vasomotor centre and thus increases the arterial tension 
and also the action of the heart. Its action on the spinal cord is to 
stimulate the cord with lowering of its reflexes. It increases the 
secretion of the skin and salivary glands. 

Therapeutics. — It is given as nervine sedative in delirium tremens, 
sleeplessness, also in painful and neuralgic affections, whooping cough, 
facial neuralgia, headache, and sciatica. In uterine diseases such 
as dysmenorrhoea and uterine displacements it is given to relieve 
pain. It is a good soporific for those who are addicted to alcoholic 
drinks. It is also given in bronchitis, phithisis and asthma to allay 
irritative cough. Locally it allays toothache. 

Poindana Paloherrima, Oasalpinia Puloharrima. 

Habitat. — India, Ceylon. 

Paris used.^^The bark, leaves, and flowers. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Gula-mohara. Beng.*— Gul-i-turaha. Can. — 
Konjige. Eng. — Small gold mohar. Hind.— Gul-i-turah, Krishna 
Chura. Mar. — Shankeshwar Shankeshwar. Tam. — Mail, Kannai, Komri. 
Guz. — Gulmohor, 

Characters, — A beautiful tree; leaves doubly pinnate ; leaflets oblong 
oval and emarginate, surface smooth; flowers of an agreeable odour in 
loose spikes at the extremity of the branches, of a beautiful orange or 
deep red colour, or yellow with some spots of green. Bark ash* coloured, 
smooth, and studded with elliptical corky wart-like growths. 
Internally pinkish; taste nauseous and very astringent. 

Preparations. — Infusion of bark (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. and 
paste of leaves. 

Actions and uses. — Antispasmodic, uterine sedative and laxative, 
given in amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhea, colic, tympanitis, &c. 

Remarks. — Allied species — Poinciana Regia or Royal Poinciana, 
yields a kind of gum in irregular granular warty tears ; the colour is 
yellowish or reddish brown. With water it forms a thick opaque 
mucilage. It contains a large quantity of oxalate of lime. 

Pon^amla Glabra. 

Habitat. — Near the coast of India. 

Parts used. — The leaves, root bark and leaves pod, seeds and oil 
(Pongamia oil). 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Dahara-karanj. Burm. — Tha-wen, Pimizu. 
Can. — Hougekanuga. Cing. — ^MoguS-karanda. Duk. — Karanj. £ng.^ 
Karunj oil, Houge oil. Guz. — Karanj. Hind. — Kira-m&la, sukh chen, 
Karanj. Mar. — Karanj. Malay. — Punnam, Unna. Panj.— Shook-chain* 
Sans. — Naktamalaka. Tam. — Pungam. Tel.- Kaggera, Kr&nusa, 
Nakta m&la. — Garland of the night» The pods are worn round the 
neck in whooping cough. 



{•SOltALIA CORYUFOtJA. 



tts 



Sukh-cttcu— sukh, happiness, and chen, rest to thesenseSi meaning 
■fi)rdiDg perfect satisfaction to the senses. The beautiful drooping 
branches, shining green leaves and rose-coloured fiowcrs give happiness 
to the scn^e of sight. 

Ckar/tcUrs, — Leaves large and pintiatc ; leaflets opposite 2 to 3 
pairs, o\^lf pointed, smooth and shining. The taste is acrid and bitterish. 
Bark externally i^mooth, of an ash or yellowish green colour, and here 
and there marked with tubercles or scars» Internally green or greyish 
white, very lough and fibrous. Odour very disagreeable and 
heating. Taste bitter and pungent. SeeJs larger than the kernels of the 
alraond, of a brownish red colour, raihtjr kidney shaped and compressed. 
Testa wrinkled, very thin and papery ; cotyledons oily and yellow, 
ciduur and lasle resembling those of the bark. 

Conshtiufifs. — The see<ls contain a bitter and pale sherry coloured 
oil 27 p, c, known as Pongamia oil or Honge oil The bark 
coDtains a bitter alkaloid, resin, mucilage, sugar but no tannin. 

Ptfparatfon.—lnhisinn of leaves (i in 10). Doscp 2 to 6 dra. 
coction of the root (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 

Actions anti uses. — Theoil is stimulant, parasiticide and non-irritant; 
it does not stain the skin ; used in scabies, herpes, porrigo capitis* 
piyriasts versicolor, psoriasis and other skin affections ; generally used 
combined tvith an equal ^^uantity of lemon juice ; also used as an 
cmbriication in rheumatism. The leaves ar^; stimulant^ carminative 
and alterative and are used in dyspepsia, diarrhoea, flatulency, also in 
leprosy, epilepsy and abdominal enlargements. The juice of the root is 
demulcent and cooling, and used in gonorrhoea and to clean foul ulcers 
and fistulous openings. 

Psoralla Corylifolia. Trtfolium Uniflorum, 
Habitat, — Himalaya, Ceylon. 
f\irt used. — The seeds. 

Fernacuhr. — ^ Beng.— Uakucha, Lat-a-Kastury, Guz.^-Btivachi. 
Duk* — Bukchi, Bavanchiyan. Hmd.— Bavanchiyan. MalcaL — KarkaL 
Mar, — Bavachva. Sans. — V^akuchi Somaraja Kushta^Nasini, Lala 
Kasturtka. Tarn. — Kurpokarbhi. Tel. — Bapunga, Bavaachi, Kak 
ginja. 

Vhararttrs, — Seeds, kidney-shaped, flat, oblong, rough, ;\nd of a 
dark brown colour; hilnm situated at thu Umvlt endot its concave margin, 
somewhat bitid. At its upper end there is a small pointed projection, 
which i» the remainder of the style. In some seeds the five partite 
caJyx is found adherent ; surface highly reticulated, unctuous to the 
lotich ; dermis oily and sticky, easily separable from the testa ; odour 
faintly aromatic and agreeable, resembling that <if Bael fruit and elemi; 
taste aromatic, peadike, pungent and bitter ; testa of a brown colour 
and rather horny ; cotyledon of a yellow colour and dry, 

Constttuatts^^A colouiless oil^ extractive matter, 13-5 p.c' 
albumen. ?5ue.*f : ash 7' pc. containing a trace of manganese. 



226 



PlIS 



Prc/>aratirms. — Tincture (i in 20), Dose, ^ to 2 dr** Exlr;tcJ — 
oleo resinous ethereal extract. Medicated oil — Oleatc ofBavancKi — 
obtained from the seeds by soaking them for z few hours iit linseed 
oil or karanj teK 

Actions and uses. — Seeds are alterative, nervine tonic^ hHative^ 
aphrodisiac and stimulant ; given in leprosy and chronic skin 
A paste of them is applied externally to leucodcrmal patches 
eruptions of the skin. The powder is given internally with small 
doses of arsenic in leucoderma and leprosy with good results* The 
medicated oil is rubbed over the patches. The oTeo-resinous exinKt 
is more efficacious as an application than any other preparations, In 
hopeful cases» after a few days the affected patch becomes studded with 
red points, which gradually spread and coalesce ; sometimes pimples 
and small vesicles appear, which dry up and leave dark spots behicii. 
The discoloration gradually disappears and a normal colour of the skia 
lakes its place. 

Pterocarpus Hapsupiuni B.P., P* Indicus. 

///7AiV<?/.— East Indies, Ceylon^ Bengal, W. Peninsula. 

Pari Hstd, — The juice obtained from iacistons in Uie trunk 
and evaporated to dryness — Kino, B. P. 

Pterocarpus — Pteron, a wing, and carpos* a fruit* The fruits or 
legumes are winged. Marsupium— a pouch, bag, or purse. The fnitl 
is of the shape of a purse or a bag. 

I'trmuular, — Arab* — Dammul, Akhvayen-e-hindi. Bcng, — Pita 
sala. Can. — Bibla Honne. Cing, — Gammalu. Duk. — Bijesara, Ene. ^ 
Indian kino, Malabar kino. Hind. — Hira-dokhi, Ranga barota 
Malyai* — Vennap-pasha. Mar. — Asan. Pers.— Khuneseyi /. 
c^hindi. Tarn. — Knnda Miragu, Tel. — Gandim ruyam. 

Characters, — A tall tree — the juice is met with in bniLlc^ 
small, dark coloured or dried-blood-like augular fracments. or piecci^i orl 
thin transparent ruby red coloured slices, laste swcer i" 

astringent, and no odour ; when chewed it tinges the *aliva hi i 

and adheres to the teeth. It is collected in little cups made witl|J 
leaves, and is thus in the form of concavo-convex cakes. It is slightlyi 
soluble in %vater, soluble in alcohol and in boiling ipv^ater (80 p* c.)» In 
fluid state it resembles black currant jelly. Dose, 5 to 20 grt. 

Constituents. — Kino-tannic acid, 75 px,, pyrocatechiD (catechol), 
a crystalline neutral substance kinoin, kino red gunip pectm 
ash 1-5 px. 

KincMannic acid is similar to catechuic acid, found always mtxt 
with colouring matter and pcLtin. h gives a greenish prccipilaie irilJl*^ 
persalts of iron. 

Py roc at echin— Treat kino or Uie aqueous soluL* '"' i| 

ether. It is soluble in water, ether. Kiooin, Boil,. z 

hydrochloric acid, and agitate the i>olution with ether* Wlat^ o^y^i^ib 
sligluly ^ulublc in ctbcij and cold water. 



fTKROCARPUS SANTALrXUS. 227 

Preparations, — Tinclura kino, B* P, Tincture of kino (l Ixi lo}. 
ase, \ to I fld. dr» Pulvis kino corapositus B. P. compound powder 
of kino (opium 5, kino 75, cinnamon bark 20), contains 'opium 5 p.c. 
Dose, 5 to 20grs Infusion kino (i to 40). Dose, J to 1 oz» 

Actions and uses. — Astringenti tonic and haemoaatic, less power- 
ful than lanntn ; used in chronic diarrhcea, dysentery, menorrhagia^ 
pyrosis also in leucorrhcea and sore throat. Chiefly used for astringent 
gargles .tnd as an ingredient in diarrhoea mixtures. Catechin acts only 
oti the lower boweli. 



Ptorooarpus Santalinus, B. P. 

//if^i/<r/,— Madras, Western Peninsula, Ceylon, 

I^tris used. — The heart-wood— Plerocarpi lignum, D. P, Red 
sjinders wood, Ked sandai wood, 

I'cnuictdtir. — Arab, — Sundui» Atamar. Beng. — Kakto chona- 
don. Duk. — Lil^handan, Tambara chandana* Eng — Ked dye wood, 
Red vandal, Ruby or red sanders wood. Gur. — Rataujali, Lai chandan. 
Hind*— -Ragata chandana. Bunn, — Nasaphia. Can. — Kempu gaudha- 
ehekke« MaleaeL — Uruttah-Chandanam. Mar.— Timbara chandana, 
Rmanjali. Pers, — ^Sandulsurkh, Bukura, Sans. — Agaru-gandhaka- 
Ashtaica, Tam. — Shen-shandanam. TeL — Rakta. Gatidham, 

Rakta chandan, Rakla^ blood-tike colour. Chandan, sandal-wood. 
The colour of the wood is like that of blood. 

Ckaracterx. — Wood dark red with black streaks, heavy, sinking in 
water, taUe slightly astringent, smell somewhat aromatic. The cells of 
ihc parenchyma contain large crystals of oxolate of lime. The colour- 
mg matter is soluble in alcohol, ether and alkaline solutions, and gives 
a red colour. Docs not give any red colour to water. 

OjHStituents. — Santalin, Santal, Pterocarpin, Homopterocarpin, 
SantjJinc or Santalic acid. To obtain it precipitate the alcoholic 
»otiilkH) with acetate of lead, wash the precipitate, decompose it 
with sulphuretted hydrogen and evaporate. Red crystalline needles 
Of rc&inoid cuhjurtng matter without any odour or taste. Insoluble in 
water and soluble in alcohol. Pterocarpine and Homopterocarptne 
are alliai to cuumarin* 

/ /«.— Infusion (i in ro)* Dose, i 02. to 2 oafs. Tinctura 

Lavaih iiiposita, B. P. 

Actions find uses. — Refrigerant and astringent, A paste of the 
powder is used as a cooling application to the head, in headache and to 
liifitoied and swollen limbs. As an astringent it is used in combination 
with other astringent medicines in dysentery, diarrhcea &c. Its chief 
ii^e, However, is as a colouring agent in Pharmacy. 

Retnarks. — There are 3 kindsof sandal wood— white (shri khanda), 
ydJow (pita chandana) and red (rakta chandana). The white and 
yellow varieties arc one and the same wood of sautalium albumi only 
dtBcf iug iti colour. 



22^ 



i VTISUS SCOIMWILS. 




Pueraria Tuberosa* 
HahitaL — Western Himalaya^ Weilerii Penimula, Oi 
Part used. — Tubers. 

Vernacnian — Hind. — Sural, Siali, Pabarea, — Dcbrelara. Saiu.-^ 
Shurava, Tel, — D^ri, Gumodi, 

Characters. — Tubers pyriform or spindle shaped; sUc varying from 
a small pear to a turnip. They arc composed of woody layers mlh a 
large quantity of cellular tissue* Externally brown and scurfy. In* 
teruaily white and spongy. Taste acrid, bitter and inuciUginou&. 

Coftshtneuts. — A principle allied to luulio, ash l8 p*c., a saccharine 
matter^ a bitter principlCi an easily oxidizable resiu and a resin add. 

Actions and uses, — The root is acrid, used as a cataplasm to reduce 
swellings of joints. 

Cytisas Scoparius, B* P. 

Habitat. — Europe, W, Asia. 

Part used. — The fresh and dried tops — Scoparii Cacumina. Bn 
tups, B. P. 

Scoparius from scopse, twigs or *• diooqi. i nt^ tup:>are com! 
of twigs like a broom. 

Characters.— Common garden shrub ; leaves, small and d< 
Flowers, golden yellow. Tops in thin flexible branched twigs 
dark green colon r^ usually free from leaves, of a pecuhar odour and 
disagreeable bitter taste. Dose of the tops, lo to 30 grs, 

Constitueuts. — Sparteine ; a neutral cryslallizable principle, i»e^pa- 
rin, a volatile oil^ tannin, fat, wax, sugar and ash 5 to 10 p,c. " ne 

— sparteina, a volatile liquid alkaloid. To obtain it dUltl u \*i 

branches or exhaust the platit with vinegar, add liquid soda and ilimL 
It is a colourless, viscid oily liquid, heavier than and insoluble in water, 
becoming brown on exposure to the air, aniline odour, taste bitter, 
soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform. It contains no oxygen, possesses 
basic qualities, and is very poisonous, Oxysparteina* Ojiyspancinc, — 
an oxidation product of sparteine, occurs in white granular crystals, 
easily soluble in water, alcohol, ether, chloroform and strong alkaline 
solutions* Dose, J to i^ gr. Oxyspartcin^ hydrochloridum, oxy- 
sparteine hydrochloride — occurs in transparent crystal', freely soluble 
in water ; may be given hypodermically. Dose, J to 1 J gr, S ' .^ 
Sulphas, sparteine sulphate. To obtain it neutralize i»purieint i) 

with sulphuric acid and crystalli/c. Colourless or prisnuiic rhombic 
crystals or powder of saline bitter ta?te ; it absorbs moisture on exposure 
lo the air. It is soluble in water, 3 m 2, and in used as a 

solution 5 p. c, also hypodermically or as lame Is ^ uls. Dose, 

tto t gr. Injectio Sparteines Hypodermica contains 1 gr. in 6 ma. 
ose, 2 to 6 ms. 

Scoparin — a glucoside. To prepare it concentrate into jelly ibe 
decoction of the plant, express and purify. It occurs in pale yellow 
and amorphous masses without any taste or odour. 



ffAHTirinx>irA. 



22q 



Prefnraik'n. — Of broom tops. Iiifusum Scoparii, B, P. (i in lo). 
!i I to 2 fld. OKs. Decoctum Scoparii (r in 20). Dose, 2 to 4 oz. 



I 



\ 



drs. Extractum Scopari 
J 10 I dr. Hypodermic 



Succus Scopirii. B. P. Dose, 1 to 2 fld 
fluidum^ fluid extract of scoparius. Dose, 
Tablets \ g''- ^f sparteine in each. 

Pkysiufngicdl tictinn, — Broom tops. In small doses, diuretic and 
narcotic. In large doses emetic and cathartic, paralyzing motor and 
rcspiiatorv centres. Sparteine sulphate, the salt, mostly used 
medicinally. Is similar in action to conine and digitalis. It paralyzes 
the end or((ans of motor nerves, and vagi, and the respiratory centre in 
ihe oiedulla* In small doses, it is a cardiac toaic, strengthening the 
heart beats and pulse. It increases the secretion of the skin and 
kidneys, giving rise to diaphoresis and diuresis. The respiration is 
quickened at 6rst, but soon becomes slo^v and laborious, and there is 
a feeling of general warmth over the body. Under its use the feeling 
of distress and dyspn<ea is relieved. Given in Urge doses, it causes 
palpitation of the heart, a sense of tightness about the chest, with 
mu^uUr trembling and death by asphyxia, or from depression of the 
respiratory centres, 

T%9rap€uUcs.—\vi small doses as a mild narcotic, given in asthma, 
nalpitatioHp &c. Its use is contraindtcated in acute renal affections. 
Sparteine and its salts are given in angina pectoris, weak heart, 
dropsy, for the relief of 'dyspnoea, priccordral pain, palpitation and 
It4 action is not cumulative like that of digitalis. It is equal 
of digiialib or convatlarta, but its e(Tects are more lasting. In 
mitral regurgitation and in mitral stenosis with small irregular pulse, 
and in aortic regurgitation it quiets the heart. In exophthalmic 
Itre and in asthma it gives marked relief. Externally applied it 
urcrs the temperature, and hence used in erysipelas. 

Satbania Grandiflora, A^ti Grandiflorar 
Hahititi,--\W, Peninsula, India. 
Pant tisfii^ — The bark and flowers. 

fVrMrtcf^/rr/.— Reng.— Bak, Can. — Agashi. Guz, — Agaslhia. 
Hind. — Basna. Mar. — Agasta. — ^Sans* — Agasti, VranAri, Koka 
Sthuta pushpa, Tel — Avisi. Tani. — Agnth. 

Sthulapushpa— Large flowered. Vranari— Enemy of sores. 

Characters, — Leaves pinnate, oblortg, ovate, of acrid and astring- 
cot tas te. Flowers papilionaceous, white or x^^^ large and fleshy, calyx, 
>cd, racemes axillary. Taste mucilaginous and bitter, Legumes 
us, very long and contracted htlween the seeds. Bark 
iftd lor lly — externally greyi>h brown. In the fissures 

tiamerous ^ ' r^ of a red colour and becoming black on exposure 

to the air are seen. The outer portion of the bark contains the same 
kmd of gunt« but softer. 

C^mstiiuenh — Tannin and gum, 

/V^/iv/ra/wwjF.— Thcjuiceof theroci I to 2 drs.; paste of the root 
locally. 




230 TAMARINDUS IXDICA. 

Actions aud uses. — The root is expectorant. The bark astringent 
bitter tonic. The juice of leaves and flowers is blown up the nostrils 
in nasal catarrh and headache with relief. The juice of the root is 
given with honey in catarrh. A paste of the root with the stramonium 
root is applied to painful swellings. 

Sesbania Agypiiaoa, Aschynomene Sesban, Doliohos Satseban. 

Habitat — India. 

Parts used, — ^The bark and seeds. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Hab-el-fakd. Beng. — Jayante. Can. — Kariji- 
nange. Hind. — Jet, Rasin. Mar. — Shevari. Pers. — Sishiban. Sans.--- 
Jaya, Jayanti, Nadeyi, Vaija Yanta. Tam. — Champai. Tel. — Somanri. 
Jaya — Victorious ; Jayanti— daughter of Indra. ^fadeyi — River-bom. 

Characters, — Leaves abruptly pinnate, 3 times longer than broad. 
Leaflets 10 to 15 pairs. Legume tomentose, linear, slender, and much 
contracted between the seeds. Seeds oblong, kidney-shaped and smooth, 
taste bland, odour peculiar. It is difficult to powder. Dose of the 
seeds, 10 to 2ogrs. 

Constituents. — The seeds contain a fixed oil, an odorous body, 
resin, sugar, an organic acid, gum, proteids and ash 5 p.c. 

Actions and uses, — ^The seeds and the juice of the bark are 
astringent and given in diarrhoea. The leaves are used as a poultice 
to promote suppuration. The powdered seeds are applied to relieve 
the pain of scorpion bites. 

Tamarindas Indica B.P. T. oflSoinalis. 

Habitat. — India, cultivated throughout the tropics. East and West 
Indies. 

Parts used. — The leaves, seeds, and the fruit freed from the brittle 
outer part of the pericarp and preserved with sugar — Tamarindus, 
Tamarinds, B. P. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Tamar-hindi, Humara Sahara. Beng. — 
Tentula, Tetai, Tintri Amali. Burm. — Magye. Can. — Hunase. Cing. — 
Mahasi, Ambala. Eng. — ^Tamarind, Indian dates. Guz. — Amali, 
Kachika. Duk., Hind. — Ambli, Imli. Mah.— Chinchoka. Malay. — 
Neghka, Pers. — Ambala. Sans. — Amalika, Tintidi. Tam. — Pulic, 
Puliyam. Tel. — Chinta pundoo. 

Tamar-hindi — Indian date. Tamarind is derived from Tamar, a 
date, and Ind, Indian. It was supposed to be a product of an Indian 
palm-tree. 

Characters. — A large tree, leaves pinnate, linear oblong, 
obtuse, and of a dark green colour, leaflets linear, very short, petioled 
and oblique at both ends. Fruit a pendulous legume, from 5 or 
6 inches long, linear-oblong, slightly compressed, curved or nearly 
straight, as thick as the middle finger, and supported by a woody stalk. 
Outer shell, or epicarp thin and hard, brittle and of a cinnamon 



TEPHROSIA PURPURKA, 



231 



Dlour, containing withiit the shell the acid and juicy pulp of a 
irk, red or brownish dark colour. It is traversed by stroriR woody 
L'ing fibreSi which^ starting from the stalk, extend along the edges 
jdes. One of them extends along the concave edge; and two 
Rcfs on either side of the convex edge ; between these are 2, 3 
4 slender fibres all running towards the apex and throwing out fila- 
Is. Diffused in water^ the pulp forms a glutinous turbid liquid, 
ring m the presence of pectin. Seeds 10 or 12, enclosed in a tough 
Bcrnbranous cell, flattened, of an irregular outline, obtusely furrow- 
I, roundish or obovale and exalbuminous. Surface glabrous, shining, 
adofftd»rk brown colour, having on both faces scars conforming 
the outline of the cells, bears of a dark colour and marked 
ith tfansversc parallel ribs. Cotyledon ivory white and hard, 
l>mctimts a peculiar exudation of oxalate of lime flows from 
be Irec in a liquid form and on drying forms white crystalhne masses. 
Varieties, (i) These are ; West Indian, brown or red j (2) E, Indian, 
llack ; (j) Egyptian — flat round cakes. 

The Indian variety forms a firm black sticky mass. The pulp is 
Itxcd with seeds, fibres and pieces of shell. It is usually salted. Dose 
' the palp, 2 to 4 drams j of the seeds, to to 30 grs, 

Comtilurnti^ — The pulp contains tartaric 5 p.c, citric^ 4 p. c, 
Salic and acetic acids, bitartrate of potassium, sugar, gum and pectin, 
he seeds' testa contains tannin, a fixed oil, and insoluble matter* 

I\rMratiofis, — Syrup. Dose, i to 2 drs- Confectio sennas. Dose, 
1 to 2 ars. 

Aciiotn and uxes, — Pulp — antiscorbutic, refrigerant and laxative ; 
used in fever to quench thirst, in sunstroke and in bilious vomiting. As an 
aperient, it is given in habitual constipation. The pulp and leaves 
made hot are applied locally to inflammatory swellings. A gargle of it 
is given in aphthous sores, and for the relief of sore throat. The 
se^s are given in dysentery. The ash obtained from the suber is 
used as an alkaline medicine in acidity of urine and in gonorrhcBa, 

Tephfosia Purpurea, T. Lancifolia, Galena Purpurea. 

liabitnt — Tropical countries. 

fhirU useti—The plant. 

VrruncHhf — Beng, — Ban nlla. Duk. — Jangli Kulthi, Hunnai* 

tng. — Purple Goat's Hue, Guic. — Surpankho, Gada ka knn. IHnd. — 

arphunkd. Mar.^Unhali Sirpakhii. Malyal* — Koliml. Sans. — 
|[hafapunkkha, Punkhi. Tarn. — Kalluk-kay velai* Tel— Bonta 
/enipali* Surpunkh. 

SuTpunkha Sur, an arrow, and pankha-^the pinion or wing — ^the 
iciton of an arrow* The pinnate leaf of the plant is like the wing of 
arrow. 

Characters. — Root, hard, woody and as thick as a finger, colour 

Jirty white« smell aromatic, taste slightly bitter, stem slender, angular, 

I trowed and hairy ;ci»l»>ur greyish brown, leaves pinnate, in 5 to 7 pairs, 



232 TRACHYLOBUIM HORNEMANNIAXUM. 

leaflets oblong, obovate, shortly pe*ioled and hairy, especially on their 
under surface ; veins running parallel to one another on each side of 
the midrib. Each fresh leaf when torn asunder breaking off with a 
lower portion pointing at two ends, leaving the g«p in the form of 
letter V. This portion resembles horse's ears when pricked, and hence 
called Gada ka-kan. Flowers, small and purple ; pods compressed 
and curved. Each pod 5 or 6 seeded, smell like that of senna, taste 
bitterish. 

Constituents, — The extract contains chlorophylf, brown resin, a 
trace of wax, a crystalline principle, allied to quercitrin, gum, a trace 
of albumen and colouring matter, ash 6 p. c. containing a trace of 
manganese. 

Preparations. — Decoction and infusion (i in 10). Dose, i to 4 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Alterative, tonic, and diuretic ; used in cough 
derangements of the liver, spleen and kidneys As a diuretic it is given 
with black pepper in gonorrhoea ; in bleeding piles it is administered 
with cannabis Indica leaves. An infusion of it is given in fevers. The 
juice of the leaves is used over swollen hands and feet and also over 
swelling or puffiness of the face. Decoction is given in dyspepsia and 
tympanitis. 

Traohylobiam Hornemannianam. 

Habitat, — Africa. 

Parts used. — The gum resin. 

Vernacular. — Sandarus. 

Characters. — ^The resin is met with in yellowish brown masses, 
surface wrinkled, of a chonchoidal fracture and glossy, and without 
odour or taste, soluble in alcohol and oil of turpentine. Dose, 20 to 
40 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent 
and emmenagogue. With honey it is applied by the natives to opacities 
of cornea ; and with olive oil dropped into the ear, in earache ; an 
ointment is applied to promote the healingof wounds and to ringworm. 
It is also given to stop haemoptysis. Other uses are similar to those of 
copaiba but milder. 

Trigonella FcBnum Grsecam. 

Habitat, — Cashmere, Punjab, widely cultivated. 

Part used. — The seeds and herb. 

Vernacular. — Eng. Fenugreek. Arab« — Halbah Shimlet. 
Beng., Hind , Guz., Duk. — Methi. Burm. — Penan-ta-zi. Can.- Ment- 
hya, Mente. Cing. — Ulawa. Malyal. — Ulava. Pers.— Shembalita. 
Sans. — M^thi. Tam. — Vendayam. Tel. — Mentula. 

Characters.— Fo6^ sickle shaped, 2 or 3 inches long, flattened and 
ending in a point ; seeds rhomboid, semi-transparent, somewhat 
compressed and of a greenish yellow or 3'ellowish brown colour, hilunr. 



TRrGOKBT.I A rvCATA. 



^y^ 



l\v. Slur per edge, channel extending along the middle of the 
Skced and dividiDg it into two irregular biddies surface of the testa 
tubercular ; lasie bitter, odour aromatic. 

Omshtucnts^ — The cells of the testa contain tannin. The cotyle- 
dons contain a yellow colouring matter, but no sugjar ; seeds contain a 
fcetid bitter, fatty oil 6 p.c.^ also resin and mucilage 28 p*c , albumin 22 
p,c., two alkaloids — choline (a base found in animal secretions), and 
trigonelline. Trigonelline occurs in colourless prisms^ possessing a 
weak valine taste. It is hygroscopic, easily soluble in water and 
insolubl<5 in ether, chloroform and l>en2ol It is isomeric with 
pyridine^betain. By heating trigonelline with caustic potash pyridine 
distils over. The seeds on incineration leave ash 7 p.c, containing 
phosiphijric acid 25 p.c. 

Pte^ar&tmns, — Compound confection, known diS mclhi modak 
or svalpa methi modak. Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Aciions and uses* — Demulcent, tonic and carminative ; given in 
dyspepsia with loss of appetite, rheumatism and to puerperal women 
during confinement. In leucorrhoea the pessaries of methi powder 
are u»ed* 

Trigonella Uncata, Melllotus Officinalis, M. Alba, M. Parviflorus, 

T. Cornlcalata. 

Hnhiiat. — Persia and India. 

Parts used, — Tlie seeds and pods. 

Vernaculars, — Arab. — ^Aklil-ul-Malika, Giah-i-Kaisara. Bomb. — 
IkUl^ul Mulk, Aklula mulka. Beng. — Tairapa Sano Mtklya. Eng. — 
Sweet clo%'es« 

Charactfrs, — Pods, small crescent or sickle-shaped /greyiih yellow 
with a beak slightly curved outwards, an inch in length, grooved on 
both sides, with a central partition divided into two cells, each cell 
containing a single row of seeds — seeds hard, rhomboidal or roundish 
and small, like those of fenugreek, of a yellowish colour. Deeply 
notched on one side and marked with numerous black spots. Odour 
hkc that of fenugreek and taste pea-like. 

Cfmstitiinsis — Coumarin, (anhydride of coumaric acid) the odorous 
principle of mtlilot, 

Coumarin is obtained from T. Unctata» also from Tanka or Tonquin 
beans,— the fruit of Coumaruna odorata. In the wood of asperula 
odorata, anthoxanthum odoratum, &c. It is first digested in strong 
alcohol, evaporated and purified with charcoal. Also prepared synthe- 
ttcalty from salicylol or salicylic aldehyde. It occurs as colourless 
triclinic crystals of an agreeable aromatic odour and a bitter burning 
taste. Insoluble in cold water, soluble in boiling water. 

/V^/7rrf7//>>w,— Infusion. Decoction (1 in 10). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Acttotn and uses. — Alterative and stimulant A poultice of 
the bud^ is applied to disperse swellings and lo alluy local pains- 



234 



URARU LACIOrOIPBS, 



Internally they are givea iu colic, diarrlicea, tlysniennrrh<Ea aind rheu* 
mat ism ; also used in scrofula, syphilis^ &c, 

Coumarin is a narcotic. It stimulates the heail at firsi» ihcn 
causes great depression i a dose of 30 to 60 grains causes great depression, 
vomiting and giddiness. Used to disguise the odour of iodoform* 

Uncafta (Nauclea) Gambler. B. P. 

Habitat, — Singapore, Eastern Archipelago. 

Paris used, — An extract prepared from the leaves and vounc 
shoots. Catechu^ B.P. Syn. — Catechu Pallidium. 

Vtnmcular. — Eng.— The extract. Pale catechu > Terra Japonn-a, 
Indian — Chini Kath. Commerce, — Gambler^ Druggist's Catechu in 
square cakes. 

All the vernacular names of A. Catechu are applied to this*catechu« 

Characters.^y^^t with in cubes, reddish broirn externally. 
Internally pale or cinnamon brown — porous and friable. Cubet 
composed of minute acicular crystals. Taste bitter and astringent at 
first and sweetish after a time. Without any odour. Almost entirely 
soluble in boiling water, 70 p.c. in alcohol. Dose, 5 to i 5 grs. 

Co^i^/iVm^i//^.— Catechu, Tannic or Mimo-Tannic acid ; Catechin 
or Catechuic acid ; Catechuicacid by the action of alkalies splits up into 
japonic and rubinic acids. 

Prepatathm* — Pulvis Catechu compositus^ B. P, Catechu 4, 
Kino 2, Krameria root 2, Cinnamon bark 1, and nutmeg u Dose, 10 
to 40 grs. Trochischus Catechu, B. P*, I gr. in each. Ti net ura Catechu, 
B, P,» (I in 5). Dose» ^ to i fluid dr, 

Artions and uses. — Astringent : similar to those of Acacia Catechu. 
Given in diarrhoeat passive hasmorrhage, &c. 

Remarks* — The plant properly bdong?^ tc* Nat. O. Cinchonaccae. 

Uraria LagopoideSr U. Picta. 

Hahittit. — Nepal, Bengal. 

Pnrts used. — The root bark* 

rernncular, — U. Lagopoides* Beng. — Chakuliii, Hind* — Pithvan* 
Mar. — Duvala, (U, Ptcta) Sankarjata. Guz — Pilavan *. n.ihra, Prism* 
parni, Rana Giinju. Sans. — Pris-niparanl* Atiguha- 

Prisnia parni — Spotted leaf. Atiguha — great myblcry. Rjinti 
ganjA. Wild cannabis* — The spikes and tweeds resemble cannahU. 

Ch€iracten\ — Plant from 3 to 4 feet high, voung parts clothed 
generally witli minute hooked hairs. Leaves simple^ oblong and o\ite; 
upper ones or the leaflets compound linear and lanceolate ; flowers in 
racemes, terminal^ very long and spike-like, legumes small, often pale, 
and of a purple or reddish colour ; t^eed^ shining, and of a dull grey 
colour, thus resembling Cannal>i& seeds. 



MORIXGA PTERYGOSPFRMA. 



»35 



Prcparatiun. — Compound decoction (i in lo). Do5e, i to 2 
Id, oz, 

Actmtis and uses. — Alterative, tonic and astringent ; given in 
fevers, catarrh of the air passages and in general debih'ty. Rttn»4gAnjA is 
ufed as an antidote to the poison ot Phursa Snake (Echis Carinata). 

Morlngacaie — The Shengata or Bennut family. 

Gtticmi characters. — Trees large, leaves, bi-pinnate or tri-pinnaie, 
Flo\ver& white, irregular ; capsules* pod-shaped, three- valved. Seeds 
winged, numerous, without albumen. 

Htihitat — Arabia, East Indies. 

/¥o/<»r/i«^SIightly aromatic and stimulant. 

Morlnga Ptarygoaperma. Guilandina Moringa* Hyperaiithera 

Moringa. 
Habitat.— Xvi^vk^ 

Parts tis^d^ — The bark, root, fruit*, seeds and gum, 
I'tmaat/ar, — Arab. — Habulhau. Bcng.— Sohanjana. Bomb.^ 
Sekta, Segat. Rurm* — Da-tha Jwon. Can. — Nugge-gida. Cing. — 
Sanmurungay. Duk. — Mungey. Eng,— The Horse-radish tree. Guz — 
Saragavo. Sekato. Hind*^ — Shajanah, Senpva. Mar. — Soigut, Bododi, 
Malav. — Murinna. Pers. — Bun, Sajna. Sans. — ^Shobhana-jana, sigru 
Muringi, Dansha-mula-sveta, Maricha (the seeds). Tarn — Murungai 
Tcl.^ — Munaga, Sveta Maricha— white pepper, Doonsha, Mula. 
Pungent root. 

CAaracttrs. — Root bark light brown, external surface reticulated ; 
internally white, sofi and thick, smell and taste pungent owing to its 
containing an essential oil ; leaves large and bi-pinn:ac or tri -pinnate, 
leaflets, small, oblong, obtuse or rounded and smooth, green above and 
pale beneath ; smell acrid, taste very hot and burning. Fruit a foot or 
several feel long, greenish or light brown when ripe,triangularand ribbed, 
consisting of 3 valves, each containing a soft white pulp and from 12 to 
15 seeds. Seeds roundish and winged, taste of fresh kernel bitter and 
oily. Dried seeds, dark brown externally, white within, and resembling 
Amali. They yield a fixed oiK Fresh gum pink or brick red in 
colour. Dried specimens of a yellowish or reddish colour; met wnth in 
pieces or masses formed of agglutinated tears, pieces translucent, of 
variable sizes, generally vermicular in form and easily broken. Taste 
mucilaginous and astringent ; on section the interior is white. A good 
substitute for horse radish. Dose, 5 to to grs. 

CfinUitfients — The root yields an essential oil which is very 
ptingent and has a very offensive odour. The husked seeds yield oil 
56 p. c. The bark contains a white crystalline alkaloid, two resins, aii 
organic acid, mucilage, and ash 8 p.c* 

Prfparatinrts, — Paste. Moringa bark 4 ojes., Moringa nuts 4 nzs, 
lohacco 2 ojs., gunpowder 2 drs. Mix with water, make paste to 
rub over scorpion stings or bites. Decoction of the root (f in 20). 



idHas: 



idCto 



236 AGRIMOXIA EUPATORIUM. 

Dose, 2 to 6 drs. Compound spirit (i in 8). Moringa root, orange 
peel 20 ozs., nutmeg 5 drachms, spirit 160 ozs., water 4 ozs. Distil to 
8 pints. Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actiom and uses* — Antispasmodic, stimulant, expectorant, and 
diuretic. The root is very irritating to the skin. The decoction is a 
stimulant, given with asafetida and rock salt in internal deep-seated 
inflammation, in calculous affection, in hysteria, epilepsy, paralysis, 
rheumatism, dropsy, in cough and in flatulence in children, also in 
ascites due to enlargement of the liver. Asa diuretic it is given in 
uric acid diathesis. The pods are taken as preventive against worms. 
Externally the oil from the seeds is used as a stimulant application to 
rheumatic joints and to gouty and other painful parts. The bark is 
acrid. With cumin seeds it is applied locally to gum-boils and 
toothache with relief. It is applied to the temples in headache, and on 
venereal nodes and syphilitic buboes. The decoction of the root is used 
as a gargle in sore throat. The bark is abortifacient, and is used to 
procure abortion, and is a good substitute for laminaria to dilate the 
OS. The gum with milk or sweet oil is poured into the ear in earache. 
Poultice of the leaves is used in reducing glandular swellings. It always 
produces a blister. 

RosaoecB. 

The GuUba or Rose family. Trees, shrubs or herbs with 
-prickles and warts on woody surfaces. Leaves simple or compound, 
alternate, and usually stipulate ; flowers, regular, rarely uni- 
sexual, of different lovely colours and highly odoriferous; fruit entire, a 
drupe, an achaenium, a follicle or a pome ; seeds exalbuminous. 

Habitat — ^Temperate climates. 

Properties. — Some are astringent with succulent and edible fruits. 
Others are poisonous, as they yield hydrocyanic acid. 

Ammonia Eapatoriom. 

Habitat, — Temperate Himalayas, Persia, Europe. 

Parts used. — The herb and fruit. 

Vernacular, — Arab.-^Shajrat-el-Bardghit, Ghafith, or Shaukat-el- 
Muntineh. Eng. — Agrimony. Pers.— Gulkalli. 

Gulkalli — used to cure kalli or ringworm of the scalp. 

Characters. — Fruit rough and bristly, generally inverted when 
ripe, adhering to the clothes, stem ligneous, hairy and swarthy. Leaves 
indented at their edges, downy and swarthy. 

Constituents. — Tannin, 475, yellow fragrant volatile oil, a bitter 
principle and a colouring matter. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, 4 to 12 fld. drs. 

Actions and uses. — Aromatic, astringent, diuretic and taeni- 
acide. Agrimony tea is used in dyspepsia and taken hot to induce 
perspiration in fever, also as an antiscorbutic. The seeds with wine are 
used in dysentery. 



UKAYIiKA VNTIIELMINriCA. ZlJ 

Brayera Anthelmlntlca, B. P* Hagenia Abyasinica. 

Hahitat. — Abvi*iiinia, mountainous districts. 

Putts nsrtL — The dried panicles of pistillate flowers. Cu^so 
KoussOf B, P, 

Ftft/ifiLti/tir. — Boti^ — Kousjo. Guj. — Kussu. 

Characters, — The drug is gathered before the seeds are quite ripe, 
of a Itfihl m reddish brown colour, usually in cylindrical rolls of cora' 
prcwea and broken branches of long panicles of flowers, mixed with s^ome 

"Bniirc flowers. The bunch is sometimes a foot or more in length. 

"The panicle consists of a hairy stalk which is twisted and more or less 
branched. There are large bracts at the base of each branch. At the 
base of each flower there are 2 or 3 smaller ones between which is the 

Icalyx which is 5 partite and arranged in double rows. Each segment 
of the calyx is ovate and reticulated. The drug has a fragrant balsamic 
or ica-like odour, and an acrid, nauseous and disagreeable taste, difHcult 
of letention by the stomach. Dose, } to ^ ounce. 

Comiituents. — A volatile oil, a bitter acrid resin 6*25, called kous- 
sin ; tannin 24 p.c. ; ash 15*7 p.c, a tasteless resin, chlorophyll, wax, 
sugar and gum. 

Koussin, Kosin, Brayerin, Heat Cousso with alcohol^ add calcium 
hydrate, boil the residue with water, filter and distil. Treat the residue 
with acetic acid. It is a crystalline principle, resin like floccutant 

frecipitate, or yellow rhombic crystals ; tt is probably an ether of 
sobutyric acid. Taste, bitter, acrid ; odour leathery ; insoluble in 
water, soluble in chloroform, ether» benzol, bisulphide of carbon, less* 
iioluble in glacial acetic acid« sparingly soluble m cold alcohol. 

Volatile oil is obtained by distillation of flowers with water. The 
distillate also contains traces of valcreanic and acetic acids, 

Prtparatvms* — Extractum Cusso fluidum. Dose, 1 to 6 drs. Com- 
I pound emulsion ; a 6 p. c. infusion with castor oil, yolk of egg, a few 
* drops of ether, oil of anise and oleo-resin of male fern. Infusion (i in 4) 
of flowers. 

Acttom and uses, — Anthelmintic; especially useful for tape worms 
but it rarely expels the head. It has no purgative action. In large 
doses it produces nausea, vomiting, colic and diarrhoea ; olco-resiu of 
male fern is more reliable than cusso. 



Catoneastar Mummularia. 

Mi^i/rt/.— Persia, 

Parts used. — The manna. 

Vermtctilat, — Eng.— Blackwood tree. Guz. — Stra Khista Maiyu 
(Manna). Pers.— Shirkhisht, Shirkhushk, Bhaklu (Manna), Siah 
Chob, Kashiru. 

Shirkhushk— Shir, milk, and Khushk, dried milk. Diitd 
stems contain milk and when dry they are used for walking sticks, 

Four v.uicliei* of manna are met with in India. 



23« 



llEiUCHtiKA AMlLJIICAS'A. 



Turanjhin, — The product of Alhagr maurorum (Leguniino&.cj. 
GazaHJbm, — The product of Tamarix Gallica (TamaricAOcar). 

Shakr-ul-Ashar or shakar lagar, the product of calotropis Froocra, 

Asclepiadaccse, 

Shifkhisht, — The product of Cotoneaster Nutnmularia (Rosacese). 

Chiiraciers. — The mauna exudes or oozes out of the leaves, the 
bark of the trunk and targe branches ; sometimes it bursts through 
large pores spontaneously. It occurs in flat viscid pieces or yellowish 
while granules of the size of millet seeds. Each piece from 2 to 4 
inches in lengthy and 1 to i^ inches in breadth* and resembling ordmary 
camphor, odour sugary. It easily melts in the mouth leaving a sweet 
cool taste. Dose, 1 to 2 drs. in children ; 1 oz. for adults. 

CoHStituents. — Glucose 8-3 p.c, cane sugar 4*1 p,c. or an analogous 
sucrose and a new sugar 50 px. called chirkhestite which beluriL!.-. to 
mannite group and is nearly related to sorbite. 

Actiom and uses. — A mild aperient, demulcent and exptxL«iratu ; 
given to new-born infants if the meconium has not come away freely ; 
alM» to delicate persons, females and children, in torpid liver, deranged 
stomach, a4id intestines ; also given as demulcent and expectoiant in 
cough and sure throat. 

Heuchera Amerioana. 

Alum Root (Eng.). 

IJabitiH. — United Stales. 

Parts used. — ^The Rhizome. 

Characters, — Plant viscid, pubescent ; leaves wide, crenate, 
flowers purple white. Root long, moderately thicki several headed, 
radicles thin^ and m;iny, and brownish purple. Bark thin, without 
any odour and astringent bitter taste. Dose, 10 to 40 grs, 

Co/wAVwrw^^.— Contains tannin 20 p.c, starch 12 p.c. Decoction 
(1 in 20) Dose, 4 to 12 drs. 

Physiological action, — The root is astringent, tonic and 
antiseptic. In small doses it is styptic to the taste and causes 
constriction in the throat and checks the mucous secretions and 
passive haemorrhages and mucous fluxes. 

ThefapcHiics. — Given in diarrhoea menoniiagiaj .um ;is a lotion or 
injection in leucorrhcea and gleet. The ointment is applied to 
haemorrhoids. As a dusting powder it is applied to aphtha*, ulcers, 
ic. 

PotentUla Canaden&is, P. Sarmentosa, P. TormentUta* 
P. Nepalenais, 

Binta falun (Hind^); Cinque foil (Fi%c fingers.) 
HahitaL — United States, N, India, Himalaya, 
Paris used, — The plant, rootlets and rhiicomc. 



l»RfSUS AMYCIMII s, 



Character^.— Herbaceous pl,int, haiuboine when in fliwer, under 
•urfaic (if I Ik- leaves covered with a fine dust which, ivhun the 
plant h shaken, causes sneezing ; rhizome 2 feet long and \ foot thick, 
tubcrculate and brownish red. Dose, lo to jo grs. 

Constiltitftis . — Tannin and red colouring matter. 

Preptirah'oHS^ — Fid, Extract 10 to 30 ms* Infusion of the vine 
Icai^es and root (1 in 20). Dose, 1 to 2 ozs. 

Actittni ami uses. — Astringent and tontc ; useful in nlghl-sweats 
of phthisis and succeeds when atropine and other remedies have 
(ailed. It is also useful in diarrhoea, dysentery and acidity of the 
i Stomach. Locally as a gargle for spongy and bleeding gums* 

Praniia Amygdalas, Var. Amara, B. P., P. Amygdalus, Var. 
Diilois, B* P*, Greek nuts. 

///7^j//i^,— Persia, Syria, Barbar)% Asia ; cultivated in Europe 
c&pccially Spain* 

Paris usee/. — The almonds shell. The ripe seed* Amygdala 
amara, bitter almond, B. P. Amygdala dulcis, sweet almond, B. P., 
and oil, expressed from bitter or sweet almond, oleum amygdalae, 
almond oil, B. P, 

Vernacular. — Eng- — The common almond. Arab — Louza 
|Loa2*el Murr-Louz ul hala (Bitter almond). Beng. — Belati bad^m. 
'Can.— Badami ^Ticktu badam^ Bitter almond)* Duk., Guz., Hind.| 

Mar. — Uadam* Pets. — Kadam. Sans. — Bada mitte* Tam. — Vadam 

Kottai, TeL— Badam V^ittulu. 

To the common Vernacular names, the word sweet or bitter is 
affixed according as the Vernacular is for sweet or bitter almond. 

Characters. — Fruit drupe, ovate, sarcocarp green and Icatheryi 
splitting and falling from the stone when ripe. Stone or nut is other- 
wise known ns commercial almond. Its outer shell pale brown, porous 
and hard ; within the nut are one or sometimes two kernels or 
secdsi which when in pairs are in juxtaposition to one another. Seed 
tbout an inch in length, flattened, lanceolate, ovate, compressed and 
with 16 lines radiating from blunt end, rounded at one end and pointed 
at the other, testa or cndocarp of a cinnamon brown colour and 
astringent as it contains tannin* The endocarp, or outer brown skin 
can easily be removed by keeping the seeds in hot water ; kernel is rose 
coloured or while, blanched and fleshy. 

Amygdala Dulcis, Jordan almond, sweet almond. The seed is 
one inch long, oblong, compressed, pointed at one end and rounded 
at the other* Testa cinnamon brown, thin and rough, seed e:i* 
albuminous composed of two large plano-convex, oily cotyledons ; 
taste bland, without any marked odour even tf triturated into 
cmubion with water. 



240 



PKUNUS AMVUriALUS, 



Amygdala Amara, B. P* Bitter Almond, — The seed ret^mblet 
sweet almond in general appe^irancc, but is shorter and proportionatdv 
broader. The embryo has a bitter taste ; when triturated vritn 
water it forms an emulsion of the chartcteri:»tic odour of hydroc>;aiiic 

acid. 

CoHsliluenis. — Sweet almonds contain a fixed oU, oleum amy^dailae 
B, P. 56 px» ; an albuminous principle or ferment emulsin, (wbidi b 
st>[uble in water) ; mucilage. 3 p c, ; sugar 6 p.c ; proteids (myrositiir 
vilellin and conglutin) 25 px,, and ash 3 to S p.c.| comiining 
potassium, calcium^ and magnesium, phosphates* 

Bitter almonds contain a fixed oil 45 p. c. ; amygdalin ! to 5 px. ; 
proteids 25 p.c. ; emulsin, sugar 3 p c. ; mucilage 3 p.c, .1 -5 px. 

The ash contains potassium^ calcium, and magnesium ph - >. 

Amygdalin, a crystalline substance, a glucoside not foojid in 
sweet almonds, soluble in water and alcohol. To obtain it, boil m alcohol 
almond cake of bitter almond to the consistence of syrup, add 
yeast to set up fermentation, then filter and evaporate to syrupy 
consistence and add alcohol to precipitate amygdalin. Amygdalin 
is found in many plants belonging to Drupacese, Pomaceae and 
amygdalace;e orders, in kernels of peach 2*35 p.c. ; cherry ^96 p.c, ; 
plum -82 p.c, and apple pips^ '6 px. in the leaves o{ cerasus lauf ocer* 
asus, in the bark, flowers and leaves of Prunus Paclus. in the seed* 
and baik of Sorbus Aucuparia, hawthorn, &c. 

Oleum amygdala, B. P. Almond oil — oleum amyguma: expresbuni. 

The oil is expressed from sweet or bitter almonds, 

Characiers, — The oil is a pale yellow clear liquid, more thickly 
fluid than poppy seed oil, and more thinly fluid than olive oil, without 
any odc»ur and of a nutty, very agreeable and mild taste ; it socn be- 
comes rancid if exposed to the air. It becomes thick and solidifies 
to a while butter at a very low temperature. It is soluble in ether 
and chloroform. It is composed chiefly of oleiite and tracts of 
palmitin, also contains traces of cholesterine, thus distinguished from 
sesamum, rape, poppy or olive oil. Do&e, I to 4 fluid drachms— ^used 
as an application in skin affections. 

Oleum amygdahc amara. — The volatile or essential oil of bitter 
almonds. Obtained by trituration or maceration of bitter almonds 
with water and subsequent distillation. It is one of the products uf 
reaction between amygdalin and emulsin acting upon one another. It 
contains hydrocyanic acid and volatile oil. The hydrocyanic acnd is 
removed by distillation with caustic potash. 

It ii a clear pale, cherrj'-coloured thin liquid, of an aromatic bitter 
odour and bitter burning taste, neutral reaction, soluble in water < 1 in 

300), but freely so in alcohol and ether. It contains hydrite '" ' ,1, 

bcnraldehydej and hvdfoc>'anic acid* Benzaldehyde on e ' 10 

air is converted into Benzoic acid* Dose, 4 to I m. Hydroc d 

is also found in cherry laurel, prunus Mahalib, prunus \\r ud 
Uhcr specie^ of prunes — in the juice of bitter cassava &c. 



PKLNUS LNSITITIA. 



Ml 



Emulshi or Synaptase, an albuminous principle or ferment found in 
both the varieties It i^ extracted by water It i^ coagulated by heat, and 
precipitated by alcnhol, but not by acetic acid. In the case of bitter 
almonds, in the presence of water, it acts upon amygdalin forming 
glucd^e, hydrocyanic acid and benzoic aldehyde (oil of bitter 
almonds)* 

Preparations. — Of the seeds. Almond bread made from the almond 
\JBkkt, The sweet almond is first triturated and the fixed oil expressed, 
iving almond cake. This is ground into a meal or flour and made 
tnio bread. This c<)n tains no starch and hence very useful in diabetes. 

nrparaltons.^Oi the seeds. Bitter almonds— Syrupus Amygdalae 
4 p. c. Dose, 2 to 4 drs. Swett almonds — Pulvis Amygdalae compositus 
B. P- Dose, I to 2 drs. Emulsum Amygdalae contains sweet almonds 
6 p. c* Mistura Amygdalae B. P. (i in 8) a vehicle for cough 
mtxtures, Do^e, J to I oz. Of the shells, when calcined, tooth powder, 

Ac(thm ami ttsti, — Both the varieties differ iu their physiological 
actions. Sweet almond is demulcent, nutritive and emollient. The oil 
is used like olive oil for applicaiioti and internally given for pulmonary 
troubles and als(» used as a laxative. Externally the oil or the emulsion 
is used as an application fur acne on the face, for excoriations, chapped 
hands and nipples^ and for earache. Almond cakes made from almond 
meal arc given as substitute for bread in diabetes. 

The bitter almond oil is used for flavouring choice dishes and for 
scenting soap and other delicacies. It may be used as a sedative in 
coughs &c. 

Prunus Insiiitla, Prunus Bokariensis. 

NabitaL — Bokhara, Persia. 

Paris used, — The dried plum deprived of seeds. 

Vemacti/ar, — Arab. — Alu Bokhara, Ijasa. Bcng , Duk. — Alu 
Bokhara. Eng. — Bokhara plum. Hind. — Alu Bokhara. Pers. — Alu. 

CharacitrSn — Fruit globular, sweetish, acidulous and succulent ; 
mrfiice rather compressed and wrinkled, colour reddish yeilow or 
brown, smell like that of dates. Inside ihe fruit is an almond-like nut» 
which is obliquely ovate, convex on both surfaces and marked with 
three prominent ridges at one of its margins. The nut when broken 
contains a kernel which resembles sweet almond in all its characters. 

Constituents, — Malic acid, citric aid, sugar, albuminoids, pectin 
and ash. 

Preparation, — Confection. 

Actinns and us€s, — Demulcent and nutrient ; uses similar to those 
o( the official varrety. 

PruQoii Armeniaca, Armeniaoa Vulgaris. 

^#&f*/a/.— Himalaya, Dekhan, Mysore. 

J^rts used* — ^l^he fruit and seed. 



242 PRUNUS DOMESTICA. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Binkook Tuffa armina. Bokhara. — Baboor- 
Kohani. Eng. — Apricot. Himalayas. — Chulu, chinaru. Hind. — 
Zardalu-Khubani. Pers. — Mish mish. Sutlej. — ^Jaldaru. 

Characters. — Fruit sweetish, acidulous and succulent ; form almost 
globular, surface reddish yellow. Inside is a nut which contains a 
kernel. 

Preparation.'^Conieciioru Dose, i to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Nutrient and tonic ; used in fevers to allay 
thirst ; the seeds form an ingredient in some of the nutritive confec- 
tions. 

PnmiiB Sp. 

Habitat. — Western Asia. 

Parts used.^ The stones. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — ^Jerasaya, Kerasya. Hind. — Alubalu. Pers. — 
Alubalu. Japan. — Sakura. 

Characters. — A small tree — fruits of a light brown colour ; seeds 
embedded in them and resembling those of common cherry ; odour 
of bitter almond seeds, taste bitter and aromatic. 

Constituents. — The kernels contain a volatile oil and hydrocyanic 
acid. 

Preparation. — Confection. 

Actiofis and uses. — Nutritive and tonic. The natives give the 
kernels with other tonic and aphrodisiac medicines in nervous debility 
and nervous exhaustion. 

PraniiB Domestioa, Var. Juliana, B. P. 

Habitat. — Persia. 

Parts used.~The dried ripe fruit; Prunum — Prunes, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Barkook, Bargoog. Eng. — Common plum, 
Prunes. Hind. — Aru, alu, Aluchah, Shan alu. 

Characters. — Ovoid or oblong, about i^^ inch lon^, black and 
shrivelled. Pulp brownish, without any odour and of a sweet, bland, 
acidulous taste. The finest and sweetest variety is used as dessert? 
The smaller kind, which is more acid and less pleasant, is used in 
medicine. Dose, 2 ozs. 

Constituents. — The pulp or sarcocarp contains a little malic acid, 
sugar 25 p. c, pectin, albumen and salts. The seeds contain a fixed 
oil, amygdalin and emulsin. 

Preparations. — Confectio sennae, B. P. Dose, i to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses. — The sarcocarp is laxative, demulcent and nutri- 
ent ; taken in excess it causes griping and flatulence. It is given with 
purgatives as senna &c. It quenches thirst in fevers. 



PR13NUS PUDUM, 



243 



Prunus LaurooerasuB, B* P. 

ffabttat.—Asi^ Minor. 

fltris us^d, — The fresh leaves — Laurocerasi folia, cherry laurel 
leaves, B. P. 

Charactrrs^ — Leaves thick, coriaceous ; petioles short and strong, 
oblong, obovate, 5 to 7 inches long, tapering towards each end, serrated 
at the apex and re volute at margins. Dark green, smooth and 
shining above^ much paler beneath. Midrib prominent with one or 
two glandular depressions on each side ; odourless, but emitting smell 
of bitter almond seeds, when bruised. 

C<inshtu$nts, — On distillation with water the leaves yield 
Lauroccrasin^ identical with amygdalin ; a bitter principle, tannin, sugar 
and a fenncnt, by the action of which on laurocerasin is produced a 
volatile oil consisting of benzaldehyde and prussic acid. 

f^€/araiions.^Aqu2L Laurocerasi, B. P. — it shall be made of the 
•trength ot ^0 p. c. of hydrocyanic acid. Dose, ^ to 2 fld. 

Acttous and uses* — Sedative, anodyne, antispasmodic and narcotic ; 
same as those of Hydrocyanic acid. 

PrunuB Maballb. 

HabitaL — Central Asia and Europe. 

fhris used, — The kernels and oil. 

Ffrnacuiar. — Arab.— Hab-ul-mahaliba. Eng. — Perfumed cherry 
tfCC* Mar. — Gahula. Pers. — Paiwand-e-maryam. 

Characters, — ^Shell of a dark brown or light bulTcolour, of an oval 
or ovate shape and very fragile. Seeds of a pale buff colour, testa thin 
and striated, kernel of a light brown colour. It has a bitter almond- 
like taste, Tlie oil is rancid ; in flavour like that of hydrocyanic acid. 

PiteparaUQn — Confection. Dose 1 to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses* — Stomachic ; used in dyspepsia, anorexia, and 
general debility. 

Prunua Pudum, P, Sylvetica, Cerasus Pudum. 

Habitat, — Central Asia. 

Parts tned, — The wood bark. 

Vernacular, — Guz. — Padmakastai Padma-nulakarun. Hind, — 

P^dmakasta. Mar. — Padma Kashtha, Chamari Jhelum, 

Characters, — The wood of a light reddish brown colour, some- 
times covered with a biownish thin bark which peels off in flakes* It 
has a faintly almond-oil like taste, and odour* Dose — Powdered bark, 
15 to i 5 grs, 

Constitfienis, — A my gd al i n , 

F^ ns. — Of the bark, decoction (i in 10). Dose, J to 2 fld. 

drs. i 111 known as Muhajam-e-til containing Padma Kui*ht4 



244 PRUNUS SBROTINA. 

4, Lavanga 4, Darunaj-e-abrabi 4, Behaman-e-Sapheda 3, 
]Dehaman-e-Surkha 3, Taja 2, Jaephala 2, J&vantri 2, Jatamanansi 
2, Zara Kachura 2, Jaramabilda 2, Pipali 2, Pipali mula 2, 
Kesara i^, Ispanda 3, Kab&ba chini 3, £lachi i, Kulpha 3, Sugar 2, 
mix and make a confection. Dose i to 4 drs. Used in dyspepsia, 
congested liver, anorexia, &c. 

Actions and uses. — The bark is used as a bitter tonic and sedative. 
It is given during convalescence from acute diseases and in palpitations 
of the heart. 

PrnnaB Serotina, B.P. Wild Cherry. 

Habitat. — N. America, Canada. 

Parts used, — The bark — pruni virginianae cortex. Virginian 
Prune Bark, B. P. 

Characters. — Curved pieces or irregular fragments ; young bark 
covered with reddish brown papery cork, thin and smooth, presenting 
a greenish brown inner layer, and breaking with a short granular 
fracture. Taste astringent, aromatic and bitter ; odour in the presence 
of water that of bitter almonds. 

Constituents. — The bark contains amygdalin, emulsin, a bitter 
principle, a volatile oil, hydrocyanic acid, tannin, gallic acid, resin, and 
starch. In the presence of water it yields hydrocyanic acid and 
volatile oil resembling that of bitter almonds. The root bark con- 
tains a glucoside phloridzin which is also found in the root bark of 
apple, pear and plum trees. 

Amygdalin,*a bitter uncrystalline glucoside obtained by the action 
of alcohol. It is not precipitated by ether. 

Bitter principle — To obtain it, mix aqueous extract with alcohol, 
and milk ot lime, evaporate, filter, boil the residue with alcohol and 
again evaporate. It is a brown gelatinous mass, taste bitter. 

Preparations, — Syrupus pruni Virginians, B. P. (i in about 7). 
Dose, ^ to 1 fid. dr. 

Prunin or Cerasin — obtained by evaporating the tincture and 
powdering the extract. Dose, i to 5 grs. 

Tinctura Pruni Virginianae, B. P. (i in 5). Dose, \ to i fluid dr. 

Physiological actions. — Sedative, pectoral, tonic, and astringent. In 
moderate doses it is an aromatic bitter tonic, stimulates the stomach, 
increases appetite, aids digestion, and thus promotes constructive 
metabolism. The volatile oil is a stimulant of the alimentary canal. 
Hydrocyanic acid acts as a sedative, lessens irritation and impairs 
nervous excitability. Large doses depress the heart's action. Phloridzin 
produces glycosuria in man and animals. 

Therapeutics. — Given in cough, hectic fever, scrofula, in bron- 
chial catarrh, phthisis, and irritation of the throat. As a stomachic 
tonic it is given in dyspepsia, palpitation and f^eneral debility ; also 
during convalescence from acute diseases. The volatile oil is an 
intestinal stimulant and acts like cascarilla, serpentaria, &c. 



QUILLAJA SAPONARIA. J45 

Pyroa Cydonia* Cydonia YQigaris. 

Habii^i, — Central Asia, lemperaie climates, 

Paris used, — The seeds* 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Muzz, Hubbul, Sapharjala. Can. — Shimc 
^diltiuba bija- Duk.— Bihi danah. Eng,— Quince seed. Hind.— 
logloi behedana, Pers. — Beha-danah, Tukhm-e-abi, Karabadia. 
Pam. — Shimai*ma-delaivirai, Teh — Shima-dalima-Vittulu. 

Characters, — 10 or 15 seeds are contained in one cell of the fruit f 

^seeds irregularly ovoid, flattened and angular or three sided, adherent 

[to one another by mucilage and covered by a membrane ; coloui of the 

|tc^ta, dark brown, that of the kernel^ yellowish white. The seeds 

nave the odour and taste of bitter almonds. 

Cottsliiuetiis, — The seeds contain a mucilage named cydonin, 
albuminous matter, Bxed oil, an oily liquid which contains senanthic 
ether, and ash 3-5 p. c, containing alkalies, alkaline earths, iron, &c. 

V ;t coniained in the epithelial cells is in very large quantity, 

and lS 40 times its weight of water. It has little adhesive 

power and is not thickened by borax. It is a compound of gum and 
celluJosc. The fragrance is due to the presence of aenanthic ether. 

Ptiparaiiom. — Mucilago cydonii (1 in 50), 

Acthm aud uses. — Cydonium or quince seeds are nutritive, asmn- 

gent, demulcent, and emollient, and given with sugar \n cough, 

.dysentery, catarrhal aflTections of the throat and pulmonary mucous 

' membrane ; also used as a vehicle for injection in gonorrhoea and 

urinary disorders. Externally the mucilage is applied to burns and scalds. 

Bandoline, a preparation used as a hair dressing, is identical with 

mucilage of cydonin. 

QulUaJa Saponaria, B. P. 

HabitaL — Chih*, Peru, N* Hindustan. 

Parts used, — The inner bark — Quillaioj cortex. Quillaia bark, 
B. P. Syn. — China bark or murillo bark, Panama bark^ soap bark. 
Quillaya means a wash, as this bark is good for washing* 
Saponaria, sapo, soap. Its mucilaginous juice forms lather with 
water. 

Characters* — Bark in flat thick pieces ^ of an inch thick, 2 feet 
km^ and 4 inches wide, brownish white externally, smooth, white or 
fi while within. Fracture splintery, fractured surface laminated* 
fe ng under a lens, glistening prismatic crystals; without any 

odnuFi of an acrid persistent taste » Wood very hard. 

Constituents. — A glycoside saponin, starch, gum, calcium oxalate, 
and calcium sulphate crystals. Saponin— obtained by exhausting the 
bark with hot alcohol. A white amorphous powder without any odour 
tnd of a sweetish taste ; soluble in water and dilute alcohol ; it acts as a 
jMernulatory. It consists of 2 glucosides — Ouillaic acid, soluble in 
[ikohol and precipitated by lead acetate ; and Quillaia-^^apotoxini 
neutral tni^oluble in alcohol and not precipitated by acetate of lead. 



246 ROSA DAMASCRNA. 

Preparations. — Tinctura Quillaiae B. P, (1 in 20). Dose, ^ to i fl. 
dr. Decoctum Quillaise (5 to 200). Dose, i to 2 dr. Fluid extract. 
Dose, 15 to 30 ms. Syrupus Quillaise. Dose, i to 3 drs. 

Physiological Action, — Detergent, stimulant, diuretic, expectorant 
and irritant of the respiratory organs. The powder is sternutatory ; 
macerated in water, the water froths like soap ; it forms emulsions 
with oils owing to the presence of saponin. In laYge doses it is a local 
anaesthetic and antipyretic, paralyzant of the heart and respiration 
^nd a poison to the voluntary muscles. It does not produce vomiting 
or purging, 

Therapeutics,'-^'^£he decoction of the bark is given like senega in 
chronic bronchitis, cough, coryza and in dropsy. The powder of the 
bark is used as a dusting powder or snuff in rhinitis ; locally an 
infusion is used to dispel fcetor of feet or armpits ; also in alopecia as a 
hair tonic or detergent to remove scurf and renew the growth of hair. 
It is contra-indicated in irritation and inflammation of the mucous 
membranes. A dry extract causes the water in which it is macerated 
to froth, and hence used for making emulsions of fixed oil. The tincture 
is an ingredient in Liquor Picis carbonis, B.P. It is also used for 
washing purposes. 

Rosa Dama4Boena, B. P. R. Hosohata. R. SemperrireiiB. 

Habitat. — Syria, Africa, Balkan Mountains, Roumelia. 

Parts used. — The flowers, flower buds, petals, stamens and a 
volatile oil, oleum rosae, attar or otto of rose, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Wardel, chamak Julanja-bin (conserve). 
Beng.— Gulap. Can. — Gulab. Duk., Guz., Hind.— Gulab-ka!i, Gul- 
kand (conserve). Mar. — Gulaph^. Pers. — Gule-gulaba, Gule-shakar 
(conserve). Sans, — Sata pattri. Tam.— Gulappu, Irojappu. Tel. — 
Rosa-puvou. Eng. — Damask Rose. 

Characters. — It is the source of the official oil of rose. Flower 
buds oblong of a brownish light red colour when fresh, but if old per- 
fectly deep brown ; sepals five partite, of a greenish brown colour, 
viscid, and ciliated. Below the sepals is an ovary resembling a thick 
stalk of a flower, very viscid, greenish brown ; petals over-lapping one 
another to form a cone, of an aromatic agreeable smell and a bitterish 
taste. 

Gulaba-ke-bija. These are not seeds but the compressed, two- 
lobed, oblong, reniform or roundish, small, dark coloured anthers. 

Constituents. — Volatile oil, fat, resin, malic, tartaric, and tannic 
acids. Volatile oil — oil of rose distilled from the fresh flowers with calyx. 
It is colourless at first, but becomes after short time a pale yellowish, 
transparent liquid, with a strong, fragrant odour of roses. Taste mild 
and sweetish ; slightly soluble in acetic acid and alcohol. 

Preparations. — Aqua Rosae Fortior. Strong or triple rose water 
Water saturated with the volatile oil of rose petals ; obtained as a by- 
product in the distillation of oil of rose ; used as excipient and flavouring 
agent. Dose, \ to i dr. Unguentum Aquae Rosae, B. P, cold cream, 



ROSA fjALLiCA. 



147 



Itment of rose water. Stronger rose water 7 ozs., oil of almond 9 ozs» 
fiaceti ijozs, white wax i^ozs,, oil of rose 8 ms., for externa 
kppHcatton. Aqua rosae B. P., Gulab, (Hind») prepared by diluting 
Aqua Kosac Fortior with twice its volume of distilled water. Oleum 
Kosse B, P. oil of rose — attar or otto of rose^ — volatile oil distilled 
from the fresh flowers. A pale yellow crystalline semi-solid ; odour 
strong and fragrant, taste sweet» slightly acid in reaction, sparingly 
soluble in alcohol. It is adulterated with a volatile oil derived from a 
species of Andropogon and known as oil of geranium^ Idris oil, or ginger 
oil* It consists of an aromatic oxygenated elacopten, and an odourless 
solid stearopten or rose camphor. Gulkhand, a conserve of rose petals 
with sugar, to which cannabis Indtca is sometimes added. Gulanjabin, 
a conserve of rose petals with honey. Medicated oil of roses^ Duhn- 
i*ward-i-kham^ — sweet oil added to rose petals and exposed to the 
suti. Duhu-i-ward-i-matbukh — rose petals added to sweet oil and 
heated over the fire* The natives use the above as liniments io 
sprains^ bruises, &c. 

Actions ami uses. — Mildly astringent, carminative, and refrigerant ; 
used as basis for bitter medicfnes and as pill bases. Rose water is used 
as a cooling and aMnngem excipient for lotions, collyria and urethal in- 
jections and in irritability of the mucous membiaues. The ointment 
is a soothing emftllicni and protective for the skin, in chapped hands, 
cracked nipples* Rose buds are used along with other purgative 
decoctions by the natives in constipation during fevers and hepatic 
derangements. 

Kosa Gallica. B, P, 

Habitat, — South of Europe, Western Asia, 

P^rts used. — The fresh and dried unexpauded petals, Rosae Gallics 
petala. 

Characters^ — Cone-like masses, sometimes separate and more or 
less crumpled ; petalSi velvety, of a deep, purplish red colour ; odour 
fragnml. Taste somewhat bitter. Feebly acid and astringent. 

Constituents. — Red colouring matter, tannic and gallic acids, and 
ai volatile aromatic oil (a trace), mucilage, sugar, quercitrin, salts kc. 

Preparation s.'^lnfusum Rosas Acid urn, B, P. (Red rose petals 
i ounce, diluted sulphuric acid 2 fluid drachms, boiling distilled 
water i pint). Dose | to i fld. ot, Extractum Rosa; Fluidum, Dose, 
5 to 50 ms. Confectio Rosa: Gallicae, B, P. (i in 4)* Dose, 60 grs. or 
more. Mel Ros;e — honey of rose, fluid extract 12, and honey 100. 
Dose, I to 2 drs. Syrupus Rosae, B, P. (1 in 23)* Dose, ^ to i fid, dr. 
Red rose is an ingredient of Pilulae aloes et mastiches, 

Actions and uses, — Tonic, mild astringent and carminative ; used 
frequently as a colouring and flavouring agent. Flowers when full 
blown are laxative. The infusion containing dilute sulphuric acid 
IS a good gargle and used in sore throat, aphthae, ulcers of the 
mouth &c. 



248 RUBUS IDiEUS. 

RnbiiB Chamsemoras. 

Norwegian blackberry. Marsh raspberry. Yellow raspberry, 
cloudberry, dwarf mulberry. 

Habitat. — Europe. 

Parts employed, — The fruit and leaves. 

Preparations, — Fluid Extract. Dose, J to i dr. Infusion of 
leaves (1 in 12). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Physiological action. — Leaves diuretic. They act on the kidneys 
without influencing the beat of the heart. Given in nephritis, cirrhosis 
of the liver, cardiac affections, chloro-anaemia wiih cedema, hysterical 
epilepsy, palpitations of the heart, and cancer of the stomach. The 
fruit is antiscorbutic, and is used in haemoptysis. 

RubuB Canadensis. Dewberry. 

R. Villous, the common blackberiy. R. trivialis, the bush black- 
berry. 

Habitat, — Southern States. 

Part used, — The bark of the root. 

Characters, — Bark thin tough, flexible bands, colour blackish 
grey externally and pale brown within. Without any odour, taste 
astringent, bitter. Dose ^ to 2 drs. 

Constituents, — Tannin, 10 p. c, gallic acid \ p. c, villosin 0.8 p. c, 
ash 3 p. c. Villosin is a bitter crystalline glucoside, soluble in 
alcohol, ether, chloroform. 

Preparation, — Extractum Rubi fluidum. — Dose, 10 to 60 minims, 
Syrupus Rubi aromaticus, contains rubus, cinnamon, cloves, and mace. 
30 gr. each in one ounce. Dose, i to 8 drs. Syrupus Rubi (i of the 
fluid extract to 3). Dose, 1 to 6 drs. Decoction. Dose i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses, — Astringent and tonic ; given in bowel com- 
plaints, such 'as summer and infantile diarrhoeas. 

Rnbns IdsBns, Raspberry, hindberry; Rabas strigosas, 

wild red raspberry; Rnbns oocidentalis, Thimble berry. 

Habitat, — Europe, Asia. 

Part used. — The fruit. 

Characters, — Fruit, a receptable, conical, hollow at the base, hemi- 
spherical, red, hairy, composed of 20 to 30 drupes, small and coalesced ; 
each drupe crowned with withered style. Juice red coloured, odour 
agreeable, taste sweet and pleasant. 

Constituents. — Volatile oil, citric acid, malic acid, sugar 5 p. c. 
pectin, proteids, colouring matter &c. 

Preparation. — Syrupus Rubi Idaei. Colour bright red, odour 
fruity, agreeable taste pleasant, acidulous. Reaction acid. Dose, 2 to 
6 drs. or more. Infusion of the leaves of red raspberry (i to 20). Dose, 
6 to 12 drs. 



PORTUtACA OI-ER.^ 



?49 



Actions and uses. — Refrigerant, laxative and dietetic; given in 
fevers. Tnfu?iion of the leaves of red raspberry is used for drarrhcea. 

SpirsBa TomentoBa, Hard hack. 

Habi'taL — North America. 

Part useti, — The root. 

Characters, — The root consists of brown bark which is bitf er and 
astringent. The wood is hard and without any taste. Flowers 
fragrant. The fragrancy is due to the presence of coumarln. 

Cow^/Z/wrw/i.— Contains tannin, coumarin. a bitter principle and a 
volatile oil. Used as infusion. Decoction (i in 2c). Dose, 4 to 6 drs. 
Extract. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent and tonic ; given in diarrhoea 
cholera infantum, also in haemorrhages^ gonorrhea, ulcers &c. 

Portulaoaceae. 

The Purslane or the Kulpha family. 

Succulent herbs or shrubs. Leaves cxstipulate, entire. Flowers 
unsyrametrical. Fruits capsular, usually dehiscing transversely or by 
valves or by a lid. Seeds solitary or numerous. Albumen farinaceous. 
Root fleshy. 

Habitats — Cape of Good Hope and S, America, 

Prr,pertm.^Somt possess cooling and antiscorbutic propcrticS| 

some be*ir edible roots. 

Partutaca Oleracea, Portulaca Quadrlfida, P* Maridlana, 
lUicebrum Yerticalatam. 

Habitat. — All warm climates. 

Part used, — The seeds and herb, 

Portulaca —Porto, to carry, and lac, milk. The herb abounds in 
milky juice, 

P*crHacn/ar, — Arab,^ — Baklat-al Humaka. Kurfah, Beng. — ^Buro 
Luccia* Burm. — Mya-by eet. Can, — Dooda Gorat. Cing, — Genda* 
kola. Duk. — Chorote, Eng. — Purslane* Guz. — Loni. Hind.— 
Kulpha, Linria, Moucha. Malyal.^ — Karichira* Mar. — Bhnigholi« 
Panj. — Limak^ Kakeba. Pers. — Turuk, Kurfah. Sans. — Lonika, 
Lunia, Oopadyki. Tarn.— Karil Kiraj. TeU — Bodda-aveli-kura. 

Characters, — An annual succulent creeper ; fresh leaves, fleshy, 
entire, cunifomi, succulent, oblong and fiat ; flowers sessile, small and 
yellow; capsules globose or o%-ate; one-celled ; seeds numerous resembling 
those of Hura hura but smaller and of a fainter colour, black reinform 
and minutely lubercled. The pLint ha^^ a disagreeable smell and an 
•cid mucilagrnous taste. 

Ctinstiiuents, — The leaves contain acid potassium oxalatet and 
mucilage. 



2SO DICHROA FEBRIFUGA. 

Preparation. — Infusion of the leaves and seeds. Dose, 2 to 8 drs. 
Juice of leaves. Dose, 2 to 8 drs. Compound Tincture (i in 10), 
containing bitter purslane 100, rum 150, Bordeaux wine 850, citrate 
of iron ^. Dose. 60 to 100 ms. 

Actions and uses, — Both the varieties are bitter, diuretic and 
demulcent ; also refrigerant and alterative ; used in scanty and 
high coloured urine, albuminuria, cystitis, and chronic bronchitis. 
The compound tincture with citrate of iron is used as a bitter tonic 
during convalescence from acute fevers and other diseases. The bruised 
leaves are used as a cooling application in erysipelas, burns, scalds and 
other inflamed and swollen parts. The seeds are vermifuge, diuretic 
and demulcent, and given in haemorrhages. The natives give the 
powder of the seeds in haemoptysis. 

Sazifragaoen. 

Herbs ; leaves alternate, entire or lobed, stipulate or exstipulate. 
Flowers unsymmetrical; calyx inferior 4 or 5 partite, stamens perigynous 
or hypogynous. Fruit capsular, i to 2 celled. Seeds numerous, small, 
albumen, fleshy. 

Habitat, — Mountainous districts of northern countries. 

Properties. — Astr i ngen t . 

Diohroa Febrifaga. 

Habitat. — Himalaya, Java, China, Khasia mountains. 

Part used. — The root bark. 

Vernacular. — Bhutan, — Sing-namook. Cochin-China — Cay- 
thuong-son. Cham-chau. Hind. — Basak. Lepcha. — Gebokanak. 

Characters. — Root bark in chips, light yellow coloured, soft and 
corky ; externally fissured longitudinally, internally smooth and waxy ; 
almost tasteless, odour faintly aromatic. 

Constituents, — A crystalline glucoside termed Dichroin, It is allied 
to aesculin ; another crystalline principle of the nature of wax, insoluble 
in water and soluble in alkaline fluids ; also starch, but no tannin. 

/V^/flrr<i/ib;/.— Decoction with liquorice (i in 20). Dose, \ to i 
fluid oz. 

Actions and uses. — Febrifuge and aperient; given in ague and other 
malarial fevers ; in large doses it acts as an emetic and causes depression 
of the circulation. 

Hydrangea ArboreBoens. 

Wild Hydrangea, Leven bark. 

Habitat. — United States. 

Part used. — The root. 

Characters.— A plant with white, tough root. 

Constituents. — Gum, albumen, starch, resin, ferrous salts and 
other salts. 



SAXtFRAGA LIGULATA. 



2^1 



Prfparatifyn. — A compound powder containing Hydrangea, 
benjsoic acid and salicylate of lithia. Dose, 20 to 60 grs. Fluid extract^ 
20 to 60 ms. DecociioD of the root (i in 20). Dose^ 1 to 2 ozs* 

Actions and uses, — ^Tonic, sialagogue, diuretic, stomachic and lithon- 
triptic ; given in calcutous affections and other abnormal conditions of 
the kidneys, chronic gleet, prostatitis and bladder irritation. It 
increases the flow of urine and hence is useful either in retention 
or suppression of urine. The powder has been regarded as a soothing 
alterative and antilithic in urinary* calculus, diabetes, gout, cystitis, rheu- 
matism, haematuria, Bright*s disease, and vesical irritations generally. 
It promotes the removal of gravel from the bladder and relieves the 
pain during the passage of concretions through the ureters. 

Saxifraga Llgulata. 

ifabiiah — Temperat e H i ni alay a . 

Parts used, — The rhizome. 

Vemacntar, — Beas. — Mokhan, Chenab. — Bat pi a. Hind.— Daka- 
chru, Batpia. Ind. Bazaar — Pashanbhed, Pakhanbheda, Jhelum-Popal 
Ban, Patraki Khasia. — Atia, Torongsingh. Nepal,— Sohanpe-soah., 
Pan). Shaproki. Ravi. — Saprotri. Pashanbhed means stone breaker. 
It dissolves stone in the bladder. 

Chtiractns, — Rhizome in small pieces I or 2 inches long and about 
I inch in diameter, externally brown, wrinkled and scaly, bearing scan 
of rootlets ; substance dense, hard and of a reddish colour. Taste as- 
tringent and odour sh'ghtly aromatic. 

Constituents, — Tannic and gallic acids, starch, mineral salts, 
iDetarabin, albumen, glucose, mucilage, wax and an odorous principle. 
Ash 12*87 p. c, containing calcium oxalate. 

Actions and uses, — Diuretic, demulcent and astringent ; given in 
diarrhcea and cough and in uric acid diathesis ; with honey it is applied 
to the gums in teething in children to allay irriution. Dose, 5 to 20 
grs. 

CrasaulacQaB* 

The house leek, stone crop or the zakhme hayata family ; plants 
generally succulent ; herbs or shrubs, with fcxstipulate, entire or pinnaii* 
fid leaves. Flowers cymose, perfectly symmetrical ; fruits dehiscent, 
consisting either of a whorl of follicles or a capsule ; seeds very smallf 
albumen fleshy ; embryo in the axis of albumen. 

Habitat*-— Qtv\tiA\y in dry situation, Cape of Good Hope. 

Ptnperties, — Astringent, refrigerant and acrid. 

Sedam Acre, 
Syn* — Wall pepper. Mossy stone crop, small house leek. 

Habitat, — Europe. Runs wild in some places in North America* 

Ptitt used. — The entire planU 

Characters. — Moss-tike spreading plant, growing in Avy fields and 
on old walls. Leaves one-eighth to a quarter inch long, alternate^ 



tS2 KALANCHOE LANCINIATA. 

nearly imbricate, in about six spirally turned rows, ovate, thick, convex 
on the back, punctate and smooth. Flowers in scorpoid cymes, 
petals yellow, pistils 4 to 5, stamens 8 to 10. The plant is inodorous 
and has a mucilaginous and acrid taste. Dose, 10 to 15 grs. 

Constituents. — Much mucilage and malates. Its active principle 
rutin has not been isolated. 

Preparations. — Fl. extract of the whole plant. Dose, 15 to 30 grs. 

Actions and uses. — The bruised plant or its juice is emetic, the 
emesis being copious and causing little pain, and is employed for 
removing the false membranes in diphtheria. It is used as an 
application to scrofulous, cancerous, and scorbutic ulcers, as a 
resolvent to enlarged lymphatic glands and a dressing to chronic 
diseases of the skin ; also used to remove warts and corns. 

Kalanchoe Lanoiniata. K. Pinnata. K. Spathnlata. Bryophyllnm* 

Calyoiniim. 

Habitat. — Deccan Peninsula, Bengal. 
Parts used. — The leaves. 

Vernacular. — Bens. — Hamsigar. Bomb. — Pervur sala, Airavana 
Nairavana. Burm. — Ywet-kyst-pen-ponk. Can. — Kalnaru, Haradha* 
chchaka. Duk.— Gha-e-mari. Hind. — Ghai-mari, Parnabija, Zakhm- 
hyata, Ghai-oat, Aran-maran, Hemsagar. Mar. — Varnaby, Ghaimari, 
Ghaipat. Sans. — Aimasa-gara, Ashti-bhaksha. Panj. — Talara, Haiza- 
ka-patt, Parna-veja. Tam. — Malla-kulli. 

Parnabija — Parna means leaf, and bija, a seed ; this is in allusion to 
the character of the plant, the crenulations of whose leaves in contact 
with the damp soil give rise to fresh buds which take roots and 
develop new plants. 

Zakhm-e-ha3rata — Zakhm, a wound, and Hayat to heal, A healer 
of the wound. Wound heals at once and no trace of any morbid 
condition is left behind. 

Characters. — B. Calycinum. Plant erect, tall, fleshy, and suffru- 
ticose ; leaves thick, ovate, crenated ; leaflets one large and two smaller 
ones ; petiole and margin of leaf purple ; flowers yellowish red ; taste 
acid and astringent. Dose 6f the juice, 30 to 40 ms. K. Lanciniata — 
Leaves decompound and pinnatifid ; segments, oblong, acute toothed ; 
flowers yellow. 

Constituents. — Chlorophyll, fat, a yellow organic acid, cream of 
tartar, sulphate of calcium and free tartaric acid ; calcium oxalate 
is found in the leaves. 

Actions and uses. — ^The leaves are styptic and applied hot to 
contused wounds, bruises and boils. By their application the edges of 
incised wounds heal generally by first intention ; when applied to unheal- 
thy wounds and foul ulcers they allay irritation and inflammation, and 
facilitate cicatrization. It is used as an application to bites of venomous 
insects, as gnats, house leek, &c. The juice of the leaves with butter 
is astringent and given in diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera and phthisis. 



DROSKRA PtLTATA. 



253 



Droseraoeae^ 

Sundew family. Herbs growing in marshy places, frequently 
glandular. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, with a circinate vernation ; 
flowers regular, symmetrical and hypogynous ; fruitt capsular, one- 
celled with loculicidal dehiscence ; seeds numerous, albumen fleshy, 
embryo small. 

//ahiaL-^Found everywhere except the arctic regions, 

/^T3^if*r/ilfi.— Slightly acid and acrid. This family is charac- 
tertzed by having glands on their leaves or hairs with peculiar irrita* 
bility which enables them to entrap insects. Example, Sundew or 
Venus's flytrap. 

Drosera Peltata* D. Lunata, D. Rotundifolia. 

Round Leaved Sundew. 

HaMai. — Himalayas, Neilgherry. N. Europe. 

Part used.— The whole plant. 

Characters^— W^^h of a dark oliv^e green colour, growing in 
marshy places ; stem erect, and glabrous ; leaves scattered with glan- 
dular hairs which close when flies and insects alight upon them ; long 
petiolcd, peltate with two long horns pointing upwards ; style pencil- 
shaped* Capsule globose ; seeds, oblong, numerous and small. Flowers 
yellow. Paper, cloth, or even wood is stained of a deep red colour by 
the plant il allowed to dry upon them ; it has the odour of sour milk. 

Cofistiinenis, — A crystalline colouring matter ; a resin (having 
blistering property) and ash containing persalts of iron. 

Preparations. ^'PXrnd extract 5 to 20 ms. Tincture (i in 10). 
Dose, 5 to 10 tns. 

Actions and uses. — The expressed juice is acrid and caustic and 
j)pUed to warts and corns ; applied to the skin it sets up inflammatioo 
ajid causes a blister. Intenialiy the fluid extract of the leaves has been 
used in asthma, chronic bronchitis, phthisis and whooping cough ; 
also in gastric disorders and in flatulence. In whooping cough it 
lessens the violence of the paroxysms and relieves harsh and loud cough* 
It also prevents bleeding from the nose and vomiting. 

Remarks. — It is said that animal substances if used as manure arc 
digested by the sundews and they thrive upon such food and produce 
more capsules and seeds. It is used by the natives to reduce gold 
10 powder. A paste of the plant is used to cover a sovereign >vhich is 
then enclosed in an earthen pot, cemented wiih clay and put in fire 
and thoroughly burnt* Gold is then reduced to powder and used 
as antisyphilitic, alterative and tonic in various chronic diseases* 

Llquidambaraoese or Altingiaoese. 

Trees balsamifcrous. — Leaves i^^imple, lobed and alternate ; stipulaa 
deciduous. Flowers unisexual, involucraie and amentaceous. KruiL 
cone-shaped ; capsules two-celled enclosed in hard scales; seeds winged, 
peltate and albuminous, Embrj^o inverted. Radicle superior. 



254 LIQUIDAMBER ALTINGIA, 

Habitat. — Natives of warm part of India, America and South of 
Europe. 

Properties, — ^Remarkable for fragrant balsamic properties ; they 
have warm bitter barks. 

In the United States it is called sweet gum, and the fragrant 
balsam juice which exudes from stems by incision is called liquidamber, 
oil of amber, or copalm balsam. 

Liquidamber Altingia, Altingia Exoelsa. 

Habitat, — Java, Tenasserim 

Parts tised. — Resin, liquid storax. 

Vernacular, — ^Arab — Meaohe-sayelah. Burm. — Nan-tayok. Eng. 
—Rosa malloes, liquid storax. Java. — Rasa mala. Malay. — Rasa 
mala. 

Characters. — Bark when wounded yields a resin which is employed 
to mix with balsam of Peru. 

Actiofts and uses. — The bark is bitter, aromatic and stimulant 
of mucous membranes, chiefly of the air passages. 

Liquidamber Orientalis, B. P. 

Habitat. — Forests in Asia minor. 

Part used. — The Balsam obtained from the trunk, purified by 
solution in Ethylic alcohol, filtration and evaporation of the solvent. 
Sty rax praeparatum, prepared storax, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Meahsayelah, Lubni, Dukhan-el-daru. Bom. 
Burm. — Inyok. Eng.-— oriental sweet gum, gum storax, Tar-wood. 
Guz. — Silarasa. Hind. — Silarasa Asht-loban. Ind. — Silaras, Malay. — 
Rosa Malay. Pers. — Asli, Lubni. Sans. — S*lhaka. Tam. — Nare- 
arishippal. Tel. — Shila rasam. Ast loban. — Western frankincense. 

Characters. — A soft or semi-liquid viscid balsam resembling 
honey. When in thin layers, transparent, of a greyish brown 
colour and heavier than water. On heating, it becomes dark brown. 
The smell is pleasant and balsamic. Taste pungent, burning and 
aromatic ; insoluble in warm water, soluble in hot alcohol, in ether, 
or chloroform, glacial acetic acid, bisulphide of carbon and in most of 
the essential oils. The bark occurs in half quills, several inches long, 
ofa light brown colour ; externally soft and corky ; internally resinous 
and aromatic. Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 

Constituents. — A volatile oil styrol(cinnamene); a crystalline solid 
styracin or Cinnamate of Cinnamic ether, two resins, one hard and the 
other soft : and Cinnamic acid. 

Styrol. — A hydrocarbon obtained by distilling storax with water 
It is a colourless thin liquid of a fragrant odour and burning taste; also 
synthetically obtained by heating acetylene gas, or from ethylbenzol 
bromide by heating it with baryta. When heated to a very high 
temperature it is converted into metacinnamene which is a colourless 
amorphous solid, insoluble in alcohol and ether. When distilled it is 
reconverted into styrol. 



HAMAMKXIS VlRGlNtAXA 



555 



Cinnamic acid. — Closely allied to benzoic acid* obtained by heating 
<itorax with solution of sodium carbonate and precipitating by hydro- 
chloric acid. It is colourless crystalline body, without any odour* 
It is excreted in the urine as hippuric acid. It is a constituent of 
balsam of Peru and Tolu. 

Preparaiinn^ — Tinctura Benzoini composita, B. P, Dose, J to i 
dr. Mostly used externally. 

Actions atid uses, — Stimulant, expectorant^ diuretic, antiseptic, 
disinfectant and astringent. As an expectorant it is gi%'en in pulmo- 
nary affections^ chronic bronchitis, chronic catarrh of the geni to-urinary 
organs, as cystitis, pyelitis, gonorrhoea, amenorroea, leucorrhoea, 
and gleet ; to affections of the throat, and in copious perspiration* 
An ointment is used as a parasiticide for scabies, phthiriasis 8lc. It acts 
like Benzoin, balsams of Tolu and Peru, and copaiba. The Hindus 
use it for perfuming medicinal oils. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Liquid Ambar Styraciflua. 

HahiiaL — North America^ United States. 

Dfirt used. — ^The Balsam exuding spontaneously or from incisions 
made in the trunk. 

Characten. — Thick, transparent yellowish brown liquid ; of a 
strong odour of liquid storax ; taste aromatic and acrid. It solidifies 
on exposure to the air ; soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform. 
Dose, 5 to 30 grains. 

Comtituents. — Styracin, storestn, a hydrocarbon 3.5 p.c*t almost 
identical with styrol and cinnamic acid 5^ p*c, 

/V;if/rfirfl/ibw.— Emulsion, ointment, cerate, 

Actirms and tnes* — Same as those of Liquidamber altingia ; 
stimulant* expectorant and diuretic. 

Hamamelidaeea, 

Witch hazel family; small trees; leaves alternate; stipules deciduous; 
flowers perfect or unisexual; calyx superior, 4 or 5 lobed ; petals 4 or 
5 ; fruits capsular, 2 valved with a loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds 
pendulous and albuminous* 

HabitaL — Temperate climates and tropics, Japan, China, Mada- 
gascar, Assam* 

Ptfjfierties, — Astringent, acrid, bitter and balsamic. 

Hamamelia Yirginiana, B. P. 
Syn- — Winter bloom ; Witch hazel, so called from the twigs being 
ased in the days of witchcraft as divining rods to indicate hidden 
[>nng5, ores, &c. 

fJabiiat, — United States. 

Part used. — The fresh and dried leaves, Hamamciidis folia — 
Hamamelis leaves, witch hazel leaves* B, P., and the dried bark — 
Hamamelidis cortex, Hamamelis bark, witch hazel bark, B. P, 



2S6 COMBRETACEiE. 

Characters. — Leaves ovate, pinnately veined with stellate hair, 3 to 
6 inches long, upper surface dark green or brownish green, under 
surface paler ; apex obtuse, margins sinuate, petiole short; without any 
odour and of an astringent taste. Cortex in curved pieces -^ inch 
thick, 2 to 8 inches long, sometimes coveted with silvery grey or dark 
grey cork or warty scars ; inner surface pale reddish pink or cinnamon 
colour and finely striated longitudinally. Fracture laminated and 
coarsely fibrous. Taste astringent and bitter and without any odour. 
Dose, 20 to 60 grains. 

Constituents. — Hamamelis Folia contains tannin, a volatile oil 
and a bitter principle. The bark contains tannin 8 p.c, bitter principle, 
resin, wax, sugar and ash 6 p.c. 

Preparation, — From the bark — Tinctura Hamamelidis B.P. (i in 
10). Dose, i to I fl. dr. Decoction (1 to 20) for external use. From the 
leaves— Extractum Hamamelidis Liquidum, B.P. — liquid extract of 
Hamamelis. Dose, 5 to 15 ms. Hamamelidin or Hamamelin, an 
uncertain powdered extract of a purple brown colour. Dose, ^ to 2 
grs. Suppositories of 3 grs. each of the extract with cocoa butter, 
useful for piles. Liquor Hamamelidis B.P. (leaves 5, water 10, alcohol 
I, distil to one half) for external use. Unguentum Hamamelidis, B.P., 
liquid extract i, Hydrous wool fat 9. Hazeline, an American speciality. 
A pleasant clear liquid, slightly sweetish, of a fragrant odour. Obtain- 
ed by distillation of the twigs. Dose, ^ to 2 fluid drs. 

Physiological Action. — Anodyne, sedative, cooling, antiseptic, 
astringent and styptic ; used both internally and externally. All these 
properties are mostly due to tannin, but it appears to have some special 
influence over the venous circulation, somewhat like that of aconite 
on the arterial system. In full doses it causes throbbing in the head. 
As a sedative it is used locally in cutaneous inflammations. It is a 
good application as an injection for haemorrhoids of a bleeding variety, 
for varicose veins (varicocele) erysipelas, ulcers, sprains and abrasions, 
also pruritus and eczema. In 1 to 3 ozs. of water it is used as an enema. 
Internally it is given to check passive haemorrhages as haemorrhage 
from the lungs, nose, stomach, kidneys, uterus, rectum, &c. 
In threatened abortion it is beneficial. It is given in excessive 
mucous discharges as gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea ; or as a gargle or 
steam inhalation used in stomatitis, aphthae, sore throat, toothache, &c 

Combretaoe«. 

The Himaja or myrobalan family. 

Trees or shrubs, leaves exstipulate entire without dots. Flowers 
perfect or unisexual, beautiful and red, white or greenish yellow. 
Fruits indehiscent and generally winged or obtuse angled, one seeded ; 
seed, exalbuminous. 

Habitat* — Asia, Africa, America. 

The plants are remarkable for their astringent properties. 



CALYCOr-TKRtS KLORtBONriA. 257 

JUiojeissns L&tifolia. Conocarpus Latifolius, A. Villosa. A. 

ParvifoUa. 

Htibiiut. — Himalaya, Ceylon. 

Part used. — ^The gum. 

Vemaculat . — Can. — Dimluga. Ciag.^Madhura-twacha. Eng. 

— Crane tree. Gu2. — Dhaval. Hind, — Dhaya, Dhaura, Bakh 

Sans, — V'akavriksea, DhavaL Tam. — ^Vellanaga, Vakalee< Tel.^ — 
Sheriinam, yclla-muddi. 

Vaka vrikahat Crane tree, the fruit resembles the head of a crane 
(vaka) ; Dhava from dhva to flow : a large ainount of gum flows 

from it like milk from the breast. 

Characters. — Leaves short pctioledi ovatc» smooth generally, and 
jnarginatc, i to 4 inches long^ and ^ to i inches broad. Taste very 
"^ stringent, the leaves of A. villosa are rusty and villous on both 
lurfaces. Those of A parvifolia are small and silk}** The gum from 
the bark resembles ghatti gund and is in vermicular or elongated tears, 
colourless or of a pale yellow colour, rough and of a glassy fracture^ 
free Irom cracks. and transparent* It darkens by keeping ; with water 
it forms a highly viscid mucilage. 

Constituents, — The leaves contain tannic acid 15*5 p* c. The ash 
contoins carbonate of potash. 

Prefarations, — Decoction of the leaves (i in lo). Dose, J to i 
fid. oz. 

Acftons and uses, — Demulcent and astringent ; the gum is used 
as a substitute for gum arabic. The decoction is astringent, and is givea 
in diarrhcea and gonorrhcra. 

Calyoopteris Floribunda. 

Hiibttat* — W. India, Assam- 

Paris used. — The leaves, root and fruit- 

Vefttacular* — Can.— Marsada, Baguli. Hiod. — Kokoranj. Mar — 
ill, Ukshi. TeL— Bandi-Murudu. 

CZ/ar^c/iT^.-— Leaves opposite, having on the upper surface thinly 
scattered long hairs ; under surface rusty, tomcntose. Taste astriogent 
and bitter* Fruit ovoid, 5 ribbed and villous* 

Constituents. — Tannin 6*86 p. c. 

Preparation. — Juice of leaves ; infusion (1 in 20). Do$e» 3 to & 
dr** Paste of the root. 

AcHoni and uses. — Stimulant and astritigent. The juice of leaves 
or infusion is used in colic and dyspepsia* 'Fhe root paste, mixed with 
that of croton oblongifolium is used for bites of Phoorsa snake (Echis 
caruuta). The fruit is used along with other carminatives in jaun- 
dice. The fruit is rubbed with the root of Grtwia Pilosa and the paste 
mixed with honey is applied to ulcers. 

17 



258 TERMINAL! A ARJUNA, 

QoiBqualis Indioa. Q. Yillosa. 

Habitat — Malaya and India. 

Paris used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Duk. — Kangun-ki-bel. Eng.— Rangoon Creeper, 
Chinese honeysuckle. Hind.— Rang^n-ki-bel. Malay. — Sun-sung, 
aroos. Mar. — Vilayati Chumeli. Tam. — Irangfin-Malli. Tel. — 
Rangunu-malle-chettu. 

Characters. — Dry seeds black, yellowish and oily internally. 
Fruits oval or oblong, pointed at either end and sharply pentagonal. 
They dehisce from the apex. Pericarp woody, thin, fragile and of a 
mahogany colour and enclosing a seed. 

Constituents. — Fruits consist of shells 41 parts, and kernels 
59 parts in 100 parts ; they contain a fixed oil 15 p. c. of a yellow colour, 
a sugary substance, similar to levulose, and an organic acid similar 
to cathartic acid. The seeds afford an alkaline ash. 

Actions and uses, — The bruised seeds are anthelmintic and given 
in expelling lumbrici. Dose, 4 or 5 seeds. 

Terminalia Arjana, Pentaptera Arjnna, P. Glabra, 
P. AnguBtifoUa. 

Habitat*^ Deccan, Ceylon, Bengal, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces. 

Parts used. — The bark« 

Vernacular, — Beng*— Anun. Bom. — Arjun Ladara. Burm. — 
Tonk-kyan. Can. — Toru Biflimatti. Duk. — Arjuna. Hind. — Arjan, 
Kahu, Jamla. Malyal. — Vella-maruta. Mar. — Kowa, Shardul. 
Pinjal, Arjun. Panj. — ^Jumla, Kukhsoba. Sans, — Aijuna, Kakubha. 
Tam.— Veellai-Maruda-maram. Tel. — Tella-maddi-chettu. 

Characters. — Bark, in quills, brown, soft, scabrous and corky, easily 
separable from the wood, and breaking with a short fracture, taste 
astringent and odour aromatic 

Constituents. — ^The ash of the bark contains 34 p. c. of almost 
pure calcium carbonate. The bark also contains tannin. 

Preparation. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, i to i fld. oz. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, and tonic ; given in heart disease. 
Locally used as a wash for wounds, ulcers, contusions, and specially 
used in promoting union of fractures and dispersion of ecchymosis ; 
internally largely used by the natives in haemorrhagic and other 
fluxes and as a lithontriptic 

Terminalia Bellerioa. 

Habitat. — India, Ceylon, Coimbatore, Peshawar. 

Parts used. — The dried pulp of the fruit without stones. 

Vernacular^ — Arab.— Balilaj. Beng. — Bohor&, Bahera. Bom. — 
Behedan. Burm. — Phankha-si-tit-sein. Bankha. Can. — ^Tari-kuyi. 
Cing. — Bulu. Duk. — B&larA, Balda. Eng.— Beleric myrobalan, 



^^^^ TfiRMIKAtlA CHEBL^LA. 259 

Bastard myroBaians, Bedda-nuts. Guz«<^Behd^n. Hind.^— Bharla, 
Bahera, Baira. Mar, — ^Behada. Karsba-phal, Bhulvaso. Malyal. — TaoL 
Pcrs^^Balileh. Sans, — V^ibhiuka, Anilaghnakaf Bahira. Tain,— 
Tanrik-kay, Tel-— Tandra-kayi» Bahadraha. 

Anilaghnaka means Windkilling. 

Characters, — ^Two varieties, one with nearly globular fruity tlie other 
ovate and much larger. The dried fruit, larger in size than a jaephala 
and obtusely angled ; external surface brown, velvety or silky» shghlly 
wrinkled, having a small stalk at the bottom and a depression on the 
top ; interior containing a dried pulp, yellow and brittle, and easily 
removable from the stone ; stone hard, woody, oval in shape, of a pale 
yellow colour and containing an almond-like seed, very much wrink- 
seed when fresh oily and haviBg the taste like that of filberts, 
id intoxicating when eaten in quantities. Bark when wounded 
iving out insipid gum in tears and vermiform pieces ; colour dark 
brown, surface smooth, free from cracks, very little soluble in water, 
and forming a tough mass. It contains crystals of oxalate of lime. 

Ojmtttueut^. — Gallo-tannic acid, colouring matter, resins and a 
greenish yellow oil. 

Preparatifms. — Powder of the pericarp. Dose, 10 to 40 grs, and 
decoction of fruit (i in 10). Dose, } to i fid. 02, Linctus or 
lozenges* 

Actions and uses, — Astringent, tonic and laxative ; with salt and 
long pepper it is given as an expectorant in the form of electuaries in 
cough» hoarseness of voice, sere throat and dyspepsia. The dried 
nulp roasted is kept in the mouth as lozenges in sore throat. The 
Iruil is given in diarrhcea, dropsy, piles, leprosy, &c., also in 
enlargement of the spleen. 



Terminalia Chebula, T. Reticulata* MyrobaJaiit 

Habitat, — Tablelands of India, Ceylon, Punjab, 

Parts used, — ^The dried fruits — myrobalans and galls. 

There are four varieties of chebulic myrobalans used medicinally 
in India, but they are the same fruit at different stages of maturity. 
V^cry large fruits fetch a fancy price. 

IWnacuJar* — Ouite mature or ripe fruits. — Arab. — Halitat-i- 
Cabuli. Bcng, — Hara, Haritaki. Can, — Alale-kayi« Cing. — ^Aralu. 
Duk, — Harda, Harll. Guz. — Sardari harade, iMohoti Harade. Pile 
harade. Kabuli Harade. Hind, — Harpile, Harja umbedhur» Harda. 
Le|)cha — Silimking. Malval. — ^Kulukka. Mar. — H^rapa, Pahari- 
Hatia« Pers. — Halilohei^ /arda. Sans.^ — Haritaka, Abhaya, pranada 
pathtya« sudha, Bishak priya vigia, Aniruta chetaki. Tam. — Kaduk- 
kay. Teh— Karakkaya, 

Fruit when arrived at or near maturity and yellow. Arab. — 
Habilch-i-Asfar, Hatileh-i-chino. Bomb., Hind.— Haradan, Rangari 
hirailc^ Pers. — Rohini, Halileh-e-asfar, 



260 TERMINALIA CHBBULA. 

Young fruit when dried becoming black and brown and of the 
size of a raisin, — Arab. — Halileh-i-Zangi, Halibche siyah, Halilaji 
asvad. Bomb. — Bola harade. Can. — Alsle-pinda. Duk. — Balhalre, 
Zangi-harle. Eng. — Black myrobalans. Guz — Himaja, himaji harade. 
Hind. — Bilh4r, Langi-hir, kilihar. Pers. — Halilahe sibajih. Sans. — 
Bala-haritaka, Himavali Patana Abhayia. Sind. — Imachi. Tam. — 
Kadak-kay. Tel.— Pinda Karak-kaya. 

Fruit very young about the size of a grain of barley. Arab. — 
Halileh-i-Jawi. Guz. — Java harade. Mar. — Javasa, fruit about the 
size of a cinnamon seed. Arab. — Halileh*i-zira. 

Gall-like excrescenses. Incorrectly considered as flowers. Beng.— 
Haritaki-phul. Can. — Alale-havon. Duk. — Halre-k^-phai. Guz. — 
Harle-phul, pilo harle phul. Malyal. — Katukka-pu. Mar. — Hirada- 
phule. Sans. — Haritaki pushpam. Tam. — Kadu-kai-pu. Tel. — 
Karak-kayu-puwulu Aldicai, 

Pranada life-giver. Sudha, Nectar. Bhishakpriya, Physician's 
favourite. Shakra — Shrista, created by Indra. Pathya, a corruption 
of paraiya or Paharija or paharej — abstinence from unwholesome or 
luxurious living. This drug can be given with benefit to persons 
who may be sufiering from the ill effects of reckless eating and 
drinking. 

C^tfrtfc/^r^,— Halileh-i-kabuli, sarwar-i-Hindi, survari harade — a 
very large sized fruit of an ovoid form, smooth, dense, readily sinking 
into water and heavy ; about 2 inches long, and tapering, especially at 
the lower end ; 5 or 6 sided, furrowed longitudinally and highly wrink- 
led ; epidermis yellowish brown. When cut into, it shows a yellowish 
or darkish brown pulp and stone; pulp astringent and somewhat sticky 
to the taste. The best quality of harade contains a large, rough, bony 
one-celled endocarp and largest quantity of pulp. The epidermis 
when chewed is smarting to the tongue, the stone is insipid, the pulp 
is bitter and somewhat sour. Dose, 2 to 10 grs. Haradan. Rangari 
hirade. These are smaller in size, wrinkled and less furrowed than 
survari harade. In length each is about an inch or more. The 
epidermis is yellow. When cut into, it presents a yellow dried pulp 
and a stone. Bila harade. These are unripe fruits, smaller in size 
than the above two varieties, and ovoid ; colour deep brown or black, 
wrinkled, tapering, epidermis dark or brown. On section, in the 
interior is found a pulp which is dark and homogeneous There 
is no stone. It has a shining fracture and an astringent taste. Dose, 
30 to 60 grs. Java harade. It is the most diminutive of all. The word 
Java means barley, and it is so called as in size it resembles Java ; 
other characters are similar to those of himaja. Galls. These are 
produced by the tender leaves being punctured by an insect, and 
its eggs deposited therein which by extravasation of the sap 
became enlarged into hollow glands of various^ shapes and sizes. 
Dose, I to 3 grs. 

Constituents. — Myrobalans contain astringent principles — tannic 
acid (45 p, c.) and gallic acid, mucilage, a brownish yellow 



TERMING 



2bi 



COlountTg matter. Chebulic myrobalans also contain an "organic acid 
named chebuUnic acid, which, when heated in water, spHts up into 
tannic and gslhc acids. 

Chebuhnic acid»— To the extract of chebulic myrobalans, add 
sodium chloride solution. Dissolve the matter that separates 
in water, shake the solution with acetic ether. Evaporate the ether, 
^dissolve the residue tn water — chebulinic acid crystallizes out in 
'rhombic prisms. It is an acid without any odour. Taste sweety freely 
^lublc in alcohol and hot water, sparingly so in ether and in cold water. 
The myrobalans also contain an oleo resin of a green colour, soluble 
in alcohol, petroleum spirit, and oil of turpentine. Tt is called 
myrobalanin. 

Preparatiun, — Survari harade— a confection, paste and electuary of 
the fruit deprived of stone. Infusion or decoction ( 1 in lo ). Dose, 4 
drachms to i ounce 

Himaja powder fried in ghcc or in casLor oil* Dose, J to 2 drs, 
Java harade, the same as those of himaja ; a compound powder— 
Amrita baritaki and a decoction pathyadi kuatha. 

AcUfius and uses, — Purgative, astringent and alterative. The ripe 
fruits are generally purgative ajid the unripe ones astringent and aper* 
tent. Survari harde freed from the stone (the pulp and the cortex being 
only used) is used as a laxative generally combined with aromatics as 
fennel seeds and carraway and given in chronic bronchitis, asthma and 
in gastric intestinal disorders* Combined with cmbclic and beleric 
myrobalans, it forms the well known Indian preparation called 
Triphala, meaning the three fruits, which is used as an alterative, tonic 
and stomachic, 

Rangart hiradc — alterative, stomachic, laxative and astringent ; 
given in fevers, piles and intestinal disorders ; chiefly used by tanners. 

Btitaharade^a mild and safe aperient, and astringent. Like rhubarb, 
it causes one free motion, and then regulates the boweh. Fried in 
ghee over a fire it is largely used in chronic diarrhoea, choleraic 
diarrhoBa and dysentery ; also in flatulence, vomiting, hiccough and 
colicky pains. Java harade. — Its actions and uses are similar to 
r those of himaja. Galls on the leaves are poweifuUy astringent and 
iven in dysentery and diarrhoea in children. 

Many imitations of survari haradearc sold by Jogis and M4ravaries 
who sell them at very high or fanciful prices ; spurious preparations 
often weighing as much as 6 to 12 ozs., are prepared by over-lapping 
diminutive survari harade (taken as a nucleus) with several slices 
of other survari harade, the whole being cleverly glued together and 
made to resemble a natural big-sized fruit. The high price fetched 
for survari harade is said to be due to its rarity and also to the fanciful 
medicinal properties attributed lo it. It is said that Rajas and others 
who have a repugnance to take medicine internally, are made to 
keep survari harade in their hands for a few minutes, when it acts ^ a 
purgative. In order that the public may give ready credence to such 



262 TERMINALIA CATAPPA. 

fanciful virtues, the Jogis who prepare fictitious harade generally 
paint them with some highly irritant cathartics under the belief that 
when held in the hand the irritants become absorbed and produce pur- 
gative effects. 

Tenninalla Catappa, T. Myrobalans. 

Habitat. — All over India. 

Parts used, — The fruit or nut, bark and oil. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Indian almond tree, leaf-nut. Beng. — Benglu- 
badam. Cing. — Kotamba. Can. — Nat-badami. Guz. — Nat-ni- 
bidam. Hind. and Duk. — ^Jangli-l^dam. Mar. — Nit-budam. 
Malyal. — Katta-kurn. Catappa. Pers. — Badame-hinde. Sans. — 
Jugudi-phallaani Desha-badamitte. Tam. — Nattu Vadam-kottai . 
Tel.— Nattu-Badam-Vettichi. 

Characters. — Fruit, a drupe, oval, smooth, compressed or flattened» 
of a dull purple colour when ripe. Nut rough, hard and thick ; kernel 
cylindrical, edible and resembling almonds, and hence called country 
almonds or ' leaf nut ' amongst the Europeans. 

Constituents. — The seeds contains 50 p. c. of the oil resembling 
almond oil, in flavour and mildness. It is of a pale yellowish colour 
and without any odour, and composed of stearine and oleine. The 
bark yields a black pigment used by the natives to colour their teeth. 

Prefarations.—'DecocXXon of the bark (i in 10). Dose, \ 
li fid. oz. 

Actions and uses. — The bark is astringent and "given in atonic 
dyspepsia, diarrhoea, gonorrhcea and leucorrhcea. The fruit has the 
same properties as those of almond. 

Terminalla Panioolata, Pentaptera Panioulata. 

Z^/^^/Va/.— Malabar, Nilgherries and Coorg. 

Parts used. — The flowers and bark. 

Vernacular. — Can. — Honal Huluwa. Mar. — Kinjal, Kindal. 
Tam.— Maruthu, Matti, Maida. TeL— Nei-muri. 

/V^/ar/i/rb«.— Powder. 

Actions and w^^^.— Stimulant. The flowers are used by the 
natives with the root of cissampelos pareira in cholera. The juice of 
the flowers or bark with that of gu&va bark is used as an antidote in 
opium poisoning. The same juice melted with butter and rock-salt 
is applied externally in parotitis. 

Terminalla Tomentosa, Terminalla Glabra, T. Alata, T. Crenulata* 

Habitat. — India. 

Parts /w^.— The bark. 

Vernacular.— Beng.^Ashkn, Piasal. Can.— Mutti karai. Cing.— 
Koombuk. Duk. — Jangli-karanj. Hindi.— Asan. Mai.— Tambavu, 
karu-maruta. Mar. — Ain. Tam.— Kurrupu-maruta, Kara-marada. 
Tel. — Nalla-maddi-chettu. 



CARKYA ARBOREA- 



a(i3 



Characters, — The bark is thin, yellowish brown. 

Constituents, — ^The ash of the bark contains much potash and 
tannin. 

PteparatiosiSn — Decoction (i in lo)* Dose, i to 2 ozs, 

Actions and uses, — ^ A stringent ; used in diarrhcea, dyspepsia, and 
leucorrbceaf like the bark of T. catappa. 

MyrtaoeaB. 

The Jimbu or Myrtle family. Trees or shrubs, with opposite, 
alternate, entire, cxstipulatc and usually dotted leaves. Flowers white 
or scarlet, generally brown. Fruits dry or succulent, dehiscent or 
indehiscenti seeds numerous^exalbutninous. 

Habitat, — ^Tcmperate climates and tropics. 

/^o/ertus, — The trees are remarkable for pungent and aromatic 
properties due to their containing volatile oils. Many of these oils 
are used as stimulants, antispasmodics^ diaphoretics, aromatics and 
carminatives. Some species are astringent and others secrete a 
saccharine matter; some bear edible fruits, some are used as spices, and 
others are used in preparing perfumery. Some are used as timber. 

Careya Ajboraa. 

Habitat, — Throughout India, 

I^MTis HS$d, — The dried calices of flowers and the bark. 

Vcrnactdar, — Beng. — ^{The dried calices) Bakumbha, Burm.*^ 
Bambhooai, banubwait ban. Bomb. — Bakumbha. Cing. — Kahaatta. 
Eng.— Wild guava, Guz. — Vakumbha. — Kumbha. Hind. — Ramba, 
kumbhce* Malyal. — Peloa. Mar. — Vakurabha, kumbha. Sans. — 
Kurnbhi. Tam. — Ave-mavo» Ayama. putatanni. Tel. — Kumbhi^ 
Diiilippi. Can. — Kumbhia, gouju, Mai. — Peru. Guz. — Vakumbha. 
Beug. — Bakumbha. 

Kumbhi means a jari a pitcher, or a water pot ; this is in 
allusion to the hollow on the top of the fruit resembling in appearance 
a water pot. 

Characters, — ^The calices about an inch or i^ inches long* of a 
brownish dark colour, and of the shape of cloves ; epidermis deeply 
furrowed and much wrinkled. It has a very small stalk at the bottom. 
On the top of the fruit there are diverging four scaly calyx-lobes. In 
the middle of these there is a cup-shaped depression, from the centre 
of which a long, slender, and wire-like curved style projects. Oo 
tran^vversc section the ovary presents cavities in the interior of which 
abortive seods are attached, taste faintly aromatic, aciduous, and astring- 
ent; odour aromatic. Bark rough, red and fibrous within. On moistening 
it much mucilage is given out. An astringent gum exudes from tlte 
fruit and stems. 

Constituents, — The thick red bark contains tannin, 8 p*c- The 
liber contains calcium o.xalate in large simple crystals. 

Preparations.^Decoction (i in 10). Dose^ 4 to la drs. 



:264 EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLATA. 

Actions and uses. — The bark and calices of the flowers are astring- 
ent, demulcent, and aromatic. The decoction is used in indigestion, 
and also as a demulcent in coughs and colds. The bark is used in 
preparing emollient embrocations. 

Remarks. — Vakumbha is erroneously called by the druggists 
vavani phula. 

Eugenia Caryophyllata, B. P., CaryophyllnB AromatiouB, 
HyrtuB CaFyophylluB. 

/Ttf^i/^/.— Malacca, East and West Indian Islands, Sumatra, 
Penang, India, Ceylon, Travancore. 

Parts used.— The fruit ; the dried flower-buds — Caryophyllum, 
<:loves B, P., and oil — oleum Caryophylli, B. P. 

Caryophyllus from caryon, a nut, and phyllon, a leaf, in allusion 
to the nut-like appearance of flower buds which are like leaves. Clove, 
from clavus, a nail. The dried flowers resemble nails. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Karanaphal. Beng. — Lovanga, long. Bom. 
— (the fruit) nara lavanga. Burm. — La-nyen-pwen. Can. — Lavanga. 
Chin. — Tkeng-hia, Ting-hisug. Cing. — Karambu krabugaha, Warrala. 
Duk. — Ranjambool lavanga, Eng. — Cloves. Guz.— Lavanga. Hind. 
— Laung, (the fruit) nara lavanga, (the clove stalks) vikunia. Malay. — 
Karampu bunga chanke. Mai. — ^Bunga lavanga, Ran-jambul. Pers. — 
Mykek. Sans. — Lavanga. Can.— Lavanga. Tel. — Davanga-pu. 
Tam. — Kirambu Karuvap-pu. Ind. — (bazar, the fruit), na'elnaug. 

The dried unripe fruits are known as mother cloves. 

Karanphul is derived from karan, an ear, and phul, a flower. It 
means a flower ornament for the ear, gold or silver ornaments used for 
the ear resemble cloves in shape and size, hence the ornament is often 
call lavong or karanphul. 

Early writers call Lavang by the name of karanphul. This is 
due to the practice of keeping lavang in the hole in the lobe of the 
^ar to prevent it from closing. 

Narlavang — Nar, a male, and lavang, a clove — mother-clove, 
because of the erroneous;notion among the native that the seed-bearing 
organ is always the male. 

Characters. — A handsome evergreen. The dried unexpanded 
flowers (cloves) consist of calices, ovary and flower buds f of an inch 
long, of a rich or darkish brown colour, and very oily. In form resem- 
bling vakumbhd; calyx tube tapering below, terminated by four thick 
rigid teeth which diverge at the top of the ovary. Within them are 
four imbricated petals forming small globular balls, enclosing numerous 
stamens and a single style. Below the teeth of the calyx is a club-like 
stalk which is the unripe ovary, surface much wrinkled, smell strong, 
fragrant and spicy, taste aromatic and very agreeably pungent. All 
parts of the clove abound in oil cells ; when scratched the oil exudes. 
Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 



EDCALVPTUS GLOBULUS. 



J65 



Mother cloves are ovatet oblong, about an inch long, containing 
two'dark brown oblong, starchy, cotyledons, in size resembling pipUf 
they abound in starch but contain less essential oil ; it has the odour 
cf doves. 

Constituents, — A heavy volatile oil 18 p* c, Caryophyllin — 
a camphor, resin 6 p. c. Caryophyllic acid or eugenic acid; eugenin, 
a cry^stalline body, tannin, woody fibre» gum, &c. 

Oleum Caryophilli, B, R The oil distilled from cloves with water 
or steam, A colourless or pale yellow oily liquid when fresh, becom- 
ing thicker and reddish brown by keeping. Odour strong, pungent 
.and aromatic^ taste, pungent and spicy — soluble in alcohol and glacial 
acetic acid. It consists of a light and a heavy portion. The light 
jrtion contains sesquiterpene caryophyllene. The heavy portion 
contains cugenol, a phenol-like compound and caryophilli ne. Dose, ^ 
to 3 ms, 

Caryophyllin — obtained by treating ethereal extract of cloves with 
water, the precipitate is next filtered and treated with ammonia* It 
occurs in silky stellate needles. 

The oil of cloves of the Indian bazaars is prepared by steeping 
cloves in sweet oil and keeping them for some days. 

Prebaratmn* — Of the clove buds — ^Infusum caryophilli, B. P. 
(i in 40). Dose» \ to 1 oz. Infusum auruntii composita* Dose, \ to i oz. 

PhyWihjgical action, — ^ Antiseptic, local anassthetic, general 
stomachic, carminative, aromatic^ antiemetic and antispasmodic ; 
ejtteriially rubefacient, anaesthetic and antiseptic; internally, it in- 
cTcaies the circulation and raises blood-heal, promotes digestion 
and nutrition, and relieves gastric and intestinal pain and spasm* It 
stimulates the skin, salivary glands, kidneys, liver and bronchial 
«iucous membrane* It is excreted in the breath, perspiration, bile, 
milk and urine. 

Therapeutics^ — Given as a flavouring agent to correct griping 
caused by purgatives^ to relieve flatulence and to increase the now of 
saliva. In combination with other spices and rock salt it is given 
to relieve colic, indigestion, vomiting and thirst. Rxtcrnally it is 
used as an application in rheumatic pains, sciatica, lumbago, to the 
head in headache, and to the tooth in toothache ; roasted in the flame 
of a candle and kept in the mouth it improves the breath, relieves 
sore throat and strengthens the gums. The powdered clove is a chief 
ingredient of a native preparation — lavanga*di-churana, which is given 
in cough, asthma, &c* A paste of them applied in the forehead 
and to the nose is a popular remedy among the natives in headache, 
coryza &c. 

Eucalyptus Globulus, B. P., and other Species. 

Gum wood, Australian fever tree, Australian blue gum tree, 
iron bark, woolly butt, 

^a^f/n/.— Australiflp Italyt Algeria, Europe, United States^ 

■C^alifornia. 



266 EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS 

Paris used, — ^The dried leaves, Eucalypti folia; and oil, oleum 
eucalypti, B. P. 

Characters. — Leaves smooth, entire, ensiform, 6 to 12 inches 
in length and i inch in breadth ; glaucous when fresh ; yel- 
lowish green and coriaceous when dry. Held up to the light they 
ara found to be studded with oil glands ; odour strongly balsamic and 
camphoraceous, taste astringent, pungent, bitter and aromatic. Dose, 
5 grs. in powder. 

Constituents, — The leaves contain a volatile oil 6 p. c , tannin, 
cerylic alcohol, a crystallizable fatty acid, and a resin composed of 
three resinous bodies. No alkaloidal principle. 

Volatile oil — oleum eucalypti, B. P. The oil is distilled from the 
fresh leaves of E. globulus, E. gracilis, E. incrassata, E. amygdalina 
(wanting in eucalyptol), E. dumosa, E. oleosa, E. cneorifolia, E. 
uncinata and E. odorata. It is a colourless or pale yellow liquid, of an 
aromatic camphoraceous odour and pungent spicy taste, leaving 
an after-sensation of coldness in the mouth. Sp. gr. 0*900 to 0*920. 

It is not caustic and does not cause much coughing when inhaled ; 
nor does it irritate the skin or the mucous membrane when applied. It 
is destructive to low organisms. It is insoluble in water and freely 
soluble in alcohol, oils, fats, paraffins, glacial acetic acid and carbon 
bisulphide. Dose, ^ to 3 ms. in capsules or emulsion. 

The oil dissolves camphor, pine resins, elemi, sandarac, dammar, 
asphalt, copal, benzol, dragons blood, amber, shellac, caoutchouc, 
wax, &c. 

The volatile oil consists of different bodies which distil over at 
varying temperatures, viz. cymene, eucalyptene, terpene and eucalyptol ; 
also small amount of valeric, butyric and capronic aldehydes. 

Eucalyptol. — A neutral body obtained from the volatile oil, principal- 
ly obtained from eucalyptus cneorifolia, E. dumosa and E. oleosa ; other 
plants also yield it, viz. — santonica, rosemary, curcuma, men tha,cajuput 
salvia, laurus, and canella. It is identical with cineol or cajuputol. By 
the action of phosphoric acid it is converted into eucalyptene a sub- 
stance allied to cymene and eucalyptolene. It is a colourless liquid of 
aromatic, camphoraceous odour, and pungent, cooling taste ; soluble in 
alcohol, carbon bisulphide, and glacial acetic acid. Dose, 3 to 10 ms. 

Eucalyptene or eucalyptia. A purified oil distilled from the leaves 
for internal use. Eucalyptene hydrochloride— eucalypteol. In white 
crystalline scales of a bitter taste ; soluble in alcohol, ether and chloro- 
form, nearly insoluble in glycerin and water, decomposed by alcohol and 
alkalies. Dose, 2 to 6 grs., used as an enema — eucalypteol 30 grs., olive 
oil 2 ounces, and yolk of egg, one; mix ; also given in diarrhoea, typhoid 
fever, and in cough in phthisis. 

Eucalyptus honey, an Australian product, produced by a small bee 
Apis Nigra Mellifica, which feeds on the flowers of eucalyptus tree. It 
is used as a bactericide in phthisis, and in diseases of the kidneys and 
bladder, and in scrofulous affections, as a substitute for cod liver oil. 



EUCALVPTUS GLOBULUS. 



267 



Preparations. — Inhalation, eucalvptus oil 5, acid carbolic 10, liquor 
' ammoniae 12, alcohol 25, used in dipntheria, broachitis, ozsena, &c. 

Unguentum iodoformi et eucalypti r iodoform i, eucalyptus 
oil 9, paraffin 20» vaseline 20. Unguentum eucalypti, B. P, (i in 10) ; 
hard paraffin 4, soft paraffin 5, oil of eucalyptus i, used as an 
antiseptic dressing* Tinctura eucalypti foliorum (1 in 5), Dose« 
15 to lao ms, Infusum eucalypti (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 6 ft, 
dxs. Emulsio eucalypti, contains eucalyptus oil, powdered gum 
Arabic, equal parts and water 40* used as an urethral injection or a« a 
lotion in gonorrhoea and may be taken internally. Dose, l to 4 drs. 
Extractum eucalypti fluidum, fluid extract of eucalyptus. Dose, 10 to 
60 mst Vapour eucalypti 40 nis. to 1 oz. with carbonate of magnesia. 
Dose, X drachm in I pint of water. 

Eucalyptus gauze contains eucalyptus oil, 6 p, c. It is also known 
as carbasus eucalypti. The cotton gauze impregnated with oil of 
eucalyptus i, dammar resin 3, paraffin wax 3. Cremor eucalypti 
compositus, an emulsion containing 50 p. c, of cod liver oil and 
5 minims of eucalyptus for each drachm — valuable for phthisis. 
Dose, I to a drs, Euc-alembroth i gauze, contains sal alembroth* 
castor oil, and eucalyptus oil. Eucalyptus sawdust (i in 9) used la 
deodorize the air of rooms, Eucalyptus wool, 5 p. c. of oil, 

Physifdugkal action. — The dried leaves are febrifuge, stimulant, ex- 
pectorant^ diaphoretic and antiseptic. The anti-malarial properties' of 
the trees are chiefly due to the volatile oil, and partially to the great 
avidity they have for water when growing. Eucalyptus increases the 
flow ofsaliva, gastric and intestinal juices and hence wnen taken into the 
stomach it increases the appetite and digestion. It increases the heart 
beats and lowers the arterial tension. It is eliminated by the skin, kidneys, 
bronchi and may be found in the perspiration, urine, breath, milk, &c. 
In large doses it is an irritant of the alimentary canal, producing 
eructation, indigestion, nausea, vomiting and purging. It lowers the body 
heat, causes great weakness of the muscles, and often leads to conges- 
tion of the brain and kidneys. In toxic doses it is a narcotic poison. 
It paralviies the respiratory centre in the medulla. 

ThetapenticSt^^^ll stimulates the mucous membrane and henoe 

.given in chronic bronchitis, chronic catarrh of the genito-urinary 

:>rgans, in broncho-pulmonary catarrh, and during convalescence 

from acute diseases. In influenza the oil is very useful. At 

antimalarial the leaves or the oil are given to reduce the size of the 

spleen by absorbing the noxious germs; by draining the soil of its 

water and by its antiseptic emanations, the tree purifies the malaria 

stricken atmosphere in its vicinity. It is given as a stomachic 

an chronic dyspepsia and in wormi. In ague and other malarial 

■ fevers, an infusion of the leaves is largely used in place of quinine. It 

Ms also tried in septic fevers, remittent fevers* and in later stages of 

t);phoid. The leaves with belladonna or stramonium leaves, or the 

oil are smoked to relieve asthma and whooping cough. The oil is a 

Jpowerfu! antiseptic and has an ozonising influence on the atmosphere 

while it oxidises. It is inhaled or used as a spray in influenza. Given 



l68 HUCALYPTUS ROSTRATA. 

both internally and applied externally it does not irritate the skin 
or the mucous membranes. The oil mixed with olive oil is used as a 
rubefacient in rheumatism. The leaves, coarsely powdered, are 
smoked in cardiac asthma, ozaena, bronchitis, phthisis, and diphtheria. 
Externally the oil is used as a substitute for carbolic acid, as a spray, as 
an inhalation or as an antiseptic solution, or as a stimulant disinfect- 
ant in stomatitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, &c, ; as a wash to ulcers and 
wounds and as an injection in gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, &c. It prevents 
putrefaction and hence used as a vehicle for alkaloids to prevent the 
development of penicillium. It is used as ,a spray deodorizer to 
remove foetid odours. It is added to cod liver oil to remove its fishy 
flavour. It prevents moths entering woollen clothes. Eucalyptol is 
given in bronchitis, phthisis, typhoid fever and diarrhoea. The E. 
amygdalin and E. globulus oils differ. The oil obtained from E. 
globulus contains eucalyptol but no phellandrene. That obtained from 
£, amygdalinae contains phellandrene as its principal constituent and 
no eucalyptol. 

EuoalyptQB Rostreta, B. P., and other Bpeoies. 

Habitat — Australia, Malay Peninsula, Nilgherry Hills. 

Parts used. — The bark. The gummy exudation from the bark* 
Eucalypti gummi B. P., eucalyptus gum, red gum. 

, A ruby coloured exudation, in grains or small pieces of various 
sizes and of a deep red or garnet colour and shining ; thin fragments, 
which are tough and difficult to powder are transparent and of 
a ruby red colour. Taste highly astringent. If chewed the gum 
adheres to the teeth and tinges the saliva red. It is soluble in cold 
water 80 to 90 p. c, entirely so in alcohol. Used as pills. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 

Preparations. — Tinctura eucalypti gummi (i in 4). Dose, 20 to 40 
ms. 1 oJ tincture to 7 of water forms a very astringent gargle. 

Trochisci eucal3'pti compositi. Eucalyptus gum i gr., chlorate of 
potash 2 grs., and cubeb powder, J gr. in each. Trochiscus eucalypti 
gummi, B. P. One grain in each. Dose, i to 2. 

Extractum eucalypti gummi liquidum. Dose, 20 to 60 ms. 

Syrupus eucalypti gummi (5 of the liquid extract to 3 of sugar). 
Dose, J to I dr. 

Decoctum eucalypti gummi (i in 40). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. used 
as a gargle. Internally given for diarrhoea. Insufflatio eucalypti 
gummi, eucalyptus gum, in powder and starch equal parts, a powerful 
astringent applied through an insufflator to the relaxed larynx. 

Actions and uses, — A powerful astringent both internally and 
externally ; given in diarrhoea and dysentery. The extract, if injected 
into the nostrils at once, stays bleeding from the nose. It is injected 
into the vagina or the rectum in cases of excessive mucous and san- 
guineous discharges. If applied on lint it arrests haemorrhage from 
wounds. Suppositories are used for relaxed condition of the 
rectum and vagina. Red gum lozenges or the diluted extract of it 
are used in relaxed sore throat. It checks the diarrhoea due to mer- 
cury, when given in syphilis. 



EUOES-iA /AMBOLANA. 



S69 



Remarks, — This gum should not be confounded with commoQ 
Australian gum or Botany Bay kino gum, which is ihe producl of 
eucalyptus resinifera. The latter is resinous, and is hardly soluble in 
water. 

E» Rofousta. The leaves yield an essential oil. It is like 
cajuputi oil and very fragrant. 

Eugenia Jambolana, £. Fruticosa, Syzy^inm Caryophylllfolltuii, 
Syzygium Jambolanum. 

NabitaL — India, Coimbaiore, Bengal, Camaon, East Indies. 

Parts used. — The fruit, leaves and dried seeds (jambolan<c semina) 
and bark. 

Vernacular^ — Beng. — Kula Jam, Bomb, — JambuL Can.*— 
Nerala. Cing — Madang. Duk. — Sittala-chini, Eng. — Java-pluuit 
Jatnun» JambuK Guz. — Pnras, JambuL Hind. — Janiuna. Mar.^ — 
Jiimbu, Sans.^ — Jambup Megha-varna, Rajaphala, Nilaphala, Jam* 
b\'a (spirituous liquorj. Tarn. — Nawal. Tel. — Naregar. 

Meghavarna means Cloud coloured, Nilaphala means black fruit, 
Meghaba — Cloud-like, Rajaphala means royal fruit. 

Characters. — The fresh bark is grey, or of a pale brown colour ; sur- 
face fissured and scabrous ; internally red and 6Drousor pale white, soft, 
brittle, and full uf starch-like granules ; wood lough and fibrous, juice 
rather sticky. Taste acidtilnus and astringent. Leaves — oblong, acu- 
minate, smooth, bhining, and glabrous, or of a green or darkish greeo 
colour, of an aromatic odour and taste ; fruit of a purple colour, subacid, 
sweetish and astringent. When eaten unripe it imparts a dark 
colour to the lips, teeth and tongue. When very large and of 
the size of a pigeon's egg it is called paras jambudo Epidermiii smooth, 
shining, and very thin, and can be easily removed by scratching; pulp, 
of a dark reddish colour* A vinegar is prepared from it. The seed when 
fresh of a pinkish colour which becomes brown on drying; t^ta 
thin and brittle, enclosing thick, hard, and wrinkled cotyledons; 
taste of the set-d is aromatic. Dose of the powdered fruit stone, 5 to 
30 grains, in cachets, powder or pills. 

Constituents, — The seed contains jambulin, a glucoside; also a trace 
of essential oil, chlorophyll, fat, resin, gallic acid, albumen &c. The 
bark contains tannin 12 p.c. and a kino*like gum. 

Preparathns, — Extractum Jambul liquidum. (Take fresh seeds, 
^dilCdrd the pericarps and exhaust in alcohol^ without heat.) Dose, 
^tO X dr. Syrup from the ripe fiuit, Dose, 3 to 4 dis. Jambul 
and gluten biscuits, 30 grs. in each* Dose, 4 to 6 biscuits. Decoction 
oftheb^Tkri in 10). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. Pancha Rasa. The five 
- Obtained by macerating in water the bark of K&li 

J.I ul, Lai barjala, Jujube and Jayanti, 

Actions afid uses — The juice of the ripe fruit or syrup is stcmachic, 
astriBgcnt, and diuretic and given in scanty urine. The decoct ion of bark 
18 astringtut, and used in diarrhoea of children, in chronic dysentery, as a 



Z^O MELALEUCA LEUCADENDRON. 

gargle mixed with Dhumaso for the relief of spongy gums, and sore, 
cracked or irritable tongue. A paste of leaves is used to promote 
healthy discharges from indolent sores or from unhealthy ulcers. The 
extract of powdered seeds and dried fruits is used in diabetes. 
It checks diastatic conversion of starch into sugar in cases depending on 
increased production of glucose. 

HyrtuB Chekan, Eugenia Chekan. 

Syn. — Cheken, Chequen, Aroyan. 

Habitat,— ChWi. 

Parts used. — The leaves and shoots. 

Constituents. — A volatile oil resembling that of eucalyptus, a 
volatile alkaloid, clieckanine, and tannin. 

Preparations^ — Extractum Chekan Liquidum. Dose, ^ to 3 fl. dr. 
Infusum Chekan (i in 10). Dose^ to 2 oz. 

Actions and uses. — Aromatic, antiseptic, expectorant, diuretic and 
tonic ; given in chronic bronchitis and catarrh of the bladder. As an 
inhalation, it is given in diphtheria, laryngismus stridulus, and as an 
injection in leucorrhoea and gonorrhoea ; also employed in phthisis and 
pulmonary haemorrhages. Dose of the leaves, i to 2 drs. 

Melaleuca Leucadendron, B. P., M. Cajuputi, M. Minor. 

Mela-leuca from melan, black, and leukos, white. The trunk of 
this tree is black and the branches white. Leucadendron from leukos, 
white, and dendron, a tree. 

Habitat. — Molucca Islands, Indian Archipelago, and the Philip- 
pines. 

Parts used, — A volatile oil distilled from the leaves— oleum 
cajuputi, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Burm. — Thit-tha-hputshi (the tree). Eng. — 
Cajuput oil. Guz. — Kajuputitela. Hind., Beng., Mar. — Kayakuti-tel 
Malay.— Kay u-puteh (the tree). Tam.— Kayapudai-tailam (the oil). 

Characters. — Oleum cajuputi— a light thin liquid of a bluish 
green colour. Rectified oil is yellow. It is transparent and mobile, 
of an agreeable but penetratmg, warm camphoraceous odour, and 
a bitter, cooling and aromatic camphoraceous taste and of a neutral 
reaction ; its green tint is often due to the presence of copper ; freely 
soluble in alcohol. 

Cofistituents. — The oil contains bihydrate of cajuputine or caju- 
putol about f , and several terpenes ; also acetic, butyric and valerianic 
ethers of turpineol. Soluble in alcohol (i in i). Dose of the oil, ^ m. 
to 3 ms. The green colour has been attributed to chlorophyll or to 
copper which is present in it. 

Preparations. — Spiritus cajuputi B. P. (i in 10). Dose 5 to 20 ms. 
Emulsion, pills and linimentum. 



MVltCfA ACRH 



271 



Actions and uses. — The oil is like other volatile oils, a powerful 
stimulant sudorific, carminative, diuretic, and antiseptic ; externally 
parasiticide and anthelmintic, rubefacient and counter-irritant to the 
skin. Taken internally it produces a sense of warmth in the stomach 
and increases the pulse beat* Used externally over rheumatic and pain- 
ful joints, in paralysis, muscular rheumatism, chilblains and neuralgias, 
or given internally, in spasmodic affections of the stomach and 
bowels, as colic, flatulency, and in dysmcnoriha-a, dropsy, syphilis and 
cholera. As a stimulant and diaphoretic it is given in low states of 
the system and in hysteria, nervous vomiting, hiccough and dyspnoea. 
In elephantiasis and other jkin aflTcctions it is given with benefit. 
With olive oil it is dropped into the ear in deafness and eajache. It 
forms an ingredient of croton oil liniment, 

Myrcia Acris. 

Myrcia — surname of Venus — the plant is beautiful. Acris, from 
acer, sharp, pungent — odour of the leaves is pungent, 

Syn. — Wild clove or wild cinnamon, Jamaica bay berry. 

Habitat. — West Indian islands, Jamaica, Trinidad, Venezuela. 

Parts used. — A volatile oil distilled from leaves, oil of Myrcia, oil of 
Bay. 

Characters. — Leaves entire, long, ovate obtuse, coriaceous, 
strongly veined, pellucid, punctate and shining. Odour aromatic 
when bruised, 

Cofi.r/iVifi<'fi7jr.— Volatile oil and tannin. The volatile oil — Myrciae 
Oleum, oil of Myrcia, obtained by distillation from the leaves with water 

■or steam* A yellowish liquid ; odour clove-likc, taste pungent and spicy; 

Mlightly acid in reaction, becoming turbid with alcohol, glacial acetic 
acid and carbon bisulphide. It contains eugenol, myrcene, chavicol, 
methyl eugcnol. mcihyl chavicol, a turpene (phillandrene) and citraU 

Preparatifms. — ^Spiritus Myrciae, spirit of myrcia. Bay rum 
contains oil of myrcia 16, oil of orange peel i, oil of pimenta i, alcohol 
i,a20, water to 2,000. 

Aciians and uses. — Astringent, tonic and stimulant; used exter- 
natty to the fuitrhead in nervous headache, faintiiess and on cracks and 
fissures, also as hair washes. It is principally used as perfume. 

Myrtua Communis* 

HiiHtat. — Europe, cultivated in India, 
i arts //.r*-*/.— The berries, leaves, bark and oil (myrtol). 
Vernacular, — Arab. — The berries, Hab*eUaas, Asbiri, murad, Isbar 
Ismar, Isfaren. Bomb. — Vetayati Mhendi. Eng. — Myrtle. Guz. — 

_ latli, Makli. Hind. — ^Sata sova, Baragasha, the leases, Vilayati- 

"tnehndi. Pers. — Barg-i-murad (leaves). 

Characters^l^tn\^% black, peai -shaped, and slightly sweet ; seeds 
yellowish white, hard, kidney-shaped, and 6, 8 or 12 in number ; ta;ste 



272 PIMENTA OFFICINALIS. 

bland; leaves small, lanceolate, and dotted, margins revolute, very 
agreeably aromatic when bruised. Dose, lo to 60 grs. 

Constituents, — The ripe berries contain a volatile oil, myrti 
oleum — oil of myrtle, resin, tannin, citric acid, malic acid, sugar, &c. 
The oil is distilled from the leaves. It consists of a mixture of pinene, 
another hydrocarbon and cineol — ^the active principle, identical with 
eucalyptol. Dose, i to 3 ms. in capsules. 

Preparations, — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, 4 to 12 drs. Powder 
of leaves and berries. 

Physiological action. — The plant is stimulant and astringent. The 
volatile oil is antiseptic, parasiticide and rubefacient ; applied to a raw 
surface it sets up irritation and inflammation but it does not affect the 
unbroken skin. Internally it is a stimulant of the alimentary canal, 
produces warmth in the mouth and increases the flow of saliva and 
gastric juice. In full doses it is a nervine sedative, and in very large 
doses an irritant. It is an antiseptic and stimulant to the mucous 
membrane of the excretory organs, as the lungs and kidneys, and is 
eliminated in the expectoration and urine. 

Therapeutics. — In small doses it aids digestion and is given 
internally like copaiba, to check profuse expectoration in chronic foetid 
bronchitis, bronchorrhoea, gangrene of the lungs, whooping cough, 
asthma and in chronic inflammation of the bladder and urethra; also in 
passive haemorrhages. An infusion of the berries is used as rectal 
injection against round and thread worms, as an injection in leucorrhcea 
and prolapsus of the uterus and vagina. The powder of the leaves is 
used as an application in eczema, intertrigo and for wounds and 
ulcers. As an antiseptic it is used as a wash for foetid ulcers and as 
an injection for deep sinuses. Locally it is used in favus, pityriasis, 
herpes and parasitic skin diseases, also in otorrhoea, ozaena and other 
foul discharges from foetid ulcers. 

PImenta OfflcinaliB, B. P., Eugenia PImenta. 

All-spice, Pimento, Jamaica pepper. 

All-spice — as it was supposed that it combined at one time the 
odour of all the important spices, such as cinnamon, clove, and nutmeg. 

Habitat, — S. America, W. Indies, Jamaica. 

Parts used, — The dried full-grown unripe fruit. 

Characters, — Fruit thick, brownish, nearly globular, J to ^ of an 
inch in diameter crowned with a short calyx and short style. Two-celled, 
one-seeded. Seed brown and reniform ; odour clove-like, taste pungent 
and aromatic. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. 

Constituents, — The berries contain a volatile oil 3-4 p.c, probably 
identical with oil of cloves, also a fixed oil, 6-8 p. c, resin, gum, sugar, 
fat, tannin, ash, 4 p. c. 

Oleum Pimentae, B. P., oil of all-spice — oil of pimenta. This oil 
is distilled from Pimento with water or steam. It is a yellow or 



yeltuwish red liquid vvhea fresh, gradually becoming darker ; odour 
;Aromattc and taste pungent. Reaction faintly acid, heavier than water. 
Dose, ^ to 3 ms. 

/Vv/<im//b/ij.— The oil h a constituent of Bay Rum ; Aqua 
yPiinencae, B. P. from the fruit (i in 40). Dose, 1 to 2 fl. 02.. It is also 
epared from the oil ( i in 500), 

Achotis and uses* — All*spice is a stomachic, carminative, aromatic 
and stimulant ; also used as a condiment. It increases the vascularity 
of the gastric mucous membrane, and stimulates the s-ilivary secretion ; 
hence it improves digestion and increases saliva. The oil is used in 
dyspepsia, flatulence, intestinal colic and as a corrective to griping 
rnedicines. It is also used as a flavouring agent to cover the taste of 
nauseous drugs* 

Psidium Pyriferum and P. Pomiferum. P. Guava. 

HabitaL — America, naturalized in India. 
F\irts Mjrf^.— The bark, fruit and leaves. 

Fnmcnlar, — P. Pyriferum — ihc white guava. P, Pomiferuni*— the 
red guava. 

TAe fruit, — Arab. — Amarude. Beng, — Goachhi-phiU, peyara. 
Burni. — Malaka. Can. — ^Shibe hannu. Cing. — Suda-pera. Duk. — 
Jilma. Eng.^ — Guava. Guz, — Piyara, peru^ Jamaruda. Hind. — Am- 
rud, saphri dma» safrijam. Mar,— Tupa-pela, peru, Malyal, — Pela- 
Jambu. Pers. — Amrude. Sans. — Amaruta bahu bija phallama, Tani. 
— Koia-maram, goyya-pazham. TeL — ^Jama-chettu* ^ 

Characters. — Bark smooth, brown, and externally marked with 
superficial scars showing the separation of squamous plates of the dead 
" ark. On removing the epidermis, the bark is green. Internally 
rkcd with striae of alight brown colour ; taste astringent and some- 
; acid. Fruit edible; when unripe, it is of agrcen coUmr and highly 
llgent. Pulp, hard and containing numeraus seeds ; rind very 
Ifn. Ripe fruit has a faintly yellow colour, pulp soft and delicious 
10 the taste, of a strong aromatic flavour. Leaves arcmiatic, egg-shaped 
pr oblongi short stalked and covered with soft down. 

Comtituents. — The bark contains tannin 27-4 p.c. Resin and 
crystals of calcium oxatc- 

Pitiparatiuns. -Decoction (f in 10). Dose» 2 to 8 fluid drachms. 

Actions and uses, — Astringent ; the unripe fruit is indigestible, 
and often causes bilious vomiting and feverishncss* The ripe fruit is 
edible but produces costiveness. The liar k of white guava is astnngent, 
and the decoction is used along with other astringents, for 
chronic diarrhcea of children. It is ;ilso used as a wash in prolapsus, 
The leaves .ire astringent and stomachic, and are used to arresc 
liting in diarrh»ea. The bark and leaves of the red variety are 

I to allay votniting and diarrhora ul cholera. 

U 



ttft 



274 BAKKINGTONIA ACUTAKCl I A. "♦ 

Barringtoniaoea. 

The Samudara-phala family — trees or large shrubs, very much 
allied to myrtaceae. Leaves alternate and serrated, flowers scarlet, 
finely long or racemose, fruits drupaceous. 

Habitat. — Tropical regions in all parts of the world. 

Properties, — Rather intoxicating and dangerous. Some have 
faintly aromatic, bitter, aperient and acrid bark. 

Barringtonia Acutangala, Engenea Racemosa. Stravadiam 

RabFom* 

Habitat. — Throughout India. 

Paris used, — The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — HijjuL Bomb. — Samudar-phala, Tiwvur. 
Burm. — Kyaitha. Cing. — ElIa-Midella-gass. Hind., Guz. — Samudar- 
phala. Hind. — Hijjula. Malay. — Sjeria, Samstravad. Mar. — Pivar 
Sath-phal, Dhatri-phah Sans. — Hijja or Hijjala. Tarn. — Kadapum. 
Tel. — Kanapa, Kanagi, 

Characters.— SeeAs hard and resembling nutmeg or haradan in 
shape and size, dark brown compressed and marked with longitudinal 
striae. Internally hard, horny and brittle. Put into water it becomes 
soft. It consists principally of a homogeneous, pale white substance 
(starch) ; odour very agreeable or faintly aromatic, taste sweet at first 
but Soon becoming acrid and nauseating. Dose, 2 to 6 grs. 

Constituents. — A body allied to saponin, which is the active prin- 
ciple,* starch, proteid, cellulose, fat, caoutchouc and alkaline salts. 

Actions and uses. — Emetic and carminative ; used with the juice of 
fresh ginger in catarrhs of the nose and respiratory passages, and to 
relieve flatus from the bowels. Externally rubbed with water it is 
applied to the chest to relieve pain and to the abdomen to relieve colic 
and flatulence. 

Barringtonia BacemoBa. 

Habitat. — Ceylon. 

Part used. — The root. 

P^ernacuIar.'^Cing. — Deya-midella. Malay!. — Samudrapu. Tarn. 
— Samudra-pallam. 

Characters — The root is slightly bitter but not unpleasant. 

Preparations. — Infusion of the root (i inio). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. ; 
and snun. 

Actiotis and ttses. — A cooling refrigerent and aperient ; given in 
fevers. The powdered seed is used as a local sedative snuff in cold and 
catarrhs of the nose ; also as a dusting powder, in sore throat and 
cutaneous eruptions. • 

Helastomaoett. 

Mela from melan, black, and stoma, mouth ; from property of the 
species, dyeing the mouth black. Trees, shrubs or herbs ; leaves 
opposite, ribbed and dolless ; calyx 4, 5 or 6 lobed, adherent to the 



ovary and imbricated, petals twisted in oestivation ; ovaries adherent, 
nvjiny celled. Fruit either dry or distinct from the calyx and dehiscent 
or succulent, or united and indihescent ; seeds numerous, smaJl and 
exalbuminous. Flowers beautiful. 

Habitat, — ^Tropical regions and all parts of the world. 

Ptfjperttes, — Slightly astringent ; many produce edible fruit5» and 
some arc used for dyeing black and other colours. 

Memecylon Edule. M* Tinctorium. 

Habitat. — Eastern and Western parts of India, Ceylon. 

Part^ usfii. — The plant. 

Vf macular — Can, — Surpa, Cingh.— Dodi-gaha, Serookaya. 
En^. — Iron wood tree. MaL — Kasha wa^ Kana-v^avu. Mar. — Anjan, 
yalki, kurpa^ Lokhando. Sans. — ^Anjani. Tarn. — Kayampoo-voo. 
Tel. — AUi-cheddu. 

Charactifs, — The plant has bright green foliage with purplisli 
blue flowers. Berries globose, deep purple and crowned with four 
toothed limbs of the calyx; leaves entire, firm and leathery ; taste acridi 
bitter and astringent. 

Cofistitumts.—'Xhe leaves contain chlorophyll, resins, malic acid 
6*48 p.c., glucose 625 p,c*, gt»m, colouring matter, starch, crude fibre' 
and inorganic matter containing silica* 

Pteparatiutn, — Infusion of the leaves (i in 20). Decoction of the 
root (i in 10), Dose, ^ to i fid. oz. 

Aciifitts and uses, — Demulcent and astringent. The infusion ot 
tho leaves is used as collyrium for the eyes in conjunctivitis. The 
fccoction is ussed in menorrhagia. Pounded bark with aromatics like 
bjwan, pepper and zcdoary, is used as fomentation or Icp toconlubions, 
bmisc&i &c. The leaves are also used in gonorrhcea. 

Lythraoese. 

The Loosestrife, Mendi or Hernia family. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees ; leaves opposite, rarely alternate, and 
lexsttputate; Howers regular or irregular and of a white, red or yellowish 
'colour; fruit capsular, dehiscent and membranous; seeds numerous 
with or without wings, and exalbuminous. 

Habitat. — ^Tcmperate climate. 

Properties, — Generally astringent and used in dyeing. 

A. Baocifera. Ammannia Vesioatoria, 
Habitat. — Tropical India, 
flirts used, — The herb and leaves. 

Vfnmcuiar. — Beng,— Ban marach. Bomb, — Agiya. Duk, — Agin 
bull. Hind. — Dad mari. Mar.— Agaya, Guien, Bhar-jambul. MaL 



276 LAWSONIA ALBA. 

— Kallarvanchi. Sans.— Agnigurbha. Tarn. — Kallurivi, nirumel-nir- 
appu. Tel. — Agni-vendapaku. Agni gurbha. Agni, fire, and gurbha, 
a womb The plant is pregnant with fire. 

Characters- — Herb erect, and much branched ; stems four-sided ; 
leaves sessile, opposite, and lanceolate, about i inch long and i inch 
broad ; calyx four cleft to the middle ; lobe acute. Flowers minute, 
sessile and red. Smell muriatic, agreeable and aromatic. 

Constituents, — Resin, glucoside, and perhaps an active principle, 
allied to plumbagin. 

Preparations. — Ethereal tincture of the leaves ( i in 2 ). Decoc- 
tion of the dried plant ( i in 20 ). Dose, 4 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses, — Leaves irritant, acrid and vesicant. The leaf 
or the tincture when applied to the skin raises a vesicle within half an 
hour or an hour, and is applied to the joints in rheumatism and to the 
neck in fevers with cerebral symptoms. In action it is similar to can- 
tharides and may be used as a substitute for it. In obstinate spleen 
diseases the juice of the leaves is administered internally. Its 
decoction with ginger and cyperus root is given in intermittent fevers. 
The ash is applied with oil in herpetic eruptions. 

LawBonia Alba, L. Spinosa, L. Inermes. 

Habitat, — Western India, cultivated throughout India. 

Parts used, — Dried leaves, flowers and seeds. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Hinna. Beng. — Mehedi. Chin. — Hai-nah 
Shudu. Bur. — Dan. Can. — Garante. Cing. — Maritondi. Eng. — 
Eygptian privet, Henna. Hind, and Guz. — Henna, Mendi. Mar. — 
Mendi, Mai. — Pontaletshi, Mail-linshi. Pers. — Hina. Sans. — 
Kura vaka, Mendika Sakachara,Raktagarbha. Southern India — Iswan. 
Tam.— Marudam. Tel. — Goranta, Iveni. 

Iswan, a corruption of Isband, the seeds of peganum harmala. 
Raktagurbha, from rakta, red, and garbha,a womb, meaning the plant 
pregnant with red colouring matter. 

Characters. — Leaves opposite, smooth, lanceolate, oblong and 
pointed at both ends; about one inch long and \ inch broad; flowers 
terminal, globular, panicles of a greenish white colour and very fragrant; 
fruit rounded, four grooved, apex, depressed and 4 celled; seeds irregular 
angular and marked with prominent ridges with intervening depres- 
sions, of a reddish brown colour and somewhat rugous; taste bitter. 
The plant contains a colouring matter of a deep orange red colour 
which stains the skin and does not disappear until the epidermis is 
removed. 

Constituents, — Henno-tannic acid — a kind of tannin, resin and a 
colouring matter. 

Preparations,— Paste or powder of dried leaves. Decoction of leaves 
and of bark (i in 10). Dose, { to i fld. oz. 



PUNICA riKANATOM, 



Actt\>ns and uses, — The hnrk is allerative, sedative and astringent; 
given in jaundice, enlargement of ihe spleen, and calculus afretlion; 
as an ukerative in leprosy and skin diseases; also in spermatorrhcea, 
leucorrhtEu, &c. Externally the fresh leaves are applied with vinegar 
and catechu to burning of the soles of the feet. A powder of the leaves 
is used as suppository in prolapse of the rectum and vagina. A paste of 
the leaves with oil and resin i* applied to the head m headache ; they 
also increase the growth of the hair. Decoction of the bark is applied 
to burns and scald:>. Infusion of flowers is used as an application to 
bruises. 

Poaica Granattiin, B*P. 

/^^li^/A//.— Subtropical countries, throughout India, Persia, China, 
Japan, E* and VV, Indies, Arabia, and Socotra, 

Pifirta usf.d.—'VhQ flowers, rind of the fruit, and juice;and the dried 
hark of the stem and root,^ — Granati cortex — pomegranate bark, B.P. 
Punica from puniceus, scarlet, the colour of its flowers. Granatum, 
having many grain* or seeds. The fruit is many seeded. Pome- 
granate — Pomum, a fruit ; and granatus, grained, 

Vtrnacuiar, — Arab — Ruman, Kilkul, Rana, the flowers, Julnar, 
Gulnar. Beng.— Dalim. Bur. — Tha-lai* Can.— Dalimbe* The 
flowers Hasiu-dalimbe. Cing» — Delumghedi, Duk. — Anar. Eng. 
^Pomegranate, Carthaginian apple. Gux, — Dadam. Hind,^ — 
Anar. The flower*, Gulnar. Mai. — Daiima, MaleaU — Madala, Rumon- 
nai». Mar. — Dalimba. Pers. — Rumoni Anar. Sans. — Dadima 
Shukadaua, Kuchaphala. Tarn. — Mad a lam, mogilam. The flowers 
Rimadalai. Tel — Danirauca. The flowers— Pevadanimma. 

Shukadana means Parrot's food ; Kuchaphala means Breast fruit. 

Characters, — A small tree; flowers of a reddish colour and very 
. showy. Fruit gkibular, resembling orange or tomato, somewhat 
pilaltened and obscurely six-sided, short necked at the top and crowned 
with from 5 to 9 toothed thick and tubular calyx, fruit divided into 5 
or 6 compartments, each containing numerous grains. Each grain 
consisting of a thin transparent vesicle which contains a sweet, red, 
pjuicy pulp, surrounding a small angular seed. The juice is acid, sweet 
and &our ; dried seeds* sticky, lumpy, and black* Rind or the skin of 
the fruit in thick fragment s^, hard and brownish, yellow, or reddish 
in colour. External surface or the epidermis shining and tubcrded. 
under surface of a yellow colour, rugous, concave, and marked with 
depressions conforming to the marks of seeds. It can easily be 
powdered. The taste is astringent. The root is heavy, knotted and of 
a yellow colour. Bark in thin quills, in strips or fragments. Externally 
greyish yellow, warty and longitudinaJly ridged. Inner surface smooth 
and yellow; taste, slightly bitter and astringent, without any odour. 
When chewed it colours the saliva yellow, 

Constitufuis* — The bark contains tannin and punico-tannic acid 
22 p.CM mannit, sugar, gum, pectin, ash 15 p c.,an active liquid alkaloid 
Pellet ierine and i^opclleltcrine^ and two inactive alkaloids. 



27^ WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA. 

Pelletierina — Pelletierine — to obtain it mix the root bark with milk 
of lime, add water, and percolate with chloroform. It has strong basic 
properties, and occurs as colourless, minute crystals, soluble in 
water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, &c.. Dose, 3 to 6 grs as an anthel- 
mintic. 

Pellet ierinae sulphas. — In minute white acicular crj-stals which on 
keeping become brown and moist or viscid and syrupy; soluble in water 
and alcohol. Dose, 5 to 8 grains to be followed by a purge. As 
subcutaneous injection. Dose, 5 grs. 

Pelletierinae Tannas, Pelletierine Tannate — a greyish white 
amorphous powder, soluble in alcohol (i in 800), water (i in 900). 
Dose, 5 to 8 grains as an anthelmintic. Pelletierinae hydrobromidum — 
a brownish viscid liquid. Dose, 5 to 8 grains ; used in cases of paralysis 
of the muscles of the eye. 

Preparations, — Decoctum granati corticis B.P. (i in 5). Dose, 
^ to 2 fl. ozs. Juice of grains. Dose, i to 4 drachms. Extractum 
granati liquidum made from the root bark. Dose, \ to i| drachms. 
Rind. Dose, 20 to 30 grain.s. 

Physiological Actions. — Granatum and its alkaloids are astringent, 
anthelmintic and laenifuge. The flowers and rind of the fruit are 
astringent and stomachic. The decoction in full doses causes diuresis. 
It produces nausea and vomiting, often purging, flatulence and cramps 
in the legs with giddiness, dimness of sight and numbness of the limbs. 
The juice of the Iruit is cooling and refrigerant. 

Therapeutics, — The juice is given in dyspepsia and fevers ; 
flowers and rind of the fruit mixed with aromatics and astringents, 
such as cloves, cinnamon, coriander, pepper, &c., are given in chronic 
diarrhoea of children and in chronic dysentery unaccompanied with 
tenesmus. The juice of the flowers with durva root juice (cynodon 
dactylon) is used to stop bleeding from the nose. The decoction of root 
bark is vermifuge and is used for expelling tape worms. The alkaloid 
Pelletierine is used in leucorrhaea, and passive haemorrhages and as a 
gargle in relaxed sore throat. Pelletierine sulphate is used as a vermi- 
fuge against tape worms and is also used subcutaneously in 5 grains 
doses for paralysis, vertigo, menier*s disease, tetanus and hydrophobia. 

Remarks, — The native use dalimba juice in the preparation of 
Loha bhashma to facilitate its powdering. 

Woodfordia Floribanda, Lythram frutioosum, Orislea 
Tomentosa. 

Habitat, — Throughout India. 

Parts used, — The flowers. 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Dhai, Dhonga. Bomb. — Daite, Dhanen. 
Can. — Dhatake. Eng. — Downy Grislea. Hind. — Dhaiti, Chota- 
dhaon. Dhava, Devti, Gul-bakar, Gul-dhaur. Mar.— Dhaite, Dhaoshi, 
Phulsatti. Sans. — Dhataki, Dhayatia-pushpika, Tamra-pushpi, 
Guchcha pushpi, Parvati, Aganijvala. Tel. — Dhataki Kusumaum. 
Gaji, (fodari Serinji. 



UMnKU,rFFR.f:. 



279 



Tamra puslipi means red flowers. Guchchha pushpi, Trom Guch- 
cha, a duster of hair, having clusters of blossoms or of numerous 
^mill flowers arranged like Guchcha — clusters of hairs on the temple. 
Parvali from parvata, a hill. It means hill born, in allusion to the plant 
J3cing common in mountainous tracts. Agni Jvala — agni, a fire^ and 
jvaJa, a flame, the colour o! flowers bdng like that of a fire flame. 

Characters — Flowers brownish red, long and covered with calices ; 

Ijoesred, containing maturecapsules, slightly channelled on both sides, 

ftembranouSf and containing many seeds — seeds very minute, numerous, 

"of a brown colour^ shining and angular. Taste, highly astringent^ smell 

somewhat aromatic. Dose, 10 to 20 grs. 

Com/i/w^w/A.— Tannin 20 p. c. 

Preparations — Confection — Dhauriphula, bela, lodhra, valo» g^jl* 
pipali, honey, each 2 drs. mix. Dose, I to 1 drs, 

j'tciifms and uses, — Stimulant and astringent: given in dysenter)' 
beaten up with honey ; also in checking haemorrhages, and chronic 
di:»charges^ such us menorrhagia and leucorrhoea. The powder of flowers 
is sprinkled over vesicular eruptions and foul ulcers to diminish the dis- 
charges and promote granulations* 



Umbellifera or Apiacea. 

The ajamoda or Parsley family. 

Umbelliferit^—umbella, a little shade or umbel, or from umbra, a 
shade, and tero, to bear. The flower stalks are in umbels or heads. 

Gentfal Characters — Herbs, shrubs or rarely arborescent plants, 
With hallow or scilid furrowed stems ; leaves aUernatCt 
divided, generally sheathing at the base and compound, exsttpulate; 
Flowers ^mall umbels of yellow, white, pink or blue colour with or 
without an involucre. Fruits diacha^nium or cremocarp, consisting 
of two carpels (mcricarp) adhering by their face to a common axis 
(carpophore) from which they ultimately separate. Each mericarp is 
indchi scent, one seeded and on its dorsal surface marked with live 
primary longitudinal ridges or nerves and four alternate secondary 
ridges, separated by inters! ices or channels in which are longitudinal, 

^ily rcceplacles or canals called vittic» containing a gummy, resinous, 
iromatic juice; seed solitary-, pendulous and firmly adherent to the 

'^cricarp^ — embryo minute, albumen, horny. 

liahtat, — Tem|>eratc cli m.ite. 

I^ffaiies. — iMany areediblc^ such as celery, parsnip, carrot, parsley, 
fennel. &c. ; some are aromatic, carminative* tonic and stimulant; 
they abound in lesins and contain an essential aromatic volatile oil, as 
unethinum. daucus, coriander &c., others are poisonous owing to their 
C(mtaining an acrid narcotic juice as conium; the rest are antispasmodic 
and cnntain a fttiid gum resin. The firiid gum resin is composed of 
a volatile oil, gum and resin. These include galbanum, ammoniacum, 
oppoponax, scgapenum, and a&safelitla, and are used as stimulant in 
nervous disordcfs. 



28o ANTHRISrrS CEREKOI.rnM. 

Arehan^lica Offldnalis, and A. AtFopnrpiirea, Garden An^fca, 
European An^lica. 

Habitat. — Northern parts of Europe, Asia and America. 

Parts used, — Root, herb and seeds. 

Characters. — Leaves double pinnate, flowers greenish- white stem, 
purplish smooth, hollow-pointed. Root long and fleshy, thick, annulate, 
fusiform, juicy, resinous and pungently aromatic. Dose, lo to 30 grs. 

Constttuents.'-yoXztWt oil, resin, valerianic acid. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i oz. — Tincture 
(i in 10). Dose, \ to i drs. Juice (succus). Dose, J to i dr. Fluid 
extract of root 30 to 60 ms. Fluid extract of seed, 5 to 30 ma. 

Actions and uses. — The root is pungent, aromatic, stomachic tonic, 
stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic and diuretic, giving tone to the 
stomach and increasing appetite ; combined with tonis, it is given in 
typhoid condition, bronchitis, intermittents, flatulent colic and pain 
in the stomach. The fruit has similar properties, and syrup or candied 
angelica is taken as dessert as a very agreeable stomachic in rheu- 
matism, gout, painful and swollen parts. 

Remarks. — Large quantities of Angelica are used in the prepara- 
tion of London gin, and the liqueur known as bitters. 

Anthriscns Cerefolinm. 

Habitat. — Europe, cultivated elsewhere. 
Parts used. — The fruit. 

Vernacular, — Eng.— Chervil. Ind. Bazar — Atrilal. There are two 
kinds : True atrilal, KhalaM-Khalil, and Egy-ptian kind, Rijl-el-Ghurab, 
Rijlel-tair, Harjes Shayatin. Atrilal means devil's bane. 

Characters. — Fruit lanceolate, laterally compressed, almost cylin- 
drical, black, terminating in a short 5 angled beak. The seeds in the 
Egyptian variety are dark coloured, resembling in size the celery seeds, 
and in shape the cumin seeds, and are very bitter ; in the true atrilal 
the seed is light coloured, the fruit is aromatic, and free from bitterness. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Diuretic, stomachic, and deobslruent: used as 
a stimulant to reinvigorate the body when exhausted by venereal 
excesses or by old age. In white leprosy the seeds are rubbed down 
©ver the patches, and also administered internally with pyrethrum 
and honey. The patient is then made to sit in the hot sun wiih the 
parts exposed and uncovered when the patches show blisters, and the 
new skin appears in its natural colour. 

Remarks. — The fruit of vernonia anthelmintica is often sol J f. r 
atrilal. The leaves are used for flavouring soup, salads. &c. The 
genuine article is diflficult to obtain. 



rARr^vf caritt. 



281 



Apium Graveolens. 
Hahihit, — S. Europe. 
Pitrts usei^^—Tb^ fruit, 

I'emacuhr. — Arab. — Buzz-ul-Karaphs, Bcng — Chanoo Rhadocini, 
Can.--Ajmoda» Voma, Duk.— Ajmudah, Ajviin. Rng.— Celery. Giiz. 
— Bori Ajmud. Hind. — Ajarno, Ajinud, Bhut*jata, Mar.— Ajamoda* 
Nova* Pcrs. — Tukh»n*e-Karaphas. Sans.^ — Ajamod.-!. Tun.— AsIkuiw 
cagtni . Tel, — Ash u-Madaga-vurnam . 

CharacUrs.^Vrmi long, small and ovate or ijlobui^r. i>utiagti 
hairy, slightly tubercled, wrinkled, and marked with prominent 
ridjscs* Colour greenish yellow or brown ; 2 mericarps, 5 ribs 
and 12 oil tubes. Taste aromatic, somewhat pungent and slightly 
mint-like at first, then bitterish ; odour coriander-like, faintly terebin- 
ihaceous. Seeds like those of parsley. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

C^ttshtt4ents, — The seeds contain apiin — a glucoside, a jelly-like 
subsUince which when boiled with dilute sulphuric acid splits up into, 
apigenin, and glucose. Apiin is slightly soluble in cold water, easily 
soluble in hot water, more easily in hot alcohol and insoluble in 
ether. Also volatile oil, apiol or apiolum, &c* 

Preparations. — Infusion (1 in 10), Dose, J lo 2 fluid ozs, 

Artifms ituti uses. — The fruit is carminative, aromatic^ slinmlant, 
tonic and emmenagogue. Its infusion is given in bronchitis and inter- 
miticnt fevers ; as an adjunct to purgatives, it is given in constipatiun ; 
as a dcohstruent and resolvent, with linseed or barley nical it is 
used as a poultice on swollen glands. 

Carum Carui, B. P. 
Carum Nignim, C. Gracile. 

//t//;/A//.^ Europe, CashmeTe, Western Thibet, Persia, S. and W. 
Asia. 

Parts used, — The dried fruit. Carui fiuctus, B P,, Caraway seeds, 
caraway fruits, 

V^macuhr.'—AT^h. — Curwiya, Kamune rumi. Reng. — Shia-jira. 
Bomb. — Kurwajira. Can. — ^Shime jirige. Cashmere. — Guinyun^ 
Cin,— RataDam. Duk — Karoyat, Eng- Black cumin^ Indian 
carraway, Gu/, — Kftlun-jira, Hind.— Siyah xirah. Panj.— Umbliu. 
Malcal— Shima-jirakam. Afar. — Sa-jiri, Kalijiri, Pers.— Zirahe rumi, 
P^nj.— -Umbo. Sans. — Susliava, Krishna jiraka. Tarn. — Delappu. Tel. 
-— SinajiU^kara. European caraways. Hind., Man, Guz. — Vilayite- 
jira. Tarn.— KckkuVirar, Shiwai-Shonabu, Tel -Kekku-Vittulu 
Shuna Sapu. Can — Shunc-sapu. Beng.— Bilati-jira. 

Characters.— Vvmi brown, 2-scedcd, ovoid ; cremocarp* slightly 
arched, laterally compressed ; mericarp, too commonly called caraway 
seeds, separate curved and narrowed at both ends with five yellowish 
foliform ridges and oil tubes, having an agreeable aromatic odour an«l 
a suect sptc V taste, n*»^c, 5 to 30 grs. 



282 CORFANDRUM SATFVUM. 

Constituents. — A volatile oil 6 p. c. ; fixed oil, wax, resin, sugar, 
mucilage, tannin and ash 5 p. c. 

Oleum Carui, B. P. — Oil of caraway, the volatile oil, is the active 
principle to which its medicinal properties are due, and obtained by 
distillation of the seeds. It is a limpid, thin liquid, colourless or of a 
pale yellow colour, odour aromatic, taste spicy and pungent, soluble 
in alcohol (i in i). It becomes brown by keeping. Dose, ^ to 3 ms. 
It contains carvene, 35 to 50 p. c, isomeric with turpentine, an unoxi- 
dized product chemically identical with citrene, hesperidene and 
dextrogyrate limonine ; carvol, isomeric with thymol, an oxidized 
product closely related to menthol, myristicol and cumin alcohol ; 
and is identical with carvicrol. Carvicrol — to obtain it distil a mixture 
of car ra way oil with potash or soda, when carvene is separated. To 
the residue add sulphuric acid. It is a viscid yellowish oil, odour 
and taste like that of creasote. 

Preparations, — Aqua carui, B. P., from the oil (i in 500). From the 
fruit (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Spiritus Juniperi compositus, ^ p. c. 
Dose, i to I oz. Tinctura Cardamomi composita, B.P. Dose, ^ to i 
dr. Infusum carui (i in 40). Dose, i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Diuretic, stomachic, stimulant and carminative; 
given to expel wind, allay hiccough and pain of flatulent colic in 
infants. As a carminative and stomachic it is added as an adjunct to 
purgative mixtures to prevent griping and nausea. Locally the oil 
acts as an anaesthetic, and its poultice is apf>lied over painful piles ; 
other actions are similar to those of dill and anise. Carvacrol is useful 
in toothache and is inserted into the cavity of the teeth. 

Remarks. — The name Krishna Jiraka is also applied to the seeds of 
Nigella Sativa. Karwajirah is also the name for Kali jiri (vernonia 
anthelmintica). Both are similar in colour, being darkish brown or 
black. Karvii jirah differs, however, from Kali jiri, in the former being 
larger and rounder than carum nigrum. Shajira, carum nigrum, 
differs from vilayati jirun (carraway) in that the former has more 
slender and darker coloured fruits than carraway. 

Goriandrum SatiTum, B. P. 

Coriander, from koris, a bug. The leaves have the odour of a bug, 
Sativum, from sativus, sown or cultivated. It is a cultivated plant. 

Habitat. — Cultivated in India, Europe, China, Southern Asia. 

Parts used. — The fruit— Coriandri Fructus, B. P., coriander fruit. 

Vci nacular. — Arab. — Kezirah. Beng. — Dhanyai. Burm. — Nan- 
nan. Chin. — Sheh-lo Can. — Kottumbari. Cing. — Kattumbaru, 
Dhanalu. Duk. — Dhanyan. Eng. —Coriander seeds. Guz. — Dhanu 
Kothamiri, the plant. Hind. — Dhanya. Mah.— Dhane. Malyal. — 
Meti, KottampAlare. Pers.— Kitnu, Kushuiz. Sans. — Kushthumbari, 
Dhanya. Kam. Tarn. — Katta-malli. Tel. — Danyalu, Kotimiri. 



CONIUM MACt'LATUM* 



kf9rnctfrs. — Fruit, of a pale, yellow colour, plumps and oval or 
ovoid in form, resembling inflated balloons* in size resernbing gahula 
&eeds ; surface marked with lo ridges ; between every two ridges aie 
tubercles, with undulated or longitudinal lines. Apex crowned with 
two prominences» base presenting a hole from which the stalk is 
removed ; mericarp adherent at the base by two joining ridges. Each 
TOcricarp has two oil tubes, odour like that of limbu, and the taste 
aromatic and oily, 

Cnnstiinrnts, — The fruits yield a volatile oil i p. c; fixed oil 13 
px.; fatty matter 13 p. c. ; mucilage, tannin, malic acid, and ash 5 p. c* 

Oleum Coriandri B* P. — Oil of coriander, distilled from the 
fruit with water or steam. The essential oil is isomeric with borneol, 
and is a ycllotvibh liquid, odour characteristic and aromatic, taste 
spicy and warm ; soluble in alcohol^ and glacial acetic acid. It consists 
of linaloulor coriandroL Dose, J to 3 ms. 

Fr^^r?rrj//'Qii5.— Of the fruit. Infusum coriandri {r in 40), Dose, 
I to 2 oxs- Of the oil.— Confectio scnnse, B.P. Dose, 1 to 2 drs.; syrupus 
%enna% B.P. Dose» \ to 2 dra, Cc»mpound Powder — DhaniVni-d&L — The 
fruits are fried lightly and pounded (busks being rcmovedj. To this 
is added jinih, k^lii miri, lavaiiga, and nimakha. The whole is 
stirred together, lime juice being subsequently added, and the mass 
dried in the sun. 

Dh^nil Aj^va — A cooling drink, containing coriander, fennel fruits, 
poppy seeds, kanchan flowers, rose buds, cardamoms, cubebs, almonds* 
and black pepper, sweetened with sugar. Dost;, i to 2 drs., given in 
colic, dyspepsia &c, 

Acthtn ami //5/rj.^Aromatic» stimulant, carminative and sto- 
machic ; used in sore throat, dyspepsia and common catarrh, but 
chidiy as a flavouring agent and as a corrective to griping medicines as 
jalap, rhubarb and senna. With barley meal, the leaves (kothamiri. 
Hind.) form a useful application for mdolent swellings, Dh4na dis- 
gtiiscs the odour and tasle of stnna and nf other purgatives. The oil 
is a carminative and arom.iiic, and is used in flatulent colic ; also in 
rheumaliMn* neuralgia, &c. The tre*h herb is called kothamiri ami 
is used 10 llav<mr vegetables and curty. 

Conium Maculattim, B. P , Spotted Hemlock. 

Habitat. — Wasic places antl along streams, Europe, N. Asia. 

PattK used, — The dried full grown unripe fruils, conii fructus, 
B. P., and fresh leaves and young branches, conii folia, B. P. 

Vrrtiaeular^ — Arab. — Banj-e-rumi, shokran. Bomb,— Kirdwrnan. 
Kng, — Ath<*nian slate poison, common or spotted hemlock, poison- 
hemlock* cow bane, htraver poison. Hind. — Kurdumana* Ind. 
Bazaar. — Khorasain Ajwan. Pers. — The root, Bikhi-i-Tafii, the 
fruitt Duras'i-Tafahati, tlie >t_e«is, Tnkntni-Tokhj ^ Karvaya-i- 
dashti, Yej!d*Duras. 

CAaracftrs. — A full grown iruit, guthcrea while green. Fruit, 
a cfemncarp of a dark, grey colour, laterally ctknipresscd, small 



a84 



rONIlTM MArUI.ATUM. 



and elongated with vertical ridges on its outer surface. The ridges 
are of a pale or grey colour, 2 mericarps with 5 crenate ribs, but no oil 
tube. In form it resembles anisum, but is rather larger- When 
crushed the odour b offensive and acrid ; on section the interior is 
resinous* yellowish black, and oily. Taste^ slightly bitterish, 
somewhat acrid and oily. Green^ unripe fruits are the most active 
part of the plant. Fresh leaves decompound» smooth, arising from 
stems which are smooth and with dark purple spots* Leaves deep j 
green, shining, tripinnate with leaflets pinatifid. Petioles furrowed and 
sheathiDg at the base* those of the lower leaves hollow, finiour strong 
and disagreeable. Dose of the leaves, 1 to 5 grs, 

Cotistituents, — The leaves contain a volatile oil ^ \.[iich the smell 
is due. The leaves and fruit contain 3 alkaloids ktiou n as coniine (j^ 
to \ p. c) liquid and volatile; methylconiine, and conhydrine, both solid 
and volatilizable, and pseudo conhydrine ; a volatile oil, fixed oil, 
conic acid or malic acid, and ash 6 p.c. Conine or coniine, cicutiue 
conicine. Dextro-a-prophl piperidine — is obtained synthetically from 
alpha picoline, also obtained by distilling the fruit with an alkali 
or adding ammonia to the extract, passing sulphuretted hydrogen 
over the mass, thus converting ammonia into sulphate, then 
exhausting it with alcohol and ether, leaving ammonia sulphate 
undissolved, finally distilling with alkali when conine is liberated. It 
is a colourless, inflammable, yellow, oily fluid of a penetrating odour, 
compared to that of urine of mice, and acrid taste. Like ammonia it 
forms dense fumes with volatile acids. It is soluble in ether, alcohol, 
chloroform, benzol, benzine and fixed oils. Freely soluble in 
carbon bisulphide, slightly so in water (i in loo). It is quickly decom- 
posed by heat. By long keeping it becomes inert. Dose, ^q to ^^ K*'- 
or y*^ to 2 ms.; too irritant for hypodermic use, Coninye Hydro* 
bromidum — colourless and odourless crystals, resembling magnesium 
sulphate in appearance. Insoluble in ether, and freely soluble in 
water. Dose, ^\ to I gr. Pilula coninic Hydrobronndi, J gr in each 
pill. Injectio coninse hydrobromidi hypodeimica, i gr, in 20 ms. Dose, 
I to 3 ms, Coniuni Hydrochlorate. Dose, ^*, to J gr. Paraconiine 
is artificially prepared by the reaction between butyric aldehyde 
and alcoholic solution of ammonia. It is isomeric with coniine, but 
not identical with it. 

Prefiara/tons.^Of the fruit, Tinctura conii, B,P. (i in 5)- Dose. | to ] 

I fld. dr. Of the leaves and young branches, succusconii, B* P., contaiiii 
one volume of alcohol for every three of the juice. Dose, J to 2 ild- dis, 
Extractum conii, i gr, is equal to t gr, of the drug, Do»e, 1 to 5 
gr. Extractum conii fluidum. Dose, 3 to 5 ms. Vapor coninie — !&uceus 
conii, ^ oz,, solution of potash 1 dr,, water i oz, Uose, 20 ms. for in^ 
halation to be put on a sponge and vapour of hot water passed over it. 
Ungueiitum conii, B, P., prepared from the juice, 88 parts • r d tti 

I I parts, to this add hydrous wool fat ^2i P^^^s ; used in , am, 
piles, &c. 

f^)iiioifigHai ^ic /rb;/j.-*Sedjilive antispasmodic, anodyne^ sopariiic 
and antaphrodisiac. Like curare it paraly^CN the end urgans of motor 



CUMINUM CrWJXUM, 



nerves, without affecting sensation or consciousness. If given for 
some titne it afterwards paralyses the motor centres in the brain and 
spinal cofd. The muscular irritability remains intact. It is a direct 
sedative lo the respiratory centres, and death is due to paralysis of the 
respiratory muscles. 

Methyl conune is a stimulant of the spinal cord and produces 
convulsions as seen in cases of coniine poisoning. The sensibility is 
impaired^ and there is a feeling of numbness in the limbs and paralvsis 
of reflex action. In full doses conium gives rise to gastric irritation, 
increased vomitings followed by numbness in the legs, sense of fatigue, 
staggering gait, dilated pupils, impaired speech, and laboured breathing* 
In poisonous doses it acts as a direct sedative to the muscles of 
respiration, leading to paralysis of the voluntary muscles; there is para- 
plegia, loss of speech and sight* Death may be due to asphyxia. The 
cerebral functions are not affected by it, and the mind remains clear 
to the last* It has no action on the heart. 

Therapeutics. — Coniine is indicated in diseases characterized by 
excessive motor activity as in neurosis, tremors, chorea, paralysis 
agitans, hysteria and muscular twitching; also to relieve spasmodic cough 
in bronchitis, pertnsis, asthma and phthisis; sometimes it is given 
with morphinsc in convulsive affections, such as tetanus, hydrophobia, 
epilepsy, acute mania and delirium tremens. Locally it is a resolvent 
and discutient. In enlargement of the breasts with profuse lacteal 
secretion, its application produces atrophy and the secretion oi milk 
becomes scanty and even suspended. As an anodyne application it is 
useful in tender glandular enlargements^ and scrofulous and painful 
growths; also in cancer, and rheumatic joints. The ointment is used for 
painful affections of the rectum and anus such as piles, pruritis ani, 
&c, ; conine vapour is a palliative in the tickling cough of phthisis, 
or of acute bronchitis. In pneumonia and pleurisy, an hypodermic 
injection of coniine by inducing paresis of the respiratory muscles^ 
reduces the temperature and thus gives relief. 

Remarks. — Kirda mana is often mistaken for kira mani ov*t, the 
flower heads of a composite plant, which is not poisonous. 

Caminum Cyminum. 

^<»5iVi»/.— Africa, cultivated in India. 
Pitrii tiset/,^Tht fruit. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Kamun, Kemun. Beng. — Jinl, ZirA. 
Burm.— 7,ec-yii-» Dte-ya. Can,— Jirga. Cing, — Duru* Puk.— 
Sh&hjira. Eng* — Cumin seed. Gu2.— Sapheda jirun. Hind. — Safed 
jirA* Malay. — Jintan. Mar.^ — Jirc, JirQ. Pers. — Jtra-i-safcd, Sans* — 
Jirana^ jtra, kunchicka, jirakaha, Ajaji, Ajmoda, Tarn. — ^Shiraganu 
Tel. — ^Jila kara, jirana. 

Ajaji, from, Aj, a goat, meaning that which overcomes goat^u 
Ajrooda — goat*s delight. Jcriin isderived from jri, lo digest, in allusion 
to th« digestive properties of the seeds. 



286 DAUCUS CAROTA, 

Characters. — Fruit of a light brown colour, elongated, cylindrical, 
and ovoid in shape, smaller in size than variali, surface rugous, hairy 
and marked with longitudinal ridges ; at the apex, the fruit is 
surrounded by two small acute projections which are the remains of 
the styles attached to each mericarp. On bruising, the odour is dis- 
agreeable. Dose I to 2 drs. 

Constituents. — The seeds yield 77 p.c. fat oil,i3'Sp.c. resin, 8 pc, 
mucilage and gum, 1 5-5, protein compounds, malates and an essential oil 
on which the peculiar aromatic odour and taste depends. This essential 
oil contains cuminol or cuminaldehyde 56 p.c. a mixture of hydrocarbons, 
cymene or cymol, terpene, &c. 

Actions and uses. — Carminative, aromatic, stomachic and stimu- 
lant ; used in hoarseness of voice, dyspepsia, flatulence aud diarrhcea. 

Daacas Carota, Daucus Yalgaris. 

Habitat. — Cashmere, W. Himalaya, N. Asia. 

Parts used. — The root and fruit. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Ista Aim Jazr, jazr-ul bostani. Beng. — Gajara 
Can. — Gajjari, Chin. — Hu-lo-peh. Duk. — Gajara, jugur. Eng. — 
Common or wild carrot. Guz. — Gajar. Hind. — Gajra, jugur, gajur. 
Mar, — Gclzara. Pers. — Zir duk. Punj. — Marmuj, Bal-kach. Sans. — 
Grinjana, Gaijara, Garjarama, Shikha-mulama. Tam. — Gijjar. Tel. 
— Gajjara-gadda, Shekka-mulamu. 

Characters. — Fruit pale, dull brown, oval, and compressed from the 
back, longer than suvk bij ; mericarps adherent. At the apex of the fruit 
are two prominences, the remains of styles ; surface rugous, marked with 
ridges, three on the convex back, two on the plane of the commissure, 
ridges distinctly winged. Wings fringed with white teeth or bristles. 
When crushed, the fruit emit an acrid or balsamic odour, taste balsamic, 
acrid, bitter, and oily. On expression they yield an essential oil. Root 
fusiform 6 to 12 inches long, and of a reddish yellow colour ; parenchy- 
ma fleshy and edible. It has a sugary and mucilaginous taste, and a 
feebly aromatic smell. 

Constituents^ — The root contains carotin, hydrocarotin, oil, sugar, 
pectin, nitrogen compound and volatile oil. The fruit contains volatile 
oil and a fixed oil. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i fl.oz. Fluid extract. 
Dose, 5 to 30 ms. 

Actionsjind uses, — Fruit stimulant, laxative, emollient, antiseptic 
diuretic and emmenagogue. As a diuretic it is given in nephritic 
affections, dropsy, strangury and amenorrhoea. This property is due to 
its containing the volatile oil which acts locally upon the nervous struc- 
tures of the kidney during the excretion ; as an antiseptic, a poultice 
of the root is used to correct foetid discharges from eczema, unhealthy 
sores, carcinoma, &c., the root is saccharine and edible. The seeds 
are said to cause abortion. 



UORKMA AMMONIACUM, 



2H7 



Dorema Ammoniacum, 6, P., D. Gtabrum, Ferula Orientalla, 
F. Tingitana and probably other Bpecies. 

Habitat, — Persia, Afghanistan (on silicious soil, deserts and barren 
regions). 

Purt^i used. — The gum resin exuded from flowering and truiting 
stem ; Atnntoniacuni, B. P, 

FcmacNlar. — Afghan — Randal. Arab-— Fashuk, Ushti &haka* 
Bomb.^ — Ushaka. Eng. — Ammoniac, Gnz. — Ushaka, Astrak, Gunda. 
layaka. Hind. — Samagh Hamania. Pers,^ — Ushna ooshak. Tarn. — 
Randal. Afghan — Gama Nayakan. Tel. — ^Gama Nayakam« 

Charnckrs. — Gum resin in roundish tears, agglutinated masses, or 

cakes ; tears of a pale cinnamon or brown colour, breaking into ail 

opaque shining or yellow conchoidal w^hite fracture, and having a faint 

[odour and a bitter nauseous taste. The cakes resemble in appearance 

and smell hinga cakes, giving with water a milky emulsion ; an inferior 

variety is obtained from the base of the stem, often mixed with vegetable 

jJragmtnts and earthy matter. It softens by handling. The root called 

^Boi is fibrousp of a loose, spongy texture, and of a faint aromatic odour, 

often mistaken for sumbal. Dose, 5 to 15 grs« 

Constituents. — Gum, 18 to 26 p, c. ; resin, 70 p. c. ; volatile 
oil, 14 p, c; moisture, 5 p. c»; Ash, 3 p, c. The volatile oil differs from 
that of asafetida in that it docs not contain sulphur or phosphorus. The 
resin does not yield umbelliferon. It consists of an acid and two 
resins, one soluble and the other insoluble in etherp the latter is soluble 
Jn volatile and fixed oih 

Preparations. — Emplastrum ammoniaci cum hydrargyro, B. P. 
ammoniac plaster with mercury, ammoniac 12 02., mercuiy 3 oz., olive 
oil 56 grs., sublimed sulphur 8 grs. Mistura ammoniaci, B, P. (i in 33) 
with syrup of Tolu. Dose, \ to 1 Hd, oz. 

Actions a fid uses. — The root, Boi, is used as a fumigation. The 
gum is a stimulating expectorant and laxative ; also rubefacient and 
resolvent. A piaster of it promotes nitrition in the part to which it 
may be applied. As an irritant it produces papular eruptions. 
Internally its action is like that of asafetida but less powerful j given in 
chronic pulmonary catarrh of the aged with profuse secretion, and 
attended with difficult expectoration and without fever; generally 
combined with ammonium chloride. It gives lone to the feeble pulmon- 
ary circular muscular fibres and hence in asthma it is very useful. 
It removes the exciting cause of the nervous paroxysm. Its use should 
T ng continued as it leads to a dry and irritable state of the 

i In hynsterical asthma it is used when combined with 

aaatctida* It is sometimes given in chronic catarrh of the urinary 
paisages. Externally as a resolvent, it is used as a plaster in asthma, 
in indolent tumours and glandular swellings, in enlargement of the 
liver and spleen and as an irritant in chronic muscular rheumatism, 
in chronic bioutbial cataiih and chronic pleurisy. 



288 KERUl-A KKTIDA. 

Ferula Alliaoea. 

Habitat. — Balkh, Persia. 

Parts used. — ^The gum resin from the root. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Hiltit, Tyih. Eng. — Indian Asafetida. Guz. 
— Hing. Vagarni. Ispahan, — Angusht, — Gandah, — Pers. — Angozah 
Kema. Sind. — Hinga, Vaghaunni. Sans. — Bhut nasan, Sula-nasan, 
Nasana Hinguhu. 

Bhutnasan, from Bhut, demon, and nisana, nasvun, to fly 
away or run away or to destroy. It dispels demons. Sula nasana 
from sula, pain in the stomach, to destroy, or drive away pain from 
the stomacn. 

Characters, — It is semifluid at first, of an opaque white colour, 
but gradually becomes dull yellow or darker; met with in irregular 
masses of opaque tears moist or dry and imbedded in a yellowish or 
brownish grey sticky mass. It has a strong feet id garlic-like alliaceous 
persistent odour and an acrid bitter taste. With water it forms a white 
milky emulsion. The odour is due to the volatile oil it contains. It 
dissolves entirely in rectified spirit. Dose, 3 to S grs. 

Ferula FcBtida, B. P., Narthex Asafetida, Fermla Narthex, 
Femla Soorodosma. 

Habitat, — Persia, Afghanistan, Panjab. 

Parts used. — The gum-resin obtained by incision from the root. 
Asafetida, B. P. 

Vernacular, — Arab. Hiltit Sujadan, Shamagh-ul-Mahrus, Juwifeh. 
Beng. — Hing. Burm. — Singu or Shinkhu. Can, — Ingu. Cing. — 
Pirunka yam. Duk. — Hing. Eng.— Devil's dung, asafetida. Guz. — 
Hingra, Vagirnihing. Hind. — Hingu, Hingiseh Anguza. Maleal. — 
Parungayam. Pers. — Angoyah, angustagooda anjadana. Sans. — 
Romatham, Bhuta nasana, sula nasana, hinguhu. Tel. — Juguva, 
Hingu-patri. 

Characters. — A perennial herb ; the gum resin is met with in 
moist, flaky, pieces or tears of a dull yellow colour, becoming darker 
on keeping, tough when fresh, internally yellowish and translucent, 
or milky white and opaque, odour, strong, persistent and alliaceous, 
taste bitter and acrid, soluble in alcohol 65 p. c. ; with water it forms 
a milk-white emulsion. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. 

Constituents, — A sulphuretted volatile oil, 3 to 9 p. c, consisting 
chiefly of allyl sulphide, resin 50 to 70 p.c, soluble in ether ; gum, 
30 p. c, saline matters and ash ; 3 to 4 p.c., also ferulaic, malic, acetic, 
formic and valerianic acids. 

Volatile oil. — The odour and stimulant property of asafetida are 
due to this oil which may be obtained by distilling asafetida with water 
or alcohol. It contains several sulphides of ferulyl, two tcrpenes 
which yield sesquiterpene and a blue coloured oil. 



KUvi.\ Mirriiu. 



The iTsm on dr>* distillation VJelds umbelliferon, wliicli is not 
fnund in the Indian variety. When fused wiLh potash, it viclds 
reK>rcin and pyrocaicchuic aciil. 

Pfeparattrms. — Pill of asafetida — containing King i, Camphor i. 
Opium I, and binck pepper j, made into one pill. Hinga ashtaka 
churana, a compound povv^dcr, Hinga 4, Shajira 5, Pipali 4, Ajavana 
4» Bodi Ajanioda 5, Sonachola 4, Miri y, and Suntha 3, mix and 
make a powder, to this, sometimes Afima 2 is added. Dose, 10 to 20 
grains — used as a carminative and dicestive in dyspepsia, vomiting, 
colic, flatulence, &c. Hinga-Vadi-V^urati Suppositories— Hinga 5, 
Madha 6, Sindhava 4 — mix and make a suppository in kokumtel, 
used in constipation, piles, &ev 

Enema asafetida?, 30 grains in 4 ouncea, Pilula Aloes et 
Aiiafetidie, B.P> ( i in 4). Dose, 4 to8 grs* Pilula Galbani composita, 
B,P. (2 in 7). Dose, 410 8 grs* Spiriius ammonia; Fetidus, B. P, (r in 
13). Dosct 20 to 40 ms- Tinctura Asafetidae, tincture of asafetida^ B. P. 
(t in 5)» Dose, ^ tt» 1 fld. dr* Emulsum asafetidae, milk of a^^afetida, 
4 p.c. Dose, 4 tri 12. Mistnra magnesix* tt asafctiii:c» Dewee's 
cirminativc^ — magnesium carbonate 5, tincture of asafetida 7, tincture 
of opium I, sugar to» water loo. Dosei i to 4 drs, 

Phv^vjhi^kitl ^litihfis, — Among the natives, Hing is usually fried 

hc(OTv being used as medicine* as they believe that law hing causes 

% h is a mo>l powerful foetid gum resin, a valuable stimulant 

:\ the organs of circulation and secretion : aho a nervine and 

, ly slnnulanl, and a powerful anti '\c. It is also 

Mvc, tonic, laxative, diuretic and enui :ue, also anthel* 

minnc and aphrodisiac. In ^rnall doses and il lung continued, it 

produces a scnsie c»f warmth without any rise of temperature. It impairs 

ii-^^tion, gives rise to atliacious erucialions, acnd irritation in the 

liijuat, (latulencc, diarrhita and burning in the urfnc< In large doses it 

stimulates the secretion and excretion and increa^^cs the sexual appe* 

lite. The volatile oil is rapidly excreted and may be found in the 

urine, milk and sweat. It also increases the menstrual t!ow. 

Therapeutics, — Il is given in nervous and neurotic diseases, as 
hysteria, and hypochondriaiiis ; as an expectorant, in habitual cough, 
tdifonic catarrh, bfonchitis and asthma ; as a carminative in dyspepsia, 
colic and other gasTric affections, and to expel worms. It is said to 
ward off malaria if taken with food in malarious districts. It relieves 
y iistension of the bowels* An enema ofhingii is the best form 

I it is exhibited in convulsions. It is a useful remedy in 
\ 'tiin. With m5'rrh and Riven in 

f loid fever. An enema v\ 'roil and 

I c id very beneficial in intesitiial colic ;iud worms» hi habttu^t 

It is a very reliable remedy. 

VnrifHe.K. — Khandari asafetida — this is superior t« hine^, Kwt 
inferior to the Indian hing, " 1 

with sjnd, clay, &c. It i^ the m 



2QO FERIII^ PFRSICA. 

Ferula Oalbanifliia, B. P., and probably other 8peoiet. 

Habitat — Persia, Smyrna, India, coasts of the Mediterranean. 
Pari used, — The gum resin Galbanum, B. P. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Barahada Kinneh. Bomb. — Javashira. 
Duk. — Barija-gonda. Eng. — Galbanum. Hind. — Bireja, Ganda-biroa. 
Pers. — Biriz, Jhav-shira, Berazadd, Gaoshira, Barazahd-i-gaoahir. 
Javashira, a corruption of the Persian Gaoshira. Jao or gao means a 
cow, and shira^milk ; in allusion to the milky nature of the juice. 

Characters. — Yellowish brown externally, and milk-white within, 
often mixed with stems fruits and flowers. Found in minute tears 
or agglutinated hard masses or granules of the size of a pea. The 
odour resembles that of ushaka or celery, taste balsamic and rather 
acrid. With water it gives milky emulsions. Dose, 5 to 15 grains. 

Constituents. — Volatile oil, 6 to 9 p. c, isomeric with turpentine, 
resin 60 to 66 p.c. ; gum 15 to 20 p. c. ; it yields on dry distillation, 
a blue oil and umbelliferon, a tasteless substance in satiny crystals. 
The oil conuins no sulphur. 

Preparations. — Pilula galbani composita — compound pill of asafe- 
tida (2 in 7), asafetida 2. Galbanum 2, m3rrrh 2, syrup of glucose i. Dose 
4 to 8 grs. Emulsion, Tincture (i in 10). Dose, \ to i dr., and PUster- 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, expectorant, and antispasmodic ; 
similar to those of ammoniac, but is less powerful than asafetida. 
Locally it is used as a stimulant application to indolent glands, boils 
and tumours, combined with other gum resins ; an ointment is used tev 
acne Internally it is given in hysteria, chlorosis, asthma, rheumatism, 
chronic bronchitis and catarrh of the mucous membranes generally. 
It has a stimulant action upon the uterus and is given in vaginal 
and uterine catarrh, and in amenorrhoea and chronic rheumatism. 

Ferola Persica, F. Sa^pennm. 

/^/?^ito/.— Persia. 
Pari used. — The gum resin. 

Vernacular.^ Arzh. — Sakabinaja, Sugabinaja. Bomb. — ^Easus* 

Eng.— Sagapenum. Hind. — Kundel. Pers. — Suga fium, Iskabinah. 

Characters. — Gum resin in masses forming brown cakes, princi* 
pally in tears of a greenish hue, closely resembling javashira ; odour 
like that of garlic, taste acrid, and terebinthaceous. 

Constituents.^-Vohitile oil, resin and gum. Same as those of 
galbanum, but it also contains sulphur. 

Preparations. — Plaster ; Segapenum pills— containing Aloes I, 
Segapenum i, Bdellium x, and Agaric i, given in flatulence and 
dyspepsia. Dose, i| to 8 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, emmenagogue and anthelmintic ; 
given in flatulent dyspepsia, and in chronic bronchitis, with profuse 
secretion ; externally it is used as a stimulating plaster. 



Ferula Bombal» B. P. 

Sumbul from arabic sumbul which means a spike. The appearance 
of the flowering stem is like that of a spike* 

HahUat. — Northern Asia, 

P^rts fiseii. — The dried transverse slices of the root, Sumbul 
Radix, B. P. 

Vernacular* — Arab. — Sumbul. Eng, — musk root. 

CharacUrs. — A large plant ; root large, thick, fusiform, light and 
spong)*, but longitudinully wrinkled, bark thin, brown and fibrous^ 
interior whitish with yellow dots and irregular fibres— odour strong 
and musk-like, taste bitter and aromatic. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Consttttants — A volatile oil, of a bluish colour, balsamic resin 9 px, 
obtained by distillation and containing umbeltiferon, suinbulic or angelic 
acid, valerianic acid, methyl crotonic acid, a bitter extractive ; sugar and 
suich« 

flrfarattnns* — Ixifusum Sumbul of Decoctum Sumbul (1 in 20). 
Dose, 2 to 6 drs. Tinctura Sumbul^B. P* (1 in to). Dose, 4 to i dr* fl. 
Extract. Dose, 3 to 5 grs* 

AcHcfis and uses. — Stimulant* nervine tonic and antispasmodic 
like musk and valerian ; given in hysteria, nervous disorders, chlorosis, 
also in leucorrhoea, gleei, hypochondriasis, delirium tremens, and 
epilepsy. In chlorosis it is often combined with iron, arsenic, &c. 
Also given as a substitute for musk in cholera, typhoid and other 
adynamic conditions, asthma, &c. 

Fcanioulam CaptUaceum, B. R, F. Vulgare, 
Fcaniculum PanmoharL 

HahitaL — W. Asia, cultivated in India and Europe, 

Parts used, — The dried ripe fruit, FcenicuH fructus, B* P* Fennel 
fruit ; and root- 

Vemacular.—AiiAh, — Razceanej and'dist il led water Arak<i-badiana. 
Bomb: — Sonpha. Cing* — Devaduiu, Rataenduru. Beng. — Panmohuri, 
Moortc, Guowamooree. Can. — Somp. Eng— Sweet or wild fennel. 
Gilt. — Variari. Hind— Bari> Sonpha, Panmohuri, Mayuri, Mar.-^Bari 
Sonpha. Pcrs^ — Badian. Karalah. Tarn. — Perun. Sheragom* TcK — 
Shohi Kire. Pedda-giUa kara. Sans. — Mudorika. 

Characters* — Fruit, cremocarp of a bright yellow colour changing 
to dark brown by keeping, from ^ to | of an inch long, and /{, inch 
tn diameiet, oblongs more or less curved, having a long slender thread-* 
like stalk at the bottom, apex slightly pointed, surface smooth, 
deeply channelled, and marked with ten prominent ridi;es, separable 
into two prominent mcricarps. It exhibits on transverse section 
4 oil tubes on the back, and 2 or 4 on the fl4t surface ; odour 
agreeable and aromatic, taste sweet and aromiiic Indian sweet fennel 
is smaller and straighter than the European article* Du^e, 5 to JOgis. 



^Smm^^^ 



292 HYDKOCOTYLK ASIATICA. 

Constituents. — A volatile oil 2 to 6 p.c, united with a terpene, and 
almost identical with oil of aniseed ; fixed oil 12 p. c, mucilage, 
sugar and ash 7 p. c. 

Oleum Foeniculi. — Volatile oil of fennel. To obtain it distil the fruit 
or entire plant with water or steam. A pale yellow liquid, almost 
identical with anise oil, odour and taste peculiar and characteristic, 
neutral in reaction, soluble in alcohol (i in 1) and glacial acetic acid 
(i in 1). Dose, 2 to 4 ms. The oil contains pinene, phellandrene (isomeric 
with oil of turpentine), dipentene, fenchone and anelhol, or anise 
camphor. Anethol consists of a liquid portion eleopten and a solid 
stearopten. 

Preparations. — Aqua Foeniculi, B. P. (1 in 10), of the fruit, or i in 
500 of the oil. Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. — pulvis glycyrrhizae compositus, 
B. P. Dose, 60 to 1 20 grs. 

Actions and uses* — A mild stimulant, carminative, aromatic, 
stomachic, emmenagogue and galactagogue ; employed like other 
carminative and aromatic medicines. It acts as a diuretic and diapho- 
retic in children and infants, promoting the secretion of urine and 
perspiration. It is also given for the relief of nausea, flatulency and 
colic. As an emmenagogue its hot infusion is given in amenorrhoea. 
As a galactagogue it is used in re-establishing lacteal secretion when 
wanting or suppressed. As a corrective, the oil is useful in flatulence 
and in arresting griping of purgatives. It is a common ingredient 
in confections. The root is used in native practice in the form of 
infusion for similar purposes, and as an enema to expel flatus in 
infants. 

Remarks. — Fennel is often confounded with anise. 

Hydroootyle Asiatioa. 

Habitat. — India, Ceylon, Southern Africa. 

Parts used. — The leaves and root. 

Vernacular, — Arab, — Brahami Artaniya-a-hindi. Beng. — Thol- 
kuri. Bomb. — Brahami* Burm. — Minkhuti-bin. Can.— Unde-laga. 
Cing. — Hingotu-kola. Duk.— Vallari-k&-patta. Eng. — Asiatic or 
Indian Pennywort, Indian Hydrocotyle. Guz. — Khara brahami. 
Hind. — Brahami, Khula Khudi. Maleal. — Kodagam. Mar. — Karivana. 
Sans. — Brahami, Man^ukaparni. Tam. — Vallarai-kire. Tel. — 
Manduka-brummi, Bokkudu, Babassaielaka. 

Characters.^Cret^mg herb, sending out large runners which 
produce leaves, roots and fruits at the joints; leaves with long stalks, 
reniform, crenate, glabrous or hairy on the under surface, and cordate 
at the base. Stem slender and longitudinally furrowed. Fruits, 
clustered at the joints, small, laterally compressed and furrowed or 
ribbed longitudinally ; when bruised, the odour is aromatic, taste 
pungent, nauseous and bitter. 

Constituents. — An oleaginous substance vellarine, having the 
odour and bitter persistent taste of the fresh plant, resin, and some 



PFUCRDAMUM ORAVKOLFNS. 



203 



?Su\^aromaljc body, j^um, sugar, albuminous matter, salts, mostly 

;tlkaline ^ulpliates, and tannin. 

f'tepamfihtis^^Powdcr. Dose^ 5 to lo grains* Cataplasma, 
lluid extract. Dose, 2 to 5 ms* 

Actions anti mrs. — Alterative, tonic, diuretic and local stimulant. 
It lia* a special influence on tbe urino-genital tract. It sets up urinary^ 
and ovarian irrit.it ion and itching over the whole btKly, 
The root is given with milk and liquorice, in fever and dysentery. As 
a stimulant and alterative the powder is given in chronic skin 
jistases, such as eczema, lupus, psoriasis secondary syphilitic sores or 
^ikin crupUous ; also in antCslhetic leprosy, elephant iasis and scrofula. 
As a snuff, it is used in ozajua. The poultice or cataplasm is applied in 
syphilitic and other forms of ulcerations. The powder is dusted over 
ulcers « 

Peucedanum Grande and Pastinaca Grande. 

l!ahiiat,—\\\\h of Western India. 

Parts tiscii* — The hurt. 

Vernacular,— ^mx\h. — Baphalli. Eng* — Wild carrot. Hind. — 
Dukku ; Daku, Pcrs, — Duku. 

Charactrrsn — Fruit resembling gajara, large, broadly eUipticat, 
oimpie^sed, convex in the middle, with a dilated border and marked 
with ridges, and reddish yellow all over. The seed is of a pale 
yellnw or brown colour adhering to the margin j odour lemon like, 
and taste pungent bitterish. 

Ctifntttucnts, — An essential oil, of a light yellow colour. 

Prep4iratims, — ^Infusion (i in 10). Dose, \ lo i fid. ot. 

Actions tniH tisejt. — Similar to those of fennel, and used as carmi- 
naiive, diuretic and siimulant in flatulency, gastric and intestinal 
fJisurders &c. 

Peuoedanum Graveolene, B. P. 

Anethum sova, A. gravcolens— Pastinaca gravcolens. 

fJiihitat, — S. Europe, Asia, cultivated In India. 

Parh wsr^/,— The dried ripe fruit» aiicthi fructus, dill fruit, R, P* 

/ Vr/irtc«Air,— Arab. — Shabbit. Reng.^Sovalakindai shova sulpha. 
Burm. — Tsa-mont Sanun> Tsa-Morihpyn, Can, — Sabba-sagi. Cing, 
^Hiiien dura, sata, kuppi. Duk- — Soyi. Eng. — Common dill fruit. 
*lind — Sawa, soyah, sulchuka. Gur — Soova. Mar, — Suva, shepu. 
falayaU — Jemuju adas-manis, anisi. Pers. — V'alane khurda, sitada. 
Sans, — Sita, siva, nusreya, sh at a push pa. Tarn. — Sadakuppi, Tel.— 
R.^vikura, vittulu. Unani— anitun. 

Characters. — Fruit broadly oval, oblong, rather flat and smaller 

I fj ill variiili. composed of two mcricarps which are usually separate and 
Irecil from pedicel ; each broadly oval ,\f of an inch long and | inch 
broad, with jimooth svir faces and containing oil lubes and having a 
slender, lofig stalk at the base. Al the apex are two small projections, 



214 



PETEOSltLfXlJM ^ATIVrM. 



the remains oi the styles. Surface rugous darkish, or greyish yellow, 
or brown > with two thick ridges, united tngether from the apex to the 
base, forming a thick margin on both sides, three thin intervening 
ridges occupying their surfaces. On bruisinjCi the odour is like that 
of peppermint » taste warm somewhat pungent, and spicy like that of 
caraway* Dose of the seed, 5 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — V^olatile oil 3 or 4 p.c, and fixed oil. The volatite 
oil is composed of anethene, carvol and another hydrocarbon. 

Oleum anethi. B. P. The volatile oil to which its medicinal pro* 
perti^ are due is obtained by distillation of the seeds* It is a limpid, 
thin» yellowish or colourless liquid, odour aromatic, taste spicy, 
soluble in alcohol. Dose, J to 3 ms. 

Prttaraiions. — Aqua anethi, B. P., from the fruii \i m 10) \ of 
the oil (1 in 500). Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Carminative, stomachic, aromatic, stimulant, 
and galactagague. Women use it as a cordial drink after confinement to 
stop a tendency to vomiting and hiccough, and in indigestion and 
flatulent colic ; it is also given in amenorrhcea. With methi the seeds 
are fried in butter and used to check diarrhoea. 

Remarks. — The natives use this drug very freely as a carminative 
in various prescriptions* 

Petroselinom SatiTiim. 

Syn.^ — Apium Petroselinum, Carum Petroseltnum. 

i/<y^//ff/.— Southern Europe. 

Ihni^ used, — ^The root, fruit or leaves, and Apiol — ^an olco-rcsiti 
obtained from the fruit» 

Vfmacular. — Beog* — Bilali Pitursilli. Eng. — Common Parsley, 
Hind. — Pitar Saleri. 

Characters* — ^A biennial plantt leaves radical 3 pinnate, flower* 
yellow, fruit long, ovate, greenish brown, mericarp with 5 ribs and 
6 oil tubes ; root conical, yellowish, 6 inches long and J inch thick. 

Constitnents^^Tht root contains a volatile oil, a gelatinous 
suhstante apiin and starch. The fruit also contains Apiol (an oleo* 
resin) which is the true active principle. 

It is a greenish brown oily liquid of a peculiar odour and a 
disai^reeable pungent parsley-like taste, readily soluble in alcohoU 
ether, chloroform and glacial acetic acid. Insoluble in water. Oose, 2 
to 6 ms, 

The name apiol is also given to a kind of camphor. It occurs In 
white need1es» odnur feeble and parsley like, insoluble in water, freely 
soluble in alcohol or ether. Dose, 15 grs. as an a fit {periodic, la cri. 
as aiiemmenagogue against dysmenorrhoea. 

Preparatinns. — Extractum Apii Radicis Uquidum. Dose, 1510 
60 ms. Extractum Apii Fructus Liquidum. Dose, 15 to to ms. 
Infiisum Apii of the root (t in 20). Dose, 1 to : fld« 021^. 



mMPtVKLLA AXISl'M. 



295 



Pkysio/o^ical action. — Parsley is aperient, diuretic, diaphoretic, 
expectorant and carminative ; also emmenagogue and febrifuge ; used 
in dropsy, gravely strangury, gonorrhcea, uric acid diathesis and in 
•guc. Apiol in small doses is carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, also 
expectorant and vascular stimulant. In large doses it is emmenajfogue 
and febrifuge. Its action is similar to that of quinine. Like quinine 
it produces headache, giddiness^ ringing in the ears, &c. In over 
doies it is decidedly narcotic. 

Therapeutics. — Apiol is given in intermittent fevers, and in 
roilarial neuralgias, but chiefly given in amcnorrhoea if due to anicmiai 
in dysmcrtorrhasa when the discharge is fcetid, and in accidental sup- 
pression of menses ; as an aborttfacient, it is quite useless. Locally 
parsley leaves applied to the breasts suppress secretion of milk, 

Pimpinella Jlnlsam, B P. 

Anisum officinalis. 

Habitat, — Persia, Egypt, S. E. Europe* 

Parts used. — The fruit, Anlsi fructus, B. P., and oil, Oleum 
Anisi, B. P, 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Anisum, Shamtin Beng, — Mahoori, Mitha 
jjra. Bom* — Ervados. Burm. — Tsa moon-lsa-bah. team sompu. Can. — 
Sompu. Cing»— Sinhala-asamodayan. Duk, — Souf. Eng. — Common 
Anise. Gu2. — Ervadosa, Hind — Sonf. Malay. — Jira-manis, Adis- 
manis, Perinchirakam. Mar. — ^Somp. Portuguese Hcrba-doce. Pers. — 
Raxiyan i-rumi, Valine Buray, Sans.— Awak-pushpi Karavasata- 
pu»pha« Tam.-*Shombu, TeK— Kuppi-chattn Pella Jillakara, 
Krvadosa is a corruption of Herba-doce, The native names are 
involved in great confusion, many of them being wrongly applied to 
"^ftvcral other fruits and seeds. 

Characters, — Fruit ith of an inch long, a cremocarp, ovoid^ rough, 
compressed at sides, of a greyish brown colour and hairy, mericarp 
usually remains united or attached to the pedicel ; primary ridges, pale, 
slender and entire containing 15 to 20 oil tubes ; on crushing the seeds 
they give out an agreeable aromatic odour, and a sweet spicy taste^ 
The volatile oil resembles oil of fennel. It becomes dark by keeping* 
Dose of the fruit, 10 to Jo gra. 

Cofistttnents — Volatile oil, 1 to 3 p* c„ fixed oil 3 to 4 p* c, sugar, 
mucilage, and ash 7 p. c* 

Oleum Anisi, B.P., Oil of anise— a volatile oil obtained by distilling 
the fruit with water or steam, used medicinally. It is a colourless. 
>*«nowi&h, thin liquid, of a sweet, mild* aromatic taste, soluble in alcohol 
(l to i). Solidifies into white crystals if kept for some time. It con- 
tains a terpene— phellandrene 10 to 30 p. c, a stearopten— anethol 
or anise camphor 80-90 p. c. Dose, i to 3 ms. Anethol by oxidation 
is converted into anisic acid which resembles salicylic acid. 

Preparations, — Spiritus Anisi, B. P. (1 in 10). Dose, 5 to 20 ms. 
Tinctura Camphoraf composita, B- P, Dose, i to r dr. Aqua ani^i, 



296 PRANGOS PABCTLARIA. 

B. P., anise water, from the fruit (i in 10). and of the oil (i in 500). 
Dose, one to two fluid ounces. 

Preparations, — Of the fruit, infusum anisi (i in 40). Dose, 2 to 
8 drs. 

Actiotis and uses. — The volatile oil which is the active medicinal 
agent, is aromatic, slightly stimulant of the heart and digestive 
organs. It liquefies the bronchial secretion, hence it is used as expecto- 
rant ; it is also carminative and stomachic, and is used as a corrective 
to allay griping of purgative medicines. It is given in flatulence, 
intestinal colic and in bowel complaints. It has a special influence on . 
the bronchial tubes, and is given in infantile bronchial catarrh, after 
the acute stage has passed away. In large doses it is slightly narcotic. 
Locally the oil is applied to the head to relieve headache and to the 
abdomen to expel flatus, to the joints in rheumatism, and round the 
ear in earache. 

Prangos Pabnlaria. 

Habitat. — North of India, Thibet and Cashmere. 

Parts used. — The fruit and root. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Phatara-e-Saleyuna. Afghan. — Badian-e- 
Kohi. Bomb. — Phatarasaliuna, Fiturasaliyun. Hind. — Komal. 
Eng. — Silphium Parsley. Ind. Bazaar. — Fiturasaliyun. Mar. — 
Phatura Salyuna. Sans. — Komal, Avipriya. Thibet. — Prangos. 

Characters, — Root conical, thick and yellow, becoming darkish 
brown when long kept. Fruit, a pair of mericarps, oblong, rather 
compressed and larger than varialee ; surface rugous, marked with 5 
convoluted ridges, on the top of each mericarp are two curved 
prominences, the remains of the styles ; mericarps with 5 ribs and 
6 oil tubes separate from below where the stalk is jointed. Odour 
resembling that of caraway. When kept for a long time the smell 
resembles cats' urine, taste pungent and resembles that of an inferior 
variety of Hinga. 

Constituents, — The dried fruit contains an essential oil, a trace of 
fixed oil, resins, traces of an alkaloid, quercitrin in large amount, and 
an ethereal salt of valeric acid. 

Preparations, — Of the fruit. Infusion (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. 
Decoction of the root (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. 

Actions and uses, — The root is diuretic, and the fruit is car mina- 
ive and stimulant ; given in urinary diseases, gravel, strangury and 
lyspepsia, also in dropsy and gonorrhoea. 

Remarks, — The fruit phatare saliyun, is sold as a substitute for 
petroselinon or rock parsley of the Greeks, and Karafs-el-jibali of the 
Arabs. 

PtychotiB Ajowan LeYiBticum, Ajowan, Carum Ajowan, 
Carum Copticum, B.P., Ajwain Omum. 

Habitat. — India, Southern Asia, Africa. 

l^arts used, — The fruit. 



PTVrHOTIS AJnWAS 

Frrnactifar^ — A rah. — Kimun-elniuliiki, Annis. Bcnp.— Ajwain, 
Juviln, Baro-joau, Bomb,— 0\^* Burm, — Sanihuine. Can. — Ouiu, 
Voma. Cing, — Assumoda. Duk. — Ajvaii. Eng.— Lnva>;e, Bishttp*s 
weetl, King's cumin. Guz, — Ajamo. Hind. — Ajvayan, Ajamoda, Mar. — 
Ova, Ajma vovasieda. Malay* — Hornama Azamoda Kani. Pers, — 
Zhinyarii Nan k huh. Sans, — Ya van I AjmrRl.un, \ a van Ik a. Tarn. — 
Omam. TeL — Vaman Chettu. 

CAam£:/im\— Mericarps adherent by a bright yellow stalk or 
sq)aratcdj colour pale brown, resembling that of anisum, in size 
smaiter than anise- Adherent mcricarps, broadly ovale, pointetU 
stalked and conical, streaked with yellow stripes ; separate mericarps, 
compressed or arched on one side, and convex on the other. Surface 
highly tubercled, marked with five or ten prominent ridges, the 
intervening spaces being dark brown ; on bruising the odour is strong, 
resembling that of Thymol or origanum. Tsiste peculiarly heating, 
pungent and also aromatic. Dost of the iruiis, lo to 40 grs. 

Cnftstt'tucHls. — ^An aromatic volatile oil and a crystalline substance 
which collects on the surface of the distilled water. This stcaropten» 
known under the Hindustanee name of Ajawankaphul, flowers of 
ajowan or ajwon camphor, is identical with English thyniol contained 
in Thymus vulgaris. Doge, (stearopten) J to 2 grs, 

Prtparatmts — Oleum Ptychotis— oil of ajwan^oil of oaium. 
Dose, I to 3 ma. in emuUiun, Mtdicaltd oil for application in 
ihcumalism, bruises, lumbago, ^c. Kxtractutu Ptychotii* liquidum, 
not miscible with water. Dose, 10 to 30 tns. Araka — Aqua Plychoti*, 
ajivan or omum water. Dose, i to 2 ozs. 



Actiom aufi uses. — Di (fusible stimulantp stomachic, carminative* 
antispasmodic and antiseptic. The fruit combines the powerful 
stimulant qualities of mustard or capsicum, the bitter property of 
chiretta and the antispasmodic virtues of asafelrda. and is of great 
iervice in cholera. As an antiseptic, it removes oflfensivc smcH from 
foul ulcers. As a stomachic, it increases the flow of saliva^ augments 
the gastric secretion, and hence is given in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, acid 
enniations, heartburn, &c. As an antispasmodic it is given in 
I , colicky pains, hysteria, stoppage of urine and tympanitis. 

Ii iiilis, with profuse expectoration, it lessens the sputum, A 

poultice of crushed fruits is applied to painful rheumatic joints, and 
fomentation of hot seeds to the chest in bronchitis, asthma, and to 
the cold hands and feel in cholera, fainting and syncope, Ajama-na- 
phula, is antiseptic and germicide. With camphor and other 
antispasmodics it is given in cholera, diarrha?a, tntcstinal colic, 
spasm of stomach, asthma and dysmtnorrhcEa, The oil h applied as 
a stimulant embrocation for the relief of pains in the hmb&or rheuma- 
tbm, and also given internally tor colic, tympanitis, &c Aqua piychotis 
i% u^di to disguise (he taste i>f nauseous drugs. 



29^ TRlANTHiittA MOKOGVNA. 

ffaUtat-^Petua^ Kashmir) Egypt. 

Parts usid. — ^The root. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Shina. En^. — Egyptian Misree. Ind. 
Baz« — Secacul mbree. Pers.— Sakaknl, Kirsygeyah. Shirac.^-Badran. 

CharacUrs. — Root resembling small carrots in shape and size. 
Externally, longitudinally furrowed, highly wrinkled and of a li^ht 
brown colour ; surface marked with scars of fallen rootlets. On section 
it is resinous, or sugary looking, and of a dark amber colour. The 
taste is sweetish and starchy. 

C(mstiiueMts.-^Tht root contains saccharine matter, starchi Ac. 

Preparattons,-^ Confection. Dose, t to 2 drs. 

^c/fbiMan^ttj^.— Tonic and aphrodisiac. It resembles in its 
actions sapheda musali and is given in seminal debility and leucorrhoea. 

Tiu^ila Omrgaaioa 

/Ai3f*AfiL— N6rthem Africa, Southern Europe, Arabia. 

Parts OHploytd. — ^The root and resin. 

Preparations. — ^Fluid ext. lo to 30 minims. Plaster from its resin. 

Actions and uses. — G>unter-irritant. It relieves the localized 
pains of rheumatism, gout, bruises and bronchitis. Like croton oil. 
Its action is limited to the spot of its application. Internally it acts as 
tonic in small doses, but in large doses it is an irritant cathartic. 

Triaathenm IIimo0Ba, T. Oboofdata, T. Pwkandra. 

Habitat. — ^Throughout India* 

Part la^i/.— The root* 

Vernacular. — ^Beng. — SAbuni, Lai and Lovet sabuni, Gado-Cunya. 
Guz— Satudo. Hind.— NAsur Janghi, BUh Khapnu Mar.— Vish 
Khlpra. Sans. — Punamava. Tam.— Sharvalay-Kiray. Tel. — Ambati- 
maddu, Bodo-pail4Lura, Ghalijeroo, 

Characters. — Plant, diffused, glabrous and fleshy ; root of a dirty 
brown or brownish white colour, 3 to 4 inches long and as thick as a 
crow's quill ; smell aromatic; taste astringenti bitter, pungent, and acrid ; 
leaves succulent, thick, smooth, obovate or obcordate, margin 
red. The flowers of a light pink colour. Dose, 30 to 120 grs. 

Constituents. — A glucoside, similar in properties to saponin. 

/Reparations. — Infusion (i in 20). Dose^ i to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Cathartic and irritant ; given in constipa- 
tion, jaundice, strangury and dropsy ; it is abo i^ed in torpid liver, 
asthma and amenorrhoea. Among the natives the plant is boiled and 
eaten as a vegetable. 



JUSSf.«A SltFKRUTieOS^ 



199 



Evening primrose, or Singoda family. 

Herbsor shrubs, with simple exstipulate, alternate, dotless leaves ; 
fruit capsular, succulent and dehiscent or indehiscent ; seeds numerous 
without aJbumen. 

Habitat, — India, temperate parts of North America and Europe. 

Profiertus, — The plants of this order are harmless. They possess 
mucilaginous properties. The fruits are acid and edible. The roots 
are also edible ; some are astringent* 

(Enothera Biennis. 

Habitat, — Europe, North America, 4c, 
Part used. — The flowering topt. 

Characters, — A shrub with simple, alternate or opposite, exstipuN 
ate leaves without dots ; flowers ajtillary, almost sessile ; calyx, superior 
j*4 lobed, in sestivation vatvate ; petals, large, showy^ regular and 
twisted in aestivation. Dose, )oto 30 grs. 

Preparations, — Decoction as a wa«h« Fluid extract, 20 to 60 ms« 
ointment. 

Actions and Njri,— Sedative and antispasmodic ; indicated \n 
pulmonary and gastric affections, depending on a morbid 
sensitiveness in the larvngeal, pulmonary or gastric branches of the 
pneumogastric nerve* It is beneficial in whooping cough, and spasmodic 
asthma — externally, a decoction is used as a wash in infantile eruptions 
and as an application to ulcers ; the roots are edible. 

Jatftlsa SnfhnlioaBaf 1* Yillota, Epllobriam Fratiooanm, 
J. Exaltatiu 

Habitat, — India, Ceylon. 

Part used* — The plant. 

^VrfMcrw/ar.— Beng.^Lil-ban-Lavanga. Ceylon — Haemorago. Can. 
— Kava cula. Cing, — Hotmaraga Hind. — Ban Laung, Kanchana* 
Maleal — Carambu, Mar.— Pana Lavanga. Sans. — BbMlavi-anga, 
Tel. — Nirbatsala* Tarn* — Nirkirambu, Niruaghendra-paku, 

P&na Lavanga means water-clove — indicating, the habitat of the 
plant* 

Characters. '^a^xh erect pubescent or villous, leaves broad, lan- 
ceolate, sometimes linear, acuminate, shortly petioled; flowers sessile, 
capsule, linear, ] or 2 inches* cyUndrical, more or les& villous, 8 
ribbed fruit large, yellow, resembhng a clove. 

Preparations, — Decoction (j in 20). Dose, ^ to 1 fl. dr- 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, carminative, diuretic and 
vermifuge ; given in flatulence ; powder steeped in butter milk, 
is given in diarrhcea and dysentery. As an astringent it is given in 
h»*rmoptysis, and in teucorrhopa. 



300 TRAPA BISPINOSA. 

Haloragaoeae, Mare's Tail, or Water Chestnut family. 

Herbs or shurbs, generally aquatic ; upper leaves and petioles 
tomentose, lower leaves opposite ; calyx minute, villous ; seeds solitary 
and pendulous; albumen fleshy or exalbuminous, nearly allied to 
onagraceae, merely an imperfect form of onagraceae. Edible seeds ; 
found in all parts of the world. 

Trapa Bispinosa, T. Natans, T. Bioornis, Tribolas 
Aquaticas. 

/^/73/Ai/.— Peninsulas of India, Bengal, Cashmere, Peshawar 
Nepal. 

Parts used. — The fruit, or nut, or seeds. 

Vcniacular, — Eng. — Water chestnut, 2 spined water caltrop, Jesuit 
nut Chin. — Ling. Beng. — P&ni phala. Bomb. — Singora. Guz. — 
Singoda. Duk, — Pani-phal. Hind. — Singh&rah, Pini phal. Maleal. — 
Karim polam. Mar. — Singoda. Panj. — Gaunri. Sans — Seringata, 
Tel. — Parike-gadda. Tam. — Pauri-mattai. 

Characters, — Fruit or nut is dark green, externally marked with 
horns, very conical in shape and barbed backwards as projecting spines, 
Seeds large, amygdaloid with unequal cotyledons ; nuts abpunding in 
starchy fecula of a white colour, and of a sweetish taste ; seeds edible ; 
those of Trapa Natans are known as Jesuit's nuts at Venice. 

The dried fruit deprived of husk is dull brown externally and 
white within. In shape, it is compressed, and like an obtuse angled 
triangle. On section it is hard and brittle. Dose, i to 2 drs. 

Constituents. — Contains manganese and starch. 

Preparations, — Confection. Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actions and uses% — Nutritive, tonic, and cooling ; given in diarrhoea 
and dyspepsia, and with milk, in nervous and general debility, 
seminal weakness and leucorrhoea. Fresh fruits are edible — dried ones 
are baked, and then eaten. Powder of the dry fruits is used to 
prepare bread. 

SamydaoeA, Samyda Family. 

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, simple, evergreen stipulate, 
and marked with round or linear transparent dots. Flowers perfect. 
Fruit capsular and leathery, one-celled. Seeds numerous and arillate, 
albumen fleshy or oily. 

Habitat, — Tropical — principally America. 
Properties. — Bitter and astringent. 

Casearia Esoulenta. 
Habitat, — Southern India and Ceylon. 
Parts used, — The bark of the root. 

Vernacular, — Goa. — Sataganda. Hind. — Chilla, Chilara, Baire. 
Mar. — Mora-igeru, Bithori, Pingri, Mormassi. Tam.— Kaddla Shingi. 
Tel. — Gundu gungura. 



Morl-ageru — morn, a pile, nnd ageru, the rectum. Tliis mediehie 
ii. used for the treatment of piles. Sfitagunda— sntia, ivhich means seven, 
and gonda, a ring, the transverse section of the root bark shows 
seven concentric rings. Moramassi, mora pile and mashi, flesh, or a 
soft tumour. It is a cure for piles or soft tumour. 

Characters. — A small shrub; root crooked, forming angular bends ; 
bark very hard, of a dull red colour, and covered with thin papery 
subef of a yellow colour ; taste astringent. 

Ojnsiiitunis. — The bark contains lannini similar to Ratanhio- 
mnnic acid, and a principle allied to cathartic acid. 

/V/^jm//>;/w.^ Decoct ion (i in 20). Dose, 1 to 2 fld* ozs. Extract, 
Dose, 10 to 20 grs,, and syrup (1 of extract in 6)< Dose, 1 to 2 
drs. 

Actions and nse^, — Laxative and alterative ; u!*ed iot hepatic 
enlargement, and for piles, both internally and tfxternally. Its action 
un the liver is very marked. It i^ also given in (l*;tbetcs. 

PapayaceaB. 

The Papaw family. Trees or shrubs, vviih acrid milky juice ; 
leaves on*hmg petioles, Jubtd, and alternate ; flowers, unisexual or 
hermaphrodite. I'mtt succulent mn! iltluMfnr : s.-iuU many and 
albuminous, 

llabiiaL — India, bouth America. 

PrvpirUes. — The plants of thii> order contain an acrid, milky juice 
Some plants are deadly poisonous ; the unripe fruit and juice of M>nie 
areantlielmintic. Ripe fruit* are edible. 

Carioa Papaya, C. Valeria. 

hahiiat. — Native of America, cultivated throughout India. 
f^rts i#jr^(/-^The milky juice^ seeds, and pulp. 
lr*€rnacul*Mr — The fruit. Arab. — Anabahc liindi, Beng, — Popo- 
yiiiH. Bom., Hiud. — Arand-Kharbu/a, papaya. Burm.— Trenbaw, 
ticn, ihin-baw. Chin. — Muhkwa. Can.— Parangi. Cing,— PapaJ. 
>uk* — Popaiyah, PopiU. Eng. — Papaw, ivuz, — Papuyi. Mar, — 
*opayii. Malay, — r^apiiy;i-papa, Rate. Maleal. — Papeta, umbbaJay. 
?«i:5. — Anobahc-hindi. bind. — Katha Chibhadu. Tarn, — Peppali- 
iti« Tel— Midhumakani, Bapaia pandu. 

Characters. — Kipe fruit» succulent, oblong, furrowed, yellowish 

l^eei!, and containing numerous slimy, round, coloured albuminous 

fcgrcy seed*. The seeds smell like Assilio ; the unripe fruit, wood ^nA 

tjeaves contains a large quantity of thick, milky jutce, of a gelatinous 

tjn^istencc — and which contains a digestive ferment, which is the 

DCttve principle calkd Papain* 

Cunstiiiittits* — ^The juice contains an albuminoid, digestive, or 
dilkcurdling ferment — Papain or Papayotin. The fresh fruit contains a 
Uoutchouc^hkc lubbtaucc \ a soft, yellow rcsiii, fai| albuminoidsi sugar, 



CARICA PAPATA. 



pectin I citric, tartaric and malic acids, dextrine, &c. The dried fruit 
contains a large atnount of ash, 8'4 p. c„ which contains sodai potash 
and phosphoric acid. The seeds contain an oil. Papaya oil, or carictn^ 
an oiMike substance of a disagreeable taste and smell, soluble in ether 
and alcohol ; and several acids; similar to palmitic acid, carica fat acid, 
and a crystalline acid called papayic acid* These are insoluble in cold 
water, but soluble in hot water and alcohol, also a resin acid, having an 
irritant and bitter taste, insoluble in water and ether, aiid soluble in 
alcohol and alkalies ; and a soft resin. The leaves contain an alkaloid 
called carpaine, which with hydrochloric acid forms carpal ne 
hydrochloride, soluble in water ; used hypodermically as an injection. 
Dose, ^a to ^^ of a grain. As a cardiac tonic, it may replace digi- 
talis. Papayotin— a concentrated, active principle, obtained from 
the juice by precipitation with alcohol, A whitish* amorphous, 
hygroscopic powder, soluble in 75 p,c.p of absolute alcohol, water and 
glycerine. Dose, 2 to 10 grs. It is capable of digesting 200 times 
Its weight of fresh pressed blood fibrin. Its action is quicker than 
that of pepsin at a higher temperature, and does not require an 
addition of free acid. Seven grains of papayotin can digest one pint of 
milk* It acts as a solvent in alkaline solutions, and like pepsin if 
curdles milk. Dose, i to 8 grains, 

J^eparaiions. — Of the unripe fruit — succus, or papaw juice. Dddc 
1 to 4 drs. Papaw Spray (2 drs. in 4 025.) contains in addition 
three grains of Hydro-naphthol, and 15 minims of dilute hydrochloric 
acids. Pigment. — Contains papain, la gr, ; borax, 5 gr. ; water, jdrs. 
Lozenges. — ^ to | gr* of papain with -j'^ of cocaine in each. Elixir 
Papain. ^ Dose, 1 dr. 

Physhkgtcal Actiofis, — The action of the milky ^uice of the unripe 
fruit upon raw meat is well known among Indian cooks. It is 
an enzyme, similar to pepsin, acting as a solvent in alkaline, acid or 
nentral solutions* It is a powerful digestive of meat albumen, forming 
true peptones. As a solvent of fibrin and other nitrogenous substancet, 
the juice makes the meat tender, and is used as an anthelminiict 
and for dyspepsia. Externally it is applied for ringwoim and psofiajis, 
sometimes it is given as an emnir % It is not precipitated 

like pepsin on boilings but is pre 1 by mineral acids, iodine, 

mercuric chloride. 

Therapeutics^ — Acidglycerolcof papain is largely used in dyspepsia 
as it dUsolves mucus in the stomach which prevents the absorption of 
food in ca^es of indigestion, colic, flatulence, gastric ulcers, and 
as an aid to the nutrition of patients suffering from phthisis. As a 
solvent of albuminous bodies, papaine solution is used to di&solve 
fibrinous membrane, or to remove exudation in diphtheria, croup, 
iiwellcd mammary and axillary glands &c» A 5 p. c. solution with 2) 
p, c of bicarbonate of sodium, is used as drops into the ear 
in chronic otorrhcca. A pigment, well rubbed is used to remove corns, 
wafts, or any hardnei^s of the skin and in cb^ ^ema. If n 

in glycerine is applied (o ulcere and fi%:sure±» o^ t;uc. The ^^-^ 



TIJRNFRA ArHROOISrACJl* 



}0} 



are recommended for syphilitic ulcers of the tongue and throat* 
The milky juice and the seeds with honey are anthelmintic^ and are 
given to expel lumbrici ; also useful in dyspepsia^ in hepatic and 
splenic enlargements. The seeds are used as emmenagogue ; made into 
pessaries they are used in India to procure abortion — locally with 
glycerine a paste of seeds^ or the juice is used as a cure for ringworm 
and psoriasis. 

Tnnier&cea. 

Tl)e Turnera family. Herb» or shrubs. Leaves alternate, exstipu- 
late and hairy. Flowers axillary ; calyx inferior. 5-lobed, petals 5, equals 
twisted and perigynous. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals^ 
filaments distinct- Ovary, one-celled, superior. Fruit capsular one- 
celled^ 3-valved, dehiscing in a loculicidai manner. Seeds slightly 
curved, embryo, in the midst of fleshy albumen. 

Habitat — South America and West Indies, 

PmperU'es. — Astringent, tonic, expectorant and aromatic. 

Turnera AphrodlBiaoL, T. Hiorophylla. 

Habitat. — California and Mexico, 

Parts used.— The, leaves and tops- 

Characters. — Damiana is a small mint*like plant, bearing yellow- 
iih white fragrant flowers, and growing near the western coast of 
Mexico* The leaves are small, serrated, about one-fourth to one-third 
of an inch long, light green in colour, with a faint aromatic odour, 
and slightly bitter taste. 

Omstituents, — A volatile oil and a resin. 

Preparations. — Extractum Damians Liquidum. Dose, \ lo t 
drs, Extractum Damianae. Dose. 2 to 10 grs. Aphrodisiac pill : — 
Damiana Extract 2 grs», Nux Vomica Extract | gr*, Phosphorus 
xiir K't Coca Extract \ gr., Reduced iron i gr, — for one pill. 

Actions and uses* — Tonic, aphrodisiac, nervine, laxative^ chola- 
gogue and diuretic. It has specific action in seminal emissions, loss 
of seminal power prostatitis, prostatorrhoeai and enlargement of the 
prostate gland. It has been largely eniployed as an aphrodisiac as it 
has a special tonic and stimulant effect over the genito-urinary 
organs. It is useful in exhaustion from excesses* As a general nervine 
tonic it is given in cerebral exhaustion, general atony of the nervous 
system, sick headache, hemiplegia and paraplegia. 

Cuoorbttaoe®. 

The gourd, dodhi, or kikady family. Herbs, generally succulent 
profttrate or climbintf with tendrils. Leaves alternate, more or less 
lobed, and scabrous. Flowers unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, and 
of a yellow or white colour. Fruit a pej»o. or a succulent berry. 
Seeds numerouS| more or less flattened and exalbuminous ; testa, horny 
or leathery. 



304 



BKMNCASA CEKlhEKA. 



Habitat. — Common in ihe tropics. 

The pulp surrounding the seeds is edible. It sometimes possesses 
acrid, bitter, and purgative properties. Some species are poisonous. 
The seeds are generally harmless. By cultivation, the fruits lose their 
acridity, and t^ome edible. 

Benincasa Ceiifen, Cocnrbita Cerifera. 

Cucurbita Hispida, C. alba (white pumpkin), C. Pcpo (common 
pumpkin). 

Habitat. — Tropical Asia, India. 

Parts used. — The seeds and juice of the fruil. 

The word red or white or black is affixed to the vernacular name 
for Pepo. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — M aida bab (C. Pepo). Bomb. — Pandri chiki 
Kohala. Ben^. — Komra, chal-kumra. Burm. — Shwapha young. 
Chin. — Tung Kwa. Can. — Kumbalakaya. Duk. — Kaddu, Pethah. 
Eng. — Chinese pumpkin, Pepo, White tallow gourd. Gur. — Bhopala 
Dangara, Bhurun-Kohalun. Hind. — Kashi-phal, Hulwa, Mitha Kaddoo. 
Mar. — Koholum. Sind. — Prata-Kalu. Maleal. — Kumbulum, Kuvaly 
Punj. — Pitha. Pers. — Kodu. Sans. — Kush manda. Tam. — Pushi- 
nikkaya kumbuli. Tel. — Budide-gum madi. 

CharacUts. — Fruit large, yellowish, red or white, longitudinal or 
cylindrical, externally smooth, covered with obtuse ribs ; pulp, yellowish 
rtd or white, marrow-like, and juicy ; seeds pale yellow or white, flat, 
thick, broad, ovate and acuminate, taste sweet, refreshing, cooling or 
bland and oily. No odour. Dose of the seeds, i to 2 ozs. Given 
as an emulsion with sugar. Dose of the resin, lo to 15 grs. 

Constituents. — Fixed oil, 44 p. c. ; starch 32 p. c. an alkaloid cucur- 
bitine, an acrid resin, proteids, myosin, vitellin, sugar, ash, 4 p.c. 

Preparations. — Emulsion and Confection. Pushtik conserve. Take 
Bhurun Kohalu, cut in small pieces, dry them in shade and powder, fry 
the powder in butter and add almonds, quince seed, cloves, cardamoms, 
nutmegs, asparagus sarmentosus, satawari seeds, seeds of mucuna 
pruriens ; musk, curculigo archioidis, akalkaro, assan, Tejbal, Behman, 
(safed and surkh), Tamal patra, agar, nag kesor equal parts; add sugar to 
make a confection. For spermatorrhoea, with cumin seeds; and as a 
galactagogue with coriander and fenugreek seeds. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Actions and uses. — Fruit is nutritive, tonic and diuretic. The 
seeds deprived of the outer covering are vermifuge, and are given in 
tape-worms and lumbrici ; as a diuretic it as given in gonorrhoea and 
urinary diseases. The oil has been used for the same purposes. 

The confection is alterative, tonic, diuretic and restorative, and 
given in impotence, phthisis, dyspepsia, anorexia, and to check internal 
haemorrhages such as haemoptysis, &c. Given to children in marasmus 
and for the relief cf cough and asthma. The fresh juice with sugar 
and saffron is given in insanity, epilcp>y, nervous diseases, and in 
diabetes. 



BRYONIA ALBA. 



Bryoida Alba, B. Dioica. 



305 



B* Alba— White bryony. Vitis alba— Wild hops— Tetter berry, 
nrood vine. B. Dioica — Red bryony, devifs turnips. 

Habitat, — S. Europe in thickets and hedges, East Indies. 

Pstr^ used. — The root. 

OmracUrs* — Perennial planL Root spindle-shaped, long, 2 inches 
u) diameter. Bark — thin, yellowish grey^ or brown. The interior is 
made up of numerous small wood bundles in radiating lines* The 
centre is white, flcshyi and lactescent ; taste bitter and acrid ; odour 
nauseous. Dose, powdered root, ro to 60 grs. 

Constituents >^\i contains an active principle, Bryonin — a 
glucoside, starchy sugar, gum, fatty matter, malates and other salts. 

Bryonin — To obtain it exhaust the lOot with alcohol, add tanninp 
and evaporate the precipitate. It is soluble in alcohol, and in water, 
insoluble in ether. Boiled with diluted sulphuric acid we get glucose, 
bryoretin and hydrobryoretin. Dose, J to | gr. 

Preparations, — TincturaBryoniae, from fresh-bruised roots (i in lo). 
Dose, J to 10 ms.or more» Infusum Bryoni^e (i in 20). DosCp 4 to 12 drs. 

Pkysioioiical action* — Emmenagogue, hydragogue, cathartic, 
vesicant, emetic and styptic. It is a cardiac depressant, lowering 
the heart's beats. As an irritant, the fresh plant sets up cut.ineou$ 
inflammation with fever, and also produces vesication. It is a violent 
irritant of the mucous membranes. In small doses it irritates the 
stomachy intestines, and the bronchit causing gastritis, and dry 
hack 1 1 '1, with pain and soreness in front of the chest, and behind 

the As an irritant of the serous membranes it sets up 

pteurius with fibronous effusion. It leads to congestion of the brain, 
liver, kidneys and bladder, producing frontal headache, vertigo and 
sometimes epistaxis ; also pain and tenderness in the liver, bilious 
vomiting and even jaundice, and pain and tenderness in the bladder 
with profuse secretion of urine. As a haemostatic its infusion (i in 10) 
causes progressive contraction of the capillaries. In large doses it is 
a drastic purgative, and acts like jaUp. It is also emmenagogue and 
emetic* 

Therapeutics. — In small doses Bryonia is given in the advanced 
stage of serous inHamraattons after the fever has subsided, as in pleurisy, 
pleuropneumonia and pericarditis. It promotes absorption of the effused 
products- It is given in hysteria^ epilepsy, enlarged spleen, and 
J swelled glands. An infusion of Bryony is styptic, and is used to arrest 
metrorrhagia. In rheumatic fever, it relieves the pain and stiffness. 
Ft should be given after the swelling has been reduced. It relieves 
the pain, soreness and dry hacking cough in persons suffering from 
cold in the chest. In bilious fevers, in bilious headaches, in gastralgia 
with pyrosis, in congestion of the liver, and in croup its use is very 
beneficial Bryonin is given in dropsies : it acts as a diuretic and as 
a draitic purgaii.x. 



^06 BRYONIA LACmOSA. 



HmbiiaL — Punjab. Sind, Guzerat, Deccan. 
Pmrts used. — The root. 

Vernacular. — Arab^ Pers. — Luf — or Lufa. Bomb. — Kavale-che- 
dole. Can. — Akashu ganida-gadde. Duk. — Akasa gaddah, Garaja 
phala. Guz. — Karvi-^iai. Hind. — Akasa gaddah, chhilihinda. Mar. — 
Siva Linga. Sans. — Chhili-hinda, P^ala-ganida^ Mahamnla. 
Tarn. — Gollan-kovaiks-kizh-angu. TeL — ^Akasa-gamda-gaddala, Niga- 
donda. Maha mula, the great root. Akas, the skjr ; Gadda, the 
tuberous root. Linga Shiva~-the linga of Siva, in allnsioo to the sha^ 
ol the fmit. 

Characters. — Root turnip shaped, very large and heavy, met with 
in pieces, or slices resembling kalamba. £ach piecefrom i to 4 inches 
in length, and from i to i| inches in thickness, in colour resembling 
that of Bhui kohofci, outer sur£aK» brownish, and marked with four 
circular rings ; on section it jrields a viscid juice, which hardens into 
gum ; taste very bitter, mucilaginous and subacid ; odour somewhat 
acrid. Dose, of the powder, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constihtenis. — A bitter glucoside- Bryonin» starch, resin and 
mineral matters. 

Pr^ratims. — ^Tincture (i in 10). Dose, 10 to xo ms. 

Actkmi mmd uses. — ^Alterative and laxative ; given in rheumatism- 
syphilis and other venereal comf^aints; also in the later stages of 
dysentery. It has a reputatioo in India as a remedy in snakebites, andb 
given internally and applied to the bitten part. It is also used as an 
anthelmintic. Locally a liniment of the root« combined with oaioos» 
cumin and castor oil, is used as an embrocatioo for chrooic rheu- 
matism and pain&l joints. It is also used as a substitute for Bryony. 

Bryonia umbdlata. Gowala-kakri (Hind). Mohakri (Hind). 
On the Sotlej the root is given for spennatorrhoea. 



Habtiat.-^lndi^ Ceylon, Pegu. 

figrts used,— The plants 

Vernacular. — Bcng. — Mala. Can. — ^LingatoodL Dutch. — SKtten. 
Hind. — Bajgureya^ Ghniga-Nftru. MaL — Kehoe maka. Mar. — Kava> 
dori. Sans. — Baja. Td.— Linga-dooda. Portugoese-^Nohla. Gharu- 
Nam, string of ankle bdb, used by dancing girls, these bdls haw 
vertical sKts, resembling the vertical lines on tlK firuit. 

Characiers. — Qimbing shrub, common in hedges: leaves polmatdy, 
5-lobed, and deeply divided : under surface studded with white, jointed, 
calcareous hair&. Flowers smaO, and pale yeflow. Fruit round, 
smooth and marked with white vertical stripes. The whoSe plant 
is very bitter. 

CoBStUments — ^.A bitter prindpie similar 10 bryonin. fit asi colour- 
ing marifr. 



^iTKULLirS CULOCYNTBIS, 



307 



Prefiatafifjrti. — Jnfuvion (j in 10). Dose, ^ tu 1 M. ozs. 
Actions and uses. — Laxative; given in vomiting and in fevers, 
accomp;iniecl with flatulence and constipation. 

Cephalandra Indica. 

Habitat ' — Throughout India, 

Parts used, — The leaves, root and fruit, 

Vernacuiar. — Bene.— Tela kucha. Can* — Tondekonde. Gut* — 
Ghoii. Hind. — Kanduri. Mar, — Tondali, Rnn-tondla. Sans. — 
Vimbaja» Vinba, Tundkeri^ Vimboshta, Tundika. Tarn. — KavaL 
Vimboshta, means red, or cherry lipped. 

Characters* — Plant, a creeper cull ivated for iu edible fruits. Fruits 
ablong, 2 inches long, green or yellowish green, with white stripes 
intervening ; leaves 5-Iobed, somewhat thick, green, or darkish green ; 
flowers white ; root spindle-shaped, yellowish grey on the outside, 
interior white and fleshy ; odour nauseous, taste bitter, acid and 
astringent. 

Constituents* — The dried powder contains resin and an alkaloid, 
starchf sugar, gum, fatty matter, anorganic acid, and ash 16 p.c, 
wluch contains no manganese* 

Preparatmis, — Tincture (l in lo). Dose, \ to I dr. Dccocliun 
(1 in 10). Dose, \ to I fld. i.iz, \ and juice of the rooti 60 to 180 grs. 

Actions and ttses, — Alterative ; given in diabetes, enlarged glands, 
and in skin deseases such as pityriasis. 

Cltrnllus Calocjnthia, B. P., Ououmis Colooynthis. 

Citrullus, from Citrus, orange or citron, in allusion to orange red 
colour of the fruit when cut. 

Habitat. — India, Japan, Asia, Africa, Spain, uud Asiatic Turkey, 

Partik used. — The fruit, deprived of its rind, the root and the dried 
pulp uf the fruit, freed from seeds^ colocynthidis pulpa, B. P. 

Vernacnlar. — ^Arab. — Manual, Aulqam, Duk„Ben;». — Irtdr^iyai}, 
NUkka. Baluchistan.— Khar Khusta. Bumb^Guz.— Indrayana, 
Burm. — Kaya-si, Can* — Hav;u mckke-kayi, Cing, — Yekka-madu. 
Eng. — Bitter apple, bitter cucumber, Indian or wild gourd ; colocynth 
apple. Hind. — Indarayan, Han^il^ MaqaL Mar. — IndrAyana, Kuru- 
vranduwan, IndnVvana. Per*. — Kabiste taikh, Kharbuiahe-rubah» 
Sans^^ — Indravaruni, VishiUa. Malcal,,Tam- — Peykomatti. Tel. — 
Eti-puchcha, Patsa kaia, Papara budama. 

Characters^ — Fruit of the size of a small orange, thick and globular, 
greetiish, mottled, containing whitish, light and spongy pulp, 
embedded in which are numerous small, ovate, oblong, compressed, 
imootb, brown seeds which should be rejected before the pulp is used. 
When dry, the external surface of the fruit is smooth, yellowish brown 
and tubercled. The rind is brittle, and breaks into three wedge-shaped 
pieces. The timer surface of the rind is covered witli a soft spongy , 



308 CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHK. 

white substance ; taste intensely bitter ; root woody, brownish white 
and tapering ; wood fibrous, and containing a bitter starchy substance ; 
top of the root is semi-globular, tubercled and giving off several diverg- 
ing slender stems. All parts of the plant are inodorous, but very 
bitter, the pulp more so than the seeds. Dose, of the pulp : 2 to 
10 grs. 

Constituents. — The pulp contains colocynthin, also colocynthein 
(a resin), colocynthitin, pectin, gum, no starch, ash 11 p.c The seeds 
contain a fixed oil 17 p.c, albuminoids 6 p.c., and ash 3 p.c. 

Colocy thin. — ^A crystallizable glucoside, is the chief cathartic bitter 
principle. To obtain it, exhaust with water an alcoholic extract, precipi- 
tate with acetate and subacetate of lead, filter. Treat the yellow filtrate 
with sulphuretted hydrogen and precipitate with tannin — dissolve 
tannate of colocynthin in alcohol, add lead subacetate to precipitate 
tannin. Digest with animal charcoal and evaporate. A yellow mass, 
readily soluble in water. Boiled with diluted acids, it spUts up into 
sugar and resinous colocynthein. Dose, i to 6 grains. Hypoder- 
mically, ^ to ^ gr. 

Colocynthitin. — A tasteless crystalline powder, soluble in ether, 
insoluble in water. It has a purgative action. 

f^eparatiofis. — Extractum Colocynthidis. Dose, } to 2 grs. Ex- 
tractum Colocynthidis compositum, compound extract of a>locynth 
B. P. — Colocynth pulp 6 ozs. Extract of Barbados aloes la ozs., Sc»n- 
mony resin 4 ozs.» curd soap 4 ozs., Cardamom seeds i oz., alcohol 
one gallon. Dose, 2 to 8 grs. Pilola Colocynatbidis composita, B. P. — 
Colocynth pulp i ounce, Barbados aloes 2 ozs., Scammooy resin 2 ozs., 
potassium sulphate ^ oz., oil of cloves 2 drs^ Distilled water q. s. 
Dose, 4 to S grs. Pilola Colocynthidis et Hyoscyami BJ^., — Compound 
pill of colocvnth 2, and extract of hyoscyamus i. Dose, 4 to 8 grs. 
A coa^omml ^mr^in^ /iO^^contzins pdxikajali i, Colocynth pulp 4, 
Stt^ur 4, Cardamoms 4, Long pepper 4, Chebulic myrobalans 4. 
Ptmtory root 4. Mix, make a mass. Dose, 3 to 5 grs. 

PfysioiogKal m:iim. — Drastic hydragogue, cathartic and diuretic, 
in larce doses em^ic and irritant ; in moderate doses it increases 
peristusis and the intestinal glandular secretions, producing r^Md 
watery evacuations with griping pains. As a purgative its action is 
very powerful and it acts even if applied to the abdomen. In large 
doses it is a gastro-intestioal irritant and leads to gastro^enteritis, 
irriutionof pelvic organs and even death from prostratioo. It b an 
indirect diuretic 

ThenipaUi:s.^^i is giv^eo in coostipatioo with other purgatives in 
febrik aSectioQs^ in amenorrhoea* jaundice, ascites or dropsy, and in 
dephantiasisw Itbalsoaveraufufge. It is a valuable evacuant, prodoc- 
iog rapid derivatioa in Goma* apoplexy and recent parahrsis d^e to 
coQflestioDof the brain. Its irritant actMO on the bowcb extends to the 
inr^ra and bbckfer and leads to straagnrj. A wamM of the powdered 
rooe tsiniutingtotheeyesindcrastrils. In Indjathsmot its gmn in 




CITRULLUS YULQilRIS* 



3«9 



rheumatism and enlargements of the abdominal viscera in children; 
a paste of the fruit or root with that of nux vomica is applied to boils 
and pimples to hasten maturation. In minute doses, it is very 
beneficial in colic, sciatica, ovarian and other neuralgias ; and also to 
relieve pain of glaucoma. 

CitruUus Vulgaria, C. Cucarblta, Caourbita Citrallus, Cucamia 

CitruUuB. 

HabiiaL — Cultivated throughout the East Indies. 

Parts Mi-^</.— The seeds (deprived of testa) and pulp of the fruit. 

Vftnacutar* — Arab* — Belikh-Zichi. Beng. — Tarmuj, Titoolaoo* 
Bomb, aiid Mar. — Kalingada. Burm. — Pha-rai. Cing.— Pilcha ghadi^ 
Komordu. Eng. — Water melon. Guz. — Karigu. Hind, — Samoka, 
Jamauka, Tarbuz, India — Dilpasand, Malay* — Mandeki Patak, 
somangka, Pers,— Hinduaneh Tarbuz. Sans. — Chaya-puUi Kuttoo 
urombi. Tarn. — Pitchakai. Tel.^ — Darbuje. 

Oilpasand — Dit, heart, and Pasand, to have a liking for. Water 
mdon ts taken with great fondness. 

Characters, — Fruit sweet. The bitter fruit is C« Amara, Seeds flat, 
and of a reddish or blackish colour, ovate or oblong, and marked with 
two small channels running from both sides of the apex downwards 
about the middle of the seeds.* Suiface smooth, testa brittle» 
cotyledons white and oily, and of an almond-like taste. Dose, ^ to 
t dr* 

Consttttients, — The seeds yield a fixed oil and proteids. 

Preparations. — Cold infusion (lo in lo) Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actions and fisesn — The seeds are nutritive, cooling, diuretic and 
demulcent^ and used in strangury and alTections of urinary organs and 
form an ingredient of tonic confections, given in general debility. The 
pulp, like vegetable marrow, is cooling and diuretic, and is given in 
gonorrhoea, hepatic congestion and intestinal catarrh. 

There are 5 cucurbitaceous seeds, used as cooling, diuretic and 
nutritive. These are Citrullus Vulgaris, Tarbuz ; cucumis, sativus, 
cucumber, kakadi ; cucumis citrullusp tnelon or khurbuz ; Lagenaria 
vulgaris clavata, bottle gourdi or Dudhi ; and Benincasa cerifera 
Kohotun. 

Gaoumis Melo. 

Habitat, — Throughout India. 

Parts used, — The seeds. 

Venmcuiar, — Arab. — Betika. Bomb. — Kharabuza* Burm^^Tha- 
khwamwce. Chin.^ — Then kwa, Hiang*kwa. Cing. — Rata-komadu. 
Eng.— Musk melon. Hind. — Kharabuza. Malay, — ^Labo-frangi. 
Maleal.*— Baka-kaia. Panj. — Gilas, Girasa. Pers- — Kharbuzeh. Tarn., 
TeL— Mulam, 

C^r<jcl^ri.— Seeds greyish brown, oblong, or rather ovate, 
smaller in size than Kukari bija^ acute at the apex vrith a small circular 



3JO CUCUMIS TRIGONUS. 

Tidge. At the base testa is tough, cotyledons white ; taste sweet and 
resembling that of almonds. 

Constituents. — Fixed oil, starch, resin and sugar. 

Preparations. — Cold infusion (i in lo). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Nutrient, demulcent and cooling ; like the 
other four cucurbitaceous seeds they are used by native Hakims in 
gonorrhoea and as a cooling diuretic in fevers and general debility. 

GaoamiB SattTus, G. Utilissimas. 

Habitat. — India. 

Parts used. — ^The seeds. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Kusud. Beng.— Kankur Karkti. Burm. — 
Thkhwassi. Can. — Muliu Kusud. Cing.- Pipingya-Rata Kikari. Duk. 
— Kankari. Eng. — Cucumber. Guz. — Kakri. Hind. — Kira, Susa. Mar. 
— Kikadi. Malyal. — Mullen-velleri. Mai. — Antimun, Timmun. Pers. — 
Khiy&r. Panj. — Khira, Sans. — Mutrulla Sookasa. Tel. — Dosakaia. 
Tam.— Mullu Veleri. Velleri Kai. Tel.— Dosa Kala. 

Characters. — The seeds are brownish white, linear, oblong, and 
pointed at both ends, slightly notched at the apex ; testa rough, 
cotyledons oily and sweet. 

Constituents. — Fixed oil, starch, resin and sugar. 

Preparations. — Cold infusion (1 in 10). Dose, 2 to 4 drs. 

Actiofis and uses. — Nutritive and demulcent. The seeds resemble 
in action and uses the five cucurbitaceous seeds. 

Gaoamis Trigonas, G. Pseado Colooynthis, G. PubescenB. 

Habitat. — India. 

Parts used. — The fruit. 

Vernaculars. — Arab. — Kiza-ut-taul. Beng. — Kankur, Karkti. 
Burm. — Tha-khwa. Can. — Hal-mekki. Eng. — Sitter gourd, Squirting 
cucumber. Hind., Mar. — Pee Ransha, Bislambhi, Katvel, Karit Tak- 
makis. Pers. — Khyar-i-badrang. Sans. — Vishali. Tam. — Bislambi. 
Tel. — Kodinella. 

O^r^c/^rJ.— Cucumis Trigonus, the wild form. Fruit smooth, 
velvety, of the size and shape of a small egg and marked with green 
or yellow streaks ; ripe fruit sweet. Dose, 2 to 15 grs. 

Preparatiotts. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Constituents. ^^oth contain resin similar to that found in 
colocynth and a bitter crystalline principle. 

Actions and uses. — Purgative and diuretic. The fruit pounded and 
boiled with milk is used in medicine ; other properties are similar 
to those of colocynth but milder and less irritating. 



lit 



I 



Eoballiam BlateFiam, B, P. 
Habitat. — S. Europe, N. Asia. 

Part used* — A sediment from the juice of the fruit, known as 
Elaierium B. P. 

Vernacuiar. — Arab. — Khiyar-i-Khar, Katha-el-himar. Eng, — 
Squirting or wild cucumber, balsam apple, Ind* Bazaars — Katr. 
Indrayani. Ind.— Kitrana, Pers.— Khiyar-i-Khar, Katha-eKhimar 
Katha^el-himar, ass's cucumber j Khiyar-L-khar, khiarzeh, little 
cucumber. 

Characters, — Fruit an elliptical pepo, pale green, covered with 
fleshy prickles, 3-ceIled and containing mucilaginous^ watery, bitter juice 
saeds many, and light brown. Ripe fruit falls from its attachment to 
the ground when the contents are vi<nlently expelled, hence called 
squirting cucumber, Elateiium, — A substance deposited by the juice ; 
of the fruit, is iu light, friable, flat cakes /4^th of an inch thick, pale 

Seen or yellowish green, and cA a granular fracture. The odour is 
inty and tea-like ; taste bitter and acrid ; it should yield from 20 to 
as p- c. of elaterin. Dose, ,^ to \ gr. 

Comtituntts. — A neutral^ active, principle* Elaterin B, P. i^ to 33 
p. c. J chlorophyll id p. c, ; prophetin, ecballin, hydro-claterin, and 
elaterid ; Elatermum, elaterin B. P. — Elaterin, Momordicin — to obtain 
it exhaust elaterium with chlorofnrm, add ether» when the crystals of 
elaterin are deposited ; met with in small hexagonal prisms or scales, 
without odour and of bitter acrid taste and neutral reaction; almost 
entirely insoluble in wattr, sparingly soluble in hot alcohol (1 in 337), 
readily so in alkaline solution and in chloroform. Dosci ^0 to ^^^ of a gr, 

Prepa rations* — Pulvis Elaterini compositus, B. P* (1 of elaterin 
with 39 of milk-sugar. Dose, i to 4 grs, Tinctura Elaterii coroposita. 
Dose, 10 to 30 m$, 

Plmiohgical action. — Elaterium is a most powerful hydragogue 
cathartic, but is very depressant, and should be used with caution. It 
has some reputation in malarial fevers. It wards off paroxysms. In 
large doses it causes prostration, gastro-intestinal irritation with nausea, 
vomttmg, and also acts as an irritant poison. 

Therapeutic uses^ — Given to produce free watery motions in 
ascites, anasarca, especially depending upon renal and cardiac disorders, 
uraemia and congestion of the lungs and brain. 

Lagenaria Vulgaris. 

Habitat* — Cultivated throughout India. 

Rirts used, — The seeds and the pulp. 

rernacniar, — The bitter variety. Beng.— Kadu. Ian* Bomb, — 
Karava bhopaU. Eug. — White pumpkin, the bitter-bottle gourd. 
Gua,— Karavi tumbadi. Hind. — Tamra Kaddu, Jangali Kadu,Belas- 
choTa«tumbL Mai. — Gara-dudi, Labo ambon. Maleal, — Bella Shora, 



312 LUFFA AMARA. 

Mar. — Kadu bhopalil. .Sans.— Tikta tumbi. Tarn. — Shoriaikai. Tdw— 
Shora kaia. The sweet variety. — Arab. — Charrah. Bomb. — Dudfai. 
Eng. — Calabash — white pumpkin; Hind. — Mitha Kadu, Dudhi. 
Mah. — Dudhi. Sans. — Tumbi, Alabu. 

Characters. — ^There are two varieties, sweet and bitter. The 
bitter fruit varies much in shape and size, and is generally bottle- 
shaped ; rind, hard and lignous ; fresh pulp, white, spongy and very 
bitter ; dry pulp, a soft powdery substance; seeds grey, about | to } of an 
inch long, and about 3 lines broad at the base ; kernels white and oily 
on expression ; oil bland and of an olive colour, soon getting rancid. 
The sweet variety. Fruit bottle-shaped or oblong, rind soft, pulp 
white spongy, and sweet. 

Preparations. — Infusion of seeds (i in 10). Dose, |to i fid. oz. 
The dried pulp of the bitter variety. Dose, 4 to 10 grs. 

Actions and uses,^^H\\^ pulp of karavi tumbadi is emetic and 
purgative. The oil is used as a coolins and emollient application for 
the head. The pulp of sweet dudhi is an ingredient in various 
confections. The seeds are nutritive and diuretic and constitute one 
of the five cucurbitaceous seeds. 

Lufb Amara, L. FoBtida, L. Aoutan^ola. 

Habitat. — ^Throughout India. 

Parts used. — The fruit, seeds and root. 

Vernacular^ — Beng. — Jhingo (L. fcetida) Ghoshil lata Tito-dhun- 
dhul. Bomb. — Rana turai. Burm. — Tha-bwat-nha-wai. Can. — 
Hare-balli. Duk. — Karvi-turai. Guz. —Kadavi-Hind. — Karvi turai 
Kurella, Chaul turai (L. fcetida) Maleall Pechingab (L. fcetida). Mar. 
— Kadavi ghisodi, Kadudorki, Kadu-siro-a. Sans. — Kosha taki, Dalika 
Ghoshaka. Tel. — Adavi-bira, Sendu-bira-kai. 

Kosha — the cocoon of a silkworm ; the seeds are enclosed in a 
fibrous network. 

Characters. — Fruit smooth, ovoid and marked with ten prominent 
ridges, about 4 or 5 inches long with white and spongy pulp ; odour 
resembling that of kakadi seeds, dark brown in shape and size and 
resembling Tarabuza bija ; epidermis or testa, highly tubercled and 
wrinkled. 

Preparations^ — Infusion of the ripe fruit (i in 80). Dose, i to 2 
ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Every part of the plant is bitter, tonic and 
diuretic, and combined with nitro-hydrochloric acid, is given in dropsy 
and in enlargement of the liver and spleen due to malarial poison. 
The juice of the leaves is applied to sores and to the bites of venomous 
animals. The root combined with that of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis root 
and that of hemidismus indicus, cumin seeds, sugar and milk is given 
in gonorrhoea. The pulp is emetic and cathartic. The infusion of ripe 
seeds is used as a purgative and emetic. The dried fruit powdered is 
used as a snuff in jaundice. 



TUntA KCHINATA. 



313 



Luffk EohinaU, L. Pentandra, L. Patola. 

Habitat — Guzerat, Sind^ BengaJ. 

Parts used. — The fruit and seeds. 

V^ernacular, — Bomb-Guz. — Deodal Kukadavela^ Bindil, Vapla, 
Bunn. — Tha-bwat. Beng. — Dhundhul ghoosal by (L. Pentandra). 
Can* — ^DeodaL Dukh. — Gusali turat (U Pentandra), Hind.^ — 
Deodailt Ghia Turai (L, Pentandra) parol. Pers. — Khyar. TeL — 
Neli bira* Mar* — Kukadavelai Deodangri. Sans. — VApo vrata kosha, 
Dcvadale, Gara-jimuta^ Jalani. 

Vipo — weaving, cocoon-like network in which the seeds are 
imbedded or interwoven. 

Characttrs, — The fruit, oval, of ihe size of a large nutmeg, covered 
with several long, broad based, stiff bristles; colour brownish yellow^ 
three*celled» each being separated from the other by tough, fibrous 
walls, cell triangular ; cell wall consisting of tough fibres, within it, is 
a soft spongy pulp containing seeds which fall off when the cell dries 
up ; seeds ovate and oblong, compressed of a pale, yellowish colour 
and marked with tubercles. 

Comtittttnts, — The dried fruit, deprived of seeds, contains a princi* 
pie allied to colocynthitin and a gelatinous principle named luffein* 
The seeds contain a bland fluid oil, 

Preparatmn. — Infusion and decoction (i in 20). Dose, \ to I oz. 

Actions and uses, — Emetic and purgative ; also abortifacient ; given 
in bilious fevers, colic and jaundice ; also for snake bites and in 
cholera. In putrid fever, the infustion is applied to the whole body, 
and 10 jaundice to the hepatic region* 

Moroordloa Charantla, H* Huricata, M. BaJsamina. 

Habitat — Throughout India. 

Farts used, — The fruit, seedsi and leaves. 

I>r«/i^tt/ar.— Arab. — Karavalla, Kess^ul-barri. Beng. — UchchhelK 
Duk., Bomb. — Karela. Burm,— Kyet-hen-kha. Chin,— Kukwa Lai- 
pu-tan. Can. — Kayi gida, Cing. — Karawila, Eng. — Balsam apple, 
Guz.— Karelin* Hind.— Kareli. MaleaK— Pandi pavel, Kaippa-valli. 
Mar-— Pavakka cheti Mar. — Karli. Pers*^ — Simahang. Sans.— Sushavi, 
Karavai-lkandira. Tarn. — Poda langkai, Pavakkap Chedi. Tel.— 
Kakara. 

C^arac/«T.— Leaves palmatelv five-lobed, sinuate, toothed and 
villous on the under surface. Wnen young, peduncles are slender. 
Fruit oblong, 10 to 14 inches long, and 2 to 4 inches in diameter; 
edges curiously notched or ridged, tubercled and of the size of 
kakadi, taste extremely bitter. In young fruits the pulp over the 
seeds is whitish, becoming red after a time* 

Constituents — A bitter glucoside, soluble in water* insoluble in 
ether, a yellow acid, resin, ash 6 p. c. 



3X4 MOIfORDICA DIOICA. 

Preparations. — Juice of leaves. Dose, ^ to 2 drs« Compound 
ointment, contains powdered fruit, Taja, long pepper and oil of 
hydnocarpus wightiana. 

Action and uses, — Stimul&nt and alterative ; the ointment b 
applied in psoriasis, scabies and other skin diseases. The fruit pulp 
and juice of leaves and also seeds are anthelmintic and given in 
lumbrici. The fruit is also tonic and alterative and given in rheu- 
matism, gout and diseases of the liver and spleen. ^ The whole plant 
powdered is used for dusting over leprous and other intractable ulcers. 

Homordioa Coohin Chinensifl, Morioia Coohin Chinensis. 

Habitat. — Deccan Peninsula, Canara, Bengal. 

Ihrts used* — The seeds. 

Vemacuhtf. — Beng. — Gol-kakra. Hind. — Kakrol . Sans. — Kar- 
kataka. 

Karkataka. — The shell of a crab. The seeds resemble the shell. 

Characters, — Flowers cream coloured ; fruit large, red and 
thorny. Pulp yellow, insipid ; seeds ^ inch in diameter and \ of an 
inch thick, ovate compressed and black ; margins, corrugated ; shell 
fragile, kernel oily. Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — The seeds deprived of the husk contain a greenish 
oil 43*7 p. c, and a bitter glucoside. The oil possesses very powerful 
siccative properties. 

Preparations. — Confection. Dose, i to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Demulcent, stimulant and aperient ; given in 
cough and to women immediately after parturition. As an aperient, 
the seeds are given in hepatic diseases, lumbago, &c., externally applied 
in procidentia uteri, prolapsus ani, fractures, &c. 

Remarks. — It is an ingredient of a hot stuff, known in Bengal 
as Jhal, and given to women after delivery. 

Momordifia Dioica. 

Habitat — ^Throughout India. 

Parts used, — ^The fruit and tuberous root. 

VemacuUn, — Bomb. — Karatoli. Burm. — Sa-bvet . Can. — Mada- 
hagala. Ciug. — ^Tumba-karawilla. Mah., Guz. — Kantolan. Hind. — 
Dh&r-karela. Mar. — Karantali. Mai. — Erima-avel. Sans.— >Vihassa 
Tarn. — Paloo paghel. Tel. — Potu kakara. 

Characters^ — Fruit ovate, muricated, and somewhat tapering at 
the base. When ripe, it bursts irregularly showing red or yellow arillus 
of the seeds; seeds black, shining and almost spherical; tubers of the 
fresh female plant yellowish, smooth, of the size qI a turnip, or even 
large, and irr«rular in[shape ; dry and sliced pieces, resembling those 
of kolamha. When reduced to powder it becomes yellow ; the taste 
of the fruit as well as of the tuber astringent and bitter. Dose, 
f to I dr. 



MtmiA SCABRBLLA. 



SJ? 



Oimtituents. — An alkaloid, a frajarrant extractive malter, and ash 
3*4 p*c. The ash contains a trace of manganese, 

/y^^<?rtf/rbw^.-^Electuary of txjberous root. Dose> i to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant and astringent ; locally the powdered 
root with cocoanut, pepper* and red sandal wood is applied to the head 
in headache and to the skin to render it soft and supple and to lessen 
sweat ; the electuary is given in bleeding piles, 

Homordioa Umbellata, Zehneria Umbellata. 

Hahitat, — Throughout India. 

Parts used. — ^The leaves, fruit and root. 

Vernacular . — Beng. — Kudari* Goa. — Popinho do Patare, 
Hind, — Tarali, Mar. — Gometta* Malabar, — Gomth Karwi-vatli. Sans. 
— Gumihi. Tel,— Tid-dauda, 

Characters* — Common on hedges; leaves short, pet ioled, cordate, 
or sagittate, palmately* lobed, lobes 3 to 5, longer than petiole, 5 
partite, sinuate and toothed ; root or tubers brown externally and white 
within, of a faint nauseous odour. Berries oval oblong, of the size of 
pigeons* eggs, smooth and red when ripe, 

Prepatations. — Confection of powdered root. Dose, 1 to 2 drs. 
Powder, Dose, 3 to 10 grs. 

.Actions and use. — ^Stimulant and demulcent. The juice of the 
leaves is used as a soothing application to the skin, inflamed by the 
application of bhilamo. The root is stimulant and invigorating. 
In confections it is generally combined with onions, cumin, sugar and 
butter* It is also given in gonorrhtra and dysuria. 

Mukia Scabrella 

Hahitat. — Throughout India. 

Parts used. — The plant in fruit, 

Veniacuiar. — Hind, — Agamaki, Mai. — Mucca-piri, Mar, — ^Chirati, 
Sam.<— Ahilaykum, Ghantali. Tam.-^Mosum-daki, Mosumuski. Tel,— 
Puten*budinga, Nudhosa. 

Ahilaykum^ a corruption of ahilakhf^na, meaning marked like 
snake. The fruit being marked with vertical white stripes. 
Ghantali— Chant, a bell. It means a row or string of bells as worn 
by dancing girls having vertical slits like vertical stripes on the fruit. 

Characters, — Fruit marked with vertical white stripes. Plant 
scabrous ; leaves cordate ; berries globular, of the size of a pea, when 
ripe of a scarlet colour and sprinkled with few bristly hairs. Plant and 
liruit are bitter. 

Preparations. — Infusion {1 in 10). Dose, i to 2 02s, 

Actimn and uses, — Aperient and stomachic, given in dyspepsia, 
especially to children. 



3l6 TRICHOSANTHES CUCUVRRINA. 

TriohMWithas Caoiimeriiia» T. Dioioa, T. Covdala. 

Habitat. — Northern India, Guzerat to Assanii Bengal, Ceylon. 

Parts used. — The plant in fruit. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — PateL Bomb. — Kadu padavala. Burm — 
Tha-b'hot-kha, T6pelen-moye. Chin. — Ko-lau, Kwa-lau. Can. — 
Bettada-padaval. Cmgh. — Dumma-ala. Eng. — Bitter Cvourd. Guz. — 
Jangali parula, parwar. Maleal. — Podavalam. Hind. — Jangli Chicbondft, 
Chuchinga. Mai.— Kaippam-patolam. Mar. — Karupv^. Piinj. — 
Gwal-kakri. Sans.— Patolaka. Tarn.— Pudal, Kattup-pepudal. TeL — 
Patola, Adavi Potta. 

Characters. — Plant foetid, leaves harsh, broad, sinuate, or cordate ; 
five lobed and serrated ; upper surface downy, tendrils bifid ; flowers 
white and fringed ; fruit oblong, acute, or pointed at both ends, 3 to 6 
inches long, glaucous, of la greenish white colour and markeid with 
irregular, longitudinal stripes; stem rather quadrangular, twining and 
striated, sometimes woolly and scabrous. Fruit, 2 to 3 inches l(»ig, 
oblong, acute and red ; seeds, minute, compressed and corrugate on 
the margin. 

Preparations. — A compound decoction (i in 20)— contains Patda 
5, Ratanjali 4, Kadu 5, Galo 4, Jethi madha 5, Vinevela 5, Pashana 
bheda 5, and Water 100. Make decoction. Dose, i to 2 ounces, or 
Patola, cyperus, chiretta, neem bark, catechu, oldenlandia, root bark 
of adhatoda equal parts, water i oz. Dose, i to 2 ozs. Extract — 
Dose, 3 to 5 grs. 

Actions and uses. — ^The unripe fruit is laxative, hydragogne, 
alterative and antiperiodic ; the tender shoots and capsules are bitter, 
stomachic and laxative. The seeds are stomachic and anthelmintic 
and given in disorders of the stomach. As an alterative, the decoction 
is given in syphilis, rheumatism, fever and general weakness. The 
extract is a powerful and safe cathartic, and recommended as a 
substitute for elaterium. The natives use it in leprosy, and as a 
febrifuge and general tonic. In chronic fevers it is given in com- 
bination with aromatics and bitters. 

Triohosanthes Pftlmata. 

Hahiiat. — ^India. 

I^rts used. — The firuit and stem. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — ^Anbaghol. Beng. — Makal. Bomb. — ^KaundaL 
Can.— A vagude-hannu. Cing. — ^Titta-hondala. Duk. — G udi-pandik. 
Hind. — Kaundala. Lai Indra>*an. MaL — Kekapelam. Afar. — 
Kaundal. Ptfs,— Hanzal-e-surkh. Sans.— Mahikila. Tam.— Shavari 
paoham. Td. — Awagiida*pandu. 

Kondala means a circle, pendant or an ear-ring, and the plant b 
so named in allusion to the shape of the fruit, which is like Lulaka or 
kttDdal and used by Dukhnee Hindus as a pendant for their God 
Gmotsh or Ganpaty. 



ffOSANTHES PALMATA. 



317 



Characters. — Fresh fruit round, oval or pyriform and resembling 
a small apple or orange ; pulp like cow-dung and of a dull orange 
colour ; fruit dry, shell thin, brittle, and very bitter ; seeds and pulp lie 
loose, so that the contents when shaken produce a rattling sound ; 
seeds blackish, flat, irregular and generally triangular ; kernel sweet 
and oily, 

ComtUuents* — The rind and pulp contain an amorphous, bitter 
principle, trichosanthin, resembling colocynthin. It is soluble in 
water, alcohol and slightly so in ether. The green pulp in the interior 
of the fruit contains a colouring matter. 

Preparatmis — Medicated oil contains fruit mixed with warm 
cocoanut oil* Decoction or infusion of root (i in 20). Dose \ to i 
nd. Ql* 

AcHons and uses, — Tonic and stimulant. The oil is dropped into the 
ear in otorrhcea, into the nose in ozocna and for other fcetid discharges- 
The natives sometimes smoke the rind of the pounded fruit in asthma 
and use as a fumigatory in ozcena and other discharges from the nose ; 
a paste of the root with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles* 
In gonorrhcea it is given with triphla and turmeric. The root is 
reputed to be a tonic similar tocalumba. 

Zaaoala Indioa. 

Habitat, — Assam, Bengal, Ceylon, Malabar Coast. 

Parts used, — The leaves, 

r^rrrmcrw/^r.—Eng,— Bandolier fruit. Hind, Mar.— Chripota 
laL — Penar-valli, Sans. — Chirpota, Dirgh patra, Kuntali, Tiktaka, 
Pindavalii. 

Characters. — Leaves 6 inches long, 3 inches broad, and acute ; 
petiole I inch ; fruit threenrelled, each cell containing two seeds— seeds 
compressed and minute. 

Actions and uses*— Anodyne ; leaves beaten with milk and butter 
are used as an application to quiet nervous irritation of boils, sciatica, 
and to the chest in cough and asthma. 

DatiftcaceeB. Datiftoa or Akalbar family. 

Herbs or trees; leaves alternate, ex-stipulate ; flowers declinous ; 
fruit dry, opening at the apex ; seeds numerous, minute, without 
albumen. 

Mabiiat.^-Widcly distributed over the globe. 

Properties, — Some are bitter and purgative, and others arc used 
for their fibres. 

Datisoa Cannablna. 

^<i5iA?/.— Himalaya, Nepal, Sind* 

Paris used. — ^The herb and root. 

Verttacular. — Hind* — ^Akalbar. Punj. — Bayr-but^a, Bhang^*aU, 



31 8 ANHALONIUM WILLI AMSII. 

Characters, — Steins stout 'and branching ; leaves pinnate, flowers 
simple, pedicles with linear bracts ; anthers oblong, filaments short ; 
capsule one-celled, open at the apex ; seeds numerous and striated. 
Dose, S to IS grs. 

Constituents. — A glucoside datiscin ; a resin and a bitter principle. 
To obtain datiscin, exhaust the herb with alcohol, and evaporate. Add 
water to the residue, to precipitate the resin, decant the fluid and evapor- 
ate. Occurs as colourless, silky needles or scales ; taste bitter, of neutral 
reaction ; soluble in cold water, sparingly soluble in warm water and 
ether. 

Prepatations. — Infusion (i in lo). Dose, ^ to i oz. 

Actions and uses. — ^Bitter, stomachic, alterative, expectorant 
and laxative ; given in scrofula, intermittent fever with vomiting and in 
catarrh of the throat and bronchi. As a local sedative the bruised 
leaves are applied to the head in headache. 

CaotaceflB— The Indian Fig ftunily. 

Succulent plants, usually spiny and leafless ; stems globular, 
columnar, flattened or 3 or more angled ; flowers sometimes showy, 
sessile. Fruits succulent ; seeds numerous, parietal or embedded in the 
pulp without albumen. 

Habitat.— Th& Tropics. 

Fruits of some species are acid, and agreeable, and others 
are used as food for cattle* 

Anhaloniam A. WilliftmBii. 

Habitat.— West Indies. 

Parts used.'-^The flowers and stems. 

Characters. — Stems stout and branching, flowers simple, with 
short filaments, anthers oblong. 

Cotistituents. — An alkaloid pellotine, yielding salts with acids. 
Pellotine Hydrochloride. Dose, ^ to i gr. ; and Mezcaliiie, another 
alkaloid. 

Action and uses. — Pellotine is hypnotic and analgesic, and used as 
hypodermic injection to procure sleep and to relieve pain of locomotor 
ataxia, neuritis, &c. 

Gaotos Indioos, Opnntia Dillenii. 

Habitat.— lviA\2i^ South of Europe, America, Punjab. 

Parts used. — The fruit, flowers and steins. 

Vernacular.— Hmd.^ Duk.— Chappal send. Beng.— N&gphunee- 
Can.— Kattali-papas. Cing.— Kodu-gaha. Eng— Prickly pear. 
Maleal. — Naga MuUa. Mar. — Vilayati Nevarung. Panj.— Kabuli-tsui, 
Kangi-chii. Portuguese. — Palmatoria d*inferno. Sans. — Vidara-Vuhra- 
sireka. Tarn. — Niga*kali. Tel. — Nagadali. Palmatoria d'infemo means 



&ISEXJA PliARNACEOtDBS. 



3»^ 



punishment on the palm of the hand, the flat branches resembling flat 
pieces of wood used tt school to beat children upon the palm of ihcir 
hand. 

Characters,— h plant on which cactus insects thrive and multiply 
abundantly. 

Constituents* — Soluble malate of manganese, a fluid falty acid, 
a trace of citric acid and wax, resinous matter, sugar &c. 

Preparations — Syrup (i in lo). Dose, i to 4 fld. drs. 

Actihtis and uses. — Antispasmodic, expectorant and alterative ; 
given in whooping cough, asthma and bronchial catarrh ; also in 
hepatic congestion* 

Ficoido. 
Ice plant* Fig-marigold, or the Satodo family. 

Plants generally succulent. Herbs or shrubs with opposite 
or alternate and stipulate leaves. Flowers small. Fruits, capsular or 
indfthiscenti many-celled. Seeds, few or numerous with a curved or 
spiral embryo. Albumen meaty. 

Habitat, — The Tropics, 

/Wr/Yw.— Some plants .ire edible, others yield au%bundance of 
KMr when burnti roots of some are cathartic. 

Oisekia Pharnaoeoides* 

HabitnL — The Punjab, Sind, Ceylon. 

Parts used. — The plant, 

Vernacnlar^ — Cing. — ^Et-eilla-pala. Beng. Hind* Duk. — Biluki. 
Mar.— Valuchi. Sans, — BiUu, VoolukA, Elav^luka. Tarn. — Manalikire. 
Tel. — Esuka dantikura, 

Valuka, Batuka means sand or sandy, in allusion to the number of 
large raphides contained in the leaves and which give them the 
appearance of being full of sand. 

Characters, — Leav«*s opposite, fleshy, oblong or elliptical, narrowed 
at the base ; carpels 5; seeds blackish, smooth, minutely glandular and 
punctate ; embryo curved. Dose of the plant, i oz. 

Constituents *^*T\\^ seeds contain tannin-like principles, provision- 
ally named Alpha Gisekia^ and Beta Gisekia, both having probably 
anthelmintic properties. 

Preparatpiu, — Draught made by grinding the plant in a mortar 
with water* 

AciAm and f^^^j.— Aperient and anthelmintic, given in taenia. 

Hollogo Stricta, M. Spergula. 
//ahitat. — India, 
Part^ used^^The plants 



330 ARAUA GUILPOYUA. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Ghimshak. Burm. — Gyea-fBi. Can. — 
Parpaehtaka. Duk. — ^Hazandanah. Hind. — ^Jim, Jani Mar. — ^Jharasi. 
Maleal. — Kaipa Jira. Sans. — Grishma-Sundaraka, Phanija. Tarn. — 
Parpadagum. Tel. — Parpataka. 

Characters. — Stem glabrous, branching and leafy ; leaves whorled 
opposite, lanceolate, elliptical, acute, much narrowed at the inse ; 
cymes compound ; capsules globose ; seeds many, covered with 
tubercles and short bnstles, dark chestnut coloured ; embryo curled. 
The dried herb during the process of combustion . deflagrates owing to 
the presence of alkaline nitrates. 

Constiittettts, — A bitter principle, a bitter resin, gum, ash 68 p.c. 
containing alkaline nitrates 

Preparation. — Tinctura (i in lo). Dose, J to i dr. 

Actions and uses. — Stomachic, uterine stimulant, and aperient ; 
given to promote menses and lochia ; the juice nude warm is dropped 
into the ear in earache ; also applied to itch and other skin diseases 
with relief. 

Araliaoeae, the Ivy Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs ; leaves alternate without stipules. Flowers 
perfect, rarely unisexual. Inflorescence in umbels or capitate. Fruit 
3 or more celled, dry and succulent. Seeds pendulous, albumen fleshy, 

Habitat. — Found universally. 

Properties. — Stimulant, aromatic, diaphoretic and tonic. They 
are not poisonous. 

Aralia Goilfoylia. 

Habitat, — India. 

Parts used. — ^The leaves. 

Vernacular. — Tapmari. TiLp, fever, and mari to kill. The drug 
is supposed to be a fever killer. 

Characters. — Leaves alternate, exstipulate, when crushed they 
have a strong odour of ivy or fenugreek. Root fusiform with a rounded 
head externally, closely annulate and wrinkled ; on section brownish 
yellow, or whtte, and breaking with a mealy fracture ; odour faintly 
bweet ; taste slightly aromatic. 

Constituents. — The leaves contain an alkaloid, two odorous 
principles, one of which is of the odour of fenugreek, resin and sugar, 
and ash 15*2 p. c. containing alkaline salts. 

Preparations. — Svrup of the leaves (i in 10). Dose, J to 2 fluid 
drs. Decoction or infusion (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, stomachic tonic and febrifuge. The 
syrup is given in cough, seminal debility, and to reduce heat of skin 
in fevers. Also given in dyspepsia and vomiting. 



CORNUS FLORIDA. 321 

Panax Pseudo Ginseng, P. Qainquifolinm. 

Habitat. — Nepaul. 

Parts taed. — The root. 

Characters. — The stalks glabrous, straight, single, and terminating 
in 3 leaves, each composed of 6 uneven leaflets, and toothed at the 
edges. Flowers in an umbel ; berries kidney-shaped, compressed ; seeds, 
semi-circular. The root is of the thickness of a finger like that of parsley. 
Externally brownish yellow and white within, 2 or 3 inches long, 
wrinkled and often divided into two branches, rarely into 3 
or ^, presenting a slight resemblance to a human form, hence the 
Chinese name. The parenchyma is horny and compact, with some 
resinous points. Odour sweet, somewhat aromatic, Taste saccharine 
like that of liquorice, subsequently becoming bitter. 

Constituents. — Starch, gum, albumen, resin, and a sweet princi- 
ple— Panaquelon. 

Preparations.^Tmciuxt (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i dr. Infusion, i in 
20. Dose, \ to I oz. 

Actiofts and uses, — It is regarded as a powerful restorative, stimu- 
lant and aphrodisiac, given in cough, seminal debility and fevers. 

CornaoesB— The Dogwood order. 

Shrubs, trees, or rarely herbs. Leaves simple, opposite, rarely 
alternate, exstipulate. Flowers perfect, arranged in heads, corym- 
bose or umbellate ; calyx superior, 4-lobed ; stamens 4 ; ovary inferior, 2 
celled ; ovule, pendulous, solitary ; style and stigma simple. Fruit a 
drupe crowned with the remains of the calyx. Seed solitary, pendulous. 
Embryo, fleshy, albuminous ; cotyledons large and leafy. 

Native of temperate parts of Europe, Asia and America. 

I^operties. — Tonic, febrifuge and astringent. 

Comae Florida. 

P^lowcring Cornet, Boxwood, Dogwood. — C. Sericea, Swamp 
Dogwood. -C. Circinata, Round-leaved Dogwood. 

Habitat. — Sutlej Valley, Punjab, N. America. 

Parts used. — The inner bark of the root. 

Vernacular. — Hind.— Kandar, Kaksh. Panj. — Kasir, Kagshi 
Haleo, Harin, Hadu, Mang. 

Characters. — Bark deprived of the corky layer, in curved pieces 
of various sizes, about one-eighth of an inch thick, of a pale reddish 
colour, striated, transverse and with a short longitudinal fracture ; 
taste astringent and bitter. Dose, in powder, 15 to 60 grains. 

Constituents, -^Coxmn^ or cornic acid, tannin, 3 p. c, and resin, 
Cornin, a bitter, cry stall isable active principle, soluble in water and 
alcohol. Heat destroys the active principle and hence the decoction 
is useless. 

SI 



322 ALANOllfM LAIIARCKII. 

Preparations. — Solid extract. Dose. 2 to 8 grs. Fluid extract, lo 
to 6o ms. 

Actions and uses. — Bitter tonic, antiperiodic ; given in fevers as a 
substitute for calumba or Peruvian bark. Asa stomachic bitter given 
in debility, neuralgia, dyspepsia and during convalescence from many 
acute diseases. As an astringent, used in leucorrhcea, chronic diarrhoea 
and dysentery. The twigs are dentifrice and used to rub the teeth. 

Alan^aoesd.— The Alangium or the Ankola Family. 

Trees or shrubs, leaves alternate, entire and exstipulate, without 
dots ; calyx, superior, 5-10 ; petals, 5-10 linear retiexed ; stamens twice 
or four times the number of petals, and toothed ; ovary inferior, 1-2- 
celled ; ovules solitary pendulous ; fruit drupaceous and i-celled ; seeds 
solitary ; albumen fleshy ; cotyledons, large, flat and leafy. 

Habitat. — Native of East Indies and United States. 

Properties. — Some species are purgative and aromatic. Fruit 
succulent and edible. The fruit of Nyssa Capitata is succulent and 
used as a substitute for lime fruit and hence it is called ogechee 
lime. 

Alangium Lamarokii. A. Hezapetalom. A. Tomentoaom. 

Habitat, — Throughout India, Khassya Hills, Ceylon and Gujerat. 

Parts used. — ^The roots, bark, seeds and leaves. 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Bagh-ankra, Dhala-kura. Burm. — To-sh- 
on-bin. Can. — Anisaruli-mara, Bcpaata. Cing.— Ecpaatta. Guz. — 
Duk.— Dhera, Akola. Eng. — Sage leaved alangium. Hind. — ^Akola, 
Akarkanta. Mar. — Ankulo. Malyal. — Kara angolam. Sans. — 
Ankolamu, Ankotha, Gupta Sneha, Niko-chaka, Ankota. Tam. — 
AUangi. Tel.— Uduga. 

Characters, — Wood heavy, close grained, of an oily appearance. 
Bark of a yellow or whitish brown colour, corky, and covered with 
circular warts ; taste nauseous and bitter, odour nauseous ; leaves 
alternate, narrow, oblong or ovate, lanceolate, of a green or darkish green 
colour, 3-nerved, persistent at the base. Fruit, a berry ; seeds, 
oblong, albumen ruminate ; cotyledons leafy and crumpled. Dose, 3 
10 10 grs.; as an emetic 30 to 60 grs. 

Constituents, — Non>crystaIlizablc, bitter alkaloid, alangine. 

VteStrations — Decoction of the looi bark (i in 10). Dose, \ to 1 
Hd. 01, ' Medicated oil .uid paste of the root. 

Actions and uses. — The leaves are used as a poultice to relieve 
rheumatic pains, and the medicated oil is applied to indolent ulcers. 
The decoction is given internally in pyrexia, as an alterative in chronic 
skin diseases, syphilis and leprosy ; the powdered root bark is a safe 
emetic and a good substitute for ipecacuanha. 

Ciq^foliaoea. 

The Honey-suckle family. Caper, a goat, and folium a leaf. The 
plant has a climbing or capering habit (tendency) like a ggat. Shnaba 



SAMBUCUS NIGRA. 323 

or rarely herbs, leaves opposite and exstipulate. Flowers corymbose, 
showy, sweet scented. Calyx 4-5 superior ; ovary, usually 3.celled, 
inferior. Fruit indehiscent, succulent or dry, berry or a drupe ; seeds 
solitary, or numerous ; albumen fleshy. 

Hahttate. — Native of temperate climate. 

Properties. — Some species are emetic, purgative ; others astringent, 
diuretic, sudorific or acrid, and a few again are poisonous. 

SambuouB Ni^ra, B. P., S. Canadensis. 

Habitat — Europe and Western Asia. N. America. 

Parts used. — The flowers, elder flowers, Sambuci flores, B.P., 
berries and bark. 

Characters.-'YXo^tx^ small ; calyx, 5-toothed, superior ; corolla flat 
rotate, of a cream white colour, also 5-lobed with five stamens inserted 
in the tube ; anthers yellow ; odour peculiar, sweet, faint and agreeable ; 
taste bitter and aromatic. Fruit indehiscent ; seeds solitary. Dose, 30 
grs. 

Constituents » — Flowers contain volatile oil, \ p.c. Resin, fat, 
mucilage, valerianic acid, wax, sugar and tannin. The volatile oil is a 
yellowish, limpid liquiJ of butyraceous consistence, of a strong odour 
and warm bitter taste. The bark contains valerianic (viburnic) acid, 
potassium and calcium malates, &c. 

Preparations. — Aqua Sumbuci, B.P. (flowers i in water 5 to distil 
down to one-fifth). Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. 

Decoction of bark (i in 5). Dose, 2 to 4 fld. ozs. Poultices, 
ointment of flowers. Wine (Elder wine). 

Actions and kj^j.— Stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic diuretic 
and laxative ; used locally in rheumatism to relieve local pains, in burns 
and scalds, for blisters, haemorrhoids, abscesses, &c. The bark is a 
hydragogue cathartic, emetic and given in dropsy, rheumatism, 
syphilis, &c. The berries are diaphoretic and laxative. The juice of 
the berries is given in rheumatism and syphilis. 

Yibamnm Faatidiim. 

Habitat, — Western India, Burmah. 

Parts used, — The leaves and the plant. 

Vernacular. — Bomb. — Narvcia. Can. — Naruval. Sans.— *Shir- 
parna, Jaya. 

Characters, — Leaves usually ovate, lanceolate and serrated, 
colour darkish green. Flowers greenish white. Berries small, ovoid 
and of a red colour. All parts of the plant emit a peculiarly fcetid 
odour. 

Constituents. — A foetid volatile oil and an alkaloid, gum resin and 
ash, 12 p.c. The oil is the odorous principle, in white, greasy flakes. 
The foetor can be removed by distillation. The alkaloid is a whitish 



524 Vmt'RUUlI PSUKIfOUTM. 

powder of a peculiar sharp taste, soluble in alcohol and diloroform, 
slightly so in ether and water. 

Prfparatons.^The juice of the leaves. Dose, 4 to 8 fid. drs. 
Decoction of the plant (i in iS). Dose 4 to 8 drs. 

Actiofis and uses. — Uterine astringent and sedative, given in 
menorrhagia, post partum haemorrhage and in threatened abortion ; 
also in dysmenorrhoea and after pains. 

Hindu women during confinement hang a branch of the plant 
over their door, to prevent demons from causing illness- 

Yibvmiim Opoloft— Cramp BaA. 

High cranberry-, guelder rose, squaw bush, whitten tree. 
Cramp bark, socalled as the bark relieves cramps. 

Ynmraiuii Praufaliam. 

Sweet viburnum, stag bush, blackhaw. 

^.i5i/a/.— United States. 

Parts used, — The bark of the stem and root. 

Characttrs. — The baik in flat thin curved bands, with transverse 
brownish warts and longitudinal black lines or thin ridges. Internally 
brownish red, and of a tough fracture — without any odour and bitter 
astringent taste. Dose, ro to ^o drs. 

Constttucnis. — Vibumin, vibumic acid, identical with valerianic 
acid, sugar, tannin, oxalic, citiic and maiic acids, earth}- chlorides, 
sulphates, phosphates and ash, > to g p.c, Vibumin. — Bitter principle 
is a greenish yellow or whitish powder, resinous, soluble in alcohol, 
sparingly so in water. 

J^rt^araii^ns, — Fluid extract. Dose, 15 to to ms. Extract. Dose, 
^ to 16 grs. Decoction \^bumi and Ir.fusum \lbami (i in 10). 
Dose, i to 1 fld. CO, 

Cderina is a speciality said to contain Viburnum, celery, cocoa and 
kola. Used as a nervine tcnic, given to promote oorpuknoe. Malto 
Vibumin, a c»mbinaiion of \-ibumum and extract erf malt. Dose, i 
to 4 drs. 

AczT.'KS .:v*j usrs, — Bitter, nervine tonic, antispasmodic and 
.*>:Tingen:. A> a powerful uterine sedatiN-e it is used to check uterine 
Kx^morrhagc*, and to pTe\'en: threaiened aK^rtion. In spasmodic 
d\^roenorrhvTa. in uterine or ovarian irritations, in ssbinvcdntion and 
ex'en in vomiting of pregnancy i: i> given with cannabis, morphine 
and oihcr nervine scdarives or aromatics, with benefit. As a sedative 
it is g^ven in reuroric cjodirion, as h\^e:ia and in ^oKtita. la Urge 
doses it excites nausea and \»Tn::i:ig. 



Herbs, slaiubs or trees : leaves oroosite, enrine, whoried. having 
inter petivver si .pules Fic^wers white, hiae. p:nk. wd or yellow. Fruit 
beJTV, capsular, drai\aoeous dr\- or saocujerj:. in?ecioT, edible, 5 to 10 
relied : seed en? ."^ m.-^Te :r» each cc'^h ilbairen hcrny ."^i fieshy 



ANTHOCBPHALUS CADAMBA. 325 

Habitat, — Native of temperate climate and tropics. 

Properties, — Many species are tonic, febrifuge, astringent, emetic 
and purgative ; also diuretic and emmenagogue; some are dyeing and 
tanning agents, others are intoxicating and in rare cases even 
poisonous. 

Adina CordifoUa. 

Z^/?3//n/.— Throughout the hilly parts of India. 
Parts ttsed^^The bark. 

r^rrr//?c«//?r,— Beng.— Keli-Kadam. Can.— Hedde, Yet-tega. 
Hind.— Haldu. Mar.— Hedu. Sans.— Dhira-Kadftmba. Tarn.— 
Manja-Kaambe. Tel. — Dudagu. 

rZ/r/r^r/^/j.— Bark in thick curved pieces, dirty while externally. 
Inner surface reddish-brown and fibrous. Taste bitter and astringent. 

Constituents, — Cincho-tannic acid, a red oxidized product, a bitter 
principle, starch, and calcium oxalate. 

Preparations. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 fld. 02s. 

Actions and uses. — Bitter tonic and febrifuge. Like cinchona it is 
used in fevers, dyspepsia, anorexia. 

AnthooephaluB Cadamba— Wild Cinohona. 

Habitat. — Himalaya, Ceylon, Darjeeling, Terai. 
Parts used, — The fruit and bark. 

Vernacular. — Beng., Hind.— Kadamb. Can. — Cadavala mara. 
Sans. — Kadamba, Halipriya, Sisupfila. Tam. — Vella Kadamba. Tel. — 
Kadambe. 

Sisupula, protecting children. Hali-priya, dear to agriculturists. 

Characters. — Flowers, night scented ; flower heads large, globular 
and lemon coloured ; fruit about the size of an orange, edible ; bark in 
thick flat pieces, externally grey and studded with small corky 
lenticels, inner surface red and fibrous ; taste bitter and astringent. 
Dose of the bark 10 to 20 grs. 

Preparations. — Decoction of the bark (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 fld« 
ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Tonic. The juice is given to children 
with cumin and sugar in gastric irritability. The fruit is cooling, 
refrigerant and febrifuge, and given in fever with great thirst. 

Canthium Panrifloram, C. Umbellatum, C. Didymnm, C. Cymosum. 

Habitat, — W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Parts used, — The shrub. 

Vernacular. — Cing. — Poruwa. Hind. — Ursool. Malyal. — Kanden, 
Khara. Mar. — Varsangi, Ursool. Tam. — Karai cheddi, Nella Balsu. 
Tcl. — Ballusoo Rura, Naum papal. 



32b COFFEA ARABICA. 

Characters. — A small thorny shrub. Leaves opposite, ovate and 
attached to young shoots ; flowers small and yellow ; fruit with 2 seeds, 
obovate,com pressed, a drupe,colour reddish-brown, of the size of a horse 
bean ; nut 2-celled. TJie leaves and seeds smell like coriander. The 
fruit has a sweet taste. 

Preparation. — Decoction of leaves and root (i in 20). Dose, \ to 
I fld. oz. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, given in dysentery, diarrhcea, and 
leucorrhoea. The root is anthelmintic ; and given to expel worms. 

Coffea Arabioa, B. P. 

Habitat, — Tropical Africa, Abyssinia, S. K. Asia, South Arabia, E. 
and W. Indies, Assam, Nepaul, Khassya hills. 

Parts used. — The seeds. 

Vernacular. ---Axzb. — Bun, Kahwa. Bom. — Boon. Eng.— Coffee 
caffea. Hind.— Cofl*ee, Kawa. Ind, Bazaar. — Kahvah. Maleal. — Kawa. 
Tam.—Capie cottay. 

Seeds large, solitary, rounded on the back, and flat on 
the ventral surface, where there is a deep narrow Assure, oval, 
longitudinally grooved upon the flat side, albumen is horny, the colour 
yellowish or greenish. Raw cofiee has a faint odour and a sweetish 
astringent bitter taste. When roasted part of the cafleic acid is 
converted into methylamin, the sugar is changed into caramel, 
and several volatile substances are formed known as Caffeone to 
which the aroma is due. Dose, 30 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — Seeds contain an alkaloid, caffeine, I to 3 p.c. ; 
proteid 6 to 13 p.c. ; sugar, legumin, glucose, dextrine 15 p.c. ; 
caffeo-tannic acid i to 2 p.c. ; volatile oil and ash, 3 to 5 p.c. 
Caffeine B. P. is identical with Theine guaranine, Methyl-Theobo- 
mine, or Trimethylxanthine. To obtain caffeine, add acetate of 
lead to the infusion, filter, add sulphuretted hydrogen to decompose 
excess of acetate of lead and neutralize with ammonia. 

Caffeine is found in various substances besides coffee. These 
are dried leaves of camelia thea, pulp or seeds of paullinia sorbilis 
(guarana), the leaves and twigs of Ilex paraguayensis, kola nuts, 
• the seeds of sterculia acuminata, and cocoa. 

Caffeine is in colourless, silky acicular crystals without odour 
and bitter taste, neutral reaction ; soluble in cold water (i in 80) easily 
soluble in boring water, alcohnl or chloroform, sparingly soluble in 
ether : given in solution or pill. Dose, i to 5 prs. 

Picparations of Gz/^m^.— Caffeinoe citr?s, B P.a white powder, 
w th ut any od« ur and of faintly bnter taste and acid reaction, 
s luHle in water (i in 32) and also in a mixture of chloroform alcohol 
(2 to I). Dose. 2 to 10 grs. Caffeinae cilras efleivescens, B. P. 4 p.c. 
Dose, 60 to 120 gis. 

Caffeine Hydrobromide and C. Hydrochloride — Occur in glass- 
like crystals, betommg greenish or reddish on exposure to air ; soluble 
in water (i in 50). Decompose by keeping. Dose, J to 5 grs. 



COFPEA ARABICA, 



S«7 



I 



Bromo Caffeine. — A proprietary preparation often confounded 
with ealTeinehydrobromate. 

Caflfcine Chloral — A compound of cafleine and chloral. Occurs 
in small white granules or colourless shioinj^ scales of the acdd taste of 
chloral, soluble in water* Dose, 3 to '*igrs, A nice analgesic and laxative 
used hypodermically in sciatica and rheumatism. 

lodo Caffeine or Sodium Caffeine lorJide. Contains 65 p,c» of 
caflfeinc. A white powder without any odour or taste sparingly soluble 
in water. Dose, 2 to 10 grs. A good diuretic given in dropsy and pleu- 
risy wirh cflTusion. Does not affect or disordei respiration or digestion, 

CafTeine iodio benzoate, caffeine sodio cinnamate and caffeine 
sodio SiiHcylate — Prepared by dissolv^insj caffeine in solution of sodiutn 
bcn/oate or sodium cinnamate, or sodium salicylate rcspectively> these 
act like digitalis but more rapidly. Dose, i to 4 grs, ' 

Chforo Caffeine — One atom of chlorine introduced into the 
caffeine molecule ; diuretic and cerebral stimulant, given in nervous 
affections. 

Caffeine Sulphas— A crystalline powder slightly soluble in water* 
Dosc» 4 t*^ 5 &^^' ^^^^-'i^e Valerianas. Dose, f to 3 grs. Hypodermic 
tablets given in hysterical vomiting, 

Fhysihhj^tcai acihn. — Ccrebro spinal, gastric and renal stimulant 
laxative, highly anti^ieptic, efficient diuretic and anlilithic. Roasted 
coffee if mcidcrately taken as a food or beverage acts as a stimulant, it 
assists asMmilation and digestion, promotes intestinal paristalsis, lessens 
tissue waste and decreases the excretion of urea. It allays the sense of 
prolonged bodily and mental fatigue and keeps off sleep for some time 
vrtthout exhaustion. It increases the rellex action and mental activity* 
Given in exce!»s it disorders digestion and leads to headache, vertigo 
and palpitation of the heart, great restlessness, convulsions and para- 
lysis toffee is mt»re stimulating, but less sustaining than cocoa. 

Tkftaf^eutic uses, — Coffee is given in prtilntiged boilily fatigue, and 
in mental and cardiac depression ; as an analgesic it is given with 
guarana in neuralgic and nervous headache, in insomnia of chronic 
alcoholismi to stop vomiting, to check diarrhoea and to allay spasms 
in asthma ; also given in cases of narcotic poisoning. In heart disease 
caffeiu is given with paraldehyde, with benefit. 

Cinohona Suooirabra B. P. 

Hahitat^ — Slopes of Chi mborazo, S. America, S. IndlaiSikkimand 
eylon. 

Part usfd. — The dried branch of the stem and branches. 
Cinchona; Rubrse cortex, Red Cinchona Bark, B.P. 

Cinchona was first introduced into Europe from Peru, America^ 
by the Jesuit missionaries, hence known as Jesuit's bark, Peru\*ian 
bark; also called Countess's powder from a countess of Cinchon, the 
wife of a viceroy of the colony of Pdru, having been cured of i^vtx by 
this bark. 



328 CINCHONA SUCCIRUBRA. 

Succi Rubra, succus, juice, and ruber, red. The sap is 
colourless at first, on exposure it becomes white and finally red. 

Characters. — Occurs in quills or in curved pieces coated with 
periderm. It- varies in length from 2 inches to afoot or more, in 
thickness from 2 lines to \ of an inch, coluor reddish-brown or brownish ; 
epidermis rough with longitudinal ridges and warty. Inner surface brick 
red or deep reddish brown and striated, of a fibrous fracture, without 
odour, and of a bitter astringent taste. Dose, 10 to 60 grs. Contains 
largest percentage of total alkaloids. It should yield from 5 to 6 p.c. 
of total alkaloids, of which half should be quinine and cinchonidine. 
Other varieties are also in use, which are given below. 

C. Officinalis. — The pale crown loxa bark, var. condaminea, Bon- 
plandia and Crispa. The original Peruvian bark occurs in quills. 
It contains J to i^ p.c. of the alkaloid, and a little quantity of quinine. 

C. Peruviana, C. Nutida, C. Micrantha— grey or Huanuco bark. It 
contains from i\ p.c. to 2 p.c. of the alkaloids, chiefly cinchonine and 
quinidine. 

C. Calisaya, C Ledgeriana. Calisaya bark, quinine bark. Native of 
Sikkim, exclusively of the Himalayas, Southern India, Bolivia, Peru and 
Java. The most valuable of all the cultivated varieties of cinchona bark. 
It occurs in quills and contains 5 p.c. of alkaloids and from 2\ to 4 p.c. 
of quinine. 

C. Lancifolia, and C. Cordifolia, Columbian or Carthagena bark, — 
A soft bark, occurs in quills or broken pieces with whitish epidermis. 
It contains mostly cinchonidine and a small quantity of quinidine. 

C. Pitayensis — Pitayo bark ; occurs in short, curly pieces of a 
brownish colour, rich in alkaloids, especially quinine and quinidine. 

Remjia Pedunculata. Cuprea bark or copper coloured bark. It is 
not a true cinchona bark. It contains cupreine, cinchonamine, an 
alkaloid hydro-quinine, 3 p.c, quinine 2 p.c, but no cinchonidine. 

Remijia Purdieana. Remija bark contains quinine, quinidine, 
cinchonine, but no cmchonidine, also an alkaloid cupreine which in 
combination with quinine is known as homo quinine or ultra quinine. 

Consiiinenis. — Alkaloids quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and 
cinchonidine ; quinamine, a crystallizable alkaloid ; aricine, also kinic 
and kinovic acids, kinotannic, and kinovotannic acids, a red colouring 
principle ; starch, volatile oil, gum, sugar, wax, ash 2 to 3 p.c. 

Cinchonina — cinchonine— ran amorphous feeble alkaloid, isomeric 
with cinchonidine, having half the activity of quinine. Ii occurs in 
white shining prisms or needles, taste bitter, not fluorescent. 
Insoluble in water. Dose, 1 to 10 grs. 

Preparations of cinchonine. — Pulvis cinchoninae compositus (1 ins). 
Cinchona with bicarbonate of sodium and sugar of milk. Dose, 3 to 
10 grs. Cinchoninae Hydrochloridum, soluble in water and spirit. 
Dose, 2 to 10 grs. Cinchoninx Sulphas, Cinchonine sulphate. Hard, 
colourless, prismatic crystals, of vitreous lustre, soluble in water (i 
in 66). Absolute alcohol (i in 10), and in dilute acids, sparingly 



eiNCHOKA SUCriRUBRA. 



3^9 



soluble in ether and solution of ammonia. Dose, 2 to 10 grs, 
Cinchonine iodomercurate, yellow ftowder, used externally as an 
antiseptic, 

Cinthonidinae Sulphas, Sulphate cinchonidine^ Colourless, acicu- 
lar, silky, crystals. Taste bitter» soluble in water (i in 100), sparingly 
soluble in chloroform and ether and in rectified spirit (i in 60). Dose, 
1 to ID grs. used like quinine. Cinchonidine Salicylate — tonic and 
antiperiodic; given in neuralgia* rheumatism, intermittent fever, &c. 
Dose, 5 grs. in piih or cachets. 

Quinidina — Quinidinc^ — White prisms, without any odour, taste 
nauseous and bitter, aln^ost insoluble in water» soluble in dilute acids, 
partially soluble in ether and in benzol. Dose, i to 20 grs. 

Quinidina Sulphas — Quinidinc Sulphate. Conquinine or conchinin 
sulphate. An alkaloid obtluncd from cinchona pit<iyen&is or cinchona 
caprea. In white acicular crystals like those of quinine sulphate. 
Soluble in water (i in ioo)» in absolute alcohol (i in 32) freely in dilute 

acids, Dose, i to 20 grs. 

Quinquinina — Quinetum— Cinchona febrifuge, contains 50 to 70 
p.c, of chichanidine extracted from red cinchona bark by acidulated 
water, precipitated by soda and dried, A greyish^ white amorphous 
powder, slightly soluble in water^ easily dissolved in dilute acid, and in 
alcohol (i in 10). Dose» i to 5 grs, Ouineti Sulphas — Quinetum 
sulphate. Closely resembles quinine sulphate. In crystals, soluble in 
water Dose, i to 5 grs, 

Quinina— Quinine — obtained from the bark of various species 
of cinchona and Remijia, It occurs as a white amorphous or minutely 
crystalline powder, very sparingly soluble in water (1 in 1670), freely 
soluble in alcohol (i in 6), in ether, chlorofornj, benzene, aqueous 
ammonia and dilute acids. Heated with glycerine it is converted into 
an isomeric base quinicine. Dose, i to 10 grs. 

Pr^barahons of Quimnf. — Quininse ArMjnas^ — quinine arstnatet 
small while crystals, sparingly soluble in water — ^toniains quinine 67 
c> and arsenic acid 29 p.c. Dosc^ i to \ gr. Oninin^e Bisulphas — 
uininse sulphas acida^neutral quinine or soluble sulphate of 
quinine. In large, colourless crystals, or small needles, efflorescing 
and becoming opaque on exposure to the air, without any odour. 
Has a strong acid reaction, soluble in watcr(i in 10). Dose, i to 
5 grs. As an hypodermic injection I gr, in 12 ms. Dose, 4 to 15 ms. 
Quinina! Carbolas— In crystals — containing quinine 77 p.c, and 
carbolic acid 23 p.c. Given in diarrhcea. Dose, 2 grs. Quininae 
Carbonas — in fine needles, soluble in water. Dose, i to 3 grs. Quininse 
Chloras — Quinine Chlorate, in acicular crystals, ^f ' >oluble in 

water, explodes when heated. Dose, 1 to 5 grs. ' Citras — 

Quinine Citrate, in acicular crystals of very httte ta^^le, sparingly 
soluble in water (i in qoo), used in pill or powder. Dose, i to 5 grains, 
Quinina! Fluortdum, sparingly soluble in cold water, more freely in 
hot water. Dose, ^ to \ gr. In combination with fluoride of 
ammonium it is used in enlarged spleen due to malaria. Quininae 
Hvdrobromidum — Quinine Hydrobroniule — In colourless lustrous 



330 CINCHONA SUCCIRUBRA. 

needles, without any odour, of bitter taste and alkaline reaction, soluble 
in water ( I in 54), produces less cinchonism than quinine. Dose, i to 6 
grs. Syrupus Ferri et Quininae Hydrobromatum — Syrupus Ferri 
Bromidi cum Quinina. Dose, ^ to i dr. Syrupus Ferri Quininae et 
Strychninse Hydrobromatum, each dr. contains i gr. of quinine 
hydrobromide. Dose, ^ to 1 dr. Quininae Hydrobromidum acidum. — 
Yellowish crystals, freely soluble in water (i in 6), richer in alkaloids 
than the quininae sulphate. Dose, ^ to 2 grs. in tablets } gr. each. 
As hypodermic injection i gr. in 6 ms. 

Quininae Hydrochloridum B. P. — Quinine Hydrochlorate, Quinine 
Muriate — In filiform, silky, white crystals, contains 83 p c. of quinine 
against 75 in the quinine sulphate, soluble in water (i in 35), in cold 
alcohol (i in 3), very soluble in Jjoiling water and in boiling alcohol. 
Dose, I to 10 grs. used as solution i in 800 as a germicide ; hypodermic 
injection containing quinine hydrochloride 3, antipyrin 2 and water 
10. Dose, 2 to 5 ms. Quinine Hydrochloridum Aceticum — A 
white crystalline pv'>wder, soluble in less than its own weight of 
water. Dose, i to 10 grs. Vinum Quininae, B. P. — i gr. quinine 
hydrochloride to i oz. of wine Dose, ^ to i oz. Tinctura Quininae B. 
P. — I gr. in 50 of tincture of fresh orange. Dose, J to 1 dr. Quininae 
Glycero Phosphas — A white powder, soluble in alcohol, slightly 
soluble in hot water. Containing 68 p,c. of quinine. Dose, 2 to 8 grs. 

Quininae Hydrochloridum Acidum, B. P. — Acid quinine hydro- 
chloride, quinine dihydrochloride. White yellowish crystals soluble in 
water (i in 1), Dose, i to 10 grs.; used hypodermically J to 2 grs. 
Quininae Hydrochloro Sulphas — In small needles or reduced to powder ; 
soluble in water (i in i). Contains 74 p c. of alkaloid. Dose, i to 
10 grs Injectio Quininae Hydrochloro Sulphatis Hypodermica, 1 gr. 
in 4 ms. More suited than the sulphate or the hydrochloride. Dose, 
2 to 12 ms. Quininae Hydrochloro Carbamidum — Urea Quinine — anew 
compound of quinine and urea, in small prisms, non-irritant. Soluble 
in water (i in i). The solution (50 p.c.) is used as hypodermic 
injection. Dose, S to 15 grs. Quininae lodas — Quinine lodate. White 
silver needles, soluble in water (i to 250) Dose, i to 5 grs. Quininae 
Hydriodum — Quinine Hydr Iodide — Quininae lodidum — Quinine 
Iodide. A neutral salt in pale yellow crystals, sparingly soluble in 
water. Dose i to 5 grs. Quininae Hydridum Acidum — Quininae 
lodidum Acidum — Acid Quinine Iodide. — An acid salt in large yellow 
crystals freely soluble in water. Dose, i to 4 grs. Syrupus Ferri et 
Quininae lodidi — A saturated solution of quinine 2 grs. in an ounce 
of syrup of ferrous iodide. Dose, i dr. Quininae Lactas — Quinine 
Lactate. — A white amorphous powder soluble in water (i in 10). Dose, 
I to 5 grs. Easy of digestion — used as solution i p.c. for hypodermic 
injection. Quininae Oleatum (i to 3). Locally used as inunction in 
fevers. Quininae Phosphos — Quinine Phosphate In acicular crystals. 
Dose, I to 6 grs. Quininae Salicylas — Quinine Salicylate. — An 
anhydrous salt, crystallizes in white silky needles, of a bitter taste, 
sparingly soluble in water (i in 1225), Ether (i in 120), Chloroform 
and rectified spirit (i in 24), contains 70 p.c. of quinine. Dose 2 to 6 



r:mcHONA succirubra. 



gTs. given in pills or in cachets or suspended in water. Quininae 
Sulphas B,P. Disulphate Quinine— Quinine Sulphate, In light 
filiform, silky, white crystals ; taste intensely bitter, soluble in 
water (i in 800), alcohol (i in 65), glycerine (r in 40I, entirely soluble 
in ammonia and acidulated water— given in solution, pills» powder, or 
cachetjv Dose, as a tonic, 2 to 5 grs., as an antiperiodic 5, to 20 era, 
^Fcbricide Pills— containing quinine sulphate, antcfebrin. each 2 grs 
and cocaine hydrnchloratc I grs* Dose, i to 2 pitb in malaria. 

Tinctura Quininae Arnmoniata B. P. ^Quinine Sulphate 2, 
solutii n of ammonia 10, and alcohol 90, soluble in aerated water — noi 
miscible with plain water. Dose, ^ to i dn 

CoUunarium Quininx— Quinine nasal douche^ — ^Ouinine Sulphate 
in water (1 in 875). 

Mistura Chlori cum Quininoi. Mix potassium chlorate 30grs. and 
.hydrochloric acid 60 ms,. add water 11 ounces. Then add Quinine 
'Sulphate 24 grs and syrup of orange 1 oa. Dose^ i oz. 

Warburg^s Fever Tincture— Tinctura Pyrexialis — contains nuinine 
sulphate (i in 50). Socoirinc Aloes (i in 40). opium (i in 4000), rnubarb 
■ root (i m I25)» camphor (r in 500), and saffron and othtir aromaucs* 
^Dosc, I to 4 drs. 

Quininar Sulphas Acidus — Acid quinine sulphate, neutral or 
soluble quinine sulphate. In large rectangular prisms or crystalline 
masses, soluble in cold water (i in 12). Dose, I to 10 grs. Hypodermic 
injection, i gr. in 12 ms. Duse, 4 to 15 nis. 

Qutnin;e Sulpho carbolas— An amorphous white powder, sparing- 
ly soluble in water sometimes known ascarbolaie of quinine. To obtain 
it make a combination of quinine sulphate with phenol. In the case of 
true carbolate of quinine thr combination is of quinine alkaloid and 
phenoK It combines the action of quinine with that of sulpho- 
carbolate— given in diarrhoea and fever. Dose, 1 to 6 grs, 

Quininx Tannas.— A white amorphous powder, sparingly soluble 
in water, quite tasteless, Dtise, 1 to 4 gr», 

Quininae Valerianae. — White pearly lustrous crystals, sparingly 
soluble in water (1 in 100); b<iiling water (1 in 40); alcohol (1 in 5)and 
slightly soluble in ether — odour nf valerian. Dose, 1 to 4 grs. 

Preparnhons. — Of the bark. Infu&umCmchonic Acidum, B,P., red 
cinchona bark i ounce, aromatic sulphuric acid 2 fld drs. ; distilled 
water 20 fid. ounce?. Dose, \ to i Hd. oz. Ext r actum cinchona; 
liquidum, B. P {5 grs of the total alkaloids in 1 10 ms*). Dose, 5 to tf 
ms Tinctura Cnichon;]^. B P; (i in 5) containing i p.c, of alkaloids. 
Dose, I to I fid. dr. Tinctura Cinchon«T C(*mposrt;c, B. P,, contains 
^tincture of re i cinchona bark 10 ; dried biltt-r orange peel 1 ; 

epcntary root | ; with cochineal and saffron for 1 pint Dose, i to i dr. 

)ecoctum Cinchonse (i in 16). Dose, i to z tld. o«s. Elixir Cinchonse. 

)ose, j to I dr. 

PkystQloirical actron. — Cinchona is a general tonic, bitter stoma- 

' chtCf astringent, febrifuge and antiperiodic^ In small dones it 
increases appetite, assists digestion, increases the flow of saliva and the 



332 CINCHONA SUCCIRUBRA. 

gastric juice. It augments the force of heart's action. If continued for 
a long time, it acts as a gastric irritant, impairs digestion, produces 
gastric, catarrh and even constipation. In large doses it causes 
flatulence, eructation, rise of body heat with chill, and fever. Quinine 
is a bitter tonic, antiseptic, most powerful antiperiodic and antipyretic ; 
also analgesic. In small doses it stimulates the heart and increases the 
arterial tension. In large doses, it has direct action on the cardiac 
ganglia, and thus slows the pulse beat, and lowers the arterial tension. 
It is a protoplasmic poison. It prevents the development of the 
Plasmodium and hence the most important agent in malaria. It is 
rapidly diffused. In the blood it increases the number of white 
corpuscles, but prevents or arrests their movements, it lessens oxidation, 
and in fever it lessens the body heat- It lessens the size of the spleen 
when enlarged from fever. As an antiseptic it is an active destroyer of 
low organisms (i in 500), it destroys fungi, checks fermentation and 
putrefactive decomposition; it sometimes produces sexual excitement. In 
the urine it lessens the excretion of uric acid but not of urea. It often 
acts as an uterine stimulant if long continued and in large doses. It 
causes quinism or cinchonism, a set of symptoms characterised by 
fulness and constriction in the head, buzzing in the ears, vertigo, 
reeling gait, deafness, amblyopia, &c. In excessive doses, it leads to 
dilated pupils, delirium and even convulsions. 

Therapeutics. — Quinine is given in 10 grain doses to bring down 
fever. It is also given in whooping cough, hay fever, enlargement of 
liver and spleen, hemicrania, and other localized neurotic pains. In 
small doses it is given as a tonic in dyspepsia, gastric catarrh, adynamia 
and convalescence from fevers and in weak and flabby subjects. In 
remittent fever, large doses of 15 or 25 grs. of quinine may be given 
once or twice a day. In chronic cases, large doses of chinchonine are 
safer than quinine. Quinine is also used as antipyretic in typhoid 
fever, variola, septic fevers pneumonia, acute rheumatism, in acute 
tonsillitis, acute nasal catarrh, pyaemia and in surgical operations. 
The indiscriminate use of quinine, if taken regularly and in large doses, 
for a long time weakens the heart and produces restlessness and 
cachexia. In obstinate cases of ague with persistent vomiting, in 
malarial fevers, in irritability of the rectum or where the patient is 
insensible or cannot swallow and in all cases where it cannot be given 
by the mouth, hypodermic injection of quinine may be used, generally 
combined with guaiacol, with benefit. It should be injected deeply 
into the glifleal or scapular muscles or in the arm. Locally as an 
antiseptic injection, it is used in cystitis and abscess cavities, as a wash 
for wounds and ulcers, and as a gargle in sore throat. It is an ingre- 
dient in dentifrice. The ill-effects could best be avoided by giving it 
with diluted hydrobromic acid Warburg's Tincture is given in 
remittent and continued fevers, even during the pyrexial period. 
In severe attacks of influenza, in chronic bronchitis of old age, in 
asthma, and in phthisis, \ fld. oz. may be given after any convenient 
purgative, to be repeated in 3 hours No food or drink to be given from 
the first dose to an hour after the second ; for ordinary cases 2 fld. 
drs. may be given for a dose. 



GARDENIA GUMMIFERA. 333 

Dlplospora SphsBrooarpa— Wild Coffee. 

Hadttat.— Western Ghats. 

Paris used, — The seeds. 

C/iaracfers. ^Seeds round, flattened and glossy, of a light brown 
colour. Albumen horny. The roasted powder resembles coffee 
in aroma. 

Constituents, — An alkaloid, an astringent acid, an aromatic body, 
fat, sugar and mineral matter. 

Preparations. — Decoction ( i in lo). Dose 2 to 6 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Nervine tonic and stimulant like coffee ; given 
in low states of the system, in acute fevers, in hemicrania and neuralgias. 

Galiom Aparine. 

Syn. — The plant Cleavers, goose grass (Eng.) 

Habitat. — Europe and United States. 

Parts used. — The herb and inspissated juice. 

I^eparations. — Succus Galii — dose i to 2 drs. Extractum Galii — 
dose, 5 to 20 grs. 

Actions and uses, — Acid, astringent, alterative and diuretic ; given 
in dropsy, jaundice, suppression of urine, gravel complaints and skin 
diseases ; also in scrofula, epilepsy, and obesity. A poultice of the herb 
is used in obstinate psoriasis. The inspissated juice is locally applied in 
lepra, eczema, and acne, and to promote healthy granulations in wounds 
and cancerous ulcers ; also used as a styptic for bleeding wounds. 

Gardenia Gommifera. G. Resinlfera. G. Arborea and G. Lnoida. G. 
Campannlata, G. Florida. 

Habitat. — Western Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma, Chittagong, India. 

Parts used. — The resinous exudation from the fruits. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Kala-loxada, Kimk-kham. Burm. — Tsay- 
tham-by-ah. Can. — Tella-manga, Chinaka-ringuva. Cine., Duk., Guz., 
Hind., Mar. — Dika-male. Sans. — Hingu-nadika, Pindanva. Tam, — 
Kumbi. Tel. — Chiribikki, Tella-manga. 

Characters, — Thcexudation occurs in masses or irregular flat cake?, 
opaque, of a dull olive green colour, often mixed with soft bark leaf buds 
and pieces of stem, &c. The smell is very foetid like that of cat's urine. 
Dose, I to 2 grs. 

Preparations,^ Emulsion with water (i in 50). Dose, i to 2 drs., 
and paste. 

Constituents. — Gardenin — a' crystalline resin of a gold yellow 
colour, another resin soft and of a greenish colour. 

Actions and uses, — Antiperiodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, altera- 
tive, and antispasmodic ; given in intermittent fevers, dyspepsia, flatu- 
lence, and chronic skin diseases. A paste of it is applied for cleaning 



334 IXORA COCCINKA. 

foul ulcers and for the relief of itching in piles. It keeps away flies or 
maggots from sloughing sores. As an antispasmodic the root of G. 
Florida is given alone or combined with bharangi in hysteria. As a 
cathartic and anthelmintic it is given to expel worms. 

Hymenodlctyon Ezoelsom. Cinchona Eoelsa. 

Habitat — W. Himalaya, Chittagong, Deccan, C. India, Tenasserim. 

Paris used. — The bark. 

Vertiacuiar. — Duk., Hind. — ^Bhaulan, Kalabachnak. Mar. — Kila- 
kadva, Bhoursal. Panj. — Barthoa, Thab. Tam. — Sagapu-maram. 
Tel. — Burija, Bandiru. 

Characters. — Inner coat of the bark resembles, cinchona and is 
bitter and astringent ; outer coat spongy, light and tasteless ; wood fine 
close-grained, colour pale, mahogany-like. Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 

Constituents. — A bitter neutral principle and an alkaloid hymeno- 
dictyonine, allied to quinoidine, berberine paricine,and a glucoside. 

Preparation, — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, J to i fld. oz. 

Actions and uses, — A bitter tonic and febrifuge ; used during 
convalescence from acute diseases and fevers. 

Izora Panriflora, 1. Alba. 

Habitat, — South of India. 

Parts used. — The bark and flowers. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Rangan. Can. — Gorabi. Eng. — Torch tree. 
Hind.— Kotha-gandhul, Runghun. Mar. — Kura-Kurat, Raikura, 
Makadi. Sans. — Ishwara. Tam. — Shulundu. Tel.— Karivipola. 

Ixora or Ishwora means a Hindu god. The plant is sacred to 
Iswar (Shiva). It is used as a torch in the forest. 

Characters.^¥\ovfQrs sweet scented ; root pale brown. The wood 
burns very readily and clearly, and hence post-runners make torches 
of it. 

Constituents. — Fatty matter, tannin, red coloring matter, and ash 
containing a trace of ferric oxide. 

Preparations,— Decoction of the bark(i in 20). Dose, ^ to 1 fld.oz. 

Actions and uses — Tonic. The flowers pounded in milk are given 
in whooping cough ; the bark is a bitter tonic like cinchona and given 
in anaemia and general debility. 

Izora Coccinea, I. Grandlflora 

Habitat.'-Vf. India. 
Parts used. — The root. 

F^r«tfi:«/ar.— Hind-Beng.— Rajana. Burm.— Pan-sa^eik. Eng.— 
Flame of the forest, jungle or country geranium. Mar.— Bakura, Pent- 
guL Maleal.— Shetti. Tam.— Vitchie. Tel.— Theti. 



MORINDA CITRIFOLIA. 335 

Characters. ^Root branched. Bark thick, smooth, and brown, 
marked with warty prominences ; on cutting it a yellow juice exudes, 
odour disagreeable, due to the presence of volatile fatty acids. Dose, 
5 to 20 grs. 

Constituents, — Tannin, saccharine matter, a little fat and coloring 
matter. 

Preparations, — Decoction (i in 20). Dose, i to i fld. oz. 

Actions and usej, — Astringent, stomachic, and tonic ; given in 
fevers and gonorrhoea. In dysentery it is generally combined with Nag- 
kesar and cumin. As a stomachic tonic it is given in flatulence and 
atony of the stomach. 

Pavetta Indica, Izora Pavetta, P. Alba. 

Habitat. — Ceylon. 

Parts used. — The root. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Kukura, Chura. Can. — Pappadi. Cing. — 
Pavetta. Mar., Hind. — Kakra. Maleal. — Malia-Mothi. Sans. — Pappana, 
Papata. Tam. — Pavetti-maram. Tel. — Telia-papata. 

Characters,— An ornamental shrub. Root crooked ^ to i inch in 
diameter. Taste bitter. Bark gray, light brown, epidermis, papery. 
Taste sweetish and aromatic. Dose, powdered root J to i dr. 

Constituents. — A green resin starch, no tannin, an organic acid and 
a bitter giucoside resembling salicin. 

Preparations. — Decoction (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i fld. oz. 
Actions and //j^5.— Bitter tonic and aperient ; given in torpor of 
the liver and with ginger in dropsy. 

Morinda CitrifoHa, M. Tin 

Habitat, — Throughout India, Malwa, Malabar. 

Parts used, — The leaves and fruit. 

Vernacular, "^QWg* — Atchhu. Bur. — Yoi-yoe, Nayhgyle. Can. — 
Maddi. Cing. — Ahugaha. Eng. — Indian Mulberry. Hmd. — Al, atchi, 
ak. Maleal. — Kada pilva. Mar. — Baratundi, A*sa Nagakuda. Tam. — 
Manja-pavattay. Tel. — Moolugu, maddi. Sans. — Achchhuka, Uchyuta 
B^r^tondi is derived from Bara, twelve, and Tond a month. The fruit 
is marked with as many as twelve scars which represent so many 
months. 

Characters. — Leaves oval, oblong, shining, smooth, alternate and 
of a yellowish green or dark green colour ; taste bitter. Ripe fruit shin- 
ing, fleshy, oblong, and marked with scars ; emitting a foetid odour. 
By keeping the seeds and pulp become black or brown and sticky, 
resembling seeds and pulp of dried pomegranate. 

Constituents. — The root bark contains morindin, a dyeing 
principle. 

Preparations. — Decoction of leaves (i in 20). Dose, 1 to 2 fld, oz. 



2^6 OLDENUUdMA UIOKLLATA. 

ActUjfu and uses. — AstringeDt, tonic and febrifnge; genendly given 
mixed with aromatics. Decoction is given in diarrhoea, dysenteiy and 
iinf::Th : the ripe frait is an emmenagogoe, and given in disordered 
metier uation. The juice of the leaves is used as an apptication for the 
relief of pain in gout and healing of wounds and ulcers. 

Mnasmda Frondosa. M. FlaTMOfiiift. 

Habitat. — Nepal, Ce^'lon and Himalayas. 

Parts used. — The root, leaves and fruit. 

Vernacular. — Bomb. — ^Sarwad, Bhooteasse. Sanchount. Hind. — 
Bebina, Sribar. Maleal. — Belila. Nfar. — Srivardoii, Bhut-kes. 
Nepaul. — Asari. Tam. — Vella allay. Sans. — Shrivati, Nagavalli. 

Characters. — Leaves white. Flowers deep yellow or golden coloured. 
Taste bitter. Root slender, long and fibrous. Dose, 20 to 6ogrs. 

Constituents. — Bitter principle — a glucoside, resin, sugar, mucilage 
and colouring matter ; the bitter principle is soluble in water and 
rectified spirit. 

Preparations. — Juice of root or leaves. Syrup of flowers, dose, 
I to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses. — Alterative, and demulcent. The root is 
given with milk in jaundice. The juice of fruit and leaves is used as 
colly rium for the eyes. Syrup of flowers is a gentle expectorant and 
given in coughs, asthma, flatulence, and ague. Extemall}* the paste of 
the root is used as a cooling application in skin eruptions. 

Oldenlandia Umbellata, Hedyotis Umbellata, H. ffiq^ 
H. Indica. 

Habitat. — Peninsula of India, Coromandel coast. 
Parts used. — The root and leaves. 

Vernacular. — Cing. — Choya, Sayan- mul. Eng. — Chayroot, Indian 
madder. Tam. — Emburel chedditel, Cheri velu. 

Characters. — Leaves opposite, verticillate, linear, pale on the under 
surface ; margins recurved, covered with bristles ; flowers white and in 
racemes, root slender, long with few lateral fibres of an orange colour* 

Constituents. — The bark contains a colouring matter. 

Preparations. — Decoction (i in 20). Dose | to i fld. oz. 

Actiotis and uses.^ The leaves are expectorant, and given in cough, 
asthma and consumption. The root is alterative and used in cutaneous 
diseases and applied over poisonous bites of venomous animals. 

Oldenlandia Corymbosa, 0. Biflora, 0. Herbacea. 

Habitat. — Throughout India. 
Parts used, — The herb. 



rOLICl^RIA DENSIFLOHA. 



357 



I \rutHufar, — G uz. , Mar., Keng, — Kl»t;t papra, Pilpapara. Can.^ — 
KuUa Sabatra-sige. Eng. — TwoHowered Indian madder. Hiiid, — 
Dnman-papra, Bakra, Parputt, Pitpapara* Sans. — Kshetra parpala. 
Tarn. — Parpa dagam. Tel. — V'erineila vemu< 

Charactefs, — Annual slender herb, leaves linear, with margins 
recurved, nerveless; peduncle solitary; flower i to 4 ; capsule, broadt 

hemispherical. Dose, I to 2 drs. 

Comhiueut^, — An alkaloid^ and a large proportion of alkaline salts. 

Preparatfofis, — A compound decoction called Pancha Bhadra, 
meaning five bitters^ containing, parpata^ mustaka, gulanchai chiretta^ 
and ginger equal parts, given in remittent fever. Dose, i to 2 fld, ozs. 

AciioNnand uses. — Tonic and antiperiudic, given in fevers with 
gastric irritation and nervous depression. 

Ophiorrhiza Mungoe. 

HnhitaL — Mountains of As^am, Java, Sumatra, W. Peninsula and 
Ceylon, 

Parts used. — The root and plant. 

P'erHficniar. — Can. — Kanjure, Rashme. Cing. — ^Mendi. Guz# — 
Mungusvel, Nakuli. Hind,, Mar. — Rnsna. Java.— Kajomar. Sans* — 
kNagasuganda* Tam.^ — Keri purandan. Tel. — Nakuli Sarpashe- 
lieitu* 

Characters — Root about 6 to 9 inches in length, and as thick as 
the finger, contorted »tnd brown externally ; bark closely adherent and 
corky ; ta^le hitter, like thai of gentian. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, 
acuminate and glabrous. 

Constttttcnts. — Starch, amorphous alkaloid, resin and fat &c* 

Ptfparatiom, — Decoction (f in to). Dose, \ to l fid. oz. 

yktthns ami uses* — Bitter tonic like gentian, and used a^ a tonic 
in dyspepsia and diarrhoea. Among the Cingalese it has a high 
reputation as a remedy against bites of snakes and mad dogs. 

Pdliourla Densiflora, or probably from a Species of Nectandra. 

Habitats — Bolivia, South America, 

Parti used. — The bark — coto-bark, also para coto-bark from 
another plant* 

Characters, -^¥12^1 curved pieces, \ inch thick ; cork fissuredt 
cinnamon coloured ; odour nutmeg like, pungent and agreeable ; 
taste pungent and bitter, when chewed it increases the flow of saliva. 
Dose, 1 to H grs. 

Constituents. — An acrid bitter principle — cotoin, Piperonylic acid, 
volatile oil and resin^ but no tannin. Paracotoin is found in parocoto 
bark along with hydrocotoin; it occurs in small laminar crystals^ weaker 
and paler than coloin ; soluble in ether, boiling alcohol, boiling water 
and chloroform ; slightly soluble in water. Dose, ^ to 3 grs. 

2t 



33^ PILOCARPUS JABORANDJU 

Cotoin occurs as pale yellow, amorphous powder or minute curved 
crystalline prisms, non-volatile, oif a bitter taste and irritating to the 
nostrils ; slightly soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, ether, 
chloroform and alkalies. Dose, ^ to 2 grs. ; it checks salivation and 
night sweats. 

Preparations. — Extractum Goto liquidum — liquid extract ; not 
miscible with water. Dose, 2 to 6 ms. TincturaCoto (i in 10). Dose, 
10 to 20 ms. 

Actions. — A powerful astringent ; given in chronic intestinal 
catarrh, dysentery and diarrhoea of rickets, typhoid fever, and phthisis; 
also in diarrhoea due to teething in children — cotoin is given in the 
night sweats of phthisis and in phthisical diarrhoea; it is also used 
hypodermically in cholera, 15 ms. of a i in 4 solution in acetic ether 
as an injection. 

PfiBderia FoBtida, Psyohotria yolubilis, Apooynum Foetidam, 
ConTolYolas Foetidus. 

Habitat. — Himalaya, Bengal, West Peninsula of India. 

Parts used. — The whole plant. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Gandha-bhadhuli. Guz.^Gandhana. Hind. 
— Gandhali. Mar. — Hiranvel. Sans. — Prasarani, Gundha bhadalya. 
Tel. — Savirela chettu. 

Characters. — The plant has a very offensive odour of bisulphide 
of carbon, when bruised. 

Constituents. — A volatile oil of an offensive odour, 2 alkaloids, 
namely, Alpha Paederine and Beta Psederine. 

Preparations. — A liquid extract and a compound syrup or electuary 
containing liquid extract of gandhali i part, ginger and pepper 2 parts, 

E lumbago root \ part, and sugar 5 parts. Dose, i to 2 fld. drs. 
riniment, contains liquid extract of gandhali i part, oil 8 parts and 
camphor \ part. 

Actions and uses. — The whole plant is alterative, antispasmodic, 
and emetic. The root is an emetic. The compound s}rrup is given in 
colic, rheumatism, gout and spasmodic diseases. The liminent is 
used externally in rheumatism and over painful joints. 

FilooarpoB Jaborandi, B. P., P. PinnatlfoliiiB, P. Selloanas. 

HabitaL — Brazil, in forests, and on hill slopes. 

Parts used. — The dried leaflets, Jaborandi Folia, B.P. 

Characters. — Leaflets, long, short stalked, oval, marked with 
numerous pellucid dots, punctate, entire, emarginate, oblong, lanceo- 
late, of a dull, green colour, coriaceous and tomentose ; odour aromatic, 
taste pungent and bitter ; when chewed it increases the flow of saliva. 
Dose, powdered leaves 5 to 40 grs. 



PILOCARPUS JABORAKHK 



339 



Ojtisitnirfifs. — Contain 4 alkaloids^ \ t^ — i pilocarpine, z pilocar- 
pidinc, 3 jaborine antagonistic in action to pilocarpine and 4 
jaboridine ; volatile oil^ malic acid, and salts. 

Pilocarpina — Pilocarpine — a syrupy liquid alkaloid. To obtain it 
add to the alcoholic extract of Jaborandi at first hydrochloric acid and 
then any alkali, shake the whole with chloroform and finally with acidu- 
lated water. Jaborine — also present in leaves, does not form crys- 
tallizabte salts ; it is colourless and more liquid^ without any odour, 



Pilocarpine and 
pyridine. Pile- 



I 



Ptlocarpidinc is supposed to be dihydroxyhiicotine, 
pilocarpidine have been synthetically prepared from 
carpidine on oxidation yields jaboridine* 

Volatile oil is obtained by distillation. It contains chiefly 
turpene and a trace of paraffin-like substance, 

PiliJcarpinseNitras B. P, Pilocarpine Nitrate. — A white crystalline 
powder, soluble in water (i in 9), slightly soluble in cold and fieely 
so ill hot alcohol. Dose» 5*^ to J gr, by the mouth* 

Iniectio Pilocarpinae Nitratis Hypodermica — used hypoderraically 
(I gr. m 20 ms.) Dose, 2 to 6 ms. Hvpodermiclamels or tablets co i- 
tain \ gr. each. Guuae Pilocarpinae, 2 grs to i 02. Ophthalmic disc> »^o 
gr. in each. Lotio Pilocarpinae — Pilocarpine nitrate 2 grs., quinine 
hydrochloride 8 grs., glycerine 2 drs., rose water 6 drs., used in altipe- 
cia. Pilula Pilocarpinae Nitratis — Pilocarpine nitrate ,'0 gr. with milk- 
sugar and gtycenn of tragacanih — ^10 make one pilh Pilocarpin» 
Hydrochloridum. Pilocarpine Hydrochloride — White crystals, deli- 
quesLcnr, bitter, wiihoui any odour, freely soluble in alcohol and 
water, insoluble in ether and chloroform. Dose» y*^ to ^ gr., used hypo- 
dermtcatly» f*g to ^ gr. by the mouth. Pilocarpinae Pfienas — Pdocarpine 
carbolaic, ascptolmc. A colourless oily hquid, soluble in alcohol 
and water* used as hypodermic injection in phthisic (l in 5^000), 
Pilocarpinae salicylas^Pilocarpinc salicylate — colourless crystals of a 
bitter taste, soluble in water. Dose, ^*^ to \ gr, 

Pt0patahons*—Oi Jaborandi Folia — Extractum Jaborandi liqui- 
dum B. P. Liquor Jaborandi— Fluid extract of pilocarpine, not 
miscible with water. Dose^ 5 to 15 ms. Extractum Jaborandi (solid). 
Dose, 2 to 10 grs. Tinctura Jaborandi, B. P. (1 in 5)- Dose, | to i 
achm. To check night sweat. Infusion (1 in 20). Dose, i to a 02s. 

Physmhgical action, — Powerful sudorific and sialagogue, cardiac 
depressant, myotic, emetic, galactagogue, and abortifacient ; taken 
internally it paralyses the vaso motor system and is a stimulant of the 
peripheral nerve ends» supplying glands and involuntary muscles. 
It increases the general secretions, promotes sweating, causes 
flushed face, increased salivation, catarrh of the nose, bronchi and of 
the lachrymal duct. It is rapidly elinunatcd by the skin and sahvary 
glands In large doses it causes drowsintss, contracted pupils, and 
impaired or want of co -ordination oi reflexes, laboured respiration, 
conn act ion of the bladder, uterus and spleen. 

Therapeuttcs, — The leaves arc given in uremic convulsims, and 
renal dropsy; it should not be given if the heart is weak. In aloumi- 
nurU* anasarca, pulmonary oedema, diabetes insipidus, it relieves the 



340 PSYCHOTRIA IPECACUANHA. 

kidneys. It stimulates the skin, and hence used in fever. As ahairwash 
it promotes the growth of hair in alopecia. As a galactagogue it 
increases the flow of milk. In ptyalism it acts specifically in minute 
doses on the salivary glands. In erysipelas and in diphtheria it is of 
great benefit in detaching ihe false membrane and to prevent its 
reformation. Its use should be supported by food and stimulants. As 
an absorbent it is given with, iodides and mercurials, in pleuritis, 
meningitis, retinitis, amblyopia due to alcoholism or tobacco, iritis and 
in glaucoma. 

Pilocarpine in small doses 3V to ^ gr., checks night sweats ; but 
in hrge doses it is a most powerful sialagogue and diaphoretic, and 
used in kidney diseases, dropsy, diabetes insipidus, intermittent 
fever, severe hiccough and syphilis. In hiccough | gr. can be hypoder- 
mically used ; also in deafness due to affection of the lab3Tinth and 
to arrest paroxysm of spasmodic asthma. 

Psyohotria Ipeoaouanha, B.P. 

Cephaclis Ipecacuanha, Carthagena Ipecacuanha, Two varieties — 
long styled and short styled. 
Habitat, — Brazil, India. 

Parts used. — The dried root— Ipecacuanhae Radix, B.P., Ipeca- 
cuanha root. 

Characters. — In Carthagena Ipecacuanha, the root is thicker and 
the annulations less marked. Ipecacuanha root occurs in tortuous pieces, 
6 inches long, and J inch thick, colour dark brick red or dark brown, 
and closely annulaied, breaking with a short fracture, cortex greyish: 
odour slight, but disagreeable, taste bitter. Dose, as an expectorant, 
J to 2 grs., as an emetic, 1 5 to 30 grs. 

Coftstitttents. — An active principle — an alkaloid, emetine, 1*3 p.c. 
cephaeline '6 p.c, Ipecacuanhic acid allied to catechin, saccharose, 
starch, fatty or oily matter, cholin, resin, pectin &c. 

Emetina — Emetine — Emetia — the commercial article is a mixture 
of alkaloids — pure emetine, cephaeline (both emetic) and another 
alkaloid. Pure emetine occurs in white amorphous powder, taste 
slightly bitter, sparingly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, 
benzin, chloroform and dilute acids, scarcely so in caustic alkalies. 
I^o*^» tU ^^ iV S^' **^" emetic ; ^ to j^ gr. of Ipecacuanha yields 2 p.c 
of crude emetine, Vinum Emetinae (1 gr. of hydrochloride 01 emetine in 
8 ozs. of sherry). Dose, ^ to 40 ms. Emetine has direct nauseant and 
emetic properties— used in pulmonary diseases, and biliousness. It 
rapidly darkens on exposure to light and air, and forms crystalline 
salts as the hydrochloride and hydiobromide. The salts of cephaeline 
are uncrystalluable. It occurs in crystals, white at first, becoming 
dark \-ellow by exposure, sparingly soluble in ether, soluble in caustic 
alkalies whicK distinguishes it from emetine. 

Cephalic or Ipecacuanhic acid — An amorphous, bitter glucoside, 
allied to cafiBeotannic acid* Occurs as brown powder, soluble in 
alcohol* 



PSYCHOTRIA IFECACUANHA, 



34 » 



Prf/>arations* — Of the root — Pulvis IpecacuanhaeCompositus, B.P. 
— Dover s powder — Tpecacuanhii i, opium i, and potassium sulphate 8, 
dose, 5 to 15 grs, Extractuiii Ipecacuanhae liquidum B.P. — Ipecacuanha 
percolated with alcohul» (hen mixed with calcium hydroxide and again 
percolated ; strength from 2 to 2*5 p.c. of the alkaloid. Dose as an 
expectorant, 4 to 2 ms. ; as an emetic, 1 5 to 20 ms. Trochiscus Ipeca- 
cuanh:^, B P., J gr, in each with fruit bases. Trochiscus morphinae et 
I; -ihx, B.P,, j\ gr, of Ipecacuanha and ^*^ gr, of morphine 

h\ -ride in each with tola basis. Pilula Ipecacuanhas cum scilla, 

B,P. (opium 5 p c ). Contains Dov^er's powder 3, squill i» ammoniacum 
I , syrup of glucose q,s. Dose, 4 to 8 grs. Syrup Ipecacuanhae aceticus, 
Vinegar of Ipecac, l pint, sugar 2| lbs. Dose, } to 2 drs. Acetum 
IpecacuanhcG B.P. (i in 20). Dose, 10 to 30 ms, Vinum Ipecacuanhae, 
B.P. (i in ao). Extract of Ipecacuanha i,to sherry 19. Dose, as an expec- 
toranti 10 to 30 ms. ; as an emetic* 4 to 6 fid. drs. Pulvis Ipecacuanhae 
sine Emetina, Ipecacuanha from which emetine has been extracted. 
Dose, 10 to 30 grs. Emetin, an extractive substance, soluble in water, 
has properties like the root ; must tjot be confounded with the alkaloid 
emetine* Dose, as an expectorant, y^ to ^ gn; as an emetic, ^ to 1 gr, 

Actions and wy^^,— ^Emetic, nauseant, diaphoretic, expectorant, 
sternutatory, laxative, cholagoguc, hemostatic, and vascular depressant; 
as an emetic it is not so depressant as tartar emetic, but more depressant 
than sulphate of rinc, mustard, 6t common salt ; it often acts as 
cathartic* In moderate doses it depresses the circulation and hence 
allied \o aconite and tartar eniettc. In small doiies, it is a diaphoictic 
and expectorant* As an emetic it is largely used, especially in sthenic 
cases to unload the stomach in the bet^innina of fever, and in indiges* 
lions and in croup and diphtheria ; in bronchitis, especially nf children, 
it promotes expulsion of fnucusfroni the bronchi. As a cardiac sedative 
it is largely used in fevers to reduce the pulse rate, and to produce 
gentle diaphoresis. In catarrh of the bronchi and lungs, pneumonia 
and phthisis, its stimulating effects on the mucous membrane arc well 
marked. Its principal value consists in its being almo» t a speciiic in 
dysentery. Large doses of Ipecacuanha, as much as 20 to 30 grs., or 
Ipecacuanha sine emetina, arc given. In order to prevent its being 
vomited, no liquid is allowed before or after the dose, and the dose is 
preceded by a morphia draught or morphia hypodermically injected* 
Oftentimes in such cases mustard plaster is applied to the pit of the 
stomach, a few minutes before Ipecacuanha is given* The dose may 
often be repeated 3 or 4 limes* 

Remarks.— The Goanese Ipecacuanha, the root of Naregamia 
alata, Nat. O. Mc1iace:e, bears similar properties to Ipecacuanha. 

Randia Dometorum, R Longispina Canthlam, Coronatam, 

Gardenia Dumetorum. 0, Spinosa. Poaoquerta Dumetornm, 

Ceriscna Malabarious. 

//"^diV/i/.— Throughout India, Gujerat, DchraDoon, Ceylon, Coim- 
baiorc. 

Parii Hsed.^-Xht fruit. 



342 RANDIA DUMETORUM. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Jouzel kowsul, Jouz-ul-kai. Beng., Bomb. 
— Gelaphala, Pieralu, Menphal. Can. — Mangire. Cing. — ^Wali, 
kukuru man. Duk. — Medaphala. Eng, — The emetic nut. Guz. — 
Mindhal. Hind. — Mainphal, Mayina, Pinda, Mindhla. Mar.— Gehela, 
Piralu. Punj. — Mindhal. Sans.— Madana. Tam. — Madu-karray, 
maruk arang. Tel. — Mangha, manda. 

Characters. — Fruit small, like J^ephala, globular or ovate, of a 
deep grey or reddish brown colour. At its base is a small disc-like 
stalk or rim of the calyx. Surface minutely and roughly wrinkled, and 
obtusely ribbed ; ribs varying from five to seven cells or cavities, two 
with thick woody walls, and covered with a yellowish grey, rather soft, 
and unctuous pulp. Within the cells are the seeds, small, hard, numerous, 
translucent, shining, and oblong, or rather kidney-shaped. Pulp is 
nauseous in taste, and the smell is similar to that of valerian. Dose of 
the pulp, IS to 20 grs. 

Constituents, — An active principle, saponin, valerianic acid, wax, 
resin and colouring matter. 

Preparations, — Infusion of seeds (i in ip). Dose, ^ to i fld. oz 
ethereal tincture (1 in 5). Dose, 15 to 60 ms. 

Actions and uses.— A good substitute for Ipecacuanha. The dry 
pulp is emetic, the thick shell and hard seeds are not emetic at all. 
The Native Hakims give the pulp in combination with aromatics 
in dysentery, fever (ague), headache, &c. It contains valerianic 
acid, hence the tincture is used as a nervine calmative and antispas- 
modic, in whooping cough and mania. The shell and seeds are cathartic 
and anthelmintic, and used to remove biliousness and worms in children. 
The fruit is used to procure abortion and as a fish poison like coculus. 
A paste of it is locally applied as a discutient to disperse swellings 
and abscesses. 

Remarks. — The Arabic name Jouzul-akai is also applied to nux 
vomica. 

Randia Uli^OBa, Posoqueria Uli^osa, Gardenia Uli^osa. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, India, in moist places. 

Parts used. — The unripe fruit. 

Vernacular. — Beng.— Chuvadi alu. Can. — Kare-pindalu. Guz. — 
Pinglu. Mar.— Pendhuri. — Hind. — Pedalu. Sans. — Pindhaluka- Tam. — 
Vagaia. Tel.— Guahu — Pedda-mranga ; Devota-malle ; Nalla-ika. 

Characters. — Flowers large, white, and fragrant, in 2 or 3, on the 
top of branchlets. Berry of tne size of an egg. ash coloured, or olive 
grey, 2-celled. Seeds flattish, adherent to the pulp fibres. Dose of the 
powdered fruit, 10 to 30 grs. 

Actions and uses. — Astringent, roasted in hot ashes they are used 
in diarrhoea and d}'seutery. 




RUBTA CORDrFO!JA, 



343 



Rabla CopdifoHa. R. Munjishtba, Heart leaved Madder, R* 
Tinctoria« R. Secunda. 

Habitat, — Hilly districts, S. Europe, Asia, Assam^ NepaK Sind, 
Siberia, and China, 

Parts wjr//.— The roots. 

Vfntaciilnr, — Arab. — Runas» Sabba-ghni. Beng. — Aruna, Manjith. 
Chin, — Si*tsau-ken.Can,^ — Manjushta, Guz. — Majith. Mar., Hind., Duk, 
— Manjtta. Eng.— Indian madder, Malyal. — Pooat, Pers,^ — Runis. 
Sans.— Kala Mashika* Tarn.— Manjithi, Shevelli. Teh— Manjishta, 
Mandastic, Tamravalli. 

Charucters. — The stem is square, rough, and covered with short 
prickles^ root creeping, short, with numerous cylindrical rootlets of the 
siie of quills, suber, brownish, and thin. Bark red brown, odour some- 
what aromatic, taste sweetish at first, then corky and acrid* Dose of 
the root, lo to 6ogrs. 

Cbw^/i/z/^w/j.— Resinous and extractive matter; gum, sugar, colour 
ing matter, and sahs of lime. The medicinal properties are due to 
resinous and extractive matters. The colouring matter consists of 
purpuriu, manjtstin, garancin, alizarin (orange red) and xanthine 
(yellow). 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in lo). Dose, f to i fld. oz. 

Actions and mes* — Alterative^ diuretic, emmenagoguc, and astrin- 
gent. In pharmacy it is used to colour liniments and ointment. The 
root is given in paralysis, dropsy, jaundice, amenorrhoea, and scanty 
lochia; extern.iily as an astringent it is locally applied to inflamed parts, 
swellings, ulcers, fractures, &c. Wrth honey it is applied to various 
disculorations nl the skin, as bruises, contusi^ons, pityriasis versicolor, 
leucodcrma and freckles. 

Spermaooce Hiapida, 8. Saabra. 

/^<;?3//fl/,'— Throughout India, 

Parts Ki^d^.— The plant. 

Vemacuiar* — Beng, — Madana-Banta-kadu. Eng. — Shaggy button- 
weed. Malyal, — ThartaveL Mar.— Ghanti*chi-b^ji, Dhoti, gondi. 
Sans.— Madanghanta. Tam.— Nutti choorie. TeL — Madana. 

Characters. — Herb scabrous, procumbent ; root fibrous ; leaves 
obovate, oblong, or elliptical with cartilaginous edges, and coriaceous; 
flowers small, blue or white, and in a whorl ; capsules, pubescent ; 
seeds oblong granulate and opaque. 

Preparations. — Decoction of the root (l in lo). Dose, i to l 8d» 
ozs. Confections of seeds. Do^e, ^ to I drs. 

Actions and USUI. — Alterative and tonic. The seeds arc cooling, 
iemulccnt and given in diarrhoea and dysentery. The root is alterative 

ind used like sarsaparUJa. 



344 NARDOSTACHYS JATABiANSI. 



Taagiitfia BfinouL, Meynia S^son. 

HahitaL — India . 

Farts used. — ^Thc fruit. 

Vtmacular. — ^Bombay — AIu. Beng. — ^Majoia. Can. — Maggare-gida. 
Hin<L — Pundrika, Pinditak, Bangaxiki-Iakri. Mar. — ChirchoH. 
Madandriksh. Sains. — Pinda, Pindilul^ Tarn. — Pedda-munga. TeL — 
Vadanike, Chega-gadda. 

Ckaractgrs. — Cymes of greenish flowers. Fruit a drupe, subglobose 
fleshy, and of the size of a cherry. Colour yellow when ripe. Odour 
terebinthinate. 

/Vi^Ai/wjw.— Decoction (i in 20). Dose, 2 to 6 drs. 

Actkns ami ms€S. — The fruit is rehigerant and cholagogue and used 
in biliary complaint with hepatic congestion. 



The jataminsi family. From valeo to be strong. In allusioo to 
the well marked medicinal properties and p^^werful smelL 

Herbs, leaves exsdoulate. opposite ; flowers, cymose. hermaphrodite 
or rarely unisexual. Fruit dry and indehiscent, frequently pappose. 
Seed pendulous, solitary, and ex-albuminous. 

Habitat — Native of temperate climates. 

l^rtip^ties. — Remarkable for the presence of a strong scented 
volatile oil. They are stimulant, tonic and antbpasmodic. 



Cdtiea (Sftidn qpica Gdtiea'. 

HaHUL — Alpine Himalaya* Asia. 
l\irts au^^ — ^The rhizome and oil. 

FmrftjLikltr. — Arab. — Ara-ttl-::be. >uTxb*il-aI-asp£re-hiade. Can. — 
Jata m;in»hi. Cing. — Jara mansi. Mar. Becig., Duk. — ^Jhata m-ina^i, 
bniilocan. Eng. — Musk rooc» Indian srikenari. Hizsd. — Jara masi. 
Kalsch.ftdj« sumbuL Rila chari. MalyaL — ^.feia zraixhi. Pers.. — Sombul- 
^-hindi. Bekh>i-sambal, Sins — Ta:a rr.ar.a-?i Bhoiake^C Pisitx. 
Tara^vini. Tam. — ^Jara mashi. TeL — JtCi Tr.nTshi 

Billi ls>tan \Duk^ \a sasre also i?cL*i :^ Acayrha Irkixa) means 
cat"* strugjc^* car » sure* -sec r.^ be voi :t :b^ pCxnc- Bh^rakesi Bhut. 
aJerooQ. aad kea. hair — iev-:> hi.r — fr-zi :be ^SiT'-isa 5Crjc§ 
m3kQ ot the rocckts whtch are I:ke hx:-. 

Cixr-A"jen* — Rhir^cein >hcr: rc^^"*^ arcci :>-e i?r.?ck!^5ss c? fcose 
q::tlA. oc a cark f^y ccJccr arc ?*^m Jwz:ec bv j. r,LZsiIe cf reciish 
livwa ibnes : ooccr heavy ard recvilia.r '.k;e i!ri: re rli^icul . rfece 
Ntter aod an^outSc l^rse. 1 5 : : 4.5 £•>«. 

Cimsi£ssbimSf^ — A vcitifjc cC oC*;:i=r -arirsar^jc^ -«£r. scuxr. starch 
better eisaAititic oskdcf, sad gss. 



V'^ALRRIANA OFKICTNALIS. 



345 



f^t/tarattons. — ^The oil. Dose, 2 to 6 ms. Tincture (i in 8). 
Dose, J to 2 fld. drs. Medicated oil. 

Actions (ind uses. — Same as those of valerian • In nervous 
disorders it is combined with asafetida ; in chlorosis with iron and 
strychnine ; taken habitually in small doses, it improves the appetite 
and digestion without confining the bowels, As an cmmenagogue 
it is very useful in amenorrho^a and dysmenorrhoea ; also used in 
cerebral ansemia, vertigo, or fainting, &c. 

Valeriana Officlnalla, B. P. 

Hahttat, — Europe, N. Asia, Sind, Burmah, Ceylon, New 
England, Vermont. 

Pttrts used, — The dried erect rhizome and roots. 

Vfrnmuiar. — Arab, — Sumbul-ul-asfar. Duk, — V^ilayeti jhata 
manasi, Eng. — True valerian. Hind. — Sugandha biU chhara* Pers, 
Sumbul-ul-tib. Sans. — Bdia Hrivera. 

( ^:f.— A large herbaceous plant, with small while rose- 

C0I0U1 ' 1% rhiiomc^hort, erect, dark or yellowish brown external- 

ly and whitish or yellowish internaJly. Roots numerous, slender and 
brittle ; colour same as that of the ihizome, odour aromatic and musk- 
like ; taste camphoraceous or somewhat pungent* Dose, 5 to 30 grs. 

ConsHtuettts. — A volatile oil 2 p-c^ valerianic acid, formic, acetic 
and malic acids, chatininc, tannin, starch, sugar, resin, gum and 
extractive. 

Oleum Valerianae — A volatile oil obtained by distilling the root 
with water. A pale green liquid, of a pungent, valerian-ltkc odour, and 
of an aromatic tasu and aciii reaction^ suluhle in alcohoK On exposure, it 
becomes vij^cid and yellow. By oxidation is developed valcrene, vaJeroi 
or baldrian camphor and valerianic acid. Dose, 2 to 5 ms. 

Valerianic acid,^ — An oxidation product. The volatile oil on expo- 
sure to the air becomes oxidized and converted into valerianic acid. 
It is also obtained as a product of oxid^ttion of amylic alcohol with 
sulphuric acid. It is an oily liquid, of a characteristic and sweet t;iste ; 
used in preparing various valerianate."!, as v-ilerianates of iron, zinc, 
ammonium and quinine. It also occurs in many other plants, and in 
cod liver oil. 

Preparutinns. — Of valerianic acid — Validol— a combination of 
valerianic acid and menthol, a clear viscid liquid. Dose, 10 to 15 ms, 

Iheparattons^ — Of valerian — Extractum Valerianae fluidum. Dose, 
10 to 30 ms. Infusion. Dose, 1 to 2 ounces, Tinctura Valerianae 
(l in 8). Dose, ^to i drs. Tinctura Valerianae ammoniata, 0, P*(l in 5). 
Dose, \ to I fld. dr. Zinci valcrianas. Dose, i to 3 grs. 

Actmns arid ust^, — General stimulant, anudytJe, hypnotic, anti- 
spasmodic, vermifuge and diaphoretic. It often stimulates sexual 
powers. As a sedative to reHcx excitability, its action is opposed to 
that of btucine, thebainc, and strychnine. In full doses it stimulates 
the heart, raises the temperature, and produces exhilaration of spirits 



34^ VALERIANA WALLICHII. 

If long continued it leads to melancholia. In very large doses it is a 
powerful irritant of the brain and of the gastro-intestinal tract, leading 
to nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, frequent passage of urine containing 
lithates. The oil paralyses the brain and the spinal cord, lowers the 
blood pressure and slows the pulse. Valerian is used in epilepsy, 
hysteria, hemicrania, nervous cough and hiccough. As a tonic it is 
given in fevers and low states of the system ; also given in whooping 
cough, diabetes, dysmenorrhoea, convulsions, worms and flatulence in 
children. In the coma of typhus fever the oil is very efficient. As 
an antispasmodic it is inferior to asafetida. 

Validol is used in asthma, hysteria, and as a preventive against sea- 
sickness. As a stimulant, antispasmodic, anodyne it surpasses valerian 
in energy and rapidity of action, and besides it has anaesthetic properties. 
As an hypnotic it produces sleep like morphia, and chloral hydrate 5 
minims are sufficient to produce tranquil sleep without any depressing 
action on the heart. It has been found very serviciable in biliary 
colic. 

Valeriana Walliohii, V. Hardwiokii, V. Brononiana. 

Habitat. — Temperate Himalaya. 

Parts used. — The rhizome. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Sumbul-jibali, Asaruma. Beng. — Taggera 
ganthoda. Bhutan. — Pimpe. Can. — Naudibattal. Hind. — Bila 
Taggar, Chhar ganthona, mushkwali. Ind. — Asarun. Panj. — Mushk- 
i-wali, vala, Bala. Pers. — Rishaiwala. Sans. — Pindi-tagara, Nandy& 
varta, Nandini, Varhini. Nahushakhya. 

Characters. — A fragrant herb, rhizomes short, knotty and about I 
to i^ inches long, diameter varying from that of a quill to that of a 
little finger, colour dark brown, surface highly wrinkled, and here and 
there marked with transverse ridges and prominent tubercles, or scars 
of fallen leaf-sheaths; lower end blunt, very hard and tough; upper end 
broad with traces of long stripe-like leaves ; odour, aromatic and 
pungent, resembling that of officinal valerian, but much more 
powerful; taste camphoraceous. 

Constituents, — The root contains volatile oil, tannin, glucose 
resin, albuminoids, starch, &c. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 20). Dose, J to i fl. oz. 

Actions and uses. — Stimulant, nervine tonic, antispasmodic and 
sedative ; used in hysteria, headache, epilepsy, chorea ; also in suppres- 
sion of urine. As a stimulant it is given in advanced stages of fever, &c. 

Composite or Asteracese. The Thistle or the Sevati family. 

Shrubs or herbs, rarely trees, forming almost the tenth part of the 
described vegetable kingdom ; leaves opposite, alternate, and exstipulate, 
simple or lobed; flowers variegated, hermaphrodite, unisexual or neuter, 
and arranged in capitula ; fruits achene, dry and indehiscent, one- 
celled ; seeds solitary, erect, and ex-albuminous. 



ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM. 347 

Habitat. — Universally distributed, abundant in hot climates. 

Properties. — Many are bitter and tonic; some purgative and 
anthelmintic; others stimulant and narcotic; some contain volatile oil 
and are diaphoretic, aromatic and carminative. 

Achillea Millefoliam, A. Mo8ohata» A. SantoUna. 

Habitat. — W. Himalaj^a^ N. America, 

Parts useti.'^The flowering tops and leaves. 

Vernaculars. — Bomb. — Roja mari, Eng.— Nose-bleed, yarrow. 
Egypt. — Barbara. Indian. Bazars. — Riranjasif. Panj. — Rui-Madaran, 
Momadra, Capendiga. Pers. — Bui-e-Madar;\n. 

Characters, — Perennial herb, stems hairy and furrowed ; leaves alter- 
nate. soft, hairy, linear, dentate, lanceolate; globular beneath; and nine 
to twelve inches long, segments toothed and of a dark green colour. 
Flowers white and corymbose Fruit achene, odour feeble, aromatic, 
like that of chamomile. Taste bitterish, saline and aromatic. 

Cottstituents. — Yarrow yields on distillation, a dark green coloured, 
butyraceous volatile oil, a bitter extractive — achillein, hIso resin, 
tannin, gum, and various salts as malatcs, nitratcn. phosphates and 
chlorides of potassium and calcium, and ash, 15 to 18 p.c. 

Achillea Moschata contains a volatile oil known as Jvaol. of a 
refreshing odour and mint-like taste ; it also contains ivain, achillcine, 
achilletine and moschatine. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. Volatile 
oil. Dose, 10 to 20. Decoction (i in 20), Dose. 1 to 2 fld. o/s. 

Actions and uses. — Medicated vapour bath containing yarrow, 
lavender flowers, wheat bran, and milk is used in nasal catarrh and fever. 
It has a specific action on the pelvic organs and used in amenorrhfca, 
menorrhagia, and Icucorrha-a. As a bitter tonic it is given during 
convalescence from fevers, and in atonic dyspepsia to promote appetite. 
Its chief use is in relaxation of the sphinctor ani with discharge of 
mucns or blood during defecation. The infusion is applied to relaxed 
throat and sore nipples with benefit. 

ABthemift HobOit, B.P^ llatrieaiia Chanumillku 

Habitat. — Europe, N. India, Persia, W. Asia, and Australia. 

Part^ used, — The dried expanded flower heads, Anthem idis florcs, 
chamomile flowers, B. P., and oil, oleum anthemidis, B. P. 

Vernacular.^ Xx'kh — TufFah -ul-arz, Shajrat-el-kafur, BahiinAj 
(flower). Chin, — Kau-kiuh-hwa. Can. — Shime-Shy^-Mantijje 

Eng. — True Chamomile. German Chamomile (matricaria). Guz., 
\far.. Hind. — Babund. Maiyal. — Shima-Jevcnti. Pers. — Babi^nah. 
Tam. — Chiiman duppu, Tel. — Sima — chamanri push pamu. 

Shajrat-ei-kat'ur. Shajrat, plant, and Kafur, camphor. The ''cam- 
phor plant,'* the odour of its flowers being like that of camphor. 



3#^ jtarcsBxs^ iudsoijs^ 

QmrmOesn^ — Aa jannoLl jussl Tht tna^ irmmuia yiecgi rfatqo 

fitnwrt &aimgxbtenau. bdcsII, Trinii:, or iKarhr vini* in cciioxxr^ broad and 
iaterjw - ixxvuttxcrt vii r cir 5 ri^wt zf imkzmg araca and obmse scalar 
^1-21^ a xntTistraDCiw Toazg^ sue i: LrvmcaQ and fioHd TcoepgJcV, 
iiu]Q:>w is xcxmsaraL Fjoreii^ hgp'taK- anc atinLCs of stroi^ jcrcniiatic 

CiMEst^!aE€«^. — ^A Tolank: c£: 3 jui^ axcfbtanexic, arnt^fgnk arid, a 

OxasBGomk; cal. ct^nm *Tv»^*«*wT \rK«> £. P. Tlit xiilaxile cil is a 
d&cnk Hof:, u£ii« irsmspicrf-ixu ibkikifjih li^idd. In* tt«ygrg Iracaniit g 
jE7t«SD and brcnro, c<f 21 fiiTciiig ascazx and varm. arcimatic taste. 
PoDSJom aslhtaiKjiL Dqul } to 5 ics. JLdiIkudc^ — lo ohtaxn it 
ci'fiaim fihaTciQiPDak: fio^verf arxni iion arBtir arad... iaiimrm laif, and 
j/mapaSMie iht prK^dzxcn wjah a]cc«bcu ssiZ crapome — occm as 



cnittaK ix&cilBlxfe is alcchdL tshw, d^drctionzu scihaii^ is aoBtic mad, 
TI)« ime dxasioimle ooQ caoudiKs Taraoa^ erhcy% as ii>e az^«^es and 
raVerianaus of bmrl- Doie, r ms. cm sxtgar. 

PrefmrmtKon. — I nfu t aunB arnhfTTridis <^i in 3c). Dcse^ i to 4 fid. 
oziu Ejmacnan autbcnddis. B-P. Dcse, r 10 !^ grs. Ti3ictiiTa amlie- 
xoiis (] is 2^ Dose, 3 to lo ms. 

PIntifjhipcal acti^m^ — S:onnafhir ionic, carnnsaiiTe, emmesiagogiie 
and aDtipmodic. As a siimnlasi of tbe g^uic ssscons locmbnne, 
2t increases tbe appelate and aids digestico. 

Therapeutics. — It is given is fiatokzii colSc, drsf^epsia, dilorosis, 
amenoniMca asd during convakscesce frc^na acute febrile and dhcr 
dihcasc^ The varm infosjOG causes Txmiting. hence it is given in colic, 
biliary derangements, periodic headache and to ocnfermed dnmiiards 
and hearj ginttc^is. ThecoM infasion is a stomachic tooic and given in 
indigestioo, flatolenoe, and summer diarrhonu As an antiperiodic it is 
given in malarious fe%*crs. Fomentation of chamomile iiowers is a very 
soothing application to rdeve local co-icky pains. The oil is a stimu- 
lant and antispasmodic and is given internally to rdiere reflex 
coagfa, pulmonary caurrh. diarrhoea of children, spasmodic asthma, 
and whooping cough ; also in d\^meix>rTho» and in hysteria. W*ith 
other stimulating liniments it is applied over sprains and rheumatic 
afiections. 

Anaejdvs Pjrntinm, B. P. 

Pyrethrum from p}TOs, fire. The roots having fiery spicy taste. 

Habitat. — N. Africa, .Algeria, and Europe. 

Parts mud. — The dried root, Pyrethri Radix^ B.P. Pyrethrum root 
or Peilitory. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — .Akara-Karhi, ud-el Karih-Jibbali- Hind. 
Guz., Mar., Duk., Beng. — Akalkara. Bcm. — Mitho Akalararo. Burm. 
— Kukaiji or Kulayi. Can. — Akkalakare. Eng. — Spanish peilitory, 



ANACYCLUS PYRETHRUM. 



349 



Indian fever root. Spanish Chammonile* MalyaL — Akke Karuka, 
Pers.— Akar-Karah. Sans.— Akara-Karabha. Tarn .—Akkira-Karam, 
TeK — Akala-Karra. 

Characters* — The root resembles the narrow end of sambarasinga. 
It is long, compact, tapering at both extremities. The crown of the 
root is covered with a tuft of hairs ; also shrivelled and marked with a 
few scars of fallen rootlets ; surface smooth and marked with longi- 
tudinal, or irregular furrows ; colour light brown ; on section homo- 
geneous and pithy in the centre where the colour is whitish. The taste 
is rather sweet at first and then becomes hot. acrid or pungent, acridity 
depending on a fixed acrid oleo resin, deposited in vesicles in the bark. 
It produces a glowing heat in the mouth» followed by a tingling and 
pncking sensation on the tongue and lips. Dose, 30 to 60 grs. as a 
masticatory. 

Constituents, — Pyrethrin— -an acrid brown resin, Pyrethrinc 5 px, 
«^am alkaloid, 2 fixed oils, inultn 50 p,c., gum, salts, a trace of tatinin, 

Prrpara(mns*—V^eQOQim\\ Pyrethri (1 in lo). Dose, 2 to 4 fid, 
drs. Tinctura Pyrethri B. P, (tins). Dose, ^ to 1 dr, Confectio 
Pyrelhri, ** Akara Kara-bhadi churana " — contains akalkaro^ kesara, 
jaeplial, lavang, rakta chandan, each 2 drs., afim, i dr„ dhaturii- 
na bij i dr., mix, add siikar 6 drs. Dose, 6 grs. As ati aphrodisiac. 

f^ysiologicai action, — Stimulant, rubefacienti irritant and siala- 
gogue ; locally rubefacient. When chewed it at first irritates or 
stimulates the nerves and vessels of the mouth, salivary and buccal 

5 lands and then deadens and blunts their sensibility. In small 
o&es it is stimulant and cordial. As a maslicatary sialagogue it 
produces pricking sensation in the tongue, with heat, pungency and 
copious flow of saliva, cuubtriclion in the fauces and increased buccal 
mucus. In large du^es it is an irritant of the mucous membrane of 
the intestines, causing bloody stools, tetanoid spasms and profound 
stupor. The pulse becomes accelerated* 

Therapeutics, — The infusion is given with lesser galangal and 
ginger in low states of the system with drowsiness and lethargy. The 
tincture is given in neuralgic head ache, toothache due to caries, in 
paralysis of the tongue and in neuralgia of the face ; as a local 
aojcsthetic gargle or lotion or a mouth wash it is used in sore throat, 
relaxed uvula, aphonia, &c. Aa a sternutatory, the powder is inhaled in 
chronic catarrh u\ the frontal sinuses. The confection is given in im* 
potence and in chronic seminal weakness. As a sialagogue it is an 
etTicient remedy in chronic iodine poisoning where it secures a prompt 
and rapid elimination. 

Pyrelhrum Roseum — P. Carneum* Persian Pellitory — Persian 
sweet powder. The plant resembles chamomile and is found in 
Western Asia and Persia, The powder of flower heads is used 
for kilimg insecu, 4 grs. is sufficient to kill one fly. 



350 ARNICA MONTANA. 

Arotinm Lappa, L. Major, L. Minor, L. Tomentosa, 
Lappa offloinalis. 

Grass Burdock, Lappa clotbur. 

Habitat, — Europe, N. Asia, and United States, Temperate Zone. 

Parts used, — The fruit, root and seeds. 

Characters, — It is a biennial weed common on road-sides and 
waste places. The root is about twelve inches or more long and about 
one inch thick, nearly simple, fusiform, fleshy, longitudinally wrinkled 
and crowned with a tuft of whitish soft, hairy leaf stalks, of a grey brown 
colour, bark rather thick ; inner part and soft wood radically striated, 
parenchyma studded with cavities, and lined with snow-white remains 
of fibrous tissues ; odour feeble, and unpleasant, taste mucilaginous, 
sweetish and somewhat bitter ; seeds angular, obovate, slightly curved, 
flattened and brown grey mottled with black. Dose of the root, 20 to 
60 grs. 

Constituents, — The root contains inunlin, a trace of volatile oil, 
bitter extractive, sugar, resin, fat 9 p.c. tannin, glucoside and ash 4 p.c. 
The seeds contain oil, resins and lappin. 

Preparations, — Of the root. Extractum Lappae Fluidum. Dose, 
J to I fld. dr. Decoctum Lappa (1 in 20). Dose, i to 2 fld. ozs. 
of the seed. Tinctura Lappa (10 p.c.) Dose, i to 2 fld. drs. before 
meals. 

Actions and uses, — Alterative, aperient, diuretic and diaphoretic; 
used in scrofula, constitutional syphilis, skin diseases as psoriasis, 
scurvy and in copious urinary deposits ; also pulmonary catarrh, 
gout and rheumatism ; externally the decoction is uselul for baldness, 
haemorrhoids and chronic sores. 

Amioa Montana, B. P. 

Mountain arnica, mountain tobacco, leopard's bane, accident 
plant. Accident plant from its use in cases of sprains, contusions, con- 
cussions due to accidents. 

/^tf^i/tf/.— Indigenous to European Mountains, Germany, Siberia, 
Switzerland, Alps, Missouri, Columbia. 

Parts used, — Flower heads — Arnicae Flores; and the dried Rhizome 
and roots, Arnicae Rhizoma, B. P. 

Characters, — Perennial plant, flowers large, orange yellow and 
broad, involucre in two rows, receptacle, flat and hairy, odour 
aromatic. Taste pungent and bitter. Rhizome with several rootlets 
thick, brown, curved and wrinkled, rough from the scars of leaflets ; 
dark brown, externally and whitish internally ; bark thick containing 
a circle of resin-cells, and a large spongy pith. Rootlets thin, not 
numerous ; odour aromatic, taste acrid and bitter, distinguished from 
valerian by its smell ; from serpentaria from the latter having many 
contorted rootlets ; from Veratrum, from thick rootlets. Dose — 
Flowers, 5 to 20 grs. Rhizome, 2 to 20 grs. 



ARKKA MONTANA 



351 



O-.r: ■ — The flowers contain Arnicin — a glucoside, 

Irimeth, an ammoniacal alkaloid and the active principle, 

volatile oil, rtsins, and salt?.. The rhizome contains in addition 
capronic and caprylic acids* Inulin lo p.c, tannin, an essential oil, 
and mucilage. Arnicin. To obtain it — pass the tincture through anitnal 
charcoal and evaporate. Add clher to the residue which dissolves, 
arnicin and fat ; shake with alcohol to dissolve arnicin. It occurs as 
ycflow amorphous miss ; of an acrid taste, soluble in alcohol, ether 
and alkalies, very sparingly so in water. 

/V^/^m/ib«5.^Tinctura arnicse florura ii in 5). Dose^ 5 to 30 ms. 
Infasum arnicx florum (i in 5). Dose, \ to 1 tid. 02. 
Best for local use as it does not excite dermatites. It is free from 
the volatile oil and from arnicin. Tinctura Arnica; Radicis B. P. (1 in 
20), DoAc, i 10 ] fld, drs. Extractum Arnicse. Dose, \ to 3 grs. Emplas- 
trum Arnicas Radicis, 33 p.c. of the root to 67 p*c. of lead plaster. 

Phystohgical action, — Gastric and intestinal irritant, cardiac 
stimula'nti antipyretic, and sternutatory ; also diuretic and 
emmenagogue. In small doses taken internally it stimulates the 
heart beat and raises the arterial tension* In large doses it at first 
stimulates but soon depresses the circulation, respiration and the 
nerve centres ; it gives rise to headache, convulsions and even 
unconsciousne^, paralysis of motion, with dilataiion of the pupils, It 
often leads to collapse and death. 

77ufa/>ftJitcs, — As an antipyictic u is used in typliu% and typhoid 
fevers, also given in concussion nf the brain, in chronic catarrh, and in 
internal haemorrhages as epistaxiiSj liactnoptysis, &c., as a diuretic it is 
given in gout» rheumatism and dropsy. As an ernmenagogue it is 
given in amcnorrha^a and chlorisis ; also tor internal bi uisc«^, in chronic 
diarrhciea, dysentery and in paralysis of the bladder* Locally its 
infusion is applied to sprains, contusions, cchymosis, kc. The solu- 
tion is used to promote union of cut surfaces. 

JlrtemUla Jlbstnihium, &. Vulgaris, A. Indioa, A. Grata. 

Uabtttit. — Waste places on chalky soiU, Nepal, China, Japan. 
Indigenous in Europe, Asia and mountainous districts of India, 
cultivated in the United States. 

Parts usttL — The dried herb, leaves and flowering tops. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Afsantin-e-hindi, Kashus-Rumi. Duk.,Guz., 
eng — Mastaru, Nagdoni. Can,— Utuvalu, Urigatlige j Machi patri, 
ig. — Walko-gundo. Eng* — Wormwood, Mugwort (A. Vulgaris). 
Hind. — Machiparna Guud-mar mastaru, Duna murwa* Mal^ — Tiru- 
oitri-pachcha^ Mar» — Surpana. Pers. — Barunji^sif-i-kohi, Artemas^saya, 
Sans.— (ndhana. Tarn. — ^Machi pattiri. leh — Tartiha, Moshe*patre* 

ChtiracUrs, — Bundles of the dried herbs of a brownish white or 
ash colour, of a s-ilky touch, leaves tnfitl, or simple, pinnatifid, and 
tomentose on the under surface ; flower heads small yellow in racemef*, 
hoary and ashy on their under surface, pannicled» and ovate; smell 



352 ARTEMISIA MARITIMA. 

agreeable and aromatic, due to the volatile oil it contains, taste bitter. 
Dose of the herb, 15 to 30 grs. 

Constituents, — Volatile oil, a bitter extractive matter — absinthin ; 
tannin, resin, succinic acid, matates and nitrates of potassium &c., 
and ash 7 p.c. The volatile oil is obtained by distillation. 
It is a dark green liquid of a strong carophoraceous odour and 
aromatic taste. It contains Thujone or absinthol, terpenes 2 p.c, and 
a deep blue oil. Absinthin — to obtain it precipitate the infusion with 
tannin. It is an intensely bitter white or yellowish brown amorphous 
glucoside, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, slightly so in ether, insoluble 
in water. The odour is camphoraceous. 

Preparaitotts. — Extract. Dose, i to 4 grs. Oil. Dose, i to 3 ms. ; 
Tincture (i in 8). Dose, ^ to 2 fid. drs. Infusion (i in 10). Dose, 
^to 1 fid. oz. Vinum Aromaticum absintheum (i p.c.) or absinthe, a 
French liquor — It is an alcoholic solution of the oil containing marjoram, 
angelica, anise, etc. 

Actions and uses. — The oil is a narcotic poison if long used. It 
stimulates the heart and the brain, gives use to tremors, stupor, 
epileptic-form convulsions, stertor, involuntary passage of urine 
and fiaeces, &c. It irritates the stomach and gives rise to morning 
nausea and vomiting. As a local sedative the herb steeped in hot 
vinegar is used as fomentation to the head in cephalalgia, to the 
joints in gout or rheumatism, and over painful sprains and bruises. 
Absinthium is a bitter, stomachic tonic ; it increases appetite 
and promotes digestion ; given in dyspepsia ; as a febrifuge, it is 
inferior to clerodendron inerme. It is also given in hysteria, in 
spasmodic affections as epilepsy, in nervous irritability and in nervous 
depression; also in mental exhaustion. As an enema its infusion is 
used as an anthelmintic. 

Remarks, — A, Sieversiana differs from Artemisia Indica in its 
odour, which is more aromatic and camphoraceous, and its flowers 
more ashy and tomentose. 

Artemisia Maritima Tar. Steohmanniana, B.P., A. Santonioa, 

A. Pauoiflora. 

Habitat. — N. Turkestan, Khurdistan, Plains of Kirghiz, Asia 
Minor. 

Parts used, — The dried unexpanded flowering heads and young 
branches (Santonica). 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Shih, sariphima, afsant-el-bahara. Eng.— 
Levant worm seed. Mar., Guz, — Kira-mani-ova, Kir-mani-ajmo. 
Hind. — Kirmali. Pers. — Darmanah. Sans. — Juviiniya, Gadadhara. 

Characters. — A small perennial plant, flowers oblong, ovoid, obtuse, 
smooth, glossy, greyish green, on exposure becoming light brown, yel- 
low or brown, consisting of closely imbricated involucre 12 or 18 glan- 
dular scales with broad midrib, very small, elliptical, numerous florets 



ARTEMISIA 



(TA. 



353 



buds, flowering axils and pieces of very slender stems covered with a 
white down ; smell ;igreeable and aromatic, taste bitterish and mint- 
Uke. Dose, i; to 60 grs. 

Cntistitufftts. — ^V^olatile oil 2 p.c, (of a peculiar smell and tastei ; a 
crystalline substance santoninum, or santonin 2 p.c* ; resin, sugar, fat, 
and salts of lime. 

Santoninum, santonin, B.P., a neutral principle ; to obtain it 
|i|{est flower heads in alcohol and sUked lime^ evaporate, then atld 
^acetic acid when santouine will be separated. Met with in white shining 
crystals or prisms, odourless, of bitter after-taste, neutral reaction, 
becoming yellow on exposure to the air and light. Scarcely soluble in 
cold water, sparingly so in boiling water (i in 250), soluble in 
chloroform (i in 4), in cold alcohol (i in 40), ether (i in 140) and in 
bolting alcohol (1 in 3) freely so in solution of caustic alkalies, DosCi 
a to 5 grst 

Preparaiiom, — Infusion (1 in 20) of flowering heads. Dose, I to 
2 fld* ozs, Trochlscus santonin, B.P, (1 gr. in each), 

PhYsioh^kitl rtr//>;m.— ''I'aken internally it passes into the blood 
as sodium santonruate, and alTects the ^i^ht, objects appearing bluet 
green, red, and lastly yellow. It renders the urine Jf acid, ofagrcen 
yellow colour, and if alkaline, reddish purple. It aho produces cneurests. 
If long continued it may lead to blindnt'ss. In large and poisonous 
doses it acts upon the brain, heart and rcHpiratiun, disturbs consci- 
ousness* produces intoxication, tremors, cold surface, cold sweats, feeble 
pulse, slow respiration, vomiting, convulsions and death by asphyxia* 

Therapeutics, — The itrlusion is given in flatulence, amenorrhrra and 
dyspepsia ; locally a poultice of the flower buds is used to relieve pain 
from the bites of scorpions and other venomous reptiles, Santonine^ — the 
active principle does not kill worms, but its presence being distasteful to 
them, u causes ihem tolly away from their resting place and lodge 
in the large inieslines from which they are dislodged by a purgative 
such as calomel or castor oil the next morning. It may be used 
as suppository against round worms, but it has no enect against 
tape worms ; often given for nodurnaJ incontinence of urine 
with bene^t. It should not be given to children during fever, Dor 
in constipation* 

AFtemisia Sieversiana. 

The fresh herb is used in Persia, and is cultivated in Bandora, 
near Bombay. The PorttJguese know it by the name of Ajtarona. 
Stem erect, suffrulicose. Leaves ashy, tomentose beneath, lower ones 
pinnatifid, upper trifid. Heads of flowers racemose, pannicled* Dose^ 15 
to 60 grs. It contains absenihatc of pota:»h, a bitter substance, and a 
green volatile oil ; used as an infusion (1 m 20), Dose, 2 to 6 drs. The 
herb is a tonic, stimulant, febrifuge, and anthelmiirtic — locally it is 
an antiseptic and discutient. It is given in jaundice, dropsy, gout and 
hysteria. 

Artemisia Frigida. 

Mountain sage, found in Western United States. Used as the 
powdered herb, dose, i to 2 drs, ; and fluid extract, dose, I tea drs. 



354 BLUMEA BALSAMIFERAa 

Actiom afid tises. — A new substitute for quinine. It produces no 
head symptoms, such as ringing in the ears, deafness and temporary 
delirium. Given in rheumatism, sciatica, neuralgia and general 
malaise. In rheumatism, scarlet fever, diphtheria, &c., it is given hot 
until perspiration and urination are established. 

Artemisia Steraatatoria, A. Pkannioa, Gentipeda orbaoolavis. 

HahitaL — Plains of India, Ceylon. 

Parts used. — ^The plant. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Afkar. Beng. — Naka chhikani. Enjj,— 
Sneeze-wort. Guz. — Chhikani. Hind. — Naka chhikani. Ind. — 
Hachitte. Mah. — Naka chinkani. 

Characters. — The drug consists of broken pieces of stems or 
stalks of a light ash or brown colour, furr-owed and woody ; of pieces of 
numerous wedge-shaped leaves which are sessile, dentate and villous, 
and of flower heads which are hermaphrodite, small, roundish, of a 
yellow colour, and surrounded by oval bracts. The odour is pungent, 
taste acrid, and bitterish. 

/V^um/ibiw.— Compound powder, known as Nak-chhikni, contain- 
ingN&k chhikni 2, Arithi-Chhala 2, Navsagar, Tambakhu, saphed miri, 
kadavi turai, and kali chuno, each one part — mix and make a powder. 

Actions and uses. — Its powder is used as a sternutatory in headache, 
cold in the head, giddiness, hemicrania &c. 

Blomea Balsamifara, B. Densiflora, Conyza BalsamifiNrat, Conyia 
Odorata, Baooharis Salma. 

Z^tf^tto/.— Tropical Himala3ray Burma, Eastern Peninsula, Fiji 
Islands, Ceylon, and Moluccas. 

Parts used. — The plant. 

FirriuicKAir.— Beng. — Kuksungh. Burm. — Pungmatheing. Chin. 
Ngai. Cochin China. — Kaidaibi. Hind. — Kukronda. Java. — Sum- 
bun. Malay. — Bonga chappa. Sans. — Kukundara Kukkura-dni. 
Kukkuradru — meaning dog's bush. 

Characters. — Shrubby plant, branches erect, covered with coloured 
bark ; leaves alternate, short petioled, lanceolate, serrate and pinnati- 
fid, downy beneath ; flowers, small and yellow, odour like that of worm- 
wood and camphor, taste pungent. Dose, of the powdered leaves, 
I tea drs. 

CoHstitutnts. — A volatile oil having the odour of wormwood, and 
a camphor, called Ngai camphor, similar to Borneo camphor. 

P^parations. — Infusion of the plant (1 in 10). Dose, i to i fld. 
oa« A compound decoction ^i in 10} containing Blumea Bdisamifera, 
Vitex Negundo^ Careya aiborca, citrus acida, ot each one part. Dose 
I to a oxs. 



BLUMRA RRfANTHA. 



3SS 



Ac/ions and //jii-f.-- Diaphoretic, expectorant, anthelmintic and 
astringent, A compound decoction h given in fevers and catarrhal aflTec* 
tions ; also in dysentery, diarrhoea, chronic uterine^ and other dischargesi 
leucorrhcBa, menorrhagia, 8tc. It is used in thread worms and tinea 
tarsi* As a deobsiruent and resolvent it is used in Bengal in disease 
of the nose known as ahwah. The oil is highly esteemed as a remedy 
for renal dropsy. In coryza the powder of the leaves is used as snuff, 
and also given internally as a stomachic and antispasmodic in colic, 
hysteria, &c. The camphor is used for the same purposes as ol^cinil 
camphor. 

Blatnea Eriantha, B. Laoera, Lag|6ra Aurita, B. Aurila* 

Habitat, — Western and Southern India, Ceylon* 

I\irts used* — The plant. 

Vernacular — Arab. — Kami phitus. Burm. — Mai-ya-giu* Duk, 
— Devari Muli, Jangli kasni. Guz. — Chancharman, Kalar. Hind. — 
Kakrunda. Mar. — Nimurdo, Bhamburdi. Tarn. — K4ttu Mullangi, 
Niirak Karan-doi. TeL — Kiru-pdgaku» Adavl Mullangi, 

Chanchermari — Chmichar^ a flea, and mari, to kilL in allusion 
to its property of killing fleas. Bhiimbhurdtt and Chancharmuri are 
names indiscriminately applied to all Blumcas. Divarimuli, from 
Divar or Dival, a w all, and muli, the root, in allusion to the root 
or the plant being generally found near the walls of ruinous buildings 
or in graveyards. Adavi Niallangi — Adavi, small, and Mullan, a radish 
— a small radish, in allusion to the resemblance of its leaves and root 
to a small radish, Jungli muli — Jungli, wild, and muli, radish. 

Characters, — ^The plant is remarkable for the clusters of globose 
and woolly buds near the crown of the root. Flowers yellow, odour 
thai of carraways. 

Cfinstiiuenis, — Rei-in, volatile oil, tannin, malic acid, and a crystal- 
line principle allied to quercitrin. and ash H 3 p.c, of brown colour^ and 
containing a trace of manganese and iron. 

Pte^aratifjHs, — Infusion (i in. 10). Dose, ^ to 1 lid. ou The herb 
is used to drive away fleas. 

Actiofis and uses. — The juice is carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic 
and emmenagogue ; given in catarrhal affections, fevers, amenorrhcea. 
[ leucorrhcea, &c. The herb with the leaves of Vitex Nugunds and Careya 
Irborea is used for fomentations. 

Calendula OflSoinalis* 

Syn* — Garden Marigold, Marybud Calendula. 

Habitat. — S. Europe, cultivated everywhere. 

Parts used. — The floreU and fresh leaves* 

Characters. — The florets are wide, linear, strap-shaped, j-toothed, 
E>f an orange yellow colour, and of a slight heavy odour and a bitter 
liBe taste. Dose, 15 to 60 grs. 



356 CARTHAMUS TICTORnTS. 

Comhtunts. — A volatile oil, bitter amoiphons pruKiple 
calendulin, sugar, gam. Calendulin is a gnrnmy principle allied to 
Bassorin. It is yellow and tasteless, soluble in alcohol and swells into 
a jelly with water. 

Pnparatifins. — ^Tincture (i in 5). Dose, | to i fid. dr. Fluid 
extract. Dose, 5 to 30 ms. Decoction (i in io\ Dose, i to a 
ozs. Ointment, i to o. Insufflation amtains Tincture i niin« and 
boric acid 4 grs. 

Actmns mmd uses. — Stimulant* tonic aud febrifuge ; given in scro- 
fula, low fevers, amenorrhoea and jaundice ; externally the lotion is used 
in otitis As an embrocation the tincture is used in sprains and bruises. 
The ointment is used for incised wounds, bums and ulcers. It pro* 
motes cicatrization with but little suppuration. 

CmHiiamiis netorins; C. (teyeantha; Cvoeas ladkas. 

HmhitaL — ^Throughout India. 

Ikaris msea. — ^The plant, seeds and flowers. 

remacM/mr, — Eng. — Safflower, Parrot seed. Arab. — Zurtum, 
Usfiar, Bair-el-ahris. Beng. — Kajirefa. Burm. — Hsoo. Can. — Kusumbe. 
Guz. — Kasumboc Hind. — Kasumba Rar. Mar. — KardL Pers.— > 
Khasaka danih, Razirah. Sans. — Kamalottara. Tarn. — Seodur Kum. 
Tel. — ^Agni sikha. 

CiiMFmeiers. — ^Annual herb : leaves bnuadied, lanceolate, and 
spinose ; flowers, orange red, coroUa tubular. Flower heads of a saffroo 
coloor and surrounded by numerous !ea^ bracts : seeds white, angular, 
smooth, and shining like little cooch sbetts, broad at the base and 
pointed towards the apex, apex marked with ooocentric rings^ Near 
the base is a small brownish scar : cot3riedofis. greyish and ochr : odoor 
slight, taste better. 

Cpmst^memtt. — ^The flowef s mntain a red colouring principle 
carthamin, a yellow cokxiring matter, ceHnlose. extractive matters* 
albumeSt silica, manganese, inxi. &c^ the seeds contain a £xed oil. 

/VrjMfwikiBW. — Inluskiu and dccoctsoo { i ia 2o\. Dose. ^ to 2 
oas^ Medicated ctl — the p£act boued ia sesamom oti. 

ArCtizMS ^md msts. — The seeds are pargativ«. The medkated oil is 
localhr ^if^lkd to rheumatk and patnrcL iocnpi^ paraSvtx hmbs and 
iDtractabie ukciv The hoc infusico cc tir^ec llcwen b gives as a 
diaphocelic ia jaundxe, nasal catarrii aai mnssouar rbeoBu^sssn. A 
oc^ iotusf-od b used as a Uxarive aai tocic in aaeasjes asi icirLadna to 
f xTocr efiorescence off c m y cie c k . 

KtmMrts^ — The Vcit^cs hai« the profcrtr tc c-rcLe milk like 
resnet. hence it can he wsed in m a k^ j: cbeese.' It i:^ a:sc extessivelj 
Qsed If >:« d}nein£ red tape. 






CHRYSAKTHEMIJM CORONARIUM. 



357 



Vcrnacttiar. — Arab,— Bahaman Abiad. BottibM Hind. — Saphcd 
bahamen. Eng.— White Rhapootic, White Behen. Pers,— -Bahaman- 
i-suphcd. BAhman or Brahtnan means supreme intelligence. Baman 
is also the name of the eleventh Persian month and of the second day 
of each month. 

Characters, — The roots are of a light brown colour, and i or 2 

inches in length. They are rather twisted, shrivelled and having two 

■ ^t three branches at their lower portion. The upper end of the root 

blunt where it is marked with blackish rings, which are the remnants 

&f sheath-leaves. In some the remains of leaf buds are seen 

ffesembling in shape a bunch of grapes ; on section^ it is whttc» 

homogeneous, and starchy* The odour ts rather aromatic ; taste 

^mucilaginous and sweetish. 

Constituents, — Fat, sugar, gum, and ash. 

Preparations.-'DtQOQiion (i in ao). Dose, ^ to i fid. ox. 
Confection (i in 5). Dose, i to 2 drs. 

Actions and uses, — As a diuretic, it is given in calculous afTec- 
tions and jaundice. As a mild aperient, it is used like rhubarb. It is 
a good substitute for sapheda inusali, and used in seminal debility, &c. 

Cintaurea Benedicta^ Carduus Benediotus^ CnicuB Benediotns. 
An annual plant cultivated in Europe. It contains cnicin, an 
imorphous bitter principle. It is used as tincture (1 in fo). Dose, | 
lo I ^T, Cnicus is bitter tonic» antiperiodic, and irritant of the 
ah*mentary tract* causing burning sensation and constriction in the 
throat, nausea, vomiting, colicky pain and diarrhoea. The seeds are 
used as a bitter tonic, like calumba, gentian^ taraxacum, &c. 

ChrysanthemDm Coron&ritim, C RoxborghlL 

Habitat, — Mediterranean regions and India* 
^^»r^s used, — The flower heads. 

Vernacniar, — Beng., Hind*, Guz. — Sevati, Guldiudi. Can,— 
ShyAvantigc-huvu. Duk. — Guledaudi» Eng.— Christmas flower* 
.Mah.— Shcvanti. Maly. — j6vanti-pCiva. Sans.— Shevantika, Tarn. — 
^Shimantippu. Tel. — Ch^manti. 

Characters* — Dried flowering heads of a pale brown colour ; coroUas 
in some detached, in others overlapping the whole flower heads. 
Within the corollas are silky bracts, large or small, and of a white or 
yellow colour. When fresh, the odour is very sweet and agreeable, 
taste bittcri*h and rather mucilaginous. When chewed for a long time, 
tingling sensation is produced on the tongue like that produced by 
Lpyrethrum. 

Preparations, — Infusion (f in 10). Dose, ^ to 1^ fld. oz. 

Actions and wsfj.— As a diuretic, it is given in uric acid diathesis j 
nbiacd with kilkld miri it is used as a demulcent for gonorrhoea; 
■^Olher uses similar to those of chamomile flowers for which it is a 
substitute. 



358 CICHORIUM INTYBUS. 

Ciohorlum IntybuB, Wild Suooory or Chicory (Eng.). CSohMrliim 

EndiYia. 

Habitat. — Persia and Europe, cultivated in India. 

Parts used. — The seeds and root. 

Vernacular — Kasani. Arab.— Shikoriah. Hind., Bomb., Beng.^ 
Hinduba, kftsni. Chin. — Ku-tsai, kuku. Eng. — Endive, chicory. 
Mar. — Kachani. Pers. — Kasni, Ambuboia. Tel. — K^sini-viltulu. 
Tarn. — Kashini-virai. 

Hinduba is a corruption of Intuba, or Intybus. 

Characters. — Seeds small, colour light or dark brown, angular, 
furrowed, and rather cuneate or narrow at the base, apex crowned 
with numerous torn calyces or teeth. Sides of the seeds rather curved, 
taste slightly bitter ; root of a brown colour with radiating lactiferous 
vessels ; bark thinner than that of taraxacum, light, soft, pithy and 
corky ; taste bitterish. 

Constituents, — ^The seeds contain a bland oil. Burnt chicory 
contains sugar, free extractive, cellulose, ash, nitrogenous matter, fat, 
&c. The roots contain nitrate and sulphate of potash, mucilage, some 
bitter extractive principle, and inulin, 36 p.c. The flowers contain a 
colourless crystalline glucoside insoluble in ether, soluble in hot 
water and alcohol. In alkalies it dissolves and becomes yellow. 

Preparations, — Decoction of seeds (i in 20). Dose, x to 2 fld. ozs- 
Fluid extract of the root. Dose, i to 2 fld. drs., and powder. 

Actions and uses. — The seeds are carminative and cooling, used 
in bilious complaints. Like taraxacum, chicory increases the secre- 
tion of bile and promotes digestion ; it also promotes the secretion of 
the bowels and kidneys. The decoction of the seeds is largely used in 
torpor of the liver, enlargement of the spleen and general dropsy. 
The root is bitter, tonic and demulcent, and given with other vegetable 
bitters in dyspepsia and fever. The dried root, roasted and powdered, 
is used as a substitute for coffee and for adulterating it. 

Oynara Soolymus, Gynara hortentis. 

Habitat. — Southern Europe, India, Dekhan. 
Parts used. — Succulent receptacles, fleshy leaflets of the calyx, 
and leaves. 

Vemacular.^Axzh. — Kirshuf, Kharsjuf. Eng. — Artichoke. Hind., 
Pers. — Kanjir. 

Characters, — ^The plant is perennial and so named from all its 
parts being sharp like dog's teeth. It has large flowers of a violet blue 
colour. The leaves are very bitter. 

Preparations. — Tincture (i in 10). Dose, J to i fld. dr. The 
juice, extract and infusion of leaves. 

Actions and uses, — The juice is tonic, diuretic and astringent; 
used in dropsy and ascites. The leaves contain tannin, and are used in 
place of galls. 



ECHINACEA ANOUSTIFOLIA. 



Doronicam PardaliancheSt Doronicam Scorpioides. 



359 



Scorpioides — The rhizome has the form of a scorpion. 

Habitat. — Europe, Syria. 

f^irt med, — The rhizome. 

Vernacular, — Arab. — Darunaj-i-Akrabi, Eng. — Leopard's bane. 
Hind* — Dafunaj-i-Akrabi, AkrabL 

CharacUn. — Rhizome brittle, horny and knotted. In scorpioid 
forn% flat and jomted, greyish externally, dirty white within, upper sur- 
face scaly, under surface marked with scars of rootlets, smell aromatic, 
resembling that of shapeda musali, taste insipid at first, then 
mucilaginous and somewhat acrid or faintly bitter, and lastly giving a 
warm pricking sensation to the tongue. 

Constituents. — A large quantity of glucose and fat. 

Preparations, — Decoction (i in 20). Doscp i to 2 fid. 02s. 

Actions ana uses, — Stomachic and tonic ; used in dyspepsia ^ 
flatulence, nervous depression and impaired digestion. Given with 
milk iu powder is used in seminal debility. 



Eohlnacea JLnguBtifolia, Nigger-head. 

Habitat. — Western States, Kansas. 

Part used, — The root. 

In Kansas it is known as nigger head from the shape and sombre 
colour of its fruit. 

Characters,^ An herb ; root thick, of the sire of a little finger» 
deep brown or black, wrinkled longitudinally. Woody portion consisting 
of medullary ra3rsand a greenish pulpy substance^ taste pungent ; stems 
numerous, 2 or 3 feet Iong» stout and bristling with hairs. Leaves 3 
veined, lanceolate or linear, very slender at the base, with short petioles ; 
involucre consists of z f ows of bracts. Flower disc concave at first, after 
a time becomes ovoid, and the receptacle assumes a conical form. 
The receptacle is surrounded by bracts which are boat-shaped and 
concave, becoming narrowed into a stiff spine-like projection. The 
fruit is acutely four-angled, one seeded, dry, indchisccnt ; pericarp 
firm, tough and corklike in texture. 

Constitnents. — The root contains an acid organic resin, nearly 
colourless, and of a persistent and acrid taste. 

/Vr//fm//o;i^.—Ecthol— prepared by mixing the active principle 
of echinacea angustifolia and thuja occidentalis in equal proportions, 
A fiiinl yellowish liquid. Dose, 10 to 40 ms, 

detions and w^^jr,— Ecthol is antispasmodic, antisuppurattve 
iHd antidote to blood poisonini' : crtviti in .nal.rlfi (*'\cr^ cholera, 
cry'^pclas. In pyicmia it is ^ cd externally 

also. Locally applied incarbuniiw.>, t^^'ii^ *iMu Wu mh.:^. It is used as a 



360 ECLIPTA ALBA. 

remedy for bites of snakes, stings of insects, and for pimples. In 
suppurative disorders of the mucous membranes it is used as a wash 
or gargle. Under its use suppuration is sometimes avoided. 
Eohinops Eohinatus. 

Habitat. — Himalaya, Mysore, Rajwara. 

Parts used, — The plant. 

Feniacu/ar.—Guz.^XJtkBtkrOf utakanto. Hind.— Oontakatira. 
Sans. — Unthkantaka, Utati. 

Oontakantaka is derived from oont or oonth, a camel, and 
kantik, kanti, a thistle. It means camel's thistle because camels 
consume it readily. 

Characters. — Plant thistle-like, one to two feet high, erect and 
much branched ; leaves pinnatifid, tomentose, cottony and spinous ; 
upper surface viscid, hoary, and tomentose, and cottonj' beneath ; flowers 
spiny and toothed ; flower heads terminal, solitary, and globose ; root 
tapering and of a whitish brown colour. 

Preparations. — Decoction (i in lo). Dose, ^ to 2 fld. ozs- 
Expressed juice of leaves. Dose, 30 to 60 ms. 

Actions and uses. — As an alterative it is given in dyspepsiai 
scrofula, syphilis and fever; a chief ingredient in various alterative and 
tonic decoctions. As a tonic it is used in seminal weakness. 

Remarks. — Often mistaken for Bhuiringni, it having similar spiny 
leaves. In utakatira the leaves are tomentose and cottony. 

Eolipta Alba, E. Prostata, E. Ereota. 

Habitat. — Common weed, in irrigated fields and gardens through- 
out India. 

Parts used. — The herb. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Kadun-el-bint. Beng. — Kesuryia. Can. — 
Garagada-sappu, Kadige-garaga. Duk., Guz., Mar. — Bhangra, 
Markava. Hind. — Bharangraj, Bharngraj. Malyal. — Karish^nganni, 
Cajenneam. Sans. — Kesaraja, Brinjraj, Markava. Tam. — Karesha- 
langanni, Kaikeshi. Tel. — Gunta-Kalagara. 

Characters. — Herb small, prostrate, or erect; colour darkish brown. 
The whole plant is pleasant and aromatic to the taste, covered all over 
with white stiff* hairs ; leaves opposite, entire, lanceolate or rather 
waved. Flower heads axillary, or terminal in pairs, pedicelled or stalked 
and of a white colour. Seeds rugous of a dark brown colour, wedge 
shaped, or compressed and marked by a ridge in the middle of both 
surfaces ; taste acrid, odour disagreeable ; root white, fibrous and much 
branched. 

Constituents, — A large amount of resin and an alkaloidal principle, 
ecliptine. 

Preparations. — Expressed juice. Dose, i to 2 fluid drs. Decoc- 
tion (i in 10). Dose, J to 2 fld. ozs. Oil. Dose, i to 3 ms. 
A kind of khir or porridge made up of bangra juice i part, juice of 



ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER. 



361 



iSS^ 2e>']anica i, ginger 2, vhcx trifolra (juice) i, sesbania grandiflora 
5, boil in cocoanut juice antl adJ rice and treacle. Dose, 2 to 4 fluid 
ozs. Giveu in tetanus. 

Actions and uses* — Cholagogue similar in action to taraxacum. 
The expressed juice of leaves is tonic and alterative, and given with 
ajowan seeds in catarrh, cough, and enlargement ot the liver and spleen* 
A paste ofthe plant is locally applied to chronic glandular swellings and 
to elephantiasis and in skin diseases. The expressed juice is dropped 
into the ears in earache. Mixed with castor oil^ it h given to expel 
worms ; also used to dye hairs black. 

Remarks,— In tattooing, the natives after puncturing the skin, 
rub the juice of white Bhtlngrtk over the part which thus becomes 
indelibly blue. Bluhii^d is of \ kinds : yellow, white, and black. The 
yellow or Piiahi Bhdnj^rd is Wedella Calendulacea. This herb has 
yellow flowers on long peduncles. White Bhdngrd (Eclipta prostrata) 
has white flowers and darkish green leaves. Black Bhdngrd has dark 
coloured stems. It is a variety of white B/nUigrd^ It is the same plant 
which when in flower is called white Bhdngrd^ and when in fruit, 
KdU Bhdngrd, In the latter the white corollas having withered away, 
ihev are followed by the development of a dark green or black achenes 
or fruits which are mistaken for flowers by the natives. 

Elephantopus Scaber. 

llahiiat, — Throughout India in shady places. 

Parts usfd^ — The root and leaves. 

rVr;//i<:i//f/r.— Beng,— Shamdulum, Can. — Hakkarike. Eng» — 
.Frickly leaved Elephants' foot. Hind,— Gnbhi* Mar.— Go-jibha. 
**Matcal. — Ana-sltovadi. Sans. — Go-jihva. Tarn. — Anashavadi. Tel. — 
Husti-Kasaka. 

Go-jibha-*ox tongue ; Gcijibha— Go, a cow, and jihba, a 
tongue. 

Charact€rs,^KocA fibrous ; leaves radical, and spreading flat upon 
the ground, wrinkled, crenulate, and very hairy. The plant is mucila- 
ginous and astringent. 

PrtparntifiHs- Decoction of the root and leaves (1 in 10), Dose, 
4 to 2 fluid 02s. 

Actiofu and uses. — Alterative, astringent, and mucilaginous. The 
decoction with cumin and butter milk is used in dysuria ; also in 
diarrhoea and dysentery* 

B^igeron Canadense, E. Vfscosam— Canada Fleabane (Eng.) 

Squaw Weed. 

Habitat, — W, Himalaya, Punjab, RohJIkhand, Europe^ and N, 
America. 

Piirts fa<*(/.— Volatile oil distilled from iresh liowering herb (oil of 
Fleabane. 



362 EUPATORIUM AYAPANA. 

Erigeron. — From eri, early, and geron, hoary, aged, or an old 
man, in allusion to the early aged appearance of the plant before 
spring. Fleabane, in allusion to a supposed property of the plant to 
destroy fleas. Large bundles of this plant soaked in milk are suspended 
in the rooms to allure flies to their destruction. Squaw weed, from 
the weed having a special action upon the uterus. 

Characters. — A flowering plant ; stem erect, striate, slender with 
scattered hairs ; branches numerous, ascending ; leaves radical, obovate, 
dentate. Flowers yellow in disks. Achenes flat, glabrous, odour mint- 
like ; taste astringent, bitter. 

Constituents. — A volatile oil, bitter extractive principle and tannin. 
Oleum Erigerontis is obtained by distillation. The oil is a pale yellow 
liquid becoming darker and thicker by age, of a peculiar aroma and 
persistent odour, taste not very pungent, terebinthinate, and aromatic ; 
of neutral reaction, readily soluble in alcohol. Dose, 5 to 10 ms. 

Actions and uses. — The drug owes its virtues to the volatile oil. 
It acts like turpentine, but is less irritating and less efficient. It has 
a special action as a haemostatic on the uterus and intestines, and is of 
special value in uterine haemorrhages, menorrhagia, intestinal haemor- 
rhage of passive form, and in typhoid fever. It relieves irritability of 
the bladder, and is given in cystitis, calculus, &c. It is also given in 
bronchial catarrh, in haemoptysis without fever, and in diarrhoea, 
dysentery and dropsy. 

Eupatorium Ayapana, E. Triplinerve, E. Aromatious. 

Habitat, — America, cultivated in India, damp and swampy 
places, meadows and banks. 

Parts used. — The dried leaves, flowering tops and twigs. 

Vernacular, — Hind. — Ayapana. Guz. — Allepa. Tam. — Ayap- 
panni. 

Characters. — Shrub of a pleasant aromatic odour; branches reddish, 
and straight, with scattered hairs ; leaves triple nerved, opposite, 
smooth and lanceolate. Flowers yellow, taste bitter. 

Constituents, — A volatile oil and a neutral crystalline principle 
Ayapanin. In long needles, soluble in ether and alcohol, but insoluble 
in water. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, J to i fld. oz. Fluid 
extract. Dose, 10 to 30 ms. 

Actions and uses, — Bitter tonic, expectorant, antiperiodic and 
diaphoretic ; in full doses, aperient ; given in derangement of the 
stomach and bowels, dyspepsia and cough. It is also given in 
ague. It is very efficacious in cough. The leaves when fresh are 
applied to foul ulcers, and to bites of venomous animals. Its action 
resembles that of chamomile. 



EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM, 



363 



EapatoriQm Cannabinum, Rusticomm Panacea, Hemp Agrimony, 

//ii^fV/jA— Temperate Himalaya and Europe. 

Parts used. — The root anc^ leaves. 

Characters.— boxing shoots have a mealy appearance owing to 
the presence of white balsamic exudation. Leaves opposite, in pairs, 
fleshy, lanceolate and smooth ; midrib thick ; flowers purple ; odour 
aromatic ; taste bitter, 

CfinstitHents.—T\\^ flowers and leaves contain a bitter alkaloid. 

Preparaiitim, — Infusion (l in 10). Dose, \ to 1 fld. ox. 

Actions and ru^^.-- Diaphoretic, diuretic and emetic, used in fever, 
jaundice, scurvy, and locally for foul ulcers. 

Eupatorium Perfoliatum. 

Syn. — Bone-set, wood bone set, ague weed, fever wort, vegetable 
antimony, sweating plant, Indian sage, thorough wort, 

Eupatorium from Eu^ well, easy, and pater, father, born of a noble 
father* Or from Mithridates Eupator, King of Pontus, who used 
it medicinally, 

Bone^set. — It relieves the pain in bones and hmbs in influenza and 
bone fever (Dengue), 

^tf^iV^ A— America, 

Parts used. — The leaves and flowering tops. 

Characters. — ^Stems hairy, erect, much branched at summit ; leaves 
opposite and united at base, lanceolate, wide tapering, crenately serrate, 
fugosely veined, rough above, downy, resinous and dotted below. 
Flower heads corymbed and nurnerous* ; florets, tubular, white with 
bristly pappus in ;i single row* The plant has a bitter astringent taste 
and weak, and aromatic odour. Dose, 30 to 60 grs. 

Consttfticnts, — ^A neutral bitter principle, Eupatorin (gJucoside) 
a volatile oil, tannin, wax, gum, resin, sugar, ash 7*5 p.c, Eupatorin-* 
a crystalline glucoside, soluble in water, akohol» chloroform and ether, 

f^teparaiions, — Extractum Eupatorii Fluidum, Dose, lo to 6oms« 
Infusion ( I in 10), Dose, i to 2 fld* oxs. 

Actions and i/j^'jr,^ Bitter, tonic and an efllicient diaphoretic. In 
large doses purgative, emetic, and antiperiodic, similar to chamomile ; 
given during the shivering stage of fevers, acute caCarih, or general 
cold ; also in muscular rheumatism, bronchitis, influenza, and sore 
throat* As a bitter tonic it is given in dyspepsia and general debility. 

Eupatorium Purpureum — Queen of the Meadow, Gravel root, 

^<iAf/<7/,-^United States. 
Paris used, — The root. 



364 GLOSSOCARDIA LINBARIFOUA. 

Characters. — Perennial herb,*with green or purplish band at the 
joints. Leaves petiolate, in whorl, long, white and downy beneath ; • 
flowers purple, corymbs, wood dry. Dose, i to 3 drs. 

Preparations. — Fluid extract, 30 to 60 ms. ; solid extract, 3 to 10 
grs. Eupurpurin (abstract) i to 4 grs. ' 

Actions and uses. — Lithontriptic. It has a decided power over 
the uric acid diathesis. Given in rheumatism, gout, and acidity of the 
urine. 

OloBsooardia LinearifoUa, 0. Bosyallea. 

Habitat. — Central India, Deccan. 

Parts used. — The plant. 

Vernacular. — Deccan. — Pitta-Papdd&. Mar., Hind. — Phatara-suvi. 

Phatara suva. Phatar a stone, or rock, and suva, anethum. 
It means rock anethum ; Pitta papada, a name also given to Fumria 
as well as to some acanthaceous plants. 

Characters.-- Small annual plant ; stems many ; leaves alternate, 
linear at the base, and much divided; flower heads solitary and yellow, 
each with a short naked peduncle, taste bitter and odour fennel-like. 

Constituents.— The root contains an essential oil. The leaves, 
stems and flowers contain a bitter alkaloid. 

Preparation. — Confection (i in 20), i to 4 drs. 

Actions and uses. — It is used as an emmenagogue to promote the 
flow of menses. 

Orangea Haderaspatana, 0. Adansonia, Artemsia Maderaspatan. 

Habitat. — Throughout India, Bengal. 
Parts used. — The plant. 

Vernacular. — Beng. — Namuti. Eng. — Madras wormwood. 
Mar. — Mashi patri. Maleal.— Nelampata. Tam.— Mashiputri. Tel. — 
Mustaru. 

Characters. — Stems procumbent, difl'use and villous, growing flat 
on the ground ; leaves solitary, sub-globose, pinnate, sinuous and 
obtusely lobed with terminal peduncles. Flower-heads solitary, yellow 
and sub-globose; odour like that of wormwood. 

Preparations. — Infusion (i in 10). Dose, J to i fld. oz. 

Actions atui uses. — Stomachic and uterine stimulant, combined 
with ginger, pepper and sugar used in obstructed menses, and in 
dyspepsia and hysteria. Externally it is used as fomentations to 
inflamed and painful parts ; as an antiseptic application the powdered 
leaves are applied to wounds and ulcers. 

Orindelia Robusta, 0. Sqarroaa, Onm plant. 

Habitat. — California, Mexico, N. America. 
Parts used. — The leaves and flowering tops. 



OUrrOTIA OLEIFERA. 



36s 



Characters, — Herbaceous, perennial plant. Lea%^es about 2 inches 
or less long, oblong, or l»nccolate» sessile or clasping, obtuse and sharply 
serrated, pale green, smoolh, finely dotted and brittle. Flowering tops 
many involucre, hemispherical, about half an inch broad, composed of 
numerous imbricated scales ; the involucres and often the leaves are 
coated with glutinous oleo-resin ; floretSt yellow, ligulate ; odour bal- 
samic, taste pungently aromatic, and bitter. Dose, 10 to 40 grs* 

Cofutituents^ — Resin, bitter principle, a fixed and a volatile oil, an 
alkaline principle grindeline, fat, wax, sugar, robustic acid, gum, 
tannin and ash 7 px. 

PreparaitQtss\ — Kxtractum Grindelise fluidum. Fluid extract of 
grindelia. It is alcoholic and contains much resin Dose, 10 10 50 ms* 
Tinctura Grindelia5(i in 10). Dose, ^ to i fid, dr. Infusum Grindelia 
(I in 20). Dose, i to 2 fld, oz. Extractum Grindeliai. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 
Mistura GrindcHx, — liquid extract of Grindelia 30 ms., liquid extract 
of liquorice J dr,, mucilage mixture i oz. 

Physiahgical Acitom, — Grindelia is acrid hitter, when chewed. It 
incrtsii^cs the flow of saliva. It is antispasmodic, and a motor 
deprosanl, a powerful diuretic and mild expectorant* In large doses 
it IS an irritant, producing scalding and high coloured urine. In small 
doses, it relieves prostration and quieti^ the nervous system- It is 
regarded as a palliative and sjMtcific for asthma^ it gives instantaneous 
relief, especially when the asthmatic paroxysms recur at night. In 
whooping cough it modifies the intensity, and lessens the frequency 
ol the paroxysms. In dyspnrea accompanying inveterate chronic 
bronchial catarrh, and in chronic bronchitis of the aged and in 
emphysema, given in combination with bromide of ammonium, it 
allays irritability. It is aha used with considerable relief in dyspncea 
of the heart and pulmonary disi^ses, and in coughs due to cardiac 
hypertrophy. 

TherapeuHct. — A« a sedative it is used in chronic cystitis, in 
N^Minful coudilions of the sexual organs, as priapism and in vaginitis and 
^'Wo in cancer of the stom;ich. The addition of calomel in minute 
dosc^ increases the expectorant effects of grindelia ; it is generally 
given with iodide of potassium or with bromide of ammonium. 
Grindelia has been regarded as a specific in the bites of venomous 
serpents and in the stings of insects. As a sedative lotion (i to 9) it is 
used for burns and scalds when these are supcificial ; if applied in 
the form of wet cloths, it soothes the agonijting pain in skin 
diseases with itching and burning sensations in vagmitis, uterine 
calafTh and herpes zoster. Chronic ulcerations, e%^en when deep and 
foetid and exquisitely tender, are often speedily cured by the topical use 
of this drug. 

Oulzotia oleifera, Ramtilla oleifera, 6. AbyBsinlca. 

Habiiai. — Africa, cultivated in India. 
P^rU usid. — The seeds and oil. 



366 



INULA HELENIUM. 



Bomb., Guz, — Rumalil, 
seed. Tarn, — OiHjhcllu. 



kalaliK 
Tel— 



Ventacular* — Beng., Hind,, 
Caa. — Hutchu-ellu, Eng.^ — Niger 
Ulisif valesalu. 

Charactefs^ — ^Seeds greyish black, somewhat angular, compre^^^-^^' 
laterally and tapering at the base; surface smooth, taste oily and v\s 
The expressed oil frora the seeds is sweet in taste and of a pale yellow i!jii 
colour, 

Comtituents. — The seeds contain oil 43,2 p.c, albuminous 
substances 19,3 p.c, sugar, gum, 13 px., cellulose 14 ^nd ash 3 p.c. 
The oil is light yellow or brown, solidifies at a low temperature. It 
contains 94 px. of fatty acids. 

Actions and uses, — Emollient. The oil is rubbed over the 
painful parts in rheumatism as a substitute for linseed oil. 

Inula Helenium. I. Qnadriflda or Policaria Crispa. 

Habitat. — C. Asia, S. Europe, N, America. 
Pari used, — ^The root. 

FefTtacuiar, — Arab* — Ussul-ur-rasun. Eng. — Elacampane, Syrian 
costus or Syrian ginger. Hind, — Phatmer or PhatmeL Pers* — 
ganjabil-i-shami, piUgush. Rasan, kust-i-shami. 

Pil gush means elephant^s car. Phatmel : — phata^ rent, and me). 
union. 

Characters. — Root 6 to J2 inches long, one inch thick, very ticsiiy, 
divided below into several branches ; sliced longitudinally and 
transversely ; bark overlapping, transverse slices concave and 
somewhat striated, wrinkled and brownish externally and white 
internally, odour slightly foetid, peculiar and aromatic, taste bitteft 
Dose> 20 10 60 grs. 

Consiiluents-^A volatile oil, an acrid resin, bitter principle, wax< 
helenin and inuline. Volatile oil contains Alantol or inulol and alant 
camphor or inula camphor, Alantol is an aromatic liquid of peppermint- 
like odour and taste. Inula camphor is in white crystals of 
camphor-Hke odour, very slightly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol. 
Inulin — a peculiar body allied to starch. It has no concentric 
formation and does not gelatinize, Ii occurs as a fine while powder and 
is only coloured yellow by iodine, tasteless and without odour. It is 
contained from 19 to 45 px. ; also found in arnica, taraxacum, &c- 
Dose, 1 to 3 grs. Helenin — Alanto Lactone or Elecampane camphor, 
an active principle* a crystalline camphor or a stearoptene is obtained 
from the root, in light white acicular crystals or needles, like 
quinine sulphate in appearance, of a faint odour and aromatic taste- 
insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Dose, J to 2 grs* 

Preparatmis, — Decoction and Infusion (1 in 10). Dose, J to 
I fid. o2. Ointment (i in 8). 

Physifyhgical AciiOH.--The root is diuretic, tonic, expectorant 
and emmenagogue. In Urge doses it is iiritant and produces nau:K^a 
and vomiting. 



LACTUCA SATn"A. 



3^7 



Tkfrapmtics. — Given in cough, asthmai, vesica! catarrh, amenorrhcca 
and dropsy ; also in dyspepsia^ acidity of the stomach and rheumatis^m ; 
an ointment is used in skin eruptions and in bites of animals* [t is also 
used to flavour absinthe. The active principle hek-nin or helenina is an 
antiseptic and (i in looo) arrests putrefaction and prevents the growth of 
bacilli, and used as a wash inozicna. Internally it is given in diarrhura, 
malarial fevers, and tuberculosis, in tubercular infantile and catarrhal 
diarrhoea ; also in bronchitis and spasmodic asthma to arrest profuse 
ftecrelions ; its chief value is in phthisis. A solution dissolved in oil is 
used as a patnt in diphtheria. It keeps ofT mosquitoes and other insects, 
Inulin is aromatic, tonic, stimulant and expectorant ; used in dyspepsia 
and pulmonary affections, Alantol is similar in actions to Helenin, 
mixed with alantic acid it is more efficacious in tuberculosis than 
helenin, 

Lactuoa Sativa, L. Scariola, L. Capitata, L. VtroBa. 

HahitaL — E. and S. Europe, cultivated throughout India and 
Persia. 

Pafts me(f,^Tht seeds and concrete milky juice (lactucarium.) 
Vtrnaculiif, — Arab. — Barrul-khasa, Guz., Duk. — Kahu. Eng. — 
Acrid garden lettuce, strong scented lettuce, prickly lettuce. 
Hind— Kahu-khaskabija, Fers. — Tukhrnc-kahu* Tam. — ^Shallatulvirai* 
Tel. — Kavu vittulu. 

Ckarackrs. — A biennial plant ; seeds very smalt, whitish brown, 
ribbed longitudinally^ and little curved vertically, elliptical, lanceolate 
and compressed ; apt^x pointed ; smell slightly aromatic, taste bittensh* 
Lettuce opium or laciucarium — a concrete milky vi&cidjuiceof abrown 
colour ; to obtain it wound the stems of wild lettuce and evaporate the 
juice. It occurs in circular plano-convex cakes, or irregular, angular 
pieces of a dull greyish brown colour. When cut into, it has a waxy 
yellowish white lustre, odour narcotic and opium like, taste bitter* It 
is partly soluble in alcohol and in ether ; with water it forms a turbid 
mixture* 

Ojustitnenh, — ^ Laciucarium is a mixture of lactocin, and three 
bitter principles — lactucin, lactopicrin, and lactucic acid. It also contains 
lactucerin, an inert waxy substance abuut 50 p.c. and a trace of 
hyoscyamine \ also a non-volatilc acid and a volatile acid smelling like 
valerianic acid ; albumen 7 p c* ; mannite 3 p.c; and ash 3 to 6 p.c. ^ 
which contains potash, soJa, manganic oxide, ferric oxide, and lime. 

Lactucin occurs as a yellowish fusible bitter waxy body, in white 
crystals or scales, soluble in Ho parts of cold water, moderately soluble in 
alcohol and acetic acid and less soluble in ether — used as a sedative and 
I hypnotic. Dose, i to 5 grs. The leaves contain albuminous matter, 
Starchy sugar, gum> cellulose, chlorophyll, fat and ash, rich in nitrates. 
Prfparnthm. — Tinctura Lactucarti (50 p.c). Dose, 10 to 30 ms. 
^ Lactucarii, contain* to p c. of the tmcture. Dose, l to 4 drs, 

i urn Lactucarii. Dose, 5 to 15 grs. The Ku-chin-kan — a Chinese 



368 SAUSSUREA LAPPA. 

preparation. It is obtained by cutting off tips of the full grown lettuce, 
collecting the milky juice which exudes and inspissating it by a 
moderate heat. 

Actions and uses. — Anodyne sedative, hypnotic, diuretic, and 
expectorant ; in action similar to opium, but it leaves no bad after- 
effects. It is given in palpitation of the heart and in nervousness. 
The seeds are cooling, demulcent and refrigerant, used in fevers, 
acute inflammation, and in coughs. The leaves are slightly hypnotic 
and sedative, and are used in wakefulness due to mental over- 
work. Ku-chin-kan is said to produce sleep without producing any 
narcotism, to prove sedative without any previous stimulation, and to 
afford an excellent substitute for opium where opium is inadmissible. 
Dose of the seeds, 2 grains to an infant. 

Remarks — Kihu is also the name of Arajuna sddrd — Terminalia 
Arjuna, with which it should not be mistaken. 

Hikania Gnaoo. 

Habitat — South America and West Indies. 

Parts used. — The leaves. 

Preparations.— ^ovfdQxtd leaves. Dose, 30 to 60 grs. Fluid 
extract, 30 to 60 ms. 

Actions and uses, — Stimulant, alterative, bitter tonic and febrifuge ; 
also used as a preventive and cure for the bites of serpents and insects; 
given in chronic rheumatism, both internally and externally, and in 
intermittent fever and atonic dyspepsia. It is recommended as a local 
application in gouty paroxysms. 

Saassarea Lappa, Anoklandia CostuB, Aplotazis Aurioalata, 
Arabian Costas. 

Habitat. — Cashmere. 

Paris used. — The root. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Kust. Beng.— Koshta, Kust Patchaka. 
Can.-— Koshta. Guz,— Upalet. Mar., Hind. — Kutha, Kushta Patchuk, 
Uplete. Malyal. — Sepudday. Sans. — Kushta-Pushkaramula. Tarn.— 
Koshtam. Tel. — Goshtamu, Kashm Koot. — Pers, Koosht-i-shirin. 

Characters. — Root very light, in crooked twisted pieces, brown 
externally and marked with longitudinal ridges, texture very firm. 
Internally lightish brown, and here and there sprinkled with resinous 
shining granules ; odour somewhat aromatic, resembling that of 
Jatamasi. Taste bitterish at first, but soon becoming hot, pungent 
and biting on account of the resin it contains. Dose, S to 25 grs. 

Constituents. — An odourous principle, composed of two liquid 
resins, an alkaloid, a solid resin, salt of valeric acid, an astringent prin- 
ciple, and ash which contains manganese. 

Preparations. — Infusion : — containing cardamoms i, kusht 3, water 
32. Dose, I to 2 ozs. Medicated oil known as Dhupel Tela, lotion and 
paste. Dhupela tela contains Upaleta i^ Kapura kdchari 2^ Agmra z. 



SIHaESBCCXlA 



3«»9 



ChaitdaHa i, Gddha kali \^ Vdio i, Ptitcha pdmiri \^ Nakkaid i, 
Gakmld l, Motka l, Lohana kodinn ^^ Si!iama*na-chhQdan l. Mix 
and reduce to a coarse powder and then intimately mix with Kopareh 
tela 40, Add to this Vd^h^ and the whole wrap up in a piece of 
cloth and put in an earthen pot, invert this vessel over another earthen 
vessel and the two cemented together with cUy% the whole is put into 
a fire made of fire wood for several hours, when the contents are 
intimately mixed together. 

Actkns and line, — Asa stimulant it is given in spasmodic diseases, 
as cough, at^th ma, cholera, and deranged digestion. As an alterative 
it is used in chronic skin diseases and rheumatism. Locally a paste of 
it made in rose uiiter is applied to swollen hands and feet and to swelled 
abdomen in obe>iiy, aiidas a cooling lotion tosprains, contusion, and to 
the head in head4che. It is also smoked like opium. Externally it is 
used as an astringent ointment on ulcers. Dhupel tela is used for itch, 
baldness, &c. Indies use it as a hair oil to relieve headaclie» to remove 
pedicuH and scurf from the head or hair. 

Remarks, — It is used as an incense aud a pci tumt-i and to protect 
clothes or bales of cotton, or Cash n\ ere shawls from the ravages of 
insects as moths. Other drugs similar in action to upalcta and used 
to protect clothes are kapura, mirt, patcholi, kapura kachari, &c. 

SiegesbeGkia OrientaUs. 

//ddrVa^— Persia, throughout India and tropical climatc4». 

Parts used. — The herb. 

Vernacular, — Chin. — He-ki-en^ Kau*kau. Tam*— Katampam 
Kaiampu. 

Cimracttrs, — Herb erect» and much branched $ leaves opposite, 
triangular or ovate, toothed and scabrous ; flowers yellow ; fruit acheneSf 

without pappus* 

Consittueitts, — A bitter |»rinciple, named darutyne, similar in 
properties to salicin, a derivative of salicylic acid. Darutyne- to obtain 
It treat strong decoction of leaves with acetate of lead to precipitate 
the colouring matter, remove the lead by diluted sulphuric acid and 
evaporate, freat the extract with alcohol and water and Bnally 
crystallize. Occurs as crystals, soluble in alcohol and ether, but insoluble 
in culd water, dilute acids, alkalies and chloroform. 

Prefiara tiorts, ^Fluid extract. Dose, lo to 30 nw. Tincture 
(l in 8)« Dose, 10 to 50 ms. Syrup, Dose, I to 2 drs. 

Actiom and uses. — As an alterative combined with potassium 
iodide, it is given tn scrofula, syphilis, gout, rheumatism and skin 
diseases Locally the juice or tmcture is used in tinea, thrush, 
gangrenous sores and other skin diseases ; also for healing gangrenous 
and sloughing sore^ ; it forms a coating like varnish on wounds and 
ulcers. As a stomachic tonic its properties are similar to chamomile. 

SI 



370 SPILANTHES OLRRACEA. 

SphsBFanthuB Indions. 

Habitat, — India. 

Parts used. — The herb. 

Vertiacular, — Arab. — Dookkon, KamazariyCis. Beng. — ChagUl- 
medi. Can. — Mundi Kasa. Duk. — Moondi. Guz. — Gorukh-mundi- 
Hind. — Khamadrus, Zakhim-i-hyat, Gurak moondi Moondibuti 
Malyal. — Adak-majyen, Atakka-mani. Pers. — Kamadariyus. Sans. — 
Munditika, Bhikshu, Parivraji. Tkm. — Kottak Karandai. Tel. — ^Boda 
Saram. 

Characters, — A small plant. Leaves thick, sessile, obovate, covered 
with long white hairs. Roots fibrous ; stem slightly furrowed, oblong or 
perfectly rounded. Flower heads solitary, mostly terminal, and 
sub-globular ; flowers many, minute, in close contact with one another ; 
bracts hairy and ciliated ; seeds very minute and of a grey colour ; odour 
of the whole plant peculiarly aromatic, taste rather acrid and bitter. 
Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constituents, — The herb yields a deep cherry-coloured essential oil- 
The stems, leaves and flowers contain a bitter alkaloid — sphaeranthine. 

Preparations. — Distilled water, a paste. 

Actions and uses, — As an alterative it is given in S3rphilis, 
rheumatism and boils ; as a demulcent in urethritis, frequent micturi- 
tion, &c., externally a paste is applied to piles and swollen glands. 

Spilanthes Oleraoea, S. Aomella, S. Calva and S. Panioulata. 

Habitat. — Throughout India. 
Paris used. — The flower heads. 

Vernacular, — Can. — Vana Mugali. Eng. — Para cress. Hind.— 
Pokarmul. Mar. — Acharabondi, Pipulka. 

Acharhondi — achar, a breast, and Bondi, Botdi, a nipple. The 
flower buds resemble a well developed nipple to a breast. 

Characters, — A pot herb ; stem small, smooth, succulent and highly 
coloured. Flower heads with long stalks, solitary, of a brown colour and 
conical in form. In size they resemble un^b ; smell aromatic, taste acid, 
pungent and warm, resembling that of the true pellitory root. 
Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Constituents. — A resin similar to pyrethrin, fixed oil, yellow 
colouring matter, astringent organic acid, glucose, extractive matter 
and mineral matter. 

Preparations, — Tincture (i in 10). Dose, 10 to 30 ms. 

Actions and uses, — Powerful stimulant, and sialogogue. Flower 
heads are chewed to relieve toothache, which they do by producing 
irritation of the gums and salivation ; also chewed m headache^ 
paralysis of the tongue, cough, &c. The natives regard it as a local 
specific in inflammation of the periosteum of the jaw, and the appli- 
cation has a speedy eflect in relieving pain and swelling. It is also 
used as a fish poison. 



TANACBTUM VULGARE. 



37J 



Tanaoetum Umbelliferum, Pyrethrum Umbellferum* 

HabitaU — Eastern Persia. 

Paris ttsed.—Th^ root. 

fVr«<icw/ar.— Hind., Bomb.^ — Mitha Akalakaia. Eng. — Swcel 
Pellitory. Pers.— Bozidan. 

Characters. — The root is devoid o! the acridity of the true 
pclliloiy root, which in appearance it closely resembles. It is larger 
and of a lighter colour than the true pelHtory* It is rough and 
furrowed externally, and hard and whitish within ; on section it is 
starchy and fibrous. The taste is sweet. Dose, if to 60 grs, 

Cotisitinents. — Ver>' little Pyrethrin, inuline, a trace, and sugar* 

/Yf/farahoffs, — Decoction (1 in 10). Dosc^ J to 1 fld. ox. 

Actions and uses, — As an aJteralivc given io rheumatismi gout, 

and enlargement of the liver and spleen. 

Tanaoetum Yalgare, var. Crispum— Common Tansy. 
Habitat. — Europe, Asia» N. America. 
Paris used^~Thc leaves and tops. 

Charac/ers. — ^An herbaceous perennial plant. Leaves long, bi- 
piiinatifid and seiratcdy of a dark green colour^ surface smooth and 
glandular. Flowers yellow. Dose, 10 to 60 grs. 

Constiimnis, — A volatile oil, a bitter principle, catted tanacemi, 
fat, resini tannin, mucilage^ sugar, tartrates^ citrates and tnalatcs. 
Volatile oil— obtained by distillation of the leaves and Ifower ton^ by 
water or steam. It contains a tcrpcnc, ketone, tanacetone, alcohol and 
tanacetyle 10 p.c. It is a greenish ycHuw liquid, having camphoraceous 
odour, pungent taste, soluble in alcohol. 

I^eparatiom. — Fluid extract. Dose, 10 to 60 ms. Infusion 

&{n 10). Dose, i to 2 ftd* ozs. Oleum Tanacetl, oil of tansy. 
ose, J to 5 ms. 

Actions ami uses. — Stimulant, tonic, and eumietiagogue. In 
large doses an irritant narcotic poison ; it causes clonic spasms, 
disturbed respiration and cessation of the heart's aciiun. Generally 
given in hysteria, for worms in children, intestinal colic and 
amenorrha:ia. Locally the oil is rubefacient and used in rheumatism, 
bruises. In large doses as a narcotic it is given in wakefulness. 

Taraxacum Officinale, B. P., T. Denalaonis, 
Leontodon Tarajtacom* 

Habitat, — Europe, Himalaya, NUgiris» N.-W. Provinces- N\ 
Ameriai. 

Parts HStd.-^lhv frr^li and the dried roots* Taraxaci Radix B. P. 

Taraxacuni,— i > from dcr»s, tooth; and lea, lion. The 

ieavt^ are of tbe slu^^c vi umO^s teeth. 



372 TRICHOLBPIS GLABERRIMA. 

Vernacular. — Eng. — Swine Snout, PuflF ball, Dandelion, Lion's 
tooth, White wild endive. Hind. — Dudhal, Baran, Kanphtd« Pers. — 
Tarkhash Kun. 

Characters. — Leaves direct from the root crown, 6 to 8 inches long 
and 2 to 3 inches broad, edges toothed, teeth bent backward 5 or 6 on 
a side, sessile, glabrous, colour bright green ; root nearly cylindrical, 
very long and thick, crowned with several short thick heads, 
longitudinally wrinkled, colour dark-brown ; fracture short, fractured 
surface exhibiting concentric rings. All parts of the plant exude 
from any break or wound, a bitter milky juice. When dry the 
root is wrinkled and shrivelled longitudinally ; axis, porous and 
yellow ; bark thick and white, with it are many milk vessels in 
concentric circles ; without any odour, taste bitter, closely resembling 
the Intybus root. 

Constiiuents. — The milky juice contains a bitter amorphous 
principle — Taraxacin, a crystalline principle, taraxacerin, also 
potassium or calcium salts, resinoid and glutinous bodies. The root 
j^ontains inulin 25 p.c. ; pectin, sugar, levulin, ash 5 to 7 p. c. 

Preparations. — Of the fresh root : Extractum Taraxaci, B. P. Dose, 
5 to 15 ms. Succus Taraxaci, B, P. Dose, i to 2 drs. Decoctum 
Taraxaci, (i in 20). Dose, i to 2 ozs. Extractum Taraxaci Liquidum, 
liquid extract of taraxacum, B. P. Dose, ^ to i dr. 

Actions and «j^^.— Diuretic, bitter tonic, and aperient ; hepatic 
stimulant in large doses ; given in cases of chronic hepatic and 
splenic congestion, hepatic inflammation, especially among residents 
in the tropics ; also in dyspepsia, constipation and dropsy. Used as 
an excipient for pills. 

Trioholepis Glaberrima. 

Habitat. — Central India, Marwar, the Concan and the Deccan. 

Parts usecl,-~The plant. 

Vernacular, — Bomb. — Brdhama dandi. Mah. — Brahmo dandi. 
Sans. — Aj&dandi. 

Characters. — Drug of a p^le brown colour consisting of pieces of 
stems and flower heads ; stems slender, round, furrowed, slightly hairy, 
soft, and containing a white pith ; flower heads, conical and surround^ 
by numerous bristly bracts. Within these or in the middle of the 
flower heads are numerous down-like serrated pappus, white in 
colour and surmounted on seeds which are erect, wrinkled, furrowed 
and of a darkish brown colour ; taste bitterish. The flowers smell like 
chamomile. 

Prepaiatvjus. — Infusion (1 in 10). Dose, 4 drs. to 2 ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Aromatic bitter, nervine tonic, and aphro- 
disiac ; recommended in seminal debility, impotence, hysteria, 
&c. 



TlJSSILAao FARFARA. 



Trlcholepifi Pracumbens— Volatarella Divaricata. 

Habitat. — India. 

I\iris used, — The herb. 

Vtrnncuhn, — Arab, — Shanukat-cl-baida* Hind., Bomb. — W\6k- 
varda. Mah. — Sukayi , Pers. — Asphar-i-bari, kangar-i-supheda . 
Badaward. 

Characters. — Plant thorny, slender, whitish, smooth, ajid 
triangular ; stems tough, thick as the thumb ; flower heads white, 
surrounded by three needle-like spines and covered with a white 
down resembling that of Brahama dindi ; bracts not ciliated and broad, 
apex terminating \i\ a long white needle shaped and channelled 
bristle ; slightly mucilaginous and of bitter taste. 

Constituents , — A green volatile oiK an acid resin, fatty matter, an 
alkaloid, and gum. 

Peparatiom^ — ^Decoction (i in 20). Dose, J to 2 fld. ozs. 

Actions and uses. — Stomachic, and tonic, given in dyspepsia, 
itulence» nervous depression, and impaired digestion. It is also given 
rith milk in seminal debility. 

Tiiitilaga Farfara. 

ffaditat.^W, Himalaya, Persia, Europe, Paojab* 

Parts t4sed.^The herb. 

f Vft//?cf////r— Arab. — Fanjiun, Eng.-^Cotts* foot. Hind* — WatpAn 
Afan^iun. Ind* Ba2a»ir» — Fanjiun. 

Characttrs.-^Fhnt mucilaginous and bitterish ; a creeper with 
tnaijy fibren ; flowers bright yellow ; leaves erect, furrowed, and heart 
•shaped, and sharnjy tm>ilied, very smooth and glaucous, green above- 
white, and densely cottony beneath, 

Constituents, — The leaves contain caoutchouc, gallic and tannic 
acids, resin, glucoside, wax, gum and saponin. 

Prfparations. — Infusion (l in to). Dose, \ to i fld. oz. 

Actions and nse$\ — ^Astringent aud demulcent, given in cough. 
The cotton like down of the leaf is used as a sty pic dressing to 

wounds. 

Vernonia Anthelmintica, Serratula Anthelmintica, Conyza 
Anthelmintioa, Asoaridia Indioa. 

Nahitat, — Throughout India. 

/^Jrts used — I'hc fruit. 

I'ern*7cu7fif\ — Arab. — Atarital. Beng, — Somaraj, Bukachi, Kalijiri. 
Can. — K4du-Jirugc. Cing, — Sauni-nAya. Guz., Duk. — Kadvi*Ziri* 
Eng* — Purple flt-abane. Hind.--Bakachi. Mar, — Karalve, Riimi-chA- 
jrre. Malyal.— Kattai Jirakam. Pers. — Itrital. Sans — Vakuchi Alavi 
JiriUcah, kanana-jiraka Avalguja, Somaraj in. Tam* — Katiu shiragam. 
Tel. — Adivi-jifakara. Kadvi J ire — Bitter jrCin. 



374 VERNONIA CINBREA. 

Characters. — Fruit black or dark brown, about 3 or 4 lines in 
length, and i or 2 lines in breadth, cuneate at the base, and seated on 
a glabrous, sessile ring, becoming broader as it approaches the apex. 
Apex Clowned with brownish white coloured scales the remains of the 
toothed calyx ; surface covered with whitish scattered hairs and marked 
\vith 10 or 12 longitudinal ribs. Seed one, small, oily of a brown or dark 
colour and conforming with the fruit ; taste bitter and nauseous ; odour 
faintly aromatic. Dose, 20 to 60 grs. 

Constituents. — The seed contains resins, an alkaloid known as 
veKionine, an oil and ash 7 p.c, free from manganese. 

Preparations, — Compound powder — Tiktajir^kadi Churana — con- 
tains vernonia seeds 2, chiretta 4, Picrorhiza root 3, dika malee i, rock 
salt 2, ginger 5. Dose, ^ to i dr. Infusion (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i 
fld. oz. 

Actions and uses. — Anthelmintic, stomachic, antiperiodic and 
alterative ; given in leucoderma, lepra, psoriasis and other skin 
diseases. As an anthelmintic, the powdered seeds are given for 
the removal of ascarides. As a stomachic, in loss of appetite, 
dyspepsia, &c. ; as an antiperiodic the compound powder is given in 
fevers. Native women use a paste of the seeds for destroying pediculi. 

Yernonla Cinerea, Ck>nyza Oineria, C Parparea. 

Habitat. — Throughout India and Bengal. 

Parts used. — The leaves, seeds, and flower heads. 

Vernacular, — Beng. — Kukseem, chota koksun. Guz.— S^deori. 
Hindi. — Sahadevi. Kak-jangi. Mar. — Sahadevi, Sadidi. Malyal. — 
Puvanku runal. Sans. — Sahadevi. Tam. — Sira-shenga-lanir, Nedsitu. 
Tel. — Gheritte-kamina. 

Characters. — Leaves oblong, oval, roundish, or ovate, slightly 
toothed and of a darkish green colour ; flower heads of a pale blue 
colour. Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Preparations. — Infusion of the whole plant (i in 10). Dose, ^ to i 
fld. oz. 

Actions and uses, — The seeds are alterative, and used in leprosy 
and chronic skin diseases. A poultice of the leaves is used as an 
application to guinea worms. As a diaphoretic the whole plant is 
given in fevers to bring on perspiration. The seeds are used to 
destroy vermin in the hair. 

Xanthiam Stramariam. 

Habitat, — Hotter parts of India, Ceylon, Europe. 

Parts used, — The herb. 

Vernacular. — Arab. — Hasak, Hamazel, Amir. Beng. — Banokra. 
Can. — Kadvala mara. Chin. — Ts'angurh, Si-rh. Eng.— Broad-leaved 
Burweed. Hind.— Lane-tonru, Shankhahuli. Pers. — Ispahan-Harada 



LOBELIA INFLATE 



Kh^r-i>khn&ak* Mar,- Shanktshivar, Gokhru Kalian. Panj\ and Sind, 
— Goghiu Kalian. Sans, — Sankhini. Shankhapushpi. Tarn.— Marlu' 
niatta. Tel. — Veritel-ncp. Ciokhru Kollan means Great Gogharu. 

Characters, — The herb contains a yellow colouring matter ; stenif 
erect, scabrous, mottled with dark coloured spots ; leaves alternatet 
kidney shaped, or cordate, notched and scabrous ; flowers terminal ; 
fruit prickly. Dose, 3 to 15 grs. 

ComftUfetiis.'^Thc fruit contains fat 38*6 p. c, ash 5 'a p.c, 
albuminoids 56*6 p.c, sugar, resin» organic acids, anu a glucosidc named 
xanthostrumarin related to datiscin. Xanthostruniarin is yellow, 
amorphous mass, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, benzol and 

chloroform. 

Pre/>arations,'^Decoction (l in 20). Dose, | to i fld, oz. 

Actions and uses, — Diaphoretic, diuretic and sialogoguc ; given in 
urinary and renal complaints and long standing cases of malarial fevers ; 
other actions resemble those of Jaborandi. 

Lobeliaoeae— The Dhavala of Lobelia family. 

Herbs or shrubs abounding in acrid milky juice ; leaves alternate 
and exstipulate ; calyx, superior; corolla, monopetalous, valvate; 
stamens 5 ; ovary, inferior 1*3 celled ; ^tyle i ; stigma surrounded by a 
fringe of hairs ; tube adherent lo many seeded pod ; fruit capsular, 
a-valvcd, dehiscing at summit ; seeds numerous, and albuminous. 

//ii&ifaL — Natives of temperate climates and tropics. 

Properties, — Some species contain the milky juice, which is very 
acrid ; some are narcotico-acrid, others emetic, purgative and vesicant. 

Lobelia Inflata, B.P. 

Loobelia BJ*. — Bladder podded lobelia, wild or Indian tobacco, 
emetic herb or weed, asthtna weed, vomit wort, gag-root. Inflata 
from inflatus, inflated or swollen. The pod is egg-shaped and inflated. 

Habitat, — N, America. 

Parts used. — The dried flowering herb collected after the portion 
of the capsules has become inflated. 

Characters. — An annual weed growing on the roadsides ; stems 
anguiar, and channelled ; leaves long, upper ones scssilei lower ones 
petiolate, ovate, dentate and hairy, of a pale green colour ; flowers small, 
m long racemes, of a pale blue coUtur ; calyx superior, 5 toothed, ; corolla, 
bilabiate ; cnpsules inflated, two-celled, stcds minute, oblong, brown 
and reticulated ; odour heavy, unpleasant, slightly irritating, and acrid ; 
taste nauseous, mild acrid and tobacco^like. Dose, as an expectorant, 
I to 5 grs. As an emetic, 15 to 20 grs. 

Comtituents* — Lobeline, a narcotic principle ; Lobelacrin, an acrid 
principle ; Inflatin ; also Lobelic acid, resin, wax, gum, fixed oil, lignin, 
salts of calcium, potassium and iron, Lobeline — Lubelinium : to obtain it 
triturate acetic or alcoholic tincture,or the extract with magnesia, agitate, 



37^ LOBELIA XICOTLKXiEFOLIA. 

add ether, filter and evaporate. It is a 3'ellowy aromatic liquid, soluble 
in water. Dose, -^^^ to ^ gr. Lobelacrin : to obtain it, to the tincture 
add charcoal ash, with water and exhaust the residue with boiling 
alcohol. Lobelic acid — ^precipitate the 3ecoction with sulphate of 
copper and decompose with sulphuretted hydrogen 

Preparations. — Tinctura Lobeliae ^therea, B. P. (i in 5). Dose, 5 
to 15ms. Extractum Lobelia Fluidum. Dose, i to 10 ms. Decoction 
or Infusion (1 in 20). Dose, ^ to i oz. Acetum 10 p.c Dose, 5 to 
40 ms. Oil of the seed 2 to 5 drops. 

Actions and uses. — In small doses, diaphoretic, expectorant, anti- 
spasmodic and sialogogue. In large dose emetic and purgative ; like 
tobacco, the leaves, when chewed, excite nausea, vomiting, giddiness 
headache, general relaxation, increased flow of saliva, and of gastric 
mucus, of urine and of perspiration: as an antispasmodic it is given in 
paroxysmal asthma, dr>- cough wit