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jU a^i^^^^^r/t^^^L^^, 

Maury's New 

Elements of G-eography 





11 F. MAURY, LL.D. 





Matthew F. Madry won fame not merely as a geog- 
rapher, but as a scientist. It was in recognition of his 
work in making geography a science, that every nation 
of Europe honored him with degrees, decorations, and 
medals, and that Humboldt, the great naturalist, asked 
Prussia to add to these a duplicate of the Cosmos Medal 
of Science, which had been given to Humboldt himself. 

In his series of geographies, Maury refused to follow 
the plan of all the accepted text-books of that day. His 
plan was to present, in simple words and in the form of 
a story, interesting facts about the different people of 
the earth, their homes, their industries, and the lands 
where they live; and at the same time to call attention 
to those physical laws which largely determine the con- 
dition, the character, and the industries of a people. As 
he himself expresses it: "While the author has repro- 
duced in the pupil's mind the same vivid pictures of the 
various parts, places and objects of the globe, which as 
an eye-witness he himself retains, he has constantly 
aimed at pointing out geographical laws, and at giving 
learners glimpses into the terrestrial machinery." 

When published, these geographies were such a radi- 
cal departure from the old methods, that many teachers 
were not prepared to accept them ; but leading educa- 
tors have gradually come to Maury's position, and to- 
day the principles that he advocated are endorsed by 
the Committee of Fifteen of the National Educational 

The special features to which attention is called are: 

1st. The Home, the Center of Thought. — The study of 
the world is begun at the home of the pupil, and other 
countries and places are presented in their relation to it. 

2d. The Earth as a Unit. — In the first thirty pages 
the earth is presented as a unit, and in the pages that 
follow, this conception of it is at all times kept before 
the pupil. The continents are then taken up more 
fully, and after th§ pupil is familiar with the details of 

each continent, a review is given which leads him to 
look at the continent as a whole and in its relation to 
the earth as a unit. 

3d. Relief Maps. — Political maps teach the names of 
political divisions, of mountains, rivers, etc., all of which 
are purely arbitrary. After these names are learned, 
relief maps follow. These picture to the eye the physi- 
cal features of the continents. By locating upon the 
relief map those features with which he is already 
familiar, the pupil can see the physical reasons for 
many of the facts that he has learned. If preparatory 
oral lessons are given, the relief map should then be 
used first. 

4th. The Earth as the Home of Man. — The idea of 
the earth as the home of man is the chief thought of the 
book. The full-page colored illustrations serve to accen" 
tuate this thought by giving vivid pictures of the people 
of each continent and of the homes in which they live. 

5th. The Lessons. — Each lesson presents interesting 
facts in the form of a story to be read by the pupil. The 
teacher may talk with her class about each lesson, and 
may ask her own questions to develop thought and fix 
important facts in the child's mind. 

6th. Illustrations. — The illustrations are all from 
photographs and are accurate. Each picture teaches 
some definite idea, and the descriptive text under many 
of them makes the pictures an integral part of the 

The colored relief maps are used by permission of Mr. 
C. L. Patton, who designed them and who also selected 
the new illustrations and planned the course of instruc- 
tion which they embody. We take pleasure also in 
acknowledging the valuable suggestions received from 
several distinguished educators, and in thanking our 
correspondents in all the leading countries of the world 
who have furnished many of the photographs thai 
appear in this volume. 



Direction 4 

Distance 5 

The Earth 8 

The Land 10 

The Water 12 

Day and Night 15 

The Seasons 16 

Climate and Zones 17 

Plants 18 

Animals 20 


Minerals 21 

Occupations 21 

Government and Religion 28 

Races ok Men, Civilization 24 

Continents and Oceans 26 

The Hemispheres 28 


United States 88 

New England States 44 

Middle Atlantic States 49 

Southern States 65 


Central States 60 

Rocky Mountain and Pacific 

States and Territories 68 

Dominion of Canada 78 

Mexico and Central America. . 77 



ASIA 109 




Copyright, 1881 and 1900, by the Uniysmitt Pubuihino Coxtavt. 
Copyright, 1907, by American Book Compant. 


1. Homes.— Some boys and girls have 
homes in. the country. The two boys that 
yon see in ttie picture live in a pleasant 
valley near the mountains. These boys see 
around them fields of wheat and corn. 
They see a wagon drawn by oxen, carrying 
wheat to the barns. A man is driving a 
flock of sheep along the road, and a train 
of cars is approaching the village. Far 
away in the distance, they see the high 

Some boys and girls have homes in cities. 
They may see long streets like the one in 
the left-hand picture, and other streets 
g- in every direction. On some of these streets there are stores; on others there are homes 
people live; passing through the streets are street cars, wagons, and carriages, and on the 
fcs busy people are going and coming. 

o boys and girls have homes near the seashore. They may see the blue waters and the 
aves dashing against the rocks or rolling up on the sandy beach. 

hilclren living in different places may see very different things. But all these things 
the earth. The mountains, the sea, the fields, the gardens, the woods, the dusty roads, 
1 streets, the land on which our homes are built, are all parts of the earth. 




2. The Earth is very large. Near our homes 
we can see only a small part of it. When 
we go away from our homes in any dilution , 
we see other parts where other people live. 
These people may be very different from us, and 
their homes quite unlike ours. Everywhere we 
find them doing some kind of work, which may 
also be quite different from the work that 
we do. 

The story about the different people that live 
on the earth, about their homes and what they 
do, is called geography. 

For Recitation. — What can you see in the first 
picture ? in the picture on the left hand ? In the picture on 
the right hand ? Have you ever visited the country, the city, 
or the seashore ? What were the people doing there ? What 
kinds of houses did you see ? What plants or animals ? fan 
you think of some place that you would like to visit and learn 
about ? What must you study in order to learn about these 



Preparatory Oral Work. — Impress carefully 
upon the minds of pupils tiie necessity of Jbred, un- 
changeable points of direction, which can he understood 
by everybody. 

Ask the pupils to point to the right; to the left; before 
them; behind them. Then show that all these direc- 
tions are variable in their meaning. Thus: Who sits 
on your right hand 1 On your left ? In front of you f 
Behind you ? Turn round. Who is on your right now ? 
Behind you? Before? On your left? Point to tbe 
right. Turn round. Point to the right now. Does 
pointing to the right, to the left, in front, or behind 
always give you the same direction ? 

Having shown tbe indetiniteness of such expressions 
for directions as right, left, before, behind, pass on to a 

Thit photograph woa token af noon; the car truck* run north find south. 
Notice that at noon thadovi* alwayt jail toward the north. 

< — i-^K 

thorough drill on the fixed directions. Let this be 
repeated daily, until every pupil can point, without 

hesitation, to the four prin- 
cipal directions, and to the 
four half-way directions. 

Ask on which side of the 
schoolroom the sun rises. 
On which side it sets. Which 
is the east side of the pupils' 
desks? Which the west I 
The north f The south I 
Who sits to the east, west, 
north, and south of them ? 
In what direction the 
teacher's desk is i In what 
directions the children go 
from school to their homes ; 
and in what directions they 
come from their homes to 
school . 

A weathervane.—The arrow atwayt T . .« . ,. . , . 

voinlt in the direction from which IjCt til em tell In what 

directions the most familiar 
objects, such as the church, the post-office, or the city 
hall, are from their school :tnd homes. 

Vary the drill and exercises. In taking up the drill 
work in connection .with different lessons, avoid as far 
as possible asking the questions in exactly the same 

1. "What Direction Means. — Suppose you 
are going for the first time to visit the home of 
a friend. One question that you will ask before 
starting will he, "Which is the way ? " If you 
do not know the way you may be lost. 

Xow the way to a place is called direction. 

And when we are learning about any people 
or places, one of tbe things we wish to know is, 
in what direction they are from us. 

We may learn about direction from the sun. 
The part of the sky where it rises is called the 
east. So if, some bright morning, we are walk- 
ing with the siln shining in our faces, we can- 
not help knowing that we are going toward 
the east. 

The part of the sky where the sun sets is 
called the west. The west is just opposite the 
east. If we walk so that the setting sun shines 
in our faces, we are going toward the west. 

If we walk with the morning sun upon our 
right sides, we shall be going toward the north. 



If we should meet a boy walking in the opposite 
way, he would be going toward the south. 

The sun, we see, helps us to learn the principal 
directions, north, south, east and west. These 
are what we cull fixed points. 

If the place to which we are going lies half- 
way between the north and east, its direction is 
northeast. If it is half-way between north and 
west, the direction is northwest. If the place is 
half-way between south and east, the direction is 
southeast. And if it is half-way between south 
and west, the direction is southwest. 

From what we have now learned we see that 
when the sun shines it is easy to tell in what 
direction we are going. But there is something 
that shows direction even better than the sun. 

Sometimes people are days and days at sea 
without seeing the land, and with nothing but 
sky above them and water all around. Often 
the sky is covered with clouds, and the sun can- 
not be seen. How do they know which way to 
go? They use what is called the compass. In 
it there is a little needle made of steel that 
always points toward the north. 

With a compass, therefore, we can always tell 
which way is north. And if we know where 
north is, we can also tell where the south, the 
east and the west are. 

The Indians and 
hunters who catch ani 
trials for their fur live a 
great deal in the forests. 
Often there are no roads 
to guide them. Some- 
times it is very cloudy, 
and they cannot see the 
sun. They are said to 
hare a very curious way , 

■ ,. , 1AM i* <J email jwttkrt-cotninjt. The 

Of (Hiding out tlien compatt that it unci! at tea it 

where the north is. muc * "" w "* * n * T ' 

Moss grows l>est in shady places, and generally grows 
thickest on the north side of the trunks of trees, because 
the sun does not shine much on that side. 

The hunters and Indians, therefore, look to see which 
side of the tree is covered with moss. They know that 
the mossy side is the north side. Moss is to them as 
good a friend as the compass is to the sailor. 

At night it is easy to find one's way if the stars can be 
seen. There is one star- which is always in the north. 
We can see it in the picture. 

The single star is called 
tho North Star because it is 
always in the north. We 
find it by the help of two 
bright stars in the Great 
Dipper. They are called the 

For Hesitation.— What 
do you mean by direction ? 
W lint are the chief d i reel km ? *** " WM S '" T and "" **">'"■ 

How can you tvlt where the east is? Whore is the west ? 
Where is the north ? Where is the south? What other 
points of direction are often spoken of ? What shows direction 
better than anything else ? 


Preparatory Oral Work.— Have pupils, using 
twelve-inch rulers, draw lines on the board one foot 
long ; two feet long; one yard long, etc. Draw in va- 
rious directions lines of different lengths, and ask how 
long each is. Test the correctness of answers with the 
ruler. Have children draw lines by guess, and test the 
accuracy of their guesses. 

Have the pupils learn what two places in the neigh- 
borhood are about one mile apart; in a city, how many 
blocks there are to a mile. Have pupils tell about their 
walks or drives, noting distance and time. 

1. "What we Mean by Distance. — It is not 
easy to find a place if we know only in what 

direction it is from us. We should know also 
how far away it is, or the distance we shall have 
to go before reaching it. 

If we know only that the house of a friend is 
east of ours, we cannot tell just where it is. But 
if we know that it is east of ours, and also how 
far east, then we can tell very nearly where it is. 

The honey-bee knows exactly in what direction it 
must fly when it wishes to go home, and it knows also 
the distance, or just how far it. must fly. 

The mother bird that has her little ones in a nest in 
the tree, knows not only in what direction she must fly, 
but how far she must fly, so as to get hack to the nest. 

The bees and birds all know direction and distance by 
instinct. We have to learn. 

We have already seen how we learn about 


eii: of a broad ratley in Xfaryland. Notice how dittanco affects the tite and appearance of objects. 

direction. Let us now see how we learn about 

Very often we do not need to be exact. It is 
enough to know that a place is " very far off " or 
"very near." But sometimes we must know 
just what the distance is. To find out this we 

How do we measure? "We measure with foot 
rules and yard sticks and tape measures. You 
know how long an inch is. Twelve inches are 
called a foot. Three feet make the measure that 
we call a yanl. Five and a half yards make 
what we call a rod. 

"With these measures we can easily find out 
short distances "We can see how long the school- 
room is, or how long and how wide the play- 
ground is. 

But for very long distances we must have 
very long measures; and so we call the dis- 
tance of 320 roils one mile. "We can walk a 
mile in about twenty-five or thirty minutes. So 
if it takes us half an hour to walk from our home 
to school, the distance is about a mile. 

For Recitation. — If we wish to go to any place, what 
ahould we know besides the direction ? What is meant by the 

distance between two places? How do you measure short 
distances ? 

Papils should be required to memorize the following table r 
13 inches are one foot. 5$ yards are one rod. 

8 feet " " vtml. 820 rods " " mile, 



Preparatory Oral Work. — Draw on the hoard an 
oblong like the teacher's desk. Let the children place 
objects on the desk while you put marks on the plan to 
represent the positions of these objects. Put marks on 
the plan and have pupils put objects on corresponding: 
places on the desk. Do the same with pupils' own 

Draw a plan of the room on the board. Make the top 
north. Have pupils stand in various places, and mark 
these places on the plan ; then put marks on the plan ; 
and let pupils stand at places in the room corresponding 
to these marks. 

Measure the room with a tape measure, and draw on 
the board a plan on the scale of an inch to a foot. 
Have pupils draw on paper to a smaller scale. Measure 
the school yard and places in the neighborhood. Make 
plans and maps of these places. 

1, Pictures. — We have now been talking and 
thinking a great deal about direction and dis- 
tance. In this lesson we will try to understand 
how they are shown to the eye. To show them 





to the eye we use what we call plans, or maps. 
But what are plans, or maps? 

We all know what pictures are. Here we see 
the picture of a 

It almost seems 
as if we were in it 
There are desks and 
blackboards, pupils, 
teacher, teacher's 
table, pictures, etc., 
all looking just like 
the things them- 

Pictures, then, 
are drawings that 
show how things 

2. Plans, or 

Maps, are differ- 
ent. They arc ruiunoia 
drawings that show where things are. They tell 
in what direction things are from one another, 
and how far apart they are. 

Here we have a plan of the schoolroom, the 
picture of which is shown above. 

' v ;-m f.'- 


cT QaMaMaMa 

y y f f * 

•>-^~ z " 


wm?"''^— *"'"" '■"■'- 


Plan o\ tht Khoolroom in the picture. 

Let us make a plan of our own schoolroom on 
the blackboard. 

The first thing is to represent the sides. Suppose we 
measure them. We can sec that they cannot be drawn 
on the blackboard as long as they really are. 

So we will let one inch on the blackboard represent 
one foot. Then we will draw all the sides so many 
Inches long, instead of so many feet long. 

Now how shall we show diwtions in our plan ? We 

cannot show them 
exactly as they are ; 
but we will call the 
top of the plan north, 
the right hand east, 
the bottom south, 
and the left hand 

We have now 
drawn the school- 
room floor. But 
there is nothing 
on it. That will 
never do. So we 
will make some 
little marks that 
shall show just 

city tchuotrm.m.. wllf.'re the ilt-sks 

and chairs are. Then we shall have a plan, or 
map, of the schoolroom floor and of the things, 
upon it. 

Our plan is a great deal smaller than the floor really 
is, but all the parts are made smaller alike, or in pro- 
portion. The plan is said to be drawn on a scale of 
1 inch to 1 foot, which means that every inch on the 
plan stands for 1 foot. 

Now what does the plan show ? It shows just 
where everything is, in what direction things are 
from one another, and how far apart they are. 

We can see that the door is on the north side of the 
room, that the teacher's desk is on the west side, and 
that the windows are on the south. We con see in 
what direction each pupil is from every other. 

Then, again, we can tell how far each thing is from 
every other. If it is twenty inches on the plan from one 
boy's desk to the door, you know that that boy has to 
walk twenty feet to reach the door when he is going 
home, because every inch stands for one foot. 

3. Picture of a Village.— Ilero is a picture of 
a village with its streets, its railroad station, its 
factory, its churches and its homes. Docs it not 
look just like a village? You can see the train 
coming into the station, and the stream which. 



Map of ttie tame v>U>vjc. 

from each other. 

Picture of a village. 

Hows near by. Find 
three bridges across the 
stream. Find the farm- 
house in the country 
north of the village. 

4. Plan, or Map, 
of a Village. — Here wc 
have a plan, or map, of 
the same village. It 
does not look like a vil- 
lage, but, like the plan 
of the schoolroom, it 
shows the direction and 
exact distance of points 

5. Larger Maps. — Now as we make maps of 
villages, so we make maps of counties, states, 
and whole countries. In some maps, as we shall 
soon learn, half of the earth is shown at once. 

The scale of such a map will be very small. 
An inch may represent more than a thousand 

For Recitation.— What do plans, or maps, show? 
Bow much land can be shown on a, mup? 


Preparatory Oral Work.— Make balls of clay. 
Stick a hat pin through the center of each, ball, and 
measure the distance through the balls. Do this from 
several directions. ■ Ask if the measurements are the 
same. Should they be ) Teach the word diameter. 

Cut each ball into halves. What shape is the cut 
surface of each half ? Measure the distance around the 
edge with a string. Put the halves together and halve 
again in another plane. Ask if these measurements are 
the same. Should they bei Teach the words circum- 
ference, equator, and poles. 

1. Shape of the Earth.— In studying geogra- 
phy we shall learn a great many strange things. 
One of the strangest things is what we learn 
about the shape of the earth. 

Suppose the earth were flat, and -we were to travel on 
and on in one direction without turning, should we ever 
come back to the same place from which we started * 

Of course we should not. If 
we traveled long enough we 
should come to the edge of 
the earth. We should be like 
an ant walking on a table. 
If the ant keeps on in one 
direction all the time, it will 
reach the edge of the table. 

But if the ant walks upon 
an orange and always goes 
in the same direction, it wiU 
nt lust come to the place from 
which it started. This is 
because the orange is round. 

If people travel on the 

earth, always keeping 
*i •** «w «, the picture. ^ ° ne direction, like the 
ant on the orange, they never come to any edge. 
They arrive at last at the place from which they 
set out. So we know that the earth is round 
like a ball or cm orange. 

Ships seen from the ehwe. 

When the author of this little book was a boy 
he started from New York in a ship, and traveled 
for many months, never turning lack, until at last 
he came to New York again. He had gone 
round the earth. 


Bllil'K AMI SIZE. 


The earth does not seem round to us. The 
fields and the village, or the city where wo live, 
may he flat. Some places look as flat as a floor. 
But still the earth is round. 

Can we suppose that the little :ml on the orange thinks 
that the orange is round i If he thinks at all, he must 
think it is flat. 

We are so large that we see a large part of the orange 
at once. Hence we can see that it in rot in d. The small 
ant sees only a small part of 
the orange at once, and that 
part seems flat. 

If we could stand off 
and look at the earth as 
we look at the orange, then 
we should see that it is 
round. But we cannot 
get far enough from the 
earth to do this; we can 
see only a very small part 
of it at one time. This is 
the reason that it seems 
flat to us. 

2. Size of the Earth. 
— Suppose a carrier dove 

should fly round the earth. **« a*** Ui « uvunt <w* u 
A swift carrier dove can fly 1UU miles an hour. 
If it was to fly at that rate, without ever stopping, 
it would be more than ten days in going round the 

If a man could walk round the earth, and went BO 
miles a day, the trip would take him more than sixteen 
in on the. 

What a big hall the earth must he ! We know 
about how much a mile is. Tho distance round 
the earth is 25,000 miles. This distance is called 
the circumference of the earth. The distance 
through the earth is'-ab«u£8,000 i_,rfes. This 
distance is called tUe tlianieteroT the earth. 

The distance tbAugh the earth is a little greater at 
the equator thrJt it is at the poles. If you press an 
orange between your thumb and linger and flatten it a 
little, it will have about the same shape as the earth. 

For R< citation. — What is the shape of the earth t 
How do wj know this? Why does the earth seem flat to usT 
How far is it round the earth ? How far is it thremgh the earth ? 



Preparatory Oral Work.— Teach the word sttr- 
fnre. Touch the surface of the globe; of the desk. 
Teach thai one is a flat and the other a curved surface. 
In the same way leach the word interior. 

Show the puuils how the waves dashing against the 
rocky coasl might tear it down, and by pounding the 
torn pieces and rullinsr them about might grind them 
down to pebbles and sand. 

1. Land.— The outside 
of the earth is called its 
surface. One part of the 
surface is solid, or hard. 
This is called the land. 

We live on the land, 
and build our houses and 
towns and cities upon it. 
Trees and other plants 
grow on the laud, and ani- 
mals live on it. 

2. Water.— But there 
is a large part of the sur- 
face of the earth which is 

1M cuutd ICC i; p-imt Die mut/ll. WiltCT. Most Of US haV8 

seen a pond, and we all know what a pond 
is. Now suppose a pond were made ever so 
large, hundreds and thousands of miles across, 
instead of a few yards. There is a pond as large 

as that. Tt is called the sea. 

How large do you think it is? A boat can sail across 
a small pond in a few minutes, but it takes a sailing 
vessel about fifty days to sail across some parts of the 
sea. Think of being on the water seven weeks without 
seeing laud ! 

We can see in the picture above that the water 
surface is very much larger than the land surface. 
Thero is nearly three times as much water as 

Under the water is laud which is much like other 
land except that the water covers it. Strange plants 
grow on it. There are no daisies or buttercups, but 
there are seaweeds of beautiful colors, purple and yellow 
and red and green. The fishes, you see, have their 
gardens as well as we. 



Fhotutfnph kv ilww: N- V. 

A view t>t Cornwall. England, where the land and the sea J 

It may seem strange that the fishes should 
have so much more room to live in than man 
and the other animals. But we shall see, when 
we know more about geography, that man and 
the lower animals that are on the land could not 
live at all if it were not for the great sea. The 
plants would have no rain. They would all die, 
and there would be nothing for us and the lower 
animals to eat. 

3. Air.— Over all the land surface and over 
all the water surface is something that we call 
air. It is just as much a part of the earth as 
the land and the water. We live in this air 
much as fish live in the water. It is all around 
us, but it is so thin and clear that we cannot see 
it. "When we look up, the blue that we sec and 
call the sky, is really air. 

When air moves past us wo can feel it, and 
then we call it a breeze or wind. 

The clouds are floating in the air. Anything 
that is as light as air will float in it. A balloon 
rises and floats because it is filled with something 
lighter than air. 

Below tlio land surface and below the water that fills 
the low places in the land, is rock, and we believe that 
far down in (he center this rock is red-hot all the time; 
but the center is so far below the surface that no one 

ieel. The sen washes against the cliff and wtart it ait-ay. 

has ever been able to get far enough into the earth to 
find out whether our belief is correct. 

For Recitation. — Inlo what is tins surface of the enrth 
divided? How much of the earth's surface is land? liow 
much of it is water? 



Preparatory Oral Work,— On a sand board,. or 
big table, or tin tray, painted blue, if possihlc, to repre- 
sent water, make roughly, with wet sand, shapes repre- 
senting the land forms. Develop therefrom the meanings 
of the terms coast, continent, inlaw!, peninsula, tetk- 
imts, cope, and teach the terms. Who has seen an 
island? a peninsula? a cape? an istbmus? 

Turn to the relief map on page 35. Find a peninsula; 
an isthmus; an island. 

1. We have now learned that the surface of 
the earth is partly land and partly water. 

Both the land and the water are divided into 
parts oi bodies of different sizes and shapes. 

2. Continents. — The largest parts or divi- 
sions of the land are called con'-ti-ncnts. Xotiee 
two of them in the picture on pag<1.9. 

We can travel on them for hundreds and evei 
thousands of miles without ever reselling the 
sea. It takes a railway train nearly a week to 
go across the continent on which we liv3. 



3. Islands. — Parts of the land smaller than 
continents, and entirely surrounded by water, 
are called island*. 

All the islands have never been counted, be- 
cause there are so many. Some of them are very 
large, others so small that they look on the m:ip 
like specks. Some contain a 
great many inhabitants; 
others have no one living 
upon them. 

Perhaps the most curious of 
all are the Corn! Islands. 
Most of them are found in 
the Pacific ocean. "We shall 
learn more about these islands 
by and by. 



Preparatory Oral Work,— Teach the word slope. 

Teach the word plain. Tench the word hill. Teach 

the word valley. 

Have pupils make these forms in sand or clay. Then 

let them make a 
mountain, a chain or 
range of mountains, 
a ridge, a ]»';ik , use 
pictures and stories 
to develop the ideas. 

4. Other Forms of Land. 

— The edges of the land are often jagged, as 
shown in the picture. 

-jSome parts stretch far out into the sea, and 
are nearly surrounded by water. These are called 
pen - i n'-su -la *. Theword peninsulameans almost 
«m island, 

'.' A narrow strip of land that connects two large 
bodies of land is called an isthmus. 

■■Points of land jutting out into the water are 
called canes. 

Find a- peninsula- on map, page 35. Find also 
an isthiiinsv" ' flow many capes can you find? 

.rmuiti tin thr toast of Mastaxhu&rttm. J-'tnd <l cape and an 
wthmwt on the peninsula. 

A small iiland on tits roast of Maine. Sotice the hotel, ike steamer 
;u4* tracing, and the boat tailing around the island. 

.For Recitation.— What are the continents? What is 
an island ? What is a peninsula ? What is an isthmug ? 
What is a cape? 

1. Heights of 
Land. — The play- 
ground is level, 
or nearly level. 
Let us imagine it 
stretched out for 
miles on every side. Nearly level land like this 
would be called a plain. On very large, plains 
we may travel for days and days together, and 
see only the blue sky above us and level land 
all around. 

Some large plains are called prairies. They 
are often covered with long grass and beautiful 
flowers. Thousands of buffaloes used to live upon 
tjiem. Many of the prairies are now plowed 
and used as corn and wheat fields. 

A plain lying along the seacoast is called a const ill 
plain. A high plain is called a plateau. 

.Now imagine a great plain covered with sand, 
rocks and stones — not a single flower to be seen, 
not even a blade of grass, for hundreds of miles, 
tjuch land is called a desert. 

In a desert we lind here and there a patch of ground 
where water bubbles up. Here trees grow and flowers 
bloom. Such a spot is ealled an o'~a-sis. 

Instead of being level, like plains, the land in 
some places slopes up and up until it is higher 
than a house, or the tallest tree. Such land is 
called a hill, 

A very high hill is called a mountain. Some 
mountains are so high and so hard to climb that 
no one has ever been to the top of them. 



A range of mountain* in the Alp* in Europe. In the narrow miley between the mountain* many people have homrt. 

It is very cold at the tops of high mountains, and 
many of them are always covered with snow. 

Some mountains slope down on till sides, but 
generally mountains extend in long lines with 
slopes on but two sides. Such a line of moun- 
tains is called a range or ridge. When several 
ranges near each other extend in about the same 
direction they are called a mountain chain. 

There is a wonderful kind of mountain that 
seems to be on fire inside. It is called a volcano. 
There is a great hole called the crater at the top 
of it, and out of thU hole red-hot cinders and 
melted stones are sometimes thrown far upward. 

The land which lies between mountains or 

hills is called a valley. 

For Recitation. — Wliat is a plain? A prairie? A 
desert? Aliill? A mountain ? A volcano? A valley? 


Preparatory Oral Work.— Roil some salt water 
before the class and condense the steam upon a cold 
plate. Have the children taste the water before boiling, 
and afterwards taste the drops formed by the condensed 
vapor. Explain how vapor rises and forms elonds; 
how clouds are carried over the land ; how mountains 
condense them into rain or into snow; how the rain 
sinks into the ground and comes out again as springs. 

Teach the wearing power of water. The schoolroom 
vard or a dirt road will teach this. Explain how the 
mud that a river washes away from the hills is de- 

1. The Sea.— There arc a great many inter- 
esting things to learn about the sea. First of all, 
it is never still. It is always rolling and rocking 
or dashing its waves into foam on the shore. In 
storms the waves often drive ships on rocks and 
wreck them. Another movement of the sea causes 
it to rise and fall slowly twice in a day. These 
two movements of the sea are known as tides. 

Yi ™ vi nit a rotcono in Italy, in eruption, lf#t6. Attout 7&Q feet of the cone 

vf Yceurtu* tr/ie blown owtiy duritto Otis eruption, and 

several vilUwte were destroyed. 




i cte U roll* up on n flat jwn/ty conet raited a he.neh. 
with the tea pounding the rocks, cm page 111, 


Then again the sea is very deep. In some places it 
is five miles to the bottom. The water of the sea is salt 
Sailors take fresh water with them to drink when they 
goto sea. 

Besides being interesting, the sea is useful. It 
ia a great highway. .Ships are all the time car- 
rying things across it, from one country to 
another. If we go into a grocer's store, we see 
spices for sale. They grew thousands of miles 
away, and were brought over the sea in ships. 

2. Divisions of the Sea. — The sea is one sheet 
of water, A ship can sail alt over it. Hut different 


WW ■■ 

• - 




A bay. A breakwater has been buitt to enetoee part of the bay at a 
harbor for the city. — Nice. France. 

parts of it are called by different names. The larg- 
est parts or divisions of the sea are called oceans. 

There are smaller divisions that are partly shut 
in by the land. These are called gulfs, bays, and 
seas. A portion of a bay so nearly enclosed by 
land that ships can be sheltered in it is called a 

A generally narrow passage of water connect- 
ing two larger bodies of water is called a strait. 

In some cases bays and straits are caused by 
the ocean's wearing away the coast. In other 
cases they are caused by i 
the sinking of a strip of the 
land, so that the waters of 
the ocean How over it. 

Some straits are called 
channels. Wide straits are 
sometimes called sounds. 

A watrrthrd, lit ttaptt enreft 
water from the ridge vr divide. 

3. "Water upon the Land. — Besides the 
water of the sea, there is a great deal of water 
upon the land. Most of it is fresh. 

A mountain WOttrtktd. 7'hr Blue Ititlgr in Sort It t'arotma. ltt tlopet 
tarry water from the diviite to two different ttreamt. 

And yet it all comes out of the salt, salt sea. Let us 
try to understand this, "When it rains or snows the sky 
is covered, we know, with clouds. Clouds are vapor. 
They are like the steam which comes out of a kettle or 
an engine. 

The sun is all the time heating the sea and making 
vapor rise. That vapor forms the clouds. The winds 
drive the clouds from the sea over the land, and down 
they come as rain or snow. Put when the vapor rises 
from the salt water il leaves the salt behind. And so. 

The Columbia nwr, near tit tourer . 



the rain and snow are fresh. Some of the rain and 
snow is at once drained off by rivers; some sinks into, 
the ground. 

M'htrc streams overflow mud it deposited which builds up a plain, as it 

Seen in this view of the Connecticut river, Scientists coil this 

a flood plain ; others call it bottom hind, 

Fresh water that bubbles out of the ground is 
called a spring; and yet it is only rain that sank 
slowly into the ground and comes bubbling out 

The water from springs may be seen flowing 
down the hillside and looking like a bright stream 
of silver. Many little streams unite to make a 
larger one called a brook, or a still larger one 
called a creek. 

Now suppose several brooks or creeks come 

In a dry country, streams cut through tJicir plateaus rapidly, leaving hills 

whose sides are straight up and down. This is the Green riper in 

Colorado. Ct/mjtart with Yadkin river. 

together and make a stream larger yet, what 
will that be ? We call it a river. The beginning 
of a river is called its source ; the end of it is 
called its mouth. Now let us follow a river that 
begins among the mountains. Let us go from its 
source down to its mouth. 

The first part of such a river is very rapid. The water 
dashes down the mountain side. Sometimes it leaps 
from rock to rock and makes waterfalls. 

When il reaches the plateau, it is still very swift. 

Here, along- the bank, we see mills for grinding- corn or 
making cloth. They have wheels which the water turns 
as it passes on its way to the sea. 

The mills need people to work in them, and so there 
is a village or a town built near by. Many cities have 
been built on the hanks of rivers just l>eeause the swiftly 
running water then could be used to turn mill- wheels. 
On page 40 is a picture of a New England river and 
cotton mills built at its falls. 

From the plateau, the river comes down to the coastal 
plain. Hew the land has very little slope, and the river 

The Yadkin nrcr, A'orth i artuma. Streams cut thrauyti the plateau, leav- 
ing the Piedmont, or foot hills, as ics see them here. In the second 
cut notice haw the land has been cut hij streams. 

flows slowly and becomes so deep that steamboats run 
on it At its mouth we find cities called seaports, where 
ships bring in goods from other countries to be exchanged 
for goods that come down the river on boats, or over the 
land on railroads. 

Another work that rivers do for us is to drain 
the surplus water from the land and carry it 

back to the sea. 

Every brook and every creek is made up of water that 
falls near it, and rivers are made of the water poured 

A river, the Savannah, flowing through the coastal plain. The seaport is 

Savannah. Oa. Notice the ships. This plain is made of mud cut 

away from the plateau, and brought dawn by the river. 

into them by brooks and creeks. A river and all the 
streams th at carry their water into it make a river system, 
and the land from which they drain the water is called 




the river basin. On page 87 find llirce great river 
systems and the basin which each one drains. 

Sheets of water surrounded by hind are called 
lakes. Some lakes are called seas. Many rivers 
rise in lakes. 

For Recitation. What are oceans ? WliflUs a gulf, 
bay or sea ? What is a strait ? What is n spring ? What is 
m river ? What is a lake ? 




Preparatory Oral Work.— Take 
an orange or a ball of yarn or clay 
and put a bat pin through it. Stick 
a tack or a bit of paper on each 
gl o be to represe ot where we 11 ve. Let 
the pupils perform the experiment 
with a lamp or caudle. Ask: What 
represents the earth? The axis? The 
sun? Where is it day? Where is it 
nightf Where do we pretend that 
you lire? Make it midday at that 
place; evening; midnight; morning; 
midday again. Let each child ob- 
serve and record the hour of sunrise, 
of sunset. 

1. What makes day and 
what makes night P We shall 
try to learn in this lesson. 

Of course we know that it is 
day when the sun shines upon 
as. But why is it not always 
day? What makes the sun set 

The tilth in thr ftruntrc slwtpt OUT] 
1, til midnight; 'J. ut tunrvt 

and the light fade ? And then, what makes the 
sun rise again in the morning? 

People used to think that the sun really did 
come up and go down. They thought that it 
went under the earth at night, and came out 
again in the morning. They supposed that the 
rising and setting of the sun were like taking a 
lighted lamp and carrying it across a table, and 
then putting it under the table and bringing it 
out after a while at the opposite side. But we 
know that all this was a mistake. 

2. What really happens P Let us see. Sup- 

pose wo put an orange or a ball in the sunlight, 
or in the light of a lamp. Does the light shine 
all over it? No. Only one-half of it is in the 
light. The other half is dark. Like the 
orange or the hall, the earth is in the sunshine; 
but only one-half of it can be bright at a time. 
The other half must be in the dark. 

Now let us stick a knitting- 
needle or a sharp piece of wood 
right through the orange at the 
place where the stem used to be. 
Next let us hold the orange in 
the sunlight or lamplight, and 
make it turn round upon the 
knitting-needle. We shall in 
this way bring the side that was 
first dark into the light, and the 
side that was first light into the 

The knitting-needle stuck through 
the orange may be called the axis of 
the orange. And the orange, when 
it turns on the needle, is said to turn 
on its axis. 

3. Now the earth turns 

round from west to east. It is 

said to rotate, or turn on its axis. 

( >f course, we must not suppose 

that it really has a rod of iron 

or anything else stuck through 

it for an axis. But it turns as 

if it had. 

One thing more wo notice about our turning 

orange. It soon stops if we do not keep on 

making it turn. But the earth never stops. 

First one side is in tho sunlight and then the 

other. The bright side has day. The dark side 

has night. 

Whenever it is daylight with us, it is night with the 
people who live on the other side of the earth. When 
we are eating our breakfast or hurrying off to school, 
the children who live on the other side of the earth are 
getting their supper or going to bed. 

We turn the orange round on its knitting-needle 
in a few seconds. But it takes the earth twenty- 

il U*n on the rarlh: 
■ 3. ai ntxnt. 



four hours to go once round on its axis. This is 
why we have about twelve hours of sunshine and 
twelve hours of night. 

For Recitation. — How does the earth move? How 
long does it take to turn roun ? When do we hare daylight ? 
When do we have night? D^es the sun really come up every 
morning and go down every evening? When the sun rises, 
tt hat is happening? And when the sun sets, what is happening? 



Preparatory Oral Work.— Use again oranges or 

balls, hat-pins, and candles. Move the globes around, 
keeping the north pole al- 
ways pointing in the same 
direction, and name the 
seasons. Then turn the ball 
on its axis as you carry it 
around the candle, so as to 
teach the class how both 
motions are going on at the 
same time. Let each pupil 
make the experiment. Ask 
■who can do this at home 

On the first Monday in 
each month, at twelve 
o'clock, measure the length 
of shadow of a perpendic- 
ular pole and record it. 

Measure the distance that Mottle that the axis of the oranye aiiraiis sttwtt thr «ante u <*# 
the sun si lines into a south 

do our orange. It goes of itself, but it never 
gets tired and never stops. 

It is only a few feet round our chalk ring. It 
is millions of miles round the earth's ring. 

It takes us only a minute or two to carry our 
orange round the lamp. It takes the earth a 
whole year, all the time from one of our birth- 
days to another, to revolve around the sun. 

2. The Seasons. — Now as the earth moves in 
its ring round the sun, sometimes our country re- 
ceives more sunshine and heat, and sometimes less. 

window and record it. The shadows will be longest 
in December and shortest in June. 

1, The Earth Revolves.- -Besides turning 
round on its axis, the earth moves in another 
way. Let us try to understand this movement. 
Suppose we draw a large chalk ring on the floor, 
or on the top of a large table, and then put the 
lighted lamp in the middle of the ring. 

Now let us walk round the ring, holding the 
orange with the knitting-needle through it, so 
that the light of the lamp shines on it. 

"What we are now doing with the orange shows 
what happens to the earth. Nobody marks a 
ring for the earth with chalk, but still it goes in 
a ring, round and round the sun, as the orange 
does round the lamp. Nobody carries it, as we 

/ or this reason 
at 2 the light shines on the top of f e aranoe ; at \ on the bottom ,' 
at I and ft equally on both top and bottom. 

At one lime the swallows come. The birds build 
thcirnests. The people are 
planting and sowing. It 
is now not very hot and 
not very cold. It is 
spring. The orange at 1 
iti the picture shows where 
the earth is in its path at 
this lime. 

In a very short time there 
comes a change. The days 
grow longer, the weather 
gets warmer. The trees 
are full of fruit, the melons 
are ripe. It is summer. 
The orange at 2 in the pic- 
ture shows where the earth 
is in its path at this time. 

Months pass. The leaves 
turn and begin to fall. The 
Thanksgiving Day comes. 

yellow corn is gathered in. 

It is autumn or fall. The orange at 3 in the picture 

shows where the earth is in its patli at this time. 

Again there is a change. The days grow shorter, the 
weather gets colder. Snow covers the hills; ice covers 
the ponds. Christmas and Santa Clans come. It is 
w inter. The orange at 4 in the picture shows where 
the earth is in its path at this time. 

These four parts of the year — spring, summer, 
autumn, and winter — are called the four seasons. 

In some countries there are only two seasons, 

called the wet and the dry. In others there is 

one long winter with scarcely any summer. 

For Recitation. — Besides turning on its axis, how else 
does the earth move? How long dues it take the earth to go 
round the sun? What changes In the weather take plaec as 
we go round the sun? What, then, may we say is caused by 
the earth's revolving round the sun? How many seasons havo 
we? Have all parts o( the earth four seasons? 





Preparatory Oral Work.— Keep on the board a 
daily record of ten > [Jurat u re and rain for two weeks pre- 
ceding this lesson. Now turn to this record and teach 
the terms weather and climate. Ask on how- rouny 
days we have had wet weather; on how many drv 
weather; whether our climate is wet or dry. 

1. Climate. — We have learned that the sun 
gives us heat and light, and that besides this, it 
makes the vapor rise from the sea, and so causes 
the rain to water the earth. 

But tho sun shines upon 
the earth in such a way 
that it warms and waters 
some parts of it much more 
than others. 

Some parts are very hot; 
some are bitterly cold ; others 
are sometimes hot and some- 
times cold. So, too, some parts 
of the earth are very rainy : i n 
Bomo there is hardly any rain 
at all; in others there is neither 
too much nor too little raiu. 

The heat or cold, and the 
moisture or dryness of a 
country for all the time 

Tht zvnta. 

it exactly into halves. We imagine such a line to g-o 
all round the earth. It is called the equator. The 
Torrid zone lies on both Hides of it, and the sun is always 
shining straight down on some part of this zone. 

The white belts represent the parts of the 
earth which receive little heat, and where the air 
is always cold. These are called the Frigid or 
frozen zones. 

We see at the top and bottom of the picture two little 
while dots. These show the points of the earth's sur- 
f;iee that are t'aithest away from l lie equator. We call 
these points the north pole 
and the south pole, The 
Frigid zones lie around them. 
There is at least one whole 
day in eaeh year during which 
the sun does not shine upon 
auy part of these zones. 

The yellow belts show 
where there is a summer and 
a wintcr,and where both the 
heat and rain are less (hail 
in the Torrid zone. These 
are the Temperate or mild 
zones. Here the sun never 
shines straight down, but it 
never fails to shine during 
some part of every day. 

make up what is called its climate. When we | There are two Frigid zones and two Temperate 

zones. These are known as the North Frigid 
zone and tho South Frigid zone, and the North 

speak of these for a short time, as a day, or a 
week, we use the word iveather. 

A country that has much more hot weather 
than cold during the year has a hot climate ; one 
that has cold weather tho greater part of the 
year has a cold climate ; and a country in which 
the hot and cold parts of the year are nearly 
equal has a temperate climate. The climate, 
again, may be moist or it may be dry. 

2. Zones. — Look at the picture. The red 
belt shows that part of the earth which receives 
the most heat from the sun, and in which the 
mwt rain falls. This is called the Torrid or hot 
zone, '/one means belt. 

Across the middle of the picture is a line which divides 

Temperate zone and the South Temperate zone. 

We must go quite far north or south of the place 
where two zones join before we notice that the zone 
we are in differs from that which we left. However, 
if wo should el hub up a high mountain, in either of 
the Tern perate zones or even in the Torrid zone, we 
would not ice that the climate soon becomes colder 
and colder the farther we go up above the lowlands. 

The climate of a country depends chiefly on its 
being in one or another of these zones. 

In the Frigid zones we should see mountains of 
ice and endless fields of snow. 

The people live In huts of snow and ice. They dress 
in fur and even then can hardly keep warm. 




If a person should go from 
Ilia snow lint in the Frigid 
zone to the Torrid, he would 
find his fur clothing too hot 
to wear. He would want the 
thinnest clothing to he found. 

as the Frigid. They are the pleasantest parts of 

the world. 

Our home is in the North Temperate zone. 

Many other things change the climate of a place. 
High mountains, even in the Torrid zone, give a tem- 
perate climate to places half-way up their sides, and give 
a frigid climate at their snow-covered tops. If warm, 
moist winds constantly olow over a country, they give 
it a mild climate. 

Tor Recitation. — What does the sun do for (he earth? 
Whiit its meant by the elimate of a country? What part of 
the earth lias the most lieat and rain? What are the coldest 
parts of the earth? What kind of climate do you find in the 
temperate zones? In which zone do you live? In what direc- 
tion would you travel lo reach the Torrid zone? The South 
Temperate? The North Frigid? 



Preparatory Oral Work.— Talk to class about the 
caif and cultivation of plants. Whj ate Noun plants 
taken up when cold weather comes and put in the 
house? How does frost affect plants? What plants 
can live out of doors all winter 'i Teach the reason for 
the cultivation of different plants — for the root, seed, 
leaf, blossom, etc. 

What Plants Are. — What is the use of the 
earth's being warmed by the great sun, and 
watered by the rain and dew? Let us see. 
Everything that grows out of the earth is called 

in the Torrid zone there is 
no winter. 

The two Temperate zones 
are not so hot as the Torrid 
zone, nor so bitterlv cold 




a plant, and nil plitnt-s vt<d water 
to drink, and sunshine to keep 
them warm. Some need : grfaat. 
•deal of water and warmth: others! 
want only a little. 



Plants cannot grow without heat and moisture. 
I H fit- re lit plants belong to iliftV-tvut zones. 

In the Frigid zones the winters are long and 
very cold with little light. Hardly anything 
grows here except mosses and a few low -growing 
plants lliat flourish during the short slimmer. 
The Frigid zones may Lie called the treeless belts. 

Let us leave them and visit the Temperate 
zones. Here we shall lind more heat, and more 
light, and plenty of rain and dew. And so we 
find here, too, a great many plants. 

In each of tho Temperate zones that part near 
the frigid is still very cold, and we call it the 
cold belt. Fir trees and oats grow here. In 
the middle belt of the Temperate zones we find 
the really temperate climate. Wheat, corn, and 
cotton grow in the fields. There are forests of 
oak, maple, and pine, and orchards of pear, 
apple, and peach trees. Nearer the Torrid zone 
the climate is very warm, and we- call this the 
warm belt of the Temperate zones. Here rice is 
the principal grain, and the tea-plant, sugar- 
cane, and orange trees grow. 

In the Torrid zone there are more heat and 
more rain than an v where else. So here we (ind 

the greatest number of plants. 
There are forests of In ilia, 
rubber trees, groves of palms 
and jungles of bamboos. 
The delicious banana and 



cane have their home, and the largest 
and most beautiful flowers grow. 
The different plants of a country 
make up what we call its vegetation. 




Did you ever think how useful plants are to us ? What 
should we do without corn and wheat to eat, tea and 
coffee to drink, sugar to make tilings sweet, timber with 

whieh to build our houses, 
and cottou to clothe our 
bodies ? 

For Recitation. — What 
is & plant ? What do plants 
need ? Why do wo find the 
fewest plants in the Frigid 
zone ? What kind of plants 
grow in the Frigid zone? Name 
some of the plants of the tem- 
perate zones ? Where do we 
find the greatest number of 
plants, and why? Name some 
of the plants of the Torrid 



Preparatory Oral Work.— Get pupils to talk 
about animals that they have seen. Which work for 
man? Which furnish food for us? Which furnish 
clothing for us? What wild animals have you seen? 
What did they eat? 

Whatever lives, eats, feels, and can move from 
place to place is called an animal. There 
are many kinds of animals, and they are very 
different from one another. 

Some animals, like some plants, need a hot 
climate ; others need a cold climate. Different 
animals belong: to different zones. 

Very few animals belong to the Frigid zone, 
but there are some that can live only there. 

The walrus and seal find no place so nice as 
the icy seas of the Frigid zone. They must bathe 
every day in water so cold that it would freeze us. 

In the sutnc i-uhl /.one livi I Ik- huge white bear and 
the reindeer, an animal that is fond of hunting under- 
in';iili the anuw for his dinner of moss. 

In the Temperate zones we find the greatest 
number of animals that are useful to man. 
Most of these animals live on plants. The 
horse, the ox, the cow, the sheep, and the 
goat are called domestic, because they have l>een 
tamed and make their home with man. 

Among wild animals are the grizzly bear, 
the wolf", and the kangaroo. 

In tin- Torrid zone 

there are more wild 

animals than anywhere 

>lse. That zone is the 

home of some of the 

largest, the fiercest, 

and the most 

beautiful animals. 

In the woods there are 
huge snakes, lions, and 
tigers. Monkeys are 

jumping from tree to tree. 
Blue and green parrots 

are screaming from the tree-tops, and scarlet flamingoes 
are wading in the pools. In the Torrid zone we can ride 
on the back of an elephant and hunt the tiger. 



Besides the animals on land, we must remem- 
ber those of the sea. Whales and many fish 
dart about through the waves. Some fish live 
"only in very cold water ; others 
only where it is warm. 

The water at the bottom of the 
deeper parts of the sea is always cold, 
but its surface waters have zones very 
much like those of the laud. 

For Recitation.— What is as ani 

mal ? Where do we Bad the fewest animals t 
Nanif some of the animals of the Frigid 
zone. Where do we find the greatest num- 
ber of animals that are iiafut to man? 
Name same animals that belong to the 
Temperate zones. Wiiat zone contains 
the greatest number of animals'.' Name 
some of the animals that belong to the 
Torrid zone. 



Preparatory Oral Work. — Get 

the pupils to report what uses they^XX* £,™ 
have seen made of stone, and compare?' >h*u> P u toU; nr*t 

J , L brittle comrt grttvrt. 

Btone with brick. Get specimens of<v>! eta*, a™<<-i 

. . . , ., ,. aqwn, and. finally. 

metals and building stones. hardrock. 

Get specimens of loam, of sand, and of clay. Let 
pupils feel the specimens and see how they differ. 

Fill two glasses with cleaY water, and put in one a 
tablespoonful of coarse sand, and in the other a table- 
apoouful of fine powdered clay, or of loam. Notice 
which settles first. 

Get a tall glass jar, fill it with water, and pour into 
it a well-mixed assortment of small pebbles, fine sand, 
and finely powdered clay. Notice the sorting of 
materials that takes place while they are settling. 

Minerals- — We have learned about many plants 
and animals that are useful to us. Besides these 
there are also many very useful things that we dig 
out of the earth. The coal that we burn in our 
fires, the kerosene oil that gives us light, the gran- 
ite and sandstone used in building, the salt that 
we eat at our meals, the diamond that shines like 
a sunbeam — all come out of the earth. 

The rocks, coal, and other things of which the 
solid earth is composed are called minerals. 

Metals. — Some minerals, such as iron, copper 
and lead, gold and silver, are called metals. The 

last two, gold and silver, are called the precious 
metals. They are made into money. 

Soils.— But perhaps the most useful part of the 
earth is the part that we call soil. You have seen 
soil in the gardens and fields, and you have 
noticed its color. ]f you will look closely at a 
handful of this soil you will see that it is made 
of fine grains like those of powdered stone. 
What is called rich soil often contains also par- 
ticles of decayed leaves or other vegetable or 
animal material. 

For Recitation.— What is a mineral ? Name some of 
the most useful minerals. Name some of the metals. "Which 
are called precious metals ? What is soil ? 


Preparatory Oral Work,— Talk to the class about 
the- occupations most familiar to all. Let pupils visit 
some factory and tell what they saw. A. shoe shop, a 
tailor's el top, a blacksmith shop, are simple factories. 
Discuss other occupations, and let pupils bring pictures 
of people at work in any of the loading industries, 

Most people earn their living by doing some 
kind of work. We call people's work their 
occupation. Let us see what are the great 
occupations of the world. 

We all eat food made from plants, and from 
plants we get cotton and linen for clothes. 

Now we all know that cabbages and potatoes 
do not grow of themselves. Just so wheat and 
corn, the cotton plant, and the flax or linen 

A piounttg nxnt. The dork toil ha* bten }*tifu:td. 



plant, will not grow of themselves. People must i 
plow the ground for them, plant the seed, reap 
the grain when it is ripe, cut the flax, and pick 
the cotton. 

Raising corn, or wheat, or other plants for 
food or clothing is called agriculture or farni- 

We do not like to eat dry bread. So some people 
keep cows and make butter and cheese for the rest. 
Those who do so ace occupied in dairying. 

Then, too, we all eat meat. So some people must 
keep the animals whose tiesh we eat. Those animals 
are called stock, and the business of those who keep 
I hem is called stock-raising. 

1 ~~ ] 

19 H ft 1 11 

■9 ' ^B 


■ in 


Ul" *^i\ 

k ■■< : 'vM 




.\fitking. A dairy m iY rjilchrrtrr County, X. V. Notice the head* of the 
ceneit (hat lire upstair*. 

Farmers use plows to turn up the soil, and 
machines to cut their wheat. We all use knives 
and scissors, needles and pins, and other such 

People who make the things that other people 
use are said to manufacture. 

But of course the man who makes plows must 
have iron and wood of which to make them; 
the man who builds wooden houses must have 
wood. Where shall they get the iron and the 
wood ? 

Iron is a mineral. It is dug from the earth. 
Some one must dig it up and make it fit for the 
plow-maker to use. The occupation of digging 
minerals out of the earth is called mining. 

Woorl is obtained from oaks and pines and other trees. 
The occupation of cut ting down the trees and sawing 
them up to be made into houses, or ships, or other things, 
is called lumbering. 

When a boy wants some marbles, he goes to a 
store and buys them. When a farmer wants a 
plow, he goes to a store and buys it. If in one 

Lumbering. §>*tA0 in Georgia. ttaittrava are uteti on the- coattai plain. 

country the people have not enough wheat, they 
buy some from a country where the people have 
more than enough. If in one country more 
cotton grows than the people want, they send 
it to other countries where cotton does not 
grow. The business of exchanging goods is 
called iommerco. 

Often things have to be carried a long way before 
they reach the persons who want them. The tea or coffee 
that we use had to travel many thousand miles before 
it reached us. 

This is why we have so many ships and steamers 
going to all parts of the 
world. They carry away 
things that grow or are 
made here. This we call 
exporting. They bring to 
us things that grow or are 
made in other countries. 
This we call Importing; 

Khipt from South America unloading at a wharf in Ar'nt' York. 

For Recitation.— What are the chief occupations at 
men? What is ngriciilture ? What is stock-raising ? What 
is in an u fiic In ring? What is mining? What is commerce ? 






Preparatory Oral Work.— Ask Hie pupils such 
questions as these: Do you know what an officer is ? 
Did you ever see one? Tell the names of some of the 
officers you have seen. What does a mayor do 1 A 
sheriff t A constable 3 A justice of the peace ? "Who 
makes the laws for your state f Who makes the laws for 
your town ? Answer ail questions that pupils cannot 
answer for themselves. 

1, Government. — What a noise there 
would be in the school if there were no 
one to keep order! How many wrong 
tilings would be done, and how un- 
comfortable a place it would be ! 

Teachers, therefore, make rules 
They keep the 
pupils in order, and 
manage every- 
thing for the good 
of all. They are 
said to govern the 

Towns, cities, 
and whole conn- 
tries are some- 
what like schools. 
They must have 
rules and rulers, 
or else a few dis- 

d, , &t, Peter's church at Home, the laraeei in the tporttt. 

erly people 

might make it very unpleasant for all the rest. 
Making rules for a country, and making the peo- 
ple obey the rules, is government. 

The rules made for a country are called its 
laws. The city where the laws are made is its 

The rulers of different countries have different 
names. A ruler that is chosen by the people is 
usually called a president. One that rides 
because a father or other near relative ruled pre- 
viously, is a monarch. 

Motmrchs art; sometimes called kings, or 
queens, or emperors. 

If the ruler of a country makes laws which are 

selfish, oppressive to tho people, and opposed to their 
advancement, he is called a despot. 

Countries that have presidents arc called republics; 
those that have kings are called kingdoms ; those that 
have emperors are called empires. Kingdoms and 
empires are sometimes called monarchies. 

If ejHiiii its, and other countries, are often com- 
posed of parts, which are called by various 
names. With us they are known as states ami 


The governor of a state is elected by the people. 
The governor of a territory is appointed by the 

2. Religion. — The belief in find, to- 
gether with the various forms of wor- 
shiping Him, is called religion. 

Christians be- 
lieve in one God and 
that Christ is the 
Si -ii of' (Jed and the 
Savior of the world. 
They accept the Old 
ami N'ew Testaments 
as the Word of G od. 

The .lews also 
believe in one God, 
but maintain the 
Savior has not yet 


believe in one (hid, 
hut recognize Mo- 
hammed as His 
greatest prophet 
Many Mohammedans are but half civilized. 

There are people in the world who do not believe in 
one God, but think that there are many gods. Such 
people are called pagans. Some of them worship 
images of wood or stone, which we call idols. 

The place where people worship is called a church, 
a synagogue, a mosque, or a temple. 

For Recitation.— What Is $:r>verniiient? What la a 
republic f What is a kingdom t What is an empire? What 

are the chief religions of the world ? Who are pagans ? 



Preparatory Oral "Work.— Suggestions to teachers : 
Have pupils compare different peoples as to their 
features, color, height, etc. Ask who has ever 



seen a Caucasian, an Indian, a Malay, a Mongolian. 
Show how the people of any race may he savage or bar- 
barous; how the jieople of any race may be civilized or 

enlightened. I m press 
the fact that these condi- 
tions are due to the man- 
ner of living and not to 
the race. 

1. How Men Look. 

— The people who live 
on the earth do not 
all look alike. They 
differ in the color of 
their skins and in 
other ways. 

Most of those that 
we see are white ; 

A V'lttfijKiart. 

always of fair complexion; those that live in a hot, 
sunny country are often dark. Thus many of the 
Arabs have swarthy skins, black eyes, and black glossy 
hair. The other races also vary a little in color, 
according to the climate in -which they live. 

2. How Men Live.— The different people 
of the earth do not all live in the same way. 
• Suppose we go to the homes of the wild Indians 
or Negroes and see how they live. We shall find 
some of them living in tents made of skins or in 
rude huts. 

Among the wild tribes the people wear little or no 
clothing, and eat roots, insects, fish, or the wild ani- 
mals they may be able to trap or kill with clubs, 
wooden spears, or hows and arrows, for they have not 
yet learned the use of iron. The women do most of 
the work, while the men hunt and are fond of fighting. 

A Mongolian. An /■■-•< Jtisf. A Malay in tWrityftfan di-ess. 

Althnanh thttt three differ in color thru an m'irk nlike. Kolict their hioh cheek tone*, almond ihnptd ey>:>, arid straight black hair. 

some are black. In the western part of our 
country there are a good many red men, and 
in some parts yellow men, or Chinese, are 
found. Tn other parts of the world we find 
men of one more color still, the brown. 

These five are the races of men. 

The white is called the Caucasian race ; the 
yellow, the Mongolian race ; the black, the 
Negro race ; the rexl, the Indian race ; the 
brown, the Malay race. 

White men now live in every continent, and control 
the world. 

The ]>eople of the Caucasian or white race are not 

People who live in 
this way are called 

After living for a 
long time like savages 
some people learned to 
make pottery from clav, 
to cultivate grain, and 
to tame and keep herds 
of cattle, sheep, and "? 
goats. They also 
learned to weave coarse 
cloth, and to make tools 

< Vtffro in ifrictt 



For Kecitation, — Name the five races of men. How 
Uo savages live? How ilo barbarous people live? How do 
civiliied people live? flow do cti lightened people live? 

Stiwigr. We. l'tiototjrti]>h try Dr, t'ook in tSuuth .-1 mtTiftt. 

and weapons of me till. They cannot read or write, 
but thej live more comfortably than savages, and 
are known as barbarous people. 

Some of these people live in tents, and wander about 
from place to place with their herds, pitching their 
tents wherever there is grass for their animals. Many 
of the wandering desert tribes live in til is manner. 

We will now visit some people who live very 
much better than barbarous people. They are the 
Chinese, who are going to bed as we are getting up. 

Instead of tents they have comfortable houses. 
They build large cities, and make beautiful silks 

* ItartMruu* ii)c. 

Aratjv tuimQ mutter tnjijre the tent ti'hieh w 
their onty home. 

and many other things. They have books and 
schools, are industrious, and are adopting many 
modern eustoms and inventions. We call people 
who live like the Chinese partly or half civilized. 
In the countries of the white race there are 
more books, and better schools and governments 
than anywhere else. We have elm relies, railways, 
steamers, telegraphs, and telephones. We build 
hospitals, and care for the poor. People living as 
we do are called fully civilized or enlightened. 



Preparatory Oral Work.— Let each pupil make a 
clay sphere and scratch on it some shapes to represent 

HqU avms&i life. A Chinese city. Compare this with one of our dtic* 

land. Color the rest of the sphere with blue ink or 
paint to represent water. Divide each sphere into halves. 
Teach meaning of terms sphere and hemisphere. 

Sometimes the earth is called a sphere. 
The word sphere is only another name that is 
often used for a body shaped like a ball. When a 
sphere is divided into two equal parts, each half 
is called a hemisphere, that is a half sphere. 


Xitliff the fiirt/r raurt)tvu*c unJ the itry Uiil 
The city i* St. Louit. Ma. 

On the following pages we have maps of the 
two halves of the earth. One half is called the 
western hemisphere, and the other half is known 
as the eastern hemisphere. 


Each hemisphere represents half of the earth's 
surface, with its continents, oceans, and some of 
its largest islands, mountains, rivers, and 
other objects. 

If we look nt the maps of the 
hemispheres on pages 28 and 29, 
we shall see that there is much 
more land in the eastern hemi- 
sphere than in the western. Four 
of the six continents are in the 
eastern hemisphere. These are 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and Aus- 
tralia. Tlie western hemisphere 
Contains only two continents. 
They are North America and 
South America. 

The blue which we see on the map represents 
the w liter. The water lias five great divisions or 
oceans. They are the Pacific, the Atlantic, the 
Indian, the Arctic, and the Antarctic oceans. 

All these oceans except the Indian are partly in the 
eastern hemisphere and partly in the western. But 
the western hemisphere has a much larger share of 
water than the eastern. 

Nearly one-half of all the land surface of the 

earth is in the North Temperate zone, and more 

than one-half of all the people in the world live 

in it. 

For Kecitntlon. — What is a hemisphere? Name the 
hemispheres shown on the map. What continents are in the 
western hemisphere? What continents are in the eastern 
hemisphere ? Name the oceans. In which hemisphere is U-e 
Indian ocean? Where are the othe| oceans? 


1. Having learned the names of the conti- 
nents and oceans, let us now notice some of the 
most interesting things about them. 

2. Europe.— Let us cross the Atlantic and 
take a (lying trip through Europe. Next to 
Australia it is the smallest of the continents. It 
lies chiefly in our own North Temperate zone. 
Most of the people are Caucasians. As we 
travel among them we hear a great many differ- 
ent languages that we do not understand. 

Europe and Asia, and for ocean* around [hem, 
Q8 they would took ij seen Jrtitn the m*wn. 

perate zone. 

Their cities contain many interesting and beautiful 
churches, palaces, ami museums full of pictures and 
all sorts of curious things. 

Schools and churches are to be 
seen every where, except in one part, 
called Turkey; railways extend, in 
every direction, and steamboats run 
on all the great rivers. We find the 
people busy on farms, in workshops, 
and in factories. 

From Euro]>e we buy more things- 
than from any other continent, and 
to it we sell more than to any other. 

3. Asia. — Leaving Europe, we 
pass into Asia. To-day we can 
make this trip by railroad trains. 
Asia is the largest continent- 
It is chiefly in the North Teni- 
The people on its eastern coast 

arc just half-way round the earth from us. 

In Asia wc find the highest mountains in the 


More people live on this continent than in all the 
others together. But there are not so many schools as 
in Europe and America, and the people are not so en- 

They belong chiefly to the yellow, the white, and 

the brown races. 
Some wear turbans 
instead of hats \ 
others wear their 
hair in braids or 
queues (kews) two 
or three feet long. 

4. Africa. ~ 

Suppose we now 
journey from 
Asia toward the 
west, and across 

Africa, and the ocean* around it. the 1st I J 111 US OI 

Suez, where shall we he? In Africa — the second 

continent- in size, and the hottest of all. Most 

of it lies in the Torrid zone, and it contains the 

largest desert in the world. 

Africa is the home of the Negro race. Many of the- 
Negro tribes are ignorant savages. People from Europe- 
have settled along the coast and in parts of the inte- 
rior, and have introduced railways and schools. 

— -Cu 




6. Australia. — From Africa let us take a 
steamship anil go east across the Indian ocean. 
We come to Australia, the smallest of the conti- 
nents. -It is partly in the South Temperate zone 
and partly in the Torrid. 

When it was discovered only hlack savages lived 
there, but now most of its people are English. The 
plants and animals of Australia arc unlike those of any 
other continent. The leaves of some of the trees are 
turned edgewise. Many trees shed their bark instead 
of their leaves. Australia produces a great amount 
of wool, wheat, and gold. 

6. South America. — Sailing now across the 
Pacific ocean, we come to the western conti- 
nents. Let us first visit South 

America, It lies chiefly in the 
Torrid zone, and is very hot and 
very moist. Here we find one of 
the largest rivers and the longest 
mountain range in the world. 

South America is the nearest conti- 
nent to us, but its people are Yery 
different from us. They speak lan- 
guages unlike ours, and are not nearly 
so busy as we are. No continent has 
more beautiful flowers, birds, and 

7. North America. — Having 
visited the other continents, we return to North 
America, and find that, after all, there is no place 
like home. Our continent is mainly in the North 
Temperate zone. Its lands are fertile ; it pro- 
duces nearly everything that we need for food or 

It was once the 
hunting ground of 
the red man, but 
more than four 
hundred years ago 
the white man 
came from Europe 
and took it for 
himself. The red 
man now owns 
little of the land 
that belonged to 

his fathers. jy„.,A America, and v\e uaant around it 

8- Atlantic Ocean. — On the Atlantic there 
are more ships than on any other ocean, because 
Europe and North America, which lie on either 
side of it, carry on more trade than the other con- 
tinents. Ships, carrying passengers and goods, 
are constantly crossing this ocean. 

In the Atlantic there is a great stream of warm 
water that comes out of the Gulf of Mexico. It is the 
Gulf stream. It flows northeastward, and, broaden- 
ing out, joins the other Atlantic waters and drifts 
over to the shores of Europe. 

9. The Pacific Ocean was found calm and 
peaceful by the first European that sailed on it, 
and this is the reason why he called it Pacific or 
peaceful. It is the largest of all 
the oceans, and contains more is- 
lands than any other. 

There is in the I'acific ocean a cur- 
rent of water similar to the Gulf 
stream. It is called the Japan cur> 

10. The Indian Ocean is some- 
times visited by violent tempests 
called typhoons; and if we sail 
upon it we may be terrified by a 

South America, and the ocean* around iU 

Waterspouts are huge columns of 
water and va]x>r extending from the sea towards the 
clouds. They are formed by a whirlwind, larger but 
much like the small whirlwinds that we see forming 
columns of dust in the street and roads. 

11. The Arctic and Antarctic Oceans an- 

seldom visited by ships. Icebergs or mountains 
of ice float in them. 

On page 94 we may learn something about the great 
streams of ice called glaciers. In the Arctic and Ant- 
arctic, regions the glaciers flow down into the ocean. 
Great fragments are broken off and are carried away 
by the ocean currents. These are icebergs, or ice 

For Recitation. — Can yon tell anything In teres! ins 
about Europe? What can you (ell about Asia? What can 
you gay about A frica ? W h at can you Bay of A ustral ia ? W hat 
have yon learned about South America? Tell me something 
about North America, What have you learned about the 
different oceans ? 


T « 

F R I Q I 

f r i a 


What part of the map is north ? South ) East ? 
West ? What two continents are in the western hemi- 
sphere ? In what direction is North America from 
South America ? Point in the direction in which South 
America lies from us. 

By what isthmus are "North and Sonth America con- 
nected ? What ocean on the east of them ? On the 
west ? 

What ocean round the North pole ? What ocean 
round the South pole ? 

What four continents in the eastern hemisphere f 

What isthmus between Asia and Africa ? In what direc- 
tion is Africa from Asia ? 

Point in the direction in which Africa lies from us. 
In what direction is Australia from Asia ? 

What sea separates Africa and Europe I In what di- 
rection is Europe from Africa ! Point in the direction 
in which Europe lies from us. 

What ocean east of Asia t What ocean west of 
Africa ? What ocean north of Europe and Asia ? 

What ocean between Africa and Australia ? 

What is the heavy black line crossing the middle of 
the hemispheres from east to west called ? Equator 
means dividing equally. 



What continents lie wholly north of the equator J 

What continent lies wholly south of it f Which two 
are crossed by the equator ? Is there more land north 
or south of the equator ? 

Which hemisphere contains the larger amount of 
land 1 What ocean must be crossed to go from South 
America to Africa 1 From North America to Europe f 

In what direction is Europe from Asia ? Africa from 
South America ? Point in the direction in which Asia 
lies from us. 

In what direction is the north pole from the south 
pole ? The north pole from the equator ? The south 
pole from the equator I 

What continents form the Old World I Which form 
the New World I Point out an island, peninsula, cape. 

What oceans would you cross in sailing from Aus- 
tralia westward to South America? 

What islands lie between North/ America and South 
America? What islands lie between Asia and Aus- 
tralia? What large island cast of Africa? Name some 
islands found in the Pacific ocean. In the Atlantic 
ocean. In the Indian ocean. 

Name some of the large rivers that you see on each of 
the continents. Name the ocean into which each ilows. 

What continents are crossed by the Tropic of Cancer? 
What continents are crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn * 



1. Position and Boundaries.— North Amer- 
ica is the continent on which we live. It is 
third in size among the continents. It is larger 

Sunset over the Pacific ocean. 

than Australia and Europe together, but is some- 
what smaller than Africa and a little more than 
half as large as Asia. It lies between the 
Atlantic ocean on the east and the Pacific ocean 
on the west. On the north is the cold Arctic 
ocean ; on the south are the warm waters of the 
Gulf of Mexico and of the Pacific ocean. 

Coast-line. — The coast-lino of North America is 
much broken by gulfs and bays on the north and east. 
Many of these make excellent harbors. The western 
coast has fewer good harbors than the eastern coast. 

2. Climate. — The map of the heat belts (page 
17) shows us that our continent extends far into 
the Frigid zone on the north, while the southern 
end lies in the hot belt. The middle part of the 
continent lies in the Temperate zone. It has, 
therefore, almost every kind of climate and a 
great variety of plants and animals. 

The winds have much to do with the climate. 
The southern half of the continent receives the warm 
winds from over the Gulf of Mexico, These bring an 
abundance of rain. The middle portion is swept by 

winds from the Pacific ocean, but much of the rain is 
kept out by the mountains along that coast. In winter, 
cold winds from the Arctic ocean sweep over the level 
part of tlie continent and make the climate very cold. 

3. Mountains and Plateaus. — The entire 
western half of North America is a great plateau 
region called the Pacific highlands. If we look 
at this region on the map of North America (page 
35), we shall see that this region is made up of 
many smaller plateaus and of long ranges, or 
rows of mountains, extending all the way from 
the Arctic ocean to South America. Many of 
these ranges together make up the Rocky moun- 
tains. These extend into Mexico where they 
are called the Sierra Madre (sS-er'rah mah'dray), 
or Mother range. 

To the west of the Rocky mountains are 
shorter ranges called the Sierra Neva* la (ne-vah'- 
dah) and the Cascade. 

Near the eastern shore of the continent is 
another plateau region containing the Appala- 

Mouitiain of the Holy C'ratt in the Rotky Mountain*. Colorado. 

chian ranges of mountains. But the plateau is 
not so wide, nor are the mountains so high as in 
the western highlands. 

4. Plains. — Now put your finger on the map 
at. the mouth of the Mississippi river, and follow 




it up as far as you can. Then trace a Hue di- 
rectly north to the shores of the Arctic ocean. 

You will thus move your finger through the 
central part of the continent. In it there are 
some low mountains and many hills and valleys, 
but because of its generally smooth surface this 
region is called the Great Central plain. 

The northern part of this plain is made up of many 
islands and peninsulas separated by bays, sounds, and 
straits. This land is so cold that nobody lives there and 
the waters around it are frozen most of the year. 

Along the shores of the Atlantic ocean and the 
Gulf of Mexico is a Coastal plain, which extends 
back to the foot- 
hills of the mono., 
tains. Along the 
Pacific coast the 
mountains often 
come down to the 
ocean, but in 
some places there 
is a narrow plain 
called the Pacific 

5. Rivers. — If 
you trace along 
the tops of the 
mountain ranges shown on page 35, you will 
find that many rivers begin there. The ranges 
are the great divides, or watersheds, of the con- 
tinent and cause the water to flow in opposite 
directions. You will find also that many rivers 
flow through valleys, which they have cut out for 
themselves through the mountains. Others flow 
through the Great Central plain and have many 
branches. Near the center of the continent you 
find river3 flowing north and south. This means 
that there is high ground there which forms a 
watershed, dividing the Great Central plain into 
a northern and a southern slope. The southern 
slope is drained by the Mississippi river and its 
branches, which form the chief river system of 
the continent. The northern slope is drained by 
rivers which flow into Hudson bay and the 

Arctic ocean. Between the highland region 
and the coast are many short rivers. 

The rivera of the plain are very useful for 
carrying the products of the country to the sea, 
where they may be sent in ships to foreign coun- 
tries. Many of the shorter rivers have swift 
currents and are not navigable. 

6. Lakes. — Find the St, Lawrence river and 
follow up its course until you come to a largo 
lake. This is one of five lakes which are 
known as the Great Lakes. They are the 
largest bodies of fresh water in the world. 

Thousands of ships 
snil on them, car- 
rvingthe products 
of the country. 
Korthwest of the 
Great hakes are 
many others ex- 
tending in a sort 
of chain nearly to 
the Arctic ocean. 

For Recitation. 

— What is the size of 
ourcontincnt ? Where 
I is it situated ? In what 
heat belts does it lie ? 
How do the winds change its climate ? Compare the coast-line 
on the east with that on the west. Xatne the monniaiii ranges 
of (lie Paeific highlands. What mountains are near the 
Atlantic coast? What can you toll atjont iho Great Central 
plain ? Where is the Coastal plain ? The Paeific plain ? 
Where are the largest rivers of North America ? For what 
are they useful ? Tell something about the Great Lakes. 


1. Divisions. — Xorth America is divided into 
several parts, or countries. Our own. country, 
the United States, is in the middle. 

If we travel northward from the United States, 
we enter the Dominion of Canada. If we go 
northeast, from Canada, we come to icy Green- 
land and Iceland (Danish America). I f we go 
northwest from Canada, we come to Alaska* 
which belongs to the United States. 



2. Discovery.— In the year 1492— that is, 
over 400 years ago — Christopher Columbus sailed 
from a country in Europe culled Spain. He had 
three small ships. He sailed on the Atlantic 
ocean toward the west, until at last he came to 
land. It was one of tlie heautiful islands of 
the Vest Indies. 

When Columhus reached the shore, the red 
men, dressed in feathers and decked with gold, 
came to meet him, offering him fruit ami other 
provisions. Columhus had discovered America. 

The continent was named America from Ameri- 
cus Vespueius, an Italian navigator. 

3. Settlement. — After tlie discovery of the 

Ijnltiirh I'rirj/tW 

where Himmth ix 

New World, a great many people from Europe 
came here to live. 

If we should go to Mexico, Central America, 
or some of tlie West Indies, we should hear the 
people talking Spanish. This is because the 
Spaniards settled these parts of North America. 
If we should visit some parts of Canada, we 
should hear many of tlie people speaking French. 
The early settlers there came from France. 

In the United States the people speak English, 
Most of the settlers here were from England, 

For Recitation.— Name the divisions of North .Amer- 
ica. Prom what countries of Europe did most of the people 
come who sett led Norih America? Where did the English 
sertlers go ? Tlie French ? The Spanish ? 


What ocean is north of North America? What ocean 
is east ? West ? What ocean and gulf are south ? What 
continents are separated by Bering (bee'ring) strait? 

What arc the divisions of North America ? In what 
part of North America is Canada 1 Point in the direction 
of Canada.'' What bay and strait separate Canada 
and Greenland I 

Where is Greenland ? Point in the direction of 
Greenland. What island is east of Greenland ? 

Greenland and Iceland are a part of North America, 
but they are owned by a country in Europe called 
Denmark. They are therefore called Dan ieh America, 

What river flows from I^ake Winnipeg into Hudson 
bay ? Through what river do the wateis of Great Slave 
and Great Bear lakes flow to the ocean? 

Where is Newfoundland 1 What division of land is 
it ? Point in tlie direction of it. 

In what part of North America is the United States ? 
What portion of tlie United Stales is nearest to Asia! 
What river crosses Alaska ? 

What division bounds the United States on tlie north? 
What country on tlie soutli ? Point in the direction of 
Mexico. What gulf is east of Mexico ? 

What two countries nearly inclose the Gulf of 
Mexico ? What peninsula is northeast of the Gulf of 
Mexico i 

What division between Mexico and South America? 
Where are the West Indies ? Name the largest of them. 

What sea is south of the West Indies ? Of what ocean 
is it a part ? Where is Cape Race ? Cape San Lucas f 

Exercise with the Scale.— In the left-hand lower 
corner of the map, you will fniil a "Scute of Miles." Mark the 
length of the scale nn a piece of jiaper. I'se it as a measure, 
and tell how far it is from Newfound land to Vancouver island. 
How far is it across the Isthmus of Panama? From New York 
to Havana? 






l-ongimde Eait 




The map on the opposite page is intended to show North 
America as it would look if you were up so high in a balloon 
that you could not see the trees or houses, but could see only 
the mountains, hills, valleys, rivers and larger bodies of water. 
The waters would then look bluish or light in color, the low 
plains dark green, the mountain tops yellowish brown, and 
the deep valleys would be in the shadow, just as they are 
shown on the map. 

In what zones or heat belts does North America lie ? Turn 
back to Lesson XII. and read about the zones. 

Put your finger on the water lying north of North America. 
What is its name ? Put your finger on the water lying east of 
North America. What is its name ? Put your finger on the 
water lying west of North America. What is its name ? 

Find the southern point of Greenland. Trace the Atlantic 
coast-line of North America as far as the Isthmus of Panama. 
Notice how many arms of the Atlantic are enclosed so as to 
form gulfs and bays. Name as many of these arms as yon can. 
Name the peninsulas and islands that enclose them. Name 
the capes. Cross the Isthmus of Panama and follow the Pacific 
coast line of North America to the Arctic ocean. Notice the 
arms of the Pacific that form gulfs and bays. Name all that 
you can. Name the peninsulas or islands that enclose them. 
Which ocean has the greater number of arms ? Which coast 
of North America is better suited for commerce ? 

Move your finger slowly westward from Cape Hatteras. 
You come first to a dark green strip which shows level land. 
This-is the Atlantic Coastal plain. Notice which way it ex- 
tends. Go on slowly westward and you will come to a strip 
of dark gray color showing the Piedmont, or foothills. Go up 
these foothills and you come to the Appalachian mountains. 
Notice that there are several ranges. Can you tell the names 
of any of these ranges ? Cross the mountains into the Great 
Central plain. Move slowly across the plain. Pass up the 
hills, and then you are upon the great plateau. There you 
find the Rocky mountain ranges. What are these mountains 
called in Mexico? What ranges are near the Pacific coast? 

Find the Great Central plain. Find the river that drains 
the southern part of it. What is the name of the river ? Find 
its mouth and follow it to its source. How many rivers do 
you find flowing into it from the west ? Find the mouth of 
the first of these rivers and follow it up to its source. Find 

the second and trace it to its source. Find the third and trace 
it to its source. Where do you find the sources of U.eee rivers? 
Find a great river flowing into the IViissistippi irom the east. 
This is called the Ohio. Trace it from its mouth to its source. 
What mountains do you reach ? Find two large rivers flowing 
into the Ohio from the south. Trace these rivers back to their 
sources. The Mississippi river, with all the rivers that flow 
into it, makes a river system. 

How many rivers can you find that flow down the eastern 
side of the Appalachian mountains ? II ow many flow into the 
Atlantic ocean? How many flow into the Gulf of Mexico? 
How many rivers can you find flowing down from the Pocky 
mountains on the western side ? Into what water do these 
rivers flow? Follow these rivers back to the mountain tops 
and notice how close together are the sources of those rivers 
that flow west and of those that flow east. 

Again find the source of the Mississippi river. Just west of 
it, find the source of another river that flows north into a 
great lake. This river is called ihe Red river of the North. 
Into what lake does it flow? What river flows north from 
that lake into Hudson bay? 

Find the mouth of a great river that flows into the Arctic 
ocean. Name this river. Follow it up to its source. Name 
two large lakes that it drains. Find a large river that drains 
Alaska. Into what water does it flow? These rivers are 
frozen over about half of each year. The upper part only of 
the Mississippi river is ever frozen over. Which of these rivers 
do you think is the more important to commerce ? Why ? 

Start at the source of the Mississippi river; move slowly 
eastward and count the large lakes. Find the names of these 
lakes. Water flows from these lakes into a river. What is 
its name? 

Put your finger on those parts of North America that lie in 
the frigid zone. What sort of climate do the people have 
there ? What plants grow there ? (See Lesson XIII.) What 
animals are found there? (Lesson XIV .) Point out the cold 
belt of tho north temperate zone. What plants grow there ? 
Point out the middle or temperate belt of the temperate zone. 
What plants grow tliero ? Point out the warm belt of the 
north temperate zone. What plants grow there? Point out 
the part of North America that lies in the torrid zone. What 
sort of climate do the people have there ? What plants grow 
there? Can you find any high mountains in that part of 
North America that lies in the torrid zone ? What effect do 
these mountains have on the climate ? What kind of plants 
grow half-way up their sides ? Why? (See Lesson XII., last 
paragraph.) What kind of plants grow on their tops ? 




Turn to the relief map of North America. Pass your finger 
over the cold belt of the Dominion of Canada, of Greenland 
and of Alaska. This is the land of the Eskimos. Some Amer- 
icans and Indians live in Alaska, a few people from Europe 
called Danes live in Greenland, and a few English and Indians 
live in the cold belt of Canada, but the country is the home of 
the Eskimos. You can read about them in Lesson XLV. 

Look at the picture of the Eskimos on the opposite page. 
What sort of country do you think their land is? What sort 
of climate should you think it has? Put your finger on the 
dome-shaped house. It is made of snow and ice. It has no 
windows. Find its door. The Eskimos crawl through the 
door on their hands and knees. Why do the Eskimos build 
their houses of ice? Do trees grow near their home ? Find 
the tents. The tents and the poles were brought there on sleds. 

How many sleds can you see ? IIow are they drawn over the 
snow? The Eskimo father is driving away on a sled. Find 
him. The Eskimo mother is sitting on the bundles. She is 
talking to her little boy. Eskimo women wear boots just as 
the men do. A big girl is sittiug-ou the sled, holding her 
baby brother. Another little girl is in the tent. You could 
not understand the language of the Eskimos, but many of 
them can speak a few words of English. 

Find the picture of the Indians. These Indians are living 
in the United States. Some Indians live also in Canada and 
some in Mexico. What kind of houses do these Indians live 
in ? How are they made ? What are they called ? Where is 
the Indian chief? Flow is he dressed? Can you find the 
squaws ? How do they carry their babies ? Where do they 
cook? Find the fire. What do you think they are cooking 
now? Would you like to live as the Indians do? Why? The 
Indians speak their own language, which you could not under- 
stand. But many of them can speak English, too. 

Find the cowboy. He lives in Texas. How is he dressed? 
Why is he called a cowboy? Can you find his house? Do 
you see the cattle ? Can you find the rope fastened to his 
saddle? Can vou tell its name and its use? 

Find the farmhouse in the United States. This house is in 
Pennsylvania. The picture is made from a photograph of it. 
There are many farmhouses like it in the United States. 
Who do you think the girl is ? Where do you think the men 

are ? What do the people that live ou farms do to make 
money ? What do you think grows on this farm ? Did you 
ever see a farm ? What grew on it ? 

Find the city home in the United States. This house is in 
New Orleans. The picture is made from a photograph of it. 
You will find houses very much like this in every large city in 
the United Stales. On page 88 find Boston, New York, Wash- 
ington, New Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago, and San Francisco. 
On the relief map point out where each city is built. Why 
aro there no cities in the cold belt of Canada ? How do you 
go from one city to another ? What do the people in cities do 
to make money ? 

What language do we speak in the United States ? The 
people who live in the United States are called Americans. 
Some Americans have come here from other countries. Do 
you know any such Americans ? 

Turn back to the map of North America on page 88. Pass 
your finger north of the St. Lawrence river ; go on north of 
Lake Superior, and westward to the Pacific ocean. This is the 
cool belt of the Dominion of Canada. The people that live here 
are chiefly English or French. They live on rich farms or in 
large cities, very much as we do in the United States. 

On the relief map find the four islands that are called the 
West Indies. Put your finger on each island and tell its 
name. On which island is the home in the picture on the 
opposite page ? What is this house built of ? It is the home 
of a coffee planter. His farm lies behind his house. Is it cold 
or warm in Porto Rico ? Porto Rico once belonged to Spain. 
What language did the people that lived there then speak ? 
To whom does Porto Rico now belong ? Turn to Lesson XLVT. 
and read about the West Indies. Do the gentlemen wear white 
suits where you live ? Are white linen suits cool or warm ? 
Why are they worn in Porto Rho ? Turn to page 79 and look 
at the gentleman and the children in the picture. 

Find the Mexican. Where does he live? Find Mexico on 
the relief map. Is it hot or cold in Mexico ? How is it up on 
the mountains? What sort of saddle has the Mexican ? Can 
you see his blanket ? Can you see the silver trimmings on his 
clothes, on his hat, and on his horse's bridle ? Can you find 
the gate and the house where he lives ? Notice the trees 
growing near. What sort of trees are they ? (See Lesson 
XIII.) Turn to Lesson XLVT. and read about Mexico. 
What is the Mexican farm called in the picture on page 77 ? 
The Spanish language is spoken in Mexico. 

Bomr* and Ptovie of North America, Study three picture* in connection with the deecriptiont and <jur*tions on the opvowite pane- 




1. Name. — Look at the map of the United 
States. You will find that it shows a large coun- 
try made up of many parts. These parts are 
states ; and because they are united into one coun- 
try, they are called the United States. Our 

country is 
called the 

2. Size.— 
The United 

from theAt- 
lantic ocean 
to the Pa- 
cific ocean. 
Nearly a 
week is re- 
quired to go 
by rail from 

TAe Fail* 61 Niagara, ~ New York, 

on the Atlantic shore, to San Francisco, on the 
Pacific shore. The distance from east to west 
across the United States is about 2,800 miles. 
From north to south the distance is about 1,700 

3. Rank. — The United States has more peo- 
ple than all the other countries of the Western 
hemisphere together. The products of its farms, 
mines, and forests are greater than those of any 
other country in the world. In wealth and power 
it also ranks among the greatest countries. 

For Recitati on . — Why is our oo u n t ry cal ] ed th e U n i ted 
States ? What is the greatest distance across the United States 
from east to west J What is the greatest distance from north 
to sou tli ? What rank has the United States among the 
Countries of the world ? 


1. "Where do we find mountains in our country, 
and where is the land level? 

2. Appalachian Mountains. — Several moun- 
tain ranges are near the Atlantic coast. They 
extend nearly from the Gulf of Mexico to Can- 
ada. Taken together, they are called the Appa- 
lachian mountains. 

From them we get much of the coal that we 
burn in our stoves, and iron from which the 
stoves arc made. The sides of these mountains 
are covered with forests. In the long valleys 
between the ranges are rich farming regions. 

On the east of the Appalachian ranges are foot-hills 
k 1 1 ow n as tb e P i e d mont Belt. Bet ween th e Pied mon t 
Belt and the Atlantic ocean is a strip of lowland called 
the Atlantic Coastal plain. West of the mountains 
are plateaus which slope down to the Greiit Central 

3. Rocky Mountains. — In the western part 

of the United States are the Rocky mountains. 
They cross the country from north to south. 
They are grander than the Appalachians. Many 
of them are more than two miles high. 

The largest riv- 
ers in our coun- 
try have their 
sources among 
these mountains, 

4. Canyons 

{can'yons). — In 
the Rocky moun- 
tain region are the 
wonderful gorges 
called canyons. 
They are passages 
worn through the 
rocks by ri v< rs. 
The canyons of 
the Colorado river 
are more than a 
mile deep. 

A Cant/an in Colorado. 




6. Sierra Nevada Mountains. — Still farther 
west than the Rocky mountains is the Sierra 
Nevada range. It contains some of the highest 
mountains in our country, and on its western 
slopes are found the largest trees in the world. 
North of the Sierra Nevada is the Cascade range. 

6. The Great plateau from which rise the 
Rocky mountains on the east, and the Sierra 

St. Paul, .Minnesota, on the 
Mitiittippi river, 

Nevada and Cascade 
ranges on the west, is 
called the Pacific high- 
lands. It slopes to the 
Mississippi river on the 

east, and tO the Pacillc The Miteietivpi river, flamng 

through ihe Great Ventral plain 

ocean on the west. °* a - Loata - tf«»<™™. 

A part of this plateau lying between the Rocky and 
the Sierra Nevada mountains is completely surrounded 
with a mountain wall. It is calied the Great Basin, 
and in it lies Great Salt lake, 

7. Mississippi Valley. — A vast region of 
nearly level land lies between the Appalachian 
mountains and the Rocky mountains. It is the 
southern half of the Central plain. The great 
sippi river drains it, and therefore it is 

led the Mississippi valley. 

Recitation.— What mountains are in the eastern 
of the United States ? What mountains are in the west- 
part of the United States? Where is the Great plateau? 
ire is the "Mississippi valley ? 


Mississippi River.— Let us now look at 
gome of the rivers and lakes of our country. 
The largest and most useful river is the Mis- 

sissippi. This is the Indian name. It means 
Father of "Waters, or Great River. 

Look at the map. The Mississippi passes through 
tie country from north to south. This is one 
reason why it is so useful. 

Near its source grow great forests, A little farther south 
aro the vast wheat and corn fields of the prairies. Near 
its mouth it flows through plantations of sugarcane. 

The woodman, the farmer, and the planter need one 
another's produce. The Mississippi helps them to make 
the exchange. It is thus a useful highway of trade. 

" The Father of Waters" has a great many rivers 
flowing into it. Such rivers are called tributaries. 
They flow down both sides of the valley, coming 
from the Rocky mountains in the west and from the 
Appalachians in the east. The Missouri and the 
Ohio are the most important. Steamboats carry 

goods up and down the 
Missouri, the Ohio, and 
other tributaries. 

2. The Great Lakes. 
— In the northern part 
of our country are live 

A eunar plantation in Louisiana, on the flood plain of the Mime river, 

great lakes. Tliev art> liUclittleooeans. When wo 
sail upon them, we are often out of sight of land. 

They are Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, 
Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. Lakd Superior is the 

3. Niagara Falls. — Between lakes Erie and 
Ontario the Niagara river leaps over a precipice, 
which in one place is 164 feet high. This makes 
the famous Fails of Niagara. 

For Recitation.— What is the largest river in our 
country ? Name one of its great uses. Name the Great Lakes. 
Which is the largest? What waterfalls are between lakes 
Erie and Ontario? 


Compare this map with the 
map of North America on page 
33. Are they on the same 
scale? If not, which map is on 
the larger scale? 

What distance does an inch 
represent on each map? 

What ocean is on the east of 
the U n i te d States ? What ocean 
is on the west? 

What gulf and country are 
are on the south? What coun- 
try is on the north? 

What four great lakes lie be- 
tween the Dominion of Canada 
and the United States? 

Through what river do the 
waters of these lakes flow to 
the ocean? 

What mountains are in the 
eastern part of the United 

Name some of the ranges of 
the A ppalach ian M o u n tai n s. In 
what direction do they extend? 

What great mountain range 
is in the western part of the 
United States? What three 
mountain ranges are near the 
Pacific coast? 

What great river flows into 
the Gulf of Mexico? In what 
direction does it flow? Which 
is the largest eastern tributary 
of the Mississippi river? Which 
is the largest western tributary? 

Among what mountains do most of the western trib- 
utaries of the Mississippi river rise? Among what moun- 
tains do the great eastern tributaries of the Mississippi 
river rise? 

Suppose it should rain at the same time all over the 
United States ; how would most of the rain-water find its 
way to the ocean? 

How are the different states shown on the map? By 
what, kind of line.* are their boundaries marked? (When 
a river forms the whole, or part of a boundary, the line of 
the river alone marks the boundary.) 

Which states border on the Gulf of Mexico? Which 
border on the Pacific ocean? How many border on the 
Atlantic ocean? 

Washington is the capital of the United States. (Capi- 
tals are marked by a star.) 

Which state is farthest from Washington toward the 
northeast? Which is farthest toward the southwest? 
Toward the west? 


In what state do you live? 
In what part of the country is 
it located? Find the capital of 
your state on the map. Is your 
state among the mountains or 
in the level part of the count ry? 
Docs it border on the ocean? 

In what direction must you 
go from your state to reach the 
c i ty o f W ash u lgton ? To reach 
the Atlantic ocean? The Gulf 
of Mexico? The Great Lakes? The Rocky Mountains? 

Use the scale of miles and tell how far it is from the 
capital of your state to the city of Washington? From 
New York across the country to San Francisco? From 
Pembina, in North Dakota, to Brownsville, in Texas. 

How could you go by water from Boston to Galves- 
ton? Find out from the scale of miles how man)' 
miles you would travel? How could you go by water 

f ram Ch icago to Ke w York ? ( The Erie Cana I con nee is 
Buffalo with Albany.) On what waters would you pass 
in going from Albany to Memphis ? From San Fran- 
cisco to New York 1 From Portland, Oregon, to Sacra- 
mento t On what rivers would you sail in going- from 
PittsWrg to Kansas City 1 From St. Paul to Nashville i 
Fron^St. Paul to Buffalo J 

it seaports do you find along the Atlantic <-oast I 


Which of these are at the mouths of rivers ? What sea- 
ports are along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico ? What 
Seaports are on the Paci fie coast ? What cities are on the 
Mississippi river f On Hie Ohio river ' On the Missouri 
river I What cities are on the shores of the four Great 
Lakes ? Where is the Grand Canyon f In what state is 
the Great Salt Lake ? Find five capital cities that are 
located on rivers. 




1. Agriculture is the chief occupation of onr 
people. Let us take a journey extending north 
from the Gulf of 
Mexico to Canada, 
and notice what 
the planters and 
the farmers are 

First of all, we 
pass through the 
belt of warm 
Southern states, 
where snow and 

ice are seldom seen. Here we find groves o. 
orange and lemon trees, and fields of sugar-cane, 
rice, and cotton. In some parts of this belt the 
pineapple and other tropical fruits are grown. 

We enter next a belt where the weather is 
cooler. This belt begins a little above the line 

grown here than anywhere else in the country. 
Vast numbers of cattle are raised, and much fine 
butter and cheese are made. In the far north 

a great deal 
lumber is cut. 


Carryiny ration dmrn the M 
*ippi ritMsr. 

marked 35 on the map. 
We are now surrounded 
by fields of corn, to- 
bacco, hemp, and wheat. 
In some parts of this 
belt grapes and peaches 
grow abundantly. 

Still journeying north- 
ward, we cross the line 

marked 40 on the map. i«~u,„. a ^^, ^ GaivcKm, r^,,. te tend lAmui 

AVe are now in a third belt, in which the win- 
ters are very cold. More wheat and hay are 

2. Manufac- 
turing.— In theex- 
treme east a large 
number of people 
are employed ia 
Some of them make 
muslins and calico 
from the cotton that grows in the South; others 
make clothing, boots and shoes, watches, clocks, 
farming tools, and machinery. 

3. Mining is an important occupation in the 
mountainous regions. The United States has 
silver, gold, and other metals. Its coal will last 
for many years, 

4. Commerce and Transportation. —In all 
parts of the country, many of our people are en- 
gaged in commerce. Some of them buy things 
made or grown in one part of the United 
States, and sell them in other parts. This is 
called domestic commerce. 

Some merchants sell to other countries the 
cotton, wheat, and petroleum that we do not 
need, and buy of them silks, linen, coffee, tea, 

and spices. Thisiscalled 
foreign commen-e. 

The work of carrying 
goods and people from 
place to place is called 

For Recitation.— What is 

the leading occupation in the. 
United States? What crops 
arc grown in the warmest belt? 
In the cooler middle bell? I n 
the northern pnrt of oirr^coun- 

try? Name some of our manufactures; some of our "arjb. 

eral products; our chief exports; our chief imports. JK 


* t. 




1. Washington is tlio capital oi our country. 
It i« named after General Washington, lie chose 
the location of the place on which it should be 
built. Where the city, with its magnificent pub- 
lic buildings, now stands, there was in his days 
nothing but woods, marshes, and cornfields. 

"Washington is situated in what is called the 
District of Columbia, which was named after 
Columbus, in honor of his great discovery. Can 
you tell what that was? (See p. 32.) 

2. Government. — Our country is a Republic. 
The highest officer is called the President. He is 
chosen by the people to serve four veare. A 

selves together under one government. They 
called themselves the United States. 

4. Growth. — Since that time millions of 
settlers have come here from various countries of 
Europe, and the United States has grown in a 
wonderful manner. 

Then there were thirteen states ; now there are 
forty-eight states and two territories. Then our 
country was only a narrow strip along the Atlan- 
tic seacoast; now it extends 
to the Pacific ocean, and in- 
cludes also many islands in the 
Pacific and Atlantic oceans. 
(See maps of these oceans.) 

i'ht tuf'i'A buiidingat M'anhinurtm. 

certain number of men also are chosen by the jkx>- 
ple to go every year to Washington to make laws. 
These men form what we call the Congrese. 

3. History.- — A little more than one hundred 
years ago there were thirteen colonies — that is, 
settlements — along our Atlantic coast, belonging 
to England. 

The king of England did not govern these col- 
onies well. The people ttecnme dissatisfied, and on 
the 4th of July, 1 T TO, declared, in what is known 
as the ItecltiratioiL of Independence, that they 

would not be governed by the king any longer. 

War with England had begun. General Wash- 
ington, who was one of the greatest and best of 
men, commanded our armies. The war lasted 
nearly seven years. We were victorious. 

The thirteen independent states joined t hem- 

Then there were no canals, railroads, nor steam- 
boats; now steamers ply on every large river, 
and railroads have crossed the continent. Then 
there were only three million people ; now there 
are about ninety millions, not counting those in 
our island regions. 

6. Sections of the United States.— The 
states and territories are divided into the following 
groups or sections: The New England states, the 
Middle Atlantic, the Southern, the Central, and the 
Rocky Mountain and Pacific. The territories are 
Alaska and Hawaii. 

For Rccitittion. — What and where is the capital of our 
country? What fiirm of government has our country? 
Name the hijrhr,.., officer of our government. What body 
makes the liws of the United States? How many English 
colonies '/qth once on the Atlantic coast? What did they 
do ? Kow many states and territories in the United States? 






Building ships at Bath, Maiie, 

1. The New England 

States. — Now that we 
have glanced at the whole 
of our country, suppose 
we make a visit to the 
New England states. 

2. Name. — One of the 
first things that will ex- 
cite our curiosity is the 
name. "Why are 

great hardships. Sometimes they were almost 
starved. Still they persevered. 

More settlers came. Boston and other towns 
wore founded, and New England steadily grew in 

4. The New England States are .six in num- 
ber. They are Maine, New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont. Massachusetts, Connecticut (kon-nel'-e-hut), 
and Rhode Island, 

They are in the northeastern corner of the 
country. Can you find them on the map of the 
United States? 

For Recitation.— Why was this section called New 
England! Who made the most important settlement in New 

England T What colony did 
they found? 


1. Surface Most of 

New England is hilly. 
Parts of it are mountain- 
ous. The country is very 
unlike the level land of 
the prairies. 
The mountains belong 

these 0op) ' , ' Kl ' ti l *™*' H IJ - i '«> b " i| ]r- 

Crawford Natch in the White maun- 

states called New Eng- *""*• New Hampshire. 

land? About three hundred years ago Captain 
John Smith, of England, when searching for 
whales, sailed to the coast of this region. lie 
explored a part of the country, made a map of 
it, and called it New England after his old home, 

3. Plymouth Colony. — In 1620, a few years 
after Captain Smith's visit to New England, a 
small band of brave men came over in a little 
vessel called the Mayflower. After a rough voy- 
age they landed on the coast of Massachusetts at 
a place which they called Plymouth (plim'ulk). 

Here they made the settlement that is known 
as Plymouth Colony. They have been called 
The Pilgrim Fathers. 

In the early years of the colony they eno ired 

Winter cm Boston Common. When Boston and other A'nr England towns 
were first settled, a larae tract of land uas set aside in trhich alt the sealers 
amid pasture their cattle in "common." When the settlements grcvi into 
cities, the commons became parks, and Boston Common w a beautiful park. 
The dome of the state capital may be teen among the trees. 

to the Appalachian ranges. In Vermont and 
Massachusetts they are called the Green moun- 
tains. In New Hampshire they are called the 
White mountains. 



The White mountains are the highest in New Eng- 
land. Tliey are famous for their beautiful scenery, and 
are often visited by travelers. 

2. Climate. — The winters of New England 
are long and very cold. 

Many of the rivers, lakes, and ponds are frozen 
over, sometimes to the depth of two or three feet. 

Ice-harveaUnQ on the Kenncbvc river in Aititnc, 

Large quantities of ice are gathered. This is 
stored away until summer, when it is used at 
home or shipped to the wanner parts of our own 


Maine is famed for its ice crop. 

3. Productions. — Among the mineral products 
of New England, the granite of Massachusetts, Ver- 
mont, Maine, and Connecticut, and the marble of 
Vermont are widely known. 

The New England farms are small, but pro- 
dace a great variety of crops. The chief prod- 
ucts are potatoes, hay, oats, corn, and fruits. 
Wheat is raised, but not enough to supply the 

wants of New 
England it- 

quantities of the 
potatoes grown 
are used for the 
manufacture of 

The horses, 
cattle, and 

Quarrinno marble at Proctor. Vt. The linet vhith Sheep that 
vmi *«* on the tides of the quarry those \chert n „ c i„„ __ j.v,„ 
itubiodu of marbU have been cut out. pasture On tD.6 

Making maptt tnotir in Vcrmojit. Bringing tap in from the orace tobe 
hotted. Notice how the pailt are fattened to the tract to receive it. 

grassy hillsides of Vermont are famous. The 
butter and cheese made in this state are among 
the very best. 

4. Maple Sugar.— An interesting thing done 

by some of the farmers is the making of maple 


In the spring the sap or juice of trees begins to rise. 
The farmers bore holes in the trunks of the sugar- 
maple trees, put in little tubes of wood, and catch the 
sap in pails placed to receive it. The sap is then poured 
into large iron kettles and boiled. A. large part of the 
water is hoi led away, and the sap becomes syrup. More 
boiling turns the syrup into sugar. 

Loot ftoatino down the Androtcoyain river, near Berlin, N. H. 

6. Lumbering, — There are great forests in 
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, where 
many people are employed during the winter 
months in what is called lumbering. 

The lumbermen go into the forests and live in 
log cabins. They cut down the trees and haul 
the logs over the snow to the banks of the frozen 
streams. When spring corues and the ice melts, 




the logs are floated down the rivers to saw mills, 
where they are cut into boards. 

Thousands of logs descend the Penobscot river 
to the city of Bangor, which is the greatest lum- 
ber market of New England. 

For Recitation. — Name the priticip«.l mountains of New 
England, What van you say of the climate of New England? 
What do the New England fanners chiefly raise? How are 
maple synip uinl maple sugar made? IV hat states are famed 
[or lumbering? Name the great lumber market of New 


New England Slates: Capitals and Chief Cities. 



New Hani pari ire, 




Rhode Island. 

Capita In. 







Chief Cities. 





New Haven. 


In what part of the United 
States is New England i How 
many New England states 
are there? Which is the most 
northern ? Which is the most 
southern f Which is the larg- 
est? The smallest? Rhode 
Island is also tlie smallest 
state in the Union, Which of 
these states has no seacoast? 
For this reason Vermont is 
called an inland state. 

' What mountains are in Ver- Co "°" ■•* in 

moat? In New Hampshire? Where is Mount Ka-tah'- 
din? Which is the longest river of New England? Be- 
tween what two states does the Connecticut river run? 
Into what does it flow ) The Connecticut valley has the 
best land in New England, and is famous for its tobacco 
crop. Which two of the rivers of Maine are the largest? 
The Kennebec river is noted for its salmon. What river 
forms a part of the northern boundary of Maine? What 
river is the outlet of Lake Winnepesaukee (win-ne-pe- 
sok'-Jce.)t The Merrimac river is famed for the num- 
ber of factory wheels that it drives. 

What cape is on the coast of Massachusetts? What 
body of water lies south of Conn edict t? What island 
is south of this sound? Where is Massachusetts bay? 
What capital eity is upon it? Cambridge, a city near 
Boston, contains Harvard University. Where is Nar- 

ragansett bay) Newport, a famous summer resort, is 
on Narragansett bay. Where is Casco bay? What 
commercial city is on Casco bay? 

On what river is Augusta? What city on the Penob- 
scot river is the great lumber market? On what rivei 
is Concord? Montpelier? 

In what state do yon live? If not in New England, 
in what direction is New England from you? In what 
direction is Maine from Connecticut? Rhode Island from 
Vermont? Portland from Boston? Worcester from 
Boston? New York from Boston! 

Suppose you were on a steamboat going up the Con- 
necticut river, in what direction would you be going? 
In what direction do the Green mountains extendi 

Scale.— Which is larger, the scale of this map or that 
of the map of the United States? What does an inch 
represent on this map? What does an inch represent on 
the map of the United States? Use the scale and meas- 
ure the distance from Boston to Portland. 

Map I>ra wi n (r.— Connecticut has simple boundary 
lines, and it may be well to let the elass copy the map 
on this state upon their slates, and afterward try to draw 

it from memory. 

Review.— By way of re- 
view, four columns may be 
put on tho blackboard; the 
first for the name of each 
state, the second for the larg- 
est river in each, the third for 
the capita], the fourth for tlie 
chief city. These should be 
called for from the class, and 
should be written in their 
appropriate columns. 

Manchester, S. tf w 


1. Manufacturing is the chief business of 
Xew England. Many of the rivers rim swiftly 
down to the sea, and thus afford a great deal of 
water power. This has led many people to be- 
come manufacturers. 

They have built mills and factories along the 
banks of many of the streams. Cotton and woolen 
cloths are made, clothing, boots and shoes, ma- 
chinery ami hardware, watches, clocks, and many 
other .useful articles. r . 

2. A factory is a large building in which things 
are made with the aid of machinery. Boots and 




Le'gtui City En tech State underlined 





shoes, cotton and woolen goods, bicycles, auto- 
mobiles, lead-pencils, etc. , are made in factories. 

The weaving- machines work almost like human be- 
ings. If a thread breaks, the machinery stops until 
somebody comes and mends the thread. Sometimes sev- 
eral thousand persons are employed in a single factory. 

3 . Manufacturing Cities. — Lowell, L a w - 
renec, Manchester, and Nashua arc all famed 
for their cotton mills. They are on the Merrimac 
river, which moves more machinery than any 
other river in the world. 

Fall Bivcr is celebrated for its printed cotton 
cloths. Wor- 
cester {■wobs'- 
ter), manufac- 
tures more wire 

4. Commerce. — The long and jagged seacoast 
of New England affords many fine harbors. Wher- 
ever there is a good harbor, we find a town or a 
city, and the people actively engaged in commerce. 

Ships are busy carrying ice, lumber, and numer- 

" Botton Light " in Boston harbor, Man. 

rope than any 
other city in 
the Union. At 

llit'i'e iw an arm- 
ory where rifles 
are made for the 
armies of the 
United States. 
Holyoke is 
noted for paper 
mills. Lynn, Haverhill, and Brockton manu- 
facture shoes; and New Bedford, Biddeford, 
and Lewiston, cotton cloth. Proviilence is 
the leading city in the United States for the 
manufacture of jewelry and silverware. Paw- 
tucket has the oldest cotton mills in the United 
States. New Haven is noted as the seat of Yale Uni- 
versity. Hartford is noted for its insurance busi- 
ness, and for the manufacture of firearms and auto- 
mobiles. "Waterltury has many brass foundries. 

Seme in Xrwport harbor, H. i- 

ous manufactured articles to vari- 
ous ports of the United States. 
Railroads also connect New Eng- 
land with every part of the 

Thus the cotton weavers of Lowell 

7ll Glnucrstrr harbor In Ih, hregrmind art the aJK l fall RlVel'. Iind the shoemakers 
rack* an which the fish are drying, 

of Lynn, can send their goods readily 
to cities and towns all over the land. 

5. Commercial Cities. — The leading commer- 
cial city is Boston. It is the largest city in 
New England and noted for schools and libraries. 
It has a large trade in wool and leather, and ex- 
ports many goods to foreign countries. 

Portland has the finest harbor on the Atlantic 
coast. Grain and cattle are shipjied to Europe 
through Portland when the mouth of the St 
Lawrence river is frozen. Newport also has a 
splendid harbor, and is lamed as a summer resort 

6. Fisheries. — Many people on the New Eng- 
land coast are fishermen. They catch large 
quantitiesofcod and mackerel. Gloucester (glos- 
ter) and Boston are the chief fishing-ports. 

For Recitation.— What is Hie chief occupation of New 
England? Name the principal articles manufactured. What 
are the leading manufacturing cities? Tell in what state each 
of these cities is found. What are the chief occupations along 
the seacoast? Name the leading commercial cities. What 
are the principal fishing ports of New England? 





1. Middle Atlantic States. — Leaving New 
England, let us visit the Middle Atlantic states. 
All of them except two 
lie along the Atlantic 
coast, and are between 
the New England states 
on one side and the 
Southern states on the 
other. Hence they 
are called Middle At- 

These states are New 
York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, D e 1 a - 
ware, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, andWest Virginia. 

"Kaitr Vnrlr nnrl Pannnirl View if the Hudson river, named tor 

ssevr r one ana i ennsyi- tvemaiiedimit. ituoneofth 
vania are the most populous states of the Union 
and are also first in manufactures. 

2. Early Settlements.— The first permanent 
English colony in America was the one estab- 
lished at Jamestown, in Virginia, in 1607. Vir- 
ginia is thus the oldest of the states, and is some- 
times called the Old Dominion. 

In 1609 Henry Hudson, an Englishman, dis- 
covered the Hudson river. A few years after 
this settlers came from Holland, and founded 

lite New Jertey ihore. tfteu-iiip crmiil* of ivcplc m Atlantic City bathing 
in the voter* of the Atlantic ocean. 

Albany on the Hudson and New Amsterdam on 
Manhattan island. This last was the beginning 
of what is now the city of New York. In 1664, 
when England took possession, she changed the 
name New Amsterdam to New York. 

In 1682, more than 
two hundred years ago, 
William Penn, an Eng- 
lish Quaker, established 
a colony where Philadel- 
phia now stands. The 
country was called 
Pennsylvania, or Join's 

In 1034 Maryland 
was settled by some 
English lioman Cath- 
olics sent over by Lord 
Baltimore, for whom 
the city of Baltimore 
was named. 

New Jersey was first settled by the Dutch, and 

white man who 
i the world. 

Baltimore. — A view of Mmint Yrrtmn Place. It" '<i 
richeet citizen* are on thai ttreet. 

IM of 

of 'he. 

Delaware by Swedes along the Delaware river. Bui 
the Swclish settlements became a part of the Eng- 
lish colonies. 

For Recitation,— Where was the first permanent set- 
tlement made? By whom was New York fettled! Who 
settled Pennsylvania ? By whom was Mary laud settled ? 
Wheie did the Swedish colonists settle? 




Middle Atlantic states. Capitals and Chief Cities. 

New York, 
New Jersey, 
West Virginia, 


Chief Cities. 

New York. 







In what direction are the Middle Atlantic states from 
New England ? Which two border on the Great Lakes? 
What states bound New York on the east? On the 
south? What two lakes and rivers are on the north- 

By what river are the two lakes connected? In what 
direction does it flow? What makes Niagara river fa- 
mous? What river forms the outlet of the Great 
Lakes? What is ii3 d i rectio n ? 

What Jake is between New York and Vermont? What 
lake is south of Lake Champlain (sham-plain). 

Both of these lakes are famed for their beautiful 
scenery. Many travelers visit the in every year. 

What mountains are in New York? What important 
river rises in the Ad-i-ron'-dack mountains? In what 
direction does it flow ? Measure its length by the scale 
of miles. What is the principal tributary of the Hudson 

What river and lake does the Erie canal connect? 
How then can a boatload of wheat bo brought from 
Luke Erie to New York city? 

A lake in the Adirondack*. 

What cities are at the ends of the Erie canal ? Where 
is New York city? Point toward it, 

W h at mou n tai n s do y o a fi n d i a Pe n n sy 1 van ia ? What 
river separates Pennsylvania from New Jersey? Into 
what does it flow? 

What river rises in New York and crosses Pennsyl- 
vania ? What two rivers form the Ohio i What city 
is at their junction? 

The Allegheny river 
passes through the region 
from which we get petro- 
leum, or rock-oil. 

On what river is the capi- 
tal of the state? What 
srroat city is at the junction 
of the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill rivers? Its name means 

hrotherly love. It was 
founded by Quakers. 
What city is on Lake Erie? 

What river is between 
New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania? What cape forms 
the southern extremity of 
New Jersey? Where is Long 
Cape May and Long Branch 
What large city of 
city? Where is 

The Salural lirtdQe. Virginia. 

Branch? (See small map.) 

are jxipular watering places. 

New Jersey is opposite New York 


On what river is Wilmington? As you pass down 
Delaware bay to the ocean, what state is on your right 
hand! On your left? Suppose you go westward or 
southward from Delaware, what State do you enter? 

What mountains cross this state? What bay and river 
divide it into two parts? 

What two cities are on the bay? Which of them is the 
capital? W he re is Cu m berl and ? Frederick? 

What river separates Maryland from Virginia? What 
district is situated on this river! What state is on three 
sides of the District of Columbia? 

What noted city does this district contain? Point 
toward Washington, 

Crossing the Potomac from Washington, what state 
do you enter? What mountain range separates Vir- 
ginia from Kentucky? 

What mountains are between Virginia and West Vir- 
gin ia ? W hat ran go c rosses Vi rgi n ia ? 

What rivers break through the Blue Ridge? What 
city is on the Appomattox river? What large city is on 
the James river? Suppose you sail in a steamer from 
Richmond, Va., to the Atlantic ocean, what two sea- 
ports would you pass? What bay would you cross? 

Between what capes would you sail? In what state 
are these capes? In what directions would you sail in 
going from Richmond to New York city? 

Cross the Alleghenies from Virginia: what state do 
you enter? What river forms the northwestern boun- 
dary of West Virginia? The southwestern? On what 
river is Wheeling? Where is Charleston ? Parkersburg? 

Review by placing on the blackboard a table for the 
Middle Atlantic states similar to the one suggested JJgfjn 
the New England states. 

Il-CXNG ISLA JfP and vicinity of N EW YOKK 

' " rfcr fix- Si»Ie * 





1. Surface. — Along the ocean the land of these 
states is level. Some distance from the seashore 
it begins to rise, and we find ourselves at first 
among hills, then among 

"We rise higher and 
higher until we reach at 
last the tops of the Blue 
Ridge and Allegheny 
ranges. In New York 
are the Catskill and the 
Adirondack groups, fa- 
mous as summer resorts 
for people from the 

The level land along the 
ocean is a part of the Atlan- 
tic coastal ii lain, and the 
hills that rise from it belong 

to the Piedmont plateau region. The mountain 
ranges are part of the great Appalachian system, which 
extends on southward, and are the watershed. Going 
down the western slope of the mountains, we reach an- 
other plateau and descend to the Central plain, which 
borders Lakes Erie and Ontario. 

2. Rivers — Many rivers flow through these 
states, some into the Atlantic ocean, others into 

Jumrs river and Blue Ridge mmmlains, Va. 

the Ohio river. The most important are 

the Hud sou, Delaware, Potomac, and the 


Several rivers that flow into the Atlantic have cut. gaps 
in the mountains called water gaps. The scenery 
about them is very beautiful. The most remarkahle are 
those of the Hudson at West Point, the Delaware at 

Delaware Water Gap, and the Potomac at Harper's 


3. Climate. — In the northern portions of these 

states, the climate is very much like that of New 

England. In winter the 
snow is often very deep. 
Aswego farther south, 
the climate becomes 
milder, and along the 
Atlantic coast in the 
southern part of Virginia 
snow is seldom seen. 

4. Farm Products. 
— Farming is a more im- 
portant industry in the 
Middle Atlantic states 
than in New England. 

The principal crops 
are hay, potatoes, oats, 
| wheat, corn, and buckwheat. These grow in all 
the states. 

Maryland and Virginia are noted for tobacco. 
New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware are famed 
for their peaches and strawberries. 

Many farmers have large peach orchards, from which 
they send thousands of baskets of peaches every season 
to New York and Philadelphia. 

New Jersey is a great market garden. 

As we pass through the state, we see vegetables culti- 
vated everywhere. They are grown for the markets of 
New York, Philadelphia, and the neighboring cities. 

The market gardens near Norfolk, Virginia, also sup- 
ply the northern markets with early vegetables. 

New York and Pennsylvania are especially 

noted for cattle, butter and cheese, hay, grain, pota- 
toes and orchard fruits. 

For Recitation. — What mountain range? cross the Mid- 
dle Atlantic states? What mountains am in New York? 
What are the most, important rivers of this section? What 
are the principal farm products of the Middle Atlantic states? 
For what crop is Virginia notfd? For what crops are New 
Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland famed? What states are 
noted for grazing products? 




1. Minerals. — The mountainous parts of these 
states abound in coal and iron, Pennsylvania 
and West Virginia are great coal and iron states. 

In some of the Pennsylvania coal mines the passage- 
ways from which coal has been taken are miles in length. 

New York furnishes 
from its salt beds much 
of our salt and most of 
our baking soda. 

2. Iron. — As we 

travel through the 
mountains of Pennsyl- 
vania, we often see tall 
chimneys rising up 
among the tree-tops. 

In the coat mines 

At night these chimneys are like giant lighthouses, 
with a name many feet in length coming out of them. 

They belong to smelting- furnaces. In such furnaces 
iron ore is smelted. The iron is then run off into little 
channels made in sand. Here it cools in bars about two 
feet long, and becomes what we call pig-iron. The 
"pigs" are melted again and made into steel, and the 
steel is at last rolled into rails for railroads or made into 
other useful things. 

3. Petroleum, or rock oil, from which kero- 
sene is made, is obtained in Pennsylvania, New 
York, and "West Virginia. 

Here are to he seen wells from which petroleum is 
pumped up instead of water. Sometimes, when an oil 
well is first opened, the oil spouts up in a column 
twenty-five or thirty feet high. 

Pennsylvania and New York are famed for their natu- 
ral gas. 

4, Manufactures. — Many of the cities and 
towns of the Middle Atlantic states are exten- 
sively engaged in manufacturing. 

In their foundries and machine shops, railroad 
engines and machinery of all kinds are made. 
There are also manufactures of cotton, silk, and 

woolen goods. 

Cities — New York, 
Phil ndel phi a, and 
Baltimore take the 
lead in manufacturing. 
Pittsburg is celebrated 
fur its iron and glass 
works; Buffalo, for its 
enormous shipping 
business. Rochester, 
ntur the falls of the Genesee, manufactures 
large quantities of clothing, Troy makes rail- 
road cars, stoves, and shirts, collars, and cuffs. 

Newark manufactures rubber, sewing machines, 
and leather-goods; Jersey City, glassware, lead 
pencils, and a great variety of metal goods. 

Paterson is noted for its silk manufactures. 
'Wilmington is famed for its manufacture of gun- 
powder, cars, and iron and steel steamships. 

Interior of a tewing^nioeh ine factory at Newark, .V. J. In thit room the 
machine' are put together. 

Wheeling, W, Va,, thawing lectorie* along the OhioTtter. 

Norfolk, in Virginia, has one of the best har- 
bors in the United States. It manufactures cot- 
ton ancl ships oysters and vegetables. 

Wheeling, on the Ohio, contains large iron 
and glass works. 

For Recitation. — What are the chief products of the 
Middle Atlantic states? From which of these states do we get 
much of our coal, ironware, and petroleum? What are the 
leading manufacturing cities of the Middle Atlantic states? 
Mention other cities in this section. 





1. Commerce. — The commerce, both domestic 
and foreign, that is carried on in the Middle 
Atlantic states is very great. 

The railways and canals are constantly carry- 
ing wheat, cotton, and other produce into the cities 
of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Here 
these products are r 
placed in ships and 
steamers and sent all 
over the world. 

2. New York is 

the largest city in 
America. It contains 
ahout five million 
inhabitants. Its 
manufactures are 
vast; its commerce 
is immense. In its 
harbor we may see 
ships from every 
part of the globe. 

•■T ^fm York ctiy, photographed from the roo£ of the Produce Exchange. 
In the center is the V 

the te(l it Broadtmy. In the center is the U. S. .Sub-Treaiuru, a low i 
vtnnt. Three af theitf. cutumns can be seen. West of it i* Sasxau Street 
Broad Street and the MUU Building, Wall Street runs taet and u-eti in front of it. 

Lying in great piles on the wharves are boxes of tea. 
silk, and fire-crackers f rom Asia ; coffee from Sou til Amer- 
ica; sugar, bananas, and pineaples from the West In- 
dies; raisins, currants, and figs from the Mediterranean. 
What has made New York such a great commercial 
city i First, it has a fine harbor, deep and wide. Sec- 
ond, it is at the mouth of the Hudson river, and this 

river and the Erie 
canal connect it 
with the great 
farming region of 
the country. 
Third, numerous 
rail ways also bring 
into it immense 
quantities of wheat 
and other produce. 

Brooklyn, now 
a part of Xew 
York, is noted 
for the 
meat of 
and for 

Wheat is brought here in canal barges and railroad 
cars and placed in storehouses. It is afterwards put 
into ships and sent across the ocean. 

3. Philadelphia is a great commercial city, 
and one of the leading manufacturing cities. It is 
on the Delaware river, and has easy access to the 
ocean through the Delaware hay. 

4. Baltimore, on the Chesapeake bay, is the 

largest city of Mary- 
land. Its manufac- 
tures are important, 
and it carries on a 
large domestic and 
foreign commerce. 

The oysters of the 
Chesapeake bay are 
sent from Baltimore to 
distant parts of this 
country, and even to 

5. Other Cities. 
—Buffalo, on Lake 
Erie, is a very busy 
place. It has an 

Dour, cattle, and 


Ituildinq with Col- 
in front u 

trade in wheat 


Richmond, the capital of Virginia, at the falls 
of the James, has large iron works and an ex- 
tensive tobacco trade. . 


Phiiuaetjihia, l'o. 


ftn£ H#"'^| 

flHj \ij 





Capitol grounds, Waihinqlon monument and Ht. /'uufl church. 
Richmond, V'o. 

For Hesitation. — For what are the Middle Atlantic 
states famed? Why has New York lieeoine a great commercial 
city? What is said of Philadelphia? For what is Baltimore 
noted? Name other important commercial cities. 





1. Southern States. — Leaving the Middle At- 
lantic states, and journeying south, we enter the 
Southern states. 

They are North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. 

Texas is the largest state in the Union. It is 
about six times the size of New York state. 

2. Early 
—The first at- 
tempt to form a 
settlement in 
North Carolina 
was made in 
1585, by Sir 
"Walter Raleigh, 
after whom the 
capital is named. 

The first per- 
manent settle- 
ment in South 
Carolina was 
made by English 
people in 1670. 

Fidcing atiion ncnr Annittan, Ata. 
kilted the teave*. 

The trail km 

Georgia was colonized by Eng- 
lish settlers, who founded Savaimah in 1733, 

Florida was settled by Spaniards, and purchased 
from Spain by the United States. Saint Augus- 
tine, in Florida, is the oldest town in the United 
States. It was founded in 1565. 

Louisiana is so called from the French king, 
Louis XIV. With Arkansas and a large tract 
lying to the north and northwest, it was bought 
by the United States from France. 

Texas was once a part of Mexico. We are re- 
minded of this by the number of Spanish names 
in the state — San Antonio, Rio Grande, etc. San 
means saint; Bio. ri/ver; Grande, great. After a 

hard fight Texas gained its independence. It was 
a republic from 1S36 to 1845, when it was made 
one of the United States. 

For Recitation.— Name the Son theni states, with their 
capitals. Who first settled North Carolina? Who settled 
South Carolina? Who colonized Georgia? Who settled Flor- 
ida? Which of the Southern states was settled bjr the French? 
To what couotrj did Texas once belong? 

1. Surface. — The land of the Southern states 
is mostly level. Along the coast it is low. In 

some parts of Mis- 
sissippi and Louisi- 
ana it is below the 
surface of the Mis- 
sissippi. The coun- 
try would be 
flooded but for the 
great banks, or 
levees, built on both 
sides of the river. 

The nearly level 
is the coastal plain and extends to the Piedmont 
region at the foot of the mountains. 

The Cumberland mountains, the Blue Ridge, 
and the Alleghenies extend into this section. 

Mt. Mitchell, in North Carolina* is the highest moun- 
tain east of the Mississippi. 

%. Swamps. — If we should travel along the 
shores of the Southern states, we should often 
find ourselves in the midst of swampy lands, where 
the vegetation is most luxuriant and beautiful. 

Mosses hang from the trees. The magnolia, the 
jessamine and many gay-colored flowers fill the air 
with fragrance. 

3. Climate. — The Southern states have a warm 
climate. In those which lie south of Tennessee 
the winters are scarcely colder than early autumn 
in the Middle Atlantic states. In Florida the 
orange tree blossoms all the year around. Flor- 
ida means flowery. 


Sprln*. ^VV 


The Southern states, with their Capitals and 
Chief Cities. 

i...J lk ;i[l],T,. 

States. Capitah. Chief Cities. 

North Carolina, Raleigh (raw'-le), Charlotte. 
South Carolina, Columbia, Charleston. 

Georgia, Atlanta, Atlanta. 

Florida, Tallahassee, Jacksonville. 

Alabama, Montgomery, Birmingham. 

Mississippi, Jackson, Meridian. 

Louisiana, Baton ltouge(&ai'- New Orleans. 

on roozh), 
Texas, Austin, San Antonio. 

Arkansas, Little Rock, Little Rock. 

Tennessee, Nashville, Memphis. 

Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma City. 

Which four of the Southern states border on the Atlan- 
tic? Which border on the Gulf? Those last are often called 
the Gulf States. Which state is farthest east? Farthest 
west? Which two states extend farthest south, and have 
therefore the warmest climate? Which Southern state is 
the largest? The smallest? 

What three capes on the coast of North Carolina? The 
coast near Cape Haiteras is very dangerous. 

What two sounds are nearly enclosed by the coast? 
Albemarle Sound is famed for its herring fisheries. 

What mountains cross the state? Mount Mitchell is the 
highest peak east of ttte Mississippi. Find it on the map. 
What large city just north of Cape Fear? 

What is the chief seaport of South Carolina? Name the 
principal rivers. If you cross the Savannah river from 
South Carolina, what state do you enter? 

Which is the mountainous part of Georgia? In what 
part of the state is Atlanta? What is the chief seaport'.' 
On what river? 

What state is south of Georgia? For what fruit is Florida 
famed? In what direction do most of the rivers of this 
and the other Gulf states flow? 

What state lies west of Georgia? What two rivers of 
Alabama unite, and flow into Mobile bay? 

What city is on this bay? What river crosses the 

northern part of Alabama? On what river is Mont- 
gomery? Where Is Birmingham? 

What state is west of Alabama? What rivets form 
its western boundaries? Where is -Meridian ? 

What two rivers separate Louisiana from Mississippi? 
In sailing up the Mississippi, what largo city would you 
reach about 100 miles from the mouth of the river? 
Where is Shreveport? 

Crossing the Sabine river from Louisiana, what state 
do you enter? What river separates Texas from Mexico? 
What is the chief seaport? 

Xame the two longest rivers wholly within Texas. 
On which one is the capital? 

What state is north of Texas? What river separates 
it from Texas? What boundaries of Texas are formed by 
•New Mexico? What states are east of Oklahoma? 

What river forms the eastern boundary of Arkansas? 
What large river crosses the state? 

On what rivers might you sail from Chattanooga to 

New Orleans? What mountains are in the eastern part 
of Tennessee? 

Name the two principal rivers of Tennessee. What 
large cotton-port is in the southwest corner of the state? 

Review. — Let the Southern states be reviewed in the 
same manner as the New England states. See page 44. 

Map-Drawing, — The state of Tennessee wil! be found 
an easy one to draw. Let the pupils copy it on their 
slates, and show the Cumberland mountains and the 
Tennessee river. Let them write in the proper places 
the names of the eight different states that bound 




chief employment of 
The land is generally 

4. Agriculture. — The 

the people is agriculture, 
divided up into 
large plantations. 
Corn, wheat, to- 
bacco, and many 
other crops are 
raised. Tobacco 
is produced ex- 
tensively in North 
Carolina and Ten- 
nessee. But the 
Southern states 

flD n Q „{ u ||» A ctliton £omj/r*BS in*. The 

are especially loose cotton is pressed into bales. The*e are 
* - , , . then covered with bnooiiin and bound with iron 

noted IOr tlietr bands. A finished bate rests on (he truck. 

cotton, sugar, rice, fruits, and early vegetables. 

6. Cotton, is the most valuable of all the prod- 
ucts. It grows on a plant. The seeds are 
inclosed in pods called bolls. Each seed is 
wrapped in the soft, downy substance that we 
call cotton. As the seeds ripen, the bolls burst 
open, and the fields are white with snowy cotton. 

The seeds are separated from the cotton by a 
machine called the cotton gin, and the cotton is 
then packed in great bales and sent to market. 

From cotton seed is pressed an oil that is as pure 
as olive oil. A hard cake is left, which is ground into 
cotton- seed meal and used as a fertilizer or as feed for 

6. Rice is raised chiefly in Louisiana, Texas, 
Arkansas, and South Carolina. 

It grows hoth on prairie and lowland. The grain is 
very hard, and when 
first sown it needs to lie 
under -water; so the 
rice grower floods his 
fields. Afterwards the 
water is drained off and 
the ground kept dry. 
Rice when growing 
looks something like 

7- Sugar-cane. — 

Traveling in Louisi- 
ana, we see great 
fields covered 

what we might suppose to be giant corn plants. 
These fields are sugar plantations. The plants 
are sugar-cane. 

At the proper season it is cut down, carried to a mill, 
and crushed between iron rollers. The sweet juice is 
thus squeezed out. It is boiled a long time, until at last 
the solid sugar forms. Most of the cane-sugar made in 
the main body of the United States comes from Louisiana. 

For Recitation. — Describe the surface of the Southern 
States. What kind of climate have the Southern states? 
What is the chief occupation of the Southern states? For 
what products are the Southern states noted? What is the 
most valuable crop of these states? Where does the South 
send its cotton? 

AUuntu, t;. 

the butanes jtart of the town. 


1. Pine Forests. — Immense pine forests are 
found in. these states, from the Texas prairies 
to the Dismal swamp in Virginia. Besides lum- 
ber, great quantities of tar, pitch, turpentine, and 
rosin are obtained from them. 

The largest supplies are gathered in Georgia 
and North Carolina. Savannah and 'Wilmington 
are noted for the export of 
these products. 

Where the pine forests 
have been cut away, we see 
truck farms upon which fruits 
and vegetables are grown 
and shipped to the North. 
Strawberries, tomatoes, 
beans, and peas grow here 
while Northern gardens 
are still covered with 

Notice the tanals. through which water it brought 

—i+l. A CaroiiTm rirr field. . 

V Hit ,- n , and the gate** which art raised or lowered at will. 




2. Stock-raising is an important occupation 
in Texas. On its grassy prairies immense herds 
of cattle and sheep find pasturage all the year; 
and the winters are so mild that no shelter is 
needed. Oklahoma also has fine herds of cattle. 

The cattle are sent to the markets of the East- 
ern states, and are even shipped to Europe. The 
great stock farms are called ranches. 

Gathering strawberries on the Coastal plain in ,\\ 

3. Oranges. — Florida is too hot for apples to 
thrive, and so, instead of apple orchards, we see 
here groves of orange trees. 

The raising of oranges and other fruits is one 
of the important industries of this state. 

4. Minerals. — Iron is mined in Alabama, 
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia; coal in 
Alabama; salt and sulphur in Louisiana; phos- 
phate in Florida and South Carolina; coal and 
petroleum in Texas and Oklahoma, and some gold 
in Georgia and the Carolinas. Marble is quarried 
in Georgia and Tennessee. 









' -w 







6. The Manufactures of the Southern states 
are many and valuable. There are many furnaces, 

licrduig cattie on the plaint aj Taut. 

foundries, sawmills, and cotton and woolen mills. 
In leading cities are cotton-seed-oil mills and 
ice factories — the latter supply most of the ice 
used in these states. Memphis manufactures 
cotton-seed oil and lumber; Nashville, flour and 
lumber; Atlanta, cotton goods, and foundry and 
machine shop products; Birmingham, iron and 
steel ; Chattanooga, iron goods and lumber ; Pal- 
las, saddles and harness; Augusta, cotton goods; 
Houston, cottonseed oiL 

6. New Orleans, on the Mississippi, is one 
of the greatest cotton ports, and sugar markets 
in the world. It is the largest eitv in the South, 

F arty-seven team* of vnnie* pUrvnnn tm a eottvrt pkmttttian m .\fiee14stppi. 

Steamehipi being loaded with ajUon at the wharves of Galveston* Tezoi. 

and is also the first city in manufacturing and com- 

Galveston is now the largest exporting city in 
the South. Savannah, Charleston, and Mobile 
ship cotton and lumber. San Antonio and Lit- 
tle Rock are important inland cities. 

For Recitation. — What is obtained from the pine for- 
ests of the South? What part of the South is famed for stock- 
raising? For what is Florida celebrated ? Which of the 
Southern states are noted for manufactures ? What are the 
great cotton markets? 


Uif»n Citjf In atoh State unJ.rtlntd 


The Central states: Capitals and Chief Cities. 

States. Capitals. Chief Cities. 

Ohio, Columbus, Cleveland. 

Kentucky, Frankfort, Louisville. 

Indiana, Indianapolis, Indianapolis. 

Illinois, Springfield, Chicago. 

Michigan, Lansing, Detroit; 

Wisconsin, Madison, Milwaukee. 

Minnesota, St Paul, Minneapolis. 

Iowa, Des Moines Des Moines. 

Missouri, Jefferson City, St. Louis. 

Kansas, Topeka, Kansas City. 

Nebraska, Lincoln, Omaha. 

North Dakota, Bismarck, Fargo. 

South Dakota, Pierre, Sioux Falls. 

In what direction are the Central states from 
the Southern ? From the Middle Atlantic ? 

If you do not live in the Central states, point 
toward them. "Would you cross either the Al- 
legheuies or the Rocky mouu tains in going to 
them ? 

Which of the Great Lakes is wholly -within 
the United States ? Which four states border 
on Lake Michigan ? Which three border on 
Lake Superior ? 

Which states are bordered by the Mississippi 
on the east ? Which on the west ? 

What three states have the Ohio for their 
southern boundary f What states does the 
Missouri river separate ? 

What state lies south of the Ohio river f 
What mountains form part of the eastern 
boundary of Kentucky f 

On what river is the capital ? What is the 
largest city f On what river ? What state is 
separated from Kentucky by the Mississippi ? 

What great river crosses Missouri ? What 
great city is just below the mouth of the Mis- 
souri ? 

On what river is Jefferson City ? At the 
junction of what two rivers is Kansas City f 

What mountains ore in the southern part of 
the state ? Where is Iron mountain ? Pilot 

What state is west of Missouri? On what 
river is the capital of Kansas? Name the largest 
city. On what river is it ? 

What state is north of Kansas ? What river 
forms the eastern boundary of Nebraska ? 
What river crosses the state ? What is the 
largest city ? 

Suppose you cross the Missouri eastward at 
Omaha, -what state will you be in ? What 
river borders Iowa on the west ? On the east ? 

On what river is Des Moines, the largest city ? 
On what river is Dubuque (du-buke') 1 

What river forms the western boundary of 
Illinois ? What and where is the largest city ? 
On what river is Peoria? 

What state is partly separated from Illinois 
by the Wabash ? 

Where is Evansville ? Fort Wayne ? What 
state lies to the east of Indiana ? 

What is the largest city of Ohio? On what 
river is it ? Where is Cleveland ? What state 
consists of two peninsulas ? 

Which four of the Great Lakes border on 
Michigan ? Which two lakes are connected by 
the St. Mary's river? 

Which two by the Strait of Mackinac? Name 
the largest city. On what river is it ? 

What state lies between Lake Michigan and 
the Mississippi? What lake-port is the largest 
city in Wisconsin ? 

What great river rises in Minnesota? In 
what lake does it rise ? What river forms part 
of the western boundary ? In what direction 
does it flow ? 

What is the largest city ? Near the junction 
of what rivers is it ? 

What two. states lie west of Minnesota? What 
great rive»-4jrosses them? Name the largest 
cities. Where are the Black hills? What 
town is among them ? 

Routes. — On what lakes would you sail in 

going by water from Chicago to Cleveland! 
From Detroit to Duluth ? How would you go 
on a steamboat from St. Paul to Cincinnati ? 

Map Drawing. — Let the pupil draw on his 
slate the outline pf Kansas, insert the Kansas 
river, and locate the capital and Leavenworth. 
Let him write in their proper places the names 
of the states that bound Kansas. 

Review may be conducted as directed here- 



1. Central States. — To the north of 
the Southern states lie those that are called 
the Central states. If we look at the map 
of the United States, we shall see that 
they occupy the north central part 

They are Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, "Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, North 
Dakota, and South Dakota. 

2. Settlement. — About 100 years ago 
only a very few of the many hundred 
towns now in the Central states had been 
founded. The prairies were covered with 
long waving grass that no one cut, and 
beautiful flowers that no one gathered. 

The prairies were the grazing fields of 
millions of buffaloes and wild deer, and 
were the hunting grounds of the Indians. 

As the Atlantic states became more 
thickly settled, people crossed the Alle- 
gheny mountains in search of better and 
cheaper lands for farming. 

















Often a whole family packed in a •wagon everything 
that they had, and traveled on and on through the path- 
less forests and over the grass-covered prairies, sleeping 
in the wagon at night, and continuing their journey the 
next morning, until they reached a spot that seemed a 
suitable one fur their- now home. Other settlers joined 
them, and more and more were added, until the 
little settlement grew into a town; and in very few 
years some oE the towns, like Chicago, St. Louis, 
and Cincinnati, became large and prosperous cities. 

For Recitation. — Why are the Central ptntes so 
called? What wi»s the condi- 
tion of those Mates 100 years 
ago? What is the condition of 
these stales to- clay ? 


1. Surface.— The Cen- 
tral states are generally 
level. A large portion of 

Beautiful shapes of limestone, that glisten like dia- 
monds when the torchlight of the visitor rests upon them, 
hang down from the roof. It is like a little fairy world 

Jteid oj beet* in Michigan ready to 
be mode into sugar. 

A harvester at uork on a large farm 
in thr vneat hrtt. This machine exits 
the vhfiitjhreshr* it.dtans the grain, 
and puts it into bags. 

In the cave are three 
rivers and a fresh-water 

lake, the home of fish that 
have no eyes. 

3. Agricultural 
Products. — The prairie 

lands are the great agri- 
cultural region of the 
Enormous crops of wheat, corn, 

United States. 

oats, flax, and tobacco are raised 

The fibers 

them consists of treeiess prairies, covered with a 

-deep, rich soil. (Describe a prairie.) 

The only mountains in these states are in East- 
ern Kentucky, 
Southern Mis- 
souri, and 
South Dakota. 

2. The mam- 
moth cave in 
Kentucky is the 
largest cavern 
in the world. 
It has been ex- 
plored to a 
distance of ten 

.1 toot in Mammoth Cave, 

Hemp is grown very largely in Kentucky. 
of this plant are made into rope. 

The sn;;ur-h(>i't, fimn which large quantities of SOgW 
are made, is becoming an important crop, especially in 
Michi trail, Wisconsin, anil Nebraska. 

The grapes and wines of Ohio and Missouri are cele- 

4. Wheat. — The northern part of the Central 
states is one of the greatest wheat-growing regions 
in the world. It supplies almost the whole of the 
United States with wheat, and sends large quan- 
tities also to the countries of Europe. Much 
wheat is made into Hour and exported. 

■. -**■ 

Oaitrbvy t>f the S&iute rn Publishing Go. 

Harvesting torn <m i targ§ fnrm in Nehratka. Corn it planted, cultivated* 
and harvested eniirelu by machinery. 


6. Corn is raised in even 
greater quantity than wheat. 
The region in which corn 
grows best is sometimes 
called the com belt. It ex- 
tends across the middle por- 
tion of the Central states. 
Here for miles and miles 
the fields are planted with 

Lard and lard-oil are made from the fat. The bristles 
a iv used in making brushes. 

Chit-ago, Cincinnati, Kansas City (Kansas), and 
8011th Omaha are noted for pork-packing. 

9, The Minerals of the Central states are very 
valuable. The copper and iron mines of Michigan 
are very rich. The iron mines of Minnesota are 

A tobacco plant. 

6, Tobacco is one of the 
important crops. Kentucky raises more than any 
other state. 

When white men came over to the New World, they 
aaw the Indiana smoking 
tobacco, and learned this 
habit from them. Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh made it fashion- 
able in England. 

7- Stock-raising is 
an important industry. 
Many cattle are raised 
and many are brought 
in from the West. Fresh 
beef is sent in refriger- 

Froni photo njr Prnf. !t- OM nwUL 
A ttocklam in Kentucky, uhm the fait it brcrdt <>/ Wm are raised. 

ator cars to the East and in refrigerator ships 
to Europe. 

Many horses and mules are raised in these 
states. The thoroughbred horses of Kentucky 
are famous all over the world. 

8. Pork -packing — Millions of hogs are killed 
in these states. Much of the pork is salted. Bacon 
and hams, as well as salt pork are sent to various 
parts of the Union and arc also exported to other 

Home of a uteatthy ranch 

among the richest in the 
world. Missouri, Kansas, 
and Wisconsin abound 
in lead and zinc. 

Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Kansas, Iowa, 
and Missouri have con] 
beds. South Dakota has 
mines of gold and silver; 
poiand-china hoo* a* a farm in lava. Ohio, Indiana, and Kan- 
sas, wells of oil and natural gas. Michigan and 
Kansas arc famous for their salt. 

For Re fit at ion. — Describe the surface of the Central 
states, Wlial is the leading occupation of the Central stutcs? 
What are the great 
crops of the Central 
f What animals 
are largely raised in 
the Central stales? 
What arc I lie chief 
mineral products? 

1. The manu- 
factures of the 

A lump of pure copper from Rockland. Mich., 
cut from a man weighing 36 tan*. 

Central states are important. Large sawmills are 
busily employed in the great forests of Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, and Michigan. Those of Minneapolis, 
at the Falls of St. Anthony, are the largest. 



The flour mills grind immense quantities of 
wheat. Minneapolis produces more flour than any 
other city in the world Milwaukee and St Louis 
are also famous for their flouring mills. 

Other important manufactures are those of 
farming tools, machinery, and furniture. 

The harbor at Chicago near the 
mouth of the Chisago river. Thl 

The river front at St. fjntis. 
Compare the rilter hoatt with the 
take boat* at the wharf in Chicago, 
Notice the wharf boat, where the 
tttamcri land instead of at a wharf. 

2. Commerce. —The 
commerce of the Central 
states consists chiefly in 
sending away their own 
great products, espe- 
cially wheat, corn, and 
meat, and in bringing in 
articles that they need. 

The Mississippi and 
Ohio rivers can be used S^ c £™ £g*$ & t n&& 
by eight of the Central g^^^'^. in- 
states to float produce ***** ppl " 
to market. Railways connect all the cities and 
towns with other parts of the country. 

3. The Great Lakes have thousands of steam- 
boats and other vessels plying upon them, and 
carrying cargoes from place to place. These lakes 
are all connected by rivers and canals; and ves- 
sels loaded at Duluth, Chicago, or any lake port, 
and sailing into the St. Lawrence, may enter the 
Atlantic and go directly from the heart of the 
United States over to Europe. 

You may wonder how these vessels manage to avoid 
the Falls of Niagara and the falls of St. Mary's river. 
Ship-canals have been constructed around these falls. 

4. Chicago is the second city in population in 

the country. About eighty years ago it was only 
a small village. It now contains more than two- 
million people. It has an immense trade in grain, 
pork, lard, beef, lumber, and cattle. 

Night and day railway trains and steamboats are 
carrying goods to Chicago, or taking them away from 
this city to other places. It is, therefore, what we call 
a great center of trade. 

5. St. Louis is the largest city on the Missis- 
sippi. It is connected with all the Central states 
either by navigable rivers or by numerous rail- 
roads. Like Chicago, it also is a great center 
of trade. It manufactures more tobacco than 
any other city in the world. 

6. Cincinnati is the 
largest city on the Ohio. 
It is noted for its large 
trade and manufactures. 

Louisville is a busy 
and beautiful city on the' 
Ohio. It is our greatest 
tobacco market and has 
an extensive trade. 

7. On the Great 


A grain elevator armmonlu teen alona the Great Lakes. The grain u 

lifted from boat! and cart bu an cndlett belt with bucket* 

attached, and stored until ready for shipment. 

Lakes there are large cities besides Chicago, all 
extensively engaged in lake commerce. Cleveland 
is noted for its great iron works and its beautiful 
avenues. Detroit was once a French trading 



port, but it is now a fine city, and its manufac- 
tures are varied and extensive. Milwaukee is a 
great grain market, and so is Toledo. Dulutli 

The city of Milwaukee, at the mouth of the Milwaukee river. — Xotice the 

" vjhale-back " steamer on the right, the lake steamer and the 

grain elevator and brewery in the background. 

and Superior ship grain, and are the ports of 
rich copper and iron districts. 

On the Mississippi are Minneapolis and St. 
Paid in the center of the wheat and lumber 
districts. Minneapolis is the largest flour and 
luml>er market in the country. These two cities 
are built near the Falls of St. Anthony. These 
falls furnish water power for mills. 

Near the Western Border, convenient to the 
cattle ranches, and in the center of the fanning 

district, are Kansas City, which is largely engaged 
in shipping beef and pork, and Omaha, which 
is also engaged in this business. 

In the Interior of these states there are many 
fine cities surrounded by a rich country and exten- 
sively engaged in manufacture. Coliunbiut, In- 

Vndidac Saua.^e and iiubiie buddings in the city of Detroit. 

dianapolis, Peoria, Topeka, Dcs Moines, Grand 
Itaplds, Da j ton, and St. Joseph are among these 

For Recitation. — What are the principal articles manu- 
factured in the Central states ? Describe the commerce of 
the Central states. How are the products of these states sent 
to other parts of the country ? What is said of Chicago? 
What is said of St. Louis? What great cities are on the 
Ohio? Name the great lake-ports. Name other im]>ortatit 
cities. In what state is each of these cities found ? 

F ' 








I |4 

I ^kW\ 

imi^L ^ miA 



hfc^^ _-^ — 



■lit' ^V 

The*'Soo lr eanal, through which ships jtats the faJfo of the St, Mary's niw, between Lake* Superior nnd Huron. Find the toek and the gate. See 
(he faUs of the rivrr under the rnitroad bridge. The falU are called (A* Sault ISoo) Sainte Marie, a French name lor the leap or waterfall 0/ St. Alary 1 *. 
The canal and the city lake the name of the falls. 



The Rocky mountain and Pacific States: Capitals and 
Chief Cities, 



Chief Cities. 





Cheyenne (shi-en'), 






Boise iboi-zay'), 










San Francisco. 


Carson City, 



Salt Lake City, 

Salt Lake City 

New Mexico, 

Saute Fe, 







Chief City. 

What country borders this 
section on the north? On the 
south? What ocean is west of 
it 1 What states border it on 
the east 1 

What states border on the 
Pacific ocean? What states 
are crossed by the Rocky 
mountains ? 

What river forms part of 
the eastern boundary of Cali- 
fornia? What two mountain 
ranges are in this state? Can 
you find Point Conception? 
Name the largest city in Cali- 
fornia. Where is it? On what t 
river is the capital? Where ""J '" the background tciih tour 

« » » i „ r , towers « (he Mormon temptc. 

is Oakland'! Los Angeles? 

What state is north of California? What river forms 
part of the eastern boundary of Oregon ? 

What river forms part of its northern boundary? The 
Columbia river is famed for its fisheries. On what 
river is the capital ? Name the largest city. Where is it? 

What state is north of Oregon? What river crosses 
Washington and forms part of the southern boundary? 

What sound penetrates Washington! Where is the 
capital? What and where is tbe la rgest tow 1 1 ? 

What island is north west of Washington? Tin's island 
is a part of the Dominion of Canada, 

Where is Alaska territory ? What is its capital ? What 
river flows through it? 

What state lies east of Washington and Oregon? 
What state lies east of California! 

Name the largest city of Nevada. In what part of the 
state is it? Virginia city is famed for its silver mine, 
3,000 feet deep. 

Name the capital of Utah. What is its largest lake'f 
What mountains are in Utah? 

What state is south of Utah? What river crossea 
northwestern Arizona? The Colorado is noted for its 
canyons. Some are more than a mile deep. 

What state is east of Arizona? What two rivers 

cross New Mexico? Name the largest city in New Mexico. 

Santa F6 is more than a mile above the level of the sea. 

What state is north of New Mexico? What four gi'eat 

rivers rise in Colorado? 

Pike's peak is nearly three miles high, and is crowned 
with perpetual snow. A government weather station 
is on the top. The view is one of the grandest in the 

Leadville is noted for its mines of silver. It is more 
than iivo mites above the sea, and is the most elevated 
town in tlte United States. 
What state is north of Colorado? In what part of 

Wyoming is Cheyenne 
( shi-en') i What great 
park is in Wyoming? 

What mountains form 
part of the western 
boundary of Montana? 
What two large rivers 
run eastward through 
Montana? Name the 
largest city. 

Find Fort Benton. 
From it you can travel 
on a steamboat down the 
Missouri and the Missis- 
sippi to tfte Gulf of 

On the narrow coast niftin of California. The city it Santa Barbara. 
*itiniM4n. the coast northwest of Lot Angela. 

Mexi-jt). JT-m voyage would be about 4.MI0 miles long. 
Describe a voyage by water from Spokane to Sacra- 





1, West of the Central states are the Rocky 
Mountain and Pacific states. These are so called 
because the Rocky mountains cross them from 
north to south and the Pacific ocean borders them 
on the west. 

They are Colorado (eol-o-rah'~do\ New Mexico, 
Wy-o'-rning, Monta'na (rno>i-tah ! -naK), Arizo'na, 
Utah, Idaho, Nevada (ne-vah'-dah), California, 
Oregon, and Washington. The Territory of 
Alaska (see map of North America, p. 33) also is 
classed with tins group. 

2. Early History.— About eighty years ago 
Indians and Spaniards were almost the only inhab- 
itants of this part of our country. 

It is easy to tell where the Spaniards were. On the 
map we find the names San Francisco, Santa Fe (.fay), 
and man j r others beginning with San or Santa, which 
. is the Spanish for saint. Sierra Nevada, too, is a Span- 
ish name. Nevada means snoivy, Sierra means saw. 
Where these Spanish names are found, the settlers were 

In California, the Spanish settlers were very pros- 
perous. They were 
stock- raisers and fruit- 
growers. T h ey h ad i m- 
mense flocks of sheep, 
and the vineyards and 
orange groves planted 
by them are still pro- 

In 1848 gold was 
discovered in Cali- 
fornia, and people 
flooked there from 
all parts of the 
United States. Some 
time after this, silver 
was found in Ne- 
vada, and since that 
time rich mines of I 1 
gold, silver, copper, 

and lead have been discovered in various parts of 
the Rocky mountains. 

In 18fi7 the United States bousrbt Alaska from Indian village. New Xfrri-m. The Soiwm are bnilt tit *-i*i-drirri brick 
oroftlone. The entrance* to the hvmie* are reached l/v uidder*. 

Digging and washing geld in Alaska at Cane Some. 

Russia. The only inhabitants were Indians, Eski- 
mos, and a few traders. Since then gold has 
been found in that region and thousands of peo- 
ple have gone there. 

3. Indians. — Many of the Indians still remain- 
ing in the United States are found in the Rocky 
mountain and Pacific regions. They are slowly 
learning to live like white men, and schools have 
been established for them. Lands called reserva- 
tions are set apart for the tribes to live on. 

4. Animals, — Many people from the Eastern 
states, and even from Europe, 
go every year to this part of 
our country to hunt. They 
kill grizzly and black bears, 
deer, wild goats, and other 

For Recitation,— Who were 
the first settlers in this section ? 
What led to the rapid settlement of 
this part of the country? What 
population besides the white settlers 
has this section? 


1. Surface. — In the Rocky 
mountain and Pacific states 
are to be found the highest 
and most mountainous parts 
of our country. Here are 



the Rocky mountains, 
with many peaks nearly 
three miles high, the 
Great plateau, the Sierra 
Nevada, and the Cascade 
range. Some of the 
towns among the moun- 
tains ace more than two 
miles above the sea. 

Alaska is crossed hy 
mountain ranges. Here 
is Mount McKinley, (lie 
highest peak in North 

3. The Great Salt 
lake lies at the bottom 
of a deep basin or de- 
pression in the Great plateau. Its water is so 
salt that one cannot sink in it. It floats a man 

Yellowstone take in the National park. 

as brine floats an egg. The length of the lake is 
seventy-five miles. Steamers sail on it. 

3. The Yellowstone National 

park is in Wyoming. It is a large 
region set apart by Congress to belong 
forever to the nation. Find it on 
the map. 

It is famed for its geysers (gfii f - 
*«r«), canyons, and waterfalls. The 
geysers are springs that spout up 
hot water. One of them sends up a 
column of water 200 feet high. 

The park contains also the canyons 

of the Yellowstone river. What are canyons? 
On page 38 is a picture of a canyon. 

4. The scenery of these states is very grand. 

In California are the wonderful Yosemite (yo- 
sem'-l-te) falls. 
The water makes 
three leaps. The 
first of these is 
nearly a third of 
a mile, and the 
whole distance 
through which 
the water de- 
scends is about 
half a mile. 

The Yuscinite 
valley, through 
which the river 
runs after leap- 
ing the falls, is 

one of the grand- Yottmitt Falu , 

est scenes in the world. It is shut in by walls 
of rock nearly half a mile high. 

The " big trees" of California are among the 
largest in the world. Some of them are more 
than 300 feet high, twice as high as a very tall 
church steeple, and more than 100 feet around. 

For Recital ion, —Which are the most mnimttiinous 
parts of our count ry? Xmue the principal mountain ranees 
or this section. For what is 1 he N'titional park noted? What 
natural curiosities are fon ml in California? 



nl ***** v 







One of lite "Big Tree* near t'retno^ California. Wt mr a troop of United State* 
cavalry drawn up alarm the trt# aiid on top of it to be photographed* 




1. Climate. — The Sierra Nevada and the Cas- 
cade ranges divide this section into two portions, 
which have very different climates. To the east- 


^mfr l^^r ——^31 
£2^ 1 {, JP& 

flWHf ' 

Making raixina in California. The grape* are spread out on t*%r$v 
trays and dried in the Man. 

ward very little rain falls, and the climate is 
very dry. 

"Westward there is more moisture. Oregon and 
Washington have a climate like that of Maryland. 
In California there is a tout season and a dry 
season. For six months (from November to May) 
there is abundance of rain; for six months again 
(from May to November) there is hardly any rain. 

2. Irrigation. — In many parts of this section 
no crops can be raised unless the fields are wa- 
tered. The fanners, therefore, dig ditches to con- 
duct water from the ri vers to their farms, so that 
they can Hood the fields. Somo of these ditches 
are miles in length. 
"Watering land in 
this way is called 

3. Products. — 

In the states bor- 
dering the Pacifio 
there is a rich agri- 
cultural region. 
The finest wheat, 
barley, hops, and 
oats are raised. In 
California fruits 
and vegetables 

grow to a wonderful size. Oranges, lemons, grapes, 
prunes, and pears are produced in great abun- 
dance. This state is famed for its wines and raisins. 

4. Stock-raising is a leading occupation in 
many parts of this section. Colorado and Wyo- 
ming are noted particularly for their cattle. Cali- 
fornia is a great sheep-raising region. Its wool 
is famous for fineness and excellence. 

A cattie ranch in Colorado. 

J/yttruulir minimi in California. A jHm erf til stream ot ualrrttdi 

, t ,-, .,.<,■ >. . ■'. >,■... (] . ,..-..'',;.■..■■.' ...■>'■;' In ttnfi If lit, tttf ttlliks 

arc iraahrd down and the goid w afterwards torttd put, 

6. Mining is another leading industry. The 
mines are chiefly among the mountains. Gold, 
silver, quicksilver, copper, and lead arc mined. 
California is noted for its oil wells. 

Quicksilver is a curious metal that runs like water. 
We see it in the hulbs of most thermometers. Tlie mine 
of New Ahnadeu, in California, is one of the richest 

6. In Oregon 
and Washington 
lumbering and 
sal moil-fishing are 
v a 1 u a b 1 e indus- 
tries; in Alaska 
salmon and seal- 
fishing are impor- 
tant industries. 

Timber and 
canned salmon are 
shipped from these 
places to all parts 
of the world. 



A }i*h*wheei in Orcoon. To the outside nf ffnA wheel net* nrr fash tied 

which dip underneath the voter irhm thf whedit turned* In 

thi* fxiy the aaiman arc caught and landed i7i the boat. 

7. The commerce is important. Machinery 
and other supplies for miners, and articles for homo 
use are brought from the manufacturing states; 
gold and silver, wool and fish are exported. 

8. Cities. — San Francisco is the largest city 
on the Pacific coa^t It carries on much of the 
foreign commerce of this section. It imports silks 
and tea, and exports wheat, lumber, and the pre- 
cious metals. We enter the harbor by a passage 

Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is the 
chief shipping port for the wheat and lumber of 
this state, 

Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia river, has a 
large business iu canning salmon. 


The nty o/ Denver. 

Denver is the great business city of Colorado, 

and a favorite place of residence. Supplies for 

the mines, railroads, and ranches are bought here. 

Colorado Springs, near the Rex'ky Mountains, is a 
health resort. Cripple Creek is noted for gold mines. 

Seattle, the largest city of "Washington, is an 
important shipping point. Three great railroads 

that cross the continent end there. 

Taconia, the second city in size, has a splendid harbor 
and large lumber mills. 


is called the 

remarkable for its 
Golden Gate. 

Los Angeles is the second city of the state in 
size and importance. There are many oil wells 
near, and fruit canning and drying are leading 

Sacramento, the capital of California, is noted 
for its magnificent capital . 

Lumber tn ill* at Tammu. 

For Recitation. — Wh«t can you tell of tin; climate l>I 
this section? What are tlie chief products? What parts are 
noted for stock-raisine;? What are the mineral products? In 
■what parts are lumbering and Ralmoti-flshinR important? 
What arc the chief eiperts? For what is Alaska famed? 
Describe the chief cities. 




In what continent is the United States ? In which 
hemisphere f What country lies north of it ? What 
■country south f Why is our country called the United 
States ? How long is the country from east to west ? 

Groups of States. — Where is each group t Of what 
states is each composed t What is the capital of each 
state t 

(I) New England. (2) Middle Atlantic. (3) 
Southern. (4) Central. (5) Rooky Mountain 
and Pacific. 

Islands. — Near what part of the coast t 

Long Island. Nantucket. Florida Keys. 

tf you were on any one of these islands, upon what 
water would you look? 

Capes.— On what part of the coast t 

Cod. Hatteras. Henry. Lookout. Fear. 
Sable. Mendocino. Mgntauk Point. 

Mountains. — Where are they, and in what direction 
do the ranges extend 1 

Appalachian : 


' Allegheny, 
Blue Ridge, 

t Bitter Root, 
| Wind River, 


Pike's Peak, 
Fremont's Peak. 

Sierra Nevada. Cascade. Coast Range. 
Mount Whitney, Mount Hood. 

What grows upon the sides of the Appalachian moun- 
tains? What minerals are found among these mountains? 

Bays, Sounds, and Gulf.— Where is eacht Is it of 
commercial importance $ Why f 

Penobscot. Massachusetts. Narragansett. Del- 
aware. Chesapeake. Long Island Sound. Al- 
bemarle. Pamlico. Puget. Gulf of Mexico. 

Rivers. — Where does each rise t In what direction 
and into what does it flow f Through (or between) what 
states does it flowt Can you name a city upon its 
■banks % What is produced in the country through 
which it flows % 

( Missouri, Tennessee, 

Mississippi : \ Ohio, Arkansas. 


Platte. Yellowstone. Hudson. James. Savan- 
nah. Brazos. Colorado. Kansas. Columbia. 
Yukon. Merrimac. Penobscot. Connecticut. 

Cities.— Where is each t On what water t For what 
noted ? 

/ New York, New Orleans,* Portland, 
«»innDT«. ) Philadelphia.' San Francisco, Norfolk, 
seaports, j Bostott Charleston, Galveston, 

' Baltimore,* Savannah,* Wilmington. 
Lake j Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, 

Ports- \ Buffalo, Milwaukee, Duluth. 

* There are practically seaport*. 

, St. Louis, Pittsburg, Denver, 

T i Cincinnati, Louisville, Indianapolis, 

rvrr^r -< Washington, Minneapolis, Des Moines, 

^itu£s: j Atlanta? Rochester, Worcester, 

V Memphis, San Antonio, Kansas City. 


Of how many states did our country first consist ? 
Where were they ? How many states are there now ? 
Name the groups. What different kinds of people would 
you find in different parts of our country? 

What is the capital of our country ? What is the title 
of the highest officer in the United States ? Of the high- 
est officer of a state ? Of the highest officer of a city ? 

In what direction must we travel from New York to 
enter Canada ? What state would you enter if you 
traveled directly south from your home ? Name some 
of the largest cities of the United States. 

Suppose you should take a trip up the Mississippi from 
New Orleans to St. Paul, what principal crops would 
you see by the way ? 

Where do»you find the highest mountains in our coun- 
try? If you should make a journey from Boston to San 
Francisco, would you see more level land on the way or 
more mountains? Would you notice very great changes 
of climate? 

How many and what seasons arc there in the year in 
your state? In what state is the year divided into a 
rainy and a dry season? 

Where would you find the largest river in our country? 
The largest fresh-water lakes? A salt lake? Where 
would you find the highest waterfall ? Where the 
grandest ? 

In what state or states would you see sugar-cane grow- 
ing? Cotton? Rice? Oranges? Where would you see the 
largest wheat and corn fields? The largest tobacco fields? 

Where and at what time of the year would you find 
the farmers making maple sugar? What states produce 
coal ? Salt ? From what states do we get petroleum? 
For what is petroleum used ? 

What part of our country yields the most gold and 
silver? Where are the richest copper mines? In what 
states are the people most largely occupied in manufac- 
tures? In commerce ? Fishing? Stock-raising? Lum- 
bering ? 

What articles sold in a grocery store are produced in 
the United States ? Which of them might be raised by 
New England farmers? By southern? By western? 

Do you know of any natural curiosities in your own 
state ? I f so, where are they ? What is remarkable about 
them? From what states are precious metals obtained? 
Which do you think the more important, the mineral 
or the vegetable productions of our country? Why? 

In what part of the United States do the Indians 
chiefly live? If a boy should lose his boat upon the 
Allegheny river, on what waters might it float to the 
Atlantic ocean? 





1. Crossing the northern boundary of the 
United States, let us make a visit to the colder 
countries of North America. 

2. The Dominion of Canada is about as 
large as our country. It extends from the Great 
Lakes to the Arctic ocean, and from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. 

Canada is not only near us, but quite like us. 
Just as the 
United States 
is made up of 
states and ter- 
ritories, so 
Canada is made 
up of what are 
called prov- 
inces and ter- 
ritories. The 
provinces are 
Ontario, Que- 
bec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Brit- 
ish Columbia. 

The Dominion of Canada. New- 
foundland, and Ijabrador, taken to- 
gether, are sometimes called British 

3. How Governed. — Laws are 
made for all the provinces by 
the Canadian. Parliament, which is like our 
Congress. It meets at Ottawa, the capital of 

The chief officer of the Government is not a 
president elected by the people, but a governor 
sent out by the sovereign of England. 

4. Early Settlers. — Canada was first settled by 
the French. More than one hundred years ago 
England and France fought with each other for the 
possession of the country. England was victorious. 

The descendants of the old French settlers still 
speak the language of their forefathers. Many 
of them speak English also. They are noted for 
their gayety of disposition and their adherence to 
old customs.* 

5. Surface. — Along the Pacific coast Canada 
is mountainous. The Rocky mountains extend 
through it from north to south. 

Most of Canada, however, is level. South of the 
Sas-katch'-e-wan river are prairies like our own. 
These prairies and the valley of the St. Law- 
rence are the most fertile parts of 
Canada. They yield abundant 
crops of wheat, barley, and oats. 
6. Climate.— The climate of 
the seaboard provinces is like 
that of New England; the in- 
land provinces are colder ; Mani- 
toba has a climate like that of 
North Dakota ; the climate of 
Southern British Columbia re- 
sembles that of Washington, 

As we approach 

the Arctic re- 
gion, the sum- 
mers grow 
shorter and 
shorter until the 
year is nearly 
all winter. If 
we should travel 
northward from 
Lake Winnipeg, 
! we should pass 
at first through 
immense for- 
ests. Then we should notice that the trees are more 
and more stunted, until at length even the fir-tree, 
which is a lover of cold and snow, disappears. 

We should be in the midst of a treeless waste, where 
the ground is seldom free from ice and snow. 

Of course we should see no houses in this part of our 
journey. Who would like to live in such a region 1 

7. Minerals. — British Columbia, like Cali- 
fornia, produces gold. Ontario has rich mines 

* Note. — In Longfellow's poem, "Evangeline," many in- 
terest] tig allusions to the old French settlers and their cus- 
toms are found. 


What ocean is on the east of Canada ? "What 
ocean is on the west? What lakes are on the 
southern border? 

What (ji-eat bay is in the interior t By what 
strait is this hay connected with the ocean ? 

Which of the provinces of Canada borders 
on the Great hikes ! On what river is Ottawa J 
On what lake is Toronto ? 

What province east of Ontario lies along the 
St. Lawrence ? Name its two largest cities. On 
what river are they? Which is the capital ? 

What province is east of Maine ? Name the 
capital. In what direction from New Brunswick 
is Nova Scot i a ? What bay separates these 
provinces ? 77(18 hay is fa med for its h igh 
tides. What is the capital of Nova Scotia? 
Prince Edward island is in what gulf? Name 
the capital. What province is intersected by 
Lake Winnipeg? Name the capital. What two 
provinces are west of Manitoba} Name their cap- 
itals. What province is west of Alberta) What 

province is on the Pacific ocean? What large 
island is southwest of British Columbia? 77»"s 
island Mongs to British Columbia, and con- 
tains its capital. Name the capital. 

What division of Canada contains tlie famous 
Klondike gold mines i Yukon Territory. North, 
of tlie provinces is a vast extent oj territory 
which comprises the great fur hunting regions. 

What large island is east of the gulf of 
St. Lawrence ? Name the capital. Where is 
Labrador? Labratlnr and Neufoundland to- 
gether form a Briti'xli colony distinct from the 
Dominion of Canada. 



of silver, copper, and iron. 
and valuable coal mines. 

Nova Scotia has large 

8. Lumbering. — The forests of Canada are 
very large, and are full of fine trees. Lumbering 

is one of the 
most important 

Great rafts 
are floated 
down the St. 
Lawrence, as 
upon our own 
They are 
brought to Que- 
bec, where they 

A smelter in British Columbia. may be Seen 

along the river bank for a distance of several miles. 

9. Fur-bearing Animals.— Canada is one of 
the great fur- producing regions of the world. 
Foxes, wolves, sables, minks, martens, and other 
fur-bearing animals are found in abundance in 
the forests. 

Hundreds of men, chiefly Indians, are employed in 
trapping the animals. They travel miles and miles 
through the forests in dog-sledges, or sail up and down 
rivers and lakes in canoes of birch bark, to visit their 
traps and skin the animals caught. 

The skins are sold to the Hudson Bay company. This 
company has more than one hundred irading posts, called 
" forts," where the trappers bring the skins and sell them 
to th e trade rs. York Fort form erl y recei vedalltheskins 
collected at the other forts, and every year, when the ice 

Tht home, of a Canadian farmer. During the winter he cut* togs in the 

forest and hauls them la the bank* of the stream*. In the spring they 

are floated down to mills, where they are sawed into lumber. 

in Hudson bay melted, ships came from England and took 
away the skins. Now the skins are sent to Winnipeg, 
which is the headquarters of the Hudson Bay company. 

10. Cities. — Montreal is the chief commercial 
city of Canada. It exports wheat and cattle. 
Quebec is like a quaint old European town. It 

is built partly on the heights overlooking the St. 
Lawrence and partly on the river bank. It has an 
extensive commerce, and is a great timber market 

The great battle that gave Canada to England was 
fought in 1759 before the walls of Quebec. General 
Wolfe comma uded tho English troops; the Marquis 
of Montcalm the French. Both commanders lost their 
lives. A single monument has been erected to their 

Toronto has important manufactures, and is 
noted for its schools. Halifax, the capital of 

Parliament building* at Uttawa, 

Nova Scotia, and St. John, in New Brunswick, 
have fine harbors. Their chief exports are lumber, 
fish, and potatoes. 

Fo r Itec i tat i O ii • — W hat pro v j nccs d oes t he Dora its io n o/ 
Canada contain? Who first settled Canada? Wliat kind of 
climate has Canada? What are tho leading products of Can- 
ada? What are the leading cities of Canada? 


1, Newfoundland. — Five years after Colum- 
bus discovered the New World, the English sent 
John Cabot on a voyage of discover}', to try and 
find a short passage to Eastern Asia. He sailed 
westward and discovered what he called a ff new- 
f mind-land,' 1 '' a name which the island still retains. 

Newfoundland has a cold climate. 



Off the coast the densest fogs prevail. They 
are often so thick that the sailors cannot see from 
one end of their vessel to the other. Here, too, 
are seen those grand and beautiful, but chilly 
visitors, the gigantic icebergs, that float down 
from the shores of Greenland. 

The fisheries of Newfoundland are the greatest 
in the world. 

In the spring and summer codfish come here in 
immense numbers, and thousands of fishermen 

A drarc oj tealt on the coatt «/ Labrador, 
[or fw. 

These scale ore not valuable 

come to catch them. As many as 200,000 seals 
are killed every spring for their oil. 

The Newfoundland dog, so famous for saving 
people from drowning, is a native of this island. 

Labrador belongs to Newfoundland. Very few 
people live there; the climate is too severe. The 
coast is visited bv fishermen and seal- hunters. 

3. Greenland, a vast ice- 
covered island, is the largest in 
the world. In summer a strip 
of land along the coast is green 
with grass and flowers. For 
this reason an early explorer 
named it Greenland. 

The trees are not more than 
six feet high. Buttercups and 
dandelions are found. A few 
vegetables are sometimes || 

Snow falls in every month 
during the year except July. 

A #cctlc in the Arctic reniane. White bears hunting Jor seals on the 

ice. Notice how low the su« it in the sky, although U 

it in the middle oj the day. 

The few inhabitants are occupied in hunting 
seals, catching whales, and gathering eider-down. 

The whale is furnished with a coat of fat several 
inches thick, which keeps him warm as he swims through 
the icy waters. This fat, or blubber, is melted down into 
oil. From the whale's mouth we get what is called 
whalebone, though it is not really bone. It is the 
whale's trap with which he catches thousands of little 
animals on which he feeds. 

Eider-down is one of the most valuable products 
that we get from these icy regions. It is taken from 
the nest of the eider-duck. The mother bird plucks the- 
down or soft feathers from her breast, and lines her nest 
with them to keep the ducklings warm. During the 
season the down is gathered every few days, and the 
poor duck plucks a fresh supply from her breast. 

Upernavik (oo-per-na/t'vik) is nearer the 
north pole than any other town in the world. 
Find it on map, p. 33. 







A group of Qrrrnlander* and their home. The house it built of ttonet and 
earth and has a chimney in the middle to let out the smoke. 

3. Iceland is 
an island not far 
from Greenland. 
Both islands be- 
long to Denmark, 
a country in Eu- 
ro pe,andarecal!ed 
Danish America. 

Iceland is famed 
for its volcanoes 
ind geysers, or 
boiling springs. 

The Great gey- 
ser sends np a 



Stream of water 100 feet high. Mount Hec'-la 
is the most noted volcano. 

The climate of Iceland is far milder than that 

of Greenland, The people fish, raise sheep, and 

gather eider-down and Iceland moss. They export 

wool, salted fish, Iceland moss, and eiderdown. 

Reykjavik (rafc-yah^titi-), the chief town, is 

only a small ham- 

4. Eskimos. — 
In Greenland and 
all along the 
Arctic shores — in 
Alaska and in 
northern Labra- 
dor — are the curi- 
ous people called 

Eskimos building a ivinter hut Qui of 
block* of sm*ti\ 

They live in huts 
which are partly u n- 
derground and which are often built of stones and earth. 
Sometimes these huts are made of blocks of snow, with 
sheets of ice for windows. To give heat and light in 
their huts, the Eskimos burn the oil of the seal or whale. 
The Eskimos do nothing but hunt and fish, They 
travel in sledges drawn by four or eight dogs. The 
runners of the sledges are made of driftwood, or of 
the bones of the whale. In catching whales, they use 
a line with a harpoon at one end and an inflated sealskin 
at the other. Pulling this skin through the water tires 
out the wounded whale. 

Eskimo* hunting the walrus in their canoe*, or kayaks. One of therm 
is just about to throw a harpoon trith a rope fit J to it. 

For Recitation. — For what is Newfoundland famed? 
What can you tell about Greenland? What have you 
learned of Iceland? What cau you tell about the Eskimos? 



1. Mexico. — Leaving the snow huts of the 
Eskimos, let us now visit the warm countries of 
our continent. 

Homes of nottrf Mc-rtcun*. 

First of all let us glance at Mexico, our nearest 
neighbor on the south. Here it is seldom cold 
enough for ice to be formed, except high up 
among the mountains. 

2. Surface and Climate. — Along the coast 
is a strip of lowland. Most of the country, 
however, is a great plateau, about a mile high. 

The lowland is the hot region. The plateau is 
the temperate region. 

A large- Mexican " hacienda/' or fornthou*e. 

The climate of the plateau is delightful. No 
fires are needed to keep one's house warm, 
roses and violets bloom, and green peas are in 
season all the year. Most of the people of Mexico 
live here. 

3. The agricultural products of the plateau 
are very different from those of the lowland. 



On the platemi the sarae grains ami fruits grow 
as in our own country, only that in Mexico as 
fast as one crop is ripe and gathered, another is 
planted, 'three or four crops of corn are har- 
vested in the year. The cotton-plant with us 

liics as sunn as frost touches it, hut in Mexico 
there is a kind that goes on producing for years. 

In the lowlands sugar-cane, oranges, bananas, 
pineapples, coffee, and vanilla are grown. Here, 
too, are plantations of the evergreen cacao (ka- 
ht'-o) tree, the seeds of which, when roasted, 
-i"<>uihI. ami mixed with sugar, make chocolate. 

The maguey (raa-gway 1 ), or Mexican aloe, is a 
native of Mexico. The sap of this plant is col- 
lected and allowed to ferment. It is then a drink 
like culrr, ami forms the national beverage, which 
is called pulque (jwol'-kay). 





Lonelfmta "We-i from "WonbLncton 


"What river is between Mexico and the United States? 
From what one of the states does this, river separate 

What ocean bounds Mexico on the west and sooth? 
Where are the Sierra Madre mountains? Sierra is a 
Spanish imnl itirtniiiitf sun: 

Where also in North America arc mountains called 
Sierras? This reminds yon that .VcciVo. like California, 
teas settled by Spaniartls. Where is Yucatan ? 

Where is lower California? What other California is 
there? Two of Hi* volcanoes of M><uco aw Po-po-cat'-e- 
petl and Jorultn iho-rool'vo') 

What is the capital of Mexico? The city of Mexico is 
farther south than Havana. It should therefor* be 
hotter than Havana. But tt is not. The city is Utah 
up among the mountains, and for this reason is jwrer 
very hot. Where is Vera Cruz? 

What sea is northeast of Central America? What 
ocean on the south? In what zone is Central America? 
(See map, page 17.) 

Name the capital of each of these countries. 
British Honduras, Nicaragua (nik-ar-ah' ~ 

Guatemala (g>mh-te-mah'' gicah),' 

la), Costa Kica (kos - tah reef- 

Honduras (hon-doo'-ras), hth\. 
Panama ( pan -a- ma h'), Salvador {sahl-mh-dore'). 

Which is the most northern country of Central Amer- 
ica? The most southern? Where is Lake Nicaragua? 
How is it connected with the Caribbean sea? Where is 
the volcano of Coseguina (ko-say-ghee'-nah). 



The leaves of the maguey plant are six or eight feet 
long They are used for boards a nd sh i n gl es . The sharp 
thorns at the ends of the leaves are used to serve for 
nails, needles, and pins. The fiber is twisted into rope 
and string. 

The cochineal cactus was formerly cultivated 
very largely, but is not so important now because 
other dyes are used. Upon its thorny leaves 
countless numbers of the cochineal insect feed. 

Rich Spanish-Americana build thetr homes around three Aides of an open 

court fitted with flowers and called a paiio. Through tnis polio 

people enter and leave the haute. 

They are gathered, killed with hot water, and 
dried in the sun. When ground into powder, 
they make a beautiful scarlet dye. 

4. The mineiral wealth of Mexico is very great. 
Its mines of silver are the richest in the world. 
In the gulf of California pearls are found. 

5. In government Mexico is a republic, like 
our own country. It 
consists of a number of 
different states, united 
under one president. 

6. Early History. 
— When Europeans first 
came to the " New 
World," the king of 
Mexico was Mon-te-zu'- 

In 1519 a Spaniard called 
Cortes went to Mexico with 
600 Spanish troops. Monte- 
zuma treated him kindly; 
but the Mexican people felt 

ue in Mexico. 

Shipping banana* in Colta Rica. 

sure that Cortes 
wished to take their 
land. They at- 
tacked his troops, 
and when. Monte- 
zuma begged them 
not to do so, they 
stoned him. In a 
few days he died. 
Cortes captured 
Mexico, and it be- 
longed to Spain 
until 1821, Then 
it became i n d e - 

7. Cities.— 
Mexico, which 
stands on the site of the old capital, is a beauti- 
ful city. It is surrounded by majestic mountains, 
two of which are always snow -clad. The climate 
is delightful. The houses are built without chim- 
neys, and the gardens are fragrant with flowers 
all the year round. 

Vera Cruss (vay'-rah-kroos) is the principal sea- 
port. It is a very unbealthful city. 

8. Central America lies between Mexico and 
South America. It contains six republics, and the 
colony of British Honduras. 

The country is mountainous, and its climate is 
like that of Mexico. 

Many of the mountains are volcanoes. Coseguina is 

one of the most remarkable. In 1835 it threw out such 

a shower of ashes that the 
air was darkened, even at 
places fifty miles distant 
Friends could not recognize 
one another, and chickens 
went to roost. 

The most important 
products are coffee, 
cacao, sugar, vanilla, and 

The forests yield ma- 
hogany, which is much 
used in making furniture. 

We get coffee from all the 
Central American states, 



rom OnM'tiwlch 70 

V [ .':i,-.rt.j. 


Name the four largest islands of the West Indies in 
the order of their size. What is the group called to 
which these four islands belong? The other islands be- 
longing to the West Indies are the Lesser Antilles, a 
mtmber of small islands lying east of the Caribbean 
sea, between Porto Rico and South America. In what 
direction from Cuba are tbe Bahama islands? Where is 
St. Thomas? 

but that which conies from Guatemala is best known. 
From the lowlands along the coast we buy fine tropical 

9. The Isthmus of Panama connects South 
with Xorth America. This isthmus is an inde- 
pendent Republic. 

A ship canal is being cut 
through the isthmus which 
will enable ships to go from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific by 
a route thousands of miles 
shorter than the one now fol- 
lowed. The strip of land 
through which the canal will 
pass is known as the Panama 
Canal Zone, and is controlled 
by the United States, 

10. West Indies. — Let 

us take a steamship and go from Central America 
north across the Caribbean sea. We shall come 

What sea is south of the Greater Antilles? What 
ocean is northeast of the West Indies? What bay is 

What channel separates Cuba from Mexico? What 
passage separates Cuba from Haiti? Haiti from Porto 
Rico? What strait is between Cuba and Florida? 

Where is Cape San Antonio? Cape May si? 

Where is Havana? Santiago do Cuba? Matanzas? 
Port au Prince? Santo Domingo? San Juan? Ponce? 

Native homes in Porta Rico, 

part of North America. We study these last, 
but they are the part of America which Chris- 
topher Columbus visited first, and which Euro- 
peans first settled. 
For many years they belonged to Spain, but in time 
other nations gained most of 
them. England captured 
Jamaica; Haiti, after belong- 
ing for a while to France, 
finally became independent 
and is now made up of two 
negro republics. 

Spain held Cuba and Porto 
Rico until 1898. At that 
lime a revolution was going 
on in Cuba, and our country 
went troops and vessels to aid 
the Cubans, By this means 
the independence of the island 
was assured under our protection. We also forced Spain to 
giveupPortoRico, which is now apartof theXJnited States. 

to the West Indies, a number of islands that are I 11. In the interior of the large islands are 



mountains and fertile valleys, but near the coast 
we And plains. 

The climate and products are much like those 
of Mexico. Sugar, cotfee, tobacco, and fruit are 
sent to the United States. 

12. Cuba, — Cuba, the richest of these islands, 
contains about as many acres of land as New 
York state. It is about twice as long as New 
York from east to west, but is so narrow that no 
portion of it is more than fifty 
miles from the sea. 

The population is about half 
as great as that of New York 
city, and about one-third of the 
people are negroes. 

Cuba contains many sugar planta- 
tions, and has long been the chief 
country of the world in the pro- 
duction of cane sugar. Much hue 
tohacco is grown, and Cuban cigars 
are everywhere famous. Mahog- 

Obtsjw sirvct. the prm- 

cijxd shopping street 

in Ilavtina, 

A street in Kingston. Jamaica. 

Native homes in a Cuban village, 

any and fruits, also, are exported, 
and (lour and cloth are im ported, 

Havana, a large city on a fine 
harbor, is the center of a system of 
railroads. Miltuuzila is an impor- 
tant seaport. At Santiago <le 
Culm tlii 1 United States captured 
the Spanish fleet and army. 

13. Porto Bico. — Among the 
Porto Ricans are many people of 
wealth, but the working class 
are very poor. There are alxrat 
two hundred miles of railroad in 
the island. San Juan is on a land-locked, har- 
bor. Ponce {jiohn'tha) is the second city in im- 
portance, and Mayaguez {mi-ah-gwath') is the 
third. The chief exports of the island are coffee, 
sugar, and cocoanuts. 

14. Jamaica. — The white people of Jamaica 
are English, but there are many negroes. King- 
ston is the chief town. 


Countries. — In what part of the continent is each? 
Name the capital. —Dominion op Canada. New- 
foundland, United States. Mexico. Central 
America (each state). 

Islands.— Near what part of the coast t To what 
country does each belong?— Greenland, Iceland. 
Newfoundland. Cuba. Haiti. Vancouver. Queen 

Capes. — On what part of the coast f — Farewell, 
Race. San Lucas. Sable. Point Barrow. 

Mountains.— Where are they, and in what direction 
do they extend? — Rocky. Sierra Madre. 

Bays, Gulfs, and Sea. — Where is eachf Is it of 

commercial importance? — Baffin Bay. Hudson- 
Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of California. Caribbean 

Straits.— /iSneft connects what watersf Separates 
what lands! — Davis. Hudson. Bering. 

Rivers. — Where doe* each rise? Into what does it 
flowJ— St. Lawrence. Mackenzie. Yukon. Co- 
lumbia. Saskatchewan. Nelson. Rio Grande, 

Lakes. — Where is eachf Wliat outlet has itt — 
Great Bear. Great Slave. Winnipeg. Superior. 
Michigan. Huron. Erie. Ontario. 

Cities and Towns.— In wftat country? On or near 
what water i— Quebec. Montreal. Sitka. New York. 
San Francisco. Panama, Vera Cruz. Havana. 



1. South America. — Leaving North America, 
we come now to South America. The coast line 
of this continent is broken only here and there 
by bays or gulfs, and there are only a few good 

South America is crossed by the equator, and 
all the northern part of it is in the hot or Torrid 

Tftc Antics Ml ±.cuadvr* 'I tut anow-capptd mountain it Chimboraxo. 

zone. Here, except high up among the moun- 
tains, it is always summer. The flowers are never 
killed by frost. 

As we go south from the equator, the climate 
grows cooler, just as it does if we go north. South 
does not always mean hot. 

The southern end of South America reaches 
down nearly to the re- 
gion about the South 
pole, which is always as 
cold and icy as that about 
the North pole. 

2. Surface. — The sur- 
face of South America 
is very much like that 
of North America. The 
western part is moun- 
tainous; the eastern is 
mostly level, and consists 
chiefly of river valleys. 

3. The Andes extend along the Pacific shores 
of South America from one end of the continent 

A railroad bridge amoiiy the Andet. 


These Ifnnaj which yott see here ftinw tteen brought ia the railroad at Lei Paz 
Iti carry pack* ttj good* to some fitttce Jar au-ay into the country. 

to the other, just as the Rocky mountains extend 
through North America. 

The Andes are the longest mountain range in 
the world. They are 4,500 miles in length. They 
are grander and loftier than the Rocky mountains. 
Many of their peaks are more than four miles 
high, and are always white with snow. 

The passes or roads over the Andes are steep and 
dangerous. Travelers usually are carried across on the 
backs of mules or sitting on chairs which are strapped 
to the backs of Indians. The llama and mule generally 
are used for carrying goods. 

Among the mountains are ravines or gorges hundreds 
of feet deep. Some of these are crossed by suspension 

bridges made of rope. 

Railways have been 
built across the Andes. 

4. Volcanoes. — More 
than fifty peaks among 
the Andes are volcanoes. 

If you stand in the 
public square of the city 
of Quito (k&f-to), you 
can see eleven snow- 
capped volcanoes all at 
once. One of these, 
C'himborazo (ckim-bo- 

BotFTH America: bivers, rainless kkoiok. 


rah'-so), is so lofty that it can be seen by moon- 
light at a distance of ninety miles. 

Cotopaxf (ko-l&paaf-e), a near neighbor of 
Chimborazo, is the grandest of all 
the volcanoes. Its terrific eruptions 
sound like the discharge of the 
largest cannons, and can be heard 
at a distance of 100 miles. 

6. Earthquakes occur very 
freqaently in the countries which 
are crossed by the Andes. 

During an earthquake the ground 
trembles or shakes, the houses rock to 
and fro, and often fall. The sea some- 
times rushes in on tiic land, and the 
people have to run for their lives to the hilltops. Cities 
and towns are often nearly destroyed, and many lives 
are lost 

6. Elvers. — The great rivers of South America 
are the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the La Plata. 

These rivers and their tributaries aro all on the 
east side of the Andes, and flow into the Atlantic. 

The Amazon, reminds us of our own Mississippi; 
only, instead of flowing from north to south, it 
flows from west to east. 

It carries more water to the sea than any other 
river. In some places it is so wide that a vessel 
sailing on it may be out of sight of land. Steain- 

The upper part >■<[ the Amazon river in flood lime. The current u twift 
and corrie* along trunk* and branches of tree*. 

View on the Orinoco river, showing two fort* and steamboat. 

boats ascend it for 2,200 miles, almost across the 

The Orinoco overflows its banks every summer. 
Its waters teem with alligators, and are the home 
of the curious fish called the electric eel. The 
shock given by one of these electric eels is so 

severe that horses, when fording the pools, are 

sometimes knocked down by it. 

On the Kio de la Plata (lah j>lah'4ah) and 

its tributaries, 
steamboats sail 
more than 1,200 
miles into the 
heart of the 

7. Rainless 
Region.— If 
we look at the 
map of South 
America, we 
notice that hardly a single river can be seen along 
the west coast. Why should there be plenty of 
water and great rivers on the east side of t he Andes, 
but little or none on the west side f Let us see. 

In that part of South America which is in the Torrid 
zone the winds come mostly from the Atlantic ocean. 
Th oy ca rr y I he c 1 ou ds west ward o v er th e 1 a n <] . Tliecold 
air above the mountain- tops cools the clouds an(i turns 
them into ruin and snow. But this is done almost wholly 
on the eastern side of the Andes. 

When t lie winds reach, the western side of the moun- 
tains they have lost their moisture; the clouds have be- 
come rain. Thus it is that on the eastern side of the 
Andes we find plenty of rain and large rivers; on the 
west side only a few small rivers, and in some parts not 
a drop of rain all the year round. 

For Recitation. — In what zone is most of South America? 
What connects North and South America? What have yon 
learned of the surface, of South America? Name the great 
mountain range of South America, How do pouple cross the 
Andes? Whnt nre the prejit, rivers of South America? 

The loll* on the Parana river on (fit border ol Argentina. 


south amekica: plains, forests, 

white is shaped like & 
1 1 o v e, ai 10 ther ] ike a s wan . 

3. The Llanos, or 

plains of the Orinoco, 

are dotted with clumps 

of trees. When the 

river overflows them 

they look like a vast 

scsi. After the flood 

subsides, a luxuriant crop of grass and 

flowers springs tip, and vast herds of 

cuttle lind rich pasturage. 

In the dry season these plains are 
parched, and the cattle wander for pas- 
ture to the hills. 

4. The Pampas are the plains of the 
La Plata. They are covered with tall 
grass in the wet season, and in the dry 

season are parched likeadesert. Count- 
less herds of wild cat tie feed upon these 
plains. Vast numbers of these cattle are 

bark oi thr'trtt and a mau'ctty ' it'fi^U*Motr'! % into slaughtered yearly. The meat and hides 
tion is so dense, even vtieh the tap ttowi,, <Mp» for three or few haur>. 

The upfw picture shows the n-uy in which the tap is are CXPOrtCd. 
down to the water S edge, IWSWM* A fire it buitt upon the around and Iht » 

n funnel- shaped chimney jtlaccd over it, throitffh which „, _ « — . 

that one may travel a lht m™** rit ™ The wootUn paddte it then dipped 5. Forests. — I He torests oi boutn 

■'-' the vessel of sap and held in the smoke. Thit 


1. Plains. — The valleys or plains of the 
great rivers are called by different names: 
Selvas, Llanos {lynh'-nuo) and Pampas. 

2. The Selvas arc tbe 

fori; at plains of the Ama- 
zon. Selva is a Spanish 
word that means wood or 
forest. These plains are 
covered with trees and 
shrubs and climbing 
vines, all growing so 
thickly together that 
monkeys can travel hun- 
dreds of miles on the tree 
tops without once coming 
down to the ground. 

The only way of get- 
ting through the Selvas 
is to go by the water in 
canoes; and the vegeta- 

whole dav without find- ±'"<?" "" "'*''',« "">','" ".""'" '""Z ol b r<> u ~", r > ,t '<* r - America contain some of the most won- 

"™'° **"J numwuj mill Thrdippina and tmokinn it repeated again and again. 

ingroom to land. The Z%Mu af """" " ' l0Tm "" "* "' derful and useful trees and plants in 

trees and shrubs " form a dense wall of verdure 
along the banks of the river." 

the world. 

The palm trees supply the Indian with almost 
everything that he needs. 

The Selvas of the Amazon, Notice the thick arcni'th of treet and shrubt. 
the vines and air-piantt hanaina from the branches. 

A larg-e number of the plants of South America seem 
to live on nothing but air. Hence, lliey are sometimes 
called air -plant h. They cling, like moss, to the trunks 
and branches of trees. Many of them have (lowers of 
curious shapes and exquisite colore. One that is pure 

A ffriicc of pntm trees. 



A coffee plantation in Brazil. The rifte reel ttrrrie* are i'ick*d tmd }iut 
into bags. They are then carted to the pulping mill, which crushes the 
berry and removes the beans. 

The Abel's of the leaves, some of winch ire forty or 
fifty feet loop, he twiste into ropes or makes into hum- 
mocks anil fishing-nets. With the leave* themselves lie 
makes a roof and a door for his hut; from the bark lie 
makes his canoe. The wax palm supplies him with 

India rubber, which has so many uses, comes 
chiefly from the Selvas of Brazil. It is the 
sap of the India rubber tree. 

Mim'-i-oe, or cassava, supplies 
the natives with a coarse kind of 

The root is dried and ground into 
meal. When needed for use it is mixed 
■with water and baked. 

Tapioca is made from manioc Hour 
by separating the starch from it. Part 
of the starch is turned into sugar and 
forms in little lumps, or masses, which 
we call tapioca. 

raised according as the farms are among the 
mountains or in the lowlands. 

Among the mountains and in the southern 

part of the continent, 
wheat and other prod- 
ucts of the Temperate 
zone arc cultivated. 

In the lowlands sugar- 
cane, corn, cotton, cacao 
and coffee trees, manioc, 
pineapples, and bananas 
grow in profusion. 

The banana supplies 
thousands of the people with 
their daily bread. When 
green, it is used as a veg- 
etable ; when ripe, it is 
eaten as fruit, or dried 
and grated 

Thr pod*, or gourd*, of the r/tetto 
or chtKotate tree. Koch JHtd roiiinins 
about two dozen dark-colored need*. 
These needs are dried in the sun 
much in the tame wtiy as coffee. 

into flour. 

(?,i(iti(ai/), or Paraguay tea (pah- 
rak-gway'), is widely used by the 
people of South America. It is 
the leaf of a tree which is some- 
thing like our holly. 

The coffee which we use comes 
chiefly from Brazil. That coun- 

_ trv produces more than one-half 
Quinine, so much used for the eim-B , ij ., , . .. ., 

of fever, is made from the hark of - . A .talk and root o, the manioc r>iant. The„of all that is raised in the world 


thick root* are dried and made into flour, which 
tree called i orn >* the chief food of many oj the jteople in 
warm countries. 

Coffee is the seed of a beautiful shrub 

A branch ol the coffee tree, showing 
the way the leave* and berries are 
arranged on the stalk. 

c i tich on a 

(sin-ko'-nah), which grows 
on the slopes of Die Andes. 
The Indians taught Euro- 
peans the use of the bark. 
When sick with fever they 
used to drink water from 
pools in which the boughs 
or dead trunks of cinchona 
trees had been lying. 

6. The cultivated 
products are such as be- 
long to tho Torrid and 
Temperate zones. As in 
Mexico, so here we find 
that different crops are 

with dark, glossy leaves, white fiowers, 
and scarlet fruit. The fruit, when ripe, is crushed to 
separate the seeds from the soft parts. The seeds are 

Lrryintf dtfiff 1,1 Hrazd. After the beans are itHinheii out of the pulp, 
they are expiated to the sun for altout a week by being spread out upon 
ground. They must not be exposed to the rain or dew. 


ire eru 




dried and put into bags, and are then ready to be sent 
to various parts of the world. 

For Recitation.— What are the Selvas ? What are the 
Llanos and Pampas ? Name some of t lie most useful products 
that come from Ike forests of South America. Name the chief 
cultivated products of South America. 


Of what countries are the following cities 
the Capitals t 

Rio tie Janeiro (ree'-odezha-na'-ro), Lima {lee'-mah), 

Sucre (soo-kray'), 
Santiago (san-te-ah'~go), 
Buenos Aires (Jo'-iitwo'-rw), 
Asuncion {a-soon-se-on'), 

Cayenne (kay-en'), 
Caracas (kah-rah'-Jcas), 
Quito (kee'-to). 

What hounds South America on the east? On the west? 
On the north ? What heavy line crosses the map of 
South America ? What kind of climate lias the north- 
ern part of the continent f In what zone is the southern 
part ? What kind of climate has the southern part ? 

How are North and South America connected? What 
chain of mountains along the west coast of South Amer- 
ica? In what direction aud how far do they extend? On 
which side of th« Andes are all the long rivers? 

What countries are crossed by the Andes? What 
countries border on the Caribbean sea? On the Atlan- 
tic ocean ? On the Pacific? 

What country borders on the Pacific ocean and 
the Caribbean sea ? What river flows in a northerly 
direction through 
Colombia? Where is 
Venezuela {ven-e- 
zwee'-lah) ? What 
river crosses it ? 
What lake in the 
northern part ? What 
island nearthemouth 
oftheOrtnoco? What 
country east of Ven- 
ezuela ? 

What country 
south of Colombia ? 
What are the coun- 

What part of Brazil is crossed by the equator ? In 
what zone is most of Brazil ? 

What is the great river of Brazil ? Name its largest 
tributary. What capes on the coast ? Where is the 
diamond district ? 

Whore is Cuzeo (koos'ko) 1 What great river rises in 
Peru ? What lake between Bolivia and Peru ? 

■*. A -JjgX' 3jfljp 

Travdino on the pampa* in Argentina. 

(idling ox team* ready lor work on a plantuluM. 

What country southeast of Peru ? Where is Potosi I 
Sucre ? What country lies wholly west of the Andes ? 
Name its chief seaport. In what zone is the greater 
part of Chile ? What islands west of Chile ? 

What country east of Chile ? What countries border 
Argentina (or 1 '-gen-tee' '-na) ? Locate Jit. Aconcagua. 

What is the southern portion of Argentina called ? 
What cape is the southernmost point ? 

Where is Tierra del Fuego (te-er'-rah del fway'-go)! 
What form of laud is it f What strait separates it from 
Patagonia ? The strait tea* 'named after Magellan, 
whose ship was tlt# first that sailed round the world. 

Of what river is 
the Paraguay a tribu- 
tary? Into what does 
the Parana flow! 
Where is Uruguay 

What three rivera 
separate Paraguay 
from Argentina? 
Which are the two 
smallest countries of 
South America ? In 
what direction would 
you sail from Val- 

tries that border on Ecuador (ek-wah-dor')'} Ecuador is 
a Spanish word for equator, and the country is so 
named because the equator crosses it. What city on 
the equator ? What volcanoes do you find in Ecuador ? 
Which is the largest country of South America? 
What are the only countries of South America that do 
not touch Brazil f 

paraiso to Panama ? From Rio de Janeiro to the moutl" 
of the Amazon ? On what waters would yon sail in 
going from Rio de Janeiro to Valparaiso ? 

How might you go all the way by water from Mara- 
eaibo to Guayaquil ? By what shorter way could you 
go? Use the scale and tell about bow many miles 
would be saved. 

*$'C.p. Ho " 1 . 
* 1" IfflWilml" 17 EmI from J7 lV«tiltnrton I" 




1. Minerals.— The mines of South America 
are among the richest in the world. 

Diamonds and various other precious stones are 
found in Brazil. Many of the purest emeralds in 
the world come from Colombia. Great quantities 
of nitrate of soda are obtained in Chile. 

Coal mine* at Lata. Chile. 

Uiamond mining in limit. Tht diamonds are found in the gravel 
at the bottom of stfeanw. 

Silver is so abundant among the Andes that 
in early times the Indians often had dishes 
made of it. The silver mines of Peru and Bolivia 
have been worked for hundreds of years and 
are still productive. 

The copper mines of Chile are very rich. 

2. Animals. — The forests swarm with animals. 


Outline. — Look at the map on page 17 and tell in which 
heat belts South America lies. What line crosses the northern 
part? Trace the long neck of land which joins South Ameri- 
ca to North America. What is its name? Does it run north 
and south or east and west? 

With your finger trace the western coast of South America. 
Do you find many arms of the ocean forming gulfs and bays? 
A coast that has few inlets from the ocean wo call a regular 
coast. Now trace in the same way the northeastern and south- 
western coasts. A part of these coasts has many inlets, hence 
we call it an irregular coast line. Is the western coast line of 
South America like the western coast line of North America? 
Are the eastern coast lines of these continents a] ike or different? 

Mountains and Plains.— Put your finger on the east- 
ern extremity of South America and move it directly west. 
First you pass over several ranges of mountains. What is 
their name? Which way do they run? Neit you come to a 
dark green portion of the map. This is a part of the Great 
Central plain. Which way do the rivers run at this point? 
Into what do they flow? Next you come to a high range of 
mountains and then to a second and a third range. Westward 
of these mountains you find a. narrow strip of land along 
the coast. This is colored a light green. This color means 
that the land is higher than the dark green plain east of the 
mountains. From the point where you cross the mountains 
trace southward to the end of the continent and northward to 
the Caribbean sea. What name is given to this long range of 
mountains? In what part of it do you find two ranges? 
Three? What countries occupy these sections? Find the 
Orinoco river. Trace southward to the Amazon. What name 
is given to the mountains between these two rivers? 

Hi vers. — Place your finger on the mouth of the Amazon. 
Trace this river westward until you come io the Andes moun- 
tains. Then southward between the two ranges until you 
find its source. In which direction does the Amazon flow? 
How can you tell this? In the same way trace the Orinoco 
river to its source. In what mountains does it rise? Notice 
that it is connected by a small stream with the Rio Negro. 
When the water is high, boats can go from the Orinoco to the 
Amazon. Kow find the mouth of the La Plata river. This 
is a short, wide river formed by two other rivers. What are 
their names? The longer one is the Paraguay, Trace it 
northward. In what country does it rise? Notice that its 
source is only a few miles distant from the source of another 
river flowing into the Amazon. 

Trace two rivers that flow into the Paraguay from the west. 
In what mountains do they have their sources? Find a large 
river flowing into the Paraguay from the east. Trace it north- 
ward until you find its source. Among what mountains is it? 
Near this place you find the sources of other rivere which 
flow northward. One of them is called the San Francisco 
river. Into what water does it flow? Others flow into the 
Atlantic ocean near the mouth of the Amazon, What are 
their names? The gray colored part where these rivers rise is 
called a watershed. A watershed is like the ridge of a roof. It 
is the highest part and makes the water flow in different di- 
rections. Can you find a watershed between the Amazon and 
the Orinoco rivers? Find other watersheds among the moun- 
tainsof Brazil and in the Andes. Every mountain range is really 
a watershed, since it makes the water flow in different directions. 
Sometimes two streams that flow through different valleys join 
and make one Jnrge stream. Find such cases on the map. 

These studie.. can be carried further, if desired, in the same 
manner as those on North America, p. 84. 

Vtt this map at ttiogttttd in the ttudiet on the vppwii* pas*- 


60UTH amekica: animals, occupations, HOMES AND l'EOPIS. 

The tapir, which resembles a monstrous pig, is 
the largest. The puma, the jag'twir, and the 
tiger-cat are the most ferocious. Like the lion, 
they belong to the cut family. 

Armadillos, wild dogs, deer, sloths, 
ant-eaters, and opossums abound. The 
tree tops are alive with gayiy -feathered 
birds, and noisy with screaming parrots 
and chattering monkeys. 

Through the dense si 1 ado you hear the curi- 
ous notes of the campanero ifiam-pa-nay'-ro) 
or tolling-- bell bird, 
sounding like the 
strokes of a hammer 
on an anvil. 

Sailors, on the waters 
of the Amazon, often 
surprise the alligator 
sunning himself on the 
banks, and perhaps see 
also the boa-constrictor, 
thirty or forty feet long, 
coiled around the body 
of some unfortunate 
animal and crushing it 
to death, Pwvian Qentfeman ami tame Houth American uttinutfs 

The scarlet flamingo, the heron, and spooubi 1 1 dart thei r 
beaks into the water to catch their prey. Humming birds, 
dressed in every col or of the rail lIhjw, Hit through the air. 

Ascending the Andes one may lind other strange 
animals. In the higli cold plains near the line 
of perpetual snow is the home of the llama (/«/*'- 

inah), often 
called the 

camel. The 
natives tame 
it and use it 
as a beast of 

The hair of the alpaca is used in mak- 
ing a kind of cloth also called alpaca. 
The flesh is used for food. 

The condor, a bird of prey larger than 
an eagle, lives among the peaks of the 
Andes. The rhea, or South American 
ostrich, roams in flocks over the hot 
pampas of the La Plata. 

3. Occupations, — The leading 
occupations are agriculture, cattle 
raising, and mining. 

ISrasdl, Argentina, and Chile are 

the chief agricultural regions. The 

Llanos of Venezuela and the Pampas of Argentina 

and Uruguay are the great cattle- raising districts. 


In the first picture oa the opposite page we have a city home 
in South America. Tiio people of warm countries are fond of 
living out of doors, and so the lawns are often more attractive 
than the inside of the house. The}' are made beautiful with 
vines, flowers, and shade trees. Tlie family spend the hot 
part of tlie day among these cool and pleasant surroundings, 
Kotiee that there are no chimneys on any of the houses in tlie 
pictures and that the roofs arc made of tiles baked from red 
clay. In what part of South America do you think it would he 
too warm for fires ? Point out these regions on the relief map. 

The country heme on the left-hand side of tlie page is like 
the city home in seme ways. It. is more rudely built and h:is 
no windows. IIow docs the lawn dilTer from the Erst one? 
The Indian boy nt the. top of tlio page has a heavy bundle 
strapped to his back. lie looks like a pack-peddler; indeed, 
he is one. Such peddlers are as common in South America as 
horses and wagons are in our country. Bread, milk, fruit, 
■water, poultry, meat, and every sort of merchandise are carried 
about on the backs of men, women, and donkeys to be sold. A 
traveler in South America has his trunk carried on the back 
of an radian. The mothers carry their babies on their backs 
and other things on their heads at the same time. 

In the center of the page is a view of a courtyard of a 

Spanish- American hotel at La Paz. Kotiee that rdl the build- 
ings are Ion, being only one or two stories in height. What 
reason can you give for this ? 

In South American countries a light shawl, or mantilla, is 
often used to cover the head and shoulders. The two ladies 
shown in the pin lire arc dressed in (his way. 

In the lower left-hand comer of the picture is a farmer on 
horseback. In what part of South America does he live ? 
I lis farm Is no doubt a very large one, and he has to ride over 
it to oversee his work. The blanket; that he wears about his 
shoulders is culled a poncho. The poncho is merely a square 
piece of cloth wiih a hole in the middle, through which the 
head is tli rust. It then falls loosely about the shoulders. 

Tlio cat tic man in the opposite corner reminds us of the cow- 
boy that we rend about on page 86. lie is dressed a little dif. 
ferenlly, but he has a la-so hung on his saddle. He does not 
have so much use for it as the cow-l>oy, because in Argentina 
the cat tic are kept in large fields fenced with wire. The wire 
is bought in the United States. 

Between the farmer em", the cattle man is a picture of an 
Indian woman. In what part of South America does fche live? 
How is she dressed r IIow is the tent made in which she 
lives ? The Indians of this part of South America are very 
brave and warlike and fought for many years against the 
Spanish settlers who came to live in their country. 

Home* and People ojf Stattft America. Study these mctura in conwetwn u^ith the description*: and questions an the apposite page. 


Mining is carried on in Colombia, Chile, Ecua- 
dor, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, and Venezuela. 

The commerce of South America is important. 
Coffee, rubber, hides, mate, cotton and sugar arc ex- 
ported from Brazil; sugar, silver, copper and gums 
from Peru ; and nitrate and copper from Chile. 
Venezuela, Argentina, and Uruguay export cattle 
products; Chile and Argentina, wheat and wooL 
The imports are manufactured articles, particularly 

For Recitation. — What are the ehiof mincrnl prod nets 
of South America ? Name some of the animals found in the 
lowland forests. Name some of the animals found among the 
mountains. What are the chief exports of South America ? 


1. The inhabitants 
of South America are 
native Indians and de- 
scendants of Spanish and 
Portuguese settlers. 

The Indians are usually 

ignorant and degraded. 
Yet those who live among' 
the Andes are very ingen- 
ious. They make bridges 
of rope to cross Mie deep 
gorges among the moun- 

The language of South America, like that of 
Mexico and Central America, is Spanish. In 

A'o/i'w Indiaux arid their home* in 

A feast day, or holiday, in a milage in Brazii. 

On the Pampas and Llanos we find half -wild 
j>eople, whose occupation is to take care of the 
cattle that feed on the plains. 

The people of Patagonia are very tall and 
noted for their bravery. 

A pack-mule train at a halliiw 
place in Brazil. 

Brazil, Portuguese is the 
chief language. 

2. Government. — 

The countries of South 
America are all repub- 
lics, except the three 
colonies of Guiana (gk-e- 
dh'-nak), which belong 
to England, France, and 
the Netherlands. 

Brazil is the largest 
and most powerful coun- 
try of South America. 

It was first a colon)' of Portugal, then an empire. 

In 1889 it became a republic, with a government 

like ours. 

3. Early History.— In 1500, Cabral, a Por- 
tuguese, discovered Brazil, and so, until 1822, 
Brazil belonged to Portugal 

In 1532, Pizarro, a Spaniard, went with a fleet 
to Peru. It was a splendid empire. The kings 
were called Incas. They ate and drank from 
vessels of silver and gold. The one then on the 
throne was named Atahualpa (at-a-kwhal'-paJi). 

Pizarro and his men took Atahualpa prisoner. The 
Inca promised to fill his prison with gold as high up as 
he could reach if Pizarro would let him go. Pt2arro 
took the gold, but cruelly put Atahualpa to death. 
Thus Peru became a possession of Spain- All the South 

south amekica: cities, review. 

American count ries except Brazil and Guiana once 
belonged to Spain. 

4. Cities. — Many of the houses in South 
America are built of sun-dried brick, painted with 

Caracas. — The rtfj/ is only sir mik-s Iramtht 
coast, but on a plattau about 3,0W/«< abaci it 

A pittaaa inn. 

gay colors, such 

as pink or yellow, 

and roofed with 

scarlet tiles. 

In some of th e 
cities earthquakes 
often occur, and the 
dwellings are built 
only one story high, 
so they will not be 
shaken down. With 
us every house must have one chimney, and many have 
more than one. In the northern part of South America 
few houses have any, as fires are not needed. 


Countries. — In ivhat part of the continent is it t 
Name thecapi tal.— Co LOMBI a. Venezuela. Guiana. 
Ecuador. Peru, Brazil. Bolivia. Chile. Ar- 
gentina, Paraguay. Uruguay. 

Islands. — iVear what part of the coast f — Trinidad. 
Tierra del Fuego. Falkland. 

Capes.— On what part of Vie coast t— Gallinas. 
Horn. St. Roque. Blanco. 

Mountains.— Where are they t In what direction 
do the ranges extend t— Andes. Organ. Cotopaxi. 

Gulf and Sea.— Where is itf— Gulf of Dariex. 
Gulf op Guayaquil. Caribbean Sea. 

Strait. — Connects what icatersf Separates what 
lands 1— Magellan. 

Rivers.— Wiiere does it rise 1 Into what does it 

Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, the capital of Brazil, 
is the chief commercial city. Its bay, dotted 

with many islands, is very beautiful. 

San t us and Rio are the greatest coffee markets 
in the world. * 

Most of the coffee is carried by negroes. Tjong lines 
of them may be seen trotting- through the streets, each 

with a great sack of coffee on his head. 

Parn {pa-rah') is the great India rubber port. 
Babttt (bith-e^ -ah) exports coffee and cocoa. 
Permunbaco is noted for the export of sugar 
and cotton. Maracaibo {ma~ra-ki , -ho\ has given 
its name to the colFee grown in Colombia and 
Venezuela. Buenos Aires and Montevideo are 
the great cattle ports. 
Santiago, Valparaiso {val-pah-ri'-so), and Lima 

are important com- 
mercial cities on 
the Pacific coast. 

For Recitation. 
—Who live in South 
America ? Wliat forma 
of government have ita 
count lies ? What liavo 
y»» learned of ttio 
de Janeiro ? Of other 
cities 'i 

in Santiago, Chits. 

flow ?— Amazon, Orinoco. Rio de la Plata. Ma- 

Lakes. — Where is each » — Titicaca. Maracaibo, 
Cities.— In wlmt country ? On or near what icater t 

—Para. Bahia. Maracaibo. Rosario. Sitre. 

Callao. Cordova. Valparaiso. 





1. Europe. — Columbus sailed westward and 

found the New World; let us sail eastward and 

visit the Old World. Europe shall be our first 

landing- place. It is only a little larger than the 

The Monastery 0/ St, Bernard. 

United States, and so is one of the smallest of 
the continents. 

Still it has a far larger population than any 
other continent except Asia. It is very much 
more thickly settled than the United States, and 
thousands of people come every year from its 
crowded countries to find new homes with us. 

3. Seas, Bays and Gulfs, — The first thing 
that attracts the eye of a sailor as his vessel 
approaches the land, is the coast. That of 
Europe is remarkably well provided with safe 
harbors. Look at the map. See how jagged, 
or as we say indented, the coast line is. Every- 
where we find seas, bays and gulfs. 

It is no wonder that Europe, having so many 

harbors, sends out more ships and has more 
commerce than any other part of the world. 

Ventral plateau. <Jermany.~Tht /oils til Utc lihinc, St, Guar, 


*■ v\ S, 







SoutJitrn mountains.— The Alps, SipUzerland. Sotiee Qrtai glacier. 

3. The Surface of Europe may be divided 

into two parts, the one a vast plain in the north- 
east; the other a mountainous region in the 

4. Mountains.— The Alps are the most cele- 
brated mountains of Europe. Their loftiest peaks 
are always covered with snow. Many of the high 
valleys are filled with the wonderful ice-streams 
called glaciers. There are as many as four hun- 
dred. Some of them are twenty miles long and 
three miles broad. 

Sometimes avalanches, or large masses of snow, 
break loose and slide down the mountain side with a 

A'tirthern ttxi a la 1 jila in . Nttherla nde. Notice flat country .canal, windm ill* 

terrific crash. Villages have been buried by them, and 
people crushed to death. 

There are many natural roads, or pusses, across the 
Alps. On one of them is the Monastery of St. Bernard. 
Here, amid everlasting winter, live some pious monks. 
They have taught the celebrated dogs of St. Bernard to- 
hunt for persons who have lost their way in the snow. 
These ftni"mfo are seat out during snowstorms, with 

ettkope: rivers, climate, productions. 


baskets of food and wine tied round their necks, to 
relieve travelers who are perishing in the hitter cold. 
Several tunnels have been cut through the Alps. 

5. The Rivers of Europe are not so large as 
some 6f those in North and South America. 

The Volga is the longest. It is noted for its 
fisheries. The Danube is navigable for the 
greatest distance. Thousands of vessels ply on 
its waters. The Rhine is the most famous for its 
Bcenery, its castled crags, and vine-clad banks. 

8. Climate.— The 

most northern part of 
K urope lies near the 
North pole, and, like 
Alaska and Greenland, 
is very cold. But most 
of Europe is in the 
Temperate zone, and has 
a mild climate. 

A branch of the olive tree 
with ripe fruit. 

In the most 

southerly parts 
people do not even 
build chimneys to 
their houses, be- 
cause it is rarelv 
cold enough for 
fires. The climate 
is like that of 

There is some- 
thing very curious 
that we must notice about the climate of western Eu- 
rope. There the winters are much wanner than they 
are on tiie opposite side of the ocean in North America. 
This is owing- to the westerly sea- winds, which, blowing 
over the warm waters of the Atlantic ocean, cany- 
warmth and moisture to the land. Hence, the winters 
are far milder than ours. 

London is several hundred miles farther north than 
Quebec, in Canada. At Quebec there is sleighing for 
half the year; in London a sleigh-bell is never heard. 

7. The productions of northern Europe are 

cocoon ttnd math. 
Itxii iheir naturtU tut,) 

like those of the cold countries of North America. 
On the shores of the Arctic ocean, vegetation is 
scanty and trees are stunted. 

In the middle portion of 
. . . _, the continent we 

lind a rich agri- 
cultural re- 
gion, like 
our great 
Mississippi valley. 
Wheat and rye are 
raised in immense 
quantities. Hemp is 
grown to make rope for 
Europe's fleets of ships, 
flax for the manufacture of linen, and beets for 
the making of sugar. The warm hillsides are 
covered with vines, and the best of wine is made. 
Southern Europe is one of the greatest fruit- 
growing regions in the world. Grapes, oranges, 
lemons, figs, and olives grow in rich profusion. 
Vast fields aro covered with mulberry-trees, on 
the leaves of which the silkworm is fed. 

The silkworm spins about himself a little house of 
yellow silk, called a cocoon, to sleep in while ho is a 
chrysalis. This silk house is like a little egg, about an 
inch Ion g. Wh en th e ch ry sa 1 is is ready to use h is w i n gs 
and live as a moth, he bursts through the silken walls 
of his house and flies out. But this, of course, breaks the 
silk all to pieces. 

So the silk-grower puts the cocoon into hot water, 
kills the chrysalis, and saves tiie silk. 

For Recita- 
tion. — How does 
Europe compare with 
the other continents iu 
size and population? 
What is remarkable 
about the coast of 
Europe? Des cr' be 
the surface of Europe. 
Which are the most 
celebrated mountains 
of Europe, and for 
what are they iioie'l? 

A pile of riik cocooiit. 

What are the chief rivers of Europe? 
How does the climate of Europe compare with that of North 
America? What are the chief product* of northern Europe? 
Of middle Europe? Of southern Kuropu? What can you tell 
about the silkworm? 



Of what countries are the following cities 
the Capitals t 

London, Paris, 

Berlin, St. Petersburg, 

Vienna, Rome, 

Madrid, Lisbon, 

Constantinople, Brussels, 

The Hague (haig), Copenhagen, 

Athens, Berne, 

Bukharest (see map), Belgrade. 

What ocean is north of Europe? What ocean 
is west? What sea, river, and mountains form 
the eastern boundary? What sea is on the 

What countries in Europe border on the 
Mediterranean sea? Which border on the At- 
lantic ocean? Which border on the Baltic sea? 
Which have no seacoast? 

What part of Europe is nearest to Africa? 
In what direction is Europe from Africa? 

What two countries in the northwest of 
Europe together form a peninsula? What sea 
and gulf are east of Sweden? 

Through what strait can vessels sail in going 
from the North sea into the Baltic? Rack 
means strait. 

Where is North cape? What mountains are 
in Norway? What islands are off the west 
coast? These islands are noted for their 

Which is the largest country of Europe? 
What mountains are on the northeast border 
of Russia? What mountains are on the south? 
What seas are on the south? What sea on the 
coast of Russia is a part of the Arctic ocean? 

What large river flows into the Caspian sea? 
What river flows into the Sea of Azof? What 
large river flows into the Black sea? (Pro- 
nounced nee' -per.) 

In what general direction do all these rivers 

flow? What river flows into the White sea? 
In what direction ? In what part of the country 
is St. Petersburg? Moscow? Odessa? Arch- 
angel? On what river is Nizhni Novgorod 
(nizh'-ne nov 1 -go-rod)! 

In what direction would you go from St. 
Petersburg to Berlin? On what waters would 
you sail in going from Odessa to Vienna? 
Odessa to England? 

Where is Denmark? What seas and strait 
nearly surround it? What Danish island is 
the nearest part of North America to Europe? 

Copenhagen is on two islands. 

What country is south of Denmark? What 
country bounds the German Empire on the 
east? What two countries bound it. on the 
south? What countries bound it on the west? 

On what two seas does Germany border? 
What rivers cross it? Into what seas do they 
flow? On what river is the chief seaport? 

Where are the Netherlands and Belgium? 
What country is south of England? What 
bay is west of France? What strait separates 
France from England? What sea is south of 

On what river is Paris? What important 
seaport on the Mediterranean? (Pronounced 
mar-saylz'.) Corsica, an island that belongs 
to France, in the Mediterranean, was the 
birthplace of Napoleon the Great. 

What little country is south of Germany? 
What celebrated mountains are in Switzerland? 

If you go eastward out of Switzerland, what 
country do you enter? On what sea does it 
border? What port has Austria on the sea? 
(Pronounced tre-esf.) 

What two large countries border Austria on 
the north? What mountains are in the east? 

What great river crosses the country? Into 
what sea does it flow? What capital is on the 

What three little countries border on the 
Danube? Where is Montenegro? 

What mountains separate Bulgaria from Tur- 

key? What sea is on the east of Turkey? What 
sea is on the west? 

Where is the Sea of Marmora? In what 
direction is St. Petersburg from Constantinople? 

Use the scale of miles and measure the dis- 
tance between them. What country is south 
of Turkey? 

Archipelago is the name given to the sea 
east of Greece. It is dotted with islands. 

What large island is south of the Archipel- 
oga? Where are the Ionian islands? 

What country is west of the Adriatic sea? 
What natural division of land is Italy? What 
is its shape? What two large islands belong to 

What mountains are in Italy? What river 
is in the north? Where are the volcanoes Mt. 
Vesuvius and Mt. Etna? What strait is be- 
tween Sicily and Italy? Where is Venice? 

In what direction is Berlin from Rome? 
Rome from Paris? Use scale and tell how far 
apart these cities are. 

What two countries in the southwest of 
Europe form a peninsula? What mountains 
separate Spain from France? What ocean is 
west of the peninsula? 

What sea is east? What strait unites these 
waters? What bay is north of Spain? 

What two capes are on the coast? In what 
part of the country is Madrid? 

Map Drawing. — The easiest portion of Eu- 
rope to draw is the peninsula of Spain and 
Portugal. Have the pupils draw this. Name 
the bounding waters and the rivers, and locate 
the capitals. 

On an outline map of Europe, write in the 
names of the surrounding waters, the seas, 
gulfs, bays, and straits. Next the names of 
mountains, rivers, lakes, and countries may be 
neatly printed in. Capital cities may be prop- 
erly represented. Several lessons may be pro- 
fitably given to the development of such a map. 













1. The British Isles are also called the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. They 

the King of EnyUmd. 

consist of two large 
islands, Great Britain 
and Ireland, and a 
number of smaller 

Great Britain con- 
tains England, Scot- 
land, and "Wales. It A retime* »> i^ndo*. 
is only a little larger than the state of Kansas, 
yet the king of this island rules one-fourth of 
all the land, and more than one- 
fourth of all the people, of the world. 
His subjects are found on every 
continent, and the sun is always 
shining on the British flag. 

Great Britain is noted as a manu- 
facturing country. She owns more 
sh ips, and carries on more commerce, 
than any other nation. 

Her trade with the United States is 
immense. Shebuysourgrairt, pork,and 
beef to feed her crowded millions; and 
we buy her manufactured goods. She is 
our best customer, 

England is dotted with cities and 


London is the largest and richest city in the 
world, and the first in commercial importance. 
It is the capital of the British empire, which in- 
cludes lands and people in every part of the world. 
It is on both sides of the river Thames (temz). 
More people live in London than in the whole 
state of < thin. 

Liverpool is one of the great commercial cities 
of the world. It is famed for its docks. A great 
part of our cotton, wheat, beef, and pork fhat go 

to England 
is landed 

The reasor 

for this is that 

Liverpool is 

the seaport 

thai is nearest 

to the large 

cities in the 

north of England, where there 

are hundreds of factories to 

supply with raw cotton and 

millions of people to supply 

with food. London and 

Liverpool together have more 

than two-thirds of the entire 

iradv of tin 1 <■< un try. 

Leeds is noted for wool- 
ens as well as for iron and steel goods. 

niriiiiiijiliiiiii is faiin-rl for its cnal mines and 

London trridge. This is the of the many bridge* that from the Thames < 
two part* of the city. There are alto three tuntieU under the rive 



iron manufactures ; Sheilield for cutlery; New- 
castle is in the coal regions and is noted for 
shipbuilding and for its coal trade. 
Manchester is celebrated for cotton goods. 

This city is connected with the river Mersey by a ship 
canal, so that ocean Steamers from America, laden with 
cotton, grain, and cattle, can unload at her docks. 

All the large manufacturing cities of Great 
Britain are in or near the coal mining regions. 
Much coal is needed to feed the boilers that make 
steara to ran the machinery. Many of these 
cities grew up before there were any railroads. 

Edinburgh, the old capital of 

Irish people have come 
to our country and are 
among its most useful 
and valued citizens. 

For Recitation. — Of 

what do tlit; British Isles con- 
sist? What is said of the 
manufactures and com mwc* 
of England ? What can ynu say f i^mdon ? Name several 
other important cities. What can ynu say of Scotland ? Name 
the chief cities of Scotland. What arc the chief cities of 
Ireland 3 

("Worn House, Dublin, Inland. 

A group oj Wclih ladies. 

2. Scotland is a hilly 
country, noted for the 
beautiful scenery of its 
lakes and mountains. 

Edinburgh (W'-m-Jur- 
rw/i), the ancient capital, is 
famed for its university. 
Glasgow is the largest city. 
It is built along the river 
Clyde, where there an; 
large shipyards. Engines, 
boilers, and many kinds of 
machines are made here. 

3. Wales is a very 
mountainous country. It 
has rich mines of copper, 
coal, and iron. 

4. Ireland, the green o r 
'•Emerald Isle," is the 
home of the Irish people. 
Dublin is its chief city. 
Belfast is noted for the 
making of linen. Many 


What ocean west of the Brit- 
ish Isles 3 What channel and 
strait between England and 
Franco ) What sea and chan- 
nels separate England from 
Ireland 3 What hills between 
England and Scotland t 

In what direction is Ireland 
from England ? Scotland from 
England ! Where is Wales 3 
Win -re are the Hebrides {kef- 
rid-eez) i The Orkney and 
Shetland Isles I Where are 
the Grampian Hills 3 

The bays on the coast of 
Scotland are called firths. 
Name two on the east coast. 

What is the capital of Eng- 
land t On what river is it 3 
Where is Liverpool? Bir- 
mingham? Manchester? Shef- 

Where is Edinburgh ? In 
what direction is it from Lon- 
don? Where is Glasgow? Dub- 
lin 1 Belfast » 




1. Northern Europe. — The cold countries of 
Europe are Sweden, Norway, and Russia. 

2. Sweden and Norway together occupy a 
peninsula in the northwest of Europe. They used 
to be both governed by one king, bat each now 
has its own king. 

Except in the southern part, Sweden is mostly 
mountainous and rocky. Its chief wealth is in 
its mines, forests, and fisheries. Swedish iron is 
the best in the world. Stockholm is the capital 
of Sweden ; Christiania, of Norway. 

3. Russia (mish'a) is the largest country in 
Europe. It covers more than half the continent. 

Drying fUh on the coast of Norway. 


tilcitfkiritf in a tiuasuin village* 

It extends from the cold shores of the Arctic 
ocean to the warm lands on the Black sea. It 
has, therefore, a great variety of climate. 

The southern half is like our prairie region. It 
is one of the great wheat-growing countries of the 
world. Immense crops of hemp and flax also are 
grown, and vast herds of cattle are raised. 

The leading exports are grain, hides, and tallow. 
Odessa is the chief grain port. 

A great deal of the trade of Russia is carried 

on at fairs. These are great gatherings of buyers 

and sellers of all kinds of goods. 

The largest fair in all the world is held at Nizhni 
Novgorod (nizh'ne run/ -go-rod). Here we may see 5, 000 


Highlands and Lowlands. — The surface of Europe, 
like that of North America and of South America, is composed 
of several highland regions bordering a Great Central plain. 
Find the Great Central highland region of Europe. In which 
directions does it extend? What is it called? Find the sources 
of four rivers in this region. Trace the one flowing north. 
The two flowing east. The one flowing south. Find the high- 
land region northeast of the Alps. What is its name? What 
highland region southeast? What kind of surface have the 
peninsulas in the south of Europe? Find the highland region 
separating France and Spain. In what directions docs it ex- 
tend? Trace the highland region extending from the Black to 
the Caspian sea. What is its name? Trace the dividing high- 
lands between Europe and Asia. These mountains form the 
natural boundary of the two continents. What is their name? 
Direction? Truce the highlands in the northwestern part of 

Coast.— Trace the coast line of this section. What can you 
say of it? Name five of the great inlets on this coast. How 
does it compare with the southern coast? What other conti- 
nent has a very irregular coast line? 

Now look at the Great Central plain. Find a place in it that 
seems to be the source of rivers. This high region is in the 
central part of Russia. Locate this place on the political map a 
little west of the city of Moscow. Four great rivers rise in this 
section. Trace these rivers and give their names. Find the 
body of water into which each one flows. In what parts of the 
continent do you find a great number of islands? Notice that 
these sections are mountainous. The islands seem to be the 
tops of mountains that project above the water. Notice that 
the mountainous coasts have also the greatest number of good 

Climate. — Trace the part of Europe that is in the cold 
zone. What part of It is in the Temperate zone? What kind 
of plants are found in the southern part? (See lesson LI.) 
Find the portion where the vine grows. Find the grain- 
raising section. The western coast of Europe has a mild cli- 
mate. What is the reason for this? The parts bordering on 
the Mediterranean also are very mild because the mountains 
shut off the cold winds from the north. The parts of the 
Great Central plain bordering cm the Black sea are not pro- 
tected in this way, and hence have a very cold climate in win- 
ter. Find these portions. 

These studies may be continued further at the discretion of 
the teacher. 

Vmt ■ ii map a> «ioi7jw*rf m «, ihj/fim on (Ae oppom'f* 



booths full of all sorts of things to be sold, and more than 
200,000 people buying and selling as fast us they can. 

4. Russia is an empire. The ruler is colled the 
Czar (sar). 

St. Petersburg, the capital, is his home. It is 
a city of palaces and line buildings. 

Moscow is a splendid old city, full of churches 
with gilded domes and spires, from which on holi- 
days the peals of a thousand bells ring forth. 

6. Lapland is a cold, desolate region bordering 
on the Arctic ocean. It is the home of the 
Lapps, a people like our Eskimos. 

2^. 1 ^ W| 

III! Vpi i ^■■H m 


v' : . -'.-; i iV i 


I wtr »ti .Ifaawfj', tfur o&f capital af Russia. The grou-p o/ buildings ie 

called the " Kremlin." a ward meaning fort or citadel. It contains 

the royal palaces, cathedrals, churches*, and an arsenal. 

The warm weather in Lapland lasts for only two 
months in the year. The long winters are made a little 

Ijapjig and their home*. The lent* 'in- made o/ rritufoo- hide* tlreUhed 
on pities. 

more cheerful by the aurora, which often tills the sky 
with long, waving streamers of white, green, and crim- 
son light. 

The Lapps make much use of the reindeer. This ani- 
mal supplies them with milk and cheese. It will pull a 
sleigh a hundred miles a day. Its flesh is the only meat 
of the Laplanders. Its skin is made into coats, caps, 
and boots. 

For Recitation. — What countries are in Northern Eu- 
rope? What can you say of Sweden and Norway? What are 
the chief occupations in Sweden and Norway? What can you 
say ot the size of Russia? What are the great productions of 
Russia? In what way is the commerce of Russia largely car- 
ried on? What are the chief cities of Russia? What do you 
know of Lapland? 


At the top of the opposite page five pictures of people who 
live in the northern part of Europe. Kind the country of the 
Laplanders on the relief mop. Like the Eskimo*, they belong 
to the Yellow race. Their houses are made of stones and 
earth and sometimes of skins stretched upon poles. You may 
see one of these huts in tlio picture. Their chief wealth is the 
reindeer, and nearly every Lapp has a herd of his own. The 
people lire on reindeer meat and milk, and their clothing is 
made of reindeer hides. You see that the reindeer is harnessed 
to a kind of sled. He is a very swift animal and the Lapland- 
ers make long journeys in reindeer sledges. 

The girl that you see in the second picture lives in a cottage 
in one of the high valleys of Switzerland, Notice how the 
cottages are built with a protected veranda on each floor. The 
staircase leads to one of these outside porches. The view in 
the upper right -hand corner shows some Russian peasants tak- 
ing tea outside of their house on an afternoon in summer. On 
the table is the large samovar, or urn. from which the tea is 
poured. The Russians aro great tea-drinkers and buy more 
tea in China than any other nation. 

The next picture shows a girl peddling milk in a town in 
Belgium In that country dogs are more commonly used than 
horses to draw light loads. The officer is testing the milk to 

see whether it is pure. What country has many canals and 
windmills? (.'an you tell what each is used for ? The wind- 
mills furnish power to grind grain as well as to keep the 
country drained by pumping the water out of the canals. 

In the lower part of the picture is a party of Spanish mu- 
sicians in a garden. These people are very fond of music and 
duneing, and the most of the houses are built with a little 
court, or enclosed lawn, where they can becooland comforlable 
during the hot afternoons of summer. The long and narrow 
street is in Italy in the city ot Naples. Do you think that 
there are any street cars or wagons passing through this 
street? Notice the tall houses with overhanging balconies and 
windows. Each one of these houses contains homes for very 
many families. 

The last picture shows a street in Constantinople. What 
can you tell about tho situation of this city? Most of the 
shops or bazaars of Constantinople are in the street. Fruits 
and vegetables are brought into tho city in great hnskets slung 
in pairs across the backs of donkeys. They are then peddled 
through the streets or placed on stands to be sold. On the 
left of the picture you can see a street. Row very narrow it is. 
Hardly wide enough for the people; of course there is no room 
for wagons, hut the little donkey can easily go through with 
his load. The windows of tiie living rooms of the house are 
covered with a close latticework so that no one can see 
through them from the outside. 

Nome* and People of Europe. Study these picture* in connection with the description* and question* on the opposite page* 



1. Ill Central Europe we find the German em- 
pire, the Netherlands (also called Holland), Den- 

mark, Belgium, France, 
tria, and Switzerland. 


2. The German Empire 

contains twenty-six different 
states, of which Prussia is the 
most important. They are 
united under one government, 
and are often called Germany. 

The country is rich in min- 
erals of many kinds. A curious 
product is amber, which is gathered on the shores 
of the Baltic sea. 

Grain is raised in large quantities, liye is the 
grain most grown. Many cattle, sheep, and hogs 
are raised. 

A dog team in Brttttrlm 

The valleys of the "Rhine and other rivers are 




<^ !I 

; i*-^ 

w- Wk 


Hornet in Nuremberg^ Germany. 

famed for their gmpes. The slopes of these val- 
leys are covered with vines, each fastened to a 
stake, to support its clusters of fruit. It is a 
merry time in the vineyards when the ripe grapes 
are gathered. The wines are celebrated. 

In the summer vast fields are to be seen blue with the 
flower of the flax, and tier many is one of the great 
linen-making countries of the world. The sugar-bci't 
is widely grown, aud a large quantity of sugar is made. 
From the sheep of Germany the finest wool is obtain ed. 

Many of the toys that Santa Claus brings at Christmas 
are made in this country. In some of the cities hundreds 
of the people are employed in making them. 

No people in Europe are better educated than 
the Germans. They are great lovers of music. 

Berlin, the capital, is one of the finest cities on 
the continent. Hamburg is one of the great 
commercial cities of the world. 

3. The Netherlands. 
— We come now to one of the 

strangest of all countries, the 
Netherlands or Holland. 

The name means low coun- 
tries, and low they are. In 
some places the land is twenty 
or thirty feet below the . sur- 
face of the sea. Great em- 
bankments of earth, called 

dykes, have been built to keep out the water. 

They are like our Mississippi levees. 

We see the great white sails of windmills ail over the 
country. What does it mean? Some of these mills are 
grinding wheat, hut most of them are pumping the Neth- 
erlands dry. 

In this watery land there are a great many canals. 
They cross the country in every direction and serve in- 
stead of roads. 

In winter they are, frozen over, and all the people go 
about on skates and sleds. The women often skate sev- 
eral miles to market, with baskets of eggs on their heads. 

The Dutch (as the people of the Netherlands 
are called) are great cattle-raisers, sailors, and 
fishermen. They are a most enterprising people, 
and have a large foreign commerce. 

The Hague is the capital. 

View in the city nl Itattrrdam. thou-inq ranni qn4 hrido*. 
steep rwfa and hcjti ijultUt at the Ami* e*. 

Notice tte 




4. Denmark, like the Netherlands, is oc- 
cupied in the cultivation of the soil, in cattle 
raising, and in making butter and cheese. These 
last, with grain, are largely exported. 

Many of the people are engaged in fishing. 

Copenhagen, the capital, is a handsome city. 

6. Belgium is one of the smallest countries in 
Europe, but it is the most 
thickly peopled of the 
European countries. 

The people are as busy 
as bees, and they culti- 
vate their farms as care- 
fully as gardens, and are 
very skillful manufactur- 
ers. They have some of 
the greatest iron works 
in the world. Many of 
the women are lace- 
makers. Some of the lace 
that they make is worth as much as $250 a yard. 

Brussels is the capital. It is a gay city, and 

It is interesting to be there in the merry season when 
the grapes are gathered. The ripe clusters are picked 
by men, women, and children, and carted to great vats, 

I where the juice is 
pressed out and al- 
lowed to stand until 
it ferments and be- 
comes wine. The 
wines of France are 

sold all oyer the 

world and yield a 
very large amount of 

A rhalmu, the eountr] 
denct ttrtH in /'i 

oMllllflll IN / : 
J rilHirlmrTili*. 

for this reason is sometimes called Little Paris. 

8. France is a beautiful country. The people 
are remarkably industrious and economical. Like 

A riiwytxrd tccnt in France. 

the Belgians, they are busy fanners and manu- 

Northern France produces grain and root crops. 
Immense quantities of beets are grown for making 

Middle France is a great vineyard. 

In Souther n 
Fruiiee, which borders on 
the warm Mediterranean, 
we find many of the peo- 
ple occupied in raising silk- 
worms, and making olive 
oil, or pickling olives for 

The chief manufactures 
of France are silk goods. 

which must of tiir peotxc of Paris live. 

The silk factories of Lynns are the most im- 
portant in the world. They employ one hun- 
dred thousand persons. 

France is a 'republic. Paris, the capital, is the 
most splendid city of Europe. 

It is noted for the manufacture of articles requiring 
taste and delicate workmanship. Its porcelain, jewelry, 
instruments, and kid gloves are famous. 

Marseilles has a larger commerce than any 
other port of France. 

7. Austria-Hungary is one of the empires of 

Vienna, the capital a/ A uitria. 



Europe. It contains the two states, Austria and 
Hungary, under one emperor. 

Austria-Hungary is one of the richest mineral 
regions of the continent Its salt mines are the 
largest in the world. 

The chief agricultural products are wine, 
grain, hemp, and flax. Hungary is noted for its 

The most important manufactures are linen 
goods ami colored glass. 

tions iti the Netherlands? What are the chief occupations 
iti Denmark? For what is Belgium noted? What are the 
chief occupations in France? What are the chief products 

Thun, a piefartmpM town OtntffW thr. Alps in Striterrlartd. Thr rhurch 
wlneh yntt »tr in thr ptrturc m more thtiu 7(H} year* aid. 

of Franco ? What are the chief manufactures of France? 

For what is An stria- Hungary noted? What are the chief 

occupations of the Swiss 1 


1. Southern Europe consists of Spain and 

Portugal, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Rou-ma'-nia(?w-), 
Scrvia, Bulgaria, and Mon-te-ne'-gro. 

2. Spain and Portugal were once the fore- 
most countries of Europe. They occupy a penin- 
sula. A large part of the country is mountainous. 

Vienna, the capital of the empire, and Buda- 
pest, the capital of Hungary, are the largest cities. 

8. Switzerland. — This little republic is nestled 
among the Alps. It is famous for its grand mottn- 
tain peaks and beautiful lakes. So many people J Spain is a kingdom, and Portugal is now a re- 
go there every year to enjoy the scenery that it is ' public, 
called the playground 
of Europe. 

Most of the Swiss are 
occupied in the care of 

sheep and cattle. They 
are also celebrated fur the 
manufacture of watches 
and cotton goods. 
Berne is the capital. 

For Recitation.— What 
countries aremCentml Europe? 

Name the chief products of 
Germany. For what are the 
Germans noted? What is re- 
markable about a large part of 
the surface of the Netherlands? . 

vr , , Home of ft Spanish nnbirmnn. Aoticr thr ftmrera in thr i/jtrn rourt. nr 

Wllat are the chief occupa- and the palate around it. Compare witii the patio on page 78. 

From the top of the loftiest 
mountains tue view is beau- 
tiful. We see the blue 
Mediterranean like a quiet 
lake, doUed with steamers 
and white-sailed vessels. 
Snowy mountain peaks are 
all around us, and far away 
over the water is the dim 
outline of the shores of 

Spain possesses the 
richest quicksilver mine 
in the world. Among 
the highlands are raised 
large flocks of merino 
slice p, so famed for their 



wool. In the valleys line crops 
of wheat ami corn grow. 

Tbe southern portion of the 
peninsula is a land of fruits. 
Grapes and figs, lemons and 
oranges grow in profusion. The 
wines are among the most cele- 
brated in the world. 

From Spain we get sherry ; 
from Portugal, port wine ; and 
from both, raisins and other 
fruits, and cork. 

Cork is the bark of the tree called 
the cork-oak. Largo forests of this 
oak grow in Sjtuiii and Portugal. 

Madrid is the capital and 
largest city of Spain ; Lisbon, 
of Portugal. 

3. Italy is a peninsula, and, 
as we see on the map, has the shape of a hoot. 
The Apennine mountains stretch through it from 
top to toe. 

Sicily and Sardinia belong to Italy. 

No country in the work] is more famed than Italy for 
its beautiful scenery, its sunny skies, and its delightful 

The agricultural products are like those of 
Spain. Immense plantations of mulberry -trees 
are grown, and more silk is produced here than 
in any other country of Europe. Here, too, are 
the largest rice fields on the continent. 

Palacr/t where people litv und ranfjfo ti'ht rh 
for tlrtett in Venice, The boat 
ichich we tee is a QoiidfAu. 

Among the mineral products 
we must remember sulphur. 
The chief supply of the world 
comes from Italy. It is used in 
making gunpowder. 

4. Rome is the capital. In 

ancient times this city ruled the 
world. In Rome is St. Peter's, 
the largest church ever built. 

Naples is built round the 
shores of a beautiful bay. 

In sifrlit of Naples is the volcano, 
Vesuvius. An eruption about lt*O0 

years ago buried three cities in ashes 
and lava. 

Venice is a curious city built 
on numerous islands several miles 
from the mainland. It has canals 
instead of streets, and boats in- 
stead of carriages. Beautiful glassware, jewelry 
and lace are made in this city. 

5. Greece was the most cultivated nation of 
ancient times. Athens is the capital. 

The Greeks wrote the best poetry, painted the finest 
pictures, and erected the handsomest buildings. Many 

iX^l,, M H 



'1 he cathedral at Seville* 

Gathering onmQtt near Valencia in Spain. 

remains of these still exist: but the glory of Greece has 
passed away. Still the country is far better off than it 
was some time atro. There are now good roads; you 
can travel by rail, and scud a telegram if you wish, 
and everybody can get a public school education. 

The only export that deserves to be mentioned 
is currants, which are a kind of little grape. 



6. Turkey is an empire consisting of many 
different parts. It is like a body, the head of 
which is in Europe, the other parts elsewhere. 

Turkey is, perhaps, the worst governed country 
in the world, but the people now have some share 
in the government. The Emperor is called the 

A spier shop in the street* of Canskuittntrpu.. 

Sultan. The land is fertile, but the farming is 
wretched. In fact, scarcely anything is well done 
in all the country. 

Two good things, however, are made: carpets 
and at '-tar of roses — a perfume made from rose 
ieaves. Near the cities where this perfume is 
made, whole fields are planted with rose trees. 

The Turks are Mohammedans. They worship God, 
hut they do not consider the Bihlo as his word. Instead 
of it tliey nave the Koran, a. hook written by Moham- 
med, whom they call "The Prophet" Their churches 
are call wl mosques (mosks), Friday is their Sunday. 

Con-stait-ti-no'-ple, the capital, is one of the 
most beautiful cities in the world. 

7, The Kingdoms of Bulgaria, Servia, 
Roumania, and Montenegro were formerly 
parts of the Empire of Turkey. Bulgaria was 
the_ last of these states to become entirely inde- 
pendent of Turkish rule. 

These four countries and Turkey occupy a region 
called the Balkan peninsula. Roumania and Bul- 
garia are in the fertile valley of the Danube river; Ser- 
via and Bulgaria are more mountainous. Servia has 
no seacoast. 

The chief products are prrain, hogs, and cattle. 


Countries. — In what part of the continent is it t 
Name the capital. — Sweden. Norway. Great 
Britain. Netherlands. Germany. Denmark. 
Russia. France, Belgium, Switzerland. Austria- 
Hungary. Turkey. Servia. Roumania. Greece. 
Italy. Spain. Portugal. 

Islands.— Near what port of the coast t To what 
country does it belong 1 — Ireland. Hebrides. Ork- 
KEY8. Shetland Isles, Sicily. Sardinia. Corsica. 

Capes. — On v-hnt part of the coast It— North. M a- 
tapan. St. Vincent. Finisteree (-fair), 

>Iim in tains. — Where are they, and in what direction 
do the ranges extendi — Alps. Caucasus Ural. 
Apennines. Pyrenees. Balkan. Carpathian. 


Ruin* of cinnnit I ■ ■■ m .-.■.. i-: in Athens. The hill in tht backaround was tlur. 

Aeropotis. or eitadrl. of the town. On its summit v?os the Parthenon, or 

Temple of Minerva, the most beautiful building in the world. 

For Recitation. — Of what does Southern Europe con- 
sist r What are the chief exports of Spain and Portugal ? For 
what is Italy noted? What can you say of Greece? Xame 
two of the leading 1 manufactures of Turkey. What are the 
chief products of Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria? 

Bay, Gulf, ami Si -as. — Wlwre is it *— Bay of Bis- 
cay. Gulf of Bothnia. Mediterranean Sea. 
Bla< 'K Sea. Baltic. Adriatic. North Sea. White. 

Straits. — Connects what waters t Separates ivhat 
lands 1— Gibraltar. Dover. Messina. 

Rivers, — Where does it rise t Into what does it 
ftotct—VoutA. Danube, Dnieper. Don. Dwina. 
Vistula. Odek. Elbe. Rhine. Rhone. Po. Seine. 
Taous. Loire (hear). 

Lakes. — Wit ere is it 1- 
I'Ian Sea. 

La-do'-oa. O-ne'-ga. Cas- 

Cities. — In tchat country I On or near ivliat uxtfer t 
—Liverpool, Edinburgh. Lyons. Hamburg*. Dres- 
den. Moscow. Odessa. Dublin. Naplks. Venice. 
Marseilles. Trieste. Nizhni Novgorod. 

Jl (J I A 




1 . Asia. — Having finished our visit to En rope, 
let us pass into Asia. It is sometimes called 
the Land of the Morning. 
This is because the sun 
rises on Asia earlier than 
on Europe, and so the 
morning light seems to 
come from Asia to Eu- 

From this we can see that 
Asia lies east of Europe. 
It is the eastern part of Eu- 
rasia, as the great body of 
land that is divided yito 
Europe and Asia is called. A ffiM * ***»■ amon ° 

It is, of course, still further to the eastward of our own 
country. Parts of it are quite half-way round the world 
from us. Can you tell how many miles that is f 

3, Size and Population,— Asia is more than 
four times the size of Europe. It is the largest 
of all the continents. 

It contains more than half of all the people 
living on the earth. These people are of several 
different races. It will be interesting to notice 
how curiously many of them live. 

3. The Coast Line of Asia, like that of Eu- 
rope, is rough and jagged. Peninsulas jut out 
from it, and arms of the sea reach into it, so 
that Asia has plenty of sheltering harbors. 

4. Surface — -If wo could be carried over the 

continent in a balloon, we should see that the 
central part is full of great mountain ranges 
and high plateaus. Here are the loftiest moun- 
tains in the world. 

If our balloon rose as 
high as the top of Mount 
Everest, the highest peak 
of the Himalayas {hinv- 
ak' -Ictr-yas), we should be 
more than five miles 
above the sea. 

5. Rivers.— "We have 
seen that the Rocky 
mountains and the Andes 
are the birthplace of 
the iHmaiaua smmiMm. those magnificent rivers, 

the Missouri and the Amazon. In Asia, as in 
North and South America, the deep snows and 
heavy rains that fall upon the mountains feed 
many grand rivers. Find some of them on the 
map, and tell in what mountains they rise. 



1. 1 


^— _*: . J 

Oh the cii*fc 

terminm at the Siberian railroad. 

The tropical vfaetattort vf nouthrm Ana. A country i 
Jtengal, near Calcutta. 

6. Climate and Productions.— Asia reaches 
nearly from the equator to the north pole. It 
lies in three zones, and has every kind of climate. 

On the Arctic shores we find ourselves among 
frozen swamps and snow fields. The people who 
live here are like the Eskimos of North America. 
They dress in furs. In this region, as in Green- 
land, scarcely a tree is seen, and hardly anything 
grows but mosses and lichens. 

In Southern Asia we must use every care to 


Longitude 117 


Of what countries are the following 
cities the Capitals t 
Pekin, Calcutta, 

Tokyo, Bangkok, 

Teheran, Hanoi, 

Khelat, Kabul (ka-bool'). 

What ocean is north of Asia? What ocean 
is east? What ocean is south? 

What two mountain ranges are between Asia 
and Europe? What two seas? What river? 

What isthmus is between Asia and Africa? 
What sea separates Asia and Africa? Where 
is the distance shortest between Asia and North 

What two oceans does Bering strait connect? 
Name the most northerly cape of Asia. The 
most easterly. 

What is the most northern country of Asia? 
Of what empire does it form a part? In what 
direction do its rivers flow? Into what ocean? 

Where is the peninsula of Kamchatka (kam- 
chaf-ka)! What sea is west of Kamchatka? 
(Pronounced o-kotsk 1 .) 

What sea is east of Kamchatka? What lake 
is among the Altai (al'-ti) mountains? 

What part of the Russian Empire lies east of 
the Caspian sea? 

Where is Lake Balkash? Aral sea? The 
Caspian sea? These three are salt. Rivers 
flow into them, but none flow out. They are 
like the Great Salt lake of our own country. 

Where is To-bolsk' ? Irkutsk (eer-kootsk^) ? 

What empire is south of Siberia? The Amur 
river and the Altai mountains separate Si- 
beria from the Chinese Empire. 

In what portion of the empire is China? 
What two great rivers flow through it. 

In what part of China is Pe-kin'? In what 
part is Canton? Where is Shanghai? 

In what part of the Chinese Empire is Tibet ? 

What high mountains are on the south? 
Where is Lassa? 

In what part of the empire is Sinkiang? Mon- 
golia? Manchuria {man-choo'-ri-a) ? What des- 
ert in Mongolia? Where is Kashgar? Where 
is Korea? 

Where is the Yellow sea? It is so named 
because the vast quantities of mud washed 
into it by the Hoang river give to it a yel- 
low color. What sea is south of China? 

What empire, made up of islands, lies east- 
ward of China? What sea separates it from 
Korea? What port is south of To'-ky-o? 
(Pronounced yo-ko-hah'-mah.) 

Where is Indo-China? What countries* 
does it contain? Where is the Malay penin- 
sula? This peninsula has given its name to 
the Malay or brown race. 

What large river in Siam? On what strait 
is Singapore? It is noted for its export of tin. 

What bay is west of Indo-China? What 
country is between tbe Bay of Bengal (ben- 
gawV) and the Arabian sea? What form of 
land would you call it? 

To whom does India belong? Name its three 
great rivers. Each of them has several mouths. 

Where is Bombay? Ma-dras'? Where is 
Ceylon ? This island has the finest pearl fish- 
eries in the world. 

What two countries are on the west of Brit- 
ish India? What mountains are in Afghan- 
is- tan'? 

What country is west of Afghanistan? 
What sea is north of Persia (per'-sha) ? What 
gulf is on the south? 

What country is between tbe Persian gulf 
and the Bed sea? What sea is on the south- 

In what part of Arabia is Maskat? Where 
is Mec'ca? Medina (me-dee'-nah)1 Mocha 

What country is north of Arabia? Why is 
.* Banna Is now a part of British India. 

the strip of land lying on the Red sea colored 

Where is Mount Sinai (st-nt)? Jerusalem? 
Damascus? Smyrna? What two rivers flow 
into the Persian gulf? 

On what three seas does Turkey border? On 
what continent is the capital of Turkey ? Name 

A canal has been cut through the Isthmus 
of Suez from the Red sea to the Mediterra- 
nean. Point out the course of a vessel from 
Calcutta to the Mediterranean. 

What country of Asia lies partly in the 
frigid zone? What countries lie partly in the 
torrid zone? 

What two small countries lie wholly within 
the torrid zone? In what zone is the greater 
part of Asia? 

In what direction is Yokohama from Singa- 
pore? Kabul from Calcutta? Tokyo from 

Use the scale of miles and measure the dis- 
tance from Yokohama to Singapore. 

Routes of Travel. — On what waters would 
you sail in going from Constantinople to Bom- 
bay ? How could you go by water from Man- 
dalay to Delhi ? What seas would you cross in 
sailing from Madras to Tokyo ? Through what 
strait would you pass ? 

In the interior of Asia merchandise is car- 
ried by trains of camels called caravans. They 
cross the desert of Gobi from China to Lake 
Baikal and from Sinkiang to Persia. Rail- 
roads have been built from St. Petersburg 
through Siberia and Manchuria to the Pacific; 
from Russia to Bokhara and Tashkend, and 
from Smyrna to the cities of Asiatic Turkey. 

Map Drawing. — On an outline map of 
Asia have the pupils All in names of moun- 
tains, rivers, lakes, and coast waters. A sec- 
ond lesson may take up the location of coun- 
tries and cities. Another lesson may be given 
to productions, 











The titk-evUon tree of India* The. nerds are cov- 
ered vri(hp wft fiber ichich ij uttd tor inak- 

p r o t e c t our- 

selves from the 
scorching sun. 
It is the land of 
umbrellas and 
fans. Oranges, 
dates, and co- 
coantits hang 
on the trees ; 
the groves 
3'ield the fra- 
grant cinnamon; fields are bright with the snowy 
blossoms and red berries of 'the coffee-tree; 
the lofty bamboo waves in the breeze, 
between the freezing north and the 
scorching south lies the temperate re- 
gion of Asia. Jfo part of the world con- 
tributes more than tiiis to the comfort 
of man. It is the native home of the 
tea- pi ant, the cotton-plant, the sugar- 
cane, and the silkworm. Here the rose 
first blossomed, and the melon, the 
peach, and the orange first' bore their 
luscious fruit. 

7. Animals. — Asia has many curious 
animals. Its deserts are crossed by the 
patient camel. The elephant with his 
long trunk, the ferocious tiger, and the 
rhinoceros live in the jungles of south- 
ern Asia. 
Here, too, 

the cow, the ass, and 
the sheep, are natives 
of Asia. From this 
continent they were 
taken to Europe by 
migrating tribes and 
thence to America. 

For Recitation. — 

How does Asia compare 
in size and population 
wiih tiie ((tiicr continents? 
Wli&tiasajd of tlie Him- 
alaya mountains? Nome 
sow e of t h e a n i m al s o f Asia, 

The cotoutiijt palm. 

A bamboo gnype.. 

sonous serpents 
abound. Croco- 
diles swarm in 
the rivers. The 
wild beasts and 
serpen ts kill 
thousands of peo- 
ple every year. 

Many of our 
most useful do- 
mestic animals, 
such as the horse, 

1. Asiatic Russia. — The 
eagle that is stamped upon 
the coins of Russia has two 
heads. This means that 
Russia has possessions in two 
continents. She owns more 
than half of Europe and a 
large part of Asia. 

Leaving Europe, we 
cross the rough, cold Cau- 
casus mountains, and enter 
Transcaucasia, or the land 
on the other side of the 
Caucasus. It is famed for 
its oil wells, which rank 
next to those of the United States. 

The Caspian sea lies east of Transcaucasia, 

The moo palm. Saao *" 
of the tree. A *i*i&te trt 

600 pouiuit of tana flour. 

made from the ptth 
11 often yield 

A home in As-iatic ■ffintit'p. 

Asia; Siberia, 


Steamers and fishing boats are busy on its briny 
waters. Let us cross to the other side. "We are 
still in the Russian country. 

The country is called Russian Turkestan. It is 
a good grazing land and produces cotton and silk. 
Early and late we hear the bleating of sheep, 
the grunting of camels, and the lowing of thou- 
sands of cattle. 

Most of the people — Tartars, as they are called 
— are wandering herdsmen. They are dirty and 
ignorant; and there is nothing to keep us long in 

A caravan of 2,000 camels is going from Bokhara into 
Siberia. Let us go with I hem. 

These camels are of the kind called Bactrian, whieh 
iias two humps on its back. They can endure cold. 

2. Siberia is one of 
the coldest countries on 
the globe. In climate 
and products it resembles 
the Dominion of Canada. 

In the southern part 
grain is raised, in the 
central part are vast 
forests, but in the far 
north scarcely anything 

Fur-bearing animals 
— such as sables, ermines, wolves, foxes, and 
bears — abound in the forests, and as in Canada, 
«o here, a great many persons are hunters and 

But the mines of Siberia are its great source 





TAe QreaX Wail of China. 

A Chinese temple. 

of wealth. Gold and silver, lead, copper, and 
iron are found in abundance, as well as 
graphite (black lead), from which lead pencils 
of the finest kind are made. 

A great railroad has 
been built across Siberia, 
and many people are set- 
tling there. 

Many of the inhabitants 
are exiles or their descend- 
ants. The exiles are persons 
who have been banished from 
their homes in Russia by the 
emperor, and are not allowed 
to return. Many of them 
are obliged to work in the 
mines as a punishment. 

A village where eiilet mere once kept prisoner*. Near the shores of the 

Arctic ocean there is a small number of people who are 
like the Eskimos of Alaska and Greenland. 

3. China. — After seeing so much ice and snow, 

it will be pleasant to visit the "Flowery Land," 
as the people of China call their country. To 
reach it wo will mount our camels and cross the 
desert of Gobi. It is a dreary region, and we 
pass through it just as fast as we can. 

We are ncaring the borders of China, and in the dis- 
tance we see the Great Wall. This is more than 1,000 
miles long, and partly surrounds China. In some places 
it is thirty feet high, and so broad that six men on horse- 
back can ride abreast on the top of it. This wall was 
built more than 2,000 years ago, to keep the fierce 
Tartars of the north out of the Chinese country. 

We are now among the great Mon-go'-lian race, 
ol which the Chinese are the largest family. 



China is densely peopled. It contains about 
one- fourth of all the inhabitants of the world. 
For want of room on the land, several millions 
live on boats 
moored in the 
rivers and har- 
bors. These boats 
are arranged like 
houses on a street. 

4. Occupations 
and Produc- 
tions. — Most of 
the people are 
fanners. Every 
foot of ground, 
even on the steep 
hillsides, is care- 
fully cultivated. 
Canals are dug 
from the rivers to 
water the land. 
Immense quanti- 
ties of tea, cotton, 
Rice is the chief 

China supplies the world with much of its tea. 

The tea-plant is a shrub with a bright glossy leaf 
and a pretty white flower. The leaves are what we call 
tea. They .in- picked by hand, and 
dried nvera charcoal fire. 

The mulberry-tree is extensively 
cultivated. Some of the plantations 
are so large that it takes two or three 
days to travel through them. 

The bamboo is as useful to the> 
Chinese as the palm is to the Indians 
of South America. With it they 
build bouses and boats, make furni- 
ture, baskets, water pipes, and all 

___»J a borW plaiting a imii'i huir 
a woman washina clothes.. 

A Chinese family at dinner. 

sugar, and rice are raised. 
food of the people. Most of 
their clothes are made of cotton. 


Highland and Lowlands,— Truce the grout highland 
ridges on the relief map. In which directions do they extend? 
Find the names of three of these lidges on the political map. 
Find the southern extremity of India, and trace directly north 
of it. First, you pass a region of light gray color. What name 
is given to this? (Elevated plainsor plateaus are colored light 
gray.) Nest yon come to a broad valley. What is its name? 
What lies north of this valley? Crossing the high mountain 
ridge you find a great central plateau region. Trace this north- 
west until you coine to Die eastern extremity of the continent. 
What name is given to this extremity? Trace the northern 
border of the continent. What kind of surface do you find 
here? Find the great peninsula in the southwest. What kind 
of surface does it have? All the continents that we have stud- 
ied so tar have had great plains in the interior. Compare them 
with Asia. Where are the great plains found in Asia? 

Coast Line.— Put. your finder on the northeastern extrem- 
ity of Asia. Trace southward. What peninsula do you find? 
What great group of islands? Is this coast line regular or ir- 
regular? Name some of the inlets on this roast. What pen- 
insula west of the great group of islands? Find the southeast- 

sorts of useful articles. The young shoots are used as 
food. They are cooked and eaten like asparagus. 

Many of the people are fishermen. They some- 

em extremity of Asia. What name is given to the long neck 
of land found there? Trace two other peninsulas in the south. 
W r hich one is farther south? In which zone does the northern 
coast lie? The water of this coast and the mouths of the rivers 
are frozen during nine months of the year. 

Rivers and Lakes. — In what part of Asia are lakes 
found? Some of these arc salt. Can you tell which ones? 
Can you tell why they are salt? What seems to be the largest 
kke in the northern part? Find three great rivers rising in 
the central highlands and flowing south. Find three flowing- 
north. Find three flowing east. Notice that nearly all rivers 
flow from the center of the continent toward the coast. Why 
is this? Which of the lakes have rivers flowing into them? 
Find two rivers in the western part that unite. 

Plants and Animals.— Trace the tropical regions of 
Asia. Can you tell some plants and animals that are found in 
this region? Find the great desert regions of Asia. What 
animals are found here? What can you tell of plant life in 
these regions? Trace the cold belt, of Asia. What plants are 
found in the southern half of this belt? In the northern half? 
Find the temperate belt of Asia. What countries are in this 
belt? What can you tell of the plants and animals of this 

M^*"-* ■*■ 

f/w tht* map ttM *t*tiit*~mttii in thr ttttditM tm thr vpfrntntm jmtfr 



times use nets, but often we see thein going out 
in their boats with two or three solemn-looking 
birds called cormorants. These birds are trained 
to catch fish. They dive 
into the water and quickly 
fill the fisherman's basket. 

The manufactures of the 
Chinese are chiefly silk, 
cotton goods, and porce- 
lain. Machinery isnotused. 
Everything is made by 

5. Cities.— China con- 
tains a great number of 
large cities. Pekin {pe- 
kin\ the capital, is one of 
the largest in the world. 
Shanghai {shang-hi') and 
Canton are the chief com- 
mercial ports. 

Not many years ago the Chinese were an willing; that 
any foreigners should enter their cities. When the author 

of this book first visited China, he ami some companions 
de term i ued to see something of a Chinese city. They 
entered the gate of Canton, running as fast as they could. 
But they were soon stopped, 
lieu, women, and children 
drove them back to their ship. 
Now foreigners are living in 
many of the cities of China. 

If we pass through the 
streets of one of their cities, 
W« see every moment some- 
thing strange. The men have 
all their hair shaved off, except 
a single tuft. This is never cut. 
li is plaited in a long braid, 
which hangs behind the back. 
Some of the women hobble 
about 3 ike children just learn- 
ing how to walk. They are 
persons of wealth and rank. 
When they were infants their 
feet were tightly bandaged, to 
keep them from growing ■ and 
so they have nothing but 
stumps for feet. 
Most of the people dress in blue cotton cloth. Notice, 
in the picture on page ll 7 the mandarin in his official 


On the opposite page are pictures of some of the people liv- 
ing in Asia, The first picture shows the tent of a family of 
Turkomans, n wandering people living on the Steppes, or dry 
plains of Turkestan. Their home is made out of coarse canvas 
woven out of cotton. These people keep sheep and catlle and 
when they need fresh grass for them they take down their 
tents and travel to another place. The second view shows the 
home of the Korean minister of war. The Korean people are 
so strange that their land has been called the hermit nation. 
They have not now a separate government, hut are under the 
control of Japan. The children sitting on the steps are llie 
grandchildren of the minister, What do you sec peculiar 
about the house ? What do you notice about the dress of 
these people ? 

The next picture on the left shows the home and garden of 
a wealthy Persian. Persia is a very high country. It is a 
part o[ the plateau of Iran and is thought to have been the 
earliest home of the human race. Most of the Persians live in 
villages enclosed by high walls. Their homes are built of mud 
and are only one story high. The wealthier classes are very 
fond of having parks and gardens about their homes. Turn to 
page 131 and describe a Persian sleeping room. Compare with 
the Japanese sleeping room on page 118. 

What can you tell about the Japanese house ? It looks 
something like our own homes on the outside, but if you 
were to go inside it would appear very strange, for you would 

see no furniture, but only papered walls and floors cov- 
ered with matting. Turn to page 118 and tell about the 
Japanese sleeping room. Tell about traveling in Japan. 
The Chinaman who is sealed in the nest picture is a Man- 
darin, or officer of high rank. life son is holding the baby and 
the other children of the family are in front. 

Turn to page 11 i and look at the picture of a Chinese home. 
It is only one story high. It is said that the Chinese houses 
are built to look like tents because the first Chinamen lived in 
tents. Notice the other pictures of Chinese life. What does 
each one show? 

The two women with babies on their shoulders aTe Bedouins 
of Syria, one of the provinces of Turkey. Their home cannot 
be seen, hut it is most likely a tent of cloth or skins, like the 
one of the Turkomans. For these people live in the desert and 
keep sheep and camels. Grass is not very plentiful and they 
must travel from place to place to And it. 

What have you learned about the Hindus? Where do they 
live? What is the climate of their country? There are many 
very beautiful temples and palaces in India, but the homes of 
the people are for the most part mere huts of mud. Describe 
the pictures on page 120. Find India on the relief map, page 
115. What kind of surface does it have? 

The last picture is a view in the Philippines. Where are 
these islands and to what country do they belong? Ton see 
that Llieir houses arc built of bamboo poles and thatch or 
straw. They do not need to wear many clothes in that hot 
country. Can you tell what things are obtained in the 

Ilomea and People of Anm. Study these pictures in connection with the description* and questions on the appvtite 




dress who is with his children in (he courtyard of his 
home. The Chinese are very polite, and a Chinaman 

obeys his parents as long- as they live. 

Instead of eating with knives and forks, the Chinese 
use two little rounded sticks, called chopsticks. These 
:u'" iiMiiiHy uiaile of wood or ivory, and are aiioul ten 
i tie lies along. 

The Chinese are a very ingenious people. 
Some tilings lliat we do they did long before us. 
They used the compass in steering ships at sea. 
and printed book's, nobody knows how long ago. 
Cups and saucers are often called chin aware, 
because the first used in Europe were made in 

6. Chinese Empire.— Manchuria, Mongolia, 
Sinkiang, and 
Tibet belong to 
China, a n d 
with it make 
up the Chinese 
Empire. Tibet 
is the highest 

The campt\ 

Tea, rice, and 
silk are the great 
products- Rice is 
the daily food of 
the people. 

One tree yields 
the resin from 
which the well- 
known Japan varn- 
ish, called lacquer 
(lafcer) is made, and 
another, the gum 
called cam pi i or. 

Bamboo is used, 
as in China, for 

in habited 
country in 
the world. 

A Japanae aleeptne-ratrm. 

Korea lies northeast of China. Formerly it 

was a kingdom, but it is now controlled by Japan. 

For Recitation.— For what is Siberia noted? What is 
said of the population of China ? What are the great products 
of China"! What aro tho chief exports of China? 


1. Japan. — At Shanghai let us embark on a 
steamer and visit the empire of Japan. It lies 
east of China, and consists of four large islands 
and many smaller ones. In some respects it 
resembles the great island kingdom of Great 

The vegetation of Japan is wonderfully rich 
and varied, and the people are very fond of 

making all sorts of useful articles. 

2. The people arc Mongolians. They are like 
the Chinese, but are more progressive. AVithin 
a feu years they have adopted the inventions of 
the most enlightened nations. Railways, steam- 
boats, and telegraphs have been introduced, and 
public schools established. 

The Japanese are ingenious and skilful work- 
men. Their paper and silks are beautiful. No 
nation in the world surpasses them in making 
porcelain and ornamental vases of metal. Of 
japan, or lacquer ware, they make drinking cups, 
bowls, and other useful articles. 

Some of the Japanese customs are very curious, If 
wf visit a Japanese friend, we are not asked to take 

A J a pant it vittagt at the loot oj Ml. Fujiyama, 



chairs, because there are none. We sit upon the floor on 
a mat. If we dine with our f riciid, we do not go to the 
table; dinner is served on a tray, Eatiug is hard work 
tor us. It is done, as in China, with chopsticks. When 
we wish to leave the house of our friend, he orders a 
jinrikisha <Jin-rik?-i#k-a), or hand-carriage. This is a 
•comfortable chair mounted on two wheels, and drawn 
by a man. {See picture, page 118). 

The chief exports are silk, cotton goods, matches, 
coal, and camphor. 

8. Cities. — Tokyo is the 
capital. More than a 
million people live in it. 
Yokohama is the port 
where most of the foreign 
trade is carried on, 

4. Indo-CMna is the 
southeastern peninsula of 
Asia. It lies in the Torrid 
zone, and is one of the hot- 

a single tuft; they 
use no knives or 
forks, and live 
chiefly on rice. 

The country is 
famed for its ele- 
phants. When 
a white one is 
found, lie is hon- 
ored and is not al- 

7'ratvJing in liu 

lo wed to w o rk . Al 1 th e dark- 
colored elephants are com- 
pelled to work. 

A tea plantation in Japan. 


Britith toldicrt jnounttd on camch. 

test parts of Asia. It contains French Indo- 
China, Burma, and the kingdom of Siam. 

Rice and sugar-cane are the great crops, 
the dense forests are found the valuable ship 
timber called teak, and the fragrant sandal- 
wood, which is burned as incense in the tern- 
pies. As in China, so here, the bamboo 
grows in abundance, and many of the ]>eo- 
ple live in bamboo boats on the rivers, or 
in bamboo huts which rest on piles. 

Large quantities of rice are exported to China and 
Japan and teak logs are floated down the rivers and 
sawn into lumber, which is exported. 

Like the Chinese, the people of Indo-China have 
the custom of shaving their heads, leaving only 

5. British India. — 
Leaving Indo-China, we 

cross the bay of Bengal 
and land at the port of 

We are now in India. 
This country consists of 
tho great peninsula lying 
west of the Bay of Ben- 
gal, with the region of Burma on the eastern 
side of the same bay, and the island of Ceylon 
(see4oji). India is a part of the British Empire, 
and is therefore called British India. 

Many English people live here, but most of the 
inhabitants are natives. Those of the peninsula 
are mostly Hindus. Some are dark olive in 
color, others light brown, others again are nearly 

India, like China, swarms with people. The 
land in many parts is almost covered with vil- 
lages, towns, and cities. Though only about one- 

Threthina rice in Japan. 



half the size of the United States, it contains 
about four times the number of inhabitants. 

6. The Hindus are divided into four classes 
(called castes) — priests, soldiers, merchants, la- 

A priest and a laborer may not cat together. The 
daughter of a merchant is not good enough to marry a 

The Hindus are mostly pagans. They worship idols. 
Juggernaut is one of tliem. He is an immense block of 
black stone, with two splendid diamonds for eyes. The 
Ganges is worshipped almost as if it were a god. It is 
called the holy river. The people make long ami weary 
pilgrimages up one bank and down the other. They 
throw themselves into the stream, feeling sure that it 
will cure their diseases, 
and wash away their sins. 

The Hindus are skil- 
ful workmen. They 
make the famous cash- 
mere shawls, from the 
wool of the Cashmere 
goat. Their finest mus- 
lin is equal to the best 
that is made by machin- 
ery. It is so delicate 

is much smoked and chewed, especially by the 

The famous banyan tree grows in India. It cu- 
riously sends down shoots from its branches to the 

A strtel scene in livmbay, 

ground. These take roo Land) 
hecome trunks. A single- 
tree may have many thou- 
sand such trunks. There is a 
banyan tree at Calcutta 
which covers four acres of 

7. Cities. — Calcutta, 

Bombay, and Madras. 

are the chief commercial 
cities of India. Calcutta 
is the capital. 

A txmyan tret. Suttee hou* th« 
itranehe* have taken Tool, becoming 
large trunkl. 

Threshing u:heat \rith eattlr in I mini. 

that they call it woven wind and evening dew. 
Cotton, opium, indigo, sugar, rice, tea, wheat, 
jute, hides, and tobacco are the chief products. 
Rice is the most important article of food. 
Opium is the dried juice of a kind of poppy. It 

For Recitation.— What 

are the chief products of Japan ? 
What is said of the Japanese? What are the chief products 
of Indo-Chhia? What can yon Bay of the population of India? 
What are the great products of India? 


1. Afghanistan and Baluchistan lie to the 

west of India. They are wild, mountainous- 
countries. Much of the land is desert. The 
valleys abound in fruit. 

The great caravans that go from India to- 
Persia and Turkestan, carrying giuns, precious 
Stones and other costly things, have to pass, 
through these countries. 

■The people are called Afghans and Baluchees. 
They are very warlike. Many of them are wan- 
dering herdsmen, and have large numbers of cam- 
els, horses, and sheep, They are Mohammedans. 




2. Persia. — Glad to leave the warlike Afghans, 
we enter Persia. A great deal of the country is 
dry and barren; but wherever the fields are 
watered the soil is very productive. 

Persia is a land of fruits. It is the native home 
of the peach and the melon. Flowers abound. 
Fields of roses are raised, and hyacinths grow 
wild. There are large mulberry plantations, and 
great quantities of silk are produced. 

The Persians are famed for their shawls and 

In ancient times this was one of the most powerful 
countries in the world. But its glory is departed, and 
Persia is scarcely reckoned among the 

3. Arabia, — Let ns cross the 
Persian gulf to Arabia. Here, 
as in Persia, we find a great deal 
of desert land. The coast region 
and the valleys, however, are 
very productive, and there are 
fertile spots even in the midst of 
the desert. 

Like Persia, Arabia is a land of 
fruits. Dates, melons, pomegran- 
ates, grapes, figs, oranges, and 
citrons abound. The best coffee 
in the world comes from Mocba. 
Gum arable is largely gathered. 

villages as we do. Others who are called Bed- 
ouins (bed'oo-cens) live in the desert. They have 

It derives its name from the country. It is the 
dried sap of the acacia tree. 
Some of the people of Arabia live in cities and 

A Persian slecpinQ-room* 

tents instead of houses, and keep 
large numbers of horses and 
camels. Their horses are cele- 
brated for their fleetness and in- 

Mec'ca, the birthplace of Mo- 
hammed, and Medina, his burial 
place, are holy cities of the Mo- 

Once at least in his life every pood 
Mohammedan must go on a pilgrimage 
to these cities. It is part of his re- 
ligion. When the pilgrim is Hearing 
Mecca, he must dismount from his 
camel and approach the sacred place 
on foot. 

The Mohammedans say their prayers 
several times in the day. Instead of a 
church bell to remind them of the proper time, they have 
men to call out from the minarets or spires of the mosques, 
1 ' To prayers, to prayers, O true believers ! " They al ways 
pray with their faces turned in the direction of Mecca. 

Mohammedan women, particularly those who live in 
cities, wear veils out of doors. These are very long and 
wide and cover the entire head and face, leaving only 
two little holes for the eyes. At the court of the Sultan 
both men and women wear modern European dress. 

4. Turkey.— "While visiting Europe we found 
that the head or capital of the Turkish or Otto- 
man Empire was in that continent. The other 
portion, or body of the Empire, lies chiefly in 
Asia, and is called Turkey in Asia. The capital 
of the empire is Constantinople. 

A ■party of Bedouins. 



A great deal of Turkey iu Asia is desert, and 
much even of the fertile land is not cultivated. 
If a man raises a crop, the government takes a 
large part of it from I dm. The people therefore 
feel that it is not worth while to he industrious. 
Still many of the products are valuable. 

Various grains, fruits, tobacco, and the poppy 
are raised, and a large quantity of silk is produced. 

Near the coast are the great 
sponge fisheries of the Medi- 
terranean. Divers go down 
from boats to the bottom of 
the sea, and pull the sponges 
from the rocks. 

Damascus is the oldest 
eity in the world. It looks 
beautiful at a distance, but 

Jerusalem. Place where the great Ti tuple of Solomon tlood. 

it is dirty and ruinous. Smyrna is the chief city 
and seaport. Its exports are figs, raisins, and rugs. 

A giarU 'jig tree. 


Countries. — In what part of the conti- 
nent ? Name capital or an important city. 

Siberia, Afghanistan, 

Russian Tukkestan, Tukkey, 

Chinese Empire, Siam, 

Japan, Persia, 

India, Arabia, 

French Indo-China, Baluchistan. 

Islands. — Near what jxirt of the coast ? 
To what country (hen it Mong i — Ceylon. 
Sakhalin. Formosa. Kiu Kiu. Kuril. 

Canes. — On what part of the in 
each located ? — Oihmohin. Cambodia. 
Lopatka. Deshxef. Chelyuskin'. 

Mountains. — Where are they ? In what 


The city o/S m yrtisi. 

The customs of the people 
are curious. The men shave 
their heads and wear turbans. 
These consist of several yards 
of linen or muslin wound 
round the head to protect 
the wearer from sunstroke. 

When they enter their 
mosques, they take off their 
shoes instead of their turbans. 
In the evening crowds of 
people are seen drinking coffee and smoking in the 
coffee-houses, and eagerly listening to story-tellers. 

Palestine, or the Holy Land, is in Turkey in 

Asia. Here are Jerusalem, once the capital of 

the Jewish nation ; Bethlehem, the birthplace of 

Jesus, and many other places that recall memories 

of the life and teaching of Christ. 

For Recitation.— What have you learned of Afghanistan 
and Baluchistan ? KM Persia ? Of Arabia t 01 'I^urkey in Asia r 

direction do the ranges extend? — Himalaya. Kuen 
Lun. Altai. Hindu Rush. Everest. Ararat. Sinai, 

Seas, Bays, and Gulfs. — Where is it ? 
— Red Ska. Arabian. China. Yel- 
low. Ska of Japan. Okhotsk. Cas- 
pian Ska. Akal Ska. Bering. Bay of 
Bengal. Persian Gulf. Gulp of Siam. 

Straits.— Connects what waters ? Sepa- 
rates what la nth ? — Bah-el-Mandkb. Ma- 
lacca. Koeba. Bering. 

Rivers. — Where, does it rise ? Into what 
does it flow? — Ob. Y kn i s k i . L e n a. Amur 
Hoang. Yangtze. Mekong. Brahma- 
putra, Ganges. Indus. Euphrates. 

Cakes, — Location. — Ba lkasii. Baikal. 

Cities. — In what country /—Canton. 
Yokohama. Bombay. Madras. Ispa- 
han, Smyrna. Lassa. Jerusalem. 
Mecca. Mocha. Damascus. Irkutsk. 

afkica; sukfaoe, teqetatiom, animals. 




1, Leaving Asia, let us visit Africa, the home 
of the Negro race. Most of the natives belong 
to this race and are savages. Many of them used 
to be constantly fighting and making slaves of 
one another. European nations are stopping this. 

Africa is second only to Asia in size. It lies 
chiefly in the Torrid zone, and is the hottest of 
all the continents. 

The coastline is not much indented, and con- 
sequently there are very few good harbors. In 
this respect Africa is like South America. 

H. Surface. — Most of Africa is a plateau, or 
elevated plain. It is surrounded by a narrow 
belt of low land along the coast. The principal 
mountains are the Atlas mountains on the north, 
and a high range on the east near the equator. 
Large portions of the continent are deserts. 

3. Elvers and Lakes. — The chief rivers are 
the Nile, the Niger (ni r - 
jer), the Kongo, and the 
Zambezi (zani-baif -ze) . The 
Nile is one of the longest 
rivers in the world. 

Africa contains some of 
the largest lakes in the 
world. The most impor- 
tant are Victoria and Tan- 
ganyika (tan-gan-yee'-ka). 

4. Vegetation. — Many 
curious trees are natires 
of Africa. The flate-palm 
is as valuable to the African 
as the banana is to the 
South American Indian. 
Its fruit is his daily food. 
The cocoa-palm produces the well-known cocoa- 
nut. The palm-oil tree yields a yellow oil, 
which is sent by steamer loads to England. It 
is obtained by boiling the fruit, and is used 
for making soap. The coffee-tree grows wild. 

Africa has a remarkable shade tree that grows 
nowhere else. It is called the ba'-o-bab. It is 
not very high, but it shoots out branches which 

hang down to the 
ground, and make 
for the weary 
traveler a green 
shelter like a 
giant umbrella. 

Cotton and in- 
digo, sugar-cane, 
wheat, and mil- 
let (a kind of 
grain) are largely 

6. Animals. — Africa is remarkable for its 
strange and fierce animals. Among the most cu- 
rious are the gorilla and chimpanzee, huge mon- 
keys which are very like men ; the giraffe, hippo- 
potamus, rhinoceros {ri-nos'-e-ros), and zebra. 

The giraffe (ji-ruf) is the tallest of all living crea- 
tures. The hippopotamus, or river horse, lives partly 
ia the water, and partly on 
land. On the river banks 
crocodiles are to be seen 
basking in the sun. The white 
ant builds houses from fifteen 
to thirty feet high. Whole 
villages of them are scme- 
times seen. When deserted, 
the ant houses are sometimes 
used by the natives as ovens. 

Among the useful ani- 
mals are the elephant, the 
ostrich, and the camel. 
Elephants' tusks and os- 
trich feathers are two of 
the chief exports of Africa, 

Ostriches are now raised on 
farms. Formerly, the only way of getting their feathers 
was by hunting and killing the wild birds. They are 
very shy, and will run as fast as the fleetest horse. But 
the natives, by covering themselves with ostrich skins, 
manage to get near enough to shoot them. 

Immense numbers of wild animals roam over the 
grassy plains. The natives dig great' holes, and cover 
them over with sticks and leaves. They then drive the 

30 LorurKiMiti W Weal 1U 

113 Longitude X) Rasl » from | Q O runny kit 60 




wild animals into the holes. Elephants, antelopes, ami 
other game are taken in great numbers. Iu the winter 
tii is hot continent furnishes comfortable homes for many 
of the birds of passage thai are driven out of Europe by 
the cold. 

For Recitation. 

— Of what nice is Africa 
the home? What aw 
seme of the most useful 
trees of Africa? Name 
some of the animal* ol 


1. Egypt is the 
most interesting 
country in Africa. 
It was once the 

most hi tr hlv Civil- DaJc-palm tree*. cnmcl& t and a pyramid, near the Nile, 

isted part of the earth. The people wild lived there 
more than three thousand years ago built pyra- 
mids and temples so grand that they have always 
been among the wonders of the world. 



Of what countries 

are the following- cities 


Capitals t 




Cape Town. 






Adis Abeba, 



How is Africa separated from Europe f "What ocean 
and sea are on the east 1 What ocean is on the west f 
What sea is on the north ? Of what sea is the Strait of 
Bab-el ■ Ma ndeb the entrance? Where is the Gulf of 
Guinea ? 

Name the most northern cape of Africa- The most 
western. What noted cape is near the most southern 
point of Africa ? Where is Cape Guardafui igjvar-dah- 
fwe'} ? "What large island is east of Africa ? In what 
ocean is it? What separates it from Africa? It is a 
French colony. 

What country occupies the northeastern corner of 
Africa ? What river flows through Egypt ? Into what 
sea does the Nile flow ? What city is at the mouth of 
the river ? 

Where are the Barbary states ? What two countries 
are west of Tunis ? Where is Fesusan ? To what coun- 
try does it belong ? Where are the Atlas mountains ? 

Egypt is one of the finest wheat regions on the 
globe. Vou may remember that when there was 
a famine in the country where Jacob lived, he 

sent his sons down 
to Egypt to buy 
wheat there. The 
country is just as 
fertile nowasthen. 

The fertility of 

Egypt is very curi- 
ous, because not a 
drop of rain falls on 
all the land except 
near the const of the 
Med i te rra nea n . W h at 
makes this rainless 
region so rich? 

Every year in the 
summer months the 
Nile overflows its banks, and the country is like a great 
lake. After a while the water subsides. The fields are 
left covered with mud, and the farmers sow their seed 
upon this. 
But where does the water come from that makes the 

'-' l<<t I 

What islands are west of Morocco ? What great 
desert is south of the Barbary states I 

What region is south of the Sahara? What river 
flows through the Sudan and enters the Gulf of Guinea 
(ghin'- ne) ? Where is Lake Tchad ? Where is Sokoto ? 
Timbuktu ? Kuka I Where is Sierra Leone ? Liberia ? 
Gold Coast I Belgian Kongo ? 

What great river crosses the equator twice ? What 
country does it flow through ? Where is Lake Victoria ? 
What river rises in this lake ? Where is Lake Tan- 
ganyika (tan-gan-yee'-kah) ! Lake Nyassa ? 

What British possession is in the southern extrem- 
ity of Africa? What river crosses the northern part 
of Cape of Good Hope ? What desert is north of Cape 
of Good Hope? Where is the Orange Free State? 
The Transvaal ? Natal ? Rhodesia ? Lourenco 
Marques:? British East Africa? 

Wli ere is Mou nt Kili man j aro (kil- i- ma n -ja'Tt/) . litis 
is the highest peak on the continent. It is always covered 
with snow. What country is northwest of Somali land 
(so-mah'-le-knid) ? 

In what direction is Cape Town from Cairo ? In 
what direction does the Nile flow ? 

Is more of Africa north or south of the equator ? In 
what zone is most of Africa ? What African countries 
lie wholly within the North Temperate zone ? Which 
lie wholly within the South Temperate ? In which zones 
is Egypt i 

U*r this map in connection with the question* which appear on the oppotite page. 

_ _ i 



overflow i Among the high mountains near the sources 
of the Nile the rain falls in torrents. It pours into the 
river and fills it to overflowing. 

Wheat, rice, cotton, sugar-cane, and indigo are 
the chief products. Groves of date-palms are 
grown near every village. 

Grain, cotton, indigo, and dates are the chief 
exports. Gold-dust, 
ivory, and ostrich 
feathers are brought 
by caravans from the 
interior of Africa into 

The ruler of Egypt is 
called Khedive (ke- 
dsev 1 ), which means 
prince. He pays tribute 
to the Sultan of Turkey, 
but has an English offi- 
cial adviser, 

Cairo {ki'-ro), the 
capital, is the largest 

city of Africa. Alexandria is the principal 

The Suez canal is a part of the route now taken by 
vessels carrying- tea and other articles from Asia to Eu- 
rope. Formerly, si lips sailed round Africa by way of the 
Cape of Good Hope in going from India to Europe. 

2. The Barbary States. — .Tourneying west- 
ward from Cairo along the Mediterranean shores, 

we enter Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco, 
These are called the Barbary states, from the 
name of the Herbers, who were the native inhabi- 

Tripoli is a part of the Turkish Empire Fezzan, 
the great oasis, belongs to Tripoli. Algeria and 
Tunis are possessions of France. Morocco is ruled 

by its own sultan. 

The red cap called 
fez, worn in this region, 
is made by the people 
of Fez, a city of Mo- 

Grain, dates, and 
olive oil are the chief 
products. South of the 
Atlas mountains is a 
region called the Land 
of Dates. It is famed 
for the yield of this 
The people of the 

in the picture have akin imttte* fiucd from the riw 

Barbary states are Mohammedans 

For Recitation. — What are the chief products of 
Ejjypt? What arc the chief products of the Barljary states? 


1. The Sahara {sah-hah'-rah) is the largest 
desert in the world. It reaches nearly across 


Highlands and Lowlands.— Find the highest moun- 
tains on the relief map. In what part of the continent are 
they? Pi nil the highest; peaks in the central part. What, are 
their names? What parts of Africa are of a light gray color? 
What name is given to such parts? Trace the highland along 
the northern coast. In the southern extremity. What names 
are given to these ridges? Where is the lowest land in Africa? 
What color is it? Trace the 'ijrht trreen strip along the eastern 
coast. How wide is it? What have you learned ahout the 
lowlands in the north of Africa? What name is given to 
them? What name is given to the north central lowlands? 

Rivers and Lakes.— Find a group of lakes in central 
Africa. What river rises in one of these and flows north? 
Find three of its branches. What river rises in this group of 
lakes and flows west? Trace five of its branches. Find 
another river flowing east. Find a lake in north central 

Africa. Can yon find rivers flowing into it? Does it have an 
outlet? Such lakes arc usually salt. Can you tell why? Find 
a river in the western part of Africa. Trace its course, 
flow does it change its direction? Find a river in southern 
Africa. H o w m an y bran e h cs docs it ha ve ? Whatisitsname? 

Coastline.— Trace the northern coast of Africa. What is 
its direction? What is the inlet called on this coast? Trace 
the eastern coast. What bodies o! water on this coast? Do 
you find many good harbors? What can you say of the western 
coast? What great inlet do you find there? 

Heat Belts, Plants, and Aniinnls.— In which heat 
belt is the northern part of Africa? What plants grow there? 
What kind of animals are found T Find a lake on the map 
crossed by the equator. What can you tell of the plants of the 
central part? What animals arc found in this part? In which 
heat belt is the greater part of Africa? Which parts of the 
continent are in the temperate belt? What can you tell of 
the plants and animals found in the southern part? 

Hornet and People at Africa. Study (hat picturt* in connection uilh the detcriptumi and question* on the oppotite paoe- 



Africa, and is about ten times the size of the 
great state of Texas. 

Most of it is a vast waste of sand and pebbles, 
where no rain falls. Only here and there are 
oases, where date-palms and other fruit trees 

Caravnns constantly cross the desert. They 
carry gold-dust, ivory and ostrich feathers from 
the interior of 
Africa to the coast 
of the Mediterra- 
nean, and take back 
manufactured arti- 

Salt is obtained 
from various places 
in the Sahara. 
Caravans of 1,000 
camels go to Bil- 
mah for it. 

Crossing thr desert. 

Let us join a caravan and cross the Sahara. The 
camel is the only beast of burden that we can use, 
because he can travel for many days without suffering 
for want of water. 

The driver speaks to our camels and they kneel to 
let us mount. We now begin our journey. Thecamels 
rock us almost as if we were in a little boat on the sea. 
Some of us feel seasick. Soon something even worse 
than seasickness comes. A dark cloud is driven toward 
us by the "wind. The air is filled with sand and dust. 
The sun is darkened. We are iu a sandstorm. 


la the upper part of the picture on the opposite page we 
ha *-e views of people living in northern Africa. Some of them 
are called Moors. Their home is in the Barbary states. Can 
you give the names of these states? Their religion is Moham- 
medanism. You can see one of their churches in the picture. 
Five times a day a priest goes into the high tower and calls 
the p ople to prayer. Then every good Mohammedan washes 
himself and prays. The tops of their homes are flat and many 
people deep on the house to [is. Merchants have their shops 
on the sidewalk. They sit upon nigs nil day selling their 
goods. Notice that the people dress in long, flowing- robes. 
The women always keep their heads and faces covered when 
tbey are out of doors, so that only their eyes peep out. 

In the center of the picture you may see some Arab homes, 
such as they build outside of the cities. You will see that it 
is merely a tent stretched on poles. These tents are taken 

The. camels turn their backs to the wind, kneel down 
and put their noses close to the ground. We lie down 
and cover our faces with handkerchiefs. Soon the 
storm is over. The camels rise, we shake the sand from 
our clothes, and begin the journey again. 

The sun is scorching hot. The sand almost burns. 
But as the sun goes dowu it grows cooler. At last it is 
really cold. We are thankful for shawls and blankets. 

It takes us more than two months to cross the desert 
from Morocco to Timbuktu on camel-back. 

2. The Sudan 
{soo-dahn'), which 
we now enter, is 
a wonderfully dif- 
ferent country 
from the dry 
Sahara. It is well 
wooded and very 

Cotton and in- 
digo grow wild, 
and great crops 

Cattle and sheep 

of corn and fruit are produced 

are raised in vast numbers, and countless herds 

of antelopes roam over the plains. 

The Sudan is the land of the blacks. It con- 
tains many independent negro tribes and large 

3- The Belgian Kongo is very productive. 
Bananas and rice are raised; coffee and cotton 

down when the Arab wishes to change his home. These 
people get their living by keeping sheep, camels, and cattle, 
and they move their homes when they wish to find fresh 
pasture for their animals Sometimes many Arabs bring 
their camels together, forming a caravan, which the merchants 
employ to carry goods across the desert. You may also sec in 
the center of the picture some negro homes. These homes are 
built of bamboo sticks covered with leaves and grass, stuck 
together with mud. They do not have chimneys, as no fire Is 
needed in this warm country. Yon may see a vast number of 
elephant tusks in Hie picture, hong trains of negro porters 
carry the ivory to the coast. 

la the lower part of the picture are some people living in 
South Africa. The Kaffirs are native negroes, but they keep 
cattle and build letter homes than the negroes of the Kongo. 
What can you tell about the Boers? In what kind of homes 
do they livcT What use do they make of the ostrich! What 
other people live in South Africa? Where did they come 



grow wild. Millions of negroes live there. They 
used to sell tilings for shells, called cowries, but 
now they exchange their coffee, ivory and rubber 
for cotton goods and other manufactured wares. 

4- The west coast of Africa, part of which 

Cape Tewn. 

is sometimes called Guinea, is one of the hottest 
and most un healthful regions in the world. The 
chief exports are gums, palm-oil, and rubber. 

Along the coast the British, 
French, Germans and Portuguese 
have settlements, and hold the land 
as their own. Sierra Leone (se-er 1 - 
rah le-o'-ne~) is a British colony for 
negroes. Liberia is a negro repub- 
lic, founded as a home for freed 
negroes from the United States, 

I>nhomcy, formerly a negro king- 
dom, is now controlled by France. 

6. The Union of South Africa 

comprises the British provinces of Cape of Good 
Hope, Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange Free 
State. This Union has two capitals. One is 
Cape Town, the chief port of South Africa, where 
the parliament meets, and the other is Pretoria, 
where the governor general resides. 

The British also own Rhodesia and other regions 
in South Africa. 

Sheep-raising is the chief occupation, and 
wool is exported. Diamonds and gold are found. 
Ostriches are raised. 

6. The eastern coast is unhcalthful like the 
western. Rubber, ivory, hides, copra, wax, and 
cloves are the chief exports. 

The country on botli sides of, the Zambezi be- 
longs to the Portuguese. The British, Germans, 
and Italians also have possessions on the east coast. 

The island of Madagascar exports gold, hides» 
rubber, wax, and hard woods. 

For Recitation.— What can you say of the Sahara? 
Sudan ',' Belgian Kongo ? What are the exports of the west. of Africa? Of the east coast t Of Soul h Africa? 

r ta a tfltve in khnm 


it t — TC< i V IT. A K YSSIN I A. 

R B V I E W 

Countries — Where is 

Morocco, Aloeria, Tunis. Tripoli. Sudan. Li- 
beria. Sierra Leone. Belgian Kongo. Cape of Good 
Hupk. Natal. Okaxoe Free Statf.. Transvaal. 
Rhodesia. Mozambique. British Bast Africa. 

Inlands. — year what )mrt of the const ? — Madeira. 
Canary. Madagascar. St. Helena. 

Mountains. — Where are they, ami in what- direction 
do the ranges extend t — A t l a s . K e n i a. Kiliman- 
jaro. Ruwexzori. 

Seas, Gulf. — Where is it ;>— Mediterranean Sea. 
Red Sea. Gulf uf Guinea. 

Straits and Channel. — Connects v:hat waters * 
Separates what lands? — G i b r a i,t a r . B A B-E L-M a x d e h . 
Mozambique Channel. 

Rivers. — Where does it rise? Into what does it 
flowf — Kile, Niger. Kongo. Zambezi. 

Lakes. — When is it ? — Victoria. Albert, Tax- 


Cities. — hi what country f — Cairo, Tripoli. Tunis. 
Algiers, Morocco. Fez. Alexandria. Sdkoto, 
Gondar, Roma, Cape Town. Lou rex co Mar- 
quee. Pretoria, Freetown. Taxanarivo. Mon- 
rovia. PlETEllMARlTZUiUKG. 





1. Australia. — Let us sail from Madagascar 
across the Indian ocean and visit Australia. This 

A tired m Meilxmrnt. Victoria. 

is so large a body of land that we call it a con- 
tinent. It is nearly the size of the United States. 
If we look at a globe, we shall see that Austra- 
lia is on the other side of the world from us. For 
this reason, when it is night here it is day there. 

Australia is different from mir continent in another 
way. We are north of the equator. It is south. Be- 

Transporting wool, Australia. 

cause of this, when it is winter here it is summer there. 
Christmas day there comes in midsummer. 

2. The Climate of Australia is generally hot. 
The eastern portion of the continent is the best 
watered and the most fertile. The interior is 
almost rainless, and much of it is an arid waste. 

3. The Plants and Animals are very re- 

markahle. Most of the plants are evergreens. 
Some of them shed bark instead of leaves. 

The fems grow to the size of trees, and nettles 
are sometimes forty feet in height. 

4- The Natives of Australia are black -skinned, 
degraded savages. They are fast dying out, 

5. The Commonwealth of Australia, a part 
of the British Empire, consists of five states and 
the island of Tasmania. 

Australia is famous for its sheep, and produces 
more wool than any other part of the world. 

Gold, copper, and tin are found in great 

Gathering tte kauri gum in Sew Zealand, 

abundance, and many of the settlers are miners. 

The chief exports are wool, hides and gold. 

The largest cities are Melbourne, the temporary 
capital of the Commonwealth ; and Sydney. 

6. New Zealand also belongs to England. It 
is famed for its sheep, its forests, its flax and knurl 

(koitf-re) gum. The flax grows nearly twenty feet 

A Aherp ranch in Neu- Zealand. 

[M Longitude 110 Em.1 1M from 130 Otwnw It'll 110 

103 Luuglluile 113 Wat from 1)3 WjvJilnKloa 103 


In what direction is Australia from Asia? In 
what direction is it from the United States? 

Use the scale and measure the distance from 
Honolulu to Sydney. From Singapore to Mel- 

"What ocean is southwest of Australia? What 
ocean is east? What sea is off the east coast? 
What gulf is on the north} 

What bight is on the south? {Bight means 

.Name the two important rivers of Australia. 
Where is Melbourne? Sydney? Brisbane? 

What island is south of Australia? What 
group of islands is southeast? 

What large island is north of Australia? 

Where is Java? Where is Sumatra? What 
strait lies between them? 

What large island is north of Java? What 

islands are northeast of Borneo? 

What island is south of the Philippines? 
What islands are between New Guinea and the 

Where are the Ladrone islands? 

Guam (gwalim"), the largest of these islands, 
belongs to the United States, 

Where are the Fiji islands? They belong io 
Great Britain. 




high. The gum is dug from tbo ground. It is 
used in making varnish. Sheep-raising: and 
mining-are leading occupations, 
as in Australia, 

7. Oceania. — The Pacific 
ocean is dotted with islands. 
Taken together they are. called 

8. Coral Islands.— Many 
of these islands are made by 
the little creatures called coral 

10. Principal Islands.— The largest islanus 
of Oceania aro near tho continent of Asia, and 

are often called the 
East India Islands. 

Java ( ja/i '-v<t h ) is 
the finest of them alL 
It belongs to tbo 
Dutch. It is one of 


Honolulu, the Hawaiian capital, ha* been built by Americana, and 
look* like our citie*, 

, They are very soft, ami look like tiny drops of jelly. 

They have something like bone inside of them, very 
small, but bard. These bony parts are built tip into a 
great pile, one on top of the other, like so many very lit- 
tle bricks. Each polyp lays his little brick on top of the 
one below, and then lie dies. His soft part is now ■washed 
away by the sea. His hard little brick remains in its 

Another polyp now begins to build himself upon the 
bones of his dead friend, and so they go on and on, 
until, after a long, long time, the pile is so high that it 
reaches nearly to the top of 
the water. Sand and shells 
are wafted to it, and at 
length it becomes an island. 

9. The Inhabitants 
of Oceania are dark- 
skinned. Some are Ma- 
lays, others are Negroes. 
They are very tine swim- 
mers and boatmen. 

The bread-fruit is the 
principal food on many 
islands. When baked it 
is like bread- 

street in Manila thews queer house* with tilt roof*. The country scene show* 
houses of natives, notice the bamboo bridge, fence, and houses, and 

thr iHlntltnl trtx t/rtm -::..j ,: ihl. 

the great coffee-yielding countries of the world. 
Sumatra {soo-mah'-tra), Celebes {sel' -e-leez) 
and the Spice Islands are famed for cinnamon, 
nutmegs, and other spices; Borneo for gutta- 
percha ; New Guinea for pearls. 

Sumatra and Celebes are chiefly under the control of 
the New Netherlands. The 
Dutch and the English have 
possession of Borneo; and 
New Guinea is divided 
among the English, the 
Dutch, and the Germans. 

The Philippines, 

famed for Manila hemp, 
formerly governed by 
Spain, now belong to the 
United States. Manila 
is the capital. 

The Hawaiian Islands 
are now a territory of 



the United States. Most of the land is owned by 
Americans. The natives are civilized. There 
are schools and churches. The products of the 
islands are sugar, rice, and coffee. Honolulu is 
the capital. 

For Recitation.— For what is Australia noted? What 
arc the chief products of New Zealand? Name the chief ex- 
ports of the East India islands. What islands in the Pacific 
belong to the United States? 


In measuring the length of your schoolroom 
you find yards and feet very convenient measures. 
For measuring the distance from one town to an- 
other miles are convenient. But for measuring 
great distances on the surface of the earth another 
measure is used called degree. 

Let me explain what a degree is. If you should travel 
round the earth from east to west, you would go in a 
ring or circle. If you went round it from north to south, 
and from south to north again, you would also go in a 

Such circles are not really drawn on the surface of the 
earth. We only imagine them, and they are called 
imaginary circles. They are represented by the lines 
that you see on the map of the hemispheres, and on 
other maps. These lines are drawn from north to south, 
and from east to west. Those drawn from north to south 
are called meridians. Those from east to west are 
called parallels. 

Every circle is supposed to be made up of 360 equal 
parts. Each one of the parts is called a degree. 

Distance north or south is called latitude. Dis- 
tance east or west is called longitude. 

In measuring all distances, we need, of course, 
a line or a point from which to reckon. 

"We measure longitude from the meridian that 
passes through Greenwich, near London. We 
reckon it east and west halfway round the earth. 

The starting line for measuring latitude is the 
equator, and, therefore, when we speak of the 
latitude of a place, we mean that it is so many 
degrees north or south of the equator. 

On page 124 you will see the meridians drawn across 
the map from north to south. On the top margin find 
the meridian numbered 0. This is the meridian of 
Greenwich. All places through which this meridian 

passes are said to have no longitude. This is only 
another way of saying that they are neither east of the 
line nor west of it. The next meridian west of this line 
of no latitude is marked 10. This number means that 
all places on this meridian are 10 degrees westward of 
the Greenwich meridian. 

Now look to the east of the Greenwich meridian on 
map, page 124. You see a number of meridians here 
also. Each one is 10 degrees from its neighbor. They 
might be drawn one or two or any number of degrees 

Look again on map on page 124, and notice the paral- 
lels. They also are drawn 10 degrees apart, though they, 
too, might be drawn any other number of degrees apart. 

Now suppose I should say that a ship had sailed 
to some islands in the Pacific ocean that are 180 
degrees from Greenwich. Looking at the map, 
you would see that the meridian of 180 passes 
through two groups of islands, the Fiji and the 
Aleutian. But here you would be puzzled. How 
could you tell whether I meant the Aleutian or 
the Fiji islands. I must tell you the latitude as 
well as the longitude. If I say a ship sailed to 
the islands in the Pacifio that are 180 degrees 
westward from Greenwich, and nearly 20 degrees 
south of the equator, you can find the exact place 
on the map, and you see that the islands meant 
are the Fiji islands. 

Just so any place whatever may be found, if 
we know its latitude and longitude. 


Topical Bevie'w. — Let pupils write or tell 
what they know about any one of the following 

Direction — Measurement of distance — Maps — Shape 
of earth — Forms of land and of watei" — Rotation of earth 
— Revolution of earth — Zones — Occupations of men — 
Government— Religion— Races of men — Conditions of 

Early settlement of North America — Surface of the 
United States— Occupations in the United States — Great 
crops of different portions of United States — The great 
cities (Seaports — Inland — Lake Ports). 

The climate of Europe— Products — Manufactures — 
Exports — Imports. The products of Asia — Its exports 
— Animals, wild and useful. Climate and products of 
Africa — Exports Plants and nnima ln of Australia. 
Products and exports of Oceania. 



Length of the earth's axis (miles) 7,900 

Length of the equator " 24,900 

Earth's Surface (sq. miles) 196,900,000 

Pacific Ocean 
Atlantic Ocean 
Indian Ocean 
Antarctic Ocean 
Arctic Ocean 
The Sea 






Asia . . . 
Africa . . 
North America 
South America 
Europe . . 
Australia, etc. 
The Land 

\r«aln Sq. Mllos. 

. 17,056,000 

. 11,612,000 

. 9,431,000 

. 6,866,000 

. 8,842,000 

. 3,710,000 






52,407,000 1,628,063,000 

Russia in Asia . 
Chinese Empire . 
Japanese Empire 
Korea .... 
British India, etc. 
Other British 

Nepal, Bhutan 
Portuguese In 

dia, etc. 
Slam . . . 
Fr. Indo-China, 

etc. . . . 
Afghanistan . 
Persia . . . 
Turkey in Asia 
Arabia . . 
East Indies . 










788,000 ______ 

17,066,000 909,199,000 












Egypt J 

Sahara, remain- 
- ing part . . 
Abyssinia . . . 
Eritrea . . 
British E. Africa 
Somaliland, etc. 
Sudan .... 
Belgian Kongo . 
Angola . . . 
Mozambique . 
Ger. E. Africa . 
Ger. S. W. Africa 
The Transvaal . 
Orange Free State 
C. of Good Hope 
Rhodesia . . . 
Other Br. S. Afr. 
African Islands . 



















11,612,000 142,774,000 


Area In Rq. Miles. Population. 

Greenl'd and Icei'd .877,000 91,000 

British America . 8,809,000 6,600,000 

United States . . 3,089,000 91,972,000 

Alaska .... 601,000 65,000 

Mexico .... 767,000 13,606,000 

Central America . 206,000 4,422,000 

West Indies . . . _ 92,000 6,957,000 
Total . . ~~ 

9,431,000 122,7l3,0UO 


Colombia . . 


Venezuela . . 


Guiana, Brit. . 


Guiana, Dutch . 


Guiana, French 


Ecuador (incl. Gal- 

apagos Islands) 


Peru .... 


Bolivia . . . 


Chile .... 


Argentina . . 


Paraguay . . 


Uruguay . . . 




Total . 








6,866,000 88,626,000 


British Possessions 
France . . . 
Spain .... 
Portugal . . . 
Belgium . . . 
Netherlands . . 
Denmark . . 
German Empire 
Switzerland . . 
Italy .... 
Sweden . . . 
Norway . . . 
Russia in Europe 
Turkey in Europe 
Bulgaria . 
Crete . . 
Servia . . 
Greece and islands 
Spitzbergen, etc. 
Total . . . 











































_84 J 000 

3,842,000 402,126,000 


Australia Com. 
New Zealand 
New Guinea Gr. 
Hawaiian Islands 
Other islands . 
South Polar Region 
Total . . 








. 8,710,000 6,617,000 


Population according to the Federal 
Census of igio. 

Sq. Miles. 


Alabama. . . 



Arizona . . . 



Arkansas . . 



California . . 



Colorado . . . 






Delaware . . 



District of Coluu 

ibia 70 


Florida . . . 















Iowa . 






Kentucky . . 



Louisiana . . 



Maine . . . 



Maryland . 



Massachusetts . 



Michigan . . 



Minnesota . . 



Mississippi . . 



Missouri . . . 



Montana . . 



Nebraska . . 



Nevada . . . 



New Hampshire 



New Jersey 



New Mexico 



New York . . 



North Carolina 



North Dakota . 



Ohio .... 



Oklahoma . . 



Oregon . . . 



Pennsylvania . 



Rhode Island . 



South Carolina 



South Dakota . 



Tennessee . 



Texas . . . 



Utah .... 



Vermont . . 



Virginia . . . 






West Virginia . 



Wisconsin . . 



Wyoming . . 



Part Great Lake* 

i. 61,780 

Total Main Bo 

iy $,088,519 


Outlying Territory, Etc. 

Ter. of Alaska 



Ter. of Hawaii 



Porto Rico . . . 



Philippine Is. ('08) 



Tutuila, etc. . . 


Guam .... 


(?) 62,423 

Canal Zone . . . 

474 J 

Persons in the mili- 

tary and naval 

service of the 

U. S. stationed 

abroad . . . 


Total Outlying 



Grand Total 




Akron, Ohio . . 
Albany, N.Y. . . 
Atlanta, Ga. . . 
Augusta, Ga. . . 
Baltimore, Md. . 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boise, Ida. . . . 
Boston, Mass. . . 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brockton, Mass. . 
Buffalo, N.Y. . . 
Burlington, Vt. . 
Butte, Mont. . 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Camden, N.J. . . 
Charleston, S.C. . 
Charlotte, N.C. . 
Chattanooga, Tenn 
Chicago, 111. . . 
Cincinnati, Ohio . 
Cleveland, Ohio . 
Colorado Springs, Col. 
Columbus, Ohio . 
Covington, Ky. . 
Dallas, Tex. . . 
Davenport, Iowa . 
Dayton, Ohio . . 
Denver, Col. . . 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dubuque, Iowa . 
































Duluth, Minn. . . . 78,46.:) 

Kast St. Louis, 111. . 68,647 

Elizabeth, N.J. . . 73,409 

Erie, l'a 66,526 

Evansville, Ind. . . 69,647 

Fall Kiver, Mass. . . 119,295 

Fort Wayne, Ind. . 63,933 

Fort Worth, Tex. . 73,312 

Galveston, Tex. . . 36,981 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 112,671 

Harrisburg, l'a. . . 64,186 

Hartford, Conn. . . 98,916 

Hoboken, N.J. . . 70,324 

Holyoke, Mass. . . 67,730 

Houston, Tex. . . 78,800 

Indianapolis, Ind. . 233,650 

Jackson, Miss. . . 21,262 

Jacksonville, Fla. . 67,699 

Jersey City, N..T. . . 207,779 

Kansas City, Kan. . 82,331 

Kansas City, Mo. . 248,381 

Knoxville, Tenn. . . 36,346 

Lawrence, Mass. . . 85,892 

Lincoln, Neb. . . . 43,973 

Little Rock, Ark. . 45,941 

Los Angeles, Cal. . 319,198 

Louisville, Ky. . . 223,928 

Lowell, Mass. . . . 106,294 

Lynn, Mass. . . . 89,336 

Macon, Ga 40,665 

Manchester, N.H. . 70,063 

Memphis, Tenn. . 
Milwaukee, Wis. . 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mobile, Ala. . . 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Nashville, Tenn. . 
Newark, N.J. . . 
New Bedford, Mass. 
New Haven, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. . 
New York, N.Y. . 
Norfolk, Va. . . 
Oakland, Cal. . . 
Oklahoma, Okla. . 
Omaha, Neb. . . 
Paterson, N.J. . . 
l'eoria, 111. . . . 
Philadelphia, Pa. . 
Pittsburg, Pa. . . 
Portland, Me. . . 
Portland, Ore. . . 
Providence, K.I. . 
Pueblo, Col. . . 
Heading, l'a. . . 
Richmond, Va. 
Rochester, N.Y. . 
Sacramento, Cal. . 
Saginaw, Mich. . 
St. Joseph, Mo. 
St. Louis, Mo. . . 
St. Paul, Minn. . 
































Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Antonio, Tex. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Schenectady, N.Y. 
Scranton, Pa. . . 
Seattle, Wash. 
Sioux City, Iowa . 
Somerville, Mass. 
Spokane, Wash. . 
Springfield, 111. . 
Springfield, Mass. 
Superior, Wis. . . 
Syracuse, N.Y. 
Tacoma, Wash. . 
Tampa, Fla. . . 
Toledo, Ohio . . 
Topeka, Kan. . . 
Trenton, N.J. . . 
Troy, N.Y. . . . 
Utica, N.Y.. . . 
Washington, D.C. 
Waterbury, Conn. 
Wheeling, W.Va. 
Wichita, Kan. . . 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Wilmington, N.C. 
Worcester, Mass. . 
Yonkers, N.Y. . . 
Youngstown, Ohio 





• 77,236 







Alexandria, Egypt . . 
Amsterdam, Netherlands 
Antwerp, Belgium . 
Athens, Greece . . 
Bangkok, Siam . . 
Belfast, Ireland . . 
Berlin, Germany . . 
Birmingham, England 
Bombay, India . . 
Bordeaux, France 
Brussels, Belgium . 
Bucharest, Roumania 
Budapest, Austria-Hungary 
Buenos Aires, Argentina . 1 
Cairo, Egypt .... 
Calcutta, India . . . . 1 
Canton, China .... 
Cape Town, C. of Good Hope 
Christiania, Norway . . . 
Cologne, Germany . . . 

Latest Census. 
&32,000 ('07) 
667,000 ('09) 
314,000 ('08) 
168,000 ('07) 
349,000 ('01) 

,040,000 ('05) 
622,000 ('01) 
776,000 ('01) 
262,000 ('06) 
638,000 ('08) 
282,000 ('99) 
732,000 ('00) 

,189,000 ('08) 
666,000 ('07) 

,127,000 ('01) 
900,000 ('04) 
78,000 ('04) 
228,000 ('00) 
429,000 C0o) 

Constantinople, Turkey 
Copenhagen, Denmark 
Dublin, Ireland . . 
Edinburgh, Scotland 
Glasgow, Scotland . 
Hague, Netherlands . 
Hamburg, Germany . 
Havana, Cuba . . . 
Hongkong, Asia . . 
Johannesburg, Transvaal 
Lisbon, Portugal . . 
Liverpool, England . 
London, England 
Lyons, France . . 
Madras, India . . . 
Madrid, Spain . . . 
Manchester, England 
Marseilles, France 
Melbourne, Victoria . 
Mexico, Mexico . . 
Milan, Italy . . . 

427,000 ('07 
291,000 ('01 
317,000 ('01 
736,000 ('01 
273,000 ('09 
803,000 ('05 
297,000 ('07 
320,000 ('06 
159,000 ('04 
356,000 ('00 
686,000 ('01 

6,681,000 ('01 
472,000 ('06 
600,000 ('01 
640,000 ('00 
644,000 ('01 
618,000 ('06 
496,000 ('01 
345,000 ('00 
493,000 ('01 

Montreal, Canada . . . 268,000 ('01) 
Moscow, Russia .... 989,000 ('97) 

Naples, Italy 664,000 ('01) 

Odessa, Russia .... 406,000 ('97) 

Paris, France 2,763,000 ('06) 

Peking, China 1,000,000 

Quebec, Canada .... 69,000 ('01 ) 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil . . 811,000 ('08) 

Rome, Italy 463,000 ('01) 

St. Petersburg, Russia . . 1,267,000 ('9"> 
Santiago, Chile .... 408,000 f'07) 
Shanghai, China .... 651,000 ('04) 
Stockholm, Sweden . . . 301,000 ('00) 
Sydney, New South Wales 482,000 ('01) 
Tashkend, Rus. Turkestan 157,000 ('97) 
Teheran, Persia .... 280,000 

Tokyo, Japan 2,186,000 ('08> 

Venice, Italy 162,000 ('01 ) 

Vienna, Austria- Hungary . 1,676.000 ('00) 
Yokohama, Japan . . . 394,000 ('08) 
Zurich, Switzerland . . . 160,000 ('00> 


Av. Kiev. Feet. 

Mount Everest 29,000 

Himalaya Mountains 19,000 

Andes Mountains 13,000 

Caucasus Mountains 10,000 

Kocky Mountains 10,000 

Atlas Mountains 9,000 

Alps Mountains 8,500 

Kast Australian Mountains . . . 6,000 

Appalachian Mountains .... 2,500 

Plateau of Tibet 15,000 

Plateau of Bolivia 12,600 

Rocky Mountain highland — 

in the United States .... 6,000 

in Mexico 7,600 

Abyssinian highland 6,500 

Plateau of Iran 6,000 

Desert of Gobi 3,600 

Plateau of Guiana 2,000 

Brazilian plateau 2,000 


Area of Rnsin, Sq. MI. Mi. Long. 

Amazon, S. America . 2,320,000 3,400 

Amur, Asia 780,000 2,700 

Arkansas, U.S. . . . 189,000 2,000 

Colorado, U.S. . . . 230,000 1,000 

Columbia, N. America . 290,000 1,400 

Danube, Europe . . . 320,000 1,800 

Dnieper, Russia . . . 197,000 1,300 

Don, Russia .... 170,000 1,100 

Euphrates, Asia . . . 490,000 2,000 

Ganges, India .... 600,000 1,800 

Hoang, Chinese Empire 390,000 2,800 

Hudson, U.S 13,000 300 

Indus, Asia 360,000 1,900 

Kongo, Africa .... 1,600,000 2,800 

Lena, Siberia . . . 900,000 2,800 

Loire, France .... 47,000 600 

Mackenzie, Canada . . 680,000 2,100 

Mekong, Asia .... 280.000 2,600 

Mississippi-Missouri, U.S. 1,260,000 4,200 

AreaofBaMn.Sq. Mi. Ml 
Mississippi proper . . 1,260,000 

Missouri 627,000 

Nelson-Saskatchewan, Can. 470,000 
Niger, Africa .... 1,000,000 

Nile, Africa 1,300,000 

Ob, Asia 1,100,000 

Ohio, U.S 202,000 

Orange, Africa . . . 270,000 

Orinoco, S. America . . 425,000 

Plata, S. America . . 1,160,000 

Rhine, Europe. . . . 87,000 

Rio Grande, N. America 230,000 
St. Lawrence, N. America 666,000 

Sao Francisco, Brazil . 210,000 

Volga, Russia .... 690,000 

Yangtze, Chin. Empire . 690,000 

Yenisei, Asia .... 1,500,000 

Yukon, N. America . . 380,000 

Zambezi, Africa . . . 680,000 

. Loup. 


KEY Vowkls : B in late, a in fHt, a in care, ft In Ar, a in last, a in fall, a in was, a. in final, an in author ; 8 in 

mC ; C in mSt, berry, e In ▼fiU» 3 in term, e. in novel ; 1 in fine, I in tin, 1 in police ; in note, d in ndt, 6 in son, in 
for, g in do, B in t&ne, in not, u in rude (=9), u in full, ua = wa, ue = we ; S i° my, f '» hymn. Consonants : e in 
cent, machine, c in can ; g in gem, g in get ; a = ng ; 9 = z ; th in thine ; 2 = B 2 - -BaMe letters are silent. 

Af-gWtn-Is-tttn', 120 
Af'rl-ca, 26, 123-130 
ag'ri-cul-ture, 22, 42 
air, 10 

Al-a-ba'ma, 66-67 
A-I5s'ka, 31, 68, 69 
Al-ej-an'drl-a, 127 
Al-g6'rl-a, 127 
Al'le-gAe-ny, 66 
Al-pftc'a, 90 
Alps, 94 
Am'a-zon, 83 
am'ber, 104 
A-mBr'I-ca, 32 
A-mur', 111 
An'd&j, 82 
An'1-mals, 20, 90 
Ant-arc'tic, 26, 27 
Ap-pa-la'chl-an, 30, 88 
A-ra'bl-a, 121 
Arc'Uc, 27 
Ar-gfin-tl'na, 90 
Ar-I-zo'na, 68-71 
Ar'kan-sas, 66-69 
Asia (a'shl-a), 26, 109- 

Ath'ens, 108 
At-lan'ta, 69 
At-lftn'tlc, 26, 27 
At-l&n'tic coast plain, 

Ai'las, 123 
Au-gus'ta, Ga.,69 
Aus-trf'11-a, 26, 131 

iv'a-lftnche, 94 
ax'K 16 
Ba-M'a, 93 
Bal-kan', 108 
Bal'tl-more, Lord, 49; 

city, 53, 54 
Ba-lu-chls-tan', 120 
bamboo, 114 
bftn'yan, 120 
bS'sin, 16 
bay, 13 
beet, 62, 104 
Bel-fast', 90 
Ber'Wr?, 127 ' 
BSr'lin, 104 
Bid'de-ford (-ftrd), 48 
Bir'mlng-Aam, Ala., 

50 ; Eng., 98 
Bd-kAa'ra, 113 
Bo-lIv'I-a, 88 
Bora-bay', 120 
Bor'ne-O, 133 
Bos'pM-rus, 108 
BOs'ton, 48 

Bra-zll', 00, 92 
Brit'ish Isles, 98-99 
Brook'lyn, 54 
Brfis'sel?, 105 
Bu'da-pest, 106 
Buenos Aires (bo'nus 

a'riz), 93 
Bfif'fa-lo, 63, 54 
Bul-ga'rI-a, 108 
Bur'mA, 111, 119 
■eal'ro, 127 
Cal-cfit'ta, 120 
CSl-I-f6r'nI-a, 68, 71 
camphor, 118 
Can'a-da, 31, 73-76 
canals, 64, 104 
Can'cer, 19 
Can-ton', 116 
can'yons, 38 
cape, 11 

Cape of Good Hope, 180 
Cape Town, 180 
cap'i-tal, 23 
c&r'a-vans, 129 
Car-Ib-be'an, 80 
Cascade Mts.,30, 70 
Cfa'pl-an, 112 
Cau-c&'sian (-shan), 24 
Cau'ca-sus, 112 
Central A-mfirT-ca, 70, 

Cey-l&n', 119, 120 
chain, 12 
cliau'nel, 13 
Charles'ton, 59 
Chat-ta-noo'ga, 69 
Chl-ca'go, 63, 64 
Chl'le, 90 
Chl'na, 118-114 
Chl-nese', 113, 114, 118 
-ehrls-tl-a'nl-a, 100 
Cin-cin-na'tl, 63, 64 
civ-Il-I-za'tion, 23-34 
Cleve'land, 64 
cli'mate, 17 
clouds, 13 
coast, 11, 18 
coastal plain, 11, 31, 88 
coffee, 79, 86 
C6-lom'M-a, 92 
Col-6-ra'do, 68, 71 
Co-lnm'bl-a, District of, 

CS-lfim'bns, 82; city, 

commerce, 22, 42, 64 
com'pass, 6 
Con'gress, 43 
C6n-nect'I-cnt, 44, 46 
Con-ctan-tl-nS'plt, 106 

con'tl-nent, 10, 11,26,27 

Co-pen-ha'ggu, 106 

cor'al, 133 

Cork, 107 

corn, 63 

cotton, 56 

crt'ter, 12 

Cu'ba, 81 

D&l'las, 67 

Pa-maa'cus, 123 

Dan'Obe, 95 

dates, 127 

Del'a-wftre, 49, 62 ; 
Bay, 33 

Den'mark, 106 

Den'ver, 71 

dej'ert, 11 

De» Mollies', 65 

De-troit', 64 

diamonds, 88, 130 

dipper, 6 

di-rec'tion, 4 

dl-vlde', 31 

Dub'lin, 99 

Dn-luth', 66 

Dutch, 104 

dyke, 104 

earth : size and shape, 
9; rotation, 16; rev- 
olution, 16 

earth/quakes, 83, 93 

Bast In'dTej, 133 
Ec-ui-dor*, 92 
Ed'in-burgh (-bfir-o) , 99 
eider-down, 76 
E'gypt, 126 
em'pire, 23 

England (In'gland), 98 
e-qua'tor, 17 
Erie Canal, 64 
Es'kl-mos, 77 
ffu'ripe, 26, 94-108 
Ev'er-eat, 109 
fac'to-ries, 46 
Fall River, 48 
farming, 22, 44 
Fez, 127 
Fez-zin', 127 
fisheries, 76 
flax, 104 
Florence, 107 
F16r'I-da, 66-67 
flour, 64 
forests, 66 
Fringe, 105 
Fu'jT-ya'ma, 118 
furs, 75, 113 
Gal'ves-ton, 69 
Gan'gej, 120 
Geor'gl-a, 66-69 


Ger'ma-ny, 104 
gey's?r, 76 
gla'cier (-8he"r), 94 
GlaVgow (-ko), 99 
Gloucester (glos't*r),48 
Go'bl, 113 
gold, 08 

gov'ern-nient, 23 
Grand Kapids, 65 
Great Ba'sin, 39 
Great Brit'afn, 98, 99 
Great Central l'lain, 31, 

Great Lakes, 31, 89, 64 
Great Salt Lake, 69 
Greece, 107 
Greenland, 81, 76 
Gul-a'na, 92 
Guln'ea, 180 
gulf, 13 
Hague, 104 
HSi'U, 80 
Hal'I-fax, 76 
H&m'burg, 104 
harbor, 13 
HaVrls-burg, 42 
Hart'ford (-ferd), 48 
Ha-van'a, 81 
Ha'ver-Aill, 48 
Hft-wal'ian (-yan), 133 
Hecla, Mt, 77 
bent'I-sphere, 26 
hemp, 62 
hill, 11 

Hl-mtt'lft-ya, 109 
Hin'duj, 119, 120 
hogs, 63 
HOl'lftnd, 104 
Hol'yoke, 48 
H6-n6-lu'lu, 134 
horses, 63 
HoOs'ton, 59 
Hud's6n,a, Henry, 49; 

Hun'ga-ry, 106 
Ice'berg, 76 
Ice'land, 31, 76 
I'da-ho, 68-71 
U-H-noi«', 61-66 
In'dl-a, 119, 120 
In-dl-ftn'a, 61-46 
In-dl-an-Sp'o-lis, 66 
In'dl-an O., 26, 27 
In'dl-ans, 24, 68 
In'do-Chl'na, 119 
I'o-wa, 61-66 
Ire'land, 99 
iron, 53 
ir-ri-ga'tion, 70 
U'land, 11 
IstA'mus, 11 

It'a-ly, 107 
Ja-mai'ca, 81 
Ja-pan', 118 
Ja'va, 113 
Jer'sey City, 63 
Je-ru'sa-lein, 122 
Kan'gas, 61-65 
Kan'jas City, 63, 66 
Ken-tuck'y, 61-46 
Kim'ber-ley, 130 
Kings'ton, 81 
KOn'gO, 123 ; state, 129 
Ko-rt'a, 118 
Lab-ra-ddr', 76 
Lap-l»nd. 102 
lacquer, 118 
lat'i-tude, 134 
Law'rence, 48 
lev'ee, 65 
Lew'is-ton, 48 
Li-bS'rl-a, 133 
LI'ma, 93 
Li S 'b6n, 107 
LIv'er-pool, 98 
l«'ma, 90 
l«'noj, 84 
Lon'don, 98 
ldn'gl-tude, 134 
Los An'gel-es, 71 
Lo«-I-ji-a'na, 65-69 
Lo«'Is-vil?e, 64 
LoVfiU, 48 

lumbering, 45, 68, 70, 75 
Lynn, 48 
Lyons, 106 
Mad-a-g&s'car, 130 
Ma-dras', 120 
Ma-drld', 107 
Ma-gel'lan, 72 
Maguey, 78 
MUne, 46 

Ma-lay' penin., 114, 122 
Ma-lays', 24 
Mammoth Cave, 62 
Man'ches-ter, Eng., 99 
Man'ches-ter, N.H., 48 
Man-chw'rl-a, 118 
Man-I-to-ba', 73 
manufacturing, 42, 46 
maps, 8 

maple sugar, 45 
Mft-ra-eal'bo, 93 
Mar-semes', 105 
Ma'ry-land (mer*-), 49- 

Mas-sa-clitt'setts, 44, 46 
ma-te, 86 
Mayflower, 44 
Mec'ca, 121 
Mel'bourne, 131 
Mem'phis, 67 



metals, 21 

Mexl-cO, 77, 79; city, 

MTch'I-gan, 61-66 
Mil-wau'kee, 66 
minerals, 21 
mining, 42 
MIn-ne-ftp'o-lis, 66 
MIn-ne-so'ta, 61-66 
Mls-sls-alp'pl, 66-69 ; 

R., 31, 39 
Mfe-sls-elp'pl Valley, 39 
Mls-sott'rl, 61-66 
Mitchell, Mt., 66 
M0-bl'le', 59 
m6n'ar«/i-y, 23 
Mon-go'll-a, 118 
M6n-g0'l< ans, 24, 113, 

Mfin-ta'na, 68-71 
MOn-te-ne'gro, 108 
M6n-tI-vId'e-0, 93 
M6nt-re-al', 75 
M6-r6c'co, 127 
Mds'cow, 102 
moun'taln, 11, 12 
mouth, 14 
MO-zam-bique' (-be'k'), 

Na'ples, 107 
Nash'viUe, 69 
Ne-brSs'ka, 61-66 
ne'groes, 24, 123 
Ne&'er-land?, 104 
Ne-va'da, 68-71 
New'ark (-ark), 53 
New'cas-«le, 99 
New England, 44 
New'fpfind-land, 75, 76 
New Guln'ea, 133 
New Hamp'slilr«, 44, 46 
New Ha/ven, 48 
New Jer'jeJ, 62 
New Mex'I-co, 68-71. 
New Orile-anj, 57 
New'pOrt, 48 
New York, 49, 62 ; city, 

New Zea'land, 131 
Nl-ag'a-ra, 39 
Ni-ca-ra'gua, L., 68 

Nl'ger, 123 

NI1«, 123 

Nizhni (nySz'nye) N8v'- 

go-rod (-rot), 100 
Nor'folk (-fak), 63 
north, 4 . 
North A-merl-ca, 20, 

North Cftr-6-H'na, 56-59 
North Da-ko'ta, 61-66 
Nor'way, 100 
NO'va S«0'tia (-shl-a), 

0'a-sis, 11 
occupations, 21, 22 
6-cean (-shan), 26-27 
O-ce-fal-a, 133 
O-dgs'sa, 100 
O-hl'o, 81-35 
Ok-la-hO'raa, 56-69 
olives, 105 
O'ma-ha, 63, 66 
Or'e-goii, 68-71 
O-rl-no'co, 83 
ostriches, 130 
Ot'ta-wa', 73 
Pa-cif'ic, 27 
Pa-cif' ic Highlands, 30, 

palm, 84 
pain'pa?, 84 
Pan-a-ma', 80 
Pa-rft', 93 
PS-ra-guay', 85 
Par'Ta, 105 
passes, 94 
Pat-a-go'nl-a, 92 
Pat'er-son, 63 
Paw-tuck'et, 48 
pearls, 79 
Pe-kin', 116 
pen-in'su-la, 11 
Penn, 49 

Penn-syl-va'nI-a, 52 
Pe-O'ri-4, 65 
PSr'sia (-sha), 121 
P6-ru', 88, 92 
pe-tro'le-um, 63, 63, 

Phil-a-deTpM-a, 49, 53, 

Pbil'lp-plne, 133 

Pfed'mftnt Belt, 38 

Pitts'burg, 63 

Pl-zar'rO, 92 

plain, 11 

plans, 7 

plants, 18-19 

pla-teau' (-M)'), 11 

Plym'outh, 44 

pole, 17 

Port'land, Me., 48; 

Ore., 71 
PSr'tO Ri'cO, 81 
P5r'ttt-gal, 106 
Po-to'mac, 62 
prfti'rle, 11, 61 
l*r6v'i-dence, 48 
Que-bec', 75 
quicksilver, 70 
qui'nine, 86 
races, 24 
Ra'leTpft, 65 
ranches, 57 
range, 12 
rein'deer, 102 
re-ll'gion, 23 
re-pub'lic, 23 
limine, 95 

Rhode Is'land, 44, 45 
rice, 68, 118 
Rich'mond, 64 
ridge, 12 
Ri'o de Ja-nei'rO (zha-), 

RT'o de la Plfi'ta, 83 
rivers, 14 
Roch'es-ter, 63 
Rocky Mts., 30, 38 
Rome, 107 
Rou-ma'nI-a, 108 
Russia (riish'a), 100, 

102, 112 
Sac-ra-m8n'to, 71 
Sa-ha'ra, 127 
St. Au'gus-tl'nc, 65 
St. Law'rence, 31 
St. Lou'Ts (or -is), 64 
St. Paul, 65 
St. PG'ters-burg, 102 
salt, 53, 106, 129 
Salt Lake, 69 
sandalwood, 119 
San Fran-cJs'cO, 71 

Sftn FrSn-cIs'cO Bay, 

San-tl-a'gO, 93 
San-ti-a'gOdeCu'ba, 81 
Sar-dln'I-a, 107 
S&s-katch'e-wan, 73 
Sa-vftn'naft, 65, 68, 69 
S«an-dl-na'vl-an, 87, 97 
Seot'land, 99 
sea, 9, 13 
seaports, 14 
sea'jonj, 16 
Se-at'tle, 71 
selvas, 84 
Se-oul', 117 
Ser'vl-a, 108 
Shang-ha'I, 116 
Si-am', 119 
Sl-be'rI-a, 1 13 
SIc'I-ly, 107 
Si-er'ra Ma'dre, 30 
Sl-er'ra N6-va"'da, 80, 

89 70 
silk, 95, 105, 107 
silver, 42, 79, 88 
soil, 21 
sound, 13 
source, .14 
South A-nier'1-ca, 26, 

South Car-6-lI'na, 66-59 
South Da-ko'tn, 61-65 
Spain, Span'ish, 32, 65, 

106, 107 
sponges, 122 
spring, 14 
state 23 
Stock'hSlra, 100 
strait, 13 
Su-dftn', 129 
Sij-ez' Canal, 127 
sugar cane, 42, 68, 81 
sugar beet, 104 
Su-ma'tra, 133 
SwG'den, 100 
Swit'zer-land, 106 
Syd'ney, 131 
Ta-cO'ma, 71 
tap-i-o'ca, 86 
tea, 114, 118 
teak, 119 

Ten-nes-aee', 56-59 
ter'ri-to-ry, 43 
Tex'as, 55-69 
Thames (tfimz), 98 
tobacco, 63 
To'kyo (-ke-o), 11» 
T0-le'd8, 66 
Tfr-pC'ka, 66 
T0-r6n'tO, 76 
trans-por-ta'tion, 42 
Trans-vftal', 130 
Trip'o-11, 127 
Troy, 63 
Tu'nis, 127 
Tur-kes-tan', 120 
Tur'key, 108, 121 
United States, 31, 38-72 
U'ni-guay', 90 
C'tSA, 68-71 
val'ley, 12 
Val-pa-ral'sO, 93 
Ven-6-zue'la, 90. 
Ven'Ice, 107 
Ve'ra Cruz (crus), 79 
VSr-m5nt\ 44, 46 
Ve-sQ'vI-us, 12 
VY-en'na, 106 
Vir-gln'I-a, 49-54 
vol-ca'no, 12, 79, 82 
VSl'ga, 96 
Wale?. 99 
"Wash'ing-ton, 43; city, 

43 ; state, 68-71 
Wa'ter-bur-y (-ber-), 48- 
watershed, 13, 31 
West In'dtes, 80 
West Vir-glu'I-a, 49-6* 
whale, 76 
wheat, 62 
Wheel'ing, 63 
Wil'ming-ton, Del., 63; 

N.C., 68 
wine, 70, 104, 105 
Wis-con'sin, 61-65 
wool, 104 
Wy-o'ming, 68-71 
Yel'ISw-stone Park, 60 
Yo'kO-ha'ma, 119 
Y6-sem'I-te, 69 
Zam-be'zT (or -ze), 12S 
Zan-zI-baV, 180 
zones, 17 









Dryer's L 

IN 1 







J I. CO 

I. IO 




Price's Observations and Exercises on the Weather, .30 

National Geographic Monographs, one volume .... 2.50 

Physiographic Processes J. W. Powell 

Physiographic Features J. W. Powell 

Physiographic Regions of the U. S J. W. Powell 

Present and Extinct Lakes of Nevada ... I. C. Russell 

Beaches of the Atlantic Coast N. S. Shalcr 

The Northern Appalachians Bailey Willis 

Niagara Falls and their History G. K. Gilbert 

Mt. Shasta — A Typical Volcano J. S. Diller 

Physical Geography of Southern New 

England W, M. Davis 

The Southern Appalachians .C. W. Hayes