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MECANIQUE CELESTE.
MECANIQUE CELESTE.
BY THE
MARQUIS DE LA PLACE,
PEER OF FRANCE; GRAND CROSS OF THE LEGION OF HONOR ; MEMBER OF THE FRENCH ACADEMY, OF THE ACADEMY
OF SCIENCES OF PARIS, OF THE BOARD OF LONGITUDE OF FRANCE, OF THE ROYAL SOCIETIES OF
LONOON AND GOTTINGEN, OF THE ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES OF RUSSIA, DENMARK.
SWEDEN, PRUSSIA, HOLLAND, AND ITALY; MEMBER OF THE
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES; ETC.
TRANSLATED, WITH A COMMENTARY,
NATHANIEL BOWDITCH, LL. D.
TELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND DUBLIN; OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
OF LONDON j OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY HELD AT PHILADELPHIA; OF THE
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES J ETC.
VOLUME III.
BOSTON :
FROM THE PRESS OF ISAAC R. BUTTS ;
MILLIARD, GRAY, LITTLE, AND WILKINS, PUBLISHERS.
M DCCC XXXIV.
/i^i
/
fâb"^
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1829,
By Nathaniel Bowditch,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.
TO
BONAPARTE
MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE.
Citizen First Consul,
You have permitted me to dedicate this work to you.
It is gratifying and honorable to me to present it to the Hero, the
Pacificator of Europe,* to whom France owes her prosperity, her greatness,
and the most brilliant epoch of her glory ; to the enlightened Protector
of the Sciences, who, himself distinguished in them, perceives, in their
cultivation, the source of the most noble enjoyment, and, in their
progress, the perfection of all useful arts and social institutions.
May this work, consecrated to the most sublime of the natural sciences,
be a durable monument of the gratitude inspired in those who cultivate
them, by your kindness, and by the rewards of the government.
Of all the truths which this work contains, the expression of this
sentiment will ever be the most precious to me.
Salutation and Respect,
LA PLACE.
[* This volume was published, by La Place, in 1802, soon after the peace of Amiens.]
VOL. III. B
ADVERTISEMENT.
This volume contains the numerical values of the secular and periodical
inequalities of the motions of the planets and moon ; the numbers, given
in the original work, having been reduced from centesimal to sexagesimal
seconds, to render them more convenient for reference. The Appendix
contains many important formulas and tables, which are useful to
astronomers in computing the motions of the planets and comets. Some of
these tables are new, and the others have been varied in their forms, to
render them more simple in their uses and applications : none of them have
heretofore been published in this country. Several of the formulas have
been introduced into the calculations of modern astronomy, since the
commencement of the first part of the original work. The portrait of
the author, accompanying this volume, was obtained in France, and is an
impression from the original plate, which was engraved under his direction,
for the Système du Monde. The fourth volume of the work will be put
to press in the course of a few weeks.
PREFACE.
We have given, in the first part of this work, the general principles of
the equilibrium and motion of bodies. The application of these principles
to the motions of the heavenly bodies, has conducted us, by geometrical
reasoning, without any hypothesis, to the law of universal attraction ; the
action of gravity, and the motions of projectiles on the surface of the earth,
being particular cases of this law. We have then taken into consideration,
a system of bodies subjected to this great law of nature ; and have obtained,
by a singular analysis, the general expressions of their motions, of their
figures, and of the oscillations of the fluids which cover them. From these
expressions, we have deduced all the known phenomena of the flow and ebb
of the tide ; the variations of the degrees, and of the force of gravity at the
surface of the earth ; the precession of the equinoxes ; the libration of the
moon ; and the figure and rotation of Saturn's Rings. We have also pointed
out the cause, why these rings remain, permanently, in the plane of the
equator of Saturn. Moreover, we have deduced, from the same theory of
gravity, the principal equations of the motions of the planets ; particularly
those of Jupiter and Saturn, whose great inequalities have a period of above
nine hundred years. The inequalities in the motions of Jupiter and Saturn,
presented, at first, to astronomers, nothing but anomalies, whose laws and
causes were unknown; and, for a long time, these irregularities appeared to
be inconsistent with the theory of gravity ; but a more thorough examination
has shown, that they can be deduced from it ; and now, these motions are
VOL. III. c
PREFACE.
one of the most striking proofs of the truth of this theory. We have
developed the secular variations of the elements of the planetary system,
which do not return to the same state till after the lapse of many centuries.
In the midst of all these changes we have discovered the constancy of the
mean motions, and of the mean distances of the bodies of this system ;
which nature seems to have arranged, at its origin, for an eternal duration,
upon the same principles as those which prevail, so admirably, upon the
earth, for the preservation of individuals, and for the perpetuity of the
species. From the single circumstance, that the motions are all in the
same direction, and in planes but little inclined to each other, it follows,
that the orbits of the planets and satellites must always be nearly circular,
and but little inclined to each other. Thus, the variations of the obliquity
of the ecliptic, which are always included within narrow limits, will never
produce an eternal spring upon the earth. We have proved that the attraction
of the terrestrial spheroid, by incessantly drawing towards its centre
the hemisphere of the moon, which is directed towards the earth, transfers
to the rotatory motion of this satellite, the great secular variations of its
motion of revolution ; and, by this means, keeps always from our view, the
other hemisphere. Lastly, we have demonstrated, in the motions of the
three first satellites of Jupiter, the following remarkable law, namely,
that, in consequence of their mutual attractions, the mean longitude of the
first satellite, seen from the centre of Jupiter, minus three times that of the
second satellite, plus twice that of the third satellite, is alivays exactly equal
to two right angles ; so that they cannot all be eclipsed at the same time.
It remains now to consider particularly the perturbations of the motions of
the planets and comets about the sun ; of the moon about the earth ; and
of the satellites about their primary planets. This is the object of the
second part of this work, which is particularly devoted to the improvement
of astronomical tables.
PREFACE. xi
The tables have followed the progress of the science, which serves as
their basis ; and this progress was, at first, extremely slow. During a very
long time, the apparent motions only of the planets were observed. This
interval, which commenced in the most remote antiquity, may be considered
as the infancy of Astronomy. It comprises the labors of Hipparchus and
Ptolemy ; also, those of the Indians, the Arabs, and the Persians. The
system of Ptolemy, which they successively adopted, is, in fact, nothing
more than a method of representing the apparent motions ; and, on this
account, it was useful to science. Such is the weakness of the human
mind, that it often requires the aid of a theory, to connect together
a series of observations. If we restrict the theory to this use, and
take care not to attribute to it a reality which it does not possess, and
afterwards frequently rectify it, by new observations, we may finally discover
the true cause, or, at least, the laws of the phenomena. The history of
Philosophy affords us more than one example, of the advantages which may
be derived from an assumed theory ; and, of the errors to Avhich we are
exposed, in considering it to be the true representation of nature. About
the middle of the sixteenth century, Copernicus discovered, that the
apparent motions of the heavenly bodies indicated a real motion of the
earth about the sun, with a rotatory motion about its own axis : by this
means, he showed to us the universe in a new point of view, and completely
changed the face of Astronomy. A remarkable concurrence of discoveries
will forever render memorable, in the history of science, the century
immediately following this discovery ; a period which is also illustrious, by
many masterpieces of literature and the fine arts. Kepler discovered the
laws of the elliptical motion of the planets ; the telescope, which was
invented by the most fortunate accident, and was immediately improved
by Galileo, enabled him to see, in the heavens, new inequalities and new
worlds. The application of the pendulum to clocks, by Huygens, and that
xii PREFACE.
of telescopes to the astronomical quadrant, gave more accurate measures
of angles and times, and thus rendered sensible the least inequalities in the
celestial motions. At the same time that observations presented to the
human mind new phenomena, it created, to explain them, and to submit
them to calculation, new instruments of thought. Napier invented
logarithms : the analysis of curves, and the science of dynamics, were
formed I)y the hands of Descartes and Galileo : Newton discovered the
differential calculus, decomposed a ray of light, and penetrated into the
general principle of gravity. In the century which has just passed, the
successors of this great man have finished the superstructure, of which he
laid the foundation. They have improved the analysis of infinitely small
quantities, and have invented the calculus of partial differences, both infinitely
small and finite : and have reduced the whole science of mechanics to
formulas. In applying these discoveries to the law of gravity, they have
deduced from it all the celestial phenomena ; and have given to the theories
and to astronomical tables an unexpected degree of accuracy; which is to
be attributed, in a great measure, to the labors of French mathematicians,
and to the prizes proposed by the Academy of Sciences. To these
discoveries in the last century, we must add those of Bradley, on
the aberration of the stars, and on the nutation of the earth's axis : the
numerous measures of the degrees of the meridian, and of the lengths of
the pendulum ; of which operations, the first example was given by France,
in sending academicians to the north, to the equator, and to the southern
hemisphere, to observe the lengths of these degrees, and the intensity of
gravity : the measure of the arc of the meridian, comprised between
Dunkirk and Barcelona ; which has been determined by very accurate
observation, and is used as the basis of the most simple and natural
system of measures : the numerous voyages of discovery, undertaken to
explore the different parts of the globe, and to observe the transits of
PREFACE. xiii
Venus over the sun's disc ; by which means, the exact determination of
the dimensions of the sokir system has been obtained, as the fruit of
these voyages : the discoveries, by Herschel, of the planet Uranus, its
satellites, and two new satellites of Saturn : finally, if we add to all these
discoveries, the admirable invention of the instrument of reflexion, so useful
at sea ; that of the achromatic telescope ; also the repeating circle, and
chronometer ; we must be satisfied, that the last century, considered
with respect to the progress of the human mind, is worthy of that
which preceded it. The century we have now entered upon, commenced
under the most favorable auspices for Astronomy. Its first day was
remarkable, by the discovery of the planet Ceres ; followed, almost
immediately afterwards, by that of the planet Pallas, having nearly the
same mean distance from the sun. The proximity of Jupiter to these two
extremely small bodies ; the greatness of the excentricities and of the
inclinations of their mutually intersecting orbits, must produce, in their
motions, considerable inequalities, which will throw new light on the
theory of the celestial attractions, and must give rise to farther improvements
in Astronomy.
It is chiefly in the application of analysis to the system of the world,
that we perceive the power of this wonderful instrument ; without which,
it would have been impossible to have discovered a mechanism which is
so complicated in its effects, while it is so simple in its cause. The
mathematician now includes in his formulas, the whole of the planetary
system, and its successive variations ; he looks back, in imagination, to the
several states, which the system has passed through, in the most remote
ages ; and foretells what time will hereafter make known to observers.
He sees this sublime spectacle, whose period includes several millions of
years, repeated in a few centuries, in the system of the satellites of
VOL. HI. D
XIV PREFACE.
Jupiter, by means of the rapidity of their revolutions ; which produce
remarkable phenomena, similar to those which had been suspected, by
astronomers, in the planetary motions ; but had not been determined,
because they were either too complex, or too slow, for an accurate
determination of their laws. The tlieory of gravity, which, by so many
applications, has become a means of discovery, as certain as by observation
itself, has made known to him several new inequalities, in the motions of the
heavenly bodies, and enabled him to predict the return of the comet of 1 759,
whose revolutions are rendered very unequal, by the attractions of Jupiter
and Saturn. He has been enabled, by this means, to deduce, from
observation, as from a rich mine, a great number of important and delicate
elements, which, without the aid of analysis, would have been forever
hidden from his view: such as the relative values of the masses of the
sun, the planets and satellites, determined by the revolutions of these bodies,
and by the development of their periodical and secular inequalities :
the velocity of light, and the ellipticity of Jupiter ; which are given,
by the eclipses of its satellites, with greater accuracy, than by direct
observation: the rotation and oblateness of Uranus and Saturn; deduced
from the consideration, that the different bodies which revolve about
those two planets, are in the same plane, respectively : the parallaxes
of the sun and moon : and, also, the figure of the earth, deduced from
some lunar inequalities : for, we shall see hereafter, that the moon, by
its motion, discloses to modern astronomy, the small ellipticity of the
terrestrial spheroid, whose roundness was made known to the first observers
by the eclipses of that luminary. Lastly, by a fortunate combination of
analysis with observation, that body, which seems to have been given to
the earth, to enlighten it, during the night, becomes also the most sure
guide of the navigator ; who is protected by it from the dangers, to
\vhich he was for a long time exposed, by the errors of his reckoning.
PREFACE. XV
The perfection of the theory, and of the lunar tables, to which he is
indebted for this important object, and for that of determining, with
accuracy, the position of the places he falls in with, is the fruit of the
labors of mathematicians and astronomers, during the last fifty years:
it unites all that can give value to a discovery ; the importance and
usefulness of the object, its various applications, and the merit of the
dififlculty which is overcome. It is thus, that the most abstract theories,
diffused by numerous applications to nature and to the arts, have become
inexhaustible sources of comfort and enjoyment, even to those who are
wholly ignorant of the nature of these theories.
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
PARTICULAR THEORIES OP THE MOTIONS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES.
SIXTH BOOK.
THEORY OF THE PLANETARY MOTIONS.
Object of this theory 1
CHAPTER I. FORMULAS FOR THE INEaUALITIES OF THE MOTIONS OP THE PLANETS, WHICH
DEPEND ON THE SaUARES AND HIGHER POWERS OF THE EXCENTRICITIES AND INCLINATIONS OF
THE ORBITS 4
ON TUE INEaUALITIES WHICH DEPEND UPON THE SaUARES AND PRODUCTS OP THE
EXCENTRICITIES AND INCLINATIONS 4
Form of the terms which produce them [.3703,3704]. Influence of the ratio of the mean
motions upon these terms, by reason of the small divisors, which are introduced by the
integrations [3712]. Preparations of the diflerential equations for the different cases of these
inequalities which occur in the solar system §L2
Considerations, by which we may distinguish the most important of these inequalities
[37323735] §3
Development of the terms, which result in the expressions of the radius vector, of the longitude,
and of the latitude of the disturbed planet [3736— 3800] §4,5,0
OX THE INEaUALITIES DEPENDING ON THE CUBES AND PRODUCTS OF THREE DIMENSIONS OF THE
EXCENTRICITIES AND INCLINATIONS OF THE ORBITS, AND ON THEIE HIGHER POWERS 45
Form of the terms which produce them [3807—3807'] § 7
Examination of the cases where they become sensible. They depend on the circumstance, that
the ratios of the mean motions are nearly commensurable. Application of these principles to
the theory of Jupiter and Saturn, in terras of the third degree [3828, &c.] § 8
Inequalities depending on terms of the fifth degree [38.56']. They are sensible in the theory of
Jupiter and Saturn. Calculation of them for these planets [3860, «Sic] § 9
VOL. MI. E
XX CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
longitude and the radius vector of the earth [4300', 4304]. The planets which produce them,
are Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.
Inequalities which are independent of the excentricities [4305,4306].
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities [4307, 4308].
Inequalities depending on tlie second dimension of the excentricities and inclinations of the
orbits [4309].
Inequalities depending on the third dimension of the same quantities [4311].
Inequalities of the motion of the earth in latitude [4312]. They are produced by the action of
Venus and Jupiter ^ 2<j
Inequalities of the motion of the Earth, produced by the action of the Moon [4324,4326]. §30
On the secular variations of the earth's orbit, of the equator, and of the length of the year
[4329", &c.]. The action of the sun and moon has a considerable influence on these values.
Determination of the epoch, when the greater axis of the earth's orbit coincided with the line
of the equinoxes [4363"], and when these two lines were perpendicular to each other
[4367'"] §31
CHAPTER XI. THEORY OF MAES 26S
Examination of the limit to which the approximations must be carried, in the valuation of the
radius vector [4371, &c.]. Numerical values of the sensible inequalities which affect the
longitude and radius vector. The planets which produce them, are Venus, the Earth, Jupiter
and Saturn.
Inequalities which are independent of the excentricities [4.373, 4374].
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities [4375, 4376].
Inequalities depending on the second dimension of the excentricities and inclinations of the
orbits [4377—4380].
The inequalities in latitude are hardly sensible [4384]. The greatest of them arises from the
action of Jupiter §32
CHAPTER Xll. THEORY OF JUPITER 275
Examination of the limit to which the approximations must be carried, in the valuation of the
radius vector [4385, &c.]. Numerical values of the sensible inequalities afiecting the
longitude and the radius vector. The planets which produce these inequalities, are the Earth,
Saturn, and Uranus, but chiefly Saturn.
Inequalities which are independent of the e.xcentricities [4388,4389].
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities [4392,4393]. They are so large
as to render it necessary to notice the variation of their coefiîcients.
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricities and inclinations
[4.394 — 4.397], They are produced only by the action of Saturn.
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. Xxi
Inequalities depending on the third and fifth dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations ;
and also on the square of the disturbing force [4401, «fee.]. These last terms, which depend
on the inequalities of a very long period, have considerable influence on the secular variations
of the elliptical elements.
Great inequality of the mean motions [4434]. It is produced by the action of Saturn. . §33
Inequalities in latitude [4457]. They are produced by the action of Saturn §34
CHAPTER XIII. THEOUV OF SATURi\ 299
Examination of the degree to which the approximations must be carried in the valuation of the
radius vector [4460, &c.]. Numerical valuesof the sensible inequalities affecting the longitude
and radius vector. The planets which produce them are Jupiter and Uranus.
Inequalities which are independent of the excentricities [4463,446].
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities [4466, 4467].
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricities and inclinations
[4463—4471].
Inequalities depending on the third and fifth dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations,
and also on the square of the disturbing force [4472', &c]. Great inequality of Saturn. It is
the reaction of that of Jupiter § 35
Inequalities in latitude [4511]. They are produced by the action of Jupiter and Uranus. . §36
CHAPTER XIV. THEORY OF UEANUS 314
Examination of the degree to which the approximations must be carried, in the valuation of the
radius vector [4521, &c.]. Numerical values of the sensible inequalities affecting the
longitude and radius vector. They are produced by the action of Jupiter and Saturn.
Inequalities which are independent of the excentricities [4523, 4524].
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities [4525, 4526].
Inequalities depending on the second dimension of the excentricities and inclinations
[4.527—4529].
Inequalities depending on the third dimension of the excentricities and inclinations [4530].
There is only one of them produced by the action of Saturn § 37
Inequalities in latitude [4531]. They are produced by the action of Jupiter and Saturn. § 38
CHAPTER XV. O.N SOME EaUATIONS OF CONDITION, BETWEEN THE INEaUALlTlES OF THE PLANETS,
WHICH MAY BE USED IN VEEIFn.NG THEIR NUMERICAL VALCES §39—43 318
CHAPTER XVI. ON THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS AND MOON 333
VOL. III. F
XXII
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
Reflections on the values given to those masses in § 21. New determination of those of Venus
and Mars [4G05, 4608]. Discussion of that of the Moon, by the comparison of several
phenomena which can determine it [4619 — 4637], such as the observation of the tides, the
lunar equation in the tables of the Sun, the nutation of the Earth's axis, and the Moon's
parallax. From these examinations, it appears, that this mass is rather less than that which is
deduced from the tides observed at Brest [4037] §44
*
CHAPTER XVII. ON THE FORMATION OF ASTRONOMICAL TABLES, AND ON THE INVARIABLE PLANE
OF THE PLANETARY SVSTEM §45,46 341
CHAPTER XVIII. ON THE ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS UPON THF PLANETARY SYSTEM. . . . 343
The great distance of these bodies renders their action insensible [4673]. Reflections on the
comparison of the preceding formulas with observations [4687, &c.] §47
SEVENTH BOOK.
THEORY OF THE MOON.
Explanation of this theory ; its particular difficulties [4692, &c.]. Considerations that must influence
us in the approximations. How we may deduce from this theory, several important elements
of the system of the world [4702, &c.], and among others, the oblateness of the Earlh [4709],
which is thus obtained with greater accuracy than by direct observations 356
CHAPTER I. INTEGRATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EaUATIONS OF THE MOON'S MOTION 2QQ
Difierential equations of this motion given in § 15 of the second book [4753 — 4756]. Method
of noticing in the calculation, the nonsphericity of the Moon and Earth [4773]. ... § 1
Development of the quantities which occur in the differential equations, supposing these two
bodies to be spherical [4780, &c.] §2
The ecliptic, in its secular motion, carries with it the moon's orbit, so that the mean inclination of
this orbit to the ecliptic, remains always the same [4803]. This circumstance, indicated by
analysis, simplifies the calculations, because it permits us to take the ecliptic for the fixed plane
of projection [4804] §3
Investigation of the elliptical part of the motions of the Moon and Earth [4826, 4828, 4837,4838]. § 4
Principles relative to the degrees of smallness of the quantities which occur in the expressions
of the coordinates of the moon [4841]. Examination of the influence of the successive
integrations upon the different terms of these coordinates [4847, &c.]. Indication of the
terms of the radius vector, wliich produce the evection [4850], and annual equation [4851]. §5
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. Xxiii
Use to be made of these considerations. Development of the differential equation which produces
the radius vector ; noticing only the first power of the disturbing force [4858 — 4903]. § 6, 7
Investigation of the terms of the order of the square and the higher powers of the disturbing
masses, which acquire a sensible influence by integration [4904, &c.]. It is necessary to
notice the perturbations of the Earth by the Moon [4909', 4948, &c.] §8
Connection of these terms with the preceding. Complete development of the differential
equation which produces the radius vector [4961] § 9
Integration of tliis equation [4904, &c.]. Inequalities resulting from it. Expression of the
motion of the lunar perigee [4982, &c.].
The variableness of the excentricity of the Earth's orbit produces a secular inequality in the
constant term of the Moon's parallax ; but this inequality is insensible [4970].
The same cause produces a secular inequality in the motion of the Moon's perigee, which is
conformable to observation. Analytical expression of this inequality [4985].
The excentricity of the Moon's orbit is subjected to a secular variation, which is analogous to
that of the parallax, and like it, insensible [4987] § 10
Development of the differential equation which gives the latitude [501 8, &c.], noticing, in the
first place, only the simple power of the disturbing forces §11
Investigation of tlie terms of the order of the square of those forces which acquire a sensible
influence in the expression of the latitude [5039,&c.] §12
Connection of these terms with the preceding, and the complete development of the difierential
equation which gives the latitude [5049] §13
Integration of this equation [5050, &c.]. Inequalities resulting from it. Expression of the
retrograde motion of the nodes [5059].
The variableness of the excentricity of the Earth's orbit, produces in this motion a secular
inequality. Analytical expression of this inequality [5059]. Its ratio to that of the perigee
[5060].
The inclination of the lunar orbit to the true ecliptic, is likewise variable by means of the same
cause ; but this variation is insensible [50G1] §14
Development of the differential equation which gives the time or the mean longitude in terras of
the true longitude [5081, &c.] Integration of this equation. Inequalities which result from
it [5095, &c.]
The mean longitude also suffers a secular change, resulting from the variableness of the excentricity
of the Earth's orbit; expression of this inequality. Analytical relations of the secular equations
of the mean motions of the Moon, its perigee and nodes [5089, «Sic] § 15
Numerical determination of the several coefficients, occurring in the preceding formulas [51 17,&c.]
and the numerical développent of the expression of the mean longitude [5220]. The
perturbations of the Earth's orbit by the Moon, are reflected to the Moon by means of the Sun
and are weakened by the transmission [.5225, 5226]. Numerical value of tlie motion of the
perigee [5231], and of its secular equation [5232]. This equation has a contrary sign to that
of the mean motion [.5232']. Numerical expression of the motion of the node [5233], and of
Xxiv CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
its secular equation [5234]. This equation has also a contrary sign to that of the mean motion
[5234'] ; hence it follows, that the motions of the nodes and perigee decrease, while that of the
Moon increases. Numerical ratios of these three secular equations [5235]. Secular equation
of the mean anomaly [5238] § 16
The most sensible inequalities of the fourth order, which occur in the expression of tlie mean
longitude [5240— 5305] §17
Numerical expression of the latitude [5308] §18
Numerical expression of the Moon's parallax [5331] § 19
CHAPTER II. ON THE LUÎJAR INEQUALITIES ARISING FROM THE OBLATENESS OF THE EARTH A.\D
MOON 585
The oblateness of the Earth produces in the latitude of the Moon but one single inequality. We
may represent this effect, by supposing that the orbit of the Moon, instead of moving on the
plane of the ecliptic, with a constant inclination, to move with the same condition, upon a
plane which always passes through the equinoxes between the ecliptic and equator [5352].
This inequality can be used for the determination of the oblateness of the Earth [.5358]. It
is the reaction of the nutation of the Earth's axis upon the lunar spheroid [5398], and there
would be an equilibrium about the centre of gravity of the Earth by means of the forces
producing these two inequalities, if all the particles of the Earth and Moon were firmly
connected with each other, the Moon compensating for the sraallness of the forces acting on it,
by the length of the lever to which it is attached [5424].
The oblatenes of the Earth has no sensible influence on the radius vector of the Moon [.53G6] ;
but it produces in the Moon's longitude one sensible inequality. The motions of the perigee
and node are but very little augmented by it [5396, &c.] § 20
The nonsphericity of the Moon produces in its motion only insensible inequalities
[5445, 5451, &c.] §21
CHAPTER III. ON THE INEaUALITIES OP TUE MOON DEPENDING ON THE ACTION OF THE PLANETS. G17
These inequalities are of two kinds, the first depends on the direct action of the planets on the
motion of the Moon [5479, 5481] ; the second arises from the perturbations in the Earth's
radius vector produced by the planets [5490]. These perturbations are reflected to the Moon
by means of the Sun, and are augmented by the integrations which gives them small divisors.
Determination of these inequalities for Venus, Mars, and Jupiter [5491, &c.]. The variableness
of the excentricities of the orbits of the planets, introduces, in the mean longitude of the
Moon, secular equations, analogous to that produced by the variation of the excentricity of the
Earth's orbit, reflected to the Moon by means of the Sun ; but they are wholly insensible in
comparison with this last. Thus the indirect action of the planets on the Moon, transmitted by
means of the Sun, considerably exceeds their direct action, relative to this inequality [5539]. §22
CHAPTER IV. COMPARISON OF THE PRECEDING THEORY WITH OBSERVATION 642
Numerical values of the secular inequality of the mean motion of the Moon [5542, &c.], and those
of the mean motions of the perigee and node of the Moon's orbit. Considerations which
confirm their accuracy [5544, &c.] § 23
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
Periodical inequalities of the Moon's motion in longitude [5551, &c.]. Agreement of the
coefficients given by the theory, with those of the lunar tables of Mason and Burg [5575, &c.].
One of these inequalities depends on the Sun's parallax [5581]. If we determine its
coefficient by observation, we may deduce from it the same value of the Sun's paralla.ï,as that
which is obtained by the transits of Venus [5589']. Another of these inequalities depends on
the oblateness of the Earth [5590]. The value of its coefficient determined by the tables of
Mason and Burg, indicates that the Earth is less flattened than in the hypothesis of homogeneity,
and that the oblatenes is ^^g. [5593] , S 34
Inequalities of the Moon's motion in latitude [5595, &c.]. Agreement of the coefficients given
by the theory with those of the tables of Mason and Burg [5596]. One of these inequalities
depends on the oblateness of the Earth [5598]. Its coefficient, determined by observation,
gives tlie same oblateness [5602], as the inequality in longitude depending on the same element.
So that these two results agree in proving, that the Earth is less flattened than in the
hypothesis of homogeneity ^25
Numerical expression of the Moon's horizontal parallax [5C03]. Its agreement with the tables
of Mason and Burg [5605] §26
CHAPTER V. ON AN INEaUALITV OF A LONG PERIOD, WHICH APPEARS TO EXIST IN THE MOON'S
MOTION QQQ
The action of the Sun on the Moon, produces in the motion of that satellite an inequality, whose
argument is double the longitude of the node of the Moon's orbit, plus the longitude of its
perigee, mimis three times the longitude of the Sun's perigee [5641, &c.]. The consideration
of the nonspherical form of the Earth, may also introduce into the motion of the Moon, two
other inequalities [5633, 5638'], with nearly the same period as that which we have just
mentioned ; and in the present situation of the Sun's perigee, they are all three nearly
confounded together. The coefficients of these three inequalities are very difficult to compute
from the theory ; it appears that the two last must be wholly insensible [5637', 5639']. . § 27
The first is evidently indicated by observations. Determination of its coefficient [5665]. [This
result was afterwards found to be incorrect, as is observed in the note, page 666, &c.]. § 28
CHAPTER VI. ON THE SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE MOTIONS OF THE MOON AND EARTH, WHICH
CAN BE PRODUCED BY THE RESISTANCE OF AN ETHEREAL FLUID SURROUNDING THE SUN. . . g^g
The resistance of the ether produces a secular equation in the Moon's mean motion [5715] ;
but it does not produce any sensible inequality in the motions of the perigee and nodes
[5713,5717] §29
The secular equation of the Earth's mean motion, produced by the resistance of the ether, is about
one hundredth part of the corresponding equation of the Moon's mean motion [5740]. §30
VOL. III. ^
XXV
Xxvi CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
APPENDIX BY THE AUTHOR.
The chief object of this appendix is to demonstrate a theorem, discovered by Mr. Poisson, that the
mean motions of the planets are invariable, when we notice only the terms depending on the first and
second powers of the disturbing forces [5744, &c.] This is done by giving new forms to some of the
differential expressions of the elements of the orbits, as is observed in [.5743, &c]. Forms of these
differentials, including all the terms depending upon the first power of the disturbing masses
[5786 — 5791]. Expressions of the mean motion [5794] ; of the periodical inequalities in the
elements [5873 — 5879] ; and of the secular inequalities of the elements [5882 — 58SS].
Investigation of the mutual action of two planets upon each other, referring their inequalities to
an intermediate invariable plane [5905, &c].
New method of computing the lunar inequalities, depending upon the oblateness of the earth
[5937—5973].
On the two great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn ; correcting for the mistake in the signs of the
functions JVC), JV(}) Sic. [5974—5981].
IN THE COMMENTARY
Among the subjects treated of in the JVotes, we may mention the following :
Correction to be made in the formula mfàR{m'rdR' = 0, [1202], in some of the terms of the
order of the square of the disturbing masses [4004c, &c]. The necessity of this correction was first
made known by Mr. Plana [400Gw, &c.]. Results of the discussion upon this subject, by Messrs.
Plana, Pontecoulant, Poisson and La Place [40056'— 4008î]. New formula by La Place, relative to
some of these terms [4008x]. This formula has been called " the last gift of La Place to Astronomy,"
being the last work he ever published.
On the values of the constant quantities f,,f',g, &c. ; introduced into the integral expressions of
or, ÔV, OS, by La Place [4058c, &c.] ; which were objected to by Mr. Plana. The results of La Place's
calculation proved to be correct by him, and by Mr. Poisson, in [4058c — 40G0/i].
Corrected values of the masses of the planets, finally adopted by the author [40Gld].
Elements of the newly discovered planets Vesta, Juno, Pallas and Ceres ; corresponding to the 23d
July, 1831, as given by Enckc [4079i].
Elements of the orbits of the comets of Halley, Olbers, Encke and Biela [4079»i].
Inequalities in the motions of Venus and the Earth, having a period of 2.39 years, and depending
on terms of the fifth order of the excentricities and inclinations ; discovered and computed by Professor
Airy [4296 a — q, 4310 c — /].
Mr. Ponteooulant's table of the part of the great inequality of the motion of Jupiter, depending on
the square of the disturbing force [4431/]. Similar table for the inequalities of the motion of Saturn
[4489c].
Results of the calculations of Professor Hansen [4489 n — p].
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. XXvii
The action of the fixed stars affects the accuracy of the equation ta. m. \/ n ( c's. ?)i'. y/a' f &c. =
[46S5g].
Results of the calculations of several authors relative to the sun's parallax, hy means of the parallactic
inequality in the moon's longitude, and by the transits of Venus over the sun's disc [5589 a — m].
Inequality in the moon's longitude, whose period is about 179 years. It is found to be insensible
[5611 a — g]; instead of being 15V39 at its maximum, as the author supposes in [5GG5].
The planets and comets move in a resisting medium, according to the observations of Encke's
comet [5067 a — c].
Notice of the papers published by La Grange and Poisson, relative to the invaiiableness of the mean
motions of the planets, which is treated of in the appendix to this volume [5741a — I].
It appears from the calculations of Nicolai, Encke and Airy, that the estimated value of the mass of
Jupiter, adopted by La Place from Bouvard's calculations of its action on Saturn and Uranus, must be
increased, to satisfy the observed perturbations of the planets Juno and "Vesta ; as well as those of
Encke's comet, [5980 i — p].
APPENDIX BY THE TRANSLATOR.
Formulas for the motion of a body in an elliptical orbit [.5985(1—19)] ; with their demonstrations
[5984(325)].
Formulas for the motion of a body in a parabolic orbit [5986] ; with their demonstrations [5987].
Determination of the symbol log. A: = 8,2355814 .. . which is used in these calculations [5987(8)].
Formulas for the motions of a body in a hyperbolic orbit [5988] ; with their demonstrations [5989].
Kepler's problem for computing the true anomaly from the time, or the contrary, in an elliptic orbit.
Indirect solution of this problem, according to Kepler's method, but arranged in formulas
by Gauss [.5990].
Simpson's method for determining the true anomaly, in an ellipsis or hyperbola, where e is
very nearly equal to unity, noticing only the first power of 1 — t, or e — J [5991(1— 12)].
Bessel's improved method for computing the terms depending on the second power of
1 e or e1 [.5991(140)]
Gauss's method, in a very cxcentric ellipsis, noticing all the powers of e — 1 [5992].
Gauss's method of solution in a hyperbolic orbit, in which e — 1 is very small, noticing
all tlie powers of this quantity [5993].
Olbers's method of computing the orbit of a comet [.5994, &c.].
Table of formulas which are used in this calculation [5994(.9— 45)].
Geometrical investigation of this method of calculation [5994(46—130")].
Remarks on the manner of determining the approximate values of the curtate distance p
of the comet from the earth [5994(132—172)]
Examples for illustrating these calculations [5994(173—242) ], using tables I, II, III.
Remarks on the calculation of p by means of the equations (C), (/)) [.5994(136—103, 242', 242")].
Forms of the fundamental equations, adopted by Gauss for the determination of the curtate distance,
or its equivalent expression it, by means of logarithms [5994(244, &c.)].
Solution of two examples, reduced to the form of Gauss [5994(247 — 250)].
Analytical investigation of the method of computing the orbit of a comet, [5994(263403)].
Great advantage in having the intervals of times between the observations nearly equal to each
other [5994(349)].
XXVÏn CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.
The method usually employed in this calculation requires some modification, when M appears
under the form of a fraction, in which the numerators and denominators are both very small
[5994(257)]. These methods are explained in [5994(387—392)].
Mr. Lubbock's method of computing the orbit of a comet [5994(405—458)].
Method of computing the elements of the orbit of a heavenly body; there being given the two
radii r,r', the intermediate angle v' — v = 2f, and the time f — t of describing the angle 2/
[5995].
Collection of formulas for solving this problem, in an elliptical orbit [5995(4—67)] ; with their
demonstrations [5995(08—174)]. Examples of the uses of these formulas [5995(175—193)].
Collection of formulas for solving this problem in a parabolic orbit [5996(2— :i;5)] ; with their
demonstrations [.5996(26—50)] ; illustrated by an example in [5996(5153)].
Collection of formulas for solving this problem in a hyperbolic orbit [5997(1 — 59)] ; with their
demonstrations [5997(60—172)]. Example of the uses of these formulas [5997(173—183)].
Gauss's method of correcting for the efiect of the parallax and aberration of any newly discovered
planet or comet, in computing its orbit by means of throe geocentric observations, with the intervals
of time between them [5998].
Corrections in the places of the earth, on account of the planet's parallax [5998(47 — 50)].
Method of calculating the longitude and latitude of the zenith [5998(67 — 71)&,c.]; also the
longitude and latitude of the planet from its right ascension and declination [5998 (97— 107) ], with
examples.
Method of correcting for the aberration of the planet [5998(108 — 117)].
Example for illustrating the calculations relative to the parallax and aberration [5998(118 — 126)].
Gauss's method of computing the orbit of a planet or comet, by means of three geocentric longitudes
and latitudes, together with the times of observation [5999.]
Table of the symbols and formulas which are used in this method [5999(9 — 54)].
Demonstrations of these formulas [5999(58, &c.)].
Example, containing the whole calculation of the elements of the orbit of Juno, from three observa
tions of Maskelyne [5999(274—650)].
CATALOGUE OF THE TABLES IN THE APPENDIX.
Table i. Contains the square roots of the numbers from 0,001 to 10,1 ; to be used in Olbers's
method of computing the orbit of a comet ; in finding r, r", c ; from j9, r"% c^ ;
which are given by three fundamental equations of this method [5994(31, 32, 33)].
Table II. To find the time T of describing a parabolic arc, by a comet ; there being given the sum
of the radii r\r", and the chord c, connecting the two extreme parts of the
arc. This table is computed by Lambert's formula [750], namely,
7 = 9"'''^', 688724. j (, + r" + c)^ — (r + r" — c)* ( ;
and the numbers are given to the nearest unit in the third decimal place, expressed in
days and parts of a day. This degree of accuracy being abundantly sufficient for the
purpose of computing the orbit of a comet, by Dr Olbers's method ; and the table serves
to facilitate this part of the calculation.
CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. XXIX
Table III. To find the anomaly U, corresponding to the time t' from the perihelion, expressed in
days, in a parabolic orbit; where the perilielion distance is the same as the mean distance
of the earth from the sun. The arguments of this table, as they were first arranged by
days days
Burckliardt, are the values of r, from I'^O ,0 to t' = G ,0; and the logarithm
of t' from log.<'^0,700 to log. <'^5,00; the corresponding anomalies being given
from 17=0'' to [/= 172''32"'09',9. We have also given Carlini's table for the
first six days of the value of t'. This last table has for its argument log. of t' days ;
and the corresponding numbers represent log. U in minutes, minus log. t' in days. 9S7
Table IV. To find the true anomaly v, in a very excentric ellipsis or hyperbola, from the
corresponding anomaly U in a parabola; according to the method of Simpson,
improved by Bessel. This table contains the coefficients of Simpson's correction,
corresponding to the first power of (1 — e); and those of Bessel's correction,
corresponding to the second power of (1 — c) ; for every degree of anomaly from
0** to 180''; as they were computed by Bessel 996
Table V. This table was computed by Gauss, for the purpose of finding the true anomaly v,
corresponding to the time t from the perihelion, in a very excentric ellipsis, noticing
all the powers of 1 — e 999
Table VI. This table is similar to Table V, and was computed by Gauss for finding the true
anomaly r, corresponding to the time t from the perihelion, in a hyperbolic orbit,
which approaches very nearly to the form of a parabola; noticing all the powers
of (e— 1) 1002
Table VII. This was computed by Burckhardt, for the purpose of finding the time t, of describing
an arc of a parabolic orbit ; there being given the radii r,r', and the described arc
v'—v = 2f. 1005
Table VIII. This table was computed by Gauss, and is used with Table IX or Table X, in finding
the elements of the orbit of a planet or comet, when there are given the two radii r, r',
the included heliocentric arc v' — x) = 2/; and the time t' — t, of describing this
arc, expressed in days. . 1006
Table IX. This table is used with Table VIII, in the computation of an elliptical orbit, by means of
r,r',v' — V and t' — t 1012
Table X. This table is used with Table VIII, in the computation of a hyperbolic orbit, by means
of r,r', v' — V, and t' — t 1013
Table XI. To convert centesimal degrees, minutes and seconds, into sexagesimals. ..... 1014
Table XII. To convert centesimal seconds into sexagesimals, and the contrary 1016
The Tables V — X, include all those which Gauss published in his Theoria Molus, etc. We have
altered, in some respects, the arrangement and forms of these tables, to render them more convenient
for use ; and upon comparison it will be found, that this appendix contains the most important of the
methods which are given in that great work, as well as in that of Dr Olbers. The methods of Gauss
being somewhat simplified, by reducing many of the processes to the common operations of spherical
trigonometry, instead of using a great number of unusual auxiliary formulas, expressed in an analytical
manner; and Olbers's calculations are abridged by the use of Tables I, II.
VOL. III. ^
ERRATA.
CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS
IN VOLUME I.
PagR. Line.
119 6 bot. For dw read dia.
120 13, 19, 21 J'or (zdx—xdy) read (zdx—xdz).
125 12 For dZjdy,, read dZ\dz,.
7 \)o\.. For — l.m.Sn.ds, read —Xj.m.Sv.ds.
7 bot. For — y'ddx', read — yddx'.
4 bot. For Y read y.
3 bot. Insert dm in the last term.
7 Insert ( after xK
9 bot. For . read 4..
4 bot. For .2 read ^.
9 bot. For axis of z, read axis of x.
16 For dy read Sy.
10 bot. For {dp) read (Jp).
3 bet. For dr' read dr.
4 bot. For ag read a,g.
8 bot. For 0.U read au'.
7 Change tlie accents in the denominator of I'.
1 bot. For /2a, read /22.
7 bot. For 2, read r2.
12 For shi.mt, read sin. ?nn<.
13 For cos.mt, read cos.mnt.
3 For sin.2»i<, read 2.sin.2ji(.
11 For [6S8a], read [66Su].
1 For sin.4.(t),— 6), read sin.4.(i',— 6).
2 2
10 bot. For — , read — .
r * r
3 For 0",5, read 0«,5.
1,2 bot. For logarithm, read logarithmic.
8 bot. For tang.(/g"— ;■), tang. {IS"'—j) ; read
sin.(/3''— /), sin (/3"'— /).
7 bot. For éy, read d'y'.
6 For c, read c'.
4 For y',y', fcc, read y,y', &c.
IS i^or iy',)/', &c., read y,y',&.c.
5 bot. For 6' reaa j'.
6 bot. For c=V', read c'=V'.
4 liot. For .111, read Jl^D.
8 bot. For [1034(;], read [1069a].
1 bot. For the exponent — è, read 4.
134
147
147
147
159
182
183
209
215
220
230
234
235
280
281
301
371
371
378
378
381
398
413
455
464
475
478
480
487
495
499
542
581
585
Page. Line.
593 5 bot. for [109Sa], read [10976'].
608 Id For B, read B„.
618 15 For spherical angle, read spherical triangle.
679 5 bot. For m'p, read m'p' ; and/br m'q, read m'q'.
693 4 bot. For m, read m'.
715 15 bot. For andt, read an, in both formulas.
IN VOLUME II.
370 16 For [1581a], read [1851a].
510 11 bot. For >. read e.
L' , L
780 4 bot. For — , read — .
r'3 T.'i
781 5 bot. For
read — .
IN VOLUME III.
The same measures have been used for .correcting the
mistakes ol the press in Volume III, as in printing the
preceding volumes. The reader will also omit the third
line from the bottom in page 501, which is unnecessarily
repeated ; and at the end of the paragraph, page 556, line
16, will make the following addition of a paragraph which
was accidentally omitted. " The function [5082s] contains
also the terms depending on 120m2..4(8), 120m2../î(9)
[5261c, e, line 1], which are derived from the part
— Ja. funct. [4931;)] contained in [50825]. For by combining
the term A&> ee' .e.os.{cio\e'mv) in [493 J^, col. 1] with
— .e.sin.(2i) — 2nit!— cr), in col. 2, we get the first of these
terms; and by combining the term .4(9).e£'.cos.(CB — c'mtj),
with — Je. sin. (2b — 2niii — ev), in col. 2, we get the second
of these terms." Lastly, in page 458, line 3, we may add,
that the function [4957] must be multiplied by the chief
term of [4S90], or
[4961 or 4960e].
to obtain the corresponding terms of
SECOND PART.
PARTICULAR THEORIES OP THE MOTIONS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES.
SIXTH BOOK.
THEORY OF THE PLANETARY MOTIONS.
The motions of the planets are sensibly disturbed by their mutual
attractions, and it is important to determine accurately the inequalities which
result from this cause ; for the purposes of verifying the law of universal
gravitation, improving the accuracy of astronomical tables, and discovering
whether any cause, foreign from the planetary system, produces a change in
its constitution or its motions. The object of this book is to apply to the
bodies of this system, the methods and general formula given in the first part
of this work. We have developed in the second book, only those inequalities
which are independent of the excentricities or inclinations of the orbits, and
those which depend upon the first power of these quantities. But it is often
indispensable to extend the approximation to the square and to the higher
powers of these elements ; and sometimes it is also necessary to consider the
terms depending on the square of the disturbmg force. We shall first give
the formulas relative to these inequalities ; and shall then substitute in these
formulas, and in those of the second book, the numbers or values of the
elements corresponding to each planet. By this means we shall obtain
the numerical expressions of the radius vector, and the motions of the ^jlanet in
longitude and in latitude. Bouvard has willingly undertaken the calculation
of these substitutions, and the zeal with which he has prosecuted this
laborious work, deserves the acknowledgment of all astronomers. Several
mathematicians had previously calculated the greater part of the planetary
inequalities ; and their results have been useful in verifying those of Bouvard ;
for when any difference has been found, he has examined into the source of
VOL. HI. 1
PARTICULAR THEORIES OF THE
the error, in order to satisfy himself of the accuracy of his own calculation.
Lastly, he has reviewed with particular care, the calculation of those
inequalities which had not been before computed ; and by means of several
equations of condition, which obtain between these inequalities, I have been
enabled to verify many of them. Notwithstanding all these precautions,
there may possibly be found in the following results, some errors, which
almost inevitably occur in such long calculations ; but there is reason to
believe that they amount only to insensible quantities, and that they cannot
be detrimental to the general accuracy of the tables founded upon them.
These results, on account of their importance in the planetary astronomy,
of which they are the basis, deserve to be verified with the same care that
has been taken in the calculation of the tables of logarithms and of sines.
The theories of Mercury, Venus, the Earth, and Mars, produce only
periodical equations of small moment ; they are, however, very sensible, by
modern observations, with which they agree in a remarkable manner. The
development of the secular equations of the planets and of the moon will
make known accurately the masses of these bodies, which is the only part
of their theory that remains yet somewhat imperfect. It is chiefly in the
motions of Jupiter and Saturn, the tAvo greatest bodies of the planetary
system, that the mutual attraction of the planets is sensible. Their mean
motions are nearly commensurable ; so that five times that of Saturn is
nearly equal to twice that of Jupiter, and the great inequalities in the motions
of these two bodies arise from this circumstance. When the laws and
causes of these motions were unknown, they seemed, for a long time, to
form an exception to the law of universal gravitation, and now they are one
of the most striking proofs of its correctness. It is extremely curious to see
with what precision the two principal equations of the motions of these
planets, whose period includes more than nine hundred] years, satisfy ancient
and modern observations. The development of these equations in future
ages, will more and more prove this agreement of the theory and observation.
To facilitate the comparison with distant observations, we have carried on
the approximation to terms depending on the square of the disturbing force,
and it is hoped that the values here assigned to these equations will vary but
very little from those found by a long series of observations continued during
an entire period. These equations have a great influence upon the secular
variations of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, and we have developed the
analytical and numerical expressions arising from this source. Lastly, the
MOTIONS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 3
planet Uranus is subjected to sensible inequalities, which we have determined,
and which have been confirmed by observation.
The first day of this century is remarkable for the discovery of a new
planet, situated between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars,* and to which the
name of Ceres has been given. It appears as a star of the eighth or ninth
magnitude ; its excessive smallness renders its action insensible on the
planetary system ; but it must suffer considerable perturbation from the
attractions of the other planets, particularly Jupiter and Saturn, which ought
to be ascertained. It is what we propose to do in the course of this work,
after the elements of the orbit have been determined by observation to a
sufficient degree of accuracy.
It is hardly three centuries since Copernicus first introduced into
astronomical tables the motion of the planets about the sun. A century
afterwards, Kepler made known the laws of the elliptical motion, which he
had discovered by observation ; and from these laws, Newton was led to the
discovery of universal gravitation. Since these three memorable epochs in
the history of the sciences, the progress of the infinitesimal analysis has
enabled us to submit to calculation the numerous inequalities of the planets
depending upon their reciprocal action ; and by this means the tables have
acquired an unexpected degree of accuracy. It is believed that the following
results will give to them a much greater degree of precision.
* (2341) This volume was published by the author shortly after the discovery of Ceres,
January 1, ISOl ; and before the discovery of the planets Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. He did [3698a]
not compute the numerical values of the perturbations of their motions as he had intended.
4 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
rèr.
Fi ret form.
Radius.
CHAPTER I.
FORMULAS FOR THE INEQUALITIES OF THE MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS WHICH
DEPEND UPON THE SQUARES AND HIGHER POWERS OF THE EXCENTRICITIES AND
INCLINATIONS OF THE ORBITS.
ON THE INEQUALITIES WHICH DEPEND UPON THE SQUARES AND PRODUCTS OF THE
EXCENTRICITIES AND INCLINATIONS.
Differen ^* '^^ determine these inequalities, we shall resume the formula [926],^
tial equa
[3699] = jj^ + ^ + 2fdR + r.(jy
We have, as in [605', 669], f
[3700] T = W^
[3701] r = a.{l +e^ — e . cos. (nt\s — zi) — i el cos. 2. (n ï + s — w)} :
hence the preceding differential equation becomes,}
Differeu tj^ rS
tial eijua ^ a . / u
;;^:,ir" 0=^ + n\r6r+3rî'a.ôr.{e.cos.(nt+i—z,) + eKcos.2.(nt+e—z=)l
[3702] "^ ^
sroo^nd ^2fdR + r.C^
form. ^ \ch
[3699a] * (2342) Substituting, in [926], the value of r R [928'], it becomes as in [3699].
r3700a] ^ {2343) The equation [3700] is easily deduced from [605'] ; and the value of r [3701]
is the same as that in [669], neglecting tenns of the order e^.
f (2344) If we use, for brevity, the same symbols as in [1018a], namely,
[3702o] T=nt~ntJfs'—s, W=nt+s—zi, b = ie^—e.cos.W—ié^.cos.2W,
[3703i] we shall have r=a.(l+è) [3701]; hence r^=a^.{l\b)3=a^.{l—3b\6b^);
neglecting 6' and the higher powers of b ; or, in other words, neglecting e^ e*, 8ic. Now, by
VI. i. §1.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', 7. 6
Now all the terms of the expression of R, depending on the squares and [3702]
products of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, may be reduced .j,^^^^^,.
to the one or the other of these two forms,* dopSdin
on anglea
R = M. cos. { i . (n' t — nt + B' — s){2nt\K\; (Pit form.j [3703]
of two
Rz=N. cos. { i . {11! t — n i + s' — + ^1 ; f®'"™'' '■"'"■i '^^'"■*]
different
forms.
in which i includes all integral numbers, positive or negative, comprehending
also i = [954"]. JVe shall, in the first place, consider the term [3703]. [3704']
It produces, in 2fàR\r.(^—\ the function f [3^04"]
\ .^•^^~^);" . M^a.(y^\ \ . cos. {i.(n't—nt+s'—{)+2nt+K\.
\tn' \{2 — t).n ' \da J ), * ^ ' yi 1 4
[3705]
[3702c]
retaining ternis of the order e^, we get, successively, 66^=6e^.cos.^fF=3e^3e^.cos.2 W;
hence \ — ^h{Qb^=l + ie^\2e. cos. W+ f 1 œs. 2 W. Substituting this in r'^
[.37026], and then muhiplying by i^.rSr, we get [3Î02(?] ; which is easily reduced to
the form [3702e], by the substitution of n^ [3700] and r^a. (1 — e.cos.^ [3701] in the
last temi of the second member. Now we have — 3e^.cos.^ ?f = — f e^ — fe^.cos.2 fV;
hence [3702e] becomes as in [3702/],
'~^ = a3''^ ^ '''^a^' '^ ^ ^ ' ^^ "^ '^ "^ ^ ' ^°^' ^^+fi^C0S.2 TVl [3702a;]
= 71^. rSr\n.a5r.l<^e^+3e. cos. W\^e^. cos. 2W\.\\ — e. cos. W\ [3702e]
=^n\r5r~\n^.aSr .\Qe. COS. fF+ 3 e^. cos. 2 W\. [3702/]
Substituting this in [3699], we get [3702].
* (2345) This will be e^^dent by the substitution of «,, v,, &,c. [1009,669] m [957].
It also appears from [957"", &c.] ; for in [3703], the coefficients of n' t, —nt, are i, i2, [3704o]
respectively ; their difference 2 expresses the order of the coefficient k [957'''', &c.], or
that of M [3703] ; which must therefore be of the order 2 or e^. In like manner, the
coefficients of ?i' t, — n t [3704] being both equal to i ; the coefficient JV may contain
terms of the orders 0, 2, 4, he. [957"'S &;c.], which include those of the order e^ ; and [3704i]
a very little attention to the remarks in [957^, &tc.] will show, that these are the only forms
of this kind containing e^.
t (2346) Substituting the expression r .(——j=a.( — J [962], in the function [3705a]
[3704"], we get 2/dfl + 7 . (^^) =:2/di?+ a. ('^V In finding d R, we must [37056]
suppose, as in [916'], the ordinaies of the body m to he the only variable quantities; or, in other
words, we must consider nt as variable, and n't cojwton^, as is done in finding d/î [1012a — c].
Now in taking for R the form [3703] , R—M. cos. { i . (w' t — nt}s' — i)J^2nt\Kl, [3705cl
VOL. HI. 2
6 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
We have seen, in the second book [1016], that the parts of — depending
on the angles i.(n't — nt + e' — e) and i.(n't — nt\s — 5) + ni + £,
°'^"" ° are of the following forms,
[3706] — =F.cos.i.(n't — nt+e' — e)^eG.cos.{i.(n't — 7it\s — s){nt+e — ^ \
depending "
o?Z'fiT.. te'H.cos.{i.(n't—7it+i'—^) + nt+B—z>'\;
hence the function
[3707] 3n^.a&r.\e. cos. (7it + e — ra) + e\ cos. (2 n i + 2 s — 2 w) }
will produce, in [3702], the following terms,*
C{F+G).e\cos.{i.(7i't — nt + s'—i) + 2nt + 2s—2^] }
[3708] »«.^ ^H.€e'.cos.{i.(7i't—nt + e'—B) + 2nt + 2^—^—^'\l'
Therefore, if we notice only the terms depending on the angle
i.(n't — 7it + s—s) + 27it,
[3709] and put (x = 1 ; which is equivalent to the siipposition that the sim^s mass is
[3709'] equal to tmity, 7ieglecting the mass of the planet ; f 7ve shall have n^ «^ = 1 ;
[3705d] we obtain d R = — {2 — i) .n. M .sm. {i. {n't — 7it Jf I'—s) + 2 7it { KlctL Integrating
this, and multiplying by 2, we get
[3705e] 2fàR= .^,f~'':" .M.cos.{i . {n'tnt + ^i) +2n t ^K\.
The partial differential of R [3705c], relative to a, being multiplied by a, gives
[3W] a.Ç^) = a.{'^).cos.ii.in'tr,t + ss)+2nt + K}.
Adding this to the expression [3705e], we get 2/d R\a . (j^j r as in [3705].
* (2347) The forms of the temis of , assumed in [3706], are the same as those
computed in [lOlG] ; the constant part corresponding to i = 0; and the secular
[3708a] teiTOS being made to disappear, as in [1036", &c.]. Substituting these in [3707], and
reducmg by formula [20] Int., retaining only the teims dependmg on the angle
i . („' t — nt + s'—s)\2nt + K [3703], we get [3708].
t (2348) M being the mass of the sun, and m that of the planet, we have JU+m^M
[3709a] [914']. If we put Jkf=l, and neglect m on account of its smalhiess, we shall have fA=l ;
and then fiom [3700], we shall get [3709'].
VI. i. §1.] TER]\IS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y.
and then the differential equation [3702] will become*
^ rf2.(,6,) ^i{F+G).c\cos.\i.{n'lnt^s'z)+2nt + 2s2v>\\
</«2  ^ \H.ee'.co5.\i.{r^t—nt^^—s)\2nt^1izsvi'\)
(i)i+(2 — i).n \(/o/)
Hence we get, by integration,!
^ ( (F+G).Ê2.cos.^ù(n'< — w< + £'— 5)+2ji< + 2s — 2nf
A «". < > I Values of
( +H.ee'.cos. fi.(ji'i — n<+E' — s) + 2?i <+2 s — «—• n'} )> f ^(îr
V J depending
[3710]
rSr
(in'\ (2 — i) .n \da J '^
on angles
of the first
form.
[3711]
a2 {i.n'+(3 — i).Mf .{!'n'+(l — «).n
TOT
If this expression of be considerable, and one of its divisors
i n' + (3 — i) .n, i n' \ (\ — i) . n, be very small, as is the case in the
tlieory of Jupiter, disturbed by Saturn, when we suppose i = 5 ; 2n being [3712]
nearly equal to 5n' ;% the variableness of the elements of the orbit will
* (2349) Substituting, in [3702], the value of its third and fourth terms [3708], also
the values of the fifth and sixth terms [3705], multiplied by n^ a^ = 1 , for the sake of [3710a]
homogeneity; it becomes as in [3710].
[3711a]
t (2350) If we put, in [865, 870'], y=rSr, a = n, a Q = 2 .a/f.™ (m,^ + 6,),
the letters m, s bemg accented to prevent confusion in the notation, and 2 denoting the sign
of finite integrals; we shall have the differential equation [3711&], whose integral [871]
is as in [3711c],
r 5 r = 2 . 4^, . f^ (m t + s)= " ^ . [3711c]
m^a_„a cos. ^ ' i i' m,^—n^ ^
Comparing the coefficient of < in the expressions [3710, 37116], we get OT,=i. (w'— M) + 2n; [3711d]
hence m,^ — nz={m,{n) .{m^ — ?i)= ^fn'_[(3 — i).n\ .\in'\{l — i).n\; substituting [3711e]
this in [3711c], and then dividmg by a^, we get [3711].
t (2351) We have, in [4077], for Saturn n'=43997''; and for Jupiter m=109256' r37n/n
nearly; hence 5?i' — 2 n = 1473^; which is quite small in comparison with n or n',
being only y\ part of n.
8 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.
have a sensible influence on this expression ; it is important, therefore, to
notice this circumstance. For this purpose we shall put the differential
equation [37 1 0] under the following form,*
0= ^^^^\n.rôr\7ia^P.cos.{i.(n't — nt\s'—i){2nt + 2s\
[3713] dt^ ' ^ / I I 3
+ n'a^F. s'm.\i. (n't — nt + b'—b) J^2nt + 2s\.
Integrating this, and neglecting the terms depending on the second and
higher differentials of P, P', we shall obtain f
r 7i"
^aTulof a^ {i7i'~\ (3 — i) . 71] . [ill' \{l — i) . ii]
noticing / C _ \ d P'
the secu «/.. . . „
lar varia
tion of the _
elements. S / ' \in'\[^i).nl . iin'\{l—i).n\
[3714] x< ^ > i i ry > ) . v.(B)
+ \ p 2.^KK„)+2n.— / ^.^ ^iÇn'tnt+s's)+2nt+2:} ]
[371%] * (2352) If we put, for brevîty, T,= i . {n't — nt \ i' — s) \2n t \2s, the
term depending on J*', in [3710], mil become
[3711^] 3 „3 «2 2^ e^. COS. ( T; — 2 in) = f «2 «a Fe^. {cos. T, . cos. 2 « + sin. T, . sin. 2 ra  ;
[3711i] if^veput Fe2.cos.2zj=P; Fe8,sb.2a=P', it becomes mV. {P. cos. T+P'. sin. TJ,
as in [3713]. In like manner, the terms of [3710], depending on G, H, M, maybe
reduced to the forms [371 li] ; P, P' being functions of the variable elements e, ra, Sic,
■■ ^ and r, T' mdependent of these variable elements ; observing, that n, a, s [1045', 1044"]
are considered as constant, as well as the similar elements of the planet m'.
■f (2353) Using the abridged symbols m,. T, [3711(Z, g], and substitutmg, in [37116],
r3714o] tlie flmction [3711/], instead of the temis under the sign 2, this differential equation
becomes of the form [37146], and the integral [3711c], taken in the hypothesis that P, P'
are constant, becomes as in [3714 c],
[3714i] = ^l^Sdll j^n^,rôr + rv" é. {P. cos. T,+ P'. sin. T,\ ;
712 a2. 1 p. COS. r, +P'. sin, rj
[3714c] r 5 r = .
«1,2 — rfi
We shall suppose r & r, to be increased by the quantity [r (5 r] , in consequence of the
secular variation of P, F, so that mstead of [3714c], we shall have, generally,
[3714d] ràr= ^^^^^^^ +['•5'].
VI. i. §1.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 9
The formula [931] becomes, by putting (^ = 1,*
— — î> • S i \ Values of
a^ndt  ^ j^H.ee'.\i.{n't — ntJfi'—s)^2ntJr2e—a—zi'l) [ Sv
1[^) depending
on angles
of the first
è V = ; [3715]
V/l — e2
and by giving to i all positive and negative values, including zero [3704'], [3715']
we shall obtain all the inequalities, in which the coefficient of n t differs
from that of n't by two.
Now as the value of r 5 r [37 1 4 c] satisfies the equation [3714J], supposing P,P' to be constant,
and by hypothesis the value [3714(Z] satisfies the same equation [37146], when P, P' aie [37Ud']
variable by reason of the secular inequalities, we may substitute [3714d!] in [37 14 J], and
then, from the resulting expression subtract the equation [37146], and we shall obtain an
equation of the form [3714/], observing, that we must retain only the terms depending on the
first and second differentials of P, F, namely, dP, dP', d^P, d^P', to the exclusion of P, F, [3714e]
^ d^.{ràr] o r t n I "a ^^.f p.cos. r, + P'.sin.rJ
0=^^ + n. ir&r]+n~a^ (,„.n^).rf<a ^^714/]
Now we have, generally, d^.{P.co%.T)^d^P,cos. T,+ 2dP.d.{cos.T,) + Pd^.{cos.Ty, [37Ug]
in wliich the term containing P is to be rejected [3714e] ; and if we neglect the term
depending on d^P, on account of its smallness, we shall obtain
d^. {P . COS. T,)=2dP.d. cos. r,= — 2dP.m^dt. sin. T, [371 1<Z, g]. [^W]
In like manner we have
d^. (F. sin. T,)=2d F. d . sin. T,= 2dF.m,dt. cos. T, ; [3714A]
hence [3714/] becomes
= ^^^ + n^[r<5r] + ^^.j2m,.— .cos.T,2m,..sm.r,. [3714.]
This is similar to the equation [37116], changing rSr into [riîr], representing by aQ
the tenns depending on d P', d P. These ternis being divided by m^ — n^, give,
as in [3711c], the following value of [?• 5 r] ;
rj,.! S ^"^ iZ cos T ^"' — sb t\ [37144]
Substituting this in [3714f/], connecting together the terms depending on cos. T^, also
those depending on sin. T,, then substituting the value of m^ — n^ [3711c], and dividing
by a^, we get [3714].
* (2354) We have 2 r . d5r { dr . ar = 2 d .{r^r) — dr . 5 r, as is easily [3715a]
proved by developing the first temi of the second member, and reducing. Substitutmg
VOL. III. 3
10 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
If the coefficient in'\(2 — i).n be very small, and this inequality
be very sensible, as is the case in the theory of Uranus, disturbed
[3715"] by Saturn [4527]; we must put the part of R depending on the
this and [3705a] in [931], we obtain
^ \ I \ 3 a In at . dli 42 an at . a . I — }
[37156] <J w = ■
/(le^)
The differential of [3701], being; multiplied by :; — — , becomes
■ andt
[3715c] — ^î^ "= ~ TT • ^^ • ^'"' (« ^ +^ — «) + «■• S'n2 . (n < += — a)^
This is to be reduced, as in [370Sn], by substituting the value of — [3706], using tlie
fonnula [IS] Int., and retaining only the terms depending on the angle T, [371l£] ;
hence we get
[3715rf] J^ = ^(F+G).e^.sin.(T2«)iifee'.sin.(T..').
[3715e] Again, if we put, for brevity. To = i . {n't— n t + /— e) + 2 n( \K, tlie term of R [3703]
will become R = M.cos.T^; hence the differential à R, found as in [916'], upon the
[3715/] supposition that nt is the variable quantity, is dR = — (2 — i) .n d t . M .sm. T^i
Multiplying this by 3 a.ndt, integrating and using m, [37 lid], we get
oafndt.dR =  . a M.cos. T„ .
[3715g]
To this we must add 2andt .a. (j—j = 2andt .a . (j—j • cos. T!, ; and then, by
integrating the sum, we obtain
[3715/.] f[saJndt.dR + 2andt.a.(^^)]=\^^^^.aM+^Z^l^^
Substituting this and [o715£Z], in [3715i], we get [371.5].
[3715i]
In the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, the most important parts of Sv, Hv'
[37 15 J, &c.] are those depending on the double integration of AR, d!RI, which
introduces the divisor (5 m' — 2n)2. These paits are to be applied to the mean motions
[3715fc] of the planets, as is shown in [1066", 1070"]. As we must frequently refer to these
parts 6v, 5v', of the mean motions <^, ^' of the planets m, m', we shall here give their
values, deduced from [1183, 1204, 3709a], or from the appendix [5794], representing
the chief parts of & v, 5v' [37156, Sic.] ;
[3715Z] Sv deduced from ^ = 3a n .fd t .fd R ;
[3n5m] (5 v' deduced from ^' = 3 a' n'.fd i ./d' R.
VI. i. §1.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 11
angle i.(n't — nt\s — s ) + 2 ?i ^ + 2 s [3703] , under the following form,*
R= Q.cos. {i . (n' t — nt + s' — s) + 2nt + 2sl
+ Q'. sin. [i . (n' t — nt + s' — s) ^27it + 2sy^
and we shall have,t
[3716]
(6— 3i).«2a { ^rr } , ^ ,^
la.ffndt.àR^ ji I q + . ,, ''^ > .sin. \i.{>i'tnt+ss)J^2nt+2
•'' \in'+{2i).n\^ I ^ in'\{2î).n)
[3717]
(63»).n a_^ ) Q'___HL_ } .cos.{;.(M7n<+s'£)42n<+2s}.
{in'+(2— i).nP / ni'+(2
* (2355) Using, for brevity, K,= K — 2 s, and T, [.3711^], the expression of [3716a]
R [3703] becomes iî = JIf .cos. (T,+Ar)=JM.cos./i:;.cos.2'— ^f . sin. Z;.sin.T, ; and
by putting ^I.cos.Z,=::Q, — J/.sin.Z,= Q'; it changes into il=.Q.cos.r,4Q'.sin.T, [37166]
as in [3716] ; Q, Q' bemg like P, P' [3711À;], functions of the variable elements of the
orbits, and T, independent of them. Now we have, in [4077], for Uranus n = 15425*';
for Saturn n'=: 43997'' nearly; hence 3m — ?i'=2278»'; which is much smaller than n [3716c]
or n'; and by putting i^^ — 1, in the divisor in' {{2 — i).n, it becomes 3m — n'; [3716(/]
therefore this small divisor must occur in computing the perturbations of Uranus by Saturn,
as is observed in [3715''].
t (23.56) The difierential d R, deduced from [.3716i], considering nt as the variable
quantity, as in [3715/], is
dR = — {2 — i).7idt.q. sin. T, + (2 — i) .ndt.q'. cos. T, ; [3717a]
hence we have
3 a .ffn dt.d R=ffa n^.di^.l{—6 + 3i).q.sm. T,{ (6—3 î).q. cos. TJ. [37174]
If the integral of the second member of this expression be taken, supposing Q, Q' to be
constant, it ^\^ll produce the terms independent of d(^, c? Q' in [3717]. The terms
depending on d(^, d(^ may be estimated by means of the general formula [1209è],
which, by changing ^, B into Q, A, respectively, and neglecting d^Q, rf^Q, Sic, becomes
ffAqdt^=qffAdt^2.'^.fffAdt\ [3717c]
From this formula, it appears, that the term depending on —, is easily deduced from
that depending on Q , by changing Q into — 2 .—^.dt, and then integrating relatively
to t, supposing — to be constant. In this way we easily deduce the term depending [3717*^]
on dq [.3717] from that of q, and in like manner we get the term depending on rfQ'
from that of q.
12 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
Hence the formula [37156] will give*
2d.{r5r) UF\G).e^.smAi.(n't7it4s's)42nt + 2s2ôil )
a^ndt  ( \H.ee'.sm.li.{n't—nt\e'—=)~{2iii\2s—ss—zi'])
bein;_
variable.
[3719]
^ fin'\{2i).n\^' [_" ^'' in'\(2î).nJ in'lf[2—i).n
^{rr—, ~\ «QH — + }.sm.ii.{n'tnt+s'~i)+2nt + 0g\
Another
form of tins
value of
ÔV,
[3718]
[3718'] For greater accuracy, we have neglected the divisor \/i — e^ in this
expression of (5ï? ; because it does not affect the part of this expression
which has the square of mi' +(2 — i) . n for a divisor, as we have seen
in [1197]; and in the present case, this part is much greater than the
others. Moreover, we must, as in [1197"", 1066", 1070"], apply this part
[3719'] of &v to the mean motion of mf ; and as it is very nearly equal to the
* (2357) Using the value of R [3716], or rather [37166,3711^]; taking its partial
differential, relatively to «, which will aflect only Q, (^' ; multiplying by 2a^.ndt, and
then integrating, we get
[d/lBaj 2 and t . a. I —— = r ■ sin. 1 , .  — . cos. i ;
■^ \da / m, \da J ' m, \da J '
m^ being, as in [3711f/]. Substituting this in [3715J], also the values of the terms
[3717, 3715rf], it becomes as m [3718] ; except that the divisor \/(l — c^) is neglected,
[37186] for the reason mentioned in [3718'], namely, that the chief part of Sv or ^ [1195 or 1197]
does not contain this divisor ; and as the other terms are very small, it may also be
neglected in them.
t (2353) The tenns of Sv [3718], having for divisor the square of j'w'f (2 — i) ■ n,
[3719a] are those depending on 3 affndt .dR, computed in [3717]; and it is evident, that
this part of S v much exceeds the other parts depending on F, G, H, he. Now,
by [1066", 1070"], or by [1197>'"], the parts depending on 3affndt.dR, must be
applied to the mean motion, and as the other parts, depending on the same angle, are much
[37196] smaller, we may suppose that the whole of this equation is to be applied to the mean
motion, as in [3720]. We may remark incidentally, that the expression of r [1066], as
well as that of v [1070], contains the double integral ffndt.dR; hence, at the first
view, it would seem that if v contain terms depending on this double integral with the small
divisor [in' {{2 — ?') . «P, as in [3718], ?• would contain similar terms of the same
order. But we must observe, that these terms of r, v [1066, 1070] are multiplied,
[3719c] respectively, by ( — —  ) , f — — ) , or by their equivalent values a e . sin. (n i } s — a),
lt2 e.cos. (n<  s — «) [669]. Hence these terms of v will be multiplied by I,
VI. i. §1.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 13
whole term depending on the angle i.{n't — nt\i' — t) \2nt ^2^,
ive may apply this tvhole inequality to the mean motion of m. [3720]
TIT 1. 11 1, • 1 1 r dP iJP' (JO dO'
We shall obtani the values of — — , — — , — ^, —i^, by takmg the
(It (It ^ dt dt •' ^
differentials of the expressions P, P', Q, Q', relative to the excentricities
and inclinations of the orbits, the positions of their perihelia and nodes, and
then substituting the values of the differentials of these quantities. But we
may obtain these values of — — , &c. more simply in the following manner. [3721]
Find the value of P, for an epoch which is distant by two hundred years
from the epoch taken for the origin of the time t ; then putting P^ for this
value, and T for the interval of two hundred years, we shall have*
Formula
, ^ for the
yj^ d ± J. j> détermina
1 . j^i'—f. [3723]
" ' tion of
dP, dP',
T . £ J 1 1 c dP" do dq &c.
In the same manner, we may nnd the values oi — — , — ^, — ^.
•^ dt dt dt
or TÔT
To deduce the expression of — from that of — j, we shall denote
by ^, the part of — depending on the angle i.{n't—nt\i — 6)+2ni+2s, [3724]
and we shall havef
ràr r S^ — \F.cos.i.{n't — nt\s — s){Ge.cos.\i.{nt—nt\^—s)\nt\s — ra\ (
5" — „ ' S '^ C ' [3/25]
[3722]
+ i/e'. COS. ^i . {in—nt\ s'— ;) \nt\ s — jj'J
S
and those of r by the small quantity e, which will make it of a less order ; it will also be of [3719rf]
a different form from those contained in this article, by reason of the factor sin.(n<£— ra).
dP (PP
* (2359) From Taylor's theorem [617], we have P,=P + T.— + T^. — + &c.;
and if we neglect the square and higher powers of T, on account of the smallness of the [3723a]
terms, it becomes as in [3723].
t (2360) Adding — to the part of — [3706], we shall obtain all the terms of
a 'a
depending upon the angles i . [n' t — nt\i' — i), i.{n't — nt\i' — s) ^nt\i, [3725o]
i.{n't — nt\ s' — s) { 2 n t + 2 !. Multiplying this by  , we get [3725].
VOL. III. 4
14
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.
[Méc. Cél.
Value of
f), r,
[3736]
for the
angles of
the first
form.
[3726']
[3727]
Computa
tion for
angles of
the second
form.
Hence we deduce*
^ = ^+i.(i^+2G).e.cos.{?:.(n'i — »/ + /— + 2/1^ + 2;— 2^J >
+ lH.ee'.cos.li.(n't—ntJrs—i) + 2nt + 2i — z: — /\ )
2. JVe shall compute, in the same manner, the terms depending on the
angle i.Çn't — nt\s' — e) ; and shall suppose, that, by carrying on the
approximation to the first power only of the excentricities, we shall havef
— = F.cos.i.(7i't—nt\s—i)\Ge.cos.\i.(7i't — nt + s — !) + nt + s — ^J
+ G'e .cos.j — i.(7i't — nt^s' — £) + nf(£ — to j
+ iïe'.cos. i.(n't—nt+s'—s)}nt + s—^'\
{'H'e'.cos.\—i.(n't—nt + s—s)J^nt + i—^'\ ;
[3726a]
[37261]
[3726c]
[3726d]
[3726e]
[3726/]
[3726g]
[3726;i]
* (2361) Using the symbols [3702«], namely, T=n't — nt\e'—s, TF=znt\s—a,
W':= n't{s' — zs', the expressions [3725] will give, by transposing the terms depending
on F, G, H ; f,..n,^ ca,,~w^^/yiXr+ VUT'
.F.cos.iT—.Ge.cos.{iT+W) — . He', cos. (i Tj W/) ;
r (5, )■
a ' a
rSr
and from [3701] we get  . :^ 1 ) 4 «^ — ^ • cos. W —  e^. cos. 2 TV; which is to be
substituted in [372Gè]. In making this substitution, we have, by hypothesis, only to notice
terms of the order c^, ee', e'^, &,c. [3702', &c.], and of the same form as [3703]. Now
(W* . /*
the term ^ [3724] being already of the second order, we may substitute for the factor  ,
by which it is multiplied, the first term of its value [3726c], namely 1 ; in the coefficient
of F, we may use the term — i e^. cos. 2 TV ; and in the coefficients of G, H, the
term — c . cos. TF ; by this means it will become as in [3726^]. Reducing this
expression by means of [20] Int., and retaining only terms of the form [3703], it becomes
as in [3726A], which is of the same form as in [3726].
S^^rjr^ e^ cos. 2 TV) . F. cos. iT\(e. cos. TV) .Ge. cos. (i T+TV)
rSr
+ {e.cos.TV).He'.cos.{iT~\ TV,')
= ^+ IFe^.cos. {i T+2?F) + JGe^.cos. {i r+2fr) (iffee'.cos. {i T+TV+T¥/).
■j (2362) The expression of — [3727] is the same as [3706], making the alteration
required by the supposition, that i is positive [3727']. If we use, for brevity, the
symbols [3726a], this formula will become
[3727a]
[37276] — =F. cos.i T\Ge. cos.(i T\lV)+G'ecos.(i T+W)+He'. cos. (i T+ W/)+H'e'. cos.( i T\ W/).
5r
The case of i^O, is separately considered in [3755'", Sjc.].
VI. i. §2.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 15
i being positive [3727rt, 6]. We shall then get* [3727]
r ( G'+ G') . e2. COS. i . {n' t — nt + B' — e) ^
+ He c' . COS. { i . {n't — nt^ s' — s) + .
(E)
[3728]
r r
< \ jn ee . cos. ^i.yn i — ni ^ s — jj j a — n 5 >
( +H'ee'.cos.^;.(«'<n? + 6'— £) — a + a'^) , , ^_^^_^^^^
* (2363) In finding the pait of rSr dependmg on the angle i.{n't — nt{s'—i), or iT,
by means of the fomiula [3702], it is necessary to compute the part of 2/di? + r.( ) [3728a]
depending upon the same angle, or upon R^^ JV . cos. {i T\L) [3704]. This [37286]
gives for dR, similarly to [3705^7], the expression àR=nJ\r .i . sin. [i T\L) .dt •
2»
hence 2/d R = ^— . JV . cos. {i T \ L) ; also from [3705a], we obtain [3728c]
Multiplying the sum of these two expressions by 1 = ji^ a^ [3709'], we get
2/dil+..(^) = «^«^5«^.(^)^^^.aA^.cos.(.T+Z). [3728.]
Again, if we multiply [37276] by 3 n^ a^. {e . cos. PV} e^. cos. 2 W], we shall obtam [.3728/]
the terms of [3702], which are multiphed by 3n^a.Sr; and as we have to notice
only the terms depending on angles of the fonn i T [3726'], we may neglect the second rg^gg ,
tenir of this factor e^.cos.2W [3728/], and then it will become 3 74^ a . e . cos. W.
In multiplying [3727è], by this last factor, and reducing by [20] Int., the term jP
produces no term of the required form, and each of the other terms G, G', H H'
produces one ; hence we finally obtain
3 n» a . 5 r. J e . cos. W{ e^. cos. 2 ?F:= f « V. { ( 6+ G') . e^ cos. i T+He e'. cos. {i T\ W,'— TV)
+11' eé. cos . {i T— W;+ W) ^^^^^''^
= «V.{(G+G').e2.cQs.i T+Hee'.cos. (iT+a— «') ^^,„^.,
(3728*1
+ifée'.cos.(îT— a + tj').
The sum of the second members of the expressions [3728e, z], being represented by a Q
rfs irSr) [3728ft]
for brevity, the differential equation [3702] becomes = ^^^ — \n^.r()r\a.Q^; and
we find by mspection, that a Q is equal to the numerator of the second member of [3728], [3728i]
miltiplied by a^. This equation, being solved as in [37116, c], gives rôr = ^^,
usi^g^, [371k/]; hence we get '^ = „Tg;ê^ = „,(,„_" ^(^^^„) > as in [3728]. [3728.]
16 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cèl.
ç{G—G').e\sm. i.{nt — nt + ;'—s) ■\
Value of
6v.
— Hee.sm.\L{n't — 7itJrs' — s) — zs\zi'l') } .* (F)
. , ■ .a^Ar] — r, — r;; ■aJS >.sm.\i.{nt — nt\^—£){L\
[in'— in \da/ [tn'—my ) / > >
[3729] ^ V =
^1=1
[3730]
r fi r*
If we put ^ for the part of — , Avhich depends on angles of the
rt
[3729,
form i,{n'l — n^ + s' — s),t and is also of the order of the square of
* (2364) The value of 5 d [3729] is easily deduced from [37155]; since the
denominator ^(1 — e^) is the same in both, also the first tenn of the numerator; and
the other terms may be obtained by a calculation similar to that in [3728« — »]. For if we
multiply the expression [3728c] by §andt, and [3728fZ] by 2 a n d t, and take
the sum of the products, we shall get
«] 3aj7idtAR + 2a.ncItui.(~)=\2n.a^('!^) — ^.a:N'l.cos.{iT{'L).dt.
•' ' \da J i \da J n—n > \ ■ /
Integrating this we get the two last terms of [37156], which are the same as the two last
terms of the numerator of [3729], or those depending on JV, dJY. The only remaining
term of [37156] is the second, which is found by multiplying the differential of ?• [3701]
[3729i] by ^ ; whence we get — ^^^ = ^ . 5 e . sin. Jr+ e^ _ si„_ 2 Wi.
■' andt a~n dt a
Sr
Substituting — [3727], we may neglect the term c^.sin. 2AF, and the term F, as
in [3728^, kc] ; the other terms being reduced as in [18, 19] Int., retaining only angles
of the form i T; we get, in like manner, as in [3728A, Sic] ;
—^±^==—x.smW=l\{GG'U^.smJT+Hc(^.s\n.{lT+W;mHee\sm.(ITl^^+W)\
a^n dt a
[^''^^'l =h\{GG').e^sm.{T+Hce'.sm.(iT+:s  z/)Hee'.s\n.(iT in+^n')] ;
[3729d]
being the same as the terms depending on G, G', H, H\ [3729]. We may remark,
that from the formulas [3728, 3729], we may deduce others similar to [3714, 3718], in
which the secular variations of the elements c, m, &,c. are noticed.
I (2365) The second member of [3727] being denoted by F', it will include all the
or . ■ ■ ■
r3731ol terms of — , depending on the angle i T, as far as the first power of the excentricities
a
(5 r
[3726']. Adding to this the expression —, depending on the same angle, and on terms
[37316] of the order e, ee', Sic, we get — =ij"f— , for the expression of —, containing
VI. i. §3.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 17
the excentricities or inclinations, we shall have
— = ^j^ + i .lGiG'—F\.c~. COS. i.(n't — nt+ s' — V'''""''
+ i. ATee'.cos.^î. (n'f — «^ + s' — s) + ^— ^'J [3731]
for onglcB
of the
second
form.
+ I . He e'. COS. \ i . (n' t — nt\^' — s) — ^ + ra'  .
In these three expressions i must be supposed positive [3727']. [3731'
3. The great number of inecjualities depending on the squares of the
excentricities, and of the inclinations, makes it troublesome to compute all
of them ; and we must be guided in the selection of those which are of a
sensible magnitude, by the following considerations. First. If the quantity
in'\(2 — i).n differ but little from ±?i; then the one or the other
of the divisors in' +(3 — i) . n, in'\(\ — i) . n, in the formula [3711], ^^^^^^
will be quite small, and by this means the expression may acquire a sensible
value. Second. If the quantity in' {(2 — i).n be small, those terms of [3733]
the formula [3715], having this quantity for a divisor, may become sensible, slîecîîtg^
Third. If the quantity i . (n' — n) differ but little from rh n, the one imp^tLt
or the other of the divisors in' — (i\l).n, in' — (i — l).n, of the [3734]
formula [3728], will be small, consequently this expression may acquire a
sensible value. Fourth. If the quantity i . {n — n') be small, the terms
terms as far as the order e^, ce', &ic. inclusively. Multiplying this by —, we
r i,r rSr '' 71/ t i / 1 c 1 • *■
get . — ==; — g . f . In the first member of this expression, we may put =1, [37316']
as in [3726(Z], and in the factor of F', we may use the value [3726c] ; hence we shall get
^=:'^ + F'.{ — 1— ic^+e.cos. rr+ i e"". COS. 2 JV I [3731c]
= ^— 5e^F.cos.ir+F'.e.cos. W; [373W]
the second of these expressions being easily deduced from the first, by observing, tliat of
the four terms comprising the factor of F' [3731c], the first teim, — 1, produces nothing [3731e]
of the order e^, when the value of F' [3727] is substituted ; the second tenn, — i e^,
produces the term depending on F in [373 Ir/] ; the third produces the term depending
on jP' [3731c/] ; and the fourth term, ^ t^. cos. 2 fV, produces nothing of the proposed
form and order. Now substituting, in the term F'.e.cos.JV [313ld], the value of F', [3731/]
or the second member of [3727], reducing the products by [20] Int., and retaining only
angles of the form i T, it becomes as in [3731].
VOL. III. 5
18
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.
[Méc. Cél.
[3735]
•General
value of
R.
[3736]
First form.
[3737]
[3738]
[3739]
Values of
^■> y. 2,
[3740]
x', y', z'.
[3740']
[3736a]
of the formula [3729], which have this divisor, may become sensible.
We must therefore estimate carefully all the inequalities subjected to either
of these four conditions.
4. The quantities F, G, G', H, H', are determined by the
approximative methods in the second book [1016, &c., 372T]. We shall
now determine M, N ; and for this purpose we shall resume the value
of R [913, &c.];*
m'.[xx'^yy'^ zz')
R^
m
r' being the radius vector of m'. We shall take., for the fixed plane, the
primitive orbit of m, and for the axis of x, the line of nodes of the orbit
of m' upon this plane. If we put v for the angle formed by the radius r
and the axis x ; v' for the angle formed by the same axis and by / ;
also 7 for the tangent of the inclination of the two orbits to each other,
we shall havef
y = r . sin. v, 2^0;
a; = r . cos. v
X =^r . cos. V ;
y
r . sm. V
^^
f .y . sin.w
(2366) As there are only two bodies m, m', the value of R, X [913, 914] become
n'.[xx'\yy\~z') X X
R:=
m'
\ >
M
.■■'\
[37366] and by using r'^ = a'^ + if { z!^ [914'], we get [3736].
f (2367) In the annexed figure 72, C is the origin of the coordinates, or centre of
the sun; C X, C Y, C Z, the
axes of X, Y, Z, respectively ; M
the place of the body to, supposing
it to be situated nearly upon the
[3740o] plane of xy [3737] ; M' the place
of the body in. The coordinates
of TO ai'e CA=x, AM^y, z=0 \
nearly ; those of to' are CA' = x',
A'B'=y', B'M'=z'. Moreover
angle.MC.^=«[924^],.lfC.^W,
Then in the rectangular triangle CAM, we have C A — C M .cos. A C M,
AM=C AI. sm. A CM, or in symbols, a: = r.cos. «, y = r .sin. i) [3740]. In the
VI. i. §4.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, é, 7. 19
Hence we get, by neglecting the fourth powers of 7,* [3741]
R = j^ . COS. {V I') J . 33 . i COS. (V V) COS. (v^v)\
m r , , , m.y' r
—  .COS. (V I') . — . !COS. (V' V) COS. (V'\V)\ Second
.,.'2 V / ^^2i V ' V'/l fo,„ „f
R.
<i!.y~ rr'.{cos.(t)' — 1;) — cos.{v'\v)\ [3742]
r2— 2r;'.cos.(D'— t>) + r'2}4 4 ' jr2_Orr'.cos.(D'— t') 4r'2}2
We shall suppose, as m [954, 956],
^.cos.(n'i— n^ + s'— f) — Ja— 2aa'.cos.(n'^— n^ + s'— s) + a'^î~^ [3743]
= I x.A^'K COS. i.(n't — nt\s — ^t',B<o.
!«— 2«a'.cos.(n'^— ni + s'— .^) + rt'2f=i2.jB»cos.ù(n7— n^ + £'— 0; [3^44]
rectangular triangle CAM', we have C^'=CJ/'.cos.^'CJ»f', ^'Jf ^^CJU'.sin.^'CJ»/;
or in symbols, x'=r'.cos.v' [.3740'], .4'J'/'=r'. sin. j;'. In the rectangular triangle A'B'M',
we have, A' E=A'M'.cos.B'A' M', B' M'=A'M'.5m.B'A' M' ; substituting in these [3740c]
1 r
the preceding value of ./2' ./»/', also cos.B' A! M' ^=—, , sm.B'A'M= ,
/(1 + 7) v/(l + 7^)
we get y', z' [3740'].
* (2368) If we neglect 7^ as in [3741], we shall have (1 + 73)*= l_  y2 .
hence we obtain from [3740'], y' = i' . sm. v' — J 7^. r*. sin. u'; z'^='y^ .r'^.sm.^v' • [3742a]
substitutmg these and the other values [3740, 3740'], in the first member of [37426], and
then reducmg by [24, 17] Int., we get [3742c] ;
^ '^'+ i/ /+ ~'= '■'■'• (cos. u'. cos. ijfsin.u.sm.t;') — J 72.7/. sin. jj. sin. o' [3742i]
^.irr'.cos.^!;'— î;) — i72.rr'.jcos.(t)'i')— cos.(«'fî))}. [3742c]
Substituting this last expression in the first tenn of R [3736], we get the two first
terms of [3742]. Again, if we develop the first member of [3742e], and substitute
r^=x"+y^+z^ r^=x^+y'^+^'^ [3740,3740'], also the expression [3742c], we get ^
(^^)'+ {y'yf+ (^~)'=(^"+2/'+~)2. (^^'+yy+zz')+ (x'==+2/'2+^'2) [3742e]
= ^22;y.cos.(«'v)+r'2}i72.rr'.{cos.(î,'i,)cos.(z>'+^)}. [3742/]
Invc^lving this to the power — ^, we get
\{^'xf+{y'yfJr{^'zf\i=\r''2rr^.cos.{v'v)^r'^]^
_3 [3742^:]
^ Y^.rr. \coz.{v'—v)—co%.{v'\v) \ . {r^— 2r/.cos.(/— t;)!/^ j 2.
substituting this in the last term of [3736], we get the two last terras of [3742].
2» PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3744'] and shall represent R = M.cos.\i. (n't —nti s'—s) + 2ntiK\ [3703] , by
the followmg function ;
K™f]f ^= M''Ke'' .cos.\i.(n't—nt + s'—:) + 2nt + 2s—2z.\
[3^45'] \M^'Kee'.cos.\i.(n't—nt+s — s) + 2nt\2s—^ — ^'\
of the first
'?^^^^«, + M^~\ e'^cos. I i.(ii't—nt + i—s) + 2nt+2i—2z,'\
[3745'"] + M^'K y^ .cos.\i.(n't—nt+s'—s) + 2nt + 2s—2n \ ;
n. n being the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of m' tipon that
[3746] fyj j^^ counted from the line which is taken for the origin of the angle ni + f.
We have, as in [669],
[3747] = 1 + ^e — e. COS. (ni+£ — a) — i e". cos. 2 . (nt\£ — ^i) :
[3748] v = nt^i — n + 2e. sin. (n i + s — ^) +  ^'' sin. 2 . (n t + e — a).
From these we get the values of —, v', by marking with one accent, the
quantities n, e, s, &c. Then we have, as in [955], the product of
2 . A (". cos. {i . (7i't — nt + .='— s),
by the sine or cosine of any angle ft\I\ which is equal to
[3749] 2 • A'' ■ "^i li(n'tn t + /— =) +ft +I\.
Hence we easily obtain*
[3750] M^= f.J..(4^5)..^(') + 2.(2.l).«.('^) + «^('^)5;
Values
pondins 4^^^ ^ ^ ^ \ da J \ da J \ dada / ^
to tlie first
^^, M.= .^,;_.,.(4;3).^..(.,a,...(^')+...C^)^,
[3750'"] M '31=— — . « a'. £'''1 .
8
[3750a] * (2369) In [952, 953] we have r = o . ( 1 + wj ; v = vt }s — U\ v,; the terni n
being added to conform to the present notation. Comparing these witli [3747, .?748],
[3750t] we get the following values of u^ , v^ , also the similar ones of w/, w/, using the abridged
symbols [3726a] ;
[3750c] «,= — e.cos.^F + 4 e^ — J e^. cos.2 ^F ; t), =2e .sin. ^F + f . e^siii.2 TF ;
[3750rf] «; = — c'. COS. W'\^e"^—l e' . cos. 2 W ; v;=2e'. sin. ?f '+ f . e'^ . sin. 2 W;
M. ï. §4.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 21
and in the case of i=\ [3150y, ?/'], we have
4 a'* 8
Finding the squares and products of these quantities, then reducing them by [17 — 20] Int.,
retaining merely the temis of the second degree in e, e', y, which are the only terms now
under consideration [3702'], we obtain the following system of equations. In these
expressions we have substituted for JV its value W =^ T \ IV \ zs — a' [3726a], [3750c]
in order that the quantity n't\ e' may not appear in the tenns of R, except in connexion
with i, as in the assumed form of these terms of R, given in [3745, &c., 957]. The
numbers prefixed to the formulas [3750/] express the order of the terms in the
value of R [957].
= Je'2 — Je'2.cos.2.(r+ ?F+t3 — ^);
= f Ê'2.sin.2.(r+ ?r+« — î/);
= fe^.sin. 2^;
= ie^f le'i.cos. 2 7F;
'== è ee' . cos. (r+ w — ^') + A ce', cos. (7+ 2 W\a—Ta') ;
= Je'2 4Je'2.cos.2.(r + ?F+« — ^');
= — fe'.sin. (T^^ — ^)— ee'.sin. {T +2 TV+zi—z,');
= — e^.sin. 2fF;
' = _ e'^.sm.2.{TiW+z, — z/);
,= ce'.sin. (T+w — •n') — ee'.sin. (r+2 W } ■a—zy') ;
= 2e'2 — 2e'2.cos. 2.(T+ ÏV ^ zi — zi') ;
= 2ee'.cos. (T+1^ — to')— 2e'2.cos. (T+2 ^F+a— to');
= 2e^ — 2e^cos.2W.
Substituting these in [957], we shall obtain the terms of R depending upon M'''\ M''^\ M'^',
[3745, kc.]. The ternis of the fonn iVT^', arising from the terms of z, a/, in the two [3750g]
lower lines of the value of R [957], will be considered hereafter in [3750m, &;c.]. In
making these substitutions, we must use the following formulas, which are the same as those
in [954f, 955a, 955/], changing TV into TV^, to prevent confusion in the notation.
COS. JV^.iX.A <'> . cos. i T == i 2 . ^« . COS. ( J T + TV,) ; [3750^]
sin. TV, . J 2 . iA^'l sin. {T= — ^2.iA « . cos. (i T + TV,) ; [3750i]
COS. fT .is.i^^ra. COS. i r=i 2 . i^^w.cos. {i T+ W,). [3750A]
VOL. III. 6
2
"/
3
"/
4
Î'/
5
^',
6
<
7
v,u;
8
nr
9
u,v;
10
uv.
11
w>;
12
ujv.
13
v',^
14
v,v,'
15
r,2
[3750/]
22 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cèl.
We shall represent R = N. cos. \i . (n' t — 7it + I'—s) + L\ [3704]
We shall consider the terms depending on each of the factors M'''\ iV/'", M''' [3745, &;c.]
separately; and in the first place, shall take the tenns of the form M'^Ke^cos. {iT\2W).
These are evidently produced by the factors sin. 2 IV, cos. 2 TV, which occur in the terms
of [3750/], marked 2, 5, 6, 10, 15; reducing the products by the formulas [3750A— A:].
These five terms, marked in the order in which they occur, without reduction, supposing them
all to have the common factor ^ • c^ cos. {i T(2jF), and omitting 2 for brevity, are
[37502]
This expression is easily reduced to the form of the coefficient of —, in the value
of M'"'' [3750]. Proceeding iii the same manner with the parts of the terms 7, 9, 12, 14
[3750/], depending on the angle T+2?Ffw — zs', we find that they produce
in R [957] terms of the form iV/^'^e e'. cos. {{i + 1) . T+ 2 JV { zs — zs" } , which may
[3750n] be represented by — ^ . e c'. cos. {(i + 1) . T+ 2 JF+ is — î/^, multiplied by the
4
following expression, which includes the terms as they occur, without any reduction ;
[3750O] ««'(7a^) + 2*«(^)2'(77) + 4^'^"
We may change in this i into i — 1 [.3715'], and then we get for the coefficient
[3750;)] of — j.ce'.cos.(ir+2yF+ro— ra'), or — j . e e'. cos. {i T~{2nt {2 s—zi— a'),
an expression which is the same as the coefficient of — — , in the value of il/"' [37.50'].
Again, the terms 3, 4, S, 11, 13 [3750/], depending on the angle 2. (r+ (F+ra— n'),
produce in R [957], terms of the form M^\ e'^ cos. { [i + 2) . r+ 2 fF+ 2 ro — 2^} ;
[3750?] which may be expressed by ''^ .c'^.co5.\{i\2).T {2W ^2is — 2«', muhiplied by
the following function, which includes all these terms as they occur, without reduction ;
or, as it may be written,
[3750,'] i.(4i + 5).^'''2.(2i+l).«'.('^) + a'^.(^).
We may change in this i into %■ — 2 [3715'], and then we have for the coefficient
[37505] of .c'2.cos.(iT+2?F+2^— 2j:'), or ^. cos. (» T+2ni + 2s — 2^'), the
8 o
m'
[3750«] same quantity as the coefficient oî —, in the value of M^' [3750"].
VI. i. §4.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e\ 7. 23
by the following terms ; * Terms of
^, ..,«. . .  » depentlinff
R= ^W, COS. I. (n't — 71 t+s'—e) [3752]
on angles
+ N^'K ee'. cos. [i . (n't — n t + e'— s) + w — ^' "'[ih^]
second
+ iV'^' . e e'. COS. ^ z . (n7 — ?i ^ + e' — s) — ra + ra'  ; 'farsa"]
We shall now notice the terms depending on z, z , which were neglected in [3750^] ;
these are the same as those depending on 7^, in the value of jR [3742]. As we neglect
terms of a higher order than 7, we may substitute, in these terms, the values r = a;
r' = a'; v=^nt {s — Ii ; v =^n' t\ ^ — U ; v' — v = n't—nt'\s — s=T; [3750u]
v'\v = n't[nt{^{e — 2ll=T{2nt{2s — <iin; hence this part of
R [3742] becomes
R = —'l^ .^.{cos. T— cos.(jr+2n< + 2e — 2n)j
,^ , ■ [3750i>]
* \a? — Saa.cos. T« P
Substituting, in the last term, the value of the denominator [3744], namely \ ^.B'^'K cos. iT,
and reducing by means of the formula [3750^], it becomes
m'ya f _^.cos. T+4"cos. (T+2n<42s— 2n) )
^=~T~< a a~ V [3750k'1
(+aa'.2.J5('\cos.(J+l).riaff'.2.5w.cos.{(i+l).r+2»U + 2s2nn
The last temi of this expression, changing i into i — 1 [3715'], becomes
X.aa'. 2. B''i'. COS. (ir+ 2 îii + 2£ — 2n); [3750i]
which is of the same form as [3745'"], and is equal toit by putting M'^'^ = . a a' . S . B^''~'\
8
as in [3750'"]. In the case of i = l, the term [3750z] becomes
— ^.^a a'. S^»^ COS. ( T + 2 n ^ + 2 £ — 2 n) ; [3750t/]
connecting this with the second term of [3750f<'], namely,
^.^.cos.(T+2n< + 2j— 2n); [3750)/']
and putting the whole equal to this value [3745'"], we get, for this case, the same value
of JW ">, as in [3751 ].
* (2370) By proceeding as in the last note, we shall find, that the substitution of the
values [.3750/] in iî [957], produces terms depending on the angle i T, iT+zs — ra', [3752a]
ïî"— « + «', as in [3752—3752"], without W, which occurs in the fomis [3745—3745'"].
24 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
and we shall have
CoefB
;3753] JV(»)=^.5(e«+e'=).r4i''.^«>2a.f^')a».f^)]$.aa'.[B('') + 5«^»]^;
depending ^C. L \ da / \ da /J 2 )
on angles
, 4f^' ^ ' \ da / ^ ' \ da J ' \dada JS
form.
m.., ^».= .^,.,+„,^..„+,.(..+,,..(^')+,.,+,).,.(^>)+„,(^).
We shall calculate these terms separately, commencing with the angle i T, which is
[37525] produced in R [957], by the substitution of the terms ^e^, Je'^, occurring in the
terms of [3750/], marked 2, 3, 6, 8, 13, 15. These quantities produce in R, the
expression — .cos. i T, multiplied by the following terms, WTitten down in the order
in which they appear, without reduction, and omitting 2 for brevity ;
Now if we multiply the first of the equations [1003] by — 1, and the third of these
equations by —  ; the sum of their products will give
, /dA^i)\ . ,„ /ddA<ii\ fd.»o\ AW^(.)\
substituting this in [3752f], we find, that the coefficient of e'^ is the same as that of c',
and the whole expression becomes
[3.5.,, _^.(..+ ..)4.i,^»_„.(l^)i,...(^^);.eo..r.
To this we must add the third term of [37502^], depending on cos. {i \ I) . T, which,
[3752/] by changing i into i—l, as in [3750c), becomes — . J aa'. 2. jB^'i'. cos. i T. The
expression [375'2e] is the same for —i, as for +i; because A''^ = A'''^ [954"].
Moreover, the term [3752/], by the same change of i, using J?(ii) == ^c.+D [956'],
[3752g] becomes '^ . i a a'. 2 . J5''+" . cos. i T. Hence, if we use only positive values of i, we
must double the fonction [3752e], and add to it the two expressions [3752/ g] ; the
sum of these three ftmctions, being put equal to N'^'' . cos. i T [3752], gives the same
value of iV^*", as in [3753]. In the case of i = \, this sum must be increased by the
[3752/il first term of [3750w] ; by which means iV^°^ is increased by the quantity given in [3754].
The case of i=0, which is separately considered in [3755'''], produces, in R, the
following expression, which is deduced from [3752c,/], by putting i=^0;
VI. i. §4.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN c, e', y. 25
In these three last expressiotis i is supposed to he positive and greater than [3753'"]
zero. Incase i = \, we must add to iV"" the term — ^. ^^ [3752/i]. [3754]
It is more convenient, for numerical calculations, to have the differentials
relative to only one of the two quantities «, a', in these formulas.*
Proceeding m the same manner with the angle iT^zi — w' [3752'], we find, that
terms of this form are produced in R [957], by the substitution of the parts of the terms
of [3750/] depending on the angle Tfra — i^, and marked 7, 9, 12, 14; reducing
them by means of the formulas [954c, 955a,/]. Hence this part of R becomes equal
to ~.ee'.cos.\{i \\) .T \a — m'], multiplied by the following expression, retaining [37524]
the terms according to the order of the numbers, without any reduction ;
aa'.f — — ) — 2ia. ( —  ) — 2ia'. — — ) + 4 i^. ./î*'^. [3752q
\dada / \ da / \da /
Changing i into i — 1, in [3752À:, Z], we find, that this part of R maybe represented
by . ee'. JV^''.cos. {i T+ra — ra') [3753'] ; observing, that this change in the value [3752m]
of i, reduces the expression [3752Z] to the same form as the factor of —, in the
value of iV"' [3753']. We must retain only the positive values of i in [3752', 3753'] ; for
if we ciiange the sign of Î, the expression cos. (i Tjw— ■zs'), becomes cos.( — iT\vs—a') [3752)1]
or COS. {i T — ■nj'sj'), which is of tlie same form as [3752"]. Hence it appears, that we
may deduce JV'' [3752"] fiom iV*'> [3752'], by changuig the sign of i. Performing [3752o]
this operation on [3753'], we get [3753"], using ^^'i> = ^('+i> [3752/']. Finally, the
case of i = 0, is found by putting i = in [3752ot], or in the similar terms depending [37520"]
on JV^2i [.3752o]; observing, that when i = 0, the expressions JV'^', JV'2> [3753', 3753"]
become equal to each other ; and this part of R becomes
f . ... [ 4^...+ .„ . (1^) +.».. (•■) +,y. (1^') I . e„. („.,. ,,.„
* (2371) In making the reduction of M<" from [3750'] to [3755], it will be convenient to
use the abridged symbols a™ . (^^j = ^ï ; a"" . (Ç^') = .//'<::' ; and as the [3755o]
index n is the same for all the terms depending on M''^\ we may neglect it, and put simply
' [37556]
VOL. III. 7
26 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
This is obtained by means of [1003], from which we get
[3755] JtfU,__^.^(2,_2).(2,_i).^(«+2.(2;l).«.(!^) + «^(î!^')^;
[3755'] Jlf(^)= \^(4i^_7i + 2).^^> + 2.(2zl).«.('fp) + «^(''';;;^^^
Reduced
values.
[3755"] ./V= ^.^(2._2).(2.l).^<2«.('^)«^(^)5;
[3755'"] JV^^>== '.^(2^• + 2).(2^• + l).^u4n_2«.(^'^^_„..(^''f^^^.
[3755i>] 5, The case of i ^ deserves particular attention. We shall
resume the expression [923], and shall consider, in the first place, the
and the same symbols may be used in the reduction of Jlf' ' , .A'"'" , JV'' . Then the
coefficient of — ^m', in the value of M'^'' [3750'], will become, by the substitution of
the first and second formulas [1003],
[3755c] = 2. (i — 1) . {2 . (i — 1) + 1 } . ^„+ ^4 i — 2^ . ^, + A.,
^{2i — 2).(2i — l).A,^2.{2i — l).A, + A,;
which is the same as the coefficient of — J m' in [3755]. In hive manner, the coefficient
of — , in [3750"], becomes, by using the first and third of the formulas [1003],
8
(;_2).(4i— 3).^o + 2.(2i — 3). lA, + A,l + {2Ao + 4.A, + A,\
f^^^^'^J =\{i2).{ii3)+4i — 4l.^, + 2.{2i\).A,+A,;
which is easily reduced to the form of the factor of —, in M^~'> [3755']. Again, the
factor of i m, in the value of iV'" [3753'] becomes, by the substitution of the values
in the first and second formulas [1003] ;
A.{i — \f.A,—2.{l—\).A, + 2.{i — \).\Jl^+A,\ + \ — 2A,—A^\
^2.{i—\).\2.{i—\) + \\.A, — 2Ay — A^;
which is the same as the coefficient of \m, in tiie value of jV"' [3755"]. From this
we may easily obtain A*'', by merely changing the sign of i, as in [3752o].
* (2372) The terms of R depending on i = 0, are given in [3752», 3752p] ; they
are independent of n t, n' t, and produce in ^ d a secular equation [3773] ; and on this
account, they are carefully computed, though it is finally found, in [4446, 4505], that
[3755e]
VI. i. §5.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', 7. 27
term
— 5^ ^ ^, of the expression of d5v, given by this [3755"]
On the
secular
'■dv
formula. We have, as in [1037], by noticing only the terms affected with pi" of
the arc of a circle n t*
r
a
S r
a
— I m'. (h C + h' D).nt. cos. {n t + e)
^ 1 _ /i . sin. (« t\i) — l. COS. (n t + i); [375G]
= \m'.{lC + l' D).nt . sin. {n t + s) [3756']
they are insensible. To reduce these terms of R to the form [3764], we may use the
following symbols, given in [1022, 1033] ;
A:=c.sm.«; Z = e.cos.is; A'= e'. sm. w' ; r = e'.cos. ra' ; [3756a]
e2=A2+/2. e'2 = A'2+Z'2; [37566]
y.sin.n^y— p; y .cos.n = q' — q ; 7^=(p'—p)+{q'—lf t^^'^^'^l
Now substituting, in [3752t], the values of c^, c'^, y^ [3756e, c], they will produce,
respectively, the first, second, and fourth lines of the expression of R or ô R [3764] ;
observing, that, by using the sign S, as in [917'], these terms of R may be represented [3756rf]
by &R. The term [3752j7] produces the thiid line of the same value of 5R; for
we have, by using [3756a],
e e'. cos. (a — n') = e e'. (sin. ^s . sin. a' + cos. m . cos. z^) = A h' + / Z' ; [3756e]
substituting this in [3752p], it produces this term of &R [3764], having the factor hh'\ll'.
This value of oR is to be used in the formula [923], to compute the part of 5v, which .,„„
is independent of the angles n t, n't; and of the second degree in A, A', /, V , &.C.
* (2373) The object of the present computation is merely to ascertain the part of à v,
mentioned in [.3756/], by means of the expression of dàv [923]. This may be reduced
to the form [3757^], by observing, that r i?' = r . ("^ W « . (^) [928', 962], [3757o]
and that we have, identically, 2 r . 5 R' { R' . 6 r ^2 & . {r R!) — R' . 5 r. From the first [37574]
of these equations, we see that R' is of the same order as R, or of the order m ; and
by rejecting tenns of the order m'^, as in [3768'], we may neglect the term — R'.Sr,
and then this expression [37576], by the substitution of r R' [3757a], becomes
'd'>R\ [3757e]
2r.5R'\R'.ôr=2S.{rR') = 2a.( ^) .
Substituting this in [923], also the value of r^dv [.3759], we get
'dûR
d.{2r.d5r+drJr) + dt^.\^3fôàR+^a.(^)] ^^^^^^^
1 r
a'J.nrf<.v/(l— e9)
28 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
These give, by noticing only the terms depending on the squares and
[3757] p^fjdy^cis qJ ji^ i^ ]i'^ i'^ independent of the sines and cosines of nt + e,
and its multiples *
[3758] d.(2r.d5r + dr.&r) = —''^^^^^^.\(h'+n.C + (hh'+in.D\.
In this we must substitute SR [3764], and those terms of dr, S r, which produce
quantities of the form and order mentioned in [3756/]. Now these quantities will be
obtained by selecting, from the general value [1037], the three terms contained in the
r Ô V
[3757e] second member of [3756], for ; and the terms in the second member of [3756'], for — .
It is unnecessary to use any other tenns of a higher order in h, 1, &c. ; for if we retain,
in , any teim of the order h^, hi, 1% connected with sin.2.(?i^46) or cos.2. (m^ + s),
a
it must also be connected, in [3757rf], with terms of —, or of its differential, of the same
[3757/] forms and order, producing terms of the fourth order in h, 1, and independent of the
angles n t, n' t, which are neglected in this article. The same remarks will apply to
other terms of  , depending on higher multiples of the angle nt{s. Having adopted
[3757g] this form of , it will be unnecessary to retain any terms of — [1023, 1037], except
a o
Sr
those in the second member of [3756] ; for, though other terms in — [1023], of the
[3757/i] forms P, P'. sin. ()i / ( s), P". cos. {nt \ s), might produce, in 2r .d è r\ dr .&r,
quantities independent of the sine or cosine of the angle nt \e, or its multiples ; yet
if we notice only terms of the order m', they will vanish in its differential, which occurs
in [3757d, 3760] ; and this does not happen with the arcs of a circle retained in [3756'],
as is shown in [3760].
* (2374) In finding the terms of 2 r . tZ i5 r  <7r . 5 r, of the order m', it is only
[3758o] necessary to notice quantities of the form Q ■ « t.dt, containing the arc of a circle n i,
Q being constant ; for if the function contain any constant term, or elements of tlie planet's
orbit, it will either vanish from its differential ' [3760] or become of the order 7«'^, &;c. ;
and terms depending on the sine and cosine of nt\s, aie neglected [3757]. Substituting
r [3756], and its differential, in the first member of the following expression, we get
[37585]
2 r . d 5 r { d r . 5 r = \2 a — 2 ah . sin. [nt \ e) — 2al. cos. [ni \e)\ .d S r
4 I — ah . cos. {nt\s) { al . sin. [nt \e)] . n dt . or ;
in which we must substitute the values of S r , d Sr. Now if, for a moment, we
[3758c] put im'.a.{lCJirD) = L, im'. a .{h C{h'D) = H, we shall get, fiom [3756']
VI. i. ^5.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 29
We then have r" dv = a" n d t . \/ï^^ [1057]; hence we shall obtain [3759]
d.{Or.dSr+dr.Sr) m'.ndt <(^j^,_^pyc+(hh' + ll').D\. [3760]
r~ dv 4
We have, in [1071],
(0, 1) = — 1 m' nC; [^^^rn'riD; [3761]
therefore *
d.{2r.dSr{dr.Sr) _,_^^,^Q^^y ^,^,j^p^ _ ^^ _ (hh'+ll')\. [3762]
r^ dv
We shall now consider the term — ^^, , of the same formula [923]
r' dv
[3758d]
and from its difterentlal, the following expressions, retaining only the tenns which contain
the aic of a circle, as in [3755'] ;
S r =L .n t . sin. {n t { s) — H .nt . cos. (» t\s);
dSr=L.7i^. tdt .COS. {71 tjs) { H . nP. t d t .sm. (jii + e).
Substituting these values of &r, dSr, in the first members of the equations [3758e],
reducing by [17 — 20] Int., retaining only the terms containing the arc of a circle,
independent of the sine or cosine of nt^ e, we get
'2a.dSr = 0;
— 2 a h. s'm. {nt { e) . dSr = — ahH .rfitdt ;
— 2al.cos.{nt+s).d6r = — alL.n^tdt; [3758e]
— ah . cos. (nt\s).ndt.5r^iahH.7i^tdt;
[ al . sin. [nt { s) .nd t .5r = ^ al L . n^t dt .
The sum of the tenns in the first members of [3758e] is equal to the second member
of [37586] ; consequently the first member of [3758J] is equal to the sum of the second
members of [375Se] ; hence we get
2r.dSr + dr.5r= — iahH.n^tdt — ialL.n^tdt. [3758/]
The differential of this expression becomes, by resubstituting [3758c],
d.{2r.dSr + dr.Sr} = — in^a.dt^.{hH{lL)
Dividing this by the expression of r'^dv [.3759], neglecting the divisor \/{l — e^), which
only produces terms of the fourth degree in h, h', e, &c., it becomes as in [3760].
* (2375) Substituting the values [3761] in [3760], we get [3762]. [3762a]
VOL. III. 8
[3758g]
30 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cèl.
or [3757 d'\. If we notice only the secular quantities depending on the
[3763] squares and products of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, we
shall have, by the analysis of the preceding article [37ô6d—f],
Pan of V \ ^ \
6R,
..™ +f(Mwj4.... + .„.(')+2...(M^)+„..(J^),
ponding to
t=0.
[3765]
[3766]
m
p, p'l q, ([, denoting the same quantities as in [1032]. Hence we easily
obtain, from Book II, ^ 55, 59,*
aw.<5i2 = — 1.(0, l).{/r + r + /t'2 + Z'2 + [^].j/t/t'+n'i
which gives f
an.àùR = dh.\ — {Q,\).h+\^.h'\—dl. \(0,\).l—[^.l'\
(0,1). dp. (p'p)(0,l)dq.(q'q).
* (2376) If we multiply [3764] by an, we shall get the value of aii.ôR, which
may be easily reduced to the form [3765] by the following considerations. The coefficient
[3765a] of h^^P is equal to '— [1073], and the coefficient of h'^^l'^ is of the same
value ; as evidently appears by the substitution of the expression [3752rf]. The coefficient
of {p'—p)^+ir/—fjf, in this product, is ^ m' ?i . «^ a'. B"'== J . (0, 1) [1130].
Lastly, the coefficient of h h'\Jl' in this product, is evidently equal to  m n, multiplied
[37656] by the expression of D [1013], and this is shown iii [1071] to be equal lo [ôTÎ],
as in [3765].
t (2377) In taking the differential of [3765], relatively to the characteristic d [37056],
we must consider h, I, p, q as the variable quantities, and h', I', p, g' as constant ;
and then we shall get
an .do R = — {0,1) . {h d h jld I) + [^] . {h'd h ^r d I)
[3766a]
^ (0,1). \{p'p).dp(q'q).dri\;
being the same as in [3766], with a slight alteration in the arrangement of the terms.
VI. i. <^5.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 31
The second member of this equation becomes nothing, in virtue of the
equations [1089, 1132] ; therefore we have*
a ?t . d (5 K = ;
[3767]
hence we deduce, by observing that n" a^ = \ [3709'] ,t [37671
3dt.fdt.d&R_ 3m'.gdt
m''g being the arbitrary constant quantity added to the integral fdôR [1012'].
It now remams to consider the function „ ,— 1 , which
r d V
occurs in the expression of d&v [923]. If we neglect the square of [3768']
2 S . (r R') d t^
the disturbing force, this function will be reduced to — „ , — ,
r^ dv
*
(2378) Taking into consideration only two bodies, m, m', we get, as in [1072],
^=(0,l).?[irr]./'; ^ = (0,l).A+[ôZ].A'. [3767a]
Multiplying the first of these equations by — R/, the second by dh, and adding the
products, we find, that the sum of the terms of the first member vanishes ; consequently [37676]
the sum of the terms in the second member, being the same as the terms depending
on dh, dl, in [3766], must also vanish. Again, we have, in [11.31],
^=(0,1). (<?'<?); ^'__(o,l).(/__p); [3767.]
multiplying these, respectively, by — dq, dp, and taking the sum of the products; the
first member becomes identically nothing, and the second member is the same as the terms [3767rf]
depending on dp, dq [3766], which are therefore equal to nothing, as in [3767].
We may incidentally remark, that the quantities (0, 1), [Ôj]], &c. [3761] ; also dh, dl, &ic.
[1102, 1102ff], are of the order m' ; consequently the second member of [3766] is
of the order m'^ ; but its integration, in [3768], introduces divisors of the order
g> gi> ,?î' ^c. [1102, 1102«], which are of the order m' [1097t] ; by this means, the [3767e]
integral fdt.àèR [3768], is reduced to terms of the order m, like the other terms
computed in this article.
t (2.379) The integral of [3767], using the constant g [1012'], is an.fàSR = an.m'g;
lultiplying this
we get [3768].
multiplying this by , and then dividing by r^ d v z^ a^ n d t . \/ {I — è') [3159}, [3768a]
32 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
^ „ /dSR\ ,,
[3769] or by [928, 962], to V^ .* This quantity produces,
m.ndt.a'.i— — I
[3769'] in the first place, the term .^—^ " ,t which is to be added
?iin' p'lJ t . , .3 m'. as: ndt
[3769"] to , '; [3768], or to the equivalent expression /;— ^ ,
deduced from ?r «^ = 1 [3767']; and the sum vanishes by the
substitution of g = — ^a.l— — j [1017].
Resuming the expression of ôR [3764], we shall observe, that the function
[3771] I' .aa'.B^'K{(p'py+ (ç'ç)^} + &c.î
* (2380) We have, in [3757&, c], by neglecting tlie square of the disturbing
[37690] force, 2 r 5 iî' + R ' 5 r = 2 5 . (r iî ' ) = 2 a . (jj^) • Multiplying this by d t" and
by l = n^tt^ [376T], and then dividing by r^ d v:^ a~ nd t .</{\—e^) [3759], we
2 a^. I —— ).ndt
[37695] get ^ °" \ [3769], for the corresponding terra of d>]v.
t (2381) The value of R [957], or rather [1011], gives, for the case of { = 0,
[3770a] and for terms mdependent of nt, n't, S R = I i7i' . A'''\ Substituting this in the term
/djKOA
of dSv [37696], it becomes as in [3769']. Now if we substitute g=— Ja.(^j
[37706] . m'.ndt.a^ /rf.^(oi\ , ,. .
[1017], in the term of dêv, [3769"], it becomes — "; ,^_^o, ■\d^)' '^
destroyed by the equal and opposite term obtained in [3769'] ; so that this sum becomes
[3770c] nothing, as in [3770]. The calculation [3767—3770] is in some respects a repetition of
that in [1016", &ic.] ; and we see that the value of g, assumed in [1017], suffices even
when we notice the parts of R contained in [3764].
% (2382) Taking into consideration only two bodies m, m, the differential of [3771]
[37710] '^'" ''^ im'.aa.B''\\{p'—p).{dp'—dp) + {f/—q).{d(/—dq)l; observing
that B^^^ [956] is a function of the constant quantities a, a' [1044"]. Now the first
and second of the equations [1132] become as in [3767c], and the third and fourth of those
[37716] equations give ^ =— (1,0). (q'—q) ; ^ =(1,0) .(/ — p). Hence the differential
expression [3771a] becomes
[3771c] ^ ^/ . „ „'.5(n . (p'—p) . (ç'_ î) . {— (1, 0) — (0, 1) + (1, 0) + (0, 1)( . ^ < ;
VI. i. >§5.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. SS
is equal to a constant quantity independent of the time t, because its
differential becomes nothing, in virtue of the equations [1132]; and if we
consider only two planets, m, m', as we shall hereafter do, (p'—pf+{q'—qT [^TTr]
will l)e a quantity independent of the time, in consequence of the same
equations. Therefore the preceding function [3771] can produce in
^ n d t . a .{ )
'\'i^/ [3769], only a quantity independent of tdt, kc, which [3771]
. v/l— e^
may therefore be neglected, since it may be supposed to be included in the
value of ndt. Hence we shall have, by eliminating the partial differentials [3771"]
of A^°^ and A^'\ relatively to a', by means of their values [1003],*
[3772]
in which the tenns between the braces mutually destroy each other, and render this
quantity equal to nothing ; therefore the expression [3771] must be constant, and may be
represented by G, and it will introduce into 5 R [3764] the constant quantity G. Now
as this quantity, considered as a function of a, produces in [3771"], only a term wliich
may be inckided in the expression of ndt, we may neglect it, and reject the tenn '■ '
depending on jB'* in [3764].
* (2383) It appears from [3752(/], that the coefficients of }m'.{P\P), ^m'.{h'^+l'^),
are equal in the value o{ S R [3764] ; these terms may therefore be connected together,
as in [377*26]. Now if we put the two expressions of JV^' [3753", 3755'"] equal to
each other, then divide by  m', we shall have, for the case of i = 0,
 ^,,, , ^ /dJim\ /(/.4(i)\ , , /dd.m)\ ^ ^,,, ^ /dA(.^i\ „ fddJiw\
4^'+2«.(^) + 2a'.(— ) + «a'.(^^,)=2^«>2a.(^)«^(^; [3772«]
substituting this in the coefficient of lm'.{hh'\ II') [3764], it becomes as in [3772J] ;
hence we get
Taking the partial differential of this expression, relatively to a, and multiplying it
by 2ndt .a^, we get [3772].
TOL. III. 9
[37726]
34 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Ccl.
Now if we collect together all these terms, we shall obtain,*
irof" , vi'.ndt C /dAin\ _ fdd.m\ fdKm\~}
epend
Expres
sion of
[3773]
[377:%]
[3774] In this expression we may neglect the terms independent of the time t [3773e].
Hence it is easy to deduce the expression of (/ h v', by changing what relates
to m into the corresponding terms of m' and the contrary ; and observing,
[3775] that, though the value of J^'' [997], relative to the action of m' upon m,
is different from its value relative to the action of m upon m', yet we may
[3775] use, in the preceding expression, either of these values at pleasure.! But
* (2384) The value of dSv [3773] is found, by adding together the several parts of
the expression [3757(/], computed in this article ; and as tlie terms [3768' — 3771"] destroy
[3773a] gj^jjjj Qfjjgj.^ there will remain only the terms [3762, 3772], to be connected together.
The expiession [3762], by the substitution of the values of (0, 1), [""Til [1073] becomes
and as the factors without the braces are the same as in [3772], the sum of the two
expressions [3772, 37736] is easily found to be as in [3773] ; which is a function of the
[3773c] elements of the orbits similar to that mentioned in [1345'"']. If all the terms of this
function were constant, they might be included in the expression of the mean motion ndt.
But e^ = h^ + P, e^ = h'^^r^, he. [1108, 1109], are composed of con«to«^ quantities,
and of others depending on the secular periodical variations of c, e, Stc. ; and it is evident,
that the constant quantities produce in d 5 v terms of the same form as the mean motion ;
they may therefore be neglected, as in [3771'", 3774].
[377.3rf]
[3773e]
t (2385) Substituting [964] in [963'], and then putting s:=i, we get
[3775a] (a2_2 „ «'. cos. è + a'^)i=a'K\i bf + i'>. cos. ê + if . cos. 2é f &c.^
Now the first member of this equation is symmetrical in a, a' ; tlierefore its second member
must also be symmetrical ; so that we shall have, generally, a'~'.è'f equal to a synmretrical
flinction of a, a'; and if we refer to the formulas [996, 997], we shall see, that for all
^ ' values of i, except i=l, the function ^<'' is likewise symmetrical. In the case of ? = 1,
VI. i. §5.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 35
we may obtain dov' more easily by the following considerations. If we [3775"]
add the value of d^iv, multiplied by w\/â, to the value of d!iv', multiplied
by in'\/'a , Ave shall have, by substituting the partial differentials of A^^\ A'^\
relative to «, instead of those relative to a',*
m\/a.(ISv{7nya'.cJov:^ ^ .lh^{PJfh {I ^ . j^a . \^j^ j + i a . {^j^ J ^
[3776]
corrresponding to the action of?»' upon m, we have ,/2''" =  ;.& [997]; and in
J " " [3775c]
the action of m upon m', it becomes ./2'"=— — ^—^i 5 hut we may neglect the
parts —, — :^, because they produce nothing in dSv, dôv'. To prove this, we shall [3775rf]
a
observe, that by noticmg only the part .4''*= — , we shall get
/rf./3Ui\ 1 /■ddAO)\ /ddJim\
177; = ^' [1^)=^' l^I^j=^' [3775.]
substituting these in [3773], the terms mutually destroy each other ; so that we may
neglect this part of ./2'^*, and for similar reasons we may neglect the part ^'''=, in [3775/]
computing the action of m upon m', and then the two expressions [3775c] become
symmetrical in a, a', as in [3775'].
* (2.386) Multiplying [3773] by tn^a, and dividing the second member by na^a=^l
[3709'], we get, by reducing the factors without the braces to a symmetrical form,
+.,„,....,.(*+n. i^..(r)+^«'c^')+"'r^) \
Changing the elements m, a, v, h, I, he. into m', a, v', h', /', &c. and the contrary ;
which does not, in the present case, alter the values of A^°^ or ^'" [3775], we obtain [3776t]
the expression of m' \/a' .dSv'. The factors between the braces corresponding to the
first, second, and third Imes of [3776a], become, respectively, as in the first members
of [3776rf,/, h], and by means of the expressions [1003], they may be reduced to the
36 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3776] If we consider only two planets, m and m',* the differential of the second
f„__„ , forms [3776e, ^, i]. In making these reductions, we may use the abridged symbols
Ad, Ai, A.2, A3 [3755i], observing, that the index of A'^"'' or .4<" remains unchanged;
^^''^^ a'.(— ) + J«.(^ + «'3.(^):=.4o^J + M2^„+4^,+^,i
•\.\—QAu—\SA, — 9A^—A.:,\
[3776e] = — 5 .^j — ^A.2 — A^;
l^nn ,,.(^)+,,'.{'^) + ,P. (^)=2.iA^.!+4.i2A+4^,+^,!
+ l — 6Ao—l8Ai—9A.,—A3\
[377%] =—4A^ — 5Aç,— As;
/(/./3(iA /rf9.4<')\ /rf3./4''A
[3776/.] .^<"+«'.(— )^V^.(^2a'=.(^ = .4„+.4„^,.2^,+4^,+^,
— 2 . 1 — 6.^0—18^1—9^2—^31
[3776i] = — 5.2o + 5A + y. ^2+9^^3 •
Now substituting the values corresponding to [31~6c, g, i] in the value of m'^a. dSv,
deduced from [3776«], by the change of the elements [37766], we get
„V...«= i„„..„.(..+r=)..„.('/^),v...(^^).=.('^
+i„..,.(".+"').S5^+.C^')+V.'.(^)+..'.('5S')S
Adding together the two expressions [3776a, t], we obtain [3776], observing, that in
this sum, the coefficient of h^ \ P is found to be the same as that of A'^j/'^. We
[3776i] may remark, that the factor ^ — , in the second line of [3776], is erroneously
printed '■ in the original work. If we multiply the second member of [3776]
by ?ia*^l [3709'], and substitute the expressions (0,1), [ôT\ [1073], we shall get,
bstead of [3776], the following equation ;
[3776m] m^a.d&v+mya'.dôv'= im\/a . dt . (0,1) .{h^ \P + h'^ + 1'^)
— Zm\/a.dt. [KI] • {h li \ll').
* (2387) The differential of the equation [3776m], may be put under the following form;
d.\m^a.dàv\m!s/a'Mv']= Zm^a.dt.\{Q,\).{hdh.\ldl) — [^.{h'dh + rdl)\
^^''^''"^ \Zms/a.dt.\{0,\).{Kdh:+l'dl') — [^].{hdK^ldV)\.
VI. i. ^5.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 37
member of this equation will be nothing, in virtue of the equations [1089] ;
therefore %oe have, by noticing only secular periodical quantities, "for "■
= m s/a.dàv]r m' \/7i ■ d <> v' ; [3777]
which immediately gives d tS v\ when d o v is knoivn.
The value of div is relative to the angle formed by the iivo radii veclores
r and r + dr. To obtain its value relative to a fixed plane, we shall [3778]
observe, that if we put dv^ for the projection of dv upon this plane, and
neglect the fourth power of the inclination of the orbit, we shall find,
as in [925],*
dv=dv.\\^ls''—\/^À. [3770]
We have, as in [1051],
s = q.sm.{nt + s) — J9.C0S. (n/ + j) + &C. ; [3780]
which gives f
rf5 = ^j2_^yji.cos.(7t^ + + (np + ^Yf/i.sin.(«^f3) + Sic. ;
[3781]
Substituting, in the first line of the second member of this expression, the values d h, d I
[3767a], it vanishes, because the terms mutually destroy each other. The second line
of the second member becomes, by the substitution of the formulas [1093, 1094], equal
to ^m^n'.dt.\{\,Q).{li'dh'{rdl') — ['ûV^.{hdh' + ldV)\, which vanishes also by [37776]
the substitution of </A'= {(1,0) . /'— [To] J} . J<, dV=.\—{\,Q).h'^[']^].h\.dt, [3777c]
deduced from the third and fourth of the equations [1089]. This is also evident from the
consideration, that the expression [3777i] may be derived from the first line of [3777a],
by changing the elements relative to m into those corresponding to m', and the contrary ; [3777rf]
and as that line is found to vanish by the substitution of the values of dh, dl [3767 «],
the other will in like manner vanish by the substitution of the values of d A', d I
[3777c]. Now the second member of [3777a] being equal to nothing, we have, by
integration, m \/a.d&v\ m' s/à .dhv'=Gdt \ G being a constant quantity independent
of the secular periodical equations. This quantity Gdt may be supposed, as in [3771'"], [3777c]
to be connected with ndt, ri'd t ; so that by noticing only the secular periodical equations,
we may put tlie first member of the preceding equation equal to nothing, as in [3777].
• (2388) The equation [925] maybe put under the form di\=dv\/\l\s'^ — (T+TIilTrâv
Developing this, and neglecting terms of the fourth degree in s or ds, we get [3779].
t (2389) The differential of .9 [.3780], considering p, q, t as variable, becomes as
in [3781]. The squares of these expressions, which enter into the function [3779], are
VOL. III. 10
38 PERTURBATIOiNS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[37811 hence we shall find, by neglecting the periodical quantities depending on n t ,
and observing that d v ■= n d t, very nearly,
[3782] dv^^dv\}2 .(q dp — p d q) ;
therefore to obtain the value of d5v^, we must add the quantity
[3783] \. (qdp — p dq) to the preceding value of dàv [3773].
If we only consider two planets m, m', we shall ha\r, by means
of [1132, 1130],*
[3784] {q('p—pdq) ■ m\/â+{f/dp'p'dq').my^= — imm'.dt.aa'.B''\\{p'—p)^lr{q'—qfl ;
[3779a] of the order of the terms computed in this article [3702'], and by neglecting terms of a
d s~
higher order, we may omit, in — [3779], the terms of dv [3748] depending on e,
[37796] and put dvz^ndt, by which means we shall get d v^t=:z dv.\l\i s^ — iir — (»
in which we must substitute s, ds [3780, 3781]. In making these substitutions, and
noticing the terms independent of the sine and cosine of nt or its multiples, as is done in
this article, where the secular periodical terms only are retained, we may, as in [3651a], put
[3779c] sin.2 (n < + e) = è , cos.^ (n ^ + e) = i , sin. (« /■ + s) . cos. (n < f s) =0 ;
then the squares of [3780, 3781] will give, by neglecting dq^, dp^, which are of the
order of the square of the disturbing forces,
[3779rf] i,a_i.(ç2+_p2);
Substituting these in [3779], we get [3782].
* (2390) Substituting the values of dp, dq, dp, dq' [.3767c, 3771 i] in the first
members of [3784«, i>], and reducing the second expression by means of [109.3, 1094],
we get the second members [3784o, c] ;
[3784a] my'a.{qdp — pdq)^ms/a.{Q, \) .dt . \q ■ [q' — q) ^ P (p' —p)\ ;
[37846] w'v/«' {q'fip'—p'dq') = m'y/a. {1,0) . d t .\— q'. {q'— q) —p'. {p' — l})\
[3784c] ==^m^a.{(),l).dt.\— q' . (7'— q) — p' . {p' — p)\
The sum of the two equations [3784f(, c] gives the value of [3784] under tlie form
[3784c/] — m^a. [0,1). dt.\{q' — qfj{p'—p)^]; substituting (0,1) [11.30], and dividing
3
by na==l [3709'], it becomes as in the second member of [3784].
VI. i. §6.]
TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y.
39
and the second member of this equation is equal to dt, multiplied by
a constant quantity ; * therefore by noticing only the secular periodical
quantities, we shall have
= m y'â .d&v^^m' sjd . d^v^ ;
& V and (5 v^ being relative to the fixed plane.
6. We shall now consider the inequalities in the motion in latitude,
dependinrr on the products of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.
For this purpose we shall resume the third of the equations [915] ;
We shall take for the fixed plane the primitive orbit of m, in consequence of
lohich we may put 2 = in the expression of (i— )• We shall have,
by [3736—3741], observing that z' = r's',\
dR
rf7
[3784']
Tho Bame
formula for
reduced to
the fixed
plane.
[3785]
r"" 1^2— 2r/.cos.(î)' — i;)+r'2}*'
[3785']
Differ
ential
equation
for the
latitude.
[3786]
[3786']
[3787]
[3788]
* (2391) The differential of the second member of [3784], being divided by — 'imdt,
becomes as in '3771rt], and is therefore equal to nothing, as is shown in [3771c] ; hence [3785a]
we find, as in [377 ItZ], that the first member of [3784] is equal to dt, multiphed by a
constant quantity G, wliich may be neglected as in [377 le] ; so that by noticing only the
secular periodical equations, we shall have {qdp—j)dq).m\/a\{q'dp' — p'dq').nJ\/a'^zO. [37854]
Now we have found, in [3782], that by reducing « to a fixed plane, the value of dv or dàv
must be augmented by ^.{qdp — pdq); and in like manner, the quantity d^v' must
be increased by i.{q'dp' — pdq). Multiplying these by m\/a, m'\/a', respectively, [3785c]
and adding the products, we get the increment of the function [3777], or the quantity to be
added to it, to obtain the value of m \/a . dSv^^m' \/c! . d 5 v/. Now this increment
vanishes by means of the equation [37856] ; consequently the function [3777], varied in
this manner, becomes as in [3785].
t (2392) The latitude of the body ot', neglecting terms of the third order, being ^3737^]
represented by s , and the radius vector by r', we shall have, by the principles of
orthographic projection, 2' = //, as in [3787]. Now / [37366] being independent
of z, the partial differential of H [3736], relative to z, becomes
(àR\ m' 2'
m'.(z'
l(x'
^f+iy'yf+i^'')]^ '
[3787a']
40 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cèl.
the differential equation in z, will by this means become*
[3789]
= ^ + n=2.{l + 3e.cos. (n^+£ — ^)
+
m'. n^ a^. s
\ r^ — 2 r r. cos. («' — ^)\'i'"~\~
We shall now putf
■clR
[3790] ('l:^)^M.sin.{?:.(n7— n« + /— s)+2ni+^i+iV.sin.^'i'.(n7nï+/— i)+L,
for the jiart of [3788]
ffJR
[3791] I77
r — 2r r. cos. {v' — v){ r' } ] '~
depending on the angles i.(n't — 7it\s' — s)\2nt and i.(7i't — nt\;' — s) ;*
[3792] and shall suppose, that by noticing only the inequalities of z, depending on
and if we neglect quantities of the order s'^, we may reject tenns of the order z'~ or 7*
in the denominator; then, as in [3742^], we shall have
[3787i] {x'— xf 4 (i/' — i/f + {z' — zf = /a _ 2 r r'. cos. {v — v) + r' 2 ;
substituting this and z := 0, z'==r's' [3786', 3787] in [3787a'], we get [3788].
We may here remark, that the method used in this article, in finding the motion in
[3787c] latitude, depending on terms of tlie order of the product of the excentricity hy the inchnatlon
of the orbit, is difTerent from tliat proposed in [948], and used in [1025, &c.] in finding
the terms independent of the excentricity. This last method may, however, be applied
without any difficulty to terms depending on the excentricity, and we shall obtain the same
[3787rf] result as in [3795 — 3797] ; as has been shown by Mr. Plana, in Vol. XII, page 449, &c.
of Zach's Correspondance Astronomique, he.
* (2393) We have, by means of [37026, c, 3700],
[.3789o] (A ?3= ,a a'^. { 1 + 3 e . cos. (n t + s—zi) f &c.  = 7i^. ^1+36. cos. (n t + 1— «) + &;c. .
Substituting this in [3786], also the expression [3788], multiphed by n'a^=l [3709'],
we get [3789].
t (2394) The reasons for assuming these forms are evident from [3704a — 6], observing
[3790«] that the object proposed at the commencement of this book, is to notice merely the terms
depending on the squares and products of the excenlricities and inclinations.
VI. i. §6] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y. 41
the first power of the inclination of the orbits, the part of z, relative to
the angle i . {n't — n i + s' — e) + nt, will be *
z=^yaF. sin. \ i . («' t — n t + s' — s) + n t + s — n\. [3793]
We then have, by retaining only the terms depending on the products of the
excentricities and inclinations,!
0=^— \nrz + %rf.€y.aFA ,.'.,, , , ^ , , [
+ n''a\M.ûn.\i.{n't — nt\i—;)+27it + K\
+ n'a\N.ûa.\i.(ri!t—nt + B'—c) + L\ ;
[3794]
* (2395) Putting, for brevity,
we shall have, for the terms of s [1034] depending on iî''~", the expression
F. \ (?' — q) . sin. Tg — (y — ^) . COS. Tal ; [3792i]
substituting in this the values p' — p ^= y . sin. n, g' — q = y • cos. 11 [1033], it becomes [37926']
Fy . {sin. T3 . COS. n — cos. T3 . sin. n j = Fy . sin. ( T3 — n)
= F7. sin. {i . {n' t—n t J[ ^— s) \ n t {E — n\. [3792e]
Multiplying this by r, we get the corresponding part of z=^rs [3787,3796], to be [3792(/]
substituted in the term 3 n^ e z . cos. {at { s — zs) [3789]. Now this term is of the [3792«]
second order, or of the same order as the terms now under consideration [3702'] ; and by
neglecting tliose of a higher order, we may substitute a for r, in the expression of z [3792(7],
and we shall have z=a«; hence the term of s, computed in [3792c], produces in z [3792/"]
the quantity [3T93]. Substituting this in [3792e], and reducing by means of [18] Int.,
we get the tenus depending on F in [3794]. In computing the value of the term [3792e],
and neglecting quantities of the order m'^ or e^, it is not necessary to notice any other
terms of s [1034], except those depending on B'^'^^ or F, which we have used above. [3792g]
For the terms depending on the arc of a circle nt, in the second and third lines of [1034],
vanish, as in [1051], in consequence of the secular variations of p, q. Again, having
taken the primitive orbit of m for the fixed plane, we have z = or s = [3786'], at
the commencement of the motion, corresponding to p = 0, q^O [1034, 1032] ; so that
these terms may be neglected in computing [3792e]. Lastly, the terms of s depending
on sin. {n't ] e), cos. («' C ( s'), in the fourth line of s [1034], may be considered as
included in the term of 7*3 or of F [3792a], depending on i = I ; consequently the [3792i]
function [3792é] is rightly expressed by the terms depending on F in [3794] ; the
quantity F being of the order m' [3792a], as well as M, JV [3790, 3791]. [3792*]
t (2396) The equation [3794] is easily deduced from [3789] ; for the two first terms
are identically the same in each ; the third term depending on e, reduced as in [3792/, Sic],
VOL. III. 11
[3792A]
[3795]
4*2 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
hence we get, by integration,*
iin^.ey.aF.sm.\i.(n't — nt + s'—s)\2ntir2î—7z—n\ ^
._ ( +n''a\M.sm.\i.(n't—nt + i—s)\2nt^K\ \
\ in'—(i— l).n\.\ in'—(i—3) . n \
i%n?.ey.aF.sm. [i.{n't — nt\^' — + '^ — n )
\ +n?a^.N .ûn.\i.{n't—nt]s'—i)\L\ \
\in' — (i + \).n\.\in'—{i—\).7i\
We have the latitude s, by observing thatf
s ^=~ =:{ .e . COS. (nt \i — ■a) :
r a a ^ ^ '
therefore s may be obtained by dividing the preceding expression of z by a,
and adding to it the quantity %
ley.F.?.m.{i.{n't—nt\'S—i) + 2nt+2t—^ — T\]
+ \ey.F.%m. \i.(n't — nt\s — £) + « — n.
[3796]
[3797]
[3794o] produces the terms depending on F [3794] ; the two remaining terms, comprised in the
second line of the second member of [3789], are represented by the fonction [3791], or by
the equivalent expression [3790] multiplied by 7t^a''=l, as in the two last lines of [3794].
* (2397) The equation [3794] is of the same forai as [865a], putting y = z, « = w;
[3795o] then any term of [3794] depending on F, M, or JV, being represented by a.K.s\n. (m^t\s),
[379561 the corresponding term of z will be represented by , ; , '"^ ', 'as in [871"] ; the
' X u i. ^ (m,(n).(m, — n)
letters m,, e,, being accented to distinguish them from the similar letters of the present
[3795c] article. Now putting m^:=zi.{^nl — n)\2n in the first and third of ^Aese ^erm^ of [3794],
and m.i = i.{n' — n) in the second and fourth, we get, successively, the terms of z [3795] ;
[3795d] all of which are of the order ?«' [3792Ar].
f (2398) We get, in like manner as in [3787], r5 = c; dividing this by r, or its
[3796a] equivalent expression a.\\ — e. cos . {nt \ e — ra)} [3701], we get the two values
of s [3796], neglecting, in the last of them, the terms of the third order in e and z.
J (2399) Substituting, in — .e.cos. (?i<s — ra) [3796], the term of z of the first order y,
assumed in [3793], and reducing the product by means of [18] Int., we obtain the
corresponding values [3797]. Adding these to the term of  [3796], deduced from
[3795], we get the terms of s. of the proposed forms and order. These terms are neglected
VI. i. §6.]
TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN e, e', y.
45
Nothing more is required but to ascertain the values of M and iV; which
may be easily found by the analysis in § 4. We shall, however, dispense
with this calculation, because the inequalities of this order in latitude are
insensible except in the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, whose mean motions
are nearly commensurable, and we shall give, in [3884 — 3888], a very
simple method for the determination of these inequalities.
If we refer the motion of m to a fixed plane, which is but very slightly
inclined to that of its primitive orbit, putting tp for the inclination of the
orbit to this plane, and a for the longitude of its ascending node ; we shall
have the reduction of the motion in the orbit to this plane, by the method
explained in Book II, ^22 [675, &c.],*
— J . tang."(p . sin. (2 v^ — 2 é) — tang. <?) . J 5 . cos. {v^ — ^) ;
» being the motion v referred to the fixed plane. Hence the motion in
latitude produces in the motion in longitude, upon the ecliptic, inequalities
depending on the squares and higher powers of the excentricities and
[3797']
[3798]
[3799]
[3800]
[3600']
by the autlior in [3797'] on account of their smallness. The most important terms of the
perturbation in latitude, of the second order, computed in [3885, 3886], are reduced to numbers [37976]
in [4458, 4513], for Jupiter and Saturn, in whose orbits these terms have a sensible value.
* (2400) In the annexed figure 73, AB \s tlie primitive orbit of the planet rn, A G the
fixed plane, D the place of the planet, B D=^&s the perturbation in latitude now
under consideration, which is perpendicular to A B ; lastly, the arcs B G, D EF are
perpendicular to AG, and BE perpendicular
to DF. Then by using the notation [669"],
we have AB:=^v — 13, AG^=v^ — ê,
BAG^ip; and in [676'], by neglecting tf^,
^B=^G' + tang.2iç,.sin.(2i;,— 2^) ; but
on account of the smallness of cp, we may
put tang.3 J 9 = ( ^ tang. <p )^ = J tang.^ «j ;
so that to reduce A B \o A G, we must apply the correction — ^tang.^ip.sin. (2t), — 26),
as in the first term of [3800]. Again, since B D is perpendicular to AB, and BE
perpendinijar to DF or B G, we have nearly, the angle ABG = angle D B E ;
moreover, in the spherical triangle A B G, we have cos. ABG = sin. BAG . cos. A G
[1345*], or in symbols, cos. D5 jB== sin. ip . cos. («^ — d). Now in the rightangled
triangle Bfil>, we have, very nearly, BE = BD.cos.DBE=iàs .sm.(p.cos.{v;—ê);
and on account of the smallness of p, we may change sin.cp into tang.ç, also BE into FG;
hence F f? = 5 s . tang. (?. cos. (j;,— Ô). Subtracting this from AG, we get AF; and
in this way we obtain the second term of [3800].
i;«
[3800a]
[38006]
[3800c]
[3800(/]
[aSOOe]
[3800/]
[3800^]
44 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3800"] inclinations of the orbits ; but these inequalities are insensible except for
Jupiter and Saturn.
If we notice only the secular quantities, and put, as in [1032],
[3801] tang. <p . sin. Ô =p ; tang, ip . cos. â = ç ;
we shall have*
[3802] is = t.~. sin. (n i + s) — t'j^ • cos. (n t + s).
[3803] The term — tang. (? . 5 5 . cos. (v^ — ê) produces the following expression,
[3804] ^•^9'P~~P l! . so that we shall havef
[3805] VV + t. —^ ,
which agrees with what we have found in the preceding article [3782]. Î
* (2401) If we suppose s to be a function of t, which becomes S, when t = 0, we
[3801a] shall have, by the theorem [607, &c.], s = S + t . (^ — j + — . (^— j + &ic. If we
neglect t and the higlier powers of t, and notice only the secular inequalities, we shall
get s — S=t.(—]. Now s — S, being the variation of s in the time t, is what is
represented above by &s ; hence S s ^^ t . I j ; and by noticing only the secular
inequalities depending on dp, d q, in [3781], we obtain
/dS\ dq . , , dp , , >
[3801c] [j^) = ^ ■ sm. (« t + s) — ~. cos. (n t + s) ;
consequently &s becomes as in [3802].
t (2402) Developing cos. (v— è) by [24] Int., and then substituting the values [3801], we get
[3804a] — tang, (p . cos. (d, — ^)^ — tang. (p . \ cos. â . cos. i\\ sin. Ô . sin . d J = — q .cos. i\ — p . sin. d,
[38046] = — q. COS. {nt\s)— p. sm.{n(\s) ;
observing, that as this quantity is of the order j}, g, and is to be multiplied by 5s, in [3800],
which is also of the same order [3802, 3767c], we may put v^=^nt\s, neglecting, as usual,
the terms of a higher order in p, q. Multiplying together the expressions [3802, 3804è],
[3804c] and retaining only the quantities independent of the periodical angle 2nt{2s, we may
use the values [3779c], and we shall get, for — tang, (p . i5 «. cos. (r, — è), the same
[3804rf] expression as in [3304]. This represents the secular change of v, arising from the last
term of [3800] ; and by adding it to v, it gives n,, as in [3805]. We may observe, that
[3804e] the first term of [3800] produces no secular terms, or such as are independent of 2t', — 2^,
and it is therefore neglected in this estimate of v, [3805].
[3805a] t (2403) Neglecting terms of the order t^ or m'^, we may suppose i.{qdp — pdq)
VI. i. §7.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, c', 7. 46
[3806]
[3806']
ON THE INEaUALITIES DEPENDING ON THE CUBES AND PRODUCTS OF THREE DIMENSIONS OF THE
EXCENTRICITIES AND INCLINATION'S OF THE ORBITS AND THEIR HIGHER POWERS.
7. The inequalities depending on the cubes and products of three
dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, are susceptible .p„of„,„,
r ^ r u. of /i of
01 two lorms, the third
order.
R = M. sin. {i . (n' t — nt\ «' — s) + 3 n ^ + ^ ; [First form.] [3807]
R = N. sin. {i . {n't — n / + s' — s) + nt + L]. [second fum,.] [3807']
We may determine them by the analysis employed in the preceding articles ;
but as they become sensible only when they increase very slowly, we can
make use of this circumstance to simplify the calculation. We shall resume
2d . (rS 7)
the expression [37156], and shall neglect the term — 3' , . > which is [3808]
ci III (Xi z
then insensible, t because of the smallness of the coefficient of t, in the
inequalities now under consideration. Then this formula becomes
àv= — '^^^^ + Sa.ffndt.AR+'2fndt..a\('^^^.X 13809]
to be equal to Cdt, C being a constant quantity ; then [3782] becomes dvp=dv\Cdt, [3805J]
whose integral is v^=v\C t, as in [3805].
* (2404) The reason for assuming these forms is evident from the principles used
in [3704a — 6], For the coefficients of n't, — nt, in [3807], are i, i — 3, respectively; [3807o]
their difference 3 expresses the order of the coefficient k [957"'", &c.], or that of M [3807],
which must therefore be of the order e^. Again, the coefficients of n' t, — nt [3807']
are i, i — 1 ; their difference is I , consequently N may contain terms of the order [3807fc]
1, 3, 5, fee. [957'", fiic.] ; which include those of the order (? ; and it is evident from
[957", &c.], that these forms embrace all these terms of the third order.
t (2405) This remark applies exclusively to terms of the form [3807], like those
in the three first lines of the second member of [3819], depending on the angles
i.{r^ t—nt\s' — i) \Znt, whose differential introduces the very small factor i.(n' — n)+3n
[3818(/]. But this small factor is not produced in the differential of the terms of the
form [3807'], contained in the last line of the second member [3819] ; and then the
term [3808] is not neglected, but is computed in [3822c].
X (2406) In the terms treated of in §7, and depending on the cubes of the excentricities,
no quantities are finally retained except those which have the small divisor i.{n' — n)\3n,
or its powers; and as the expression of 5v [37156] contains the function 2 d . {r5r),
divided by a^. ndt ; we must examine whether this function contains the small divisor we
have just mentioned. Now by the inspection of the value of rôr, or rather of Sr [1016],
VOL. III. 12
[3808a]
[38086]
[3809a]
[3809i]
46 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
The divisor y'l — e^ [37156] must be neglected for greater accuracy, as
in Book II, ^54 or [3718']. We must also, by the same article, ayply these
inequalities to the mean motion of the planet m, in computing its elliptical
motion [3720]. This being premised, if we suppose
R zzz: m! P. sin. \i . (n!t — nt \s'—^) + 3nf + 3=!
[3810]
+ m' F. cos. {i .{n't — nt{z'—i)\Snt + Si\;
which comprises all the terms of R, where the coefficient of nt is greater
[3811] or less than that of n't by the number 3 ; we shall get, as in [1209],*
3.(3 — i).m'n^.a
[3809rf]
[38126]
3a.ffndt.aR.
i.(ra'— ?^)j3n}2
;„, , 2(/P 3ddP' ).,.,, , , V , „ , „ ,
r»ûioi I j r* + ( • ■ , , , I „ > ., — TTr, , , „ )^ , „ >.Bm.]i\nt—nt\s—s)\rmt\3i\
\_mii\ 1 ^ \i.(n'—n)\3n\.dt \i.(n—n)>ç3n\^.dt^S
in 2dP' 3rfrfP ) ,. , , , , ,,„ ,„,
[ {%.[n'—n){Qn\.dt {i.(n'—n)\Qn\Kdt^S ■
we shall not find, in the preceding function, any term depending on the first power of e,
[3809c] and having the divisor i.[n — »t)j3n. In quantities of the second order in e, c',
given in [3711, 3714], we find such terms having the first power of that divisor ; but these
terms depend upon angles of the form i . {n't — n t \ ^ — s)\2nt , which are different
from those under consideration in this article [3806' — 3807'] ; so that they may be
neglected. To investigate the similar terms of the order e', which depend on the angle
i.{n't — n t \ e' — s)\3 nt, we may go through a calculation similar to that in
[3703—3714], changing, however, the angle i . [n' t — nt\s' — t)\2nt into
i.(n't — nt\s' — s)\3n't; which is the same as to increase the integral ntimher 2 — ;",
connected with nt by unity; by which means the divisors in{{\ — i) .n, in'\{2 — i).n,
in' {{3 — i).n, which occur in [3705,3710,3711,3714], are changed, respectively,
into î»' + (2 — i).n, in'\{3 — i).n, iw'j(4 — i).n. Hence the quantity r^r,
[3809e] similar to [3711], will contain a term of the order t^, depending on the form [3807], and
having for divisor the first potver of the small quantity in'\ {3 — i) .7i , as is hereafter
found in [3819]; but this divisor will vanish from the dilTerential d.[r6r); therefore it
may be neglected, as in [3809rt] ; and then the formula [37156] becomes as in [3809] ;
omitting the divisor, \/{l — e^), for the reasons given in [3718'].
* (2407) Substituting, in the first member of [1209], the assumed value of
[:3812o] k.sm.{i'n't — int\^) [1208^'], it becomes
ffan^.dt^.\q.sm.{i'n't — int'ri's'—ie)\q.cos.{i'n't — int{i's'—is)\ =
riia.a in.(i'n't — int+i's'—i£) (j ^ , 2dQ' , 3rf3Q Ad^q ^ ^
^) ^_o
(i'n' — inf 'i ^~'~ {i'n'—in).dt~'' (i'n'—inf.dt^ [i'n'—inf.dfi
i.(i'n't — int + i'e'—{e) ^_ _ 2rfQ 3rf2Q jd^q
(i'n'—inf 'I ^ {i'n'—in).dt'{i'n'—inf.dVi'^(i'n'—inf.dt3~
VI. i. §7.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', y. 47
Then we shall have *
2m'n
^ , „ /dR\ 2m
2.rndt.a.('—) = — ^. — , ,„ .
«2. f'^JLYcos.{i.{n'tnt+es)^3nt\3sl
a". ('^^)sin. {L{n'tnt+^s)\3nt\3i]
Lastly, we shall suppose, that by noticing only the angle
i . (n't — nt + s — '.){2nt + 2B, '
[3813]
we havef
r S r
= H. COS. {i . (n't — nt + B'—s)}2nt + 2B\Al; [3814]
Now if we take the difierential of [3810], relatively to d, then multiply it by 3 a .7idt,
and prefix the double sign of integration, we shall get, by using for brevity,
T=n't — nt + £'— 1 [3702a],
[3812e]
C — 3.{3 — {).m'.P'.sm.(iT+3nt\3i)) ^„^,„,,
■'■' •'•' ^+ 3. (3 — i) .m'.P.cos.(îT+3n!: + 3£)S
The second member of this expression is of the same form as the first member of [38126],
as is easily perceived by changing, in [3812J], i' into i, and i into i — 3; also
putting Q = — 3 . ( 3 — z ) . m'. P', Q' = 3 . ( 3 — i) m'. P ; then making the same [3812<]
changes in the second member of [3812è], we obtain for 3a .ffn dt . àR, the same
expression as in [3812]. We may observe, as in [3714cZ'], that the secular variations of [3812/]
the elements are noticed by the introduction of the differentials dP, dP', ddP, ddP',
which are computed in [4415, &c., 4484, &c.].
* (2408) The partial differential of R [3810], taken relatively to a, being multiplied, [3813a]
by 2/1 dt . a^, and then integrated, gives [3813].
t (2409) The expression [3814] is equivalent to that in [3711]; if being taken for
the coefficient of any one of the terms of this formula, and A representing that one of the [3814a]
quantities — 2 in, — « — ra', K — 2 s, which is connected with this coefficient H ; ^001411
observing that H is of the second dimension in e, e'. The differential of [3701], is
dr=^ae.ndt.sm.{nt^E — «)  &:c. ; multiplying this by [3814], and neglecting [3814c]
terms of the fourth order, we get, by using T [3812c],
^^ .dr^ Hae .ndt .cos.{i T\2nt \2 s { A) .sin. {nt{B — ts)
= lHae.ndt.sin.{iT\3nt{3s—a{A) [3814d]
— i Ha e.nd t .s'm. {iT} nt{ s \ zs \ A).
As this is of the third order [38146], we may, in the first member, put r= a, and then
dividing by — andt, we get
'^'•^' ffe.sin.(iT+3n<+3E^ + ^) [3814,]
(findt
+ iiîe.sin. (iTf ««( t^a + A).
48 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc Ctl.
[3814] ^ ^*'^"S determined as in [3814a], and having the very small divisor
r. (n'— w) +3n ; then the first term of ôv [3809] gives the following
expression ;
[3815] __^Ll_! ^_i/fe.sin.z. (ra'i — «f + s' — f) + 3»i + 3s — a + Jj.
Hence we shall find, by noticing only terms which have the divisor
[3816] i . {n' — w) + 3w,*
SC _, Sa.rfP 3a.ddP' ■) . C{.{n'tnt+i's)')
i {t.{n',i)i3n].dt \i.(n'n)+3n]2.dPS l+3nt~\3s S
5 p 2a. dP' 3a. ddP } C{.{n'tnt+;'s))
'—UP
•COS.
Ter mi of
\i.{n'n)l3n].dt \i.{n'n)\3nl'i.df^S (+3n«+3e
<5« ( a^. (~). COS. U. (n't — 7it + s' — s) + Snt\3s\
heihird 2m'n y \da/ ' ^ ' ' ' ' *
i.(n' — n)3n ] /dP'\
/ — a'^.f^j.sin. \i.{n't — nt\s' — E) + 3n<+3£}
— 3 Ue.sin. \i.{n't—nt^^—s)\Znt{Ze—vi[A\.
The differential equation [3699]
[3818]
o = ^' + '^ + Vaie+..Q.t
The first term of the second member is the same as in [3815] ; the second term is noticed
r'î8l4/'l *" [3822rf]. We may observe, that it is not necessaiy to notice terms of the order t^
in dr [3814c], because they depend on the elliptical motion, and have no divisor of the
form i . (n' — ?i) j 3 ?! ; moreover they must be multiplied by terms of the order e,
[3814^] which occur in — [1023], to produce terms of the third order now under consideration ;
and these terms of [1023] do not contain the small divisor just mentioned.
* (2410) Substituting, in the expression of i5i; [3809], the values of the terms in its
[3816a] ^^^^^^^ member, given in [3815, 3812, 3813], we get [3817].
f (2411) The expression [3818] is the same as [3699], from which we have deduced
[3702], and by using [3705a], it becomes
[3818a] 0==^^^' + n^r5?4^3«2a.5r.[e.cos.(n<+jrt)+e2.cos.2.(«)'4E^)]+2rd/î+a.('^y^.
This is solved as in [3711&, c], and if any term of the expression between the braces be
[3818o'] represented, as in [37116], by aif. sin. (?»,< } «,)> or o.K .cos. {mt \ s^), the
corresponding terms of rhr [3711c] will contain the divisor m^ — n^, or rather the two divisors
(m.\n), {m^ — n). To find the values of m^ producing the divisor i.{n' — n)3n [3818'],
VI. i. §7.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e\ y. 49
gives, by noticing only the terms which have tlie divisor i.(n' — n){3ii, [3818']
2.{{~3).mn ( aP .sm. \i.{n't—nt is' — i)^3nt\Ss\ ■)
J (5 )•
a
i . («'—«) +3 11 ' I JraP'.cos.\i.{nt — nt\!'—s)\3nt + 3;l ^
— ^He. COS. \i. (n't— nt + s—s)^3nt + 3s—^ + A}
+ iHe.cos.{i.(n't—7it + s—s) + nt + s + ^ + Al.
[3819]
Terms of
ri)r.
we shall put it successively equal to ???, + n and m, — n ; and we shall get
m,= 2.((i' — «))2n, 'm^=i.[i\! — n)\An', but we may neglect the last, because
the coefficients of n, n dilfer by 4, and the terms depending on it must be of the fourth
dimension in c, e' [3704n', &lc.], which are here neglected. Therefore, in finding r5r,
we need notice only the following terms. First. Where m.^ = i . [n' — n) ( 2 n .
Secoii'l. Where the quantity R, or rather fdR, contains the divisor i . [n' — ?i) j 3 w
[3813']. Hence it is evident, that we may neglect a . (— — j, which produces no such
terms. The part of R, given in [3810], produces in 2/d R, the following terms,
2.(i — 3).m'.?i (
77(7i'— n) + 3V ■ ^
[3818fc]
[3818c]
and [3818rfl
P.sm.{i.{nt — nt\s'—e){3nt\3s] )
+ P'.cos.f/.(n'<— ni + s'— s)43 7i< + 3£ V
These come under the second form [38186], in which oK has the divisor i.{n' — n)\3n.
The part of rSr [3818a"], depending on these terms, is found by dividing them by
jn/ — )i^ ; ?H, being in this case equal to i . {ii — n) j 3 ?i ; and by hypothesis it is very
small in comparison with n. Thus, for Jupiter and Saturn, where i=5, it becomes
m^=i.(n' — «) l3?( = .5 w' — 2n^=j\n [3711/]; so that m,^ is less than ~7^,
for the divisor m^ — n^, we may write simply — 71^=^ — a~^ [3709']. Therefore, by
multiplying [3818c], by — a^, we get the part of rSr corresponding to these terms
of 2/d R ; and then dividing this result by a^, we obtain the corresponding terms of
The terms thus computed agree with those in [3819], depending on P, P'.
necessary to notice the terms of 2/d R, like those depending on [3703, 3704], because
terms depending on different angles from those proposed
in [3807, 3807'], or else such as have not the small divisor mentioned in [3818'].
The next term of ajBT [3818a'J, which we shall notice, is that depending on the quantity
Sn^a.ôr .t^. cos. 2 . (?i i f s — ra) [3818rt] ; and as we retain merely the terms of the [3818/]
third dimension in e, e', &:c., it will only be necessary to notice terms of the first dimension
in 6r. Now if we examine [1023], we shall find, that none of its terms, of that order,
have the small divisor [3818']; therefore we may neglect this part, and then the only
remaining quantity in [3818a], producing terms of a ^, is Sn^a.Ar .e .cos. {nt \ e — ts).
As this contains the factor e, we may notice in o r only terms of the second dimension, in [3818^]
VOL. III. 13
rSr
It is not
[3818f]
they will produce in —
50 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
Adding this expression to that in [3814],
[3620] 'Jl^ff^cos.{i.(n't — nt + i'—^) + 2nt + 2s + A],
or
we obtain*
To^r^sof sr^ H .cos.li.(n't — nt^e'—s)i2nt + 2^ + Al
[3821]
— He.cos.{i.(n't—nt + i'—^) + Snt + 3s—^ + Al
irHe.cos.{i.(7i't—nt + s—B){ntis + z: + A\
2.(1— S). m n ( aP.sm.\i.{n't — nt+s'—i)\3nt\3sl
'^ i.{7i'—n)i3n' i + aP'. COS. {i. {n't — iit^s'—sJ^Snt^Qs]
order to procure those of the third dimension, which are the only ones investigated in this
article. The terms of the second dimension, which can produce the angles proposed
in [.3807, 3807'], are evidently included in the form [3814] or [3820] ; multiplying this
by 3n^o^. e . cos. (?i< + ^ — «)> and reducing by [20] Int., it becomes
r „ „ „Ç cosAi.{n't—nt{s'—s)\3nt{3szs\A\}
[3818A] 3n^a.ôr.e.cos.{nt + e^) X a=^^''''''l + cos.li.{n'tnt + s's) + nt+s+^+A\ V
Now He [3814t] is of the third dimension in c, e', he, and by neglecting higher
dimensions, we may put  = 1 [3701], and then we shall have for the remaining terms
of o.K.cos.{m,t + e,) [3818n],
&He.7i^a'^.cos.ii.(nt—nt\s — s)\3nt\3e—Ts+Al
[3818i] z (
JfîHe.n^a^.cos.{i.{n't—7it + ^—c) + ntiBJ^zi\.^.
Dividing this by m^ — n^ [3Sl8a"], we get the corresponding terms of rSr. Now for the
first of these angles i.{n't—nt{s — £)^3ntlrSs—zi\A, we have OT,=i.(n'— n) + 3M,
and as this is very small [3818rf], it may be neglected ; and then the divisor becomes — n^
[3818A:] In the second angle [3S18i], the value of 7«, is i.{n' — n)+n or \i.{n' — ?(.)+3n} — 2ra,
which is nearly equal to — 2n ; hence m^ — n^ is nearly Sn^; consequently this divisor
is nearly equal to 3n^ Therefore if we divide these terms of [3818i] by — Ji^ and 3n^,
respectively, we shall obtain the corresponding terms of r S r ; lastly, dividing these result»
by a^, we get the terms of —5 depending on He, as in [3819].
[38180
* (2412) None of the terms of ^ or — , of the order m'e, contain the small
a a
divisor [3818'], as is evident from the inspection of the formula [1016] ; so that the terms
of — , containing this divisor, and which must be noticed, are Included in the functions of
the second members of [3819, 3320]. Adding these quantities together, and multiplying
VI. i. §7.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', y. 51
This value of — produces in 2 v, an inequality depending on the angle [3822]
i . (7i' t — nt\;' — e) + n f + f, which has i.(n' — n)\Sn for a divisor. [3822^
To determine it, we shall resume the expression of (5 v, given by the
formula [931].* The part — \ , ' — of this expression produces [3822"]
It m 1i Or V
in (5 V the term
6v = ^ He . s'm.[i . (n't — nt\ s' — e) + ^ î + ^ +« + <4 } ; [3823]
which is the only one of this kind having the divisor i . (n' — n)}3n.
The inequality of i5î) depending on the angle i.(n't — nt\s' — B)~\2nt\2s, [3824]
noticing only the terms having the divisor i . (n' — «)}3n, is, by
[3715, 3814], very nearly equal to
2H.s\n.{i.(n't—nt + B'—B)+2nt + 2e + Al. [3825]
their sum by , which, by [3701], is equal to l\ e .cos. {nt \ e—zs) jkc., we [38216]
Of
get the coiTesponding temis of — . The quantities produced by this multiplication are
equal to the sum of the terms [3819, 3820], with the additional term produced by
multiplying the Rinction [3820J by e . cos. {nt\ s — «), and this term is
He. COS. {nt{e — w) .cos. \i.{n' t — nt{s' — s) f 2 n i + 2 e f .4 , [3821c]
which, by [23] Int., becomes
iHe. cos. \i .{lit — nt^s' — s) + 3 n i + 3 s — ts + A]
\^ He. COS. {i.{nt — nt\s'—2) { 7i t ^ s { vs } jl] .
Connecting this with the other terms [3819, 3820], we obtain, by reduction, the
function — [3821].
[3821d]
*
(2413) This formula, by the substitution of [3715a, 3705a], becomes as in [37156],
the part mentioned in [3822"] being represented by — '— . Now the last [3822o]
a^. ndt <fi. ndt
term of the second member of [3819] depends on the angle i T \ n i { s \ is { A
[3702a], mentioned in [3822'], and if we substitute it in the first term of the preceding
2d.{rûr) . , ,
expression „ ~— , it produces the tenn
* a. ndt ^
— \i. {n — n)+7i].^. sin. \i T n < + e + w + ^ f ; [382261
and as we have, very nearly, — \i.{n' — n)\n] =2n [3818Ar] ; it becomes
2He . sin. \i T \nt \ a \ A). Again, the second term of [3822a] has already been
computed in [.3814e], and contains the quantity i He .sm.{i T\~nl\s{zi \A) ; [3822rf]
connecting this with the preceding [3822c], the sum becomes as in [3823].
52 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
Therefore, if we denote this inequality by
[3826] K.sm.{i.(n't—nt + i'—s)\27it+2B{B}*
Terras of weshallhave, in 6v, the following expression,
ÔV.
[3827] i<v = ^Jï^e.sia.{i.(n't—ntJrB'—s)jnt + BJr^ + B\.
8. // is chiefly in the theory of Jupiter and Saturn that these different
inequalities are sensible. If we suppose i =^ 5, the function
[3828] i . («'— ?i) + 3 n = 5 n' — 2 n ,
becomes very small [381 8rf], in consequence of the nearly commensurable
ratio which obtains between the mean motions of these planets ; and from
this cause the corresponding terms of or, ov acquire great values. To
determine them, we shall resume the expression of R [3742]. The partf
[3829] — .cos.(y— f) j\cos.{v'—v) — cos.{v'+v)\+^.— ^ ^,
^ 4 r^ 4 J,22r)'.cos.(y'«;)fr'2p
* (2414) The parts of R [957, 1011], represented by M, JV [3703, 3704], do not
contain the small divisor i . {71 — n)\3n, as is evident from inspection. Moreover,
[3826a] F, G, H [3706], being the parts of — [1016], depending on terms of the first degree
in e, e, do not contain this divisor, as appears by the inspection of [1016]. Therefore no part
2rf.(?"(5r)
of ÔV [3715], except the first term —^^ — 7—, contains this divisor ; and if we substitute
a^.ndt
in this term the value of r (5 ?• [3814], we shall obtain, in ô v, tlie terra
2
[38266] .li.{n'—7i){2nl.H.sm.li.{n'i—7it\e'—s)J[2nt{'SjA} ;
substituting — \i.{7i' — ?))( 2 «}=?i [3S22c], it becomes as in [3825]. If we now
compare the expressions [3825, 3823], we find, that [3823] may be derived from [3825]
[3826c] by multiplying its coefficient by e, and decreasing the argument by nt^B — sj.
The same process of derivation being used upon the assumed form [3826], produces the
expression [3827] ; which is computed in [4439] for Jupiter, by tliis very simple process.
t (2415) We shall suppose, as in [1009, 956c, 963'', 1018a], for tlie sake of brevity,
[3829a] r =a(l + Mj; r' =a'.(l+j«;); v =^nt + s\ v, ; v'=n't + s'^ v,' ;
[38296] a^ = a m, ; a' = a' w/ ; a"=: v,' — r, ; a. ^  ;
[38296'] T ^n'tnt\^—e; dT^{n'—n).dt;
[3829c) W=nt\B — ro ; W'=^n't\B' — a;
[38S9e'] M,, «/ v' — » are of the order of the excentrlcities, and a is changed into a^, to
VI. i. §8.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', y. 63
produces no term of the third order of the excentricities and inclinations, [3830]
distinguish it from a [963'^]. If we represent the function [3829] by m, and suppose U to
be the part of this value independent of u,, «/, f,, vj, we shall have U as in [3829/]; [3829d]
observing that the last term of [3829J becomes in this case, by using [3744, 3749],
im'.'j^.aci'.cos.T.la^2ad.cos.T+a'^l~^ = ^^m'.f. ad. cos.T .is . B''\cos.iT
= im'.f.aa'.iS.B"Kcos.{i\l).T
= 1 m'. y^. a a'. 2. B^'il. cos. i T ; t3829e]
[3829/]
[3829g:]
U=L — ^g . cos. T — T ™'' 7* "7^ ■ cos. T j i '«'• y® ^ • cos. [n t \ n t \ ^ { 1)
+ I m. f. aa'.S.. B^^\ cos. i T ;
i being as in [3715']. The development of u, as far as the second powers of aj, a', a"
being found as in [957e], is
«= ■+(^) +• O +^" © +H.'. (^)+^..^'. G^.)
the tenns of the third order, obtained in the same manner, are
+i^"'GS^)+^"Gi^)H*'(^)
We have given this full development of îi, because it will hereafter be of use in the notes on
this article ; and for the same purpose, we shall also insert the following expressions, deduced [3829t]
from the comparison of the values of ao, a', a" [3829J, a] with [659, 668, 669] ;
ao = rt .i e^ — (e — f e') . cos. fV — i e^.cos. 2W — i e^. cos. 3Wl=au/, [3829*]
a'=a'.Je'2— (e'— tc'3).cos. fP— ^ e'2.cos.2 JF' — § e'^. cos. 3 ^'} = «'m/ ; [3829i]
"■~^(2eie3).sin. fFJe2.sin.2?rife3.sin.3^FS^"''~'''' ^^^^^
From these values it appears, by a slight exammation, that none of the terms of U [3829/]
produce quantities of the third order, depending on the angle 5 7i'i — 2nt, now under
consideration. For the terms of [3829/], multiplied by y% of the second order, depend [3829«]
on the angles T, n' < f n < + s' f s , i T ; and when we combine these with terms of the
VOL. III. 14
64
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.
[Méc. Cél.
Value of
R
for tliis
case.
[3831]
[3832]
depending on the angle 5 n't — 2nt; such terms can therefore only arise
from the remaining part*
m'.y^ rr'.cos.{v'\v)
R
^j.2 — ,2;/. COS. (j;' v) \
JSfS
I r^ — 2 r r'. cos. (ti' — v)\r'^l
and then the expressions of P and P' [3810] will be the same, whether
we consider the action of m' on m, or that of m on m'. We shall now
investigate these values of P, P'.
[3829o]
[3831a]
[3831o']
[38315]
[38316']
[3S31c]
[3831d]
[3831e]
[3831e']
[3831/]
^w< order in a,,, a', a" [38297i: — ?»], they will not produce the angle bn't — '^nt. The
only remaining term of C/ [3329/] is the fii'st, depending on cos. T or cos.(?i'i — nt\^ — s);
and if this were multiplied by a term depending on the angle An't—nt, it would produce a
quantity of the required form ; but none of the powers and products of cio , a', a" [3829Ar — ?»];
retamed in [3829^, K] contain terms of the third order depending on this angle ; therefore
we may also reject this temi, as in [3830].
* (2416) If we reject the terras of R [3742], mentioned in [3829], which we have
proved, in the last note, not to contain terms of the required form and order, we shall obtain
for R the âmction [3831]. This expression is not altered by changing r, v into r', «',
respectively, and the contrary ; so that it w'Ul be of the same form, whether we compute the
action of ?«' upon m, or that of m upon to' ; but in the first case it will be multiplied
by in, in the second by m. Supposing, as in [3829fZ], that the general value of the
fonction R [3831] is represented by u, and that it becomes equal to U, by putting
r = «, ?•'=(/ v^^nt\s, v'^n't{e', v — » = ?t'i — n ^ + s' — s=T,
we shall get the first of the following expressions of U [3831c]. The second expression
[3831<?] is deduced fiom the first by the substitution of the values [.3743, 3744], neglecting,
however, the first term of [3743], which makes an exception in the value of A'''', in the
case of i = 1 ; because this term produces no effect in the present calculation, as we
have seen in [3829o] ;
lJ=—m'. \(v^2 a a. cos. T+a'^^—{m'.y^.aa'.cos. {n't+nt\s'+2) .{(? 2 aa'. cos. T\a'^\i
= im'.S.A^'\cos.iT—im'.f.aa'.cos.{n't{7it\s'js).S.B''\cos.{T
= i m. 2 . A^'\ COS. i T— I iri. y^. a a'. 2 . B'^ ". cos. [i T\ 'int + 2 s— 2 n) .
We may remark, that, in reducing [3831(/] to the form [3831e], we obtain, in the
first place, from [3749],
cos.{n't\nt + s'Jrs).:s.B^'\cos.iT=X.B^'\cos.{iT\n'tjnt{s'\s)
= 2.B''\cos. {(i+l).T+2«^ + 2£} ;
and by changing i into i — 1, it becomes X. B''~^\ cos. \iT\ 2 n t \ 2 b\ ; but as this
quantity is to be multiplied by y^, we must change 2n<2s into 2nt{2s — 2n, as
in [.3745'" — 3748], and then the value of U becomes as in [383 le].
VI. i.^,^ 8.]
TERNIS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, C, 7.
55
We have, in Book II, ^22, by carrying on the approximation to terms
of the third order of the excentricities [659, 668, 669],*
— ^e\cos.(3nt+3B—3^) ;
v = ni4e+(2e — ie=').sin. (w^ + s— tï)+ f e.sin. (2nï + 2s— 2x^)
+11 e^sin. (3w< + 3s— 3a).
Values of
r, 1'.
[3834]
* (2417) We shall now commence the investigation of the part of R depending upon
the first term of [3S31e], namely, U^=^ m'. 2 . ^''\ cos.i T; the other terms depending
on B''"", being computed in [3840a, Sic.]. Substituting this value of U, in the
terms [3829^, A], we get the following value of R,
[3834o]
1
R =
2, 3
4
5, 6
7, 8
9, 10
11, 12
13, 14
15, 16
17, 18
19, 20
im'.2.^<''.cos.^T
+
+ * m' . ag . 2 . f — — \ . cos. I r+ J m' . a'. 2 . ( 7^ j cos. i T ,
— im'. 0.". Si. A^'\ sin. iT
, „ /ddA(i)\ .^, 1 , , /dd.m\ .^
+ im'.ao2. 2 . r7 ) . cos. i T+Jm'.ao a' . 2 . ( — — ) .cos.i T
\ da^ J " \dada J
+ l+i m'. a' ^ . 2 . i^^) .cos.iTi m'. ^a". 2 i . (1^) . sin. i T
—im'.oJa/'.Xi. (j^) ■ sin. i T— ^rn'.a''^. 2 Î^A^'K cos. i T
+ A'.S^2.('^).cos.iT+.™'.ao^a'.2.(^).cos.ir^
+ ^''^(£^.)^+^V..'.a'3.2.(^^).cos..T
+ < >'.a„V'.2;.('i^) .sin.zri».'.aoa"^.2P.(^).cos.tr
im'.a'2a".2i. (^) . sb. i Tim'.a'a"^. 2^^. (^^Vcos.i T
— àm'.aoa'a".2i/^^,') . sin. i r+^ . a"^. 2 i'. ^». sm.i T
\dada/ ' 12
Terras of
R
depend
ing on
[38346]
We must substitute, in this expression, the values of a^, a', a" [3829A: — ni], and retain
only the terms of the third dimension, and of the form 5n't—2nt [3834"], in which the
coefficients of n't, nt differ by 3. Now as these coefficients are equal in the angle i T,
which occurs m [38346], this difference in the coefficients of ri't, nt must arise from the
[3834c]
56
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.
[Méc. Cél.
[3834'] This being premised, if we develop R [3831] according to the order of the
powers and products of a^, a', a" ; and it is evident, from [957^'", Sic], that such terms
[3834d] must have for a factor, some one of the four quantities e'*, e'^e, e'e^, c^. If we take
the powers and products of tlie quantities a,,, a', a" [3929/!: — to], of the tliird dimension,
and reduce them by means of [17 — 20] Int., we shall find, that the greatest angles connected
[.3834e] with these factors e'\ e'^e, c' <?, ê, are, respectively, 3 7P, 2W'^W, W'{2Jr, 3fV;
it is not necessary to notice the smaller angles TV, W , 2 W — W, Sic, because they
do not produce terms of the form bn't — 2n t [3834c] ; substituting ?F'= T\nt\B—a',
W= nt{s — m [3829c] ; they become, respectively.
[3834e']
[38.34/]
[3834êr]
[3834^]
[3834i]
[3834ft]
3 T+3Mi + 3£ — 3«'; 2T+3n<f3e — 2i3'— ra;
r__3,j;_j3£_,3'— 2i3 ; 3m; + 3£ — 3îï.
Now we perceive, by inspection, that the cosine of any one of these angles is multiplied,
in [38346], by a tenn of the form ^/''. cos. z T ; and its sine by a term of the form
^/''. sin. I T; the products reduced by the formula [3749], are found to depend,
respectively, upon the angles
(i + 3).T}3n< + 3£ — 3«'; (« + 2). r+ 3 n < + 3 e — 2^^' — ts ;
(i__l). T\Znt{3s — z^—2a; i r+ 3 n < + 3 s — 3«.
In order to reduce all the angles to the form i T, we must change, in the first, i into i—3;
in the second, i into i — 2 ; in the third, i into i — 1 ; and make the same changes in
the index of ^/'' ; by this means the terms in question become of the forms
e'3. 2 . ^i''=>. COS. (i T+ 3 Ji < + 3 £ — 3 ^) ;
e'=e . 2 .A^^'^K COS. (i T + 3 n « + 3 s — 2 73'— i^) ;
e 62.2.^''». COS. (i T+ 3 B ^ + 3 £ — TO — 2 13 ) ;
e» . 2 . ^ w. COS. {i T+ 3 ÎI i + 3 £ — 3 w) .
Putting i=:5, as in [3828], these expressions become of the same forms as the four first
terms of R [3835], depending on M'°^ M'", Jf'^', M<^\ respectively. The two
remaining terms M''^\ M^^\ depend on JS""", which was neglected in [3834a], and
will be computed in [3840a, &c.]. We may remark, that the exponent of e, in any one
of the terms [3834A], being increased by i — 3, gives the corresponding index of ^, ,
and when i = 5, we have for this increment i — 3 :^ 2 .
We shall now proceed to the computation of the values of the powers and products
of a,, a', a", which occur in the expression of R [3834J], retaining only the tenns
[38342] depending on e''
e^, which are wanted in finding the values of M'°\
VI. i.§8.]
TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', 7.
67
terms depending on the angle 5 n't — 2nt, we shall obtain an expression [3834"]
of the following form,
J\P^\ M'\ M'^K These quantities are arranged in the following table, in the order in
wliich they occur in [38346], noticing only the greatest angles mentioned in [3834e] ;
[3834m]
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
00
a'
a"
tt,'
= — frt.c». cos. 3 TV;
= Jl e' 3. sin. 3 W— if e^. sin. 3 W ;
= i 0^ f3. COS. 3 W ;
aott
a' 2
i a' « . e'2 e . cos. (2 W'^ W) \ ^a' a .e' ê. cos. ( ?F'+ 2 7F) ;
irt'2.e'3.cos.3fF';
a^a" = fa.e3.sb.3»^— «e'2e.sin.(2?F+?F) — Jrt.e'e2.sin.(JF'+2ff)
a' a" = — f a', e' 3. sin. 3 ?F'+ 1 a', e'e^. sin. ( ?F'+2 ?r) f i a', e'^ e . sin. (2 W'^ W)
i c\ C0S.3 W+ye^cosX W'{2 7F)+f e'2e.cos.(2 fF'^ W^)— f e'3.cos.3 W
= ftf3
ao' = — i fl^. e'. cos. 3 W ;
a/ a' = — i a' a", e' f?. cos. ( ?F'+ 2 ?F) ;
a.oa'2 == — ia'2a.e"2e.cos. (2?F'+ W');
a'3 = — «'3.e'3.cos.3l'F';
a;ia" = — \ «2. c^. sin. 3 W + * «^ g' ^a, gin. ( /F'+ 2 W) ;
aoa"2 = a.e3.cos.3?F— 2a.e'e2.cos.(?F'+2/^) + «.e'2e.cos.(2^'+rr) ;
a'^a" = i«'2.e'3.sin.3 JF'— ia'2.e'2e.sin. (2R^'+ ?F);
a'a"2 = a'.e'3.cos.3 TF'— 2a'. e'^e .cos.(2ff' +?F)4«'.e'e2.cos. (?F'+2(F) ;
ao a' a" = — 1 a a', e e^. sin. ( W'\ 2 W') + J a a', e' ^^ e . sin. (2 fF'+ W) ;
a"3 = 2e3.sin.3fF— 6e'e2.sin.(fF'+2?'F)46e'2e.sin.(2?F'+fF)2e'3.sin.3W'' .
We shall use these expressions in the following notes, in computing Jlf", JV/<", fiic. ; and
we shall also make use of the following formulas, which are deduced from [95.5e — A], by
taking the differentials relative to T, and dividing by àzdT, changing also W into ?F^ ,
as in [3T50A, &tc.] ;
sin. W^.is. P. A^'> . sin. i T= — ^ 2 . P. ^^'l cos. {i T\TV);
COS. fF, . 1 2 . P. A'^\ sin. i T=: i^.P. A^'\ sin. {i T+ IV,) ;
sin. W,.\s..P. A''\ cos.i T^ ^ 2 . P. A^'\ sin. (/ T\ W,) ;
cos. fF, . I 2 . i3. ^'0. cos.i T= X V . î3. ^(0. cos.(i r+ fFJ,
VOL. III. 15
[3835a]
[38356]
[3835c]
[3835(f]
[3835el
58 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
General
form of
for termaof
the third
order
R= M^''\e'\cos.(5 7i't — 2nt + 5s' — 2s — 3z^')
~R +ai^'Ke'e.cos. (5n'i — 2 n i + 5 s' — 2 s — 2«' — ^)
+ M(^>. e'e. COS. (5 h' i — 2 jU + 5 s' — 2 e — ^' — 2 ^)
[3835] +M(^'.e^cos. (5 n' t — 2 n i ^ 5 e' — 2 s — 3 ^)
+ M'^' . e'f. COS. (5n't — 2nt + ôs' — 2s — zi'~2n)
+ M''Key. COS. (5 n' t — 2n t + 5 e' — 2 s — z^ — 2 n) ;
and we shall find, after all the reductions,*
!(2) (3) (3)
389 6';' + 201 a . ^^+ 27 a^ ^ + a3. Ç^
•4 a a da' rf a^
[3836a]
* (2418) The pait of R [3835], depending on e'*, may be put under the form
M'°K e'\ COS. {iT\ 3 W) or iH'»\ e'^. cos. (2T+3?F'), using T, ÏV, &lc. [38296', c] ;
the coefficient of T being i=2. Terms of this kind are produced in i?, by multiplying
the quantities which are connected with e'^ in [3835aJ, by the corresponding terms with
which they are combined in [38346], and then reducing the products by means of the
formulas [955, 955a — h, 33356]. The terms depending on ^® and its differentials, are
[38366] giygjj ;,^ ^jjg value of Jli"" [3S36c/], in the order in which they occur, without any reduction,
and omitting 2 for brevity ; so that the terms of [3835a], marked 4, 10, 20, are connected
/dA'''i\ /rf2^(i)\ /rfS^Wx
With ^«; 3, 9, 18 with (^); 7, 17 with (^^j ; 14 with (—) .
Substituting i^^2 [3S36o] in this first value of M^°\ we get the second value of [3836e] ;
[3836c] and this, by using the values [1003], becomes as in [3836/], or by reduction, as in [3836^].
Lastly, substituting in this the values [996 — 1001], we get [3836/j], which is easily
reduce d to the form [3836] ;
[3836d]
/(/./?(3)\ /dA^~^\ „ /rf3./3f3)\
[3836e] =W^^W'.«^(';^)+il«.(^).V'•(^
+ .^6^'^'+18a.(— j+9a^(^) + a^.(^(
[3836g] =^s^W.^«,^.^^^^«.(^__j + ^^^«3.^__j + _.«3.(^^j
/ (3) (2) (21 ■
7,1' S 12) dbk c. d^bi , d3Ji (
[3836/.] =:i^,.)— 389 6,— 201a. ^ — 27 a2.^a3.—f ,
VI. i. §8.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', y. 59
16 / * a a, dix.^ ria* >
* (2419) Proceeding as in the last note, we find, that the part of R [3835] depending
on e'=e, may be put under the form M''\ t'^ e .cQs.{iT ^'2 W'\ W) [3829è', c], [383ra]
in which the coefficient of T is i = 3. Substituting the values [3835a] in [3834&],
we obtain the first of the following values of JV/'" ; observing, that the terms of [3835a]
depending on e'^e, marked 10, 20, are connected with ^<'^ ; the terms 8, 16, with i— — j ;
the terms 9, 18, vnû\ ( , , ) ; the terms 6, 19, with ( , ', , ) ; the term 17
\ da' J \dadaj
with C^^^); and the term 13 with (^^^^^r^A Substituting i = 3 in [3837(], [38376]
we get [3837f?] ; and this, by using the values [1003], becomes as in [3837e], or by
reduction, as in [3837/]. Lastly, substituting in this the values [996 — 1001], we
get [3837 0], which is equivalent to [3837] ;
[3837c]
, , /dd^\ ,,,,., ; , ,a /' dA(0 \ ^ , ,2 /rf3^U)>,
=  \\« m'. A ^3> 1^ m'. a . (^j^j + f  m'. a'. (^ j
[3837rf]
, ,, , , /ddJ10)\ ^ , ,„ /rf2^(3K /d3jia)\
60 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
( W (4) (4) ■)
[3838] „'iJf(.= _^. 3966';+ 184a. ^ + 25a^^ + a^^;*
16 ( ^ da. do.'' da.^ )
* (2420) We may compute [3838, 3839] as in the two last notes, but it is rather less
laborious to derive them from M'''\ M''\ by changing the symbols as below, namely,
[3838o] For i, n't, nt, e', i, zî , •n, e', e, «', a; a', aj, T;
[38386] Write — i, nt, n't, i, s', zi , a', e, e' , a, a; a„, a', — T.
The changes in these three last values of a', o.^ , T, evidently follow from those proposed
in the other symbols, using [3829À:, /]. The value a" [3829m] is not altered, except in its
sign, because e.sin. W^ changes into e'. sin.?F', and e'.sin. ?F' into e.sin. fF, &ic. ;
moreover, A^'^ is not altered, because we have A'~''' ^^^ A^''' [954"]; we also have, as
[3838c] j^ [3831c, rf], —\a^— 2a a', cos. T\ a'^li=i X .A^^\co5.iT ; and as the first
member is symmetrical in a, a', the second, or A''\ must also be symmetrical, and wll
[3838rf] not be varied by putting a, a' for a', a, respectively; lastly, the expression of iî [38346]
is not altered by making these changes ; observing, that the quantities i a", i T remain
unchanged. Now the part of R [3835] depending on c'e^, may be put under the form
[3S38e] J»f (2). e' e^. cos. {i T+ 2 W{ W), in which the coefficient of T is i = 4 . Comparing
this with [3837a], we find, that by making the changes [3838a, 6], the expression [3837a],
corresponding to i = — 4, will become like [3838e], and M'^^ will change into M'^ ;
we may therefore obtain the values of M^"'^ [3838/1], by changing a, a', i into «', a, — i,
respectively ; then putting i = 4, we get [3838A']. This value may be reduced to the
form [3838J], by the substitution of the values [1003], and also the partial differential of
the second of this system of equations, taken relatively to a, which gives
[3838/]
Reducing the expression [.3S38i], we get [3838^] ; and by the substitution of the values
[996—1001], it becomes as in [3838?], being the same as [3838] ;
M'''> = m'.A<~^{—^i^^^i^+iii:.n'.(^^yy^ili^]+m'.a.(^^^y\ —
[3838/i']
[3838i]
dada' J '
/f/.î'DX /(/.^HA /ddJl'^^\
=W»'.«»tt..'.»'.(^)+W«'...(^)iS.«'..«'.(,^,)
VI. i. §8.]
TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', 7.
61
a' M'^' =
in
48
!(5) (5) (5) \
2 ri a d iS? do? )
C (3) ^
a'ilf W _ _ ^ . ^ 10 63 +a . lï^ > ;t
Id / ^ f/a >
[3839]
[3840]
f (J) (1) '41 J
= 7r, . J — 396 i — 184 a . — 25 a', —^r a'. — —  ( .
lb a f  a a da~ aa'^ )
* (2421) The part of R [3835] depending on e^, may be put under the form
M^^''.e^.cos.{iT\3 TF), in which the coefficient of T is x=5. Comparing this with
[3836a], we find, that by making the changes a, a', i, &ic. into a, a, — i, &c., respectively,
as in [3838a, 6], the expression [3836(/] will become as in [3839i]. This represents the
value of Jf^"", or the coefficient of c^ in [3835]; and by putting i^5, it becomes as
in [3839i'] ; which, by means of [996—1001], is easily reduced to the form [3839] ;
48a C * ' do. ' rfa2 ' do. .
t (2422) The values of iV/C", M*^) [3840, 3841] depend on the second term of [3831e] ;
and by retaining only this term, we shall have JJ ^ —  m'. 7^. aa'.'S. . B^'~^K cos. T, ,
supposing, for a moment, that T^z=i . (n' t — nt \ s' — i) \2nt {2s — 2 n .
As this expression is multiplied by 7^, of the second order, we need only notice terms
of the first order in ao, a', a", in the development of u or R, and we shall get
for this part of jR, the following expression [3829^],
«C^)+'^'(7
""U..f^
ft' /
dT,
obser\ing, that we notice in this article only terms of the third dimension. The values
of aQ, a', to be substituted in this expression, are the same as in [3829A:, Z] ; and
by retaining terms of the first order, we have ao = — ae . cos. fV, a == — a'e'. cos. M'".
The angle T, represents the mean value of i . {v — v) \2v ; its increment, depending
VOL. III. 16
[3838^]
[3838Z]
[3839a]
[38394]
[38396']
[3839c]
[3840o]
[3840a']
[3840A]
[.3840c]
[3840(/]
62 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3841] «'M<^' = ^.<7 6l + a.^^.
r3840rf1 °" ^'" ^'' [^^~^"]' '•'' o"=i.{vJ — ■dJ j 2 !;,= «!)/ — {i — 2).i;,, and by substituting
v;=2e'.sm.TV', v,= 2e.sin.fV [669], we get a", and then [38406] becomes
R^e'.[a'.oos.W'.(^)2i.sin.W'.(^^\
[3840e]
_e.^«.cos.^F.(^)+C2.4).sin.rF.(j^);
and by substituting the partial differentials of U [3840a], we obtain, without any reduction,
R= ^ m'. c' f. COS. TV. J a' a . 2 . B^'^K cos. T^ + a' ^ « . 2 . C^^^) ■ cos. T, I
+ i m'. c' 72. sin. W .a'a.Xi. £('i>. sin. T.
[3840/]
+ J m' . c 72 . COS. TF. \a'a.s:.B <'». cos. T^ + a^ «'. 2 . (^^^) . cos. T^ I
— i m' . c 7^ . sin. W .a'a.X. (2 i — 4) . S''», sin. T^ .
The terms of this expression, depending on c' 7^, contain the factors cos. tV'.cos. T^,
[3840g] and sin.fF'.sin.T^, both of which, as in [17, 20] Int., produce the terms icos. (T^^W),
which, by putting i = 4, becomes icos.{5n'( — 2nt\5s' — 2s — •ra' — 2n) [3840»'].
Comparing this with the term depending on Jfef '''' in [3835], we get the first of the
following expressions, omitting 2 for brevity, and then by successive reductions, using
[963''', 1006—1008], we finally obtain [3840/], which is easily reduced to the form [3840] ;
[3840/1] M'^^=i^m'. i a' a .B^'^^{ a'^a. (^fj^) \ — ^ m'. a'a.i. S^'"
[3840i] = J^ m'. a' a . \— 1 B'^^ + a'. (^^^ j= J, m'. a'n . J 7 5«' + [3B'^>a . (^')] I
(3)
,:««, =,,.,..4,OB™..(i^')=,,„..„.„.)_i£,4'_^..^ I
[3840i]
ICa C 2 ' rfa
In like manner, the terms of [3840/"], depending on e 7^, contain the factors
COS. ^F. cos. T4, sin. ?r. sin. T4, producing the term  cos. (T4+ ^F), which,
[:3840»i] by putting i = 5, becomes ^cos.(5n't — 27it{5s — 26 — « — 2n) [3840o'].
Comparing this with the term depending on M^^^ [3835], we get the first of the following
VI. i. §8.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', y. 63
Hence we deduce*
General
+ a'M(^). e'e~. sin. (^+ 2 w) + a'M^^'. el sin. 3 « [3842]
+ a'M<^'. e'7'. sin. (2 n + ^') + a'M'^'. e y". sin. (2 n + ..).
and of
We shall get in', a' P', by changing the sines into cosines, in this expression °^^,'
of in!, a' P ; and it will be easy to deduce the values of a P, a P, by [3843]
expressions, in which we must put i = 5, and then, by reducing as above, it becomes as
in [3840p] ; whence we easily deduce [3841],
M^^^=j'^m'. I «'rt.B<'" + a2rt'Y!^^") I jj\m'.a'a.{2i—4).B^''^ [3840n]
[3840o]
(4)
16 o' C t "T d a )
* (2423) In the case of i = 5, if we use, for a moment, the abridged symbol [3842a]
T5=5n't — 2nt\5e' — 2s, the value of R [3810] becomes
R = m'. P. sin. Tg f 7n'. P. cos. T^ . [3842o']
Now each tenn of R [3835] may be easily reduced to the form [3842»'] ; since, if we
take, for example, the fiist ^<'". e'lcos. (T^ — 3ra'), and develop it by [24] Int., it [38426]
becomes J/"'>.e'3.sin.3w'.sin.T5+^/<®.e'3.cos.'n'.cos.r5. Comparing this witli [3842a'],
we get for the parts of m'.P, m'.P', the following expressions,
m'.P = Jlf(°i.e'3.sin. 3^3', m'. F=M^°\ e'^ cosSz/, [38426']
as in [3842, 3843]. In like manner, we obtain the other terms of [3842] from [3835].
The values of P, P', deduced from [3842, 3843], may be put under the following
fonns, which will be of use hereafter. Expres
sions of
P=S.M'.e"'. e". f\ sin. (6' îi'f 6 ts f 2 c n), ^' P
[3842c]
P'= 1 . M'. e"'. e\ f. COS. (6' î3'+ 6 rt + 2 c n) ;
2 being the characteristic of finite intégrais, and h\ b, c, integral numbers, including zero,
satisfying the equation è' + 6 + 2c=:3.
64 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3843'] multiplying a' P, a' F, by ~ or a. We shall then find, by putting
i — 5, in the expressions of ôv and — [3817,3827,3821],*
Ex près 
sioiiofthe /' ( ^n HP ?t« rltfP' "^
\ ^P'+T^^Vt.,/ o P ^,o l sin. {5n't2nt+5s'2s)
ÔV —6m'. n^ ) i. (5n—2n).dt {5n'—'2nf.dt^) ^ ' '
of the °"
third
order.
[3844]
(5n'_2„)9 \ r 'ia.dP' Sa.ddP
( „ 2a. dP' Sa.ddP ) , ,
— ^ ciF— , ,, — , g , o V, j.o ^ •cos.(5?i'/2n<+5s'— 2s)
C (5n'— 2>i).d< (5n'—2nf.dt~ ) ^ ' '
2 / \ — „ cc'v n.. V r r J o cA
5 n' — 2 n'
' — a^f—ysm.{rjn't—2nti5s'—2s)
— ^He.s'm. {5n't — 2ntl5E'—2s—zj\A)
]^Ke.s\n.{5n't—4ntJ^5s'—4s\7S\B) ;
Exprès ^ J,
terTo.'" — = H .cos.(5nV— 3/U + 5s'— 3e+^) — iîe.cos.(5n'^— 2ra« + 5£'— 2s— «+^)
of.the __ He.cos.{bn't — Ant\bs' — As\ui\A)
order.
[3845] +^^^.\aP.sm.{bn't — 2nt^bs'—2i)YaP'.co5.{^n't — 2nt + bt'—2s)\.
[=3845'] If we suppose i = — 2,t and change the elements of m into
[3844a]
* (2424) Adding the terms of .5^ [3817,3827], and putting i=b, we get [3844].
Putting i = 5, in [3821], we obtain [3845].
t (2425) By restricting ourselves to terms of the first order of the masses, and of the
[3846a] third dimension In e, e', y, the expression of — [3831] becomes symmetrical in the
elements of m, m', so that these elements may be Interchanged without altering this value
R R
of — [3831 «, «']. The same symmetry obtains in the expression of — [3810] ; for
[384(36] if we put, for a moment, T^ = 5n' t — 2jit ^5s'—2s, T,.= 5nt — 2 ?f'C+ 5 s — 2e',
and retain, in [3810], only the two terms arising from the successive substitution of the
values » = 5, i = — 2, It becomes
[3846c] ^=P sin. T, + P'. cos. T, + P^ . sin. Tg + P'o cos. T, ;
Py, P'o, Tq, being, respectively, the values of P, P', T^, when the elements a, n, e, &c.
are changed into a', n', e, Sic, and the contrary, this being necessary to preserve the
[3846(/'] symmetry [3846»]. In computing the action of tn upon m, it Is not necessary to notice
VI. i. §8.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, c, y. &b
the conesponding ones, relative to Ht', and the contrary, we shall obtain
C ,„, , '2a'. (IP Sa'.ddP' ) . ,, , ^ , ^ , r^ ^ \
I '{5n'—2n).dt {57i'— inf. dt^ y ^ ' ^f
( ,„ 2«'.rfP' Sa'.ddP } /r '. f> V 1 C ' O \ ( Expros
I (5n'2n).rfi i5n'2nf.dt^ S ^ 'J tcrmsof
_ . 15m.)i'
he
terms of
iv'
of the
third
2m. n' ) vaa / • ■  r order.
«'.r^j.cos.(5?i'^— 2n^ + 5e'— 2s)
5n'— 2n ) .„ /dP
— a'^.(—\.sm.{on't—2nt\b^—2s)
[3846]
— IH'e'.sin. (57!'< — 2)U + 5s'— Qe— t3'+^')
+ îi:V.sin. (3n7 — 2;U + 3£'— 2ê[w'+B') ;
t / Exprès
^= if'.cos.(47i'<— 2n< + 4£'— 26+^')— iîV.cos.(5n'!!— 2n!;f5£'— 2e— w'+^O ,';°"„^"ffi
+ i/V.cos.(3«V— 2n< + 3£'— 25 + w' + ^') «nhe
order.
^°™'"' «'P.sin.(5n'< — 2ni + 5E'— 2£)+a'P'.cos.(5n7 — 2n< + 5£'— 2£)} ; [3847]
5n'— 2n
if', cos. (4 n' i — 2 n ^ + 4 e' — 2 £ + J' ) being the part of — r^ depending [3848]
onthe angle An't — 2nt* and ^'. sin. (4n'i — 2n i + 4=' — 2£+B')
the angle T^, because it does not produce terms having the small divisor 5 n' — 2n. [.3846rf"]
In making the change of the elements of m into those of m', according to the directions
[3845'], the value of — , corresponding to the action of m upon 7n', becomes
 = Po . sin. T. + P'o . COS. To + P. sin. T, + P'. cos. T, . [3846e]
m
The second members of [3846c, e], are evidently identical ; but in this last expression
the terms depending on the angle Tg, are derived from those of [3846c], which depend r„o,^^^
on i^ — 2 ; by changing the elements ?«, «, e, Sic. into those of m', a, e', &c., as in [3845'].
Lastly, we may observe, that the quantities P, P', connected, respectively, with
sin. Tj, cos. Tj, are the same in [.3846c, e]. Hence we may derive ôv from Sv, by
taking the sum of the two parts of 5 » [3817,3827], putting i = — 2, then changing
m, a, n, e, H, K, k.c. into m, a', n', e, H', K', &.C., respectively ; by which means
we get [3846]. In like manner, we may derive [3847] from [3821].
* (2426) These terms correspond to [3814, 3826], putting i= — 2, and changing
the elements as in [3845'].
A'OL. III. 17
66 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
being the part of 6 v' relative to the same angle. In these various
inequalities, we shall, for greater simplicity, refer the origin of the angles to
[3840] the common intersection of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn ; as Ave have
already done in the development of the expression of R [3736 — 3738], and
shall continue to do in the following article. For the sake of symmetry,
we shall retain the angle n, which must be supposed equal to nothing.
lioZf * We shall determine the differentials  — , , ' ,  — , — — , in
,P,dir, iW dt^ ' dt ' dt^ '
^^ the following manner. We shall compute, for the two epochs of
[3849] 1750 and 1950, which embrace an interval of 200 Julian years, the
,  (7e (/« de' dul d y du i i n
values or , —, —, —— , —, — ; and shall represent these
[3850]
dt' dt ' dt' dt ' dt' dt
quantities, at the second of these epochs, by — ', — ^, ~, &c. ;
we shall then have, by supposing t to be expressed in Julian years,*
[3851] ^'^^ + 200.^%
dt dt dt''
in which the differentials de, dde, in the second member, correspond to
the epoch 1750. The value of e,t for any time t, neglecting the cube
* (2427) We have, as in [607, &c.],
[3850a] ,^f7+,.(^) + .,..(^J_^) + &e.,
[38506]
d € (i€
u beins; a function of ^, which becomes U, when t=0. Now puttine m=— ', C7:= — ,
, T , ••11/' r '^^, ^^ 1 dde
as in [3850], we get, by retaining only the farst power of r, 77 =" 77 + ^ • jTs > which,
by putting ^=200, the interval mentioned in [3849'], becomes as in [3851]. From this
roo,/. , ddi 1 \de, de} de de, .
[38.50c] we get ^^ =§00 ' Jdl " rfIS ' ^^^^ ^^"'"'^ °^ rf"i ' ^ ' being computed, as m
[4238, he, 4330a, &c.], for the epochs 1750, 1950 ; we obtain, by substitution, in [3850c],
dde
the value of t^j corresponding to the epoch 1750.
t (2428) Putting U=e, M=e,, in [3850«], we get
[•3852a] e=e + t/^^+it^.'^ [3852];
in which we must substitute the values of e, ^^ , ^ [3850, 3850c], for the epoch 1750^
VI. i. §8.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN e, e', 7. 67
of t and its higher powers, is
de (1 d I
clt' dt'
being supposed to correspond to the year 1 750 ; this
expression maij be used for ten or tioelve centuries before or after that epoch* [3853]
In like manner, we may determine the values of ^, e', ^', 7, and n ;
Til [OOOO J
thence we may compute the values of P, corresponding to the three
epochs 1750, 2250, and 2750. If we represent these values by P, P,, P„,
and the general expression of P byf
P4./ 'll^'l ^i^. [3854]
^+^•77 + 2 ' dt^ ' ^
we shall have, by putting successively, t = 500, t = 1000,
dP. 950000 1 — ^
— + 250000.2 ^^,
P =P+ 500.^+ 250000 . 1 . r;^ ; [3855]
Values of
dP, ddP.
[3856]
p^ = p + 1000 . ^ + 1000000 . è • ^ ; ^^855']
Ct Z (t I
hence we obtain!
dP 4P — .3P — P, ddP P„—2P, + P
d t ÏÔÔÔ ' ~dl^ 250000
* (2429) To give some idea of the rapidity with which the terms of the series [3852]
decrease, we may take the value of e'" [4407] for the case of < = 1000, and we shall
find t .^=329% — i<2 «=8^; so that the second is about ^V P^rt of the [3853a]
(13 e
fiist ; and with the same rate of decrease, the third tenu it^:r^ will be insensible; [38534]
similar remarks may be made relative to tlie other terms of [4407, Stc.].
t (2430) Tlie expression [3854] is similar to [3850a], and by putting, successively,
< = 500, f=1000, we get p, P„ [3855,3855'].
Î (2431) Multiplying [3855] by 4, [3855'] by —1, adding the products, and then
dividmg by 1000, we get — [3856]. Again, multiplying [3855] by — 2, adding [38560]
the product to [3855'], and then dividing by 250000, we get jjy [3856].
68 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
9. The terms depending on the ffth powers of the excentriciiies may have
[3856'! " sensible influence on the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn ; but the
calculation is very troublesome on account of its excessive length. The
importance of the subject has, however, induced that very skilful astronomer
Burckhardt, to undertake the computation. He has discussed, with scrupulous
.ggg„ attention, all the terms of this order depending on the angle bn't — 2n^,
neglecting merely those terms which depend on the products of the
excentricities by the fourth power of the mutual inclinations of the orbits ;
which produce only insensible quantities. The expression of R [3742]
[3857'] corresponds to the action of in' upon m ; and the part of the expression
which has the most influence on this inequality, is the product of m' by
the following factor,*
„ J ~.ri'.\cos.{v'—v) — cos.{v'\v)\
[3858] = — —==== + 3.
m Vr'^—'2rr'.cos.{v'—v)+r'~ [,■''— 2rr'.cos.{v'—v)^r'^^
[3858'] This factor is the same for both planets ;\ by developing it, and noticing
* (2432) If we proceed by a method similar to that used in [3d29«, &.C.], we may
prove, as in [3829?i, &c.], that the second and third terms of R [3742], namely,
[3858o] J . — {cos. (d' — v) — cos.{v\v)],
do not have any influence in producing terms of the order now under consideration, depending
on the angle bnt — 2nt, and by neglecting them, and also the first term of [3742],
which is noticed in [3S61, 3868], we obtain the value of r [3858].
t (2433) As 7 enters into R [3858] only in the even powers, and the quantities
[3859a] multiplied by y^ are neglected [3857], the terms of R of the fifth order, must contain
factors of the following forms,
[38596] e'^ c'^e, e'^e^, t'^c\ e' e^ e" ; y^e'^, y^e'^e, y'^ e' e\ y^ e^ ;
of which the six first terms compose all the combinations of e, t', of the fifth dimension,
and the remaining terms all the combinations of e, e, of the third dimension, multiplied
by 7^ of the second dimension. Now we see, as in [957"", 957''^], that if R contain a
series of terms of the form ?;*'. Ar. cos. (5?i'/ — 2nt\A), the first term of the series
[3859c] will be of the order i' — i = 5 — 2^3, or of the third order ; the second term will be
of the order i' — i\2, or of the ffth order ; and by noticing only terms of the fifth
order, the angles will become, respectively, of the forms [3859]. For in the elliptical
[.3859d] motion the angle nf\s is always connected with — w, 7i't\^ with — «' [669, 957'^'] ;
VI. i. §9.]
TERMS OF THE FIFTH ORDER IN e, e', 7.
69
only the products of the excentricities and inclinations corresponding to the
angle 5 n't — 2 w ^, we shall have a function of this form,
R
VI
~= N "". COS. (5 «' i — 2 ?U + 5 s' — 2 £ — 4 ^' + .:)
+ iV (' ) . COS. (5 n' i — 2 n Ï + 5 a' — 2 £ — 3 ^')
{N^''\cos.{5n't—2nt + ôs' — 2s — 2^' — ^)
+ N'^K COS. (5 n't — 2nt + 5 =' — 2 s — ^' — 2^)
+ N '^'. COS. (5nt — 2nt + 5^' — 2s—3z^)
+ iV(^>. COS. (5 7i' t — 2n t + Ô s' — 2 s + z^' — 4>^)
+ TV (**'. COS. (5 71' t — 2n t + 5 s' — 2s — 2^' + ^ — 2u)
+ N ''K COS. (5 n' t — 2 n t + 5 B —2 s —^' —2n)
+ iV(^'. COS. (5 n' t — 2 71 1 + 5 s' — 2 s — ^ — 2 n)
+ ^<^cos. (5n'i — 27if + 5s' — 2£ + ^' — 2^ — 2n).
and we find*
[3858"
Forms
of the
terms in
R
uf the fifth
dimen
sion in
(0) [3859]
and in tlie terms depending on 7^, the angle 2n't~\2s' is connected with — 2n;
so that if the coefficients of w, n', n, be represented by g, g", g", respectively, we
shall always have, by noticing the signs g \ g' \ g" :^ — 3; which is similar to [959], [3859e]
changing the signs of the coefficients. Moreover, the sum of the coefficients g, g', g",
considering them all as positive, must not exceed 5 [957'"], because the present calculation
is restricted to terms of the fifth order. Thus, for example, a term depending on the
angle 5 n't — 2nt\5^ — 2 s — 5to'+2«, must be rejected, because the sum of [3859/]
the coefficients of n', «, taking them positively, is 7, corresponding to terms of the seventh
order. Now a slight examination will show, that the values of g, g, g" , which satisfy the
equation g ^ g^ \ ^' ^ — 3 [3S59e], with the prescribed condition, are as in the [3859g]
following table ; the corresponding numbers being placed in the same vertical lines.
These numbers agree with [3859] ;
Values of g', _4, — 3, — 2, — 1, 0, 1;
Values of g, 1, 0,1, —2, —.3, —4;
Values of g", 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ;
■2, —1, 0, 1;
1, 0, —1, —2;
■2, —2, —2, —2.
[3859;i]
* (24.34) The signs of ah these values of a' N^'>\ a! N^'^', &c. [.3860— .3860'"], have
been changed from the original so as to correct the error mentioned by the author
in [5974, Sic.]. Before the discover)' of this mistake, he had computed and used these [3860a]
erroneous values in ascertaining the inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn [4431, 4487] ;
hence it becomes necessary to apply the corrections of the mean longitudes, given in
[5976, 5977, &ic.]. We have given [3860—3860''] as they were printed by the author,
VOL. III. 18
70
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.
[Méc. Cél.
[3860] a'iV('" = —
768"
(') (1) (1)
3138 b , — 13 a. — ^ — 1556 o?. —— — 438 a». 1
à
— 38a^
(1)
cW
d a.
f/as
do.^
Terms of
the fînh
dimen
siou in
r, e', y.
[3860']
«'iV(»=_
+
e'3y2
384""
(2)
— (20267 e' 2+ 24896 ê) .h''— (7223 e'=+ 8 1 44 e^) . a .
(2)
(2)
f/2i,
(2)
,3
z^ . < + ( 1 094 €'+ 3692 e^) . a=. Vf + (482 e'^+ 1 436 e^) . a^ '^^
' "° ) a a"' ^ c/ a'
(2) (2)
+ (41 e'"~+ 140 e^) . a\ ^ + (e'2 + 4e^) .«^^
(3) s
590a.(6^ + 6j + 255a^(^l^ + ^)
0) (3), , (1) (3)
2~ + w.,2 / ~i "" • V~T7ir I
f/a2
f/ tt' d a'
[38606]
[3660c]
[:3860d]
[36(!0f]
[3860/]
correcting the signs as above ; but without pretending to verify more tlian one or two terms
of each of the coefficients. Tiie calculations of Burckliardt, on this subject, are given in
the Mémoires de FInstttnt, T. IX, 1808, p. 59, supp., but generally with wrong signs.
From what has been said in the preceding notes [3809a — 38.56rt], concerning the terms
of the third order, we may form some idea of the great labor of computing and reducing the
terms of the fifdi order [38603860''^]. The series [3829^—?», 38346] must be very
much increased by the introduction of terms of the fourth and fifth orders ; a table similar
to [38350] must be formed, containing terms of the fifth order, depending on the proposed
angles and on the powers and products of a^ , a', a", as far as the fifth order inclusively.
Then we obtain, as in [38.36f/, 3837c, &ic.], values of iY'»>, JV"', &c., depending on ^'''
and its differentials relatively to a, n' ; which may be reduced to the differentials relative to a
only, by extending the table [1003] to differentials of the fifth order; finally, by the
substitution of the values ./2'*', B''\ and then differentials, in terms of ftj^, èj, and their
differentials [996—1003], we get the required values of JV"", JV"', &ic. This short
sketch of the method of computing the terms of the fifth and higher orders, must suffice ;
more minuteness would be inconsistent with the prescribed limits to the notes on this work ;
in which we have proposed to point out and illustrate the methods of computing the various
inequalities, by occasional examples, without attempting to verify the immense number of
numerical calculations with which the work abounds.
VI. i. ^9.] TERMS OF THE FIFTH ORDER IN e, e', y. 71
(3)
—(109392e'2+53064e=).&'"— (42368 e'^+23436.e^).a.^
'''^''~ '76^*\ +(1064e'^+2088e^).a^Ç^+(1572e'^+1710e^).a='.'^
(3) (3)
+ (152 e+192e==) .a^ i^ + (4e+6e^).a^^
e'^e^s
/ (2) (4)\ „ fdb^ dbi.
(2) (4)
128 , (2) (4). / (2) (4)
1
da? ^ da? y ' \ (/a»
(4)
—(42912c'^+199848e'2).6'"— (21728 e2+82032e'^).a.'"
è da.
(4) (4)
+ (116 e'+210 e'^) . a^ ^ + (4 e^+ 6 e'^) . a^. ^
(3) (5)
580a. (63 + 63) +234a^(^+^
\ z s ' \ da. da.
/ (3) (5)v / (3) (5),
I d'^hs. d^h^\ fd^h^ d^b"\
(51
— (11840e=+152000e'^).6®— (6560e+65168e'2).a.^
4 </a
g3 ) „ (5) (5)
"'^'' ~ 768 • \ — (592 e^+ 4720 e'^) . a^ ^ + ( 1 52 e^ 920 e'^) . a^. ^
(5) (5)
+ (26 e" + 128 e'2) . a^ Ç^ + (e" + 4 e'^) . a^. ^
554a.(6:+6")+222a^(^ + ^^)
' / (4) (6)v , (4) (6),
384 '
[3860"
(4) ,^,«^« o , r^^/^oo «X db^
Terms of
, g 1 (4) (4) I the fifth
a'iV(^)=__./ _(640e2+2970e'=).a=. ^ + (864e^+1854e'2).al 1_^
sioo in
c, e', 7.
[3860"
[38601
72 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
(6) „ (O
[3860^] «'A^W^ 1_^
768
41448. 6/+ 18392 a.. ^ + 1780 a=^. , ,
4 do. «a^
(6) (6) (fi)
156 a^ î^ — 29 a^ lif — a^ ^
C ,o, (2) (2) (3)
[3860V.] a'iV<^)= ^^. < — 85 a . 6 3 + 85a^^+ 21 a^. ^ + a^ 11^
128 ( ^ a a «/a' rfa^
(3)
(3) f] 7, 3
3
2
Terms of
the fiflh
dimen
sion in
1
e, e', r. \ (56 e^ + 842 e'=) . a . 6 3 + (4 e^ + 87 e'^) . a^ ip
[3860vii] d' ]\fO)^ <^^ ■
128 1 (3) (3)
(16e^+20.a3.^(2e^+e).a^Çi
(4)
_ _ (174 e^ 196 e'^) . a. 6*^' + (50 e+ 180 e'~) . a=, '^
[3860vi.i] ^('^^(S)— IZ!.
128 \ W „ W
1
.3îÇ^ + (2e+e^).a^îÇM
+ (14 e'^— e^) . «.3. — f + (2 e'^ + e"^) . a^
e'e^ yS ^ (6) (5) (r.) ■\
[3860U] a'iV<«)=:l^.<580a.èr+86a^^— 8a3.1!ij_a^^i •.
( ? eta da «/a*)
When we consider the action of m! upon m, we must augment «W"' [3860],
by increasing h with the term r? or — a [3743], which increases
5 (t
3125 a. c'*e
a'N'"'' by —^ .* When we consider the action of m upon m',
768 '■
[3861]
* (2435) In [996], we have, generally, — . è ' = — ^''' ; but in the particular case
[3861a] of 1=1, this becomes, as in [997], .Z."' — ^ = — A^^K The part ^^ being
introduced by the tenn ^^ .cos. {n't — nt \ s' — s) [954], which does not occur in the
terms noticed in the value of R [3858], so that wherever the quantity — , •^'', occurs,
[38616] we ought to add ; or in other words, b ought to be increased by the term , ,
fit * u Ct
or — a . To notice this circumstance, we must apply a correction to the vakie
VI. i. §9.] TERMS OF THE FIFTH ORDER IN e, e,y. 13
, , jti) , 1 , . , . , ,T,n^ 1 SOOe'^e
we must add to b, the term = ; which increases a N'"' by ;.^ „ • [3862]
•i a* 763 a^
This behig premised, we shall multiply the preceding values of a' N'°\
a'iV''', &c. by m', and shall reduce each of the cosines by which
they are multiplied in the function [3859], into sines and cosines of [38(32']
5 n't — 2nt{5s — 2s; Avhich gives to this function the following form,*
Value of
..'/?= m'.a'P,.sm.(ôn't — 2nt + 5s'—2s) «•
[Action of m' on ml. [38631
+ m'. a' P;. cos. (5n't — 2nt + 5 s'— 2 e).
We shall likewise multiply by m the values of «'iV<% rt'iV*'', &c.
relative to the action of m upon m' ; and shall reduce the sines and cosines
of a' N''^'' [3860], which may be computed by supposing II = — a, whicli
(11 U)
(Z 6 1 (id h jL
gives "^ =^ — 1) "d'^'^^' ^'^' Substituting these in [3860], It becomes
_ '^ . _3138 a + 13 a? = ^J^Ë±iîll , [3861c]
/Uo /Do
as in [3361]. When we are computing the action of m on m', the fonnula [3861a] becomes
« * a a' I i cfiS a' I i S'
SO that the correction of è^j' is — a^, and the correction of a'./V"'* for this case, will
be found by putting &j = — a. in the expression [3860]. Now this value of 6 j gives
,,(1) (1) (1) (1,
substituting these in that expression of a' N ^^\ it becomes
~ïml^^~^^^^ — ^ X 13 + 6 X1556 — 24 X 438 + 120 X 38 — 720}='^,
as in [3862].
* (2436) The reduction here used is the same as that in [3842J, &c.], by which
tiie fonction [3835] is reduced to the form of [3842n'], and were it not for the terms
[3861,3862], the values of P,, P/ [3863] would be identical with P„, P,,' [3865],
respectively ; for the factor [3358] is the same for both planets ; and the reasoning made [3864a]
use of in [3846a— ^] will serve to prove, in [3863, 3865], that P,, P/ will be respectively
equal to P„, P/, if we neglect the ternis [3361,3862], and we shall show, in [3866i], [38646]
that these ternis do not affect the result.
VOL. III. 19
74 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3864] of the function [3859] to sines and cosines of brilt — 2/1^ + 5=' — 2;;
which will give to it the following form,
Value of
R.
'R = m . «' P^, . sin. (ôn't — 2nt + ôs'—2s)
[38651 [Action of «I on m'].
^ +m.a'PJ.cos.(5n't — 2nt + ôs'—2s).
We shall then substitute these values successively, in the expressions
of 6v, 6v', of the preceding article [3844,3846], neglecting their second
[3865'] differences, because of the smallness of these quantities ; and in this
way we shall obtain the parts of the inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn,
corresponding to the angle 5 n't — 2nt, and depending on the powers and
products of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits of the fifth order.
We may here observe, that in consequence of the ratio which obtains
[3806] between the mean motions of Jupiter and Saturn, we have 3125 a^^ 500;*
ji' 2 n' ** 4
[3867] for a^==— and on' is very nearly equal to 2n; consequently ■ ^ = — .
71" 11" /Co
Hence it follows, that the value of a' N *°^ is the same, ivhether ice consider
the action of m' upon in, or that of m upon m'. Hence we may deduce
the preceding part of 6 v' from the corresponding part of 6 v, by multiplying
[3868] the latter by — ^J'~ . .f
[3806a]
[38666]
[3868a]
[38686]
* (24.37) We have nearly l=7v^a^ = n"' a' ^ [3109']; hence iL.=^^=:a3 [,38296] ;
n' 2 /n'\2 4
but by [3318f/], we have nearly 5n' — 271^=0, or  = ; therefore a^=()=— ,
31 O \7l / fit)
as in [3867], and 3125a^ = 500, or 3125 a = '—j ; substitutmg this in the increment
of a'JV^"' [3861], correspondmg to the action of rn! upon m, it changes into the
expression [3862], representing the increment of «'JV'"' in the action of m upon m',
as we have remarked in [38646].
■j (2438) If we multiply the factor — '— —  , connected with the chief term
[an' — 2 rap
of ^t; [3844], by tlie quantity — ^ ' „ .  [3868], the product becomes
im.n a ^
\5m.n"^ a' 15m.n'~ 1
(5n'— 2>!)3 ■ a ~ (5n'— 2n)3 ' a '
j the same as the corresponding fac
the other part, , being multiplied into the terms aP, aP', adP, adP', kc. [3844],
in which the part — — is the same as the corresponding: factor of the terms of i5 y' [3846] ;
(on — 2n)3 X o
VI. i. §10.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN MERCURY. 75
10. In the theory of Mercury disturbed by the Earth, we must notice the
ine([uulity depending on the angle nt — 4 n7 ; because the mean motion [3869]
of Mercury is very nearly four times that of the Earth [4077a]. Supposing inequaiuv
m to be Mercury and m' the Earth, we shall obtain the proposed inequality Siércuô"
by putting i = 4, in the expression oi àv [3817]. Considering the [3870]
extreme minuteness of this inequality, we may neglect all the terms
dP (IP'
depending 071 r, ^— , and retain only those having the divisor (n— 4?i'/. [3871]
Hence we shall get*
iv = , "'•"" .iaP'.sin.fa^— 4rt'^ + s— 40+«Pcos.r?z^— 4n'^ + — 40i [3872]
(« — Any ' ^ ^ ' '
We can easily determine P and P' in the following manner. We may
T S T
calculate, by formula [3711], the value of — g, corresponding to the
angle I n't — 2nt, by substituting in it i := 4. Hence we obtain a [3873]
value of —5 of the form,t
«
^: L . e^cos. (4n'i — 2nf + 4s' — 2e — 2w)
+ L"'.ee'. cos. (4n'« — 2w^ + 4s' — 2s — ^ — ^')
+ U^K e'K cos. (4 n't — 2 n ^ + 4 s' — 2 s— 2 ^')
+ U^\ y"~ . cos. (4 n't — 2n ^ + 4s' — 2 £ — 2 n).
We shall then observe, that this value of ^ results from the variations
(r
of the excentricity and perihelion, depending on nt — 4<n't, in the elliptical
[3874]
produces the corresponding expressions a P, a P, a' d P, a d P', he. [3846] ; the
values P, P' of S v', having been proved in the two last notes to be respectively equal
to those of P, P', in S v.
[3868c]
* (2439) Neglecting dP, dP', ddP, ddP, and H, in [3817], and putting z'=4, [3872a]
we obtain the expression [3872].
t (2440) The two first of the angles [3874], connected with e^, e e', are explicitly
contained in [3711] ; the others, as well as these two, are included in the form
cos. \i .{n't — nt[ s— s)'\2nt\ K\, [3873o]
which occurs in [3711], and is developed in [3745 — 3745'"].
76 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3875] expression of ^.— . This expression contains the term — c.cos. (n/+;— cî),
whose variation is*
T Ô T
[3876] — ^ = — èe . cos. (n Ï + s — ra) — eôzs . sin. (n t \ s — ûî) ;
6e and (5w being the variations of e and ^3, depending on 7i t — i'li't.
[3876c]
* (2441) If we square the value of r [3701], and substitute
cos.^ {7it \ e — ■ui)=zi \^ COS. '2.{nt \s — k),
we shall get
r3=a2.{l + f c^— 2c.cos.(ji?+s— to) — ie.cos.a.Cnf + e — ro) + &;c..
[3876rt]
In the troubled orbit the elements r, a, e, s, ss, n t, are increased by the variations
[38766] 'J''; <5 «) Se, Sis, Sv, respectively; and if we neglect the squares and products of these
variations, the increment of the preceding expression will be found by taking its differential
relatively to the characteristic S ; hence we get
2riir='iaôa.\llr§ c^— &,c. \
j a. \3 c 5 c — 2(Se. cos. («<)£ — ûj) — 2 c ô a . sin. {n t \ s — zs) — &c. } .
Dividing this by 9 a^, it becomes of the form
r 1'
[3876rf] — 2 = — Se. cos. {nt\ s — to) — e f5 to . sin. {n t { s — to) ( X ;
representing, for brevity, by the symbol X, all the terms of the second member, excepting
the two parts explicitly retained by the author in [38T6]. If we neglect X, and substitute
'■ '*''•' in the remaining terms the values of Se, e o a [3877, 3878], we sbal] get the expression
of — [3879], which the author supposes to be identical with [3874], and thence by
integration obtains Sv [3882]. In the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of London,
Vol. II, page 358, Sic, Mr. Plana has pointed out some defects in this method, and ha?
shown, that the terms depending on X materially alter the result. To prove this, he has
computed directly the terms of Sv depending on the divisor [n — 4 n')^, using formulas
similar to those in [3335 — 3841] ; which we shall give in [3881r — w'] ; after going over
[.3876?] the calculation by the method of the author. From the comparison made in [3883w, y],
it appears, that this method of La Place cannot be considered, in an analytical point
of view, as a very near approximation to the truth ; though he seems rather unwilling
[3876/t] to admit the fact, in a note he published on the subject in the Connaisance des Terns,
for 1829, page 249.
[3876/]
VI. i. §10.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN MERCURY. 77
We shall have, by [1288, 1297],*
ôe= __ , ■< i j^j.sm. {4nt—nt {As — i)\l ). COS. {in' t — nt\4£— s)Ç; [3877]
y COS. (4 n't — nt+4 s'— s) + ('^^ . sin . {4n't — ni {é^—s)l; [3878]
yn'.an C /d P
e a = j— , . < — I ^
n — 4 H ^ \ a e
hence the variation of — e.cos. (ni + ' — ^) becomesf
r^r m'.a?i Ç/dP
:£;^,.j('^).sin.(2n<4n'i+2£4£'«) — ('^Vcos.(3n<4n'<f2s4£'î:r)l. [3879]
This function is identical with the preceding expression of y [3874] ;
therefore if we change, in both of them, 2nt\2s into » ^ + s + ^ +  , [3880]
V being the semicircumference, we shall obtain J
T; ^ T ).cos.rwi — 4w'^+£ — 4/)+ ^— ) . sm. (îi^ — 4n'i + £ — 4s')^
M — 4w i\de/ ^ \de J ^ ')
= L . e^sin. (4w'i — wi + 4E' — 5 — 3ot)
+ L" '. e e'. sin. (4 m' i — n i + 4 a' — s — î^' — 2 ^) [3881]
+ L(=>.e'^sin. (4?j'^ — n^+4a' — s — 2a' — w)
+ L'^>.7.sin. (4n7— >i^ + 4s' — E — 73 — 2n).
[3877o]
[3879o]
* (2442) The expression of R [12S7] is the same as in [.3810] ; so that P, P' have
the same values in both formulas. Now putting t' = 4, » = 1, (j.= 1 [3709], in the
expression of à a [1297], and then multiplying it by e, we get the value of e5a [3878].
The variation i5e [1288] becomes, by similar substitutions, of the same form as in [3S77].
t (2443) Putting, for a moment, Ati! t — nt \ A^ — s^rT^, nt\e — ^s^zW;
then multiplying [387'i] by — cos. ?r, also [3878] by — sin. ?r, and adding the
J* 6 J*
products, we get for the second member of [3876], or the value of —^ , the expression
[3879e] ; reducing this by means of [22, 24] Int., it becomes as in [3879c], which
is equivalent to [3879] ;
'■^='^^,\(^)ism.T,.cos.W+cos.T,.sm.JV}(^\{^^^^ [38796]
t (2444) We have two expressions of — [3874, 3879], depending upon the
angle 2nt — Aii't, and it is evident, that if it were not for the terms produced by the
VOL. Ill, 20
78 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[38S1'] If we integrate this equation relatively to e,* and then multiply it by
11 — An
we shall obtain
I\L . eKsin.(4^n't — nt\4,£' — s — 3^)
+ 1LW. e^e'. sin. (4n'ï — ni + 4s' — ; — ^' — 2^)
+ L(^'. ee'~. sin. (4 n'^ — Ji ^ + 4 s' — s — 2 ^' — ^)
+ L<^'. ey.sin. (4n'/ — wi +4£' — s — ^ — 2 n)
function X [3876e], they would be identical ; therefore they will still be equal to each other,
if we change the angle 2nt\2e into 7it{e\s\^ir. Now if we make this change
in [38741, we shall find, that a term of the form cos.(4n't—2?ii\'ie' — 2s4A), becomes
[38806] L J'
cos.{An't—nt\4£' — i{A — zi — i •r) =^ sin. (4 7i' t — n t \ 4 (' — s\A — ■si);
and the second member of the expression [3874] changes into the second member of [3881].
In like manner, sin. (2 ?i ( — 4 n't {2 s — 4 s' — w) becomes
[.3880c] sin. {nt — 4 n' t \ s —■ 4 s' \ ^v) — cos. {nt — 47i't{i — 4s);
and COS. {2nt — 4n't \2s — 4 s' — «) becomes
[3880d] COS. {n t—4n't\s — 4 s'+ è *) = —sin. {nt — 4 n't \s — 4 s') ;
hence the second member of [3879] becomes as in the first member of [3881].
* (2445) Multiplying the equation [3881] by de, and then integrating it relatively
to e, in order to obtain the values of P, P', we get
J!!Î:^Ap.co5.(nt — 47i't\B — 4s')\P'.sm.{nt — 47i't^s — 4s')\
n— 4n' i >
= iL . e^ .sm.{4n't — nt{4s — s — 3a)
[38816] + i L^^'. e^ e'. sin. {4n't — nt\4 s'— s — u'— 2 ra)
+ L<2'. ee'2. sin. (4 7i't — n < + 4 e'— £ — 2^— tn)
} L'^1.ey^.sm.{4n't — nt\4e — s — us — 2n).
3n
The first member of this expression being multiplied by _ , , becomes equal to the
value 0Î Sv [3872] ; therefore 5 v will be obtained by multiplying the second member
[3881c] of [38816] by — — ; and in this way we obtain [3882]. In the integration relative
to e [3881a, 6], we may add terms depending on e'^, and e 'f, which are considered
as constant in the integrations ; but the excentricity of the Earth's orbit e', being only
[3881rf] about rV of e [4080], the term depending on e'^, must be much smaller tlian the
VI. i. §10.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN MERCURY. 79
In this integration, we neglect the terms of P and P' depending on [3882]
[3881e]
[3881/]
others ; and the same remark will apply to the term depending on e' 7^. The author
has neglected these terms, because they are so much less than those which are included
in the expression [3882].
Having followed the author in this indirect method of computing the value of <^v [3882],
we shall now proceed to the direct investigation of the same inequality. For this purpose
we must have an expression of R, similar to [3835], depending on the angle 4 ti! t — nt.
This expression is evidently of the following form,
R = M«» . e" . COS. (4 71 1 — 71 1 + 4 e'— s — 3 z>')
+ Jtf "' . c'^e . COS. (4 ?i'< — ?i < f 4 e'— s — 2 ra'— 55)
+ M'> . e' c2 . COS. {An't — 71 1{ 4 s'— s _ ra'— 2 ts)
+ JU"'. e» .COS. (4?i'< — ?8/ + 4£'— £ — 3«)
+ JJf («. e' f. COS. (4 n'< — ?U + 4 e'— s — a'— 2 n)
\M^^\ey^. COS. {A7i't — 7it\4^—s — zs—2n);
but the factors JW«>, M'^\ he. are different from those in [3836, Sic] ; we shall give
their values in [3S8lr — !«']. If we suppose, for a moment, the preceding expression
of R to be put under the form R= 2 M .cos. {4 n't— Tit { K), we shall have
d JÎ = )! 2 M . sin. {4 n't — nt + K) [916']. Substituting this in the expression of the ^^
mean longitude ^ [3715/], we shall get the corresponding term,
Sv = 3rrandt.àR= — ^^„.:sM.sm.(4n't — ntiK); [388U]
•''' [4n'—nf
therefore the value of 5v may be easily derived from R [38S1/], by multiplying it
by ; , and changing the cosi7ies into sines. The terms of jR may be very [3881il
easily obtained from the values of Jkf'"', M'^\ he, computed in [3836(7— 3840o], by
merely decreasing the value of i by unity ; so as to change the angle 5 n't — 2 7it
into 4 n't — nt. In this way of computing M'°\ we must use the decreased value
i=\ [3836a], and then [3836(Z] becomes as in [3881r]. In computing .M"' from [3881/]
[3837c], we have the decreased value i^2 [3837a]; hence we get [3881s]. [.3881jn]
From [3838e, A], we get the decreased value i=3, and JF' [38810 From [3839«, b], [3881n]
we get the decreased value i = 4, and M'^' [3881m]. These expressions are reduced, in rgggj ^
the fiist place, by means of the formulas [1003], and then by [996—1001] ; so that we finally
obtain the values [3881r', s', t', u']. Observing, that in computing JIf ' [3881/], we must
(1)
notice the increments of 6, and , represented by — a and — 1, respectively, [3881o]
' da.
as in [38616 — c], by which means we shall obtain the first term, — —,.\—256o.l,
[S88U]
80 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
[3883] e'^ and e' y \ but as the excentricity of the orbit of the Earth is quite small,
in the expression [388 b'J, which is omitted by Mr. Plana by mistake. In like manner,
[3881o'] from [3840Â] and the decreased value z — 3 [3840^], we obtain Jl/™ [.3881 «] ; also from
[3881;>] [3840rt] and the decreased value i=A [3840m], we obtain M'^) [388 1 w] ; which, by
similar substitutions [1008, Sic], are reduced to the forms [3831t)', w']. In making these
[3881?] successive reductions, we have used the abridged expression [3755a], ./2 '"=«'"
'3
rfa'3
[3881.] JIf .0,^ ^ . 564^<"48«'. Cf^) + 12«. f'^Ua'
48 ^ \da' J ^ V f'a' /
^^, C64^'i> + 48.[^'» + ^/')] + 12.[2^(" + 4^/» + ^3W]
"^^'1 + [6.^W+18^i(')+9.^a<"+^3("]
= J . ^ 142 ^'"+114^/"+ 21 ^3<'> +^3(1' I
,0) (1) (IV
[3881,'] = ^ 5_256a+142è!' + 114a.'^ + 21a^ '"' ^ ^^^ '''' '
104^^' + 26a.(^)40«'.('if!^Ul0a'«.r^^
\ da J \da / \dadaj
104 ^'2) _^ 26 ^^(2) _j_ 40 . ^(2) _. ^^(3)j _^ 10 . [2 ^/2) ^ ^ ® ■]
+ 4 . [2^«>+ 4 ^p + ^2^2,] _. 6 ^^(2)+ 6^3(2)+ ^3«
152^«)_)_ 108 ^ ®__ 20 ^3'2i_^ _^^c3)^
[3881«] J/(i> = — .
16
ÏG
(S) <2) .„,(2) __(2)
[3881(] 3f(2)^ ^
[3881,'] = J!,.jl526r+108a.liL + 20a2.^+a3.^ii
'•«"'«■•C^')+«(^')«G^)
C 126^"^+ 21 . [^(3)+ ^ ffl ^ 60 ^/='+ 10 . [2 ^/3' + ^2i3)j
(+6^3^=1+ [3 ^2"'+^3'3>]
I 147 ^'■»+ 101 ^ o)_. 19 ^^(3) _^ _^^C3,
ÏG
m'
16
, C „v (3) (3) (3)
[3881f ] = _ ^, . j 147 6, + 101 a . !iil + 19 a=2. ^ + a^. ^^ ;
VI. i. §10.] TERMS OF THE THIRD ORDER IN MERCURY. 81
in comparison with that of Mercury, and the inequality in question is very [388!?]
f (4) (4) (4) J
..».= ....^_5B».+..(i^)^='^...,.^5««+[3i,...„(';£:>)]
IG t ' \ da J) W o' C f ' da. ^'
[3881t)]
[3881w']
JIf (5)= ^. a'a . ^ 5 B® + « . ( — ) (■ [3881i<;]
I 5 6 3 4 a . —^ C • L'^ooiw) j
16 " a' ■ C ^ '/■^
(1)
rfSfe.
If we substitute in these the numerical vahies [409.5 — 4102'!, also ^ = 5,340815,
da?
(2)
a.^^^ 1,96112, given by Mr. Plana, in Vol. II, page 366, of the Memoirs of the
Astronomical Society of London, we shall obtain, by supposing «'=1,
a' JH'0'= — m'. 0,3411; a'JW*'>= m'.3,3192; a' M'2'= _m'. 1,4808 ;
o'J»f(3i== m'.0,2181; a'JJf ^4' = — >«'. 0,1921 ; a'^®^ m'. 0,0690.
[3883a]
[38836]
The last four of these numbers agree nearly with those given by Mr. Plana; but he
finds «']»/<«' = — m'. 2,40567, a'.y»f(» = m'. 2,94.30 ; so that he makes .M'"' seven [3883c]
times too great, and .Af <" about a seventh part too small. The first of these mistakes
arises from the omission of the term — 256 a [388 lo] ; the second is an error in the
numerical calculations. We must observe, that the indices of M in La Place's
notation, namely, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, correspond, respectively, to 3, 2, 1, 0, 5, 4, in [3883d]
the notation used by Mr. Plana. In computing the value of 5 v, Mr. Plana uses the
elements coiTesponding to the year 1800, namely,
e'= 0,0163.5.32; e = 0,2056163; 7 = tang. 7' 0" 6' ; w' = 99'^ 30™ 5' ;
[3883e]
«=74'' 21™ 47^; n = 4.5''.57"'3P ; «'=1; « = 0,.38709; and ?i', w [4077] ;
.329630 t^^^^3 '"^ 35^36'
he also reduces the mass m' from .JoqV^ [4061] to ^, which makes [3883/]
VOL. Ill, 21
82 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Céî.
[3883"] small, we may neglect these terms without any sensible error [388 Id].
H."=— 0,0713 [42.30']; then by the method [3881 î], he finally obtains
[3883g] 6v = 0^5596 . sin. {4:n't — nt\4s — i—l6'' 59" 20").
If we correct the errors mentioned in [3883c] ; also another error, in his substitution of the
value of 2 n, which is taken too small by 40'', in [3881/] ; it will become
[3883^] Sv = 0',61 . sin. {An't — nt^A s — s — 21'' 19"=).
This differs but very little from the computation of La Place in [4283], namely,
ôv = (1 +x") . 0',69 . sin. {4n"t—nt\4^'—s~19^2'^ 1.3')
[3883t]
= 0',64 . sin. (4 n" < — 71 f + 4 e"— s — Id'' 2'" 13') [3883/].
Notwithstanding this near agreement in the numerical results, the method of La Place is
essentially defective, as may be seen by comparing the term depending on e^ in the
expression [3881i,/], namely,
[3883i] Sv = —~~ . JJf (31. c». sin. (4 n't — nt}4s'—s — 3 o),
with that given by La Place in [3882],
t'^'^^^'] ê V == ". , . L . c^.sin. (4n't — n t + 41'— s — 3z:).
[38S3n To compute the value of L, we may observe, that L.ë'.cos.{4n't—2nt{4e'—2B — 2zs)
is the term of ~, depending on e~, in [38741. Now the term of — [3711],
[3883m] ai ^ ^ a'^ < ■>
corresponding to i=4, and having the divisor 4n — n, is
[388.3n] 4'l?3^«^^+«(77'
r . a Jli 4 a^.[—)
rpL , \?±J . n^. COS. (4 n'< — 2m < + 4 s'— 2 5 — 2 s)
(4n — î!.).(4n— 3n) ^ ' ' ■
and as we retain here only the terms depending on c^, we may put M^=M^^'^ e^
[.3703,3745]; moreover, we have, in the present case, very nearly 4 ?i' — 2n = — n,
4n' — 3n = — 2n [3869] ; hence this term of ^ becomes
\4aM^+a^.('^\\
[38830] _(__ \ da /) ,nc'.cos.{4 7H — 2jit + 4i'—2s — 2^).
2.(4J^'— n) ^ ' '
Now we may obtain the expression of M'"' [3S8.3p], by putting i=^4 [3883m], in [3750],
The partial differential, relative to a, is as in [38837]. Substituting these two values
VI. i. §11.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN THE LATITUDE. 83
11. It follows, from [1337'— 1342], that the two terms of R [3835],
represented by
R= M^*K e' r. COS. (5 n't — 2n t + 5 s' — 2s — zs'—2n)
[3884]
+ M^'\e f cos.(5 n't — 2ni + 5 s' — 2s — z: — 2n),
in the first member of [3883;], and making the same reductions as in [999, &c.]. we
get [3S83«], by putting «'=1,
r (4) (4) (4) \
= — .)176è +n4a.— 420a^. j^+a^.— ( . [3883*]
Substituting this in [3883o], and putting the resuk equal to
L . e^ COS. (4 n' i; — 2 » ^ f 4 £'— 2 c — 2 tn) [3883Z'],
vre get
r (4) (4) (4) s
L^^:^ 176è';+114a.^ + 20a^Çf + a3.^% ; [3883^
16.(4)1 — n) C 2^ da. ' dofi da' ) "■ J
consequently the part of 5v [3883?], computed by La Place, is
C (4^ (4) W 5
16. (In'— nf ( 5 ' da. ' daS ^ rfaS V
whereas the real value, obtained by the direct method [3881i, m'], is
3, = _ "•"";•" „ .^1.366l' + 93a.^+18a^.^+a3.^^ [3883.]
, , ,. , r5 . ) 1.36 6 1 + 93 a . ^ + 18 a^. 7^ + «'• 7—0
10.(4,i'— n)2 ( 4 ' da ' da^ ' rf a^
If we substitute in these expressions the values given in [4095, &c.], we shall find, that
the coefficient of — — ^ '■ , in the first is 12, 54, and in the second 10, 50; so [3883jc]
16. (4 n' — n)2
that La Place's method makes this term too great by about one fifth part ; and the same [.3883i]
discrepancy occurs in the coefficients of most of the terms of these two formulas.
84 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Méc. Cél.
produce in the value of s, or in the motion of m in latitude, the inequality,*
[3885] 6 5 = — — ; —  • < > •
5n — 2?i ^ _j_ 3j(5) _ f ^ _ 5;„_ (5 ,^/^ _3nt + 5s'—3s — a—n) )
Moreover the same terms produce in the value of s', or in the motion of m'
in latitude, the inequality f
2a'»' m S ^''^•e'7sin.(4n'<2«^ + 4a'_2s^'n)^
[3886] i s = ■^, — .  . < > ;
5n'— 2?J m ( j^ jyj^^K ey . sm. {47i' t—2n t \ 4 s'— 2 s — zs — n) )
There is a small inequality in the motion of the Earth, depending on the same angle
nt — 4.n"t, given by the author in [4311]. He seems to have computed it from
[3883y] the term for Mercury [4283], hy means of the formula [1208], ôv" = — 5v.~^,,
using (5« = — 0',690412 [4283], and the other elements [4061, 4079]. This method
will answer, as the inequality is extremely small.
* (2446) Putting;, in the term of iî [1337"], tang. 9/ = 7, it becomes
[.3885o]
R = m k . y^. cos. [i' n' t — int \ Jl — g ()/) ;
[3885a'] comparing this with [3884], we get 5" =2, d/ = n, j':=5, i = 2; also in the
first term, m'k = M^'^'^ . e', ^ =5 s' — 2 £ — s/ ; and in the second term, mk = M^^'^. e,
[388561
•' i^ = 5 s' — 2 s — ro. Substituting these in [1342], which is obtained from the integrals
[1341«, 1341], we obtain in s, from the first term, the quantity
[3885c] _l^.J»fW).e'y.sin.(5rt'/2«^« + 5 3'2.^'n);
and from the second term, the quantity
[3885d] ^^^^.M^'\cy.^m.{bnt2ntv\b^'2^^U);
observing, that (j,=:l [3709]. Putting, in these, for v, its mean value nt\e [3834],
and connecting the two preceding terms, they become as in [3885].
t (2447) The terms of R [3884], used in computing s [3885], are deduced from
the fonction [3831], which is multiplied by the factor or mass m. In computing the
[3886o] value of s' , corresponding to the planet m', and to the same angles, we must use the
factor m, instead of in ; therefore the value of R to be used in computing s', is equal
to the function [3884], multiplied by — ; which amounts to the same thing as to change
[38866] M^^\ M^^\ into — ,.JI/^", and —,.M^^\ respectively.
VI. i. §11.] TERMS OF THE SECOND ORDER IN THE LATITUDE. 85
n being, as in the preceding inequality of s, the longitude of the ascending rgggg,,
node of the orbit of in! upon that of m. These are the only sensible
inequalities in latitude, in the planetary system, depending on the product
of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.
We have seen, in [3800], that the value of 5 s produces in the motion
of m, reduced to the fixed plane, the term — tang. ? . 6 s . cos. {i\ — '') ; [3887]
by substituting the preceding inequality of s [3885] in this term, we shall
obtain a term depending on bn't — 2 n ^ , which must be added to the
If we now compare the value of s [3885] with the vakie of R [3884], we shall find,
that s may be derived from R, by multiplying it by '■ — ; then integrating relatively [388(;c]
to t, as in [.38S5è, &c., 1341»], and after integration, decreasing the angles by the quantity
i' — n [3885c], or by its mean value nt\s — 11. In like manner, we may derive s' [3886rf]
from R [3884], after multiplying it by the factor ^ [38866]. This value of ^,.il
is to be multiplied by — ' — , to correspond with [3886c], and it will become
„ ( JW<«.e'y.cos. (.5?i'^ — 2?U + 5£'— 2 e — ra' — 2n))
2a'ri'.f/^.,.^ >; [3886e]
( JIf ^5)_ e y _ COS. (5 ?t'^ — 2 Ji < + 5 e'— 2 £ — « — 2 n) )
m
and then by integration, we get
2a' n' m <» iV/«' . e'"/ . sin. (5 n'^ — 2 71 i! + 5 s'— 2 £ — ^' — 2 n)
5ji' — 2îi ' m' '
\ iW^s). g y . sin. (5 „'^ _ 3 „ i __ 5 £'_ 2 c _ js — 2 n)
[388(;c'l
The angles bnt — 2nt + 5s' — ^2£ — is — 2n, Sic, must now be decreased by
v — n'=nt\s' — n', corresponding to the planet m', as in [.3886c/]; the angle n'
being the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of 7n upon that of m' ; in the same rsgsry]
manner as n [3746] is the ascendirig node of m' upon that of m ; and it is evident,
that n' = 180'' f n ; hence v'—U'=n't{s'—n— 180"'. Subtractmg this from
the angles which occur in [3886e'], it becomes
9«'„' ™ C M^'^\e'y.sm. (4n't — 2 nt{ As — 2 s — zj'—n + ISO"))
5«'_2n m' ^ _j_ J/(5)_ g ^ , ^j,,, (4 ^'^ _ 2 „ ^ + 4 a' _ 2 £_ « _ n + 180")
which is easily reduced to the form [3886].
VOL. III. 22
86 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Ce).
g great inequality of the motion of m; but this term is insensible for
Jupiter and Saturn.*
* (2448) The functions 5 s, ôs' [3885,3886], reduced to numbers in [4458,4513],
[3887o] j^j.g Qf jjjg Qj.£jej. 3i or 9' ; these are muhiphed by tang. 9 in [3887], and as this tangent
is very small [4082], these terms may be neglected.
VI. ii. sU2.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 87
CHAPTER II.
INEaUALITIES DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE.
12. The great inequalities which toe have just investigated, prochice other
sensible ones, depending on the square of the disturbing force. We have
given the analytical expressions in [1213, 1214, 1306 — 1309] ; and it
follows, from [1197, 1213], that if we put
the great inequality of Jupiter ^= H. sin. (5 n't — 2nt + ÔB — 2s+ Â), [38891
we shall have e^^juaiu!";
of Jupiter.
^^^_^. (^'»V«;+^"'V«) .sin.2.(5u'^2n^ + 5a'2s + J), [3890]
8 m ya
for the corresponding inequality of Jupiter, depending on the square of the
disturbing force* This inequality, like that from ivhich it is derived, is to [3890]
be added to the mean motion of Jupiter.
In like manner, if we put
the great inequality of Saturn ^'= — ïï'. sin. (5 n't — 2nt\ôs' — 2s+Z')» [3891]
we shall have ^Sties
of Saturn.
6v'=. ^ !^—L )LJ . sm. 2.(5n't — 2nti5s'—2;+A), [3891']
8 m y a ^
* (2449) The great inequality of Jupiter is found, by substituting, in ^ [1197],
,A=1 [.3709], also i = 2, i'=5; and if we put
6m'.an^k
^ = 5.^— 2e + :4, T,= 5n't — 2nt + 5^ — 2s, ^=— (5n'2n)g ' ^^^^^''^
we get ^ = H.sln. (jr5 + ;i), as in [3889]. Making the same substitutions in the [3890c]
terms of the second order [121.3J, it becomes as in [3890].
88
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
[3891"] for the correspondmg inequality of Saturn,* which must be added to the
mean motion of Saturn.
The variations of the excentricities and perihelion may introduce similar
inequalities in the mean motions of the tivo planets. To determine them,
[3891"'] we shall ohserve, that if we notice only the cubes and products of three
dimensions, of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, we shall havef
[3892] 3a.ffndt.dR = — Ga m'.ff^i dt".
P.cos.{5n't—2nt + 5s'—2s)
— P'. sin. (5n'<~9n t + 5s'—2 s)
[3891a]
[3891&]
[3891d]
[3891e]
[3892ol
[38925]
[3892c]
* (2150) Substitutmg ^ [3S90c] in [1208], we get
the great inequality of Saturn ^' =
mi/a — . ,„ , _,
,.H.sm.{T.^JrJl);
m' j/a'
putting tliis equal to the assumed value [3891], we obtain
— , mv/o _ _
H =—,. H, and jI = J1l.
m\/a
Now by comparing the two formulas [1213, 1214], we find, that the part of the great
inequality of Saturn, depending on the square of the disturliing force, is equal to the
m\/a
[3891c] corresponding part of the great inequality of Jupiter, multiplied by — , , ,
using the expression of this inequality of Jupiter [3S90], that of Saturn becomes
and by
_g TOv/a (2m'\/a'\5ms/a)
m' y/a!
m't/a'
sin.2.(7;+:5)^i^'. '^'^;^^°U in.2.(7; + :^);
the second of these formulas being deduced from the first, by the substitution of H [38916].
This last expression agrees with that in [3891'], except that Â is changed into JÎ', so as
to make both the expressions [3S91, 3891'] depend on the same argument; observing,
that these quantities are very nearly equal to each other, since, in the year 17.50, we have
^ = 4''22'"2P [44.34], and .1'= 4'' 21'" 20" [4492].
f (2451) The part of R depending on the angle Zn't — 2nt, and terms of the
third degree in e, c', y, h.c., is given in [3842«']. Its differential, relatively to the
characteristic d [916'], is
àR = — 2nJ.ndt.\P. cos. % — P' . sin. %].
Multiplying this by Za.ndi, and prefixing the double sign of integration, we get [3892],
which represents the part of 5v [3715i], depending on diî, the divisor \/(l — e®) being
neglected, as in [3718']. The quantities P, P', which occur in this expression, are, given
in [3842, 3843], in terms of the elements of the orbits of m, m'.
VI. il. §12.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 89
which gives, in 3 a .ffn d t . d R, the quantity*
àe\(j)C03.[57it—2nt+5s'—2B)—{'—\sm.{5n'l2ntj5s'—'is)l
+ 75. J (—^ . cos.(Mt—2nt^5£'—2s)r—Ymn.(5n'lQnt+5s'—2 s)l
+ de'. }('~ycos.{Wt'2nti5e'2s)~Çj^\sm.{5n't'2nt+5s'—2s).
Qam'.ffn\W.( ); [3893]
y+6ra'. j ('yVcos.lSn'f— 2jie+5c'— 2e)— f— Vsin.(5n'<— 2?U+5s'— 25); /
^5 y. j r_yco3.(5)i'<— 2;i<+5£'— 2=)— ^j Vsin.(5ra'«— 2(!<(5s'— 2;)^
^+5n. \{j^ • '=°^ (ô«'«2n/+5s'2;)(^^) .sin.(5n'<2n<+5='2.=)^
6e, 6 a, 6e', 6^', 6), 6U, being the parts of e, ra, e', ra', 7, n, respectively,
depending upon the angle 5n't — 2nt. We have, by means of [3842c], f
/dP\ fdP'\ /dP'\ /'dP\
[j^)'[j7)' W;=^(rfrj' [3894]
/dP\ , /dP'\ /dP'\ , fdP\
* (2452) We have already noticed the effect of the secular variations of P, P', in the
terms of 3a.ffndt.dR [3812,3812/], depending on sin.Tj, cos.Tj; using, for brevity,
T5 [38906]. The object of the present investigation is to ascertain whether the periodical
variations of e, e', to, as', r, n, depending on the angle T5, which are computed in [3893a]
[1288, 1297, Sic], produce, in the function 3 a .ffndt . dR, any secular or periodical
inequaUties. Now if we suppose the elements e, e', w, ra', /, II, to be increased by the
variations 5e, &e', Sa, ôts, Sy, Su, respectively, the corresponding increments of P, P',
will be obtained, by means of [607 — 612], in the following forms,
these parts of the general values of P, P', being substituted in [3892], produce the
expression [3893].
t (2453) The equations [3894 — 3894"], are easily deduced from the general values
VOL. III. 23
90 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
Moreover we have, as in [1297, 1288],*
[3895] (— Vco3.(5«'i2n^ + 5£'26)('^Vsin.(5n'^2n/+5£'26)= '^"^]~^^"l erî^;
[3895'] (^).cos.(5«V2?ii + 5s'~2£)+('^Vsin.(5n72ni+5£'2e) = '^^7^.<5e;
we likewise havef
[3896] (~\.cos.{^n't~2nt + bi2s) — (^\.Bm.(bn't2nt+b^^i)= ''^"'^"l e'cî^^:
\dc' J ' \de: J ^ ' ^ m.a'n' '
[3896'] (^).cos.(5n't2nt + 5s'2s)4('^).s[n.(57i't2}it45B'—2e)=^^^^^^^^
\"6/ ' \de / ^ ' m.an
of P, P' [.3S42c], which give
[38940] (^\ = 2 è . JJi'. e'". e*. y^'. cos. (6V+ & ra + 2 c n) ;
[38946] (^— 'j=:2&.iVf'.e"''.e''^y'^^cos.(i'îï' + 6w42cn).
These expressions satisfy the first of the equations [3894] ; and in hke manner, we may prove
the others to be accurate, by the substitution of the partial differentials of P, P' [3842c].
* (2454) The value of R [3842a'], is the same as that assumed in [1287],
[3S95o] supposing (*=!, i' ■=b, i = 2, as in [3890«]. Making the same substitutions in
ÔC, i5a [1288, 1297], we get, by using the abridged symbols [3846^,(1], the following
expressions, which are easily reduced to the forms [3895', 3895] ;
[3895i]
6e = — r, — — . i r • COS. i 5 + ( 7— . sm. ^5 >
[3B95C] s^= .^!!l^5(l£yeos.T,f^).sin.rJ.
f (2455) The values Se', e'S'm', depending on the angle Tr,, noticing only terms of
the third order in e, e', 7 [3891'"], are easily deduced from those of ôe, cSts [3895,3895'],
by a process similar to that employed in [3846« — gl ; using also the same abridged symbols
[.3895e] Ts, Tg, Po, Pq, kc. For if we substitute, in [1288], the values i'= — 2, i = —5,
we get the following term of Se, which may be added to [38956], to obtain a symmetrical
form of Se, similar to [3S46i, Sic],
This last temi may, however, be neglected in computing the value of Se ; because it has
not the small divisor 5 71' — 2n. Now changing the elements m, a, n, e, &ic. into
[SSgSg] ^,^ ^^1^ ^^^/^ ^t^ ^ç,_^ ^j^j jj^g contrary, as in [3846a, d\, we find, that the part of S e', arising
VI. ii. §12.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 91
To obtain the values of 5 y and Sn, we shall observe, that the latitude of m, [3696"]
above the primitive orhit of m', is 5= — y . s'la. (v — n),* which gives [3897]
as = — 5y . sin. (v — n) + 7 . a n , cos. (v — n), [3898]
Now we have, in [1342],t
( ('iPl.cos.(ôn't — 2nt + 52'—2s — v + n)
7)i.a?i ) \dy/ "^ ' ^
''•'^^^ZJ^rS ,.p,, . _ . „ ^ [3899]
dP'
rf7
sin. (5 n't — 2nt + ôs' — 2 s — v + n)
[3895h]
[38975]
from [3895i], has the divisor 5n — 2n', which is large ; therefore this part is small and
may be neglected. The other part, derived from [3895/], becomes
„ , m.a'n' i/dP\ ^ , fdP\ . ^ ■)
5n—Zn i\de / \de'/ ^^
whlcli is easily reduced to the form [3896']. In the same manner, we may derive S ■a'
[3896] from Sz, [3895c]. ^^^^^'1
* (2456) It may not be amiss to remark, that the object of the calculation in
[3896"— 3902], is to ascertain the parts of ôy, 7 5 n [3900, 3901], arising from the [3897a]
perturbation of m in latitude, by the action of m' ; supposing the fixed ■plane io le the
primitive orbit of m! [3897]; these parts are denoted by 5^/, y5„n, respectively,
in [3899']. In like manner, the action of m upon m' affects the values of ôy, y Su
by terms which are represented by «, 7, 7 5^ n, respectively, [3904]. The sum of these l35J7c]
two paits of i5 7 gives the complete value of 5 7, as in the first equation [3905] ; and the
sum of the two parts of <5 n gives the complete value of S n, as in the second of the
equations [.3905]. Having made these preliminary observations, we shall now remark, that L^*'''']
the expression [3897] is similar to [679], changing v, into v, tang. 9 into 7 [669", 3739] ;
and à into n+180'' [669", 3746] ; observing, that as n [3746 or 3902] is the longitude [3897«]
of the ascending node of m' upon the orbit of m, we shall have n 4 180'', for that of the
[3897/^1
ascending node of m upon the orbit of m, taken for the fixed plane [3896"]. Hence
[679] becomes 5 = 7.sin.(i' — n— 180'')=:— 7.sin.(j; — n), as in [.3897]. Supposing [3897^]
now 7, n to vaiy ; the corresponding variation of 4 will be as in [3898].
t (24.57) Using the values [.3895«], also ^ = 2, tang.ç); = 7, é;=n [3902, 1.337'] ;
also, for brevity
Ts=^5n't — 2nt\5s'—2e, Ts = 5n' i — 2n t + A — 2n; [3899a]
the expressions of R [13.37"], and « or us [1342], become
Ii = m k.y. COS. T^, ûs=—^~y~^^.y.sm.[Ts — v{n). [38996]
[3900]
92 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
Comparing this expression with the preceding [3898], we shall obtain,
[3899'] for the parts of 6y, y an, depending upon the action of m! upon m, which
ô„. we shall represent bj s^^y, 7^,,^^
6,7==— "';"" ■5fl^Vsin.(5n'^2ftt+5£'2s) + ('^Vcos.(5n72n<45s'2c) j;
"' 5?i'— 2ra i\dy / ^ ' \dy J ^ ' ^3
[3901] yS, n= 4^5f^Vcos.(5«72w<+5s'2.0('^Vsin.(5?i'^2u<+5a'2;)?;
' " 5?l — 271 i\dy J \<iy/ )
7' n in which y is the mutual inclination of the tivo orbits to each other, and n the
longitude of the ascending node of in' upon the orbit of m [37461. These
[3903] ^ . . *^, , f . ^ ' , , T
g_ quantities also vary by the action oi m upon m ; so that it we put these
[3904] last variations equal to 6^ y, 5^ n ; the whole variations being 6y, iu ;
we shall have*
[3905] 5y = S,y +ô^^y ■ 6 H = ^, H + 6„ H ;
m.a'n' ms/a m.a'n' m\/a
[3906] ^,7='^, • '5,/ '/ = TT^ • «5,, / ; ^,^=^, • '5„n = ^— .6 n.
•■ J ' m!. a n ' m\/a m.aii " m \/a "
If we compare this value oî 5 s with that of R, we shall find, that &$ = —, — ^;r •{ ~, — ),
[3899c] 5,1—2/1 \dyj'
provided we increase the angle 5>i'/ — 2nt by the quantity 90'' — v\'n., by which
[3899</] means cos. Tg will change into cos. ( Ts + 90'^ — v\Jl) = — sin. ( Tg — v \n);
and if we use R [3842a'], the expression of 8s [3899c], becomes as in [3899/,^, or 3399].
[3899c] Now if we put, for brevity, v — n = v, , and develop the terms of [3899^], by means
of [22, 24] Int., it becomes, as in [3899A],
[3899/] 5s=g^^^.»/.^Q.sin.(T,+90^r + n) + (^).cos.(r5 + 90". + n)^
^'""'^^ =5£k'K^)'^°^(^^^')(i^)^*"^^'^')^
^^ ^Bn ■ { [(?).sln.T.+Q.cos.Tj.si„.,+ [Q.cos.T,(^).sin.T.].cos.^.
Comparing this with 5«^ — (5y. sin.D,)7i5n.cos. t), [3898], and putting the coefficients
of sin. v^, cos. V, , separately equal to each other in both expressions, we get [3900, 3901].
If we compare the value of 7<5„n [3901] with that of R [3842a'], we easily perceive
[3899A;] that it may be put under the form 7(S,,n = — an .fdt .i—\; and having found 7(5„n
[3899/] by this formula, we get from it the value of S^y, by changing the angle T^ into T^\9(y^,
as is evident by comparing the two expressions [3901, 3900].
* (24.58) From the expression of 7i5„n [3899A:], we may obtain the value of y <î; n,
[3906a] corresponding to the action of m upon m' ; by observing that the values of P, P' , which
VI. ii. ^^ 12.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 93
This beins; premised, if we substitute these different quantities in the c,,,mi'ityof
■ tlie mean
function [3893], Ave shall find that it vanishes.* Therefore the variations ^,''11^1'
of the excentricities, of the perihelia, of the nodes and of the inclinations of [3906']
the orbits, corresponding to the two great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, téms here
do not introduce into the mean motion of Jupiter, or into the greater axis of its l^^^^fj
vanishes.
occur in R [3842(}'], are the same in both cases, as is remarked in [3832 or 3846/', &c.] ;
so that it is only necessary to cliange R [3831] into —R, and an into a'nf, to
obtain from [3899^], the expression yô^n = — —,. a' n'.fd t .U—\. Dividing this [390C6]
by 7Ô„n [3899t], we get the first form of '5,n [3906]; and by applying the principle [3906c]
of derivation [3899Z] to this value of y^'^, we obtain that of 5/ [3906]. The second
forms [3906] are derived from the first, by putting an=a^, a'n'=ai [3709'].
Substituting the values [3906] in [3905], we get
m'.an\~7n.a'n' , . m'.anAm.a'n' .
Sy= T .5„y; y^n= f~ .yS,,n; 3906e
in which we must substitute for 5,,y, 7 5„ n, their values [3900, 3901]. Therefore,
to obtain the complete values of 5y, y 5n, we must change the factor m'. a n into [3906/"]
m'. an \ m . a n', in the formulas [3900, 3901].
* (2459) If we substitute the values [3S94— 3901] in [3393], we shall find, that the
terms of this expression mutually destroy each other. In proving this, we shall neglect
the factor — 6 am'.ffn^dt^, which affects all the terms; and shall use the symbol
Tj [38906], also, for brevity,
5n^^ nn'^n ^ 5n'2n ^3907»]
m .an m.an m .an\m.a n
Then the expressions [3895, 3895'] may be put under the following forms [39076] ; the
similar values [3896, 3896'] become as in [3907c] ; and if we change, in [3900, 3901],
the factor m'.an into m'. an \m . a'n', in order to obtain the complete values of
Sy, yon [3906/], they will become as in [3907(/] ;
(^£)^os.T, + (^).sln.T,=M.Je; (^) . cos.r,(^^) .sin.T,=./lf,.e..; [3907.]
{'£)^os.T, + ('l^yn.T,^^M.,.Se', (If ) . cos.T.('iÇ).sin.r,=M,.e'..'; [3907,
(^).cos.7,+ (^).sin.T, = _J>/3.57; (^) . cos.r,(^').sin.r,=./If3.7<Sn. [3907d]
VOL. III. 24
94
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
[3907]
[3907^]
[3907A]
[3907i]
[3907fc]
[S9071]
[3907m]
[3907n]
[3907o]
[3907p]
[3907j]
oi'bit, considered as a variable ellipsis, any sensible inequality, depending on
the square of the disturbing force ; and it is evident, that the same result holds
good in the mean ^notion of Saturn and in the greater axis of its orbit.
Substituting tliese values in the first members of the following equations [3907e — ff], then
reducing, by the neglect of the terms which mutually destroy each other and putting
sin.^ 7^5 ( cos.^ Tr,= I, we get
[3907f] —Mi.5e.cos.T,—M,.e5v5.sm.T,= (^^y, M,.5e.sm.T,—M,.eô,z.cos.T,= —(^);
[3907/] —M^.Se'.cos.T,—J\1^.e'&^'.s[n.T,= (j£^ ; M,.S e'.sm.T,—M^.e'&^.cos.T,=—(^^') ;
—J\l^.&'y.cos.T,—M;.y&n.s\n.T,= (~^^ ; M,.Sy .sm.T,—M,.ySu.cos.T,= ('^) ;
Now the first line of [3893] becomes, by the substitution of M^ . e f5 « [3907//] equal
to Se. {Ml . e <5 w) ^ Mi . e 5 e . (5 ra . The second line of [3893] becomes, by the
substitution of [3894], equal to e 5 ra . j (i~) ■ cos. T^ f ( — ) • sin. T^ I , and by
using — ^j.^e [3907i], it is reduced to C(5«.( — Mi.&c) = — MieS e.Sa ; adding
this to the first line [3907 /i], the sum becomes zero. In lilce manner, the third line of [3893],
by the substitution of M.^ . e' 5 ra' [3907c], is equal to S e'. (Jk/^ . e'Szs') ^M^.e'S e'. d n' ;
and the fourth line, by the successive substitutions of [3894'] and — M^.Se' [3907c],
is e'&z/.^ — Mg . 5 e') ^ — 31^. e S e .6zs' ; the sum of these two lines is therefore
equal to zero. Substituting M^yàlî [3907<^] in the fifth line of [3893], it becomes
S y . {M3 .yôJl)Tz= M3 .yôy.SH; and by successively using the equations [3894"],
also the value of — M^Sy [3907rf], we shall find, that the sixth line of [3893] is
ySu.( — ^3.157)= — M3.ySy.oll; therefore the sum of the fifth and sixth lines
is equal to zero. Hence we see that all the terms of [3893], included between the braces,
mutually destroy each other, as is observed in [3906'] ; consequently the values of
èe, ÔZS, 5e', Sz/, 5 y, Su [3895—3901], do not produce in 3a.ffndt.AR
[3892 or 3715i] any term of the order of the square of the disturbing forces. The
function 3 a .ffndt .dR, represents the mean motion of the planet m [1183]; therefore
the variation of the mean motion, arising from these values of i5 e, S a, S e', &c. is nothing.
Again, from [3709'], we have 2a = 2n '" , and as the mean motion nt or n, is
not affected by these values of Se, ^ ra, Sic, it follows, that the transverse axis of the
ellipsis 2 a is not affected by the variations Se, S a, &c. now under consideration, as is
observed in [3906"]. The same result holds good when we notice the variations of the
motions of the body m', disturbed by m, as in [3907].
VI. il. §13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 95
13. TVe shall now consider the variations of the excentricities and of the
perihelia. We have given, in [1287 — 1309], the expressions of the
^ (1 C (/ CT d c' d Ts' ,
increments ot —, —, —, 77"' dependnig on the two great [3i)08]
inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, and we have observed, in [1309", &c.],
that the variations of e, ro, e', ra', relative to the angle 5 n' t — 2>t^,t
* (2460) Tlie expression de [1284], is integrated in [1286], and put under another
form in [1283]. Now as this last expression is used in this article, we shall take its
differential relatively to t, and then change the angles n't, nt into ^', ^, respectively, [39080!
as in [1194'"] ; for the purpose of noticing the inequalities of the mean motion. If we
put fA=l, i'^o, i^2, as in [.389.5rt], we shall get from [1288] the following value
of de; and in like manner, from [1297], we get dm [.3908f/] ;
de=m.andt.^ (^^).cos.(.5^'2^+5s'2s)_ (^^).sin.(5^'2^+5s'2a)^; [390Sc]
rf^=,«'.««rf<.^^.(lÇ).sin.(5>'2^+5s'2£)+i.('^').cos.(.5f2^+5s'_23)^. [3908d]
t (2461) If we put the values of §, ^', under the forms ^=nt}N, ^'^n't{JV', [.3909o]
we shall find, by comparison with [1304, 1305], and using the symbols [3890a, b],
^= (IÉS^^^^°^^^^'^'"ï^5l ; [39095]
,,, 6m'. a n^ m^a ,„ „
^ = W^;ji:2^^^a' ■ ^^ ^^^' ^■'" î'^l [39095']
Substituting the values [3909«] in the first member of the following expression, we get
5 ^'— 2 ^ + 5 £'— 2 E = 5 «7— 2 M < + 5 e'— 2 £ + (5 JV'— 2 JV) ^T^ + (5iV'— 2iV), [3909c]
and by neglecting the square and higher powers of 5N'—2JV, using also [60,61] Int.,
we obtain
sin. (5 ^— 2 ^ + 5 E— 2 = sin. T, + (5 N'— 2 N) . cos. T, ;
cos. (5 ^'— 2 I + 5 £'— 2 = COS. T, — {bN'— 2 N) . sin. T^. ^^^^^'^^
Substituting these in the value of de [3908c], or, as it may be called, dàe, we get
dhe= m!.andt.\(;^£).cos.T, + (^£).^n.T,\ [3909e]
+ rr^.andt.{b N' 2 iV) . ^ (^^^) . cos. T, + (—") . sin. tJ .
96 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
may introduce in these expressions some variations similar to those produced
The part of this expression, depending on the factor 5 JV' — 2 JV, is of the order itJ^ ;
and as the other terms are of the order m', we must notice, in them, the variations
of { — 1, (— — ), arising from the variations of Se, (5 ra, &tc. The additional
[3909/]
terms of the vahies of f— — j, {— — j, from this source, may be found by changing
P, P' into [  — ) , ( T— ) , respectively, in [3393c, rf] ; and as the former quantity
is multiplied by — m'.and t .cosT^, in [3909e], and the latter by m'. andt .sin.T^,
the complete expression of doe will be
d5e^= rn'.andt .< — (~T~) • cos. Ts + ( ;— j . sin. Tg ^
+ m'. andt.{5 JY'— 2JV)A (^^ . cos. T5 + (^) ■ sin. tJ
( + ('^).Se + (^).S.+ (:^).Se'
\'\de^ J \dedTSj ' \dedc'J
[3909;»] — m'.andt. cos. Ts . <
\.^\ded^'J ^\dedy) '^\dednj
\~\de^J ^\deda) '\dede'J f
) m'. audi . sin. Î5 . <^ > •
\'\ded!a'J ^\dedyj '^~\deduj )
Now if we take the partial differentials of [3894—3894"], relatively to e, we get
/ddP\ (dP'\, f''''P!\ (i±^'\ — _('!JL\_, fill']
\d7d^) = \d7)'^''\ dei J' \ded^)— \de J Kdc^)
^^^^■3 {d^)='\d^)' \:d7d^j='\iûd7)'
\d7dn)~~'^''\dedy)'' \dedn ) '''\dedy)'
Substituting these in [3909/t], and retaining only the terms of the order m!^ ; or in other
words, neglecting those terms of the first line of [3909A], which are independent
VI. ii. § 13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 97
by the two great inequalities. If we apply this method to the elements of
of the factor 5 A'' — 2 JV and the second differentials ddP, ddP', we get
dÔ6= m'. a ndt. (5 JV'— 2 A") .  (^\ . cos. T, + Cj^) ■ sin T, I
ddP\ /dP'\ , fddP'\ fddP\,,
, /ddP'\ ,, ,, /ddP\ , , /ddP'\
(ddp\ fddP\ ^ ,
— ?«'. a lid t. COS. T^.
. de^ J \ de
\m' . and t .sin. T^
ddP'\ , / dP
oe —
[.3909fr]
/ddP\ ,,,,/'ddP'\ , /ddP\ ,^
[d7d7)'^^+[dId^)^^^[d7di)^^^
We must substitute in this the vahies [3895 — 3896', 3906/], and tlien by integration, we
shall obtain 6 e [3910], as will appear by the following calculations, using the abridged symbols
to denote the factors of the three difterent groups of terms which occur in [3910]. If ^ve
compare these expressions with those in [3907a], we shall obtain the following values of
m'.an, which will be used hereafter ; these equations are easily proved to be identical, by the
substitution of [3907a, 3909/] and reducing. m'.an=:MiK:,=zJ\'LJV2—M^.{J^^ + J^:,). [3909ml
First. We have, by means of [3909&, U],
m'.andt .{i)N'—2JV)=:^— —:—— . ^ — ~ ^, , ' .{P. cos. Tr,— P'. sm.T^l.d t
[3909rt]
= — 2 A*! .f P. cos. T^ — P'. sin. Ti\.dt.
Multiplying this by (v— ) • cos. Tj f f— — j .sin.Tj, we obtain the value of the first line
of [3909Â], as in the first member of the following expression, which, by means of
[1, 6, 31] Int., is reduced to the form [3909o] ;
<iN,.dt.\P.cos.T,P. sin.Ts^.J (^) .cos.Ts + ^^Vsin.Ts^
> • [3909ol
Its integral gives the terms of i5e [3910], depending on the factor (5mv/a + 3m'v/«')
VOL. III. 25
98 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[3909] the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, and put àe, «î ts, for the variations arising
Second. The term of [3909A"], connected with the factor ( — ~j . dt, is as in the
first member of [3909p] ; wliich, by the successive substitutions of [3909»!, 3907e],
becomes as in [39095], whose integral gives the corresponding term in the fourth hne
of S e [3910] ;
[3909p] m'.an . I— Se .cos.T^—eûzi .sm.Ts] = MijX^. { — Ô e .COS. T^— e Ù 7Ô . sm.T^l
[3909g] =JV,J—Mi.Se.cos.7\—J\I^.e5z:.s\n.T,l=Mj'^\.
ITiird. The term of [3909A:], connected with [jtt )dt, is as in [3909r], and
by reduction, using [3909m, 3907e], it becomes as in [3909s] ; whose integral gives the
corresponding term of the fourth line of [3910] ;
[3909r] ni'.an.{Se.sin.T^ — eSa.cos.T5l=^M^J\'^.\5e .s'm. T^ — e^^.cos.Tgl
[3909«] =zJV2.{Mi.ôe.sm.T5—M^.eôzs.cos.Ts\ = —M.{^\
Fourth. We may proceed in the same manner with tlie terms of [3909Ar] . connected
with the factors ( . , , ] .dt, {  — — r r"; which will be found to be represented,
\dede / \dede / ^
3909«1 respectively, by the first members of [3909/j, r], accenting the symbols e, 8e, S!^.
If we also put 7n'. anz^MjJV^ [3909m], and reduce the formulas as in [3909c, «] by
[3909m] using the expressions [3907/], they will become, respectively, JV^.i — ], ~"^3(^j
Multiplying these by the factors [3909;:], and integrating relatively to t, they become as in
the last line of the expression [3910].
/ddP\ ,
Fifth. In like manner, the terms of [3909t], connected with the factors , , ).dt,
[m9v] , \dedyj
( —].dt, will be represented by the first members of [3909p, j], changing e, êe, ôzs,
XdedyJ
into 7, (5 7, 5n, respectively. Then substituting in', an = M^. {Nç,{ JV^) [3909m],
and reducing the formulas, as in [3909(7, *]> using [3907^], they become respectively,
[.3909«>] (A'a + Ns) . (^) , — (JVo + A',) . (''^^ . Multiplying these by the factors [3909y],
and integrating relatively to t, we get the corresponding terms of oe [3910] ; the terms
depending on JVo being in the fourth line, and those on JV^ in the last line of [3910].
Sixth. The two remaining terms of [3909A:] are as in the first member of [3909x] ;
which is reduced to the form in the second member, by the substitution of m'. an^ M^ JV^
[3909m], and M^.Su [39076]. Reducing the products by means of [31, 32] Int.,
VI.ii.§13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 99
from the square of the disturbing force, we shall find
[ \de) \de
{5n'—2nf mV«' \ 2.(5ji'— 2n
^ \ de J '\de
Inequality
of the ex
centricitv
dP'\ ^ /dP\y \ ofJupitei.
2.(5)i'— 2îi)
. C0S.2 . (5 n't—2nt\5;'—'2s)
rfF \ f<idP\ JdP\ { ddP' \ . /dP'\ fi^\f'[f\ f ddP' \y •
I^Jyde" ) \de)\dei J'^Kdy j\dedyj \dYj\ded y )ç^
[3910]
WiP\~_fdP'Yl
m'g.aans ) , iMlZ_AfiZ_l.cos.2.(5n'«2n<.+5E'_2 5)
"5n'— 27i*\ '^ 4.(5n'— 2n).e
 lliZ_AlijL.sin.2.(5ji'f— 2n<+5e'— 2j)
2.(5n'— 2îi).e
,m'.aa'.nn'.t WdP'\ /ddP\/dP\ / ddP' \ /dP'\ / ddP \ /dP\ / ddP' \]
5n'—^n 'i\d^ )\dede' ) \de')'\dede')'~\ dj )\dedy) \dy)'\dedy)\
.*
5
[3909x]
it becomes as in [3909(/] ; then integrating relatively to t, it produces the terms depending
on COS. 2 T, sin. 2 T, in the fifth or sixth lines of [3910] ;
m'.andtA — \~T~) •5'" ^s — \~r~) '^°^' "^ A ' ^'^
 •^.^'.l©.s.n.n('^),cos.r,. J(^^).».n().sin.r.
* (2462) If we compare the expressions of de, dis [3908c, r/], we shall find, that
dvi may be derived from de, by subtracting 90"^ from the angle 5^'— 2 ^ + 5 e'— 2e, [3910a]
and connectbg the factor  with each of the quantities (7 )) (7—) 5 '^y th's means [39104]
the angle Ts is also changed mto T5 — 90'', in all the terms of [3909e, h, A;], in which
100 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
a e
[3911]
Inequality 3m'2.aan3 (5mv/a+2mVa') j i ' Vrfe / \d<"/> . „ ,£. „ o ^ic o<
perigee of (5n — 2ref.e jnVa' \ 2.(5n' 2 ni
Jupiter. 1 ^ '
+ i ^ 1 ^^ i^.co3.2. 5;i'<— 2n(+5;'2s)
2.(5re'— 2ji)
dP\ /ddP\ /'dP'\ /ddP'\ /dP\ f'l±^\,/<l£\ f'^'^^'M
d7)\de^ )'^\de )\de^ J^Uyj\dedj)'^\d^)\did:^)y^
M'^.a^n^ j+ ^V^^"^^^ > ..in.2(5„'/2n< + 5.c'2.)
^(5?i'— 2ra).e ' "j 2 . (5 ?i' — 2 n) . e
+ \£LLh£— L. COS. 2. [5 n't — in tj 5 s'— 2 s)
(5ra' — 2 re), e
I?! m
"(5
re'.gg'nn'.< 5/'ijP\ fddP\ /dP'\ / ddP' \ /dP\ /ddP\ /dP'\ /ddP'\
n'—2n).e'l\d7)\dede')'\de')\dede')'^\(r^)\dedy)'\dy)\dedyl
[3910c] T5 explicitly occms ; observing that no change must be made m the factor 5 JV' — 2N.
Hence it appears, that if we change in [.3909A] the angle T5 into T5 — 90"^, without
ahering 5 JV' — 2 JV, and then muhiply tlie resuUing expression by  , we shall obtain
[3910rf] all the terms of d Szi, except those arising from the variation of the factor  , connected
with the quantities (— — J, (—. — ) [39106]. These last quantities depend upon the
two following terms of dôzs, namely,
[3910e] ,«'. an dt.ll ("£). sin. T. ('i^') . cos. T, ] ,
corresponding to the two first terms of [.3909e] ; and as the variation of  is
13910/] _^_f^_l_.^(l^).sin.T,+ (^).cos.r,} [39076];
also m'.an=M^JVn [3909m], this part of dozs will be represented by
JVo , ( /dP\ . „ /dP"'
[3910g]
VI. ii. §13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 101
The parts of these expressions, proportional to the time t, give the secular
variations of the exceutricity and of the perihelion, depending on the
square of the disturbine; forces. To obtain the periodical terms of v depending [3912]
on this sqxiare, we shall consider the term 2e.sin. (n^ + s — in) [3748], [3012']
in the elliptical expression of the true longitude. If we put 6 e, (5 ra, for
the variations of e, ■^, depending upon the angle bn't — ^.nt^bi' — 2;,
Tills is to be connected with the terms mentioned In [3910(ZJ, to obtain the complete value
of do a; and then by integration, we shall get 5ui [.3911], as will appear by the following
investigation, taking the terms in the same order as in the preceding note [3909« — y].
[3910A]
[3910î]
In the first place, the terms depending on .5 A'"' — 2 JV, are multiplied by the factor
{— — j . cos. Tjjf —— j . sin.Tg, in the expression of d5e [3909A], which becomes
.(— — J.sln.Ts . ( — — j .C0S.T5, in dôa [3910f/]. Now it is evident, by inspection,
that this last expression may be derived from the first, by changing ( —  1 into  . ( — ) ,
/dP'\ . 1 /dP\ « \ e/ [39ioi]
and (7] iiito .( — j, without varying the angle T5, or the factor 5 JV'— SA";
therefore v. e may use the same process of derivation in obtaining the part of dozs, depending on
oN' — 2.¥, from the similar part of due [3909A:] ; or in other words, the part of us [3911],
connected with the factor bm,y'a\'im s/a', from the similar part of &e, [3910].
We shall now apply the principle of derivation mentioned in [3910f/], to the terms
[3909p — «■], and we shall find, that the factor of .{— — ].dt, in do,, deduced
e Kde'i J ' [3910mJ
from [3909^], is N^.\—M,.5e.ûn. Tsf itfj . e 5 « . cos. Ts  = A', . (^\ [3907e] ,
producing the term — • ("3~) • (7~r) • ''^ '" dàzi, whose integral is as in the first [3910ml
term of the fourth line of 5 a [3911]. The term [3909s], by similar reductions,
A% /dP'\ /ddP'\
gives — • ( 7^] • ( "TT" ) • ^ ' ^'^^ *^™^ [3909^] give [3910n]
A3 /rfPN (ddP_^ A3 (dJF\ (ddP'\ [3910,]
e \dt)\dtde')'' e \de' J ' [dede' J ' ^ '
the terms [3909ic] give
as in the fourth and seventh lines of 5 a [3911].
VOL. III. 26
102 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
and upon the first power of the disturbing force,* also 6' e, 6' w, for the
[3913] preceding variations of e, w, depending upon the double of this angle ; f
[3913'] moreover, if we denote by à s the sum of the two inequalities of m, the
Lastly, the terms of dSzi, deduced from those of doc, in the first member of [3909r],
by the principle of derivation [3910f7], are
[3910p] m'.ajirf<. — .(^— j.sin.T5+.(^— J.C0S.T5J .Sis;
which, by the substitution of 7n'.a7i = M^JV„ [3909m], and 5 a [3907i], becomes
[39105]
Adding these terms to those in [3910o], and putting cos.^ Tj — sin. T3 = cos. 2 Ts,
2 sin. Tj . COS. Tg = sin. 2 T^ , we get
and by integration, it produces the terms of i5 si, depending on sin. 2 T5 , cos. 2 Tj ,
in the fifth and sixth lines of [3911].
[3912a] * (2463) These values of 5 c, 5^, are given by the formulas [3907i].
t (2464) The formulas [3910—3912'] give, by using T5 [38906],
3m'2.a3n3 ( 5»n/atamVa') A L V f<e / \dej_i
3.(5n'— 2n)3" my a' '\ r^,/dP'\ ^/dP\
[3913a]
[39136]
3m'3. f)3»,3 ( ^m^a\^mVa') 1 L \de/ \dt/A
VLii.§13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 103
one depending on the angle 5n't — '2.nt{Bi — 2s, the other upon
the double of this angle,* the term 2e . sin. (nt^s — ^), will become [3913"]
(2 e + 2 5 e + 2 <5' e) . sin. (« ^ + = f d s — ^ — 5 =i — 5' ^) . [39i4i
If we neglect the cube of the disturbing force, the preceding expression may [3i)U'
be developed in the following form,t
2 e . sin. (nt\s~\ 6 s — ra)
+ 2 (5 e . sin. (n t 4 s — ra) — 2e6is . cos. (nt \s — ra)
^ [3915]
+ \2ô' e + 265^ .5s — e. Ç6v>)\. sin. (n t + s — w)
— [2ed'îJ + 2oe.da — 26s .ôe}. cos. (nt + s — zi).
The term 2 e . s'm. (nt \ s { 5; — i^) is that obtained by increasing the [3915]
* (2465) The great inequalities [1197, 1213, Sic.], are to be applied to the mean
motion of the planet [1070"]. If we notice only the chief terms of â s, having the divisor [3914a]
(5?i'— 2n)^ they will become, by putting i^^5 in [3817], and using Tj [3S90è] ;
^ ' = (sl'atp • ^ ^ ^"' ^=  ^' ''"• ^= ' • P^^^''^
We may remark, tliat the terms of v [3748], depending on e^, e^, &c., are here neglected [3914c]
by the author, on account of their smallness ; they are, however, noticed by him in the
fourth volume [9062, &c.].
I (2466) Putting a = nt + i[5s — TS, b^ô^^ôt^', in [22] Int., we get [3915a]
the second member of [3915&], which is successively reduced to the form [3915c],
by usmg [43, 44] Int., neglecting terms of the order m'^, and finally putting [3915a']
cos. o = cos. [nt\ S' — to) — us. sin. (w t } s — ra) in the term multiplied by 5 w ;
sin.(n<£5£— ^— 5i3— ô'î3) = sin.«.cos.((533{5'xn) — cos. a.sin.(r5x3i5'5j) [39156]
= {1 — i . (Sts)^] .sin.w — (6z!\S'zi) .cos. a
=sin.a — J.((Jûj)~.sin.(7i^f"^~^)~("''+'^'®) •cos.(w^£— ro)
\ ous. 5 1. sin. {7it\s — ra).
Multiplying this by 2e42i5er2i5'e, and neglecting terms of the order m' ^, it
becomes as in [3915] ; observing, that in the term multiplied by 2 i5 e, we may put
sin. a = sin. (n < }" ^ — w) + i5 s . cos. (lit \ i — w). [3915rf]
104 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[3915 "] mean motion n t, by & j, in the elliptical part, according to the directions
in [1070"]. The two terms
[3916] 2ie . sin. (nt \s — n) — 2 e (î ^ . cos. {nt\s — cr) ,
form the inequality depending on the angle Qnt — Sn't^Ss — 5e', given
by the formula [3718].* If we then substitute in the other terms, the
* (2467) If we put ?' = 5 in [3814,3825], where only the terms having the divisor
5 ft'— 2 m are retained [3818', 3824], we get
[391Go] '^==i/.cos.(5n'i— 3n« + 5£'— 3s + .^); (5j; = 2H.sin.(5n'i— 3«« + 5e'— 3e+^) ;
and we may observe, that this value of ^ v is easily obtained from that of r(ir, by means
[3916!>1 of the formula [3718]; retaining only its first term 5v=^ ^ , which contains the
small divisor 5 n' — 2;i [3814, &ic.]. If we substitute, in this last expression of (5 v, the
value of r (5 r [3876f/], neglecting the small terms depending on X, it becomes
[3916e] (St) = 2 ue. sin. (n C + s — w) — 2 e (5« . cos. [nt \sui).
Comparing these two values of 5d [3916a, c], we find, that the two terms in the second
fine of [3915], depend on the angle bn't — Qnt\bi' — 3e, or ^nt — bn't\'è3 — 5s',
as in [3916']. The same result may be obtained by the substitution of the values
of <3 e, c 5 w [39076] in [3916], and using the symbols Tg == 5 w'ï! — 2 « < + 5 s'— 2 e,
W=nt \s — Î3 ; since it becomes, by successive reductions, as in [3916^]; being
of the form mentioned in [3916'] ;
25e .sin.?^— 2e5«.cos.?f =— ^ 'KS) ' ''°'' ^^ "^ (Ï) ' "'"" ^' \ ' ™' ^
[3916e] '
= — ^ ■ (^) • Icos. Ts . cos. TV\ sin. T, . sin. W\
Ml \de/ '
[3916V]
I J . (^\ . sin. Ts'. COS. fV— cos.Ts . sin. ?F}
[3016/1 =. {) • COS. in  TV)+^. f^') . sin. (T.W)
=—■—. (] .cos. (5 7i' t — 3 n t 4 5 t'—3 s + zs)
[3016g] 2
+ — . f — ] .sin. (5n'< — 3?iif5s'— 3e + 5î).
VI. ii. «^^ 13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 105
values of he, ôt^ [39076], and for ô' e, b' ., their preceding values
[391 3f/, 6] ; the sum will give, by neglecting terms depending on the sine
and cosine of «ï + 5, because they are comprised in the equation [3917]
of the centre,"
(on— 2»)3' mVa' f \(/e/ \de/S
_ 3ms.«^r.3 [5mM±ivW^) ^j,,(dJ\_^_ f^V..sin. (5. ^10,/^ + 5.10.'^). [3918']
{5n'— 2n)3 m'y/»' C \de J \dejS ^
ir we put, in [3916], (^) = — 7»/jIJ.sin.(^ — ^), (^£^ = M,H.co5.{A — ^), [3916A]
and reduce the result by means of [21] Int., it becomes equal to
2 H. sin. (5 Ji7 — 3 n t + b^ — 3^+Jl). [3916il
This is of the same form as [382.5], which represents the most important term of this form
and order, having the small divisor 5?i'— 2 k [3824]. The factor ZJ' is of the second .gg^g,!
fdP\ fdP'\
dimension in c, e' [3314i], being of the same order as the quantities (77)' ITT")'
For the values of P, P [12S7], which correspond to the angle T5, are of the third
dimension in e, e', &,c. [957'"', &c.], and their differential coefficients, which occur [3916t]
in [391fiir], are of a lower order by one degree.
* (2468) The first and second lines of the expression [3915] are accounted for in
[3915", 3916] ; the remaining terms become, by using the abridged symbols W, T^ [3916rf],
\2à'e{2e5cz.6s~e.{S^f\.sm.Tr\\ — 2c.o'is — 2Se.ii^{2ôe.Se\.cosJV; [3917a]
in which we must substitute the values of Se, 5 a [39076], (V e, 5' ■a [3913a, b],
Si [39146]. In making these substitutions, the terms Szi.Ss, [Sa)^, Se. 5 a, Ss.Se,
will produce factors of the forms ^.cos.^Tj, ^'. sin.^Tg, »4". sin. Tj . cos. T, ,
or à^ + ^^.cos.2r5, i.(]'—hA'.cos.2T^, ^ ^ . sin. 2 T., [1,6,31] Int.
Substituting these in [3917«], we find that the parts ^ A, ^Jl', independent of 2 T^ ,
produce terms depending on sin. W, cos. W, of the form a . sin. W \h .sm. (V ;
which, by putting a=k .sir., p, h^Tc . cos. p, and reducing by [21] Int., becomes
fc . sin. (/f'j (3) = Ar. sin. (n ^ + ; — « + (3) This maybe connected with the equation [3917c']
of the centre [3915'], as is observed in [3917] ; therefore these terms may be neglected,
and we may substitute in [3917«] the following values,
C0S.3 Tj = 1 COS. 2 T5 ; sin.^ T,= — ic^.2T^; sin. T5 . cos. T, =  sin. 2 1\ . [3917d]
Substituting these in the square of Svs, multiplied by — e, deduced from [39076, a], we get
VOL. III. 27
[39176]
[3917c]
106
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
This inequality may be put under the form [3921] ; for if we represent by
[3919] 6v = K. sin. (5 7i' t — 3 ni + 5 s' — 3 e + B),
This term is destroyed by the corresponding terms of 2à' e, deduced from the third
hne of [3913a], so that the sum becomes
[3917/] oye_e.Mn)2==— ,
3 m''^. a^n^ (5 m \/a j 2 m V«')
:^©+^©]^'
15»'— 2n)3
m'^/af
+
:''■■©^•(^^)]
.2T,
Multiplying the value of e&zs [3901 b, a], by as [3914a], and reducing the product
by means of the expressions [3917(7], we get, by putting the factor 6, in this last
1 1 /• r. 2m'i/i'
expression, under the lorm 3 . , , , ,
mya
[39l7g]
2eSzs,(is:
3»i'2.a2n3 2mVa'
(5n' — 2n)3' my a'
[39177i] Adding this to [3917/], and putting, for brevity, ^£, = 
3m'3.aan3 (5mv/fl + 4 m'y/a')
(5n'2n)3'
711' y^a'
we get
[39l7i] 25'e + 2e5«.â£ — e.(^î3)2=
Again, multiplying together the two equations [39076], and dividing by ^M^^.e [3907a],
we get, by substitutmg the values [3917»^/],
[3917fe]
— 25c J« =
m'a.a3 7i2
de J \de
(5n'— 2n)2.e J r/dP\ /dP'
Adding this to the expression à' tz [3913?»], multiplied by — 2e, it is destroyed by the
terra depending on the third line of [3913i], and the sum becomes
3m'2.a2n3 (5mv/a + 2?nVa')
\o»l.{l\ (5„' — 2n)3 m'\/a
vJ+[m^)+q:
.cos.2Ts
[m^m
VI. ii. §13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 107
the inequality of m, depending on 3 7it — 5n't\3i — 5 s';* and as
in [3889],
the great inequality ^ = H. sin. (5 n'i — 2 « ï + 5 e' — 2 s + Â), [392oj
Multiplying —My.Se [3907i] by — jj^, also by <5 e [3914J], and then reducing
by means of [3907a, 3917(/], we get
+[f^)+'(^:
.cos.Srs
The sum of [3917/, m], using JI:/4 [3917A], is
5 — Seô'îs— 25e.5t3 + 2i56,5e}=<( >. [3917n]
Multiplying [3917i] by sin. W^, and [39177i] by cos. fF, then adding the products,
we find that the first member is equal to the expression [3917a] ; and the second
member, by the substitution of sin. 2 Ts . sin. W f cos. 2 T5 . cos. ?F = cos. (W—2T5),
cos. 2 T, . sin. TV— sin. 2 T5 . cos. fV= sin. ( W— 2 T5 ), becomes [39iro]
and by resubstituting the values of M^ , T5 , ?F [3917A, 3916J], it becomes as
in [3918,3918'].
* (2469) The expression [3919] is of the same form as that assumed in [3826], or
that computed in [3916^], assuming 1 = 5; moreover [3920] is the same as [3889]. [3920o]
Hence if we put, for brevity, T5 = 5 ?i' < — 2 71 < + 5 e' — 2 s, fV^ = nt \ s, and [3920o']
then make the two expressions [3919,3916^] equal to each other; also [3920, 39096, a],
«sing M [3907a] ; we shall obtain the two following equations ;
K.ûn.{nW,+B)=^^^^^.\(^i^ycos.{T,W,+^)+(^^ysm^^^^ [392061
H.sin.CTsf 1) = (5 Jlyjja •{Pc0s.r5F.sb.T5}. [3930c]
108 PEUTUllEATiOiVS OF THE PLANETS, [Môc. Cél.
the preceding inequality will be, by ^69, of the second book,*
[3921] ^^_ (5>V«+4>»V«') ^ff^,3i^^.(5,,,_10^,,^5,_10,_^_^j,
m\/a ^ '
In like manner, we shall find, by noticing only the secular variations,!
* (2470) Multiplying together the equations [39206, c], and reducing the products
by [17 — 20] Int., we find that the first member becomes equal to
[3931a] I ÛK . COS. {W^J^Â — B) — lTl K. COS. ( fF» — 2 T.— B — A) ;
and the product, in the second member, depends on similar angles JV», W^ — 2T5.
Now as these expressions must be equal to each other, whatever be the value of t, we
may put the terms depending on the angle /Fg — 2 T5 in both members, separately equal
to each other, and v/e shall get
_ _ 6m'2.(i2n3 ) L \de. J ' \de/_\
[.•39216] — è HK. cos. { W..—'iTi,—BA) = — ,r„>_g„a . <
^D7l — ^raj' \  //p/v /,!P\\
This equation being identical, we may change W., — 2T5, into !V„ — 2 T5 { OO"* ;
by which means, the expressions cos. (TF. — 2 75 — B — 7]), sm. {IV.2 — 2 T5 — ûj),
[3921c] COS. (H'., — 2T5— ®), become, respectively, —ejn. (FF3 — 2 '/'s — iî— J),
cos. ( JV^ — 2 Ts — tn), — sin. ( TFg — 2 Tj — ) 5 substituting these in [3921^], and
multiplymg the result by '^,—^ , t'le first member of the product becomes as
in the second member of [3921] ; and the second member of this product includes the terms
[392W] [391S, 3918'] ; observing, that fF.j — 2 1\=: but — 10 «' < + .5 ; — 10 s' [3920rt'] ;
therefore the inequality [3921] is equal to the sum of the two expressions [3918, 391S'].
t (2471) Using the abridged symbols P„, P^, T,,, Sic. [38466— f7] ; also
[3922a] Z = b?J — 22,\b^ — 2s. Z^=b2, — 2^' + 5£ — 2s'; we find, that the expression
of de [3908c] may be rendered symmetrical by the introduction of the two terms
depending on the angle Z^ , or T^ , in the value of R [3S46c] ; so that we may put
, <.fdP\ „ fdP'\ . _, /dP^\ _ fdP'n\ . „?
[3Î326] de = —m'.andt.j^[jjycos.Z—i^jysm.Z+^~ycos.Z, — l^^j^ysm.Z,^.
In computing S e from this expression, it is not necessary to notice the angle Zg , because
[S922C] it does not produce terms which are so essentially increased by the small divisor 5n' — 2n,
as has been already observed in [3846f/"]. From this expression of de. we may derive
VI.ii.§13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE,
depending on the square of the disturbing force,
ôe'=
3 irfi. a3 n3. t (ôm\/a\2m'\/a')
[5n — 2n).a'' m\/a
5)i'
a'g n'3 ■ t ^/(/P'N / ddP \ /dP\ fddj^
,i'—2n 'i\de' )\ilc"i J\d7)\d7^
dP
77
dP'
dy
+
mm'.aa'.nn'.t (.^dP'\ /ddP\ A/j
5n' — 2?^ l\de. Jydedc'J \d
dP
e
ddP'
dede'J xdy
ddP
de'dj
ddP_
de'dy
dP\ / ddP' \
J^,}\de'dy)
■dP\ /ddP'
dy J \dt'dy^
109
Secular
inenuality
of ilie ex
centricity
of Saturn.
[3922]
iliat of de, by changing the elements of tlie body m into those of ?«.', and tlie contrary ;
by which means P changes into Pq [3846(/, &c.], P' into P'o , Z into Zo, « into «',
e into c', &:c. ; hence we have
(/e':=: — m.a'n' (lt.\ [ rri cos. Z,
U'/e'/'
,sIn.Zo + (^).
cos
Z —
rfP'
77
.sin.Z^
Neglecting the terms of this expression depending on the angle Z,,, because they do
not produce by integration the small divisor bn' — 2k; then substituting the values
of sin. Z, cos.Z [.3909fZ, .3922rt], we get the following value of dc, or as it may be
written d&e', being similar to [3909e],
d <i c == m .a n d t .< — — — . cos. i s + — rr • sm. 1 r, >
I \de J ^ ' \de' J '' )
+ m . a' n' d t . {5 JV'— 2 A") . ^ (''^') . cos. T, +Çj^) ■ si" T, I .
The part of this expression depending on 5 JV' — 2 JV, is easil) deduced from that in the
tirst line of [3909fc], or from its development in [3909o] ; by multiplymg it by —, ,
and changing the partial differentials of P, P', relative to e, into those relative to e.
Hence we obtain the following expression of the part of d5e', depending on the
factor (5JV'— 2JV) [3922/],
'■r^)©+[''©+'(S)
., m. an ,
— J\ , . — .d t.
Now by successive reductions, using an = a [3709'], an'=a' we get
[3922d]
[3922e]
[39226']
[3922/]
[3922^]
[3922A]
m.a ' a
hence from [3909/], we obtain
m'.an
VOL. in.
3 m'~. «2 }i3 (.5 m \/a \ 2 j^V"') "^ • "
(on'— 2n)2
28
3mS. a3?i3 (.5nn/af2mVa')
{5îi' — 2nf.a'' m^a
[3922^1']
[3922i]
110 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cùl.
of the
perigeo of
Saturn.
[3922/]
[3922?»]
[3923c]
{5n'—2nf.a'e'' m\/a 'X \de'J~ '\de'J^
dP\ /ddP\ /dP'\ fddP'\ fdP\ fddP\ fdP'\ /ddP'\)
nAa"inKt (,/dP\ /ddP\ , fdP'\ fddP'\ , fdP\ fddP\ ,
yr\dy )\U'dyJS
mm
■(5^
.aa'.7in. t WdP\ / ddP \ /dP'\ /ddP'^. /dP\ / dJP \ ^ /dP"\ / d d P' \) ^.
—2n).e''i\dej\dede')'\de )\dede')^\dy )'\dedj) ' \d^ )\d7I^) ^ '
Substituting this in [3S22A], and integrating, we find, that the terms multiphed by i,
become as in tlie first line of [3922] ; the otlier part depending on 2 T5 , produce
in (5 e' tlie terms
[39224] ~2.(3n'2n)W" '^Wa j r /.^p^x /,;p
. sin. 2 T,
. cos. 2 75
If we compare the terms of d rS e, whicli are independent of (5 .V — 2 7V) [SOODe],
with those of dSe [3922/*], we find, that the latter maybe derived from the former
by changing the elements m, a, n, e, w, &,c. into m', a', n', c', ■cr', &ic., respectively,
without altering P, P', T5 ; and as the divisor 5// — 2« is introduced merely by
the integration of terms depending on the sine or cosine of the angle T^ and its multiples,
this divisor xvill also be unchanged. Now making these changes in the secular terms, in
the fourth and seventh lines of 5 e [3910], we obtain the similar terms in the second and
third lines of S e [3922] ; moreover the periodical terms, depending on 2 T5 , in the fifth
and sixth lines of oe [3910], produce the following terms of oc',
t3^22n] uE^;r^^, \ K77) [17) J^°^'^^^^ W) • (77) ^'"^^^^ 3 •
[3922o] The sum of ihn expressions [3922Àr, rî\ may be represented by o'e', to conform to the
notation in [3913], the characteristic &' being used to include the terms depending on
[3922p] the angle 2T5. These terms are used in [3924c].
* (2472) In the same manner as we have deduced the expressions [3922'^, e,/]
from [3903c], we may obtain the following expressions of d ,, d 3', d & t^' from [3903(Z] ;
[3923«1 ^.=.'.««^..51.(^).sm.Z+^.('^).cos.Z+J.(^).sin.Z,+ ^(^).cos.Z„>;
[3923.] d.'=m.a'n'dt^^,.(^ysn.Z,+l('^^^^^
d5zi'=. m.a'n'dt}—\. f^") . sin.7',— ,. f'^Vcos. T, \
( e \de / e \de' J )
+ m.aVrf^(5JV'2A').^i.(^).cos.T5 + ^,.(^).sin.T,.
VI. ii. § 13.] DEPEiXDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. ] ] I
We also find, that the motion of wi' in longitude, is affected with
the inc(na]itj*
3iiAa3n3 (3 mv/a2niVV)
(an'— 2n)3.a''
m^a
.cos.(4 nt—0 n't+i 5—!) e'— tj')
+
■ , /dP'\ „ /dP\l
[3924]
This last expression being developed, as in [392r2o, &,c.], and integrated, gives this part
of ^33'. It may also be derived from die' [39:2:2/], in the following manner. We
perceive, by inspection, that the part of [3923c], depending on the factor 5 JY' — 2 JV,
can be derived from the corresponding terms of doe [3922/"], by changing
same
/dP\ . 1 /dP'\ , /dP'\ . 1 /dP\ ,^ , ,
( — 1 into , . rr , and rr mto î\~r~, )■ Ii we make the
\de'/ e' Kde'J' \de'J e \de' J
changes in the first line of S e' [3922], which was derived from the factor 5 JV' — 2 JV,
[3922 j, &.C.], we get the first line of the expression of ù'bj' [3923] ; and the periodical
terms of e'tJ^', corresponding to [3922A:], become equal to the following function, which
is used in [3924n] ;
3m.a?n^ {5m^a{^m'^a)
rfc'
2.(5»i'— 2)1)3. a'
m\/a
[(f)(S)]
. cos. 2 Ts
1. 2 7;
[;3933f/]
[392:iÉ]
[3923/1
[3923g]
The part of (/ 0" to' [3923c], which is independent of 5 JV' — 2 N, may be derived
from the corresponding part of (ZtSts [3908f/, 3910a — e, or 3911 J, by the principle
of derivation mentioned in [3922/, &c.] ; that is, by changing m, a, n, e, to, &z;c.
into to', a', n', c', to', S:c., iesjjectively, ivithout (dtering P, P', T~,, or the divisor
on' — 2?i. In this way, we find that the fourth and seventh lines of [3911] give the
second and third lines of [3923] ; and the periodical terms, corresponding to the fifth and
sixth lines of [3911], produce in c' d to' the following terms,
7n2.o'2n'2 Cr/£/P\2 fdP'V^^ . ^™ , ^ /dP\ /dP'\ ^)
The sum of the expressions [392.3/, h] depending on the angle 2 T5, represents the value
of c' 0' to', [3913] ; which is used in the next note. [3923i]
* (2473) The expression [3924] represents, for the planet m', the terms similar to
those in [3918, 3918'], which correspond to the planet tn, and are derived from the
function [3917a]. The similar function, relative to the planet to', using the symbols
T, = 5n't — 2nt\5^—2s, JV'=n't \ ^—^^ is
2 Ô' e' + 2 e' 6 to' . 5 / — e'. (f3 to')2 . sin. TV — \2 e 0' zi' { 2 5 e'. à to'— 2 .5 s'. S e'\ . cos. W.
[3924«]
[39246]
112
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
If we denote the inequality of m', depending on the angle 2nt — ■in't{2; — 4s',
[3925] 6 v' = K'. sin. (4 n'^ — 2 M i + 4 s' — 2 E + 5'),
[3924c]
By the inspection of [39076, c, a], we perceive, that o c, 5zi, become equal to <) ë , '3ra',
respectively, by changing the elements m, a, e, he. into m', a', ë, he, iviihout
altering P, P', T5, or the divisor 5n' — 2n ; upon the principles of derivation
used in [3923^]. By this method of derivation, we may obtain — ë.{5zi')^ from [3917c],
and we find, that it is equal to, and of an opposite sign to the part of 2 5' c' [3922n] ; so
that these terms destroy each other, in the value of 2 0' e' — c'. (0 ro')^ ; and then the
other part of 2'5'e' [3922/:;], spoken of in [3922o], produces the following expression ;
[3924rf]
e'.(<5ra')^
3m3.a3n3 (5m/a + 2HtVa' )
(5)i' — 2n)3. a'' m\/'a
+
dp
de'
.cos.2T^
Now if we represent, as in [3913'], by 5 s', the part of 5 v' [3846, &c.], depending on
the angles Tg, 2T^, and notice, as in [3914a, Sic], only the chief terms of 5s' depending
on Tj, we shall get the following value, which is similar to [39146],
[3924e]
6e'.
15 m . a'n'^
SP.cos.T, + P'.sin.T,}.
■(5n'— 2îî)a
Multiplying this by 2 e' 5 to' [3907c, n], and substituting the values [3917c?], we get
/dP'^
[3924/]
[3924e']
[3924/1]
[3994i]
[3924*]
dP
t'
' à ûî . f) s := Ti — . <
+ [
(5?i'— 2îi)3
■^■■(^
dP
de'
2T,
.C0S.2T,
We have very nearly 5?i'=2w [38 18c/], and n^(P^n~c? [3709']; multiplying
these two ecjuations together, and the product by 3 m^, we get 15 m^. a'^ k'^= 6 vr. a^ n^ ;
substituting this in the first factor of the second member of [3924/], it becomes
15to2. a'2?i'3
3 m9. a3 n3 2 711 \/a
{5n'— 2/1)3 {5n'— 2îi)3.a' m /a '
and then the sum of [3924c/,/] becomes, by \vi'iting, for brevity,
M^
3 nfi. (t3 »3 {3mv/a + 2mVV)_
(5ji' — 2n)3.a'
my' a
i.2ï;
2 <5' e' + 2 e' <5 i;i'. <S£' — e'. ((5 îs' )2=
+^.[P'.©p.O].cos..r.
Vf. ii. § 13.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 113
and the great inequality of m' [3891] by*
^'= — H'. sin. (5 n't — 27it + 5s' — 2s + Â'), [3926]
Again, if we multiply together the two equations [SOOTc], and divide the product
by iJ\I\.e' [3907n], we shall get an expression of — 2ôe'.ôzi', similar to [3917À;],
»k', a, n, e, being changed into m, a', ii! , e', respectively, without altering the divisor
5n' — 2n. Adding this to the part of — '^t'h'ui, deduced from [3923A], we [3924?]
find that the sum becomes nothing ; and the term of e' i5 ' ra' [3923/] produces the
following expression,
^p.(^^^+P^(l^^1.eos.2T,
— 2e'ô'a'— 2(5e'.5w'= — — T;— — .' —^, ^^^< >. [3924m
M£)m^'
2
Multiplying —M.oe' [3907c] by —j^, and by (5 s' [3924e], and reducing, using
[3907a, 3917(/], we get
rp.(^)+P'.(^)1.cos.2r,
^^^•^'= ron'2nf ■<  ..^.. ..  >; [3924n]
Hm^m^
in which we must substitute the factor [3924/t] ; then the resulting expression being added
to [3924w], using M^ [3924*], the sum becomes
^'•■['■■('S)+^'(S):
. cos. 2 7\
2e'a"V + 25e'.ow' — 2(5s'.5e'}=<( \. [39240
'=■[■■©• (^:
.sin.STs
Multiplying the equation [3924^'] by sin. W, and [3924o] by cos. W, then adding [3924p]
the products, we find that the first member of the sum is equal to the flmction [39246] •
the second member, reduced by formulas similar to [3917o], is
which, by resubstituting the values [3924i, «], becomes as in [3924].
* (2474) If we interchange the elements of the bodies m, m', in [3826], and suppose
B to become B', and i = — 2, we shall obtain an inequality of the body m', of the
form [392.5]. Substituting % = bnt—2nt\bz 2e, ?F3=n7 + £', W'=nt\î—u/, t^^^*^
we find that the expressions [3925, 3926] become, respectively,
àv'=K'.5m.{Ts—W^{B'); ^'= — H'.sin. (T5 + J'). [3926t]
VOL. III. 29
114 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Ce}.
we shall find, that the inequality of m', depending on the angle
^nt — 9n'i + 4s — 9/, is represented by
[3927] 6v'=\ S^''''^''^^"^^'''\ h' K'.ûxi.ant — 9n't + ^B—9^'—B' — 7i').
m\/a ^
These may be reduced to forms similar to [39206, c], respectively, by observing, tliat
the term 2e'.sm.{n' t^s — zi), in the motion of m' , similar to that of m [3913''], may
be developed as in [3915], and will contain the terms 2 (5 c'. sin. W — 2 e' ^ w' . cos. W,
which may be reduced, as in [3916/"], to the form
n , and by the usual process, as in [3916A, i], it may be reduced to the form K'.^m.{T^—W'\B^).
Now if we put B^=B'—zi', and W=W3 — ^' [3926a], it becomes, as in [39266],
iT'. sin. (Tg — fFgj J5') ; so that by substituting the value of Al^ [3907a], we shall
have identically, in like manner as in [39206],
[3926e] K\àn.{T,W,+B') = ^^l;^^^^^.^(^^^
Putting the two expressions of the chief terms of the great inequality [3924e, 39266]
equal to each other, we get, by changing the signs,
[3926/] E'. sin. {T, + .5') = '^^:^,\P cos. T, P'. sin. T,^
The identical equations [3926e,/] are similar to [39206, c], and may be derived from them
[.3926g] by changing m!, a, n, e, to, J3, B, K, H, fV^, into m, a', n, e, a', A', B', K', H', W^,
respectively; also multiplying the second member of [3920c] by if, without altering the
angle T^ , or the divisor ( 5 n' — 2 n ). Making the same changes in the product of these
two equations, and in [39216], we get from this last the following equation ;
15m9.o'3n3 3 L \de J \de
[3926.] àH'jr'.cos.(^322'.5'..';=^^;^;^^.^_ ^
sin.(^3— 275— ra') ,
This equation being identical, we may change fV^ — 2T5, into IV^ — 2 T5 \ 90'' ;
then multiplyine; by 7p~, , we find, that the second member of the product
^ •' ° ^ 2 ni v/o ^
becomes equal to the expression [3924] ; and the first member becomes equal to [3927] ;
[.3926t] observing that W^2T^ = 'int9n' t'j4e9s' and 15^^. a'^M'^^Gm^ a^n^ [3924§] ;
therefore the expression [3927] is equivalent to [3924].
VI. ii. § 14.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 115
14. The nodes and inclinations of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn are
subjected to variations analogous to the preceding. To determine them, toe
shall observe, that c, ç', being the inclinations of the orbits to a fixed plane,
and ^ 6' the longitude of their ascending nodes, we shall have, as in [1338], [3928]
bj reason of the smallness of <p, 9',*
7 . sin. n = (?'. sin. è' — ç . sin. è ; [3029]
'/ , COS. n = (p. cos. 6' — ip . cos. é. [3929']
Moreover, from [3906], we havef
m'\/d
in'\/a
i . (?'. sin. 0') = — 5:^ .5.(9. sin. ; ^3930]
à . ((?'. COS. ù') = — '^^^^ .5.((p. COS. Ô). [3930']
The subject of the small inequalities, treated of in this article, is resumed by the author [3926A]
in the fourth volume [9062, Sic] ; where he notices terms of the order m'^. e^, &c.,
which are omitted in [.3914c]. His object in using the indirect methods, adopted in this [392(5q
article, is to avoid the great labor of a direct calculation ; assuming as a principle, that these
very small inequalities may be determined in this manner to a sufficient degree of exactness,
for all the purposes of practical astronomy ; as will appear from the minute examination f3926»i]
of the terms of this kind in [9041 — 9114].
*i
(2475) Comparing the notation in [1337', 3902], we get â/ = n; tang.i)/=:tang.7=y [3929a]
nearly; hence the equations [1.338] become p' — p=y.sm.n, q — q = y .cq?,.TI. [39296]
Now on account of the smallness of 9, we have very nearly ? = 9 . sin. â, q= o . cos.
[1334]; and in like manner, for the orbit of m', p' = 9' . sin. â', q' = ip' . cos. 6
Substituting these in [3929J], we get [3929, 3929'].
[3929c]
t (2476) The variation of the second member of [3929], arising from the action
of the body m' upon m, is represented by — (5 . ( 9 . sin. ê ) , because ç', é', do not [3030a]
vary by the action of m'. The variation of the first member of the same equation,
usbg the characteristics &,, <S„, as in [3399', 3904], is <5,,. (7 . sin. n) ; hence by
development, we have
— S.{((>. sin. = ^7 sin. n + 7 . J,, n . cos. n. [39306]
In like manner, the variation of the second member of [3929], relative to the action of the
body m, which does not affect 9, ê, is ô . {tp. sin. ^) ; and that of the first member is
116 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
From these four equations, we deduce the following,*
in! \/a' . ^ . • ^ X )
[3931] &,==^^^_ç^^^,.{6y.cos.(né)y.6n.sm.(uê)];
[3931'] cp5è :z= jn^ a c, _ gjj^_ ^^ — o) + y.^n . COS. (n — ê)\ ;
[3932']
[3930c]
0) h^ = — . "', , , , .Uy . sin. (n — â') + 7.6n.cos. (n — ô')L
m \/a \ m \/a ' ^ / ■ ' v ^ >
5^.(7sin. n); hence we get [.3930fZ]. Substituting successively in this the values
[3906, 39306], we finally obtain [3930/], as in [3930],
[3930rf] (5 . ( ip' . sin. â' ) z= 5, y . sin. n + 7 • <5, n . cos. n
[.3930e] = £;^.<5„7.sln.n + 7.<S,,n.cos.n^ [3906];
[3930/] =£^.5.(9.sin.â) [3930è].
[3930iir] In the same way, we may deduce [3930'] from [3929'].
[3931ff] * (2477) We shall put, for brevity, M= — ,'"^", , , , Jf, = — 7 ^'', , ;
then taking the variation of [3929], relative to the characteristic 5, we get, by the
substitution of [3930], the following equation,
5.(7. sin. n ) ^ <5 • ( <?'• sin. Ô') — (5 . ( p . sin. Ô )
[.39316]
= — ^^.5.(?.sin.é)— 5.(ç,.sin.â) = — ITT • 5 . (9 sin. â),
(«V» •'"7
or
[39316'] 5 . ( (p . sin. () ) = — M7 . 5 . ( y . sin. n ) .
[39316"] In like manner, from [3929', 3930'], we get 5 . ( <p . cos. ^ ) = — Jlf7 . . ( 7 . cos. n ) .
Developing these two equations, we obtain
[3931c] i5 (p . sin. Ô f (p (5 Ô . cos. & == — M~ . (^ 7 • sin. n + 7 . 5 n . cos. n ) ;
[3931d] ^ (p . cos. â — (p (5 â . sin. = — .M . (^ 7 . cos. 11 — 7 . 5 n . sin. n ) .
Multiplying [3931c, t/] by sin. Ô, cos. ^, respectively; adding the products, and
substituting sin. ^ f cos.^ â ^ 1 , sin. n . sm. â + cos. n . cos. â = cos. ( n — Ô ) ,
[3931e]
cos
. n.sin. é — sin. n .cos. ô = — sin. (n — é), we get [3931]. Again, multiplying
[3931c, rf] by cos. d, — sin..", respectively; adding the products, and making similar
substitutions, we get [3931'].
t (2478) We may compute the equations [3932, 3932'] from [3929—3930'], in like
[3932a] manner as in the last note ; or more simply by derivation, in the following manner.
VI. ii. >^ 14.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 117
Therefore the variations of ç, è, <?', o', depend on the variations of 7 and n.
We have, by ^12,*
( (—].cos.(57i't—2nt + ôs'—2B)
,.,,.. , (—).sm.(57i't—2nt + 5e'—20
(/ r m' \/a'
+ (^ycos.(ôn't—2nt + 5^'—2s)
If we change m, a, (p, ê, 7, into ?»', «', ç»', «', — 7, and the contrary respectively, in [39326]
the equations [.3929 — 3930'], they will remain unaltered, as will be evident by changing the
signs of the two first of these equations, and multiplying those which are derived from the
two last by the factor —'^ Making the changes [3932&] in [3931,3931'], which [39.32c]
are deduced from [3929—3930'], we get [3932, 3932'].
* (2479) Substituting the values <5„ 7, 3„ n [3900, 3901], in [3906e], and using,
for brevity, the symbols T5 [3890i], also an = a~^, a n' :i=^ a' ~ ^ ,
M, = "''■ ° "+"^ • "' "' = (!!LV^+J!^Vg:) ^ ^j M _,„,,„ „_(i!H^+_Z!^vV).„,.„„^ [3933«]
m'.an m' \/a' m ^/a
we get
The divisor 5n' — 2n is introduced in 5 s, &c. [1342,3899 — 3901], by the integration
relative to t, spoken of in [1341a. &c.], in finding p, q, s [1341, 1342] ; where the
angle T5 is considered as the only variable quantity ; the very small terms, of a different [.39.33c']
form or order, depending on the variations of the elements, which enter into the second
members of [1342, he, 39336, c], being neglected. If we again resume the differentials
of the expressions [.3933è, c], upon the same principles, we shall get
d
[.3933rf]
^^M3..'.an.^(4^).cos.T,Q.sin.T,^;
^) . sin. T, + (^) . cos. n^ . [393:3.]
[3933/]
rf.{6n) ,, m'.an ( /d P
— ; — = — Mg. .
dt 7
These equations are equivalent to [3933, 3933'], omitting the characteristic S, which
merely signifies, that the calculation is restricted to terms depending on the angle Ts [3893'].
VOL. III. 30
118 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
r3933"l Hence we deduce, by neglecting periodical quantities* ivhose effect is
insensible, and observing thatf
* (2479a) If we compare the expressions [3842, 4401] with the numerical vahies
[SPSSg'] of e'% e", y, or tang. 7 [4080, 4409], we shall easily perceive, that the terms of P [3842],
depending on 7, are not a thirtieth part so great as some of the tenns depending on e", e" ;
therefore the periodical inequalities depending on the variation of 7, will evidently be
much less than those arising from the variations of c'", e". Now from the computation
made in [4438, 4496], it appears, that these last inequalities are nearly 4' and 9' ; hence
it is evident, that we may neglect the periodical quantities spoken of in [3933"].
13933/t
[3933i]
[39346]
[3934c]
[3935a]
[39355]
t (2480) Dividing [3842] by a', and taking the partial differentials relatively to 7, we get
[3934a] ^' (^) = 2 M^'\ e' 7 . sin. ( 2 n + «') + 2 M^^\ e 7 . sin. ( 2 n + ^ ) ;
m'. ('^] = 2 M^». c'. sin. (2 n + ^j') + 2.¥'5). e . sin. (2 n + ^ï).
\0 7^ /
Multiplying the second of these equations by 7, it becomes equal to the first ; hence we
get, by dividing by m', 7./— j = ( — j. In like manner, from the values of
m'.ct'P' [3843], we obtain y .( ., j:^( — j; dividing the first of these
expressions by the second, we get an equation, which is easily reduced to the form [3934].
t (2481) To obtain the effect of the variations of P, P', ,?, ^', in dy [3933], we
may proceed in the same manner as we have done in notes 2461, 2462 [3909a, &ic.], in
finding the variations of de, d^. In the first place, we must substitute, as in [3908a],
^, 1^' for nt, n't, in [3933], and use the symbols [3933»]; hence we get
rf7 = _.;^f8.m'.anrf^^(^).cos.(.5^'2^^5s'2.)(î^).sin.(5^'2^+5.'2£)^.
Substituting in this the values [3909f?], we get the following expression, which is nearly
'" similar to [3909e], changing e into 7, &:c., and writing, as usual, dSy for Sy,
Ç /dP\ /dP'\ ')
d5yz= Ma ■ m'. andt . < — ( — ) . cos. 7^ + ( —r~ ) . sin. T5 f
C \dyj \dy J >
[3935c]
+ M^.m'.andt.{?>^'—2]V) Âi^^Vcos. r5+('~) .sin. 7^^ .
The variation of this expression, arising from i5 e, '5 w, (5 e', (5 13', 5y, 5 n, in the two
first terms, may be found as in [3909e — fc] ; or more simply by derivation, in the following
VI. il. § 11.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 119
3 »i'2. g g ?i3 (my/af wtVa') (5my'a+2mVa') ( /'<'^'\_p' {iJL\ \
'{ân'—^nf' mVa' ' ?nV«' ' ( Xdy) Kdj/S
<5r = 
+
+
5 n' — 2 )i m V"'
mm'.aa'.nn' [mi/a\m'\^a')
'Sn'— 2^"
f/rfP'N /ddP\ {dP\ /rfrfP'N)
+ mV a') ^ f''P'\ f 'ldP \_fdP\ (ddP'\ } _
^V^^ "^^ i Vrf«^/ 'Ue'rf"// \de')'\de'dy)\'
Inefiuiilily
ill tlin
inclinutioii
of the
orbits of
Jupiter mid
Siituni.
[3935]
manner. If we change, in d <) c [.3909e], e into y, zs into n, and the contrary ; also [3935;;]
m' into Msm', without aUering the values of P, P\ JY, JV', T5, e, z/, he;
we shall find, that this expression of d5 e becomes equal to that of do y [3935c] ; and
by making the same changes in the other expressions of d5e [3909A, /c], we shall get the
similar values of day. After making these changes in [3909/c], and putting, for brevity)
M^=^Mg.m'.an [39330], we may alter the arrangement of the quantities, so that the [39.356]
ternis depending on the same differential coefficient may be connected together, and
we shall get
dh= ^/9.rf^(5JV'2JV).[('^^).cos.r,+ (^).sin.T5j
+ JI/g.^/^f^Y(^e.cos.T5cfe.sin.T,)+J»f9.(/^(^^y(r5e.sin.7;efc.cos.r5)
+ ^ig.rft.['^).(5e^cos.^5cW.sin.^3)+^/o.r/^('^^V(^e'.sin.T5e'^^'.cos.^5)
de'd
dedy
\dedy
[3935/]
^M,.dt. (^^).(57.cos.2'5_76n.sin.r5)+M9.(/^(^).('5r.sin.T5y5n.cos.r5)
_JI/.../^5n.^(^i^).sin.T.+ ('^).cos.T4.
We may neglect tlie fourth and fifth lines of this expression,
values [3907O] in the fourth line, it becomes equal to — ,
For if we substitute the
multiplied by the terms in
[3935e]
the first member of [3934], and is therefore equal to nothing. IMoreover, by using the
value of ^ n [3907 fZ], we find that the lower line of the expression [3935/] becomes of a
similar form to tiiat in the second member of [3909a;] ; the partial difl^erentials of P, P'
being taken relative to y, instead of e. Hence we find, as in [3909y], that this line
of [3935/"] depends upon xhe periodical quantities sin. 2 T5 , cos. 2T5, which are
neglected in the present calculation [3933"] . The three remaining lines of the expression
[3935/] being reduced, and integrated relatively to t, produce respectively the three lines
of the expresson of ^7 [3935]. For if we compare the first line of [3909/t], multiplied
Mg=^ [3933«], with the first line of [3935/], we shall find that they become
[393.5A]
by
[3935i]
identical, by changing the partial difierentials relative to e into those relative to y ; hence
120
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél
Inequality
in the
place of
the node.
[393G]
<5n:
3m'2.a2ji3 [nn/a^m'y/a') [5m\/a\2m'^/a']
(5n' — 2n)2.y 7n'\/a' m'^a'
+
73 «2
{nn/a~\m'^a')
(5n'— 2n).y m'^a'
mm' aa' nn' {m\/a\in'y^a')
(5n' — 2n).y m'\/a'
\de J' \dedy ) ~^ \d7 ) ' \d7d
edy J
/ddP
\d e
dP'
7
ddP'
7
ddP
7
,/dP\ 'ddP\ , fdP'\ /ddP'\
/dP\ fddP\ fdP'\ (ddP
\dt' )' \de'dy) ' \d7) ' \de'd
' \de'dyj
' . (dP\ /ddP\ /dP'\ /ddP'\
[3935it]
[3935/]
[3935j?i]
[3936a]
[39366]
[3936c]
[3936rf]
[3936e]
we obtain the coefficient of t, in the term of 5 y, depending on the first line of [3935/"], by
multiplying the first line of [3910J, which is derived from the first of [3909A:], by M^ [3935i],
and changing the differential divisor de into dy, as in the first line of [3935]. Again,
substituting the values [3907e] in the second line of [3935/], and using
Mg m' 2. «2 jtS {m\/a\ my a')
[3933a, 3907o],
we get the second line of [3935].
Mg
m' \/a!
Lastly, substituting [3907/], and
mm. aa tin
[m\/a\m!\/a!^
m' \/a'
[3933a, 3907a],
Mç^ 5 n'— 2 II
in the third line of [3935/], we get the third line of [3935].
* (2482) We may compute (5n from [3933e], in the same manner as we have
found h y [3935] from [3933f/] in the last note ; or we may use the principle of derivation;
observing that the expressions of dy, ydïl [3933(Z, e] have a relation to each other,
which is similar to that of de, edm [3908c, (/]. Moreover the former values may
be derived from the latter, by changing e, «, &tc., into y, n, Sic, respectively, as
in [3935f/] ; therefore we may derive the expression of (5 n from that of 5 y, in the same
manner as we have derived «îw from 8 e, in note 2462 [3910cf, &ic.]. Proceeding now
as in that note, we shall find, by changing e into 7, &:c. in the terms [3910p, q], and
reducing as in [3910?], that these terms depend on the periodical quantities sin. STs,
cos. 2r5, which are neglected in [3933"] and in [3935/(]. In the terms depending on
the factor 5JV' — 2 JV, we find, by proceeding as in [39107i:], that we must change
\dy)
nito  .
7
— — ) ; and by making these
(dP'\ , fdP'\ . 1 /dP'
changes in the first line oî S y [3935], we get the corresponding terms of ^n in the first
line of [3936]. The remaining terms corresponding to those which are computed in
[3910m — 0], depend on the second differentials ddP, ddP', and maybe computed
from the second, third, and fourth lines of [3935/]; changing T5 into T5 — 90'', as
VI. ii. {s 15.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 121
15. If we wish to determine, for any time whatever, the elements of the
planetiuy orbits, we must integrate the differential equations [1089, 1132],
by the method explained in [1096, Sic.] ; but in our present ignorance
of the exact values of the masses of several of the planets, this calculation '■ " ''
would be of no practical use in astronomy ; and it becomes indis])ensable to
notice the secular variations, depending on the square of the disturbing
force, which we have just determined ; since they are very sensible in the
orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. These variations increase the values of
, , =— , f, — — , &c., relative to these two planets, by the
at at at at d t
. . ^ h'\Se"' I'^iTu'" l''\Se'" h".ôu" p^.&ca'" , q''\Sè'"' „
quantities* __+^; ~; ii___ + i__; &c., [3938]
in [3910a — d], and substituting the values [3907e — gl ; by this means we shall obtain
the corresponding terms, which are to be multiplied by — in d 5u ; or by —
in Su, namely,
A/P\ /ddP\ , /dP'\ /ddP'\) , Ma (,/'dP\ /ddP\ , /dP'\ (ddP
[393G/]
\ /ddP\ /dP^\ /ddP'\~) Ms_ WdP\ / ddP \
•Ml ■ l\de J' \dedy ) ^~ \d7 ) ' \dedy )\~^ M2 i\de')' \de'dy) ' \de' J ' \de'dy
Mg WdP\ /ddP\ /dP'\ /ddP'\
+ .¥3 ■ l\dy ) ■ yi^J + Wr / ' \ dy^ )
Substituting in this the values [3935/, m], also
17= 5 K ■ o + '~^> — S — C • Tr, [3933a, 3907oJ, [3936g]
we get, by a slight reduction, the second and third lines of [3936].
* (2483) The equations [1022], corresponding to Jupiter and Saturn, are
Ai" = e'\ sin. ra'" ; I" = é\ zo%. v>" ; A"=e\ sin. to" ; /"= e". cos. ■b". [3938o]
Taking the variations of these quantities, relatively to the characteristic i5, used as in [3938'],
and then substituting the values of sin. ra'", cos. ra'", &ic., deduced from [3938^], we get
<5 Ai'= 5 e'". sin. ra'" + e'". <5 w'\ cos. to'"= rîe'" . ^ + e'\ cS to". ^ ; [.39386]
J /*" = 5 e'". cos. TO — t" . 5 to'", sin. to'" = ô e'" . ^ — e'". h to'". — , &c. [3938c]
e'" e'"
The secular part of any one of the quantities (5e'", (Îto'", he, 5ra" [3910, 3911, 3922, 3923],
may be put under the form ht'^^At; A being a function of the elements of the orbits,
of the order m'^. Its differential, divided by at, gives —— =^A== — ; observing, [39,'3S(/]
that the variations of A may be neglected, because they are of the order m', and are
VOL. III. 31
122 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
considering only in 6 é" , 6 n'% the quantities proportional to the time t,
^'"' J determined in the preceding articles. We must substitute, in these last
quantities, the values of e", sin. ~", cos. ra'', &c., expressed in terms
of h", /'", &c.* The diiferential equations [1089] will then cease to
[.?939] be linear ; but it will be easj to integrate them by known methods of
approximation, when, after the lapse of many centuries, the exact values
of the planetary masses shall be known. In the present state of astronomy,
it is sufficiently accurate to have the secular variations of the elements of the
orbits, expressed in a series ascending according to the powers of the time,
carrying on the approximation no farther than to include the second poAver.
We have seen, in [1114", 1139'"], that the state of the planetary system
is stable, or in other words, that the excentricities of the orbits are small,
and their planes but little inclined to each other. We have deduced this
important result of the system of the world from the equation [1153],t
[3940]
[3940']
[3941] constant = (e + o"") . m \/a + (e'' + <?') . m' \/a + &c. ;
for the second member of this equation being small in the present state
of the system, it must always remain so ; consequently the excentricities
r394'>l ^^^ inclinations of the orbits Avill always be quite small. J We shall now
prove that the differential of the preceding equation [3941],
[3943] (cde + ^dv) .m^a\ (e' d e' + <f>' d v') . m' \/a' + &c. = ,
multiplied by He'", which is of the order m'^, producing terms of the order m'^. For a
similar reason, we may nesrlect the variations of ^ , — , Sic. in findine the differentials
of [39386, Sic.]. Hence the differential of the last expression in [3938e], divided by dt, is
,.^^t,o , ^^f^'" doe'" h'" , . rf(5wv Jiv ^jiv 7jiv iT^iv liy r„„„„, . .
[3938e] — ^ — — . — + e" — — . = —._ f e'' . , as m [3938], omitting the
dt dt e" ' di e'" t v ^ t e'" l J' t>
characteristic 6 in the first member. In a similar way, we may obtain the other values
~dT' 'dJ
[3938/] [3938] from [3938c, fee] ; also the variations of "^ , '^ , &c. from [1132,1032].
* (2484) The equations [3938a] give e'^' = ^{h'^^ + l'^^), e" =^^{Jc'' + l"""), as
[3939a] in [1108]; which are to be substituted in [3938]; and when the resulting quantities are
added, respectively, to the second members of [1089, 1132], they cease to be linear
in A"', l", he, as is observed in [3939].
t (2485) Neglecting terms of the order (p*, we may put tang.^<p=fp^ and then [1153]
r3940a] becomes as in [3941].
[.3941a] t (2486) This must be understood with the restrictions mentioned in note 762 [1 1 14a, &c.].
VI. ii. v^l5.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 123
[3943'1
[3943"]
obtains even when we notice the secular variations of the elements of the orbits
determined in the preceding articles [3910, 3922, 3935, &lc.]. Hence it
will follow, that these variations do not affect the stability of the planetary
system. To render this evident, it is only necessary to prove, that if we
represent the mass of Jupiter by m, that of Saturn by ??j', and put
ie, âe', Ô!?, à if, respectively, for the secular variations of e, é, <p, ip',
which were found by the preceding calculations, we shall have
(e 6 e + ? â ?) . m \/« + (e' 6 e' + 9' ô ?') . m' /a' = . [3944]
If we substitute, in the function (pa© . m^/a + 'P'^'P' w*'v/^<') the values
of «, 6ç, 9', 6ip', given in the preceding article, it becomes*
m m' y/a a
[3944']
yày ; [3945]
[394Gn
m s/ a j m' y/n'
which changes the equation [3944] into
, , , , / / , , mm'\/aa' .
eôe.mi/aJreôe.mi/a'\ ; — , , . , . y ôy = 0. [3946]
^ m \/a \ m \/a ■'
We shall now commence with the consideration of the first line of the
expression of ie [3910], which becomes, by the substitution of a^n^=\
[3709'] ,t
5 6= r^, ; ,7 , ; \ nt.]P. (]— P'. ()[. [3947]
* (2487) Multiplying [3931,3932] by <f.7n^a, (p'.mYa', respectively, and adding
the products, we get
/>** ■(
, , , ,//'' mmVaa' ^ ^r • 1 — P • cos. ( n — ^ + o'. cos. ( n — é')L
^/..<p^^ + q)^9= _^ .<^ V. [3944a]
m^a + nWa' ( ^ y S H . { ^ . sin. ( H — â) 9'. sin. (
né')\ )
Now multiplying [3929, 3929'] by sin. n, cos. 11, respectively, adding the products, and
putting sin.^n + cos.^n^l, sin. n.sin.â'f cos n.cos.â' = cos.( 11 — Ô'), 8ic. [24] Int., [39446]
we get [3944c]. In like manner, multiplying [3929] by — cos. n, and [3929'] by
sin. n, and reducing the sum of the products, it becomes as in [3944f?] ;
(?'. COS. ( n — è') — 9 . COS. ( n ^ é ) = y ; [3944c]
(?'. sin. {U — é') — cp. sin. ( n — â ) = . [3944(i]
Substituting these in [3944a], it becomes as in [3945] ; and by this means [3944]
changes into [3946].
t (2488) Substituting a^ n^ =  [3946'] in the first line of 5 e [3910], it becomes
as in [3947]. Again, substituting a^ n^ = n [3946'], in the first hne of oe' [3922], [394eo]
we get [3943] ; in like manner, the first line of [3935] becomes as in [3949].
124 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
In the second place, we shall consider the first line of the expression
of àé [3922],
[3948] , V _ .3m.(5,V«+2mV«') C /rf^N /dP\ )
Lastly, we shall notice the first line of the expression of 5 y [3935],
[3949] 3m'.(5mv/« + 2mV«') (>V« + mV»') ^^ ^ (^ /^^^ p' /l^\?
(5n'— 2h)2. «^/f/ ■ mV«' ' ( ' \'h J 'vhj\'
If we notice only these terms, we shall find*
, , , , / , / , mm'\/na'
e à e . m\/a + e à e . m u a \ — — — , , , , .y&y
* * m \/a ~\ m \/a'
[3950]
3mm'.(5m\/f> + 2m'\/a') \ ' L '\d7 J '^ ^ ' \de' ) ~^"'" \J^ )j
[3950] Now P, F', being homogeneous functions of e, e', y, of the third
dimension, we shall havef
therefore the equation [3950] will become
,,,,,,, mm'\/aa' ^
[3952] ede .m\/a + e àe.m i/a i ; — . , , , .y6y = 0.
* (2489) Substituting the terms of 5e, 6c, 6 y [3947,3948,3949], in the first member
of the expression [3946], it becomes as in the second member of [3950].
f (2490) The expressions of P, P' [3842, 3843], are evidently homogeneous in
e, e', y, and of the third dimension. Now the theorem in homogeneous functions
[3950a] [1001a], by putting n = 3, a = e, a'^e', a"=y, A"^=P, becomes as
in [3951]; and if we put ^''':= P', we get [3951']. Substituting these in [3950],
we get [3952].
VI. ii. §15.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 125
We shall, in tlie next place, consider the followhig terms in the fourth line
of 6e [3910],*
^ {5n''in).a'l\de )\de'i ) \de ) \ dt"~ )^\dy )'\dedj ) [d y ) '\d e dyJS ' ^^
and the terms in the third line of 6e' [3922],
,, mm'.t ^/rfP'\ /ddP\ fdP\ /ddP'\ fdP'\ / ddP \ /dP\/ddP'\i
"^ — [5n'—%n)Vaa''l\d c )\jid^j~\J7 J\J777)^\1^ jXdTd^r^JTy )'\^^ ^1
also the terms in the second line of & y [3935],
. m'2.< ( mt/a+)«Va') i/dP'\ /ddP\ (dP\ (ddl
['yii—'in).a' m'^a' C\de J ' \dedyj \de J '\ded
m'^.mt j \ de J
fdP\ C /ddP'^
ddP'\ , (ddP'\ tddP'\~i
dti )+^ Vrferfe'J+^" \dtdy)\
(bn!—2n).\/a'\ , /dP'\ C /ddP\ , , /ddP\ , /ddP\)
I ^[djji'idûyJ+'UVdVj+^id^n
fdP\ i /ddP'\ , , fddP'\ , /ddP'\}
w}r\iTj^)'^'Wd^)+^[ih^)s
[3955]
we shall have, by noticing these terms only, and observing that we have,
as in [3934],
/'dP'\ /ddP\ /dP\ /ddP'\
/ , , , , / , , m m'\/a a'
eôe .m\/a + e 6e. m i/a j ; — ; , , , .y6y
'!^^ 5, (^\+c r^^^Uy i'^^\l\
de )'l \de^ )^^\dede')^''\dedy)S \
;t [3957]
* (2491) The part of (5 e in the fourth line of [3910], by tlie substitution of
«2n2^ [,3946'], becomes as in [.395.3]. Again, we have an = ^ , a'ti=— [.3946'],
a a', n «'= — —  ; substituting this in the tiiird h'ne à e' [3922], it becomes as in [3954].
Lastly, substituting a^ n^ =  [3746'], in the second line of f5 y [3935], it becomes [39526]
as in [3955].
t (2492) Adding the two terms [3956] to the two terms hettveen the braces, in tlie
last factor of the expression of '5 y [3955] ; it becomes of a symmetrical form with the [3957o]
values of 5e, a e' [3953,3954]. Substituting these values of & e, he', &y, in the first
member of [3957], and connecting togetlier the terms depending on the same factors of the [3957i]
first order, it becomes as in the second member of [3957].
VOL. III. 32
126 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[3957'] ( ) and ( ) are homogeneous in e, e', 7, and of the second
\d e J \de J
dimension ; hence we have*
<^
dP_
in
fcJdP\ . , fddP\ . fddP\
/ddP'\ , , /ddP'\ , /ddP'\ _ /dP'\
[3958"] Moreover (  — ■ ) , ( ^ ) are homogeneous in e, c', 7, of the second
\«7/ \'h /
dimension ; therefore we have
hence we find, by noticing these terms only,!
[3960] eôe.m^a + e'ô e'. m' k/o! + ^p''^y ,.76^ = 0.
^ ^ m \/a f m \/a
Lastly, we shall consider the following terms of f>e,X included in
[3958a]
[39586]
* (2493) It evidently appears from tlie values of P, P' [3842, 3843], that
/dP\ fdP'\ /dP\ /dP'\ , ...,,
( — j , ( — — j , ( 7~ ) ) ( ";; — ) îire homogeneous tunc.tions m e, e , 7, of the second
degree, corresponding to the formula [1001a,], supposing « = e, n'=e, a" = y, m=2.
If we put, in this formula, ^(''=^— j, we get [3958]; and ^"i=r_j gives
[3958']. In like manner, by putting successively, ^"i = ( — j, ^'■' = f—j [1001a],
we get [3959, 3959']. ^
t (2494) Substituting the values [3958, 3958'] in the first and second lines of the
[3960a] second member of [3957], we find that these terms mutually destroy each other. In like
[.30(106] manner, the terms in the third and fourth lines of [3957], are destroyed by the substitution
of [3959, 3959'] ; and the whole expression becomes as in [3960].
t (2495) Substituting aa'.nn'= [3952«], in the last lines of the values
[3061a] of Sc, 5 y [3910,3935], we get [3961,3963], respectively. Putting a'^n'~=,
[3952o], in the second line of & t [3922], we get [3962].
VI. il. § 15.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 127
the seventh line of [3910],
m m'. I
WdP'\ fddP
/dP\ ( 'i'^P' \_,(dP'\ fddP \ /dJl\fddP'\)
{r}n'—'în]Vaa''l\,le'J\dede'J \de' j\de de' )'T'\d y )\,ledy j\,ïi )\77d^) )'
and the terms of 6e', in the second line of [3922], namely,
g .^ »A< W'^P"\ fddP\ /dP\ / ddP' \ /dP^\ / ddP \ /dP\ /ddP'\)
also those terms of o;. , in the third line of [3935],
5y =
(my/a + mVn' ) W'^fl\ (ddP\ (dP\ I'ddP'
(.5?i' — 2n).^/aa' m'\/a' ' ' ' \\dt' J ' \de' dy
Hence we shall have, by noticing these terms only,*
dP \ /ddP'\ )
de' J\de'dyJ ) '
, , , , , , , , mm' Wa a'
e ie . m i/a 4 e ôe. m wa \ — — , . . 5 7 = .
Therefore the equations [3946, 3941] hold good, even ichen ive notice the terms
depending on the square of the disturbing force [3910, 3922, 3935].
* (2496) Substituting the values of à e, Sc', 5 y [.3961—3963], in tlie first member
of [3964], and reducing, as in the preceding notes, by means of formulas similar to
[3958 — 3959'], we shall find, that the terms mutually destroy each other. But without
taking the trouble of writing down these formulas at full length, we may abridge the
calculation, by the principle of derivation, in the following manner. If we multiply
the values of 6e, 5e', 5 y [3953, .3954, 3955], by the factor
m\/a
III' y/a'
and in the terms
whicli are connected with the two differential coefiîcients ( — — ) , ( — ] , change the
partial differentials of P, P', of tlie first order relative to de, into those relative
to de; and in the differentials of the «ccowfZ on/cr, d e^ into de de', de de' into de'^,
d e d y into d e' d y, the other differentials being unchanged ; we shall obtain the three
expressions [3961, 3962, 3963], respectively. The same changes in the partial differentials
may be made in [3958 3958']; as is evident by putting, in [1001«], a = e, a'=^t', a"^y;
and then .7'" ^ f — j , to obtain the equation corresponding to [39.58] ; also ./2®==(Tr j ,
to obtain the equation corresponding to [3958']. To render the expression [3963]
symmetrical, we may, as in [3957a], add the two terms [3956] to those between the
braces in [3963]. Hence it is evident, tliat if we substitute these values of oe, 5e', Sy
[3961, 3962, 3963, 3964/], in the first member of [3957], liie result will be equal to
the second member of [3957], multiplied by the factor [3964i], changing also the partial
f39(;il
[.3002]
Tlie sta
hility of
the orbit of
a planet 19
not (lis
lurbed by
[3904]
lerrns of
the order
of the
[30tJ4']
ptjuare of
the dis
turbing
forcen.
[39<34a]
[39046]
[.39G4c]
[39(>4(/]
[3964e]
[:39C4/]
[3964g:]
128 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Mtc. Cél.
The determination of the invariable plane, given in ^62, Book II, is
founded on the three equations,*
[3965] c =m \/a.{lt^) • COS. (p + m' ^f77(l^^'2) . cos. y' + &c. ;
[3965'] c' = m i/a ."(1— e^) • sin. (? . COS. â j ?/«' y/«'.(i — e'"^) . sin. <?'. cos. o' + &c. ;
[3963"] c"= 7rt \/aT{l^^) . sin. (? . sin. ô + m' \/«'.(l— e''^) . sin. a', sin. ;)' + &c. ;
« and a' being constant, having regard even to the terms [3906' — 3907],
[3965'"] depending on the square of the disturbing force. The first of these
equations gives, by neglecting the products of four dimensions in e, e', &c.,
W, ({>', &c.,t
[3966] constant = ( c" + if" ) . hj \/rt + ( e'  + o'  ) . m' \/a' + &c. ;
and we have just seen, in [3964'], that the terms depending on the square
[3966] of the disturbing force, do not affect the accuracy of this equation. The
[3964/i] differentials, as in [3964f]. Now the third and fourth lines of the terms between the
braces, in the second member of [3957], remain unchanged [3964(/] ; they must therefore
vanish, as in [39605], by the substitution of the expressions [3959, 3959'J. In hke
[3964il manner, the first and second lines vanish, as in [3960a], by the substitution of the two
equations found in [3964e], corresponding to [3958, 3958']. Hence the second member
wholly vanishes, and the result becomes as in [3964]. We may remark, that this
[3964/t] demonstration is restricted to terms having the small divisor (5n' — 2rt); but it is
extended to other terms in [5935, Sic.].
* (2497) Substituting ( 1 f tang..p)~' =cos. 9 ; ( 1 ) la'ig^ <?')~*=^ cos. p', &c.
[3965a.] j^ [1151], it becomes as in [3965]. Making the same substitutions in d , d' [1158,1159],
and putting also, as in [1156],
?; . cos.ffl = sin. 9 . sin. ^ ; (jr. cos. (p= sin. 9. cos. ^ ; y. cos. 9':^ sin. 9'. sin. d', &jc.,
we get [3965', 3965"] It may be remarked, that the quantities c', c", are in the original
work called c", c', respectively ; tliey are here altered so as to conform to the notation
in [1158, 1159].
t (2498) If we neglect terms of the order t"*, ©'', we shall have
[3966a] /a.(i_e2) = (l — ie2)./«, cos.(p=l — Iv^ [44] Int. ;
hence m \/a . (1— e^j . cos. o == m \/a — J . («^ ( 9) . ?« \/o ; substituting this and the
similar terms of a', c', 9', Sic, in [3965], it becomes
[39666] c = m /« f ?«'/«' + &.C. — I .\{t^\ (f) .m\/a\ (c'^ + 9'^) . m' \/a' f &:c..
Multiplying this by — 2, and transposing the constant terms — 2m\/a, — 2in'\/a' — &«;.
to the first member, we get [3966].
[39656]
[3965c]
VI ii. À 16.j DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 129
equation [3965"] gives, by neglecting the products of three dimensions
in c, e', &;c., (.?, ?', &.c.,*
6.(3. sin. (1) . m v/fl + 6 . (.;'. sin. c') . m\/a' + &c. = 0. [3967]
Now if we notice only the terms depending on the square of the disturbing [3967']
force [3931 — 3936], f this equation will hold good ; therefore the expression
f"= 7)1 ^/^(i^.2) . sin. V sin. <' + m' \/a'.{[^^^) . sin. ç. sin. l,' + &e. [3961:']
[3965"], ^vill not be affected by these terms. In like manner, we find, [3968]
that a similar result is obtained from the equation [3965'],
c'= m y/a7(l— 6^) . sin. o . cos. J + m'/a'.(l— e'^) . sin. ©'. cos. è' f &c. [3969]
Hence the invariable plane, determined in § 62, of the second book [3969']
[1162, 1162'], remains unchanged, even when toe notice these terms
depending on the square of the disturbing force.
16. The terms depending on the square of the disturbing force, have a
sensible influence on the two great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn ; t we [3969"]
* (2499) Neglecting terms of tlie order y^ ^'^ we may put siii.(p=(p; sin.o'=:(p', &c.
[4.3] Int. If we also neglect terms of tlie order e^?, e'^ç)', &c., the equation [3965"]
may be put under the form c"=: ( 9 . sin. 6) . m s/ a \ ( ç'. sin. a') . ni' \/a' \ &c. ; and [3967a]
if we take the variation relatively to the characteristic (3, it becomes as in [3967].
t (2500) The terms here referred to, are those mentioned in [3943'], and computed
for two planets in [3929— 3933']. The equations [3930, 3930'] may be put under the [3968a]
following forms,
0.(9. sin. é) .m s/ a f ^ • ( ç'. sin. ^ ) . m' i/(/'^ ;
[39686]
.((p .cos. é) .m\/a f 0" . (ç'. cos. H) .m'^a=^0.
In the same manner, other planets produce similar expressions, and the sum of all the
equations, corresponding to the first, forms the equation [3967] ; a similar equation may [3968c]
also be obtained from the sum of the equations of the second form.
% (2501) Substituting the expressions [37566, c, e], in SR [3764], it becomes as
in [3970J ; observing, that the coefficients of h^ + P, h'^+l'^ [3764], are equal to [3969a]
each other, as appears by multiplying [3752i] by — 4.
VOL. III. S3
130 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Ctl.
shall proceed to determine the most considerable of these terms. We have
seen, in [3764], that the expression of R or iR contains the function
<«= ^.(.H.).i2„.(^)+„..('':)(
,™, +.'.....os.(..).4.».+.„.(:^) + 2..('>„..(^)
[3970] ^f ^^'*^ increase the quantities e, fi', w, ra', r, in this expression, by their
variations, depending on the angle b n t — 2nt,* we shall obtain in R
some terms depending on the same angle ; and it would seem, on account
of the divisor on' — 2n, connected with these variations, that these
terms mioht become sensible. But we must observe, that this divisor
[3970"] disappears in d R, because the differential characteristic d, refers only
to the coordinates of m, or to the variations of e, ^ [916'] ; so that it
introduces the multiplicator on' — 2 n. Now we have seen, that the great
[3970'"] inequality of m depends chiefly on the term 3 affn dt . dR [1070"].
The inecjualities of the radius vector and the longitude, Avhich depend on
the variations of the exccntricities and perihelion, relative to the angle
[3971] 5 n't — 27it, have therefore very little influence on the two great inequalities
of Jupiter and Saturn.
We shall see hereafter [4392, &c., 4466, &c.], that the most sensible
inequalities of these two planets, depending on the simple exccntricities
* (2502) The variation of c, «', ■ro, 8ic., here referred to, are tliose represented
ro970a] '^y ^ ^' '^*'' ''^' ^''" [3907 J, c, c/] ; all of which have the divisor 5 «' — 2 îi [3907«] ;
but the divisor is destroyed in finding their differentials (/ e, d a, Stc, as is evident from
[3908c, &ic.]. Hence it follows, that the differential of the expression [3970] gives,
[39704] in d H R or d R, terms depending on ede, e e' d w, &c., wliich do not contain
this divisor ; and if we substitute them in the chief term of the great inequality [3970'"],
they will produce terms which are of the order ?h'^. or of the order m', in comparison
[3970c] with the chief terms computed in [3844, 4418, 4474] ; but as these terms of the order w'^,
[3970(i] have the same divisor (5 n — 2 ?i)^, a* the chief terra, it seems proper to examine
carefully into their exact values, instead of neglecting them, as the author has done. We
shall also see, in [4006^, &ic., 4431/"], that several terms, omitted by the author, similar
[39/ Oc] ■ . . 11 1
to those treated of in this article, are quite as important as those which he has retauied.
VI. il. § 16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 131
of the orbits, are relative to the angle nt — 2 n't. We shall put*
= F. COS. (7ii — 2n't + s — 2i' + A), [397^]
5,
a
5r
for the term of — , depending on this angle ; and
6v :=E.sm. (nt — 2n't\s — 2s'JrB), [3973]
lor the term of 6 v , depending on the same angle ; also for the
correspondmg terms oi 7 and & v ,
^ = F'. COS. (nt — 2tt't + s — 2s' + A'); [3974]
ôv' = E'.sm.(nt—2n't + s — 2s'^B'). [3^4']
If we suppose that R corresponds to Saturn, disturbed bij Jupiter, and [3974"]
then develop it relatively to the squares and products of the excentricities
and inclinations of the orbits, noticing only the angle Sn' t — n t, we shall [3074'"]
obtain, as in [3745, Stc], a function of this form,t
R = il/(»'. é~ . cos. {Qn't — nt + 3^' — i — 2 zI)
+ il/fi' . e e'. cos. (3n'i — M i + 3 i' — s — ^ — ^')
+ M^Ke'. cos. (3m'< — n ^ + 3;' — 5 — 2«)
+ M'^'.7=. cos. {Sn't — nt + Qi'—s — 2n).
* (2503) The terms of 5« [4392], depending on the angle nt — 2 n't, or rather
on 2»i''i — 71'^/, are of the order 136' or 56', and may be reduced to the form [3973]; [.3973a]
those of v' [4466] are of the order 182% 417% and may be reduced to the form [3974'] ;
they are the largest terms of the expressions [4392, 4666]. In like manner, tlie parts
of —, 4 [4393, 4467], may be reduced to the forms [3972, 3974]; the last of [.3973i]
" CI
which is the greatest term of [4467] .
t (2504) This value of R is similar to that assumed in [3745 — 3745'"], changing
reciprocally the elements of m' into those of m ; also M''> into M'°\ M^"^ into M^'' ; [3975a]
and afterwards putting i = — 1. This form of the angles in the value of R, is selected
because it produces, in connexion with the variations [3972—3974'], terms in dR, d' R, [39756]
of the order m^, depending on the same angle 5 n't — 2 n t, as the great inequality, as is
seen, in [3979, 3982, 3985, 3989, 3991]. We may remark incidentally, that in this article
[3975]
132
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
[3976] The quantity 3I^''\ e'". cos. [3 n't — ?i< + 3s' — s — 2y>') arises from the
development of the term of R, denoted by yi'''. cos. («' — v) ;* in which
we must increase ?• by S r, r' by i r', v by 6v, v' by i v'. This
is the same as to increase, in the development of this term, a by or.
a by 6 /■', and n t — nt by &v' — 5 1; ; by which means it produces the
following expression,!
iJ = _ 3/(»). e'=. {iv' — i v) . sin. (3 m' ^ — n i + 3 / — J — 2 ^')
[3976']
[39'
[3978]
+ a. (—,) . e'. ~ . COS. (3n't—7it + 3^:'—s — 2zi')
d a
a
+ a'. (^^^ .e'.~. COS. (3n/t — nt+3/—s — 2 ^').
\ da J a
[3975c]
[3975rf]
[3975e]
[3976a]
[3976t]
the values B, i?, , difler from those in other parts of the work ; since B, B, [3974", 4005']
take the place of jf?', B [1199'], respectively; m being the mass of Jupiter, »«' that
of Saturn. The object of the author, in making this change in the value of B, is to
obtain express formulas for the direct computation of the inequalities of Saturn, which are
much larger than those of Jupiter ; and then to deduce the corresponding smaller ones
of Jupiter, by means of the formula [1208] ; it being evident, that this method of
deduction, in the cases where it can be applied, must be more accurate in finding the small
inequalities of Jupiter from the large ones of Saturn, than in an inverse process.
* (2505) The part of B, independent of j'^, corresponding to the action of Jupiter
iipon Saturn, is found by changing, in [3742], ?»', r, r', v, v', into m, r . r, v', v,
respectively ; and if we suppose, that when a, a, nt \ s, ii t \ s', are changed
into r, r, v', v, respectively, the quantity .4''' [3743] becomes .^/'', we shall get,
from [3742, 3743], for this part of B, the following expression,
: . 5; . .^/''. cos. ?" . («' — i;).
[3976c] jR = — .cos. («' — v) — ■ ,, o — h — ; 7~~i rT~^^w''
'■ ,.a \ '' v/i' — 2rr.cos.[v — «) + ? jj
Substituting in this the values of r, r', v, v' [952, 953], we obtain an expression of B,
[.3976(/] of the same form as [957], and possessing the properties mentioned in [957 — 963] ;
moreover, the term multiplied by the factor e'^, being represented by
[3976c] M^''\e'^.cos. \i . {71' t — nt ^ s' — i) + 2n' t { 2s' — 2 z:'} [9.57—959'],
becomes of the form [3976], by putting i=l ; then the corresponding term of B [3976r]
is of the same form as in [3976'].
t (2506) The term Jf '"'. c'^. cos. (3 ?i'/— ?i < + 3 s'— £— 2 to') [3975], is produced
in the function B, by a development similar to that which is used in [957], that is, by
[3977a] the substitution of the cV/p^icoZ values of u^, v,, &c., without noticing the perturbations
[3972 — 3974']. If we wish also to notice these terms, we may suppose a, a', v, v', to be
VI.ii.^16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. \S3
This produces in R, the terms*
R^—i, il/"". E'. e'. COS. ( 5 »' / — 2 n ^ f 5 /— 2 .■ — 2 ^'— B')
+ h M"". E . e'. COS. (5n't — 2nf + 5s'—2i — 2^' — B)
[3979]
+ 1 a' . (^^]. F'. e\ COS. (5 I,.' t~2nt + o^'—2i^2^'—A')
\ a a J
+ 1 a . ('^'*^) . F. e'\ COS. (5 n' ï — 2 « « + 5 .'— 2 = — 2 ^' — ^ ).
increased, respectively, by Sr, (ir, 5v, 5 v' ; liy which means A'Kcos.i.{v' — r) [SQ^ya']
will be augmented by the three terms in the second member of the following expression, in
which we have retained the factor i=l, for the purpose of more easy derivation hereafter;
[39776]
/>.\A''\ cos. i.{v' — v)] = — A''\ i .{Sv'—5v). sin. i . ( v'~v)
and in the same manner as we have derived from .^''^ cos. i .{v' — v) the term
.¥<">. f'^ cos. \i . {n t — nt \' s — s) i^ 2 n' t \ 2 s'—2tz'] [3976e], [.3977f]
we may derive the three terms [.3978] from those in [39776]. Thus the first term of the
second member of [39776] is the variation of ^'\cos.i.{v' — v) or of J">.cos.(t)' — v), [3977rf]
supposing the angle i . {v — u) to increase by i.((5j)' — àv); in like manner, the
first line of [3978] is the variation of the term
iH'"'. e'2. COS. \i . {n't — nt + i' — e) f 2 u'< + 2 e'— 2 zi'], [3977e]
supposing the angle i .{n't — nt \ s — s ) , corresponding to i . {v' — v), to increase
by the same quantity 6 v' — 5 v . The second line of [3978] is deduced from the second [.3977e']
term in the second member of [39776], by supposing a to be increased by S r in ^'"
and .W". Lastly, the third line of [3978] is derived from the third term of the second [3977/]
member of [39776], by supposing a to be increased by 5 r , in ^"' and JW'"'.
* (2507) The expression [3979] is deduced from [3978] by the substitution of
[3972 — 3974], and reducing by [17 — 20] Int., retaining only the angles which are similar
to that of the great inequality, depending on
bn't — 2nt = {Zn't—nt) — {nt — '2n't) ; [39796]
or the difference between the angles contained in [3978] and those in [3972 — 3974'].
VOL. in. 34
134 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
^^ We shall pxit à' R for the differential of R, supposing the coordinates
of m' to be the only variable quantities. In the terms multiplied by E'
[3981] and F', the part 5 7i't — ni, of the angle 5 n'i — 2n/,* is relative to
these coordinates. In the terms multiplied by E and F, the part 3 n t^
of the same angle 5 n't — 2nt, is relative to the same coordinates;
therefore we shall have, by noticing only the preceding terms of R [3979],
rt'd'i?z= i.{5n' — n).di.a'M(°KE'.e'^.sm.{5n't — 2nt{às' — 2; — 2m' — B')
[3982]
[3983]
— i.(5?i' — ?0'/^.«'^(^^)F'.e'2.sin.(5n'<— 2»(« + 5.='— 2.— 2^'— ./î')
— ^.n'dt.a'J\I'°\E.e'^.sm.{5n't~2nt{5s' — 2e — 2zi' — B)
— ^ .n'tl ( .aa'. (■^~\ . F.e'^.sm.{5 n' t — 2nt + 5 ! —2s —2:^' — A).
The term ilf ". e e'. cos. (3 ?i'ï — n ï + 3 /— .= — ^ — ^') [3975],
results from the development of A'^\ cos. 2 . (v' — v), in the expression
* (2508) The difterential relative to d' [3980], does not affect nt in the angle
[.3989«] 3ii'f — nt, which occurs explicitly in [3975], so that d'.{3n't — nl) = 3 7i'cl t ; but
6 v'
[39836] this cliaracterlstic d' affects the w/io/e of the values of —, i5d' [3974,3974'], connected
with F', E', consequently the whole of the angle nt — 2 7i't, which occurs in these
values, must be considered as variable, and its differential is n (t i — 2n'dt. The
difference of these two expressions gives
[393'25']
[3982f] à'.{ron't — 2nl)=à'.[3n'l—n() — à'.{nt — 2n'i) = {5n'—n).dt;
which must be taken for the differential of tlie angle b n' t — 2nt [3979J], depending
on E', F', in the first and third lines of [3979] ; hence we obtain the first and second
(3982(/] lines of [3932]. In like manner, the differential relative to d' does not affect the
[398ae] expressions of —, Sv [3972, 3973], connected with the factors F, E ; or in other
words, the differential of the angle nt — 2n' t, connected with these factors, must vanish :
and we shall have A'.{nt — 2?i'<)=0; subtracting this from [3932a], we get, in
this case, for the differential of [3979i],
[398%] d'. (5 7!'< — 2h<) =d'. (3?i'<— M^— d'. (?i t — 2^^ t)=3 n' dt .
Substituting this in the differential of the second and fourtli lines of [39791, we get,
[3983/!] ^ L J' 6 '
respectively, the third and fourth lines of [3982].
[39841
[3985]
VI. ii. ^ 16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 135
of R* Therefore we must vary, in this term, a by ir, a' by ir', ^^
also 2 n't — 2nt by 26v' — 2iv; and by this means we obtain the
following terms of R,
R = —2 M^'\ e e'. (d v' — 6v). sin. (3n' t — ti t + 3e —s — z^ — zi')
+ a. ) . ee. — . cos. (3n r — nt + 3e' — s — ra — ra')
\ d a J a
+ a'. f^^!L_) .ee'.^.cos. (3 n'/ — n r + 3e' — s — ^ — ^').
\ an y a
Hence the part of a'd'R, relative to this expression, is
a'à'R= {5n'—n).dt.a'J\P^\E'.cc'.sm.{5n't—2ntlr5s—2s — 7Z—zi' — B')
— i.{57i' — n).dt.a'^.('^^^\F'.ee'.sm.{5n't — '2nt + bs22—z^zs'A')
— 37idt .a' M^'lE .ce'.sm.{5n' t — 2ntj5i' — 2i — ^—^' —B)
— in'dt.aa'.(^^^\F.ee'.sm.{57i't — 2nt + 5s' — 2s—z!—'u/—A).
The term M<^>. e". cos. (3 n' t — nt + 3^— ^ — 2^) [3975], arises [.3986]
from the development of J'^'. cos. (3 y' — 3i'), in the expression
* (2509) Proceeding witli the term depending on M^^K [3975], in the same manner
as we have done with that multiphed by AI"^\ in tlie tliree preceding notes, we find, that
it may be put under the form
M^'Kee.cos.\i. {n' t — n t ^ s — s) J^ ,1' t j n t j s" { e — ui' — tz], [3984a]
supposing i = 2 ; by whicli means it becomes as in the second Une of [3975], and tlie
corresponding term of [39~6c], is of the form
à?ft.^/*^. cos. t . {v'— v)~A'''''.cos.2 . {v'—v). [.39844]
The variations of this term, depending on or, fir', ou, f5 «', are as in [3977è], supposing
i = 2; and from these we may deduce the functions [3984, 3985], by a computation
similar to that used in finding [3978, 3982]. We may, however, obtain the former
by derivation in a more simple manner; for if we change M''^\ c'^, — 2 a', into rr^,.u.
M'", ee, — « — to', respectively, we shall find, that the first term of [3975] becomes
like the second ; and the doubling the values of '5 v', & v, in [.397761, on account of the
^ ' ' L J' [3984rfl
factor r = 2, make it necessary that we should double the values of E, E' [3973,3974'].
Making these changes in [3978, 3982], they become, respectively, as in [3984, 3985).
136 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
of R* Therefore we must vary, in this term, a by 6 r, a' by 6 r', and
13987] 3n't — 3nt by Sôv' — 3iv ; hence we get the following terms of B.
R = — 3 M''~\ e\ (ôv' — iv) . sïn. (3 n' t — n t + 3 s'—s — 2zs)
[3988] + a . f'^^\ . e".  . COS. (3n't — nt + 3s' — s — 2^)
\ d a J a
+ «'. y^^) • è\ ~ . COS. (3n'i — n ï + 3 =' — s — 2^).
Therefore the part of a' d'R, relative to this expression, is
a'à'R= §.{5n'—ii).cIt.aM^^''.E'.e^.sm.{5n't—2nt + 5s' — 2e—2vs — B')
— i.{5n'— n). dt.a"^.(^^^].F'. e^.sm. {5 n't — 2nt + 5 s'— 2 s — 2zi — A')
L3989] —^.n'dt.a'J\'r\E.e''.sm.{rj7i't — 2nt + 5s'—2e—2z^—B)
— %.n'dt.aa'.f^\F.e''.sm.(5n't — 2nt{5s'—2i—2z^—A).
[3989'] Lastly, the term M'=' . /. cos. (3n' t — 7it + 3 s' — s — 2n) [3976],
[3989"] arises from the term multiplied by /.cos. (3r' — v), in the expression of i2;t
* (2510) Proceeding as in the last note, we may put the term [.3975], depending
on M''^, under the form
^3988o] M<^\ e^. cos. \i . {n' < — n Ï + s'— s) + 2 n < + 2 e— 2 ^f ,
supposing i = 3 ; and then the corresponding term of [3976f] is of the form
pjjjggj, i to'. A}'K cos. i . {v — v) = A^^'. cos. 3 .{v'—v).
The variations of this term are as in [3977 J], supposing i = 3; from which we may
get [3988, 3989], in the same manner as [3978, 3982] were found. The same result
may be obtained more easily by derivation, as in the last note ; by changing, in [3975, &,c.],
[3988c] M^"', e'^, A''\ 2zi', into M''', e^, A'^\ 2 s, respectively; by which means the first
term of [3975], changes into the third; and tlie trebling of the values of ôv', ôv, in
[3988(n [3977i], on account of the factor /:=:3, makes it necessary to change E, E'
[3973,3974'] into 3E, 3 E', respectively. Making these changes in [3978,3982],
they become as in [3988, 3989], respectively.
f (2511) We must now compute the terms arising from the introduction of the increments
[3990a] i5 r, Si', &v, 5v', in the expressions of J, r', v, v , connected with the factor 7®, in
the value of R [3742] ; which were neglected in [3976«]. These terms of R may be
VI. il. § 16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 137
we must therefore vary a by 6r, a' by àr', S n't by Siv', and
n t bv à V ; hence we obtain the following terms,
R =. — M<''. y^.(3ôv'—&v). sin. (Sti't — nt\3/ — s — 2u)
+ a . ('^_:^\ . ", iZ'. COS. (3n't — n t + 3 /— e — 2 n)
\ da J a
+ «'. ( ^/V)./'. 4cos.('3n'« — n< + 3/ — E — 2n).
\ (I a J a ^
[3990]
deduced from those depending on y^, in [3742], by changing the elements as in [3976r(].
These four terms of R [3742] are ah'eady muUiphed by the factor y^, of the second
dimension, and as none of a higher order are noticed in [397.5], we may substitute in
these terms, r=a, r' = a' , v ^=nt { b — n, v'=n(\s' — IT; and retain only
angles of the form 3n'< — nt, assumed in [3975]. Now it is evident, that the two
first of these terms of R [3742], depending on the angles cos. (i;' — v), cos. {v' \ v),
produce the angles n't — nt, n't\nt, which are not included in the proposed form.
The third of these terms [3742] contains v' — v in its numerator and denominator,
and when the denominator is developed, as in [3744], the whole term will depend on
quantities of the form cos. ?*.(«' — v) or cos. i.(n'^ — nt), which are not comprised
in the form ^n!t — nt, now under consideration ; so that we need only retain the last
term of [3742], which, by making the changes indicated in [3976a], may be put under
Ttt 'V T T COS I y' ~l~ v ^
the form R = { . ' ' j. Now if in the formula [3744],
4 {,2 — 2 rr'. COS. (w'—î))+»'2 1 ^
we change a, a', nt\s, n't\s', B''\ into r, r, v, v', J5/", we shall get
[3990i]
[3!)90c]
[3990</]
[3990(/']
\r^— 2rr'. cos. {v'— v ) f r'~l ^ = ^S. 5». cos. i . ( v'—v).
Substituting this in R [3990e], and reducing by means of formula [3749], it becomes
iî = — :i m . f. r r. * 2 . B'p. cos. \i . (v'—v) f «' + jj j.
If we change î into i — 1, and put —  ?« . r r*. i?/'" = JW''', we get
R = f.S.M''^.cos. {i.{v'—v)'}2v];
which in the case of i^3, produces a term of the form R = M'^\'^^. cos. {3 v' — v).
Taking the variations of this term, as in [3977a', &c.], we get the following expression,
similar to [3977è],
&.{M'^\f.cQs.{Sv'v) \ = —.¥"1.^2. {3Sv'— S «) .sin. (3 v'—v)
[3990/]
[3990/']
[3990g]
[3f>90A]
[3990i]
Substituting in this the values [3990è], we obtain [3990].
VOL. III. 35
[3991]
138 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
Hence we obtain in a' d' R, the following terms,*
aà'R= ^.{5n~7i).dt.a'M'^\E'.f.sm.{5n't — 27^^5;'— 2! — ^n — B')
— i.{5n'—n).dt.a'~. [~j^) F'. f. sin. (5 n't — 2n t + 5 s'— 2 s — 2 n— ^')
— ^n'dt. a'M^^'lE. f. sin. (5 wV — 2 ?i ^ + 5 s' — 2 s — 2 n—B)
— ^n'di.aa'.l j^j ■ F.f. sm. {5n't — 2 nt {5i'— 2c — 2 n—^).
The most sensible inequalities, arising from the squares and products of the
[3991] excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, which neither have 5 n' — 2 nf
for a divisor, nor depend upon the variations of the elements relative io the
* (2512) Tlie expression [3991] is deduced from [3990], in the same manner as
[3982] is from [3978] ; or more easily by tlie principle of derivation. For if we cliange
[3991a] M'^°\ e'2, 5v', — 2 «', into Jl/"\ y^, Si'iv', — 2n, respectively, the function
[3978] will become as in [3990] ; consequently E' [3974'] must be changed, as in [3984f/],
[.39916] jj^^^^ g^,_ Making the same changes in [3982], which was deduced from [3978],
we get [3991].
t (2.513) The divisors in [3714, 3715], which may be small, in the theory of the
perturbations of Jupiter and Saturn, are i>i'\{3 — i)n, in' {{I — î).n, în'{[2 — i).n;
"•^ and since n'^fn nearly [38 18fZ], they become (3 — %i)n, (1 — f?).H, (2 — î).«.
If we put / = 5, the first divisor becomes 0, the others being large. If i = 4, the
• last divisor becomes — f ?i, and the others are larger. If / = 3, the last divisor
becomes ^ n, and the others are greater then this quantity ; and it is evident, that next
to i^5, this value of i gives the least value to the divisors [3992a] ; therefore the terms
of 70 r, ÔV [3714,3715], of the second order, relative to the quantities e, e', y, and
depending on the angle 3?*'/ — nt, maybe increased by this divisor, so as to become
greater than other terms of the same order, relative to e, e', y, which have not a small
divisor. This reasoning is confirmed a posteriori by the inspection of the numerical values
of 5r"', Sr", Hv", û v" [4397,4470,4394,4468], in which the terms depending on
the angle 3 n't — n t, are generally greater than any of those that are noticed in [3991'],
[.3992^] excepting 4n't—2nt. This last angle is here neglected, because the terms or, ôv,hc.,
depending upon it, do not produce in [3995], functions of the form [3998], depending
on the angle 5 n' t — 2 n t, which are the only ones under consideration at the present
moment. Now if we notice only the temis depending on the angle 3 7i't — 7it, in
[39926]
[3992c]
or
[3992c] [3714, 3715], we shall obtain for —, Sv, quantities of the forms [3992, 3993],
6r'
and in like manner, in —, Sv', terms of the forms [3994, 3994'].
VI. il. §16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 139
angle bn't — Int, are those corresponding to the angle 5 n't — nt.
We shall put
— = G . COS. (3 n'i — n < + 3 e'— Î + C) , [3999]
(5 r
for the part of , depending on this angle ; also
ÔV = H. sin. (3 n't — n t + 3 s' — s + D), [3993]
for the part of ô v, depending on the same angle ; in like manner,
^4 =^ G'. COS. (3 71' t — nt + 3 i' — z + C') , [3994]
a ^
Ô v = H'. sin. (3n't — ntir 3s'— s+D'), [3994']
5 r'
for the parts of 7, èv', depending on the same angle. The expression
of R, developed relative to the first power of the excentricities, contains
the two following terms,*
R= iV'O'.e.cos. (nt — 2n't + s — 2i'\zs)
[3995]
+ N^'Ke'. cos. (nt — 2n't + e—2s' + ^').
* (2514) In the same manner as we have deduced, from R [3976c], the three
terms [3916e, 3984», 3988a], of the second order in e, e', we may obtain two of the [3995a]
first order in e, e', of the following forms,
R= :^i^\e.cos.\i.{ntnt^e's){7itisz,\ ^^^^^^
+ JV('>.e'.cos. li.(«'<— ?i<4s'— 6) + ?i7 + e'ra'}.
If we put i = 2, in the first of these terms, it becomes of the same form as the first [3995c]
term of [3995] ; and by proceeding in like manner as in note 2506, we easily perceive [3995(/]
that this term arises from the development of A''^^.cos.i . {v' — v), supposing i = 2, [3995e]
as in [3995c]. Moreover the second term of R [3995è], becomes of the same form as
the second term of [3995], by putting i=l; and then the term Jl'^'\cos. i . {v'—v), [3995/]
upon which it depends, becomes .a'", cos. [v — v), as in [3998'].
We have already computed, in the case of i = 2, the effect of the substitution of the
variations 5r, or', ôv, Sv', in the development of .^^'.cos. 2. ( y' — v) [3984i], and [3995g]
we have found that this substitution, in [3984i(»], produces the function [3984]. A similar
method may be followed with the first line of R [39956] ; but it is more simple to derive ^ '
it from [3984a, 3984]. This is done by changing, in [3984a], the factor M^^Kee'
into JVC", e, and decreasing the angle, which is contained under the sign cos., by the [3995i]
[3996]
[3997]
140 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[3995'] The first of these terms arises from the development of J'^.cos. (2«' — 2v),
in the expression of R ; and in this development we must increase a hy 6r,
[3995"] a' by or', 2 n't — 2nt by 2ôv' — 26v; from which we obtain the
following expression,
R= 2 iV'"'. e . (6 v'— &v). sin. (^nt — 2n!t + s — 2i'\:z)
+ a. (~ — ) .e.— .COS. (îit — 2n't + s — 2s' i^)
\ a a y a ^ ^
/,7JV(0)\ xj
+ «'. 7^).e.— .cos. (71/ — 2n7 + £ — 2£'+^).
\ da J d ^ ^
Hence we get in iî, the following terms,*
/?= iV'^i/'.e.cos. (5n'/ — 2n/ + 5E'_2£ — ^ + Z)')
— m\H.e.(io%.{b'n:t — 2nt^bi—2i — ^ + D)
+ ia'.f^j.G'. e.cos. (5w'/ — 2 7i/ + 5f'— 2.^ — ^ + C")
+ i«. (— — j .G.e.cos. (5 7t'/ — 2ni + 5/— 2s — ra + C).
To obtain the corresponding part of d'7?, we must vary the angle
[3997'] 2jj/^ — jj^^ jj^ j^l^g terms multiplied by H' and G';t but in the terms
[39954] quantity ?i'i£' — ra' ; by which means it becomes as in the first line of [39956];
then putting ! = 2, it becomes as in the first term of [3995]. The same changes being
made in [3984], which was derived from [3984n], it becomes as in [3996] ; observing
that when the angle 3 n' i — nt\Z^ — i — « — ■s/ [3984] is decreased by the quantity
nV \ s' — ra' [3995fc], its sine becomes
[3995i] sin. (2 w' ^ — n < + 2 s' — s— ^ ) = — sin. (n <  2 «'< + s  2 £'+ ra) ,
as in the first line of [3996], and its cosine is as in the second and third lines of the
same expression.
* (2515) Substituting, in [3996], the values of hr, hv, 5/, <5 y' [39923994'],
[3997a] reducing the products by [17—20] Int., and retaining only the terms depending on the
angle 5 ii! t — 2?i<, it becomes as in [3997].
t (2516) The characteristic d' [3980] affects only the angle 2 m'!', in [3995], so
[3998o] that in these terms we shall have à'.^nt — 'i.n t) = — '2,n dt ; but d' aflects the
the whole values of ~7 , ^ f', consequently also the whole of the angle 3 n t — nt.
VI. il. §16.] DEPENDING ON THE SCJUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 141
multiplied by H and G, we must only vary 2 n't; hence we obtain [3997"]
a'd'B= — (ôn—n).clt.a'j\'^'>\H'.e.sm.{:in't~2nt^5s—2s — r.~\D')
_j.(5„'_„).rf^„'aY''^VG'.e.sin.(5«7 — 2H^ + 5a'2£— ra+C)
42n'tlt.a'JY^'>\H.e.sm.(5n'i — 2nt45.' — 2s — a^D)
[3998]
~^].G.e.sm.(5n't — 2nt{5e' — 2E—zi\C).
The term N^'K e'. cos. Çti t — 2 n' t + s — 2 s' + z,') , arises from the
r3998'l
development of the term of iî, represented by ^''. cos. («' — v)* [3d95f'\ ; '
which occurs in the terms [3994, .3994'], which are multiplied hy G', II'; so that in
these terms we shall have d'.[3n't — n l) =^3 n' c1 1 — ndt. Subtracting [3998a] [39986]
from this, we get
d'. {5n't—2nt) = d'.(3ji't—n <) — d'. {nt — 2n' t) = {5 n'—n) . d t, [3998e]
for the dlTerential of the angle 5 n' t — 2?!.^, which occurs in the terms of R [3997],
depending on G', 11' ; it being evident, that the angle 5 ft' t — 2 n t is produced in these
^ terms by combining the angles 3 n' t — nt, ni — 2 n't, as in [3998c]. Substituting [3998ci]
this in the differential of the first and third lines of [3997], taken relatively to d', we get
the first and second lines of [3998], containing the flictors G', H', as in [3997'].
or
Again, the characteristic d' [3930] does not affect —, îi v, so that in their values
[3992, .3993], which contain the factors G, H, we have d'.{3n't — nt) = 0;
subtracting from tliis the expression [.3998n], we get
[3998e]
d'. ( .5 7i't — 2ni) = d'.{3n't—nt) — d'. {nt — 2n't)=2 n' d i ; [3998e']
which is to be substituted in the differenlial of tlie second and fourth lines of [3997],
taken relatively to d', to obtain the third and fourth lines of [3998], containing tlie
factors G, H, as in [3997"]. The whole value of d'^ is to be mukiplied by a', to '"^^^^•^^
obtain ddR [3998].
* (2517) We have seen, in [3995/], that the second term of [3995],
./V'". e'. COS. ( /i ^ — 2 n't\s—2 i' + to'), [3999a]
is derived from a term of i?, of the form .,4^". cos (i;' — v), corresponding to i=\;
being of the same form as [3977(/]. Now tlie effect of the substitution of the variations
of or, (5/, Ô (', dv', in tlie development of this quantity, having been computed in [3978],
we may deduce from it the terms of R [3999], corresponding to the present case, by a
similar method of derivation to that made use of in [3995/i— /]. Thus, instead of the ^^^^^^^
VOL. III. 36
142 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Mtc. Cél.
r3998"l ^^ must therefore vary, in this term, a hy 6 r, a' by ô r', n' t — nt by
i v — 6v, and we get the following expression,
R=. N^'K e'. (6 v' — 6v) . sin. {n t — 2n' t + s — 2s' + v>')
[3999] + a. ( — — ) . e'.— . COS. (n t — 2 n'?; +s— 2 e' + jj')
(/ a
a
[4000]
+ «'. [~Tr .e'. — .COS. (n^— 2n'^ + f — 2s' + ï5').
\ ail J a
Therefore the part of a'd'B, relative to these terms, is*
a'à'R = — i.{5n'—n). lit. a JV^'.H'.e'. sm.(5n't—2ni + 5^—2 s — z^']D')
///jV(i)\
— i.(5?i'— nj.f/i.a's. f— j.G'.e'.sin. (5M'i — 2m< + 5s'— 2s— to'+C)
+ n'(Z<.aW'.H.c'.sin.(5n'^ — 2n< + .5='— 2s— ûj' + D)
— ?i'rf^.o«'. ^^\G.e'.sin.(5?).'/ — 2Ki')5s'— 2j— îj'+C).
The values of M<% iV/'^', M'*', M' =>, are determined in the formulas
[4000'] Qf ^^^ jjy changing the quantities relative to m into those relative to m',
and the contrary [3975a, 6].t The values of A'^"* and N'^^ are determined
operations mentioned in [3995?], we must, in the present case, change the factor M'"''. e'"
r3977el into A'"', e' ; and decrease the ani^le which is contained under the sign cos.,
[3999cl • J ' o c J
'■ by n't\e' — to'; by which means [3977e] becomes as in the second line of [39956],
[3999(i] or tlie second line of [3995], supposing ?'=1. Now making the same changes in [3978],
which is derived from [3977e], it becomes as in [3999] ; observing that when the
angle 3n'i — nt{3^—s—2a' [3978], is decreased by n't\i — ia' [3999c],
it becomes 2 )/< — n <( 2 s'— s — to'= — ( ji < — 2«'< + e — 2 s'+ra') .
* (2518) The function [4000] may be deduced from [3999], by the method we have
used in computing [3997] from [3996]. It may, however, be deduced more easily from
[3999/] [3995^ 3997J . by changing JV*»', e, ra, 6v, ôv', into .V<'>, e', to', iSv, i&v', respectively.
For by this means, [3996] changes into [3999]; and H, H' [3993, 3994'] become
L ^■' i H, I H', respectively. These changes being made in [3998], it becomes as in [4000].
f (2519) If we put i = — 1, in the terms of R [1011], depending on e, e', and
[4000a] retain only these two terms, putting also .4'~'> = .4<'' [954"], we get, for this part of R,
relative to the action of Saturn on Jupiter,
R=^ — ~.]a.[ — — 2^<')^.e.cos. {2nt — ntA2s — s — zi)
i ( \ da / S ^ ' '
[40005]
— ^ ■\<'' ('TT^W4^^='^.e'. cos. (2nt — v!t\2i — s — z^').
VI. il. § 16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 143
by the equations,
a'A'^(»)=— 2m.rtVi''— im. ««'. (^) ; [400i]
a' iV<" = m . «' . J('> — i m . a'\ C^^ • [4001']
Connecting together all these partial expressions of a'A'R, we obtain
a term of this form,*
a'à'R = m n'. I.dt . sin. {5n' t — 2nt + 5^' — '2,^ — 0) . [4002]
Hence the term 3 a ffn d t . d' R, of the expression of <5 v', givesf [4002]
iv'= — ,^"'''''''\ .sm. (5n't — 2nt + ôs'—2s — 0). [4003]
[5 II — 2 II) ^
This is the most sensible term of the great inequality of Saturn, depending
on the square of the disturbing force.
[4000c]
Changing, reciprocally, ibe elements of m' into those of m, we get the corresponding part
of R, relative to the action of Jupiter on Saturn. Comparing this with the assumed
form [S^QS], after having changed the signs of all the terms contained under the sign cos.,
in [3995], we get the expressions of JV'», ^'" [4001, 4001'].
* (2520) Adding together the parts of a d' R [3982, 3985, 3989, 3991, 3998, 4000],
and putting, for brevity, T^ = 5nt — 27it{5s' — 2e, we get a series of terms [4002a]
of the first form [4002f] ; /' being used for brevity, for the coefficients, and O' for the
quantity connected with Tj. Developing this by [23] Int., we get the second form
[4002c or 4002fi?J ; in which we may substitute
2./'.cos. 0'=mM'. /.cos. O, 2./'. sin. 0'= — mn'. /. sin. O, [4002J]
and we obtain the first form [4002e], which by means of [22] Int., becomes as in the
second form of [4002e], agreeing with [4002],
a'd'R = dt.Z.r. sin. (Ts \ 0')=^dt .S. . F. {sin. T^ . cos. O'+cos. Tj . sin. 0'\ [4002e]
= (/ ^ . sin. Tj . 2 . /'. cos. O'^d t . cos. T^ . 2 . /'. sin. O' [4002(f
= mn'.I.dt.\sm. T, . cos. O — cos. T5 . sin 0\ = mn'.l. dt .sm. (T. — O). [4002e]
t (2521) Multiplying [4002] by S n' d i , and then integrating it twice, relatively
to t, we get, for 3 a'ffn'd t . à'R, the expression [4003] : and this quantity is evidently [4003o]
the most important one in the value of u v, depending on the term now under consideration,
included in the expression [3715m].
144
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Céî.
[4003']
[4004]
[4005]
If the expression of R, divided by the disturbing mass, be the same
for Jupiter and Saturn, we shall have, as in [1208], the coiresjjonding
inequality of Jupiter 6 v, by substituting the preceding value &v' [4003]
in the formula
m' \/tt'
6V =
m\/a
.6V\
but the value of ^4'" [3775c] is not the same for the two planets,
therefore the terms*
ilf C). e'\ COS. (3 m' ^ — /U + 3 .'— s — 2 ^J) ;
iV">. e'. COS. (nt — 2n't + s — 2 e + ^') ;
divided by the disturbing mass, are different for each of them. But it
follows, from [1202], that by noticing only the terms having the divisor
(5 n' — 2 n)", we shall have in this case,t
m.fdR^+in'.fd'R^O ;
[4004a]
[4004ft]
[4004c]
[4004i]
* (2522) The terms mentioned in [4004] are derived from «3'^\ cos. (îj' — v), as
it appears in [3976', .3998'] ; but the value of A'''' is not the same, in computing the action
of m upon m' ; as it is in computing the action of m' upon m [377.5c]. Now we have
already remarked, in Vol. I, page 651, that the method of finding the inequality of Jupiter
from that of Saturn, by means of the formula [1208 or 4003'], is not applicable, without
some restriction, to the computation of terms of the order of the square of the disturbing
force. This is evident from the consideration, tliat in the equation
ni.fdR^m'.fd'R' = [1 202] ,
from which the formula [1208] is derived, terms of the third order in m, m' are neglected,
which is equivalent to the neglect of terms of the second order in R, R' ; being of the
same order as the terms computed in [3982 — 4002].
t (2523) This formula is corrected for a typographical mistake in the original work,
[4005a] and is the same as in [4004c] ; terms of the third order in m, m being neglected.
We have already spoken of the different meanings of the symbol R, and it may not be
amiss again to repeat, that ?» is the mass of Jupiter, w' that of Saturn ; also in formula
[40056] [4004c], the value of R corresponds to the action of rd on m [913], and R' to the
action of m on ?«' [1199']. These are changed in the present article to R^ [4005']
and R [3974''], respectively.
VI. il. §16] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 146
R^ being tvhat R becoiries relatively to the action of Saturn on Jupiter, and ,Af.,.r,^
the differential characteristic d referring to the coordinates of Jupiter.*
* (2524) Substituting &v' [4003] in the formula [4003'], we get the corresponding
inequality of &v [4006]. This method of deriving 5v from <)v', would be sufficiently
accurate, were it not for the terms of the third order in m, m', omitted in [4004c, 4003']. These
neglected terms make it necessary either to correct the result obtained in [4006], or to compute,
tn a direct manner, the value of 5v from the formula ôv^Saffndt .dR [3715Z]. Thus,
for the terms of R,, which are similar to those of R [3978, 3984, 3988, 3990, 3996, 3999],
we must compute the corresponding values of adR^, similar to [3982, 3985, &c. — 4000],
and by combining all of them together, we get the value of adR^, corresponding to [4002].
This is to be substituted in [4005f], to obtain the required inequality 5v, which is to be
used instead of [4006]. It will not, however, be necessary to repeat the whole of these
calculations, since we shall soon show that the terms of R, of the form and order in the
development [3742], combined with those of a similar development of R^, satisfy the
equation [4005], when we except the terms depending on A'^\ and notice only such
quantities as have been under consideration in this article, namely, those which are of the
order of the square of the disturbing force, and depend on the angle 5 n' t — 2nt.
For if we put
A = cos. ( v' — v) — ^7®. cos. {v' — I' ) ~t~ 4 7^' ^^^ ( '^'~H * ) >
X
B =^ — {r^ — 2 r r'. cos. {v' — i' ) 4~ '"' '^ ^ ^
3. .
4" ^7^\cos.{v' — v) — COS. ( !)'[ 1' ) } • \r^ — 2rr'. cos. (d' — v){r'^\ ^ '
we shall obtain the value of R [4005/], corresponding, as in [3974''], to the disturbing
force of Jupiter upon Saturn ; the expression is derived from [3742], by changing m, r, v
into m', /, v', and the contrary. Moreover R^ [4005/', 4005'] corresponds to the action
of Saturn upon Jupiter, being the same as in [3742],
R=m.^ .ifmB;
[Action of Jupiter on Saturn.]
R/=^ m'A . \m B ; [Action of Saturn on Jupiter.]
respectively, in [3975—3991]; also JV'^ JV»>, into .A*'»',  .JV'" [3995— 4001'] ;
or in other words, we may compute the parts of R^ , depending on B, by multiplying the
VOL. III. 37
[4005i']
[40056"]
[4005c]
[4005rf]
[4005e]
[4005/]
[4005^]
[4005/i]
[4005i]
[4005*]
[4005/]
[4005/']
If we neglect, for a moment, the term A, we shall have R^mB, R, = m' B ;
I
whence R,^ — .R; so that the terms of R^, corresponding to R [3975], maybe [4005m]
found by changing M^'>\ M^'\ M'^\ M^^\ into .J/«\  .M^", '.J/<2', .JfO),
[4005»!]
146 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
Hence it follows, that the inequality of Jupiter, corresponding to the
corresponding terms of it [3978, 3984, &jc.] by — . In finding tlie differentials relative
to d, we shall proceed in the same order as we have done in finding those relative to d'
[4005o] [39S2ff, 8ic.], observing that d does not affect Sti't, in the angle 3 n't — nt, which
[4005;/] occurs explicitly in [3975]. Hence we shall have d . {3 n't — ni)^^ — n dt, similar
6r'
to [3982rt] ; moreover, as the sign d does not affect the values of —, Sv', the differential
of the angle nt — ■2n't, which occurs in these values, or in the terms connected with
[4005î] £', i^' [3974', 3974], is d . {nt~2n'i) = 0. The difference of these two expressions,
corresponding to the equation [3982c], is
[4005r] d . {5 n' t — 2 n t) = d . {3 n t — 71 1) — d . {71 1 — 2 n' t) = — )i d t ;
[4005r'] now we have very nearly 5 71' — 2 ?i= [3818rf] ; and the inequalities S v, iv', under
consideration, are very small, as we shall see in [4431/] ; therefore we may put
— J! = — ( 5 71' — n), and the preceding expression becomes
[4005s] d.{57it—2nt)^ — ( 5 n' — 71) . d t ;
which is equal to that of d'. ( 5 m' t — 2 7it) [3982c], but has a different sign. Hence,
by noticing only the part of R, depending on B, and connected with the factors E', F',
we have d/? = — d'iî ; substituting this in the differential of R^ [4005»j], taken
relatively to d, we get dR=~.dR^ .A'R; which is easily reduced to the
[4005u] fo'™ ;« .diî, [?«'. d'/{ = [4005]. In like manner, the differential d affects the whole
of the values —, &v [3972, 3973], depending on the factors E, F ; so that the
differential d, of the angle 71 1 — 2iH, connected with these terms, is
[4005i'] d .{7it — 2 7i't) =: ndt — 2n'd t .
Subtracting this from [4005j:>], we get
d.{5n't — 27it) = d.{3n't — ni) — d.{7it — 27i'i)=^27i'dt — 27idt:
and by substituting 2 m' — 2 }i = — 3 ?i' [4005/'], it becomes
d.{5 7it — 2 71 1)= — 3 71' dt = — d'. {5 n't— 2 nt) [3982^] ;
r4005rl hence, for these terms, we also get, as in [4005^], dR^ — d'R and ?«.di?,}m'.d'R = 0.
The same result holds good when the terms of R, instead of depending on the angle
[4005yJ 3 n't — 71 1 [3975], have other forms, as for example, nt — 2 7i' t [3995] ; which are to
be combined with the corresponding terms of S 7, ôv, (5 /, 6 v', so as to produce the angle
5 7i'i — 2 7it. Thus, if instead of the particular values of R, — [3975, 3974], we
assume the following general values,
[4005î" R = M.cos.{ i\ n't — i^nt + Jli), ~ = F'. cos. ( it n t — i'., n' t \ A^^) ;
[400.5«P
[4005w'i
VI. ii. ^S 16.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 147
preceding expression [4003], is
^ 3m. «ay ^ ^■^^^.Q^,^_2nt\5s—2e — 0). [4006]
(5ji' — 2n)2 ^
in which i\ j i'^ = 5 ; {^ ( i, = 2 ; we shall find that the products of these two [4005i']
expressions, contained in a function similar to [3978], will produce a term depending on
the angle 5n't—2nt, as in [3979]. In this case, the equations [3982c, 4005r]
become, respectively, by suhstituting i\{i'„ = 5 [400.5'], [400(Ja]
d'.(5ii't — 2nt)^zà'.{i'i n' t — iiiit) — à'.{^nt — i'^ n' t )
[4006i]
= i\ n (It — {^i^ndt — i'o n' d () = 5 n d t — i.^ ndt ;
à..{bn't — 2nt)=^à.{i\nt — i\?U) — d. (îoni — i'.^n't)^^ — i^ndt. [4006<;]
The sum of these two equations, substituting iy  to= 2 ; 5 ?j' — 2 ?« = [400.5cr', /], is
ù'.{bnt—2nt)i^A.{biît — 'int)^bn'dt—2ndt = Q, or à'R^àR^Q, [4006rf]
as in [400.5^] ; and from this we get, generally, as in [400.5x, 4005] , m.àR^\m' .à'R=zO. [4006e]
Hence it follows, that if we put àvy, i5z).,, for the parts of èv, of this form and order,
dependuig on Jl, B, respectively; also &v\, ôv'ç^, for the similar parts of ôv', we shall have
5 D =: 5 Di + 5 1>2 ; ôv' = Sv\{Sv'„; [4006/]
and the formula [4006e] gives, as in [1202, Sic], the following expression, similar to [4003'],
[4006e']
Sv^= — 5v'2."^. [meg]
my a
From this formula we may compute 5t)o, after having found or'j, by a direct process
similar to that used in [3975 — 4003].
In computing the terms of avy, àv\, depending on A [4005A], we may neglect the
two terms containing y^, for the same reasons as in [3990ff— c]. Then we shall have
simply ^ = cos. (î;' — v) ; hence the corresponding parts of R, R, [400.5/,/'], become [4006/i]
R = m. ^ .cos.{v'—v); R^=m'.^^.cos. .{v'—v). [400fo]
These quantities evidently depend on the term connected with the coefficient A <'', in the
development of — [954, 957], as is evident by the substitution of the values [952, 953].
Hence we have, by noticing only this part of A'^\
A'^'> = m • J ; in computing êv\, arising from the action of Jupiter on Saturn ; [4006^]
^'i>=m'. — ; in computing Sv, arising from the action of Saturn on Jupiter. [4006/]
Now A^^' occurs only in the development of the term .^'". cos. ( r' — v); and it is [4006m]
148
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
17. In the inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, in which the coefficient
[4006'] of t is neither 5n'
nor differs from it by the quantity n, in
[4006n] therefore found in JJf*"' [3976,3976'], also in JV'(" [4001'] ; but not in M^'\ M'\ M"',
[400(3o] JV'"' [3983, 3986, 3989", 3995'] ; so that in these last terms we shall have (5 Uj = 0,
[400G/)] 5^'j = 0, à'Vç,=^iv, (5 î)'g = (5 1)' ; consequently the value of 5v may be correctly
obtained from i5 v', in these cases, by means of the formula [4003']. A different process
[4006?] must be used with the terms depending on M'^^, JV*'\ which contain A^^\ For we must
compute (5 ti'j in a direct manner, by means of the value of ^'" [4006Zr] ; also dv^, from
[4006r] [4006Z] ; by a process similar to that used in computing &v' or &v'^, in [3982,4002'].
[400C«] Having thus obtained i5 Dj , ùv\, iv'.^, we get àv^, by means of the formula [4006^],
and then by substitution in [4006/"], we obtain the values of 5v, Sv', corresponding to
r.««^ „ these terms. These remarks are not restricted to the two forms of R, treated of by the
[4006s ]
author in [3975, .3995], but apply generally to others of a similar nature, contained in the
general table, which we shall give in [4006zt].
In addition to the terms of R, depending on the angles 3 n't — ni, ni — 2n'i ;
[4006<] treated of by the author in [3975, 3995] ; there is an infinite number of a similar nature ;
some of which are deserving of peculiar notice, on account of their magnitudes ; and one
of them is of nearly the same order as those we have already noticed. The 20 forms of
R, S 7, 5v, êr, ôv', Sic, producing the angle 5 n't — 2 n i , are contained in the
annexed table. Thus the form which is marked with the number 6, includes the terms
of R, depending on the angle 3 n't — nt, as in
; the first form assumed by the author in [3975] ; and
when this is combined with 6r, 5v, &:c., of the form
2n't—nt, it produces terms depending on 5n'i — 2nt,
as in [3979]. We may also take these angles in an
inverse order, corresponding to the accented numbers,
supposing, as in the number 6', that R depends on the
angle 2n i — n t , corresponding to the second form
of the author, in [3995], and ér, 5v, he. depend on
the angle 3 n't — nt . The numerical values of these
terms of ^i', 5v', are given inaccurately in [4432,4488];
as was first observed by Mr. Plana, in the second
volume of the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of
London ; in which he has given the calculations of the
[4006d] separate terms at full length ; and has also noticed the terms of R, of the forms 5', 3, 4 ;
observing, however, that they have hardly any sensible effect in the complete values
of &v, 5 v'. The final values of ôv, ô v', computed by Mr. Plana, by a direct process,
and independently of each other, did not satisfy the equation [4003'] ; and this numerical
result, he considered as a demonstration a posteriori, that this formula could not be applied
[4006!^] ^^ ^j^ ^1^^^^ jg^.^^^^ ^j. jj^g ^^,jg. ^f ^jjg square of the disturbing masses. In consequence
[4006«]
No.
Coefficienl3 of ( in
the terms of
R.
Coefficients of t in
tlie terms of
Sr, év, or', iv'.
V
2!
3'
4'
5'
6'
1
2
3
4
5
6
n'
2ji'
3n'
n' — n
3 n' — n
5 n' 2 n
An'—2n
3n' — 2n
2n'— 2n
An' — n
2n' — n
v=n'—n;
{ = any positive integer.
7
8
9
10
5n'—2n\i\i
5n' — 3 ?i iv
5n' — 4?iiv
5n' — 5n\iy
I V
t V — n
iv — 2n
iv — ■ 3 n
r
8'
9'
10'
No.
Coefficients of £ in
tlie terms i>f
Sr, iv, 6r', 6v'.
Coefficients of ( in
the terms of
R.
VI. ii. §17.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 149
Jupiter, or n' in Saturn; we must increase nt and n't by their great r^^Qg,,,
inequalities depending on bn't — Int. For we have seen [1070"],
of tliese remarks, La Place resumed the subject in a memoir published in the Connaissance
des Terns for the year 1829 ; in which he tacitly admits the inaccuracy of the application of
the formula [4003'] to all these terms of the order of the square of the disturbing forces ; and
gives a new formula [400Si], expressing the relation between the complete values of the
terms of 5v, 5 v', like tJiose computed in this article, and others of a similar form and order,
calculated by Mr. Plana [4006v]. This new formula has been called the last gift of La Place
to astronomy. Upon applying the numerical values of ôv, 5 v', given by Mr. Plana, to this
formula, it was not satisfied ; whence La Place inferred, that these numerical calculations
of Mr. Plana were incomplete or inaccurate. Some strictures having been made on this
formula by Mr. Plana, in the Memorie dclla Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino,
Tom. XXXI ; it was followed by two other demonstrations of this new formula ; the first
by Mr. Poisson in a memoir published in the Connaissance des Terns for 1831 ; the second by
Mr. Pontécoulant, in the same work, for 1833. In the memoir of Mr. Poisson, he notices
the term of the form 1, in the table [4006m], and shows, that it is of sufficient importance
to be introduced into the calculation. Under these circumstances, he recommends a
revision of the whole calculation, by taking into consideration all the forms comprised in
the table [4006it], which produce terms of i5 v, Sv'. of any sensible magnitude. This
extremely laborious task has been performed by Mr. Pontécoulant, who has given the
abridged results of his investigation in the Connaissance des Terns for the year 1833, from
which we shall make some extracts, in the notes upon the twelfth and thirteenth chapters
of this book, in treating of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. These results, so far as they
relate to terms of the forms 6, 6' [4006?;], computed in this article, differ but very little
from those of La Place [4432, 4488], except in the signs ; and upon referring to the
original manuscript, in which these last calculations were made, a mistake in the signs
was discovered. Finally, Mr. Pontécoulant suggested to Mr. Plana, some corrections
which were necessary in his work ; and upon the revision of his calculation, it was found,
that the results were almost identical with those of Mr. Pontécoulant ; these corrected
values, combined with the other terms of this kind computed by Mr. Pontécoulant, are
found to satisfy very nearly the new formula of La Place [4008x]. We shall now give
the demonstration of this formula.
For this purpose, we shall use the same notation as in [1198], in which M represents
the sun's mass, m the mass of Jupiter, in' the mass of Saturn ; x, ij, z, the rectangular
coordinates of Jupiter, referred to the sun's centre ; r its radius vector, &c. ; and the same
letters accented correspond to the orbit of Saturn. Then putting, for brevity.
x^'+yy'+'^'
VOL. III.
w
xx'+yy'+'
^lf^x'xf+{y'yf+{z'~zfl
[4006x]
[4006y]
[4006z]
[4007a]
[40076]
[4007c]
[4007 (i]
[4007e]
[4007/]
[4007e]
38
150 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[4006'"] that these great inequalities must be added to the mean motion, in the
[4007/1] we get, as in [949,1200], by observing that r^^x^Vy^^z^ r'^=x'^^y"^^z'~ [ÇiW],
[4007il R = in • (iv' \ X) ; [For tho action of Saturn upon Jupiter.]
[4007/c] R':= m . (it) \ X) ; [For the action of Jupiter upon Saturn.]
Now if we multiply the formula [1198] by M\m{m', it will become of the form
[4007o] ; for the two first terms of the second member of the product, or those in the
first line of [1198], may be put under the form,
[4007i]
^{dx^ + dy^ + dz"~) , ,3 {dx'^+dy!i+dz"
dt^ ' dt^ '
of which the first line is the same as in the first line of [4007o]. Connecting the terms in
the second line of [4007?] with those produced by the second line of [1198], namely,
{mdx4m,'dx')^ {mdyjm'dy') (mrfzj m'rfz'p
f*°°'"l dt^ dT^ ■ dV^ '
it produces the second line of [4007o] ; observing, that
??i^ d x^ { m'  dx'~ — ( m d x \m' dx'Y = — 2 m m'. dxd x', he.
The first and second terms of the third line of [1198] produce, without any reduction, the
[4007;i] third line of [4007o], and the last term of [1198] gives the last of [4007o], using
X [4007^] ; hence we have
constant = ( M+ m!).m. ■ ^ * J^ ' \ {M\m) .m'. ^ ^ ^
[4007o]
[4007p]
_ , Crfxrfx' , dvdy' , dzdz'")
2mm'.^^^ + ^ + ^
+ 2 . ( JIf + m + 7n') . m m'. X.
Tr 111 1 r dx'i + dif + dz^ rfa:'2 + rfy2 + (/i'2 , ^^ ^ .
If we multiply the values of /^^ — , f,o [1199,1200], by
[M \ m') . m, {M{'m).m', respectively; and add the products, we shall get, for
the first line of the second member of [4007o], the following expression,
(^i+^')..,.^^J^,2/diï^ + (J^f+>»)•m^ f•^•7^'"'^ 2/d'i^
VI. ii. ^^ IT.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 151
formulas of the elliptical motion ; they must therefore be added to the same
If we substitute this in [4007o], we shall find, that the term having the divisor r, is
2 m
— . \ {M + m') .{M+m) — {M+m+ m') . 31], [4007p']
which, by reduction, is ; and in like manner, the term depending on r , is — ;; — ;
so that if after this substitution is made, we divide the whole expression by 2, and transpose
the tenns depending on d R, d'R', we shall obtain the following equation, in which
nothing is omitted, the constant quantity being included in the signs /,
( M + m') .m..fàR + {M\ m ) . m'.fd' R'= m m. + ^)
, /dxdx'\dydy'\dzdz'\
 '" '" • V dt' — ) ^^^^^^^
{ {M + m \ m') .mm'.y..
We must now consider the terms of this equation affected with the small divisor 5n' — 2n,
and ha\Tng 5 n't — 2nt for the argument ; these temis being the only ones which can
acquire the di\Tsor (5»' — 2n)^ by another integration in J'fdR, ffd'R', or in [4007)]
the expression of the longitudes of the two planets [3715/, »*] ; and in making this
investigation, we shall reject all terms of the order in'*. In the first place, we shall
observe, that the expression in the second line of the second member of [40075'] ^'^^^ ^'^^
contain such tenns of the order ??i^, as is evident from the reasoning in note 819 [1201'], [4007«]
where it is sho^^Ti, that these terms of the order ?«^, arise fi'om the substitution of the
elhptical values of x, x', y, ij , &c. ; and to obtam terms of the order »i', we must augment
these elhptical values of x, x, Sic. by the terms depending on the perturbations. These
terms may be easily obtained by considering the orbits as variable ellipses, in which we may
suppose X, x', to be of the forms,
x = ^1 f 5i . cos. (n / + Ci) + &:c. ; [4007<]
x' =: Ay + B.2 . COS. ( n't ) Co) j &c. ; [4007k]
Ai, B^, Ci, &c., c/^2, Bo, Cj, &.C. being functions of the elements of the orbits.
These elements for the planet Jupiter are ; the mean longitude of this planet nt \ e;
E the mean longitude of the epoch ; a the semitransverse axis of the ellipsis ; e the
excentricity ; « the longitude of the perihelion ; y the inclination of the ellipsis to a fixed
plane ; and è the longitude of the ascending node. The same letters being accented, [4007u"]
represent the corresponding elements of the orbit of Saturn. In the values of all these
elements, the secular inequalities are supposed to be included. The differential of the
expression [4007/, u], bemg found as in [1168'], become
dx = — B,.ndt. sin. (n / + C^) — &c. ; [4007t.]
dx'= — Br,.n'dt. sin. {nt{ Co) — &c. [4007w]
[4007u']
152
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
quantities in the development of R. Let
[4007] R^H. COS. (i' n' t — int + A),
[4007a]
[40086]
[4008i']
[4008c]
[4008rf]
[4008e]
[4008/]
Tlie product dx dx', will therefore contain only periodical quantities of the form,
H . cos. {in't — int\E);
H, E, being functions of the elements of the orbits ; and i', i, integral numbers, positive
or negative ; moreover n't, nt, in the planetary system, are incommensurable quantities
[1197"]. Now if we consider the elements as variable, their variations, corresponding to the
great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, will have the same argument as these inequalities,
[i007y] namely, 5 n t — 2nt, and they have 5 ?i' — 2 n for a divisor, as is evident from what
we have seen in [1197, 1286, 1294, 1341, 1345'], or more completely in the appendix to
this volume [5872 — 5879]. Substituting these variations in [4007x], and reducing by
[17 — 20] Int., we shall obtain terms having this divisor; but it is evident, that they will
[4007z] not have the same argument, except z' = 10 and i = 4; in which case /J" will be of the
order e^ [957^''', &,c.], which is neglected, because we notice only terms of the third order
relative to the excentricities e, e', and of the same order relative to the masses in, mf.
[4008a] The same remarks may be made with regard to the products d y dy', d z d z' ; hence we
conclude, that the fonction included in the second line of [4007^] does not contain terms
of the order n? or it?, which has for its argument 5h7 — 2)i<, and for divisor 5/i' — 2?i;
so that we may substitute, in [40075], ^^^ following expression.
■mm.
dxdx'\dy dy'\dz dz'
0.
In the fonction comprised in the third line of [4007 (^], namely, (./lifw + ?»') . mm'. X,
we may change the factor M { m\7n' into ./If ; it being evident, that the neglected
quantities do not comprise terms of the order m^, having the argument 5 n' t — 2nt
and the divisor 5n' — 2n. Then substituting, in X [4007^], the elliptical values of x, x'
[4007<, u], and the similar values of y, y', z, z' ; it becomes, by development, of the form,
■k = A\K.cos. {5n't — 2ntJ[ I) + Q.,
in which A represents the part depending on the argument zero, and Q all the terms
depending on angles of the form i'n't\int, i', i, being integral numbers, positive or
negative, excluding those pioducing the argument 5 n't — 2nt, which is connected
with K, and the argument zero connected with A ; hence we have
(.W + w + m) .mm! .\ — M . mrri .\A\ K . CQ's,.{'ô'){ t —2nt ^ I) A^ q}.
The quantity mm'.— [4007<7], is of the third order in 7n, in, and as the value of r
[4008g] contains no term having the divisor 5 ?i' — 2n, except it be of the order ??/, we may
neglect this term, because it produces nothing except of the order m"" ; and the same is to
VI. ii. §1~] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 163
be any term of this development ; and
6v = L. sin. (i'n't—int\B), [4008]
VI
be observed relatively to m m'.—. Substituting these and [40086,/] in [4007^], we get
M. { mfdR + m'fd'R' } + m m'. \fdR +/d'jR' \r:^M. m m'. \ A+K. cos. (5 7t7 — 2 n ï +/ ) + Q ^ [4008A]
We shall represent by (R), {R'), the parts of R, R', respectively, of the order m ; [4008t]
then using the characteristic (S of variations, we shall put àR, ôR', for the remaining parts
of the same quantities of the order mP, &lc., and we shall have
R={R)\5R, R'={R')~\6R'. [4008i]
If we also put [(.2) + (^) .cos.(5?i'<2n^/)] for the part of .^+Z:cos.(5n'i;— 2n<+/), [4008J]
which is independent of m, m ; and prefix the sign <5 before the same quantity, to denote
the remaining part, we shall have
^ + Z.cos.(5 7i'< — 2«ï' + /)+ Q=[(.^) + (^).cos.(.5îi'^ — 2n<+/)]
\&.\A^K.cos.{biït — ^nt + I]+q.
Substituting [4008fc, m] in [4008/(], and neglecting the terms mtn'.fd5R, nim'.fd' 5R',
which are of the order m^ ; also the terms M.mm. Q, because the integration does
not introduce the divisor 5 ?i' — 2 7i, we get
M.\mfd{R)^m'.fd'{R')\imm'.\fd{R)^fd'{R')]JrM.\mfd5RJrm'fd'ôR'l
=M.mm'.[{A) + {K).cos.{5n't—2nt+I)]JrM.mm'.S.{A\K.cos.{5n't—2nt^l)].
Now equating separately the parts of this equation, which are of the order m^, and those
of the order m?; putting also M=^l [3709], in terms of the order m^ we get
M. \m. f d{R) +m'.f d' {R)\ = M. mm'. [{A) {{K). COS. {57i't — 2nt\l)']; [4008p]
mm'.{fd{R) +/d' (R) ] + m ./d 6 R + m'./d' ÔR'=mm'.5.\A ^K. cos. (.5 n' ( — 2 n t+I)  . [4008?]
14008m]
[4008?»]
[4006o]
[4008r]
If we neglect the terms of the second member of [400S»/], or in other words, the terms
of the elliptical value of X, depending on the two arguments zero and bn't — 2nt, we
shall have the following expression [4008s], which includes all the arguments except these
two ; and is accurate both as it regards terms of the third order of the masses m, m', and
of the third order relative to the excentricities and inclinations,
m m'.\fd {R) +/d' {R) \ + m.fd8R{ m'.fd'ôR r= 0. [4008s]
Substituting M=^ 1 [4008o] in the product of [4008p], by the quantity m', we get, by
neglecting terms of the two forms and 5n't — 2nt [4008;], mm'fdR^m'.fd'R'^^O.
Subtracting this from [4008s], we obtain
m.fdiR{ m'./d' Ô R' { {m — m') . m'./d' R' = 0. [4008«]
VOL. III. 39
[4008<]
154 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
the corresponding inequality of Jupiter.* If we increase 7it, n't, by their
great inequalities in the expression [4007], there will result in ii a
term of the form,t
[4009] R = ±qH. COS. {i' n't — i7it±{5 n't — 2nt) + A±E).
and since a'~ n = a' '~ n' = 1 [3866»] , neglecting terms of the order m, this may be
put under the following form, terms of the order in* being neglected,
[4008t;] m «* n.fdSR^ m'. a' ^ n'.fd' 5 i?' + ( m — m') . m', a' ^ n'.fd'R' = .
Now if we put ^, ^', for the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn; S^^, S^^', for the
[4008t)'] parts of i^, ^', depending on dôR, d'SR'; or in other words, those which depend on the
combinations [4006m], excluding the angles zero and 5 n't — 2nt, we sliall have,
as in [.371 5Z, m],
[i008w] S^^ = 3an.ffdt.d&R; S^ ^'=3 a' n'.ffd t .d'5 R' ; ?,'^3 a' n'.ffdt .d'R
lastfoT*^" Now multiplying [4008?;], by 3dt, integrating and substituting [4008 w], we get
mula,
which
[4008.r] m /a • 5, ? + '«' /«'• 'I ■? ' + ( »* — '»') • ™' /«'• ■? ' ^ 5
inctudoa
terms of wMch IS the last formula of La Place, proposed to be demonstrated in [4007^^ ; and the
the order
trfi. complete values of (S, ^ , (5^ ^ ought to satisfy it ; so that if one of these quantities be
rifioR 1 accurately computed, the other may be deduced from it ; but the usefulness of the theorem
is restricted by the circumstance, that it can only be applied to the results obtained from all
[4008z] the sensible terms of this kind, taken collectively; or to all the terms corresponding ic
each of the six factors e', e^ «', e e'^, e'*, ey^, e' y^.
* (2525) The relation between R and 5v is expressed by the equation [.37155].
A particular case of this formula is considered in [3703, 3715], in wliich
[4009a] R = M. cos. ( m,t + K) [3703, 371 Irf] ;
[40095]
and we find, by mere inspection, that the third and fourth terms of uv [37155] have, as
in [3715A], the divisors m^, m^ ; also by comparing [3702, 371 If], we find, that the
terms of hv [37155], depending on hr, have the divisor mf — ?t^, or ?;?, ±h It is
[4009c] easy to generalize this result, as in [4010], where lUi^i' n' — in.
t (2526) If we increase n't by the great inequality of Saturn [3891], and nt by that
of Jupiter [3889], the angle i'n!t — int, which occurs in [4007, 4008], will be
increased by a quantity, which we shall represent by p ; then putting, for brevity,
[4012a]
Ts=bn!i — 2nt\b e'—2i; — i'H'. cos.A'—iU. cos.^= 2f/ .cos.c ;
— i'H'.sin.J'— 2'il.sin.^=2^.sin. c; 5 e' — 2 s f c = £.
[4011]
[4012]
[4012']
VI. H. § 17.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 155
Now tlic series of operations, which connects H and L, gives to the parts
of // the divisors (/'n' — inf, i' n' — in, i' n' — in±n [40096, c] ; [4010]
and the same series of operations gives to the inequalities corresponding
to the parts of R [4009], the divisors* [i' n' — in±:(5n' — 2n)},
i'n'—inzt(5)i' — 2n), i' n'—in± {bn' — 2n) ±n. If i'n'—i7i
or i' n' — inztn be not small quantities of the order 5n' — 2n, we
may neglect 5 n' — 2n in these divisors,! and then the inequality,
corresponding to
R= ±qH. cos. [i' n' t — int±(5n't — 2nt) + A^E}, [4013]
will be
ÔV = ±qL . sin. { i' n' t — i n t ± (5 n' t — 2 7it) ^ B ±El ; [4014]
we get, successively,
p = —i'H'. sin. ( n + ^') — i H sin. {T, + ^) [40126]
= — i' H'.\sm. Tj . COS. J'+ COS. T^ . sm.Â'1—i H. sin. T^ . cos. 7l + cos. Tg . sln.^
= 2«j'.{sin.T5.cos.c[cos.T5.sin.c^^25'.sin.(T5j<^) = 2q.sm.[bn't — 'ilnt\E). [4012c]
If we increase the angle i' n' t — int{Jl [4007] by the quantity p ; then develop the
expression by means of [61] Int., we shall obtain an additional term of the order p, and
represented by — p H .s\n. {i' 7i't — int\A). Substituting in this the value of [4012«i]
p [4012c], and then reducing by [17] Int., it becomes, as in [4009],
qH.cos.{in't — int{{57i't—2nt)jA\E]—qH.cos.\i'n't—int — {5n't—27ii)\A—E\. [4012e]
* (2.527) The coefficient of t, in [4007], is i' 7i' — in, and from this arise the
divisors [4010] ; but in the term [4009], this coefficient is augmented by the quantity
±(5 7i' — 2)t); which requires a corresponding increase in the resulting divisors [4010]; [4014o]
by this means the divisors [4010], depending upon the term [4007], change into those
given in [4012]. If we suppose 5 7i' — 2 ?i to be very small, in comparison with [40146]
i' 7i' — t?t or i' 7i' — in ±71, we may neglect it ; and then the chain of operations
connecting H, L [4007,4003], will have the same divisors as that connecting q H, q L [4014c]
[4013, 4014]. Now [4007] is changed into [4013], by multiplying by ± ?, and
augmenting the angle i'n't — int by ±{57i't — 2 7it)zizE. Applying the same [4014rf]
process of derivation to [4008], we get the corresponding inequality of Jupiter, as
in [4014].
t (2528) In restricting the formula [4014] to the terms mentioned in [4006'], we
5,j' 271
may consider the part which is neglected in [4012'], as of an order , or j\ of
that retained [3818fr] ; so that the error of the terms ôv [4014] is of the order ^^qL;
156 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
which is the same as to increase nt, n't, by the great inequalities in the
term of àv [4008].*
We must also increase, in the terms depending on the first power of the
excentricities, the quantities e, e', us, ra', by their variations, depending
[4016] upon the angle bii!t — 2?i i ; but it is evident, that this will not produce
any sensible inequalities.!
18. The coefficients of the inequalities of the planets vary on account of the
Manner of ^ ^ n i * t ' • i • • i
ihflffirA secular variations of the elements of their orbits : we may notice this in the
secular followinq manner. We must first put the inequality relative to any angle
variations *■
^lemans. *' *^' t— i^t, undcr the form t
[4017] P. sin. (i' n't — int + i't — is)\P'. cos. (i' 7i' t — in t + i' s' — is).
and as rj is of the order ^p [4012c], it becomes of the order ^l^p L. Now the great
[40156] inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn being nearly 1265', — 2957', [44.34, 4474], the quantity
2) [4012ff] becomes — 5 X 2957'— 3 X 1265' = — 18580% or about y^ of the radius ;
r4015c] consequently the quantity j^^pL is less than tïs ^ tV ^' °'' ^^^^ than y J^ij L ; and
the error of this computation of i5 y [4014], arising from this source, will generally be less
than ■j^jjjy of the inequality [4008], which is under consideration.
* (2528«) If we increase n'i, nt, by the great inequalities, using j; [4012J], the
expression 6 v [4008] will become S v z= L . sin. [i' n't — i ni {B ~\ p). Developing
[40]5(/] this as in [60] Int., we get ôv = L.sm.{{'n't — i nt ~{ B) jjiL. cos. [i' n't — intjB).
Substituting j} [4012c], and reducing by [19] Int., it becomes equal to the sum of the
two expressions [4008, 4014].
t (2529) The smallness of these terms may be seen, by a rough examination of the
increment of the value of R [1011], arising from the introduction of the part of c oi ô e
[4016a] [1286], when we put ?:'==5, z = 2, a=l, " := 74 [3818f/], m'=^J^^,
e = 0,05 [4061rf, 4080] ; observing that as i' — i==: 3, ^ [1281'], may be considered as
of the order e^ and (~) of the order e^ ; so that 5e [1286] may be considered as of
[40106]
[4017a]
the order 74 m'. e^. cos. (5 n'< — 2nt\A}, or ^i^ c . cos. (5 ?i'i — 2nt\J) nearly.
Consequently this increment of e produces terms of the order y^i^, in comparison with
those depending on e, in [4392], none of which amount to 200'; hence it is evidenti
that these terms are insensible.
X (2530) The form assumed in [4017] has been frequently used, as, for example,
in [371 li].
Vl.ii.^IS.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 157
We must determine the values of P, P\ for the epoch 1750, and then put
tang. A = ^ ■■, L = ^/W+pr^ ; [4018]
the sign of sin. A is the same as that of P', and its cosine is the same [4018]
sign as that of P [401 9f?] ; then the proposed inequality will be*
L . sin. {i'n' t — int^ i' /— i s + J) . [40i9]
We must determine the values of P, P', for 1950, noticing the secular
variations of the elements of the orbits ; and we shall have for this
inequality, in 1950,
(L + <5 L ) . sin. (i'n't—i nt + i'e — is\A + 6A). [4020]
If we denote by t the number of Julian years elapsed since 1750, the
preceding inequality relative to the time t will assume the following form,t
Çl + ^^^ . sin. U'n't — int + i' s'— i t \A +
200
[4021]
Under this form it may be used for several centuries before and after 1 750.
But this calculation is not necessary except with those inequalities which
are quite large.
In the two great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, it will be useful to
continue the approximation as far as the square of the time, in the part
[4021']
* (2531) Using, for brevity, i'71't — int\i's' — ie=^Tg; then developing [4019] r^Q^g^,
by means of [21] Int., and putting the expressions [4017, 4019] equal to each other,
we get, identically,
P. sm. Tg + P'. COS. Tg = L. sin. {Tg^A)=L. cos. A . sin. Tg + L. sm.A. cos. Tg. [40196]
Comparing the coefficients of sin. Tg, cos. Tg, separately, in both members, we get
P = L.cos.Jl, P'=Z,. sin. ^. Dividing the second by the first, also taking the sum [4019c]
of their squares, we get [4018]. The quantity L being considered as positive, we [4019(f)
get, from [4019c], the signs of sin. A, cos. A, as in [4018].
t (2532) If 5L, &A, represent the variations of L, A, in 200 years, between
i.bl. t.SA
1750 and 1950; then their variations in t years will be represented by "^^j '2ÔÔ ' '■ ^^^
respectively. Substituting these in [4020], it becomes as in [4021].
VOL. III. 40
158
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS,
[Méc. Cél.
[4022]
[4022']
Great in
equality
of Jupiter,
reduced to
a tabular
form.
which has the divisor {bn! — 2nf. This part of the expression of àv
is as in [3844],
\aP'
2a. dP
Sa.ddP'
ûv =
6 m'. n~
[5n'2n).dt (5n'— 2n)2.rf(2
'.sm.{5>i't—2ntJ^5i — 2s)
{5n'—27if
— ^aP
(OJI'
2a. dP' 3a.ddP }
:—2n).dt (an—2n).dl^^ ^ '
the values of P, P', and of their differentials, being relative to any time
whatever /. By developing them in series, ascending according to the
powers of the time, and retaining only the second power, and the first and
second differentials of P, P', the preceding quantity will become*
[4023] 5i, = 
6 ml, rP'
(5n'2n)2
2a. dP
Sa.ddP'
(5n'—2n).dt {5n'—2nf.dt^
( dP' , Oa.ddP 7 , , , aap,>.^in.{5n't2nt+5^2s)
I dt ^ (5n'
2a. dP'
;2H).dri\'
i).dli)
Sa.ddP
{5n'—27i).dt (5n'—2n)KdtZ
, C dP 2a.ddP' ) , , ,
' I dt {5n'~2n).dt^^~ 
dfi
ddP\
dt^
>.cos.(5re'<— 2n<+5s'— 2s)
* (2533) The values of P, P', and their difFerentials [4022], must be computed for
the particular time t, for which the value o( 5v is wanted ; but this is an inconvenient
method; therefore the functions by which sin.Tj, cos.Ts [3842a], are multipHed in [4022],
[4022al ^''^ developed in [4023] in series, ascending according to the powers of t. This is done
by means of the formula [oS50«], neglecting i^, and the higher powers of t. Thus,
if we put the factor of sin. Tj, included between the braces in the first line of [4022],
equal to u, and take its first and second differentials, neglecting the differentials of the
third and higher orders ; we shall get the following values of U, and its differentials ; in
which the terms in the second members correspond to the epoch < = ;
[40326]
[4022c]
[4022d]
U = aP'
2a. dP
Sa.ddP'
/dt
\d
dU
T
(5n'2n).dt (5n'2n)2.rf<a '
dP' 2a.ddP /ddU\ a.ddP'
dt
' (5n'2 7i).dV2'
/ddU\
dfi
Substituting these in [3850a], we get for u, the same expression as the factor of sin. Tj,
in the first and second lines of [4023]. In the same manner, the factor of cos. T^, in
the second line of [4022], produces the corresponding factor, in the third and fourth
lines of [4023].
VI. il. § IS.] DEPENDING ON THE SQUARE OF THE DISTURBING FORCE. 159
The values of P, P', and their differaitials, correspond to the epoch
of 1750, and are determined by the method in [3850, &c.] ; the other parts
of the great inequality of m being rather small, it will be sufficient, by
what has aheady been shown, to notice the first power of the time. This
great inequality will then have the folloAving form,
[4024]
ôv= (A +5 t + Ct^). sin. (5n't — 2nt + 5 s'— 20
+ (A'+B't + C't") . cos. (5n't — 2nt + 5 /— 2 .
We may also put the great inequality of m' under the same form, by which
means it will be easy to reduce these inequalities into tables.
If ice wish to reduce the preceding inequality to one term, loe must calculate
it for the three epochs 1750, 2250, 2750. Let
f3 . sin. (5n't — 2nt + 5 b'— 2s + a) [4025]
be this inequality in the year 1750; and 3^, a,; (3,, a„, the values of p, a [4025]
at the epochs 2250, 2750 ; then the inequality corresponding to any fquaiuyof
time whatever t, will be* reduced
/ ds , , „ ddP;\ . ^_ , _ , ,~ , ^ . . dA , , „ ddA )
the differentials p and a correspond to the epoch in 1750; and we shall
have, by [3854— 3856], f
to one
term.
[4026]
d^ 4 3,— .3(3 — p,,^
dt 1000 '
dd^ p„— 2(3,+ 3_
dt^ 250000 '
[4027]
d\ 4 a,— 3 a — A„ ,
dt ~ 1000
dd\ A„ — 2a, + a
dt^ ~ 250000
[4027']
* (2534) p and A being functions of t,
we shall have, as in [3850«],
e4t '^^^^t^ '^'^^
and
A _i_y ^^ J^ii2 '^'^^
[4025a]
for their values ; using for p, A, and their differentials, the values corresponding to the
epoch in 1750. Substituting these in [4025], it becomes as in [4026].
t (2535) If in the general formulas [3854—3856], we change P, P,, P„, into
8, 3,, p„, the expression [3854] will become like the first of the functions [4025a] ; [4027o]
J , , . , d 13 ddp
and by making the same changes in [3856], we shall get the values of — , —
160 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
In conformity to the remark we have made in [3720], these two great
[4027"] inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn must be applied respectively to their
mean motions.
[4027]. In like manner, by changing, in [3854—3856], P, P,, P„, into A, A,, A„,
the formula [3854] will become as in the second of the functions [4025a], and [3856]
[4027c] will give the values of —, —  [4027'].
VI.iii.§18'] DEPENDING ON THE OBLATENESS OF THE SUN.
161
CHAPTER III.
PERTURBATIONS DEPENDING ON THE ELLIPTICITY OF THE SUN.
18'. Since the sun is endowed with a rotatory motion, its figure will
not be perfectly spherical. We shall now investigate the effect of its
ellipticity on the motions of the planets ; putting
p = the ellipticity of the sun, expressed in parts of its radius ;
q = the ratio of the centrifugal force to the gravity at the sun's equator ;
(X = the sine of the planet's declination relative to the sun's equator ;
D = the sun's semidiameter ;
1 = the sun's mass, usually called M ;
R = {?\fi)^'i^'\)'
Symbols.
[4028]
then it will follow, from [1812], that the sun's ellipticity adds to the vaiuoof
function R [913], the quantity* dependine
on the
ellipticity.
[4029]
* (2536) We shall suppose m', m", ??i"', &c. to represent the particles of the sun's
mass ; considering it as being composed of concentrical elliptical strata of variable densities,
symmetrically arranged about its centre of gravity, taken as the origin of the coordinates
of these particles x', y' , £ ; x", y"
&ic. The coordinates of the attracted planet m
being represented by x, y, z, and its distance from the sun 7=\/(.r^j )/^fc^). In
this case, the expression of R [91.3] will be reduced to its last temi 7?= — — ;
{xx'+yy'+zz')
any term of the form
because
depending on the particle m', whose coordinates
are x', y', s^, is destroyed by a similar term, depending on an equal particle m', whose
coordinates are — x', — y', — 2'. Substituting, in [4029è], the value of X [914],
VOL. III. 41
[4029a]
[40296]
[4029c]
162 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[4030] If we notice only this part of R, and put fdR = g^R; g being a
constant quantity ; we shall find, that the differential equation in r 6r
[926, 928'] becomes, by neglecting* the square of tJ.,
[4031] 0=^^^ + ^^— + 2^+^ ^ .t
neglecting terms of the order m' m", and using the sign / to represent the sum of the
[4029dl terms depending on all the particles, we get iî = — C'TTr', ,„ , , , ,„ , , , —.
This expression of R corresponds to that of — V in [1385"', 1386], m' being the attracting
particle, and \/ \ {x' — a,)^ \ {y — y)^ { {z' — z)^ } its distance from the attracted planet ;
hence iî = — V; and by substituting the value of V [1812], we get
[4029e] « — —,.— ra •JU.[iJ. s).
The last term being multiplied by D^, to render it homogeneous with the first, because
in [1812, 1795"], the semidiameter of the body M is put equal to unity, and here it is
[4029/] supposed to be D. Again, by comparing [1670', 4028], we get a.(p = q; also by
comparing [1801, &lc., 4028], we get o.h = p. Substituting these in [40296], we obtam
[4029^] ^7 r3 Mii^—s).
Now if the sun were of a spherical form, with no rotatory motion, we should have
M
[4029A] P = 0, 7^0, and then J? = — — [4209^]. Subtracting this from the general value
of R [4029^'], we get the part of it depending on the sun's ellipticity, namely,
[4029i] R^_^Illl^t^.M.ii^^—^),
and by putting, as in [4028], the sun's mass Jlf = 1, it becomes as in [4029].
* (2537) The inclination of the sun's equator to the ecliptic is less than 8'^, and its sine
[4030a] j^ ^g^^jy ^^ g^ ^j^^j ^2 „j„st be less than {if, or ^3; which may be neglected in
[4030t] comparison with ^ 5 and then [4029] becomes R = — ^.(P — s?)"^
t (2538) Substituting, in [926], the value of rPt'=r. (— ) [928'], also i^=n^a^
,100], we get
d2.(,v5r) , ,fia?.rSr , „^,„ t /dR\
[40316] 0=±^ + ^^~ + 2fàR + r.(jy).
[4031a]
^ ^ [3700], we get
Now the value of R [4030&], depending on the sun's ellipticity, gives
[4031c] fdR^i.{?hq)D'fà.'^ = h{pii)^+g; '••C^)=(''*?)Tr^
VI.iii.§lS'.] DEPENDING ON THE OBLATENESS OF THE SUN. 163
To determine the constant quantity g, we shall observe, that the formula
[931] gives, in àv, the quantity*
3a.ngt + {^ — h(]) ' — .lit; [4032]
a'
n t denoting the mean motion of the planet ; this quantity must be equal
to zero ; therefore we have
ST = ^ ^ .
^ 3 «3
Hence the differential equation in r&r becomes, by neglecting the square
of c, and observing that na'^^=\ [3709'] ,t
+ ^l^Mï , n~. Z). { 1 + 3 e . COS. (n t + i — ^)].
but from [4031c], we get
a?'
3a/diî + 2ar.(^)==3«i^ + (pAî).^ = 3«^ + (pH)'
[4032']
[4033]
[4033']
[4034]
substituting tliese in [40316J, we get [4031]. We may observe, that the symbol (J [4031a]
is entirely different from that in [4028].
* (2539) The constant quantity g is to he found, as in note 699, Vol. I, page 550, by
putting the terms of [931], multiplied by t, or rather by ^oZT^)' equal to nothing.
These terms are evidently produced by the two last terms of [931],
3 afn dt.fdR + 2afndt.r. 0^^ ; [4032a]
[40326]
noticing merely the term a of the value of r, which is evidently the only part which affects
the coefficient of t, now under consideration. Multiplying this last expression by ndt,
and integrating, it becomes as in [4032], which represents the part of ô v, connected with [4032c]
the factor t. Putting this equal to nothing, we get [4033].
t (2540) We have r = a.\l—e. cos. ( n < + s — w ) } [3747], neglecting e^ ; ^^^g^^,^
hence we get, by using [4033'],
i = 1 .n + 3 e . cos. (ni4s — zi)\=^nm + 3e. cos. (n t + t—z,)]; [4034i]
substituting this, and g [4033], in [4031], we get [4034].
164 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
This gives, by integration,*
[4035] ^ = i.(p — 19).^.^ — 3e.«^.sin.(«< + f — «)}.
The elliptical part of  is 1 — 2 e . cos. (nt + s — zi) [3876a] ; and
if we suppose w to vary by 6^^, we shall have [3876f/],t
[4036] g =r — eô'a . sin. (nt{ s — w).
* (2541) This integration is made as in [865 — 871"], putting rSr^^y'; hence [4034]
becomes, by connecting together the terms depending on e,
[4035a] o = ^+n^.y'—i.{p—hq)n^D^+\n^y'\i.{p—iq).7v'D^.3e.cos.{nt\e—:;!).
[40356] Putting y'^y]^.(p — ^q).D'^, and neglecting the term of the order ye, or e^, we get
[4035c] = j^l^ n^ y + 2 . {f ~i q) . 71^. D^. e .COS. {n t \ s — zi);
[4035rf] which is of the same form as [865a, 870', 871'], changing a or m into n, s into s — w,
a fir into 2.(p — ^q)n^. D~.e, and then [871"] becomes
y = — ^ — .sin.(?t < + £ — «) = — (p — iq) 711 .D^.e .sin. Çnt\e — to) ;
substituting this in y' or rSr [4035i], we get
[4035e] r5r = i.(p — i<?).D2 — (p — iy).ni.I32.e.sin. (n^£ — to);
dividing this by «^, we obtain [4035]. We may remark, that the term of the form
air. cos. {nf{i — to) [871'J is included in the elliptical motion, and it is not necessary
to notice this term in the present calculation.
V Ô r
■f (2542) Comparing together the expressions of — j [3876^, 4035], we find, that
if the coefficients of sin. (7it\s — to) be put equal to each other, we shall get
D
[4036a] — e ^5 TO = i . ( p— i Ç ) . — . ( — 3e .7it);
whence we obtain 'îis, as in the first equation [4037]. The second expression [4037] is
deduced from the first by the substitution of n = a ^ [3709']. Again, since the
formula [4035] does not contain a term depending on n t . cos. {71 i \ e — to), and
[4036c] in [3876] this cosine is connected with the factor ôe, we shall have (îe = 0. The
VI.iii.§18'.] DEPENDING ON THE OBLATENESS OF THE SUN. 166
If we compare this expression of % with the preceding, we shall obtain ^^^ ,^^
"" of the
perihelion f
rjo T) f arising
6^=.(p_i9).^.nï = (pè7).^ [4036«,6]; [4037]
W ^ from the
Ct oblateneai
of Ihe
3UU, is
therefore the most sensible effect of the ellipticity of the sun, upon the motion '"«nsibie.
of a planet in its orbit, is a direct motion in its perihelion ; but this motion [4037']
being in the inverse ratio of the square root of the seventh power of the
greater axis of the planetary ellipsis, îve see that it cannot be sensible except [4038]
in Mercury [4036/],
To find the effect of the sun^s ellipticity upon the position of the orbit,
we shall resume the third of the equations [915]. This equation may be
put under the following form,*
d,lz n^a^.z , f(lR\
^^dr^^ + yiû)' f4039]
2:2
We shall take the solar equator for the fixed plane, which gives n^= — ^ [4039']
[4040fl] ; then by observing that r = x^ + ^/^+z', we shall havef
— j = 3.(p — i9).^^5— .3; [4040]
constant part of —3 , which is nearly equal to that of — , is represented in the present
case by the first term of the second member of [4035] ; so that we shall have
'i^i.{9iq).^, [4036^]
as in [4042]. Now we shall see, in [4262 — 4265'], that if the sun be homogeneous,
we shall have, for the orbit of the planet Mercury, 5j3 = (p — ^q) . — .<=0',012.? nearly [4036c]
[4265] ; and this expression is much smaller for the other planets, on account of 4he divisor a^ ;
so that it produces only 12°" in a thousand years for Mercury, and is much less for the other [4036/"]
planets. The quantity 5 r [4036'/, 4260 — 4263] is evidendy insensible.
* (2543) Substituting i>.^n^ a^ [3700] in the third equation [915], it becomes [4039a]
as in [4039].
t (2544) In [4028], (a is put for the sine of the planet's declination above the plane [403951
of the sun's equator, its perpendicular distance above this plane being z, and its distance
VOL. III. 42
166 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[4041]
hence the preceding differential equation becomes*
dch
now by what precedes [4036f/], we have
[4042] ^=i.(ply).^^;
hence we obtain
[4043] = ^" + n^..l+2.(pic).^'.
This gives, by integration, f
[4044] z = ip .sin. <nt . (1 + (p — I q) • ~^ ) — 4?
[4045]  being the inclination of the orbit to the solar equator,! and d an arbitrary
z
[4040o] from the sun's centre r; hence we evidently have (a^; also r = y/(x^ j y^ 4" ~^)
[914']. Substituting this value of fA in [4029], we get
[4040i] ij_(p_iç).D2.^E:__L^.
/ d r\ z
Taking its partial differential relatively to z, neglecting z^, and observing that i—]=,
we get
[4040c] (^) = (pi<?).i3^.^? + i^ = 3.(pi<?).f.z.
1 1 _ 7l2
î"5 «5 o2
1 1 n~
Retaining only the constant part of r, we may put  = — = —  [3709'], and then the
preceding expression [4040c] becomes as in [4040].
* (2545) Noticing only the terms of r, depending on the sun's ellipticity, we may put,
[4041a] as in [4036c/] , r=zaj5r, whence ==.n '^j. Substituting this and [4040]
in [4039], we get [4041] ; and if we use [4036(^], it becomes as in [4043].
t (2546) Comparing [865', 4043], we get y = z, a = n .U j {p — ^q) . — ^,
" by neglecting (p — hlT Substituting these in the first value of y [864a]; changing
also b into <p, and (p into — ê, we get [4044].
X (2547) The sine of the declination is equal to  [4040a], and its greatest value
[4045a] is equal to  [4044] or  nearly ; which evidently represents the sine of the
inclination of the orbit to the solar equator.
VI. iii. § 18'.] DEPENDING ON THE OBLATENESS OF THE SUN. 167
[4045']
[4046]
constant quantity. Tims the nodes of the orbit on this equator have a
retrograde motion equal to the direct motion of the perihelion, and which
cannot therefore be sensible, except in the orbit of Mercury* At the same
time ive see that the sun'' s ellipticity has no influence on the excentricity of the
planeCs orbit [4046f ], or on the inclination of this orbit to the solar equator ;
it cannot therefore alter the stability of the planetary system.
* (2548) It is evident from the form of the angle, which occurs in [4044], that the
D
retrograde motion of the node in tJie time t is represented by nt . {^ — J?)t7) [4046a]
because the body is in the node wjien c = 0, and it completes its revolution, to the
same node, while the angle nt {nt .{if — è <p) . 5 increases by 360''; the mean [40466]
periodical revolution being performed in the time t, which makes nt = 360'' [4032'].
Hence it is evident, that the retrograde motion of the node in the time t is nearly equal to
the difference of these quantities, as in [4046a], being the same as the direct motion of the
perihelion [4037]. As (5e = [4036c], the excentricity is not affected by the sun's [4046c]
ellipticity, neither does it affect the inclination  of the planet's orbit to the sun's equator
[4045a], which is constant, because ç is one of the constant quantities obtained by integration.
The results found in this chapter agree with those found by Mr. Plana in the Memoirs
of the Royal Society of London, Vol. II, page 344, &c., noticing the term neglected by [4046rfl
La Place in [4030] ; makmg also the computation directly from the formulas [5788—5791],
and carrying on the approximation to a rather greater degree of accuracy.
168 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS, [Méc. Cél.
[4047]
CHAPTER IV.
PERTURBATIONS OF THE MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS, ARISING FROM THE ACTION OF THEIR SATELLITES.
19. The theorems of ^10, Book II [442", &c.], afford a simple and
accurate method of ascertaining the perturbations of the planets from tlie action
of their satellites. We have seen, in [451', &;c.], that the common centre
of gravity of the planet and its satellites, describes very nearly an elliptical
orbit about the sun. If we consider this common orbit as the ellipsis of the
planet ; the relative position of the satellites, compared with each other and
with the sun, will give the position of the planet, relative to this common
centre of gravity, consequently also the perturbations which the planet suffers
from its satellites. Let
M^ the mass of the planet ;
Symbol.. Ji :^ ^j^g radlus vector of the common orbit, or the orbit of the centre of gravity
of the planet and satellites, the origin being the sun's centre ;
V == the angle formed by the radius R, and the invariable line, taken in
the comm07i orbit, as the origin of the longitudes ;
m, ml, &c. the masses of the satellites ;
[4048] r, /■', &c. the radii vectores of the satellites, the origin being the common
centre of gravity of the planet and its satellites ;
V, v', &c. the longitudes of the satellites, referred to this common centre ;
s, s', &c. the latitudes of the satellites above the common orbit, and
viewed from the common centre ;
X, Y, Z the rectangular coordinates of the planet ; taking the common
centre of gravity of the planet and its satellites for their origin ;
the radius R for the axis of X ; and for the axis of Z the line
perpendicular to the plane of the common orbit.
VI.iv.§19.] ARISING FROM THE ACTION OF THEIR SATELLITES. 169
We shall have very nearly, from the properties of the centre of gravity,
and by observing that the masses of the satellites are very small, in
comparison, with that of the planet,*
= MX + mr. cos. ( v — f/) + m' r'. cos. (v' —U) + &c. ;
0=^MYimr. sin. ( i' — C/) + m' r'. sin. {v'—U) + hc.\ [4050]
= M Z + m . r s + m', r s + &c.
The perturbation of the radius vector is nearly equal to X; consequently
it is equal to Perturba
tions.
.r. cos. Ct; — U) .r'.cosJv' — U) — &c.=: Perturbation of radius vector. [4051]
The perturbation of the motion of the planet in longitude, as seen from the
r
R
— ^•Bsin,(t; — U) —  . — .sin.(v' — U) — &c. = Perturbation in longitude. [4052]
wU cCr Jim. JAj
Y
sun, is very nearly — ; therefore it is equal to
m r
* (2549) If we let fall from the points where the bodies M, in, m', &IC. are situated,
perpendiculars upon the axes of X, Y, Z, the distances of these perpendiculars from [4050a]
the common centre of gravity of the planet and its satellites, taken as the origin, will be,
respectively, as follows;
On the axis of X ; X; r . cos. {v — U) ; ?•'. cos. {v' — U), &,c. ; [40506]
On the axis of F; Y ; r . sin. {v— U) ; r' . sin. {v — U), &c. ; [4050c]
On the axis of Z ; Z ; r s ; r's',hc. nearly. [4050d]
Multiplying the distances [4050/^] by the masses M, m, m, &c. ; and taking the sum of [4050c]
these products, it will become equal to nothing, by means of the first of the equations [124] ;
hence we get the first of the equations [4050]. In like manner, by multiplying the
distances, measured on the axis of Y, by M, m, m!, &ic., respectively, and putting the sum [4050/"]
of the products equal to nothing, we get the second of the equations [4050]. The third of
these equations is formed by a similar sum, corresponding to the axis of Z. From
Y Z
these three equations, we may find the values of X, —, —, as in [4051,4052, 4053];
and as the radius R, or axis X, passes through the place of the common centre of gravity,
Y Z
it is evident that these quantities X, —, — will represent, respectively, the perturbations [4050^]
of the radius vector, of the longitude and of the latitude, conformably to what is said above.
VOL. III. 43
170 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
Lastly, the perturbation of the motion of the planet in latitude, as seen from
the sun, is very nearly ^ ; hence it is nearly equal to
m rs m! r' s' c r» i • • i • i
[4053] ■ — IT; • p^ M ' ~R "^ Perturbation m latitude.
These different perturbations are sensible only in the earth, disturbed by the
moon. The masses of Jujnter^s satellites are very small in comparison with
that of the planet, and their elongations, seen from the sun, are so very
[4054] small, that these perturbations of Jupiter are insensible. There is every
reason to believe that this is also the case for Saturn and Uranus.
VI. v.§20.] ELLIPTICAL PART OF THE RADIUS VECTOR. 171
CHAPTER V.
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ELLIPTICAI. PART OF THE RADIUS VECTOR, AND ON THE MOTION OF A PLANET.
20. We have determined, in [1017, &c.], the arbitrary constant
quantities, so that the mean motion and the equation of the centre may
not be changed by the mutual action of the planets. Now we have, in
the elliptical hypothesis,* — y— == **"5 ^^^^ ''^('^^ of the sun being put equal [4055]
to unity. Hence we obtain
2.
a = n ' . (1 + X»i) ; [4056]
for the semitransverse axis, which must be used in the elliptical part
of the radius vector.
If we suppose, in conformity to the principles assumed in [4078 —
4079, &c.], that
«==n~*; a'=n'~'\ &c. ; [4057]
we must increase a, a', &c. in the calculation of the elliptical part of the
• (2550) This is the same as [3700], putting, as in [3709a], iJ. = M\m, and
M^l, as in [4055]. From this we get
a = 7i'~^.(lf m)^ = n~"^.(l + im — T^V^^+^O; [4056o]
which, by neglectmg terms of the order m^, becomes as in [4056].
172
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. Cél.
[4058] radius vector by the quantities ^m a,
\ m a.
Stc. respectively ; but this
Increment
of the
radius
augmentation is only sensible in the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.
* (2551) The values of a", ce', for Jupiter and Saturn [4079], are respectively
augmented by the correction [4058], in the expressions [4451, 4510]. The similar
augmentation, corresponding to the other great planet Uranus, is ^m"o", which, by using
[4058a]
[40586]
?»'' [4061], becomes
If this quantity were an arc of the planet's orbit,
[4058c]
[4058rf]
58512
perpe7i(Ucu1ar to the radius vector, it would subtend only an angle of 3'~,6, when viewed
from the sun ; but being in the direction of the radius vector, it produces no change in the
longitude, seen from the sun ; or from the earth, when the planet is in conjunction or in
opposition. The most favorable situation for augmenting the effect of this correction, in
the geocentric longitude of the planet, is when the earth is nearly at its greatest angle
of elongation from the sun, as seen from the planet. This angle for the planet Uranus
is quite small, its sine being represented by — ; = j^ nearly [4079] ; and as the above
correction 3°",6 is to be diminished in the same ratio, it produces only 0'',2 for the greatest
possible effect of this augmentation of the radius, in changing the place of the planet Uranus,
as seen from the earth ; consequently this correction is wholly insensible.
[4058e]
We have already observed in the commentary in Vol. I, page 561, that Mr. Plana
makes some objections to the introduction of the constant quantity^, in the integral [1012'],
and he has also urged similar remarks against the use of the constant quantities _/), f^
[1015'], in finding the integral i5m [1015] ; but a little consideration will show, that these
objections do not apply to the accuracy of the results, or to the astronomical tables founded
upon them ; but merely to the most convenient way of ascertaining, as a mere matter of
curiosity, the orbit a body would describe if it were not acted upon by the disturbing force,
or of computing the whole effect of the disturbing force in a given time. This subject has
been discussed very ably by Mr. Poisson, in the Connaissance des Terns for the year 1831,
[4058/"] pag. 23 — 33 ; and we shall, in the remaining part of this note, avail ourselves of his remarks.
The complete integrals of the three differential equations [545], which determine the
coordinates x, y, z, of the planet referred to the sun's centre as their origin, contain
six arbitrary constant quantities [571«], which we shall denote by a, h, c, Sec. ; and the
same is true in using the polar coordinates r, v, s; as we have already seen, in [602"],
in the Jirst ajrproximation, where the disturbing forces are neglected, and the simple elliptical
motion obtained. In a second approximation, in which we notice only the first power
of the disturbing forces, we may put &r, Sv, 5 s for the increments of r, v, s ; and then
the integrations being made, as in [1015, &:c., 1021, 1030], will introduce six new arbitrary
constant quantities, a', b', d, &;c. ; these accented letters being taken for symmetry, instead
0Î g, fi, fl, &.C., used by La Place. A third approximation includes terms of the second
order of the disturbing forces, and by similar integrations, produces six other constant
quantities o", h" , c", Sic, and so on successively. If ive restrict ourselves to the second
[4058g
[4058;i]
[4058i]
VI.v.s^20.] ELLIPTICAL PART OF THE RADIUS VECTOR. 173
We must then apply to the radius vector the corrections given by the
approximation, neglecting terms of the order of the square of the disturbing forces, tlie [40584]
polar coordinates will be r\6r, v\5v, s\&s, containing the twelve constant quantities
a, h, c, &,c. ; «', 6', d, &ic., which must, by the nature of the question, be reduced to six
only, or to six distinct functions Jl, B, C, D, E, F, of these twelve quantities. The [4058i]
values of A, B, C, &;c. may be determined by the position, velocity, and direction of the
planet at a given moment ; or by the comparison of the values of r\ô r, v\Sv, s \ ôs,
with those deduced from observation ; in each case the result will be fixed and determined.
On the contrary, we may assume at pleasure any values of a, b', c', &c. ; and the values [4058m]
thus assigned to these terms, will determine absolutely the quantities a, b, c, fee, which
differ but little from A, B, C, he. on account of the smallness of the disturbing forces.
If we wish that or, Sv, &s should express the effects produced by the disturbing forces
011 the radius vector, the longitude and the latitude of the disturbed planet ; we must
determine a, b, c, &.c. so that the elliptical coordinates r, v, s, and their differential
coefficients —, —, — , may represent the position, the velocity, and the direction of
dt dt dt
the planet at the commencement of this interval of time ; and afterwards determine
a, I', (,•', &ic., so that we may have at the same epoch
0,
&v = 0, (is=^0;
d.ir
~dt
= 0,
lit
= 0,
d.Ss
~di
= 0.
At the end of the time t, counted from the same epoch, r will be the distance of the planet
from the sun, wliich will obtain, if the disturbing force cease to act from the commencement,
and r will be the augmentation of distance produced by this force. Similar remarks
may be made relative to the quantities v, Sv ; or s, Ss. If we determine a', b', d by other
conditions, the perturbations of the troubled orbit will no longer be loholly expressed by the
quantities 5 r, S v, S s ; because the elliptical parts r, v, s, are also affected by means
of the constant quantities a, b. c, Sic, tvhich partake of the disturbing forces, and are
different from what they would be if these forces were suppressed. But this is not attended
with any inconvenience ; since it does not prevent these complete values of r [ 5 r,
v\Sv, s {5 s, from representing, at every instant, the true position of the planet, wliich
is the object of the tables of its motion, into which tliese values are finally reduced.
Instead of considering directly the increments ô r, 6 v, ô s, of the elliptical orbit, we
may use the method depending on the variation of the arbitrary constant quantities ;
supposing Sa, Sb, S c, &c. to be the increments of the constant quantities a, b, c, he.,
contained in r, v, s. These six variable quantities S a, Sb, S c, &c. will be given by
direct integration of formulas similar to [1177], or like those collected together in the
appendix [5786 — 5791], supposing that we neglect the second and higher powers of the
disturbing forces. These values will then be of the forms,
(5a=^o, + a; Sb = b^\ fi; Sc^c,{y, he.
VOL. III. 44
[4058n]
[4058o]
[4058p]
[40589]
[4058r]
[4058*]
[4058*']
[4058f
174 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
formulas of Book II, ^50 [1020, &c.], and bj the preceding articles
[4058u]
rt, , b^, c, being new arbitrary constant quantities, and a, p, y, &c. functions of t, and
of a, h, c, &.C. Substituting a\ôa, b{Sb, c\Sc, &.C. for a, b, c, he. in the values
of r, V, s, we shall obtain for the coordinates of the disturbed planet, expressions which
are equivalent to the preceding values of r ] 5 r, v \ôv, s { 8 s. The constant
[4058t)] quantities «^, f>^, c^, &c., as well as a, p, y, Sic, are of the order of the disturbing
forces; therefore, by neglecting terms of the second order, as in [4053s'J, we may put,
in the values of a, p, y, &,c.; a + », for a, ^ + 6, for p, c+c, for c, Sic;
by which means afa,! ^f"^,j c+c,, he. will be the six arbitrary constant
quantities, which occur in the values of r\5r, v \ S v, s\Ss. This shows how the
arbitrary constant quantities, contained in the coordinates of the disturbed planet, as found
by the two first approximations, are reduced to the number corresponding to the system
of dilTerential equations upon which they depend.
[4058u»]
If ive ivish to chtermint the total effect of the disturbing forces upon each of
the elliptical elements, during a given time, we must find, as above, the constant quantities
[4058r] a, b, c, &c.; by means of the position, the velocity, and the direction of the planet
at the commencement of this interval of time; and tlien the constant quantities a^, b^, c, ,
by means of the equations
[i058y] a fa =3 0, 6^p = 0, c^{.y=zO, kc,
corresponding to the same instant. The effect of the disturbing force at the end of any
proposed time t, will be expressed by means of the quantities 5 a, Sb, So, &c., which will
then contain nothing arbitrary. This is practised in the theory of comets, In wiilch the
[40582] values of Sa, 5b, 5 c, he. are calculated, by quadratures, for the interval of time between
the two successive appearances of a comet.
These general considerations agree with the method used by La Place in the second
book of this work. In the abovementioned paper of the Connaissance des Terns for the
year 1831, page 29, he., Mr. Poisson has applied these principles to the investigation
of the effect of the whole disturbing force of a planet m', upon another planet m, moving
f4059al in the same plane. The radius vector and the longitude of the planet m being affected by
this action, but not its latitude, because the bodies m, m' move in the same plane. In this
case, the six arbitrary constant quantities mentioned in [4058/], are reduced to four.
If we neglect terms of the order e^ in the elliptical motion of the body rn, the expressions
of the radius vector and longitude [669, 605'], become
[40596]
[4059c] r=^a — ae .cos. {n t \ s — n) ;
[4059d] t) = n < + s + 2 e . sin. {ni\e — ra ) ;
[4059c] n^a^ = M^m = !x.
If we suppose the body m to begin to disturb the motion of m at the commencement
VI. v.§20.] ELLIPTICAL PART OF THE RADIUS VECTOR. 175
[3706 — 4058]. The expression of àr [1020] contains these two terms,
ir = — m' a .fe . cos. (7it~\ s — ra) — ni' a ./' e'. cos. (nt{ ; — ra') ; [4059]
of the time t, we may determine the effect of the perturbation of the radius vector by
means of the value of Sr [1016], in whicii the arbitrary constant quantities are retained. [4059/"]
The expression o{ &v [I021] would give the perturbations in longitude, if particular values
had not been assigned to the arbitrary constant quantities g, f, f. To obviate this
objection, we must retain these arbitrary quantities as they are found in the functions
\\02\b, c, f/, e], whose sum is assumed in the first line of the note in page 556, Vol. I [4059gJ
[1021e — /], for the value of S v. In order to simplify this calculation, it will be convenient
to change the form of the terms depending on /, /' ; by developing the sines and cosines
of the angles nt\s — «, 7it^s — ra', into terms depending on sin. ?i ^, cos. jj f,
by the method used in [1023((] ; and changing the values of the arbitrary constant
quantities /, /', so that the part of the expression of — [1016], depending upon them, [4059A]
may be put under the form /. cos. n t +./ '• sin. n t. The corresponding terms of the value [40.59t]
of 5 r may be found by multiplying this expression by 2, and changing the angle n t into
n ( j 90'' ; as is evident, by comparing the terms of — [1016], depending on f, f,
with those of ay [1021i]; hence these terms of àv become — 2f .s\n. nt\2f'. cos. nt. [405941
We may also add an arbitrary constant quantity h, to the part of <S v, computed in either
of the integrations [1021 rf, f], and retain the terms
m'.ant.j3g\a. f — — j ^ [1021t?, e], [4059J]
which were put equal to nothing in [102iy]. Making these changes in the expressions
or
of —, Sv [1016, 1021] ; neglecting the other terms of the order c or e', because this
degree of accuracy is sufficient in our present calculation, which is only designed for the
purpose of illustration ; and supposing also, for brevity, as in [1018a],
[4059m]
v = n — n'; T=7i't — nt + s' — s; G = a\ (^^) ~{ ^ . a jî%
we get
— = — 2m'.ag—im'. a^. ( — — ^ + J m'. n^. 2 . — . cos. i T4f. cos.nt4 f. sin. n t ; [4059n]
o \ da J f^v^ — n^
&v = h — 'if.%m.nt\2f'.cos.nt>rm'.nt.'X3ag + a^.(^^\i
Cna .,., 2n3. G ? . . _,
which are substantially the same as the equations (5), (6), of Mr. Poisson, in the paper
[4059o]
176
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
f and f being determined by the two following equations, given in [1018],
[4059p]
[4059c]
[4059;]
abovementioned ; observing, that i includes all integral numbers, positive and negative,
except i= [1012'] ; whereas he only uses the positive values of i. Now if we use
the expression of g [1017], the terms depending on nt will vanish from &v, and then
& r [1020] will contain the constant part  m . a''
da
but this is not the whole
[40595]
[4059<]
effect of the disturbing force upon the radius vector ; because a part of this perturbation is
introduced in the value of 7!, which is affected by the value of g, assumed in [1017],
and n is connected with a by means of the equation [4059c].
We shall, for greater simphcity, take, as the epoch, the instant of the mean conjunction
of the planets m, m' ; so that we shall then have < = 0, r=0 ; also s' = s. We shall
also suppose that the body m', at that instant, commences its action upon the radius vector,
and upon the longitude of the body m. Now we may find, from the tables of the planet's
motion, the numerical values of r, v, —, —, when t = Q; and these are to be put
equal to the values deduced from [4059c, f/]. These four equations, being combined
with [4059e], determine the constant quantities n, a, e, s, w ; and then the formulas
[4059c, t1] determine the elliptical motion, which obtains, if the disturbing force cease to
act at the epoch ^ = 0. This being premised, we must put t^O, T=^0 [4059r],
in the four equations [4058o],
d.èr „ d.ôv
dt
[4059m]
[4059t)]
[4059«i]
iSr^O; , 6v^0; ^=0; ^=0;
and by substituting in them the values [4059», o], we may obtain the values of the four
arbitrary constant quantities g, f, f, h, introduced by the second approximation.
If we substitute these values of g,f,f', h, in 5r, Sv [4059n,o], they will express, at the
end of the time t, the effect of the disturbing force during that time. Now the differential
of 5r [4059?i], relative to t, being found, and substituted in the third equation [4059<],
gives /'=0, when t = 0, T^O [4059/]. With this value of /', and those of
5v [4059o, «], together with < = 0, T= 0, we get A = 0. Substituting these values
d.6v
of t, h, f, in the equations ^j = 0,
we obtain the follow ng equations,
■d.û<0)
dt
= [4059<], using also the values [4059n, o],
= — 2 m'. a g — J m', ft^.
da
+ i7}i'.n^.S.
!v9
/;
0== — 2/n + ?«'.«. ^Saj+fl^.r^^^^^—Jm'. 2.^^. «^o
2 «3. G
[4059:c]
Multiplying the equation [4059i;] by 2 n, and adding the product to [4059io] we find
that the terms depending on /, G, ( —: J , vanish from the sum, which becomes
= — m. nag — J m'. 2 . — . a A^''' ;
VI.v.§20.] ELLIPTICAL PART OF THE RADIUS VECTOR. 177
[4060]
[m9y]
whence s; = — — . 2 . .^ '\ Substituting this in [4059y], we get
/= — • 2 . A'^ + i m'. «2. ( — — — I m'. n^ 2 . :^^ —  .
By means of the values of /', /(, g, f [4059it, y], the expressions [4059m, o] become
— = .2.^^''.(1 — COS.ÎtO irn.rt^. .(1 COS.?in
a V \ d a /
f. _ [40592]
+ i m. 11^. 2 .— —; ; • (cos. i T — cos. n ;
C San .,., , „ /d.mx}
2\
[4059z']
[40600]
[40606]
If we retain merely the nonperiodical parts of r, v, 5r, Sv [4059f, d, z, s'], and
resubstitute the value of v [4059m], we shall get
, ^ , m'.a^n .... . , „ fd.m\
' ' »i— n \da /
v45v = nt\i^m'.nt.]^ . 2. ^'^fa^. (— — )C ;
' ' ' t 2.()i— 7i') \ da / !) '
for the expressions of the mean distance and mean longitude of the planet m
The expressions of the same mean distance and mean longitude, according to La Place's
calculation [1020, 1021], are
r\àr = a\\m:.a^.(^^\, v + àv = nt. [4060c]
The differences between these values, and those in [4060a, &], are merely apparent, and
arise from using different values of n, a, in [4060c] from those in [4060a, i]. To
render this evident, we shall suppose, for a moment, that n, t represents the mean motion
of the planet m, derived from observation ; then, by putting the coefficient of t, in the
equation [40606], equal to n^t, we shall have
, / <^ 3an ^ am i 2 f dA^ ^ ^ [4060d]
^ i 2.(n— 7i') ' \ da J <)
VOL. III. 45
178 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
The preceding part of the radius vector [4059] may be united in the same
table with the elliptical part of the radius.*
Let a, be the value of a, deduced from the equation a = fA^.?i '•' [4059f], when
'• *■' n, is substituted for ?t ; so that this equation holds good for a, n, and also for «^ , n, ;
we shall have successively, by development, neglecting the square of n, — n,
Substituting in this the value of n^ — n [4060cZ], we get, by transposition,
[4000^] «=«'+«»•«• 12:i;;=;ô'^+"V^) I •
This value of a being substituted in [4060«], we find, that the parts depending on A''''
destroy each other, and we have
/ d A'O'i \
[4060/i] '• + (5 ?• = a, + ^ ?«'. a^. \~J^) •
Now as we neglect terms of the oi'der m ^, we may change a into «, , in the part depending
on ^"" ; and then the expression [4060/t] becomes of the same form as in [4060f] ; being
equivalent to that found by La Place. This calculation serves to illustrate and confirm his
[40(j0i] method of calculation ; and shows, at the same time, how we can dispose of the additional
arbitrary constant quantities, which are introduced by the integrations of 6 ?•, Sv; so as to
conform to the actual situations and motions of the attracting bodies ; and to investigate the
part of the effect of the disturbing forces, that we have particularl}' considered in this note.
* (2552) We have here omitted a clause, in which the author directs, that the sign
[4060ft] of the term of f, depending on cldA^^'', should be changed; because we have previously
corrected the mistake, and given the accurate expression of /' in [1021g], which agrees
with that in [4060].
VI. vi.<^21.]
NUMERICAL ELEMENTS.
179
CHAPTER VI.
NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE DIFFERENT QUANTITIES WHICH ENTER INTO THE EXPRESSIONS OF Till;
PLANETARY INEaUALITIES.
21. To reduce to numbers, the formulas contained in the second book
and in the preceding chapters, we shall use the following data ;
Masses of the Sun and Planets*
Sun, M = 1 ;
Mercury, m = ^^ ; log. m = 93,6934013 ;
Venus, m' =: j^ ; log. m' = 94,4166538 ;
The Earth, m" = j^^ ; log. m" = 94,4819733 ;
Mars, m"'== \^~ \ log. w"'= 93,7337490 ;
Jupiter, ^"=1^^ ; log m" = 96,9717990 ;
1067,09 °
Saturn, vf = ^±^ ; log. m" = 96,4737383 ;
Uranus, m"= "^^ ; log m"= 95,7098763.
* (2553) The factors l+fx, 1+(ji', Uc. in the values of m, m', &c. [4061], are
not inserted in the original work ; but as they are introduced in [4230'], and frequently
Masses
of the
planets,
the masi
of the
sun beiiii?
unity.
[4061 J
[4061o
180
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. Cél.
Of all these masses, that of Jupiter is the most accurately determined ;
it is obtained by means of the formula [709]. If we put T for the time
[40615]
[4061c]
Masses
finally
adopieil
by the
author.
[406 W]
used in computing the perturbations of the motions of the planets, it was thought best,
for the sake of convenient reference, to insert them in this place. When the author printed
this part of the work, he supposed, in conformity with the best observations, which could
then be procured, that the masses of the planets were as in the table [4061], putting each
of the quantities (x, (a', &ic. equal to zero. Since tliat time, he has been induced, by other
observations, to make successive corrections in these masses, as in [4605, 4608, 9161, &c.].
In his last edition of the Système du Monde, he adopts the following
Corrected Masses of the Planets.
^ (A =0; log. ??i =93,6934013;
^' =z — 0,0.56030 ; log. m = 94,3916120 ;
(a" = — 0,0T1297 ; log. m" = 94,4498499 ;
(;/"= — 0,275000 ; log. m'" = 93,5940870 ;
xi= — 0,003186 ; log. m'':= 96,9704133 ;
f;.^ = — 0,043451 ; log. m' == 96,4544455 ;
ij:'= 0,088514 ; log. m"'' = 95,7467105.
Saturn, nf =
Uranus, m'' =
The alterations here made in tlie values of »«', ?»"', are in conformity with the results of the
calculations of Burckhardt, in his late solar tables, by comparing the observed perturbations
[4061e] of the earth's orbit with the theory. The change in the value of m", arises from the
supposition, that the sun's horizontal parallax is nearly equal to 8',6 [5589], instead of 8^,8,
assumed in [4073]. Lastly, the values of nt", m'', m'", are obtained, by Mr. Bouvard,
from the observations used in constructing his new tables of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, by
comparing the theory with the actual perturbations depending upon their mutual attractions.
[4061/] Putting the values in [4061] equal to those in [4061fZ], respectively, we get the
corresponding values of (a, f.'/, he. [4061f/]. Lindeneau, in his tables of Mercury, printed
r4061ffl ill 1813, supposes that the mass of Venus ought to be increased to ajaVioJ making
j,'= 0,09643 nearly; to satisfy the perturbations of Mercury, by the action of Venus.
Encke, in his Astronomisches Jahrbuch for 1831, states, that the mass of Jupiter tû5 j.fls^ >
deduced by Nicolai, from the perturbations of Juno, agrees better with the observations
[40G1/I.] of Pallas and Vesta, than the mass adopted by La Place [4061, 4065], and that it probably
VI. vi.^21.] NUMERICAL ELEMENTS. 181
of the sidéral revolution of the planet m' ; T for that of one of its satellites ;
q for the sine of the greatest angle, under which the mean radius of the
orbit of this satellite appears, when viewed from the centre of the sun, [40G2]
at the mean distance of the planet from that centre ; then the mass of the
sun being taken for unity, that of the planet will be expressed by *
T
.,r!
\q\
7=— i; = mass of the planet. [4063]
T
[4061&]
agrees also better for Vesta. Comparing this with [4061], we get (a''' =0,012492. When [406lt]
we take into consideration that \he first value of fi''==0 [4061, 4065] is obtained from the
observed elongations of the sateUites of Jupiter; the secondvdXue, (a'= — 0,003186 [4061«/],
from the perturbations of Saturn and Uranus ; the third value, (^'=0,012492 [4061z],
from the perturbations of the newly discovered planets ; we shall not be surprised in finding
these small diflerences in the results of methods, which are so wholly independent of each
other. Nothing is known relatively to the masses of these new planets or the masses of the [4061ot]
comets, except that they are all very small ; so that their action on the other bodies of
the system is wholly insensible.
* (2554) This is deduced from [709], —^^ — .i—\, in which we must write [4062a]
I* for M, as is evident from [706'] ; and as m' represents the mass of the planet, in the
present notation, we have n = M + ?»'. Moreover p is the mass of the satellite [Î07'],
and M that of the sun [706'] ; h the mean distance of the satellite from the planet ;
a the mean distance of the planet from the sun ; so that — represents the quantity
we
[40626]
[4062c]
q [4062] ; hence the preceding equation [4062a] becomes  J^ , = ^^ / \ if
/ T \ 2 1
neglect p in comparison with m', and put JW= 1 ; also, for brevity, cf. (—\ =~ , we
a 1
get, as in [4063], m'=^ = —  . If we put r, p" for the mean densities of the [4062rf]
1_ fti
bodies m'', m"; also R'% R" for the radii ; we shall have nearly, as in [2106],
?«>'■= 4 * . piv. (/3iv^3 . ^v ^ I ^ ^ pv_ ^jiy^ [4062e]
Hence we easily obtain the relative densities of these two bodies, ^~ = — .(—] • [4062/1
pv m^ yR'" /
This may be used for ascertaining the densities of all the bodies, whose masses are known,
and whose apparent diameters have been well observed.
VOL. III. 46
182 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
We have, relatively to the fourth satellite,*
q = sin. 1530",38 = sin. 495',84 ;
[4064] T = 4332'")%602208 = 433244* 27" 10',8 ;
r= 16'^'",6890 = 16"16''32"'09,6.
From [4063, 4064], we obtain
[4065] m"
[4064a]
1067,09
The mass of Saturn is found by the same method ; supposing the sidéral
revolution of its sixth satellite to be 15"'''%9453 = 15"22"41'" 13',9, and
the greatest angle, under which the mean radius of the orbit of this satellite
appears, when viewed from the sun, in the mean distances of Saturn,
[4066] 552'',47=179'. The mass of Uranus has, in like manner, been obtained, by
supposing, conformably to the observations of Herschel, that the duration of
the sidéral revolution of its fourth satellite, is 13'''ys4559 = 13'10''56'"29',8;
[4067] jji^j ^]^Q mean radius of the orbit of tliis satellite, viewed from the sun,
at the mean distance of Uranus, 13S",512 = 44',23. But the greatest
elongations of the satellites of Saturn and Uranus have not been so
accurately ascertained as that of the fourth satellite of Jupiter. Observations
of these elongations deserve the careful attention of astronomers.
The mass of the earth is found in the following manner. If we take
the mean distance of the earth from the sun for unity, the arc described
by the earth, in a centesimal second of time, will be obtained by dividing
the circumference of a circle, whose radius is unity, by the number of
[4068] seconds in a sidéral year, 36525638"'',4. Dividing the square of this arc
[4068] by the diameter, we obtain its versed sine = — r;^»^ jf which is the space
the earth falls towards t!ie sun in a centesimal second, by means of its
relative motion about the sun. On the parallel of latitude, whose sine is
* (2555) The values of c/, T [4064], are nearly the same as those used in the theory
of this satellite [6781,6785] ; the value of T corresponds to the mean motion n'" [4077].
t (2556) The radius of the orbit being 1, its circumference is 6,28.318 nearly; if we
[4068a] divide this by 36525638,4, and take half the square of the product, we get the expression
of the versed sine, corresponding to this arc, as in [4068'].
VI. vi. }21.]
NUMERICAL ELEMENTS.
183
equal to \/}, the attraction of the earth causes a body to fall through
3""", 66553* ill one centesimal second. To deduce from tiiis the earth's
attraction at the mean distance of the earth from the sun, we must multiply
it by the square of the sine of the sun's parallax, and divide the product by
the number of metres contained in that distance. Now the earth's radius
on tlie proposed parallel, isf 6369374'™'; therefore, by dividing this
number by the sine of the sun's parallax, supposing it to be 2T',2 — S%8,
we obtain the mean radius of the earth's orbit, expressed in metres. Hence
it follows, that the effect of the attraction of the earth, at a distance equal
to that of the mean distance of the earth from the sun, is equal to the
product of ihe fraction i'^'^^., by the cube of the sine of 27",2 ;
^ bSbyi 1 4
consequently it is equal to J
10
Subtractins this fraction from
1479565
1033'
we obtain —
1479560,5
10
for the effect of the attraction of the sun,
[4069]
[4069']
[4070]
[4071]
[4071']
* (2557) This computation varies a little from that in [388"] or in [3SSf/] ; probably
owing to a small difference in the ellipticity, used in reducing the observations.
t (25.58) LT^sing the polar and equatorial semiaxes of the earth, 6356677™',
6375709"'"'' [2035i], whose difference is 19032""^', we find the radius corresponding to
the latitude, whose sine is /L, to be 6375709""=' — i X l9032'"'='= 6369365""^',
agreeing nearly with [4069'].
J (2559) Gravity decreases, in proceeding from the earth's surface, inversely, as the
square of the distance of the attracted point ; or as the square of the sine of the horizontal
parallax of that point nearly. Hence the earth's attraction, at the distance of the sun,
will cause a body to fall through a space represented by 3""",66553 X (sin. O's par.)"^,
in one centesimal second of time. To reduce this from metres to parts of the mean
distance of the earth from the sun, we must divide it by that distance, which is evidently equal
earth's radius 6369374 '"o' r n i i •
so that the space lallen through m a second, becomes
to
sin.27",2
\3.
sin. Os' par.
^ô^\~ ■ ■ (sin Q's par.)^ = , as in [4071'!. Now in [4063'], we have found, that
Doo9.!}/4 100 ■ " ■ •
the earth falls towards the sun, in the same time, by the combined action of the sua and
1479565 — 4,488.5 1479560,5
earth
1479565
10^0 '
nearly ; and as that of the earth is
hence the effect of the sun alone is
4,4885
low '
4,4885 1479560,5 „^„„, , ■ . r.,
to — ,^.,„ , or 1 to 329630 nearly, as in [4072].
1020 1020
the mass of the earth is to that of tiie sun
[4069a]
[4070a]
[4071a]
[40716]
[4071c]
[4071rf]
lOio
100
184 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLACETS; [Méc. Cél.
at the same distance. Hence the masses of the sun and earth are in the
ratio of the numbers 1479560,5 to 4,4885; consequentlj the mass of
[4072] the earth is . If the sun's parallax differ a little from the quantity
we have assumed in [4070], the value of the earth's mass will varv as
[4073] the cube of that parallax, compared with the cube of 21", 2 = 8",8 [4071c].
We have computed the mass of Venus from the formulas [4251, 4332, &c.],
which express the secular diminution of the obliquity of the ecliptic to the
[4074] equator; supposing it, by observation, to be 154',30^50'. This diminution
is obtained from those observations which appear the most to be relied upon.*
With respect to the masses of Mercury and Mars, we have supposed, according
to observation, that the mean diameters of Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter,
viewed at the mean distance of the earth from the sun, are, respectively,
[4075] 21",60 = 7; 35",19 = 11%4; 626",04 = 202,84. Now Jupiter's mass
being ascertained, we could, by means of these diameters, obtain the masses
of Mercury and Mars, if the relative densities of these three planets were
known. It we compare the masses of the Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn,
with their magnitudes, respectively, we find, that the densities of these
planets are very nearly in the inverse ratio of their mean distances from the
* (2560) K we change 7, A [3102f] into 0", «", respectively, to confonn to the
[4074a] notation used in [4082. 4083] ; we shall find, that the arc F G^y . cos. A [3109c],
which represents the difference between the inclinations of the equator to the fixed echptic
of 1750 and to the variable ecliptic of 1750  ^j is equal to o". cos. é", or q" [4249].
[40746] The value of q" is found by integrating the second equation [4251]. In this expression
of q", the coefficients of fi, fif", (1% fi", are small, and the value of i^'^ [4061 J] is small
and tolerably well ascertained ; therefore we need only retain /. so that the intesn^
[4074c] becomes q" = — ( 0". 500955 p 0',309951 . ,u.') .t. If we suppose ,a' =^ 0, the annual
[4074dl decrement becomes 0*..500955, being nearly as in [4074]. The action of the planet Venus
has more effect in producing this change of obliquity, than that of all the other planets
taken together; as is evident fcom the inspection of the value of d q'' [4251]; in which
[4074e] we find, that the coefficient of ,a' exceeds the sum of the coefficients of the other quantities,
ji, (i'", 11'", (Ji\ fi". We have already remarked, in [3380/! — q], that the author increased
the annual variation to 0'\521154 [4613] ; on the other hand, Mr. Poisson uses 45692
[4074/1 [33Sqp], and Mr. Bessel 0',48368 [3380j] ; each of them varying the values of ,a, ^', &c.,
so as to conform to their assumed decrements.
VI. vi.§21] NUMERICAL ELEMENTS. 186
1 / O \3 a" ,„ 1 /D"'\3 a'"
' "' iner nn ' \ 7)iv ^ • „w J
1067,09 VD'V « 1067,09 V^
and by substituting the values [4076c, 4079], we get, for m, m", rather greater values
than those in [4061]. These diflerences probably arise from having used different values
of D, D", D\ which cannot be obtained, by observation, to a great degree of accuracy.
In some of the subsequent calculations, it will be sufficiently accurate to use the values
of n, n, Sic. to the nearest degree; and for convenience of reference we have here
inserted these approximate values ;
71=1661°; 7i'=650°, n"=400^, n"'=212=',7, w» = 330,7,
n = 13^,6, ■nr' = 4P,Q.
VOL. III. 47
[4076]
sun ;* we shall therefore adopt the same hypothesis, relatively to the three
planets IMercury, Mars, and Jupiter ; whence we obtain the preceding
values of the masses of IVIercury and Mars [4061]. The irradiation
and the other difficulties attending the measures of the diameters of the
planets, taken in connexion with the uncertainty of the hypothesis adopted
on the law of their densities, render these estimated values somewhat
doubtful, and this uncertainty seems to be increased from the circumstance,
that the hypothesis is not correct relative to the masses of Venus and
Uranus. Fortunately, Mercury and Mars have only a very small [4076]
influence on the planetary system ; and it will be easy to correct the
following results, so far as they are affected by this cause, whenever
the development of the secular inequalities shall make known exactly the
values of these masses.
* (2561) The densities of the Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, given by the author in the
Système du Monde, are 3,93 ; 0,99 ; 0,55 ; respectively, being found as in [4062/, Sic.]. [4076a]
These densities of Jupiter and Saturn are nearly in the inverse ratio of the distances
a", a" [4079] ; but the density of the earth differs considerably from this rule. If we
suppose this ratio of the densities to hold good for the three planets Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and
represent their apparent diameters [4075], by D=21",60, I>"'=35",19, D'^=:626",04; [4076c]
[40766]
#13 n"'3 71' ^3
the corresponding masses will be m = b . — ; ?»'"= b . —^ ; m''= J . — — ; i being [4076(f]
a constant quantity, to be found by means of the value of m'" [4061] ; which gives
[4076/]
[4076^]
[4076A]
186
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
Mean
motions
of the
planets.
[4077]
[4078]
The
time t 18
expressed
in Julian
years.
Mean
distances
of the
planets
from the
flun.
[4079]
22. Mean sidéral motions of the Planets in a Julian year of 365 days,
or the values of n, n', &c.
Sexagesimals.
Mercury, .n = 16608076",50 = 5381016%786 ; log. n =6,7308643
Venus, . . . n' = 6501980",00 = 210664r,520 ; log. n' =6,3235906
The Earth, n" = 3999930",09 = 1295977%349 ; log. n" = 6,1 125974
Mars, n"'= 2126701",00= 689051%124 ; log. /i"' = 5,8382514
71'"= 337210",78= 109256,293; log. ?i'^ = 5,0384465
n^ = 135792",34= 43996%718; log. n^ = 4,6434203
n''= 47606",62= 15424^545, log. n" = 4, 1882124
Jupiter,
Saturn,
Uranus,
If we use these values of n, n', &c., the time t ivill be represented in
Julian years ; hence if we put the mean distance of the earth from the sun
equal to xmity, we shall obtain, from Kepler's law [385'"], the following
mean distances of the planets from the sun.
Mean distances of the Planets from the Sun, or the semimajor axes
of their orbits.*
Mercury, a = 0,38709812
Venus, «' = 0,72333230
The Earth, a" = 1,00000000
Mars, «'"= 1,52369352
Jupiter, a'^ = 5,20116636
Saturn, a" = 9,53787090
Uranus, a"
19,18330500
log. a
log. a'
9,5878211
9,8593379
log. a" = 0,0000000
log. «'"=0,1828976
log. rr = 0,7161007
log. a" = 0,9794514
log. «^' = 1,2829234.
* (2562) These values of «, a', &C. are deduced from [4077], by putting them,
[4079a] respectively, equal to I — V, ( — r, (— :F, &c.
The elements of the orbits of the newly discovered planets, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta, and
Juno, were first computed by Gauss, and have since been repeatedly corrected by him,
VI.vi.§â2.]
NUMERICAL ELEMENTS.
187
The mutual action of the planets alters a little their mean distances ; we
shall, in [4451, 4510], determine these alterations.
aiul by other astronomers ; taking notice of the most important perturbations, from the [40794]
action of the nearest phinets ; so that we can now compute the places of these bodies
with a considerable degree of accuracy. The usual methods of finding the perturbations
can be applied to these small planets ; but the great excentricities and inclinations of some [4079eJ
of their orbits, will make it necessary, when great accuracy is required, to notice the terms
depending on the powers and products of these two elements, of a higher order than is
generally used with the other planets. The laborious task of ascertaining all the inequalities
of these four planets, was not performed by the author of this work ; and it will probably be [4079<i]
a long while before it can be done completely, on account of the small imperfections in the
present estimated values of the elements, which have not yet been determined with perfect
accuracy in the short period since the bodies have been observed. It is evident, also, that [4079e]
until these elements have been found very nearly, it will not be of much use to compute
several of the very small inequalities, with tiie extreme minuteness which is used relatively
to the other planets.
In computing the Jahrluch, it has been found most convenient by Encke to apply the
corrections directly to the elements of the orbit, rather than to the elliptical places of [4070/']
the bodies ; in a manner similar to that which is used in finding the elements of a comet, in
two successive returns. He finds, when the elements are thus adjusted to any particular [407yg']
moment of time, that they will give, tolerably well, the places of the planet for a considerable
period, on each side of this epoch. The elements of the orbits obtained by him, for these
four planets, about the time of the opposition of Pallas, in the year 1831, are as in the [4079A]
following table ; which will serve to give an idea of the relative positions of the orbits
at that time ; remarking, that these elements must not be confounded with the memi values.
Epoch 1831, July 23d, 0'', mean time at Berlin.
I Vesta.
Mean longitude, 84'' 47" 03'
Mean anomaly, 195 35 26
Longitude of the perihelion, .... 249 11 37
Longitude of the ascending node, . 103 20 28
Inclination, 7 07 57
Excentricity, 0,0885601
Mean daily sidéral motion, 97775540
Semimajor axis, 2,.361484
Periodic revolution corresponding, . 1325,5 days
74''39"'44'
20 22 31
54 17 13
170 52 34
13 02 10
0,2555592
813',525.33
2,669464
1593,1 days
290'' . 38"' 12»
169 33 11
121 05 01
172 38 30
34 35 49
0,2419986
768%54421
2,772631
1686,3 days
Cereg.
307'' 03'" 26'
159 22 02
147 41 23
SO 53 50
10 .36 56
0,0767379
76926059
2,770907
1684,7 days
Elements
of Veatu,
Juno,
Pallas,
and Ceres.
[4079i]
188
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. Cél.
Eicen
tricities of
the orbits
of the
planets.
[4080]
Ratios of the excentricities to the mean distances, or the values of e, e', ^c.
for the year 1750.
Mercury, e = 0,20551320
Venus, e' = 0,00688405
The Earth, e" =0,01681395
Mars, e"= 0,09308767
Jupiter, e'' = 0,04807670
Saturn, e'' = 0,05622460
Uranus, e" = 0,04669950
log. e =9,3128397;
log. e' = 7,8378440 ;
log. e" = 8,2256698 ;
log. e"'= 8,9688922;
log. e"= 8,6819346;
log. &■ = 8,7499264 ;
log. e''= 8,6693122.
[407M]
[4079Z]
Elements
of the
orbits of
the four
known
periodical
comets.
[4079m]
[4079n]
The distances of tlie planets Pallas and Ceres from the sun, are so nearly equal to each
other, that it may sometimes happen, in finding the apparent orbits, in the precedins;
manner, that the order of the bodies will be inverted, relative their distances from the sun,
by means of the perturbations.
Besides these planets, there are four comets, whose periodical revolutions have been
discovered by Halley, Gibers, Encke, and Biela. They have been usually called by the
names of the discoverers iespectively. That of Olbers has been observed only once, at
the time of its return to the perihelion in 1815 ; the others have been observed in several
successive revolutions.
Periodic revolution,
Time of perihelion,
Longitude of perihelion on the orbit,
Longitude of the ascending node,
Inclination,
Excentricity,
Semimajor axis,
Of the seven periodical bodies, which have been made known to astronomers since the
commencement of the present century, three were discovered by Dr. Olbers of Bremen ;
namely, Vesta, Pallas, and the comet of 1S15. His great success in the discovery of
these remarkable bodies, which had silently performed their revolutions in the heavens
for ages, unperceived by astronomers, induced an eminent German writer to style him»
the fortunate Columbus of the planetary ivorld.
Halley's.
Olbeis's.
Encke's.
Biela's.
7G years
74 years
1204 days
6,7 years
Nov. 7, 1835
April 26,1815
Jan. 10, 1829
Nov. 27,1832
304' 31 "'43'
149"^ 2"
157'^18'"35'
109'' 56™ 45'
55 ,30
83 29
.334 24 15
248 12 24
17 44 24
44 30
13 22 34
13 13 13
0,9675212
0,9313
0,8446862
0,751748
17,98705
17,7
2,224346
3,53683
VI.vi.§22.]
NUMERICAL ELEMENTS.
189
Longitudes of the perihelia in the year 1 750, or the values of ^, ts', ^c.
Mercury, « = 8P,7401 = 13'33^5S'
Venus, • ^' = 142°,1241 = 127 54 42
The Earth, ^" = 109^,5790 = 98 37 16
Mars, ^"' = 368°,3037 = 331 28 24
Jupiter, ^'"^ 11°,5012= 10 21 04
Saturn, zy" = 97°,9466 = 88 09 07
Uranus, ^"= 185°,1262 = 166 36 49.
Inclinations of the orbits to the ecliptic in the year 1750, or the values
of f, <p', ^c.
Loagitudes
of the
perihelia
in 1750.
[4081]
Mercury,
Venus,
The Earth, cp" =
Mars, ^'"^
Jupiter, tp"' =
Saturn, <?' = 2°,7762
Uranus, <p" = 0^,8596
9 = 7°,7778= 7''00™00';
9' = 3°,7701 = 3 23 35 ;
?" = 0° ;
2°,0556 = 1 51 00
1°,4636= 1 19 02
2 29 55
46 25
Inclina
tions of
the orbits
to the fixed
ecliptic of
1750.
[4082]
Longitudes of the ascending nodes on the ecliptic of the year 1750, or
the values of ô, 6', ^c.
Mercury, . .
Venus, . . . .
The Earth,
Mars, . . . .
= 50^,3836= 45''20™43^;
== 82°,7093= 74 26 18 ;
as in [4249—4251];
'=: 52°,9376= 47 38 38
Jupiter, «'"= 108°,7846 = 97 54 22
Saturn, ô' = 123°,8960 = 111 30 23
Uranus, r = 80^,7015 = 72 37 53
VOL. III. 48
Longitudo;^
of tlie
ascending
nodes of
the orbits
on the fixed
ecliptic of
1750.
[4083]
190
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
Epoch. All these longitudes are counted from the mean vernal equinox, at the epoch
[4084] of December olst, 1749, middaij, mean time at Paris. ^Ve may here
Lpnguude observe, that hij the longitude of the perihelion, is to be understood, the
rlôJiT <^'^fc>^c^ of the perihelion from the ascending node, counted on the orbit,
increased by the longitude of that node.
23. We have obtained the following results, by the formulas of §49,
Book II.
MERCURY AND VENUS,
[4085]
[4086]
hence we deduce
Then we obtain*
0. =  = 0,53516076;
6_;. = 2,145969210;
rin
6 \ = — 0,515245873.
6^ = 2,1721751 ; b''^ = 0,6057052 ; 6^^' = 0,2465877 ;
,(3)
^^L. 6, = 0,1107665;
,w
6^ = 0,0520855;
,(5)
6V= 0,0251378;
,(6)
[4087] 5^ = 0,0123166 ;
,P)
6\'= 0,0060633
(S)
6^;'== 0,0029287 ;
6^^'= 0,0012758.
* (25G3) From a, a [4079], we have a=, as in [4085]. Then from [989].
[40S6a] we find, 6,, b_^, as in [4086]; from these we get b<, b, [40S7], by means of
the formulas [990, 991]. Then putting, in [966], s^i, and successively, ?:=2. /=3,
I = 4, Sec. we obtain the remaining terms of [4037]. From these last, we get those
[40866] in [40S8], by putting, successively, 2 = 0, j* = l, Sec, and s = i, in [981]. The
same values, being substituted in [982], give [4089] ; also [983] gives [4090] _
Lastly, by taking the partial differential of [983], relative to a, we shall get an expression
U)
d*b s ■
[4086c] of ; in which we must put s = i ; then j'^0; /=1, &;c. ; and we
(0) a)
shall get [4091]. Again, the formulas [992] give ba. , bs. , [409:2]; from these two
Vl.vi.S^a.] VALUES OF b'^, AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR MERCURY. 191
(0)
dbl,
da.
= 0,780206 ;
do.
1,457891 ;
dbi
do.
= 0,691487 ;
(41
dbi
do.
0,423818;
(6)
dbi
rfa
= 0,147708 ;
a)
db^
do.
0,085953 ;
(0)
dH^
da?
= 2,756285 ;
(11
dHi
da?
= 2,426165;
(3)
d"bi
do?
= 3,381072 ;
(41
dHk
do?
= 2,826559 ;
(6)
dHi
da?
= 1,511016;
(71
dH>,
da?
= 1,014134;
(01
dHk
do?
= 11,308703;
m
dHk
da?
 12,064245 ;
(31
da?
= 14,584366 ;
(41
dH^
do?
= 16,067040;
(61
dHk
da?
= 13,720218.
(2)
d*bK
do.*
= 69,60594 ;
(?)
d^b^
da.*
= 82,36773 ;
(51
d*bk_
da.*
= 105,33962.
r1
db.i
do.
 1,070071 ;
j/^
dbi
do.
= 0,252376 ;
[4088]
77"'
db^
do.
= 0,050726.
(21
dHi
do?
= 3,395022 ;
d^fl
do?
= 2,137906 ;
[4089]
Mercury
and Venue .
(21
dHi,
(51
dH^
da?
11,983424;
15,617274;
(41
d*b),
92,72610 ;
[4090]
[4091]
terms, we may obtain the others of [4092], by means of the formula [966] ; putting
s = , and, successively, i^2, i=3, &;c. The values [4093] are found from [981],
by putting s = f, and i = 2, i = 3, he. Those in [4094] are deduced from [982], by [4086d]
using similar values of s, i ; observing to substitute, in any of these formulas, the values
of b, or its differentials, which occur, and have been found in the preceding parts of the
calculation. All the other terms of this article, §23, are found in the same manner, except
those in [4113, 4119, 4124, Sec], where a is very small ; and there is no difliculty in the [4086e]
calculation, except the ennui, arising from a long and uninteresting numerical calculation.
192
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
(!) (2)
4,214154 ; 6^ = 3,035376 ; 63 = 1,950536 ;
[4092]
Mercury
and Venus.
(3)
b^= 1,192372;
2
0,238807.
(4)
6 , = 0,708667 ;
(5)
63 =0,413762;
[4093]
(2)
= 12,50630;
(3)
^ = 9,76666 ;
da.
(1)
dbî
7,08399
(5)
db^
da.
= 4,88781.
[4094]
(3)
dHi
= 78,09476 ;
(4)
dHi
da.^
67,14764.
[4095]
MERCURY AND THE EARTH.
hence we deduce
a =  = 0,38709812 ;
[4096]
, (0)
6^; =2,07565247;
~2
,(I)
6 , = —0,37970591.
Then we get
Mercurjr
and the
Earth.
6*^"' = 2,081980;
(1)
6, =0,411140;
2
è'f = 0,120178 ;
[4097]
(3)
6^ = 0,038900 ;
(4)
6 J = 0,013202;
ô'J = 0,004603 ;
(6)
6 = 0,001629 ;
(V)
6^ =0,000573;
(8)
b, =0,000177.
VI. vi.§:2;3.] VALUES OF T' AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR MERCURY. 193
(0)
da.
(3)
dbj
do.
(6)
dbi
= 0,464378 ;
=. 0,316756 ;
= 0,026130 ;
(0)
cPbj
da.'
(3)
dH^
da.^
(2)
dHj
,(0)
= 1,672199;
= 1,852364;
= 6,49232;
6 =2,871833;
6*'' = 0,334212 ;
(I)
db),
(4)
dbj
do.
m
dbj
da.
(1)
d^bi
(4)
dHj_
do.^
(3)
dHj
da.^
.(')
1,199633;
0,141792;
0,011153.
1,220775;
1,197245;
: 5,45663;
63 =1,576062;
,w
63 =0,153779.
(2)
dbj
do.
(5)
dbis
da.
0,665739 ;
0,061433 ;
[4098]
(2)
'^l^^ = 2,235935 ;
do.^
(5)
'^^J^ = 0,670874.
[4099
Mercury
and the
Earth.
(4)
^'^^ _ 6,51373.
[410C
6^!' = 0,747619;
(3)
dbi
= 3,05535.
[4101]
[4102]
MERCURY AND MARS.
hence we deduce
a = ^, = 0,25405312 ;
,(0)
b'^ = 2,03240384 ;
, (1)
r: = — 0,25198657.
[4103]
Mercury
and Mare.
[4104]
VOL. III.
49
194
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. Cél.
Then we have
[4105]
Mercury
and Mars.
[4106]
[4107]
b^'^ = 2,033500 ;
,(3)
(0)
,(1)
dbl
do.
do.
(0)
(3)
d^bj
doJ"
= 1,050458.
b =0,260462;
,(2)
6 J ==0,049765;
(5)
= 0,010546;
'.=
= 0,002331 ;
b ^ = 0,000538.
= 0,273829 ;
(1)
dbi
d a
= 1,077839;
ir^ = 0,402980 ;
do.
= 0,127139 ;
db^
do.
= 0,037781.
= 1,244725;
do?
= 0,656780 ;
(3)
^= 1,778641 ;
[4108] è^J^= 2,322536;
,(1)
rJ = 0,863876 ;
6''' = 0,272085.
[4109]
Mercury hcncc WB deduce
and
Jupiter.
[4110]
MERCURY AND JUPITER.
a =  = 0,07442555 ;
a"
f^ = 2,00277053 ;
2
&"; = — 0,07437397.
,(0) ,(1)
In computing the values of 6 , 6 , &c., by means of the formulas
[966 — 983], it is found, that the successive terms of the series become
more inaccurate, particularly if o. be rather small ; because these values
Vl.vi. §23.] VALUES OF b^^ AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR MERCURY. 195
are the differences of numbers, Avhicli vary but little from each other ; so
that we are under the necessity of computing them to an extreme degree [4lll]
of exactness, to enable us to determine correctly their differences,* and
this requires the use of tables of logarithms to ten or twelve places of
decimals. To obviate this inconvenience, we may have recourse to the
value of b '\ developed in a series, by means of the formulas
[976, 984— 985],t
'ill (i±i' a2J_*(*+l) (^+')(^H+l ) ^4
*=^— 172737^::^^ — •"'•< ^ [4112]
1.2.3 • (i+l).(i+2).(i+3) • "^
This value of 6'"' is, in the present case, very converging, on account
of the smallness of a. We shall hereafter use it, in finding the values of
b , b \ &ic.; 6'°\ &c., in ail cases where a is rather small.
i h ^
By this method we have computed, for Mercury and Jupiter, the
following values ;
(0) (1) (2)
6 = 2,002778 ; b,= 0,074581 ; 6, = 0,004164 ; [4113]
Mercury
(3) (4) and
b^ = 0,000258 ; b^ = 0,000017. '"•'''"•
* (2564) Thus, if we put s = i and i = 2, in [966], it becomes
<i) (0)
(2) (l+a').6a— ia.è , [4111a]
** = f^ —^ •
Now ht, is much smaller than h. or h. [4105], and the preceding value of
b' is divided by the small quantity J a. Hence it necessarily follows, that the terms
(1 + a^) .b, and — ^ a . è , , in the numerator of this expression, must be very nearly
equal to each other; and their difference, which is to be divided by a quantity of the r^mii
order a, must therefore be very accurately computed. The same takes place in b\, &.c.
t (2565) The quantity h is the coefficient of cos. i ê, in a^ [976] ; and X* is
the product of the two factors [985]. If we multiply these factors, and retain only terms
of the form 0=*='^*^, putting c'"^' +c'^»^"' = 2.cos.i é [12] Int., it becomes [4n2„j
as in [4112].
196
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4114]
Mercury
and
.lupiler.
[4115]
(0)
dbs
d CL
da.
m
dUi
0,074891 ;
: 0,010428;
1,018876;
Cl)
dbj_
da.
dHj
da.^
1,006269;
= 0,171781
(2)
dbi,
d a
(2)
dHj_
do.^
0,111380;
= 1,499780;
[4116]
6^ = 2,025143 ;
b'l = 0,225613 ;
,(2)
0,020984.
MERCURY AND SATURN.
hence we deduce
[4117]
[4118]
^Zr Then we find
Saturn.
,(0)
[4119]
6 j'= 2,000823:
6^^^ = 0,000042 ;
0. =  = 0,04058547 ;
6^°' = 2,00082368 ;
6^'' =—0,04057711.
—2
6^^ = 0,040610;
2
6'^ = 0,000001.
,(2)
6^^^=0,001236;
[4120]
[4121]
rf&è
da.
= 0,040662 ;
(1)
dbi
da.
1,001841 ;
(3)
dhh
da.
= 0,003085.
(0)
dH^
da.^
= 1,003904;
d<
da.^
:^ 0,091840;
(2)
dbj^
da.
= 0,060919 ;
(2)
dHi
1,469188.
VI.vi.'§23.] VALUES OF b'^ AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR VENUS. 197
MERCURY AND URANUS.
hence we deduce
a= 4 = 0,02017895;
a"
6_\ = 2,00020360;
6!1', = — 0,02017792,
Then we find
6^^*= 2,000182;
6^''= 0,020183;
(0)
(1)
020196: ^^^ =1
(2)
è^'= 0,000306;
do.
do.
= 1,000913.
[4122]
[4123]
Mercury
and
Utanuf.
[4124]
[4125]
VENUS AND THE EARTH.
hence we deduce
«L = ^, = 0,72333230 ;
a
6 , = 2,27159162;
— 3
Then we obtain
6 ''! = — 0,672263]
(0)
b^ = 2,386343 ;
b'^ = 0,942413 ;
(3)
b. =0,323359;
6*" = 0,206811 ;
6 J = 0,090412 ;
▼OL. III.
.cn
60
6^ =0,527589;
2
6^ = 0,135616;
(8)
6i = 0,061101 ; 6^ = 0,041731.
[4126]
[4127]
Venus
and the
Earth.
[4128]
198
[4129]
[4130]
Venus
and the
Earth.
[4131]
[4133]
[4133]
(0)
db^
do.
(3)
djb^
do.
(6)
dbj
d a
(0)
dH^
do.^
(3)
dHj
do.^
(6)
do.^
(0)
do.^
(3)
d^
do.^
, (0)
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
: 1,643709;
1,738781;"
0,867147 ;
7,719923 ;
9,112527;
: 7,842733.
: 66,55335 ;
: 62,87646 ;
[Méc. Cél.
63 = 9,992539 ;
,(3)
b, = 6,953940 ;
K3)
d_H_
do.
(I)
dbi
do.
= 2,272414;
(2)
dbi
do.
: 2,069770 ;
(4)
do.
: 1,407491 ;
(5)
db^
do.
= 1,113704;
df^
do.
: 0,668830.
do.^
= 7,531096;
(2)
d^fii
do?
= 8,558595 ;
(4)
d^i
: 9,107400 ;
(5)
dn^ _
/7«2
= 8,634030;
d^èl
do.^
(4)
dH^
do.^
= 57,35721 ;
66,32409 ;
,(i)
Ô; = 8,871894;
rt^)
b\ = 4,704321 ;
= 56,65440 ;
(4)
dbi
do.
(2)
dHi
= 58,19633;
dH
(5)
da»
i = 70,54326.
,(2)
6 y = 7,386580 ;
6 ; = 3,652052.
50,90290.
VENUS AND MARS.
[4134]
Venus
and Mars.
[4135]
hence we deduce
a = 4; = 0,47472320 ;
a
6^°J= 2,11436649;
6"j = — 0,46094390.
VI. vd.^SS.] VALUES OF i^;' AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR VENUS. 199
Then we find
67=2,129668;
S
5^ = 0,521624;
3
fe'f = 0,187726;
5
6*^' = 0,074675 ;
6*^'* = 0,031127;
6'f = 0,013337; [4136]
2
(6)
6 , = 0,005829.
dh
(0)
do.
(3)
1 = 0,631752;
^ = 0,510976;
do.
(0)
^ = 2,192778;
do.
(3)
dHh
do?
= 2,628516 ;
(0)
dH^
do?
(3)
dHi,
da?
7,65440 ;
= 10,66513.
(1)
db^
do.
1,330781 ;
do.
0,279002 ;
(1)
dH^^
do?
 1,815836;
do?
= 2,004429.
J .3
= 8,45655 ;
do?
(2)
dh^
do.
(5)
db^
da.
(2)
d^i
do?
0,884106 ;
0,147606.
= 2,795574 ;
i^ = 8,17676 ;
[4137]
[4138]
VonuB
and Mars.
[4139]
,(0)
6 = 3,523572 ;
2
.<3)
6, =0,722687.
6*3^ = 2,304481 ;
(2)
dH
da.
8,47521.
.(2)
&3 = 1,325959;
[4140]
[4141]
VENUS AND JUPITER.
a= = 0,13907116;
VenuB and
Jupiter.
[4142]
200
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
hence we deduce
[4143]
b^'l = 2,00968215 ;
6''' = — 0,13873412.
Then we have
6^ = 2,009778;
6'^'= 0,140092;
6'J'= 0,014623;
[4144]
6^^=0,001695;
f4)
6^ = 0,000206;
(5)
6^ = 0,000026.
Venus and
Jupiter.
2
[4145]
\^ =0,142160;
a a
^=1,022206;
da
^ = 0,212046 ;
da '
dh
'^ "* = 0,036783 ;
d 0.
"/* =0,006111.
da
rdi /irfîi
(0)
^=1,067532;
(1)
Ç^= 0,325869;
(2)
'^^*_ 1,575190;
[4146]
(3)
'^l^^ 0,533951.
[4147]
C)
63 =2,089736;
(1)
b^ = 0,432801 ;
(2)
63= 0,075054.
VENUS AND SATURN.
[4148]
Vennsand hcHCe WC dcduCC
Saturn.
[4149]
a =  = 0,07583790 ;
b^^ = 2,00287673 ;
b^'\ = — 0,07578334.
,w
Vr.vi.§23.] VALUES OF b'J AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR VENUS.
201
riieii we obtain
(0)
6j = 2,002886 ;
(1)
= 0,076002 ;
(2)
. 0,004323 ;
[4150]
6^' = 0,000273 ;
2
'*:
= 0,000018.
[4151]
(0)
''f * = 0,076331 ;
da.
(1)
dbi,
do.
= 1,006490;
(2)
dbi _
da.
0,114267;
[4152]
7/'"
,* 0,011085.
da
Venus anil
Saturn.
(0)
''^=1,019629;
ft a.'
d^i
da?
= 0,172510;
(2)
dHi
do?
1,419950.
[41.53]
(0)
b\ =2,026116;
!>":
^
= 0,229988 ;
= 0,021791.
[4154]
VENUS AND URANUS.
hence we deduce
Then we find
a = — = 0,03770634 ;
r\ = 2,00071095;
'2
— 0,03769964.
[4155]
[41.56]
Venu3 and
Uranus.
,(0)
0^=2,000712;
,(1)
6^=0,037725;
,(2)
b\= 0,001067 ; [4157]
,0)
4
67 = 0,000034.
(0)
dbi
da.
VOL. Ill
= 0,716690 ;
(1)
dbj
da.
= 1,000829;
51
(2)
db i
do.
= 0,056634.
[41.58]
202
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
THE EARTH AND MARS.
[4159]
[4160]
a =. — = 0,65630030 ;
hence we deduce
Then
[4161]
The Earth
and Mnrs.
[4169]
[4163]
[4164]
.(0)
(3)
(6)
6, =
(0)
da.
(3)
(6)
da.
(0)
(3)
dHj
do.^
(6)
dH^
do?
(0)
dHh
do.^
(3)
dH^
2,291132;
0,224598 ;
0,046595 ;
= 1,228078;
: 1,240990;
: 0,473942 ;
4,985108 ;
6,057860 ;
: 4,388001.
29,03400 ;
33,29381 ;
, (0)
6_j = 2,22192172;
,(")
6_^ = _ 0,61874262.
= 0,804563 ,
a'^'
h
= 0,129973 ;
0)
= 0,028480 ;
(1)
dbh
do.
= 1,871211;
(4)
d b ^
do.
^ 0,920710 ;
7 7^"
db^
do.
= 0,333444.
(1)
dn^
do.^
= 4,744671 ;
(4)
d^bi
.1 .2
= 5,776483 ;
(I)
^ = 29,78930 ;
(4)
d^bi
Vf = 36,32093 ;
(SJ
h
= 0,405584 ;
(5)
= 0,077170;
2
: 0,0175565.
1,601236;
(5)
,7 „
= 0,666207 ;
(2)
dH^
do?
(?)
dHk
= 5,731111
5,141993;
(2)
îÇii. = 30,18848;
(5)
dH),
= 37,23908.
VI. vi. §23.] VALUES OF ù^'^ AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR THE EARTH. 203
(0)
6 y = 6,856336 ;
6''' = 3,255964 ;
6^'' = 1,174650.
(2)
^ = 31,80897;
do.
,(')
J 3 = 5,727893 ;
fi'I' = 2,351254 ;
f^ =^ 4,404530 ;
6'^' = 1,671668;
[4165]
(3) (5)
'^ = 32,26285 ; .... 'Ill ^ 18,25867. [4166]
a a «a
THE EARTH AND JUPITER.
hence we deduce
Then
6^ = 2,018885;
6^^'= 0,004516;
,(6)
a=  = 0,19226461 ;
&'"[= 2,01852593;
6^'! = — 0,19137205.
6^ = 0,195003;
2
6'^'= 0,000779 ;
,(2)
6^=0,028195;
(5)
6^ = 0,000132;
[4167]
[4168]
The Earth
and
Jupiter.
[4169]
6, =0,000023.
(3)
0,200586 ;
= 0,070932 ;
d a
da.
1 ,043204 ;
0,016369;
(2)
da.
(5)
0,297995 ;
= 0,003448 ;
[4170]
204
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Ct
[4171]
(0)
dHi,
1,132355;
= 0,746681.
The Earth d 0?
and
Jupiter.
(0)
[4172] 1!^ = 1,4727 14;
(1)
d^bi
= 0,466165;
Vf = 2,874986 ;
(2)
dH^
do?
1,628667;
(2)
^ = 1,418830.
[4173]
,(0)
6 ' = 2,176460;
(3)
h 3 = 0,032493.
6*'' = 0,619063;
5
,(2)
b =0,148198;
[4174]
THE EARTH AND SATURN.
hence we deduce
a =  = 0,10484520 ;
(0)
b_^ = 2,00550004 :
[4175]
(1)
6_ J = — 0,10470094.
Then
The Earth
and
Saturn
^'I'
= 2,005535 ;
[4176]
6?
'S
(0)
dbi,
d<x.
= 0,000724 ;
= 0,106155;
[4177]
(3)
dbi
do.
= 0,020779.
fe'l'^ 0,105283;
s
(4)
b, = 0,000066.
dJl
d Ol
= 1,012536;
,(2)
b =0,008282;
(2)
dbi
0,158723;
Vl.vi.§23.] VALUES OF 6*;' AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR MARS.
205
(0)
(0)
1,037816;
b = 2,050321 ;
^ 0,246193 ;
do?
: 1,526303,
(1)
(2)
b :
1
= 0,321144;
*,=
= 0,041977
[4178]
[4179]
THE EARTH AND URANUS.
hence we deduce
a = =0,05212866;
[4180]
, (0)
6 ; = 2,00135893;
i
.0)
6_^ = — 0,05211095.
[4181]
Then we find
. (0)
b =2,001355;
.0)
6 = 0,000089.
2
(1)
6 =0,052182;
6^=0,002040;
2
The Earth
and
Uranus.
[4182]
(0)
dbi
~ = 0,052288 ;
(0
da.
'  1,003060;
(2)
'^ = 0,078449.
o a
[4183]
MARS AND JUPITER.
a = — =0,29295212.
[4184]
VOL. III.
52
206
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
hence we deduce
[4185]
Then
(0)
b i= 2,04314576;
(1)
& , = — 0,28977479.
'r
= •2,045112;
b'^= 0,302922 ;
2
<
: 0,066812;
[4186]
2
= 0,016357;
(4)
6^=0,004192;
"h
0,001109;
">
= 0,000297 ;
(7)
6^ = 0,000081.
(0)
dbi
da.
= 0,324004 ;
0)
,^ 1,105998;
do.
C2)
do.
= 0,473717;
[4187]
(3)
db^
da.
= 0,172096;
(4)
'^Z* =0,058420;
a OL
db'l
 019258:
do.
Mara
and
Jupiter.
(6)
dbh
do.
= 0,006173.
(0)
dHi
do.^
= 1,338759;
3. m
^ = 0,794557 ;
(2)
do.^ '
= 1,871538 ;
[4188]
(3)
do.''
= 1,258858;
(4)
'^'\* 0,623184.
(0)
d^bi
do.^
= 2,69358 ;
^ = 3,77722 ;
(2)
= 2,91068;
[4189]
(3)
dHi
do.^
= 5,47068.
(0)
*3 =
= 2,444762 ;
6 '=1,040206;
3
: 0,376693;
[4190]
'b%
i
=0,127942.
^
VI. vi.§23.] VALUES OF 6"' AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR MARS.
207
(0)
db^
da.
= 3,48815 ;
(I)
db^
do.
= 4,80540 ;
(2)
^ = 2,99684.
a a
[4191]
MARS AND SATURN.
a = — = 0,15975187;
[4192]
hence we deduce
Then we find
(0)
(3)
6_ 1 = 2,01278081 ;
6^'^ =—0,15924060.
(0) (1) (3)
6, =2,012945; 6, =0,161305, 6, = 0,019347 ;
 2 2
w
h
= 0,002577 ;
= 0,000360 ;
(0)
dbi
do.
= 0,164463;
(1)
dhi .
da.
= 1,029493;
dbi
do. ~
= 0,048740 ;
do.
= 0,009065.
(0)
dHi
do?
= 1,090095;
(1)
dHi
da?
 0,379322 ;
(3)
 n fi9nfi.S9
(5)
b^ = 0,000052.
(2)
dbi
0,244843 ;
(2)
Ç^ = 1,596248;
da.'
[4193]
[4194]
Mars
and
Saturn.
[4195]
[4196]
da?
, !0)
6; = 2,119585;
b'l' = 0,503071 ;
,(2)
6y = 0,100136; [4197]
2
208
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél
MARS AND URANUS.
hence we deduce
[4198]
[4199]
Mars Then we find
aod
Uranus.
,(0)
[4200]
6^ = 2,003167;
, C3)
a =  = 0,07942807 ;
a"'
5'°^ = 2,00315565 ;
f\ = — 0,07936538.
—5
6'" = 0,079617;
(4)
6V = 0,000314 ; b.= 0,000022
2 2
,(2)
6^=0,004746;
[4201]
(0)
da.
(3)
d_H
d a.
0,079995 ;
0,011982.
(1)
dbk
= 1,007144<;
(2)
dH
da.
= 0,119822:
JUPITER AND SATURN.
[4202]
Jupiter
and
Saturn.
[4203]
a =  = 0,54531725;
a"
hence we deduce
(0)
6_j =2,15168241;
felj= — 0,52421272,
Then we have
6^^' = 2,1802348;
6*'' = 0,6206406 ;
•3
b'^ = 0,2576379 ;
VI. vi.§^3.j VALUES OF i'j'AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR JUPITER.
209
(3)
bi =0,1179750;
(6)
5, = 0,0139345 ;
,(9)
èy= 0,0018056;
2
b^ =0,0565522;
(7)
b . = 0,0070481 ;
6*J"L 0,0008632 ;
6, =0,0278360;
(8)
6^ = 0,0035837 ;
bl'L 0,0003223.
[4204]
77'"'
db i
da.
= 0,808789 ;
(3)
db^
da.
= 0,726550 ;
(6)
dbi
da.
= 0,163506;
(9)
= 0,033083 ;
(0)
 2.875229 :
da.^
(3)
'^^ = 3,533622 ;
dHi
do?
= 1,664586;
(9)
^ = 0,485135.
da?
da.
(4)
(7)
da.
(10)
db i
(1)
dHj
do?
(4)
dH^
da?
= 1,483154;
= 0,453285 ;
0,096019 ;
0,020265.
2,552788
(7)
dH^
1^
= 2,995647 ;
= 1,144377;
(2)
db^
= 1,105160;
(5)
db^
(8)
dbi,
da.
0,274717;
= 0,056171 ;
(2)
da?
(55
dH},
da?
(8)
d^b^
d a'
= 3,521040;
= 2,302428 ;
i = 0,760603 ;
[420.5]
Jupiter
and
Saturn.
[4206]
(0)
da.^
12,128630 ;
(3)
dH,,
= 15,454850 ;
d^bk
~~ = 14,958762 ;
VOL. III.
(I)
dHj
da?
= 12,878804;
(4)
^1^ = 17,058155;
Vf= 12,234874;
53
(9)
(Z^èj
= 12,832050;
(5)
dHk
(8)
= 16,655445; [4207]
, , = 9,566420.
210
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4208]
(0)
d^hi
(?)
d*bi^
84,40159 ;
= 89,8615;
(6)
dHi
118,6607;
(1)
d*bi
do}
(4)
d'bi,
da.*
(7)
da."
= 83,94825 ;
101,3809;
= 115,9588.
(2)
d'bk^
— 87,3027 •
da.*
(5)
dH^
da."
= 113,5238;
[4209]
Jupiter
and
Saturn.
[4210]
d'b^
da.^
(1)
= 747,480 ;
dH
(3)
d a:
I = 785,884 ;
(6)
^—^ = 912,301.
da."
f^ = 4,358387 ;
6''' = 1,295672;
6^" = 0,273629 ;
b'^ = 0,053922.
3 '
d^bi
da.'
(4)
dHi
(3)
da.^
= 753,417;
= 819,180;
6^^^ = 3,185493;
z
f^ = 0,784084 ;
67 = 0,158799;
2
d'
H
d
a5
d^
(5)
761,843:
■■ 884,505 ;
(2)
b = 2,082131 ;
,(5)
63 =0,466047;
(8)
b , = 0,092290 ;
[4211]
(0)
^ = 14,681324;
da.
^=10,598611 ;
d a
db
i = 3,710043 ;
(1)
db$
da.
(.1)
dbj
da.
(7)
db§
d a
15,239657 ;
7,802247 ;
: 2,426079 ;
(2)
^=13,416026;
(5)
db§
da.
= 5,470398 ;
(8)
1^^=1,563695.
a a.
(0)
dHj
da.^
= 96,68536 ;
(I)
^2/,;t
VI = 94.91 701;
d a.'
(2)
Vf = 93,19282;
VI. vi.§'23.] VALUES OF li^" AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR JUPITER. 211
(3)
dHè
d<x?
(«)
dH^
da?
(0)
d^i
do?
(3)
dH§
do?
(6)
dHi
da?
= 86,90215 ;
= 47,48185;
830,0586 ;
785,5855 ;
= 574,9115.
(4)
ll/f= 75,08115;
dHi
do?
35,74355.
do?
= 830,1580 ;
(4)
d^b3
Vf = 740,6775 ;
do."
(5)
d^b§
do?
= 61,10115;
dH§
do?
= 810,1045;
(5)
d^b^
Vf = 666,4080 ;
do?
[4212]
Jupiter
and
Saturn.
[4213]
JUPITER AND URANUS.
hence we deduce
Then we get
6^°' = 2,038359 ;
S
6^ = 0,012879 ;
2
(6)
6, =0,000185.
do 4
a = — = 0,27112980;
a"
6'"! = 2,03692776 ;
6l'! = — 0,26861497.
6''' = 0,278966 ;
ft'"' = 0,003058 ;
da.
= 0,295410;
dix.
= 1,089551;
6 , = 0,056906 ;
6^^^ = 0,000745 ;
(2)
da.
[4214]
[4215]
Jopiter
and
Uranus.
[4216]
= 0,433630 ; [4217]
212
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
Jupiter
and
UranCB.
(3)
^,^  0,145398 ;
a a
Ç^= 1,283434;
da''
[4218]
(3)
'^'\* =1,133359.
da''
(0)
b 3 = 2,372983 ;
[4219]
2"
6 , =0,099260.
(4)
da
rf^tT
= 0,045930 ;
= 0,714932 ;
(1)
b =0,938794;
(5)
dbi
da.
(2)
dHi
da?
0,015410.
1,815451 ;
6 "'=0,315186;
3
[4220]
hence we deduce
SATURN AND URANUS.
a = — =0,49719638;
a"'
(0)
b 1=2,12564287;
[4221]
(1)
b i = — 0,48131675.
Saturn
and
Uranus.
Then we get
(0)
6, = 2,144440;
(')
6^ = 0,552007 ;
(2)
6 =0,208313;
2
(3)
[4222] 6^=0,086834;
(4)
6 =0,037909;
i
(5)
0^ = 0,016990;
(6)
6 , = 0,007728 ;
(V)
6 =0,003522;
i
.<8)
6 =0,001547.
2
(0)
dh 1
^ = 0,683055;
da
db.
(1)
= 1,373806;
(2)
1^=0,949128;
da
,(i)
Vl.vi. ^v,>3.] VALUES OF bj AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS FOR SATURN.
213
(3)
i^A = 0,572896 ;
do.
(6)
dbl
= 0,098799 ;
dbj
da.
(7)
dbi
do.
= 0,327198;
0,053642.
(5)
dbj
da.
0,181370;
[4223]
(0)
" 1^ = 2,377102;
= 2,881218;
d
a.2
d°~
(3)
'b^
d
0.^
d^
(6)
H
d
0.^
rf3
(0)
d
a?
J3
(?)
bi
do?
rC)
1,067430.
= 8,798999 ;
= 11,904140;
6; = 3,750905;
(3)
b =0,872105;
d^bj
do!^
dn\
= 2,017767;
= 2,278077 ;
(1)
d 0?
9,578267 ;
d^b^
^= 12,988670;
do."*
f^ = 2,547992 ;
6^'J = 0,482564 ;
(2)
d^bi
= 2,992245 ;
(5)
d^J.
= 1,616470;
(2)
do?
9,425450 ;
(5)
12,135721.
">
= 1,530452;
(5)
b = 0,262146.
[4224]
Saturn
and
Uranu».
[4225]
[4226]
(2)
^=9,75656;
do.
(3)
db^
P = 7,24097 ;
da.
(4)
'iH ^ 4^95062.
do.
[4227]
YOL. III.
54
214 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Ctl
CHAPTER VU.
NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS OF THE SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETARV ORBITS.
24. We shall now give the numerical values of the secular variations of
the elements of the planetary orbits. For this purpose we shall resume the
differential variations of the excentricities, perihelia and inclinations of the
îbVthe"' orbits ril22, 1126, 1142, 1143, 11461. To reduce these formulas to num
computa L ' ' ' ' J
(oln^Lc. bers, we must previously determine the numerical values of the quantities
(0,1), [^J], &c. These are obtained by computing, in the first place, the
values of (0,1), [ÔJ] ; by means of the formulas [1076, 1082],*
(1)
. _ 1 , 3 m. n a? . b_i
[4^8] CQ'^)= 4.(la^) ^
I'onnHlas
14228'] [JM ] = o n_.2^a
(1) (D)
3m'. no.. I (l+a^).6_^ + Aa.6_è \
2.(la2)2
From these we have deduced the values of (1,0) ["iT, by means of the
equations [1093, 1094].
(0) U)
* 2566. The values of mf, n, a, b_i, 6_j to be used in tliese formulas are given in
IA09R [4061 — 4222]. By the formula [4228] we must compute the values corresponding to
the exterior planets, namely ; (0,1), (0,2), (0,3), (0,4), (0,5), (0,6); (1,2), (1,3), (1,4),
(1,5), (1,6); (2,3), (2,4), (2.5), (2,6); (.3,4), (3^), (3,6); (4,5), (4,6); (5,6); and the
similar ones of [4228'], namely; [J^] Sic; [wi] &ic. ; [W] fee; [J±] &lc.; [JJ]
he; [Jfi^j. The remaining terms corresponding to interior planets are to be deduced
from these by the formulas [4229]. Thus, if it be required to compute (4,5), [^] cor
responding to the action of Saturn upon Jupiter. The value of m' to be used in [4228],
[42286]
VI.vii.^^24.]
SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS.
215
(1,0)
m .\/a
7(0,i);
m.\/a ^ 7)1. y a
Bv this means we have obtained the following results, in seconds, supposing
tlie numerical characters 0, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6 to refer respectively to Mercury,
Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The preceding masses
of the planets [AOG], AOGl d], hove been multiplied by 1 + f^j 1 + f^', 1 + /')
&.C. respectively, in order that these results may be immediately corrected,
for any change in the values of the masses, tohich may hereafter be found ne
cessary.
(0,1) = (1 +,a').3",052453
(0,2) = (1 +/').0%963818
(0,3) = (1 + /") . 0',040631
(0,4) = (1 +(^'0.1',575473
(0,5) = (1 + f' ) • 0'>080560
(0,6) = (1 +,^'')0',001702
mi = (1 +f^').l'',961407
Ul] = (1 +(^").0%457195
[m] = (1 +/"')0',012797
[ÎZ] = +(^'0•0^ 146329
UKl = (1 +HO0~',004086
["îZJ "= (1 +(^'')0''000042.
[42291
[42,30]
[4230']
[4231]
Mercury.
(1,0) = (1 +,a ).0^422318
(1.2) = (1 +/').7\416280
(1.3) = (1 +j."').0',148161
(1.4) = (1 +M'^). 4', 131 166
(1.5) = (1 +f^O0',207370
(1.6) = (1 + ,a) . 0%004354
(2.0) = (1 +,., ).0',097574
(2.1) = (1 +a').5',426695
(2,3) = (1 +;^"').0',432999
rvi
=
(!+/■■
.0,271367;
i,,.i
=
(1 +P
/ \
6, 174974;
[^1
=
(1 +(
///\
.0',085252;
iHi
==
(1+,
v\
0',7 16427;
L^J
=
(1+'^
V \
,019641 ;
[ÎZ]
=
(1+1^
\'i\
. 0',000205.
[^]
;
(1 + 1^'
0',046285 ;
[IZ]
=
(1 +f^
\
4',5 18397;
[H]
=
(1+f^'
tl\
0',332961 ;
[4232]
VcTiua.
The Ea rill.
[4233]
is that of Saturn, ?n' = ^l^ '"•." ^ [40611, the value of n is that of n'" = 109256'29.3
3339,40 ^^^ [4^8c]
[4077]; the value of a is 0,54.531725, [4202]; then we have è_à = 2.15168241,
b_h = 0,52421272 [4203]. Substituting these in [4228, 4228'] we get the values
of (4,5), [i£] as in [4235]. Lastly the formulas [4229] give (5,4) =
•(4,5);
[m;] = ™'^V^.[T£]; hence we obtain (5,4), \jr\ as in [4236], using the factor [4228(/]
1 +(*'" instead of 1 + /J.^ In like manner the other formulas [4231 — 4237] are to be
computed.
216
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Ctl
(2,4) =
(i+(^'0
6',947861 ;
[m] =
= (l+^'o
1 ',662036;
TheEaiih.
(2,5) =
(l + pn
0,340441 ;
[iï] =
= (1 + ^^).
0%044514;
(2,6) =
(i+H^O
0',007095 ;
[ISJ =
= (1 + ^") .
0',000463.
(3,0) =
(i+O
OSO 18662;
[m] =
= (1+f^ ).
0',005878 ;

(3,1) =
(1 + ^')
0',491880;
[s^] .
== (M.').
0',283029 ;
[4234]
(3,2) =
(1+^").
r, 964546 ;
r^] =
= (1+^").
1 ',510657;
MlTB.
(3,4) =
(i+i^O
14',411136;
Lm]
= (i+^'O
5',2 19092;
(3,5) =
(1+^')
0%658341 ;
[^]
= (1+.).
0,131041 ;
(3,6) =
(1+^')
0%013436;
[3,6]
= (ï+f").
0,001333.
(4,0) =
(l+f^ )•
0%000226
lii]
= (i+M ).
0',000021 ;
(4,1) =
(1 + M').
0%004291
[ÏZ]
= (i+,v).
0',000744 ;
[4235]
(4,2) =
(1+f^").
O',009862
[4,.]
= (i+fx").
0',002359 ;
Jupiter.
(4,3) =
(i+n
0,004509 ;
[i^]
= (i+O
0',001633;
(4,5) =
(1+pO
7%701937
w^
= (1+,^.
5%034195;
(4,6) =
(i + i^^O
0',096647,
[ja]
= (1+H.^'O
0',032446.
(5,0) =
(i + (^ )•
0',000027
; [m]
= (i+(0
0^000001 ;
(5,1) =
(i+f^').
0',000501
; [ ^'M
= (1+.').
0',000047 ;
[4236]
(5,2) =
(1 + 1^.").
0,001123
; [^.^J
^ (1 +..")•
0^000147;
(5,3) =
 (i+O
0',000479
; [m]
== (i+O
0',000095 ;
(5,4) =
= (l+f^)
17%90ô446
; Ua\
= (l+(^'0
11%703495;
(5,6) =
= +!'■') •
0,355214
■ [.6]
= (l+r'.^0
0',2 13356.
(6,0) =
 (i+O
0',000002
; [M]
= (]+..)•
0,000000 ,
(6,1) =
= (1 + p')
. O',000043
; [^]
= (1+.')
0',000002 ;
14237]
(6,2) =
= (1+f^")
. 0',000096
; [^]
=^ (1 +(■.")
O',000006 ;
L '■'"" J
1 1 rciti us.
(6,3) =
= (i+O
0\000040
; [Mj
= (i+O
O',000004 ;
(6,4) =
= (l+(^")
0%919814
U±\
= (l+(^0
O',308803 ;
(6,5) =
= (1+^0
1 ',454 176
; un
= (1+f^')
0^873434.
[4237
25. By means of these values and the formulas [1122, 1126, 1142,
1143, 1146] the following results have been obtained; ivhich exhibit, at
the epoch of 1750, the annual variations of the elements^ during a year
of 3651 days, namely,
VI. vii.§25] SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. 217
dl'
•2de
the annual sidéral motion of the perihelion in longitude in 1 750 ;* [42381
[4238']
= the annual variation of the equation of the centre, or that of double
the excentricity in 1750 ;t
— = the annual variation of the inclination of the orbit to the fixed ecliptic r^omn
d t ^ [4239]
of 1750
Symbol! .
— !^ the annual variation of the inclination of the orbit to the apparent ,.^„^,
d t ^^ [4239]
ecliptic ;
d è
— = the annual sidéral motion of the ascending node of the orbit upon the
d t
fixed ecliptic of 1750 ;
de
— ' := the annual sidéral motion of the same node upon the apparent
d t
ecliptic. Î
[4240]
[4241]
* (2567) Neglecting terms of the order i^, we get u=^U\t.— — , by Taylor's [4238a]
theorem [.3850a]. The time t is counted in Julian years [4078] and the values of n, n', n'
kx,. [4077] are taken to conform to this unit of time, so that n"i, which represents generally
the motion of the earth in the time t, will become simply n", in one year, or when
t=\. Now U being the value of m when < = 0, if we subtract it from the value for
dU [42386]
the case of ^=1, which by [42.38a] is U \ —, we shall get the annual variation of
It equal to — . Therefore if we write successively «, 2e, ip, 9,, è, 6^, for u,
we shall obtain the annual variations of these quantities respectively, namely, — ,
°' [4238c]
'^T,' Ti' Ti' 77' Tr ^°^ '" [4080 — 4083] « represents the longitude of
the perihelion, e the excentricity of the orbit, 9 the inclination of the orbit, and è the longitude moqqji
of the ascending node of m, upon the ^retZ ecliptic. Moreover, 9, is, as in [1143'"], the
inclination, and ê^ the longitude of the node counted upon the apparent ecliptic. With one ^ .poo
accent above these quantities, they correspond to the body m'; and with iivo accents to the
body ni' , &«;.
t (2568) Neglecting terms of the order e^, in the equation of the centre [3748], it
becomes 2 c . sin. {nt\ t — ra) ; the maximum value being 2 e, whose annual variation is [4239a]
^.~ [4238c].
X (2569) The formulas used for computing the values [4242 — 4248] are as follows. [4242a]
VOL. in. 65
218 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
MERCURY.
^ = 5',627032 + 3',014032 . (^'+ 0',929932 . (x"+ 0%041846 . f^'"
at
+ P,560043 . f^''+ 0',079478 . i>y+ 0S001702. f."'.
2 .j^ = 0',013690 + 0', 021948 . x'+ 0',00651 1 . m"— 0', 002330 . t^'"
— 0',012560 . i>>'+ 0',000116 . f^^+ ,000004 . t^^
Mercury. ^ ^ ~ 0',1 19993 — 0',087951 . f^'— 0%000052 . ix"'— 0^028764 . f^^"
— ,003215 . f^"— 0',00001 1 . /j".
[4242] jf^^ 0'' ^ ^'^^^^ + 0%068409 . H'+ 0^000508 . f^"'+ 0^098085 . fx'^
+ 0%0 10373 . i>y+ 0%000033 . f^"'.
— = — 4",224994— P,764590. m'— 0',963817 . p"— 0',029951 .(x'"
dt
— P,396112 . M— 0%068989 . (x^— 0^001535 . fx".
— ' = — 7%566802 — 0',097574 . f^ — 4',054426 . t^'— 0^963817 . (>■"
d t
— 0',143774 . fx'"— 2%1 87093 . i^^''— 0%1 17889 . m"
— 0%002228 . fi.^'.
The values of — , — , &ic. are given in [1126] ; 2.—, 2.—, &c. are derived from
d t (t t (t I u t
[««, f"''^ '?■ '^■■'^■'•"' 'iï s.*"'™" [.142, .143]. L..,y ^S f.8..
General ^nd r^ , — ^, &ic. are obtained from [1 146]. If we put i for the number of accents o«er
exprès " ' " '
the'annuai <p; «) &•€. SO that (p*'', sj^'^ Sic. represent the values of (p, «, 8ic. corresponding to the planet
of the eie vvhicli is numbered i, according to the notation adopted in [4230] ; and suppose the sign 2
ments of,, 7.7 • 1 • i • /^
the orbits, of finite integrals to include all the values of k, contained m the series of numbers, 0, 1,2, 3,
[4242c] 4, 5, 6 [4230], excepting i =^ ]c ; then the four first of the preceding equations, may be put
under the following forms, as is evident by mere inspection,
[4242d] ^^=i;.J(i,Ar) — [Tr].^\cos.(:=<'>— «W)5; [1126]
[4242e] 2.^ = — 22.[TF].e^'i.sin.(ra«— b"'1); [1122]
_ _2%343127 — 4%315] 77 . (^ — 5',754638 . ^."+ 1 ',203777 . t^"
(It
VI. vii. §25.] SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. 219
VENUS.
+ 6',435827 . (j."+ 0^083814. (x'+0',003269 . ,j.''.
2 .^ = — 0%260567 — 0',090479 . fx — 0%101170. fx"— 0',006378 . >'■"'
a t
— 0%061 143 . <— O',001409 . f'+ 0',000012 . m".
^ = — 0%015950 + 0S025200 . ^ + 0%002I57 . f^'"— 0%037854 . (x ^^^^^
— 0',005455 . fx'' I 0%000002 . /x"'.
^' = 0%044538 + 0',019377 . f^ — 0',004148 . fx"'+ 0%025810 . t^ [4243]
+ 0',003500 . fx'— 0^000001 . t^.
— = _ 9,900996 + 0%342053 . fx _ 7',416280 . f."— 0%0761 12 . m'"
— 2',66 1705 . fx— o%085589 . K— 0',003363 . ,.''.
^ = — 18%387762 + 0', 165450 . fx — 5^426693 . m'_ 7^416280 . v^'
— 0',286675 . fx'"— 5',133067 . jx"— 0',285519 . v"
— 0',004978 . fx".
^ = 2.[ a_] .tang. ^(«. sin. (ôOô^'i); ^242/]
[1142,1143]
In like manner the expressions [1146] may be reduced to the forms [4242i, fc], supposing
the orbits of all the other planets to be referred to that which is numbered I [4230] ; ?/'' [4242ft]
bebg the indination, and â'' the longitude of the node of the orbit denoted by i referred to
that which is denoted by I; conformably to the notation [1 143''] ; the fixed plane being the
orbit of /, at the epoch 1750,
^ = 2.{ (i,Ar)_(/,A') \ . tang. <p'*'. sin. (âio_^(B); [4242i]
^ = {l,i)Mi,^) + ^A{i,^{l,^\~^yCO,.{è'~^è^''^). [42424]
220 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS; [Méc. Céi.
THE EARTH.
 = 11* ,949588 — 0',414923 . f^ + 3',813276 . (^'+ r,546163 . ^^"'
at
The Earth
4 6^804392 . i>^"+ 0', 194066 . 1^."+ 0',006614
M'
[4244] 2 /^ = — 0',1 87638 — 0',008057 . (^ + 0',030435 . i^'— 0',049410 . f/"
— 0', 159738 . i>'"— 0S000909 . f^''^ 0',000040 . f.^'.
Instead of excepting Ic = i [4242c] , we may suppose the sign 2 to include all the numbers
[4242Z] 0, 1,2, 3,4,5,6 [4230]; putting {i,i)=iO, [TTJ = 0, in all the formulas [4242«i — A:] ;
observing also that the first term of [4242Ar], namely — (^j ^) is that which arises from the
tano^. &^''^
[4242m] value A; = i, under the sign 2 ; because then ° — — = 1; cos.(é''' — Ô(''>)=:1. We may
moreover remark, that as the orbit of the planet /, in 1750, is taken for the fixed plane
[4232/t], tang. <p"' must be of the order m, and since this is multiplied, in [4242/], by quanti
[4242n] ties of the same order, the product will be of the order m^, which is neglected ; likewise the
term depending on tang. 9''' vanishes, because it is multiplied by sin. {&'■''' — â*'') = 0. If
we now substitute in [4242f/— t] the values [40S0— 4083, 4231—4237], we shall
[4242o] obtain the expressions [4242 — 4248] For the sake of illustration, we shall give a few
examples of the numerical calculations in the following notes.
* (2570) As an example of the formula [4242(/J, we shall compute the action of Mercury
on the Earth, in which case i^ 2, A: = 0, and the corresponding terms of this formula
[4244a] are (2,0) — [Ml • • cos. (n"— w). Substituting the values of (2,0), [aiô"], e, e", to, ra"
[4233, 4080, 4081], it becomes.
[42446]
(1 + p.) • ^^ 0,097574  0',046285 . °^^lf^l cos. (98^ 37" 1 673" 33'» 58') ^
= (1 + fJ^) . { 0',097574 — 0',512497= — 0^414923 — 0^414923 . ij. ;
in which the part depending on fx is the same as in — — [4244], the other part — 0',414923
is included in the constant term 1 1',949588, which is the sum of all the coefficients of /a, ja'd,
14244c] .... dzi"
&ic. noticing their signs. This constant quantity represents the value of rr, supposing (a,
/J.', &.C. to vanish, or the numerical values of the masses [4061] to be correct.
VI.vii.<^25.] SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. 221
MARS.
^" ^ 15',677160 + 0',015944 . \>. + 0^511046 . f.'+ 2%129320 . ^'
a t
+ 12%312891 . (/"+ 0^693878 . f^^+ 0',014082 . ^''K
2. ^"= 0%372537 + 0^002363 . (x + 0',001566 . ,x'f 0',040492 . /'
+ 0',314982.,j."+ 0',013167 . p."— 0^000032 . f^".
1^ = — 0',293800 + 0^,000092 . ^ — 0',013146 . f^'— 0^254879 . m'"
— 0%025790 . vy— 0',000076 . ^^K *'""
1^ = — 0%012984 — 0',000388 . (/. + 0',131893 . f^'— 0S131999 . f."
dt
— 0',0 12454 . V — 0',000036 . p". [4245]
— = — 9%728234 + 0%052224 . \^ + 0',3 14067 . (.'— P,964546 . ^'
a t
— 7%855103 . ^i'— 0',266532 . f^"— 0%008345 . ,x^'.
^ = — 22%789674 — 0',31 8395 . fx — 8%577599 . f.'— 1 ',964546 . fx"
— 0^,432999 . fx'"— 1 P,015955 . i>'r— 0',469146 . fx"
— 0',011033.fx.
de"
In like manner the terms of 2 . — [4242cj, depending on Mercury, become by using [4244ti]
tiie same values as above,
— (1 + fx) • [111] 26. sin. (ra"— a)
= — (I + (x) • 0,046285 X 2 X 0,20551320 . sin. (98'' 3T" 16' 73'' aS" 58*) [4244e]
= — ( 1 + ^) . 0',00805T = — OS008057 — 0',008057 . fx,
in which the coefficient of (x is the same as in [4244], and the quantity
— 0',00S057 forms part of the constant quantity — 0", 187638 [4244], as in the
dTS" r T T •! rfwCO
case of — — [4244c]. In like manner we may compute any other values —rrt
d_f>
dt '
VOL. III. 56
222 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
JUPITER.
'^— = 6%599770 + 0',000186 . f^^ + 0',004330 . (^'+ 0',009837 . m"
dt
Jupiter.
+ 0^002047 . f^"'+ 6%457871 . (j.''+ 0% 125498 . ix"':
0%55441 8 — 0',000008 . m + 0',000009 . f^'+ 0',00(
— 0',000191 . /x"'+ 0',553308 . f>''+ 0',001220 . i^",
* ^ = _0, 078140 + 0',000022.(x+0',0001 01 . x'+0^000112.f^"'
at
— 0',078933 . M' + O',000557 . f^".
^ = — 0^223178 — 0%009491 . m. — 0%128114 . (^'— 0',010646 . (x'"
[4346] _ 0^075444 . (^^"4 0%0005 1 6 . f^^'.
— = 6^456281 + 0',000509 . (^ + 0%005857 . i^'— 0%009862 .(."
dt
— 0%000461 . f^"'+ 6%505571 . f^"— 0%045332 . j."'.
^^ _ 14%663377 — 0',316227 . t> — 12S828736 . i^'— 0^009862 . t^"
dt
— œ,389153 . (^"'— 6%947861 . f^'^+ 5%877561 . t^"
— 0,049 100 . H^'.
* (2571) As an example of the use of the formula [4242/], we shall compute the
[4946a] part of — — depending on the action of Mars. In this case i ^ 4, A: = 3, and
the corresponding terms of the formula become, by using the values [4080 — 4083.
4231 — 4237] ;
(4,3) . tang. (?'". sin. {&"— é'")
[42466] = (1 + 1^'") ■ 0',004509 X tang. I'' 51™ X sin. (97'' 54™ 22'— 47'' SS" 38')
= (1 +i,"').0',000112 =0',000112 + 0%000112.fA"'
of which the part depending on ;*'" is the same as in — [4246], and the other term
0' ,000112 forms part of the constant quantity — 0',078140 of this formula.
[4246c] In like manner by putting i = 4, A = 3, Z = 2 in [4242 J], and using the same data,
VI. vii. ^S25.] SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. 223
SATURN
+ 0%000550.f^"'+ 15',790810.(x+0%3]9768. f.'
, = 16%1 12726 + 0',000022 . t^ + 0',000496 . fx'+ 0S001080 . i^"
(It
2 . ^ = — I ',080409 — OSOOOOOO . f. + O',000000 . f.'+ 0^000001 . /•"
a t
— 0%000016 . (^"'— P,099919 . fj^"+ 0%019524 . (x.
1^ = 0%099740 + O',000003 . fx + 0^00001 8 . m'+ 0%000014 . i>!" ^^^^^^^
+ 0^,096696 . H" f 0^003010 . fx".
^ = — 0,155290 — 0^,010955 . fx_ o,1939] 8 . ^— 0%012542 . f^'" [4247]
+ 0%059175 . fx+ 0', 002950 . m".
* 'jj =— 9%005292 + 0%000004 . ,x + 0',000042 . ^^— 0%001 123 . ^'
— 0',000323 . (x'"— 8%734249 . f^— 0%269642 . iCK
^ = — 19^041499 — 0',1 10961 . fx — 5',883249.f^'— 0',001123 . ^."
at
— 0', 141 41 4 . p.'"— 12',292960 . t^"— 0',340441 . (x"
— 0',271351 .fx".
we get the part of —7^, or as it is called 7^ [4246], depending on Mars, equal to
\ (4,3)  (2,3) I . tang. 9'" . sin. (é— é'")
= (1 + fx"').0' ,004.509 — 0',432999 X tang. 1'' 51"' X sin. (9T'54"'22'— 47"' 33™ 38')
[4246rf]
= _ (1 _f ^"') . 0',010643 = — 0',010643  0',010643 . ix'",
which agree very nearly with the corresponding terms of 77 [4246].
* (2572) Putting i = 5 in [4242g], we get the expression of —, and the terms
corresponding to the action of any one of the planets, is found by using the value of k
corresponding to it ; thus for Mars k = 3, and the terms depending on this planet
become, by using the data [4080— 4083, 4231 — 4237],
224 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
URANUS.
^' = 2',454851 + 0',000003 . (^ + 0',000043 . ^'+ 0',000095 . fx"
at
+ 0',000048 . ^^"'+ r,2 10830 . i>>''+ 1 ',243833 . i^\
2 . — = — 0', 1081 84 — 0',000000 . (^ — O',000000 . f^'— 0',000000 . /x"
dt
+ 0',000000 . fj.'"— OSOl 1952 . yi"— 0',096232 . i>y.
^ = _ 0',048861 + 0',000000 . i^ + 0',000000 . f/.'+ 0%000000 . f^'"
""""'• — 0',009036.(x— 0^039826.,x^
4^' = — 0',027460 — 0',005492.pi + ^,010145./— 0',005907 . f^^'"
a t
[4248] + 0',05921 7 . 9^" — 0%030502 . i>.\
— = 2^,700876 +0',00001 7. f^+0S000146.fx'—0',000096.(^"
dt
+ 0',000047 . M"'+ 0',496382 . i>:"\ 2^204381 . i>.\
l!il' = _ 34\403396 — 0',78851 7 . \> — 23^81 5885 . i>!— 0^000096 . f^"
dt
— 0',938767 .M'"— 10',200902 . ,x+ 1 ',347 866. j^"
— 0',007096.fi.".
■(5'3)+(5'3)tïï!^(^'^"')
= (I + fx."'). 5 — 0,000479 + 0'.000479 /^"^' ^,„^^'"° '.cos.(lll''30"'23'47''3S'"38^) ]
\ ^ '^ ' I ' '  tang. 2'^ 29™ 55' ^ ' )
[4247i]
= (1 + fJ^'") .{ — 0',000479 + 0^000156 }
= _0',000323 — 0^000323.fA"', as in ^[4247].
d é^ •
Putting 1 = 5, Z = 2, in [4242^], we obtain the expression of — j, in the notation
[4247c] °f [4247]. The term of this expression corresponding to Mars, is found by putting k=3,
and using tlie above data, by which means it becomes,
VI. vil. § ^'5.] SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. 226
The variations of the earth's orbit are not included in the preceding formulas ;
they may be determined by the equations *
tang. <?". sin. f = p" ; tang. /. cos. o" = q". [4349]
With resjiect to the values of p", q", we may determine them by the
formulas [1132, &:c.], and we have, by taking the ecliptic of \1 50 for the [4249]
fixed plane,i
d p"
in which t is the number of Julian years elapsed since 1750, and rr^
[4250]
r/q" rldp'
, , &.C. are taken to correspond to that epoch. It is only necessary
to notice the first power of t in these formulas, if t be less than 300.
If t do not exceed 1000 or 1200, we may reject the third and higher powers
of t ; and we may do the same even with the most ancient observations,
[4250']
[4250"]
 (5,3)+ <(5,3)(2,3)}.^^'.cos.(év_r)
= (!]_ j,"'). ) _ 0^000479 + (0',000179 — 0',432999). ^'.^^ ^ ■. cos. 63' 51" 45'^ [4247rfJ
\ ^ '^ ' I IV. I / tang. S"* 29"' 55» 3
= (1 +fj"').{— 0',000179 — 0',141035 = — 0,141514 — 0%141514.(a"',
which differs 0',0001 from that given by the author. We have thus given an example of
the numerical calculations of each of the formulas [4212(/ — k'\.
* (2573) The formulas [4249] are similar to [1032], accenting p, q, Sic. with tioo r4249„]
accents, in order to conform to the case now under consideration.
t (2574) Putting successively m =p"; U = p" ; or u = 5", TJ = q", in the
formula [3850«], we get the following expressions of p" , q",
in which the quantities p", q", and their differentials, in the second members, correspond
to the epoch of 1750. Now at that epoch we have 9" = [4249'] ; substituting this in [42506]
[4249], we get p"= 0, q"= ; hence the formulas [4250a] become as in [4250].
VOL. III. 57
226 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS; [Méc. Cél.
taking into view their imperfections. We obtain from the formulas [4250],
Value. the following results.*
CO r re 3
po.ndiag
rrrlil '^ = 0%076721 + 0',008420 . m + 0%0863 16.^'+ 0%009423 . ,a"'
odiit. a t
[4251]
— 0»,022021 .M.'"— 0^005446 . i^+ 0s000029.x^'.
^ = — 0%500955 — 0%008522./x — 0',309951 .,/ 0%010335.f/^"
— 0',1 58234. /x'"— 0',013821 .F^— 0%000091 .f^^'.
theperi" 26. Wc havB seen, in [4037], that the oblateness of the sun produces, in
helion de
the"t'n,p°" the perihelia of the planetary orbits, a small motion, which is represented by,
cily of the
sun. yj2
[4252] 5«=.(p_X^).:.„^.
* (2575) If we substitute tlie values p", q" [4250J, in the terms of j, —
d p"
[1132], depending upon p", or ç", they produce terms of the order {(2,0) +(2,l)+&ic. }• — ;
[4251a] . , , . . ., dp" dq" ,. , • , c u <• u
or 01 the order m m comparison with — , — , which occur in the first members ol these
^ dt' dt'
equations ; therefore these terms may be neglected, and then the values of — — , — •
[1132], become,
Ji" = (2,0) . q + (2,1). 2' + (2,3) . q"'+ &c. ;
[42516] . „
^ ^ _ (2,0) . p  (2,1) ./ (2,3) .p"'~ he.
[4251c] Substituting p = tang. cp. sin. é, p' =tang. 9'. sin.ô', &,c.; q ^tang. q> .cos.^, &;c. we get
[4251rf] ''■JT ^ (2.0) • tang. <p . cos. ^ + (2,1 ) . tang. 9'. cos. 6' + (2,3) . tang. 9'". cos. ()'"+ Sic. ;
[4251e] rfl" ="~ (^'^^ • tang.9sin.â — (2,1) . tang.9'. sin. â'— (2,3) .tang. 9'". sin.ô'"— he ;
and by using the values [4082, 4083, 4233], they become as in [4251] nearly. Thus the
(l p"
term of — , depending on Mars, is
[4251/] (2,3). tang. 9'". cos. r= (1 + x"') .0',4.32999 X tang. l'Sl™ X cos.47''38'" 38'
= (l+H."')0''009423,
Vl.vii.§26.J SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. 227
We shall consider the motion relatively to Mercury. Now q is the ratio of [43531
the centrifugal force to gravity at the solar equator [4028] ; and if mt be
the sun's angular rotary motion, the centrifugal force at the solar equator will ^oss'i
bo ni'D* Puttine; the mass of the sun enual to S, we havef ^,.l=^»"^ or ,,„,„
* 1 a^ [4254]
.S = ti". a"', which gives the gravity at the solar equator,
S n"2.a"3
2)3 DP '
therefore we have %
m' D^ /ot\2 /D\3
[4255]
The time of the sun's revolution about its axis, according to observations, is
nearly equal to 25'*°y%417. The duration of the earth's sidéral revolution is [4257]
365'""^S256 ; hence we obtain,
TO 365,256
n" 25,417
The apparent semidiameter of the sun, at its mean distance, is 96P,632;
which gives
[4258]
[4259]
dp"
in which the coefficient of iu"' is the same as in the value of —  [4251]. In like manner
at
dp" dq"
we find the Other terms of ——, — — [42511.
dt dt ^ ■■
* (2576) The angular rotary velocity being to, and the equatorial radius D ; the actual
velocity of a point of the surface of the equator will be represented by to D. The square [4253o]
of this, divided by the radius D, gives the centrifugal force [54'], equal to m^D, as
in [4253].
t (2577) We have n^ = ^3 = "^^^ [3700, .3709a] ; and in like manner n"'^=^^ . ^^254a]
Now changing M into S to conform to the notation [4254], neglecting also to" in comparison
Ç /t"3
with S, we obtain ^ = n"^ [4254]; multiplying by — we get [4255]. [42546]
jt"2.a"3 .
t (2578) The centrifugal force ni'D [4253'], divided by the gravity p— , gives q
[4253], as in [4256] ; substituting the values [4258, 4260] it becomes r4255o]
q = (^54^^)^. (sin. 961',632)=' = 0,000020926, as in [4261].
228 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4260] ^ = sin. 961%632;
a
therefore we have
[4261] y == 0,0000209268.
If the sun be homogeneous, we have p = l;q [1590', 1592'], m which case
the motion of Mercury's perihelion [4252], produced by the ellipticity of
the sun, is*
or the equivalent expression,
[4264] <5 « = ^7 . (sin. 961 ',632). T Y. nt.
[4262]
If we substitute in this formula the values of n, «, a" [4077, 4079], it
[4265] becomes f>r^ = ,012250.^ ; so that it increases '^ [4242] by the quantity
0',012250, which is nearly insensible. This must be still farther decreased
if the sun be formed of strata whose densities increase from the surface to the
centre, as there is reason to believe is the case.f Hence we may neglect this
[4266] expression for Mercury, and much more so for the other planets. The
variations of the nodes and inclinations of the orbits, depending on the
same cause, may also be rejected on account of their smallness [4045']
* (2579) The density of the sun being supposed uniform, we have 'h? =: ^q nearly
[4262a] [1590']. Moreover by [1592'] the polar semiaxis being 1, the equatorial semiaxis is
\/{\ f 'i^) = 1 + J^^ =^ 1 4~ i*/ nearly ; so that the ellipticity p is nearly equal to fç, as
in [4262] ; substituting this in [4252J we get [4263]. Now we have
[42621] V^7, 5 = ( "• 961',632)^ g)' [4260] ;
hence [4263J becomes as in [4264] ; and by using the values of q, a, a", n
[4261, 4079, 4077], it becomes as in [4265], namely,
[4262c] 5^^ I X (0,0000209268) X (sin. 961',632f X (0,.38709812)2 X 538101 6^ < = 0',01 250. <.
t (2580) The effect of increasing the density towards the centre is seen, in the extreme
r4266a] case, when the whole mass is collected in the centre, and p = iotp [1732'"]; or in
the present notation f^hq [1726', 4253]. Substituting this in [4252], we get ira=Oj
so that in this case the ellipticity has no effect on the motion of the perihelion ; hence it
[42665] appears that this increase of density, towards the centre, decreases the motion of the
perihelion. We have supposed, in this example, that I) remains unaltered, the density
being considered as infinitely rare, from the suiface towards the centre.
VI. viii. Vî"?]
THEORY OF MERCURY.
229
CHAPTER VIII.
THEORY OF MERCURY.
27. The inequalities of the planets which are independent of the
excentricities, and those which depend on the first power of the
excentricities, were computed by means of the formulas [1020, 1021, 1030],
having previously ascertained the values of ^"'*, ^^'' &c. and their
differences, by the formulas [963'^ — 1008]. The results of these
calculations are contained in this, and in the following chapters, neglecting
the perturbations of the radius vector, whose effect on the geocentric
longitude of the planet is less than one centesimal second. To determine *
[4267]
TertiiB
whieh
may be
neglected
on account
of their
ainallnc".
• (2581) Let S be the sun, E the earth, M Mercury, supposing it to move in
the plane of the ecliptic ; S T the line drawn from the sun towards the first point of Aries in
the heavens, being the hne from which the longitude v, v" are counted. Then S E =t"
F
74
(4Q(Jf''al
Hence the longitude of the sun, as it appears from
the earth, is 180''[f"; and if from this we
subtract the angle of elongation SEM =^ E,
we shall obtain the geocentric longitude of Mercury
V=lSO''+i'"— £. Now if SM=r be
increased by the quantity MJ\1! = or, the angle
E will increase by the quantity MEM'z^SE,'^'
while V, v" remain unaltered ; therefore the variation of the preceding value of V will
be 5V^ — f5£. If we draw .M'.Y, EF, perpendicular to EM, .S./V/ respectively,
we shall have in the similar triangles J\1JYM', MFE; ME : EF :: MM : M'N; [4268rf]
EF
ME'
(5 E = — 5 V :
[42(3S6]
[4268c]
hence iV/'JV=dr.
angle
MEM'
Dividing this by M' E, or ME, we obtain very nearly the
EF
or
substituting EF = S E.sm.ESM
ME'i'
=r".sm.{v—v"), and ME^=r"^—2r"r .cos.{v—v")}t^=r''^.\l—2<x.cos.{v — v")■joJ
[6■2 Int. 4268], we get [1269].
VOL. III. 68
[4'i(>er]
230 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
the limit, which an inequality in the radius vector must attain, to produce
one second in the geocentric longitude of Mercury, we shall observe that if
[4a68] we put this longitude equal to V, and r = ?"a, we shall have for the
variation ôV corresponding to Sr,
,. Sr sin (v — v")
[4270]
The maximum of the function
s'in.(« — v'')
1 — 2a.cos.(j;— i;")la''
corresponds to^
[4271] cos.(z^t?) =jp ;J
[4271'] which gives ^ [4270e] for this maximum ; therefore we shall
then have,t
* (25S2) The maximum of [4270] is found, by taking the differential, supposing v to
270 b^ t'l^ variable quantity; putting it equal to zero, and dividing by d.{v — v"). This
differential expression being multiplied by 1 — 2a. cos. (y — ii")ap becomes, without
[4270i] reduction, as in the first of the following expressions, and this is easily reduced to the
last form [4270(/] ;
[4970c] = cos.(«— v") . \ 1 — 2o..cos.(« — v")\a?l — 2a. sin.^. (t) — v")
= (1 +o.^).cos.{v — v")—2a..{cos.^.{v—v") + sm.^.{v — v")]
[4370dJ = (1 +a2).cos.(i'— î>") — 2 a.
From this we easily obtain [4271] ; thence
. / 4a2 U_la2
[4270e] V {l + c>2)V l+a2
l2a.cos.(..") +a2= 1  .^p^, + a=== \:^^ .
Dividing the first of these expressions by the second, we get the value of the maximum of
the function [4270], as in [4271'].
t (2583) Substituting in [4269] the value of the function [4270], at its maximum
t4271a] 6r 1
[4271'], we find &V = ; . :; :,; hence we get or [4272].
n. viii.^27.]
THEORY OF MERCURY.
231
<S, __,•".(! —a'^).. 5 V. [4272]
If we suppose iV = ± 1"= ± 0,324, and take for r, r", the mean
distances of Mercury and the earth from the sun [4079], we shall have by ^^^^^^
\vliat precedes r" = 1 ; a = 0,38709812 [4095] ; hence we obtain*
6r=^ 0,000001335 ; [4274]
therefore ive may neglect all the inequalities of the radius vector of Mercury,
in which the coefjicient is less than, rt 0,000001. Among the inequalities of [4275]
the motion in longitude, we shall retain generally only those whose coefficients i„equaii
e\ceed a quarter of a centesimal second [0,081]; but as the inequalities ^^^^J^»
depending on the simple angular distances of the planets can be introduced ^«JTbe
into the same table with those of greater magnitude, they are retained.
Inequalities of Mercury, independent of the excentriciiies.
iv = (1+0
+ (l+0
0%662353 . sin. (n't — nt + e— s) \
— r,457111 . %\n.2{n't — nt + ^' — ^) j
— 0', 128075 . s\n.3(n't — n < + s' — '
— 0',029264 . sin.4(n'« — nt + s—^)
— 0%008905 . sin.5(n'« — nt + i —()
0',201 688 . sin. (n"t — nt + ^" s)
— 0', 165645 . sm.2(n"t — n i + «" —
— 0',016901 . sin.3(n"«  nt + s"
— O',003127 . sm A(n"t  ni + s"
[4276]
Inequali
ties inde
pendent of
the ec
centrici
ties.
0',569336 . sin. {n'H — nt + i"
_ (1 4 ^iv) . I _ 0,l 1 8384 . sin.2(n'H — nt + ^'—
— O',003 118. sin.3(M''i — nt + s'^—
* (2584) Using the mean values r = a, r" = a" [4079], we get a [4095],
substituting these and 6V = ± 1", or o V = dz sin. 1" = ± 0,324 . sin. 1% we
obtEÙn [4274]
[4274o]
232 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. C^l.
/ 0,0000000376* \
\ — 0,0000004094 . cos. (n'tnt + i's) 1
[4277] i r = — (1 + /) . + 0,0000015545 . cos.2(n't — n i + e' — i)
+ 0,0000001702 . cos.3(n't — 7i i + s' — s)
+ 0,0000000437 . cos.4(n' t — 7it + i—s)
* (2585) The parts of or, 5v [1023,1024] independent of the excentricities are,
by using T [.3702a],
[4277a] ^. = _^ . a3.(^_ j+ _ . V. I ^^ ,,^,,^_^ ^■cos.^ i';
[42774] 5 u = — . 2 . ) : . a ^" \ r. ,. , ' 5 r, ( • sin. i 1 ;
[4277rf]
[4277c] in which m, «, w, s correspond to the disturbed planet, and m', a n', s', to the
disturbing planet. These expressions must be accented so as to conform to the notation
[4061, 4077 — 4083], taking for i all integral numbers from i= — œ to z'^co. For
example, if we wish to calculate the action of Mars on the earth, we must, in the formulas
[4277«, &], change m, a, n, s into vi", a", n", s", &c. corresponding to the
[4277 e] disturbed planet; and m', a', n', s'. &c. into ?;/", «'", n'", b", kc. respectively,
for the disturbing planet.
As an example of the use of these formulas we shall apply them to the computation of
the perturbations of Mercury by the action of Venus. The constant part of 5r deduced
r4Q77/'l
from the first term of [4277a] is as in the first expression [4277ri]. This is successively
reduced, by the substitution of the values
•0)
fdA^o)^ 1 dbi ^g^^g^^ „ = 0,.38709812 [4079],
da ) (i''2 do
(0)
[4277g] = a = 0,53516076 [4085], ^ = 0,780206 [4088], ?«'== ii^ [4061]:
a' d CL oboloU
III)
m' „ /'dA('>)\ m' a" db^
ùr =^ —.cr. ~ — 1 = ■ a.
G ' \ da J 6 a'2 da.
[4277/t] ^ (0,
=   . a a2. — : = — (1 +,a') . 0,0000000.370, as in [4277].
Again by putting successively i=!, i=— 1, .^'i'=^(" [954"J, in [4277o],
and connecting the two terms, we obtain the part of &r depending on cos. T, namely.
VI. viii.§27.] THEORY OF MERCURY. 233
Iiicqual'.ties depending on the first power of the excentricities.*
0,295201.sin.(H.'^ + .'_^)
4,030852.sm.(2?i'«— nt + 2:'— £ — ^)
 ]%686n4>.s\n.{3nt~2nt + 3e' — 2s — z^)
6i, = (1 + ,/) . ^ + 0'/J93989 . sin. (3 n't — 2nt + 3s—2 s — ^') ) [4278]
+ (»%'293992. sin.(4 n't — 3 n < + 4 .' — 3 £ — ^)
— 0%17682;).sin.(2M/;_ nf + 2e— i' — ^)
+ 0%394 1?,6 . sin. (3 n t—2n't + 3 s —2e' — ^)
Ô r = m' n^a.) ^ '^ " ^ , "~" ( . cos. T ; [4277i]
[42774]
in which we must substitute a.^"'==a^ — a.OA, o'. ( == a^ — a'^.
\ da J do.
[997,1000,963''], and use tlie values [4277f] coriesponding to the disturbing and disturbed
planets. Tiius in computing tiie action of Venus upon Mercury, we must use the
values o, a, m'[4277o], ji = 538101 6',736, ?i'^ 210664 1',520 [4077], ^i, [4087],
(1)
j^ [4088], and we shall get (5 r = 0,0000004094 . cos. T, as in the second
line of [4277]. The terms depending on cos. 2 T, cos. 3 T, cos.4 T, &c. are found
from [4277n], by using successively, i = =p2, i==\^3. i = ^4, &c. [4277to1
In like manner, the part of '5 v [42776], depending on sin. T, is found by using i = ^l ;
hence we have
< \ da / ' n — n >
^'^n^'.l j£^,^, . aA'r^ f  t^^^,;;]:^,; _ J }.~;^ ^ • sin. T. ^^^..^^
Substituting the values of the elements given in [4277^,/], it becomes 0^6623. sin. T, as
in the first line of [4276] ; the other terms depending on sin. 2 T, sin. 3 T, he. are found [4277o]
in like manner, from [4277/./], by using successively « = zt 2, « = ±3) he. The
similar terms, corresponding to the other planets, are com[)uted by means of the same
formulas [4277a, 6], altering the accents as in [4277t]. The results of these calculations
are given in [4289, 4290 ; 4305,4306 ; 4.373, 4374; 4388, 4389; 4463,4464; 4523,4524]. ^^^'^'^^
* (2586) The terms depending on the first power of the excentricities are those parts of
ir, ÔV, [1020. 1021], containing e and e. The calculation of these terms is made as [4278a]
in the preceding note ; using for e the excentricity [4C80], corresponding to the disturbed
VOL. III. 59
234
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Mée. Cél
Inequali
ties de
pending
on tbetirst
power of
the excen
tricities.
[4279]
0',09541 8 . sin.(n"i + e"— ^)
+ (1 +f^")< — 0',461708.sin.(2n"i_ wi + 2s"_ £_™)
+ ,244148.8111.(3 n"t — 2nt + 3/'— 2 e — ™)
0',236346. sin.(n'''i + s" _ ra)
+ (1 + f^'^) . { — (r,572172. s\n.(7i'H + ^'^ — ^'0
 3 ,278687 . sin. (2 n'H _ n < + 2 1" — e
(1+^^).
O',084]67 . sm.{n'i + s" —z^")
+ 0',395493 . sin.(2n"ï — rU +2 5"
.)
')
3r = — (1 +p.').0,0000013482.cos.(3n'i — 2n^+3£' — 26— z;j)
— (1 + 1^"). 0,0000029625 . cos.(2 n"i— nt+2 s'"— s — ^).
Inequalities depending on the scjuares and products of the excentricities and
inclinations of the orbits.
[4280]
[4281]
These inequalities have been calculated by the formulas of [3711 — 3755].
Now twice the motion of Mercury differs but very little from five times that
of Venus ;* so that 5(n' — n) + 2n is very nearly equal to — n; we must
therefore, as in [3732], notice the inequality depending on 3nt — 5 n't.
The angle 37i't — 7it varies quite slowly, therefore it is necessary to notice
the inequality depending on it [3733]. Moreover the motion of Mercury is
very nearly equal to four times that of the earth, so that 4.(n" — n) + 2w
differs but little from — n; therefore, we must, as in [3732], notice the
inequality depending on 2nt — 4<n"t. Hence we obtain,
[4282a]
planet; and for e the value [4080] corresponding to the disturbing planet; these symbols
being accented so as to conform to these two bodies.
* (2587) Using the values [4076^] we have very nearly 2 n
.5n'=z 72° =
23"
3n' — n=:289'^ = ^, and 71 — 4 ?j" = 61° = — ; so that these three quantities are
small in comparison with 71, as is observed above. Hence 5 («' — n) j 2»t is very nearly
r4282tl equal to — «, and must be noticed as in [3732] ; also 3 (ji' — 74) ( 2 n is very small,
and must be noticed as in [3733] ; lastly 4 (?i" — n) j 2 n is very nearly equal to — n,
and must be noticed as in [3732]. The ;enns ofiî[37453745"'jdependingon these angles
VI.viii.§27.] THEORY OF MERCURY. 235
^ l',690443.sin.(3n< — 5»'<+3î— 5e'— 43^18'"32'))
i r = _ ( 1 + f^ ). s o,597664 . sin. (3 n t— n / + 3 /— £ + 4O"36™350 ( M^'Sl
V ■' second
— ( 1 + f.") . 0',263474 . sin. (2 n / — 4 n'7 + 2 s — 4 s"— 41 M 1 "" 46^
ir = (1 f ,j.').0,0000016056.cos.(3n^ — 5n'i + 3£ — 5e' — 42^58"'04').
the
order.
[4282]
are found by pulling in the first case ?'^ 5 ; in tlie second i^3, and in the third i = 4.
The values of ^W"', iW'", M^'^^, .'V/'^', corresponding to these values of i, are successively [4282c]
obtained from [3750, 3755, 3755', 3750'"] ; and they may be reduced to terms of
U'\  — , &:c. by means of the formulas [996 — 1001]. These values are to be
substituted separately for Jfcf in the expressions of ^, àv, [3711,3715], and we shall [4282d]
obtain very nearly the terras of — , 5 r, having the small divisors 5 n' — 2 n,
3 n' — n, 4 n' — n, which are the only ones necessary to be noticed in this place. Now [4282e]
if we use, for a moment, the abridged symbol, T.^iJn't — n t 4 ^ — e)\2nt42e
i^ [4282/]
[371 lij], the resulting terms of — or 5r [3711, &ic.] will be of the form [4282/t].
Developing this by [24], Int. it becomes as in [4282?]; substituting .^jsin. Z?, for the
coefficient of sin. 7', also ,/2,cos. Bj, for the coefficient of cos. T^, it changes into
[4282t], and is finally reduced to the form [4282/], by means of [24], Int. [428%]
dr = J»f/<".cos.(T— 2;n)+J/;".cos(T— a— ^')+M/2\cos.(r— 2îi') + i>7/3>.cos.(T— 2n) [4232^]
= { M}^'. cos. 2 Î3 + AJ^'K cos. (îi + /) + Jl/'^'. cos. 25/ + M/". cos. 2 n  . cos. T,
+ { ./U;»'. sin. 2 w + .W ">. sin.(i^ + z,') + iVif \ sin. 2 ^' + M,'^\ sin. 2 n . sin. T, ^*^^^'^
= ^1.5 cos. S, . COS. T, + sin. 5, . sin. 1] } [42824]
= A, . cos.{TB,), as in [4282]. [4282^]
In like manner the several terms of i5 v may be reduced to the form A3. sin.(T, — B.,) ;
there is no other difficulty than the tediousness of the numerical calculation, arising from its [4282m]
length.
We may observe that the quantities 7^, 2 IT, which occur in [3745'"], are not
explicitly included among the data [4077 — 4083], but must be computed from the formulas [4282n]
[10.32, 103.3].
7 .sin.n =z tang. 9'. sin. â' — tang. 9. sin. é; 7. cos. n = tang. 9'. cos. â'— tang. 9. cos. Ô; [4282o]
supposing 9, é to correspond to the disturhed planet, and 9', è' to the cUsiurbing jilanet ;
these symbols being accented so as to conform to the notation [4230] ; then using the
values [4082, 4083] we get the required values of 7, n.
236 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Ct
Inequalities depending on the cubes and jirodncts of thee dimensions of
the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.
The first of these inequalities, depending on the angle 2nt — 5 n't, is
[4282'] computed by means of the formula [3844] ;* the second, depending on
the angle nt — 4 /<% is found by means of [3882] ;t hence we obtain,
ÔV = —{l +f^')8',483765.sin.(2ni — 5w'^ + 2s— 5.='+30''13'"36')
ineq^.ii. — (1 + O • 0',690612 . sin.( n i — 4 n"t + £ — 4="+ 19^02'" 13').
ties of Ihe
etder. The inequalities of Mercury's motion in latitude, may be calculated by
means of the formula [1030] ; but as they are insensible, being less than
[4283] ^ quarter of a centesimal second, it was thought unnecessary to insert
them.
r4283ol * (2538) The first line of [4283] is obtained from the formula [3844], connecting all
the terms into one, as in \_4282h — ?].
[42836]
t (2589) The second line of [4283] is obtained from [3882], reducing all the terms
into one, as in [4282/i — Z]. We have already seen in [3883/(], that the correction, as it is
given by the author, in [4283], is rather too great ; his method of computation [3882] being
i J merely an approximation. The direct method of computation has already been explained
in the previous notes [3876a— 3833io] ; and it is unnecessary to say more upon the subject
[4283rf] ji^ jijjg place. There is a similar equation in the earth's motion [4311, 3S83i/].
VI. ix. ^^28.] THEORY OF VENUS. 237
CHAPTER IX.
THEORY OF VENUS.
28. If we put  = a, and V equal to the geocentric longitude ^4284]
of Venus, we shall find that the equation [4272],
6r = — r". (1 — a=) . (5 V, [4285]
will become, relatively to Venus,
^r'=. — r".(l— a'=).6V'. ["286]
Taking for r', »", tlie mean distances of Venus and the earth from the
sun [4079J, we shall have, as in [4126], a = 0,72333230 ; therefore by [4287]
putting 6 V = ± 1"— ± 0',324, we shall obtain,
6 r' = :f 0,0000007489. [4288]
Therefore we shall neglect those inequalities of the radius vector whose ''"'"»
coefficients are less than 0,0000007. We shall also neglect the inequalities .'"gLfeci
on account
of the motion in longitude, which are less than a quarter of a centesimal "f">,
^ ^ sinullnes*.
second, or 0',081.
Inequalities of Venus, independent of the excentricities.
'+ 5',015931 . sin. {n"t — n' t + s"— s'Y
+11',424392 . sm.2(7i"t — n' t + b"— s')
 7%253867 . sm.S(ti"t — n' t \ e"— s')
— p,056720 . smA(n"t — n! t + /'— /)
iV = {\+ O . ( _ Q, 345898 . sin.5(n"^  n' t + ." > ^'''""^
— 0% 145382 . sin.6(w" t  n' t + a"— £')
— 0',069726 . sin.7(n"«  n' t + s"— s')
— 0%036207 . sln.^n"t — n' t \ e" i') ^
VOL. III. 60
238
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
+ (1 + n
0%079908 . sin. (n'"t .
0% 105987 . sm.2(n"'t ■
0^010853.sin.3(n"'/
0',002332 . sm.4>(n"'t .
n't + £'" — £')
n't + s"'s')
n't + i"' —
[4289]
Inequali
ties inde
pendent of
the ex
centrici
tias.
+ (l+f^'0
2% 891 136 . sin. (n'^t — n' t + >— =')
0%877624 . sin.2(n'^i — n't + s'^— s')
0',040034 . sin.3(?i'^i — n't + s"— .')
0',002754 . sin.4(n'^i —n't + e'"— s')
0% 190473. sin. (n't
+ (1 + 'O • <! — 0',039859 . sin.2(«^^
 0',00 1306. sin. 3(n^r
[4290]
ir' ^ (1+f.'").
— 0,0000003145
+ 0,0000038362 . cos. (n"t  n't + s" s')
I + 0,0000165050 . cos.2(n"^ — n't + ."— i')
— 0,0000140155 . cos.3(n"t — n't + s"— i') \
— 0,0000024255 . cos.4(n" t — n't + s"— i')
1 — 0,0000008873 . cos.ô{n"t  n't + /' e') i
 0,0000004021 . cos.6(n"^ — n't + s"_ e') I
— 0,0000002033 .cos.7(n"^ — n't + ;"_ s')
— 0,0000001094 .cos.8(n'7  n't + s"— =')
'—0,0000003106
 0,0000048903 . cos. (n'^t — n't + s"— i')
+ (1 + \^") . / — 0,0000021911 .cos.2(n''^ — n't + ^'—s')
1 _ 0,0000001 155 . cos.3(?i'^^ — n't + s'"— e^
_ 0,0000000098 . cosA{nH — n't + b"— ,')
* (2590) The values 5v', &r' [4289,4290], were computed from the formulas
"' [4277a, 6], accenting the symbols as in [4277c], so as to conform to the present case.
the excen
tricitiei.
VI. ix.§28.] THEORY OF VENUS. 239
InequttlUies depending on the first potoer of the excentricities*
i r' = (1 + ,a) . 0% 800933 . sin.(2 n't —nt + 2s'—s — ^)
0',073206 . sin. {n"t + ;" — ^')
— OM 27720 . sin. (7ft + s" — ^")
I 0^1631 15 . sin. (2 n"t — n't + 2 s" — s' — ^')
— 0', 1 1 3443 . sin. (2 n" ? — n'f + 2 s" — a' — ^,")
/ Inequalt
— 1 ',549550 . sin. (3 n"i — 2 w'< + 3 e" — 2 s' — z^') "'',<'•>■
^ \ I / I pending
+ (1 + (..") . / + 4',766332 . sin. (3 n"t — 2 n't + 3 s" — 2 .=' — ^") ) pp''r'
\ ' ' V ' ' / the excen
— 0^299478 . sin. (4>n"t — 3n't + 4^ b" — 3 s' — ^')
+ 0',947648 . sin. (4 n"t — 3 n'i + 4 e" — 3 =' — t.")
— 0',69 1 744 . sin. (5 n" f — 4 n' i + 5 a" — 4 =' — ^')
+ 2', 196527 . sin. (5 n"t — 4 n'i + 5 s" — 4 / — ^") / [4991]
+ 0% 106435 . sin. (3 n' t — 2n"t +3^ — 2 b"— ^')
— (1 + P'") . P,092755 . sin. (3 71'" t —2n't + 3 a'"— 2/— ^"')
— P,503893 . sin. {n'H + 3'"—^'^)
0%32n08 . sin. (2 n'^t — n't + 2 b'"— s' — a')
' ^ ' '^ ^ \ ^ 0',232430 . sin. (2 n''i — n'^ + 2 a''— / — a)
— 0',163470 . sin. (3 n'^t — 2 n't + 3 b"— 2 b'—^'^)
— (1 + ,a') . 0%218743 . sin. (n" t + b^ — z^) ;
6 r' = (1 + (.) . 0,0000008831 . cos. (2 n'i — n ^ + 2 /— a — ^)
r 0,00000 1 6482 . cos. (3 /t" « — 2 n' < + 3 a" — 2 / — îj") y
+ (1 4^") .<^_ 0,00000 11406 . cos. (5n"t — An't + 5a" — 4s' — «')> ^^^^^^
(+ 0,0000036421 . cos. (5n!'t — A n't {5^' — 4a' — ^");
— ( 1 _^ ijJ" ) . 0,0000019404 . cos. (3 n'" t— 2 n't ^3 a'" — 2 £' — ^"').
* (2591) The terras of &v', Sr' [4291,4292] are computed from the parts o( S v, or
[1021, 1020] depending upon the excentricities e, e'; in the same manner as the [4291o]
calculation is made for Mercury in [4278a].
240 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of tivo dimensions
of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.
.5 v' = — ( 1 + ,;.) . 0',333596 . sin. (4^n' t — 2nt { 4,s'—2 £ —39" 30" 30')
( 1%505036 . sin. (5 ?i"t — 3n't+ôs"—3 s' + 20'' 54" 260 >
[4993] — (1 + •/) .{ }
 ^ ^ ^ ^ l^ 0',089351 . sin. (4 n"t — 2 n' i + 4 s"— 2 s' + 26" 66'" 32') )
i„c^uai, + ( 1 + //" ) . 2^009677 . sin. (3 n"'t— n' t + 3 /"— s' + 65" 53'" 09').
tie3 of the ' V ' ' ^ ' V ' ' /
secund
order. rj,j^^ mean motions of Mercury, Venus, the earth and Mars, bear such
proportions to each other that the quantities 2n — 5n', 5 n" — 3n' and
[4393] n' — 5 n'" are very small in comparison with n';* hence it follows from
the remarks made in [3732, &c.], that the preceding inequalities [4293]
are the only ones of the order of the square of the excentricities which
can become sensible.
Inequalities depending on terms of the third order, relative to the powers
and products of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.
[4294] ,5 Î)' = (1 + M) . r,184842 . sin. (2nt — 5 n't + 2s — 5e' + 30" 13"' 36'). t
Inequali
ties of Ilic , n TT • 1 • 1
"'''•' Inequalities of the motion of Venus m latitude.
order.
The formulas of ^ 51. Book I. giv^ej
n
* (2592) The values [4076A] give, very nearly, 2 » — 5 7i'= 72^ =  ;
[4293a] 5n"— 3 7/ = 50^=  : «' — 3 «'"= 12=' = ?^ : all of which are small. The
13 ' 54 '
first of these gives 4?i' — 2n nearly equal to — ti', and corresponds to tlie
first form mentioned in [3732]. The second quantity 5 n" — 3 )i', and the third
n' — 3 »'", being nearly equal to zero, correspond to the second form [3733]. The
[4293fc] terms of àv' [4293] corresponding to these quantities are to be computed from [3715],
and reduced as in [4282/i— Z]. The term depending on An" t — 2 n' = 300° == Jn'
nearly, is computed for the same reasons as that in [4310'].
t (2593) This is obtained from [3817], reducing the several terms to one, as
t^^^^^l in [4282AZ].
[4295a] X [2594) If we change, in [1030], n, a, e, n', a', i', into n', a, s, n", a", i
VI.ix428.] THEORY OF VENUS. 241
0%124804.sin.(n"< + £"_0
6s'=—(l+t^").
4 0',090932 . sin. (2 n"t — n't +2 s"
+ 0',073443 . sin.(3 n"t — 2 n't + 3 s"— 2 e'
+ 0S081481 . sin. (4 n"t — 3 nV + 4 /'— 3 s
+ 0',312535 . sin.(5 n"t —A n't + 5 s"— 4 s
— 0',078119.sin.(2n'i— n"t + 2i'— s"— è')
Ineqoali
tioi in tbe
latitude.
0
0
— '•') \ [4295]
[42956]
— (1 + ix"') . 0%148701 . sm.(3n"'t—2n't + 3 ê'" — 2 s — n'")
+ (1 +(x'"').0%161414.sin.(2n'7n'^+2«'^ — f'n").
respectively, we shall obtain the value of 5 s' corresponding to Venus disturbed by the
earth ; and by neglecting the term containing the arc of a circle n t without the
signs of sine and cosine, as is done in [1051] ; also excluding i = [1028, &ic.] from
the sign 2, we get.
In this formula, y [1026'] represents the inclination, and n the longitude of tlie
ascending node of the orbit of the disturbing planet, above that of the disturbed planet.
These quantities for the earth's action upon Venus are, nearly y = tang. q>', and
n= \ëO''{è' • (p' being the inclination of the orbit of Venus to the fixed orbit of the
earth ; and è' the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of Venus upon that of the [4295d]
earth [4082,408.3]. For Mars they become /", n'"; for Jupiter y'% U", he.
In the expression [42956] we must include all positive and negative integral values of i, [4295c]
except 1=0 [1028, &;c.]. The values of y, /, &c. II, n', &ic. are deduced
from those of cp, <p', kc. é, è', Sic. [4082, 4083] ; by means of formulas similar to
those in [4282o]. Thus if we wish to find the part of 5 s' depending on the angle [4295/"]
2n"t — n't. we must put i=2, in [42956], and the term in question becomes,
Now the factor n'^— (2n"— n')2 = 4 n".(n' — n") ; also B'''^ = ~ . b'''.^ [1006];
a •> <j
substituting these and y, n [4295c], in [4295^], it becomes,
[4295c]
m'.n'Ka'^a" 6f.tang. m'
m.{2n"i—n't + 2^'^—6')
2 4rt".(n'— n").a"3
(., [4295;.]
VOL. III. 61
242 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4295']
n'" being here the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of Mars
upon that of Venus,* and n'" the longitude of the ascending node of the
If ill this we substitute m" ^l^' [4061], n"=: 1295977', ?»'= 2106641' [4077],
[42951"] (1) „' . , , .
63=8,871894 [4132], — = 0,72333230 [4126], <p' = 3'^ 23"" 35' [4082]; it is
J a
[4295;t] reduced to — 0',090932.(1 + fx"). sin.(2n"< — n'^ + 2 s"— s'  â'), as in [4295]. In
the same way we may compute other terms. If we suppose i= 1, there will be found
two corresponding terms in [4295i] ; namely,
[4995/] ^J^l., • ^ • tang ?'• 1 1 — ^«" ^ ^'^^ ■ sin («" < + s"— «'}•
to)
But by changing a' into a", in [1006], to conform to this case, we have a" ^ B''°'' ^ b ^i
[4295m] j^gjjpg thg preceding expression becomes ^ — ^ • (~) • ^''ng <p' • ( 1 — 2^3) If
a' W)
use the values of m", n', n",  [4295i"] ; also 6 3^ = 9,992539 [4132]; we get
to)
3'
2
we
[4295n]
(0)
0',031231, for the part independent of b ^ ; and — 0',156035, for the part
(0)
depending on b ^ ; the sum is — 0^,124804 . sin. (71" < {"'" — ^') > ^^ '" '''^ ^'^^
line of [4295].
* (2595) A small inequality in the mean motion of Venus, depending on terms of the
fifth order of the powers and products of the excentricities, has lately been discovered by
rAvjQni Mr. Airy, arising from the action of the earth upon that planet. This inequality affects the
mean motion, the radius vector, tiie perihelion, the excentricity, and the latitude ; its period
[429661 is nearly 239 years ; being the time required for the argument 8 7it — 13 «"^ to increase
from 0' to 360''. This appears from the values of n', n" [4077] ; from which we
[429Gf] get 8 m' — 1 3 7i" = 5427' = — — nearly; and as this quantity is very small, it follows
that tlie mean motions of Venus and the earth must be affected by inequalities, depending
upon the argument 8n'< — 13?i"^; in like manner as the mutual attraction of Jupiter and
Saturn produces the great inequalities of these planets in [1 196, 1204] ; supposing the accents
on the letters a, n, &ic. to be increased to conform to the present notation, and putting
i' = 8, i" = 13. The variations in the excentricities and in the motions of the perihelia,
similar to tiiose of Jupiter and Saturn [1298 — 1302], are in the present case nearly
insensible. The inequalities of the mean motions of Venus and the earth, ^', ^" depending
' on the argument 8n'i — 13 n"^, are of the order 13 — 8 := 5 [957^'", &c.], or of
the fifth order nlative to the powers and products of the excentricities. Now e, e" are
[4296/] both quite small, so that the largest of them e" gives e"* = . .r nearly ; but this
VI.ix.§28.] THEORY OF VENUS. 243
orbit of Jupiter upon that of Veaus.
very minute fraction is multiplied, in [1 1 97] , by .^J,'^'^ =3 X 13 X (239)''= 2200000 [4296^]
nearly, in finding the value of ^" ; and by this means the correction is very much increased.
The theory and numerical computation of this inequality are given by Mr. Air)',in an elaborate
paper on this subject, in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London for ^ '«'"*]
1832; using the data [4061—4083]; and putting (x' = — 0,045, (ji"=0, so that [4296i]
m'= . He finds the correction 2^ of the mean motion of Venus, to be represented by [4296ft]
^r=: {2',946r.OS0002970.sin.{8«^ — 13n'7 48s'— 13£"+220''44'»34'M0%76. [429«]
He also obtains the following equations, depending on the same cause, and similar to those
Siven in [12981302] ;
5 b' = _ 5',70 . cos.(8 n't—\2n"t + Ss— 13 s") ; [4296i»]
W= — 0,000000190 , sin.(8 ?i'< — 13n"i\ Be' — 13 s") ; [4296n]
5s=0',0151 .sin.(9n'i — 13n"< + 9£' — 13£" + 140''31"'). ^4296^,
These corrections of 5 ro', Se, S s, may be generally neglected, as insensible; as also
that in the radius vector, similar to [1197]. We shall give, in [4310c—/], the corresponding
corrections of the earth's motion. The expressions of 8,', ^" [4296Z, 43 1 Oc] , are subject t^'^^^p]
to the noted equation [1208], which in the present case becomes
7n'./a'.^'+mV«"l"=0. ^**^^
244
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
CHAPTER X.
THEOKY OP THE EARTH'S MOTION.
[4296]
[4297]
[4298]
29. If we suppose the geocentric longitude of Venus to be represented
T
by V, and , = <>•; V'* will be a function of a and v' — v".
Then we shall have, by [4269],
&\'= —
à ft . sin. («' — v'')
1— 2 a. COS. («'—«") 4 a2'
which gives, as in [4272], where ôV is at its maximum,
5 a.
6V'=r — ■
la^»
(4297ol * (2596) In strictness it is not the angle V which is to be considered as a function
of a and v — v'' exclusively, but the angle of elongation E of Venus, as seen
from the earth. This will appear by referring to fig 74, page 229 ; supposing M to
represent the place of Venus ; S M = /, °fSM = v'. For it is evident that the angle of
elongation E=^SEM will remain the same, if the angle ESM = v' — v" and the
^— , = — do not vary, whatever changes may be made in the absolute lengths
of the lines SM, SE. This inadvertence of the author, in using V for E does not
however affect the result of his calculation [4297. &c.] ; because the differentials only of
these quantities are used ; and we have, as in [4268c] (5 V' = — 6 E. Now in [4268, 4269]
[42976] ratio a = 
[4297c]
we have supposed r" to be invaiiable, so that the variation of — = a
or
— =: ô a ;
[4297rf]
substituting this in [4269], and accenting the letters r', v', so as to correspond to the
planet Venus, we get the expression [4297]. This Is reduced to the form [4298], by the
substitution of the maximum value of the coefficient of — Sa [4271'], in the second
member of [4297].
VI. X. ^^29.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 245
a.5r"
Supposing r" only to vary in 6 a, we have 5 a. =^ ~ ;* therefore, [42t>y]
èr"=r"MlZ^ .6Y'. [4300]
a
If we put 6V' = ±1"= ± 0',324, and take for r' and r", the mean [43001
distances of Venus and the earth from the sun [4079], we shall get.
6r"= ±0,000001035.
[4301]
r
[4301']
If we put V" for the geocentric longitude of Mars, and — =^ a, we
shall have, by [4272],t
6f'=— r"'. (1 — a) . 6 V". [4^02]
If we take for r", ?'", the mean distances of the earth and Mars from
the sun, we shall have,
a = 0,65630030 [4159] ;
r'" = 1 ,52369352 [4079] ;
[4303]
Terms
and if we put 6\"' ^ ± 1" = ±0'.324, we shall obtain, which
^ ' may be
i /•" = =F 0,000001363 ; [4304]
neglected
therefore, we may neglect ilie inequalities of sr", whose coefficients are ofîhciT
* (2597) If we suppose / to be invariable in the value of a [4296], we shall
get Ja = — '^= — °^ [4299]; substituting this in [4298], we obtain [4300] ;
which is reduced to the form [4301], by the substitution of âV' = ±l" [4300'],
r" ^ I [40r9] and a == 0,7233323 [4126].
t (2598) Venus, being an inferior planet to the earth, is situated in the same relative
position as the earth is to Mars ; therefore the equation [4286], which obtains relatively to [4301»]
Venus and the earth, may be applied to the earth and Mars, by substituting in [4286] the
value of a [4284], and then adding one more accent to each of the symbols r', r" , V ;
by which means we shall obtain 3r" = — 7'" . A^V .5 V" [4286]. In this ^^g^j^^
case V" is the change of the longitude of the earth, as seen from Mars, arising from the t/^^Qi^^
increment 5 ?•" ; and is evidently equal to the increment of the geocentric longitude of
Mars, depending upon the same cause, which is represented by 5\"'; hence we get r43Qjj
^ r"==r"'. (\ ~\ . V", as in [4302].
VOL. III. 62
246 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
less than ±0,000001.* JVe shall also neglect those inequalities of the
[4304'] earth^s ^notion in longitude, lohich are less than a quarter of a centesimal
second, or 0',081.
Inequalities of the Earth, independent of the excentricities.f
5%290878 . sin. (n't — n" t + s'— z")
— 6',015891 . sm.2(n'i — n" t + e'— î")
— 0%743445 . sin. 2{n't — n" t + i'— /')
.,,,,/— 0%225439 . sin.4rn'i — n" t + s'— n
' ^ — 0S091210. sin.5(w'^ — n" t + s'— s")
— 0%042805 . sin. Q{n' t  n" t + s'— .")
 0',022027 . ûn.l{n't  n" t + s'— e")
— 0%0 12053 . sin. 8(n'i — n" i + i' =")
[4305}
.„.n.aii / 0',427214 . sin. (n"7 _ n" t + s'" — /')
ties inde /
p™t"' "'■ f 3^483037 . sin. 2(n"'ï — n" t + ^"' — e")
""'""" \ — 0',21 5249 . sin. 3(n"'t — n" t + s'"  ,")
+ (1 + f^'") • ( — 0',047022 . sin.4(n"7 — n" t + s'" — /')
— 0^015871 . sin.5(M"7 — n" t + b'" _ s")
— 0%006458 . sin. 6(ti"'t — n"t + £'" — £")
— 0^002923 . sin. 7(n"'t — n"t + s'" — s")
+ (1 + f^'')
7^059053 . sin. {n"t — n" t + £'"— e")
 2',674257 . sin.2(n'^'i — n" t + ."—.")
— 0', 167770 . ûn.S{n'''t — n" t + ."— s")
— 0',016549 . sin. 4(?i'"/ — n" t + 5'^— s")
( 0S439410 . sin. {n't — n"t + s'— s")
+ ( 1 4 f^.'') . I — 0', 1 1 1 1 . sin. 2{n''t — n"t + £^— s")
/ — 0»,004]45 . sin. 3(n't — n"t + s'— /')
* (2599) This quantity, independent of its sign, is less than either of the values
[4301,4304], corresponding to the 7îea?cs< inferior and superior planets ; and for the more
[4304a] distant planets this degree of accuracy is more than is absolutely requisite, in the present
state of astronomy.
t (2600) The quantities [4305, 4306] are deduced from [4277a, b] ; accenting the
[4305o] symbols so as to correspond to the present case, and using the data [4061, 8:c.].
Vl.x.^^29.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 247
, 0,0000015553 ^
— 0,0000060012 . COS. {n't — n"t + s'— i") \
4 0,0000171431 . COS. 2(n't  n"t + i'— s")
Ô r" = (1 + f^') • ^ + 0,0000027072 . cos. 3(n't — n"i + s'— e")
+ 0,0000009358 . cos. A(n't — n"t + s'— e")
+ 0,0000004086 . cos. ô(n' t — n"t + b'— b")
. + 0,0000002008 . cos. 6{n't — n"t + s'— /') ^
,— 0,0000000478
+ 0,0000005487 . cos. (n"'t — n"t + /"_ s")
+ (1 4_ f.'") . ) + 0,0000080620 . cos. 2(n"7 — n"t + e'"— s") V i„e,„,u.
— 0,0000006475 . cos. S(n"'t — n"t + «"'— ^") \ 'ifEt
— 0,0000001643 . cos. 4(n"7 — n"t + £'"— £")
tricities.
— 0,0000011581 \ [4306]
+ 0,00001 59384 . cos. (n^'t — n"t + é"— e")
+ (1 + f^") . <f — 0,0000090986 . cos. ^.{n^t — n"t + s'"— f")
' _ 0,0000006550 . cos. S{n'H — n"t + 1"—^')
 0,0000000704 . cos. 4(«'7 — n"t + s'"— s") /
0,0000000580 ^
+ (1 ff;^'). <[+ 0,00000 10337. cos. («7 — m"^4£^— z")\.
— 0,0000003859 . cos. 2{n't —7i"t + £'— s"))
In the solar tables of La Caille, Mayer, La Lande, Delambre and Zach, published before
the year 1803, the chief correction of the radius vector of the earth's orbit, arising from the
action of Jupiter, is given with a wrong sign ; in consequence of taking, for n"t\s'', the '
sun's longitude, instead of that of the earth, in finding the argument corresponding to the
terms which were used, namely,
+ 0,0000 1 59384 . cos . {n'^i — n"t\ £'"— e") — 0,0000090986 . cos . 2 (ni — n't f e^' — e") . [4305c ]
This mistake was first made known in a letter communicated by me to La Lande, and u^did}
noticed in vol. 8, p. 449, of the Moiiatliche Correspond enz for 1803.
248
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. Cél.
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excetitricities.
iric<iuali
ties de
pending
on the first
power of
the excen
tricitiea.
[4307]
0^075910
— 0', 129675
 0', 145 179
0%168981
+ 1', 186390
— 2',342956
+ O", 722424
V+ 0S2 16368
— r,095603
+ 2, 137658
— 0",087400 ,
+ 0%661950
— 0', 103758 ,
+ 0',807 1 1 1
— 0, 1349 15
+ (i+0
sin. (n' t + ^' — z,")
sin, {2 n't — n"t + 2 e' — =" — ^")
sin. (2 n"t — n'i + 2 /' — i' — z,")
sin. (2 n"t — n't + 2 /' — s' — ^')
sin. (3 )i" t — 2n't + Ss" — 2.' — ~/')
sin. (3 n" t — 2 n' t^3e" — 2^ — ^')
sin. (4 n" t — 3n't + 4>i" — 3 ^' — z^")
sin. (4 n"t — 3 n't + 4 s" —3 / — ^')
sin. (5 n"t — 4 n' i + 5 ;" — 4 / — ^")
sin. (2 n"'ï — n" t + 2 /" — /' — ^")
sin. (2 n"'t — n" i + 2 c'"— :" — ^"')
sin. (3 n"'t —2n"t + 3 i'"— 2/'— v/')
sin. (3 n"'t — 2n"t + 3 .'"— 2 ."_ ^"')
sin. (4 n"'t — 3 n" i + 4 '"— 3 ;"_ w" )
sin. (4 H"'t — 3 n" t + 4 s'"— 3 ^"—^"')
sin. (5 /t"7 — 4 7i" t 1 5 s'"— 4 ="— r/")
+ (!+("')
+ (1 + O
0',302092 . sin. (n''ï 1 e'"— ^")
— 2%539884 . sin. {n'H + .=" — j.")
— 1%492044 . sin. (? w'7 — «'7 + 2 .>— /'— ^")
+ 0',606399 . sin. (2 n'7 — n"t + 2 «'"— /'— ^'0
— 0',543364 . sin. (3 n"t — 2n"t\3 s"— 2 1"— z^"")
— 0', 148925 . sin. (2n"« — n'^'i + 2 3"— e—^")
\— 0^093643 . sin. {2n"t — n"t +2£"— j'"— ^'')
J — 0',359921 . sin. {n't + e^ — ra') >
( — 0',151752 . sin. (2 n7 — ?i"i + 2 s'— e"— ^") ^ '
* (2601) The terms of àv", or" [4307, 4308] are computed as in the theory of
'^^"'"^ Mercury [4278«].
VI.x.§29.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 249
r_ 0,0000030439 . cos. (3 ift — 2 n' ^ + 3 s" — 2 / — ^") y
àr"= (1 +.a').^ — 0,0000049815 . cos. (4»"/ — Sn't + 4s" — 3 e' —^")}
(+ 0,0000015895 . cos. (4ïi"/ — 3n'^ 4 4 s" _ 3e' — ^'))
4 (1 +,x"') . 0,0000017707 . cos. {^n"'t—Sn"t + 4 a'"— 3 s" — ^"') [4308]
— 0,0000030410 . cos. (2 n'^ï— n"^ + 2£'''— £" — ra")"
4(l 4 f^'0.< + 0,0000012652 . cos. (27rt— n"t + 2e''— e" — ^'O!
0,0000018101 . COS. (3n''f — 2n"^+ 3s"—2s" — ^''')'^
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricities and
inclinations of the orbits,*
Inequali
6 v" = (1 + I'.') . r,125575 . sill. (5 n'7 — 3n't + 5="— 3/+ 21''02"' 1 8^ iVJi'''
order.
C + 0^993935 . sin. (4 n"'t — 2 n"t + 4 s'"— 2 s"+ 67H8"560 ) [4309]
■^ ^ "^ ^ ^ ■ ^ + 0^351 796 . sin. (5 n"'t — 3 n"t + 5 s"' 3 a" + 68'' 25'" 09^ ) '
The mean motions of Venus, the earth and Mars bear such proportions
to each other, that the quantities 5 n" — 3 n', 4 n'" — 2 n" are small ^^gj^j
in comparison with n" ; hence it follows, from [3733], that the two
first of these inequalities are the only ones of this order which are
deserving of notice. However we have calculated the third ; because
3h"— 5?r, being very nearly equal to ^n", it is satisfactory to show, by •[4310]
a direct calculation, that this inequality acquires by integration only a very
insensible value. t
n
[4309a]
* (2602) From [4076A] we get, very nearly, 5n" — 3 n' = 50° =  ;
4 n"' — 2 n" r= 50= = ^ ; .3 ?i"— 5 ?i"' = J 37° = ~. These angles ought therefore
3
to be noticed, as in [3733] ; and by making the computation, as for Mercury [4282a— jp],
we may reduce the terras, depending on each angle, to one single term, as in [42S2/t — /].
t (2603) We have already mentioned, in [4296/;], that Mr. Airy had discovered an
inequality in the earth's motion, depending on terms of the fifth order of the excentricities [4310a]
and inclinations, connected with the angle 8 n't — 13 n"i. He has given in the paper
mentioned in [4296A] the numerical values of the inequalities of the mean motion ", [43106]
of the perihelion ozi", of the excentricity ôe", and of the latitude &s", namely,
VOL. III. 63
250
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
Inequali
ties of ihe
third
order.
[4311]
hiequali
tio3 ill the
latitude.
[4312]
Symbols.
[4313]
Inequalities depending on the powers and prodiccts of three dimensions of
the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.
iv" = (1 +1^.) .0',069915 . sm.(ni— 4n"i + s— 4="+19''O2'"130.*
Periodical inequalities of the Earth's motion in latitude.
We find, by formula [1030],t
( 0%0991 80 . sin. (2 n't —n't + 2 /'— ;'— è') >
\ 0',234256 . sin. (4 n!'t — 3 n't + 4 /'— 3 ='— é') $
+ (1 + (J") . 0',164703 . sin. (2 n"t — n't + 2 . — s" _ é).
Inequalities of the Earth depending upon the Moon.
30. If we jHit
U = the longitude of the moon, as viewed from the centre of the earth ;
v" = the longitude of the earth, as viewed from the centre of the sun ;
R = the radius vector of the moon ; its origin being the earth's centre ;
r" = the radius vector of the earth ; its origin being the sun's centre ;
m = the mass of the moon ;
M = the mass of the earth ;
s = the latitude of the moon, as viewed from the earth's centre.
[4310c]
[4310rf]
[431 Of]
[4310/]
[4311a]
[4312a]
^"= (2',059 — ^.0',0002076).sin.(8n7— 13 «"<+ 8 s— 13 /'+ 40''44'"34'— MO',76);
5 ra" = 2',268 . sin. (8 n't— 13 n" / + 8 s' — 13 s" + 60'' 16"') ;
<5e"= — 0,0000001849. cos.(8n'<— 13 m" <+ S s' — 13 £" + 60''16"') ;
5s" =. 0',0105 . sin. (8 n't — 12 n"t\ 8 ; — 12 s" — 39'' 29'").
* (2604) The direct calculation of this inequality can be made, by a process like that
which is used for Mercury, in [3881f, &c.] ; but it is probable that the author deduced it
from the similar inequality of Mercury [4283], by the method given in [3883y].
f (2605) The terms of [4312] are computed by means of the formula [4295/!»] ;
changing, in the first place, n, «', e', into n",
i", respectively. Then changing
m , n , a , s mto
earth ; or into m'", n^"
the earth.
a', s', in computing the action of Venus on the
, respectively, in computing the action of Jupiter on
VI.x.^30.]
THEORY OF THE EARTH.
251
we shall have, for the inequality of the earth's motion in longitude [4052],
produced by the action of the moon,*
ôv"^  ..sin.(U—v).
The inequality of the radius vector of the earth [4051] is
ôi"^ — jj.R.cos.(U—v");
and the inequality of the earth's motion in latitude [4053] is
„ m R
711
The
moon's
action
produces a
perturba
tion in the
longitude ;
[4314]
in the
radius ;
[4315]
latitude.
[4316]
in the
For greater accuracy, we must substitute f —— for —,
expressions of these three inequalities.
We shall suppose conformably to the phenomena of the tides [2706,2768],
m
R^
3S_
^"3 '
[4317]
* (2606) The moon's action upon the eartli produces, in the radius vector, the longitude
and the latitude of the earth, the ineciualilics given in [4051, 4052, 4053] ; namely,
m
. r . cos.(v — U) ;
m r
MR
.{vU);
m
Jl
rs
[4314a]
and by comparing the notation used in [4047, 404S], with that in [4313], it appears r^^Ub]
that we must change R, r, v, U, into ?•", R, U, v", respectively, to conform
nearly to the notation of this article. By this means the preceding expressions become,
m R . ,rT „, ™ Rs
— ^.R.cos.{U—v");
M
M r
corresponding respectively to the formulas [4315, 4314, 4316]. In the original work the
divisor r", by mistake, is omitted in [4314], and inserted in [4315] ; we have rectified
this mistake.
f (2607) The radius r [4048] has for its origin the common centre of gravity of
the earth and moon. This is changed into R, in [4314&], to conform to the present
notation ; but as the origin of R [4313] is in the centre of the earth, the value of the radius ■■ "^
is too great, and must be decreased in the ratio of M to M \m; which is equivalent
M
to the multiplication of the perturbations [4314 — 4316] by ; or in other words [43164]
to change the divisor M into M\7n, in all three of these formulas.
252 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
S being the sun's mass. Now, bj the theory of central forces [3700],*
we have,
[4318] ^ = n/ ;  = n  ;
n,t behig the moon's mean motion; hence we obtain,
[4319]
m 3n"2
M+i
[4319] We have by observation  = 0,0748013 [5117, 4835] ; hence we get,
71,
[4320]
Mass of consequently.
m 1
the moon.
M+m 59,6 '
m 1
If we suppose the sun's horizontal parallax to be 27",2 = 8',8, and
[43221 *^^® moon's mean horizontal parallax 10661" = 3454' = 57'" 34',t we
[4323]
shall have,
R sun's lior. par.
?•
moon's hor. par. 3454,0 '
* (2608) Substituting fi^Jijm [3709«] in [.3700], then changing a, n, into
[4318a] Jl^ n^, respectively, we get the first of the equations [4318], corresponding to the moon's
motion about the earth. Changing in this, iW, m, B, n, into S, M, r", n",
[43186] and neglecting M in comparison with .S', we get the second of the equations [4318] ;
corresponding to the earth's motion about the sun. MuUiplying the first of the equations
r4318cl [■^■^■^®]' hy „ , and the second by 3; then substituting the products in [4317] we
set ir?i n2=3?j"^: dividing this by n^, we obtain [43191; substituting in this
[4318rf] ^I\"' a J / ' L J J 6
the value [4319'], we finally get the expression of the mass of the moon [4321]. This
was afterwards found to be too great [4631, 1190i, &c.], as we have already observed
in [.3380 J, &ic.].
Instead of supposing, as in [2706], tliat the ratio of the mean force of the moon on the
r.fj.g , tides, is to that of the sun as .3 to 1, we may express it more generally by 3(1 — 3)to 1 ;
by which means the second members of the equations [4317, 4319, 4320], will be
[4318/] multiplied by 1 — (3 ; and the last of these expressions will become  = r^rê '■>
[4318g] whence we get the following expression, which will be used hereafter, — = — .
[4322a] t (2609) This parallax, taken for the mean between the greatest and least values,
VI. X. §30.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 253
consequently,*
iv" = _ 27",2524 . sin. (C/— v") = — 8%8298 . sin. {U—v") ;
pptturba
tionn in the
longiliide,
[43'24]
or" = — 0,000042808 . cos. (U— v"). a„d in .h..
radius.
Then taking for s the greatest inequality of the moon in latitude, which ^43251
wo shall suppose to be 18543'. sin. (f/ — f) [5308]; U — being the pcnurba
tion of
moon's distance from her ascending node; we shall obtain t inlau'"'
tude
6 s" ^ — 0%7938 . sin. (U—è), [432e']
for the inequality of the earth's motion in latitude. We must add it to
the terms of is" [4312], to obtain the complete value of 6s"; and by
taking this sitm, with a contrary sign, we have the inequalities of the sun^s utïtâde.
apparent motion in latitude. These inequalities in the latitude have an
influence on the obliquity of the ecliptic, deduced from the observations of [43'27]
the meridian altitudes of the sun near the solstices. They have also an
influence upon the time of the equinox, deduced from observations of the
sun, when near the equinoxes, as well as upon the rightascensions and
declinations of the stars, determined by comparing directly their places in
exceeds, by .33% the constant quantity in Burg's tables [5603], and is nearly conformable to
the resuh given by La Lande in *5' 1698 of tlie third edition of his astronomy. For the
purpose of illustration, we may neglect all the inequalities of the moon's paiallax, except [43'22?i]
those depending on the moon's mean anomaly ; then taking the coefficients to the nearest
second, we have, from Burg's tables [5603],
J) 's hor. par. = 342P' + 187" . cos. (mean anom.) ) 10'. cos. (2 mean anom.). r4322cl
The greatest value of this expression, corresponding to the perigee, or the mean anom. = 0,
is .3421>f 18T"+10'; and the least value, in the apogee is 342P — 187^+10'.
The ?nert« of these two values 342P+ 10% exceeds hy 10% the constant term 3421";
and it is from causes similar to this, that the difference abovementioned depends.
[4322rfJ
* (2610) The inequalities [4324] are deduced from [4314, 4315], by using the values
[4321,4323], and multiplying the value of S v" by the expression of the radius in [4324«J
seconds 206264%8.
t (2611) Substituting the values [4321, 4323], and s [4.325], in [4316J, we get
Û »" [4326] ; changing M into Mfm, in all these calculations, as in [4316e].
VOL. III. 64
[432fi<»J
254
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
Perturba
tion of the
sun in
declina
tion,
[4328]
and in
right
aacenston.
[4329]
[4329']
Increment of O's declination = —
the heavens with that of the sun. On account of the great accuracy of
modern observations, it is necessary to notice these inequalities. It is
evident that this correction increases the apparent declination of the sun, by
the quantity,*
Ss" . COS. (obliquity of the ecliptic) _
COS. (sun's declination) '
and its ajiparent rightascension is also increased, by the following
expression,
r c ^1 • 1 5s". sin. (obliquity of the ecliptic) . cos. (sun's riffhtascension)
Inc. of O's nghtascen. = ^^ — , — , / ,. — ~ \
° COS. (sun s declination)
fVe must therefore decrease, hy these quantities, the observed declinations and
rightascensions of the sun, to obtain those lohich ivould be observed, if the
earth did not quit the plane of the ecliptic.
* (2612) Let ECC be the ecliptic, EQQ' the equator, P the north
equator; then if the earth's latitude, north of the ecliptic, be
5s", that of the sun will be south, and may be represented
by CU = &s" perpendicular to the ecliptic. P CL Q,
r4328al PC'L'Q^, are circles of declination, perpendicular to
the equator, and L L' is parallel to the equator. The
small differential triangle CLU, may be supposed
rectangular in L, and angle LC L'= 90' — angle E CQ^.
Then in the spherical triangle E C(^, we have, by
[1345^2], cos.i:CQ = sin.L CL'=^s\n.CE q.cos.Eq,
COS. CE q
[43386]
sm.ECq=cos.LCL'=
COS. C Q
Now the declination
is decreased by the quantity C L ; the rightascension is
LL' LL'
lEqaator
[4328c] increased by the quantity QQ' =
sin. PL
COS. dec.
and we have
[4328rf] LL'=^CL'. sin. LCL' = 5s" . sin. CEq. cos. E q ;
hence we get.
[4328e] Increm. dec.= — CL =^—CU. cos. L C L
, „ COS. CEQ
OS .
COS. CQ
, as in [4328] ; and
I . , y^ ^, L L' sin. C E Q .cos.E Q
[4328/] Increm. nghtascen. Q Q' = —g ==Ss' ^ ^, as in [4329]
COS. dec.
VI. x.§31.]
THEORY OF THE EARTH.
255
[4329"
On the secular variations in the Earthh orbit, in its equator, and in the
length of the year.
31. We have given, in [4244, 4249, &c.], the secular variations of the
elements of the earth's orbit ; but the influence of these variations on the most
important phenomena of astronomy has been an inducement to compute them
with greater accuracy, noticing the square of the time t;* supposing t to
denote the number of Julian years elapsed since 1750. We have found by
the methods given in [1096 — 1126], and using the values of the masses of [4329"
the planets [4061], that the coefficient of the equation of the centre of the
earth's orbit is represented by,t
* (261.3) The values of e^, tang. « [1109, 1110], give those of e"^, tang, a";
by changing the quantities corresponding to m, into those relative to m", and the contrary.
The formulas, thus found, may be developed in series, ascending according to the powers of
t, by Taylor's theorem [.3850a] ; hence we easily deduce the values of c", •zs", in similar
forms. The calculation may also be made by the method pointed out in the following note.
t (2614) We have, by Taylor's theorem, as in [1126'"],
2e'
2 de"
= 2E+~.t +
dde"
~dfi
neglecting the higher powers of t ; the values of — ,
to the epoch 1750. The differential of
— , —  , being taken to correspond
de"
— [1122], taken according to the directions
dde"
[4329a]
[43296]
[4330a]
[43306]
[4330c]
in [1126"], or as in note 768, vol. I. p. 612, and divided by dt, gives — , m terms
of e, e', 8ic. w, n', &.c. and of their first differentials. Substituting in this expression,
the values of these first differentials, given in [1122, 1126], it changes into a function of the
finite quantities e, c', fee. tn, s/, &,c. ; and by substituting the values of these quantities, [4330(/]
dde"
for the year 1750, given in [4030,4081], we obtain the expression of
dfi
Moreover,
de"
by similar substitutions, we get the value of the expression of "^ [1122]. These values,
bemg substituted in [4330a], give the expression of 2 c" [4330]. The formulas
[4330—4360] are so frequently referred to in the work, that we have given the numerical
values in centesimal, as well as in sexagesimal seconds. The values given in
[4330, 4331, 4332], are altered, in [4610 — 4612], by reason of the changes in the masses
of Venus and Mars.
We have seen in vol. I. p. 612, note 468, that terms of the order m'e' are retained,
and those of the order m'e'^, which are of the Jirst order relative to the mass m', are
[4330e]
[4.330/]
256 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
Coeff. eqiia. centre = 2E — t. 0",579130 — f . 0",0000207446
= 2E—t. 0% 187638 — f . 0',0000067213,
2E being this coefficient at the beginning of the year 1750, when t is
ëàrth'B nothing. We have also found the sidéral longitude of the perihelion of tlie
earth's orbit, namely,*
Long, perih. of the earth = ^"+ i • 36",881443 + t"' • 0",0002454382
= t^' + i . 1 1',949588 + t . ,0000795220.
Lastly, the values of jf, q", at any time t, have been found respectively
equal to,t
p" = t. 0",2.36793 + Ï. 0",0000665275
= t . 0',076721 + t . O',0000215549 ;
q" = — t. 1",546156 + t\ 0,0000208253
=^ — t. 0',500955 + i". O',0000067474.
[4330]
Secular
equations
of the
earth'
orbit.
[4331]
[4332]
[4330A]
d e"
[4330e] neglected, in the expression of — [1122]. If we suppose, for a rough estimate, that
e' = ^'^, the neglected terms will be of the order of j^^y part of those retained; so that
the neglected part in the coefficient of t [4330], may be considered as of the order
j^X0%18763S =0^0004, which is much greater than the coefficient of t^ in [4330] :
and at the first vjew it might be thought strange that we sliould neglect this, and yet notice
the much smaller coefficient of fi, which is of the order of the square of the disturbing
masses. But the reason will appear very evident from the consideration, that when t is
large, the term depending on t^ becomes very great in comparison with these neglected
[4330i] terms. Thus, iÇ t= 2500, the neglected term 0,0004 1 is only one second, while the
term depending on t^, exceeds 42". Similar remarks may be made relative to the
quantities w", jj", q" [4331,4332].
* (2615) Proceeding as in the last note, we may deduce from [3S50«], by changing
[4331a] M into •zn", ^" = t^"\ i • j/ — \~ i^^' "TT ' ^'^^ quantities In the second member referring
to the epoch of 1750. The difierential of —— [1126], divided by dt, gives —rur
[4331i] i'^ terms of e, e', &c. zs, zi' , and their first differentials. Substituting in this expression
the values of the differentials [1122, 1126], it changes into a function of the finite quantities
e, e', &:c. a, a, Sic; and by using the numerical values [4080,4081], we get the
'^ values of —  , 775) to be substituted in [4331a], to obtain [4.331].
t (2616) The expressions of —, —, are in [425 1 i] ; their differentials taken
Vl.x.§31.]
THEORY OF THE EARTH.
257
We have given, in [3100 — 3110], the expressions of the precession of the
equinoxes,* and of the inclination of the equator, referred to the fixed
ecliptic, and to the apparent ecliptic. In these formulas, we have supposed
the values of p'\ </", to be given under the forms
;?"==. c . sin. (§f + (3) ; q" = ^ . c . cos. {g t + ^) [30686].
Moreover, we have seen, in [1133], that the finite expressions of //', ç",
appear under these forms, and we may determine, by the method explained
in [1098, &c.], the values of c, g, p. To obtain these quantities
accurately, by this method, we must know the correct values of the masses
of the planets; and there is considerable uncertainty relative to some of
them, as we have observed in [4076, &c.]. Therefore, instead of making
the tedious calculation, required by this method, it is preferable to simplify
it, so as to embrace a period of ten or twelve hundred years, before and
after the epoch of 1750 ; which is sufficient for all the purposes of astronomy.
We may easily rectify these calculations as often as the development of the
secular variations shall make known, with greater accuracy, the masses of
the planets. We shall give to the values of p" and (f the following
forms, which are comprised in those mentioned in [4334]. f
p" = 2. c.sm.(^gt\ (3) = c. sin./3 — c.cos.f3. s'm.gt — c.sin./3. s\n.(g't'r}'^) ;
ç"= 2. c.cos.{gt _/3) ^ c.cos. f3 — c.cos.(i.cos.g( — c . sin. § . COS. (g't\ ^v) ;
ff being the semicircumference of a circle whose radius is unity. If we
[4333]
[4334]
[4335]
[4336]
Assumed
forms of
[4337]
r", 1"
, . , 1 1 • 1 1 1 , ■ ddp" ddq"
relatively to t, and divided by at, give tt ' ,
dp dp
in terms oi , ; — , cic.
dt at
—, — , &:c. ; substitutina; the values of these last quantities [11321, we get ~ , —  ,
dt dt' ' ^ '■ L J' & (^^2 ' rf<a '
expressed in finite terms of p, p', &;c. q, q', &c. The values of p, p', &tc.
q, q', &z;c. are given in [4251c], in terms of (jj, cp', &,c. ê, &', &,c. ; and the
numerical values of these last quantities, in the year 1750, are in [4082, 4083] ; hence we
obtain the numerical values of p, p', Sic. q, q', &;c. at that epoch. Substituting
these in [4251 f/,e], and in the preceding values of
d dp" d d q"
we get tlie numerical
dp" dq" ddp" ddq"
values of — , ;— , — r^
dl dt' dt3
in the general values of p
dt^ ' dfi
— , at the same epoch, 1750 ; these are to be substituted
q" [4250], to obtain [4332].
* (2617) The formulas, here referred to, are [3100, 3101, 3107, 3110].
t (2618) The three terms of the second member of the value of p" or q" [4337],
VOL. III. 65
[4332a]
[4.332i]
[4.332c]
[4332rf]
[4333a]
258 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Ctl.
develop these two functions relatively to the powers of the time t, we
shall find, by comparing them with the preceding series [4332],*
Valuesof c £r . COS. 3 = — 0',076721 :
[4338]
[4339]
[4337a]
[4338a]
[43386 ;
eg', sin. f3 = — 0',500955 ;
cg\ cos. [3 = 0S0000134948 ;
cg'K sin. 3 = 0',0000431098.
Hence we easily obtain,!
g = — 36^2808 ;
g' == — 17',7502;
c. sin. f3 = 582P,308;
c.cos. f3 = 436%17.
are deduced from those of p" or q" [4334], by changing c, g, p, respectively, into
c, 0, p, in the first term ; — c . cos. p, g, 0, in the second term ; and — c.sin. p, g', J^r,
in the third term. Tliese expressions of p", q", being developed according to the powers of
[433/6] f^ and compared with those in [43.32], give, as in [4.339], values of c, p, g, g', which
satisfy the numerical expressions of p", q" , [4332], neglecting f, and the higher
powers of t : and as the values [4332] will answer for ten or twelve centuries from the
epoch, it will follow, that the forms assumed in [4337] will answer for the same period, by
using these values of c, p, g, g'.
* (2619) We have by development, using the formulas [43, 44] Int. and neglecting terms of
the order «^ sin.gt = gt; cos.gt=l — hg^i; sm.{g't]iv) = cos.g'i = l — ig"^t^;
cos. {g't \i ■ïï) = — sin. g't = — g't ; substituting these in [4337], we get,
p" = i: .c . sin. {gt i^)=c . sin. p — c. g t .cos.fi — c.(l — i g'^t~) .s'm. p
^= — t . {c g . COS. p) + t^{i cg'''^. sin. p) ;
ç"=2. c .COS. (^^ ~\fi) = c. cos.(3— c . {I — Ig^t). COS. p { c g' t . s\n. fi
=z t . {eg', sin. p) + fi. (I cg^. COS. p).
Comparing the coefficients of t, in these expressions, with the corresponding ones in [4332],
r4338cl "'6 &^^' without any reduction, the two first equations [4338]. In like manner, by
comparing the coefficients of I i^, in [4332,43336], we get the other two equations [4338].
f (2620) Dividing the square of the first equation [4338], by the third, we get
c . cos. p [4339] ; and the square of the second, divided by the fourth, gives c . sin. p [4339].
[4339a] Now, dividing the values of c^^.cos.p, cg'~. s'm.fi [4338], by those of eg. cos. g,
eg', sin. p [4338], respectively, and multiplying the products by the radius in seconds,
206265% we get g, g' [4339].
VI.x.§31.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 259
Now we have seen, in [3100], that the precession of the equinoxes +, relative precessio..
, , , relative to
to the fixed ecliptic of 1 750, noticing only the secular variations, is, 'cU,1"tf
■I = /^ + ^ + 2 . I [j— 1 j . tang, h + cot. /i 5 • y • sin. (ft + f3).
[4340]
First form.
To obtain ^ .c .un. {ft \ ^), we must increase the angle gt\^., in
2 . c . sin. {g t + f3), by the quantity 1 1 [3073', &c.] ;* making f = g\l
[3113a] ; then we shall have,
2 . c . sin. {ft + f3) = c . sin. {lt + f^) — c . cos. (3 . sin. {gt ^l t)
— c . sin. p . sin. {gtJ^U + \^) ;
consequently,!
[4341]
[4342]
* (2021) If we increase the angle gt, by the quantity lt={f — g) t [3113a],
the function 2 . c . sin.(^< + P) will become 2 . c . sin. (/<( p), as in [4341] ; and the
first equation [4337], will change into [4342] ; observing that we have ^ = [4337aJ,
in the first term, or c . sin. p ;= c . sin. [0 . t { js), which becomes c . sin. {It \ p), as in
the first term of [4342].
[43410]
t (2622) The expression 2 . c . sin. (/i + P)i in the form assumed [4342], consists
of three terms. In the first of these terms, the general symbols c, f, /3, of the first [4342o]
member, become c, I, 3 ; or in other words, f is changed into /, while c, (3, are
unaltered ; and the corresponding term of [4340] becomes,
[43426]
[4342c]
I \ ') Ic
. 1 j . tang, h fcot. A> . — . sin.(/ t \ ^) ; or simply, c.cot.h . sin. {It \ ^);
which is the first term of 4^ [4343], depending on c. The second term of [4342],
— c . cos. p . sin. {gt \ It), being compared with the general expression c . sin. {ft + p),
in the first member of [4342], shows that c, /, p, must be changed into — c . cos. p,
g \t, 0, respectively; and the corresponding term of [4340] becomes,
'i / ' , \ II 7 ) 'c .COS. (3 . , , , ,
— ^(^rpj— Ijtang.A+cot.A^ .____. sm.(^i + ?0 ; [4342d]
which is easily reduced to the same form as the term of [4343], depending on the angle
gl\lt. Lastly, the «Aire/ term of [4342], — c .s\n.fi .s\n.{^t \ It {\v), being r4342e]
compared with the general term, in the first member of [4342J, gives for c, f, (3, the
corresponding expressions, — c.sin.(3, g \h J*, respectively; and the resulting
terra of [4340] is,
— ^(^; — l)tang.A+cot.A^ . ^±^ .ûu.{g' t{lt + 1^);
which is easily reduced to the form of the last term of [4343]. The two first terms of
[4340, 4343], represented by It \ 1, are the same in both formulas.
[4342g]
260 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS; [Méc. Cél.
r;sft" ^ = It + ?, + €. cot. h . sin. Qt + p)
the fixed
ecliptic 01 7 r n '\
1750. ^ ^ ^ çjjg_ o _ S çQ^_ ^ ^_ _ ^ajj„_ /j / _ gij^_ (rrt + lt)
[4343] ^^ ^ ' •^ "
I
Second — ^ . c . sin. f3 . > cot. h — ~_ . tang, h i . sin. (g'tj ii^ i'^)
form.
l+g'
[4345]
îôfàiwe'"" Then by putting V /or the inclination of the equator to the fixed ecliptic of
ediptkof 1750, we shall have, as in fSlOll,*
1750. ' ' L J'
[4344] V = h — ^.. COS. (ft + p).
First formj J
To obtain 2 . c . cos. (ft + /3), we must increase the angle gt { § in
2 . c . cos. (gt + P) by lt\ [3073, &c.] ; hence we shall have,
2 . c . cos. (ft j p) = c. cos. (I ti j5) — c . cos. f3 . cos. (gt \ 1 1)
— c . sin. 3 . COS. (g't J^lt^^n) ;
therefore, Î
second J
form. Y = h — C . COS. (I t + (3) j —— . C . COS. f3 . COS. (g t + 1 1)
[4346] ^^^
+ — j.c.sin. f3.cos.(^7 4Z< + i^).
[4347] 4^' denoting the precession of the equinoxes relative to the apparent ecliptic.
* (2623) This is the same as [3101], putting V for the part of ê, depending on
[4344a] ^ and 2 ; or in other words, neglecting the periodical terms depending on the angles
/^ + p', 2«, 2t)'.
f (2624) This is done upon the principles used in [4341, &.c.]; and in the same
[4345o] manner as [4342] was deduced from the first of the equations [4337], we may derive
[4345] from the second of [4337].
X (2625) Proceeding as in [4342« — ■/] ; and comparing the general form of the first
member of [4345], with the three terms of the second member, we find, that c, f, p,
become, respectively, c, /, p, in the Jirst term ; — c . cos. p, g \ I, 0, in the
second term ; and — c . sin. p, g' \ I, I "^j in the third term,
in the terms under the sign 2 [4344], we get the three terms c
the first term h, is the same in both expressions [4344, 4346].
second term; and — c.sin.p, g' \ I, I "^j in the tAirrf term. Substituting these values
in the terms under the sign 2 [4344], we get the three terms containing c, in [4346] ;
VI.x.§31.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 261
and V' the inclination of the equator to this ecUptic_; we shall have, as in [4347]
recesfiion
fjuiiy rola
live ic the
I T ) . ^ , T \ ajiparciit
eclii»tic.
[4348]
[4350]
[3107,3110],* r^rz:
1' = lt +^ + 7^ .c.cos. 3. )cot. /i+ 7— . tana;. /t i. sm. (irt\lt)
+ j^—, . c . sin. p . j cot. h + — ;; . tang, h I . sin. (g't^ lt+ ^r:);
V = h — j^ . c . COS. (3 . cos.(gt+lt) — j^^, . c.sin./3. cos.(^7 + /^+i*). [««]
The expression of 4' gives,t
~ = Z + c ^ • COS. ^ . < cot. /t + =—, — . tang, h > . cos. (£[141 1)
dt ^ I l+g i ^^
+ c §•' . sin. (3 , ) cot. h f — — . tang, h > . cos. (g't ~\lt {^■jr).
If we subtract from this value of — , when t is nothing, its value at any [4350'j
other epoch, and reduce the difference of these two expressions to time ;
considering the whole circumference as equal to one tropical year ; we shall
get the increment of the length of the tropical year since 1750. We see, ' ^
by this formula, and by the differential of the general expression of
* (2626) Retaining only the secular inequalities in 4"', ^' [3107,3110], changing
also Ù' into V [3103, 4347'], we get, by a slight reduction in the term of ^J, under [43''''"]
the sign 2,
+' = ^^+? + 2.^cot.;i+j.tang.A^ . (^^V c .sm.(ft + fi); [43476]
V = A + 2 . (^^ ^ . c . COS. (/i + p). [4347c]
In the terms under the sign 2 [43476], we must substitute, successively, the values of the
triplets of terms c, f, ^, given in [4342a, c,/], and we shall obtain [4348] ; observing
I — f
that the first term vanishes, because the factor — — = 0. In like manner the substitution
r , ['4347f]
of the same triplets of values [4346a — 6], m [4.347c], gives h [4349] ;the first term vanishing,
f I
on account of the factor = 0.
/
1(2627) The differential of ■].' [4348], taken relatively to t, and divided by rf r, [4349a]
gives [4350].
VOL. in. 66
262
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4350'"]
[4351]
[4351']
[4352]
[4353]
[4353']
[4353"]
[4354]
4'' [3107],* that the action of the sun and moon changes considerably the
law of the variation of the length of the year. In the most probable
hypothesis on the masses of the planets, the whole variations, in the length
of the year, and in the obliquity of the ecliptic, are reduced to nearly a
quarter partf of what they would be without that action [31 15, 31 13;y].
^ 154",63 ^ 50', 1 ;
According to observation, we have in 1750,
but, by what has been said, we get at this epoch, 
I
~dr
I {eg . cos. (3 . ) cot. A +
l+.
di
tang, h
V
hence we obtain,
l\r c g . cos. I'S . \ cot. h {■
1 + ^
tang. /j \ = 154",63 = 50',1.
If we neglect the square of c, in this equation, we may substitute for
h, the obliquity of the ecliptic to the equator in 1750.§ This obliquity
was then, by observation, 26^,0796 = 23" 28'" 17 ,9 ; hence we deduce,**
I = 155",542 = 50',396 ;
[4350o]
[4351a]
[43516]
[4352a]
* (2623) Tills difTerential is found in [3 11 8], and by reducing it into time, as in [3118'],
we get tlie decrement of the 3'ear, using f=zgll [3113a]; or the increment of the
year, by changing its sign, as in [4350"].
t (2629) This subject has aheady been discussed in [3113a — z] ; and we have merely
to remark in this place, that the values arbitrarily assumed in [4337 — 4339] do not produce
such essential alterations in these variations of ■]^', V, as are mentioned in [3113iy, 4351].
This ditierence is what might be expected, taking into consideration, that the results, obtained
in [4338, 4339], are restricted to values of /, which are less than 1200 [4335] ; and that
for much greater values of t, the results cannot be relied upon.
t (2630) At the epoch 1750, we have <;= [4329"], and then cos. (gt{It)=l,
cos. {g t \ 1 1 { ^ v) = cos. ; ir ^ ; substituting these in [4350], it becomes as in [4352] ;
putting this equal to 50',1 [4351'], derived from observation, we get [4353].
<§! (2631) The expression of V [4346] differs from h, by terms of the order c;
[4353a] hence it is evident that if ws neglect terms of the order C", we may substitute indifferently,
the value of V or h, for h, in [4353].
** (2632) Substituting in [4353] the values k = 23''28'"17',9 [4353"], also the values
[4354a] of eg. cos. ^, g [4338,4339], it becomes, as in the following equation, from which we
easily obtain the value of / [4354],
VI.x.>,^31.] THEORY OF THE EARTH. 263
then we have in 1 750,*
V = A — ^ . C . COS. ^ ; [4355]
which gives,
h = 26°,0796 — 3460",3 = 23'^ 28" \Tfi — 1 121', 1. [4356]
By means of these values we obtain the following expressions,! [wliich arc
altered in 4614 — 4617],
/ _ 0',076T21 . cot. 23'' 28"' 17%9 — ^^7^ • tang. 23* 28" 17%9 = 154',63. [43346]
* (2633) Putting ^=^0 in [4349], it becomes as in [4355]. Substituting in tiiis,
V = 23'' 28'" 17%9 [4353"], also tbe values of /, g, c.cos.p [43.54,4339], it becomes, [435Ga]
23'' 28"' \V,9 = A + 1 121 ',1 ; hence we get h [4356].
t (2634) Dividing the value of c.sin.3 [4339] by that of c.cos.js [4339], we
get tang.3=13,.34636 = tang.85''42"'54"; hence (3 = 85'' 42'" 54°' ; substituting this [4357a]
in the expression of c.sin.3 [4339], we obtain c = 5321',.308 . cosec. (3 = 5837',6.
Using these values of p, c, and these of A, I, g, g" [4356, 4354, 4339], we get, [43576]
c. cot.A = 13646',3;
. c . COS. p . j cot. h — .j^— . tang. A ^ = — 5o52',8 ; [4357c]
— L.c. sin. p . 5cot. h — ^ . tang. hl= — 23097%7 ;
'+g c tfg }
l\g=z 14',115 ; Z+^^=.32',645. Substituting these in the third, fourth and fifth
terms of [4343], we get the third, fifth and fourth terms of [4357], respectively. The [4357^^]
term 1 1 [4343, 4354], gives the first term of [4357]. The term ^ [4343], is to be
taken so as to render ■\,=^0 [4357] when « = ; whence
^ = _ 13646,3 . sin. 85'' 42" 54' + 23097^7 = 2''38'" 9',4. [4357e]
In like manner, we have,
' .c.cos.p=1.557V3; L.c .sin.p = 8986',6 ; [4357/]
substituting these and h [4356], also the preceding values [4357c], in [4346], we
get [4.358].
From the same data, we have,
^ . c . cos. p . < cot. h \ — — . tang. h>= — 4333',2 ;
iVs " d ' l+g
z^—,.c. sin.p .^cot./i + ,r— ,. tang. A[ = — 9499',4
l+g i l+g >
[4.3.57e]
[4358]
[4359]
264 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
^ = tA 55",542 + 2°,92883 + 421 1 8",3 . sin. (t . 1 55",542 + 95°,2389)
— 71289",2 . COS. i.(100",757) — 16521",! .sin. (i.43",564)
^^^^'^ = t . 50^396 + 2''38"'09%4 +13646%3. sin. {t . 50^396 + So'' 42"" 54')
Precession
f,;bj; — 23097%7 . cos. {t . 32%645) — 5352',8 . sin. {t . 14',1 15) ;
theeclip
ye.^"^^'" V = 26°,0796 — 3460",3 — 1 801 7",4 . cos. {t . 1 55",542 + 95°,2389) to.""']
+ 4806",5 . COS. (t . 43",564) — 27736",3 . sin. (t . 100",757)
== 23^ 28"'17',9 — 1 121%1 — 5837,6 . cos. (t . 50',396 + So' 42"" 54')
+ 1557',3 . COS. (t . 14%1 15) — 8986',6 . sin. (t . 32',645) ;
i' = f . 155",542 + 2°,92883 — 29288",3 . cos. t . (100",757)
— 1 3374",2 . sin. (t . 43",564)
= t . 60',396 + 2''38'" 09^4 — 9489',4 . cos. (t . 32%645)
— 4333',2.sin.(f . 14', 115);
[Apparent!
orbit. J
V'= 26°,0796 — 3460",3 . ^ 1 — cos. (t . 43",564) 
— 9769",2 . sin. (i . 100",757)
= 23''28"'17',9 — 1121',l.jl ~cos.(i. ]4',115)i
— 3165',2.sin. (<.32',645).
We may determine, by means of these formulas, the precession of the equinoxes
and the obliqiiity of the ecliptic, in the interval of ten or tivelve hundred years
[4357A] sin. {g t { 1 1 \ ^ jr) = cos. (^'^ f / ^) = cos. {( . 32%G45) ;
Z< = i . 50',.396. Substituting these in [4348], it becomes as in [4359], the constant
quantity 2,, being taken so as to make 4' = 0, when t=^0 [4359] ; consequently,
t*^^^'^ ^ = 9489',4 = 2* 38"' 9%4.
Lastly, by a similar calculation, we have,
f^ .c.cos.p = — 112P,1 ; ,4— , •c.sin.3 = — 3165',2;
[4357i] ' ' "
cos.(g't\lt]h'^)= — sm.{g't + It)= — s\n.{t. 32^645) ;
substituting these and [4356] in [4349], we get [4360]. The numerical values, given in
r4357n [435T— 4360], are varied by the author in [4614 — 4617], on account of the changes made
in the values of the masses of Venus and Mars. We have already given the formulas of
Poisson and Bessel, in [3380^,(7].
[4360]
VI.x.§3l.]
THEORY OF THE EARTH.
265
before, or after the epoch of 1750; observing to make t negative, for any
time previous to this epoch. We may indeed apply the formula to the
observations made in the time of Hipparchus ; taking into consideration
the imperfections of these observations.
The preceding value of i', gives, for the increment of the tropical year,
counting from 1750, the following expression,*
Increment of the year = — O''^000083568 . {1 —cos. {t . 14^1 15) \
— 0''»^00042327 . sin. {t . 32',645).
Hence it follows, that in the time of Hipparchus, or one hundred and
twentyeight years before the Christian era, the tropical year was 12'*'',326
[= 10,65 sexages.] longer than in 1750;t the obliquity of the ecliptic was
also greater by 2832",27 = 917^66.
[4361]
[4362]
[4363]
[4363']
* (2635) Using the same data as the preceding note, we get the numerical values of
the two functions [4362c, (/], expressed in sexagesimal seconds. These are turned into time
by supposing the whole circumference, 360''= 1296000", to be described in one year, or
3g5da,s^242 ; hence we have,
c^.cos.p. ^cot.^ + — — .tang.A?= — 0',296527=:— 0''"y,000083568 ;
c g'. sin. p
jcot. h
■ r—, . tang. A ^ =— l',501877 = — 0''^^00042327.
Substituting these and [4357c?], in [4350], we get the general expression of — [4362/] ;
which becomes as in [4362^], when t^O. Subtracting the first of these expressions
from the second, we get the increment of the year [4350'], as in [4362], corresponding to
any number t, of years after 1750.
^=1 — 0''"5',000083568 . cos. {t . 14',1 15) + 0^''y,00042327 . sin. {t . 32',645) ;
^ = / — 0'i''^00008356S.
dt '
These numerical values are altered in [4618], in consequence of a change in the values of
the masses of Venus and Mars.
[4362o]
[43626]
[4362c]
[4362rf]
[4362e]
[4362/]
[43C>2g]
[4.3G2/I]
t (2636) In the year 128 before the Christian era, < = — 128— 17.50 = — 1878;
substituting this in the two terms of the expression [4362], we find that the first terin [43(53„n
becomes, —0^»y,00000069, and the second, + ©■'"".OOOl 2396 ; their sum is O^'^OGO 12327,
as in [4363] nearly. The variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic, in the same time, 1^43(53^1
deduced from [4360], is nearly the same as in [436.3'], being expressed by,
— 112P,1.{1 —cos.{t. 14^115)} — 3165,2.sin.(i.32^645)
= — 9^,2 + 926^9 = 917%7 nearly. I'i363c]
VOL. III. 67
equinox
[4364]
and sun's
apogee
coincide.
266 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4363"] A remarkable astronomical epoch, is (hativhen the greater axis of the earth\s
hie'as'tro orMt ivas situated in the line of the equinoxes; because the apparent and ji.ean
Xt'the equinoxes then coincided. We find, by the preceding formulas, that this
phenomena took place about 4004 years before the Christian era, and at this
epoch most of our chronologists place the creation of the ivorld ; so that, in this
])oint of view, we may consider it as an astronomical epoch. For we have,
[4364'] at that time, t = — 5754 ; and the preceding expression of 4^' gives,*
[4365] ^'= — 79'' 04™ 04';
which is the longitude of the fixed equinox of 1750, referred to the equinox
of that time t. The preceding expression of ra", gives, for the longitude
of the perigee of the earth's orbit, or of the sun's apogee, referred to the
fixed equinox of 1750,t
^"= 80M5"'ll'.
This longitude, referred to the equinox of the year 4004 before the Christian
[4367] era, is V II '"07; J hence it follows, that the time lohen the longitude of the
suri's apogee, counted from the moveable equinox, ivas nothing, precedes, about
sixtynine years, the epoch usually assumed for the creation of the world.
This difference will appear very small, if we take into consideration the
imperfections of the preceding expressions of 4'? and ro", when applied to so
[4367"] distant a period, and the uncertainty which still remains relatively to the motion
of the equinoxes, and to the assumed values of the masses of the planets.
[4365']
[4366]
[4367']
[4365a]
* (2637) Putting ^=—5754, we have < ..32',G45 == 52''10"'39';
£ . 1 4%1 15 = 22'' 33"' SS' ; t . 50»V396 = 80'' 32"" 59» ;
substituting these in [4359], we get the value of .j^' [4365].
t (2638) Substituting «"= 98''37"'16^ [4081], in [4331], it becomes,
[4366a] T^" = 98''37'" 16" + i . 1 1',949588 + t^. 0^,000079522 ;
and by putting ^ = — 5754, it is reduced to 98''37'"16'— 19''5'"58'+43"' 53"=80"50'"1I',
as in [4366].
J (2639) Taking, for the fixed point, the equinox of 1750 ; the longitude of the
moveable equinox, and of the solar apogee, corresponding to the year 4004 before Christ,
[4367a] will be respectively 79'' 4™ 4'' , 80''15'"lp [4365,4366]; the difference of these quantities
j^rfj^jmjs represents the distance of the perigee from the equinox at that time. The
[4367t] distance of these points, in the year 1750, was 98'' 37'" 16' [4081] ; so that in the period
of 5754 years, they have approached towards each other, by the quantity.
\l.x.^31.J THEORY OF THE EARTH. 267
Another remarkable astronomical epoch, is that when the greater axis of the
Another
romarka
eurth^s orbit, was perpendicular to the line of equinoxes ; for then the apparent [4367"]
ana mean solstices were united. This second epoch is much nearer to our '"''<^°"'°
[4368]
times; it goes back nearly to the year 1250. For if we suppose t = — 500, eq:
uinox
and sun's
the preceding formulas give 90'' 1 '",* for the longitude of the sun's apogee, [4368']
counted from the moveable equinox. Hence the time when this longitude diSr'°
was 90'', corresponds very nearly to the beginning of the year 1249. The
imperfections of the elements used in this calculation, leaves an uncertainty
of at least one year in this result.
[4309]
98''37'«16'— I'' 11"'7»= 97''26"'9^; [4367c]
being at the rate of about 61* in a year ; and at this rate, the arc fll"?" will be [4367d]
described in about 69 years ; so that the equinox and solar apogee must have coincided about
the year 4004 [ 69 = 4073 [4367'J before the Christian era, according to the data we
have used.
[4368a]
* (2640) In the year 1250, we have ^ = 1250 — 1750 = — 500 ; and for this
value of ^ we get, from [4359, 4366a], 4,'= — 6'' 57"'; z;i" = 96''5S'"; therefore
the solar apogee, in 1250, was distant from the equinox of that time, by the quantity
96<i 58"" — Q^ 57"" = 90'^ 1 "■ ; [43686]
and as the distance of these points, in 1750, was 98''37'"16'" [43676], the variation of
distance, in five hundred years, is 98''37"' 16' — 90'' ]"■= 8''36"' 16^ being about 61" in a [4368c]
year, as in [4367rf] ; consequently, the distance of these points must have been 90^, about
one year before the year 1250, or in the year 1249.
268 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
CHAPTER XI.
THEOIIY OF MARS.
32. We have, in the case of the maximum * of d V",
[4370] 6 0. = — (1 —o?).ôY"';
r"
[4370] supposing — = a. If we consider r'" as the onlj variable quantity in
a, we shall have,
ma
[4371] 5 r"' = — . ( 1 — a=) . 6 V".
[4371'] If we take for r", r'", the mean distances of the earth and Mars from
^S' the sun [4079], and suppose 5 V" = ± 1" = ± 0^324, we shall get,
[4372] 5 r'" _ ± 0,000002076 ;
may be
neglected, therefore we may neglect the inequalities of the radius vector r"', whose
coefficients are less than ± 0,000002. We shall also neglect the inequalities
of the motion in Mars in longitude, which are less than a quarter of a
centesimal second, or 0',081.t
* (2641) The earth is situated, relatively to Venus, in the same manner as Mars is,
r4'î70 1 relatively to the earth ; therefore we may obtain 5 V"', corresponding to Mars [4370],
from the calculation made for Venus in [4297, 4298], by merely changing the accents on
V, in [4298], which makes it become as in [4370], and using a [4370']. Now the
ôr"'.r"
variation of a [4370'], considering a, r'", as the variable quantities in ôa.= ^^tj— 5
substituting this in [4370], we get [4371]; and by putting r"=a", r"'=a" [4079],
using also a [4159], .5 V" [4371'] ; it becomes as in [4372].
[4373a]
* (2642) The values [4373,4374] are computed from the functions [4277a, 6],
accenting the symbols so as to conform to the present example.
VI. xi. §32.]
THEORY OF MARS.
269
Inequalities of Mars, independent of the excentricilies.
6v"'^ (l+(^')
+ 0+O
+ (l+f^'')
0',208754 . sin. (n't — n'" t + s— e'")
 0',024915 . s\n.2 (n't — n'" t + '— s'")
j _ 0',005000 . sin. S (n't — n'" t + t'— ^"')
( _ 0',001368 . sin.4(n'i — n!" t + t— O
6',988832 . sin. (n" t — n'" t + £"— O
— 0',968689 . sin. 2(n"i — n'" < + s"— O
— 0', 1830 12 . sin.3(n" t — «'"f + s"— s'")
— 0',058242 . sin.4(n" t — n'" t + s"— i'"')
— 0',023099 . sin. 5 (n" t — n'" t + s" s'")
— 0%010339 . sin. 6 (n" i — n'" t + s"_ /")
— 0',004992 . sin. 7 (n" t — n"'t + «"— ^"')
24S440843 . sin. (n'' t — «'" < + e'"— Z") ~
— 13',598063 . sin.2(n'' t — n'" t + e'"— s'")
— r,l 80288 . sm.S(n''t — n'" t + £'"— s'")
— 0%172768. sin.4(n'''ï _ n'" t + e— e'")
— 0',033166 . sin.5(n''' t — n"'t + s"— s'")
— 0',013422 . sin. 6 (n'" i — n!" t + s''— i'")
[4373]
Inequali
ties inde
pendent of
the excen
tricilies.
+ (l+(xO.
P,343754 . sin. (n't
0^,443668. sin. 2 (n^r
0%023088.sin. 3(n''«
0\001879.sin.4(n"r
n"'t + 5"— e"')
.n"7 + £"—£'")
n"'t + ^—s"')
■ ^"7 + 5"— £'")
4r"'= (!+,.')•
0,0000016104
+ 0,0000021 947 . cos. (n' t — n"'t + e'— e'")
+ 0,0000001972 . cos. 2(n'i — n"'t + e'— e'")
+ 0,000000041 8 . cos. 2 (n't — n"'t + s'— e'")
[4374]
VOL. III.
68
270
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
Inequali
ties inde
pendent Oi"
the ex
centrici
tiea.
[4374]
+ (i+0
0,0000023860
— 0,0000187564,
+ 0,0000052387.
+ 0,0000011969.
+ 0,0000004169.
+ 0,0000001733.
+ 0,0000000796.
COS. (n"t
COS. 2(?^"^
COS. 3(?^"^
COS. 4(n"r
COS. 5(n"f ■
COS. G(n"t ■
Inequali
ties de
pending
on the first
power of
the excen
tricilies.
[4375]
+ (l+f^'0
^—0,0000066174
+ 0,0000784371
— 0,0000679436
— 0,0000069390
— 0,0000010930
— 0,0000002004 ,
. COS. (n'^t •
.cos.2(n'7
.cos.3(nH
.cos.4(n'7
. cos. 5 (n'7 •
— 0,0000000520 . cos. 6 (n'^ 
if't + ^'—f)
■ n"'t + i"—i")
.n"'t\i"—s"')
.n"'t + s"—s"')
.n"'t + i"—s"')
n"'t + s"— £'")
. ,t"7 + £■"— s'")
 n"7 + £"— s'")
?i"7e"— /")
.«'"ï + ii"' — s'")
.n"7 + s»_/")
+ 0+^^^)
— 0,0000003173
+ 0,0000047062
0,0000023275
' — 0,0000001399
0,0000000125
.cos. (tft
.cos.2(nU
.COS.3(M^^
. cos.4(w''^
. n"'t + 1"—
.n"'t + s"—
£'")
£'")
n
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities.
^ 1 ',082545 . sill. (2 /*'" ? —n't + 2 ='"— s' — ^"')
\ — 0S252586 . sin. (2 n'" i — w' ï + 2 s'" — .'_ z=')
0%698649 . sin. («,'7 + e" — ^"')
— 0', 134530 . sin. (2 n'7 — 7i"'t + 2 s" — /" — t;^'")
— 10', 1 14699 . sin. (2 n"'f — n"t + 2 s'" — =" — ^"')
 5% 1 23062 . sin. (2 n"7 — ?z"/ + 2 s'" — .=" — ^/' )
+ (1 + p.") . ( — 6^516275 . sin. (3 n"'t — 2 jz"i + 3 /" — 2 ." — 3.'")
+ 0',846004 . sin. (3 tft — 2 n"t + 3 s"' — 2 =" — ^" )
+ 0',677748 . sin. (4 n"'t — 3 n"t + 4 s'" — 3 ^" — ^"')
— 0',0791.55 . sin. (4 n"'t — 3 n"^ + 4 s'" — 3s" — t.")
, + 0',1 19926 . sin. (5 n"'t — 4 n"t + 5 /" — 4e" — ^j'")^
VI. xi. §32.]
THEORY OF MARS.
271
+ (1 + f^'^)
+ (t+t^')
,+ 5',490297 . sin. (irt + s'"— î^'") *
— 5',367005 . sin. (n'^l + ^" — ^'0
23\552332 . sin. (2 «'^7 — n"'t + 2 5'"— s'"— ^"')
■ 2%593100 . sin. (2 w'7 — m'"^ + 2 s"— h'"— ^'')
+ 2%296703 . sin. (3 n" « — 2 «'" ^ + 3 s — 2 s'"— ^"')
— 3%568875 . sin. (3 n" t — 2 n"'t + 3 e^' — 2 e'"— ^"')
+ 0%220149 . sin. (4> n'" t — 3 n'" t + 4> s'" — 3 s'" — vs'")
' — 0%352640 . sin. (4 n'" i — 3 n"'t + 4 e" — 3 s"' — a'")
 2S868651 . sin. (2n"'t — n"i + 2 e'"— e'^— ..'")
— 0',204519 . sin. (2 n"'t — 71'" t + 2 s'"— s — ^")
+ r,853159 . sin. {3n"'t — 2n'''t + 3s"'—2 e"— ^"')
+ 0',198136 . sin. (4> 71'" i — 3 n" t + 4> s'" — 3 s'" — z^'")
I 0, 143758 . sin. {n't + f" — ^"')
— 0',696926 . sin. (Wf + £" — a^)
— r,798071 . sin. (2 nt — h'" i + 2 s' — /" — ^"')
+ 0',132176 . sin. (2 nU — n'" / + 2 s' — s'" — z^^)
— 0',100246 . sin. (3 n't — 2 71'" t + 3 £" — 2 .'" — ^')
— 0', 156784 . sin. (2 n"'t — rft + 2 £'" — £' — ^3'")
\
â
[4375]
Inequali
lies de
pending on
the fijsx.
power of
the exceti
tricities.
C 0,0000044700 . cos. (2 n"' t—n't + 2^" — ^ — ^"') ^
W=(\ + (^') ^_ 0,00000097 13 . cos. (2/1'"^ — ^'^ + 2.'" — e' — ^ ) ^
'—0,0000022865 . cos. (71" t + s" — ^"')
+ 0,0000086337 . cos. (2 n"7 — ?t"/ + 2 e'"— /' — ^"')
 0,0000031269 . cos. (2 n"'i — n"^ + 2 e"'— s" — .," )
4 (1 + f.") . y _ 0,0000200331 . cos. (3 n"'t — 2n"t + 3 e'"— 2 s"— ra'")
+ 0,0000025454 . cos. (3 n"'t — 2n"t + 3 e'"— 2 h"— ^" )
+ 0,0000030863 . cos. (4 7i"'t — 3 7i"t + 4 «"'— 3 s"— ^"')
+ 0,0000040239 . cos. (4 71'" t — 3n"t + 4 e"'— 3 s"— ^") ,
[4376]
* (264.3) The computation of the terms [4.375, 4376], is made in the same manner
as for Mercury, in [4278a] ; accenting the symbols so as to conform to the case under [4375a]
consideration.
[4376]
272 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél
0,0000035825 . cos. (n"'t + s'"—^'")
— 0,0000107986 . cos. (n'7 + s'"— ^"')
+ 0,0000031431 . COS. (n'H + i"— ^"•)
_ 0,0000599470 . cos. (2 n'"/ — n"'t + 2 ="— /"— ^"')
_j_ n 4 ^ivN ^ 7+ 0,0000069892 . cos. (2 /t'^/ — n"'i + 2 £■'— s'"— «")
^+ 0,0000114352 . cos. (3 7rt _ 2n"7 + 36"'— 25"'— ^"')
0,0000169741 . cos. (3 n''^ — 2n"'/ + 3£"'— 2^'" ^'^) '
'—0,0000020307. cos, (4 w'7 — 3n"'i44s'''— S^'"— ^'')
+ 0,0000087307 . cos. (2 n"'t — ?i"7 + 2 s'"— s'"— ^"')
y_ 0,00^0063983 . cos. (3 n"7 — 2ra'''i + 3s"'— 2£'^— ^"')
— (1 + M') . 0,0000061906 . COS. (2 n' f — n"'t + 26" — £'" — ^"').
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricities
and inclinations of the orbits.*
iv'" = _ (1 + ^') . 6',899619 . sin. {3n"'t — n't + 3/" — e' + 65''26'"15')
( l',414532 . sin. (3 n"'t — n"t + 3^'" — ^' + 73"! l'"55') ,
Inequali \ /
^'„°f '"<= — (1 + f/") . J + 4\370903 . sin. (4 n't — 2 n'7 + 4 Z" 2 s" + 67^49"' 0') \
order. ) (
(+ 2^665900 . sin. (5 n"'t — 3 n"t + 5 f'" 3 /' + 68''23'"00)
t4377] /_ 0',462779 . sin. {n''t + n"7 + ^'^ + ^"' — 53' 07'" 48') "
+ (1 f ^iv^) _ ^ _ i.<,444i22 . sin. (2 n'7 + 2. + 60^ 07"' 02')
+ r,295408 . sin. {n''t —7i"'t + s'" — s"'+ 54'' 41"' 32^ '
ïl'
* (2644) Using the values [4076A], we get veiy nearly, 3 n'" — n' = — 12° =
18'
n
[4377a] also .3 ?i"' — »i"=238°, which is nearly equal to ii"' ; 4n"—2n" = 5l°=~;
[43776] ^''"' — 3n"= — 137'^= — —  nearly. Hence it is evident, that if we proceed in the
same manner as in the computation of the similar inequalities of Mercury [4282a, &.c. ],
we must notice the angles depending on these coefficients, in computing the terms of
[4377 — 4380]. For the second of these angles comes under the form [3732],
[4377c] { ?i"  (2 — i) . n" = n'", supposing i = — 1 ; and the others under the form [3733],
supposing successively, i = — 1, i = — 2, i = — 3. Lastly, as n" is small in
VI. xi. §32.]
THEORY OF MARS. 273
The last of these expressions may be connected with the following inequality,
computed in [4373], and which is independent of the excentricities,
(1 + (.'^■) . 24,440843 . sin. (71" t — n"'t + e' _ s'") ; [4378]
their sum, by reduction,* gives the following term of ov'",
^ ^■" = (1 + ;V') . 25%211710 . sin. (n'^t— n'" t + £'"— s"'+ 2'^ 24"'110. [43^^]
We have also,
<5 r'" = — (1 + f^') • 0,0000023461 . cos. (3 ir!"t — n't + 3/"— 3' + 64''47'" 29^ îp^u..
second
order.
[4380]
0,0000050403 . cos. (3 n"'t — ii't + 3 s'"— 3" + 72" 47'" 00')
+ (1 + (.") . j +0,0000070248. cos. (4 n"7 — 2«"i+46"'— 2="— oB^ol''oO')
 0,0000075032 . cos. (5 n"'t —3n"t+ 5 s"'—3^"— 68" 27'"280 ^
( +0,0000080002 . cos. (2 n^'t + 2 s'^ + 60'' 1 T" 52^) )
^ ^+0,0000041488.cos.(?t'7 — «"'i + s'" — 5"' + 59''8'"570^
The last of these quantities may be connected with the following inequality,
which is independent of the excentricities [4374],
(1 + fx") . 0,0000784371 . cos. {n"t — n'" ^ + s'" — £'" ) ; [4381]
their sura gives the following term of 6 r'",
&r"'= (1 + (^'') . 0,0000806432 . cos. {n"t — n"'t + £'" — £'" + 2''31'"550. [4382]
The inequalities of the motion of Mars, in latitude, are hardly sensible.
comparison with n'", their sum w"' + «"', is very nearly equal to n'", so that
this angle comes under the form [3732] in"\{2 — i).n"', supposing i^l; and [4377rf]
produces the term of [4377], depending on the angle ?«"'< + n"'t. If we suppose i^2,
in the same expression [4377(/], it becomes 2(i'*'; now, as this is small in comparison with
n'", it comes under the form [37.3.3], and produces the terms of [437T, 4380], depending on
the angle 2n"t. The quantity n'" — n'" differs but little from — n"' , and comes under
the first form [3732], depending on the angle n'H — n"t [4377, 4380].
* (2645) The term ( I + (x) . 24',440843 . sin. («''' t — n'" i + s'^' — s'") [4373] may
be added to the term (1 + x'^) . l,295403 .sin. (m'>7 — ?r< + e— s"'+ 51'' 41"'32^);
and the sum reduced to one single term [4379], by a calculation similar to that in [43o0a]
[4282^ — /]. In like manner the terms of [4374, 4330], depending on the angle
n^" t — r\!"t, may be reduced to one single term of the form [4382].
VOL. III. 69
274 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4383]
[43840]
[43846]
Putting n" equal to the longitude of the ascending node of Jupiter's orbit
upon that of Mars, we find,*
( 0',094394 . sin. («"^ + e'" — n") )
[4384] dr=n+^").^ y ^ J f
^ ^ ^0%403269.sin.(2n''i — n"'i + 2£"'— s'—n'")^
* (2646) The term of 5 s'", depending on the attraction of Jupiter, maybe derived from
the formula [4295è], by adding two accents to the quantities s', a', n', s', a", n", s", m";
also supposing y to represent the incUnation, and II the longitude of the node of Jupiter's
orbit upon that of Mars [4295c]. The terra independent of 2 produces the first term of
[4.384], and the term under the sign 2, corresponding to i = 2, gives the second term ;
using B^''=^3 K [1006,4190].
VI.xu.§33.] THEORY OF JUPITER. 275
CHAPTER XII.
THEORY OF JUPITER.
33. The reciprocal action of the planets, upon each other, and upon the
sun, is most sensible in the theory of Jupiter and Saturn ; and we shall [4384']
now proceed to show that the greatest inequalities of the planetary system
depend on this cause. The equation [4371],
6r"' = y.(la=).6V"',
r
corresponding to Mars, becomes for Jupiter,
[4385]
6 r''' = !L . (1 — a') . 6 V". [4386]
r
If we take for r", r'", the mean distances of the earth and Jupiter from
the sun [4079], and suppose 6 V''= ± 1"= =t 0',324, we shall obtain,
6 r" = =F 0,0000409225. [4387]
Therefore we may neglect the inequalities of 6 r", which are below
q= 0,000041. We shall also omit the inequalities of Jupiter's motion in [4387]
longitude, or latitude, which are less than a quarter of a centesimal second,
or 0',081.
Inequalities of Jupiter, independent of the excentriciiies*
Itiequah'
^^ ^^ , „^ ( 0', 120833. sin. (n"t — n'^'t + s" —s)^ [.^^ntr
iV = (1 +f^ ) . < > the ex
^ ^— 0,000086. sin. 2 (n"Z — n'''i + ^" — ^'0) "''"'"'
ceotrici
tics.
* (2647) The inequalities [43S8, 43S9], are deduced from [4277a, J], increasing by
four the accents on the symbols, to conform to the present case, and using the data
276
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. CéJ.
[4388]
iaequalî
ties inde
pendent of
the excen
tricities.
[4389]
+ (1 + f^O • X
+ (l+^'0
82',8117n.
 204',406374 .
— 17%071564,
— 3',926329 ,
— P,2 10573.
— 0',428420 .
— 0% 170923,
— ,076086 .
— 0%041273.
P,051737.
— 0',427296 .
— 0',044085 .
— O',005977 ,
sin. (jCt ■
sin.2(M'^
sin.3(J^^^
sin.4(n'^
sin.5(?i''^
. sin. 6 (ii" t ■
. sin. 1 (n't
. sin. 8{n''t
. sin. 9 (n'' t ■
sin. [n'"t ■
sin.2(n"7
sin.3(n"7
■ n"t \ s'—i")
■ n''i + e" — e'^)
. n"t \ b' — e'^)
n'^t + 6" — i")
n" t + e" — £'")
• n^t + b" — £'")
.n'''t + ^''—é")
. n" t + £'■' — i'")
n"t + e"'— £")
àf
— 0,0000620586
+ 0,0006768760. COS. {n't— n"t + b^— b")
— 0,0028966200 . cos.2(ift — n"t + £'— b")
— 0,0003021367 . cos. 3 {nH — n"t + b'— e'")
r^ 1 v^ /— 0,0000782514. cos.4(îi"ï — n'7 + s"— e'M 
\— 0,0000258952 . cos. 5 {n^'t — n''t + «" — «'") 
 0,0000094779 . cos. 6 (?j" ^ — n''t + £^— s'") 
 0,0000037560. COS. 7 (?i^7 — n'U + £^ — s") 
0,0000014781 .cos.8(»i^^ — ?ri + E"— ^'O '
 0,0000004799 . cos. 9 (ift — n't + «"— '^'O
Inequalities depending on the first poiver of the excentricities.
Several of these inequalities are of considerable magnitude, so that it
becomes necessary to notice the variations of their coefficients ; which we
[43886]
[4061, &1C.]. The term depending on sin. {n'' t — n'U { b" — b'"), being computed, by
means of the formula [4277n], is found to be nearly the same as in the first line of this page,
and has the same sign ; therefore the remark made in the Philosophical Transactions for
1831, page 65, that the sign of this coefficient is negative, is incorrect.
VI.xii.§33.]
THEORY OF JUPITER.
277
shall do, in those terms of the expression of 6«" which exceed 100", or
32',4. The coefficients of the inequalities depending on a'', have for a
factor the excentricity e" ;* therefore, by putting one of these coefficients
Se'"
equal to Ae'", its variation will be Ae'". ^. We shall find, in [4407],
that if we include even the quantities depending on the square of the
disturbing force [4i04,&c.], of which we have given the analytical expression
in [3910], we shall have.
[4389']
[4369"]
* (2648) The terms of 5v'\ Sr'" [4392,4393], were computed from those of
ÙV, &r [1021, 1020], depending on e, e' ; changing m, a, e, zs, i, n, into
rlfi nictiirnti,„
ni", a", e'", a'"', e'*', Ji'", respectively. In computing the disturbing force of Saturn,
we must also change the symbols m', a', he. into m'', a", he. ; and in computing that
of Uranus, we must change them Into rri", «", &c. We shall neglect the terms containing
the arc of circle nt, without the signs oi sine and cosine, as is done in [1023, 1024]. In
this notation, the angle ra", is evidently connected with a coefficient having the factor e''';
and the angle a^, with the factor c" ; as in [4389', 4390']. The variations of c'", e",
are given in [4407] ; and if we retain only the first power of the time t, they will be as in
[4390, 4391]. For an example of the method of computing these variations, we shall take
the largest term of ôv'" [4392], which arises from the substitution of the value of i = 2,
in the term multiplied by e, or c" [1021] ; so that this term becomes.
Substituting the values of the elements [4061,4077,4081], and that of jF® deduced from
F'*' [1019], we find that the coefficient becomes, as in [4392],
— 13S',373337 = A e'" [4389'].
ôe
This is to be multiplied by —, to obtain the expression A (5 e'". Now, i5 6'"= t . 0',329487
[4390], being divided by the radius in seconds 206265', becomes,
5 e''=^. 0,00000 15974;
dividing this by e'"' [4080J, we get,
— = t. 0,0000.33226 ;
multiplying this by Ae" [4390/], we finally obtain,
^JÉi^ = — <.0',004598.
Connecting this with Ae'" [4390/], we get the coefficient of the term depending on the
angle 2 n'i— n'^< f 2e^— e'" — ra'' [4.392]. In the same way the variations of three of
VOL. III. 70
[4390al
[43906]
[4390fJ
[4390(f]
[4390e]
[4390/]
[4390g]
[4390/. J
[4390t']
278
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4390] W" ^t. 0',329487.
In like manner, the coefficients of the inequalities depending on ^j", have
[4390] the factor e" ; and by putting B e"" for one of the coefficients, its variation
will be B e". ^^, and we shall find, as in [4407], that
[4391] 6"= —t. 0%642968.
This being premised, we obtain,
Inequali
ties de
pending
on tlie first
power of
the excen
tricities.
6D=(1 + /J.'')
[4392]
8',608489 . sin.
— 9',692385 . sin.
— (138',373337 + ï
+ (56S634099— i
— (44',460822 + i
+ (84',942569i
+ 7%925312.sin.
— 15',629621 .sin.
+ r,047717 .sin.
— 2',78 1664. sin.
/ + 0',407251 . sin.
— 0,9 13302. sin.
+ 0', 149277. sin.
— 0',325592 . sin.
— 5',208122.sin.
— 0%569738 . sin.
+ 12',876650.sin.
— 0',352399 . sin.
+ r,287482 . sin.
— 0% 172892. sin.
+ 0,356627 . sin.
— 0',083]89.sin.
(n^'t + E^ — si'')
. 0%003 1 398) . sin. (2 n^ i — n'" i + 2 £^ — e'^ — ^^ )
.0%0014776).sin.(3n''i— 2n'^i+3i''— 2>— ^")
. 0^0047094) . sin. (3n'' «— 2n"^+33''— 2.'"— ^' )
— 3 n'" i f 4 £'' — 3 5'" — zi"
— 3 ?i'' ; 4 4 £" — 3 1" — ra"
— 4 n'^f + 5 £' — 4 s" — zi'"
— 4 n'' « + 5 6^ — 4 s'" — zj"
— ôn'''t + 6i'—ôs'"'~u,"
— 5n*'i + 6s^ — ô^'" — T.^
— 6n'"^ + 7£' — 6 e'"— 33'"
— 6 irt + 7 £" 6 s'" — n"
— rft +2 £'" — £" — ra'"
— nU + 2 s'" — £" — ra"
— 2 71^1 +3 i"— 2 6'— z="
— 2 71^1 + S s'"— 2 £" — 73'
— 3 71"^ + 4 s'"— Si" — zs'"
— 3 ?ri + 4 s'"— 3 £' — ^"
4 7ft 4 5 t'" 4 s' — z:'"
— 4>7i''t 4 5 £"— 4 ^^" — i^'
(4 71^1
(4^^
(ôn^t
(ÔTl't
(6 71" t
(6 n" t
(In^t
ÇlrCt
(2 n'H
(2 7l"t
(3 n'7
(3 n"«
(4 n'H
(4 7l"t
(5 Tl'H
(5 71" t
the other large terms of [4392] are computed. The variations of the remaining ones are too
small to be noticed.
VI.xii.<^33.]
THEORY OF JUPITER.
279
(1+^")
.ir"=(l+,.)
0% 123506 . sin. (n"< + s^' — x.")
 0',235240 . sin. (ti'U + i"' — ^")
 0',533079 . sin. (2 n"' t — irt + 2 1" — s" — ^")
+ 0', 102673 . sin. (2 ?r'/ — n'" t + 2 s"' — i" — a")
— 0', 127963 . sin. (3 n'H —2 n"i+ 3 s" — 2i"— i^''')
0,00002061 1 1 . COS. {n'H + s'"— a")
— 0,0000795246 . cos. {n" 1 + ^' — ra'")
+ 0,0000492096 . cos. (n" i + s" — «^ )
— 0,0002922 130. COS. (2 H'i— n''i + 2E''— e"— ^i'
1+ 0,000 1688085. COS. (2/1" Ï— n"t + 2t' — 'Z^"—^'
— 0,0004584483 . cos. (3 n^i — 2n'''i+ 3 £"— 2e"— x^"
+ 0,0009047822. cos. (3 n'i — 2 n''7+ 35"— 26"— ^"
jl 0,000 1 259429 . cos. (4 n' ^ — 3 iVH + 4 £" — 3 s'"— t^"
/— 0,00024244 1 3 . cos . (4 n'' i — 3 n"7 + 4 s" — 3 s'"— a"
+ 0,0000268383 . cos. (5 n' t — ^n"t + 5 s"— 4s"— ^"
— 0,0000516048. COS. (5/1"^ — 4n"i foe" — 4s''— ^^
+ 0,0000579151 . COS. (2n''t— nU^2s"'— I' — zs"
I— 0,0001346530 . cos. (5 n'H — 2ift + 3 e'"— 2 s" — ^'^
Inequali
ties de
pending on
the first
power of
the excen
tricitiei).
[4393]
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricities
and inclinations*
l',003681 . sin. (n"ï + n'^7 + e" +£"' + 45''29"220
— 5',578707 . sin. (2 nTt + 2s" + 15' 56" 24^
+ ir,724245 . sin. (3 ri't — n"t + 3^" — e'"+ 79^ 39" 48^
—1 8',075283 . sin. (4 n' ^ — 2 n}H + 4 e"— 2 e'"— 57" 1 2" 26')
'"■•=('+')V(,69s266896<.0S004277).si„.(^;i4»+3^^^^^^^
+ P,647140.sin. (6 n"f — 4n"< + 6 s"_4£'"— 64''25'"480
+ 2',47 6404. sin. ( n't— n'"i e"— £'"443^17'"0P)
V — 6',287997 . sin. (2 n" i — 2 n'" i + 2 £"— 2 e" + 42 '4O'"440
Inequali
tiei of the
second
order.
[4394]
* (2649) The calculation of the six first terms in [4394] is made in exactly the same
way as for Mercury, in [4282a — 6]. The coefficient of the angle 3 n''< — 5 rCt, being [4394a ]
280 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
These two last inequalities being connected with the two following,
[4395]
( 82',8n711.sin. (n^ï — «'" ^ + s'— £'") ^ _
*" ^ ■ ^ _204',406374 . sin. 2 (n't — n'" t \ b' — s'") ^ '
which are found in [4388], among the terms independent of the excentricities,
produce the terms,*
(_ 84',628936.sin. (?ri— n^i + s'" — s" — 1''08"'530 )
^ ^ (+209',098224.sin. (2?^'"^— 2n^'i+2£"'— 2 e''— r'09"'58^)^
Then we have [4394^/],
loequali
sic'oôS""' / 0,0000822415 . cos. (2 w^i + 2 s" + 1 1'OO"' 550
order. I ^
+ 0,0000226252. cos. (3 nt—n'^t + 3 s"— s''— 21''47"'18')
^4397^ 6r''=^(l + f^'').( —0,0001010533. cos.(4?i^^—2n'"«+4î''— 2=''— 51''04"'040
(0,0021 1 14502^0,00000005323).cos.(^J;l!J;;2o;:^
— 0,0000652204. cos. (2 ?i'7— 2rt'''<+2 e'— 2 .'"+ 54''08"'52')
If we connect the last of these inequalities with the following,
— (1 +f^") . 0,0028966200. cos. 2(n"i — iV't + i' — i") ;
which is found in [4389], among the terms that are independent of the
excentricities, we obtain the equivalent expression,
[4399J 6 r"= _ (1  j.^) . 0,0029251 892 . cos. (2 7i'H — 2 n''t + 2 i"—2 e^'— 1''02"'080.
The preceding inequalities of iv'", are calculated by the formulas [3711,
3715, 3728, 3729] ; excepting, however, that which depends on the angle
[4400] 3^'"^ — brft\ observing that bn" — 2n", is a very small coefficient, as
appears from the ratio which obtains between the mean motions of Jupiter
large, its variations must be noticed and computed by the metiiod pointed out in
[43946] [4017 — 4021]. The other coeniclents are less than 32%4, and their variations are
neglected, as in [4389', he.]. The two last terms of [4394] correspond to [3729, 3728] ;
[4394c] using i=^±l, or i^±2; the values of A" being found, by means of the formulas
[3753 — 3755'"], and the corresponding terms are to be connected together, like those
depending on M, in [4282A — /]. In like manner, the four first terms of [4397] are
[4394dJ deduced from [3711]; the last term from [3728]; noticing always the variations of the
elements in the greatest coefficients, as is done with the terms of & v.
[4396o] * (2650) This computation is made in the usual manner, as in [4380a].
[4398]
VI.xii.§33.] THEORY OF JUPITER. 281
[4400']
[4401]
and Saturn [4076/t] ; so that the angle Sn'^t — ôn^t differs but very little
from n''f, as in [3712, &c.] ; in consequence of which, we have used the
formulas [3714, 3715], in computing this inequality, by the method given
in [4017 — 4021].
Inequalities depending on the poicers and products of three and Jive
dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits,
and on the square of the disturbing force.
The great inequality of Jupiter, is calculated by the formulas
[3809—3868; 3910—4027]. We find, from [3836—3841],
a\ ilfw ^ — 5,2439100 . m' ;
a\M")= 9,6074688 . m\
a\ M<^> = — 5,8070750 . nf ;
a\M'^^= 1,1620283. m^
a\ itfw = — 0,6385781 . m" ;
a\ M' '' = 0,3320740 . m\ mequaii^
' tics of the
Hence we find, at the epoch 1750,* orJ"
a\P= 0,0001093026;
a\ P' = — 0,0010230972. [4402]
We must find the values of the same quantities in 2250 and 2750. For
this purpose it is necessary to determine the values of e'", e", t^'", w*', j, n,
in series, ascending according to the powers of the time ; continuing the
series so far as to include the second power of t. We must, in the first ^ ^
place, calculate, by the formulas [3910 — 3924], the secular variations of
e'% ie", 5ra'', Szs", depending on the square of the disturbing force ; and
we shall obtain, for these variations,!
* (2651) The values of «'P, «^P' [4402], are deduced from [3842, 3843] ; adding
four accents to the letters m, a, e, zs, m , a', e , Stc. to conform to tlie present [4402a]
notation, and then using the numerical values [4061, 4077,4079, 4080, fcc.].
t (2652) The value of ^e'" [4403], is computed from the part of (S e [3910], depending
on the time t, without the signs of sine and cosine ; adding four accents to the letters
m, a, e, m', u', e , &:c. to conform to the case now under consideration. izi'" [4403], is
VOL. III. 71
[4403a]
282 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél,
[4403]
[4404]
[4405]
àé" = t. 0%052278 ;
<! ^" = t. 0^352941 ;
ie' = — i.0%102763;
61^"= t. 3',242722.
The coefficients of t, in these expressions, represent the parts of — , — ^ ,
— , — [4404a, 6, c], depending on the square of the disturbing force.*
Ut CE t
Adding them respectively to the parts of the same quantities, determined in
[4246, 4247], we obtain the entire values in 1750,
^^ = 0%329487 :
'^= 6',952808;
dt '
^ = _ 0',642968 ;
dt '
^^ = 19%355448.
dt '
obtained from the like parts of &a [3911]. The expressions 6 e'', (5 a" [4403], are deduced
from [3922, 3923], by making the same additional number of accents to the letters, and
then substituting the values of these elements [4061, 4077,4079, &ic.].
* (2653) We have, as in [4330rt], e'" ==; e'" + ^ . ~ + J t^. ^ ; e" in the second
member, being the value of e'', at the epoch ; and by putting for e'* — e"', its value ^e'",
we get,
[44046] 5e=<.— + 1^^^^.
In like manner we have,
[4404c] 6e^ = t.^+it^'—+^o.; 6.^ =t .  + if^.^ + ^o.
The coefficients of t, \ t^, in the second members of these expressions, correspond to the
epoch. The coefficients of the first power of t, in these expressions, are composed of two
parts, namely, those computed in [4246,4247], and those depending on the square of the
[4404rf] disturbing masses, computed in [4403] ; the sums of the corresponding parts give the
coefficients, respectively, as in [4405]. Thus,
^ = 0%052278 + Jx0%554418 = 0V329487, Sic. as in [4405].
at
[4404a]
VI. xii. <^33.]
THEORY OF JUPITER.
283
We obtain, by the same method, their values in 1950, and find, at this epoch,*
^= 0',326172;
dt
IT
de"
It
= 7',053178;
= _ 0%648499 ;
~— = 19^424739.
dt
From these we get, as in [3850, &c. 3850c], the following expressions of
e'*, îj'", e", w' ; for any time whatever ;
e'* = €'■' + t. 0%329487 — f: 0^,0000082871
z," = I. + / . 6^952808 + t. ,0002509259
e' =€" — t. 0%642968 — f: 0%0000138275
^" =^" +1. 19,355448 + t\ 0',0001 732274 :
the values of é", to'% e", «% m the second members of these equations,
correspond to the year 1750.
[4406]
General
values of
TO", m".
[4407]
[4407']
* (2654) The calculation of the annual variations of the elements [4406], for the year
1950 is made in the same manner as in [4405], using the expressions of e'^, e", «'", a", [4406a]
corresponding to 1950. These elements are obtained, very nearly, by means of the annual
decrements [4405], which give, with sufficient accuracy, the required values, when t does
not exceed 200. Thus the increment of e'*', corresponding to t = 200, is
200X0',329487=:65',8 nearly [4405]; 4406J]
being the same as the term depending on the first power of t, in the expression of e'» [4407].
The term depending on i^, in this last expression, is very small, being represented by
— 2002 X 0^000008287 1 = — 0»,3 nearly ; [4406e]
which is about ^^sxs part of the term corresponding to the first power of t. Similar remarks
maybe made relative to the values of t" , ra", ■a'' . If these calculations were to be repeated,
in consequence of any changes in the assumed values of the masses of the planets, we could
take into consideration the parts depending on t'^, as they are given in [4407] ; and by this [4406rf]
means we might obtain, by successive operations, corrected values of the elements. This
process is the same as that so frequently used by astronomers, in retouching and correcting
the elements of the orbits of the heavenly bodies.
Now, from [3850c], we have.
ddé"
îiTT'^
in which we must substitute
dé"
for —', its value 0',326172 [4406] ; also for —  , its value 0',329487 [4405] ; hence
[4406f]
284 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
We may find the values of y, n, by means of the equations,*
7 . sin. n = (p" . sin. ff' — <?'"• sin. o'" ;
^^^°®^ y . cos.n = (f" . COS. r — 9'\ cos. ê'\
d y du
Then we compute the values of —, —, by taking the differentials of
J , • • r dq,'" dtp" dù'^ dè^ . . .
[4408] these equations, and substitutmg tor — — ,  — , —— , —, then* values
[4246, 4247]. We find, in this manner, in 1750,
7= IMô'SO';
n = 125"^ 44"' 34';
^''''^ Ç =  O',000106;
dt
~=~26%09U33.
dt
The formulas [3935, 3936] give, for the secular variations of y and n,
depending on the square of the disturbing force,
ij= i.0',000184;
in = — ^.0',00763.
If we add the coefficients of t, in these equations, to those in the preceding
d y d TÏ.
values of — , — [4409], we obtain, for the complete values of these
quantities in 1750,
[4410]
rfrffi' 0',003315 „„ ^^^„ „ , . . ,. , ^ ddei^
[4406/"] we eet ,r77Tr = TTJ^^ — = — O',0000082b / . Substituting this value of — „, and
■' 4di'^ 40U 2dt~
d c'^
that of 7 [4405], in (:"■ [4404^], we get the first of the equations [4407]. The values
[440tigj ^^ ^,v^ gv^ ^v^ g,,g ]om;f „ ^i]g same manner, changing e" [4404«,4406e], successively,
into w", e", a", and using the values [4405,4406].
[4409a]
[44096]
[4409c]
* (2655) Tlie equations [4408] are similar to those in [4282o], adding four accents to
ç), è, cp', ê', to conform to the present case ; and changing tang.ç)"', tang. 9", into 9", ç",
respectively, on account of their smallness. In this case 7 [3739] represents the langent
of the inclination, or very nearly the inclination itself, of the orbit of Saturn to that of
Jupiter ; and n [3746], the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of Saturn upon
that of Jupiter. Substituting in [4408] the values of 9'% é'\ ç\ é, [4082, 4083], we
get 7, n [4409]. Tlien taking the differentials of [4408], and substituting the preceding
values of ç)*", è", kc. ; also those of do'", de'", df, do" [4246, 4247], we get the two
last equations [4409], by making a few reductions.
VI.xii.§33.] THEORY OF JUPITER. 285
'^ = 0',000078 •
(It
V=26',101764.
dt
We find, by the same process, in 1950,
 0',001487;
dy
~dt ~~
V^=— 26',402056.
dt
Hence we obtain, by the method in [3850 — 3853], for any time whatever t* inciininion
^ , and
y = y^t. O',000078 — t\ 0',000003913 ; [4413]
n = n— ^ . 26', 101 764 — t. 0',000750731. [4413]
longitude
The values of y, n, in the second memhers of these equations, correspond to n, of the
1 750. This being premised, we find in 2250, f ascending
niideofiho
a\P = — 0,0000801 89 ; '^;:^
[4414]
«'. F =—0,001006510; J.H,.„f
and in 2750,
a\ P = — 0,000260997 ;
«^P'=— 0,000954603
Jupiter.
[4415]
* (2656) If we change the symbols y, XI [4412], for the year 1950, into y^, IT,
respectively, and leave those in [4411], corresponding to the year 1750, without accents, we
shall have, as in [4406e],
^^ = jJ^ . $'^ Jf\^ ^"^ •^'" ^''001487  0',000078 =— 0S00000.3913 ; [4413a]
also,
'^''" =^a^.HlL'_— =^^^.f_26',402056 + 26',101764} = — 0',00075073.
2^,2 — tU ■ I jj — TT ( =î*t7 i— i=;o%4U2U5(j + '^b%1017b4 = — 0%00075073. [44136]
Substituting these and the values of [4411], in the general expressions of y, n [4404«],
namely,
we get [4413,4413']; observing that the values, in the second members, correspond to the
year 1750.
t (2657) The values of a\ P, a'. F', are given in [3842, 3843], in functions of
e", e", a'", ti\ y, n, &c. ; and their values in 1750, have already been given in [4402]. [4414a]
VOL. III. 72
286 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
Hence we deduce, by the method of [3850—3856],*
a\ ^= — 0,000000387666 ;
[4416]
a\ '^ = — 0,000000002145 ;
d t
a". ^= 0,000000000034734;
a\^= 0,000000000141280.
The part of 5v'\ given in [4023], is,t
[4417]
6v"
. „, , ^a'^'.dP 3a'^.ddP' ) \
( . rfP' , 2a"'.ddP ) , , „ . ddP'i /
Cm". ni*2
~(5,V2,i"f\ , 2a>''.dP' Sa'\ddP
a'\P
(5n^—2n>^).dt i5n^ — 2n"f.dt^ ^
^ cos.(57iH—2ii'H+5s^ 2;'")
(^ . dP 2a <.ddP ' ) , , 2 i,ddP\
. , ''( ' dt (ân'—2n").dV2S
G root * ^ ^ ' ^
iiidiuiility.
This becomes, by reduction to numbers,
[4418]
6î;'^=(1263%799671— t . 0',008418 — <2.0'.000019247) . sin. (5 ii''t — 2n"t {'5s'— 2 s")
4 ( 1 19%526S51 — t . 0%473686 + i^. 0,0000:8562) . cos.(5 n't — 2 n"t + 5 s^ — 2 s^').
The great inequality of Jupiter includes several other terms ; thus, it
contains, in [3844], the expression,!
To obtain a^.P, a\ P' in 2250 [4414] ^ we must put !!= 500, in [4407,4413,44131,
[44146] and substitute the corresponding values of e'", cj'^, Sic. in [3842, 3843]. In lilce manner,
by putting t = 1000, we get their vakies in 2750 [4415].
* (2658) The values of «^ P [4402,4414,4415], being substituted, respectively,
dP dP
[4416a] foj. p^ p^ Pi,,m [3856], give the values of n\, a\— [4416]. In like manner,
from a^.P' [4402, 4414,4415], we get the terms depending on the differentials of P' [4410].
t (2659) The formula [44 17], is the same as in [4023] , increasing the accents on the
[4418a] elements m, a, c, &c. m', a', e', fcc. by four, to conform to the case under consideration.
Substituting in [4417], the values [4402, 44 1 6] , it becomes as in [4418].
r4419al Î (2660) The expression [4419] includes the third and fourth lines of (5 «" [3844], the
accents being increased as in the last note.
VI. xii.§:33.]
fdP
6V"'= —
THEORY OF JUPITER. 287
n'V
7M<
To reduce it to numbers, we must calculate the values of a"". (^ ) ;
(hW
a". ( 4^ )? &;c. ; and we find,*
V da" J
\da'^\
a''^
/dAP'^'
\ '^ «" .
«"^
A?.W(3V
\ f'"'"
iC\
V ^
/f/7»/('>~
\ f^"'" ,
„v9
^«/./l/ra
= — 26,46390 . m^ ;
= 65,75870 . m" ;
= — 50,227 14. m'';
= 1 2, 14696. m";
= _ 6,75963. m^;
= 4,13173. m^
From these we deduce the values of a^. ( — ^ j, a'". ( ^^ )' ^^' ' ^^^"^''
are necessary in the theory of Saturn, by means of the general equation of
homogeneous functions [1001a],t
da'" J \ d a"
[4419]
[4420]
d /J/^'A /d 1/t'A
* (2661) The accents being increased as in [4418«], the formulas [3836 — 3841] give the
a'V (2) (3)
valuesof a^.W"', a'J)f"\ &c. in terms of a:= — , b,, 6 ,, &.c. and their differentials.
Taking the partial differentials of these expressions relative to a'", and substituting the values [44000]
(2) (3)
[42024211], we get [4420]. Observing that hp h^, &c. are functions of a [964]. and
if we represent any one of them by h, its partial differential, relative to n'^, will be,
/■ dh \ fdh\ / do.\ /db\ 1
t (2662) Tlie general values of M^''\ M''\ iW^^', M'^\ M^'', M<5>
[3836£/, 3337c, 3838A, 3840A, &ic.], are composed of functions of a'", a", of the forms,
288 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
Hence we find, in 1750,*
a"2. (if. V COS. (5 7iV — 2 n'^t + 5 £"— 2 e'")
— a"'~.f—A .sin. (5ft''< — 2?i'''<+5 6^— 2;")
[4422]
2 m". n'"
5 Ji"— 2 n'" ' ^ ■ „ /d P'\
[4423]
[4424]
[4425]
= — 1 7%228862 . sin. (5 n'' i— 2n'''< + 5£'— 2 ;'0
+ 5',36001 6 . COS. (5 if t — 2 n'' < + 5 s"— 2 r) ;
and in 1950, it becomes,
— 16',836801 . sin. (5 n" / — 2 n''^ + 5 e^— 2 s")
+ 6^449839 . cos. (5 n't — 2 n'"^ + 5 £"— 2 e").
Hence we obtain the following value of this function, for any time whatever t,
6 ?)'"=: — (17',228862 — /. 0',001960) . sin. (5 n't — 2 n'^t + b^—2 i")
+ (5',360016 +i.0',00o449).cos.(5n^7 — 2n"'i + 5s^ — 2 s"').
all of which are homogeneous, and of the order — 1, in a'^, a" [1001', 1007'] ; i
being any integral number. Hence the general value of JJi*'' is also homogeneous, and of
the degree — 1, in a", a''; and the formula [lOOlo], by changing A, a, a', m, into
M^", a'\ a", —1 becomes as in [4421].
* (2663) The values of m^n" P, m" a" P', are found as in [4402n], by increasing
[4422a] tbe accents of the elements in [3842, 3843] by ybwr. Taking the partial differentials of
these expressions, relative to a'", we obtain the values of,
[44225] ™'«^C^)' ^"63'
expressed in functions of a'^, e'", &c a^, e", &ic. and of the terms [4420]. Substituting
these in [4419, or 4422], we get [4423], corresponding to the year 1750. Repeating this
calculation, with elements computed for the epoch 1950, it becomes as in [4424] ; observing
that the functions [4420], must also be computed and taken for the year 1950. Comparing
the numerical coefficients of the terms [4423,4424], we find the increments, in 200 years,
to be respectively represented by,
— 16',8.36801 + 17^228S62=:0^392061,
[4422i] and
G^449839 — 5,360016 = l',089823.
Dividing these by 200, we get the annual increments, or the coefficients of t, as in the general
expression of '5 1''' [4425].
VI.xii.§33.]
THEORY OF JUPITER.
289
The great inequality of Jupiter [3844] contains also the term,*
ôv''' = — h He", sin. (on" t — 2 n"t{ 5 1" — 2 s'^—zs^" + A);
which, in 1750, is equal to,
0^820290 . sin. (5 1^1—2 n" t + 5 b"— 2 i'")
— 1%837963 . cos.(5 n't— 2 n" t + 5s'' — 2 s'") ;
and in 1950, is,
0%701624 . sin. (bn''t — 2 n" t + 5i'—2 é")
— r, 840958 . cos. (5 n't — 2 71" t + 5 s^— 2 e").
Hence we find, that for any time whatever t, this term is represented by,
6 v''= (0',820290 — t . 0',000593) . sin. (5 n't — 2 n'" i + 5 s^— 2 £'')
— (1 ,837963 + t . 0^000015) . cos. (5 n'^t — 2 rrt + 5 e^— 2 s'').
To determine the part of the great inequality of Jupiter, depending on the
products of five dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits,
we have computed, by the formulas [3860—3860'^], the values of iV*"', N^^\
&c. for the tAvo epochs 1750 and 1950, and have found.
In 1750.
a\iV('"= 0,00000135044
fl\iVW= 0,00000789719
a\ iV'=' = — 0,0000198552
a\iV(3)= 0,0000175127
a\ iVH) = — 0,0000066540
a\ iV<^) = 0,0000009277
a\N^'^= 0,0000003618
a\ iV<'' ^ 0,0000003643
a\ A^<«' = — 0,0000001720
a\ iV'^' = 0,0000000730.
In 1950.
a\ iV<°' = 0,00000129983
fl^7V(')=:3 0,00000754771
a\ iV<"~) = — 0,0000196012
«\iV'="= 0,0000172415
a\ iV'" = — 0,0000066551
a\ N''^ = 0,0000009408
a\ N''^ = 0,0000003562
a\ iV'" = 0,0000003460
«v,jV(S) ^ — 0,0000001712
[4426]
14427]
[4428]
[4429]
Terms of
the fifth
order on
e, e', 7.
[4430]
a\ iVW
0,0000000732.
* (2664) The term [4426] is the same as that depending on — /Je [3844], accenting
the symbols as in [4402a] . In this case H denotes the coefficient of,
73
VOL. III.
[4431]
290 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
By means of these values* we have computed the corresponding inequality in
[4430] Saturn, in [4487]. Multiplying it by the factor —~?~r, we obtain the
following inequality of Jupiter,t
6 1,'" = _ (1 2',536393 — t . 0^001 755) . sin. (5 Ji'f — 2 n'" i + 5 £" — 2 s")
+ (8',120963 + t . 0,004885) . cos.(5 ift — 2n'''t + 5 £>— 2 s").
Lastly, we have computed, by the method in [4003], that part of the great
inequality of Saturn, which depends on the square of the disturbing force,
[4431] ^j^ij jj^ q£ ^ sensible magnitude. Then we have deduced from it the
corresponding inequality of Jupiter, by multiplying it by 177^ ! which
gives, for this last inequality, the following expression,^
[4426a] COS. {5n't—3nt\5s'—3s\ A),
in the expression [3814], corresponding to Jupiter. Computing the value of —  He", for
[44266] jj^g ygj^j.g j^j5Q^ jggQ^ ^ jjj [4427,4428], we obtain its annual increment, and the general
value [4429].
* (2665) The signs of all the terms in [4430, 4431], are different in the original work ;
[4430a] ^^g j^^yg clianged them, iii order to correct the mistake in the signs mentioned in
[3860«].
t (2666) Changing, in [1208], ,g, <^', into iv", ôv^, which represent, respectively, the
corresponding parts of the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, we get, by using
the notation of [4402«],
[44306] 5«=_^'^.5v
[4430c] Substituting in this, the values w", m", a'', a^ r5 «" [4077, 4079,4487], we get [4431].
[4431o]
X (2667) We have already mentioned in [4006^ — 4007rt] the difficulties which occurred
in computing this part of the great inequality of Jupiter, and liave also observed, that the
numbers given by the author, in [4432], are inaccurate ; the chief coefficient having a wrong
sign, as Mr. Pontécoulant found by computing the most important terms, depending on the
[44316] arguments contained in the table [4006m], numbered from 1 to 10, and from 1' to 10'.
The parts of êv", corresponding to these terms, are given in [4431/], from the abstract,
printed by Mr. Pontécoulant, in the Connaissance des Terns, for 1833 ; using, for brevity, the
^^^^^'^ symbol T5 = 5 ift — 2 n'H + 5 s' — 2 i" [3890J] . The first line of the function [443 1/]
[4431rf] ig produced by the term 3 ci^ff. {ndt.dll ./d 7?) [5844] ; the other lines arise from the
products of the quantities in the table [4006m], marked with the numbers on the same lines
Vl.xii. ^^33.]
THEORY OF JUPITER.
( ]%6U663 — t . 0%00'l68S) . sm. (5 n't — 271'" t \ 5 e^ — 21''')
— (18',461954+ i.0',001515) . cos.(5 if t — 2 n"t + 5 B''—2r).
291
[4432]
respectively. The sum of all these terms is given in [4431^] ; and it differs essentially from
that of La Place, in [4432] ; particularly in the term depending on cos. 1\ , which has a
difl^rent sign, though it is nearly of t)ie same numerical value ; an error in the sign having
been discovered in the original minutes of the numerical calculation of La Place.
5 u" = + 0',02489 . sin. T,, f 0',002G6 . cos. T5
1 + 0',08628 . sin. Tj — 0%01857 . cos. T5
1' — 2',00454 . sin. T^ + 0%4375 . cos. T^
2 + 0',07587 . sin. T5 + (y.OSlQT . cos. T^
2' + 0',39242 . sin. Tr, + 0,22555 . cos. 7^
3 + 0%28829 . sin. T5 + 0',19273 . cos. T5
3' — 0%71831 . sin. 7^ — r,5S65S . cos. T^
4 _ 0',14619 . sin. Tg — 0^09422 . cos. Tg
5 — 0%76290 . sin. T5 + 0',7529 . cos. Tj
6, 6' + 2%16304 . sin. T5 +16',97139 . cos. T^
7, i = 2, + 6',G2968 . sin. T5 — 0%80829 . cos. Tg
7, t == 1 , — 2,49438 . sin. T5 — 0,92192 . cos. Tg
8, i = 2, + 0',22613 . sin. Tg — 0^53472 . cos. Tg
= 3',76028 . sin. Tg +14'',72286. cos. ïg .
In computing these numbers, the mass of Saturn is supposed to be, as in [4061 J], equal to
WbT^ ■> instead of t^tî^jï) used by I^a Place [4061]. To compare them with La Place's
calculation [4432], given below, in [4431it], we must increase the coefficients [4431^], in
the ratio of 3512 to 3359,4 ; by which means they will become as in [4431iJ ; the terms
depending on t, t^, being neglected ;
5 V" = 3',93109 . sin. Tg + 15',39164 . cos. Tg ;
ôv"= p,64166 . sin. 7'g— 18',46195 . cos. Tg .
The difl'erence of the two expressions [443h', ^], which we shall denote by C'", is a
correction, to be applied to the formula [4433 or 4434] ; and we shall have,
C =3 2',2S943 . sin. Tg + 3.3',85359 . cos. Tg.
We may remark, that the number of terms of the forms 7 to 10, and 7' to 10', [4006m],
is infinite ; but it is only necessary to notice a few of them, in which S r, 5 v, â r', or ô v',
have sensible values. Moreover, the terms depending on ô i, were not computed by Mr.
Pontécoulant,when he published the above results. The effects of the correction C" [4431/],
of the terms depending on S s, and of other quantities of a similar nature, are taken into
consideration in book x. chap. viii. [9037, &ic.] ; where the final results of all these
calculations, relative to the inequalities of the motions of Jupiter and Saturn, are given.
[4431e]
Terms of
the order
of the
square of
the dia~
tuibin^
forces.
[4431/]
[443%]
[4431A]
[4431 i]
[443U]
CorrectioH
of ihe
g:reat ine
quality.
[4431J]
[4431m]
[4431n]
[4431o]
[4431;?]
[4431g]
292 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
Now, if we connect the several parts of the great inequality of Jupiter, we
shall obtain, for its complete value,*
r (126P,569155— ^0',013495— /3.0',0000I9247).sin.(5w^<— 2n'i'+5£^— 2si')
[4433] (1+1^^).)+ (9G',466088— t0%474651+^2.0.00007S564).cos.(5«^<— 2«'7+5e>— 2£'^)J
C+ function C" [4431/] } 2 5 v'" [4431]
If we reduce these to one single term, by the method in [4024 — 4027"], we
«'"'",. shall obtain, for 5 v", the following expression,
inequality. ' ' o 1 '
\(1265',251781<.0',037090+i0',000036669).sin. ]/
[4434] (l+,^^)r ' ' T J V<.77»,653 + r2.0',013581 A.
(+ function C'" [4431/] +2.5 î;'" [4431] )
This inequality may require some correction, on account of the coefficient i^",
depending on the value of the mass of Saturn ; and also on account of the
[4434] slight imperfection in the assumed value of the divisor (on' — 2n)^; a long
series of observations will remove this small source of error. We must apply
this great inequality to Jupiter'' s mean motion, as we have seen in [4006"].
The square of the disturbing force produces also, in 6 v'", the inequality
[3890],
[4435] (5 1)'' = ^ . ^ . sm. (double argument oi the great inequality) ;
which, in numbers, is,
[4436] &v" = — 13",238897 .sin. (double argument of the great inequality) ;
ive must also apply the inequality of a long period to the mean motion of
Jupiter.
The inequality [3921],
[4437] 6v= 1 . ^•^"'"^""+^^^^"^^ffJr.sin.(5>r/10»/ + 53'10si?2),
reduced to numbers, becomes,
[4438] 6 If" = _ 4',024751 . sin. (5 n'" t —10 nt + 5 £"—10 s^' + 51" 21'" .55').
[4433a]
* (2668) The expression [4433], is the sum of the terms contained in the functions
[4418,4425,4429,4431,4432] multiplied by (1+ l^''') Then, by computing this expression
for the times, t = 500, and t = 1000, we may reduce the whole to one term, as in
[4434], by the method explained in [4024—4027"].
VI.xii.>^33.] THEORY OF JUPITER. 293
We have also, in [3844], the inequality,*
6 v'" = ^ . Ke'\ sin. {5 n't — 4> n'" t + 5 i" — 4> s" + z^'" J^ B) ; [4439]
and by reducing it to numbers, it becomes,
&v" = 10',084660.sin.(4n'^i: — 5n^^ + 4s'^ — 5 £^ + 45''21"'440 ; [4440]
if we connect this Avith the two inequalities [4392], f
P,097613 . sin. (5n'i— 4?i'^'/ + 5 s"— 4 s" — z^")
— 2',781664.sin. (5 n't — 4> n'" t ^ 5 1" — 4> s" — z^" ) ;
we obtain the single equivalent expression,
6v" = (l + t^") .1 P,506 190 . sin. (4 n'" t — 5 n" t + 4> s"— 5 6"+ OS'' 00™ 36^). [4442]
We have seen, in [3773], that the expression of d.iv'" contains a secular
inequality, depending on the equation,
[4441]
[4439a]
* (2669) The inequality [4439], is the same as the last of [3344], augmenting the
accents of e, n, n', Sic. to conform to the present example. The term K, which occurs
intliis expression is, by [3824 — 3826], equal to the constant term of the coefficient of the
part of [4394]. depending on the angle 3 n'^t — 5 ?i'' t ; or rather on the angle ôtVt — 3n"'t.
This part being nearly equal to
— 1 69^265895 . sin. (5 n" t — 3 n'^'t + 5 1"— 3 s'^— 55''40"' 49^. [44394]
If we compare this with [3826], putting i=5, we get,
Z = — 169%265895; i? = — 55M0™ 49"' ; [4439c]
and by [4081], ra"'= 10'' 21'" 4' ; hence,
•TO" \B=—45''l 9'" 4.5^ ; [4439(/]
and [4439] becomes,
^.Ke'\sm.{5n't — 4 71'" t { 5 b" — 4 e'" —45'' 19™ 45')
= — f . Z é\ sin. (4 n'^t — 5 n" t \ A t"— 5 s" + 45" 19" 45").
Substituting in this, the value of K [4439c], and that of c" [4080], it becomes neai'ly as
in [4440].
t (2670) These mequalities are found in the ninth and tenth lines of [4392], with a
slight and unimportant variation in the first coefficient. These terms [4441] may be [4440a]
connected with [4440], and reduced to one term, of the form [4442], by the method given
in [4282A— Z].
VOL. III. 74
[4439e]
294 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
d.dv'" m".»'^
dt 8
Hence we deduce,*
[4444] ^^"'= — 23%9441 . e''=^— 27%7951 . e'=^ + 42^,9296 . é\ e\ cos. (^— ^").
[4444'] ^^ ''^^^Z neglect the constant part of the second member of this equation,
which is confounded ivith the mean motion of Jupiter, and then we shall have,t
* (2671) We have, as in [.3756a, è],
2 2 2 2 2 2
[4443a] h'" + l'" = e"' , A" j P = e" , li" h" + t' />' = e'" e" . cos. (to^— to'' ).
Substituting these in [4443] ; also the values of .^"", A'^\ and their differentials, in
terms of Oj, and its differentials [996 — 1001]; then the values of these quantities
[4202, Sic] ; we finally get the expression [4444] .
f (2672) We shall put E for the general expression of the second member of [4444],
corresponding to any value whatever of t, and E for its value when ^ ^ ; then substituting
the values é", e", a'", n' [4407], we shall obtain,
[4445a] ^#' = ^ = E + ^^+^° [4444,4445a].
Multiplying this by d t, and integrating, supposing Sv'" = when t = 0, we get,
[44456] 6v^''= Et + ^. — .t^ + kxi.
of which the first term Et, may be neglected, being confounded with the mean motion of
Jupiter ; then we have, by neglecting t^, t'^, &c.
s iv 1 ''^ v2 d.Sv'" dE . ^.....
[4445c] èv'^ = i..f, or ^ = — .t, as m [4445].
The coefficient of t, in the second member of this last expression, represents the differential
of the second member of [4444] , divided by d t, corresponding to the time of the epoch
1750. Substituting in it the values [4405], and dividing by the radius in seconds 206265^,
we get,
d.Sv'v
[4445d] —7^ = — 0',0000013 . i, nearly.
This equation being multiplied by d t, and integrated, gives [4446] ; no constant quantity
being added, because it is supposed to vanish when t = 0.
VI.xii.<^33.] THEORY OF JUPITER. 295
il^^ _ 03= 9441 .t.2 e'\ — — 27^7951 . < . 2 e". ^
dt (It dt
[4445]
+ 42^9296.ï.5(e. ^ +c\ ^).cos.(ra— ^"O— e'^e^'^^^ ^'.sin.(«^— ^»)^.
Substituting for ^ , '^, ^"^ '^\ their values, given in [4405], and
integrating, we obtain,
^v' =—t~. 0',00000065. [4446]
This inequality is insensible in the interval of ten or tivehe hundred years,
and even as it respects the most ancient observations that have been handed [4446']
down to us ; therefore we may neglect it.
It now remains to consider the radius vector of Jupiter. We have found,
in [3845], that the terms depending on the powers and products of the
third degree of the excentricities, add, to the expression of this radius, the
quantity,*
i , = — H a'\ é\ COS. (5 n" ^ — 2 n''' i + 5 s' — 2 è^— ^''+ A)
+ Hà\ é\ COS. (4 «'''i — 5 n" Ï + 4 a— 5 s' — ^'"—A) ^^447]
^ Correc
,4m\n.a2r p .sin. (5 w'i — 2 7ii^<+5a'— 2 6) ) 'A°dius'""
\ . < ■ > r • vector.
5,iv_2„.v ^_[_p'.cos. (Sn^i— 2n'''<+5 6''— 2s"')!)
Reducing this function to numbers, we obtain,
(— 0,0003042733. cos.(5n'i—2n"'^+5s'— 2s'''— 12''08'"490)
6r'^=(l + f^').< >• [4448]
( + 0,0001001 860. cos.(4/î''i—5?i'ï+4si'— 5s' + 45n6"'470 ^
If we connect this expression with the terms computed in [4393],
i,_ J 0,0000268383. cos.(5n'< — 4w"'i + 5E'—4ê''—ra''')?
àr —{^ '^^'l — 0,0000516048. cos.(5r^ — 4n'7 + 5s' — 45'"^')^' ^'^'^^^^
* (267.3) The expression [4447] is composed of the three last terms of [3845], increasing
the accents as in [4383a]. The value of H is as in [4426a] ; those of P, P', as in
[4402] ; the other elements are given in [4061, 4077, 4079,4080] ; hence the expression [4447a]
[4447] becomes as in [4448]. Connecting this with the two terms of or", given in
[4393 or 4449], and reducing by the method [4282A— Z], we obtain [4450].
296 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
we obtain the following result,
[4450] à r"= (1 + f^O • 0,0000983161 . cos. (4 n'^t — 5 n't + 4, £'^— 5 s— 14''23'" 19').
The semimajor axis a'", which we have used in calculating the elliptical part
[4450] of the radius vector, must be augmented by the quantity ^o'". m'" [4058].
Adding this to the expression of a'" [4079], we obtain,
[4451] a'" = 5,20279108.
Inequalities of Jupiterh motion in latitude.
34. It follows, from [3931,3931'], that the terms depending on the
square of the disturbing force, add to the values of —  , — — , the following
quantities,*
* (2674) In deducing the differentials of 5 9, 5 è, Uc. from [.3931—3932'], in order
[4452a] jQ f5^(i jjjg increments to be applied to the values of tt^ "tt") ^c. [4246, &tc.], we may
consider 5y, II, J <p, 5 ë, to be the only variable quantities ; or, in other words, we may
neglect the variations of n, è, ç, y, on account of their smallness. For the expressions
of 5 7, i5 n [393.5,3936], which are independent of the periodical angles, are of the order
[4452!)] m'~; consequently their differential coefficients 77") , are of the ««me order, and
are therefore much greater than the terms arising from the variations of the angles n — ê,
in the differentials of the expressions [3931 — 3932'] ; because these last terms depend on the
[4452c] products ^7jt^ ^'^'Jt' ^c. which are evidently of the order m'^ ; since ^, — ,
[4411] are of the order m'. Hence the differentials of [3931,3931'] become, by dividing
by fl t, and increasing the accents, as in [4388o] ;
* — : ^ ^ .]—r^ .cos. (n — è") — y.—, — .sm.fn — ô'")} ;
[4452e]
[4452/]
dt
p. — ; — = : — — ^ — . } ' . sm. (n — ô'>) + 7.— • .cos.fn — Ô")}.
^ dt j«'^ y/a"' + '"'Va" i dt ^ ' ^ ' dt ^ '5
Now, from [4410], we have.
[4452g] 1^ = O',000184 = ^ ; ^' = _ 0^00T631 = '^ ;
substitutmg these, in [4452e,/ J, we get, — — — , — —  , which are changed mto j,
U Z (I t lit
[4452;»] 1^", in [4452,4453]; and by using [4452^], also the values of y, n [4409], m'\ m\
VI.xU.§34.] THEORY OF JUPITER. 297
^'= — 0%078213
dt
— 0',223251
dt
de"
— = 6',457092
dt '
dt
Then we find, by means of the formula [42956]
[4452]
dt ~ ;H''Va"fm''.v/«'' l^ ' t ^ )
^ =  "'^"" .$i2'.sm.(n_r) + ,.i^.cos.(nr)^ [4453]
6 J, en, beuig comiKited by the formulas [3931,3931']. Reduchig these
functions to numbers, we obtain,
ifL =_0',000073; [4454]
dt
^= 0,000811.  [4*5^1
dt
d(f"' d(f>y
The first of these expressions must be added to the values ot — , j^
[4246], and the second to the values of j^, '^ [4246] ; hence we
obtain,
dtpi
[4456]
a'", a", ê" [4061,4079,4083], they become as in [4454,4455]. Adding the expression
[4454] to the first terms of — and y [4246], we get their values [4456] ; also [445ai]
do" rfd'"
addmg [4455] to the first terms of — — and ~ [4246], we obtain the
correspondmg values [4456].
* (2675) Tlie terms of us'"' [4457], are deduced from those in [4295&], by adding
three accents to the symbols m", n', n", /, î", a', a", in order to conform to the case ,..._,
•' ) J J 3 ; : 3 r4457nl
now under consideration. 7, IT, are as in [4409]. The values of 5<'~'^= — . „
[1006], are given in [4210,4079].
VOL. III. 75
298 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
/ ,564458 .sin. (n" ^ + s" — rr)
\ + 0',663927 . sin. (2 fi't — n'"t + 2 s" — s — n'")
[4457] 6 5'"= (1 +^^).j V,\l97S2.sm.(3n''t — 2 n"t + 3s— 2 ^^ — n")^^;
— 0',279382 . sin. (4 n't — 3 n'H + 4 s' — 3 .'^ — n'^)
— 0',269130 . sin. (2 n't — ift + 2 s'' — s'— n'^)
n'', in this formula, being the longitude of the ascending node of Saturn's
[4457'] Q^}j{t iipon that of Jupiter [42956 — c]. Lastly, we have, in [3885], the
inequality,*
[4458] 6 s'" = 3',941 680 . sin. (3 n'^t — 5 Ji' ^ + 3 i" — 5 s'' + 59'' 30» 35').
Inequali
ties ill the
latitude.
* (2676) The quantity [4458], is deduced from [3885], reducing both terms to one, as
[4458a] in4282A/].
Before concluding the notes on this chapter, we may remark, that the inequalities of the
motions of Jupiter and Saturn, computed in tliis book, are corrected by the author in
[5974,&ic.], and afterwards more thoroughly, in book x. chap. viii. [9037,&ic.] ; where he has
decreased the assumed value of the mass of Saturn [4061]. He has also computed several
[4458 ] ^^^jj inequalities, which had not been previously noticed, and has given new forms to some of
the arguments. Finally, the subject of these inequalities has been treated in a wholly different
manner, withafrequentuseof definite integrals, by Professor Hansen, Director of the Observatory
. g , at Seeberg, in a memoir, entitled, " Untersuchung ueber die gegenseitigen Storungen des
Jiipiters und Saturnsf which gained, in 1830, the prize of the Royal Academy of Sciences,
of Berlin, relative to the inequalities of these two planets. In this method, the true longitude
is computed by means of the elements corresponding to the invariable ellipsis at the time of the
[4458rf] epoch ; taking instead of t, a function of t, which corrects for the perturbations. As the
inequalities of Jupiter's motion had not been completed by Professor Hansen, when he
[4458c] published this memoir, we may have occasion to refer to it more particularly, after the
completion of his work.
Vl.xiii. §35.]
THEORY OF SATURN
299
CHAPTER XIII.
THEORY OF SATURN.
35. The equation [4386],
r
corresponding to Jupiter, becomes for Saturn,
If we take for r", and r\ the mean distances of the earth and Saturn from
the sun [4079], and suppose 6 V' = ± 1" = ± 0',324, we shall find,
6? = ±0,000141326.
Therefore we may neglect the inequalities of àr", below =F 0,000141.
We shall also neglect the inequalities of Saturn, in longitude and latitude,
which are less than a quarter of a centesimal second, or 0%081*
Inequalities of Saturn, independent of the excentricilies*
,+ 3%156532.sin. (w''i — n"i + s'" — £
— 3r,493729 . sin. 2(«"i — 71" t + i'" — ='
— 6',56593 \ . ûn.S{n"' t — n' t + b" — i
 1%965748 . sin. 4(/i'''i — n^t + i" — î
ii)'==(l + (.''). ^ _ 0',697047 . sin. 5(n'^^ — n^i + £" — s'
— 0,270789 . sin. 6 {n}" t — n't\ s''' — s
— 0, 1 1 6291 . sin. 7 (ir t — n't + £*' — s
— 0',056126 . sin. 8(n"'t — nH + i" — s"
K— 0%034097 . sin. 9 (n'^i — n't + s'" — ="
[4459]
[4460]
[4461]
Terms
which
may be
neglected.
[4462]
Inequali
ties inde
pendent of
the ex
cent rioi
ties.
[4463]
* (2677) These are computed as in [4277a — 0], increasing the accents on a, n, rt, hx,.
so as to conform to the present case.
[4463a]
300
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4463]
+ (l+f^^')
InequftTi
ties inde
pendent of
the excen
tficities.
ir'=(l+f^")
[4464]
+ (l+f^'')
+ 9',248269 . sin. (n^H —n't + i"' — s^)
—14^451913 . sin. 2(ri'H — n''t + s — s")
— l',427160 . sin. 3(»'" t — n''t + s"' — s^)
— ,314960 . sin. A^Çn^'t — n" t { b"' — s")
— 0',090690 . sin. 5 (n^'t — n" t + s^
— 0%047444 . sin. 6 (n"' t — n't + t"
— 0',010686 . sin. 7(/j''7 — n't + i"
— 0%003942 . sin. S (if 't— n't + i"
' + 0,0039077763
+ 0,0081638400. cos. (n''i — rC / + e'^— ^\
+ 0,0013838330. cos. 2 {n"t — TCt\ e'^— e'
1 + 0,0003200673 . cos. 3 {iVt — n't + £'"— £^
'+ 0,0000992632. COS. 4 (n''ï — n"ï + £'" — £^'
+ 0,0000355919. COS. 5 (m'"^ — m^ï + e'^—£^
I + 0,0000135999 .COS. 6 (w'^/ — «"^ + f'^ — £'
+ 0,0000( f55 1 35 . COS. 7 {n'" t — ')ft+ e'" — £\
+ 0,0000021631 .COS. 8(?r^ — Jt^^ + E'"— e"
+ 0,0000006436 . cos. 9 (n" t—7ft^ e"_ =
'—0,0000137622
+ 0,0001491217. cos. (71" t — 7^ t + i" — i'''
 0,00039499 1 6 . cos. 2 (n' f — »r' i + £" — e'
' — 0,0000480303 . cos. 3 {7f 1 — 7^1+^''— e' '
 0,00001 1 8201 . cos. 4 («^ Ï — n^ 7 + £"— £"'
— 0,0000036280 . cos. 5 {if t — »" t + s^— e^
— 0,0000012501 . cos. 6 {7ft — n'H + e^ — s^
Inequalities dependiTig 07i the first poiver of the excentricities*
We shall here notice the secular variations in the coefficients of those
[4465] inequalities of Saturn, Avhich exceed 1 00", or 32',4 ; in the same manner
as we have done for Jupiter, in [4389']. Hence we have,
[4466a]
* (2678) The inequalities depending on tlie first power of the excentricities, are
computed in the same manner as for Jupiter [4390a, &c.].
VI.xiii.§35.]
THEORY OF SATURN.
301
èv"^ (l + f^'").
+ (l+f^'")
— ir,509517 . sin. (trt + i' — z^)
+ r,258041 . sin. (rrt + s'" — tz'")
— 2',064438 . sin. (2 n'7 — n't \2 i"— s — a"
+ 2^,672881 . sin. (2 7rt — «"i + 2 e"— s" — ^i'
— 0^292291 . sin. (3 n"t — 27ft +3 s"— 2 =' — in^
— 0',223191 . sin. (3 »"< _ 2 ?i'^ + 3 s"— 2 6"— ^'
— 0%090633 . sin. (4 7rt — 3 n^i + 4 s'^— 3 1" — .3*
— (1 82%068686 — Ï. 0S0101095) . shi/_^^^^J^^l,
+ (41 7',057741 + 1 . 0^0] 38572). sin. (_^Z^_~.!!^l;}j
+ (34',341627 — ^0^0019068).sin.
Sn''t — 27i"t
_^3sV_2çiv_,v
VOL. III.
— 17',654164 . sin. (3 n^i — 2 ?»"< + 3 s" — 2a" — ^^'^
+ 4',795080 . sin. (4 «"i — 3 ?^'^i + 4 s' — 3 s'" — k''
■ 2%43541 . sin. (4 rt'' i — 3 n'" i + 4 s" — 3 s" — ^'^
+ r,393612 . sin. (5 7ft—^n"t + 5 £"—4 s'^'—z^^
— 0,703450 . sin. (5 ift — 4 n'H + 5 s^— 4 s'' — ra'"
+ 0S537161 . sin. (6 71" t — 5 n'" t J^ 6 s" — 5 s'" — z>'
— 0,25651 . sin. (6 'ïû' t — 5 n'" i + 6 a" — 5 s'" — ^'^
+ 0V2] 6195 . sin. (7 n't — 6 n'^ t+l^' — Q s'^ — ^^
— 0', 1 07342 . sin. {l7i't — & ir t + 1 1'—G s'" — sj"
,+ l',142398 . sin. (7tH + a" — tn^)
— P,01 1647 . sin. {ifH + s^^ _ ^")
—10^033866 . sin. (2 n" t — 7i''t + 2 s"' — s^ — z,^ )
+ 2%766173 . sin. (2 >t^7 — Ji'i + 2 s^' — s'' — t^^i^
16^936280 . sin. (3 71'' t — 2 7^1 + 3 s"' _ 2 5'— :3^
+ 25', 153348 . sin. (3 w^'i — 2 n^i+ 3 s" — 2 «'— «"
+ 0',559336 . sin. (4 rf't — 3 n"^ + 4 h"' — 3 s' — ^^
' — 0',758225 . sin. (4 n^'t — 3 7ft ^4, s"' — 3 £"— ^3^'
— 0, 1 87729 . sin. (5 n'H — 4 n^' ^ + 5 s'' — 4 s' —
— 0',673817. sin. (2n^i— «^■742?'— «''—
+ r,521577 .sin. (3?i^^ — 2?i'''^ + 3s^ — 2e'"—
+ 0^ 151 701 .sin. (4?r^ — 3 «"'^ + 4«* — 3 £"—
76
Inequali
ties de
pending on
Ihe first
power of
iheexcen
tricities
[4466]
302 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
/— 0,0003422170 . cos. (n'i + £^ — ^n'")
I — 0,0020775935 . cos. (2 ?ft~ n'H + 2 s"— e_ w" )
. /I, i„s )+ 0,0053861750. COS. r2?rï — n'7 + 2 s^—s"—^")
(5r ==( 1+ fji'^). / \ i /
j+0,0011594872.cos. (3n^i — 2n'7 43E''— 2.'"— ^'')j
[4467] j —0,0006217670 . cos. (3 n^ i — 2 n'^i + 35" — 2 £'"— ra'^)
\+ 0,00021 17893 . cos. (4 7iU — 3 n'H + 45"— 3 s"— ^^^ ) ,
+ n+ ) ^— 0,0003750767. cos. (3 r'i — 2 ?i'ï + 3£^'— 2 s^—^^)>
(+ 0,0005605490. COS. (3 n'V — 2 H' i + 3 s^'— 2e'' — ^") ^ *
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricities and
inclinations of the orbits*
i"'n°'; / /k;,. o '.noon , n. rvno^oN • /3 n^t — n'" t + 3 s" — s''
^nS'" / (54^847829_^.0^00362).sln.f 84^36"'45^^.34',55
order. 1 ^ ' '
^_ i )+ 28',526709.sin.(«'''ï — n''^ + E'''£^ + 84''16'"430
'(669%682372i.0%015469).sin.^_j"5'g,j5!!5f_^^_4g.r5
,,,^^, , — 2,935793.siii.(5n'^ — 3«"Ï+5e^— 33— 57''O9'"O80
[4468] > ' V
( + 1 •■,923552 . sin. (3 n^'t — Sn't + S s" — 3 s^— 67" 54'"43') )
^^ ^ ^43^,025379. sin. (3 n"<— n"^ + 3£''— s'— 85''34'"120 )
If we connect the inequalities depending on n'^t — n^t; also those on
[4468'] Sn^'t — Sn^t, with the corresponding terms which are independent of the
excentricities [4463], we shall obtain for their sum, the following expression,
[4469]
[4470]
6r^= + (1 + ij.'^) . 28',967123 . sin. (n'U — n't + s'"— g^f 78''03'"130
— (1 + f^'O . 1 ',9 16292 . sin. (3 n^' t — Qn't + S s"— 3 ï>+68''27'"07').
Then we have,t
'—0,0011710805. cos. (3 n^ï — n'''^f3i^ — £''—90''I2'"350
^,.v^(l^^ivj 10,0005621 901. COS. ( n'H — n't+ £i''_sv_83''26'"330 (.
+(0,0151990624 1 . 0,0000003370) .cos. (^"5J.;^^:'3;3+^^/'^^^
[4468o] * (2679) Computed as in [4394«, Sic], for Jupiter.
[4470(1] t (2680) Tliis computation is made as in [4394c/] .
VI.xiii.§35.] THEORY OF SATURN. 303
The inequality of the radius vector, depending on the angle li'^t — rft,
being connected with the similar term in [4464], which is independent of the ^ ^
excentricities, becomes,
f^r" ^ (l + i^'O . 0,0081090035.cos.(/r^ — n'^i + s— e"— 3''57™35'). [4471]
Since 5 n" — 2 n" is very small, we have computed the inequality depending
on 2»'''^ — ^n't, by the formulas [3714, 3715]. Moreover, as Sn^' — n"
is very small, we have computed the inequality depending on the angle [44721
on^'t — M'7, by the formulas [3711,3718]. For greater accuracy, ive
must apply this last inequality to the mean motion of Saturn, on account of the
length of its period.
Inequalities depending on the poicers and products of three and Jive
dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits,
and on the square of the disturhing force.
The most considerable part of the great inequality of Saturn, is that which
has (5 n' — 2 n")', for a divisor, and depends on P, and P'. It is derived [4472]
from the great inequality of Jupiter, by multiplying it by — v ' wa' iv ? "^ [4473]
conformity with the formulas [3844,3846].* Hence we get, for this part of
the inequality of Saturn, the following expression,
è v'= — i 2957^357566 — t . 0',01 9701 — A 0^00004505 1 . sin.(5 nU—2 n"t45 e^— 2 s")
' [44741
— 279%746590— / . P,1086.38 + î!2.0',00018387.cos.(5w"<— 2m"Y+5ev_26'^).
* (2681) If we represent, for brevity, the terms between the braces in the two first
lines of [3844], by aP^, we shall find, by inspection, that the two fiist lines of [3846],
between the braces, are equal to a' Pg ; and by noticing only those terms of 5 r, ô v, which [4472a]
have the small divisor (5 n' — 2 n)^, we shall get, by increasing the accents so as to confonTi
to the case now under consideration,
, . 6jn».n''2 15m'"'. ny^ „, r^^~oi.i
ôv'^ = — ^^.a'v.p ; . 5v''= ——.a\Pl. [44/26]
(5 7i>— 2 n")2  (5nv— 2n'^)2 ^
Hence it is evident that (> v" is easily deduced fiom 5 v", by multiplying this last quantity
by the factor [4473] ; so that we shall have,
15 m'^.n"^. a" , .
^v'=— .^„ „„ ^v"' [4472c]
as in the terms of the fifth dimension of the excentricities [3868a — cj.
304 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
inec.uaii The great inequality of Saturn is composed of several other parts: it
S. contains, in [3846] , the function,*
_j_av2 _/ — N COS. (5 rCt — 27V''t 4 3 i" — 2 £'")
[4475] 6V'' = — ^^:;nn^ • <
 a" 2 . f — j . sin. (5 71' < — 2 n'" < + 5 £» — 2 s'^)
[4476]
[4477]
[4478]
[4480]
[4481]
5?i' — 2 7t"
Reducing this quantity to numbers, we find in 1750,
6 v''= + 52%l3n99l. COS. (5 n't — 2 n"t + ôs"— 2£'0
— 1 P,275407 . sin. {brCt—2 1^ i + .5 s^ — 2 i") ;
and in 1950,
6 v^ = + 51Sl 92839 . sin. {5rC t — 2n"t + bs''—^ s'")
— 14^982033 . cos. (5 n^i — 2 n"t + 5 ='— 2 s").
Hence we deduce the value of this function for any time whatever t,
6 v' = + (52^138991 — t . 0%0047308) . sin. (5 7^1 — 2 n'^t + 5 £"— 2 ;'")
— (11%275407 + ^. 0',01 85331) .cos. (5 n't — 2 7i"t + ôs'—2B").
The great inequality of Saturn contains also, in [3846], the term,
[4479] 5 w^ = — 4 //' e" . sin. ( 5n''ï — 2 n'^ i + 5 £" — 2 e'"— ^» + A').
This term, in 1750, is,
6v'' = + 7%554290 . sin. (5 ift—2 n"'t + 5 e"— 2 £*")
+ 5',321290 . cos. (5 n't — 2 n"t+ 5 s' — 2 s") ;
and, in 1950, it is,
a v" = + 7%71 1294 . sin. (5 Wt — 2n"'t + 5i' — 2 s")
+ 4^825821 .cos.(5n''t—2n"'t + ôs'' — 2e"').
* (2682) The expression [447 o] is similar to [4419], in Jupiter's theory, and is
[4475a] computed in the same manner ; namely, by finding tlie values of ( > v ')' ("TT )' ^'^^
similar to [4420] ; which maybe easily done, by means of formula [4421], and the values
[4475t] [4420]. Then from [3842, 3843], we get (t;). (j^X^'^ It is useless, however,
to explain the details of this computation, as it is done in almost exactly the same way as
VI. xiii. § 35.]
THEORY OF SATURN.
305
Hence, for any time t, it becomes,
6 r" = + { 7',554290 + t . 0\000785 \ . sin. (5 n'i — 2 w" i + 5 s^ — 2 ;'^)
+ {5^321290 — t . 0%002477 \ . cos. (5 nH—2 n"t + 5 î'— 2 é").
The part of Saturn's great inequality, depending on the poivers and products
of five dimensions of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, is, by
[3846,4023],*
[4482]
for Jupiter ; we shall tlierefore only observe, that the expressions [4476, 4477, 4478, 4479,
4480, 4481, 44S2,] correspond respectively to [4423, 4424, 4425, 4426, 4427, 4428, 4429].
* (2683) From the terms of R, of the third dimension, depending on P, P' [3810],
we have deduced in the two first lines of [3844], the corresponding terms of S v; which
aie afterwards developed in [4022,4023], according to the powers of t; and the same process
may be a))plied to the two first lines of 5 v' [3846]. We may also derive these tenns of
S 11', from the corresponding ones of 5 v, by multiplying by the factor — — — , or
ISm'^'.n'a.a
rather by
6 m'. rfi. a
as is evident by the inspection of the formulas [3844,3846]. We may
[4475f]
[4483a]
[4483i]
[4483c]
proceed in exactly the same manner with the terms of R, of the fifth dimension, depending on
P„ PI [3863], or with those of il', depending on P„, P,/[3865]; the only change requisite
is to place the accents below the letters P, P'. Now, if we neglect the parts of [4023] ,
depending on t"^, ddP, ddP', and make the abovementioned changes in the factor
and in the accents of the remaining terms ; also putting P, , for P„ , and Pf, for P„' [3864è], [4483(/]
we shall get, for S v'' the expression [4483], depending on quantities of the fifth order in
e", e", y. In finding the values of P, , P/, we may observe that the function R [3859]
is easily reduced to the form [3863], by the method explained in [3842i,&c.] ; using the
values of A'"», A"*", &ic. [4430], by means of which we obtain the expressions of a^.P ,
a\P;, [4434,4485], for the two epochs of 1750, 1950. The difference of these two
expressions being found, and divided respectively by 200, give the values [448C] ; as is
evident from the formula [3723]. Substituting [4484, 4486], in [4483], it becomes as in
[4487]. The signs of all the terms [4434—4487], are different in the original work, being
changed, as in [4430a], to correct the mistake mentioned in [3860a]. JMoreover, to rectify
this mistake in the signs, it is necessary to add the expression 2 (S j;" [4487] to the second
member of the great inequality of Saturn [4492, &c.], in the same manner as the similar
value of 2ÔV''' [4431], is added to the expression of the great inequality of Jupiter
[4434, &ic.]. The numerical coefficients, in [4434, 4491], are equal to those given by the
author; but the corrections C', C, 2ôv'\ 2 «5 «% in the second members, are not
mentioned in the original work.
[4483e]
[4483/]
VOL. III.
77
306 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
fifth order. , » .^
m which m'^P^, m'^P/ [3863, 44836], express the coefficients of
sm. (ôn''t — 2n''t + ôc' — 2 ;"), cos. (5 n' t — 2 trt + 5 =^— 2 s'^),
m the development of R, depending on the products of five dimensions of
the excentricities and inclinations. We find, in the year 1 750,
^4484^ a\ P, = 0,0000068376 ;
a\P;= 0,0000100087;
and in the year 1950,
^4485j a\P, = 0,0000077132;
[4486]
[4487]
[4489]
consequently.
a\P;=: 0,0000096940;
a\ —' = 0,0000000043780 ;
at
a\ i^ =3 —0,0000000015735.
dt
Hence the preceding function [4483], reduced to numbers, is,
5v''=^ + j^ 29% 144591 —t. 0%004081 } . sin. (5 n't — 2 )rt + 5 s"— 2 s'")
— \ 1 8',879594 + t . 0,01 1 356 j . cos. (5 n't — 2 ir t + 5 ="— 2 s'').
Lastly, we have, in [4003], the sensilile part of the great inequality of
Saturn, depending on the square of the disturbing force. This, in 1750, is,*
Sv' = — 3^,816537 . sin. (5k^7— 2îi'^i + 5 s'— 2 s")
[4488] + 42^,92031 9 . cos. (5 n't — 2 n'^ f + 5 s" — 2 .='")
+ function C [4489/c] ;
and, in 1950,
6 tj" = — 1 %636772 . sin. (5 n''t — 2n"t\5 =^' — 2 r)
+ 43',624686 . cos. {ôn''t—2n"t + bf—2 ^")
+ function C' [4489/t'] , nearly.
* (2684) The expression of & v" [4003] , being developed as in [3842a,J], and then computed
'■ "■' as in the last note, becomes, according to the author, in 1750 and 1950, as in [4488, 4489],
Vl.xiii. §35.] THEORY OF SATURN.
Therefore, in tlie time 1750 +^ this part is expressed by,
307
respectively. From these values, tlie general form [4490] is (leiluced, by the method used
in [44S3e, &ic.] ; but these numerical values, of the function [4003], have the same defects
as the similar expression in Jupiter's motion [4432], of which we have treated in [44896]
[4005(7 — 40076, 4431 rt — A]. The corrected value of Hv^', given by Mr. Pontécoulant in
the paper referred to in [443 If], is as in the following table, which is similar to that of
Jupiter [4431/,&c.].
Ô v'= 2',17020 . sin. T^ + 0' ,23185 . cos. Tj
1 + 8^14230 . sin. T^ + P,8S43S . cos. Tg
1' + 4^891 14 . sin. T^ — P,067G9 . cos. Tg
2 _ 0,951 1 2 . sin. Tg — 0',54669 . cos. Tg
2 f 0',054SS . sin. Tg — 0',830G0 . cos. Tg
3 _ 0',2576S . sin. Tg — 0%80208 . cos. Tg
3' + P,74101 . sin. Tg + 3 ,84548 . cos. Tg
4 + 0',22091 . sin. Tg + 0',2.3748 . cos. Tg
5 + r,85702 . sin. Tg — r,18481 . cos. Tg
6, G' + 3',466n7 .sin. Tg 40%36260 . cos. Tg
7, i = 2, — 16^06895 . sin. Tg + ] %9591 4 . cos. Tg
7, i = 1, + 6%04586 . sin. Tg + 2',23454 . cos. 1\
8, z = 2, — 0%54808 . sin. Tg + 1%29603 . cos. Tg
= 10%7635G . sin. Tg 33',10557 . cos. Tg.
Termg of
tlie order
of the
square of
the dis
turbing
forces.
[4489c]
This differs very much from the expression given by La Place, in [4488] ; which is connected
with the other terms of the great inequality [4491], after multiplying it by 1 j fx'". This
multiplication, by 1 jf^'") is not strictly correct; because some of the terms depend on
(1 +t^'') • (1 + /J')) and others upon (1 + (^''Tj ^'ut as jx''', ij.", are small, this difference
is not of much importance in this small inequality. We shall therefore adopt this method of
the author, as we have already done in the similar inequali:y of Jujiiter [4431A, &tc.] ;
where the factor 1 {[>■'', is used for all the terms. Proceeding, therefore, as in [443lA,&;c.],
we shall observe that the mass of Jupiter . [4061ffj, is used in computing [4489rf] ;
and the mass ^n^?:^^n [4061], is used in computing [4488] ; and if we increase the
expression [4489(/]. in the ratio of 1070,5 to 1067,09, it becomes as in [4489iJ. Subtracting
the expression [4483] from [4489t], we get very nearly the correction C" [4489A;], to be
applied to the formula [4491 or 4492]. We must also apply a correction, depending on à ^,
similar to that of 5e [443 Ip J, in the great inequality of Jupiter ;
6 v" = 10^,79796 . sin. Tg — 3.3%21 1 37 . cos. % ;
C' = 14',61450 . sin. Tg— 76',I3169 .cos. Tg.
[4489rf]
[4489«]
[4489/]
[4489g]
[4489ft]
Correction
ofihe
great ine
quality.
[4489i]
[4489fe]
308 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
6v' = — {3',816537 — t . 0',01 08988 1. sin. (ôn't — 2 n'" ^ + 5 s'' — 2 e'")
[44903 +{42^920319 + t . 0%00352l8].cos.(5 n't— 2n" t + 5s'' — 2^'")
+ function C [4489A:].
Now, if we connect together the different parts of the great inequality of
Saturn, we shall obtain its complete value, which is to be applied to ike
planètes mean motion ;*
1+{2931%125445— <.0^0307355— ^2.0%0000450 .sin/^'g^";"^^?)
+ {223»,252793<.lM025051+i2.0^0001838 .cos/^g^';^^^?)
+ function C" [4489^'] + 2 <S î;^ [4487]
Great Reducing these two terms to one, by the method in [4025 — 4027'], we shall
mequality.
obtain,
C(O939»,615848<.0^085024+i2.0',00008421).sin. .y.gog + fa 0012676 ^f '
[4492] ,5t>'=(l V) < it.// ,b^\t .u,vi.4i}/i, :)\
^4 function C^ [4489^]+ 2 5i;^ [4487] ^
The square of the disturbing force produces also, in [3891'], the inequality,!
[4493] ôv' = ^ . "' '^"""i "* '^'^ . sin. (double of the argument of the great inequality) ;
which, in numbers, is,
[4494] ^«'= (30 ,688957 — /.0',001 724).sin.(double argument of the great inequality) ;
and this must also be applied to the mean motion of Saturn.
[4489i]
[4489m]
Professor Hansen, in the work mentioned in [4458c], makes this part of the great inequality
of Saturn, in the year 1800, as in [4489m], using the masses m'", m' [4061]. The
corresponding value of La Place's formula, is found by putting t = 50, in [4490], by which
means it becomes as in [4489o]. The difference of these two expressions represents the
value of C' [4489p], corresponding to the calculations of Professor Hansen, noticing all the
terms of any importance ;
[4489n] à V = 15',476 . sin. Tj — 47',531 . cos. Tg ;
[4489o] àv' = — 3',271 . sin. Tj + 43',096 . cos. T^ ;
C> = 1 8',747 . sin. T^ — 90',627 . cos. T^.
* (2685) The function [4491] is the sum of the expressions [4474,4478,4482,4487,4490];
and this sum is easily reduced to the form [4 192],containingbut one term,by the method explained
in [4025—4027']. There is a small mistake in the calculation of the term 223' ,252793
[4491], which in the preceding sum is 223',900794; the difference being 0',648 = 2".
(4493a] t (2686) The term [4493] is the same as [3891'], —H' [3891] being the great
[4489;?]
[4491a]
VI.xiii.§35.] THEORY OF SATURN. 309
The inequality [3927],*
reduced to numbers, is,
6 1"= + 8',26451 7 . sin. (4 n'" / — 9 n" / + 4 s''— 9 s^' + 51'' 49'" 37'). [4496]
We have also, in [3846], the inequality,!
ôv'= l;K' e' . sin. (Sn't — 2 n'^7 + 3 s" — 2 =" + ^' +5') ; [4497]
inequality of Saturn, or
5' =2939%61 5848 — <. 0^085024, and :ï'=4''2r' 20% nearly [4493]: [44936]
substituting this and the values of m"', irû', a'", a" [4061,4079], and dividing by the
radius in seconds 206265% for the sake of homogenity, we get ô v" [4494]. The correction
in the value of H' [4483/], has a slight efiect on this result ; and the same may be observed '■ '
relative to the correction of H [4483/], in the term [4436] ; and in other terms depending
on H, H
* (2687) The inequality [4495] is the same as [3927], increasing the accents as in
[4388n]. Now we have nearly as in [44936],
F=2939%615848, :3' = 4''21"'20' [44936] ; [4495o]
and by comparing the expression [3925] with the third line of [4468], we get, by neglecting
the teiTus depending on t,
K = 669%682372, B' = — bQ^ 10'" 57'. [44956]
Substituting these in [4495], it becomes,
f 9%2107 .sin. (4?i'>7 — 9?j^r +4 £'' — 9 £^451'^49'" 37»). [4495c]
In the original work the coefficient has a difterent sign, being
— 25",507770 =— 8%264517,
also the angle — B' — Â' , as given at first, is,
— 67°,3508 = — GO* 36"' 57'. [4495rf]
These mistakes are corrected by the author in [9105], where the coefficient is made equal
to +8',264517, and the angle — B — .?= 51" 49" 37' nearly.
t (2688) This is the same as the last line of [3846], increasing the accents as in r4497„n
[4388a].
VOL. III. 78
310 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
and by reduction to numbers, it becomes in 1750,*
[4498] 6 v" = 47% 115141 . sin. (2 n'' t — Sn" t + 2 e'"— 3 s" + US'' 08'" 08^ ;
and in 1950,
[4499] 6 V' = 46',307169 . sin. (2 n"t — Sn''t\2 i""— 3 =' + U9' 41'" \&).
Therefore its value for any time whatever t, is,
^^5Q(j^ 5u'=(47%115141 — <.0%0040399).sin.(27r<— 3?rt[26i>'— 3£^+148''08"'08'+^27%94).
Connecting this expression with the following, obtained in [4466],
èv" = + (34V341627 — i.0%0019).sin. (3n^t—2nrt+3s'—2^''—z^)
^''^"^^ — 1 7%6541 64 . sin. (3 7i^t — 2 rr t + 3^" — 2 s''' — «''') ;
we shall obtain for their sum, the following inequality,!
[4502] s 1)'=:— (24^571253— < . 0',004392).sin.(2?i''Y— 3 ?i^<+2s'^— 3 e^+14''48'"19*— M2',38).
We have found, in [3777], that Saturn's mean motion is subjected to a
secular equation, corresponding to that of Jupiter in [4446], namely,
[4503] êv" ^ — t"". ,00000065.
The corresponding secular equation of Saturn is represented, as in [3777],
by,t
[4504] 6 v" = ^^ . f. 0",00000065 ;
and is therefore, in numbers,
[4505] 6v' = fA)%00000\51;
which may be neglected without any sensible error.
* (2689) If we retain the terras depending on t, in the values of K', B' [4495i,4468],
we shall have,
K' = 669',682372 — t . 0',015469 ; B'= — SG'' 10"" 57^ — i . 49',5 ;
[.4498a] ^ = ^i2\^< 20'— t . 77%629 [4492, 3926], &ic.
With these values, and those of e^, zf [4407], we may compute the function [4497], for
[44986] the jears 1750, 1950, as in [4498, 44S9]; hence we may deduce the general expression
[4500], by the same method as in [4017—4021].
[4502o] 1(2690) This reduction is made as in [42S2/t—r].
[4505o] t (2691) The integral of [3777 or 3785], being divided by m'\/a', ^ives,
Secular
equatiun.
VI.xiii.§35.] THEORY OF SATURN. 311
It now remains to consider the radius vector of Saturn. We have seen,
in [3847], that the terms, depending on the tliird power or product of the
excentricities, add to the expression of the radius vector of Saturn, the
quantity,*
6r' ^ — H' a\ e\ cos. (5 n't — 2 n"t + 5 £" — 2 ^'— ^' + A)
+ H' a\ e\ COS. (3 n't — 2 n"t + 3 s>' — 2 s + ^^ + A) ^450^^
10 m". n\ a'^ C P . sin. {5)i't — 2 n'^i + 5 s^— 2 s'") )
5 n'— 2 n" '(\P'. cos. (5 yt^i— 2w"7+ 5 e^— 2 s'") ^ '
Reducing this function to numbers, we obtain,
, ( +0,00351994565.cos.(5n''i— 2n'''^+5 .^— 2s+ 13^01'"490 )
6r''^(l + (A"').< ^ >. [45071
(_0,0008553506.cos.(2/rf— 3n^i+2s"— 3s' + 35''49"'080^ ^ ^
nequQli
ties in the
Connecting the last of these two inequalities with those we have found 1
in [4467], depending on the first power of the excentricities, namely, ^^^'j»»
V .1, i„x ^ + 0,001 1594872. cos. (3/1^^ — 2 ?r/ + 3s'— 2 s''—^M)
^ ( — 0,0006217670.cos.(3n"i — 2n'''^ + 3£'— 2 s"' — ^'0^
we get,t
r"= — (1 4 f^'") . 0,0013806201 . cos. (Zn'^t—S n't+2 s'"— 3 s"— 23'^ 19" 18'). [4509]
the accents being increased as in [4.38Sa] • Substituting Sv'" [4503], we get Sv" [4504],
which is reduced to numbers as in [4505], by using the elements m'", m"' , «'", a" [4505c]
[4061,4079], This correction is only 1*,5, in 1000 years, which is hardly deserving of
notice.
* (2692) The function [4506] is the same as the three last terms of [3847], multiplied
by a', and increasing the accents [4388a] ; the first term of [3847] being of the second
order in e, e', y, is included in [4170]. H represents the part of — ; [3848], [4506a]
depending on the angle 4 n" t — 2 li" t ; P, P', are given in [4402, &ic.]. Hence the
expression [4506] becomes, in numbers, as in [4507].
t (2693) The function [4508] is the same as the fourth and fifth lines of [4467].
Connecting these with the similar terms [4507], and reducing the whole to one term, by the [4509a]
method in [4282A — /], it becomes as in [4509].
312 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
The semimajor axis, which is used in calculating the elliptical part of the
radius vector, must be increased as in [4058], by the quantity ^a'm'';
and hy adding it to the value of a" [4079], we obtain,
[4510] «^ = 9,53881757.
Inequalities of Satimi^s motion in latitude.
SQ. The formula [1030] gives,*
+ ] %787358 . sin. {n" t + b" — n^)
— 0',2501 80. sin. (2 n''t — n't + 2 é" — s" — n^)
0',083g46 .sin. (3 n' 't — 2n'' t + 3 s"—2s'' — n")
^^^ ] + 3% 1 43523 . sin. (2 n' t — n"l + 2 j" — s" — n')
— 0%522865 . sin. (3 n't — 2 n"t + 3 ." — 2 s" — n")
— 0',083182.sin.(4n"f — 3n"'i+4,£''— 3£'^— n^)
[4511] ^
Ç + 0%084871 . sin. (n'"' t + ^'■' — n")
^(l_^p.) . 3 + 0',122203.sin.(2n"f— n^f + 2£^' — ^=^— n")
/ + 0',662991 . sin. (3 n^'t — 2n't+ 3 £''— 2 £^— n^')
n', being the longitude of the node of Jiipiter''s orbit on that of Satnrn,
[4512] and n"', the longitude of the orbit of Uranus on that of Saturn. Lastly,
we have, in [3886], the inequality ,t
[4513] 6s' = — 9', 163599 . sin. (2 n'^t — An't + 2s — 4 s^+dd' 30™ 350
It follows, from [3932, 3932'], that the terms depending on the square of the
disturbing force, add to the values ot — , —, the quantities,!
* (2694) The terms of 5 s''' [4511], are computed from [4295i], increasing the
" accents, so that m" may be the attracted planet, and m''' or ot'' the disturbing planet.
f (2695) The inequahty [4513] is the same as [3886], reduced to one term, as in
[4513a] [4282/t— Z].
t (2696) The values [4514,4515], are deduced from [3932,3932'], in the same
[4514a] manner as [4452, 4453], are derived from [3931,3931']. We may also derive [4514]
from [4452], and [4515] from [4453], by the following method. The expressions
VI.xiii.§36.] THEORY OF SATURN. 313
■rf,v ,«ivva^ Sir,^os.(nn'^.sm.(ué^)h [4514]
de" m'\ y/»'" iSj .^^ ^^ ^^^ ^_ ySn
dt m'\ s/a'"^ m\ /«" ( t
'.sin.(n— (r)+ ^— .cos.(n— â')^
^7, 6n, being determined as in [3935,3936]. Reducing the functions
[4514, 4515] to numbers, we get,
do?''
[4515]
= __ 0',000154; [4516]
==._0\001873. [4517]
[4518]
dt
de"
77
Tire expression [4516] is to be added to the valuesof p, ^ [4247];
d è^ d è^
and the expression [4517] is to be added to the values of jj , — ^ [4247].
Hence we obtain,
^ =. + 0',099894 ;
dt
'^' = — 0% 155136;
dt
— =_9,007165;
dt
1^ = — 19%043372.
dt
[3931,3931'], become the same as [3932,3932'], respectively, by changing, in the second
members, è into à', and multiplying by — . This is equivalent, in the present [4514A]
notation, to the change of ê", into ê", and then multiplying by the factor — .
Therefore, if we perform this operation on the fonnulas [4452,4453], they become ^4514^1
respectively, as in [4514,4515]; in which we must compute (5 7, 5 IT, as in [4452A] ;
and then, as in [4452/t, &c.], we obtain the other quantities [4516, 4517,4518].
We have already remarked, that the inequalities of the motion of this planet are again
noticed by the author, in book x. chap. vili. [9037, &c.], and the subject is also resumed in
the notes on this part of the work.
VOL. III. 79
314 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél
CHAPTER XIV.
THEORY OP URANUS.
37. The equation [4460],
[4519] 6r^=^.(l—a?).ô\\
corresponding to Saturn, becomes for Uranus,
[4520] ôr^'^'^.n— a=) . <S V".
r
If we take the mean distances of the earth and Uranus from the sun, for r",
and r", and sup]30se â V"'=: ± 1"= ±0,324, we shall find,
[4521] Ô r" = ± 0,00057648.
l^™^ Therefore we may neglect the inequalities of 5 r", below ± 0,00057 ;
"sLwd. and we shall also omit the inequalities of the motion of Uranus, in
[4522] longitude or latitude, below a quarter of a centesimal second, or 0%081.
Inequalities of Uramis, independent of the excentricities.*
+52%306055 . sin. {n"'t — n'H + e" — £^')
— 0', 190366 . sin. 2(n'U — n'H + s" — ^'")
6«''=(1 + H'") . { — 0',026023 . sin. 3(n"^ — n''H + s — s^*)
^'^^^^^ ' — 0%003593 . sin. 4 («'" t — n'H + s" — i')
— 0',000768 . sm.b{n"t — n^H + «'"— s"')
* (2697) Computed as in [42T7«, &ic.], changing the accents on a, ii, n', &,c. to
"•' conform to the case now under consideration.
Vl.xiv. §37.]
+ (1+^")
THEORY OF URANUS. 315
+2P,371379 . sin. (n't — rûH \ i' — i")
— 4,220972 . sin. 2{n''t — n'H + b" — e^')
— ,8621 15 . sin. 3(n''t — n" t + s^ — s")
— 0%2444U9 . sin. 4 (ît' t — n" t + e" — s") \ . [4523]
^ _ 0',08U21 1 . sin. 5 (n" t — n"" i + e" — s^')
_ 0,028931 . sin. 6 (h" t — 7t" < + s" — £"0
— 0',01 0929 . sin. l{nH — ri" i + s' — s")
— 0%004148 . sin. ^{ift — n'H + ^' — e")
Inequali
ties inde
pendent of
thd exGÊQ~
0,0063473160 \ fi"«i«
+ 0,0048914790 . cos. {ii}'t — rf't + s'''— ^'")
5rvi=(H^) . / + 0,00002361 84. cos. 2 (7i"i — n^'^ + ^'^—^'0
+ 0,0000030669 . cos. 3 {n'H — n'H + s_ £")
+ 0,0000005044. cos. 4(w'''i — nH + s'"— ^'0
+ 0,0023641285
+ 0,0035433901 . cos. (n" t — n'H + B" — s"')
_(.(l + ^v) _ I ^ 0,0004061682 . cos. 2(n't — n"i + s" — s")
+ 0,0000889425 . cos. 3 (n" t — n^'t + e — s^')
+ 0,0000255870 . cos. 4> (n" t — n"t + ^''—s'")
Inequalities depending on the first power of the excentricities*
— 1%233612 . sin. (n'" t + s" — ^^')
+ r,25954B . sin. (2 n'H — n'H + 2 8'" — /'— w'")
«jy = (1 + (^'O . j _ 3.^g3g663 _ sin. (2 r^^ — ?r< + 2 s^' — s'" — t."')
— 0^221997 . sin. (2 w^'f — n'H + 2 s" — a" — to*")
[4524]
[4525]
* (2698) These inequalties were computed in the same manner as those for Jupiter [4525a]
in [4375a].
Inequali
ties de
pending on
tho first
tncities.
316 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
— P,402359 . sin. (n^'t + i" — w")
+ 0',214857 . sin. (n" t + s^ — ^^ )
— 0^219788 . sin. (2 n" t — if H + 2 s'— s" — îj^')
&1 \ + 0',878763 . sin. (2 rVt — if H + 2 e>— s^'' — ^^)
— (44S051575 — t . 0',000247) . sin. (_5!v,'^^^,
[4525] + (1 + f^O • ( _j_ (1 49',807764 — i . 0^008306) . sin. (_^S7~J[^^
+ 2%486191 . sin. (3 «"i — 2 ?i^'^ + 3 s"— 2 s" — ^")
— r,642451 . sin. (3 ji^'/ — 2 ?j'7 + 3 s''— 2 s" — ^^)
+ 0',422729 . sin. (4 n"ï — 3 n' ^ + 4 s" — 3 s' — «^')
— 0',281 800 . sin. (4 n'H — 3 «"i + 4 e'' — 3 s' — ^^ )
+ 0^ 1 26493 . sin. (5 n"'^ _ 4 »^7 + 5 s^' — 4 e^ — ::i")
( _ 0,0016092001 . COS. (2n'H — ift + 26^' — s^— ^^') )
[4526] Ar^'=('l+M''). < >.
^ ^ J + 0,0061835858. COS. (2n^'i — ?r^ + 2 s^'—E"—.^) C
Inequalities depending on the squares and products of the excentricitîes and
inclinations of the orbits.*
^(132^508872t0^0145205).sin.(i37 ^^^^^^^ f^Tg'^^) \
[4537] 6r^"=(l+0.j _!_ i^,7i3455.sin.(4?i^'i — 2?r^+4/'— 25'— 38''34"'54'')1
J^oAt ( + 8^380157 . sin. (n" t — ii''H + a'  /' + 88"29"' 40^ j
second
The first of these inequalities must be applied to the mean motion of the
planet, on account of the length of its period. The last of these inequalities,
being connected with the corresponding one in [4523], which is independent
of the excentricities, gives the following,!
[4528] & r^' = (1 + f^') • 23^156281 . sin.(n^^ — ii''' t + i^'— e^' +21^1" 05^.
[4527o] * (2699) Computed as in [4377a, &c.], for Jupiter.
t (2700) The term + (1 + f^"). 2^,37 1379. sin. (n'< — n^V + s'— £>') [4523],
[4528a] being connected with the last term of [4527], by the method used in [4282A — /], becomes
as in [4528].
Vl.xiv..^3S.] THEORY OF URANUS. 317
Tiieu we have,*
ô ,•'■' = _ (1 + (x^) . 0,0007553840 . cos. (3 n'H — n't + 3 s"— 5^+75" 00" 42^. [4529]
Inequalities depending on the poiver.t and products of three dimensions
of the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits.f twîd'""'
order.
S r' ^ — (1 + M^) . 0',964688 . sin. (5 n" t — 2n't + ô s"— 2 s' + OS'' 23" 3P). [4.53oi
Inequalities of the motion of Uranus in latitude.
38. From the formula [1030], we obtain,t
6 5^' = (1 + ,.) . 0%638393 . sin. (ra'^ t + s"— n'^)
Inequali
ties in the .
latitude.
( 0',9 15741. sin. (w^^ + s^—n") ) [4531]
^ ( + 2',921052.sin.(2w^i — n^ï+2£"— s''— m)^
n" being here the longitude of the ascending node of Jupiter's orbit upon
that of Uranus, and n' the longitude of the ascending node of Saturn's orbit ^ ^
upon that of Uranus.
* (2701) Computed as in [4394«, Sic] for Jupiter. r4529al
t (2702) This computation is made as in [4417, &c.] for Jupiter ; changing the accents
to conform to the present notation. [4530a]
t (2703) The terms [4531] are computed from the formula [4295è], altering the accents
to conform to the present case. [4531a]
VOL. III. 80
318 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
CHAPTER XV.
ON SOME EQUATIONS OF CONDITION BETWEEN THE INEttUALITIES OF THE PLANETS, WHICH MAV BE
USED IN VERIFYING THEIK NUMERICAL VALUES.
39. The inequalities of a long period, produced by the reciprocal action
of two planets m, and m', are nearly in the ratio of m'\/a' to — m\/a
[1208] ; so that to obtain the perturbations of this kind, corresponding, in the
motion of m', to those in the motion of m, loe need only to multiply the last
[4532] lyy ^^_ T\ù% result is most to be relied upon, in those cases, in which
the ratio of the mean motions of the two planets is such, as to render the
period of these inequalities great, in comparison with the times of their
revolutions. We shall now, by means of this theorem, verify several of the
preceding inequalities.
The action of the earth on Venus produces, in [4291], the two following
inequalities, whose period is about four years,
àv'^— 1%5 49550 . sin. (3 n"t — 2 w'^ + 3 s"— 2 s'— ^')
+ 4',766332. sin. (3 n"t — 2 n't + 3=" — 2 / — ^").
By multiplying them by — ^^^ryr,? we have, for the corresponding inequality
of the earth,
hv"^ P, 1 33838 , sin. (3 n"t — 'Un' t \S i' — 2 .' — ^)
— .3',487666 . sin. (3 n"^ — 2 ?î'i + 3 ;" — 2 / — ^■').
We have found, by a direct calculation, in [4307], that these inequalities are,
hv"= r,186390 . sin. (3n'7 — 2 n'i+ 3s" — 2s'_^')
^3%667112.sin. (3h"^ — 2n'i + 3." — 2='— ^");
[4533]
Venus
and
the Earth
[4534]
[4535]
VI. XV. §39.] VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. 319
which difTers but little from the preceding expression [4534].
The action of the earth upon Venus, produces also, in [4293], the following
inequalitv, whose period is about eight years,
6v' = — \ ,505036 . sin. (5 n" i — 3 n' i + 5 s"— 3 e' + SO'' 54"' 26'). [453G]
Multiplying it by, ,, „, we obtain, for the corresponding inequality of
the earth,
ôv"= l',101277.sin. (5 n"t — 3 n't + ôs" — 3 s' \20''54>'"2&) ; [4537]
and, by a direct calculation, we have, in [4309],
6 v"= r, 125575 . sin. (5 n"t — 3n' ^+5 /'— 3 s' + 2 1; 02"' 18'). [4538]
Mars suffers, by the action of Venus, as we have seen in [4377], the following
inequality of a long period,
è v"'= — 6',899619 . sin. (3 n"'t — n't + 3 £'"—£'+ 65" 26'"15'). [4539]
„T , • , • , m"V«"' 1 •
Multiplying It by y— , we obtain, fnd'
™ \/« Mars.
5 v" = 2%078266 . sin. (3 n'" t—7i't + 3 /" — / + 65' 26"* 1 5') ; [4540]
and the direct calculation [4293] gives,
6 v' ^ 2',009677 . sin. (37i"'t — n't + 3 /" — s' + 65' 53"' 09') ; [4541]
which differs but little from the preceding.
Mars suffers, from the action of the earth [4375], the two following TheEarti,
inequalities, whose period is about sixteen years, mIL
S v"'= — 10',1 14699 . sin. (2 n"'t — 7i"t+ 2 s'" — a"— t,'")
+ 5', 1 23062 . sin . (2 n'" t — n" t + 2 a"' — e" — ^") . ^''^''^^
m' \/a"'
Multiplying them by — "^;^;^ ' ^"^'^ obtain, for the corresponding inequalities
of the earth,
6 v" = 2',2293 . sin. (2 n'" t — n" t + 2s"' — i' — •=='")
— 1 ', 1 292 . sin. (2 jj'" t — n!' t + 2 a'" — a" — t^") ;
and the direct calculation gives, in [4307],
[45431
320 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4544]
6 v" = 2% 1 37658 . sin. (2 n'" t — n"t + 2 s'" — s" — ^"')
— P,095603 . sin. (2 n"'t — n"t + 2 b'" — s"— v!') ;
which differ but little from the preceding.
Mars also suffers, on the part of the earth, in [4377], the following
inequality of a long period,
f4545j i v"'= — 4%370903 sin. (4 n!" t—2n"t + 4> s'"— 2 «" + 67'' 49"' OOO
m"'\/a"'
Multiplying it by iryui we obtain, for the corresponding inequality of
the earth,
f 4546] <5 v" = 0,9634 . sin. (4 n'" t — 2 n" t + 4 ="' — 2 e" + 67'' 49" 00») ;
which differs but little from the expression, given in [4309],
[4547] 6 v" = 0,993935. sin. (4 n'" t — 2n"t{4> s'" _ 2 s" + 67" 48™ 56').
^"and" The two great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, are also to each other,
^""'"' nearly in the ratio of — 77f\/a'' to m'''\/a"', as is evident by comparing
[4548] 4434^ 4492].
Saturn Lastly, Urauus suffers, from the action of Saturn, the following inequality
and
Uranus, of a long period [4527],
[4549] è V'' = — 1 32',508872 . sin. (3 n"' t — n't+Ss^'— i' — SS" 19" 05").
Multiplving it by — , we obtain, in the motion of Saturn, the
inequality,
[4550] 6 v" = 32,368 . sin. (3 7^1 — n't + 3 e^'— e" — 88'' 19'" 05^) ;
which differs but little from the inequality, given in [4468],*
[4551] év" = 30%888288 . sin. (3 n'H — n" t + 3 e— s' — 87" 25™ 07') ;
40. We shall now consider, in the development of R, the term of the
form [3745'],
* (2704) The term here referred to is the last one of the expression [4468] ; which
[4550a] differs, however, a little ; the coefficient being 31',025379, instead of 30%888288 ; and the
constant angf» 85''34"' 12% instead of 87'' 25"' 07'.
VI. XV. §40.] VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. 321
R = «I'.ilf ". e e'. COS. [ / . (71' ï — n ï + e'— <=) + 2 n < + 2 s — ^ — ^') I ; [4552]
supposing i. (11 — 11!) + 2 n to be very small in comparison ivith n or %'.
We find, in [1286, &c.], that this term produces, in the excentricity e, of
the orbit of the planet m, considered as a variable ellipsis, the following
inequality, which we shall represent by,*
ie=— ., /'''t" — .M''\e'.co^.\i.(n't — n i + a'— 0+ 2 n i + 2 s — « — ^'; [45531
i.{n — n)\2n '
and in the position of the perihelion ra, an inequality [1294, &c.], which we
shall represent by,
a^=_ /"'•"" .M<".. sin. \ i. (n't _ ,i i + 6'— + 2 n i + 2 e — ^ — ^' 1 . 14554]
i.(n — ?i)2 7t e ^
The expression of v contains the term 2 e . sin. Çnt j e — w) ; and the
variation of the elliptical elements, produces, in this quantity, the following
expression,!
[4.555]
6v =^ 26e . sin. (n t + ^ — w) — 2e 6si . cos. (nt+e — «) ; [4.5.5t)]
* (2705) If we take the partial differential of R [1281], relative to e, and multiply
it by 7;—, — . , it will produce the corresponding term of e, represented by (5 e [4553a]
[4553i]
[1286]. Now, if we perform the same operation on the assumed value of R [4552], and
put fx = 1 [3709] ; changing also i', i, into i, i — 2, respectively, we shall get (5 1
[4553]. Again, if we multiply the same partial differential of R [1281], relative to e, by
— .andt, putting j. = 1 , it becomes like the expression of cdzi [1294]; and by
the same process we deduce, from R [4552], the expression,
e da = — m'.andt . JH''\ e'. cos. \ i.{n' t — nt\ s — s) \2nt \ 2 s — ra — zs'\. [45.53c]
Dividing this by e, and integrating, we get the part of ra, represented by w [4554] ;
observing that we may consider the terms 31, e, e', of the second member, as
constant quantities, in taking this integral ; always neglecting quantities of a higher order
than those which are retained, and such as depend on different angles.
t (2706) Since v [3834] contains the tenu 2 e . sin. {yit \ s — ro), it is evident that
the variation of v, corresponding to the increments Se, <)■&, in e, zs, respectively, is as in
[4556]; and by using the symbol JV:=nt{s — zs [3702»], it becomes,
8v=:2Se. sin. W — 2 e ô a . cos. W. [4.557a]
Now, if we put, for brevity,
VOL. III. 81
322 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [M^c. Cél.
which gives in v the inequality,
2 jn ft vt
s •
It follows, from § 65 of the second book, that in the case of i.(n' — n) + 2n
[4557] being very small, the expression of R, relative to the action of m upon m',
contains also a term, of the following form and value, very nearly,*
[4558] R :^m. M'". e e'. cos. {i.(n't — ?t ^ + s'— e) + 2 n ; + 2 s — w — ^^'1 ;
since, by noticing only the two terms of this kind, in R, and R, we have,
as in [1202], very nearly.
[45576] T,^i.{n't — nt\^—i)+^nt\2= — zs — zi'; M,=^ '"'" — .M'\e':
i.(n — n)2n
the expressions [4553, 4554] become,
[4557c] (5e = — ^j.cos.T,; e <5 w = — Ji, .sin.T, ;
substituting these in [4557a] , we get,
[4557rf) èv = 2 Jlii. { — cos.Tj. sin. JV { sinTj . cos. W\ = 2 JW,. sin.(Ti— JF)
= 2 iVii sin. { i.{n't — nt\ s' — s) + « t \ s — ra' 
[455re] ^2M,.sm.\{i~l).{n't — nt + s'—E)Jfn't+i'u'\, as in [4557].
* (2707) Using the symbol Tj [45576], we get, from [4552],
[4558a] B. = ni. JW">. e e' . cos. Ti .
Its differential, relative to d [37056 — c], is,
[45586] à.R = rri. M^^\ e e'. (i — 2) . n dt . sin. Ti ;
substituting this in the differential of [4559], which gives m'. d'iî'=: — 7n.AR, and
dividing by m', we obtain,
[4558c] d'iî'= — m . M'^K e e'.(i —2) . n dt . sin. Tj .
Now, i.{n' — n)\2n, being very small [4557'], we have, very nearly,
[4558rf] {i—2).ndt=^in'dt;
hence,
[4558e] à'R= — m. iVi">. e e'. in'dt. sin. Tj .
Integrating this, relative to the characteristic d', which does not affect n t r3982al, we
[4.5.58/] , r^rron
•■ ■' ^ obtam, as m [4558],
[4558g] ^'= "* • ^^"' ^ ^' COS. Tj .
VI.xv.§40.J VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. 323
m.fàR+ m'.fd' i?'= ; [4559]
therefore we have, in v', the inequality,*
S v'= .,!"''"'!'' ili'". e . sm.l(i—l).(n't — 7it { i' — s) + nt 4s — 7,\. [4560]
t.{n' — «) + 2n ( V / \
These two inequalities of v and v' [4557,4560], are in the ratio of m'.e'.\/a' [4560]
to ?ft.e.y/« ; so that the second may be deduced from the first, by multiplying
the coefficient of the first by "1;}^^^ [4660«]. ^4560"]
•^ ?»'.\/« e' * '^
The quantity 5n" — 3 n' being small, in comparison with n' or n",
we have, in v' [4557], by supposing i ^ 5, an inequality depending on the
argument 5 n" ^ — 4 n' t + 5 s"— 4 /— ^" ; and in v" [4560] , an inequality [4560'"]
depending on the argument 4n"i — 3n't + ^s" — 3s' — a'. The first of
these inequalities is, by [4291],
6 v' = 2^,196527 .sin. (5 n"t — ^n't + b f— 4 ^'— ^") [45Ci]
Multiplying its coefficient by / „ . , we have, for the earth, the ve"j
"* V*^ ^ thcEarlh.
inequality,
iv"=0\6580.sm.(^n"t — 3n't\4^i" — 3e—zs'). [4562]
By a direct calculation, we have found, in [4307], this inequality to be,
Ô v" = 0',722424 . sin. (4 n" t — 3n't + 4^s" — 3e' — ^'); [4563]
which differs but little from the preceding.
* (2708) We may obtain ô v' from R', by a similar process to that used in the two
preceding notes ; or, more simply, by derivation, in tlie following manner. If we [45600]
change, in [4552], i, m, a, n, e, v, &ic. into — i\2, m', a', n', e', v' he. respectively,
without altering Jlf"', R changes into R [4558a,^], and the factor r.(»i' — ti)\2n, becomes,
(— ' + 2).(m — 7«') + 2n'; [45606]
which, by reduction, is easily reduced to its original form ; so that the angle T, [45576]
remains unaltered. The factor M^ [45576], changes into
^^d^^^n^'"''^^ [«60c]
W changes into W [.3726a]; and the second expression of 5 d [4557 </], becomes as in
the first of the following expressions of lî v', which, by successive operations, is reduced to
the form [4560e], as in [4560] ;
324 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
In like manner, 4 n"' — 2 n" is rather small, in comparison with n"
or n'" [4076/i] ; and if we suppose i = 4, we obtain in v" [4557], an
inequality depending on the argument
4 w"'i — 3 n"t + 4 s'" — 3 s" — ^"' ;
[4564] and in v"' [4560], an inequality depending on the argument
Sn"'t — Inl't + 3 £'"— 2 e"— ra".
The first of these inequalities is, by [4307],
^45g5^ & v" = OS8071 1 1 . sin. (4 n"'t — 3 n" t + 4 e'" — 3 ="— ^"').
m"\/a" e"
Multiplying its coefficient by ,„ , — . — [4560"], we get, for Mars, the
The Ea til 1 J to J m \/ o! t
and *^
*'^" inequality,
[4566] ^ «'" = 0',661446 . sin. (3 n'" ^ — 2 ?î"/ + 3 £'" — 2 e" — ^") ;
and by direct calculation we have, in [4375],
[4567] <s v'" = 0', 846004 . sin. (3 n'" i — 2 n" « + 3 .'" — 2 e" — i.") ;
the difference is within the limits of the error which may be supposed to
[45681 exist, taking into consideration, that the ratio 4 ?i"' — 2 m" to n'", instead
of being very small, is nearly equal to .
41. It also follows, from § 71, of the second book, that if i.{n' — n)+2 n
[4569] ^^ ^''^^'2/ s»«a// in comparison with n', the inequality of m, in latitude, depending
on (i — \).{n't — nt{s — s) { n' t \ s' , is to the inequality of m', in
[45<39'] latitude, depending on (i — \).{n't — nt^s — i){nt + i, in the ratio
of m! \/a' to — m\/a.*
[4560(i] 'î d' = 2 Ma . sin. (Tj — W) = 2 .¥o . sin. \ i.{n't — n < + e'— s) + 2 « i + 2 £ — n't — s' ra ?
r4.5<jOel "^^ 2^2 • sin.{(i — \).{n' t — nt\i' — i) \ nt\ s — la^.
Dividing the value of ^v' [4560] by that of &v [4557], we get, successively, by using
^"^^^^■f^ an = ai, a'n'= «'* [3709'],
i5«' m.a'n' e m.a'~i e m.ai e ■ r^rz^wn
In applying this formula to numbers, we must vary the accents in the elements, so as to
conform to the notation used in this book, as is done in [4560"', &;c.].
[4569a] * (2709) The inequality of s, here referred to, is given in [1342] ; that of s', depending
VI. XV. §41.] VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. 325
If we suppose i = 5, we shall have, in the motion of Venus in latitude venu»
[4569o, 4295], the inequality [4295], thlEani..
ôs' = — 0',312535 . sin. (5 n"t — 4 n't + ôi"—4>e'—è'). [4570]
Multiplying the coefficient of this inequality by ■;yy^ [4569'], we get,
in the motion of the earth in latitude, the inequality [4569/],
& s" = 0',22869 1 . sin. (4 n" i — 3 n' Ï + 4 s" — 3 s' — ; f"*^^^ ^
and, by direct calculation, we have found, in [4312], the inequality,
6 s" = 0S234256 . sin. (4 n"t — 3 ti' Ï+4 s"— 3 s'— 6') ; [4572]
which differs but little from the preceding.
on the same angle, is similar, the accents being changed so as to adapt them to the value of
s'. Instead of this formula, we may use [4295J], observing that the second line of this
expression is used in computing the inequalities which are taken into consideration in ^ '
[4569 — 4576]. The expression of 5 s, deduced from this part of [4295i], may be
simplified; because the divisor n^ — \n — i.{n — «')P' '^^'^Y ^^ reduced to the form [45G9c]
(' . ()i — «') .\i .[n' — n) \ 2 n] . Hence this part of i5 s becomes,
_B(.i)
6s=im'.n^.a^a'. ^ tttT: rr.y .sin. h'.(»i' i — ?i i + s'— s) + n <+ s — nj ; [45G9d]
7 being the inclination, and II the longitude of the ascending node of m', upon the orbit
of m. This expression may be simplified, from the circumstance, that, in the terms here [4569e]
taken into consideration, the divisor i.{n — n') is very nearly equal to 2n [4569].
Substituting this, and ?irt^=l, in [45^9 (Z] ; making also a slight reduction in the ["^^'^^l
arrangement of tlie terms depending on i, we get,
ôs=+im'.^a'.{aa')i (■_l)_(j!^^"^^>^,^ 7 •sinK''l)K^ ^^ i + s's)\ n't + b'UI [4569g:]
Changing the elements ?«, a, n, s, U, &c. into m, a', n', s', n + 180'^. Sic. M,pq.i
respectively, and altering the sign of i — 1, which does not affect 2i"~'' [956,956'],
we get,
5 s'=— my a .{act') . rr—rr:, —, • 7 .sin.U?:— l).(?l'^— « ? + /— e) + ?i C + £ — H^ [4569i]
Hence we evidently perceive, that S s is to as' as m'\/a' to — m\/a, as in [4569']. [4569A;]
Now, the values n', n" [407 6A] make 5 n" — 3 ?i' quite small, in comparison with ?i'.
This corresponds with the value assumed for i.{n' — 7)){2n [4569], supposing i = 5 ; [45G9i]
hence we get [4.570 — 4572]. In like manner, 3 ?i'' — n" [4076A], is very small, in
VOL. III. 82
326 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4573] The quantity 3 n" — if is small in comparison with n"' ; therefore,
[4573] by making i =: 3 [456%, z], we obtain in ôs", an inequality depending on
3 n''t — 2 7f t { S s''' — 2 i" ;
and in 6 5", an inequality depending on
2n''H — n''t + 2!'' — s\
The first of these inequalities is, by [4511],
[4574] 6 s" = 0',662991 . sin. (3 n^'t — 2 n^t + 3 s"'— 2 1^ — n''').
n"' being the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of Uranus upon
[4574'] that of Saturn. Multiplying the coefficient of this inequality by ^y— ,
and we obtain in ôs"', the inequality,
Uranus. ' ^ J '
[4575] 65"= — 2'',714213. sin. (2ra'"^ — w^^ + 2£^'— s"— n^');
and by [4531], this inequality becomes, by putting n^ = n"' + 1 80''
[4531', 4574'],
[4576] is'' = — 2',921052 . sin. (2 n^'t — nU + 2 1"'— e" — n^') ;
which differs but little from the preceding.
42. It follows, from § 69, of the second book, that if we suppose
[4576'] i' n' — in to be very small relatively to n and n', and represent by,*
[4577] R =3r m'.P. sin.(i'n't — int + i'e'—is)}m'.P'.cos.(i'n't—int + i's'—is),
the part of the development of R, depending on the angle
i'n't — i nt\ i's' — i s ;
it will produce, in 6v, the inequality,
..„„ , comparison with ?r or n"' ; and this comes under the form [4569], by putting f = 3;
hence we get [4574—4576] ; observing in [4576], that n^ = n" + 180<f.
* (2710) Using the value Tg = i'n' t — i nt + i'^ — i s [4019a], and (j, = 1 [3709] ,
we find that the tenns of i2, Se, eSzs, which correspond to each other in [1287,1288,1297],
become,
[45776] R = "*'• P sin ^9 + '">''• P c°s ^9 ;
14577c] , e = "^4^ . 5 _ (^) . Sin. T, (f) . cos. T, \ ;
m—m ( \de J \de J )
2 m. an , , . .
^V=rrrr7.< , h [4578]
Vl.xv.H2J VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. S27
— ( — V COS. {i'n' t — int\i' ^ — is — nt — s + ra)
and in 6 v', the inequality,*
, , ( — ( —A . COS. (i' n' t — int4i's' — is — n't — s' + ra')
, 2m. an' \ \de'J ^ ^ ' \
6v'^ T; ' ^ , >. [4579]
^^" = ^$S. • 1 O •^°^ ^« (S) • ^'" ^^ 1 • f4577d]
Substituting these in 8v [4556], using for brevity, W=znt\s — w [3702a], and
reducing, by [22, 24] Int. we get, as in [4578],
„ , (— ("— Vrsin.Tg.sin.fF+cos.rgcos.fF),
tnin }_./^V(sii,.2'9.C0S.fr— C0S.r9.sin.fF)<
2m'. an ( /dP\ ,_, „^, , /dP'\ . ,^ „n >
* (2711) Proceeding in the same manner as in [4558a — c], and using Tg [4577a],
we have,
àTg= — indt, à'T^==i'n'dt; [4578a]
hence the differential of It [45776], relative to the characteristic d, becomes,
dK = — m'.in.{P.cos.T9 — P'.sin.rg^ [45786]
Substituting this in m'.à'R'= — m.dR [4558i — c], we get,
d' «' = m . i n . { P. cos. Tg — P'. sin. Tg } . [4578c]
Integrating this, relatively to d', and observing that the divisor i'n' is, by hypothesis,
very nearly equal to in [4576'], we get, for the corresponding terms of R', depending
on the angle Tg, the following expression ;
R' = m.{P. sin.Tg + F. cos. Tg]. [4578rf]
From this value of R' we may compute 5 v', in the same manner as we have found S v
[4578], from R [45776]. It will, however, be rather more simple to use the principle of [4578e]
derivation, by observing, that if we take the differential coefficient of R [4577è], relative
to e, multiply it by 2andt, then take its hitegral relative to t, and change Tg into
Tg — W, it will become equal to S v [4577e]. In like manner, if we take the differential Mgyg^,
coefficient of JÎ' [4578rf], relative to e', multiply it by 2a!n'dt, take its integral relative
328 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
It follows also, from ^71, book ii. that the same terms of R [4577]
produce, in 6 s, the inequality,*
[4580] 5 s = .—. :
' — ^ .cos .(i'n't— i u t4 i' s' — i I — n t — e n) )
— (\ . sin. (i' 7i't — int^i's' — is — nt — s + n) \
y being the tangent of the respective inclinations of the orbits of m and m',
[4580'] and n the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of m' upon that
of m [42956— c].
If we increase the argument of the inequality of 6 v [4578], by
[4580"] nt { s — ra, and multiply its coefficient by e ; also, if we increase the
argument of the inequality of 6v' [4579], by n't + s' — ■us', and multiply
[45811 its coefficient by — ^— . e' ;t lastly, if we increase the argument of the
■■ ■' m \/a "^
inequality of 6 s [4580], by nt\i — n, and multiply its coefficient by
— 2/, the sum of these three inequalities will be.
[4582]
Qm'.an
'+^•(f)+«■•(")+^Q^™'■<'■■»■''•»'+^"■")l
to t, and afterwards change Tg into Tg — TV [.3726a], it will produce the following
expression of & v', which is equivalent to [4579] ;
l"»^l *"'=l5^ h (© ■ »■ (''."'■) + Q • ''■•■ (T,rr)f
* (2712) If we put, for brevity, T.2 — i'n't — int{'A—gè;, also 7 = tang, ip/
[4580a] ["1337'^ 3739] . the assumed value of R [1337"] becomes, R = m'.k .jK cqs.%.
[45806] Substituting this in the expression — fi — ] . andi, we find that it becomes equal to the
expression of s or 5 s [1342] ; provided the angle T, be decreased, after the integration,
by the quantity v — Ô/, or by the angular distance of the body m from the ascending node
of the orbit of Î»' upon that of ?« [1.337']. In the present notation v — 0/ is represented
by the quantity nt\s — n, neglecting terms of the order e [429.5i — c]. The same
process being performed upon the assumed value of R [4577], produces the expression of
6s [4580].
[4581a] t (2713) This factor is equal to ^^^'.«'[4560/].
VI. XV. §42.] VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. 329
Now, P and P' are homogeneous functions of e, e', 7, of the dimension
i' — i, and i' is supposed greater than i ; therefore the preceding function
is equal to,*
'2m!.an.{i'—i) ^ ^_p ^^^(■^^,f_ j,j^_)_^v^.,_ • ^^ _^p,_ sin. {i'n't—int+i's'—i 1 . [4583]
Now we have, in àv, the inequality, [1304],
'^'^— p""^ — ^ • S f* ^°^ (*'"'^ — î'nif iV — i £) — P'. sin. (iV/ — int+i's' — is) \ ; [4584]
hence it follows, that if we represent by
6v = K. sin. (i' n't — i nt\i' i'—iB — nt — i\ O), [4585]
the inequality of 6 v, depending on the angle i'n't — in t + i'^' — i s — n t — £ ;
and by
5 v' = K'. sin. {i' n' t — int + i s' — z ; — n' t — s'+ O),
the inequality of &v', depending on the angle i'n't — int\i'i' — z's — 71' t — s'; [4586]
lastly, if we represent by
6s = K". sin. (i! n't — int^i' s — z s — nt — e + 0"), [4587]
the inequality of à s, depending on the angle i'n't — i nt + i's' — is — nt — s,
we shall have,t
Ke . sin. (i' n't — int { i' i — is — « f O)
+ '^'. K' e'. sin. (i' n' t — int + i' s' — is— ^'+ O')
—2 K" 7 . sin. (i' n't — int + i's' — is — n{ O") ^''^^^^
= _ U^Illl.H. ^''"'~"'^ . sin. (if n't — i nt + i' s' — is + Q);
* (2714) From [957'"] it appears, that any part of B, depending on angles of the
form i'n't — int, must be composed of terms in e, e', 7, of the orders i' — i, ^ ^^
i' — Ï + 2, &IC. ; and by neglecting all, except the first, on account of their smallness, they
must be of the order i' — i; and therefore homogeneous in these quantities. Now, if we rrpoii
put, in [1001a], a = e, «'= e', a"=y, m = i' — i, and then, successively, .^''':= P,
d^')= P', we get,
«•(f)+''(S)+(f)=P^)
Substituting these in [4582], we obtam [4583].
t (2715) The first member of [4588] is equal to the sum of the inequalities ôv, èv',
VOL, III. 83
330 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4588']
n
IS
6v = H. sin. (i' n' t — i n t \ i' s' — i « + Q) being the inequality of 6 v
depending on the angle i' n' t — int + i' s — i^ .
The quantity 5 n' — 2 n [4076/i] is very small in comparison with
^'^^^^"^ and we have, in àv [4282], the inequality,
[4589] àv = l %690443 . sin. (5 n' < — 3 n i + 5 s' — 3 s + 43" 1 8 "■ 32').
^,^^^^^, The inequality 6 s [4283'], depending on 5n't — 3nt + ôs' — 3e,
Venus. insensible; and we have, in 6v' [4293] , the inequality,
[4590] Sv' = — 0',333596 . sin. ( 4 n' < — 2 n/ + 4 s' — 2 ^ — 39' 30'" 30').
Lastly, we have, in ô v [4283], the inequality,
[4591] 6t)= 8',483765 . sin. (.5 n't — 2nt + 5.' — 2. — 30" 1 3 36').
In this case ?''= 5, i = 2 [4584,4591]; and we have, by what precedes
[4585 — 4591], the following equation of condition;
r,690i43. e . sin. (5 n' t — 2nt + 5 s' — 2 i —^ + 4^3' 18'" 32')
[4592] — 0',333596.e'. "'^.sin.(5n'i — 2ni + 5£' — 2s_^'_39''30'"300
= _ 8',483765 . ■^"'"'^" ^. sin. (5 n7 — 2 n^ + 5 / — 2 . — 30" 13"' 360
71
The first member of this equation is,*
[4593] 0%359753 . sin. (5 n' i — 2 w i f 5 e' — 2 s — 28" 27"" 33') ;
the second member is,
[4594] 0',3605 . sin. (ôn't — 2nt + ô s'— 2 s — 30" 13'" 36') ;
and their difference is insensible.
Ss, [4585,4586,45871; multiplied respectively by e, —  — . e', and — 2y; the
[4588a] '»•«
arguments being also increased by nt\s — w, n't^e' — ts', nt\s — IT, respectively,
according to the directions in [4530"— 4531]. Now, it is shown, in [4530"~4583J, that this
sum is equal to the expression [458.3], which is the same as that of &v [4584], multiphed
by — — . ( ) ; and if we suppose this expression of Sv to be reduced to the
[45886] '^^ \ " /
form [4588'], this product will be represented by the second member of [4588].
* (2716) This is easily olrtained, by reducing the two terms of the first member
[4593a] of [4592] into one, by the method [4282/t — /], after substituting the values m, m',
a, a', he. [4001,4079,4080].
VI. XV. §43.] VERIFICATION OF SEVERAL INEQUALITIES. 331
We may verify, by the preceding theorems, many of the corresponding
inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn ; but as all the inequalities of these two [4594']
planets have been verified several times, with much care, by different
computers, this last verification is unnecessary.
43. The inequality of m, produced by the action of m', and depending
on the argument n' t + ' — ^'j is expressed as in book ii. ^ 50, 55, by,*
à V = ^^ —  . (0,1) . e'. sin. (n' t + i' — «')• [4595]
The inequality of ?«', produced by the action of m, and depending on the
argument nt\£ — ct, is,
6 v' = " . (1 ,0) . e . sin. (Jl / + e — ra). [4596]
n.{n — n') ^ ' ^
[4596']
The coefficients of these two inequalities are, therefore, in the ratio of
— (0,1) . 7i\ e' to (\,0).n'\ e; now we have, in [1093],
therefore, if we put Q for the coefficient of the inequality 6 v [4595],
we shall find, that the coefficient of the inequality ôv' [4596], will be
represented by,
f^.î.Q [4595/]. [4598]
m. a ■' e
* (2717) The term of 5 ti depending on n't{s' — zs', is deduced from that in [1021],
depending on G'', by putting i := 1 ; whence we obtain,
Sv='^ . G<". e'. sin. {71' t + s'— ^'}. [4595„]
Now, from [1018, 1019, 1073], we have, in the case of i=l,
^"=«H^)*«H7^)=™r„(«'')= [45956]
G^,£^..^==„7:(^)(0.1) [4595.]
Substituting this value of G<'\ in 5v [4.595rt], it becomes as in [4595]. The value of Sv'
[4596] may be directly computed in a similar manner ; or it may be obtained more simply by
derivation from [4595] ; changing to, a, n, e, he. into m', a', n', e, &lc. ; and [4595rf]
the contrary ; observing, that by these changes, (0,1) becomes (1,0), according to the
332 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
The inequalities of this kind have been verified, either by means of this
equation of condition, or by that of the preceding expression of Q. Thus,
the action of Jupiter produces, in the earth, the sensible inequality [4307],
[4599] 6 v"= — 2',539884 . sin. (n" t + s"— ^").
This inequality, by what precedes, is represented by [4595],
[4600] 6 v"= ^^,^^.,_^..,^ . (2,4) . e\ sin. (n 1 + a «) ;
TheEarth ^^d wc havc (2,4) =6^947861 [4233]. If we substitute this, in [4600],
juiuer. also the values of n", tf\ é" [4077, 4080] ; then multiply the result by
the expression of the radius in seconds, we shall obtain,
[4601] âî)" = — 2',5401.sin.(?i''/; + e"'— ra'^).
The action of Uranus upon Saturn, produces, in the motion of Saturn, the
inequality [4466] ,
[4602] 5 î;v ^ _ p^oil647 . sin. {itH + i"— :='')•
Saturn
and
Uranus
„v „vo pV
Multiplying its coefficient by ^v73"' Ti [4'598], we obtain, in Uranus,
the inequality,
[4603] 5z;'i=0%214852. sin. (m'^ + s' — ^') ;
and the direct calculation has given, in [4525],
[4604] à v"' = 0',2 14857 . sin. (nU + i"— ^').
notation in [1085, &;c.]. Comparing the values of o v, & v' [4595, 4596] , we get the first
[4595e] expression of [4595/] ; and by substituting the value of (1,0) [4597]; also n^=zcri,
_9
n'^=a' ^ [3709'], we get successively the last expression [4595/], which is equivalent
to [4598];
. , (1,0) n'^e . m\/a n'^e m . a^ e
rdw^n à v= • . .01) = ; — , • —r, .ov = — — — r . , .ov.
L^^^^.'J (0,1) Ji3e' viVa' n3e' m'.a'^ e'
[4600o] * (2718) The expression [4600] is similar to [4595], changing m, m', &ic. into m",
m'", Stc.
Vl.x%'i. 5,41.] ON THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS AND MOON. 333
CHAPTER XVI.
OiN THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS AND MOON.
[4604]
44. One of the most important objects in the theory of the planets is the
determination of their masses ; and we have pointed out, in [4062 — 4076'],
the imperfections of our present estimation of these values. The most sure
method of obtaining a more accurate result, is that which depends on the
development of the secular inequalities of the motions of the planets ; but
until future ages shall make known these inequalities with greater precision,
we may use the periodical inequalities, deduced from a great number of
observations. For this purpose, Delambre has discussed the numerous
observations of the sun, by Bradley and Maskelyne ; from which he has
obtained the maximum of the inequalities produced by the actions of Venus, [4604"]
Mars and the moon. The whole collection of these observations of Bradley
and Maskelyne, makes the maximum of the action of Venus greater than
that which corresponds to the mass we have assumed for Venus [4061], in
the ratio of 1,0743 to 1 ; hence the mass of Venus is ■gyVe^aa of that of [4605]
the sun. The observations of Bradley and Maskelyne, when we take them Mass or
Venue.
separately into consideration, give nearly the same results ; therefore, it is
probable, that this estimate of the mass of Venus is not liable to an error of
a fifteenth part of its value. [460.5']
Hence it follows, incontestably, that the secular diminution of the
obliquity of the ecliptic approaches very near to 154"=49',9. To reduce
it, as some astronomers have done, to 105"= 34% we must decrease the [4606]
mass of Venus one half;* and this is evidently incompatible with the [4606]
[4604"
* (2719) This appears, by substituting q"= — M', t = \00 [4606], in [4074c];
whence we get, very nearly, — .34'= — 50' — 31V' j consequently, i>'= — h, nearly.
VOL. III. 84
[4606o]
334 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
observations of the periodical inequalities, produced by Venus, in the motion
[4606"] of the earth. The best modern observations of the obliquity of the ecliptic
are too near to each other, to determine this element with accuracy. The
observations of the Arabs appear to have been taken with much care. They
[4607] made no alteration in the system of Ptolemy ; but directed their attention
particularly to the perfection of the instruments, and to the accuracy of their
observations. These observations give a secular diminution of the obliquity
r.„«„ of the ecliptic, which differs but very little from 154"^49%9. This
[460/ ] .... .
diminution is also confirmed by the observations of Cocheouking, made in
China, by means of a high gnomon ; and it appears to me, that these
observations may be relied upon for their accuracy.
Delambre has also determined, by a great number of observations, the
[4607"] maximum of the action of Mars upon the motion of the earth. He has
Mass of found this action to be less than that which corresponds to the mass we
have assumed for Mars [4061], in the ratio of 0,725 to 1 ; making the
[4608] mass of Mars ^TTisa^? of that of the sun. This value is probably not
quite so accurate as that of the mass of Venus, because its effect is less ;
but, as the data [4076], from which we have determined the mass of Mars,
[4608] in [4075, &c.], are very hypothetical, it is important to ascertain the error
which might result from this cause, in the theory of the sun's apparent
motion. Now, the observations of Bradley and Maskelyne, combined
together, or taken separately, concur in indicating a diminution in the mass
of Mars ; therefore, we shall decrease the preceding inequalities, produced
[4609] by Mars, in the earth's motion, in the ratio of 0,725 to unity.
These changes, in the masses of Venus and Mars, produce sensible
alterations in the secular variations of the elements of the earth's orbit.
Longitude We find the longitude of the earth's perihelion to be represented by the
'p^ihe'Ln. following expression ;*
[4610] Long, perihelion © = ^"+ 1 . 1 P,807719 + t\ 0',00008 16482 ;
the coefficient of the equation of the centre of the earth's orbit is
represented by.
* (2720) The expression [4610] is computed as in [4331], changing the masses of
[4610a] Venus and Mars, as in [4605—4608]. The formulas [4611,4612] are computed in hke
manner as [4330, 4332], respectively.
VI. xvi. •§, 44.] ON THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS AND MOON. 335
Coeff. equat. centre © = 2^— ï.0',171793 — ^.0',0000068194. [461 1]
Lastly, the values of p" and (f [4332], become,
p'= t. 0',080543 + f. 0',000023 1 1 34 ; ^^^^2
q"= — ^0%521142 + i% 0',0000071196.
Hence it follows, from [4074c, 461 3«], that the secular diminution of the
obliquity of the ecliptic, in this century, is equal to 52',1142.* Using these
data, we find, by the formulas of ^ 31, f
^^t.\ 5b", 5921 + 3M 1 1 9 + 42556",2 . sin. {t . 1 55",5927 + 95°,0733)
— 73530",8. cos. (i.99", 1 227) — 1 7572",4. sin. {t . 43",0446)
[4C14]
= t . 50%412 + 2H7" 57^+ 13788^2 . sin. {t . 50%412 + 85''33"'570
— 2382.3,98.cos.(^.32%l]58)— 5693%5. sin. (i.l3^9465) ;
tPixcilT
. —^v, ,.... ^v..^ ,.. . , ..y...^^ ,^.^. , .^ ,^.^^j """'J
[4615]
+ 5082",7. cos (^ . 43",0446)— 28463",6 . sin. (^ 99", 1227)
Corrected
= 23'' 28*" 17%9— 1191',2 — 5892',8.cos. (i.50%412 + 85'* 33" 57^ o7'.r
precessioii
+ 1646%8 . cos. (i. 13%9465)— 9222»,2 . sin.(/.32',1158); JJJS
P
tic for the
year (,
ailer the
'= i .155",5927 + 3°,11019 — 3°,11019 .cos.(ï.99",1227) etocV
1750.
— 14282",3 . sin. (t . 43",0446)
[4616]
= ï.ô0%4120 + 2'^47'"57^ — 2'*47'"57^cos. (L32%1158)
— 4627^5 . sin. (M3^9465) ;
pApparent"!
L orbit. J
V'= 26°,0796 — 3676",6 .^1— cos. (< . 43",0446) ^
— 10330",4. sin. {t. 99", 1227)
[4617]
= 23''28'"17%9— 119P,2.p— cos.(Ll3%9465)
— 334^,05 . sin. (^.32%1 158).
* (2721) The chief term of the value of q" [4612] is — i.0%521142, and by
putting < ^100, it becomes q"^ — 52',1142. This represents, by [4074a — c], the secular [4613a]
variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic, corresponding to the second formula [4612]; in the
original work it is printed 160",85=52',1154, and it is thus quoted in [3380n].
t (2722) The formulas [4614 — 4618], are computed in precisely the same manner as
336 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
The increment of the tropical year, counted from 1750, is, then,
Increment
of the represented by,
[4618] Increment of the year = — 0'"'^000086354 . { 1— cos. (t . 13',9465) I
— 0''=^000442198 . sm.(t . 32^1158).
Hence it follows, that, at the time of HIpparchus, the tropical year icas
[4618'] 10^9528 sexagesimal seconds longer than in 1750. The obliquity of the
ecliptic was then greater by 955%2168. Lastly, the greater axis of the sun'' s
[4618"] orbit coincided with the line of equinoxes, in the year 4089 before our era ;
it tvas perpendicular to that line in 1248.
The mass of the moon has been determined by the observations of
the tides in the port of Brest ; and, although these observations are
[4619] far from being so complete as we could wish, yet they give, with
considerable precision, the ratio of the action of the moon, to that of the
sun, upon the tides of that port. But, it has been observed, in [2435 — 2437'],
that local circumstances may have a very sensible influence on this ratio, and
also on the resulting value of the moon's mass. Several methods have been
pointed out, in the second book, to ascertain this influence ; but they require
very exact observations of the tides. The observations which have been made
at Brest, leave, in their results, such a degree of uncertainty, as makes us fear
that there may be an error of at least an eighth part, in the value of the
moon's mass. Indeed, the observations of the equinoctial and solsticial tides,
^^'^^^^ seem to indicate, that the action of the moon upon these tides is augmented
one tenth part, by the local circumstances of the port. This will decrease,
[4621] '^y one tenth, the assumed value of ihe moon's mass ; and, in fact, it appears,
by several astronomical phenomena, that the assumed value [4321] is rather
too great.
The first of these phenomena is the lunar equation, in the tables of the
[4692] sun's motion. We have found, in [4324], 8',8298 for the coefficient of this
inequality, supposing the sun's parallax to be S^S [4322]. It will be
[4357— 4360, 4362], ahering the masses of Venus and Mars, as in [4605,4608]. We
have previously spoken of this change of the masses of tliese two planets, in [3380rt,&;c.],
[4614a] ^^^ j^^^g ^jg^ given the formulas of Poisson and Bessel [3380p,y], for the determination of
the precession and the obliquity of the ecliptic.
Vl.xvi. §44.] ON THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS AND MOON. 337
8',5767,* if the sun's parallax be 8^56, which is the value deduced [4622']
from the lunar theory, as will be seen in the following book. Delambre has
determined the coefficient of this lunar equation, by the comparison of a very
great number of observations of the moon, and has found it equal to 7',5. [4623]
If we adopt this value, and also the second of the above estimates of the
sun's parallax, which several astronomers have deduced from the last transit "lass.
of Venus over the sun's disc, we find the mass of the moon to be ^i ^ of [4624]
the earth's mass [4622&].
The second astronomical phenomenon is the nutation of the earth's axis.
We have found, in [3378a], the coefficient of the inequality of the nutation
to be equal to 10',0556;t supposing the mass of the moon, divided by the [4625]
cube of its mean distance from the earth, to be equal to triple the mass
of the sun, divided by the cube of the mean distance of the earth from the
sun [2706]. This makes the mass of the moon equal to ^i^^ of the earth's [4626]
mass [4321]. Maskelyne has found, by the comparison of all Bradley's
observations on the nutation, that the coefficient of this inequality is equal
* (2723) The coefficient of this inequality, neglecting its sign, is rv—, multiplied by
the radius in seconds 206265' [4.3141; and by substitutinsr — = f3r,and — =. ^.^'
■ ' ' •' ^ M 58,6 ' r" 3454"
1 m'snai [4622a]
[4321,432.3], it becomes ^^ X ^^A ' ^ 206265'. Putting this parallax equal to 8',8,
the coefficient becomes nearly equal to 8%8298 [4324] ; and by using the value of the
parallax 8", 56 [5589], the coefficient becomes 8',58 nearly, as in [4622']. To reduce
this to 7', 5, the value obtained by Delambre, we must decrease the moon's mass in the
7 5 1 1
ratio of the numbers 7', 5 to 8', 58, so that it will be equal to — ^x— ^— =7;=, [46226]
8,58 58,6 6/
instead of p^rK'f given by the author in [4624].
t (2724) The coefficient 31",036 = 10%0556 is computed, in [3376e], from the
formula — — . — = 10',0556 ; in which X=3 [3376,3079] represents the assumed [4625a]
ratio of the lunar to the solar force on the tide. This value of X is used, in [4319], in
computing the value of m [4321,4626]. Now, substituting X = 3, in [4625a], we
obtain,
~ = \x 10',0556 = 13%4074 ;
VOL. HI. 85
338 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS; [Méc. Cél.
[4627] to 9',55 ; and this result makes the moon's mass equal to y'y of the earth's
mass.
Lastly, the third astronomical phenomenon is the moon's parallax. We
shall see, in [5605], that the constant term contained in the expression of this
parallax, when developed in a function of the moon's true longitude, is
[4628] 3427%93; supposing the moon's mass to be ^^g of the earth's mass. Burg
has computed this constant term, by means of a very great number of
[4629] observations of the moon. He finds it equal to 3432',04 [5605] ; and, by
the formulas given in the next book, this result will be found to correspond
[4629'] with a mass of the moon, which is equal to ^lg of that of the earth.*
[46256]
substituting tliis value in the first member of the equation [4625rt], we get — — . 13',4074,
for the mitation, corresponding to any assumed value of X. If we put this equal to the vahie
Q'jSS, obtained by Maskelyne [4627], we get,
X 9,5500 , 9,5500 ^ ,.„ . , r , o j i.
[4 625cl r~rT^= . o ,r.~,. ; hence x= — — r = 2,4i6, instead oi X=:3, used above;
^ !{>■ 13,4074 cf,o574
and as the mass of the moon is proportional to X [3079] , it mil be reduced, from r^^
[^•^^^1]'^° .5^X35=71' as in [4627].
* (2725) The constant term of the parallax is — .(lfee) [5311] ; and by substituting
D / M \i
[4629a] the value of — [5324], it becomes of the form A . f j ; A being a function of the
known quantities a, e, he, which are independent of M, m. Now, by using the value of
— =^j— [4628], we obtain the constant term [5330'], corresponding to the latitude
whose sine is \/^ ; also the constant term 3427',93 [5605] of the horizontal parallax ;
hence we have,
[46296] ^. ^^^V=3427%93, and ./2=3447V32;
so that the constant term of the horizontal parallax is,
[46290] 344r,32.(^^)*.
Putting this equal to the constant term of Burg's tables 3442',44— 10S40^3432'',04
[5605], we get,
[4629^] '^= gig) = 1,01341 = 1 +^ nearly, as in [4629'].
Vl.xvi.§44.] ON THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS AND MOON. 339
Hence it appears, from all three of these phenomena, that we must decrease
a little tlic mass of the moon, deduced from the observations of the tides
at Brest ; therefore, the action of the moon on the tides in that port, is [4630]
sensibly increased by local circumstances. For the numerous observations,
both of the heights and intervals of the tides, do not permit us to suppose
this action to be less than triple the action of the sun.
The most probable value of the moon's mass, which appears to result
from these various phenomena, is gi^y of the earth's mass.* By using this [4631]
value, we find 7',572,t for the coefficient of the lunar equation of the solar [4632]
tables, and 3430%88,t for the constant term of the expression of the [4033]
moon's parallax. We also find 9',648 . cos. (longitude of the moon's node), [4634]
for the inequality of the nutation, and — 18%03.sin. (long, moon's node), ^ [4C35]
*■ (2726) Subsequent observations of tbe tides at Brest, induced tbe author to reduce
this value of X [3079], from X = 3 to X= 2,35333 [11905]; making the mass of the [463ia]
moon equal to jj.Vjrir of that of the earth [11906]; as we have aheady remarked in
[33806', &ic.]. We may observe, that the value of X= 3 [4318,4319] corresponds with [46316]
71» 1 ..ml
5ri=rr; [4321], and that X is proportional to m ; hence we get, m the case of — =— —
M 58,6 L J' IF ' o ' M 68,5 [4631c]
[4631], the value x=3. ^ = 2,566, as in [4637].
t (2727) This equation of the earth's motion is proportional to — [4314] ; and if
m 1 [4632a]
we suppose — = —  [4321], it becomes 8^,58 nearly, as in [4622'] ; but if we use
Jrl. OQjO
>K 1 58 6 [46326]
Ti.=^TT [4631], this equation becomes 8^,58 X ;;3V = 7'%34; which differs a little
Jn ob,o oo,o
from [4632].
X (2728) Substituting M=68,5.m [4631c], in the constant term of the moon's
parallax [4629f], it becomes 3447%32 . r^y= 3430^8, as in [4633]. Moreover, by [4633a]
substituting X= 2,566 [4631c], in the coefficient of the nutation [4625 J], it becomes,
'^ .13S4074=^^.13',4074 = 9%648, as in [4634]. [46336]
1+X ' 3,566"
§ (2729) The coefficients of the inequalities in the nutation and precession are
represented, in [3376e,/, 3378,3380], by _f^'' „„ — ^/^^ , .cot.2A ; which are to [4635a]
[4638]
340 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Ce].
for the inequality of the precession of the equinoxes. The ratio of the
[4636] moon's action on the tides to that of the sun is then 2,566 [4631c] ; and
as the observations of the tides in the port of Brest make this ratio equal
to 3 [46316], it appears evident that it is increased, by local circumstances,
[4637] in the ratio of 3 to 2,566. Future observations, made with great exactness,
will enable us to determine, with precision, these points, in which there
remains, at present, some slight degree of uncertainty.
Jupiter's mass appears to be well determined ; Saturn's has still some
degree of uncertainty [4635c], and it is a desirable object to correct it.
This may be done by observing the greatest elongations of the two outer
[4638'] satellites, in opposite points of their orbits, in order to have regard to the
ellipticity of the orbits. We may also use, for this purpose, the great
inequality of Jupiter [4417], when the mean motions of Jupiter and Saturn
shall be accurately determined ; for these mean motions have a very sensible
influence upon the divisor (5 n" — 2 n"y, which affects this inequality. It
appears probable, that the mean annual motion we have assigned to Jupiter,
must be increased, one or two centesimal seconds ; and that of Saturn,
decreased, by nearly the same quantity. The periodical inequalities of Jupiter
and Uranus, produced by the action of Saturn, afford also a tolerably
accurate method of determining the mass of Uranus.
The value we have assigned to the mass of Uranus, depends on the
[4641] greatest elongation of its satellites, which were observed by Herschel.
These elongations should be verified with great care.
With respect to Mercury's mass, we may use, in ascertaining its value, the
inequalities it produces in the motion of Venus. Fortunately, the influence
[4642] of Mercury on the planetary system is very small ; so that the error,
depending on any inaccuracy in this estimate of its mass, must be nearly
insensible.
[4639]
each other as 1 to — 2.cot.2A. Hence, if we suppose the inequality of the nutation to
[46356] ^^ 9^,648, as in [4634], that of the precession will be — 2x9%648.cot.2 A; and by
using 2A = 52°,1592 = 46''56"'35S8, it becomes — 18',03, as in [4635].
Before concluding this note we may observe, that the late estimates of these masses,
[4635c] ^^ different astronomers, have already been given in [4061 (/—m].
VI. xvii. <§> 45.] ASTRONOMICAL TABLES. INVARIABLE PLANE. 341
[4643]
CHAPTER XVII.
ON THE FORMATION OF ASTRONOMICAL TABLES, AND ON THK INVARIABLE PLANE OP THE
PLANETARY SYSTEM.
45. We shall now proceed to explain the method which must be used in
constructing astronomical tables. We have given the inequalities, in
longitude and in latitude, to a quarter of a centesimal second ; but the most
perfect observations do not attain to that degree of accuracy ; so that we may
simplify the calculations, by neglecting the inequalities which are less than
a centesimal second. We must form, by means of a great number of
observations, selected and combined in the most advantageous manner, the
same number of equations of condition, between the corrections of the
elliptical elements of each planet. These elements being already known, to
a considerable degree of accuracy, their corrections must be so small that we
may neglect their squares and higher powers ; and by this means the
equations of condition become linear.* We must add together all the
equations in which the coefficients of the same unknown quantity are
considerable ; so that from these sums we can form the same number of
fundamental equations as there are unknown quantities ; and then, by [4644]
elimination, we may obtain each of the unknown quantities. We can also
find, by the same method, the corrections which may be necessary in the
assumed masses of the planets. If the numerical values of the planetary
inequalities be accurately calculated, which may be ascertained by a careful
verification of the preceding results ; we may, with each new observation,
* (2730) We have given the form of an equation of this kind, in [849(f] ; and have
shown, in [84 9a — r], how to combine any number of them together, by the method of the [4644a]
least squares ; which process is now generally used, in preference to that in [4644].
VOL. III. 86
342 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
form another equation of condition. Then if we determine, every ten years,
the corrections resulting from the combination of these equations with all the
preceding ones, we may, from time to time, correct the elements of the
orbits ; and by this means obtain more accurate tables of the motions ;
[4645] supposing that the comets do not produce any alteration in the elements ;
and there is every reason to believe that their action on the planetary system
is insensible.
46. We have determined, in [1162'], the invariable plane, in which the
sum of the products of the mass of each planet, by the area its radius vector
describes about the sun, when projected upon this plane, is a maximum. If
we put 7 for the inclination of this plane to the fixed ecliptic of 1750, and
n for the longitude of its ascending node upon that plane, we shall have, as
in [1162'],
2 . OT . \/a.{\ — ef) . sin. (p . siu. ê
[4646]
[4647]
[4648]
[4649]
tang. 7 . sm. H:
tang. 7 .cos. 11:
2 . m.^a.(i— ee).COS. 9 '
2 . JW . ^«.(1 — ee) . sin. (p . COS. ê
2.OT.\/«.(1 — ee).COS.(p
The integral sign of finite differences 2 includes all the similar terms relative
to each planet. If we use the values of m, a, e, cp, and ê, given for each
of these bodies, in [4061 — 4083], we shall find, by these formulas,
7= l''35'"3P;
n=]02''57"'29\
Then, by substituting for e, tp, 6, their values, relative to the epoch 1950
[4081—4083, 4242, &c.], we shall obtain,
7= l''35'»3P;
n= 102'^ 57™ 15';
which differ but very little from the preceding values [4648]. This serves
as a confirmation of the variations we have previously computed in the
inclinations and in the nodes of the planetary orbits.
VI.xvm.§47.] ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS. 343
CHAPTER XVIII.
ON THE ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS UPON THE PLANETARY SYSTEM.
47. To complete the theory of the perturbations of the planetary system,
there yet remains to he noticed those, which this system suffers, from the [4G49']
action of the comets and fixed stars. Now, if we take into consideration,
that we do not accurately know the elements of the orbits of most of the
comets ; and, that there may be some, which are always invisible to us, by
reason of their great perihelion distance, though they may act on the remote
planets ; it must be evident, that it is impossible to determine their action.
Fortunately, there are many reasons for believing, that the masses of the
comets are very small ; consequently, their action must be nearly insensible.
We shall, therefore, restrict ourselves, in this article, to the consideration of
the action of the fixed stars.
For this purpose, we shall resume the formulas [930, 931, 932],
C / fl 7?\ ^ "\ exprès
a.cos.vfndt.r.ûn.v. j 2/di2 + r.r^j \ ) ^7^1,
— a. sin.v .fndt.r. COS. V. < 2fdR}r.(—\
[4650]
General
6r:^ 1_£_2_^. ^x) [4651]
t^ • \/l — ee
2r.d.ôr+dr.Sr 3a jr> , 2a „ ,^ /^7?\
5 — 7 .ffndt.dR] .fndt.r. ( — )
6V^ '^^^ ^—7— '— ^^; (Y) [4652]
V/l— ee ' ^ ^
^ ,, . /dR\ . . . /dR\
a. cos. V.J ndt.r.Hva.v.y — 1 — a. sm.v. J ndt. r .cos.r.( — j
S s = /./1 ^^ (^ [4653]
f^.y/l — ee
344 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
[4654]
We shall put m' for the mass of the star ; x', y', z', its three rectangular
coordinates, referred to the sun's centre of gravity ; r', its distance from
that centre ; a:, y, z, the three coordinates of the planet m ; and r, its
distance from the sun. We shall have, as in [3736],
[4655] R = >»'(^^'+yy'+~^ ') _ m!
Developing the second member of this equation, according to the descending
powers of r', we shall have,*
[4656] ^=—7 + jTT—i^' ^^ ,5 ' &C.
[4656']
We shall take, for the fixed plane, that of the primitive orbit of the planet ;
and we shall have, by neglecting the square of z,f
[4657] X = r . cos. V ; y = r . sin. v ; z = r s.
[46581 Putting I for the latitude of the star m', and U for its longitude, we
obtain, Î
[4659] a;' =r'. cos. Z. C0S.C7: ?/'=?•'. cos. /. sin. C/; 2' = r*. sin. /.
* (2731) Putting, for brevity, xx' \yy'\zz'=zrr'.f; and, as in [914'],
[4655a] a;2/f22 = 72, x'^+y'^ }z'^=r'%
we find, that the last term of [4655] becomes, by successive reductions, as in [4655c] ;
[46555] _„/.(.,'_:,)2+(y'_y)^+(z'_^)«f*=_m^{r'22r'r/^r«r*=p.{l2('^^')J"*
[4655c] __'_7?:;^^^^U?.™'.f^i^*'^^f _ &c.
r' r \ r'^ J 2 r' \ r'2 /
Substituting this in [4655], we find that the first term of [4655] is destroyed by the second
term of [4655c], and the whole expression of R becomes, by a slight reduction, as
in [4656].
t (2732) The values of x, y [4657], correspond with those found in [926'— 927].
[4657a] The value oî z^rs [4657] is the same as that in [931"], changing as into s, to conform
to the present notation.
\ (2733) The radius vector of the body m' is /, and its latitude above the fixed
[4659a] plane /. Hence it is evident, from the principles of the orthographic projection, that the
projection of r', upon the fixed plane, is /.cos./; and the perpendicular z', let fall from m'.
Vl.x™i447.] ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS. 346
Hence we deduce, by neglecting the descending powers of r', below Z"^,* [4059]
/?= — ^' + '1^' • )<2— 3.cos.=Z— 3.cos.=/.cos.(2i;— 2C/)— 65.sin.2/.cos.(vt7). [4(iG0]
Now, ?"', /, and U, vary nearly by insensible degrees ; hence, if we put R^ [4661]
for the part of R, divided by r'^, and neglect the square of the excentricity
of the orbit of m: also, the term dependine; on 5, which is of the order of
lb' [4661']
the disturbing forces, that m suffers by the action of the planets ; we shall
have,t
fAR==R ^^' . (2  3 . cos.^Z) ; [4662]
r.(g) = 2i?,  [4662]
upon the fixed plane, is equal to /.sin./, as in [4659]. Now, this projected radius r'.cos.l,
makes the angle U with the axis of x [4658, Sic], and 90'' — U with the axis of «/.
Hence we easily obtain expressions of x', y', similar to those of x, y [4657], and which
may be deduced from them, by changing r into r'.cos.l, and v into U, as in [4659].
[46596]
[4659c]
* (2734) Substituting the values of J", y, &c. [4657,4659], in the first member of
[4660a], reducing, developing and neglecting terms of the order s^, we get, by using
[24, 6, 31] Int. the following expressions,
\xx'\yy'\zz'l^^^r"r'^.\cos.I.(cos.v.cos.U\s\n.v.sm.V){s.sin.I\^ [4660a]
=r^/^. ^cos.Z.cos.(w — [7))s.sin. /}^
^7^r'^.{cos.^Lcos.^(« — [7)4 2s. sin. Z.cos.Z.cos.(« — U)l
=r2r'2.^cos.2Z.[+icos.(2i; — 2Z7)]+«.sin.2/. cos. («—[/)}. [4660i]
Now, the first and second terms of [4656], are the same as the first and second terms of
[4660] respectively ; so that if we neglect terms of the order mentioned in [4659'J, we
shall find, that the remaining part of [4656] becomes,
— ^ {xx'+y y'+z 2' p. [4660c]
Substituting in this the expression [4660e], it produces the three last tenns of il [4660].
t (2735) If we use the symbol R,, we shall have, from [4660,4661],
iî^=^Ç.j2 — 3COS.2/— 3cos.2Z.cos.(2y — 2f7) — 65.sin.2/.cos.(j;— Z7)i ; [4662a]
^= — ~'+^' [46626]
VOL. III. 87
346
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS;
[Méc. Cél.
[4662"]
Then, if we put n = 1, which is nearly equivalent to the supposition, that
the sun's mass is equal to unity [3709], we shall obtain from the formula
[4651],*
[4669e]
[4662rf]
[4662rf']
[4662e]
[4662/]
[4662e]
[4662^1]
[4662i]
[4662fe]
[4662 i]
[4662m]
[4662n]
[4662o]
[4662o']
[4662p]
[4662fl]
The characteristic d affects the elements of the orbit of the body m, namely, r, », s, inc. ;
but does not affect those of the body ?»', as r , I, U,hc.; hence the differential of [46626]
becomes, àR=àR^. Integrating this, and adding, as in [1012'], the constant quantity
m'g, to complete the integral, we get /dfi=/d/î,+ m'^. Now, as r', I, U, are nearly
constant, we may neglect their variations, and then the quantity di?, will be the complete
differential of /?, ; so that we may write R, for fdR/, hence the expression [4662f/]
becomes fdR^R^jm'g. If we neglect terms of the order e^, in the expression of
r [1256], it becomes as in [4664]; and if we substitute this in the expression of r^.dv
[1256], we easily obtain the expression of ndt [4664]. By inadvertence, the author has
given a wrong sign to the term depending on e, in the value of r [4664] , wliich in the
original work is r = a.{lje.cos.(D — ro). This affects the numerical coefficients of the
formulas [4666,4666',&tc.], but does not alter the general results [4669',4673,&.c.]. Putting,
for brevity, h equal to the coefficient of r"^, in the expression of R^ [4662a], we have.
h= ^.{2— 3. cos.^l— 3. cos.l.cos.{2v — 2U) — 6s. sm.2l. COS. {v—U)l
R.= h.i
whence
dR\
:2A r = .
r
we obtain the
Substituting this in the partial differential of R [4662è], relatively to
following expression,
\d^) \d^) ~ T '
multiplying this by r, we get [4662']. If we determine the constant quantity g, as in
[1016",&.c.],by making the coefficient of t vanish from the expression of ôv, we shall find,
by putting fj.=l, and neglecting e^, that the terms of 5v [4652], necessary to be noticed
in finding the constant quantity, are,
a.f{3fàR+2r.(~y.ndt.
Substituting the values [4662e, 4662'], it becomes, a ./{I R,{3m'g).ndt ; and if we
retain only the constant part of R,, the preceding expression will vanish, and we shall have
the constant part ot Sv equal to nothing, by putting 7 Ri\3m'g = 0; or m'g=^ — iH^r
Now, the constant part of R^ is evidently obtained, by putting r^=a, and retaining only
the two first terms of [4662a]. Hence we get,
, 7 m'. cfi , n o 7\
^*^="Ï27T(^~^'=°'')'
and fàR [4662c] becomes as in [4662]. In the original work the numerical coefficient
is — \, instead of — ^^.
* (2736) From [4662e, 4662'], we get.
VI.xnii.§47.] ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS. 347
6 r = 4 a . COS. v .fn dt.rR,. sin. v — 4.a. sin.i; ./n dt.rR,. cos. î;. [4663]
Substituting the following expressions [1256, 4662/, &c.],
r = a.\\e.cos.(v^)\; n dt = dv .{I— 2e .cos. (v — ^)\; [4664]
and neglecting under the sign /, the periodical terms, affected with the angle [4665]
V, we shall have,*
ndt.r.R,cos.v=^^\{(lhcos.H).e.cos.^hcos.H.e.cos.(^2U)]; [4666']
2/d /Î + r . (^) = 4 i?,+ 2 m'g. [4663a]
Substituting this in [4651], also ii=l, and neglecting c^, we get,
— =4. COS. ■y./'ri(/«.r iî,. sin. i; — 4.sin.i). AitZ^.rR^.cos.v
a "^ ' ^ ' [4663a ]
(2m'^.cos.t)./nf/<.r.sin.î) — 2mg.sm.v.f7idt.r.cos.v.
This differs from [4663], in the terms multiplied by g. The two expressions would agree,
if we were to take the arbitrary constant quantity g [4662d] equal to nothing ; but this J
would be inconsistent with [4662?t, 4668].
* (2737) From [4662/], we obtain ndt.rR,^h.ndt.r^. Now we have, by
neglecting e^ r^ = a^.\l — .3 e.cos.fw— «) [4664]; multiplying this by ndi [4664], [4666a]
we get,
ndf.r^=:a^.dv.\l — 5e.cos.(« — ■a)\; hence, ndt .rR = h.a^.dv.\\ — 5e.cos.(«j — ro)}. [46666]
Multiplying this successively, by s'm.v, and cos.d, we get, by reduction,
ndt .r R^. sm.v^= h .a^.dv .\s\n.v — f e.sin.a — f e.sin. (2« — ra); [4666c]
ndt . r R^ . cos.t) =h.a^.dv .\ cos.t) —  e . cos. is — f e . cos. (2 v — o)  . [4666rf]
The second of these expressions may be derived from the first, by augmenting each of the
angles v, zs, U, by 90'; as appears, by making this change in the second members ; no [4666e]
alteration being made in /, /, &c.; so that h [4662^] may remain the same. If we suppose
the plane of x y, to be the primitive orbit of m, the latitude « will be of the order of
the disturbing forces of the planets, which is neglected in [4661'] ; and then A [4662A:] is
composed of the two terms,
^.(2 — 3.COS.2/), _^3.3.cos.2Z.cos.(2t;— St;). [4666^]
Tliese are to be substituted in [4666c], and those terms retained, which do not contain the
348
PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4666"] which gives, by considering ïs, Z, r', U, as very nearly constant,^
5r 3m'.a^.v
[4667]  =
.{(1 — I . COS./). e . sin.(z) — w) — a. cos.'Z. e . siu.(t)4w — 2C7).
[4666i]
[4666fe]
[4667a]
[46676]
[4667c]
[4667d]
[4667e]
[4667/]
[4667gr]
[4667A]
angle v, or its multiples [4665] ; consequently, the first of these terms of h must be
combined with the second of [4666c] ; and the second of these terms of h, with the third
of [4666c] ; hence we shall have,
m'. a?, dv
[4666A] ndt. rR, . sin. v = •
4,. '3
.f— (2 — 3.cos2Z).Ae.sin.«— Ve.cos.2/.sin.(«— 2t7);
which is easily reduced to the form [4666]. In like manner we may compute [4666'] ; or,
we may obtain it much more easily, by derivation from [4666], by increasing the angles
V, «, V, by 90'', as in [4666e]. These results are free from the error in the value of r
[4662^] ; and if we compare them with those given by the author, in the original work, we
find, that we must multiply his expressions by — 5, to obtain those in [4666,4666'] ; or,
in other words, we must change e into — 5e, in his formulas.
* (2738) Putting, for brevity,
. 5m'. a^ ,, „ „,,
I5m.a? „
B^ —^— .COS. I . e ;
16r'3
we find, that the integrals of [4666, 4666'] become, very nearly,
f7idt.7R^.sïn.v= — ^î'. sin. 13 — 5u.sin.(^3 — 2U) ;
fndt.r R^.cos.v= — Av .cos.zi\Bv.cos.(Gs — 2U).
Multiplying the first of these expressions by 4.cos.i', the second by — 4.sin.K, and taking
the sum of the products ; putting
— sin. ra.cos.vjcos.a.sin.i) = sin. [v — to) ;
— sin.(« — 2U).cos.v — cos. (to — 2t/).sin.i) = — sin.(w + TO — '2U) ;
we get, for the terms in the first line of [4663a'], the following expression,
4 . cos. v.fndt .rR^. sin. i' — 4 . sin. « .fn di .rR^. cos. v
^4:.A.v.sm.(v — to) — 4.B .v.s\n.{v\a — 2U).
Again, if we multiply together the expressions of r and ndt [4664], neglecting e^, we
obtain,
ndt ,r =^ adv .\l — 3e .cos. [v — ^)}.
Multiplying this, successively, by sin.r, cos. d; reducing and retaining only the terms,
which are independent of the angle i', we get.
ndt.r.s'm.v = — adv. ^e.sm. a ;
fii dt .r.s'm.v = — a w .  e . sin. to ;
ndt .r.cos.v
adv .^e. COS. zi.
fndt.r. COS. d = — av.^c. cos. i
Multiplying these integrals, respectively, by 2?n'^.cos.D, — 2m'g.s'm.v ; taking the
sum of the products, and reducing, by means of [4667 J]; then substituting the value of
VI. xviii. § 47.] ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS. 349
Now we have,*
Sr
a
— ôe . COS. (v — ^) — e (5 3 . sin. (v — ^). [4668]
Secular
variations
Comparing together the two expressions [4667, 4668], we obtain,t iriïè
excentrici
ly ami
1 'Î m' /7^ï' perihelion.
5 e = '""■" . cos.^Z . e . sin. (2 ^ — 2U) ; [4669]
S^= _ iî^!i'.p_3 . cOS.^Z — I . COS.^Z. COS. (2^ — 2U)]. [4669']
Thus the action of the star m' produces secular variations in the excentricity and
in the longitude of the perihelion of the orbit of the planet m; but these variations
are incomparably smaller than those arising from the action of the other [4669"]
planets. For, if we suppose m to be the earth, r' cannot, by observation.
m'g [4662y], we finally get, for the second line of [4663a'],
2 m'g . cos . V .fn dt .r.s'm.v — 2 m'g . sin . î) .fn dt.r. cos. v
= 2m'g.^.ave . j — sin.w.cos. v + cos.ra.sin.i)  [4667i]
= m'g.^ave.sm.{v — «) = 9~^3~'^^ — f .cos.'^/j.e.sin. (w — «). [4667fc]
Adding together the expressions [4667e,^]; resubstituting the values of A, B [4667cr],
we get the complete value of — [4663rt'], as in [4667]. In the original work, the author [466/^]
.3 m'. a^v
makes the factor, which is without the braces, equal to V^ — ) instead of „ ,, »
and the numerical coefficient of the second term within the braces is erroneously printed
— f instead of — J. These mistakes are the consequences of using erroneous values of
g and ;■ [4662o', p].
[4667m]
* (2739) In finding the variation of r [4664], we must neglect that of v, arising from
the constant quantity g' [4662/i], and the expression becomes as in [4668] ; which is MQgg;,]
similar to [3876]. The signs of the terms in the second member of [4668], in the original
work, are incorrect, by reason of the mistake mentioned in [4662^].
[4669o]
t (2740) From [21] Int. we have,
sin.{f + 3— 2f7] =sin.[(y — îs) + (2w — 2t7)}
= sin. (v — ra) .COS. (2zs — 2U)\cos. {v — a) .sin. (2zi — 2U).
Substituting this in the last term of [4667], and then comparing separately, the coefficients
of sin. (i — 3j) and cos.(i' — w), in the two expressions [4667, 4668] ; we get, by a slight [46696]
reduction, the values of 6 e, ôtz [4669,4669']. These expressions agree with those given
VOL. III. 88
350 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
t 3
[4670] be supposed less than lOOOOOa, and then the term '^^^, does not exceed,*
[4671] m'^.0%000000001 ;
t denoting the number of Julian years. This is incomparably less than the
[4671'] secular variation of the excentricity of the earth's orbit, resulting from the
The ao action of the planets, which, by [4244], is equal to.
Stars has
[4672] — ^.0',093819,
no sensi
ble effect
ontheex uiiloss we suDDOsej that m' has a value which is wholly improbable. Hence
centrici J L
ties and
perihelia
of the
we may conclude, tJiat the action of the stars has no sensible influence on the
p'ian'e"ts. secular variations of the excentricities and perihelia of the planetary orbits.
[4673] In like manner, it is evident, from the development of the formula [4653],
that their action has not any sensible influence on the position of these
orbits.f
by Mr. Plana, in the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of London, vol.ii. p. 354 ;
which he deduced from the formulas [1253a]. Hence we see, that the method here
f4669cl proposed by La Place, to find 5e, Sw, when it is correctly followed, leads to an accurate
result ; and is not liable to the objection made by Mr. Plana, in the same page of that
volume, namely; that it is nowise fit for the intended purpose, without taking into view other
circumstances, which render the calculation more complicated. We may remark, that in
[4669(/] the original work, the factor y [4669], is printed J ; and, in [4669'], the factors —,
[4669e] — f.cos.% are changed into , — J. cos.®/, respectively
*■ (2741) The value of ?=100000a [4670], corresponds to an annual parallax of
[4671a] about 2'; and we have nearly «=1295977'.^ [4077]; substituting these in — j^
[4670], it becomes as in [4671] ; or simply, by supposing 7ft'= the sun's mass = 1,
^0',000000001.
The secular variation of c" [4330a], is nearly represented by,
[46716] ^.<= — i.(0%187638).^=— 0',093819.!: [4244,4672];
which is much greater than the expression [4671].
t (2742) If we substitute rs = z [4657], in R^, R [4662i, «], and retain only
*■ "•' the terms of R, containing z, we find,
[46736] R= jj^ .sm.2l.cos.{v — U), and f— j = — — ^ .sm.2/.cos.(t) — U) .
VI.xvrii.§47.] ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS. 351
PFe shall noio examine into the influence of the attraction of the stars on the
mean motion of the planets. For this purpose, we shall observe, that the
formula [4652] gives, in d.6v, the term* dAv = ^andt .R/, from [4674]
which we deduce the following expression,!
d.iv='^ .ndt. {2 — 5. co^.H]. [4675]
We shall put
r'=r;. (1aO; /=Z^. (1/30; [467G]
r' and / being the values of r' and /, in 1750, or when / = 0; we shall [407G']
have, in &v, the variation, f
6 V = ^^ . ri — # . cos.%) . a . ,1 f— ^^. sin. 2l.^.nt\ [4677]
Substituting this in S s [4653], we find that the terms are multiphed by the very small
factor of the order [4670,4671], which renders them insensible [4671'].
* (2743) This expression arises from the last term of 5v [4652], which, by neglecting
quantities of the order e^, and putting jj^I [3709], becomes,
2afndt.r. (^\ = 2afndt.2R, [4662'] . [4674a]
Its differential gives, in d.5v, the terra Aandt.R^, as in [4674]. This would be
increased to landt.R^, by noticing the term depending on fàR [4652], as we have [46746]
seen in [4662o']. This increases the terms [4675, 4677] in the ratio of 7 to 4.
m' r
t (2744) The two first and chief terms of R, [4662a], are ^ • (2— Z.cos.^l) .
Substituting the value of r [4664], we obtain the part rrj • (2 — 3. cos./), which [4675o]
does not contain v ; hence, the term of d.Sv [4674], becomes as in [4675].
Î (2745) The value of / [4676] gives cos.? =cos.(/,— p^/,) = cos./,fp^sin./,, [467Ga]
by using [61] Int. Squaring this, neglecting i^, and putting 2 . sin. /,. cos. /,= sin. 2/, [31] Int.,
we get cos.^I = cos.^/^ \^t sin. 2 Z, ; whence,
2 — 3.cos.2/ = 2.(l— f.cos.2/,)— 3(3/.sin.2/,. [46765]
If we now substitute the value of r' [4676], in the first member of the following expression,
and then develop it according to the powers of a, neglecting a*, we get,
^.ndt = —j^ .7idt.{llr3ot). [4676c]
352 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél
We cannot ascertain, by observation, the value of aï, but may determine that
of f3t. Now, if we suppose, relatively to the earth, f3=l"^ U%324, and
[4678] ,,' ^^ 100000 a ; the quantity ^ . ^nf becomes, very nearly,*
^/
[4679'] which is insensible, from the time of the most early observations on record.
The expression of d.&v, contains also, by what precedes, the terms, f
[4680] dM^=—i.m\a\ndLfAy^~.cos.{v—U)\—&tri;M\ndt.Sp^l.co^^^^^
Multiplying together the expressions [4676i, c], we get the value of d .&v [4675], nearly,
[4676d] tZ.5u=z — JL ,ndt.{\ — %.cos.H\A — .(1 — J.cos.^/J.an^t/i 7T.sm.2Lsnic/;.
We may neglect the first term of this formula, because we have taken the constant quantity
[4676c] ^ so as to make the coefficient of t vaftish from the expression of 5« [4662«]. Integrating
the other two terms of [4676c/], we get the value of h%) [4677].
* (2746) The assumed values of (3, r/, are taken within reasonable limits ; since the
value of p corresponds to an annual variation in tlie latitude of the star, of about a third of a
[4679a] sexagesimal second ; and the value of r/ to an annual parallax of nearly two sexagesimal
seconds. To reduce the expression [4678] to numbers, we have, in the case of i=\,
nt = circumference of the circle = C,2S.31 ; hence, generally,
[46796] „ < = 6,2831 .t; also, p t = 0',324 . t.
The product of these two expressions is,
[4679c] fi7i(^ = 2',0357 . t^
Substituting this, and rf=l0^.a, in the first member of [4679], it becomes as in the
[4679d] second member of that equation. This is wholly insensible in observations made 3000
years ago ; since, by putting t = — 3000, and 7«'=:1, it becomes less than O',00000002.
t (2747) If we now notice only the terms of R, R, [4662rt, b'\, depending on s, we
obtain,
[4680a] Rz= — f ."^ .«.sin.2/.cos.(i' — U) ; whence, r.f—j^ — 3.^^.s.sin.2/.cos.(t) — [').
If we substitute the value of r [4664], and neglect terms of the order es, we get,
[46806] R= — f.m'.a^. } ~^ — .cos.(« — Z7) ; r. f — 1 = — 3. ^ .s.sm.2/.cos.(«— t').
Now, if we put (J.= l, and neglect e^ ; noticing only the terms of [4652], where R
VI. xviii. §47.] ACTION OF THE FIXED STARS. 363
Now we have,*
s = t .— . sin. I' — tr cos.i) ; t^^^^]
(It (It
which gives, by neglecting the quantities multiplied by the sine or cosine of
the angle v,f
s.sin.2/ , y.^ ^ sin. 2/ (. dq . jj dp ^^^ tj\ .
[4682]
[4683]
consequently, t
,. , s. sin. 21 . rr\ , sin.2Z ^dq . ^r '^ V tt}
i d . ^3 • COS. (t' C/) = ^ . ^^. I ^ . sin.t/^^ . cos.f/ ^ .
Hence we obtain, in d.6v, the term,^
^.,^,=_l^î^^„^^^.sin.2^5^.sin.C7^.cos.f7^ [4684]
4 r^ i dt dt 3
[4G80c]
explicitly occurs, we get, for its differential,
dJjv = 3a.7idt.fdR~\2a.7idt.r. (77 )•
Substituting, in the first term of this expression, the value of R [46S0J], we get the first
term of [4680] ; and we obtain the last terni of [4680], by the substitution of the second L •' 1
expression [4680&] in the last term of [4680c].
* (2748) This expression is similar to that in [3802, Sic.]. We may remark, that the
author, in this article, has interchanged the usual signification of the symbols p, q [3802]. [4681n]
We have rectified tliis, by changing jj into q, and q into p, in all the formulas [4681 — 4685]
of the originLil work.
sin.2i
t (2749) If we multiply the expression [4681] by — ^.cos.(i' — U), and reduce
the products by [19, 20] Int., we shall obtain the equation [4682], by retaining only the [4682a]
terms which are independent of 1;; or in other words, by retaining only the terms sin.f/,
^cos.f^, of the expressions sin. v. cos. (» — U), and cos. v . cos. (u — U), respectively.
X (2750) If we neglect the variations of r', /, U, in the second member of [4682], the
sign d may be considered as the complete differential, and then the signs /d, mutually [46e3aJ
counteract each other, and they may be prefixed to the first member of [4682], without
altering its second member; hence we get [4683] from [4682].
§(2751) Multiplying [4683] by — ^ .m'.d^n dt, nnd [4682] by —Q.m'.({\ndt,
we find, that the sum of the products, or the second member of [4680], is as in [4684]. l'1684«
Integrating this, we get, [4685].
VOL. in. 89
354 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS ; [Méc. Cél.
consequentlj, we have, in 6 v, the secular inequality,
[4685] 5x, = . _^,nt\ sm. 2Z. \ /.sm.U — —  cos.t/ S .
8 r* I (It dt 5
We have given the values of — , j, [4332], relatively to the earth.
If we substitute them in the preceding term of &v [4685], we shall find
that it is insensible,* even in the most ancient observations.
* (2752) From [4332] it appears, that — , — , are each less than F, and sin. 2/,
sin.ZJ, cos.f^, do not exceed unity : tlierefore, sin.2/. < •— .sin.t/ — — .cos.U )■ , maybe
[4685a] ■' ' i dt dt <, ■'
considered as less than V ; and then, the expression [4635], neglecting its sign, becomes
21 m'.a?
less than — . —7 — .nt^.V ; which is found to be insensible, in [4679'].
8 r'3
Other terms of the like nature with those which have been particularly examined, in this
[46856] chapter, may be deduced fiom the formulas [4651 — 4653] ; but it is evident, from what we
have seen, that they must be excessively small ; so that it is hardly worth the labor of a
r../o^ 1 more thoroudi examination. The author himself, seems to have considered the subject as
[4685c] ° ... ...
not deserving much attention, and has been quite negligent in the numerical details of this
article ; so that it has been found necessary to correct the text in several places, as we have
[4685(/] already remarked. In writing the notes on this volume, soon after its first publication by the
author, I pointed out the mistakes in this chapter. It has since been done by Mr. Plana, in
vol. ii. p. 351 of the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of London, for 1826; and
[4685e] subsequently by La Place, in the Connaissance des Terns, for the year 1829, page 250. The
method used by Mr. Plana is more direct and simple than that of the author. It consists in
[4685/] substituting the value of R [4660], in the formulas [5787—5791], and making the necessary
reductions ; but, as the process is simple, it is unnecessary to enter minutely upon it.
Mr. Plana remarks, in page 355 of the work abovementioned, that the action of the
fixed stars affects the mathematical accuracy of the equation [1114],
[4685g] ''^ '» • \/» + e'^. m'.\/a'\ kc. = constant ;
as we have already remarked in [11 146]. This is evident ; for, if we increase the quantity
e, in the first member, by the expression &e [4669], the second member will be increased
by the quantity,
[4685?,,] ■2f.5e = ^^^ . cos.a/.t.s.n.(2:3 — 2t/), nearly;
which destroys the constancy of the second member. The same defect exists in the
equation [1134 or 1155].
VI.xviii.§47.] ACTION OF THE FIXED ST^VRS. 355
It is easy also, to satisfy ourselves, that the preceding results hold good,
relatively to those planets which are the most distant from the sun. Hence
it a)pears, that the action of the stars upon the planetary system, is so much [4680]
decreased, by reason of their great distance, that it is wholly insensible.
It now remains to compare with observations, the formulas of the
planetary perturbations, given in this book, and particularly those of the
two great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn. This comparison requires too
much detail for the limits of the present work; we shall, therefore, merely
remark, that before the discovery of these great inequalities, the errors of the ^
best tables sometimes amounted to thirtyfive or forty minutes ; and now they
do not exceed a minute. Halley had concluded, by the comparison of modern
observations, the one witli the other ; and also, by comparing the modern with
the ancient observations, that Saturn's motion is retarded, and Jupiter's
accelerated, from age to age. On the other hand, Lambert ascertained, from
the comparison of modern observations alone, that Saturn's motion was then [4088]
accelerated, and Jupiter's motion retarded. These phenomena, apparently
opposed to each other, indicated, in ihc motions of the two planets, great
inequalities of a long period, of which it was important to know the laws and the
cause. By submitting to analysis their mutual perturbations, I discovered
the two principal inequalities [4i34, 4492] ; and perceived, that the
phenomena, observed by Halley and Lambert, naturally arise from them ;
and, that they represent, with remarkable accuracy, both ancient and modern
observations. The magnitude of these inequalities, and the great length of
the period of revolution, to complete v.'hich requires more than nine hundred
years, depend, as we have seen, on the nearly commensurable ratio which
obtains between the mean motions of Jupiter and Saturn. This ratio gives
rise to several other important inequalities, which I have determined, and these
inequalities have given to the tables the precision they now have. The same
analysis, being applied to all the other planets, has enabled me to discover, in
their motions, some very sensible inequalities, which have been confirmed by
observation. I have reason to believe, that the preceding formulas, computed
with particular care, will give a still greater degree of precision to the tables
of the motions of the planetary bodies.
IVriiiS cl'
diflcit'iii
ufilerà.
[4693]
SEVENTH BOOK,
THEORY OF TriE MOON.
The theory of the moon has difficulties peculiar to itself, arising from
the magnitude of its numerous inequalities, and from the slow convergency
of the series by which they are determined. If tlie body were nearer to
the earth, the inequalities of its motion would be less, and their approximations
more converging, But, in its present distance, these approximations depend
on a very complicated analysis; and it is only by a very particular attention,
and a nice discrimination, that we can determine the influence of the
successive integrations, upon the various terms of the expression of the
disturbing force. The selection of coordinates is not unimportant for the
[4692] success of the approximations. The sun's disturbing force depends on the
sines and cosines of the moon's elongation from the sun, and on its multiples.
Their reduction to sines and cosines of angles, depending on the mean
motions of the sun and moon, is troublesome, and has but little convergency,
on account of the moon's great inequalities. It is, therefore, advantageous
to avoid this reduction, and to determine the moon's mean longitude in a
function of the true longitude, which may be usciul on several occasions.
We may, then, if it be required, determine accurately, by inverting the series,
the true longitude, in a function of the mean longitude. It is in this way
we shall consider the lunar theory.
To arrange conveniently these approximations, we shall divide the
inequalities, and the terms which compose them, into several orders. We shall
consider as quantities of the first order, the ratio of the sun's mean motion to
that of the moon, the excentricity of the orbit of the moon or earth, and the
inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic. Thus, in the expression of the
mean longitude, in a function of the true longitude [5574 — 5578], the
principal term of the moon's equation of the centre is of the first order
[5574]. The second order includes the second term of that equation : the
vil. Introd.] INTRODUCTION. 357
reduction to the ecliptic ; and the three great inequalities, known under
the names of variation, erection, and annual equation [5575]. Tlie ^ *' ■'
inequalities of the third order are fifteen in number [5576]. The present
tables contain all these inequalities, together with the most important ones of
the fourth order; and it is on this account, that they correspond with the
observations made on the moon, with a degree of accuracy that it will be
difficult to surpass ; and to this great correctness we are indebted for the
important improvements in geography and nautical astronomy.
The object of this book is to shoio, in the first place, that the law of
universal gravity is the only source of all the inequalities of the lunar
motions; and then, to use this law as a method of discovery, to perfect the
theory of these inequalities, and to deduce from them several important
elements of the system of the ivorld ; such as the secular equations of the
moon, the parallaxes of the moon and sun, and the oblateness of the earth.
A judicious choice of the coordinates, and well conducted approximations,
with calculations made carefully, and verified several times, ought to
give the same results as those derived from observation ; if the law of
gravity, inversely as the square of the distance, be the law of nature.
We have, therefore, endeavored to satisfy these conditions ; which require [4(i95]
the consideration of some very intricate points ; the neglect of which is
the cause of the discrepances, that have been observed in the previously
known theories of the moon. It is in these points, that the main difficulty
of the problem consists. We may easily conceive of a great many
diffijrent and new methods of expressing the problem by equations ; but
it is the discussion of all those terms, which are of themselves very small,
and acquire a sensible value, by the successive integrations, which constitutes
the important and difficult part of the process, when we endeavor to
make the theory agree with observation ; which should be the chief
object of the analysis. We have determined all the inequalities of the first,
second and third orders, and the most important ones of the fourth order,
continuing the approximation to quantities of the fourth order inclusively ;
and retaining those of the fifth order, which arise in the calculation. For
the purpose of comparing this analysis with observation, w^e may observe,
that the coefficients of Mason's lunar tables are the result of the comparison
of the theory of gravity with eleven hundred and thirtyseven observations [\g^m;]
of Bradley, made between the years 1750 and 1760; that the eminent
VOL. III. 90
[4697]
[4698]
358 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
astronomer Burg has rectified these tables, by means of more than three
thousand of Maskelyne's observations, from 1765 to 1793; and, that the
corrections he has made are small ; with the addition of nine equations,
indicated by the theory. The tables of both these astronomers are arranged
in the same form as those of Mayer, of which they are successive
improvements : and we ought, in justice to this celebrated astronomer, to
observe, that he was not only the first, who constructed lunar tables,
sufficiently correct to be used in the solution of the problem of finding the
longitude at sea, but also, that Mason and Burg have deduced, from his
theory, the methods of improving their tables. The arguments are made to
depend on each other, in order to decrease the number of them. We have
reduced them, Avitli particular care, to the form which is adopted in the
present theory ; that is, to sines and cosines of angles, increasing in proportion
to the moon's true longitude. By comparing these results with the
coefficients of the present theory, we have the satisfaction of perceiving,
that the greatest difference, which, in Mayer's theory, one of the most
accurate heretofore published, amounts to nearly one hundred centesimal
seconds [=32',4], is here reduced to thirty [9',8], relative to the tables
of Mason, and to less than twentysix centesimal seconds [^8',3], relative
to the still more accurate tables of Burg. We could diminish this difference,
by noticing quantities of the fifth order, which have some influence, as may
be known by inspecting the terms of this kind already calculated. This is
proved by the computation of the two inequalities [5286'", &c.], in which we
have carried on the approximation to quantities of the fifth order. The
present theory agrees yet better with the tables, relative to the motion in
latitude. The approximations of this motion are more simple and converging
than those of the motions in longitude ; and the greatest difference between
the coefficients of my analysis and those of the tables, is only six centesimal
seconds [= l',9], so that we may consider this part of the tables as being
founded upon the theory itself. As to the third coordinate of the moon, or
[4700] its parallax, we have preferred, without hesitation, to form the tables by the
theory alone, which, on account of the smallness of the inequalities of the lunar
parallax, must give them more accurately than they can be olitained by
observation. The differences between the results of the present theory and
those of the tables, express, therefore, the differences between this theory and
that of Mayer, which has been adopted by Mason and Burg. These
differences are so small that they are hardly deserving of notice ; but, as the
[4699]
vil. Introil.] INTRODUCTION. 359
present theory agrees better with observation than Mayer's, in the motion in
longitude, there is also reason to believe, that it possesses the same advantage ' '
relative to the inequalities in the parallax.
The motions of the perigee and nodes of the lunar orbit, afford also a
method of verifying the law of gravity. In the first approximation to the
value of the motion of the perigee, by the theory of gravity, it was found,
by mathematicians, only one half of what it was known to be, by observation ;
and Clairaut inferred, from this circumstance, that we must modify the law of r4702'
gravity, by adding to it a second term. But he afterwards made the important
remark, that by continuing the approximations to terms of a higher order, the
theory would be found to agree nearly with observation. The motion,
deduced from the present analysis, differs from the actual motion only a four
hundredth part [5231 J ; the difference is not a three hundred and fiftieth part ^
in the motion of the nodes [5233'].
Hence it incontestabhj follows, that the laiv of universal gravitation is the
sole cause of the lunar inequalities. Now, if we consider the great number
and extent of these inequalities, and the proximity of the moon to the earth,
we must be satisfied, that it is, of all the heavenly bodies, the best
adapted to confirm this great law of nature, as well as to show the power of [47041
analysis, that wonderful instrument, without the aid of which it would be
impossible for the human mind to penetrate into so complicated a theory, and
that can be used, as a means of discovery, as sure as by direct observation.
Among the periodical inequalities of the moon's motion in longitude, that
which depends on the simple angular distance of the moon from the sun is [1705]
important, on account of the great light it throws on the sun's parallax. It
has been determined by the theory ; noticing quantities of the fifth order,
and also the perturbation of the earth by the moon, which are indispensable [4'OC]
in this laborious research. Burg found this inequality to be 122,38, by the
comparison of a very great numl)er of observations. If we put this equal to
the result by the theory, we obtain 8',56, for the sun's mean parallax ; being [4707]
the same as several astronomers have found, from the last transit of Venus
over the sun [5586].
An inequality, which is not less important, is that which depends on the
longitude of the moon's node. Mayer discovered it by observation, and
Mason fixed it at 7',7 ; but, as it did not appear to depend on the theory [4708]
360 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
of gravity, it was neglected by most astronomers. A more thorough
examination of this theory led me to the discovery, that its cause is the
oblateness of the earth. Burg found it, by a great number of Maskelyne's
[4709] observations, to be 6,8 ; which corresponds to an oblateness of aëi.ôT
[5593].
We may also determine this oblateness, by means of an inequality in the
moon's motion in latitude ; which I discovered also by the theory ; and
[4710] which depends on the sine of the moon's true longitude. It is the result of
a nutation in the lunar orbit, produced by the action of the terrestrial
spheroid, and corresponds to that produced by the moon in our equator ; so
that the one of these nutations is the reaction of the other : and, if all
the particles of the earth and moon were firmly connected together, by
inflexible right lines, void of mass, the whole system Avould be in equilibrium
about the centre of gravity of the earth, in virtue of the forces producing
these two nutations : the force, acting on the moon, compensating for
its smallness, by the length of the lever to which it is attached. We
may represent this inequality in latitude, by supposing the lunar orbit, instead
of moving uniformly on the ecliptic, with a constant inclination, to move,
with the same conditions, upon a plane but little inclined to the ecliptic, and
which always passes through the equinoxes, between the ecliptic and
equator : a phenomenon which occurs in the theory of Jupiter's satellites,
in a still more striking manner. Thus, this inequality decreases the
[4712] inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic, when the ascending node
of that orbit coincides with the vernal equinox. This inclination is
increased, when the ascending node coincides with the autumnal equinox,
which was the case in 1755; in consequence of which, the inclination, as
it was found by Mason, from 1750 to 1760, is too great. This point has
been determined by Burg, by observations made during a much longer
interval, noticing the preceding inequality ; and he has found the inclination
[^^^"^1 to be less, by 3 ,7. At my request, this astronomer has undertaken to
determine the coefficient of this inequality, by a very great number of
observations ; and he has found it to be equal to — 8". The oblateness of
[4714] the earth, deduced from it, is ^^t.t [5602], being very nearly the same
as that which is computed from the preceding inequality of longitude,
Thus, the moon, by the observation of her motions, renders sensible to
modern astronomy the ellipticity of the earth, whose roundness was made
VII. Introd.] INTRODUCTION. 361
kiioAvu to the early astronomers by her eclipses. The experiments on the
pendulum seem to indicate a less oblateness,* as we have seen in the third
book. Tills difference may depend on the terms by which the earth varies
from an elliptical figure ; m hich may have some small effect in the expression
of the length of the pendulum, but is wholly insensible, at the distance of
the moon.
The two preceding inequalities deserve every attention of observers ;
because they have the advantage over geodetical measures, in giving the
oblateness of the earth, in a manner which is less dependant on the
irregularities of its figure. If the earth were homogeneous, these inequalities
would be much greater than they are found to be by observation. They l"*'^^!
concur, therefore, with the phenomena of the precession of the equinoxes,
and the variation of gravity at the surface of the earth, to exclude its
homogeneity. It results also, that the moori's gravity towards the earth, is
composed of the attractions of all the particles of the earth; ivhich furnishes
another proof of the attraction of all the particles of matter.
Theory combined wàth experiments on the pendulum, the geodetical
measures, and the phenomena of the tides, make the constant term of the
expression of the moon's parallax less than by Mason's tables. It differs but [4716]
very little from that which Burg computed from a great number of observations
of the moon, of eclipses of the sun, and of occultations of stars by the moon.
It is only necessary to decrease a little the mass of the moon, which was
determined by the phenomena of the tides, to make this constant term
coincide with the result of that skilful astronomer. This diminution is also [4717]
indicated by the observations of the lunar equation of the solar tables, and
by the nutation of the earth's axis. This seems to prove, that in the port of
Brest, the ratio of the moon's action on the tides to that of the sun, is
sensibly increased by local circumstances. Future observations of all these
phenomena will remove this slight degree of uncertainty.
One of the most interesting results of the theory of gravity, is the
knowledge of the secular inequalities of the moon. Ancient eclipses
* (2753) Later and more accurate observations give a different result, as may be seen, [4715a]
by referring to [201 7ji, 2056î, &:c.].
VOL. III. 91
[4718]
362 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4719]
indicated, in the moon's mean motion, an acceleration ; the cause of which
was sought for a long time in vain. Finally, I discovered, by the theory,
that it depends on the secular variations of the excentricity of the earth's
orbit. The same cause decreases the mean motions of the perigee and nodes
of the moon, while her mean motion is increased ; so that the secular
equations of the mean motions of the moon, the perigee and the nodes,
[4720] are always in the ratio of the numbers 1, 3 and 0,74 [5235]. Future ages
ivill develop these great inequalities, which are periodical, like the variations
of the excentricity of the eartli's orbit, upon which they depend. These
will finally produce variations which amount, at the least estimate, to
a fortieth part of the circumference [d''], in the moon's secular motion;
[4721] and to a twelfth of the circumference [30''], in that of the perigee.
Observations have already confirmed these secular inequalities in a
remarkable manner. The discovery of them induced me to believe, that
we must diminish, by fifteen or sixteen centesimal minutes, the present
secular motion of the moon's perigee, which astronomers had determined,
[4722] by comparing modern observations with ancient ones. All the observations,
which have been made during the last century, have put beyond doubt, this
result of analysis. We see, in this, an example of the manner in which the
phenomena, as they are developed, throw light upon their true causes. When
[4723] the acceleration of the moon's mean motion only was known, it could be
attributed to the resistance of the ether, or to the successive transmission of
gravity ; but analysis shows us, that both these causes produce no sensible
alteration, either in the mean motion of the nodes, or in that of the lunar
perigee : this is a sufficient reason for rejecting them, even if we were
ignorant of the true cause. The agreement of the theory with observations,
proves, that if the moon's mean motion is affected by any causes, besides the
action of gravity, their influence is very small, and is not yet perceptible.
[4724]
This agreement establishes, with certainty, the constancy of the duration
of a day ; which is an essential element in all astronomical theories. If
this duration were now one hundredth part of a centesimal second [or 0',864]
[4725] more than in the time of Hipparchus, the duration of the present century
would be greater than in his time, by 365i centesimal seconds [or 315',576].
[4725] In this interval, the moon would describe an arch of 173',2, and the present
mean secular motion of the moon, would appear to be augmented by the
VII. Introd.] INTRODUCTION. 363
same quantity. This would add 4,4* to the secular equation, which is [472G]
Ibuiid, by the theory, to be 10',1 81621 [5543], in the first century after the
year 1750. This augmentation is incompatible with the best observations,
which do not permit us to suppose, that the secular equation can exceed, by
V,62, the result of the analysis [5543]. We may, therefore, conclude, that
the duration of the day has not varied a hundredth part of a centesimal [4727]
second, since the time of Hipparchus ; which confirms what has been found
a priori, in book v. ^ 12 [3347,&.c.],by the discussion of all the causes which
could alter it.
To omit nothing which can have an influence on the moon's motion,
we have considered the direct action of the planets upon this satellite, and
have found, that it is of very little importance. But the sun, by transmitting
to the moon the action of the planets on the elements of the earth's orbit,
renders their influence on the lunar motions very remarkable, and makes it much [4728]
greater than on the elements themselves ; so that the secular variation of the
excentricity of the earth's orbit is much more sensible, in the moon's motion,
than in the earth's. It is in this manner, that the moon's action on the earth,
which produces, in the earth's motion, the inequality known by the name of
the hmar equation, is, if it may be so expressed, reflected back to the [4729]
moon, by means of the sun, but decreased in nearly the ratio of five to
nine [5226]. This new consideration adds some terms to the action of the
planets on the moon, which are of more importance than those depending
on their direct action. We have investigated the principal lunar inequalities,
resulting from the direct and indirect actions of the planets upon the moon ; [4/30]
* (2754) If we neglect tlie term of the secular equation [5543], depending on P, and
put (7=10', 181621, we may represent the moon's mean motion, in i centuries after 1750,
by ni {ai. If we substitute in this successively, i^ — J, i = j, and take the "'
difference of the two results, it will be found equal to n, whicii must, therefore, represent
the motion between 1700 and 1800. In like manner, by putting successively i= — 20,
i^ — 19, and taking the difference of the two results, we get n — 39 a, for the motion in the
century included between the years 250 and 150 before the Christian era. The difference
of these two results 39 a, represents the augmentation of the secular motion between these
two epochs; and, if this quantity were increased 173%2, as in [4725'j, we must increase the ' '^■'
value of a by ^VX 173',2 = 4%4, as in [4726].
[4720i]
3^ THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
and, if we take into view the accuracy to which the lunar tables have been
carried, it must be considered useful to introduce these inequalities.
The moon's parallax, the excentricity and the inclination of the lunar
orbit to the apparent ecliptic, and, in general, the coefficients of all the lunar
inequalities, are likewise subjected to secular variations ; but, up to the
[4731] present period, they are hardly sensible. This is the reason why we find
now, the same inclination, that Ptolemy obtained from his observations ;
although the obliquity of the ecliptic to the equator has sensibly decreased
since the time of that astronomer; so that the secular variation of the obliquity
affects only the moon's declination. However, the coefficient of the annual
equation, having for a factor, the excentricity of the earth's orbit, its
variation is sufficiently great to be noticed, in computing ancient eclipses.
[4732]
The numerous comparisons, which Burg and Bouvard have made, of Mason's
tables, with the observations of the moon ; at the end of the seventeenth
century, by LaHire and Flamsteed ; in the middle of the eighteenth century,
by Bradley ; and the uninterrupted series of observations of Maskelyne,
from the time of Bradley to the year 1800, give a result which was wholly
[4733] unexpected. The observations of LaHire and Flamsteed, being compared witli
those of Bradley, indicate a secular motion, exceeding by fifteen or twenty
centesimal seconds, that which is inserted in the third edition of La Lande's
astronomy ; which, in a hundred Julian years, exceeds a whole number of
[4734] revolutions, by 307'^53"'12^ Bradley's observations, being compared with
the last ones of Maskelyne, give, on the contrary, a smaller secular motion,
by at least one hundred and fifty centesimal seconds. Lastly, the observations
[4735] made within fifteen or twenty years, prove, that the diminution of the moon's
motion is now decreasing. Hence, it becomes necessary to vary incessantly
the epochs of the tables ; and it is an object of importance to correct this
imperfection. This evidently indicates the existence of one or more unknown
^ ^ inequalities of a long period, which the theory alone can point out. By a
careful examination, I have not been able to discover any such inequality,
depending on the action of the planets. If there were one in the rotation
of the earth, it could be perceived in the moon's mean motion, and might
introduce the observed anomalies : but an attentive examination of all the
causes which can alter the rotation of the earth, has more fully convinced
[4737] ^^^ ^j^^^ j^g variations are insensible. Returning back, therefore, to the
VII. Intiod.] INTRODUCTION. S6b
exaniin;itioii of the sun's action on the moon ; I have discovered, that this
action produces an inequality, whose argument is double the longitude of the
node of tiie lunar orbit, jdus the longitude of its perigee, minus three times
the longitude of the sun's perigee. This inequality, whose period is 184 [4738]
vears, depends on the products of these four quantities, namely ; the square
of the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic ; tlie excentricity of that
orbit ; the cube of the excentricity of the sun's orbit, and the ratio of the
sun's parallax to that of the moon. Hence it would seem, that it ought to [4739]
be insensible ; but the small divisors it acquires by integration, may render it
sensible, especially, if the most important terms, of wliich it is composed,
are affected with the same sign. It is very difficult to obtain its coefficient
by the theory, on account of the great number of terms, and the extreme [4740]
difficulty of appreciating them ; the difficulty being much greater in this than
in the other inequalities of the moon. This coefficient has, therefore, been
ascertained by means of the observations made during the last century ; and
I have found it to be nearly equal to 15',39. Its introduction in the tables [4741]
must change the epoch and mean motion ; and I have also found, that we must
decrease, by 31'',964, the mean secular motion, in the third edition of [4742]
LaLande's astronomy, and have determined the following formula, which
must be applied to the mean longitude given by these tables, the epoch [4743]
of which, in 1750, is 188" 17'" 14',6 ; Equnt,,,,,
nf 184
Correction of moon's mean long. = — 12',78 — 31 ',964 . i + 15',39 . ûn.E ; T4744]
i being the number of centuries elapsed since 1750, and E the double of the
longitude of the node of the lunar orbit, plus the longitude of its perigee, [47451
minus three times the longitude of the sun's perigee. This formula represents,
with remarkable precision, the corrections of the epochs of those tables,
which have been determined, by a very great number of observations, for the
six epochs of 1691, 1756, 1766, 1779, 1789 and 1801. By a most scrupulous
examination of the theory, I have not been able to discover any other lunar
inequality Avith a long period ; hence, it appears to me certain, that the [4746]
anomalies observed in the mean motion of the moon, depend on the
preceding inequality ; and I do not hesitate, therefore, to propose it to
astronomers, as the only means of correcting these anomalies.*
* (2755) It has not been found necessary to introduce this equation in the new tables
of Damoiseau, pviblished in 1824; since the elements lie has used, give very nearly the L4<46a]
VOL. III. 92
366 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
We see, by this exposition, how many interesting and delicate elements
hai^e been deduced, by analysis, from observations of the moon, and how
[4747] important it is to multiply and improve them. Since, by the greatness of
their number, and by their correctness, we may more and more confirm the
various results of analysis.
The error of the tables formed from the theory, which is given in this
book, does not exceed a hundred centesimal seconds, except in very rare cases;
[4748] therefore, these tables will give, with sufficient accuracy, the longitude at
sea. It is very easy to reduce them to the form of Mayer's tables ; but, as
in the problem of the longitude, it is proposed to find the time corresponding
[4749] to an observed longitude of the moon, there is some advantage in reducing
into tables, the expression of the time in a function of the apparent
longitude. Considering the extreme complication of the successive
approximations, and the correctness of modern observations, the greatest part
of the moon's inequalities have heretofore been better determined by
observations than by analysis. Thus, by deriving from the tlieory those
coefficients which it gives with accuracy, and also the forms of all the
[4750] arguments ; then rectifying, by the comparison of a great number of
observations, the coefficients which it gives by approximations, with
some degree of uncertainty : we must finally obtain very accurate tables.
This is the method which has been used with success by Mayer and
Mason, and lately by Burg, who, by pursuing it, and profiting by the
late improvements in the lunar theory, has constructed tables, whose
greatest errors fall short of forty centesimal seconds. However, it would
be useful, for the perfection of astronomical theories, if all the tables
^^^^^^ could be derived solely from the principle of universal gravity; without
borrowing from observation any, except the indispensable data. 1 am
induced to believe, that the following analysis leaves but little wanting
to procure this advantage to the lunar tables ; and that, by carrying on
farther the approximations, we may soon obtain the required degree of
correctness, at least, as it respects the periodical inequalities ; for, however
great the accuracy of the calculations may be, the motions of the nodes and
same mean longitudes, at the epochs 1756, 1770, 1801 and 1812, as Burckhardt has
deduced from the observations made in that interval.
VII. Intiod.] INTRODUCTION. 367
perigee will always be best determined by observation.* [4752]
* ('2756) Since the publication of tliis volume, two very important works on the lunar
theory have been published ; the one by Baron Damoiseau, in the first volume of the
Mémoires présentés par divers sai'ans à F Académie Royale des Sciences ; the other by
Messrs. Plana and Carlini. We shall have occasion to speak of these works in the notes L^'^^"]
on this book, and shall now merely remark, that the object of them is to carry on the
approximation to such a degree of accuracy, as to be able to deduce all the inequalities from
the theorv alone.
368 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
CHAPTER I.
INTEGRATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EOUATIONS OF THE MOON'S MOTION.
1. Resuming the differential equations [525], we shall put them under
the following forms,*
[4753] dt= "^^
General
"•'••\/' + ^/(^?)S'
dv
1 /dq\ s fdq
h^u'\du) h^w^ '\ds
In these equations, t denotes the time, and we have, as in [499', 397] ;
M\ m m', (x .■?/+ y ij'\ z z') m!
(L)
[4756] Q =
i/(x'xy{(y'yr+(z'zr
* (2757) The equation [4753] is the same as the first of [525], and if we multiply
the other two equations [525] by
they willbecome as in [4754, 4755].
VII. i. §1.] GENERAL DIFFERExNTIAL EQUATIONS. 369
M is the mass of the earth ; [4757]
m the mass of the moon ;* [4757']
m' the mass of the sun ; [4757"]
T, w, ~, the rectangular coordinates of the moon, referred to the centre of
[47581
gravity of the earth, and to the ecliptic of a given epoch, taken as
^ , , Symbols.
a fixed plane ;
x, y', ', the rectangular coordinates of the sun, referred to the same centre [4758']
and plane ;
r the radius vector of the moon ; [4759]
r* the radius vector of the sun ; [4759]
s the tangent of the moon's latitude above the fixed plane ; [4759"]
 the projection of the moon's radius vector r, upon the fixed plane ; [47G0]
V the angle formed by this projection of r and the axis of x ; [4760']
h^ a constant quantity [518 — 519], depending chiefly on the moon's [47G0"]
distance from the earth [4825, &c.].
In the value of Q [4756], the earth and moon are supposed to be spherical.
To obtain the true value, corresponding to the actual forms of these bodies,
we shall observe, that, by the properties of the centre of gravity, we must ^ ' J
transfer to the moon's centre of gravity the following forces ; first, all the
forces by which each of its particles is urged by the action of the particles of
the earth, and divide the sum by the whole of the moon's mass ; second, the
force by which the centre of gravity of the earth is urged, by the moon's
action, taking it in a contrary direction. This being jjremised, it is evident,
that (131 being a particle of the earth, and dm a particle of the moon, whose
distance from the particle dM is /, we shall have the forces by which the
moon's centre of gravity is urged, in its relative motion about the earth, by
means of the ])artial differentials of the double integral, f
(M+rn) ^ dM.dm
Mm ^^ / '
* (2758) This value of to is used in the two first sections of this book ; but its
signification is changed in [4793], so that, in the rest of the book, 7nt represents the sun's
mean motion.
[4762]
[4762']
t (2759) If we substitute, in [455], the value of dJ\l [452], also
VOL. III. 93
370 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
taken relatively to the coordinates of the moon's centre. Therefore, we
[4764] must substitute this function for , in the expression of Q [4756].
If the moon were spherical, we might suppose the whole mass to be collected
in the centre of gravity [470'"] ; and then, by putting V equal to the sum of
[4765] the quotients, formed by dividing each particle of the earth by its distance
from the moon'' s centre, we shall have [4767«],
[4766] ^ ff ^^m.V.
[4763a] f = \/\{=o'^f+{y'yf + {^zf] [455«], it becomes, F=:/y;
and then, the corresponding force of the body M on the particle dm, in the direction — x,
— ) [455']. This accelerative force, acting on the single
particle dm, is to be decreased in the ratio of dm to m, to obtain the corresponding effect
[47636] Qp {]jg whole body m, of which it forms a part ; by which means it becomes — f — — .
Integrating this, so as to include all the particles dm, of which the body m is composed,
it becomes,
pdm ^ dM 1 ^dM.dm
[47636'] J — J ^^ O'"' »^./ ^^ '
which represents the value of V, to be used in finding the accelerative force of the body m,
from the attraction of the body M. If we change m, M into M, m respectively, we
shall get — Cr ' — • , for the value of V, to be used in finding the accelerative force
of the body M, from the attraction of the body m. Adding these two parts together, we
[4763c] obtain the complete value of F= T + ^ j .yy '——, corresponding to the whole
accelerative force of m towards M, supposing M to be at rest. This is easily reduced to
the form [4763] ; and its partial differentials, relative to the coordinates x, y, z, give the
r «/.<% ., accelerative forces parallel to those coordinates respectively. Now, when the bodies M, m
[4763a]
are spherical, these accelerative forces — 7, —, —^, are represented by the ^
[4763rf'] partial differentials of Q, taken relatively to x, y, z [499], retaining in Q [4756] only
the term Q^^= " , which is independent of the disturbing mass m' . Therefore,
r
[4763e] to notice the nonspherical forms of the bodies M, m, we have only to substitute the
expression [4763], m the place of , in the function Q [4756].
VII. i. § 1] EFFECTS OF THE OBLATENESS OF THE EARTH AND MOON. 371
* V would be equal to — if the earth were spherical ; hence, if we put
ôV= V ; [4767]
m,&V will be the part of the integral ff ^— , depending on the non [4768]
sphericity of the earth. In like manner, if the earth be supposed spherical,
and we put V equal to the sum of the quotients, formed by dividing each
particle of the moon by its distance from the centre of gravity of the earth,
we shall have,
rr ^J^^^ ^ M.V; [4770]
[4769]
and if we put
m
6 F = V , [4770']
r
M. sV will be the part of the integral ff —  — , depending on the non [4771]
sphericity of the moon ; hence we shall have, very nearly,!
^TT — • / / ? = ■ h (M4m) . { ^Ti \ ■ > . [4772]
Mm ^^ f r ^ ' ■' \ M in S
* (2760) If the mass m were collected in its centre of gravity, the integral ff —  —
dM . dM [4767a]
would become mf ^ ; and, by putting f —^V [4765], it changes into m.V, as
in [4766]. The expression [4770] is found in a similar manner.
t (2T61) If we suppose m to be spherical, we shall have
/•^dM.dm „dM . ^ ,^„„ ,
JJ ^ — = "UT' as in [4 /67a];
and if ^f also be spherical, [4772o]
.dM M , ^^dM.dm m M
/ y = 7 ; hence, ff—j^— =
Adding to this the parts m.SV, M.SV [4768,4771], depending on the nonsphericity,
we obtain the complete value of
ff —  — = — \m.ôV{M.5V'. [47721]
■»«■ 1 ■ 1 • 1 ■ , M\m , . , , , M\m ^^dM. dm .___, , . ,
Alultiplymg this by — — , we obtain the value of jr. — .JJ — [4/72]; which
372 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Céî.
Therefore, in the preceding expression of Q [4756], we must augment the
M\m
term — ■ — , by the quantity,
[4773] <^M+m).\~ 4~l= increment of Q [4756],
J^n=/« in order to notice the effect of the nonsphericity of the earth and moon.
fron^t'be
foEï ^' ^^ shall, in the first place, suppose both bodies to be spherical, and
"frîhMd shall develop the expression of Q in a series. Now, we have,*
moon.
[4774]
[4775]
1 1
II we develop the second member of this expression, according to the
descending powers of ?', it becomes,
1 (xx'+yy'+z^^lr^) {xx'+yy'+zz'lr^f
+..^^y^.z^^^+^,.
Taking for the unit of mass the sum M{m of the masses of the earth and
■' moon, we shall have,t
j\t\7tl
is to be substituted for — ; — in the function Q [47636,4756]; and by this means the
general value of Q [4756] will be increased by the function [4773].
* (2762) The development [4774,4775], is the same as in [4655?», c], rejecting the
factor — m', which is common to all the terms. We may remark, that if we use the values
[4774a] 0Ï R, M\m [4655,4775"], the expression of Q [4756] becomes Q = ^ — ^,
which will be of use hereafter.
I (2763) If we put I for the latitude of the moon, we shall have, as in [4759"],
^''''"^ [31',34"'] Int.,
[4776t] tang.Z=.; sin./=^^^; cos.Z=^^^^.
If we proceed, as in [4659, Sic], changing r' into r, and U into v, we get,
[4776c] a; = r.cos.Z.cos.t); y = r.cos. Z.sin. ij; s = 7'.sin.Z= ?5.cos.?.
[4776rfl Now, the projection of?, upon the plane ot xy, is represented by r.cos.Z =  [4659a,4760];
VII. i. §2.]
DEVELOPMENT OF Q.
373
1 = M+ m = iJ ;
r =
.r ^
2/ =
u
COS. D
sin.f
U ^
y/I+Tg
M
u
[4775"]
[477C]
Lunar co
ordinates.
[4777]
[4778]
[4779]
We shall mark toith one accent, for the sun, the quantities u, s and v, u^g^r
relative to the earth.* Then we have,t
1 + f.
{« »'. COS. (i)'— v)\uu'.ss' — hu'. (l)ss)2
(Hs'9)3.m4
Q__ » I '»'•"' / , ^ mM^C03.(«'— «)+««'.Ss'— àM'2.(lss)3
2.(1+s'2).m3
Value of
[4780]
substituting in this the value of cos. I [4776e], we get [4776] ; moreover, by substitutino
the value of r.cos. Z [4776dl] in the expressions of x, y, z [4776c], they become as in
[4777—4779].
* (2764) By this means the solar coordinates become,
r' the radius vector of the sun ;
s' the tangent of the sun's latitude above the fixed plane ;
— the projection of the sun's radius vector upon the fixed plane ;
v' the angle formed by the projection of ?•' and the axis of x, or a;' ;
r
\/i+«y
m'
COS. v'
x'
«' '
sin. v'
y
=^
/ 5
t (2765) Substituting the value of R [4656], in [4774a], we get,
VOL. III. 94
[4777a]
[47776]
[4777c]
[4777i]
[4777e]
Solar co
ordinates.
[4777/]
[4777^:]
[4777/i]
374 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4781] "^'^^ sun's distance from the earth is nearly four hundred times as great as
that of the moon ; so that îi' is very small, in comparison with u ; and we
[4782] may, therefore, neglect terms of the order u'^, in the lunar theory. We may
also simplify the calculations, by taking the ecliptic for the plane of projection.
It is true, that this last plane is not fixed ; but, in its secular motion, it carries
the moon^s orbit with it ; so that the mean inclination of the moon'' s orbit,
upon the variable ecliptic, remains constant, and the phenomena, depending
on their respective inclinations, are always the same.
[47S3]
3. To prove this, we shall observe, that, from 5j 59, book ii., s' is equal to
[47841 . i ' ' 1
a series of terms of the form A; . sin. {v' \it \ s) ; we shall represent it by*
^ 1 , m' m'.r , „ , [xx'\yu'4zz' — è r2)2 (xx'\yif\zz' — i r"2)3
L J ^ )■ J' 2/3 '  c'o '  r'^ '
Now, if we substitute the values [4776 — ^4779,4777e — A], in the first members of [47S0i,c],
they become, by shght reductions and using [24] Int., the same as in the second members of
those expressions,
[4780i] *^'+yy+~^'= — , • {cos.i!.cos.«'+sin.'y.sin.r'+«s' = — 7.{cos.(r' — v)\ss'\;
, ,o cos.{v'—v]^ss' A.(l+s2) n ii'. cos.( n'— v)\%i u'.s s'— I uK( \^ss)
[4/80C] xx^yyArZz'lr= — ■ —— = :;^^^^ .
By means of these values the expression of Q [4780a] becomes as in [4780] . For the
first and second terms of [4780a] correspond, respectively, to the first and second of [4780] ;
[4780rf] jjjg jjii,.^ Qf [4780a] gives the last of [4730] ; finally, the terms of [4780«], connected with
the factors  ot', ^m', by the substitution of [4780c], become respectively equal to the
terms connected with the factors f , J, in [4780].
*, (2766) Using the same notation as in [4230], we shall have, for the earth's latitude
s", above the fixed ecliptic, the expression,
[478g„] ,"=r/.sin.."iy'.C0S.^" [1335'].
Substituting in this the values of jj", q" [4334], and observing, that
[4785a'] sin.t)".cos.(,§< + (3)— cos.j)".sin.(^< + 3) = sm.{v"—gt — p),
we get the earth's latitude,
[47856] s" = ^.c.sm.{v"gt^).
Changing v" into the sun's longitude v' [4777f/], we get the sun's latitude,
[4765c] s' = S.c.^m.{v' — gt — fi).
This is of the same form as [4785], the constant quantities c, g, p, being changed into
[4785c'] k, — i, —s, respectively. Hence, the coefficient i is of the same order as the quantities
VII. i. §3.] INCLINATION OF THE LUNAR ORBIT TO THE ECLIPTIC. 375
s' = 2 . ^ . sin.. (v'\ it } s) ; [4785]
i being a very small coefficient [4785f?], whose product, by m'î«'^ we shall
neglect. The value of s, neglecting quantities of the order s^, may be [4785']
represented by*
s = s, + 2 . A; . sin. (v + it + ; [4786]
s^ being the tangent of the moon's latitude, above the apparent ecliptic. This
being premised, we have,t
[4780']
g, g", he, which are very small [4339,3113^]. The values [4339] are nearly g= — 36% [4785d]
g'= — 18*; these quantities may serve to give an idea of the magnitude of g, g', Sic.,
though they are not computed strictly by the method given in [1098, &ic.].
* (2767) If the moon were to move in the apparent ecliptic, her latitude above the fixed
plane, or its tangent, corresponding to the longitude v, would be ^.k.s'm.[v\i(\s) [4785]. Mgf i
Adding to this the quantity s, [4786'], we get, very nearly, the tangent of the moon's latitude
s, above the fixed plane, as in [4786].
t (2768) The quantity Q occurs in the first member of [4787], under a linear form
only ; therefore, we may take each term of Q [4780] separately, and compute its
effect. In making the substitution of any term of Q, we may consider the quantity
M.(l««)^, and its powers, as constant. For, if we put (^=A.\u.(l\ss)~^'', for any
terra of Q, neglecting, for a moment, the variable parts contained in Jl, and taking the
differential of log. Q, we shall get,
(i Q J du , s ds
~Q ~ 'Tt~ ' l+ss '
hence.
T?)o^
du J u ^ '
ds
l + ss ^
[4787a]
[47876]
[4787c]
[4787(f
Substituting these in the first member of [4787], we find, that the terms mutually
destroy each other. Hence, it is evident, that we may neglect the first term of Q [4780],
which corresponds to b^\, A=l; the second term, which corresponds to b = 0,
and the last term, which corresponds to b= — 2, A = 
(!+*'«')»' """"" ' I ^ ' — 2.[\\s's')û'
Then using, for brevity, the following abridged symbol B, we get from [4780],
\uit'. COS. (w — v')\uu'.s s'—hu'^.[\\ss)\
B =
dq
(l + s's')i
3 m'. u'
(i+s'TjJ'
{l+s's').u^ '
\^B^ + ^B^+hc.l;
\B\^B^^kc.].dB + hc.
[4787e]
[4787/]
[4787g:]
[4787/i]
376 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4787]
[4788]
„ , ,, CcOS.ft! v') ") Cs. COS. (v 1'')
U^ À , 5«' ,' ■ o i i ''* • / /\ M
f 4— .cos.(v — t)') + &c. 1 f .sin.(i) — v ) — s
Substituting, in the second member of this equation, the values of s', s,
[4785,4786], we get,*
Substituting the partial difterentials of Q, in the first member of [4787], it becomes,
3m'. «' ,„ , „^, C</s (dB\ fdB\ . , , /rfB\ >
[4787V] — — . B + iB^ . \  . (—)—"« (r ) — (! + ««)• (7) \ •
^ •■ (l+«s')} ' '  ^ \dv \dv) \du) ^ ^ ' \ds)')
The part of this expression depending on lŒ, in the last factor, is of the same form as the
first member of [4787], changing Q into 5; therefore, it has the property mentioned in
[4787i] [4787 i] ; that is to say, we may consider the powers of m.(1 {««)"" as constant. Now,
the last term of J9 [4787/] corresponds to the power — 2 of that quantity ; therefore, we
may neglect its partial difterentials, and, in finding AB, may use the remaining terms as in
the following expression ;
[4787/fc] B = 7^x77, • 1 ""' "'• COS. {v — v')\ M' m'. s s' I .
The partial differentials of this expression give,
ds /'dB\ «' C ds . , ,.7
[4787m] "^O^dzS'T.» l^cos.(i— iO+^'^^'l
du J (\\s's').u'
^.'l.
[4787,v] (^+'')(^) =
(ij^yjM
Adding these three expressions together, we find, that the terms depending on ss' destroy
each other, and we get,
ds /dli\ fdB\ ,, , . /dB\ u' ( , ds ,. ,)
Now, if we retain, explicitly, the terms of B [4787/], w hich do not contain s, s', we obtain,
[4787;,] B + fS^ = '^'. ^^cos. {v — v')~+^£. cos.2(^ _ ^') + &ic. ^ .
Substituting the expressions [4787o,p] in [4787A'], and neglecting terms of the third order in
s, s', it becomes as in the second member of [4787].
* (2769) If we substitute the values of s', s, [4785,4786], in the last factor of [4787],
VII. i. ^ 3] EFFECT OF THE SECULAR MOTION OF THE ECLIPTIC. 377
*"' Jcos.fî' — v') — 7: \'— .cos.^ft! — î)') + &ic. ;.<«,. COS. (î) — V) — '.sin.(i; — v')>. [4789]
ifi I ^ ^ 2u ' 2u ^ ' ' ) ( ' ^ ' dv ^ '))
Hence the equation [4755] becomes,*
elds , , i.ml.u'^Si\hc.
^^lv^'+—^ Z^T^— ; [4790]
or,
dds
'¥+^sO^ '
[4791']
0=12 + 5 + ^IT^ + &C. [4790']
If we neglect the excentricities and inclinations of the orbits, we shall have
M = , u'=— [4826,4833]; a' and a being the mean distances of the [4791]
sun and moon from the earth. We shall see, in the following article [4826],
that h== a, very nearly ; therefore, we shall have [4791 (/],
we shall find, that the terms depending on k mutually destroy each other. For these terms
produce, without reduction, the following expression, neglecting quantities of the order
mentioned in [4785'] ;
2.t.sln.(t)i^s).cos.(j; — v') — cos.(« *'^ + ^) s'"^ (" — ^') — sin. ('u'i<e).
The two first terms, between the braces, are reduced by [22] Int. to
sm.{{v{it{s) — (t) — v')l = sin. [v'\it\s) ;
which is destroyed by the third term. The remaining terms of [4785, 4786] are «'=0,
s z^ s, ; substituting these in the last factor of [4787], we obtain the expression [4789].
[4789o]
[47896]
[4789e]
* (2770) Multiplying together the two factors of [4789], we find, that the product of
the term cos. (« — v') by x,.cos. (d — v'), produces Js, , disconnected from the periodical [4791a]
angle v — 1; ; so that we may put the expression under the form 2 — '. JJl — '; as we [47916]
shall soon see, that it is not necessary for the present object to mention particularly the parts
included in the general term + &c. This represents the value of the function in the first
member of [4787], and if we divide it by h^u, it produces the three last terms of [4755] ;
which will, therefore, be represented by J^Ll^^!/ + ^ . Substituting this in [4755], [4791c]
and dividing by 1 + 75''/(t)^' we get [4790]. Reducing the denominator of
the last term of this expression into a series ; neglecting m'^, and observing, that
idi) l'^^^^^ 'S of the order m'u'^, it becomes as in [4790']. Finally, substituting in [4791rf]
this the values of u, u', h^ [4791, 4791'], we get [4792].
VOL. III. 95
378
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4799]
[4793]
Change
ia m.
[4794]
[4795]
[4796]
[4797]
[4798]
We shall put mt for the Burl's mean motion ; so that m will no longer denote
the moon's mass; we shall have, by ^ 16 of the second book,
»r =
Then, if we sui^pose the time t to be represented by the moon's mean
motion, which can always be done, we shall have ^ := 1 ; therefore,
= ^. + 5 + l.m^s,+ &c.
Substituting, in this equation, the value of s [4786], and observing, that we
may, in this case, change it into iv, we shall have,t
= — ; + (1+ f . m) .s^+2.k.{l — {i +\yi. sin.(« + i î) + + &c.;
which gives, for the part of s, relative to the secular motion of the ecliptic, Î
* (2771) If we change, in the equation [605' or 3700] , a into a', and n into m, to
[4794a] conform to tlie notation [4791, 4793], we get m^^= tx.a'~^ ; ij. being tlie sum of tlie masses
of the sun and earth. If we neglect the mass of the earth, in comparison with that of the
sun, we have A = )ft' [4757"], and the preceding expression becomes as in [4794]. In
the moon's motion about the earth, the equation [605'] becomes n=^{M\m). a~^
[4757,4757']; and, as the moon's mean motion nt, is here represented by t [4794], we
have M=l ; substituting tliis, and M\m = \ [4775"], in the preceding value of n^,
we obtain 1 =«"3 ^g in [4795]. Dividing the value of nv'' [4794] by this last expression,
[4794c]
[4794d]
we get iir
substituting this in [4792], it becomes as in [4796].
[4798a]
[47986]
[4798c]
t (2772) The terms neglected, by writing iv for it, are of the order of the
excentricities and inclinations, multiplied by the very small quantity i, and connected with
terms containing sin. cv, s'm.gv, and their multiples, as is evident from [4828, 4794c].
All the neglected terms are considered as being included in the general expression +&ic.
Now we have,
(Ills
s—s,\2.ksm.{v\iv\s) [4786,4797]; hence —
substituting these in [4796], we get [4798].
:'^2.t.(»+l)=.sin.(«+n.+£);
J (2*73) This equation is of the same form as [865], which is solved in [871] ;
changing y, fl^ t, m into «, , l + m^ v, 1 + i, respectively ; and putting for a Q, or
[4799a] aK, the terms under the sign 2 [4798]. These changes being made in [871], it becomes
as in [4799], by a slight reduction, and changing
a; the signs in the numerator and denominator.
vil. i. § 3.] DEVELOPMENT OF Q AND ITS DIFFERENTIALS.
379
S.{'ii\P).k.s\n.{v{iv + i)
This last quantity is insensible ; for i v, at the most, does not exceed fifty
centesimal seconds [ = 16',2] in a year;* and ^nrv expresses very nearly, as
we shall hereafter see [4800f/J, the retrograde motion of the nodes, which
exceeds 19' [3373] ; therefore fm^ is at least four thousand times as great
as i ; so that we may neglect the term,
^.k.\\—{i+\f].ûn.{v + iv^î),
in the differential equation [4798] ; and then this equation becomes
independent of every thing connected with the secular motion of the ecliptic.
The mean inclination of the moon's orbit to the apparent ecliptic, is one of
the arbitrary quantities of the integral of this equation ; hence we perceive, that
on account of the rapidity of the motion of the moon'' s nodes, this inclination
is constant; and the latitude s^ of the moon, above the apparent ecliptic, is the
same as if the ecliptic loere immoveable. We may, therefore, suppose s' ^= 0,
in the following investigations ; which will simplify the calculations.
[4799]
[4800]
[4801]
[4802]
Inclination
(if the lu
nar orbit
tu the
apparent
ecliptic.
[4803]
[4804]
Therefore, we have, by neglecting quantities of the order m' u'^ s\ m' ?<'^,t [4805]
* (2774) This agrees nearly with the remarks made in [4785(/], relative to the value
of i. Moreover, tlie retrograde motion of the nodes is expressed by (g — 1) .v [4817], and
the values of m, g [5117], give g — l^^m^ nearly ; therefore, the retrograde motion of
t!ie nodes is nearly equal to ^m^.v, as in [4800]. The same result may be obtained
analytically; for, if we neglect terms of the order p"^, e'^, the motion of the nodes [5059]
becomes \p".v. Now, by comparing the coefficients of sin.(^D — <)), in [5053, 5049], and
retaining only the first term of each of them, we get,
V
$ m
[5094] ;
[4800a]
[48005]
[4800c]
[4800rf]
[4800c]
whence, the motion of the nodes becomes iii".v = ^nfi.v. This exceeds 19'' in a year
[3373] ; which is more than 4000 times the value of iv, assumed in [4785rf] ; hence the
term of s, [4799] must be insensible, and we may, therefore, neglect the corresponding terms
of [4798], which are given in [4802]. Then all the remaining terms of [4798], which
are included in the expression &c. [47986], maybe considered as independent of the
secular terms arising from i.
t (2775) Substituting s'^0 [4304] in the value of Q [47S0], it becomes, without
any reduction, as in [4806a]. Developing the powers, and neglecting terms of the orders [4800/]
mentioned in [4805], it becomes as in [48066]. This is reduced to the form [4806c] by
380 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4806]
+ !!LL!i_.^3.(l— 4s^).cos.(îJ— 'd') + 5.cos.(3î;— 3t0.
[4807] Hence we get, by neglecting quantities of the order m'u'^s^,*
\duj ^ u \clsj (1+s')^ 2m3 ' ' ^ ^*
[4808]
_ ^'^'* . I (3 _ 4s") . COS. (v—v') + 5 . COS. (3 ^— 3i;')  ;
using [6, 7] Int. ; and if we connect the terms depending on the same powers of ?t' it
becomes as in [4806J ;
Cl+^^[uu'.cos.{v—v') — iu'^.{l+ss)f
[4806a] q=  \m'u'.{ " n_L ws
[48065] =^ + mV. j ,3 _^,,
3,,'2 3ji'3
0+^2[i+àcos.2(î,^')]^(l+")cos.(.î)'),
«
[4806c] =—^ + rm,
+ ^.Ucos. (,,,;') +icos.3(i;i;')]—7,—
* (2776) The partial differentials of Q [4806], taken relatively to v, s, u, become,
without any reduction, as in [4809,4810,4810a], respectively. Multiplying [4810] by
, we get [48106] ; adding together the expressions [4810a, Zi], and making some slight
u
reductions, we get [4808] ;
1 m' m'3
[4810a] V(i«y ~ \ 3 m' «'1
^ ^ ■* ^.[(3— 12s2).cos.(t) — t)') + 5cos.(3^ — 3u')]'
s /dQ\ ss m'.u'^s^ 3 m'. «"Isa . ,,
[48105] ûUJ=fî+^)î ^ ^^.cos.(..)
[du) i
VII. i. §4.J APPROXIMATE VALUES OF s, u, t. 381
I ^] =z — .sin.C2t> — 2i))
\(lv J 2» ^ •^
[4809]
— '!l^^.l3.(l—As).sm.(v—v')^l5.sm.(3v—3v')\
(1Q\ us m'.u'^s 3m'. u"^ s , ,, r^oim
4. 7*0 integrate the equations [4753 — 4755], we shall observe, that, by
excluding the sun's disturbing force, the moon will describe an ellipsis, in
which the earth occupies one of the foci. We shall then have, as in [532,533],
[4810']
S = /.sin.('y — 0; [4811]
u^j^,j^y\n + ssy+e.co..iv.)\. ;^4812]
5, 11, in an
iiiv iriahle
eliipsia.
In these equations, y is the tangent of the inclination of the lunar orbit ;
d the longitude of its ascending node [533"] ; e and w are tivo arbitrary
quantities, depending chief y , on the excentricity of the orbit, and on the ^
position of the perihelion [534']. y and e are very small quantities. If we
neglect the fourth power of 7, we shall have,*
[4813]
[4815]
U =
/,3.(l + y3) n + l>' + e.cos.(p— ^) — iy^cos.(2t;20. [4816]
In this value of u the ellipse is supposed to be immoveable ; but we shall
soon see, that in consequence of the sun'' s action, the nodes and perigee of this
ellipsis are in motion. Then putting,
(1 — c).v = the direct motion of the perigee ;
{g — \).v = the retrograde motion of the nodes ; ['iS,\é]
* (2777) Developing (l + s.s)i, according to the powers of s, substituting [4811],
neglecting s^, and reducing, by means of [1,3] Int., we get, successively,
(l+,s)i = l+J,a_,,4
= l + 4i — 2Cos.(2y— 20)^ — Ç.^f — .cos.(2« — 20)+cos.(4j;— 4â)f
= (1 + ^7"— sV/) — (ir'— tf/)cos.(2« — 20) — ^ij^4.cos.(4t,— 4ô).
Substituting this in [4812], and neglecting y'^, it becomes as in [4816]. We have retained
the terms of the order 7^. in [4812a], because they are required hereafter. '■ ^
VOL. III. 96
[4812a]
382
THEORY OF THE MOON :
[Méc. Cél.
we shall have, from [4811,4816],*
[4818] s = '/.sin.(gv—è);
1
[4819] u^—j^.{l + l7'+e.cos.(cv — ^) — {';~.cos.(2gv—2^)\.
Assumed ^ \ I J
forma of
movcabiJ" If we substitute this value of «, in the expression of dt [47531, observing,
ellipsis. L J o
[4820] x}asX, if we neglect the solar attraction, \f] vanishes ; we shall have,
( l + l.fe'^+j.^)— 2e.(]+e^+f7")cos.(c«— ^)
[4821] dt = h^. dv . ) +.e'.cos.(2cv— 2?^)— e^cos.(3ci)— 3n)+i7^cos.(2^i'— 2i') \.
—^.e7^.{cos.{2gv+cv — 2t) — i^)+cos.(2^î;— ct' — 2d+j:) \
/
[4891a]
[48216]
[4821c]
[482W]
[4821e]
[4821/] c'd —
[4821gr]
[4891A.]
[4821i]
[48914]
[4821?]
[4821m]
* (277S) The object of this article is to obtain approximate vakies of m, w', s, v',
expressed in terms of v ; for the purpose of substituting them in Q, and in its differentials ;
as is observed in [4838']. Now, s, ii [4818,4819], are the approximate values of s, v,
corresponding to the equations [4755,4754], noticing two of the most important perturbations,
namely ; the mean motions of the perigee and nodes. Substituting these in [4753], we
get tlie approximate values of dt, t [4821, 4822], which are afterwards corrected in
[5081,5095]. In finding the approximate value of dt [4821], from [4753], tlie term
glected, and then [4753] becomes dt = —;^; in which we must substitute the
value of u [4819]. In making these substitutions, we shall put for a moment, for brevity,
f — 1 y2 A^^. cos. (2^ « — 2d) ; and, during the process of the calculation, we shall omit the
symbols ê, w, ra', ivhich are connected respectively with the angles gv — è, cv — ra,
^'^ c' mv — zi'; taking care to resubstitute them at the end of the o2}eration. This
abridged form of writing the angles, will be used frequentlij, in the notes which follow ; it
saves considerable labor, renders the formulas more simple, and cannot be attended with any
inconvenience. Hence, the preceding expres.?ion of tZ^ [4821rf] becomes as in [4821A];
developing the factors, and neglecting Z^, fe^, eS 7^ he, we get successively [4821 i,fc,Z].
Substituting the value of / [4821e], and reducing, by means of [6,7,20] Int., we get
[4821w]: connecting together the terms depending on the same angles, we obtain [4821];
whose integral is as in [4822] :
dt=P.{l+7'').dv .\l + {f+e .cos.cv)]^
^p(^lJ^2y^}.dv.\l—'2{f+e.cos.cv)j3(f+e.cos.cvf—'i(/+e.cos.cv)^
^p(^lj^2y^}.dv.\l — 2e.cos.C!) + 3e2.cos.^c«— 4e^.cos.3ct) — 2/+6/e.cos.c?)}
=P.dv.{{l^2y^) — 2e{l + 2f).cos.cv{2e~.cos.^cv — Ae^.cos.hv— 2 f\6fe. cos. cv\
(l_Oya)_2fi(lf27^) .cos.ciJ + ae^. (1 + C0S.2CI')— e^(3cos.c!;+cos.3ci))^
=li^^'i'^_i^^,^j^^^2_f,f^^^2gv+iey^.cos.cv—^ef.[cos.{2gv4cv)+cos.{2gvcv)]<^'
VII. i. § 4] APPROXIMATE VALUES OF s, u, t. 383
This gives, by integration,
/=constant+/i^f.(I+e^+r)— — .(l+e=+r).sin.(CT— ^)
.sin.(2c!; — 2^) — .sin.(3cj; — 3sî)+— ^.sin.(2^tj — 2^) [4822]
4c 3c ^ ^S
— r7Tflsin(%»'+<^«— 2^— '')— T7^Nsin.(2ffî}— «;— 20+ra) ;
4. (2^+0) ^ ^ '^•(2^ —
the coefficients of this equation are modified a little by the sun's action, as
we shall hereafter see [5081, 5095].
In the elliptical hypothesis, the coefficient of v, in this expression, is, by Mgoo'i
3,
[541' — 543], equal to a^ ; which gives,*
/t3.(l + e^+^2)=a^; [4823]
« being the semimajor axis of the ellipsis ; hence we have, [4824]
h = a^,(l — ie"'hy); [4825]
consequently,
u = ^.{l + e+lf\e.(l + ec).cos.(cv—^) — ly.cos.(2gv—2ê)}. [4826]
_3_
Then, by putting n= a ^ [482Sa], we get,t [4827]
* (2779) Substituting (x=rl [4775"], in [541'J, we get n= a ^; hence [543] gives
«fa^e=«y + &c. ; in which the coefficient of îj is a". To make this conform to the ' "''
result of the elliptical theory [4822], we must put the coefficients of v equal to each other;
hence we get [4823]. Dividing this equation by the coefficient of h^, and taking the [48236]
cube root, we obtain h [4825], neglecting terms of the fourth order in e, j. This value
of A gives A=.(l + y^) = a.(leS); whence, ^^_ ==:l.(i+e^) ; substituting ^4823^]
this in [4819], we get [4826].
t (2780) Multiplying [4823] by 1— 1/, and neglecting /, we get
substituting this in the third term of the second member of [4822] ; also [4823], in the
3
second term, and putting the constant quantity equal to — oF^c, we shall obtain for these
384 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4828] nt + s=^ v — ~.(l—^f).sm.(cv—z,)+'^^.sin.{2cv—2^)
Ac
2
mate .^ .Sill, (o CV O 'CJ ) H . oui. \ ^ii u io i
value of 3C '^ 4^ ^ ^ ^
nt\s.
Q 2 O 2
~ 77iï^T~^ • sin (25 î' + c tJ — 2 d — ^) — — ""^^^ . sin. (2 £• 15 — c I' — 2 1' + ta ) :•
4.(2540) vol ^ 4.(2^— c) ^ ° ' ^'
£ being an arbitrarj constant quantity. In substituting nt\e, we may
r482Ql
suppose c and g to he equal to unity [5117], and neglect quantities of the
order e^, or ey^, in the coefficients of the sines. Thus we shall have, by
retaining the term depending on sin.(2^t' — cv — 2i\vi), which will be
useful hereafter [4828f/] ;
[4830] ^*^ + ^ = « — 2e.sin.(ctJ — a)fie^sin.(2c?;— 2^) \ \y^.sm.{2gv — 2è)
— fey^ sin.(2^w — cv — 2<) + ^).
[4831] If Yve mark Avith one accent for the sun, the symbols relative to the moon
Approxi •^
riucsof [4779'], and observe, that /= [4804], we shall have,*
t, u'.
[4832] n't + s' = v'—2e'.sm. (c'v'—^Z) + 2 e'^.siu. (2c'v'— 2^') ;
u'= ,. n + e'^+e'.n + e'^).cos.(c'v'—z,')\.
[4833] a' ' ' ' \ ' > V /5
[4834] The origin of the time t being arbitrary, we may suppose ; and s nothing,
3 3 2e a
[48286] three terms, the expression — a e\a v .«^.(1 — j}^).sin.(fi.'— to). Substituting this in
[4822], then multiplying the first member by n, and the second by its equivalent expression
a ^ [4823a], it becomes, by slight reductions, as in [4828] ; observing, that, in the second
_3
[4828c] ^n*^! 'h'^*^ ''"^^ °f [4822], we may put h^a  ^ 1 [4823], since these terms are of
the second or third orders in e, j. Now, putting c and g equal to unity, in the coefficients
of [4828], and retaining terms of the second order in e, /, also the term depending on the
r4828(/l angle 2^t) — cw, we get [4830]. The reason for retaining this term, is on account of the
smallness of the divisors introduced by it, in consequence of 2° — c being very nearly equal
to unity. For the values of c, g, m [5117], give very nearly,
[4828e] c=l— #w^ ^=l+f'K^ 2^— c=l+3m.
* (2781) The values [4832,4833], relative to the sun, are deduced from those of the
[4832»] moon [4830,4826], by merely accenting the symbols, as in [4779']; observing also, that
s'=0 [4804], corresponds to y'=^ [4818].
vu. i. §4 ] INVESTIGATION OF v', u', IN TERMS OF v. 386
If
and then putting  = m, the comparison of the values of nt and n't will [18351
give,*
n
*
v' — 2e'. sin.(c'i''— ^') + f e'^ sin.2(c'îj'— ^')
= in V — 2m e . sin. (c v — ^) + t »« e. sin. ('2 c» — 2 ra)
^ ^ ■* ^ ^ [4836]
+ { m.y. sin. (2gv — 2 o) — ;^ mey~. sin.(2or — cv — 2 â + w).
Hence we deduce, by observing, that c' varies but very little from unity,t [4836']
* (2782) If we take, for the origin of i, the moment when the bodies are in their mean
conjunction, or ni\s equal to n't\i', we sliall have s^e'=0. Substituting these in [4834a]
[4830,483:2], we get the values of 7it, n't. Multiplying the former by m, and substituting
mn = n' [4835], we get an expression of n'l, wiiich is to be put equal to that in [4832] ; [48345]
hence we get [4836].
t (2783) We may obtain v' from [4836], by means of the theorem of La Grange
[629c], which, by changing ■\'X into x, then x into v and t into t, becomes,
v'—F{v') = t; ^4837„^
,_,,,,, d.Fiif , d2.F(t)3 „
i,'=t+F(t) + è.^ + i.Ai+&c. [48376]
Comparing the equations [4836,48.37a], we find, that t represents the second member of
the equation [4836], and, tliat
F{v') == Se'.sin. {c' v'—:) — ^é^.sm.{2c'v'—2i^'). ^483^,
Changing v' into t, we get F{t) [4837e], its powers [4837/], and the differentials [4837^],
omitting, for brevity, the symbol — tt/, which is connected with c't ; the reductions being
made by means of [1,2, 17] Int. Substituting these in the second member of [48376], we L^SJ/^/]
get v' [4S37A] ;
F(t) = 2fc'.sin.(c't — ^') — ^e'. sin.(2c't — 2ûj') + &ic.; [4837,]
F{xf=2<:'K (lcos.2c't) — e'3. cos.c't+&:c. ; F{lf=6e'\ sin.c't + &c. ; [4837^]
è^=2É'2.sin.2c't + fe'='.sin.c't + &c.; è 5^ =— e'^. sinc^t+Sic. ; [4937^]
„' = t + (2e'^ «'=*). sin.(c'tt.')+e'2.sin.(2c't 2^') [48.37;^]
Now, t represents the second member of [4836], and the substitution of this value in the
first term of [4837A] produces the four first terms, or the two first lines of the second [4837i]
member of [4837]. The last term of [4S37AJ produces the last term of [4837], by putting
for t the first term mu of the second member of [4836] ; it being unnecessary to take any
other term of t, because m is of the same order as e, or e'. To obtain the value of the [403711
second term of v' [483TÂ], we must have the expression of sin. (c't — a'). Now, as this
VOL. III. 97
386 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4837]
v'^m V — 2me . sin. (c v — in) + i m e". sin. Ç2.C v — 2 ra)
+ i m 7 . sin. (2gv — 2è) — ^ m e f. sin. (2gv — c v — 2 è { .>)
Approxi
TilTesof + 2e'. (1— ie'^) .sin. (c'mv— ^') — 2mee'. sin. (c?; + c'mv — ra — xa')
r , M .
— 2 m e e'. sin. (cv — c'mv — ^ + ^') + f ^'^' ^i"* (^ c' w î' — 2 /)
, 1 C l + e'.(l— ie'2).cos.(c'?»i'— w') + «'^cos.(2c'mî; — 2ra') )*
«' ' ( t~''''fi6'.cos.(c« — c'mv — zs^z}') — me e'. COS. {cv{ c'mv — s — u') ) '
5. We must substitute these values of u, u', s and v', in the expression
[4838'] of Q [4806], and of its partial differentials [4808—4810], which will, by
this means, be developed in sines and cosines of angles proportional to v ; but
it is necessary, for this development, to establish some principles relative to
term is of the order e', it will be sufficient to take the two first terms of [4836], namely ;
[4837i] tz=mv — 2me.sm.{cv — a); whence, f't — ■ûi'=:(^c'mv — ra') — 2c'me.sm.{cv — «).
Developing the sine of this expression, by means of [60, 18] Int., neglecting e, we get,
successively,
[4837m] sin, (c' t — ra') == sin. (c'm v — to') — 2c' m e . sin. {c v — zs) . cos. {c'mv — ra')
[4837n] :=sin.(<''mf — ~/) — c'ine .sm.{cv\c'mv — ra — a') — f'me .sln.(f v — c'mv — ■a\z!').
Multiplying this by its coefficient 2 e' — i e'^, or 2 e'. (1 — ^ e'^), neglecting terms of the
fourth order, and putting c'= 1, we get the sixth, seventh and eighth terms of [4837].
* (2784) To obtain u, we must substitute the value of v' [4837] in [4833] ; and,
as we retain terms of the third order in e, c', /, m, in [4838], it is necessary to retain
those of the second order in v' [4837]. Hence, if we put for a moment, for brevity,
[4838a] ~ = 2 c'. sin. {c' mv — ra')  J e'^. sin.(2c'?rt v — 2 to') — 2m e . sin. {cv — to) ;
and observe, that c' is very nearly equal to unity, we shall have, from [4837],
[48386] v'=7nv+z, and c' v'—zi'—{c' mv — to') + s.
Its cosine, reduced by formulas [23,4.3,44] Int., becomes, by neglecting z^,
[4838c] cos. (c' v' — w') = cos. z . cos. (c' mv — to') — sin. z . sin. {c' m v — to')
[4S38(i] = (1 ~ 2 ~^) • cos. {cm v — to') — z. sin. {dmv — to') ;
hence,
e. (l + e'2).cos. (c'jj — to')
[4838e] =e'. (1 + ê') .cos. (c' mv — to') —  e' z^. cos. (c'mv — to') — e' z . sin. {c'mv — to').
Now, substituting the value of z [4838a], in the first members of [4838^, A], neglecting
VII. i. §5.] REMARKS ON THE DIFFERENT ORDERS OF THE TERMS. 387
the magnitudes of the quantities which enter into these functions, and on the [4839]
influence of the successive integrations upon the different terms.
The value of m [o\\l\ is very nearhj equal to the fraction ^\ \ loe shall [4840]
consider it as a very small quantity of the first order. The excentricities of o,do,. or
the orbits of the sun and moon, and the inclination of the lunar orbit to the
ecliptic, are nearly of the same degree of smallness [5117, 5194]. Thus, %oe g^^
shall regard the squares and products of these quantities, as very small
quantities of the second order ; their cubes and products of three dimensions,
as very small qua7ititics of the third order; and so on for others. The sun's
m' «'•*
disturbing force is of the order* A5, and we have seen, in ^ 3, that this [4842]
quantity is of the order m", or of the second order. The fraction , being
very nearly equal to ^i^, may be considered as of the second order. We [4843]
shall carry on the approximation to quantities of the third order inclusively ;
terms of the fourth order, also those depending on the angle Sdrnv — 3 ro', we get,
successively, by using [31, 17,2] Int., the following expressions; omitting, for brevity, the [4838/]
symbols n, n', as in [4821/] ; y
— y'z^. COS. (c' mv — •n') z= — e' '. (2 sin. d mv . cos. c m v) . s'm. d m v
= — e'^. sin. 2 c' m V . sm. c' m V :=^ — i e' ^. cos. d mv:
[4838g]
— e'z.sin. {d mv — z/) = — e'^. (1 — cos. 2 c' m «) — e'^. cos. cm «
\me e'.cos. [cv — d inv) — mee'. cos. (cv \ dmv).
Substituting [4838^, h'\ in [4833e], we get, by connecting the terms,
e'. (1+ c'2) . cos. (c » — w') = — c'^+ e'. (1— i e'^) . cos. d mv \ e'". cos. 2 d m v
\mcd. cos. {cv — dmv) — mc e'.cos. (cv + dmv).
Finally, by the substitution of this, in [4833], we get [4838].
[4838/i]
[4838i]
* (2785) The accelerative forces [4763rf'J, are represented by the partial differentials of
Q, relative to the coordinates. Thefe partial difltrentials occur in the general equations
[4753 — 4755], and are computed in [4807— 4810J. Now, if we compare the part of ^^ '* "^
[4808 or 4810], which does not contain the disturbing mass m', with the chief term of the
same equation, depending on this disturbing mass, we shall find, that it is of the order
^4' °^ '^ [4791]; which, by means of [4794, 4795], is of the order m^. l'*S'*26]
388 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Ctl.
and in the calculation of these inequalities, toe shall take notice of quantities
[4844] of the fourth order;* but we must take particular care not to omit any
quantities of that order in the integrals.
The equation [4754] becomes, by development, of the following form,t
„ (Ida , .TT
[4845] = — ^+iV. M + n ;
[4845'] N^ differs from unity but by a quantity of the order «r [4845c], and n is a
series of cosines, of the form /t.cos. (/ y + ;) [4961]. The part of «,
[4o4o]
relative to this cosine, is represented, as in [870', 871], by
[4847] „__A_.cos. (it' + O
Now, it is evident, that if r differs from unity by a quantity of the order m,
[4848] j^j^g jgj.,^ k.cos.Çiv { ô) acquires, by integration, a divisor of that order;
which increases the term considerably ; so that it will become of the order
^ ^ r — 1, if it be of the order r, in the differential equation. We shall see
[4850] hereafter, that the greatness of the inequality named the evection, arises from
this cause. t
* (2786) The angles connected with coeflicients, as far as the third order inclusively,
[4844a] are retained ; and, in computing the coefficients of these terras, the approximation is carried
on, so as to include terms of the fourth order.
t (2787) The chief inequality of M [4819], is that depending on cos. (ci; — ra), which
we shall represent by e.cos. (cd — ra) ; putting the other terms equal to Su, so that
iAaA^„\ . dilu „ , d. (]u
iwioai „^e_cos_(c!) — w) + <Sit. Its difierential gives — = — c^ e. cos. (cv — îi) + ^ .
Multiplying the first equation by c^ and adding the product to the second equation, we get,
(Wu , „ d'^.Au ,
U c~ u= \ c~. au.
[48455] dfi ^ dr2 ~
Putting the second member of this last equation equal to — n, we get,
''''" 12 IT.
\ c" u = — IT
[4845c] dl^ '
and this is of the same form as [4845] ; N^ being changed into c, which differs fiom unity
by a quantity of the order 3 m [4828e].
X (2788) The evection depends on the angle 2v — 2mv—cv\m, and its cosine is
multiplied by ./3/"e, in the expression of <5k [4904]. Now, in finding ^/i>, from the
[4850a] equation [4999], we must divide by the factor 1 — (2 — 2/« — c)^ which is of the order
m ; and by this division its value is very much increased.
VII. i. § 5.] REMARKS ON THE DIFFERENT ORDERS OF THE TERMS. 389
The terms where i is very small, and which depend only on the sun's [4850']
motion, do not increase, by integration, in the value of u ;* but, it is
evident, from the equation [4753], that these terms acquire, by integration, [4850"]
the divisor /, in the expression of t ;t we must, therefore, pay great
attention to these terms. It is on them, that the magnitude of the annual [1851]
equation depends.
The terms of the form k .dv.sm(iv{!), in the expression of (~^)~Tj [4852]
[4753, 4754] acquire, by the integration of that differential expression, a divisor
of the order i, in the value of u. Hence, it would seem, that in the expression
of the time t, these terms ought to acquire a divisor of the order r, which
would render them very great when i is very small ; but, it is essential to [4853]
dbserve, that this is not the case, and that, ifive only notice the first poioer of
the disturbing force, these terms will not have the divisor r, in the expression
of the time. To prove this, we shall observe, that by [1195, Sic], the
expression of v, in a function of the time, cannot acquire a divisor of the
order r, except by means of the function — 3af)idtfdQ;t in which the [4854]
[4853']
* (2739) When i is very small, the divisor i^ — JV^ [4847] becomes nearly equal to
— JY'^, which is of the order — 1 [4845'] ; consequently, the term [4847] is not
increased by this division.
[48506]
t (2790) If the development of the denominator of ilt [4753] contain a term of the
form A,.cos.(/ 1'~')> arising from u^, it would introduce in dt a term of the form
Jc [4851a]
k.dv.cos.{iv{;) ; whose integral would introduce in t a term of the form 7 .sin.(w'[;),
having the small divisor /, as in [4851].
I
I (2791) The differential of Q [4774fr], relative to the characteristic d, gives,
dR=— ^— dQ; hence fdR=^.—fdq. [4854a]
Substituting this, and ij.=1 [4775"] in ^ [1195], we get,
^ = 3 « .fn dt.~—3a .fn dt .J\\ q. [45546]
Now, the first term of this expression has only one sign of integration, and can, therefore,
introduce only the first power of the divisor i [1 196', &c.] ; and, if we neglect tliis term, we
shall have,
I = _3 a ./n dt ./d q, as in [4854]. ^^^^*'^
VOL. III. 98
390 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
differential dQ refers only to the coordinates of the moon. If Q contain a
[48o5] term of the form k .cos. (it {;), i being very small; this term cannot acquire
a divisor of the order r, except dQ does not acquire a multiplicator of the
order i. The part of this angle it, relative to the moon, must depend solely on
the mean motions of the moon, and on those of her perigee and nodes, when
we neglect the square of the disturbing force. If i be very small, this part
of / does not depend on the moon's mean motion ; it must, therefore, depend
only on the motions of the perigee and nodes. In this case, dQ acquires a
factor of the same order as the motions of the perigee and nodes, that is, of
[4850] the second order [4817,4828e] ; which causes the term in question to lose its
divisor of the order r. Therefore, the angles increasing slowly have, in the
expression of the true longitude in a function of the time, a divisor of the
order i only ; and it is evident, that this likewise holds good, in the expression
[48571 ^^ ^''^ time in a function of the true longitude. But, if Ave notice the
square of the disturbing force, the part of the angle it, relative to the moon's
coordinates, may contain the sun's mean motion ; and then, the differential
[4657'] dQ acquires only a factor of the fust order, or of the order m. From
these principles ice can judge of the order, to which the several terms of
the differential equations are reduced, in the finite expressions of the
coordinates.
6. Upon these considerations ive shall develop the different terms of the
equation [4754]. In the elliptical hypothesis, the constant part of u is
represented by,*
[4858]  • { 1 + C" f 5 7^ + 13 5 := constant part of u ;
[4858'! [3 being a function of the fourth dimension in e, y, we also have,
[4859] ^^' = « . { 1 — e— 7' + 3'};
[4859] ^' being likewise a function of the fourth dimension in e and 7. The sun's
[48C0] action alters this constant part of u [4858, 4964] ; but a being arbitrary,
* (2792) Neglecting terms of the fourth order, we have, in [4826], the constant part of
[4858a] u equal to  {l + e^ \ll^; and, from [4825], h~ = a .\\ — e — y^. Adding to
these the functions of the fourth order, depending on p, (S', they become respectively, as
in [4858,4859].
Vn.i.^^6.] TERMS OF q IN THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u.
391
we may suppose, that  .p + f'~ + T7" + (3 [4858] always represents the
constant part of u. In this case, we shall no longer have
h = 0.(1— e=— >H3') [4859] ;
and we shall then put,
a being an arhitrarij quantity which becomes equal to a, if we exclude the
sun^s action. We shall then put,
m
This being premised, the term
m'.u'^
Q,o 3 5 or the expression
becomes, by development, as follows ;*
1
Â2'
dq
du
s
JFu
'§) [4808],
'3
m. Il
2li\u^
m
2a.
l + e^^+i^^ + le'^
— 3e.(l+ie^+fe'^).cos.(cj; — t.)
+ 3e'. (l + e= + ir2+fi'2).cos.(c'OT» — ^')
— f . (3 + 2 m) . e e'. cos. (cv{c'mv — ■is — ■^')
— f. (3 — 2m).ee'. cos.(cj; — c'mv — ^ + w')
+ 3e.cos.(2cv—2^)
+ ^7cos.(2gv — 2è)
f e'^cos.(2c'mt?— 2'o')
— I e y. cos. (2^« — cv — 2^ + ra)
[4861]
[4862]
a,.
[4863]
[4864]
m.
[4865]
[4865']
[4866]
* (2793) If we separate the terms of the expression of  [4826], into different
classes; using the abridged symbols Xi, x^, x^ [4866i], whose indices represent respectively
the orders of the terms, we shall have u [4866c], from which we obtain — r4866c?l,
neglecting terms of tlie fourth order in e, 7 ;
Xi= e. COS. (cv — zi); x.2 = e^\iy^— {7^.cos.{2gv—2ê) ; X3 = e^.cos. (cv—a)', [48666]
[4866e]
[4866rf]
u = a\\l\Xi\x.2{X3\ ;
■.a^l—3.{x^\X2+X3)\6.{Xl''{2x^X2)—l0x^^.
392 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
To develop the term
^"'"''^ 'SS^°^(2'^2^0, of the expression of ^,.('J)^^.(')[^^^^^
Now, substituting the values of x^, x^, x^ [48666], in tlie first members of [4866/— i], and
reducing the products, by means of [6,20, 7] Int., we obtain the second members of these
[4866e] expressions respectively ; always neglecting terms of the fourth order, and those depending
on the angles 2gv \cv, 3cv, which are not retained in [4866] ; and using the abridged
notation [4821/] ;
[4866/] 1 — 3.(.Ti+Xo+.i:3) = l—3e^—f7'^—3e.{llre^).cos.cV'}iy^.cos.2gv ;
[iS66g] + 6<= +3e^ + 3e^cos.2ci;;
[4866fc] + 12a;ia;3= — 3e.(— 46^ — 7).cos.ct) — f e7^cos.(2^i'a') ;
[4866i] — 10^1^= — 3c.(ca).cos.ci.
The sum of these four expressions being multiplied by a^, gives the value of m"^ [4866(/,fc].
Moreover, from [4863], we get J/t"^ [4866/] ; the product of the two expressions
[4866A:,?] gives [4866??t], neglecting terms of the fourth order ;
[4866fc] u^=^a\ { l—iy''—3e.{l—ie''—7^)cos.cv\3c".cos.2cv{h^.cos.2gv—^efcos.{2gv—cv)l;
[4866i] ih^=har\\l + e^+7
21 .
r4866ml A ^.^' .{l+e^+j7^3e.(l+èe')cos.Cf+3e^cos.2«,+372.cos.2^«e72.cos.(2^rft>) }
«3
[4866n] ~2â'^'"^^^'
X beino put, for brevity, to denote all the terms between the braces in [4866m], except the
first, or unity.
We may proceed, in the same manner, to find u'^. For, by using the symbols y^, y^.
j/3 [4866^], the expression of 7t' [4838] becomes as in [4866;]; omitting, as above, the
[4866o]
[4866p]
angles •a, ■a', in the rest of the calculation. From this value of u' we get u'^ [4866*].
The terms, composing the factor of this expression, are found in [4866< — ?«] ; whose sum,
multiplied by a'^, gives m'= [4866s], as in [4866x] ; neglecting the terms depending on
the angle Sc'mv — 3ra' ;
y, = c'.cos.c'?ftt) ; y^=e'^.cos.2c^mv;
[4866g] y^ = Jc'3. cos.c'TOti+OTee'.cos.(cD — dmv) — mee'. cos. {cv\c'tnv) ;
[4866r] «' = «'' .\l + yi\ 2/2+ y 2 ] ;
[4866*] m'3 = «'3.^ i+3.(yi+y2+y3)+3.(yi=^+2y,y,) + </i=h
VII. i. §6] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 393
we shall first give the development of
3 m' . u' ''. COS. (2 ?; — 2 v') . [4866"]
This term, being developed, becomes,
[4866/]
1 + 3. (yi+ yi + i/s) = 1 + 3 m c e'. cos. (cv — c'm v)—3 m ee'. cos. (cu+cW)
+ (3e'— e'3).cos.c'mu \3e'^.cos.2c' mv;
3i/^^= +2e'2 +e'2.cos.2c'mr; [4866u]
6)/i(/o= +2/.e".cos. c'tod; [4866d]
J/i^= + 1 e' 3. cos. c'm 2'; [4866u>]
, , Cl + 3e'2 + 3e'.(I + e'2).cos.c'mt>+8e'3.cos.2c'mr )
M'3 = a'3.) y ~ V ' \ o ' ^ I ' ^^ L4866a:]
( ["3»ict cos^CD — c mv) — 3mee. cos. {cv\cmv)\
= «'3. Sl + r; [4866)/]
l+Y being used, for brevity, to denote all tlie terms between the braces, in [4866x]. [48662]
Multiplying together the expressions [4866», y], and their product by m' ; then substituting
_a
m
[4865], we get.
2 A2. ((3
= ^ .{1 + X+ Y+XYl. [4866a]
Now, XY is of the second order; and, in finding its value, retaining the same angles and
terms as in [4866], we may use the following expressions, which comprise the chief terms of
X, Y [4866«,y];
X^ej^7^ — 3e.cos.cv; F=e'^+ 3e'.cos.c'mv. [4866p]
Now, taking the terms of Y. and multiplying them separately by X, we get,
ê'2. X= — lee'^.cos.ci' ; [4866y]
.3e'.cos.c'mD.X=.3e'. (c4ï7^) . cos. c'm r — % ee'. cos. {cv\c'mv) — ee'.cos.(CT — c'mv). [48666]
The sum of the expressions [4866y, (5] is equal to the value of X Y, which is to be
substituted in [4866a] ; moreover, the sum of the terms hctiveen the braces in [4866m, a?],
decreased hij unity, is equal to the value of l{ X\ Y. Hence we find, that the terms of
[4866a, or 4866], between the braces, are equal to the sum of the terms between the braces [4866e]
in [4866m, 1], added to the second members 0/ [4866y, 5], and decreased by unity.
Connecting the similar terms, we find the result of this calculation to be the same as in
[4866].
VOL. III. 99
394
THEORY OF THE MOONj
[Méc. Cél,
/(l_e'2— 4mV) .cos.(2i'— 2my)
+ 1 e'. cos . (2 V — 2 mv — c'mv\^')
^e'.cos.(2 V — 2mvjc'mv — '')
+ 2me.cos.(2î; — 2mv\cv — w)
— 2 me. COS. (2 « — 2m v — cv\^)
\ + y e'l COS. (2 V — 2 m v — 2 c'm d+2 i^')
I — y mee'.cos.(2î; — 2?tt« — cv — c'mw+^+^')\
[4867] 3»i'.M'^cos.(2u 2t;')=^( + V ^^«' cos.(2w— 2mt)+c«— c'm«— ^+53') ^*
\+ ^mee'. cos.(2'«; — 2m w — cwf c'm«+ra — n')/
 1 mee'. cos.(2« — 2 m tJ+c i)f c'm?) — œ — 33') )
' + m.(3+8m).e^cos.(2cz;— 2v+2»ii;— 2^)
— Jm.(3— 8m).e.cos.(2c«+2«— 2m?;— 2^)
+ ^my". cos.(2gv—2v{2mv—2à)
— J:m7^cos.(2^?;f2y — 2mv — 2è)
\ — me>^cos.(2«— 2mîJ— 2^?;+ci;42t'— c=)/
3 m'
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
[4867a]
[48676]
[4867c]
[4867rf]
[4867e]
[4867/]
[4867g]
[të67h]
[4867«]
* (2794) Using, for brevity, the value of v^ [4867e], putting also «^ equal to all the
remainin'^ terras of the second member of [4837], except the first mv, we shall have v', as
in [4367/] ; always omitting, for brevity, the symbols a, ra', as in [4821/]. Substituting this
value of v' in the first member of [4867^], and developing by means of [24,43, 44] Int., it
becomes as in [4867A] ; observing, that v^ is of the first order, v.^ of the second order,
and, that some terms of the third order are neglected. Substituting in [4867/t] the value
2v^= Sm^.e^. sin.^cu + 167« ee'.sin. c«. sin. c'?n« — 8e'^.sin.2c'?»i) [4867e],
and reducing it, by means of [l,17]Int. ; also, 2v^+2v2 = '2v'—2mv [4867/], it
becomes as in [4867 i] ;
tijr= — 2me.sin.ci) + 2e'.sin.c'm!;;
cos.(2i) — 2«')=cos.{(2t) — 2mî;) — (2ui+2î)o)
= cos. (2w,+ 2i'2).cos.(2« — 2m«)4sin.(2ri42î)2).cos.(2a— 2mj))
= (^l—2vi^).cos.{2v — 2mv) + {2v,i'2v.2).sm.{2v—2mv)
_f (l_4»iV4e'2)+4mV.cos.2CT+4c'2.cos.2cW) ^^^ __2,ftt,)
I +8mee'.cos.(c« — c'mv) — Smve.cos.{cv\c'mv) y
+ {2v' — 2mv\.sin.{2v — 2?fti').
VII. i. >^S 6] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN w. 395
We must multiply this function by
2/1=
; and we have this factor, by [4868]
We must substitute, in the last line of this expression, the value of 2v' — 2m v, whicli is
easily deduced from the second member of [4837], by neglecting the first term mv, and [48674]
doubhng the remaining eight terms. We must then reduce the products of the sines and
cosines of this function, by means of [17, 20] Int., as in the following table ; in which, the
terms of column 1, corresponding to the different angles, are taken in the same order as
in [4867;'], namely ; the first five terms in the same order as in the first and second lines of
[4867i] ; and the remaining eight lines as in 2 i'' — 2mv [4837, 4867A:]. We may observe,
that a term is neglected in line 9, depending on the angle 2v — 2mv\ 2gv — cv, which is [4867i]
not expressly retained in [4867] ; also a term, of the order e'^, inline 10,&ic.;
(Col.l.)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
(Col. 9.)
( 1 —4)n^e^ — 4c'2).cos.(2y— 2m«)
4mV.cos.(2CT — 2v\2mv)\^.m.^e^.cos.(2cv\2v — 2mv)
\2e'^.cos.{2v—2mv—2c'mv)'r2e'^.cos.{2v—2mvi2c'mv)
}4mee'.cos.{2v — 2mv — cv{cfmv){4mee'.cos.{2v — 2mv\cv — c'mv)
— 4mee'.cos.{2v—2niv — cv — cfmv) — 4mee'.cos.(2u — 2mi;fc«+c'»i«)
42?«e.cos.(2ii — 27nv\cv) — 2me.cos.(2y — 2mv — cv)
?'«c^.cos.(2ci; — 2v\2mv) — fme^.cos.(2c2;+2i' — 2mv)
{imy^.cos.{2gv — 2v{2mv) — i7Hy~.cos.{2gv^2v — 2mv)
— .^mej'^.cos.(2f — 2mv — 2^yjcu)j Sic.
2e'.cos.(2y — 2mv — c'mv) — 2e'.cos.(2r — 2mvjc'mv)}hc.
—2mee'.cos.{2v~2mv—cv—c'mv)^2mee'.cos.{2v — 2mv\cv^c'mv)
— 2ffiee'.cos.(2« — 2mv—cv{c'mv){2mee'.cos.{2v—2mv{cv — c'mv)
{îe"^.cos.{2v—2mv—2c'mv)—^e'^.cos.{2v—2mv^2c'mv).
[Terms of
C03.(2i720'). J
[4867m]
Toobtain the expression [4867], we must multiply this value of cos. (2d — 2d') [4867m],
by Sm'.u^, or 3m'. a'^. (l + Y) [4866(/] ; by this means all the terms will have the common
. 3m' ,., , . , • r . , [4867n]
lactor —, like that without the braces m [4867] ; and the terms of this expression within
the braces will be obtained, by multiplying the function [4S67m] by 1 + F; or, in other
words, by multiplying the functions [4867m] by Y [4866x, y], and reducing the products [4867o]
as in [4867r], then adding together the two functions [4867?«, r]. In the first column of
[4867?], we have given the terms of Y [4866r,y] ; and, in the second column, the terms
of [4867m], by which they are multiplied: the third column contains their products,
respectively. The numbers in column 2, refer to the numbers in the margin of the lines t^^^'^P]
of [4867m], putting one accent to denote the first term of any line, tivo accents for the
396
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
putting e' equal to nothing, in the preceding development of
2h\i
[4866],
[4860] aiTid \^y multiplying this last quantity by —, We shall thus have, very
nearly, by neglecting quantities which remain of the order m' after the
[4869']
[4867c]
integration,*
[4867r]
second term of the same line, &i'C. Thus, 6' denotes the term 2ffîe.cos.(2i' — 2mv\cv)i
and 6", the term — 2me.cos.{2v — 2mv—cv). This method of distinguishing the terms
ivill he frequently used.
(Col. 3.)
Products of these terms.
jfe'^.cos.(2?; — 2 niv)
(é'.cos.(2ii — 2mv — c'mu )fe'.cos.(2t) — 2mv\c'mv)
\'3mee' .cos.{2v2mv\cvc'mv)\^mee' .cos.{2v2mv\cv\dmv)
— ^mee'.cos.(2,v2mvcvc'mv)—Zmee'.cos.{2v2mvcv\c'mv)
4— 3e'^.cos.(2y — 2mv — 2c'mt>)3e'^.cos.(2i' — 2mv)
— 3e'^.co3.(2u — 2mv\2dnn^ — 3e'^.cos.(2y — 2mv)
4e'2.cos.(2i;— 2my— 2c'my)+fe'2.cos.(2u— 2?nj)42c'?ni;)
\^mee .cos.{2v2mvcv{c'mv)\^inec' .cos.(2,v2mv\cvc'mv)
— i^mee' .COS. {2v2mv~cvc'mv) — ^mee .cos,.[2,v'2'mv\cv{c mv^ .
Connecting together the terms of [4867m, r], depending on the same angles, we find, that the
coefficient of cos.(2y — 2?nu + 2c'»i«^) vanishes, and the rest become equal to the function
between the braces in [4867], conformable to [4867o].
* (2795) The method given by the author, in [4869], is evidently correct. For, if we
m'.u' 3
(Col. 1.)
(Col. 3.)
Terms of Y [48C6r].
Terms
of
[4867,n]
+ e'2
r
[ 3 e'. cos. c'm y
1'
6'
6"
10'
10"
c'^.cos.2(;'7rtw
1'
3?î2ee'.cos. (ct) — dmv)
1'
— 3mee'.cos.(cyc'mt')
1'
I
[4869a]
[48696]
, we get u = ,, whence, ——7
—, ; multiplying this by
2/t9.„3
We shall not, however, be under the necessity of using this process,
[4869c]
put e' = 0, in
1
eives J77T — ;.
1 a3
because we have already given the value of 2^;5~^ = ^ • (1 + ^) [4866m, 71] ; and, if
we multiply this by the function [4867], we shall obtain [4S70]. In the first place, the
factors without the braces ^, ;^, being multiplied together, produce,
3 m'.a3 .3 _2 ,
— . —  = — . «I [4865] ;
VII. i.{.G] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u.
397
/
il+e^+iy^—èe'^).cos.{2v—2mv)
1
_i(34lm).t.(l}^e— Je'2).cos.(2y— 2mi'— CD+n) \ 2
— i(3 — 4m).c.cos [2v — 2mv\cv — w) ;{
Je'.cos.(2r — 2m v — c'm vj:^') 4
— ie'. cos.(2u — 2mv]c'mv — ra) / 5
— ^J(142?«).ee'.cos.(2i' — 2mv — cv — c'mnf af^')
'\'~{ 1 — 2 m) .e c'. COS. (2 v — 2 m «jc v — c'mv — raf^)
6
7
^.COS.(2«2w')=±!^./ + i (3+2m).ce'.cos.(2t)— 2mj;— CD+c'mDJza— Î3') \ . 8 [4870]
2li\u
2a
+ T (3 — 2/?«).ec'.cos.(2^; — 2 m d(c y f t''« ^ — « — si')
l+V.e'2.cos.(2r— 2?nt)— 2c'mz)+2îî')
+i(6+15m+8ffl2).e2.cos.(2ct)— 2t)+27«i'2i3)
+K6— 15m+8waj.g2_£.os.(2cr42t)— 2mj;— 251)
+Ï (3+2 ?«) .y. cos.(2^ j;— 2 t)f 2 m i— 2 è)
+} {3—2m).y~.cos.{2g v\2v—2mv—2ê)
9
10
II
12
jl3
14
The term
^^^,.cos.(..), of the expression ,^.(f
— f (2+m).e7a.cos.(2z!— 2m«— 2^c4ct;+2()— ^) / 15
hh
lis
[4808],
[4871]
which is the same as the common factor of [4870] . Moreover, the terms between the
braces in [4870], are represented by the product of the terms between the braces in [4867],
by l{X [4866n] ; or, in other words, this product is equal to the terms between the ^ ■'
braces in [4867], added to the function [4S69c]. TJiis last function being the result of the
product of these terms of [4867] by the the quantity X; and it is obtained in the following
table, which is similar to [4867r]. The first column contains the terms of X; the second, [48fi9t/']
the terms of [4867], and the third, the corresponding products, reduced in the usual manner,
and using the accented number 1', to denote the first term of the first line of [4867], as
in [4867 5] ;
VOL. III.
100
398 THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[4871'] gives t!îe following ;*
[Mtc. Cv\.
[4869e]
[4869/]
[4869e]
(Cl. 1.)
Terms of X [4866jn,n]
— 3e.cos.cv
f3e^. cos.âcw
{^■y^.cos.2gv
— cy^.cos.(2^y — cv)
(Col. 2.)
Terms
of
[4867].
1'
1'
1'
2
3
4
5
13
1'
1'
1'
4
1'
(Cul. 3.)
Products of these terms.
[4870a]
[48706]
[4870c]
[4870rf]
[4870e]
fe^.cos.(2 V — 2 mv)
j.l7^cos.(2); — 2mv)
Jc.cos.(2t>— 2 m y+CD)—fe. (1—1 e'2).cos.(2t>— 2m r—cr)
?^^ee'.cos.{2v2mvcvc'mL) — j'ee'.co3.(2tf — 2mv}cv—c'mv)
4.?Ée'.cos.(2« — 2mt;cz)fc'mi')+3ee'.cos.(2î) — 2mv\cv\c'mv)
3 m e^. COS. (2 V — 2/»!;) — 37ne^.cos.{2cv\2v — 2 m»)
\3me^.cos.(2v — 2m,v)\3me^.cos.(2cv — 2v\2mv)
f m e y^.cos.(2 v — 2 m v — 2^ v\c v)
■(?.cos.(2i' — 2 my — cv)
5 e.cos. (2 c I' — 2 1''~ ni v) \^ e^.cos.(2f yj2 v — 2 m v)
\^y.cos.{2gv — 2v{2mv)\^y^.cos.(2gv{2v — 2m v)
me7^.cos.(2!; — 2mv — 2gv\cv)
e7^.cos.(2D — 2mv — 2gv\cv).
Now, adding tlie function [4839e] to the terms between tlie braces in [4867], we get very
nearly, the expression between the braces [4870]. Tiiere are some shght differences, of
the same order as that of tlie terms which we have usually neglected. Thus, the term
— 'im^e^, in the coefficient of line 1 [4867], is neglected in [4870]. The term — 2me,
in hne 5 [4867], is connected with the ftctor (l+lt^ — i^'^) in line 2 [4870], which arises
from the chief terms of this coefficient in [48G9e] ; but this merely introduces terms of the
sixth order. Finally, we may observe, that a similar factor might be introduced in the
coefficient of line 3 [4870].
* (2796) Proceeding in the same manner as in note 2793, and retaining terms of the
second order only, we get, from [4866c] u~*=câ.\l — 'i.{xi\x.2)\l0xi^\; substituting
in this the value of 10ccj^:= 10 e^.cos.^<:« = 5 e^+5e^cos.as; ; also the value of x^jx.^
[4866i], we get,
u~' = a'. \ l\e^ — j^ — 4e . cos. cv\5 e^. cos. 2 c j; [}'"• cos. 2gvl.
Multiplying this by
9 m'
■ \l + e"~^y~) [4863], we obtain,
9)
„,„ , = —^ — .ll\2e^ — 4e.cos.ct))5e^.cos.2ct)4>'^.cos.2fii'i
8^2. ,j4 8(,^ ( I I I / to s
Again, from [48667,?], we have successively, 6w^^ = 3 e'j3e'^.cos. 2c'm y ;
= a''.l+3e'24e'.cos.c'm»[7c'2.cos.2c'm»}.
VIl.i.§6.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN m. 399
8«, ■ a
__.cos.(«— r)=<^^ji^ji_e'_cos.(i'— mz)+c'm«— ^') /• 2 [4872]
, 2~lh a , . t . i\
1 .e. cos.(i' — m V — c m vIt^ )
8 a, a
[4870/]
If we denote tlie factors between the braces in [4870c, e] by 1X,, l + ^u respectively,
their product will be lf^i+î^'i+^i^V» ^Y noticing only the chief terms of X,, F,,
we have,
Xi Yi= ( — 4e.cos.ci').(4e'.cos.c'HM') = — Sec'. cos. (c« — c'mv) — 8e e' .cos. [cv\c'mv). [4870g]
Adding these terms of Xj Fj, to those of l+^u l + ^i [4870c, e], and decreasing the
sum by unity, we get the expression of 1jXjf Fj + Xj Fj, to be used in the product of
the functions [4870c, c], which becomes,
C 1 j2 e)3 e'^44 c'. cos. c'm« — 4e.cos.cv '\
9m'. u"^ 9m'. a' ),g ^ ,0 „ 1 n "> 0/ V
g^^ =g^^^ • ) +^^cos.2cvjf.cos.2gvfrle~.co5.2c'mv'> . [i870h]
(_ — 8 c e'. cos. (c V — c'in v) — 8 e e'. cos.(c v{c'm v) )
m . w
Substituting the value of —7— [4865], in the first factor of this expression, it becomes,
9m'. a* a — ^O'
8^4 l'A; o [4870,]
which is of the fourth order [4842,4843] ; therefore, in finding the value of cos.(«) — v'), we
need only to retain, in general, the terms of the first order ; except in those depending on
the angle v — mv ; in which greater accuracy is required [4874]. Hence we may neglect [4870/i;]
«0 [4867/"], and we shall have the value of cos.(«; — v') [4870»i], by proceeding as in
[4867^,A]. Substituting in this the value of I'l^^ 2e'. sin.c'wt) [4S67e], it becomes as in
[4870n]. It being unnecessary to notice other terms of a higher order, or such as depend on [4870i]
angles which differ from those in [4872] ;
cos.(r — r')=(l — irj^).cos.(i' — ?«t))i'isin.(v — mv) r4870 1
= (I — fc'^).cos.(t) — mv) — c'.cos.(« — mv{c'mv)\c' .cos.[v — mv — dm v). r4870n]
The four terms of which this expression is composed, being multiplied by the terms between
the braces in the function [4870/i], produce respectively the terms in the four lines
[4870o — r]. Their sum is given in [4870^]; to which we must annex the common factor
9m'. vJ^
[4870ï] , and we shall obtain the corresponding terms of ' ,^ .cos.{v — v), as in [4872]. We
shall hereafter, in [4870/ — w], see, that the neglected terms have much less effect, in the
value of u, than those we have explicitly retained ;
400 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4872']  being, hy the preceding article [4843], of the order m' ; the two first of
[4873] these terms become of the order »t^ by the integrations. The inequality,
depending on the angle v — mv, is remarkably loell adapted to the determination
of the Slut's parallax, by means of the ratio . It is, therefore, important
[4874]
[4870o] 1
[4870;>] 2
[48709] 3
[487 0<]
(Coi.i.) {Col. a.)
(lj2c^f3e'^).cos.(«) — mv)\2e'.co'3,.[v — mi'fc'mt')l2e'. cos.(r — mv — c'mv)
— e'^. cos.(i) — mv)
— e' . COS. (v — m v\'C'm v)
[4870r] 4 j J^e' .cos.{v—mv—c'mv).
[4870«] (l2e"42e').co3.(i! — mv)\e'.cos.{v — mv\c'mv)\^e' .cos.{v — mv — c'mv).
If we compare the terms [4872] with the assumed form [4846], we find the values of i,
corresponding to them respectively, are i^l — in, i:=l — mc'm, i=l — m — cm; and,
as c' hardly differs from unity, they are very nearly represented by i^\ — m, i=l,
i = \—2iii. The corresponding divisors, in the value of u [4847], are of the orders
[4870m] (1 — m)~ — JV^ \—N^, (1— 2m)2 — N~ ; and, as JV differs from unity by quantities
of the order m^ [4815'], these divisors will be respectively of the orders m, m^, m. In
consequence of these divisors, the part of the first term [4872] which is independent of c, e',
is reduced from tlie fourth to the third order ; the second term is reduced from the fifth to the
third order ; and the third term is reduced from tlie fifth to the fourth order. Several terms
of the function [4870t", or 4872], are not increased so sensibly in the value of m, and they are
[4870tt] therefore neglected. Thus, the term — 4e.cos.cv [4870/(1, being multiplied by the first
term of [4870»], produces, in the function [1872], the following expression,
[4870jr] .^ . .( — 4c.cos.cy).cos.(!; — mv) = — ~.^ . .2c.{cos.(ci' — v\mv)\cos.{cv\v — mv)\.
r4670vl corresponding, in [4846], to i = c — lf'"> i^c\\ — m, and as c=l — f»«~ nearly
[4828e], these terms will not render the divisor i^ — JV^ small [4847].
We may observe, that the term treated of in [4871], occurs in [4S08], under the form
3wi' w'M
.(3— 4«).cos.(v — v'), and in [4754], with a dilierent sign, and under the !brm
[4870^']
8ui
3m'.i('l ,_ , o, , ,, y»ï'.!('' / , . n\ / /\ 1 • 1 1 1 • o
.(3 — 4s).cos.(t' — v), or, .(1 — *;.sj.cos.(y — v ) ; whicli, by neglectmg s",
becomes as in [4871]. Now, by [4618], wc have,
[4870Z] _4,a__£/.cos.2(5fd) = _f ,.2_£y5.cos.(25.2<!) ;
which contains the constant quantity — f^; so that we might multiply the function [4871]
[4870z'] by 1— §r, which would change the foctor (l+2(;'+2e'2) [4872] into ll2e+2c'2— f/^.
VII. i. §6.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 401
to determine this inequality with particular care ; and, for this purpose, we [4875]
shall carry on the approximation so as to include terms of the order m*.
We shall now develop the term \j)j;r~Yj~^ of the equation [4754].
In the first place, this term contains the following,* — ^^^..s'm.(2v—2v'). tl87C]
.sin. (2d — 2v'), by increasing 2v by a right angle, f [4876']
We shall have
* (2797) This is produced by the first term of [4809].
t (2798) We may change 2y mto any other angle, as 2 v in [4867^ — r, 4867,4870],
without altering the angles mv, gv, cv, c'mv, as is evident by the mere inspection of the
process of calculation in [4767^, &.c.]. This change being made in [4870], and then
putting 2 V = 2 1"] 90'', its first member becomes,
^u^'^^'^''^^ ^^ In [4876'].
In the second member of [4870], we must, by the same process, change any term of the
form cos.(2!;lp) into — sin.(2«43) ; and any one of the form cos.(3 — 2r) Into
sin.(3— 2v). Hence we get, by changing the signs of all the terms of [4870], and
neglecting the symbols è, ct, ô/, as In [4821/],
?^';sin.(2«2.')=^
2h\u^ ^ ^ 2a,
/(I +e2+i 52—1 e'2).sln. (2 v— 2 m«)
— (3+4»?).e.(l+e2— Je'2).sin.(2î>2mDcî))
5(3 — 4m).e .sin. (2 \i — 2 m vAc v)
Je'. sin.(2t) — 2mv — (^mv)
I — J e'. sin. (2 v — 2 m v\(!m. v)
\ — i{\ 2 ni) .e e'. sin . (2 « — 2 mv — c v — dmv)
I — %'( 1 — 2 ni).ee'. sin .(2 v — 2 m v\c v — c'mv)
\ 1 (.3l2OT).eÊ'. sln.(2y — 2mv — cv{dmv)
\ \ i (3 — 2 m) .e c'. sin . (2 v — 2 m v\c v f c'm v)
I +¥• e' ^. si n. (2 r — 2 7n v — 2 c'm v)
l(6+15?n+8m2).e2.sin.(2ct)— 2i}+27n«)
+i{6—l5m48m^).e^.s:ii.{2cv+2v—2mv)
i (3+2 m).y~. s\n.{2g v—2 v\2 m v)
+^{S—2m).y.sm.{2gv+2v—2mv)
\ — ^ (63 in).ey'^. sin. (2 v — 2 m v — 2^rfcy)
[4875a]
[4876o]
[4876t]
[4876c]
[4876rf]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 [4876c]
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
VOL. III.
101
402 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél
3m' u'^
ill the preceding development of rr^— 5.cos.(2« — 2v') [4870]. We must
then mutiply this development by,*
•— ce.(l+ie^ — J7).sin.(ct; — 3j) v i
+ icelsin.(2ctJ— 2^) I 2
[4878] rfM I , ^ . ,„ q . ( „
«</«; 1 I
+ ia7^sin.(2^i;— 20)  4
, — ±ef.sm.(2gv—cv—2ê+z!) I 5
* (2799) The differential of [4826], relative to v, gives, by neglecting «, 6, as in
[4821/],
[4878a] ~ = aK{—ce.(l+e^).sm.cv+^gf.sm.2gvl;
dv
and if we neglect terms of the third order in all the coefficients, except those which are
connected with the angle 2gv—cv, we obtain from u [4866c], the following value
[48786] of  [4878c, tZ], by observing, that ai^E^.cos.^cf =ie2+ie^.cos.2cy [4866è].
w
We may remark, that the author has retained, in the coefficient of cos. cj;, a term of the
third order e^, but has neglected others of the same order, as will be seen in [48846] ;
[4878c] i^a.{ l(x^+x,+x,)+{x,ix,+x,y{.T,jr,+x,f+hc.l
u
[4878d] =a.\{l—ie—lf)—e.(l\e").cos.cv+he^.cos.2cv+if.cos.2gv\.
Multiplying together the two expressions [4878a,rf], we find, that the factor without the braces
becomes a^.a = 1 ; so, that we have only to notice the product of the factors between the
[4878e] jjj.j^(.g3 pjjjg jg jjQj^g jjj (i^g following table ; in which is given, in column 1, each of the four
terms of the function [4S78(f] ; and the corresponding products, by the function [4878a],
are given in column 2, on the same lines respectively ;
(Col. 2.)
— ce.(l\ie'^ — ^■)'^).sm.cv\^g'y^. sin.2^v
4i c e^. sin.2 c v —  g c f. sin. (2^ v — c v) — &;c.
■\\c e^. sin.cu — \ ce^. sin.3c v
\\ct f. sin. (2^ t — ci))f&ic.
Connecting together the similar terms, and putting c = l, g^=\, in those of the order
e 7, it becomes as in [4878].
(Col. 1.)
[4878/]
lc"i7'
[4878^]
— c.(l4«^)cos.cw
[4878/.]
Je2.cos.2c«;
[4878i]
4^7®.cos.2^w
VII.i.§6.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u.
Then we shall have,*
/cc.(lf^.[2— 19m].e=— e'2).cos.(2u— 2m»— cv+ra)
/ — ce.cos.(2« — 2mv^cv — «)
I + J.cce'.cos.(2t) — 2mv — cv — c'Mt)jraw')
\ — .cee'.cos.(2i; — 2mv\cv — cfmv — rajw')
I — ^.cee'.cos.(2D — 2mv — cv\c'mv\zi — •ra')
3m'A3 du . ,^ ^ ,, 3in +hcee.cos.{2v—2mv\cv{c'mv—a—a')
— nT^T" T •sin.(2u — 2t)')=: — ./
2''"' ''" 4"' \— 2c.(I+m).e2.cos.(2c?;— 2«+2mu— 2«)
403
42c.(l— m).e^.cos.(2ci)42t) — 2mv — 2a)
{ 4 m c. e^. COS. (2 v — 2 m v)
— tgf.co5.{2gv—2v\2mv—2è)
}igy^.cos.{2gv\2v—2mv\2è)
__ J.(2 — 5m) .e y^. cos.(2u — 2mv — 2gv^cv\2ô — ro)/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
[4879]
* (2S00) If any term of [4876t;], be represented by
. A . sin. V,
2a, '
and any term of [4878], by .^'.sin.F', the product of these two terms, changing its sign,
will represent the corresponding part of — ' ^ ■— .sin.(2t; — 2v') [4879], which, by
reduction, becomes,
^^.{AA'.cos.{V\V')—AA'.cos.{Vy^V')l.
The factor of this expression, without the braces, is the same as in [4879] ; consequently,
the terms within the braces, must arise from the terms
A A', cos. ( V+ V) —A A'. cos.( F«= V) .
These terms are computed in the following table, neglecting quantities of the third order
in e, e', y, except they depend on the angles
2 V — 2 m vzhc v\ zs, 2 v — 2 m v — 2g ujc v\2 ê — «.
The numbers in the first column refer, respectively, to the five terms or lines of [4878] ;
and those in the second column, to the terms or lines of [4876e] ; in the third column are
the corresponding terms of the function [4879/"] ; and the sum of all of them represents the
terms between the braces in [4879] :
[4879o]
[48796]
[4879c]
[4879rf]
[4879e]
404
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4880]
The terms,*
'«'4
m.u
8}Au=
..I3.sïn.(v—v')+lô.s'm.(3v—3v')]
du
dv
[4879/]
(Col. a.)
Function [4870(/].
ce.cos.(2y — 2mv\cv)l[ce.(l\^e^ — Je'2).cos.(2« — 2mv — cv) 1
+J(3+4w).fe2.cos.(2y2my)— i(3+4ïK).ce2.cos.(2CT2«+2«y) 2
i(;3— 4w).cc2.cos.(2y2mi')+^(34m).cc2.cos.(2cy42i;2/Hw) 3
— icce' .COS. (2v2mv\cv — c'mv)^?rcee' .cos. C2v 'Hmv cv — c'mv) 4
fT7Ccc'.cos.(2i'— 2);u'fi'[f'mi') — ^'^cc' .cos. {^v —2mv —cv^c'inv) 5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
(Col. 1.)
(Col. 3.
A' [4878].
[4876c
ce{\+le^m.
sin.cz'
1
o
3
4
5
11
12
13
jJce^sin.2c»
1
o
3
— ^ce^.s'm.Scv
. .
{igf.sin.2gv
1
3
— ^e'y^.s)n.{2gv
—cv)
1
[4879^]
[4879fc]
[4879q
[48794]
— (G(15?k).cc3.cos.(2« — 2mv — cu)j&c.
[i(6 — 15m).ce^.cos.(2y — 2mv\cv)\&c.
i(3_[_2,„).ej,2.cos.(2y— 2my— 2^v+cd)+&,c.
fice^.cos (2eDj2u — 2mv) — ice.cos.(2cu — 2v{2?nv)
— J(3j4»i).fe3.cos.(2y — 2mv^cv)\&L,c.
jJ(3 — im).ce^.cos.{2v — 2mv — c«))&,c.
. . neglected.
\igy~cos.{2gv\2v — 2mv)—lg7.cos.{2gv — 2v\2mv)
i(3 — im).c}'^.cos.[2v — 2niv — 2gv\cv)\&,c.
e7".cos.(2y — 27iiv — 2gv\'Cv)\&bc.
Connecting the terms of this expression, we obtain the factors between the braces in [4S79],
neglecting terms of the tliird order, connected with the angle 2v — ■2 m v^cv, or with other
angles differing considerably from v. To estimate roughly one of these neglected terms, we
shall observe, that y^ « ^ e' [51 H, 5120] ; therefore, the greatest product of the third
order, which can be made of these three quantities, and can occur in the above function, is
ey; and, if this be multiplied by the factor i^ [4879], or its equivalent expression
m^, it becomes m^. ey®. Substituting the values [.5117, .5120], and multiplying by the
radius in seconds 206265", we get ^ m^. e7^ = 0",38 ; whidi represents the order of the
greatest neglected term in [4879]. This may be somewhat increased by integration in this
value of u [4847], by means of the divisor i^ — JV^ ; for which reason the author has
retained the last term of the function [4879], which depends on the factor ey~. We may
observe, that the factor le — f e'~, which occurs in the second term of the first line of
[4879/], might also be connected with the first term in that line.
* (2801) Substituting, in Cy)'W^v [4'754], the term of [4809], depending on ?A
[4880a] it becomes as in [4880] ; neglecting the very small teim depending on s. We have, in
VII. l.s^6.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 405
in the expression of ( '7^ i.,~i) produce no inequality of the third order [4881]
'■ \dv J Irirdv
in the integrals.
Lastly, we shall develop T~^f'^'\ [4754]. This function contains [4881']
dv u
'3 m' y,u'^.dv
the following term,* — j2~J^ — i — .sin. (2îj — 2v'). The development of [1883)
ft It
3m'. U'^ ._ , ,, ^)rl^/^^ • 1 r 3m'. u'^ ■ ,n ^ ,^
___ . COS. (2 v1 V') [4870] , gives that of p  . sin. (2 v—2 v'), [4883]
by increasing the angle 2*; by a right angle [4883rt], and multiplying it byf [4883']
[4872], the expression of " ^ .cos.(t) — v') ; in wliich we may change v into t)90'',
as in [48765, c], witliout altering m v, c'mv ; and we shall obtain the expression of
~8Â5:^""("~^) [4880J]
This being multiplied by one third part of the expression [4878], gives the value of
S5^^'"(^''')S [4880]. ^4g,0c]
Now, the chief term of [4872] has the factor ^.nfi., [5094] ; and that of [4878] is ce,
or c, nearly, neglecting its sign. Hence, the greatest coefficient of this product, is,
i.w2.^,.e = 0,0000004 [5117,5120]; [4680rf]
which, in seconds, is less than 0',09. This is insensible, and it is not increased by
integration in [4847]. The same may be inferred, relative to the term of [4880], depending [4880e]
on the angle 3v — 3v'. Hence, we may conclude, that the expression [4880] maybe
neglected, as in [4881].
* (2802) The first term of (^^) [4809], being substituted in [4881'], produces
the expression [4882] ; and we have already seen, that the expression [4870] gives that in [4883a]
[4876e]; by changing 2» into 2i)f90'', according to the method proposed in [4876']
or [4883'].
t (2803) Retaining terms of the third order in [48786], and multiplying by 2, we get,
2
— = 2a.\l—{xi+x,,+.r.j)^xi'i^2xi x.^—x^^. [4884a]
Substituting the values [48666], we obtain,
VOL. III. 102
406
THEORY OF THE MOON;
[Méc. Cél.
— e.(l — le^ — lf).cos.(cv — ^)
[4884] ï^2a.^ +ie^cos.(2ct; — 2^)
+ i?2.cos.(2g?;— 2ô)
—lef.cos.(2gv—cv—2èJr:s)
Hence we shall have,*
[48846]
[4885a]
[48856]
[4885c]
1 — {xi{x.2\X3) = 1 — c^ — i>^ — c.[l\e^).cos.cv \ly^.cos.2gv
2xxi= — c.( — 2c^ — i7~)cos.cv rriey^.cosi^gv — cv)
— a:j3__ — j,_^ Sga ).cos.cv.
The sum of these, gives the terras between the braces in [4884a, 4884].
* (2804) Multiplying together the second members of [4876e, 4884], we obtain the
expression of
3»i'.m'3
^ a
.sin.f2D — 2v'): and the factor witliout the braces becomes 3 m ■—, as in
Ifi.u* ^ ' a.
[4885] . The products of the terms between the braces, are found in the following table ;
in which the first column contains the terms of [4884] ; the second column, the terms of
[4876e] ; and the third column, their respective products, reduced by [ 1 8, 19] Int. ; using
the abridged notation [4821/] ;
(Col. 1.)
[4884].
1
— f.cos.(;«
je(ie^+j72)cos.c«
jie^cos.2cy
}57®.cos.2^y.
— Je72.cos.(2jOycD)
(Col. a.)
[487Ge]
All the
terms.
1
2
1
o
3
4
5
11
13
1
1
3
1
3
1
(Col. 3.)
_. ,. . 3m'.«'3 . ,„ „ ,.
Correspondinsr terms of r= .sin.fiJw— at) ).
:■ the whole function [4876e] between the braces
(
4^2— i72).sin.(2D— 2»i«)
1
2
j>(34;rt).e.(e24iy2).sin.(2i'— 2»u'— ft') 3
_c.(l_}e2y2e'2).{— sin.(2y— 2mw+cw)sin.(2K2»i«cy)] 4
i(3]4,„).e2.sin.(2y— 2?nu)— sin.(2cD— 22)+2)rM))} 5
_f_.(:3_4„j).f2^sin.(2y— 2mw)4sin.(2cw+2»— 2»iu)} 6
■\\ce'.\ — sin.(2u — 2mw+ct) — Cmw) — sin.(2u — 2nîD — cv — drnv) \ 7
_j_ic(;'.^_sin.(2u— 2«u'jc2J+c'OTt))+sin.(2« — 1mv—cv\c'mv)\ 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
__i_(G+1.5/n+8M2).e3,gin.(2y— 2my— cv)
— _i^(32/n).cy2.sin.(2w — 2mu — 1gv\cv)
+(^c3+iey2).sin.(2y— 2/«K— cr )
— ica.sin.(2cw— 2tf+2»!!;)+J:e2.sin.(2cv+2i'— 2m')
_(3_4Hi).e3.sin.(2w— 2;ny— cu)
+^>2sin.(2g'î,j2t'— 2mw)— ^y2.sin.(2^y_2t,_j2»iy)
_^i^(3_4,n).e72.sin.(2H— 2mw— 2^«+cd)
— icy2.sin.(2i'— 2»!y— 2§y+cv).
VlI.i.^G.J DEVELOP^rENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 407
^ n
(l_}2e2— e'2)
o o
\m
.COS. (2d — 2m2;)
2.(l+>»)
2— 2/«— c
2.(1— m)
2— 2m+c
7e'
{1+fe— i/'— e'.e,cos.(2t)— 2mî?— cî;+ra) \ 2
e.cos.(2« — 2mv\cv — ji)
+ oTS o— r.C0S.(2v — 2ot» — c'mV^:r!)
~{.i — dm) ^ ^
. COS. (2 V — ^mv^c'mv — si')
cos.(2v — 2 mv — cv — c'inv^^\ui')
COS. (2 V —2 m t^+c v — c'm v — ra+ro)
2.(2— m)
7.(2+3 m).ce'
2.(2— 3ot— c)
~.(2— 3m).ee'
' 2^(2— 3 m+c)
(24m).ee'
■?;:;.« / , ['■i+m).ee'
é.m.~./J^ .A^^^J^^,cos.(2v—2mv—cv+c'mv+z^—z.')
(2—m).ee'
+ "oTo rT.cos.(2t) — 2m«+cu+c'mv — •a — îî')
(10+19/«+8m2) „
■ 4:(2^2+^^^°^C2'^^2t'+2m.2.)
, (1019m+Sm.2) „
+ 4:(2^^^^'^««(2^+2.2m.2.)
— 4:^^24:^ •'''•cos(2^«2«+2mt;— 20
I (2— m)
"^ 4.(2o+22m) ^^^"^^^^"+^^~^^^— ^^)
17e'3
+ 2. (2 —4m) • ^Qs (2 D— 2 m ?;— 2 c'm v+2z>')
I (5+m) „ /
4.(22m— 2g+c) • ^ '^ • cos(2«— 2mt;— 2gz;+c^+2a^)/ 15
The first line of this table includes the terms of the function [4876e], and by adding them to
... ,, , 3m' «3 [4885rfl
theremammg terms of [4885c], we get the terms of —^.sm.(^v—2v') ; which ought to be
408
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél
The terms of this formula, depending on the angles 2cv — 2vT2mv — 2ra and
[4886] 2gv — 2v{2mv — 2^, have divisors of the order m ; and they again acquire
these divisors, by integration, in the expression of tlie moon's mean
longitude ; wliich reduces them to the second order ; and this, it would
seem, ought to make the inequalities relative to these angles become great.
But we must observe, that, by [4853, &ic.], the terms having for a divisor
the square of the coefficient of v, in these angles, nearly destroy each other,
in the expression of the mean longitude ; so, that the inequalities in
question, become of the third order, conformably to the result of observations,
as will be seen hereafter [5576]. We may, therefore, for this reason, dispense
[4887] with the calculation of the terms multiplied by e*
[4886']
[4886"]
„9 9
e 7 ,
because the
[4885e]
[4885/]
[4885g]
[4885A]
[4885;]
[4885fc]
[4885i]
equal to the differential of [4885] divided by — dv ; or, in other words, it ought to be equal
to the terms between the braces in [4885], changing cos. into sin., and neglecting the
divisors 2 — 2m, 2 — 2m — c, he, which are introduced in [4885], by the integration. The
comparison of the sums of the terms of [4876e, 4885c], with those of [4885], may be made,
in most cases, by inspection, or by very slight reductions ; and they will be found to agree,
neglecting some terms of the third order, depending on angles which are not expressly
included in [4885] ; or, on angles, whose coefficients are not much Increased by integration ;
as 2v — 2mv{cv, 2v — 2)nv\c'mv, he. The reductions, relative to the terms depending
on the angle 2v — 27nv — cv, are rather more complicated than the others, on account of the
great number of its terms. We have, therefore, placed these terms in the following table
[4885/], in the order in which they occur in the functions [4876e,4835[] ; and have found
their sum in [4885?n]. Comparing this sum with the corresponding coefficient
— 2.(1+ÎH,),(1+Î<
h7'
\e^).e,
in the second line of [4885], we find that they nearly agree ; their difference being equal to
the very small quantity 2me.^^e~, which maybe considered as of the fifth order ; and,
as this is to be multiplied by the factor without the braces, which is of the order nfi, or of
the second order, it becomes of the seventh order, which is usually neglected in this
coefficient :
— 2e.(5+,»5e2 _.e'2)— 2me.(l+Je2 — e'2)
[4876e],line2
[4885c], line 3
4
9
11
13
2e.{—i,e"—i,y^
— 2e.a+ite2+A7^.
—2e.{+,%e^
— 2e.(,\e^— A7=^
— 2e.
)—2me.{ —I «2—172
c'2)
)— 2me.( +I^e2
)
)— 2me.( — i1;e2
)
)•
[48S5m]
Sum is =2e.(l + ie^i?^e'2)2me.n+jJe^7ie').
VII.i.§6.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 409
quantities of the fourth order, which result, after integration, nearly destroy
each other.
The intes;ral tt^TI ]'^ [4754], contains also the following
° h ^ \ dv J ir
[4887']
term,*
T/^;^Si»(^'— ^') [4888]
4 II
This quantity, by development, produces the following expression,!
* (2805) The second term of (—] [4809], namely, — ^ . sin. (tJ — v'), being
, . ,. , , 2,fo , . 2 /dq\ dv . 3m' u't.dv . , ,.
multiplied by — ,, produces, m "^^i" • (^^^j ,7> t^e term, — — .^.sm.(«— 1> ) ; [4887a]
whose integral is as in [4888].
t (2806) We may change v into v\^(f, in [4872], in the parts which are not
connected with m^v, or c'mu, upon the same principles as in [4876a, &c.]. By this means, Mggg^n
the expression [4872], with the addition of tlie two terms [4870.c], becomes as in [48896].
Multiplying [4884] by ^, we get [4889c] ; always using the abridged notation [4821/], ..gg
which ivill frequently be done, in the commentary oil this hooJc, without any particular
notice, that the angles a, •s/, ê, are omitted;
_2 r{l\<2e^\2e"^).sm.{v—mv)
9)ii'. «'■* . 9 nt rt ) . \ ^ • / 1 \
— ^p, — r.sm.ti; — V )^ — ; — . — . < +2e.sm.(cu — v\mv) — 2e.sm.[cv\v — mv) , , ^. „„,
87i2.«4 ^ '' 8a, a' \ ' '^ ' ^ ^ ^ C [4889i]
' (_ je'.3in.(y — mv\c'mv)\3e'.sm.{v — mv — c'mv) ,
3== 3 « • Î (1* e2_i7.2)_e.cos.c .+ &c. S . ^^ggg^^
The product of these two expressions, retaining terms of the same form and order as in
[4889], becomes as in [4889A]. For the product of the two factors without the braces, is
evidently equal to — •• , as in [4S89A]. We shall now multiply the terms between [4889rf]
the braces in [48895], by those in [4889c]. The first line of [48895], being multiplied by
the factor (1 — 56^ — iy^) [4889c], produces the expression,
{\ + le^—lf+2e'^).sm.{vmv) ; ^^^^^^^
and the term — c.coscd [4869c], being multiplied by each of the terms depending on e,
in the second line of [48895], produces a term of the form e.sin.(y— mi') ; adding these
two terms to those in [4889c], we get,
{l + ie^iy^+2e'^).sm.{vmv), as in [4889A]. ^^gg^^^
VOL. III. 103
410 THEORY OF THE MOON; [Méc. Cél.
2 I I— m
.cos.(w — mv) \ 1
. , .u„..,^ „ , . ' \p'.r.nfi.Cv — «??
[4889] — — .r — —.sin.ft; — w)= — ..,.( +e.cos.(« — mt+c'mw — ') ^ 2
[4890]
[4891]
3 ft' \
4 .cos.fi' — mv — c'mvXJ) j 3
the other terms of the integral [4887'] may, in this part, be neglected. This
being premised, if we observe, that the expression of u [4826] gives,*
l+e"+l/ \ 1
^'1,, _i) +(1— c).e.cos.cî)— ^) . 2
a ) g I
the term ( ^ + m ) • ya'/f y^) • '"i ? of the equation [4754], will
produce, by its development,!
Lastly, the first term, or unity [4889c], being multiplied by the terms in the third line of
[4889i], produces those depending on e', in [4889A] ;
r{l+le'^—ly^}2e'~).sm.{v—mv)]
3m' u'i  a a y , . . , , '
[4889A] ~\}fi^'^^'''^^"~'^'^~^'''^^"^''^"\ + csin.(t!— ?w«)jcw«— n)
\ \Ze! .%\\\.{y — mv — c'mi;( si')
Multiplying this by ih, integrating, and putting in the divisors c'=l, it becomes as in
[4889i] [4889]. We may remark, that the term — §7^, which we have connected with the factor
(lo<^^2__2g/2j^ i„ [4870^', 4872], ought also to be connected with that in [4889/i, 4889] ;
'■^^^^^^ so that, instead of l+Je^—i 5.24.2 e' 2, we may write l+J t^— Ji^2__2e/a_
* (2807) The second differential of u [4826], taken relatively to d, and divided by
dv^, gives,
[4890a] ''^'^^=^.lr^e.(l+.s).cos.(c..) + ^Vcos.(2,o.2ô)r
Adding this to the expression [4826], and neglecting terms of the fifth order (1 — <?).^
[48906] [43O8e],weget[4890].
t (2808) The terms of the integral yJr/;^^' are contained in [4885,4889].
[4892a] These two functions must be multiplied by the expression of ——\u [4890]; and the
Vll.i.^se.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 411
ddii \ 2 ^f/Q dv
dv
Ifi '^ dv ' «3
(l43ea+jv3— ge'a)
2— 2m
.cos.{2v—2mv)
^H(l— "0 22mc V T^* 2 >'\ ^ ' ^
2(1 — m) /r» rt .
'^ .e.cos.(2îJ — 2'mv{cv — ra)
— :^~7^ — K • COS. (2 V — 2mv\c'mv — a')
2.(2 — m)
\ — „ ,!l'^ —.eé.cos.(2v — 2 mv — cv — c'mtj+ra+ra')
\ 2.(2— 3 m — c) ^ ' ' /
' o '/7^~^ — r~: • ^ ^' COS. (2 v —2 m «4<^ « — c'm v — ro+w)
2.(2 — Jotjc) ^ '
, (2+ot) ,
+ ^5 .ee.cos.(2» — 2m« — cv\c'mv{a — ra')
/*. { Ài Tïl C)
. (2m)
2 /+ ITTTi — t^^cos.(2î; — 2'mv{cv\c'mv — tx — n')
"' \ 4:(2^2+2^^'^°«(2c.2.+2m.2.)
+ X(2^2=:2;^^'^''^(^^^'+^^— 2»^^— 2^")
+ ^6:(ï=^3 i:(^qk)5^""^«^C2â.2«+2m«20
c (4^2 — 1) /2 m) )
+ Jï6:n=7,ô"^ 4.(2^^+22,«)] •'''•cos.(2^«+2i'2mv20
Ij (5jm) 3.(1— m) ) ^
"U.(22«2^+7)+4(2:^^5''"^°^(2^~2mi;2gt;+ci;+2«^)
+ — rfi T— ..cos.(zj — mt))
4.(1 — m) a ^ ■'
+ J . — .e'. cos.(t' — mv+c'7nv — ^')
\^
3
4.(1— 2/«)
. e'.cos.(w — mi' — c'mt;+ra')
[4892]
18
sum of the products will be equal to the function [4892]. In finding the products of the
[4892a']
412
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4893]
[4894]
7. The term
>.(l+,sjl'
of the expression
_1 f'^3\__L f'R
h~ \ du J h^
ds
[4808],
[ 48926]
[4892c] _ __ [4889], which is of the ybwr^A order ; by this means, these terms become so small,
functions [4889,4890], we may neglect the second and third lines of [4890] ; for (1 — c^).e
is of the third order, 7® is of the second order ; and these are to be multiplied by the factor
2 a
[4892rf]
[4892e]
[4892/]
[4892g:]
that they may be neglected, and the function [4890] is reduced to its first term
.(l+e^jiy^). MultijDlying this by the terms in [4889], lines 1,2,3, we obtain respectively
the terms in [4892], lines 16, 17, 18. In the term depending on cos.(j; — mv), in line 16. we
may, for greater accuracy, decrease the factor le"+2c'^, by >^, as in [4889i].
We shall now compute the product of the functions [488.5, 4890]. In the first place, the
product of the factors, without the braces, is
2
3 wf . ^ X  = — ; as in [4892].
a, a a,
The multiplication of the factors, between the braces, is made, term by term, as in the
following table ; in which, the first column contains the terms of [4890] , the second column
the terms of [4885], and the third column the corresponding products of the terms between
the braces, in these lines of the two functions respectively: observing, that 4^^ — 1^3, nearly:
[4892^1]
(Col. 1.)
Terms of [4890].
1
(1 — c').e.cos.cv
(4g^l) 2
.y^.C0S.2^D
(Col. 2.)
Terms of [4885].
whole of [4885]
1
2
1
1
3
(Col. 3.)
Products of these terms.
whole function [4885] between the braces
.cos.(2î) — 2mv)
2— 2nt
2.(l}jrt)
22mc
•{e^\i')'^)e.cos.(2v — 2m v — cv)
(1— cS)
■TTz .e.coa.C^v — 2 mi' — C1O+&C.
4.(1 — m) ^ ' '
1
2
3
4
^y ^^ .; 2. {cos.(2^i)2y+2)«D)+cos.(2^f+2r2mî)) \ 5
— — .c>^.cos.(2d — 2wv — 'i. g v\cv)\ hx.. 6
4.(2— 2wi+f)
Connecting the terms from lines 2 to 6 of this table, with those in line 1, or the lines between
the braces of [4835] ; we get the corresponding terms between the braces, of the function
[4892].
VII. i. §7.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 413
becomes, by neglecting quantities of the fourth order,*
a. ( 4 ) h~
3" being a function of the fourth dimension in e, y ; and 6s the part of s
arising from the disturbing force. We shall see, in [5596], that ^5 is of the
following form ;t
[4895]
[4896]
[48936]
* (2809) Developing the expression [4893], according to the powers of s, it becomes
— /i~.(l — J«^+r«'* — Sic). If we substitute in this the value of 5 [4818], augmented by [4893a]
the term ôs, and neglect terms of the order ôs^, which are noticed in [4958, &;c.], we
shall find, that the part of the function [4893], depending on Ss, is equal to the differential
of the expression [4893«], relative to S, which is — Jr^.{3sSs~\J^s^Ss&Lc.). Neglecting
terms of the order s^5s, it becomes 3h~^.sSs, as in the last terra of [4895]. Now, the
value of s [4818] gives, by means of [1, 3] Int.,
l—^s^={l—iy^)+if.cos.2gv; '^s^ = M7^— i7^cos.25ô+&c.; [4893c]
1— §s^+W— &ic.= {l—t/)+Î7^{l—i7^)cos.2gv\teTms of the 4th order. [4S93rf]
And, from h^ [4863] , we get,
— ^2. =: .^i__e2]y2^_j_ terms of the 4th order}. [4893el
Multiplying together the two expressions [4893£/,e], we get the part of the function [4893a],
which is independent of Ss, as in [4895].
f (2810) The form here assumed for 5s is easily obtained from a comparison of the
equations [4754, 4755], by which u, s, are determined, with the preceding development of [^^'''"J
the terms of M. Forthe equation [4754] contains the function — r3[~r ) — rô^( T )' whose [48976]
terms have been developed in [4866, 4870, 4872, &tc.] ; and the equation [4755], by which
s IS determined, cont3.\ns the same function, multiplied by . Now, the chief term of r4897ci
the factor  is equal to a,.sm.{gv — ê), as is evident from [4818, 4791] ; and, if we
multiply the terms we have just mentioned [48G6, 4870, 4872, fee] by a7.sin.(oj) — ê), we [4897rf]
shall obtain the most important terms of [4755], depending on the function [4897c]. Thus,
the first term of [4866] produces a term depending on sm.(gv—ê), which may be
considered as being included in the form [4818]. The second term of [4866] produces the '■ ^'
angles gvzhcv [4897], lines 3, 4. The third term of [4866] produces the angles
gv±(fmv [4897], lines 8, 9. The first term of [4370] produces the angles 2v — 2mvzizgv
[4897], lines 1,2. The second term of [4870] produces the angles 2v — 2mvdizgv — cv
[4897], lines 6, 7. The third line of [4870] produces the fifth line of [4897] ; and so on, [4897^]
VOL. III. 104
414 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél
6s=^ B^^^K J'. sin. (2 V— 2m V— g v+ô) 1
iB^^'\y.s'm.(2v — 2mv+gv—ê)
+ B^^^ . e /.sin. {gv\cv — ê — ct)
j B^'^\ ey .sin.Çgv — cv — ^+^)
{B^^''\ey.sin.(2v — 2mv — gv~\cv^Ê — to)
~iB^'^\er.s'm.(2v — 2mv+gv — cv — ^+ra)
\B^^'^\ej.sin.(2v — 2mv—gv — ct)+â+ra)
{B^'''\e')'.s'm.(gv\c'mv — ê — z=')
+B^^^Ke'r.sm.(gv — c'mv — ^+ra') 9
\Bf\ eVsin.(2« — 2mv—gvic'mviê — ra) 10
+B[^''Ke'y.s'm.(2v — 2mv—gv—c'mv\É{^')
+Bl''\e"y.sm.(2cv—gv—2zi+è)
Atisumed
form of
2
3
4
5
3+^) 6
7
8
') 11
12
16
+Bl''\e"y.sm.(2cv—gv—2zi+è)
+ B\'^Ke^y.sïn.(2v—2mv—2cv+gv+2r,—D) 13
+B<'^Ke''y.s\n.(2cv+gv—2v+2mv—2^—è) 14
+5^''''..7.sin.(^ti — v+mv — ê) 15
+ 5''^^.,.7.sin.('£«+î? — mv — ^).
a ^^
for other terms. Hence we see, that the forms of the angles in [4897], are given a priori
[4897ft] by the theory; and they agree with the results of observation [5596]. The differential
equation in s [4755], is similar to that of u [4754], and may be reduced to the form
[4897m], which is similar to [4845]. For the chief term of s is given in [4818], and if we
[4897i] suppose the other terms of « to be represented by 5s, we shall have «=7.sin.(^i' — â)+i3s.
dds d.Ss
Its difFerential gives "7^= — g^.y.sin.(gv — ^)\~pr Multiplying the fu'st of these
[4897A] expressions by g. and adding it to the second, we get —\g^.s=—j~g^.5s; and if
[4897t] we put the second member of this expression equal to — n', we shall get,
[4897m] ^^+^9., + n'=0.
This is of the same form as [4845] , g taking the place of JV, and differing from unity by
quantities of the order m^ [4828c, 4845']. Moreover, n' may be considered as a series of
terms, whose general form is k'.sm.{iv — 6), like that in [4846] ; and the part of s, relative
to this sine, is represented as in [4847, Sic] by
VII. isW] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN m.
415
The number placed beloio any one of the letters B, indicates the order of that
letter. Thus, Bf is of the second order ; ^t"' is of the first order ; and t'*^^^!
B'g'^ is finite. We may observe, that this takes phice according as the number [4898']
by wliich v is multiplied, in the corresponding sine, differs from unity, by a
finite number, by a quantity of the order m, or by a quantity of the order nf, [4899]
respectively ; because the integration [4897o] causes the terms to acquire a [4900]
divisor of the same order. This being premised, we shall have,*
JV2
. sin. {iv — 6) ;
so that these terms may be much increased by this integration, when i is nearly equal to
unity. From the similarity of the equations [4754, 4755] it is evident, that the terms of n'
_2
[4897m], depending on the disturbing force of the sun, must have the same factor m , as
the functions [4866, 4870, 4872, &c.] ; and in is of the order «i^ [5094], or of the
second order. This factor is divided by i^ — JV~, in finding the value of s [4897o], or that
of &s [4897] ; and, as i^ — JV^ may be considered as of the same order as i~^g'^^i^\^m^
[4828e] ; the order of the symbol B will ie represented by
Hence, it
i2— 1— 3m2
appears, that if { differs considerably from unity, tlie corresponding symbol B will be of the
second order, as in [4897], lines 2, 3, 4, 5, Sic. ; using the values of c, g [4828e]. In the
first term of [4897], the coefEcient of u is i=2 — 2m — g^=l — 2m nearly; hence,
i^ — 1 — I'm^ is. of the order m, and the corresponding value of B [4897r] is of the order
m, represented by Bf; and the same occurs in lines 8 — 11 [4897]. In line 12 we have,
i=^2c—g = 1 — if'rri^ [4828e] ; hence, the divisor of the expression [4897 r] becomes of
the order m^, and the corresponding value of B is reduced to the order m", or a finite order,
as it is called by the author in [4898'], and is represented by i?},'". If we compare the
indices of B [4897], with their values, computed in [5122—5214], we shall find they
generally agree ; but the term B'i^' [5179] is nearly oï the first, instead of the second
order ; i?i'' is of the second order, fee.
* (2811) Substituting in the firstmember of [4901], the values of As, s [4893e,4897i],
and neglecting terms of the order &^ we get [4901a]. If we also neglect terms of the fifth
order, it becomes as in [4901e] ;
3s.6s 3 , . ^
— = •7<^*sin.(^r— â)x l+e^+/2+terms of the fourth order}
= .Yh.sm.{gv—è).
We must substitute in this last expression, the value of vs [4897], and we shall get [4901].
If any term of & be represented by C.sin.F, the two corresponding terms of [49016]
[4897o]
[4897p]
[4897?]
[4897r]
[4897s]
[4897<]
[4897u]
[4901a]
[4901i]
[4901e]
416 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
^==~l Bf B^^ ] .y^cos.(2 v2 m v) 1
+ ^.B^p.7~.cos.(2v—2mv—2gv\2è) 2
— .Bf\e y^cos.r2 &■ v—c v—2 é+^) 4
2a, ^
+ .B^,'Key^cos.(2v—2mv—2gv+cv^2ê—^) 5
[4901] i ~AB^'^—B'i'>l.ef.cos.(2v—2mv—cv+^) 6
+ ^.lB[^+B['^.e'7''.cos.(c'mv—^) 7
— — .£f'.e'7^cos.(2 ?;— 2 m v+c'm v—z,') 8
^.S'"').e'7^.cos.(2 1>— 2 m v—c' m v+^') 9
2a,
— —.B^^'\e^y^.cos.(2cv—2 ^) 10
+ —SB'}*^+B^!'^..7^cos.(v—m v). 11
2a, "^ "a.
will be
[4901(i] ^.y.C.cos.{(^D— â)«>F —^.y.C.cos.^^t)— â+F^ ;
but it is not, in general, found to be necessary to notice more than one of these terms. The
[4901c] only cases in which the author has noticed both terms, are those depending on Bf\ Bf*
[4897], lines 1 — 4. The neglected terms are generally smaller than those which are
retained, or they are such as depend on angles that have not been usually noticed, because
their coefficients do not increase by the integrations. For, the function [4901] forms part of
r490in ^^^ expression of n [4902, or 4845] ; and its coefficients may be increased by the divisor
t2 — JV^ [4847, 8iC.], when i differs but little from unity ; as is the case in lines 3 — 6,11
[4901]. To estimate roughly the order of the terms, which are not increased by the
integrations, and are neglected as in [4901], we may observe, that they produce terms of a
[4901g] similar order in u [4847], and in the lunar parallax [5309, &.c.]. Now, if we put  equal
VII. i.'^^ T.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 417
If we connect together the different terms which we have developed, we
shall find, that the equation [4754] becomes of the following form,*
cJc/u
= "IP + " + " ; [4902]
n being a rational and integral function of constant quantities, and of sines
and cosines of angles proportional to v ; but, as loe propose to notice all the [1903]
to the constant term of the lunar parallax 3424', 16 [5331], and use the values of c, e', 7
[5194,5117], also
f^u [5221], we shall get, very nearly,
_3
2 a,
:40'
TTZn'
:2%3; :^.e'Y'
0%7:
—  e^ y~ := 0' 1 • —  .  >2
2 a.
2 a, a'
OM.
The first of these expressions, being multiplied by the very small quantity .Bf,') [5177],
becomes insensible; and it is retained in [4901] line 1, merely because there is no
inconvenience in doing it, since it is found necessary to notice the angle 2d — 2mv, in
consequence of the magnitude of the other term i?J'\ In like manner, the term
^ .e>=2.^'=— 0',01
2o,
[5178, 490 U],
[490U]
[4901i]
is nearly insensible ; but it is retained in [4801] line 3, because the coefficient c, in the
angle cv — us, diflers but very little from unity [4828e], and it is increased by integration ;
which is not the case with the coefficient depending on the other angle 2gv\cv — 2d — ra,
with which B^' is connected. One of the largest of the values o{ B, is that denoted by
3
J?f> = 0,07824 [5183]; multiplying it by the coefficient — .e'j2 = 0',7, with which [4901A]
it is connected in [4901] line 7, it becomes 0',05 ; this is retained in the angle c'mv — ■n'
[4901] line 7, because the divisor i — N^ [4847] is nearly equal to unity ; but it is
neglected in the angle 2gv\c'mv — 2d — ra' ; because it is considerably decreased by the
divisor i — JV^, which is nearly equal to 3. We may also observe, that it is of more importance
10 retain the terms depending on the angle c'mv — a, than those on 2gv\c'mv — 2d — sj' ;
because the terms introduced by the former, in the value of dt [4753], are increased by
integration, in finding the value of t, in consequence of the smallnessof the coefficient c'm
of the angle v. Similar remarks may be made relative to the other terms, which are
neglected or retained.
[490K]
[4901»;
* (2812) Connecting together the terms [4866,4870,4872,4892,4895,4901, &c.],
depending on Q, and putting the sum equal to n; then adding it to the terms of [4754], [4909o]
which are independent of Q, it becomes as in [4902].
VOL. III.
105
418 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
inequalities of the third order, and the quantities of the fourth order connected
[4903'] with them, ive must add to the preceding terms all those which depend on the
square of the disturbing force, and become of these orders by integrations.
We shall now examine these new terms.
r4<»03"i ^' ■^°^' *^"^ purpose xve shall suppose ou to be the part of u arising from
the disturbing force ; and, that we have,*
aàu = AJ^K COS. (2» — 2 mv) 1
+ J/^'. e . COS. (2 w— 2 m v—c v+^n) 2
+A^'^\e.cos.{2v — 2mv\cv — ra) 3
+^/'. e'. COS. (2 V — 2 m v{c'mv — ^') 4
Assumed ^ ,,, , ,^ ^ * . /x r
form of + J,< ^ e. COS. (2 V — 2 m v — cmv\^) o
ÔU. ~ \
^A^'^le'. cos.(c'mv — W) 6
^/'^'. e e'.cos. (2 v — 2 m v—c v+c'm ?;+« — ') 7
+^/''.ee'.cos.(2 «; — 2 m v — cv — c'mtJ+ro+za') 8
+^i''*^e e'.cos. (c v^c'mv — « — t^') 9
+yi/^'.ee'.cos.(cD — c'mv — zs+ijj') 10
[4904] +4'°). e^cos.(2ct;— 2^) 11
+4'^'. C. cos.(2cv—2vi2mv—2^) 12
+4'>. '/. cos.(2 ov— 2 Ù) 13
+4'='.7^ cos.(2^«— 2«+2ot«— 20) 14
+4»'. e'^cos.(2 c'mi)— 2 ^) 15
+4'^'.e7^cos.(2oi)— CÎ)— 20+ra) 16
+4'«.e7^cos.(2j;— 2mw— 2^î)+cv+2â— T.) 17
+^["'. .cos.(î; — mv) 18
+4^' .e'.cos.(« — tnv\c'mv — n') 19
a
+4°). ,. e'.cos. (î; — m^; — c'miJ+ts') 20
a
[4904a] * (2813) The terms of a<5tt [4904] are evidently of the same form as those of tlie function
Vll.i. §S.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 419
The number 0, 1, or 2, placed below any one of the letters A, denotes,
that it is of the order zero, or of the order m, or of the order m^, respectively. [4905]
We shall here take into consideration the inequalities of the third order, and
those of the fourth order, which can produce terms of the fourth order in
the coefficients of the inerjualities of the third order. We shall continue the
approximation to a greater degree of accuracy, relative to the inequality [4906]
depending on cos.(j' — mv). This being premised, we find, that the term
*"' "'^ , . ,3ot' u^ (5m
[4865'] gives, by its variation, the expression ^~T~ ? f^""'^ [4907]
[4905']
which we deduce the following function ;*
n [4902a]. Tlie order of the coefficient A may be found by the formula
ia— lf3ma ' [49046]
whicli is similar to that in [4S97/], using for JV~ the value of c=l — Zm", instead of g^,
which is used in [4897 5, r] ; i being the coefficient of v, in the angle corresponding to the [4904cl
coefficient.^. Thus, for «/if"' [4904], we have i = 2— 2/«; hence ^<"> is of the order m^,
or 2. For A'^^, we have i = 2 — 2 m — c=l — m, nearly; hence ^^'^ is of the order m,
or 1; and so on, for the other coefficients of [4904]. If we compare these indices of A,
with the values obtained by numerical calculation in [5122 — 5213], we shall find, that in [4904rf]
general they are correctly marked.
* (2314) The expression [4907], whose value is to be determined, may be put under
the form
3 2 m'. m'3
~Ya^7r'i}fi.u^^"' "' [4908a]
in which the second and third factors have been already computed in [4884, 4866] ; we shall
3
first find the product of these two factors, and then multiply it by and a Su. Now,
if we multiply the factors without the braces, in [4884j 4866], by , the product
becomes
2 _a
m ^3^ 3 m
as in the second member of [4908/] . The products of the terras between the braces, in
[4884, 4866], are found in the following table ; in which the first column gives the terms of
[4884] ; the second column, the terms of [4866] ; and the third column, the products of
these terms respectively ; using the abridged notation [482 1/J, and neglecting the same terms
and angles as we have usually done ;
[49086]
[4908c]
420
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4908]
[4908']
[4909]
Sm'.u'^ôu .3j7r.(l+fe'2)
2 F.
2a.
a,ôu [4904] ^ 1
—2A<^'\e.cos.(2v—2mv—cv+^) 2
2A\'\e".cos.(2v—2mv—2cv{2^) 13
+1 ^J" .ee'.cos. (2v—2mv—cv+c'mv+zi—ô,') J 4
+J('>.ee'.cos.(2w— 2my— cy— c'mi>faf^') v ;,
+J'^'.  . e'.cos.(t' — mvjc'mv — 53')
«
f7
+J,"^\ .e'. COS. ft» — mi; — c'mt'+ra') to
' ' a ^ ' ^°
+14"' ,.e'.cos.(i'— m«) / 9
?{' varies by means of the variation of v' , Avhich depends on the time ^, and
on its inequalities in functions of v [4822, or 4828] ; but these inequalities
are multiplied by m, in the exjjression of v' [4837], and also, by e', in the
expression of v! [4838] ; we may, therefore, at first, neglect (5m', without
[4908d]
(Col. 1.)
Terms of [4884].
1
e{ lic"2i72)cos.«'
(Col. 2.)
Terms of [4866].
dioleof[4866]
1
— '3c.cos.cv
\2e'.cos.c'mv
— 3c.cos.cv
\3c'. COS. c'mv
%ce' .COS. {cv\c'mv)\
fee'.cos.(cyc'»iy)
+3e2.cos.2fi'
^^y^.cos.2gv
I — 3e.cos.fi'
1 — 3e.cos.cv
(Col. 3.)
Products of these terms,
whole of the function [4866]
— ic2 a.72
.(_[_je3+fc;2).cos.cy
}( — ^c~e' — ^e'}'~).cos. c'niv
— ( l+f 62_j.y2__^e/2) .c.cos.cr
fc2 \^e^.cos.2cv
— §ee'.cos.(c!) — c'7itv) — ^tc'. cos. (cv^c'iiiv)
jfee'.cos.c'my&c.
\^e~e'.cos.c'mv\&c.
^C'^.COS.CV^&LC.
«»/2.cos.(2g'i'cr))&.c .
j5e^.cos.2c« 1 — 3e.cos.cv — ^e^.cos.cv \ie^.cos.2cv~\&Lc.
\\y^.cos.^gv. 1 — 3e.cos.c« ly.cos.2gv —^ey~.cos.{'2gvcv)\&i.c.
Connecthig together the terms which are e.Kphcitly given in this tahle, with those between
r4908('1 *'^*^ braces in [4866], wliich are included in the first line of this table; the sum becomes
equal to the expression between the braces in [4908/"] ; and the factor of a ou [4908a]
becomes as in the second member of [4908/"] :
VII. i. ^8.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN m. 421
any sensible error. We shall hereafter [4947, &c.] notice the term of this
variation, which depends upon the action of the moon upon the earth.
[4909']
3 m
27,
~\ ( — 4 e — 3 e' — 6ee' ®+e y^) cos.ct
+3e'. (l+2e2+fe'^).cos.c'mj;
— 3.(2m) .ce', cos. (cv\dm v)
3.(2 — m).ee'.cos.(cD — cfinv)
\5e^.cos.2cv
\y^.cos.2gv
+fe'^.cos.2c'7«t)
K — e7^cos.(2^« — cv)
Muhiplying this by a Su, we obtain the value of the function [4908c(, or 4907]. To reduce
this to the form [4908], we may divide the terms, between the braces, by lj#e'^, and
connect this with the factor without the braces; and, by neglecting terras of the fourth order
in e, e', y, between the braces, we get,
l+2e2
j( — 4e — Bt^\e 2^).cos.cv
+3e'. {l\2e^—^e'^).cos.c'mv
3. {2\m).ee'. COS. (cv{c'mv)
— 3.(2 — m).ee'.cos(c« — c'mv) \ . aàu.
f5e^.cos.2cD
7^.cos.2^i;
lSe'^.cos.2c'mD
3m'.u^.U
31h.{l +ie'^)
2a. '
„, . 3m'.(l+e'a) . ,
1 he factor — —  is the same as
2a
le 7^.CGS. (2^ t) — cv)
[4908]. The term 1, between the braces in
[4908/]
[4908g:]
[4908^], being multiplied by the external factor aSu, produces the term aSu in the first
line of [490S]. Now, if we neglect this term 1, between the braces in [4908^], and [4908A]
multiply the remaining terras by aSu [4S04], it will produce the terms of [4908],
between the braces, which contain A explicitly. In performing this multiplication, it will
only be necessary to retain the two following terms of [4908jg] ; namely,
— 4e.cos.cr3e'.cos.c'mu. [4908t]
For, the other terms, between the braces, are of the second order ; and these are multiplied
VOL. III.
106
422
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4909"]
[4910]
3 m' m"
The term „,„' , . cos. (2 y —2^') [4870], has, for its variation,
9m'.M'3
3m'.u'
/„'3
, ^ . 6u. COS. (2v — 2v') + — ^ .iv\sm.(2v—2v').
If we substitute the preceding value of &u, we shall find, that the first of
these terms produces the function,*
[4908fc]
[4910a]
[49106]
[49i0c]
[4910rf]
[4910e]
[4910/]
[4910^]
[4910A]
[4910{]
by m, of the second order, and by a 5m, of the «etorao, order ; proaucing terms of the
sixth order; some of which may be reduced to the Jifih by integration [4847]. The terms,
depending on the angle » — mv, of higher orders, are retained as in [4874, &lc.]. The two
terms [4908J] evidently produce those in [4908], which depend explicitly on the symbol
A, neglecting the terms which have been usually rejected.
* (2815) If we take the differential of [4885], relative to dv, and multiply it by
ia.dv
, we shall obtain the expression of
9ot'.u'3
' ihKu>.a
.sin.(2« — 2v'). The effect of this
2
operation will be to change the factor 3 m.— [4885] into —  — , as in [4910 Ar] ;
moreover, it will take away the divisors 2 — 2m, 2 — 2m — c, he, which were introduced
by the integration, and will change, in tlie second member, cos. into sin. When the
function is reduced to this form, we may change 2v into 2 y + 90'', as in [4876a — d] ;
and we shall obtain the expression of
9m'. u' 3
4hKu'>.a
.cos.{2v—2v') [4910k'].
If an angle, in the second member of [4885], be of the form cos.(2î)}(3), it becomes, in
[4910f/], sin.(2i;+(3); and, in [4910c], it changes into sin.(2«4390''), or cos.(2j)f^) ;
which is the same as its original form in [4885]. But, if it be of the form cos.(3 — 2v),
the successive changes are
sin.(p — 2v), sin.((3— 2« — 90''), and — cos.(p — 2v) ;
this last being the same form as the original, but with a different sign. Hence we easily
derive the expression [4910^] from [4885], by using the factor
neglecting the denominators 2 — 2 m, Sic. [4910c], and changing the signs of the terms
depending on angles of the form cos. ((3 — 2d) ;
VIL i. «5 s.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u.
423
^'"'■%.5u.cos.(2v—2v')
'2h^.u*
9m
4a.
4°>.(le'=^)
+ { Ji"44''^ +4='Mf e'^+J^r'f ''} •«•(1f «'')cos. (c» «)
+ { S^o'+^^'J+Jt^' I . e'. COS. (c' m v—^)
i_[_^4') — iJ<'>].ee'.cos.(cw+c'/«i' — ^ — ^)
+ ^f • e e'. COS. (2 v — Imv — c t) — c'mî;+«}a')
+ ^<^' . e e'. COS. (2 « — 2 m w — c v\dm v\a — to')
\+{^J""+i(2+?tt). J;"2( 1 +«0.^"' I .e/^cos.(2ozja'2i)+TO)^'
1+4'^'. 67^. COS. (2 z? — 2mt5 — 2^w+ct)+2â — a)
+ { Jf^— i^'^'.e'^j. ,. cos.(«— OT z))
+ {4"'— è4"'l..e'.cos.(i;— m2;+c'm?)— to')
+ {4'3)+^'J(/^)^.,.e'.cos.(«— mtJ— c'mtJ+TO')
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 [4911]
8
9
10
11
12
4 A^ vr.a ^ '
9m_
4a,
/(l+2e2— c'2).cos.(2d— 2mD) V 1
2(l+m).(l+Je2iy2fe'2).e.cos.(2«2mj;c!;) \ 2
— 2(1 — m).e.cos.(2y — 2mv\cv) I 3
+Je'.cos.(2i; — 2m« — c'otw) I 4
Je'.cos.(2j; — 2m«jc'?n«) f 5
^ — J(2+3m) .ee'.cos.(2v—2mv—cv — c'mv) I 6
f(2— 3m).ee'.cos.(2u — 2mv\cv — c'înv) 1 7
+(2jm) .ee'.cos.(2« — 2«t)— cjjfc'mv) \ 8 [4910/t]
1+1(2 — m) .ee'.cos.(2«) — 2mv{cv{c'mv) / 9
/+ï(10+19/«+8OT2).e2.cos.(2ct;— 2j;+2mi') 10
'+i{l0~19m^8m%e^cos.(2cv\2v—2mv)\ll
+i(24m).j^.cos.{2gv—2v\2mv) Il2
+i(2—m). 72.003.(2^ D+2 v—2mv) Il3
+^.e'3.cos.(2î)— 2mi;— 2c'7«») /l4
\ — î(5jm).ey®.cos.(2î; — 2mt) — 2gv\cv) / 15
424 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4911'] aèu contains a term, depending on cos. (3t) — Smv), which we have
[4910i]
Multiplying the first member of this expression by 2.a6u, and the second by its equivalent
expression [4904], we shall obtain, by making the usual reductions, the value of the first
term of [4910], as in the second member of [4911]. For, the factor, without the braces,
a
97/1
[4910m] — ' — , is the same in both these functions ; we shall, therefore, neglect the consideration
4 a,
of it in the remainder of this note ; and, in speaking of the functions [4910A:, 4911], shall
[4910n] refer exclusively to the terms between the braces ; and, shall separately investigate the results
arising from each line of the function 2a&u [4904], by the ivhole of the function [4910A:].
First. We shall take into consideration the product of the term 2 ^g'*. cos. (2 a; — 2mv),
by the whole of the function [4910fc] ; and shall reduce the products by formula [20] Int.,
retaining the same angles as in [4911]. The first line of [4910A:] produces the term
(l[2e^ — Je'^)..42""; the part depending on cos.(4t) — 4 ??(«;) being neglected. This
2
corresponds to the first line of [4911], neglecting the part depending on 7/t .c^.^,'*, of
[4910o] the sixth order, as is done generally in the rest of this calculation ; the term, depending
on fe'®, is retained, on account of its importance in the secular equations of the moon's
motion [4932, 5059, 5087, &.c.]. Again, if we neglect e^ y^ in the factor [4910/1]
line 2, and introduce the factor (1 — Je'~) in [4910À:] line .3, according to the directions in
[4869^, fee], we shall find, that these terms, when multiplied by 2A.j°\cos.{2v — 2mv),
produce respectively the terms
— 2.(l+m).(l— Je'S).^/'. e.cos.ct;, — 2.(1— m).(l Ae'^) .^^w.e.cos.ct; ;
whose sum is
— 4.(1— fe'2).^2°'icos.ct), as in [4911] line 2.
In like manner, the terms in [4910^] lines 4, 5 being multiplied by 2jÎ^°\cos.{2v — 2mv),
produce respectively the terms
^A.;^°\e .COS. cm V, — l^^'^'.c'. cos. c'mo ;
whose sum is
3AP. e'. cos. c'm v, as in [491 1] line 3.
the remaining terms of the function [4910fc] may be neglected, on account of their smallness,
and the forms of the angles.
Second. We shall now compute the terms produced by multiplying
2.^,<'\ e .cos.(2v— 2 m v—cv) [4904],
by the terms of [4910/*:]. The first line of [4910A] produces .^i<'\ e . (1— Je'^) . cos. c v,
as in [4911] line 2. The second and third lines of [491 OAr] depend on c^, which is neglected.
[4910/)] The fourth line of [4910^::] gives iee'.Ai^'\cos.(cv—c'tnv), as in [4911] line 4 ; the fifth
line, — ^ e b. Jli'\ COS. {cv]c' m v), as in [4911] line 5; and the twelfth line
} {2\m) .ey^.cos.{2gv — cv), as in [4911] line 8.
VII. i. ■§ 8] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 425
neglected,* on account of its smallness in [4904] ; but, as it may have an
influence in the term depending on cos.(îj — mv), we shall take notice t*^^^'^
The other terms, depending on ►?/'>, are neglected, on account of their smallness, &ic.
Third. The product of 2J.r''.e.cos.{)îv—2mv\cv) [4904], by the first term of
[4910t], produces the term A./~le. {l—ie"'}.co5.cv, as in [4911] line 2. This is the [^910?]
only term depending on ^.f\ which requires attention ; the other terms being small, or
of forms which are unnoticed.
Fourth. The product of 2 Jl/^Ke'. cos. {2 v— 2 7JIV+ cm v) [4904], by the first term of
[4910A], produces the term Ji.^^^'.e'. cos. c'mv [4911] fine 3; the other terms maybe
neglected. In like manner, 2^a<".e'.cos.(2«—2/?iu—f'mî;) [4904], produces w3^«.e' cos.c'mw [4910r]
[4911] line 3; and 2.^2'^'. e'. cos. c'otd [4904], gives nothing deserving of notice.
Fifth. The terni 2.,'î/''' ce'.co3.(2(; — 2mv — cv\c'mv) [4904], being multiplied by the first
term of [4910Â:], produces ^/'".ee'.cos.(ct' — c'mv) [4911] fine 4; and the same term,
being multiplied by the fifth term of [4910A], produces — \ee'^.A['^\cos.cv; which is
nearly the same as in [4911] line 2. In like manner, the term [4910s]
2.4/''. e e . cos.(2î) — 2mv — cv — c'niv),
being multiplied by the first and fourth terms of [4910A], produces the terms
Ap.cc'.cos.{ci'\c'mv), and {lJlp\ee'^.cos.cv; as in [4911] lines 5, 2.
Sixth. The terms depending on Ai^\ .4/°' [4904], being combined with the first
term of [4910A], produce the terms [4911] lines 6, 7. Those depending on ./^a'"^ ./3/'",
^.2"^', produce small terms, which are not noticed. The term
2A\^'>K',^.cos.{2gv—2v+2mv),
being combined with the term — 2.(lj7?i).c.cos (2« — 2mv — cv) [4910A]line 2, produces
the term depending on ^4,"^' [4911] line 8. The term depending on A.^^*^ [4904], produces
nothing of importance.
Seventh. The terms 2.â^^^^\ey.cos.{2gv—cv), 2Ai^"^\ef.cos.(2v—2mv—2gvjcv)
[4904] , being combined with cos.(2y — 2mv) [4910/i:], produce respectively the terms in [lOlOu]
[4911] fines 9, 8, depending on .^J'^', .4/"".
Eighih. The term,2.,3/'^'.cos.(D— mu), being combined with the terms in [4910/^]
lines 1, 5, 4, produces the terms depending on .4/'"', in [4911] lines 10, 11, 12, [4910r]
respectively.
JVinth. The first term of [49101], being combined with the terms of 2.aûu [4904],
depending on .^o*'^'' ^o™. produces the corresponding terms of [4911] fines 12, 11. [4910u>]
[4910<]
* (2816) This term occurs in [4808], and must, therefore, be found in the differential
equation in u [4754] , and in its integral 5u, or a ou.
VOL. III. 107
[4911a]
426
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
of it. For this purpose, we shall put it under the following form ;
[4912]
[4912']
[4913]
[4914]
[4914']
[4915]
[4916]
Term of aiu=^'^^
Substituting this in the expression
it produces the term,*
2
9 w (
Aa, ^ i
 .cos.(3t;— 3«').
^^,.6u.co^.{2v—2v') [4910],
To develop the variation
A2.m3 •
. cos.f» — mv).
a ^
iv'.ûn.{2v — 2v') [4910], we shall
observe, that iv' contains, in [4837], the same inequalities as the expression
of the moon's mean longitude, in terms of the true longitude ; but they are
multiplied by the small quantity m. It is sufficient, in this case, to notice the
terms in which the coefficient oïv differs but little from unity;t and it is evident
that as the term e.cos.(ct) — ^n), of the expression of «i< [4826], gives, in v', the
termj — 2me.s'm..{cv — ra) ; any term, whatever, of af>u, such as A;.cos.(ù"£),
r4913ol * (^Sl"^) Substituting the values of m, u' , [4791], and h^ = a, [4863], also
v'=^mv [4837] nearly, in the expression [4912'], it becomes
[49136]
9)
2a,.<i'3
—.aSii.cos.(2v — 2d') = — "— .a5u.cos.{2v—2mv) [4865].
If we now substitute the term of aSu [4912], we obtain that in [4913], and also one
depending on the angle 5 v — 5 m v, which may be neglected.
t (2818) We shall see, in [4918], that the terms of this form, in which the coefficients
[4914a] of V are nearly equal to unity, produce only small quantities of the fifth or sixth order.
These terms are noticed, because they are much increased, by integration, in finding the
[49146] value of u [4841] ; but this does not happen with the terms in which the coefficient of »
differs considerably from unity ; and we may also observe, that, in this last case, the terms
[4914c] may also be decreased by the integration in [4822]. Hence, we see the propriety of
noticing only the terms mentioned by the author in [4915].
X (2819) If we inspect the calculation in [4812 — 4837], we shall find, that the term
[4915a] c.cos.(c«;— ra), which occurs in u [4812,4816, 4819, 4826], is introduced into dt [4821], and
by integration, produces in t [4822], or rather, in nt\s [4830], a term — 2c. sin. (en — w).
[49156] rpjjjg jg j,;iu]^piied by m in the second member of the equation [4836] ; and it finally
produces in v' [4837], the term — 2?»e.sin.(cj; — 13), as in [4916]. This may be derived
[4915c] f,.Q,j^ {],g preceding term of u, by changing cos. into sin. and multiplying the result by
VII.i.§8.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN m. 427
ill which i differs but little from unity, gives very nearly, in dif, the term
2mk.sm.(iv{s). Thus we find, that the preceding term [4914] gives, by
its development, the function,*
[4917]
— 2 m. Tlie same method of derivation may be used with any other term of u, in which
ihe coefficient of v diflers but little from c, or from unity [48286] ; as is the case with the [4915d]
term ^•.cos.(^•»)s) of u [4916], which produces, in Sv', the term — 2mk.sm.(iv{s)
14917].
* (2820) Instead of the angle iv\s [4916, Sic], we shall, for brevity, use iv, omitting
s, as we have to, n', 6, in [4821/], and resubstituting it at the end of the calculation.
Then, if we represent any term of ai5w [4904], in which i differs but little from unity, by
a5u = Ji:cos.iv [4916], the corresponding term of 5v' will be very nearly represented by
^i)'= — '2m k.s'm.iv [4917]. Moreover, if we represent any term between the braces of the
second member of [4876e], by As'm.V ; or, in other words, any term of the function
A2.u3
— .sin. (2» — 2v') by
.^.sin.F;
and then multiply it by the preceding expression of 5v', we get, by using [17] Int.,
—^ .5i''.sin.(2c — 2î)')= .^AmJc.cos.(iv'^T^) — Am'k.cos.{i v{V )\ .
The factor, without the braces, is the same as in [4918] ; consequently, the terms, between
the braces, in [4918], must arise from the other factor of [4918/] ; namely,
A mk.cos.{iv>xy^ — A mk.cos.{iv}V) ;
in which we must substitute the terms of a&u [4904], for k.cos.iv; and, the terms between
the braces in [4876e], for .^.sin. K; neglecting the terms which are insensible from their
smallness, or those, where the coefficients of v, in the angles, vary much from unity [4915].
We shall, in the first place, compare the terms of the function [4918^], with the terms
between the braces in [4918], taking successively, for k, the coefficients of the terms [4904],
which are retained by the author. First. The term .^/".e.cos.(2« — 2mv — cv) [4904],
corresponds to /i;=./î/'^e, iv = 2v — 2mv — cv; combining this with the first line of
[4876e], neglecting e^+i)^, we find that this first term of [4918^] produces the first line
of [4918]. If we combine the same term of [4904] with the first term in line 13 [4876e],
we find, that the second term of [4918^] produces the second hne of [4918]. It is
unnecessary to notice the products of the other terms of [4876e], by the term [4918A:] ;
because the coefficients are small, or the angles are different from those which are usually
retained. Second. The term Af)^^^\e'y^.cos.[2gv — cv), being combined with the first
tenu of [4876e], produces, by means of the first term of [4918o'], the third line of [4918].
[4918a]
[49186]
[4918c]
[4918rf]
[4918e]
[4918/]
[4918gr]
[4918^]
[491 8i]
[4918A:]
[4918i]
[4918m]
[4918n]
428 THEORY OF THE MOON 5 [Méc. Cél.
m.J/".e.(l— e').cos.(ci'— î3) . 1
+^.m.A[^\ef.cos.(2gv — cv — 20+13)  2
3wtt^ , . .^ ^ . 3w / +'/».^''"'.e?^ .COS. , , CI. ° 1 I 3
[4918] ■^j^.'V.sin.(2t;— 2i;')=— ^^^ ' " ' V +cv+2l—^ J \
\m.A\"\.cos.(v — mv)
a '
jm.Al^^K.e'.cos.(v — mv — c'm^7+3')
The other terms of this development are insensible.
The terms
a m' ni' i
.\2.cos.{v—v')+5.co&.(3v—Qv')\,
[4919] Qh^.u^
of the expression
.^gjg Third. The term AP''\ , . cqs.{v — mv), [4904], combined with the first temi of
[4876e], produces, in like manner, the fourth line of [4918]. Fourth. The term
r4918ol •^o"*' ",fi'cos.(i; — mv\c'mv — is') [4904], combined witii tlie same first term of [4876eJ,
produces the fifth line of [4918].
[4918c]
[4918r]
It appears, from [4840, &c.], that the terras in the five lines of the function [4918], are of
the orders 5, 7, 6, 6, 6, respectively. The integration [4847], introduces divisors of the
order m^ [4828e], in the first and second lines of [4918], and of the order m, in the other
three lines. By this means, the first line of [4918] produces, in the value of u, a term of
the third order, and the other lines produce terms of the fifth order ; which are within the
limits proposed in [4905', &c.]. With respect to the order of the terms which have been
neglected, we may observe, that, in calculating in [4918Z] the quantity produced by one of
[4918s] the ^rea<es< terms of [4904] ; namely, .^"\e.cos.(2y — 2mu — cv), when combined with
the greatest term of [4876e], contained in its first line, we have noticed only the first term
of the function [4918^], and neglected its second. This second term has the same coefficient
of the fifth order, as in the first line of [49! S], but the quantity cos.c» is changed into
cos.(4w — Amv — cv) ; making 2^4 — 4m — c^=.3, nearly [4846] ; and the divisor P — JV^
[4918u] [4847] becomes so large, that the corresponding term is much decreased, so that it may be
neglected. Similar results will be obtained relative to the other neglected terms.
[4918<]
VII.i.^3] DEVELOPiMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 429
have, for variation,*
2
— '"^ "'/""" . , . {3.cos.(«— miO+5.cos.(3 v—Smv)]. [4921]
Substituting AfKcos.(2v — 2mv), for aôu, we obtain the term,t [4921]
2
a,  «,
The variation of the term [4876],
3 m'. U'^ du . ,n r, IS
jj^^..sm.(2v2v), [4923]
* (2821) The variation of [4919], relative to u, which is the most important part of
this expression, as we shall see in [4922;], is
—'rrr^^uA3.cos.(v—v')45.cos?(v—v')]. [4921al
If we neglect terms of the order e, we may substitute the values of u, ii' [4791], h^ = a,
2
[4863], and 7/1 [4S65], in the factor, without the braces, and it will become,
2
3m'.u'*.Su „ m'.«3 aiiu a 37n .aôu a . ,..„„ ,
o^o 5 =—i— 7^ • — ■,= 7, •' as m [4921]. [49216]
2/i2.M5 ■^ a 3 a, a' '■Za^ a ■■ ■ '■ '
]Moreover, by putting v'^mv [4837], in the terra between the braces [4921 «], h becomes [4921c]
as in [4921].
t (2822) Taking, for aSu, its first term [4904]; namely, aSu^A':?\cos.{2v—2mv),
we get, by noticing only the angle v — mv, which requires particular attention, as is observed [4922a]
in [4874, &ic.], we obtain,
n5«.3.cos.(u — mv) = ^Aj^Kcos {v—mv) ; aki.5.cos.{3v—3mv)z=^A:i°\cos.{v—mv); [49226]
whose sum is AA.2^''\cos.{v — mi). Substituting this in [4921], it becomes as in [4922]. [4922c]
The remaining terms of aùu are of the second, third, &c. orders; and, when multiplied by
2 a
the factor »» • ^, they become of the sixth, seventh, &ic. orders, which are usually
[4922rfl
neglected. If we notice the variation of v', in [4919], it will produce terms of an order
equal to those in [4921], multiplied by the factor — , which factor is of the order m
" [4922e 1
[4916,4917]; so that, the terms produced by oV, will be less than those retained in
[4921,4922], and may, therefore, be neglected.
VOL. III. 108
430
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4924]
may be reduced to the following terms ;*
6:ii.iP (In ÔU . ^ ^ ,^ 3m'. u'^ dSii
dv u
+
Sm'.u'Uv' du
.cos.(2î;2î;');
A^.i
dv
these terms, bj development, produce the following expression ;t
[4922/]
[4923a]
[4923i]
[4923c]
[4923rf]
[4923e]
[4923/]
[4923^]
[4923/i]
[4923i]
* (2823) The term [4923], is the same as that whose approximate value is computed
in [4876,4879]. Its variation, considering u, du, v', as variable, and neglecting &u', as in
[4909], becomes as in [4924].
t (2324) Multiplying the equation [4S84] by — 2 Su, we get, by using the abridged
notation [4821/],
4 rÎM 4 nSu f c . , , „ J
or i^ftdM.j — 444 e.cos.ci'+&ic. (.
Multiplying this by the function [4879], we get the expression of tlie first term of [4924].
Now, the function [4879] is of the third order, and ahi [4S04] is of ihe second order;
therefore, if we retain only the two terms — A\Ae.cQs.cv of tlie factor [4923«], the final
product will be correct, in the sixth order. We may even neglect the term 4 c.cos.îj ;
because, when it is multiplied by tlie two greatest terms of [4879] lines 1, 2, it produces
terms depending on e. cos. (2d — 'i.mv), which mutually destroy each other; also,
terms of the order c, connected with the angles 2;; — 2/««j;2c«, which do not increase by
integration, and are neglected in [491 1 ,&c.]. Hence, the first term of [4924], is represented
as in [4923a, i], by the following function ;
6m. «3 du iu
TTTr ■ r ■ — .sm.(2i' — 2v) =■
4.« (5m X function [4879].
It is only necessary to notice the terms A.^\ Ji[^^, ^J'^\ in the value of a i5m [4904];
because, the function [4879] is of the third order, and the other terms A'w^'e, A.^^^c, &.C.
are of the third, or higher orders; so that their products are of the sixth, or higher orders,
which are neglected. The reason for retaining the term .^/'^' is, because it is connected
with the angle 'igv — cv, and is much increased by integration [4828r/]. Now, the part of
— 4. «(5m [1904], depending on A"", is — 4^o"'\cos.(2u — 2mv). If we multiply this by
the first line of [4879], between the braces, neglecting c^, we shall get the term
— 2 cc^2W'.(l— fe'2).cos.(c«)— ra) ;
and the second line of [4879], retaining the factor [4879^'], produces the same term, with a
different sign ; so that these terms mutually destroy each other. The other terms produced
by .^o'"', are too small to be noticed, or depend on angles which may be neglected. The
product of the term — 4.^i'''e.cos.(2w — 2mv — cv), in — 4.aSu [4904], by the tenth line
of [4879], between the braces, produces gA^'^ ej^. cos. {2 gv — cv). Finally, the product of
VII. i. §8] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 431
2.(1— m).2r.(l— e'2)
l+^{^3»i—c).J'p.e'^—l{2mc).^f'.e"' S
+ J6.(1— mJ.^f+(2— M)2f+(2— 3m)..^'"}.e'.cos.(c'm«^')
_)_ I (2_3m_c) .^;')_à (2— 2m— c) ../^i" I .ee'.cos. (cD+c'my a ra')
\\l{2—m—c).J.f\l{2~2m—c).J'p}.ee'.cos.{cv—c'mva+a')
'j(c — m)..4i^'.ec'.cos.(2w — 2m!; — cv{c'mv\a — to')
3ml \{c}m).^f\ee'.cos.{2v — 2mv — ct— c'mr+tô+ra')
^"'"\ , Ci(4+4+m2c)^f"— 2(1— 2m).^i'3'j
' " ^ _[_ (2— 2m— 2^f c)^l'«' <
/+^i5).C"^2_cos.(2i>— 2m«— 3^w+c«+23— n)
. ey^. cos.(2oi; — c» — 2è\a)'
{\{\2m).^™—h{'^—m).A[^''^.,.e'.cos.{v—mv+c'mv—a')
, __^ JTO1+ J {l—m).Â[^'^ .,.e'.cos.{v—mv—c'mv^T^')
4^/'3y2.cos.(2^r— 2r42mr), in —A.aSu [4904], by the first term of [4S79],
between the braces, produces — 2^,'^'^''ey^.cos.{2gv—cv). Substituting these two terms
in the second member of [4923e], we get,
6m'. u'3 du du
3
h^. u* dv u
.sm.{2v — 2v) = ~ .{{gA^'''^—2AP^^^).ey^.cos.{2gv—cv)].
[4923ft]
The third term of [4924],
A a,
3m'.M'3.'Iu' du /r, n r\ i i
. — . COS. {2.V — 2v), produces only a very [4923^]
/Au'î ' dv
small quantity, depending on the same angle as in the preceding' expression [4923^]. Now,
without taking the trouble to compute the whole development of this third term, we may
form a satisfactory idea of its value, by taking the product of the two functions [4878,4918];
which gives the expression of
3m'. u'3. iv' du . ,_ _ ,,
.  .sm.(2D — 2v) ;
A3. M»
dv
[4923m]
and, as this differs from [49237] only by the change of cos. into sin. in its last factor, it is
evident, that the two functions will produce terms of the same forms and orders ; so that,
what may be neglected in the one, may also be neglected in the other. Now, the greatest
term of [4878], independent of its sign, is ce.sin.cw ; and, if we multiply it by the terms
432 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4926] The expression of (j^)j^j [4754], contains also the following
of [4918], we obtain only quantities of the sixth order, depending on angles which may be
neglected. The remaining terms of [4878] are of the second or higher orders, producing
terms of the seventh or higher orders ; therefore, they may all be neglected, excepting one,
depending on the angle 2gvcv, which is retained for the reasons stated in [4828(/]. A term
of this form is produced in the function [4923m], by multiplying the term in line 4 [4878],
which is nearly equal to ^■)'^.s'n\.2gv, by the term depending on ^'^h, in the expression of
^'"'" "\sin. (2y— 2u') .5v' [4918] line 1.
[4923»ï]
Hence, it is evident, by a similar process, that the terms of the function [4923/], depending
[4923o] on the angle 2gv — cv, may be found, by multiplying ^y^.s'm.Qgv, by the terms depending
on A'^''e , in the function .,  ,,
[4923^.] 3m^ _ ^^^_ (2«_2t,') . &v'.
Now, the term depending on ^/"e, in the expression of aSu [4904], is
a 5u=: ^/*'.e .cos.(2y — 2mv — cv) ;
the corresponding term of &v' [4916,4917], is
[4923;?'] &v' = —2 ^/I'.m e.sm.{2v—2mv—cv).
Multiplying this by the chief term of
Âa " •<^os.(2i) — 2v') [4870], which is, ^^.cos.(2« — 2/?ii'),
we get, in the function [4923j(], the term
_a
. A.^^'.me.sm.cv.
Finally, multiplying this by the factor iy^.sm.2gv [4923o], we get, for the third tenu of
[4924], the following expression ;
[4923g] 3,Môv' du _ ^ ^ .lm.A,^^\ef.cos.(2gvcv)].
We shall now develop the second term of [4924], which is the most important. It may
be put under the following form ;
3m'.«'3 dhn C 3w'.«'3 . ,„ ' „ > d.[ahu)
The factor between the braces, in the second member of this expression, connected with the
negative sign, is evidently equal to the differential of the first member of [4885], divided by
2.aàv ; and if we perform this process on the second member of [4885], we shall find, that
2
o —
[4923s] the division by 2a, makes the factor, without the braces, become — — . Moreover, by taking
VlI.i.^,8.J DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 433
variation ;
the differential of the terms between the braces, the divisors 2 — 2m, 2 — 2m — c, &ic.,
which were introduced by the integration, are effaced, and cos. is changed into — sin. ;
so that, if we represent any term, between the braces in ['1885J, after effiicing the divisors,
by Ic'.cos.v' the corresjionding term of the first factor of the second member of [4923r],
will be represented by a series of terms, of the form
_2
3 »i
.— IJlL.k'.sm.v' [4923«,m].
2a
Now, putting aSu equal to a series of terms of the form k.cos.(iv\!) [4916], or, for
brevity, A.cos.?"« [49I8i], the corresponding term of
d.{a6u)
dv
will be
■ik.
Multiplying this by the first Aictor, which is given [492;3y], we get the following expression
of the function [4923r], or, of the second term of [4924] ;
2
^m'.u'^ d 6u . , 3 in
— . sm. (2 v—2 v)— —. \ikk'.cos.(iv w v')—{kk'. cos.{iv\v') ] .
_s '
3 m
The factor without the braces
is the same in all three terms of the functions
[4923.1, y.x] ; and is equal to that in [4925]; we shall, therefore, neglect wholly the
consideration of this factor; and, in speaking of these functions, shall limit ourselves
exclusively to the terms within the braces. These terms, of the function [4923i], are
represented by,
ik. jt'. cos.(/y m v') — t'.cos.(it)fv')  ;
m wliich k.cos.iv represents the terms of [4904], cui'l k'.cos.V the terms between the
braces in [4885], rejecti7ig the divisors 2 — 2m, 2 — 2m — c, he. which ivere introduced by
the integration.
We shall now take, for ^.cos.iy, the terms of the function [4904] ; so as to combine
successively each of the symbols Xj'"', .^/", &.C. with all the terms of [4885]. We shall
neglect the terms which appear to be insensible, and shall compare those which are retained
with the function [4925] ; taking the terms, depending on .^a"", ^^o'") ^é^'K ^c. in the
order in which they occur in [4904] ; and, noticing also the terms [4923Ar, y], depending
on the angle 2^w — cv.
First. The first line of [4904] gives k = J.f\ i=2—2m; substituting this in
[4923r], it becomes, {2—2m).A.i''K\k'.cos.{[2—2m\omv')—k'.cos.{2v—2mv\v')\.
The first line of [4885], neglecting e^, gives A:'= 1 — ^e'^, v'=2u — 2mv; substituting
these in the first term of [4924c], we get the first line of [492.5] ; the other term of
[4924c] depends on the angle (Av — 4;nu), which is neglected. In like manner, the
second line of [4885], gives k'^ — 2(l)m).(l — e'2).e; v'= 2;; — 2mv — cv ; hence,
the first terra of [4924c] becomes,
—{2—2m).Ai''\2[\+m).{\—y).e.cos.cv=—A{\+m).\{\—m)Jl.p.{\—^e'^).e.cos.cv\;
and, by the same process, we get, from the third line of [48S5], by using the factor 1 — Je'^
VOL. III. 109
[4926']
[4923t]
[4923u]
[4923w]
[4923u>]
[4923x]
[4923j,l
[4923:]
[4924o]
[49246]
[4924c]
[4924<i]
[4924e]
[4924/]
434
THEORY OF THE MOON
[Méc. Ct
[4927]
—  — .\3.sia.(v — m r) +15. sin. (3 1) — 3m.v)l.
8a,a'
civ
[4924^]
[4924i]
[4924*]
[4924?]
[4924m]
[4924nl
[4924o]
[4924j>]
[4924?]
[4924r]
[4924«]
[4924<]
[4924<']
[4S79)t], the term — 4(1 — m).\{l — m).A.}°\{l — Je'^).e.cos.cy} . The sum of tliese two
terms is — 8(1 — m).Jl2^°\{l — ^e'^).e.cos.cv], as in the second hne of [49'25]. It is
unnecessary, in this case, to notice the second term of [49:24c], because tlie coefficient of v
is so large, that the term becomes insensible. Proceeding in the same manner with the
fourth line of [4885], which gives A:'=J«', v'=2v — 2mv — c'mv ; also, with tlie fifth
line of [4885], which gives k'^ — ie', v'=^2v — 2mv\c'mv, we find, that the terms
corresponding to the first of the functions [49'24c], are, respectively,
\{2— 2in). A2^^\^e'. COS. c'mv, — {2— 2m). A^^^lie'. cos. c'mv ;
whose sum is 6.(1 — in) . ^n"'. e'.cos.c'm v, as in [4925] line 4.
The remaining terms of the function [4S85], being of the seco?u/ or higher orders in e,
e', 7, multiplied by Wt of the second order, and ^o"" of the second order, produce only
terms of the sixth and higher orders, which may be neglected.
Second. The second line of [4904] gives Ar=.^/".e, i^2 — 2m — c, hence
[4923^] becomes,
(2—2m—c).A^'^\e.\lc'.cos.{[2—2m—c] VMv')—'k'.cos.{2v—2mv—cv^v') \ .
Substituting, in the first term of this function, the values [4924f/], corresponding to the first
line of [4885], we get the term (2 — 2n — c)Jl^''>.r.{l — Ê'^).cos.cit, as in the second line
of [4925]. The second and third lines of [4S85], produce terms having the factor
A[''.m.e^, of the fifth order; but they do not increase by integration, and are therefore
neglected. The fourth and fifth lines of [4835] correspond to the values [4924A], and by
substituting them in the first term of [4924/], we get the two terms,
ie'.{2—2ni—c).J['''.i .cos. {cv— c'mv), —ie'.{2—2m—c).â['Ke.cos.{cv+cmv),
as in [4925]lines 6, 5. All the remaining terms of [4885], excepting that in line 12, ma}'
be neglected as in [4924A:]. This line corresponds to ^"':= — i(2jm).y^, v'^=2gv2vJ[2mv,
and produces, by means of the second term [4924/], the expression,
+i{2{m).{2—2m—c).A^'\ey^.cos.{2gv—cv).
Connecting this with tlie terms, between the braces in [4923^, q], depending on A';'\
they become \g\m{l{2\m).(2 — 2m — c)l.A['Ke)'^.cos.{2gv — cv) : and, as c is nearly
equal to 1, we may, by neglecting m^, put jm.(2 — 2m — c)=:.^m; consequently, the first
c)+]^ = i{4g + 4}m2c)
factor of the expression becomes, ^i'«+f(2 — 2;«
which is the same as the coefficient of A'l\ in [4925] line 9.
Third. The term Jlf\e.cos.{2v—2mv]cu) [4904], combined with [4885] line 1, gives
the term depending on .^2'' [4925] line 2. In like manner, we may combine the terms
of [4904], depending on ^.P\ A"') ^^'tli ''^e same terms of [4885], to obtain the terms
depending on Ai'^\ A^''^ [4925] line 4 ; observing, that, as c' is nearly equal to 1, we have
very nearly 2 — 2m\c'm.=:2 — m, 2 — 2m — c'm=2 — 3m. The term depending on ^j^^'
produces nothing of importance.
VII. i. § 8.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 435
*hence, wc obtain the quantity, [4927']
Fourth. The term depending on ^f [4904] gives k^Af^ce', i=2 — 2m — c\cm ,
or nearly t=2 — m — c. Substituting tiiis in [49232] it becomes, ^ "'
(2 — 7n—c).ji'°\ec'.\f<f.cos.([2—2/)i — c\c'm] v r» v') — A;'.cos.(2« — 2mv—cv+c'mv{v')l. [4924i)]
The first line of [48S5] produces, in the first term of [4924y], the quantity depending on
.4''' [4925] hne 6 ; and the fifth hne of [4885], produces the terms depending on Jl['^\ in
Une 3 [4925]. In like manner, the term depending on A'p [4904], combined with [4885] "''
lines 1,4, produce tliose in [4925] lines 5,2, depending on A'p. Also, the terms depending
on Af\ A'p [4901], being combined with the first term of [4885], produce the [4925a]
corresponding terms in [4925], lines 8,7.
Fifth. The terms of [4904] depending on ^2<"», ^;"\ Ai''^\ produce nothing of
importance. The terra in line 14 [4904], gives k = A[^^>.y^; i = 2g—2+2m^2m [4925t]
nearly; and the first term of line 2 [4885], gives ]i'= — 2e, v'^2v — 2mv — cv.
Substituting these in the second term of [4923:r], it produces 4m.C7'^.^,"3'. cos.(2^t' — cv). [4925c]
Connecting this witii tlie second term of [4923/c], we obtain 2(l2m).A[^^''.ey^.cos.{2gvcv), Mg^Sj^i
as in [4925] line 9. The term depending on ^a^'^'.e'^ [4904] produces nothing of importance.
Sixth. The term in [4904] line 16, gives k=A^^^Key^, i=2g—c=l nearly; and the [4925e]
first term of [4835] line 1, makes k'=l, v'—2v—2mv ; hence, the first term of [49232] [4925/]
produces ^„'''''. e7^.cos.(2v — 2mv — 2gv\cv), as in [4925] line 11. The same values of
]c', v', being combined with the term in [4904] line 17, produce
(^2—2m—2g+c).AP'^\ey\cos.{2gv—cv), as in [492.5] line 10. [4925g]
Seventh. From [4904] line 18, we have k = A["\, i=l — m. Combining these
[4925A]
with k', v' [4925/], we get the term {l—m).J["\.cos.{v—mv) [4925] line 12. If
we combine the same values of k, i, with the term in line 4 [4885], we get the term rjqori
depending on A^''' [4925] line 14 ; and if we combine them with that in line 5 [4885], we
obtain the term depending on A^p\ in [4925] line 13.
Eighth. From [4904] line 19, we have k= A^^^\,.e', i = \ — m^c'm=l nearly.
Combining this with k', v' [4925/J, we get the term depending on ./îo"*' [4925] line 14. [4925t]
If we combine these values of k, i, with the term in [4885] line 5, we get the term
depending on A'^^''> [4925] line 12.
JVinth. From [49041 line 20, we have fc=./3P\,.e', i= 1— ?«— c'ot=1— 27« nearly.
"• ^ " a' ' •' [4925/]
Combiningthis with the values yt', v'[4925/'],we get the terms depending on ./3,"'' [4925] line 13.
Tejith. The term of a (5m [4912], gives k=\.,i^3 — 3m. Combining this with r^^^Sm]
the values [4925/], we obtain the term depending on Xn, in [4925] hne 12.
Thus, we have obtained all the terms of the function [4925], as they are given by the
author ; and, it is evident, from the details of the calculation in this note, that, in general, [4925n]
the neglected terms are such as have been usually rejected.
* (2825) Having found, in the preceding note, the variation of the first term of
[4928]
* 2
9/«
436 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Ce).
2
9 »" 1 N Jim " ^ \
;; — . ( 1 m) .^'"' ..COS.fv — OT V).
4o, ^ "^ a ^ ^
( 7 ) ■ Z^^iv ' '^°"'*'"^'^ '" [4876], we shall now proceed to the calculation of the next
■ temi, which is given in [4860] ; and, if we put, for brevity,
t'*^^^"] A=— ^^.3.sin.(t>— t,')f 15.sin,(3y— 3i;')};
this part becomes ^. — . Its variation, considering u, du, v', as variable, and neglecting i5m',
[49276] as in [4909, fee], is ('L^] ^ ^^^/l' , f^) s,' ^a ■ ^ ^
\ du J dv '~ \ dv' J ' ' dv ' dv '
The factor ^^. in the value of A [4927rt], is of the order iïi. . , [4921 è],
[4927c] which is of the /oMrtA order ; therefore, (rj, (p) are of the same order. Moreover,
5m [4904] is of the «cconrf order ; — [4878] is of the^îr^i order; Sv' is of the third order
[4916,4917]; consequently, (— ).(5m. — is of the ici'OiiA order; and (—].Sv'. —
V ait / du \ dv/ dv
of the eighth order ; so that, by rejecting these terms, the function [4927i] is reduced to
A. 7 of the sixth order. Then, by neglecting terms of the seventh order, we may use
in A [4927a], the values [4921a — c], and the preceding expression becomes as in [4927].
* (2826) The differential of [4904], divided by dv, gives,
^^ =— (2— 2m).^i''\sin.(2i;— 2mt))
— (2— 2m— c) ../?/". e . sin.(2u— 2mM— cy) — &c. ;
which is to be substituted in [4927]. In the first place, the terms depending'on .^o"" [4928a],
produce, in [4927], the following expression ;
[49286] 5"^'(2 — 2m)..^o°\{3.sin.(t) — M«)]15.sin.(3i; — 3mt>) .sin.(2t) — 2mr)).
As this is of the sixth order, we need only notice the resulting terms which depend on the
angle (y — mo). Now,
3.sin.(t) — mr).sin.(2u — 2mu) =^.cos.(i' — mv) — kc. ;
15.sin.(3y — 3mw).sin.(2u — 2my)^L5.cos.(4) — mv) — Sic.;
whose sum is 9.cos.(« — m«) — Sic;
hence, it is evident, that the term [4928i] is equal to
[4928c] ^^.(2— 2m).^2<''i.9.cos.(D— mu) ;
[4927d]
[4928a]
VII. i. •§. 3 ] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 437
The function [4891],
contains, in the first place, the term,
 (S + ") • / ^^ • ^•" (2 «2 «') [4882] ; [4930]
its variation is,*
which is easily reduced to the form [4928] . We may proceed in the same manner with the
terms of «(5it [4901], deiiendins on /7'j".c, Jl:?\c, &ic. ; but, as these terms produce only
cjuantiiie? of the sixth, seventh, &ic. orders, they may be neglected.
* (2827) We shall put, for brevity,
V=~+u, JV=''i^.sm.(2v—2v'); [4929a]
then, we shall have the development of F', in the second member of [4890] ; and the
expression [4930] will become — V.fW.dv. Now, as V, W, contain the variable
quantities u, u' , v , the variation of the function — V.fW.dv, will be denoted by
— ^^■■fl O ■'^" + (?)•''"' \ .dv~5V.fJ'V.dv— V.f(^£).âu'.dv. [49296]
The three different integrals, of which this expression is composed, correspond respectively
to the three integrals in [4931], as we shall find by the following investigation ; in which we
shall U5e the abridged notation [4821/].
If we substitute the values of (yj, (yr)) deduced from that of JV [4929a], in the
first of thc^ integrals [4929'], it becomes,
^•'^K^}'"+(^j'"T''"=i:^/,7r J •^'"•(2«2''')+5«'cos.(2t;2«')^ ; [4929c]
in which the terms under the sign /, are the same as in the first term of [4931]. If we
substitute the values of c, g [482Se], in V [4890], and neglect terms of the order m%
m^'r, e^ iA we obtain, ['•^29^]
V=^.ll^^f.C0S.'2gv]. [4929e]
Substituting this in the factor, without the sign / [4929c], it becomes as in the first term of
[4931]. As the terms of nôu [4904], are of the second or higher orders, it follows, from
[4908°]. that the terms depending on Su, under the sign / [4939c], are of the fourth or
higher orders ; and when these are multiplied by the terms of V, which we have neglected [4929/]
m [4929f/], they will produce only terms of the siith or seventh orders. Those of the sixth
VOL. II[. 110
438 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
^^'"' ' 1+f / ^008.(2^^2 Oj./—, . 5 .si.i.(2«— 2i;')èV.cos.(2o— 2i0?i
U f It J
h^a
r,.r,oii /(hUu , \ .Zm'.u'^.fh . ,r, o '\
[4931] — ( _f oM \ . f — — .sin.(2i'— 2t7'_)
rr . / ■ .dv.s\n.(2v — 2v). *
order are produced by c^. ^ ^ ['IGSOc/], and do not depend on the angles v — m i\ and
'\lgv — CD, whose coeflicients are required to a great degree of accuracy; hence, we see the
propriety of neglecting the abovementioned terms of V [49ii9(/].
In making this estimate, we have omitted the consideration of hv' [4929c], because it is
[4929g] of the order tn.aou [491G, 4917], and must, therefore, produce terras of still less importance
than those of «<3m, which we have neglected.
Again, the value of J^ [4929«] gives 5V='—\&u; substituting this in —(SP'.//r.rfw
[4929i], it becomes as in [4931] line 2.
Lastly, taking the partial di.Terentlal of ÏV [4929fl], relative to m', and substituting it in
the third integral [49296] , it becomes ,
Now, from [4833], we have nearly, a' a' = e'.coscv'^^ whose variation is,
a'&u' = — c' e'. (]v'. sin. c' v' ;
and, as 6v' is of the order m.ahi [4929j], this quantity will be of the order me'. a Su. or of
[4929fc] the fourth order [4904]. If we retain only the chief term of [4929e], we get V= 
and, by using the value [4921i,&.c.], we find, that — is of the order
[4929Z] ^^^ • a a' —m .a a' [4865] ;
[4929t']
V. f (^~\ . Su!, de = —V.f ^^ . Su'.dv sin. (2«— 2u').
consequently, the function [4923/] is of the sixth order ; and, by neglecting terms of the
seventh order, we may subnltute the value of V [4929;.], in [4929J] ; by which means it
becomes as in third line of [4931].
* (2828) In computing the value of the function [4931], we shall retain termsof the fifth
[4931o] order in e, e', y, (V); also, in the coefficient of cos.cv, we shall retain the factor l—^e'^.
[49316] In the terms depending on the angles '2gv—cv, v—mv, v—mv±c'mv, we shall retain terms
VII. i. §8] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 439
The development of these terms, observing, that c is nearly equal [4932]
of the sixth order ; observing, that the divisors, arising from the integration, 2§* — 22m,
2c — 2(2m, which occur in the terms depending on ^3'"', ^j,"'*' [4934], are of the
order m ; so that, independent of these divisors, these terms must be taken to include
quantities of the sixth order.
We shall first compute the term
12 ni'
./iq;l".^.sin.(2.2.') [4931].
To obtain this, we shall take the differential of the equation [4885], and then multiply it by
2
, neglecting such terms as we have usually done, and using the abridged notation
[4821/] ; hence we get,
[4931c]
[4931rf]
[4931e]
[4931/]
6 m'
2— .sm.(2« — 2v) =^ .dv.
^(1— I e'2).sin.(2t)— 2m«)
— 2(l+w).(l — Je'2).e.sin.(2«— 2mt)— cr)
— 2(1— m).(l— Je'2).e.sin.(2D— 2mt;+ci')
Je'.sin.(2« — 2m j) — c'mv)
I — i d . sin. (2 v — 2 m v\c'm v)
\ — J (237n) .ee'.sin.(2D — Imv — cv — (imv)\
^ (2 — 3m) .ee'.sin.(2t) — 2mv\cv — c'mv)
~\l (2+m) .ee'.sin.(2v — 2mv — cv{c'mv)
\~\'i (2 — m) .ee'.sin.(2« — 2mv\cv\c'mv)
I_(10419m).e2.sin.(2cj)— 2«+2mr)
+i(10— 19m).e2.sin.(2ct!+2t)— 2?n?;)
— ^ (2fm) . 7=.sin.(2^tJ— 2 y+ 2m v)
fî(2 — m) .^.sin.(2^«2D — 2mv)
4^^.e'^.sin. (2v — 2mv — 2c'mv)
\ — 1 (5{m) . e 7^. sin. (2 v — 2 m v — 2gv\c v)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
l2
1 13
14
15
This is to be multiplied by the expression of  [4884] , to obtain the value of the function
in the first member of [4931fc]. By this means, the product of the factors, without the
braces, becomes.
a
12 7n
dv, as in [4931 A:] ;
and the products of the terms, between the braces, are found as in the following table ; in
which, the first column contains the terms of [4884] ; the second, those of [4931^] ; and the
third, those of [4931A:], respectively ;
[4931g]
[493U]
440 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4933] to 1 — fm^ and, that g is very nearly equal to \\^m^ [4828e], is,
[4931t]
[493U]
(C..1.3.)
Products, or terras of [49314].
whole function [4931^] between the braces
. . . .neglected
— Je.(l— e'a). \ sin.(2y— 2H;u(a))+sin.(2i)— 2mi;— «>) \
(l+«i).t2.sin.(2cD— 2î)42nu))l&c.
(1 — în).c2.sin (2cî)j2i) — 2inv) — &c.
— jec'.Jsin.(2u — 2«iDfi;— cm«)sin.(2i)— 2mti — cv — c'mv)\
\iee'Asm.[2v—'imv\cv\c'mvY\sm.[2v — 2mv—cv\c'mv)\
. . . .neglected
)Jc2.sin.(2cu(2v— 2mD)— sin.(2cu— 2«+2mu)
gL>2.{sin.(2g'i)+2u— 2mw)— sin.(2gu— 2i;t2mD)}
— jfi 2.(i_j_,„jsin_(2j, — 2mD2gi — cv) — &,c.
— je}2.(l — Hi).sin.(2« — 2niv — 2gv\cv) — &c.
Substituting, in the third column of this table, the value of its first hne, which is equal to the
terms between the braces in [4931^] ; and then connecting together the terms of tiie same
forms, it becomes equal to the terms between the braces in the second member of [4931 A:] ;
and the external factor is as in [4931A] ; hence we get. by retaining terms of the usual forms
and orders,
(Col. 1.)
(Col. a.)
Terms of [4884].
Terms of [4931f J.
1
whole of [4931g]
y^if
same
— e.cos.cw
(l_e'a).sin.(2r— 2mi>)
2(l+m)f.sin(2v2Hit)a')
2(17)1 )e.sin{2iJ2nn; + cii)
4Je'.sin {2v—2mv—c'mv
— 4e'.sin.(2D— 2;)iD[c'mD;
c{^e2i72)cos.«)
whole of [4931g]
\^e'^.cos.2cv
tsin.(2y2mD)
+ly,Kcos.2gv
(sin.(2t)— 2m»)
2( 14)n)e.sin(2i)2mvCD)
2(lm)e.sin(2D2nn)cv)
12)ra' u'Hv 1 . ,^ „ ,, 12m ,
7r5 •^••sin.(2» — 2v )= . dv.
(1— Je'2).sin.(2«— Smt))
— (t+2ff?) (1 — fe'^).e.sin.(2« — 2mv — cv)
—{i—2m).{l—he~).e.sm.{2v—2mv{cv)
 Je'. sin {2v — 2mv — c'wd)
— 2 e'.sin.(2» — 2mv^c'mv)
— f (3/n).ee'.sin.(2« — 2mv — cv — c'mv)
— i (I — 3 m) e e'. sin. (2 v — 2 m vjc v — c'm v)
\ _ji(A[m).eÉ'.sin.(2 Î) — 2 jn v — cv\c'mv) f
)^(J — jn).ee.im.{2 v — 2mv\c v\c'm v)
—l{\5\2^m).e^.im.{2cv—2v\2mv)
J^l{\b—23in).e^.sm.{2cv\2v—2mv)
— {{h\m).y^.sm\2gv—2v\2mv)
\l{h — m) 7^.sin.(2^t)2y — 2 mv)
}y e'^. sin. (2 v — 2 m v — 2 c'm v)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
[49311]
This is to be multiplied by a&u [4904], and then integrated, to obtain the value of the term
[4931e]. Now, if we suppose any term of aiu to be represented, as in [49l8i], by
a<5u=A:.cos.iu ; and any term of the second member of [4931fcJ, by .dv.Icsm.i'v ;
VII.i.§S.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN mI 441
3 M
4«,.(1 — m)
{4.(1— m)^— 1 l.A°\(l—ie'^)
Z_!!L) 4.(1— m) ' < V IS l22,n~c ' 22H^[c3 ~ >.c(lJe'»).
6m
n.
+ ^
{4J/'+J/'4'^'10^/'>e=+(J/^J/^'.).6^
_ — . ( 4 . 1— ,« —1 ..Jf'. ] — —  — S
^^ .if2=;,'_l\^(3)4.('ôi:3;^'_l\^(4)
4a,.(l — m)
3 w
a.
>.e'.cos.(c'm«; — to')
"*■ ' .e e'.cos.(2 « — 2mv — cv — c'mw+is(TO')
ee'.cos.(2t) — 2m a; — c«+c'?«u+w — n')
a,.(2— 3 m— c)
o
2
cos(cuw)
3
4
6
6
[4934]
a,.(2 — m — c)
Bevelop
7 nient of
the varia
tion(4931).
8
9
the product of these two terms will be represented by
.dvJck'. \ sin.(i't) — i v) \sm.{i'v\iv')
Its integral gives the corresponding term of [4931c] ; namely,
[4931m]
l'2m' u's.rfc ill . Chi C kk' ., . kk' /•/ ■ • \>
"Ai^^"lir^'"(2^— 2?')=— • J— ^Tr^.cos.(ii;— It))— — .cos.(it) + ii;) J; [4931n]
all of which have the common factor , and the terms between the braces ; namely,
kk' k k'
— T7:cos.(J'y — iv) — ^rcos.{i'v\iv), are computed in the following table; in which, [4931o]
the first column represents the terms of a 5m ; the second, the terms of [4931^]; and the third,
the terms of the function [4931o] : the operation being performed for each term separately,
putting c and g equal to unity, in several of the small coefficients. When i' = i, the first
term of [4931m] vanishes, and the function [493 1 o] is reduced to its second term
kk'
.cos.Sii,'. This case occurs in the first line of [493I7j1, which is reduced to a term, [4931o']
2i
depending on the angle 4v — 4my, that may be neglected.
VOL. III. Ill
442
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4934]
Continued*
2
6 vi
a^.[c — 7Ji)'
{^f +J J,'"] . ec'.cos.(c?;— cVtt I'— ro+T^i')
10
Develop
ment of
tlie first
term of
the func
Uon[4931].
[4931;?]
(Col. 1.) Terms o( aôu [4904].
Ji^ ' .e.co3.(2v—^mv — cv)
A ^ Ke'.co9.(2y — ^mv\dmv)
A ^ '.e'.cos.{2i; — ?mi' — cmx)
^j .ee'.cos.CSw— 2m«— cvtcwii')
A ^"^.ee'.cog.CSu— 2fflw— cw— c'nitJ)
A ^ .ec'.co3.(cr4c'wip)
A ^ .ee'.co3.(ci* — c'twv)
^ f '^'.c".co3.(2cîî— 2«i2mr)
^(13) ,j2 ^.^g_^3^„_Oy_j_nn[v)
a (14) g— gpg Oc'my
2
__ ^'^^e>**.cu3.(2^v— cr)
^ f '^\c>~.cos.C:!u— 9/nu— 2urufcv)
^l'^\",.C03.(i'Jni.)
1 a
^ ' ^^ ,  .e'.co3.(u — ïnî)jc'mu)
a'
(19) a
X ,.co3.(3u — 3mtJ)
(Col. 2.) Termg of [493JA].
A— l.c'Vsin.Coy— 2011))
second term
third term
t^.c'.sin.(2u — 2mw — c'mv)
^X.e .sin.(2« — 2mvc'ffiv)
/'l_..c'^Vsin.(2o— 2mv)
X.e'.3in.(2u — 9m I' — c'mr)
^X.e'.3in.(*3ii — 2mi;c';nu)
4^.ec'.sin.(2a — 9mw — cwlc'm«)
— . /. m) .■),^.sin .(2«^>— 2uf2mv)
(\ — A.c }.sin.('2« — 2jnu)
sin. (2)1 — 2hi«)
8in.(2i; — '^mv)
sin.(2u — 2mt5)
sin.(2H — 2mzj)
^i. e . sin.(2(' — 2H(y — ce)
^_l..e'.sin.{2u — 2;rtyc'nn))
Rin.(2u — 2fflv)
l..e^.sin.(2t'— 2mu— c my)
3in.(2u — 2m(,')
sin.(2y— 2Hiy)
8in.(2y — 'imv')
sin.(2u — 2ïnu)
sin.(2y — 2/hu)
^A.e.9in.(3u — 2)nw — cy)
[terms of 41)3IA]
8in.(2y — 2my)
Bin.(9u — 2my)
3in.(0]' — 2»ni)
[ Z..e'.sin.(2y — 2m y — c'my)
^X.e'.sin.(3(5 — 2mu^'ïnu)
sin.(2« — 2mi')
^l.e.sin.(2u — 2wujc'mp)
sin.(2ïi — Omy)
sin.(2y — 2my)
(Col. 3.) Factors of ^^^ [493l7i].
. . . .neglected
+.^<°'.^,.c,„.c'„,»
4"4'*^0 • .C05.C'7ffU
Jj(').e.(:_.e2eo3.c« '
7 fl(l) «C , , .
— 2^j '.^3;^.COS.(ci:— c'ïniO
+4'*^, •— r .cns.(cr'4c'7ni')
^ ] (■t""ï
~~r'rl ', .COS.C/BV
* 1 )«
_5 ^(M e^f'
^j*^ '. .C0S.C7WU
(++l.'»)..4^j'^.É>°.cos.(2û^y— cy)
+^^~^.c.Ci— A.c^^.cos.cy
+.4^' ' S .C09. c'/nu
— ï ' . .cos.f j/iy
. . .neglected
— A jî' .^^ — ^ .cos.c'?«i?
I 1 _^(6).«c'^.cos.cw
^2" 1
^^^f^) ,_^^ .co3.(cîîe'mv)
1 rj/i/
+4^'
û).'
—l.A
1
1 23'»c
(9) gg'
•*1 "amc
«(10).
..co3.(2y — 2mi'— CI! — c'mu)
.co9.(9« — '^mv — cyfc'mu)
. .cos.(2cv— 2y+9mi')
"2 9C2+2/I
. . . .neglected
JfA^ '\ ^ ' .cos. (2;fv— 2u427nr)
fA.^j'3)/.j2c^s.(2^î)— cu)
. . . .neglected
All thpse N
terrnshiive J
I the fcim f
mon factor ^
Jt
(13)
"0 "sa»!
.79
..COS. (aï— 2mf— S^'c!))
— .>?( ^ .€ y^.cos. (2^u — cu)
J 17) 5 1
— .y? ■ '/^^ ^_^ — .cos.fv — Tnu)
« 1 — m
2 1
■^o^'S'Trsr,,;'^"''^''""'''^'""')
ia(18)a c'a
.^ .cos.(t' — my — c'mv)
a'
.e'.'i .cos.(i' — mu+c'my)
~«('0!.'i,..<m.(,._,
('• — ïttrfc'mu)
+^5S'TÎ;:=°'("'"'')
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
II
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
96
27
28
29
30
31
33
33
34
35
36
37
V1I.1.§8.J DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 443
^"' _^jP)_ijo)l,ee'.cos.(cv+c'7nv—^—^') 11
a^.{c{m)
2
_2 [4934]
H !'""l"'l X r cos.(2ot^— 2«+2OTt>— 20 13 cu„.inuc,i.
a,.(25— 2+2/n) ' ^ * ' ^
+ ^.^5 2J','=''J[«"+^.4"i.e^^.cos.(2^r— ci'2é+^) 14
«, 8
2
fi  ^(15) Continua.
— ,, ; . ,.ef.cos.(2v—2mv—2gv+cv+2ê—v^) 15 .rdfvei
' ^ '^ ' ' • Ihe func
2 tion[4931J.
— . ^/r ,.?a+3tfO4"^— 24"'e'— l.[l— (1— m)n.x,]., cos.(î;— m«) 16
+ ^.M'/') — 2 4'^)}..e'.cos.(y— miJ+c'mî;— t.') 17
a, ' ' ' ^ a' ^
We may remark, that the sum of the terms in lines 2, 3, is reduced to
4m. (I ^e').^fe.COS.CV; (38) continued.
the sum of tiiose, in lines 4, 5, to 4^'2?..cos.c'/«« ; and the sum of those, in lines 9, 10,
" m
e9e' . ''"'
to —10.^/"'. — . cos. c'm r. Moreover, the term neglected in line 25, of the form
m
e2
— (4/"\— .cos.(2c!; — 2n), will be used hereafter in a different calculation ; also, the term [AdiXq]
2
i.^/".e2.cos.2cy, arising from the combination of [4904] linel, with the first term in [493ir]
line 3 [493 iq.
The function [4931^] is also multiplied by ^y^.cos.{2gv — 2é), in [4931]; but the
only term of [4931p], which requires any notice, is — ^y\e.cos.ct), in line 6 ; because the r493j,i
product of these two terms produces a quantity, depending on the angle 'igv — cv, of the ugsj^i
following form ;
° ' SeconrJ
o term of
^.f .cos.(2^,;2J)./ !^ . — .sin. (2.2.')= — • \\.'Ai'\ef.cos.{2gvcv)\ "H»n
''^a ^ «'' « a, <« ) [4931«]
444 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
[4935] We must observée, that Cf'.sin.(2j; — 2vm) is the inequality depending on
[4931i] The next term of [4931] is ^^ . f ^^^.iôv'.cos.(2v—2v'] : which is of the
Sv'
order — j, or ot [4922f/, c], in comparison with the terms produced by a du in
[4931^]; and, as tliis last function may be considered as of ihefoaith order, that in [4931t)]
[4931m'J may be supposed of the fifth or a higher order, in all the angles which require any notice ;
so that it will only be necessary to retain the terms depending on the angles, whose
coefficients increase considerably by integration ; as cv, 2gv — cv, v — mv. These are
produced by the terms of aoii [4904], depending on ^4/'', ^J'''; which give, by the
process in [4916, 4917], the following terms of M ; namely,
W^^A Sv' = — 2;n.^/"e.sin.(2t)— 2my— ci')— 2m.^i'''.,.sin.(î>— mi>).
Now, if we multiply — ^.Sv'.dv by the first member of [49107c], and prefix the sign /, it
produces the term [4931 !)]. Performing the same operation on the second member of
[4910A:], we find, that it becomes,
2
'^ ^' — .y"^(5y'. f/tiX terms between the braces in [4910^] I .
The first term of ôv [4931:c], being combined with the first line of [4910A:], neglecting e^,
[4931:1 produces the term [4932a] line 1 ; the same term, combined with 1^^. cos. (2^1 — 2i'f2mD)
[49 10A] line 12, gives [4932a] line 2. The second term of [4931 x], being combined with
the first of [4910A;], produces [4932«] line 3 ; hence we have,
Third
t^'otoc  f — m.AJ".e.(\ — Pje''^).cos.cv ~\ ^
the fuiic 2» '\/ i A
[4932a] ./ .5u'.cos.(2y— 2i) )= . < Ti.^^^ .cy .cos. (zgv—cv)
''"''' "' "' I ™ /J>17)" / N \
I ; .Ji .^"..cos.iv — mv) \ 3
I 1 — m a ^ 'I
2
These terms are the most important ones of those depending on Sv', and they are only of
[4932i] ti^e fifth or sixth order; therefore, it will not be necessary to notice the terms arising from the
multiplication of these by the factor ^■y^.cos.'igv [4931].
_,, . ^, /dd6u , , \ 3 m'. u'3. (/w
[49326'] The next terms of [4931] are —f— +oi«j./ — — — .sin.(2«— 2d') ; which
will evidently be obtained, by multiplying the function [43S5], by the factor ( ,—{ <5m j.
[4932f] Now, any term oï mhi [4904,4912], being represented by aSu = k. cos. {(({s), the
[4932c'] corresponding term of this factor will be ■ {r — l).cos.(i< f) ; ^ind the product of
the terms of this kind, by the corresponding ones in [4885], are computed in the following
table ; putting c^l, ^=^1, in some of the small terms; but, in the term depending on
VII. i. §8.J DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 445
siu.(2t' — 2mv), in the expression of the moon's mean longitude in terms of [4930]
the angle 2gv — cv [ 1932/line 7], we must use f=l — m, g^zlJ^îm^ [4932,4933],
which give, very nearly.
(0_^,„,),2 (2+«))'
l+jni\ (l—im).
4.(2o— 2t2/H) 4\2m{^m) 4m. Vl+lmy 4m
by which means the coefficient of the tenn, in col. 2, line 7 [4932/], becomes —(lim).~.
•I in
Moreover, the fictor — (1 — l)./i: [4932c'] becomes, in this case, by neglecting dv',
— {(22/«c)ir.2/"e=— Kl2'«+l'«')'U4/'^c = (4m7«/2).^/n,^4^(l_Z;„')^(,)g_
Multiplying tills by the factor _^^*^ [4932e], we get —{l—2m).A'^\ef for the
factor of cos.(2^y — cv), in line 7 [4932/].
(ci. 1.) (Col. a.) (Ci.i. 3.)
Terms of adit [4904]. Terms of [4885]. Corresponding terms of the function [49326'].
.,2
•Sill
[4939a'l
[4932d']
[4933e]
[4932e']
.Î2"".cos.(2i;— 2mr)
^i"e.cos. (2v — 2mv — cv'
w3.J'e.cos.(2u— 2/nt)+ci;)
^Ip'e'.cos (2«2m«+c'?rtî) ;
A'^^e .co5[2v'2mvc' mv)
A[^^Y.cos{2gv'2v+2mv)
•I, '.,.cos.(î) — mv)
^ ' — .cos.f2i'2mj;)
2— 2m ^ '
2(1 fw)
9(l,«)
22m+c
7c'
,e.cos(2u — 2mv—cv
e.cos(2w— 2mi'fci''
>.a..cos.(3y — 3mv)
2(23m)
e'
~2(2m)
(iyg ;
22m
 .c os(2t! — ^mvc'm v ]
Thrse terms have tlie factor
J4(lm)3]
2(1— jn)
,^^»>.(1— e'2)
cos.(2u2nM)[c'ni!j)
.cos. (2d — 2mv)
 !— 1 .cos(2gi;2u+2mv
4(%2f2m)
2— 2fft
1
2— 2ffi
1
cos.(2d — 2mv)
cos.(2ti — 2mv)
— 2ecos.(2«— 2mv—cv)
.cos.(2y — 2mv)
2—2/,
' 2_o cos (2y — 2mv)
+ 4(l;»)2l } .gb^^^^fo, e.eos.c. 2
+ {4(lm)2l }.^<i=^.^.)e.cos.c« 3
<c—^m\c
.l4{lmy'l}.^^^.AI'V.cos.c'mv 4
+ {4( 1_m)2— I .i— .^^o,e',cos.c'm« 5
( (22mc)al ) ^. , ,
— (1— 2m).^i"c;.2_cos.(2^y_ct,)
— 4(1— Ae'2).^.^(2^e.cos.cy nearly
..^,'3',
e .COS. cmv
.cos.c mv
VOL. III.
112
^ (2m)g l ^
i 2(lm) ^
C (2— 3m)2— 1 )
( 2(lm) ^ ^^
—2A\'^'>ey^.cos.{2gv—cv)
, C 1 — 9.(1— m )9) a
+ { 2=2;;r~ \ ■'^^■^^A^^^^) 13
7
8
9
10
11
Develop 
inent of
the fourth
term of
tlio func
tion [49J1 I
[4932/J
446 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Ctl.
[^•^3fi'] its true longitude [5095].
The last term of the function [4931] is,
[4932gr]
9m' „H'2.(5tt' , . ,^
r4933A1 '^° develop it, we have, by retaining only the first power of e', a'M'=l)e'.cos.c't;'
[4833], whose variation is a'&u'= — c'e'.Sv'.s'm.c'v'^ — e'&v'. sin. c'mv, nearly; and, by
substituting the value of &v' [4931 r], we find, that Su' is of ihe fourth order; consequently,
[4939i'] the expression [493'2o] is composed of terms of the sixth and higher orders ; and, as the
integration, in [4932§], does not have the effect to increase essentially these terms of the
sixth order, the whole expression may be neglected.
AVe have thus computed all the terms of the function [4931]. Nothing now remains, but
to connect togetlier the terms which depend on the same angles, as they are found in the
[4932A:] functions [493 1j, w, 49323,/"]. The sum of these four functions ought to be equal to the
development of the expression given in [4934], neglecting, for a moment, the consideration
of the terms depending on C [4935, &lc.], which will be noticed in [4937«,8>:c.]. In
finding the sums of these coefficients, it will be necessary to make some slight alterations, to
reduce them to the forms adopted by the author in [4934]. This will be done in the
remainder of this note.
[4.9321]
[4939m]
[4933)t]
First. The term in [4932/'line I], which is independent of any angle, corresponds to
[4934 line I], without any reduction.
o — "
Second. The second term of [4934] has the factor — c.(l — ^e'^) .cos. (cv — to)
common to all its terms ; and the terms by which this factor is multiplied, in the functions
which we have mentioned in [4932Ar], are collected in the following table, in the order in
which they occur, without any reduction, except, that the two terms [4931p lines 2,3], are
reduced to one in line 38.
[493 Ip] lines 38, 6, 12,18,21
[4932rt] line 1
[4932/] lines 2, 3
[4932/] lines 6, 8
+8;n..^o"'+2.^;"— 2^^>— ^i«.e'2+7./î<;'.e'2 1
+2m.^;'i 2
_H,(,,.).,s.^,i£^+,j=:^,A». 3
The coefficient of A[^\ in this table, is
^ , ^ , (22m— c'
4.(1— Î"
and, by neglecting the term m^, in the numerator, which produces only terms of the sixth
(22mc)2l 78m5H22mc)a
[4ft52o] 2+2m+— ^ = ^^j^^^j
VII. i. ^^8.] DEVELOP.AIENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 447
C,<«'.e'.sin.(2 v — 2 m v jc'm v—^') and C^"''.c'.sin.(2 v — 2 m v—c'm v{a) [4937]
order in [4934], which are usually rejected, it becomes equal to the coefticient of A'p, in
[4934 line 2]. We may also omit the term Qm.A':^ [4932?i line ]], which is of the same
order; and then, the remaining terms, connected with A^^\ in line 3, are the same as in
[4934 line 2J. The terms depending on .^/~' [4932ij lines 1,4], mutually destroy each
other. The remaining terms, depending on ./3/''', A'p, are as in [4934 line 3].
Third. The third term of [4934] has the factor e'. cos. {c'liiv — w') common to all the
terms. The coefficients of this factor, in the functions mentioned in [4932Z:], are given in
[4932«], in the order in which they occur ; observing that the two terms in [4931/3 lines 4, 5],
as well as those in lines 9, 10, are reduced to one in [4931^ line 39]. Moreover, the terms
of [4931yj], depending on the angle c'mv — ro', have the divisor m, wiiich is introduced
by the integration ; and they have also the common factor — ; so that they are all
multiplied by
6 m
a,.m
fi.fma— em") fim 3m3 ,^^^,^ 6m
= = — 1 5094 ; or — nearly
3m3
neglecting the term , which produces only terms of the sixth order in [4934].
Hence the factor of c'.cos.(c'm2; — ra') becomes, without any other reduction, as in the
following table ;
Cm , „,
[4931/7] hues 39, 13,14, 17,20
[4932/] lines 4, 5
[4932/] lines 9, 10
.\AA'f—\OA'^\e~\A.}''^
3SÎ
'4
. j A.(\mf—\\jU>\ \ — î_ \
By altering a little tlie arrangement of the terms in the first line of this table, it becomes as
in [4931 line 4] ; the second and third lines of the table, correspond respectively to [4934]
lines 5, 6. The terms relative to C, in [4934 line 7], are discussed in the next note.
Fourth. The eighth and ninth lines of [4934], correspond to [493 Ip lines 22, 23],
respectively. The tenth line of [4934], depends on [4931/? lines 7, 16]. The eleventh
Une of [4934]. depends on [4931/; lines 8,19]. The twelfth and thirteenth lines of [4934],
correspond, respectively, to [493Ip lines 24, 26].
_a
Fifth. The factors of — .672.003.(2^1)— cy), in the functions mentioned in [4932it],
are contained in the following table;
[49.32/)]
[4932^]
[4932r]
[4932»]
[4932<]
[4932u]
448 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Ce!.
[4937'] *are the inequalities depending on tlie angles 2v — 2inv'rc'mv — 35' and
[493^!'']
[4932i>]
[493 1 p] lines 11, 27, 30
[493 lit]
[4932a] line 2
[4932/] lines 7, 1 1
+im.A['^ 3
Sum = +m../?,''42^^'3'— ^["5>.
This sum agrees with the coefficient in [4934 line 14], except in the term depending on
«^'j'', which is Jm.^'/' instead of ^m.Jl[^K The difference is of the seventh order only,
and is hut of little importance, producing only terms of the fifth order, after integration, in
[4847]. This discrepancy appears to have arisen from putting ^=1, c=l, in the
[493ar'l calculation [4932e, e'], instead of the values [4932,4933]. For, by using ^ = 1, the
/ IlA m)
factor r4932rf',e] becomes . , and the fiictor r4932e'l is
4ni '
— \{2—2m—cf—l\ = _{(l_2m)2— 1* =4in—4m^=4m.{l—m).
The product of these two factors is nearly equal to — (1 — i»i), instead of • — (1 — 2//i)
[4932w] [49;32y Ijne 7]. Hence, the coefficient of m is decreased to one quarter part of its
former value, and the term m..^j'' [4932y], will be decreased in the same ratio, so as to
become Jjn.^'j'' ; by which means, the sum of all these terms ^m.A\'^ [4932i)], is
reduced to m.^,'\ as in [4934 line 14].
Sixth. The term in [4934 line 1.5], corresponds to that in [4931p line 29]. The
factors of — . — .cos.(y — mv), in the functions mentioned in r4932/i:], are
2«,.(l— m) a ^ '
contained in the following table. The sum of these factors corresponds to that in [4934]
line 16, neglecting terms of the order m^.A["\
+ 4.4f/'>2.4<'«.e'^— 4>2
+4m...^i>^i
I { l—{lmf\..f,^'> —X,. \ i—l{lmy^
[49.32.T]
[4931p] lines 31, 35, 37
[4932«]
[4932/] lines 12,13
Sum = {4+3m).J[''^—2J]',"'\e'^—i\_. \ 1— (lm)*2 .
Seventh. The terms in [4934 line 17], correspond to those in [4931/? lines 33, 36] ; and
[4933i/] the terms of [4934 line 18J, correspond to [4931^ lines 32, 34]. Hence it appears, that
all the terms we have computed, agree with those in [4934].
* (2829) If we compare the value of nt^s [4828] heretofore used, with the form
[4937al finally adopted in [5095], we shall find, that the terms depending on ft", O,'', hc.C^P,
p.qg,, have been neglected ; and, if we put C for the sum of these terms, we must add C to the
value of nl\e [4828], which will introduce in the second member of [4836] the term
VIL i. ^^ 3.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u.
449
2v 2mv — c'mv'r^', ia the same expression. We may also observe, that [4937"]
the term,
Cm ; and the same quantity in the second member of [4837] ; and we shall represent this
increment of v', by the expression 5v'=^ Cm. Substituting this in a'Su' [4932^], we
get a'ôu'^ — Cme'.sm.c'mv. Now, if we select the chief terms of [4910, 4931], depending
on Sc', Su', they will become
J«'.sm.(2!) — 2y)+— r . / • — —.tM.cos.{9,v — 2«') — — ./ — — .rfv.sin.(2u2w').
fc3. u3
[4937c]
[4937rf]
[4937e]
We have neglected the last term of [4924], depending on &v', because it is multiplied by
— , which is of the order e [48T8] ; so that this will be of the same order as the product
dv
of the first term of [4937e] by e, which, as we shall soon see, may be neglected [4937À:].
Now, substituting the values of &v', Su' [4937c, rf], in [4937e], it becomes, by merely
altering the arrangement of each of the terms, so as to bring them under the forms we have
already computed,
{ 'âS^^^^^^'^ ] •2C^+4^:./'^".cos.(2.2.').f C.
, 9?»' «M . ^ /\ "'C ^ . ,
+ — . / —.dv.sm.(2v — 2v).—r.C.sm.cmv.
The value of C, to be substituted in this expression, is easily deduced from [5095,4937tl,
and is represented by
C=Cf.sm.(2v—2mv){C[''\e.sm.{2v—2mv—cv)\Cf\e.sin.(2v—'2mv\cv)
\C'^\e'.5m.(2v~2mvjc'mv)\C^"'\e'.s'm.{2v—2mv—c'mv)
\Ci"Ke'.sm.c'mv{hc. . . .{C['^\~.cos.{v—mv)+hc.
If we multiply together the two functions [4876e, 4937A], and the product by 2m, we
shall get the first term of tiie function [4937^J. These terms of this product are of the
Jlfth and higher orders ; so that it will only be necessary to retain those which depend on the
angles cv, v — mv. These tenns are found by multiplying the first term of [4876e],
2
O —
namely, '^.sm.{2v—2mv), by the terms of 2mC [4937/;] depending on C,"', C['^^;
4a,
from which we get,
in which we have neglected some terms of the sixth order, depending on C^'^', and on the
angle cv.
[4937/]
[4937g]
[4937/i]
[4937»]
[4937*]
VOL. III.
113
450
[4938]
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
6m
.{^A'^'>\AfAfl.e'.cos.(c'mv—^'),
[4937«]
The next term of [49375] is found by multiplying together the functions [4910Â:,4937/i],
and the product by — ^m.dv ; and then integrating the result ; as in the following table ;
Terms of [4937/t].
\Cf\sm.{2v—2mv)
[4937m]
+ Cp .e.s\n.{2v — 2m« — cv)
+ Cf''e'.s'm.{2v—2mv+c'mv)
f C™^e'.sin(2u — 2mv—c'mv)
\a^'>\,.sm.{v—niv)
Terms of [4910Â:].
4cos.(2« — 2niv)
— 2e .cos . {2v — 2mv — cv )
— 2e.cos.(2w — 2mv{cv)
+ Je'.cos.(2î) — 2mv — c'i7iv)
— I e'.cos.(2i) — 2mv\cmv)
jcos.(2y — 2mv)
cos.(2t; — 2mv)
+cos.(2i) — 2mv)
+cos.(2« — 2mv)
Terms of [4934]. _3
These terms have the factor — •
a,
. . . .neglected 1
\2Cf\7nc.cos.cv 2
— 2Cj'''.OTe.cos.ct) 3
— i Cf^.e'. COS. dmv 4
— 2 C f'.e'. COS. c'mv 5
4 O^^ .me.cos.cv 6
— CfKe'.cos.c'mv 7
(C^^°'.e'.cos.c'?n« g
\C[^^\m.,.cos.{v — mv). 9
The last term of [4937^] being very small, we may substitute in it the values
[4937n]
14 =  ; u'=z , ;
■ mv\
h^=a, [4921«— c];
by which means it becomes,
[4937o]
[4937p]
[4937g]
'""" .me', f dv.s\n.(2v — 2mv').sm.c'mvy, C ;
and, by using [4S65], it may be reduced to the form,
— . me'. fCclv. {cos.{2v — 2mv — c'toî)) — cos.(2t) — 2mv\c'mv) \ .
Now, substituting the value of C [4937A], it produces terms of the sixth order, before
integration ; and some of them may be reduced to the fifth, after integration, if they be
connected with the angle c'mv; we shall, therefore, retain this angle only. These terms
are found, by substituting, in [4937o], the part of C [4937A] represented by
C^''\sin.(2î) — 2mv). Combining this with each of the terms of [4937o], it produces a term,
rhdv.sm.c'mv = .cos.c'mv ; so that both terms, taken together, produce the following
expression ;
— . fl dv.s\n.(2v2v').^ . C. sm.c'm v = — A— ^Cf\e'. cos c'mv].
VII. i. §8.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 451
[4938']
appears to be of the order ?«', which would produce a quantity of the
order w^^ in the expression of the moon's mean longitude ; but this term
is, in fact, only of the order m^. For, we shall see, by means of the values
of 4°', Jf, 4^'* [5157,5160,5161], that the function 4Jf +4'— 4<'' [^«39]
is of the order m^ ; which produces, in the expression of the mean [4939']
longitude, a term of the order m'^ only. We shall, however, retain it
here, because we have imposed on ourselves the condition of including terms
of that order, in the calculation of the terms of the third order.
For this reason, it is indispensable, in the development of
j^— .J —^ .sm.(2v — 2v') [4930], [4940]
to carry on the approximation to terms of the order 6ii^ ; hence we
obtain the terni,t
Connecting together the quantities contained in [49.37A:,??î,y] , we get the terms of the function
a
[4937 e] depending on C. The coefficients of — .Cf\é.cos.c'mv, in [4937m lines 4,5],
and in [4937(7], being connected together, become,
— J— I— 1 = — ^S as in [4934 line 7] ; [4937r]
and the terms in the same line, corresponding to Ci''^ C^"', agree with those in [4937?»]
lines 7, 8. The term depending on Cf' [4937ot lines 2, 3] , mutually destroy eacli other.
The quantities we have mentioned include all the terms retained by the author ; who has
not noticed those in [4937^], and in lines 6, 9 of [4937?«], whose sum is
— .m. } C[''\c.cos.cv\0^^'>,.cos.{y^mv) > . [4937s]
These neglected terms are of the fifth or sixth order, increasing also by the integration in
[4847] ; and are of the same orders as the terms which are usually retained with these [4937t]
angles ; but, as we did not wish to alter the numerical calculations of the author, we have
not introduced them into [4934].
* (2830) These values are nearly represented by ^/''i= 0,0071, .;32")__o^o030,
^»iz=: 0,0285; whence, AAf\Jl'^^—A'^=—Qfi^Z, nearly. This is less than m~ [4938a]
[5117], but can hardly be called of the order m?, as in [4939'] ; however, as it is
multiplied by e', which is much smaller than e, 7, in, we may consider the whole term [49385]
[4938] as of the order m^.
t (2831) The factor eu is of the fourth order [4904], and, as all the terms we have
452
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4941]
30m'. u „u'3.fe2 , . ,^ „ ,.
This term produces the following ;*
computed [4910, 4924, &IC.] have the factor ?n', or m, except where the sign of integration
[49327)] has introduced the divisor m; it follows, that these terms depending on Su^, are generally
of the sixth order ; but some of tliem may he reduced to the Jifth order, by the integration
we have just mentioned. Tlierefore, we need only notice those terms wliere the variations
are connected with the signs of integration ; so that we may neglect the second powers or
products oftlie variations in the terms [4909", 4921, 4924,4927 ,4931, &c.], and, in fact, only
retain the chief term of [4930 or 4931], which depends on Su^. For, we need not notice
the terms depending 5u.Sv', Su.oii. Sv'^, Su'^, &;c. ; because &u is of the second
order [4904], 5v' is of tlie third order [4929^], Su' is oï the fourth order [4929i — it] ;
hence, the terms depending on hi.dv, Su.Su', &ic. must generally be much less than those
depending on Su^ ; therefore, we shall only notice this last quantity. We have already
[4941e] found, by Taylor's theorem [610. &c.], in [49296], the increment of the function — V.ffVdv ,
arising fi'om the increments Su, Sv', Su', in the values of m, v, u', respectively ; and,
by the same theorem, the term depending on om^, will evidently be represented by
—J V.f (^^'\ . Su\dv [610, 49296] .
Substituting the value of W [4929«], it becomes,
[4941a]
[4941i]
[4941c]
[4941rf]
[4941/]
[4942a]
[49426]
[4942c]
30m'. F ^u'^.ixfi , . .^
7l2
mO
and, by using the value of F =  = w, nearly [4929Zr,4937w], it becomes as in [4941] ;
neglecting in V terms of the order em^, e^, y^.
* (2832) As the function [4941] is of the sixth order, before integration [49416] ; we
may, by neglecting terms of the seventh order, substitute in it the values [4937n] ; by this
means, it becomes.
30)n'.a3 . .„ .
■;^.J dv.^aSuy. %in.{2v — 'Hmv) ■■
30?
.fdv.{aSuf.sm.{'iv—'imv) [4865].
If we retain only the term of {aSuf, of the fourth order, we may neglect all the expression
[4904], except the two fiist lines, and we shall have,
aSu=Jlf\cos.{2v—2mv)\Ap.e.co5.{2v—2mv—cv).
Squaring this, and reducing, by means of [20] Int. we get,
(«'5M)=(^f)'B+ècos.(4îJ— 4fflD)f^^o).^<').c.{cos.c«+cos.(4r— 4mi'— a.)
+ (^i'O^e^ B+ècos.(4i;— 4m!;— 2a.) \ .
This must be multiphed by sin.(2u— 2mu), and the product substituted in [4942»], after
VII. i. §S.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 463
2
15 m {A^py^.e^.cQS.{2cv—2v\2mv—2^) _ ,^^^2]
"207 * 2c— 2+2m '
although it is only of the fifth order, yet, as it acquires by integration, in the
expression of the mean longitude, the divisor* 2v — 2+2m, it is necessary [4942]
to notice it.
The function
gives the following ;t
~ Vd^ +N' F '^ — Âû^ {3.sin.(«— u')+15.sin.(3w— 3<;')^ [4944]
Its variation produces the terms,!
making the reductions by [18] Int. Tiie only term of this product, in which the coefEcient
of V is small, is that produced by multiplying the last term of [4942c],
i(^','')2.e2.cos.(4i' — 4m!; — 2c«), by sin.(2!; — 2mv) [4942a], [4042rf]
which produces the term ^(.^','')^.e^. sin.(2cy — 2v\2mv); and, by substituting this in
[4942a], it becomes equal to the following expression ;
__.(A"')V ./sm.(2a.2«+2..) = _ . 2c2+2>» ' ' ^'''^^^
as in [4942]. The terms we have neglected are of the sixth or higher orders ; the term
[4942] is reduced to the fifth order, by means of the small divisor 2c — 2\2m, which is
neaily equal to 2m [4828e].
* (2833) The term of u, resulting from the substitution of [4942] in [4961], is to be
added to u [4812 or 4819] ; and this produces in dt [4753] a term depending on the
same angle. The integration gives, in t, and in nt\s [4828], a term of the same form
with the new divisor 2c — 2\2m ; and, by this means, it is reduced to the fourth order.
[4943a]
t (2834) The terms [4809], depending on the angles v — v', 3v — ^v, are retained
in [4944] ; because they produce, in [4946], some terms depending on the angle v — mv, [49440]
which require a greater degree of accuracy than the others [4906, &ic.].
X (2835) Since 5m', 5«', are much smaller than Hu [494 If/], we may neglect
them in finding the variation of the function [4944], and consider u as the only variable ^ '
quantity; by this means, the variation of [4944] becomes,
VOL. III. 114
454 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél
I /ddSu , \ J, vi'.u'*.dv
•(^^+ôttj .J —^ — .3.sin.(îJ— î))+15.sm.(ou— ot)}j
[4945] ' ^
+ — . . fa6u.dv.\3.sin.(v — i)')+15.sm.(3« — 3v')\;
4 a, a'
hence results the terra,*
[4945a]
/ddâu. , . \ 1 ^ m'.u'^.dv ,„ . , ,s , , _ . /„ <^ ,> i
 {1;^ +^V • P •/— 4,.T— •l3.sm.(..')+15.sm.(3t3.')
Substituting, in the first line of this expression, the vakie h^=a^ [4937n], it
becomes like the first line of [4945]. Again, by substituting, in the second line of
[49456] [4945a], the values of M, u', P [4937?f], and for '~+u, the chief term  [4890],
it becomes
r4945cl ■ — '—;:; ■ — • fa5u,dvA3.sm.(v — y')415.sin.(3!; — '3v') \ .
'■ 4a,. a' a i ^ ' ' 1
This is easily reduced to the form in the second line of [4945], by the substitution of
m' [4865].
* (2836) The terms [4945], being of the sixth order, independent of the integrations,
it is only necessary to notice the terms depending on the angle v — mv; and, we may,
therefore, substitute the values [4937h], in [4945], and they will become, by using [4865],
.( ^7j ^" ) • 7 •"> •/{ 3.sin.(y — ?OT)+15.sin.(3i> — 3mv) j ,dv
[4946a] ' a
\ . — .faSu. { 3.sin. (u — m!;)j15.sin. (3!) — 3m!;) I .dv.
In this we may substitute, for « Su, its two chief terms [49426] ; and a little consideration
will show, that we may even neglect the part depending on ./2/'^ because it does not
[49466] produce, in [4946], any term connected with the angle v — mv ; so that we shall finally
have aôu ^Af\cos.{'2v — 2>nv). Substituting this in [4946a], it becomes,
— — .jjw. \ 1—^.(1— mf\xos.{2v—2mv).f{3.sm.(v—mv){]5.sm.{3v—Smv)\.dv
4o, a
[4946c] J
^ — ,.^'M.fcos.{2v—2mv).l3.sm.{v—mv){l5.sm.{3v—3mv)l.dv.
Now we have.
VII. i. §S.] DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 455
"' ,{\S\^.(\—m)\.Af\,.co^.{v—mv). [4946]
2a,.(l— ?«) ' ^ ' ^ ^ a!
We must here make an important observation relative to the terms
depending on cos.(^' — m v), which we propose to determine with accuracy.
The expressions of the radius of the sun's orbit, and its longitude, contain
terms depending on the angle v — mv [4324], resulting from the moon's [4947]
action upon the earth. These terms produce others, in the expression of u, J"^,'^'^^^^
and in the moon's mean longitude ; and it is essential that we should notice
these terms. For this purpose, we shall observe, that, in consequence of the
moon's action, the sun's radius vector contains the term
6r'= .cos.(t;— «') [4315, 43166] ;* [4948]
3 5
riS.sm.(v—mv) 4l5.s'm.( ov—3mv)\.dv = — .cos.(v—nw)— A:os.{3v—37nv). [4946d]
Multiplying this by cos. (2u — 2}nv), and retaining only the terms depending on
cos.(y — mv), we find, that the product becomes,
( ; ).icos.(î) — mv) =— .cos.(îJ — mv) ;
\ 1—m 1 — m J " 1 — ni
hence the first line of [4946c] becomes,
m
' — ^, . i —248.(1— m)^ ! .Jli'>\.cos.(v—mv). [4946e]
Again
2o,.(lm)
cos.(2f — 2mw).3.sin.(î; — mu) =— â.sin.(i) — mv)\iic.
cos.(2u — 2mw).15.sin.(3î) — 3mv) =y*.sin.(«) — mv)\&iJC.
whose sum is 6.sin.(j; — mv) \ &ic. Substituting this under the integral sign of the second
line of [4946c], that line becomes,
—  _2
5«i a .,p, 6.cos.(î>— ;ni») m , c ^ ,01 « / x
— 7— . ../2o™' = = — — .làAé'^'.  .cos.fi) — mv).
4 fl, a ~ \—in 2a. (1—m) ~ a
Adding this to the part [4946e], it becomes as in [4946].
* (283T) The inequality of the earth's radius vector, arising from the action of the
moon, is
[4946/]
m
^''M^^'^'^'^'i^''") [4315,4316J]. [4948„3
To conform to the present notation, we must change U into v [4313,4760'], R into r,
466 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél,
r4948'i '^ being the ratio of the moon'' s mass to the sum of the masses of the moon
and earth. This gives, in u', the term,*
14949] &U'=—'^.C0S.(VV').
u
The longitude of the sun v' contains also the term [4814],t
[4950] i.v'=^.ûn.(v—v').
u
This being premised, the term ' 3 [4865'] contains the following :t
[4951] ____.cos.(^^— Î)).
3m' u'^
[4951'] The term ^ .cos.(2t?— 2i'') [4866'], contains the two following §
— pn*5
[4952] _ ^^^ .cos.(?;— z)').cos.(2i;— 2v') +^^~.sin.(«— '«').sin.(2ij— 2^;') ;
[49486] [4313,4759], r" into ?•' [4313,4759']; moreover, the longitude v" of the earth, seen
[4948c] from the sun [4313], is equal to 180'' + '^' of the present notation [4777rf] ; lastly
[494erf] ^=_^ [4757,4757', 4948']. Substituting in [4948a] , we get 5r'^,j.r.cos.{v—v'};
and if we neglect the square of the inclination of tlie moon's orbit to the ecliptic, we may
[4948e] put r =  [4776], and then the preceding value of S/ becomes as in [4948].
* (2838) From r4777el we have, very nearly, r'=:  ,; whence 5r'= .
[4949a] ^ ^ ^ ■• ' } : „" „'2
Substituting the value of &r' [4948], we get Sti [4949].
t (2839) This term is given in [4314,43l6i], under the form
M\m r' ^ '
and, by making the changes in the symbols, as in [4948J,&,c.], it becomes,
[4950a] (5v'=(fji.— .sin.(t) — ■«'), or nearly 'V=fx. — .sin.(j; — i)'), as in [4950].
X (2340) The variation of the term " [4865'], taken relatively to ?t', is
[4951a] ^ ,^ ^^'■'^
" .i5m' ; and, by substituting hC [4949], it becomes as in [4951].
§ (2841) Taking the variation of the term [4951'], relatively to «', v\ and then
*■ substituting the values of 5m', h' [4949, 4950], we get [4952].
Vll.i.^8.] DEVELOPxMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN u. 467
which produces the term,*
'3m^.^ [4953]
Connecting it with that in [4951], we obtain,
9?«'. fA.?«'* ,. [4954]
whence results the following terms ;t
2 2
9râ.(x , . 9m. fA a ,. ,
^Scos.fi' — mv) . .e.cos.(« — mv+cmv — w ) 1
4a, «^ ^ ^ 4rt ff' ^ ^
..e. cos.(« — mv — cmvAvi). z
4a, a' ^ ^
[4955]
3 m' m'^ dv
The term — .y ^— .sin.(2« — 2w') [4882] gives, in like manner, [4956]
the following ;t
* (2842) If we retain only the angle cos.(« — v'), and reduce the products by [17,20]
Int., we may substitute, in [4952], the values
cos.(« — i;').cos.(2u— 2w')^J.cos.(y — t)')jfcc. ; ' [49531
sin.(«; — i;').sin. (2u — 2y') = .cos.(r — v') — &,c. ;
and, since — fs+fi = — tj the expression [4952] becomes as in [4953].
t (2843) Multiplying [4872] by — 2,a, and neglecting e^ c'2, we get [4955]. [4955a]
f (2844) The variation of the term [4956], is as in [49566]; substituting the values
of 6u', ôv' [4949, 4950], it becomes as in [4956c] ; reducing the products of the sines [4956o]
and cosines, by [18, 19] Int., retaining only the angle v — v', it becomes as in [4956(Z].
— ./ { .sm.(2i' — 2« )H ; — oi;.cos.(2u — 2y ) } [4jao6j
= j^'f] — ^— .sm.(2«— 2i)).cos.(j;— d')H ^ .cos.(2t)— 2z)').sin.(ii — i)') [ [4956e]
3m'. {J ^( 3u"'.dv . , . !<'lrfu > 3m'. ^ ^m'^. rfy . ,. r4.q';fi//1
This last expression is evidently equal to the first member of [4889] multiplied by — 2/x ;
and, if we multiply Its second member by the same factor — 2fJ., we shall get the '■ ■■
development [4957] ; neglecting the small terms e^, 7^, e''^.
VOL. III. 115
458 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Cél.
3
^  . , . COS. (v—mv) r .  . .e'.cos.{v—mv+c'mv—^) 1
[4957]
2.{l—m) a, a'
2
9m.iJ' a a , , , i\ c,
2.(1— 2m) a, a' ^ ^
There remains yet to be considered the part of the development of
[4958] . [4893], depending on the square of the disturbing force.
W.{\\ss)'^
g
[4959] rpj^jg development contains the function* — . {hsf, which produces the
following terms ;t
* (2845) We have, by Taylor's theorem
[495G/] pC^^^*) = ^'^'' • Ï +*("> • rf.2
,4.5,)=,,+,3..^'+H«'^)^'^ + &^c. [617]
where the terms of the second order are represented by i(fîs)^. — r^. Now, putting the
function [4958] equal to 9(4), and developing it, we get,
[4956^] <p(,)__A2.(i+,,)i=_/r2.(l_3s2+^V&c.). .
Its second differential gives,
[4956/.] ^='^''"1?''~'*'+^<^=^^ = ^ "^^^'y [4937»];
neglecting s, &ic. Substituting this in the terms depending on {hs)^ [4956/], it
3
becomes — •('5*)"j as in [4959]. The terms of the order ^^.{i)s)^, which we have
[4956i] here neglected, are of the order 7^ [4811], in comparison with those which are retained
and developed in [4960] ; they must, therefore, be of the sixth or seventh order, and are
not usually noticed.
t (2846) If we separate the terms of h [4897] into classes, of the second, third and
fourth orders, by putting
[4960a] 6;=Bi°>.7.sin. (Sv— 2m«— ^«) ;
S3=jB^'>.y.sin.(2î) — 'imû\gv)\B'^^.t'j.ûn.{gv\c!mv)\'Bf^.e'j.ûx\.{gv — c'mv)
\lif' . t' y .s\'a..{^v — 2mii — gv\cm.v)
[49606] ■\Bf^.e'y.^m.{2v—S>mv—gv—c'mv) ^Bf\(?y.sm.. (2ct^d) ;
S:^=B^\ty.%\x\.{2v—'i,mv\g'o — czi)[the remaining terms of & [4897] ;
the index of S denoting the order of the terms ; we shall have &=S'3[<Si3['S4 • Its
[4960c] square is (&)2=.S'2. ^o2S2.(Saj2So. 5'4+»S3 . 1S3; neglecting terms of the seventh
Vll.i. §9.] DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN M. 459
£.(5{»)/.j« 1
\~.\Bf^^B["'^\.BfKeY.cos.{c'mv—^) 2 [4960]
/ill
+ ~ . Bl'K 5f . e7^.cos.(2gv—cv—2è+z^). 3
9. We shall now collect together and reduce the different terms which
we have calculated ; and, bj these means, we shall obtain the following
development of the equation [4754] ;*
order. Substituting the values of .S, , S3 , S^ , and tlien reducing, by means of
[17 — 20] Int., retaining only the usual angles and terms, we get, by observing, that the
terms depending on Bî,^' maybe neglected, on account of its smallness [5177],
S,.S,^UBrfr;
2S.2.S3 = \B^;\B'f+Bf\B[">^\.eY.cos.(fmv;
2So.Si = B^^KBi'\cf.cos.{2gvcv) ;
S3. 83^ terms which may be neglected.
The sum of these terms gives the value of (&)^ [4960c], which being multiphed by
3 3
2^ gi^es 2^{^^f' as in [4960].
[4960rf]
tioti lU
u.
* (2847) We have thus finished this elaborate development of the terms composing the
equation [4754] ; and we must now connect together the different terms ; namely, those
which are contained in the twenty Junctions [4866,4870,4872,4879,4892,4595,4901, [4960«]
4908,4911, 4913,4918, 4922, 4925,4928,4934, 4942, 4946,4955, 4957,4960], and add
' " Function»
ddll wliich
to the sum the tu'ojirst terms of [4154]; namely, — m, as in the two first terms of J"!?'""'
tial equa
[4961]. In performing this part of the operation, we shall take the terms depending on
each angle separately, in the order in which they occur in [4961].
First. The constant terms of [4961 line 1], are found in [4895, 4866 line 1], without
9
any reduction. The tenns having the common factor —  — ..^^''^(1 — e'2) are found by
adding together the terms in the first lines of [4911,4925,4934] ; namely, 3, — 2j2m,
4.1 1— m) — 1 . 1
~^~Y^ • Their sum is lj2mj4.(l — m) =4 — 3?» — m'^, neglecting m^ r4961oT
and the higher powers of m ; this agrees with [4961 line 2]. Lastly, the term depending
on B;' [4960 line 1], is as in [4961 line 2].
460 THEORY OF THE MOON ; [Méc. Ce).
a
[4961] 0= ^ + «i.n+^^+i/^+3''} + £;{l+e^+i>^+e 1
+2e+e^+3e'22.(5f)+5f>).^^+(l+2mc).^^2>(l0\ ^
DLfferen I ^'^^
liai equa
tion in
u.
3m
4a
_. 4.i+2+(4.rii).(^+^,)^4«(>iO 4
.{ , f(l+6m+c).(lm)+7+(22m c)a^ ^ \.e.cos(c.«)
2«,
^.cos.(2w — 2mîj) 9
3 m l4 (l+36^+iy^fe'^)
1 ?B
m
Second. We shall now collect together all the terms which are connected with cos.c?;.
For brevity, we shall divide all the terms of the twenty functions [4960e] containing
_2
this quantity, by the common factor —  — . e . cos.cv, retaining only the quotients which
ought to correspond to the terms, between the braces, in [4961 lines 3 — 7]. T/ie same
[49616] process will be used with the other angles in the rest of this note. Then we have, in
[4866 line 2], the terms 2{e^+3e'~, and, in [4901 line 3], the terms —2{Bf^\B^J'^).^;
m
these agree with [4961 line 3]. The rest of die quantities depend on the different terms of
A, which we shall examine according to the order of the indices. The coefficients of
—4^j,''>.(l— Je'2), in [49111ine 2, 49>.5hne2], are, respectively, +3, and — 2+2m,
whose sum l2m is the same as in the two first terms of line 4 [4961] ; the last terms
of the same line being found, without any reduction, in [4934 line 2]. The coefficients of
^i<".e.(lfe'2), in [4911 hne2,49181ine 1, 4925 line 2], are respectively 3, 4m, (22mc),
whose sum is {l\6m\c') ; multiplying and dividing this by 1 — m, it produces the
three first terms in [4961 line 5], connected with the factor (1 — m) ; the remaining terms
VII. i.^' 9] DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN M. 461
ic. {1+1(2— 19w)e—e'='} \ 11
— i(3+4m).(l+ie=— e'=) ) 12
,3m.) . „ cif, I \ \.e.cos.(2t) — 2mv — cv\a)
_ — J 3+c— 4m+ ^^^~"') +24' J . e. cos.(2«;— 2mt)+ct)— t.)
15
[4961]
Q^V^ «J „9 / ^ Differen
.— ./^ l495;9)/_42J<3' \ .e'.cos.(2v—2mv+c'mv—zi') 16 'i?i"a
cootinued.
3m ^ \ 7 (4 3m) _2]^ao);^_2A'*) i .e'.cos.(2v—2inv—c'mv+^') 17
' 4«, ) 2— 3m 1 a 2 ( <.
7M
l+c^+i7"+l«"+(^l"+^?04Kl + 2m)^l'" \\ 18
2
_2
3™ _2(lO„0.(3O,.).[3m) ,, /
I 2a, \ (23m).(2m)  ~ ^ ''  / 1
"T~\ Il /7>.'9) I T>l[m\ ÏX01 '5'
.e'.cos. (c'mzj — ro')
+(S;=>+Bi"»)..B';i.^ ^f— llCf— 2Cf+2a"» I 20
_2
m
+ ^.{4J^(0)+4;3,_J^(4,_Q_J^(l)e2^_(^^^(T)_J^(6)).g2^( ^ 21
of that line are found in [4934 line 2], without anjr reduction. The coefficients of
^f e.(l— Je'2), in [4911 line 2, 4925 line 2], are 3— (2— 2m+c) =1+2/»— c, as in
[496Uine3]. Tlie coefficients of —è^,W)g'2;n 14911 jj^go^ 4905 iine3, 49341ine3], [496I6']
neglecting the factor 1 — Je'^, are 3, — (2 — m — c), 8; whose sum is 9\m\c
[496Iline6]. The coefficients of ^.^'Jle'^, in [4911 line 2, 4925 line 3, 4934 line 3],
give 3— (2— 3m— c)+8 = 9+3m+c [4961 line 7]. Lastly, the terms in [4908 line C]
give, without reduction, 3.{Af''{A^p).e'^, as in [4961 line 7].
2
Third. The terms in [4961 lines 8 — 10] have the common factor — .cos.(2« — 2mv);
and, if we divide the corresponding terms of the functions [4960(] by this factor, we shall
obtain, in [4870 line 1], the ternis l+e^^^y^—^e'^, and, in [4879 line 9], the term i^^^^'^]
\2mt^ nearly; the sum of these gives [4901 line 8]. The terms [4892]inel] are the
same as [4961 line 9] ; those in [4901 line 1] are the same as those depending on Bf\ B'^''
VOL. III. 116
462
THEORY OF THE MOON ;
[Méc. Cél.
[4961]
Differen
tial equa
tion in u
continued.
3 m
3+2mc
^l_.jlv._A<{^ ,
^ 3tm— c
I 2 '2— m
_.A
.ee'.cos.(2t! — 2mv — cv\c'mv\zi — to')
22
23
[4961 line 10]. Lastly, the first term of aSu [4908 line 1, 4904] gives the term depending
on ^f [496 nine 10].
Fourth. The terms in [4961 lines 1114] have the common factor — .e.cos(2i2??it'c«).
Dividing the conesponding terms of the functions [4960e] by this, we obtain, in [4870 lineS],
the terms in [4961 line I2J ; in [4879 line 1], the same terms as in [4961 line 11] ; in
[4961rf] [4892 line 2], the same terms as [4961 line 13] ; in [4901 line 6J, the terms depending
on BJ'\ 2?!,"' [4961 line 14] ; lastly, we find, in [4908 lines 1,2], the terms depending
on A^^°\ ^/i' [4961 line 14].
Fifth. The terms in [4961 line 15] have the factor — ■'— .e.cos.(2u — 'imvjcv).
Dividing the corresponding terms of the functions [4960(>] by this, we obtain, in [48701ine3],
the terms 34;m ; and, in [4879 line 2], the term \c ; the suin of these is equal to the three
• ; and [4908 line 1]
[4961e] g^g^ jg^,^^_^ ^ç .^ggj j.^^g ^gj_ ^^^.^^^  jgg^ line 3] gives
8.(1— m )
2— a»ic
gives 2Af'' ; which