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Full text of "McLean County, Illinois, in the World War, 1917-1918 .."

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 



m 



CENTENNIAL 
BANNER 




NATIONAL AND STATE FLAGS AND CENTENNIAL BANNER 



MCLEAN COUNTY 

ILLINOIS 



IN THE 



WORLD WAR 

* * 1917-1918 * * 



DEDICATED TO THE SOLDIERS, MARINES, SAILORS, 

AVIATORS AND ALL THE 6,000 FROM McLEAN 

COUNTY, WHO TOOK AN ACTIVE PART 

IN THE CONFLICT, EITHER 

AT HOME OR ABROAD 



E. E. PIERSON and J. L. HASBROUCK 

EDITORS 
BLOOMINGTON, ILL. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

McLEAN COUNTY WAR PUBLISHING COMPANY 
BLOOMINGTON, ILL. 




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MCLEAN COUNTY'S PART IN WORLD WAR. 

When the cataclysm of war which had flooded Europe from the time 
of its outbreak in 1914 had finally overrun its bounds and swept across 
the Atlantic to the shores of America, in 1917, some of its waves broke 
into the farthest corners of our country. 

The awakening to the awful fact of war was somewhat slow; the 
people rubbed their eyes and for a time thought that it must be some 
horrible dream that it could not be true. But when once aroused to 
the truth that they, too, along with the peoples of all America and the 
sore oppressed population of Europe, were to taste the terror and suffer- 
ing, it' not the actual devastation of war, they arose in spirit to the 
height of energy and sacrifice that must for many years, and even many 
generations, remain a page of their history which is glorious and un- 
forgettable. It is the mission of this book to set down in some manner 
the activities and the life of that period the personnel and deeds of the 
men who went into the actual work of war, and the work and feelings 
of the larger body of people who at home carried on the manifold and 
sacrificial labors of the great struggle. 

The complete story may never be written, for the compass of no 
one volume could contain the myriad threads that made up the warp 
and woof of life in that time. But that its general outline may be pre- 
served in somewhat permanent form; that at least the high lights of the 
picture may be set on canvas to defy the obliteration of forgetfulness, 
was the task which urged the compilers of this book. 

The first hint of the on-coming of war was felt in this county thru 
the Ked Cross, a chapter of which had been formed in the year 1916. 
Even before the United States had broken diplomatic relations with 
Germany in the late winter of 1917, the national headquarters of the 
Bed Cross sent out warnings to its chapters: "Prepare." Accordingly, 
the Bloomington chapter (afterward the McLean county chapter) early 
in the spring, began to get upon a war basis, both as to membership, 
money and organization. Starting thus early, the story of the achieve- 
ments of the Eed Cross of McLean county is one of the most pride- 
worthy phases of the war history. 

Hardly had the congress of the country actually declared war, until 
the youth of the county sprang to arms. They voluntarily enlisted in 
the army and navy by scores and hundreds from April of 1917 un^l the 
lists were closed in the latter part of 1918. The Bloomington recruiting 
station was one of the busy scenes of the community from the first days 
of the war, and many hundreds of young men had gone into the ranks 
and received their preliminary military training before the passage of 
the national draft law by which a general drain upon tne man power 
of the land was inaugurated. And when the nation decided that a gen- 
eral draft law should become enforced, there was no part of the country 
which more willingly acceded to the martial needs of time than McLean 
county. Young men between the ages of 18 and 31 to the number of 
over 10,000 willingly enrolled in this county and submitted themselves 
to the call to arms at any time that the government might need them. 
The story of the workings of the draft boards, which examined and 
. sent into service more than 2,000 young men of the county, is a story 
of labor arduously and painstakingly done on behalf of the men com- 
posing the boards, and of inspiring submission by the young men them- 
selves to a call of duty such as had never before in the history of the 
country been placed before the youth of the land. 

Filled with sadness and yet touched with a coloring of supreme 
martyrdom is the story of how more than 150 young men from this county 
went forth to return no more. On field of battle, in dangers of the 
sea and land, by sickness of the camp and march, these heroic youth 
gave up their lives. 



Of those who returned from the war, not a few came with shattered 
bodies, torn by bullets or shells in ways which it will require years to 
heal, if indeed they ever become their former selves. Scores of young 
men will live thru the years carrying their scars. 

But not all the heroism of the war was with the men who went to 
battle. Thru two years of watching and waiting at home, the mothers 
and sisters and sweethearts of the youth toiled as they had never toiled 
before, to supply to the men in the service the things which they must 
needs have to meet the fierce test of the struggle. In branches of the 
Red Cross and its allied organizations, the women of the county spent 
hundreds of days and nights making literally millions of articles which 
the men might need in camp or hospital. Usual pleasures and pastimes 
were forsaken, and the whole thought and occupation of the women at 
home were centered on the supreme need of the country. 

The men who stayed at home the fathers and older brothers of the 
fighting men these, too, have written a chapter in the county history 
of the war. Their money furnished the millions of dollars which this 
rich county sent into the treasury of the nation to bear the fearful 
burden of war's expenses. Five times were they called upon to loan 
their money to the nation to carry on the war, and five times did they 
respond with open pocketbooks. 

Here are some of the things which McLean county people did to- 
ward the overthrow of the world menace: 

Offered some 2,500 young men as volunteers for service in the army 
and navy. 

Sent more than 2,500 more young men into service through the 
operation of the draft law. 

Eaised more than $11,000,000 in the five different liberty loan 
drives to lend to their government to prosecute the war. 

Gave some fifty or more of the leading physicians and surgeons to 
the service of the government during the war, on battle fields and 
camps. 

Gave a score or more of nurses to succor the wounded and sick on 
the field and in hospitals. 

Sent a half hundred men and women to the service in the work of 
the Y. M. C. A. and its allied humanitarian fields. 

Eaised more than $140,000 for the work of the Bed Cross in the 
two great drives of the war. 

Enlisted 14,000 men, women and children in the active membership 
of the Bed Cross in this county. 

Baised some $50,000 for the work of the Y. M. C. A. in war in the 
different drives for that purpose. 

Contributed the sum of over $170,000 in the United War Work drive. 

Donated thousands of dollars for the work of the Salvation Army, 
the Jewish Welfare campaign, the Armenian Belief campaign and other 
humanitarian projects connected with the war. 

Offered the very lives of more than 150 men from this county or 
former residents here, who died on battle fields, in camps and on the 
seas. 

Contributed to the use and comfort of the men in the service more 
than 441,114 articles valued at $123,000 through the work of the women 
of the Bed Cross in McLean county. 

Organized the women and girls of the county into bands of tire- 
less, unselfish working people whose time and strength was given without 
stint to the business of furnishing war-needed materials. 

Subscribed for more than a million dollars' worth of War Saving 
Stamps by which the thrift of the people of smaller means was pro- 
moted. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGES 

Dedication County Service Flag Frontispiece 

Preface 3-5 

Camp Wheeler 6 

Chronology of Local Events During War 7-42 

In Memoriam Histories of Those Who Died in War 43-111 

Draft Boards and Their Work 112-121 

Eed Cross Work in McLean County 122-143 

v History of Liberty Loan Campaigns 145-154 

War Time Community Singing 155-161 

N Women and Food Conservation 1(55-1(59 

v Women in Service 170-172 

SMcLean County Council of Defense 173-176 

Gen. James G. Harbord 177-181 

Some Sketches of McLean County Army Officers 182-201 

Colored Soldiers of this County 202-203 

County Food Administration 206-212 

Medical Men in Service 213-227 

McLean County Bar 's Honor Eoll 229-234 

Congressman John A. Sterling 235 

County Fuel Administration 239-242 

Co. D and 124th Machine Gun Battalion 244-248 

Some of Our War Flyers 249-253 

French and Belgian Relief Association 257-260 

Farmers ' Work in War 261-262 

The Minute Men 262 

County and Legislative Officials During War 265-268 

American Legion 273-281 

Company M 288 

Honor Eolls of Orders and Firms 289-350 

Grand Honor Eoll of McLean County Men and Women in 

Service.. ..420-500 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 




WAR HISTORY DAY BY DAY IN McLEAN COUNTY 

1917 

Feb. 1 Germany issued orders for ruthless submarine warfare. 
Feb. 5 Pastors of Bloomington churches pray that peace may be 

preserved and war averted. 
Feb. 4 Call received by Bloomington chapter of American Eed Cross 

to prepare for organization on a war basis or for any event- 
uality. 
Feb. 5 Executive committee from Bloomington chapter Eed Cross 

meets and decides that this chapter shall include whole county. 
Feb. 8 Major E. C. Butler announces that if this country goes to war, 

McLean county could raise a regiment of soldiers. 
Feb. 17 Red Cross issues first call for hospital supplies and articles 

for men in service. 
Feb. 22 Mayor E. E. Jones of Bloomington issues proclamation calling 

on all citizens to display the American flag. 
Feb. 22 Eaising of a new flag at the Bloomington high school donated 

by the D. A. E. 
Feb. 26 Dr. E. Rembe back after three years of service as surgeon in 

German army. 
Feb. 26 Meeting of Eed Cross chapter tells of establishment of sewing 

room in the Durley building. 
Feb. 26 News that President Wilson asks authority of Congress to use 

the armed forces of the United States to protect American 

ships from submarine warfare. 

Feb. 26 Sinking of the Laconia with American lives. 
Feb. 26 Miss Carolyn Wilson, newspaper woman, lectures at high school 

on experiences in Germany. 
Mar. 1 F. M. Bailey, government official, visits Bloomington wireless 

stations with a view of taking them over. 
Mar. 2 President empowered to arm merchantmen. 
Mar. 4 President Wilson inaugurated for second term as president. 
Mar. 5 Plans announced for rushing Eed Cross campaign for member- 
ships. 

Mar. 10 President calls congress to meet in extra session on April 16. 
Mar. 14 McLean county medical society endorses the work of the Eed 

Cross. 
Mar. 14 Mayor Jones announces plan for using vacant lots in city as 

gardens during the war. 
Mar. 15 Emperor of Eussia abdicates. 
Mar. 17 Bomanoff dynasty ended. 
Mar. 18 Sidney Morgan from Washington addresses a mass meeting in 

Bloomington in interest of Eed Cross. 
Mar. 20 Mayor Jones issues call to citizens to rally to support of the 

Eed Cross. 

Mar. 24 End or Eed Cross campaign, with membership of 1,221. 
Mar. 26 Company D of the I. N. G. gets orders to mobilize. Men sleep 

first night in barracks. 

Mar. 28 Company D takes part in first drill in streets. 
April 5 Announcement that no naturalization papers will be granted 

to former residents of Germany and Austria. 

April 5 Announcement of elemental military training course to be in- 
stalled at the Wesleyan iiniversity. 
April 5 First appeal by the Eed Cross for articles to be sent to the 

men of Company D. Classes in nursing formed. 
April 6 United States officially declared at war with Germany. 
April 6 Sergt. Jones, recruiting officer, issues appeal for co-operation 

in securing recruits for army. 



8 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAX 

April 8 Normal joins in Eed Cross drive for materials. 
April 9 Nurses and doctors enlisted for war work. 
April 9 Fourteen recruits secured in one day at army recruiting sta- 
tion. 
April 10 Speech of Congressman Sterling made public telling why he 

voted in congress for the war resolution. 

April 10 Close of wireless stations here on orders from government. 
April 11 First steps to form military companies at the Wesleyan. Flag 

raising at the B. & N. car barns. 
April 13 Call for recruits to fill up Company D. 
April 14 Public flag raising at the Alton railroad shops. 
April 18 Flag raising at the Wesleyan university. 
April 18 Great patriotic demonstration at night; street parade and 

speeches. 

April 20 Mrs. M. T. Scott offers her home in Bloomington to the gov- 
ernment for war hospital. 
April 22 T. Fitch Harwood gets first instruction and application blanks 

for enlistment of men for officers' training camp at Fort 

Sheridan. 
April 23 Eed Cross sends out cards for enlistment of women for various 

kinds of war service. Classes formed at the Wesleyan for 

teaching first aid to the injured. 
April 23 Meeting called for starting a campaign for a Y. M. C. A. war 

fund. 
April 24 Announcement that 63 men have been enlisted at recruiting 

station during April. 

April 24 Eleven wireless stations closed in Bloomington and Normal. 
April 26 First meeting for forming food conservation branch of Eed 

Cross. 

April 27 Y. M. C. A. fund reaches its first $1,000. 
April 27 Miss Mabel Garrison, famous singer, gives concert as benefit 

of Eed Cross, under auspices of Amateur Musical club. 
April 29 First report on work of Eed Cross work rooms. 
May 1 Announcement of 100 men recruited for army at local station. 
May 1 Navy recruiting station opened in Bloomington. 
May 3 Bloomington banks get message offering first war bonds from 

government. 

May 4 Appeal from Eed Cross for socks for the soldiers. 
May 6 Miss Alice Smith of Normal departs for France with first 

American hospital unit. 
May 7 Four Burger brothers of McLean enlist in the army at local 

station. 
May 8 Government makes inquiries in Bloomington as to possible site 

for establishing flying school. 

May 10 Mrs. F. H. Funk goes to Chicago to attend meeting for or- 
ganizing women of Illinois for war work. 
May 10 Bloomington men named in first call of men to attend officers' 

school at Fort Sheridan. 

May 10 D. A. E. chapter adopts war orphans. 
May 10 Guns arrive for Wesleyan students in military drill. 
May 11 Bloomington chapter of Eed Cross needs a fund of $5,000 to 

carry on its work. 
May 13 First three men from Bloomington get call to report at Fort 

Sheridan. 

May 13 Call issued for a meeting of the "Girls of '61." 
May 14 Girls of '61 form a permanent organization. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAE 9 

May 16 Bloomington 's Woman's Club passes a resolution to help in 

every way in work connected with the war. 
May 16 Eeport that the Fifth regiment, I. N. G., including Company D, 

is to be sent to Houston. 
May 18 President issues proclamation calling upon all men in United 

States between the ages of 21 and 31 inclusive to register on 

June 5 for military service. 
May 21 "Yankee Doodle Minstrels" put on by Young Men's club, as 

benefit for Red Cross, clears $1,000. 
May 22 First shipment of goods from the Bloomington chapter of Bed 

Cross to Central division headquarters. 

May 22 News published that first American soldiers arrive in London. 
May 24 Mayor of Bloomington issues proclamation calling upon men 

between ages of 21 and 31 to register according to president's 

call. 
May 27 Three nurses from Bloomington chapter of Red Cross sent to 

Mattoon and Charleston to assist in care of people injured in 

tornado. 
June 1 Announcement of $1,500,000 as McLean County 's quota for first 

liberty loan. 

June 2 Bankers of county meet to plan for raising liberty loan. 
June 5 Registration of men between 21 and 31 for military service under 

new draft law. 
June 10 Red Cross chapter starts drive to raise county quota of $50,000 

' toward the hundred million drive in the country. 
June 10 Wesleyan baccalaureate with two graduates in khaki uniforms 

of military service. 
June 14 Close of liberty loan campaign in county with $1,007,000 raised, 

considerably less than quota. 
June 14 Ruth Law, flying over in behalf of liberty loan, is forced by 

machine trouble to alight and spend night at Lexington. 
June 20 Major Edward C. Butler takes steps toward organizing a new 

company in Bloomington for Illinois National Guard. 
June 22 Published list of 200 men who had volunteered for army service 

since first of year. 
June 22 Knights of Pythias state encampment abandoned on account of 

the war. 
June 25 Red Cross drive closes with $66,441 announced as total raised 

on a quota of $50,000. 
June 26 Members of exemption boards under draft law are named for 

two districts in McLean county. 

June 27 Revised totals for Red Cross fund show $67,223. 
July 9 Official registration lists forwarded to Washington, showing 5,841 

draft subjects for this county. 

July 16 First arrest of man for attempt to dodge draft law. 
July 16 Danville officer inspects new company of the Tenth regiment, 

I. N. G. 

July 20 Announcement of food rules for all kitchens. 
July 20-21 Announcement of all serial numbers for men in this county. 
July 23 Announcement of numbers of first draft quota from this county; 

236 men from board 1, and 157 from board two. 
July 23 Volunteer shop opened at Red Cross rooms. 
July 26 Sixty-two boys of Company K of the Eighth regiment, I. N. G., 

start for Peoria to join colored regiment. 
July 29 Bloomington council of Knights of Columbus launch drive for 

war work fund. 
July 30 Two military airplanes from Rantoul field alight at country club 

grounds here. 



10 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

Aug. 7 First physical examinations of men by county draft boards. 

Aug. 7 Demonstration of U. of C. army ambulance unit. 

Aug. 9 Bed Cross benefit ball game between fat men of Bloomington 

against Normal nets $200 for Eed Cross. 
Aug. 10 Company D of the I. N. G. ordered to Texas after months of 

guard duty at Hannibal and Valley City. 
Aug. 11 Second call for draft men to fill first quota. 
Aug. 12 State accepts Bloomington 's new company for Tenth regiment, 

I. N. G. 
Aug. 13 Announcement of first group of Bloomington men made officers 

at Ft. Sheridan training school. 

Aug. 15 Eugene Funk named on national board of food control. 
Aug. 15 Five hundred more men called by draft boards, only 136 having 

been accepted to this time. 

Aug. 16 New militia company to be known as Company M. 
Aug. 19 Draft boards call 500 more men. 
Aug. 22 Date of Sept. 4 fixed as time for general public demonstration 

in honor of men called to service in the draft. 
Aug. 22 Bloomington made district center for food control. 
Aug. 24 Examinations . of draft men for first quota are ended. 
Aug. 24- Twelve BJoomington men enter second officers' training school 

at Ft. Sheridan. 
Aug. 29- Total of volunteer enlistments for army in this county since 

first of the year is 424. 
Sept. 1 Orders received for organization of canteen service of Eed 

Cross. Capt. C. L. Hills named chairman of canteen committee. 
Sept. 3 Fifteen airplanes from Chanute field at Eantoul alight at Leroy. 
Sept. 3 Announcement of names of first twenty men to be sent from this 

county into the national army under the draft law. 
Sept. 4 Great public celebration in honor of all men called in the draft; 

parade of civic bodies in the streets, speeches at Miller park 

and dinner for all draft men in park pavilion. 

Sept. 5 -First twenty men from draft depart for Camp Dodge, Iowa. 
Sept. 5 Leroy holds public demonstration in honor of new soldiers. 
Sept. 10 Michio Nakamura enlists in army, being first Japanese to 

volunteer from this county. 
Sept. 10 CaJl for men up to serial number 1,000 for examination before 

the draft boards. 

Sept. 13 First list of Bloomington high school boys in the service, number- 
ing nine. 

Sept. 14 Company D of the Fifth regiment, I. N. G., goes to Texas. 
Sept. 13 Corporal Wishart of the Canadian army makes a thrilling address 

before the Botary Club on the issues of the war 
Sept. 13 Board ends examinations of men for first draft quota. 
Sept. 15 Announced that Bloomiugtou library has shipped 1,000 books 

for soldiers. 

Sept. 17 Prizes awarded for war gardens in Bloomington. 
Sept. 18 Word received that Prof. John G. Coulter was wounded at 

Verdun, France. 

Sept. 18 Start drive for a fund of $1,500 for library war work in co- 
operation with American library association. 
Sept. 18 Four train loads of Michigan soldiers on their way south to 

training camps parade the streets of Bloomington. 
Sept. 19 Howard Humphreys named food administrator for McLean 

County; township organizations formed. 

Sept. 19 Second contingent of draft men sent to Camp Dodge, number- 
ing 219. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAX 



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12 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

Sept. 24 Classes in food conservation begin work with public meeting at 
high school addressed by Mrs. Spencer Ewing. 

Sept. 29 Announced that Company M will be reorganized on new basis 
and with new men. 

Oct. 1 Y. W. C. A. drive for war work fund closes with $5,055.03 
pledged, on a quota of $5,000. 

Oct. 1 McLean county bankers meet to organize for the second liberty 
loan drive. 

Oct. 2 Citizens' committee of Bloomington organizes to co-operate with 
bankers in liberty loan campaign. 

Oct. 2 Announcement of winter series of community sings in city. 

Oct. 3 D. O. Thompson, county farm adviser, sends out call for meet- 
ing of women to consider employment of county home adviser. 

Oct. 3 Report of fund raised for entertainment on soldiers ' day shows 
balance remaining of $692. 

Oct. 3 Woman's club holds a luncheon which was meatless, wheatless 
and butterless. 

Oct. 4 County organization perfected for liberty loan drive. 

Oct. 4 Company M returns from tour of duty at Springfield. 

Oct. 5 Eed Cross issues official denial that knitted articles are sold 
to soldiers. 

Oct. 5 Preliminary organization formed to promote the employment 
of county home adviser. 

Oct. 7 Women meet with Mrs. G. B. Bead to make dresses for war 
orphans. This was the inception of the Belgian Eelief organiza- 
tion. 

Oct. 7 Community sings organized for the winter throughout the county. 

Oct. 8 Y. M. C. A. closes membership drive with a total of 1,050 mem- 
bers secured. 

Oct. 9 President announces government food control to go into effect 
November 1. 

Oct. 9 It is announced from Houston that Company D of the Fifth 
regiment will be transferred into machine gun battalion. 

Oct. 11 Normal raises its quota of $250 for the national library fund. 

Oct. 11 It is announced that there is no anthracite coal in Bloomington, 
owing to war conditions. 

Oct. 12 City to buy 1,000 tons of soft coal and sell to the people at cost. 

Oct. 13 Announced that the week of Oct. 23 will be observed as food 
saving week. 

Oct. 13 Bloomington Association of Commerce flings out its first service 
flag with thirteen stars. 

Oct. 15 Normal women meet and organize for war work. 

Oct. 16 Publication of a list of seventy-two men from the Wesleyan, 
students and graduates, who are in the military or naval service. 

Oct. 17 Bloomington Journal applies for permit to publish under gov- 
ernment regulation of papers printed in foreign languages. 

Oct. 18 School of instruction for precinct captains for the registration 
of women. 

Oct. 21 Lee J. Roebuck killed in aeroplane accident in Canada, being 
first soldier from Bloomington to give up his life in the war. 

Oct. 23 County organization perfected for women's registration. 

Oct. 25 Funeral of Lee J. Roebuck held at the First Methodist church 
in Bloomington. 

Oct. 25 Saybrook celebrates patriotic day and unveils the honor roll 
of her young men in the service. 

Oct. 26 Miss Harriet Vittum makes address in Bloomington to stir up 
enthusiasm among women for war work. 

Oct. 26 Close of library fund campaign with total of $1,125 raised. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 13 

Oct. 26 Room at 426 North Main street opened as Belgian Eelief work 

headquarters. 
Oct. 28 Annual meeting of Bloomington chapter of Bed Cross, showing 

total membership of 11,337 and total number of articles shipped 

up to date 65,140. 
Oct. 29 Close of liberty loan drive with $1,900,000 subscribed on a 

quota of $1,800,000. 
Oct. 29 D. O. Thompson appointed by state council of defense to organize 

county food production and conservation bureau. 

Oct. 30 First Meatless day observed in Bloomington under the sugges- 
tion of the national food control board. 
Oct. 31 First Wheatless day. 

Oct. 31 War tax goes into effect on theaters and other entertainments. 
Oct. 31 Bloomington coal dealers send committee to Chicago to consult 

with state fuel administration about getting supply of coal. 
Oct. 31 Final figures on county liberty loan drive shows total of 

$1,904,050 subscribed. 

Oct. 31 Announced that all orders for fuel may be censorized. 
Oct. 31 Local campaign organized for drive for war recreation fund. 
Oct. 31 Bloomington Red Cross headquarters moved from Durley build- 
ing to library rooms and Y. M. C. A. 
Nov. 1 Uniform price for soft coal by all dealers fixed at conference 

of coal men with fuel administration. 

Nov. 3 Harry Wheeler of Chicago, food administrator for Illinois, ad- 
dresses mass meeting at high school auditorium. 
Nov. 5 County campaign started for war camp recreation fund, with 

goal set at $3,000. 

Nov. 5 Registration of women starts for war work. 
Nov. 6 Announcement of a loving cup to be given as prize to city school 

making best showing in community singing contest. 
Nov. 6 Wesleyan students pledge a total of $1,500 toward the county 

war recreation fund campaign. 
Nov. 8 Simultaneous singing meetings in nearly every school house in 

Bloomington. 
Nov. 9 Bloomington club announces that its entertainments during 

winter will be greatly restricted owing to war conditions. 
Nov. 12 Red Cross issues an appeal for larger supply of surgical 

dressings. 
Nov. 11 Two thousand people attend first Sunday afternoon community 

sing at high school auditorium, with Peter Dykeman of Madison, 

Wis., as leader. 
Nov. 13 Announcement of starting of drive for Bloomington district 

(McLean and DeWitt counties) drive for quota of $35,000 for 

Y. M. C. A. war work fund. 
Nov. 14 Announcement that the Alton railroad has carried 15,000 soldiers 

so far during the war. 
Nov. 15 Normal university announces plan for enlistment of students 

for farm labor. 
Nov. 15 U. S. Senator James Hamilton Lewis makes stirring patriotic 

address at mass meeting in high school. 

Nov. 16 Normal public school dedicates service flag with thirty-six stars. 
Nov. 16 Exemption board No. 2 makes its report to Washington of the 

complete classification of all registrants. 
Nov. 16 Boys at Bloomington high school raise $800 in forty-five minutes 

for the Y. M. C. A. war work fund. 

Nov. 16 Shortage of sugar supplies announced by food administration. 
Nov. 16 One thousand soldiers from the royal flying corps of Canada 

parade streets of Bloomington. 



14 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAE 

Nov. 16 McLean county Better Farming Association announces its pur- 
pose to seek increase of 20 per cent in production of pork in 
county for coming season. 

Nov. 18 Announcement of organization of home service department of 
Bed Cross work in Bloomington. 

Nov. 19 End of drive for Y. M. C. A. war work fund with total raised of 
$41,856 on a quota of $35,000. The subscriptions include those 
from schools and universities. 

Nov. 19 Large contingent of McLean county soldier boys go from Camp 
Dodge to Camp Pike. 

Nov. 19 Order issued by city to shut off all cluster lights on streets 
except top globe, in order to conserve fuel. 

Nov. 19 Bloomington chapter of D. A. E. votes to subscribe to fund 
to rebuild destroyed French village. 

Nov. 20 Bloomington chapter of Bed Cross asked for a quota of 893 
Christmas packets to be sent to soldiers. 

Nov. 21 Bloomington women 's branch of National Council of Defense 
is organized and gets busy. 

Nov. 21 Announcement of first community sing in county outside of city, 
at the Frink school. 

Nov. 22 Miss Ahrens of Chicago speaks here in the interest of recruit- 
ing nurses for army service. 

Nov. 23 Final report on registration of women for government service 
shows that a total of 9,076 had registered. 

Nov. 23 Final report on Y. M. C. A. war fund drive showed that 
$41,984.77 had been raised. 

Nov. 23 Beport on the canning activities of Bloomington women showed 
that they had canned 187 per cent more fruit and vegetables 
during 1917 than they did the year before. 

Nov. 25 First Christian and First M. E. churches dedicate service flags. 

Nov. 25 Members of the county bar association vote that the lawyers 
will give free assistance to young men in filling out their ques- 
tionnaires for the draft boards. 

Nov. 26 Order restricting the use of electric lights in street and mer- 
cantile illumination. 

Nov. 26 Three nurses leave city to engage in war work. 

Nov. 26 McLean county coal fuel control bureau is organized. 

Nov. 27 Business men of the city take first steps for the formation of 
a new Company M of the I. N. G. 

Nov. 27 Sixteen men from this county receive army commissions at close 
of the second officers' training school at Fort Sheridan. 

Nov. 29 Gunner Waite of the British navy speaks at opera house and 
starts campaign for ' ' smokes for soldiers. ' ' 

Nov. 29 Edwin Murphy of Bloomington believed to be the first drafted 
man from this county to reach France. 

Dec. 1 Community hall dedicated at McLean, with service flag pre- 
sented to families with sons in army or navy. 

Dec. 2 Service flag dedicated at First Presbyterian church. 

.Dec. 3 New orders about restriction of lights and coal supply received 
from fuel administration. 

Dec. 3 Bloomington postoffice receives $50,000 of war savings stamps 
for sale. 

Dec. 5 County board of supervisors votes to give $6,000 a year to the 
Bed Cross. 

Dec. 5 Five newly returned officers from training camps speak at 
Bloomingtcn high school. 

Dec. 5 Capt. Cliff B. Hamilton begins enlistments for Company M. 

Dec. 5 Banquet of grocerymen, when speakers outline their duty in the 
matter of food conservation. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



15 




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Typical Group of McLean County Soldiers 



16 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

Dec. 6 Private Peat of the British army makes thrilling address on his 

experiences in the war. 
Dec. 6 Announcement of a coming drive by the Knights of Columbus 

for a quota of $5,000 for the general war fund of that body. 
Dec. 7 Announcement of the declaration of war by U. S. on Austria. 
Dec. 7 Announcement of Joving cup to be given on Dec. 23 to city 

school making best showing in competitive community singing. 
Dec. 7 Alton road announces radical reduction of train service on 

account of shortage of fuel. 
Dee. 7 Collegiate alumnae association votes to adopt a French war 

orphan. 
Dec. 8 Dinner by Post L in honor of the sixteen men of the post who 

have entered the service. 
Dec. 8 D. O. Thompson, county farm adviser, addresses farmers on the 

importance of increasing pork production. 

Dec. 10 Normal Modern Woodmen presented with service flag. 
Dec. 10 Start of the Knights of Columbus $5,000 drive. 
Dec. 10 Eobert Erdman arrested and put under $5,000 bonds for saying 

President Wilson should be killed. 

Dec. 11 Lawyers named to help draft board registrants. 
Dec. 12 Smokes for soldiers fund being raised in Bloomington and 

McLean county has reached $286.50. 
Dec. 12 One thousand or more men gathered at community sing in Alton 

shops at noon hour. 
Dec. 12 Three thousand thrift stamps have been sold in Bloomington 

to date. 
Dec. 12 Government sends plea for the loan of private binoculars for 

use in naval vessels. 
Dec. 12 Company F of the 349th Infantry at Camp Dodge given an 

Edison phonograph paid for by private subscriptions here. 
Dec. 13 Colored Woman's club of Bloomington dedicates service flag. 
Dec. 13 Last shipment of the quota of 1,500 Christmas packets to 

soldiers. 

Dec. 13 Service flag dedicated at the Soldiers' Orphans' Home. 
Dec. 13 Announced that coal dealers of the city have only three days' 

supply on hand. 
Dec. 13 Seventy-six volunteers who had enlisted at recruiting station in 

Bloomington sent to Jefferson Barracks in one body. 
Dec. 14 Largest shipment from Red Cross that has been sent at one 

time up to date. 
Dec. 14 Draft boards announce they will examine into weddings that have 

suspicions of having been contracted to avoid draft. 
Dec. 15 List of 58 boys from the Soldiers' Orphans' Home who are in 

the service. 
Dec. 15 Bloomington Red Cross issues appeal for fund to aid sufferers 

from great explosions of ships at Halifax, Newfoundland. 
Dec. 15 Draft boards begin the classification of registrants. 
Dec. 15 Baptist church dedicates service flag. 
Dec. 15 Company M mustered into the service of the state. 
Dec. 15 Announced that Matthew Lawrence of Hudson was in battery 

which fired first shot of the war from American forces. 
Dec. 17 Preliminary contests in community singing by schools in com- 
petition for the loving cup. 

Dec. 17 Red Cross chapter starts a week's membership drive. 
Dec. 17 Ralph McCarroll, boys' secretary of the Bloomington Y. M. 

C. A., enters war work as secretary at Camp Dodge. 
Dec. 17 Bloomington to have war kitchen for demonstrations of food 

saving plans. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 17 

Dec. 17 Draft boards swamped by work connected with the question- 
naires. 

Dec. 17 Knights of Columbus benefit party for war fund nets $200. 
Dec. 18 Medical advisers named for the draft boards. 
Dec. 18 Local food control commission fixes prices at which grocers 

shall sell flour, sugar and corn meal. 

Dec. 18 First drill by members of the new Company M. 
Dec. 18 County survey planned for the fuel question. 
Dec. 18 Grocers and some other merchants of Bloomington adopt co- 
operative delivery system as a means of economy. 
Dec. 20 Knights of Columbus fund now totals $6,200. 
Dec. 20 Eight hundred new members of the Bed Cross secured as result 

of the one week's drive. 

Dec. 20 Publication in the daily newspapers of the first food price con- 
trol bulletin, quoting figures for flour, sugar and corn meal. 
Dec. 20 Bellflower complete organization of company of Home Guards. 
Dec. 21 Band from Great Lakes naval training station gives concert in 

Bloomington. Address by Lieut. Perigord of French army. 
Dec. 21 Remittance of $337.25 acknowledged by the American Tobacco 

company, sent from Bloomington and surrounding towns for the 

smokes-for-soldiers fund. 
Dec. 21 Drive for more members for the Better Farming association 

nets 400 members to date. 
Dec. 23 Hon. Lewis G. Stevenson appointed as investigator for the navy 

department at Washington. 
Dec. 23 Hawthorne school wins loving cup in the community singing 

contest. 

Dec. 23 Lexington organizes Home Guards. 
Dec. 24 Eeports on Red Cross membership drive, showing total of 2,500 

new members, bringing the total present membership in the 

county to 14,000. 
Dee. 24 Grocers asked to report to government their supplies of goods 

on hand Dec. 31. 
Dec. 24 Report of recruiting station shows total of 197 enlistments in 

Bloomington during December to date. 
Dec. 25 One day's sales of war stamps in Bloomington postoffice shows 

total of $2,455. 
Dec. 26 Announcement that the railroads are to be taken over by the 

government. 
Dec. 27 Bloomington postoflice to act as government agent to secure 

help for the farms. 
Dec. 27 Army recruiting station crowded with volunteers to get in under 

the wire before the end of the year. 
Dec. 27 "Birds' Christmas Carol" presented to crowded house at 

Chatterton theater as benefit for the Belgian Relief. 
Dec. 28 John B. Lennon named as arbitrator for the government labor 

department. 

Dec. 28 Announced that Towanda people are entirely out of coal. 
Dec. 28 Eugene Rowley of Holder, a soldier in the regular army, suicides 

at Governor's Island. 
Dec. 28 All local lodges make plans for the care of families of men in 

the service. 
Dec. 31 President Bierd of the Alton road issues first order as federal 

director under the government control plan. 
Dec. 31 Association of Commerce issues list of 194 men who have not 

yet received their county service medals. 
1918 
Jan. 1 Learned that the suicide of Eugene Rowley was caused by his 

disappointment in not being sent to Europe with the armies. 



18 McLEAN COUNTY AXV THE WOELD WAS 

Jan. 1 County dispensary for the use of people afflicted with tubercu- 
losis opens for regular service. 

Jan. 1 Four minute men decided to boost the thrift stamp campaign. 
Jan. 3 Orders issued by fuel administration for lightless nights to be 

observed Thursdays and Sundays until further notice. Street 

lights and signs to be darkened on these nights. 
Jan. 3 Shippers notified that all freight cars must be loaded to capacity 

in order to prevent car shortage. 
Jan. 3 Eight towns in county are out of coal Towanda, Arrowsmith, 

Saybrook, Glenavon, Monarch, Bellflower, Meadows, and Covel. 
Jan. 3 Mrs. Spencer Ewing offers prizes for essays on the reasons for 

employing home adviser. 
Jan. 3 Bed Cross issues appeal for more workers to make surgical 

dressings. 

Jan. 4 All bakeries to be licensed under the food administration. 
Jan. 4 Local food control body issues long list of articles on which 

prices are fixed. 

Jan. 4 Cropsey Red Cross branch makes report showing much activity. 
Jan. 4 Report that McLean county farmers are 5,000 bushels short of 

requirements on seed corn. 
Jan. 4 Biggest snow storm of the season strikes the city and county, 

tying up traffic; delivery barn of Co-operative Delivery system 

crushed under weight of snow. 
Jan. 7 County council of defense formed. 
Jan. 8 Agreement reached between local and state fuel administrations 

as to coal supply. 

Jan 8 Last of questionnaires sent out by draft boards. 
Jan. 9 Grocers decide to display cards showing that they are living up 

to government food regulations. 

Jan. 10 Belgian Relief society issues appeal for woolen garments. 
Jan. 11 Second edition of ihs big blizzard strikes the city. 
Jan. 11 Leslie O. Lash, a soldier, dies in Washington from influenza, 

second soldier of this county to give up his life in the war. 
Jan. 11 Chief of police gets orders to register all alien enemy citizens. 
Jan. 13 Serious local fuel shortage. 

Jan. 13 Many churches closed by storm; schools also closed. 
Jan. 14 Mass meeting of citizens to talk of fuel. 
Jan. 14 Reports show McLean county third in Illinois on Y. M. C. A. 

war fund, with $50,300. 

Jan. 15 Citizens agree on general saving plan for fuel. 
Jan. 15 James Carr, farm hand near Leroy, suicides on account of fear 

of draft. 
Jan. 15 Concert by Amateur Musical club postponed owing to fuel 

shortage. 
Jan. 16 Government order closing all factories for five days beginning 

Jan. 18, except those making food. 
Jan. 18 Normal public schools reopen after shut-down owing to coal 

shortage. 

Jan. 18 Rules issued for meatless and wheatless days each week. 
Jan. 18 Rules for closing of shops, stores, etc., for five days owing to 

government order. 

Jan. 18 B. & N. company issues rules for conserving heat and light. 
Jan. 18 Announcement that lawyers assisted 5,000 young men with their 

questionnaires. 

Jan. 18 Local factories prepare for five-days' shut-down. 
Jan. 18 Reports show Bloomington theaters have paid $2,500 in war 

tax so far during war. 
Jan. 19 Closing order of factories, etc., carried out with no local 

violators. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



19 




A FEW OP THE McLEAN COUNTY SAILORS 

Top Row (left to rifihi) James P. Donlou, R. C. De Silva, Fred Downs, Earl 

Fierce, Joseph E. Lane. 
Second Row Blake D Lewis, C. W. Luckinbill, Howard Mitchell, Everett E. 

McDowell, Leo Francis Murray. 
Third Row E. R. Munsell, Frank Morgan, Miles McReynolds, Frank Ryan, 

Glen Raney. 
Fourth Row Glen Sears, Edward V. Sipler, William J. Sweeney, Ralph N. 

Stewart, Ralph G. Fagerburg. 

fifth Row Harvey Mischler, John W. Wagner, Hugh D. Waddell, Harry L. 
Wickoff, Carl Thorns. 



20 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

Jan. 21 Observance of the first Monday holiday for stores, etc., under 

order of the fuel administration. 

Jan. 20 Several churches unite their Sunday services to conserve fuel. 
Jan. 21 Illinois Traction system issues abridged train schedule owing 

to fuel shortage. 

Jan. 21 Draft orders affecting recently married couples. 
Jan. 22 Extension of the home service of the Bed Cross to the branches. 
Jan. 22 Warning issued to the public not to hoard potatoes. 
Jan. 23 Washburn's greenhouses shut down to one-fourth capacity owing 

to fuel shortage. 
Jan. 23 Fuel administration talkers address mass meeting at the Alton 

shops. 

Jan. 24 C. & A. shop men take action to force lower prices for coal. 
Jan. 24 Eeport of weather shows that temperature was b&low zero con- 
tinuously for twenty days. 
Jan. 24 Eev. Edgar DeWitt Jones arranges to spend a month lecturing 

at army camps. 
Jan. 24 Arthur Niedermeyer of Decatur, relative of Bloomington people, 

dies of pneumonia at Jefferson barracks. 
Jan. 24 High school opens after shut-down due to coal shortage but 

ward schools continue closed. 
Jan. 24 Plan announced for shortening term of rural schools, as aid to 

farmers in their spring work. 

Jan. 25 Teachers volunteer to help draft boards in dealing with reg- 
istrants. 

Jan. 25 Announced that hoarders of food will be prosecuted. 
Jan. 25 Final report on registration of women shows total of 10,488 

registered. 
Jan. 27 President Wilson issues proclamation on saving of food as help 

to win the war. 
Jan. 27 Mayor Goodwin of Normal announces that the town must have 

more coal, as shortage is acute. 

Jan. 27 St. Matthews church dedicates service flag. 
Jan. 27 Announcement of prizes for essay written by children on tho 

saving of wheat flour. 
Jan. 28 Announcement that after March 1 wheat flour can be bought 

only by buying an equal poundage of flour substitutes at same 

time. 
Jan. 28 Eeport of recruiting station shows that more than enough men 

to make three full companies have volunteered here. 
Jan. 28 Second heatless Monday observed in Bloomington, stores and 

factories closing for the day. 
Jan. 28 Bed Cross chapter issues appeal for 1,000 pairs of socks for 

soldiers to be knitted in a week. 
Jan. 28 Wesleyan students give play for benefit of Belgian Belief and 

make $400. 

Jan. 28 Normal starts campaign for sale of smileage books. 
Jan. 29 Announcement of list of substitutes that may be bought with 

flour, pound for pound. 
Jan. 29 First proven case of hoarding flour, two families being caught 

with the goods. 
Jan. 29 Bloomington Ad Club to start educational campaign on saving 

of food. 
Jan. 29 C. B. Hughes named as local chairman of committee to secure 

workers for government ship yards on the coast. 
Jan. 29 Big community sing at the high school auditorium. 
Jan. 29 Wesleyan girls form branch of the Bed Cross. 
Jan. 30 Howard Humphreys appointed food administrator for Central 

Illinois district. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOSLD WAR 21 

Jan. 30 City grade schools re-open. 

Jan. 30 Fourteen men secured in first day for work in ship yards. 
Jan. 30 Leroy men use Monday holiday by going to the woods and cut- 
ting trees for fuel for the churches. 
Jan. 31 Great audience at high school to hear addresses on food saving 

by Eoscoe Mitchell and Miss Clark. 
Jan. 31 Wesleyan basket ball team plays team from Great Lakes naval 

training station, the Jackies winning by 23 to 22. 
Jan. 31 City practically out of sugar, and economy tightened. 
Feb. 1 Red Cross car of instruction in the care of wounded spends day 

at the Alton shops. 
Feb. 1 Rule issued that no building shall be heated above 70 degrees, 

to save coal. 

Feb. 1 Red Men 's tribe dedicate service flag. 
Feb. 3 All schools reopened. 
Feb. 3 Start registration of alien enemies in this county. Police station 

headquarters in Bloomington, postmasters do the work in other 

towns. 
Feb. 3 Total number of men enlisted for work in shipyards up to date 

in Bloomington, 103. 

Feb. 3 New set of rules issued for the sale of flour. 
Feb. 4 O. M. Wilson here to recruit men for service with the Y. M. C. A. 

in France. 

Feb. 4 Charles O'Malley takes up his duties as city food commissioner. 
Feb. 4 Winners announced in the children 's essay contest on home 

adviser. 
Feb. 7 John Carnahan, formerly of Bloomington, now with the British 

army, married to English girl. 

Feb. 8 George Marton publishes new patriotic song of his own com- 
position. 

Feb. 8 Lieut. Walter Sutherland married to Miss Elizabeth Wiley. 
Feb. 8 Alton road issues orders to move grain ahead of any other kind 

of freight. ' 
Feb. 8 Announced that there are 352 boys and girls in war work clubs 

of the county. 
Feb. 8 Clayton Sholty, soldier from Bloomington, dies at Jefferson 

barracks. 
Feb. 10 Food administration issues orders that no hens shall be sold or 

killed for the next five weeks. 
Feb. 10 Capt. Manspeaker, first former Alton man to die in the war, 

expires at Camp Lee, Va. 

Feb. 11 Prof. Adams of Normal university appointed to chemically ex- 
amine all samples of food suspected of containing poisonous 

substances. 

Feb. 11 Surgical dressings shop established at the Normal university. 
Feb. 15 Fuel administration announces spring campaign to prepare for 

next winter. 
Feb. 16 Dr. Newell Dwight Hillis lectures to great audience on German 

atrocities in Belgium. 
Feb. 17 Death of Harley B. Salzman, former Bloomington man, in army 

camp. 
Feb. 17 Announced that Bloomington is to have government employment 

office. 
Feb. 17 Local Red Cross chapter receives card from Paris thanking for 

shipments of surgical dressings. 

Feb. 17 H. O. Echols to go to army camps as song leader. 
Feb. 17 Ma.ior Nevin of Camp Grant leads great community sing at 

high school auditorium. 
Feb. 18 First Monday when stores open as usual since restriction order 

of few weeks ago. 



22 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

Fob. 19-21 State Farmers' Institute of Bloomington devotes its time 

mostly to questions of war provision. 
Feb. 19 List of township food administrators named. 
Feb. 19 Julia Lathrop addresses great audience of Farmers' Institute 

on effect of war on child labor. 
Feb. 21 Fuel administration issues appeal to people to begin preparing 

for next winter's coal supply. 

Feb. 21 Kev. F. M. Harry to go abroad to work with Y. M. C. A. 
Feb. 22 Edwards school dedicates service flag. 
Feb. 22 Definite announcement of establishment of government labor 

bureau in Bloomington. 
Feb. 24 Normal has raised $1,300 for Bed Cross in one week, of which 

$1,000 was realized from auction of products donated by 

farmers. 
Feb. 24 Announcement of complete list of Class 1 men from board 

No. 2. 

Feb. 26 John E. Matthews named for labor examiner for local govern- 
ment employment office. 
Feb. 12 P. G. Eennick of Peoria makes Lincoln day address at public 

meeting in high school, first of Illinois Centennial observances. 
Feb. 12 Change in rules for sale of flour, allowing purchase of one-half 

weight of substitutes with every pound of flour. 

Feb. 12 J. J. Thomassen takes charge as county food administrator. 
Feb. 12 Beport on Alton road's earnings for 1917 show total of 

$20,000,000, greatest gross earnings in its history. 
Feb. 13 Funeral of Clayton B. Sholty. 

Feb. 14- Prof. Adams makes report on samples of foods examined. 
Feb. 14 Completion of county organization for Council of Defense. 
Feb. 14 Big drive starts in city schools for membership in the Junior 

Red Cross. 
Feb. 19 First anniversary of Bloomington chapter of Red Cross, and 

reports show large accomplishments. , 

Feb. 21 State Farmers' Institute sends telegram to President Wilson 

setting forth farmers ' viewpoint on war problems. 

Feb. 21 Normal business men's ministrels clears $600 for Red Cross. 
Feb. 21 Coif ax women complete the making- of 123 children's hoods for 

Belgiin relief, on a request for fifty. 
Feb. 21 Gov. Brough of Arkansas addresses state farmers' institute on 

war problems. 
Feb. 21 Director McAdoo asks Alton road for data on trains, with a 

view to retrenchments. 

Feb. 27 J. M. Fordice gives Camp Grant collection of magazines and re- 
ceives Jetter of thanks for same. 
Mar. 1 New rules requiring sale of pound for pound of substitutes with 

flour goes into effect. 

Mar. 1 Orders received to cut C. & A. train service in order to save fuel. 
Mar. 1 Income tax collectors close up their work here. 
Mar. 1 Letters read at First Christian church from Rev. Edgar DeWitt 

Jones at camp. 

Mar. 3 War kitchen program announced. 
Mar. 4 New food rules for local bakeries are received. 
Mar. 4 New ruling of food administrator abolishes ban on pork on 

Saturdays. 

Mar. 4 Louis E. Davis, student cadet flyer in Texas, wins his com- 
mission. 

Mar. 5 First announcement of the third liberty loan drive. 
Mar. 5 Prof. Homberger busy in analyzing many samples of suspected 

foods. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 23 

Mar. 5 Fuel administration advises people to lay in next winter's coal 

supply. 
Mar. 5 Report of county marriage license clerk shows falling off in 

number of weddings due to war. 
Mar. 5 Patriotic meeting of women of Danvers. 
Mar. 6 Lining up boys for enlistment in farm working reserve. 
Mar. 7 Eetailers selling foods to hotels and restaurants must take out 

wholesalers' license. 
Mar. 7 Irving school service flag dedicated, with largest star for Gen. 

Harbord. 
Mar. 7 Four Bloomington boys of the 210th aero squadron arrive in 

Europe. 

Mar. 8 Lincoln school service flag dedicated. 
Mar. 8 Twenty-five men have left for work in shipyards. 
Mar. 10 Appeal issued for farmers to plant canning crops. 
Mar. 11 First steps for organizing for next liberty loan drive to start 

April 6. 

Mar. 11 War kitchen opens with large attendance of women. 
Mar. 11 Dr. Grote announces that 114 men have been sent from here for 

special branches of service, out of 590 examined. 
Mar. 12 McLean county drum corps organized. 
Mar. 12 Charles O'Malley issues statement on enlargement of food price 

fixing board. 
Mar. 13 Prof. Henry B. Ward of U. of I. lectures here on use of more 

fish for food. 

Mar. 13 Local labor office swamped with business. 
Mar. 14 Call for enlisted men of the navy to report; no more men wanted 

for army flying service. 

Mar. 14 Order modified to permit killing of small pullets for food. 
Mar. 14 Order from draft board for next contingent on Mar. 29. 
Mar. 14 Belgian Eelief moves to Oberkoetter building. 
Mar. 15 Emerson school service flag dedicated with 67 stars. 
Mar. 15 Ad club erects large food signs on court house. 
Mar. 15 War kitchen closes after successful week of demonstrations. 
Mar. 17 Big drive begins to secure books for soldiers. 
Mar. 18 Drive for used clothing for Belgian and French people. 
Mar. 18 Coal dealers meet to plan for summer campaign to avoid fuel 

shortage. 
Mar. 19 Records compiled show city used 115,490 tons of soft coal past 

year. 

Mar. 20 List of new substitutes for wheat flour announced. 
Mar. 21 Committees named for council of defense. 
Mar. 22 New food rule restricts sugar purchases to two pounds per person 

per month. 

Mar. 22 Trinity Lutheran school wins contest for sale of thrift stamps. 
Mar. 24 Dr. Aked delivers great speech on the Armenians. 
Mar. 24 Washington school service flag dedicated with 49 stars. 
Mar. 24 B. C. Moore calls meeting of farmers to talk over help problem. 
Mar. 24 Crowds around newspaper bulletin boards each day watching 

news of the great offensive started by Germans March 21. 
Mar. 24 Five new chapters of Junior Red Cross started. 
Mar. 25 Announced that $1,670 has been raised for Armenian relief fund. 
Mar. 25 Rev. F. M. Harry enlists for war Y. M. C. A. work. 
Mar. 25 Final appeal for clothing for Belgians; five car loads have been 

shipped. 

Mar. 25 Howard Humphreys assigned to nine counties as food admin- 
istrator. 



24 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAE 





CAKnecht 





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Some of the many who helped to bring victory. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAS 25 

Mar. 25 Great patriotic meeting at Leroy addressed by Rev. Brown, home 

on leave from service with the army at Camp Dodge and Camp 

Pike. 
Mar. 26 Precinct committees appointed for the third liberty loan drive, 

tnd headquarters to be at the Illinois hotel. 
Mar. 26 Announce plans for loyalty meeting at every town of county on 

April 6, first anniversary of America's entry of war. 

Mar. 26 Delegation of recent naval recruits ordered to report in Peoria. 
Mar. 26 First plans by supervisors for a monster service flag with one 

star for every man in service from this county. 
Mar. 27 Bloomington merchants asked to make window displays of a 

patriotic nature. 
Mar. 27 County Supt. B. C. Moore orders 500 copies of book, "Food 

Problems" for use of school children of county. 
Mar. 27 Mayor Jones issues proclamation urging people to observe the 

new system of time regulation for daylight saving. 
Mar. 28 Judge James C. Riley, head of the drive for the sale of war 

savings stamps, announces the Maximum club for all who buy 

$1,000 worth of stamps. 

Mar. 29 Call for 183 more men for draft contingent next week. 
Mar. 29 Harry Lander, famous Scotch comedian, here in talk and per- 
formance; tells of loss of son in British army. 
Mar. 29 Completion of organization for liberty loan drive; best ever 

had here. 

Mar. 29 Irving school receives portrait of Gen. Harbord, its most dis- 
tinguished soldier graduate. 
Mar. 29 Big offensive in France spurs local Red Cross to new activity 

in surgical dressings. 
Mar. 29 Better Farming association receives letter from Dean Davenport 

of the U. of I. on the duty of farmers in the war. 
Mar. 29 Y. M. C. A. issues call for more secretaries to go to France. 
Mar. 30 Announced that in the recent campaign for books fov soldiers, 

there were given here fifty per cent more than requested. 
April 1 Ordered by the McLean county executive committee of the State 

Council of Defense that Bloomington Journal be no more printed 

in the German language. 
April 1 Name of German-American bank changed to American State 

bank, by voluntary action of the board of directors. 
April 1 Twenty men sent in draft for Camp Dodge. 
April 1 Report of first three weeks of federal employment bureau shows 

112 applicants for employment, and 92 placed. 

April 2 City of Bloomington votes out saloons by majority of 2,100. 
April 2 New set of rules announced by county food board. 
April 3 Contingent of about 190 boys sent to Fort Wright, New London, 

Conn., after notable farewell ceremonies. 

April 3 Civilian Relief organization had its busiest day in supplying com- 
fort kits and information to departing soldiers. 
April 3 Daughters of Isabella give minstrels for benefit of Belgian 

Relief, and score great success; necessary to repeat. 

April 4 Emerson school service flag dedicated with notable ceremony. 
April 4 Series of meetings to arouse enthusiasm for liberty loan drive. 
April 4 Sergt. Edwards of British army and Carl Vrooman, assistant 

secretary of agriculture, talk to Rotary club. 

April 4 District meeting of nurses hears lecture on their duty in war. 
April 4 Hotel and restaurant men take action to eliminate wheat from 

bread. 

April 4 War garden cards given out in schools. 
April 4 Heyworth cuts German language from its school curriculum. 



26 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 

April 4 Six men ordered by draft board for special training at Bradley 

institute, Peoria. 
April 4 Second performance of Daughters of Isabella ministrcls makes 

total receipts $500. 
April 4 Eighty per cent of merchants of city promise to give window 

space for patriotic displays. 
April 4 Ruling of food administration that hens which do not lay may 

be killed for food. 
April 4 Order of food administration that farmers must not hold wheat, 

but must sell. 
April 4 Albert Hasson, subject of Turkey, among men leaving for Fort 

Wright. 

April 5 Pageant of Nations, great patriotic society show at the Coli- 
seum, clears $3,000 for benefit of Red Cross. 

April 5 Third liberty loan drive officially started in Bloomington. 
April 5 Woman's Committee of C. N. D. establishes new department, 

called war information department. 
April 7 Solemn service of dedication of service flag at Holy Trinity 

church, with address by Father Shannon; 81 names on stars. 
April 7 Alton employes form vast organization to push liberty loan. 
April 8 Great patriotic demonstration and street parade in Bloomington, 

in which at least 8,000 people marched and 20,000 witnessed it. 
April 8 First day's liberty loan effort brings total pledges of $415,000. 

About $100,000 is pledged by Alton employes first day. 
April 8 Bloomington school board announces that no German will be 

taught in high school next year. 
April 8 Families restricted to fifty pounds of flour in house at one time, 

on penalty of being arrested as hoarders. 

April 8 Great patriotic demonstration and flag raising at Cropsey. 
April 8 Normal farmer reports that he found ground glass in package 

of cereals. 

April 8 Antoinette Funk addresses great audience at high school in be- 
half of liberty Joan. 
April 8 Normal university dedicates service flag with 253 stars on it; 

President Felmley makes notable address. 
April 8 Fuel administration issues warning to buy coal now to avoid 

shortage next winter. 
April 9 Spencer Ewing, fuel administrator, goes to Chicago to talk over 

situation. 
April 9 Three men held to the federal grand jury under $1,000 each 

on disloyalty charges. 
April 9 City of Bloomington invests $7,500 of its sinking fund in liberty 

bonds. 

April 10 Million dollar mark passed in county liberty loan drive. 
April 10 Report reaches parents that Lieut. Eugene Hamill was wounded 

in action on April 5. 
April 10 Committee of citizens call upon board of education with request 

that German be dropped at high school instanter. 

April 10 Big military ball at Coliseum as benefit for Company M. 
April 11 Board decides to abolish teaching of German at Bloomington 

high school now. 

April 11 Order received by draft boards for 92 more men on the 26th. 
April 11 Saybrook holds big parade and speaking affair to dedicate com- 
munity service flag with 45 stars. 

April 11 Bloomington Rotary club dedicates service flag with 12 stars. 
April 12 Saybrook citizens send committee to a farmer of that vicinity 

and make him subscribe for $3,000 liberty bonds. 
April 12 Pastors of Methodist churches in the Bloomington district meet 

and form organization to boost war enterprises. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 27 

April 14 Big army caterpillar truck passes through Bloomington en route 

on service tour. 
April 14 Last of indoor community sings held at high school, with Peter 

Dykema as leader. 

April 14 Final steps taken to hire a county home adviser. 
April 15 Order received for 49 men for draft contingent of May 1. 
April 15 Order from food administration that hens may be marketed after 

April 20. 
April 15 Campaign started for signing of loyalty cards by all over 18 

years old. 
April 15 D. O. Thompson, county farm adviser, is called to Chicago to 

aid in state distribution of seed corn. 

April 16 County 's liberty loan quota is raised to $2,500,000. 
April 16 County fuel administration gives out rules for getting coal. 
April 16 Salem Methodist church, composed of German speaking families, 

starts special war work drive. 
April 16 Prof. Homberger reports that no glass was found in suspected 

can of salmon. 

April 16 Several churches of Chenoa dedicate service flags. 
April 16 Normal public schools drop teaching of German. 
April 16 Normal passes its quota in .liberty loan drive. 
April 17 County passes the two million dollar mark in liberty loan drive. 
April 17 Forty students enrolled in home service class of Bed Cross. 
April 17 Women of German Catholic church have active organization to 

assist in Red Cross work. 
April 17 Committee of board of supervisors selects service flag, 13 by 

30 feet. 
April 18 Government urges people to eat more potatoes and save other 

foods. 
April 18 Frederick Dale Wood, an orator of great note, lectures here in 

behalf of liberty loan drive. 
April 18 Normal university puts on special course for training civilians 

in war work. 

April 18 Alton boiler shops dedicates service flag. 
April 18 Bellflower puts on a notable patriotic demonstration. 
April 19 Orders to send 92 men to Camp Dodge on April 27 received by 

draft boards. 

April 19 Eetail dealers can buy wheat flour only on the card system. 
April 19 Government labor office issues appeal for many laborers for 

different places. 

April 19 Raymond school buys a liberty bond. 
April 21 Illinois hotel quits serving meals, owing to war-time restrictions 

on food. 

April 21 H. O. Echols goes to France as singer for the Y. M. C. A. 
April 22 Normal enlists 522 boys and girls for summer garden army. 
April 23 County passes its super quota of $2,500,000 to the extent of 

$24,200, and still going. 
April 23 Bloomington lawyers offer to give free advice to families of 

soldiers. 

April 23 Order of fuel administration does away with lightless nights. 
April 24 McLean county's liberty loan subscriptions are 50 per cent 

over quota. 
April 24 Mis-s Wilkerson makes a series of speeches here in the interest 

of saving on dress for women. 
April 24 Food administration issues rules for returning surplus flour held 

by families. 

April 25 County total on liberty loan drive for three weeks, $2,777,550. 
April 26 William Rainey Bennett makes great patriotic speech before 

large audience at Coliseum. 



28 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 

April 26 Policeman John Miller draws Packard automobile raffled off 
by Normal Red Cross, having been donated by Byron Gregory. 
April 27 One hundred men sent in draft contingent to Camp Dodge. 
April 28 W. G. McAdoo, director general of U. S. railways, stops in 

Bloomington on trip and addresses crowd at union station. 
April 28 Trinity Lutheran church unveils service flag with 27 stars. 
April 28 Dedication of service flag at Moses Montefiore synagogue, with 

29 stars. 

April 29 Campaign started for new entertainment fund for soldiers. 
April 29 Twenty women take examinations in Eed Cross home nursing. 
April 29 Announced that owing to the war, only six men are left in the 

graduating class of the Wesleyan. 
April 29 Draft boards get order for next contingent to be sent to camp, 

May 11. 
April 30 Meeting of citizens to consider Y. M. C. A. needs of men in 

the war. 
April 30 Dr. John H. Randall of New York delivers thrilling war lecture 

in Bloomington. 
April 30 District report on recruiting shows Bloomington second in list 

in the district. 
May 1 Fuel administrator issues warning to dealers not to sell too much 

coal to any one customer. 

May 1 City officials of Bloomington announce that only absolutely nec- 
essary public work widl be undertaken during war. 
May 1 Shirley citizens raise $1,600 by Red Cross sale. 
May 1 Trinity Lutheran women form new and active Red Cross society. 
May 1 Military ball for band benefit nets $600. 
May 1 Order that greenhouses be allowed only 50 per cent of their fuel 

consumption for next winter. 
May 2 Lieut. O'Brien, who had escaped from a German prison, lectures 

before great audience at high school auditorium. 
May 2 Alton train service suffers in personnel owing to many men going 

to the army. 

May 2 Jefferson school dedicates service flag with 42 stars. 
May 2 Hal M. Stone appointed county food administrator. 
May 2 Special call for recruits for the tank service. 
May 2 Gen. Harbord transferred from staff of Gen. Pershing and given 

command in field. 
May 3 Mrs. James C. Riley, chairman, announces that women of county 

have bought $158,900 of liberty bonds. 
May 3 First annual meeting of the Girls of '61. 
May 5 Final figures for liberty loan drive shows total for county 

$3,022,250, or 176 per cent of quota. 

5 Second big drive for Red Cross will seek quota of $70,000. 
5 Funeral of John R. Wilson, who died in service, held at Danvers. 
5 Next draft contingent of May 25 to go to Mississippi. 
5 Chenoa organizes local council of defense. 
5 Chenoa dedicates service flag. 
6 Thrift stamp drive launched at luncheon attended by many 

citizens. 

6 St. Mary's church and school drop German language in services. 
6 Swedish Lutheran church dedicates service flag with seven stars. 
7 Eight men enlist in army one day. 
7 Three thousand sacks of flour in possession of families in county 

in excess of food requirements, are returned to dealers. 
7 Normal liberty loan committee returns just one yellow card for 

a slacker. 

7 Retiring county food administrator, J. J. Thomassen, issues part- 
ing letter to township food men. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



29 



THE KIND OF SOLDIERS THIS COUNTY SENT FORTH 




Top Row (left to right) Shirley Judd, John E. Johnson, Will lungerich, Glen R. 

Johnson, Elmo C. Jones, James T. Johnson, Hubert Jones, R. T. James, O. W. 

Johnson, Warren Jones, John J. Jones. 
Second Row Floyd Jones, John D. Jones, Roy Jacobs, Ernest A. Jones, William 

Jameson, Gilbert W. Jenkins, Clarence K. Jacobson, Carl J. Jackson. 




v_ 



1'op Row (left to right) Frank De Silva, Lloyd Daniel, Oscar Dean, Harry L. Deutsch. 
Second Bow John Douglas, Lloyd F. Dowell, W. P. Dunbar, John G. Doenitz. 
Third Raw Charles A. Doll, Earl W. Daniel, Elmo Dillon, Deane Dillon. 
Fourth Row Marion Dunn, Raymond Donnell, Marion B. Day, Alvin E. Decker. 



30 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

May 7 Complete organization of county food administration with women 
as township chairmen. 

May 8 Beginning of canteen service at the union station in Bloom- 
ington, with women in uniform on duty. 

May 8 Arrowsmith puts on great patriotic celebration. 

May 9 Leroy stages a big demonstration for loyalty. 

May 9 State Music Teachers' convention in Bloomington sends message 
to President Wilson offering hearty support in war. 

May 9 Canteen committee asks for magazines for use of soldiers en 
route. 

May 9 Judge Eiley announces thrift and war savings ' stamps sold in 
five months to amount of $155,544. 

May 9 Food administration allows extra quantity of sugar to be sold 
if used for canning. 

May 10 Lieut. Louis Eddy Davis killed in aeroplane accident at Elling- 
ton fiedd, Texas. 

May 10- Fifteen laborers leave for work in ammunition factory in Wis- 
consin. 

May 10 Cadet John Brokaw, aviator at Chanute field, flics to Blooming- 
ton and alights in front of his father's home. 

May 12 County draft quota for May 25 cut in half. 

May 12 Miss Helen Fraser from England makes war time address on 
work of English women. 

May 12 Anchor people put on big patriotic celebration. 

May 12 Fifty draft men sent to Jefferson barracks, after fitting send- 
off here. 

May 13 First Methodist church offers building for any patriotic purpose 
wanted. 

May 13 Funeral of Lieut. Louis E. Davis held in Bloomington, with 
notable demonstration of honor to the dead 

May 13 Five men enlist in army, six in navy in one day. 

May 13 Miss Clara Brian chosen for county home adviser. 

May 14 Township quotas for Bed Cross drive announced. 

May 14 Aeroplane from Eantoul falls in wreck near Cropsey; flyer not 
injured. 

May 15 Two Normal girls apply for enlistment in the navy. 

May 15 Illinois State Dental society listens to lecture of war-time sur- 
gery from Dr. Beck of Chicago. 

May 15 Announcement of military course to be put in at Wesleyan 
university. 

May 15 Lieut. Stephen Fitzgerald, of Dorchester, Mass., who had many 
relatives here, reported killed in battle in France. 

May 16 Service flag dedicated at Bloomington high school. 

May 16 Eeport on receipts of recent patriotic pageant show total of 
$3,519. 

May 16 J. J. Hagin, superintendent of schools at McLean, goes to 
France for Y. M. C. A. 

May 16 Local draft boards ordered to send 30 men each to Fort Thomas, 
Ky., on May 29. 

May 17 Columbia school, near Arrowsmith, makes great record in buy- 
ing liberty bonds, selling $7,300 in bonds or an average of 
$811 per pupil. 

May 19 Township chairmen appointed for Eed Cross drive. 

May 19 Corp. Carl E. Miller of Heyworth reported killed in battte. 

May 19 Eeport that a total of 793 school children in city have war 
gardens. 

May 19 County Treasurer Eice to make survey of property in county 
owned by alien enemies. 

May 19 Hurry call for fifty men received by draft boards. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 31 

May 20 Great street parade as boost for Red Cross drive, about 10,000 

people being in line and all city's organizations represented. 
May 20 Blooniingtou high school hangs service flag with 112 names. 
May 20 Prof. Robert Herrick of University of Chicago, in war talk at 

Coliseum. 
May 20 Anchor, Martin, Funk 's Grove and Mt. Hope went over their 

quota in first day of Red Cross drive. 
May 21 Lieut. Young, veteran of three years of war in Canadian army, 

talks to Red Cross workers. 
May 21 City passes ordinance to stamp out barberry bushes, menace to 

wheat of country. 
May 22 Lieut. Robert Renard of French army, wearer of war cross, 

talks before Red Cross boosters. 
May 22 High school pupils write in contest of essays on the subject of 

potatoes. 

May 23 Changes in local food board, Sam Waldman being new chairman. 
May 24 Gridley people put on a great patriotic rally. 
May 24 Eleven recruits sent to the army by local station. 
May 25 Gov. Deneen in war talk before the Bloomington Consistory. 
May 26 Dr. H. K. Denlinger addresses community meeting on ' ' Spirit 

of America. ' ' 

May 27 Close of Red Cross drive with total of $93,812 raised, being one- 
third more than quota. 

May 27 Thirteen new soldiers sent to Jefferson barracks as recruits. 
May 27 Miss Carrie Lyons of the department of animal husbandry, gives 

series of demonstrations on cottage cheese in Bloomington. 
27 Coal dealers announce partial payment plan for consumers to 

assist in laying in winter supplies. 
28 Bloomington recruits station scores best record in whole Peoria 

district for the week. 
29 Forty-two men sent by draft boards to Camp Shelby, near 

Hattiesburg, Miss. 

May 30 Annual golf tourney of Central Illinois abandoned owing to war. 
May SO^Irving school children get letter from Gen. Harbord. 
May 31 Hudson has community demonstration for the boys who are soon 

to be drafted. 
May 31 Woodford county soldiers join McLean contingent when they 

entrain for Fort Thomas, Ky. 
May 31 Fifty-two enlisted men depart for Great Lakes naval station; 

about fifty for the army. 

May 31 Lieut. John Brokaw married to Miss Lucile Barry. 
May 31 Draft contingent leaves for Fort Thomas, Ky. ; joined here by 

Woodford county contingent. 
May 31 Patriotic demonstration at Hudson. 

June 2 National "coal week" observed; put in fuel for next winter. 
June 1 and 2 Large delegation of enlisted men to Jefferson barracks. 
June 5 Thrift stamp drive nets a total of $172,707.41. 
June 5 Young men registered who have come of age since last year on 

June 5, the total in the county being 438. 
June 5 Red Cross drive here to secure quota of the 25,000 army nurses 

needed for immediate service. 
June 5 Order received by draft boards for 565 men to be sent to camp 

on June 24. 
June 6 People watch bulletins of big battle in France, believing that 

many Bloomington boys are in the action. 

June 7 Military class to be formed for the Normal summer school. 
June 7 All class 1 men notified by draft boards to be ready for call 

at any time. 



32 



June 8 Army recruiting station resumes activity after a period of 

quiescence. 
June 9 Announced that Gen. Harbord is in command of the Marines 

at the battle now raging in attack on German lines. 

June 9 Coal week results in many hundred orders being placed by house- 
holders. 

June 10 List published of young men who registered for draft on June 5. 
June 10 Earl Nichols of this city reported among the wounded. 
June 12 Woman from central division headquarters here to explain the 

Red Cross civilian relief work. 
June 13 McLean county service flag with 2,000 stars is dedicated with 

impressive ceremonies. 

June 13 Six men sent to Valparaiso for special training. 
June 13 Food administration sends out urgent call to save grain. 
June 14 Flag raising at Beich's factory. 
June 14 Ruling of food administration that sugar purchases shall be 

limited to two pounds per customer in the city, five pounds to 

country customer. 

June 14 Plans made for registering all men for emergency farm work. 
June 15 Naval recruiting station in Bloomington to be kept open. 
June 17 Orders received that no reduction in the number of draft men 

for June 24 be made. 

June 17 Belgian Relief committee issues appeal for clothing. 
Juno 18 Nine aeroplanes here from Rantoul. 
June 18 Plans made for registering and weighing babies under 6 as part 

of general health campaign. 
June 18 Municipal canning center opens in the Pantagraph building with 

large crowd of women to see demonstration. 
June 18' Free yarn at the,Red Cross headquarters is exhausted. 
June 19 Movement started for recruiting up Company M. 
June 20 Records show very few June brides, owing to war. 
June 20 Twenty-five men sent from this county to auto school at Kansas 

City. 

June 20 Prayers for peace in Catholic churches. 
June 21 William McClellan of Coif ax and Harry Myers of McLean 

officially reported wounded. 
June 21 Quota for McLean county in war savings stamps drive is placed 

at $1,400,000. 
June 23 Citizens of that section force Lawndale school to close owing to 

teacher 's use of German language. 
June 23 Harry Myers of McLean reported to have died in France from 

wounds. 
June 23 Large number of McLean county men sent from Camp Dodge 

to Camp Pike. 

June 24 St. Mary 's school children form living flag in street. 
June 24 Assembly of the 565 men for leaving to camp tomorrow. 
June 24 Forty-two German women registered under the regulation re- 
quiring all such to register. 

June 24 Two thousand men registered for farm work. 
June 25 Good-bye to the draft contingent of 565 off to Camp Wheeler. 
June 25 Order received that no Illinois men will be included in the July 

draft call. 

June 25 Federal bureau issues call for laborers for Aberdeen, Md. 
June 25 Rules issued for storing coal to avoid fire. 
June 25 Civilian Relief department of Red Cross had busiest day since 

it was organized. 

June 26 Registration of German women closes with 96 registered. 
June 26 Leroy stages great loyalty rally; service flag dedicated. 
June 27 Serial numbers published for the 1918 registrants. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 33 

June 27 Draft boards ordered to re-classify all the 4,000 registrants. 

June 27 Willard Hensley killed in France. 

June 28 Big Belgian Belief party at the Country club. 

June 28 First Methodist church dedicates service flag with 68 stars. 

June 29 Bloomington postoffice sells $100,000 in war savings stamps. 

June 30 Memorial services at McLean for Henry Myers. 

June 30 Bloomington garages adopt early closing rule to save fuel. 

June 30 Second Christian church dedicates service flag. 

July 1 Work or fight rule goes into effect. 

July 1 Spencer Ewing called to the state fuel administration. 

July 1 Patriotic League formed among high school girls. 

July 1 Eeport of government employment office for June shows 200 

men got jobs. 

July 1 Sugar bowls barred from tables at hotels and restaurants. 
July 2 Emergency motor corps organized. 
July 2 Employers announce they will advance money to aid people to 

place their coal orders early. 
July 4 Big public demonstration and picnic in honor of 55 men who 

volunteered and will leave tomorrow for Jefferson barracks. 
July 4 Three Brokaw hospital nurses leave for war work. 
July 4 One half of city 's total winter supply of coal now in cellars of 

citizens. 
July 5 Better Farming Association issue appeal that every farmer raise 

ten acres of wheat. 
July 7 Forty-six quarts of vegetables and fruits canned at municipal 

center first week. 
July 7 Alton shop men in body attend memorial service for Sergt. Joe 

Hauptman, killed in battle in France. 
July 9 Spencer Ewing made state fuel officer. 
July 10 McLean Bar association dedicates service flag. 
July 10 Congressman Sterling takes flight in army aeroplane in Wash- 
ington. 
July 10 Two hundred fifty Alton shop men address Federal Director 

McAdoo for increase of wages. 

July 11 Salvation Army drive planned and township quotas announced. 
July 11 C. B. Hughes named as county director of public service reserve. 
July 14 Prof. Wallis, principal of Bloomington high school, decides to 

go to France as Y. M. C. A. secretary. 

July 14 Eeport that William John Morgan was wounded in action. 
July 14 French market held at the Bed Cross exchange, netting the sum 

of $500 for Bed Cross. 

July 14 County drive for Salvation Army begins. 
July 15 Personal belongings of Joe Hauptman, who had been killed in 

battle, sent to his relatives here. 

July 15 Twenty-three recruits for the navy sent to Peoria. 
July 15 County bureau formed to supply emergency farm labor. 
July 16 Several men from Barnum's circus enlist in the navy while here. 
July 17 Ernest Benedict of McLean reported dead from wounds in 

battle. 

July 17 Illinois troops given an ovation at Camp Wheeler. 
July 18 Ervin P. Martensen of Anchor reported killed in battle. 
July 18 Cannon boom in Bloomington for the reports of the victory of 

American troops at Chateau Thierry. 

July 18 Two men arrested in Bloomington for disloyal talk. 
July 19 B. A. Franklin appointed county fuel administrator. 
July 19 Congressman Medill McCormick talks about his observations in 

the war. 

July 19 Draft order for 25 negroes to be sent to camp Aug. 1. 
July 19 Great campaign to get farmers to grow wheat is now on. 



34 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

July 21 Memorial service held at Anchor for Ervin P. Martensen. 

July 21 Thirteen airships from Rantoul visit this city. 

July 21 Move to build canteen hut at the union depot. 

July 21 Report that Campbell Brunton had won the croix de guerre. 

July 21 Dr. John S. Hamilton lectures in boosting the Salvation Army 

drive. 
July 22 Order issued that hard coal shall be distributed to small users 

with stoves rather than furnaces. 

July 23 Wheatless bread demonstration attracts large crowd to munic- 
ipal kitchen. 

July 23 Total supply of hard coal in Bloomington is 442 tons. 
July 24 Chris Phillos gives receipts of store for one day to Red Cross 

canteen hut, netting $335. 
July 24 Permission required to secure 10 pounds of sugar for canning 

purposes. 

July 26 Order received, for 105 men to be sent in the draft on August 1. 
July 28 Eagles dedicate service flag with 33 stars. 
July 28 Personnel committee of Y. M. C. A. selects 12 men for overseas 

duty. 

July 29 First lightless nights Mondays and Tuesdays. 
July 30 Saybrook dedicates community service flag. 
July 30 Word received here that Harry G. Bishop of Normal made 

brigadier general in France. 

July 30 Many clamoring for hard coal which they cannot get. 
July 30 D. A. R. gives silk flag to Company M. 
July 30 Major Bruce Carlock wins war cross. 
July 30 Young Men's club votes to put on big benefit fete at E. M. 

Evans' house as war benefit. 

July 31 Outdoor supper at Withers park for departing draft men. 
Aug. 1 Y. W. C. A. Fellowship club collects old rubber in barrels at 

court house. 

Aug. 1 Sunset fete in Normal benefit surgical dressings department. 
Aug. 2 Community labor board formed. 
Aug. 2 One ton hard coal allotted to each base burner. 
Aug. 2 Three thousand people attend pavement dance at Emerson school. 
Aug. 4 News of Howard Bolin killed in battle. 
Aug. 4 Crowds watch newspaper bulletin boards for news of great drive 

in France. 

Aug. 5 Harry Kraps wins French war cross. 
Aug. 6 News of the wounding of Capt. Eugene Hamill. 
Aug. 6 No sugar for canning until further notice. 
Aug. 7 News of the wounding of Claude Miller on July 19. 
Aug. 7 Baldwin's store gives benefit for canteen service. 
Aug. 7 Sergt. Jack Boyer, hero of Soissons, weds Beatrice Sutton. 
Aug. 7 Government calls for 1,150 laborers from this district. 
Aug. 7 Community war benefit entertainment at McLean nets $1,755. 
Aug. 8 Alton shops service flag dedicated by Senator Medill McCormick. 
Aug. 8 Rush at recruiting station. 

Aug. 9 "Over There," great war benefit attracts 3,500 people. 
Aug. 9 One grocer deprived of license for selling flour contrary to rules. 
Aug. 9 The McLean county quota for wheat raising is 103,000 acres. 
Aug. 10 News of Dewey Burger of McLean killed in battle. 
Aug. 10 Seventeen men enlist in the navy. 
Aug. 11 Second night of ' ' Over There ' ' with 3,000 present. 
Aug. 12 Meeting of citizens to consider War Chest plan. 
Aug. 13 John H. Kasbeer of Normal made ensign. 
Aug. 13 Total receipts of "Over There" announced as $2,610. 
Aug. 13 Recruiting station final report shows 427 enlisted since April. 
Aug. 15 Jones-White family dedicate service flag at reunion with 20 stars. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 35 

Aug. 15 War time chautauqua opens in Bloomington with large crowd. 

Aug. 15 Wheatless days ordered discontinued. 

Aug. 16 Forty recruits enlist in navy here in one day. 

Aug. 16 Irving school pageant and pavement dance. 

Aug. 16 Two gold bricks from Belgian Belief's melting pot worth $63. 

Aug. 18 News that John H. Kraus of Danvers killed in battle. 

Aug. 19 Orders to enlist men from 41 to 56 years. 

Aug. 21 Chester Daniels, colored, dies in France of pneumonia. 

Aug. 21 Red Cross canteen hut opened with immense crowd. 

Aug. 22 Government takes all prunes available. 

Aug. 22 Kenneth Jones flies over his home town, Normal. 

Aug. 22 Labor bureau sends questionnaire to local industries. 

Aug. 24 Colored people's convention places gold star for Chester Daniels. 

Aug. 23 Thirty men called in new draft contingent. 

Aug. 24 Great war benefit party at ' ' The Oaks, ' ' home of Howard 

Humphreys. 

Aug. 27 Order for observance of first ' ' gasless ' ' Sunday. 
Aug. 27 Order to all coal users that they must economize. 
Aug. 27 Sixty citizens sign up pledge to support 100 orphans. 
Aug. 28 Lyle Best dies at Great Lakes. 
Aug. 28 Roland Read home from service in Italy. 
Aug. 29 ' ' Sailing dates ' ' for shipments on railroads. 
Aug. 29 Five thousand people attend pavement festival for Edwards 

school. 
Aug. 30 Report on receipts of parties at ' ' The Oaks ' ' showing total of 

$5,500. 
Aug. 30 Rules changed on wheat flour allowing sales with 20 per cent 

substitutes. 

Sept. 1 Local army recruiting station gets orders to close soon. 
Sept. 1 Orders received establishing Students ' Army Training Corps at 

Wesleyan. 

Sept. 1 First gasless Sunday observed. 
Sept. 2 First orders received by draft boards for registering men 18 

to 45 years. 
Sept. 2 Many people call on Mayor to offer excuses for driving cars 

on Sunday. 

Sept. 2 New official orders as to use of sugar and flour. 
Sept. 2 September calls will take 169 men for both draft boards. 
Sept. 3- Contingent of men to Camp Grant for limited service. 
Sept. 3 Rev. W. B. Hindman called to service as chaplain. 
Sept. 3 Wesleyan gets contract for installing S. A. T. C. 
Sept. 4 First plans for fourth liberty loan drive. 

Sept. 4 Mayor issues call for registration of men 18 to 45 on Sept. 12. 
Sept. 4 Many physicians join medical reserve corps. 
Sept. 4 Appeal to save peach stones for making gas masks. 
Sept. 5 Second gasless Sunday observed in better fashion. 
Sept. 5 Prospect of army truck school for Bloomington. 
Sept. 5 Ninety-nine draft men banqueted and off to Camp Grant. 
Sept. 6 Thirty men sent to Camp Forest, Lytle, Ga, 
Sept. 6 Feast of Lanterns put on at Country Club by girls of Patriotic 

League. 

Sept. 8 Better observance of second gasless Sunday. 
Sept. 9 Knights of Columbus put on big lawn fete at ' ' The Oaks. ' ' 
Sept. 10 Report shows Knights of Columbus made $3,500 by lawn fete. 
Sept. 10 Dr. Guthrie named to mobilize doctors of county. 
Sept. 10 Court trials postponed to let lawyers help with draft question- 
naire. 

Sept. 11 Claude Miller writes he is going back to trenches after recovery. 
Sept. 11 Amateur Musical club outlines war-time program of music. 



36 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 

Sept. 12 Eegistration day for men 18 to 45; total of 8,020 register. 
Sept. 12 Hard coal supply in local cellars one-fourth of last year. 
Sept. 12 The 68th regiment, mostly McLean county boys, reaches Eng- 
land. 

Sept. 14 Men who registered Sept. 12 put on big night parade. 
Sept. 15 Memorial service at First Christian church for Howard Bolin. 
Sept. 16 Edward Dwyer of Cooksville reported probably taken prisoner. 
Sept. 17 Glenn Gilmore of Leroy reported gassed. 
Sept. 18 B. and N. railway adopts skip-stop plan. 
Sept. 19 Company M takes four days' hike to Galesburg. 
Sept. 20 Lawyers organize to assist with draft questionnaires. 
Sept. 20 Electrical Workers ' union put on big party at ' ' The Oaks. ' ' 
Sept. 20 C. D. Phillos, who gave store's receipts for Bed Cross, is dead. 
Sept. 22 Eed Cross starts drive for old clothing for war sufferers. 
Sept. 22 Appeal made through papers for temporary sleeping quarters 

for S. A. T. C. boys. 

Sept. 22 The Misses Barren, two French girls, arrive to attend Wesleyan. 
Sept. 23 Contract let for building S. A. T. C. barracks at Wesleyan. 
Sept. 23 Blooming Grove camp of Woodmen dedicate service flag, 82 

stars. 

Sept. 24 Checks for $300,000 back war pay arrive for Alton shop men. 
Sept. 25 Local brewery to close down Oct. 1 owing to fuel restrictive 

orders. 

Sept. 25 Milton R. Livingston appointed commercial economy director. 
Sept. 25 Quotas announced for townships in fourth liberty loan drive. 
Sept. 25 Proposed show by Great Lakes sailors here is off owing to flu. 
Sept. 25 Alton car men strike owing to dissatisfaction with back pay. 
Sept. 26 Business men guarantee $20,000 in twenty minutes for Wesleyan 

barracks 

Sept. 26 Danvers Eed Cross day attracts great crowds. 
Sept. 26 Big patriotic picnic held near Coif ax. 
Sept. 26 McLean and DeWitt counties organize for united war work 

drive. 
Sept. 27 Franklin school holds great patriotic war benefit festival in 

Coliseum. 

Sept. 27 Big liberty loan parade in Normal, inaugurating drive. 
Sept. 28 Liberty loan drive starts with $1,391,000 pledged first day. 
Sept. 29 Community sing at high school. 

Sept. 30 Volunteer liberty loan subscribers hold parade at ni^ht. 
Sept. 30 First serial numbers received for the 18 to 45 registrants. 
Oct. 1 Twenty-one men sent to Jefferson barracks for limited service. 
Oct. 1 Lieut. Elmer Doocy, former Wesleyan man, killed in battle. 
Oct. 1 Clyde Kind of Stanford dies of influenza at Great Lakes. 
Oct. 1 Purse given by church to Eev. W. B. Hindman, who leaves to 

become chaplain. 
Oct. 1 Lena Hayes, Hazel Eoberts and Beatrice Doty, nurses, to Great 

Lakes. 

Oct. 1 Miss Opha Wren called to Europe in Eed Cross service. 
Oct. 1 William S. Golliday of Lexington dies of pneumonia in camp. 
Oct. 2 Eansom Johnson dies at Camp Devens, Harry Pietsch at Camp 

Grant 
Oct. 2 Sergt. Barre, veteran of English army in France, speaks at 

liberty loan parade. 
Oct. 2 Total of 245 women at work in Eed Cross rooms making flu 

masks. 

Oct. 2 Memorial exercises at Wesleyan for Lieut. Elmer Doocy. 
Oct. 2 Bryan Maxwell of McLean dies at Norfolk. 
Oct. 3 Fifteen hundred negro troops from Camp Funston parade streets 

here. 



37 



Oct. 3 White Elephant sale opens at Belgian Belief headquarters. 

Oct. 3 Word that Joseph A. Erbe of Normal killed in battle. 

Oct. 3 Total of 486 laborers sent from this district to war industries 

elsewhere. 
Oct. 4 Exhibit of produce from Bloomington war gardens, at high 

school. 

Oct. 4 Eeceipts first day White Elephant sale $800. 
Oct. 5 Train of war trophies exhibited here to great crowds. 
Oct. 6 White Elephant sale clears $1,400. 
Oct. 7 Edmond Sutherland, Charles A. Clarke and Carl Louis Koch all 

dead in service. 
Oct. 7 Capt. Wheaton arrives to take military charge of the Wesleyan 

S. A. T. C. 

Oct. 7 Miss Wilkerson of U. of I. tells women how to save clothes. 
Oct. 7 Mass meeting at Alton shops for liberty loan. 
Oct. 7 Normal raises its quota of liberty loan. 
Oct. 8 Howard Wiley dies at Great Lakes; Henry Peckman at Camp 

Funston. 

Oct. 8 Red Cross calls for help to make flu masks. 
Oct. 9 Matthew Holman of McLean dead at Syracuse; Bud Peterson 

at Camp Custer. 

Oct. 9 Fred O 'Connor dies at Camp Grant. 

Oct. 9 School children gather 25 bushels of peach stones for gas masks. 
Oct. 9 All Heyworth turns out to funeral of John T. Wakefield. 
Oct. 10 Churches, theaters and clubs ordered closed on account of the flu. 
Oct. 10 Howard Rodman dies in New York ; Chalres E. Harrison of 

Chenoa in New Jersey. 

Oct. 11 Lexington dedicates service flag. 

Oct. 11 City schools are closed on account of the prevalence of influenza. 
Oct. 12 Call for volunteer nurses to help take care of the many flu cases. 
Oct. 12 All churches suspend services owing to the flu. 
Oct. 12 James H. Shaw chosen chairman of state speakers' bureau for 

united war fund. 

Oct. 12 Day's death reports included Eugene McCarthy, Thomas Mont- 
gomery, Clyde Robert Miller, and William H. Eckhart. 
Oct. 13 Phi Gamma Delta fraternity opened as infirmary for Wesleyan 

flu victims. 

Oct. 13 Maurice Wakefield dies at Iowa university, flu victim. 
Oct. 13 Mrs. M. T. Scott 's house opened as emergency hospital. 
Oct. 13 Day's death reports included Loring F. Jones, Charles Witt of 

Arrowsmith and Ben Kaplan. 

Oct. 13 Claude Miller home with wound received at Soissons July 19. 
Oct. 13 Country Club house opened as emergency hospital. 
Oct. 14 Day 's death reports included Lieut. Richard Boydston, Kline 

Alfred Lantz, Orville Bechtel. 

Oct. 14 Delmar Olson first flu victim to die at the Country Club hospital. 
Oct. 14 Order that no more sugar for canning after tomorrow. 
Oct. 15 Police keep crowds back that throng sugar office. 
Oct. 15 Day's deaths include Edward lehl, Earl Smith, W. F. Dunlap, 

Charles F. Smith. 

Oct. 15 Alton to run special train to boost liberty loan. 
Oct. 15 Twelve men sent to Bradley for war training. 
Oct. 16 Flu spreads; appeal for volunteer nurses. 
Oct. 16 Warren Webber of Arrowsmith dies in Washington. 
Oct. 16 New rules restricting deliveries of goods in city. 
Oct. 16 Grant Metcalf dies. 

Oct. 16 Rev. W. B. Hindman called to service as army chaplain. 
Oct. 17 Maurice Roberts, Wesleyan soldier, dies of influenza. 
Oct. 17 Ban lifted on use of gasoline Sundays for pleasure riding. 



38 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAE 





MEMORIAL ARCHES AT COURT HOUSE 
Built by contributions from all parts of the county 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 39 

Oct. 17 State labor convention postponed on account of flu. 

Oct. 17 Stricter rules for food at hotels and restaurants. 

Oct. 17 Elmo Hill of Lexington dies. 

Oct. 18 Thirty men apply for service in motor transport. 

Oct. 18 Prof. Wm. Wallis, former principal of Bloomington high, called 

to service. 

Oct. 19 McLean county's quota on war loan is raised. 
Oct. 20 Funeral of Congressman Sterling; Frank L. Smith named by 

republicans for candidate for special election in this district. 
Oct. 20 Fred Allen dies at Carnp Wheeler. 
Oct. 20 Second flu wave sweeps over city. 

Oct. 21 Call for reserves to fight flu ; first contingent of women worn out. 
Oct. 21 Earl Spencer dies of wounds in France. 
Oct. 21 Sarah Wells, superintendent of Scott hospital, called for nursing 

service at Camp Grant. 

Oct. 22 Wesleyan S. A. T. C. get first equipment. 
Oct. 22 First death in 'Saybrook caused by flu. 
Oct. 23 Local demand for coffins greater than the supply. 
Oct. 23 James Sia is second death at Scott emergency hospital. 
Oct. 23 Local food inspectors visit hotels and restaurants looking for 

violations. 

Oct. 24 Day's deaths include Homer Mitchell and Melvin Bossingham. 
Oct. 25 City draft board gets calls for 423 men and county board for 

458 in next two months. 
Oct. 26 Flu epidemic practically closed. 
Oct. 26 Harry W. Andrews of Gridley dies while waiting for call in 

draft. 

Oct. 27 Hands of all clocks turned backward one hour to ' ' save day- 
light." 
Oct. 28 Dr. Elder returns from emergency for emergency service on 

account of flu. 

Oct. 29 Covel people send truck load of provisions to Scott hospital. 
Oct. 29 All flu patients taken to Scott hospital. 
Oct. 29 Normal university girls offer to help with corn husking. 
Oct. 30 Bed Cross starts sending packed Christinas parcels to soldiers. 
Oct. 31 Death of Archie Stewart on ship taking him over to Europe. 
Oct. 31 Pearl Dickerson of Leroy drowned in sinking of the ship 

Otranto. 

Oct. 31 Flu ban lifted from all city activities. 

Oct. 31 County quota announced as $165,000 for united war work drive. 
Nov. 1 New rule that families may buy three pounds of sugar per 

person per month. 

Nov. 1 Call for 37 men to be sent by draft boards to Camp Wadsworth. 
Nov. 1 Lieut. McDavid killed in France. 
Nov. 1 Eed Cross exchange reopens after flu epidemic at new location, 

214 W. Jefferson street. 

Nov. 1 Leslie Pfiffner, formerly of Normal, killed in battle. 
Nov. 1 S. A. T. C. boys to the number of 237 sworn in at Wesleyan. 
Nov. 2 Classes of instruction for foreigners started at high and Sheri- 
dan schools. 

Nov. 4 Great county corn show opens at Wesleyan barracks. 
Nov. 4 City schools reopen after the flu epidemic. 
Nov. 4 Urgent call for nurses and food for Scott emergency hospital. 
Nov. 4 Lieut. Max Montgomery weds Mary Mayne in England. 
Nov. 4 City exemption board announces list of Class 1 registrants. 
Nov. 5 Announced that no more patients will be received at Scott 

hospital. 
Nov. 5 Beport that Euel Neal of Leroy was killed in battle in France. 



40 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 

Nov. 5 Report of the death of Capt. Hugh M. Price at Norfolk as 

result of auto accident. 

Nov. 6 Annual Red Cross meeting at McLean. 
Nov. 7 Fake rumor of signing of peace armistice creates stir in many 

cities. 

Nov. 7 Thirty laborers sent from here to ship yards at Philadelphia. 
Nov. 7 County organization formed for United War Work drive. 
Nov. 7 Corn show at Wesleyan barracks closes with $4,765 receipts. 
Nov. 8 Funeral of Capt. Hugh M. Price held in Bloomington. 
Nov. 8 Irving school gives $652 to war fund. 

Nov. 8 Red Cross flu committee holds meeting to wind up its affairs. 
Nov. 9 Day's deaths include Fred Skinner, Charles L. Brining and 

Bernard Davis. 

Nov. 11 ARMISTICE SIGNED. 
Nov. 11 City of Bloomington wild with exultation over armistice; all 

day celebration. 

Nov. 11 United War Work fund drive for $60,000 in this county. 
Nov. 12 City clears streets of debris left after big celebration. 
Nov. 12 The $100 club of the United War fund drive gets 158 members 

to date. 

Nov. 13 Forty -five cases of flu at the Soldiers' Orphans' Home. 
Nov. 13 Young people form an organization to back the United War 

Work drive. 

Nov. 13 Ban removed and no more lightless nights this winter. 
Nov. 14 Scott emergency hospital closed. 
Nov. 14 Bloomirrgton high school pupils give $500 to united war work 

fund. 
Nov. 15 Benefit concert for the united war work fund given by the 

Amateur Musical club. 
Nov. 15 Grade schools form Victory clubs to back United War Work 

fund. 

Nov. 17 Last day of war work fund drive, with $25,000 to raise. 
Nov. 18 City raises its quota of United War Work drive. 
Nov. 18 Exemption boards discontinue physical examinations. 
Nov. 18 Modification of fuel orders, making them more liberal. 
Nov. 18 Memorial services held for Frank Thoennes and Willard Pierson. 
Nov. 18 No more inductions into the S. A. T. C. 

Nov. 19 Word that Sergt. E. O. Bailey of Heyworth was killed in battle. 
Nov. 19 Food and fuel administration to be continued indefinitely. 
Nov. 19 Big carnival and peace party by the Canteen committee held at 

the court house. 

Nov. 20 Report of the death of Charles Nelson of Leroy. 
Nov. 20 Canteen party netted $500. 
Nov. 20 Dwight Packard on ship which was torpedoed. 
Nov. 21 Report of employment bureau for eight months shows 1,898 

men placed in jobs. 
Nov. 21 Wesleyan stands second among colleges on united war work 

fund drive. 

Nov. 21 Draft boards instructed to close up work by Dec. 9. 
Nov. 21 U. S. food inspectors here looking for violations. 
Nov. 22 Red Cross chapter gets an appeal to keep up its work. 
Nov. 22 Report reaches here that Opha Wren is in hospital. 
Nov. 23 Flu ban lifted at Leroy. 
Nov. 25 County drive for united war work fund closes, $700 short of 

quota. 

Nov. 25 Monthly sugar quota increased to four pounds per person. 
Nov. 26 Report of the wounding of Herbert C. Rediger. 
Nov. 27 Discharge of the S. A. T. C. at the Wesleyan ordered from 

Washington. 



MCLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 41 

Nov. 27 Honor buttons given to children who ran war gardens. 

Nov. 27 Eev. E. K. Masterson of Normal sent to Saloniki. 

Nov. 28 Boxers and wrestlers from Great Lakes naval station give ex- 
hibit here. 

Nov. 29 French military band, composed of veterans of many battles, 
give concert here. 

Nov. 29 Commercial economy administration discontinued. 

Dec. 1 Normal university announced to have seven gold stars on flag. 

Dec. 1 Herbert Hoover's food letter read at churches. 

Dee. 1 Grocers excused from keeping further records of sugar sales. 

Dec. 1 Roy Crotinger of Saybrook dies of battle wounds, E. C. Kitter- 
man killed, and Thomas Cooney dies in France from pneumonia. 

Dec. 2 Ralph Hoover dies in western army camp. 

Dec. 2 Last appearance of S. A. T. C. as organized body, at com- 
munity sing. 

Dec. 3 Capt. Ivan Elliott home after eleven months fighting in France 
with heavy artillery. 

Dec. 3 Supervisor Welch introduces resolution to build county memorial 
building. 

Dec. 4 Gov. Lowden gives stirring war speech at state labor convention 
here. 

Dec. 4 Exhibit here of war pictures by Hungarian artist. 

Dec. 4 Red Cross issues hurry call for more flu masks. 

Dec. 4 William Savage of Downs drowned at Newport News. 

Dec. 5 Many city firms sign agreement to take back soldiers in old jobs. 

Dec. 5 Library issues call for 500 books for soldiers. 

Dec. 5 City health board makes statement on the influenza epidemic. 

Dec. 6 State federation of labor convention in Bloomington. 

Dec. 7 Tag day for French orphans. 

Dec. 8 Annual meeting of McLean county chapter of Red Cross. 

Dec. 8 Memorial service at Trinity Lutheran church for Karl Louis 
Koch. 

Dec. 9 Council of Defense holds its final meeting. 

Dec. 9 Exemption boards officially close their work. 

Dec. 10 Earl Nichols, wounded in battle, returns to hospital after visit 
here. 

Dec. 10 McLean county over-subscribes united war fund on quota of 
$167,000. 

Dec. 11 William Frank Barnes of Cropsey dies in hospital at Lafayette. 

Dec. *11 Sugar bowls back on tables at restaurants after five months. 

Dec. 12 Influenza epidemic on the wane. 

Dec. 12 Announced Wesleyan law school will re-open in January. 

Dec. 12 Isaiah Deckard of near Carlock killed in battle. 

Dec. 12 Great Lakes glee club at Rotary club. 

Dec. 12 Normal churches abandon Christmas programs owing to 
influenza. 

Dec. 12 Township chairmen selected for Christmas Red Cross roll call. 

Dec. 13 Health board discourages all unnecessary public meetings. 

Dec. 13 President Wilson arrives in Brest, France. 

Dec. 13 Judge Riley says county must buy $300,000 more of thrift 
stamps to reach quota. 

Dec. 13 Wesleyan S. A. T. C. boys paid off and equipment loaded. 

Dec. 15 Melviii Savage of Downs, soldier, dies week after his brother 

Dec. 15 Wesleyan barracks emptied; U. S. inspector awaited. 

Dec. 15 French and Belgian Bazaar clears $300. 

Dec. 14 President Wilson reaches Paris. 

Dec. 16 Work started on memorial arches at court house. 

Dec. 16 Red Cross enrollment drive starts. 



42 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



Dee. 16 First patient in Normal emergency hospital. 

Dec. 17 Y. M. C. A. privileges free to returned soldiers. 

Dec. 17 Knights of Columbus to help secure jobs for returned soldiers. 

Dec. 17 Secretary Luebbers of Y. M. C. A. gets word of need of workers 
in France. 

Dec. 18 New bread rule promulgated by local food administration. 

Dec. 18 Alva H. Smith dies of pneumonia in France. 

Dec. 18 Frank M. Jordan dies of wounds in France. 

Dec. 22 Ulysses Miller reported killed in France. 

Dec. 22 Ten patients in emergency hospital at Normal. 

Dec. 23 A. E. Kerber reported dead in France. 

Dec. 23 Walter Seeger reported dead from wounds in France. 

Dec. 23 Ivan Costigan recovering from gas attack. 

Dec. 24 Bed Cross roll call extended to January 1. 

Dec. 24 Four minute men disband. 

Dec. 25 Hundreds of soldiers and sailors home for holidays. 

Dec. 25 Barron girls entertain French friends for holidays. 

Dec. 27 Food price fixing body to continue in action. 

Dec. 29 Capt. Eugene Hamill arrives in New York. 

Dec. 29 Rev. Jones suggests community memorial building for soldiers. 

Dec. 31 Exemption boards get final instructions for sending in records. 

Dec. 31 Harold Livingston in France hears of Newmarket fire on Christ- 
mas day. 

Dec. 31 Word that Thomas McClure is wounded in action. 



THESE AMONG OTHERS, BROUGHT TRIUMPH 




Top Row (left to right) Orville Lucas, Franklin Lutz, Lee L. Lishka. 

Second Row John M. Leary, Richard E. Leary, Joseph Allen Little. 

Third Row Earl A. Longworth, Bryant Luzader, Leonard F. Lang, Walter W. 

Lighthart. 
Fourth Row Martin Lindsay, Earl Littleton, Edward Lawyer, James R. Lucas, 

Kenneth Lee. 



IN MEMORIAM 



The Boast of Heraldry, 

The Pomp of Power, 

And all that Beauty and al! 

that wealth ere gave, 
Await alike the Inevitable 

Hour, 
The Path of Glory leads 

but to the Grave. 




THE HONORED DEAD 

McLean County roll of the honored dead is sadly long. About one 
hundred and sixty made the supreme sacrifice for their country. The 
publishers made every effort to secure a biographical sketch and picture 
of each. In alphabetical order, the roster is as follows: 



CLYDE LORRAINE ALLISON 

Clyde Lorraine Allison of Lexington, was one 
of the boys who succumbed to influenza, dying 
in a hospital at Camp Mills October 24, 1918. 
Lobar pneumonia followed the influenza. His 
wife was with him twelve days before his death. 
The 31st division, with which he was connected, 
sailed for France the day before his death. 
Clyde Lorraine Allison went out of McLean 
county with the draft contingent of June 24, 
1918. At Camp Wheeler he w y as assigned to 
headquarters company of the 124th infantry. 
Only a week before going to Camp, on June 18, 
he had been married to Miss Ella Jackson of 
Havana. Clyde was born at Orange, Fayette county, Indiana, and had 
lived there until he came to Lexington four years before he entered the 
service. At Lexington he worked on various farms. His parents lived 
at Falmouth, Ind., where the body was taken for burial. A boy baby 




44 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



was born to Mrs. Allison on March 26, 1919, at the home of her parents 
in Havana, where she had gone after her husband's death. She after- 
ward returned to Chicago to resume her work as a nurse. In a letter 
to the young wife concerning her husband's death, Lieut. Eoderick wrote: 
"Private Clyde Allison was an excellent soldier, who was universally 
liked by his officers and fellow soldiers, and his untimely death is a 
source of genuine sorrow to all. His death occurred in the line of duty, 
and is no less honorable than had it occurred on the field of battle." 

FREDERICK ALLEN 

Frederick Allen, who left Bloomington with the draft contingent of 
June 25, 191.8, died at Camp Mills on October 18 of that year. Pneu- 
monia following influenza caused his death. Allen was 23 years of age, 
and his home had been at Mt. Vernon, 111. He had lived in Bloom- 
ington two years before entering the army, having been employed as a 
traveling salesman for the Singer Sewing Machine Company. His body 
was taken to La Moille, 111., for burial. He left his mother and two 
sisters living at Mt. Vernon. 

GEORGE HERMAN ANNA 

George Herman Anna, whose home was in Kinmundy, 111., a grad- 
uate of the Wesleyan law school in 1914, was fatally wounded in battle 
on November 10, 1918. A letter from Major Albert H. Gravenhorst 
of the 139th infantry to his relatives said: "To the best of my knowl- 
edge, he was injured on November 10, in the battle of Marchville, and 
was taken to the hospital in a serious condition. I have been able to 
get but one report concerning him and that was that one of the mem- 
bers of his company had seen him in the hospital. He fought like a 
demon on the day he was injured. He was attacked by three Germans, 
who concentrated their fire on him. He got two of them, but the third 
one got him. The boys all say his fighting was wonderful." 



JESSE S. ANDERSON 

Jesse Samuel Anderson, son of Commissioner 
and Mrs. John F. Anderson, died of pneumonia 
in a hospital at Glasgow, Scotland, on October 
2, 1918. A letter from the American Eed Cross, 
written from Glasgow and dated October 8th 
and received by Mrs. Anderson on November 
16 was the first news received of his death. 
Other letters were received from the captain of 
his company and from the nurse who attended 
him during his illness and death. On June 25, 
1918, he with 565 men was sent to Camp 
Wheeler at Macon, Georgia. After his arrival 
there he was transferred to Company C, 106th 
Engineers. He left Camp Wheeler September 
6 for Camp Mills and sailed September 16, 
landing at Glasgow, September 29. The divi- 
sion to which he was attached was the 31st or 
better known as the Dixie Division. Shortly 
after arriving at Camp Wheeler he was taken 
sick and upon discharge from the hospital he 
was given his choice of going to the development battalion or with his 
company. He chose the latter, saying that he wanted to do his duty. 
He never fully recovered from his sickness before going over. Jesse 
Anderson was one of the best liked of the younger men of the city. He 
was born in Bloomington, on February 17, 1893, and had always lived 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 45 

in the city of his birth. Following his graduation from the Franklin 
school he attended Brown's Business College and later became an em- 
ployee of a paving contractor, where his special ability to handle men 
won him recognition and he was placed in charge of the work, and it 
was while employed in this work that he was sent to Chanute aviation 
field at Rantoul, having charge of the road building of the field. After 
completing this work he was sent to the Belleville aviation field in charge 
of similar work. From there he went to the Chicago & Alton railroad 
shops, and at the time of his draft was employed in the blacksmith shop. 
While employed at Belleville he was married to Elizabeth Grover, who 
survives him. He is also survived by his parents and the following 
brothers and sisters: Naomi A., Benjamin R., Clarence G., Mary S., 
Arthur J., Earl Fryer, and Clara Louise. Benjamin was with the A. E. F. 
in France, and Clarence was in the service in this country. Jesse S. 
Anderson was a member of the Congregational Church, the Modern 
Woodmen Drill Team, and the Blacksmith and Helpers Union. Jesse 
will be remembered for his honesty of character and was loved and 
respected by young and old alike. 

HARRY AND GEORGE ABRAMS 

Mr. and Mrs. William Abrams, who lived for many years at Hudson, 
lost two of their sons by death while in the military service in the 
great war. The young men were both born in McLean county, although 
they both went into service from Montana, where the family was living 
when America entered the war. Harry Abrams was killed in action in 
France, and George Abrams died from influenza while in the training 
at Camp Lewis, Washington. Private Harry W. Abrams was with Com- 
pany D, 26th infantry, part of the First Division, which took part in 
much of the heaviest fighting of the early summer of 1918. He left his 
home at Carlyle, Montana, on October 3, 1917, for Camp Lewis, Wash. 
From there he went to Camp Mills, and then to Camp Merritt, from 
which place he sailed for overseas, landing in England on Christmas day 
of 1917. The family were never informed of his travels with his regi- 
ment after he landed in France, but the card returned to them after his 
death said he had participated in eleven battles. He was wounded in 
battle August 2, being shot through the stomach with a machine gun 
or rifle bullet. He was in a hospital until September 23, when he died. 
He was buried in France near the hospiltal. Harry was born in McLean 
county September 6, 1894. George C. Abrams, a younger son, left his 
home in Montana on September 6, 1918, and went to Camp Lewis, where 
he became a member of the Fourth company, first battalion, 166th D. B. 
On October 20, soon after he had received the "shot in the arm." he 
became sick and was partially paralyzed. This condition continued and 
grew worse until his death on November 5. His body was shipped to 
his home at Carlyle for interment. These two young men were nephews 
of Charles Abrams of Bloomington, for many years assistant chief of 
the Bloomington fire department. 

LYLE BEST 

Lyle Best, a senior at the Wesleyan university, died at the naval 
hospital at Great Lakes on August 27, 1918, after a short illness with 
diphtheria. Lyle Best was born at Fairbury in December, 1895. The 
father died when Lyle was a small child, and the mother and two sons, 
Lyle and William removed to Bloomington to give the children the op- 
portunity of attending Wesleyan. He had finished his junior year when 
he entered the naval service for the war and was sent to Great Lakes. 
At the Wesleyan he was one of the best known and most popular stu- 
dents. He was a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. In athletics, he 
was one of the star players of the football team of the fall of 1917, 




46 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAS 

being a fine tackle. He was selected for a tackle position on the all- 
star team of the Little Nineteen conference. Young Best had become 
affianced to Miss Lucile Byrnes, daughter of C. A. Byrnes of Bloom- 
ington, and she was near him at the hospital when he died. The body 
was taken to Fairbury, where, owing to the nature of the disease, a 
private funeral was held, conducted by President Kemp of the Wesleyan. 

COUP. ERNEST BENEDICT 

' ' Mortally wounded at Chateau Thierry. ' ' 
That is the claim to immortal fame which was 
due Corp. Ernest Benedict of Company L, 23rd 
U. S. infantry, who died later of the wounds 
received at the most noted battle in which 
American forces engaged early in the summer 
of 1918. The wounds received in that action 
caused the death of Corporal Benedict, whose 
name was published in the casualty lists of 
July 17, 1918. His death occurred July 7. He 
was the second lad from the village of McLean 
to die in the war, the first having been Harry 
Myers. Corp. Benedict was one of the three 
sons of Mr. and Mrs. George Benedict of Mc- 
Lean. He had lived in and near McLean for 
nine years. He enlisted on May 9, 1917, and 
went to France in the following September. 
He was a native of Lincoln county, Kentucky. 

Because of his good record as a soldier he was appointed to the position 
of corporal of his company. The last letters received by relatives from 
him stated that he was in the front line trenches, and was in good 
health. The body of young Benedict was buried in France near the 
hospital where he died from his wounds. Prior to his enlistment he 
had worked on farms near McLean. He was a member of the Christian 
church at McLean and of the Modern Woodmen. His parents, two 
brothers and three sisters survived. Memorial services were held at 
the McLean Christian church in honor of the soldier. McLean post of 
the American Legion bears Benedict's name. 

ORVILLE BECHTEL 

Orville Bechtel, a young farm hand of this county, was sent in a 
draft contingent to Camp Grant in June, 1918, and afterward was trans- 
ferred to Augusta, Ga., where he died in a hospital in October, 1918. 
His father lived at Pershing, Ind. 

SERGT. ELDIE BAILEY 

Sergt. Eldib, brother of W. A. Bailey of Heyworth, was killed in 
action on October 9, 1918, while serving with Company I, 126th infantry. 
A comrade of the regiment wrote to the father from Weis, Germany, 
many weeks after Eldie 's death, describing the scene as he had secured 
it from a surviving soldier of the same company. After telling of the 
advance of Companies I, L and M, with Co. I in the center, the writer 
then said: "The fourth platoon, the one to which Eldie belonged, was 
farthest in advance. After a time the rest of the company fell back, 
leaving this platoon, who were unable to move because of the intense 
fire of the enemy. Eight men, including Eldie and the fellow who tells 
the story, were in a shell hole. The Germans fairly skinned the ground 
with machine gun bullets and kept advancing all the time on the little 
group. Some of them, fearing they would be taken prisoners by the 
Germans, desired to try to escape, in spite of the danger of being killed. 
Eldie said he would rather be killed than taken prisoner. Sergeant Oscar 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



47 



Runquest was the first to get shot. He darted out of the hole and had 
not gone far before a bullet got him in the stomach. A sergeant from 
Muskegon was the next. Then came Eldie's turn. He started for an- 
other shell hole and fell on the edge of it, never moving after he hit the 
ground. After all were killed but two, the one who told the story being 
one of the lucky two, a tank advanced toward the enemy, and that was 
all that kept them from being taken prisoners. Sergeant Bailey was born 
at Pittsburg, Kansas, on October 24, 1892. He moved to Hudson, Illinois, 
with his parents in 1899, where he lived until 1910. He then moved to 
Big Rapids, Mich. He enlisted in the National Guards in 1912, belonging 
to Co. I, 127th Inf., stationed at Big Eapids, Mich. He was sent to the. 
border during the trouble with Mexico and served under General 
Pershing. He returned to his home in February, 1917, and was again 
taken to Waco, Texas, in June, 1917. In February, 1918, he was sent 
to Camp Merritt, N. J., thence overseas. 

HOWARD A. BOLIN 

Howard A. Bolin was one of the 
Bloomington boys who met his death in 
action with his face against the foe. 
He was wounded on July 20, 1918, and 
word of his death from the wounds 
came to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. F. 
Bolin, on August 5. The fatal wound 
which caused his death was suffered by 
him only one day before his birthday, 
for he reached his 23rd birthday on 
July 21. He was fighting with Com- 
pany E, 39th infantry. The very day 
after news of his death was received 
in a dispatch from the war department 
his parents received a letter written by 
Howard on July 5. He told how the 
soldiers celebrated the 4th of July, 
which he had spent in Paris. He stated 
also that he had sent in his name as 
candidate for officers' training camp. 
In another letter received by a friend 
a few days later, the date showed it 
was written July 13, some six days before his fatal wound. He said he 
had been up in the front line trenches, where there was plenty of excite- 
ment. In the camps at the rear there was continual training. Howard 
Bolin enlisted in the army when very young, and served sixteen months, 
part of the time in the Philippines, after which he was discharged to 
enter the Wesleyan. When in the sophomore class, he quit school and 
again enlisted. He was first sent to Camp at Charlotte, N. C., and nine 
weeks before his death he embarked for France. His letters told of his 
work as a barber in the army, in addition to all the usual routine of 
drilling. He resigned as corporal so that he could do more work of that 
kind. Besides his parents, Howard left two brothers, Emery of Madison 
and Russell of Milwaukee. The manner of Howard 's death was described 
in a letter received by relatives in November, 1918, from Sergt. Leslie 
Garrett of the same company, who wrote: "Qn the night of July 17, 
we went into action for the first time after arriving in France, after 
training for six weeks at Acy. I was commanding the first platoon of 
Co. E, 39th Infantry, and I took over 600 yards of the front with my 
platoon. From 11 o'clock the Germans fired on us all night, and at fiv 
minutes of 4 I went around to see if everything was all right. The 
Germans opened a heavy artillery barrage on us and had us cut off from 
cover for four hours. I kept the boys down as much as possible, but I 




48 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAE 

lost eight that morning. About 6:30 some one called me and said that 
Bolin was hit, so I went to him at once, and he looked up and said: 
"Sergeant, they have got me" and asked me how bad he was hurt. 
I took off his shirt and dressed his wound and did not think it severe, 
and told him he would soon be all right. He said. ' ' Sergt. Garrett, make 
me a cigarette and I did, and about that time the hospital corps came 
and carried him away. He was hit in the small of the back by a shell 
which burst in the air, a round steel ball as big as the thumb of a man 's 
hand." 

DEWEY BUEGER 

It is very few communities which have 
four brothers in the army, and fewer yet 
where all four entered the service at the 
same time. Then when one of the four 
brothers seals his devotion with his life 
blood, then the story of their service is 
dramatic in its completeness. Dewey 
Burger, one of the four sous of Isaac 
Burger of McLean, who enlisted on the 
same day in May, 1917, met his death in 
battle in France on July 19, 1918. Official 
notification to the parents of Dewey 's 
death came from the war department on 
August 10. His name appeared in the 
officially published casualty lists on the 
following day. Dewey was a soldier of 
Company E, 16th infantry, part of the 
First division. Dewey was the youngest 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Burger. Together 
with his brothers, Claude, Lloyd and Ollie, 
on May 7, 1917, he enlisted for the army 

at the recruiting office in Bloomington. He was sent to Jefferson barracks 
on May 9, and from there to El Paso, Texas. After three weeks at the 
camp there, he was sent to New York, thence embarking for France 
and landing there June 28, 1917, being among the first of the American 
forces to land in France. His parents heard from him often, and the 
last letter they received before his death was on August 8, having been 
written on July 9, ten days before his death. The body was laid to 
rest in France near where he fell in action. Memorial services for him 
were held at the Christian church in McLean, of which he was a member. 
Besides his parents, he left the following brothers and sisters: Claude, 
Lloyd and Ollie, all of whom went to France in the army; Arch Burger 
of Iowa; Mrs. Lizzie McNally of Wapella; Thomas, Isaac, Richard and 
Ella Burger and Mrs. Hattie Craig, all of McLean. The American Legion 
Post at McLean bears his name. 

LIEUT. HUGH BROOMFIELD 

Lieut. Hugh Broomfield, son of Rev. Thomas Broomfield, a former 
pastor of the Hudson Baptist church, met a heroic death while piloting 
an aeroplane near Verdun late in October, 1918. The young man en- 
listed as an aviator at his home in Portland, Ore., at the age of 20 
years. Lieut. Broomfield was ordered to fly over the German lines on 
an important day of the Verdun offensive to observe the enemy's power 
of launching a counter attack. He left the airdrome at 10 o 'clock in 
the morning, and failed to return. A report reached the American com- 
mander of the sector that an allied plane was seen to fall at a certain 
point at 11:30. A few days later the American lines advanced so as 
to include the territory over which the plane had flown, and inquiry 
was instituted for the missing airman. The next day the wrecked plane 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOBLD WAR 



49 



was found, and graves showing where Lieut. Broomfield and his ob- 
server, Lieut. Pierson, had been buried. A funeral service was held 
over the grave by a Catholic priest. 

MELVIN BOSSINGHAM 

Melvin Bossingham of Stanford died 

at Camp Mills, Long Island, on October naaMMMi^MMWM^^^^Mi 
19, 1918. He had been sick for a week 
with influenza and his parents were sum- 
moned to his bedside a few days before 
liis death. Young Bossingham was the 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Bossingham of Stan- 
ford. He was born in December, 1895, 
and grew up in his native neighborhood. 
He attended the Stanford schools and 
the high school. He was engaged with 
his father in farming at the time he was 
called into the service, going out with the 
500 McLean county boys who left here 
on June 25, 1918. He went to Camp 
Wheeler for his preliminary training, and 
then to Camp Mills for preparation for 
embarking overseas. He was a member 
of Company D of the 124th Infantry. He 
was about ready for starting on the voy- 
age when he was stricken down with 
influenza, which proved fatal. The body 
was brought to Stanford and the funeral 
was held from the home of the family, 
in charge of Rev. Mr. Browning on October 23. There was a large 
attendance, and the Knights of Pythias had their ritual in connection 
with the service. A group of girls of the town acted as flower girls, 
the burial took place in the Stanford cemetery. 






THOMAS BACKHOUSE 

Thomas Backhouse, a young man 
employed at the Alton shops, and 
who made his home in Bloomington 
with the family of Walter Williams, 
of 404 North Stillwell street, was re- 
ported missing in action on October 
19, 1918, and no further word having 
been received by friends, the con- 
clusion was drawn that he met 
death. He went out of Bloomington 
in the draft contingent of September 
17, 1917, to Camp Dodge, Iowa. He 
reached France on April 3, 1918. 



50 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



WILLIAM FRANK BARNES 

William Frank Barnes, youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Barnes 
of Cropsey, died on December 9, 1918, at St. Elizabeth hospital in Lafay- 
ette, Ind., while in the military service. He enlisted May 25, was sent 
to Valparaiso, Ind., for training in the mechanical school of the tank 
corps; thence to Gettysburg and then to Camp Polk. While at Val- 
paraiso he was married on June 12, 1918, to Miss Bernadine Jones of 
Cooksville, who died of typhoid fever at Lafayette. Summoned to her 
bedside from Camp Polk, young Barnes was himself stricken and died 
eight weeks later on the date mentioned. The body was brought to 
Cropsey for burial, and the funeral was one of the largest held there 
during the year. 

EARL BROWN 

Earl Brown of Lexington, soldier of 
the 106th Engineers, died with pneu- 
monia on October 11, 1918, in a military 
hospital at Havre, France. He embarked 
with the contingent which left Camp 
Wheeler in October, 1918. Upon reach- 
ing the rest camp in Havre after land- 
ing, he still complained of not feeling 
right, and was advised by his comrades 
to see the doctor. This he apparently 
did not care to do, and that night the 
boy who was in the tent with him slept 
in another tent, as he feared. Earl might 
have some contagious disease. The next 
morning he returned to the tent to get 
his mess kit, and finding Earl very ill 
indeed, reported the matter at the in- 
firmary and had him removed to the hos- 
pital, where he only lived a few hours. 
The body of Earl Brown was buried in 
the cemetery attached to the British htfs- 
pital at Havre, and his grave marked 
with a white cross containing the name, 
time and cause of death, and the unit 
to which he was attached. Full military 
honors were accorded him at the burial 

service. Earl Brown was born at Lexington January 22, 1892. His 
father moved to Oklahoma twelve years before the war. Earl went out 
of McLean county with the draft contingent on June 25, 1918. His 
surviving relatives included Mrs. Harlan Meeley of Lexington, a sister. 




JOHN BETTON 

John Betton of Gridley, who enlisted left here with a draft con- 
tingent June 25, 1918, died at Camp Mills from influenza. He was buried 
in Indiana. 

G. DOOLEY BLUE 

The casualty lists of May 1, 1918, contained the name of G. Dooley 
Blue, who was killed in action while with a Canad'^i regiment. He 
was born in Bloomington, and was 20 years old. He enlisted in an 
artillery regiment in Ottawa, Canada, in 1916. His father was Harry 
Blue, residing in the west. His grandfather was William Blue, living 
in Bloomington, and Mrs. Fern K. Hudson of Bloomington was a cousin. 
He was a descendant of Samuel Dooley, a McLean county pioneer. The 
young man spent much of his life in Baton Rouge, La. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



51 



LIEUT. RICHARD BOYDSTON 

Lieut. Richard Boydston, son of Mrs. Caroline Boydston of Bloom- 
ington, died at sea while voyaging to France with his regiment, the 13th 
regiment, U. S. Marine corps, on September 22, 1918. Describing his 
death, Chaplain Miller of the regiment 
in a letter to the mother said that 
Lieut. Boydston was taken sick on 
the second day out of port, and the 
crisis came on the 20th, and he died 
two days later, just before the ship 
came to Brest, France. The regiment 
lost by sickness on the voyage, one 
major, five lieutenants, and eighteen 
enlisted men, all victims of Spanish 
influenza. Lieut. Boydston was 30 
years old and had worked as a tele- 
graph operator for the Alton road in 
Bloomington before the war. After 
enlistment he joined the Marines and 
received his training at Paris Island 
and Quantico, Va., getting his commis- 
sion at the latter place. He left his 
mother and three sisters, Mrs. Mae 
Dent, Mrs. W. A. Miner of Blooming- 
ton and Mrs. L. L. Miller of Elgin. 
The mother afterward received a let- 
ter from Gov. Lowden condoling with 
her on the loss of her son. 







ROY E. CROTINGER 

Roy E. Crotinger, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Frank Crotinger, formerly of Say- 
brook, died on November 6, 1918, of 
wounds received in action on Novem- 
ber 3. He was serving as a mounted 
orderly with the 360th infantry of the 
90th division. He went into the army 
with a draft contingent of April 29, 
1918, from Oskaloosa, Iowa, where his 
family was living after they removed 
from Saybrook in December preceding. 
The action in which he met death was 
the big drive of the American forces 
in the Argonne Woods beginning on 
September 12. Roy Crotinger was 22 
years of age, and had spent all his life 
in Saybrook until his parents removed 
to Iowa. Chaplain Eugene McLawin 
of the 360th infantry wrote a letter to 
relatives telling them the manner of 
Roy's death. He had been placed on 
guard at an advance position known as 
St. Marie farm, to prevent the enemy 
from approaching the post command. 
His post was a dangerous one, being 

in range of the enemy heavy artillery. At 11 a. m. a high explosive 
shell exploded within 150 yards from Crotinger, and fragments struck 




52 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



him in the abdomen. He was taken to a hospital and died three days 
later. The chaplain's letter said:. "He is remembered as a fine Chris- 
tian boy and a good soldier in the cause for which he gave his life. 
Everyone who knew him respected him." 

CHARLES A. CLARKE 

Charles A. Clarke died with influenza at the Great Lakes training 
station in October, 1918. He was a nephew of James Clarke of 813 
East Wood street, Bloomington. He was 26 years of age, and made 
his early home at Fikestone, Mo., where he left a wife and one child, 
besides his father. His uncle and one cousin, Thomas Clarke, resided 
in Bloomington. When Charles Clarke lived in Bloomington he was 
employed by the Union Gas Company and the B. & N. Street Railway 
Company. Prior to his service in the naval training station he had had 
experience in the regular army. 



EUGENE CONLEY 

Eugene Conley, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Bart E. Conley of 303 West 
Chestnut street in Bloomington, was 
slain in battle on October 4, 1918. 
His death caused the placing of the 
first gold star in the service flag of 
Holy Trinity church. The fatal shot 
from a German gun which caused 
young Conley 's death occurred while 
the company of which he was a mem- 
ber was in an advanced position in 
the Argonne drive. Young Conley 
was a member of Company D of the 
360th infantry, part of the Prairie 
division. He was working at Man- 
den, North Dakota, when the war 
came on, and he went out of there 
in a draft contingent of April, 1918. 
He went first to Camp Dodge, then 
to Camp Travis in Texas, and was 
sent overseas in the Prairie division, 
landing in France July 1. Letters 
received by his relatives told of two 
battles in which he had taken part 
in the early fall. Eugene was born 
March 26, 1895, in Bloomington. He 
left his parents, and two brothers in 
the service, Edgar in the navy, and 
George in the army. A letter to the 
parents of Eugene, received by them 
in January, 1919, from the captain 

of the company said in part: "When we went to the front in the 
latter part of August, I chose your son as a runner. A runner's duty 
is to carry messages, particularly in time of action. The best men in 
my company were made runners, because so much depends on their 
bravery and intelligence. I had ten, ,and they were a great bunch of 
boys. They had lots of fun, even when we were in the front line trenches. 
Eugene was a leader, and whenever opportunity offered he had a good 
song going. When he fell, the runners never had any more singing. We 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



53 



were in support and near the town of Norroy and Pont-a-Mousson on 
October 4. The Germans were shelling our position with an incessant 
rain of heavy shells. That evening about 4 o 'clock one of these shells 
hit the trench where Eugene and two other runners were. I was near 
by and had just heard them laughing and talking. They never knew 
what happened. They were buried with simple religious ceremonies 
by the chaplain. I will always remember Eugene when I think of 'over 
there.' " Bloomington Post of World War Veterans bears his name. 



WILLIAM H. CAMPBELL 

On November 18, 1918, word came 
to Mrs. John Campbell of Bloomington 
that her son, William H. Campbell, had 
been killed in action on October 9. 
Private Campbell had been in France 
from the spring of 1918 until the day 
he fell in action, as a member of the 
129th infantry. The relatives received 
only one letter from him in this time. 
William H. Campbell was born in 
Bloomington and has resided hero his 
entire life. He attended the public 
schools of the city and for some time 
prior to his enlistment was employed 
by the West Side Coal & Lumber Co. 
He enlisted in the army June 20, 1917, 
at Quincy and was a member of the 
129th infantry when he fell in action. 
Following his enlistment young Camp- 
bell was sent to Camp Logan, Tex., to- 
gether with two brothers, Howard H., 
and Harry E. Campbell. The three 
brothers were separated and placed in 
different organizations last spring, Wil- 
liam and Howard were sent to France. 
Howard was afterward wounded, and was for a time in a hospital in 
France. 

HENRY CAMPBELL 

The fourth young man from the village of 
McLean who gave up his life for the flag on 
the battle fields of France was Henry Camp- 
bell, who was officially reported killed in 
action on Aug. 6, 1918. Although he had lived 
in and about McLean for seven years, young 
Campbell entered the army from Osage, Iowa, 
with the first draft contingent. He went to 
Camp Dodge, then to Camp Pike. In the 
spring of 1918 he was taken sick, submitted 
to an operation, and then returned to camp. 
His last visit to his relatives at McLean was 
in March, 1918. He sailed for France in July, 
landing in England on the 15th, and accord- 
ing to a letter received by his sister, he had 
been in France only seventeen days when he met his death. Harry 
Campbell Avas born at Laurello, Ky., in July, 1893. He came to McLean 
when a young lad. He was survived by his aged father and the follow- 
ing sisters and brothers: Mrs. Delia Taylor, of McLean; Mrs. Lizzie 





54 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

Godsey, of Atlanta; James and Walker Campbell, of Osage, Iowa; 
Thomas and Burton, of Downs, and Charles, of Armington. He was a 
member of the McLean Christian church, and memorial service was 
held there for him on Sept. 22, 1918. 

BOY F. CRUTCHLEY 




Koy F. Crutchley, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bert Crutchley of McLean, was killed in 
battle during the struggle of the first all- 
American attack on the German army in 
the St. Mihiel salient, on September 13, 
1918. He was a member of Company K, 
359th infantry. Young Crutchley was 
among the earlier of the soldiers who went 
out of McLean county to the war. He vol- 
unteered on November 22, 1917, at the re- 
cruiting station in Bloomington. On the 
26th he was ordered to report, and was 
sent to Jefferson barracks. From there 
he was in different training camps until 
he went to France with his regiment the 
following June. Koy Crutchley was born 
in McLean on August 2!>. 1S<>5. He was 
married to Miss Hazel Eunice. His wife, 
his parents and one brother, Lester, and a 
sister, Nellie, survived him. The body 
was buried on the battle field in France, near where he fell. 

GEORGE OARLOCK 

George Carlock died on October 22 in a Paris hospital from an at- 
tack of influenza. He was the son of Alvin and Daisy Hubbard Car- 
lock, and was a nephew of Mrs. D. E. Denman of Normal, who received 
the news of his death here. George Carlock was born in 1884. When 
a young man he went to Paris to study art, and spent fifteen years 
there. When the war broke out he returned to this country, but after 
a year he again went over to Paris to act as interpreter for the Bed 
Cross there. He was buried by the Red Cross at Nezilly. Young Carlock 
was a nephew of the famous Elbert Hubbard, who lost his life when 
the Lusitania went down. 

MILO R. CHANEY 

Death from wounds received in battle on July 23, 1918, came to 
Milo R. Chancy, who up to the age of 12 years was a resident of McLean 
county. Word of his death came to his uncle, Paul Chaney, at Carlock, 
on August 13. The young man was the son of Mr. and Mrs. O. R. 
Chaney, who moved to Frankfort, Ind., some years before the war. An 
unusual circumstance connected with the case was that the uncle, Paul 
Chaney of Carlock had just received a letter from Milo dated July 8, 
in which he described in vivid terms a trip to the front which he had 
just made, in which all the horrors of the battle zone were pictured. 
It was among such scenes as those which he described that he came to 
his own death. The young man was 22 years of age. He had enlisted 
in May, 1917, and had been over in France since June of that year. His 
body was buried near the place where he fell. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 55 

THOMAS COONEY 

Thomas Cooney, former fireman on the Alton road, died of pneu- 
monia in France in November, 1918. Before entering the service Cooney 
was a fireman on the Chicago & Alton railroad and made his home with 
his aunt, Mrs. Eingeisen of 701 West Walnut street. He was born in 
Jacksonville in 1895 and was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Cooney of 
that city. He came to Bloomington about 1915. He entered the service 
May 24 from Jacksonville and was sent to Camp Shelby, Miss. He wai 
assigned to the 139th Machine Gun Company and arrived in France with 
that organization in September, 1918. 

JAMES CAEROLL 

The first young man from Arrowsmith to yield up his life in the wai 
was James Carroll, aged 26, who died at Camp Grant on September 27, 
1918, from an attack of pneumonia. He had enlisted in the spring and 
was sent to Camp Grant for training. Accompanied by Corporal Downs, 
a comrade from the camp, the body was taken to Arrowsmith, where 
funeral services were held on September 30 at the family home. Eev. 
Carlberg of the Methodist church had charge. The next day the body 
was taken to St. Paul, Ind., for burial, accompanied by the parents, 
James Carroll, Sr., and wife, and one sister. The Woodmen and Odd 
Fellows had a part in the service at Arrowsmith. The surviving rela- 
tives were the parents, a sister, Mrs. Jack Baird, and two brothers, 
Harry and Norman. 

HUMPHREY DANIEL 




The first soldier from Saybrook or that immediate vicinity who 
gave up his life in the war was David Humphrey Daniel, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Charles A. Daniel, who died on board ship, the Harrisburg, 
on October 21, 1918. He had sailed from Camp Mills on October 8 
en route to France with his outfit, Company B, 123rd Infantry, part of 
the 31st division. He fell a victim of influenza, followed by pneumonia. 
The first intimation that the parents received of his fatal illness was 
on November 16, when they were notified by wire that the body of 
their son had been returned to Hoboken and asking for instructions. 
The body was shipped back to Saybrook, where on Nov. 21 the funeral 
was held with full military honors. The Saybrook Home Guards fur- 
nished an escort and firing squad for the last salute over the grave. 
Humphrey Daniel was born at Eandolph Grove on Jan. 3, 1890. When 
he was only 2 years old the family moved to Saybrook. He went out 
on June 25, 1918, with the largest draft contingent of the whole war. 
He and his brother Charles Everett Daniel, went out at the same time 
and belonged to the same division, the latter being assigned to Company 




56 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

C, 122nd infantry. From Camp Mills, Everett was assigned to base 
hospital at Mineola, with Casual Company B. Humphrey Daniel was 
a member of the Christian church at Saybrook, and his funeral services 
were held there. Saybrook post of the American Legion was named for 
Humphrey Daniel. He is shown in above picture on the left, his brother 
Everett on the right. 

LIEUT. LOUIS EDDY DAVIS 

Lieut. Louis Eddy Davis, officer of the avia- 
tion corps, met his death by the accidental 
fall of his aeroplane near Ellington flying 
field, in Texas, on May 10, 1918. He had won 
his commission as E. A. M. (Reserve Military 
Aviator) and was just completing his work 
in practice flights for bombing when the 
accident occurred which cost him his life. 
Lieut. Davis started out for a practice 
flight on the afternoon of the above date, tak- 
ing with him Cadet A. E. Lawrence, a Boston 
man who had been his flying mate for six 
weeks. He was engaged in practice called 
bomb raiding, requiring a flight from Elling- 
ton field to Eagle Lake and return at an ele- 
vation of from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Bombing 
Cadet Lawrence was iij the rear seat. The 
ship fell near Pearland, 18 miles from Elling- 
ton field. Lieut. Davis suffered a broken leg 
and internal injuries by the fall. The latter 
was the cause of his death. Lieut. Davis was removed to the hospital 
at Ellington field and died at 9 o'clock that night. Mr. and Mrs. H. O. 
Davis, who had stopped off at Houston on returning from California, 
were informed of the accident and hastened to the hospital, and were 
at the bedside when death came. 

Writing to H. O. Davis, father of Lieut. Davis, Cadet Lawrence 
describing the fateful flight said: "I want to congratulate you and 
Mrs. Davis on giving to the cause a man of such sterling quality as 
Lieut. Davis. I worked with him daily for the last six weeks of his 
life and always found him to be conservative in the risks he took and 
anxious to do his duty, always succeeding in getting close to the top. 
To me he was like a brother in whom I had the utmost confidence. 
He ran his part of the work while I ran mine and we both felt satisfied 
with the other. Now I feel like a ship without a rudder. 

' ' When I think of the gallant fight he put up even to the last second 
I cannot help but admire him, for he died fighting like a true soldier. 
When at last I was able to chop thru the wreck and get to him I found 
him still at his post with his hands on the controls." 

Louis Eddy Davis was born in Bloomington November 24, 1893. 
He was the son of Hibbard O. and Florence Eddy Davis. His grand- 
father was William O. Davis, for many years owner of the Pantagraph, 
to which his father succeeded. His great-grandfather was Jesse Fell, 
founder of the Normal university. In his youth Louis attended the 
training school at Normal university, and at 14 he entered Shattuck 
military academy. Eeturning to University high school at Normal, he 
nearly completed the course and then went abroad with members of the 
family. He afterward took charge of his father's ranch in California. 
On May 15, 1917, he entered officers' training school at Fort Sheridan, 
and when nearly completing his course was transferred at his own 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 57 

request to the aviation service. He graduated from ground school at 
the University of Texas on Dec. 22, 1917. He was commissioned second 
lieutenant reserve military aviator on Dec. 29, being the first man of 
his class to get his commission. Lieut. Davis was married in California 
in August, 1917, to Miss Styleta Mae Kane, who after attending the 
funeral in Bloomington returned to her former home in California. 

The body was brought to Bloomington for burial, the funeral being 
held from the Second Presbyterian church on May 15. A great con- 
course of people assembled, and the rostrum of the church was heaped 
with flowers. Lieut. L. H. Porter, an aviation officer, accompanied the 
body from Ellington field. The services were conducted by Eev. J. H. 
Mueller, who came here from New York for the funeral to deliver the 
eulogy. During the funeral cortege to the grave, military aviators from 
Chanute field at Rantoul, circled over the city and dropped wreaths 
upon the burial place of their comrade. The pall bearers were chosen 
by the family from employees of the Pantagraph, and those serving 
were C. C. Marquis, J. M. McMurry, R. H. Crihfield, J. L. Hasbrouck, 
Fred W. Bach and Harry Hamilton. A suitable shaft has been erected 
by the family over the grave of Lieut. Davis. The Bloomington post 
of the American Legion, organized in the fall of 1919, was named in 
honor of Lieut. Davis. 

ISAIAH DECKAED 

In the official casualty list published 
on December 12, 1918, appeared the 
name of Isaiah Deckard, formerly of 
Carlock, who died of wounds received 
in action in France. Young Deckard 
was an orphan, and his early life was 
spent at Olney, 111. He came to Car- 
lock about 1914 and worked as a farm 
hand. Afterward he was employed by 
Schad 's hardware store in Carlock. He 
enlisted in June, 1918, for limited ser- 
vice, was sent to Camp Bradley at 
Peoria and then to Camp Sheridan. In 
September he was sent overseas. An 
aunt in Carlock received occasional let- 
ters from him after he reached France, 
but the first news that he was at the 
front was when they got word of his 
death. The young man was about 25 
years of age, and he left one sister at 
Olney. 

LIEUT. ELMEE DOOCEY 

Lieut. Elmer Doocey, a prominent student of the Wesleyan univer- 
sity, was reported killed in action in France August 31, 1918. Word 
came to his mother at Pittsfield, 111. While a student at the Wesleyan 
university, Lieut. Doocey was a prominent athlete, being a member of 
the football team as half back for three years. He graduated from 
the law school in 1917, and was admitted to the bar in Illinois. He was 
a prominent member of the Sigma Chi fraternity while a Wesleyan stu- 
dent. Doocey received his commission at the Second Officers Training 
camp at Fort Sheridan and was assigned to the infantry. In July, 1918, 
Lieut. Doocey was cited by the French Government for gallantry and 
conspicuous bravery in action and was decorated with the French war 




58_ McLEAN COUNTY AND THK WORLD WAR 

prize, the Croix de Guerre with two palms. Later, he was decorated by 
General Pershing with the Distinguished Service Cross. 

BERNARD DAVIS 

Bernard Davis, a soldier of the 138th infantry, whose home was at 
Colfax for many years, was reported killed in action in France on 
September 28, 1918. The news came from the war department in a 
message to his mother, Mrs. L. A. Davis, who then lived in Peoria. 
Davis was inducted into the service April 1, 1918, and left Peoria for 
Camp Dodge, where he received his military training. He had been in 
France since May as a member of the 138th infantry. Prior to his 
enlistment he had been working at Shelley, Minn. He was born at 
Colfax 28 years before the war and lived there until about 1913 when 
his mother and sisters moved to Peoria. Colfax Post of the American 
Legion bears his name. 

CORPORAL JOHN L. DORRELL 

On October 3, 1918, Corporal John L. Dorrell 
of Heyworth lost his life in a battle in the 
Argonne Forest while fighting with the Ma- 
rines. Before that time he had by his bravery 
won the citation of the French commander, and 
been awarded the Croix de Guerre by the 
French government. Corporal Dorrell was the 
son of Mrs. Louie Dorrell of Heyworth. His 
mother received the bronze Croix de Guerre in 
March, 1919, several months after the death of 
her son. Along with the medal came copies of 
the orders of citation by the French com- 
mander, and letters written by the commander 
of the U. S. Marine Corps at Washington. 
Brig. Gen. Charles Long of the Marine Corps 
in his letter said: "In the absence of the 
major-general commandant I desire to express 
for him his personal appreciation of the splen- 
did service rendered by your son in France, 
where his conspicuous gallantry in the face of the enemy won the ad- 
miration of the French commanders and caused to be conferred upon him 
this cross and citation." The battles in which Corporal Dorrell won 
the citation and Croix de Guerre occurred between June 6 and June 9. 
He suffered wounds by gas on June 14. A translation of the French 
order and citation is as follows: "General Headquarters of the Armies 
of the North and Northeast. Personnel Bureau, Order No. 11,547. 
With the approbation of the commander-in-chief of the American Ex- 
peditionary Forces in France the general commander-in-chief of the 
French Armies of the north and northeast cites in the orders of the 
regiment: Corporal John L. Dorrell, U. S. marines, displayed qualities 
of a leader as well as great coolness in leading patrols to their posts 
under violent machine gun fire. (Signed) DAUVIN. " 

CHESTER DANIEL 

One of the young colored men from this community who lost his 
life in the defense of his country w r as Chester Daniel of Normal, who 
died from pneumonia in an army hospital in France on August 10, 1918. 
Young Daniel was one of the first draft contingent which went out of" 
McLean County, leaving here on September 19, 1917. He stayed there 
for a time and then went to other camps, finally going overseas in June, 
1918. He was attached to the 370th infantry, the famous negro regiment 
which made such a glorious record in the fighting of the summer of 1918. 




McLKAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAS 



59 



Chester was a son of Mrs. Louise Daniel of 109 Willow street, Normal. 
He was 26 years of age. Prior to going into the army he had worked 
as porter in Bloomington barber shops. His body was buried in France. 

WILLIAM DUNLAP 

G. W. Phares of Bloomington received word on October 16, 1918, 
that his grandson, William Dur.lap, had died at a naval hospital at 
Brooklyn, N. Y., from an attack of pneumonia. The young man was a 
son of William Dinilap, formerly of Ellsworth. The family was living 
at Winnebago, Minn., when William enlisted for service in the navy. 
The family had removed from Ellsworth in 1902, to Iowa, and three 
years before the war they moved to Minnesota. The burial took place 
at the family home in Minnesota. 

EDWARD DWYER 

Edward Dwyer of Cooksville was re- 
ported missing in action in August, 1918, 
and several months later word from the 
war department brought news that he 
had died from wounds received in action. 
Miss Loretta Dwyer of Cooksville, a 
sister, received the word. Soon after he 
was first reported missing, word came 
that he was probably a prisoner, and then 
in March, 1919, news confirming the re- 
port of his death was received. The last 
message stated that the soldier was 
buried in grave No. 27 in Cheney ceme- 
tery. Young Dwyer was a member of 
Co. A, 58th infantry. He went to France 
last March. Early in August his com- 
pany engaged in fierce fighting on the 
Vesle river and lost many men. 

PEARL DICKERSON 

Pearl Dickerson, a former resident of LeRoy, was drowned when 
the steamer Otranto, was torpedoed by a German submarine and sunk 
off the coast of the Isle of Islay on October 6, 1918. Young Dickerson 
went into the service from Iowa, where the family lived at that time. 
He was a member of the 3rd company at Fort Severn, Ga.. when he 
was sent overseas. This was a special duty company composed of only 
51 men. The steamer Otranto was approaching tlie Scottish coast when 
she was hit by a torpedo, and went down, hundreds of soldiers being 
drowned. The body of Dickerson was recovered and identified, and 
buried with appropriate services on the Island of Islay. The informa- 
tion concerning his burial came to his sister, Mrs. Bruce Morgan of 
Leroy in a letter from Sergt. Charles McDonald of Battery D, 4th 
artillery. 

JOSEPH A. ERBE 

Private Joseph A. Erbe of Normal was reported killed in action on 
August 7, the report reaching Mrs. E. P. Schuler of Normal on October 3. 
He was a soldier of Company B, 124th machine gun battalion. The man- 
ner of Erbe's death was told in a letter sent to Normal friends by Leslie 
Eankin, who was near-by in the battle in which Erbe lost his life. Accord- 
ing to Eankin 's story, Joe Erbe had just returned from the front where he 
had been taking a load of supplies to the line. He had unhitched his 
horses and was turning them into the corral when a Hun plane dropped 




60 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOL'LU II' A R 



a bomb upon the corral, which killed Erbe, eight head of mules and 
crippled six more head. The affair happened at Warlow, a little village 
in France. Erbe was born at Ina, Illinois, February 13, 1896. The 
family afterward moved to Normal, where he attended the public schools 
and the high school. He went to Chicago to enlist in 1917, prior to the 
time that America entered the war. The regiment with which he was 
connected landed in France May 24, 1918, and was soon sent into action 
with the British army. 

WILLIAM H. ECKHART 

In Graceland cemetery at Fairbury lies the 
body of William H. Eckhart, one of the Mc- 
Lean county boys who gave up his life for 
his country in the war. He died of pneu- 
monia at Fort Bliss, Texas, on October 11, 
1918. His father, George W. Eckhart of Wes- 
ton, was with him at death, having made a 
hurried trip when he received word of his 
son 's illness. William was born at Fairbury 
on April 26, 1894, being the only son of 
George W. and Carrie Karnes Eckhart. The 
family removed to Weston when William was 
4 years old. He attended the village schools 
and entered Fairbury high school with the 
class of 1913, which he left in his junior year 
to study electricity in the Coyne school in 
Chicago. He returned to Weston and engaged 
in electrician's work until June, 1914, when 
he was appointed rural mail carrier. In De- 
cember, 1917, he enlisted for the marines in 
Chicago, but failed in examination because 

of weak ankles. On May 18, 1918, he answered an emergency call and 
left for Jefferson barracks with fifty other McLean county boys. In 
June he was sent to Fort Bliss, Texas, and assigned to Troop M. 314th 
U. S. cavalry. In September, Troop M was merged into Battery C, 
64th Field artillery, with traveling orders. At this time the epidemic 
of influenza came, and all troop movements were abandoned for the time. 
While waiting, young Eckhart took the examination for officers' train- 
ing camp and the order recommending him to the camp at McArthur 
came through on the day he died. Full military honors were paid him 
at Fort Bliss, and the body brought to Weston. Owing to the large 
number desiring to attend services, the funeral at Weston was held in 
the town hall. Dr. Charles Davies of the Fairbury Presbyterian church 
officiated, assisted by Rev. Alfred Linfield of the Weston M. E. church. 
Miss Frieda Wernsman played "America" and "Star Spangled Banner," 
as the flag draped casket was carried in and out of the hall. Dr. E. F. 
Law and John Wink sang "Abide With Me." The pallbearers were 
Charles Schnetzler and Elmer Ramsay of the Gamma Gamma fraternity 
of Fairbury high school, and Hugh Wells, Lee Myer, Fred Cooper and 
Clarence Myer of the Weston basket-ball association. The Home Guards 
of Fairbury escorted the body to Graceland cemetery and sounded taps 
at the grave. As a memorial to their son, Mr. and Mrs. Eckhart fur- 
nished one of the rooms at the county Fairview sanatorium for tubercular 
patients. 

LIEUT. GEORGE H. EDWARDS 

Mrs. Richard Edwards of 1401 North Park street, Bloomington, re- 
ceived w 7 ord in March, 1919, of the death of her grandson, Lieut. George 
H. Edwards, which occurred at Trieste on February 7. A short illness 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 61 

with pneumonia preceded his death. Lieut. Edwards was the son of 
George H. Edwards, former mayor of Kansas City, and the young man 
had been associated with his father in the wholesale jewelry business 
in Kansas City prior to the war. Soon after the U. S. entered the con- 
flict, young Edwards went to Washington and entered the office of the 
quartermaster general. Later he entered active service, went to France 
and was stationed at Tours from June, 1918, until after the war was 
over. His superior, Col. J. W. Mclntosh, was sent to Trieste early in 
1919, to look after the distribution of food under direction of the U. S. 
forces, and he asked Lieut. Edwards to accompany him. While engaged 
in this work, Lieut. Edwards was taken sick and died. He left his par- 
ents and one brother, Lieut. Richard D. Edwards, who was in the air 
service during the war. 

WARREN H. FLETCHER 

Warren Harris Fletcher, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Joseph A. Fletcher of Heyworth, met 
his death in battle as a member of Company 
L, 139th infantry, part of the famous 35th 
division. It was on September 29, 1918, only 
three days after the American forces started 
the big drive in the Argonne forest, that 
young Fletcher was hit by a piece of enemy 
shrapnel and suffered wounds from which he 
died in the dressing station of the 28th divi- 
sion at Varennes, France. The tragic cir- 
cumstances of his death arc best told in a 
1 -ttcr received by his parents shortly before 
Christmas of 1918 from Corp. R. D. Leidich of 
Ambulance company 111 of the 103rd Sani- 
tary Train, who was in the hospital when 
Warren died. Corp. Leidich 's letter in part 
is as follows: 

"It was September 29 we met very strong 
resistance from the Huns, and a steady stream 
of wounded poured into our station that day. 
I was called into the shock room, where a patient was lying. I approached 
liim and to my surprise the patient was conscious. I spoke to him, and 
after the doctor told him he would live only a few minutes, the first 
thing he asked for was the chaplain. The chaplain read a few passages 
from the Scriptures and then prayed with him. I stayed with him, and 
he asked me to take some pictures from his pocket, which I did, and 
after looking at his mother's, sweetheart's and your picture, he looked 
at me and said I should write to his parents and tell them that he died 
a Christian. He then asked me to offer a prayer for him, which I did, 
and after that he repeated the Lord's praj^er, and passed into his eternal 
sleep. He died the 29th of September and was buried on the 30th at 
Varennes, France. My short acquaintance with him has been an in- 
spiration to live a better and a nobler life." 

The last letter received by his parents from Warren was dated 
September 23, which was three days before the fatal drive began. Part 
of this letter was as follows: "Long before you get this, you will be 
reading of one of the greatest drives of the war, and I hope this will 
end it. The boys are all happy and don't seem to dread whatever will 
be their fate. Don't worry about me, for I am coming home before 
long. Will write the first chance I get. To Dear Flo: It is getting 
dark that I can hardly see the paper, or I would write you personally. 
They won't allow any lights here. With love to all. Good-bye." 

Young Fletcher was one of the typically fine specimens of young 
manhood which McLean county furnished in hundreds in this war. He 




62 McLEAN COUNTY AXD THE WORLD WAS 

was called out in the draft contingent of April 1. He first went to Camp 
Dodge, and after only a few weeks of training there he was sent to 
Europe, sailing about May 1. Fletcher was first assigned to a regiment 
of the 35th division. This unit took part in the very hard fighting of 
the Argonne forest early in September. In fact the division suffered 
such severe losses that it was withdrawn, and Fletcher 's regiment was 
reorganized and transferred to the 38th division. It was in this division 
that he was engaged when he received his fatal wound. He was born 
at McLean on August 9, 1895. Before going to war he was a member 
of the Heyworth Presbyterian church, of the Masons and Woodmen. He 
left his parents and one sister, Mrs. S. M. Bowen of Hudson. 

GEORGE H. FRANCIS 

To be taken a prisoner by the Germans, and then later to be killed 
by them while trying to make his escape such was the tragic fate of 
George H. Francis, a former Bloomington man. His name appeared in 
the official casualty lists published in March, 1918. He was formerly 
employed in the Alton shops in Bloomington, and his family lived at 
302 East Lincoln street. His wife learned of his fate when she read his 
name in the casualty list. The war department officially notified the 
mother of Francis that he was killed while trying to escape after being 
made a prisoner by the Germans. Francis enlisted in the regular army 
in 1907. After serving five years, he left the army, came to Bloomington 
and was married to Mrs. Mattie Holderly, having lost his first wife. 
Under his first enlistment he served on the Mexican border and a short 
time in the Philippines. He left his second wife, two children by his 
first wife, and four adopted children. The last letter which his wife 
received from him was in February, 1918. 

CORPORAL LYLE FIKE 

Mrs. W. H. Shetler of 916 East Walnut street received word on 
November 18 that her son, Corporal Lyle Fike, had died of wounds re- 
ceived in battle in France on October 20. He had been in France for 
several months before he met his fate. Corporal Fike was a member of 
old Co. D of Bloomington. He enlisted in March, 1917, going from here 
to Hannibal, Mo., and from there to Camp Logan, Houston, Tex. After 
a brief stay there he went to an eastern camp, from where he sailed for 
France. He was a member of Co. B, 124th machine gun battalion. He 
was born at Creek, Neb., and was 21 years in June, 1918. He has been 
a resident of Bloomington for about eight years. While in Bloomington 
he was employed as a barber in a number of the local shops and also 
worked in shops at Cooksville, Danvers and other nearby cities. He 
leaves besides his parents, Mr. and Mrs. William Shetler, several brothers 
and sisters, one of the brothers being Ben Fike, who was also in the army. 

EARL AND ERVIN GRANT 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Grant, who live near Ellsworth, had the un- 
usual sacrifice to make of giving up two sons in the war. Both entered 
service, and one died at Jefferson Barracks and the other in France. 
Earl Grant, after being rejected seven times at different occasions in 
Bloomington and Peoria, w T as taken into the army as a limited service 
soldier October 1, 1918. He was sent to Jefferson Barracks, where he 
developed influenza, then pneumonia, and died October 18. On October 
20 his body was shipped to Osman, where funeral services were held and 
the interment took place at the Osman cemetery. Ervin Grant joined 
the National Guard of Illinois at Pekin in 1916. His company was called 
to guard the Holt manufacturing plant and the bridge at Peoria in 
September, 1917. The regiment was later sent to Houston, where in 
the breaking up of the National Guard young Grant was assigned to 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



63 



Co. G, 108 Ammunition train. In May, 1918, his unit sailed for France, 
having embarked from Camp Merritt. He served through the summer 
and fall of 1918 as wagoner and sharp shooter. After the armistice he 
was with the Army of Occupation in Germany, and in January, 1919, 
was on the return trip through France toward the port of embarkation. 
In a heavy rainstorm he got very wet and contracted a heavy cold, which 
developed pneumonia, and he died January 9. The body was buried in 
France. Besides the parents, the Grant boys left two brothers and seven 
sisters, as follows: Clarence Grant of Peoria, Mrs. Esther H. North of 
El Paso, Mrs. Mina Scarbrough of Arrowsmith, Mrs. Florence White of 
Peoria, Mrs. Goldie Nichols of Marne, Iowa; Mrs. Marie Arthur of Joliet, 
Mrs. Lucile Fry of Arrowsmith and Miss Eetta V. Grant of Ellsworth. 
Bellflower post of the American Legion bears the name of Grant. 



WILLIAM S. GOLLIDAY 

William S. Golliday of Lexington, who 
was with Company D, 113th Ammunition 
train, died September 30 at New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, from an attack of 
pneumonia following influenza. He was 
22 years of age. His body was brought 
back to Lexington and buried with full 
military honors. His parents were dead, 
but he left two brothers and one sister. 
Young Golliday and Earl Brown, an- 
other Lexington soldier who lost his life 
from disease while in the service, lived 
on adjoining farms, a quarter of a mile 
apart, before they entered the service. 



VERGNE GREINER 

Vergne Greiner of Bloomington, one of 
m the boys of the Student Army Training 
Camp at the Wesleyan university, died of 
pneumonia on October 22, 1918, at the 
Mrs. M. T. Scott residence, which had 
:;|S been turned to use as an emergency hos- 
pital during the influenza epidemic in 
Bloomington during that month. The 
young man 's death was caused by infection 
HI from a carbuncle. 

Young Greiner was a son of Mrs. Irma 
i;|i Greiner of Bloomington. He was born in 
Tonica, August 25, 1898. The family moved 
to Bloomington about 1908. Besides his 
mother, young Greiner left surviving one 
brother, William Earl Greiner, who was 
in France with the 35th Engineers when 
his brother died, and one sister, Mrs. 
Edward L. Lambert of Tonica. Young 
Greiner was one of the most popular young 

men in Bloomington during his high school and college days. He was 
prominent in athletics, being a player on the Bloomington high school 
basket-ball team which won the state championship in 1916. At the 
Wesleyan he also took leading places in football and basket-ball. He 





64 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAE 



was a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. In the summer of 
1918 he went to Fort Sheridan and took the course of instruction for 
student army officers and became one of the military instructors in the 
S. A. T. C. at the Wesleyan in the fall. The funeral was held in Bloom- 
ington, and the body taken to Tonica for burial. 




HARRY O. GRAEHL 

Harry Oscar Graehl, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Carl Graehl of 1314 South Oak 
street, Bloomington, was reported killed 
in action on September 29. The last let- 
ter the parents had received from him 
prior to the message from the war de- 
partment telling of his death, had said 
that he was in Germany. He took a part 
with the American forces which reduced 
the large salient north of St. Mihiel. 
Harry Oscar Graehl was born in Bloom- 
ington October 27, 1895. He attended 
the Lincoln school and afterward the 
Trinity Lutheran school. He went into 
the army on April 1, 1918, going to Camp 
Dodge for his first training. His parents 
survived him, and two of his brothers 
were in the army: Herman, who left for 
Camp "Wheeler in June, 1918, and Carl, 
who went to Camp Dodge. There wore 
four sisters: Mrs. J. W. Barnes, Mis. 
Leona Chandler, Mrs. Edna Taylor of De- 
catur; and Miss Louise Graehl of New 
York City. 

JOSEPH HAUPTMAN 

Joseph Hauptman, a sergeant of Com- 
pany G, 35th U. S. infantry, was the first 
boy from Bloomington to be slain in battle. 
The news of his death came to his relatives 
at 1408 North Morris avenue, on June 8, 
1918, in a message from the war depart- 
ment that he was reported killed in action 
June 6. Young Hauptman was a native of 
Hungary, but had lived in this country 
from childhood. He tried to enlist in 
Bloomington in September, 1917, but when 
the recruiting officer learned he was a na- 
tive of an enemy country, he refused to 
accept the recruit. Nothing daunted, 
Hauptman went to Peoria a few days later, 
and told the recruiting officer there that 
he was born in New York, and was ac- 
cepted. He received his preliminary train- 
ing at Jefferson barracks, then was sent 
overseas in April, 1918. Sergt. Karl 
Farmer, of Bloomington, who was in the same company with Hauptman, 
sent a letter to his mother telling the manner of Joe's death. It was 
on the night of June 5-6, when the regiment was at Mt. Bernell, when 
the company were in the support of the front lines. The Germans were 
shelling the position, and had hit a barn containing some of the com- 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



65 



pany's cooks. Joe went out with others to get the wounded men fixed 
up, when a shell struck in their midst and killed seven of them. His 
death was instantaneous. He was buried in France near the spot where 
he fell, with due military honors. Joe Hauptman was 20 years of age 
when he met death. He left his father, Carl Hauptman, three brothers 
and two sisters, all living in Bloomington. His mother died thirteen years 
before his death. Joe had been employed in the steel car shops of the 
Alton, and was a member of the car workers' union. Sergt. Karl Farmer 
sent home to his mother a package containing the personal effects of 
Sergt. Hauptman, and these were turned over to the Hauptman family. A 
memorial service was held at St. Mary's church in this city for Sergt. 
Hauptman. Bloomington Post of World War Veterans was named for 
him. 

ELMO F. HILL 

Elmo Franklin Hill of Lexington 
made the supreme sacrifice in the world 
war, and more fortunate than some 
others, he had his heroism commemo- 
rated by the naming of the Lexington 
post of the American Legion in his 
honor, that organization of world war 
veterans being called Elmo F. Hill 
post. Young Hill after serving for a 
year and a half in France fell a victim 
of pneumonia in a hospital in that coun- 
try on September 23, 1918. The news 
of his death came in a message from 
the war department to his sister, Miss 
Catherine Claggett of Lexington. On the 
news of his death chronicled the first 
fatality which had occurred among the 
young men who went out from Lexing- 
ton to the war, and the community was 
shocked by the bringing home to them 
of the reality of the war. Young Hill 
had for nine years made his home with 
Mr. and Mrs. B. T. Claggett, and was 
the same as an only son in the home. 
He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Elmer 
Hill, and was born on a farm near 
Lexington on February 4, 1899. His 
mother died in infancy, and he was 
taken into the Claggett home in 1909, 
where he grew to young manhood. He 
united with the Baptist church on 
April 27, 1913. He graduated from 
the Lexington high school in 1917, and 
was president of the class. On October 
8 of the same year he enlisted in the 
army, and was sent to France in Feb- 
ruary, 1918. His foster parents and 
sister survived, and there were three 
brothers, one of whom, Elmer I. Hill, 
-was with Battery D in an artillery unit 
of the 124th infantry in France; Fred 
A., on the battleship Arizona; and | 
Albert, living in Urbana. 




J. W. HARTLEY 

On February 9, 1919, Edward Hartley of North Eoosevelt avenue 
Bloomington, received word of the death of his brother, Private J. W. 
Hartley, of the 16th U. S. Infantry, regular army. He died of wounds 
in a hospital in France. The news of the death did not reach the father 
for some months after it occurred. The father first learned of his son's 



66 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 




being wounded when he read his name in the published casualty list. 
The soldier lived twelve days after he was wounded. Private Hartley 
enlisted as a volunteer in Kansas, where he had been working on May 
9, 1917. After only three weeks of training he was sent overseas. 

ROBERT HUFFMAN 

Eobert Huffman, a young man who lived 
in Bloomington while he attended the Nor- 
mal university, was reported on November 
4, 1918, to have died in France from wounds 
received in action, on October 1. The young 
man was a grandson of Judge R. M. Ben- 
jamin, and lived at the latter 's house while 
he was attending Normal in 1916. His 
mother, Mrs. Louise Huffman, lived at 
Pierre, S. D., when Robert entered the army. 
Scott Price of Bloomington was an uncle. 
Shortly after the death of young Huffman 
was reported, a letter written by him ten 
days before his death was received by Miss 
Irma Young of Bloomington, afterward Mrs. 

Charles Cordes. This letter described his position in a front line posi- 
tion, where he could hear the German shells going over, and then the 
shells from the French 75 's answering them and going in the opposite 
direction. Huffman referred to the drive of September 12, when the 
cannon of the Allies fired so rapidly that German prisoners stated that 
they thought the large guns were machine guns. The firing continued 
from 1 a. m. till late in the afternoon, when the doughboys went over 
the top and brought back large numbers of prisoners. The body of 
Huffman was buried in France, in the 20th Field Artillery cemetery. 
Huffman enlisted December 10, 1917, and was sent to the 9th recruit 
company at Camp Logan. In January he was sent to Camp McArthur 
to the signal service of the field artillery. Huffman was born in Clark 
county, S. D., July 26, 1895. 

HERBERT H. HOLMAN 

Herbert Hildreth Holman, son of 
B. W. Holman, signal man with the 
Alton road in Bloomington, died from 
the result of an accident at Queens- 
town, Ireland, on January 20, 1919. 
Young Holman was a sailor, and was 
attached to a U. S. S. battleship at 
the time of his death. He was on shore 
leave at Queenstown, and was run down 
by a motor truck on the streets, suffer- 
ing injuries from which he died an 
hour later. The news of the death came 
to the parents in Bloomington from the 
naval bureau of navigation five days 
after the young man 's death. Mrs. 
Ellen Holman, mother of Herbert Hol- 
man, received a letter from Chaplain 
B. R. Patrick, who conducted a memo- 
nal service for the dead sailor in the 
chapel of the hospital where he died. 

"It appears that on Monday fore- 
noon, January 21, your son was on a heavy truck and jumped from it 
just as it was about to stop at its destination," the chaplain wrote. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 67 

"His feet slipped and he went under the rear wheel which ran over 
him. He was taken to the sick bay at the air station and hurried to 
this hospital by a speed boat, but expired about ten minutes after reach- 
ing the hospital and a few minutes before I reached his ward. One of 
the men told me that while being carried he tried to turn on his side, 
saying 'Now father I can see you,' and that he continued to talk as 
if to his father." The body was brought home to Bloomington, and 
the funeral was held on February 18, 1919, on the same day as that 
nt Scrgt. J. G. Spence, the two bodies being interred at Park Hill ceme- 
tery. These were the first bodies of men in the service which had been 
buried in this new Bloomington cemetery. Dr. Edgar DeWitt Jones 
of the First Christian church, in an eloquent address paid a glowing 
tribute to the dead heroes. Miss Ethel Gulick sang. Three marine 
officers, Captain Burr Crigler and Roy Dillon and Lieut. Swinehart, 
acted as honorary pall bearers for Sergt. Jesse Spence, the dead marine. 
The active pall bearers were George Mcece, Frank Brown, J. S. Thomp- 
son, Clarence Hensel, Clarence Jeter and George Stretch. 

Ensigns Bruce Jarrett and Donald Marquis were the honorary pall 
bearers for Herbert Holman. The active pall bearers were George Ehr- 
mantrout, H. Burns, H. Friedlund, A. L. Buchanan, J. E. Febman and 
H. H. Schroeder, former associates of the dead sailor. 

Herbert Holman was born in Bloomington July 2, 1896, and with 
the exception of a brief period in Oklahoma, had spent his entire life 
in Bloomington. He went to work in the Alton boiler shops and was 
a member of the Boilermakers' Union in 1918. On May 22 of that 
year he enlisted in the navy as a blacksmith of the second class and 
was sent to Great Lakes training station. In September he was trans- 
ferred to Philadelphia, and then was sent aboard ship. He was an 
expert acetylene welder. He carried $10,000 insurance with the govern- 
ment war risk board. 

WILLIAM ROY HINTHORN 

The first soldier from Normal to give up his life in the great war 
was William Eoy Hinthorn, who died on January 19, 1918, at Jefferson 
barracks, Mo. He was a member of the 23rd company, Quartermaster's 
corps. He enlisted on December 12, 1917, and was sent to Jefferson 
barracks. He was taken sick with a heavy 
cold soon after going there, and later this 
developed into pneumonia and he was sent to 
the hospital. He rallied for a time, and his 
parents, who had gone to be near him, re- 
turned to their home in Normal. Suddenly 
he had a relapse, and his brother Leslie was 
the only relative near at his death. The body 
was brought to Normal, and the funeral was 
held at the family home on January 21, and 
the body taken to Hudson for burial. Wil- 
liam Roy Hinthorn was born near Lexington 
on January 1, 1896, the third son of Mr. and 
Mrs. James Hinthorn. He attended school at 
Lexington and Hudson, and graduated from 
the latter place. The family removed to 
Normal in 1913, and that year and the next 
he attended the Normal university. He be- 
came engaged to Miss Mary Kirchner, to whom he was to have been 
married in the spring of 1918. The young man was survived by his par- 
ents and three brothers and one sister. The funeral at his home in 




68 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



Normal was conducted by Eev. H. M. Bloomer of the Normal Methodist 
church. 

CHARLES E. HARBISON 

Private Charles E. Harrison, son of 
William E. Harrison of Chenoa, died 
from influenza in a hospital at Secaucus, 
New Jersey, on October 11, 1918. His 
father had been notified of his illness 
and was on his way east when the 
young man died. Young Harrison went 
to Camp Wheeler on August 1, with a 
draft contingent, and was later trans- 
ferred to Camp Mills. At Camp 
Wheeler he made a record as an expert 
rifle shot. He was expecting to be sent 
overseas from Camp Mills, when he was 
taken with his fatal illness. The body 
was brought back to Chenoa for inter- 
ment. Charles E. Harrison was born on 
a farm south of Chenoa on February 5, 
1896. He finished the course of study 
in the country school and then took up 
farming together with his father. He 
was a member of the Chenoa Presbyter- 
ian church. He left besides his parents, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Harrison, two sis- 
ters, Mrs. Allen C. Voland of LeRoy, 
and Lila, at home. 

SERGT. RALPH HOOVER 

Sergt. Ralph Hoover, son of W. W. Hoover, formerly of McLean 
county, died from Influenza and pneumonia at Fort Stevens, Oregon, in 
October, 1918. The news came to his uncle, A. W. Peasley, who was 
a brother of the young man 's mother, Isabel Peasley Hoover. The fam- 
ily had moved to Rolfe, Iowa, and when America entered the war, Ralph 
volunteered for the medical service of the regular army. After training 
in several camps, he was sent to Fort Stevens, Oregon, where spruce 
timber was cut for making aeroplanes. The young man was 20 years 
of age. He left his mother and two sisters. The body was taken to 
Rolfe, Iowa, for interment. 




WILLIAM GROVER HAYNES 

William Grover Haynes, son of Mr. and Mrs. William Haynes of 
Leroy, died of pneumonia on October 16, 1918, after arriving in France 
with the 127th infantry, Company A, 31st Division. His regiment em- 
barked from Camp Mills on October 6. Young Haynes was one of the 
McLean County boys who went out with the draft contingent of June 
25 to Camp Wheeler, where he received his training. He was born on 
a farm east of Saybrook on October 24, 1893. He left his parents, two 
brothers and three sisters. During his earlier life he had worked on a 
farm. He was buying a home with his earnings, and when he went 
away to war he deeded it to his mother. He was admitted to base 
hospital 65 by ambulance from U. S. S. Siboney, at Brest, on October 
16, and in spite of excellent medical care and nursing died at 4 p. m. 
that day. The body was buried in the new cemetery at Keruon, with 
full military honors. The cemetery is located on a hilltop overlooking 
the bay, and adjoining the old French cemetery. The parents a few 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



69 




weeks after their son's death received a sprig of fern from the hedge 
near his grave. 



THOMAS R. HELMICK 

Thomas B. Helmick, son of Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Helmick of Leroy, died in a de- 
partmental hospital in Honolulu, Ha- 
waiian Island, on February, 7, 1919. His 
body was brought to Leroy, and the 
funeral was held Tuesday, April 1, 1919. 
He was born June 21, 1891, at Fisher. 
He entered military service at Jeffer- 
son barracks Feb. 28, 1918, and was 
later sent to Angel Island, California, 
from whence he sailed with the llth 
company coast artillery for the Hawai- 
ian Islands. He served with his regi- 
ment from that time until the beginning 
of his fatal illness. Besides the mother, 
Private Helmick left a sister, Mrs. 
George Hammond of Kewanee, and two 
brothers, Amos Helmick of Leroy, and 
E. Harmon Helmick of Akron, Ohio. 



AUDA A. HUMBLE 

Auda A. Humble, who had lived 
near McLean before he went into 
the army, was one of the many 
victims of the influenza which 
raged during the autumn and win- 
ter of 1918. He went out of Mc- 
Lean county with the draft contin- 
gent of June, 1918. He first went 
to Camp Dodge, Iowa, and then to 
Camp Upton, N. Y. From the lat- 
ter place he sailed for England, 
thence to France. He was seized 
with influenza and then pneumonia, 
and October 2, 1918, he died. His 
body was buried in American 
French cemetery No. 2, at Heri- 
court, Heute, Saone, France. Young 
Humble was a soldier of Company 
C, 338th machine gun battalion. He 
was a native of Kentucky, and w r as 
born at Pulaski, near Summerset, 
Ky., on November 17, 1893. He 
was the son of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. 
Humble of McLean. Besides his 
parents, he left one brother, Otto, 
and two sisters, Victoria and Ethel 
of McLean. He was the fourth young man from the village of McLean 
to give up his life for his country in the great world war. 




70 McLEAN COUNTY AND TllK WORLD W AH 

WILLARD HENSLEY 

In the casualty list of June 26, 1918, appeared the name of Willard 
Hensley, and thus recording the death of another McLean county young 
man who had gone to fight for freedom. Young Hensley enlisted in the 
Marine corps in 1916, and he served with his regiment in the fighting 
of the early summer which served to stop the German drive. His home 
had been in Indiana, and he attended the school at Valparaiso, but each 
summer for three years he had spent in McLean county, working on 
farms. Most of this time he had been employed on the farm of Howard 
Mason, near Bloomington. 

MATTHEW HOLMAN 

Matthew Holman, a McLean boy, died 
in a military hospital at Syracuse, N. Y., 
on October 10, 1918, from an attack of 
influenza. The body was brought to Mc- 
Lean for burial, and the funeral was held 
at the Christian church. Matthew Holman 
was born at Eichmond, Ky., on October 
29, 1890. He came to McLean at the age 
of 18 and worked as a farm hand for 
several years for Ira Grain and Charles 
Eoss. On May 30, 1916, he enlisted in the 
coast artillery branch of the army. For 
fourteen months he served his country in 
that capacity, being stationed at Ft. Mon- 
roe, Va., but was then discharged on ac- 
count of poor health. On June 25, 1918, 
he was inducted for service and was sent 
to Camp Wheeler, Ga., with a McLean 
county contingent, but was rejected on 

account of physical disability. A month later he was chosen for limited 
service and was sent to Syracuse, N. Y., where he was a drill instructor 
until he was taken to a hospital suffering from rheumatic fever. He 
then contracted Spanish influenza and was ill with this disease less than 
a week. Matthew was the youngest member of his family. He left 
surviving his parents, two sisters and three brothers. 

EDWIN IEHL 

On October 14, 1918, Edwin lehl died of influenza at Camp Mills, 
New York. . Word came to Normal, where his wife, formerly Miss Blanche 
Champion, had resided prior to marriage. Young lehl had been a banker 
at Melvin. He attempted to enlist early in the war, but was rejected 
for physical reasons. On August 1 he went with a draft contingent to 
Camp Wheeler, then was transferred to Camp Mills, N. Y. His illness 
was of short duration. His body was taken to Melvin, 111., for burial. 

FRANK M. JORDAN 

Frank M. Jordan, member of the Blooaungton law firm of Jordan & 
Jordan, died of wounds in France November 11, 1918. Announcement 
of his death was received December 18, 1918, by his parents, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. W. Jordan, of Wapella, from the war department. He was re- 
ported wounded September 13. Young Jordan left Clinton in April and 
was sent to Camp Dodge, later being transferred to Camp Travis. He 
was in London July 4 and was later sent to France. Young Jordan 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAE 71 

was born in Wapella and was 32 years old. After completing the grade 
schools of his home town he attended Notre Dame university at South 
Bend, Ind., and later graduated from the Wesleyan law school. Follow- 
ing his graduation he formed a partnership with his uncle George F. 
Jordan. 

LIEUT. ALLINGTON JOLLY 

After passing in safety through all the horrors and dangers of the war, 
Lieut. Allington Jolly, an officer of the flying service, met his death in an 
aeroplane accident just after his return from war service in Europe. The 
fatal accident occurred on April 27, 1919, at Freeport, New York. Lieut. 
Jolly was flying a privately owned plane, and was up about 150 feet when 
the wings collapsed and the machine fell in a crash and he was instantly 
killed. Lieut. Jolly was a son of Eev. A. J. 
Jolly, pastor of the church at Cropsey, his 
father being located there when his son met 
his death. Young Jolly had attended the Wes- 
leyan, and was a student of the Normal uni- 
versity in the summer term of 1914. He en- 
listed in the army before America entered the 
war, going out on May 19, 1916. He was sent 
to the Mexican border, where his work won him 
the Mexican service medal and the Good Conduct 
medal given by Gen. Pershing. He was one of 
seven motorcycle riders selected at Fort Bliss to 
go to Washington on May 28, 1917.' Soon after- 
ward they left the U. S. and landed in London 
on June 8. He was a driver of a staff car with 
the first unit of officers sent to France. On 
September 1 he was transferred to Chamont, the 
general headquarters, where he drove cars for 
Gen. Pershing and Inspector General Brewster. 
Later he was transferred to the aviation service and ordered to report to 
Tours. He started his work in flying on Jan. 30, 1918. After his training, 
he was sent to the front to instruct observers. He was made adjutant of 
the post on October 24, and continued to the close of the war. During his 
service in France, Lieut. Jolly was awarded the Croix de Guerre, and was 
made chief of the air service personnel at the place where he was sta- 
tioned. After his return, he was made a member of the Aero Club of America. 
The funeral was held on May 2, 1919, at the Methodist church in Cropsey. 
A double quartet sang songs selected by the soldier's mother. Eev. J. H. 
Eyan of Pontiac offered prayer. The scripture was read by Eev. G. P. 
Snedeker of Piper City, and the sermon was by Eev. W. J. Leach of 
El Paso. The burial was at the Cropsey cemetery, the pallbearers being 
six Cropsey boys who had worn the uniform, Eoe James, Charles Popejoy, 
Harvey Davis, Earl Bechtel, Paul Crumbaker, Ivan Crum. Eight flower 
girls carried floral tributes. The Patrol Boy Scouts were an escort of 
honor. The salute over the grave was fired by a squad under Sergt. 
Bert Davis, and Bugler J. A. Puett and Arthur Vaughn sounded taps. 

RANSOM JOHNSON 

Eansom Johnson, son of Mrs. Charles D. Johnson of Bloomington, 
died October 1, 1918, at a base hospital in Camp Devens, near Ayer, 
Mass. Death resulted from pneumonia following an attack of influenza. 
Young Johnson was born at Gloversville, N. Y., on May 10, 1895. The 
family came to Bloomington about 1903. The young man enlisted in the 
service early in 1918. The father of young Johnson died in Indianapolis 




72 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



February 4, 1916. The mother and one sister, Mrs. Eoy Strain survive; 
also one half brother, E. Ernest Johnson, who was in the marines at 
Galveston, Texas, when the brother died. The dead soldier was an 
athlete, and had made plans for a professional career as an acrobat. 
The body was brought to Bloomington for burial, and the funeral took 
place with military honors. 



LORING F. JONES 

Loring F. Jones of Bloomington died 
at Camp Grant on October 13, 1918, 
-after a week's illness with influenza 
and pneumonia. He was not known to 
be seriously sick until the two days 
before his death, when his mother, and 
sister, Pearl, were summoned to Rock- 
ford. They saw him just before he 
died. Loring Jones went out of Bloom- 
ington with a contingent of draft men 
in August, and had been stationed at 
Camp Grant from that time to the day 
of his death. He had entered into the 
life of the soldier with zest. He was 
24 years of age, and had lived most of 
his life in Bloomington. For some time 
he was employed with C. W. Klemm, 
and later was in charge of the whole- 
sale department of W. B. Read & Co. 
He was a member of Grace Methodist 
church, and sang in the choir there. 
The body was brought to Bloomington 
and the funeral was held on October 
16 at the home of his parents, 808 
South Madison street. Eev. Edgar De- 
Witt Jones was in charge of the ser- 
vices, and the Bloomington chapter of 
the Red Cross sent representatives, and 

gave the flag which was draped over the casket. Mrs. Darrah and Miss 
Gulick sang. Company M furnished the escort of honor and the firing 
squad for the cemetery. Bugler Claude Carlock sounded taps over the 
grave. The burial took place in Park Hill cemetery. 




JOHN OSCAR JENKINS 

John Oscar Jenkins, son of John C. Jenkins of Lexington, was killed 
in action in France, according to w r ord sent to the father in June, 1918. 
The young man was a member of a regiment of U. S. engineers. D. G. 
Agnew, an uncle of the boy, had taken the boy to raise when the boy's 
mother died. The government wired him and he in turn wired Mr. 
Jenkins. The dead soldier enlisted at Rockport, Ind., in July, 1917, ar- 
riving in France in August. A short time before enlisting he visited 
his father in Lexington. The young man's father first learned of his 
son's death when he read his name in the casualty lists published by 
the newspapers on June 14, 1918. 



LEMUEL JONES 

Lemuel Jones, who quit his studies in the law school of the Wes- 
leyan to enter the army, was killed in action in France on October 4, 
1918. The home of young Jones was at Bourbon, in Douglas county, 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 73 

Illinois, and he went out of there in the summer of 1918 to enter the 
medical service as a stretcher bearer. He was a son of Clifford N. Jones, 
former sheriff of Douglas county. He stood high as a law school stu- 
dent. Word of his death reached the Wesleyan November 22. 

LOUIS KARL KOCH. 

Louis Karl Koch, son of Mr. and Mrs. George 
Koch of Bloomington, was killed in battle in 
France September 12, 1918. The war department 
sent official word to this effect a few days later. 
Louis Karl Koch was one of the young men who 
went out in the first draft contingent from 
McLean county in September, 1917. He went 
first to Camp Dodge, and was later transferred 
to Camp Pike, and then to Camp Mills before 
embarkation. He was assigned to an infantry 
regiment which took part in the fighting on the 
American front during the summer and early 
fall of 1918. Louis was born in Bloomington 
March 27, 1896. He was one of nine children, 

and he received his education at Trinity Lutheran school. He later en- 
tered the Alton shops and was working as machinist's helper when he 
quit to go into the service. He left his parents and eight brothers and 
sisters surviving. Memorial services for Private Koch were held at 
Trinity Lutheran church on December 8, 1918. His body was buried 
in France near the spot where he fell. Rev. W. E. Hohenstein said of 
him: "When he breathed his last on that far-away battlefield, God did 
not forsake him, but carried his soul to that distant land of glory 
where on the last great day his parents and friends will see him again 
wrapped in the glory which he has justly deserved." 

BEN KAPLAN 

Ben Kaplan, who had been a young clothing merchant at Chenoa, 
died from pneumonia at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., on October 7, 1918. 
His attack was brought on by influenza. He left for Jefferson Barracks 
on October 1, and his friends were not aware of his illness until just 
a few hours before he died. The body was taken to Chicago and buried 
in Mt. Israel cemetery. Young Kaplan was born at Coal City, 111., 
November 5, 1890. He grew up with his father and later went to Chi- 
cago. About 1913, he came to Chenoa with his brother Moses and 
bought a clothing store. He was a wide-awake business man, being 
in charge of the band concerts and other public enterprises for some 
time. He was a member of the Chenoa lodge of Masons and of the 
Bloomington Consistory. 

WILBUR KILLION 

Wilbur Killion, one of the 500 McLean county boys who went to 
Camp Wheeler with the draft contingent of June 25, 1918, met an acci- 
dental death while returning to his home in Bloomington. The army 
life seemed to have preyed upon his mind after a few weeks in camp, 
and he became deranged. On August 14 he was sent back to his home 
in charge of an officer of the camp. When the train was near Madison- 
ville, Ky., Wilbur went into the toilet room of a Pullman and while 
the train was in progress he jumped from the car. His body was found 
next morning on the track, where apparently he had laid down and a 
train had run over him. The body was brought to Bloomington for 
burial. The young soldier was a step-son of W. A. Craig of Bloomington. 



74 McLEAN COUNTY AND THK tt'OELl) WAR 

ALBERT LOUIS KERBER 

Albert Louis Kerber of Colfax died of measles and pneumonia at 
an army hospital in France on December 7, 1918. Young Kerber went 
out of this county with the draft contingent of June 25, and after his 
preliminary training was sent to France with Company E, 124th in- 
fantry. Later he was transferred to the 112th infantry. The young 
soldier was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Kerber of Colfax, and was born 
near that town in 1895. He left his parents and two brothers and 
two sisters living at Colfax. Funeral services were held for him at 
the Catholic church at Colfax, of which he was a member, and large 
numbers of friends attended. Colfax Post of the American Legion bears 
his name. 

ERNEST G. KNECHT 

Ernest G. Knecht died while in the government service, altho not 
in the army. He was employed as a carpenter at work on the govern- 
ment barracks at Charleston, W. Va., on October 19, 1918. He had been 
sick about a week with influenza and pneumonia. His wife was at his 
bedside when he died. Ernest Knecht was born in Normal on July 
23, 1887. He grew up here and learned the carpenter's trade, and for 
ten years had been employed at the Moratz planing mill before enter- 
ing the government employ. He was married to Miss Clara Jaeger, and 
his wife survived with two children, Lillie and Delmar. He was the 
son- of Albert Knecht of South Linden street, and he also left five broth- 
ers and four sisters. One brother, Carl, was in the army. His body 
was brought home for burial. He was a member of the Church of Peace, 
of the Knights of Pythias and of the carpenters' union. 



CLYDE KIND 

Clyde Kind, son of A. L. Kind of near 
Covel, died in a hospital at the Great Lakes 
naval training station on Oct. 1, 1918. He 
was one of the many victims of influenza. 
His father had been summoned to Great 
Lakes by his son's critical condition, and 
was near him when he died. Clyde was born 
near Minier and was 18 years of age when 
he died. He enlisted for naval service in 
July. He left his parents and one sister. The 
body was brought home and funeral services 
were held for him at the church at Covel, and 
he was buried at the Covel cemetery with 
due military uonors. 



LEONARD J. KILGORE 

Leonard J. Kilgore died of pneumonia at Gates hospital, Chattanooga, 
on October 15, 1918. He was taken ill while a member of a personal 
replacement company at Camp Forest, Georgia. He left Bloomington 
September 6. Young Kilgore was 21 years of age and had made his 
home in Bloomington with uncle and aunt, Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Schultz 
of 1008 South Lee street. He worked for some time in the Big Four 
freight house. He left his father, six brothers, two of whom were in 
the army, and five sisters; most of his relatives living in Kentucky. 
The burial took place at Chattanooga, comrades of his company who had 
formerly lived in this county acting as pallbearers. 




MrLKAN COUNTY AND THK WORLD WAR 



75 



JOHN H. KRAUS 

John H. Kraus, son of Mrs. Frederica 
Kraus of Danvers, was reported on August 
20 to have been killed in action on July 18, 
1918. John Kraus was the first of the Dan- 
vers boys to enlist and saw a great deal 
of hard service in the trenches. He was 
gassed in May, 1918, and was in the hos- 
pital until July 1st, 1918, and killed in 
action on July 18. He was born in Balti- 
more, Md., May 8, 1900, his father dying 
when the boy was 10 years of age. At the 
death of his father the family moved to 
Danvers which h^s since been their home. 
It was there that John attended school. In 
February, 1917, he enlisted in the national 
guards and at the time of his death was 

with Co. 1, 18th Inf., A. E. F. From here he left for Jefferson Bar- 
racks thence to Arizona. From Arizona he was sent to New York and 
in June, 1917, was sent to France with the vanguard of the American 
army under General Pershing. He is survived by his mother, Mrs. 
Frederica Kraus, five brothers and one sister. While in Danvers he 
\v:is a regular attendant at the Presbyterian Sunday school and church. 




EDWIN 0. KITTERMAN 

Edwin C. Kitterman was killed in action in France on September 
23, 1918. He had made his home in Bloomington before the war. He 
was the son of H. C. Kitterman of Elizabeth, Ind., and was 25 years old. 
When he lived in Bloomington he was employed at the Alton shops, 
and later with the Bloomington Canning Co. He went with the first 
draft contingent from Harrison county, Ind., and had been in France 
since June 5, 1918. He was a member of the United Brethren church 
in Bloomington. 




KLINE ALFRED LANTZ 

Kline Alfred Lantz, son of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred 
Lantz of Downs, died of influenza at Fort Benja- 
min Harrison, Ind., in October, 1918. He went out 
of the county with the draft contingent of June 
25, to Camp Wheeler, and afterward was transfer- 
red to Camp Benjamin Harrison. He was taken 
sick there, and his body was taken to Downs for 
burial. He was born at Downs May 30, 1896, and 
was married November 10, 1917, to Miss Florence 
Hanson of Joliet. He left his wife, his parents, 
one brother, Warren, and two sisters, Grace Lantz 
and Mrs. Fred Dryer of Downs. 



FRIDOLIN C. LANZER 

Fridolin C. Lanzcr, son of Peter Lanzer of Chenoa, died at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa, on April 10, 1918, after a short illness with pneumonia. 
He was a wagoner with supply company of the 349th infantry. He went 
to camp with the draft contingent of September, 1917. In January of 
the following year he was at home for a time suffering with rheumatism, 
from which, however, he recovered and returned to camp. He was born 
near Lexington June 30, 1895, and lived there till his parents removed 



MCLI<:.\\ 



\\'.\i; 



to Chcnoa. He was the youngest child of the family, being survived 
by his parents and two brothers and a sister. He was a member of the 
ljutliera.il church. The body was brought to Chenoa, where a military 
funeral was accorded, all business houses being closed during the ser- 
vices. The Pontiac military band played, the Chenoa boy scouts and 
Lexington Home Guards were an escort, and city officials attended in 
a body. Shelby C. Small, a Chenoa boy, accompanied the body home 
from Camp Dodge. 

LESLIE O. LASH 

The second soldier of McLean county who gave up his life in the service 
was Leslie O. Lash of Bloornington, who died at the Walter Hoed hospital 
in Was-hington on . January 11, 1918, after a week's illness with pneumonia. 
He had been sick ever since he was transferred to Camp Meigs at Wash- 
ington, from Jefferson barracks, where he 
Avas first sent after his enlistment on 
December 15, 1917. He caught a cold at 
Jefferson barracks because he was re- 
quired to sleep without ample protection 
from the cold, owing to the crowded con- 
dition of the barracks. Still suffering 
from his cold, he was ordered to ('amp 
Meigs, where he succumbed to the attack 
of pneumonia, was removed to the gov- 
ernment hospital and died there. Leslie 
was 22 years of age, was lioni in I'.loom- 
ington and was the son of W. E. Lash, 
formerly a shoe merchant of the city. 
His parents had died twelve years before 
the war, and Leslie and his brothers, 
Byron and Kugcnc, came to live with 
their uncle, John G. Welch, afterward 
city commissioner of Bloomington. Leslie 
graduated from Brown 's business college, 
and for four years was bookkeeper in the 
offices of Hawks Inc. The body was 
brought to Bloomington, and the funeral 
held from the home of John G. Welch on January 19, conducted by Hev. 
Walter Aitken of Grace Methodist church, of which Leslie was a member. 
The burial was at Bloomington cemetery. 




JENNINGS BRYAN MAXWELL 

Jennings Bryan Maxwell, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Alf. Maxwell formerly of Mc- 
Lean, died on October 2, 1918, at Norfolk, 
Va., from influenza. He was sick only 
four days. The body was brought to Mc- 
Lean and buried from the home of his 
aunt. Miss Mollie Maxwell. Young Max- 
well was the only son of Mr. and Mrs. J. 
Alf. Maxwell, who lived at McLean in 
their younger days. Shortly after their 
marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell moved to 
Hudson, later to Gibson City and about in 
I it 14 to Hillsboro, North Dakota, where 
they have extensive farming interests. 
Bryan was born in Hudson and was 21 
years of age. In May, 1918, he enlisted in 
the navy and was sent to Great Lakes, 





McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 77 

later going to the Norfolk, Va., training station, known as Camp Perry, 
;ind had been assigned to the U. S. Richmond. Besides his parents, he left 
live sisters as follows: Mrs. Moss (Jreer, Kanawa, Iowa; Mrs. Rollo 
Trice, Kerrick, 111.; Mrs. Mahla Moore, Hillsboro, N. D.; Mrs. Mollio 
Flint, nurse at Brokaw hospital; and Miss Ruth Maxwell, nurse at the 
Walter Reed hospital, in Washington, D. C. The young man had ap- 
plied for a furlough and expected to bo married to Miss Laura Wang, 
of Hillsboro, N. D., on October 20, 1918. 

OWEN GILBERT MEANS 

Owen Gilbert Means was the son of Mrs. Nellie 
Means of Bloomington. He enlisted in the United 
States Navy as Second Class Seaman on June Kith, 
1918, and was sent to Great Lakes Naval Station 
at Great Lakes, Illinois. He was about to enter 
school when he took the influenza and pneumonia 
and died at Great Lakes September 28th, 1918. At 
the time of his death he was acting Chief Petty 
Officer. He was 18 years and 6 months of age. 
Mefore entering the service he was an embalmer for 
Su inner Goodfellow. He was born and raised in 
McLean County. 

CORPORAL CARL E. MILLER 

The first McLean county man to lose his life in 
battle, and the one whose name put the first gold 
star in the flag of Randolph township and the 
village of Hey worth was Corporal Carl E. Miller, 
whose death in action was conveyed in a message 
to his sister, Miss Florence Miller, on May 18, 
1918. The day following this message, the official 
casualty list issued by the war department con- 
tained Corporal Miller's name. Corporal Miller 
was a member of Company A, 1st brigade, machine 
gun battalion, of the l(5th Infantry, which was 
part of the famous Rainbow division. The. date 
of his death in battle was officially reported as 
May 12. The body was buried near where he fell, 
and his resting place was officially recorded by the war department as 
follows: "Place of burial: Military Cemetery, Broyes, Oise, Row No. 
4, grave No. 9. Date of burial, May 13, 1918. Chaplain, E. Coleman." 
Corporal Miller was born at Heyworth on June 2, 1884. He was 
the son of Erastus Miller, who was a veteran of the civil war, having 
served in the (58th Illinois and re-enlisting in the 94th infantry. His 
father died in 1909. Carl Miller joined the army in 1913; and served 
with the regulars before the world war broke out. When Gen. Pershing 
\\.-ts sent to the Mexican border with a body of picked troops, Corporal 
Miller was with one of these units. He did valiant service there. When 
the famous Hainbow division was organized for overseas duty, the regi- 
ment of which Corporal Miller was a member was made a part of the 
division. They had been in France eight months before Corp. Miller 
met his death. The last letter written by Miller to his sister, Mrs. Wm. 
Wilde of McLean, was dated April 3, in which he spoke of France as 
a "land of sunshine and flowers." Most of his letters from France had 
been in a cheerful vein. There were four surviving sisters, Mrs. William 
Wilde of McLean, and Mrs. William Archer, of McLean, Mrs. Isaac 
Maxuell and Miss Florence Miller of Heyworth, and Frank Miller of 
Heyworth. 

A memorial service for the soldiers of Randolph township was held 
at Heyworth on Sunday, May 26, in which special honor was paid to 




78 




Carl Miller as the first Randolph soldier to lose his life in battle. Eev. 
O. O. Inman of Decatur made the principal address. At one point in 
the service, the audience stood and held draped handkerchiefs in honor 
of Carl Miller. 

HARRY C. MYERS 

Harry C. Myers, son of Thomas 
Myers of McLean, who had the distinc- 
tion of being pronounced a practically 
perfect man physically when he was 
examined for enlistment in the U. S. 
Marines, lost his life in battle in June, 
1918, during the early drives on the 
western front in France in which the 
American troops took part. The name 
of young Myers appeared in the cas- 
ualty list of June 21 as seriously 
wounded, and a day or two later the 
parents at McLean were informed by 
the war department of his death. 
Harry Myers was 23 years of age, and 
had worked for a time at the trade of 
blacksmith. He enlisted in Peoria in 
the fall of 1917 for service in the 
Marine Corps. His physical examina- 
tion showed him to be possessed of an 

almost perfect physical make-up. He received his preliminary training 
and was sent to France in the spring of 1918, being assigned to one of 
the companies of the famous brigade of Marines connected with the 
First Division which took part in the actions along the Marne in May 
and June. His surviving relatives were his parents and a half sister 
in McLean and one brother, Cecil, who was in the army during the war. 
Some weeks after his death, the parents of young Myers received a 
letter from Norman B. Armstrong, who had been a pal of Harry, telling 
of the battle in which both were wounded, and how he had learned of 
Harry's death. He continued: "He was a fine, brave lad, and you 
may well be proud of him. It is hard to lose him, but we could not 
ask a better death. He did not only die for his country, but for the 
protection of women and children of another land. The sights we saw 
on our way to check the German drive, brought tears to the eyes of 
many a man, and they would have died to the last man before they 
would have given another inch." 

ROY F. MITCHELL 

One young soldier from McLean county gave 
up his life in preparation for military duty 
even before the date when the United States 
declared war against Germany. He w r as jloy 
F. Mitchell, son of Mr. and Mrs. E, F. Mitchell 
of Lexington. This young man was a volun- 
teer, enlisting in Bloomington early in Jan- 
uary, 1917, three months before the actual 
declaration of war. He started to Jefferson 
Barracks on January 5, and at once began his 
initial training. He was taken down with 
pneumonia a few weeks after he reached the 
Barracks, and died on February 21. His death 
occurred on the same day that his company 
was to start east for another camp. The body 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



79 



was brought back to this county, and the funeral was held at the Chris- 
tian church at Colfax on February 24. Louis Fernando sounded taps 
at the grave and Wesley Downey carried the flag, both being former 
soldiers of the Spanish war. Young Mitchell was born January 1, 1898, 
and was a very popular young man at Lexington. He had two brothers 
in the army later, they being Sergt. Harry L. Mitchell of the 60th regi- 
ment C. A. C. and Lieut. Jesse D. Mitchell, who was with the infantry 
in several camps in this country. Roy Mitchell's name is carried on the 
honor roll of Elmo F. Hill post of the American Legion at Lexington. 




HARVEY C. MISHLER 

Harvey C. Mishler, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arnold Mishler of Covel, died in the Great 
Lakes naval training station on March 5, 1919. 
He had been sick a short time with pneumonia. 
The young man's father went to Great Lakes 
and brought the body home. Young Mishler 
had enlisted in the navy in June, 1918, and 
had spent his training season at Great Lakes, 
making a good record in the service. The 
funeral was held at Covel. The young man 
left besides his parents, the following brothers 
and sisters: Lloyd L. Mishler, who had served 
in the army and returned from overseas only 
a short time before his brother's death; 
Charles, Esther, Francis and Irene, at home. 

THOMAS McVEY 

The first gold star in the service flag of 
St. Patrick 's church in Bloomington was 
placed there for the death of Thomas Leo 
McVey, son of Mrs. Ellen McVey of 1318 
West Mulberry street, who on November 26 
received news of the death of her son. He 
died in a military hospital in France from 
lobar-pneumonia, on November 13, 1918. 
The mother received the news just after she 
had made inquiry at Eed Cross headquarters 
how to send the son a Christmas package. 
The manner of the boy's death is told in a 
letter received in March, 1919, by the 
mother from Lieut. Henry H. Brownlee of 
Loundry Company C, at Nevers hospital, in 
France. The letter stated that McVey was 
taken sick October 13, went to base hospital 
No. 28 and remained there until he died. 
The letter continued: His top sergeant, 
Sergeant Frank McKane, informs me that 
he received the last rites of the church 
from an American chaplain, a priest, and 

that he was buried in accordance with the precepts of the Catholic faith. 
He was also buried with full military honors and is now lying among 
our boys in the American cemetery at Niv,ers. His grave, marked by a 
Roman cross, is just outside of the city of Nivers. Nivers is situated 
about half way between Paris and Lyons. It is on the river Loire and 
was one of the first centers in the American E. F. Thomas McVey was 
the son of Mr. and Mrs. James McVey, and was born May 28, 1900. 
He left his mother and one sister, Nellie. After graduating from St. 
Patrick's school he worked in the Alton shops in Bloomington. He en- 
listed July 4, 1918, was sent to an automobile mechanics' school at 




80 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 




Washington, and was sent overseas in August. The last letter the family 
received from him was in November, 1918. 

HOMER WARNER MITCHELL 

Homer Warner Mitchell, son of Isaac T. 
Mitchell of Twin Grove, died while in the 
naval service. His death occurred on Octo- 
ber 21, 1918, on the hospital ship, Mercy, off 
the coast of Virginia. Prior to his being 
taken sick, young Mitchell had been serving 
on the battleship Illinois, where he had at- 
tained the grade of second class fireman. 
Young Mitchell was born in Dale township 
on April 24, 1897. He grew up with 
his father on the farm, his mother having 
died when Homer was only nine months 
old. He attended school in his home dis- 
trict, in Bloomington and at the Normal 
University. He enlisted for the navy July 
22, 1918, and was first sent to Great Lakes. 
He attained the grade of corporal before be- 
ing assigned to active ship duty. He was 
serving well on the battleship Illinois when 
his fatal illness came on. Commander W. R. 
Webb of the medical corps of the U. S. naval 
forces at Norfolk, Va., in a letter dated 
October 22, writes to Mr. Mitchell, father 

of Homer, in part as follows: "It is with deep regret that I have to 
inform you of the death of your son, Homer, which occurred on board 
tliis hospital ship at 1:35 p. m., October 21, 1918. He was received as 
a patient from the U. S. S. Illinois, sick with bronchial pneumonia. * * * 
You have the heartfelt sympathy of myself and all his other shipmates 
in your bereavement. In this great war for democracy and freedom, 
I consider it a glorious privilege which you have had to give a son 
for our country, for your son has given his life for his country just as 
surely as though he had died on the field of battle. I know you are 
proud of this privilege, and I envy you. ' ' The body was brought home 
for burial, the funeral being held at the West Twin Grove cemetery 
on October 29. He left his father and two brothers, Herman Park 
Mitchell and Harvey Elder Mitchell, both living in this county, and one 
sister, Mrs. Beulah Pearl Schantz living in California. 

DAVID THOMAS MORGAN 

Among the hundreds of American boys 
who gave up their lives in the drive of 
the U. S. forces in the great battles of the 
Marne in June, 1918, was David Thomas 
Morgan, son of John P. Morgan of 401 
Fifer street, Bloomington. This young 
man, scarcely more than 17 years of age, 
fell in battle while fighting with the heroes 
of the Marine Corps which stopped the 
German drive for Paris. The great on- 
slaught of the first week of June was over 
and the second phase of the battle in 
progress, when on the afternoon of the 
13th, young Morgan, holding a front line 
position, armed with his automatic rifle, 
was hit by a German shell and instantly 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 81 

killed. He was buried on the 14th near the spot where he fell. The 
official word as to his burial place said that it was on "Hill 181, North 
of Lucy de Borage Mauex, Map 49." Young Morgan was in the 76th 
Company, Sixth regiment, U. S. Marine Corps, part of the First Di- 
vision. His brother, William John Morgan, member of the same com- 
pany, was wounded in the same drive, and did not learn of David's 
death until July 25. David Thomas Morgan was born in Bloomington, 
attended Edwards school, and had started to learn the trade of a boiler- 
maker at the Alton shops prior to the time of his enlistment. He was 
visiting his aunt at Staunton, 111., when he and his brother, William, 
enlisted with the Marine Corps in 1917. It was several months later, 
while they were in training at Paris Island, that his father learned 
of the boys' enlistment. Letters received from David early in his ser- 
vice in France told of his having taken out $10,000 insurance in favor 
of his father. Speaking of the boy's death, Lieut. Clyde E.. Murray, 
writing to the father, said that ' ' exposed to the most concentrated shell 
fire the world had ever known for several hours, he displayed the spirit 
and courage found only in great soldiers. ' ' Prior to the time of his 
death, Morgan's company had already captured three machine guns and 
turned them on the enemy. The brother, William, was in the hospital 
in France for many months recovering from his wounds, and came home 
in the summer of 1919 for his first leave. Bloomington Post of World 
War Veterans bears his name. 

ERWIN P. MARTENSEN 

Private Erwin P. Martensen was one of 
the McLean county boys who lost his life 
in battle with the Germans during the days 
of the early summer of 1918 when the 
American forces stopped the rush on Paris. 
Young Martensen was a soldier of Company 
A of the Seventh infantry, part of the Sec- 
ond Division, which took part in the actions 
around Chateau Thierry. On the morning 
of June 21, after the Marines and the 13th 
and 14th infantry had stopped the rush of 
the Germans, orders came for Company A 
to clean out a certain German machine gun 
nest in Belleau Wood. This particular ac- 
tion lasted only twenty minutes, but how 
hard fought and bloody it was, is indicated 
by the fact that in that short period 120 
American boys were killed or wounded. 
Young Martensen was one of those who fell 
mortally wounded and died on the field of 
honor. Erwin Martensen was born at An- 
chor September 15, 1895, and spent practi- 
cally all his life in that place. He enlisted in Bloomington December 
11, 1917, and was sent to Jefferson Barracks and then to Camp Grant. 
Later he spent some time at Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga., and at Camp 
Merritt, N. J. At the last camp he was transferred from the aviation 
service, in which he had enlisted, to the infantry. He sailed for France 
April 15, 1918. Owing to the censorship, his people here did not learn 
much of his movements or whereabouts in France prior to the date of 
the battle in which he lost his life. His body was no doubt buried 
on the field where he fell. Anchor post of the American Legion bears 
Martensen 's name. 

GLEN MARTIN 

Glen Martin, who lived in Heyworth for many years, but went into 
the service from Council Bluffs, Iowa, died in France October 4, 1918, 
according to information coming to his grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. 




82 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



William Cunningham of Heyworth. Glen Martin was 22 years of age. 
After he went into the service, he was first stationed at Mt. Clemens, 
Mich., then in a Texas camp and had been in France several months 
before his death occurred. He left his grandparents, his father living 
at Council Bluffs and two brothers, Earl and Nile, both in the army 
during the war. 

EUGENE MCCARTHY 

Eugene McCarthy, son of Maurice C. McCarthy of Bloomington, was 
one of the victims of the influenza in the epidemic which swept over the 
country in the fall of 1918. Eugene was in the naval service, and was 
at the Great Lakes training station when he was taken sick. After be- 
coming very critical, Eugene seemed to 
rally, and his father, who had been with 
him at the station, returned home, 
thinking that the son was on the road 
to recovery. After reaching home he 
received a message that the boy had 
suffered a relapse, and the next day 
death came, after the father had re- 
turned to be with him. The young man 
was working hard with his training, 
and had ambitions to rise in the service 
by special preparation. Eugene Mc- 
Carthy was born in Bloomington on 
March 14, 1900. He lived here all his 
life up to the time he entered the ser- 
vice. Two years prior to enlisting he 
had worked for J. F. Humphreys & Co., 
and for the Alton offices. He was mod- 
est, quiet and efficient and gave promise 
of a successful career. His education was 
received at St. Mary 's grade school and 

high school. He left his father and one brother, John and one sister, 
Elizabeth. 

CLYDE ROBERT MILLER 

Clyde Robert Miller of Danvers was 
a victim of the influenza, that disease 
having caused his death at Camp Grant 
on October 9, 1918. He had been sick 
for less than two weeks, having been 
taken down on September 30. The body 
was brought home for burial, and the 
funeral was held on October 13 at the 
home of a sister, Mrs. Roy Musselman 
at Danvers. Rev. J. H. King had 
charge of the services. The pallbearers 
were Irvin Miller, Frank Cook, Paul 
Harmon, W. Schwiemann, and Valen- 
tine Strubhar. Clyde Robert Miller was 
born on a farm near Normal on Octo- 
ber 22, 1895, and was the son of Mr. 
and Mrs. G. M. Miller. Later the fam- 
ily moved to Atkinson, 111., where the 
young man was assisting his father 
operate a 500 acre farm before he went 
into the service. He enlisted for the 
army on July 10 and was sent to Camp 
Grant, where he had taken only a short 





McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



83 






period of his training when the fatal disease struck him down. The 
burial took place at the Park Lawn cemetery at Danvers. 

EDWARD MADDOCK 

Edward Haddock died of pneumonia 
in a hospital in France, according to 
the news received by his mother, Mrs. 
G. W. Shell, who lived on the Bentown 
road nine miles east of Bloomington 
on November 23, 1918. Young Mad- 
dock was born and reared here, but for 
five years resided at Hazelton, la. He 
left with an Iowa contingent May 10, 
1918, and was sent to Jefferson Bar- 
racks and thence to Waco, Tex. He re- 
ceived a number of minor injuries when 
the troop train on which he was a pas- 
senger was wrecked at Sedalia. After 
a short stay at Camp Merritt, N. J., 
he sailed for overseas August 17. He 
was a member of the 34th Infantry. 
Young Maddock was born in McLean 
coupty May 30, 1893. After the death 
of his father in 1895 he lived with his 
grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Fred 
Schultz, who resided near Six Points. 
They later moved to Merna. Young 
Maddock was married December 28, 
1914, to Mabel Klawitter, who died 
three months after their marriage. He 

married Cora Clark December 19, 1917. Besides his wife he left an 
infant daughter, his grandparents, mother and several brothers and 
sisters. 

GRANT E. METCALF 

George E. Metcalf, who lives on rural route 3 out of Bloomington, 
received word on October 17, 1918, that his brother, Grant E. Metcalf, 
had died September 20 from wounds received in action in France. The 
last letter received by his relatives was written on September 12, at 
which time Grant spoke of being in an extremely dangerous position 
at the front with a machine gun unit. Grant had developed ability as 
a crack rifle shot, having made a fine record as a marksman at Camp 
Grant and Camp Funston. The body was buried in France near where 
he fell. Grant E. Metcalf was born September 12, 1889. He was at 
Tampico, 111., when he went into the service leaving for the army April 
25, 1918, first to Camp Grant, and then to Camp Funston. Within two 
months from the time when he entered the service, he was sent overseas 
with an infantry regiment. He left surviving his aged parents at 
Tampico, three brothers and three sisters. 

ULYSSES MILLER 

Ulysses Miller, who for several years worked on the farm of J. H. 
Cheney near Ellsworth, was killed in action on the western front in 
France on October 20, 1918, according to word received by his relatives 
in Kentucky, and passed on to his friends and former employer in this 
county. Young Miller belonged to a Kentucky regiment. He left Ells- 
worth in the spring of 1918 for his home in Kentucky, where he was 
registered, and entered the service, sailing for France August 7. Let- 
ters from him expressed his enthusiastic belief that the war would soon 



84 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



be over and that he hoped to be home by Christmas. During his resi- 
dence near Ellsworth young Miller made a wide circle of friends. 

LIEUT. J. F. McDAVID 

Lieut. Joel F. McDavid of Decatur was killed in an aeroplane acci- 
dent in France October 12, 1918. Lieut. McDavid was 27 years of age. 
He formerly lived at Lincoln before going to Decatur. He was engaged 
to be married to Miss Gladys Collins of Bloomington. 




Thomas Montgomery, nephew of Dr. A. L. Chapman of Carlock, died 
from pneumonia in France on September 5, 1918. He was the son of 
James Montgomery, and went into the service from Newcomerstown, 
Ohio. He had many relatives and acquaintances in McLean county. 

ARTHUR NIEDERMEYER 

Arthur Niedermeyer, whose home was in 
Decatur, but who had relatives here and who 
attended the Normal university, was one of 
the many victims of pneumonia resulting 
from the crowded conditions at Jefferson 
barracks in the winter of 1917-18. He died 
on January 22, but his parents did not hear 
of it until thirty-six hours after it occurred. 
Word of his death came to his uncle, Charles 
Niedermeyer of 503 West Front street. He 
died at the aviation camp at San Antonio, 
Texas, as the result of a cold he contracted 
at Jefferson barracks. He was born April 4, 
1890, being the son of William Niedermeyer. 
He was educated in Decatur and graduated 
from Millikin before attending the Normal 
university to fit himself for teaching. He 
was a prominent member of the T. K. E. fraternity. He had been superin- 
tendent of the schools in Greenville before going into the army. He 
belonged to the German M. E. church. Eelatives from Bloomington 
attended the funeral in Decatur. 

CHARLES E. NELSON 

Corporal Charles E. Nelson, son of Fred Nelson, 
who lived most of his life in LeBoy, was the victim 
of a fatal accident while in active service at the 
front in the battle lines in France on September 
12, 1918. It was just after he had gotten out of the 
hospital, where he had been for several weeks to 
recover from a wound which he had received in a 
previous battle. Nelson was a motorcycle dispatch 
rider, and while in the St. Mihiel drive he had been 
entrusted with carrying an important message to 
the front. According to a letter from Corp. Hite 
of the same company, written to Nelson's relatives, 
Nelson was missed after he had been gone for some 
time, and when found he had been fatally hurt by 
an accident to his motorcycle. He never regained 
consciousness, and died in a short time. Corp. Nel- 
son was born near Ellsworth on November 13, 1895. 
His parents lived at LeEoy for many years, but 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE H'ORLD WAR 



85 



they moved to Michigan a year before the war. Charles enlisted at 
Billings, Mont., August 22, 1917, and was assigned to the signal corps 
of the aviation service. He and his brother Albert together went to 
Kelly Field and joined the 130th aero squadron. Later they were sep- 
arated, Charles being sent to the 116th squadron, which sailed for France 
November 7, by way of Halifax. On arrival in France, Charles was 
assigned to the motorcycle dispatch headquarters detachment air service, 
First army. In July, 1918, he was wounded, having his shoulder frac- 
tured and a Avound over the eye. He was in the hospital for seven 
weeks. The last letter from him was dated September 9, stating he had 
secured leave. The next news w r as a telegram from the war department 
on November 1(5 stating that he had died of accident September 12. His 
parents, three brother and two sisters survive. Charles was 21 years old. 

RUEL NEAL 

Euel Neal, oldest son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Claude Neal, was the first young man from 
LeRoy to lose his life in the war, and in 
recognition of that fact when the LeRoy 
post of the American Legion, composed of 
world war veterans was organized, it was 
named Ruel Neal post in his honor. Neal 
went out of this county with the first con- 
tingent of drafted men on September 19, 
1917. He went to Camp Dodge, being as- 
signed to Company G 349th infantry, where 
he remained until October 1, when he was 
transferred to Camp Logan, at Houston, 
Texas, to Co. A, 131st infantry. On May 
22, 1918, he embarked from Camp Upton to 
France. He got to the front and was in his 
first battle on July 4. In his second en- 
gagement, August 9, he was hit in the shoul- 
der with a machine gun bullet and went to 
a hospital. There he remained until Sep- 
tember, when he returned to his company, and on October 2 in a front 
trench on the Meuse he received his fatal wound. The last letter which 
the parents received from him was written on September 23. Neal was 
killed by a German shell which came thru the dugout in which he and a 
comrade were sheltered in the front line trenches. In a letter written to 
the father by Charles F. Kennedy of Beardstown in April, 1919, Mr. 
Kennedy quotes a letter he had received from his son, Lester, who was 
the buddy of Ruel Neal at the front. Lester Kennedy speaks of Neal 
as a model soldier, who never missed a drill and never had a kick. He 
says of him in the hospital: "We were both in the same ward, and one 
day our doctor told us we were going to England to a big hospital in 
London. But Neal said: 'No, sir, my place is at the front with my 
company, and I won't go to England.' So Neal went back to the front 
and I was taken to England. That was the last time I saw my good 
pal, and the other day I met an officer from my company and asked him 
about Neal. He said Neal was in a dug-out which had a very thin top 
and a Nine-Point-Five came thru the top and got Neal and the other 
man with him. He said all the boys hated to lose Neal, for he was a 
fine soldier. He died with his boots on and for his country." Ruel Neal 
was born at LeRoy September 7, 1895. He grew up there and was edu- 
cated in the grade and high school. He joined the Methodist church 
when he was 16 years of age. He left his parents and one sister, Opal, 
and two brothers, Burt and Marvin, the latter having served in the navy 
during the war. Memorial services for Neal were held in LeRoy a few 
weeks after his death. 




86 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 




command next morning. 



SERGT. WAYNE NEWCOMB 

Sergt. Wayne Newcomb of Company M, 
139th infantry, died of pneumonia while with 
x the army of occupation in Germany, the dis- 
ease being due in fact to the effect of a wound 
which he received in the final fighting just 
prior to the signing of the armistice. Young 
Newcomb was a son of Charles Newcomb of 
Gibson, and nephew of E. H. Newcomb of 
Saybrook, with whom he had spent much of 
his time when a growing boy. Sergt. New- 
comb was wounded when leading his platoon 
against a German machine gun nest on Sep- 
tember 29. He refused to go to the hospital 
after he was wounded, remaining in command 
of his platoon, and thus setting an example 
of courage for his men. After having his 
wound dressed that night he returned to the 
In a letter received by his uncle after the 

armistice, Wayne wrote as follows of the incident: "We went over 
the top about 5:30 September 26 and our battle lasted until October 2. 
I was slightly wounded September 29, but not bad enough to hurt me 
much. I have a scar on my jaw, but am sure proud of it. After we 
came out most of us were in a weakened condition, but soon recovered, 
and when the armistice was signed we were just ready to go over the 
top again. We would have gone in the next day, as we were just behind 
the lines and ready to leave our packs." Sergt. Newcomb died December 
21 in base hospital 87. Lobar pneumonia was officially given as cause 
of death. His body was buried at Toul, France, in the TJ. S. cemetery. 

JOHN LINCOLN NORTH 

On October 13, 1918, death came 
to John Lincoln North, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. William H. North of Grid- 
ley township. The young man died 
of pneumonia following influenza at 
Camp Mills. When his father heard 
of his serious sickness he hastened to 
New York, but arrived at the base 
hospital just after his son had passed 
away. The body was brought to the 
home for burial, and funeral services 
were held and the interment took 
place at El Paso cemetery. John 
Lincoln North was born in Gridley 
township on February 6, 1891. He 
was one of six children, and the third 
son to die. He was called to the 
colors with McLean county's largest 
draft contingent on June 25, 1918. 
He spent the summer months at 
Camp Wheeler, where he received 
preliminary training. He was with 
Co. C, 124th infantry, part of the 
31st division. He was at Camp Mills 
all equipped for starting overseas 
when he fell a victim to the fatal 
influenza. He wrote his last letter to his parents when his hand was 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAS 87 

trembling with weakness from the fatal disease. He left his parents, 
two brothers and one sister surviving. His sister was Mrs. Ralph Scho- 
field, Paul, a brother, was in the army at Camp Grant when John died. 
The other brother was Ralph, at home. Owing to the number of deaths 
at the camp, it was nearly a week from the date of his death until the 
body of Private North arrived home, being accompanied by Private 
Brumbach, a comrade. The funeral services were held on Sunday, Oct. 
20, and were private owing to health restrictions by the state board. 
Rev. S. S. Cryor was in charge, and the Lexington Home Guards attended 
as escort, and fired the last salute over the grave. The casket was 
covered with the national flag when lowered into the grave to the sound 
of "taps." The pallbearers were Private Brumbach, Claud North, Mont 
North, Louis Wadsworth, Ralph Gibbs and Max Smith and Merle North. 

FRED O'CONNOR 

Fred O'Connor, a Bloomington man, died from the influenza at 
Camp Grant on October 8, 1918, after an illness of about a week. His 
brother-in-law, Harry Radford, was with him at the end, having been 
summoned a few days prior to Fred's death. Fred O'Connor was a 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Patrick O 'Connor of Bloomington and was born in 
this city in 1892. He was educated in the public schools and after he 
was ready to begin life for himself he went to work in the Holland 
bottling works, where he was employed for some years. He left his 
father and one brother and five sisters. His mother died in 1917, and 
one brother, Jack, died only a few months prior to Fred's death. Fred 
was a member of Holy Trinity church and of the Order of Eagles. The 
body was brought to Bloomington for burial. 

HENRY PECKMANN 

Henry Peckmann was one of the Bloomington men who gave up his 
life in the service, although he was not actually engaged as a fighting 
man. He volunteered for work in the Y. M. C. A. with the army, and 
while serving as such was taken sick at Camp Funston and died on 
October 8, 1918. He was the son of Mrs. Sarah Peckmann of 1018 
South Main street. While teaching in the high school at Elgin, in 
April, 1918, he volunteered his service as a Y. M. C. A. secretary and 
was accepted and sent to Camp Funston. Henry Peckmann was born 
in Bloomington on November 12, 1882. He was the son of Frank Peck- 
mann, who died in 1893. Henry was educated in the city schools and 
at the Wesleyan university. He then took up the vocation of teaching 
and held positions at Beardstown, Marengo and at Elgin. He was very 
popular at Elgin, and the student body passed resolutions on his death. 
Besides his mother Mr. Peckmann was survived by three brothers and 
two sisters as follows: Mrs. Otto Lipp and Mrs. William Agle, both of 
this city; Frank of Denver, Colo.; Herman, living at home, and Charles 
of South Center street. Henry was a member of the First Methodist 
church in Bloomington. The body was brought to Bloomington, and 
funeral services with military honors were held at the First Methodist. 
The body was buried in the Bloomington cemetery. 

CLARENCE EARL PATTERSON 

After having spent only one month in the service, death claimed 
Clarence Earl Patterson, son of Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Patterson, of 1304 
North Oak street, Bloomington, on October 2, 1918. He died at Camp 
Grant from influenza, which was at that time epidemic at the camp. 
His parents survived, and also one sister, who was a teacher in Towanda 
at the time of his death. The body of the young soldier was brought 



88 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

to Bloomington and buried with full military honors on October 8. The 
funeral services were held from the home of the parents, conducted by 
Eev. W. D. Deweese. Company M furnished an escort and a firing squad. 
The burial took place in Park Hill cemetery. 



SERGT. LESLIE G. PFIFFNER 

One of the McLean county boys who 
went out with old Company D of the 
Illinois National Guard, to lose his life 
in battle was Sergt. Leslie G. Pfiffner, 
whose home was on Franklin avenue, 
Normal. Sergt. Pfiffner was with Com- 
pany B of the 124th machine gun bat- 
talion of the 33rd division when the 
division made its drive in conjunction 
with the French in Verdun sector on 
September 26, 1918. He was caught by 
a machine gun bullet as the company 
advanced, and died on the field where 
he fell. On the day when Leslie fell, 
it was said that the Allied forces of 
this sector lost 30,000 men. Company 
B's advance lay over very rough and 
partially wooded country, in a heavy 

fog. However, they reached their ob- 
jective by 11 a. m., the company having 
lost three killed and seven wounded. 

Leslie fell in the charge on Forges Wood. The body was buried at 
Glorioux. Young Pfiffner enlisted in Company D, Fifth Illinois, on May 
5, 1917. Joined the company at Quincy the next day, and served with 
the company on guard duty at East Hannibal until transferred to 
Quincy, where the regiment remained until August, when they were 
sent to Camp Logan, Texas. Here the regiment was merged with the 
33rd division, the company becoming Company B of the 124th machine 
gun battalion. Young Pfiffner was a son of Mrs. Lucy Stewart and was 
a nephew of County Supt. B. C. Moore. He left one brother, Floyd, who 
at the time of Leslie's death was a first class yeoman at Great Lakes. 




FRANK PALERAN 

Frank Paleran died at the naval training station at San Diego, 
Calif., on February 14, 1918, from pneumonia. He was a step-son of 
E. L. Foreman of East Wood street, Bloomington. The family removed 
to Los Angeles about 1913. The star representing Frank Paleran was 
on the service flag of Emerson school, Bloomington. 

WILLIAM ROBERT PATTON 

William Robert Patton, son of Robert F. Patton, who lived in Lawn- 
dale township for several years, was killed in battle in France on Octo- 
ber 11, 1918. He was 23 years of age. The Patton family moved to 
Rochelle, 111., before the war, and the young man went out of that place 
into the army. Another son, John Irving, was wounded and was in a 
hospital in France for many months. 



BUD PETERSON 

Miss Ida Young of Bloomington received word on October 9, 1918, 
of the death of her brother, Bud Peterson, which occurred at Camp 
Custer as the result of pneumonia. Young Peterson was born in Bloom- 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



89 



ington on October 23, 1891, and lived here until the death of his parents, 
when he removed to Streator, from which place he entered the service. 
He had visited in Bloomington two weeks before he died. His surviving 
relatives were his sister in Bloomington and two other sisters living in 
Champaign. 

CAPT. HUGH MITCHELL PRICE 

In the death of Capt. Hugh Mitchell Price, which occurred as the re- 
sult of an accident, a former McLean county man gave up his life for his 
country. Capt. Price, who was serving with a regiment of Engineers at 
Newport News, Va., died in a military hospital there on November 4, 1918. 
He had been confined to the hospital as the result of an automobile accident 
in which he had received injuries in the pre- 
ceding August. The accident was due to a 
broken steering gear. Relatives here were not 
aware of the serious nature of his injuries un- 
til a few days before his death. Capt. Price 
was a nephew of Mrs. M. L. Christian and E. 
B. Mitchell of Bloomington. He lived here 
in his boyhood, making his home at Danvers. 
Afterward he graduated in the civil engineer- 
ing course at the University of Illinois. Soon 
after America entered the war, he volunteered 
his services and was accepted with a regiment 
of engineers. For several months prior to his 
death was in charge of a large government 
construction project at Pig Point, Va. The 
body was brought to Bloomington, and the 
funeral held on November 8 at the home of 
Mrs. M. L. Christian, services being in charge 
of Rev. William Baker. Mrs. Price and a 
sister, Miss Helen Price, accompanied the body 
to Bloomington. A squad from Company M 

furnished the escort of honor and fired the salute over the grave. The flag 
draped over the casket was one sent from Newport News. Capt. Price 
was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Edward L. Price, who died about twenty 
years ago, and grandson of Ebenezer B. Mitchell, one of the pioneers 
of McLean county. 

CHARLES PAINTER 

Word was received in Bloomington on October 6, 1918, that Charles 
Painter had died in France from wounds received in battle on September 
6. Young Painter had formerly been a fireman on the Alton railroad, 
and he left the city with the draft contingent of April, 1918. He had 
been sent to Camp Dodge, then to Texas, and then to France. In De- 
cember, 1917, he was married to Miss Mary Irvin, who survived him. 
His body was buried with due honors by his comrades near the point 
whero ho died. 

HARRY PIETSCH 

After only one month of military service, Harry Pietsch gave up 
his life as a victim of influenza at Camp Grant, on October 2, 1918. His 
mother, Mrs. Minnie Pietsch, hastened to the camp and was near him 
when he died. Harry left Bloomington in September with a contingent 
of special service men. Harry Pietsch was born in Bloomington April 
19, 1892, and grew up in his home city. He was serving as a member 
of the city fire department prior to going into the army, being stationed 
at engine house No. 4 on South Main street. He was the son of Henry 




90 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



Pietsch, who died some years prior to the war. His mother and one 
sister and three brothers were left, one brother, Edward, being at Great 
Lakes when Harry died. The body was brought to Bloomington for 
burial and funeral services were held at St. Mary's Catholic church, of 
which he had been a member. Memorial services for him were afterward 
held. 

WILLARD PIERSON 

One of the first gold stars which blossomed in the service flag of the 
Chicago & Alton shops was that for Willard Pierson, who died in a mili- 
tary hospital in France on October 12, 1918, from an attack of pneumonia. 
He left the employ of the Alton shops in June, 1918, and was sent to 

France with a regiment of engineers. He 

^ ^__ _ was sick several days, and Mrs. Pierson, his 

mother received a letter the latter part of 
November from Chaplain Lee who attended 
him on the final days before his death. The 
chaplain told of the funeral in which full 
military honors were paid to the soldier, and 
the pallbearers were boys who had formerly 
worked with him in the Alton shops here. 
They were Joe Murray, J. Rebmann, Howard 
Corey, H. Jones, J. Holland, and Harry 
Mnrquardt. The body was laid to rest in 
the American section of the cemetery at La 
Koehelle, France. 

Willard Pierson was the son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Peter' Pierson of 114 Stevenson street, 
Bloomington. He left his parents and two 
sisters, Mabel and Yarda. He was a mem- 
ber of the Swedish Lutheran church and of 
the machinists' union. A memorial service 
was held on November 17, at the Swedish 
Lutheran church, at which Rev. A. D. Freden 
spoke in appropriate vein. The blue star 
on the service flag was replaced with one of gold. 




ROBERT L. PIERCY 

Mrs. J. M. Herman of North East Street, Bloomington, received a 
letter on March 23, 1919, telling of the death of her brother, Robert L. 
Piercy, who died of pneumonia after serving eleven months in France. 
He was in a signal battalion of the 30th division. His home was at 
Asheville, S. C., and he entered the service in June, 1917. His division 
sailed for home the week after he was taken with his fatal sickness. 



THURMAN POLLITT 

Thurman Pollit, son of the late J. B. Pollitt, who was a resident of 
Bloomington for many years, died in a military hospital in France in 
October, 1918. Influenza was the cause of his death. He enlisted for 
service in October, 1917, and served with his regiment thru much of 
the fighting in France in the summer of 1918. He was 30 years of age, 
left his wife, formerly Miss Agnes Bainer of Pontiac, to whom he was 
married in 1917. He had two aunts in Bloomington, Mrs. Dr. Herr and 
Mrs. William Hunt. 

HERBERT QTJARNSTROM 

On April 23, 1918, Dr. Hombcrger of the Wesleyan faculty received 
word of the death of Herbert Quarnstrom, a Wesleyan man, at Camp 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 91 

Dodge, Iowa. Death was due to pneumonia. Young Quarnstrom was 
22 years of age, and his home had been at Sycamore, 111. He had been 
in the Wesleyan up to the end of the school year in 1917. He was a 
sophomore at Wesleyan, and had specialized in chemistry. He had in- 
tended to return to Wesleyan in the fall of 1917, but was selected for 
service by his home draft board. He was a son of Adolph Quarnstrom 
of Sycamore. 

LEE J. ROEBUCK 

The very first soldier from McLean 
county who was called upon to give up 
his life to the cause of the nations who 
were fighting Germany in the World 
War, was Lee J. Koebuck of Bloom- 
ington. He met his death in an acci- 
dent while training under the flag of 
Canada, having enlisted in that coun- 
try after he had been rejected from the 
United States army on account of minor 
physical defects. Young Koebuck was 
in the aviation service, and while tak- 
ing his first flight alone on October 20, 
1917, his plane collapsed and he fell, 
meeting instant death. The body was 
brought to Bloomington for burial. The 
accident happened at Camp Mohawk, 
near the town of Deseronto, in the 
province of Ontario, Canada. Lee Koe- 
buck was the son of L. S. Roebuck, 
formerly owner of the Clifton Hotel in 
Bloomington. He was born in Bloom- 
ington on April 2, 1894. He was edu- 
cated at Edwards school and the Bloom- 
ington high school. In July, 1917, he 

went to Jefferson barracks to enlist for military service in the United 
States, but the physical examination disclosed that his heart action was 
defective and he was rejected. Soon afterward he went to Chicago, and 
finding that a recruiting drive for the Canadian army was on there, he 
enlisted for the aviation service and was accepted. He was sent to 
Long Branch, Ontario, then to Toronto university and then to Camp 
Borden. He had finished his flying instruction and was to make his 
first flight alone on the day of his fatal accident. A letter written on 
the Friday before his death told of his hopes to go across to France 
soon. The body was brought to Bloomington, accompanied by Air Me- 
chanic Eastwood of the 89th Royal Flying Squadron of Canada. Funeral 
services were held at the First Methodist church, conducted by Rev. 
A. K. Byrns. The American and British flags were draped over the 
casket. The G. A. R. and Odd Fellows took part in the service. The 
body was taken to Scogin cemetery for burial. This funeral was the 
first of the many held in Bloomington with military honors during the 
two years of the war. 

ALFRED ROSS 

Alfred Ross of Heyworth, who had enlisted for service in the navy, 
fell a victim to influenza, dying at a hospital at Great Lakes, on Sept. 
28, 1918. He had been sick about a week. He enlisted in the navy on 
July 6 of that year, and previous to being taken ill had submitted to 
three operations for the cure of slight physical defects. He was sta- 
tioned at Zion City rifle range when taken ill, and was removed to the 




92 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



base hospital. Alfred Boss was born in Heyworth February 4, 1899. 
He attended the public schools at Heyworth and for several years worked 
in a grocery store there. Later he became a carrier for the Blooming- 
ton Bulletin. Besides his mother, Mrs. Alma Eoss, he left four sisters. 
The body was brought to Heyworth, and funeral services held at the 
Presbyterian church, with burial at the Heyworth cemetery. 




MAURICE M. ROBERTS 

Maurice Musick Koberts, son of O. H. 
Roberts of Bloomington, was one of the 
boys who went into the S. A. T. C. of the 
Wcsleyan, and died while in that form of 
service. His death occurred Oct. 17, 1918, 
being caused by pneumonia following influ- 
enza. Young Roberts had entered the Wes- 
leyan university and had been formally 
inducted into the service of the Student 
Army Training Corps only four days before 
he was taken sick. Young Roberts was born 
at Mackinaw on March 3, 1900, and lived 
there until in July, 1918, when the family 
moved to Bloomington to give their son the 
advantage of education at the Wesleyan. 
He left his parents and one brother and 
four sisters. The funeral was held at the 
home in this city on October 20, and the 
body was then taken to Mackinaw for burial. 



HOWARD RODMAN 

Having enlisted in the medical 
service with the army after under- 
going an operation to remedy a 
physical defect, Howard Rodman of 
Bloomington finally gave up his life 
for his country. He was the son of 
Mr. and Mrs. O. O. Rodman of 708 
East Bell street. He quit his em- 
ployment in the office of the Daily 
Pantagraph to enlist at the age of 
18. His death occurred in the gov- 
ernment military hospital at Hobo- 
ken, N. J., on October 10, 1918. He 
had been sick some ten days with 
influenza, and his removal from 
Camp Dix to the hospital became 
necessary. His mother and sister 
Mildred went to his bedside a week 
before his death, but he afterward 
showed improvement and they re- 
turned home. A few days later came 
the news of his death. Howard 
Rodman was born in Old Town 
township, and was 19 years old at 

his death. He was educated in the schools at Downs and the Downs 
high school. ,He belonged to the Downs M. E. church. After coming 
to Bloomington he worked in the offices of various firms as bookkeeper, 
and resigned from the Pantagraph to go into the army. The body was 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



93 



brought to Bloomington, and the funeral held on October 16 at the 
home of the parents, and then to the M. P. church at Pleasant Grove 
in Old Town. The services were in charge of Kev. A. K. Byrns and 
Rev. I. W. Longenbaugh. A quartet composed of Misses Anna Curley 
and Bessie Dooley, James and Frank Dooley, rendered the music. Com- 
pany M furnished the escort, and Bugler Claude Carlock sounded "taps" 
over the grave. The burial was in the cemetery at Pleasant Grove. 



SERGT. WESLEY RUYLE 

In the casualty list of November 25, 1918, ap- 
peared the name of Sergt. Wesley Riiyle killed in 
action. Although the soldier's name was given 
from Chillicothe, Ohio, yet he was in fact a young 
Bloomington man, for he had lived in this city all 
his life until two years before his death. Reared 
at the Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Normal until 
14 years of age, he afterward worked at different 
places in Bloomington, mostly in restaurants. He 
went to Ohio about 1915, and enlisted in Cleve- 
land, Sept. 1, 1917. After going through the usual 
training he was sent across as a member of head- 
quarters company of the 102d infantry. He was 
killed in the drive thru the Argonne in which the 
American forces under Gen. Pershing took part. 

The last letter received here told of his writing on paper captured from 
a dugout formerly occupied by the Germans ever since the opening of 
the war. When he. occupied that dugout, it was on the American front, 
but when he was writing, it was far to the rear of the American ad- 
vance. Burial probably took place near where he fell. Wesley left his 
mother, Mrs. L. I. Mann of 1605 South Center street, one brother and 
five sisters. He came from a fighting family, for his father was a ser- 
geant in the Tenth Missouri cavalry in the civil war, and he also had 
six uncles in the union army in the '60 's. 




HARRY B. RUSMISELL 

Harry Rusmisell of Stanford was a 
victim of pneumonia, his death occurring 
at a hospital at Le Havre, France, on 
October 14. The word came to his father, 
Henry Rusmisell, on Nov. 10. Harry was 
a member of Co. E, 106th Engineers, 
being one of the 500 boys who went out 
of here in the draft contingent of June 
25. After his preliminary training at 
Camp Wheeler, he was sent to Camp 
Mills, thence embarking for overseas 
service. The fatal disease overtook him 
before he had had time to get into the 
front line actions. Harry was the only 
child of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Rusmisell of 
Stanford. He was born there Sept. 18, 
1894, and grew up in the vicinity. He 
was engaged with his father in farming 
when he was called into the service. 
Harry was a member of the Presbyterian 

church, of the K. P. and the Odd Fellows and Woodmen. A letter written 
by Miss Sampson, a nurse at general hospital No. 2 at Casino, France, 




94 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

stated that Harry had been in the hospital only a few days; that he was 
sick when taken in, but the change for the worse came only the day 
before his death. He was buried at St. Marie cemetery, at Le Havre, 
and his grave marked with a wooden cross. Memorial services were 
held for him at the Presbyterian church at Stanford on Nov. 17, con- 
ducted by Eev. L. W. Madden. 

BENEDICT J. ROTH 

Private Benedict J. Eoth, son of C. L. Both, living two miles west 
of Chenoa, died of pneumonia in an army hospital at Camp Meucon, 
France, on January 4, 1919. The father was notified by letter from 
Private Eoy J. Everts of the medical department of the 79th field artil- 
lery, who was attached to the hospital. Young Eoth entered the hos- 
pital in November, was first taken seriously sick in December. Private 
Benedict J. Eoth was born on a farm southwest of Chenoa on August 
27, 1891. He graduated from the Chenoa high school in 1912 and later 
spent one year at the University of Illinois. After leaving school he 
assisted his father on the farm for a while, but two years before the 
war he accepted a position with the Payne Investment Company of 
Omaha, Neb., a land company, and acted as their agent at Lake Charles, 
La., until called to the service of his country. His father and three 
s-sters survive. He was a member of Chenoa lodge of Masons. The 
Chenoa Post of the American Legion is named for Ben Eoth. 

EARL T. SMITH 

Earl T. Smith quit the position of sales 
manager for C. U. Williams & Sons in Sep- 
tember, 1918, to enter the officers' train- 
ing camp at Camp Taylor, Louisville, Ky. 
He was there only six weeks when he was 
a victim of influenza, followed by pneu- 
monia, from which he died Oct. 15. His 
sister was with him when he died. Earl 
Smith was born at Cooksville, and was 
a son of Eobert T. Smith, for many years 
supervisor from Blue Mound, and chair- 
man of the county board. He was 22 years 
of age. He came to Bloomington when a 
young man and held positions in the Illinois 
Trust and Savings Co. and the L. M. S. 
Motor Company before going to Williams. 
He left his wife and three sisters. Hia 
*- J father had died the previous April. 

WILLIAM AND MELVIN SAVAGE 

Two young men who were born at Downs and spent their early lives 
there, were victims of the war, since both died in the service of their 
country. They were William and Melvin Savage, sons of Mr. and Mrs. 
Maurice Savage. They went into the service from Newton, Kansas, 
where the family lived at the time of the war. William was in the navy, 
and on December 5, 1918, he was accidentally drowned when he fell over- 
board from the training ship Cleo, stationed at Hampton Eoads. William 
had been in the navy for about a year when the fatal accident happened. 
On the day of the accident, some sailors in wrestling on the ship's deck 
had loosened a railing, which later gave way when young Savage leaned 
against it, and he was thrown into the waters of the bay. Although 
search was continued for several days after he fell overboard, the body 
was never recovered. He had previously been stationed at Great Lakes, 
where he made a record for expert marksmanship with rifle. Two weeks 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



95 



prior to his death, he was sent to Newport News and put aboard one 
of the training ships. A brother, Thomas, went to Newport News to 
assist in the search, but returned without results. While the family at 
Newton, Kansas, was mourning the death of William, another son, Mel- 
vin, who went home from an army camp to offer comfort to his relatives, 
was taken sick and died from the influenza. Melvin had gone into the 
aviation corps some months before and was stationed at a camp at Han 
Antonio, Texas, when he was called home by news of the death of his 
brother, William. The father of the brothers had died some years prior 
to the war; the mother and two brothers, John and Thomas, survive. 
William was about 23 years of age, and Melvin about 28. The family 
had relatives in Downs and Bloomington. 

GEORGE R. SIMONS 
George E. Simons, of Normal, gave up 

his life in the service, for he died of pneu- 
monia in a hospital in France on October 9, 

1918. According to information received by 

the parents, he entered the hospital at Brest 

on October 2, and in spite of all that could 

be done for him, the end came on the 9th. 

The body was buried in the American section 

of the cemetery at Lambexellec, and services 

were conducted by Chaplain Yates, with an 

escort of American soldiers in attendance and 

a Red Cross woman representing the family. 

The site of the grave overlooked the city of 

Brest and the sea beyond. George Simons 

was the son of Mr. and Mrs. George M. Simons 

of Normal. He was 20 years of age and had 

lived in Bloomington all his life. He worked 

at one time for the Pantagraph Printing and 

Stationery Company, and was with an elec- 
trical contracting firm just before he went into the service. His parents 

and one brother, Frank, survived. He was a member of the Baptist 

church. 

JOHN E. SCHRECK 

Gridley township contributed more than 

r " V one of her sons to the honor roll of the sol- 

diers who gave their life in their war: One 
of these was John E. Schreck, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Jacob Schreck, who died of pneu- 
monia at Camp Sheridan, in Alabama, on Oc- 
tober 20, 1918. This young man left this 
county on May 31 of that year, going with 
a contingent of draft men to Camp Sheri- 
dan. He submitted to the drills and ordinary 
camp life for the months of the summer and 
fall. When the wave of influenza was at its 
height, he fell a victim to the disease, and 
then when pneumonia set in his vitality suc- 
cumbed .and he died. The body was brought 
back to Gridley, and the funeral services were 
held on October 27, when due military honors 
were paid to the young soldier. One of his 

comrades from the camp accompanied the body. The burial took place 

at the Waldo cemetery, north of Gridley. Young Schreck was about 31 

years of age and had spent his life on a farm in Gridley township. His 

parents and one brother, Gottfried, were the surviving relatives. 





96 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 




FRED SKINNEE 

Fred Skinner died in a hospital at Glas- 
gow, Scotland, in October, 1918, where he 
was taken soon after he landed from the 
ship on which he embarked for service 
overseas. The news of his death came on 
November 10 to a brother, John E. Skin- 
ner, who lived on rural route No. 2 out 
of Normal. The word came from a com- 
rade of Fred in the hospital before it was 
officially announced by the war depart- 
ment. Fred was one of the draft con- 
tingent which left here on June 25, 1918, 
and was taken into the 106th Engineers. 
Several of that contingent suffered fatal 
attacks of influenza and pneumonia after 
embarkation. The burial of Skinner took 
place in the cemetery attached to the 
Glasgow hospital. 



-::--: :-:-:-:-:-:-:-::-:-::" :-<:-: V;:;; 



EARL SPENCER 

Earl Spencer, son of Herschel Spencer, former McLean county people, 
died from wounds received in action on September 25, 1918. He had 
entered the service just seven months prior to the date of his death, 
going from Stillwater, Oklahoma, where the family then lived. He had 
been an instructor in agriculture in the high school of his home town 
before he went into service. The young man left several relatives in 
Dawson township. 

SERGT. JESSE G. SPENCE 

Sergt. Jesse G. Spence, son of Mrs. Bertha 
Spence of 1201 West Seminary avenue, mem- 
ber of the U. S. Marine Corps, died on Jan- 
uary 26, 1919, at Quantico, Va., following a 
brief illness with pneumonia. He was born 
October 31, 1893, at Fairbury. When three 
years of age the family moved to Cooksville, 
and a year later moved to this city. He 
resided on the west side until he was eighteen 
years of age. Shortly after he enlisted in the 
regular army. After one enlistment in the 
army he returned to his home here, and later 
enlisted in the marines. While in the marines 
he was made a corporal. For some time he 
was on special duty as a military policeman 
in the Island of Haiti, West Indies. After 
leaving that place he was made a first ser- 
geant. 

He returned to this country in January, 

1919, from Europe to enter an officers' training school for a lieutenancy. 
He was taken ill Tuesday, January 21, and was sent to the hospital. 
Death came a few days later. His mother arrived at Quantico a few 
hours after her son's death. The body was brought to Bloomington for 
burial, and the funeral services were held on February 17. The services 
were held in Beck's chapel, with Eev. Edgar DeWitt Jones in charge. 
It was a double funeral, services being held at the same time for Herbert 
H. Holman, a sailor, who was killed in an accident in Queenstown, 
and whose body was brought home for burial. Miss Ethel Gulick sang 





McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 97 

at the funeral. Capt. Burr Crigler, Capt. Eoy Dillon and Lieut. Swine- 
hart were honorary pall bearers for Sergt. Spence. The interment was 
held at Park Hill cemetery, where 1,000 people assembled for the im- 
pressive service, with taps sounded by Bugler Claud Carlock and the 
last salute by a firing squad from Company M. These interments marked 
the formal dedication of the soldiers' lot in the Park Hill cemetery. 

EDMUND W. SUTHERLAND 

Edmund W. Sutherland, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. E. W. Sutherland of Bloomington, was 
one of the victims of the influenza which 
swept over the country and carried off many 
young men in the army camps during the 
fall of 1918. Young Sutherland died at Camp 
Grant on the evening of October 7, from 
heart diesase. The father had been at the 
young man's bedside two days before death 
came. 

Edmund had been at Camp Grant only 
five weeks, going to the camp with a con- 
tingent of draft men the first week in Septem- 
ber. He left his home in fine spirits and 
the best of health. He entered the work of 
and discipline of the camp with a patriotic 
ardor born of his high sense of honor and his love of country. When the 
influenza struck him down, it did its fatal work quickly, and he was ill 
a comparatively short time. 

Edmund W. Sutherland was born in Bloomington April 23, 1895. He 
obtained his early education in this city, attending the Jefferson school; 
the Wesleyan academy and law school. He then took a post-graduate 
course in the University of South Dakota, and after passing the state 
bar examination entered upon the practice of law with his father, under 
the firm name of Sutherland & Sutherland, with offices in the Peoples 
Bank building. 

He was married December 8, 1917, to Miss Pearl Kneale, of Kempton, 
who survives. He leaves besides the mother and father, one brother, 
Harlow Sutherland, and two sisters, Mildred and Hazel, all at home; 
and an uncle, Allen Brown, of Normal. Since his marriage he had lived 
at 305 North Linden street, Normal. 

He attended the Second Presbyterian church; was a member of the 
Delta Theta Law Fraternity of the University of South Dakota, and 
was also a member of the T. K. E. Fraternity of the Illinois Wesleyan 
University. 

The body was brought to Bloomington, and the funeral was held 
on October 11, at the home of the parents, 406 East Monroe street, in 
charge of Dr. J. N. Elliott, assisted by Eev. Lloyd S. Euland, who was 
then acting pastor of the Second Presbyterian church, of which Edmund 
was a member. Mrs. Hal M. Stone sang ' ' In Flanders Field. ' ' Fine floral 
tributes were sent by the McLean County Bar Association, the Illinois 
Club, the fraternities of the Wesleyan Law School, and the Modern 
Woodmen, besides many individuals. Members of Company M acted as 
pallbearers, as follows: Lyle Northrup, Philip Wood, Homer English, 
George Harris, Bert Johnson, and Lyle Straight. A squad from Com- 
pany M fired a salute over the grave in Bloomington cemetery, and 
"taps" was sounded by the company bugler. 

A few weeks later, the McLean County Bar Association held me- 
morial services in honor of Mr. Sutherland, and he was eulogized as 
one of the most promising younger members of the bar. 



98 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 




CLAYTON SHOLTY 

Clayton Sholty, son of W. L. Sholty 
: -- of 1208 East Grove street, died at Jeffer- 
son barracks on February 10, 1918. He 
caught cold from the unprotected condi- 
tion of the sleeping quarters at the bar- 
racks, and fell a victim to pneumonia. 
In an effort to relieve him, physicians 
operated and removed a part of one rib. 
His mother was with him during his sick- 
ness, until she became exhausted, when 
she returned home and the father took 
her place at the bedside. He was there 
to the end. Young Sholty enlisted in 
Bloomington on December 6, 1917, and 
went at once to Jefferson barracks. He 
was born April 1, 1892. His parents and 
one sister, Bliss, survive. He was a 
member of the First Presbyterian church. 
The body was brought to Bloomington, 
and funeral services held on February 13. 
Services were held at the home of the 
parents, conducted by Kev. Fayette E. 
Vernon of the First Presbyterian church, 
of which deceased was a member. Eev. 
Mr. Vernon read two of the favorite 
hymns of the young man. The casket 
was banked with a profusion of flowers. 
The burial took place in Park Hill cemetery. 

ARCHIE F. STEWART 

Although Archie F. Stewart of this 
county died on September 26, 1918, no word 
of his death was received by relatives in this 
city or county until October 31, and the first 
intimation of his fate was by means of a 
postal card received by his uncle, Clark E. 
Stewart, written by Sergt. Grover 6. Jenkins, 
whose home was in Decatur. This postal card 
was sent from Scotland, and stated that 
eleven members of the band of the 106th 
Engineers had died from influenza on the ship 
going across or in hospitals on the other side, 
and that two of the dead had been buried at 
sea. It was not until November 21 that 
official notification from the war department 
of Archie's death came to Bruce A. Stewart 
of Eandolph, his father. In this official noti- 
fication it was stated that death occurred on 
Sept. 26. The influenza was raging at its 
height at the time the 106th Engineers were 
at Camp Mills and during the time they made 
their voyage. Several of the members of that regiment from this county 
were among the victims of the disease either at the camp or on the 
voyage. Archie F. Stewart was 29 years of age, and was the son of 
B. A. Stewart, who lived nine miles south of Heyworth on a farm. 
Archie lived there with his father until he was called to the colors with 
the draft contingent which left this county on June 25. When he was 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



99 



in Camp Wheeler, being a fine clarinet player, he was selected as one of 
the musicians in the regimental band. He went to Camp Mills after 
Camp Wheeler, and the latter part of September set sail on the voyage 
which ended in his death at sea. His father survived, and also his 
brother, John, who was at Camp Taylor when Archie's death occurred. 
There were also Margaret, Clifford and Herbert at home. Memorial 
services in honor of Archie Stewart were held at the Presbyterian church 
at Heyworth on November 24, conducted by Rev. Mr. Elges, assisted 
by Eev. Evans and Eev. Keller of the other Heyworth churches. The 
brother, Sergt. John Stewart, from Camp Taylor, came home to attend 
the services. There was a large turn-out of friends of the dead soldier 
and his family. 

WALTER C. SEEGER 

It was a sad Christmas day in 1918 at ^^^^^^^^ 

the home of William C. F. Seeger of 601 
West Grove street, Bloomington, for two 
days before they received word that their 
son, Walter C. Seeger, had died in France 
from wounds received in action. October 
15 was given as the date of the battle, but 
Walter lingered for some time after he 
was wounded, death taking place on Octo- 
ber 17, and the war department having 
sent out official word on December 23. 
Walter was with Company M, 326th In- 
fantry, part of the 82d Division. He served 
eight months in France, six months of 
which he had been in or near the front. He 
was assigned as a battalion runner, and 
while serving in that capacity he was hit. 
His grave was numbered 125 in Section L, 
plat 3 at the American cemetery located at 
Les Islettes, department of the Meuse. 
Walter C. Seeger went out of Bloomington 
with the first draft contingent, Sept. 19, 
1917. He first went to Camp Dodge, thence 
to Camp Gordon, where he was absorbed 
into the 326th infantry and 82nd division. During a furlough from Camp 
Dodge, on Dec. 27, 1917, he was married to Miss Fern Snedaker, the 
ceremony taking place in Peoria. His wife, his parents, two brothers, 
Carl and Fred, and one sister, Frieda, were the surviving relatives. Wal- 
ter was a member of the Lutheran church, also of Wade Barney lodge 
of Masons, and of the order of Eagles. He was educated in the Lutheran 
school, learned the trade of a pressman, and at the time of his entry 
into the service was employed at the Pantagraph Printing and Stationery 
Company. Memorial services for him were held at the Trinity Lutheran 
church a few weeks after his death was officially reported. 




SERGT. DAVID B. STEVENSON 

Sergt. David B. Stevenson, a young colored soldier of Bloomington. 
was killed in action November 4, 1918, in France. His stepfather, Abe 
Stevenson, received word on Dec. 5 in a message from the war depart- 
ment. Dave Stevenson was a soldier of the 370th infantry and had 
been in France since March, 1918. He was well known in Bloomington, 
having lived here for many years. During the few years before the 
war he had resided in Chicago, where he enlisted in July, 1917. Steven- 
son was born in Cobden, 111., Oct. 21, 1883. He was married at Houston, 



100 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



Texas in 1917. He left his mother and stepfather, Mr. and Mrs. Abe 
Stevenson, two sisters, Mrs. Lena Hunter and Mrs. Clara Griggsby and 
a brother, Clarence, all of Bloomington, a brother, Abe Stevenson in 
Ohio and a brother Eoy with the American Expeditionary Forces in 
France. 

The post of American Legion composed of colored soldiers was 
named Lewis Stevenson post, in honor of David Stevenson and of Capt. 
Lewis, another man of the 370th who met death in France. 



CHARLES T. SMITH 

Mrs. Ira Ledbetter of Gridley received word on October 15, 1918, 
of the death of her nephew, Charles F. Smith, formerly of Gridley, who 
died in France from wounds received in action. The young man was 
22 years of age. He had enlisted in February, 1918, and after the usual 
preliminary training in camps in this country was sent across in June. 
He soon got into the fighting, and received the wounds which resulted 
in his death. 

WILLIAM STROH 

William A. Stroh, son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry Stroh, residents of Anchor 
township, was one of the many victims 
of the wave of influenza in the fall of 
1918. He was one of the 565 young 
men who left McLean county on the 
25th of June, 1918. He went with the 
boys to Camp Wheeler, where he began 
his military training as a member of 
Company L of the 123rd infantry. The 
regiment remained at Camp Wheeler 
until the latter part of September, when 
it was transferred to Camp Mills, Long 
Island. His company was placed in the 
31st division and was about ready to 
sail for France, when young Stroh was 
seized with influenza, which developed 
into pneumonia, and death followed on 
October 18. The body was sent to the 
home in Anchor township, and the 
funeral held on October 26. Full mili- 
tary honors were accorded. The Gibson 
City and the Anchor Home Guards 
turned out and furnished a firing squad 
for the last salute. The burial was at 

St. John's cemetery near Anchor. William Stroh was born on a farm 
near Anchor April 18, 1891, and lived all his life on a farm. In 1912 
he started farming for himself, and continued until he left for service 
in the army. 

CHRIS STREENZ 

One of the victims of the influenza from this city was Chris Streenz, 
son of Fred Streenz, whose home was eight miles southeast of the city, 
on the Abe Livingston farm. He was stricken down with the disease 
Oct. 9, 1918, while located in a camp in Texas, and died on the 18th. 
He was born in this county on August 10, 1894, at Towanda. He grew 
up on the farm, and was called to the colors in June, 1918, and after 
a short period at Jefferson Barracks he was sent to Fort Sam Houston 
in Texas. The body was brought to Bloomington, and the funeral serv- 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



101 



ices were held at the funeral parlors of Ferd Flinspach on October 24. 
Rev. H. K. Krughoff of the Salem Methodist church had charge. The 
burial was at Park Hill cemetery, and the following acted as pallbearers: 
Fred Schwartz, Bay Heintz, Charles Thomas, Bert Howes, John Pock- 
envitz and Edward Streenz. The young man left his parents, four 
brothers and three sisters. 



HARLEY B. SALZMAN 

The first McLean county soldier 
to give up his life in France was 
Harley B. Salzman, who died of 
embolism in a military hospital 
at La Courtain on January 25, 
1918. Young Salzman had lived 
at Carlock when growing into 
boyhood and young manhood, and 
had spent the whole of his life 
in McLean county up to two years 
before the war, when the family 
removed to North Dakota. In 
July, 1917, he enlisted in the Sec- 
ond North Dakota regiment, be- 
ing at that time 19 years of age. 
The regiment was sent in August 
to Camp Greene, North Carolina, 
and was there broken up and 
Salzman was assigned to the 
116th Sanitary train, 164 Ambu- 
lance corps of the 41st division. 
In September the unit was moved 
to Camp Mills, and some time in 
the following December embarked 
for Liverpool, where they landed 
on Christmas day. The stay was 
short in England, and the regiment landed at LeHavre, France, on New 
Year's day of 1918. The next move was to the French camp at La Cour- 
tain, where young Salzman was taken sick and died on the date men- 
tioned. The body is buried in a military cemetery at that place. 




ELMER STEFFEN 

Elmer Steffen, son of Albert Steffen of Cropsey, died on February 
21, 1919, soon after he had received his discharge from the service and 
returned home to Cropsey. His death was caused by pneumonia. He 
went to a camp in the fall of 1918 and served there till the close of the 
war. He was 23 years of age. 



LIEUT. CLARENCE W. SMITH 

In tho official casualty list of June 23, 1918, appeared the name of 
Clarence W. Smith, first lieutenant of Marines, who was killed in battle 
in France. This young man was a son of G. M. Smith, who at the time 
of the son's death was managing a garage on North Center street in 
Bloomington. He had formerly lived in Decatur, and there the young 
man was born and grew up. He graduated from the Decatur high school, 
won a scholarship at the University, and became a prominent student 
at that institution. He was soloist in the university glee club and man- 
ager of the Star lecture course. He received a strong recommendation 
from President James when he enlisted in the Marines, and this !cd to 



102 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 




his winning a lieutenancy. He was acting captain when he entered his 
last battle. He had been in France since September, 1917, and died 
fighting along the valley of the Marne, where the Americans stopped 
the last German drive. 

ALVA H. SMITH 

Mr. and Mrs. S. I. Smith of Car- 
lock received a message from the 
war department December 18, 1918, 
conveying the sad news of the death 
of their son, Alva Harold Simth, on 
October 29, in a military hospital at 
Liverpool, England. 

Private Alva H. Smith was taken 
sick with influenza on the transport 
and was placed in the hospital for 
treatment. Two letters dictated by 
him on October 27 stated he was im- 
proving daily, so that death came 
rather unexpectedly. 

Alva Harold Smith was born near 
Carlock, April 5, 1896, where he grew 
to manhood. He attended the Car- 
lock grade school and later the Car- 
lock community high school for three 
years. He entered the Urbana high 
school for fourth year's work, grad- 
uating from that institution June, 
1916. In the spring of 1917 he took 
charge of the farm. A year Liter, 
knowing the he would be called to 

service, he disposed of his farming property. On May 29, 1918, he went 
out with a draft contingent to Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Miss. His 
ability as a musician soon secured for him a position in the 150th 
infantry band, which position he held at the time of his death. His 
parents and one brother, Vernon, survive. 

HERBERT SCHROEDER 

Herbert Schroedcr, formerly of this city, died at Johns Hopkins 
hospital in Baltimore in October, 1918, the result of pneumonia. He 
had gone to Baltimore to work in the ship yards when he was taken 
down with his fatal illness. Herbert was born in this city April 16, 
1901. His parents died when he was young, and he made his home with 
his grandfather, Eobert Maddux. He left one brother, Eobert Schroeder, 
who was with the army in France, and two aunts, Mrs. M. L. Maddux 
of Bloomington and Mrs. Amelia Margraf in California, and an uncle, 
John Schroeder in Peoria. The body was brought to Bloomington for 
burial, and the funeral was held from the home of the aunt, Mrs. 
Maddux, on January 24. Eev. I. W. Longenbaugh of the Second United 
Brethren church was in charge of the services, and the burial was held 
in the Bloomington cemetery. 

GEORGE STRAYER 

George Strayer died while in the service of the government and 
doing his part to win the war, although not in the actual fighting forces. 
While working in the ship yards at Philadelphia he was a victim of 
pneumonia, and expired Oct. 12, 1918. He had been there since June, 
prior to which time he was in business with his brother Frank at the 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



103 



Harlan cigar store in Bloomington. He was a tinsmith by trade, and 
in that capacity was employed at the ship yards. Mr. Strayer was born 
Nov. 9, 1889, and was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Strayer. He 
grew up in Bloomington. He was married to Miss Etta Jones, daughter 
of Ward Jones of Towanda. The wife and one little son survived; also 
his mother, Mrs. Alice Strayer, and two brothers, Frank of this city 
and Charles D., of Chicago, and one sister, Mrs. Clarence Deetz. The 
body was brought back to Bloomington and the funeral and burial were 
held here. 

LEO SHERBURN 

Engineer C. Elmer Sherburn of the Alton road received word in 
October, 1918, that his son, Leo, had died in France from wounds re- 
ceived in action. His death was reported to have occurred on October 
2. Leo Sherburn spent his earlier life in Bloomington, having worked 
in the Alton shops here and acted as substitute fireman in the city de- 
partment at engine house No. 3. He was familiarly known as "sport." 
He was 27 years of age, and a fine specimen of physical examination, 
having passed the third best examination in a barracks among 4,000 
men. When the family left Bloomington for East St. Louis, Leo secured 
a position as engineer for the Missouri Pacific road, where he was work- 
ing when he enlisted for the war. His parents and one sister survive. 

CHARLES SCHAWADER 

Mrs. Emma Eekker of 1004 South Livingston street, Bloomington, 
received word in November, 1918, that her son, Charles Schawader, had 
died from injuries received in an accident in France while in the military 
service. The family had resided in Bloomington only a short time, and 
the young man went out in a draft contingent in the spring of 1918. 
He was in France several months before his fatal accident. 



FRANK M. THOENNES 




The 106th Engineers of the 31st 
division set sail for the other side 
during the neighth of the influenza 
epidemic of the fall of 1918. Conse- 
quently several of its members fell 
victims to the disease, and one of 
these was Frank M. Thoennes, mem- 
ber of the regimental band of the 
106th. Frank was a son of Mr. and 
Mrs. J. S. Thoennes of South Allin 
street, Bloomington. He went out of 
this county with the June draft con- 
tingent, was trained at Camp Wheeler, 
and sailed for England in September. 
On arrival at Glasgow, Scotland, he 
and a number of other members of 
the regiment were taken to a hospital 
suffering with pneumonia, where on 
October 9 he died. The parents re- 
ceived a letter from the Red Cross 
telling of the funeral in which Frank 
was given military honors. An Amer- 
ican chaplain read scripture. The 
burial was in the Craighton cemetery 
near the hospital. Frank Thoennes 
was born at Lafayette, Ind., Septem- 



104 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



ber 17, 1891, but lived most of his life in Bloomington. After attaining 
young manhood he was employed as clerk in the Bloomington postoffice. 
He was a player of French horn in the Bloomington band, and was noted 
for his musical talent. He was a member of the Knights of Columbus, 
of the St. Aloysius society of St. Mary's church, of the St. Elmo club 
and the Catholic Order of Foresters. He was a member of Post L, 
T. P. A., and his was one of the two gold stars in the honor roll of the 
post. He left his parents and the following brothers and sisters: John 
of Kansas City; Otto M., who served in a naval band in the war; Louis, 
Paul, Claire and Irene, at home; Mrs. Tony Ulbrich and Mrs. John Kelly 
of Bloomington; Lela, in Washington, and Joseph Thoennes of Bloom- 
ington. On November 18 there was held at St. Mary's church in Bloom- 
ington a memorial service for Musician Thoennes, at which a large 
concourse of friends assembled. The occasion was one of great solemnity. 
An improvised bier draped with the American flag was shown, and the 
service flag with its star of gold shown from the midst of a wreath of 
autumn leaves was another impressive feature. Father Julius had 
charge of the mass, and spoke in fitting terms of the life which had 
been given for the nation. 

VAN TODD 

It was ten months after his death that the parents of Van Todd of 
Danvers first learned of his death. After the battle of Sept. 27, 1918, 
in which the American forces were driving the Germans back thru 
the Argonne toward the Meuse, Todd was reported missing. No further 
word was reported concerning him until July, 1919, when the war de- 
partment gave out his name among those killed in action. It is pre- 
sumed that he met his death on the date that he was reported missing. 
He was the son of Price Todd of Danvers. He left this county in 
April, 1918, going with a contingent to Camp Dodge. He went to France 
the same summer, arriving there July 4 as a soldier of the 358th infantry. 
His regiment got into action within a few weeks afterward and followed 
the fortunes of Gen. Pershing's command thru the Argonne. Van 
left besides his parents, one brother, Cecil, and one sister, Edith, of 
Danvers. 

ALVA ROY ULMER 

One of the young men from Anchor 
township who gave up his life in the world 
war was Alva Eoy Ulmer, who died on 
October 21, 1918, at Camp Mills, where 
he had oeen sent preparatory to making 
the journey across to take his part with 
the actual fighting forces of America. 
Young Ulmer was a son of George Ulmer, 
who farmed in Anchor township. He went 
out of here with the draft contingent of 
June 25, and went to Camp Wheeler, where 
he received the preliminary training. He 
was sent to Camp Mills in September. 
About the middle of October the family 
were notified of the serious illness of the 
young man, and a brother, George, and a 
brother-in-law, George Huffman, went to 
the camp to be with him. Some time 
after his death a sister, Miss Vera Ulmer, 
received a letter from Miss Elsa Killers, 
the nurse who attended him, in which she 
enclosed a letter written by Alva to his 
sister, which the nurse found under his 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 105 

pillow after he was dead. The nurse wrote that his death was painless. 
Alva Eoy Ulmer was born January 11, 1891, on the father's farm near 
Arrowsmith. Later the family moved to Anchor township. He was 
brought up in the local schools and received pastoral instruction. He 
left his parents, seven sisters and two brothers. The body was brought 
to Colfax for burial, and a funeral was held with military honors, the 
Anchor Home Guards forming an escort of honor. 

REMI VEREECKE 

Eemi Vereecke, a young soldier who had been in the service only 
a few weeks, fell a victim to the influenza at Camp Sevier, S. C., on 
October 25, 1918. He had gone from Davenport on Oct. 5 with a com- 
pany of limited service men. The day before he left he was married to 
Mrs. Ella Morris, who came to Bloomington to make her home with 
Mrs. Fannie Hinshaw, sister of the soldier. Young Vereecke was a 
native of Belgium. The body was brought to Bloomington for burial 
and the funeral held from Mrs. Hinshaw 's home, with the burial in the 
Bloomington cemetery. 

GEORGE GRAY WHEELOCK 

One of the boys from McLean who 
died in the service was George Gray 
Wheelock, son of Mr. and Mrs. Clarendon 
Wheelock, who expired from influenza on 
Sept. 30, 1918, at Camp Grant. He had 
been ill a week, and his brother Charles 
was with him at death. Young Gray was 
born at McLean Jan. 5, 1892. He grad- 
uated from the high school of his native 
town in 1911. On Sept. 3, 1918, he went 
to Camp Grant with a draft contingent, 
and was assigned to Co. B, Fifth Limited 
Service. It is an interesting coincidence 
that just 57 years before, to the very 
day, Gray's father left home to enter 
military service during the Civil war. 
Both father and son were in their 27th 
year at the time of entering the service. 

Gray was survived by his mother, two 
sisters, Mrs. Frank Kinsey and Miss 
Carrie Wheelock, and one brother, Mr. 
Charles Wheelock; also three nephews, 
Harold, Clarendon and Whitney Kinsey. 

Accompanied by Private Rhinehart J. 
Swanson from Camp Grant, the body was 

taken to McLean, where the funeral was held. The house and yard were 
filled with friends. The service was in charge of Rev. Thrall, and burial 
in McLean cemetery. 

MAURICE WAKEFIELD 

While pursuing his studies as a member of the Student Army Train- 
ing Corps at the Iowa Agricultural college at Ames, Maurice Wakefield 
of Heyworth fell a victim of influenza and died on October 12, 1918. 
He was a son of Dr. F. L. Wakefield, one of the prominent physicians 
of the county living at Heyworth. The young man was a little less 
than 21 years of age, his majority birthday falling in December, 1918. 
He was educated in the Heyworth schools and for a time attended 
Lake Forest. He was in his second year at the college at Ames when 




106 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE ll'OELD WAE 



he was stricken down. He left his father, his step-mother and two 
sisters, Mrs. Harvey Mostoller of Saybrook and Marie Wakefield at home. 
The body was brought to Heyworth and funeral services held at the 
Presbyterian church, with burial in the Heyworth cemetery. 




RUDOLPH D. WATT 

Eudolph D. Watt, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bruce Watt of Leroy, died in France three 
months after the war had officially closed. 
His death occurred on January 19, 1919, 
but his people did not hear of it until 
about the first of February. Pulmonary 
tuberculosis was given as the cause. A 
Bed Cross message to his relatives sent 
from base hospital No. 52 in France on De- 
cember 27, 1918, told of his serious sick- 
ness. The last letter his people received 
from him was dated December 8. Young 
Watt was a member of Company B, 338th 
infantry, 84th division, and had been in 
France from September 12, 1918. He was 
born at Leroy September 13, 1890, and 
grew up there. He left high school before 
time of his graduation, and learned the 
trade of a barber. He worked at Hey- 
worth, Minonk, and then went to Indian- 
apolis, where he was married January 23, 
1917, to Thelma Corbin of Eutland. He 
left his parents, his wife, and four sisters 
and three brothers. One brother Rupert, 
was in Siberia during the war with the 

27th infantry. Young Watts was an attendant at the Presbyterian church 
when he was a young man in Leroy, and once received a diamond pin 
for faithful attendance. 

CLARENCE WEAKLEY 

After going to France and performing 
his full duty as a soldier, it fell to the 
fate of Clarence Weakley of Lexington to 
die on home shores after he had landed 
enroute home. His death occurred on 
January 19, 1919, in debarkation hospital 
No. 3 at Hoboken, New Jersey. The news 
of his death came as a great shock to his 
father, Thomas J. Weakley at Lexington 
for when had last heard from his son the 
soldier boy was in France and well and 
hearty. It seems that he was taken sick 
on the return voyage, influenza going into 
double pneumonia, resulting in death after 
he was taken to the debarkation hospital. 
The body was brought home to Lexington, 
where military funeral services were held 
on January 23 at the U. B. church. The 
burial was at Lexington cemtery. Clar- 
ence Weakley was born at Lexington in 
1893. He lived on his father's farm all 
his life until he was called to the colors, 





McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 107 

leaving Bloomington with the draft contingent of June 25, 1918, to 
Camp Wheeler. After his training, he went overseas in October. He 
was with Company C, 49th infantry. Young Weakley was a member 
of the U. B. church and of the Modern Woodmen. 

LOUIS WEILER 

Louis Weiler of Bloomington died at 
Norfolk, Va., on December 15, 1918, but 
his relatives here did not hear of his death 
until May, 1919. Not hearing from him 
for many months, they instituted a search, 
and learned of his death from pneumonia. 
He left Bloomington in October to enter 
the merchant marine, and was stationed at 
Norfolk when he was taken sick. He was 
born in Bloomington January 15, 1899, 
and on attaining young manhood entered 
the Alton boiler shops. Afterward he 
worked on Frank Bane's farm near Say- 
brook. Young Weiler was a member of 
St. Patrick 's church and of the Modern 
Woodmen. He left the following brothers 
and sisters: Charles, Robert, Marguerite 
and Mrs. Frances Hougham of Blooming- 
ton. 

EDWIN WENDELL 

A young man who formerly lived on a farm west of Bloomington 
and grew to young manhood there, was one of the soldiers who lost his 
life in the glorious action of the American Marine Corps at the Marne 
river in France in June, 1918. He was Edwin Wendell, whose family 
lived on a farm on West Market street road until their removal to 
Bruelle, Mo., some ten years ago. The young man was working in 
Peoria when the war came on, and he enlisted in the Marine Corps. 
He was in the marine brigade of the First Division which took part 
in the battle at Chateau Thierry on June 7, 1918, when he was hit and 
fatally wounded. He died shortly afterward and was buried on the 
field near where he fell. Young Wendell was 23 years of age. In April, 
1919, the teacher and pupils of Little Brick school, west of the city, 
held a ceremony in the planting of a tree in the school grounds in memory 
of the young soldier frpm that neighborhood who gave his life for 
his country. 

GUS WILLIAMS 

Gus Williams, a soldier of the 370th infantry, colored regiment, 
was killed in action during the period between Sept. 26 and Oct. 2, 
according to word received by his father, Moses Williams of Bloom- 
ington on January 21. Young Williams before entering the service, was 
a cook at the Illinois hotel, where he was employed for seven years. 
He left Bloomington in June, 1917, and was a member of the old Eighth 
Illinois infantry. He was stationed for several months at Houston, 
Texas, and was sent overseas in April, 1918. Relatives here last heard 
from him in a letter written July 20, 1918. 

Young Williams was 26 years old. He was born in Jacksonville, 111., 
and came to Bloomington with his parents in 1900. Besides his father, 
he left four brothers: Jean, Harold, Howard and Melvin, and two sisters, 
Corrine Williams and Mrs. Ruth Sharp. He also left his grandmother, 
Mrs. Malinda Smith. 

A memorial service for Gus Williams was held at Mt. Pisgah Baptist 
church, when resolutions were adopted. 



108 



McLEAN COUNTY AND TllK ll'OSLD WAR 



JOHN R. WILSON 



3 



John E. Wilson, who left the county 
in the draft contingent of April 3, 1918, 
for Fort Wright, died on April 29, ac- 
cording to word received by his parents, 
S. A. Wilson and wife of Danvers. He 
was the first Danvers boy to give up his 
life in the service. After reaching camp 
he wrote his parents that he had mumps, 
and the next letter said he was better. 
On April 28 the family got word that 
he was seriously ill. John E. Wilson 
was born August 8, 1890, and lived all 
his life in Danvers. He worked for sev- 
eral years in a livery stable and thus 
had a wide acquaintance. His parents 
survived, with four sisters: Mrs. Belle 
Stahley of Leroy, Mrs. Elmer Otto and 
Mrs. Bessie Curry of Danvers and Mrs. 
Blanche McMullen of Arkansas. The 
body was brought to Danvers, and the 
funeral was held Sunday, May 5. Cor- 
poral Frank Wessell accompanied the 
body from Fort Wright. Services were held at the Presbyterian church, 
and fully 1,000 people attended. Eev. G. A. Wilson and Eev. L. C. Voss 
had charge of the service. The Order of Eagles attended from Bloom- 
ington. Interment was in Park Lawn cemetery near Danvers. Pall 
bearers were Yard Mussellman, Harry Strubhar, Alvin Hess, Lyle 
Sebastian, Christian Burmaster, and Wallace Musselman. 




HARRISON W. WHITE 

The first soldier who died after his return home, from the indirect 
effect of ailments contracted in the service, was Harrison W. White, 
who expired on January 14, 1919, at the home of his brother, Alonzo 
White 1404 West Locust street, in Bloomington. Death was due to 
heart disease, which he first developed while in the service. He was 
a member of the 3rd company, 164th depot brigade at Camp Funston. 
While there he was discharged for physical disability, and arrived home 
in August. He continued to grow worse until his death. Young White 
was formerly a fireman on the Alton road. He was 29 years old and 
was born at Sullivan, 111. His father, S. W. White, six brothers and one 
sister survived. The body was taken to Congerville for burial. 

JOHN T. WAKEFIELD 

While serving as chief electrician on the U. S. S. Maine, John T. 
Wakefield of Heyworth was taken sick with pneumonia and died on his 
ship on the Atlantic ocean when the vessel was near Portsmouth, Va. 
His death occurred on October 2, 1918. The body was brought ashore 
and prepared for shipment to his relatives at Heyworth. It arrived in 
due time and funeral services were held on October 9 in the Heyworth 
Presbyterian church, with burial in the Heyworth cemetery. The young 
sailor was the son of J. C. Wakefield of Heyworth, and he was born at 
that place Feb. 8, 1897. At the age of 10 he united with the Presby- 
terian church. He attended the town schools and then Brown's business 
college. Then he decided to make a specialty of electricity and attended 
an electrical school in Milwaukee in 1914-15. On Sept. 1, 1915, he went 
to Chicago and enlisted as recruit in the navy and was first assigned 
to the naval yards at Brooklyn. Later he was put on board the U. S. S. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 109 

Maine in charge of the electrical work of the ship. He showed a great 
proficiency in his work. The young man's father died ten years before 
the war. He left his mother, one brother, Dr. W. B. Wakefield, and one 
sister, Mrs. Eoy Potts of Pana. 

HOWARD WILEY. 
Howard Wiley, son of Gilbert 
Wiley of Bloomington, died at 
the Great Lakes naval training 
station on October 8, 1918, from 
pneumonia following an attack of 
influenza. He had enlisted in the 
naval service in the summer and 
had been at the Great Lakes only 
a few weeks when he was taken 
sick. His parents were at the 
hospital when he died. Young 
Wiley was 22 years old. His 
father had long been connected 
with the Bell telephone system, 
first in the Bloomington office and 
then as manager of the Danvers 
exchange. The parents and one 
sister, Eunice, survived. The body 
of young Wiley was brought to 
Bloomington, and accorded full 
military honors at the funeral. 
Services were held at the Danvers 
Presbyterian church, and the 
Masons had their ritual. Burial 
was in Park Lawn cemetery. 

FRED P. WAMPLER 

Private Fred P. Wampler died on March 30, 1918, at Fort Riley, 
Kansas, of pneumonia. His body was brought to Arrowsmith, former 
home of the family, and buried there. His father and Lieut. George 
W. Barr accompanied the body from Camp Funston for the funeral. 
The service was held from the home of John Bunn, conducted by Rev. 
Carlberg. Full military honors were given, the Saybrook Home guards 
being an escort of honor. The young soldier was a son of M. M. Wampler, 
who removed to Oklahoma some years before the war. Fred was em- 
ployed in Des Moines when his call to service came, and he was sent 
to Camp Funston. When he was taken sick, he was sent to hospital at 
Fort Riley. He was 25 years of age. 

WARREN K. WEBBER 

Warren K. Webber died at a hospital in Washington on Oct. 15, 
1918, after a brief illness with pneumonia following influenza. He had 
been in Washington for some months employed in the filing department 
of the adjutant general's office. He enlisted for military service on 
Sept. 13 of that year, but had not been called to the colors nor supplied 
with uniform. Warren K. Webber was born at Arrowsmith on May 21, 
1891. He grew up at that place and entered business as manager of 
the Arrowsmith Concrete Tool company, which business he continued 
until he entered the government employ in February, 1918. He left 
his mother, Mrs. Nettie Webber, and one sister and three brothers. The 
body was brought to Arrowsmith, where funeral services were held at 
his home on October 20 in charge of Rev. A. W. Carlberg. The interment 
took place at the Frankeberger cemetery near Ellsworth. 




110 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 





CHARLES T. WITT 

Charles Theodore Witt was one of tha 
three sons of H. S. Witt of Arrowsmith 
who were in the service in the war, and 
the only one who gave up his life. He 
went out in the big draft contingent of 
June, 1918, and after a course of training 
at Camp Wheeler, he was sent to Camp 
Mills. He had reached the grade of cor- 
poral in Company I of the 123rd infantry. 
While at Camp Mills waiting to go over- 
seas, he was stricken with influenza, and 
after about ten days' illness he died on 
Oct. 10. Charles T. Witt was born at 
Lost Creek, Tenn., on Feb. 14, 1896. The 
family moved to Arrowsmith several years 
before the war. He was one of ten chil- 
dren. One brother, Artec, was in France, 
and another brother, Dewey Witt, was in 
the Panama canal zone in the war. The 
other children lived at home with their 
parents. The body was brought back to 
Arrowsmith, and there on October 16 the 
funeral service was held from the Chris- 
tian church, conducted by Eev. A. E. Carl- 
burg. The interment took place in the 
Stipp cemetery. 

SERGT. EDWIN D. WALTMAN 

Word reached relatives on Sept. 19, 1918, of the death of Sergt. 
Edwin D. Waltman, formerly of McLean, he having been killed in action 
on July 19. He was in Co. C, Second Engineers, part of the First division 
which took part in the battles of the Marne in June and July of that 
year and definitely put an end to the last of the great German offensives. 
The young man was born in Mt. Hope township on July 2, 1898. The 
family moved to Colorado in 1908. Edwin enlisted in the army in 1913, 
and served two years in the Philippines. After returning, he served 
with the regulars on the Mexican border, and in September, 1917, his 
regiment went to France. He left surviving his parents and two sisters 
living in Colorado. He had many acquaintances in McLean and vicinity. 

In a letter written to the mother of the soldier, Mrs. Lyman Walt- 
man, Lieut. George Knight of Company C describes the manner of Sergt. 
Waltman 's death, as follows: "He met his death on July 19, while 
we were holding the line in an open wheat field about one kilometer 
west of Yierzy and six kilometers south of Soissons, and his body is 
buried at this point. His death, which was practically instantaneous, 
was caused by a shell fragment at about 2 p. m. on the 19th. He was 
then acting as platoon sergeant of my platoon." 

THE BIVOUAC OF THE DEAD 

"The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 

The soldier's last tattoo; 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

That brave and fallen few. 
On Fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread 
And Glory guards with solemn round, 

The bivouac of the dead. ' ' 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



111 




LEO VINCENT 

Exposures and dangerous injuries 
while in service at the front were 
the cause of the death of Leo Vin- 
cent, altho his demise did not take 
place until April 12, 1920. He died 
on that date in Ehinebeck hospital 
in New York City, the indirect 
effect of having been gassed while 
serving with an ambulance com- 
pany of the U. S. Marine corps in 
France. Leo was the son of Mr. 
and Mrs. W. M. Vincent of 703 
East Oakland avenue. Prior to the 
war he had studied with Eev. Wil- 
liam Baker of St. Matthews Epis- 
copal church with the intention of 
becoming a priest of that church. 
After his return from service he 
went to New York City to resume 
his studies. He had never fully 
recovered from the effects of the 
poison gas, and was finally taken down with tuberculosis of the spine 
from which he never recovered. His parents were with him when he 
died. Leo was 22 years of age. He left his parents and one brother, 
Herschel, living at Minier. The body was brought to Bloomington and 
the funeral services held here. 

JOHN M. REDD 

John M. Redd, one of the young colored men who went out of 
Bloomington with the old Eight Illinois and was later taken into Co. 
K of the famous fighting 370th Infantry, was mortally wounded by 
shrapnel in action. He was left in a base hospital at Brest when his 
comrades of the 370th returned home, and later died of his wounds. 
The young wife of Private Eedd died in Bloomington a few months 
afterward, her death possibly hastened by grief for her soldier husband. 



THE WHITE CROSS BY SIDE OF 
THE MARNE 

This is a picture of the cross over 
the grave of Edward Dwyer of 
Cooksville, who fell in battle as a 
private in Company A, 58th infan- 
try, in one of the battles of August, 
1918. It is typical of thousands of 
others marking the graves of Amer- 
ican dead in France. 

Scarce need that we their names 

enshrine 
In fadeless bronze, on deathless 

stone, 
For their proud record still will 

shino 

When all our sires and sons are 
gone. 




'* 






DRAFT BOARDS SENT 2000 MEN TO SERVICE 

The war had been in theoretical progress only for a few months, 
when the congress of the United States saw that some kind of a general 
military service law would become a necessity to summon the man power 
of the country to the call of duty. Not that the men of military age in 
the United States were lax in their sense of duty, but that it would 
be needful to supplant the volunteer service with a system of which 
would be uniform from one end of the country to another, and which 
make no discriminations among the men who were liable to this neces- 
sary duty. Accordingly the so-called draft law was passed by the con- 
gress in May, 1917, and the date of June 5, 1917, was set for the time 
when all the men of the nation between the ages of 21 and 31 should 
register in their respective homes as subject to military call. On the 
date mentioned, there were 5,800 young men registered in the various 
precincts of McLean county. The registration went off without a hitch. 
Men were stationed in the polling booth of each voting precinct of the 
county on that day, and the young men of the respective precincts came 
to the place and entered their names, ages, and various other facts sought 
by in the question blanks sent out by the war department. It is inter- 
esting to note the number of men registered at this time, and the facts 
which they made known to the board, all of which are revealed in the 
table of the registration compiled two days after the registration closed. 

Exemption No 
Claimed Exemption Total 

Bloomington No. 1 51 23 74 

Bloomington No. 2 19 36 55 

Bloomington No. 3 55 44 99 

Bloomington No. 4 61 33 94 

Bloomington No. 5 72 36 108 

Bloomington No. 6 62 43 107 

Bloomington No. 7 65 28 93 

Bloomington No. 8 53 32 87 

Bloomington No. 9 37 25 62 

Bloomington No. 10 15 24 39 

Bloomington No. 11 30 41 71 

Bloomington No. 12 , 44 53 97 

Bloomington No. 13 43 32 75 

Bloomington No. 14 63 19 82 

Bloomington No. 15 43 21 64 

Bloomington No. 16 57 22 79 

Bloomington No. 17 25 40 65 

Bloomington No. 18 34 36 70 

Bloomington No. 19 33 18 51 

Bloomington No. 20 35 36 71 

Bloomington No. 21 38 37 75 

Bloomington No. 22 47 34 80 

Bloomington No. 23 26 44 70 

Bloomington No. 24 52 47 99 

Bloomington No. 25 24 25 49 

Bloomington No. 26 42 23 65 

Bloomington No. 27 49 27 76 

Bloomington No. 28 51 33 84 

Bloomington No. 29 53 24 77 

Bloomington No. 30 31 26 57 



Total city 1312 964 2276 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS U3 

Mt. Hope No. 1 71 33 104 

Mt. Hope No. 2 8 5 13 

Allin 20 77 97 

Danvers 49 56 105 

Funk 's Grove 50 37 87 

Dale 46 35 81 

Dry Grove 36 33 69 

White Oak 37 20 57 

Eandolph No. 1 47 47 94 

Randolph No. 2 12 28 40 

Bloomington township No. 1.. 48 35 83 

Bloomington township No. 2 24 26 50 

Hudson 53 32 85 

Normal No. 1 23 83 106 

Normal No. 2 56 31 87 

Normal No. 3 46 33 79 

Normal No. 4 34 11 45 

Downs No. 1 41 18 59 

Downs No. 2 9 29 38 

Old Town 52 25 77 

Towanda No. 1 39 14 53 

Towanda No. 2 24 8 32 

Money Creek . . 60 

Gridley 58 107 165 

Empire No. 1 28 22 50 

Empire No. 2 36 39 75 

Empire No. 3 27 30 56 

Dawson No. 1 42 20 63 

Dawson No. 2 24 20 44 

Blue Mound No. 1 38 19 57 

Blue Mound No. 2 26 5 31 

Lexington No. 1 16 30 46 

Lexington No. 2 26 45 71 

Lexington No. 3 21 25 46 

Chenoa No. 1 24 24 48 

Chenoa No. 2 35 44 79 

Chenoa No. 3 47 19 81 

West 58 41 88 

Arrowsmith 51 37 95 

Martin No. 1 36 22 73 

Martin No. 2 35 20 56 

Lawndale 48 36 71 

Yates 47 34 82 

Bellflower No. 1 9 55 102 

Bellflower No. 2 51 8 17 

Cheney's Grove No. 1 37 31 82 

Cheney 's Grove No. 2 49 18 55 

Anchor 12 33 82 

Cropsey 11 26 37 



Total townships 1717 1506 3303 

Grand total 3029 2470 5579 

The above table is only for white men. In the lists of colored men 
there was for the whole county one card of officer, 50 with dependent 
relatives, 2 occupational exemptions, a total of 53 claiming exemptions. 
There were 69 claiming no exemptions, a grand total of 122 colored men 
registered. 

Of the total of 3,029 who claimed exemption in the county, there 
were 6 who were public officers, 99 totally disabled, 2750 who had de- 



114 



MCLEAN COUNTY EXEMPTION BOARD 





Isaac Murphy, No. 1 



Chester E. Ewins, No. 1 




Dr. B. F. Elfrink, No. 1 Mrs. E. A. Mott, Clerk No. 1 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 115 

pendent relatives, and 175 occupational exemptions. There were 89 
alien listed, and 25 alien enemies. 

The next step in the process of securing men for the army under the 
operation of the draft law was to appoint a board in each county or 
district whose duty it should be to call all the registered young men 
before them for physical examination as to their fitness, and learn if 
there were any reasons why they should be exempted from military ser- 
vice when called. This board of exemption, so-called, was named by the 
adjutant general's office of the state of Illinois. McLean county was 
divided into two districts, one including the city of Bloomington to- 
gether with Allin and Dale townships; the other district to include all 
of the county court; chairman of city board No. 2, Judge aSin Welty, 
including most of the country precincts was known as No. 1 and the 
city district No. 2. The personnel of the two boards appointed for these 
respective districts was as follows: 

Exemption Board No. 1 Chairman, C. E. Ewins, of Danvers; clerk, 
Dr. B. F. Elf rink, of Chenoa; Isaac Murphy, of Leroy; chief clerk, Eeube 
B. Prothero; assistant clerk, Mrs. Edward A. Mott; soldier member; John 
Farley; stenographer, Miss Dorothy Mason. 

Exemption Board No. 2 Chairman, Judge Colostin D. Myers, Bloom- 
ington; secretary, H. M. Murray, Bloomington; medical examiner, Dr. E. 
Mammen; chief clerk, Ralph Freese; assistant clerk, Miss Loretta Grady; 
soldier member, Thomas J. Shanahan. 

Local Advisory Board Chairman of board No. 1, Judge J. C. Eiley, 
of the country court; chairman of city board No. 2, Judge Sain Welty, 
of the circuit court. 

Medical Advisory Board Medical advisory board: Dr. B. F. Elf rink, 
of Chenoa; Dr. E. Mammen, of Bloomington; clerk, Walter P. Prenzler. 

Instruction Board Board of instruction: Capt. C. B. Hamilton, chair- 
man. 

These exemption boards were assigned rooms in the court house, and 
with their assistants were busy every week day during the war, and 
many times at night. It was their duty to keep on their waiting list 
a number of young men who had been examined and passed as subject 
to call, so that every time a call was issued from the adjutant general 
for a certain quota of men from either of these districts, the men would 
be ready and called at the designated date. 

Scenes around the rooms occupied by the exemption boards during 
the war were among the most touching connected with the military his- 
tory of the county. Every day lines of young men would be standing 
or sitting while waiting for the time of examination. Many of these 
were accompanied to the court house by their parents, and in some cases 
by their sweethearts or sisters. Parents would naturally be affected by 
the meaning of the process through which their sons were passing, and 
tears were shed by hundreds of the mothers and sometimes by the fathers 
as they watched their sons go through the examination. 

By the time the boards were discharged, they had examined literally 
thousands of young men and passed upon their liability to military ser- 
vice. At the close of the work of the boards, after the end of the war, 
the following summary of their work was issued: 

The local boards inducted and sent to camp a total of 1949 men. Of 
this number 1000 were from the country board of exemption board No. 
1. Nine hundred and forty-nine men were inducted and sent to camp 
from city board No. 2. 

Board No. 1 The following are the figures from board No. 1: 

Total registration, June 5, 1917 3076 

Total registration, June 5, 1918 259 

Total registration, Aug. 24, 1918 57 

Total registration, Sept. 12, 1918 4311 

Total registration 7703 



116 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



MCLEAN COUNTY EXEMPTION BOAED 




Dr. E. Mammen, No. 2 



H. M. Murray, No. 2 





Keubcn Protkero, Clerk Board 1 



Kalph Freese, Clerk No. 2 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 117 

Of which 7675 were white and 28 colored. 

Class 2 in all registrations 148 

Class 1 in all registrations 2141 

Class 3 in all registrations 104 

Class 4 in all registrations 2598 

Class 5 in all registrations 91 

Non-combatants 91 

2347 claims were sent to the district board, most of which were 
agricultural claims. 

1598 were physically examined, 291 of which were disqualified for 
general service on account of their physical conditions. 

133 were held for limited service only. 

1000 were inducted into the service 938 of which were sent to camps 
in various places over the entire United States. 

62 were sent to various colleges in the students army training corps 
division. 

About 100 registrants voluntarily enlisted. Of course, there was a 
large number who voluntarily enlisted before they registered. The local 
board has no record of them. 

City Board No. 2 The following figures give some idea of the vast 
amount of work accomplished by city board No. 1, which had juris- 
diction of all of the city of Bloomington, and Normal and Allin and 
Dale townships: The total number inducted and sent to camp was 949, 
and the total "number of registrations was 7,876. 

Sent to Camp Class of June, 1917: White, 704; colored, 28; total, 
832. 

Class of June, 1918: White, 34; colored, 4; total, 38. 

19 to 36 registrants: White, 53. 

18-year-old registrants: White, 26. 

Total inducted and sent to camp, 940. 

The local boards were composed of men who were prominent in the 
business and professional life of the city and county. C. E. Ewins, of 
Danvers, chairman of board No. 1, was a member of the board of super- 
visors and is a prominent farmer and stockman, who has had much ex- 
perience in business affairs. Dr. Elfrink, of Chenoa, clerk and medical 
examiner of this board and member of the medical advisory board, is 
one of the leading physicians of the county. Isaac Murphy, of West 
township, another member, is a farmer and stockman. He was one of 
the efficient workers of the board. Mr. Prothero, the chief clerk, was 
employed at the McLean county bank, and is most competent. Mrs. 
Edward A. Mott, Miss Dorothy Mason and Mr. Farley, employed with 
board No. 1 were all efficient in this line of work and all rendered val- 
ued, service. 

Board No. 2 C. D. Myers, chairman of board No. 2, was for many 
years judge of the circuit court. He was one of the most eminent jurists 
in central Illinois. Secretary H. M. Murray is a local attorney. He was 
a tireless worker and was on' the job incessantly since the organiza- 
tion of the board. Dr. Mammen, one of Bloomington 's leading physicians, 
was examiner of this board and also a member of the legal advisory 
board. Mr. Freese, the chief clerk is a young Bloomington business 
man. He has had much experience in clerical work of varied character 
and he rendered valued service. Miss Grady, assistant clerk of the 
board, is to be classed among the valued attaches of the board. She has 
been a capable and tireless worker. Mr. Shanahan, the soldier member, 
was another efficient worker. The personnel of both boards was all that 
could be desired and McLean county was to be complimented for their 
efficiency, their painstaking efforts, their courteous treatment and their 
patience. 



118 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 




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McLEAN COUNTY AND THK WORLD WAR 119 

Capt. C. B. Hamilton, chairman of the board of instruction, gave 
valued instruction in drills, and in army tactics to young soldiers about 
to entrain for the camps. This department of work was created well 
along toward the finish of the war, but at any rate it was productive 
of excellent results. 

Personnel of llth district medical advisory board internists: Drs. 
C. E. Chapin, W. E. Neiberger and L. B. Gavins, Bloomington; Frank C. 
Bowden, Pontiac; W. H. Miner, Farmer City; E. E. Sargent, Leroy. 

Tuberculosis Dr. O. M. Ehodes, Bloomington. 

Surgeons Drs. W. E. Guthrie, E. P. Sloan, E. B. Hart, G. B. Kelso 
of Bloomington; Dr. F. C. McCormick, Normal, and Dr. John D. Scouller, 
Pontiac. 

Eye, ear, nose and throat Drs. E. D. Fox, F. H. Godfrey and J. W. 
Smith, Bloomington. 

Dentists Drs. W. H. Land, S. B. Powers of Bloomington. 

Legal advisory board James C. Riley, E. E. Donnelly, E. L. Fleming, 
Sain Welty, Joseph W. Fifer, Louis FitzHenry, all of Bloomington. 

The send-off of the drafted contingents differed from time to time 
according to circumstances, but there were points of similarity in all 
these occasions. There was the assembly at the court house of the men 
called for cntrainment; then a dinner or supper served free to the de- 
parting soldiers by the citizens of Bloomington; then some speeches, and 
finally the march to the train and the good-byes at the station. A para- 
graph from a newspaper description of one of these farewells, will serve 
to tell the salient points about all of them: 

"The spacious dining parlors of the Hills hotel were filled with soldier 
boys and members of their immediate families and as Judge Myers, Mayor 
Jones, and Ex-Governor Fifer voiced stirring sentiments and fond fare- 
wells on the part of the people of this community, tears glistened on 
many an eye-lash. There was no effort, however, to say one word that 
had a tendency. to discourage or sadden the hearts of any in fact senti- 
ments of cheer and good will were voiced by the several speakers and 
the enthusiasm and patriotic spirit manifested was largely responsible 
for the hundreds of moist eyes in the assembly." 

Here are one or two characteristic sentences from one of the speeches 
of Gov. Fifer: 

"And now my comrades, may the good God who presides over the 
destinies of nations, keep and preserve you; watch over you and return 
you to us a victorious army in the great cause of world wide democ- 
racy, is my earnest prayer." 

"And now boys, go over there and get the Kaiser, and if you get 
there and find out that you can't get him send for me." 

Here are some of the exclamations at the partings: "Good-byn 
mother, I'll write soon." "Good-bye Sallie, I'll not forget." "So long 
Tom, I'll remember you." "Good-bye mother, don't worry about me." 
"Good-bye Bessie, I'll send you a button from the Kaiser's coat." 
"Good-bye, when I get over there, there will a hot time in little ol' 
Berlin." "Good-bye mother, take care of Eover. " 

At the station the Bloomington band drew up in a circle and its 
leader, George Marton, mounted to the top of an engine tender close by 
and held a ' ' sing. ' ' Several of the popular patriotic airs were sung 
with band accompaniment and cheer upon cheer given by the crowd 
during the intervals. As the long train moved out, there was a profuse 
waving of hats and handkerchiefs and a cheering until the train was 
enveloped in the curve in the track in the eastern part of the city. 

With the war in progress over a year, the government's war depart- 
ment decided that the man power of the nation under the first registra- 
tion might be exhausted if the war continued for many years further. 



120 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

Therefore congress passed a law requiring a second registration of men, 
this to include all those between the ages of 18 and 45. 

The men registered under this call were never in fact called into 
the service, except in some few isolated cases where they were inducted 
into service in special branches. The records of the registration, how- 
ever, were preserved with other archives of the exemption boards, and 
sealed up with them for transmission to the state departments when the 
war work of the boards was ended. The total number of registrations 
under this second call were as follows: 

Between 18 and 21 950 

Between 31 and 45 7070 

Of this total number of registrants, there were 4,225 registered in 
the jurisdiction of board No. 1, and 3,765 registered in the jurisdiction 
of board No. 2. 

JUDGE MYERS' WOEK IN WAR 

Bounding out a life-time of distinguished service at the bench and bar 
with practically two years of direct devotion of his time and energies and 
vital force to the service of his nation, Judge Colostin D. Myers deserves 
one of the most merited encomiums of praise for his work during the world 
war. It was as a member of the exemption board for district No. 2 of 
McLean county, appointed to examine for military service all the young 
men of the city of Bloomington and the townships of Dale and Allin, 
that Judge Myers spent the most of his time during the last two years of 

his life, for his death on January 12, 
1920, occurred only a few months 
after the board had officially wound 
up its work. Judge Myers' associates 
on board No. 2 were H. M. Murray 
and Dr. Mammen. The board began 
its work within a few weeks after the 
registration of the young men of mili- 
tary age in this county, which occurred 
on June 5, 1917. The work of the 
board included an immense mass of 
detail, consisting of physical examina- 
tions of hundreds of young men, ex- 
amination of their claims of exemp- 
tion, certifying to their selection for 
service, calling them together when- 
ever the state required a certain quota 
for certain camps; looking after their 
comfort and accommodation at the 
time of their assembly for entrain- 
ment for the camp, and finally seeing 
that they were properly organized for 
the trip with proper leadership to the 
camps. One call for contingents fol- 
lowed another in close succession dur- 
ing the fall and winter of 1917 and 
the spring and summer of 1918, so 
Judge Colostin D. Myers that the members O f t he board had no 

rest from the strenuous tasks to which they were assigned until the signing 
of the armistice. Then followed the gigantic task of collecting and sealing 
up the immense volume of the records of the boards. 

Judge Myers came to the work of the exemption board from his well 
earned retirement after a life-time of public service. Born in Ohio, he 




121 



served in the civil war and afterward located in this city. Being ad- 
mitted to the bar, he took up the practice of law in this city, was elected 
county judge and then circuit judge, serving 12 years as county judge and 
18 years as circuit judge. He also filled a position on the appellate bench 
for several years. His name was mentioned for state supreme judge, and 
at the republican convention he received a large vote for nomination. Judge 
Myers died on January 12, 1920, just as he was getting ready to take a 
trip south to recuperate from the physical strain which his two years of 
war labors had caused. He was laid to rest amid signal honors from 
citizens, the McLean county bar and hosts of personal friends. 




A Typical Crowd Along Newspaper Eow, Bloomington, Beading 
Bulletins of War News, 1918. 



SUPPORTED FRENCH ORPHAN 

Hurley H. Bryant, son of Mrs. Harry Bryant 
of Towanda, took on the care of an orphan in 
France while he was doing his duty as a soldier. 
He wrote home to his mother while in France, 
and touched on this subject like this: "You 
should see the small boy I am sending to school; 
he sure is a dandy. His mother is dead and his 
daddy is in the trenches on some front. I think 
I shall steal him and bring him home with me. 
His name is Maurice Amant. Great kid, takes 
quite a bunch out of my pay and I don't get to 
go on any long passes. However, he is worth it. 
You should hear him say 'Harley' it's good." 





'The Greatest Mother in the World." 



MCLEAN COUNTY AND THE RED CROSS 

At a meeting of the Civic League of Bloomington early in June, 
1915, Mrs. N. D. McKinney, president of the Woman's club, presented 
the subject of organizing a Bed Cross Chapter in Bloomington. The 
suggestion met with cordial approval, and action was taken authorizing 
the chairman, E. M. Evans, to appoint a committee to take preliminary 
steps toward that end. That evening Dr. E. Mammen, Mrs. G. S. Mc- 
Curdy, Mrs. E. E. Morgan, Mrs. N. D. McKinney and E. M. Evans paid 
their membership fee, the necessary one-half of which was sent to the 
Eed Cross director, in Chicago, with application for permission to or- 
ganize a chapter. Permission was received within a day or two. 

Dr. Mammen was chairman of the first committee to secure mem- 
berships, and he worked very hard for some time in listing people who 
were willing to enroll in the organization which at that time had no 
following locally, and of whose work there was general ignorance on 
the part of the public. After a number of memberships had been en- 
rolled which made the organization of a chapter appear feasible, the 
committee appointed by the Civic League called a meeting to be held 
at the public library on July 27. At this meeting a board of twelve 
directors was elected, Dr. Mammen appointed temporary chairman and 
Mrs. McKinney, temporary secretary. The board of directors appointed 
at that time consisted of Oscar Mandel, Mrs. J. A. Bohrer, J. A. Perkins, 
Carl H. Klemm, George P. Davis, Mrs. N. D. McKinney, Mrs. E. E. 
Morgan, Frank Oberkoetter, Mrs. Kate D. Welch, Henry Behr, Mrs. 
Emma Wunderlich, and Dr. E. Mammen. 

The officers were not elected until the meeting of December 5, 1915, 
when the following were chosen: Chairman, Campbell Holton; first vice 
chairman, C. F. Agle; second vice chairman, B. F. Harber; secretary, 
Alice O. Smith; treasurer, Frank D. Marquis. Miss Smith served as 
secretary until May, 1916, when she resigned and was succeded by Mrs. 
McKinney. 

During May and June, 1916, a campaign for members was conducted 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 123 

under the leadership of Dr. C. M. Noble. In July, 1916, a charter mem- 
bership of 174 was sent to Washington and a charter granted. 

Eight organizations have representation on the board of directors, 
as follows: Community council, Woman's club, Bureau of Social Service, 
Girls' Industrial Home, Day Nursery association, McLean County Med- 
ical society, Nurses' association, and Association of Commerce. The 
mayor of Bloomington is an ex-officio member of the board of directors, 
and the chairman of each branch is also an ex-officio member with vot- 
ing privileges. An auditing committee is composed of two bank cashiers 
and one accountant. 

The jurisdiction of the activities of the chapter is within McLean 
county. 

Prior to February, 1917, no special activities were undertaken except 
to secure memberships. On February 5, in response to instructions con- 
tained in a telegram from headquarters in Washington, a meeting of 
the executive committee was held and the necessary action was taken 
to put the chapter on war basis. Additional committees were appointed 
and work at once started in preparation of hospital garments and sur- 
gical dressings, and for packing and shipping, hospital and nursing ser- 
vice and instruction classes. The membership committee immediately 
started a great campaign for members, aided liberally by the Blooming- 
ton newspapers. A finance committee was appointed with the mayor as 
chairman. People responded liberally to every call for money. 

Branches and Auxiliaries. The territory of the county outside the 
city of Bloomington was divided according to the township boundaries 
with one or two exceptions. The first branch organized was at Saybrook 
in April, 1917, and before the end of July branches were formed cover- 
ing the entire county, all active and enthusiastic. 

The Woman 's club of Bloomington was the first to organize as an 
auxiliary, and they furnished funds to buy materials which they made 
into hospitals garments and surgical dressings. The rooms were kept 
open all summer for work and surgical dressings classes. 

Letitia Green Stevenson chapter of the D. A. R. was the next to 
form an auxiliary. During all the war they were liberal contributors 
of service and money. Other auxiliaries were the Hebrew Women 's Aid 
and the Wesleyan university. The D. A. R. gave for home service work 
the net proceeds of a play given at the opera house. The colored women 
of the city formed a unit for sewing, and used the rooms one day a week. 

Location One of the first things considered by the executive com- 
mittee was a location for headquarters and workshop. Mrs. Sarah D. 
Lillard gave a large corner store room in the Durley block, in the center 
of the business district, rent free. There were shelves and show cases 
in the rooms, so that operations were started without delay. Chairs, 
tables and other furniture were loaned by merchants and other individ- 
uals. The place at once became general Red Cross headquarters. The 
first and second membership campaigns were directed from there, and 
the noon luncheons were served in the basement. Surgical dressing and 
knitting instructors had quarters, and all committee and directors' meet- 
ings were held there. After a while these spacious quarters were out- 
grown, and classes met elsewhere. 

In October, 1917, the chapter had to look for other quarters, as the 
Durley building was rented. The Y. M. C. A. directors offered space 
in their building, and the surgical dressings and hospital garments work- 
shops were moved, and occupied about half the entire second floor. The 
public library board of directors gave rent free three large rooms on 
the first floor, with separate entrance. The Home Service section and 
the secretary of the chapter, with the Junior Red Cross, occupied these 
rooms. The Christmas packet committee had space for its special work 



124 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD W AE 




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OFFICERS OF McLEAN COUNTY CHAPTER 

Top Mrs. N. D. McKinney, Secretary. 

Center Campbell Holton, Chairman. 

Below Davis Ewing, First Vice Chairman. 

Eight of Center E. Mark Evans, Second Vice Chairman. 

Left of Center- F. D. Marquis, Treasurer. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 125 

in December, 1917. Christmas Roll Call and other special committees 
also worked here. One library room was fitted up for first aid and home 
nursing classes. 

The Home Service section outgrew its quarters, and in January, 1919, 
moved to the Y. M. C. A. building, occupying rooms formerly used as a 
workshop. In July, 1919, the Red Cross rented a building at Monroe 
and Center large enough to accommodate all activities. 

Personnel of Officers The chairman and treasurer of the chapter 
served since 1915; the secretary since May, 1916; the two vice chairmen 
since October, 1917. 

Campbell Holton, chairman, is president of Campbell Holton & Co., 
wholesale grocers. He has been prominent in Y. M. C. A., the Bloom- 
ington Association of Commerce, Rotary Club and other community 
activities. 

Davis Ewing, vice chairman, is president of the Davis Ewing Con- 
crete Co.; has been president of the Rotary Club and active in civic 
affairs. 

E. M. Evans, vice chairman, was president of the Association of 
Commerce in 1919 and 1920; served two years as president of the Civic 
League and connected with other community organizations. 

F. D. Marquis, treasurer, is president of the People's bank and a 
leading man in business circles and prominent in civic enterprises. 

Mrs. N. D. McKinney, secretary, served five years as president of 
the Woman 's club, is secretary of the board of trustees of the Withers 
Public Library, and active in social welfare work. 

The auditing committee gave generously of their time to the pass- 
ing upon the Red Cross accounts. The members were W. L. Moore, cash- 
ier of People's Bank; Frank M. Rice, vice president First National 
Bank; E. H. Black, sec'y of the Paul F. Beich Company. 

Miss Julia Holder had charge of the books of the financial records 
since March, 1917. She is in charge of the bookkeeping department of 
the Bloomington high school, which accounts for her qualifications for 
the work she did so efficiently. Carefully prepared monthly reports sent 
Central Division office contributed to the high standing of the chapter. 

Committees Mrs. W. W. Whitmore was the first chairman of the 
committee on Branch Organization, serving from March, 1917, to August 
of same year. She is a well known and active attorney. On Mrs. Whit- 
more 's resignation, Mrs. Richard Ward succeeded her and served up 
to the end of the war and afterward. She is a professional woman of 
ability and wide acquaintance in the outside districts. 

Capt. Cleon L. Hills was chairman of the Canteen Committee from 
its organization in September, 1917. He is proprietor of the Hills Hotel. 
Capt. Hills was an officer of cavalry in the Spanish War. He was chair- 
man of the War Activities Committee of the Association of Commerce, 
which provided medals for all soldiers of the world war who went from 
McLean County. He also planned the official "Welcome Home" for 
the service men in the summer of 1919, and helped with other war work. 

Mrs. J. A. Bohrer served as chairman of the Civilian Relief Com- 
mittee from March, 1917, until July 1st, 1919. She is an active woman 
in community enterprises, being vice-president of the Girls' Industrial 
Home, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the McLean County 
Tuberculosis Association and one of the commissioners of Fairview 
sanatorium. 

The Conservation Committee was headed by Mrs. Spencer Ewing 
from April, 1917. Mrs. Ewing was a long time president of the Day 
Nursery Association, and was known as a leader of philanthropic enter- 
prises. She was moving spirit in war conservation work among women, 



126 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

and their work established the Home Bureau of the county upon a 
permanent basis. 

The Educational Committee was headed by Miss Nellie Parham from 
November, 1917. Prior to that time the organization of instruction 
classes was arranged by the chairman of the Nursing Committee. Miss 
Parham is librarian of the public library, vice president of the Day 
Nursery Association, and was also member of the woman's committee 
of the Council of National Defense. 

Mayor E. E. Jones served since February, 1917, as chairman of the 
finance committee. As mayor and chairman of the local committee of 
the Council of National Defense he was prominent in war work. 

Dr. E. Mammen was chairman of the First Aid Committee from 
February, 1917. He is a leading medical practitioner, pioneer in the 
county Anti-tuberculosis society, member of the county exemption board 
for the city district and worker in all war relief campaigns. 

Miss Margaret Robinson served from April, 1917, as chairman of 
the Committee on Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick. She is a Red 
Cross nurse and had conducted clinics and dispensary at the Day Nursery. 
Her specialty is child welfare and infant feeding. 

The Hospital Garments and Supplies Committee headed by Mrs. Guy 
McCurdy from January, 1918. She is president of the Woman 's Club 
and of the board of managers of the Withers Home for aged women. 
She is active in public enterprises. 

The Committee on Junior Memberships was in charge of Miss Mary 
A. Kromer from February to September, 1918. She is supervisor of the 
primary grades of the public schools. When Miss Kromer resigned she 
was succeeded by Mrs. M. B. Folsom, former Junior Member secretary, 
who ably handled the work. 

Mrs. F. W. Aldrich served as chairman of the Knitting and General 
Supplies Committee from May, 1917. She is a member of the board of 
directors of the Girls' Industrial Home, former president of the Day 
Nursery Association. 

Paul F. Beich served from February, 1917, as chairman of the Mem- 
bership Committee. He is president of the Paul F. Beich Company, presi- 
dent of the National Candy Makers' Association and vice president of 
the American State Bank of Bloomington. He is prominently connected 
with civic and commercial interests. 

Miss Lulu J. Justis was chairman of the Nursing Committee from 
February, 1917. She is superintendent of Brokaw hospital, is president 
of the Sixth District of the Illinois Nurses' Association. She supervised 
the first instruction classes before the educational committee was ap- 
pointed. 

T. P. Murray, local freight agent for the Alton railroad, served as 
chairman of the Packing and Shipping Committee from February, 1917, 
to March, 1919. He was succeeded by C. W. Brayshaw. Both served 
very efficiently. 

Louis O. Eddy served as chairman of the publicity committee from 
February, 1917. He furnished matter for the newspapers in practically 
all of the campaigns during the war, and his experience as a professional 
advertising writer served him in good stead. 

The Purchasing and Distributing Committee was headed by Mrs. 
Louie Forman, with Mrs. Harry L. Fleming as vice chairman. Mrs. 
Forman served from February, 1917, and for many months gave prac- 
tically all her time to the work of the headquarters in the production 
of hospital and other supplies. Mrs. Fleming served for the same length 
of time. During the same period she was called upon to serve as state 
president of the Parent-Teachers' Association. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 127 

Mrs. Fred B. Capen began in October, 1917, her work as chairman 
of the (Surgical Dressings Committee. She was one of the first Bloom- 
ington women to qualify as instructor in preparation of surgical dress- 
ings. She was chairman of the social service committee of the Woman's 
club, and first president of Victory Hall, the county institution for 
orphaned boys. 

The personnel of the county branches of the Bed Cross were com- 
posed of many of the leading men and women of their several communi- 
ties. All these, with the assistance of others whose names never ap- 
peared on committees or as officers, gave of time and money in the many 
war projects. The list of officers in the several branches were as follows: 

Anchor P. F. Eoberts, chairman; Samuel Davis, vice chairman; 
Mrs. J. H. Thedens, secretary; Miss Minnie Martens, treasurer. 

Arrowsmith Mrs. Frank Golden, chairman; Miss Grace Slingloff, 
secretary; Eaymond Webber, treasurer. 

Bellflower A. F. Gooch, chairman; Eev. A. E. Simons, vice chair- 
man; Eev. E. E, Higdon, secretary; J. E. Troster, treasurer. 

Carlock E. E. Moore, chairman; Arthur Brennan, vice chairman; 
Mrs. J. K. Esh, secretary; H. G. Carlock, treasurer. 

Chenoa. P. C. Gillespie, chairman; Eev. W. P. Burke, vice chairman; 
Mrs. V. L. Nickel, secretary and treasurer. 

Coif ax Eev. H. H. Jenner, chairman; Mrs. W. Mclntosh, vice 
chairman; Mrs. E. F. Eoe, secretary; A. E. Tunks, treasurer. 

Cooksville Mrs. E. E. Wunderlin, chairman; Mrs. C. J. Baum, vice 
chairman; Miss Grace W. Brown, secretary and treasurer. 

Covell Mrs. Homer Johnson, chairman; Mrs. C. Barclay, vice chair- 
man; Mrs. W. C. Eodgers, secretary; Mrs. Belle Hougham, treasurer. 

Cropsey C. H. Pratt, chairman; Mrs. Lee Warrock, vice chairman; 
Mrs. W. H. Groom, secretary; J. H. Barnes, treasurer. 

Danvers Eev. E. Sommer, chairman; Louis Berg, vice chairman; 
Mrs. E. J. Williams, secretary; O. P. Skaggs, treasurer. 

Downs Mrs. G. G. Dooley, chairman; Mrs. Sylvia Adams, vice 
chairman; Mrs. Jessie Adams, secretary; Miss Hortense Dodds, treasurer. 

Dry Grove Township Mrs. J. Birckelbaw, chairman; Mrs. Frank 
Bramwell, vice chairman; Miss Florence Kinsinger, secretary and treas- 
urer. 

Ellsworth Mrs. C. O. Skaggs, chairman; Mrs. A. Dennis, vice chair- 
man; Miss Jennie Johnson, secretary; C. A. Shinkle, treasurer. 

Gridley W. D. Castle, chairman; E. F. Kent, vice chairman; Mrs. 
Mattie Coyle, secretary; Henry Blessman, treasurer. 

Heyworth Eev. J. E. Evans, chairman; Mrs. Irene Jones, vice 
chairman; E. M. Ayers, secretary; Albion C. Lake, treasurer. 

Holder Mrs. Anna Dixon Coale, chairman; Mrs. M. Wightman, vice 
chairman; Mrs. James Tearney, secretary; Mrs. Fred Boston, treasurer. 

Hudson Miss Lora Johnston, chairman; Mrs. J. C. Gaddis, vice 
chairman; Walter Schad, secretary; Miss Irene Johnston, treasurer. 

Leroy Mrs. E. E. Sargent, chairman; Mrs. C. Vande venter, vice 
chairman; Miss Grace Dolly, secretary; H. H. Crumbaugh, treasurer. 

Lexington Mrs. Charles Arnold, chairman; Mrs. E. A. Kennedy, 
vice chairman; Mrs. F. C. Wise, secretary and treasurer. 

McLean Eev. C. H. Thrall, chairman; Mrs. Deane Funk, vice chair- 
man; Mrs. Fannie Baker, secretary; S. B. VanNess, treasurer. 

Merna Mrs. M. Kinsella, chairman; Miss Ella Moore vice chair- 
man; Miss Mary Larkin. secretary and treasurer. 

Normal B. C. Moore, chairman; Miss J. Eose Colby, vice chaw-man; 
Mrs. Edna Bates, secretary; L. H. Kerrick, treasurer. 

Saybrook W. O. Butler, chairman; L. Homer, vice chairman; Mrs. 
Maud C. Anderson, secretary; Francis Lateer, treasurer. 



128 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 




SOME ACTIVE RED CROSS WORKERS 

Upper row, left to right Mrs. Spencer Ewing, Miss Florence Evans, 
Mrs. Charles Carroll Brown. 

Second row Mrs. E. R. Morgan, Miss Julia Holder, Mrs. Richard Ward. 

Third row Miss Lulu J. Justis, Mrs. Guy McCurdy, Mrs. W. S. Harwood, 
Mrs. A. V. S. Lloyd, Secretary Home Service Committee. 

Lower row Mrs. Louie Forman, Chairman Purchasing and Distributing 
Committee, Mrs. Fred B. Capen, Chairman Surgical Dressing Com- 
mittee. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 129 

Shirley Paul Neubauer, chairman; Mrs. George Parks, vice chair- 
man; Miss Esther Olson, secretary; Mrs. John Meeks, treasurer. 

Stanford O. S. Folger, chairman; Mrs. S. T. Gavins, vice chairman; 
Miss Mabel Bender, secretary; Sam Wright, treasurer. 

Towanda I. N. Crayton, chairman; Mrs. F. Windier, vice chairman; 
Miss Carey Crichton, secretary; Miss Opal Gregory, treasurer. 

Weston Edgar Johnson, chairman; Mrs. Fred Gilman, vice chair- 
man; Ora Shanks, secretary and treasurer. 

West Township Charles Umstattd, chairman; Mrs. P. Murray, vice 
chairman; Mrs. William Dean, secretary and treasurer. 

Chapter Office Mrs. N. D. McKinney was secretary and office man- 
ager thruout the war period. In addition to the usual and regular duties 
of a chapter secretary and office manager, all the work of preparing and 
filing membership cards was done under the secretary 's supervision. A 
complete file of all memberships in McLean county was i\.ept in the 
office. The branch correspondence, covering administration, membership, 
finances, and miscellaneous matters were handled from this office. The 
secretary collected the first and second war fund subscriptions and acted 
as treasurer for the Junior Red Cross. 

Canteen Capt. C. L. Hills, chairman. The canteen committee was 
composed of a captain and 22 privates. From September, 1917, and 
during the winter months following, there was very little troop move- 
ment, and the committee worked on a call basis, serving whenever noti- 
fied of trrop trains being due, or other duty. 

On June 15, 1918, the Canteen committee was organized on the gov- 
ernment plan and all members sworn into the service. Uniforms were 
secured and a daily assignment of service was established for regular 
trains, and when troop trains arrived the whole committee was in at- 
tendance at the station to serve them. 

In August a canteen hut was built at the Union depot. All the 
labor and most of the materials were donated by citizens. The con- 
veniences of the hut materially improved the service and comfort of 
the workers. An equipment for first aid service was kept there and used 
on a number of occasions. The hut also served as a rest room for mothers 
and other relatives who had come long distances for a brief visit with 
their soldier and sailor boys as they passed through on the trains, and 
many a long and sad hour for the waiting one was made brighter by 
the substantial cheer given by the Canteen w y orkers. Many letters came 
to the chapter from the men and their families testifying to the value 
and appreciation of this service. The committee also provided a folder 
of heavy ledger paper for the military history of the soldiers, which was 
given to the men to fill out and keep. 

A special feature of the service by the Canteen workers was that 
they raised a large portion of the funds used in their work. Two con- 
fectionery stores, C. D. Phillos and Louis Baldwin, donated the gross re- 
ceipts of one day's sales for the benefit of the canteen worfe. The 
Canteen Committee had full charge of the stores on these days, furnish- 
ing the cashier and other helpers. The committee also held several lawn 
fetes for the benefit of this work, and gave a great ball in the court 
house, which was attended by thousands. 

The records of the Canteen work show that from June, 1918, to No- 
vember, 1918, an average of 3,000 soldiers and sailors per month were 
served with coffee, sandwiches, fruit, cigarettes, chewing gum, postcards, 
and many useful articles. The largest number served in any one month 
was 5,854 in September, 1918. The committee manufactured 2,000 leather 
tobacco pouches, which were filled with tobacco and given to the soldiers 
and sailors. They also made 5,000 folders for stationery, pencil, and 
other small articles, and on the inside cover a suggestion was printed 



130 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

that when empty, the case be used to put mother's letters in. These 
^olders were given to men as they passed through on trains. 

From September 1, 1917, to September 1, 1918, 52,924 men were 
served. 

Total value of supplies distributed in that period, $3,086.88. 

Of this amount, $2,900.63 was purchased and $186.25 contributed. 

Average cost per man served, 6 cents. 

The active work of the Canteen Committee ended on October 1st, 
1919. On the evening of October 2 the chapter chairman and canteen 
chairman gave a dinner for the entire committee at the home of Capt. 
Hills. A formal discharge certificate, signed by the chairman and cap- 
tain commanding, and showing the period of service, was given to each 
member. 

It was then decided to reorganize into a "Ked Cross Eeserve Can- 
teen Corps," with the same chairman as captain. The purpose is to 
have a reserve corps which can report immediately prepared for service 
in case of disaster or calamity of any kind in the community. Part of 
the Hut equipment was kept for this use. An annual dinner and reunion 
of the workers will be held to 'perpetuate the splendid principles of can- 
teen service and prolong the beautiful spirit of comradeship formed 
among the workers. 

Conservation Committee Mrs. Spencer Ewing, chairman. In the 
early summer of 1917 a Food Conservation committee was appointed. This 
committee divided the city into districts and began a systematic campaign 
of education on ' ' food thrift. ' ' The idea was to show women generally 
the importance of knowing comparative food values and a balanced ration 
as applied to health and sustenance of members of the family. Also to 
teach them to use food substitutes with which they had not had experi- 
ence. The work was carried on thru Mothers' Clubs of the public schools, 
the Settlement House and small community groups. Much publicity was 
given to the subject thru the newspapers, and printed letters were dis- 
tributed to the homes. 

The four domestic science schools co-operated, and practical ways of 
saving meat, wheat, sugar and fats were worked out. Exhibits were ar- 
ranged attractively in the long corridors of the high school building dur- 
ing the convention of the State Farmers' Institute, and, as delegates were 
present from all parts of the state, the exhibits seemed to be more than 
of local value as an educational feature of war work. 

In March, 1918, a war kitchen was conducted for one week in a cen- 
tral (location in Bloomington, which supplemented the work of the food 
exhibit. Trained experts from the University of Illinois gave instruction. 
During the week, 600 persons attended to learn of the new cookery. 

Another phase of conservation work was an institute for the remodel- 
ing of clothing. This was attended by 284 people who were shown prac- 
tical ways of making over garments of all kinds, and 24 teachers were 
trained to give instruction in this work in their respective communities. 

Early in June, 1918, the food conservation committee increased the 
scope of its work to cover all of McLean county. A trained worker in 
household affairs was employed as Home Advisor, and a sustaining body, 
the McLean County Home Improvement Association was organized. Then 
followed a municipal canning center and other activities. Today there is 
a permanent organization called the Home Bureau, which employs a full 
time home advisor for the housewives of McLean county, who visits the 
different localities at stated intervals for lectures and demonstrations, and 
also furnishes advice by correspondence. The funds to carry on this work 
are secured partly by state aid and the balance by individual memberships. 
In the first six months the home advisor traveled 2,700 miles, distributed 
5,000 bulletins, wrote 700 letters and gave one hundred demonstrations 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 131 

and lectures that reached 33,000 people, besides attending to office work 
and conferences. A bulletin is published monthly by the Bureau chairman 
and home adviser, and distributed to the members. 

Educational Committee Miss Nellie E. Parham, chairman. The prin- 
cipal work of this committee was making arrangements for the instruction 
classes in First Aid and Home Hygiene and care of the sick. Classes were 
organized in first aid in March and April, 1917, and meetings held at 
Brokaw hospital under the supervision of Miss Justis, hospital superintend- 
ent, with Misses Margaret Robinson, and Alice 0. Smith, Red Cross nurses. 
Members of the McLean County Medical Association donated their services 
as instructors. Ten out of the first class of twenty took the examination 
and all passed very creditably and received certificates from Washington. 
Succeeding classes were organized and meetings held in rooms at the public 
library, which had been fitted with proper equipment for the work. 

The influenza epidemic in October and November, 1918, furnished an 
opportunity for the practical application of knowledge acquired in home 
nursing and public welfare, and the graduates of the classes gave splendid 
service at this time. Some of the graduates have since taken great interest 
in general health affairs of the community. A large class finished the 
course in home hygiene in 1919. The educational committee will continue 
efforts to interest both men and women in such instruction, as a prepared- 
ness measure for all times. One of the instructors, Miss Robinson, also 
taught classes in adjoining towns. 

Membership Paul F. Belch, chairman. The membership committee 
started its work with a campaign in March, 1917, when the membership 
was 174, and followed with another campaign in August of that year, 
bringing the total membership to 7,000. To this was added the number 
of First War Fund subscribers who were entitled to membership which 
increased the number to 11,398. 

The next campaign of the committee was the Christmas roll call of 
1917, and that further increased the enrollment to 1(3,000. The member- 
ship work was continued by the chapter secretary sending requests for 
renewals month after month to those who had not -renewed during the 
Christmas roll call. This method resulted in getting many renewals 
which otherwise would have been lost. The roll call of 1918 was a 
success, but after that there was a steady decrease. The active mem- 
bership on September 1, 1919, was 14,700. 

Nursing Miss Lulu J. Justis, chairman. Bloomington chapter was 
fortunate in having for the head of its nursing committee a woman whose 
ability and experience qualified her to fill the position of president of 
the Sixth District Red Cross Nurses' Association of Illinois, and who 
months before our own country entered the war, realized that the re- 
sponsibilities of the nursing profession were to be heavy. Miss Justis 
at once began arrangements for enrolling the nurses of the district, and 
by December, 1918, 83 were enrolled for immediate service. Bloomington 
headed the list with 33 in active service and five available on January 
1, 1919, should they be needed. In enrolling the nurses for future service, 
the chairman had in mind that the activities of the nursing service 
would not end with the war; that disease which accompanied the war 
would require the skill and patience of American nurses to rebuild the 
health of war scarred nations. 

Publicity Louis O. Eddy, chairman. The committee was fortunate 
in having this experienced advertising writer to direct its activities. The 
two daily papers, the Pantagraph and Bulletin, generously donated much 
space in their news columns, and also considerable display advertising 
space. Their advertising rates for space paid for, were considerably 
cut down during the campaigns. Merchants and manufacturers in many 
cases allowed the Red Cross to use their contracted space in the news- 



132 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 

papers. Business houses allowed use of their show windows. Roy Smith 
deserves mention for his work in distributing advertising posters and 
Bed Cross literature free of charge. During the influenza epidemic the 
Boy Scouts aided in distributing instruction sheets in residence districts. 

Purchasing and Distributing Mrs. Louie Forman, chairman; Mrs. 
H. L. Fleming, vice chairman. In the beginning of the war work, the 
purchasing and distributing was taken care of by the hospital supplies 
committee. It was convenient and desirable for the branches to do their 
own buying, patronizing their local merchants and thus creating good 
feeling. At that time the stores were well stocked with materials. The 
qualities and colors had then not been standardized. As materials grew 
scarcer it became necessary to order from outside for the chapter and 
branches as well. 

An electric cutting machine was installed, and then materials neces- 
sarily had to be uniform in weight and width. Goods were sold by the 
bolt to branches and cut for them. This system was followed till July, 
1918, when the quota system of production became effective in all de- 
partments. The committee conformed promptly to all changes in methods 
of production received from Central Division, and impressed upon work- 
ers the importance of maintaining the highest standard of production. 
The committee kept records of all branch shipments and shipments to 
Central Division. 

The first shipment of hospital garments and supplies was sent to 
Bush Terminal, New York, on May 21, 1917, and from there direct to 
France. It consisted of eight boxes of supplies and two cases of surgical 
dressings. One of the treasures of the committee is a letter from a 
hospital in France receipting for these supplies and expressing gratitude. 
The committee rendered excellent service in purchasing and distributing 
supplies and equipment used in the four emergency hospitals which the 
chapter established during the epidemic of influenza in October and 
November, 1918, and in re-assembling them when the hospitals were 
closed. A bulletin was issued at intervals with instructions to branches 
and workshops. 

In November, 1917, the work in all departments of production had 
increased to such large proportions that larger and more commodious 
quarters were obtained. Each department had its separate quarters and 
thereafter were able to w T ork to the best advantage. Practically all the 
work shop printing was done free of charge, or at the cost of the paper, 
by the boys in the printing department of the public schools, under 
direction of Miss Etta Walker. The wonderful success of the produc- 
tion as a whole is best expressed in the words of the chairman in her 
last annual report, as follows: 

' ' The spirit of the workers thruout the county has continued from 
the first to be the finest thing we have ever known. It is often hard 
to obey orders without question, and the farther one is from the source 
the more difficult it is to see the reason for some of them." 

Hospital Garments and Supplies Mrs. Guy McCurdy, chairman. This 
department had three definite lines of work hospital garments, hospital 
supplies and refugee garments. The organized plan of group sewing in 
the early summer of 1917 gave way to individual and unit consignments 
to mothers' clubs, church societies, fraternal organizations and social 
sewing clubs at regular or occasional intervals. 

One of the most interesting groups was "The Girls of '61" or- 
ganized by Mrs. Sue Pike Sanders, who conceived the idea of getting 
together the women of the community who had worked for the soldiers 
of the civil war. Mrs. Sanders had been a leader in the war activities 
of that period. There were no dues for those joining the group, but each 
woman paid a small fee at each meeting, and thus a fund was created 
to buy yarn. The membership reached 125, all members of Bed Cross. 



133 




GROUP OF LEADERS IN RED CROSS WORK 



Top row, left to right Mrs. M. B. Folsom, Mrs. Mabel H. Seymour, 

Mrs. Harry L. Fleming. 
Second row, left to right Mrs. Jacob Bohrer, T. P. Murray, Mrs. Frank 

W. Aldrich. 
Third row, left to right Miss Nellie Parham, Miss Margaret Eobinson, 

Mrs. J. T. Sanders. 



134 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

It was an inspiring sight to see these women, who as girls, had sewed 
and worked for the boys of '61, the boys in blue, now knitting and 
sewing for the boys in khaki, and setting a commendable example to 
the girls of today. They also made many articles of comfort for refugees. 

In November, 1917, the work shop was moved to the Y. M. C. A. 
building, and cutting, previously done by hand, was now done by an 
electric cutting machine donated by business men. Mrs. Arthur Koss 
was in charge, with Mrs. Richard Ward assisting. The machine also did 
the cutting for the branches. 

The fine workmanship shown by the chapter and its branches, brought 
great credit to the chapter, placing it in the '-Star Class" both for 
quality and quantity of output. A request from Central Division for 
375 model garments to be completed and shipped within three weeks 
was. successfully handled. Two big drives for clothing for French and 
Belgian Belief were conducted under the supervision of Mrs. E. R. 
Morgan, vice chairman of the department, assisted by Mrs. Willis Har- 
wood and Mrs. Henry Keiser. 

Too much praise could not be given the women of the rural com- 
munities and small towns for their sacrifice and service in this and other 
lines of Red Cross work. They maintained a high standard of work- 
manship, and the quantity of their output was a marvelous exhibition 
of practically unceasing and painstaking labor. 

Surgical Dressings Mrs. Fred B. Capen, chairman. One of the first 
things considered by Bloomington chapter in February, 1917, was the 
need of instruction classes. Instructors in first aid and home nursing 
could be found among the physicians and Red Cross nurses, but prepara- 
tion of surgical dressings called for special instruction before classes 
could be taught. Miss Carolyn Schertz, head surgical nurse at Brokaw 
hospital, was sent to Chicago in March for necessary training. On her 
return, twenty women enrolled for the first class. Interest was great 
and the women did splendid work. Miss Schertz taught four classes dur- 
ing the summer, assisted by Miss Margaret Robinson, who also had taken 
special training for instructor. A staff of eight qualified as instructors: 
Miss Schertz, Miss Robinson, Mrs. AVillis Harwood, Mrs. F. B. Capen, 
Mrs. Kern Beath for Bloomington, and Mrs. Frawley, Mrs. Deane Funk 
and Miss Vance for the branches. Eleven classes were conducted and 185 
finished the course and qualified as supervisors to teach volunteer work- 
ers. One of the classes was Composed of women from the branches, and 
nine out of this class qualified as supervisors. Some of the branch mem- 
bers of previous classes also became supervisors, making a total of 16 
surgical dressings workshops in the branches. 

Early in the summer of 1917 the need of a place where volunteers 
might help make surgical dressings was recognized, and Mrs. W. S. 
Harwood opened a room in her home, and the results were more satis- 
factory than had been anticipated. Later another volunteer shop was 
opened downtown. 

During the summer another volunteer workshop was opened at the 
Bloomington Country club, and many availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity to work there. 

In August, 1917, Miss Schertz left to enter the service of her country 
as an overseas Red Cross nurse. The impress of her high standards re- 
mained here after she was gone, and as long as this work was required. 
She was succeeded by Miss Robinson as chairman. 

The first week, 456 dressings were made, the second week 744 and 
the third week 1264. This was then thought to be a fine record, but 
the work grew until monthly quotas of from 25,000 to 30,000 dressings 
were being filled promptly. From just giving a half hour's time occa- 
sionally by women who dropped in, the department developed into a 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THK WORLD WAR 135 

regular manufacturing plant where women gave whole days of their 
time. There was one worker, Miss Ida Evans, who was at her table 
every day with but few exceptions, from July, 1917, until the shop 
closed. She made a total of 40,108 dressings. The chairman's report 
says of Miss Evans: "We owe much to her loyal, faithful service and 
feel that much of our success has been due to her fine spirit and will- 
ingness to help at all times." 

The work was thoroly systematized, with a corps of efficient workers 
in charge of cutting, inspection and packing, and results showed the 
value of team work. The production is one that the chapter may be 
proud of, and there is no estimating the value of the fellowship enjoyed 
and friendships formed during this period. The first shipment of surg- 
ical dressings on May 21, 1917, consisted of two small boxes. This and 
a second shipment were consigned direct to France, and arrived safely. 
All later shipments were sent to Central Division, Chicago. 

Knitting Mrs. F. W. Aldrich, chairman. Among the faithful sol- 
diers of the great volunteer army at home were the knitters. This de- 
partment was started in July, 1917. At first, two afternoons a week 
were thought sufficient for consultation and instruction, but after the 
first week it was found necessary to have some one in attendance every 
day. Several hundred persons were taught, and each one furnished her 
own yarn when learning. At first, knitting rules were not strict. The 
first shipment of socks, made on small needles and with toes and heels 
which would not pass inspection a year later, were readily accepted. 
Changes in directions and inspections were finally followed until the 
"army standard" became the knitter's motto. There were about 3,000 
names of knitters on the department's records, being about evenly di- 
vided between chapter and branches, and it is worthy of mention that 
a few of them were men. School boys printed the knitting instructions 
and rules for washing. 

Numerous tests of the swiftness of flying fingers were made when 
large quotas of knitted articles and garments were requisitioned within 
a time limit, and it is to the honor and credit of the workers that the 
Chapter was able to meet every demand on time. 

Packing and Shipping T. P. Murray, chairman; C. L. Brayshaw, 
assistant. This committee began active work in May, 1917, when the 
first shipment of eight boxes of hospital garments and supplies and two 
cases of surgical dressings were consigned to Bush Terminal, New York, 
from where they were forwarded to France without repacking. Instruc- 
tions as to packing, marking and invoicing were observed to the letter. 
When word came from France that the supplies were received and every- 
thing found in good condition, all the workers felt that the first line of 
communication had been established between the producing department 
of the chapter and the place of actual need. War did not seem so far 
away. 

After the first two shipments to France, the supplies were sent to 
Central Division, Chicago. Through the generosity of Bloomington firms 
and individuals in donating packing boxes, this department was able to 
operate at a nominal expense. The Johnson Transfer & Fuel company 
handled all shipments to and from the freight depots free of charge 
during the entire period of the war. The promptness of the branches 
in delivering finished articles, and the excellent co-operation of the heads 
of producing departments, made it possible to maintain a regular weekly 
shipping day and to get quotas out on specified time. In addition to 
handling the finished products, this department shipped 1,200 packages of 
yarn, gauze and cut garments to the branches. 

Red Cross Exchange Mrs. Grace Wilcox Funk, chairman. On Octo- 
ber 12, 1918, a special committee opened a Eed Cross Exchange. The use 
of a large store room in the Illinois hotel building was donated and was 



136 



artistically decorated after a plan representing a street of shops in an 
old French village. All sorts of wearing apparel, house furnishings, 
canned goods, vegetables and farm produce were donated and sold. A 
Tea Boom was opened and became a very popular place for meeting 
one's friends. At Christmas time large quantities of toys old toys 
renovated and repainted were sold at low prices, and many children 
of the community had a happier Christmas with toys secured at the 
Exchange. The Exchange really served a double purpose and furnished 
an opportunity for people of limited means to secure good warm cloth- 
ing at small cost and in most instances garments of a better quality 
than could be secured at double the cost. 

A "Melting Pot" was one of the features of the Exchange. Here 
people brought articles of gold and silverware which they donated to 
the cause. 

A salvage department was another feature. Auctions were held 
every Saturday with satisfactory results. When the hotel store room 
was required for a business tenant, the Exchange was moved across the 
street to J. A. Jordan's building, where it held forth for several weeks 
before being closed up with a grand auction sale in which all the re- 
maining articles were disposed of. The Exchange turned into the Chap- 
ter treasury the sum of $3,100, a splendid help to the treasury at a 
time when it was much needed. 

Civilian Relief Home Service Section Mrs. J. A. Bohrer, chair- 
man; Mrs. A. V. S. Lloyd, secretary; Mrs. E. W. Oglevee in charge of 
"Comfort Kits"; Miss Florence B. Evans director of field work. Con- 
sultation Committee, Mrs. Mabel H. Seymour, Miss Margaret Eobinson 
and Miss Jeanette Johnson. 

Home Service was a distinctive enterprise, not duplicating, but co- 
operation with other established departments and agencies. It was the 
designated agent of the Government for helping soldiers, sailors and 
their families. There were two lines of work: First, the mechanical 
relationship with the Government through the filling out of forms and 
affidavits and the writing of letters; second, the human relationship 
with the family. 

Nearly three thousand men leaving for service were supplied with 
Comfort Kits. The message carried by this little gift seemed to have 
a peculiar significance, being material evidence of friendship for the 
soldiers and sailors and the folks left at home. Through the contact 
with the men who called at the Home Service office for these kits, the 
committee obtained the names and addresses of most of the men who 
went into service from McLean County. The majority of these families 
were able, especially with the help of the allotments and the government 
allowances to maintain good standards of health, education and industry 
without relying upon outside service of any kind. But in many families 
the power of self-help was strained to the breaking point by lack of 
opportunity, by ill-health, or by the sudden changes in economic and 
social environment occasioned by the war. To help maintain the essential 
standards and the solidarity of these families was the Home Service 
worker's greatest opportunity for helpfulness. 

To attempt this difficult task required a group of trained workers, 
and to meet the situation two Chapter Courses were held, consisting of 
a series of lectures in home service and social welfare, given by repre- 
sentatives from Central Division and the University of Illinois and Chi- 
cago. Mrs. Mabel H. Seymour, General Secretary of the Bureau of 
Social Service gave much time to directing students in the field work. 

The Chapter was fortunate in having as a leader in this educational 
work Mrs. Charles Carroll Brown. Her work was so successful that in 
October, 1918, Central Division called her to a larger field of service. 
Fifty-five workers completed the courses of instructions, many persons 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 137 

interested in social welfare throughout the County were enrolled, and 
as a result twenty-one of the twenty-seven Branches had each a trained 
worker. This made it possible to carry the Home Service spirit into 
every part of the County, and to put into the home of almost every 
soldier and sailor certain important, definite information which many 
times spared the family much anxiety and distress. Too much cannot 
be said of the fine w y ork done by the following Home Service Chairmen: 

Anchor Miss Minnie Martens. 

Arrowsmith Mrs. H. A. Bell. 

Carlock Mrs. Elmer Gerber, Mrs. I. U. Kopp. 

Chenoa Mrs. W. A. Chapman. 

Colfax Mrs. Du Bois Marquis, Mrs. R. B. Henderson. 

Cooksville Mrs. W. H. Mahan. 

Cropsey Mrs. M. B. Meeker. 

Danvers Mr. L. E. Skaggs, Rev. Edwin Sommer. 

Dry Grove Mrs. H. N. Harnes, Mr. Edwin Ropp. 

Gridley Mrs. W. D. Castle. 

Heyworth Mrs. J. P. Shelton. 

Holder Mrs. Luella Parker, Miss Alma Geske. 

Hudson Mrs. H. F. Carrithers, Mrs. E. L. Burtis. 

Leroy Mrs. A. J. Keenan, Mr. D. D. McKay. 

Lexington Mrs. J. V. McCullough. 

McLean Rev. C. H. Thrall. 

Normal Mrs. W. H. Johnson. 

Saybrook Mrs. Maude Crigler Anderson. 

Stanford Mr. W. C. Murphy. 

Shirley Miss Clara Douglass, Mrs. George Parke. 

Towanda Mrs. Elva McKenzie. 

Weston Mrs. Carrie Eckhart. 

Home Service opportunities were legion, but the following will il- 
lustrate both the need and meaning of the service: 

a. Informing families of their right to allotments and government 
allowances, and encouraging them to have their men in the service take 
out insurance. 

b. Trying to understand by patient talks and visits to the home 
the real problems of the family. 

c. Caring for the sick and convalescent. The doctors and hospitals 
giving their services in many instances. 

d. Protecting inexperienced young wives and comforting lonely 
mothers. 

e. Meeting emergencies caused by delay in the payments of allot- 
ments and allowances, and supplementing these when necessary. 

f.* Maintaining relations with social agencies, doctors, lawyers, 
nurses, teachers, ministers and priests, business men and others who 
were likely to know of complications which should have attention. 

g. Re-establishing communication with men in camps here or over- 
seas in cases where long periods of silence had elapsed. 

To families where the soldier did not return, where a gold star re- 
placed the blue, the Home Service felt a special call, and many times 
the silk American flag was placed on the coffin by the Red Cross visitor. 

Too much credit cannot be given to the twenty faithful visitors and 
the helpers in the office. These women responded to calls day or night 
and no request from the family of a service man went unheeded. One 
of the workers, seeing great need for financial assistance for soldiers' 
and sailors' families interested her personal friends in this part of the 
relief and raised a fund of $1418 for special comforts for those in need. 

The interests of the colored soldiers and their families were under 
the care of Mrs. Fred Wyche, who having taken the Chapter Course was 



138 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 139 

well prepared for the work and proved herself one of the most faithful 
of the visitors. 

During the war emergency the work was carried on untiringly by 
volunteers. With demobilization, when other Red Cross departments 
ceased activities, the Home Service work increased and reached its peak 
in the after-care service. Congress enacted new laws, and it was neces- 
sary for the workers to keep accurately informed as to all changes re- 
garding compensations, insurance, vocational training, bonus, army cloth- 
ing, travel allowance, land, etc., that they might be of real help to the 
former service men. 

In September, 1919, a United States Public Health Surgeon was 
appointed for McLean County and later a Dentist, which facilitated the 
work of obtaining compensation, and medical and hospital care for the 
disabled soldier. 

Home Service touched the lives of so many people in so many differ- 
ent ways, that there is scarcely any part of the life of the County with 
which the workers did not become acquainted. They were hurriedly 
brought together by the emergency of the war. Many of them are still 
learning the art of helping people, and they do not lightly abandon the 
friendship and confidence of the soldiers and sailors and their families. 

Over 6000 persons called at the office. 

More than 3000 visits were made. 

91 persons were given hospital care and there were 25 confinement 
cases. 

250 applications for bonus were sent in. 

70 affidavits for liberty bonds, amounting to $4750, filled out. 

Converted insurance amounting to over $100,000. 

Filed 225 compensation claims, and 42 insurance claims. 

130 stranded men were helped. 

Relief was given to the amount of $14,235.80. 

The field work and keeping of records was in charge of Miss Flor- 
ence B. Evans, a trained social service worker, and her careful attention 
to detail kept things running smoothly. Twenty faithful visitors re- 
sponded to calls night or day to give help or advice to any soldier's or 
sailor 's family. 

Nothing was more appreciated by service men's families than the 
work of this department in re-establishing communication with their men 
in camps here or abroad in eases where long periods of silence had 
elapsed. In most of these cases, letters had simply failed to reach 
their destination. If information came that a man was wounded, it 
was Home Service work to proffer such help and consolation as human 
sympathy could give. 

Up to the first of November, 1918, all the work of the Civilian Relief 
and Home Service committees was performed by volunteer workers, who 
showed ability and untiring energy. One of the workers in the Home 
Service office, Miss Laura McCurdy, seeing great need for financial 
assistance for soldiers' families, interested her personal friends in this 
part of the relief and raised a fund of $1418 for special comforts for 
the families, especially young mothers and prospective mothers. 

Special commendation should be given to Miss Mary B. Rhoads, 
who entered the office at about the time of the close of the war, and in 
the strenuous months of the demobilization carried on the work with 
great efficiency and devotion. 

Junior Membership Miss Mary A. Kromer, chairman, succeeded by 
Mrs. M. B. Folsom. This department was organized in February, 1918, 
but little was done that year except in rural districts. A few schools 
had been making refugee garments, etc., prior to junior enrollment, and 
they continued to the close of the year. The girls of the Bloomington 
high school made surgical dressings at the chapter workshop, and one 



140 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

day was set apart for them. Work of enrollment for 1918-19 was re- 
tarded by the influenza epidemic in October. During the year a quota 
of 1,500 picture and scrap books were made for hospital patients. The 
manual training department of the Bloomington high made 50 canes. 
The Juniors aided materially in the sale of Red Cross Christmas seals. 

The enrollment of the Junior Red Cross in 1918 was 70 auxiliaries 
and 6703 pupils. This is a little over 50 per cent of the children of the 
county. 

Special Committee First Red Cross Fund Howard D. Humphreys, 
general chairman; executive committee, Mayor E. E. Jones of Bloom- 
ington, Chairman Campbell Holton of the Bloomington chapter, Oscar 
Mandel, Milton R. Livingston, Alonzo Dolan, Paul F. Beich, John B. 
Lennon, Dr. E. Mammen, E. M. Evans, and Dr. Mclntosh of the Colfax 
branch. The publicity chairman was Louis O. Eddy, and secretary Mrs. 
N. D. McKinney. 

The county was divided into districts, the city voting precinct bound- 
aries being used in Bloomington, and township boundaries in the outside 
territory. The apportionment of the amount to be raised in each district 
was according to the population. The campaign was a strenuous one, 
being the first big war drive undertaken in McLean county. Daily 
luncheons were held at Red Cross headquarters in the Durley building, 
and reports made from the city precincts and the outside branches. 

The total quota for the county was $50,000, and the campaign closed 
with a total of $68,194.19 pledged, an over-subscription of 36 per cent. 

Special Committee Second Red Cross War Fund E. M. Evans, gen- 
eral chairman; Davis Ewing, chairman for the city of Bloomington; 
A. J. Keenan of Leroy, chairman for the branches; Louis O. Eddy, pub- 
licity chairman. 

This campaign was conducted along the same lines as the first, so 
far as apportionment was concerned. A contest was instituted between 
the city and the branches to see which should capture a beautiful silk 
Red Cross flag. The flag was offered by Mr. Evans, general chairman, 
to the group which should have the largest percentage of oversubscrip- 
tion. The winner was Shirley branch, with an oversubscription of 156 
per cent, while Funk's Grove township with 140 percent oversubscribed 
was second; then came McLean branch with 76 per cent, Hudson with 
43 per cent and the city of Bloomington with 54 per cent. A special 
fund was raised before the campaign to pay the cost of the campaign. 
C. E. Gillen, proprietor of the Illinois hotel, donated the use of a large 
corner room on the ground floor for campaign headquarters, and the 
trustees of the Masonic temple gave the use of their dining and serving 
rooms for the daily luncheons. The quota assigned to McLean county 
was $70,000. The total subscriptions for the county were $99,460.11, and 
special expense fund $571, making a grand total raised in McLean county 
of $100,031.11, an oversubscription of 42 per cent. 

Influenza Committee About the first of October, 1918, several cases 
of the Spanish influenza appeared in the city. On the 10th, authority 
was received from Central Division office for the chapter to take steps 
to combat the disease, which by that time was epidemic. The same day 
a committee was appointed, headed by Dr. Mammen and composed of 
Red Cross workers in the nursing department, Home Service depart- 
ment, prominent city officials and citizens, who met and organized for 
immediate service. Two rooms in the public library were placed at the 
disposal of the committee for information headquarters and bureau of 
telephone service. It was soon seen that special hospital accommodations 
would be needed, as one of the local hospitals would not receive these 
patients and the other only a limited number. 

At the S. A. T. C. camp of the Wesleyan a number of the soldier 
students were down with the disease. A fraternity house was offered 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 141 

and opened the following day, with volunteer workers. A food supply 
committee also began work at once. 

The Bloomington Country Club offered the use of their club house 
free of charge, and by midnight of that same day a hospital was In 
operation there with twenty-one patients, the second night there were 
72 patients. A third hospital was soon opened in the spacious home of 
Mrs. M. T. Scott, who offered it for that use. The S. A. T. C. patients 
were removed to the Scott hospital. The Bloomington Club offered the 
third floor of their club house for a convalescent hospital, with trained 
dieticians in charge. The chairman of the chapter publicity committee 
kept the public informed thru the newspapers of the precautions to be 
taken as a means of prevention. The daily papers generously co-operated. 

As the epidemic spread, the emergency hospitals could accommodate 
only a comparatively small number of those needing care, and a large 
number of women volunteered to do practical nursing in the homes. 
These women left their own homes to do the most menial tasks, as well 
as to nurse the sick, in the homes of some of the city's most unfortunates. 
It was the most serious epidemic which had ever come upon the city. 
The local chapter of the Red Cross was the only agency which could 
have handled the situation. Its credit was such that no time was lost 
in securing equipment and supplies, for every one knew that every legiti- 
mate bill would be paid. There is no question that the efforts of the 
Bed Cross greatly diminished the number of cases, and that without its 
assistance and intelligent care many more persons would have perished. 
It was a fine example of what a live chapter of Bed Cross can accomplish 
in peace activity. 

Public Health Nursing In February, 1918, a special committee on 
public health nursing was appointed with Miss Margaret Bobinson as 
chairman. A full time nurse was employed and an office opened in one 
of the school buildings. Cases were referred to the visiting nurse by 
the Day Nursery association, Bureau of Social Service, public schools 
and individuals. The nurse was very capable and the results satisfactory. 
The nurse resigned in September. In June, 1919, a full time health 
officer wase employed by the city commissioners of Bloomington, and 
the services of the Bed Cross nurse will hereafter be directed by the 
health director. 

Christmas Packets In October, 1917, a special committee was ap- 
pointed with Mrs. David Davis as chairman, to prepare Christmas bags 
for men in the service. Nearly all the money to buy the contents of 
these bags was contributed as a special fund for Christmas cheer. There 
were 1,440 bags filled and shipped in time to reach the men in the camps 
by Christmas. 

In October, 1918, a special committee was appointed with Mrs. N. 
D. McKinney, chapter secretary, as chairman, to inspect Christmas pack- 
ets sent to men overseas. The chapter furnished wrapping paper, cord 
and Christmas cards for all the boxes. The committee were asked for 
suggestions as to contents and gave help in that way. There were 785 
boxes inspected at the chapter offices, of a total weight of 2,000 pounds. 
The total postage paid on the packages was $150. A number of the 
branches inspected the packets sent from their districts and these num- 
bered 320. 

Red Cross War Funds First Fund: 

Quota assigned to county $50,000.00 

Total subscribed 68,194.19 

Total collected 66,488.79 

Second War Fund: 

Quota assigned to county $70,000.00 

Total subscribed 99,460.11 

Total collected 98,122.24 



142 McLEAX COUNTY AXD THE WOELD WAE 

Shipments by McLean county chapter to Bush Terminal and Central 
Division from May 21, 1917, to June, 1919: 

Surgical dressings 331,732, value $11,262.68 

Hospital garments 39,091, value 20,152.03 

Hospital supplies 32,106, value 5,642.94 

Eefugee garments 7,971, value 7,081.11 

Comforts 5,408, value 1,744.05 

Knitted articles 24,806, value 77,256.50 

Totals 441,114, value $123,139.31 

The branches in the county shipped to the Bloomington workshop 
228,742 articles. Besides the articles shipped, thousands were turned 
over to the Allied Belief Committee, were supplied to the tuberculosis 
sanatorium, to the Day Nursery, the Girls' Industrial Home, Victory 
Hall for boys, the Salvation Army, Brokaw and St. Joseph hospitals, or 
furnished for use in the influenza epidemic of 1918, or supplied to the 
Red Cross Health and Home Service sections. 

Knitted articles and supplies, February, 1917, to December, 1919: 
Sweaters, 7,571; Socks, 6,576 pairs; Mufflers, 1,964; Helmets, 804; Wrist- 
lets, 3,649 pairs; Trench caps, 60; Total number, 20,624. Total value, 
$66,839.75. Surgical Dressings, from March, 1917, to December, 1918: 
Number dressings, 331,732; Value of dressings, $11,262.68; Branches 
furnished 125,639 pieces. 

French and Belgian relief clothing and supplies: First drive, 71 
cases weighing 7,300 pounds. First drive chapter quota, 1,030 pounds. 
Second drive, 145 cases, weighing 12,285 pounds. Packing and shipping: 
To Bush Terminal, New York, 17 boxes hospital supplies and surgical 
dressings. To Central division, 281 cartons for surgical dressings. 122 
cases hospital supplies. 103 cases knitted garments and supplies. To 
commission for Belief in France and Belgium: 216 cases. To concen- 
tration depot, 12 barrels peach pits and nut shells. To branches, yarn 
and cut garments, 1,200 packages. 

Nursing: 83 nurses enrolled for service from district. 15 nurses 
in district enrolled for service overseas. 33 nurses from Bloomington in 
service. 8 nurses from Bloomington in service overseas. 

Instruction class enrollment: 129 certificates issued in home nurs- 
ing. 73 certificates issued in First Aid. 

Special Relief Work In June, 1917, large portions of the cities of 
Mattoon and Charleston, in Coles county, were destroyed by a tornado. 
The Chapter executive committee decided to at once head a subscription 
for funds for the sufferers and ascertain what other help could be given. 
Miss Justis, chairman of the nursing service, arranged to furnish nurses. 
She and three nurses from Brokaw hospital, Misses Yarp, Schertz and 
Schreiner, were among the first to reach the stricken towns. Miss Justis 
returned in a few days to recruit other nurses from the district. Miss 
Yarp and Miss Schertz from Bloomington remained in the towns for 
three weeks, and were of great assistance in organizing the nursing 
service there. Quite a sum of money was forwarded from Bloomington, 
having been subscribed through the Pantagraph. 

Bazaar and Sale The colored people of McLean county conducted 
a bazaar and sale in Bloomington in October, 1918, for the benefit of 
the local chapter. Mrs. Samantha Crook Wright and Mrs. Belle Blue 
Claxton headed the committee in charge. All the fruits, vegetables, 
poultry and other articles were donated, and the net proceeds of the 
sale, $175.73, turned over to the chapter. This sale was conducted as an 
expression of the loyalty of the colored people to the American Bed 
Cross. 

Service Badges One hundred and sixty-five badges have been 
issued to Red Cross workers who were entitled to them for having 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



143 



completed the required number of hours of work in the interest of the 
Red Cross. 

The Future The permanency of the McLean county chapter seems 
assured. During the four years of its existence it proved to the public 
that the Red Cross principles upon which it is founded are most worthy 
of perpetuation and support. The influenza epidemic in both chapter 
and branch territory in October and November, 1918, furnished a won- 
derful and convincing illustration of what an active Red Cross chapter 
means to a community at such a time. There was no cutting of red 
tape, no wires to pull merely quick and effective action. It is rec- 
ognized that the prompt measures taken by the Red Cross in this 
epidemic averted a more serious calamity and lessened the number of 
deaths through prevention of contagion. 




A Band of Boosters for the Red Cross in the first great War Drive, 
June, 1917. 

"BY DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT" 

Pantagraph, Nov. 12, 1918: It was about 3 a. m. The whistling loco- 
motives and the clanging first bells were awakening the community and 
the enthusiasts were making their way up town to join the jubilee. For 
a few minutes there was a lull in the ear splitting noise. This proved 
to be a golden opportunity for a cornetist, somewhere in the northeast 
section of the city. Stepping to the porch of his home, he played the 
"Star Spangled Banner," throwing his whole soul into the inspiring 
strains. It was a beautiful and appropriate interpolation and thrilled all 
who were privileged to hear it. The player, Dr. A. F. Strange, will never 
know .the effect of the selection upon his widely scattered auditors, but 
it was an inspiration to all within hearing of the silvery notes. It seemed 
as if again "bombs were bursting in air" and all knew the "flag was 
still there." Patriotism was strengthened and the jubilee given a finer 
meaning to those who stood reverently in hearing. There was a universal 
sigh of regret when the final note died away. It was a benediction of 
the early morn of peace. 



144 



McLEAN COUNTY AND TEE WORLD WAR 



COMMANDER OF THE A. E. F. 

(AND SOME OF OUR BOYS) 




Center Gen. John J. Pershing; left row, top to bottom Scrgt. Krwin Albee, W. 

H. Pemberton, Dewey C. Witt, William Price. 
Bight row, top to bottom William O'Hara, Benoni S. lungerich, Joe Nowatski, 

Lt. Henry Schneider. 



McLEAN 60UNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 145 



LIBERTY LOAN CAMPAIGNS. 

The people of McLean County loaned to the federal government 
during the war a total of about $11,000,000 of their money to help bring 
ultimate victory. This great sum was the payment on liberty bonds 
bought by the people of the county during five different drives which 
the government put on at different times, averaging in a rough way 
about six months apart during the period of American participation in 
the war. This huge total was nearly thirty times the cost of the court 
house of the county which was built just after the great fire. The very 
first public notice in McLean County calling attention to the fact that the 
government would have war bonds to sell to the people, was published 
in the newspapers of Bloomington on May 30, 1917, and read as follows: 

"In accordance with steps taken by numerous counties in this and 
other states, it was deemed advisable to call a meeting of the bankers 
of McLean co'unty for the purpose of perfecting an organization for the 
advertisement and sale of Liberty bonds. The responsibility of market- 
ing this issue largely falls upon the banker, and they in this connection 
are called upon to 'do their bit.' 

' ' The meeting for McLean County will be held in the Association 
of Commerce rooms in the Griesheim building, Bloomington, 111., on 
Saturday afternoon, June 2, at 4 o 'clock p. m. It is earnestly requested 
that your bank be represented, at such meeting, by as many officers and 
directors as possible to express the sentiment of your community and 
also to offer suggestions for the successful marketing of these bonds 
locally." 

This was signed by H. K. Hoblit, Adolph Wochner and Frank M. 
Rico, committee. 

This meeting was held as called on June 2, in the rooms of the Asso- 
ciation of Commerce, with John J. Pitts as chairman and F. L. Garst 
of Stanford, secretary. E. H. Leith and John Dacey of the Chicago 
Federal Reserve Bank were present and laid the matter before the 
assembled bankers. Talks were also made by L. L. Silliman of Chenoa, 
George E. Dooley of Leroy, Mr. J. H. Stephenson and Mr. Simpson of 
Danvers, Mr. Churchill of Chenoa, Mr. Arnold of Cooksville, D. G. Fitz- 
gerrell of Normal, A. J. Keenan of Leroy, J. B. Lennon, Mayor Jones 
and L. G. Whitmer of Bloomington and Mr. Garst of Stanford. A plan 
of campaign for the sale of bonds in the county was presented by H. 
K. Hoblit. A permanent organization was formed for pushing the lib- 
erty loan, with John J. Pitts as president, D. G. Fitzgerrell of Normal 
as vice-president, and H. K. Hoblit as secretary. The executive com- 
mittee was H. K. Hoblit, Adolph Wochner and Frank Rice. The fol- 
lowing bankers were appointed to assist in the general campaign: 

Frank W. Aldrich of McLean, F. L. Garst of Stanford, J. H. Stephen- 
son of Danvers, Mr. Ewins of Carlock, R. A., Ensign of Hudson, F. S. 
Kelly of Chenoa, L. L. Silliman of Chenoa, O. L. Hiser of Lexington, 
L. B. Stray er of Lexington, S. S. Bolt on of Towanda, Thomas Arnold 
of Cooksville, H. L. Barnes of Colfax, Harry Arnold of Colfax, A. R. 
Tunks of Colfax, Jacob Martens of Anchor, H. L. Barnes of Cropsey, 
F. W. Boston of Holder, C. A. Shinkle of Ellsworth, H. Van Gundy of 
Arrowsmith, John Jacobs of Arrowsmith, A. \V. Froehlich of Saybrook, 
R. R. Cheney of Saybrook, C. A. Schureman of Saybrook, George Carson 
of Bellflower, Arthur Gooch of Bellflower, J. A. Taylor of Leroy, L. C. 
Keenan of Leroy, E. B. Lanier of Downs, J. T. Buck of Heyworth, J. 
P. Shelton of Heyworth, G. M. Deaver of Gridley, J. R. Heiple of Grid- 
ley, D. U. Claudon of Meadows, L. H. Kerrick of Normal, D. G. Fitz- 
gerrell of Normal, J. J. Pitts and the following Bloomington bankers: 
J. J. Pitts, Adolph Wochner, Frank M. Rice, H. K. Hoblit, W. H. Brown, 
W. L. Moore, and C. M. Harlan. 



146 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 

The first liberty loan drive in this county was carried on with re- 
markably little talk, publicity or excitement. It was almost wholly in 
the hands of the bankers, and they pushed the sales mainly with the 
people with whom they did business. The newspapers gave but little 
space to the campaign from day to day, and modest advertising space 
was used by the banks. There were volunteer speakers who addressed 
crowds at the moving picture theaters. Subscriptions by mail and other- 
wise to the banks totaled about $700,000 at the end of the first week, 
according to Secretary Hoblit's announcement, although the county's 
quota as assigned by the government was $1,500,000. On the last day 
of the campaign, the total had reached $811,700, or about 60 per cent 
of the county's quota. It was announced after the close of the time 
limit, June 15, that the total had reached $1,007,000, but this later 
shrank to about $800,000 as allowance had to be made for duplications 
of reports. The Boy Scouts of the city and county were credited with 
selling a total of $35,000 through their personal efforts. Lawson Hen- 
ninger of Bloomingtoa personally sold $12,500, while others who sold 
ten or more bonds were Kenneth Wells, Glen Whitcomb, Norval Goelzer. 
Each of these boys received a war badge for his services. 

Second Liberty Loan 

It was on October 1, 1917, that the first meeting of bankers of 
McLean County was held after the announcement of the government's 
second liberty loan plan. At this meeting there was very little definite 
information at hand. John Dacey of the Chicago Federal Reserve Bank 
again was present and spoke and exhibited a sample of the $100 bond. 
On the next day, October 2, a meeting was held in the Association of 
Commerce rooms of a committee of bankers with other citizens. An 
executive committee was then named to push the loan, the committee 
consisting of Mayor Jones, John W. Harber, Joseph Sprague, R. C. Bald- 
win, J. J. Condon, Paul F. Beich, L. G. Whitmer, M. R. Livingston, W. 
S. Harwood, H. K. Hoblit, Campbell Holtoii and Frank Oberkoetter. 

On October 4 another meeting was held for general organization, 
when the following officers were chosen: Chairman, John J. Pitts; vice 
chairman, H. K. Hoblit; secretary, J. H. Hudson. Precinct chairmen 
were appointed for all the precincts of the city, as follows, in the order 
of number: Hal M. Stone, G. C. Heberling, P. W. Coleman, Bert Thriege, 
John M. McDonald, Frank Ryan, Will Costigan, George Monroe, R. C. 
Baldwin, Sumner Goodfellow, Oscar Mandel, C. L. Hills, C. L. Miller, 
Harry Surface, Dr. A. W. Meyer, Henry Oberkoetter, J. F. Heffernan, 
Ralph Hasenwinkle, Wesley Owen, David Wochner, J. W. Harber, Ed- 
ward Fahey, E. R. Morgan, J. L. Bonnett, Jesse Hoffman, J. W. Rodgers, 
Charles E. Hall. For Bloomington township, outside the city, B. T. 
Alexander and Amos Johnson. For Normal, D. G. Fitzgerrell. 

A vacant room of the Hunter building was rented and equipped with 
chairs, tables, etc., for headquarters, and R. M. Darst placed in charge, 
with Edward F. McKinney as assistant. A series of noon lunches was 
planned, when canvassers could get together and hear reports on the 
canvass. A number of lawyers were enlisted for making four minute 
speeches in favor of the bonds at the theaters and other public gather- 
ings. Ministers promised to refer to the drive from their pulpits on the 
first Sunday after the organization. At the end of two days it was 
announced that $100,000 in bonds had been sold. 

The active house to house canvass began October 15 and increased 
with more fervor every day from that time. An organization of women 
headed by Mrs. J. C. Riley was formed throughout the county which 
worked with the men 's committees. The organization was now complete 
throughout the county. Four minute men organized with C. B. Hughes 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 147 

as chairman and R. F. Dunn secretary. Daily luncheons were held with 
reports of the campaign. On the 18th a mass meeting was held at the 
high school with rousiirg speeches by Henry Rathbone .and Gov. Fifer. 
The quota for the county, set at $1,800,000, was apparently reached with 
the final reports on October 31, but later figures shrank the total some- 
what below the quota. The published figures were: 

Cropsey $ 6,500 Arrowsmith 11,000 

Anchor 5,700 Saybrook 25,750 

McLean 30,150 Leroy 90,000 

Stanford 42,000 Danvers 33,950 

Oarlock 7,950 Bellflower 3(5,450 

Lexington 30,150 Heyworth 1(5,550 

Hudson 20.500 Ellsworth 7,200 

Towanda 18,000 Meadows 9,100 

Holder 8,000 Downs 5,650 

Chenoa 120,000 Normal 130,000 

Colfax 19,000 Bloomington 1,129,850 

Gridley 33,250 

Cooksville 16,500 Total $1,852,500 

Revised figures from some of the townships changed the total con- 
siderably, and the final figure stood at about $1,200,000. 

Third Liberty Loan 

The announcement of the campaign for the third liberty loan came 
in March, 1918, and the campaign actually began on April 6, the anni- 
versary of the entrance of America into the war. The organization in 
McLean County was more thorough than in the two previous campaigns. 
Harris K. Hoblit was appointed general chairman for McLean County 
and D. G. Fitzgerrell of Normal was appointed vice chairman. These 
men went to Chicago early in March and consulted the state organizers 
for the loan, and then along toward the end of the month the local 
organization was completed. The vacated room in the corner of the 
Illinois hotel building was rented as headquarters, and a general com- 
mittee of ten named to supervise the campaign, this committee being 
composed of Mrs. J. C. Riley, W. T. Wolcott of the Alton shops or- 
ganization, L. G. Whitmer, R. C. Baldwin, J. J. Condon, L. O. Eddy, 
M. R. Livingston, W. L. Moore, Mayor Jones and C. B. Hughes. Mrs. 
Riley was again named as chairman of the women 's organization. There 
were local committees in every township of the county, and precinct 
committees for all sections of the city of Bloomington. The quota for 
the county was fixed at $1,782,000, and the campaign started with a 
burst of speed. By April 11, the sum of $1,100,000 had been subscribed. 

On April 16 the general committee of ten issued the following state- 
ment, announcing that the county's quota had been voluntarily raised: 
"Inasmuch as in the two previous campaigns McLean county has not 
taken her just part, now that our quota has been reached we should 
not be satisfied with a smaller subscription than two and a half million. 
The work should go on with as much activity as it has in the last ten 
days, until every resident of the county has had an opportunity to sub- 
scribe their proper proportion." 

The campaign went on vigorously, and the next day after this an- 
nouncement was made, the subscriptions had reached the two million 
dollar mark. Liberty day, the first anniversary of America's entry in 
the war, was celebrated with a great spurt. By April 23rd, the total 
had reached $2,444,000 on a quota of $2,500,000, and by the 27th had 
reached $2,777,000. On May 1st it was announced that the total for the 
county was then $2,900,000. The momentum continued, and at the close 
of the campaign the pledges had well passed the three million dollar 
goal. 



148 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

The average over-subscription of the whole state of Illinois was 55 
per cent. McLean county made an oversubscription of 68 per cent. 

In the entire state the amount of money placed in bonds per capita 
was $39.85. In McLean county the amount subscribed per capita was 
$44.08. 

The total number of persons subscribing to the third Liberty loan 
in the state was 521,561. Of those, 25,611 subscribed in McLean county. 

The per cent of population which subscribed in the state at large 
was 25 per cent. In McLean county 38 per cent of the population sub- 
scribed to the loan. 

The average size of the subscription in the state was $157. In Mc- 
Lean county the average size of subscription was $117, showing that 
we made our good showing not by the great subscriptions of a few men, 
but by the many subscriptions of the less wealthy. 

Fourth "Liberty Loan 

After the completion of the third liberty loan campaign, the or- 
ganization of workers both in Bloomington and thruout the county was 
kept more or less intact, hence when on September 26, 1918, it was 
announced that a fourth issue of bonds would call upon McLean county 
for a quota of $3,767,927, there was not a quaver of doubt that the people 
of the county would rise to this call of a large financial sacrifice as 
they had in other ways met the emergencies. H. K. Hoblit was again 
chosen head of the county organization, with many of the same workers 
as had been active in other campaigns, both in the city and county. The 
Chicago & Alton liberty loan organization was notably thorough and 
efficient, extending from the president's office down to the various de- 
partments. The shops and road men of Bloomington had a working 
machine which went through with a fine tooth comb the entire or- 
ganization of employes. 

September 28 was declared as volunteer day, and on that date a 
total of $1,391,100 in subscriptions was rounded up. In the city of 
Bloomington the results on volunteer day totaled $694,400. On the 
evening of October 1 there was a gigantic parade of those who had 
volunteered, held in Bloomington. On the second day of the campaign 
it was announced that a total of $1,741,550 had been subscribed, and 
that Mt. Hope was the first township to go "over the top" on its quota. 

On October 2, the two million dollar mark had been past. On Octo- 
ber 5 a train load of war battlefield relics sent out by the government 
was exhibited in Bloomington as a spur to patriotism. Great crowds 
went to the Big Four depot to see them. By October 11. seven town- 
ships had reached their goals, these being Anchor, Bellflower, Blue 
Mound, Cropsey, Funk's Grove, Mt. Hope, and Normal. On October 16, 
the county was still $500,000 behind its quota, but on October 20 it 
was announced the county quota had been passed, the figures being 
summarized as follows: County's quota, $3,767,927; raised, $3,813,200. 
For the city of Bloomington: Quota, $1.539,732; raised, $1,544,850; over- 
subscribed, $5,178. Outside the city, quota, $2,228,198; raised, $2,268,- 
350; oversubscription, $40,155. 

In the successful termination of this remarkable campaign, special 
credit was given to Mr. Hoblit, Daniel G. Fitzgerrell of Normal, L. O. 
Eddy for the publicity; C. B. Hughes for the effective speaking cam- 
paign. The women under the direction of Mrs. J. C. Kiley were given 
due credit. O. E. Forrester was commended for his work in keeping 
records at headquarters. 

The Alton shop men raised in this campaign $200,000, and the men 
of the whole system about one million dollars. On the last day of the 
campaign, the telegraph operators of the system subscribed for $3,700 
of bonds. The Alton ran a Liberty Loan special train with Sergt. 
McCarthy as orator. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 149 

During the last two weeks of the campaign, the talk of an early 
ending of the war upset the notions of the people that the loan was 
necessary, and that it was oversubscribed in the face of all this tendency 
makes the success of the campaign all the more remarkable. 

The Victory Loan 

The fifth and last government loan floated for war purposes was 
known as the Victory Loan, for it was put out after the signing of the 
armistice, the partial demobilization of the army and navy, and the 
purpose of the loan was the payment of the vast expenses incurred by 
the government in the finishing up of the great war task on which the 
nation had entered. It was announced in April, 1919, about five months 
after the signing of the armistice. McLean county's quota was an- 
nounced on April 15 as $2,904,000, which was somewhat less than the 
quota for the fourth loan. The organization throughout the county 
remained much the same as it had been for the fourth loan, and Chair- 
man Hoblit announced that the slogan for this campaign would be: 
"Get it in one day." The preliminary plans were made with this end 
in view, of making a whirlwind start and get the county's quota sub- 
scribed in the shortest possible time. Hon. John Burke, treasurer of 
the United States, spoke in Bloomington on April 16, the next day after 
the announcement of the quota. 

The campaign in this county started with a remarkable burst of 
speed. On April 17, three days before the general start, Supervisor A. 
L. Hutson of Martin township notified Chairman Hoblit that his town- 
ship had already subscribed its quota. On the 18th, Cropsey reported 
through Chairman G. M. Meeker that that township had oversub- 
scribed its quota to the extent of $3,000. Jacob Martens of Anchor 
the same day reported Anchor over the top. The city of Bloomington 
by action of its council voted to invest $7,500 of its surplus funds 
in liberty bonds. 

April 21 was observed as "Victory Day," and it was announced 
that the county had subscribed for $1,500,000 in bonds by the close of 
that day, this figure being larger than the total subscriptions from this 
county during either the first or second loan campaigns. That same 
night there were nine townships which had reached their quotas, as fol- 
lows: Anchor, Chenoa, Cropsey, Mt. Hope, Empire, Allin, Martin and 
Cheney's Grove. The first day at the Chicago & Alton railroad and 
shops had secured $40,700, this sum coming from 500 of the 1,700 men 
at the shops. The rear room of the public library building was used 
as headquarters in this drive, and it was a busy place from the first. 
Solicitors were out in the field in every precinct of the city and every 
township in the county, except where the work was finished up the first 
day. On April 24 it was announced that the two million dollar mark 
had been reached in the local campaign, the subscriptions reaching 
$757,500 in the city of Bloomington and $1,309,000 in the county outside 
the city. Gridley, Funk's Grove, Danvers, Dawson and Cheney's Grove 
were added to those who had reached their quota. Captured German 
helmets \vere given as'souvenirs to township or precinct chairmen who 
had put their organizations over the top. 

At the end of the first week of the drive, the sum of $2,277,600 had 
been subscribed or about four-fifths of the desired total. Fourteen town- 
ships and seven city precincts had gone over the top. The campaign 
finally came to a close on May 3, with the following results: 

In county, outside city $1,930,550 

in city of Bloomington 1,315,100 

Total $3,245,650 



150 



McLEAN COUNTY AXD THE WORLD WAR 



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McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 151 

At the close of the campaign, the following summary of the results 
of the campaign among the Alton railroad employes showed that they 
more than did their part: 

Per cent of 

employes Total 

subscribed amount 

Conductors 75 $13,800 

Eoad engineers 64 30,150 

Road trainmen , 19 2,800 

Yard engineers 66 2,450 

Yard firemen 41 1,550 

Road Trainmen 22 4,450 

Switchmen 52 5,750 

Station force and freight house employes 78 52,750 

Maintenance of way employes 76 59,850 

Summary 

By subscribing its portion to the Victory Loan in 1919, McLean 
County did two things worthy of its name and its august history. It 
oversubscribed the last of the great war drives, the campaign that 
brought the boys home. And it also raised a sufficient sum to make 
the total pledges of five loans greater than the combined quotas of 
those loans. Thus McLean county *was more than one hundred percent 
in its financial aid to the war. It defies reproach. It has maintained 
its historical prestige of sound sense, integrity and patriotism. Here 
are the figures that show the financial war history of McLean county: 
Loan Quota Subscription 

First $ 1,300,000 $ 800,000 

Second 1,700,000 1,200,000 

Third 1,762,000 3,000,000 

Fourth 3,676,000 3,805,000 

"Victory" 2,866,900 2,885,900 



Grand total $11,305,900 $11,690,900 

The following were the total subscriptions by townships and pre- 
cincts for the third, fourth and fifth loan campaigns: 

Townships Third Fourth Fifth 

Allin $ 69,950 $ 71,000 $ 62,500 

Anchor 56,450 54,250 60,000 

Arrowsmith 53,150 56,150 43,750 

Bellflower 47,600 66,150 50,000 

Blue Mound 56,600 72,250 56,350 

Chenoa 99,450 126,950 123,050 

Cheney 's Grove 81,000 97,700 92,750 

Cropsey 21,100 31,650 32,450 

Danvers 82,450 87,750 67,700 

Dale 40,150 60,800 50,050 

Dawson 39,800 71,310 66,000 

Downs 41,000 56,300 53,000 

Dry Grove 38.350 52,100 39,850 

Empire 93,400 148,180 111,000 

Funks Grove 29,500 44,700 43,900 

Gridley 104,250 103,800 95,350 

Hudson 47,800 60,700 65,300 

Lawndale 28,000 41,900 32,000 

Lexington 65,150 122,500 93,500 

Martin 54,050 93,850 67,550 

Money Creek 29,150 43,200 32,800 



152 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



Townships 
Mt Hope 


Third 

89 200 


Fourth 
96 000 


Fifth 
81,600 


Old Town 


41 000 


53 350 


30,000 


Normal 


208 700 


278 200 


232,000 


Randolph. 


73,650 


89,850 


93,300 


Towanda 


47 350 


67,050 


51,000 


White Oak 


33 350 


38 950 


24,400 


West 


38,350 


55,400 


43,000 


Yates 


29 450 


49 200 


30,150 


Bloomington Tp 


60,950 


51,750 


44,600 











$1,800,340 



$2,341,940 $1,968,900 







Third 


City No. 


1 


$ 59,150 


City No. 


2 


60,700 


City No. 


3 


42,400 


City No. 


4 


6,000 


City No. 


5 


5,000 


City No. 


6 


13,500 


City No. 


7 


8,450 


City No. 


8 


33,600 


City No. 


9 


27,350 


City No. 


10 


83,450 


City No. 


11 


65,200 


City No. 


12 


38,100 


City No. 


13 


8,800 


City No. 


14 


6,200 


City No. 


15..-. 


12,450 


City No. 


16 


19,400 


City No. 


17 


25,600 


City No. 


18 


71,900 


City No. 


19 


64,500 


City No. 


20 


8,450 


City No. 


21 


20,750 


City No. 


22 


10,900 


City No. 


23 


62,150 


City No. 


24 


26,950 


City No. 


25 


60,450 


City No. 


26 


36,450 


City No. 


27 


12,200 


City No. 


28 


20,350 


City No. 


29 


83,250 


City No. 


30 


19,750 



Totals $1,013,400 



Fourth 
$ 81,250 
66,950 
63,600 

4,450 
10,550 
13,800 

7,850 
30,750 
30,200 
111,800 
92,350 
50,750 

9,050 

6,850 

9,100 

17,650 

20,050 

102,750 

79,100 

9,100 
22,850 

5,250 
86,900 
32,600 
81,450 
43,000 
16,650 
13,250 
26,450 
23,650 

$1,251,000 



Fifth 

75,550 

53,800 

35,450 

750 

6,400 
13,950 

5,750 
28,900 
17,750 
80,450 
87,350 
68,950 
15,300 
350 

9,900 
10,800 
13,750 
75,350 
39,900 

3,800 
40,200 

2,400 
54,850 
44,550 
69,850 
41,100 
14,850 
10,800 
26,050 
13,600 

$962,450 



The personnel of the leadership for the different drives in the county 
changed to some extent, but many of the same people were active in 
all the last three liberty loan campaigns. The following is the list of 
names for the several townships for the third, fourth and fifth loans, 
the first name in each instance being the township chairman for the 
third, the second name for the fourth and third name for the fifth. In 
cases where the same chairman acted in two campaigns, it being given 
only once: 

Allin C. F. Kauffmann. 

Anchor Jacob Martens. 

Arrowsmith J. H. Henton, Earl W. Bane, E. S. Krum. 

Bellflower W. S. Bingham. 

Bloomington Fred J. Blum. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAE 153 

Blue Mound Charles E. Wondcrlin, Thomas Arnold. 

Chcnoa L. L. Binnion. 

Cheney's. Grove H. D. Stine. 

Cropsey F. E. Meeker, G. M. Meeker. 

Danvers E. P. Krum, L. A. Berg. 

Dale W. C. Eogers. 

Dawson Matthew Eichardson. 

Downs Ed. L. Weaver. 

Dry Grove F. L. Bramwell. 

Empire George Dooley, A. J. Kcenan. 

Funks Grove C. L. Disher. 

Gridley G. ^A. Manshardt, Thomas Moate. 

Hudson R. A. Ensign. 

Lawndale Charles Atkinson. 

Lexington H. S. Shade. 

Martin E. O. Wills, A. L. Hutson. 

Money Creek Elmer Ogden. 

Mt. Hope S. B. Van Ness, Isaac G. Funk. 

Normal C. O. Hamilton, Lester H. Martin. 

Old Town Fred W. Boston. 

Randolph J. P. Shelton. 

Towanda P. N. Jones, G. H. Geiger. 

West Thomas D. Irish. 

White Oak J. K. Esh. 

Yates C. E. Graves. 

Bloomington, City First Precinct Hal M. Stone, Herman S. Ochs; 
Second precinct, J. J. Cowden, J. P. Lowry; Third precinct, P. W. Cole- 
man; Fourth precinct, D. J. Salmon; Fifth, J. M. McDonald, Edward 
J. Madden; Sixth, William E. Smith, Frank Eyan, J. F. Maloney; 
Seventh, E. C. Haasc, John F. Morrissey; Eighth, Eichard M. O'Connell, 
Frank Phillips; Ninth, Sumner Goodfellow, W. F. Costigan; Tenth, Leroy 
Whitmer; Eleventh, S. C. Deaver; Twelfth, W. D. Snow; Thirteenth, 
A. G. Letson, Eev. A. D. Freden, M. B. Walsh; Fourteenth, A. G. Erick- 
son; Fifteenth, Charles L. Miller; Sixteenth, Dr. A. W. Meyer, W. A. 
Wells, W. L. Tatman; Seventeenth, Charles W. Silvers, Mrs. Ernest 
Baldwin; Eighteenth, Huber J. Light, William Merna, E. M. Heafer; 
Nineteenth, J. J. Thomassen, D. W. Snyder, John Schlosser; Twentieth, 
C. C. Bowman, James Gray; TAventy-first, Thomas Kane, W. H. Homuth; 
Twenty-second, Clyde A. Johnston, William Freese; Twenty-third, John 
W. Harber, Harry L. Fleming; Twenty-fourth, George Freese; Twenty- 
fifth, Ira Whitmer, W. B. Leach; Twenty-sixth, Eobert E. Williams, E. 
W. Sutherland, Arthur Heafer; Twenty-seventh, E. S. Davidson, W. C. 
Seran; Twenty-eighth, Harry E. Albee, I. A. Lederer; Twenty-ninth, 
A. L. Pillsbury, Ernest H. Black; Thirtieth, I. E. Good, E. F. Brechbeller. 



154 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



LIBERTY LOAN BOOSTER 

Harris K. Hoblit, cashier of the State Bank of Bloomington, is the 
one man of the county on whose shoulders rested larger financial re- 
sponsibilities of the war in this section than upon any other man. Mr. 
Hoblit was secretary of the Bankers' Organization during the first and 
second campaigns and had sole charge of the last three, his appoint- 
ment coming through the Federal Reserve Bank. The five Liberty Loan 
campaigns were carried on during 1917, 1918 and 1919, and the people of 
this county subscribed more than $11,000,000 of their money in the form 
of loans to help the government in its great task of financing the war. 
It was on May 8, 1917, that the bankers of Bloomington were offered 
the first war bonds of the government for disposal. On June 1 of that 
year the announcement came that McLean County was supposed to 
subscribe for $1,500,000 of these bonds. Such a proposition was stag- 
gering in its immensity, for the people of the county, including the 
bankers themselves, were not then accustomed to doing big things for 
mere patriotic motives. On June 2 the bankers of the county held 
a meeting to talk of some general plan for handling the sale of the bonds. 
At this meeting Mr. Hoblit was chosen chairman, and he continued in 

the same capacity througn each suc- 
ceeding drive for the other Liberty 
Loans, each of the last four being 
larger than the first. 

When the first campaign was on, 
the general opinion among the peo- 
ple was that this was a proposition 
for the bankers that they would 
have to take up the bonds as of- 
fered, and if the people generally 
bought any of them, it would be 
comparatively few, and these to be 
sold only to people of ample surplus 
means. The banks themselves could not 
in the nature of things absorb so large 
a quota of government paper at one 
time and leave ample capital for the 
ordinary business. Consequently, 
with the public apathy on the ques- 
tion, the immature organization of 
the bankers themselves, and a gen- 
eral failure of the people to under- 
stand the stiuation, that the quota 
for the county was not reached. How- 
ever, this was never true in any subsequent loan, and the total of the 
five campaigns in all was much greater than the total quota of the 
county for the five loans. Mr. Hoblit in each succeeding campaign ,gave 
himself without stint to the work of raising the quota. He devoted 
days and weeks to this work, to the neglect of his own private interests 
to a large extent. Of course in every campaign for the Liberty Loans, 
there was a large and earnest committee covering every precinct in the 
county, who gave their time and labor to enlisting the interest of the 
people in the propositions. Mr. Hoblit worked so quietly, so unostenta- 
tiously, and with no thought of credit to himself, that he inspired every 
other worker with zeal and devotion to the cause. Consequently, when 
the close of the final campaign for Liberty Loans came it was found 
that the people of the county had loaned $11,000,000 of their money 
to the government, divided as follows among the various campaigns: 

Quota Subscribed 

First loan . . . .- $1,500,000 $ 800,000 

Second loan 1,700,000 1,200,000 

Third loan 1,762,000 3,022,250 

Fourth loan 3,676,927 3,805,200 

Fifth (Victory) loan 2,866,900 2,998.400 




Harris K. Hoblit 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 155 

WAR-TIME COMMUNITY SINGING 

A history of the War interests and activities of McLean county 
during the great world war, that did not take into account the subject 
of community singing would be incomplete. Music has always carried 
within its elements the power to stir the deeper emotions of the human 
soul, to arouse the finer and better powers of human nature, to bring 
solace and cheer in times of sorrow, and to give courage and fortitude 
to carry over the crisis of life. 

Perhaps the first outstanding characteristic of this community music 
was its voluntariness and spontaniety. There was nothing forced about 
it, and no man served for pay. James Melluish, who was one of the 
leaders in the movement, speaks in a paper written January 4th, 1918, 
of the beginning of the "sings" as being spontaneous, and almost with- 




J. G. Melluish 

out care so far as preliminary campaigns were concerned. He said: 
"We were contemplating the subject from a distance when suddenly 
some one decided to launch a sing in one of the public schools, and 
within a week many of the schools were clamoring for sings." 

Mr. Melluish again in the paper quoted above says: "In seeking 
leaders for these 'sings' a very unusual thing happened; voluntarily 
the very best leaders in the city came forward and offered their ser- 
vices freely for the good of the cause." In the same paper he states, 
' ' Musical jealousies and petty rivalries which had hitherto balked con- 
certed efforts in musical projects in this comiminity were forgotten or 
ignored." 

In the organization and coordination of the school singing, Miss 
Mabelle Glenn, the proficient supervisor of Public School music in the 



156 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 

Bloomington schools, with the efficient assistance of many of the teach- 
ers early in the campaign had the little singing soldiers storming the 
forts of indifference if there was any, and thru the schools the in- 
spiration of song passed like a good infection into every home. 

If schools lacked the facilities for the evening "sings" such facili- 
ties were soon installed; as for instance, in one school district the school 
had no lighting facilities; their first sing was under the dim light of 
small candles. The next, however, found the school building equipped 
with a modern electric lighting system. Contests interesting and friendly 
were carried on between the various grades and rooms of individual 
schools as to which grade or room would have the largest attendance 
of school parents at given "sings." And a silver cup contest was 
carried on between the various schools of the city. 

An event long to be remembered was the final contest in mass sing- 
ing for the Silver Cup, held in the High School auditorium the afternoon 
of December 24th, 1917. The leader chosen for the contest was Prof. 
Osborne McConathy, director of music at the Northwestern University 
of Evanston. Prof. Lawrence Erb of the Musical department of the 
University of Illinois was selected as the judge, and the final competing 
schools were Hawthorne, Emerson, Franklin and Washington. Needless 
to say these five school groups at this final contest for the cup that 
would always remain a valued memorial to the winning school, acquitted 
themselves with pride and enthusiasm. The schools by standing at 
the close of the contest were as follows: 

First, and winning school, Hawthorne, Prof. Westhoff, leader; Mrs. 
James Reeder, pianist. 

Second, Emerson School; Leader, Dale James; Pianist, Ralph Freese. 

Third, Franklin School; Leader, Lyle Straight; Pianist, Miss Norma 
Brown. 

Fourth, Washington School; Leader, Mrs. O. R. Skinner; Pianist, 
Mrs. Harry Roush. 

Songs used were Keep the Home Fires Burning, Come all ye Faith- 
ful, Tomorrow, and Hallelujah Chorus from the Messiah. This was 
doubtless one of the most enthusiastic meetings held during the year. 
The Auditorium of the new High School was crowded to the doors, the 
various singing groups from each of the competing schools being accom- 
panied with hundreds of interested friends and supporters. It being the 
Christmas occasion a chorus of fifty well trained little boys and girls 
from the grades under the direction of Miss Glenn marched in procession 
singing "Hark the Herald Angels sing." The dramatic effect added 
to the well trained voices gave beauty and the charm of the old Christmas 
carol to the whole meeting. 

The Hawthorne school was awarded the honors and the cup by Dr.. 
Erb who was the judge chosen for the decision. 

The foregoing will suffice to give some idea of the voluntariness and 
spontaneity of these "sings" that characterized the democratic spirit 
that stamped itself on the music of the war time period. Of course the 
music was chosen for its adaptability to the need of the time. The 
times demanded music of the popular type, music adapted to the emo- 
tions common to all classes of people; the man from the shop was to 
sing with the man from the school and the cathedral, the girl from the 
counter with brother or sweetheart "over there" was to sing from 
the same book with her employer's wife whose sons were "over there." 

The community sing, judged by numbers reached and interested, 
was a success. The first week of the sings in the various schools, the 
attendance was 600. By the fifth week, the enthusiasm had spread to 
the extent that 3200 were present at the various "sings." On Sunday 
afternoon, November 11, 1917, was held what was one of the most not- 



157 




158 MCLEAN COUNTY AND THE wo ELD WAR 

able mass sings at the High School auditorium under the leadership of 
Prof. Peter \V. Dykema with an attendance of over 2,000 people, and 
an overflow meeting of several hundred at a nearby tneater. 

Under the direction of Prof. B. C. Moore, bupt. of McLean county 
schools, "sings" were developed in the sunounumg country schools, 
leaders going out from Bloomington to the other towns of McLean 
county. By this method it is sare to say that over two hundred com- 
munity centers of McLean county were moved by the common impulse 
of songs, and the larger birth of community consciousness was produced. 
The most cordial assistance in this work was given by Prof. B. C. Moore, 
and by the Federated Parent-Teachers Clubs, with Mrs. Harry Fleming 
as president. It will thus be seen that the American school, the mosc 
democratic institution in American Lte gave itself freely to the new 
democratic type of song. 

On November 6th, the general shops committee of the Chicago and 
Alton E. E. gave permission to those in charge, to organize the shop 
force. into a "sing." The first sing Drought aoout five hundred of tue 
men. The interest increased until over a thousand men every Tuesday 
noon gave 35 minutes to singing national and patriotic songs. A band 
of fifteen pieces was organized by Geo. Apelt and with Geo. W. Marton 
as leader the thousand luen from forge ana lathe and the noise of boiler 
shops and car shops, painters and carpenters and engine wipers together 
joined in singing courage for the trying hour. 

Similar sings were held at Paul F. Beich Co. 's factory; in this 
instance however, Mr. Beich placed a piano in the main building, where 
the girls were encouraged to put in time practicing for the "sing" to 
be held when the regular leaders came, it was a matter of comment, 
that Mr. Beich himself, one of the leading business men of Illinois 
mingled freely with his employes in their "sings." Here is seen what 
may be termed one of the by-products of the community spirit of song. 
There was revealed a common interest between employer and employe, 
in the various industries and institutions of the business world. 

Indicative of. the interest taken by the business men of the city, 
it is of interest to note that the movement was led by James Melluisii, 
a civil engineer and successful man of affairs, being at the same time one 
of the city's leading organists. The men who gave of their time and 
leadership without stint were prominent young business men, Dale James, 
Lyle Straight, Ealph Freese, all prominent young men of affairs, each 
a leader in his line. 

The Eotarians and the Association of Commerce club backed up the 
whole movement in a very substantial way by assisting in the purchase 
of 2500 books for the use of the "sings." 

A word as to what seems to be the permanent contributions to com- 
munity life from this movement, and this chapter will close with a few 
of the songs that were popular during those dark days of national sor- 
row and hope. 

The first valuable element contributed was that of a mutual forti- 
tude, that could scarcely have been awakened thru any other means. All 
that was being so well done for the individual of the community thru 
the Eed Cross, was augumented in mass effect by the enthusiasm of the 
community sing. From time to time came the added help and inspira- 
tion of some great song leader from distant places. 

Second, the deeper appreciation on the part of all the people of the 
common bond of popular music, the increased appreciation of the national 
hymns, the patriotic fervor aroused by the mass movement, and third, 
the revaluation of music as the means of lightening up, and poetizing 
the monotony and commonplace spirit of the business and workaday 
world. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 159 

The following are among the most popularly sung numbers, worthy 
to he passed on to the coming generations as typical of the spirit of a 
struggle that wo shall all hope may never be again a part of the world's 
life. 

OVER THERE (A-Flat) 

Over there Over there 

Send the word, send the word over there 

That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, 

The drums rum-turning every where 

80 prepare say a prayer 

Send the word, send the word over there 

We'll be over, we're coming over 

And we won't come back till it's over, over there. 

There was always a spirit akin to the spiritual effect of the real 
folk song, when the crowd struck in on, 

' ' Pack up your troubles in your old kit bag, 

And smile, smile, smile 
While you've a lucifer to light your fag, 

Smile boy, that 's the style. 
What's the use of worrying? 

It's never worth your while, so 
Pack up your troubles in your old kit bag, 

And smile, smile, smile." 

To overlook the increased internationalism of spirit as manifest in 
song, would be to overlook one of the greatest assets of the movement. 
Perhaps one of the most impressive features of the whole community 
sing movement was the presence in many of the mass meetings of scores 
of foreign born men and women, and especially children. Out of the 
home of Scandinavian, Hungarian, Pole and all other representatives of 
Europe including loyal Americans who were born in the Kaiser's own 
kingdom, here joined heartily in singing strength to the heart of the 
great cause that to them more than any other stood for liberty and 
justice. As a bit of the French spirit, "Joan of Arc," became popular, 
sung in the key of (F). 

"Joan of Arc, Joan of Arc, 

Do your eyes, from the skies, see the foe? 

Don't you see the drooping Fleur-de-lis? 

Can't you hear the tears of Normandy? 

Joan of Arc, Joan of Arc, 

Come, lead your France to victory. 

If these brief words will suffice to give some idea of the song spirit 
that prevailed during the trying years of struggle, conserving to future 
generations a bit of the moral and spiritual force manifest in this and 
multitudes of other cities and states all over the world, it will satisfy the 
ambition of the writer. And now that the pain and suffering is past, 
and many homes have a renewed interest in European countries by rea- 
son of the graves that are there, may we gather in twilight of memory 
and imagination and sing, 

When the great red dawn is shining, 

When the waiting hours are past, 

When the tears of night are ended 

And I see the day at last, 

I shall come down the road of sunshine, 

To a heart that is fond and true, 

When the great red dawn is shining, 

Back to home, back to love and you. 



160 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAR 161 

Some of the more popular verses of many war-time songs were these: 

MARSEILLAISE HYMN 

(A-flat) 

Ye sons of Freedom awake to glory! 
Hark! Hark! what myriads bid you rise! 
Your children, wives, and grandsires hoary, 
Behold their tears and hear their cries! 
Behold their tears and hear their cries! 
Shall iTateful tyrants, mischief breeding, 
With hireling hosts, a ruffian band, 
Affright and desolate the land, 
While peace and liberty lie bleeding? 

"SMILES" 

(G) 

Chorus: 

There are smiles that make us happy, 
There are smiles that make us blue, 
There are smiles that steal away the teardrops 
As the sun-beams steal away the dew, 
There are smiles that have a tender meaning 
That eyes of love alone may see, 
And the smiles that fill my life with sunshine 
Are the smiles that you give to me. 

THERE'S A LONG, LONG TRAIL 

(A-flat) 
There's a long, long trail a-winding 

Into the land of my dreams, 
Where the nightingales are singing 

And the white moon beams; 
There's a long, long night of waiting 

Until my dreams all come true, 
Till the day when I'll be going down 

That long, long trail with you. 

THE ROSE OF NO MAN'S LAND 

(E-flat) 

There's a Rose that Grows on "No Man's Land," 
And it's wonderful to see: 

Tho' it's spray 'd with tears, it will live for years, 
In my garden of memory. 
It's the one red rose the soldier knows, 
It's the work of the Master's hand; 
'Mid the war's great curse stands the Red Cross Nurse, 
She's the Rose of No Man's Land. 

KEEP THE HOME FIRES BURNING 

Keep the home fires burning, 
While your hearts are yearning, 
Tho your lads are far from home, 
They dream of home 
There's a silver lining, 
Thru the dark clouds shining, 
Turn the dark clouds inside out, 
Till the boys come home. 



162 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE 

The Bloomington Association of Commerce during 1917 and 1918 
devoted its energies largely to work to help the nation win the war. 
its offices, then in the Griesheim building, became headquarters for 
many minor organizations, such as fuel committees, food price com- 
mittees and the like. In the summer of 1917, the rooms were used as 
a recruiting office for getting men to fill out the ranks of old Company 
D, which later became a part of the famous Prairie Division. The 
Association had its own War Activities committee, which worked for 
the comfort of successive contingents of drafted men as they assembled 
for departure for camps, and later when the service men returned home 
after the demobilization. This committee had designed and struck a 
bronze medal, in quantities sufficient to give one to each man who went 
out of this county into any branch of service. The inscription on this 
medal reads: "McLean County, Illinois, U. S. A., Honors her Soldier, 
John Doe, Serve Well. 1918." On the reverse side was a bas-relief 
of the great seal of the state of Illinois. On May 1, 1918, the Associa- 
tion of Commerce moved into its present spacious quarters upon the 
second floor of the Durlcy block, the new location giving more than four 
times the floor space of the old. 

The Association of Commerce provided and financed different rooms 
as headquarters for drives, such as liberty loans, Eed Cross, war benev- 
olences, etc. The city and county organization of the Council of Na- 
tional Defense made the A. of C. rooms their headquarters, and a sec- 
retary, Miss Reeser, was employed constantly for this kind of work. 
All the township committees of the C. N. D. co-operated through this 
association during the war. The Association of Commerce raised in 
special funds for war work during the three years from 1917 to 1920, 
the total of $4,991.81, which was distributed through its committees and 
the office itself. One of the most important phases of its war work 
was that connected with the establishment of the Student Army Train- 
ing Corps at the Wesleyan. When the government took this action, the 
Association of Commerce guaranteed the financing of the barracks on 
Wesleyan 's campus, at a cost of $27,000. At the opening of these 
barracks, the A. of C. and Better Farming Association put on a benefit 
corn show and raised $5,000 for building a students' club house. The 
armistice put an end to such need, and the fund of $5,000 was distributed 
among the Home Bureau, the Better Farming Association and the 
A. of C. The government after the war reimbursed the Association for 
the cost of the barracks. During the demobilization period, the Associa- 
tion carried on its most beneficial activity through its canteen committee 
and War Activities committee. The Association was instrumental in 
establishing in Bloomington a government employment agency, which 
up to the year 1920 had secured jobs for some 4,000 people, many of 
them returned service men. This bureau was in personal charge of 
John E. Matthews. In spite of the strain of war activity, the Associa- 
tion of Commerce carried on with scarcely any interruption during 1917 
and 1918 its general community work for the city's welfare. The war- 
time officers of the Association of Commerce were: President, R. C. 
Baldwin; vice-president, Milton R. Livingston; secretary, J. H. Hudson; 
treasurer, Harris K. Hoblit. 

The personnel of the war activities committee of the Association 
was as follows: C. L. Hills, chairman; George Washburn, H. D. Bunncll, 
W. H. Homuth, E. E. Jones, C. U. Williams, C. B. Hamilton. For three 
months during the demobilization period, the War Camp Community 
Service organization maintained an office with the Association, and a 
paid secretary to assist returned men in getting back into civil life. 



HcLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



163 




li 
R. C. Baldwin 



J. H. Hudson 



HONOR ROLL 

The following members of the Association of Commerce were in 
the service: 



Carl H. Behr 
Wm. Bright 
R. W. Bringham 
J. J. Butler 
Fred Brian 
Dwight E. Beal 
John Cleary 
T. W. Cantrell 
Dr. Bchrendt 
Walter J. Freese 
W. W. Gailey 
G. H. Galford 
W. H. Gardner 
Harry Hall 
H. C. Hawk, Jr. 
Ed. Hammond 
F. M. Harry 
J. B. Havens 
L. A. Hayes 
Ralph Heffernan 
Rogers Humphreys 
Blake Holton 
Harry L. Howell 



T. F. Harwood 
Dr. J. K. Hawks 
Julius Klemm 
Ralph McCord 
R. A. Noble 
R. M. O'Connell 
G. N. Paxton 
J. Warren Paxton 
Logan Perry 
Ben Rhodes 
A. E. Rogers 
Horace Soper 
V. G. Staten 
Carl F. Schalk 
Chas. H. Snow 
E. C. Straub 
Earl T. Smith 
Glen Walley 
Joe Watchinski 
Walter Williams 
Wm. Wallis 
Thos. W. Weldon 



164 




John F. Anderson 



Mayor E. E. Jones 



E. R. Morgan 







A. G. Erickson 



R. L. Carlock 



BLOOMINGTON WAE COUNCIL 

Of the many civic bodies in Bloomington that played a highly important part 
in the war, none is deserving of a fuller measure of credit than the Board of City 
Commissioners composed of Mayor E. E. Jones, and Commissioners E. R. Morgan, 
John F. Anderson, A. G. Erickson, and R. L. Carlock. At nearly every session of 
the council during the period of the war, there was some action of importance cal- 
culated to help win the great struggle. The council set the pace in patriotism by 
utilizing surplus funds for buying Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps to the 
extent of $24,832. The inauguration of the War Gardens, which vastly increased 
the output of vegetable foodstuffs, was a notable movement fostered by the City Council. 
This was in charge of Commissioner John Anderson. Hundreds of vacant lots were 
cleared of weeds and the public encouraged and assisted in growing vegetables. The 
total acreage thus utilized, was very large and the food produced reached a very 
considerable tonnage. This was one of the most successful side movements grow- 
ing out of the war and many of these vacant lots have been cultivated following 
the signing of the armistice. In supporting the Council of Defense, and all other 
patriotic movements, the council was at all times quick to respond and 100 per cent 
in achievement, and, in loyalty and activity, was second to none. The war council 
will always be held in grateful remembrance by the citizens of Bloomington and 
all McLean County as well. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 165 



WOMEN AND FOOD CONSERVATION 

To anyone who read the newspapers during the first few months of 
1917, it was apparent that when the United States declared war on 
Germany, there would be some sort of organized campaign for food 
conservation in this country. The question of food had become critical 
for the warring nations and the United States would play a large part 
in supplying the armies and civilians of our associates with enough food 
to keep them in the fighting ranks. 

The prompt action of Bloomington and McLean county women in 
organizing to meet this need will always be one of the greatest matters 
of pride to this county. During the latter part of April, just after our 
declaration of war, Mrs. Spencer Ewing went before the officers of the 
McLean County Chapter Eed Cross, and offered her services for any 
work in food conservation that might be taken up. The offer was at 
once accepted, and thereafter during the whole period of the war and 
reconstruction months that followed, Mrs. Ewing was county leader in 
food conservation. To her is due large credit for the enlistment of 
McLean county women in the army of housewives who fought in the 
trenches at home, against starvation abroad. The national food admin- 
istration, with Herbert Hoover as its head, did not begin operations 
until July, 1917, so it may be seen that McLean county can justly claim 
the distinction of having been foresighted. 

The original Conservation' Committee of the Red Cross was. com- 
posed of Mrs. Ewing, E. C. Baldwin, Ben Sumner, W. H. Cummings, 
Eoy Costigan, H. W. Kelly, John G. Miller, Mrs. F. W. Benjamin, Miss 
Sallie Anthony, Mrs. Paul Beich, Mrs. J. C. Eiley, Mrs. S. Noble King, 
Mrs. George Monroe, Mrs. J. B. McConkie and Mrs. Will Moore. 

Later, when the Woman's Committee, Council of Defense, was or- 
ganized, a conservation committee was appointed as follows: Mrs. F. 
W. Benjamin, president of McLean County Household Science Club; Miss 
Nellie Parham, representing public library; Miss Alice Treganza, teacher 
of domestic science in public schools; Miss Olla Johnson, Wesleyan 
domestic science teacher; Mrs. E. J. Carroll of Holy Trinity Ladies 
Aid; Mrs. Maurice McCarthy of Daughters of Isabella; Mrs. G. H. 
Johnson of Grace Methodist church; Mrs. E. M. Hamilton of Second 
Presbyterian church; Mrs. F. C. Davison, Second United Brethren church; 
Mrs. John Coupe, Parent-Teacher Confederated Club; Mrs. Jennie C. 
Barlow, Mrs. Eoss Breckenridge, Miss Laurastine Marquis and Miss 
Emma Wright. 

Thruout the emergency, the food conservation work of McLean 
county was done equally thru the Eed Cross committee and the Woman's 
Committee, C. N. D., and reports were made to both organizations. 

In May, 1917, forty-five groups for the study of new problems that 
confronted housewives, were organized. These included members and 
representatives from the Day Nursery Mothers' Club, Normal Sewing 
Society, Holy Trinity Ladies' Aid, several ladies' aid societies of Bloom- 
ington protestant churches, Y. W. C. A. group of young married women, 
Normal Improvement League, T. P. A. auxiliary, Home Welfare Club, 
Colored Churches, Normal Neighborhood group, North Clinton Neighbor- 
hood group, St. Patrick's Ladies' Aid, Thalia Circle, East Side Group, 
Heyworth Household Science Club, McLean County Household Science 
club, Country Club, West Oakland group, White Place group, Broadway 
group, Emerson school group, Spaulding school club, Price School Club, 
Washington street school club, and others. 

These groups came together during the summer and discussed the 
world food situation and the ways in which local women could help. The 



166 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

leader of each group attended lectures given weekly by Mrs. Jennie C. 
Barlow. A room for these meetings was opened in the new high school 
building. 

In July, when the national food administration began its work, 
pledges were sent out for the signatures of housewives. About 700 of 
these were signed. But the organization was still imperfect, and it was 
not until November when the general registration of women took place, 
that McLean county housewives in any large way signified their willing- 
ness to enter into the spirit of food conservation. When the matter was 
put before them in a detailed statement, 9000 out of a possible 11,000 
housewives of McLean county signed the pledges. 

In July, Miss Naomi Newburn, of the University of Illinois, gave 
a week of canning demonstrations in Bloomington. She urged the neces- 
sity for preserving for winter use everything that could be preserved 
from the home garden. Her demonstrations were largely attended. 

During the late summer and early fall months, Miss Emma Wright, a 
McLean county girl with university training, gave weekly demonstra- 
tions in practical war-time cookery, in the high school domestic science 
room. 

It was during the fall of 1917 that agitation for employment of a 
home adviser was first begun here, Mrs. Ewing, Mrs. Frank W. Benjamin, 
and other leaders in household science work, initiating the movement. 
Under the Smith-Lever bill, the government had several years before 
offered funds to counties employing home advisers, on the same basis as 
farm advisers were employed. Up to this time there had been but one 
home adviser in Illinois in Kankakee county where the experiment 
was started in 1914. The government, in an effort to establish home 
advisers as trained leaders of conservation, increased the funds avail- 
able during the war emergency, and it was to take advantage of this 
offer, and to get the assistance of such a leader that the McLean county 
women began their campaign for members of a Home Improvement 
Association. 

The Illinois Farmers' Institute held its annual meeting in Bloom- 
ington in February, 1918, and the exhibits for the Department of House- 
hold Science, were made by the McLean County Food Conservation Com- 
mittee. The Normal high school arranged plates of meats and meat sub- 
stitutes to illustrate lessons in meat saving; Bloomington high school 
had exhibits on sugar saving; Wesleyan classes showed wheat substi- 
tutes; the I. S. N. U. classes made exhibits of fat conservation. During 
the institute hundreds of the five-cent conservation cook books gotten 
out by the State Council of Defense, were sold. 

The message had gone forth from Washington early in 1918 that 
more food must be conserved than during the previous year; the situa- 
tion abroad was more and more critical as our own troops were sent, 
over and had to be fed 3000 miles from the base of supplies. A spirit 
of downright seriousness began to prevail; no longer were complaints 
concerning the government regulations heard. Wheat, meat, fats and 
sugar were the foods upon which attention was concentrated. 

In March, 1918, a war kitchen was opened on North Main street. 
$25.00 for material and equipment being supplied by the Eed Cross. Here 
Miss Naomi Newburn and Miss Olive Percival of the University of Illinois 
staff, gave two demonstrations daily for a week to large and enthusiastic 
audiences. Women were really eager to learn how to cook in order to 
use the least possible amount of the conservation foods, and yet to main- 
tain the health of their families. Daily appeals for conservation were 
made by the women in charge. 

The uses of rice instead of potatoes; fish instead of meat; syrups 
instead of sugar; vegetable fats for animal fats; were all demonstrated. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 167 

Perhaps the most largely attended of these demonstrations was that on 
' ' liberty ' ' breads those in which flours other than wheat were used. 
Women were having poor success in using the wheat substitutes, and 
when it was announced that Misses Newburn and Percival would make 
several loaves from various flours, interest in the kitchen knew no bounds. 
The room was crowded to the limit, and women even stood out on the 
sidewalk. 

A permanent organization called the Home Improvement Associa- 
tion was formed in April, as the result of agitation previously mentioned, 
for a home adviser. It had a membership of 1500 women from all over 
the county, each paying $1 per year toward its support. The government 
likewise paid $1500 per year. There was a director in each township, 
who stood for food conservation in her community. In June the home 
adviser began work. She was Miss Clara R. Brian formerly of San Jose. 
Because McLean county is so large that one person could not give it 
adequate attention, the University of Illinois, sent Miss Grace D. Taylor 
to assist Miss Brian during the first two months she was here. Food 
conservation work was centered, thereafter, in Miss Brian, who gave 
lectures and demonstrations six days a week and traveled several thou- 
sand miles by train and automobile to towns and rural communities of 
the county. 

The Municipal Canning Kitchen was perhaps the most spectacular 
piece of conservation work done during 1918. It was opened in the 
Pantagraph buUding on June 18 and closed on August 31 after 1128 
cans of produce had been put up there. To the kitchen came women 
from all over McLean county and nearby towns in adjoining counties. 
It was estimated that 1200 housewives heard the lectures and demon- 
strations given twice weekly by Miss Taylor and Miss Mabel Sill of 
Normal, who was employed for this work after Miss Taylor left. In 
these demonstrations seasonable fruits and vegetables were canned and 
dried, the sorting of vegetables was shown, pickles and sauer kraut were 
made, and meat canning was illustrated. 

It was the purpose of the kitchen to so get before the people di- 
rections for canning and drying, that no garden produce should go to 
waste. There was a plan whereby persons having surplus garden pro- 
ducts, donated these to the kitchen, and they were canned by volunteers, 
in jars donated by other people. At the end of the season 665 quarts 
of such stuff was distributed to philanthropic agencies in Bloomington 
and Normal, and it proved invaluable during the influenza epidemic of 
the winter. There was a plan whereby a woman could bring her own 
jars and produce to the center and can under expert direction, no charge 
being made for this. Or she might send produce and jars and have it 
canned, giving half to the center as payment for the work. 

After canning season was practically over, several demonstrations 
of war-time cookery were given in the kitchen. At one of these Miss 
Taylor made war breads. The room was larger than that in which the 
North Main street war kitchen had been located, but it was taxed to 
capacity and many women were turned away. On another occasion Miss 
Sill made sugarless, wheatless cakes and sugarless icings. This brought 
another large crowd, as families were loathe to give up cake, and yet 
wanted to be patriotic. 

The municipal kitchen was a community enterprise in which many 
organizations and individuals had a part the McLean County House- 
hold Science Club, the Home Improvement Association, Patriotic League 
girls, Boy Scouts, the Motor Emergency Corps, the Council of Defense, 
Food Conservation Department of the Red Cross, Bloomington Panta- 
graph and church societies. The financial support was given by a few 
individuals, the Council of Defense and the Pantagraph. 



168 



McLEAN COUNTY AND TTJK WO ELD WAR 





Mrs. Spencer Ewing 



Miss Clara Brian 



School children were enlisted in the food conservation game early 
in its history. They participated in three essay contests which were 
designed to give publicity to some phase of conservation. The first was 
open to all pupils of the county. A prize was offered by Mrs. Ewing 
for the best short essay on the benefits of having a home adviser. The 
second was a similar contest in which three prizes were given to the 
children who wrote most convincingly on "Why and How Wheat Flour 
Should Be Conserved." The third was a potato essay contest, in which 
ward school domestic science classes participated. The winning paper 
contained a list of 435 ways in which potatoes may be prepared, and 
another named 410 recipes for potatoes. High school English classes, 
used potatoes as the subject for essays, stories and verses. During the 
time when potatoes were extremely scarce and high in price this co- 
operation in the schools helped materially in getting the Food Admin- 
istration's program before the public. 

It is interesting to recall the first set of' rules issued by the United 
States food administration and which were sent to Bloomington chapter 
of the Eed Cross for promulgation among the women of this section. 
These rules were modified from time to time, but the first draft of them 
is as follows: 

Save the Wheat. One wheatless meal a day. Use corn, oatmeal, rye 
or barley bread and non-wheat breakfast foods. Order bread twenty- 
four hours in advance so your baker will not bake beyond his needs. 
Cut the loaf on the table and only as required. Use stale bread for 
cooking, toast, etc. Eat less cake and pastry. 

Save the Meat. Beef, mutton or pork not more than once daily. 
Use freely vegetables and fish. At the meat meal serve smaller por- 
tions, and stews instead of steaks. Make made-dishes of all left-overs. 
Do this and there will be meat enough for everyone at a reasonable 
price. 

Save the Milk. The children must have milk. Use every drop. Use 
buttermilk and sour milk for cooking and making cottage cheese. Use 
less cream. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 169 

Save the Fats. We are the- world's greatest fat wasters. Fat is 
food. Butter is essential for the growth and health of children. Use 
butter on the table as usual but not in cooking. Other fats are as good. 
Eeduce use of fried foods. Save daily one-third ounce animal fats. 
Soap contains fats. Do not waste it. Make your own washing soap at 
home out of the saved fats. 

Save the Sugar Sugar is scarce. We use today three times as 
much per person as our allies. So there may be enough for all at rea- 
sonable price, use less candy and sweet drinks. Do not stint sugar in 
putting up fruit and jams. They will save butter. 

Save the Fuel. Coal comes from a distance and our railways are 
overburdened hauling war material. Help relieve them by burning fewer 
fires. Use wood when you can get it. 

Use the Perishable Foods. Fruits and vegetables we have in abun- 
dance. As a nation we eat too little green stuffs. Double their use and 
improve your health. Store potatoes and other" roots properly and they 
will keep. Begin now to can or dry all surplus 'garden products. 

Use Local Supplies. Patronize your local producer. Distance means 
money. Buy perishable food from the neighborhood nearest you and 
thus save transportation. 

Buy less, serve smaller portions. 

Preach the "Gospel of the Clean Plate." 

Don't eat a fourth meal. 

Don't limit the plain food of growing children. 

Watch out for the wastes in the community. 

Full garbage pails in America mean empty dinner pails in America 
and Europe. 

For many months a person's patriotism was judged quite as much 
according to the food he ate, as according to the money contribution 
he made toward winning the war. The rules of the Food Administra- 
tion were obeyed without question in McLean county. The consumption 
of sugar was cut to two pounds per person per month, except for can- 
ning, and that was limited. Bread made of all wheat flour was all but 
forgotten. There was no waste of fats. The people pulled together in 
wonderful team work for the husbanding of supplies for American sol- 
diers and our associates in the war. 

With food regulations what they were, and a genuine desire on the 
part of country women to conform thereto, the problem of threshing 
dinners became acute, for war breads, especially could not be prepared 
in advance; pies were taboo in some communities; a great many women 
hesitated about making substitute cakes; and meat was almost out of 
the question. Various solutions were found in various communities, de- 
pending somewhat on the men for whom the threshing dinners were 
cooked. But it was found, (to the surprise of a great many cooks, be 
it admitted) that good meals, conforming to food administration rules 
and requests could be provided and the cooks be commended by the 
threshers for their patriotism. 

The fact that McLean county is one of the richest counties in the 
world might have accounted for failure to obey in letter and spirit the 
rules of the administration. But violations were so few that they were 
practically negligible, a fact of which McLean county people may al- 
ways be proud. 

With the signing of the armistice, the urge for conservation was 
largely gone, but as a result of the work done during the war McLean 
county has a permanent Home Bureau (as the Home Improvement Asso- 
ciation was later called) which will carry on college extension work 
and lessons in the best for home and community life, thru many years 
to come. 



170 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



WOMEN IN THE SERVICE 

Of the women of McLean county who were in the army service, 
either as attaches of the Red Cross or nurses otherwise, the following 
are well worth of especial credit: 

(Serving overseas): 

Miss Alice O. Smith, Normal; Miss Florence Schreiner, Bloomington; 
Miss Carolyn Schertz, Bloomington; Miss E.thel Irwin, Bloomington; 
Miss Catherine Smith, Bloomington; Miss Fannie E. Woodbury, Bloom- 




Miss Charlotte Bender 



Miss Catherine Smith 



ington; Miss Virginia Langley, Bloomington; Miss Charlotte Bender, 
Bloomington; Miss Mary Agnes Burke, Bloomington; Miss Mable Brust, 
Bloomington; Miss Bessie Moon, Bloomington; Miss Mary Sheridan, 
Bloomington. 

List of Army nurses and others who served in camps in the States: 

Miss Alice Markland, Ft. Sam Houston. Bloomington. 

Miss Emily Ransom. Bloomington. 

Miss Ruth Maxwell, Walter Reid Hosp., D. C. Bloomington. 

Miss Charlotte Ross, Camp Shelby, Miss. McLean, 111. 

Miss Eva Ely, Camp Shelby, Miss. Bloomington. 

Miss Florence Johnson, Camp Shelby, Miss. Normal, 111. 

Miss Mary Mortimore, Camp Shelby and Ft. McHenry. Bloomington. 

Miss Grace Gaines, Ft. Oglethorpe. Bloomington. 

Miss Evelyn Worley, Ft. Oglethorpe. Bloomington. 

Miss Sarah Wells, Camp Grant, 111. Bloomington. 

Miss Bertha Duff, Camp Grant. Bloomington. 

Miss Anna Miller, Camp Grant. Bloomington. 

Miss Edna Smiley, Camp Grant. Bloomington. 

Miss Bertha Dunn, Camp Grant and Fort Snelling. Lexington. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE II'ORLD WAR 



171 



Miss Arnc A. Allen, Camp Dix. Bloomington. 

Miss Margaret O'Eeilly, Camp Dix. Bloomington. 

Miss Amy L. Clark, Camp Wadsworth, S. C. Bloomington. 

Miss Myrtle Crum, Camp Gordon, Ga. Bloomington. 

Miss Clara Mann, Walter Eeid Hosp., Tacoma Park, D. C. Bloom- 
ington. 

Miss Beulali Leuberman, Ft. Oglethorpe, Ga. and Walter Eeid Hos- 
pital, D. C. Bloomington. 

Miss Amelia Hughes, Ft. Thomas, Ky. Bloomington. 

Miss Opha Wren, Bloomington. A. E. F. 

Miss Margaret Merwin, Bloomington. A. E. F. 



WAS NURSE IN FRANCE 

Miss Charlotte Bender, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Bender 
of Bloomington, early responded to the call for Eed Cross nurses, and 






Miss Bertha Dunn 



Miss Ruth Maxwell 



Miss Carolyn Schertz 



served for a year at the United States base hospital in France. She 
sailed early in 1918 and performed efficient service until the close of 
the war. Miss Bender was a member of the unit from the Presbyterian 
hospital of Chicago and was stationed at Base Hospital 13 in France. 



STORY OF ALICE SMITH 

Miss Alice Orme Smith of Normal, daughter of Col. and Mrs. D. C. 
Smith whose service was largely in Europe, had the distinction of re- 
ceiving the following commendation from Gen. Pershing August 14, 1918. 
' ' The Commander-in-Chief was proud to learn from a report from the 
office of the Inspector General, A. E. F., of the fine courage shown by 
you and your personnel under shell fire when stationed with the 42nd 
Division at Bussy, France. He congratulates Mobile Hospital No. 2, 
and requests you to inform its members that he is proud to have them 
in his command." 

Miss Smith wrote of her experiences as follows: 

"My time was entirely spent with a mobile hospital. These mobile 
hospitals stand in the line with field hospitals to give prompt, rather 
delicate treatment to cases that are non-transportable. We were sud- 
denly called away from the British in June and sent to Paris. Wounded 
from Chateau Thierry were being sent to Paris with only their first aid 
dressings. Everybody was put to work, American Eed Cross workers, 
even American civilians lent a hand. There were two or three air raids 
every night, and the screams of the sirens and the noise of the anti- 
aircraft guns added to the confusion. We were very busy until the first 
w y eek in July. There was a sense of something brewing. There were 
rumors of another offensive and on the 5th of July we were ordered to 



172 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

join the troops that would meet this offensive. We were sent east of 
Eheims. The roads were dusty and it was very hot. Our side of the 
road was full of people going to the front, and the other side was full 
of people who were escaping, of broken equipment, and an occasional 
dispatch rider who dashed by. It was a desolate wilderness to which 
we went. We left our tents behind because we were to be quartered 
in French barracks. When we arrived we found that before every door 
was a little cart in which people had packed the belongings they would 
take away in case it was necessary to escape. Every night our troops 
put over a tremendous barrage. We had little to do in the hospital be- 
cause there was no actual fighting. These shells were to harrass the 
enemy as he brought up supplies. The Huns' silence was ominous. But 
at midnight of July 14 we were awakened by a tremendous noise of 
explosions and the German shells were landing. Then came the camp 
Klaxon, which means gas shells. We dashed to a shelter, where three 
tiers of stretchers could be placed. Some of the first shells hit the 
hospital and the patients in their beds. Soon shells hit the electric 
dynamo and there was no light except candles. The dugout was so full 
we could not reach the patients, but we gave them stimulants as best 
we could. The cook who ventured out after coffee was hit. We went 
to the operating room at 2 o 'clock and worked with tin hats on our 
heads and gas masks within reach. In two hours the range of the guns 
came back and part of the operating rooms was blown off. Then the 
order came to retreat. At nine o 'clock in the morning the patients 
were evacuated and after all were sent out the staff packed equipment 
and escaped. The St. Mihiel was the first all- American offensive. Great 
secrecy was necessary, and it must be a success. Troops were not al- 
lowed to move except at night, no new roads must be built or old ones 
widened or changed. We were not even allowed a flashlight at night. 
We were unloaded at night on the side of a hill. Above, on the crest 
of the hill, was out of bounds, because we could be seen by the enemy 
across the valley. Toward morning we lay down to try and get a snatch 
of sleep. We lay down in our clothes. Never a sound did we hear. 
When we woke in the morning you had probably heard over the cables 
that the offensive was on. But there was no traffic on the road, no 
ambulances, no word. At noon we heard that they had gone over, but 
the men called the attack a walkaway. They reduced the salient rather 
easily. We waited and expected the wounded to come in. Never a 
wounded person came. There were a great many wounded, but not in 
as large proportion as usual, and what there were had been sent back 
to hospitals in the Toul sector. Where we were we had a great many 
seriously wounded, because the battle was raging and the men were 
trying to forge ahead. As they came back and we asked them about 
it, they would say 'it was pretty hot.' They would never tell you much 
about it. The men who came back from the Argonne were disturbed 
by rumors of peace. They said they did not want it to end until they 
had put an end to those blithers. They chaffed at disabilities that kept 
them out of the line. With the armistice came new orders and we 
moved on, but not until we had performed the last rites for the 400 
dead we had left there." 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 173 

MCLEAN COUNTY COUNCIL OF DEFENSE 

A previously unwritten and yet one of the most important chapters 
in the history of the late war, is the part taken by the McLean County 
Council of Defense. It is but common justice to pay tribute to the 
patriotic body which performed its mission so unobtrusively and without 
ostentation and yet which was one of the most efficient and essential 
organizations of the nation. Victory was achieved and the enemy capit- 
ulated to the most stringent terms of surrender that history records. 
For America, the actual arena of the war was 3,000 miles overseas, and, 
into this arena, the Government of the United States threw 2,000,000 
of the most superb troops that the drama of warfare has known and, 
what is more to its credit, got them there on time and made possible 
the final smashing blow. The organization, transportation and clocklike 
delivery at the eleventh hour of these irresistible citizen armies of the 
republic of the western world, is an epic in itself, a story in the making 
of which all who served, are miraculously fortunate to have borne even 
a small part. The sacrifices that have been made on this side of the 
water, should be counted as nothing, unless, indeed, they should be held 
as benefits conferred, for, in the philosophy of sacrifice, there is gain 
for every human being. None who participated in the war, either abroad 
or at home, will ever again move on as great a stage or be so close to 
the chemistry of high events. Those who have had the most to offer 
have been the happiest. There need be no repining, whatever the ma- 
terial cost may have been. The war has been won and the world is be- 
ing remade. The nations that have been aligned upon the side of a 
decent civilization will have their share in the remaking, and the logic 
of events will, no doubt, bring a contribution to the world 's future wel- 
fare, even from those defeated countries in which new and better forces 
are arising, we hope, out of the ashes of empire, empire perverted and 
gone awry. 

But here at home, there were armies also and they performed a 
mighty task. They were created without mandates; they were welded 
into cohesive form by suggestion rather than by order; they were gal- 
vanized from beginning to end by the mighty force of voluntary co- 
operation; and they served with an efficient power which nothing could 
have stopped. They were the armies of production, not alone of guns 
and steel plates, soldiers, shoes and the like, not alone of visible things 
but production of energy of thought that made the bayonet a flaming 
thing; of optimism to offset the stupid pessimism of people who criti- 
cized, but had nothing tangible to contribute; of the immortal spirit 
of "carry on," of, above all unification. For it has only been within 
the period of the war that this nation completely realized that, after all, 
it is properly introduced to itself, and is but a partnership of 100,000,000 
persons. Out of all of this grew the great lesson of the war to America; 
the independency of social effort which, in the last equation, must keep 
a nation wholesome in peace and which must furnish the continuing 
tireless force behind the cutting edge in time of war. This then, broadly, 
was the task of those at home. In the vast work of unification, in the 
carrying from Washington to the people, the messages and measures of 
the national government and in the transmission back to Washington of 
the moods and aspirations of a people at war, the council of defense 
system with its more than 180,000 units set down in every county of 
the country, played a definite, stirring, and highly fruitful part. Launched 
May 2, 1917, the Council of National Defense forged into action immedi- 
ately. The McLean county organization was as follows: 

Mayor, E. E. Jones, Chairman; B. F. Hiltabrand, secretary; E. C. 
Baldwin, John Normile, W. T. Wolcott, D. G. Fitzgerrell, J. J. Condon, 



174 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



SOME LEADERS IN COUNCIL OF DEFENSE 




John J. Condon 



Judge Sain Welty 





William L. Moore 



Dr. Theodore Kemp 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



175 



and Elmo Franklin, directors. This board appointed the numerous com- 
mittees divided by chairmen, as follows: Finance Committee Will L. 
Moore; Neighborhood Dr. Theodore Kemp; Food D. O. Thompson; 
Boys Reserve B. C. Moore; Publicity L. O. Eddy; Federal Fuel Spen- 
cer Ewing and Bert Franklin; Women 's Organization Mrs. F. O. Hanson ; 
Liberty Loans Harris K. Hoblit; War Havings Stamps Judge James 
C. Eiley; Legal Advisory Board Judge Sain Wclty and E. E. Donnelly; 
Four Minute Men C. B. Hughes; Eed Cross Campbell Holton; Y. M. 
C. A. H. O. Stone; Civilian Belief Mrs. Jacob A. Bohrer; Non-War 
Material Conservation A. E. Pillsbury; Merchandise Conservation 
Milton Livingston; Knights of Columbus James Flavin. 

It was the task of these committees and their aides to carry out the 
programs of the War, Navy, Agriculture, Interior, and Labor Depart- 
ments; the Food and Fuel Administrations; the Shipping Board; the 





B. F. Hiltabrand 



D. G. Pitzgerrell 



United States Employment Service; the Childrens Bureau; the Bureau 
of Education; the American Red Cross; the National War Savings Com- 
mittee; the several Liberty loans; the Commission on Training Camp 
Activities; the suppression of the German press and abolition of German 
from county schools: loyalty cards, handled by neighborhood commit- 
tees; Legal Advisory Board with the assistance of the McLean County 
Bar in filling out questionnaires; Emergency Farm LaBor, furnished by 
D. O. Thompson, assisted by Herman Ochs and others, also B. C. Moore 
who placed many boys; prosecution of citizens who, by their expressions, 
appeared to be disloyal, and also those who while financially able, refused 
to contribute to the war activities. 

It fell to the McLean County Council of Defense to serve these and 
other official and recognized agencies united in the common task of war. 
The draft boards were assisted with volunteer workers, both physicians 
and clerks, and who aided in the transcription of occupational cards and 
in bringing out a full registration and the roundup of delinquents. Be- 
fore the draft, the Council of Defense was in the forefront of recruiting. 
It counteracted destructive criticism of the government's war measures 
by replacing thoughtless gossip with constructive truths. The publicity 
organization was unparalleled in the effectiveness and extent of its con- 



176 McLEAN COUNTY AND TEE WOELD WAR 

tact with the press and in the vigor and completeness of the speakers' 
bureaus; the contact with the people themselves through community 
councils and war units and the complete enlistment, organization and 
leadership of the women of America, were a mighty source of power 
from which rose much of the strength of the local boards. Energies were 
fused into one great harmonious and efficient power. Non-war construc- 
tion and consumption were curtailed; the welfare of departing and re- 
turning soldiers was promoted, public information was given as to possi- 
bilities provided by the Federal Board for Vocational Education for 
crippled soldiers; cases reported of unwarranted payments under the 
war risk insurance law and detection of deserters aided. Enemy owned 
property was located; enemy propaganda was met with counter propa- 
ganda, and the spread of sedition and disloyalty checked, and at the 
same time working against lawlessness in the treatment of persons sus- 
pected of disloyalty; the work of Americanization; relieving railroad 
congestion; facilitating motor transportation, etc., all being a part of 
the great work of the Council of Defense. It brought to the people a 
message of economy and. thrift, the conservation and protection of food 
and in co-ordinating the work of war agencies in the interests of economy 
of resources and effort. It aided in the collection of funds for the Eed 
Cross, the United War Work campaigns; aided existing social agencies 
in meeting the strain of the war and in protecting young people from 
the serious social effects of abnormal times, helped to fight what was 
vicious and foster what was good and wholesome in our social life. It 
assisted in the recruiting of nurses to fill the needs of the hospitals 
abroad and at home; assisted the navy in the collection of optical in- 
struments; in the campaign to secure volunteers for the shipyards. 
Through speakers, motion pictures, posters, the press and through personal 
contact, community singing and the organized fellowship of war work- 
ers, the council aroused in the public a desire for service; it brought 
before the people an intelligent vision of how that service could best 
be rendered and upheld the faith and enthusiasm through the trying 
years of the war, thus winning the high title of special guardians of 
the civilian morale. In evolving measures to increase agricultural pro- 
duction and to combat influenza and conserve the public health, all have 
led to permanent benefits. A national interest was awakened in the 
health of the children, in the safeguarding of women who entered the 
industrial field, and in the assimilation of and Americanization of our 
foreign born in healthy group recreation and social expression and in 
wise nonpartisan community organization. Following the war, the Coun- 
cil of Defense assisted in finding employment for discharged soldiers and 
sailors and in the rehabilitation and care of wounded or sick soldiers; 
in procuring legal advice and in providing suitable reception to the re- 
turning heroes and in making permanent recognition of their deeds of 
valor. In other ways, the Council of Defense of McLean county distin- 
guished itself for its superb co-operation unit and which was one of 
the major assets of the war to America. Elsewhere in this work will 
be found more extended reference to the various departments and 
particular reference to the work of individuals. Nothing that can be 
said, unduly praises. McLean county may justly be proud of its record. 
In men, money and materials, in products of the farm, and of the factory, 
and in wholehearted response to every call for service or sacrifice im- 
posed by the time, McLean county gave to the nation and its cause, 
upon a scale surpassing even its best traditions and its rank in the 
state of Illinois. The contribution of the McLean County Council of 
Defense, was of a kind that can not be reduced to tables of statistics 
or expressed in definite form, for in war time, as at no other time, 
momentous results are often the product of efforts that can not be 
weighed, measured, or even approximately estimated. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 177 

MAJ. GEN. JAMES G. HARBORD 

It was an honor to McLean County in connection with the world 
war that one of the men highest in the councils of the military expedi- 
tion in Europe was a man who had his birth and youth in this county, 
and who retained his friendship and acquaintances here, returning for 
a visit in person after he returned victorious from the world struggle. 
He was Gen. James G. Harbord, who went to Europe in 1917 as chief 
of staff to Gen. John J. Pershing, the commander in chief of the A. E. F. 
and who later became the chief of the American Service of Supply, 
which kept the lines of fighting men fed with munitions and rations in 
the great campaigns which they carried on in the summer and fall 
of 1918. 

Gen. Harbord was born in Blooming Grove township in 1866. His 
parents were Mr. and Mrs. George Harbord, well known McLean County 
residents a half century ago. The family later moved to Saybrook, 
thence to Missouri and then to Kansas, where Gen. Harbord graduated 
from the Kansas State Agricultural college in 1886. 

During his life in McLean County, Gen. Harbord attended the Irving 
school in Bloomington. The largest star in the Irving school service flag 
during the war stood for Gen. Harbord. 

Shortly after his graduation in Kansas young Harbord tried for a 
West Point appointment, but was beaten in the competitive examina- 
tions by Claude B. Sweezey, later a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. army. 

Following his failure to secure the West Point appointment, young 
Harbord showed the kind of stuff generals are made of. He enlisted 
as a private in the Fourth Infantry in 1889 and in a few months passed 
through the non-commissioned ranks. 

In 1891 he appeared before an army board for examination for a 
commission and went through with flyingcolors, receiving a commission 
as second lieutenant. When young Sweezey, who won the West Point 
appointment, was graduated from the military school Harbord had been 
a commissioned officer in the army for over a year. 

Gen. Harbord has had a wonderful military career and spent many 
years in the Philippines and Cuba. He was a close friend of Gen. 
Pershing. On January 21, 1899, Gen. Harbord married Emma Oven- 
shine, daughter of Brig. Gen. Samuel Ovenshine. Mrs. Harbord during 
the world war lived in Boston. Gen. Harbord 's mother, Mrs. George 
Harbord, lived in Manhattan, Kans. An aunt, Mrs. Ira Orendorff, and 
an uncle, Jacob Gault, live- at Hey worth. 

Just before the German forces advancing to Paris in the spring of 
1918 encountered the American army at the Marne, Gen. Harbord was 
detached from the staff of Gen. Pershing and placed in command of 
the brigade of Marines of the First Division who were sent to Chateau 
Thierry to stop the German drive. All history knows how the Americans 
stopped the Germans. Of Gen. Harbord at this stage of his career, a 
writer in a New York paper wrote in June of 1918: 

"General Harbord is a typical example of the American self-made 
soldier. Born in Illinois, he graduated from the Kansas State Agri- 
cultural College in 1886 at the age of 20 and enlisted in the army as 
a private in Company A of the 4th Infantry, Jan. 10, 1889. He soon 
became corporal, sergeant, and quartermaster sergeant of that company. 
During the Spanish-American war he was appointed second lieutenant 
of the 5th Cavalry and later served with the 10th, llth, and 1st Cavalry 
regiments. He was a major when the war in Europe began. He was 
lieutenant colonel when he went to France a year ago as General Per- 
shing 's chief of staff and has seen fine service in Cuba and the Phil- 
ippines." 



178 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 

Of the general character of the Marine Corps as fighting men, the 
same writer wrote at the same time: 

"Our boys are doing exactly what we knew they would do," said 
an enthusiastic officer at the New York headquarters yesterday, "and 
my only fear is that they will get too enthusiastic and run too far 
forward. That bunch of ours in France is the finest lot of lads that 
ever crossed the Atlantic. They are, every one of them, of the 'one 
in seven type;' that is, for every man we accepted we examined seven. 
We have been getting reports lately from the fellows in the trenches, 
and we knew that their time to get a whack at the Hun was coming, 
and we have been awaiting for the news that they were in it for a 
week or ten days. 

' ' The German has met and named the fighting American marine. 
In the past the foe who encountered the prowess of marines received a 
mingled impression of wild cats and human cyclops and movements as 
quick as lightning. When Fritz was introduced to him he uttered one 
gutteral gasp. 

" 'Teufel Hunden.' ' 

' ' From now on the soldiers of the sea apparently have lost their 
old-time name of 'lethernecks' and are to be known as 'Devil Dogs' 
or 'Devil Hounds.' Take your choice." 

Of his position and work following the close of the war, a cor- 
respondent writing from Tours, France, in January, 1919, said: 

"The great man of Tours today is Maj. Gen. Harbord, the Amer- 
ican. He is kindly, paternal and powerful for good. He represents to 
these poor folks the healing might of the United States today, just as 
he represented our offensive force when he commanded first the marine 
brigades and then the entire heroic Second Division at Bouresches, 
Belleau Wood and Vaux. 

"Originally he was Gen. Pershing's chief of staff. Then he went 
into the thick of fighting the defense of Paris. Now Gen. Harbord 
commands the S. O. S., vast area of France where the "American victory 
was manufactured, where we have flung railroads and telephone-tele- 
graph lines, built veritable cities of warehouses and factories. It 
includes the ports. Tours has been its capital the United States war 
department in France. 

."It is a great, rich service of supplies, which means coal, flour, 
cars and locomotives, American railroad operators helping out French 
roads, wages for poor refugees, trade profits of a hundred towns, the 
enrichment of ports, the hope of reconstruction, the improvement of 
municipal works and necessary scattering of varied benefits. It is here, 
solid the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things unseen. 
Gen. Harbord is a great man. 

"He lives in a chateau across the Loire. Other generals live with 
him; others, yet, come visiting. The chateau is on a height, with glor- 
ious river view. When Tours natives pass it of a Sunday, going to the 
country, they say, 'There's where Harbord lives! ' -as speaking of a 
shepherd of the people." 

On another page of this book is a picture of Gen. Harbord, it being 
a sketch of him made in Paris by the great artist, John T. McCutcheon, 
many years cartoonist of the Chicago Tribune. This picture is repro- 
duced in this book by special permission of Mr. McCutcheon, who 
writing in explanatory comment on the drawing said: 

' ' The three big figures in the American expeditionary forces in 
France are Gen. Pershing, Gen. Harbord, and Gen. Dawes. Gen. Per- 
shing is the commander in chief and the apex of all the army's 
European activities. Gen. Harbord is the commanding general of the 
service of supply. He sees that the army is transported, fed, supplied 







MCLEAN COUNTY'S GREATEST SOLDIER OF THE WORLD WAR, AS SKETCHED 
PARIS BY JOHN T. McCuTOHEON, FAMOUS ARTIST AND WAR 
CORRESPONDENT OF THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE. 



180 



and equipped. Gen. Dawes is the general purchasing agent, under whose 
authority every dollar's worth of material that we buy outside of 
America is purchased. He does no buying himself, but acts as a general 
co-ordinator of all the buying that is done through the heads of the 
purchasing departments of the various services. 

"These three men are the giants under whom our army abroad has 
functioned, and it is fortunate for the nation and the army that the 
national emergency brought them irresistibly to the top in their three 
vital fields of activity. 

"I was particularly desirous of making sketches of them and lucky 
in securing their permission to pose for me. I was less lucky in the 
results that I obtained, as the friends of the subjects will be able to 
testify after seeing the accompanying drawings. That the three generals 
were willing to sign the sketches is a testimonial of their natural kindli- 
ness rather than a testimonial of their approval and satisfaction with 
the sketches. 

"Gen. Harbord was the first victim. In the Paris headquarters 
which he occupies when not at his general headquarters in Tours, he 
sat patiently during the time that I tried to draw him. He did his 
part perfectly. The most exacting portrait artist could not have asked 
more from a subject. 

"The failure to catch the refinement, and force, and kindliness of 
his features was entirely my own fault. The drawing as it stands is 
a mere approximation of him, minus the soul and spirit which are such 
marked characteristics of the man. His friends may well have reason 
to be disappointed in the portrait and will be more than justified in 
their comment, 'Yes, that's Gen. Harbord, but . ' " 

During all his strenuous labors with the army in France, Gen. 
Harbord never forgot the people of his old home town, and especially 
those of his old school, the Irving. Several times during the busiest 
periods of the war, Gen. Harbord wrote letters to Bloomington friends, 
and Mrs. Emma Bryant, representing the Parent-Teachers' Association 
of the Irving school, at one time received a handsome picture of him 
which was later framed and hung in the assembly room at the school. 

The Irving school was also the receipient of ivy and poppy seeds 
from the historic fields of Europe from Gen. Harbord, who wrote the 
following letter to Mrs. Bryant at the time he sent them: 

Paris, Oct. 31, 1919. 

I am enclosing you herewith some poppy seed which should produce 
the scarlet poppy which blooms on the former battlefields of France. 
I am leaving for America tomorrow and am bringing with me a box of 
ivy roots from Chateau Thierry, packed in moss, which I shall send to 
you by express on arrival in New York. These are for the Irving 
school, with my best wishes. Arriving as they do at a bad time of year, 
I presume it will be necessary to have them cared for until spring by 
a florist and have them replanted when the warm weather comes. 

Yours sincerely, J. G. HAEBOED. 

Some months after the actual close of the war, and while the 
peace commission was sitting in Paris, Gen. Harbord was sent with 
other American officers on a mission to the countries of Central Europe 
to investigate conditions there. His report on his findings was made 
to the government at Washington on his return to this country, in the 
late fall of 1919. 

A memorable event in the history of Bloomington was the visit 
of Gen. Harbord to this city on his return to this country in the winter 
of 1919-20. He was in Chicago just before Christmas, and ran down 
to Bloomington for a day, accompanied by his friend Gen. Dawes and 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



181 



several other Chicago friends. Bloomington planned a great reception 
for him. He was first taken to the Irving school, where a reception 
and dinner luncheon was given under charge of the Parent-Teachers' 
Association. Then in charge of a reception committee, Gen. Harbord 
was taken to the court house and the general public greeted him. In 
the evening there was a public meeting at the high school with speeches 
by Gen. Harbord, Gen. Dawes and others. Mayor Jones presided and 
Gov. Fifer introduced the speakers and guests. The reception was in 
charge of committees from the city council, the Association of Com- 
merce and the Parent-Teachers' of Irving school. 

That Gen. Harbord was pleased was shown by a letter received 
from him after his return to Chicago. He wrote to Mayor Jones, to 
Mrs. Bryant of Irving school, and President E. M. Evans, president of the 
Association of Commerce. In the last named letter, to Mr. Evans, the 
general wrote: 

"I feel that I am very much indebted to you for your invitation, 
as well as to all of the Bloomington people by whose fine hospitality 
we were entertained. The date will always mark an epoch for me, and 
I feel that I am now fully re-established as a Bloomingtonian." 

In his letter to the school, he said: 

"I can not undertake to say to you how much I appreciated the 
hospitality shown me in my native city. I felt that it was a par- 
ticularly graceful thing for your committee to plan to take our party 
first of all to Irving school. It gave me the greatest pleasure to meet 
old friends on that spot which to me is more nearly a shrine than any 
other portion of my native city." 

PICTURE IN COURT HOUSE, BLOOMINGTON, DEC. 23, 1919 




Brig. Gen. Harbord (left). Mayor E. E. Jones. Claude Miller. Mayor Foulk, Normal (right) 




Left to Right C. L. McGraw, Lawrence L. McGuire, Prank Mason, Don McElhaney, 
Chas. F. Memkey. 



182 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 




GROUP OP OFFICERS. 

r. J//K-C left Capt. Abram Perry. 
Upper right Lt. W. B. Geneva. 

Ci'iili-r (left to right)- Lt. Roy Deal; Lt. Walter Sutherland; Lt. Henry Carrithers. 
Lower (left to right) Lt. John B. Stevenson; Lt. Lathrop Roberts ; Capt. T. Burr 
Crigler; Lt. C. H. Burrows. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAE 



183 




GROUP OF OFFICERS 

Center row, top to bottom Lt. Alvin W. Viney; center Lt. E. C. Hamill; below 
Lt. Leslie R. Gray. 

Left row, top to bottom Capt. Harry D. Saddler, Lt. Lee E. Thompson, Lt. Russell 
Van. Ness, Lt. Frank Tobias, Lt. Ralph C. Morath. 

Right row, top to bottom 'Lt. Raymond Baylor, Lt. Jas. Munch, Lt. Bradford Stew- 
art, Major George W. Frost, Lt. George S. Ross. 



184 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 




being "Elements of Field 
Field Artillery." 



BRIG. GEN. HARRY BISHOP 

One of the most distinguished soldiers 
who claimed his home in McLean county 
was Brig. Gen. Harry Gore Bishop, son of 
L. H. Bishop of 403 West Vernon avenue, 
Normal. Gen. Bishop attained a high rank 
in the world war, but this was the cul- 
mination of a life time of service as a 
soldier for Uncle Sam. He graduated from 
West Point when a young man, and served 
first in the coast artillery branch of the 
service. Then he went to the Philippines, 
where he served for two years and a half. 
His next station was at Fort Totten, New 
York, and the following two years was in- 
structor in artillery at the army school at 
Fort Leavenworth. Several years later he 
served in active work in Texas and on the 
Mexican border. When raised to the rank 
of brigadier general, he was transferred 
to the command of the 159th Field artil- 
lery, composing the field artillery brigade 
of the 84th division. Gen Bishop is the 
author of two books on army matters, one 
Artillery, ' ' and the other ' ' Operation of 



WALTER HENRY ALLEN, MAJOR ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 

One of the few officers of McLean 
County to win the rank of Major was 
Walter Henry Allen, son of Mrs. William 
H. Allen of 1112 East Jefferson Street, 
Bloomington. He was among the first to 
tender his services and upon July 16, 1917, 
was commissioned Captain of Engineers 
and ordered to Fort Leavenworth as an ex- 
pert in engineering, having become widely 
known in this profession by reason of fif- 
teen years service in the construction of 
water works, sewerage systems and pave- 
ments in Chicago and on the Pacific Coast. 
He was later assigned to the 5th Engineers 
at Corpus Christi, Texas, then being pro- 
moted to the rank of Major, was assigned 
to the 65th Engineers transferred to Chi- 
cago and placed in charge of the organiza- 
tion of Tank Units. In March, 1918, he 
was assigned to the Engineer Replacement 
Camp at Camp A. A. Humphreys, Va., 
served on the staff, organized the ordinance supply and constructed the 
rifle range, one of the largest in the country, and was later placed in 
command of the Fourth Engineer Training Regiment. September 1st, 
1918, he was transferred to Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, and placed 
in command of the Depot Brigade, where he organized, trained and sent 
overseas 500 railroad men per day. The long training and unusual or- 
ganizing ability of Major Allen made him of especial value to the gov- 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



185 



ernment during the trying period of the war and no one from Bloom- 
ington made a finer record or acquitted himself to greater satisfaction 
of the department. The services of Major Allen were so indispensable 
that he was kept on duty until long after the armistice was signed, 
finally receiving his discharge February 13, 1919, and resuming his pro- 
fession of consulting engineer with headquarters in Chicago. 




LIEUT. MARK ETHELL 

Before the war, Mark Ethell was a con- 
tractor in the city of Bloomington and was 
pursuing the ordinary career of a builder of 
houses in the county seat. When the war 
ended, he was Lieut. Mark Ethell of the 
Second U. S. Engineers, and had made a 
record with his command in the fighting 
which was done by the famous Second Divi- 
sion, of which the Second Engineers was a 
part. Lieut. Ethell volunteered early in 1917, 
and offered his services on the formation of 
the regiment of engineers which afterward 
became the Second Engineers. After a short 
period of training at Fort Leavenworth and 
Camp American University, the regiment 
was sent to France, November 12, 1917, 
where they participated in many of the 
most trying situations. At his own request, 
he was transferred to the 2d Engineers, 2d 
Division, a combat command, engaged ac- 
tively at the front. He was promoted to Begimental Engineer and served 
in that capacity until the regiment arrived at the Ehine. He participated 
in four major offensives and many minor engagements, escaping injury 
except a few light shrapnel wounds, until October 29, 1918, and then, 
while making preparations for the final drive on November 1, he received 
very serious injury from gas, but remained at his post. His record is 
best recorded in the words of his commanding officers, Col. W. A. Mitchell 
and Maj Hinckley, the latter stating: "It has been my good fortune 
to have Lt. Ethell in my organization and, for co-operation, pep, speed, 
resourcefulness, hard work day or night and ability to get results, he 
is one among ten thousand. Further, his ability to command and inspire 
troops is invaluable. The army forever needs pioneers men who can 
get results with what is at hand, and Lt. Ethell ranks as a pioneer of 
the first class. He should now be a captain to say the least." Col. 
Mitchell says the following: "Lieut. Ethell has been under my command 
both in the 20th and the 2nd Engineers. He has always been loyal, 
energetic and especially agreeable in every way. His great activity and 
pleasant personality overcome any deficiency he may have had. He was 
on my list to go home for promotion but the war ended before he could 
be ordered. He was gassed in the Argonne but foolishly and bravely 
cMd not report it, as he thought he should continue his work. As a re- 
sult, he has been considerably injured, to my very great sorrow." Be- 
cause of his injury, he was invalided home ahead of his division after 
having spent two months on the Ehine with the Army of Occupation. 
He was discharged March 24, 1919, at Camp Grant. Lieut. Ethell brought 
home with him from Europe one of the most remarkable collections of 
battle field trophies and pictures of the scenes near the front that was 
in possession of any man who went to the war from McLean county. 



186 



McLEAN COUNTY AND Till-: n'ORLV WAR 



LIEUT. BEN. S. RHODES 

On September 5, 1917, the first contingent of drafted men from McLean county 
set out from Bloomington at 5 o'clock in the morning. They were eight in number, 
and one of them was Ben S. Rhodes, who prior to his induction into the service,' 
was assistant to the county judge. He had graduated from the Wesleyan law school 
a couple of years previous. Ben Rhodes and his seven fellows went to Camp Dodge, 
near DesMoines, which was one of the first army cantonments which the govern- 
ment had completed for training quarters for the new national army. Rhodes re- 
mained at Camp Dodge for many months going thru the usual training in the ele- 
mental part of the soldier's life. He displayed energy 
and efficiency in the work and won promotions first 
to the non-commissioned grades of corporal on Octo- 
ber i; 1917 and sergeant November 20, 1917. In 
the summer of 1918, he was transferred with a con- 
tingent of other men to Camp Pike, Arkansas, and 
after a short time of service there he was selected 
to take the course at the officers' training camp. In 
due time he received his commission as lieutenant, 
and was sent to Camp Lee, Virginia, May 23, 1918. 
He continued at that camp until the signing of the 
armistice, being engaged as instructor for many con- 
tingents of men who were constantly passing thru 
the camp. He was assigned to Co. A, Fourth Bat- 
talion and was promoted to First Lieutenant Sep- 
tember 26, 1918. On December 3Q, 1918, a few 
weeks after the signing of the armistice, Lieut. Rhodes 
secured his discharge from the service, and returned 
to the walks of civil life in Bloomington. On the 
death of Dwight Frink, clerk of the city election 
commission, Rhodes was appointed to that position, 
which he held until his later appointment as private 
secretary for Hon. Frank H. Funk, member of the 
Illinois State Utilities commission. Lieut. Rhodes 
was one of the prime movers in the organization of 
the Bloomington post of the American Legion, and 

was one of its delegates to the first national convention of the Legion, which met 
at Minneapolis in October, 1919. 




CAPT. CHARLES A. McDERMAND, D. C. 

Of the Bloomington dentists who re- 
sponded to the call of his country Dr. 
Charles A. McDermand who is still in the 
service had the distinction of giving al- 
most three years of strenuous duty in the 
army. He was tendered a commission of 
First Lieutenant in the Dental Corps July 
26, 1917, accepted August 29 and by Sep- 
tember 12 was on duty at Camp Pike, Ark. 
He was first assigned as Eegimental Dental 
Surgeon of the Medical Department of the 
;U5th Infantry, 87th Division, but was 
later transferred to the 43d Infantry, Reg- 
ular Army and finally entered various 
units of the 162d depot brigade. He was 
promoted to captain February 16, 1918. 
On June 1, 1919, he was transferred to 
the Camp Examining Board for the de- 
mobilization and re-enlistment period and 
served in this capacity until September 1, 
1919, no less than 100,000 men being examined by himself and assist- 
ants. He also conducted dental clinics in the camp hospital. Capt. 
McDermand had the advantage of the regular army dentists by his years 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 187 

of experience in civil life and ability to take care of. complicated tech- 
nical work, restorations, plate work, etc., and much of the difficult dental 
service was passed to him. Connected with the Uniform Rank, Knights 
of Pythias since 1898, he stepped into the army life naturally and felt 
right at home and was appointed drill master for the dental corps of tine 
camp. Despite the great responsibilities and the exacting duties that 
were passed to him, lie greatly enjoyed his life in Camp Pike but wHl 
welcome a return to civil life again, promised him in less than three 
years since his first response. The patriotic duty was made at great 
personal and financial sacrifice, and Capt. McDcrmand deserves the full- 
est credit for his response to the call from Uncle Bam. 



MAJOR ALBERT N. BUESCHER 

Major Albert N. Buescher, is the son 
of Mr. and Mrs. Gustave Buescher of 
North Lee street in Bloomington, and 
before the war was employed at the 
Paul F. Beich Co. He received, his 
military training at Fort Benjamin Har- 
rison, where he was commissioned cap- 
tain. After remaining there as in- 
structor for a time, he was sent to 
France with the 331st infantry, where 
lie attained the rank of major. After 
the armistice he secured his discharge 
and returned to civjl life in an Ohio 
city. The experiences of army life in 
France had for Major Buescher some- 
what of a different appeal from that 
of many other soldiers, because of his 
education permitting him to appreciate 
his surroundings in all their bearings 
aside from their strictly military as- 
pects. 



ROSE TO MAJOR^ 

A sergeant in the regular army at the 
outbreak of the war, having served seven 
years, Frank Leslie Harrington of Bloom- 
ington, who was with Pershing on the Mexi- 
can border and also in the Philippines, was 
commissioned lieutenant and appointed ar- 
tillery instructor at Chattanooga, Tenn; 
Fort Niagara, Camp Meade, Camp Gordon, 
and Camp Lee. He was later promoted to 
captain and finally major, believed to be 
the only Bloomington boy who advanced 
from the ranks to such a high rank. He 
resigned his commission after peace was 
declared. 





188 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 



LIEUT. DUDLEY C. SMITH, JE. 

One of the first to enlist at the declara- 
tion of war, Dudley C. Smith, jr., of Normal, 
entered the first officers training camp at 
Fort Sheridan May 15, 1917, and was among 
the first commissioned, received the rank of 
Second Lieutenant August 15 that year, and 
being assigned to duty at Camp Ouster, 
Michigan, and with the 160th Depot Brigade. 
Meritorious service won him promotion to 
First Lieutenant August 24, 1918, and on 
September 1 of that year he was assigned 
to Company E of the 10th Infantry located 
at Camp Custcr. It was the ambition of 
this command to be ordered overseas and 
participate in the great conflict, but peace 
catne too soon to permit this, and Lieut. 
Smith shared with his thousands of others, 
this disappointment. Lieut. Smith remained 
in the service and with the same command 
until his discharge at Camp Custer, January 
29, 1919, then returning to his home in Normal. 




LT. VERNE G. STATEN 

Of the Bloomington men who won a 
commission in the late war, Verne G. 
Staten was among those fortunate enough 
to participate in some of the great battles 
and thus was able to appreciate the gi- 
gantic extent of the world conflict. He 
left Bloomington September 4, 1917, with 
the first contingent and was assigned to 
Co. E of the 349th infantry at Camp 
Dodge, la. He was promoted to corporal 
October 1 and entered the third officers 
training camp there January 6, 1918, com- 
pleting the work April 19 and being pro- 
moted to sergeant. He was commissioned 
lieutenant June 1, 1918, and assigned to 
the third training regiment at Camp Pike, 
Arkansas, June 10. The welcome orders 
to go overseas came soon after and he 
departed August 15, 1918, with the 18th 
company, Camp Pike Automatic Eeplacement Draft, and arrived in Camp 
Standon, England, one month later. He then moved to France and was 
assigned to the 18th Infantry, 1st Division, joining that command Octo- 
ber 20, and in time to participate in the great Meuse-Argonne Offensive, 
one of the most important engagements of the war. Peace came before 
Lieut Staten could participate in further battles. He was privileged 
to take part in the Luxemburg parade with the 18th infantry and re- 
mained with the Army of Occupation in Montabour, Germany, until 
December, being assigned later to the 34th Infantry, Seventh Division. 
When Germany finally concluded to accept the peace terms, Lieut. Staten 
was ordered home with his command arriving June 18, 1919, receiving 
his discharge June 28, 1919, and joining the firm of his father John 
Staten, real estate and loans, with offices at 304-5 Livingston Building, 
Bloomington. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



189 




CAPT. FITCH HARWOOD 

Of the many men from McLean 
county who saw service as officers 
in the American army, perhaps none 
felt the call earlier than did Capt. 
Fitch Harwood, who gained a com- 
mission in the infantry and spent 
most of his time after receiving his 
commission as an officer of a ma- 
chine gun unit. The ink was hardly 
dry on the official declaration of 
war by the United States against 
Germany, until Capt. Harwood was 
getting busy. One of his first tasks 
was drilling students of the Wes- 
leyan university in their elemental 
military instruction which they un- 
dertook in the early spring of 1917. 
Capt. Harwood 's summer spent at a 
citizens' camp at Plattsburg had 
given him a taste and capacity in 
that direction. He was next appointed Bloomington representative for 
securing candidates for examination to enter the government training 
camp for officers at Fort Sheridan, which was broached in April, 1917. 
Eighty men applied and were examined under Harwood 's direction 
for this purpose, and fifty of these were accepted. Mr. Harwood and 
others of the first selections for the Fort SheridaH school reported 
there May 15, and during his training period he was first sergeant 
of his training company. In August Harwood was commissioned a cap- 
tain of infantry, was ordered to Camp Grant, and placed in command 
of the machine gun company of the 343rd Infantry, a part of the 86th 
Division then organizing. Capt. Harwood was kept at Camp Grant for 
practically a year, being engaged all that time in the hardest kind of 
work drilling and instructing the successive contingents of young men 
who were being transformed from ordinary civilians into a military ma- 
chine with which to break the power of the enemy. Almost exactly a 
year after he entered Camp Grant, Capt. Harwood set out with the other 
officers and men of the 86th Division for Camp Mills, the last lap of the 
journey preparatory for sailing for Europe. This division was aptly 
called the Wildcat Division, being made up of men from all sections of 
the country and of seventeen different nationalities; many of them came 
from the mountains of Virginia, Tennessee and the Carolinas. The divi- 
sion finally set sail on September 14, 1918, and landed at Southampton, 
England, where they went into camp for two weeks. The influenza was 
widespread in this camp, and many men died. When the division arrived 
at Bordeaux, France, it was broken up, and Capt. Harwood was sent to 
the officers' machine gun school of the Second Army corps at Chattillon- 
sur-Seine. There he remained until the armistice, after which he was 
assigned to Company B of the 316th machine gun battalion of the 81st 
division. A few weeks later he was transferred to the 165th infantry, 
part of the 42d division, which had taken part in much of the hardest 
fighting of the previous six months. This regiment was then stationed 
at Eemagen, Germany. He never, however, actually assumed command, 
for he was ordered the next day to return to the States. He next found 
himself at St. Aignan with a contingent of casuals, all awaiting shipping 
orders for home. He finally sailed from Marseilles on the Italian ship 
Guiseppe Verdi. The ship stopped six days at Gibraltar on the voyage 
home, and while there Capt. Harwood chartered a small boat and took 



190 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



a party of friends over to Tangiers, Morrocco. Capt. Harwood was in 
command of the 1,800 soldiers making the return trip on the home-bound 
ship. They landed at ISTe-w York March 21, 1919, and two days later 
Capt. Harwood received his discharge at Camp Dix. He had been in 
the military service of his country for a total of twenty-two months. 




LT. ALFRED O. BROWN 

Lieut. Alfred O. Brown of Bloomington 
entered Second Fort Sheridan Training 
Camp August 27, 1917; commissioned first 
lieutenant (infantry section) Officers Re- 
serve Corps, November 27, 1917; on duty 
as platoon leader and company commander 
with Tenth U. S. Infantry, Fort Benjamin 
Harrison, December 1(5, 1917, to June 19, 
1918; on duty as company .commander of 
29th Company, Machine Gun Training De- 
partment, Camp Hancock, Ga., June 21, 
1918, to August 10, 1918; company com- 
mander of 6th Company, Hancock, August 
Replacement Draft, August 10, 1P1S, to 
September 11, 1918; Commanding Hancock 
August Replacement Draft, August 17, 1918, 
to Sept. 11, 1918; left Camp Hancock for 
overseas service August 17, 1918; left Camp 
Merritt, N. J., August 22, 1918; left U. S. 
on board S. S. "Zealandia" August 23, 1918; arrived Liverpool, Eng., 
September 5, 1918, and reached Southampton, Eng., same date; arrived 
Cherbourg, France, Sept. 8, 1918; arrived Selles-sur-Cher, .France, Sep- 
tember 11, 1918; on duty with 16th Infantry as platoon leader and com- 
pany commander August 14, 1918, to March 2, 1919, drilling replacements 
and convoying replacement troops to the front; left Brest, France, Feb- 
ruary 8 1919; arrived Hoboken. N. J., February 26, 1919; honorably 
discharged at Camp Dix, N. J., March 3, 1919. Lieut. Brown was an 
ideal officer, born to command, and made good in the fullest acceptation 
of the term. He brought credit to his city and county. 



LIEUT. HOWARD SUTHERLAND 

Lieut. Howard Sutherland was a 
first class gunner in the Coast Artil- 
lery and stationed at Fort Barran- 
cas, Flu., where he was given very 
favorable notice by all of the offi- 
cers. He, like his older brother was 
born and raised in Bloomington and 
was graduated from the city schools. 
Both are high class young Ameri- 
cans, boys that Uncle Sam and the 
entire community can well be proud 
of. Men of this type spelled the 
end of autocracy. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



191 



LIEUT. ROLAND S. READ 

A record for persistency and patriotism, 
that lias no parallel in the history of Mc- 
Lean county and success in overcoming 
discouragements that would have over- 
whelmed a less redoubtable spirit, goes to 
the credit of Roland S. Read, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. G. Burt Read of 1203 East Jef- 
ferson St., Bloomington. Rejected three 
times for volunteer service, and then called 
in the draft and again rejected, due to 
defective eyesight, he persevered, joining 
the American Field Service for transport 
duty in France, buying his own uniform 
and paying his own expenses to Europe. 
Sailing on Sept. 4, 1917, on the French 
liner Rochambeau and landing at Bor- 
deaux, he reported in Paris to the Ameri- 
can Field Service which had been working 
under the French government but during 
his voyage was taken over By United 
States. He was again rejected because of 
Ins draft exemption papers, but demanded 
another examination with the same result. He then applied to the French 
army, was accepted and assigned to hospital service at Neuchateau. His 
services were so valuable that he was commissioned First Lieutenant and 
sent to the front to look after supplies, being stationed at Petite Loges, 
just out of Rheims, during the groat German drive in March, 1918. Or- 
dered to leave, when the Germans began shelling the town with gas 
shells, Lt. Read was a victim of gas and was so seriously affected that 
he was discharged at Paris headquarters. Two days after he left Rheims, 
the Germans were in possession of the town. While waiting for his pass- 
port to return home, Lt. Read was offered a First Lieutenancy in the 
Serbian Army and accepted it, welcoming a further opportunity for 
duty. He was sent to Saloniki, Greece, by the Serbian government and 
was on duty some time there. Later he contracted Saloniki fever, re- 
turned to Paris to recuperate, and as his physical condition was serious, 
he returned home on the Leviathan in September, 1918. Since peace 
came, he has been engaged as farm manager near Geneva, Fla., a marked 
contrast to his thrilling experiences of the great war and which extended 
over such a diversified extent of territory. This young man has a record 
of which his parents may well feel proud. 





LIEUT. MATTHEW LAWRENCE 

Who was connected with the battery of artil- 
lery which fired the first shot by American 
troops against the German positions in 1917. 
He is a son of William Lawrence of Hudson. 



192 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



BROTHERS WHO WON COMMISSIONS 





Thomas Hart Kennedy 



Kayvvin Kennedy 



Of that virile type of young America, masterful, unyielding, un- 
flinching, which made up the armies in the late war, Normal was proud 
to contribute two conspicuous examples, Kaywin and Thomas Hart Ken- 
nedy, sons of Judge Thomas Kennedy and wife, of 1201 Broadway. They 
had the distinction of each winning a commission as second lieutenant, 
and the former was privileged to take part in the great conflict in 
France. Lieut. Kaywin Kennedy entered the Signal Corps officers train- 
ing camp at College Park, Maryland (sent as a temporary instructor) 
and was in the signal corps at Camp Sherman, Ohio. He was sent to 
France and assigned to the 310th Field Signal Battalion Fourth Army 
Corps and served with the Third Army (Army of Occupation) of the 
American Expeditionary Forces until about July 1st, 1919. His special 
field of duty was wireless telephone officer and he saw a great amount of 
sanguinary service and was fortunate in participating in the great strug- 
gle when it was at its height. Lieut. Kennedy served in the Army of 
Occupation after the armistice was signed and was discharged at Camp 
Grant in August, 1919, resuming his school duties in Chicago. 

Lieut. Thomas Hart Kennedy selected the infantry department, 
leaving his school duties at the Culver Indiana military academy and 
entered the officers training schools at Ft. Sheridan and afterwards at 
Camp Grant. He was assigned to the second company, but before he 
could realize his ambition in going across the sea, peace 'was declared 
and he received his discharge January 15th, 1919. He worked on the 
elevated railroad in Chicago until August, 1919, took a trip east to 
examine transportation systems, and in September reentered Culver 
Academy. Lieut. Kennedy was honored by being chosen the first secre- 
tary of W. A. Fleet Post 113 of the American Legion at this institution. 



PREMATURELY REPORTED DEAD 

In the casualty reports one day in the fall of 1918 appeared the 
name of John M. Redd, a colored soldier from Bloomington, as among 
the killed in action. When the members of the famous Company K of 
the 370th Infantry returned home in the winter of 1918-19, they re- 
ported that Redd, one of the comrades of their company, was not dead, 
but that they had left him severely wounded in a base hospital at 
Brest, France. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



193 




CAPT. RALPH N. McCOED 

An army career in the war cov- 
ering as many and varied fea- 
tures as could well be imagined 
was that of Capt. Kalph N. Mc- 
Cord of Bloomington, better 
known as "Jack. " Commissioned 
a captain of infantry at Fort 
Sheridan in November, 1917, he 
was sent to France in January, 
1918, and first acted as tactical 
instructor in a school for line offi- 
cers at Chattillon-sur-Seine, for 
several months. Through this 
school passed in those months 
from 1,200 to 1,500 leading offi- 
cers of the A. E. F. This gave 
Capt. McCord an opportunity for 
very wide acquaintance. Al- 
though he had no chance to par- 
ticipate in the actual fighting, he 
was sent as an observer in June, 
1918, to the operations by Ameri- 
san forces at Chateau Thierry, 
and in August to the St. Mihiel 

sector. In both cases he saw some of the most important actions of the 
war. His last trip to the front was in the opening days of November, 
1918, in the Argonne forests. On this trip he was attached as an officer 
to the 115th infantry, of the 89th division. After the armistice, Capt. 
McCord was made an athletic officer, his training as school and college 
coach having fitted him for this work. He had control of the athletic 
contests of the Ninth Corps of the Second Army, comprising over 200,000 
men. Elimination contests in all branches of athletics were held at 
.Toul in March, 1919, and then came the championship contests at Paris 
in April. These contests selected the chief athletes of the whole A. E. F. 
Capt. McCord afterward managed a great basket-ball tournament of 
army men in Paris. When the forces of the U. S. had been reduced to 
small numbers, Capt. McCord secured his homeward passage and was 
discharged from the service in June, 1919. He resumed business in 
Bloomington. 

LIEUT. STRODE P. HENDERSON 

One of the first to enlist when war was 
declared, Strode P. Henderson, jr., son of 
Supt. S. P. Henderson of the Chicago and 
Alton with headquarters in Bloomington, 
brought credit to his country, McLean 
County and himself, by service of a very 
high order. He was first assigned to the 
Central Department of the army in Chi- 
cago in June, 1917, and was transferred 
in September of that year to Camp Grant 
and promoted to Corporal. His faithful 
and efficient performance of duty won him 
promotion to sergeant the same month and 
in May, 1918, he was ordered to the Offi- 
cers Training Camp, known as Camp 
Joseph E. Johnson. He soon attracted at- 
tention and was promptly commissioned, 
receiving the rank of Second Lieutenant 
on October 7, his promotion being the re- 
sult of hard work and study. Lieut. 




194 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAE 



Henderson was immediately assigned to- transport service, making four 
trips to Europe and return while the war was in progress. Lieut. Hender- 
son was retained in the quartermasters department of the army until 
long after peace was declared, not receiving his discharge until March 
15, 1919. He then resumed his position with the New York branch of 
the National Cash Eegister Company and was on the threshold of what 
promised to be a brilliant career in commercial circles when pneumonia 
caused his death after a brief illness, the untimely summons bringing 
grief to his family, and unnumbered friends. Both as a soldier and a 
business man, he won advancement through merit, tireless energy, and 
integrity. It was men of his type who made possible the victory of the 
Allies and of the transcendency of the nation he loved. 

LIEUT. HENRY H. CARRITHERS 




Lieutenant Henry H. Carrithers, who was a cadet at the U. S. mili- 
tary school of aeronautics, at the Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, 
Ga., received his commission as second lieutenant in the aviation section 
of the signal corps, and assigned for duty at Kelly field, San Antonio, 
Tex. His home is in Hudson. 



ON STRANDED SHIP 

Charles Pancake, former engineer on the Alton road, was with 2,400 
other wounded men who came home on the ship Northern Pacific, which 
was stranded off Fire Island, just outside New York harbor on January 
1, 1919. The ship went on the rocks, and while it was not damaged, 
she was unable to back off on her own power, and there she stuck for 
two days and nights, while other ships, working at great peril in heavy 
seas, took off all the wounded men and landed them safely. The wounded 
men were gotten in some way into small boats, which carried them a 
mile to destroyers, where they again climbed or were pulled aboard, 
and the warships took them to land. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOEJT) JVAE 



195 



OFFICERS GROUP 




Right Center Ralph R. Lnar; left center Knsign John M. Kumler. 
Below center Lt. Joseph Depew, left; Lt. David B. Lutz, right. 
Bottom Ensign Royal Burtis, Lt. Edwin Burtis. 



196 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



LT. J. T. ELLIOTT AND LT. GERALD THOMAS 

To enlist as privates during the 
first month of our entry in the war 
with Germany, to go through most 
of the battles in which American 
troops participated, to be commis- 
sioned at the front, to be members 
of the Army of Occupation in Ger- 
many after the Armistice, to come 
back home as first lieutenants, and 
till without being wounded, such is 
the exceptional good fortune of 
"Jim" Elliott and "Fat" Thomas. 
Surely, these two young men are de- 
serving of particular credit for their 
service and of congratulation for 
their fortunate escape from injury 
in so many cases where the odds 
were heavily against them. 

In April, 1917, Elliott and Thomas 
consulted several ex-service men and 
after carefully weighing the oppor- 
tunities presented by the three 
branches of national service, chose 
the Marine Corps, enlisting in that 
organization as privates. That their 
judgment was sound is shown by 
their subsequent record. They were 
sent to Paris Island, S. C., for pre- 
liminary training and were later 
transferred to the Marine Brigade 
Training Camp at Quantico, Va. By 
this time they were non-commis- 
sioned officers and, as such, went to 
France as members of the Fifth 
Lt. -las. Elliott Eegiment of Marines. For a few 

months they took part in the special duties to which marines were as- 
signed at that time, as the need for trained men was great while the 
American Expeditionary Forces in France were being organized. 

On October 26, 1917, the Fifth Eegiment of 
Marines became a part of the Second Divi- 
sion which was organized in France from 
troops sent over separately, and training in 
division tactics began at once. Elliott and 
Thomas served in the Verdun and Toul sec- 
tors March 15 to 24, 1918; Chateau-Thierry 
sector May 31 to July 9, with almost con- 
tinuous heavy fighting, including the famous 
Belleau Wood operation. After parading in 
Paris on Bastille Day, Elliott and Thomas 
took part in the Marne offensive July 18 to 
20 and in the Marbache sector August 9 to 
24. In one of the engagements, so many of 
his superiors were killed or wounded that 
James Elliott was senior member of the com- 
pany to which he belonged. For meritorious 
service he was commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant. During this period Gerald Thomas, be- 
cause of superior ability, was sent to an 

Lt. Gerald Thomas 





McLEAN COUNTY AXD THE WOPLD WAR 



197 



officer's training camp in France and was commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant in the Marine Corps. After the St. Mihiel offensive, service in Cham- 
pagne and the advance to Sedan, Lieutenants Elliott and Thomas became 
members of the Army of Occupation in the Marine Brigade of the Sec- 
ond Division. Both returned to the United States with the Second 
Division after that organization was relieved from duty in Germany. 
James Elliott went back into civilian life where he has since become 
prominent in athletics. Gerald Thomas retained his commission in the 
Marine Corps and, during the latter part of 1919 was again sent on 
foreign service, this time to Hayti. 

YOUNGEST OF HIS RANK 

Bellflower had the distinction of fur- 
nishing the youngest army officer of his 
rank in the famous Thirty-Third Divi- 
sion if not in the whole A. E. F. He 
was Lieut. Col. O. J. Troster, son of 
Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Troster, well known 
residents of Bellflower. He is a gradu- 
ate of the University of Illinois, and 
prior to America entering the war he 
had his first military experiences with 
the National Guard regiments on the 
Mexican border. He went to France 
with the Thirty-third, and rose rapidly 
by promotion from one grade to an- 
other. During the war, the newspapers 
published several interesting letters 
from Troster, then a major. One of 
the most interesting was that written 
on the day when the armistice was 
signed, when he wrote: 

"No cheering! The order might as well have said. Shoot yourself. 
How could normal, healthy Americans keep from voicing their joy in 
shouting? A colored labor battalion near by took it up, and the old 
hills certainly did ring. But the artillery continued firing until the 
hour of 11 o'clock, the time set when the Dutchmen arranged to stop. 
Then everything got quiet, and tonight there is not a sound." 

After his return from the war Mr. Troster went into business in 
New York City. 

LIEUT. BYRON E. SHIRLEY 

Lieut. Byron E. Shirley graduated from 
the Wesleyan law school in 1916, entered 
the first officers' training camp at Fort 
Sheridan, remained for the second, when 
he received a lieutenant's commission and 
was assigned to the Fourteenth cavalry, 
U. S. regular army. After serving in 
Texas, he was sent to France as an in- 
structor in cavalry. He remained to the 
close of the war, and was on duty in many 
different army camps in France. After re- 
turning to the U. S. Lieut. Shirley re- 
tained his commission for some time and 
went back to a post in Texas. In the 
winter of 1919 he received his discharge. 





198 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 

MAJOR WILLAED B. SOPEE 

Immediately upon the dec- 
laration of war by the 
United States, Dr. Willard 
Burr Soper, son of Mrs. C. 
P. Soper of Bloomingtcn, en- 
listed in the medical corps 
and on May 4, 1917, commis- 
sioned captain. He had the 
distinction of sailing May 
14, 1917, on the first boat 
leaving New York for France 
which carried American sol- 
diers, and who represented 
the initial contribution of 
the United States to the 
great armies of the Allies, 
massed on the western front. 
Capt. Soper was at first con- 
nected as medical officer 
attached to the U. S. Base 
Hospital No. 2 whic.h was 
recruited from the Presby- 
terian hospital, New York, 
Columbia University and 
New York City. Upon ar- 
rival in France, this hospital 
unit took over No. 1 General 
Hospital, B. E. F. at Etretat, 
Seine Inferieure. From this 
time on the unit was known 

as No. 1, (Presbyterian U. A. A.) General Hospital B. E. F., continuing 
as such until the end of the war. On July 1, 1918, Dr. Soper was placed 
in command of this hospital and continued so until demobilization Feb- 
ruary 18, 1919, at Camp Mcade, Maryland. The great Casino at Etretat 
was commandeered and converted into a hospital and 1,000 beds installed 
for the soldier patients under charge of Dr. Soper. The emergency 
capacity was 1200 beds. Dr. Soper was promoted to major in August, 
1918. The work assigned to him was both surgical and medical. Eoughly, 
23,000 cases passed through during the 18 months. Although the whole 
personnel of the staff was American, the hospital was British and almost 
all patients were from the British forces. This unit was one of six 
loaned to the B. E. F. on America's entrance into the war. All were 
retained until the Armistice. Helen Crocker Soper, wife of Major Wil- 
lard B. Soper, went to France in June, 1917, for service with the Ameri- 
can Ambulance Corps at Paris but it developed that her services would 
be of more value at Etretat where there was a colony of 250 orphans of 
the Association Nationale des Orphelins dc la Guerre. In July, that year, 
she took charge with Mrs. Peabody of the Infirmary of the colony and 
of the general health of tho children. From June, 1918, Mrs. Soper was 
assisted in this work by Miss Laura McNulta, formerly of Bloomington. 
Their work terminated January 1, 1919. At Christmas, 1918, the prefect 
of the Department of the Seine Infirieure, presented Mrs. Soper with 
the medal of Eecoinnaissance of the department, in recognition of her 
invaluable services. The self sacrifice and tireless devotion to his line 
of duty, won for Major Soper the gratitude of the patients in his charge 
and he was at all times alert to their needs and watchful of their com- 
fort and care. Dr. Soper elected to specialize in his chosen profession, 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 199 

as bacteriologist, and for several years prior to the war, was instructor 
for physicians at the Trudeaux School of Tubercular Diseases, located 
at Saranac Lake, New York. Upon his return from France with the 
conclusion of hostilities, he was induced by the managers of the Rocke- 
feller Foundation to devote three or four years to experiments in the 
treatment of tuberculosis and with headquarters in Paris, France. Dr. 
Soper accepted this commission and his selection was a notable tribute 
to his ability and the fame that he has already commanded in this 
important field of work. It is believed that he will rank with the fore- 
most authorities of our time, in the study and treatment of tuberculosis, 
and, as a result of his study and experimentation, the terrors of the 
"Great White Plague" will doubtless be largely alleviated. 

CAPT. HORACE A. SOPER 

Of the young business men of Bloomington who responded to the 
call to service, Horace A. Soper, vice president of the American Foundry 
and Furnace Company, located at 915 East Washington Street, was 




fortunate in being sent abroad. He won a commission as first lieu- 
tenant on October 11, 1917 and, due to his business training and admin- 
istrative experience, he was first assigned to duty in Washington, D. C., 
and placed in charge of the purchasing department for steel helmets, 
fire control, instruments, etc. The war' department records indicate that, 
great as was the shortage in some classes of equipment for the army, 
there never was reported a single instance where a combat division 
of United States troops was without steel helmets, this efficiency con- 
tributed to the credit of Capt. Soper. Making good in this field, he was 
commissioned captain in June, 1918, and given greater responsibilities 
abroad. He was sent to France and placed in charge of the purchases 
of iron and steel and various classes of machinery necessary for the 
projection of the war. Capt. Soper made his headquarters at Tours 
while in France thus enabling him to participate in the tremendous 
activity necessary in carrying on the war and also getting an insight 
.of the superhuman modus operand! that no writer has yet been able 
to adequately describe. Capt. Soper remained in the service until the 
close of the great conflict and was honorably discharged January 4, 1919, 
returning to Bloomington to resume his post with the A. F. & F. Co. 




200 M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

FOUGHT ELEVEN MONTHS WITH THE BIG GUNS 

Ivan Elliot, Wesleyan university ath- 
lete and graduate from the law school, 
left the employ of the Daily Pantagraph 
in May, 1917, and entered the first 
school for officers at Fort Sheridan. 
After a few months of preliminary 
training, he was sent to Fort Monroe, 
Va., having been one of a selected 
group of embryo officers for special ser- 
vice in the heavy ordnance department. 
Completing his special training at Fort 
Monroe, he set out for overseas service 
on September 12, 1917. Landing at 
Liverpool, he soon went to Havre, 
France, thence to a school for heavy 
artillery located in Central France. He 
was next assigned to the second batta- 
lion of the 52d artillery of the U. S. 
regular army. With that unit he served 
Capt. Ivan Elliot, during the rest of his career in France. 

This unit handled railway guns known as the French 32 's, which were 
of about 13 inch calibre, being" among the heaviest guns used by the 
American forces in France. Each gun weighed about 150 tons and was 
manned by thirty-six men. The range of the guns was about ten miles. 
Each battery consisted of two guns with their crews, and two batteries 
composed a battalion. The personnel of the battalion consisted of 250 
men, allowing a certain reserve for replacements for casualties in action. 
About the first of January, 1918, the battery with which Elliott was 
connected was assigned to an active fighting sector of the western front. 
From that time until relieved and ordered to America, he was in almost 
continuous active service. The battery was used most of the time for 
miscellaneous firing, making a target of any point in the enemy lines 
where known concentration of troops or transport was taking place. His 
battery was an important factor in the advance of the First Army under 
Gen. Pershing in the St. Mihiel sector in September, 1918. Afterward, 
the battery was in support of the infantry advance thru the Argonne 
forests. Capt. Elliott called this fighting the most terrific of any in 
which he participated during the war. Thru miles of dense woods and 
underbrush, interlaced with barbed wire and infested with Germans, the 
army advanced. The batteries prepared the way for infantry by shell- 
ing the enemy lines and roads prior to the advance. Meantime, the heavy 
artillery was itself the object of heavy counter bombardment by the 
enemy guns, and the battalion suffered many casualties. At Mount Fan- 
chon, this battery was ordered to open and to cease firing at least ten 
different times, this being the hardest objective to take of any sought 
by this unit. The battery lost two guns during its service with the 52d, 
one bursting with its own discharge, the other being hit by a shell. Capt. 
Elliott was slightly gassed twice, but was never hit. He spent a short 
time in a hospital with the influenza. Elliott 's promotion from a lieu- 
tenancy to a captaincy of artillery was dated September 21, in the midst 
of the Argonne battle. Capt. Elliott returned to America in December, 
1918, and was soon afterward discharged from the service, and took up 
the practice of law at Carmi and Mt. Carmel, Illinois. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLV WAR 



201 



FOUR WATKINS BROTHERS 

Four brothers of whom their parents have reason to feel proud and 
in the fullest acceptance of that term, are the sons of Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Watkins of 810 East Chestnut street, Bloomington. Two of 
these won commissions, one attained the rank of Battalion Sergeant- 




Upper left Harold W. Watkins; upper right Paul Watkins. 
Lower left Ferre Watkins; lower right Warren C. Watkins. 

Major while a fourth had been chosen for competition in an officers 
training camp when the war ended. Ferre C. Watkins enlisted May 17, 

1917, at Fort Sheridan and entered the first Eeserve Officers Training 
Camp. Hard and faithful work, won him a commission August 15 and 
he was first assigned to the 341st Infantry and on October 8 to the 356th 
Infantry. Training at Cambridge, Mass., Camp Grant and Fort Sill, 
Okla., he was ordered overseas, and was soon in the thick of the great 
conflict. He participated in the Argonne-Meuse offensive, October 18 
to November 11 and with his headquarters at St. Andre de Cubzac, later 
joining the Army of Occupation in Germany. He made a notable record 
for bravery and was a participant in some of the greatest battles of the 
war. Lt. Watkins was kept in the service until long after peace was 
declared, being released June 23, 1919, and resuming his school duties 
in Chicago. 

Warren Cash Watkins enlisted August 20, 1917, entered the officers 
training camp at Camp Dodge and was commissioned 2d Lieut June 1, 

1918. He was variously on duty later at Camp Gordon, Ga., Camp Pike, 
Ark., Camp Taylor, Ky., and Camp Knox, Ky., his final duty being 
with the 27th Co., 4th Eegt. Dept. Brigade, being discharged December 
3, 1918, resuming his school duties. 

Paul E. Watkins enlisted October 14, 1918, in the S. A. T. C. at Ur- 
bana and was honored by selection for the Officers Training Camp when 
the armistice was signed, being discharged December 21, 1918. 

Harold E. Watkins enlisted September 23, 1918, was assigned to the 
medical reserve and later the National Army and stationed at Philadel- 
phia. Meritorious duty won him promotion to First Sergeant and then 
Battalion Sergeant Major, receiving his discharge December 18, 1918, 
then resuming his schools duties. 



202 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 




Edward Bynum 

Chas. E. Brown 
Edward Bynum 
Lincoln Bynum 
Enix Nathan 
Herbert Henderson 
Leonard Holmes 
Norman Keys 
Donald Luster 
James Martin 



OUR COLORED HEROES 

The 370th made a glorious rec- 
ord in France where they met some 
of the Kaiser's best troops and put 
them to flight each time, thereby 
wining for themselves the name of 
' ' Black Devils. ' ' Although several 
of the stalwart men belonging to 
the Bloomington company fell on 
the battlefield, the large majority 
of them survived the terrible hard- 
ships to which they were subjected, 
and rejoiced with their relatives 
and friends at being at home once 
more. The members of Company 
K 370th infantry formerly were 
known as the Eight Illinois com- 
posed chiefly of men from Bloom- 
ington, but when the war broke 
out the company was recruited to 
full strength with the addition of 
men from Pontiac, Clinton and 
other nearby places. The members 
follow: 

Lt. Willis Stearles 

Lt. F. K. Johnson 

First Sgt. James L. Page 

Sgt. G. W. Stewart 

Sgt. Eoy J. Stevenson 

Sgt. Chas. Thomas 

Corp. Jacob Ward 

Leonard Marshall 

Fred Samuels 

Alonzo Walton 

Joshua Ward 

Bruce Anderson 

Ernest Anderson 

Oliver Bacon 

Alonzo Barnes 

Sylvester Beard 

Joseph Boswell 

Fate Palm 

Westly Meauhead 

Hollway McMath 

R. C. Oliphant 

J. T. Patterson 

Maceo Shavers 

Homer Skinner 

Andrew Stovall 

William Williams 

Robert C. Wilson 

Howard Brent 



History of Company 



In July, 1917, in response to President Wilson's call, the company 
left Bloomington for Peoria. They remained there about ten weeks, leav- 
ing Peoria for Camp Logan, Houston, Texas, on October 12. In March, 
1918, they left Camp Logan for Newport News, Va., and arrived in 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD 



203 



France April 22. On April 29th they were placed with a French divi- 
sion and trained with them until June 23 when they went into the 
trenches near Regonville where they remained for a week. From there 
they were taken to Vraincourt and went into the trenches again for ten 
days being quartered during that time with one of the best French 
divisions. 

On August 16, 1918, the local boys left for Verdun front and on 
September 14 went into the front line trenches. Between that time and 
the day they were subjected to heavy shell fire and gas attacks. On 
September 30, the third battalion engaged in another hard fought battle 
and on October 12 they started in full pursuit of the fleeing enemy, and 
arrived in the trenches at midnight, October 18, ready to advance again 
the next morning. 

On October 28th they left for Honoyn, and on November 9th were 
again in pursuit of the enemy, and were in the final battle on the day 
the armistice was signed. 

They arrived at Brest, France, 
January 10, 1919 and landed in 
New York on February 9. 

Cited for Bravery 

For bravery in battle and for 
their work in trench and camp 
the 370th Infantry were highly 
praised by General Mittlhouser, 
commander of the 36th division 
of the French army. 

There are several among the lo- 
cal boys who wear decorations 
for distinguished service. Among 
these are Alonzo Walton, of Nor- 
mal, who was cited for bravery 
in carrying food to his company 
during a German barrage. 

Donald Luster and Harry L. 
Pierson received their distin- 
guished service medal for going 
into "No Man's" land in day- 
light and carry out their wounded 
comrades. At one time two of 
the wounded died on their shoul- 
ders while being carried out. 

Those Left in France 
Only one of the local company 
sleeps in France, although sev- 
eral remained several months in 
the hospitals recovering from 
wounds. Gus Williams, killed in 




First Sgt. James 



action,, is the only one who was called to give up his life. John Redd, 
who was reported by the war department as killed in action was found 
in a hospital at St. Agnan. He was seriously wounded September 30, 
five machine gun bullets entering his body. Later, however, he died 
from his wounds. 

Among the wounded were Corporal Len Wilson, wounded in the leg 
by a piece of shrapnel on September 30; Private Paul Turlington, 
wounded by shrapnel on October 4; Earl Lewis, ill in the hospital; 
Sergeant Solomon Williams, ill at the hospital in Brest; and Joe Fort, 
evacuated to a casual company September 5 at Brest. 



204 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD W A R 

BLOOMIN3TON CITY LIBRARY IN WAR TIMES 

At the entrance of the United States into the war, the Withers 
Public Library of Bloomington, under the leadership of its librarian, 
enlisted for war service, devoting all of its resources, without reserve 
to such activities as were within its scope. 

When the first call came for reading matter for the camps, two 
thousand magazines were collected and shipped at the library's expense. 

Later, one thousand magazines were sent on the Burleson plan, 
postage paid by the Library. 

On the first call made by the American Library Association for 
money to purchase books, the sum of twelve hundred dollars was raised, 
and at the call for books 3,500 were collected, furnished with pockets 
and cards and sent to distributing points. 

One hundred scrap books were made for Christmas packets for the 
soldiers and one hundred more blank scrap books furnished to be filled 
by the public. Two hundred fifty collections of stories were put into 
attractive bindings for hospital use. 

Every facility was offered for the advancement of the food and fuel 
conservation movement. A room was furnished for a speakers' training 
class, conducted by Professor C. M. Sanford of the State Normal 
University. Bulletins headed "Food will win the war" were posted 
daily. 

Thousands of pamphlets on food and fuel conservation and on public 
health were distributed and display space was furnished for posters 
in all Red Cross and Liberty Loan drives and all other war activities. 

In the lightless and heatless period ordered by the United States 
Fuel Commission, the library was closed on Sunday afternoons and all 
day Tuesdays and opened only from 12 P. M. until 6 P. M. on other 
days of the week. 

During the registration of women, by the McLean County Council 
of National Defense, ten thousand cards were clipped, alphabeted and 
filed for future reference. 

From the file help was furnished as called for; especially during 
the influenza epidemic, when the registration of nurses and nurses' aids 
proved to be invaluable. 

During 1918 the library was an agency for the sale of Thrift and 
War Savings Stamps with sales amounting to several thousand dollars. 
These sales were continued for many months after the war. 

A contest between the various schools of the city was conducted, 
resulting in much interest and large sales. The sale was also encouraged 
by a thrift stamp play given by the children and staged in the Children 's 
Room. 

Three rooms were vacated and given for the use of the Red Cross 
Civilian Relief, and Home Service Bureau and secretary's office. The 
Red Cross Civilian Relief was housed at the Public Library from Novem- 
ber 1, 1817, to January 1, 1919; also the secretary's office and Junior 
Red Cross headquarters, which are still here. 

This necessitated the fitting up of new rooms in the basement for 
library needs at considerable expense, and re-locating the Children's 
Room in the Russell Art Room for the time being. 

The library acted in the enrollment of boys for the Boys' Working 
Reserve. 

Accommodations were furnished for the study classes in connection 
with the Home Service Department of the Red Cross for the regular 
meetings of the Red Cross Health Committee 

A most important service was rendered during the serious epidemic 
of Spanish influenza in the fall and winter of 1918-1919, when office room 
was furnished the Red Cross Influenza Committee and the Emergency 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



205 



Motor Corps. These rooms were open day and night, during the critical 
time. Here supplies were received and sent to sufferers in hospitals and 
private homes, nurses were secured and placed and every effort made 
to abate the plague. 

The Victory Loan also found headquarters at the library. 

Constant publicity work was carried on along all lines. Bulletins 
calling attention to books and articles of interest were furnished the 
daily papers; clippings of historic value were mounted for permanent 
use; large collections of war books and pamphlets were made; Govern- 
ment and state official documents were secured and placed where easily 
accessible by the public. 

In fact, the Withers Public Library became a sort of clearing house 
for both active effort and for imparting useful information in all lines 
of war work. 

The staff of the library during the war period consisted of the 
following persons: Miss Nellie E. Parham, librarian in charge; Miss 
Nelle F. Webb and Mrs. C. F. Kimball, reference department; Miss Alma 
Lange, Miss Sarah Stowell, Miss Havenhill, Miss Mabel Whittington, 
Miss Lucy Williams, and Miss Helen Niehaus. Miss Niehaus was later 
for a short period in the government employ at Washington during the 
latter part of the war. Miss Miriam Wallace had charge of the chil- 
dren's department, assisted by Miss Charlotte Stevenson. Ray Powell, 
a Wesleyan student, worked in the library for a time, but resigned to 
enter the army. 




Upper row (left to right) Walter E. Rapp, Powell E. Reynolds Harry C. Reuger. 
Center Harold Russell; left of center Bert L. Riseling, Paul C. Robinson, Albert 
Rousey; right of center Glenn A. Rieldick, Michael J. Reidy, John F. Quinn. 
Lower row Joseph E. Radley, Clayton W. Rulon, Chas. A. Reum. 



206 



COUNTY TOOD ADMINISTRATION IN THE WAR 

Only a few weeks after America's entry into the war, the Bloom- 
ington Association of Commerce was asked by Harry A. Wheeler, Fed- 
eral Food Administrator for Illinois, to appoint an Administrator who 
should select a committee 'of four to co-operate with him in representing 
our Government in handling all questions that might arise on this 
subject. 

R. C. Baldwin, president of the Association of Commerce, went to 
Howard Humphreys along in September of 1917, stating that as he was 
looked upon as the Dean of the -grocery business in this section, he felt 
that Mr. Humphreys should accept this appointment, which he immedi- 
ately did, wiring Mr. Wheeler that he would give it the best attention 
possible and be very careful in the selection of the Conference Com- 
mittee. It seemed most natural at first that the different food interests 
should be represented on the committee, and Mr. Humphreys was about 
to make such appointments when a later thought convinced him that 
the personnel of such Committee might better be of men not interested 
in the food game, for he felt certain that the committee could have 
equal co-operation and assistance from all the food men though not on 
a committee. Accordingly he made the following appointments of men 
who, though very busy in their affairs, accepted them and pledged their 
support and co-operation: 

President David Felmley, of Normal University. 

John .T. Morrissey, Attorney. 

D. O. Thompson, County Farm Advisor. 

Mrs. J. M. Patterson, President of the Woman's Union Label League. 

It was necessary to act quickly and get this organization thruout 
the state working as soon as possible, and the various food committees 
were given very little instruction as to what they should, or should not 
do, and Mr. Humphreys did not know for some time whether he was rep- 
resenting Bloomington, the county or a section about Bloomington. 
However, he commenced to work at once, and immediately informed 
headquarters in Chicago w-hat the committee were doing, and asked for 
their criticisms and suggestions. In reply he received their congratula- 
tions and was told to go right along in the same course. 

The groccrymen of the county were at first very much agitated and 
felt that their business was going to be curtailed and their margins of 
profit so limited that it would be impossible for them to pay the ex- 
penses of their business, and while there was the universal expression 
of the utmost loyalty from all the grocerymen, yet there were many 
who seriously felt that it would be impossible to operate their business, 
under conditions which they thought would be imposed, without loss. 
The fact that the retail grocers and meat dealers of Bloomington were 
organized in a local association made it very much easier for the Food 
Administrator to get their quicker and more active cooperation. 

When the grocerymen were asked to publish a price list of the staple 
food commodities, showing what the retail grocer bought and sold these 
staples for, there was quite a strenuous objection made by many deal- 
ers. They asserted that their margins of profit were reasonable, and 
that the matter of profiteering in prices was merely a question of agita- 
tion and irresponsible rumor, and had little or no foundation in fact 
in this community, even if it had in others. 

When these men were finally convinced of the necessity of pub- 
lishing their selling prices, a second objection arose as to publishing 
their costs, insisting that it was unnecessarily making public a part 
of their affairs that was usually a confidential feature of a man's busi- 
ness. However, when they saw that it was the publication of such 
costs and selling prices which assured the public of the small margins 
that these commodities were retailed at, and that such publication would 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAJR 207 

beget confidence and dispel the trouble and agitation that came to the 
minds of many on account of the higher prices of foods, the thought 
that they were profiteering in war times, taking advantage of conditions 
in unreasonable profits from the consumer, would be dispelled. 

It was along in December, the first price lists were published, De- 
cember of 1917, Bloomington being one of the first towns of the state 
in this locality to publish such prices, and a committee was formed by 
the retail dealers who met once or twice a week, and having collected 
data as to the costs of the staple commodities, a fair price list was thus 
made and published for a time daily in both the morning and evening 
newspapers of the city. It would have been illegal under the Sherman 
Anti-Trust Law for merchants to meet, discuss and arrange prices in 
this way save for the fact that the Federal Trade Commission had given 
a ruling to the United States, that such action might be taken provided 
a regularly authorized Food Administrator was present at such meeting 
when prices were discussed, and what were considered to be fair prices 
named. Mr. Humphreys was working along without knowing the field 
that he was expected to cover, and yet it was a fact that there were 
quite a number of other Food Administrators appointed in other towns 
in McLean county at the same time that he was appointed. Presuming 
that they would all work together, Mr. Humphreys invited such ap- 
pointees to a meeting in Bloomington so that they might co-operate in 
their activities. Soon after this he was asked to be County Food Ad- 
ministrator, and as such it was necessary to be sworn in officially. 

A few weeks later, Mr. Humphreys was asked to become a member 
of the State District Board, taking charge of the district of seven or 
eight counties, which district was changed as changes were made in the 
District Board, so that finally his district included thirteen counties: 
McLean, Cass, DeWitt, Ford, Fulton, Knox, Livingston, Mason, Menard, 
Peoria, Stark, Tazewell and Woodford. 

Each of these counties was represented by a County Food Admin- 
istrator, and under them, each of the towns in the counties, was rep- 
resented by a local food administrator. Mr. J. J. Thomassen was ap- 
pointed county food administrator for McLean county and Charles 
O'Malley, local Food Administrator for Bloomington. 

A county food administration was completed in February, 1918, 
under the direction of Mr. Thomassen, by the appointment of tne fol- 
lowing township food administrators, each of whom was supposed to 
deal with the food problems of his own immediate neighborhood, in 
co-operation with the county administrator: Allin W. H. Springer, 
Stanford; Anchor Jacob Martens. Anchor; Arrowsmith George E. 
Lester, Arrowsmith; Bellflower C. F. Gooch, Bellflower; Bloomington - 
Charles O'Malley; Blue Mound A. T. Walton, Cooksville; Cheney's 
Grove William Rowe, Saybrook; Chenoa A. D. Jordan, Chenoa; Crop- 
sey H. L. Barnes, Cropsey; Dale A. L. Nicol, Covell; Danvers L. C. 
Voss, Danvers; Downs G. H. Meiner, Downs; Dawson A. L. Builta, 
Ellsworth; Dry Grove L. C. Voss, Danvers; Empire A. Jay Keenan, 
Leroy; Funk's Grove C. M. Bowen, Bloomington; Gridley C. F. 
Hoobler, Gridley; Hudson R. A. Ensign, Hudson; Lawndale H. L. 
Barnes. Coif ax; Lexington A. H. Scrogin, Lexington; Martin H. L. 
Barnes, Coif ax; Money Creek A. H. Scrogin, Lexington; Mt. Hope 
Frank W. Aldrich, McLean; Normal W. J. Arbogast, Normal; Old 
Town F. W. Boston, Holder; Randolph J. P. Shelton, Hey worth; To- 
wanda Oren Clark, Towanda; West C. F. Gooch, Bellflower; AVhite 
Oak L. H. Brown, Carlock; Yatcs A. D. Jordan, Chenoa. 

At this same time, the organization in Bloomington consisted of 
Charles O'Malley, city food administrator; J. J. Thomassen, county ad- 
ministrator; Victor Robinson, Oscar Mandel, Henry Munch, Campbell 
Holton, W. H. Cummings, Mrs. J. M. Patterson, Charles Utesch, and 



208 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 




Hal M. Stone Howard Humphreys J. J. Thomassen 

A. H. Hoopes. After a few weeks of very active service, Mr. Thomassen 
was obliged to resign the position, and Mr. Hal M. Stone accepted the 
appointment of County Food Administrator. Mr. O'Malley gave him 
very valuable assistance in handling one of the most important features 
at that time, the question of sugar distribution, and regulations of the 
quantity to be sold. In this respect, Mr. O'Malley was acting as County 
Food Administrator and was sworn in as such. 

These arrangements continued until December, 1918, when prac- 
tically all restrictions were withdrawn and the activities of the Food 
Administration ceased. 

One of the most important features of this work were the efforts 
of the administration to limit and secure a fair distribution of sugar. 
Bloomington was one of the first towns in the west to limit the supply 
of sugar sold to the consumer; and when it was seen that a possible 
sugar famine was approaching, without consultation or advice, it seemed 
best to ask all retailers immediately to limit all sales to five pounds of 
sugar. These instructions were very promptly complied with, and at 
times later the sales were limited to two pounds. Our county was very 
fortunate in suffering less from the sugar famine than many others, and 
while there was some difficulty in the fall of 1918 in controlling the 
amount of sugar to be used for canning and preserving purposes, yet 
there was but little, if any, hardship experienced in a lack of supply 
of this great food necessity. 

Careful investigations were made by the Food Administrators of 
the real needs of those purchasers of sugar for canning and preserving, 
it being the intention of the Government that sugar should be provided 
for such use, and tickets or orders were issued to dealers by the Food 
Administrators, on which they could sell sugar for such purposes. This 
feature of the work ran up to such importance that it was necessary 
to have an uptown office building with several attendants to issue these 
canning sugar tickets. Guy Strickle gave the Food Administrator, Mr. 
O 'Malley, very valuable assistance in this work locally in Bloomington. 

In the summer' of 1918 it became necessary for every groceryman 
to keep a sugar card for each customer. On this was entered the name 
of and address of the customer and the time and amount of each sugar 
purchased. These cards were handled through a clearing house, and 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



209 



Daily Food Price Bulletin 

Prepared by the U. S. Food Administration, Bloomington, III. 



Prices being paid by the retailer for the staples named and prices 
vhlch should not exceed as follows: 

DECREASE USE OF 

Retailer Pay*. Consumer Psy 

SUGAR-Per twt, T.87%@ ... a 08 

SUGAR 2-lb. Carton Fine Granulated $8.37%@ to .09% 

ST/4-lb Carton Fine Granulated J8.37%@ @ .09% 

.'.]]>. Cotton Bag Fine Granulated $8.37%@ ... 'i (>9>- 

10-iK Cotton Bag Fine Granulated 8.27% 09% 

FLOUR Sold only pound for pound 

with cereal substitutes. 

Standard grades 14-bbls., 49-lb. cotton sacks 9 to t& t OK JtMAftK 
Standard grade, %-bbl., 24%-lb. cotton sacks 

PURE RYE FLOUR-Bulk, per pound cilia 07 -n i j 

Better (trade, .:i"'"w"' .07 f .08 Each day 

BACON Best grades (whole pieces)"!!!!! if @'"46% 5 @ "slw during the war, 

Medium grades (whole pieces) . 3T @ .38* 40 & .46 f l npwqnnnprq 

Squares .. ,, SO 33 & 35 tile UeWSpdpcro 

HAMS Best grades (whole) _ .SO @ .'Sl% 32 f ]36 T.nlVIJoliorl n 

LARD Standard Pure (bulk) .27% .28% 31% .34 pUDllSneOl a 

MILK rlnilv fnnri 

Tall cans (Evaporated, Unsweetened) .112-3 ... .14 ffl .15 UaUjr 1 

Small cans (Evaporated; Unsweetened).... .05 @ .07 @ .08 nrifP bulletin 1 

RECOMMENDED SUBSTITUTES 

BREAD-I. ounce loaf o6%@ .OB. 10 preparedby 

WHEATLESS CRACKERS .18 .21 .22 + ne United 

BARLEY FLOUR-Per pound 06% .07% .08 

CORN FLOUR-Per pound 8.90 & 6.20 .07% .08 StatCS Food 

Per pound, in bulk, yellow 5.50 @ 5.70 .06%. 07% 

COOKING OILS Administration 

Cotton seed oil products, pints. In cans... .32 .38 @ .40 , i 

Corn oil products, pints (In cans) 30 & .35 @ .38 and Which 

Corn oil products quarts (la eans) 56 @ .65 a .7 , , ., 

OLEOMARGARINE protected thC 

Fancy grades (1-lb. prints) 81 9. .34 .36 T^KHn -Pi-rim 

Medium grades (1-lb; prints) 28 @ .31 @ .S3 pUDllC IrOm 

BE^-^r^buT^r 1.^!:::: St.%^ I . profiteering, the 

PEE- . 1 ^ b " 1 . k; .. p ". lb .::::.v.-.!:;.v.v.:::.v:. :l?%I".n- "%l : Pces being 

CHEESE fixed and 

Best quality, cut full milk .S3%@ .25 .55 . 

irick? whole full cream 22 ^25% SO .35 dealers being 

pRUN^s-^sinfrcTara,' 's6-V '>" tni"p\jund .iV"@" .13%"" 16 @ .n warned not to 

Ssnta Clara 60-70 to the pound.... .11% .12% 15 @ .IB , , 

I'nta claS: 70-so to the pound.:.::::.:: .10% ."% 14 & .is exceed them. 

RAISINS Fancy. 1-lb., seeded _ -, 1 }*.- }* @ -JJ TllP rpPOTtl- 

Fancy 1-lb seedless v - 13 W 16 & .18 

I^VcTni^erVrca'n 5 /..^.?"! \%*%""". ll S ! mended Sub- 

^^"cansTerr^^n;::::::::: ?: I::::::: n I : stitues for 

SALMON-l-lb. Net of Fish. ^"J 01 ^ .'m* " " articles like 

Red Alaska, 1-lb. tall cans 2.80 @ 2.93 .28 @ .33 

Pink, 1-lb. tall cans 195 @ 2.10 .20 .2? SUgar, that 

USE PLENTIFULLY OF we re gcarce 

%i^"^:-::-:::::. $:::::" :^l :J^% were also ' 

XfiSZtt^^." ...:%i- ,:?2.f-M" given 

S-tpoundVaper sack, ... .B ..... .25 

8 ^^o;-mt,::"v::::r:::::v;:: ...: ta .l".- ,..:^.^--4V 

^^Tn^but^.'^rV^V.V.V.V.V.V.: w"i- j.-i".ii:i 

Hom^ B Gl?u QU . al : t ^ b "^. per .r. nd :::::-. .M 8 @-:oi 'TA 

FISH Prices retailtr, tuys only quoted. Prices consumer payi left blank. 

Fresh Halibut .-. 20 @ .21 . @ 

frozen Salt Water Herring.... .09 @ .10 ../ 

Frozen Lake White Fish .17 @ .19 @ 

Fresh Winter Caught Pickerel .18 .20 @ 

Fresk Caucht Trout 31 @ .25 

Fresh Caucht Catfish (skinned) 23 @ .24 @ 

Smoked Fish Whiteflsh (chubs) @ .19 @ .20 

Winter caught fish are frozen on the Ice Immediately after catching and reach the 
narket 'In excellent condition. They are In fair supply and at reasonable prices, eicept 
irhltcfish and pike, which are still scarce and somewhat high. 

Buyers should remember in retailing sliced fish the dealer suffers a considerable 
jhrlnkape In weight. on account of fins, tails, etc. 

The minimum price above quoted usually contemplates cash paid at time of purchase. 
Dealers are not eipected to name the prices on charge accounts, and would be acting 
,n accord with the food administration la so doint Reasonable prices, not ruinous ones. 
ire sought 



210 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD W All 

checked up so that no family should be allowed to exceed its sugar quota. 
The groceryman was required to furnish a certificate to his jobber as to 
his sugar requirements before he could purchase, and these cards were the 
basis. Manufacturers of ice cream and candy were cut down in their 
allowance of sugar, first to 80 per cent and then to 50 per cent of the 
normal. Sugar bowls were taken off the tables of restaurants and hotels, 
and sugar was given to the customer only on request. This regulation 
continued in force for several months during the summer and fall of 1918. 

Another important feature of the work was the distribution of flour. 
It seemed quite certain in the spring of 1918, that our supply of wheat 
flour would certainly be exhausted by the first of June, and that we 
would have a two months' interim, where some food substitute would 
have to take the place of wheat flour. On January 28, 1918, when the 
serious condition of wheat flour was fully ascertained, the United States 
Food Administrator issued a ruling that all sales of wheat flour should 
be made with an equal quantity of cereal substitutes, specifically nam- 
ing just what substitutes could be used as such, and making it necessary 
for all retailers and wholesalers, to see that each purchase of wheat 
flour was accompanied at the same time with a sale of a like quantity, 
pound for pound, on the fifty-fifty basis, of cereal substitutes. As the 
greater shortage of wheat flour became known, it was more generally 
understood that the people purchased unnecessarily, and it was to export 
larger quantities of this commodity to France, where its need was a 
necessity to winning the war, that a number of the McLean County 
housewives pledged themselves not to buy any wheat flour until the 
new crop would be available along in August of 1918. This pledge con- 
tinued and it was finally released when it was known that we would 
have enough flour to tide us over and there was no longer a necessity 
for it. 

The pledge was released in McLean County just one week before 
it was generally released by Mr. Hoover to the hotel and restaurant 
men of the United States, who had in like manner voluntarily taken 
the same pledge. 

The official rules promulgated by the food administration on the 
subject of flour and meat, in February, 1918, were as follows: 

"To reduce the consumption of wheat flour the consumers are called 
upon, in purchasing such flour to buy at the same time an equal weight 
of the following cereals: Corn meal, corn starch, corn flour, hominy, 
corn grits, barley flour, rice, rice flour, oat meal, rolled oats, buckwheat 
flour, potato flour, sweet potato flour, soya bean flour, faterita flours 
and meals. 

Note Eye flour is no longer used as a substitute. 

' ' The housewife may use these products separately or mix them as 
she thinks best. Eetailers are to sell wheat flour only with equal weights 
of these cereals. This ruling effective Monday, January 28, 1918. 

"Monday and Wednesday of each week are to be observed as wheat- 
less days, and the evening meal of every day after 5 p. m. as a meat- 
less meal. This applies both in the home, and in the public eating places, 
and during such days and meals, no crackers, pastries, macaroni, break- 
fast foods or other cereals containing wheat should be used. 

"It is further desired, in order that meat and pork products be 
conserved, that one meatless day, Tuesday in every week, and one meat- 
less meal the morning meal before 10 a. m. in every day be observed, 
and in addition, two porkless days, Tuesdays and Saturdays in every 
week be strictly kept. By meatless is meant without hog, cattle or sheep 
products. On other days use mutton and lamb in preference to beef 
or pork. By porkless is meant without pork, bacon, ham, lard or pork 
products, fresh or preserved. Use fish, poultry and eggs. 

"Beginning February 3, bakers must use at least five per cent 
wheat flour substitutes in all breads and rolls. This amount must be 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE^ 211 

increased as rapidly as possible until February 24, when they should be 
using at least twenty per cent of these substitutes in all bread and rolls." 

In the spring of 1918, a ruling was issued that every family hav- 
ing more than 49 pounds of flour in the house at one time should return 
the surplus to their dealer, to be resold. On May 8, Hal M. Stone, county 
food administrator, and Charles O 'Malley, city administrator, issued a 
statement that the time for such returns was up. The statement added: 

"Three thousand 49-pound bags of flour have been located and re- 
turned from persons in this county residing outside of Bloomington and 
Normal. These have been collected and returned to the merchants and 
placed upon the market to be resold under the new regulations, fifty- 
fifty with substitutes and no more than 48 pounds to be at one family 's 
home at a time." 

In January, 1918, the Ad Club of Bloomington, composed of a num- 
ber of live young business men, launched a campaign of education on 
food conservation. They bought space in the newspapers to preach con- 
servation. They erected on the sides of the court house four huge signs 
containing some striking precepts on the same subject, and secured 
permission of the moving picture houses for slides with sensible hints 
on this subject. This campaign was continued to the end of the war. 

From February to May, 1918, the poultry houses were forbidden 
by order of the food administration, to buy or kill for food any laying 
hen. This was in order to conserve the hen supply, and increase the 
output of eggs as a substitute for meats, so that more meat supplies 
could be released for shipment by the United States to Europe. This 
rule was universally observed by poultry dealers and raisers throughout 
McLean county. 

Early in the fall of 1918, and a short time before the Armistice 
was signed, Mr. Hoover felt that it was necessary to devote the more 
especial attention of the Food Administration thruout the country to 
a general publication of prices throughout all the cities of the United 
States; and each state was asked to see to it that organizations which 
would bring about these results, were effected in each county of the 
state. Mr. Humphreys was then asked by Mr. Wheeler to take charge 
of this new division in the state of Illinois, which was known as the 
Price Division. This necessitated his spending practically all his time 
at the Chicago Headquarters Office, except the week ends that he spent 
at home; whereas before he had only spent a day or two at the Chi- 
cago headquarters, attending the weekly meetings of the District Board 
each week. 

With the signing of the Armistice and the general knowledge of the 
fact that the war was over, an attempt to control this work by the 
voluntary work of the people was impracticable, as the necessity seemed 
to have passed. It is difficult to understand the great volume of work 
handled by the various food administrators, and the great amount of 
time and effort given to the work voluntarily, without any compen- 
sation whatever. 

For over a year Mr. Humphreys had put in twelve to fifteen hours 
a day and when he accepted the position of taking charge of the Price 
Division for the state of Illinois, it was agreed that he should have a 
little vacation to be with his family and grandchildren in Florida. On 
December 8th he left Chicago to go to Florida, and it was not long 
after this until all restrictions were withdrawn, and the county and 
local Food Administrators of the state were released from their work, 
and the United States Food Administration, as to McLean County, be- 
came a thing of the past. 

E. M. Evans of Bloomington was asked by the national food ad- 
ministration during the closing months of the war to take charge of 
food control in a large district of Indiana, and he put in several months 
at this work. When the armistice was signed and strict control was 
relaxed, Mr. Evans returned from his duties in that line. 



212 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



CHARLES O'MALLEY, FOOD ADMINISTRATOR 

The record of McLean county's part in the 
war would be sadly incomplete if due atten- 
tion was not paid to the food conservation. 
The position of food administrator was ably 
filled by Charles O 'Malley who had charge 
of the department in Bloomington and who 
was also assistant county food administra- 
tor. These positions were marked by great 
responsibility and required the maximum of 
tact and diplomacy. Mr. O 'Malley possessed 
both to a marked degree and this was 
largely responsible for the great success 
which marked the operation of his depart- 
ment. The men who carried on the food 
conservation department, gave their time, 
their energy and their best thought without 
stint, neglecting their own business and 
without hope of reward or even recognition 
of their personal sacrifices and efforts. They 
were as truly, and as usefully, in the service 
of their state and their country as were 
those who wore the nation's uniforms. The ramifications of the food 
conservation program were many. They included farm labor, Boys 
Working Eeserve, Mobilization of Adult Labor, food shows, seed corn, 
war gardens, regulation of prices and quantity sold, co-operation of 
schools, corn huskers campaign, etc. There were many angles to the 
campaign and many of these were trying and made the post of admin- 
istrator an onerous one. Throughout all the period that the department 
was in operation, Mr. O 'Malley gave his time and energy freely and 
was able to pacify the class which objected to food control and adjust 
complications which continually developed. The famine in sugar was 
the most annoying feature of the war from a food standpoint but this 
was handled successfully and the meagre supply distributed in small lots 
through the card system which originated in England. No one was 
more thankful to see the end of the war and the consequent release from 
the duties of food administrator, than Mr. O 'Malley. It was a difficult 
position to fill but he acquitted himself to the entire satisfaction of the 
government and the public. 




WON CROIX DE GUERRE 

Harry E. Baker of Bloomington, can- 
noner of the 44th Artillery, U. S. Army 
of the A. E. F., won the French Cross of 
War on July 15, 1918, by his gallant ac- 
tion during a violent bombardment. It 
was during a night attack when he and 
four other men were on guard at their 
battery. Gas shells were thrown over by 
the Germans, and all but Cannoner Baker 
were overcome by the effects of the shells. 
He aroused his battery and undoubtedly 
saved the lives of hundreds of sleeping 
American soldiers. The citation which 
accompanied the medal came from Mar- 
shal Petain, at that time the marshal of 
France. The accompanying likeness of 
Private Baker was taken shortly after his 
arrival in this country. 




MCLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD 



213 



McLEAN COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY 




In every emergency, where the physical well-being of people is at stake, the 
doctors of a community have responsibility hardly equaled by any other class of 
citizens. Therefore in the share of America in the world war, which brought the 
physical test to the nation such as it had never before seen, the physicians were 
called upon for a correspondingly large part in preserving the health and morale 
of the people. In McLean county our proportion of this great task was passed 
to the doctors, and they responded in a way which will forever be a credit to the 
profession. The McLean County Medical Society early in the war by formal reso- 
lution, decided to lend the professional aid of its members to the country in any 
way that should be demanded by the necessities of the case. Later on when the 
call came for enlistments in the medical reserve corps, some 90 of the doctors of 
the county responded. Many of these were called to active service in 1917 and 
1918. A dozen or more of them were ordered across to the scene of the war, and 
several of them made notable records as part of or in command of sanitary units 
and hospital contingents. A few were given high military rank in acknowledgment 
of their efficient service. All served until the war was over, and then as soon as 
the need of their service was past they returned to plain citizenship and resumed 
the practice of their profession. 

One well known doctor was appointed on each of the draft examining board, 
Dr. Elfrink on Board No. 1 and Dr. Mammen on board No. 2. Both of these 
served without cessation from the organization to the disbandment of the board. 
Out of the nearly 1,900 young men accepted by the boards for service in the 
national army, only 59 were rejected after they had reached the training camps. 
This speaks well for the thoroughness and efficiency of the local examinations. 

There were in the county during the war some 120 physicians, and of these 
there were some 30, or 25 per cent in active service in the army or navy. In 
addition to these, a large number of physicians enrolled under the medical reserve, 
and were never called into active service. All but four of the doctors of Bloomington 
and Normal who were under 46 years of age were so enrolled. 

The doctors of the country as a whole responded nobly. When war broke 
out, there were 447 physicians in the medical corps of the army, and 329 in the 
navy. When the armistice was signed the number of medical officers in the army 
was 35,000 and 3,000 in the navy. The medical department of the A. E. P. con- 
sisted of 14,000 officers, 3,000 nurses and 122,000 enlisted men. This organization 
treated 195,000 wounded men, and of these 182,000, or 93 per cent, were returned 
to duty. 

The list of McLean county physicians who saw active service in the army and 
navy camps or in sea duty was as follows: 

Dr. Fred Brian 

Dr. F. C. Vandervort 

Dr. G. H. Galford 

Dr. W. W. Gailey 

Dr. L. L. Irwin 

Dr. A. E. Behrendt 

Dr. A. J. Casner 

Dr. J. L. Yolton 

Dr. H. A. Elder 

Dr. W. L. Penniman 
The Board of Examiners in McLean county were as follows: 
Drs. F. C. Vandervort, E. Mammen, J. L. Yolton, F. H. Godfrey, J. H. Fenelon, 
Frank C. Fisher. Wm. Young, Harry L. Howell, Chas. E. Chapin. 
The Exemption Board Examiners: 

Drs N E Nieberger, E. P. Sloan, E. B. Hart, W. E. Guthrie, R. D. Fox, G. 
B. Kelso and J. Whitefield Smith. 



Dr. Harry Howell 
Dr. R. A. Noble 
Dr. Wilfred Gardner 
Dr. A. E. Rogers 
Dr. J. W. Wallis 
Dr. T. D. Cantrell 
Dr. J. K. P. Hawks 
Dr. L. B. Gavins 
Dr. Frank Sayers 



Dr. D. D. Raber 

Dr. E. R. Hermann (Stan- 
ford) 

Dr. A. R. Freeman 

Dr. Paul Greenleaf 

Dr. C. E. Schultz 

Dr. Frank Deneen 

Dr. L. O. Thompson (Le- 
Roy) 

Dr. O. A. Coss, Arrowsmith 



214 M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

LIEUT. COL. WILFRED H. GARDNER 

Dr. Wilfred H. Gardner of Bloomington, by his length and efficiency 
of service in the medical department of the A. E. F. attained the rank of 
lieutenant colonel. Dr. Gardner had experiences which were unusual among 
the physicians of McLean county. A year prior to the time when America 
entered the war, was spent in the military hospitals of London as a volunteer 
physician, most of this period in the Eoyal hospital where British soldiers 
were taken who had been wounded in the head. This specialized line of 
practice was most interesting in a professional way, and gave Dr. Gardner 
an opportunity to contribute in no small manner to the relief of wounded 
men of a nation which was later to become our ally. After a year of this 
experience, he returned to Bloomington to resume practice of his profession. 




Soon after the United States entered the war Dr. Gardner enrolled 
himself for service in the medical department whenever he should be needed. 
His call to service came in the summer of 1917, and on August 14 of that 
year he departed for Fort Biley, Kansas, to start his period of training. 
At that camp, Dr. Gardner was commissioned a captain and transferred 
to Camp Funston as commander of the Field Hospital company. Later he 
was made director and finally commander of the 317th Sanitary Train which 
was composed of Field Hospital companies and also hospital ambulance 
companies. In that capacity, he embarked with his hospital unit, thoroughly 
organized in the spring of 1918. It required but a few weeks of final 
training in the region behind the front lines in France, until this unit was 
made part of the American forces in the zone of advance. The unit fol- 
lowed the advance of the American army all thru the summer and fall of 
1918, being part of and helper to the fighting forces in the Champagne dis- 
trict, Chateau Thierry, the campaign of the St. Mihiel salient, and the final 
bloody battles in the Argonne forest. After the signing of the armistice, 
Dr. Gardner, then commissioned lieutenant colonel, was placed in charge 
of a military hospital at Brest, thru which all the wounded men of the 
American forces were cleared for the home journey. He was kept at this 
strenuous work until .late in the summer of 1919, when he finally was or- 
dered home and received his discharge. He returned to civil life, but did 
not resume the practice of medicine, but became associated with his father 
and brother in "The Gardner Company," a Bloomington bond and in- 
vestment company with offices in the Griesheim building. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 215 

DR. HARRY LEE HOWELL 

Dr. Harry Lee Howell, of Bloomington, was one of the few physicians 
from Central Illinois, who became attached to the medical service of 
the United States navy in the war, and, afterward, as such, attained the 
grade of lieutenant, a high naval rank. Dr. Howell was accepted for 
service in November, 1917, and was first sent to Great Lakes Naval Train- 
ing Station. Soon afterward, he was ordered to the Atlantic Coast and 
was assigned as one of the medical officers of the U. S. S. Calamares, a 
transport which was formerly operated by the United Fruit Co. Remain- 
ing on this boat between April and October, he was transferred to the 
giant transport Leviathan which was one of the greatest troop carrying 
ships under the American flag during the war. It had formerly been the 




Vaterland, a liner of the German Hamburg-American line, but was in- 
terned in an American port at the outbreak of the war. It was finally 
taken over by the United States Government and converted into a troop- 
ship. The great vessel could carry as many as 12,000 men and the medi- 
cal officers of such a ship, naturally had immense responsibilities, pro- 
fessionally and physically. In his capacity as medical officer, Dr. Howell 
made fifteen trips across the Atlantic during the war, but, after the 
signing of the armistice, came perhaps, an even greater task for him. 
The great movement of troops homeward from France required extra 
work for the troop ships and the Leviathan was one of those most relied 
upon on account of its great carrying capacity. The medical officers' 
duties were strenuous, for many of the returning soldiers had been 
wounded or gassed. Prior to April 31, 1919, Dr. Howell had charge of 
the surgical department for troops alone but after that date, his juris- 
diction was extended to cover the crew also, a heavy additional burden 
of responsibility. Dr. Howell continued in this active service until the 
fall of 1919 when he was permitted to return home on furlough. Not 
until the spring of 1920 did he receive his discharge. He then resumed 
his medical practice from which he had been taken for more than two 
years, resulting in much financial loss, which was but a small part of the 
great sacrifice he made for his country on account of the war. 




216 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

CAPT. A. JAMES CASNER 
To Dr. A. James Casner belongs the 
distinction of being among the first to 
tender his services to the government and 
next to the last of the McLean county 
physicians and surgeons to receive his dis- 
charge. On June 1, he notified the de- 
partment of his readiness to serve and 
was commissioned First Lieutenant on 
August 1 that year, but it was not until 
April 1, 1918, that he received orders to 
report. He was first assigned to Fort 
Eiley medical officers training camp, serv- 
ing there for eleven weeks. On June 22 
he was ordered to Camp Funston, Kansas, 
for duty as an expert in heart and chest 
diseases, being engaged in this work un- 
til September 1 when he was promoted to 
Captain. He was then honored by assign- 
ment to the medical staff of General Leon- 
ard Wood as camp epidemiogolist, his duty 
being to make a special study of camp 
epidemics and the best method of treatment and overcoming them. This 
appointment was a marked compliment to the Bloomington physician. 
On November 26, 1918, Dr. Casner was assigned to the Base Hospital 
at Fort Eiley, Kansas, in charge of service of clinical medicine and 
diagnosis. This institution, at that period had 3500 beds and is com- 
posed of permanent stone buildings, perfectly equipped and ranking with 
the finest hospitals owned by the government, modern in construction 
and comparing to the best of the world army hospitals. It was there 
that the war department sent hundreds of soldiers returning from over- 
seas and who were in such serious condition as to require the best of 
treatment and highest degree of medical and surgical attention. There 
were such a large number of such patients and so many of them were 
in such desperate condition that they were quartered there for months, 
and it was necessary that a large staff of physicians be retained until 
long after peace was declared. This explains why Dr. Casner was kept 
in the government service so much longer than the other physicians 
from McLean county. It was not until July 22, 1919, that he could be 
spared, the number of patients dwindling by that time to 500. Dr. 
Casner than returned to Bloomington and resumed his practice in suite 
505-6 Peoples Bank Bldg., Bloomington, having greatly enjoyed his long 
period of army duty. 

DR. E. R. HERMANN 

Promptly upon the declaration of war, Dr. E. E. Hermann of Stan- 
ford enlisted, the date being April 15, 1917. He received his commission 
as lieutenant M. E. C. July 30, 1917, and was called to active duty Octo- 
ber 5, 1917. On November 15 of that year, he entered the School of 
Military Eoentgenology, Cornell University, New York City, remaining 
there until March 22, 1918. Between April 1, 1918, and August 31, 1918, 
he was on active duty as assistant to the surgeon and in charge of tho 
X-ray department at the Base Hospital at Camp Greene, Charlotte, North 
Carolina. September 1 of that year until November 1, 1919, he was on 
active duty at Fort Thomas, Kentucky, as assistant to the surgeon and 
Eoentgenologist at the Post Hospital, his unusually long period of duty 
being necessary to by the fact that many soldiers returning from Europe, 
required attention, the hospital population continuing to be very great 
until nearly a year after the war was over. Dr. Hermann was finally 
given his discharge November 15, 1919, and permitted to resume his 
profession at Stanford, having been in active service more than two 
years, thus making a very great financial sacrifice for his country in 
being so long absent from his regular practice. On January 26, 1920, 
Dr. Hermann was honored by being appointed Captain in the U. S. A. 
Eeserve Medical Corps. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



217 



DR. J. K. P. HAWKS 

Dr. J. K. P. Hawks of Bloomington vol- 
unteered for war service in May, 1918. He 
received his commission as captain in the 
medical corps August 31, 1918, with orders 
to report to the Medical Officers' Training 
Camp at Camp Greenleaf, Georgia. After 
a few weeks in the training camp, he was 
ordered to report to Evacuation Hospital 
No. 46 for service overseas. This unit was 
not sent across and he remained with it 
until it was demobilized, and he received 
his discharge December 24, 1918, and re- 
sumed his practice in Bloomington at his 
office, 212-13 Griesheim Building. 




DR. PAUL E. GREENLEAF 

It was an interesting coincidence that 
Dr. Paul E. Greenleaf of Bloomington who 
was among the first of the McLean County 
physicians to enter into the services at the 
outbreak of the war, should see training 
at the Medical Officers training camp at 
Camp Greenleaf, Georgia, named after 
Assistant Surgeon General C. R. Green- 
leaf, a Surgeon of the Civil War and a 
distant relative. Dr. Greenleaf was com- 
missioned first Lieutenant on May llth, 
1918, and left Bloomington June 13, 1918, 
upon receiving a call to the service. His 
first orders sent him to the Rockefeller In- 
stitute for Medical Research in New York 
City where he was given special instruc- 
tion in the Carrel-Dakin method of the 
treatment of infected wounds. Upon com- 
pletion of this course, he was next ordered 
to report for temporary duty at the Base 
Hospital at Camp Gordon, Ga., which was located near Atlanta. He 
remained there during July and August and was then ordered to leave 
Camp Gordon and proceed to the Medical Officers Training Camp at 
Camp Greenleaf, Ga., for a course in military training and Military 
Surgery. After two months at Camp Greenleaf Dr. Greenleaf was then 
ordered to Bellevue Hospital, New York City, for a special course in 
the treatment of fractures and war injuries. This course was intended 
for men who were to be sent overseas for taking care of the wounded 
in Base Hospitals. His final period of duty was at Camp Meade, Mary- 
land, where he was stationed at the Base Hospital, where the formation 
of a Base Hospital was being made for duty overseas. Just when his 
unit was completed and all of the members were in readiness to go to 
France, the 'armistice was signed and the orders to sail were counter- 
manded. This cancellation was a great disappointment to many of the 
physicians and surgeons as they were anxious to see service abroad. Dr. 
Greenleaf however was kept in active duty until January, 1919, when 
he was given his discharge and permitted to resume his practice in suite 
614-615 Griesheim Building, Bloomington. 




218 



McLEAN COl'XTY A XI) Till-: II'OELD WAR 



DR. HORACE W. ELDER 

The distinction of being one of three 
physicians from Illinois selected by the 
Public Health Service Department of the 
United States government to fight an ex- 
traordinary epidemic of influenza at Ches- 
ter, Penn., during the war, goes to Dr. 
Horace W. Elder of Bloomington, and this 
service was regarded by the authorities at 
Washington as just as vital as that in the 
camps of the army. At Chester, nearly 
every person in the city was a victim. 
Many of the local physicians had gone to 
army camps and the force left was wholly 
inadequate to cope with the epidemic. 
Physicians from other states were called 
and Dr. Elder was one of the three from 
Illinois leaving here October 2, 1918, and 
remaining until after the disease was un- 
der control several months later. This ex- 
perience was a very inferno of contagion 
and death and tested the nerve and energy 
of every physician assembled and who bat- 
tled against what appeared at times to be overwhelming odds. The 
physicians finally won and every one engaged won the gratitude of the 
people with whom they labored, as well as that of the government that 
had appealed. This conflict with influenza was one of the thrilling ex- 
periences of the war and had more of the terror, if less than the san- 
guinary features of the great army offensives in France. Dr. Elder re- 
sumed his practice in suite 527, Griesheim Building, Bloomington, about 
the same time that most of the other physicians and surgeons were be- 
ing released from duty in the army hospitals. 




DR. JOHN L. YOLTON 

Associated upon the board of surgeons assigned 
to the Students Army Training Corps of the 
Illinois Wesleyan University during the war, was 
Dr. John L. Yolton of Bloomington. He was 
among the first to tender his services at the out- 
break of the great conflict and it was his lot to 
take care of the boys of the educational institu- 
tion who were anxious to participate and who 
occupied the barracks erected for their accom- 
modation north of the Wesleyan University build- 
ings. The premature ending of the war, just as 
the students were becoming proficient in the daily 
drills and tactics, prevented them from seeing 
active service and also the attending surgeons in 
charge and who might have been assigned to duty 
with them had they been ordered to the front. Dr. 
Yolton served faithfully and efficiently during the 
period of the war and the excellent health of the 
students during this period was largely due to the 

careful attention given to them by Dr. Yolton and his associates. After 
the end of the war, Dr. Yolton resumed his practice with offices at 208 
East Jefferson street, Bloomington. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



219 




CAPT. D. D. RABER 

An unusually extensive diversity of ser- 
vice was the privilege of Dr. D. D. Eaber. 
Enlisting at Fort Meade, South Dakota, 
August 26, 1917, he was commissioned First 
Lieutenant in the Medical Corps Septem- 
ber 30, 1917, and was called into active 
service January 17, 1918, at Fort Eiley 
Medical Officers Training Camp. He then 
served with the Aviation Section Signal 
Corps at Waco, Texas; Camp Greene, N. 
C., and Hempstead Field No. 2, L. I. He 
was then assigned as Battalion Surgeon 
with Infantry at Camp Greene, N. C., 
346th Battalion Q. M. C., moving to Camp 
Merritt, N. J., September 22, embarking 
on the George Washington transport, land- 
ing at Brest with the convoy October 13. 
He was first stationed at Camp St. Sulpice 
Depot No. 9, Base Section 2, Service of 
Supplies A. P. O. No. 705 A. E. F. He 
served with Camp Hospital No. 66 as bat- 
talion surgeon; Chief of Influenza wards; Chief of Pneumonia wards; 
Chief Medical Service, and Surgeon to Prisoners of War Camp, Nos. 6, 
7, 10, and 11. He saw a vast amount of strenuous service abroad, was 
promoted to captain of medical corps September 16, 1918, and was finally 
ordered to America as Troops Surgeon on the Transport El Oriente, em- 
barking at Bordeaux June 24, 1919, debarking at Newport News, Va., 
July 4. His battalion was demobilized at Camp Jackson, Columbia, S. C., 
and he received his discharge at Camp Grant July 30, 1919. Capt. Eaber 
then resumed the practice of medicine and surgery at suite 310, the 
Unity Building, Bloomington. 

DR. FRANK DENEEN 

Dr. Frank Deencn tendered his services 
as soon as the announcement was made 
that there was need and received his orders 
August 11, 1918, to report to Camp Meade 
where he was promptly commissioned Lieu- 
tenant and given four months of strenuous 
duty in that big cantonment. He was 
honored by assignment to the consultation 
department with special diagnosis work. 
He was engaged also in classification duty 
and his experience in the army service was 
of great variety and offered many inter- 
esting problems from a medical and sur- 
gical standpoint. He also assisted in the 
organization of the camp diagnosis de- 
partment and found his time fully occupied 
until after the close of the war. A few 
weeks after the coming of peace, Dr. 
Deneen was given his release from duty, 
his discharge being dated December 6, 
1918. While it was not the privilege of 
Dr. Derieen to see service abroad, his ser- 
vices for his country were fully as valuable as those who made the 
overseas trip. In company with the other physicians and surgeons of 
McLean County, the service of Dr. Deneen was made at great personal 
sacrifice but he was glad of the opportunity tendered him. Returning 
to Bloomington he resumed his practice in suite 606-626 Griesheim Bldg. 





220 M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 

DR. EGBERT AVERY NOBLE 

Probably few of the surgeons of the 

state had a more strenuous and withal a 
more interesting experience in the military 
service of their country during the world 
war than did Dr. Robert Avery Noble of 
Bloomington. He was engaged in active 
practice of his profession in Bloomington 
when the United States became engaged 
in the world war, and within a few weeks 
volunteered his services with the medical 
department of the army. He was accepted 
and sent to Fort Benjamin Harrison, 
where after the preliminary training he 
was commissioned First Lieutenant, M. C. 
His first assignment was to base hospital 
at Camp Sherman, where in December, 
1917, he was raised to the rank of captain 
in the medical corps. In May, 1918, Capt. 
Noble was assigned for overseas duty, and 
sailed with a contingent of the American 
Expeditionary Forces. Arrived in France 
he was made chief of the surgical service 
of Evacuation Hospital No. 5. This was in June, just the time when 
the great German drive, the last struggle of Germany to overcome the 
Allies, was at its height. Capt. Noble's unit was attached to American 
divisions serving with the French army in the early weeks of the sum- 
mer. Their first service was in the Soissons sector, then to La Ferte 
en Tardinos, the months of June and July being spent in these very 
active sectors, where hundreds of wounded men were passing through 
the hospital every day. In the early part of July, the unit was sent 
to Chateau Thierry, and then back to the Soissons region for the latter 
part of July and part of August. Being then transferred to the medical 
department of the first ail-American army under Gen. Pershing, Capt. 
Noble was with one of the hospitals caring for the wounded during that 
historic St. Mihiel drive of September, 1918. Then followed the memo- 
rable struggle of the Argonne, and later he was transferred to the forces 
in the Champagne district. Before the end of the war came, Capt. Noble 
had been assigned to a base hospital at Rouillers, Belgium, where he 
was in charge with the rank of Major. From February, 1919, he was 
with the American base hospital at Staden, Belgium. He was honorably 
discharged in June. 1919, with the rank of major M. C. During his ser- 
vice in the army, Dr. Noble's hospitals units took care of 37,000 wounded 
or sick men, and performed 10,000 operations. Soon after his discharge, 
Dr. Noble returned to Bloomington and resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, with office at 214 East Washington street. 

DR. O. M. THOMPSON 

Of the McLean County physicians in the service, outside of Bloom- 
ington and Normal, Dr. O. M. Thompson of LeRoy was honored by elec- 
tion to the post of First Commander of Ruel Neal Post No. 79, that 
city, December, 1919. He served on local Exemption. Board No. 1 Mc- 
Lean County, as Medical Examiner from beginning until he resigned 
April 1, 1918, to assume active duty in the U. S. Army. He enlisted in 
Medical Corps, U. S. Army in August, 1917. He was commissioned 1st 
Lieutenant, Medical Corps, September 28th, 1917. He was called to 
active duty April 8th, 1918 and reported to Camp Riley, Kansas, M. O. 
T. C. on that date, was in Co. 31 until June 26th, 1918. Ordered to Camp 
Lewis American Lake State of Washington, he was assigned to Infirmary 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 221 

No. 8, 166 Depot Brigade. Relieved from duty there and transferred to 
13th Division, August 8th, 1918. Assigned to 13th Sanitary train, Am- 
bulance Company No. 249. He was in charge of the Influenza ward at 
the Base Hospital during the Flu epidemic. He received his honorable 
discharge on January 8th, 1919, and then resumed his practice in LeEoy. 

DR. WATSON W. GAILEY 

Dr. Watson W. Gailey of Bloomington was one of the doctors of this 
county who carried out a highly responsible work in the war, in spite of 
the fact that he was never called across the seas. In the summer of 1917 
he enlisted for the medical reserve corps, and in August was called to active 
service with the rank of first lieutenant, medical reserve corps, U. S. A. His 
first assignment was to the office of the surgeon general at Washington, 
where he spent one month. From that place he was sent to investigate the 




sight and hearing requirements for various occupations, this being pre- 
liminary to his work in connection with the employment of disabled soldiers 
after their return to this country. This assignment required strenuous duty 
at Mineola, Long Island, flying station, at Ft. Wood, Ft. Slocum and at 
Hoboken. The report of these investigations was sent to a committee of 
congress. 

In April, 1918, Dr. Gailey was sent to the U. S. A. general hospital 
No. 9 at Lakewood, New Jersey. He spent three months of hard service 
in eye clinics. In June of that year he was assigned as chief of the head 
section of surgery in this hospital. He continued in that capacity until he 
was finally discharged from the military service. The work was most in- 
teresting, being designed to restore so far as possible the normal use of 
functions of the head which had been partially destroyed by wounds in 
battle. The hospital handled thousands of such cases, and some of the re- 
construction work accomplished was marvelous in its skill and results. Dr. 
Gailey was commissioned a captain of the medical corps in September, 1918. 
He received his discharge about the middle of 1919, immediately thereafter 
resuming his practice in suite 617-621 Griesheim Bldg., Bloomington, as 
oculist and aurist. He was one of the many physicians who made heavy 
financial sacrifices as a result of his patriotism. 



222 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 




MAJOR A. E. ROGERS 

To win the commission of major was the 
distinction of Dr. A. E. Rogers of Blooming- 
ton. He entered the service November 15, 
1917, was commissioned First Lieutenant 
and sent to Fort Riley where he trained for 
three months in the officers training camp, 
then enrolling at Cornell university for in- 
struction in Roentgenology. After his com- 
plete course there and in different hospitals, 
he was assigned to Evac. Hospital 16 at 
Camp Meade and promoted to captain. He 
was ordered overseas August 19, 1918, on the 
Leviathan landing at Brest, France, and 
proceeding to Bazoilles, near Neufchateau 
where he was assigned to take care of the 
wounded coming in from the St. Mihiel drive. Train loads also came in 
from the Argonne drive of 47 days. October 1, 1918, Dr. Rogers moved up 
close to the battle front and took charge of an old French hospital 
abandoned by the Germans at Revigney near Barle Due. After four 
months of strenuous duty in caring for the wounded and also many cases 
of influenza, Dr. Rogers was ordered to follow the Army cf Occupation 
into Germany, reaching there February 1, 1919. One month was spent 
at Treves and then he moved to Coblenz to take charge of a large 
hospital there. The work was easily handled and living much more 
comfortable in this finely equipped structure, compared to the temporary 
quarters during the fighting in France. Dr. Rogers also was given som^ 
leisure and he took advantage of this to make several sightseeing trips 
up and down the famous Rhine and also to explore the large German 
citadel of Ehrembreitstim. April 10, 1919, Dr. Rogers received orders 
to return home as casual officer and returned via Paris, Marseilles, and 
Gibraltar, arriving in New York May 10, 1919, proceeding to Camp Dix, 
New Jersey, where he was commissioned Major and given his discharge 
June 9, 1919. On the way home he inspected Walter Reed hospitals in 
Washington and Fort Sheridan and was enabled to see how well the 
government was taking care of the sick and wounded. Dr. Rogers then 
resumed the practice of medicine and surgery with offices on the sixth 
floor of the Griesheim Bldg., Bloomington. 

MAJOR MARSHALL WALLIS 

One of the first of the McLean County 
physicians to respond to the call to service 
was Dr. Marshall Wallis of Normal, going 
to Fort Benjamin Harrison September 25, 

1917, and thence to the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital at Boston to take a course of 
instruction in fractures and dislocations un- 
der Dr. Charles L. Scudder. Thence he went 
to New York City to take a course in Carrel- 
Dakin treatment of infected wounds at the 
Rockefeller Foundation. December 25, 1917, 
he was ordered to the Base Hospital at 
Camp Lee, Va.; next to the Embarkation 
Hospital at Camp Stewart, Newport News, 
serving as executive officer there from 
March 20, 1918, until his discharge July 15, 
1919, the appointment being a notable trib- 
ute to the incumbent. Dr. Wallis was com- 
missioned lieutenant June 8, 1917; captain, 
December 6, 1917, and major August 22, 

1918. Upon his return from the service, he has resumed the practice of 
medicine and surgery at Normal. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



223 



DR. F. C. VANDERVORT 

Of the many members of the community 
who performed their duty at the "home 
front," one of the most important because 
of the unique place he occupied, was Dr. 
Franklin C. Vandervort, who was named 
to the position of physician to the Student 
Army Training Corps at the "Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, which was formed in the fall of 
1918. There were some 300 young men 
enrolled in this organization. Dr. Vander- 
vort was selected to represent the govern- 
ment in the important work of physical 
examinations and treatment of the sick or 
injured of the young men, because of his 
experience and skill in other lines of sur- 
gical and medical practice. For many 
years he had been the resident surgeon for 
the Illinois Central in Bloomington, and 
had served as county physician and en- 
gaged in general practice among a large 
clientelle in this city. His work as ex- 
amining physician for the S. A. T. C. was strenuous enough for several 
months. First was the examinations when the men were inducted into 
the service. The physical tests were rigidly laid down, and each student 
was put thru the paces and his report testified to by the doctor, much 
the same as if he were going into one of the regular army camps. The 
Student Corps was hardly well organized when the epidemic of influenza 
struck the community, and this brought an unexpected and startling 
amount and variety of duty. An emergency hospital was opened at the 
home of Mrs. M. T. Scott, and the students taken with the disease, were 
quartered there. Scores of them were taken care of, and only one death 
occurred among them. But it was a strenuous two months which the 
student doctor passed before the subsiding of the epidemic. When the 
corps was to be mustered out, again the doctor's services were called into 
requisition, and not until the final discharge of the young men was made 
out did the close of Dr. Vandervort 's work come in sight. It had been 
carried on without ostentation and with little public notice, but it was 
faithfully and efficiently done. 





DR. LAWRENCE L. IRWIN 

Of the McLean County physicians and sur- 
geons who so cheerfully tendered their ser- 
vices when war was declared, Dr. Lawrence 
L. Irwin who has a suite of offices No. 504, 
Griesheim Building, Bloomington, was un- 
fortunate or fortunate, whichever way one 
may look at it, in not being called into active 
service. He was examined September 1, 
1918, in Chicago and assigned to duty at Fort 
Ogk'thorpe, but, due to the heavy movement 
of troops abroad at that time and the sign- 
ing of the armistice soon afterwards, he was 
not called. He receives equal credit, how- 
ever, with those who were called and his 
name is carried on the honor roll of the 
McLean County Medical Society. 



224 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



DR. FRED J. BRIAN 

When the call came for physicians and 
surgeons, Dr. Fred J. Brian of Blooming- 
ton was among the first to tender his ser- 
vices. He enlisted August 2, 1918, and 
was ordered to report on August 30. His 
first assignment to duty was at Camp 
Greenleaf, Chattanooga, Tenn. He was 
then assigned to a six weeks Post-Grad- 
uate course at the University of Chatta- 
nooga. He was next assigned to Camp 
Crane at Allentown, Penn., and was com- 
missioned Captain. Captain Brian put in 
several months of strenuous duty at the 
Base Hospital at Camp Crane and was 
kept on detail for a month after the 
Armistice. Conditions then became such 
that he could be spared and he was given 
his discharge on December 12, 1918. He 
greatly enjoyed his period of service in 
the army, despite the heavy demands upon 
his time and energy. He then resumed his 

practice in Bloomington and also his post of surgeon for the Chicago 
and Alton railway, his suite of offices being on the third floor of the 
Eddy building. 




CAPT. THOMAS D. CANTRELL 

Commissioned June 20, 1917, Dr. Thomas 
D. Cantrell of Bloomington, immediately 
took up his duties as a member of the Na- 
tional Medical Defense Committee, was or- 
dered to Chicago October 15, 1917, for the 
Military school of Roentgenology, entering 
the Fort Eiley Medical Officers Training 
Camp December 28, passing the final exami- 
nation and qualifying as Military Roent- 
genologist, seeing service at Fort Snelling, 
and Camp Dodge, going to Liverpool July 
10, with Base Hospital No. 11, and reaching 
Nantes, France, where he saw strenuous 
duty as Roentgenologist until January 1, 
1919, when he was ordered to join the 79th 
Division at Sally, for duty with Field Hos- 
pital No. 315 with 304th Sanitary Train. 
February 1 he was ordered to Bordeaux to 
convoy patients home. He sailed on the 
Antigone in command of 174 men March 12, 
and was discharged at Camp Dix March 28, 
1918, concluding a strenuous period of service and giving him an ex- 
cellent idea of the tremendous extent of the great conflict and the real 
horrors of war. Capt. Cantrell since his return from Europe has been 
serving as Roentgenologist at the Kelso Sanitarium at Bloomington. He 
was fortunate in being in command of the various departments to which 
he was assigned abroad, the greater portion of the time, and he left 
the army with rather pleasant recollections. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



225 



CAPT. GILBERT H. GALFORD 

Dr. Gilbert H. Galford enlisted May 1, 
1918, in the medical section and received 
an order to report for duty August 4, 1918, 
at Camp Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, 
Ga., with Co. 4 1st Bn., later Co. 24, Bn. 
6 and finally was made captain of Co. 22 
Bn. 6, taking a two months special duty 
course in ear, nose and throat while in 
camp. On October 2, 1918, he was detailed 
for special duty to P. H. S. at Chattanooga 
to combat the "Flu." On October 22, 
1918, Capt. Galford was ordered to the air 
service division at Champaign, 111., lectur- 
ing in sanitation and hygiene before the 
ground school cadets at Morrow Hall. On 
November 17, 1918, Capt. Galford was or- 
dered to Austin, Texas, having charge of 
122 men at that post. With the end of 
the war, he was released from duty re- 
ceiving his discharge December 20, 1918. 
He was recommended for promotion No- 
vember 5, 1918, but it was held up until March 14, 1919. A captain's 
commission was then sent to him and accepted and he was assigned to 
the Reserve Corps. The family of Capt. Galford accompanied him dur- 
ing his period of service at the various camps. Capt. Galford resumed 
his practice after the war, his office being on third floor of the Unity 
Bldg., Bloomington. 




DR. LESTER B. GAVINS 

Tendering his services to his country 
July 22, 1918, Dr. Lester B. Cavins re- 
ceived instructions to report August 28th 
that year being commissioned Captain. He 
left Bloomington September 4, having re- 
ceived orders to report for duty at Camp 
Greenleaf, Chickamauga Park, Georgia. 
He was assigned to Company 16, M. O. T. 
G. and in addition to other strenuous duty 
incidental to such a huge camp, was given 
much specialization work, notably in the 
X-ray. This was a field of special appeal 
to Capt. Cavins and he was kept busy in 
this department. An army hospital always 
developes much that is new and unusual 
and there is considerable fascination in 
the duty there, bringing as it does a 
change from the ordinary practice of civil- 
ian life. Dr. Cavins thoroughly enjoyed 
his four months of service for his country 
and also was fortunate in enjoying the 
best of health while living in the city of the white tents and working 
under strict military rules and regulations. While the service in the 
field hospital was strenuous, yet it was highly agreeable. With the end 
of hostilities the hospital at Camp Greenleaf was suspended, the major 




226 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



portion of the physicians and surgeons being permitted to resume their 
practice at home. Capt. Gavins received his discharge December 19, 
1918, and resumed his practice in Bloomington, his offices being suite 
704-6 Peoples Bank Bldg. 




DR. EDMUND A. BEHEENDT 

Ordered into service in October, 
1918, after previously notifying 
the war department of his readi- 
ness to go, Dr. Edmund A. Beh- 
rendt was sent to Fort Eiley, Kan- 
sas. He was commissioned Lieu- 
tenant and then recommended for 
a Captaincy but the war ended 
before the parchment was filled 
out. Dr. Behrendt put in several 
strenuous months and then with 
the coming of peace, resumed his 
practice with offices in the Peoples 
Bank Bldg. 




Scene at the Pantagraph bulletin board during the war 



M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



227 




MEDICAL GROUP 

Major C. B. Sanderson- upper right. 

Lt. E. E. Hermann upper left. 

Lt. O. M. Thompson center. 

Lt. Asa E. Freeman left of center. 

0:ipt. W. L. Penniman right of center. 

('apt. Chas. E. Schultz lower left. 



228 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 




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M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAJl 



229 



MCLEAN COUNTY BAR HONOR ROLL 

the call to the colors was issued, a very large proportion of 
tin 1 members of the McLean County Bar responded, the honor roll being 
long and creditable. In addition to the score of young men who donned 
the khaki of the army or the blue of the navy, the elder attorneys be- 
came active in the various lines of war work which remained for those 
who could not leave. Without exception, the applications from widows 
and mothers of the soldiers or sailors for aid in the preparation of legal 
papers, allowances, etc., and in locating the boys abroad or in distant 
camps at home, was given attention without charge. There were hun- 
dreds of such applications involving a large amount of tedious work and 
consuming a vast amount of time. The lawyers gladly tendered their 
services in -this direction and their co-operation was gratefully re- 
ceived. In every other activity, in the purchase of Liberty Bonds, 
Thrift Stamps, Bed Cross and other war endeavor, the lawyers were in 
the front rank and made a notable record for liberality and prompt and 
generous response to every appeal. The war officers of the bar associa- 
tion were Judge Homer Hall, president; C. B. Hughes, secretary, and 
Charles Kane, treasurer. The list of members of the bar who joined 
the colors, is as follows: 

Ralph Heffernan E. A. Donnelly 

Ralph DeMange Richard O 'Connell 

Charles Kane Orville Ross 

Thomas Weldon Harry Riddle 

Roy A. Ramseyer Martin Callahan 

Dwight Beal Oscar Hoose 

Ferre Watkins George Butler 

lOdmund Sutherland (died in service) 
Frank Jordan (died in service) 

(Note) A sketch and picture of Lieut. Harry Riddle will be found 
in the department allotted to the Aviators and Balloonists. 



ROY A. RAMSEYER 

Roy A. Ramseyer was inducted into the 
Army May 16, 1918, at Bloomington, and 
reached Camp Hancock, Georgia, one week 
later. First assigned to Co. G, O. S. S. 
Third Regiment, he was transferred to a 
detachment of the Military Guard section 
of the Fifth Co. Prov. Ord. Battalion at 
Mays Landing, New Jersey. Faithful ser- 
vice brought him rapid promotion, arriv- 
ing at the rank of sergeant of ordnance 
first class on December 7, 1918. He re- 
ceived his discharge January 20, 1919, and 
resumed the practice of law at Blooming- 
ton. Born and reared in McLean County, 
he practiced law in the office of Fleming 
& Pratt October 1, 1916, to May 16, 1918, 
and after the war, joined the firm of Pratt, 
Heffernan & Ramseyer, organized June 1, 
1919, with offices on the second floor of the Unity Bldg., Bloomington. 




230 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



LIEUT. RALPH J. HEFFERNAN 

One of the very first to enlist when war 

+ * - was declared, Ealph J. Heffernan entered 

A the Officers Training Camp at Fort Sheri- 

ff dan April 13, 1917, and was commissioned 

^HH Becond Lieutenant August 13 of that year. 

^^5l*^_^^ He was then transferred to damp Grant 

*t. ^fe. ^***** N *%fc with Company B of the 311th Ammuni- 

tion Train. On December 12, 1917, he 
.was transferred to the Motor School at 
Jacksonville, Florida, going from there to 
Chicago where he was engaged in the pur- 
chase of motor supplies and equipment. 
He was promoted to First Lieutenant in 
August, 1918, while at Chicago and the 
next day was ordered overseas. He first 
went to Brest, France and thence to the 
Fifth Army Corps Artillery Park. He re- 
mained there hauling ammunition supplies 
until the signing of the armistice. He 
then went to Bourgcs as adjutant to Lieut. 
Col. Carson and was engaged in adjusting 

claims and other financial matters for the army. He was ordered home 
April 16, 1919, arrived at Hobokcn, May 2 and was discharged at Camp 
Dix, May 4, 1919, thence resuming the practice of law, with offices in 
suite 201-3 Unity Building and as a member of the firm of Pratt, Heffer- 
nan and Ramseyer. 




EDWARD A. DONNELLY 

Enlisting August 14, 1917, at Springfield, 
Illinois, in the field hospital unit commanded ? 
by Lieut. Col. Otis, Edward A. Donnelly of 
Bloomington, was placed in active service 
at Fort McPherson, Ga., where he remained 
until April 30, 1918, sailing from New York 
May 10 for Liverpool, being on duty at 
various debarkation ports, convoy duty, 
etc., there and in France, seeing strenuous 
duty and in infinite variety. After the war 
ended he entered the University of Rcnnes 
in France, taking advantage of the govern- 
ments offer to its young soldiers, and his 
four months course in French law and poli- 
tics, was very helpful to him, in his chosen 
profession. He completed his course July jtjk 
1, 1919. While abroad he had the privilege 
of participating in the Army and also the ,?3|^ 
Athletic contests in France and England 
and Celtic in Scotland, and his experience as 
an athlete with Illinois Wesleyan of Bloom- 
ington, specializing in hurdle jumping, came in good play and enabling 
him to make a creditable showing in the various competitions. This ex- 
perience was one of the most enjoyable of his sojourn abroad. Mr. Don- 
nelly received his discharge from the service in July, 1919, and then 
resumed the practice of law in partnership with his father, E. E. Don- 
nelly, suite 302-3 Corn Belt Bank Bldg., Bloomington. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



231 



RICHARD M. O'CONNELL 
Richard M. O'Connell enlisted in the Navy 
July 16, 1918, and was called soon after- 
wards and joined the training school for 
officers at Municipal Pier, Chicago. He put 
in several strenuous months preparing for 
such service and was on the eve of being or- 
dered East for sea duty when the armistice 
was signed. He received his discharge on 
December 7, 1918, and resumed the practice 
of law, being a member of the firm of O'Cou- 
nell & Dolan with offices in the fourth floor 
of the Unity building in Bloomington. Mr. 
O.'Connell is married and has been practicing 
law for ten years. For the past five years 
he has been Corporation Counsel for the City 
of Bloomington. 





BIRNEY F. FLEMING 

Enlisted May 8, 1917, selecting the avia- 
tion section as his line of service. After 
leaving Jefferson Barracks he received his 
first training at Kelly Field, San Antonio, 
Texas, becoming a member of the llth 
Aero Service Squadron. In August of the 
same year he was sent to Belleville, where 
his organization opened in the flying field 
latter known as Scott Field, remaining 
there until December when orders were re- 
ceived to move to New York, preparatory 
to going into foreign service. He sailed 
December 17, 1917, for Liverpool, England, 
but owing to submarine blockade landed 
at Glasgow, Scotland. While in Great 
Britain, he received training at Win- 
chester, Stanford, and Lincoln, finally 
A,: ^'- reaching Le Havre, France, the fore part 

"* *- * of August, 1!)1S. Immediately the organi- 

zation, to which he was a member, was 

assigned to patrol duty at Mavages. Moving from there to Amanty in 
order to participate in the St. Mihiel Drive only to move upon the com- 
pletion of this drive to Maulan where the field was better adapted to 
bombing purposes and at the same time closer to the scene of action. 
With this place as headquarters and at times maintaining relay stations, 
they operated throughout the Argonne Mouse Drive as the First day 
Bombardment Group, their objective being railway terminals, ammuni- 
tion and ration dumps. 

Sergeant Fleming was made a corporal in the United States and 
owing to his creditable work while in foreign service was promoted to 
1st class Sergeant with the Air Mechanics rating. After the armistice 
his squadron went to Columbey Lc Belle where they dismantled and 
salvaged planes preparatory to shipment back home. He sailed from 
Bordeaux in April and received his discharge at Camp Grant May 21, 
1919. Aside from many interesting and thrilling experiences he was 
exceptionally lucky on being able to return with many souvenirs of 
the great war. 



232 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 




OEVILLE H. EOSS 

Orville H. Ross was among the young 
lawyers of Bloomington who were privi- 
leged to reach France. Enlisting June 24, 

1918, he was assigned to Camp Wheeler, 
Ga., joining the 106th Headquarters Am- 
munition Train, 31st Division. He sailed 
from New York October 28, 1918, reach- 
ing Brest November 9 and then spent 
three months at Le Havre. He was given 
clerical duty there and also at other points. 
The war ending, he entered the University 
of Poitiers, taking the four month course 
in French law and literature and found 
this training of great value to him in his 
chosen profession. He saw a large amount 
of territory in his years sojourn abroad 
and greatly enjoyed his experience as a 
soldier. Sailing from St. Nazaire in July, 

1919, he welcomed the Statue of Liberty 
upon reaching New York harbor and then 

entrained for Camp Grant where he was discharged July .31, immediately 
thereafter resuming the practice of law, his offices being in suite 301-2 
Peoples Bank Bldg., Bloomington. 

THOMAS S. WELD ON 

At the outbreak of the war, Thomas S. 
Weldon was a practicing attorney, being 
associated with the firm of DeMange, Gil- 
lespie & DeMange. He was inducted into 
the army of Uncle Sam June 28, 1918, and 
was assigned to the Quartermasters Corps 
and with headquarters at Camp Kearney, 
California. He later applied for admis- 
sion to the Officers Training Camp for In- 
fantry at Camp Fremont, California, and 
was accepted, being ordered to report at 
Camp Fremont November 25, 1918, but 
this department was abolished after the 
signing of the armistice on November 11, 
1918. However, he continued in the ser- 
vice until March 11, 1919, when he re- 
ceived his discharge and returned to 
Bloomington to resume the practice of law 
and opening up an office of his own at 
suite 506 Livingston Building, Bloom- 
ington. 




SUPPOETED TWENTY-ONE OEPHANS 

Letitia Green Stevenson chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, contributed during the war funds for the support of twenty- 
one French war orphans, it being estimated that the care of one orphan 
for a year cost $36. The chapter also contributed liberally to the national 
fund of the organization for the restoration of the French town of 
Tilloloy, one of the towns in the devastated district. 



233 



LIEUT. CHARLES P. KANE 

Charles P. Kane left Bloomington for 
Camp Wheeler, Georgia, in June, 1918. He 
remained in the Second Provisional Regi- 
ment for one month and was then assigned 
to the 106th trains Headquarters. He was 
then transferred on September 8, 1918, to 
Camp Taylor, Kentucky, where he entered 
the Field Artillery Officers Training school, 
being commissioned second lieutenant De- 
cember 17, 1918, following a strenuous tour 
of duty in which the candidate acquitted 
himself with credit. The armistice hav- 
ing been signed, the officers training 
camp was abolished and Lieut. Kane was 
assigned to the reserve for inactive duty 
on December 18, 1918. He then returned 
to Bloomington and resumed the practice 
of law as member of the McLean County 
bar and with offices in suite 501-2, the 
Griesheim building, Bloomington. 




CAPT. GEORGE BUTLER 

George Butler added lustre to the record 
of the McLean County bar, winning a cap- 
taincy, being wounded by a machine gun 
bullet, and participating in the Cantigney, 
St. Mihiel, Meuse Argonne, and Novon 
Montdidier engagements. He was also 
gassed. Formerly practicing law in Bloom- 
ington and Leroy, he later joined the 
Farmers Trust Co. of Indianapolis, en- 
tered the Fort Benjamin Harrison train- 
ing camp August 15, 1917, won a com- 
mission and sailed for France October 31, 
1917. He was company commander most 
of the time in France and his record was 
a gallant one, receiving four citations for 
conspicuous bravery, two coming from 
Gen. Pershing. He was assigned to the 
28th Infantry soon after reaching France. 
After the war was over, he went to Ger- 
many with the Army of Occupation, being 
released and ordered home in the fall of 

1919, proceeding to Camp Taylor to await his discharge in the spring 

of 1920. 




CALF SELLS FOR $20,500 

At the annual sale in Chicago of the American Guernsey Cattle 
Club on May 16, 1918, a cow consigned from Drew Ten Brook of McLean 
sold for $1,000. The cow had dropped a calf only three days before, 
and this animal was put up at the auction and sold and resold until it 
brought a total of $20,500, which sum was donated to the Red Cross 
according to announcement made before the sale began. The calf 
finally became the property of a man near Chicago. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



MARTIN CALLAHAN 




Martin Callahan was a candidate for a commission at the First Offi- 
cers Training Camp at Fort Sheridan and was also on duty at Fort 
Wright, New York. He was imable to realize his ambition to go over- 
seas and returned to Bloomington when the war was over to resume his 
profession, with office in the Griesheim building, Bloomington. 



CHAPLAINS FROM McLEAN 
COUNTY 

Quite a group of chaplains were 
contributed by McLean county. Of 
these Eev. William Blake Hindman, 
pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
church of Bloomington was with the 
regular army at Camp Taylor; Rev. 
H. Russell Brown, pastor of the 
Presbyterian church of Leroy, was 
at Camp Sherman; Rev. Paul 
Turner, pastor of the Presbyterian 
church of Heyworth, was with the 
army in France; Rev. F. L. Moore 
of the Christian church of Lexing- 
ton, was with the army in France; 
Rev. E. K. Masterson of the Chris- 
tian church of Normal, also was 
with the army in France; while Rev. 
Frank M. Harry, formerly pastor of 
the Park Methodist church, was en- 
in Y. M. C. A. work in France. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



235 



HON. JOHN A. STERLING'S WORK IN WAR 

When the war history of McLean 
county is written, always one of 
the heroic figures in that chronicle 
will be Hon. John A. Sterling, Con- 
gressman from the Seventeenth 
Illinois district during the first 
year and a half of America's par- 
ticipation. His death occurred in 
a tragic manner only three weeks 
before the signing of the armistice 
had crowned with victory the 
struggle he had helped to inaugu- 
rate. In his official capacity as 
a member of the house, Mr. Ster- 
ling had cast his vote for a dec- 
laration of war against Germany 
in April, 1917. His reasons for 
supporting the resolution making 
such a declaration were expressed 
in a speech which he made in the 
house, in which he said in part: 

"In all the history of our re- 
public, we do not find recorded so 
plain a cause for war as we find 
in the events which have happened 
on the seas in recent months. They 
have sunk our ships and destroyed 
the lives of American citizens, the 
greatest offense that may be com- 
mitted by one nation against an- 
other, and an offense which, if 
borne without resistance must 
speedily result in the ignoble ex- 
tinction of the nation which suf- 
fers it to be done. A nation which 
will not protect the lives of its 
people cannot and is not worthy 
to endure. *** The assault on these 
shifts was as much an act of war 
as if Germany had landed an 
armed force on our shores and 
burned our cities and destroyed 
our citizens. Germany has made 
war on us. When we reach that 
inevitable conclusion, what must 
we say as to the second question 
involved in this resolution? Shall 
we resist? Shall we make war 
against war? *** When the Ameri- 
can people by the logic of events know that they have been assailed, they 
answer, 'We will resist.' Let us say by the passage of this resolution 
the plain and simple truth, that Germany has made war on us, and that 
America will resist." 

John Allan Sterling was born on a farm near Leroy February 1, 
1857, was educated in the schools of that neighborhood and graduated 
from Wesleyan university in 1881. He taught school for a time and 
was superintendent at Lexington two years. In 1884 he was admitted 
to the bar and formed a partnership with Sain Welty which lasted until 








236 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

the latter was elected judge. In 1892 Mr. Sterling was elected state's 
attorney* and served four years. He was chairman of the republican 
county central committee. Mr. Sterling was elected to congress first 
in 1902, and was continuously re-elected in each two years except the 
Sixty-third congress. He was married to Miss Clara M. Irons, who sur- 
vived, with three children, Frank H., Charlotte A. and Horace N. Mr. 
Sterling came to his death in an automobile accident on October 17, 
1918, when a car in which he and some friends were riding was over- 
turned at a sharp turn on the road near Pontiac. Mr. Sterling's funeral 
was attended by a distinguished body of members of congress and other 
prominent figures in public life. 



CHRISTIAN SCIENCE WAR RELIEF WORK 

Shortly after the entrance of the United States into the World War, 
the Christian Scientists organized for assisting in war relief work. The 
organization was planned by the board of directors of The Mother 
Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, Massachusetts. 
State committees were appointed to carry out the details of the work 
in the various states. The local church at Bloomington, Illinois, co- 
operated with Illinois committee whose headquarters were in Chicago. 
All funds raised for the promotion of the work were forwarded to the 
Mother Church for distribution, as war activities were numerous in some 
states, especially in the South, w T hile few or no army organizations were 
operating in other states. 

The work of the Christian Scientists was carried on both at home 
and abroad. War relief workers were assigned to all of the various 
camps in the United States. Permission was granted to place Christian 
Science books and periodicals in the Eeading Rooms and libraries of 
the various camps. The Christian Science Daily Monitor was especially 
appreciated. Individual subscriptions were given to all officers and 
men who requested it. Many thousands of copies were distributed daily. 
Its excellent news service and its able editorials gave the information 
most desired by the men concerning the war in its daily progress on 
the battlefields and in the camps. 

Delegates from the local church attended conventions held at Chi- 
cago, thus enabling the work at Bloomington to be organized along the 
best possible lines. The interest of the Scientists of this community 
is indicated by the fact that contributions to the war relief fund to the 
amount of $1297.62 were forwarded to the Mother Church during the 
period of the war. This was a portion of the general fund of many 
hundreds of thousands of dollars disbursed by the Christian Science 
Church in war relief work. 

The Christian Science Publishing Society, recognizing the need for 
copies of the Bible, of the Christian Science Text Book, "Science and 
Health with Key to the Scriptures," by Mary Baker Eddy, and selec- 
tions of songs especially suited to male voices, in compact form, pub- 
lished vest pocket editions of the Bible, Science and Health and a se- 
lection of Christian Science hymns, for use by the soldiers. Any officer 
or soldier requesting one or more of these publications received them 
without charge. Members of the local church were instrumental in plac- 
ing a number of copies of these publications in the hands of soldiers 
who appreciated them. 

The War Relief worker assigned to a camp was granted the privi- 
lege of free entrance with his automobile at any time of the day. He 
was ready to receive requests from soldiers for any assistance that he 
might lend. Under his guidance soldiers organized in many camps for 
the conduct of Christian Science services on Sunday and on Wednesday 
evening. 

Many men and women in American uniform attended the regular 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



237 



services of First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Paris, where a Sunday 
morning service was conducted at 10 o'clock in French, and the same 
service in English at 11 o'clock. At the Wednesday evening meetings, 
testimonies were given in both French and English. 

Beading rooms with writing fa- 
cilities were established in many 
camps at home and abroad. One 
of these Reading Booms at the 
great Army School at Langres, 
France, was in charge of Mrs. 
Anna M. Campbell, a member of 
the local Christian Science Asso- 
ciation, formerly a citizen of 
Bloomington. She fitted up a 
large room, nicely decorated and 
well furnished, comfortable chairs, 
good writing materials, and sup- 
plied with Christian Science litera- 
ture which were used and appre- 
ciated by hundreds of officers and 
men. Sunday afternoon meetings 
were attended by more than forty 
men on many occasions, and hun- 
dreds of men attended the Sunday 
evening receptions given by Mrs. 
Campbell at one of the wealthy 
French homes of the city. A gen- 
eral of the American Army was 
frequently in attendance at these 
receptions. A part of Mrs. Camp- 
bell's work was to give Chris- 
tian Science treatments, without 
charge, to all who asked for them. 
At the Christian Science meetings, 
frequent testimony was given of the practical service of Christian 
Science to the soldier on the field of battle. 

A Christian Science reading room at Paris was always well patron- 
ized. Here, during the war, three Christian Science practitioners were 
stationed for calls at any time. During the heavy fighting from July 
to November, 1918, these practitioners received hundreds of calls for 
assistance from soldiers calling in person, or requesting aid by tele- 
graph, telephone or by letter. It was no uncommon occurrence for each 
of these practitioners to have 30 or more calls in a single day, and one 
of these received 47 calls in one day. Numerous reports gave evidence 
of the efficiency of Christian Science during these trying months. 

Special war relief was carried on in Illinois at Camp Grant at Bock- 
ford, at Great Lakes Naval Training Station, at Chanute Aviation Field 
at Bantoul, and at Scott Aviation Field at Belleville. The local Christian 
Science Church had its share in all these activities through its contribu- 
tions to the general work of the Mother Church. 

COMFOETS FOBWABDING COMMITTEE 

Another phase of the Christian Science work is evidenced by the 
Comforts Forwarding Committee. This activity was directed by a cen- 
tral committee at Bor.ton. The local committees were organized by 
Christian Scientists in the various communities throughout the country. 
Those committees made various articles for the comfort of the soldiers 
and forwarded them to Boston from where they were distributed to 
the various camps. Soldiers and war workers, going overseas, were 
supplied on request with useful articles by the distributing committees 




Mrs. Anna M. Campbell 



238 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



at the embarkation ports. At New York a special effort was made to 
provide Y. M. C. A. workers with abundant materials for their work 
abroad. Notices were posted at hotels where Y. M. C. A. Secretaries 
were awaiting sailing orders, calling attention to the fact that sup- 
plies might be had from the distributing committee near by. Large 
numbers took advantage of this generous offer. 

The Comforts Forwarding Committee of Bloomington, Illinois, had 
for its headquarters Eoom 627 Griesheim Building. Funds for yarn, 
cloth and other materials were donated by members and friends of the 
local church, who also donated the necessary labor. The amount con- 
tributed for this purpose was $634.13. This committee of Bloomington 
sent the following articles: 320 pair socks, 30 sweaters, 47 pairs wristlets, 
581 new garments, 129 made-over garments, 13 large quilts, 9 helmets, 
15 other articles, making a total of 1153 articles. In addition to the 
work above mentioned, the Christian Scientists of Bloomington con- 
tributed generously to the war relief work of the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A. 
and other civilian organizations. 

The families of the local Christian Science Church contributed not 
only money and articles of comfort for soldiers, but they also furnished 
men for active prosecution of the war. These families were represented 
by at least 12 men. These include officers in the army, enlisted men in 
the artillery, infantry, navy and S. A. T. C. One, Prof. Ridgley, en- 
listed for Y. M. C. A. Educational work and was later transferred to 
the Army Educational Corps. 




Top row (left to right) Elroy McNier, Guy Million, Harry Matthews, Vernon Moore, 
Thomas McMillan. 

Second row Jack Million, Otis Musselman, Alpha E. Moore, Roy F. Mitchell, Ray- 
mond H. Mortimer. 

Third row Earl Mahaffey, DeWitt P. Miller, Thomas Martin. 

Fourth row Jesse Mitchell, Harry L. Mitchell. Above Raymond Merger. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 239 

WAR-TIME CONTROL OF FUEL SUPPLIES 

In the summer of 1917, the government clearly saw that the prob- 
lem, of the nation's fuel supply was to be one of the big ones. On 
October 31, 1917, the fuel committee for McLean county was appointed 
by J. E. Williams, federal fuel administrator for Illinois. This com- 
mittee began work November 1, being one of the first organized in the 
state. The personnel was Mayor E. E. Jones, chairman; Spencer Ewing, 
secretary, and Elaida Dickinson. 

The local fuel administration had to deal with the public and with 
th,e fuel dealers. In treating with the dealers, one of the first tasks 
related to prices on coal, and in this the committee had to establish 
a margin of profit for retail dealers of the county. This was done by 
a method which was afterward adopted over the entire state. Then 
there was the question of properly distributing the supplies of fuel 
available and of enforcing upon the people the necessity of conserving 
their supplies. One of the first tasks confronting the local fuel ad- 
ministrator was to educate the people in the necessity of laying in their 
supplies of coal before the winter began. The old careless way of 
buying coal for domestic use a few tons at a time, because it could be 
obtained on short notice, must give way to prudent foresight in getting 
one's supply into the cellar in the summer and autumn. This campaign 
had its results. By the end of November a larger percentage of the 
winter's domestic requirements were in the cellar than had ever been 
the case before. 

On November 23, 1917, the local fuel committee submitted a report 
of its work in fixing coal prices up to that time. The following were 
the prices quoted: 

Delivered prices Per Ton 

Southern 111. Coal $5.75 

Central Illinois Coal 5.25 

McLean County Coal Mine 5.20 

Scale prices Per Ton 

Southern 111., Coal $5.00 

Central Illinois Coal 4.50 

McLean County Coal Mine 4.45 

Anthracite coal, all sizes delivered 10.00 

The fuel administration could not proceed far with its work until 
it had some information from each community of the county for its 
guidance. Therefore a survey was made by addressing to all coal dealers 
of the county a letter in which the desired facts were sought. 

With the desired information on hand, the committee assigned to 
each dealer his allotments of coal from time to time from the supplies 
available for this county. 

Along with the problem of distributing the coal supplies, came that 
of urging the conservation of fuel on the part of the consumers. There 
were many angles to this problem. J. E. Lockwood was appointed as 
chairman of the conservation committee, in Bloomington, and he devoted 
much time to seeing that the orders of the national fuel administration 
were complied with. In order to save fuel at the electric power plants, 
so-called "lightless nights" were established. Two nights of the week, 
Thursday and Sunday, no street lights were permitted except those ab- 
solutely necessary for public safety. No electric advertising signs were 
permitted, and all lights at entrances were out except necessary for 
safety. This order continued in force until the following April, and 
was generally and willingly observed. 

Restrictions on the use of fuel became more drastic from time to 
time during the late fall and early winter of 1917-18. The climax was 
readied when the order was issued for the closing of all manufacturing 



240 McLEAN COUNTY AND THh WORLD WAE 

plants except those making food supplies for a period of five days, from 
January 18 to 22 inclusive of 1918. At the same time the order was 
issued that all retail stores except food stores should be closed one day 
each week for a period of five weeks. Monday was chosen as closing 
day.' 

Another angle of the fuel conservation order was its effect upon 
the railroads. The Alton road in January, 1918, annulled more than 
half of its passenger trains, and other roads running thru the county 
took similar action to a certain extent. This released many passenger 
engines for freight service and helped the movement of needed goods 
and war supplies. 

All the public schools of Bloomington were closed by order of the 
board on January 15, and remained closed until February 4. This was 
done because coal enough to heat the buildings could not be obtained. 
The school children therefore had an unexpected mid-winter vacation, 
which they enjoyed. 

The severity of the weather in this winter of 1917-18 was one of 
the factors aggravating the coal shortage. For twenty-eight consecutive 
days, from December 28 to January 25, the temperature was below zero 
at some part of each day. Then as a climax of the weather and fuel 
situation, the hardest storm of the winter struck the county on January 
6. A twenty-four hour snowfall, driven by a fierce winter gale, made 
conditions such that traffic was impossible. Street car lines were put 
out of business in the city and taxicab service much crippled. Many 
trains on the railroads were hours behind time, or abandoned altogether. 
It took several days for the people of the city and country to dig them- 
selves out from under the snow. In Bloomington the weight on the 
big barn of the Bloomington Delivery system, located on North Madison 
street, was so great as to crush in the roof and caused the com- 
pany a loss of $10,000. Country roads were impassable and traffic in 
the country was more than ever restricted. After the people had spent 
nearly a week digging themselves out from under the snow, a second 
edition of the storm came upon the land, and the conditions were again 
almost as bad as it was at the beginning of the storm. All this made 
the supplying of the fuel needs of the communities more difficult than 
it had been previously. Many of the smaller places in the county got 
down to the state where there was not a ton of coal in the hands of 
the dealers. About the middle of January reports of such conditions 
came from Towanda, Arrowsmith, Saybrook, Glenavon, Bellflower, Mon- 
arch, Covell and Meadows. Appeals came from these towns to the 
county fuel committee asking for relief, and these were passed on to 
the state committee. 

Every town in McLean county suffered more or less severely by the 
extraordinary weather on top of the fuel shortage, especiallv after the 
second blizzard of January 11. McLean ran out of bread, and the 
schools were closed for several days. Many business houses in Carlock 
closed on account of lack of heat. Cobs and wood were much used. 
There was no church service on Sunday, the 13th. Heyworth was in 
fair shape for fuel and other supplies. The Lexington basket-ball team 
played at Heyworth on the night of the second blizzard, and could not 
get home for two days afterward. Chenoa could get no bakers' bread 
and no milk for two days. No Sunday papers were delivered. Cooksville 
was practically marooned, and everything stopped. At Stanford Frank 
Hilpert attached a snow plow to an automobile and cleared some of 
the streets. Ellsworth got two cars of coal just before the blizzard, 
but could get no bread for two days. At Lexington most of the stores 
closed at 6 o'clock Saturday night, and there was no church on Sunday. 
Col. Brown, an auctioneer, who had held a sale at Arrowsmith, could 
find no way to get back to Bloomington, so he started and walked, tak- 
ing ten hours for the trip. Leroy dismissed its schools and business 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



241 



was almost at a standstill. At Saybrook many farmers turned out and 
scooped roadways to the town to get supplies. 

When the local fuel administrators made a tour of the city on the 
first night that the "lightless" order went into effect, they expressed 
themselves much pleased with its general observance. They counted 
only eight lights in the business district that should not have been 
burning. 

The big blizzard struck the city and county on the first Sunday 
of what had been planned as "go to church month," January. Con- 
sequently, the campaign got a bad start, for most of the churches were 
almost deserted on that Sunday. Many churches abandoned their ser- 
vices for the day. 

The second edition of the blizzard was accompanied by temperature 
of 10 below zero, and was pronounced the worst storm in nineteen years. 
For a few days delivery of fuel became impossible. In many cases 
where families ran out of coal, they doubled up with other families, 
two or more living in one house. 

In the midst of this crucial shortage of fuel, many expedients were 
resorted to, to tide over until relief came. Churches in Bloomington and 
other towns combined their services and held meetings in one church, or 
abandoned all services on Sunday except one. The county automobile 
men abandoned their usual winter show for lack of heat for a building 
to hold it. Commercial florists had to shut down parts of their green- 
houses, and only heated the parts absolutely necessary to prevent serious 
loss. A big midwinter concert planned by the Amateur Musical Club 
in Bloomington was abandoned. 

In Leroy, the men of the Christian church organized a huge wood- 
chopping bee, went to the timber owned by one of their members and 
spent a day chopping wood for use in the church to save coal. The 
necessity was made a gala occasion, with a noon dinner for the choppers. 
The Normal university was closed tor several days on account of 
the impossibility of getting fuel. 

With the work of the strenuous 
winter of 1917-18 past, Mayor Jones 
resigned from the chairmanship of 
the local fuel committee, and Spen- 
cer Ewing, who had served as sec- 
retary, was named in his place. His 
work in charge of the local situa- 
tion continued thru the spring of 
1918, and plans were outlined for a 
campaign among the people for the 
next season which would prevent the 
fuel shortage of the previous winter. 
On May 1, 1918. Mr. Ewing was 
called to Chicago as director of 
state requirements in the Illinois 
office of the U. S. fuel administra- 
tion. He served in that capacity 
until August 1 of that year, being 
in charge of fuel distribution for 
the state of Illinois outside of Chi- 
cago. Later he was made deputy 
fuel administrator for the state of 
Illinois, succeeding Eaymond E. 
Durham. Mr. Ewing 's work in his 
new position operated through eleven 
different departments and had 110 




Bertram A. Franklin 



employes. 



242 McLEAN COUNTY AND TEE WORLD WAE 

Bertram A. Franklin was named as head of the McLean county fuel 
administration when Mr. Ewing was called to Chicago. He continued 
the work until and after the close of the war, for the signing of the 
armistice did not end the existence of the fuel administration. Mr. 
Franklin finally received his instructions in January, 1919, to close his 
office on February 1, which was accordingly done, and the fuel ad- 
ministration past out of existence. 

In the summer of 1918, the government fuel administration took a 
hand in regulating the consumption of gasoline as well as coal. In 
August an order was issued that no pleasure cars could be used Sundays 
and all garages closed after 6 o'clock in the evenings. This brought 
about a situation which had its comic as well as serious side. No cars 
were permitted on the streets or roads except those on errands of nec- 
essity or mercy, on penalty of the driver being arrested. In consequence, 
people returned to primitive means of vehicle driving; all old time 
buggies and horses were gotten out of their hiding places, and the roads 
and streets on Sundays looked like scenes of the '60 's instead of 1918. 
Young people got plenty of amusement out of the situation. The rule 
was pretty generally lived up to for the several weeks in which it re- 
mained in effect. Consumption of gasoline the country over was thereby 
reduced hundreds of millions of gallons. 

SPENCER EWING WAR-TIME FUEL ADMINISTRATOR 

How a practicing attorney took up 
the work of handling the fuel problems 
of a community, tells the story of the 
war work done by Spencer Ewing of 
Bloomington. His was one of the cases 
which demonstrated that patriotic ardor 
will enable a man to adapt himself to 
the performance of tasks which in or- 
dinary times would be considered well- 
nigh impossible. 

When the conservation of fuel be- 
came one of the vital questions of home 
policy in the war, Illinois along w r ith 
other states was asked to appoint local 
fuel committees for the various commu- 
nities. The committee in Bloomington 
was appointed by J. E. Williams, Fed- 
eral Fuel Administrator for Illinois on 
October 31, 1917. The committee in this 
county was among the first in the state, 
and began work on November 1. The 
personnel was Mayor E. E. Jones, chair- 
man, Spencer Ewing, secretary, and 
Elaida Dickinson. Although this line of 
work was utterly foreign to Mr. Ewing 's 

professional training, he set out with enthusiasm and devotion. The first 
work of the committee was to fix the margin for retail dealers in McLean 
county. This was done by a method which was afterward adopted over 
the entire state. Mr. Ewing served as secretary through the winter of 
1917-18, and when Mayor Jones asked to be relieved of the chairmanship, 
Mr. Ewing was appointed chairman on April 1, 1918. A month later Mr. 
Ewing was called to Chicago as Director of State Requirements in the 
office of the State Fuel Administrator, of the U. S. Fuel Administration. 
He served in that capacity until August 1, having charge of the fuel dis- 
tribution of the state outside of Chicago. About August 1, with the ap- 
pointment of Raymond E. Durham as Federal Fuel Administrator, Mr. 
Ewing was made Deputy State Fuel Administrator, for the state of Illi- 
nois outside of Cook county. He served in that capacity until the first of 
April, 1919. He had charge of the administrative end of the Fuel Admin- 
istration in the state, with particular regard for the distribution and allot- 
ment of domestic and industrial coal, penalties for violations of orders, 
and industrial and labor disputes. This work was accomplished by means 
of eleven departments and 110 employes. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND TEE WORLD W4R 



243 




COMPANY D., I. N. G. 

Company D, Bloomington, Fifth regt., of the Illinois National Guard 
was called to service March 26, 1917, and ordered to Camp Parker, 
Quincy, 111., for training, remaining there until August 20 "that year when 
the command moved to Houston, Texas, later being reorganized as a 
machine gun company and expanded to 150 men. While at Quincy the 
personnel of the company was as follows: 



244 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

Roster of Company D 

Captain Burr Irwin. 

Lieutenants William Goff and R. W. Jackson. 

Sergeants Carl E. Moothart. Rolla E. Hinshaw, Chester Hull, Lee 
Lishka, Joseph Million and Harry A. Marshall. 

Corporals William Hibbens, Edward Burns, Hobart M. Trent, Elmer 
McAfee, Homer A. Bowers, Herbert C. Taylor and Lyle Fike. 

Cooks Lewis C. Dears and Herbert C. Garr. 

Privates James G. Dennis, Paul E. Draper, Joseph A. Erbe, Clifford 
W. Huffmaster, Emery B. Quinn, Joseph F. Ranney, Edward C. Albee, 
William A. Albee, Claude F. Armstrong, Charles Bainc, Harry H. Camp- 
bell, Charles S. Carter, John W r . Cooper, Pearl S. Dennison, Otho S. Earl, 
Guy H. Frisbey, Roy Goodwin, Oscar Hall, Lewis Hardman, Clarence 
Harmon, Harold Hartley, Henry M. Hartley, Charles W. Hildreth, Ray- 
mond Joquesh, John D. Jordan, Russell C. Logsdon, Carl S. Martin, Wil- 
liam B. Mattoon, Clarence F. Miller, Joseph L. Miller, Thomas F. Miller, 
Peter M. Owen, Marshall N. Palmer, Merle M. Payne, Leslie G. Pfiffner, 
Leslie C. Pitzer, Paul V. Poole, Leslie E. Rankin, Herbert C. Rediger, 
Charles V. Riley, James S. Sears, Thomas J. Underwood, Leslie A. 
Vaughn, Roy Varner, Earl E. Hodgson, Floyd O. Haynes, James M. Jones, 
Fred Bloodgood, Henry E. Batson, Cecil Hammett, Vernon W. Winnin, 
Samuel W. Ashworth, James F. Baer, John J. Anderson, Alvin R. Austin, 
Donald Brigham, Russell Brigham, Cecil D. Collins, Floyd Crist, Thomas 
I. Costigan, James B. Chapman, Ray Dotson, Lee H. Ellis, Roy M. Fitman, 
Rolland Henshaw, Clyde Hewitt, Willard J. Jenkins, George Kraus, Leslie 
H. Larison, Andrew Miller, Earl Potts, Scott Poynter, Everett Phillips, 
Ralph Simms, William F. Smith, Lem Landers, Paul Smith, George G. 
Sprouse, Frank L. Simpson, Carl A. Truitt, Robert Switzer, Robert S. 
Turner, Sylvester Thorpe, Lawrence Wright, Sidney Webb, Kieth M. 
Wilcox, Curtis Waggoner, Owen P. Ely and William Campbell. 

THE 124TH MACHINE GUN BATTALION 

t 

During the months of September and October, 1917, the Thirty-third 
division was organized at Camp Logan, Texas, from units of the Illinois 
National Guard which had been drafted into federal service. Several 
regiments of infantry of the I. N. G. had to be broken up or changed 
bodily into other arms of the service. Among these were the Fifth and 
Seventh. The Fifth regiment was composed of companies from Quincy, 
Peoria, Canton, Pekin, Jacksonville, Bloomington, Decatur, Delavan, 
Danville, Springfield and Taylorville, and was commanded by Col. Frank 
S. Woods of Quincy. On October 10, 1917, the reorganization took place, 
and the 122d, 123d and 124th machine gun battalions were formed. At 
first the 124th battalion was composed of three companies, L of Decatur, 
D of Bloomington and C of Springfield, all of the old Fifth regiment. 
In February, the battalion was increased to four companies, and Co. C 
of the 122d battalion, formerly the machine gun company of the Seventh 
regiment, became Co. D of the 124th. On October 13 Major Floyd F. 
Putman and Lieut. Clarence H. Woods were assigned to the 124th ma- 
chine gun battalion, and Major Putman immediately began organization 
of the headquarters. The battalion continued in training at Camp Logan 
until May 6, 1918. By recruits from Camps Dodge, Grant and Taylor, 
the battalion was up to its authorized strength by date of its sailing, 
which occurred on the night of May 15 after transfer from Camp Upton, 
where the battalion had arrived May 11. The transport used was the 
Mount Vernon; formerly a German ship, which carried 5,000 troops on 
this trip. The division commander, Maj. Gen. George Bell, Jr., was 
aboard, with his staff, headquarters troop, military police, and the 132d 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 245 

infantry, all of this the Thirty-third division. The convoy arrived at 
Brest, France, May 24, and landed May 26. 

The officers of Company B, in which were most of the McLean 
county boys, at this time were: Captain Burr P. Irvvin; 1st Lieut. James 
A. Fishburne, 1st Lieut. William E. Bourdan, 2d Lieut. Glair F. Schu- 
macher, 2d Lieut. Eobert F. Eockhill, 2d Lieut. Chester I. White. The 
battalion was stationed at Cerisy until June 9, then marched to Grand- 
court. On June 22 it marched to Pont Eemy, on the Somme river, to 
operate in conjunction with British forces. From about the first to the 
20th of August, the outfit became the machine gun reserve to the Austra- 
lian forces, and after the '25th the entire division was transferred 
to the French area. At Guerpont the battalion was equipped with 
American guns and continued training preparatory to taking part in 
the great offensive which was to begin on September 26. On Septem- 
ber 6 the battalion was transferred by rail to Bois-des-Sartelles near 
Balleycourt. The facts here recorded will hereafter be confined mostly 
to Company B, in which were most of the McLean county men. 

In operations with the British, on July 17, 18, Companies B and A 
occupied positions in the Baizieux-Warloy line for twenty-four hours. 
From July 17 to 23 all officers and men occupied front line positions 
with British forces for observation; from the 25th to 30th, A and B 
companies relieved units of the British 47th battalion for four days. 
From August 6-7, A and B companies relieved units of the British 47th 
and 50th battalions until relieved by the 123d M. G. battalion. Casual- 
ties to battalion on this tour, 2 killed, 6 wounded. Battalion was re- 
lieved August 12 from British sector to Querrieu wood with the Aus- 
tralians. On the morning of September 26, all the companies of the 
battalion, together with the 122d machine gun battalion and the machine 
gun companies of the 131st and 132d infantry, participated in the at- 
tack on Forges Wood. The initial advance of the battalions was cov- 
ered by machine gun barrage on the enemy trenches and strong points 
along the entire brigade front. The barrage consisted of forty guns, 
which was a complete success. The advance was over rough and ascend- 
ing ground, mostly wooded, but all guns except three which were knocked 
out by shell fire were taken forward and reached the objective with 
the infantry and covered the consolidation. After crossing the Forges 
river, Company B formed up and moved forward under barrage of 
machine guns, artillery and smoke screen. Beached objective by 11 or 
11:30 and took position to cover consolidation on left bank of Meuse 
valley. The 3rd platoon covered left flank, as 319th infantry did not 
reach objective until the following evening. Casualties, 3 killed, 7 
wounded. Company remained in position until October 8, when it was 
withdrawn for operations on east side of Meuse. 

As the result of hard work the night of October 7, this company 
placed 12 guns in position about Forges, and on the morning of 8th 
opened fire on Chaume Wood. On the 9th, moved to trenches southeast 
of Consenvoye, and at 6:45 on the morning of the 10th moved forward, 
"if], third battalion of the 131st infantry through Consenvoye and 
Chaume Wood, delivering effective fire from northern edge of latter wood 
upon enemy machine gun positions and bodies of the enemy fleeing over 
the edcre of the ridge. The next move forward, to the top of the oppo- 
site ridge was under extremely heavy gun fire from front and flanks, 
resulting in heavy casualties and loss of four guns. Nevertheless, one 
section to the support of the 131st, delivered fire which silenced several 
enemy snipers and put to flight parties of the enemy assembling on the 
extreme right for counter attack. The enemy launched a counter attack 
on the afternoon of the llth, which the guns of this company quickly 
stopped. Next morning the guns were moved back to a line with the 
third battalion, and placed to protect the front to the best advantage. 
On the night of the 13th of October the 131st infantry and machine gun 



246 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAS 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 247 

companies received orders to withdraw to Consenvoye. The casualties 
during this action were: 2 killed, 26 wounded or gassed, Capt. Irwin 
and Lieut. Fishburne being included in the total. On the night of 
October 24, the 124th battalion left their rest billets at Les Tamaris 
and marched to Longeau Farm in the Troyon sector, covering 18 miles 
in 12 hours by night. By 10 a. m. the battalion had taken over positions 
of the 312th M. G. B. of the 79th division. The reorganization of the 
whole sector was completed by October 30, with B, C, and D companies 
in positions and A company in reserve. Here these units remained un- 
til the operations of November 10 and 11. Sixteen gas casualties in B 
company at Avillers. 

At midnight of November 9-10, B company got orders to join the 
131st infantry at Doncourt, being assigned to the second battalion and 
moved forward into Haute Epines and Harville wood. The company 
was given the task of protecting the flank of the 3rd battalion while 
it attacked and held a part of Harville wood. The 3rd battalion went 
right ahead to its objective on the afternoon of the 10th. The second 
battalion moved forward into the wood under heavy artillery and ma- 
chine gun fire. Lieut. Rockhill with the 1st platoon supported the front 
line, Lieut. White with the 2d platoon taking up positions along the 
right flank. While reconnoitering some of these positions, Sergt. Ely of 
Company B met and captured 11 prisoners single-handed. The heavy 
fire of all guns and the gas from exploding shells made the woods un- 
tenable and at 7 p. m. the troops withdrew to the edge of Haute Epines. 

The morning of the llth orders came to attack again, and the 131st 
infantry was being assembled to carry out the order, when word came 
of the truce, and operations ceased. That afternoon Co. B moved back 
to Longeau farm when Co. D took over its former position. Casualties: 
4 wounded, 1 missing. 

Company B, composed largely of McLean county men, had the dis- 
tinction of having the greatest number of casualties of any company 
of the 124th Machine Gun battalion during its service in France, its total 
being 85, with 46 for A company being its next closest rival. The sum- 
mary of casualties for the battalion in France is as follows: Headquarters 
Company, 1 killed in action, 1 accidentally killed, 1 wounded; total 3; 
A company, 4 killed in action, 21 wounded, 2 gassed, 19 missing; total 
46; B company, 5 killed, 35 wounded, 44 gassed, 1 missing; total 85; 
C company, 7 killed, 9 wounded, 1 gassed, total 17; D company, 1 killed, 
1 accidentally killed, 11 wounded, 1 gassed; total 14. 

Altho machine gunners are not often in a position to capture pris- 
oners, yet this 124th battalion captured a total of 112 prisoners, includ- 
ing 5 non-commissioned officers and 107 privates. 

The armistice came at 11 o'clock on the morning of November 11 
when all units of the 66th brigade, including all companies of the 124th 
M. G. battalion were making an assault on the enemy positions in front 
of the Troyon sector. As firing ceased, a general shout went up along the 
line, on both sides. The 124th withdrew to their billets at Longeau farm. 
On December 7 the battalion began its long hike into Germany, going 
by way of Moineville, Avril, Serrouville, Rumelange, Luxemburg, Aspelt, 
Kreuzweiler, Trintingen and Heffingen. B company was billeted in the 
village of Waldbillig. While in Luxemburg the monotony of long eve- 
nings was varied by various forms of entertainment designed by sol- 
diers, in which the 124th M. G. battalion took prominent part. "Krig- 
baum's Circus" from A company and Lieut. Gene Hopkins' splendid 
show troupe made much merriment both in and outside of the 33rd divi- 
sion. One of the red letter days of the service was April 22, 1919, when 
the entire 33rd division was reviewed by Gen. Pershing at Ettelbruck. 
On April 26-27 the division entrained on the start on the long journey 
home. The arrival at Brest was on April 30. After nine days of im- 



248 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

patient waiting, the division embarked on the U. S. S. Mt. Vernon, 
which weighed anchor at 4:30, May 9. 

The 124th machine gun battalion was a part of the 66th brigade, 
commanded by Brig. Gen. Paul A. Wolfe. Its strength was 30 officers, 
750 men and 48 heavy type machine guns. The 66th brigade led all the 
principal assaults of the 33rd division, and the division ranked among 
the first of the A. E. F. in efficiency, gallantry and battle record. The 
machine gun barrage in the attack of September 26, with forty guns, 
was pronounced by critics the first occasion when machine guns prop- 
erly supported an American division in attack. While in active opera- 
tions, the battalion received some excellent service from the Y. M. C. A., 
the Bed Cross and K. of C. welfare organizations. Chaplain C. M. Fin- 
nell was deserving of special credit for his work for the comfort and 
well being of the battalion. Through his efforts, every grave of a man 
from this battalion has been properly marked. 

Sergt. Eussell W. Bringham of Bloomington, of Company B. had 
successfully passed his examination for a commission when the end of 
the war came. 

Two members of B company from McLean county were killed in 
battle: Sergt. Leslie G. Pfiffner of Normal and Corp. Lyle Fike of Bloom- 
ington, the latter dying of wounds. 

The following were wounded in action: Henry M. Hartley, Howard 

E. Campbell, Thomas Ivan Costigan, Herbert C. Rediger, all of Bloom- 
ington; Paul E. Draper of Hey worth, Carl S. Martin of Normal, Wil- 
liam B. Mattoon of Bloomington, Joseph Million of Bloomington, George 
G. Sprouse of Saybrook. 

The following were gassed: Earl Potts of Bloomington, Leslie Ean- 
kin of Normal, and Louis C. Sears of Bloomington. 

The McLean county boys, members of this company and battalion, 
in addition to those already mentioned were as follows: Sergeant Lee 

F. Lishka of Bloomington, Sergt. Chester Hull of Bloomington, Sergt. 
Joseph F. Eanney of Normal, Sergt. Oliver P. Ely of Bellflower, Sergt. 
George A. Kraus of Danvers, Corp. Lewis Hardman of Lexington, Corp. 
Samuel W. Ashworth of Bellflower, Corp. Emery B. Quinn of Bloom- 
ington, Horseshoer Henry E. Batson of Bloomington, Privates Cecil D. 
Collins of Holder, Edward C. Albee of Bloomington, Paul V. Poole of 
Bloomington, William A. Albee of Bloomington, Homer A. Bowers of 
Normal, James G. Dennis of Normal, Lee H. Ellis of Bloomington, Harold 
J. Hartley of Bloomington, Clarence F. Miller of Bloomington, Charles 
V. Eiley of Normal, James H. Sears of Bloomington, William Price Smith 
of Normal, Sylvester Thorpe of Bloomington, Vernon Wieting of Bloom- 
ington. 



CONTRASTING HOSPITAL METHODS 

In an address before the McLean County Medical Society one day 
after his discharge from the service, Dr. Eobert Avery Noble, former 
major in the medical service with the A. E. F., stated that the Ameri- 
can wounded received better care than any of the other allied soldiers. 
The French custom, he said, was to care for the least wounded first, 
while the more severely wounded who would be unable to return to the 
line after leaving the hospital were the last to receive attention. The 
American method was to care for all wounded men as early and as 
rapidly as possible and to give the most severely wounded the first 
attention. The French he said rarely worked at night. He said that 
there were all kinds of injuries which could possibly be conceived of 
from the high explosive shells and machine gun bullets. 




McLKAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 249 

THE GENII OF THE AIR 

Deeds which for sheer cour- 
age and daring, having stood 
out even against a background 
of man 's ceaseless heroism, 
marked the world 's greatest 
and most dreadful war. They 
have been those of the avi- 
ators, waging a warfare that 

was terrible and strange; Th . j 

rushing through the air at a 

hundred miles an hour, thousands of feet above the earth; menaced by 
bursting shells or the hawklike attacks of hostile craft; tossed about 
by the winds; in danger, always of some breakdown that might send 
them earthward inside the enemy's lines; yet braving each peril with a 
smile and joking even when in the presence of death. War has brought 
its heroes always but what can one say of these? Men who for hours 
at a stretch and in a plane that might be swaying in half a gale, ran 
a nerve racking gauntlet of shell fire, death that the enemy guns sends 
into the sky; a fate that creeps nearer daily as the gunners skill im- 
proves; that means first a crash and then a drop through a thousand 
feet or more of empty air, a crumpling of wings and a fluttering, help- 
less fall, leaving the sodden wreckage of a craft. When the hero paid 
the price of his heroism; when he flew out at dawn and failed to return, 
it was his friends and fellow airmen who remembered with the lingering 
affection of comradeship, the one who was gone. But though they have 
been shot at ceaselessly from the earth and attacked viciously by hostile 
planes, the airmen in the late war, did their work accurately and well. 
Not one of these men, flying over the enemy with death at his elbow, 
risked or lost his life in vain. And it is a satisfaction to those of Mc- 
Lean County to know that the contribution made of air men, led all the 
other counties of the state excepting Cook. Some made the Supreme 
sacrifice and met their fate fearlessly. The list of air heroes from 
McLean County is as follows: 

Edward Burtis, Hudson Denny E. Henderson, Towanda 

Clifford Brown, Normal Omar Gregory 

Nyle Balbach, Chenoa Don Jones, Leroy 

Halsey Bingham David Lutz 

John Brokaw Eoy Lawson, Leroy 

*Louis E. Davis Harold Plummer 

Jack Daniels Edward Powers 

Claude Ferguson Harry Eiddle 

Mortimer Flynn *Lee Roebuck 

Harold Heafer Chester Twaddle 

Archie Hansen Earl Vanordstrand 

Reed B. Homey, Colfax Wm. Wise 

Iredell Harrison 

LIEUT. JOHN BROKAW 

Of the aviators from McLean county who were privileged to reach 
France, none enjoyed the experience more than John Brokaw of Blooming- 
ton. He enlisted October 23, 1917, at the age of 2-0, at the Ground School 
of the University of Illinois at tlrbana December 8 of that year, and 
February 24, 1918, was transferred to Camp Dick at Dallas, Texas, re- 
maining there until March 6 where he made such commendable progress 

*Killed in fall of plane. Obituaries will be found in the "In 
Memoriam" department. 



250 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



that he was transferred to the famed Kelly 
Field at San Antonio, Texas, commencing to 
fly March 6 and maintaining this drill until 
April 15. He was then transferred to 
Chanute Field at Eantoul, 111., where he 
continued the primary work until he was 
commissioned lieutenant May 15, 1918. He 
was then ordered to Camp Dick for two 
weeks and from there to Post Field, Law- 
ton, Oklahoma, in June taking a four week 
course as an army corps pilot. His final 
home training was at Hicks Field, Fort 
Worth, Texas, in aerial gunnery and after 
four weeks of drill in the employment of air 
ordnance, he sailed for France, from the 
port of Hoboken, New York, landing at 
Brest, October 5, 1918. He spent the first 
four weeks abroad at St. Maixent and then 
received orders to complete his training at 
Issudon, France, before going to the front. 
The signing of the armistice brought bitter 
regrets to him as well as thousands of others 
who were just at the pinnacle of actual ser- 
vice after a long period of strenuous training. He was released from air 
training on December 23, and was permitted to visit Nice and Monte Carlo 
on a leave of absence for one week. He then sailed from Brest January 13, 
1919, and was discharged at Garden City, Long Island, January 23, 1919. 




LIEUT. DAVID LUTZ 




Lieut. David Lutz, well known Bloomington boy, received his com- 
mission at Love Flying Field, Dallas, Texas, and took up special work 
in bombing. 

Lieut. Lutz had a most narrow escape in a fall while avoiding a 
collision with another plane. 

Lieut. Lutz is a graduate of the Bloomington high school, class '07, 
and of Normal University, class '11. At the time of entering the service 
he was a manual training teacher in Indianapolis. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



251 



LIEUT. WILLIAM C. WISE 

Lieut. William C. Wise of Bloomington 
had the good fortune to reach France 
as one of Uncle Sam's aviators, but too 
late to take an active part in bombing 
the enemy. He enlisted April 7, 1917, at 
the age of 22 at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 
in the aviation signal corps, but was 
transferred to the infantry, detailed to 
the first officers training camp at Fort 
Sheridan and was commissioned First 
Lieutenant at Camp Dodge, Des Moines, 
la., assigned to the Machine Gun Bat- 
talion and transferred to Fort Douglas, 
Salt Lake City, Utah, and was then as- 
signed to duty as Intelligence Officer at 
Jefferson Barracks. He then resigned his 
commission in Infantry to become a 
cadet, U. S. S. M. at Urbana, 111., ^n 
February 1, 1918, graduating April 1, 
assigned to Chanute Field as Flying 
Cadet, later taking a six weeks course 
at Camp Dick, Texas, then known as 
"Kewees Paradise" and the "Home of the Gold Bar Cadets." He was 
commissioned Second Lieutenant of Air Service at Chanute Field July 
1, 1918, placed in semi-active duty at Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, 
Ohio, and then ordered overseas, sailing from Garden City, L. I., Octo- 
ber 1, 1918, and ordered to Issoudim, France, joining the 3d A. I. C. 
Before his aspirations to diminish the enemy armies was realized, the 
armistice was signed. His health failing, he spent two months in a 
hospital on sick leave and a month of his convalescence in Southern 
France, and was then assigned duty as Commanding Officer of Casual 
Co. 987 at St. Aignon, France. He then sailed for home, reaching Camp 
Merritt, N. J., March 11, 1919, and receiving his discharge one month 
later, returning to Bloomington to resume his studies at the State Nor- 
mal University. The home of Lt. Wise is in Champaign. 





LT. MORTIMER FLYNN 

Lt. Mortimer Flynn enlisted at 
Chicago July 25, 1917, and was as- 
signed to the ground school in avi- 
ation at the Ohio State University. 
In October he was sent to Love 
Field, Texas, and was commissioned 
lieutenant May 8, 1918. He then 
trained at Camp Dick, Ellington 
Field, Tolliver Field, and finally 
Mitchell Field at Garden City, New 
York, taking the various courses in 
bombing, aerial gunnery, and other 
advanced work in aviation, and was 
ready to go across when the armis- 
tice was signed. He remained at 
Mitchell Field until March 10, 1919, 
when he proceeded to Camp Grant 
where he received his discharge, 
then returning to Bloomington. 



252 



M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



LIEUT. KENNETH H. JONES 

With the declaration of war, Kenneth 
H. Jones of Normal, promptly enlisted and 
was sent to Fort Howard, Maryland, May 
7, 1917, and was assigned to the 3d com- 
pany C. A. C. He was placed on detached 
service at the Master Gunners School at 
Fortress Monroe, Va., August 1, 1917, and 
then transferred to the national army at 
Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky., October 1, 
1917, with assignment to the 159th Depot 
Brigade Headquarters Co., later going to 
Co. C 309 Field Signal Battalion. Octo- 
ber 25 he was promoted to corporal; 
November 15 to sergeant and December 24 
to sergeant 1st class. He then asked for 
a transfer to the School of Military Aero- 
nautics at Champaign, 111., graduating 
April 26, 1918, transferred to Camp Dick, 
Dallas, Texas; 'thence to Wilbur Wright 
Field, Dayton, O.; and was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant August 30, 1918, at 

Chanute Field. He then trained in aviation at Brooks Field, San Antonio, 
Texas; Rockwell Field, San Diego, Gal., and was with the Pursuit Train- 
ing Department until the close of the war, completing a long and strenu- 
ous period of training as an aviator. He received his discharge January 
7, 1919, but in April of that year, he was commissioned in the Air 
Service Officers Eeserve Corps. 




LT. AECHIE M. HANSON 

Archie M. Hanson of Normal gave up his 
farm irrigation work in Texas to enlist and 
was assigned to Austin, Texas, where he 
trained for three months in the aviation 
officers training camp. February 16, 1918, 
he was ordered to the Concentration Camp 
at Dallas, Texas, to further complete his 
studies in machine gunnery, wireless and 
various other essentials to the aviator. Hav- 
ing been commissioned lieutenant, was or- 
dered to Chanute Field May 20 for flying, 
aerial photography and study in the theory 
of flight. August 1 he moved to Wilbur 
Wright Field at Dayton, Ohio, and to 
Garden City, L. I., September 10, thence 
proceeding overseas for advanced training 
at Issoudon aerial field, arriving there Octo- 
ber 26. There he prosecuted his training 
in bombing, gas drill, pistol practice and 
other work. Just as he was ready for active 
service against the enemy after a strenuous 
year of preparation, the armistice ended the 
war and Lt. Hanson in company with thou- 
sands of others, experienced the disappointment of being unable to clash 
with the enemy flyers. However, the period of duty was greatly enjoyed 
and he was able to see considerable of Europe before he was permitted 
to return to his home and be discharged. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



253 



LIEUTENANT HAERY E. RIDDLE 

Aviation had its appeal for Harry K. 
Eiddle and enlisting in Chicago, October 18, 
1917, he was assigned to duty at the United 
States Army School of Military Aeronautics, 
located at Cornell University, Ithaca, New 
York, reporting there on December 1, 1917. 
After more than two months of intensive 
training there, he was transferred on Feb- 
ruary 16, 1918, to Camp Dick, Dallas, Texas, 
where his training was continued. On April 
7, 1918, he was ordered to the famous Kelly 
Field at San Antonio, Texas, and was there 
commissioned Second Lieutenant in the Air 
Service (Aeronautics). After completing his 
training as an aviator, he was transferred 
to Brooks Field near San Antonio where he 
studied the Gosport system of Flying in- 
struction. He made such rapid progress that 
he was honored by selection as instructor 
at Park Field, Memphis, Tenn. and later 
promoted to the position of Flight Com- 
mander, still greater honor. He remained at Park Field, prosecuting his 
duties efficiently until his discharge from the service March 20, 1919, 
when he resumed the practice of law with office in Suite 408-9, Peoples 
Bank Bldg., Bloomington. 




LIEUT. HAROLD HEAFER 

Entering the Ground School of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois July 16, 1917, Harold 
Heafer of Bloomington, was transferred to 
Park Field, Tenn., after eight weeks and 
spent four months there winning a com- 
mission as a flying lieutenant in air ser- 
vice March 12, 1918. He then put in a 
further strenuous training at Fort Sill, 
Oklahoma, Post Field and served six weeks 
as pilot in the observation school. Then 
followed five weeks at Camp Dick, Texas, 
and four weeks at Fort Worth, taking the 
course in aerial gunnery. When orders 
came to go across, Lieut. Heafer came via 
Peoria enroute to New York and was mar- 
ried at Peoria July 12, sailing July 21 for 
Liverpool and proceeding directly to 
France where he was variously stationed 
at St. Maxient, where he attended a school 
for aviation officers two months at Issou- 
doun, and on October 15 joined the 186th 

Aero Squadron at Colombey les Belles and also Souilly, and was at 
Lemmes, near Verdun during the closing months of the war. He re- 
turned by way of Tours, Anglers, and other points in southern France, 
and sailed from Brest, France, for the United States. He received his 
discharge February 3, 1919, at Garden City, New York. 




254 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

AN ILLINOIS ARTILLERY REGIMENT 

The second largest contingent of draft men which went out of Mc- 
Lean county at any one time was that which departed in April, 1918, 
for camps in the east. Most of that contingent became absorbed into 
the 68th regiment of Coast Artillery, which was organized at Fort 
Wright and other defenses on Long Island. An official history of that 
regiment published at the end of 1919 was as follows: 

The Sixty-eighth was organized in the coast defense of Long Island, 
the first of June, 1918. 

The officers had been designated earlier in the war department or- 
ders. The spirit, energy and discipline of the regiment was exemplified 
from the first. When each man was asked if he wanted to go across, 
those who replied promptly, "Yes, sir," were chosen; all others were 
dropped from the list. At Fort Terry was regiment headquarters, also 
the medical department and batteries A, B, and C. Batteries D, E., and 
F were at Fort Wright, also the supply company. Lieut. -Col. Henry 
Fairfax Ayers was in charge of the unit at Fort Wright. Actual work 
began with a lecture by Col. Ayers, who is a West Pointer, on matters 
of discipline, dress, personal bearing, etc. The batteries began work 
at once in target practice, and the supply company in issuing overseas 
equipment and trying to get what was needed. The regiment was finally 
supplied with "Class C" equipment, when word came that "Class A" 
was the last word in European styles. 

One day after a parade in a sizzling heat thru the streets of New 
London, when the men returned to barracks "all in," word came that 
the regiment would leave the next morning. Immediately drooping 
spirits revived, and the men worked all night packing for the trip. 
Harbor boats took the men to New London, where Bed Cross ladies 
served refreshments, and then after conflicting rumors of' the possible 
port of embarkation, the trip for Boston began. The regiment detrained 
at the Cunard docks at Boston, and boarded the British ship Leicester- 
shire. The men were loaded into the hold, which formed their mess 
halls and their sleeping quarters for the trip across. 

The start in the voyage was made in a heavy fog and after a day's 
sailing, much to the surprise of the men, the ship dropped anchor in 
New York harbor. The stay there was short, however, and the next 
day another start was made, with the vessel's nose poked out to. sea. 
The fifth day out, the vessel caught up with the rest of the convoy, six 
transports and a British cruiser. Two days before reaching England, an 
escort of British destroyers met the convoy. 

The regiment 's yell or battle cry was originated on this voyage. An 
assemblage of officers in the lounge one afternoon discussed such a yell. 
It was agreed that the forceful ' ' Gang-wall, ' ' so often heard from mem- 
bers of the Hindoo crew of the vessel, should be part of the cry. Soon 
this yell was evolved, " Gang-wah. Six-Eight. Hoo-Eah. " That re- 
mained, the official yell of the regiment during the rest of its career. 
One day a British destroyer, No. 68, crossed the bows of the transport, 
and when the men from the railing shouted their yell, so appropriate to 
the destroyer, there came an answering cheer from the warship, and 
her commander sent a wireless vote of thanks. 

After fifteen days on the ocean the transport landed at Tillsbury 
docks on the Thames in London. The ship was given a noisy greeting 
by the ships in the harbor, and the regimental band and the "gang- 
wahs" returned the compliment. Just as the ship was docking an alarm 
was sounded warning of an air raid, which furnished a new thrill to 
the Americans. They were all curiosity but soon the "recall" signal 
was given, as the raiders had been driven off. This was the last air 
raid attempted by the Germans over London. The next morning the 
regiment went ashore and were welcomed by King George and taken 
to Romsey, a rest camp. 

The fifth day, the regiment set out on a ten mile hike to Southamp- 
ton, which they reached at noon and were issued sandwiches by the 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOBLD WAE 255 

British Bed Cross. The trip across the channel was made on the Nar- 
rangansett, an old ship owned by the Central Vermont railroad, and used 
on the other side during the war for carrying troops. The boat took 
half the regiment over, reaching LeHavre at 5 p. m., and the rest of 
the regiment came on another boat and debarked at the same time. The 
men were packed into the boats. On the dock at LeHavre they saw 
German war prisoners for the first time. Here they also saw a long 
American Ked Cross train coining in, loaded with wounded men, the 
sight of which brought the war closer to them. From the anchorage to 
the harbor, the men admired a wonderful hill back of the city, but little 
dreamed they would have to ascend it. After being officially welcomed 
by the city, they began their long hike up the hill. Leaving LeHavre, 
the regiment went to Best Camp No. 1, where they spent a day and a 
half in cleaning up, etc. They left this camp at 11 o'clock at night on 
August 30, 1918, and marched silently down the hill to the train sheds 
where they were first introduced to French railroad facilities, cars built 
for "eight horses, 40 men." The men were crowded so that only half 
of them could lie down at once to try and rest. On the train they ate 
British rations, and coffee was served at the stations by the French 
Eed Cross. On Sunday, September 1, the trains landed at Libourne, 
where the regiment was split up and billeted in different towns, St. 
Denis de Piles, St. Pardon, Arvayres, and regimental headquarters at 
Vayres. 

The billets consisted of old barns, houses, vacant stores, sheds and 
cafes that had gone dry. Soon the cooks and K. P. 's had coffee, bully 
beef and hard tack ready to serve. 

On September 16 a course of instruction in heavy artillery was 
established for officers, one for each battalion, conducted by an Ameri- 
can and a French officer. Real field problems were worked out, the 
school lasting until November 4. Special details of men and officers 
were sent to special schools, such as anti-aircraft, machine gun, gas, 
radio, aerial observation, and the like. 

Excitement ran nigh on rumors of an armistice and papers were 
scanned for "dope." When the news of the actually signing of the 
armistice reached the regiment, the lid was blown off, and November 
11 and 12 given to celebration. Each battalion held a parade and were 
reviewed by the mayor and regimental officers. 

From that time on, the exercises were just enough to keep in 
physical condition. The guns were shipped to St. Sulpice to be packed 
and ready to ship home. About November 24 another excitement arose 
on rumors of a start for home soon. It was a race to see which battalion 
would report ready first, and then which regiment first. All equipment 
but bare necessities were turned in, and yet no word came to move. It 
was raining constantly. On account of the rush order, there were pre- 
mature celebrations of Thanksgiving, with its feast. The country was 
scoured for turkeys and many secured. With lack of drills on account 
of constant rains, time hung heavy on the men's hands. The band then 
did its part to keep up spirits, by going in turn to each battalion for 
concerts. Inspection showed a fine record in sanitation for the regi- 
ment. Only five deaths from flu occurred in the regiment, while the 
disease was ravaging the French population. 

From the time of its organization the regiment had seen many 
changes of officers. On January 8, 1919, Col. M. C. Barnes took com- 
mand and piloted the 68th on its homeward journey. Delay of the 
embarkation officers at Bordeaux was exasperating, but due to the per- 
sistency of Col. Barnes the order to move came on January 23. One 
cold, bitter day was spent at embarkation camp No. 1 and nine days 
at Camp No. 2. The Salvation Army supplied little comforts and made 
the boys feel at least as if they were nearer home. On February 3, 1919, 
the 68th moved to Bassens docks and then to the S. S. Matsonia. It 
was a happy day to be really on board ship. The voyage home was 
rough. The men were given two meals a day. On February 15 the 



256 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



ship emerged from the heavy fog and headed into New York harbor. 
The ship dropped anchor at Fiftieth street at 5 p. m. The next morning 
she docked at Hoboken and after debarkation the men were sent to 
Camp Mills. There they got hot meals, received a real delousing and 
spent much time on leaves to New York. On February 21 the regiment 
left for Fort Wadsworth and on the 25th the Illinois detachment left 
for Camp Grant, and it seemed as if the entire regiment was going. 
On the evening of March 7 the officers of Fort Wadsworth tendered a 
farewell dance to the officers of the regiment which was to cease to 
exist as a regiment after that date. 




LOUIS O. EDDY 

A very great measure of credit for his 
energetic and tireless part in the great 
war, should be given to Louis O. Eddy of 
Bloomington who had charge of the pub- 
licity department of the McLean County 
Council of Defense. To him, as chairman, 
was entrusted the responsibility of secur- 
ing the co-operation of all the newspapers, 
both daily and weekly in city and country, 
in publishing articles in relation to the 
great drives by the various war relief as- 
sociations. These drives came in rapid 
succession and required a constant acti- 
vity in completing one line of publicity 
and preparing for another. The newspa- 
pers, threw open their columns with a 
generosity that has never been equalled 
and thousands of columns of matter in re- 
lation to the war drives, were printed. 
The cheerful and co-operative attitude dis- 
played by the various publications, proved a source, of satisfaction to 
the chairman of the publicity department and materially lightened his 
labors. In addition to the newspapers, it was necessary for Chairman 
Eddy to secure the consent of all merchants to utilize their display 
windows for posters and other advertising material. Stands for posting 
the huge posters, bill boards, etc., also had to be secured and the various 
sheets, displayed. An enormous quantity of such posters and advertis- 
ing material was distributed and displayed throughout the county dur- 
ing the war. It is certain that but for this thorough and efficient pub- 
licity campaign, the part played by McLean county in the great war, 
and which will always be a source of pride to every citizen, would not 
have been so flattering, nor the results so colossal. When the Council 
of Defense came into existence, its most patent and pressing obligation, 
particularly imposed upon it by the creating act, seemed to be the de- 
velopment of a civilian morale which would ensure to the nation the 
full and willing co-operation of McLean county in all measures required 
for the successful prosecution of the war, due to the polyglot population 
and multitude of interests. At the outset, the war spirit was not fully 
aroused and essential duties and sacrifices not clearly sensed. Disloyalty 
and sedition was not general, but there was, to phrase it mildly, con- 
siderable indifference and hesitancy in the personal attitude toward the 
war. It was the duty of the Council to arouse the people, to make known 
the cause of the war, the inevitability of this country's participation and 
the necessity for an aggressive, solidified patriotism to win. "Four 
minute men," "neighborhood committees" and other measures, proved 
wonderfully successful, in arousing dormant patriotism. The publicity 
department will always remain a bright page in the history of McLean 
county's part in the war. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 257 

WORK OF FRENCH-BELGIAN RELIEF ASSOCIATION 

The French, Belgian-Allied Relief Association finished its work, and 
on Friday, March 28th, 1919, made the last shipment to the devastated 
countries. This statement did not mean a great deal to the people at 
large, but for those faithful women who have given unsparingly of their 
time and strength, the closing of the shop had a deep significance. To 
Mrs. G. B. Read was due the .credit for the beginning of this work. 

Early in the fall of 1917 she became interested in war relief work 
thru her visits to the different headquarters in Chicago, and eager to 
do something of which Bloomington might be proud, she gathered about 
her a small group of women, who immediately caught her enthusiasm 
for the splendid work. She turned over several rooms in her home to 
their use and in October, 1917, forty-five children's complete outfits 
were made. In all, 1213 garments were sent across to relieve the suffer- 
ing in France in the first shipment. The call for relief became louder, 
interest increased and the work grew to such proportions that it be- 
came necessary to seek rooms more centrally located and better adapted 
to the work. 

On November 1st, Mrs. Ralph D. Fox kindly donated the vacant 
building at 426 North Main Street. It was here that the organization 
was perfected and the first regular meeting held. The following officers 
and directors were elected at this time: President, Mrs. G. B. Read; 
1st Vice-President, Mrs. H. S. Eckhart; 2nd Vice-President, Mrs. A. W. 
Anderson; Secretary, Mrs. F. C. Cole; Treasurer, Mrs. W. L. Moore; 
Directors, Mrs. Kate Brown, Mrs. R. C. Baldwin, Mrs. Charles Brokaw, 
Mrs. David Davis, Mrs. Alonzo Dolan, Mrs. C. B. Detrick, Mrs. Ralph 
D. Fox, Mrs. J. T. Johnson, Mrs. Anna B. Wade, Mrs. K. D. Welch, 
Mrs. Louise Robinson. 

In March, 1918, it again became necessary to move, and through 
the kindness of Frank Oberkoetter, the rooms at 115 South Main Street 
were secured and were used for the work until its close. 

The Board was very grateful to C. B. Hamilton, who did all the 
hauling free and which meant from two to nine boxes a week for eigh- 
teen months; also to T. P. Murray and E. H. Henniger who faithfully 
donated their services as packers. 

As an association they always went "Over the Top" in every 
undertaking, whether it was Christmas Packets, French Orphans, an 
appeal for helpers, or what not, their dreams were more than realized 
and the quotas more than filled. 

The French and Belgium Relief Shop meant much to the commu- 
nity. It was open every day, except Sunday, from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M., 
since its organization, with some members of the Board always in at- 
tendance. Church Aid Societies, Clubs, Lodges, Leagues, Thimble So- 
cieties, etc., worked there in a body, each having a special day of the 
week for its meeting. 

There were all sorts of entertainments given for the purpose of 
raising money, notable among them being "The Story Hour" given by 
Miss Raycraft, "The Birds' Christmas Carol" produced by Mrs. Roden- 
hauser and her assistants, "Our Children" put on by Miss Winifred 
Kates; "The Ladies Minstrels" elaborately staged by the Daughters 
of Isabella; "The Garden Party" at the Country Club, the "Pavement 
Dance" on East Jefferson Street, "The French Market and Melting 
Pot," managed by the Sigma Kappas, the "Three Day Fete" at "The 
Oaks," the "White Elephant Sale," managed by the Kappa Kappa 
Gammas, and a number of social functions, all donating their proceeds 
to the work. 

Through the French and Belgian Association, the first French Or- 
phans were adopted. Mrs. Read and Mrs. David Davis had charge of 
that part of the work and it was due to their untiring efforts that 



258 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

McLean County could boast of having adopted 500 orphans. Mrs. David 
Davis also had charge of the Christmas Packets, of which 1095 were 
sent to the wounded in hospitals of France and Italy. 

In October, 1918, a little Gift Shop was opened in the west room 
of the Irvin Theatre building, the use of which was generously donated 
by Clarence Irvin. Here were to be found all sorts of dainty hand- 
made gifts, and every afternoon tea was served in a charmingly ap- 
pointed little tea room by young women who were glad to be of service. 
Mrs. Edith Fielding was chairman of this department of the work, until 
called out of the city. Miss Harriet Hallam was her able successor, who 
with her corps of helpers turned over $1000 to the Relief Association. 
Mrs. H. M. Rollins was chairman of the Committee on Refugee Bags, 
and with her helpers packed 199. Mrs. Rollins alone filled 1500 house- 
wives, these little cases containing sewing materials. 

Mrs. Mark Drum has been a faithful chairman of the Layette Com- 
mittee, 505 complete layettes having been made and packed, to date. 

In January the Board expended the sum of $1500 in blankets, which 
were sent across. 1324 comforts and quilts have also been packed and 
sent. The total in garments packed and shipped was 60,019. 

It is quite impossible to tell of all the good works of the association. 
Local charities have been helped from the overflow. To all those who 
have given of their time, money, and strength the directors were deeply 
grateful and felt confident that they have been doubly blessed in the 
giving. 

The following summary of shipments to the different countries made 
by this organization showed: 

Women's garments to France, Belgium and Italy 1,513 coats, 275 
suits, 856 dresses, 708 skirts, 944 waists, 277 petticoats, 138 drawers, 43 
chemise, 796 underwear, 292 pairs stockings, 112 aprons, 50 shawls, 35 
sweaters, 237 scarfs. Total of 6,276. 

Refugee bags, each containing 28 articles 71 bags to France, 24 
to Belgium, 21 to Italy; total of 3,248 articles. Also 93 bags to Italy 
each containing 27 articles. Total of 2,511 articles. 

Miscellaneous garments shipped to France, Belgium and Italy 1,324 
comforts, 437 blankets, 219 pillows, 466 pillow cases, 305 towels, 1,119 
handkerchiefs, 43 sheets, 15 wristlets, 153 pairs mittens, 707 pairs shoes, 
14 aviator vests. Total 4,802. 

For Babies 1,502 rompers, 12 baby gowns, 12 kimonas, 1,156 dresses, 
37 jackets, 316 bootees, 25 bibs, 7 skirts, 61 diapers. Total, 2,128. 

Soap and other articles 1,537. 

Christmas packets to French and Italian hospitals and to French 
orphans, 1,175. 

Hospital garments to France 486 bandages, 106 bands, 60 bed socks, 
12 bath mitts, 46 operating masks, 16 leggins, 195 con caps, 36 ice bag 
covers, 9 hot water bottle covers, 636 cup covers, 80 lunch cloths, 5 
table cloths, 22 spreads, 229 napkins, 18 hospital shirts, 38 bath robes. 
Total, 1,994. 

Layettes Total of 505 to France, Belgium and Italy, containing 
13,635 articles. 

Men's garments to France, Italy and Belgium 67 overcoats, 221 
coats, 129 suits, 175 pants, 329 vests, 456 shirts, 594 underwear, 184 
pajamas, 211 sweaters, 1,554 socks, 45 caps. Total of 3,965. 

Boys' garments 42 overcoats, 97 coats, 376 suits, 615 pants, 1,001 
waists, 442 underwear, 84 sweaters, 353 caps. Total of 3,010. Also 37 
refugee bags for boys, containing 481 articles. 

Girls' garments 553 coats, 16 suits, 4,588 dresses, 87 middies, 69 
skirts, 2,306 petticoats, 947 drawers, 8^4 waists, 489 gowns, 53 chemise, 
478 aprons, 975 underwear, 1,180 stockings, 69 sweaters, 1,387 caps. 
Total 14,011. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



259 



Eefugce bags for girls Total of 57 shipped, containing 741 articles. 

The reports on Belgian orphan funds was as follows: Christmas fund, 
,$100; assigned Belgian orphans adopted 14, $616; fund to Belgian or- 
phans, $1,580.50. 

Mrs. Mabel W. Moore, treasurer, made the following report covering 
finances from November, 1917, until March 27, 1919: 

Receipts Donations $2,198.35, monthly donations $842; garden 
party $164, street dance $1,070.52; French market $582, lawn fete 
$5,663.71; white elephant sale $1,670.12, melting pot $122.80; gift shop 
$1,000; other entertainments and miscellaneous, $1,875.86. Total of 
$15,189.36. 

Paid out For materials, heat, light, janitor, freight and incidentals, 
$11,346.28; association adopted 15 French orphans, and to provide for 
them next year loaned $2,000; total paid out $13,346.28. This left a 
balance in treasury on March 27, 1919, of $1,843.08, which the board 
voted executive committee should use as they saw best. 

Mrs. David Davis, as County Chairman of The Fatherless Children 
of France Committee made the following report: February first for 
McLean County, 375; Bloomington, 196; County outside of Blooming- 
ton, 179; No. previous to October 1st, 78; total 453. No. still to be 
returned, 15. Grand total, 468. 




Harry Hiplert, Paul HuffiiiRton, Frank Hilpert, Harry H. Hall, G. M. Hargitt 
(Above) Center Ulark Hawk; left Lyle I. Hoover; rif/ht Merle Hutchinson. 



FROZE NOSE IN JULY 

Donald Jones of LeRoy, while in the aviation training camp at 
Arcadia, Florida, in July, 1918, reached such an altitude one day in a 
practice flight, that he froze his nose. The member swelled up to an 
abnormal size the next day and peeled off. The temperature on the 
ground at the time was in the 90 'a. 



260 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



MRS. G. BURT READ 

Her sympathies for the Allies aroused, 
long before America entered into the great 
war, Mrs. G. Burt Bead of 1203 East Jef- 
ferson street, Bloomington, determined to 
do what she could for the relief of the 
French soldiers and purchased material 
and made pajamas during 1916 for their 
use. She worked for a time alone but 
later a sewing club of which she was a 
member, took up the duty, others became 
interested and out of this small beginning 
early in 1917, grew one of the most useful 
and helpful of all the organizations among 
the women of McLean county. Allied re- 
lief of all kinds was extended and gar- 
ments sent to the soldiers of France, Bel- 
gium and Italy and also to the women and 
orphaned children of these nations. Ship- 
ments were made via Chicago and the New 
York City organization and also the Dur- 
yea War Relief Bureau. Sept. 10, 1917, 
marked the beginning of the sewing club activities and it made a notable 
record until the close of the war. Out of this beginning grew the Belgian, 
French and Allied Relief organization and huge shipments of clothing 
were made. McLean county led all counties of the state, with the ex- 
ception of Cook, in the volume of shipments and in other activities in 
this direction. The work of the Belgian Relief is told in detail else- 
where in this volume. Mrs. Read also launched the campaign in behalf 
of the adoption of French orphans, no less than 468 of such adoptions 
being made by the men and women of McLean county, so vastly much 
more than any other county of the state excepting Cook as to make the 
showing noteworthy and attracting the attention of the French govern- 
ment. Mrs. Read and her husband were in Chicago to attend the recep- 
tion given for Cardinal Mercier of Belgium when he toured the United 
States. He personally thanked her for her services in behalf of the 
destitute of his country. Mrs. Read was awarded a medal by the Duchesse 
of Vendome of Belgium, King Albert's sister, who had charge of the 
Belgian relief in recognition of her services and has also received diplo- 
mas and' letters, expressing the gratitude of the French, Belgian and 
Italian governments. 





Above Alvin Dunn. 
Center (left to right) Willis H. Dam- 
bold, Harvey B. Downey. 
Below Charles E. Daniel. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 



261 




D. O. Thompson 



FARMERS IN HEROIC WORK FOR VICTORY 

McLean county farmers have a record of 
vigorous war service. One phase of this is 
their subscription to the government war 
loans. The buying of these bonds thruout 
the county is shown elsewhere in this book 
in considerable detail. The population of the 
two cities, Bloomington and Normal, is dis- 
tinctly less than half that of the county; 
and the people living on farms number just 
about twice as many as all those in the vil- 
lages and cities outside the two named. Com- 
paring the amount of bonds bought in Bloom- 
ington and Normal with the total amount 
bought in the county, it is seen that a very 
large proportion of the subscriptions came 
from the farm. This is made still more em- 
phatic when it is noted that many people in 
the cities and smaller towns own land and 
derive a considerable part of their income 
from the farm, and yet their bond subscrip- 
tions were credited to the city or town where 
they live. 

But still more important was the response 
in food production. This showed itself in 
two distinct ways, in labor and in increase 
of wheat and pork raising. Our farmers never worked so hard before 
or accomplished so much per man. Having furnished their full quota 
of soldier boys and having lost many other hands to city work, they 
were very short of farm help shorter than ever before in their farm- 
ing. A great many farmers had little or no extra help during harvest. 
In many cases the one or two men on the farm had to shock all the 
wheat and oats. There was much risk of loss in this. The farmers 
made the tremendous attempt to increase their crops when their help 
was greatly reduced the greatest effort of their lives. They made an 
almost unbelievable success of it, and it was not done simply for the 
money; a supreme effort to help win the war and feed the Allies was 
the uppermost thought and very apparent to all who went among them. 
This was emphatically expressed by D. O. Thompson, the county farm 
adviser, who had intimate knowledge of their conviction and doings. 
A great many men who had retired from the farm or from most of its 
hard work went back into the fields and gave valuable service. Ab- 
solutely every man went to work, and to the limit in the long days and 
intensity of his work. 

The usual wheat acreage was 6,000 or 7,000 acres, but under the 
government call for wheat to provide food and the systematic drive 
of Farm Adviser D. O. Thompson, this was increased to 40,000 or 50,000 
acres of wheat. 

The government call for increased pork was also heeded, and a 
great many more pigs were raised, and this largely without regard to 
whether they would bring an extra profit. Probably its greatest effect 
was that a great number of farmers each added a few more sows. Much 
more pork was produced. 

The fact is the farmers changed their system of farming, omitted 
the usual clover so necessary for the soil, and did everything possible 
to increase the products so greatly needed to support the war. The 
response was complete. Nobody came over to new ways, community co- 
operation and the every day doing of the heretofore impossible more 
than the farmer of McLean county. And nobody did what had to be 



262 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAS 



done in quicker time or larger amount. The sum of the farmers' 
accomplishment is an enduring monument to their sense of citizenship 
and determination to win the war. 

The McLean County Better Farming Association suspended its 
usual activities and lent the services of the farm adviser, D. O. Thomp- 
son, to war work during practically the entire war period. It came to 
be recognized as representing the farmers and speaking for the farmers 
in whatever there was to be done, and far greater results w^ere secured 
thru this organization than could have been possible otherwise. 



THE FOUR-MINUTE MEN 

One of the volunteer organizations 
which worked at home to promote the 
spirit of victory was that of the Four- 
Minute Men. The McLean county 
body of this name was similar to 
those of other places, but none were 
more enthusiastic and able than that 
of McLean county. The committee 
of public information at Washington 
on October 15, 1917, appointed C. B. 
Hughes, a well known attorney, as 
chairman of the Four Minute men of 
McLean county. The organization 
was active in Bed Cross drives, y,. W. 
C. A., Liberty Loan and United war 
work campaigns, also on special occa- 
sions, and on special subjects. The 
objects of speaking was to enlighten 
by statement of facts and duties of 
citizens and arouse to action. 

Nearly all the moving picture 
houses in the different towns of the 
county permitted Four Minute men 
to address their audiences at many 
performances. In Bloomington, the 
following theaters were thus used: 
Majestic, Irvin, Castle, Chatterton 
and the Scenic. Meetings were held 
on special occasions in many towns, and in many country school houses 
and churches the Four Minute men were privileged to address the people. 
Medals for making more than 10 speeches during Liberty Loan 
Campaigns were given to James C. Riley, Edmund O'Connell and C. B. 
Hughes. C. B. Hughes spoke 142 different times in county during war 
on war subjects. The following were speakers enrolled for the purposes 
of four minute speeches: 




C. B. Hughes 



John Alexander 
E. C. Baldwin 
Martin Brennan 
A. K. Byrns 
E. E, Donnelly 
Will F. Costigan 
Earl DePew 
Frank Gillespie 
Bert A. Franklin 
Homer Hall 
Frank Hanson 
Richard F. Dunn 



Jesse E. Hoffman 
E. B. Hawk 
James C. Riley 
R. M. O'Connell 
John B. Lennon 
W T alter Will 
Rolla Jones 
J. H. Hudson 
Sigmund Livingston 
James A. Light 
Huber Light 
M. M. Morrissey 



B. C. Moore 
Edmund O'Connell 
K. W. Oglevee 
Hal M. Stone 
John M. Sullivan 
D. O. Thompson 
W. W. Whitmore 
W. R. Bach 
Fred W. Wollrab 
D. D. Donahue 
L. H. Martin 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



263 




EUGENE D. FUNK 

One of the most interesting and 
important .war relief activities was 
that relating to food production and 
conservation. In September, 1917, it 
became evident that steps were nec- 
essary to stimulate and encourage 
an increased food production in Illi- 
nois during the war, especially upon 
those foods that were most needed 
and to assist farming and live stock 
interests in all ways possible. This 
campaign included conservation of 
food and avoidance of waste. Meas- 
ures were adopted to effect a state 
wide food production and conserva- 
tion organization. The various agri- 
cultural and live stock organizations 
were functioning satisfactorily but 
it was planned to lend constructive 
assistance and co-operate for the 
purposes of co-ordinating as much as 
possible and eliminate duplication of 
efforts. A food production and con- 
servation committee was organized 
in McLean County and each other 
county of the state and there were 
seed corn committees; pork produc- 
tion; beef production, wool and 

mutton production, etc. Mr. Eugene D. Funk of Shirley was honored 
by appointment as a member of the General War Conference Food Com- 
mittee and made chairman of the National Seed Corn Administration. 
Mr. Funk was summoned first to Washington in May, 1916, by Her- 
bert Hoover, national food administrator, and was appointed a member 
of the committee of twelve to fix the price of wheat by President Wilson. 
At the suggestion of Mr. Hoover, he was also placed upon the Agricul- 
tural Advisory Committee of the Food Administration and the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture by President Wilson. The fact that Mr. 
Funk has served as president of the National Corn Association since it 
was first organized in 1908; is a member of the Agricultural Committee 
of the United States Chamber of Commerce; Treasurer of the State Live 
Stock Association of Illinois; and Chairman of the Illinois State Seed 
Corn Administration, gave him especial prominence and had a tendency 
to secure his appointment upon the important war boards. Mr. Funk 
put in eighteen strenuous months in Washington. Interests antagonistic 
to the farmers exerted tremendous pressure, but Mr. Funk stood firm 
and deserves a large measure of credit for the recognition given the 
American farmers' part in helping to win the war and also in pre- 
serving the rights of the men who till the soil. He witnessed scenes in 
the committee rooms in Washington that would have caused the blood 
of any American farmer to boil. Their interests were more than once 
in jeopardy and considered only as secondary by those who, through 
ignorance or otherwise, had little inclination to respect the rights of 
tho farmer. 

The disastrous frosts of 1917 left the striking lesson that farmers 
should create a sufficient reserve of seed corn at harvest time for the 
following springs planting. In September, 1918, a campaign was launched 
under the direction of Mr. Funk urging the farmers of Illinois to select 
the best seed corn early and arrange for proper storage facilities. Seed 



264 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



corn weeks were arranged by districts and 250,000 copies of posters 
were distributed. The campaign brought satisfactory results and reports 
indicated that more farmers than usual were performing this task. The 
message that farmers should use care in selecting their seed corn and 
in testing it before planting, was visualized at a seed corn show and 
demonstration held under the auspices of the State Council of Defense 
at the International Live Stock Exposition during the week beginning 
November 30, 1918, in Chicago. A comprehensive seed corn exhibit por- 
traying this message, was installed and competent authorities were 
present to talk with the visitors. This demonstration was a gratifying 
success and it was the general opinion that good work was being reg- 
istered. The seed corn needs of the state were well taken care of. Over 
250,000 bushels of tested seed were sold to Illinois farmers and only six 
complaints were registered against it. The sale of seed corn of doubtful 
germination from seedsmen of questionable reputation, was stopped in 
many instances. The administration not only supplied seed to the state 
but also protected farmers from many unscrupulous seedsmen. Mr. Funk 
and other members of the Seed Corn Administration deserve the highest 
commendation for their participation in this work. It was a great sacri- 
fice because they necessarily were forced to neglect their own interests 
to be of service in the larger work of supplying the state with seed. 
Their efforts will be of lasting benefit to Illinois agriculture as the 
gospel of seed testing was emphasized as it never was before. 



FRANK W. ALDRICH 

Frank W. Aldrich, 1506 E. Washing- 
ton Street, Bloomington, enlisted in the 
Red Cross Service and left Bloomington 
on May 16th, 1918. 

He was Field Director for the Ameri- 
can Red Cross at U. S. General Hospital 
No. 16, New Haven, Connecticut, from 
May 21st, 1918, to November 21st, 1918, 
and on December 6th, after a short visit 
home, took the position of Associate Di- 
rector of Camp Service at the Headquar- 
ters of the Atlantic Division, A. R. C., at 
44 East Twenty-third Street, New York 
City, and remained in that work until 
April 1st, 1919. 

His work at New Haven was the di- 
rection of the Red Cross activities in the 
army tuberculosis hospital there, and 
while in New York, his work took him 
to all the Camps, Hospitals and Stations 
in the Atlantic Division, about forty in 
number. 




TWO SONS IN NAVY 

Victor W. Overton, Jr. and Ross M. Overton were both in the naval 
service during the war. They were sons of Rev. V. W. Overton, for 
several years superintendent of the Northern Illinois conference of the 
United Brethren Church. He had moved to Peoria at the time of the 
war and the boys went into service from there. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



265 




Charles F. Ross 



MCLEAN COUNTY OFFICERS 

The McLean County Board of 
Supervisors during the years 
1917-18 was notable for the pa- 
triotism of its members and the 
constant desire to do everything 
possible to help win the war. 
Both individually and as a body, 
the board fitly represented the 
great county of McLean, garden 
spot of the corn belt, the richest 
agricultural district of the world. 
The board arranged for the great 
service flag which contained 
many thousand stars each typify- 
ing a soldier that this county had 
contributed to the great armies 
of Uncle Sam. In every way pos- 
sible, the board did its full duty 
and it earned the grateful appre- 
ciation of the entire public. The 
war-time board, was composed of 
the following members (Chas. F. 
Boss, Mount Hope, Chairman): 
E. E. Ewing, Allin; C. E. Ewins, Danvers; Parke Enlow, Dale; 
F. L. Bramwell, Dry Grove; S. L. Stutzman, White Oak; C. Allen, Ran- 
dolph; F. J. Blum, C. C. Wagner, Louie Forman, Dwight D. Moore, Wm. 
Schmidt, Wm. E. Eayburn, Charles Lathrop, Thos. P. Kane, George Zinn, 
John F. Welch, W. H. Flesh er, Bloomington; E. P. Mohr, E. F. Coolidge, 
Normal; H. H. Wagner, Downs; M. E. Eamseyer, Hudson; George 
Meiner, Old Town, B. G. Falkingham, Towanda; A. A. Stewart, Money 
Creek; C. W. Kinsella, Gridley; Wm. Vance, Empire; Al. Jackson, Daw- 
son; Thomas Arnold, Blue Mound; Clayton Ballinger, Lexington; Jacob 
Moschel, Chenoa; C. Imstead, West; John H. Jacobs, Arrow-smith; A. L. 
Hutson, Martin; Chas. Atkinson, Lawndale; James Hanes, Yates; J. E. 
Smith, Bellflower; E. M. Merritt, Cheney's Grove; Jacob Martens, 
Anchor; William Blair, Cropsey; S. C. Van Horn, Funks Grove. 

The officers of the county during the war were the following: 
Circuit Court Judge, Sain Welty; County Judge, James C. Eiley; 
County Clerk, P. A. Guthrie; County Treasurer, Jos. Eice; Circuit Clerk, 
John C. Allen; Eeeorder, N. B. Carson; Sheriff, Geo. E. Flesher; State's 
Attorney, Miles K. Young; Assistant State's Attorney, W. B. Leach; 
Superintendent Schools, B. C. Moore; Coroner, James Hare; Surveyor, 
A. H. Bell; Master in Chancery, Homer W. Hall; Public Administrator, 
Fred \V. Wollrab; Public Guardian, Richard F. Dunn; Superintendent 
County Farm, Arthur Jones; County Physician, Dr. Guy A. Sloan; Poor 
Master, Mabel Seymour; Probation Officer County Court, Nannie M. 
Dunkin; Court Reporter Circuit Court, C. C. Herr; Court Eeporter 
County Court, A. A. Hoffmann; Probation Officer Circuit Court, William 
Irvin; County Superintendent Highways, Ealph O. Edwards. 




Davis H. Daniel, Eston Dennis, C. A. Doggett, Wm. E. Deane, Gus D. Doenitz, 
Elmer Doggette, Paul G. Dally, Earl Dishong, Raymond Duehr, Frank 
Dwyer. 



266 McLEAN COUNTY AND TllK U'Oh'LI) WAR 



WAR-TIME LEGISLATORS 

Members of the Illinois legislature from the Twenty-sixth district 
during the period of the war, when many vital issues for the state were 
settled in the capitol, were Senator William H. Wright of McLean, 
Representatives William Rowe of Saybrook, George Dooley of Leroy 
and William Noble of Gibson City. Senator Wright is a native of Ver- 
mont, who removed to Illinois in 1857. He has been a farmer all his 
life. He was elected to the House in the 46th and 47th assemblies and 
chosen senator in the fall of 1917. Senator Wright has been a leader 
in his community, prominent in the various war relief movements and 
active and influential in the various patriotic legislative acts while 
the great war was in progress. McLean County was fortunate as well 
as the state and nation in the possession of such men in the legislative 
halls during that crucial period. 

HON. WILLIAM ROWE 

William Rowe is a farmer and stock raiser; was a native of Ohio 
and lived in Illinois since 1864. For twenty-three years he engaged in 
business in Saybrook; was vice-president of the Citizens' bank, and 
served many years on the town and school board. For ten years he 
served on the county board of supervisors and two years as chairman. 
He was elected to the house from 1912 to 1918 continuously. The 
record of Representative Rowe was of high class and he ranks with 
the ablest representatives that have served the 26th district. Always 
loyal and patriotic, Mr. Rowe won the high approval of his constituents 
by his course. The welfare of the nation was first in his thoughts. 



HON. GEORGE DOOLEY 

George Dooley of Leroy is one of McLean County's well known 
farmers, being a native of the county. He was educated in the common 
schools and business college; served as alderman at Leroy eight years 
and supervisor six years. He married Rosa L. West, daughter of Hon. 
Simeon West. He is a member of the Methodist church, and served 
his first term in the legislature during the war. Mr. Dooley, although 
the minority representative from the district, was with the majority 
when it came to patriotic action and all efforts to help win the war. 
His record stands the test and he reflected credit upon his district, the 
state and the country at large. His was the fullest measure of pat- 
riotism. 

HON. WILLIAM NOBLE 

William Noble of Ford County is a native of Ohio, but moved to 
Champaign County in 1891, and later to Ford County. He graduated 
from the University of Illinois in 1896. The war-time legislature was 
his first experience in legislative halls, but his efficiency and faithful- 
ness to the trust reposed in him was of the highest character and not 
surpassed by those of many years service in the halls of legislation. 
He fitly represented the 26th district. Messrs. Wright, Rowe and Noble 
are Republicans, and Mr. Dooley a Democrat. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 267 



Members 51st General Assembly 




268 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 




WAR TIME SHERIFFS 

McLean county's war time sheriffs were 
George E. Flesher and Ralph Spafford. The 
former served from December, 1914, until 
1918, while the latter succeeded Flesher on 
December 1, 1918, for a four year term, 
having been chief deputy under Sheriff 
Flesher throughout the latter 's term. The 
two therefore, bore the brunt of the heavy 
responsibilities and vastly increased duties, 
incidental to the war. The sheriff had 
charge of the first draft registration and 
later, the department of justice turned over 
to that officer the enforcement of the war 
regulations. The various exemption boards 
called upon the sheriff and his deputies to 
look up draft evaders and those who had 
neglected to register. In such a great county 
as McLean, this duty in itself was an onerous 

one. Sheriff Flesher and his deputies co-operated at all times with the depart- 
ment of justice and there were hundreds of cases of various kinds growing 
out of the war which fell to the lot of the sheriff and his assistants to handle. 
The Legal Division of the War Eisk Insurance Bureau required many in- 
vestigations and which were turned over to the sheriff. In a multitude of 
other ways, Sheriff Flesher and Chief Deputy and later Sheriff Spafford, 
loyally and faithfully co-operated with the government and state forces and 
their office ranked as 100 per cent 
perfect, making a record for effi- 
ciency that had no superior and 
few equals in all Illinois. Thanks 
to the efforts of Sheriff Flesher 
and his assistants during the try- 
ing days of the great war, the 
responsibilities that were forced 
upon these efforts, were always 
handled to the entire satisfaction 
of the various agencies that ap- 
pealed to them and the people of 
McLean county owe a debt of 
gratitude to these officers for 
their tireless service, all per- 
formed without additional com- 
pensation. The demand upon 
them was great, but there was 
no hesitation and no failure. The 
record is one for which Sheriff 
Flesher, Chief Deputy Spafford, 
Deputies William Kennedy and 
Ealph Flesher, and all others 
connected with the office, have 
reason to be proud. 




Chief Deputy Ralph Spafford 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 



269 




MRS. FRANK H. FUNK 

The history of McLean county's part in the war would be sadly incomplete if 
a tribute was not paid to the women whose efforts under the direction of the 
Council of Defense furnished one of the most inspiring features of the great con- 
flict. Too much can not be said in praise of them. Without hope of reward or 
even recognition of their sacrifices, they gave their time, their energy and their 
best thought without stint. They were as truly, and as usefully, in the service 
of their country as were those who 
bore official titles or wore the nation's 
uniform. One of the most notable 
examples is Mrs. Frank H. Funk of 
Bloomington, who was an active mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee, Wom- 
ans Committee State Council of De- 
fense of Illinois, and the Womans 
Committee Council of National De- 
fense, Illinois Division, having been a 
member of the committee from its or- 
ganization in May, 1917, until the 
disbanding of the committee ih Octo- 
ber, 1919. Also, during the war, Mrs. 
Funk was Vice-President of the Illi- 
nois Federation of Womens Clubs 
which started the organizing of units 
for the Council of Defense. Mrs. Funk 
organized the Seventeenth Congres- 
sional District for the Council of De- 
fense and was instrumental in organ- 
izing for the work of the Liberty 
Loans undertaken by the women. Mrs. 
Funk organized many units of the 
Council of Defense and was the 
speaker on numerous occasions for the 
promotion of War work. The Wom- 
ens Committee, Council of Defense 
raised $73,000 from the Registration 
fee, which was a voluntary offering 
given by women who registered for 
War work, and registered 700,000 
women for War service of different 

kinds. In addition to this sum nearly a hundred thousand dollars was raised by 
the Womens Committee, partly by subscription and partly by business ventures. 
Besides all this the Womens Committee raised $473,000.00 by Tag Days, giving 
the money to assist various War activities, such as Belgium Relief, etc. The 
Womens Committee, National Council of Defense had much to dp with the success- 
ful choruses, called Liberty choruses, in the State, and distributed 81,000 free 
song books. The Committee established and maintained a Training Farm for women 
at Libertyville, and sent from there 76 well trained women capable of doing 
Agriculture or Dairy work; the herd, implements, etc., were afterwards given to 
the self-Help College at Carlinville. The Food Production Department promoted 
War gardens and reports came in from 90,000 school children who worked gardens. 
The Americanization Department held three institutes for the Foreign born, reach- 
ing about fifty thousand people. The committee succeeded in co-ordinating the 
different active organizations of women throughout the State, thus saving much 
duplication of work. The Federation of Womens Clubs of which Mrs. Funk was 
vice-president, established and sustained Soldiers Clubs at Rockford and Wauke- 
gan, established another club at Rantoul. For the protection of Girls, the Federa- 
tion established and maintained a Girls Cottage at Rockford, as well as at Wau- 
kegan. The federation raised funds to send two young women to France for a 
year to do Canteen work. As a War measure the Womens Committee, State Council 
of Defense supplied a fund to be used for the benefit of Illinois to establish in 
its different towns and centres Community Councils. Mrs. Funk was elected a 
member of the Executive Committee at a State Conference and afterwards elected 
the Secretary. The Womens Committee felt it their duty to facilitate the work 
of the Federal Government which through the Department of Agriculture and 
Interior endeavored to promote the Community Council idea throughout the Nation, 
thus co-ordinating the work of the different organizations, promoting community 
welfare. The result of this work in McLean County is the Community Council 
of Bloomington, president of which, is President Felmley of the Normal Univer- 
sity. Mrs. Funk, as a director of the Equal Suffrage Association of Illinois, 
worked for the Resolution for the Constitutional Convention passed by the Legis- 
lature. Mrs. Funk is Vice-President of the National Federation of College Women, 
director of the Illinois Parent-Teachers Association, member of Womans Relief 
Corps of Bloomington ; member of the National Womens Trade Union League ; 
of the Vassar Alumni Association ; of the College Alumni of Bloomington ; of the 
College Club, Chicago; Political Equality League, Chicago; Womans City Club, 
Chicago ; Director of the Womens Association of Commerce, Bloomington ; member 
of the Bloomington Womens Club; of the Amateur Musical Club; the Margaret 
Fuller Club ; History and Art Club, all of which did their work in assisting to 
win the war. 



270 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

WAR WOEK OF THE Y. M. C. A. 

The work of the Young Men's Christian Association of Bloomington 
during the Great War was directed along two very important lines, that 
of taking care of the boys who were in the Training Camps in this coun- 
try and those who embarked for camps in other countries and those who 
were at the front. 

The task of enlisting men to minister to the comforts of our boys 
both in camp and at the front was of such a stupendous nature that it 
early became necessary to enlist men of high character and of ability 
to perform this service. The Bloomington Association received and 
passed upon almost sixty applications and accepted for actual service 
in the field twenty men. Tnese men were enlisted and accepted for 
their arduous task in the home Association and worked under the direct 
supervision of the National War Council. The association was proud 
to list among the twenty who went from this county the following: 
William Wallis, Ealph McCarroll, Elmer W. Gavins of Normal, Elmer 
Packard of Normal, D. C. Ridgely of Normal, D. E. Hagin, Rev. Moore 
of Lexington, Rev. E. K. Masterson of Normal, G. Kimball of Lincoln, 

B. C. Moore, County Superintendent of Schools, E. E. Haines of Normal, 
Gannon J. Gates, 236 Front street, Bloomington, and others who were 
recruited indirectly through the local committee for this work. These 
men performed a valiant service for our boys, both at home and abroad, 
that will never be forgotten. 

The secretaries of the local Association were instrumental in bring- 
ing comforts to the boys while enroute from one camp to another in 
that they served as secretaries on troop trains, and in other ways served 
the boys while enroute. 

Free privileges were given at the Y. M. C. A. building to over 10,000 
soldiers and sailors, who greatly appreciated the comforts of, the in- 
stitution. 

The building was also headquarters for various departments of the 
Red Cross. At one time most of the second floor was given over en- 
tirely to this work. 

McLean County contributed during 1917 and 1918 over $200,000 to 
carry on the work of the Y. M. C. A. in this country and overseas. 

The boys of the Y. M. C. A. were active participants in all of the 
loan drives, in the Thrift Stamp drive and in all Red Cross and other 
activities, taking part in carrying out such details as distributing posters, 
soliciting loan subscriptions and many other details which boys could 
be called upon to handle. 

More than two-thirds of the time of the General Secretary was 
given to war activities of some form. 

On account of the large call for man power, the Bloomington Y. M. 

C. A. was almost stripped of help during part of the war. General 
Secretary A. J. Luebbers and the janitor were at times the only men 
on the job in the building. The Association organization during the 
war consisted of: H. O. Stone, president; Campbell Holton, vice presi- 
dent; G. A. Washburn, treasurer; and the following directors: F. R. 
Bean, J. A. Beck, Paul F. Beich, Charles Brokaw, L. M. Crosthwait, C. 

E. Dagenhart, C. B. Hughes, W. H. Johnson, Henry Keiser, B. M. Kuhn, 

F. H. Mclntosh, H. B. Patton, Frank Rice, W. D. Snow, J. K. Stableton, 
W. A. Whitcomb. 

The National War Work Committee of the Bloomington Association 
who examined all applicants for war work in the local association, con- 
sisted of H. O. Stone, Mark Evans, Rev. W. B. Hindman, AV. D. Snow 
and General Secretary Luebbers. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



271 



CONGRESSMAN FRANK L. SMITH 

Brought face to face with a 
grave public responsibility right 
in the midst of the crucial events 
of the closing months of the war, 
Hon. Frank L. Smith of Dwight, 
elected to congress in November, 
1918, had perhaps as hard a role 
to bear in connection with the 
war's finish and the national re- 
construction period, as any other 
man of the state. Congressman 
Smith was chosen to represent 
the Seventeenth Illinois district 
to succeed the late John A. Ster- 
ling, who met a tragic death on 
October 17, 1918, only two weeks 
before the date of the election at 
which he would no doubt have 
been triumphantly re-elected if 
he had been alive. When the 
question of filling the vacancy on 
the ticket caused by Mr. Ster- 
ling's death came up for decision 
of the congressional district com- 
mittee, there was no hesitancy in 
the nomination of Col. Frank L. 
Smith of Dwight. At the suc- 
ceeding election he won out over 
his democratic opponent by the 
largest majority ever recorded for 
a candidate in the district. Col. 
Smith did the unusual thing of at once establishing an office in Wash- 
ington, soon after his election, and although he did not formally take 
his seat in the house until March, 1919, he was on the ground at the cap- 
ital to look after the interests of the people of the Seventeenth district. 
Col. Smith is an Illinoisan to the manor born, being a native of the 
town of Dwight, where he was born Nov. 24, 1867. His father was the 
' ' village blacksmith ' ' of Dwight, and his start in life was humble enough. 
He early displayed the energy and good sense which ever afterward 
characterized his career. Graduating from the Dwight high school in 
1885, he began to work at whatever he could find to do to make a start, 
not being afraid of manual labor. After a short time in Chicago he 
engaged in railroad work, he returned to Dwight and started in the real 
estate business on a capital of $125. His success from the first was 
marvelous, and in 1905 he was one of the organizers of the First National 
Bank of Dwight, in which he continued a leading spirit for many years. 
His own real estate offices became the largest and most complete in a 
town of the size anywhere in the country. Always an ardent republican, 
he became prominent in politics first in his own town, then in the county, 
the district and the state. He long served as chairman of the Illinois 
republican central committee, and was a candidate for the republican 
nomination for governor in the primaries of 1916, polling a total of 
75,000 votes in the state and standing third in the large field of primary 
candidates. The successful nominee was Frank O. Lowden, who was 
afterward triumphantly elected governor. He afterward resumed his 
position as head of the republican state central committee, which he 
held at the time and after his election to congress. 




272 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



THREE BROTHERS IN PRANCE 

The town of Carlock had the distinction of having three brothers in 
the army, and all serving in France at the same time. They were Corp. 
Jesse L. Robison, Private Marshall O. Robison, and Private Travis E. 
Robison. Jesse went out with the first draft contingent from this county 






in (September, 1917, first to Camp Dodge, then to Camp Pike, and after- 
wards Camp Dix, then overseas, where he served till the end of the war 
in Company G. 345th infantry. Travis enlisted on June 12, 1918, and 
sailed for France about the same time as his brother Jesse. Travis was 
a chauffeur in the medical corps. He took his preliminary training at 
Jefferson Barracks and at Allcntown, Pa. Marshall O. Robison went out 
in April, 1918, to Fort Dupont, Delaware, to join a replacement regiment 
of coast artillery. After two months he went to Camp Merritt then 
to France, where he served to the end of the war. All brothers re- 
turned home safely. 



JOE AND LOUIS MOORE 

Joe and Louis Moore, sons of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Moore of 404 
East Monroe street, Bloomington, were both in the army, but only the 
former was privileged to go overseas. Joe enlisted June 1, 1918, and 
was assigned to the 
chemical warfare de- 
partment. After 
training at Camp 
Humphreys, he went 
to France and saw 
much active service 
at Tours, and other 
points and was on 
duty at Paris, Co- 
blenz and other 
places, engaged in 
the preparation of 
maps and in labora- 
tory work. He spent 
nearly a year in 
France and Germany 
and was discharged 
with the rank of 
sergeant at Camp Mills July 1, 1919. 

Louis W. Moore enlisted March 8, 1918, and spent three months 
training in aerial photography at Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y., gradu- 
ating in First Class and sent to Post Field, Ft. Sill, Okla., where he was 
engaged in instruction work until May 26, when he was discharged at 
Camp Taylor, Ky. He was fortunate in being assigned to the largest 
school for aerial observers in the U. S. and photographed many miles 
of country from the air, making military photographic maps, a thrilling 
and highly interesting experience. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



273 




Within fifteen months after the armistice, when the service men 
and women had returned from their war service, there were many posts 
of the American Legion organized in McLean county. The idea of 
this organization had its inception with a group of U. S. army officers 
in Paris in February, 1919, when they met to study the problems of the 
return of the soldiers to civil life. They called a meeting of representa- 
tives of all large units then represented in France, and these officers 
and enlisted men in equal numbers, held a three days' meeting in Paris 
in March, and created the American Legion. The permanent state or- 
ganization in Illinois was formed at a convention held in Peoria October 
17 and 18, 1919, and this convention appointed delegates to the first 
national convention held in Minneapolis on November 10, 1919. At this 
convention policies were outlined, officers elected and Indianapolis se- 
lected as national headquarters. The preamble to the constitution reads 
aa follows: 

"For God and Country, we associate ourselves together for the fol- 
lowing purposes: 

"To uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States of 
America; to maintain law and order; to foster and perpetuate a one 
hundred per cent Americanism; to preserve the memories and incidents 
of our association in the Great War; to inculcate a sense of individual 
obligation to the community, state and nation; to combat the autocracy 
of both the classes and the masses; to make right the master ,of might; 
to promote peace and good will on earth; to safeguard and transmit to 
posterity the principles of justice, freedom and democracy; to con- 
secrate and sanctify our comradeship by our devotion to mutual help- 
fulness." 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LOUIS E. DAVIS POST 56 OF BLOOMINGTON 
THE AMERICAN LEGION 

Following the caucus of veterans in Paris, France, early in 1917, a 
similar caucus was held in St. Louis, Missouri. Thomas Fitch Harwood 
of Bloomington was selected as delegate to the first caucus in this coun- 
try. Immediately after his appointment he called for service men of 
this county to accompany him to St. Louis. Ben S. Rhodes and R. M. 



274 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAB 

O 'Council attended the meeting. The aim and purpose of the American 
Legion was outlined and drawn into a temporary constitution, which 
was adopted. 

Upon the return of Messrs. Harwood, Ehodes and O 'Connell to this 
city, Mr. Harwood called a meeting of former service persons of this 
county for June 23, 1919, in the circuit court room of the McLean 
County court house. As Organizer for The American Legion Mr. Har- 
wood formed a temporary organization. Those present were: Thomas 

F. Harwood, Lloyd E. Orendorff, Oscar G. Hoose, James D. Foster, Harold 
H. Livingston, Hilton D. Markham, Paul E. Greenleaf, Otto M. Salmon, 
Herman M. Gunn, Eobert H. Moore, Roy A. Eamseyer, Henry H. Car- 
rithers, Leslie E. Bristow, Ben S. Ehodes, Eichard M. O 'Connell, Clarence 

G. Anderson, L. Earl Bach, Bert L. Eiseling, James Bernard Murphy, 
Charles D. Havens, J. J. O 'Connor, Benjamin E. Anderson, Charles P. 
Kane, Mark E. Ethell, Eobert A. Noble, James J. Butler, C. Dale James, 
Edward A. Mott, Emmett V. Gunn, Harold V. Moore, Arthur W. Smith, 
Lome P. Murray, Oscar E. Bebout, James F. Thompson, Wayne W. 
Bircklebaw, Leon J. LaFond, William J. Keen, Heber S. Hudson, Howard 
E. Sutherland, Ansel F. Stubblefield, Harry E. Eiddle, Thomas D. Cantrell. 

The above men were the first to sign the application for charter. 
Charles P. Kane was elected Temporary Chairman, with Ben S. Ehodes 
as temporary Secretary and Treasurer. The name "Louis E. Davis" 
was selected by a committee composed of T. F. Harwood, James D. 
Foster and Oscar G. Hoose. Their report included the following: "He 
was the first man of his class in camp to qualify as a reserve military 
aviator, and on the day of his death was then completing his bombing 
course, at that time the most advanced in aviation. At the time of his 
death he was preparing for overseas service. The remains of Louis E. 
Davis were buried with military honors in the Evergreen cemetery, 
Bloomington. It is fitting and proper that this organization gathering 
within its ranks those who gave and sacrificed for the freedom of coun- 
try and mankind should honor itself by the choice of such a name." 

Louis E. Davis, Lieutenant in Aviation, was born November 24, 
1893, in Bloomington. He died at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas, as 
the result of injuries of an airplane accident sustained May 10, 1918. 
He was the son of H. O. Davis. 

Eegular meetings on the first Thursday of every month w r ere held 
in the county court house until January, 1920, when club rooms at 309% 
North Main street, third floor, were leased. The membership grew from 
the original handful of former service persons until early in 1920 when 
the organization boasted of over 700 members, including a one hundred 
percent membership among the nurses of the county. It was the first 
post of the American Legion to be formed in McLean County. The 
first officers of the organization elected January 15, 1920, were: Past 
Commander, Charles P. Kane; Commander, Harry L. Howell; Vice 
Commander, Thomas Ivan Costigan; second Vice Commander, Miss Grace 
Gaines; Chaplain, Eev. William B. Hindman; Adjutant, James D. 
Foster; Sergeant at Arms, Albert S. Coomer; Executive Committee: 
Charles P. Kane, F. Carlyle Willey, Oscar G. Hoose, James Qwen, Leo 
L. Hogan and John J. O'Connor. In a later meeting Ealph Morath was 
elected finance officer. William B. Geneva was elected historian. 

Early in 1920 the Louis E. Davis Post 56 promoted an indoor circus 
in the Coliseum from which finances were derived enabling the then 
small membership to secure club rooms and support a membership cam- 
paign which was as great a success as the circus. 

In March, 1920, ' ' The Mascot, ' ' a monthly publication of the Louis 
E. Davis Post made its first appearance. The publication was intended 
to stimulate interest in post affairs and indications of its development 
were rapidly entertained. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 275 




AMERICAN LEGION OFFICERS 

Top row, left to right J. D. Foster, A. S. Coomer, Ben Rhodes, Rev. W. B. Hindimui. 
Second row, left to right Ralph Morath, Dr. Harry Howell, Oscar Hoose. 
Third row, left to right Ivan Costigan, Miss Grace Gaines, Charles Kane, J. O'Connor. 
Fourth row, It-ft to riyht H. C. Willey, James Owens, \V. B. Geneva, and Leo Hogan. 



Committees from the Louis E. Davis Post 56 organized the Steven- 
son-Lewis Post 55(5, of the American Legion, as the second post in Mc- 
Lean County, which was solely for former service persons of the colored 
race. Lincoln Page was named as temporary chairman, and started 
the organization safely on its course. 

"The Fathers of Veterans," first formed in McLean County also 
grew out of the American Legion. The Ladies Auxiliary to the Louis 



276 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOBLD WAS 

E. Davis Post 56 of the American Legion was in its rapid development 
early in 1920, and has a membership almost as large as the post to 
which its members were affiliated. As neither the constitution of the 
American Legion nor the Auxiliary constitution, provide for the fathers 
of men or women who were in the service the "Fathers of Veterans" 
organization developed. William F. Costigan was the first chairman of 
the organization, which was county wide in its development, and B. C. 
Moore, was named secretary and treasurer. 

First permanent officers of the Womens Auxiliary to the Louis E. 
Davis Post 56 were: President, Mrs. Irma Greiner; Vice-President, Mrs. 
Thomas B. Foster; Secretary, Miss Ina Rhodes; Treasurer, Mrs. Louis 
Wollrab; Executive Committee, Mrs. J. A. Goodwin, chairman; Mrs. 
Harry Howell, Miss Winifred Elliott, Mrs. W. W. Gailey. 

Numerous other posts of the American Legion later came into being 
after the first post formation in Bloomington, including Ruel Neal, Le- 
Roy; Erwin Martensen Post, Anchor; Ben Roth Post, Chenoa; Elmo F. 
Hill Post, Lexington; Benedict-Crutchley Post, McLean; David Hum- 
phrey Daniel Post, Saybrook; Grant Post, Bellflower, and Saybrook Post 
427, Saybrook. Other posts were in their formation when this work 
went to press. 

List of Members Louis E. Davis Post No. 56 

George Elbert Abbey, Cecil Fiske Abrams, Forrest Lee Adams, Erwin 
Albee, Arrie Adelia Allen, James E. Allen, Benj. R. Anderson, Clarence 
G. Anderson, Russell R. Armstrong, Wavie Armstrong, Aaron R. Augus- 
tin, Corry C. Ayers. 

L. Earl Bach, Delmar D. Bachman, Harry E. Baker, John M. Barr, 
Wm. Wilson Barrett, Henry F. J. Barrow, Wm. Herman Barthel, William 
Bauer, Donald Joseph Bayler, Clarence Bean, Oscar Ray Bebout, John 
Haerms Becker, Fred Beckman, Jr., Claude Edwin Bedinger, Carl E. 
Behr, W. G. Behr, Sylvanus Ray Belt, M. Charlotte Bender, Wayne W. 
Birckelbaw, Walter Franklin Blackburn, Stone Paul Bloomquist, Homer 
B. Blumenshine, Carl Theodore Bock, Russell Alvin Bolze, Ernest Boog, 
John Allen Bourland, Carroll M. Bowen, Glenn Rhodes Bowman, George 
Joseph Boylan, Harry Francis Boylan, D. F. Bracken, Timothy Joseph 
Bradley, Ralph Allen Bramwell, Dr. Fred W. Brian, Thomas Brigham, 
William M. Bright, Jr., Russell W. Bringham, Leslie R. Bristow, John A. 
Brokaw, Roy Gale Brookshier, Bert Edward Brown, Clifford Allen Brown, 
Edward S. Brown, Ellis Eugene Brown, Maurice Gilbert Brumback, Camp- 
bell E. Brunton, Thomas P. Bryant, Meddie Buck, Ralph W. Bunnell, 
Henry Lyell Burch, Mary Agnes Burke, Willis A. Burkholder, Hudson 
Burr, Louis Blackburn Bush, Chas. S. Butler, James J. Butler. 

Elbert Wilson Callahan, Martin Leo Callahan, Williard B. Canopy, 
Thomas D. Cantrell, John Taylor Carlson, Ray Ellis Carnahan, Robert L. 
Carnahan, Floyd Wm. Carr, Richard A. Carr, Henry H. Carrithers, 
Andrew James Casner, Chester Burton Castle, Lester Blake Gavins, Ar- 
nett Sterling Chapin, Dean Wilcox Charmi, Edward W. Chrisman, H. S. 
Chrisman, Henson E. Clark, Edmund G. Cleveland, John R. Clickner, 
Herbert S. Cline, John Louis Cobb, J. Ivan Cole, Charles Clinton 
Compher, John J. Condon, George Orin Constant, David E. Cook, Edwin 
H. Cooke, Herbert Lee Cooke, Wilbur Rison Cooke, Albert Coomer, Ed- 
ward John Corbitt, George M. Corson, Thomas Ivan Costigan, James 
Vincent Cox, John Flavin Cox, W T illiam B. Craig, Marvin W. Crawford, 
Thomas Burr Crigler. Hubert Monroe Cropper, Lee Howard Crosland, 
Donald Cruikshank, Robert Hiram Crum, Charles Wm. Culbertson, 
Francis Michael Cullen. 

Glen A. Dale, Paul G. Dally, William Carl Dambold, Earl Wadding- 
ton Daniel, Chas. Byron Day, Esek Earl Day, Ralph Jesse Deane, Homer 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 277 

Deaton, Ralph C. DcMange, Frank Edward De Moss, Frank Deneen, 
Alvah H. Denning, Reynolds C. De Silva, Harry Lincoln Deutsch, Oscar 

E. Deutsch, Willard Leonard DcVore, John Robert Dewenter, Harry 
Kimball Dick, Wm. Stanley Dickey, William Diebold, Roy H. Dillon, 
Chas. E. Dimmett, Lawrence Egbert Dodge, Edward A. Donnelly, Clay 
Guthrie Dooley, Adlai Stevenson Dorrell, Dwight Ireneus Douglass, Lloyd 

F. Dowell, Fred Downs, George Edgar Drake, Raymond H. Duehr, Bertha 
B. Duff, Wm. P. Dunbar, James Richard Dunn. 

Russell B. Eastcrbrook, Harold Crocker Eckart, Leo K. Eckart, Carl 
Harry Eckstam, Charles C. Eggleston, James Tennant Elliott, Joseph 
Ensenberger, Julius Nathan Epstein, Leslie M. Ernst, Mark R. Ethell, 
Harry Russell Evans. 

Forest M. C. Fearis, Fred Feldt, Claud Eugene Ferguson, Herbert 
Elaine Ferguson, John Cecil Ferguson, Frank Powell Fish, Otto William 
Fisher, Henry A. Fisherkeller, Thomas Joseph Flaherty, Birney Fifer 
Fleming, Frank Wilfred Flesher, James Flint, Clarence Forbes, Lester 
M. Foreman, James D. Foster, Thomas E. Freed, Arthur Peter Freed- 
lund, A. R. Freeman, Archie Wayne Froelich, Perle Fry. 

William W. Gailey, Grace Gilkey Gaines, Gilbert H. Galford, Burke 
Gardner, Wilfred Henry Gardner, Melvin Nane Garlough, H. C. Garrett, 
William S. Gash, William B. Geneva, Stanley Gernsey, Walter Herbert 
Gerth, Paul Elmer Gibson, Laurence A. Giering, Carl Julius Giermann, 
Ruel Glen Gillis, Albert Franklin Gilman, Jr., Gerald Gill Ginnaven, 
Herman Goldstone, Lloyd F. Golliday, Guy Wm. Gooding, Harry John 
Gorman, Paul Arthur Gottschalk, Delmar R. Gottschalk, Guy Frank Gray, 
Forest E. Green, Gerald Ray Green, Tracey E. Green, Chester I. Greene, 
Paul E. Greenleaf, George E. Gregory, Wm. Earl Greiner, Clifford F. 
Grove, Emmet V. Gunn, Herman M. Gunn. 

Arthur A. Hall, Charles Dean Hall, Harry Lee Hall, J. W. Hallett, 
Cecil Edwin Hamilton, Edmund G. Hammond, Archie Milton Hanson, 
James Guthrie Harbord, Geo. Merton Hargitt, Elbert I. Harrison, Lester 
Earl Harrison, Harlan H. Hart, G. E. Hartenbower, Thomas F. Harwood, 
Chas. D. Havens, James B. Havens, Frank P. Hawk, H. C. Hawk, Wil- 
liam C. Hawks, Joseph K. P. Hawks, Melvin S. Hayes, Ralph J. Heffer- 
nan, Marion Helmick, Paul Henderson, Harry W. Henley, Clyde Edward 
Hewitt, Harold P. Hileman, John Warner Hill, Noel James Hilts, Wilbur 
A. Hilts, Wm. Blake Hindman, Rolla Edelbert Hinshaw, Walter A. Hin- 
shaw, Fredrick McKinley Hisle, Albert Joseph Hodlcr, Edward Hoeft, 
Frederick G. Hoffmann, Leo L. Hogan, William Raoul Hoit, Chesterfield 
R. Holmes, Campbell Blake Holton, Oscar G. Hoose, Ralph R. Hoover, 
Gordon K. Howard, Wm. Nelson Howard, Harry L. Howell, Heber S. 
Hudson, Paul Huffington, Paul Glenn Huffington, Rogers Humphreys, 
Charles E. Hunter. 

Earl G. Irons, Delmar Vern Irvin, Lawrence L. Irwin. 

Clarence Earl Jacobssen, Chas. Dale James, Wm. Grice Jameson, 
James Bruce Jarrett, Herman H. Jasper, Mevise Cornell Jennings, Frank 
Louis Jensen, Chester K. Johnson, Eugene Roy Johnson, Florence I. 
Johnson, Frank R. Johnson, George L. Johnson, Jr., George W. Johnson, 
Gustaf A. Johnson, G. Vasa Johnson, Harry Gustaf Johnson, L. Ross 
Johnson, Mark Lowell Johnson, Oscar Walter Johnson, Rolla Thos. John- 
son, Warren Edward Johnson. Jesse J. Jones, John J. Jones, John R. 
Jones, Owsley Lillard Jones, Robert Lough Jones, Walter Jordan. 

Maurice Kalahar, Arthur P. Kane, Charles P. Kane, George Kat- 
soulis, R. E. Kauffold, Donald Earl Kazar, William G. Keen, Dayton 
Keith, S. Reau Kemp, Kaywin Kennedy, Thos. Hart Kennedy, Wm. Lloyd 
Kenny, Jamie Hastings Kerr, Wm. Owen Kershner, Fred W. Kienzle, 
William E. Klatt, Julius Philip Klemm, Bryce Miller Knight, Lowell 
Gary Kraft, Philip Clifton Kurtz. 

Leon J. LaFond, Fred Albert Lamke. Leonard F. Lang, Florence V. 
Langley, Clarence H. Lawbaugh, Edward D. Lawyer, Charles Ebarl Leary, 



278 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

John Maurice Lcary, Lloyd Jesse Ledderboge, Kenneth William Lee, 
Leonard Emmitt Lee, \Vm. George Leitch, Ernest N. Lemons, Loren B. 
Lewis, Chas. C. Liggitt, Albert Paul Limber, Ralph Harlan Linkins, 
Chester C. Linton, Gordon Cole Littel, Harold H. .Livingston, Herbert 
Milton Livingston, Sam Abe Livingston, Parke Longworth, Gus Conrad 
Lundquist, Noble Leonard Lundquist, ilorence Lyon. 

Eugene Wright MacMillan, Oliver MacWilliams, Wm. C. J. McCabe, 
Ealph N. McCord, Thomas Orville McCord, John Noble McCrary, Guy 
Erie McCubbin, James T. McDonald, Lawrence Wm. McDonald, Herbert 
James McGrath, Wm. E. McGraw, James Willis McMurry, Allen W. 
McVaigh, Cecil W. Macy, Robert Emmett Maloney, H. D. Markham, 
Raymond Henry Mayer, Harold M. Medberry, Charles F. Meinkey, Davis 
Merwin, Gail Woldron Metcalf, Walter H. Metzger, Arthur Lloyd Meyer, 
Moody Wesley Meyer, Beverly H. Miles, Ann Burnette Miller, Earle 
Henry Miller, Eugene Christ Miller, George Miller, George Dick Miller, 
Leonard Franklin Miller, Roland Brohn Miller, Will A. Miller, Joseph 
Million, Lewis Millman, Dr. Frank P. Minch, Joseph Moews, James J. 
Monahan, Dean C. Montgomery, Bessie Moon, Byron Russell Moore, 
Harold V. Moore, Robert H. Moore, Sanford Harry Moore, Ralph Charles 
Morath, E. A. Mott, Eugene 8. Moulie, Eleazer Ralston Munsell, Geo. 
E. Munsell, Jesse A. Munsell, Edwin Leo Murphy, Jas. Bernard Murphy, 
Mack Murphy, Fred E. Murray, Lome P. Murray, Arnold Carl Muxfeldt. 

Chester Nafziger, Lee C. Nafziger, Elmer Richard Nelson, Oscar Nel- 
son, James Carlyle Nevins, Lloyd Lee Nevins, Will C. Niedermeyer, 
Porter C. Noble, Robert A. Noble, George Nowatski. 

Richard M. O'Connell, John J. O'Connor, William J. O'Hara, Donald 
Francis O'Neil, Catharine O'Neill, Lloyd E. Orendorff, Arthur Oswald, 
James Owen. 

Owen S. Parmele, Clarence F. Patterson, Leland Ray Pattison, George 
Glenn Patton, Stanley H. Paul, George Noble Paxton, John W. Paxton, 
Don Denison Pease, John Raymond Pemberton, Wm. Hubert Pemberton, 
Wm. Lloyd Penniman, Carl G. E. Peplow, Abram Brokaw Perry, Alfred 
S. Peterson, William G. Phelps, Frank L. Phillips, George D. Phillos, 
Nick A. Phillos, Bernard Abiff Pierce, Louis Hermann Pinkey, Joseph J. 
Pitsch, Lawrence Lloyd Ploense, William Clarence Poling, Charles Her- 
bert Poll, L. Parke Powell, Robert E. Powell, Edward M. Powers, Leon- 
ard Odis Prather, Mark Price, Glenn Byron Pringey, Wallace Anthony 
Pringey, Harold Elton Protzman, Charles Walter Pullen. 

Matthew Wm. Quinn. 

Daniel D. Raber, Louis F. Radbourn, Harold Thos. Ramage, Roy A. 
Ramseyer, Ralph Otis Ray, Edward V. Raycraft, Howard J. Read, Roland 
Read, Wm. G. Read, Glenn Scott Reddick, Herbert Chas. Rediger, Lorine 
Z. Reeder, Sam J. Reeder, Louie Eugene Reid, Charles A. Reum, Walter 
M. Rexroat, William S. Rexroat, Howard D. Rhea, Ben S. Rhodes, Garth 
Tuthill Riddle, Harry E. Riddle, William Lester Riley, Bert L. Riseling, 
Julius Monroe Rodman, Dr. A. E. Rogers, Clarence John Rohwer, Paul 
De Loss Rollins, Sol Rosenberg, Bert Lee Ross, Charlotte R. Ross, Or- 
ville H. Ross, Laurence A. Rust. 

Otto M. Salmon, Dclmas Hiram Sample, Paul Hayden Sanderson, 
Carl A. Sandstrom, George Wald Sargeant, Albert Emil Schalla, Albert 
Scharf, Carolyn Mable Schertz, August Daniel Schewe, August Carl 
Schroeder, Joseph Aloysious Schultz, Charles A. Schureman, Jr., Carl W. 
Seeger, Mary Sheridan, Henry T. Shields, Ray John Shotwell, Carl H. 
Simpson, Ivan Theron Siscoe, George A. Skidmore, James A. Skillman, 
A. W. Skinner, Gersham J. Skinner, Harley A. Small, Bee Smiley, Edna 
Mae Smiley, Robert Clarence Smiley, Alice Smith, Arthur W. Smith, 
Charles Dickson Smith, Charley J. Smith, Claude Melvin Smith, Dudley 
C. Smith, Oran C. Smith, Floyd M. Smythe, Lyle K. Snavely, Charles H. 
Snow, Chas. F. Snyder, Kenneth Snyder, Horace A. Soper, Ross H. Spen- 
cer, Albert Monton Spier, John Henry Sprau, W. M. Springer, George 
Gail Sprouse, Henry Edward Stappenbeck, Verne G. Staten, H. Claude 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 279 

Steininger, Frank H. Sterling, Howard Harvey Stevenson, Walter Henry 
Stiegclmeier, Win. Walter Strain, Elmer Charles Straub, Eobert M. 
Strickle, Boss Andrus Strickle, Ansel F. Stubblefield, Jacob Julius Suter, 
Howard E. Sutherland, Frederick Odins Sutter, Wm. James Sweeney. 

Dean Tanner, Ralph A. Tanner, Glenn Sirledan Tatman, Samuel 
Myron Tee, George B. Tenney, Harry Houser Tenney, Otto Anthony 
Thoennes, Lewis Joseph Thomas, Daniel F. Thompson, James E. Thomp- 
son, Kenneth Alexander Thompson, Ealph R. Thompson, Otto P. Tiemann, 
Thomas Orville Tiffin, Floyd Chester Tobin, Harold John Toohey, Wayne 
Carlyle Townley, Daniel Edward Twomey. 

Harry Umphress, Henry Elton Underbrink. 

Asa Hamilton Vallandingham, Park Vance, Perley Bernice Vande- 
veer, Fred Randolph Vollborn (deceased). 

Fred Charles Wahls, Sherman D. Wakefield, George Henry Wall, John 
Ray Wallace, Don E, Wallcy, Glenn Dan Walley, Thos. M. Walsh, Paul 
Walter, Wm. Verne Ward, Robert MacDonald Washburn, Frank Herman 
Watchinski, Earl Harrison Waters, Ferre C. Watkins, Harold R. Watkins, 
Paul R. Watkins, Warren C. Watkins, Lorin J. Welch, Thomas S. Weldon, 
Chas. Augustus Whalen, Glenn J. Wheeler, Ralph Owen White, Ned V. 
Whitesell, Robert Peter Whitmer, Albert R. Wilcox, Gayland Elbert 
Wilhoit, F. C. Willey, Mailess Clyde Williams, Walter Wood Williams, 
Jesse Ray Willis, Mart Willis, Jesse Lee Wise, William Glair Wise, Artee 
Witt, Ferdinand G. Wollenschlager, Louis E. Wollrab, Louis Arthur Wood, 
Fannie E. Woodbury, M. F. Woodruff, Asa P. W T oods, Evelyn Wooley, 
Myles Spencer Wooster, Robert Burr Wren, Orion Leo Wright, W. W. 
Wyckoff. 

Clarence Edward Yaeger, Homer S. Yetman, Chester Young, Fred H. 
Young, Laurance Henry Young. 

John J. Ziemers, Wm. Asberry Zook. 

COUNTY ROLL AMERICAN LEGION 
At Leroy 

Ruel Neal post was named in honor of Ruel Neal, the first Leroy 
boy to lose his life in the war, he being killed in action, in a front 
line trench on the Meuse river on October 2, 1918. The officers of the 
post first elected were: Commander, Dr. O. M. Thompson; vice com- 
mander, Herman L. Thomas; adjutant, R. E. Kimler; finance officer, 
Miles C. Grizzellc; chaplain, Rev. H. R. Browne; sergeant-at-arms, 
Charles Bane. 

The list of members: Dean D. Buckles, Ray McFadden, Dwight L. 
Cooksley, Harold R. Browne, Hugh C. Keys, Roy E. Lawson, Earl Gulley, 
Clarence H. Flegel, Russell C. Brown, David D. McKay, Fred J. Phil- 
lip, Arthur H. Morgan, Eugene Dennison, Harry J. Flegel, Dr. O. M. 
Thompson, Dean Amstadt, Frank K. Beckham, Lorin Pray, Adley O. 
Whitaker, Park S. Simmons, Roy E. Kimler, Forrest D. Patterson, Don- 
ald T. Jones, Pete N. Olsen, Homer Phillips, Shelby Hendren, Alex Riggs, 
Clarence L. Hoit, Earl Rigney, Lester H. Wahls, Guy Wahlstrom, Ben- 
jamin Walden, Oliver C. Walden, Herschel C. Underbill, Edward R. 
Van Atta, Byron D. Kline, Clifford L. Crumbaugh, Lawrence E. Ham- 
mond, Clarence E. Warton, Julian K. Kincaid, Fordyce Sargent, Clifton 
Buckles, Lyle B. Moss, Roy M. Wirt, Otha S. Dailey, Frank Head, jr., 
E. R. Kirby, Elmer Farris, Millard Brame, Frank W. Hansford, Frank 
Hale, Elmer G. Staley, Bernard Quanstrom, Marvin C. Neal, Dewey 
Healea, Carl M. McComb, Edward H. Grady, Ottie Wallace, Glenn E. 
Craig, Eugene E. Taylor, Chalmer C. Taylor, "Wilbur Evans, Albert War- 
ford, Lawrence Peak, Grover C. Tudor, Harry Edward Dunakey, Lee 



280 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

Silvers, Frank D. Moots, Claire F. Story, Glenn F. Zellhoefer, Benn L. 
Riggs, Frederick Peak, Lindley Oliver, Lawrence R. Wynn, Valbert B. 
Oneal, Clifford E. Dooley, Harry L. Roy, John W. Hawkins, Will Fred 
Landis, Wesley Wagers, Merle Arbogast, Herman L. Reynolds, Hal W. 
Conefry, David Rutledge, Lawrence A. Pray, Dr. D. E. Sisk, William 
Ball, Talmadge E. Ross, Alvadore Dennis, Albert M. Carlson, E. L. 
Deatrick. Carl Edward Mikel, Harry Van Atta, John D. Lemmel, Carl 
H. Backlund, John D. Carpenter, Guy E. Neal, Lester W. Scott, Robert 
B. Lament, Walter H. Bradley, Pearl T. Reynolds, Robert D. Ross, Percy 
A. Phillips, Herschel P. Holt, iRussell Owen, Harley H. Scott, Edwain 
Barnum, Charles E. Bane, Clarence E. Mardis, Harry E. Clevenger, Perry 
F. Cruteher, Grand ville J. Boss, David B. Dolley, Josh W. Alshman, 
Frank Marcum, Owen R. Shrigley, Ebert Underbill, Earl Williams, Roy 
Thompson, George P. Hoffman, Alvin H. Bane, Asa B. Saunders, Fred 
W. John, .Clarence E. Simpson, Reuben John, William F. R. Rayburn, 
Miles C. Grizzelle, George Dewey Dolly, Jack W. Barton, Arthur C. 
Brining, Edgar L. Hendryx, Fred Wey, Chauncey Doggett, Fred W. 
Bishop, Claude T. Brown, John F. McFee, Edgar Moon, Herman L. 
Thomas, Loyal C. Skillman, Lyle Michaels, Lester W. Jones, Frank L. 
Ferguson, William F. Masters, Gerald M. Cline. 

At Saybrook 

David Humphrey Daniels post, named in honor of the first soldier 
from Saybrook to give up his life in the war, had the following officers: 
Commander, Cecil Rhodes Hudson; vice commander, Fred G. Gary; treas- 
urer, Roy Return Cheney; adjutant, Ora Francis LaTeer. The list of 
members included Cyrus Weldon Reddick, Lee H. Evans, James K. 
Brock, Edward Zimmerman, Elsy Walden, Clarence E. Gilmore, Rex R. 
Roach. Charles E. Butler, William T. Roach, Joseph E. Tipsord, Benjamin 
H. Wills, Hugh C. Froehlich, Alvin O'Neal, Henry E. Swanson, Clyde 
Perry, John L. Scotton, W T illiam Ward, William E. Crotinger, Virgil 
Martin, John L. Easterbrook, Otto H. Struebing, Charles G. Wills, 
Clement O. Williams, Thomas J. Martin, James H. Campher, Harry E. 
Campbell, Jesse Tongate, Harry R. Fryer, Lyle F. Proffitt, Arthur A. 
Johnson, Clay L. Mohr, Mascal H. Gary. 

At Colfax 

A post was organized at Colfax in June, 1920, and was named the 
Davis-Kerber post in honor of Bernard Davis of Martin township who 
was killed in action, and Albert Kerber, who died of pneumonia in 
France. The officers elected were as follows: Commander, Reid Homey; 
vice commander, Fred Scholl; finance officer and adjutant, C. R. Steven- 
son; sergeant-at-arms, Edsell B. Downey. Committees were appointed 
as follows: Building Committee, Fred Scholl, C. A. Eagan, W. B. Dor- 
sett; Amusement Committee, Wm. W. Hite, Smith McHatton, Walter 
Parmele. The charter membership included: David L. Gillan, James 
Getty, William McClellan, O. E. Phillips, John Wonderlin, Smith McHat- 
ton, Edsell Downey, Pete Lorig, Clifton Parmele, Fred Scholl, Sidney 
McClure, Walter Parmele, W. B. Dorsett, Lee Garner, Clyde Eagan, 
Charles Keller, C. B. Stevens, Geo. Stretch, Reid Homey, Dave Murphy, 
Fred Kauth, James Austin and Chas. Downey. 

At Gridley 

Gridley post No. 218 was organized in 1919 with the following offi- 
cers: Post commander, Lynn C. Sieberns, adjutant, Everett F. Kent; 
sergeant-at-arms, John D. Rediger. The roll of members during the first 
few months of the post's existence included: L. C. Sieberns, Everett 
F. Kent, Frank Benedict, William Hclbling, Elmer Benedict, Myron C. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 281 

, "William J. Gibbs, Frank Klein, John Eediger, Oscar Sieberns, 
Eli Stoller, Loren Freed, Theodore Eich, Li Silas Rich, Byron Phillis, 
McKinley Benedict, Henry Diggle, George F. Kent, E. Glen Kent, Vivian 
Wilfong, Edward Klein, Dave Lintner, Clifford Manshardt, Harvey 
Meeker, Edward Helbling, William Burnham, Orie W. Coyle, H. B. 
Coyle, Earl Benedict, Paul F. Kent, John Ferguson, Ward Andrews, Jo- 
seph Huber, Park Gardner, W. H. Hill, William Wilson, John Eupperle, 
Eussell P. Young, John V. Beeves, Perl Fleming. 

At Bellflower 

Grant Post, No. 202, at Bellflower, was named in honor of Earl 
and Erwin Grant, sons of Eichard Grant, both of whom gave up their 
'lives in the war. Earl died in Jefferson Barracks, and Erwin died in 
France after the close of the .war, when he was returning with his regi- 
ment from Germany. The officers of the post are: Commander S. W. 
Haigler; senior vice commander, J. Warner Carlyle; finance, A. G. 
Gooch; adjutant, B. F. Hinshaw; " service officer, DeWitt E. Gooch, 
III; sergeant-at-arms, John Jensen. The members of the post are as 
follows: William L. Barnhart, F. Glenn O. Ellis, Todd E. Coit, Levi 
Barnhart, Jessie Ward, O. D. Eichard, Fred A. Ward, Floyd A. Zoll, 
Marley G. Hampleman, Archie C. Miller, George A. Jordan, Charles 
Monical, Wesley G. Wagner, Willard Gordon, Harold W. Brandon, Jesse 
P. Provines, Samuel W. Ashworth, Oliver P. Ely, Forrest T. Jones, Elmer 
L. Day, Eoy Schofield, Charles Bliss, Alva Monical, E. L. Masters, John 
K. Price, Oliver J. Troster, Oral M. Summers, Arthur Curtis, Oscar A. 
House, Orda Shelton, Eichard J. Nichols, Charles B. Lawrence, Tony M. 
Jones, Wesley Williams, Frank M. Mangold, Harry B. Stuart, Elmer M. 
Gose, Herman Eexroat, Eobert Otto, Balph Hillis, Clarence Eohlfing, 
Everct Schmale, Grover M. Fox, Omar Ashworth, Clyde E. Noe, Frank 
Petrashek, Thomas C. Burke. 

At Chenoa 

The organization of Ben Both Post, No. 234, took place at Chenoa 
in May, 1919. It was named in honor of Ben Both, a Chenoa soldier who 
died in France. There are about sixty-five members of this post, and 
they have been active in promoting the interests of the soldiers, giving 
several entertainments, maintaining teams in athletic sports and other 
activities. The officers are: Commander, Pierre Turck; vice commander, 
Frank Hogan; adjutant, Calvin E. Gentes. The post has had a steady 
growth since its organization. 

At Anchor 

Erwin Martensen Post No. 164, at Anchor was named in honor of 
a soldier from that community who was killed in action. The post is 
one of the newer ones, being organized in 1920. The officers are: Com- 
mander, Henry L. Simpson; service officer, John A. Schmidt; finance 
otiieer, Joe Garrett; adjutant, Albert Brandt. In addition to the above 
officers, the membership includes Arthur F. Lupp, John F. Beinhart, 
George Hensen, Harry J. Schleeter, Clarence M. Smith, John H. Brokate, 
Harry E. Patnaude, Alfred L. Freiberg, Clarence McLean, Herbert 
Bowan, Irving L. Kent, Ora Walter Crum, B. W. Meldner, Charles J. 
Lohoff, William E. Schmidt, Momen Pyle, John Bathon, Howard Gantz, 
Tobey Bane, August E. Brandt, William F. West. 

At McLean 

Burger-Benedict Post, No. 973, of the American Legion, was formed 
at McLean at a meeting hold on Feb. 26, 1920. It was named from Dewey 
Burger and Ernest Benedict, two McLean boys who wore killed in hatlle 
in France. The officers elected were: Commander, C. B. Van Ness; vice 



282 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 

commander, Bay A. Bowers; past commander, Ansel Stubblefield; adjutant, 
Grant V. Wilcox; finance officer, Martin W. Hildebrandt; sergeant-at-arms, 
Otto Humble; service officer, George N. Snyder; historian, George Bene- 
dict; chaplain, Dan McFarland; athletic officer, Harry Matthews. The list 
of members includes Harold D. Woodmancy, Clarence C. Crutchley, Lyle E. 
Wilcox, Jesse W. Crutchley, Homer Warner, Charles Adams, Andrus A. Dun- 
bar, Anton Hildebrandt, John Leslie Cowan, Jesse Stubblefield, Eoy M. 
Craig, Thomas Swearingen, Albert Tyson, Elbert Rousey, Tee Farmer, Clif- 
ford M. Wilcox, Charles Alford Benedict, Gilbert Leman Reynolds, Clar- 
ence Ernest Dennison, Lou Butler Robinson, Arlie Swearingen, Fred Snow, 
Dan S. Buck, David Snow, Paul. W. McFarland, Allen S. Davis, John H. 
Swearingen, Herbert W. Hildebrandt, Earl Dishong, Lloyd Burger, Claude 
O. Burger, Frank Hildebrand, Boyd Adkins, Charles Adkins, Herbert Ewing.. 



WAR WORK OF BUREAU OF SOCIAL SERVICE 

The Bloomington Bureau of Social Service, which in peace is a full- 
time organization devoted to family welfare work, took on new aspects 
during the war, and gave to the newer local organization of the Red 
Cross the benefit of its trained personnel and experience. One depart- 
ment of Red Cross work in particular, the home service, found in the 
Bureau a strong ally and at times a valued leader. Much that was best 
in Home Service work as the war progressed, the Bureau of Social Ser- 
vice helped to build in the earlier days. Soon after America 's entry into 
the war, the government took over every available trained social service 
worker, and most of these were asked to give all or much of their time 
to war emergency work. There is an art in dealing with families in 
abnormal conditions such as the war brought, and that art is acquired 
only by careful teaching and supervised experience. Mrs. Jacob Bohrer, 
who became head of the home service work of the Red Cross in this 
county, testified to the inestimable value of the Bureau in organizing 
the home service department of the Red Cross. The Bloomington chap- 
ter of Red Cross established courses in training its workers, and the 
Bureau of Social Service was responsible for the field work of these 
volunteer visitors, both in theory and practice. Their instruction was 
under the direction of Mrs. Mabel H. Seymour, General Secretary. Mrs. 
Seymour also acted as a member of the advisory committee of the Home 
Service department of the Red Cross during the period of the war. Mrs. 
Naoma M. Fry, assistant to Mrs. Seymour, gave much of her time, train- 
ing and experience as a social worker to the Red Cross Home service 
work. The sum total of the Bureau's work was no small item in keep- 
ing up the morale of many families whom the war had placed under 
an unusual strain. 

GERMAN PRISONERS ASTONISHED 

Herbert Livingston, son of the late Mayer Livingston, proprietor 
of the Newmarket in Bloomington, wrote a Mothers Day letter to Mrs. 
Allie his mother on May 12, 1918, telling of his location in France at 
that time. He told how just before that time there had passed through 
that part of France a great body of American troops on their way to 
the front. All were fine men, in the pink of physical condition, w-ell 
clothed and indicating a splendidly equipped army. Near that place are 
a large number of German prisoners, some working on the roads and in 
other capacities. Young Livingston says that the expressions on the 
faces of the Germans when they beheld this splendid army of American 
fighters was a study. They had never dreamed of so great a force of 
such fine fighting men, having been kept in ignorance of the real power 
the Americans were putting into the struggle. Probably a lot of the 
prisoners exclaimed in unison, when they saw the Americans: "Mein 
Gott im Himmel. " 



McLKAX COCNTY AXD THE WORLD WAR 



283 



SUPT. B. C. MOORE AND SONS 




Right Supt. B. C. Moore. Above Byron B. Moore. Left Wayne 
8. Moore. 

Benjamin C. Moore, superintendent of schools for McLean county, 
and his two sons were in the service, a unique distinction, all three re- 
flecting credit upon their county and the nation they served. Supt. 
Moore was very active in local relief work during the war, serving 
faithfully as a member of the Council of Defense and Bed Cross; and 
aiding in the various drives. He was also one of the "four minute" men. 

He had applied for an appointment in the Army Educational work 
under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. when the armistice was signed. 
When the need came for several hundred experienced educational ex- 
ecutives, Supt. Moore received an urgent call and accepted, proceeding 
directly to France and entering the Army Educational Corps, organized 
to take over the great and rapidly growing educational program. Supt. 
Moore was assigned to the college of education and post schools, a sec- 
tion of the A. E. P. University at Beaume, France. His especial duties 
were the training of soldier teachers, the inspection of schools and the 
teaching of illiterates. Supt. Moore returned from France in the summer 
of 1919 and resumed his post as the head of the McLean county schools. 

Wayne S. Moore entered the U. S. Military Academy at West Point 
in June, 1918, his class completing the course in record time 

He won the rank of honor student. It had been his ambition for 
several years to enter this academy. His membership in the training 
school, made him automatically a soldier of Uncle Sam and he with other 
students, joined in the hurryup program to train officers when the Arm- 
istice was signed, the class of which Wayne was a member was next in 
order to be commissioned and sent across. He shared with others of 
his class, the disappointment of the premature peace. 

Byron E. Moore, the second son of Supt. B. C. Moore, selected the 
navy, and on the day he became 18, he enlisted. He was assigned to 



284 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



the Eadio Service. He volunteered as a Submarine detector or listener, 
and, in the tests, ranked second in proficiency in a large class. Close 
study and faithful duty brought him active service soon and he was 
assigned to Sub-Chaser No. 104, making one trip across the ocean and 
also going to the Caribbean Sea. He became an expert "listener" and 
was able to distinguish the coming of various craft by the use of the 
hydrophone. His craft was once reported lost. It was but 110 ft. long 
and 11 ft. wide. Byron was rele'ased from active duty in January, 1919, 
and resumed his school duties in Normal. 




CHENOA'S FIRST DRAFTEE 

MAN 

Entering the first draft contin- 
gent for district No. 1 at his own 
request, Sergt. F. C. Schroeder 
was the first man from Chenoa 
township to go into the national 
army, leaving Bloomington on 
September 4, 1917. From Camp 
Dodge he went to Camp Logan, 
then overseas with an ammuni- 
tion train in May, 1918. Fought 
with the British forces at Albert 
and Amiens until July 26, when 
he entered a hospital on account 
of overwork and exhaustion. On 
October 18 he returned to his 
duty at the front, remaining un- 
til the close of the war. He was 
about the first man to return to 
Chenoa from overseas duty, 
reaching home on December 16, 
1918. 



CAPTURED BY GERMANS 



Probably the only Bloomington sol- 
dier who was captured by Germans 
and returned alive to tell the story 
was Gus Goodwin, brother of Mrs. W. 
T. Rahlman of 1005 North McLean 
street. He was only 16 years of age 
when he enlisted, and was not yet 18 
when he was taken prisoner in August, 
1918. He was reported missing in 
action at that time, and several 
months later his sister got a letter 
saying he had been released from a 
German prison camp and was on his 
way home. He received fairly good 
treatment in the camp. When a boy 
in Bloomington he attended Washing- 
ton and Franklin schools and after- 
ward worked in a grocery store. 




Gus Goodwin 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 285 

JUDGE JAMES C. RILEY 

One of the public men of McLean county 
who labored thruout the war in a cause 
which counted much, was County Judge 
James C. Riley. He took part with hun- 
dreds of other citizens in the various 
drives, for liberty loans, Red Cross, war 
work funds, and similar activities, but his 
particular interest was war savings stamps. 
He was appointed county chairman of the 
War Savings Committee by the Secretary 
of the Treasury of the United States, and 
served from the time of the launching of 
the first W. S. S. drive throughout the war. 
The work along this line was of a peculiar 
nature. It was continuous in its appeal, 
and its object was to encourage habits of 
thrift and saving among the people, as well 
as to contribute money toward the one 
great cause. But the war savings stamp 
drives lacked the spectacular feature of 
the liberty loans. While the quota set for 
the county was $1,700,000 for one year the individual sales were gen- 
erally small sums. Therefore the task of reaching any given goal was 
much more difficult than was the liberty loan drives, where subscriptions 
came in hundreds and often in thousands of dollars. In spite of the 
fact that other and larger war enterprises were engaging the time and 
strength of most of those in every community who were at all disposed 
to labor in wai" enterprises, committees were appointed in every school 
district, and savings societies organized in every school and in industrial 
and mercantile institutions. Thrift stamps were sold in denominations 
of twenty-five cents each. 

When sixteen of these were sold, the card containing them was 
redeemable for what was called a War Savings stamp worth $5 each. 
One of these war savings stamp cards containing sixteen $5 stamps, was 
redeemable in 1923 for $100. The committee under direction of Judge 
Riley worked away during the two years of the war and managed to 
dispose of stamps to the total value of over $2,000,000. The purchasers 
of the war savings stamps were generally people of smaller means than 
those who bought liberty bonds, for this was a kind of war investment 
which could be taken in small denominations. Many of the labor unions 
of Bloomington went into the war stamp business as a body. Thousands 
of dollars' worth of stamps were sold among the Alton shop men in 
Bloomington. In some factories and other industrial plants, clubs were 
formed whereby each employe gave over out of his weekly pay envelope 
a certain sum to be invested in war savings stamps. But while smaller 
buyers were numerous, there were some larger investors. What was 
called the Maximum War Savings Club was organized, whose members 
agreed to take the sum of $1,000 in stamps, this being the maximum 
amount allowed to each purchaser. The Maximum Club in McLean county 
eventually reached a membership of several hundreds. On the whole, the 
work in selling war savings stamps was among the most important of 
any conducted by any group of people, and McLean County ranked 
among the highest in Illinois. 



286 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



WAE EMPLOYMENT BOAED 

Started as a necessity at the outbreak 
of the war, the McLean county branch 
of the Illinois Free Employment Bureau, 
became in eighteen months a permanent 
and valuable public utility. Farmers for 
many miles in all directions from Bloom- 
ington come to this office for their hired 
hands and the industrial plants of the 
city find use for it constantly. 

John E. Matthews has been responsible 
{'or the success of the office. During the 
war his task was to find men to send to 
the shipyards and cantonments, to make 
the idlers at home go to work and to 
place all men where they would produce 
the most during the strain of war. After 
the war he was busy for months finding 
jobs for returned soldiers and placing 
them at the occupations that they wanted 
to work in so far as it was possible. 

The total number of persons placed at 
work during the ten months of 1918 that 
the employment bureau was in existence 
was 2,436. 

The grand total for the first t^venty- 
two months of the bureau is 6,610. 

The average number of person's placed at work in n mor.th in tlu> 
history of the bureau is 300. The average during 1919 ,per month was 
346. 

The average in 1919 was twelve persons given jobs a day. There 
are frequent cases where men are given jobs and neither the man or 
his employer reported the fact to the office and the matter could not 
be put on record. If these cases were included the totals would be 
higher in every month. 

The government financed the office until March 22, 1919. Then un- 
til June 1 the office was kept going by the combined help of the Better 
Farming Association, the Association of Commerce, Trades Assembly 
Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association and the city. On June 1, 
1919, the state took over the office. 




G. EDWIN KNAPP 




Engaged in Y. M. C. A. work as song leader at Camp Pike for many 
months during the war. Son of Mr. and Mrs. George Knapp of Bloom 
ington. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



287 



DANVERS BOY LOSES LEG 

Leonard Bunch, son of Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Bunch of Danvers, was in- 
jured while serving with the United States expeditionary forces in France. 
His leg was shattered and had to be amputated above his knee. He was 
invalided home as soon as he recovered from the shock of the amputation. 
Bunch was one of the first McLean county boys to get into the army after 
war looked certain, and he was perhaps the first seriously wounded soldier 
from this county. He enlisted March 8, 1917, a month before the U. S. 
declared war on Germany. After Jefferson barracks duty he was sent to 
Co. H. of the Third U. S. regulars at Eagle 
Pass, Texas, and later transferred to Co. E, 
26th Infantry. The latter regiment sailed for 
France in June, 1917, just after Gen. Pershing 
had established headquarters in Paris. They 
landed at St. Nazaire on June 26, and in July 
were assigned to a "quiet sector" at the front 
near Luneville. In November they were taken 
back to a rest camp, and in the> following 
February sent to the Toul sector. There at 
10 o'clock on the morning of February 16 a 
German high explosive shell struck the trench 
10 feet from where Private Bunch was sta- 
tioned. He was hit by eight different frag- 
ments, one of which shattered his right knee. 
He was removed to a base hos-pital, where the 
doctors tried for two months to save his leg, 
but in April decided to amputate above the 
knee. He was shifted from one hospital to 
another in France till August, when he returned to the U. S. and spent the 
time till February, 1919, at the Walter Reed hospital in Washington. He 
reached his home in Danvers on February 6. He had been fitted with an 
artificial leg, and has learned to use it successfully. 




Leonard Bunch 




WOUNDED IN BATTLE 

Bernard Duehr enlisted in the ma- 
rines at Peoria, April 20, 1917, at the 
age of 19, and sailed for France Sep- 
tember 16, 1917. He was a member of 
74th company, 6th regiment, First bat- 
talion. On July 19, 1918, he was 
wounded while orderly for the camp 
and carrying messages to the front line 
trenches during the battle of Soissons. 
He has a brother, Lieutenant Raymond 
Duehr, who was in the officers' train- 
ing camp at Augusta, Ga. 



Bernard Duehr 



288 



COMPANY M 10TH REGT. I. N. G. 




sonnel was as follows: 



When the entire National Guard of 
Illinois hastened to training camps at the 
outbreak of the war, reserve regiments 
were organized, one being the Tenth. 
Bloomington was given representation, 
Company M. This command occupied 
first class armory quarters in the C. U. 
Williams building and was ably officered 
and equipped. It served as a valuable 
training school for men who later went 
into the army service and a large pro- 
portion of its members so advanced. 
Company M played a very important 
part during the war, escorting the draft 
contingents to the trains, attending the 
final rites over the men who made the 
supreme sacrifice and paying the soldiers 
tribute at the grave. Company M was 
Bloomington 's pride during the dark days 
of the war and the command ranked as 
the leading unit of the Tenth. The per- 



Captain Clifford B. Hamilton. 

First Lieut. Otto Tieman. Second Lieut. Fred Muhl. 

1st Sergeant Chas. W. Nichols. 

Sergeants Wm. G. Eadliff, K. S. Hamilton, Eoy M. Crosthwait, 
Walter Schwenn. 

Corporals L. W. Bosworth, Eoland Gee, Homer English, John L. 
Northrup, Lyle Straight, Carl Messick, Sage H. Kinne. 

Cook E. N. Woodworth. Buglar L. W. Plummer. 

Privates Albert L. Arnold, Clifford C. Baldwin, William G. Barnes, 
Carl E. Behr,* Maurice J. Brion, Alvin B. Bills, Gus Blumke, Edgar S. 
Bischoff, Carroll M. Bowen,* John M. Barr,* Eichard B. Calhoun, Eoy 
Collier, Paul Collins, Harry E. Grain, George J. Conklin, Ermin B. Carter,* 
Edwin H. Cook,* Chester B. Castle,* Clarence L. Dexter, Owen Dudley,* 
Alvah H. Denning* Shelby Emmert, Milo EJmore, Wm. F. Eberlein, 
Frank Erdman, Fred Feldt,* Walter J. Freese,* Frank J. Felton,* Ealph 
S. Freese, Fred S. Frost, Elam E. Fraser, Leonard E. Ferguson, Sumncr 
Goodfellow, Tracey Green,* William V. Galford, Gilbert Gill, Eogers 
Humphreys,* Jesse B. Havens,* Eobert Herr, Charles E. Hall, T. K. Hays, 
Emory G. Harvey, Charles C. Hastings, Eugene Harris, C. Dale James,* 
Merton A. Johnston,! Alfred M. Jackson, Ebon C. Jones, Eric Kull- 
berger,* John Kates,* Garold Knight,* Harry J. Kelting, Harold K. 
Livingston, John A. Laird, Thos. Lancaster, John L. Marquis, Donald 
V. Murphy, Ealph P. Miller, George E. Myers, Zenna T. Main, Kenneth 
A. Miller, Henry C. McCormick, Walter G. Miller, Jesse A. Munsell,* 
Lewis Nevins, Chas. Nichols, Charles Osborne, August Pabst, Stanley 
Paul,* G. N. Paxton,* Donald Pease,* Tim H. Perry, George M. Piper, 
Leonard M. Potts, Logan B. Perry, Tim Perry, Arryl Paul,* George M. 
Piper, Walter M. Eaydon, Percy J. Eamage, Victor B. Eobison, Alex G. 
Eobertson, Eoy A. Eamseyer,* Geo. W. Boloffson, Walter E. Schloeffel, 
William E. Shores, E. T. Smith, t Charles H. Snow,* Walter M. Stacey,* 
Jacob J. Suter,* Dan A. Spellman, Floyd M. Symthe,* Clayton Tudor,* 
Leo F. Truchen,* Donald Van Petten, Frank Watchinski,* Joshua Wein- 
stock,* E. Parke Willerton,* J. Stuart Wyatt,* Phil Wood, Frank B. 
Whitman, Chas B. Wiley, Harold E. Watkins, B. A. Wright, Stanley 
Wilhoit, Herbert Vielhack, Charles A. Zweng. 



*Later in the army. tDied at home. JDied in army service. 



McLEAN COUXTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



289 



PROF. E. W. GAVINS AND SONS 




Prof. Elmer W. Cavins, for twenty years a teacher in the Illinois 
State Normal University, enlisted with the Y. M. C. A. for educational 
work in the A. E.. F. He sailed from Portland Me., on a Scotch vessel 
and landed at Glasgow. From there he proceeded to Paris, via Liver- 
pool and Brest, and was assigned to duty in the American E. F. Uni- 
versity about to be established at Beaune. This university comprised 
thirteen colleges. Mr. Cavins was Secretary of the College of Corre- 
spondence and to this college he gathered five other graduates of his 
own home school. In April the Y. M. C. A. educators were taken over 
by the army and called the Army Educational Corps. This army school 
in France did a great work for its 6000 students during the three months 
it was in existence. Its doors closed June 6. Prof. Cavins returned 
on the Imperator landing at New York July 13, 1919, and resumed his 
post with the I. S. N. U. 

Warren Cartmell Cavins of Normal aged 19, son of Prof. E. W. 
Cavins, enlisted in the navy as Apprentice Seaman in December, 1917, 
and was called to the Oreat Lakes Naval Training Station March 26, 
1918. When he was through detention, he served a short time in the 
library and then secured a transfer to the Aviation branch of the navy. 



290 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



After a twelve-weeks course in Machinists Mate school he was honored 
by being made instructor in the same school where he served efficiently 
until discharged June 7, 1919. 

Joe Loren Gavins, of Normal, aged 18, also a son of Prof. E. W. 
Gavins, a student at the University of Illinois, was sent by that institu- 
tion to the Officers Training Camp at Fort Sheridan to prepare to serve 
as an officer in the student military camp of the U. of I. After three 
months at Fort Sheridan, he returned to the U. of I., but secured a 
transfer to the Illinois Wesleyan University of Bloomington, near his 
home. Here he served in the S. A. T. C. under Captains Wheaton and 
Collister, his rank being that of first sergeant and his duties as platoon 
commander, those of a lieutenant. He was discharged with the dis- 
banding of the S. A. T. C. December 18, 1918. 




GLEN BOWMAN 

Glen Bowman, son of C. C. Bowman of 
Bloomington, enlisted May 30, 1918, as a 
naval machinist and after training at Great 
Lakes four weeks was sent to Philadelphia, 
sailing on the George Washington for Brest. 
He was assigned to duty upon the U. S. 
Prometheus which was termed the "mother 
of destroyers" and remained with this craft 
until after the close of the war. He then 
returned to New York and received his re- 
lease from the service February 9, 1919, 
then returning to Bloomington and taking 
a position with the Dayton Keith Company. 
He greatly enjoyed his tour of duty but 
welcomed the return to his home again. 



JOHN NORMILE 

FIRST LIEUTENANT 

Lieutenant John Normile was com- 
missioned a First Lieutenant in the 
engineers and was stationed with the 
American Expeditionary Forces some- 
where in France. He is the son of 
Mr. and Mrs. John Normile of 907 
North Roosevelt avenue, Bloomington. 
Lieut. Normile enlisted as a private in 
the engineers in June, 1917. He was 
sent to Camp Deming, New Mexico, 
and later was transferred to the offi- 
cers training school at Camp Lee, Vir- 
ginia, from where he was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant. Lieut. Normile was 
a student in the architectural depart- 
ment of the University of Illinois at 
the outbreak of the war. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



291 



YOUNG MEN'S HONOR ROLL 

Organized in October, 1916, the Young Men's Club of Bloomington 
meeting each Tuesday with a luncheon has .been a power and has great 
influence in municipal betterment. It was especially active and pa- 
triotic during the war. Soon after hostilities opened, it was voted to 
establish a War Fund from which money could be drawn to contribute 
to the various relief activities. The Pat O 'Brien lecture, one of the first 
personal narratives of the war, gave the club $385. Of this $150 was 
given to the Red Cross. "Over Th'ere, " a two night show at the home 
of E. Mark Evans on Broadway, Normal, realized $1731 profits which 
was utilized to finance the United War Work campaign and the Red 
Cross. Other money in the treasury, $2500 was divided among the 
Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., K. of C., Belgian Relief and Salvation Army, 
while the club also voted to take care of three Belgian orphans at a 
cost of $36.50 annually each. A picnic at Miller Park and a big minstrel 
show at the Chatterton, also proved successful, the latter clearing $565 
for the War Fund. By this time the Young Men's Club had become 
very popular. In the city it became known as the livest bunch in 
Bloomington. There was an event given during the summer for which 
no admission was charged. It was known as "Wake Up, America" and 
was for propaganda purposes, being two lectures, which were given at 
the Bloomington High School, under auspices of the Bureau of Public 
Information of Washington. The last big event of the year, given by the 
Young Men's Business Club, was the French Military Band Concert, 
given at the Chatterton Opera House. 

The club contributed thirty-two members to the service. Every one 
of them attained honor for himself, his regiment and rank and given 
honor to his country's flag. The honor roll is as follows: 



Robert E. Alverson 
Dr. Fred J. Brian 
Dwight Bachman 
J. J. Butler 
Leslie R. Bristow 
T. S. Cobby 
E. A. Donnelly 
Dr. L. G. Freeman 
Fred Felt 
Walter J. Freese 
Louis Gundercon 
Tracey Greene 
Lawrence L. Gilday 
Dr. G. H. Galford 
L. Kirk Healy 
W. J. Hull 



J. B. Havens 
Rev. W. B. Hindman 
Harlan Hart 
C. Dale James 
Julius Klemm 
John T. Kates 
Wi'i-ren Paxton 
C:.. Noble Paxton 

-". Read 
B>n Rhodes 

*er 

~ ~rd Rhea 
Charles Snow 
George Stautz 
Otto Tieman 
Louis Wollrab 



Officers in 1918 The annual meeting in January, 1918, saw Frank 
Rice re-elected President. Bon Hiltabrand, Vice President, W. H. Grone- 
meier, Secretary, Carl Messick, Treasurer. 




Left to Rifiht Carl Bock. Arthur H. Boden. \Viii. Bourge*, Karl Bell. George .T. 
Boylan, Clifford S. Book, Felix Binnion, Arthur Blough, E. J. Blum, Mel- 
ville D. Ballinger. 



292 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



MOSES MONTEFIORE SYNAGOGUE HONOR ROLL 





Center Julius Epstein. Left Miss Harriet Ochs; right Harold 
Livingston. Below Karl Epstein. 

Twelve stars gleam in the service flag of the Moses Montefiore 
Synagogue of Bloomington. Of those who saw service, Miss Harriet M. 
Ochs remained on duty long after the war was over. She enlisted as 
soon as hostilities opened and was assigned to hospital duty as Dietician, 
Medical Department, being ordered to the Letterman General Hospital 
at Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., where she was kept in strenuous duty 
for several years and was still at that institution at the time this work 
went to press in 1920. Miss Ochs achieved great success in her chosen 
profession and made a notable record. 

Karl Epstein enlisted in May, 1918, at Camp Bradley, Peoria, trained 
at Fort Leavenworth and Camp Meade, joining the Third Field Signal 
Battalion, was promoted to Master Signalman with the Electrical Signal 
Corps, and was then ordered to France. When five days on the ocean, 
the Armistice was signed and his command ordered back home again. 
He received his discharge February 15, 1919, at Camp Grant. 

Julius Epstein enlisted in July, 1917, and trained for the Xavy at 
Great Lakes. He was discharged on account of illness May 13, 1918, but 
was given recruiting service for two months, making his headquarters 
at League Island, near Philadelphia. He was finally released July 25, 
1918, and returned home. 

Harold Livingston joined the Medical Department and was assigned 
to Detail of the S. G. O. He soon received orders to go to France where 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 



293 



he saw much active service with the Advance Medical Supply Depot 
No. 1, A. P. O. He remained abroad until the close of the war and then 
returned home to resume mercantile duties again. 

Sam Livingston joined the navy and trained at Great Lakes remain- 
ing in the service until peace was declared. 

Other names on the honor roll include Dr. H. L. Howell, Joshue 
Weinstock, Leo Wolff, A. Berman, Jack Smith, Herbert Livingston and 
Capt. Dixon Oberdorfer. 




First row (left to riijht) Harvey W. Woizeski, Roy M. Wirt, William O. Wallace. 
George H. Williamson, Ben F. Weatherford, Haskel O. Whiteneck, Vernon 
Weber, Sunnier F. Williams, William A. White, Harry Wilkinson, Mailen Wil- 
liams. Abort? first row Harold J. Withers, Tom W T alash, Orlo W. Woods. 

Second row Harry 15. Wormley, Noah E. Wormley, Orion L. Wright, Gayland K. 
Wilhoit, George D. Waddell, John R. Willcox. 

Iliinl row Leo R. Wolf, Jesse L. Wise, Harry West, Joe Weinstock, Adley O. 
Whitaker. 

Fourth roiv Albert R. Wilcox, William Watchinski, Paul Walter, Merl E. Whiteneck, 
Carl P. Wilson, Harry H. White, Fred C. Wohls. Clarence Warton. 

Fifth row Edward Werner, Ray Wohls, Donald D. Whitcomb, William C. Wicks, 
Jesse L. Williams. 




294 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

CAPT. C. L. HILLS 

One of the men in Bloomington who 
carried on an important work tirelessly 
and with little of spectacular show or bid 
for public recognition, was Capt. C. L. 
Hills, owner of the Hills hotel. He was 
appointed early in the war as chairman of 
the war activities committee of the Asso- 
ciation of Commerce, and also was named 
head of the Canteen service committee of 
the Ecd Cross. In both these functions, he 
accomplished the work with satisfaction 
to the public and for the comfort and hap- 
piness of all the young men whom he was 
called to serve. The War Activities com- 
mittee looked after the arrangements for 
sending off one after -another, the contin- 
gents of drafted men as they were called 
by the county exemption boards. They 
provided little comforts for their journeys 
and assuaged the emotions of the rela- 
tives by attentions and kindly considera- 
tion and also furnished farewell banquets, and a band as escort. Dur- 
ing the course of the war, after the operation of the draft began, there 
were something like 2,000 young men sent out in this way. Also there 
were fully as many more who enlisted at the recruiting station, and 
these were treated in a similar manner. Medals were struck by the 
Association of Commerce in special recognition of the young man being 
from McLean county, and one of these went to each young soldier thru 
the ministration of this committee. 

The canteen service was the most interesting and appreciated of any 
performed by the local organizations during the war. This was carried 
on by a Bed Cross committee of which Capt. Hills was chairman. From 
September, 1917, to the close of the war, and many months afterward, 
while the movement of troops homeward continued, the canteen com- 
mittee was hard at work. Capt. Hills and his committee originated the 
idea of building at the union station a canteen "hut" where the women 
of the committee might have their quarters, and from which to distri- 
bute sandwiches, hot coffee, chocolates, and various nick-nacks which 
make the short stay of the passing soldier a joy. For the fund to build 
this hut, C. D. Phillos and Louis Baldwin gave each one day's gross re- 
ceipts of their business. With these funds and other donations, and 
much free labor offered by carpenters and other workmen, the hut was 
built, its total cost being about $800. From this hut and by other meth- 
ods, from September, 1917, to September, 1918, there were 53,000 men 
served, the supplies distributed being valued at $3,086. This made an 
average cost per man served 6 cents. The active work of the canteen 
committee ended October 1, 1919, when at a dinner given by Capt. Hills 
and Campbell Holton for the women of the committee, a permanent or- 
ganization, under the name "Bed Cross Beserve Canteen Corps," was 
formed. Much of the hut equipment was reserved for the emergency use 
of this permanent corps. 

Aside from the canteen committee and its work, Capt. Hills is cred- 
ited for many other unique war activities. One of these was the building 
of the Victory Memorial arches at the court house in Bloomington, com- 
memorating the victorious home-coming of our boys. There was one at 
the south and one at the north entrance to the court house. They were 
artistically designed, suitably inscribed, and stood for a year or more 
after the final demobilization of the army. Money for this purpose was 
contributed from all over the county. 



McLKAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD. WAR 



295 



CANTEEN SERVICE FOR SOLDIERS EN ROUTE 




Red Cross Canteen hut at union depot in Bloomington with a group 
of the women who served there. Shown in the picture, left to right 
are: Mrs. Mattie J. Radbourn, Mrs. Eva D. Murray, Mrs. Louise A. 
Ross, Mrs. Celia D. Albee, Mrs. Dorothea H. Miller, Miss Hazel E. Miller, 
Mrs. Rose E. Neubauer, Mrs. Luella B. Ward, Mrs. Lola W. McFarland, 
Mrs. Anna L. Miller, Mrs. Louise A. Hallett, Miss Oneita M. Vander- 
vort. Other members of the band of heroic women but who were not 
in this picture are: Miss Ada M. Carlton, Mrs. Irene L. Piper, Mrs. 
Rose Mary Burke, Mrs. Martha M. Will, Mrs. Bertha Snyder, Mrs. Ina 
Gr. Ross, Mrs. Mollie L. Carlton, Mrs. *Hazel M. Whitehead, Mrs. Mar- 
garet L. Hills, Miss Alice Swayze. 




One of the many units of returning soldiers stopping at the canteen hut. 



296 



McLEAN COUNTY AND TllK iroiiLD WAR 




POST L AS PATRIOTIC BOOSTERS 

In the civilian war activities of McLean county, one 
factor which could not be overlooked was Post L of the 
Travelers Protective Association. This organization, com- 
posed of 600 traveling men, was devoted heart and soul 
to patriotic enterprises during the war. While the mem- 
bers carrier on their usual business to such an extent as 
was possible in view of the' strain of war, they loaned their energy as a 
body and as individuals to the promotion of every civilian drive for 
war purposes. Notably in the Liberty Loan campaigns, the commercial 
travelers were of value. Their experience as salesmen and their trained 
salesmanship, assisted in the pushing the sales of Liberty Bonds to a 
large figure in every district in which they worked. Many of the mem- 
bers of Post L acte'd as precinct chairmen in Bloomington in each of 
the Liberty Loan drives, and also assisted materially in the Bed Cross 
campaigns, the Y. M. C. A. and United War fund efforts, and in other 
work of the kind. But the post was not content with its work at home, 
but sent into active service in the army and navy fifty-six of its mem- 
bers. The Travelers were represented in many different branches of the 
service, and all made creditable records. Two gold stars adorned the 
service flag of the post, representing Earl T. Smith who died at Camp 
Taylor, and Frank M. Thoennes, who died of pneumonia just after he 
had reached European shores, having gone over with the regimental 
band of the 106th Engineers. 

HONOE EOLL POST L, T. P. A. 



Earl T. Smith, died 
Frank M. Thoennes 

D. D. Bachman 
W. W. Barrett 
Karl L. Behnke 
W. G. Behr 
Carl H. Behr 

C. M. Bowen 

E. W. Bringham 
L. E. Bristow 
E. M. Case 

A. S. Coomer 

D. L. Cox 

J. G. Deynzer 
Mark E. Ethell 
Fred Feldt 
H. L. Frost 

E. S. Getty 
T. E. Gree'n 
W. E. Hartson 



at Camp Taylor, 
died in hospital in 
H. C. Hawk, jr. 
J. B. Havens 
L. K. Healy 
W r . H. lungerich 
Eoss Johnson 

E. Kullberger 
L. H. Koos 

F. A. Ldmke 
H. H. Lee 

H. L. Medbery 
Henry Monyhan 
Edward W. Mott 
E. E. Nafziger 
O. S. Parmele 
O. E. Pattison 

G. N. Paxton 
J. W. Paxton 
A. S. Peterson 



Glasgow, Scotland. 
L. P. Powell 
H. E. Protzman 
H. J.'Eead 
E. K. Smith 

D. S. Eussell 
V. G. Staten 

J. E. Stephenson 
Leslie Stone 
O. A. Thoennes 

E. A. Turpin 
C. W. Waller 
.Toe Watchinski 
C. T. Waugh 
William C. Westphal 
W. W. Williams 

F. T. Windle 
M. S. Wooster 
L. G. Wriglit 



WAS POST EMBALMER 

Noble K. Deputy of Bloomington was engaged in the service in a 
capacity somewhat out of the ordinary. He enlisted early in the war 
and was sent to Jefferson Barracks where he was given the rank of ser- 
geant and made the official embalmer of the post, he having engaged 
in the embalming business prior to the war. His work ordinarily would 
not be strenuous but since his term of service covered the period of the 
great influenza epidemic in the fall and winter of 1918, his work grew 
to enormous proportions and kept him and his assistants on the jump 
night and day for many weeks. Sergt. Deputy served in the capacity 
of post embalmer for a period of eighteen months. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 297 

BLOOMINGTON COUNTRY CLUB 

The Bloomington Country Club was an active and very useful agency 
for good during the war. Contributing no less than twenty-seven men 
to the service, the club also was a leader in war relief work, the mem- 
bers individually contributing generously to every drive and being promi- 
nent in the various committees, co-operating patriotically with the Coun- 
cil of Defense and also other bodies working to win the great conflict. 
During the epidemic of influenza which raged during the war, the Coun- 
try Club very generously tendered the club house for a temporary hos- 
pital and a large number of soldiers and civilians were given attention 
there until the epidemic was over. In many other ways, the club dis- 
played its patriotism and won the grateful appreciation of the com- 
munity. The ladies of the Red Cross were permitted to use the club 
house for sewing and the preparation of supplies for the army and no 
distinction was made between members of the club and non-members. 
This was a concession that was deeply appreciated by the members of 
the Bed Cross and was fully taken advantage of and proved a great 
accommodation. The officers of the club during the war were as follows: 

President Fred B. Capen. 

Vice President Sain Welty. 

Secretary Ralph Hasenwinkle. 

Treasurer Harris K. Hoblit. 

The following is the list of members who were in the service: 

Anderson, W. W. Gailey, Dr. W. W. 

Bachman, D. D. Gardner, Dr. W. H. 

Bohrer, Joe Gregory, Omar B. 

Bracken, Dwight Harwood, T. F. 

Brokaw, John Hawk, H. C. Jr. 

Brown, Clifford Howell, Dr. H. L. 

Burr, Hudson Klemm, Julius P. 

Carrithers, H. H. Noble, Dr. R. A. 

Coulter, J. G. Soper, H. A. 

Dick, Harry Starkey, John 

Espey, J. E. Stautz, Geo. P. 

Felmley, John Tenney, H. H. 

Funk, G. W. Young, L. H. 
Funk, Jacob, Jr. 



HEADED SALONIKI Y. M. C. A. 

Rev. E. K. Masterson resigned the pastorate of the Baptist church 
in Normal to go into the army Y. M. C. A. work during the war, was sent 
to France, and after the close of the war to Greece. He became head 
of the Y. M. C. A. at Saloniki, where the Allies had a great military 
headquarters. In the early spring of 1919, a letter from George Horton, 
consul general of the U. S. at Saloniki, to Secretary Lansing, contained 
this statement about the work of Rev. Masterson: 

"For some time now, in the absence of Mr. Henderson the bulk 
of the work in this city has fallen upon the shoulders of Rev. E. K. 
Masterson, who is showing tact and efficiency to an extraordinary de- 
gree. Unless he has some help before long, however, he is likely to 
break down from overwork. He keeps at it many hours of the day, 
with an enthusiasm that is inexhaustible, even continuing when he is 
suffering from fever. There is a great field for the H. A. N., as the 
Y. M. C. A. is called in Greece, and I believe that it will be possible 
to obtain the support, both here in Greece and out of it, for the erec- 
tion of permanent buildings and centers in the principal cities." 



298 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WoELD WAR 



PANTAGRAPH NEWSPAPER HONOR ROLL 




Top row left to right- Capt. Louis Colehower, Sergeant Emmctt 
Gunn, Lt. Byron Shirley. 

Second row, left to right Lieut. Deane Duff; Miss Opha Wren; 
Frank Bill. 

Third row Lt. Fred Cox; Carl Guetschow. 

Fourth row Paul Gibson, Emmett Griffin, Sergt. Owen Dudley. 

The Bloomington Daily Pantagraph contributed the following em- 
ployees to the service: 



Mi-LKAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



299 



Lieut. Louis E. Davis, Aviation. 

Capt. Louis Colehower, Infantry. 

Lieut. Byron Shirley, Cavalry. 

Lieut. Fred Cox, Infantry. 

Capt. Ivan A. Elliott, Heavy Ar- 
tillery. 

Sergt. James D. Foster, Infantry. 

I'aul E. Gibson, Balloon Corps. 

Lieut. Deane Duff, Infantry. 

Corp. Emmett H. Marquardt, Med- 
ical. 



Corp. Paul M. Coogan, Aviation. 
Frank Bill, Artillery. 
H. H. Nichols. 

James P]mmett Griffin, Medical. 
Howard Kodman, Medical. 
Sergt. Emmett V. Gunn, Quarter- 
master. 

Sergt. G. Owen Dudley, Intelligence. 
Carl W. Guetschow, Medical. 
R. Redmon. 
Miss Opha Wren, Red Cross Service 



AMERICAN TAXI CAB HONOR ROLL 




Eugene B. Bedinger and Claud E. Bedinger 

Two boys of whom any father or mother would have reason to be proud 
are Eugene B. Bedinger and Claud E. Bedinger, sons of Mr. and Mrs. 
Daniel H. Bedinger, who are associated in business with their father in 
the AMERICAN TAXI & TRANSFER COMPANY, in Bloomftgton. 

Eugene B. Bedinger enlisted in the air service December 11, 1916, and 
was assigned to the Balloon School at Omaha, Nebraska, for one year, leav- 
ing there with the first Balloon company organized in the Army and re- 
ceived eight months more instruction at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Sailed for 
Franco from Newport News, June 29th, 1918, landing at Brest, France. 
Served with the 25th and 101st, 102nd and 9th Balloon Corps, while in 
France. After the Armistice was signed was sent to England for instruc- 
tions in the Dirigible Construction Balloon Company for four months. 
Sailed for New York, July 6th, 1918. Assigned to the 15th Aero Squadron 
Mincola until September, being sent to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, 
where he is still in service, holding the grade of sergeant and has charge 
of the Aviation Motor Repair Department. 

Claud E. Bedinger, enlisted May 25, 1919, at the age of 17 and was 
assigned to the 27th and 30th Field Artillery, with headquarters at Jack- 
son, South Carolina. Sailed August 21st, for Brest, France, remaining at 
Camp until October 16th, when his command moved up to the battle line 
and participated in the great batt.le of Argonne from October 16th until 
the Armistice on November llth. He was privileged to be a participant 
in the greatest conflict of the war and fortunately escaped without injury 
and remained with the Army of Occupation at Coblenz, Germany, until 
August 19th. He sailed for home and was honorably discharged at Camp 
Grant, August 30, 1919. Resuming active connection with his father in 
business. 



300 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



INVINCIBLE CAMP HONOR ROLL 

Organized in June, 1888, Invincible Camp No. 1021, Modern Wood- 
men of America has been among the most successful of any of this well 
known fraternal order. During the war, the officers, serving through 
1918, were as follows: Past Consul, E. G. Harvey; Consul, Clarence 
Wickoff; Adviser, Thos. Goodger; Clerk, L. Welling; Banker, Emil 
Zbinden; Escort, James Gillen; Watchman, Edward Farrell; Sentry, 
Frank Moews; Trustees, V. Ray Smock, L. R. Irvin, and J. C. Gehle. 
The lodge was active in war relief measures and generous in contribu- 
tions, subscribing for $700 in Liberty Bonds, to the Red Cross, and also 
contributed the following members to the service of the army and navy: 



Capt. Frank F. Tatman L. G. Freeman 

Lt. Ralph Heffernan James Gillen 

Lt. Edward Wittmus 

*Jess S. Anderson 

Clarence Anderson 

Felix M. Binnion 

C. S. Butler 

Carl H. Baumgart 

Dr. T. W. Bath 

Frank Bescher 

Victor Collins 

Evert M. Calhoun 

Raymond H. Duehr 

Geo. H. Davis 

Wm. C. Everhart 



D. L. Hollingsworth 
Louis A. Hayes 
Shelby A. Hauffe 
Sylvester Hibbins 
Fred B. Jones 
James F. Johnson 
*Frank Jordan 
William Keene 
Ernest J. Leckner 
Robert Messerli 
H. C. Maloney 
Wm. Nowatski 
George Nowatski 
Warren W. Owen 



Frank L. Phillips 
Frank N. Peck 
George Preusch 
Albert Scharf 
James A. Skillman 
Roy A. Seaman 
William Springborn 
Joseph Sweeney 
Earl H. Vaughn 
Harry Wickoff 
Earl H. Waters 
L. R. Wilson 
S. C. Wright 
Ralph White 
A. A. West 



STANFORD WOODMEN 



The camp at Stanford of Modern Woodmen 
the following members to the service: 
George E. Garst Wilbur R. Garst 

Dean M. Ewing Chester R. Naffziger 

Otmer V. Folger Leslie H. Hiner 

Grover I. Baldwin Jesse A. Hawes 

Dr. L. B. Gavins Arthur H. Harrop 

Dr. A. E;" McReynolds Lester E. Wright 
Lester B. Stout 



of American contributed 

Harry B. Rusmisell 
Malcolm Sanders 
E. R. Robertson 
Lowell S. B Tton 
Frank Wirrick 
George E. Hamblin 



Officers of the camp in 1918 were the following: 

Consuls Geo. E. Garst, J. M. Orendorff. 

Adviser Thos. Outlaw. 

Banker C. B. White. 

Clerk J. F. Garst. 

Escorts W. R. Garst, H. Babbs. 

Consul and Escort both enlisted making it necessary to elect others. 



MADE DEADLY GAS 

Wayne Townley, former Wesley an man and Bloomington high school 
instructor, was entered in the army in a special service detachment. He 
was sent to a government factory at Edgewater, Maryland, am! was 
employed there during the closing months of the war in making .Asphyxi- 
ating gas designed for the use of the American army in France against 
thn Germans. The process was a government secret. The plant was an 
immense one and had fairly got into full running order when the end 
of the war came. 



*Dicd in the service. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 301 

BLOOMING GROVE CAMP NO. 110, MODERN WOODMEN OF 

AMERICA 

Officers 1918 

G-. O. Hankey Venerable Consul. 
Henry Clarke Worthy Advisor. 
C. A. Kleinau Banker. 
R. S. Davidson Clerk. 
Geo. D. Shaffer Escort. 
B. M. Donavan Watchman. 
E. J. Prinzback Sentry. 

Trustees 

A. F. Heineman, H. M. Salch, H. E. Albee. 
Camp No. 110 purchased $300.00 in Liberty Bonds. 

Members in Service 

Major A. E. Rogers Lieut. H. L. Howell Lieut. E. C. Hamill 

Lieut. Frank Deneen Lieut. Ben S. Rhodes Lt. Ralph Morath 

Armstrong James Hoover, R. R. Meyer, Carl W. 

Alsene, T. E. Hall, Harry H. Ncvin, W. R. 

Bunn, I. E. Henly, Harry W. O 'Connor, John J. 

Collum, D. R. Heyn, E. G. Ploense, Carl W. 

Clack, H. W. Hull, Win. J. Salmon, O. M. 

Cahill, James Jameson, W. G. Sandborg, Roy E. 

Cox, F. R. Kleese, Harry A. Sutherland, E. W. 

Crawford, M. W. Kurtz, P. C. (Died in Service) 

Dugan, J. J., Jr. Kazar, D. E. Streenz, T. J. 

Emmett, E. E. Kalahar, M. O. Townlcy, W. C. 

Elfreich, R. Lash, Leslie (Died in Townley, F. S. 

Gottschalk, P. A. Service) Wollrab, L. E. 

Gettel, Oos. Lucas, O. D. Pierson, R. B. 

Gottschalk, D. E. Lindahl, C. S. Paul, J. C., Secretary 

Grimm, John A. Lash, Bryan Y. M. C. A. 

Murray, Jos. P. 

NORMAL WOODMEN 

Camp 1059, Modern Woodmen of America, located in Normal, in- 
vested $50 in war savings stamps and contributed the following members 
to the service: 

H. R. Bustle G. F. Moore Russel Perkins 

K. W. Callahan Howard Tobias William H. Werner 

Clyde Gray C. V. Conrad Dr. W. L. Penniman 

Earl Littleton John Erbe Dr. O. F. May 

Perl Miller Calvin King Dr. F. E. Sayers 

Newton Mikesell 

Officers for 1918 were as follows: 
Consul George W. Skinner. 
Adviser Orion F. Huffington. 
Past Con. Edw. S. Palmer. 
Banker Otto H. Fissel. 
Clerk Everett L. Buck. 
Escort D. W. Rose. 
Watchman Sheridan Wilkey. 
Sentry Calvin King. 

Physicians F. C. McCormick, O. F. May, W. L. Penniman, F. E. 
Sayera. 

Trustees Wm. Brusch, A. E. Stout, A. E. Briscoe. 



302 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



BLOOMINGTON CONSISTORY S. P. R. S. 
IN THE GREAT WAR 



MORE THAN TWO HUNDRED MEMBERS OF BLOOMINGTON CONSIS- 
TORY SERVED IN THE WAR IN ONE CAPACITY OR ANOTHER. 



Anderson, James C. 
Anderson, Wilbur E. 
Anglemeir, Eussell H. 
Annable, Neil E. 
Apelt, Edgar 
Apelt, Frank 
Bach, Irwin W. 
Barton, Warren C. 
Bates, Walter B. 
Blackwell, Eugene L. 
Bowen, Carroll 
Bremer, Maurice 
Brown, E. Harold 
Buess, Fred A. 
Carrithers, Henry H. 
Cash, LaBue 
Catterlin, Merle W. 
Chandler, Frank 
Cheney, Eoy E. 
Clarke, Alfred H. 
Clark, Vernon E. 
Clarno, Harry T. 
Crum, Ivan D. 
Crumbaugh, Clifford L. 
Denne, Simon F. 
Dicus, Ora B. 
Diggle, Henry E. 
Dunham, W. C. 
Fisher, Frank 
Follick, Paul E. 
Galley, Watson W. 
Galford, Gilbert H. 
Gardner, Wilfred H. 
Geneva, William B. 
Gesell, Lester 
Goodman, Harry W. 
Grote, Henry W. 
Gutel, Edward I. 
Harry, Orris C. 
Hartson, Wm. E. 
Henry, Frank D. 
Hoierman, Paul F. 
Hooker, Henry K. 
Howell, Harry L. 
Imhoff, Eoderick W. 
Jacobs, Eoyal W. 
Jarrette, James B. 
Jiskra, Joseph T. 
Johnson, Chester K. 
Johnson, Harry G. 
Johnson, Oscar W. 
Johnston, Oscar W. 
Jones, John E. 
Katz, George 




Kazar, Donald E. 
Kimler, Eoy E. 
Kinsey, Irvin W. 
Klemm, Julius P. 
Kraft, Lowell C. 
Kuhn, Waldo 
Kyger, Donald E. 
Kyser, Harry L. 
Lafferty, Delmar W. 
Lape, Walter F. 
Lewis, Loren B. 
Lewis, William E. 
Liggitt, Charles C. 
Loehr, William M. 
Lovell, John G. 
Luzader, Bryant A. 
Lyman, Homer C. 
McDonald, Elmer 
McDonald, Floyd 
McVay, Glenn H. 
Marquardt, Harry T. 
Marshall, Frank J. 
Mayer, Eaymond H. 
Minch, Frank P. 
Moffett, William 
Moon, Edgar A. 
Nevins, Loyd L. 



,, I .. ( IK 

Hi i * M!J i III 



?1 



Nierstheimer, Louis G. 
Osten, Herbert B. 
Owen, James 
Paddock, William H. 
Pass, Sam 
Paul, James C. 
Paxton, G. Nolle 
Peck, Frank N. 
Eainsberger, George E. 
Eamage, Harold T. 
Eenfro, William S. 
Eickards, Corwin E. 
Eoberts, Eaymond V. 
Eobertson, Colin J. 
Eock, Eoy J. 
Eockwood, Eoscoe 
Eoss, Albert L. 
Eussell, Don S. 
Saddler, Harry D. 
Sanderson, Charles E. 
Schwindler, William 
Scott, Shirley C. 
Seeger, Carl W. 
Shrock, Eugene G. 
Sieburns, Lynn C. 
Smallwood, Hank P. 
Spier, Albert M. 
Staten, Verne G. 
Steere, Edwin B. 
Stevenson, Howard H. 
Stieglemeier, Walter H. 
Storm, Harvey E. 
Stubblefield, Ansel G. 
Swindler, Eollin L. 
Tiemann, Otto P. 
Townley, Wayne 
Turner, Walter C. 
Tlhrie, Raymond 
Vance, Andrew P. 
Vaughn, James A. 
Wallis, Marshall 
Washburn, Elmer O. 
Watkins, Warren C. 
Waugh, Carl T. 
Westphal, William C. 
Willerton, Edward P. 
Wilson, Henry M. 
Wilson, J. Guy 
Wilson, Lunzie E. 
Wollrab, Louis E. 
Yakel, Harley B. 
Zimmerman, Herman J. 
Zimmerlin, John P. 



HOME OF BLOOMINGTON CONSISTORY 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



303 



LODGE 43 HONOR ROLL 

Bloomington Lodge No. 43, A. F. and A. M., 
contributed the remarkable number of 102 men to 
the army service, one of whom, Leslie O. Lash, 
made the Supreme sacrifice. In addition, the lodge 
contributed $890 to war charities and purchased 
Liberty Bonds to the extent of $4300. Following 
were the officers of the lodge during 1918: 

Clerc Tilbury, Worshipful Master. 

Frank E. Berg, Senior Warden. 

Hanson T. Mace, Junior Warden. 

Clarence M. White, Treasurer. 

Nimrod Mace, Secretary. 

Henry Stanbery, Senior Deacon. 

L. M. Crosthwait, Junior Deacon. 

Donald E. Kazar, Senior Steward. 

Clair E. McElheny, Junior Steward. 

Frank H. Petrie, Chaplain. 

Hardin J. Brown, Marshal. 

Frank Noble, Tyler. 

Frank E. Berg, A. M. Murray, Beard of Cont.ro. 

Frank H. Blose, Board of Eelief. 




Leslie O. Lash 



THE ROLL OF HONOE 



The following is the list of the members in the army or navy service: 




E. H. Anglemeir 
C. M. Bowen 
Carl E. Behr 
P. W. Barling 
T. W. Bath 
Fred Beckman 
John A. Brokaw 
Arnett S. Chapin 
II. M. Cropper 



A. J. Casner 
LaEue Cash 
John E. Clickener 
E. B. Carter 
George W. Daves 
C. E. Dimmett 
Harry K. Dick 
\V. J. Freese 
(T. King Franklin 



George N. Frost 
W. B. Geneva 
W. W. Gailey 
H. G. Garlock 
W. M. Garrigus 
Wilfred H. Gardner 
G. H. Galford 
Charles D. Havens 
E. J. Hallsted 
L. E. Harrison 
H. E. Hayward 
Edward G. Hammond 
Harry Lee Howell 
Harry H. Hall 
Oscar G. Hoose 
Fred W. Howard 
W. Joe hill 
Eogers Humphreys 
William P. Hensel 
Clarence F. Hensel 
Fitch Harwood 
William E. Hartson 
H. E. Harriott 
W. B. Hindman 
L. Boss Johnson 
Oscar W. Johnson 
Harry G. Johnson 
Mevis C. Jennings 
Waldo A. Kuhn 
Donald E. Kazar 
William O. Kershner 
J. P. Longworth 



304 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



C. W. Luckenbill 
Loren B. Lewis 
William M. Loehr 
B. A. Luzader 

E. Lyman Blose 
Fred A. Lamke 
Leslie O. Lash 
Leonard F. Lang 
Herman A. Lawrence 

F. C. Munther 
Ralph N. McCord 
Raymond H. Mayer 
Edward A. Mott 
E. J. Murphey 
George C. Murfey 
Paul Mockert 

L. G. Nierstheimer 



James Owen 
G. E. Owen 
G. Noble Paxton 
L. P. Reed 
W. S. Renfro 
E. B. Rodgers 
Albert L. Ross 
Howard Rhea 
D. S. Russell 
Ben S. Rhodes 
R. V. Roberts 
Eldon M. Rouse 
Harry E. Riddle 
Eugene G. Shrock 
Vern G. Staten 
Joseph N. Sletten 
Harry D. Saddler 



Clarence E. Smith 
Albert M. Spier 
Harvey R. Storm 
Paul J. Snyder 
H. E.' Stappenbeck 
Charles H. Snow 
Robert M. Strickle 
Milo C. Taylor 
Harold E. VanPetten 
Warren C. Watkins 
Louis E. Wollrab 
Carl T. Waugh 
George S. Webb 
J. F. Thompson 
Jesse D. Havens 
Ernest A. Jones 
C. L. Fleischbein 



Y. M. C. A. Work J. C. Paul and Thomas W. Ward. 
Total 102. 



BLOOMINGTON CLUB HONOR ROLL 

Thirty-three members of the Bloomington club were in the service, 
one Lieut. Louis E. Davis making the supreme sacrifice for his country. 
A large proportion won commissions and were otherwise prominent in 
the army. The club through individual subscriptions, was a leader in 
war relief work and its generosity was proverbial. In many ways the 
club contributed to the universal movement towards winning the war. 
The officers of the club during the war, were the following: 

President, John W. Harber. 
Vice-President, Everett C. George. 
Secretary, Geo. F. Dick, Jr. 
Treasurer, C. J. Northrup. 

Directors, H. D. Bunnell, E. B. Mitchel, Ira S. Whitmer, Geo. C. 
Heberling, C. L. Hill. 

Following is the honor roll: 
Capt. Frank W. Aldrieh 
Hudson Burr 
Edward S. Brown 
Clifford Brown 
D. D. Bachman 
Dr. E. A. Behrendt 
Roy R. Cheney 
Lieut. Louis J. Colehower 
*Lieut. Louis E. Davis 
Harry K. Dick 
Ralph C. DeMange 
Dr. Watson W. Gailey 
Dr. W. H. Gardner 
Dr. G. H. Galford 
Tracy E. Green 
Omar B. Gregory 
Rogers Humphreys 



C. Blake Holton 

Lieut. Ralph J. Heffernan 

H. C. Hawk Jr. 

Harry W. Hall 

Lieut. Julius P. Klemm 

Waldo A. Kuhn 

I. G. Lain 

Capt. Ralph N. McCord 

Major (Dr.) R. A. Noble 

Capt. Horace A. Soper 

John J. Starkey 

Geo. P. Stautz 

Harry H. Tenney 

Lieut. Walter Williams 

Bourke C. Williams 

Harold R. Watkins 



*Died in the service. Picture and sketch will be found in the de- 
partment of "In Memoriam." 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



305 



CHICAGO & ALTON HONOK ROLL 




Harry Dennis 



Chas. Pancake 



The members of the various railroad brotherhoods procured a ser- 
vice flag in honor of the members of their organizations from Bloom- 
ington who entered the military service. There were thirty men, ex- 
clusive of the switchmen. This is considered a splendid showing and 
one which compares favorably with that of any of the departments of 
the road. The following are the engineers, firemen and brakemen of 
the Chicago & Alton: J. W. Burt, fireman; A. J. Segreit, fireman; G. 
Conavay, fireman; Gibson Forbes, brakeman; John Wheiting, brakeman; 
M. L. Sweeney, brakeman; J. Chestney, fireman; P. H. Hanahan, fire- 
man; F. Friten, fireman; W. F. Harmes, fireman; E. Burton, brake- 
man; J. Forbes, brakeman; W. H. McLeese, brakeman; M. B. Sweeney, 
brakeman; E. Mowery, brakeman; E. Childs, fireman; H. L. Mitchell, 
fireman; L. Murray, fireman; F. E. Parker, fireman; W. H. Parker, 
fireman; F. C. Griffin, brakeman; A. Crebaum, brakeman; E. Painter, 
fireman; H. Dennis, engineer; J. M. Palmer, fireman; W. Emmett, fire- 
man; B. England, fireman; C. A. Cowan, fireman; C. E. Baxter, engi- 
neer; H. T. Hiller, fireman. 

In addition, the Chicago and Alton contributed a number of clerks 
who volunteered and who are mentioned elsewhere. Many shopmen also 
enlisted and other departments contributed their full quota. P. J. Wat- 
son, division engineer won a captain's commission by efficient duty in 
France. 



306 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



B. & N. RY. & LT. CO. HONOR ROLL 




Center Lt. G. L. Knight; left L. W. McDonald; right K. S. Kirby. 

The Bloomington and Normal Street Eailway and Light Co. has a 
very creditable service flag, the following employes entering the service: 

Joe Trimble, enlisted December 15th, 1917, at Jefferson Barracks in 
Signal Corps. Sailed from Hoboken June 9th, 1918, for France with 
Second Depot Bat. Arrived Brest, France, June 19th. After landing was 
transferred to 409th Telegraph Bat. S. C., Second Army. Made Private 
First Class August 1st. Went to front October 19th on the Meuse Ar- 
gonne offensive and there remained until after armistice was signed. 
Temporarily assigned to Army of Occupation at Longwy, France. Sailed 
for U. S. April 5, 1919, landed Hoboken April 13th. 'Discharged Camp 
Grant April 28th, 1919. 

Harvey E. Storm, Electrician. Volunteered May 4, 1917, not ac- 
cepted. Sent to Jefferson Barracks, December 10, 1917, rejected Decem- 
ber 12, 1917. Inducted in service as Alternate April 3, 1918. Assigned 
to 2nd Co. C. A. C. I. I. S. Fort H. G. Wright, N. Y. Transferred from 
2nd Co. to 68th Eeg. C.A.C. Transferred from 68th Eeg. to Fort H. G. 
Wright Eadio Station assigned 1st Operator July 8, 1918. Eeceived ap- 
pointment to Elec. school of Enlisted specialists C.A.C. School at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., September 13, 1918. School closed December, 1918. Left 
Fortress Monroe January 1. 1919. Discharged at Camp Grant January 
9, 1919. 

Chas. F. Snyder, Electricians Helper. Enlisted February 28, 1918, 
and assigned to 1st Company C. A. C. at Portland, Me. Battery B 72nd. 
Artillery C. A. C. A. E. F. Went overseas August 6, 1918, landed Eng- 
land August 25th. On September 1 sailed for France where he remained 
until March 19, 1919. Discharged latter part of May, 1919. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 307 

Bryan Maxwell, employed as Efficiency Engineer, enlisted in the 
Naval Keserve at Great Lakes. Was transferred to Norfolk, Va., where 
he contracted Spanish Influenza and died. 

John Fritzen, employed at Power Plant. Enlisted in the Naval Ke- 
serve at Great Lakes and was not heard from after enlistment. 

Wesley Van Schoick, employed as Collector. Drafted into service 
June 24th, 1918, and stationed at Camp Wheeler, Macon, Ga. He was 
later sent overseas but was not heard from after going overseas. 

Lawrence W. McDonald, enlisted in the Quartermaster Corps August 
llth, 1918, and was assigned tc the 5th Company Camp Meigs, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Ordered transferred to Camp Grant, 111., December 28th 
and was discharged January ]7th, 1919. 

Siegfried Moline drafted into service and sent to Camp Grant, Rock- 
ford and not heard from after leaving employ. 

Waldo L. Long, clerk, drafted into service and sent to Camp Grant, 
Rockford, but because of physicial disability did not enter service. 

John Stevenson, employed as New Business Solicitor, enlisted at the 
very outbreak of the war at Jefferson Barracks and was not heard from 
after enlistment. 

P. C. Ferrell, drafted in the Army and sent to Camp Dodge and not 
heard from after entering army. Was employed as electrician at El 
Paso, Illinois. 

Paul Walter, car man, drafted and sent to Camp Dodge. Later sent 
to Camp Pike, Arkansas. After brief preliminary training was sent 
overseas and saw action in which he was wounded in the elbow, which 
wound will leave him partially disabled. Discharged April 29, 1919. 

O. A. Montgomery, car man, enlisted in the Medical Department and 
was stationed at Fort Riley, Kansas, Medical Officers Training Camp 
Hospital No. 18 until the close of the war. 

Wm. Craig, Engineer Power Plant, enlisted in the Aviation Corps 
and was stationed at San Antonio, Texas, for the duration of the war. 

K. Schoenman, Oiler Power Plant, enlisted at Jefferson Barracks and 
was never heard from after enlistment. 

E. Crew, Oiler Power Plant, entered Navy at Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station and not heard from after enlistment. 

J. K. Tuthill, Local Manager at El Paso, 111., entered Army service as 
Instructor in the Aviation Signal Corp. 

G. L. Knight, employed as Ass't Operating Engineer, entered Mili- 
tary service January 2, 1918, as Private in Quartermaster Corps, was 
sent to Camp Joseph E. Johnston at Jacksonville, Fla. Remained there 
until August 17th on which date he was discharged as an enlisted man 
and given a commission as 2nd Lieut. At this time he was assigned to 
the Construction Division and ordered to Camp Greene at Charlotte, 
N. C. Here he remained as Property and Supply Officer for the Utilities 
Branch of the Construction Division until the date of his final release 
from the military service on May 1st, 1919. 

Jno. M. Barr, Ass't to Operating Engineer, enlisted in the Medical 
Department at Jefferson Barracks May 16th, 1918, where he remained 
until January 15th, 1919, at which time he was transferred to the Quarter- 
master Corps at Jefferson Barracks. He gained the rank of Private 1st 
Class and was released at Jefferson Barracks on May 20th, 1919. 

H. W. Hoerr, Electrician, Morton, Illinois, enlisted at Jefferson Bar- 
racks and no word was received locally after his enlistment. 

L. D. Simpson, Car man, drafted in service May 28, 1918, and entered 

. service at Fort Thomas, Ky., June 2nd and was transferred to Camp 

Gordan, Atlanta, Ga., and on June 10th to Fort Sheridan, Ala., where 

he remained until November 29th, 1918. On June 13th was sent to 

Camp Grant, 111., and discharged on June 15th. 

L. S. Kirby, Car Man, drafted in service April 3, 1918, and went 
to Fort H. G. Wright. April 22nd was transferred to 3rd Co., July 19th, 
1918, transferred to (iStli Regiment C.A.C. August 8th sailed for overseas 
and landed in England August 24th. Left England August 29th and 
landed at La Havre, France, same date. Sailed for home February 2nd, 



308 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



1919, landing February 15th. Discharged at Camp Dodge about March 
1st, 1919. 

L. S. Bowley, Car man, drafted in service and went to Fort H. G. 
Wright. Eeceived sailing orders and was out to sea when Armistice 
was signed and transport returned to the States and he was discharged. 

Stanley H. Paul, Clerk, enlisted February 28th, 1918, 1st Co. C. A. C. 
Portland, Me. Battery B 72nd Artillery C. A. C. A. E. F. Headquarters 
Kilst Depot Brigade, Camp Grant. Went over seas August 6, 1918, landed 
England August 25th. Sept. 1 sailed for France. Sailed for home March 
19th. Discharged June 7th, 1919, at Camp Grant. Gained rank of Eadio 
Sergeant. 

Lyman Blose, Mechanic Power Plant, enlisted and went in army ser- 
vice at Columbus, Ohio. 

M. Pifer, laborer, drafted and went to New London, Conn., and never 
heard from after entering army. 

Owen Carroll, Electrician El Paso, 111. Drafted in army and sta- 
tioned at Fort Perry, N. Y. Not heard from locally after entering 
service. 




Flag Raising by Street Eailway Employes at Car Barns 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



309 



CAMPBELL HOLTON & CO. HONOR ROLL 




Top row (left) Glen Bartley; right) Martin Eussell. 
Center Blake Holton; left center Leslie Stone; right center F. 
C. Proctor. 

Botton, left Leonard Dexter; right Ealph E. Thompson. 

Of the employes of the firm of Campbell Holton & Co. Wholesale 
Grocers, Bloomington, who were in the army, Leslie Stone, saw much 
active service in France. Training at Jacksonville, Fla., he sailed for 
Brest, France, April 15, leaving Guvres after a longer period of strenuous 
duty, reaching Chateau du Loir February 14, 19L19. He then spent six 
months with the Army of Occupation in Holland and Belgium and was 
discharged at Camp Grant September 8. 

F. C. Proctor trained at Camp Stuart, V., in the M. S. Dept., sailed 
November 1, 1918, for France, landing at St. Nazaire, remaining abroad 
with the Army of Occupation until July 6, 1919, receiving his discharge 
at Mitchell Field July 22. 

Glenn Bartley trained at Fort Wright in the coast artillery, leaving 
Cam]) Mills for France, September 20, 1918, and assisted in guarding 
Paris at Fort De Stains, ten miles distant. He saw much of the French 
capital. He received his discharge at Camp Grant January 25, 1919. 

Ealph E. Thompson enlisted June 24, 1918, trained at Camp Wheeler 
with the 123d Infantry, sailed for France October 13, saw much active 
service until the following summer and was discharged at Camp Grant 
Juno 20, 1919. 

Leonard Dexter trained at Camps Dodge, Gordon and Upton, and 
reached Le Havre, France, May 16, 1918, and was distinguished in spend- 



310 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



ing five months in the front line of service at the Toul, Marbash, St. 
Mihiel, Meuse and Argonne sectors. He was gassed and wounded by 
shrapnel in the latter offensive and was able to get a thorough insight 
into the grim vicissitudes of war. He remained abroad until the follow- 
ing summer and was discharged at Camp Grant May 30, 1919. 

Blake Holton enlisted December 15, 1917, at the Chicago Medical 
Supply Depot and was successively on duty at Camp Stuart, Camp Hill, 
Debarkation Hospital, Hampton Roads, Embarkation Hospital, and finally 
Camp Grant, seeing constant duty until his discharge May 5, 1918, having 
been promoted to sergeant. 

Clyde Jetton enlisted June 3; 1918, and trained at Great Lakes naval 
station at Cambridge, Mass., being released February 11, 1919. 

Martin Eussell enlisted September 21, 1918, at Columbus, O., trained 
at Camp Hancock and was discharged February 20, 1919. 

Park Powell trained at Camp Dodge but was discharged on account 
of ill health. 

Henry Carlson trained at Camp Grant and Camp Mac Arthur and was 
discharged December 23, 1918. 

Thomas Shanahan saw service with the Bloomington draft board and 
Andy Mann joined the S. A. T. at Camp Dodge. 



PROF. DOUGLAS CLAY RIDGLEY 

Douglas Clay Eidgley, professor of ge- 
ography at the Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity, enlisted October 10, 1918, in Y. 
M. C. A. Educational Department for ser- 
vice in France, reported at New York 
December 20 and sailed January 4, 1919, 
with 75 other workers, reaching Paris Jan- 
uary 19 and was assigned by the Army 
Educational Commission of the Y. M. C. A. 
as Director of Geography in the A. E. F. 
He aided in the organization of army 
schools and visited educational centers of 
the First and Second Armies at Beaune, 
Cote d'Or, headquarters of the A. E. F. 
University; aiding in the organization of 
the Department of Geography and Geology 
of that institution, and the geography 
courses in the Farm school at Allerey, 
twelve miles distant. On April 15 Prof. 
Ridgley was transferred to the newly or- 
ganized Army Educational Corps, the army taking over all educational 
activities, and spent a month making a tour with a party of educators, 
of the schools of the Army of Occupation, covering 2500 miles by auto- 
mobile, visiting points in France, Belgium and Germany. The next montli 
was spent lecturing among the Service of Supplies troops in the Argonne 
region where 8,000 were working on the Argonne cemetery. On June 10, 
1919, Prof. Ridgely received his discharge from the army with privilege 
of twenty days travel in France and Belgium, covering 3,000 miles by 
train and with the pleasure of being accompanied by his fellow instructor 
at the I. S. N. U., Prof. E. W. Gavins. They visited the Rhone Valley, 
Meditterancan Coast, Marseilles to Nice, French Alps, including Mt. 
Blanc, Central Highlands, Bordeaux, battle front from Chateau Thierry 
to the English Channel, Belgium from Ostend to Brussels, Louvain, Liege, 
Namur, and battle lines in regions of Sedan, Verdun, St. Mihiel Rhiems, 
etc. They then returned to America, reaching Normal July 26. During 
the seven months absence of Prof. Ridgley he travelled 15,000 miles and 
the experience was included among the most enjoyable of his life. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 311 

J. F. HUMPHREYS & CO. HONOR ROLL 

The wholesale grocery firm of J. F. Humphreys & Co., Bloomington, 
contributed a very large number of employes to the service, the list 
being as follows: 

D. D. Bachman, U. S. A. Ambulance Service Sec. 611. 

C. M. Bowen, Co. D 46th Inf. 

Paul Bloomquist, U. S. N. E. F. 

Carl Bock, Hdq. Co. 345th Inf. 

Wm. W. Barrett, Co. D 12th M. G. Bn. 

John Fenton, Camp Wheeler, Ga. 

Guy Gray, 16th Aero Squadron. 

H. E. Henson, Co. M 37th Inf. 

Carl Hallstedt, Co. H 28th Inf. 

Eogers Humphreys, 5th Squadron Marine Corps Flyers. 

Wm. H. lungerich, M. T. C. No. 423. 

Walter Johnson, 16th Ordnance Depot Co. 

Lloyd Ledderbogge, Navy. 

Eugene McCarthy, Navy (Died in Service). 

Julian Mohr, Navy. 

Geo. Nies, Jefferson Barracks. 

Ivan Martin, Navy. 

Joe Matt, Navy. 

Chas. Neeld, Navy. 

A. B. Perry, 5th Kegt. Marines. 

Alfred Peterson, 309 Supply Co. 

Eugene Phillips, Army Aviation Service. 

Eoy Seammen, Co. I 128th Inf. 

Ealph Stewart, Navy. 

Archie Sayers, Hdq. Co. 326th Inf. 

Howard Stevenson, 45th C. A. C. 

Earl Van Ordstrand, Army Aviation Service. 

P. B. Vandeveer, 68th C. A. C. 

Frank Watchinski, Co. I 326th Inf. 

Orion Wright, Bty. F. 68th C. A. C. 

Straude Wiseman, Navy. 

L. L. Waterfield, Co. A 328 Bn., Tank Corps. 




Upper row (left to 'right) John F. Schneider, William Swearingen, Leslie R. Suter, 
Earl Stickler, Michael Stokes, Charles Smith, Fred E. Shoup, Vernest E. Stock- 
dale, Leslie Stone, Jack K. Simonson. 

Second row Fred C. Schroeder, Joseph G. Stevens, Warren A. Stubblefield, Ellis 
D. Stubblefield, Guy M. Stubblefleld, William F. Shorthose, Park F. Shorthose, 
Chas. L. Stephens. 

Third row John A. Schmidt, Yalle Staffen, Keith Stark, Elmer Straub, Emmett E. 
Stiger, Joseph Sweeney. 

Fourth row George B. Sweeney, John W. Stewart, Russell I. Simkins, David Shadid, 
Harlan W. Sachs. 



312 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



C. U. WILLIAMS & SON HONOR ROLL 

Of the attaches of the motor vehicle firm 
of C. U. Williams & Son, 207-209 East 
Washington street, Bloomington, who were 
in the service, Walter W. Williams, junior 
member of the firm, made a notable rec- 
ord in the aviation department, Enlisting 
December 1, 1917 as Master Signal Elec- 
trician with the 38th Aero Squadron, lo- 
cated at Chanute Field, Bantoul, he soon 
won a commission as an engineer officer. 
Major G. W. Krapf, who made the recom- 
mendations, paid him a notable tribute. 
After alluding to the rapid advancement 
and frequent promotions of Mr. Williams, 
Major Krapf stated: "He is the most val- 
uable man on the field. He has remark- 
able ability in -the handling of men and 
to a large extent, is responsible for the 
success of the field. His qualifications can 
be used to better advantage and his knowl- 
edge and executive ability would be more 

effective and of more actual value to the service as a commissioned 
officer than in his present status. His services are needed here and he 
knows local conditions. His business experience has made him more 
mature and he commands more respect than his age would indicate." 
Lieutenant Williams spent some time at a New Jersey camp after his 
promotion and then received his discharge, following the end of the war, 
then returning to Bloomington. The following is the roster of other 
attaches of this firm who were in the service: 




J. B. Havens 
George Johnson 
Jack Daniels 
Wm. Eexroat 
Wm. Watchinski 
Wm. Sweeney 
Sam Eeed 
Eobt. McGregor 
Francis Harry 



Wm. E. Smalley 
John Clark 
Faye Baldwin 
Park Shorthose 
Harlan Dorland 
G. J. Gates 
J. G. Winstrom 
Martin Walsh 
A. S. Coomer 



Howard Wiley (Died October 9, 1918). 

Earl T. Smith (Died October 15, 1918). A biography and picture 
of both will be found in the department reserved for "In Memoriam. " 




Harry Umphress (center), W. L. Urban (left), Raymond 
E. Uhrie (right). 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



JOHN A. BECK HONOR ROLL 



313 





John A. Beck, Bloomington, was on& of the most active war relief 
workers and was numbered among the most generous contributors. He 
was especially prominent in the Young Mens Christian Association and 
also a faithful and energetic committeeman upon many of the various 
activities and assisted in every way possible. Mr. Beck was deserving 
of the fullest measure of credit for his part among the workers at home 
in helping to win the war. 

Of the attaches of the John A. Beck Company, 116 S. Main street, 
Bloomington, Louis E. Wollrab enlisted May 31, 1918, was assigned to 
Camp Sheridan Montgomery, Ala., was promoted to corporal and re- 
mained there until he received his discharge April 1, 1919. 

Thomas C. Jenkinson enlisted June 19, 1918, trained at Camp Taylor, 
Louisville, Ky., was sent to France, seeing much active service and re- 
turned home six months after the war was over and was discharged 
September 1, 1919. 

Edwin I. Lundborg was inducted into the army at Camp Grant in 
the summer of 1917, went overseas, serving with credit and returned 
home in the spring of 1919, receiving his discharge with the rank of 
sergeant June 1, 1919. 




Top Row (left to right) Henry W. Capen, C. D. Glen Cook, Ivan D. Campbell, 
Richard A. Chapman, Roy Cruikshank, Paul Crumbaker, and Jesse F. Carnell. 

Second Row Marcus W. Coyle, Dwight Cooksley, Robert H. Crum, Lyman A. Canady, 
Roy E. Chrisman, Eric Clason, A. R. Cla'son. 



314 



M eLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



F. H. COLE MOTOR CO. HONOR ROLL 

Of the attaches of the Frank H. Cole 
Motor Car Co. with plants at 301-3 East 
Front street and 200-202 South Main, 
Bloomington, George J. Gollmar, manager, 
selected the aviation section of the signal 
corps when the call came for enlistments. 
He reported at the Eantoul, 111. (Chanute) 
field on June 27, 1918, and was given 
strenuous duty in the inspection of motors 
for air crafts, his familiarity with gasoline 
engines giving him the necessary qualifi- 
cations for this responsible duty. He con- 
tinued in this capacity until October 1, 
1918, when he was transferred to the Avi- 
ation Officers Training Camp at Fort 
Omaha, Nebraska. He made such an ex- 
cellent showing in his knowledge of air 
craft and its mechanism that he was rec- 
ommended for a commission and would 
have received this honor but for the sud- 
den ending of the war and the closing of 

the camp. He received his discharge on November 27, Thanksgiving Day, 
1918, and immediately resumed his post with the F. H. Cole Company, 
having greatly enjoyed his life in camp and his tour of duty. 

Other attaches of the F. H. Cole Co. who were in the service in- 
cluded C. F. Snerly, salesman, who won a commission as lieutenant at 
Camp Logan, enlisting in the infantry but being transferred to the air 
service in France, seeing much active service in the Argonne, and Somme 
offensives, and being discharged June 19, 1919. 

Harry Hall was assigned to the tank corps and saw much strenuous 
duty in France. 

William Hart was in the Motor Transport Corps and also saw much 
duty in France. 

James Allen was in the aviation department at Chanute field. Dean 
Montgomery trained at Camp Taylor in the motor corps. Emmett Koos 
in the motor transport corps at Camp Grant. James M. Kinsella in the 
nitro detachment at Sheffield, Alabama, while Monroe Eodman also saw 
much service in the Motor Transport Corps. 




OUR BOYS WHO WERE IN SERVICE 



HAWKS, INCORPORATED 
Bloomington, Illinois 



LESLIE O. LASH 
Died in Service 



H. C. Hawk, Jr. 
Harold Protzman 
Eay Wallace 
Grover Norris 



Oscar Anderson 
Everett Calhoun 
Willard Hoover 
Herbert Ploense 



UcLEAN COr\TY -/.\/> Till-: WORLD WAR 



315 




PORTABLE ELEVATOR GROUP 



PORTABLE ELEVATOR CO. HONOR ROLL 

The Portable Elevator Com- 
pany located at 920-930 East 
Grove street, Bloomington was 
most creditably represented in 
the service. George Meece en- 
listed August 21, 1917 in Co. 
484, Aerial squadron, spent 
twelve months in France, and 
received two citations, one 
while with the first army and 
the other with the second army. 

William F. Arnold was in- 
ducted into the army May 9, 
1918, trained at Camp Mac- 
Arthur, was made sergeant in 

the quartermasters corps, train- Ccnter _ Georse Meece 
ing later at Camp Grant, and LeftWiniam L. Arnold. 
was discharged Jan. 3, 1919. Right William H. Werner. 

Walter H. Mau enlisted Jan. Bel w (left to right) Osc&r Jones, Walter 
19, 1918, and was sent to New- 
port News, training there and other coast points. While enroute for 
New York to go overseas the armistice was signed and he was disap- 
pointed. He was discharged from Co. K of the 48th Infantry, January 
22, 1919. 

Ocean Wilson Jones enlisted and left April 3, 1918, for Fort Wright, 
training in the coast artillery, sailing for France August 8, via Liver- 
pool. After active duty until the armistice, he sailed for home was 
discharged March (5, 1919. 

William H. Werner enlisted and trained for the navy at Great Lakes, 
commencing May 13, 1918. He sailed on the Leviathan June 13 for 
France where he prosecuted his naval aviation training. He also saw 
active duty in England and was a member of a sailor minstrel company 
organized there. He was discharged April 25, 1919. 

Harry L. Wickoff enlisted in the navy May 13, 1918, trained at 
Great Lakes and Norfolk, was assigned to the battleship Massachu- 
setts, and later the armored cruiser Minneapolis and was in convoy duty, 
later making six trips on the K. I. Luckinbach. a transport. He was 
discharged September 26, 1919. His photograph is published in one of 
the naval groups of this work. 

P. L. Eobert enlisted May 8, 1917, as fireman in the navy and had 
the privilege of witnessing the surrender of the German High Seas fleet 
November 21, 1918, fifty miles off the coast of Scotland. These included 
ten superdreadnoughts, fifty destroyers and fifty submarines. He was 
discharged July 15, 1919. 

William Dambold was inducted into the army June 27, 1918, and 
was trained at Camp Wheeler. While ready for overseas duty, the 
armistice was signed and Tie was discharged January 6, 1919. 

John F. Clask enlisted November 9, 1917, and served ten months in 
France with Co. E, 38th infantry. He received a citation for bravery, 
serving in the battles of the Ainse Marne, Chateau Thierry, Champagne 
M:irne, St. Mihiel, Vesle Sec. Meuse Argonne. He was discharged 
August 30, 1919. 

Elmer Doner was inducted into the army September 19, 1917, trained 
at Camp Dodge and was discharged October 19 on account of weak eyes. 

Otto Sablotzke served as cook following his induction into the army 
and was discharged with credit. 



316 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



UNION GAS & ELECTRIC CO. HONOR ROLL 

Of the attaches of the Union Gas & Electric Co. of Bloomington who 
were in the service, one Edward Wittmis, was commissioned Lieutenant. 
He was inducted into the army September 19, 1917 and trained at Camp 
Dodge, Iowa. He was in France in active service from August 7, 1918, 




UNION GAS & ELECTRIC CO. HONOR ROLL 

(Top) Chester Dodge. 

(Center) Paul H. Lehman, Edward Wittmis. 

(Below) Peter Brown. 



until August 16, 1919, and was rapidly promoted, due to meritorious 
service, winning the non-commissioned chevrons and, finally, a lieuten- 
antcy. He was discharged August 18, 1919. 

Paul Henry Lehman selected the navy for his service, enlisting 
August 9, 1918, and was assigned to the Great Lakes station for training. 
He was released from active service February 6, 1919. 

Harry Kleese was inducted into the army April 3, 1918, and assigned 
to the coast artillery, being trained at Fort Wright, N. Y. He was over- 
seas from October 5, 1918, to March 14, 1919, and received his discharge 
March 28, 1919. 

Chester A. Dodge was inducted into the army May 1, 1918, training 
at Camp Fremont, Cal., with Co. H of the 13th Infantry. He was dis- 
charged October 12, 1918. 

Peter James Brown enlisted April 30, 1918, in the naval aviation 
department trained at Camp Logan and was discharged February 23, 1919. 

Leonard Crego was inducted into the service June 26, 1918, assigned 
to the radio section of the 117th Field Artillery at Camp Jackson, S. C., 
and was discharged January 17, 1919. 

Thomas Welling was inducted into the army June 26, 1918, assigned 
to the infantry at Camp Wheeler, and was discharged May 28, 1919. 

Emil Butzirus was inducted into the army June 26, 1918, assigned 
to the infantry trained at Camp Wheeler and was discharged May 28, 
1919. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



317 



DODGE-DICKINSON CO. HONOR ROLL 




Upper Frank W. Ploense, Gerhart H. Ploense, Albert Friede- 
wald (left to right). Lower Walter R. Ploense, William Har- 
rington. Below Charles Mott. 

Of the employes of the Dodge-Dickinson Co., mattress and couch 
manufacturers of Bloomington, who entered the service, several were 
fortunate in reaching France. Frank W. Ploense enlisted June 24, 1918, 
and trained at Camp Wheeler. He sailed for France September 19, 1918, 
and saw much active service before peace was declared. He remained 
with the Army of Occupation and then received his discharge at Camp 
Grant May 10, 1919. 

Walter R. Ploense enlisted May 2, 1917, trained at Fort Randolph 
and then went to the canal zone, Panama with the 8th Company, C. A. C. 
He received his discharge at Camp Dix, October 2, 1919. 

Charles Mott trained at Fort Washington with the 52d artillery and 
was discharged at Camp Grant January 25, 1919. 

Gerhart H. Ploense enlisted September 6, 1918, trained with the 
engineering corps at Camp Forrest, Ga., and received his discharge at 
Camp Custer, December 27, 1918. 

Albert Friedewald enlisted September 5, 1918, trained at Camp Grant 
and was discharged there October 28, 1919. His service was with the 
Infantry. 

William Harrington enlisted June 24, 1918, served in the Motor 
Transport Corps, went overseas and served ten months in active duty 
abroad. He returned home via Charleston, South Carolina and received 
his discharge at Camp Grant July 16, 1919. 



318 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAR 



C. W. KLEMM HONOR ROLL 




Upper row (left to right) Joseph E. Burkey, Roy W. Karr. 
Center Julius Klemm. 

Left of Center Jesse J. Jones; right of center Porter W. Karr, 
Lower, left to right Jesse E. Small, Carl Kumming, Jacob W. Weber. 

Of the employes of the C. W. Klemm wholesale and retail dry goods 
stores, Bloomington, who were in the services, one Julius Klemm, junior 
member of the firm won a commission of Lieutenant. He enlisted June 
1, 1917, and trained at Camp Logan, Houston, Texas, and Camp Han- 
cock, Augusta, Ga. He received his discharge November 28. 1918. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



319 



Sergeant Chas. N. Karr trained at Fort Leavenworth and Fort 
Oglethorpe, and Fort Bliss, being discharged April 9, 1919. 

Sergeant Carl H. Kumming trained at Kelly Field, Texas, and 
Buffalo, N. Y. He was discharged March 29, 1919. 

Jacob W. Weber, Surgical assistant trained at Camps Wheeler and 
Mills and went to France November 9, 1918, seeing service at Brest, 
La Val, Le Mans and St. Nazaire. He was discharged July 12, 1919. 

Sergeant Jesse L. Jones trained at Camps Johnston and Wheeler and 
was discharged March 10, 1919. 

Sergeant Joseph E. Burkey trained at Camp Wheeler and was dis- 
charged January 22, 1919. 

William E. Heikes served at Great Lakes and went to France in 
the U. S. S. Mobile. He was made baker and discharged Sept. 16, 1919. 

Jesse Small trained at Camp Meigs and Bahway, N. J., and was dis- 
charged May 27, 1919. 

Lawrence Koos trained at Fort Monroe and Camps Merritt and 
Stewart, went overseas April 5, 1918, was in the battle of St. Mihiel and 
in the Meuse- Argonne offensive. He was discharged February 26, 1920. 

Louis Seiffert trained at Lincoln, Neb., and Camp Grant and was 
made C. I. O. T. S., being discharged November 23, 1918. 

Porter W. Karr trained at Fort Bliss and Camp Vail, went across 
December 24, 1917, was in the battles of Toulon, Aisne, Chateau Thierry, 
Aisne Marne, St. Mihiel, Champagne and Meuse Argonne. Discharged 
August 11, 1919. 

Roy Karr trained at Kelly Field and went across January 3, 1918, 
was in the Lys defensive, St. Mihiel offensive and Meuse Argonne battle. 
Discharged June 16, 1919. 



MANUFACTURED ICE CO. HONOR ROLL 




Chester McLaren, of the many 
employes of the Bloomington 
Manufactured Ice and Cold 
Storage Co., who were in the 
service, had the distinction of 
winning a commission. Train- 
ing at Houston, Texas, and also 
seeing service in Mexico, he was 
successively promoted to corpo- 
ral, sergeant and lieutenant of 
the 123d Machine Gun Battalion. 
He saw much active service in 
France and later was with the 
Army of Occupation, his record 
being of the very best. He re- 
ceived his discharge August 1, 
1919, and then located at Akron, 
Ohio. Other employes of the 
Bloomington company in the 
service were the following: Joe 
Wilcox, James Lucas, Howard 
Rodman,* Albert Scharf, Tom 
Williams, Glenn Pringey, Brink- 
ley Latham, Gyles Wright, A. 
Grampp, E. Livingston, Harry 
Graehl,t George Selby, C. C. 
Ashby, Richard Cook and Roy 
Snedaker. 



Above Lt. Chester McLaren. 
Center James Lucas. 
Below Thomas Williams. 



*Died of disease in Camp. 
t Killed in Action. 



320 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



CHARLES UTESCH HONOE ROLL 




Upper left Walter Greishaber; upper right Roy A. Herring. 
Lower left Earl Million; lower right Edward Pitsch. 

Charles Uteseh, Bloomington, who operates grocery, meat market 
and bakery at 428-430 North Main street, Bloomington and also branch 
plants was included among the active and generous participants in all 
war relief work who so distinguished Bloomington. Perhaps his most 
notable service, however, was in the founding of the co-operative de- 
livery system, designed to release a large number of drivers for the war 
and which proved to be a great success. He organized a mutual com- 
pany which provided for the delivery of products for a large number 
of Bloomington stores and thus enabling the release of a large number 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 321 

of men to the army and navy. This system proved so successful that it 
was continued following the war. Mr. Utesch was also active in the 
food conservation department of the council of defense and in other 
ways demonstrated his patriotism and open heartedness. A large num- 
ber of his employes entered the army and navy, the honor roll including 
the following: 

Leroy A. Herring, manager, enlisted in the coast artillery March 19, 
1918, and spent five months in detached service at Fort Standish, Boston 
Harbor. On August 22, he sailed for France and spent six months with 
the 68th Eeg. Bat A. Coast Artillery, seeing much active service. He 
was discharged at Camp Grant in March, 1919. 

Walter J. Grieshaber enlisted March 19, 1918, was promoted to cor- 
poral in the coast artillery, and was stationed at Fort Standish, Fort 
Warren and Camp Devens, and finally received his discharge at Camp 
< rant January 14, 1919. Earl Million and Edward Pitsch, also of this 
firm, also served with similar distinction. 




Top row (left to riftht) Holland H. Carlock, John O. Carey, John M. Crichton, 

Eugene Cofer, Clifford L. Crumbaugh. 
Second row Francis H. Conroy, David J. Conroy, Dana O. Clark, Samuel Crabtree, 

John A. Cleary, James V. Cox. 
Third row Ora A. Cunningham, Fred G. Gary, Ralph Grose, Harvey B. Crusius, 

William D. Coyle, T. Ivan Costigan, J. K. Coppenberger, William J. Cahal. 
Fourth row Mascal H. Gary, Howard S. Chrisman, Oval M. Cope, Arnett S. Chapin. 

Charles E. Cordes. 



322 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



FUNK BEOS. HONOR ROLL 




Top row, left to right Lafayette Funk, Jr., Eugene D. Funk. 
Center row Jacob Funk, Donald S. Funk. 
Lower row Uurt A. Rehtmeyer, O.tto Tieman. 



The following attaches of Funk Bros. Seed Co., Bloomington, were 
in the service: 

Donald S. Funk, son of Deane N. Funk, enlisted March 26, 1917, in 
the U. S. Naval Eeserve and was honorably discharged on account of 
physicial disability in June of that year. He was later inducted in the 
army on March 11, 1918, and trained at Fort Moultrie, S. C. He was 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



323 



also at Camp Eustis, Va., with the 61st Eegiment, C. A. C., going overseas 
in July. He attended the artillery school between August and November, 
was promoted to corporal in March, 1919, and received his discharge 
at Camp Grant May 13, 1919. 

Jacob P. Funk also a son of Deane M. Funk enlisted in the U. S. 
Naval Reserve March 26, 1917, served on the U. S. S. Seneca during the 
.summer of that year, was promoted to instructor at Pelham Bay Train- 
ing Station, remaining there until his release in December, 1918, following 
the close of the war, having attained the rank of Second Class Quarter- 
master. 

Lafayette Funk jr., son of Eugene D. Funk, enlisted as apprentice 
seaman in the U. S. Naval Reserve October 2, 1918, and was stationed 
at Urbana, 111., where he trained until released from active duty Decem- 
ber 21, 1918. His brother, Eugene D. Funk, jr., enlisted in the S. A. T. C. 
at Urbana, 111., October 2, 1918, training at the University of Illinois 
until his discharge December 2, that year. 

Curt A. Rehtmeyer, son-in-law of Eugene D. Funk, enlisted in the 
4th Battery C. A. C. April 1, 1918, ,and trained at Fort Washington, 
Md., remaining there until the end of the war, receiving his discharge 
December 20, 1918. 

A member of the Lafayette Company of the Indiana National Guard, 
Battery B, Otto Tieman went to Brownsville, Texas, in June, 1916, re- 
maining on duty there until February, 1917. When the war opened with 
Germany, he entered the First Officers Training Camp at Fort Sheridan, 
but was turned down on account of his eyes failing to reach the vision 
standard. He then joined Company M as one of the Tenth regiment, 
I. N. G. as First Lieutenant and in June, 1918, joined the draft contin- 
gent of 500 that went from Bloomington to Camp Wheeler. He then 
entered the Artillery Officers Training Camp at Camp Taylor and won 
a commission in November, just as the war ended. He received his 
discharge as Second Lieutenant on December 12, 1918. 



L. B. MERWIN CO. HONOR ROLL 

Wade Houston Fielder, residing at 1213 
South Madison Street, Bloomington, was 
employed by the L. B. Merwin Co., Bloom- 
ington, when the call for naval recruits 
was issued and selected the United States 
Naval Air Service, enlisting August 9, 
1918. He was first on duty at the Hart- 
ford Receiving Ship stationed at the port 
of Charleston, South Carolina. He next 
took the final examinations to enter 
ground school, was transferred to the 
Mount Pleasant Navy Rifle Range where 
the ground school is located. Attending 
this school for three months, he was about 
to be transferred to Camp Bennett, Pensa- 
cola, Florida, when the war ended. He 
was discharged December 10, 1918, from 
the Third Regiment, Company 10, Section 
1, and placed on the reserve list, .then 
returning home to resume his post with 
n Co., having greatly en- 
ence as a naval flyer. 




Wade Houston Fielder 



324 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



PAUL F. BEICH CO. HONOR ROLL 




Center, top to bottom Clarence Hensel, Lt. Carl Behr, H. W. 
Bereman. Left upper, Harry E. Gordon; left lower, John W. 
Lane. Eight upper, Walter Behr, right lower, Clarence J. Troxel. 

There are seventeen stars in the service flag of the Paul F. Beich 
Co., Manufacturers of Confections, Bloomington, while ten additional 
employes are now with the company who engaged elsewhere when war 
was declared. Of the seven who were with the company when hostilities 
opened, one Carl E. Behr won a commission as second lieutenant, train- 
ing in the Motor Transport Corps at Camp Joseph E. Johnston, Florida. 
With the end of the war Mr. Behr resumed his post as sales manager. 

John W. Lane was promoted to sergeant in the Engineers, joining 
Headquarters Detachment 4th Engineers Tr. Egt. at Camp A Hum- 
phreys, Va. 

Walter G. Behr was promoted to corporal of infantry, training at 
Camp Sheridan, Ala., and at the Army Supply Base, New Orleans. 

Herbert W. Bereman was promoted to corporal erf Artillery and 
trained at Fort Totten, New York. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



325 



Clarence H. Troxel was assigned to Co. A 4th Bat. Infantry and 
trained at Camp MacArthur, Texas. 

Clarence F. Hensel joined the 809th Infantry at Camp Grant, train- 
ing there until the war was over. 

Harry E. Gordon joined Headquarters Co. 4th Infantry, 3d Div. and 
was fortunate in being assigned to duty overseas, serving with the Army 
of Occupation some time after peace was declared. 



MARTENS-LEARY CO. HONOR ROLL 




Left Charles E. Leary; center Richard M. Leary; right 
John M. Leary. 

Of the Martens-Lcary Co., dealers in tractors, vehicles and imple- 
ments, 31(3-320 South Main street, John M. Leary, stenographer, enlisted 
November 2, 1917, at Chanute Field and was assigned to the 39th Aero 
Squadron and was later assigned to Kelly Field at Waco, Texas, remain- 
ing in the adjutant's office there as stenographer until discharged March 
4, 1919. He was promoted to corporal for meritorious service. 

Richard M. Leary enlisted December 1, 1917, at Chanute Field and 
was assigned to the 210 Aero Squadron, training there until February 1, 
1918, when he sailed for England, training at Doncaster Flying Field, 
being assigned as instructor, a high compliment to his ability and grasp 
of the principles of aviation. With the end of the war, his squadron 
was disbanded and he returned to the United States having been pro- 
moted to the rank of sergeant of first class, being discharged at Camp 
Grant December 24, 1918. 

Charles E. Leary was inducted into the medical reserve, having en- 
listed December 18, 1917, being assigned to the S. A. T. C. He re-enlisted 
January 14, 1918, for the Medical Reserve Corps and was discharged 
with the end of the war. 

Robert Messerli, mechanic, enlisted April 5, 1918, and was assigned 
to duty at Fort Wright as machinist, joining the 249 Supply Co. of 
the Coast Artillery. He was transferred to Camp Eustis, Va., June 
1(3, 1918, and then went overseas, remaining in France from September 
24, seeing much service in the vicinity of Tours and then returned home 
when peace was declared. 

Andrew Lock, machinist, enlisted April 5, 1918, joined the 249th Sup- 
ply Co. at Fort Wright, New York, of the Coast Artillery, and later went 
to Camp Eustis. He remained in the service following the coming of 
peace. 



326 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAX 



GUY CARLTON HONOR ROLL 




Upper left Harry Maloney; upper right Lawrence Carnahan. 
Lower left Lee Jones; lower right Bert Eoss. 

Lee L. Jones of the firm of Guy Carlton, electrical contractor, 528 
North Main street, Bloomington, enlisted on June 20, 1918, and was 
assigned to Sweeney Motor and Tractor School at Kansas City, where 
he trained in the motor transport department until the close of the war. 
He received his discharge December 10, 1918, and then returned home. 

Lawrence P. Carnahan enlisted April 3, 1918, in the field artillery 
and was sent to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where he put in a solid year of 
intensive training. He was not discharged until April 2, 1919, at Camp 
Grant, then returning home. 

H. E. Maloney of the same firm was inducted into the army April 
30, 1918, and was assigned to Fort Sheridan where he trained until the 
close of the war. He was then sent to Camp Grant and was discharged 
February 27, 1919. 

Bert Ross of the same firm also saw much active service. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOKLD WAR 327 




Willis Harry Francis 

THREE McMUREY BROTHERS 

The above picture is of the three sons of Mr. and Mrs. James M. 
McMurry of Bloomington who were in the service. Sergt. James Willis 
McMurry (upper left) enlisted in medical reserve U. S. A., in December, 
1917. Eecovering from sickness with scarlet fever at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, sailed from Camp Mcrritt, February, 1918. In France until June, 
1919; was 13 months at base hospital near St. Nazaire; then to Tours. 
Harry L. (below) enlisted U. S. navy August, 1918; had flu at Great 
Lakes; served as fireman on Transports Ohio, Northern Pacific and Fred- 
erick; two trips on battleship Ohio; on one trip on Frederick was in 
French port only 1% hours; home June, 1919. Francis C. (upper right) 
enlisted in navy June, 1918; Great Lakes, then battleship Kentucky; 
then to coal docks at Bayonne, N. J. Two trips to France on transport 
Philippine. Is held as reserve since relieved October, 1919. Quit service 
with rank first class fireman. 



328 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



T. S. BUNN Inc. HONOR ROLL 




M. S. Wooster 



W. A. Stubblofield 



Of the attaches of the T. S. Bunn Inc. motor cars, Washington and 
Lee streets, Bloomington who saw service, Warren A. Stubblefield, 829 
W. Elm street,, left April 6, 1918, joining Bat. C 68th Art. at Fort Wright, 
training at Fort Terry until July 8, when he sailed for overseas, arriv- 
ing July 24, remaining in active service until peace was declared. On 
February 2, 1919, he sailed for home and received his discharge at Camp 
Grant one month later, resuming his post of foreman with the T. S. 
Bunn Inc. 

M. S. Wooster, who is a salesman with this company, was inducted into 
service June 25, 1918, was advanced to First Sergeant of the 35th Head- 
quarters Motor Command, drilling at Camp Meigs and Camp Merritt, 
and ordered to France. He sailed from the port of New York November 
6, 1918, and was on the high seas when word was received that the 
armistice had been signed, sharing with other soldiers, the universal dis- 
appointment. Sergeant Wooster spent three months at Camp Meigs, 
Camp Holabud and with assignment to S. P. U. 462 in charge of the 
truck field, remaining until his discharge at Camp Grant February 28, 
1919, then resuming his position with the T. S. Bunn Inc. 




lop Row (left to right) James E. Allin, Abner Adams, Albert H. Arnold, 
McKinley G. Adams, Clyde L. Allison, Ernest L. Asbury, James Austin. 

Second Row Voyle L. Ashabran, George F. Atkinson, Wilbert E. Anderson, 
Herman Abbott, Forest L. Adams. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 32i, 

ILLINOIS CLUB HONOR ROLL 

The Illinois club of Bloomington with luxurious quarters in the Odd 
Fellows building temple, contributed forty-nine members to the army of 
whom one, Edmund W. Sutherland, made the supreme sacrifice. , The 
club purchased $3500 worth of Liberty bonds, conserved food by aban- 
doning banquets during the war, remitted the dues of members in the 
service and in many other ways demonstrated its patriotism. The offi- 
cers of the club during the war, were the following: President, J. W. 
(Jrapes; Vice-President, C. W. Nichols; Secretary, C. E.. Denton; Treas- 
urer, E. M. Darst; Directors, J. J. Cowden, C. L. Schneider, E. J. Gilmore, 
Chas. D. Myers and Dr. J. D. Siebert. 

The club honor roll is as follows: 

R. H. Anglemier Francis D. Misner 

Carl E. Behr S. H. Moore 

E. L. Behrmann Ralph C. Morath 

Dr. F. W. Brian Louis Nierstheimer 
L. R. Bristow . L. J. O'Brien 

Dan S. Buck Richard M. O'Connell 

Dr. T. D. Cantrall N. S. Ong 

Dr. Frank Deneen H. E. Protzman 

E. A. Donnelly Roy A. Ramseycr 

Frank J. Felton . Howard J. Read 

Fred Feldt Ben S. Rhodes 

Dr. A. R. Freeman Bert L. Ross 

Walter J. Freese J. Mervin Ryan 

Dr. Paul Greenleaf V. G. Staten 

Chas. D. Havens *Edrmmd W. Sutherland 

Ed. Hammond James F. Thompson 

L. Kirk Healey J. Ray Wallace 

Oscar G. Hoose Raymond F. Ward 

Gordon Howard Thos. S. Weldon 

Dr. L. L. Irwin Louis E. Wollrab 

Chas. P. Kane C. E. Yager 

W. A. Kuhn Ed. Lundborg 

Wm. Loehr Dr. L. G. Freeman 

David Lutz Dr. G. H. Galford 
A. Maurer 



When Mrs. G. A. Lawrence of Galesburg was State Regent of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution (1910-1913) she began the pro- 
motion of her long cherished idea of Illinois having a State Flag. In 
order to awaken interest in her idea she offered a prize of twenty-five 
dollars to the Chapter sending the design for a flag which should be 
considered best by four judges. Thirty-nine designs were submitted. 
The judges awarded the prize to Rockford Chapter. 

However, it was necessary to interest the Legislature, whose vote 
was essential, and whose province it was to pass final judgment on the 
design after law was enacted. Through the assistance of Hon. Lewis 
G. Stevenson, Secretary of State, and Senator Raymond D. Meeker and 
Hon. Thomas N. Gorham of the House of Representatives, Mrs. Lawrence 
secured the presentation of the Bill. The Bill was passed and became 
a law .July 6, 1915, without an unfavorable vote in Senate or House. 

Illinois has the Daughters of the American Revolution to thank for 
its State Flag, and should give credit to Mrs. Lawrence, who originated 
the idea, .promoted and ultimately realized it for the public good. 

*A picture and obituary of Edmund Sutherland will be found else- 
where in this work under the head of "In Memoriam. " 



330 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

ELKS HONOR ROLL 

Bloomington lodge No. 281, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 
was in the very lead of those organizations which distinguished the 
Evergreen City during the war, in patriotism and activity in the various 
relief movements. The Order of Elks is purely an American organiza- 
tion. Every one of their hundreds of thousands of members is a real 
American citizen, owing allegiance to no other country on the face of the 
earth, owing allegiance to no other flag than the Stars and Stripes, the 
flag of our country and the emblem of our Order. Therefore, every Elk 
and every Elks Lodge should, and must, stand for everything that makes 
for continued success for America, and boldly and unreservedly, against 
any creed, any doctrine, any propaganda, any plan or scheme by whoever 
advanced that would hurt America. If there is one thing above all 
others that has placed the Order in the high position in the public eye 
that it is in today, it is the war work that was done by the Order and 
the interest manifested by the Order in lending a helping hand to the 
Government and the Nation during the greatest conflict of arms in the 
history of the world. Elks are justly proud of the part that those at 
home played in winning the war, and they should take great pride in 
the fact that they had 64,428 men in the service of our country, 13,084 
of whom were commissioned officers, one of whom was the Commander 
in Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces in France, General John 
J. Pershing, a member of Lincoln, Neb., Lodge, No. 80, and an honorary 
member of El Paso, Texas, Lodge, No. 187. As nearly as can be ascer- 
tained there were 1037 members who made the supreme sacrifice and are 
now sleeping their last sleep on the battlefields of France. "It is inter- 
esting to note that of our members in the service, one is a general 
John J. Pershing; two are Major-Generals; six are Brigadier-Generals; 
eighty are Colonels; eighty-five are Lieutenant-Colonels; four hundred 
are Majors; sixteen hundred are Captains; forty-seven hundred are Lieu- 
tenants; two thousand are Sergeants; and five hundred are Corporals. 
In the Navy: One is a Eear Admiral; twelve are Captains; four are Com- 
manders; twenty are Lieutenant Commanders; one hundred are Lieuten- 
ants; and one hundred and fifty are Ensigns. The splendid remainder 
are the boys in the ranks, the real power that won the war." The sign- 
ing of the armistice had left the National Elks War Relief Commission 
with a considerable unexpended residue of the money which was appro- 
priated by the Grand Lodge for war relief work under its direction, and 
which was not definitely committed. After a most thorough investigation 
of the numerous propositions submitted to it, it was unanimously decided 
by the Commission, that no better use could be made of this fund than 
to devote it to assisting the government in its vocational training pro- 
gram. The offer of the Commission was promptly accepted, and as a 
result, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks stands as the sole 
and exclusively private agency in partnership with the United States 
government in this great work. 

Bloomington lodge contributed the following members to the service: 
C. A. McDermand Earl W. Daniels Dr. Paul E. Greenleaf 

W. W. Williams Roy E. Clark I. R. Pattison 

Julius P. Klemm M. R. Gregory Albert Lundberg 

L. R. Bristow M. L. Callahan Jno. F. Quinn 

H. D. Saddler Joseph Smith Sanford H. Moore 

J. Monroe Rodman ^has. A. Whalen Austin I. Howard 

Lloyd M. Nelson R. J. Heffernan W. W. Wyckoff 

Clayton W. Porter E. E. Caddell A. W. Froelich 

Omar Gregory Chas. Brooks R. J. Lindley 

Lloyd A. Daniels W. B. Causey Dr. Frank Deneen 

Donald F. O'Neal M. J. Salmon Dr. E. A. Behrendt 

J. J. Million Alfred M. Wright M. D. Meiss 

Fred H. Adams 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



331 



SNOW & PALMER CO. HONOR ROLL 




Center Charles Snow; left Con Everhart; right Ermin B. Carter. 
Below, left O. A. Roberts; below, right Albert Scharf. 

Of the Snow & Palmer Co. dairy products, 507-9 West Washington 
street, Bloomington, Charles Snow attained the rank of Chief Quarter- 
master in Aviation. He enlisted July 30, 1918, and was assigned to the 
Dunwoody Naval Training School, Aviation Detachment at Minneapolis, 
Minn. He put in three months of duty and finally received inactive duty 
orders on November 20, 1919, then resuming his position at home. 

Con Everhart of the same firm, enlisted in the Navy June 1, 1918, 
trained at Great Lakes, then moved to Paulliac, France, and after much 
active service, received inactive retirement orders March 1, 1919, with 
the rank of third class mechanic. 

Albert Scharf enlisted June 24, 1918, trained at Camp Wheeler, 
Camp Grant, and Camp Green, going overseas, and received his discharge 
May 20, 1919. 

Ermin B. Carter enlisted July 27, 1918, assigned to Camp Meigs, 
later at Camp Lee and Camp Grant, being discharged February 18, 1919, 
with the rating of corporal and having served in the Quartermaster's 
clerical department. 

O. A. Roberts enlisted in the 5th Regiment I. N. G. at Spriflgfield, 
April 9, 1917, trained at Camp Logan, sailed for Europe May 2(5, 1918, 
reaching Liverpool, Le Havre, Vulifans, St. Mihiel, Argonne, Luxem- 
burg and Brest, seeing much active service and was mustered out as 
wagoner of the 108th Ammunition train June 5, 1919. 

Weaver Dulaney was on duty in the C. A. C. department; William 
Hoffman in the navy; Audrey Humble, saw service abroad and is given 
extensive mention elsewhere in this work while V. E. Simros served in 
the Navy 



332 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOBLD WAR 



FOUR DOWNEY BROTHERS 

The four Downey brothers of Bloomington, all entered the service. 
Dan enlisted June 25, 1918, was assigned to the medical corps at Camp 
Wheelock, sailed for France September 5, 1918, going to various points, 




Downey Group Left to right: Dan Downey, Eugene Downey, Ed- 
ward Downey, and William Downey. 

including Camp Hospital 101 at Belgian Camp near Le Mans and Camp 
Hospital 52 and with the coming of peace returned home to be dis- 
charged June 15, 1919. 

Eugene Downey enlisted December 15, 1917, trained at Camp Han- 
cock, sailed for France with Co. B, 28th Engineers January 10, 1918, 
participated in the St. Mihiel, Argonne Forest, Aprumont and the Toul 
Sector battles, seeing much strenuous service and after spending some 
time in France after the war, was discharged July 3, 1919. 

Edward Downey enlisted March 15, 1918, at Great Lakes and was 
transferred to the medical department at Pelham Bay, N. Y., being dis- 
charged March 10, 1919. 

William Downey entered the aviation corps March 15, 1918, and was 
stationed at Kelly Field, Texas, until his discharge February 15, 1919. 



OF FIGHTING FAMILY 

Earl Jefferson, son of Benjamin F. Jeffer- 
son of 1409 Eastholme avenue, in Bloom- 
ington, was of the fifth generation of a 
fighting family. He was in France for a 
year with the A. E. F. His great-great- 
great grandfather, William Jefferson, fought 
thruout the revolutionary war. His great- 
great-grandfather, Thomas Jefferson, was 
a veteran of the war of 1812. His great- 
grandfather, his grandfather and his great- 
uncle fought for the union in the civil war. 
The grandfather, William H. Jefferson, for 
twenty-six years was a resident of Bloom- 
ington, but for the past fourteen years has 
made his home at Lilly. Earl maintained 
the fighting reputation of the family in the latest war the greatest in 
all history. The grandfather was born at Wheeling, W. Va., June 27, 
1847, and came to Illinois in 1879. 




Earl Jefferson 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



333 



T. K. HAYS HONOR ROLL 




Top Lt. Eugene Moulic. 
Below Carl Miller. 



Center Delmar Frink. 



Of the attaches of the firm of T. K. Hays, automobile firm of T. K. 
Hays, 701 North Main street, one, Eugene Moulic won a commission as 
lieutenant in aviation. Enlisting at Perdue, Ind., university April 10, 

1917, he was transferred to Kelly Field, Texas; then to Mineola, Long 
Island; afterwards at Park Field, Tenn., where he received his com- 
mission April 27, 1918, and Payne Field, Dallas, Texas, and then after 
completing his training in flying at Camp Duck was commissioned April 
27, 1918, and sailed for France. He reached St. Nazaire, September 23, 

1918, and spent six weeks training at Issudon and with the 103d Aero 
Squadron, seeing much active service and getting an excellent idea of 
the grim vicissitudes of the great war. He remained in France with 
the Army of Occupation until three months after the war closed and 
received his discharge at Camp Dix, Pa., February 23, 1919, then re- 
turning to his post with T. K. Hays again. 

Delmar Frink of the same firm enlisted at Escanaba, Mich., at the 
outbreak of the war and trained at the University of Michigan, Ann 



334 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 



Arbor. He entered Motor Transport department and made himself so 
useful that he was retained on duty instead of being sent across as he 
had hoped. He specialized in electrical equipment and made a fine 
record. 

Carl Miller enlisted July 15, 1917, in the medical department, was on 
duty at Fort Riley, Camp Funston, Camp Pike, and Camp Dix and then 
went overseas, seeing active service at Cherbourg, Pons, Paris, and 
Beaudesert, with the Hospital Headquarters company. He went to 
Coblenz with the Army of Occupation, 87th Division and was trans- 
ferred to the Engineers Motor Transport and was casualized for various 
other duty. He received his discharge at Camp Grant June 23, 1919. 



KEISER-VAN LEER CO. HONOR ROLL 




Left r. C. Munther; right Harold T. Eamage. 

The following attaches of the Keiser-Van Leer Machinery Co., 503 
N. East street, Bloomington, were in the service: 

Frank C. Munther joined Co. 4 of the 337th M. G. Bat. at Camp 
Dodge September 5, 1917, promoted to corporal and later sergeant, sailed 
for France August 8, was in skirmish at Fontain, France, September 25 
and in Battle of Banholz Woods and held advance machine gun post in 
German Alsace and in Toule Sector; leaving France May 21, 1919, and 
was discharged at Camp Grant. 

Arthur P. Freedlund inducted into the service at Camp Wheeler 
June 24, 1918, Co. H 122d Infantry, 31st Div., arrived in France October 
21, remaining until April 19, 1919, and discharged at Camp Grant May 
9, 1919. 

John J. Frisch enlisted December 14, 1917, in the aviation branch 
at Chanute Field, promoted to corporal, transferred to Mitchell Field, 
N. Y., spent six and one-half months in France, seeing much service and 
was discharged at Camp Grant May 23, 1919. Picture will be found in 
Group "F." 

Harold T. Eamage enlisted June 4, 1918, as musician in navy, trans- 
ferred from Great Lakes to Plymouth, England, but was taken ill with 
influenza remaining in League Island Naval Hospital at Philadelphia 
until his medical discharge December 28, 1918. 

Bomney Black enlisted April 2, 1918, trained at Fort H. G. Wright 
and Fortress Monroe, was rated as wagoner and received discharge at 
Camp Grant January 24, 1919. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 



335 



HEBERLING MEDICINE CO. HONOR ROLL 




Upper row, left to right Bernard Strongman, Wayne Colaw and 
Norman Griser. 

Lower Bay K. Smith, William M. Bright and Russell G. Hanson. 

The Heberling Medicine & Extract Co., 223 East Douglas street, 
Bloomington, contributed a large number of employes to the service. Of 
these, Wayne Colaw enlisted in the Navy July 20, 1918, as third class 
fireman and after training at Great Lakes and Hampton Roads, was 
transferred to the Battleship Illinois and saw much active service, be- 
ing in eastern waters most of the time, training firemen and officers. 
His ship had the distinction of being the first cruiser going through the 
Panama Canal. He received his discharge October 5, 1919. 

Russell G. Hanson enlisted September 7, 1918, in Company A, 5th 
Training regt. at Camp Grant, remaining there until November 1, when 
he was sent to Freeport as clerk with the exemption board, returning 
to camp February 1 where he was classified for clerical work. He was 
the only soldier sent from the Eureka Board for that work during the 
war. He received his discharge February 7, 1919. 

Bernard Strongman enlisted December 15, 1917, as a musician with 
the 60th Artillery, trained at Fortress Monroe and then saw active ser- 
vice at Souil, the Toule sector, St. Mihiel drive, the Argonne Forest, and 
other engagements, being in the most thrilling battles of the war. His 
colonel (J. W. Wallace) was killed in action. He was discharged Feb- 
ruary 28, 1919. 

William M. Bright enlisted December 15, 1917, was assigned to the 
medical corps and served with credit at Jefferson Barracks until dis- 
charged January 11, 1919. 

Ray K. Smith trained at Camp Hancock and Norman Griser enlisted 
in the ft, A. T. C. and trained with the Wesleyan company in Bloomington. 



336 



W. H. EOLAND HONOR ROLL 




Upper left E. S. Layton. Upper right Lt. Chester Twaddle. 
Lower left Russell Young. Lower right Albert Heberbeckler. 

Attaches of the W. H. Roland stores, 111 to 117 West Jefferson 
street, Bloomington, who were in the service included Raymond Wakely, 
advertising manager who enlisted at the University of Michigan and 
who was assigned to the Aviation course of the S. A. T. C. training there 
until peace was declared. Other attaches in the service were as follows: 

Albert Heberbeckler of 1206 West Locust street, enlisted October 
3, 1917, and was first assigned to Co. K of the 344th Infantry, 86th 
Division, later going to Co. M of the 59th Infantry, Fourth Division. 
He was on duty at Evacuation Hospital No. 30 and then sailed for France 
where he spent ten months, seeing much strenuous service. With the com- 
ing of, peace, he returned to America and was discharged August 12, 1919. 

Corporal E. S. Layton enlisted September 23, 1917, and was assigned 
first to Camp Taylor and later to Camp Shelby. He-received a physical 
debility discharge on December 30, 1917. 

Chester Twaddle selected the aviation department and was sent to 
Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111. There he. won a commission as lieutenant. 
He qualified in the various departments of flying but before he could 
satisfy his ambition of going abroad, the Armistice was signed and he 
received his discharge. He was commissioned at Rantoul but also trained 
and received instruction in aviation and advanced flying at CorneH 
University; Dallas, Texas, and West Point, Miss. He received his dis- 
charge from the service December 15, 1919. 

Russell Young enlisted in the S. A. T. C. at the University of Illi- 
nois and trained for several months in the reserve corps, being discharged 
when peace w r as declared. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 337 

A. WASHBURN & SONS HONOE ROLL 




Center Harvey Woizeski; upper left Robert H. Moore; upper right 
R. E. Chambers; lower left August Schroeder; lower right Harry G. 
Johnson. 

Of the employes of A. Washburn & Sons, florists, who were in the 
service, August C. Schroeder was fortunte in reaching France. Enlisting 
July 10, 1918, he trained for a time at Jefferson Barracks and then 
went to Liverpool with the field artillery, landing overseas September 27, 
1918. He then transferred to Camp De Songe, at Bourdeaux, France, 
and after peace was declared, remained with the Army of Occupation, 
receiving his discharge at Camp Grant May 27, 1919. 

Musician Harry G. Johnson enlisted June 25 with the 106th Engi- 
neers and trained at Camp Wheeler, going overseas September 16, 1918, 
first landing at Glasgow, Scotland, and later going to Camp Pontanezen, 
Brest. France. He remained witli the Army of Occupation and was dis- 
charged at Camp Grant July 14, 1919. 



338 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



Harvey W. Woizeski sailed for overseas October 14, 1918, remained 
with the Army of Occupation until the following summer and was dis- 
charged at Port Sheridan November 12, 1919. 

Eobert H. Moore enlisted June 25, 1918, trained with the 106th Sani- 
tary Train 123d Ambulance Corps, at Camp Wheeler; went to Camp 
Mills in September; to Camp Merritt in November; to Camp Lee in 
December and was finally discharged at Camp Grant January 4, 1919. 

Eoy E. Chambers enlisted April 1, 1918, trained at Camp Dodge, 
went overseas and reached France May 19 as a member of the Regi- 
mental Intelligence Section, saw much active service in the Vosges moun- 
tain sector, and in the St. Mihiel, Argonne Forest offensives, camping 
at Commercy and Le Mans long after peace was declared and then re- 
turned home to receive his discharge at Camp Grant May 7, 1919. 



THREE MARQUARDTS IN FRANCE 

Here are three persons 
from the same family, all 
of them having gone into 
the service during the war, 
and all of them having 
reached France and spent 
some months in active 
work there in their respec- 
tive spheres. They are all 
children of Fred Marquardt 
of 1615 West Locust street 
in Bloomington. The young 
woman at the left is Miss 
Alice Marquardt, who 
served as a Bed Cross 
nurse. She enrolled for ac- 
tive service and was sworn 
in for duty in the medical 
department of the army in 
June, 1918. She first was 
?ent to San Antonio, thence 
across, and was stationed 
it Bordeaux, France, in 

base hospital No. 6. She performed the active work of a hospital nurse 
in caring for the wounded as they came in by thousands during the 
months of the late summer and fall of 1918 when the last great struggle 
was on. She remained for some months after the war and was finally 
sent home and discharged in July, 1919. The man in the center of the 
group is Corp. Emmett H. Marquardt, who enlisted in the veterinarian 
corps of the army while he was yet a student at the Bloomington high 
school, in April, 1918. He was in a camp in the west at the time of 
the commencement, and came home in uniform and received his high 
school diploma. He went overseas in October of that year, and spent 
the rest of the fall and winter in active service helping to care for the 
hundreds of horses in the army transport system. He was discharged 
in July, 1919. Harry Marquardt, at the right, went out with a draft 
contingent in June, 1918, being assigned to the engineers' division of 
the transport corps. He went overseas in August, and during the rest 
of the war was stationed most of the time at LaRochelle, France, a 
large seaport which was a great" transportation base of the American 
army. He completed his service and returned home and was discharged 
in May, 1919. 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 



339 



MURRAY-MEDBERY HONOR ROLL 




Walter Ecxroat, upper left; Harold Medberry, upper right; Lome 
Murray, center; Hugh Rolofson, below. 

Lome Murray of the Murray-Medberry Co., wholesale and retail auto 
accessories and oils, 407-411 West Washington street, Bloomington, en- 
listed May (5, 1917, losing no time to get into a uniform when war was 
declared. He selected aviation and was sent to Kelly Field, Texas, later 
going to Scott Feld and Garden City, L. I., sailing for overseas via Hali- 
fax February 1, 1918. He landed at Liverpool and was promoted to 
corporal there. He trained for seven and one-half months at Lopcomb 
Corners aviation field and was finally promoted to sergeant of the first 
d;iss. He went to France August 1, 1918, and spent three and one-half 



340 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOBLD WAR 



months in the vicinity of Paris and the Toule sector seeing much active 
service and getting a good idea of the tremendous character of the 
great war. He sailed for home after the armistice was signed and was 
discharged at Gas City, Ky., February 4, 1919. 

Harold Medberry of the same firm enlisted as naval aviation car- 
penter May 20, 1918, trained at Great Lakes for three months, thence 
at the Philadelphia naval station; sailed for England August 15, 1918, 
and then saw much active duty at Glasford, Paris, Calias and Cham- 
pagne, joining a bombing group. He saw much strenuous service in 
France and was promoted to second class petty officer, machinist's mate. 
He received his release February. 18, 1918. 

Walter M. Eexroat enlisted February 4, 1918, at Chanute Field, 
leaving with the 210 Aero Squadron for Garden City and sailing for 
France, February 28 for England, training at Codford, Romsey, Don- 
caster and Notty-Act. He was discharged December 24, 1918, at Camp 
Grant. 

Hugh Eolofson enlisted October 20, 1917 in the air service as me- 
chanic, trained at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas; Richiield, Waco, and 
was promoted to first class sergeant, being discharged March 2, 1919. 




Top row (left to riijht) Robert Peasley, Gustave Punke, Frank L. Phillips, Warren 

C. Passwaters, Charles Popejoy, Martin .T. Pree, Donald Purcell, Stanley H. 

Paul, W. P. Probus, Percy H. Phillips, Marion \V. Perry. 
fiecond row Bernard A. Pierce, Alfred \V. Pinneo, Frank Ploense, Walter L. Ploense, 

Walter R. Ploense, Martin H. Ploense, Elza N. Pick, Elmer Paxton, William 

A. Parker. 
Third row Robert E. Powell, Glen B. Pringey, Roy A. Pierspn, Owen S. Parmele, 

Lerman Parke Powell, William .T. Pleanitz, Nick A. Phillos. 
Fourth row George D. Phillos, Carl Porter, Joseph .T. Pitsch, Fred ,T. Phillips, 

Emory H. Powers. Above Elbert L. Perry, Alfred S. Peterson, Harry J. 

Prescott, Harold E. Protzmart. 



.l/,/,/-../.Y <()I'\TY AND Till-: \\OKLD WAR 



341 



FOUR BROTHERS WHO SERVED OVERSEAS 

Edward Garbe, one of the four Garbe brothers in the war service, 
enlisted May 31, 1918, in the 7th Cavalry and was stationed at Del Eeo, 
Texas, on the Mexican border for a short time when he was transferred 
to the 55th Motor Field Artillery, then located at Camp Bowie, Ft. Worth, 




Charles Garbe 



Edward Garbe Herman Garbe 



Arthur Garbe 



Texas, and later at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, until his discharge from the 
service February 10, 1919. 

Herman, Charles and Arthur Garbe left Bloomington, June 25, 1918, 
for Camp Wheeler, Maeon, Georgia. Herman was assigned to the 19th 
Engineers and transferred to Washington Barracks, Washington, D. C. 
Left for overseas August 26th and arrived in England, September 9th. 
Crossed the English Channel and arrived at Nevers, France, where he 
was stationed with the 110th Transportation Corps in the largest rail- 
road shops in France, and operated entirely by Americans. Left there 
May 31st and arrived in the States July 6th, 1919. Was mustered out 
at Camp Grant, July 14, 1919. 

Charles and Arthur were with the 123rd Infantry at Camp Wheeler, 
leaving for overseas, October 7th, until their arrival in France, October 
21, when they were both sent direct to the front as replacements to the 
306th Infantry, 77th Division. Both returned April 25th with the divi- 
sion and w r ere discharged from the service May 7, 1919. The home of 
the Garbe brothers is on West Walnut street in Bloomington. 




Top roiu Williml K. Yoder, Lee A. Yoder, Oscar Yordy. 

Center (left to rii/ht) Harold A. Yerke, Homer S. Yettman, Wilbur H. Youngman, 

Julius A. Yarp. 
Below center Luther E. Young. 



342 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



DAYTON KEITH & COMPANY INC. HONOR ROLL 
DAYTON KEITH GKOUP NO. 1 




Upper left Wm. A. Zook; upper right S. C. Hibbins; left center 
T. K. Morrow. 

Eight center L. E. Bristow; center Dayton Keith. 

Lower left Iredell Harrison; lower center W. H. Goff; lower right 
W. B. Garrette. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



343 



DAYTON KEITH GROUP NO. 2 




Top row, left to right Tracy Green, Wm: Poling, L. L. Wright, and 
A. C. Muxfeldt. 

Second row J. A. Cunningham, Emerson Planck, C. W. Pullen, and 
F. C. Ferguson. 

Third row B. L. Eoss, Francis Harry, James McDonald and Paul 
Henderson. 

Fourth row T. O. Tiffin, C. H. Morrison, L. E. Harrison and Walter 
L. Hoffman. 

Dayton Keith & Company Incorporated, of Bloomington, distributor 
of Ford cars and Fordson tractors, contributed the following men to the 
service: 

Dayton Keith Commissioned major in the Motor Transportation 
Corps. 



344 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 

J. E. Cunningham Enlisted December 5th, 1917, promoted to ser- 
geant of the 317th Aero Service Squadron, discharged December 20th, 
1918. 

William A. Zook Commissioned first lieutenant, (5th Marines, en- 
listed May 19th, 1917, discharged August 15th, 1919. 

Charles H. Morrison Enlisted May 25th, 1917, promoted to sergeant 
in the 9th Engineers transportation, discharged January loth, 1919. 

Francis Harry Enlisted July 26th, 1917, promoted to sergeant of 
aviation, discharged May 3rd, 1919. 

William Poling Enlisted May 15th, 1918, in 39th infantry, dis- 
charged April 2nd, 1919. 

Walter T. Hoffman Enlisted September 19th, 1917, promoted to ser- 
geant, discharged February 10th, 1919. 

L. E. Harrison Enlisted June 28th, 1917, chauffeur first class, dis- 
charged November 28th, 1919. 

R. E. Kauffold Bugler 18th Battalion, enlisted April 28th, 1918, dis- 
charged January 13th, 1919. 

Clarence McGhee Enlisted December 14th, 1917, promoted to ser- 
geant af 261 Aero Service Squadron, discharged December 23, 1918. 

Earl W. Hayes Enlisted December 13th, 1917, promoted to corporal 
3d Air Service mechanic, discharged July 12th, 1918. 

James McDonald Enlisted March 27th, 1917, promoted to sergeant 
133d machine gun battalion, discharged May 18th, 1919. 

S. C. Hibbins Enlisted May 31st, 1917, commissioned second lieu- 
tenant 304th battery tanks, discharged May 18th, 1918. 

L. L. Wright Enlisted May 25th, 1917, promoted sergeant 124 ma- 
chine gun battalion, discharged April 15th, 1919. 

J. C. Ferguson Enlisted June 1, 1917, cadet 15th ambulance corps, 
discharged June 28th, 1919. 

Hiram Fisher Enlisted July 15th, 1918, 46th Infantry, discharged 
March 1, 1919. 

L. E. Bristow Enlisted July 14th. 1917, commissioned lieutenant, 
J. G. United States, N. E. Discharged February 7th, 1919. 

Tracy E. Green Sergeant Motor Transportation Corps, June 19th, 
1918, discharged June 27th, 1919. 

B. L. Eoss Enlisted January 1st, 1918. promoted to sergeant in spe- 
cial unit 317 Engineers, discharged April 1, 1919. 

C. W. Pullen Enlisted May, 1917, commissioned 2d lieutenant, 116th 
Field Artillery, discharged January 14th, 1919. 

T. O. Tiffin Enlisted July 31st, 1918, promoted corporal battery F, 
Artillery, discharged January 5th, 1919. 

Donald Garrett Boatswain 's mate first class, TJ. S. N. E. F., May 
8th, 1917, discharged December 25th, 1918. 

Emerson Planck Commissioned 1st Lieutenant, Air Service 14th, 
1917, discharged February 25th, 1919. 

William H. Goff Enlisted May 26th, 1917, commissioned 1st lieu- 
tenant 124 Machine Gun Battalion, 3d division discharged September 15, 
1918. 

A.C. Muxfeldt Enlisted June 9th, 1918, seaman, 2d U. S. N. E., dis- 
charged February llth, 1919. 

Paul Henderson Enlisted February 4th, 1918, promoted to sergeant 
of medical department, discharged June 14th, 1919. 

H. B. Wood Sergeant of 344th Infantry. 

C. J. Seeley Enlisted January 1, 1918, promoted corporal 314 Sup- 
ply, discharged June 1, 1919. 

T. K. Morrow Enlisted May 29th, 1918, Infantry, discharged De- 
cember 21, 1918. 

Otmer Folger Enlisted May llth, 1917, Medical Dept., discharged 
July 30th, 1919. 



M<-LKAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 



345 



BLOOMINGTON BULLETIN HONOR ROLL 



GLEN D. WALLEY 

Enlisted September 19, 1917. Went 
to Camp Dodge. Sailed July 8, 1918, 
for France. Served 11 months and 7 
days overseas. Saw action on the Al- 
sace Lorraine front and Woever sec- 
tion in front of Metz. Discharged June 
15, 1919. Was member of Co. F, 349th 
Inf., Co. M. 349th Inf. With the sev- 
enth French army and Headquarters 
Detachment 88th Division following 
the signing of the armistice. Left Rhine 
River for home May 8, 1919. At the 
time of his discharge he was a line 
sergeant. 

WILLIAM J. EADS 

Sergeant First Class William J. Eads. 
Served with the Headquarters Detach- 
ment 84th Division. Enlisted Septem- 
ber 21, 1917. Discharged April 16, 
1919. Did not get overseas. 

CARLYLE J. WILLEY 

Sergeant Willey enlisted in 1918 and 
took a course at Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute in Peoria before going over- 
seas. Sergeant Wjlley was with the 
ordnance department and was at Ver- 
dun and saw the big shells fly thick 
and fast. He was discharged in July, 
1919. 

SERGEANT ORAN SMITH 

Sergeant Oran Smith enlisted in No- 
vember, 1917, with the 319th En- 
gineers stationed in California. They 
were sent overseas in October, 1918. 
Just too late to get into action. He 
returned to this country in September, 
1919, and was honorably discharged. 

SHERMAN D. WAKEFIELD 

Sherman D. Wakefield enlisted September 10, 1918, in 432nd Engineers and 
was discharged from 478th Engineers May 31, 1919. Served also with 489th En- 
gineers, all at Washington, D. C. Was rank of first-class sergeant when discharged. 




William J. Eads 




Edward Radley 



Glen D. Walley 



EDWARD RADLEY 

Enlisted in the fall of 1917 with the 6()lli Hospital Unit. Was overseas one 
year and two months. Was stationed near Tours, France, in hospital work. Wus 
discharged July 8, 1919. 

FRED H. YOUNG 

Fred H. Young, sporting editor for the Bulletin, heard the call of his country 
and enlisted in the Navy in the spring of 1918. Mr. Young's work was mostly pub- 
licity for the Navy Department. He was released from service in the spring of 1919. 




346 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS HONOR ROLL 

Too much can hardly be said of the 
great work of the Knights of Columbus 
during the great war. Their buildings 
dotted all sections of France and con- 
tributed to the pleasure and comfort 
of an unnumbered host of heroes. Out 
of the original budget of the United 
War Drive of $170,500,000, the Knights 
of Columbus was allotted 17.60 per cent 
or $30,000.000 and received by June 30, 
1919, $17.000,000. Prior to that date, 
$5,468,080.79 was spent for activities in 
the United States and $9,550,083.62 
overseas, the remainder being expended 
since that time. Out of the $15,000,000 
spent prior to June 30, $7,000,000 went 
to "Free Creature Comforts" both in 
the army and the navy. Some of the 
items included in the list of supplies 

for free distribution were as follows: 

900,000,000 beef cubes; 618,000,000 cig- 

Eugene McCarthy arettes; 3,750,000 pipes; 546,851 pounds 

of pipe tobacco; and 3,000,000 pounds of candy. The relief work of the 
Knights of Columbus right up to the firing line is well known to every 
soldier who reached the firing line. In the United States, the Knights 
had 461 buildings; 32 tents; with 11 buildings under construction at 
permanent army posts on June 30, 1919. Overseas, the Knights had 
125 huts and clubs of substantial size; while they had many, more or 
less ephemeral clubs were equipped and maintained. For collection, care 
and general administration, $166,616.76 or 20.63 per cent was expended 
a sum that wajs more than taken care of by discounts from prompt pay- 
ment of merchandise bills. Since the close of the war, the Knights of 
Columbus equipped and financed many vocational training houses in army 
camps, conducted as an army school under the supervision of army offi- 
cers appointed by camp commanders. Such camps as Camp Devens, 
Mass., Camp Dix, N. Y., Camp Mills, N. Y., Base Hospital, No. 1, New 
York Base Hospital, Staten Island, and others are operating these schools 
where in some instances, 200 officers and over 1,000 enlisted men at- 
tended courses from 1 to 4 p. m., five days in the week. At Camp Dix, 
Major Gen. Hale thought so much of the work that he ordered his entire 
staff of officers to take courses. An appropriation of $3500 was recently 
made for the purpose of maintaining and equipping the 57th Kegimental 
School at Camp Pike, Ark., and this has been highly endorsed by the 
regimental officers. There is every evidence that the Camp Educational 
project of the Knights of Columbus is going to be very extensive and 
it promises to be one of the most successful features of the Post War 
service. 

Locally the work of the Knights of Columbus is also well entitled 
to praise. Bloomington Council No. 574, conscious of the high mission 
of the organization of which it is an integral part, was among the first 
to assist in every local patriotic project. The council gave generously 
not only to the various Knights of Columbus relief work funds, which 
preceded the United War Drive, but were eager subscribers to the various 
war funds collected by other war relief agencies over $10,000 being 
raised. Conspicuous among the individual affairs in which Bloomington 
Council played a prominent part, was the memorable bazaar, given at 
"The Oaks" for the United War Drive, which was made possible through 
the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Howard Humphreys, the assistance of 



M<-LKA\ COfXTY AXJ) Till': ll'OKLD II'. tK 



347 



the Young Mens Club and the whole hearted co-operation of the citizens 
of McLean County. The officers of Bloomington Council No. 574 who 
served through the war were the following: Grant Knight, James V. 
Flavin; Deputy Grand Knight, Charles Lucas; Warden, Floyd C. Cloth- 
ier; Chancellor, J. Eoy Costigan; Financial Secretary, Thos. L. Middle- 
ton; Eecording Secretary, Fred Frost; Treasurer, P. W. Coleman; Trus- 
tees, M. T. Cunningham, Dan W. Connors, and Edward T. Doyle; Chaplain, 
Very Eev. M. Weldon. 

The Bloomington Lodge, Knights of Columbus compiled a list of the 
members of the local council in the military service and made a handsome 
roll of honor containing the names of all those in the service. 



James C. Allen 
John C. Bandi 
Michael J. Barthoviak 
Dr. E. A. Behrendt 
Howard Bethea 
Lloyd F. Blair 
Edward G. Bounen 
George J. Boylan 
Harry F. Boylan 
Edward F. Brennan 
Peter A. Burke 
Richard J. Burns 
Lieut. Frank M. Butler 
Lieut. James J. Butler 
Martin L. Callahan 
John E. Carbery 
John A. Cleary 
Edgar L. Conley 
George F. Conley 
Francis H. Conroy 
Maurice J. Conroy 
John P. Corbley 
Thomas I. Costigan 
James V. Cox 
John F. Cox 
Francis M. Cullen 
Lieut. Frank Deneen 
Roy B. Devaney 
James P. Donlon 
Daniel P. Downey 
Edward T. Downey 
Eugene P. Downey 
John B. Driscoll 
Jay D. Enright 
Honry A. Fisherkcller 
Edgar A. Flynn 
Lt. Mortimer G. Flynn 
Albert J. Freese 
John G. Freese 
Lawrence Gehring 
Leo A. Gildner 
George P. Gleeson 
Lt. Paul E. Greenleaf 
Matthew R. Gregory 
Lt. Frank D. Hackett 
Louis L. Hafner 
John J. Hallihan 
Daniel A. Hayden 



Thomas J. Hayden 
Louis A. Hayes 
Melvin S. Hayes 
Paul Hayes 
Peter J. Heintz 
Leo L. Hogan 
Austin Howard 
Leo Hunt 
James T. Johnson 
Maurice Kalahar 
Lieut. Charles P. Kane 
Vernie C. Kellog 
Patrick L. Kinder 
James J. Kinsella 
Emmett L. Koos 
Lawrence H. Koos 




Robert Lahcy 
Charles E. Leary 
John M. Leary 
Richard M. Leary 
William J. Lenanan 
Laughlin J. Lunney 
James R. Lynch 
Wayne C. Lyons 
Arthur J. McAvoy 
Eugene S. McCarthy 

(Gold *) 

Patrick M. McGraw 
William E. McGraw 
Robert E. Maloney 
Andrew J. 'Mann 
Adolph Mauer 
Joseph P. Meaney 
Harry Merna 
William Merna 
Francis De Sales Misner 
Roy B. Moore 



Ralph C. Morath 
James J. Momssey 
James S. Morrissey 
Fred E. Murray 
Leo F. Murray 
Richard M. O'Connell 
John J. O 'Conner 
Raymond O 'Donnell 
William J. O 'Kara 
Peter J. Ottes 
Jacob J. Parker 
Hubert Pemberton 
Lieut. Fred W. Penn 
James C. Penn 
John W. Phelan 
Kd\v;ird Ploussavd 
Lt. Edward M. Powers 
Louis Radbourn 
Edward V. Raycraft 
Arnold F. Riegger 
Edward Riley 
Joseph E. Rodgers 
James M. Ryan 
Maurice A. Salmon 
Maurice J. Salmon 
James J. Salmon 
Dr. Wm. Sanders 
Andrew Schultz 
John Schwartz 
Thomas J. Shanahan 
Lieut. Joseph F. Smith 
William Smith 
Leslie Stone 
Andrew E. Sullivan 
Charles H. Sullivan 
George Sweeney 
William F. Sweeney 
Otto A. Thoennes 
Harold J. Toohey 
Daniel P. Twomey 
Roger M. Vogel 
Leo M. Walsh 
Thomas M. Walsh 
Francis L. Watson 
Roland B. Watson 
Thomas Y. Watson 
Thomas S. Weldon 
John A. Williams 



348 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE tVOELD ll'Ali 




Waldo Kuhn 



KUHN COAL CO. HONOR ROLL 

Waldo Kuhn of the Kuhn Coal Co., Bloomington, was inducted into 
the army June 24, 1918, and was honored by appointment as captain 

of a detachment of 560 men which left 
McLean county for Camp Wheeler, Ga. 
Mr. Kuhn was later sent to Camp Mills, 
L. I., and embarked as a corporal of Co. 
A. 113th Infantry, arriving at Brest, 
France, October 15, 1918, with the 31st 
division. He was stationed at various small 
towns and finally when the division was 
broken up he was assigned to Co. I of 
the 123d Infantry, 29th Div. This divi- 
sion had orders to relieve the 26th at the 
battle front and was on its way when peace 
was declared, being close to Metz when the 
armistice was signed. Mr. Kuhn was among 
the soldiers who took advantage of the gov- 
ernment 's offer to supply a university train- 
ing and entered the University of Toulouse 
in France, taking the French course in lit- 
erature and other studies for four months, 
remaining there until his embarkation at St. 
Nazaire on July 10 for home, receiving his 
discharge at Camp Merritt, Grant, August 
1, 1919. 

Albert E. Wilcox, bookkeeper with the Kuhn Co. enlisted September 4, 
1918, at Champaign, and was assigned to the 435 437th Engineers at Camp 
Meigs and also being on duty at Washington, D. C. He was discharged 
December 24, 1918. A picture of Mr. Wilcox will be found in the group 
of "W's." 

PEOPLES BANK HONOR ROLL 

Jake J. Suter, assistant teller 
of the Peoples Bank, joined the 
Fifth Regiment of United States 
Marines, and was assigned to 
the 2d Division, A. E. F. He 
trained at Paris Island, South 
Carolina, for six weeks, then to 
France. He saw much active 
service, participating in the bat- 
tles of St. Mihiel, Champagne, 
or Blanc, Mont Ridge, Argonne 
Meuse, and other sanguinary 
engagements. He remained in 
Germany with the Army of Oc- 
cupation until July 18, and then 
came home, being discharged at 
Quantico, Va., Aug. 13, 1919, 
resuming his post with the Peo- 
ples Bank. 

Fredinand Senseney, son of 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Senseney, 

Jake J. Suter was one of the Peoples Bank 

young men who volunteered for 
the military service and contributed his bit to the success of the American cause. 
He enlisted on May 6, 1918, and was sent first to Jefferson Barracks. From there 
he was sent to Fort Totten, New York, where he remained thruout the year in work 
connected with the artillery service. He attained the rank of first sergeant in the 
Second Anti-Aircraft Battalion. In December, 1918, he was mustered out at Camp 
Eustis, Va.. and returned to his home in Bloomington. In the fall of 1919 he 
attended the Chicago Art Institute, and while there was taken sick. He came home, 
and after an illness of less than a week he died. 




Ferdinand Senseney 



349 



AMERICAN FOUNDRY AND FURNACE CO. HONOR ROLL 

The American Foundry and Furnace Company of Bloomington, con- 
tributed twelve men to the service. These included the following: 

Horace A. Soper, vice-president of the company, who was commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant October 11, 1917, and Captain, June 1, 1918. He 
was assigned to duty in Washington, D. C. and then transferred to Tours, 
France. His first duty was the purchase of steel helmets and fire con- 
trol instruments and while in France had charge of the purchase of iron, 
steel, and machinery. He was honorably discharged January 4, 1919. 

Delos Beck, navy. Enlisted April (5, 1917. and was still in the ser- 
vice when this book was published. 

John Kates. Army. Enlisted January 1, 1918. 

Robert Whitmer. Army. 

Wilson Bean. Army. Enlisted September 1, 1918, Students training 
camp, Eureka, 111. 

Ray Moore. Navy. Enlisted 1917 and assigned to Great Lakes 
station. 

Arthur Garman. Army. 

Frod Bartels. Enlisted May 20, 1918 and served at Camp Del Rio. 
Discharged August 16, 1919. 

Paul Jabsen. Enlisted June 24, 1918, assigned to Camp Wheeler, 
Ga., left for France September 28, 1918 and remained there eight months, 
largely in the Toul sector. Discharged June 7, 1919. 

Edward Prochnow. Enlisted June 24, 1918. Assigned to Camp 
Wheeler, Ga., and left for France October 5, 1918. Remained there seven 
months in the Argonne sector. Discharged May 17, 1919. 

Roy Wittmus. Enlisted Army September 2, 1918. Assigned to Camp 
Grant. Discharged November 30, 1919. 

John Dunn. Enlisted army May 25, 1918. Assigned to Camp Grant. 
Discharged March, 1919. 




Left to Ki'jM Frank C. Niehaus, P. Naffziger, 

Ernest C. Neal. 
Kelmv Ralph L. Nicol. 



350 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



LIEUT. ROBERT P. WHITMER 

Lieut. Kobert P. Whitmer, son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Leroy G. Whitmer of Bloomiug- 
ton, who was a student at the Illinois Wes- 
leyan University of Bloomington when war 
was declared, joined the Students Army 
Training Corps at Fort Sheridan early in 
July, 1918. He finished his training there 
and won a commission as Second Lieuten- 
ant. He then volunteered to enter the 
Field Artillery Central Officers Training 
School at Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, 
Ky. He was hard at work training for 
this department of the service when the 
Armistice was signed and the war came 
to an end, the ending of hostilities being 
as keen a disappointment to him as to 
thousands of other patriotic young men 
who were anxious to take an active part 
in the great struggle abroad. Lieut. 
Whitmer was honorably discharged on 

December 14, 1918, and immediately resumed his studies in the Luw 

School of Illinois Wesleyan and in his second year. 





Toj> row (left to right) Lloyd Mischler, James R. Mclntosh, James S. Morrissey, 

John O. Morrissey, Beverly H. Miles. 
Ke^ond row Andrew Miller, Arthur L. Meyer, Loyal S. McMillan, Richard J. Martini, 

Carl Masso, Allen W. McVeigh. 
'J'liird row Raymond H. Mayer, Cecil W. Macy, Oscar Moore, Ervin P. Martenson, 

Edward Me Reynolds. 
Fourth rou William R. Merna, Harvey Meeker, Frank C. Munthor, Roy Morrell, 

Harold McKhvnin, Raymond Means. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 351 

HOWARD BROTHERS 

Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Howard of Bloomington have two sons who did a 
full part in the military service of the U. S. in war. Mr. Howard is a well 
known Bloomington merchant. The elder son, William Nelson Howard, 
enlisted for the University of Chicago ordnance army supply course in 
November, 1917. Completing this course November 23, he was sent first to 
San Antonio arsenal, Texas; thence to Camp Jackson and then to Camp 
Hancock; after six weeks of infantry drill was sent to Camp Merritt, and 
four days later sailed for England. Crossed the channel on an old side- 
wheeler and landed at Le Havre. His first month was spent at ordnance 
depot 4 at Mehun, east of Orleans, the largest in Central France. After a 
month, he was sent to advance depot 4, and put in charge of the small arms 
yard. It was a busy place, as the drives of Chateau Thierry and Toul were 
in progress, and loading trucks was done at night and in a hurry. On 
October 1, he was ordered to the largest base depot, near Bordeaux on the 
Girondin river. Here each man was a specialist in his line; the depot grew 
to 38 warehouses each 600 feet long. Six steam cranes worked on railroad 
tracks to sorting sheds for ammunition, fourteen in number. There were 




Gordon K. and William N. Howard 

1,500 men, composed of German prisoners, American garrison prisoners, 
negro soldiers, Chinese coolies, and white Americans. He remained until 
March, 1919, as sergeant in charge of ammunition at this depot. He got 
a two weeks ' leave and visited St. Malo ; also was in Paris for a day and 
saw President Wilson. At Easter time he went to the Pyrennese mountains 
on leave, and on Easter Sunday was in the old city of Lourdes. Took dinner 
that day with a sister of the King of Belgium, who invited all American 
soldiers in town. Spent ten days at St. Aiguan, and then took a forty- 
eight hour ride in box cars to Marseilles ; sailed from there on an Italian boat 
for home. From Camp Merritt, went to Camp Grant and was there dis- 
charged July 17, 1919. He said after discharge: "I came home a full 
fledged, honest-to-goodness American for all time to come. ' ' 

Gordon K. Howard enlisted as private June 4, 1918, and went to Jeffer- 
son Barracks. Was transferred to Allentown, Pa., July 25, and five days 
later was assigned to base hospital 82. He sailed from Hoboken on the 
S. S. Leviathan on Aug. 31, and landed at Brest September 1. Was first 
sent to a so-called rest camp, then to Pontanezze barracks, where he re- 
mained until September 12. He was sent to Toul on September 20. With 
the medical department in the American drive of the Argonne forest No- 
vember 5 and 6. He remained with the American forces after the armistice 
until the spring of 1919. He was promoted to sergeant March 13, and 
from March 18 to 25 was on leave to Monte Carlo, Nice, Mentone. He .left 
Toul on the homeward journey by way of LeMans on April 24; sailed from 
Brest on the ship President Grant ; landed at Boston June 9, thence to Camp 
Devens, and was discharged at Camp Grant June 17, 1919. 



352 



McLEAN COUNTY AX*) THE WO ELD JIM/,' 



HUNTER ICE CREAM CO. HONOR ROLL 




Left to right Clarence Bean, Kenneth Thompson, Neil Callahan. 

Of the employes of the Hunter Ice Cream Co., 205 N. East street, 
Bloomington, who were in the service, one James Butler, won a com- 
mission. He was inducted into the army September 4, 1917, going first 
to Camp Dodge and later entering the officers training camp at Camp 




LIEUT. JAMES BUTLER 

Pike where he won a commission as lieutenant. He also entered the 
school of flyers at Fort Sill and also was on duty with a special infantry 
detachment at Oklahoma. He closed his service at Camp Funston where 
he received his discharge January 1, 1919, after a year and a half of 



McLEAN COUNTY AND TEE WORLD WAR 



353 



strenuous duty. After the war, Lt. Butler removed to Kansas City 
where he has been engaged in the mercantile business. 

Neil Callahan enlisted November 8, 1917, in the air service and was 
assigned to duty at Payne Field, going later to Kelly Field with the 
75th Aero Squadron and to Ellington Field W 7 ith the 272 Aero Squadron. 
By faithful duty he won a promotion to sergeant and received his dis- 
charge March 3, 1919, then embarking in the oil business at Shreveport, 
La. He was a candidate for a commission in the flying school but the 
end of the war prevented his realization of this ambition. 

Clarence Bean enlisted December 14, 1917, trained at Camp Han- 
cock, Ga., and Camp Merritt, N. J., and then sailed March 3, 1918, on 
the Leviathan, reaching Liverpool March 11 and soon thereafter going 
to France. He saw much active service and was kept there with the 
Army of Occupation until the summer following the war, not leaving 
Brest until July, 1919. He was discharged at Long Island July 14. 



CONTRIBUTED FOUR SONS 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Edward Johnson of Bloomington had the distinction 
of giving four stalwart sons to the service during the war. Mr. Johnson 
is a well known business man, being a member of the Johnson Transfer 
and Fuel Company. All the four boys did a full part in the various 






L. Ross Johnson 



John P. Johnson 



Warren E. Johnson 



Frank R. Johnson 



branches of service in which they engaged, and all returned safely after 
the close of the fighting. Frank R. Johnson enlisted in April, 1917, at 
the age of 16. He chose the air service and was sent to Kelly Field, 
Texas, where he was stationed for six months. Then he went to England 
and was there six months with the llth Aero squadron. Finally, he was 
sent to France and served the last six months of the war with the 86th 
Aero squadron. He returned and was discharged in the winter of 1918- 
19. John Paul Johnson entered the service in September, 1917, in the 
quartermaster's department and was sent to Louisville, Ky. He served 
there for nine months, when he was sent to Chanute field, at Rantoul, 
with the quartermaster's corps. He remained there until his honorable 
discharge on December 17, 1918. L. Ross Johnson enlisted November 26, 
1917, and chose the air service. He was sent to Kelly field, where he 
remained for ten months. Then he was transferred to the officers' train- 
ing camp at Waco, Texas. He was there at the close of the war and 
received his honorable discharge on November 27, 1918, with the grade 
of master signal engineer. Warren E. Johnson enlisted in May, 1918, 
in the, medical department. He was stationed most of the time during 
his training at Newport News, Va. He was then sent to France, where 
he served until after the close of the war and was discharged in the 
winter of 1918-19. 



354 



McLEAN COUNTY AND TTLV WORLD W AH 




HACKETT-HARVEY CO. HONOR ROLL 

Acquiring the military fever as a member of the National Guard, Frank 
Hackett, a member of the firm of Hackett-Harvey Co., garage and accessory 
dealers, 406 West Washington St., Bloomington, enlisted at the outbreak 
of the war and entered the first Officer's Training Camp at Fort Sheridan. 
He soon won a commission as lieutenant and was then ordered to Cornell, 
N. Y. university; the Boston Polytechnic Institute; Wichita Falls, Kansas; 

Call Field, Texas, and finally to Mather 
Field, Sacramento, Cal., .for various classes 
of training in aviation. His long experi- 
ence and practical knowledge of motors, 
made him a valuable man in the mechanical 
department of aviation and he made such 
a notable record that he was given increased 
duties and responsibilities and gradually 
became one of the most valuable men for the 
department and towards the final year of 
war and later, he was given sole charge of 
the motor and mechanical department in the 
care of the air craft. The work was so 
congenial and the lure of the military so 
irresistible that there is a chance that 
Lieut. Hackett will adopt the profession. He 
was given favorable mention by the com- 
manding officers upon numerous occasions 
and strong pressure exerted upon him to re- 
main in the aviation department. As a re- 
sult, it is more than likely that he will not 
return to Bloomington, but will remain with the war department, aviation 
section permanently. 

Others on the Hackett-Harvey honor roll are the following: 

Birney Driscoll, Navy. Enlisted May 25, 1918. 

Herman A. Lawrence. Enlisted September 5, 1918. Trained at Camp 
Hancock, Ga., and discharged there February 4, 1919. 

Boy Shifflet, Aviation 138 Aero Squadron. Enlisted August 26, 1917. 
Jefferson Barracks, Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas. Four months at Flying 
Field, Fort Sill Okla. ; four months at British Flying Field at Mount Eose, 
Scotland, Colomby, Les Belle, France and after training there was sent 
to the front at Layst Bemy until the armistice was signed. After the 
signing of the armistice, moved to Coblenz, serving 15 months, 21 days. 
Discharged at Camp Grant, July 11, 1919. 

Conrad Gottschalk, Machine Gun Corp. Enlisted July 22, 1918. Sweeney 
School Kansas City, Mo., Camp Hancock, Ga., Camp Grant and discharged 
January 15, 1919. Six months service. 

Paul Mockert, gas warfare dept., trained at .Cleveland, O. Enlisted 
Juno 15, 1918. 

Bobert Smith, Medical Supply, Camp Kearney, San Diego, Cal. En- 
listed June 1, 1917. 

Balph Meatyard, Navy. Enlisted May 7th, 1917. Two months training 
at Newport, B. I. and Portsmouth, N. H. Later on U. S. S. Texas. In 
service 26 months. 



Lt. Frank Hackett 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



355 



HOLLIS AND JOSEPH FREY 

The bounding billow appealed to the sons of C. W. Frey of Bloom- 
ington both Hollis O. Frey and Joseph K. Frey selecting the navy when 
war was declared. Joseph enlisted June 24, 1918, in Chicago as second 
class seaman and joined the deck officers school at Municipal Pier. Octo- 




Hollis Frey 



Joe Frey 



ber 29, he was called to service at the Great Lakes Training Station but 
peace came inopportunely for him and he was released February 4, 1919, 
but held in reserve. He was permitted to return to the University of 
Illinois where he graduated, receiving the Bachelor of Science degree 
in the College of Commerce, then becoming associated with his father in 
the automobile and tractor and truck business. Hollis O. Frey enlisted 
May 17, 1918, at Cleveland. O., and was ordered to Pelham Bay, L. I., 
July 21 after finishing in Mechanical Engineering at the U. of I., enter- 
ing the Navy Steam Engineers School, completing his course at Stevens 
Institute, Hoboken, N. J., where he was made a warrant officer. He 
sailed November 14 for France, was promoted to Ensign January 15, 
1919, and returned home, being released from active duty February 10, 
1919, and returned to Bloomington entering the firm with his father and 
brother. He greatly enjoyed his period of service abroad, although dis- 
appointed over the premature cessation of hostilities. 



" 



HERBERT J. McGRATH 

Herbert J. McGrath, junior member of the 
firm of J. T. McGrath & Son, 215 East Douglas 
street, manufacturers of railway shop appli- 
ances, enlisted June 20, 1918, and trained at 
the Sweeney Auto school in Kansas City, serv- 
ing as instructor for six weeks. He was trans- 
ferred to the Railway Operating Engineers 
Corps August 20 and went to Fort Benjamin 
Harrison. He was assigned to Co. A. of the 
118th Engineers and sailed October 26 for 
Liverpool, reaching Havre, France, and was 
assigned to the 45th Co., 52d Engineers serving 
at various points in France and seeing much 
active duty at Perigueaux, (Didogue) and 
finally sailed for home June 16, 1919, being 
discharged at Camp Mills one week later. Of 
the young mechanical engineers who saw ser- 
vice abroad, Mr. McGrath greatly profited by 
his experience and it will undoubtedly be of 
great value to him in his future career in his 
chosen profession. 



356 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAE 

A. LIVINGSTON & SONS HONOR ROLL 

Milton R. Livingston, senior member of the firm of A. Livingston & 
Sons, dry goods, etc., located on the south side of the public square, 
Bloomington, served through the war as County Chairman of the State 
Commercial Economy Administration. Products required for the armies 
and the American Allies, were conserved and, in each city, steps were 
taken to this end. Mr. Livingston had charge for Bloomington and dis- 




Milton Livingston 

charged the duties to the entire satisfaction of the state bureau. Mr. Liv- 
ingston was also active in all war relief work and was a never failing and 
generous contributor in the various ' ' drives. ' ' 

Among the employes of this firm who were in the service, were the 
following: 

Herbert S. Cline, advertising manager for A. Livingston & Sons, 
returned to Des Moines, Iowa, where he enlisted in Company C, 1st 
Iowa Engineers June 23, 1917. The Company was called out July 17th 
to assist in construction work at Camp Dodge, la. Sept. 1st Mr. Cline 
was appointed Corporal and Company Clerk. On Sept. 30th his Company 
was ordered to Camp Cody, New Mexico, where it became Co. C, 109th 
Engineer Regiment. Corporal Cline was transferred to Headquarters 
Co. of this regiment and appointed Regimental Supply Sergeant. Dur- 
ing January and February, 1918, he was on detached service with de- 
tachments from the regiment engaged in bridge building on the Rio 
Grande River at Camp Courschene, New Mexico. May 1st, 1918, Ser- 
geant Cline was ordered to the Quartermaster Officers' Training Camp 
at Camp Joseph Johnston, Florida. July 1, 1918, he was commissioned 
2nd Lieutenant, A. M. C. and ordered to Camp Upton, N. Y. Here he 
was assigned to the Subsistence Division, in charge of the rationing of 
troops destined overseas. Following a month in the Base Hospital, Camp 
Upton with influenza and pneumonia he was honorably discharged, Jan- 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



357 



uary 17, 1919, and re-commissioned in the Officers' Keserve Corps, after 
which he resumed his position with A. Livingston & Sons. 

Eeginald P. Tuttle enlisted in the Medical Corps, U. S. A. at Bloom- 
ington, Illinois, July 6th, 1918. He was sent to Jefferson Barracks, 
where he remained until August 22, 1918. He was then ordered to Camp 
Crane, Pennsylvania. At Camp Crane Private Tuttle was assigned to 
Casual Co. 284 and proceeded with them to Camp Upton, N. Y., on 




Herbert S. Cline 



Reginald P. Tuttle 



August 29th. He sailed from Hoboken with his company September 
15th. Arriving at Brest his company was sent to Pountmossoun, near 
Metz and here he was assigned to Evacuation Hospital No. 13. The 
31st of October he proceeded with this organization to Commercy where 
it participated in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. January 12, 1919, Private 
Tuttle was ordered to Luxemburg city where he remained until July 
4th when his command returned to Brest. After a quick return trip 
he landed at Hoboken, July 19th, and was honorably discharged at 
Camp Grant, 111., on July 29, 1919. 



TWENTY-SEVEN TIMES OVER THE TOP 




Entering the army as a private, W. H. Wilson, son of Charles B. 
Wilson of Gridley, came out carrying a commission as lieutenant and 
with a record of having gone over the top in action twenty-seven times. 
He was with the First division, and took part in the battle at Cantigny, 
the first American engagement on a large scale. He was in twenty-two 
different raiding parties against the enemy trenches in the Marne region 
in the summer of 1918, and for nearly nine months was constantly in 
front line positions. Afterward he attended an officers' training school 
in France and obtained a commission as lieutenant. 



358 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



FRANKLIN MOTOR CAR CO. HONOR ROLL 




Upper left M. Julian; upper right Harry Hoeft. 

Center Dowel Mauney. 

Lower left H. C. Steininger; lower right Park Vance. 



Among the attaches of the Franklin Motor Car Co., 316-320 West 
Washington street, Bloomington, Park Vance of Danvers was especially 
distinguished, receiving two glowing citations. Enlisting May 17, 1917, 
as First Class private in F Co., 2d U. S. Engineers, he was among the 
first overseas, reaching France September 9, 1917. He qualified as ex- 
pert rifleman in marksmanship and participated in the battles of Toulon, 
Troyon, Ainse defensive, Chateau Thierry, Aisne Marne, Marbache, St. 
Michael Mihiel and in the Meuse Argonne. Few men from McLean 
county saw as much active service and he was privileged to receive a 
full understanding of the horrors of war and be in the front rank in 
a number of the greatest battles that the world has seen. Remaining 
with the Army of Occupation until the summer after the war's end, he 
sailed for home and was discharged August 8, 1919. 

H. C. Steininger enlisted June 14, 1918, and trained at the Val- 
paraiso, Ind. University, then going to the Arsenal Technical School 
at Indianapolis, where he assisted in the manufacture of army trucks 
"nder contract with the Premier corporation. From September 15 to 
December 26, 1918, he was attached to Battery D, 3d Regt. F. A. R. D. 



McLKAS ClH' STY AND Till': WOULD \Y Ml 



359 



at Camp Taylor, Louisville, for replacement of 84th Division, his unit 
of the field artillery, being given charge of the motor unit of the entire 
regiment. He was awarded the warrant of mechanic in his unit and 
received his discharge with the close of the war. 

Dowel Mauney enlisted December 13, 1917, and was assigned to 
Chanute Field where he was kept until January 20, 1919, in the motor 
department, his experience in this line, making him a valuable man 
for the government. He had charge of the motor machine field and was 
discharged as first class sergeant. 

Corporal Fred Kauth of Colfax was assigned to the First Thirteenth 
Air Service Squadron, which had the distinction of being the first to 
cross the ocean. He trained at Kelly Field after he enlisted in April, 
1917, saw much active service abroad and was badly injured in an 
aeroplane accident. He was invalided home, remained in the Fort Sheri- 
dan hospital for seven months. He may never recover fully from the 
accident. 

M. Julian enlisted April 12, 1917, trained at Kelly Field, Chanute 
Field, where he attained the distinction of chief electrician of the field 
and at Fort Slocum. He was discharged as Master Signal Electrician 
September 3, 1919. In the fall of an aeroplane at Grant Park, Chicago, 
ho was injured. 

G. E. McConnell enlisted July 1, 1918, and served as oiler in the 
navy and assigned to the transport Mecade, crossing the ocean several 
times, and discharged as 2nd Engineer February 13, 1919. He also trained 
three months at Harvard university. 

Harry Hoeft enlisted December 9, 1917, saw service at Kelly Field 
and then transferred to Newark, N. J., as ship builder, discharged from 
that service January 20, 1919. 




First row (left to right) Richard M. Taylor, H. R. Thompson, Carl Truitt. 
/Second row (left to right) Maurice Thompson, Daniel P. Thompson, Jesse It. Ton- 
gate. 

Third rnir ('has. A. Thompson, Joe Trimble, Ralph G. Thompson. 
l-'nin-th row George Tenney, Samuel M. Tee, Rouland V. Traxler, Howard A. Tobias. 
Fifth row Elva J. Truax, Jake L. Thomas, Harry Turner. 



360 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



HUDSON BURR & CO. HONOR ROLL 




Top- Lt. Hudson Burr. 

Below, left to right Lt. Joseph F. Smith, A. Eoycc Evans. 

Hudson Burr, junior member of the firm of Hudson Burr & Co., 319 
North Center street, Bloomington, left Yale college in the spring of 1917 
to enter the first Officers Training Camp at Fort Sheridan and was com- 
missioned a Provisional Second Lieutenant of Field Artillery, Kegular 
Army, October 26 that year. He was assigned to the 83d F. A. at Fort 
Russell, Wyoming, then transferred to the 13th F. A. at Camp Greene, 
N. C. and next attended the "Aerial Observers School" at Fort Sill, Okla., 
graduating May 1, 1918, and sailing for France May 22 and entering 
the French artillery school at Camp de Soue Bordeaux, with Battery C 
of the 13th F. A. He went to the front at Chateau Thierry July 30 
and participated in the engagements as follows: Aisne-Marne Offensive, 
August 1-6; Vesle Eiver sector August 6-16; San Mihiel Salient, Sep- 
tember 12-14; and Argonne Forest September 26 to November 11, the 



Mi-LKAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



361 



four leading battles of the great war. Lt. Burr then moved with the 
Army of Occupation to Ahrweiler, Germany, remaining there from De- 
cember 1 until July 1, 1919. He was promoted to First Lieutenant of 
Field Artillery at the front, July 4, 1918, and was married at Coblenz, 
Germany, April 2, 1919, to Miss Mignon McGibcny of Indianapolis, who 
was in Germany in the Y. M. C. A. work. Lt. Burr was discharged from 
the service September 5, 1919. 

Joseph F. Smith entered the Officers Training Camp at Fort Sheri- 
dan August 1, 1917, and was commissioned Second Lieutenant November 
1, 1917, ordered overseas December 1, 1917, entered an Infantry school, 
was appointed Junior Musketry Instructor; assigned to 30th Reg. In- 
fantry in May, 1918, and promoted to First Lieutenant November 1, 1918, 
seeing active service in three major operations, Aisne Marne, Champagne 
Marne and Argonne Forest. He was appointed assistant Musketry Offi- 
cer during the A. E. F. Rifle, Pistol and Musketry Competition; assigned 
as Company Officer of Casual Co. 5428 May 1, 1919, and was discharged 
at Camp Mills, L. I., June 1, 1919. - 

A. Royce Evans enlisted in the tank corps September 12, 1918, as- 
signed to Casual Co. 1 T. C. II. S. A. at Camp Colt, Pa., transferred to 
346th Bat. at Camp Dix, N. J., promoted to corporal November 20 and 
was discharged at Camp Dix December 11, 1918. 



MCLEAN COUNTY COAL co. HONOR ROLL 



Oliver Eaoterbrook was among the group of 
employes of the McLean County Coal Co., Bloom- 
ington, in the service enlisted June 7, 1917, at 
Urbana for the ambulance service and was sent 
to Allen Pa., and assigned to the 611 U. S. 
Ambulance Squadron, being sent to France and 
seeing much strenuous service. He was kept in 
the service until June 19, 1919, when he was 
discharged. After the war, he made his head- 
quarters in Peoria. 



Other employes of the McLean County Coal Company who were in 
the service were the following: 

Wm. Hegerty, 805 W. Locust, age 30. Enlisted May 2nd, 1917, as 
3rd class fireman, served 26 months in foreign waters on Flag Ship Black 
Hawk. Discharged as 1st class fireman December 3, 1919. 

Lincoln Clark, 1310 West Chestnut. Age 31. Co. B, 804th Reg. 
Pioneer Infantry. Sailed September 14, 1918. Discharged July, 1919. 

Peter Janick, 1203 W. Taylor street. Age 26. Co. H, 326th Reg. 
Infantry. Sailed October, 1918. Discharged June 14th, 1919. 




362 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



W. H. KERRICK. SPECIAL AGENT 
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

There are far more chapters 
of the great war history that 
will remain unwritten than 
there are which will ever be 
published. In the records of 
\V. H. Kerrick, Federal Agent 
of the Department of Justice, 
who is the well known attor- 
ney of Bloomington, with of- 
fices in the Corn Belt Bank 
building, there are the deposi- 
tions and other evidence in 
thousands of cases which be- 
gan to develop immediately 
with the beginning of the war 
in Europe, and which became 
more numerous and more 
acute when the United States 
was drawn into the conflict. 

Previous to the war period, 
Mr. Kerrick had for nearly 
three years represented the 
Government in the same De- 
partment, but his work was 
principally restricted to White 
Slave and similar cases, in 
which the Federal laws were 
being violated. 

When war was declared by 
the United States, there at 
once developed hundreds of 

cases involving citizens and others who were not citizens, w T ho were 
accused of disloyal acts and attacks against the Government. These in- 
cluded aliens who were suspicioned of carrying on pro-German propa- 
ganda, and were otherwise putting forth efforts to give aid and comfort 
to the enemies of our country; industrial agitation and crimes to hinder 
the government often charged to German sympathizers, an eye being 
kept open for all such; conscientious objectors, nearly all plain cowards, 
under the guise of religion, who made trouble in every way possible; 
refusal to purchase liberty bonds or to give assistance to the great drives 
for Bed Cross work, Y. M. C. A., Knights of Columbus and others of 
the great organizations which were straining every nerve with all loyal 
citizens to help win the war; the registration and draft difficulties, in- 
volving failure to register, and failure to respond to call and rules of 
the Local Exemption Boards, which failure often resulted in registrants 
being classed as deserters; alien enemies failing or refusing to register 
as the law provided for such registration; failure often willful, to com- 
ply with food and day-light saving regulations; applicants for positions 
with the Government; fraudulent allotments; investigations of persons 
and their references who desired passports into the United States, and 
naturalization cases referred to the Department of Justice for investi- 
gation, which were most of the matters which required attention. These 
and other problems frequently aggregated as many as eight or ten cases 
in one day and during the war period ran up to more than three thousand 
in number, in all of which, investigations were made by Mr. Kerrick. 

His territory extended over at least one-third of Illinois, and occa- 
sionally beyond the State. From Kankakee and LaSalle on the north, 
and almost to Cairo, south, Peoria, Springfield and Carlinville, west and 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 363 

to the State line east, taking in not less than 35 counties, and which 
were gone over several times. He necessarily traveled many thousands 
of miles conducting the required investigations and prosecutions. Many 
of these were of a grave and serious nature, and the more difficult they 
were to handle the less the public knew of them, and which, for the 
highest welfare of the different communities were adjusted without 
public notoriety and generally kept from publication. Many, were han- 
dled by warning and stern reprimand and with emphatic warning as to 
what would be the result of repetition of the acts complained of. 

The most difficult cases to properly adjust were those of peculiar 
religious sects, nearly all of them pro-German sympathizers, who at- 
tempted to make loyal citizens believe they were claiming exemption 
from military service on account of their religion, and conscientious 
scruples against going to war. Usually it was not the young men them- 
selves who were making such claims, but the parents or church leaders 
who urged such reasons for exemption. In making such claims, coupled 
with refusal to take any part in helping to win the war, such persons 
always became objects of public scorn and contempt and in some in- 
stances of violence. The loyal public desperately indignant at such per- 
sons and such claims, were often ready to take radical and criminal ac- 
tion against them and it often required, considerable diplomacy and 
hnesse upon the part of Mr. Kerrick, with the help of conservative pub- 
lic authorities to prevent serious outbreaks. 

Mr. Kerrick was energetic and tireless in the performance of his 
duties, the importance and seriousness of which were not understood 
by the public, and was engaged almost night and day and Sundays as 
well, for at least three full years in responding to calls from the Gov- 
ernment, not only in the Department of Justice, but from other de- 
partments wherein his Department had taken over the work of investi- 
gations, particularly the War and Navy Departments and the Depart- 
ment of Labor and Commerce. 

Soon after the Armistice was signed, Mr. Kerrick 's territory was 
extended to the western part of the State together with that formerly 
covered, which with the after the war difficulties added to what already 
existed, and with this additional territory to travel over caused him to 
still be unusually busy with Government affairs, arising principally out 
of the post-war conditions. 

Although the great majority of the cases which were given atten- 
tion were protected from the public by the mantle of non-publicity. 
Mr. Kerrick 's credit is none the less pronounced and his efficient and 
successful discharge of the responsible and important duties are widely 
recognized, not only by the people of his own district, but his work is 
highly appreciated by the government at Washington, where it is of 
course best known. He has accomplished a great work for the Govern- 
ment, and no one has achieved a more faithful record of war services, 
and there is no one more deserving of the high appreciation of the public. 




Orin W. Fawcett, Elmer E. Fornoff, Otto W. Fisher, Otmcr B. Folger. 



364 McLEAN COUNTY AXD THE WORLD WAR 

MOZART LODGE HONOR ROLL 

Four members of Mozart lodge A. F. & A. M. were in the service. Of 
these, Paul Frederick Hoierman enlisted in the navy at the Officers 
Training camp in Chicago December 6, 1917. On June 19, 1918, he was 
sent to Cleveland to learn the practical part of seamanship on the differ- 
ent lakes between that city and Detroit, Mich. After four months of 
practical study on the lakes he returned to Chicago for further study 




Edgar Apelt Paul Hoierman 

until January, 1919, when he was sent to Pelham Bay, N. Y., for final 
examination where on March 1, 1919, he received his commission as 
Ensign in the Reserve Navy. May 1, 1919 he was transferred to the 
regular Navy as Ensign. May 15, 1919, he passed examination in the 
United States Shipping Board and was appointed a Supercargo on the 
S. S. Point Arena which sailed for Porto Rico. He made two trips to 
Porto Rico and in each case returned with a cargo of raw-sugar. The 
next trip he took to Cuba, and Hong Kong, China, thru the Panama 
Canal via San Francisco, Cal., Honolulu, Hawaii, and Manila, P. I. 

Caught in the ankle by a bullet from a German machine gun in the 
famous assault by the Marines in front of Soissons on July 19, 1918, 
Claude S. Miller of Bloomington suffered for more than two years from 
the effects of his wounds and returned home carrying with him the 
honorary decorations of the Croix de Guerre and the red cord of the 
French Legion of Honor. Claude was one of the several boys from 
Bloomington who belonged to the famous Sixth brigade of the Marine 
Corps, which with the Fifth brigade composed part of the immortal 
First division which stopped the Germans at the Marne and drove them 
back during the months of June and July, 1918. Claude came home in 
October, 1918, and there was a happy reunion at the residence of his 
father, Theodore Miller of 606 West Market street. Claude soon after 
his return wrote for the Daily Bulletin, in whose employ he had formerly 
been as a reporter, an interesting story of his experiences in the war. 
The Fifth and Sixth Marines sailed for France in September, 1917. For 
several months they occupied a camp and engaged in drill duty. About 
the first of June, 1918, the Marines were put in front line positions to 
replace French troops. On the morning of June 6 the German barrage 
against the Americans began, and this was cited by Claude as his most 
terrible experience. The Yanks had orders not to retreat or give up 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 365 

the front line at any cost. Consequently they advanced through the 
barrage to points of comparative safety in no man's land. But sud- 
denly the barrage stopped and the Germans swarmed out of their 
trenches. They found the Marines meeting them half way, and before 
they could recover from their surprise they were peppered by the Ameri- 
can guns so hotly that all who were not killed scampered back to their 
trenches. The Marines had obeyed orders not to retreat, and. had cap- 
tured Balleau Wood with 600 prisoners. The Germans retook the wood, 
but the Marines were hurried back to the front and captured it a second 




Claude Miller William Diebold 

time. In this second attack the American big gun barrage was very 
effective. In honor of their heroic work, the French government changed 
the name from Balleau Wood to Wood De Marines. In these battles 
Claude saw where Germans had chained their own machine gunners to 
trees so that they could not retreat, but most of them were killed. Claude 
was wounded in an attack at Soissons on July 19, when the Marines had 
advanced too fast and got out of the protection of their own artillery, 
running into a direct fire from Germans guns. It was about 9 o'clock 
in the morning when Claude was hit in the ankle by a machine gun 
bullet and his foot so shattered that he fell in the wheat field through 
which the regiment was advancing. When he fell, his company kept 
on advancing and he lost track of them. Finally a first aid man found 
Claude wounded and carried him to a roadside, where he lay until 8:30 
that night, when an ambulance picked him up. While he lay by the 
road, he saw a German airplane swoop down over the field and fire with 
machine guns at every wounded man he could see. Fortunately, Claude 
lay unobserved in the ditch, which probably saved his life. From the 
first aid station he was taken to a base hospital at Paris, later to Bor- 
deaux. While at the latter place, when walking with crutches he slipped 
and fell, injuring his foot again. Finally, on September 22 Miller with 
many other wounded men embarked on the transport Manchuria for the 
voyage to the home-land. For more than a year after reaching the 
United States, Miller was subject of treatments and surgical operations 
in several different government hospitals, in New York, Chicago, Des 
Moines and elsewhere. Finally his ankle had been rejuvenated to such 
an extent that he could discard his crutches and used only a brace on 
the ankle. 



366 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 




WADE BARNEY LODGE HONOR ROLL 

Wade Barney Lodge No. 512 A. F. & A. M. of Bloom- 
ington took a very active part in the war relief work, 
while one of the forty-nine members who entered the 
service, made the supreme sacrifice for his country. 
The lodge as a body invested liberally in Liberty 
bonds while the members as individual purchasers 
were generous and also were active in assisting in the 
various war relief drives and other measures calculated to win the great 
conflict. Officers of the lodge during 1918 .were as follows: 

Eugene F. Duncan, Worshipful Master. 

Leslie C. Spurgin, Senior Warden. 

Herschel H. Fryer, Junior Warden. 

Charlie J. Moyer, Treasurer. 

J. Huber Allen, Secretary. 

Charles J. Anderson, Senior Deacon. 

Theron O. White, Junior Deacon. 

Walter Rust, Senior Steward. 

C. M. House, Junior Steward. 

Thomas Stockdale, Marshal. 

J. N. Swift, Chaplain. 

Frank Noble, Tyler. 

Alonzo Dolan and J. Huber Allen, Board of Control. 

Thomas H. Ramage, Board of Relief. 

Wade Barney Lodge adopted Rene Legallais, a Belgian orphan and 
is still caring for him. The lodge contributed the following to the service: 



Wilbur E. Anderson 

C. E. Baxter 
Lloyd L. Biggs 
Eugene L. Blackwell 
Fred W. Brian 
Robert H. Carson 
Levi C. Carter 
Chester B. Castle 
Arthur R. Chism 

J. A. Clark 
Vernon E. Clark 
William R. Clickener 
Leonard R. Dexter 
John G. Lovell 
O. H. Lundborg 
Edward I. Lundborg 

D. W. McDonald 
Harry Marquardt 
Lloyd M. Nelson 
Lloyd L. Nevins 
Hubert B. Osten 
Wm. H. Paddock 
Frank N. Peck 
Emery H. Powers 
Paul M. Follick 




Lester Gesell 
Klino Hartley 
J. K. P. Hawks 
Lew W. Henry 
Jay E. Hickman 
Floyd L. Johnston 
John R. Jones 
Marshall W. Jones 
George A. Katz 
Thos. W. Kitchen 
Julius P. Klemm 
W. H. Louden 
Harold T. Ramage 
Carl W. Seeger 
Walter C. Seeger 
Howard Stevenson 
Wayne Townley 
Raymond Uhrie 
Philip J. Watson, Jr. 
Ralph O. White 
Walter W. Williams 
Linzie R. Wilson 
Julius Yarp 
Morris Pumphrey 



Walter Carl Seeger was wounded by 
shrapnel on October 15, 1918, while on 
duty in Argonne Woods with Company M. 
326th Infantry, and died as a result of 
the wounds two days later. He was buried 
in the American Cemetery located at Les 
Islettes, Department of Meuse. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



367 



ARTHUK PILLSBURY HONOR ROLL 




Above Arthur Pillsbury. Center left to right Joe 
Moore, Donald E. Marquis, Walker W. Anderson, Archie 
Schaeffer. Below Ada Lyle Seeley. 

Arthur L. Pillsbury, architect, Peoples Bank Bldg., Bloomington, was 
appointed McLean County chairman, by the State Council of Defense, 
and was in charge of the department in relation to the construction of 
buildings. It was the desire of the government to avoid the construc- 
tion of unimportant or non-essential buildings during the period of the 
war in order to conserve supplies necessary for the operation of the 
great struggle. It was the duty of Mr. Pillsbury to enforce the rules 
and regulations as provided by the council of defense and he served 
efficiently and faithfully. The post was non-salaried yet it required a 



368 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 

great deal of the time of the incumbent. In addition to contributing 
his own services, quite a representation of his office force were also in 
the government service. 

Walker W. Anderson enlisted in June, 1917, at Great Lakes as chief 
carpenter mate. Was commissioned Ensign in September and sent as a 
deck officer to sea aboard the U. S. S. Minneapolis an armored cruiser. 
He also served on the U. S. S. Hubbard, a mine sweeper; the U. S. 
Piqua, a patrol boat; U. S. S. Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, a transport; 
and was thirteen months at sea. For six months he was stationed at the 
Naval Base L 'Orient, France, and his total foreign service was fifteen 
months. He was made a lieutenant, junior grade in September, 1918, 
and in June, 1919, was placed on the inactive list while on the Kaiserin 
Augusta Victoria. 

D. E. Marquis enlisted in the U. S. Navy July, 1917. Assigned to 
duty Norfolk, Va. Served on instruction staff at Hampton Eoads Sta- 
tion until January, 1918, then entered Training School for Officers U. S. 
Naval Reserve Force. Commissioned July, 1918, and assigned abroad 
U. S. S. Missouri. Served as watch and Division Officer until February, 
1919, when the Missouri went on Transport duty. Assigned to duty at 
Headquarters 6th Naval District, Charleston, S. C. until released from 
active duty, April, 1919. 

Archie Schaeffer received Civil Service appointment in Navy De- 
partment in March, 1918. Placed in Bureau of Yards and Docks at 
Washington, D. C., as an architectural draftsman planning emergency 
hospital buildings for the U. S. Naval bases. Eesigned position in June, 
1919. 

Ada Lyle Seeley received Civil Service appointment in June, 1918, 
as stenographer in Civilian Espionage Department, Military Intelligence 
offices. Returned to Bloomington September, 1918. 

The war history of Joe Moore is given elsewhere in this work. 



PAUL F. GINTEE 




Paul F. Ginter, chief clerk in the office of Master Mechanic M. J. 
McGraw of the C. & A. served in the aviation department and trained 
at St. Paul, making a fine record. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 



369 



WILLIAM B. BRIGHAM 
William B. Brigham, assistant county 
superintendent of schools for ten years, was 
appointed Emergency County Club Leader 
by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture to co-operate with the schools in or- 
ganizing the young people into clubs pri- 
marily to aid in the war program of in- 
creased production and conservation. It is 
needless to say that the boys and girls un- 
der his direction gave a good account of 
themselves. This work proved very success- 
ful and attracted much favorable attention 
and commendation. Shortly after the ar- 
mistice, Mr. Brigham composed a poem in 
reply to the immortal war lyric, "In Flan- 
ders Field." Mr. Brigham 's effort contains 
such a beautiful sentiment that it is well 
worth reproduction in this work as a last- 
ing tribute to the heroes who made the su- 
preme sacrifice for their country. It reads as follows 




OUE ANSWER 
O, Comrade Dear, across the sea, 

Who fought on Flanders fields for me; 
We would you knew the foe's no more, 

And victory 'ours the wide world o 'er. 
Your flaming torch we 've placed on high, 
True faith we'll keep with you who lie 
Asleep where poppies grow 
In Flanders fields. 

And now while seasons come and go, 
The larks will sing and poppies blow; 

Your name is with a gold star sealed, 
And angels guard those sacred fields. 

W. B. B. 




Burger Brothers 

Top Row (from left to right) Corporal 
Ollie Burger, Private Claude O. Burger. 



Group "C's" 



-Albert M. Carlson, 



Center Edward J. Corbitt. 
Bottom Row Private Dewey Burger, Cor- Below Henry R. Coyle, Chester L. 
poral Lloyde Burger. Claggett. 



370 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 

"THE GIRLS OF '61" 
(By Mrs. Sue A. Sanders.) 

When on April 15, 1861, Gen. Anderson and his men marched out 
of Fort Sumter, the greatest war of modern times, up to that period, 
had begun, and the question was, Shall there be one or two republics 
in North America? The people of the U. S. were divided on the subject 
of slavery, both divisions deprecating war. But one of them would 
rather make war than that the nation should continue as it was; the 
other would accept war rather than let it perish. 

The first gun had been fired and the peace of our country severed. 
Our men and boys were called to arms in defense of. the union, and 
the women were called to a duty they had never before assumed or 
experienced; a work that extended from the cradle to the grave; for 
many families were left helpless as well as destitute when the call to 
arms came. On the Sunday following the* declaration of war, Kev. C. 
G. Ames, pastor of fthe Unitarian church, preached a powerful sermon 
on "What will become of the Republic?" This speech was pronounced 
by various papers of the country as the "shadow of the keystone of 
liberty." Mr. Ames was solicited to repeat the speech in many cities 
and it was greeted with applause. Mr. Price, pastor of the Second Pres- 
byterian church, also preached a most enthusiastic sermon, which met 
with some opposition by some members of his church, yet he flinched 
not. 

In July, 1861, 200,000 boys and men had enlisted for defense and 
been ordered to the front. It was very warm in the south, and 
many of the men were sick and in ill-prepared hospitals. The women 
needed no special invitation to respond to the demand for hospital sup- 
plies. When the first call was made, McLean county boys responded 
nobly and at once began to drill for service. The boys of the Normal 
university secured an old cannon and placed it on the campus. A play 
was given in Normal hall entitled "The Goddess of Liberty." It was 
a great occasion and attended by a large crowd. The president of the 
school, Charles E. Hovey, and three of the teachers had enlisted, and 
the boys of the school were drilling as if actual war had begun. There 
were some students from the border states who entered the university 
to escape the draft in their homes. They were tainted with disloyalty, 
and many exciting episodes resulted as these clashed with loyal students. 

On August 22, 1861, there was an immediate call for help in hospitals. 
On November 21 a meeting was held in Phoenix hall to organize the 
women for relief work. At this meeting the Odd Fellows of Blooming- 
ton offered their hall to the women in which to carry on the work, and 
also gave $250 to begin with. John F. Humphreys tendered the back 
end of his store on Front street for canning, pickling, and preserving 
for the camps and hospitals. Mrs. George Bradner was elected president 
of the Aid society, Mrs. Hannah Newell, secretary; both resigned as 
officers at the next meeting, when Mrs. Goodman Ferre was elected 
president, .Mrs. Martha Ward, vice president and Mrs. Newell, secretary, 
all of whom served to the end of the war. The older members of the 
Aid society held most of the offices and were responsible for the de- 
partments ,T>f service. They arranged the work and attended to shipping. 
The girls of, ^61 did all the soliciting in what time they had out of 
school and on Saturdays. They scraped lint, wound bandages made of 
old muslin and linen, wound yarn, knit socks and mittens with a short 
thumb, and ran ^errands. To them was assigned the duty of soliciting 
through the city and country on Saturdays and after school for supplies 
of all kinds. Saturdays was set apart to solicit vegetables, fruit, etc., 
in the country. There were dinners, suppers, festivals, banquets, so- 
ciables, excursions, dances, picnics and many other affairs for raising 
money to carry on the work of the Aid, and the girls of '61 had the 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 371 

arrangements to make for all these. They also collected books and 
magazines for camps and hospitals. Farmers brought supplies to town 
and left them at Humphreys' store, where the girls sliced, peeled and 
prepared them for sending. After they were put into barrels, kegs, etc., 
they were covered with what was called high wines, from Pcoria, which 
made them very palatable to the soldiers. Bloomington had neither the 
population nor the wealth in '61 that it has today, and there were no 
government supplies nor Red Cross headquarters where the girls could 
find up-to-date machines for doing the work for the Aid. The Girls of 
'61 had many problems. Disloyalty met them on every side. Many 
in the north had southern ties, and expressed their sympathy for that 
cause. When patriotic meetings were held and loyalty badges were 
worn, the southern sympathizers sometimes tore them off, and on one 
occasion they even rotten-egged the girls of '61. 

The girls of '61 also visited afflicted families to relieve broken hearts 
and do other acts of mercy. To them, too, was assigned the duty of 
meeting all trains bearing soldiers, either union or rebel, and of serving 
lunches to them, irrespective of politics or color. When the bodies of 
soldiers were brought home for burial, it was a duty of the girls to 
follow them to their last resting place. 

It was not the death knell which called to the girls of '61 together 
in 1917, but rather the lack of good knitters. Many women wasted 
efforts through lack of proper instruction. At a certain gathering I 
saw a patriotic young woman thus wasting her energies, and I remarked 
to a good friend of mine, and a good knitter, "If we had the girls of 
'61 here we could show them how to knit, and I am going to organize 
them for service." The meeting was called at the Withers library No- 
vember 14, 1917, and a goodly number of the old girls responded, all 
anxious to renew the work of '61- '65. The only qualification for mem- 
bership was having done some kind of relief work in the civil war. 
Not long after the war .of the rebellion, the veterans of the war or- 
ganized the Grand Army of the Republic and their wives, mothers and 
(laughters formed the Woman 's Relief Corps. Ever since that time the 
two organizations have met together in conventions and celebrations. 
The Woman's Relief Corps during the half century have assisted in 
all honorable ways to give relief to the soldiers of '61 and their fami- 
lies. Homes and orphanages to care for the widows and children of 
soldiers have been established. Burial lots have been located for the 
resting place of the loyal man or woman without relatives at his death. 
Each year on Memorial Day these women follow the flag and muffled 
drum to the graves, the tell-tales of the patriotic past. 

At the first meeting of the "Old Girls of '61" held in the Odd 
Fellows Temple, I stood in the hall near the elevator to welcome the 
women, veterans of the war of '61, I observed that the custodian Mr. 
Storer, was a little confused as to the object of the meeting. Aside I 
said, "Do you know who these women are?" He replied, "A lot of 
old women, I suppose, to sew and have a good time." He certainly 
was right about the good time. And later he observed that it was 
not a gossiping crowd. I said to him, "These are the women who were 
the young girls of 1861, who thru the war of the rebellion worked along 
all lines of duty and sacrifice for the soldiers and their destitute fami- 
ilies. Now they are the young "Girls of '61" and the Old girls of 
1917 who are again organized to work for soldiers of the Allied war," 
Not strange to say, his attitude changed; there was a deep patriotic 
smile on his face as I passed on. Soon after he came into the hall bring- 
ing with him a glass-framed autograph of the Odd Fellows Orphans' 
Home boys of Lincoln. He said, "I assure you the Odd Fellows of 
Bloomington take pleasure in tendering to you the use of their hall in 
behalf of the girls of 1861-1917, who after sixty years are again called 
to service in a second war for the cause of justice and liberty." 



372 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 

Many of the members of the organization were unable to attend the 
meetings, yet in their easy rockers in quiet homes did much knitting 
and piecing of quilts, comforts, etc., while memory dwelt upon the 
scenes and sorrows of the past not forgotten thru all the sixty years. 
Many were the tears which trickled down the wrinkled cheeks as they 
recalled the messages from the battlefields, hospitals, and worst of all 
the southern prison pens, for many were the soldiers of the north who 
suffered, starved and died, who might otherwise have been wearing the 
badge of the G. A. E. for the past fifty years. 

When the first call came for hospital supplies in 1917, the Girls 
made over 100 glasses of jelly for the Bed Cross, which was, at first re- 
jected lest there might bo some poison through some unknown way. 
But it was afterward sent with that of the D. A. E. This was only the 
beginning of what might have been sent had it again been requested. 

The war work of the Girls of 1861 was a renewal of their youthful 
patriotism, and their meetings were the revival of the sad yet happy 
days of long ago. While it might have been and was the duty to again 
ply the needles, which is possible if not probable, I am fully assured 
by the last meeting and farewells of the Girls of 1861 and 1917, that 
should the third call come for help, those still living will renew their 
patriotic work for the defenders of our flag and country, and I also 
believe that the Odd Fellows Hall will be just as freely and courteously 
donated as in the days of '61 and 1917. 

The roster of the members of the Girls of '61 was as follows: 

A. Emma Peters Abrams, Catherine Guthrie Atkinson, Elizabeth 
Anderson, Josephine Sears Armstrong, Sue Waters Andrus, Mary E. 
Whittaker Albright, Amanda Williams Aldrich. 

B. Mary Seymour Brown, Elizabeth Kern Beath, Mary Eliza Carl- 
ton Bragonier, Jeanette Lee Blackwell, Mary Miller Bowman, Helen 
Walton Bradley, Almira Ives Burnham, Isadore E. Buttolph Brown, 
Susan Beard Blackwell, Mary Alice Bishop, Mary Ann Martin Brindley, 
Mrs. Bramwell, Eebecca Dell Thrasher Burr, 'Sabina Hibbs Benedict, 
Maria E. Platt Burke, Harriet Cheney Bishop, Marilla Tilton Barnes, 
Anna Middleton Baldwin, Sara Dolbard Bomgardner, Mary Jones Brind- 
ley, Druella Stratton Burner, Ada McClure Briggs. 

C. Maria Guest Cadwallader, Anna Eeid Coblentz, Emma Bozarth 
Coleman, Emily Little Carlton, Catherine Hendryx Crigley, Elizabeth 
Lowe Crawford, Effie Marshall Clark, Malissa Taylor Coleman, Martha 
Canfield, Edith Cruikshank, Elizabeth Eowley Cotterman, Lucy Kingman 
Cowden, Jennie E. Judy Curry, Belle M. Crowdcr Cassaday, Anna Warner 
Chapman, Emma Eouse Cox, Amarilla Madden Carter, Sara Keiser Cruik- 
shank, Martha J. Canfield. 

D. Jane Smith Drake, Sara A. Scibird Dagenhart, Sarah Crabarns 
Disbro, Emma Hardesty Depew, Mary Eegina Peters Dawson, Mary 
Newell Deal, Annie Schumaker Dixon, Elizabeth Jane Eedding Deits, 
Ella Hughes Drybread, Clara Davis, Sarah Newell Dickinson, Katherine 
Hayes Doyle. 

E. Mary L. Parke Evans, Laura Strimple Enlow, Elizabeth Black- 
burn Eaton, Minerva Ealston Eyestone, S. J. Hougham Eades, Ellen 
Edwards, Louise A. Cheney Ehrmantrout. 

F. Cornelia Deems Fox, Gertrude Lewis Fifer, Lucretia Clarkson 
Faulk, Minerva Fielder, Pauline Stewart Fry, Harriet Hemming Frank- 
enberger. 

G. Elizabeth Hall Galloway, Susie Wheeler Gossard, Mary Ives 
Gage, Abbie Albright Griffin, Mary Hibbs Glimpse, Henrietta Peters 
Gailey, Mary Eachel Lorsen Gabbert, Theresa Clark Gibbs, Caroline 
Carson Guthrie, Henrietta Jones Goetz. 

H. Frances Plummer Hill, Laura Von Egidy Holmes, Mattie Ar- 
nold Harvey, Sarah Wills Hayden, Marie Anthony Hazenwinkle, Elsie 
Coole Hastings, Carrie Eathie Hindman, Ellen Eouse Hodge, Martha 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 373 

Crum Gaddis Hazelton, Minerva Arnold Hopkins, Ida Hinshaw Hull, Miss 
Addie Humes, Kate Hullinger, Addie Hunter, Louise McKnight Hapenny, 
Louise Moulton Hill, Sara Kowley Hullinger, Mrs. Hostetler. 

I. Miss Nellie Ives. 

J. Anna M. Hampcrton Jones, Josephine Nessenger John, Laura 
Bowman Johnston. 

K. Halley Bessy Sharick Knapp, Caroline Jackman Kimball, Jennie 
Moon Killow, Laura Tenny Kerrison, Belle Dunham Kerr, Edith Pack- 
ard Kelly, Sara Lafever Prather Barley Killow. 

L. Laura Veach Lutz, Mary White Lewis, Mary Boulware Lain, 
Cordelia Reynolds Livingston, Letitia Garretson Lander, June Allin Len- 
non, Carrie Gillespie Loudon, Louise Lander, Mrs. Lyons, Eoxie Van 
Eankin La Tcer, Sara Frances Reeder Lawrence. 

M. Annie Whipple Murray, Margaret Hoffman Moore, Myra Mor- 
ris Moore, Martha Hibbs McClure, Mary Nicholson McCart, Henrietta 
Braum McCabe, Jean Jones McKnight, Martha Wheeler McCollom, Lucy 
Kramer Mantle, Isa Baldwin Murphy, Kate Herr Smith Mott, Mary 
Elliott McCarty, Lillian Van Schoick Miner, Martha White McCullom, 
Hattie Steele Mason, Mary A. Lewis Means, Laura Howe Michel, Zerelda 
Battcrton Moon. 

N. Mary Deal Newell, Mary Ehrmantrout Nourse. 

P. Carrie Boon Pope, Mary Elizabeth Peterson, Catherine Beltzer 
Pierson, Margaret Baker Packard, Sarah Stanfolk Pope, Elaine Caroline 
Peer. 

R. Mary Bcdinger Reeves, Isabel Hutchinson Reynolds, Clara Cox 
Rockwell, Elizabeth Burgess Reed, Kate Law Richards, Sara Stubble- 
field Rayburn, Jennie C. Rundle. 

S. Mary Dietrich Sprague, Isabella Brown Sickles, Martha Sley 
Scott, Laura Burbank Strimple, Margaret Platte Stone, Minerva Fielder 
Steele, Ella Hart Shay Spear. 

T. Martha A. Rockwood Tay. 

W. Minerva Smith Warnock Webb, Amanda Belle Savage Weaver, 
Minerva Rodman Welch, Belle Lemon Welch, Dora Drake Weaver. 



BROUGHT DOWN GERMAN PLANE 

Lieut. Donald T. Jones, son of C. D. Jones of Leroy, made a good 
record in the aviation service. On November 3, 1918, he shot down one 
German Folker plane in a combat over the hostile line. The official 
credit for this performance was contained in the following citation, a 
copy of which he brought home with him: 
Base Section No. 5. B. E. F., A. P. O. 314. 

November 7, 1918. 

Special Order No. 61. 

12. Lieut. Donald T. Jones, is credited with having brought down 
one Folker in combat, November 3, 1918, at 6:50 o'clock, while patrol- 
ing northeast of Renaix. 

Harry Murray, Adjutant, 
155th Pursuit Group, 
British Expeditionary Forces. 

Young Jones entered the service in January, 1918. He received 
preliminary training at Berkley, Calif., and Arcadia, Fla., receiving his 
commission at the latter place. In October, 1918, he was sent overseas 
and assigned to a B.-itish army, along with 75 other flyers. He reached 
France on October 24 arid was at once sent to the front near Renaix, in 
Flanders. He was at the front 14 days before the armistice and in 
that time got the chance to bring down an enemy plane, which he is 
officially credited with having done. After his discharge he returned 
to Leroy. 



374 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



WORLD WAR VETERANS 

There was organized in Bloomington during the winter and spring 
of 1920 a local post of World War Veterans, an organization composed 
of service men as its name indicates. It was named the Hauptman, 
Morgan, Conley Post, from the names of three Bloomington men who 
had been slain in battle. These men were Joseph A. Hauptman, David 
Thomas Morgan, and Eugene Conley. Sketches of these men are to 
be found in the chapter of this book containing the" stories of those 
who died in the war. The first list of officers for the post were these: 
Commander, W. F. Witty; senior vice commander, Robert Swit/er; 
junior vice commander, E. P. Downey; chaplain, Lee Crosland; adjutant, 
William A. Sammon; quartermaster, Arthur Garbe. The board of trus- 
tees were: William J. Hull, J. P. Murray and Wade H. Fielder. The 
post holds monthly meetings. The principles on which the organization 
was founded are given in the following statement, the first clause of 
which stated that the members would not participate in a national 
convention prior to June 1, 15)20: 

2. We stand opposed to any form of compulsory military training 
in the United States of America. 

3. We endorse the rights of collective bargaining by truly repre- 
sentative groups of all productive industry; we will not endorse any 
political parties. 

4. We, the World War Veterans, individually and collectively, shall 
at all times of crisis, either local or national, encourage dignity, calm- 
ness, justice and peaceful settlements. In time of crisis, either local 
or national, the World War Veterans will extend the assistance of their 
organization to the whole peoples of the community, state or nation. 

5. We demand for all the peoples the rights of free speech and 
peaceful assemblage as written into the constitution of the United States 
of America, except that such license must not be used by such person 
as would use such license to overthrow the United States government 
by violence or force. 

6. We endorse the principles set forth in the woman suffrage bill 
as past by congress. 

7. For the guidance of our elected representatives in the United 
States congress we endorse the fourteen points we fought for and upon 
which the armistice was agreed and signed. 

8. Nationalization of all oil and coal lands and all oil wells and 
coal mines. We endorse public ownership of unavoidable monopolies. 

9. We, the World War Veterans, oppose any declaration of war 
without first submitting the issue to the people of the United States 
of America, except in c,"se of invasion by armed forces of the territory 
of the United States of Arnerica. 

10. In event of war, all profits made by any individual or corpo- 
ration, over and above such profit made by any such individual or 
corporation, in the year prior to such declaration of war, shall be paid 
to the United States government by any and all such individuals or 
corporations during the period of the said war and become the prop- 
erty of the United States government. 

11. The constitution of the United States of America to be amended 
only by a direct vote of all the people. In case of national crisis the 
suffrage to be extended to all franchised citizens absent from their 
place of residence due to government duties. 

12. The enforcement of the constitution of the United States of 
America as it is written. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOBLD WAR 375 

PAUL F. BEICH 

One of the men who was most active in different war projects in 
Bloomington was Paul F. Beich, head of the Paul F. Beich Company, 
and one of the largest business men of the city. He runs two concerns 
for the wholesale manufacture of candy, one in Bloomington and one 
in Chicago, and in addition was chosen national president of the National 
Confectioners Association. In spite of all these interests, Mr. Beich 
during the years 1917 and 1918, devoted many of his days and nights 
to promoting one after another of the enterprises designed to help win 




the war. He was chairman of the membership committee of the McLean 
County Chapter of the Eed Cross, and in this capacity he directed two 
of the greatest drives of the war, for the purpose of increasing the mem- 
bership of the Red Cross. That lie was successful is shown in the fact 
that from an initial membership of 174 persons when the chapter was 
organized, the numbers grew until they reached a maximum of nearly 
15,000, or one person in every five in the county. Mr. Beich was also 
very active in the different Liberty Loan campaigns, serving as chairman 
of precinct committees in several of them. In all his effort for war work, 
he was of course assisted by many willing co-workers, who had confidence 
in his ability and energy to put "over the top" any proposition which 
he undertook. In the conduct of his own business, which was a large 
consumer of one of the materials most under the restriction of conserva- 
tion, namely sugar, he managed to carry on the business without inter- 
ruption, furnishing employment to many people and thus in that way 
helping to carry the war burdens of others. The employes of the Paul 
F. Beich company were a patriotic company, and one of the red letter 
days of the war with them was the occasion of a flag raising with due 
ceremonies, when Mr. Beich addressed them. Community sings and other 
patriotic exercises were carried on at intervals in the factory itself, 
the employes assembling at the noon hour for that purpose. Mr. Beich 
gave liberally of his own income toward every worthy war subscription, 
and in every way assisted the community in its struggle toward the final 
victory. 



376 McLEAN CPU NTT AND THE WOULD WAE 

SOLEMN, IMPRESSIVE MEMORIAL SERVICE 

On May 30, 1919, the first observance of Memorial Day in Bloom- 
ington after the return home of most of the men who had been in ser- 
vice in the years 1917-18, there was held in St. Mary's cemetery, the 
Catholic burial ground in Bloomington, a most unusual and impressive 
solemn high mass for the dead soldiers whose resting place was there. 
A spacious platform served as the sanctuary. Upon it were seated two 
hundred soldiers and sailors in uniform, 120 altar boys, the choirs of 
the three Bloomington parishes and a full orchestra for accompaniment 
to the music of the mass. 

The mass followed a parade of soldiers, Knights of Columbus and 
men of the parishes, headed by the Bloomington band. Dan Connor was 
marshal and he with James Flavin, Grand Knight of the Knights of 
Columbus, led the procession, which marched from Holy Trinity to the 
cemetery. 

Forty sisters from the three parishes of Bloomington sat before 
the platform. Behind them the crowds closed in. Father' O 'Callaghan 
was aided in the service by Father Julius as deacon and Father Hayden 
of Wapella, as sub-deacon. Father Medcalf was the master of cere- 
monies and introduced Father Sammon, of Peoria, when the time came 
for the address. 

The priests were clad in golden chasubles and performed their cere- 
monies before an altar of filmy white set with a few golden candle- 
sticks. The dazzling canopy contrasted strongly to the gray-green foli- 
age of the box elders in the rear. The 120 altar boys were dressed in 
cassock and surplice. On opposite sides of the rostrum were the Ameri- 
man flag and the crucifix held by a sailor and soldier respectively. 
Grouped at the left of the platform were the vivid service banners of 
St. Mary's, Holy Trinity and St. Patrick's, Knights of Columbus and 
of the Colfax church. Several gold stars were to be seen glowing in 
the sunlight among the blue stars of the banners. 

The choir of sixty sang Eosewig's mass. Their united voices car- 
ried easily to uttermost parts of the congregation. AVhen the chorus 
ceased and the chant of Father O 'Callaghan rose from the altar into 
the air the crowd hushed to catch the accent and meaning of his song. 

After the mass Father Sammon, a former Bloomington boy, ad- 
vanced to the front of the platform and addressed the crowd upon the 
principles of patriotism and the meaning of Decoration Day. 



SPECIAL RECRUITING SERVICE 

Dr. H. W. Grote was the Bloomington and Central Illinois repre- 
sentative of the Military Training Camps association before the war, 
and during the period of the war he turned his office into headquarters 
for recruiting men for special service. What was accomplished is shown 
in the following report issued at the close of the war: 

Men examined for the first officers' training camp 100; number 
accepted, 27. 

Number of men examined for the second officers' training camp, 65; 
number accepted 25. 

Number of applications for commissions sent into war department 
or to military training association, 40; number of men accepted, 12. 

Number of applications for motor service received by quartermas- 
ter department thru this office, 100. 

Number of mail inquiries answered 71. Number of personal in- 
quiries 453. 

Number of candidates given preliminary training, 54. 

Aviators placed, 7; to the English army, 2; to the American tank 
service, 11. 

Published notices to the papers, 30. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WO ELD WAR 



377 




378 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 




HcLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



379 



TWO EED CROSS DRIVES AT A GLANCE 
(June, 1917, and May, 1918) 

City First and Second Drives County First am 

Second 
war fund 
assess- 
ment 

Anchor $ 1,112 

Arrowsmith .. 1,178 

Bellflower 1,541 

Carlock 798 

Chenoa 2,587 

Coif ax 2,029 

C'ooksville . . . 1,537 

Covel 633 

Cropsey 752 

Danvers 1,960 

Downs 1,679 

Dry Grove .. . 1,237 
Ellsworth . . . 1,207 

Gridley 2,379 

Heyworth . . . 2,442 

Holder 1,683 

Hudson 1,425 

Leroy 3,567 

Lexington . . . 2,508 
Lawndale .... 910 

McLean 2,032 

Merna 874 

Money Creek. 1,098 

Normal 5,978 

Saybrook .... 1,887 

Shirley 633 

Stanford 1,174 

Towanda .... 874 

Weston 999 

West Tp 1,504 

Bloomington Tp. 2,537 
Bloomington . 31,000 









Amount 








raised 






Amount 


in first 


Preeincl 


Quota 


raised war fund 


i 


.$3,000 


$2,550.00 


$1,570 


2 


, 2,500 


2,754.25 


1,323 


3 


, 1,500 


1,568.00 


1,121 


4 


500 


212.90 


100 


5 


200 


No report 


130 


6 


250 


312.50 


250 


7 


150 


104.10 


73 


8 


600 


800.00 


603 


9 


750 


663.00 


617 


] 


5,000 


4,875.00 


3,080 


11 


3,000 


2,849.00 


1,910 


12 , 


1,200 


2,036.35 


1,150 


13 


250 


192.00 


256 


14 


200 


220.00 


160 


15 


400 


419.50 


226 


16 


500 


582.00 


312 


17 


1,000 


550.00 


1,025 


18 


3,500 


3,210.00 


1,980 


20 


300 


409.55 


195 


21 


750 


690.00 


615 


22 


200 


265.25 


130 


23 


4,000 


2,500.00 


1,900 


24 


1,600 


2,220.00 


1,650 


25 


3,000 


2,382.50 


1,600 


26 


750 


759.25 


375 


27 


300 


210.00 


150 


28 


300 


456.15 


234 


29 


450 


736.70 


450 


30 


800 


No report 


310 


0. & A. 








Federation 


1,000.00 




Wesleyan 


fund 


183.00 





Second 


Drives 


Amount 
raised 
in second 
war fund 

$1,182.00 


Amount 
raised 
first war 
fund 

$1,024 


1,250.00 


1,065 


1,541.00 


1,278 


719.00 




2,650.00 


2,008 


2,030.00 


2,376 


1,820.00 


1,320 


675.00 


443 


752.00 


299 


1,960.00 


1,420 


1,445.50 


1,676 


1,489.10 


993 


1,060.00 


1,104 


2,380.00 


1,359 


2,550.00 


2,555 


1,350.00 




825.00 


1,135 


3,570.00 


2,603 


2,589.59 


3,670 


925.00 




5,456.75 


4,247 


875.00 




1,404.50 




5,500.00 


3,902 


2,250.00 


1,784 


1,271.00 




1,561.00 


657 


1,200.00 


1,268 


1,053.61 


633 


1,336.58 


801 


1,140.54 




38,008.95 


28,377 



Bloom'ns;fcn 
total 



McLean Co. total 



$93,812.12 



MARK BODELL IN VAUDEVILLE 

After the armistice, while American forces were holding positions 
in France and Germany, Mark Bodell, son of Eev. W. A. Bodell of 
Bloomington, got into a rather unusual line of work in the army. In 
a letter dated from Gondrccourt on March 1, 1919, he wrote: 

"For the past three months I have been associated with the ad- 
vance section entertainers organized by the Red Cross. The entertain- 
ment opens with a half hour of rapid fire minstrel, followed by seven 
vaudeville acts. I have a seat in the semi-circle of the minstrel and a 
cartoon act of my own in the vaudeville. We have made quite a repu- 
tation for a snappy clean show, having every detail worked out to the 
seconds. For instance, the total minutes of curtain waits for the entire 
show is six minutes. This entire week we are playing the 88th Divi- 
sion. To my great surprise, as I came out of the mess hall yesterday, 
I ran into Glenn Walley. He is the second one I have met from Bloom- 
ington, that I know, in all my twenty months of army life. The other 
Bloomington fellow I met was Wilbur Youngman, whom I saw at Toul, 
while playing there." 



380 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

MT. HOPE MADE RECORD 

No part of McLean County wrote a more heroic record of deeds 
in the war than did Mt. Hope township, the village of McLean and 
vicinity. Eight gold stars represented the young men of t'hat part of 
the county who died in the war. One of the most impressive scenes 
of the whole county's war history was the dedication on December 3, 
1917, of the new community hall and library, when a climax of the 
occasion was reached in the presentation of service flags to members 
of every family having boys in the army and navy. Some flags had 
one star, some two, some three, and one had four, representing the four 
sons of Isaac Burger in the war, one of them afterward being killed. 
Rev. Edgar DeWitt Jones of Bloomington made the presentations. 

In making the campaigns for liberty loans and different war work 
funds, Mt. Hope and Funk's Grove generally worked together as one 
unit, and always made their quota and more. Here are the figures of 
the liberty loan drives: 

Subscrip- 
Drive Quota tion 

1. (Mt. Hope and Funk 's Grove) $32,000 

2. (Mt. Hope and Funk 's Grove) 80,150 

3 $8(5,076 107,850 

4 82,618 96,000 

5 64,000 82,100 

There are no banks in Funk 's Grove township and no large center 
of population. Consequently the bank of McLean was made the center 
of the war loan drives. The two townships were considered as a unit 
in many of the campaigns and their subscriptions are given together 
below: 

Y. M. C. A $ 800 

United War Work 8,700 

First Red Cross 4.147 

Salvation Army 300 

Armenian relief 828 

A Red Cross dance brought $1,400. M. E. Hightshow gave the 
profits of his business for one week to the Rod Cross, which amounted 
to $1,200. Another gift to the war fund which, tho the money did not 
go to the credit of McLean, belonged in part to that town. Mr. Ten Broeck 
put up a heifer calf for sale in Chicago at auction for the Red Cross 
and realized upon it the sum of $20,000 for war work. The fourth 
Liberty loan was raised in one day. The Victory Joan was realized on 
the first morning of the campaign by 11:15 o'clock. 

Practically all subscriptions to the Liberty loans were voluntary. 
Isaac Funk and S. B. Van Ness were the chairmen who led the or- 
ganization of twenty-five which did the work. H. M. Palmer was in 
charge of the Red Cross and United War Work drives. Ansel Stubble- 
field led the work of the Y. M. C. A. campaign. The Armenian and 
Syrian relief campaign was made a success thru the efforts of W. N. 
Ewing. 

TWO ASTONISHING THINGS 

Speaking before the McLean County Medical Society one evening 
after his return from France, Dr. T. D. Cantrell, former captain in the 
military medical service, said that there were two great sources of 
amazement in France. The French were amazed at American waste of 
material, while the Americans were amazed at the French waste of 
time. He said that the table wine of France has no "kick," but that 
the French have intoxicating beverages as was proved when the armistice 
was signed. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



381 



FRENCH GIRLS AT THE WESLEYAN 

During the school year of 
1918-19, the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity in Bloomington had as two 
of its students a couple of young 
women from Lyons, France. 
They were two from, a large 
number who were sent over to 
the United States by the French 
government to carry on their 
education, facilities for which 
were interrupted in France by 
the war. These young women 
were Idellette and Annette 
Barron, daughters of a manu- 
facturer in Lyons who prior to 
the war had been very well-to- 
do. The Barron sisters lived at 
Kemp hall while attending Wes- 
leyan, and were active in all the 
ordinary affairs of college life. 
They spoke very good English, 
as well as being of course fluent users of their native tongue. In a 
published interview which one of the young woman gave out shortly 
after arriving at Wesleyan, she expressed wonder and surprise at the 
richness of America and its comparative freedom from the pinch of 
war, as compared with their own country. 





HENRY E. PEASE 

Corporal Henry Elton Pease, son of M. 
A. Pease, 802 West Wood street, Bloom- 
ington, Hd. Co. 121, F. A. P. O. 734, A. E. 
F., saw much active service. On the way 
over, his convoy was attacked by sub- 
marines and in the battle which followed 
two subs were sunk. In Scotland and 
England, the troops were given enthusi- 
astic receptions. From England, they 
went to France and spent most of their 
time on the Verdun front. The last 
seven weeks of the war, they were under 
almost continuous bombardment but he 
came thru without a scratch. Pease says 
that on the battlefields they passed over 
in advancing, it appeared there were ten 
dead Germans to every dead American. 



A PATRIOTIC FAMILY 

Andrew Walsh of Saybrook, with his family, did their part in the 
war. The only son, Rex Roach, went into the service early in the war. 
There were two sons-in-law, Harry Nichols of Saybrook and Harry 
Fryar of Onarga, both of whom went to France, Fryar being in the 
naval service. A step-son, Eugene Crowley, enlisted in July, 1918, and 
was stationed at Camp Taylor. There was a baby born to Mrs. Fryar 
during the war, and the little one did not see his father till after he 
returned from service. The Walsh family provided a home for Mrs. 
Rex Roach diiring the war. 



382 McLEAN COUNTY AND TEE WOELD WAE 



PROMINENT IN WAE ACTIVITIES 




Mrs. J. C. Riley 



Mrs. J. L. Murray 





Frank Oberkoetter 



Egbert B. Hawk 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 383 

EMPIRE ALWAYS READY 

The people of Leroy and vicinity always did their share and more 
in whatever sacrifice the war called for. Empire township contributed 
its full quota and more of her young manhood to the service, and sev- 
eral <^old stars adorned her service flag. At home, the people of the 
township subscribed a total of $391,750 to the different liberty bond 
campaigns, and $16,061 to various war work drives. The figures are 
as follows: 

First Liberty loan $ 52,300 

Second Liberty loan 92,200 

Third Liberty loan 83,650 

Fourth Liberty loan 163,600 

Fifth Liberty loan 112,000 

First Bed Cross, 1917 2,600 

Second Bed Cross, 1918 3,567 

Y. M. C. A. 1,855 

Salvation Army 659 

United War Work 7,380 

Empire township never failed to make her quota, and exceeded it 
in several instances. This was most likely due to the good organization 
behind the campaigns. As chairman of the drives the following served: 
J. H. Iden, chairman of both Red Cross drives; George Dooley, chairman 
of Liberty loans; Frank Barley, chairman of Y. M. C. A. and Salvation 
Army drives; and Prof. S. E.. LeMarr, chairman of United War Work 
drive. Chairmen of the twenty-one committees were: S. E. LeMarr, 
H. E. Buckles, Oscar Phares, A. J. Keenan, J. A. Taylor, Frank C. 
Barley, C. A. Pierce, L. J. Owen, F. E. Jones, William Arrowsmith, 
George Payne, James Mitchell, B. F. Baker, Milton Dooley, F. B. Hum- 
phrey, Charles Null, William Vance, L. R. Wartena, Oliver Smith, H. 
H. Crumbaugh, George Dooley. The assistants were: M. A. Cline, Rev. 
L. F. Sargent, K. B. Dolly, Grant Smith, Ed Wirt, Rev. R. H. Browne, 
Dr. E. E. Sargent, Lincoln Bailey, A. J. Sarver, J. H. Iden, Ed Guard, 
J. T. Schumacher, Dr. A. G. Reardon, Glenn Patterson, Rev. C. S. Boyd, 
Canby Barley, Lee Fuller, Ray Cain, W. W. Pike, Ed Beckham, George 
Payne, Ed Rees, George Shrigley, T. G. Steinkie, A. D. Kincaid, John 
Howard, J. A. Hair, Z. T. Strayor, A. E. Linton, Harry Kline, Hugo 
Pfitzenmeyer, Charles Tyner, Les Sarver, Joe Rutledge, L. R. Wartena, 
Frank Riddle, Frank Bishop, D. F. VanDeventer, A. G. Bailey, L. N. 
VanDeventer, G. D. Staley and Rev. W. C. Holmes. 



FRENCH MARKET CLEARS $500 

The Sigma Kappa Sorority of the Wesleyan on July 13, 1918, suc- 
cessfully carried out a "French market" in a vacant room of the Illi- 
nois hotel building. A garden cafe, set along the sidewalk outside the 
building, much after the fashion of Parisian affairs of that kind, was 
well patronized. The market inside and outside was tastefully decorated 
with the national flags of France, Belgium and our own United States. 
A wealth of flowers arranged among the booths added further color to 
the picture. 

The entrance to the cafe was formed by the flower booth, presided 
over by Mrs. Jessie Harwood, assisted by Mrs. Kern Beath and Miss 
Elizabeth Stevenson, with a corps of flower girls who circulated about 
the streets asking everyone to buy the bouquets. The cafe was in 
charge of Eliza Alexander, the art department in charge of Anna Lantz, 
and the fruit and vegetable booth in charge of Mrs. Guy Sloan, Mrs. 
John A. Beck and Miss Grace Collins. The bakery goods were in charge 
of Miss Lorah Monroe. The whole plan for the French market was 
conceived and supervised by an executive committee of which Mrs. 
James G. Melluish was chairman. The French market cleared $500, 
which was turned into the Belgian Relief Fund. 



384 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



STIRRING SCENES OF WAR TIMES RECALLED 




Above Typical gathering of young men and their friends at the court 
house on the morning when a contingent of draft men were to start 
to camp. 

Below Parade led by drum corps and Grand Army men escorting draft 
contingent to railroad station to entrain for camp. 



PRAISES PROF. RIDGLEY 

Prof. D. C. Ridgley of the Normal University faculty spent some 
months in France in educational work directed by the government for 
the benefit of the men in the army. President Felmley of the Normal 
University afterward received letters from officers of the educational 
corps commending Prof. Ridgley 's work. F. E. Spaulding wrote in part 
33 follows: 

"If you have ever had any misgivings concerning your action in 
giving Mr. Ridgley leave of absence for this work, let me assure you 
that in my judgment your action was abundantly justified by the re- 
sults. In the face of all kinds of difficulties, he has never hesitated, 
but has put his very best efforts enthusiastically into the work. He 
will return to his former duties better prepared than ever, on account 
of his experience over here, to render the excellent service which I 
know you appreciate." 



McLKAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 



385 



ROTARY CLUB HONOR ROLL 

The Rotary Club was prominent in war relief work, not only as a 
club but also individually, each member being active. The officers of 
the club June 1, 1917, to June, 1918, were the following:. President, 




Davis Ewing; vice-president, Adolph Wochner; secretary, E. Mark Evans; 
treasurer, Eliada Dickinson. The officers from June 1, 1918, to June 1, 
1919, were: President, J. G. Melluish; vice-president, Fred Savage; 
secretary, Sage Kinnie; treasurer, Eliada Dickinson. 



Among the members who were in 
Dr. Watson Gailey 
Lieut. H. C. Hawk 
Sergt. B. T. Holton, Jr. 
Lt. Harry H. Howell 
Major Dayton Keith 
Lieut. Julius P. Klemm 
Capt. Fitch Harwood 



the service were the following: 
Ralph B. McCarroll 
Major Robert A. Noble 
Capt. Horace A. Soper 
George P. Stautz 
Lieut. Ross Winship 
Capt. J. G. Melluish 



War histories of most of the foregoing will be found in full in 
other sections of this work. Major Dayton Keith was stationed in Chi- 
cago and had charge of the district west of Detroit in handling Motor 
Transport Manufacturing. 

Lieut. H. C. Hawk was in the army transport service, being ad- 
vanced to a commission, serving with credit from September 25, 1917, 
until his discharge February 1, 1919. Most of his period of duty was 
in New York City where the transports commenced and ended their 
voyage overseas. 



386 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 

WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY AND S. A. T. C. 

Like all the other schools of the country, the Wesleyan university 
lost many of the young men from its classes during the spring and fall 
of 1917, for they answered the call to the colors and served in many 
branches of the army and navy. Several gold stars were added to 
Wesleyan 's service flag before the war was over, and a memorial ser- 
vice after the close of the war took note of the following Wesleyan 
men who had died for liberty: George Herman Anna, Lyle Best, Howard 
Bolin, Elmer T. Doocey, Vergne Greiner, Allington Jolly, Sergt. Lemuel 
Jones, Frank Jordan, Henry B. Peckmann, Herbert Quarnstrom, William 
Balston, Maurice Eoberts, Edmund W. Sutherland. 

In the opening of the fall term in 1918, Wesleyan, like many other 
colleges, became in fact a military academy by the formation there of 
the Student Army Training Corps, sponsored and managed by the war 
department of the government. The young men were divided into three 
groups according to age; those 20 or 21 years old /would have remained 
only twelve weeks, and then would have been sent to some Army Offi- 
cers' Training Camp; those 19 would have remained 24 weeks, while 
those who were 18 would have remained 36 weeks. All academic work 
was planned on military lines, and drills were carried on certain hours 
each day under Capt. Wheaton, a regular army officer assigned to this 
camp. Barracks were erected on the vacant ground north of the campus, 
at a cost of $25,000, this fund being guaranteed by Bloomington busi- 
ness men, who were later reimbursed by the government. There was 
a great corn show held at the opening of the barracks, the funds from 
which were to be used for building a club house for the S. A. T. C. boys. 
But the war ended all plans on this line, and in fact the armistice came 
oef ore the S. A. T. C. had a chance to show its true worth as a military 
asset of the country. There were many disappointed young men who 
were eager to go on with the training and finally enter active service. 
The abandonment of the S. A.. T. C. caused great confusion in the uni- 
versity. The wooden barracks were sold for $4,000 and dismantled; 
the military instructors were dismissed from the faculty and every- 
thing again put on a peace basis. The following is the list of young 
men who made up the corps of the Wesleyan S. A. T. C. during its 
short life: 

A. Cecil Abrams, Decatur; Ira B. Abbott, Mason City; Ivo G. 
Augspurger, Tiskilwa; Morgan Albee, city; Everett Alsup, Hadley; Otto 
Arnold, Donnellson; Dean Ashley, city; Homer Austin, Greenview. 

B. Leslie Calvin Barrick, Mackinaw; A. Mileham Ballew, Lexing- 
ton; Theodore Bean, city; Irwin Bower, Covel; Charles Bower, Covel; 
Eobert A. Barrack, Decatur; Lloyd L. Bell, Easton; Walter Blandin, 
Eutland; Gerald Brown, Wapella; Clarence Crusius, city; Edwin Beltzho, 
Springfield; Clarence Buttorf, Springfield; Eussell Baum, city; Lee 
Belzell, Waynesville; Eussell W. Bickford, Plymouth; Paul W. Bigler, 
Auburn; Alvin Bills, Lexington; Parks Bohlander, El Paso; Stephen 
Bottenberg, city; Vincent V. Brierly, Griggsville; Thomas Brighan, city; 
Verven Buck, Waynesville; Homer Brown, New Holland; E. C. Bailey, 
Danville; Adane Bowles, Clinton. 

C. Charles Campers, Eoanoke; George Conroy, Streator; Byron E. 
Closer, Whitehall; Melvin G. Comet, Aurora; Deiner Condon, city; Dan- 
iel Dodge, Aurora; Lawrence Cole, Chicago; Harold T. Carlquist, city; 
Albert Cargill, Mason City; Francis Carl, Mahomet; William Chamber- 
lain, Litchfield; Henson Clarke, Chamberburg; Clifford Craig, Pontiac; 
Eoy C. Clark, Murray ville; H. Eutledge Coleman, Palmyra; Balph P. 
Connell, Waynesville; Clyde Curtis, Farmer City; Orrin D. Cooper, Ply- 
mouth; Frank B. Coady, Greenview; Harold E. Chapman, city; Charles 
A. Custer, Pontiac. 



MCLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 387 

D. Charles W. DeAtley, Cerro Gordo; Vernon Dimmett, Melvin; 
Charles Dietrich, Mason City; Harold K. Dolbow, Griggsville; Ray Doud, 
Gardner; Earl Derry, Petersburg; Albert J. Daley, city; Lawrence Dodge, 
Normal; Harold Davis, Potomac; John Robert Dewenter, city; Elmo 
Dillon, Normal. 

E. Paul Elsbury, Plymouth; Harry R. Evans, Whitehall; George 
Kvans, Normal; Charles Endicott, Muncie; Milton Ewing, Paris; Frank 
Ebert, Roberts. 

F. Harold Frederick, Roberts; William Fisherkeller, city; Delmar 
Fuller, city; John D. Follis, Elkhart; Frank Fagerburg, city; Stephen 
E. Finley, Lexington; Forest Furrer, Mason City; Harry H. Foster, Fair- 
bury; Beecher Foley, Paris 

G. Howard Gerland, Pontiac; William Gleason, city; Albert F. 
Gilman, city; Harold Gibbs, Thawville; Paul S. Gordon, city; J. Edward 
Grady, Chicago; Vergne G. Greiner, city; Wilbur Guild, city; Clarence 
Goodhart, city; Walter H. Gillan, Mackinaw; Norman G. Griser, Normal. 

H. Emmett Hutton, Saybrook; Harold Huey, Plymouth, Frank 
Herbst, Roanoke; Howard Huey, Plymouth; John Hamilton, Clinton; 
John H. Hart, El Paso; Joseph Hart, Clinton; Alfred Hitch, Chats- 
worth; Richard Hobson, Greenfield; W. E. Hogan, city; George Hol- 
liger, Tremont; Rex G. Howard, Washburn; Russell Hughes, Mason 
City; Warner Hurst, city; Kenyon Hyles, Whitehall; Herman Half- 
mann, Minonk; Robert Henderson, Greenfield; Paul Hayes, city; Claire 
I. Hanks, Lexington; Myron Melvin Holt, Mahomet; Arthur W. Haas, 
Season; Mark Hannum, Lexington; Max Hannum, Wenona; Paul Huf- 
fington, Normal; Ralph E. Hicks, Lexington; Dewey Hill, Muncie; Carl 
Henning, Lostant; Lloyd C. Holley, Normal; Claude L. Holloway, Her- 
scher; Earl Harpster, Carlock; Osman P. Hall, Joliet. 

I. Hubert Ireland, Tremont. 

J. Russell Jackson, Bridgeport; F. Fay James, city; Milo Janes, 
Lafayette; William M. Jeffrey, Sheldon; Eugene Johnson, Moline; 
Charles W. Jones, Petersburg; Glenn Jones, Mason City. 

K. Harold Kinsey, city; Wm. A. Kimber, Cornell; Harold M. 
Kemple, Gibson City; Lloyd Kenny, Pontiac; Roy Keller, Arrowsmith; 
Raymond Kelso, city; Wm. Kibler, Cissna Park; Ora King, Waynesville; 
Peter Koch, Tremont; Walter Kronshagen, Pana; Clarence F. Krughoff, 
San Jose; Wayne Kennedy, Plymouth; Glen Knobloch, Roanoke; Law- 
rence Kipling, Colchester; James Kerrigan, Minonk. 

L. Robert Lewis, Plymouth; Willis Lundgren, city; Jewel Lynch, 
Normal; Wayne C. Lyons, city; Clarence Lawbaugh, city; J. Reed Lee, 
McLean; Leonard Lee, Stanford; Eugene LeBee, Chicago; Francis La- 
Teer, Saybrook; Olon Lee, city; William Leitch, city; Lawrence W. 
Luce, Springfield; Arthur Lehman, city. 

M. James E. McConkie, city; William E. McGraw, city; Darrell 
McReynolds, Stanford; Eugene McDonald, city; Dewey H. Montgomery, 
Philo; John Moody, Gibson City; Cecil W. Martin, Pana; Merritt Meeker, 
Bath; Estil Miller, Pittsfield; Clarence Melton, Mason City; Glen Mem- 
men, Minonk; Anderson Molz, Pana; Glade Murchison, Mason City; 
Carl B. Mayfield, Lawndale; Lawrence Main, Gibson City; John L. 
Mertz, Tonica; Harry H. Matthews, Greenview; Lyle B. Mohr, Normal; 
Don Carlos Moreland, Clinton; Frank D. Moots, Leroy; Layard Mace, 
city. 

N. Raymond Newell, Keithsburg; John Ernest Newlin, Robinson; 
V. L. Nickell, Mansfield; Roy A. Nicol, Covell; C. C. Nordling, Rantoul; 
Walter Nuttall, Bethany; Howard Nelson, city; Deal Nicol, city; Ed- 
ward A. Nollsch, Springfield; Elmer Nelson, city. 

O. Walter O'Brien, Deer Creek; Russell Owen, Leroy; Allen G. 
Orendorff, city; Herman Orendorff, city. 

P. Russell Packard, Normal; Paul Packard, Normal; Irvin Peplow, 
Minier; Carter Pietsch, city; Alva E. Pepping, city; William H. Piper, 



388 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAR 

Charleston, la.; Horace Potter, Petersburg; Charles H. Power, Peters- 
burg; Noble J. Puffer, Lafayette; David Phelps, Plymouth; Ealph W. 
Pierson, Normal; Forrest Patterson, Leroy; Leo Provost, Eoanoke; 
Lewis L. Paulen, Curran; Bane Pierce, city. 

Q. James Quigg, Minier; Forest W. Quinn, city. 

R. Clarence Bohwer, Moline; Paul Eogers, city; Vaughn Bansom,- 
Potomac; Elmer B. Eeed, Quincy; Fred W. Eeed, Streator; Sylvester 
Eoach, Fairbury; T. E. Bansdell, DeWitt; Lawrence Eudisell, Deland; 
Paul Boberts, Cissna Park; Dwight H. Both, Panola; Leroy Eosencrans, 
Ottawa; Lloyd L. Eamseyer, Hudson; Eoland F. Bembe, Lincoln; Garth 
Eiddle, city; Earl Bieck, Normal; Duane Boss, Mansfield; H. Glenn 
Boss, Mansfield; Charles S. Boberts, Danville; Maurice H. Eoberts, 
city; James Eyan, Minonk. 

S. Eaymond N. Spears, city; Clinton F. Eolofson, city; Charles 
St. Clair, Streator; Shirley Salter, Dowagiac; Oran Sarff, city; Clar- 
ence Swearingen, Gibson; Keith Sheffler, Manteno; Stanley Strauss, 
Chicago; G. C. Scott, Arrowsmith; Glenn Seymour, Potomac; Eussell 
Shearer, Cullom; Calvin Stauffer, Saybrook; Edgar Stevenson, city; 
Harlow N. Sutherland, city; Owen Shrigley, Leroy; Frank Schultz, city; 
Bussell Stone, Mason City; Bert Joel Sorrells, Eoodhouse; Harold St. 
John, Hume; Leonard B. Slagel, Hey worth; Owen Schertz, Panola; 
Kenneth Snyder, Moweaqua; W. G. Smith, Beason; Floyd C. Smith, 
Lexington; Leland C. Sherrill, city; Wilbur Smith, Mt. Pulaski; Charles 
Strain, city; Quinn B. Sanks, Streator. 

T. Allen Taylor, Catlin; Lewis Thomas, city; Frederick L. Thrail- 
kill, Centralia; Alvah Tippelt, Pittsfield. 

IL Will Umback, Easton. 

V. Oscar Vaughn, French Lick; Ewert Vandaveer, Whitehall; La 
Bue Van Meter, Williamsville. 

W. Casper W. Weber, Lostant; Win. Wadleigh, Herscher; Hartzell 
Ward, Coif ax; Joe Walker, jr., Mason City; C. H. Wampler, Waynes- 
ville; David H. Ward, Normal; Forrest W. Watt, Lexington; Luther 
Ward, Bellflower; Clifton Ward, Clinton; Emmett Willis, Joliet; Clark 
Webb, Mason City; Clarence Westhoff, Normal; Mason Whitney, Los- 
tant; Louis L. Williams, city; Calvin Wochner, city; Boy Wright, city; 
Wade Westervelt, Buda; Floyd F. Wright, Mahomet; Theron White, 
Normal; Eobert H. and Henry O. Woll, San Jose; Milton Woofers, 
Balph Wilcoxson, Springfield. 

Y. Leroy Yolton, city; William Yoder, Danvers. 

Z. John Zimmerman, Altamont; Victor Zimmerman, city. 



FEELINGS ON RETURN HOME 

In March, 1919, when the soldiers yet remaining in France had 
their minds all bent on the home-coming, Lieut. William B. Geneva 
wrote a letter expressing their feelings about the return to civil life. 
He said in part: 

"I have talked to many over here and what they all wish is the 
chance to get into the civil work that is before them without too much 
housetop shouting. These men want to know that those at home are 
grateful, deeply grateful, but the simple practical demonstration of it 
will please them most. A big public welcome is good but not too many. 
Assistance to get into that life occupation is most desired. The home 
folks, the relatives, will give that heartfelt warmth of feeling which 
will mean more than anything else. In one home where there is a 
waiting mother I know this will be true. Many of the men over here 
are trying to keep in touch with the life back there, to study the 
problems that they will have to face when they return. The transition 
to civil life, we hope, will find us prepared in advance." 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAP 



389 



WAS OFFICIAL "CANNONNEEK," 

Major Edward C. Butler of Blooming- 
ton was by public approval, given the 
position of "Official Cannonneer" dur- 
ing the great war. It fell upon him to 
awake the echoes with the discharge of 
cannon when peace was declared and 
other noteworthy events justified univer- 
sal enthusiasm, and exemplified the pub- 
lic rejoicing. Major Butler stepped into 
the post gracefully and the appointment 
was justified by long and honorable duty 
as a soldier. Enlisting in the Illinois 
National Guard in 1884, he rose from the 
ranks to a commission and was for 
thirty-four years in the service, a por- 
tion of this period on the reserve, retir- 
ing from active duty with the rank of 
Major. He was lieutenant in Company 
G, I. N. G. Fifth Regiment, later lieuten- 
ant and captain of Troop B, First Cav- 
alry, I. N. G., was captain of Troop G, 
First Illinois Cavalry during the Spanish- 
American War, and following that war, captain of Troop B again. He 
was also long an officer in the Uniform Rank, Knights of Pythias, now 
being Colonel and chief of staff, and has been otherwise prominent in 
military affairs, serving as marshal during innumerable Fourth of July 
and other celebrations and being always ready to serve the public in 
any capacity. Whatever duty devolved upon him, was performed faith- 
fully and efficiently. This service is deserving of the fullest apprecia- 
tion by all. 





Top Row (left to right) J. Leonard Rush, Harry Milton Reid, William K. 

Rader. 
Second Row Lloyd W. Ritchie, Homer E. Riddle, Raymond Roberts, Leslie 

Randall. 
Third Row William G. Read, David A. Rutledge, Cecil W. Riseling, Carl J. 

Radcliff, Louis Rablow. 
Bottom Row Joseph A. Ranney, Howard J. Read. 



390 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 



*********************** 



*************** 




STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY SERVICE FLAG 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 391 

NORMAL AND HER WAR WORK 

In all the home activities of the war, the city of Normal and Nor- 
mal township worked practically as one unit. In July, 1917, the work 
of the Normal auxiliary of the McLean County chapter of the American 
Bed Cross expanded in such a way that it became advisable to reorganize 
and so on July 10, at a mass meeting held in the high school auditorium 
a constitution and by-laws was adopted creating the Normal branch, 
with the following officers: Chairman, B. C. Moore; vice chairman, Prof. 
J. Eose Colby; secretary, Miss Florence Smith; treasurer, D. G. Fitz- 
gerrell. These officers appointed the following chairmen of standing 
committees: Headquarters, Mrs. D. C. Smith; membership, Mrs. H. W. 
Grote; publicity, C. A. Burner; hospital supply, Miss Annette B. Cooper. 
Later committees appointed were: Civilian relief, Mrs. W. H. Johnson; 
surgical dressings, Mrs. H. W. Grote; knitting, Mrs. John R. Dodge; 
junior Ked Cross, Miss Elsie Brusch. 

Dr. M. Wallis, who had entered the medical service, gave the use 
of his office free of all charge, and here the branch had its headquar- 
ters, sewing and knitting was done and officers and committees met, 
often in counsel with their board of directors, as follows: Mrs. J. R. 
Dodge, L. F. Shepard, Col. D. C. Smith, E. P. Mohr, President David 
Felmley, Miss Fannie Fell, Miss Julia Allen, Mrs. E. F. Coolidge, Mrs. 
L. H. Kerrick, O. E. Norris, Miss Lillian Barton, Dean O. L. Manchester, 
Prof. M. J. Holmes. In January, 1918, Miss Smith resigned as secretary 
and Miss Constance B. Coen was appointed in her place. And in De- 
cember, 1918, Mrs. Roy Bates was elected to succeed Miss Coen, resigned, 
while as treasurer L. H. Kerrick succeeded D. G. Fitzgerrell. 

Walter Arbogast, chairman of the finance committee, had the fol- 
lowing workers who stood back of the entertainments and other activi- 
ties: L. H. Kerrick, Frank Schoenfeldt, George Rankin, J. W. Stubble- 
field', F. D. Barber and J. E. Richmond. At the time of the organiza- 
tion in July, 1917, the balance of funds carried over from the auxiliary 
was about $1,000, while in August, 1918, the total of the receipts had 
amounted to almost $13,000. The financial campaign was launched in 
the summer of 1917 with a concert by Miss Josephine Colehower, spon- 
sored by C. A. Burner, from which $50 was realized, and a ball game 
between Normal and Bloomington business man netted $165. There 
were flower sales, concerts, box socials, and lectures. Early in 1918 a 
farm sale was planned, for which a special committee consisting of E. 
P. Mohr, Roy Bates and Charles Straub were named. Contributions came 
in from farmers of Normal township, and the sale was held February 
25th in front of Schoenfeldt 's barn, John Raycraft donating his ser- 
vices as auctioneer. One pair of ducks was bid in three times by Col. 
Smith, for a total of $100, and then returned and sold again for $12. 
The sale netted nearly $1,000. Normal business men gave a minstrel 
show which cleared $300 for Red Cross. Byron Gregory donated a twin 
six Packard automobile, which was sold for a total of $2,500. In all 
these enterprises for raising money the publicity committee of C. A. 
Burner, Prof. Ridgley and Charles Straub did notable work. The mem- 
bership committee carried forward several drives, which resulted in 
further revenue. This committee consisted of Mrs. Grote, Mrs. Frank 
Hanson, Miss Elsie Brusch, J. W. Arbogast and Mrs. Fred Johnson. At 
the organization they secured 488 members, which by January, 1918, 
had been increased to 1,117. 

There was formed a headquarters committee of which Mrs. D. C. 
Smith was chairman and most constant worker. She was assisted by 
Mrs. Frank Ward and Mrs. Allen Brown. Miss Annette B. Cooper bought 
supplies and Miss Flora Crum gave five afternoons a week to superin- 
tend the work. All churches had sewing groups, and most of the clubs. 
Many neighborhood groups and individuals assisted. Normal branch 
turned over to the McLean county chapter 7,500 finished, inspected and 



392 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 

approved garments. The knitting department, under direction of Mrs. 
Amanda Dodge, furnished 1,600 knitted articles. Later the Normal 
university gave a room for making surgical dressings, and at first Bloom- 
ington women acted as instructors. Mrs. Grote later was appointed 
chairman and instructor. In all, 14,000 bandages were produced at this 
place. 

Mrs. W. H. Johnson organized and launched the great work of the 
civilian relief department, assisted by Mrs. J. W. Kasbeer and Mrs. 
George Rankin. Calls were made by these women on families of soldiers, 
and material help given when needed. This committee made and dis- 
tributed comfort kits to the departing drafted men. They also assisted 
families in such matters as insurance, allotments, discharges and in- 
numerable other questions. 

When the Junior Bed Cross was organized throughout the country, 
Normal township joined with 100 per cent membership, under the leader- 
ship of Miss Elsie Brusch. 

During the time of the greatest monetary activity, D. G. Fitzgerrell 
gave his time unstintingly to the duties of treasurer. During the latter 
part of 1919 and '20, this work was in the hands of L. H. Kerrick. The 
taxing duties of secretary devolved upon Miss Florence Smith, Miss 
Constance Coen and Mrs. Boy Bates, each of whom in her regime had 
her own peculiar problems to meet. 

One of the great and wonderful campaigns of the war was the 
United War Work drive, combining the funds of the Y. M. and Y. W. 
C. A., the Knights of Columbus, the Jewish Belief, the Salvation Army 
and the Bed Cross. In Normal township this mighty effort was cap- 
tained by Palmer Q. Moore, and was carried through with eminent suc- 
cess the sum of $11,000 being raised. 

Normal township was proud of her record in all the liberty loan 
campaigns. The first was unorganized, and subscriptions were secured 
by the banks, $5,000 by the State Bank and $25,000 by the First Na- 
tional. D. G. Fitzgerrell, who was vice chairman for the county, had 
charge of the Normal township campaign. 

For the second loan, Walter D. Alexander acted as chairman, and 
$130,000 was raised in Normal township. In the third loan under the 
leadership of C. O. Hamilton, $208,000 was subscribed. In the fourth and 
fifth loans, Lester H. Martin was chairman, and the amounts raised were 
respectively $278,000 and $232,000. The entire subscriptions in Normal 
township for the five loans was $878,000, or four-fifths of a million 
dollars. 

The women had a notable part in the Liberty loan drives, beginning 
with the second. Mrs. Henry G. McCormick was chairman of the 
women 's committee for the second drive, and af terw r ard served as county 
secretary and kept the records of the subscriptions in a very systematic 
and satisfactory manner. 

Normal university, as distinguished from the town people in gen- 
eral, had a large and commendable part in the war work. The student 
body and faculty, during the period of the war, gave much of their 
time and effort to the things which tended to bring victory to America. 
Dedicated with impressive services in May, 1920, there is a large boulder 
on the campus as a memorial to the fourteen university men who lost 
their lives in the war, as follows: William Auth, Balph Barren, C. Nolan 
Smith, Earl Balph Hart, Louis Eddy Davis, Bolf Leo McManus, Howard 
Henry Hardy, Doy William Skinner, Maurice James Peters, William Hoy 
Hinthorn, Allington Joyce Jolly, Robert Benjamin Huffman, Edmund 
White Sutherland, Arthur William Niedermeyer. The 14 gold stars are 
representative of 3 army men who were killed in action, 2 who were 
accidentally killed in the falling of planes, 1 who was drowned, and 8 
who died from illness. 

The 675 stars on the service flag of Normal University represent 
the services of six faculty men who were in actual service, alumni of 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 393 

classes dating back from the class of 1917 to as early a date as 1880. 
There was one high school navy man of the class of 1880; one Normal 
Bed Cross relief worker of the class of 1883. These stars represent the 
service of 455 men who served in the army, 81 who served in the navy, 
L'O who served the marine corps, 72 who were in the aviation, both mili- 
tary and naval, 14 women nurses, one Eed Cross relief worker, and 
32, the nature of whose service is not known. 

The record of the men in the aviation service shows that there 
were 14 flying men, 1 aerial photographer, and 3 balloon observation men. 

There were 81 students of the Normal University who served in the 
navy during the world war. Three of these were young women who 
enlisted as yeomen. 

The records of the students of I. S. N. U. who were in the service 
of the United States during the war, shows that they served every- 
where, from Panama to Archangel, at the front and with the Army of 
Occupation, and in battles in France and in Italy. Several of the young 
women who went as nurses were under fire. Both men and women of 
the university received crosses and citations of many kinds. 



LEXINGTON'S WAR ACTIVITIES 

Lexington was among the first to answer the call for men to de- 
fend her country, and many of her young men enlisted before the draft 
came; a total of 120 or more men answered the call. Some were gassed, 
some wounded, but none lost their lives on the battlefields. Most of 
the men came home after the armistice, but some stayed with the Army 
of Construction. Capt. T. F. Feiker did service in Coblenz, Germany, 
after the war, and W. Earl Ballew, Y. M. C. A. Secretary, also served 
in the same place. 

The Lexington branch of the Red Cross was organized April 29th, 
1917, with over three hundred in membership, and Mrs. N. E. Franklin, 
Chairman, Dr. L. J. Hammers, vice chairman, Mrs. L. B. Strayer, secre- 
tary, and Mrs. F. W. Wald, treasurer. The chapter was very active in 
all branches of war work and met each Tuesday and Thursday of every 
week. Mrs. L. J. Hammers being in charge of the surgical dressings, 
Mrs. O. L. Hiser of the knitted articles, and Mrs. W. C. Lindsay, Sr., 
of the sewing. A total of 22,OCO articles was made and sent out by this 
branch. When McLean County was asked for $50,000.00, Lexington 
came to the front and oversubscribed her amount of $2,000 and gave 
over $4000.00. Much credit is given to Mrs. J. V. McCullough who was 
the captain of this drive, and her assistants for their work. In the 
later drive E. A. Kennedy was the chairman. 

After the war this branch was the first to install a community nurse. 
Miss Phoebe Grundy of Chicago, who began her duties January 1, 1920. 
The present officers are: Mrs. Charles Arnold, chairman; Mrs. E. A. 
Kennedy, vice chairman, and F. W. Wald, secretary and treasurer. 

Lexington Township subscribed $1,000 for the Y. M. C. A. and 
the Liberty loans are as follows: 1st., $22,950.00; 2nd., $16,250.00; 3rd., 
$35,750.00; 4th., $49,950.00; 5th., $70,800.00; total, $195,700.00. H. S. 
Shade was the chairman of the Liberty loans. 

In December, 1917, the State Council of Defense organized a Volun- 
teer Training Corp, recognized as Unit 45 of 100 members, for the pur- 
pose of military training. April 1918, from this unit Co. H 5th Regiment 
Illinois Reserve Militia, was organized consisting of sixty-five privates 
and three officers. The officers were: W. F. Goddard, Captain, Ira M. 
Whitman, 1st Lieutenant, and James ^rbogast, 2nd Lieutenant. The 
officers and Sergeant John Mantle were all ex-soldiers, having served 
their country in the Spanish American War in 1898. The company was 
very active in drilling and instructing men of draft age, who were soon 
to be called in service for their country. They furnished firing squads 
for military funerals, for the boys who died for their country. The 



394 MffLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

roster of the company was: Captain, Wm. F. Goddard; first lieutenant, 
Ira M. Whiteman; first sergeant, G. H. Calhoun; Q. M. sergeant, A. 
P. Schantz; sergeants, W. C. Lindsay, John M. Scrogin, E. H. Kicketts, 
John Mantle, W. C. Hicks; corporals, B. Haushalter, E. E. Arnold, J. 
G. Gilmore, Charles Wright, F. W. Wald, Perry Stanton; musicians, L. 
M. Magill, C. L. Eosenberger; privates, H. F. Amick, C. L. Barrett, W. 

A. Bornder, G. E. Brown, J. H. Botkin, E. E. Buzzard, Eoy Courtney, 

B. E. Dawson, J. E. Donnelly, J. H. Ervine, W. N. Falkingham, Howard 
French, Guy Hensley, M. E. Jenny, Clarence Jenkins, Leonard Koehler, 
W. A. Lucas, J. T. Leach, I. E. Cook, Eay Muffley, Thos. Oddy, E. H. 
Payne, H. E. Payne, A. P. Printz, J. J. Pils, Kenneth Stone, J. C. Shoop, 
Delbert Snyder, Henry Schmitz, Earl Turnipseed, Lawrence Whiteman, 
H. C. Wormley, Ealph Wilmuth, Noah Weakley, Ora McNemar, Dewey 
Ealston, Wm. Leonard, Elden Murphy, Eussell Golliday, Theodore 
Walker, Eex McConnell, Loren Freed, Clarence Zook, Elmo Jenkins, John 
T. Moore, Ervine Printz, Dewey Burke, S. Herman Poole. 



C. & A. LOYALTY BOOSTERS 

On April 9, 1918, when Mrs. Antionette Funk of Washington, one 
of the government's best speakers for the Liberty loans, visited Bloom- 
ington in her boosting tour, one of the places she addressed was a mass 
meeting of the Alton shop men. The occasion was a notable one, and 
her reception at the shops was enthusiastic. To show how she herself 
viewed the patriotic devotion of the Alton men here, she sent the fol- 
lowing telegram to the treasury department officials at Washington 
immediately after the meeting: 

"Bloomington, 111., April 9, 1918 Secretary McAdoo, Washington, 
D. C.: Men of the C. & A. shops so far solicited for bond subscriptions 
are 100 per cent. Have pledged $25,000 per month for war savings 
stamps; grand parade last night. C. & A. shops center of enthusiasm 
and patriotism in Bloomington. Antionette Funk." 

The organization of loyal men of the Alton was the means by which 
several incidents in which disloyal remarks were made or hinted, were 
straightened out by the men themselves, without outside intervention. 

Many incidents of stirring appeal occurred at the shops during the 
war. Perhaps the greatest spectacular demonstration was the occasion 
when the Jackies' Band from Great Lakes training station gave a great 
concert in the shops, at which the entire force of employes attended. 

Every Liberty loan drive, every Eed Cross appeal, every campaign 
for the Knights of Columbus, the Y. M. C. A. or other war humanitarian 
project, found ready response with the Alton men, both of the shops 
and the road. 

There was a great ceremony at the shops on June 14, 1918, when 
a large flag was unfurled amid the cheering of the hundreds of the men. 
Harvey Baker presided at the ceremony, and Joseph Stoekl made a 
speech on behalf of the foreign born employes of the shops. The money 
to buy the flag was subscribed by the men, and the balance after pur- 
chasing the flag was turned over to the Eed Cross. Judge Louis Fitz- 
Henry and John Alexander also made addresses on the occasion. At 
the conclusion of the ceremony, resolutions were passed by the foreign 
born men employed by the company, which read as follows: 

"Whereas, We have fled from the land of our birth in search for 
freedom and liberty, in this great United States; and have been re- 
ceived with outstretched arms by this great government, to enjoy the 
freedom of which we had so long dreamed of but never had enjoyed; 

"Whereas, we have fled from tyranny and oppression and a land 
of poverty and degradation to this land of the free and home of the 
brave, in which to build our homes and rear our children, that they may 
enjoy the educational system of this great country; 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAS 395 

"Therefore be it resolved, That we will support the United States 
in this great world war, and regard any who is an enemy of this coun- 
try as an enemy of our own; and should the United States desire our 
service in any capacity, we stand ready to obey its command; 

"Besolved, That as soon as the laws will permit we will become 
citizens of the United States, to support its laws and constitution in 
every way." 

A copy of these resolutions was sent to President Wilson-, and copies 
also to the railroad officials. 



BELGIAN BOY AS SOLDIER 

Harry A. Vuylsteke, a native of Belgium, who lived for three years 
at the home of Charles Gambrel at Heyworth, donned the uniform of a 
soldier for Uncle Sam during the world war. He came to America 
about 1911, and had never attended school after he was 12 years of 
age. He could not speak English when he came to this country, but 
worked till he mastered the language. He was called in the draft from 
Henry county, and was sent to Camp Jones at Douglas, Arizona. He 
wrote from there to Mrs. Gambrel at Heyworth. He became in turn 
a first class private and then a corporal. He wrote to Mrs. Gambrel to 
the effect that in his regiment were 400 boys from Mississippi, 400 from 
Illinois and the rest are New Yorkers. "But we are all brothers here, 
no matter where we are from. We are all working together for the 
same cause. * * * We expect to leave here the end of this week 
for San Diego. The news was received with great joy. 

"You folks at home stay behind us, every one of you, and we can't 
lose. We Illinois boys are far away from home, but never worry about 
us, as we are all well, and if we do go across we are not going to be 
killed, but the good Lord will bring us safely back and guide us to 
walk the straight and narrow path. So make the best of it at home 
and we will do our bit." 



MADE GAS MASKS 

Mrs. Marquis Deaver, formerly Miss Edith Miner of Bloomington, 
was employed for several months during the war, in a factory on Long 
Island where the government was making gas masks for soldiers. She 
was so employed while her husband was in the service with the coast 
artillery at one of the forts just outside New York. In a letter written 
shortly after her entry to the factory, she described her surroundings 
somewhat as follows: 

"The plant is new and is simply immense and nothing but windows. 
It is guarded by about one hundred soldiers. You have to show a letter 
written by one of the heads in order to get in. And even after you 
get inside the main door you are accosted by a secret service man every 
few feet. Military tactics are used thruout and we are in divisions and 
companies. The head of the concern is a Major Smith, and we are 
considered in the service as much as a man in the army. We wear a 
badge constantly. It is like the setting of a huge cameo brooch, and 
contains your photo and the number by which you are identified. 

' ' The enormous room where I work has loads of Italian, British, French 
and American flags, and is hung with posters and mottos: 
"An Extra Mask, Girls, is a Life Saved in France." 
"It's Up to Us Whether It's a Death Mask or a Gas Mask." 
"I get 40 cents an hour and we have double time for overtime and 
when we are rushed we work two and three hours extra a day. They 
have practically weeded out every one in the place who has not some 
relative in the service. 

' ' The work is simple. I sit at a desk and inspect the masks as they 
come to me. The hours are from 8 to 5:30, and we are off at 2:30 on 
Saturdays. ' ' 



396 



M cLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 




McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 397 



MCLEAN COUNTY PEERLESS HONOR ROLL 

The roll of honor for McLean county, herewith given contains more 
than 5,000 names, believed to be a greater number than contributed to 
the service by any county in the state excepting Cook. The list has 
been compiled with great care and revised and corrected after many 
weary hours by Emanuel Rhoades, secretary of the McLean County 
Historical Society. The honor roll is as nearly correct and complete as 
it was humanly possible to make, and, while necessarily there are a few 
names missing and perhaps a few inaccuracies every opportunity was 
given to those interested to make corrections or revisions. The honor 
roll is one of which all McLean county has reason to feel proud. Alpha- 
botically arranged, the list is as follows: 



COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Major W. H. Allen, Engineers; Camp Benjamin Harrison. 

Capt. Elmer J. Armstrong, Normal, Infantry. 

Lieut. Will Alberts, Bloomington; Illinois Wesleyan. 

Lieut. Eugene Alexander, Bloomington; Quartermaster's Corps; Camp 

Johnson. 

Lieut. Erwin Albee, Bloomington; Air Service; A. E. F. 
Lieut. Russell Anglemeier, Bloomington; Infantry. 
Lieut. James Ambrose, Hudson, 345th Infantry, A. E. F. 
Lieut. (Jr. Grade) Walker W. Anderson, Bloomington; Navy; U. S. S 

Kaiserin Augusta Victoria. 

ENLISTED MEN 

Corp. George E. Abbey, White Oak; Co. C, 61st Inf., 5th Div., A. E. F, 

William H. Abbott, Normal; Hdqrts. Co., 124th Infantry, A. E. F. 

William H. Abbott, Normal; Co. I, 102d Infantry, 26th Division, A. E. F. 

Alfred Abby, White Oak Township; Infantry. 

Cecil Fiske Abrams, Bloomington, S. A. T. C. 

Harry Abrams, Hudson, Co. A, 26th Infantry. Killed in action. 

Abner L. Adams, Heyworth, Co. G, Ammunition Train, 29th Div., A. E. F. 

Forrest L. Adams, Bloomington, 662 Aero Squadron. 

Fred Adams, Bloomington, Artillery. 

Homer F. Adams, Bloomington, 4th Co., C. A. C. 

Howard F. Adams, Coast Artillery. 

Leslie C. Adams, Bloomington, Motor Truck Corps, A. E. F. 

McKinley G. Adams, Heyworth, Infantry, Co. G, Ammunition Train, 2d 

Division. 

Raymond B. Adams, Lexington, Infantry, Camp McArthur. 
Samuel M. Adams, Chenoa. 

William H. Adams, Bloomington, Marine Corps. 
William O. Adams, Osman. 
William O. Adams, Bellflower, Infantry. 

Harold C. Adelman, Bloomington, 74th Engineers, Fort Meigs. 
Cecil M. Adkins, McLean, Infantry. 
Charles R. Adkins, McLean. 

Elmer Adreon, Lexington, Post Hospital, Fort Omaha. 
Edward C. Albee, Bloomington, R, R. 2, Co. B, 124th M. G. Bat., A. E. F. 
William A. Albee, Bloomington, R. R. 2, Co. B, 124th M. G. Bat., A. E. F. 
Frank W. Aldrich, Bloomington, Red Cross. 



398 MCLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAB 

Corp. Vaughn Alexander, Bloomington, Field Artillery. 

Stefano Alfano, Colfax, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Corp. E. B. Allen, Normal, Co. A, 328th Infantry. 

Frederick Allen, Bloomington, Infantry. Died at Camp Mills. 

Arrie Adelia Allen, Bloomington, Army Nurse Corps. 

James Allen, Bloomington, Aviation, Chanute Field. 

Robinson Allen, Bloomington, 25th U. S. Regulars, A. E. F. 

Clyde Lorraine Allison, Lexington, Infantry. Died at Camp Mills. 

Ben Almstead, Colfax, Co. D, 314 Ammunition Train, 89th Division. 

Theodore N. Alsesn, Bloomington, R. R., 186th Engineers. 

Joshue W. Alsman, Leroy. 

Clyde G. Alwood, Bloomington, Y. M. C. A. 

Dean Amstadt, Leroy. 

Ben R. Anderson, Bloomington, Battery E, 68th Artillery, A. E. F. 

Bruce Anderson, Bloomington, Infantry. 

C. I. Anderson, Normal, 149th Infantry. 

Clarence G. Anderson, Bloomington, S. A. T. C., Bradley Polytechnic. 

Charles Anderson, Danvers, Infantry. 

Delmar C. Anderson, Bloomington, Co. B, 363rd Infantry. 

Elmer C. Anderson, Bloomington, Co. B, 360th Infantry, A. E. F. 

Ernest Anderson, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Earl Anderson, Bloomington, Infantry, A. E. F. Wounded in action. 

Sergt. George Anderson, Bloomington, Aviation. 

Jesse S. Anderson, Bloomington, 106th Engineers. Died in Scotland. 

Oscar ("Okie") Anderson, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Thomas E. Anderson, Gridley, Co. I, 339th Machine Gun, A. E. F. 

Sergt. Wilbur Anderson, Bloomington, 24th Company, Coast Artillery. 

Charles Andrews, Bloomington, Harry W. Andrews, Gridley, died while 

awaiting call. 

William M. Andrews, Bloomington, Navy. 
Edgar Apelt, Bloomington, Musician. 
Frank Apelt, Bloomington, Musician. 

Merril R. Apker, Bloomington, Co. C, 311th Field Artillery, A. E. F. 
Waldo Rolland Appel, Normal, Radio, Navy, Great Lakes Station. 
Bert G. Appenzeller, Stanford, Battery A, 74th Coast Artillery, C. A. C., 

A. E. F. 

Francis L. Arbogast, Saybrook, Hospital. 
Merdle D. Arbogast, Leroy. 

Cecil Arnett, Colfax, Infantry, Hawaiian Islands. 
James Wallace Arnett, Colfax, Coast Artillery. 
Corp. Claude F. Armstrong, Normal, 108th Supply Train, Q. M. Corps, 

33rd Division, A. E. F. 
Harry A. Armstrong, Leroy. 
James Armstrong, Normal, Railroad Artillery. 

Miles Armstrong, Hudson, Battery D, Lft. Rgt. Artillery, A. E. F. 
Russell R. Armstrong, Normal, 52d Coast Artillery. 
Corp. Wavie Armstrong, Stanford, Co. D, 360th Infantry, A. E. F. 
Albert H. Arnold, Gridley, Aviation. 
David Arnold, Bloomington, Marines. 
Elma Arnold, Bloomington, Radio. 
Floyd Arnold, Colfax, Infantry. 
Harry Arnold, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Herbert Arnold, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Corp. Will Arnold, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Stanislaus Arnseneau, Normal, A. S. Section 555. (Ambulance). 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOELD WAS 399 

Ernest L. Asbury, Bloomington, Co. C, 

Voyle L. Ashabrau, Lexington, Squadron D, Flying Dept., Kelly Field, Tex. 

Corp. C. C. Ashby, Bloomington, Marine Corps. 

Corp. S. W. Ashworth, Bellflower, Co. B, 124th Machine Gun Btn., A. E. F. 

Sergt. Charles Allen, Stanford, Co. A, 48th Infantry. 

G. A. Atkinson, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Ora G. Augspurger, Danvers. 

Aaron E. Augstin, Carlock, Co. B, 113th Signal Corps, A. E. F. 

Corp. Carl Ausmus, Bloomington, 16th Co., Third Eegt., Motor Mechanics, 

A. E. F. 

Cecil Austin, Lexington, Navy. 

James Austin, Colfax, Battery F, 68th Artillery, A. E. F. 
Sergt. Fred Avey, Leroy. 
Fred Avery, Leroy. 

Corp. Cory C. Ayers, Bloomington, Battery C, 339th Field Artillery, A. E. F. 
Coleman Azbill, Carlock. 



COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

Brig. Gen. Harry G. Bishop, Normal, Infantry, Third Brigade, Third Div., 

A. E. F. 

Major Albert N. Buescher, Bloomington, 331st Infantry, A. E. F. 
Major Thomas- W. Bath, Medical Corps, A. E. F. 
Major J. Dwight Brewer, Bloomington, Infantry, A. E. F. 
Lieut. Col. John Bruce, Bloomington, Infantry, A. E. F. 
Col. Frank C. Bolles, Normal, Eegular Army, A. E. F. 
Col. W. V. D. Brown, Colfax, 8th Balloon Company, A. E. F. 
Capt. A. E. Behrendt, Bloomington, Medical Corps, 
Capt. F. W. Brian, Bloomington, Medical Corps. 
Capt. John G. Burkholder, Normal, Infantry, A. E. F. 
Capt. George E. Butler, Leroy, Infantry, A. E. F. 
Capt. G. B. Bushee, Normal, Medical Corps, A. E. F. 
Lieut. Phillip C. Barber, 56th Heavy Artillery, A. E. F. 
Lieut. William Barrett, Bloomington, 347th M. G. Bn., 91st Div., A. E. F. 
Lieut. I. W. Bach, Bloomington, Medical Corps. 
Lieut. Nyle J. Balbach, Chenoa, Aviation. 

Lieut. Eaymond C. Baylor, McLean, Field Artillery, U. S. Camp. 
Lieut. Cornelius Beardsley, Bloomington, Artillery, A. E. F. 
Lieut. Arthur L. Benedict, Ellsworth, Infantry, Camp Lee. 
Lieut. Fred H. Beck, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Lieut. Carl E. Behr, Bloomington, Motor Transport Corps, Camp Johnson. 
Lieut. Fred Beckman, Bloomington, 314th Field Sig. Btn., 89th Div., 

A. E. F. 

Lieut. Halsey L. Bingham, Bellflower, Aviation. 
Lieut. Earl F. Blackburn, Normal, Infantry. 
Ensign Dwight F. Bracken, Bloomington, Naval Aviation Station, Pen- 

sacola, Fla. 

Lieut. Eichard Boydston, Bloomington, Marines. Died at sea. 
Lieut. Timothy Bradley, Bloomington, Bail Supply Detachment, A. E. F. 
Lieut. John Brokaw, Bloomington, Aviation, Instructor, A. E. F. 
Lieut. (Junior grade) Leslie E. Bristow, Bloomington, Navy, U. S. S. 

Prinz Willem. 

Lieut. Frank Brewer, Bloomington, 52d Aero Squardon, A. E. F. 
Lieut. Eussell W. Bringham, Bloomington, Co. B, 124th M. G. Btn., A. E. F. 
Lieut. Clifford Brown, Normal, Aviation, Chanute Field. 
Lieut. Alfred O. Brown, Bloomington, 164th Infantry, A. E. F. 



400 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WOULD WAR 

Lieut. Dan Buck, McLean, Infantry. 

Lieut. Carlton Burrows, Bloomington, Artillery. 

Lieut. Hudson Burr, Bloomington, 13th F. A., Fourth Div., A. E. F. 

Lieut. Edwin S. Burtis, Hudson, Aviation, Camp Pike. 

Ensign Eoyal V. Burtis, Hudson, Navy, A. E. F. 

Lieut. James J. Butler, Bloomington, Infantry, Camp Funston. 

Lieut. Earl Butler, Bloomington, Dental Corps. 

Lieut. Frank M. Butler, Bloomington, Engineer Corps. 

Lieut Robert Guy Buzzard, Normal, Infantry. 

ENLISTED MEN 

Carl H. Backlund, Leroy, Battery F, 137th Field Artillery. 

Delmar Dwight Bachman, Bloomington, Ambulance Corps, A. E. F. 

Earl Bach, Bloomington, Navy, Great Lakes. 

George Backhouse, 9th Co., Depot Brigade. 

Oliver Bacon, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Thomas Backhouse, Bloomington, A. E. F. Killed in action. 

Corp. Joseph Baer, Chenoa, Infantry. 

Dilley Bailey, Leroy, Infantry. 

Sergt. E. 0. Bailey, Heyworth, Infantry, A. E. F". Killed in action. 

Ralph Bair, Colfax, Infantry. 

Howard Baird, Chenoa, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Ralph Owen Baird, Bloomington, Commissary Department, _ Great Lakes. 

Corp. Virgil R. Baird, Heyworth, Infantry. 

Frank Baker, Chenoa, Infantry. 

Harry E. Baker, Bloomington, 44th F. A., A. E. F. 

Perry Baker, Bloomington, Navy. 

William Baker, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Russell Faye Baldwin, Stanford, Supply Train 814, A. E. F. 

M. John Balbach, Chenoa, Infantry. 

Clarence Balbach, Chenoa, Infantry. 

William Ball, Leroy, Infantry A. E. F. 

W. Earle Ballew, Lexington, Y. M. C. A. work. Wounded. 

Melvin Ballinger, Chenoa, Infantry. 

John C. Bandi, Bloomington, Instructor, Aviation. 

Alvin H. Bane, Ellsworth, Signal Corps. 

Charles E. Bane, Bloomington, Tank Corps, A. E. F. 

Elton T. Bane, Colfax, Coast Artillery, A. E. F. 

Thomas Bane, Ellsworth, Infantry. 

La Verne Barkley, Bloomington, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Philip Barling, Infantry. 

Ivan Baldwin, Stanford, Navy. 

Ben Barnhart, Bellflower, Artillery. 

William Barnhart, Bellflower, Infantry. 

William F. Barnes, Cropsey, Tank Division. Died in hospital. 

Sergt. Edward Barnum, Leroy, Infantry. 

Edwin Barnum, Bloomington, Infantry, A. E. F. 

John M. Barr, Bloomington, Clerical Detachment, Medical Corps. 

Elbert Barrett, Downs, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Corp. Tucker Barret, Normal, Artillery, A. E. F. 

William H. Barren, Bloomington, Co. C, 3rd Infantry, Del Rio, Tex. 

Henry Fred Barrow, Bloomington, Navy, Puget Sound, First Class Seaman. 

Alex. Barry, Co. A, Fourth U. S. Engineers, A. E. F. 

Fred Bartsch, Ellsworth, Navy. 

W. E. Barscht, Ellsworth, Navy, Great Lakes. 

Wm. Herman Barthel, Bloomington, Infantry. 



McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAR 401 

Glenn C. Bartley, 20th Anti-aircraft Battery, A. E. F. 

Hillard Barton, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Jack Barton, Leroy, Infantry. 

Harry Bartsch, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Harry W. Bates, Bloomington, Construction Company, Air, A. E. F. 

Walter Bates, Bloomington, Artillery. 

John Bathon, Anchor, Infantry. 

Henry E. Batson, Bloomington, Horseshoer, Co. B, 124th Machine Gun, 

A. E. F. 

Louis Bauchman, Danvers, Infantry, A. E. F. 
George H. Bauer, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Corp. William Bauer, Stanford, 121st Infantry, Conway, France. 
Sergt. Chester Baumgartner, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Al. Baughman, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Albert N. Baum, Blomington, Infantry. 

Elmer Baum, Cooksville, Hospital Apprentice, U. S. S. Utah. 
Albert F. Bauman, Bloomington, 68th Coast Artillery, A. E. F. 
Bertram R. Bauman, Chenoa, Navy, Great Lakes. 

Carl Herman Baumgart, Bloomington, Field Artillery, Ammunition Train. 
George V. Bavester, Bloomington, Canadian Army. 
John Bavester, Bloomington, G. F. E. Infantry. 
William Bavester, Bloomington, Hospital Corps, A. E. F. 
Charles E. Baxter, Bloomington, Co. 2, Transportation Corps, A. E. F. 
Donald J. Baylor, Bloomington, Battery B, 38th Artillery, A. E. F. 
Leslie Beach, Bloomington, Hospital Corps. 
Wesley Beach, Chenoa, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Dwight E. Beal, Bloomington, Washington D. C., Medical Corps. 
Sergt. Geo. Beal, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Ray W. Baylor, Towanda, Aviation. 
Lee R. Beam, Saybrook, Infantry. 
Clarence Bean, Bloomington, 3rd Co., 2nd Engineers, Motor Mechanics, 

A. E. F. 

Herman I. Bean, Leroy, Infantry. 

Rollo Beard, Uloomington, 26th Infantry, A. E. F. Wounded slightly. 
Ross O. Beard, Normal, Navy. 
Felix Beasley, Colfax, 4Gth Balloon Corps. 
Austin Stone Beasley, Bloomington, A. E. F. 
Oscar Bebout, Heyworth, Seaman, U. S. S. Indiana. 

John H. Becker, Bloomington, 74th Co., 6th Regiment Marines. Gassed. 
Peter Becker, Bloomington, Infantry. 
Elza Bechtel, Colfax, Infantry. 
Frank Beckham, Leroy, Infantry. 
Sergt. Frank K. Beckham, Balloon Corps. 

Claude E. Bedinger, Bloomington, Bat. A, 10th Field Artillery, A. E. F. 
Eugene Bedinger, Bloomington, Normal, Balloon Squadron. 
Sergt. Junius Beebe, Bloomington, Engineers, A. E. F. Awarded war cross. 
Corp. Ben L. Beeler, Bloomington, A. E. F. Wounded. 
Corp. Robert Beer, Bloomington, 108th Aero. 
Lincoln Behr, Bloomington, Navy, Great Lakes. 

Corp. Walter G. Behr, Bloomington, 46th Infantry, Camp Sheridan. 
Corp. Karl L. Behnke, Bloomington, 150th F. A., A. E. F. 
Emil Behrman, Bloomington. 
Ernest Behrmann, Bloomington. 
Ellis Belcher, Colfax, Infantry. 

Corp. Edward Bell, Heyworth, 60th, Co. A, A. E. F. 
Elmer Bell, Heyworth, Infantry. 

Jefferson Hall Belt, Saybrook, Co. C, 106th Engineers, A. E. F. 
Sylvanus Ray Belt, Bloomington, 166th Infantry, 42d Div., A. E. F. 



402 McLEAN COUNTY AND THE WORLD WAE 

Marion Belts, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Miss Charlotte Bender, Bloomington, Bed Cross Nurse, A. E. F. 

Charles Benedict, McLean, Infantry. 

Early A. Benedict, Gridley, Aviation. 

Ernest Benedict, McLean. Died from wounds in Prance. 

Corp. Frank Benedict, Gridley, A. E. F. Wounded in action. 

George Benedict, McLean, Infantry. 

Corp. Bollin J. Benedict, Ellsworth, Infantry, Camp Lee. 

Eussell J. Benjamin, Bloomington, Dixie Division, 106th Horse Department, 
Ammunition Train, A. E. F. 

Paul K. Benjamin, Bloomington, Physical Instructor, U. S. Naval Academy. 

Eoland Benjamin, Bloomington, Marine Corps. 

Troy J. Bennett, Bloomington, Coast Artillery. 

Harold Bennett, Arrowsmith, Infantry. 

Lawrence B. Bennett, Bloomington, 307th Infantry, A. E. F. 

John Bennington, Bloomington, Coast Artillery. 

Herbert Bereman, Bloomington, Infantry. 

E. Bermnan, Bloomington, 602d Engineers. 

Carl Bernau, Danvers, Co. D, 30th Infantry, A. E. F. 

Walter Berg, Danvers, Infantry, A. E. F. 

George Bernard, Bloomington, Infantry, A. E. F. Wounded. 

Charles H. Berry, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Sergt. Elihu Berry, Gridley, Co. C, M. E. S. U., Camp Holabird, Md. 

Lyle D. Berry, Normal, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Lyle Berry, Bloomington, Aviation. 

Edward Bertha, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Corp. Herbert Besemann, Bloomington, Coast Artillery. 

Paul C. Beshers, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Lyle Best, Bloomington. Died at Great Lakes from Diphtheria. 

Edward Bethea, Bloomington, Infantry. 

Harry Bethel, Baudolph, Infantry. 

Ernest Betsberg, Colfax, Navy. 

Lawrence Beveridge, Colfax, Co. L, 41st Infantry. 

Virgil M. Bierbower, Saybrook, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Benjamin Biggs, Arrowsmith, Infantry. 

Cleo T. Bierbower, Arrowsmith, 6th Co., 161st Depot Brigade. 

Boy Biggs, Bloomington, Navy. 

Frank Bill, Normal, 68th Artillery, A. E. F. 

B. E. Binger, Bloomington, Navy. 

Charles Bingham, Bellflower, Infantry, A. E. F. 

Don J. Bingham, Normal, Co. B, 125th M. G. 

Byrl Binnion, Normal, Navy, First Class Q. M., U. S. S. Santa Clara. 

Corp. Felix Binnion, Normal, Co. A, 108th Engineers, A. E. F. 

S. M. Binnion, Bloomington, Co. A, 108th Engineers, A. E. F. 

Wayne Birckelbaw, Bloomington, Medical Detachment, 830th Aero Squad- 
ron, A. E. F. 

Sergt. T. L. Birkelbaw, Bloomington, Engineers, A. E. F. 

Albert V. Birkey, Hudson, Aviation. 

Chalmer Bishop, Heyworth, Artillery. 

Bobert Bishop, Stanford, 143rd Inf., 36th Division, A. E. F. 

Smith Bishop, Bloomington, 67th Marines. 

Sergt. Walter I. Bishop, Bloomington, Aeronautics. 

E. C. Bissell, Bloomington, Medical Corps. 

Dan Black, Bloomington, I