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Full text of "The meaning and use of Baptizein; philologically and historically investigated for the American Bible Union"

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Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 






















Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 




THE question may be asked : Why, in a revision of the 
English New Testament, professedly designed to represent the 
latest results of critical learning in all respects, is one particular 
instance of change distinguished, by being made the subject of 
a separate treatise ? To this I answer : 

1. The meaning of the Greek word BAPTIZEIN has been so 
obscured, by the denominational controversies which have sprung 
up within the last two centuries, that nothing less than a 
complete historical exhibition of its use, both in pagan and 
Christian Greek literature, would suffice to place the matter in 
a clear light. 

2. In substituting the literal English meaning of this word 
for its Anglicized form, in a revision of the New Testament for 
popular use, the writer feels that a just deference to public 
opinion, as well as to Christian feeling, requires that the reasons 
of this change should be fully set forth. It is believed, that 
the method adopted in the investigation will commend itself 
to the candid inquirer. By allowing the impartial witnesses of 
antiquity to speak directly to the reader, he is placed in a 
position to judge for. himself of the writer s deduction from their 
testimony, which is recorded in the revised text. 

3. The exhibition of the grounds for this change is required, 
moreover, by the action of large and influential organizations in 
England and America, which chiefly control the work of Bible 
translation in heathen tongues. By these societies the principle 
has been formally adopted, that the Greek word BAPTIZEIN shall 
be universally transferred, and not translated, in versions under 
their patronage ; and so stringently is this rule enforced, that 
even in mission-fields wholly destitute of the word of God, 
versions confessedly of the highest merit, in all other respects, 
have been rejected because in this there was a deviation from 
the rule. The Bible Society, for which I have the honor to 
labor, has adopted as its fundamental principle, to be applied 
to all its versions whether for the home or the foreign field. 


the faithful translation of every word capable of being expressed 
in the language of the version. This is, in the view of it3 
managers and members, the only principle justly claiming to be 
catholic ; and from its nature, it admits of no exception. 

It seems proper, therefore, in presenting to the public a revis 
ed English version of the New Testament, in which this word 
is rendered into English, to show that the translation expresses 
its true and only import, and is not a sectarian rendering. 

The entire argument is set before the English reader, in his 
own language ; the authorities for the use of the Greek word 
being fully given, in translations made as literal as possible. 
These authorities are all contained in the portion of the page 
above the dividing line ; and in this division of the page no 
foreign words are used. The translation of this word being 
indicated by small capitals (followed by the word itself in its 
Anglicized form), the English reader is as well able to judge 
of its meaning, from the connection, as the reader of the original 

The examples of the common meaning and use of the word, 
in Sections I. and II., are from every period of Greek literature 
in which the word occurs. They include all that have been 
given by lexicographers,* and by those who have written pro 
fessedly on this subject ; and these, with the examples added 
from my own reading, exhaust the use of this word in Greek 

The quotations have been copied, in every instance, by myself 
or under my own eye, from the page, chapter, or section referred 
to. Special pains have been taken to make these references as 
definite and clear as possible, that any passage may easily be 
found ; the author s name being given, the name of the treatise, 
and its divisions (if any are made), and the volume and page of 
the edition in most common use, or of the one accessible to me. 


Brooklyn, N. Y., September, 1860. 

* Basil, p. 256 (Steph. Thes.), ; Sympathizing with those immersed in the sea" 
(rots lv ifj &a).dnT) ftajin^outron ortiTifia^ovTes) is not included among the 

examples, as the writer gives none except such as he has been able to verify, 
by reference to the passage and its connection. 


The course of argument, in this treatise, may be seen at a glance in the following sketch of its plan. 


SECTION I. Usage of Greek writers ; including the Church Fathers, 

when they do not speak of the Christian rite 1-82 

1. In the literal, physical sense 

1. Absolutely, with the ingulfing element implied 1-27 

2. Construed with some case of the ingulfing element 28-^42 

2. In the tropical or figurative sense 43-72 

1. To plunge, to immerse (as in ingulfing floods) in calami 
ties, etc 43-67 

2. To overwhelm (figuratively) with an intoxicating liquor, 

etc 68-72 

g 3. Use in composition with a preposition 73-82 

SECTION II. Usage of the Greek Versions of the Old Testament 83-86 

SECTION III. Summary of lexical and grammatical uses 87-96 

1. Lexical use 87-91 

2. Grammatical construction 91-96 

SECTION IV. Application to the New Testament 97-101 

SECTION V. Usage of the Church Fathers 102-133 

1. Where they use the word of the Christian rite, or de 
scribe the rite in other words 102-121 

2. Where the rite (or what is implied in it) is variously 
applied for illustration or comparison 122-133 

SECTION VI. Requirements and practice of the Christian Church.. . 134-141 

1. Of the Eastern, or Greek Church 134, 135 

2. Of the Western, or Latin Church 136, 137 

3. Of the Anglican Church 138-141 

SECTION VII. Usage of the Versions 142-149 

1. Of the old Latin versions 142-144 

2. Of the ancient Oriental versions 144 

3. Of the Teutonic versions 144-146 

4. Of modern versions for the learned 146-149 

SECTION VIII. Views of scholars of different communions 150-157 

SECTION IX. Obligation to translate the word 158-163 





Usage of Greek writers, including the Church Fathers, where they do 
not speak of the Christian rite. 


1. In the literal, physical sense. 
1. Absolutely, with the ingulfing element implied. 


Polybiusc History, book I. ch. 61, 6. In his account of the 
sea-fight at Drepanum, between the Romans and Carthaginians, 
describing the advantages of the latter in their choice of a posi 
tion, and in the superior structure and more skillful management 
of their vessels, he says : 

4 For, if any were hard pressed by the enemy, they retreated 
safely, on account of their fast sailing, into the open space ; and 

* Born 205 before Christ. 

Polybii Hist. lib. I. c. 51, 6 (ed. Schweigh.). 

~7""TV \ / * / 9 \ *\ / 


aveywpovv d<rd)a\a)$ dia TO TayyvavTeiv elf rov a 



then with reversed course, now sailing round and now attacking 
in flank the more advanced of the pursuers, while turning and 
embarrassed on account of the weight of the ships and the 
unskillfulness of the crews, they made continued assaults and 
SUHMERGED (BAPTIZED) many of the vessels." 


The same Work, book VI1L, c/i. 8, 4. Describing the opera 
tions of the engines, which Archimedes constructed for the 
defense of Syracuse when besieged by the Romans, and with 
which he lifted the prows of the besieging vessels out of the 
water, so that they stood erect on the stern, and then let them 
fall, he says : 

"Which being done, some of the vessels fell on their side, 
and some were overturned ; but most of them, when the prow 
was let fall from on high, BEING SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED), became filled 
with sea-water and with confusion." 

Plutarch,* Life of Marcettus, ch. XV. Describing the same 

* Born in the vear 50 after Christ. 


(jLevov roirov Kaireir etc fjiera/SoXrjs rot? irpOTriTrrovcri ra>v 
$iu>Kovra)Vj rore n.ev irepiirXeovres, rore de irXayioi Trpocr- 
Triirrovres orpc^o/xeVoty /cat 3 vo~)(pr) proven 8ia ro /3apo? 
rwv irXoitov /cat ta rrjv omeipiav ra>v TrArfpcoparayv, e/z/3o- 
Aa? re (rvveyels edldoo-av, /cat TroAAa rcou crKacjxuv e/3a?rrt- 

Polybii Hist. lib. VIII. c. 8, 4 (ed. Schweigh.). 

Ou yvofjLvov, TLVO, fj.v Ttov IfXoilW TrAayta 

riva $ /cat KOLTeo-rpefaTO- ra de TrAetcrra rrj? Trpvpas dfi 

ityovs pt(f)0tio~r}? /3a7rrtfo/xei/a, TrXrjprj OaXdrrrjy 



operations, he says (speaking of the arms of the engines project 
ing from the walls over the vessels) : 

" Some [of the vessels] thrusting down, under a weight firmly 
fixed above, they sunk into the deep ; and others, with iron 
hands, or beaks like those of cranes, hauling up by the prow till 
they were erect on the stern, they SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED). ;; 


Aristotle* concerning Wonderful Reports, 136. Speaking of what 
the Phoenician colonists of Gadira (on the southern coast of Spain) 
were reported to have seen, when sailing beyond the Pillars of 
Hercules (westward of the strait of Gibraltar), he says : 

" They say that the Phoenicians who inhabit the so-called Ga 
dira, sailing four days outside of the Pillars of Hercules with 
an east-wind, come to certain desert places full of rushes and 

* Born 384 before Christ, 

Plutarchi Vit. Marcelli, XY (ed. Schdfer). 

Ta$ pel/ VTTO ffplflovs 1 aTrjpl^ovTOs avdoOev 
ety fivOov, TO.? $ X^porl (ridrjpai?, 77 

yepdvwv, dva<r7rcoa-ai TTpwpaOev 6p6ds eVt 

Aristot. de mirabilibus Auscultat. 136 (ed.Bekker, Vol. VI. p. 136). 

Aeyovai TOV? 0o[vLKa$ rov? KaroiKOvvra? ra FdSeipa 
Ka\ovfj,i>a, ea> TrAeoz/ray ^HpaKXeitov arrjXcov aTrrjXicoTr) 
rjfJLtpas reTTapas, Tvapa-yiveaOaL elf nvas TOTTOVS 

1 Junge an^i^ovTos avw&ev (Schdfer). 

2 Sroftara eixaofteva yeqdvcov sunt unci adsimilati rostris gruum. Herodo 
tus III. 28, aierbv ivov. Bene Interpres, figura aquila ; h. e. figura adsi- 
railata aquilae (Id.). Badir. Herod. III. 28, figuram aquilce. s.figuram adsimilatam 
aquila, ut reddi vult Scbaefer, etc. 


sea- weed ; which, when it is ebb-tide, are not IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), 
but when it is flood- tide are overflowed." 


Eubulus* ( fragment of an ancient comedy ; entitled Nausicaa) 
says, with comic extravagance, of one whose vessel is wrecked 
in a storm and a prey to the ingulfing floods : 

"Who now the fourth day is IMMERGED (BAPTIZED), 
leading the famished life of a miserable mullet."t 

* A Greek writer of comedies, about 380 before Christ. 

f Mullet : a fish, fabled to be always found empty, when canght. 


Polybius* History, book XXXIV. c. 3, 7- In his description ot 
the manner of taking the sword-fish (with an iron-headed spear, 
or harpoon), he says : 

"And even if the spear falls into the sea, it is not lost; for 

* Born 205 before Christ. 

vov /cat (J)VKOV? irXrjpeis, ov$ orav 

779 y fjLTj /3a7m e<7$cu, OTOLV S 

Eubuli Nausicaa (Meineke, Fragm. Comic. Grac., Vol. III. p. 238). 
* Of vvv TtrdpTTjV rfiJitpav /SaTTTi^eTat, 
VYJCTTIV TTOvrypov /cecrr/oeW rpifiow /3/oj/. 1 

Polybii Reliq. lib. XXXIV. c. 3, 7 (ed. Schweigh. Vol. IV. p. 026). 
Kov K7Tcrrj d if Trjv OdXarrav TO dopv, OVK drro- 

1 Schweigh. Athen., Tom. III. p. 126. 

(^ii mine quartum in diem undis mergitur 
jrjuiuun miseri mugilis terens vitam. 

Gesnerum prohnvi, moncntcm (p. f)02 init.) Ttovyaov scribendum esse 
vtt*s, id est, u&liov, Tn).ai7tfaoov, miseri, cerumnosi (Id. Tom. IX. p. 289). 


it is compacted of both oak and pine, so that when the oaken 
part is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by the weight, the rest is buoyed up, 
and is easily recovered." 


The same Work, book HI. ch. 72, 4. Speaking of the passage 
of the Roman army, under the Consul Tiberius, through the river 
Tebia, which had been swollen by heavy rains, he says : 

" They passed through with difficulty, the foot-soldiers IMMERSED 
(BAPTIZED) as far as to the breasts." 


The same Work, book XVI. ch. 6, 2. In his account of the sea- 
fight between Philip and Attains, near Chios, he speaks of a 
vessel belonging the latter as : 

41 Pierced and BEING IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) by a hostile ship." 


Strabo* Geography, book XII. ch. 2, 4. Speaking of the under 
ground channel, through which the waters of the Pyramus (a 
river of Cilicia in Asia Minor) forced their way, he says : 

* Born about 60 before Christ. 

earn yap TrrjKTov K re dpvo? Kal e Aar???, ware, 

vov TOV dpvtvov /3dpi, fJierecopov eivai, TO XOITTOV 

Ejusdem Hist. lib. III. c. 72, 4 : /ioAtf, eW rw paa-rav oi 

Ejusdem Hist. lib. XVI. c. 6, 2 : rer/3w/AeVr;i/ Kal 


1 Being immerged (in the act of sinking), as expressed by the pres., in distinc 
tion from the preceding perf. 


"And to one who hurls down a dart, from above into the 
channel, the force of the water makes so much resistance, that 
it is hardly IMMERSED (BAPTIZED)." 


The same Work, book VI. ch. 2, 9. "And around Acragas [Agri- 
gcntum in Sicily] are marsh-lakes, having the taste indeed of 
sea-water, but a different nature ; for even those who can not 
swim are not IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), floating like pieces of wood." 


The same Work, book XIV. ch. 3, 9. Speaking of the march 
of Alexander s army, along the narrow beach (flooded in stormy 
weather) between the mountain called Climax and the Pamphilian 
Sea, he says : 

Alexander happening to be there at the stormy season, and 
accustomed to trust for the most part to fortune, set forward 
before the swell subsided ; and they marched the whole day in 
water, IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) as far as to the waist." 

Strabonis Geogr. lib. XII. c. 2, 4 (ed. Tzschucke). 

3e KaOievTi OLKOVTIOV avu>Qtv ely TOV $o6pov ?; /3/a 


Ejusdem lib. VI. c. 2, 9 (ed. Siebenkees). 

Uepl *AKpdyavTa $ XijJivaL TTTJV ^v yevcnv tyovcrai 
OaXdrTr}?, rr]v de (frvcrLv Sidfyopov ovSe yap roTy aKoXvp.- 
/Sot? paTTTL^ea-Ocu crf/x/3afVet j^vXwv rpoirov tirnroXd^ovaiv. 

Ejusdem lib. XIV. c. 3, 9 (ed. Tzschucke}. 
*O de AXt^ocvSpo? elf xLfJipiov /jL7r(ra)i> Kaipov KOLL 

TO TrXtOV tTTlTptTTWV TY) TV)(rj 7Tp\V dvelvOLL TO KVfJia &pfJLl]O-, 

KOL oXrjv rr)v r)iJLtpav v vSarL ytvtcrOat, TIIV iropeiav crvi>e(3rj 
fj-e xpi 6fJi(j)aXov 

1 The sense of this clause is given, without imitating the construction, which 
would be harsh in English. 



The same Work, book XIV. ch. 2, 42. Speaking of the asphalt 
in the lake Sirbonis, which floats on the surface on account of 
the greater specific gravity of the water, he says : 

" Then floating at the top on account of the nature of the 
water, by virtue of which, we said, there is no need of being 
a swimmer, and he who enters in is not IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), but 
is lifted out." 


Diodorus* (the Sicilian), Historical Library, book XVI. ch. 80. 
In his account of Timoleon s defeat of the Carthaginian army 
on the bank of the river Crimissus in Sicily, many of the fugi 
tives perishing in the stream swollen by a violent storm, he 
eays : 

"The river, rushing down with the current increased in vio 
lence, SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) many, and destroyed them attempting 
to swim through with their armor." 


The same Work, book I. ch. 36. Describing the effects of the 
rapid rise of the water, during the annual inundation of the 
Nile, he says : 

* Wrote his history, about 60-30 before Christ. 

Ejusdem lib. XVI. c. 2, 42. 

Elr 7ri7ro\dovcra Sia rr]v fyvcriv rov v8aros 9 Kaff r\v 
<pa}JLv fjLTjde KoXvfJL/Soi) SticrOai, 1 /JLT) |8<Wme<3r#fai rov 
cjji/3di>ra aAA e^aipeaOac. 

Diodori Siculi Biblioth. Hist. lib. XYI. c. 80 (ed. Bekker). 

*O TroTafJio? ftiaiorepcp r< peJ/zcm /cara<^)e/)o/xeyoy ?roA- 
e/3a7rri^6 ? /cat fierce rwv oTrXcov 

Zufolge welcher es, wie wir sagten. keines Schwimmers bedarf (Groskurd), 


"Most of the wild land animals are surrounded by the stream 
and perish, being SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED); but some, escaping to the 
high grounds, are saved." 


The same Work, book XL ch. 18. 

"The commander of the fleet,* leading on the line, and first 
joining battle, was slain after a brilliant conflict ; and his ship 
being SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED), confusion seized the fleet of the bar 

* Of the Persians, at the battle of Salamis. 

Josephus* Jewish Antiquities, book XV. ch. 3, 3. Describing the 
murder of the boy Aristobulus, who (by Herod s command) was 
drowned by his companions in a swimming-bath, he says : 

" Continually pressing down and IMMERSING (BAPTIZING) him while 
swimming, as if in sport, they did not desist till they had entire 
ly suffocated him." 

* A Jewish writer, born in the year 37 after Christ 

Ejusdem lib. I. c. 36.-. 

Ta>v 8e yepaaicov 6r}pia>v ra TroAAa p-tv VTTO rov TTOTCL- 
/JLOV 7Tpi\rj^>ffVTa Sta(f>fftpTai /3a7rrto/icj/a, ma S cty 


Ejusdem lib. XI. c. 18. 

O dt vavap xpf wpoij ybvfJtei OS TTJS rd^ecof KCU 
roy <rvvd^a? ^a-xnv 8te(f)6dpii, Xa/JLTTpw a 
de vecos /SaTTTLO-Qeiari?, rapa^] Kareax 6 T 

s Coid. 1 quod satis elegans; vide Polybium, 1, 51 (Wesscli 
Joscphi A: iii. Jud. lib. XV. c. 3, 3 (ed. Oberthur). 
Bapovvrts act /cat /3a7mbi/rc9 w cV Traidia 
OVK uLvrKOLv, coy /cat iravraircurw varoiwi!~al. 

Coasulendus hie Codex est ab iis, (jui novuui Dillon Si.-uli :ditionum 
v(.luTint (Montfaucon, BMioth. Coisl. p. 214, ima). 



The same writer, Jewish War, book L ch. 22, 2. Relating the 
same occurrence, he says : 

"And there, according- to command, being IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) 
by the Gauls in a swimming-bath, lie dies." 


The same writer, Jewish War, book III. ch. 8, o. 

"As I also account a pilot most cowardly, who, through dread 
of a storm, before the blast came voluntarily SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) 
the vessel." 


The same writer, Jewish War, book III. ch. ,9, 3. Describing the 
condition of the vessels in the port of Joppa, during a storm, 
he says : 

"And many [of the vessels], struggling against the opposing 
swell towards the open sea (for they feared the shore, being 
rocky, and the enemies upon it), the billow, rising high above. 


Ejusdem de Bello .hid. lib. I. c. 22, 2. 

&, KOLT tvToXrjv VTTO ru>v PaXartov 
tv KoXv/ji/3i]0pa, reXevra. 

Ejusdem lib. III. c. 8, 5. 

/2y eycoye KOL KV/3epi>r]Trji> r/yoviJiai SeiXoTaTOV, ocrw, 
dedoiKco?, irpo TTJ? 6veXXrjs e/Bdirno-ev tKuv TO 

Ejusdem lib. Ill c. 9, 3. 

/ZoAAay 8e rrpos avriov Kv/ma ftiaofjLvas el? TO TreAa- 
, TOV Te -yap aiyiaXov ovra 7T6r/)co5?; KOU TOV? eV 




The same writer, Antiquities of the Jews, book IX. ch. 10, 2. In 
his narrative of Jonah s flight, and of the events that followed, 
he says : 

The ship being just about TO BE SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED)." 


The same writer, Life of himself, |<3: 

" For our vessel having been SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) in the midst 
of the Adriatic, being about six hundred in number, we swam 
through the whole night." 


The same writer, Jewish War, book JH. ch. 10, 9. He says of 
the Jews, in describing their contest with the Roman soldiers on 
the Sea of Galilee : 

"And when they ventured to come near, they Buffered harm 
before they could inflict any, and WERE SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) along 
with their vessels ; . . . . and those of the SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) 
who raised their heads, either a missile reached, or a vessel over 
took. * 


Ejusdem Antiq. Jud. lib. IX. c. 10, 2: oaov OVTTCO 
roy /3carrir0cu rov (n<d(f)ov?. 

Ejusdem Vitas 3. 

BairTLO-OtvTos yap r^cov rov irXoiov Kara ptcrov rov 
ASptav, Trtpi tgaKoa-iov? rov apiO^ov 5vrs, 81 oAr;y rrj? 

Kjusdem de Bello Jud. lib. III. c. 10, 9. 

Ka\ irXjia-id&Lv roXpaivre?, irplv opcurai rt TraOeiv 
ov, Kai avv avroiy tpairrifrvro crKafacTL . . . rvv 
c fia7rri<TOtvra)v rovt dvavtvbvra? rj 



The same writer, Jewish War. book II. ch. 20, 1. 

"And after the calamity of Cestius, many of the distinguished 
Jews swam away, as when a ship is BEING IMMERGED (BAPTIZED), 
from the city." 


Plutarch* Life of Theseus, XXIV, quotes the following oracle 
of the Sibyl, respecting the city of Athens : 

"A bladder, thou mayest be IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) ; but it is not 
possible for thee to sink." 

* Born in the year 50 after Christ. 


The same writer, Life of Alexander, LXV1I. Describing a 
season of revelry, in the army of Alexander the Great, when 
returning from his eastern conquests, he says : 

"Thou wouldest not have seen a buckler, or a helmet, or a 
pike ; but the soldiers, along the whole way, DIPPING (BAPTIZING) 

Ejusdem lib. II. c. 20, 1. 
Mtra e TTJV K(TTLOV (rvfjifyopav, TroXXol TU>V in(f)a- 

Plutarchi Vit. Thesei, XXIV. (ed. Schdfer). 

AfTKO? fSffBFTlQ) $VVai $ TOL 0V @/JU$ tCTTLV. 

Ejusdem Vit. Alexandri, LXVII. 

JlllSts S OLV ov TreXrrjv, ov Kpavos, ov o-apicrcrav ocAAa 
<f)id\ai? /cat pvroL9 KOL OripLKXtiois irapa TTTJV bSov anracrav 

1 1 he version in the text is the best expression we can give of this imperfect 


with cups, and horns, and goblets, from great wine-jars and 
mixing-bowls.""" were drinking to one another." 

* Ijarge bowls for mixing 1 wine and water, into which the drinking-cups were 


77/g same vwiter, Comparison of Aristophanes and Menander. 
In this abridgment (by another hand) of one of his lost com 
positions, speaking of Aristophanes * faults of style, he quotes 
from him the following example of punning, or play on words: 
* ; For he is praised, says he, because he DIPPED (BAPTIZED) 
the stewards : being not [Tamias] stewards, but [Lamias] 
sharks. "t 

* Horn about 450 before Christ. 

t A play on the two similar words (differing only in the first letter) lamias 
stewards, and ; lamias sharks, the former resembling the latter in rapacity as well 
as in name. 

The significance of the Greek verb, in this connection, is aptly expressed by 
the English translator of these writings of Plutarch : " For he is much com 
mended (saith he) for ducking the chamberlains." The word is, perhaps, used 
metaphorically here, as in Ex. 157. 

ol CTTpaTiojTaL fiaTTTifiovrcs K TriOoiv neyaXcov KOLL Kpari]- 

p(t)V a.\\J]\OLS TTpOtTTLVOV. 

The readin paTfri&vres has been doubted, 1 on account of the unusual con 

struction with ex Tti&ior ; but (as suggested by Coray, 3 in loc.) a part of the 
action is put for the whole (synecdoclie), as one must first dip the vessel in order 
to fill it. 

Ejusdem Aristoph. et Menandri Comp. (ed. Wytterib.). 

* JSlTLiVtTai yap? (ftrjcrlv, on rovf TOfUas f3a7TTicri>, 
Tafjaay aAAa Aa/jLia? ovras. 

i inilii hac vox, 1111 iy. Tri&tov ita constructa (M. DUWH!, in Itriske s 

3 Atyerni mi- <n > ynj,t ffWtXOOJflV . . . ;i<>n^oi yuo rui n t.iuoi r ton ib 



Epictetus* Moral Discourses ^ (fragment XI). 

"As you would not wish, sailing in a large and polished and 
richly gilded ship, to be SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) ; so neither choose, 
dwelling in a house too large and costly, to endure storms of 


* Born about the year 50 after Christ. 

f As committed to writing by his pupil, Arrian. 


fctician* Timon or the Man-hater, 44. Among the resolves for 
the direction of his future life (to testify his hatred of mankind) 
is the following : 

"And if the winter s torrent were bearing one away, and 
he with outstretched hands were imploring help, to thrust even 
him headlong, IMMERSING (BAPTIZING), so that he should not be able 

to come up again." 


* Born about 135 after Christ. 

The same writer, True History, book II. 4. In this satire on the 


Epicteti Dissertat. Frag. 11 (ed. Schiveigh. Vol. III. p. 69). 
ff jf}(T7Tp OVK av e/3ov\ov tv vtfi fJiyaXr) KCU yXa(pvpa 
KOL TroXv^pvacp vrAeW /SaTrri^eafiar OVTCO /JLTjde eV oiKia 
aipov v7rpfjLey@6L KOL TroAtreAet KaOij/Jievos 

Luciani Timon, 46 (ed. Lehmann). 

Kal -qv TLVOL rov -xein-wvos o Trorap.of Trapoxpepy, o 
de ras ^Ipa^ optyuiv avTiXafieaOai Strjrai, aiOtiv KO.I 
TOVTOV eVi K<a\ri; 3a7rriovTa u>? J avaKVai dv- 


love of tlie marvelous, he pleasantly describes men walking on the 
sea (having cork feet), and says : 

" We wondered, therefore, when we saw them not IMMKRSKD 
BAPTIZED), but standing above the waves, and traveling on with 
out fear." 


Hippocrates, on Epidemics* book V. Describing the respiration 
of a patient, affected with inflammation and swelling of the throat 
(Cynanche), and oppression about the heart, he says : 

And she breathed, as persons breathe after having been 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), and emitted a low sound from the chest, like 
the so-called ventriloquists." 

* An undent medical work (attributed erroneously to Hippocrates) written, 
probably, before the Christian era. 

Describing the same case (book VII.) , he says : "And she 
breathed, as if breathing after having been IMMERSED (BAPTIZED)." 

Dion Casfrius* Roman History, book XXXVII. ch. 58. In the 

* Born in the year lf>5 after Christ. 

Luciani Vcras Historiae lib. II. 4 (ed. Lehmami). 

ovv \QVT*S ov /SaTrrifo^eVoi;?, aAA* 
KCLL aea>9 oSonropovvras. 

De Morb. vulg. lib. V. (Hippocratis Op., vol. III. p. 671, ed. Kuhn). 

&)$" K TOV p/3a7rTl(T0ai avaTTVlOVaL KOLL K TOU 


Ejusdem lil). VII. (ed. Kuhn, vol. III. p. 658). KOLL avt 
oiov /c rov /3e/3a7r-nV7$at a 


description here given of the effects, of a violent storm of wind, 
he says : 

" So that very many trees were upturned by the roots, and 
many houses were thrown down ; the ships which were in the 
Tiber, and lying at anchor by the city and at its mouth, were 
SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED), and th e wooden bridge was destroyed." 


The same Work, book XLL ch. 42. Describing the defeat of 
Curio by Juba, King of Numidia (at the siege of Utica in 
Africa), and the fate of the fugitives, many losing their lives 
in their eager haste to get aboard of their vessels, and others 
by overloading and sinking them, he says : 

"And many of them, who had fled, perished ; some thrown 
down by the jostling, in getting on board the vessels, and 
others SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED), in the vessels themselves,- by their 
own weight." 


The same Work, book LXXIV. ch. 13. Of the foraging ships 
of Byzantium (during the siege of the city by the forces of the 

Dionis Cassii Historic Romanae lib. XXXVII. c. 58 (ed. Sturz). 

"f3o-T Tra/JLTToXXa fJLtv StvSpa Trpoppii^a avaTpaTrrjvat, 
TToAAcc? $ oiKLa.9 Ko.Tappa. yjjvai. ra re vrAoia ra eV TO) 
TifiepiSt KOL Trpos TO OLOTTV KOI Trpo? To.$ e/c/3oAay O.VTOV 
vavXoyovvra /3a7rTio-0r)vai, KCU r^v yefyvpav TTJV 

Ejusdem lib. XLL c. 42. 

ol $ 8ij KCLI dia^wyovres avronv aTrcoAo^ro, OL 
rfj eV ra irXola 6V/3acre L>TTO TOV wOicrp.ov cr(f)aXei>- 
, ol Se KCU ei> aurais rols o~Ka(j)o-ii vrro TOV fiapov? 


16 USAGE OF <;IM-:I-:K \vmTi-: us. 

Roman Emperor Severus), returning overloaded with provisions 
in a storm, and attacked by the Roman fleet, he says : 

"And they, however much they might have desired it, wen* 
not able to do any thing ; but attempting in one way or Jin- 
other to escape, some were SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) by the wind, using 
it too freely,* and others were overtaken by the enemy, and 
destroyed. 7 

* Carrying too much sail, in their eagerness to escape. 

^ EXAMPLE 84. 

The same Work, book L. ch. 18. Mark Antony, in his address 
to his soldiers before the sea-fight at Actium, boasting of the 
superior strength and equipment of his vessels, and that the 
enemy would not venture to encounter them, adds : 

"And even if any one came near, how could he escape being 
IMMEKGED (BAPTIZED) by the very multitude of the oars? " 

* These vessels being impelled with oars, the larger and better equipped eould 
run down and immerge the more feeble, by their greater speed and weight. 


The same Work, book L. ch. 32. In his account of the sea-fight 
at Actium, he describes Antony s large and powerful ships as 
awaiting the attacks of the smaller and swifter vessels of 

Ejusdem lib. LXXIV. c. 18. 

Kal tKLi>oi dpacrai /Lte^ ovdev, ovft ei ra 

ytLv 8e TTT) irtipoj/jieisoi, OL 


ru OL & Una Twv ivavTuav KaTaXa^apo^LdvoL $LU>\XVVTO. 

lib. L. c. 18. 

avrov TOV 

KOLL 7r\r(Tiac7(:ie TI?, TTOJ? Ltv av 


Augustus, hurling heavy missiles and grappling irons as they 
approached, and adds : 

"And if they hit them, they came off superior ; but if they 
missed, their own vessels being pierced, they WERE SUBMERGED 


The same Work, book L. ch. 32. In his further description 
of this battle, he says of the two parties in the conflict : 

"And hence, they gained advantages each over the other ; 
the one dropping within the lines of the ships 7 oars, and crush 
ing the oar-blades, and the other from above SUBMERGING (BAPTIZING) 
them with stones and engines." 


The same Work, book L. ch. 35. Tn his account of the efforts 
to escape from the flnmcs of the burning vessels (near the close 
of this battle), he says : 

"And others leaping into the sea were drowned, or struck by 

Ejusdem lib. L. c. 32. 


8 d/jLaproiev., TpwOtvToiv av cr(f)tcri rwv 

Ejusdem lib. L. c. 32. 

KO.K TOVTOV 7r\eovKTOVv T aXXrjXwV) ol 
TOV? rapcrovs rwv ve&v uTTOTr/Trro^rey, /cat 
o-vvapdo-crovTes, ol 5e, avcoOev avrovs KOL Trtrpai? 


Ejusdem lib. L. c. 35. 

Ol e i? rip aacro-av er/a^rey tt7re7rz/yo^ro, rj 


1 "Taboos is the whole broadside of oars/ if such an expression be allowed" 
(Arnold, Thneyd. 7, 40). 





Porphyry* Concerning the Styx. Describing the Lake of Proba 
tion, in India, and the use made of it by the Brahmins for testing 
the guilt or innocence of persons accused of crime, ho says : 

" The depth is as far as to the knees ; . . . . and when the 
accused comes to it, if he is guiltless he goes through without 
fear, having the water as far as to the knees ; but if guilty, 
after proceeding a little way, he is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) unto the 

* A Greek philosopher, born 233 after Christ. 


Heliodorus. JEthiopics (Story of Theagenes and Chariclea*) t nook V. 
ch. 28. Of a band of pirates, who had seized a vessel, and were 
unable to manage it in the storm that ensued, he says : 

"And already BECOMING IMMERGED (BAPTIZED), and wanting little 
of sinking, some of the pirates at first attempted to leave, and 
get aboard of their own bark. 7 

* Written about 390 after Christ, by Tfeliodorus. afterward Bishop of Tricca 
in Thessaly. 


Porphyrii locus ex libro de Stygc (Porphyrii de rfbstinentfa, etc., 
Cantabr. 16 .55, p. 282). 



TOLt, aXP L T ^ p yovarutv eywv TO vSojp- d/jLapTtov 8(, oXiyov 
f /3a7TTL^Tai H*\pt KtfyaXr}?. 

Heliodori ^Ethiopicorum lib. V. c. 28 (ed. Bekker). 




Heimerius* Oration X. 2. Speaking (in a strain of rhetor 
ical extravagance) of the pictorial representations of the battle 
of Marathon, in the Poecile at Athens, where Cyiiaegirus was 
shown grasping a Persian vessel with his hands, he says : 

"And I will show you also my soldiers ; one fighting life-like 
even in the painting, . . . and another IMMKRGIXG (BAPTIZING) with 
his hands the Persian fleet." 

* A Greek rhetorician, born about 315 after Christ. 

Themistius* Oratim IV. (XXIII). 

"And neither can the swordsmith determine whether he shall 
sell the sword to a murderer, nor the shipwright whether he 
shall build ships for a robber, .... nor the pilot whether he 
saves, in the voyage, one whom it were better to SUBMERGK 

* A Greek rhetorician and philosopher, early in the second half of the fourth 
century after Christ. 

Heimerii Sophistas Orat. X. 2 (ed. Wernsdorf). 

de V/JLLV KOL err pander as fJ,ov?, rov p.ev rrj 
(j)vcrL KOL ev rrj ypcK^fj [JLa^ofJievov . . . rov de aXXov 
rov Uepcrcov aroXov /3a7TT/bj>ra. 

Themistii Sophista3 Orat. IY. (ed. Dindorf. XXIII). 

Kal ovre o fjia^aip OTTO 109 SoKi/jLci^LV e ^a el avftpo- 
ovw rrjv [Jiayaipav aTToftcocreTai, ovre o vaviriiyos el 
i, . . . ovre o KV/BepvrjTrjs 1 el (rd>ei 

T< TrAcS oi> KOL paTTTicrat, ap.eLvov fjv. 



On the Life and Poetry of Homer* II. 26. Among other char 
acteristics of Homer s manner, the writer mentions Emphasis; 
and after one example, adds : 

" Similar also is that : 

And the whole sword was warmed with blood . 

For truly in this he exhibits very great emphasis ; as if the 
Bword were so IMBATIIED (BAPTIZED), as to be heated." 

The expression, on which the writer makes this comment, is used by Homer 
in the Iliad, book 21, line 476, after saying that Achilles drove his sword 
through the head of Kcheclus. He uses it also in book 16, line 333, where he 
Says that Ajax smote with his sword the neck of Cleobulus. In either case 
the writer s comment is just ; the poet s expression implying, that the sword 
was so plunged in the warm blood as to be heated by it. 

* Of uncertain date ; attributed (erroneously) to Plutarch. 


Suidas, Lexicon. " Desiring to swim through, they were 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by their full armor. * 

* A quotation, by this old Greek lexicographer, from a Greek writer now 

Gregory* Panegyric on Origen, XIV. Describing him as an 

* Surnamed Thaumaturgus ; made bishop of Neocaesarea about the year 240 
after Christ. 

De Vita ct Poesi Homeri II. 20 (Plutarchi Moralia, ed. Wyttenb.}. 


TTO.V $ v7re6pfjL(iv0r) t<f>OS OLfJiarr 
KOU yap iv TOVTCO jrap(\i puti^pva tfjifyacnv, o>y 
OVTO) rov i()ov? a>$- re 

I.oxicon, B. v. Aiavtvaai (r<l. Kcrnh. col. 1300). 
VCVCTOLL fat\ri0 avTf ifbarTifcovro VTTO TTJ? 


experienced and skillful guide through the mazes of philosophical 
speculation, he says : 

"He himself would remain on high in safety, and stretching 
out a hand to others save them, as if drawing up persons 



Chrysostom* Discourse on the paralytic let down through the 
roof. Comparing the Saviour s cures with those effected by 
human art, through the aid of the knife and the cautery, he 

says : 


" But here, no such thing is to be seen ; no lire applied, nor 
steel PLUNGED IN T (BAPTIZED), nor flowing blood." 

* An eminent Greek writer of the Christian Church, born 347 after Christ. 


The same writer, on Eph. ch. V. Discourse XIX. Showing that 
the visible heavens do not rest (according to the popular error) 
on the waters of the ocean, he says : 

" For things borne on the water must not be arched, but must 


Gregorii Thaumaturgi Orat. Panegyr. in Grig. XIV. (Gallandn 
Bihlioth. Vet. Pair. Vol. II. p. 430). 

C&pos avro9 re ev aa^aXel /JLCVOI, KOU aXXot? 6p- 
v ytlpa 

Chrysost. Homil. de paralyt. per tect. dcmiss. 4 (ed. Montfaucon, 

Vol. Ill p. 39). 

EvravOa de ov&v TOLOVTOV ZVTLV idtiv, ov jrvp 

ov a-idrov 3a.7rTioj,o> ptov. 

Ejusdem in Epist. at Ephes. c. V. Horn. XIX. 3 (ed. Montfaucon, 

Vol. XL p. 138). 

Ta yap eVi TCOI> vddrtov (fiepo/uLei/a ov Kvprevo-^at Sti, 


be hollowed [downward]. Wherefore? Because, on the water, the 
entire body of that which is hollow* is IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) ; . . . 
but of that which is arched, the body is all above, and only the 
extremities touch. 7 

* Concave above, and hence convex underneath. 


The same writer, on David and Saul, Discourse III. 7. 

Even this was worthy indeed of praise and of greatest ad- 
my-ation, that he did not PLUNGE IN (BAPTIZE) the sword, nor sever 
that hostile head !" 


Epistle to Damagetus* (by an unknown Greek writer). 
" Shall I not laugh at him, who, having SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) 

* Of uncertain date, falsely attributed to Hippocrates the physician and medical 
writer, and printed with his works. 


aAAa Koi\aivo-6ai. rl drJTTOT*; OTL TOV n-tv KOI\OV TO 
acD/jLa oXov ftairrl^ETOi eni TCOV vSarcov .... TOV de 


Ejusdem de Davide et Saule Horn. III. 7 (ed. Montfaucon, Vol. IV. 

P . 770). 

Eiralvov [Jitv a^iov KOL ^yidTOV ^aJ/xotroy KCLL TO pi] 

Hippocratis Opera (ed. Kuhn, Vol. Ill p. 809). 
Mrf ytXaaoj TUV TTJV vr}a 7roAAot<rt (f)QpTLOicn POLTTTI- 

H -rmann ad Vig. Annot. 252. 


his ship with much merchandize, then blames the sea for having 
ingulfed it full laden?" 


Life of Pythagoras* 2. In his account of the philosophy of 
Pythagoras, Aristotle, and Plato, the writer states that things 
sublunar are subject to four controlling forces, deity, fate, human 
choice, fortune ; and in illustration, says : 

"As, to enter into the ship, or not to enter, is in our own 
power ; but the sudden coming on of storm and tempest, in fair 
weather, depends on fortune ; and that the IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) 
ship beyond all hope is saved, is of the providence of God;" 

* By an unknown Greek writer, and of mimtain date. 


JEsopic Fables; fable of the mule, who, finding that he light 
ened his load of salt by lying down in the water, repeated the 
experiment when loaded with sponges and wool. 

" One of the salt-bearing mules, rushing into a river, accidental 
ly slipped down ; and rising up lightened (the salt becoming 


cravTa, eira fJL/uL<po/uii>oi> rfj OaXaTTy on 
avTrjv TrXrjprj ; 

De Vita Pythagoras, II. (Jamblichi Chalcid. de Vita Pytkagorica 
liber, ed. Kiessling). 

OLQV TO /Jiv eicreXOeiv ely rrjv vavv rj p,rj d 

(f) r]fJ.LV 0-TL. TO /JLVTOL V vSia ^IfJiCOVa KOL 

igatyvrjs eTTiyevtaflat, e/c Tvyrjs. TO JJLZVTOL 
rrjv vavv Trap tXiriSa o-(>6r)vai, Trpovota? 6tov. 

Aio-coirov MvOoi, 254 (ed. Coray, p. 16T). 

toi>cov ely, 6/>t/3aAcoz/ ay 7rora 

KOI TCOV aX&v diaTaKtvTcov dvao~Ta$ 


dissolved) he perceived the cause, ami remembered it ; so that 
always, when passing through the river, he purposely lowered 
down and IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) the panniers/ 

* Of uncertain date (related in Plut. Moral. Skill of Water and Land Animals, xvi). 

Fable of the Ape and the Dolphin* The dolphin bearing the 
ship-wrecked ape to the shore, and detecting the attempted im 
position of the latter, it is said : 

"And the dolphin, angry at such a falsehood, IMMERSING (BAPTIZING) 
killed him." 

* Writer and date unknown. 


Fable of the S/iepherd and the Sea* The shepherd having em 
barked, with the merchandize obtained from the sale of his flocks ; 
it is said : 

" But a violent storm coming on, and the ship being in danger 

* Writer and date unknown. 


toy, ricrOtro TIJV airiavy KCLL KareiJLvrjfJLOvevorev, ware 
diafiaLvcois del rov 7rora/AOJ>, tTrirrjdts v(j)lVCU KOL @ 
ra dyyela. 

Fabularum JSsopic. collect. 363 1 (recog. Halm). 
KCLL o 5eA0i? enl TOCTOVTCD 

ALO-COTTOV MvOoi (ed. Coray, 49; recog. Halm, 370). 

8e a(f>o8pov yevo^vov^ KOLL rrj? vtw KIVOV? 

Fab. 156 of the Oxford edition (Ifijjs). the preface to which speaks of Bentley 
8, Virum in volvendis lexicis satis diligentem . 


of BECOMING IMMERGED (BAPTIZED), he threw out all the lading into 
the sea, and with difficulty escaped in the empty ship. 7 


Plutarch* On the comparative skill of water and land animals. 
XXXV. Speaking of the bird called the Halcyon, and of her 
skill in constructing her nest, shaped like a fisher s boat so as 
to float safely on the water, he says : 

" That which is moulded by her, or rather constructed with 
the shipwright s art, of many forms the only one not liable to 
be overturned, NOR TO BE IMMERSED (BAPTIZED)." 

* Born in the year 50 after Christ. 


Achilles Tatius;* Story of Clitophon and Leucippe, book III. ch. 1. 
The vessel being thrown on her beam ends in a storm, the nar 
rator says : 

" We all, therefore, shifted our position to the more elevated 
parts of the ship, in order that we might lighten that part of 
the ship that was IMMERGED (BAPTIZED). 

* Author of the Greek romance" here quoted, middle of the fifth century after 


vevovarj? fionrTi^o-OaL, irdvra rov fyoprov e/</3aAa>r ei 


Plutarchi de sollertia animalium, XXXV. (ed. Wyttenb, Vol. IV, 

Pt. II. p. 987). 

To TrXarrofJi^vov VTT avTijs, fjiaXXov e 
H.QVOV d7rpiTp7TTOi> KOL 

Achillis Tatii de Leucippes et Clitophontis Amoribus, lib. III. c. 1 

(ed. Jacobs, p. 68). 

ovv OLTravrts Ci9 rd /nerecopa TTJS vrjos, 

v v O $" * v 

TO fJLtv paTTTL^OfJievoi Trj? i>r)o$ a 



The same writer (ibidem). 

" But suddenly, the wind shifts to another quarter of the ship, 
and the vessel is almost IMMERGF.D (BAPTIZED)." 


The same Work, book IV. ch. 10. The heroine, Leucippe, hav 
ing fallen down, apparently in n fit, the cause is thus explained : 

For the blood when quite young, and boiling up through 
intense vigor, often overflows the veins, and flooding the head 
within. WHELMS (BAITIZKS) the passage of the reason." 


The same Work, book [V. ch. 18. Describing the manner in 
which the Egyptian boatman drinks water from the Nile, he 
says : 

; For their drinking-cup is the hand. For if any of them 
is thirsty while sailing, stooping forward from the vessel he 
directs his face towards the stream, and lets down his hand 

Ejusdem (ibidem). 
e /xera/SaAAerat TO irvev^a eTrl Odrepa TTJ? 

KOLL fJUKpOV (fanriiJBTOU TO (TKa(f)0?. 

Ejusdem lib. IV. c. 10 (p. 90). 

To yap al/jLa TTOLVTYI vaov, /cat VTTO TroAA^y a/c^?]y 
L 7roAAa/cd9 ray 0Ae/3ay, /cat r?)i/ Ke(f)a- 
7TpiK\vov ^airri^L rov Aoyttr/xoi r?}^ am- 

Ejusdem lib. IV. c. 18 (p. 101). 
yap ayrotv icrnv -f] \tip. El yap TL$ avrvv 
Trpo/ct^as" K rrj? v(W TO ptv ivpovamov 
TOV iroTaJiOi> iropcphrKf, rrjv 8 


into the water; and DIPPING (BAPTIZING) it hollowed, and filling 
it with water, he darts the draught towards his mouth, and hits 
the mark." 


Demetrius, the Cydoman,* On contemning death, ch. XIV. 4. 

" For the dominion [of the soul] over the body, and the fact 
that, entering into it, she is not wholly IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) but 
rises above, and that the body separate from her can do nothing, 
but she, in efforts the greatest and gravest and kindred with 
herself, is wholly withdrawn from the body and from the vanity 
thence proceeding, are a clear proof, that there is an essence 
of the soul by itself, not dependent on the body, and able of 
itself both to subsist and to abide. 7 

* Middle of the first century of the Christian era. 


Ka0fjK, KOL KoiXrjv paTrTiora? KOU TrXrjo-dfJLevo? vdaros, OLKOV- 
Tifai Kara rov oro/taros 1 TO Tro/na, KOU rvyyavti TOV cr/co- 


Dcmetrii Cydonii de contemnenda morte, c. XIV. 4 (ed. Kuinoel). 

If T yap Kara TOV o-co/jLaTo? OLpX^y K( * L r ^ Svaav tl$ 
avro JLT TravreXci}? ftefiaLTTTiaOai AA ive^Etv^ KOLL TO /mcy 
u>pio-6ev itcelvys fjLrjdev $\,vcio-6aL 7rpaTTii>, avrrjv 
KOLTO, rot? ftey/oray KOU (76/x^orarcty eVepye/a? KOL eavTrj 
TOV crco/>taro? /cat TTJ? KeWev (pXvapla? iravTt- 
y TtKfJLiipiov eVa/jyey, eti/at TLVOL Kaff caurrjv 
Trj? ^f^Tyy overlay, avevftta fj&v acojmaTo?, $vvap.evr]v Se (j) 

KOL eivai KOLL 

Comp. Plutarch, de Gen. Socrat. XXII. med. Miywrat S" 

OV aviov toonov a&K al ftkv oAat xaiedvaav els ocaua, x. r. L 





Polybius* History, book V. ch. 47, 2. Speaking of a body of 
cavalry sent by Molon to attack Xenoetas, in a position where 
be was protected partly by the river Tigris, and partly by 
marshes and pools, he says : 

"Who, coming into near proximity with the forces of Xence- 
tas, through ignorance of the localities required no enemy, but 
themselves by themselves IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) and sinking in the 
pools, were all useless, and many of them also perished." 

Born 205 before Christ. 

Polybii Hist. lib. V. c. 47, 2 (ed. Schwcigh.). 

01 KOL (jvvtyyLcroLVTts rots TTfpl rov Stvoirdv, Sta rrjv 
rwv TOTTW ov TrpoatSeovTO rwv TroXtfJiioov avrol 

V7T OLVTtoV a7TTtofJi(VOl KOL 




Epigram on the comic pod Eupolis;* occasioned by his offensive 
allusions in a play called Bapta (Dippers?), to the title of which 
the epigram refers. 

" You dipped me in plays ; but I, in waves of the sea 
IMMERSING (BAITI/INW), will destroy thcc with streams more 
bitter. "t 

* Attributed to Alcibiades, about 400 before Christ. 

f It is related that on a sea-voyage, the soldiers of Alcibiades, by his com 
mand, gave the poet several immersions in the waves, a rope being attached to 
his body to insure his safety. 


Strabo* Geography, book XII. ch. 5, 4. Speaking of the lake 
Tatta in Phrygia (which he calls a natural salt-pit), he says : 

u The water solidifies so readily around every thing that is 
IMMERSED (HAFTIZED) into it, that they draw up salt-crowns when 
thev let down a circle of rushes." 

* Born about the year 60 before Christ. 


Epigramma in Eupolin (Meineke, Hist. crit. Comic. Grac. p. 119). 
(JL iv Ov^Xr^CTLpy eyo> de ere KVfJLacri TTOVTOV 

oAecrco va^aai TriKporepoi?. 

Strabonis Geogr. lib. XII. c. 6, 4 (ed. Tzschucke). 

OvTOJ $ 7TpL7Tr]TTT(U padta)? TO vSojp TTCLVTl Tto 

cr8tvTi elf avro cocrT o~T(j)avov? a 
KVK\OV (joi 

1 Sic enim legendum pro /Sams fie (Meineke). Bdnreis (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 
p. 473). 



Pindar* Pythic Odes, II. 79, 80 (144-147). Comparing him 
self to a cork of the fisher s net, floating at, the top, while the 
other parts of the fishing-tackle are doing service in the depth 
below, he says : 

" For, as when the rest of the tackle is toiling deep in the 
sea, I, as a cork above the net, am UH-DIPPED (IIII-BAPTIZED) in the 

* Born 522 before Christ. 



Archias, Epigram X.* Among other implements of his art, 
which the old fisherman is said to have hung up as a votive 
offering, are mentioned : 

"And fishing rod thrice-stretched,t and cork UR-DIPPED (im- 
BAPTIZED) in water." 

* Of uncertain date, what Archias is meant not being 1 indicated, 
f An extension-rod, capable of being stretched to thrice its length when 


Pindari Pyth. II. 144-147 (79, 80, ed. Boectti). 
Are yap elvdXiov TTOVOV e ^o/cray ftaQi) 

0}? V7Tp 

Anthol. Graec. Tom. II. p. 94 (ed. Jacobs, Vol. II. p. 82). 


1 Ego Bothio assentior conjungenti apdniio-tos dpi a).uas t quod non durum, 
quum verba ytA/os tSs vtrfp fyy.os quasi in pai (!ijtlu .si dicta sint ; ideoque post 
l(/*os interpunxi virgula (Boeck/i). 

Jam vero aftdTtnoro* n).ftas hoc loco eo aptius sententise est, quod aKfii] dici- 
tur amanties. . . . Ego, inquit, ut cortex supra rete, non immergor salis undis 
(Uoeckh}.Bad-i> est finders (!<!.}. 



Plutarch* . On Superstition, HI. The superstitious man, consult 
ing the jugglers on his frightful dreams, is told : 

li Call the old Expiatrix,t and PLUNGE (BAPTIZE) thyself into the 
sea, and spend a day sitting on the ground/ 

* Born in the year 50 after Christ. 

f An old woman, supposed to have power to avert evil omens by magic lus 


The same writer, Gryllus, VU. He says of Agamemnon : 
"Then bravely PLUNGING (BAPTIZING) himself into the lake Co- 

pais, that there he might extinguish his love, and be freed from 



The same writer, Physical Questions, X. 
" Why do they pour sea-water into wine, and sav that fisher- 


Plutarchi de Superstitione, 111. (ed. Wyttenb. Vol. I. p. 606). 
TJJV TrepL^aKTpLav KaXti ypavvj KOL ^dima-ov 
19 vaXacrcraV) KOLL KaOuras iv rfj yr) Sn}/JLpva Oi/. 

Ejusdem Grylli. VII. (ed. Wyttenb. Vol. V. p. 23). 
Elra KaXov KaXws eavrov paTrrifav ety rrjv 

o>y avToOi i<arao-^o-o)v rov epcora KOL rrj? t 

Ejusdem Quaest. Nat. X. (ed. Wyttenb. Vol. IV. p. 696). 
Aia ri rco olVo) OaXacrcrav Traaovo-t KOL 

1 Quasi dicas aniun circumpistricem. Tstiusmodi lustraf.ionis pars erat, ut cor 
pus lustrandum circuinliiioretnr. ct quasi circumpinseretur, imprimis Into, nvl.ti, 
turn abstergeretur ; quorum iliucl est Tie^arreir, hoc aTCoudrre^ , sed utrumque 
promiscue de tota lustra tione dicitur (Wytleub.). 


men received an oracle, commanding to IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) Bacchus 
in [or at] the sea? 


Parallels between Greek and Roman History. HI* Relating a 
story of a Roman General, who fell mortally wounded in an 
ambush of the Sarnnites at the Caudine Forks, the writer says : 

"But in the depth of night, surviving a little longer, he 
took away the shields of the slain enemies, and DIPPING (BAPFIZING) 
his hand into the blood, he set up a trophy inscribing it, the 
Romans against the Samnites, to trophy-bearing Jove/ 

* Attributed (falsely, as is supposed; to Plutarch, and printed with liis writ 


riva Xtyov&tv aXitls Kop.LaOr]pa 
TOV ALOVVCTOV Trpo? rr)v OaXaTrav ; l 

The oracle is given thus (Schol. Horn. II. 6, 1 36, ed. Bekkor) : /. art 
iv roTtro 2]t6^ voov a).tea 

Ejusdem Parall. Gra?c. et Rom. III. 

^6 VVKTO? o\iyov eTTi^iycrar, Tre/jie/Aero 
TroAe/zfW ray acryr/^ay, KOL els TO ou/jLa 

X L P a BcaTTiO CLS^ 

Kara 2.ap.viTu>v Ail 

1 Himiliter conjunctum cum Tigbi verhuin fiaTtreiv ab Sophocle notabimas nub 
illo (Dindorf. Steph. The*.). Perhaps, at (or by) the sea. 

Iminergere Hacchuni, alifiSiw s;u nLdvciv [as conjectured by Lobeck], 
nihil aliud i-st (juam vinum teniperarc : it videtur ^choliastea verbum antiqua- 
tuni. nub:.-i|iif ;i >olis graminaticis scrvatuin, cum nonnullis alii.s ex oraculo reti- 
nuisse, cnjus SI-MSUIM tantum JKT caliirinem videre licet : 

V - r StTTtt i ^Jiotvoov n).(oea fiaTtri^oiTf. 

De Sinai noii ivcii-o (jiiin alii a nn- diss -ntiant : s--d tdaten recte mihi repo 
vidcur. iiptuin iinpriini> Ilai-i-lin innn-n, a vinctis tractura (Lobeck, Observ. 
crit. et <;ram in JS(jilccl. Aj. p. . M7). 



Josephus* Jewish War, hook II. ch. 18, 4. He thus describes the 
death of Simon by his own hand, after lie had put his family 
to death in sight of the people : 

"And stretching out the right hand, so as to be unseen by 
none, he PLUNGED (BAPTIZED) the whole sword into his own neck." 
. i 

* Born in the year 37 after Christ. 


The same writer, Antiquities of the Jews, book IV. ch. 4, 6. 
Describing the mode of purifying the people, during the thirty- 
days of mourning for Miriam, sister of Moses, he says : 

" Those, therefore, who were defiled by the dead body, casting 
a little of the ashes into a fountain and DIPPING (B API-KING) a 
hyssop-branch, they sprinkled, on the third and seventh of the 
[thirty] days. 77 

JosepLi Bell. Jud. lib. IT. c. 18, 4 (ed. Oberthur). 

TJ]V re dcftai/ dvaTelva?, a>? /j.Tjdeva XaOtiv, oXov els 


Ejusdem Antiq, Jud. lib. 4. c. 4, 6 (ed. hnman. Bek/cer). 
Tovs ovv ajro veKpov fjLe/j,iacr/j.vov$, TTJS T(f)pas oXiyov 

Trrjyrjv ViVTS Kal vaaaiTTOv fiaTrTLcravTts, eppaivov 
ry re KOI epdo/JLY] TCOV rj 


This reading of the passage, in Bekker s edition, is the one suggested by 
Bonfrer (on Num. eh. XIX), some words having evidently been repeated, i 
the common Greek text, by an error in copying. The common reading, 1 how 
ever, shows the same use of panrioavres, and is thus rendered in the Latin 
version: Paul urn igitnr hujus cineris in fontem immittentes cnm hyssopi ramulo, 
ejusdeinque cineris aliquantulum in aquam immergentes, a mortuo pollutos die 
tertia et septima puri aliqui conspergebant. 

1 Tovg ovi aTtb > sy.^ov fititiiaofisvovs, Tfjs Tsypag ol.iyor els vootoxor, ftnTtrionvres re T?;S tecppas tavrr-s S Trijyrjv, f6o 



On Diseases of Women* book I. 

" Then dipping [the pessary] into oil of roses or Egyptian 
oil, apply it during the day ; and when it begins to sting, 
remove it, and again IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) it into breast-milk and 
Egyptian ointment." 

* An ancient medical writing, ascribed (erroneously) to Hippocrates, and print 
ed with his works. 


Homeric Allegories, ch. 9.* The writer explains the ground 
of the allegory (as he regards it) of Neptune freeing Mars from 
Vulcan, thus : 

" Since the mass of iron, drawn rod hot from the furnace, 
is PLUNGED (BAPFIZED) in water ; and the fiery glow, by its own 
nature quenched with water, ceases." 

* The work of an old Greek grammarian, of uncertain date : attributed 
(falsely) to Heraclides Ponticus, fourth century before Christ. 


Hippocratjs Opera (ed. Kuhn. Vol. 11. p. 710). 
a<r eV a\t(f>a pobivov 7; aiyvirTLo 
TTJV rjfjitpav, /cat firrjv daKvrjTai afyaLpttaOaL, KOL 
/8a7TT/Vu> TraXiv eV yaAa yvvaiKos KGLL fjivpov AlyvTmov. 

Allcgor. Homeric., quae sub Heraclidis nomine feruntur, c. 69 
(ed. Schow, p. 710). 

K Ttov fiavavcrojv \.BavvG>v] dunrvpos o rov 
fwSpoy eA/cfcr^ets vdan /8a7rr/^TCM, KOL TO (f)\o-yoj- 
Se? VTTO TTJ? i&uts (j)vo~OJ!> v8a.Ti KaTaafidaOtv avoLTraverai. 

Si({iiidem ignea ferri massa, fornicilms rxtracta, :njuje immergitur (Gevier s 

kiiaer ad Amman, p. 215 : Kad< in nif<liciini llrrarlito cst l aci n<l;i 
i. p. -}" ). ty. Tfiuv ftaravotov (I. flavrcat ), etc. 
Si ftaravotav recte Iciriti; . I It-raclid- -in parai-oar dc fonniCC dixis^i . 

.-ed jinil:iliilius est, cum Vak-k. ud Amiinni. ] . Ji.">. cmcndandum esse 
IKUM parrot r) xcifitvos (ScllOU ). So Ilt itnr (Epl\t. (id Schow) 



Plotinus,* Ennead I. hook 8, an Good and Evil, 13. Of the 
condition of the soul, in the corrupt and vicious, he says : 

" She dies, therefore, as the soul may die ; and death to her, 
while yet IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) in the body, is to be sunk in matter 
and to be filled therewith, and also when gone forth, to lie there 

* A Greek philosopher, of the New-Platonic school, born 20f> after Christ. 

The same writer, Ennead VI. book 9, on -the Good, or the Owe, 


" But now, since a part of us is contained by the body, as if 
one has the feet in water but with the rest of the body stands 
out above, towering up by what is not IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) in 
the body we by this are attached, as to our own centre, with 
that which is as a centre of all." 


Plotini Ennead. I. lib. 8, 13 (ed. Creutzer, Vol. I. p. 154-5; recogn. 
Kirchhoff, Vol. II. p. 400). 

ovv, coy 

avrf) KOI 677. ev TOJ aco/JiaTL pefiaTrTicr/jievr), eV v\rj earl 
KOU 7r\.r)cr0r)i>aL tivrrj?, Kal t^eAQovcrr) e/cet 

Ejusd. Ennead. VI. lib. 9, 8 (ed. Creutzer, Vol. II. p. 1403; recog. 
Kirchhoff, Vol. I. p. 89). 


olov A TIS rovy Troda? lj(i eV vdan, rco 8* aXXco 

, 1 TW drj fjiij fiairTLcrOevTi rw crco/^ari VTre 

rey," rovry (TVVWKTO^V Kara TO tavrwv Ktvrpov rco olov 


1 Or, V7toe%f.i 2 Or, v 



Argonautic Expedition* line 512. 

44 But when Titan IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) HIMSELF into the Ocean- 

* Written early in the Christian era, probably in the fourth century. 


Alexander* of Aphrodisias, Medical and Physical Probkms, II. 38. 
In answer to the question, why fevers, etc., are more hard to 
cure in brutes than in men, he says : 

"Because they have their nature and perceptive faculty 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the depth of the body, and not diverted 
to outward things by what pertains to the rational soul, as 
is the case in men." 

* A Greek writer on philosophy and medicine, beginning of the third century 
after Christ ; but by some (with less reason) supposed to be Alexander of Tralles, 
in the sixth centurv. 


Orphei Argonaut.. 512 (ed. Hermann). 
or eV flKtavolo poov /BaTrrl^r 

Alexandri Aphrodis. Probl. med. ct phys. II. 38 (Ideler, Physic, et 
Medic. Or. min. Vol. I. p. 12). 

OTL rqv (f)V(TLi t^ovcri. KCU TTJV alaOeriKrji S 
tv ro3 /Bdtiei. rov rrw/zaroy, Kal [OVK] 
VTTO ru>v \oio-riKrs "vrs cVi ra 

7Tp CTTt 

Attributed by some, but without, sufficient grounds,) to Alexander Tral- 


> Seitdcm sic aber Griecltiscft bekannt ^-macht ist, hat man gefunden, dass 
man alle Ursache habe, der Angabe der Mantiscripte Glaubcri bcizumeesen, und 
dem Re8taurator d -r Aristutt-liscli* n I liilosophie auch unter den Aerzten eine 
Stelle oinzuraumen (Schoell, Geschicltte der Grieckisclten Literatur, deutsclte Aus- 
gabe, Vol. II. p. 79 3). 



The same Work, I. 28. In answering the question, why many 
foolish persons have offspring who are very wise, and vice veisa, 
he says of the former : 

"They have the soul very much IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the 
body ;* and on this account the seminal germ, partaking in 
greatest measure of the rational and physical power, -causes 
their offspring to be more wise." 

* Compare Example 71, and the statement, in regard to the rational nature 
of man, in Example 54. 


Chrysostom* Select Discourses, XXIX. on Clemency, etc. Speak 
ing of David s clemency toward Saul, when he had him in his 
power in the cave (1 Sam. 24 : 3-7), he says: 

" Sawest thou the nets of David stretched, and the prey inter 
cepted therein, and the huntsman standing, and all exhorting to 
PLUNGE (BAPTIZE) the sword into the enemy s breast? 

* See the remark on Example 45. 

Ejusdem I. 28. 

TTI> \s 

Xoyto-TiKrj? KOL (pvcrLKr)? ra VTT avrov TLKTOfJitva 

Chrysostomi Homil. select. XXIX. do Mansuet, etc. (ed. Montf. 
Vol. XII. p. 647). 

TOV AOLV\C) ra SIKTVO. rera/xeVa, KOU TO Orjpafjia 
KOU TOP KwaytT^v eVraira, KCU TTOLVTO.? 
QOLITTIO-OLI TO ^(po? els TO TOV TroAe/i/ou 



Ttie same writer, Expos, of Ps. VII. 14. Speaking of Absalom 
and David, he says : 

" For he, indeed, desired to PLUNGE (BAPTIZE) his right hand* 
in his father s neck ; but the father, even in such a case, exhorted 
the soldiers to spare him." 

* The armed right hand, by a common figure for the weapon held in it. 

EXAMPLES 79 and 80, 

Basil (the Great)* On Baptism, book I. ch. 2, 10. Commenting 
on the Apostle s words, Rom. 6 : 3, he says : 

"We were immersed [baptised], says he, in order that from 
it -we might learn this: that as wool IMMERSED ( BAPTIZED) in a dye 
is changed as to its color; or rather (using John the Baptist 
as a guide, when he prophesied of the Lord, He will immerse 
[baptize] you in the Holy Spirit and fire ), ... let us say this : 
that as steel, IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the tire kindled up by spirit 

* A distinguished Greek writer of the Christian Church, born 330 after Christ. 

Ejusdem Expos, in Ps. VII. 14. 

AVTOS fJLi> yap tTreOv/Jiti TIJV 8tt;iav TW 
TO) iraTpiKW- 6 de Trarijp KOL OVTOJ (j)ei(raor0ou avrov 


Basilii Magni, de Baptismo lib. I. c. 2, 10 (ed. Garnitr, Vol. II. 

p. 656). 

EpaTTTio-O-qiJitv, (frrjarlv, tv K TOVTOV (f/ceu o iraL&tvOw- 

/i6f, OTi COO-TTtp TO tplOV fkOTtlfftiv tl> ^a^aTL (J.Ta7TOiei~ 

TO.I Kara TO \pco^a- p.aXXov 5e, "iva TW fiaTrTicTTfj lojdwr} 
7rpo(j)rjT(vcrai>Tt Trepl TOV KVpiov, OTL avTO? v^a? /3a7TTi(Ti 
tv TTVtvp-aTi ay in /cat irvpi, oSrjyw ^prjcra^voL^ . . . TOVTO 
/- OTL cocTTTep o aidrjpos jSaTrr^o^tero? fV TW Trvpl 


(wind), becomes more easy to test whether it has in itself any 
fault, and more ready for being refined ; ... so it follows and 
is necessary, that lie who is immersed [baptized] in fire (that 
is. in the word of instruction, which convicts of the evil of sin 
and shows the grace of justification) should hate and abhor 
unrighteousness, as it is written, and should desire to be cleans 
ed through faith in the power of the blood of our Lord Jesus 


Heliodorus* JEthiopics (Story of Theage?ics and Chariclea), book I. 
ch. 30. 

"And every form of war was enacted and witnessed ; the 
natives sustaining the conflict with zeal and with all their force ; 
the others, having greatly the advantage both in number and 
in the unexpectedness of the attack, and slaying some on land, 

* See the remark on Example 39. 


rat, et TLVOL e^et tv eavTco KaKiav, Toifj.oTpo? de Trpo? TO 
. . . OVTCO? a.KoXov6ov KCU ava.yK.cdov TOV 

tV TCO TTVpl, TOVTtCTTlV tV TO Ao/6) TTJ? dido. 

ovcaAtW, eX^y^ovTL JJLZV TCOV a^apTri^drcov rrjv KaKiav, 

de T&V diKaia)fj.dTGjjs rrjv ^apLv^ fJLiorrj(rai 
/cat (3$\vacr6aL ryv a^t/c/ar, KaOoos ytypaTTTai ei? TTI- 
Ov^Liav de tXOtlv TOV Ka0api<rt)rjv(u dia r^y TrtcrTeoj? tv 
Svvd/u.i TOV aifJiaTOS TOV KVplov rifjiiov Irjcrov XpiaTOV. 

Heliodori ^Ethiopicorum lib. I. 30 (ed. Coray, p. 47; ed. Bekker, 

p. 35}. 

Kai TroAe/iou TTOLV eiSo? KCU tvrjpyelTO KOU 6 

fj.(v eyxajpicov KOLL pco/mrj Trda-rj rrjv jJid 

T()V $6, TOJ T 7rXr)0i KCU T7J? (j)68oV TCO 

jTO) TrXtlcrTov VTrepfapovTcov, /cat TOV? /te^ eVt 


and PLUNGING (BAPTIZING) others, with their boats and huts, into 
the lake. 


JlchWes Tatius;* Story of Clitophon and Leucippe, book II. ch. 14. 

"And there is a fountain of gold there. They H.UNGK (BAHT/K) 
into the water, therefore, a pole smeared with pitch, and open 
the barriers of the stream. And the pole is to the gold what 
the hook is to the fish, for it catches it; and the pitch is a 
bait for the prey." 

* See the remark on Example f>4. 


The same Work, book III. ch. 21. Speaking of the short sword 
used by jugglgrs and stage-players, so constructed that, when a 
blow is given, the blade is driven back into the hilt and no 
harm is done, the narrator says : 

* And they who behold suppose that the steel is. PLUNGED 
(BAPTIZED) down the body ; but it runs back into the hollow of 
the hilt." 


dvaipovvTCov, TOV? de 1$ Trjv \t/jLvrjv avrol? 
/cat avrols ot/c?;/zar7 

Achillis Tatii de Leucippcs et Clitophontis Amoribus, lib. II. 
c. 14 (ed. Jacobs, p. 38). 

Kai tVTIV Ktl yj)V<TlOV Tri ifY). KoVTOV QVV 6L9 TO 

v8ojp /3a7TTiov(ri, Trio-cry TTftyapnay/jLtvov, KOL avoiyovaL 
TOV TrorafJLOV ra K\tL0pa. O fie KOVTOS Trpo? TQV y^pvaov 
oiov TTpof TOV iyOvv ayKUTTpov yivfTou, dyptvei, yap avToif 
j] de Triacra ^cAeap yiVTai T-qs ay pas. 

Ejusdem lib. III. c. 21 (p. 77). 

A ai OL pitv opcovTts CJOKOVCTL ftaTTTL^crOaL TOP o-LCjijpov 
TOV creo/xaTOfj 6 ^ elf TOV "^rjpafjLov T~r]s Koomjf dve- 



Julian* Ode on Cupid. 

"As I was once twining a garland, I found Cupid in the 
roses ; and holding by the wings I IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) him into 
wine, and took and drank him ; and now, within my memberb, 
he tickles with his wings. 7 

* In the first half of the sixth century after Christ. 


Simplicius* Commentary on the Manual of Epictetus, ch. 38, 10. 
Contrasting beauty, as it appears in imperfect material forms, 
with absolute and perfect beauty in the soul, lie says : 

"Beauty, in bodies, is in flesh and sinews, ami things that 
make up the body, of animals for example ; beautifying them, 

* Of the seventh century after Christ. 


Juliani ^Egyptii, in Amorern (Jlntkol. Gr. Tom. 11. p. 493; Anacr. 
ed. Fischer, p. 223). 

^Er(f)09 7r\Kcois iroff evpov 
ev TOL? podoLf \EpcoTa- 
KO.L TCOV Trrepoo 

/Sa7TTlO~ 1$ TOV OiVoi/, 


Kdl VVV (T(O f.l\CQl> fJLOV 

Simplicii Comment, in Epict, Enchirid. c. XXXVIII. 10 (ed. 
Schweigh. Vol. IV. p. 366). 

To 1 1/ acDfjLOicri- /caAor, eV aap^ii ecm, KOU vevpois, KOI 
roly TO trcofjiOL o~v/jL7r\r}pov(Tii>, ft rv^or.^ rwv a>a)V /cctAAu- 


indeed, as much as possible, but also itself partaking of their 
deformity and IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) into it." 


JEsopic Fabks; fable of the Man and the Fox.* 
;t A certain man, having a grudge against a fox for some mis 
chief done by her, after getting her into his power contrived a 
long time how to punish her ; and DIPPING (BAPTIZING) tow in oil, 
he bound it to her tail and set fire to it." 

* Writer and date unknown. 


/ce/er *eraAai/3oVoj/ de /cat avro 


rrjf tKtivtov dcr^rjfjioa vvrj^^ KOU /3e/3a7TTcr -\JLZVOV ely 

rfapa\\rjXoL fj,v0oi- AvOpamos KO.I AXcowrj^ (cd. Coray, 

Fab. 103). 

Avr)p r/y, e\9paivo)v aAwTreKt dtd riva rair?;? padt.- 
iaV) iiri TTO\V TOLVT^V fiera TO KaTao-ytlv 

, KOL\ aTVirtlov e Acua) /SaTTTiaa?, TYJ 
TTpocrdrjcraf, v(f)r}\l/e irvpi 



1. To plunge, to immerse, to whelm (as in ingulfing floods), in calamities, in ruin, 

in troubles, in cares, in poverty, in debts, in stupor, in sleep, in ignorance, 

in pollution, etc. 


Dion Cassius* Roman History, book XXXVIII. ch. 27. Philiscus, 
consoling Cicero in his exile, says of his triumphant adversaries, 
now exposed to the hazards of the unsettled times : 

" For, as being* borne along in a troubled and unsettled state 
of affairs, they differ little, or rather not at all, from those who 
are driven by storm at sea, but [are bornej up and down, now 
this way now that way ; and if they commit any even the slightr 
est mistake, are totally SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED). 

See the remark on Example 31. 

Dionis Cassii Historic Romanse lib. XXXVIII. c. 27 (ed. Sturz). 

Are yap tv rerapay^vois KOU aKaTacrrdroLS Trpay/maai 
(j)pofjLvoi, jjLLKpov fjiaXXov fie ovdtv T&v y^L^LCL^o^v^v dia- 
<pepovcrii>, aAA aVo> re KOL Kara), TTOT fjitv dtvpo, Trore $ 
KO.V apa TL KOL TO fipayvTOLTQV cr0aAa)crt, ?rai/r- 



Libamus* tipistle XXV. Referring to the earthquake, in wnich 
two of his friends had perished, lie says : 

"And 1 myself :mi one of those SUBMERGKD (SAITIZKD) by that 
great wave." 

* A. Greek philosopher ;m<] rhetorician, born 315 after Christ. 


The same writer. Life of himself. Speaking 1 of the prudent con 
duct of the chief magistrate, during a scarcity of bread in the 
city, he says : 

"He did indeed exhort the body of bakers to be more just. 
but did not think it expedient to employ forcible measures, fear 
ing a general desertion ; whereby the city would immediately 
have been WHELMED (BAPTIZED), as a ship when the seamen have 
abandoned it. r? 

p]x AMPLE 90. 

Gregory of Nazianzus* Discourse XL. 11. Urging his hearers 
not to defer their baptism, till they should be burdened with 
more sins to be forgiven, he says : 

* Born nbout 330 after Christ. 

Libanii Sophist* Epist. XXV. (ed. Wolf, p. 11). 



Ejusdem de Vita sua (ed. Morett, Vol. II. p. 64). 


pov?. avdyKas 3e OVK aero Seiv tTrdytLv, Stdtco? rip TTL 
7r\LOv U7rodpa(ri.v co av evQv? (3a7rTt^TO TO do-TV, KaOd- 



" Nor let us take more lading than we are able to carry ; 
that we may not be IMMKKOKD (BAPTIZED), vessel and men, and 
make shipwreck of the grace, losing all because we hoped foi 


Chrysostom* Discourses on Lazarus. 1. 10. Recounting the 
several traits in the character and conduct of the rich man, 
which were so many aggravations of the miseries of Lazarus, 
he says : 

"But n6w. living in wickedness, and arrived at the last stage 
of vice, and exhibiting such inhumanity. . . . and passing by 
him as a stone without shame and without pity, and after all 
these things enjoying such abundance ; consider how probable it 
was, that he WHELMED (BAPTIZED) the soul of the poor man as with 

* See the remark on Example 4f>. 


Gregorii Nazianz. Orat. XL. 11 (stud. Monach. Benedict. Vol. 1. 

p. 698). 

TrAeW TJ dvvap,0a (pepeiv, Iva /x?; 

avrdvSpco rfj vrjl /Sa7TTicr6(Ofj,v, KGU TO -^apicrp-a vavayr)- 
cr(Dp.i>, dvff COP TO TrXtiov r)\7TicrafjLv TO TTOLV ctTroAecraj/- 


Chrysostomi de Lazaro Cone. I. 10 (ed. Montf. Vol. I. p. 721). 
Nvv\ $ KOL TTOvrjLa (rv(i>, KOL 

KOLL TO(ravTrjv 

KOU a)a7Tp XiOov avrov TrapaTpe^o)^ avaia^y VTCDS KOLI cuvi- 
/cat /JiTa TavTa TrdvTa ToaavT?]? d7voXavu>v V7ropia$ m 

TCOS* LKOf T]V^ ojaTrep 7raAA?^Aoiy KV 
avrov TOV 7revr)TOs Trjv 



Chariton of Jlphrodisias* Story of the loves of Chcerea and Cal 
lirrhoe, book II. ch. 4. Speaking of Dyonisius. and of his efforts 
to subdue his passion for Calirrhoe, lie says : 

" Tlicn, therefore, might be seen the conflict of reason and pas 
sion. For, although WHELMKD (BAPTIZED) by desire, the generous 
man endeavored to resist ; and emerged as from a wave, saying 
to himself: Art thou not "ashamed, Dyonisius, a man the first 
of Ionia for virtue and repute ! >! 

* Author of the Greek romance here quoted, probably near the end of the fourth 
century after Christ. 


The same Work, book III. ch. 4. On another occasion, speaking 
of the violence of Dyonisius passion for Callirrhoe, he says : 

"But Dyonisius, a man of culture, was seized indeed by a 
tempest, and was WHELMED (BAPTIZED) as to the soul : but yet he 
struggled to emerge from the passion, as from a mighty wave." 


Charitonis Aphrodis. de Chserea ct Callirrhoe amator. Narrat. 
lib. II. ch. 4 (ed. D OrviUf, p. 28). 

Tor ovv l&tlv dycova XoyLcrfJLOV KOLL Trdtiovs. KOLITOC -yap 

fiaTTTt^OfJLtVO? V7TO TT)? 7n0VfJU&9 JtWcClOS dvrjp 7TlpaTO 

dvTtytcrOaL. KaOdirtp 8e /c Kvp.aro$ dveKVTrre Xeywv Trpo? 
tavrov GUK ala-^yvriy Aiovvcne^ avrjp 6 irptoros rrj? Icovia? 


Ejusdem lib. III. c. 2 (ed. D Orville, p. 42). 



y Ka0d.7Tp K TplKV/JLtaS, TOV TTO- 

1 Fortis enim vir, quamvis a lihidiiic nn-rsitatus, contra tanicii tenere nitebatur, 
ct, ut e fluctibus einergens, sic ad se (ReisJce). 


EXAMPLE 94. ,/,. . 

The same Work, book 111. ch. 4. Describing the vessel of the 
pirates, who had plundered of its gold and jewels the tomb of 
Gallirrhoe (prematurely buried), and finding her alive had sold 
her into slavery, and were now pursued by the vengeance of the 
gods, lie says: 

For I saw a vessel, wandering in Jair weather, filled with its 
own tempest, and WHKLMED (BAPTIZED) in a calm. 7 

The whole statement is figurative ; representing, under the image of its own 
tempest (one within itself) and foundering in a calm, the desperate condition 
of the vessel and crew, abandoned to lhe s elements and wandering without con 
trol, all on board but one having perished with thirst. 


Basil (the Great),- Discourse XIV. Against Drunkards, 4. 
He says of the intoxicated : 

More pitiable than those who are tempest-tossed in the deep, 
whom waves receiving one from another, and over-wnpLMiNG 
(BAPTIZING), do not suffer to rise out of the surge ; so also the 

* See the remark on Examples 75 and 76. 

Overwhelm, in the sense " to immerse and bear down (Webster, No. 2, and 

Worcester) . 

Ejusdem lib. 111. c. 4 (ed. D Orville, p. 49). 

yejjiov, KOL j3a7rTio/jiei>oi> tv 

Basilii Magni Horn. XIV. in Ebriosos, 4 (ed. Gamier, Vol. II. 

p. 126). 

E\ll>OTpOl TMV tV TTeAa/e: XlfJUX.fafjLVQ)V 9 OU? 


1 Compare the use of this compound in the next example, and the remarks on 
it in the following note. 


souls of these are driven about beneath the waves, being WHELMED 
(BAITIZED) with wine." 


Josephus*, Jewish War, book I. ch. 27, 1. Relating the occurrence 
that led to the mock trial and condemnation of Herod s perse 
cuted sons, he says : 

"This, as a final blast, over-wiiELMEn ( BAITIZED} the tempivst- 
tossed youths." 

* See the remark on Example f>3. 

Overwhelm, as in the preceding example. The metaphor is derived from the 
effect of a sudden blast, bearing down upon (over) the shattered vessel, and 
whelming it in the deep. 


The same Work, book III. ch. 7. 15. The people of Jerusalem, 
expostulating with Josephus on his purpose to abandon the be 
sieged city and its inhabitants to their fate, say to him : 

"And that it did not become him, either to fly from enemies, 

peiv OVK 7TLTp7ri Tov K\v8a)vos ovrco drj KCLL TOVTCOV at 

Josephi de Bello Jud. lib. I. c. 27, 1 (ed. Oberthur). 
Tovff axTTrep T\vrala OveXXa xtiftctfyfjtevovf rovs 

Ejusdem lib. III. c. 7, 15. 

1 ETr-efiaTtTiof, strictly, over-whelmed (coming down upon whclmi-d. as in the 

T. M- ri-iid M-in^. to vib merge repeatedly (wiederiioll vntcrtauclicn, Rost und 

Palm, rrii-cli. Ildwlx-h.), to immerge repeatedly (wiederholt < i)it<in -f<cn. Papf, 

HTir.-hisHi-(li-iu.<-iii-s IM-.vbrh.), to dip, drench, u^nn .r in addition (Liddcll and 

.ivck I/-.X.). is not ]MTtiix-nt here; for the effect of the -Jlnnl :u:d over- 

.Hi?-, not the repetition of something before 


or to abandon friends ; nor to leap off, as from a ship overtaken 
by a storm, into which he had entered in fair weather ; that 
he would himself OVGIMVIIELM (BAPTIZE) the city, as no one would 
longer dare to make resistance to the enemy, when he was gone 
through whom their courage was sustained." 


^ The same Work, book IV. ch. 3, 3. Speaking of the evils in 
flicted by the band of robber-chiefs who found their way into 
the city of Jerusalem during the siege, he says : 

" Who, even apart from the sedition, afterwards WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED) the city." 

This natural and expressive image of trouble and distress occurs often in the 
Old Testament . For example, Ps. fi9 : 2, " I am come into deep waters, where 
the floods overflow me;" VV. 14, 15, "Let me be delivered . . . out of the deep 
waters, let not the watcrflood overflow me;" Ps. 18 : 16, 17, "He drew me 
out of many waters, he delivered me from my strong enemy." Job s afflictions 
are expressed under the same image (ch. 22 : 11) : "The flood of waters covers 
thee." Compare Ps. 124 : 4, 5 ; 144 : 7 ; 32 : 6 ; Ezek. 26 : 19. 

Himerius* Selection XV. | 3. He says of Themistocles : 

See the remark on Example 40. 
it T 


rov? 0/Aous*, 

r, wcnrtp 

yap avrov TTJV iroXw, fj.rjdevof eri roA/zwz/ros- roiy 
01$ avuiaracrOai) <5t bv avaOappoiev oiYOytteVoi . 

Ejusdem lib. IV. c. 3, 3 (ed. Oberthur). 

OL Srj KOL 8ixa rrj? ardo-ecoy vcrrtpov eftaTTTLcrav rrjv 



" He was great at Salamis ; for there, fighting, he WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED) all Asia."* 

* The power of Asia was broken by the destruction of its fleet at sea, and 
hence the propriety of the figure. 


Libanius* Declamation XX. On the same subject (and apos 
trophizing Themistocles, in the speech represented as spoken by 
his father), he says : 

41 The crowning achievement was Salamis ; where thou didst 

* See the remark on Example 88. 


The same writer, Epistle 310, to Siderius. 

"But he who bears with difficulty what he is now bearing, 
would be WHELMED (BAPTIZED) by a slight addition." 


Heimerii Sophistae Eclog. XV. 3 (ed. Wernsdorf). 
Mtyas 7rt 2aXa/JLlva- IpaTTTLcrt yap oXrjv 6/cet ryv 

1 Aaiav fJiaxofJievo?. 1 


Libanii Declamat. XX (ed. Wolf, p. 521). 
O TU>V epycov /coAo0o>i>, T? 2a\a/jus, Trtpi r)v rrjv 
Aaiav epdTTTiara?. 

Ejupdem Epist. 310 (ed. Wolf, p. 150). 
O 8e fJioXi? a vvv fa pet (jtcp&P VTTO fJUKpas ai> 

i Ibi enim totam Asiarn pugnando demcrsit ( Wcrnsdorf). Compare : pv 
triam di-mersam extuli (dr.. pro Sulla. . 51). 

(){KTUin apex Salamis. rirra qiiam Asi:mi nu-r- isti (Wolf). 
Hie a levissima etiam acccssionc facile- sul.inrr-ctur 



The same writer, Epistle 962, to Gessius. 

" For this is he who found the wretched Cimon WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED), and did not neglect him when abandoned." 


Plutarch* On the good Genius of Socrates, XXIII. 

" Such is the manner of the good Genius ; that we, WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED) by worldly affairs, . . . should ourselves struggle out, 
and should persevere, endeavoring by our own resolution to save 
ourselves and gain the haven. 

* See the remark on Example 64, 


Chrysostom* Expos, of Ps. 114 (116), 3. Speaking of the 
believer s governing principle, and of his prospects, he says : 

* See the remark on Example 45. 

Ejusdem Epist. 962 (ed. Wolf, p. 449). 

OSros tcrriv o /3a7TTiofj.voi> tvpcov rov a6\iov 
voiy KOU TrpoSedofJievov ov TrepuScov. 

Plutarchi de Genio Socratis XXIII (ed. Wyttenb. Vol. III. p. 393). 

OVTCD? rov daifjioviov o r POTTOS * TUJLOLS /3a7TTio/JLi>ov$ 
VTTO TOJV TrpayfJidTOdv . . . avrovs aiJLi\\a<T@cu, KCU /Jia- 
Kpo0v/j,eli>, fit, oiKeia? TreipafjLevov? aperr)? croo^Eo-flai, KCU, 

1 Hie ille est, qui miserum Cimonem calamitatibus oppressum vidit (Wolf). 

~ Sententia quidein universe facilis ad explendum, ut Anon. T. V. ovitos, w 
ere, rov daiuoviov 6 T^OTTOS. & fiir ya(> fifias .Non recepi, ut e conjectura r 
on e libro, profectum (Wyttenb.}. 


"For Tic who is controlled by that love, and sustained by 
the hope of that good, is WHELMED (BAPTIZED) by none of the pres 
ent evils." 


The same writer, on 1 Cor. Discourse VIII. 

" For if we were pained for sins, .... nothing else would 
grieve us, this pain expelling all sadness; so that with confession: 
we should gain also another thing, not to be WHELMED (BAPTIZED) 
by the troubles of the present life, nor to be puffed up by pros 


The same writer, Expos, of Ps. 141 (142), 2. Commenting 
on the words, I cried unto thce, Lord, I said, thou art my 
hope/ etc., he says : 

"The evils did not WHELM (BAPTIZE) him, but rather gave him 

Chrysostomi Expos, in Ps. 114, 3 (ed. Montf. Vol. V. p. 307). 

*O -yap cVceu/cp TW tpojTi KartyofJitvoS) KO! rcu? \7rt(ri 
ru>v ayaOusv rpe^o/jLtvo? eVce/paw, ovSevl TO>V 

Ejusdem in Epist. 1. ad Cor. Horn. VIII (Vol. X. p. 72). 
Ka\ yap (I 7/Ayou/i.ej eVi r(n$ afJLapTrjfjiatfLv, . . . ovo(i> 
av aAAo rj/jia? hv7rcr, rrJ9 odvvrj? ravrrj^ Tracrav a 
7rapGj0ov/jitvi]?. a)Vr6 KOLI trepov av tKtpftaL 
TTJS c^o/JLoho-yrjcrta)?, TO ^.rj ftairrL^a6ai TOL? Xvirypol? TOV 
TrapovTO? /3/of, fJLTj^e (frvamr&at TOW XafJiTrpols. 

Eju.--.l-m Expos, in P.-. 111. .$2 (Vol. V. p. 445). 
OVK tfiteirTHTtv ttvrov ra faipa, aAA ^a 




The same writer, Expos, of Ps. Ill (112), 4. 
" For it is impossible that a soul, abounding in mercy, should 
ever be WHELMED (BAPTIZED) by the annoyances of passion." 


Heliodorus* JEthiopics (Story of Theagenes and Ckaridea), book II. 
ch. 3. 

"And Cnemon, perceiving that he was wholly absorbed in 
grief, and WHELMED (BAPTIZED) in the calamity, and fearing lest 
he may do himself some harm, secretly takes away the sword." 

* See the remark on Example 39. 


The same Work, book IV. ch. 20. 

" .For Charicles, indeed, it shall be lawful to weep, both now 
and hereafter ; but let not us be WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with him 
in his grief, nor let us heedlessly be borne away by his tears, 
as bv floods, and throw awav the favorable occasion." 

Ejusdem Expos, in Ps. Ill, 4 (Vol. V. p. 283). 

KCLL yap dfji-qyavov ^v^rfv TrXovrovcrav eXeij/jLocrvi^rj^ VTTO 


Heliodori JEthiopicorum lib. II. c. 3 (ed. Bekker). 

KOL TYJ (TV/Jitpopa ptfiaiTTUTlJLtVOV, $t$L(>$ T yUT/ TL KO.KOV 

tavrov pydcrr}TaL, TO ^icfto? v(j)atpeL \dOpa. 
Ejusdem lib. IV. c. 20. 

vvv re Ka yu.6T ravra 

fJ.Tj (TVfJipaTTTifalJitOa TO) TOLTOV TTCiOtl, JJLfj&e \d0U>- 

> C\ > r / 

fAaai TOL? rovrov oaKpvcnv V7ro<ppo/jivoi 




The same Work, book V. ch. 16. 

i4 But for us your own wanderings, if you were willing, would 
best forward the entertainment, being pleasanter than any dancing 
and music ; the relation of which, having often deferred it, as 
you know, because the occurrences still WHELMED (BAPTIZED) you, 
you could not reserve for a better occasion than the present." 


Achilles Tatins* Story of Leucippe and Clitophon, book HI. ch. 10. 
" What so great wrong have we done, as in a few days to 
be WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with such a multitude of evils?" 

* See the remark on Example f>4. 


The same Work, book VII. ch. 2. 

11 Misfortunes assailing WHELM (BAPTIZE) us." 

Ejusdem lib. V. c. 16. 

e 77 CTJJ TrXdvri KaXXicrra av, ei /3 
v 7rapa7Tp.7roi, yopov T yivo\Jitvv) KOL av\ov 
o? rjSlw T]v TToXXaKi? fjiot ^ieA^ea , coy o/cr$a, virep- 

) ae ra cru^./36/37;/cora /3a7rr/^6^, OVK 
OTTCO? av cV Kai.pov jScAnWa TOV irapovros (frvXa^eia?. 

Achillis Tatii de Leucippes et Clitophontis Amoribus, lib. III. 
c. 10 (ed. Jacobs). 

Ti TrfXiKOvrov rfdiKijaaiJitv, a)? tv oA/yoty 


Ejusdern lib. VII. c. 2. 

<$ at TV 

projiric dicitur de tcnipostutc ingrucnte (Jacobs, Annntt. p. 881). 



The same writer, book VI. ch. 19. Speaking of love, contend 
ing with and subdued by anger in the same bosom, he says: 

"And he, WHELMED (BAPTIZED) by anger, sinks ; and desiring to 
escape into his own realm is no longer free, but is compelled 
to hate the object beloved." 


Libanius* Funeral Discourse on the Emperor Julian, ch. 148. 

"For grief for him, WHELMING (BAPTIZING) the soul, and cloud 
ing the understanding, brings as it were a mist even upon the 
eyes, and we differ little from those who are now living in 

* See N the remark on Example 88. 


The same Discourse, ch. 77. 

"And he showed the same forethought also concerning the 

Ejusdem lib. VI. c. 19. 

e rep 6v}JL<p /Se/SaTrncr/zeVoy Karadvercu, /cat elf TT}V 
[Slav olpyrjv eKTrrjSrjcrai, OtXav OVKZTL eVrtz/ \ev0pos, aAAa 
fju<Tiv avayKai^rai. TO (friXov/Jievov. 

Libanii Parental, in Julianum Imperat. c. 148 (Fabricii Biblioth. 
Gr. Vol. VII. p. 369). 

* H yap eVt ro3de \V7rr), /SaTrr/^bucra JJLZV rrjv 
avvOoXovaa 8e TTJV yv^^riv^ ayXvv riva /cat TOL? 
cnv tTTtcfrepei, Kai fjuKpov TL diatyepofjiev TOJV fyovrcov vvv 

Ejusdem c. 71 (p. 
Se TJ^V avrrjv Trpovoiav /cat irep\ ray eV 

Animum submergens (Version of Olearius}. 

r.-A<,K 01 t.UKKK WIMTKUS. 

Councils in the cities, which formerly flourished both in numbers 
and wealth, afterwards were nothing. ... And they, indeed 
(those who neglected their public duties, for their own interests 
and pleasures] slept, and indulged the body, and laughed at 
thor-e who went not the same way with them ; but the remaining 
part, being small, was WHELMED (BAPTIZED), and the service rendered 
to the people terminated in beggary." 


The same writer, On the Articles of Agreement (among the 
teachers of youth in the city). 

"Especially if our public discourses had enjoyed an auspicious 
fortune, and it had been our lot to sail with favoring gales, as 
they who before us presided over the bands of the young ; . . . 
but now, as you see, the business [of instructing the young] 
being WHELMED (BAPTIZED), and all the winds being set in motion 
against it," etc. 


TOLLS TToAeOT, /SofActy, OLL TTOiXai fJitV TT\l]6e(TL T KCU 7T\OV- 

TOLS edaXXov, eTrctra rjaav ov$v . . . KOL O L p.v CKafav- 
dov re KOL i^apt^ovTO TW crcofJiaTL, KOii Ttov ov TTjv avrrjv 
avTOis tXOovrcov KaTfyeXtov. TO 8t viroX^X^L^^vov bXiyov 
ov e /SaTTT/^ero, KOL TO \tlTOVpytlv TOIS 7r\lO<flV ely TO 

Ejusdem Orat. XLIII. trepi TOW 2vv0r}KC0i> (ed. Rriske, Vol. II. 

p. 428). 

MaXicrTa fjitv ovv ti KOL XP 1 1 (TT ^ aTTfXavt TT]S 
TO. Ttov ijfjitTtpwv Ao/wi/, Kai TT\eiv ^ ovpiojv 

0}(T7T(p TOl? TTpO rjfJ.(DV TOU9 TCOV VttoV (j)e(TT1]KO(TLV 

vvv 5e, cos opare, /3aimofJLvov TOV 
/cat TTOLVTU>V eV OLVTO KtKivrjiJLtvtov TU>V TTVZV- 

, K. T. A. 

1 Juvcntatem literis imlmeiuli (JReixke). 



Themistiusf Oration XX (Funeral Discourse on tlie death of his 
father). Remarking, that philosophy forbade the indulgence of 
sorrow, he says : 

" But whenever she observed me WHEI^ED (BAPTIZED) by grief, 
and moved to tears, she is angry, and threatens to do me some 
fearful and incurable evil. 

* See the remark on Example 41. 


Josephus* Antiquities of the Jews, book X. ch. 9, 4. Describing 
the murder of Gedaliah by his own guests at a banquet, after 
he had drunk to intoxication, he says : 

"Seeing him in this condition, and PLUNGED (BAPTIZED) by 
drunkenness into stupor and sleep, Ishmael leaping up, with 
his ten friends, slays Gedaliah and those reclining with him 
at the banquet." 

See the remark on Example 64. 

Themistii Sophistae Orat. XX. init. (ed. Dindorf, p. 233). 

^4AA* OTroVe aiaOoiTO /3a7rrto/xZ oV re UTTO Tr]$ odvv?]?, 
KOL el? Saucpva Kara<ppoiJLtvov, xaXtiraivci re KOU 
detvd arra /xe epyacrecrOai KOI avrjK(TTa. 

Joseph! Antiq. Jud. lib. X. c. 9, 4 (ed. Obcrthur). 

OtaordfJitvos 3e ovr<p$ avrov evovra, KCU / 
ei? avai<r6r]<jiav KOL VTTVQV VTTO rrj? fJi0r}f, o 

pera TMV ocxa (piAcor, d-n-ocr<paTTei rov 
KOLL TOV? aw avro3 KaraKeL/jieifOvy tv ro3 



Clement of Alexandria* The Educator, book II. ch. 2. 
"For drowsy is every one who is not watchful for wisdom, 
but is PLUNGED (BAITIZKD) by drunkenness into sleep." 

* A distinguished Greek- writer of the Christian Church, last quarter of the 
second, and first quarter of the third century after Christ. 


Evenus of Paros* Epigram XV. Bacchus (the use of wine), 
when too freely indulged in, he says : 

"PLUNGES (BAPTIZES) in sleep, neighbor of death. 3 


* About 250 before Christ. 


Heliodorus* Mthiopics (Story of Thmgenes and Charided), book IV. 

ch. 17. 
"When midnight had PLUNGED (BAPTIZED) the city in sleep, an 

* See the remark on Example .39. 


dementis Alexandr. Psedag. lib. II. c. 2 (ed. Potter, Vol. I. p. 182). 
Yirv&Srjs yap Tray, 6 w ei? cro(f)iai> yypr)-yopw 9 aAAa 
VTTO fjL0r]s /3a7rno^iei>09 el? VTTVOV. 

Bveni Parii et al. Epigr. XV. 1 (Anthol. &r. I. p. 16(>. ed. Jacobs, 
I. p. 99; Bergk, Poet. Gr. Lyr. p. 447). 

8 virvto ytirovi TOV Oavarov. 
-i yEthiopicorum lib. IV. c. 17 (ed. Bekker). 

is Kvcni vi.l.-tur, et torta-c l-ili-ria; particula (Jarnhs). 
T<o d-dvaiov I al. TOV &. PlaiimU" . (Schneidewn; ). 
\.mpar.-: Ii.-.a.luht nrl>-ni MOmo viu..!^- srpultam (Virgil. JEn. 4 2. 265). 


armed band of revellers took possession of the dwelling of 


Ckrysostom* Admonition I. to TJieodorus. 

" Therefore I beseech thee, before thou art deeply WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED) by this intoxication, to return to soberness, and to 
arouse, and thrust off the satanic debauch." 

* See the remark on Example 45. 


The same writer, Select Discourses, II., on Prayer. 

; If blessed David, therefore, being a king, and WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED) .with ten thousand cares, . . called upon God seven 
times a day ; what apology and excuse should we have, being 
so much at leisure, and not continually beseeching him, and 
that too when we are to reap so great a gain ! ; 


eVoTrAoy KOJJULOS rrjv OLKrjcnv Trjy XapLKXeias KareXajm- 

Chrysostomi Parasnesis prior ad Theod. lapsum (ed. Montf. Vol. L 

p. 27). 

ALOL TOVTO TrapctKaXco Trplv TJ cr(f)o8pa VTTO ravrr}? (BaTrr/- 
o~0r}vai ore rrjy /xe^s*, avavYi^at KOU 8l6yp&ijvcu, KOLL rrj 

Ejusdem Eclog. de Oratione Horn, II. (Vol. XII. p. 446). 
El ovv o fiaKcipLOS AaviS /SacrtAeus ft)^ ? KOL 

Xet, TOV Oeov, riva av e^oifjiev airoXoyiav KOLL 

rj/mels, TOcraLTr]i> a\oXr]v ayovrts, KOLL /JLTJ (jvvextos avrov 




Libanius* Memorial to the Icing, on the neglect and abuse of the. 
imprisoned. Answering the pica, that the magistrates wore encum 
bered with official bu>in< ss. and had no time tor attention to 
those imprisoned, or held for trial, he says : 

" But yon do not allege this want of leisure to those who give 
sumptuous banquets, nor that you could not spend so much of 
the day drinking at the table : . . . but if one asks your judg 
ment of any of the greater matters, you are not at leisure but 
are OVERWHELMED (BAPTIZED), and the multitude of other affairs 
holds you in subjection ; as if those affairs, of which you sp.oak, 
give place to wine-cups, but grudge to some their safety!" 

* See the remark on Example 82. 


Discourse on Zeal and Piety* 1. Commenting on the words 
(Ps. 82 : 4), They walk on in dar/cness, the writer says: 

* By an ancient Greek writer, near the age of Chrysostom, to whom it has 
been erroneously attributed. 


Libanii Orat. de Yinctis (ed. Reiske, Vol. II. p. 456). 
2v <5e TTpoy fjLev rovf XafJiirpovs ecm-dropa.? ri^v acryo- 

Xiav ravrrfv ov Aeye*?, ovo oj? OVK ai> dvvaio vivtiv Kara- 
rocravra ^prj r/yy JfftepW ... av Se TL rwv 
TT)i> ar)v aTrairfj yv(D}jLr)v, OVK. aytis cr^oA?;^, aAAa 
] Kai at o ru>v Trpayp-araiv TOJV a\\(ov o^Aoy vcjj 

, -i ~ / I A 

avroj 7T7roir)Tai) ojinrep TU>V TrpayfJLaTCdv tKeivoov, a 
rot? fJitv CK7roj/Jia(ru> eiKOVTOJV, o-oJTrjpias de run 


1 Sell, rtorois xi fitoiurais (Rciske). 



Thus, then, the congregation IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in ignorance, 
and unwilling to emerge* to the knowledge of the spiritual teach 
ing, God calls night." 

* This expression shows that he does not mean imbued with ignorance, but 
whelmed, immersed in it. 


Isidorus* of Pclmium; On the interpretation of Holy Scripture, 
book II. epist. 7ft (on the words, Watch and pray? etc.). 

" Most men. therefore, IMMKRSKD (BAPTIZED) in ignorance, have 
their minds incapacitated for consolation with reference to afflic 
tions ; but those, on the contrary, who are governed by sound 
reason, repel them all." 

* A Greek writer of the Christian Church ; died 450 after Christ. 


Clement of ^Alexandria* Exhortation to Pagans, I. 3. 
; But the foolish are stocks and stones ; and yet more sense 
less even than stones is a man IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in ignorance. 

See the remark on Example 119. 


De Zelo ac Piet. (Chiysost. Op., ed. Montf. Vol. VIII. Spurior. p. 61). 
OVTOJ? ovv TJ)V avvaycoyiiv 6 Oeo? TTJV ayvoia /3e/3a- 

/ ^ ^ rt -\ > - vv 

TrTLCTfjLevrjVy KOLL /mr] povAojJLei rjv avavtvaai. irpos TTJV yvto&iv 
TY)$ 7ri>evfjiaTLKr)s didacTKaXiay, VVKTOL KaXel. 

Isidori Pelusiotas de Interp. div. Script, lib. II. epist. 76 (ed. 

Ritterh. 160G). 

O L fjifv ovv TroAAot TOJV avOpoiTroji 1 , a/jia0ia /3e/3a7TTi- 

Clement. Alexandri, Cohort, ad Gentes, I. 3 (ed. Potter, Vol. I. p. 4). 
AiOot Se Kat v\a ol a(ppove? Trpo? 8e KOL XiOow 




T/ie same writer, Stromata. book HI. ch. 18. Asserting the 
sanctity of the marriage relation, he quotes the Apostle s words 
(1 Cor. 6 : 9, 10, ; Neither fornicators . . nor adulterers, etc.), and 
sidds : 

"And we indeed * were washed/ who were among these 
but they who wash into this sensuality,* IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) from 
sobriety into fornication, teaching to indulge the pleasures and 

* He alludes here to the false teachers and corrupters of Christianity ; who, 
instead of a doctrine that deters and cleanses from sin, taught the indulgence 
of it ; and hence those immersed by them they washed (as Clement expresses 
it) into sensuality instead of washing from it. 


Chrysostom* Discourse V. on Titus, 3. 

" How were we IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in wickedness, so that we 
could not be cleansed, but needed regeneration !" 

See the remark on Example 45. 

Ejusdem Stromat. lib. III. c. 18 (ed. Potter, Vol. I. p. 662). 

Kal rjfjieis IJLCV d7T\ovcrd/ji0a, oi eV fOVTOlf ytvo/jLtvor 
ot fit elf Tavrr)v a7ro\ovovT$ TYJV daeXyeLav, e/c cra)(f)po- 
19 iropvti.av ftocttTifov(ri^ rals yfiovai? KOL TOL? 

Chrysostomi in Epist. ad Titum, Homil. V. 3 (ed. Montf., Vol. XL 

p. 76 1). 

Ucos r)fjLtv tv rfj KaKia /36/3a7TTfcr/xez/O, a)? /JLTJ 8vvacr0ai 
K.a6a.p6riva.L) aAA* d 

1 Non solum autem ipsi damnantur. snl ii ftiam. qui ;il> ij.sis baptizati, eonun 
imitantur libidinein et U-II<T<-IM ii<-!;iri:iiii (lltrnh Cuinmnit. in loc.}. 



The same writer, on Genesis, ch. 13, Discourse XXXIV. 5. 
Speaking of the spirit of true humility, requiring each to account 
others better than himself, he adds : 

"Arid I say not this of us. who are WHELMED (HAITIZKD) with 
ten thousand sins ; but even if one were conscious to himself 
of ten thousand just deeds, and should not account this of him 
self, that he is last of all, he would have no benefit of so many 
just deeds." 


Justin Martyr* Dialogue with a Jew, LXXXVI. 

"As also us, WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with most grievous sins which 
we have done, our Christ, by being crucified upon the tree, and 
by water for cleansing, redeemed and made a house of prayer 
and adoration." 

* A learned Greek writer of the Christian Church, born near the close of the 
first century after Christ. 


Ejusdem in cap. XIII. Gen. Horn. XXXIII. 5 (Vol. IV. p. 339). 
Kol TOVTO Ae y&), ov irepl TJ/JLCOJ/ TWV fjivpiois a 

tvw ttAAa pav p.vpia TL$ rj 
iavTto <jvvi$u>S) jJiii TOVTO fie XoyifyiTO Kaff eavrov, OTL 
TrdvTwv ecTTiz/ ecr^aros", ovdtv avTw cxpeXo? av ytvoiTQ 


Justini Martyris Dial, cum Tryphone Judaeo (ed. Otto, Vol. I. P. ii. 

p. 300). 

KOL in,as eaTTTiorfjiei ovs raty a/)LTaray ap.ap 
/aiy, a? 7rpdap.6v, Sid TOV crTavpoj&rjvai. CTTI TOV 

l $L* vdaTOf dyviaoiL o XpicrTO? THJL(DV eAur^ococraro, KOI 

QIKOV V)(f]$ KOL 7rpO(TKVVr)(TOJ$ 



Diodorus* the Sicilian, Historical Library, book L ch. 73. Speak 
ing of the three divisions of the territory of Egypt, he says : 

"The second part the kings have received for public reve 
nues ; . . . and on account of the abundant supply from these, 
they do not WHELM (BAPTIZE) the common people with taxes." 

* See the remark on Example 13. 


Plutarch* Life of Galba, XXL As Galba s reason for not mak 
ing Otho his heir, he says: 

" Knowing him to be dissolute and prodigal, and WHELMED 
(BAPTIZED) with debts amounting to fifty millions." 

* See the remark on Example 64. 


The sam.e writer, On the education of children, XI IF. As an 
example of misjudging parental fondness, he says : 

" For being anxious that their children should speedily excel 


Diodori Siculi Biblioth. Hist. lib. I. c. 73 (ed. Bek/cer). 
Tr)V 8t SevTtpav n-dipav ol 

TTpocrodov? . . . TOV? $ i8ia)Ta$ dia rrjv /c TOVTCOV eu 
PIO.V) ov /SaTTT trover i TOLL? ur(f)opai$. 

Plutarclii Vit. Galbse XXI (ed. Reiske, Vol. V. p. 633). 
/cat TroAt reA?}, KOI 

Kju.-dem dt- Jiln-ris rducandis. XIII. (cd. Wyttt-nh.. To/. /. p. 31). 
yap TOVS Traida? tv Traai ra.yj.ov 


in all things, they impose on them excessive labors. . . . For 
as plants are nourished by a moderate amount of water, but are 
choked by too much, in the same manner a soul grows by pro 
portionate labors, but is OVERWHELMED (BAPTIZED) by such as are 


Plato* Euthydemus, or the Dispute^ ch. VII. Speaking of young 
Oleinias, confounded with the sophistical questions and subtilties 
of the professional disputants, he says : 

"And I, perceiving that the youtli was OVERWHELMED (BAPTIZED), 
wishing to give him a respite," etc. 

* Born 429 before Christ. 


Phuo* the Jew (an extract in Eusebius, Preparation for the Gos 
pel book VIII., at the end). 

And one might show it also from this, that those who live 

* Middle of the first century of the Christian era. 


(TOLL, TTOVOVS aVTOl? VTrep/ACTpOV? 7rL(3d/\\OV<Tll>. . . . 

f^crTrcp yap ra (j)vra row p.ei> fjLtTpiuty vSaai 
roly dt TroXXoLs TTviytTai, rov avrov rpoTroi 

TTOVOL?, roiy & 

Platonis Euthyd. c. VII, (ed. Stattbaum, Vol. VI. p. 90). 
Kal eyo) yvovs 1 ^a7TTL^op.epov TO {JLtLpaKiov, /3oi;Aoyue- 
vos av air ai) (TOLL avro, K. r~ A. 

Philonis Jud. lEusebii Pra^p. Ev. lib. VIII. fin.); Op. ed. Mangey, 

II. p. 641. 

2 K/JLr}pL(*)(raiTo 8 av ns Kal e/c rov rov? p,ev vii 

1 Well expressed by Schleiermacher : Ich aber, da ich sah, wie der Knabe 
schon ganz zugedeckt \>ar. woilte ihm einigc Ruhe verschaffen. 


soberly, and content with little, excel in understanding ; but those, 
on the contrary, who are ahvays glutted with drink and food, 
are least intelligent, as though the reason were WHELMED (BAPTIZED) 
by the things overlying it. 7 


Plotinus* Ennead I. book IV. On Happiness, 9. 
"But when he does not continue [happy], WHELMED f BAPTIZED) 
either, with diseases, or with arts of Magians?" 

* See the remark on Example 72. 


Chrysostom* On Ps. 48 : 17 (49 : 16, Be not afraid, etc.). 
"Such as was Job, neither WHELMED (BAPTIZED) by poverty, no* 
elated bv riches." 

* See the remark on Example 45. 


The same writer, Discourse on the trials and constancy of Job. 
Speaking of the patriarch s example, he says : 


KOL 6Xr/o8l? <TVVTa)TpOV? 6U/CU, TOVf $6 TTOTO)^ O.l KOll 
(TLTltoV LJL7rt7T\au.l OVf f>K.LO~Ta (kpOVLULOVS* CLT 


Plotini Ennead. I. lib. IV. do Beatitudine. 9 (erf. KircMoff, 

Vol. II. p. 312 . 

^lAA orav ^JLTJ TrapaKoXovOij^ fia7mcr0\$ r) VOCTOLS r) 

. Ps. XLVI1I. td.Montf., Vol. V.p.607). 

$ T)V O /0)/S, 0^76 { 77 n TT,? 776 VLOL$ 

>- V770 TOV Troi TOL 770LlpUfJ.l 0$ 


"And if thou art in affliction, fly to it for refuge; and if 
in wealth, receive thence the corrective ; so as neither to be 
WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with poverty, nor puffed up with wealth." 


Theodoret* Eccles. Hist, book V. ch. 4. 

" That Diodorus whom I have before mentioned, who, in a most 
difficult tempestuous sea, preserved the ship of the church un- 
WHELMED (un-BAPTizEo), holy Meletius constituted pastor of Tarsus. 

* Born 393 (made Bishop of Cyrrhus 423) after Christ. 

Basil* (the Great), Discourse on the martyr Julitta, IV. 

As a pilot, skillful and undisturbed through much experience 
in sailing, preserving the soul erect and un-wHELMED (UH-BAPTIZED), 
and high above every storm." 

* See the remark on Examples 79, 80. 


Ejusdem Horn, de Jobi patientia et virtute (Vol. XII. p. 347). 
Kav tv a0v/j.ia 77$-, irpos OLVTOV KaT(i(j)evye KO.V iv 
7T\ovTO), TO (pdp/jLOLKOv VTtv0v Aa/z/3ai/6. coo-re pr)T 
TTTW^ela fiaTrrLaOrjvcu.) fJ-rjre irXovrw <j)v<n]6r)vai. 

Theodoreti Eccles. Hist. lib. Y. ch. 4 (cd. Simond, Vol. III. p. 708). 

*O $ ^eioy MeAtTios ^liodojpov Kivov, ov KOL irpocrOtv 
efjivqcrdriv^ rov tv T<p Tray^aAeVa) K\vdcovi a^airncrrov TO 
TTJ? e/CAcATycr/ay SiaaoocravTa crKa(f)os, Tapcretov 

Basilii Magni Horn, in Martyrem Julittam, IY. (ed. Gamier. Vol. II. 

p. 37). 


ayav Trepl TOV irXovv turret pia?, ooGi^v KOL afla.TTTio TOV, Kal 
TTOLVTOS ytifJLwvos v-fyrjXoTtpav TTJV 


2. To overwhelm (figuratively) with an intoxicating liquor, or a stupefying drug, 

that takes full possession of one s powers, like a resistless flood ; or (as the figure 

may sometimes be understood) to steep in, as by immersing in a liquid. 1 


Philo* (the Jew), On a contemplative Life. 
"And I know some, who, when they become slightly intoxica 
ted, before they are completely OVERWHELMED (BAPTIZED) provide, 
by contribution and tickets,t a carousal for the morrow : regard 
ing the hope of the future revel as part of the present festivity." 

Compare Basil (Example 95) : " So also the souls of these are driven abont 
beneath the waves, being WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with wine." 

* See the remark on Example 136. 

| Those who took part in a common entertainment contributed each his 
share of the expense, or gave a ticket to be presented afterward for payment 


Plutarch,* Banquet, book III. Question 8. 
" For of the slightly intoxicated only the intellect is disturb- 

* See the remark on Example 53. 

1 So the word steep (" from the same root as dip, with .> prefixed," Worcester s 
Did.} is used figuratively in English. 


Philonis Judasi de Vita contcmpl. (ed. Mangey, Vol. II. p. 478). 

Oida 8e Tii a?, o i, tTTtidav aKpotfojpaKe? ykv^vran^ 7rp\v 
uLTTTLcrOiivaij tis TTJV varepaiav TTOTOV 


rrj? ev ytpcriv tvjppocrvinjs divai Trjv Trepl rrj? cl 

TO LtfAAoi/ JL0r$ f:\TTLCja. 

Plut. Symp. lib. III. Quacst, 8 (ad. Wyttenb. Vol. III. p. 675). 
T&v yap UKpoflcopaKOJis ?; Sldvota (JLOVOV rtrapaKTaiy TO 


ed ; but the body is able to obey its impulses, being not yet 



The same Work, book VI. (Introd.). Timotheus, saying that 
those who sup with Plato (on simple and wholesome fare) enjoy 
themselves also on the following day, adds : 

"For, truly, a great provision for a day of enjoyment is a 
happy temperament of the body, UII-WHELMED (un-BAPTizEo) and 


The same writer, On the comparative skill of water and land 
animals, XXIII. 

" So then, Hercules, there is manifest stratagem, with guile ; 
for the worthy man, himself sober as you see, purposely sets 
upon us while still affected with yesterday s debauch, and 



Plato* Banquet, ch. IV. Complaining of the ill effects of an 
immoderate use of wine, the speaker says : 

* See the remark on Example 135. 

de crw/Jia TOLL? opp.als e^vTrrjptrt Lv divarat, /JLT^TTCD /3e/3a7TTi- 

Ejusdem lib. VI. Prooem. (ed. Wyttenb. Vol. III. p. 816). 
Mtya yap cos aXr/Ooos evrj/nepia? e(j)o8ioi> evKpaala cr(o- 


Ejusd. de sollertia animal., XXIII. (ed. Wyttenb. Vol. IV. p. 

co oa/ceco^ crvv 

yap ere TO yiov Ka 
opas, o ytvvalos K 7rapa<TKtv-qs 


" For I myself am one of those who yesterday were OVERWHELMED 

In this use, the Greek word corresponds to the English drench* So Shakesp. 
Macb. i. 7 (speaking of the " spongy officers," plied " with wine and wasscl"), 

" When in swinish sleep 
Their drenched natures lie." 

* "Icelandic dreekia, to plunge in water ; Swedish dranca, same sense, also 
to drown" (Wedgewood, Diet, of Eng. Etymology}. 


JUhenaus* Philosopher s Banquet, book V. ch. 64. 
"You seem to me, guests, to be strangely flooded with 
vehement words, and WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with undiluted wine. 

For a man taking draughts of wine, as a horse does of water, 
talks like a Scythian, not knowing even kopparf 
and he lies speechless, plunged in the cask. 77 

* Beginning of the third century after Christ, 
f A Greek numerical sign. 

Platonis Sympos. c. IV. (ed. Stallb. Vol. I. p. 25). 

Ka\ yap OLVTO? LIJU TC0V Y$ f y /3/3tt7TTCr^iej/C02/. 

Athenai Deipnosoph. lib. V. c. 64 (fd. Dindorf, Vol. I. p. 481). 

t, avdpes SaLTVfjLovtfi (r(f)o8poi? KarrivrXr]- 
\oyoi? Trapa npoadoKiav pef$airTicr6ai re TCO aKpaTCp- 

Avrip yap eA/c<w*> oivov coy vficop ITTTTOS 
SicuffurTi (f)u>vtl> ovde KOTnra 

Vino obrutdruni (/J.sf, Lu . Plat.). 

Ev nid-qt Ko/.vH.h^oa^ jocose dicitur. *// xe mem mgurgitavit, quasi qui ip.n 
dolio sese immersisact (Scliu ciglt.). 



Lucian* Bacchus, VII. Speaking of the fabled fountain of 
Silenus, and its effects on the old men who drink of it, he 
says : 

" When an old man drinks, and Silenus takes possession of 
him, immediately he is mute for some time, and seems like one 
heavy-headed and WHELMED (BAPTIZED)," 

* See the remark on Example 28. 


Conon* Narration L. Describing how Thebe destroyed her 
husband (Alexander, tyrant of Pherae), to prevent his meditated 
murder of herself and her three brothers, he says : 

"And Thebe, learning the purpose [of Alexander], gave dag 
gers to the brothers, and urged them to be ready for the 
slaughter ; and having WHELMED (BAPTIZED) Alexander with much 
wine and put him to sleep, she sends out the guards of the 
bed-chamber, under pretense of taking a bath, and called the 
brothers to the deed." 

* About the beginning of the Christian era. 


Luciani Bacchi VII. (ed. Lehmann, Vol. VII. p. 298). 
* EiTL$dv TTL-rj o yepcov, KOL Kardcryri a^roy o i\i)VO9 9 
7Ti7ro\v a<f>a>vo$ eari, KCU KaprjflapovvTi KCU /3e/3a- 


Cononis Narrat. L. (Script, poet. hist. Gr., ed. Westermann, p. 150). 

$ TO fiovXevfJia fJiaOovcra, row fjitv d&\<f)OL$ 
dovaa TrapacrKevd^aOaL irpos" TTJV o-fyayyv 
7rapKa\i, olvco ^6 TroAAw A Xt^avdpov /BaTTTLcrao-a KCU 
e/C7T6/u,7rf row TOV 0aXdp.ov (f)V\OKa$ irpo- 
pTycro/xe^r;, KOL TOV? dd\(j)ov? eVt TO 
tpyov eicoAcc. 



Aristophori* (Jlthen&us, Philosopher s Banquet, book IX. ch. 44). 
The servant-girl, describing the effect of a cup of wine given by 
her master, says : 

"Then WHELMING (BAPTIZING) potently, he set me tree." 
The sense is well given in Younge s free translation : 

"And then, by steeping me completely in it, 
He set me free." 

* A Greek comic writer, beginning of the third century after Christ. 


Produs* Chrestomathy, XVI. 

"And the IO-BACCHUS was sung at festivals and sacrifices 
of Bacchus, IMBATHED (BAPTIZED) with much wantonness." 

So Milton uses the corresponding English word : " And the sweet odor of the 
returning gospel imbathe his soul with the fragrancy of heaven." 

* Born 412 after Christ, 


Aristophon, Athen. Deipnosoph. lib. XI. c. 44 (ed. Dindorf, Vol. II. 

p. 1057). 

Elr \v@pai> u(piJKi> 

Procli Chrestom. XVI. (ed. Gaisford, p. 384). 

de 6 IOBAKXO2 eV eopraif /cat Ovarian 

1 /_ . dinnino yotfiyfiaTi. Xatum inendum, ut innumera alia in Graecis Lati- 
nisque anctoribus, ex depravata pronunciandi consuetudine, qua TJ et i et v eodem 
Bono male efferuntur (Schottus). 



1. With the preposition in. 


Plutarch* Life of Sytta, XXL Account of the defeat of Arche- 
laus j Asiatic troops, and the storming of his camp, by Sylla. 

"And dying they filled the marshes with blood, and the lake 
with dead bodies ; so that, until now, many barbaric bows, ami 
helmets, and pieces of iron breastplates, and swords, .are found 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the pools. 77 

See the remark on Example 53. 


Plutarchi Vit. Syllae XXI. (ed. Sckaffer). 
KOLL KOLTtTrXriGrav onro6v7t]crKQVT$ alfJiaro? ra eA^, KOU 

TTjV Xl/JLVrjV WCTTC ^XP L V ^V TToAAa fiapfiapiKO. 

^a, KCU KpoLvr], KOU ficopaKGov cT7rdcrfj.ara <riSrjpoi)i>, KOLL 




Nicander* fragment of a work on. husbandry, book II. Directions 
for preparing a turnip salad. 

" Cut turnip-roots and the rind before it is withered, after 
gently cleansing it, into thin slices; and having dried them 
a little in the sun, sometimes just dip in boiling water, and 
IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) many [together] in sharp brine ; and at other 
times, put into a vessel white new-wine with vinegar, half and 
half, and pickling them in it cover over with salt." 

* Middle of the second century before Christ 


Synesius* Epistle LVll. After saying that his fondness, from 
childhood, for leisure and study, had not deterred him from serv 
ing his fellow-men, in private and public affairs, he adds : 

" None of these has withdrawn me from philosophy, or cut 
me off from that blest leisure ; for to do with compulsion, and 

* Born about 378 after Christ; made Biahop of Ptolemais in the year 410. 


Nicandri Georg. II. (Athen. Deiphnosoph. lib. IV. c. XI. (ed. 
Dindorf, Vol. I. p. 303). 

avrivas 7ri rvrOov, or tv 
vSari dpL/meirj TroAeW fjL/3a7rTia~ov aXfjLrj 
aXXoT 8* av Aei>/coj> yAei}/coy avcrra^vLcrov oqci 
icrov to-cp, ray 8 eVro? eVtcrryx^ay aAi Kpv^aL^. 

Synesii Kpist. LVII. ((tf. Petav. p. 194). 

ov&iv fj.t (f)t\o(ro(f)ia9 a(f)el\Ki , ovfie 
d fjioi cryoXrjv VTreTfjuLi fTO. TO -yap codicr^ /cat 

1 Possis et sic scril>en-, ore v ^eaTrj? (Schweigk.}. 


with toil, and with pains, this is what wastes time, and IMMERSES 
(BAPTIZES) the soul in cares of business." 


The same writer; On Dreams. Speaking of the union of 
mind (pure intelligence) with the sensuous spirit in one being, 
and the debasement of the former by this union, he says : 

" For, to mind, how should a stupid and unreasoning life be 
agreeable ? But to the image,* on account of the then peculiar 
Constitution of the spirit, the lower region is more congenial, 
for like takes pleasure in like ; and if from the two there is 
made one by the conjunction, even the mind would be IMMERSED 
(BAPTIZED) in pleasure." 

* The soul, separate from the body, with which the sensuous spirit becomes 
its connecting medium. 

2. With the prep, through, expressing transition, alternation; hence what is 
mutually done, by two or more, to one another. 


Polyanus,* Stratagems, book IV. ch. 2, 6. The device by which 
Philip, King of Macedon, while exercising in the wrestling- 

* About the middle of the second century after Christ. 

^co Kal /AoAts* TTOieiv, TOVTO t(TTiv o Sairava rov XP~ 

) KOLL Tf]V tywfflV /JL^OL7TTL^ei fJieplfJiVai? 

Ejusdem de Insomniis (p. 140). 

No) yap TTOO? KaXov /Bio? efjL7T\r)KTo$ KOL ctyo^roy/ rco 
8t f<5coA&>, SLOL rrjv TTOIOLV rore TOV TrvevfJLaros crfcrracrii/, 
i] KOLTCO X^P a 7rpoarr)Ki- O/ULOLCO yap o OIJLOI.OV rjSeraL. ti 
St v e^ afji(j)oii> rep avv^vacriJLw yiverai) KOU o vovs OLV 



school with Mrnegeies the pancratiast,* evaded the importuni 
ties of his soldiers, who had gathered round clamoring for their 

"Philip, not having it, came forward streaming- with sweat, 
covered with dust, and smiling on them said: You say justly, 
^How-soldiers : but indeed, for this very purpose I am myself 
DOW anointed against the barbarian, in order that I may many 
times over repay you thanks. Saying this, and clapping his 
hands, he ran through the midst and threw himself into the 
swimming-bath ; and the Macedonians laughed. Philip did not 
give over miiix<: (BAPTIZING) ix A MATCH with the pancratiast, and 
sprinkling water in the face, until the soldiers wearied out dis 
persed. " 

This was the dipping match, or game of dipping each other,- each party 
striving to prove his superior strength and agility by putting the other under 
water, and also by splashing it in his face (" sprinkling water in the /ace") 
till he was deprived of breath. 

* The name for an expert in both wrestling and boxing. 

Polyaeni Strategemat. lib. IY. c. ii. 6 (ed. Coray). 

OVK tyCiDV 6 ^/AiTTTTOy 7rpOO-TJ\0V, ISpWTL pO/4I/0?, 

/ceKOW/zez/oy, [/cat] 7rpoa>iei<Wo-ay avrol?, AiKaia (e<prj) Ae- 
yere, a> (rvcrrpaTLcoTaL, aAAa TOI /caya> $ia TOVTO vvv iri 
TOV fidpfiapov aAe#/)o/,icu, OTTW? V/JLLV TroAAaTrAafrta)? air or r 
vaifju TO.? xapLTas. Tavra eiTrco^, /cat TO!V yepolv Kporcov, 
dia fjLeacov 8pa/Jicoi>, eV KoXvfJi^Opav 7r ppi\jsv \ta.VTOV\. 
/cat ol MaKtSovts ty\acrav. O <Pi\nnros p.t\pi> roaov- 
rov diapaTTTL^oiuLti o? 7rpo9 TOV Tra-yKpaTiaaTijv, KCU Kara 
rov TrpocrcoTTOv pa^Oyueroy, OVK dvr]KV, ccrr av ol 

rai th; IH-CI>. :uid tli.- mid. form cx]rcs.s what is mutual and reciprocal 
Compare the note on the following page. 



Demosthenes* Against Aristogeiton, Oration I. 5. Showing what 
class of persons Aristogciton was accustomed to harrass, by false 
accusation and extortion, he says : 

"Not the speakers [public orators], for these know how TO 

PLAY THE DIPPING (BAPTIZING) MATCH with Mill, bllt private pCl SOIlS 

and tlie inexperienced." 

In this case the compound word is used metaphorically, and the sense is : 
For these know how to match him in foul language, in the game of sousing 
one another. 

* Born :-J85 before Christ. By some his authorship of this speech is doubted, 
but not on decisive grounds. 

3. With the prep, dotvn, hence downward ; merely strengthening the expression 

of the simple idea. 


Chrysosiom* Discourse on Gluttony and Drunkenness (at the end}. 
"For as a ship, that has become filled with water, is soon 

See the remark on Example 45. 


Demosth. in Aristog. I. 5. (ed. Bekker, Vol. IV. p. 874). 
Ov^i /Jia A ia TOV? \Gypvras, OVTOL \Jitv yap eVt 
TOLL TOVTCO SiafiaiTTi&crOai? aXXa TOV? ISiwras KOL TOV? 


Chrysostonii Eclog. Horn. XII. de Ingluvie et Ebrietate (ed. 
Mantf., Vol. XII. p. 516). 

-yap irXolov vjrtpavrXov yeyo^o<r ra^ea)^ Kara- 

" Jiapastri^co, certatim immergo. Polysen. 4, 2. (5. ... Metaph. conviciando 
certo, forma media ap, Demosth. p. 782, 26 : OITOI [// ] yag snioraviat rovrqt 
8tapa7iTieo&ai, ubi var. ovviaj3a7iTi&o&ai. G. D/ndorf (Stcph. Tkes. nov. ed. 
Vol. II. co/. 1.111). 


SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED), and becomes deep under the waves ; so also 
a man, when he gives himself up to gluttony and drunkenness, 
goes down the steep, and causes reason to be whelmed beneath 
the waves." 


Alexander of Aphrodisias, * Medical and Physical Problems, I. 16 . 

Why is it that some die of fright? Because the physical force, 
fleeing too much into the depth [of the body] along with the 
blood, at once WHELMS (BAPTIZES) and quenches the native and 
vital warmth at the heart, and brings on dissolution." 

* Sec the remark on Example 75. 


The same Work, I. 17. 

" Why is it that many die, of those who have drunk wine to 
excess ? Because, again, the abundance of wine WHELMS (BAPTIZES) 
the physical and the vital power and warmth." 


KOLL VTrofipv^LOv yn erar OVTCO KOLL 
OTOLV TT] a8r}(j)ayia KOLL /JLcflrj tavrov e/c5a>, Kara Kpi]fjLvov 


Alexandri Aphrodis. Probl. med. et phys. I. 16 (Ideler, Physic, ef 
Medic. Gr. min. Vol. I. p. 9). 

ALOL TL evioi (fro/3r}0evTfs a.irt6a.vov ; OTL (ftevyovaa X LOLV 

T) <f)VO-lKl] SvVOLfJLLS tis TO /Sa^Oy fJLTOt TOV al/JLOLTO? TO fl(j)V- 

TOV OepfJLOv KOLL (jooTiKov TO TTapo. TTjs Kap8ia? ytvo}jitvov 
<jL0pou>$ KaTa/3a7TTi(i KOLL crfitvvvcri, KOLL (f)6opav tTrayei. 

Ejusdem I. 17 (ibid.). 
ALOL TL TroAAoi TMV mvofyXv yv}(ja.vT<v airtOavov j OTL 




Alripkrorfs* Epistles, book II. Ep. 3. Menander to Glycera> 
allowing why ho declines King Ptolemy s invitation to his court 
in Egypt. 

"Is it a great and wonderful thing to see the beautiful Nile? 
Is it not also a great thing to see the Euphrates? Is it not a 
great thing also to see the Danube? Are not also the Thermo- 
don, the Tigris, the Halys, the Rhine, among the great things? 
If I am to see all the rivers, life to me will be WHELMED (BAPTIZED), 
not beholding Glvcera." 

* Probably, middle of the second century after Christ. 


Achilles Tatius* Story of Leucippe and Clitophon, book I. ch. 3. 

"For that which, of a sudden, comes, all at once and un 
expected, shocks the soul, falling on it unawares, and WHELMS 

* See the remark on Example 54. 

The same Work, book II. ch. 31. 


Alciphronis Rhet. Epist. lib. II. 3 (ed. Wagner). 
H fjieya KGU Oav/jLacrroi iStii> rov KaXov NtlXov , ov 
(jiya KOL TOV liiV^pari jv LCJ^LV ; ov /jLeya KOL TOV larpov ; 
ov Ttov fJLtydXojv Kal o Otpfjiwdcov, o Tiypis, 6 "AXv?, o 
Prji>o$ ; JLl fji\\a) iravras rovs TroTa/jLOVf opav, Kara- 
fta.TTTicr6^o-eTaL JJLOL TO fjv, /x?) fiXeirovri rXvKtpav. 

Achillis Tatii de Leucippes et Clitophoutis Amoribus, lib. I. c. 3 

(ed. Jacobs). 

To p,iv -yap ffcatyvrjs aOpoov /cat anrpocrSoKriTOv e/c- 
TTJV tyw)(i}Vy affivo) 7rpoo~7ro~o^ y KCU 


And Satyrus had a remnant of. the drug, with which lie 
had put Conops to sleep. Of this, while serving us, he covertly 
pours a pai t into the last cup which he brought to I anthia ; 
and she rising went into her bedchamber, and immediately felil 
asleep. But Leucippe had another chamber-servant : whom hav 
ing WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with the Fame drug, Satyrus . . comes to 
the third door, to the door-keeper ; and him he laid prostrate 
with the same draught." 


Origen* Comment, on John, ch. 11 : 45; on the words, Many 
believed on him. 

" And whom would they^ not move to believe the preaching 
of Jesus (and, verily, as if out of death and putridity), of those 
who were altogether WHELMED (BAPTIZED) by wickedness," etc. 

* Latter half of the second, and first half of the third century. 

Ejusdem lib. II. c. 31. 

Eiyt S o SaTVpo? rov (papfjLaKOV XttydvQfr) w rov 
i]v KaraKOifiia as rovrov bLaKovovfJitvos i]^Civ 
Xa6u)V Kara TTJS KvXiKOS TTJ? reAeura/ay, rjv rrj Ilav- 
6ia 7rpo(re(f)pv. H $ avao-raaa cpvfTO el? rov 8a\a- 
fj.ov avrrjf, KOLI evOvs iicaffevScv. ti L X e ^ 
KLTrrnj OoiXaiJirjTroXoV) T]v ro3 avrw (f)ap/j.aKco 
o Sdrvpo? . . eVi TlfV rpirrjv Ovpav ep^rat rfpfc rov 


Origenis Comment, in Joan. T. XXVIII. <) (ch. 11 : 45 ; ed. 
Gamier, Vol. IV. p. 380). 

Km nra yt OVK av KLVI~J(TOLL Trpo? TO TTUTTtvcrai ro3 rov 
Incrov Krjpiyfj.a.Ti, /ecu aXqd&s Aorjrepfl K veKpoTijTO? KOI 


K. T. A. 



Basil* (the Great), Discourse %IV., against Drunkards, 7. 

" For wine WHELMS (BAPTIZES) the reason and the understand 
ing. . . . And what ship without a pilot, borne by the waves 
as it may happen, is not more safe than, the drunken man ?" 

* See the remark on Examples 79, 80. j 


Eustathius* (Eumathius), Story of Hysmenias and Hysmene 
book VI. 

"And sleeping I was troubled in spirit with the strangeness 
of the report, and as to my whole mind WHELMED (BAPTIZED) 
with the affliction." 

* Probably, of the eleven th century after Christ. 


The same Work, book VII. Apostrophizing Hysmenias, who had 
been cast into, the sea, by command of the pilot, to appease Nep 
tune, Hysmene says (in the writer s peculiar manner) : 

" Thou, indeed, wast borne away by the swell and the rush 


Basilii Magni Horn. XIV. in Ebriosos VII. (ed. Gamier, Vol. II. 

p. 129). 

Tov fjiv yap Xoyia p,ov KOU TOV vovv o oivos Kara/BaTrTL- 
(jei. . . TTOLOV 8e irXolov aKvfiepvrjTOv, VTTO TMV KVfjLarojv o>9 
av TVffl <f)p0fjivov, OVK aafyaXtcTTepov eari TOV fJL0vovTO$; 

Eustathii (Eumatliii) de Ismenige et Ismenes Amoribus. lib. VI. 
(ed. Teucher, p. 234). 

Kca rjiarjif VTTV&V rw Trapado^co TTJV ^^X 7 )^ KCLraOopv- 
ls TOV aKOvcr/jLaros, KOU oAoz^ Trj OXfyti TOV vovv 

Ejusdem lib. VII. (p. 310). 

TM craXco KCU TCO poOico TOV KVjJLa.TQ$* 



of the wave; but my spirit thou didst WHELM (BAPTIZE), surging 
round, with whole seas of wailings." 


The same Work, book VII. Neptune, says Hysmene, speaking 
of the storm which occasioned the sacrifice of Hysmenias, 

" Empties all his fury on the sea, and strives to WHELM 
(BAPTIZE) the whole vessel witlr the waves." 

<5e KaTe/BaTTTLaas Trjv ^v^rjv oXaLS @a\d<T(rai? KCOKV- 

Ejusdem lib. VII. fin. (p. 320). 

O\ov Ovfjiov Kara OaXacrarj^ /ceyoT, oXrjv rrfv vavv 
<f)t\oviKi KaTapaTTTicrcu TOIS Kv/ 


Usage of the Greek Versions of the Old Testament, 


Version of the Seventy* 4 Kings, ch. 5 : 14 (English Bible 
2 Kings 5 : 14). 

"And Naamari went down, and IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) HIMSELF in 
the Jordan, seven times." 

The sense is correctly given in the common English Bible : And dipped him 
self seven times in the Jordan. 

* Completed as early as the middle of the second century before Christ. 


Version of Aquila* Job, ch. 9 : 31 (English Bible, thou shalt 
plunge me in the ditch ). 

" Even then thou wilt PLUNGE (BAPTIZE) me in corruption." 

* First half of the second century after Christ. 


Septuag. interpret. 4 Reg. c. 5 : 14 (ed. Tischend.) 
Kal /care/3?7 Na.ifj.av KOLL /3a7TTio aTO eV TW 

Hexapl. Orig. Cap. IX. Job (ed. Montf. Vol. I. p. 409). 
31. A. KCU. Tore eV 8ia(j)@opa /BaTrrto eiS /xe. 



Version of Symmachus* Ps. 68 : 3 (Eng. Bible, Ps. 69 : 2. / 
sink in deep mire ). 

I am PLUNGED (BAPTIZED) into bottomless depths." 

* Last half of the second century after Christ. 


Version (or gloss) of an ancient writer, now unknown, Pi. 9 : 16 
(Eng. Bible, Ps. 9 : 15, are sunk down ). 



Version of the Seventy* Is. 21 : 4. 
" Iniquity WHELMS me." 

* Compare the remark on Example 169. 


The same version; Judith, ch. 12 : 5-9. 

"And the attendants of Holofernes brought her into the tent, 


Hexapl. Orig. Ps. LXVIII. (ed. Montf. Vol. I. p. 572). 
3. ^J. e/Sa7rTicr0r)i> ti? dirtpdvrovs KaTadvaet^.^ 
Yet. Interpret. Graec. Fragm. Ps. IX. (ed. Drusius, p. 882). 
1(3. 1S3B, /3a7rTi<j6r)(Tai>.~ 

Septuag. interpret. Es. XXI. 4 (ed. Tischend.). 

Septuair. interpret. Judith, c. 12 : 5-0 (cd. Tischend.). 
Kai rjydyocrav avrijv ol dtpdirovTts OXofytpvov t 

i Dfincrsus sum in inlinitas voragines (Montf.). 
* Demcrsae sunt (Hicron.). 


and she slept until midnight. And she arose at the morning 
watch. fi and sent to Holofernes, saying : Let my Lord give 
command, to allow th % f handmaid to go forth for prayer ; 
7 and Holofernes commanded the body-guards not to hinder her. 
And she remained in the camp three days ; and went forth by 
night* into the valley of Bethulia, and IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) HERSELF, 
in the camp at the fountain. t R And when she came up, she 

Compare, in eh. 6 : 11, * the fountains that were under Bethulia , ch. 7. and 
[Holofernes :iml bis horsemen] viewed the passages up to the city, and came to 
the fountains of tlieir waters, and took them ; v. 17, and they [the Ammoni 
tes and Assyrians] pitched in the valley, and took the waters, and the fountains 
of the children of Israel. 

There was evidently no lack of water for the immersion of the body, after 
the Jewish manner; namely by walking- into the water to the proper depth, 
and then sinking down till the whole body was immersed. 

* Accompanied by her maid, as stated in ch. 13 : 3. 

f One of the oldest Greek manuscripts (no. 58), and the two oldest versions 
(the Syriac and Latin) read, immersed (baptized) herself in the fountain of 
water (omitting, in the camp ). According to the common Greek text, this 
was done at the fountain ; to which she went, because she had there the means 
of immersing herself. Any other use of water, for purification, could have been 
made in her tent. 


TTjV <TK.r}Vr}V) Ka \)TTV(ti(Tt. \pi fJL(TOV<T7J9 TT? VVKTOS Ka 

cti/eVr?; irpos r^v ea)0u/Tjv <f>v\a.Kr]v 9 Kal aTrecrreiXe Trpo? 
*O\o(ppvr}i/ Xtyovaa J^TriTa^arco STJ o KvpLO? /JLOV eacrai 
TT]v SoiXrjv aov eirl irpoa^vy^v e^XOelv. KOU Trpocrera^ei 
OXotyepvi-jS TOis* aco/uiaro^vXa^L py StaKoo\Leii> avrrjv 
Kal 7rapep.Li>6i iv rrj 7rape/jL/3o/\fj rjfjLtpas rpels, Kal e^- 
erropeveTO Kara WKra L? rrjv (papayya HervXoia, Kal 
TO eV rfj TraptfJi/BoXfj eVi r?Jy TTijyrjv rov vdaro?. 1 

1 3 Jr TJ] i jtaQ{( t 3oA.7> 2] 58 (ed. Holmes ct Parson*). Enl rrs ^^y^s] ., . ev 
trj nyytj 58 (ibid.). Et baptizuuat so in Ibnte aqua: (Vet. Lat. ed Subatier). 
i.0 (Bibl. Polyglott.. ed. Waltfm). 

86 r-A<;K OF (illKKK WIUTKUS. 

besought the Lord God of Israel to direct her way, for the rais 
ing up of the sons of his people. y ^Vnd entering in pure, she 
remained in the tent, till one brought her food at evening/ 


We. same version, Wisdom of Sirac/i, ch. 34 : 27 (Eng. Bible. 
Ecclesiasticus, J4 : 25). 

u IMMKKSING (BAPTIZING) HIMSELF from a dead body, and touching 
it again, what is he profited by his bathing?" 

In this construction (immerse from), the writer puts the means for the effect ; 
immersion of the body being the means (symbolically) by which one was freed 
from the pollution of contact with the dead.* This brevity of expression is so 
common an idiom in the sacred writings (and in the early imitations of them) 
that it has become a recognized figure of speech.f For example, 2 Cor. 11 : 3, 
.so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ,- cor 
rupted from, that is, turned from by being corrupted, the means put for tbe 

* Sprinkled from an evil conscience 1 is the correct translation of Heb. 10 : 22, 
where also the writer puts means for effect; for the metaphorical application 
of the phrase here presupposes the literal use of the same form, and we must 
give the literal meaning, unless we would sink the writer s metaphor. 

f Compare Winer s Grammar of the New Test., 66, 2 (Masson s translation. 
\ 66, 2, d, p. 643, Am. edition). 

KOL &>$ dv/Sr], 1 e<5e ero rov KVplov fleov 

Vf\\ > ^ , / , ^ , ^ 

VOLL TT/V ooov avTij? ft9 avacrT/jLa Tcoi vicov rov Aaov avrov. 
Kal eio-TTOpevo/jitvr} Kadapa rraptfjievt rfj aKrjvr), ^Xpif ov 

\ i \ > ~ \ / 

rr)v rpocptjv avrr}? Trpo? eonrepav. 
Ejusdem lib. Siracidae c. 34 : 27 (ed. Tischend.). 


TL a)(f)Ar)Gr TW Xovrpcp avrov ; 

1 *Avifiri namlich ex rov i-Saros (Fritzsche, Kxegot. Handb. zu den Apokr. d. 
alt . Test, in loc.). 



Summary of the lexical and grammatical uses of baptizein. 

1. Lexical use. 

1. From the preceding examples it appears, that the ground- 
idea expressed by this word is, to put into or under water (or 
other penetrable substance), so as entirely to immerse or sub 
merge; that this act is always expressed in the literal applica 
tion of the word, and is the basis of its metaphorical uses. 
This ground-idea is expressed in English, in the various connec 
tions where the word occurs, by the terms (synonymous in this 
ground-element) to immerse, immerge, submerge, to dip, to plunge, 
to imbathe, to whelm. 

2. These examples are drawn from writers in almost every 
department of literature and science; from poets, rhetoricians, 
philosophers, critics, historians, geographers ; from writers on 
husbandry, on medicine, on natural history, on grammar, on 
theology ; from almost every form and style of composition, 
romances, epistles, orations, fables, odes, epigrams, sermons,* nar 
ratives ; from writers of various nations and religions, Pagan, 
Jew, and Christian, belonging to many different countries, and 
through a long succession of ages. 

3. In all, the word has retained its ground-meaning, without 
change. From the earliest age of Greek literature down to its 
close (a period of about two thousand years), not an example 
has been found, in which the word lias any other meaning. 


There is no instance, in which it Dignities to make a partial 

application of water by affusion or sprinkling, or to cleanse, to 

purify, apart from the literal act of immersion as the means of 
cleansing or purifying.* 

4. The object immersed or submerged is represented as being 
plunged, or as sinking down, into the ingulfing fluid or other 
substance : or the immersing element overflows and thus ingulfs 
the object. The former is the more common case. The latter 
occurs in Example 4. where rocks, overflowed by the tide when 
at the flood, are said not to be IMMKHSED at ebb-tide; Ex. 13, 
where the violent current of a river, swollen by heavy rains, 
is said to have KUBMBIUJEM many attempting to swim through 
it : Example 14, where nnimals nre said to be SUBMERGED by 
the overflowing of the Nile : Example 10. the mariners attempt 
ing to row out of the harbor to sea, against the storm and 
the heavy swell, a lofty surge dashes over their little vessel 
and SUBMERGES it. In the metaphorical application of the word, 
both cases are recognized as the ground of the usage. 

5. The immersing substance is usually water, that being tire 
element in which the act most commonly takes place. Other 
substances mentioned are : wine, Ex. 84 ; a dye (for coloring) 
Exs. 79 and 80 ; blood, Ex. 67, comp. Ex. 42 : breast-milk and 
ointment, Ex. 70 ; oil, Ex. 86 ; fire, Exs. 79 and 80 ; brine, 
Ex. 153 ; mud and slime, at the bottom of standing pools, 
Exs. 59, and J52 ; the human breast. Ex. 77 ; the neck, Exs. 68, 
78 ; the human body, Exs. 72. 75, 76. 

6. The word immerse, as well as its synonyms immerge, etc., 
expresses the full import of the Greek word BAPTIZEIX. The 
idea of emersion is not included in the meaning of the Greek 

* When part of an object is said to he immersed, tin- word is applied to 
that part alone, and the rest of the object is expressly excepted from its applica 
tion. Thus, in Kx. (J, the oaken part (of the fish-spear) is said to be I.MMKUSKII, 
"and the rest is buoyed up;" in Kx. 7, the body is said to be "IMMKKSKD 
a* far as to the breasts," all above beim; expres.-ly excepted; so Kxs. 11 and 
38, in one of which the body from the waist upward, and in the other the 
head, is excepted. 



It means, simply, to put into or under water (or other 
substance), without determining whether the object immersed 
sinks to the bottom, or floats In the liquid, or is immediately 
taken out. This is determined, not by the word itself, but by 
the nature of the case, and by the design of the act in each 
particular case. A living being, put under water without in 
tending to drown him, is of course to be immediately withdrawn 
from it; and this is to be understood, wherever the word is 
t used with reference to such a case. But the Greek word is 
also used where a living being is put under water for the purpose 
of drowning, and of course is left to perish in the immersing 
element. All this is evident from the following examples. 

Example 28, "IMMERSING (BAPTIZING) so that lie should not be 
able to come up again;" Ex. 27, "as you would not wish, 
sailing in a large and polished and richly gilded ship, to be 
SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED);" Ex. 41, " nor (knoAvs the pilot whether 
he saves, in the voyage, one whom it were better to SCBMERGI: 
f BAPTIZE) ;" Ex. 43, "desiring to swim through, thev were 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by their full armour: Ex. 48, " having 
SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) his ship with much merchandise, then blames 
the sea for having ingulfed it full laden:" Ex. 51. "and the 
dolphin, angry at such a falsehood. IMMERSING . BAPTIZING) killed 
him: 7 Ex. 16, "pressing him down and IMMERSING (BAPTIZING) 
him while swimming, . . . they did not desist till they had 
entirely suffocated him;" Ex. 17, " being IMM KKSKI) (BAPTIZED) in 
a swimming-bath, by the Gauls, he dies r Ex. 44, - and stretch 
ing out a hand to others, [would J save them, as if drawing T] p 
persons SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) ;" Ex. 52 ; "the ship being in danger 
of BECOMING IMMERGED f BAPTIZED), he threw out all the lading into 
the sea;" Ex. 72. "and death to her [the soul] white yet 
IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) in the body." etc. ; Ex. 7)3. " towering up by 
what is not IMMERGED (BAPTIZED) in the bodv ;" Ex. 75, "they 
have their nature and perceptive faculty IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in 
the depth of the body ;" Ex. 76. " they have the soul very 
much IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the depth of the body :" Ex. 81, 
"slaying some on land, and PLUNGING (BAPTIZING i others with their 
boats and huts into the lake;" Ex. 84, "I IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) 
him into wine, and took and drank him:" Ex. 85. "but also 
itself partaking of their deformity, and IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) into it. 


7. Tlio word is used of the most familiar arts and occurrences 
of common life: as, IMMKRSI.V; (BAPTIZING) wool in a dye. to color 
Exs. 79 and 80); steel in fire, to heat it for tempering 
(ibidem) ; heated iron (steel) in water to temper it (Ex. 71) ; an 
object in a liquid, in order to drink it. (Ex. 84) : a person in 
the waves, in sport or revenge (Exs. 20 and 60) ; a ship in the 
sea. by overloading it (Ex. 48) : an animal in the water, to 
drown it (Kx. 51); tow in oil. for burning (Ex. 86); salt in 
water, to dissolve it (Ex. 50) : a pole into the bed of a river, 
to reach something at the bottom (Ex. 82) : a bladder in water, 
by forcing it under (Ex. 24) ; the hollow hand in water, to fill 
it (Ex. 57) ; the hand in blood, to besmear it (Ex. 67) ; a 
branch in a liquid, in order to sprinkle it about (Ex. 69) ; a 
medical preparation (a pessary of cantharides) in breast-milk 
and ointment, to allay the irritation (Ex. 70) ; a sword into 
an enemy s breast (Ex. 77) ; sliced turnips in brine, for a salad 
(Ex. 153) ; etc. 

8. The ground-idea is preserved in the several metaphorical 
uses of the word. This is evident from many examples. 

Thus, of certain persons liable at any moment to be plunged 
in ruin , it is said (Kx. 87): "they differ little . . from those 
who are driven by storm at r-ea ; . . . and if they commit any 
even the slightest mistake, are totally SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) : 7 ol 
one overwhelmed with sorrows by the calamity in which a 
friend had perished (Ex. 88) : " SUBMERGED (BAPTIZED) by that great 
wave;" of one under the influence of an overmastering passion 
(Ex. 92): "although WHKLMKD (BAITIZED) by desire, the 1 generous 
man endeavored to resist, and emerged as from a wave ;" of 
a similar case (Ex. 93) : " but Dyonisius . . was seized indeed 
by a tempest, and was WHELMED (BAPTIZED) as to the soul ; but 
yet he struggled to emerge from the passion, as from a mighty 
wave;" of an enterprise, ruined by untoward events (Ex. 116): 
" the business [of instructing the young] being WIIKI.MKD (BAITIZED) 
and all the wind.- bring n t in motion against it:" of a peo 
ple lying in ignorance (Ex. 125): "the congregation I.MMKKSED 
.I IT/,KI>, in ignorance, and unwilling to emerge to the knowl- 
of the spiritual teaching:" of the mind oppressed and 
.pitted by intemperance in eating and drinking (Ex. 136) : 


" as though the reason were WHELM KD (BAPTIZED) by the things 
overlying it ;" (with a negation) of one self-collected in diffi 
culties and dangers (Ex. 141): preserving the soul erect and 
un WHELMED (un-BAPnzED), and high above every storm ;" of persons 
under the power of intoxicating drinks (Ex. 95) : * so also the 
souls of these [the intoxicated] are driven about beneath the 
waves, being WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with wine ;" Ex. 147, " flooded 
with vehement words, and WHELMED (BAPTIZED) with undiluted 
wine" (where one who is so overborne and subdued by the 
power of wine, is represented as "plunged in the cask"). 

The idea of a total submergence lies at the basis of these 
metaphorical uses. Any thing short of this, such as the mere 
sprinkling or pouring of water on an object, viewed as the 
ground of these metaphorical senses, would be simply absurd. 

9. In Christian Greek literature, the word retained its dis 
tinctive meaning, and continued to be freely used both in the 
literal and metaphorical sense (Exs. 39, 44, 45-47, 58, 77, 78, 
79 and 80, 81, 90, 91, 95, 104-107, 119, 121-123, 125-131, 
138-141, 154, 155, 158, 164, 165). 

10. In the metaphorical sense it is often used absolutely, 
meaning to whelm in (or with) ruin, troubles, calamities, sufferings, 
sorrows, busi?iess, perplexity, intoxication. See Exs. 98-102, 115, 
116, 124, 135, 142-146, 1^8, 150. That, in this absolute use, 
the literal image on which the usage is founded was not lost 
from view, is evident from Ex. 124: "you are not at leisure 
but are OVERWHELMED, and the multitude of other affairs holds 
you in subjection" (more literally, has brought you under itself? 
with which compare Ex. 95). 

2. Grammatical construction. 

The word is construed, in connection with the immersing sub 
stance, as follows : 

1. With the prep, into before the name of the element into 
which an object is PLUNGED or IMMERSED, expressing fully the act 
of passing from one element into another. 


Ex. 01. " uuoiind) every tiling that is IMMERSED into it ; Ex. 64, 
" pi.r.vuE thyself into the sea;" Ex. 65, " PLUNGING himself into the 
lake Copais ;" Ex. 07, " DIPPING his hand into the blood ;" Ex. 68, 
%t he PLUNGED the whole sword into his own neck ;" Ex. 70, 
" again IMMERSE into breast-milk and Egyptian ointment;" Ex. 74, 
"IMMERSED HIMSELF into the Ocean-stream; Ex. 77, "TO PLUNGE the 
sword into the enemy s breast;" Ex. 81, :; arid PLUNGING others 
with their boats and huts into the lake ;" Ex. 82, " they PLUNGE 
into the water, therefore, a pole smeared with pitch ;" Ex. 84, 
I IMMERSED him into wine;" Ex. 85, "and IMMERSED into it;" 
(metaphorically) Ex. 118, "PLUNGED by drunkenness into stupor 
and sleep:" Ex. 119, "PLUNGED by drunkenness into sleep;" 
Ex. 128, "IMMERSE from sobriety into fornication." 

2. With the prep, in, denoting locality, or the element in 
or within which the act takes place. 

Ex. 59. "IMMERSED and sinking in the pools;" Ex. 72, "to 


Ex. 61. (irepi ) iravrl rw fiaTTTLcrOevTi elf avro. Ex. 64, 
/Ba7TTLo~oi> oreavTov el? 6a.\anT(TOLV. Ex. 65, eavTOv /3a7rri- 
fav el? TT)V f^coTraida XifJLvyv. Ex. 67, el? TO al/jia TTJJ/ 
\tipa ftcarrlaraf. Ex. 68, oXov el? ri]v eavrov cr0ay?;i/ 
TO i(f)O$. Ex. 70, fiazrrifav TvdXiv eV yaXa 
) K. T. X. Ex. 74, eV /2/ca^eio ^600^ 
Ex. 77, paTTTiaat TO t<f>Ot d? TO TUV TToXtfliov 
Ex. 81, TOV? 8e elf TTTJV XifAvrjV . . . /BaTTTi^ovToov. Ex. 82, 
KOVTOV oi)v ei? TO vdcop /3a7TTi(ovo-i Trio-cry 7rt<pap/j.a-y/jL- 
vov. Ex. 84, (fiuTTTia fly TOV olvov. Ex. 85, /cai /36/3a- 
avTjjv. Ex. 118, fieftoLTrTLarfjitvov els OLVOLL- 
KOLL VTTVOV vno TTJS fjieOj]?. Ex. 119, VTTO fJLeOys 
el? ZTTVQV. Ex. 128, e/c aco(f)p oavvrjs el? 7rop~ 

Kx. 59, fiaTTTL^ofJievoi KOLL Ka.Ta$vvovTes ev Tol? TeXp.a- 


her, while yet IMMERGED in the body ;" Ex. 75, " IMMERSED in the 
depth of the body ;" Exs. 79, 80, " as wool IMMERSED in a dye ;" 
Ibid., " as steel IMMERSED in the fire ;" (metaphorically) Ex. 129, 
"IMMERSED in wickedness;" (compounded with in) Ex. 152, 
"IMMERSED in the pools;" Ex. 153, IMMERSE in brine ;" and meta 
phorically, Ex. 154, "IMMERSES the soul in cares of business; 7 
Ex. .155, "even the mind would be IMMERSED in pleasure." 

3. Also with the simple dative as a local case, denoting locality, 
viz. the element in which, or where, the act is performed. 

Ex. 60, in waves of the sea IMMERSING;" Ex. 71, "is PLUNGED 
in water;" Ex. 73, towering up by what is not IMMERGED in 
the body;" Ex. 76, "IMMERSED in the body:" Ex. 78, "TO PLUNGE 
his right hand in his father s neck;" Ex. 86, "and DIPPING 
tow in oil ;" (figuratively) Ex. 120, "PLUNGES in 1 sleep;" Ex. 121. 

1 That this is the true construction here, is rendered most probable by com 
parison with Exs.. 118 and 119, "PLUNGED by drunkenness into stupor and 


. Ex. 72, avrrj KCU tri eV ro> crcofJiarL / 
Ex. 75, ^^aTrrLo-fJLevrjv eV r&> /3ct#et rov crc^uaTO$\ Exs. 79. 80, 

CO(TTTp TO tpLOV ftaTTTLCrOiv V /3dUiaTi. Ibid. toCTTTe (7L- 

drjpoy Pd7TTi.6iJLvo$ eV ra> irvpi. Ex. 129, eV rfj 
&@a7ma-}Jivoi. Ex. 152, ^^aTTTLcr^evas rol? 
Ex. 153, e^aTTTt^rov aA/zr;. Ex. 154, r^v ^vyyv e/ji/3a- 
Trpay/jLarojis. Ex. 155, KOL o vovs av 

Ex. 60, KVfjLaai TTOVTOV /3a7TTifav. Ex. 71, vSari 
ferar. Ex. 73, TW ^rj jjirj /3a7rTi(r0i>Ti r<p crco/j,ari virep- 
avrer. Ex. 76, /3f/3a7mo>ieV?7i> TV ao!)/j,aTi. Ex. 78, TT)V 
TW Aai/zw paTTTtcrai rep 7rarpLK<. Ex. 86, /cat 
eAa/a) /SaTTTicra?. Ex. 120, /3a7rrl^L 8 VTTVCO. 


"had PLUNGED the city in 1 sleep;" Ex. 125, "IMMERSED in 3 igno 

This construction (confined mostly to poetry) is required in some examples, 
and is the probable one in others. One man immerses another in (not with) 
waves of the sea ; a heated mass of iron (steel) is plunged or immersed in (not 
with) water, to cool it ; what is inclosed in the human body is immersed in 
(not with) it; a weapon is plunged in (not with) the neck. 

4. In the metaphorical sense of whelming, overwhelming (sub 
merging, as with an overflowing flood), the passive is construed 
with the usual expression of the efficient cause, and both the 
active and passive with the dative of means or instrument (by, or 

Compare the literal use in Exs. 4 and 19, and the figurative use in Ex. 106 ; 
and especially Exs. 136, "WHELMED by the things overlying it," and 168, 
" (Neptune) strives to WHELM the whole vessel with the waves." 

Ex. 88, " SUBMERGED by that great wave ;" Ex. 92, " WHELMED 
by desire;" Ex. 103, "WHELMED by worldly affairs ;" Ex. 107, 
u be WHELMED by the annoyances of passion;" Ex. 117, "WHELMED 
by grief;" Ex. 122, "before tliou art deeply WHELMED by 

1 See the note on the preceding page. 

2 Not imbued with, as is evident from the following expression emerge to. 1 
The choice is between the two conceptions whelmed with (as an overflowing 
flood), and immersed in (sunk in ignorance). The latter conception is the 
most natural and probable one; so in Exs. 126, 127. 

Ex. 121, VTTVCO rrjv TToXw tfioLTTTifyv. Ex. 125, ayvo ia fie- 

/SctTTT la ^VTfV . 

Kx. 88, /3e/3a7m07zeW>y VTTO rov fJLCyaAov Kiparo? e /cet- 
vov. Ex. 92, j3aTTTiofjLvo? VTTO rr}<> tTTiffv/MOLf, Ex. 103, 
VTTO TWV 7Tyoay/ittTCt>i>. Ex. 107, VTTO ar/dia? 
Ex. 117, /3a7rr*o/zeyoz/ re VTTO TIJ? 
odvvrj?. Ex. 122, Trp\v rj afpoSpa VTTO Ta.vrr)s /3aTTTi(r0rj- 


intoxication ;" Ex. 138, " neither WHELMED by poverty, nor elated 
by riches ;" Ex. 164, " WHELMED by wickedness." 

Ex. 91, "to WHELM as with successive waves;" Ex. 132, "they 
do not WHELM the common people with taxes ;" Ex. 149, " and 
having WHELMED Alexander with much wine" (compare Ex. 95) ; 
Ex. 163, "whom having- WHELMED with the same drug;" Ex. 168, 
" didst WHELM . . . with whole seas of waitings." 

Ex. 104, " is WHELMED by none of the present evils ;" Ex. 105, 
"to be WHELMED by the troubles of the present life;" Ex. Ill, 
"to be WHELMED with such a multitude of evils;" Ex. 123, 
"WHELMED with ten thousand cares;" Ex. 133, "WHELMED with 
debts" (and many others). 

5. Rarely with the prep, down (down into, i. e. below the 

vai <r rrjf fJL0i}S. Ex. 138, ovre VTTO rrj? Trevias $OLTVTL- 

o[JLVO?, OVT V7TO TOV 7T\OVTOV 7TaLpO/J.VO?. Ex. 164, U7TO 

TTJ9 KdKias Kara/Be 

Ex. 91, uxjTTtp 7ra\\r}\ois fiaiTTL^eiv. Ex. 132, 
TOVS $e i$i(!)Tas . . ov /3oL7rrl^ov(Ti TOLLS io~(f)opal$. Ex. 149, 
p 8e TroAAw AXtl^av&pov /BaTrrlcrao-a. Ex. 163, f)i> 

. Ex. 168, 

Ex. 104, ov$vl rutv TrapovTtov ftaarnfTau deLvcov. Ex. 105, 

oiL TOL9 XvTTTjpOl? TOV TTapOVTOf (3lOV. Ex. Ill, 

vro) 7rXt]OeL ftaimcrGijvcu xaKtov. Ex. 123, fivpious 
vos (j)povTio-t,. Ex. 133, o)A?; 



external surface). Ex. 83, "PLUNGED down the body;" Ex. 63, 
[down] in water." 


Ex. 83, paTTTi^o-Oai . . . Kara rov o-co/iaroy. 1 Ex. 63 
(with ace.), a POLTTT KTTOV re Kaff vdcop. 

1 And with the genitive alone, Ex. 62, apdnnoTos fl f u . . . alua* ; also 
(in some editions) Ex. 74, ore / Qxeavolo $dov (ed. Schneitl). Comp. Bcrnh. 
Gr. Synt. Kap. 3, 47, a, p. 168. 


Application of these Results to the Neiv Testament. 

1. Wo have thus taken a full survey of the use of this word 
among those who spoke the Greek language, and to whom the 
New Testament was directly addressed, in numerous examples 
from theii own writings, composed before and during the age 
of Christ and his apostles, and for a long time after ; showing 
its unvarying signification through all this time, and its gram 
matical construction in connection with the name of the element, 
in which the act it expresses took place. 

Let us now open the New Testament, and observe how the 
following passages must have been read and understood, by those 
whose manner of using this word has been shown in the fore 
going examples. 

Matt. 3 : 6. "And were IMMERSED (BAPHZED) in the Jordan by 

Matt. 3 : 11. "I indeed IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) you in water. . . . He 
will IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) you in holy spirit and fire."* 
Compare the writer s note on Matt. 3 : 11. 

Mark 1 : 5. And were all IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the river 
Jordan by him."* 

* See Ex. 1 (59, " IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) HIMSELF in the Jordan" (Eng. Bible, 
dipped himself . . in the Jordan ), and the examples referred to in Section III, 
2, 2, (on p. 92). 



. Mark 1:8. "I indeed IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) you i water ; but 
he will IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) you in lioly spirit."* 

Compare the writer s note, just referred to, on Matt. 
3 : 11. 

Mark 1:9. " Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by John into the Jordan "t 

The reader of the New Testament in the Greek language, to 
whom this- was his mother tongue, could be at no loss to know 
what was done in these cases ; or what was required to be 
done by the command in Matt. 28 : 19, and similar passages. 

2. The accompanying circumstances accord with this unvarying 
meaning of the word. For example, John at first resorted to 
the river Jordan, as a convenient place for IMMERSING (BAPTIZING) 
the multitudes who came to him. JEnon was afterwards selected 
for this purpose, and for the express reason, " because there was 
much water there, and they came and were IMMERSED (BAPTIZED)" 
(John 3 : 23). In the most circumstantial account given in the 
New Testament of the administration of the rite (the immersion 
of the eunuch by Philip, Acts 8 : 38), it is said that " they went 
down both- into the water; 77 and that after the rite was performed, 
" they came up out of the wa.tcr."J 

3. The other acts, with which it is compared in the New 
Testament, accord with and require this meaning. It is repre 
sented as a burial; Rom. (> : 4, "we are buried with him by 
the IMMERSION (BAPTISM) j" Col. 2 : 12, buried with him by (prop. 
in) the IMMERSION ( BAPTISM). " It is spoken of as having been 

* See the note on the preceding page. 

f See Ex. 171, " I am PLUNGED (BAPTIZED) into bottomless depths/ and the 

referred to in Section III. 2, 1, (on pp. 1)1, 92.). 

% It lias been erroneously supposed, that the same tiling is slated in Matt. ,] : 1C, 
and Mark 1 : 10. But the prep, from (dno] is lhn un-d ; and the proper ren 
dering is. up from the water. Hut here (in Acts) the prep, is tx, out from, 
out of; awl the only p<>s.-il]c rendering is. cami- up out of the water, into 
which (;LS just before said] they had iron.- down. 

$ The language is here so explicit, and ilie reli-rence KO obvious, that all Chris- 


typefied, when the Israelites " were under the cloud, and passed- 
through the sea," " IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the cloud and in the 
sea" (1 Cor. 10 : 1, 2).* 

4. This unvarying sense of the word is expressly distinguished 
from the application of water to some portion of the body, 
denoted by other words. In Mark 7 : 8, 4, it is said that the 
Pharisees " eat not" (i. e.. never eat) " except they wash their 
hands/ 7 these being always liable to ceremonial defilement : and 
that "when they come from a public place, as the market (the 
whole body having been exposed), " except they IMMERSE (BAPHZE) 
THEMSELVES, they eat not." In the former case, the writer uses 
the appropriate word (NIPTEIX) for washing any portion of the 
body; as the face (Matt. 6 : 17), the hands (Matt. 15 : 2), the 
feet (John 13 : 5). In the latter case he uses, in distinction 
from it, the word BAPTIZEIN, which by constant usage expressed 
an entire submersion of the object spoken of. As there is here 
no limitation (" they IMMERSE THEMSELVES"), the whole body of 
course is meant.t 

5. With this usage accords also the metaphorical sense of 
overwhelming suffering, found in Mark 10 : 38, 39, " can ye under 
go the IMMERSION (BAPTISM) that I must undergo, "J and in Luke 
12 : 50, "I have an IMMERSION (BAPTISM) to undergo ;"J a sense 
founded on the idea of total submergence, as in floods of ?or- 

tian antiquity understood by it an allusion to the symbolic significance of the 
rite of immersion. (See examples in Section Y. 1.) Almost all modern scholars 
are of the same opinion. The few attempts to set aside this obvious view have 
made little impression, and require no refutation. 

* Compare the explanation of this given by the Greek interpreter Theophylact, 
Section Y. Example 196. 

f In Luke 11 : 38, there is no intimation that this was always practiced be 
fore dinner. On the contrary, the full and minute statement in Mark 7 : 3, 4, 
forbids this supposition, and Luke 11 : 38 must be understood accordingly. It 
was the case mentioned in v. 4 of Mark s statement, the Saviour having come 
from a crowd. 

I As these passages are correctly rendered by Dr. Campbell (President of 
Marischal College, Aberdeen), "The four Gospels translated," etc. 

AI PLir.VTlOX TO Till ; M-:\V TKSi AMKNT. 

row.* The same metaphorical sense, according to many inter 
preters, is found in 1 Cor. 15 : 29. 

6. The grammatical construction accords also with the constant 
usage of Greek writers, and witli the only recognized meaning 
of the word. Namely : 

1. With the prep, into, expressing the act of passing from 
one element (the air) into another (water). Compare the Sum 
mary of the usage of Greek writers, Section III. 2, L For 
example: Mark 1 : 9, "WAS IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by John ir>to the 

2. With the prep, in, denoting locality, or the element in or 
within which the act is performed (Summary, Section III. 2, 2). 

For example: Mark 1 : 5, "were all IMMERSED (BAITIZKD) in the 
river Jordan; Matt. 3 : 11, "I indeed IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) you in 
water; Mark 1 : 8, " I IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) you in water;" ibid.. 
but he will IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) you in holy spirit ;"* John 1 : 26, 
* I IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) in water ;" v. 31, "I came IMMERSING (BAPTIZIM;) 
in water;" v. 33, "he who sent me to IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) in 
water;" same verse, "this is he who IMMERSES (BAPTIZES) in holy 

3. With the dative alone, either as a local case, in water 
e. g., (Summary, Section V. 2, 3), or as the instrumental dative, to 
distinguish the element used for immersing in one case from that 
employed in another.:): The simple dative occurs, in the New 
Testament, only where the material or element used for immers 
ing is to be thus distinguished. In all these instances, the 
distinction is between the element of wafer, and the Holy Spirit 
(or, holy spirit) ; and as the latter could less properly be con 
ceived as the mere instrument of an act, it is in every such 
case construed with the local preposition in. (Sec Luke 3 : 10, 
Acts 1:5, 11 : 16.) This is the only explanation of the use 

1 :;ijiuv the remark on K\. . -. and the Summary iu Section III. 1, 8. 
to the remark on ]> . 97. 

J Dr. Hackett (mi Acts 1 : f>j : ~ i San, ?///// water us the clement by which, 
t -itari nyiM, in the Ilnlij Spirit, as tiic element in which tin; baptism is 
|>- rformi-.l. " (Commentary on the original text of the Acts of the Apostles, Id 
f<li lion, p. 37.) 


both of the simple dative, and of the dative with the preposition, 
in the same connection and relation. 

7. The Greek word BAPTIZEIN expresses nothing more than the 
act of IMMERSION, the religious significance of which is derived 
from the circumstances connected with it. Thus when, in obe 
dience to the command in Matt. 28 : 19, this act is performed 
on the assenting believer, in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Spirit, it by this becomes the Christian 
rite ;. and this distinguishes it from all other acts of life, and 
gives it a sacred relation and a sacred significance. But in 
Mark 7:4 ( except they immerse themselves 7 ), and in Luke 
11 : 38 ( that he had not immersed himself 7 ), the act expressed 
by the same word is a superstitious Pharisaic ceremony, con 
demned by our Lord himself; and in Heb. 9 : 10, the mere 
ceremonial immersions of the Jews are meant. The act desig 
nated by the word, in all these cases, is the same ; the relation 
in which it is performed constitutes the only distinction. In the 
Christian rite, being performed with a conscious reference to 
the burial and resurrection of Christ, the act associates with 
itself, in tire mind of the believer, the religious ideas and obliga 
tions symbolized by it in virtue of this reference. It is also 
a recognition of the pollution of sin, and of the sanctifying 
agency of the spirit, as symbolized by the cleansing power of 
the element of water. But the word BAITIZKIN did not, in itself, 
express an immersion in the name of the Father, of the Son, and 
of the Holy Spirit; nor an immersion with reference to the 
burial and resurrection of Christ, or to the sanctifying agency 
of the Spirit. Wherever it is used of the Christian rite, in 
the New Testament, this reference is clear from the connection ; 
and only through this connection does it suggest the peculiar 
Christian ideas associated with it. 


Us a ^e of the Church Fathers. 


Where they use this word (or the cognate noun) of the Christian rite, or describe 
the rite in other words. 

What the Church Fathers, who wrote while the Greek was 
a living 1 language, and to whom it was the mother tongue, 
understood to be the meaning of this word in the New Testa 
ment, will be seen from the following examples, to which many 
others of the same tenor might be added. 


Cyrill* Bishop of Jerusalem, Instruction IIL, On Baptism, xii. 
" For as Jesus assuming the sins of the world died, that 
having slain sin he might raise thee up in righteousness ; so 

* Born about 315 after Christ ; made Bishop of Jerusalem in 350. 

Cyrilli Hierosol. Catcchesis III. de Baptismo, xii. (ed. Touttee,p. 45}> 

f2(77Tp "yap * fr)(Tov? TO.? d/maprta? ava- 
Act/3o)y airtOavtv, iva OavaruHras r^v a^apriav dvao-Trjcrr) 
a eV OLKaioavvr) ovrco KOLL av Kara/So.? eis TO vScop, KOU 


also thou, going down into the water, and in a manner buried 
in the waters as he in the rock, art raised again, walking in 
newness of life." 


The same writer, Initiation //., On the ceremonies of Baptism. 

" strange and wonderful transaction ! Not truly did we 
die, nor were we truly buried, nor truly crucified did we rise 
again ; but the imitation was in a similitude, while the salvation 
was in truth. Christ was really crucified, and really was buried, 
and truly rose again ; and all these things have been graciously 
imparted to us, that sharing his sufferings in imitation, we might 
in truth obtain salvation." 


The same writer, Initiation II. 4. 

"After these things, ye were led by the hand to the sacred 
font of the divine IMMERSION (BAPTISM), as Christ from the cross 


TpoTrov Tiva ev roty vdacri ra^ety, coarrep tKtlvo? ev ry 
TrtTpa, eyelpr) iraXlv eV KCUVOTTJTL o)??y TrepnraTcov. 

Ejusdem Mystag. II. de Baptismi Caeremoniis (ed. Touttee, p. 313). 

KCU irapaoov TT pay \JLOLTQS. OVK 
, ovS a\7]0co9 rd(f)r]ijLev, ovd* aXrjdcos 
aAA* eV SIKOVL r) yLti/x^cr^^ eV 
8e 77 o-GorrjpLa. Xptaroy oVrwy eo-TavpojQr}, /cat ovrco? era- 
0?;, KCU aXrjOws avearrj KCU TTOLVTOL ^plv ravra 
(TTCU, Iva rfj fjufjurjcrti TCOV Tra^/xarco^ avrov 

Ejusdem Mystag. II. 4 (ed. Toutt ee, p. 312). 

Mtra ravra, TTL rrjv ayiav TOV Oeiov 

^e KoXv}JLfir]6pav, coy o Xpicrros OLTTO TOV 


to the prepared tomb. And each was asked, if ho believes in 
the mime of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. 
And ye professed the saving profession, and sunk down thrice 
into the water, and again came up. And there, by a symbol, 
shadowing forth the burial of Christ," etc. 


The same writer (in the same passage, eight lines below). 
" And in the same ye died and were born ; and that saving 
water became to you a grave and a mother." 


The same writer, Instruction VIII., On the Holy Spirit II. 14. 

"For the Lord saith : Ye shall be IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the 
Holy Spirit not many days after this. Not in part the grace ; 
but all-sufficing the power ! For as he who sinks down in the 




Kal TOV ayiov Uvtv/jiaTos. Kal co/zoAoy^o-are TTJV O-^TTJ- 
piov ofJLoXoyiav, Kal /care^Jere Tp iTov eis* TO V&op, KOL 
TrdXiv ai/^i;er Kal tvTav&a, Sia (rvfji/3o\ov TTJV TpLrjfJLepov 


Ejusdem (ibidem}. 

Kal iv TW avTw a7T@vr)o-K(T Kal iytvvacrQd Kal TO 
o-toTrjpiov Kivo v8o)p Kal Ta(j)09 VfJiiv iyivtTQ Kal fJirj- 


Ejusdem Catechesis XVII. (de Spiritu Sancto II.) 14 (p. 271). 

Aiyti yap o Kvpw Y/JLtl? /SotTrricr^crecr^e r Trvtv- 
fj.aTL dyta* ov /zero: TroAActr Tavra? rj/jLf pa?. ov fjitpLKi] ?y 
\dpis, d\Xd auroreATyy T? dwd^is. coaTrep -yap o 


waters and is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), is surrounded on all sides by 
the waters, so also they were completely IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by the 


Basil* (the Great), On the Holy Spirit, ch. XV. 35. 

" Imitating the burial of Christ by the IMMERSION (BAPTISM); 
for the bodies of those IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) are as it were buried 
in the water." 

* Born about 330 after Christ ; made Bishop of Csesarea in 370. 


The same writer (in the same passage, a few lines below}. 
"The water presents the image of death, receiving the body 
as in a tomb." 


The same writer, On Baptism, book I. ch. 1, 4. 
" Which we seem to have covenanted by the IMMERSION (BAPTISM) 


eV rot? vSavi KOI /3a7mo/^o? , TravTayoOtv VTTO T&V 
TGJV 7TpL/3d\Xerar OVTCO KOL VTTO TOV Trvtv/jLaTO? f/S 

Basil. Mag. de Spirit. Sanct., c. XV. 35 (ed. Gamier, Vol. III. p. 29). 


o Lovel -yap e^aTTTerat rw vdan TMV 

v<jov ra 

Ejusdem (ibidem). 

7o n,tv vdcop rov Oavdrou rrjv eiKo 
tv rafpri TO aco/ma Trapafttyofjievov. 

Ejusd., de Baptismo, lib. I. c. 1, 4, extr. (ed. Gamier, Vol. II. p. 628). 
"O-n-ep <rvvT0elo-0cu SOKOV^CIS dca TOV cv re 


in water, professing to have been crucified with, to have died 
with, to have been buried with, and so forth, as it is written." 


Chrysostom,* Comment, on 1 Cor. Discourse XL. 1. 

"For to be IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), and to sink down, then to 
emerge, is a symbol of the descent into the underworld, and of 
the ascent from thence. Therefore Paul calls the IMMERSION 
(BAPTISM) the burial, saying: We were buried, therefore, with 
him by the IMMERSION- (BAPTISM) into death. 7 " 

* Born about 347 after Christ ; made Bishop and Patriarch of Constantinople 
in 398. 


The same writer, On the Gospel of John, Discourse XXV. 

" Divine symbols are therein celebrated, burial and deadness, 

and resurrection and life. And all these take place together ; 

for when we sink our heads down in the water as in a kind 

of tomb, the old man is buried, and sinking down beneath is 


, 6/ioAoyo tares avvcoTavp&O Oai, crvvT0vr]K- 
vat, awTtfyOai, /ecu ra e^r, KaOcos yeypoamu* 

Ohrysost. in Epist. ad I Cor. Horn. XL. 1 (ed. Montf. Vol. X. p. 379). 

To -yap paTTTi^eaOai KGLL KaradvevOai, dra dvaveveiv, 

rf)S ciy adov Kara/Sacrta? eari avpfioXov /ecu TTJ? (K*i0V 

dvoSov. dio TOV rdfyov TO paima \JLCL o IlavXo? /caAci 

ovv avru> i TOV 

TOV OdvaTOv. 

Chrysost. in Joannem Horn. XXV. (ed. Montf. Vol. VIII. p. 146). 
Oela T\flTai eV avT<p av^./3o\a Ta(f)os KOL veKpwo-iy, 
KOI dvdo-Tao-is /ccti ^a>?}, KOLL TavTa opov yivtrai TTCLVTCL. 

rtp yap eV TIV\ Tafyw TCO vdaTi KaTo.dvovTcoi ?; 
s K60aAa?, o TraXatoy dvOpcjoiro? OdTTTtTai, KOL K 


all concealed at once ; then, when we emerge, the new man 
comes up again." 


The same writer, On the Epistle to the Romans, Discourse XL <n 
ch. VI. 5. 

"For as his body, buried in the earth, bore for fruit the 
salvation of the world ; so also ours, buried in the IMMERSION 
("BAPTISM), bore for fruit righteousness, sanctification, sonship, ten 
thousand benefits, and will bear also the final gift of the resur 
rection. Since, therefore, we indeed in water, but he in earth, 
and we in respect to sin, but he in respect to the body was 
buried, on this account he did not say, planted together in 
death/ but in the likeness of death. " 

Athanasius* Discourse on the Holy Passover, 5. 

* Born near the close of the third or beginning of the fourth century ; made 
Bishop of Alexandria in the year 328. 


Kara* KpvTrreraL oAoy KaOdira^- elra dvavevovTtov ?y^ft)i/, 6 

KOUVO? avei(Ti 

Chrysostomi in Epist. ad Rom. Horn. XI. in c. VI. 5 (ed. Mo?itf., 
Vol. IX. p. 530). 

KaOairep yap TO crcofjia avrou rafyev v rfj yrj Kapirov 


pov Ta(j)v ev TCD fiatrTicr/uiaTi, Kapirov rjveyKt TT)V SIKCUO- 
owrjv, TOV dyiao-nov, TJJV vio0e(rtai>, TO, fjivpia dyaOd- 
OKTEL Koi TO TTjs dva.<jTdcrttos vaTcpov dojpov. eTrel 
ovv ry^ety tv vSaTt, avTo? 8e tv yfj, KOL ^/jLels yueV 
KaTa TOV TTJS d^aoTioi^ \oyov, Ktlvo? 3e KOLTO. TOV TOV 
o-co^aroy Ta(f)r/, Sia TOVTO OVK etTre, o~v/j,(f)VTOi TCO 
aAAa rw o/uLOLCOfjiaTi TOV OavaTOV. 


"In these benefits thou \vast IMMKUSKD (UAITIZKD), newly- 
enlightened : the initiation into the grace, newly-enlightened, 
has become to thee an earnest of resurrection ; thou hast the 
IMMERSION (BAPTISM j as a surety of the abode in heaven. Thou 
didst imitate, in the sinking down, the burial of the Master ; 
but thou didst rise again from thence, before works witness 
ing the works of the resurrection. 


Tfye same writer, Questions on the Psalms, Prop. 92. 

"For that the child sinks down thrice in the font, and comes 
up. this shows the death, and the resurrection on the third day, 
of Christ. 


Gregory* of Nazianzus; Discourse XL., on the holy Baptism. 
Let us, therefore, be buried with Christ by the IMMERSION 

* Born about 330 after Christ. 


Athanasii Serm. in Sanctum Pascha, 5, (ed. monach. ord. S. Bened. 
Tom. II. p. 457). 

1 Ev TOVTOIS /3a7TTLO-Orj9 rots dya6ols yeo0O)TicrT6, appa- 
/3a>v aoi ytyovev a^acrracreeoy, vO<pa>TicrT, r} TTJ? ^apLToy 
fjurqo ir evtyypov Tij? ev ovpavw diaLTr)? ^X Lf To @ a7rTi " 
(TfJLa. fjLL^r}(TO rf) Karadvcret rou SeaTroTov rov Ta(j)ov 
aAAa dvedvy 7rd\Li> tKfiQev, ra rrjs 1 dvaaTaaeco? tpya Trpo 

Ejusdem Quaest. in Psalmos Prop. XCII. (Tom. II. p. 327). 
To yap KaraSvcrai TO iraL^iov tv rfj KO\v/JL/3r}0pa rpi- 
TOV KOL disaduaai, TOVTO drjXol rov Qavarov KOL n]V rpn]- 


Greg. Naz. Orat. XL. in sanct. baptisma (ed. Prunaus, Vol. I. p. 642). 



(BAPTISM), that we may also rise with him ; let us go down 
with him, that we may. also be exalted with him; let us come 
up with him, that we may also be glorified with him." 


John of Damascus? On the orthodox Faith, book IV. ch. 9, on 
Faith and Baptism. 

"For the IMMERSION (BAPTISM) shows the Lord s death. We 
are indeed buried with the Lord by the IMMERSION* (BAPTISM), as 
says the holy apostle." 

* Born about the end of the seventh century. 


The same writer; Parallels, book III. tit. iv., on Baptism, etc. 

"Israel, if he had not passed through the sea, would not 
have been delivered from Pharaoh ; and thou, if thou pass not 
through the water, wilt not be delivered from the bitter tyranny 
of the Devil." 


, va /cat 
y Iva /cat (rvisdo^acr0a)fJLv. 

Joannis Damasceni de fide orthodoxa, lib. IV. c. 9, de fide et 
baptismo (ed. Le Quien, Vol. I. p. 259). 

To yap ^aTTTLcr/JLa TOV rov KVpiov Oavarov drjXol. avv- 
6aTVTop,(i6a *yovv ro> KVpiy 8ta rov /SaTrrtcr^aros*, coy fyrjcriv 
6 $e to? aTTOcrroAoy. 

Ejusdem Parallel. Lib. III. Tit. iv. de Bapt. et sacr. lavacri 
praedicat. (Vol. II. p. 387). 

O IcrparjX, el fjirj TraprjXOe TTJV OaXacrcrav, OVK av ^ce>- 
piaOrj rov (j)apaa) /cat av e a^ ft?) TrapeXOrjs dta rov v8a- 
TO?, ov yutpiaOrio-ri rrjs TTt/c/oay TvpavviSos TOV 8ia/So\ov. 



Theophylact* Comment, on JVoAum, ch. I. 

"For one IMMERSION (BAPTISM) is spoken of, as also one faith, 
because of the doctrine respecting the initiation, being one in 
sill the Church, which has been taught to IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) with 
invocation of the Trinity, and to symbolize the Lord s death 
and resurrection by the threefold sinking down and coming up." 

* Archbishop of Achrida, about 1070 ; gives the views of the old Greek inter 


The same writer, On the Ads of the Apostles, ch. 1 : 5. Com 
menting on the words, ye shall be IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in the 
Holy Spirit, he says : 

" The word BE IMMERSED (BE BAPTIZED), signifies the abundance, 
and as it were the riches of the participation of the Holy 
Spirit ; as also, in that perceived by the senses, he in a manner 
lias who is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) in water, bathing the whole body, 
while he who simply receives water is not. wholly wetted on all 


Theophylacti Comment, in Nauru cap. 1. (Opera, ed. de Ruheis et 
Finetti, Venet. 1763, Vol. IV. p. 221). 

Ev n.v yap tiprjTai /3a7T77<T/xa, oicrTrep KULL TTUTTLV fjil 
di.a TO 7TL TTJ T\Tr) dijXaSrj <5oy/ia, kv ov 
KXr/a-ta, TTJ TrapaXa/Soio-y fiaTTTifav rfj rrjs 


rfj rpKrafj Ka.Ta$LaL KOU avaftvcrtL. 

Ejusdem in Acta Apost. c. I. 5 (Vol. III. p. 10). 

H ^a.7TTLO-6r}vai Ae^r, TTJV da\l/l\(tai>, KOL oiovtl TOV 

\ - / -> * / / 

TTAOVTVV Trj? fJLTOV(ria$ TOV ayiov TTvti/jLaTo? ar/fjiaLvei coy 

KOL 7rl TOV alcrdrjTov |^<i TL o /BaTTTi^o/j.tvos eV vdaTi, oXov 

TO CTtofjLO. /3/?6^O)^, TOV XoLfJiftaVOVTOS ttTTAo)? VQOJp OV TTO.VT(JL)$ 





The same writer, Comment, on the Epistle to the Hch. ch. 6 : 2. 
Commenting on the words, resurrection from the dead/ lie says : 

"For this takes place also in the IMMERSION (BAPTISM), through 
the figure of the coming up." 


The same writer, On Rom. 6 : 5, 6 . 

" For our old man, that is, wickedness, was crucified with, 
that is, in like manner with the body of Christ, was buried in 
the IMMERSION (BAPTISM), that the body of sin might be destroyed." 


The same writer, Comment, on 1 Cor. 9 : 2. Explaining the 
words, were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the 
sea/ he says : 

"That is, they shared with Moses both the shadow beneath 
the cloud, and the passage through the sea ; for seeing him first 
pass through, they also themselves braved the waters. As also 


Ejusdem in Epist. ad Hebr. c. VI. 2 (Vol. II. p. 682). 

* AvaaTdorews re vtKp&v.} Tovro yap KOL tv TW 
ylvtrai Sea rov cr^/mroy rr/9 

Ejusdem Comment, in Epist. ad Rom. c. VI. 5, 6. (Vol. II. p. 42). 

Kai yap 6 iraXaios TUJLOJV av6 POTTOS, TOVT^CTTLV^ i] KaKia, 
avveo-TavpcoOrj, rovricmv^ 6/xo/co? TOJ autfJiaTi rov Xpi- 
CTTOV, tv TOJ /3a7TTL(TfJia.TL eTafirj, iva KarapyiiOrj TO 

Ejusdem Comment, in I Epist. ad Cor. c. IX. 2 (Vol. II. p. 177). 

K.QLL Travre? eis TOV J\Iojcn]v /3aTrTi(r@r}(rai tv rrj 
\J], KOL eV rfj OaXdacrr).} TovrearL^ rw MOJCTYJ CKOL- 
re vrro ri]i> i>e<pe\i]i> or/ctay, KOU TOV diodov 


in our case ; Christ having first died and risen, we also are 
ourselves IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), imitating death by the sinking 
down, and resurrection by the coming up. They were IMMERSED 
(BAPTIZED) unto Moses, therefore, instead of: they had him as a 
founder of the type of the IMMERSION (BAPTISM) ; for the being 
under the cloud, and the passing through the sea, were a type 


The same writer, On the Epistle to the Romans, ch. 9 : 8. Com 
menting on the words, for at this time I will return, and Sarah 
shall have a son, he says : 

"Therefore, the word of God formed and begat Isaac; so 
also upon us God s children, in the font as in a womb, are 
uttered words of God, and they form us anew." 


yap avrov 

KaTTO\/JLrjo-av KOLL avrol TGJV vdaTcov. Ocnrep KCLL 60* 
TTpojTOis TOV XpLarov aTroOavovTO? KOU d 


dvcr (*)$, KOU TTJV dvdcrrao Lv dta TOV d 
rov AfaxrrjP ovv 6^3a7rri^b^ro, ULVT\ roi), avrov 

TOV TVTTOV TOV /SaTTT/cr/xaroy" TVTrof yoip f3a7TTio~/j.a- 
TJV, TO T VTTO TTjv vtfaXrjv tivai, KOI TO TJ]V 6 dXaa a av 

Ejusdem Comment, in Epist. ad Rom. c. IX. 8. (Vol. II. p. 68). 
I o ovv pr)/J.a TOV 6eov SL^TT \ao~e TOV IcraaK KOI (yev- 

VT)(TV. ( JuTO) 3lJ KOLl (f) l]/jLO)V TOJV TtKl COV TOV 

TIJ KoAufL/3i)()pa W9 iv fj.r]Tpa, 



The same writer, On Heb. 10 : 26. 

"For "our IMMERSION (BAPTISM) images the death of Christ; as, 
therefore, that was one, so also this is one." 


The same writer, On Matt. 3 : 11. 

"He will IMMERSE (BAPTIZE) you in the Holy Spirit. 7 That 
is, he will deluge you, ungrudgingly, with the graces of the 


The same writer, Comment, on Luke 24 : 45-53. 

"For as he, having died, rose the third day, so also we, 
being typically buried in the water, then come up incorrupt 
as to our souls, and receiving the pledges of the incorruption 
of the body. 


Ejusdem Comment, in Epist. ad Heb. c. X. v. 26 (Vol. II. p. 726). 
To yap paTTTKr/jia r]p.u>v TOV Odvarov \KOVL^L TOV 

Xpio-Tov- UHjirep ovv e/ceuw ely, OVTOJ KOI -rovro tv. 
Ejusdem in Matt. Comment c. III. v. 11 (Vol. I. p. 18). 

AVTO? V/J.O.S BaTTTLCTft V 7TVL/UiaTL ay/ft).) 7 J OVT(TTl, 

KaraK\vo-L v/adf a(j)6oi>a>? ral$ TOV 
Ejusdem Comment, in Luc. c. XXIY. vv. 45-53 (Vol I. p. 497). 

flonrtp -yap /c^oy Oavwv rpnjfjiepo} aveo-rri, ovrco 
K.V.I ??/zei9 tv0a.7TTop.evoi TVTTLKO)$ TW vSaTL, enra 

/cat T?y TOV 




The. same writer; On John ch. 3 : 14. 

"For the cross and the death [thereon] are a cause to us 
of the grace through the IMMERSION (BAPTISM); if at least, being 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), we image forth the death of the Lord." 


The same writer; on John 3 : 4. 5. 

" For symbols of a burial and a resurrection, and an image [of 
them], are celebrated in this water; the thrice sinking down, 
symbols of the three days burial ; then the man comes up, as 
did the Lord, bearing more bright and shining the garment of 
immortality, and having sunk the corruption in the water." 


Hippolytus;* Discourse on the holy Theophany, ii. 

" For thou hast just heard, how Jesus came to John, and was 

* A bishop (probably of Rome), near the beginning of the third century. 


Ejusdem Comment, in Joainiem, c. III. v. 14 (Vol. I. p. 642). 
O yap crravpo? /cat o OavoLTOs atTio? r)/Jiiv TTJ? dia 
TOV jSaTrr/cr/iaroy yapiros, eiye /SaTrrt^o/zei Ot, TOV Oavarov 


Ejusdem in Joannem Comment, c. III. vv. 4, 5 (p. 540). 
Fa(f)r)$ yap /cat aVacrraVecoy orv^oXa /cat tiKOJV tv 
ru> v8an TOVTW reXelraL. al Tptts Kara3vcrty rrj? rpirj- 
fjitpov Ta(f)ij$ av fJifioXa* tira avaOvvtl o avOponros oxrTrep 
b Kvpio?, XapJipoTtpov Ka\ (ftaidpoTtpov TO TTJ? a^Oap- 
evfivfJLa (fropojv, /cat TIJV fyOopav eyKaraftvOicras rco 

Hippolyti Romani Orat. in sanct. Theoph. ii. (ed. de Lasrarde.p. 37). 
>/ ///coi;6y yap aprloj? TTW? e A^w^ 6 hjcrov? Trpo? rov 


IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) by liim in the Jordan. wonderful trans 
actions ! How was the boundless river, that makes glad the 
city of God/ bathed in a little water ; the incomprehensible 
fountain that sends forth life to all men, and has no end, 
covered by scanty and transitory waters !" 


Icodvvrjv v TO) lopddvy e/SaTrTicrdr] VTT avrov. a* Trap- 
TT pay p.dTa>v . TTCO? 6 aTrepiypaiTTOs ^Trora/xos" 6 

TTjV TToXlV TOV 0Ov" tV 6A/7&) vfioLTl \OVTO 9 

?/ dKardXrjiTTO^ Trrjyr] rj farji PXao-rdvovcra TVOLCTIV dv9pd)- 
KOU reXoy \JLJ] e^ovcra VTTO Trevixpoov KCU TrpocrKatpow 



Examples from the Christian Fathers, who wrote in the Latin language. 


Tertullian;* On the Resurrection of t/ie Body, ch. 47. Quoting 
Rom. 6 : 3, he says : 

" Know ye not, that so many of us as were immersed into 
Christ Jesus, were immersed into his death?" 

* Born about the middle of the second century; a presbyter at Carthage. 


The same passage (a few lines below). 

" For by an image we die in baptism ; but we truly rise in 
the flesh, as did also Christ." 


The same writer ; Against Praxeas, ch. 26. Speaking of the 
Saviour s command, in Matt. 28 : 19, he says : 

"And last of all, commanding that they should immerse into 
the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit." 


Tertulliani de Resurrectione Carnis, c. XLVII. (ed. Oehler, 
Vol. II. p. 528). 

An ignoratis quod quicunquu in Christum Jesum tinc*i sumus, 
in mortem ejus tincti sumus? 


Per simulacrum enim morimur in baptismate, sed per veri- 
tatem resurgimus in carne, sicut et Christus. 

Ejusdem adversus Praxran. c. XXVI. (Vol. II. p. 690). 

Et novissime inandans ut tinirucrent in patrcm et tilium et 
spiritmn sanctum. 



TJie same writer ; On the Soldiers Crown, ch. 3. 
"Then we are three times immersed, answering somewhat 
more than the Lord prescribed in the Gospel." 


The same writer; On Public Shows, ch. 4. 
" When, entering into the water, we profess the Christian 
faith, in words of his own law." 


The same writer ; On Baptism, ch. VII. 

"As of baptism itself there is a bodily act, that we are im 
mersed in water, a spiritual effect, that we are freed from sins." 


Ambrose;* On the Sacraments, book II. ch. 7. 

" Thou wast asked : Dost thou believe in God the Father 
almighty ? Thou saidst, I believe ; and thou didst sink down, 
that is, wast buried." 

I3ishop of Milan ; born about 340. 


Ejusdem de Corona Militis, c. iii. (Vol. 1. p. 421). 
Dehinc ter mcrgitamur, ainplius aliquid respondentes quam 
Dominus in evangelic determinavit. 

Ejusdem de Spcctaculis, c. IV. (Vol. I. p. 24). 

Cum aquam ingressi christianam fidem in legis suae verba 

Ejusdem de Baptismo, c. VII. (Vol. I. p. 626). 
Quomodo et ipsius baptismi carnalis actus, quod in aqua 
mergimur, spiritalis effectus, quod delictis libcramur. 

Ambrosii de Sacram. lib. II. c. vii. (ed. monach. ord. S. Bened. 

Vol. II. col. 359). 

Iiiterrogatus es : Credis in Deuin Patrem omnipotentem ? 
Dixisti : Credo ; et mersisti, hoc est, sepultus es. 



The same Work, book III ch. I. 1. 

Yesterday we discoursed respecting the font, whose appear 
ance is, as it were, a form of sepulchre; into which, believing in 
the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, we arc received 
and submerged, and rise, that is, are restored to life." 


The same Work, book III ch. I. 2. 

" What then is a resurrection, except when we rise again 
from death to life? So then also in baptism, since there is a 
similitude of death, without doubt, whilst thou dost sink down 
and rise again, there is a similitude of the resurrection." 


The same Work, book II. ch. 6, 10. On baptism, (in allusion 
to the words, dust thou art] etc.} 

Hear then ; for that in this age also the bond of the Devil 
might be loosed, it has been found how a living man might die, 
and living rise again. What is living ? This is the living 

Ejusdem lib. III. c. I. 1 (Vol. II. col. 361). 

Hesterno die de fonte disputavimus, cujus species veluti quae- 
dam sepulchri forma est ; in quern, credentes in Patrern et 
Filium et Spiritum sanctum, recipimur et demergimur et surgi- 
mus, hoc est, resuscitamur. 

Ejusdem lib. III. c. I. 2 (Vol.. 11. col. 361). 

Ergo resurrectio quid est, nisi quando de morte ad vitain 
resurgimus? Sic ergo et in baptismate, quoniam similitudo 
mortis est, sine dubio dum mergis et resurgis, similitudo fit 

Ejuridom lib. II. c. vi. 19 (Vol. II. col. 359). 

Audi ergo : nam ut in hoc quoque saeculo nexus diaboli 
aolverctur, inveiitum e.-t quom^do homo vivus morcretur, et vivus 
. Quid <-<t vivus? IIo- e.-t vita corporis vivens, /um 


life of the body, when it came to the font, and was immersed 
into the font. What is water, except of earth? The divine 
sentence is satisfied, therefore, without the stupor of death. In 
that thou sinkest down [art immersed], that sentence is dis 
charged, earth thou art, and into earth shalt thou go. The 
sentence being fulfilled, there is room for the blessing, and for 
the divine remedy. Water then is of earth ; but the capability 
of our life did not allow that we should be covered with earth, 
and rise again from the earth. Moreover, earth does not cleanse, 
but water cleanses; therefore - the font is as a sepulchre." 


The same Work, book II. ch. mi. 23. 

" That as Christ died, so also thou mayest taste of death ; 
as Christ died to sin, and lives to God, so also thou mayest 
be dead to the former allurements of sins, through the sacrament 
of baptism, and rise through the grace of Christ. It is there 
fore a death, but not in the verity of corporeal death, but in a 
similitude ; for when thou sinkest down, thou dost take oa a 
similitude of death and burial." 


veniret ad fontem, et mergeretur in fontem. Quid est aqua, nisi 
de terra? Satisiit ergo sententiae coelesti sine mortis stupore. 
Quod mcrgis, solvitur sententia ilia. : terra es, et in terram ibis; 
impleta sententia, locus est beneficio remedioque coelesti. Ergo 
aqua de terra, possibilitas autem vitae nostrae non admittebat 
ut terra operiremur, et de terra resurgeremus. Deinde non terra 
lavat, sed aqua lavat ; ideo fons quasi sepultura est. 

Ejusdem lib. II. c. vii, 23. (Vol. H. col. 360). 

Ut quomodo Christus mortuus est, sic et tu mortem de- 
gustes : quomodo Christus mortuus est pec-cato, et Deo vivit ; 
ita et tu superioribus illecebris peccatorum mortuus sis per 
baptismatis sacramentum, et surrexeris per gratiam Christi. 
Mors ergo est, sed non in mortis corporalis veritate, sed in si- 
militudine ; cum enim mergis, mortis suscipis et sepulturae si- 



Jerome* Comment, on the Epist. to the Ephesians. book II. ch. 
4 (oti ch. 4 : -5). 

"And thrice we are immersed, that there may appear one 
sacrament of the Trinity." 

* Born in the year 331. 


Jllcuin;* Epistle XC. to the brethren at Lyons. 

" To us it seems indeed, according to our feeble judgment, 
that as the inner man is formed anew after the image of his 
Maker, in the faith of the holy Trinity, so the outqj man should 
be washed with a trine immersion ; that what the Spirit invisi 
bly works in the soul, that the priest may visibly imitate in 

* Born 735 ; founder of Christian -education and schools in France, v.ider 


The same Epistle. Speaking of the Christian rite of baptism, 
he says : 

" That you may know the things signified by this most sacred 


Hieronymi Comment, in epist. ad Eph. lib. II. c. iv. 
(ed. Vallarsius, Vol. VII. p. 610). 

Et ter mergimur, ut Trinitatis unum appareat sacramentum. 

Alcuini Epist, XC. ad Fratres Lugdunenses (ed. Migne, Vol. I. 

col. 291). 

Nobis vcro juxta parvitatem intrenioli nostri videtur, ut 
sicut interior homo in fide sanctae Trinitatis ad imaginem sui 
conditoris reformandus est, ita et exterior trina mersionc abluen- 
dus esse : ut quod invisibiliter Spiritus operatur in anima, hoc 
visibiliter sacerdos imitctur in aqua. 

Ejusdem (col. 292). 
Ut vero cognoscatis hujus sacratissimi mysterii significationes, 


mystery, according to the understanding of the holy Fathers 
and the statutes of the Church, I will show to your love the 
same sacraments, with the catholic interpretation." 

After a full description and explanation of the preliminary ceremonies, he 

"And so, in the name of the holy Trinity, he is baptized with 
a trine submersion." 


juxta sanctorum Patrum intelligentiam et statuta ecclesiastica, 
vestrae charitati eadem sacramenta catholica interpretatione 




Et sic in nomine sanctae Trinitatis trina submersione baptiza- 



Where the Christian rite, or what is implied in it, is applied for purposes of 
illustration or comparison. 

The Christian Fathers, in their expositions of the Scriptures, are fond of 
tracing allusions to this rite in the language of the Old Testament. Of thia 
practice, one specimen must suffice. 


Basil (the Great) ;* Discourse on Ps. 28 (Ps. 29 : 5). 

" The Lord dwells in the flood/ A flood is an inundation 
of water, concealing all that lies beneath, and cleansing all that 
was before polluted. The grace of the IMMERSION (BAPTISM), there 
fore, he calls a flood ; so that the soul, washed from sins, and 
cleansed from the old man, is henceforth fitted for a habitation 
of God. in the spirit." 

* See the remark on Example 181. 

The idea of cleansing, associated with the Christian rite of immersion in water, 
naturally suggested comparison with the Jewish rites of purification, especially 
by water; and hence the Christian Fathers treat these ritual purifications as 
types, foreshadowing the grace (mark the word !) to be imparted through the 
Christian rite. 


Basilii Magni Horn, in Ps. XXVIII. (ed. Gamier, Vol. I. p. 123). 
Kvpios TOV KCLTaK\vo~piov KaroLKel.) /cara/cAfoyios* voa- 


Kal KaOapifyvTO? airav TO Trpoeppviro^vov. TTJV ovv TOV 
(3a.7rTio~fJ.aTos X a P LV KOLTO.K\VO~IJLOV ovofjia^ci. cocrre TTJV 
TO. d/jLapTi]/JLaTa -^v^rjv^ KOU aTTOKatfrjpa- 
TOV TTa\aiov oii>6p<jL>iToi\ 7riTr)8etav tivat \OITTOV Trpo? 




Cyrill,* Archbishop of Alexandria ; on Isaiah, book I. Discourse i. 

(on ch. 1 : Hi). 

Speaking of the point just before stated by him, viz. that 
"men are justified, not by works of law, but through faith and 
the IMMEKSIOX (BAPTISM)," lie says : 

"And this the ancient law figured to them as in shadows, and 
preached before the grace which is through the holy IMMERSION 

* Born towards the close of the fourth century; made Patriarch of Alex- 
awlria in 412. 


Theophylact y* Comment, on John ch. <5 : 1-4. 

" For since an IMMERSION (BAPTISM) was to be given, having 
much efficacy, and quickening souls, God prefigures the IMMERSION 
(BAPTISM) in the Jewish rites ; and gives them also water cleans 
ing away pollutions, not properly being but accounted such, as 
those from the touching of a dead body or of a leper, or other 
such like things. 77 

* See the remark on Example 192. 

Cyrilli Archiep. Alex, in Es. lib. I. Orat. i. (ed. Auberti, Vol. II. 

p. 77). 

Tovro KCU o TrdXaL i/d/ioy avrois" ft>y eV crKials 
KOI irpoaveKrjpVTTt rrjv xaptv rrjv did rov dylov 

Theophylacti in Joannem Comment, cap. V. 1-4 (Vol. I. pp. 667-8). 
MSflrci yap e/^eAAe ^d7rrLcrp.a dldoadat TroAA?)^ ^ov 
KOI faoTrotovv ray ^VXOL?, Trpofaypafal ^eoy TO 
eV rots* /ou^at/co^, /cat Sl8coo-i /zez/ KOU vdcop av- 
TOLS- KaOaipov jnoXvor/jiov? ov Kvptco? ovras, aAAa SOKOVV- 
ray, oiov rovs diro rov ctyacrOai veKpov, rj \t7rpov, /cat r<j/ 




Cyrill (just quoted). Comment, on Isaiah, book I. Disc. iii. (o?i 
ch. 4 :4). Explaining the words, by the spirit of burning/ he 
says : 

" But the spirit of burning we call the grace in the holy 
IMMERSION (BAPTISM), produced in us not without the Spirit. For 
we have been IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) not in mere water ; but neither 
with the ashes of a heifer have we been sprinkled, for the 
cleansing of the flesh alone, as says the blessed Paul ; but in 
the Holy Spirit, and a fire that is divine and mentally discern 
ed, destroying the filth of the vileness in us, and consuming away 
the pollution of sin." 

With this example should be connected the following: 


The same writer ,* On worshipping in spirit and in truth, book XII. 

"For we are IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), not into fire perceptible by 
the senses, but in the Holy Spirit, like fire consuming away 
the pollution in souls." 


Cyrilli Arcniep. Alex. Comment, in Is. lib. I. Orat. III. (Vol. II. 

p. 76). 

e irvtvfjLa (f)a[JLv TTJV tiri rw ayiu> fiairTi- 
ou &X tX W**I*W* *v I lP-iv yivop.tvriv. /3e/3a- 
a p.fiV yap OVK v voan yvfjivcp, aAA ov8e o~7ro8a) 
avTLir^eOa 8c Trpos fJiovrjv ri]v TJJ? aapKO? 
^ KaOa fyrjaiv 6 /JiaKapio? Hav\o9, aAA cV 
7TVv/JLaTi ay/o), KOL 7rvp\ rw 6eiu> KOL vor)T<2, rovs TI]? 

tV THUV (f)aV\OTJJT09 da7TCt.VC0l>Tl pVTTOV?, KOt TOV TTJS afJLCLp- 

Ejusdem de Adorat. in Spiritu et Verit. lib. XII. (Vol. I. p. 436). 

J36/3a7TT/cr/Li$a yap OVK 19 irvp ala6r)Tov^ aAA eV ayicp 
irvpbf 8iKi^ (KTrjKOVTt rqv eV ^v^aly fJLO\vu-p.ov. 



The same writer ; Comment, on John, book XII. (on ch. 19 : 34). 

" With a spear they pierce his side, and it poured forth blood 
mixed with water ; as though God, for us, made that which was 
done an image and a, kind of first-fruits of the mystic blessing, 
and of the holy IMMERSION (BAPTISM) ; for Christ s verily, and from 
Christ, is the holy IMMERSION (BAPTISM), and the virtue of the mys 
tic blessing arose for us out of the holy flesh." 

The allusion here is to the two elements of expiation and cleansing, blood and 
water. These, gushing forth from the Saviour s side, were an image, and a kind 
of first-fruits (an earnest, or assurance) of the holy IMMERSION, through which 
the mystic blessing (of pardon and sauctification) was to be imparted, and all 
whose virtue proceeded from his consecrated body. 

The grounds for using the element of water are explained; as in the two 
following examples. 


Cyritl* Bishop of Jerusalem, Instruction III. on Baptism, v. 
" But if one desires to know why through water, and not 
through another of the elements, the grace is given, let him 

* See the remark on Example 176. 


Ejusdem Com. in Joannem lib. XII. (Vol. IV. p. 1014). 

Aoy^Yj SlOLVLTTOVOrL TTJV 7T\VpaV, Tj $6 fJL /Jiiy /uil OV 

voaTL TO al/jia $C/8Av0r, rr)? fjivorTiKrjs evXoyias, KOL TOV 
/Ba7TTLo~fjLaTOf 9 el/com KCU CLTrapfflV cocnrep TLVOL nOtv- 
TOV Oeov TO ytytvrnjitvov. XpLcrrov yap 6Vro>y 
O~TL Kal Trapa Xpio~Tov TO aytov /3a7rricr/xa, /cat Tr/f /JLVO~TL- 
KIJS v\oyias ?J Svvdjus K TTJ? ayias *)W>v avefyv aapKos. 

Cyrilli Archiep. Hierosol. Cateches. III. de Baptismo V. (ed. Tout- 
tee, p. 41). 

El /dt TIS TroOtl yvtovai, dia TL St 58aTOf 9 Kal /JLTJ di 
Tpov TU>V cTTOLytLwv i] ^apis dtdoTai, Ta? Oeia? 


take up the divine Scriptures and lie will find. For water is 
a great thing, and the noblest of the four elements of the world 
that appear." 


John of Damascus, On Faith and Baptism (On the orthodox Faith, 
hook IV. ch. 9). See the remark on Example 190. 

For from the beginning, the Spirit, of God moved upon the 
waters ; and of old the Scripture testifies to water, that it is 
cleansing. In Noah s age God deluged the sin of the world 
by water. By water every one unclean, according to the law r 
is cleansed, even the garments themselves being washed with 
water. . . . And almost all things, according to the law, are 
cleansed with water. For the things seen are symbols of those 
apprehended by the mind." 

A few lines below, he says of the Saviour s baptism : 

"He [Christ] is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), not as himself needing 

GREEK TEXT.\afiu>v evpr]o-L. Mtya yap TL TO vdcop, KO\ TUV Tea- 


Joannis Damasceni de fide orthodoxa, lib. IV. c. 9 (p. 260). 
ATT dpx*j? yap Trvev/Jia 6tov TOI? v8ao-iv e7rec/>/)ero 

<a avaitv 77 ypafyrj /JLaTVtl TU> vdaTt a>? O~TL 

piov. tTTL Ncoe 8S v8aTO? 6 tfeo? Tr)v 


TL. ... KOLL aytoov OLTravTa KCITO. TOV vofjiov vdaTi Ka6a- 
TO. yap opaTa crvfj-jBoXa TU>V voovptixw dcriv. 


, aAAa 



cleansing, but appropriating my cleansing, that he may whelm 
sin, and bury all the old Adam in the water." 

The exhortations to personal holiness in the Old Testament, founded on th( 
Jewish ritual purifications (as in Isaiah 1 : 16-20), they apply to the Christian 
rite as being first fulfilled in the grace therein imparted. 


Hippolytus ; * Discourse on the holy T/ieophany, x. After quot 
ing Is. 1 : 16-19, he says: 

" Thou sawest, beloved, how the prophet foretold the cleans 
ing of the holy IMMERSION (BAPTISM). l^or lie who goes down 
with faith into the bath of regeneration, is arrayed against the 
evil one, and on the side of Christ ; he denies the enemy, and 
confesses Christ to be God : ho puts off bondage, and puts on 
sonship : he comes up from the IMMERSION (BAPTISM), bright as 
the sun, flashing forth the rays of righteousness. But greatest 
of all, he comes up a son of God, and a fellow-heir with Christ. 

* See the remark on Example 2(). 5. 


e/j.r]v oiKtiovjJLtvos KaOapcrLv, .... Iva K\V(TT) TTJV 
y KOL irdvTa TOV TraXaiov ASa/Ji evQdrj TCO 

Hippolyti Roman! Oral, in Sanct. Theoph. X. (ed. de Lagarde 

p. 42). 

Eldt?, dyairrfTt TTCO? TrpoetTrev o irpo^Tri^ TO rov (3a7TTL- 
o-fj.aro9 KaOdpo-Lov. o -yap KaTafiaivqv /merd Trlarecof tis 
TO Tijy dvayevvrnTtws Xovrpov Siardo-aeTai. TCO 
(rvvTaa<jTai 5e TW Xpia-Tcp. dirapi ^lTai. TOV 
o/xoAoyet ^6 TO $ov dvai TOI> XpicrTov. OL7rodlTCU Trjv 
8ov\flav, ev8vTat de TIJV viofao-iav, dvtpytTaL diro TOV 
/BaTTTKr^aTOf \afM7rpof co? o rjXios, dirao-Tpd-n-Ttov ray rrj? 
SiKaioavvi-is a/crti/ay. TO 8e /jieytcrTOi , (Lvticnv vio? Otov 




Justin Martyr;* Dialogue with a Jew, xiv. After saying 
" Through the bathing, therefore, of repentance and of the 
knowledge of God, which has been instituted for the iniquity 
of God s people, (as Isaiah cries), we believed, and we make 
known that this is that IMMERSION (HAITISM) which lie proclaimed, 
which alone is able to cleanse those who repent, that this is 
the water of life. What cisterns ye have dug out for your 
selves are broken, and are useless to you ;" he adds : 

"For what is the benefit of that IMMERSION (BAPTISM), which 
makes bright the flesh jftid the body only? Be IMMERSED (BAPTI/KD ;, 
as to the soul, from anger and from covetousness, from envy, 
from hatred ; and behold the body is clean." 

* See the remark on Example 131. 

They distinguish between the mere outward form of the rite, and the inward 
work wrought in the soul. 


Cyrill* Bishop of Jerusalem ; Preface to the Instructions. 
" Simon also, the Magian, once came to the bath. He was 
IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), but he was not enlightened ; and the body 

* See the remark on Example 176. 


Justini Martyris Dial, cum Tryphone, XIV. (ed. Otto, Vol. I. P. ii. 

p. 48). 

Ti -yap o(/)Aoy Kivov rov /SaTTTicrfJLaTO?, o T?)J/ aapKa 
Kfn [Jiovov TO crcofjia (f)ai8pvvi; BaiTTurOrjTe TITJV ^vyi-jit 

GC7TO Opyi]S KO.I CLTTO TrAfO^f/ttf, O.7TO (j)0Ol OV, ttTTO fJ.L(TOVf 

Cyrilli nrcliicp. Hicrosol. Prar-f. Cateches. (ed. Milks. />. 2). 

c 7TOT6 K0.\ SlfJLWV TO) A OUT/DO) 6 /ACt 


indeed he dipped in water, but the heart he did not enlighten 
by the Spirit. And the body went down indeed, and came up ; 
but the soul was not buried with Christ, nor was raised with 

From the idea of cleansing, associated with immersion in water, they call 
Christ s expiatory dedth an IMMERSION (BAPTISM), not only as an expression of 
overwhelming suffering (Mark 10 : 38, 39, Luke 12 : 50), but also because by 
it he cleansed from sin. So in the following example, in which both allusions 
are distinctly recognized. 


Chrysostom;* on the petition of the sons of Zebedee, V. (On the 
words, l Can ye drink? etc.}. 

" Here calling his cross and death a cup and- an IMMERSION 
(BAPTISM) : a cup, because he drank it with pleasure; an IMMERSION 
(BAPTISM), because by it he cleansed the world. And not because 
of this only, but also because of the facility of the resurrection. 
For as he who is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED) with water, rises again 
with great ease, not at all hindered by the nature of the waters ; 

* See the remark on Example 184. 


v OVK (f)coTicr IIvevp.aTL KOU 
TO crco/ia, KOU avefiri r) 8e "^v^rj ou av^erd^ij XpiorTto, 

Chrysostomi de Petit, fil. Zebed. VII. (ed. Montf. Vol I. p. 521}. 

IIoTiipLOv tvravOa KOU fidm ~io fj.a KaX&v TOV aravpov 
TOV eavrovy /cat TOV TTOTijpiov ^v^ tTreidi] p.t6 
avTov eVrjef, /SaTrrtcr^a , ore dc avrou TTJV OLKOV- 
Oypti * ov dta TOVTO 8e \JLQVQV* aAAa KOLL 8ia TI^I- 
rrjs avacTTacrew oianrep yap o (3a7rTi^o/j.vo? 
, uera TroAAr}? avHTTaTaL rijs evKoAias, ov8ei> viro 

, ovrco KO.L avrof eu> 


so also he, having gone down into death, with greater ease came 
up; for this cause he calls it an IMMERSION (BAPTISM). But what 
he says is to this effect : Can ye be slain, and die ? For 
now is the time for these, deaths, perils, and toils." 

In like manner, they use this word of the sufferings shared with Christ by 
his followers, which they called an IMMERSION (in suffering) " by blood," and " by 
martyrdom ;" ascribing to this figurative immersion in suffering the same cleans 
ing efficacy, as to the literal immersion in water. 


The same writer; Discourse ii, on Saint Ludan, the Martyr. 

And wonder not, if I call the witness [the martyrdom] an 
IMMERSION (BAITISM). For here, also, the Spirit hovers over with 
great fullness, and there is a taking away of sins, and a cleans 
ing of the soul wonderful and strange ; and as they who are 
immersed are bathed with water, so are they who witness [who 
are martyrs], with their own blood." 


John of Damascus ;* On the orthodox faith, book iv. c. 9, on 
faith and baptism. 

* See the remark on Example 190: 

Oavarov /car/3ay, /jLera irXciovos avtftr) TTJ? evKoXlas* 8ia 


SwacrOe <r(f)ayijvai, Kal aTroOavtlv ; TQVTMV yap o Kaipo? 


Ejusdem Hom. in S. Lucianum Martyrcm. II. (Vol. II. p. 520). 

/\ai }JLi] @avfjidcn]T, el /SctTrr/cr/ia TO papTvpL 
(Ta, Ka\ yap tvravOa TO 7n (Vfj.a /xera TroAA?;? ffpLT 
8a\j/i\ia?, Kal afjiapTrjfjLaTOJV avaiptcrLS,, KOL 



a ip.aTi. 


" Seventh, that which is by blood and martyrdom, with which 
Christ himself for us was IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), as exceedingly au 
gust and blessed, such as is defiled by no subsequent pollutions." 


Hilary,* Bishop of Poictiers, on Ps. 118 (119), letter III. 5. 

" There is reserved, therefore, so far as we may judge, a cleans 
ing of that perfected purity, even after the waters of baptism ; 
[viz.] that which sanctifies us by the coming of the Holy Spirit ; 
that which refines us with the lire of judgment : that which 
through the infliction of death will purge from the carrion 
stain and fellowship ; that which by the suffering of martyr 
dom will wash away with devoted and faithful blood." 

In the same figurative sense, they use it of whatever was .supposed to have 
an atoning or expiatory virtue, as penitence and tears. So in the two following 
examples ; in the first of which, the literal immersion in water is expressly dis 
tinguished from this figurative application of it. 


Atkanasius rf Questions, LXXII. (to Prince Antiochus). 
u For it is proper to know, that, in like manner with the 
* Born about the end of the third century. f See the remark on Ex. 187. 


Joannis Damasceni de Fide orthodoxa, lib. IV. c. 9, de fide ot 
baptismo (ed. Lequien, Vol. I. p. 266). 

TO Si cuftaroy KOL fJLaprvpiov o KOU avros 6 
vTrep rjfjicov /3a7TTLcraTOy ft>? Xiav aiSeo fj.ov KOU 
i ocrov dVTpoty ov jjioAvverai pvTroi?. 

Hilarii Pictavorum episc. Tract, in CXVIII. Psal. lit. iii. (ed. 

monach. ord. S. Bened. col. 259 ). 

Est ergo, quantum licet existimare, perfectae illius emundatio 
puritatis etiam post baptism! aquas reposita : quae nos sancti 
Spiritus sanctificet adventu, quae judicii igni nos decoquat, quae 
per mortis injuviam a labe morticinae et societate purgabit, quae 
martyrii passionc devota ac fideli sanguine abluet. 
Athanasii Quaest. ad Antioch. LXXIII. (ed. monach. ord. S. Bened. 

Vol. II. p. 286). 

yap eidevat, on 6/xo/coy TOU ftairrL(Tp.aTO^ TJ rcov 


IMMERSION ^iiAiTi.sMj, the fountain of tears cleanses man. Where 
fore many, having defiled the holy IMMKUSION (BAITISM) by oft ences, 
were cleansed by tears and declared just." 

Of course, the fountain of tears does not represent the baptismal rite ; for 
from this it is expressly distinguished. It is, therefore, an IMMERSION only in 
a figurative sense, as having, through the same imparted grace, the same cleans 
ing effect as the literal IMMERSION in water. In this figurative sense the word 
is used in the following extract. 


The same writer ; in the same passage. 

"Three IMMERSIONS (BAPTISMS), purgative of all sin whatever, 
God has bestowed on the nature of men. I mean, that of 
water ; and again, that by the witness of one s own blood ; and 
thirdly, that by tears, in which also the harlot was cleansed." 

This word became, necessarily, a technical designation of the Christian rite ; but 
without losing its proper literal significance, as has already been shown by many 
of the foregoing extracts, and as may be seen in the two following examples. 


Apostolic Canons;* Can. L. 

" If any bishop, or presbyter, shall not perform three IMMERSIONS 

As early as the fifth century. 


dapvojv 7rY]yt] KO0api(*ei TOV dvOpojirov Oioircp TroAAot 
Sia TrTaio-fJidTcov fju)XvvavT$ TO ayiov fiaTTTiorfJLa, did SaKpv- 
cov Ka0apicr6rj(Tav KOI OiKCUOl a7ree/x$?;crai>. 

Ejusdcm (Ibidem). 

Tpia ^aTTTLO-fJiaTa KatiapriKa 7rd(njf oiay dr)7TOT a/map- 
T/ay 6 tfeos rfj (j)vo-i TMV ai>0poj7ra)i> edcoprjcraTt Ae yco de 
TO vSarof, KOU iraXiv TO 8td /j.apTVpiov TOV idiov OLL/JLOLTO?, 

KOLL TplTOV TO did $OLKpVU)V) fi? OTTtp KOLL 7) TTOpVY) KaOaOLO~0r). 

Canone.s Sanct. Apostolorum ; can. L. (Pandect. Can. Apost. ct., ed. 
Beverige, Vol. 1. p. 33). 



(BAPTISMS) for one initiation.* but one IMMERSION (BAPTISM), that 
given into the dcatli of the Lord, let him be deposed." 

* So this rite was called, as being the initiatory rite of the church. Three 
immersions were by many considered necessary to the full performance of the 
rite. Compare the writer s note on Matt. 28 : 19. 


Zonaras ;* Annotations on the Apostolic Canons (on Can. L.). 
" Three IMMERSIONS (BAPTISMS) the canon here calls the thrice 
sinking down in one initiation, that is, in one IMMERSION (BAPTISM). 

He uses the word, in the first instance, to express simply an act of immer 
sion, and in the second, this act as the Christian rite. 

* OF the twelfth century. 

" It thus appears, that the" Christian Fathers understood this 
word in its ordinary, established signification in the Greek 
language, exhibited in Section I. from their own practice, as 
well as that of other Greek writers. Their figurative applica 
tions of the Christian rite grew naturally out of its deep signi 
ficance, in its various references to the doctrines and facts of 
the Christian life. We are not to attach to the word itself 
ideas derived from the application of the rite. 


eVireAeV?;, aAAa eV /Scwmcr/ia elr rov 6dva- 
TOV TOV KVplov SiSo^evov, KaOaipticrOoj. 

Zonarse Annott. in Can. Apost. L. (ibidem). 

Tpla fiaTTTio-fJiaTa evravOa ray rpcly Karadvo-ei? <f)r}(nv 
o KOVW eV fJLia [JivrjoreL, rjroi ei/ eV 


Requirements and Practice of the Church. 


The Eastern, or Greek Church. 

Extract from Gear s " EUCHOLOGION, or Ritual of the Greeks." 
"Office of the Holy IMMERSION (BAPTISM)." 
(after the preliminary ceremonies) t 

"And when the whole body is anointed, the priest IMMERSES 
(BAPTIZES) him [the child], holding him erect and looking toward 
the east, saying : 

The servant of God [name] is IMMERSED (BAPTIZED), in the name 


ETXOA OTION, sive Rituale Grace, (op. Goar, pp. 354, 
Officium Sancti Baptismatis. 

Ka\ ore xpi<r0fj o\ov TO <7a>/zor, fHairri&l OLVTOV 6 
opOiov avrov KOiTtyoiv KOLL /3Ae7ro^Ta Kara a^aroAay, A- 

6 8ov\o? rov 0eov, O delva, iy TO 

* ETXOAOriON, sive Ritualc (Jrascorum, complectens ritua et ordines ct. 
juMii usuin Orit-ntalis Kcclt-sia- : nj..-r:i Ti. T. F. J:icli <iour ..... nuper in 
Ori -ntnn mi^si A pstolici Lutct. Park KMT. 


of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit ; now and 
ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 

At each invocation, bringing him down, and bringing him up. 
And after the IMMERSING (BAPTIZING), the priest washes his hands, 
singing with the people: Happy they, whose sins are for 
given/" etc. 

The practice of this church has already been seen in the 
extracts given in Section V. The deviations from this practice 
(for convenience or other cause) were only occasional and excep 
tional, and without canonical authority. 


TOV Trctrpo?, KOL TOV viov, KOL TOV dyiov TrvevpaTO?. Nvv 
/ecu aiL, KCU ely TOVS aiaH/a? runs auovcov. 

Trpoo-prjati Karywv avrov, KOU dvayutv. Kal 
d rr)v paTTTicrtv, v^rnai o iepev?, ^aXXvv 
Aaco 3 MaKapiOL wv dtiefyo-av al dvojjilai K. r. A. 




The Western, or Latin Church. 

Extract from the Order of Sacraments, composed by Pope Gregory I. 

"The font being blest, and he holding the infant by whom it 
is to be taken up, let the priest inquire thus : 
What is thy name? 


Dost tliou believe in God. the Father Almighty, creator of 
heaven and earth ? 

A-nsw. 1 believe. 

And in Jesus Christ, his only Son our Lord, who was born 
and suffered? 

Answ. 1 believe. 

Dost thou also believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic 
Church, the remission of sins, the resurrection of the body? 


Sacramentarium Gregorianum, sive Sacramentorum ordo a sancto 
Gregorio I. Papa compositus, (ed. Muratori, Vol. II. p. 73).* 

Benedicto fonte, et eo tenente infantem, a quo susdpiendum est, 
inter roget sacerdos ita : 
Quis vocaris? 


(Me.) Credis in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, Creatorem coeli 
et terrae? 

Respondet: Credo. 

Et in Jesum Christum, Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum, 
natum, ct passum? 

Respondet: -Credo. 

Credis et in Spiritum Sanctum, sanctam Ecclesiam Catholi- 
cam, remissionem peccatorum, carnis resurrectionem ? 

* Litargia Romana vetus, tria sacramenta complectens, Leonianum scilicet, 
Gelasianum, et antiquurn Gregorianum ; edente Ludovico Antonio Muratorio, 
Neapoli, 1776. 


Answ. I believe. 

Then let the priest baptize with a trine immersion, once only in 
voking the holy Trinity, saying : 

And I baptize thee, in the name of the Father ; 

(and let him immerse once} 
And of the Son ; 

(and let him immerse a second time) 
And of the Holy Spirit ; 

(and let him immerse a third time)." 

For the early practice in this Church, see Examples 204-217, 
and the extract from the work of Brenner, at the end of this 


Respondet: Credo. 

Deinde baptizet sacerdos sub trina mersione, tantum sanctam Trim- 
tatem semel invocans, ita dicendo : 

Et ego te baptizo in nomine Patris ; 

Et mergat semel. 
Et Filii ; 

Et mergat iterum. 
Et Spiritus sancti ; 

Et mergat tertio. 



Anglican Church. 

Extract from the first English " Book of Common Prayer, and Administration 
of the Sacraments," the first book of King Edward VI. 1549 (Pickering s fac 
simile, fol. CAT!.).* 

"Then the priest shall take the child in his hands, and ask 
the name. And naming the child, shall dip it in the water 
thrice. First dipping the right side : Second the left side : 
The third time dipping the face toward the font : So it be dis 
creetly and warily done, saying. 

X. I baptize thee, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

And if the child be weak, it shall suffice to pour water upon 
it. saying the foresaid words." 

Extract from The Second Book of King Edward VI., 1552; as also in The 

First Book of Queen Elizabeth, 1550, and in that of King James, 1604, called 

the Hampton Court Book" (Pickering s facsimile, voh //., III., and IV.). 

"Then the priest shall take the child in his hands, and ask 
the name, and naming the child shall dip it in the water, so 
it be discreetly and warily done, saying. 

X. I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

And if the child be weak, it shall suffice to pour water upon 
it, saving the foresaid words. 

I lie book of the common prayer, and administration of the Sacraments, etc 
;tft -r ti,- us>- of the Church of England. Londini, in ofticina Edouardi Whitchurche 
( inn privilegiu ad hnpriinendum .-oliun. Anno Do. 1549." (London, Win. Picker 


From the same, as revised and settled at the Savoy conference, under Charles IT., 
1662 (Pickering s fac-simile, vol. V.). 

" Then the priest shall take the child into his hands, and shall 
say to the Godfathers and Godmothers, 

Name this Child. 

And then, naming it after them (if they shall certify him that 
the Child may well endure it) he shall dip it in the water dis 
creetly and warily, saying, 

N. I baptize thee in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 

But if they certify that the child is weak, it shall suffice to 
pour water upon it, saying the foresaid words." 

Practice of the Church in England, before the Reformation. 

Canon of the Council of Calchuth, A.D. 816, ch. XL 
" Let the presbyters also know, when they administer the holy 
baptism, that they may not pour the holy water over the infants 
heads, but let them always be immersed in the font ; as the Son 
of God furnished by himself an example to every believer, when 
he was thrice immersed in the waves of the Jordan. 7 

J. Lingard, History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church, 
(Vol. I. p. 5J7). 

" The regular manner of administering it was by immersion, 
the time the two eves of Easter and Pentecost, the place a bap 
tistery, a small building contiguous to the church, in which had 
been constructed a convenient bath called a font. When an 
adult solicited baptism, he was called upon to profess his belief 
in the true God, by the repetition of the Lord s Prayer, and the 


Concilia magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae (ed. Wilkins, Vol. I. 

. P . 171.) 

Sciant etiam presbyteri, quando sacrum baptismum ministrant, 
ut noil effundant aquam sanctam super capita infantium, sed 
semper mergantur in lavacro ; sicut exemplum praebuit per 
semetipsum Dei Filius omui credenti, quando esset ter mersus 
in undis Jordanis. 


Apostles creed ; and to declare his intention of leading a life 
of piety, ly making a threefold renunciation of the devil, his 
works and his pomps. He then descended into tho font; the 
priest depressed his head three times below the surface, saying. 
I baptize tliee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost." 

In the baptism of children the same rites were observed, 
with a few necessary variations .... The priest himself descend 
ed into the water, which readied to his knees. Each child was 
successively delivered undressed into his hands, and he plunged 
it thrice into the water, pronounced the mysterious words, and 
then restored it to its sponsors." . . . "Such were the canonical 
regulations with respect to the administration of baptism." 

The following extract from Tyndale s " Obedience of a Christian 
Man (edition of 1571, p. H3), shows the practice of the Eng- N 
lisli Church as late as the first half of the sixteenth century. 

"The washing [of baptism] preacheth unto us that we arc 
cleansed with Christ s bloodshedding, which was an offering 
and a satisfaction for the sin of all that repent and believe, 
consenting and submitting themselves unto the will of God. 
The plunging into the water signifieth that we die, and are 
buried with Christ, as concerning the old life of sin which is 
Adam. And the pulling out again, signifieth that we rise 
again with Christ in a new life full of the Holy Ghost, which 
shall teacli us and guide us and work the will of God in us, 
as thou seest Rom. VI." 

These three divisions of the Church are all that can be 
taken into account in this view. In respect to all three, the 
following statement by Brenner,* a Roman Catholic writer, 
deserves special regard. After a full investigation of the 
original authorities, he closes his work with a summary of tho 
results, of which the first paragraph is as follow 

Exhibition of th- Ailministnition of Hupl ism, from Christ to our 
own times, p. 306. 


" Thirteen hundred yearn was baptism generally and regu 
larly an immersion of the person under the water, and only in 
extraordinary cases a sprinkling or pouring with water ; the 
latter was, moreover, disputed as a mode of baptism, nay even 


Brenner, Geschichtliche Darstellung der Verrichtung der Taufe, 
von Christus bis auf unserc Zeiten ; S. 306. 

Dreizehn hundert Jahren war das Tauferi allgemein und 
ordcntlich ein Untertauchen des Menschen unter das Wasser, 
und nur in ausserordentlichen Fallen ein Besprengen oder 
Begiessen mit Wasser ; letzteres ward ausserdem als Taufweise 
bezweifelt, ja sogar verboten. 


Usage of t he Versions 

1. In the oldest of the Latin versions kno^sR to us, we find 
this word literally translated into that language. Tcrtullian,* 
the earliest of the Latin Fathers, who cites from a vernacular 
version and not from the original Greek,t quotes the commis 
sion in Matt. 28 : 10, in the following manner (On baptism, 
ch. xiii) : "For a law of immersing was imposed, and the for 
mula prescribed. Go (says he) teach the nations, immersing them 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Spirit. " John 4 : 2 is quoted as follows (On baptism, ch. xi.) : 
" For we read, And yet he did not immerse, but his disciples. " 
In the same work, ch. xiv. he quotes the Apostle Paul, as 
having said : " For Christ sent me not to immerse ;" and in 
ch. xx. he quotes the Evangelist as saying : " Were immersed, 

* Born about the middle of the second century. 

f Semler, Dissert, in Tertull. I. IV. (Op. Tertull. cd. Semler, vol. V. p. 185.) 


Tertull. de Baptismo c. XIII. (ed. Semler, Vol. IV. p. 172). 
Lex enim tinguendi imposita est, et forma praescripta. Ite 
(inquit) docete nationes, tinguentes eas in nomen patris et Jilii, el 
spiritus sancti. 

Ejusdem c. XI. (Vol. IV. p. 168). Legimus enim: Et tamen 
is non tinguebat, verum discipuli ejus. 

Ejusdem c. XIV. (p. 172). Sed de ipso Apostolo rcvolvunt, 
quod dixerit, Non enim me ad tin^uendum Christus misit, quasi 
hoc argumento baptismus adimatur. 

Kjusdcm c. XX. (p. 178). Tinguebantur, iiKjuit, confitentes 
ddicta sua. 


confessing their sins." In cli. xvi. of tlic same work, he 
quotes the Saviour s language in Luke 12 : 50, in the follow 
ing manner : " There is indeed for us also a second bath, 
one and the same, namely of blood ; of which the Lord 
says, / have to be immersed with a baptism, when he hud 
already been immersed." 

Cyprian, another of the Latin Fathers, born about half a 
century later, quotes Matt. 28 : 18-20, in the following manner 
(Epistle xxv.): "The Lord, after his resurrection, when sending 
forth the Apostles, gives a command, and said : All power is 
given to me in heaven and in earlh. Go ye. therefore, and teach 
all nations, immersing them in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Spirit ; teaching them to observe all things, 
whatever I have commanded you. " In the same words he 
quotes this passage again, in Epist. LXIII. Gal. 3 : 27, he 
quotes in the following manner (Epist. LXXV) : "For if the 
Apostle lies not, when he says, As many of you as were 
immersed in Christ, have put on Christ? then verily he, who 
was then baptized in Christ, has put Christ on." 

It was, therefore, the earliest usage, in translations into 
the Latin language, to express the literal meaning of this 


Ejusdem c. XVI. (pp. 173, 174). Est quidem nobis etiam 
secundum lavacrum, unmn et ipsuin. sanguinis scilicet : de quo 
Dorninus, Habeo, inquit, baptisnio tingui, quum jam tinctus 

Cypriani Epist. XXV. (ed. units ex mwiach. congr. S. Mauri, 
p. 82). Dominus post resurrcctionem mittens apostolos mandat 
et dixit : Data est mihi omnis potestas in coelo et in terra. lie 
ergo et docete gentes omnes. tingentcs eos in nomine patris et flii 
et spiritus sancti, docentes eos observare omnia quaecunque praecepi 

Ejusdem Epist. LXXV. (/;. 306). Nam si non mentitur aposto- 
lus dicens, Quotquot in Chtisto tindi cstis. Christum induistis ; 
utique qui illic in Christo baptizatus est, induit Christum. 


word. But the Greek name of the rite itself, and at a later 
period the Greek verb also, were retained in the current 
Latin versions; an example of the practice of the Romish 
Church, to express sacred tilings by what was superstitiously 
regarded as their sacred appellations, such as azyma, pascha, 
and the like. Of this weakness, injurious in every one of its 
tendencies, nearly all traces have, after long conflicts, been 
expunged from the English Bible. 

2. This was also the usage of ancient Oriental versions ; 
viz. the Syriac (last half of the second century), the Coptic (third 
century), and the Ethiopic (of the fourth century/, nrronliiii: 
to the definitions, given in the best lexicons, of the words by 
which they severally translate the Greek terms.* Scholars dillVr 
in opinion only in regard to the Syriac word ; and this diilVr- 
ence respects only its etymology and primary meaning, for that 
it means to immerse in early Syriac literature is well known. t 

3. The Teutonic versions. 

At the head of these, as of Teutonic literature in general, 
stands the Gothic version of Ulfilas (bishop of the Moeso-Goths) 
made in the last half of the fourth century. In this version the 
Greek word is translated by daupjan (pronounced as duwp-ycm)? 
which means to dip, like the Latin mergere, and the German tau- 

* The rendering "to stand," which some scholars assert to he thg meaning of 
the corresponding word in the Syriac version, is not claimed by them to l>< a 
translation of the Greek word, or to have been so regarded by the author of that 

In the Sahidic (dialect of upper Egypt) the Greek word is transferred-. 
Versions of a later date are not taken into account here ; nor are those hen- 
referred to quoted as evidence of the proper meaning of the (ireek word, which 
is established by the better testimony of native writers. 

t Kirsehii Chrestom. Syr. (ed. Bernstein, p. 378) : ^^ fnt. ,_LiiJ. 1) 
immerxus eat,- merxit, immersit M c. *^ in alqd. Altitmlnu (hno) mans 
>f nn in>- r>j it p. JO!) 1. f> [. V/v |v* *> <n_nia^ol, (K liii K s;iL r ittae 
in rerchn in < n<. infiac^it in ccrebro eju^. I>ar-I Icbr. Clir. p. :")")S 1. 2 si f. 

s s s 

\v. L y ^ . (ji!..(l trans, halxl siiiniticat ionem imini .rxit, iinin isit al(|<l . rccnn- 
dntit j>trl<ke!i| L -ladiuni ill vu^iimin). Tr.msi. I/H rut v ////.. i.e. indinavit w, 
obiit. Kphr. oj|). T. 1. p. si 1. L"J. lii nicrgendo in aquam luraliix. n 
3) nacro lava no /////m/">. boftisattU <>/. 


chen; in two instances (Luke 3 : 21, 7 : 29) by ufdaupjan, to dip 
under, like the Latin submerge, and the German untertauchen.* 

In its construction with other words also, this rendering 
corresponds with the Greek word. For example, Matt. 3 : 11, 
"/ indeed dip you in water" Mark 1:8, "/ dip you in water;" 
v. 9, " and was dipped by John in Jordan."]* 

By words of the same family, springing from the same ety 
mological root, and having the same ground-meaning, the Greek 
svord is translated in all the leading vernacular versions made 
for the Teutonic races. For example : 

In the first lower-Saxon Bible (1470-80), it is translated by 
^the word doepen (to dip) 4 John 1:33, "But he who sent me 
to dip in water" (not, with water 1 } ; Matt. 3 : 11. "And I indeed 
dip you in water" (not. with water ). 

In the Augspuig German Bible (1473-75), it is rendered by 
the word tauffen (to dip). John 1 : 33, "He that sent me to 
dip in water" (not, with water 7 ); Matt. 3 : 11, " And I indeed 
dip you in water" (not, with water 1 ). \\ 

In Luther s German version (New Testament, 1522; entire 
Bible, 1534), the Greek word is rendered by taufen, to dip. So 

* Gabelentz and Loebe, Glossarium der Gothischen Sprache : Daiipjan, 1) tati- 

chen, tauten, pami&iv : Matt. 3:11 2. sieli waschen, panri&o&ai : Me. 7 : 4. 

Ufdaupjan. untertauchen, eintauchen, Ifipanreiv : Joli. 13 : 26: taufen, fiaTiTi- 
&ir: Luc. 3 : 21, 7 : 29. 

f Ulfilas, vet. et nov. Test. Versio Gothica; Matt, 3 : 11, Ik allis izvis daupja 
in vatin (Massmann s ed.). Mark 1 : 7, Ik daupja izvis in vatin. (v. 9), Jah 
daupiths vas Irani iohanne in iaurdane (ed. Gabelentz et Loebe). 

I (John 1 : 33) Mer dye my sande to doepen in den waeter. (Matt. 3 : 11) 
Kim verwar ik dope uw in den water. 

\ (John 1 : 33) Aber der inich sandt zu tauffen im wasser. (Matt. 3 : 11) Und 
fur war ich teuff eueli im wasser. 

|| Copies of these ancient vernacular versions, now extremely rare, and of great 
interest in the history of Bible translation (being more than half a century older 
than Luther s version of the whole Bible), are in the library of the American Bible 
Union. The copy of the lower-Saxon Bible is of the edition that assimilates to 
the Dutch. Compare Panzer, Annalen der alteren deutschen Literatur, Nos. 12 



Luther himself explains the word (Sermon on Baptism) : " Then 
also without doubt, in German tongues, the word Tauf comes 
from the word tief (deep), because what one baptizes lie sinks 
deep into the water. 7 * 

In the Dutch version (1526, revised 1562, and again by order 
of the States-General 1628-32), the Greek word is rendered by 
doopcn ; in the Swedish version (New Testament 1526, revised 
1615, and more thoroughly 1711-28), by dcepa ; in the Danish 
version (from Luther s, 1550, and 1589 ; from the original text, 
1605), by dcebe ; all of the same root as the word used by Ul- 
lilas and Luther, and all meaning to dip. 

The relationship of these words, with their ground-meaning, is shown on 
p. 400 of Meidinger s (i Etymological and Comparative Dictionary of the Teuto- 
Gothic Languages (1833).f Under the root, "Tief, deep" he gives the family i 
" Dippen, to immerse, tff sink, to plunge. Anglo-Saxon dippan, dyppan, to 
plunge, to baptize; dyfan, dnfian, ge-duh an, to plunge. English to dip, to dive. 
Dutch doopen. Swedish doepa. Danish dyppe. Italian tnffarc. Under the same 
root, he gives the family : " Taufen, to baptize. Anglo-Saxon dyppan, dippan. 
depan, dyfan. Swedish doepa. Danish doebe. Dutch doopen. OId-6cnn:in 
doufan. Old-Gothic daupian, to plunge, to bathe. 

The same relationship (more fully carried out) is given by Diefenbach, Compar 
ative Dictionary of the Gothic Language (Vergleicliendes IVorterbuch der Gothischen 
SpmrJie) 1851,* vol. II. p. 627, Nr. 24. 

4. Versions for the use of the learned. 

As in all versions of this class, so far as is known to the 
writer, the Greek word is uniformly rendered in this sense, when 
its literal meaning is professedly given, a few examples will 

* Dann auch ohne Zweifel in deutschen Zungen das \V6rtlein Tauf herkommt 
von dem Wort tief, da.s man tief ins Wasscr senkt was man tan ft. Sermon vom 
Sacrament der Tanfe; Werke, B. 21, S. L l>9 (I rm cr s ed.}. 

t " Ti<-f. ])rof ond. Dippen, eintanchen, tufoncer, plongcr. Aug. S. dippan, 
dvppan. plonger, hnptixcr ; dyfan, dnfian. ge-diifian. plongt-r. Eng. to dip, to 
dive, p/fnigcr. IIoll. doopen. Swed. depa. Dan. dyppe. ft. tufiare." . . . . 
::i!eii. Imptitrr. AriL r . S. dy])pan. dijipan. dejian. dyfan. Swed. doepa. Dan. 
dK-li. . Moll, doopen. Alt-D. donf;in. All-G. (laiij)ian. plmipcr, .sr /nrcr." (Mei- 
dinirer. Diet, etyinologicjiie et roniparatif des Lan-ue~ TeutO-Gothiques. Francf. 
I M., 1833.) 


Schott : the New Testament, with a critically edited Greek text, 
and a new Latin translation (1839). 

Matt. 3:6, " were immersed by him in the Jordan." 
Y. 11 (and Luke 3:16), "I indeed immerse you in wa 
ter;... he will immerse you "n the Holy Spirit and fire." 
V. 13, "to be immersed by him." 

V. 14, "I have need to be immersed by thee." I 

V. 16, " and Jesus, when he had been immersed." 
Mark. 7 : 4, except they immerse themselves in water." 
Ib. "The immersing of water-pots, brazen vessels, and table- 

Ch. 10 : 38, "and undergo the immersion, that I must undergo." 

John 1 : 25, " Why then dost thou immerse ?" 

Y. 26, " I indeed immerse in water." 

V. 28, "where John was immersing." 

V. 31, "therefore I came immersing in water." 

Ch. 3 : 22, "and there abode with them, and immersed." 

Y. 26, "behold, he immerses." 


Nov. Test. Graece, .... nova versione Lat. illustratum. auct. 
D. A. Schott. 1839. 

Matt. 3 : 6, per eum Jordani immergebantur. 

Y. 11 (and Luke 3 : 16), Ego quidem aquae vos immer- 
go ; . . . ille Spiritui sancto atque igni vos immerget. 

Y. 13, ut per eum imrnergeretur. 

Y. 14, mihi opus est, ut per te immergar. 

Y. 16, atque Jesus, quum immersus fuisset. 

Mark. 7 : 4, nisi aquae se immerserint. 

76. de immergendis poculis urceis, vasis aeneis, et lectis tri- 

Cap, 10, 38, et immersionem subire quae mihi subeunda. 

John 1 : 25, cur tandem immergis? 

Y. 26. equidem aquae immergo. 

Y. 28, ubi Joannes immergebat. 

Y. 31, propterea veni aquae immergens. 

Ch. 3 : 22, ibique cum iis commorabatur et immergebat. i 

Y. 26, en, hie immergit. 


Acts 1 : 5, "which ye heard from me, that John immersed 
in water," etc. 

Ch. 11 : 16, "John indeed immersed in water, but ye shall be 
immersed in holy spirit." 

Campbell (Pres. of Marisclial College, Aberdeen), Trans, of 
the Gospels, Matt. 20 : 22, and Mark 10 : 38. " Can ye ... 
undergo an immersion like that which I must undergo?" Luke 
12 : 50. u I have an immersion to undergo." 

Fritzsche. on Rom. 6:3. " I baptize one unto repentance means: 
I immerse one, pointing out to him repentance (as needed), i. c. 
I bind one to the exercise of penitence." 

Rom. 6 : 4, he paraphrases thus : " We are therefore (i. e. 
because, when we were baptized by immersion into water, 
Christ s death was presented before us in an image of burial) 
as was Christ, deposited in a tomb by baptism, that we might be 
declared dead" (p. 364). On p. 363, he quotes the following 
as erroneous constructions given by others of these words : " to be 
immersed in Christ and his death;" "to be immersed in Christ 


Acts 1 : 5. quod a me audivistis, Joannem quidem aquae im- 

Acts 11:16, Joannes quidem aquae immersit, vos autem Spiri- 
tui sancto immergemini. 

Fritzschii in epist. ad Rom. vol. I. p. 362: Matt. 3:11, 
fiaTTTifa riva 6is- ^TOLvoio.^ valet immergo aliquern, pocnitcn- 
tiam ei monstrans (qua opus sit), i. e. pocnitcntia agenda aliquern 

Fritzschii Com. in epist. ad Rom. vol. I. p. 364 : ^Suinus 
igitur (i. e. quja Christi mors quum baptizaremnr mersu in 
aquam, sepulturae simulacro, nobis illata est ; v. ad v. 3), qucm- 
admodum Christus, in scpulchro repositi per baptisma, quo mortui 
declararemur. Pg. 363 : Qui /3a7TT/eo-$at tis&pLGTOV et eh 
TOV avrov Chrisfo tjusque morti immergi cnarrant. 
etc. . . . Quodsi fionrTLQcrOaL 6ir Xpiarov Christo i 


(i. e. into Christ s mystical body, the church ;)" " to be immersed 
in Christ, (i. e. to be most closely conjoined with him by baptism, 
and as it were to coalesce in one) ;" " to be immersed in Christ s 
death, i. e. to come into this fellowship with Christ s death, 
that the death thou diest to sins may flow from that, as from 
a fountain." 

Kuinoel (on Matt. 20 : 22) : " To be submerged with the evils. . . 
with which / shall be submerged. Afflictions and calamities, in 
the Holy Scriptures, often compared to deep* waters, in 
which they are submerged as it were, who are pressed by a 
weight of calamities. Hence, TO BE BAPTIZED is to be oppressed 
with ills, with troubles, or to be immersed with ills" 


valere dicas in Christi corpus mysticum (in ecclesiam Eph. 5 : 23, 30) 
inseri, etc. . . . Sin Christo immergi significare arctissime cum 
Christo per baptismum conjungi et quasi in unum coalescere cl. 
vv 5, et Gal. 3 : 27, contendas, . . . et Christi morti immergi 
interpreteris in hanc cum Christi morte communionem venire, ut 
mors, qua peccatis emoriaris, ex ilia tanquam ex fonte profluat. 

Kuinoel Com. in Matt. 20 : 22. Malis submergi . . . quibus ego 
mbmergar .... Afflictiones et calamitates in literis sacris sae- 
pius comparantur gurgitibus aquarum, quibus veluti submergun- 
tur, qui calami ta turn onere premuntur. . . . Hinc 
malis, aerumnis opprimi s. malis mergi. 


Views of Scholars of different Communions.* 

Alex, de Stourdza, Russian State-Councillor (of the Greek 
Church) : Considerations on the doctrine and spirit of the 
orthodox Church. 

"The distinctive characteristic of the institution of baptism 
is immersion, BAPTISMA, which can not be omitted without destroy 
ing the mysterious sense of the sacrament, and contradicting at 
the same time the etymological signification of the word, which 
serves to designate it." 

" The church of the West has, then, departed from the ex 
ample of Jesus Christ ; she has obliterated the whole sublimity 
of the exterior sign ; in short, she commits an abuse of words 


Alex, de Stourdza, Considerations sur la doctrine et Tesprit 
de TEglise orthodoxe. Stuttg. 1816. p. 87. (as quoted by Augusti. 
Denkw., Vol. VII., p. 227). " Le charactere distinctif de 1 in- 
stitution du bapteme est V immersion, /SctTr-noT^a, qu ou, ne sau- 
rait omettre, sans ddtruire le sens mysterieux du sacrement, 
et sans contredire en meme temps la signification etyraologique 
du mot, qui sert a le designer." 

" L 6glise d Occident s est done ecarte de 1 imitation de Jesus 
Christ, elle a fait disparaitre toute la sublimitd du signe ex- 
terieur, enfin elle commet un abus de mots et d ide"es, en pra- 

* The quotations in this Section arc from the writings of distinguished schol 
ars; men who wrote (with, perhaps tl,<- exception of the first, who represents the 
>f u particular Church) in no partisan spirit, and to serve no party end. 
Their views will be accepted, by every competent judge, as fairly representing the 
testimony of unbiased Christian scholarship, on the pomt in question. 


and of ideas, in practicing baptism by aspersion, this very term in itself, a derisive contradiction. The verb BAPTIZO, im~ 
mergo, has in fact but one sole acceptation. It signifies, liter 
ally and always, to plunge. Baptism and immersion are, there 
fore, identical, and to say : baptism by aspersion is as if one 
should say : immersion by aspersion, or any other absurdity of 
the same nature." 

Maldonatus (Catholic), Commentary on the Gospels, Matt. 
20 : 22. (On the words, Can ye drink, etc.). Mark says, that 
Christ added, and be baptized with the baptism with which I am 
baptized; which, by another metaphor, signifies the same thing, 
for baptism is also put for suffering and death, as Luke 12:50. 
Whence it is, that also martyrdom is called a baptism ; a 
metaphor, as I think, taken from those who are submerged in 
the sea, to put them to death. For in Greek, to be baptized is 
the same as to be submerged." Luke, 12 : 50. " To be baptized^ 
therefore, which properly is to be submerged in water, is put 
for to suffer and to die, and baptism for affliction, for suffering, 
for death." 


tiquant le bapteme par aspersion, dont le seul e nonce est deja 
une contradiction derisoire. En effet le verbe /SaTrr/^o) im- 
mergo n a qu une seule acceptation. II signine litte ralement et 
perpetuellement plonger. Bapteme et immersion sont done iden- 
tiques, et dire : bapteme par aspersion, c est comme si 1 on disait : 
immersion par aspersion, ou tout autre contresens de la meme 

Maldonati Comment, in quat. Evangel. (Matt. 20 : 22). Mar 
cus ait, addidisse Christum : et baptismo, quo ego baptizor, bap 
tizari ? quod alia metaphora idem significat ; nam et baptismus 
pro passione et mortc poni solet, ut Luc. 12 : 50. Unde factum, 
ut et martyrium baptismus appelletur ; metaphora. ut opinor, 
snmpta est ab iis, qui, ut moriantur, in mare submerguntur. 
Graece enim baptizari idem est, atque submergi. (Luc. 12 : 50). 
Ideo ergo baptizari, quod proprie est aquis submergi, pro pati 
et mori : et baptismus pro afflictione. pro passione, pro morte 


F.-i (Catholic: Chancellor of the University of I)ouay), Com. 
on the Epistle> (on "Rom. 6 : 3). "For immersion represents to 
us Christ s burial; and so also his death. For tin- tomb is a 
symbol of death, since none but the dead are buried. More 
over, the emersion, which follows the immersion, has a resem 
blance to a resurrection. We are therefore, in baptism, con 
formed not only to the death of Christ, as lie lias just said, 
but also to his burial and resurrection." 

The same work, on 1 Cor. 15 : 29. "Not much different is 
the exposition of those who explain the words for the dead, 7 
in this manner : and acting, or representing the dead ; because 
the immersion and emersion, performed in baptism, are a kind of 
representation of death and resurrection. 7 

The same work, on Col. 2 : 12. For it is signified that 
believers, when they are baptized, by that very ceremony of bap 
tism are buried with Christ; inasmuch as the immersion, which 
is performed in baptism, so represents Christ s burial, that it at 
the same time works in us what the burial of Christ signified, 
namely the death and burial of our old man. But because, not 
only does the immersion, which is performed in baptism, repre- 


Estii Com. in Epist. N. T. Rom. : 3. Nam immersio 
Christi sepulturam nobis repraesentat ; adeoque et mortem. Se- 
pulchrum namque mortis symbolurn est, nee enim sepeliuntur nisi 
mortui. Quae autem immersionem sequitur emersio, similitudinem 
habet resurrectionis. Igitur in baptismo configuramur non 
tantum morti Christi, quod jam dixit, verum etiam sepulturae et 
resurrection!. 1 Cor. lf>:2 ( J. Non multum dissimilis est expo- 
sitio corum, qui illud pro morfuix :id luinc inodum explieant: et 
agent cs scu repraesentantes mortuos: eo quod immersio et 
cmcrsio, quae fit in baptismo, sit mortis ac resurrectionis quae- 
dani n-pracsentatio. Col. 2 : 12. Et enim HL iiiliratur lideles, 
duni bnpti/antur, ea ipsa baptismi coremonia Christo consepdiri, 
quateijus immersio, quae lit, in baptismo, ita sepulturam Christi 
rcpraosentet, ut simul efliciat in nobis id quod sepultura Chrisii 
iicabat ; nimirum veteris hominis nos-tri mortem et sepultu 
ram. Verum quia non solum immersio. quae fit in baptismo, 



sent Christ s burial, but also the emersion presents an appearance 
of his resurrection, therefore he subjoins, "In whom also ye 
have risen again/ etc. 

Arnold! (Catholic), Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew 
(on ch. 3 : 6). "BAPTISEIV, to immerse, to submerge. ... It was, 
as being an entire submersion under the water. since washings 
were already a confession of impurity and a symbol of purifi 
cationthe confession of entire impurity and a symbol of entire 

Bishop Taylor (Church of England), Ductor dubitantium (The 
Rule of Conscience) Book III. Chap. IV. Rule XV., 13. (Bishop 
Heber s ed. vol. XIV. p. 62.) 

" A custom in the administration of a sacrament, introduced 
against the analogy and mystery, the purpose and significance 
of it, ought not to be complied with. I instanced before in a 
custom of the Church of England, of sprinkling water upon in 
fants in their baptism ; and I promised to consider it again. 
Straightway Jesus went up out of the water (saith thegospel) : 
He came up, therefore he went down. Behold an immersion! 
not an aspersion. And the ancient churches, following this 
of the gospel, did not, in their baptism, sprinkle water with their 
hands, but immerged the catechumen or the infant." After some 
references in proof of this assertion, he adds : All which are 
a perfect conviction, that the custom of the ancient churches 
was not sprinkling, but immersion, in pursuance of the sense 
of the word in the commandment and the example of our 


repraesentationem habet sepulturae Christi ; sed etiam emersio 
speciem praebet resurrectionis ejus, ideo subjungit, in quo et re- 
surrexistis, etc. 

Arnoldi, Commentar zum Evang. des h. Matthaus (Kap. 3:6) 

f *r* * 

aTTTi^tLi , eintauclien, untertauchcn Sie war als ein vb llio-es 

Untertauchen unter das Wasser, da schon Waschungcn Bekenntr 
niss der Unreinigkeit und Symbol der Rcinigung waren, das Be- 
kcnntniss giinzlicher Unreinigkeit und Symbol volliger Remitting. 


blessed Saviour." After lowing that a partial application of 
water was allowed in cases of mvr.Vity. he says: "And this 
is the sense and law of the church of England : not that it 
he indifferent, but that all infants be dipped, except in case of 
nickness, and then sprinkling is permitted." 

Towerson (Church of England), On the Sacraments : on the 
Sacram. of Bapt. Ft. III. 1 (p. 18). "As touching the outward 
and visible sign of baptism, there is no doubt it is the element 
of water, as is evident from the native significance of the word 
baptism, which signifies an immersion or dipping into some 
liquid thing. " 

Luther, On the Sacrament of Baptism (at the beginning). 
" First, the name baptism is Greek ; in Latin it can be rendered 
immersion, when we immerse any thing into water, that it may 
be all covered with water. And although that custom has now 
grown out of use with most persons (nor do they wholly sub 
merge children, but only pour on a little water), yet they ought 
to be entirely immersed, and immediately drawn out. For this 
the etymology of the name seems to demand." 

Calvin, Institution of the Christian religion, Book IV. ch. 
15; On Baptism, 19 (at the end). "Though the word baptize 
itself signifies immerse, and it is certain that the rite of immers 
ing was observed by the ancient church." 


Luther, de sacramento Baptismi, init. (Op. Lutheri, 1564, vol. I. 
fol. 319). Primo, nomen baptismus Graccum est ; Latine potest 
verti mersio, curn immergimus aliquid in aquam, ut totum tegatur 
aqua. Et quamvis ille mos jam aboleverit apud plerosque (nequc 
(in im totos demergunt pueros, sed tantum paucula aqua perfun- 
duntj debebant tamen prorsus immergi, et statim retrain. Id 
eniin etymolouia nominis postulare videtur. 

Calvini, Instit. Chri.-t. U< li<r. Lib. IV. Cap. 15, de Bapt. 19. 
l ilL . p. 470). "Qufttnqtuun et ipsum bapti/andi ver- 
imm mergere significat, et mergendi ritum veteri ecclesiae ob- 
rviitum fuisse constat. 


Zwingli, Annotations on Romans 6 : 3. " Into his death. 
When ye were immersed into the water of baptism, ye were 
ingrafted into the death of Christ; that is, the immersion of 
your body into water was a sign, that ye ought to be ingrafted 
into Christ and his death, that as Christ died arid was buried, 
ye also may be dead to the flesh and the old man, that is, to 
yourselves/ 7 

Philip Limborch (Prof, of Theol. among the Remonstrants), 
Christian Theology, Book V. ch. 67, On Baptism. " Baptism 
then consists in ablution, or rather in immersion of the whole 
body into water. For, formerly, those who were to be baptized 
were accustomed to be immersed, with the whole body, in water." 

George Campbell (President of Marischal College, Aberdeen), 
Translation of the Gospels, Matt. 3:11. "-The word BAPTIZEIN, 
both in sacred authors and in classical, signifies to dip/ to 
plunge, * to immerse/ and was rendered by Tertullian, the oldest 
of the Latin Fathers, tingere/ the term used for dyeing cloth, 
which was by immersion." 

J. A. Turretin (Prof, of Theol. at Geneva), On Romans 6 : 3, 4. 
"And indeed baptism was performed, in that age and in those 
countries, by immersion of the whole body into water." 


Zwinglii, Annott. in Epist. ad Rom. c. 6 : 3. (Op. Vol. IV. 
p. 420). In mortem ejus.) Quum intingeremini in aquam baptis- 
malem, in mortem Christi inserti estis : id est, intinctio corporis 
vestri in aquam signum fuit, vos insertos esse debere Christo 
et ejus morti, ut quemadmodum Christus mortuus cst et sepultus, 
ct vos mortui sitis carni et veteri hornini, id est, vobisipsis. 

Limborchii, Theol. Christ. Lib. V. cap. 67, De Baptismo, XII. 
Consistit igitur baptismus in ablutione, vel potlus immersione 
to tins corporis in aquam. Olim enim baptizandi toto corpore 
aquae immergi solebant. 

J. A. Turretini in Epist. ad Rom. Praelect. cap. 6 : 3, 4. Ac 
sane fiebat baptismus, ilia aetate atque illis in oris, per immer- 
sionem totius corporis in aquam. 


(Lutheran), Critical Commentary on the New Testament, 
ton Mark 7 : 4.) " Moreover, eav /x?) paTTTicrcovTai is not to be 
understood of washing the hands (Lighljwt, \Vctstein), but of im- 
mfrsion, which the word in classic Greek, and in the New 
Testament, everywhere means (compare Beza) : i. e. here, accord 
ing to the context, to take a bath. So also Luke 11 : 38. Comp. 
Sir. 31 : 25, Judith 12 : 7." On Matt, 8 : 11. " Ev is, in 
accordance with the meaning of /3a7TTi{a} (immerse), not to be 
understood imtrumentatiy, but, on the contrary, as in, in the 
sense of the element wherein the immersion takes place." 

Fritzsche (Lutheran), Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew 
vol. I. p. 120. Moreover Casaubon well suggested, that m.\Ki.\ 
means to be submerged with the design that you may perish , 
KPIPOLAZEIN to float on the surface of the water ; BAPTIZKSTIIAI 
[reflexive form of BAPTIZEIN] to immerse yourself wholly, for an 
other end than that you may perish. But that, in accordance 
with the nature of the word BAPTIZESTHAI, baptism was then 
performed not by sprinkling upon but by submerging, is proved 
especially by Rom. 6 : 4." 


Meyer, krit. exeget. Kommentar liber das N. T. Mark. 7 : 4. 
Dabei ist tav ^ fiaTTTio-. nicht vom Hdndewaschen (Lightf., Wetst.) 
zu verstehen, sondern vom Eintauchen, was- das Wort im Classi- 
schen und im N. T. durchweg heisst (vrgl. schon Beza). d. i. 
hier nach dem Contexte : ein Bad nehmen. So anch Luk. 1 1 : IjS. 
Vrgl. Sir. 31 : 25, Judith 12 : 7. Matt. 3 : 11. * Ev ist oach 
Maassgabe des Begrifls von paTrrifa (Eintauchen) nicht instru 
mental zu fassen, sondern : iw, im Sinne des Elements, worin das 
Eintauchen vor sicli gcht. 

Fritzschii Com. in Evang. Matt. vol. I. pag. 120. Ceternm 
Svvtiv esse eo consilio ut pereas submergi, tirLTroXdfav in 
aquarum superlicic nature, /3a7m eo-#cu alio quam nt to perdas 
fine se totum immergere bene subindicavit Casauhonus. Scd 
practer naturam verl)i $a.iTTi(t<j9ai baptismum non adspfi-^ciKJo 
sed submergendo illo tempon: absolutum esse evincit maxime 1. 
Rom. : 4. 


Conybeare and Howson (Church of England), The Life and 
Epistles of Paul, vol. T. p. 471. (Am. cd., p. 439). "It is 
needless to add, that baptism was (unless in exceptional cases) 
administered by immersion, the convert being plunged beneath 
the surface of the water to represent his death to the life of 
sin. and then rained from this momentary burial to represent 
his resurrection to the life of righteousness. It must be a sub 
ject of regret, that the general discontinuance of this original 
form of baptism (though perhaps necessary in our northern cli 
mates) has rendered obscure to popular apprehension some very 
important passages of scripture." 

I remark, in conclusion : 

1. That the rendering given to this word, in this revision, 
is its true and only meaning, as proved by the unanimous 
testimony of Greek writers, both pagan and Christian. 

2. That it accords with the religious instructions of the ear 
liest Christian writers, and with the requirements and practice 
of the whole Christian church, till within a comparatively re 
cent time. 

3. That it is the rendering of ancient versions sanctioned 
by the use of the church, and still retained in the vernacular 
versions of northern Europe. 

4. That it is the only rendering of the word in any version 
sanctioned by early use in the church, and is the only one 
used by scholars in their versions and expositions for the learned. 

o. That recent and living scholars, without distinction of 
ecclesiastical relations, unite in asserting this to be the true 
meaning of the Greek word. 

Such a rendering belongs to no one division of the church. 
It is catholic ; sanctioned by all that can entitle any rendering 
to universal acceptation. Whatever else may be said of it, it 
ean not, with any show of reason, be called sectarian. 


Obligation to translate the word. 

The obligation to translate this word rests on something 
more than grounds of philological correctness. Thero is, indeed, 
no reason of sufficient weight to justify, in any case, a departure 
from the simple rule of giving a faithful and intelligible ren 
dering of the inspired word. No other rule can be recognized 
as right or safe. On the ground alone, were there no other, 
that the Greek word means * to immerse.. is the translator bound 
so to render it. The general rule no one disputes. It is an 
axiom, and needs no proof. It is simply ihe rule, when one 
professes to communicate the words of another, to tell the 
truth as to what he has said. Any author, purposely mis 
translated or obscured, is falsified by his translator. Just so 
far as this is done, the translation is a literary forgery : for 
it conceals while it professes to exhibit what the author has 
said, or it represents him as saying that which he did not say: 
When applied to the Word of God, the rule is one of par 
amount force. 

But in the form of the initiatory Christian rite, there are 
references vitally connected with the nature and development 
of the Christian life. To obscure the word which describes 
this form is, therefore, to obscure to the mind of the recipient, 
the nature of the rite, the specific ideas symbolized in it, and 
the obligations to which it binds him. 

The word HAITI/KIN, during the whole existence of the Greek 
M :i spoken l;iii j-ii:i ( j-c. had a perfectly defiix-d and unvarying 
import. In its litcval u~" it meant, as has bvn shown, to put 


entirely into or under a liquid, or other penetrable substance, 
generally water, so that the object was wholly covered- by the 
inclosing element. By analogy, it expressed the coming into a 
new state of life or experience, in which one was as it were 
inclosed and swallowed up, so that, temporarily or permanent 
ly, he belonged wholly to it. The word was a favorite one 
in the Greek language. Whenever the idea of total submerg 
ence was to be expressed, whether literally or metaphorically, 
this was the word which first presented itself. The connection 
might be of the most elevated and serious, or of the most fa 
miliar and even ludicrous character. It was a daily household 
word, employed in numberless cases where the use of the word 
baptize would be a profanation. Salt, wool, the hand, a pole, 
a cork, a nest, a fish-spear, a bladder, an ape, an insect, a 
salad, were with perfect propriety said to be HAITI/ED (IMMERSED). 
A man was BAPTIZED (IMMERSED) when he was ducked in sport or 
revenge (Exs. 26 and 60), or was accidentally submerged by a 
swollen stream (Ex. 13). A ship was BAPTIZED (SUBMERGED), when 
she was overloaded and sunk (Ex. 48). So, metaphorically, 
one was BAPTIZED (IMMERSED) in calamities, when he was swallowed 
up by them as by an inu tilling flood (Exs. 87, 88) ; in debts, 
when he owed vast sums and had no means of paying them 
(Ex. 133) ; in wine, when his faculties were totally overborne 
and prostrated by it (Ex. 142) ; with sophistries, when his 
mind was wholly confounded by them (Ex. 135). The relation 
in which it was used associated with it, for the time being, the 
ideas peculiar to that relation : but the word itself, protected 
by the daily and hourly repetition in common life of the act 
which it described, retained its primary meaning and force 

It was this familiar term, understood by all because all used 
it in their every-day avocations, which our Saviour employed 
when prescribing the initiatory rite of his church. It conveyed 
to the minds of his disciples a meaning as clear and definite, 
as the words to eat and to drink, in his institution of the Supper. 

* As shown, Section III. 1. 9. by its secular use in the Church Fathers, side 
by sitle with their use of it in ivlm-nee to the Christian rite. 


The claim, that he used it with any other meaning than that 
which has been exhibited in this treatise, originated in ignorance 
of the literature of the word. No one, it is presumed, with a 
full knowledge of the case, would assert that the Saviour em 
ployed it in a new sense, unknown to those whom lie addressed : 
for that would be a charge that lie used it with the intention, 
or at least with the certainty, of being misunderstood. To 
that mystical sense, supposed by many to have been shadowed 
forth in Christ s command, stands out, in the strongest possible 
contrast, the simple, distinct, corporeal sense, to which the 
word was appropriated by unvarying usage. The act which 
it describes was chosen for its adaptation to set forth, in lively 
symbolism, the ground-thought of Christianity. The change in 
the state and character of the believer was total : comparable 
to death, as separating entirely from the former spiritual life 
and condition. The sufferings and death of Christ, those over 
whelming sorrows which he himself expressed by this word 
(Luke 12 : 50), were the ground and procuring cause of this 
change. These related ideas, comprehending in their references 
the whole work and fruit of redemption, were both figured by 
the immersion of the believer in water. In respect to both, it 
was called a burial. By it the believer was buried, as one dead 
with Christ to sin and to the world ; and by it he pledged 
himself to newness of life, with him who died for him and rose 
again. Can it be supposed that to obscure these ideas, bv 
virtually canceling the term on the clear expression of which 
the apprehension of them depends, is a trivial wrong against 
the body of Christ! 

This view of the significance, and consequent importance, of 
the form of this Christian rite, is not peculiar to the bodv of 
professed followers of Christ to which the writer belongs. "And 
indeed," says Luther,* " if you consider what baptism signifies. 

quid luipi<imi- >irnifi<^t, idem [imiiirrsioMnn] rcquiri 
llur i-niin siirnifirat. ut veins homo, ct nativitas nnstni plena pcrratk 
I curm- <-t snm.nun - ronstat, tola per divinum uraliani drnuTj. alnr. id 
quod ri.picisiiis iiidiral.imu-. I >.-l"l)at uritur Hindus Icipti/.umli n>s|nul-iv siuni- 
licati ini l>apti-:ni. at .rtiuii ar plnmm rjus i-d-rct >i<,muin. (I)e Saci in/i. 
Oj>. Turn. I. Fol. T J.; 


you will sec that the same tiling [immersion] is required. For 
this signifies, that the old man, and our sinful nature, which 
consists of flesh and blood, is all submerged by divine grace, 
as we shall more fully show. The mode of baptizing ought, 
therefore, to correspond to the signification of baptism, so as 
to set forth a sure arid full sign of it." Matthies* (treatise on 
baptism) only repeats the expressed views of eminent Christian 
scholars of different communions, when he says : " In the apos 
tolic church, in order that fellowship in Christ s death might 
be signified, the whole body of the one to be baptized was 
immersed in water or a river ; and then, that participation in 
Christ s resurrection might be indicated, the body again emerged, 
or was ^ taken out of the water. It is indeed to be lamented^ 
that this rite, as being one which most aptly sets before the 
eyes the symbolic significance of baptism, has been changed." 

The word baptize is an Anglicized form of the Greek 
BAITI/EIX. On this account it has seemed to some that it must 
necessarily express the same meaning. It has been said, that 
no other word can so perfectly convey the thought of the Holy 
Spirit, as the one chosen by himself to express it in the original 
Scriptures: and that we are, therefore, at least right and safe 
in retaining it in the English version. A comparison of the 
meaning of KAITIZEIX. as exhibited in Sects. J.-HI. of this treatise, 
with the definitions of. baptize/ as given in all dictionaries 
of the English language, and with its recognized use in English 
literature and in current colloquial phraseology, will show that 
this is far from being the case. The word baptize is a strictly 
ecclesiastical term ; broadly distinguished, by that characleristic, 
from the class of common secular words to which BAHTIZKIN be 
longed. It is a metaphysical term, indicating a mystical relation 
entered into with the church, by virtue of the sacramental appli 
cation of water. in both these respects, it misrepresents the 
Saviour s manner and intent. Concealing the form of the Chris,- 

*Iu cccKsia iipostolica, ut mortis Christ! cominnnio sio-nificaretur, t.|.,m 
baptizandi aqua; vel flmnini imim-rgebatur, et deinde. ut resurrectionis (, in^ii 
societas innueretur, corpiw iterum emer-ebat. sen extrahebatur ex aqua I),,- 
lendum quidem est. Imnc ritum. quippe qui apti^ime symbol-am buplismi si.Mii- 
ficatiouem ante oeiilo* ponat, c-sse muhitr.m. (Kaptismati* Expos. % 1(J //.; 


tian rite under a vague term, which means any tiling the reader 
may please, it obscures the ideas thereby symbolized, and the 
pertinency of the inspired appeals and admonitions founded on 
them. The essence of the Christian rite is thus made to consist 
in this mystical church-relation, into which it brings the recipi 
ent. With this view associates itself, naturally and almost 
necessarily, the idea of a certain mysterious efficacy in the rite 
itself: and, accordingly, we find the belief prevailing in the 
majority of Christian communions that, through baptism, the 
recipient is, not externally alone, but mystically united to the 
body of Christ. Thus the rite ceases to be the symbol of cer 
tain great truths of Christianity, and becomes an efficacious 
sacrament. The tenacity with which this fatal error is adhered 
to, even in communions not connected with the state, is largely 
due to the substitution, in our English Bibles, of this vague 
foreign term of indefinite meaning, for the plain, intelligible 
English signification of the Greek word.* 

Among the several words, all agreeing in the essential idea 
of total submergence, by which HAITIZKIX may be expressed in 
English, the word IMMERSK has been selected for use in this 
Revision, as most nearly resembling the original word in the 
extent of its application. It is a common, secular word, used 
in the daily affairs of life, to express the most familiar ads 
and conditions. It is not an ecclesiastical term. It is not 
a metaphysical term. It describes, to every English mind, the 
same clearly marked, corporeal act as is expressed by the Greek 
word. It is used metaphorically with the same applications. 
We speak of a man as immersed in calamities, in debt, in 
ignorance, in poverty, in cares, etc., always with the idea of 
totality, of being wholly under the dominion of these states or 
influences. In all these applications, like the Greek word, 
through constant use in the literal sense, it suggests the clear 
image of the act on which they all are founded. It is. in 
short, the same potentiality in English as HAITI/KIN in (Jrcek, 

* Other causes may produce, un<l liavr produced, the same perversion; 
lut this is no reu.-. Mi why w<- should not ivinovr the one within our 


having the same meaning and the same associations : being 
thereby fitted to make known to us the Saviour s will in pre 
scribing the initiatory rite of his church, to exhibit the truths 
and relations symbolized by it, .and the force of the inspired 
appeals founded on it, precisely ns this was done to those who 
first heard and read the gospel in Greek. 




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(Originally issued as an Appendix to the Revision of Matthew.) 


No book of the size that has required such enlarged and accurate 
scholarship, and the toilsome research of so many years, has ever 
been published at less than double or fourfold this price. Many 
thousands of dollars have been used in the purchase of the books, 
and in other expenses, requisite in its preparation. Many journeys 
have been made, and the most celebrated libraries in Europe and 
America have been examined, to procure and prove the citations from 
ancient authors of which its arguments chiefly consist, Every pre 
caution has been exercised to insure correctness, even in the most 
minute details. It may be safely averred, that no subject, requiring 
such extended research, has ever before been so completely exhausted 
and so transparently and impartially presented. 

Writers on the use of the word BAPTIZO have generally been con 
tent to refer to a score or two of examples from ancient authors, and 
the majority of these they have not traced to their sources. But the 
investigations of Dr. Conarit in the best libraries of Europe and this 
country, have enabled him to collect two hundred and thirty-six ex 
amples, and to authenticate each case beyond the possibility of doubt. 

This book has been prepared both for the learned and the un 
learned. Had the former not been satisfied, the verdict would not 
have been sustained by the literary world. Had it not been adapted 
to reach and inform the latter, the object of the publication would not 
have been attained. That object is, to afford to every nan who can 
read the English language the opportunity of understanding the 
whole philological arguments regarding the meaning and the use of 
the word BAPTIZO, with all the learned proofs and authorities in the 
case, as completely -and as accurately as the most eminent scholar. 
For this purpose, each example is translated in the most simple and 
literal manner, and the translation, with the citation of the author, 
book, and page, is placed conspicuously on the foreground, in the 
upper portion of each page. Below it the original is printed, for the 
inspection of the learned. 

No one has yet been found to express a doubt of its thoroughness 
or of its impartiality. It is universally admitted to be the production 
of a master-mind in the maturity of its powers 

* 0) 

$ttkluati<wi of tin ^mcritau Alible 

. {">!> Itruoinc Street, \< \v York. 


From the Southern Baptist Review, Tenn. 

The Appendix evinces thorough scholarship and inum-ns" ivseaivh. Its value can 
not be estimated. It contains every known example of laptizo to be found in the 
Greek classic?, and examples of every use of it in the " Church Fathers." The 
baptismal controversy on the action of baptism is philologieally nettled. 

From the Banner and Baptist, Atlanta, Get. 

This is the best production which we have received from the Bible Union Rooms. 
although we have received many valuable documents. The translation of baptizein 
" to immerse, will no doubt produce some excitement The author has most ably 
fortified himself and his work in an Appendix. This Appendix we consider worth 
several times the price of Matthew revised. All our brethren should have this work. 

From the Christian Union, Louisville, Ky. 

The Appendix to Matthew is devoted to a thorough exploration of ancient Greek 
literature, for the use of baptizein and its derivatives. Nothing equal to it has ever 
appeared in the English language. Tt is alike unanswerable and invulnerable j it ia 
an inexhaustible magazine of armor for those engaged in the discussion. 

From the Western Recorder, Louisville, Ky. 

The Appendix brings the whole question within the comprehension of all, the plain 
English reader, as well as the most finished critical scholar. It has never been thus 
before. The common people have never before been permitted to enter the lists of 
the discussion. It is impossible to convey in writing the fullness and perfection of 
this argument. Nothing like it exists in any language on the subject. Every minis 
ter, every scholar, every intelligent reader of the Bible ought to study and master it. 
D. R. Campbell, D.D., LL.D., President of Georgetown College, Ky. 

From the Texas Baptist, Anderson, Texas. 

The Appendix alone is worth to the Christian world, all that has ever been expend 
ed in the revision enterprise. It contains more matter than any other book ever pub 
lished in the English language. It is in no sense a controversial book ; all, then-lore, 
may read it. We would rejoica to see a copy of it in the hands of every minister, as 
well as every private Christian who speaks the English tongue. Rev.J. W. D Cre>ith. 

From the Freewill Quarterly 

The philological argument respecting baptism is here exhausted. The material to 
be employed in the discussion of the subject by scholars was never before so accumu 
lated within a small compaas. or so admirably classified, or made so readily and 
easily available to minds of ordinary attainments and culture. 

From (he Chronicle, New York. 

It is a monument to patient, persevering scholarship, of which any man might be 
proud. So far as the meaning of baptizein is concerned, it is final. The argument is 
conducted in no sectarian spirit. The original evi<l< -ne" > an- given without comment 
The controversy, BO far as the meaning of the word is concerned, is settled forever. 

From the Home Mission Record, New York. 

The Appendix is a work of imrii"n-e labor, and of great value. It Hetties definitely, 
<:oriclusiv-ly. and fop-ver, Iti 1 tni" in* ani:iL r of tin- word Imptizein. Henceforth then- \* 
an end of controversy on that subject, flu; Bible Union have in thN matter done a 
good work. We wish they would circuit" ie iiunured thousand copies. 

0f t^ JLmtriau gible 

350 Broome Street, New York. 


From the Christian Times. Chicago. 111. 

This collection of authorities from the ancient classical and ecclesiastical usage of 
baptizo, is by far the most complete ever before published. It in fact exhausts that 
department of inquiry it settles the meaning of the usage of the Greek term. 

Every minister should have the work for the sake of these references, if for no other 

From the Biblicel Recorder, Raleiph, N. C. 

The present work is destined to excite no little interest, and receive many a search 
ing investigation, but we have no fears that it will not in the main come forth from 
the ordeal as " gold tried in the lire. 1 We commend the whole volume to the careful 
study of all scholars of every denomination. 

From the Journal and Messenger, Cincinnati, 0. 

The Appendix furnishes a most valuable treasury of argument on the baptismal 
question. It contains quotations from the Greek and Latin classics of every instance 
where the word baptizo or its equivalent occurs, with similar citations from the early 
Christian writers in each language. It contains also authority respecting the present 
practice in baptism of the Greek Church, also of the Latiu Church, up to the Middle 
Ages, and of the English Church, till near the Reformation. These ample references 
will render the work very desirable to every minister. 

From the Christian Freeman, Jacksonville, 111. 

The argument is purely philological and historical. We have long wished to sec 
an argument of this character in support of the meaning of this word ; an argument 
devoid of all denominational special pleading, and that can not offend any inquirer 
after truth. To any person having difficulties on the subject of immersion, we com 
mend this Appendix, as the most satisfactory and least partisan source of informa 
tion he can consult. 

From the New Church Quarterly (Swedenbonjian}. 

The Greek word baptizo, rendered i( baptize" in the authorized version, is trans 
lated by Dr. Conant, "immerse;" and in the Appendix he cites a long array of 
authorities, Greek and Latin, sacred and profane, to show that this is the literal mean 
ing. We cordially confess that his arguments seem to be conclusive, and that there 
is no escape from the admission that the original idea of the word is " immersion. ; 

From the American Christian Review. Cincinnati. 0. 

The treatise on baptizo is the fairest, fullest, and. we think, the best, we have ever 
seen. It puts the humblest English reader upon the shoulders of all the learned, and 
enables him to see as far into the matter as the learned themselves can. 

It ought to be put into a cheap book by itself, so that it can be circulated every 
where. It will certainly, with all candid people, be an end of the controversy on the 
meaning of that word : it will enable the preachers to end the controversy shortly. 
It is truly a master-piece. 

From the Christian Era, Boston, Mass. 

The Appendix, on ttie MEANING AND USK OP BAPTIZKIX, is the most exhaustive and 
condensed exhibition of the historical and critical argument for immersion on philo 
logical grounds, ever produced. 

It is a critical Thesaurus, exhausting the resources of profane and ecclesiastical 
literature on this topic. 

From the Witness, Indianapolis. Ind. 

The Dissertation, showing that baptizein means only and always to immerse, is cer 
tainly one of great ability and research. The work rises above all sectarian prejudice. 
The issu"s are now put on a fair and firm basis. No doubt can be entertained by any 
one, any longer, that baptizein means, and only means, to immerse. We commend this 
work to the careful examination of all. Let those who sprinkle and pour for baptism, 
look well to this work. If you can take away the facts, do it. 


publications 0f tfee ^meriniu *3iblc Iiuan, 

S.-.0 Broome Street, New York. 


From the Morning Star, Dover, A". II. 

The Appendix furnishes a most valuable treasury of argument on the baptismal 
question. Such a review ought to settle thiH great question with all candid minds. 

From the Christian lit raid, Detroit, Mich. 

This is a magnificent effort, on the part of Dr. Conant, worthy to be bis monument, 
and must go far toward settling the controversy about the meaning of the word. 

From the Missisripjri Baptist, Jackson, Miss. 

This Appendix gives the result of many years research, and exhibits an amount of 
learning and scholarly ability in the collation of authorities that must command 
the admiration and respect of scholars throughout the world. 

From the Christian Wsitor, St. John. N. B. 

Immerse, instead of baptize, is the change (in the proposed revision of Matthew) which, 
above all others, will cull forth remark. But in an Appendix, luminous on every page 
with extended critical research, the Author (Dr. Conant) shows his authority for this 
change and by evidence, the most conclusive, establishes the correctness of his posi- 
tion, and puts the question relating to the true signification of the original word 

^This Appendix alone is worth, to the Church of God, all that the Bible Union has 
cot in the shape of toil and money from the beginning to the present hoar. 

From the Omslian Union, Louisville, Ky. 

This is, by far. the ablest investigation of the Greek word, from which we get the 
English word baptism, that has ever been published. 

From the Gonpel Herald, London, England. 

The Appendix proves by evidence more elaborate, in some respects, than has ever 
vet been given, that the meaning of the Greek word BAPTI/KIN is immerse, that thi.s H 
its only import, and that fidelity requires it to be translated, and not transferred. 

From the Mich. Cliristian Herald, Detroit, Mich. 

The Appendix to Matthew s Gospel must stand an imperishable monument to the 
thorough research and accurate learning of the author. 

From Zioris Advocate, Portland, Me. 

There is one thing which must commend it the reviser s bold treatment of the 
word baptize sustained in an Appendix, in which every known instance of the use 
of the word baptize, by Greek authors, is considered. 

Dr. Conant has thrown down the gauntlet. The question is before the world, 
no reply is made, the question will be settled, settled once and forevr. 

From the Missouri Baptist, St. Louis, M>. 

Reader, do you wish to know, beyond doubt, what the apostles did when they 

baptized the people? Read this Appendix. Have you any curiosity to see the most 

chaste, comprehensive, and learned production of any age upon this subject? Beta 

it. Would you like to examine over 220 Greek quotation?, and a few from the Latin, 

with a reference or two to MX; Oriental and Teutonic? Here you have them, and all 

translated. Would you like to h<-ar the voice of the classic, and the Greek of the 

ounon and of the religion! lfr the vic; of early translation-; ana of later ones; 

.lorn for 1300 yen--: and the voice of scholars, of different 

. id communions, upon the m -a .i I- "d your ear to these 

BUMF- ;ull-toned pagen, and you can enjoy that pleasure. 





A quarto volume of about 300 pages, equal to nearly 600 ordinary 
octavo pages. Containing the Common Version, Greek Text, Revised 
Version, and Philological Notes. Price, sent by mail, $1.50. 

From the Christian Review, N. Y. 

This volume comes to us under the auspices of a Society of large membership and 
considerable power, and from the hand of a reviser of acknowledged scholarship. In 
no modern revision of the English Scriptures that has come to our knowledge, has 
there been so much of thoroughness. Evidences appear in every page of a scholar 
ship comprehensive, patient, and enthusiastic. The reviser appears to have refrained, 
conscientiously and religiously, from introducing a single change that did not seem to 
himself to be demanded by fidelity to the original text, or by the requirements of 
English idiom. We have not detected a single expression in the revision of the twenty- 
eight chapters of this Gospel, that does not appear to have been most painfully 
selected as the one that, in the judgment of the reviser, was most precisely fitted to 
express the inspired thought of the adopted text. 

From the Southern Baptist Review, Tenn. 

This Revised Version is. in many respects, superior to the Common Version. The 
foot-notes are, in the main, judicious, and indicative of the author s qualifications 
for his work. Dr. Conant is the very man whose heart is inaccessible to the influence 
of sectarian considerations. 

From the Christian Record, Ind. 

The learning, research, and literary taste of Dr. Conant, are not to be ques 
tioned. If there were no other evidence, his recent labors for the American Bible 
Union would afford sufficient proof that he possesses all these qualifications for a 
reviser or translator in an eminent degree. 

We do most heartily thank God for what has been accomplished, and we do most 
sincerely think that there is nothing to be desired more than a simple, faithful, pure 
translation of the word of God, into our own noble and almost universal language. 
We understand this to be the object of the American Bible Union. And we believe 
that every lover of the truth will hail with pleasure any and every effort that may bo 
put forth in this direction ; and not only so, but earnestly pray to God for success. 

From the Christian Times, Chicago, 111 

We are free to say that we esteem it (the revision), in the main, a decided improve 
ment on the old one. It brings out, in numerous instances, the sense of the original 
with a beauty and a force that almost take one by surprise! We are truly happy to 
place it on our shelves, as a tribute of American scholarship to sacred learning and 
a most valuable help to the study of this portion of the New Testament. 

From the Biblical Recorder, Raleigh, N. C. 

The reviser is generally admitted to be among the first Hebrew and Greek scholars 
now living. His revision of Job has i; won golden opinions" from the public press. 
The present work is destined to excite no little interest, and receive many a search 
ing investigation. A full examination of the revision and notes was a work of weeks, 
instead of a few hours, even for a competent scholar. 

We commend the whole volume to the careful study of all scholars. 

From the Christian Union, Louisville, Ky. 

This revision is one of the finest monuments of Biblical learning ever erected. The 
more we examine it, the higher it rises in our estimation. The industry of the reviser, 
his extraordinary collation of authorities, the remarkable learning and scholarly skill 
exhibited i:i every page, stamps this revision as one of the great works of this century. 

Publications of the American jtliblc alniou, 

:r.O liioom, Street, New York. 


/ /</ the Monthly > /<?>, J)(>rrr, JV. //. 

Having used this volume in connection with the exercises of our class in the (Ireek 
Testament during the past term, we cheerfully give it a high commendation. We 
are etpeoiallj pleased \rith the fidelity to the original, th-- acem-aey .ami beauty of 
I i-. .1 Version. Tlio work must have cost immense labor, and exhibits through 
out ft marked success. 1C this may be regarded as a sp.vimen of the Bible Union s 
great undertaking, the whole will be welcomed with great favor by the Christian 

From the Christian Visitor, St. John, JV. /. . 

All who examine the work will agree that it is, in all respects, a scholarly produc 
tion of the very first grade. 

From the Christian Freeman, Jacksonville, 111. 

Dr. Conant is an eminent member of the Final Committee, and this fruit of his 
labor possesses FO many evidences of high scholarship and good taste, that we accept 
it as a ilatteriug assurance of what the linal work is to be. 

From the Witness, Indianapolis, Ind. 

This book was assigned to Dr. Conant. and has been executed by him. As to his 
ability and scholarship and honesty as a Christian man, we need not speak. lie has 
done his work on this with great care and evident ability. 

From the Banner and Haptist, Atlanta, Ga. 

This is the Ixtt production which we have received from the Bible Union Rooms, 
although we have previously received many valuable documents. 

From the American Christian JReoiew, Cincinnati, 0. 

We are highly delighted with a large portion of his [Dr. Conant s] work. Indeed, 
the production i<< worth to the world all the funds we, as a brotherhood, have ever 
contributed^ the Union. 

From the Christian Herald, Detroit, Mich. 

We have not a particle of doubt but that Dr. Conant has given us the most accu 
rate version of Matthew in existence, and which will be hailed with great satisfaction, 
both by the learned scholars of the day, and by the common reader of the Scriptures. 

From the American Baptist, Neio York. 

The publication of this volume will do much to relieve the alarm of tlios" who 
feared that their old-fashioned Hible was to be so changed that they could scarcely 
recognize it. The caution with which the reviser has introduced his emendations will 
secure favor for the volume. 

From the Christian Era, Boston, Mass. 

The revision of the Gospel of Matthew evinces great research, and marked eand-.r. 
We have been struck with the generally terse and felieitou-. diction which it em 

From the Home Mission Record, _Yn/ York. 

The Revised Version seems to have been executed with great care and fidelity. 
Comparatively f-\v chan-i - have b.-cn mad -, and those only wln-iv th.-re .seemed 
and suflK-ient rea.-on f>r making them. 

/ /< >/ji the A r eio York Chronicle. Xeir York. 

The more it is examined, the more its profound scholarship and mast rlv r< 
will appear. 

/V.. // /. i <,<>?! . II, i;iiii, London, Knyland. 

Among the valuable works which this Sue fly (ilie American liible I nion) is j)ul>- 
lishing. vxc.-i-ds in interest - Th- Gk*pel of Matthew." by Dr. T. ,). Conant. 
ind p- i-.l ully ol iiei!^ pr- .ry to so Important a work a- u revised 
. ummon use. are valnabl addiiioii- to lUbhcal literature. 


|)ublit<ttions of % ^mcrican $iMt Iniou, 



From the Chrixtian Union, Louisville, Ky. 

W<> speak upon an extended experience, when we say, that never before haw any 
English reader come as near the light that beamed from Matthew s Gospel upon the 
minds of those for whom it was originally written, as in this revision. The mere 
English reader may le^irn now from Matthew, what the scholar learns by much pains 
taking from Lachmann, Tregt41es, Tischeudorf, and Allbrd. This revision of Mat 
thew In a monument of Biblical learning, of critical Hkill, of faithful and pious effort 
to give the English reader as perfect an idea of what the Holy Spirit said through 
this evangelist,, as the original Greek readers had. 

From the Freewill Quarterly. 

The appearance of this Gospel by Matthew marks an era in the history and work 
of the Union. The revision generally shows great labor and care, and unquestion 
ably brings us, in not a few instances, much nearer to the centre of the writer s 
thought and the great Spirit s lips. We can not help cominendin" the manifest im 
partiality and conscientious scholarship of the translator. His motto seems to be- 
Nothin;/ to prejudice ; every thing to truth. 

From the New Church Quarterly (SteedenlMrryian). 

This new translation will be of extreme value, as embodying the results of the 
latest researches in. Biblical learning, and, by the discussions it will provoke, can not 
fail to settle the truth, on points now involved in obscurity. We presume from Dr 
Conant s acknowledged ability and painstaking scholarship the emendations it will 
require, will not be very important. We hope that all our readers who have any 
ta.ste tor the work will procure a copy of this book. 

From the Advent Herald, Jlosion, Mass. 

We hail every effort to perfect the rendering of the original Scriptures into our 
fengliSQ tongue. The critical notes accompanying this work are invaluable. 

From Zion x Advocate, Portland, Me. 

Of the corrections of Bagster s edition of 4he Greek text, made by Dr. Conant 
titon if Advocate says. 

Many._ perhaps all, the omissions recommended, would be confirmed by the best 

authorities. In the New Version, the proper names are given as they are in the Old 

estament. Words, whose meaning has changed, are replaced by others expressing 

the thought exactly and intelligibly. Ungrarnmatical expressions are corrected 

Certainly no one can object to eliminating from the Bible what we would not allow 

in a child s composition. Inexact translation, and faulty expressions are corrected 

Surety, no one will object to having the exact sense of the original expressed in sim- 

le and intelligent language. Very many passages have been greatly improved, and 

feuese improvements were absolutely demanded. 

From the Missouri Jiaptist, St. Louis, Mo. 
t The work will command respect. 
Every puge of it bears the impress of scholarship. 
Jt will give satisfaction. 

The mind of the Spirit is made clear arid plain. 
The notes an- brief, clear, and to the point. 

From the Mich. Christian Herald, Detroit, Mich. 

itbai been with mingl.-d pleaiure and profit that, for the last two months, wo 
have, almost da ly, examined a portion of Dr, Coqant s Revision of Matthew: and 
having Qnishe^ it, we n.e from our task with the conviction that it is beyond ail 
question the best revision of Matthew s Gospel ever rnad" in English 



350 Broome Street, New York. 


From Zion s Advocate, Portland, Me. 

Of the manner in which Prof. Conant has done his work, we need, perhaps, say but 
little. His reputation as a Biblical scholar is well established, and but few men 
would be willing to urge their own opinions, with much confidence, against his, on a 
question of philology. 

From the True Union, Baltimore, Md. 

It is the production of a profound scholar ; and, irrespective of its ultimate design, 
will be found a valuable work. The reviser keeps as closely as practicable to the 
Common Version, and retains, as much as possible, the fine old Saxon idiom. 

From the Western Recorder, Louisville, Ky. 

There is hardly a possibility of any further material improvement. Every page, 
every chapter, every verse, every word, every point, bears the impress of the most 
scrupulous care, and the most perfect human accuracy. 

From the Journal and Messenger, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The plan which Dr. Conant proposes is the right one. We think that he has been 
generally successful in accomplishing his object, so far as we have been able to judge. 

From the Plumas Standard, Quincy, California. 

The reviser is Prof. T. J. Conant, whose reputation as a scholar is co-extensive with 
the world of education. This revision of Matthew, like all that comes from his pen, 
evinces a depth of erudition and careful research, such as few scholars in this age 
have attained. Where any departure is made from King James Version, the reasons 
are given. The reviser has shown, not only a perfect command of our noble language, 
but a wonderful knowledge of the philology and customs.of the ancients. 

From J. If. Raymond, LL.D., President of the Polytechnic Collegiate Institute, N. Y. 

This revision is made, throughout, in the Catholic spirit of a true scholar, who con 
cerns himself not at all with questions of importance or unimportance, with moral or 
doctrinal, or ecclesiastical bearings, but simply and solely with the question of^ 
accuracy who keeps steadily in view the two only questions pertinent to his work : 

1. What is the true Greek to be Englished ? 

2. What is the true English for that Greek ? 

Dr. Conant follows the testimony of the most ancient witnesses, i. e., of the oldest 
manuscripts and versions now extant, and the citations of Scripture found in the ear 
liest Christian writings that have come down to us. 

It is such a work as scholars love to look upon. 

From Rev. George J. Johnson, Fort Madison, Iowa. 

I have read the revised version of Matthew through twice, and am gratified with 
the book beyond measure. You know I have never been any kind of a friend to the 
Bibl Union, and still have no faith in the general success of its undertaking. But 
I must acknowledge that if the Union shall never do any more, to have produced 
Bucli a work as this now before me is not laboring for naught : it is so far a glorious 
fucc-ps. I shall not attempt to review the revision critically, but will say this So 
far as I can judge, it is faithful and elegant, and in many respects an improvement 
on the old version. 

From Rev. Henry A. Hart, Maine. 

\ \\-.\\- 1 . bo.-n. hi-ivtofore, neither a friend nor a foe of the Bible Union. I have felt 
tin- matter, and have not cared even to form an opinion. But 
i copy "f < - K vi-i .n of Matthew, I have changed my grounds. 
nth tin- l. nion. 


Dulrlirati0tti5 of the ^merian ible Sni0n, 

350 Broome Street, New York. 


This volume contains the Greek Text of Mark s Gospel, the Common 
Version, and the Revised Version, with Critical arid Philological Notes. 
It makes a handsome quarto volume, equal to about 300 ordinary 
octavo pages. Price, sent by mail, 80 cts. 

From M Christian Herald. Mich. 

We have notgfailed to notice in the revision, in many places, a more felicitous, and 
>i others, a far more accurate rendering of the original, the effect of which is to make 
the passages more intelligible to the general reader. 

From the True Union, Md. 

From a glance at its numerous criticisms and general appearance, we can but 
regard it as a valuable contribution to Biblical learning, and a sincere effort to obtain 
a pure version of the sacred Scriptures. 

From the Christian Era, Mass. 

There seems to have been great care used, and as far as we have been able to give 
any attention to it, we should judge the revision had been exceedingly thorough and 

From the Louisiana Baptist, La 
The Version is a great improvement on that in common use. 

From the Carolina Baptist, N. C. 

The work is well executed, and the changes, for all of which authors are cited, are. 
in our estimation, decided improvements. 

From the Daily Times, 111. 

The manner in which this revision is published, is certainly fair, to say the least. 
No scholar can fail to see that the translation is made with great carefulness. The 
typographical execution of the work is beautiful. 

From the Christian Review, N. Y. 

We regard it as an excellent peculiarity of this work, that it does not seem to seek 
unnecessary changes. We can not doubt that this and similar works will ultimately 
promote the cause of Biblical learning. 

From Rev. Jesse Ilartwell, D.D. 

I am much pleased with the revision of Mark. None will hesitate to say it is a 
great improvement. Is the reviser not to be known ? I should like to know his name 
and denomination. I am deeply interested in the work of revision. I hope the Lord 
will bless and direct those engaged in it. 

From the Illinois Baptist, 111. 

The more we see of this important work, the greater are our anxieties to see the 

From Zion j s Advocate. Me. 

The whole Bible printed in this style, with marginal readings, embodying the re 
sults of great research, will be of great value to Biblical students. 

From the Rligious Herald, Va. 

It bears traces of a hand free from the rush ness which multiplies unnecessary 
changes, and the timidity which withholds changes for the better. 


publications of Ihc American ^Yiblc Sln um, 

350 Broumc Street, New York. 


A volume of nearly 300 quarto pages. It contains the Greek Text, 
Common Version, and the Revised Version, with numerous Critical 
and Philological Notes. Price, sent by mail, $1.50. 

From the American Christian Review, O. 

The revision with the notes shows a vast amount of labor. It is a valuable pro 
duction, indeed. 

From the American Baptist, N". Y. 
The alterations are comparatively few, but are made with judgment and care. 

From the American Sentinel, Me. 

The Bibk Union Reporter, containing portions of the new translation of Luke, we 
commend to the notice of our readers. 

From the Lonsiania Baptist. La. 

Of the revision of Luke, xi., 33-36, the editor says : This is certainly a great im 
provement in translation, making the figure intelligible and very beautiful to every 

From the Boston Recorder, Mass. 
This work of retranslating the Sacred Scriptures is steadily going forward. 

From the Correspondent, Ala. 

We have read some of these chapters with interest, and in the main with our 
hearty approval. 

From the Bible Union Quarterly, N. Y. 

The Committee appointed by the Bible Union to examine the Revision of Luke n 
Gospel report that : Its author has consulted a wide range of authorities, and has 
supported his departures from the Common Version, by much learning and a discrim 
inating judgment. The style is easy, simple, and perspicuous. We admire the fidelity 
with which he adheres to the Common Version, where it can be done with justice to 
the original. 

The Committee considers it superior to that version in the following particular*, 
not to mention others : 

1. A ccurate rendering of the inspired original. 2. Its style is more in harmony 
with modern usage. 3. The collocation is in many places much better. 4. It is m>r 
grammatically accurate. 5. It is in many places much more perepicumi.-. ! . 
CHURCH. D.D., Chairman. 

From the Chicago Daily Times, 111. 

This paper says of the primary revision of Mark and Luke: We have here two 
quarto volumes, containing the two gospels indicated above, in the original (Jreek 
t-xt. th" Common English version, and the new and re\ i-> <1 translation. We can 
not ppfak in too high terms of the faithful and conscientious manner in which the 
American Bible Union are fulfilling th"ir mis-ion, of giving to the world this new 
version of the Holy Scriptures. Tin- work of translation is bring performed by a 
numb- T of the most eminent and profound (i reek and Hebrew scholars, men whose 
i C attaimie iits and deep erudition make them inti. iiu ly superior to the trans 
lators of the old Ki .g Jam S Vcr-inn." so familiar to us from childhood. No 
student of th" Bible, al.ove 11. no clergyman or minister, should bo without these 
adm i lions of th-- ^<>-\t !-. 

f tfet $mtrian gilrlc limn, 

330 JJroome Street, Aiew York. 


This book is second in size of the books of the New Testament 
The preliminary revision occupied a long- time in its preparation in d 
was a work of great labor. Much light is thrown by t upon ina y 
SerusaT ^^ * ^ abuildan % ^ay ^ caS 

It contains the Greek Text, the Common Version, and the Revised 
Version, with Critical and Philological Notes. Price, sent by mail, 

From Challen s Monthly, Pa. 

^ * - P- 0, 

More than ordinary care has been bestowed upon it 
The beautiful simplicity and historical truthfulness of Luke, in the original record* 

do " M not but thal " wiu 

From the Christian Union, Ky 

the Bible Union Quarterly, N. Y 

is a grcat dcmani1 for lhis 

Religious Herald, Va. 

There are some notes of value ; indicating correct opinions and laro-e view^ and a 
diligence of collation that is really wonderful and highly commendable 

From the New York Chronicle, N. Y. 
This work is now before us. It is a beautifully bound quarto volume The work 

.F/ om zl/ie American Baptist, N. Y. 
The most simple and appropriate terms to give expression to the meanino- of the 

/Vow Me Chicago Daily Times, 111. 

_ It ought to receive the candid examination of all Biblical scholars. The typograph 
ical execution of the work is worthy of the highest praise. 

From, the Christian Index. Ga. 

We accord to the reviser an extent of historical ajid philological knowledge which 
entitles his revision to a candid but fair criticism. 

From the American Christian Review, 0. 

^ The Bible Union is furnishing work for critics. The simple aim of the Bible Union 
is to give to the world as pure a version as possible 


publications of lire- American <t>ibU 

:rO Broome Strct-t, Now York. 


This volume contains the Greek Text, the Common Version, and 
the Revised Version of Paul s First and Second Letters to Timothy, 
with Critical and Philological Notes. Price, sent by mail, 60 cents. 
From the Standard, Nashville, Tenn. 

The revision is executed in a spirit of judicious and conservative scholarship. We 
Ca ()ne g onh C em t n noticeable features of this new version of Timothy, is the few 

Cb ?j!ufe a numb^of important changes in phraseology have, however been intro 
duced The r.-ader of the New Version will miss the words "church," " bishop," 
and other such ecclesiastical terms ; and in their places he will find " congregatio 

^Wc havc^lVve" in the place of charity ; " demons" for " devils ; "appointed 
for " ordained : ; " silly fables for " old wive s fables ;" and many others which 
might be enumerated, and which commend themselves to the common reader no le 
than to the scholar and the critic. 


This volume contains the Greek Text, the Common Version, and 
the Revised Version of Paul s First and Second Letters to the Thessa- 
lonians, with Critical and Philological Notes. Price, sent by mail, 

60 cts. 

From the Christian Times, London. 

This is a handsome thin quarto. The revised version is executed with great care 
and if it were proposed to substitute it for the common English version, we shoula 
not entertain any insuperable repugnance. 

From the Christian Rqwsitory, 0. 

One obiect of this publication is to invite the criticism of scholars, and to them it 
hasa facial value. Sit we can heartily recommend it to all : for, if the reader does 
not understand the original, the new version will often help him to gather the mean- 
ing of the old version. 


This book contains the Greek Text, the Common Version, and the 
Revised Version of Paul s Letter to the Ephcsians, with Critical and 
Philological Notes. Price, sent l.y mail, f>0 cts. 

From the Chritlinn Kfporitor;/. <>. 

Th- R-vlsed Version in many places is doubtl-ss better than the Common V-rsion. 
\\ V hope to have the Bible in this f,,nn. an.l W6 will <-. -rtainly pn/,- it very highly. 
It i< all that could b- dedreii In typogrtphy, We never w the Greek Te i 
each beautiful, larg, clear type. 

Dublttattons of the gtmcntmr %\bk Wiiiwn, 

350 Broome Street, flew York. 


A small volume, containing the Greek Text, the Common Version 
and the lievised Version, with Critical and Philological Notes This 
work is issued in quarto form, and also in a small pocket edition 
Price, bounded sent by mail, 25 cts. 

We think it a masterly and scholarly production. From the True Union, Md 
It is a model for works of its kind. From the N. Y. Chronicle. 

From the Daily News, N. Y. 

The proposed version, from the pen of Dr. Hackett, reflects great credit on his 
learning, critical acumen, and fine taste. 

From the American Christian Review, 0. 

It is a very creditable production, and seems to be the fruit of much reading and a 
close study of the original. It bears the impress of an independent thinker. 

From the Presbyter, Cincinnati, 0. 

We took our leisure to examine this little volume with some care, which has result 
ed in entire satisfaction with the author s labors. 

From the Journal of Commerce, N. Y. 

As a general remark, Prof. Hackett adheres more rigidly to the literal! tv of the 
original, tha-n does the received version. 

From the Independent, N. Y. 

The work furnishes abundant proof of the author s accurate scholarship exeeetical 
insight, sober judgment, and carefulness to avoid rash and doubtful changes. 

From the Boston Recorder, Mass. 

We have examined with some care this production of one of our most careful and 
reliable Biblical scholars. We understand this important epistle better than before. 

From the Methodist Protestant, Md. 
This book is beautifully printed. The revision is from the pen of Dr. Hackett. 

From the Christian Review, N. Y. 

It bears on every page the impress of his (Dr. Hackett s) exact learning, cultivated 
taste, sound judgment, and nice philological tact. 

From the Watchman and Reflector, Mass. 

The superior merits of Dr. Hackett as an exegete are too well known to need anv 
public commendation. He loves the Bible as the true word of God and holds 
strongly to the broadest, deepest, and most spiritual views of divine truth His iud<*- 
ment is cautious, sound, and clear ; his philological acquiremeuts are extensive and 
accurate ; his taste is admirable. The work is a real gem of art. 

From the Mississippi Baptist, Miss. 

^ This is the completest work I have ever seen. It comes nearer givin^ the Greek 
idea in English than any of the revisions with which I have met. J. A. Oliver. 

From the Biblical Recorder, N C. 
The work of Prof. Hackett is well done, and the volume is deeply interesting. 

From the Western Watchman, Mo. 

This volume, just issued by the American Bible Union, is from the hands of one of 
we most accomplished Biblical critics of the present day 


publications of the American ilible Snian, 

33() Hrooim Slret-t, New York. 


A quarto volume, containing- the Greek Text, the Common Version, 
and the Revised Version, with Critical and Philological Notes. Price, 
sent by mail, 70 cents. 

From the Christian Revieio, New York. 

We should be falpe to our convictions not to say that it is a great improvement on 
the Common Version. There has been no wanton or unnecessary tampering with 
the good old English of the Book so embalmed iu the most sacred recesses of millions 
of Christian hearts. 

From the Ladies 1 Christian Annual, Pa. 

We accept, with special favor, this invaluable addition to the works already issued 
by the press in the employ of the American Bible Union. 

From the American Sentinel, Me. 

In some respects we think the translation superior to the Common Version. To all 
it will prove useful. 

From the Southern Baptist, Tenn. 

As it appeared in monthly parts, we noticed that it was highly commended for its 
fidelity to the original, and for its simple and pure English style. The Bible Union, 
in New York, is still continuing to progress in its work. 

From the Christian Herald, Mich. 

We have read the translation with much interest. 

The English reader will discover a clearness, beauty, and logical force in the let 
ter to the Hebrews, as it is here rendered, which he has not seen before. 

From the Christian Secretary, Conn. 

The Epistle to the Hebrews is received from the press of the Bible Union, in the 
style of their former issues. So far as we have examined this specimen, we like it 

From the Israelite, 0. 

The Bible Society of New York has sent us a splendid copy of their edition of the 
Hebrew text of Job. and the new version of The Epistle to the Hebrews. The former 
is the most splendid edition of Hebrew Scripture we have seen iu this country, and 
we accept it with many thanks. 

From the Christian Ambassador, New York. 

The typographical execution is excellent. The Text-Book in Greek and English is 
beautifully distinct, and the notes are in a plain type. Few editions of the Bible 
have been more handsomely printed, or on better paper. 

From the New York Chronicle, N. Y. 

It is believed to be among the choicest of the preliminary revisions yet put forth 
by the American Bible Union. 

From the Kn<>.rrUit> /;/>///,. <v,/,/, IU. 

We thank the Union for HIM Uibli-vjl tr< ;i \ve have enjoy d. \Ve invite all candid, 
Bible-loving men to read and carefully examine and compare this work with the com 
mon translation. 

I etwe -n six y and seventy ver.- : io:i- :r;<l work- of criticism, are quoted, as sustain 
ing th" rhiing -s ma<l< , and a~ helps to the critical reader, to enable him to determine 
for himself the propriety of these changes. 

0f t$t ^meritau ibU Htuon, 

350 Broome Stree, flew York. 


From the Millennial Harbinger, Va. 

We have hastily examined every page of it, and pronounce it to be a careful, 
learned, and greatly improved version of the second greatest epistle ever written by 
the greatest apostle, the most learned writer, as well as the largest author of the 
Christian Scriptures. 

From the Illinois Baptist, III. 

Its exact faithfulness to the original text, its pure vernacular English, as used by 
our best writers and speakers, and its tender regard for the commonly-received ver 
sion, are strikingly manifest in each chapter and verse ; rendering it not only a liv 
ing epistle, full of the pure words of inspiration, clothed in the familiar phraseology 
of the Family Bible, but also a work of the most superior literary merit. 

No one can compare the Revised Version with the Greek, and with King James 
Version, without being forcibly struck with its great superiority, both in faithfulness 
and diction. 

The critical notes of the reviser are almost invaluable to the Biblical student. 

From the American Baptist, New York. 

Having compared it with the common translation, we now feel prepared to say 
that it is a very decided improvement on the version of King James. 

From the Biblical Recorder, N. G. 

The new translation is a decided improvement of the Common Version. It is better 
English. It is, in several instances at least, more faithful to the original, and it 
renders the meaning of some passages much more perspicuous. 

From the N. W. Christian Review, 

We think that even the superficial reader can not fail to discover a manifest improve 
ment on the authorized version of King James. To the scholar and theologian it 
must commend itself for the purity and clearness Of its diction, and the faithfulness of 
its version, and, to the classical character, for its notes. 

From the Commission, Va. 

We have not had time to examine it, and can only, therefore, commend the me 
chanical execution. The publications of the Union are beautiful specimens of 

We feel an increasing conviction that the work they have undertaken will, ulti 
mately, be well done. We are always glad to receive their publications. 

.From the Mountain Messenger, Va. 

We do not (eel qualified to criticise this work, but, no doubt, it will undergo the 
careful scrutiny of profound scholars, in this and other lands, before it is published 
as a finality. 

From the True Union, Md. 

There is no attempt to depart from the style of the old version apparently for the 
sake of differing ; no introduction of words of Latin origin, merely to supplant those 
of the Saxon stock. 

From the Western Recorder, Ky. . 

Seldom have we read a work with so much real pleasure and profound gratitude. 

From the Masonic Review, 0. 

No one can read it without being highly gratified with the beauty and force of the 
English used. 

The religious public have nothing to fear from a thorough revision of the translation 
of the Sacred Scriptures by competent and God-fearing men. We wish the Union 
Buccess ; for we believe their aims are pure, and the object commendable. 


Publications of the SibU itnion, 

:*.~>l) I>room<- Str--(, .\-\v York. 


Consisting of the reprint of its Constitution, Annual Reports, Quar 
terly Papers, Select Addresses, Tracts, etc., etc., in the 1 onn of the 
/Hln f dtion Quarterly, the official organ of the American Bible Union, 
edited by WM. II. WYCKOFF, Corresponding Secretary, and C. A. BUCK- 
BEE, Recording Secretary. The first three volumes complete, from the 
organization, in 1850, to 1860. Each volume contains over five hund 
red octavo pages. Volume one contains a beautiful steel engraved 
likeness of Rev. S. II. Cone, D.D., first President. Volume two con 
tains one of Rev. Thomas Armitage, D.D., the present President, and 
volume three, one of the Corresponding Secretary, Win. H. Wyckoff. 
Price, for each volume, sent by mail, $1.50. 

From the Western Recorder, Ky. 

The first two volumes contain a complete documentary history of the Union up to 
the close of 1856. The first volume contains an admirable likeness of Dr. Cone, the 
first President of the Society, and the second volume, one of Dr. Armitage, both 
from steel engravings in the best style of the art 

From the Christian Union, Ky. 

Volume second is received. It is a beautiful book. We commend it to the perusal 
of all who love the cause of revision. They will acquire much useful knowledge, in 
relation to the Bible Union enterprise, by the diligent perusal of this volume. 

From the True Union. M<1. 

Of the second volume, the editor says : This is an elegant volume, containing the 
documentary history of the Bible Union. It will be found deeply interesting to all 
tii".-.- who desire to seo a pure version of the Sacred Scriptures. An additional 
attraction to the volume is a beautiful engraving of the President, Rev. Thomas 
Armitage, D.I). We commend the volume to all our readers. 

From the Bible Union Quarterly. JV. } . 

The third volume of the Documentary History is now complete, bringing down the 
history, in the Quarterly form, to 1800. Whoever wishes to know all that the Bible 
Union has d"ii". and tin- reasons for it, mu.-t study these volumes. They comprise 
facto and arguments, plans and proceedings, with whicB every friend of the cause 
ought to be familiar. 

it will convince everyone who n-ad~ th-s.- volumes, that the managers of the Bible 
Union have pursued a uniform, und< viating course, from the commencement of the 
<-nterpri-e, and have sought out and prosecuted the best possible measures to secure a 
sr i and faithful version of the word of God. 

From the Christian Pleader, ,S //.Vy, Australia* 

ifl (i:i piece, of information which m:iy be interesting to our readers. The 

ritual notion of th -ir work is entertained by the conductors of the Union. 

Th liist:ry of th -ir enterprise and th" manner in which they have conducted it will 

If marvelonalj illustrate the pow.-r of prayr and faith. Nor can we doubt 

Is* effort will mightily contribute to the glory of the latter days, and to the 
overthrow of Satan and Antichrist. 





Conarit, Thomas Jefferson, 

The meaning and use 
of Baptizein; 
philologically and 
historically investigated 
for the American Bible 


American Bible 

Union (lc64)