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Class G?^.|.05 







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Mechanical Engineering 

The Monthly Journal Published by 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Publication Office, 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa. Editorial and Advertising Departments at the 
Headquarters of the Society, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

Volume 44 January, IQ'i'l Number 1 

TxVBLE OF CONTENTS 

S.P.E.E. Joins A.S.M.E. at Annual Meeting to Consider Engineering Education 1 

Professional Engineering Education for tlie Industries, F. C. Pratt 1 

A National Policy on Engineering Education, A. G. Christie '5 

Engineering Education as Viewed by the Industrialist, J. E. Otterson 5 

The Engineering School and the Industries, D. S. Kimball (> 

Engineering Education Discussion 7 

President Carman's Address 8 

Prevention of Wastes in Industry, Fred J. Miller 9 

The Forty-Second Annual Meeting of the A.S.M.E 11 

Heat Balance of the Connors Creek Plant of the Detroit Edison Company, C. H. Berry and F. E. 

Moreton 22 

Discussion of the Power Waste Session 25 

Compounding the Combustion Engine, Elmer A. Sperry 27 

Commercial Operation of Airplanes, L. B. Lent 33 

Process Charts and Their Place in Management, F. B. and L. M. Gilbreth 38 

Radio Ship Control, R. S. GrifEn 43 

Code for Displacement Compressors and Blowers 45 

Survey of Engineering Progress 49 

Experiences on Evaporators with Heat Pumps — Short Abstracts of the Mouth. 

Engineering Research 61 

Work of the A.S.M.E. Boiler Code Committee 63 

Editorials 64 

Methods and Results of the Unemployment Conference- — Unique Opportunity of the Railroad Professional 
Division — Relation of the Engineer to the Community — The Metric Controversy. 

Resolutions to Prof. W. F. Durand 66 

Marshal Foch Honored by Four National Engineering Societies 67 

Announcements of tlie DeLamater Ericsson Committee 68 

The Late Sir Charles Douglas Fox 68 

-Newsof theF.A.E.S 69 

News of Other Societies 69 

Metric Versus English System of Weights and Measures 71 

The Waste Report 72 

Book Notes 73 

The Engineering Inde.x 75 

Advertising Section: 

Display Advertisements " 85-EI 

Consulting Engineers 118 

Classified Advertisements 125 

Classified List of Mechanical Equipment 126 

Alphabetical List of Advertisers 146 



Price 50 Cents a Copy, $4.00 a Year: to Members and Affiliates, 40 Cents a Copy, $3.00 a Year. Postage to Canada, 
50 Cents Additional; to Foreign Countries, $1.00 Additional. Changes of address should be sent to the Society Headquarters. 

Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Easton, Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879, 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on January 17, 1921. 



Contributors and Contributions 




Elmer A. Sperry 



The Sperry Compound Diesel Engine 

One of the interesting 
events of the recent A.S. 
M.E. Annual Meeting was 
the presentation by Dr. 
Elmer A. Sperry of a paper 
abstracted in this issue in 
which he outlined the steps 
taken in his solution of the 
problem of compounding 
the Diesel engine. Dr. 
Sperrj', who has been at 
work on this problem for 
twenty years, is perhaps 
best known for his de- 
velopment of the gyro- 
scopic compass, which ha,s 
proved so successful. However, he has been engaged 
in many other activities since leaving Cornell in 1879. 
Among them might be mentioned the Standard 
Electric Company of Chicago, the Sperry Electric 
Railway Company, of Cleveland, and others in the 
lighting and railway fields. During the recent war 
Dr. Sperry was a member of the Naval Consulting 
Board, which rendered notable service. 

Professional Engineering Education 

The A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting se.^sion with the 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 
clearly demonstrated the importance of the prol)lems 
involved in our engineering curricula and their re- 
lation to industry. The addresses and their discussion 
appear in this issue of Mech.\xical Engineeri.vg. 

Two of these papers present the needs of the indus- 
tries. F. C. Pratt, a graduate of Sheffield Scientific 
School, was for several years connected with Pratt 
& A\Tiitney Co., Hartford, Conn. He then became a.s- 
sociated with the General Electric Company, of wliich 
he is now vice-i^resident. He is also ijresident of the 
Yale Engineering Association. 

J. E. Otterson, president of the \A"incheste Repeat- 
ing Arms Company, New Haven, Conn., was gradu- 
ated from the Naval Academy in 1904 and took a 
post-graduate course in naval arcliitecture at Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. He served as naval 
constructor in both the Boston and the New York 
"Savy Yards. 

A. G. Christie, professor of mechanical engineering 
at Johns Hopkins University and chairman of the 
Power Division, A.S.M.E., has had a broad experience 
in steam turbine work, both in this country and 
abroad. He has also taught mechanical engineering 
at Cornell University and steam engineering at the 
University of Wisconsin. 

Steam Potter Plant Heat Balance 

C. Harold Berry and F. E. Moreton are co-author;^ 
of the heat balance paper in this issue. Mr. Berry 
is a 1912 graduate of Cornell University and served 
as instructor and assistant professor of heat power 
engineering at Cornell until 1918. Since 1919 he has 
served the Detroit Edison Company as research 
engineer and at present is engaged in technical ad- 
ministration work relating to design, operation and 
maintenance of steam power plants. Mr. Moreton 
is also connected with the Detroit Edison Company. 



The Prevention of If aste in Industry 

Major Fred J. Miller, with his long A.S.M.E. 
service record, needs no introduction to . readers of 
Mechanical Engi.N'eering. His address at the lead- 
ing session of the recent A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting 
was inspired by liis association with the work of the 
F.A.E.S. Committee on the Elimination of Waste and 
its contents are based on long experience in the manage- 
ment of industrj'. 

Process Charts 

An interesting method of pointing out weaknesses 
in methods of manufacture was presented by F. B. 
and L. M. Gilbreth at the Management Session of the 
A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting. Their paper is given in 
this i.s.sue. Altliough the name of Gilbreth is most 
closely associated with motion study, this remarkable 
couple has achieved much in other industrial applica- 
tions of the science of management, notably in psychol- 
og>' and fatigue studies. Their present paper dis- 
closes the method used in analyzing the manufacturing 
processes of an industrial plant. 

Commercial Flying 

A new system of transportation can be founded 
only on facts derived from experience. In his Annual 
Meeting paper, abstracted in this issue, ^lajor L. B. 
Lent has contributed some of these necessary facts 
of great importance to the developing of conunercial 
aviation. lilajor Lent served with the Aviation 
Section of the Signal Corps, on active duty at the 
Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Buffalo, and later was com- 
missioned Major in the Air Service and stationed 
with the 122d Aero Squad at Camp .Alfred Vail, N. J. 
He is now president of the Lent Motor Fire Engineering 
Corporation, New York CitJ^ A further contribution 
to tin's important subject was made by R. B. C. Noor- 
dujTi at the Aeronautic Session of the Annual Meeting. 
His paper will be presented in the February issue. 

If ireless Control of the "Iowa" 

Rear-Admiral Robert S. Griffin (Retired U.S.N. ), 
Hon.Mem.i\jn.Soc.M.E., has given an account in 
tills issue of the detail of the wireless control of the 
loua when undergoing the recent bombing tests. 
An opinion has been advanced that the methods 
successfully used on the loica may be of future value 
for the remote control of steam power stations. 



A.S.M.E. Issues New Publication 



Part Two of Mechanical Engineering 
has been superseded by A.S.M.E. NEWS, a 
semi-monthly publication for the member- 
ship of the A.S.M.E. 

.\.S.M.E. NEWS will increase the value of 
the Employment Service and will carry im- 
portant items of the Society affairs. The 
first issue was published late in December, 
1921. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Volume 44 



January, 1922 



Number 1 



S.P.E.E. Joins A.S.M.E. at Annual Meeting 
to Consider Engineering Education 

A Group of Papers Presented at the A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting, in Which are Presented the Particular 
Needs of the Industries and the Problems that Confront the Engineering Faculties 



/^NE of the outstanding features of the 1921 Annual Meeting 
^-^ of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers was the 
joint session held on December 8 with the Society for the Promotion 
of Engineering Education, and devoted to a consideration of pro- 
fessional engineering education for the industries. Four papers 
were presented at this session, over which Prof. C. F. Scott, presi- 
dent of the S. P. E. E., presided, namely: Professional Engineering 
Education for the Industries, by F. C. Pratt; A National Policy 
on Engineering Education, by A. G. Christie; College Education 
as Related to Industry, by J. E. Otterson; and The Engineering 
School and the Industries, by Dexter S. Kimball, which latter par- 
took of the nature of an introduction to the cUscussion of the pre- 
ceding papers. The texts of these papers follow, together with 
a brief abstract of the discussions wliich they brought forth. 

The session was opened by Professor Scott who presided: he 
said in part: 

The industries constitute the organization through which engi- 
neering utilizes the forces and materials of nature and organizes 
and directs human activities for the benefit of man. 

Today the national society of engineering and industry meets with 
the association of engineering educators; this is a conference between 
users and producers of human material for leadership in industry. 

If producers and users of steel rails were in conference they 
would discuss the uses which rails are to serve, classifjdng the kinds 
of service, considering wherein past products had failed, inquiring 
as to chemical analysis and metaUurgical treatment. They would 
seek improvement in production and discrimination in use. But 
the more difficult problem of the human material for technical 
and administrative leadersliip has received less attention. 

It is easier to analyze steel than students; physical tests are 
definite — psychological tests are still indefinite; it is easier to 
specify materials than men; steel is inert and passive — men are 
alert and erratic. 

But when, if ever, have these leading societies in engineering 
industry and engineering education met together for conference? 
Each society has been engrossed in its own acti\i ties for tlurty or forty 
years. Now they are finding something in common. Users and 
producers are in conference. Let us try to agree on what we 
want and then determine how to get it and how to use it. How 
may boys of differing kinds be indi\'idually developed and fitted 
to varying needs and opportunities? 



First, as to the schools. What are thej' teaching? The distri- 
bution of subjects in the four year courses (not including summer 
work) in mechanical engineering and administrative engineering 
at Yale is given in the following tal>ulation: 









Per cent 








Mechanical 


Administrative 


General 


History and English 


13 






13 


Science 


Chemistry, Physics 
and Mathematics 


31 






24 


Engineering 


Drawing. Materials, 
Mechanics. Power, 
Electrical Engineer- 












ing 


46 






28 


Administrative 


Economics, Ac- ' 
counting. Manage- 












ment, etc. 


8 






21 


Elective 


Engineering, Ad- 












ministrative, etc. 


2 






14 



Second, returning to industry. What is the quaUty basis of 
selection of graduates for an industry? Does industry want men 
familiar with current practice, or men grounded in general prin- 
ciples ready to acquire practical experience rapidly? Industry 
certainly does not expect any graduate to fill any position irre- 
spective of natural ability, aptitude and preference, but what is 
the present practice in determining the qualities of the raw ma- 
terial and of adapting it to the needs? 

If some men are needed for research and invention and a larger 
group for general engineering and production and sales and another 
for executive and administrative functions, are men for each kind 
of work carefuUy selected and specially trained? The inventor, 
the originator is rare. A dozen or a hundred men for general 
activities are easier found than a single expert or originator. Has 
not much of the dissatisfaction of the past product of the schools 
been due to a misunderstanding on the part of industry as to what 
the college graduate really is and inability to train him in industry 
and utOize him efficiently? 

The technical school has been trying to bridge the old time 
gap between the formally classical and the rigidly scientific. In 
forty years it has made a marvelous advance. The goal of its early 
aims was to produce engineers of materials and forces. But 
there is a new demand for an engineering type of mind for the 
organization and direction of men. Can the same raw material 
and the same educational machinery and methods produce both 
products? What changes will meet the new situation? Are they 
simple or radical? These are the things we are here to discuss. 



Professional Engineering Education for the Industries 



By FRANCIS C. PRATT,' SCHENECTADY. X. Y. 



TOURING the year 1920 the General Electric Company, with 
■*-^ which I have the honor to be associated, took into its employ 
400 college graduates, of which number — 

340 were graduates of electrical engineering courses 
20 were graduates of mechanical engineering courses 
30 were graduates of business or administrative courses 
10 were graduates of miscellaneous courses. 
Practically all of the electrical and mechanical engineering graduates 
entered into the student engineering courses covering a one-year 
period which have been most carefully planned at the se\'eral 
' Vice-President, General Electric Company. 



works of the company, while the graduates of the business or ad- 
ministrative courses became members of its accounting department, 
taking a two-year course in business administration, higher ac- 
countancy and commercial law. Fifteen graduates, including two 
who had specialized in physics and nine in chemistry, entered the 
research laboratories of the company. 

The records indicate that over a term of years about one-half 
of the young men entering the student courses remain permanently 
in the employ of the company in the engineering, manufacturing, 
commercial or administrative departments of its general and district 
offices, or of its works. 



aO'f-'fJ 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



In entering into the daily work of a great industrial organization 
the,se young men come into contact with actual manufacturing 
and business conditions and acquire self-confidence and a practical 
experience which, in my opinion, the colleges cannot and should 
not seriou.sly attempt to impart. 

I regard it as an e.xceedingly healthy sign that there are so many 
inquiries being made as to our methods of technical education, 
but, at the same time, I want to say that the young men who, dur- 
ing the past few years, have entered the employ of the company 
with which I am associated, have, on the average, been better 
prepared mentally, physically, and morally than ever before. 
This is a very broad statement, but a most careful .study of the 
conditions and the manj' inciuiries made of our leading men who 
ha\c the oi)portunitj' to come in close contact with these young 
men justify this conclusion. 

During the past two years we ha\-e been engaged in reorganizing 
one of our most important designing engineering departments, 
largely increasing the scope of its work and its personnel. In 
recently looking over a rejMrt of the organization submitted by the 
engineer in charge, I was struck by the references to two young 
engineers, each of whom had been out of the company's student 
engineering course for a period of less than a full year. The report 
referred to one of these young men as proving to be a resourceful 
and inventive experimental genius along his particular line of work, 
and to the other as having perhaps the clearest understanding of 
the mathematics of this particular line of any one in the employ 
of the company. 

The line of work is an exceedingly broad one, the engineer in charge 
is a particularly discerning man, and I think it a matter of great 
encouragement tiiat talent of such character is being turned over 
to the industries by the educational institutions. It is true that 
the report, in referring to these tw^o young engineers, referred like- 
wise to four somewhat older and more experienced men who were 
reported as also doing particidarly notable work in the depart- 
ment. 

Increasing Demand fok Trained Engijsteers 

I have recently seen a statement that statistics show there has 
been a constant decrease in the number of engineers graduated 
from our .\jncrican universities. The statistics were not cited in 
connection with tliis statement, but if, perchance, this statement 
holds true, the tendency would seem to be an unfortunate one, in 
view of the larger demand for engineering activnties in our modern 
life, as partly reflected in the following statistics taken from the 
official records of Yale University: 

Increase in all Yale graduates for years 1904 to 1916: 

Law, medicine, ministrj' and teaching, combined 24 per cent 

Manufacturing, finance and mercantile pursuits, combined 8.3 per cent 
Engineering 160 per cent 

I have also seen suggestions that the number of so-called cultural 
studies should be decreased and greater specialization made in the 
assential subjects of science, mathematics, the native language, and 
of commercial application of what is learned, and that the colleges 
should turn out young engineers whose services are of immediate 
value to the employer without several years of practical experience 
being necessary. 

I ha\c little sjTnpathy with such points of view for many reasons, 
among which are the following: 

While familiarity with apparatus obtained from labor.atory work 
coincident with undergraduate studies is of great value in giving 
the students more appreciative knowledge of their subjects, as are 
also frequent visits to, and summer work in, industrial establish- 
ments during the undergraduate period, yet I am confident that 
nothing which the colleges can give can take the place of the prac- 
tical experience gained in the atmosphere of an industrial organi- 
zation, bringing witii it an intimate knowledge of both methods 
and men with which and with whom one's life work is to be asso- 
ciated. In my opinion the time in college is so valuable that it 
should be jirimarily devoted to those things which can only be 
acquired later with a great deal of difficulty, the fundamentals 
necessary to all advanced study. 

Earnest efforts are being made to combine the advantages of 
instruction in theory with those of practical experience by co- 
operative courses, carried on jointly by educational institutions 



and industries. A final opinion in regard to the effectiveness of 
these courses must, it seems to me, be held in suspense awaiting 
more extended experience with them. 

Too Early SpEaALizATioN Results in Disproportionate 
Number of Mediocre Ability 

My observations also lead me to the conclusion that the per- 
centage of those who fail to attain a rea.sonable degree of success 
is greater in the group of men of mediocre ability but narrowly 
specialized education than in almost any other group coming within 
my knowledge. Such men, unless extraordinary vigilance is exer- 
cised by those in charge, become permanently attached to an organi- 
zation doing specialized work for which they have no particular 
adaptability, clogging the opportunities for j'ounger, more able 
and progressive men to advance. It would have been far better 
for such a man if the head of department had, at the end of one or 
two years of employment, recognized the circumstances and frankly 
informed him that he was not likely to make a success in the pro- 
fessional work which he had undertaken, and advised him to enter 
into some other vocation. 

If I were to make a broad criticism of our methods of engineering 
education as it exists today, I should base it upon too early speciali- 
zation of the student, resulting in the turning out of a dispropor- 
tionate number of men of the class to which I have just referred, 
i.e., those of mediocre abUity and narrowly specialized education. 

I should be disposed to strongly criticise another condition in 
our colleges which I recognize as an exceedingly difficult one to 
overcome, and that is, as the result of the high degree of standardiza- 
tion, induced perhaps by the numbers who have to be taught, the 
more brUliant men in the class are retarded in their progress by 
the requirement of a standard which can be met by the less capable 
students. If we are not only to attain, but also maintain, great 
eminence in the engineering professions in America, we should, 
and I think must, devise some means whereby the more promising 
students can with greater facUity advance with breadth and thor- 
oughness in their work. 

It is, I think, significant that in the organization with which I 
am in daily contact, a noticeable number of our most accomplished 
theoretical engineers and research laboratorians have either pur- 
sued post-graduate studies at European universities, or else have 
had all of their scholastic training abroad. This may suggest an 
opportunity for American educational institutions which is not 
fully met at the present time. In this connection I think that the 
colleges should sternlj' resist the temptation to enter into specialized 
fields which are adequately covered by kindred institutions, and that 
better results would follow if, in general, each endeaA^ored to main- 
tain the strongest possible staff of teachers to give most thorough 
instruction in the fundamentals of the sciences, engineering, econo- 
mics and languages, and confine its specialization to such work as 
it is preeminently fitted to carry out. 

The industries need administrati^•e men well versed in the sciences 
and in engineering, in order that they may lend appreciative and 
sj-mpathetic support to the technical developments, which are, 
in fact, the \'ery life blood of the industry and on which its future 
primarily depends. That the colleges of the country are alive to 
this need, is evidenced by the number of courses which have in 
recent years been established, teaching the fundamentals of the 
sciences, engineering, economics and languages, and variously 
referred to under the names of administrative engineering, com- 
mercial engineering, or other courses. 

While it seems to me probable that a much larger proportion of 
the graduates of such general engineering courses ■nill be utilized 
by the smaller manufacturers rather than by such highly specialized 
organizations as pertain to the electrical industry, yet I want at 
this point to put in a strong plea for the more thorough appreciation 
and use of technical graduates by all industries, both large and small. 
It is, of course, apparent that a college education is not in anj- sense 
the only road to industrial accomplishment, and, in fact, some of 
the ablest engineers and administrators of my acquaintance have 
secured the fundamental knowledge upon which their life's work 
has been based while persistently working in practical fields and 
without having the foundation of a college education. One fre- 
quently finds, however, in such cases, that the individual's develop- 
ment had been profoundly influenced by close association in his 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



work with a master mind, who, in reality, became a great teacher 
to him. 

Need of the Industries for Strong Designing Engineers 

The industries need strong designing engineers thoroughly versed 
in the theory and practice of the art, who have such knowledge of 
material values and of men as to render their work effective. In 
general, the industries must look to the colleges for young men who 
have the knowledge, the enthusiasm for constructive work and the 
patient tenacity, which alone go to make up a successful designing 
engineer. In many respects the loss of a good designing engineer 
to an industry leaves a vacancy which is liarder to fill than almost 
any other, as preeminence in design can only be attained through a 
happy combination of natural ability and of knowledge and ex- 
perience gained by years of intelligent and exacting work. Owing 
to the highly developed state of the art there is undoubtedly a great 
deal of routine work to be done in designing engineering, which is 
not inspiring to young men, and experience indicates that a diminish- 
ing proportion of technical graduates is drawn toward this most 
important branch of work. While this must, I think, necessarOy 
be one of the problems for the colleges, it is also one of very imme- 
diate concern to the industries, demanding the most resourceful 
consideration. In general, the goal of success in design work seems 
more remote to the young graduate than in other branches, and 
also the character of the work more exacting and confining. On 
the other hand, this fascinating field of investigation, research, 
and constructive accomplishment should appeal most strongly to 
one who has the imagination and courage to look well into tlie 
future, and the stamina necessary to accomplish a difficult task. 
I feel certain that far too many capable young graduates sacrifice 
their greatest ultimate development by yielding to the temptations 
of early rapid ad\-ancement along the easier lines, without suffi- 
cient thought of the future. 

I wish only to add one thing more, and that is to point out the 
wonderful opportunities which modern industry offers in its re- 
search laboratories to specially talented and most higlily educated 



technical graduates. The colleges must, I am sure, be most liberal 
in providing instruction and laboratory facilities for the growth of 
such picked students, and in inspiring them by the work and ex- 
ample of a few really great teachers. 

Summary 

1 A careful study of a large number of college graduates employed 
at the several works of the General Electric Company indicates 
that our educational institutions are developing young men of real 
ability for the industry. 

2 The suggestion that is sometimes made to reduce the amount 
of cultural studies in order to more intensively specialize on tech- 
nical subjects, is not viewed with favor. 

3 The time in college is of such value that it should be primarily 
devoted to those things which can only be acquired later with great 
difficulty. At best, the student cannot hope to attain in college 
the well-rounded knowledge and practical experience that are to 
be gained in an industrial organization. 

4 A broad criticism of methods of engineering education is that it 
undertakes too early specialization of the student. Another is the 
lack of facility offered to the more capable students to rapidly 
advance. 

5 Suggestions for modification and improvement of American 
educational methods may be gleaned from the fact that a noticeably 
large number of accomplished theoretical engineers and research 
laboratorians have either received all their education or pursued 
post-gi'aduate courses at European universities. 

Best results may be expected if each educational institution will 
strive to maintain a higlily capable staff of teachers in the funda- 
mentals of the sciences, engineering, economics and languages, 
and restrict specialization to only that work for which it may be pre- 
eminently ciualified. 

6 The teacher in engineering courses should constantly emphasize 
to those students who show special aptitude the great need among 
the industries for able designing engineers. 

7 Through its research laboratories modern industry offers to 
specially talented and highly educated technical graduates wonder- 
ful opportunities for development. 



A National Policy on Engineering Education 



By a. G. CHRISTIE,! BALTIMORE, MD. 



TN one of the recent Aldred Lectures, Mr. Ai-thur West said among 
•^ other things: "It is to my mind one of the greatest functions 
of the technical school to seek out from among its students those 
who have a natural aptitude for the profession and to help these 
men to the utmost if in addition to their technical abilities they show 
the character necessary to make such help worth while. I counsel 
the careful and painstaking education of the best students even at 
the expense of the mediocrities that exist in all student bodies. It 
should not be the duty of the faculty to nurse along the 'dubs' of 
the class to a precarious graduation. What modern ci\ilization 
needs is not more engineers but better ones." 

Dean F. L. Bishop is reported to have stated at a meeting in New 
York last spring that there is no first-class engineering school to be 
found in America. Dr. Comfort A. Adams supported this state- 
ment and guaranteed that he could prove in a five-minute oral 
examination that 98 to 99 per cent of the graduates in electrical 
engineering from any institution in the country did not understand 
in a thorough fashion the fundamentals of the subject. 

One is led to conclude from the above remarks that the engineer- 
ing world desires only first-class men, but that the engineering 
colleges of this country are unable to furnish such men. Since 
the late war this country has been the world's leading nation. If 
the United States would continue to hold this foremost position it 
mu.st become a leader in the arts and manufactures, in cultm-e and 
education, and particularly in engineering education, for our modern 
ci\'ilization depends to such a great extent upon the work of en- 
gineers. If it is true that we have no first-class engineering schools, 
it is time that earnest inquiry should be made to determine wherein 
we are lacking and wliat remedies should be immediateh' applied. 
This is a national matter, for national leadership in manufacture 

' Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Uuiversitv. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 



and commerce depends on engineering achievements. A national 
policy on engineering education is therefore a pressing need at the 
present moment. 

Work in Foreign Colleges Generally of More 
Advanced Character 

Wlien discussing the requirements of a first-class engineering 
college, it is instructive to consider the leading engineering colleges 
abroad. Before the war some of the German technical schools 
were regarded very highly. Those at Charlottenburg, Dresden 
and Munich shared with the Zurich Polytechnic of Switzerland 
the reputation of being in the first class of continental engineering 
institutions. Foreign students, including Americans, were at^ 
tracted to these schools in large numbers and this further increased 
their reputation. These colleges had first-class men on their staffs 
and in general instruction was of a high order. Particular emphasis 
was laid on fundamentals of engineering and on research. The 
German states were liberal in their financial support of such in- 
stitutions and the professors were comparatively well paid and 
enjoyed a high social standing. These professors did a relatively 
small amount of teaching and devoted their time principally to 
research and to the leisurely study of their specialty, on which they 
generally wTote e.xtensively. 

Much of the actual experimental work in research in these 
foreign schools was done by graduate students and by paid as- 
sistants, of which latter there were sufficient numbers to readily 
carry on the work. The instructional staff did little clerical work 
and practically no student advisory work, as we know it in America. 
Therein lay the weakness of the German system. Great care was 
taken to impart exact technical and scientific knowledge to the 
students, but little thought was given to the development of char- 



MECHANICAL ENGIXEERIXG 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



acter and personality. A recent speaker commenting on this fact 
stated tliat British and American engineers are frequently placed 
in executive ciiarge of large enterprises, while continentally trained 
engineers are employed by them to do the designing and computing, 
character, resourcefulness and ability to handle men governing the 
selection. 

A factor that has con.si(lerablc influence on the courses offered 
in any technical college is the character and degree of advancement 
of the work done in tlie preparatory schools. In this particular 
the continental technical schools are particularly favored, for in 
general more advanced mathematics and physics, together with 
more cultural subjects, are taught in their preparatory schools than 
in American high schools. In fact, the equivalent of the first 
year's work and often a portion of the second year's work in Amer- 
ican engineering colleges is required for entrance to the continental 
technical school. Consequently the work in these foreign colleges 
is in general of a more ad\-anced character than here. Furthermore 
the students are older and more mature at entrance to such conti- 
nental colleges. 

An attempt is being made in Great Britain to build up a first- 
class engineering school at the Imperial Technical Institute, London. 
The war, however, prevented full development of these plans 
as soon as wa.s hoped might be possible. 

CoxDrrio.Ns i.v American Colleges 

Let us now consider conditions in American engineering colleges. 
These vary from small, ill-equipped schools to institutions that 
^hould be considered among the world's best, both in equipment, 
ability of staff, and character of instruction. There still appears 
to be room for all these colleges, even though the character of train- 
ing varies over a wide range. This is due to the fact that the 
technically trained man has many fields open to him after leaving 
college. The demand for men to fill subordinate positions in the 
industries will always take care of tlie less able men and those 
whose training has been inadequate. Tiie more higlily trained and 
more capable men advance to the foremost places in the profession, 
which generally lead to executive positions of a business character. 
An increasingly large number of engineering graduates liave busi- 
ness and not technical positions as their sole objective. They take 
the engineering courses in college largely because they believe that 
the thorough analytical methods taught tliere and the training 
in the ability to "think straight" will be a consideral)lo asset in 
business life. Engineering students may therefore be divided into 
three general classes: (I) Those of a truly scientific turn of mind who 
are capable of grasping and developing theories and of applying 
these to the analysis of engineering problems; (2) men of a practical 
nature, less capable or insufliciently trained to fall in the first class, 
yet very necessary for the subordinate positions in industry; and 
(3) those whose objective is pure business life. The great majority 
of students fall in the last two classes and this influences the char- 
acter of college instruction to a marked degree. Practical labora- 
tory and shop courses are stressed in many colleges and there is a 
steady demand for more and more instruction on the principles 
of organization and business economics. 

The increasing popularity of the engineering courses has led to 
steadily increasing enrollments in nearly all colleges. Instructional 
staffs are overworked and underpaid. To care for this influx there 
seems to be a tendency to organize certain colleges on what would 
be called in factory organization a "quantity production" basis. 
Large numbers of students are hanflled according to definite fixed 
plans and personal contact is largely lost between instructor and 
student. A most unfortunate condition exists when an able and 
inspiring teaclier is promoted to the head of a department and be- 
comes so loaded down with administrative details that he does little 
or no teaching and loses the opportunity to exert his personal 
influence on students wlio should normally receive his instruction. 
The "quantity production" idea gives little or no opportunity for 
character building, which after all is the true basis for success in 
after life. Where students are handled in quantity the men auto- 
matically recite, work up laboratory reports, and pass examinations 
with very little opportunity for independent thought or action 
along technical lines. 

Engineers iti practice frequently criticize the engineering colleges 
very harshly for turning out graduates with seemingly inadequate 



training. Usually these critics have lost their proper perspective 
or have forgotten just how little they themselves knew of their 
specialty when thej' entered college and when they were graduated. 
They fail to fully appreciate the character of the boy as he enters 
college and with whom the teaching staff has to deal. 

It has alreadj' been pointed out that the average student entering 
American engineering colleges is j'ounger and less thoroughly 
prepared in fundamentals than the continental student. The 
American boy has several things in mind when he enters an engineer- 
ing college: First and foremost, that the training will enable him 
to earn a better living than if he were without training and therefore 
he favors practical courses to pure theory; second, tliat atliletics, 
fraternity life, and other college activities are almost if not actually 
of equal importance with instructional courses; and third, that his 
four years in college before entering a cold-blooded business world 
are going to be the happiest in his life and he must not fail to have ■ 
a good time during his college career. 

Wh.vt Engineers Demand of the Graduate 

Such in general are the motives and ideals of the undergraduate 
of the technical college. What do engineers demand of the grad- 
uate? In the opening paragraph Mr. Arthur West calls for better 
engineers by a process of selective education of onlj- the most promis- 
ing men. In what way must he be a better engineer? In the 
Report of the Carnegie Foundation for Engineering Education by 
C. R. Mann, it is pointed out that practising engineers stated the ' 
desirable qualities of an engineering graduate in the order of their 
importance as character, judgment, efficiency, understanding of 
men, knowledge and technique. Particular attention should be 
directed to the fact that technique, in which the continental graduate 
excels, is placed at the bottom of the list, while character holds 
first place. A recent survey by C. E. Magnusson^ indicates that 
character is still considered of first importance but should be com- 
bined with a truly professional idea of service, and also that thor- 
ough training in fundamentals is more necessary than specializa- 
tion. 

Character building, tact, initiative, thoroughness, etc., can be 
developed best in the undergraduate by intimate contact with 
high-grade instructors, and by participation in college activities 
and athletics under more or less faculty supervision. This may be 
achieved in the smaller colleges, but unfortunately only a few have 
adequate laboratory equipment and can afford to secure the best 
men for their staff. "Quantity production" in larger colleges 
must be replaced by smaller groups of students and larger, less hard- 
worked, and better-paid staffs if the best results are to be secured. 
The adoption of a common code of ethics by aU national engineering 
societies and the requirement that every graduate in engineering 
affirm this code would greatly increase the graduate's sense of 
responsibility to his profession and would certainly tend to elevate 
its ethical standards. Thoroughness and accuracy can be developed 
by problem work, and particularly by recitation courses. Personal 
contact of students with faculty is probably most highly developed 
under our American student advisory systems. 

A limited student body has been characteristic of certain of our 
best medical schools. The Engineering Department of Johns 
Hopkins University since the war has deliberately attempted not 
only to elevate the standards of instruction, but to limit attendance 
among the uijperclassmen to a small number of men. An attempt 
is thus made to retain the better men only of the first two years. 
This permits the most efficient use of facilities without overcrowd- 
ing, and retains close personal contact between student and instruc- 
tor. Furthermore, greater emphasis is laid on fundamental theory 
than on informational and special applied courses, leaving the 
latter for advanced study. 

^\'ilen due consideration is given to the age at entrance and to the 
preparatory training of our freshmen, it is obvious that one cannot 
expect a finished engineer at the end of a four j'ears' course. The 
criticisms of the undergraduate work of our colleges by Dean 
Bishop and Doctor Adams seem therefore unfair. 

Students in law and medicine are generally required to have a 
collegiate degree before taking up professional work. Such a re- 
(luirement would unquestionably produce a better class of graduates 
if applied also to the engineering colleges. The profession as a 

^Journal A.I.E.E., September, 1921. 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



whole, and particularly employers of engineers, have, however, 
offered no special inducement to the colleges to develop such men. 
In fact, with the large number of graduates of the second and third 
classes mentioned abo\'e, it is doubtful whether the time and ex- 
pense of such training can be justified or is needed. 

Gr.^duate Work Should be Concentr.^ted inCert.\in Selective 
Colleges Given Strong Financi.^l Support 

What about the highly trained engineer and the research engineer 
comprising the fu-st class? This is tlie class of men on whom Amer- 
ica must depend for future leadership in engineering. These men 
form a relatively small proportion of the -graduating classes. Their 
training, however, should be of broad character during the early 
part of then- courses, though in regular undergraduate courses 
this selective education is seldom possible, and later they should be 
further developed along certain specialized lines. Such men would 
undoubtedly benefit by collegiate courses before taking up en- 
gineering training. It is not possible , however, to select from a group 
of applicants for admission to college the men who 'will later develop 
into the best engineers, and who are worthy of the most extensive 
training. Some plan must therefore be developed which -nill 
permit these specially gifted men to be given advanced training and 
to carry out research work. Many colleges have neither the 
money, facilities nor staff to offer adequate graduate work in all 
branches of engineering. It would therefore seem best to con- 
centrate our graduate work in certain selected colleges which should 
receive the strong financial support of the industries and of the 
Government and the moral support of the profession at large. If 
scholarships to these graduate schools could be provided for the 
best undergraduates from all engineering colleges, well-developed 
technical men would be available to the industries who would ecjual 
if not surpass the continentally trained men. The requirements 
for admission at such graduate schools should be very rigid so that 



only the best men with adequate preparation could enter. 

If the industries demand highly trained men from the colleges, 
they must be prepared to make such training worth while. When 
a request is made to an engineering school for a man, if a degree of 
Master of Engineering or Doctor of Engineering is demanded and 
if such men are given preference for positions and are paid some- 
what higher salaries than the ordinary graduate, students will 
soon desire to get the advanced training. Graduate students in 
engineering will be few and of mediocre character as a rule until 
such an attitude prevails on the part of emploj'ers. 

The new national policy on engineering education therefore 
requires greater financial support for the colleges, so that an ad- 
equate staff of high-grade men may be employed and personal 
contact with students secured through small classes. Greater 
emphasis must be given in instruction during the four-year under- 
graduate period to fimdamental courses, leaving special professional 
training to graduate years. Certain colleges should be designated 
as graduate schools and adequate provision made for their proper 
support both by Government agencies, by private endowment, and 
by the industries. Scholarships should be provided by the state, 
by industries, or by the profession which will enable eligible under- 
graduates from aU colleges to continue their work in the graduate 
schools. Finally, employers who desire highly trained technical 
and research engineers must give first consideration to the men with 
graduate degrees and must be prepared to reward them financiaOy 
in proportion to their extra effort and greater expense in educating 
themselves. 

The burden of maintaining America's supremacy in industry 
and commerce rests largely on the engineer. Let us therefore as 
engineers place before the American people this new national policy 
on engineering education so that our young men entering the pro- 
fession may be the best fitted in the world to carry this burden 
and to advance still further the art and science of engineering. 



Engineering Education as Viewed by the Industrialist 



By J. E. OTTERSON.i NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



T^HE pedagogue is interested primarily in the process of edu- 
■*■ cation. The industrialist is interested primarily in its 
product. The student upon gi'aduation, must pass from the 
supervision of the pedagogue to the critical survey of the indus- 
trialist. 

It seems fair to assume that the purpose of education is something 
more than the mere acquisition of knowledge. The industrialist 
is obliged to look for something more. The student is likely to 
find upon graduation that those things which he has regarded as 
the purposes of the educational processes through which he has 
passed, now become only a means for the accomplishment of the 
real purposes of life. It is in developing this change of viewpoint 
that the student is likely to meet with disappointment, perhaps 
discouragement, and during this period the industrialist finds 
difficulty in adapting the student to his utilitarian purpose. 

Knowledge is not of itself a qualification for large responsibility 
in industry. The encyclopedic type of mind wliich merely records 
impressions and facts brought before it may lack those qualities 
of imagination and initiative so essential to the accomphshment of 
practical things under adverse conditions, wliicli do not alwaj^s 
evidence strict conformity to the laws governing recognized and 
recorded knowledge. Something more is required than that type 
of mind which is merely a reservoir containing a large amount of 
knowledge in a static state. iVIodern industry is dynamic and 
moves at a tremendous pace. We want, therefore, the type of 
mind that wUl be immediately energized when the current is turned 
on; the motor type rather than the storage-battery, and when the 
individual progresses to larger responsibility he may be caOed 
upon to animate, magnetize and electrify other minds about him, 
and to develop the qualities of generation as well as those of mo- 
tivity. 

There are doubtless certain occupations in life where the posses- 
sion of accumulated knowledge is both desirable and essential, 



' President, Winchester Repeating Arms Co. Mem. Am.Soo.M.E. 



but in industry this quality alone will not carry the applicant be- 
yond the lower orders of subordination. He will take his place 
among those student clerical types that are the handbooks of in- 
dustry; much thumbed and used and frequently shomng signs of 
wear and tear and dilapidation; referred to for statement of facts 
or formulation of laws but in the emergencies of everyday life 
frequently passed by in the race for accomplishment. Such are 
not the positions in industry that are difficult to fill. The ency- 
clopedic type is sufficiently common to meet the need and in the 
search for the type with initiative, vision, imagination and dynamic 
force, the industrialist must apply other methods than those of 
the school-room examination. The industrialist is concerned more 
with the effect of the educational processes upon the habits and 
character of the applicant than he is "viith the degree of learning 
which he has attained. The industrialist is interested in mental, 
physical and moral character rather than in pure intellectualism; 
more in the ability to acquire knowledge quickly through appli- 
cation and concentration than in the immediate possession of 
knowledge. 

The habits of industry should have as their foundation the 
habits of the student who is preparing for industrial work. In 
passing from student fife to industrial life he should be able to 
do so successfully by continuation of the habits he has acquired 
in liis college training rather than by a radical change that places 
liim in an unfamiliar environment of work and activity. 

His college life should be something more than a mere signal 
drill. He needs the scrimmage and the actual game to develop 
his full cjualities. 

Some very practical industrialists hold the view that a college 
education is a handicap to business or industrial success and they 
point to the fact that something like 75 per cent of the responsible 
positions in industry are occupied by men who have not had the 
benefits of a college education but who have gone through the 
school of hard knocks; whose quaUties are those of character, 
force, \\ill power, initiative, industry, common sense and human 



B 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERIXG 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



understanding. It is indeed questionable whether within the 
limits of the training and e.vperience of a college education these 
qualities can be developed with the same intensity and firmness 
as in the school of life that so closely links accomplishment with 
survival. 

The college education most obviously and surely develops a 
larger capacity for social and cultured life but the social and cul- 
tural taste growing out of a higher education may prove distracting 
in a competitive field where complete concentration of a very prac- 
tical kind is essential to succ&ss. 

Without endeavoring at this point to place the responsibility, 
the college graduate who is an applicant for an industrial position 
all too frequently shows no knowiedge of the work to be done in 
the field which he is about to enter. He evidences no particular 
desire, ambition or purpose and he has Uttle knowledge of the 
direction in which he is going or desires to go. If an opening is 
offered him, he luis no capacity of judgment as to his adaptability. 
He is generally (juite willing to leave the question of his future work 
in life to the hurried determination of the industrialist, wiio in a 
ten-minute interview may attempt to analyze his character and 
assign him to a task in wiiich all i^arties concerned hope that he 
may be successful. 01)viously this is an uncertain and unscienti- 
fic method of directing the human forces set free by college edu- 
cation. 

Small wonder that .so many find themselves in uncongenial 
employment, ending in discontent, perhaps discouragement, 
changing from one class of work and finally from one job to another 
without direction or control. 

A force i.s defined by its magnitude and direction. I am not 
complaining as to the magnitude of tliLs tremendous human force 
launched into the world with each graduating class, but I do re- 
gret the wasted encrgj' that results from its lack of direction. 
Whose responsibility is it then to give it direction? Who is to 
sight the gun? \\Tio is to lay it upon the target? Some such 
directing hand is necessary if we are not to be content with mere 
intellectual fireworks. 

DEVELOPifENT OF PERSONAL TaLENTS 

It is of course a question as to how far the college is expected to 
go in fitting men to take their places in a particular line of industry. 
In the ordinary four-year college course it is fair to assume that 
the college can do little more than lay the foundation for subsequent 
intensive training and development for a particular work. I 
am very definitely opposed to the shaping of educational processes 
toward training for a specialized type of work before there has 
been laid a foundation of general knowiedge and comprehension. 
The specialization should come after a certain degree of intellectual 
maturity has been reached. I do feel, however, that at the same 
time the mind is being molded and stored with knowiedge, an 
effort should be made to determine the talents and characteristics 
that must bo the controlling factor in the student's later life, and 
an opportunity given for the development of those qualities that 
will ultimately express the real character of the individual. 

Our college tests and examinations are primarily directed toward 
the determination of mental attainments as measured by the ex- 
tent of acquired knowiedge. I am making a plea for the develop- 
ment of tests of a different character calculated to determine the 
student's potentiality rather than his static state. These tests 
would be in the nature of or the basis of a psychoanalysis of the 
student's character tluough observation of liis manner, personality, 
physiognomy, heredity, environment and college career. These 
should be matters of constant observation and record, with par- 
ticular reference to progress and development. These observa- 
tions and records should be the constant study of a skilled psy- 
chologist or psychoanalyst wiio would take occasion to periodically 
counsel with the student as to his predominant characteristics 
and talents, assisting and directing him to their higher development. 

At a later point in the student's career, an organized effort should 
be made to acquaint him with the opportunities in the fickl wiiich 
he is by character qualified to enter, his qualifications being de- 
termined not by the character of acriuired knowiedge that he 
possesses as defined by the usual academic classification, but 
rather Iw the qualities of mind and character that give direction 
to his energies. 



It is not my purpose to attempt to define the organization or 
system by which this may be accomplished nor to attempt to de- 
tail the method of character analj'sis to be pursued. Presumably 
a broad general cliv.ssification will be first attempted, to be followed 
by more detailed effort. 

Types of Men in iNorsTRY 

For example: Two distinct types are constantly being recognized 
in industrj', namely, the engineering type and the executive type. 

The engineering type of man works for the solution of a single 
technical or engineering problem and is concerned with the 
determination of the solutfon rather than the application of that 
solution to practical aeti\ities. The true type has the capacity 
to concentrate continuously on a single problem until the solution 
has been reached. He is interested in the determination of cause 
and effect and of the laws that govern phenomena. He is disposed 
to l)e logical, anah'tical, stuchous, synthetical and to have an 
investigating turn of mind. The predominating characteristic 
that distinguishes him from the executive is his ability to con- 
centrate on one problem to the exclusion of others for a protracted 
period, to become absorbed in that problem and to free his mind 
of the cares of other problems. He does not submit readily to 
the routine performance of a given quantity of work. He deals 
with laws and abstract facts. He works from textbooks and 
original sources of information. Such men are Edison, Stein- 
metz, the ^\'^ight brothers, Curtiss, Bell, Pupin, Fessenden, BrowTi- 
ing. These men are the exireme of the engineering type, they 
have enormous imagination, initiative, constructive powers. 

The executive type takes the conclusions of the engineer and 
the laws developed by the engineer and applies them to the multi- 
tude of practical problems that come before him. His chief char- 
acteristic is that he works with a multitude of constantly changing 
problems at one time. He concentrates on one problem after 
another in rapid succession. In many instances he has not the 
time to obtain all of the facts and he must arrive at a conclusion 
or make a decision based upon partial knowiedge. He must rapidly 
assimilate available facts and fill in wiiat is lacking from the ripe- 
ness of hLs own experience, frequently calling upon his powers of 
judgment, and even intuition. He is a man of action, boldness, 
ingenuity, force, determination, aggressiveness, courage, decision; 
he is possessed with the desire to get things done, impatient of 
delay. He works from a handbook, a newspaper or nothing at 
all. Such men are Schwab, Goethals, Pershing, Farrell, Hinden- 
burg. Hoover. 

If we have accomplished nothing more than to assist the boy 
to determine wiiether he is a potential engineer or an executive, 
it seems to me that we have gone a long way. 

The question of whether a man has been trained in mechanical 
engineering or electrical engineering is not half so important as 
whether he Ls a real engineer or a real executive. I am sure that 
we are all acquainted with hundreds of young men who have made 
their success in some other branch of engineering endeavor than 
that in which they received technical training, and I feel quite 
safe in saying that the qualities of character determine a man's 
success rather than the particular kind or extent of technical 
knowiedge that he has received in his college course. 

Perhaps at the same time that the suggestion is made for the 
amplification of college training so as to include the psychoanalji,i- 
cal treatment of the student, it would not be out of place to sug- 
gest that industry take up a similar work on its own account and 
for its own purposes, \vith a \iew to confirming or supplementing 
the determinations made in the course of college life. It seems 
<)b\ious that there is a community of interest as between the student, 
the pedagogue and the industrialist, in that all are seeking the 
same end, namely, the development to the full capacity of the 
individual for accomplishment. 

We seek only to avoid the wasted energies, the wasted years and 
the wasted Uves; the discredit to educational institutions and 
the loss to industrial and national life. The limitation upon in- 
dustrial accompUslmient today is men and the industrialist is 
calling for j'our assistance in minimizing this limitation. We 
require men rather than students and intellectualists. Will you 
give thought to the direction of the human forces which you 
generate? 



The Engineering School and the Industries' 



Bt dexter S. KIMBALL,^ ITHACA, N. Y. 



/^NE of the most remarkable developments in the last fifteen 
^-^ years, perhaps, has been the spread of the use of the word 
"engineering." The reason for its present extended use is no 
doul>t because we lack some adequate term to employ in its place. 
What it means is, we are going to extend the methods of engineering 
to all human activity. First, we have apphed it to industry. Now, 
we are going to apply it to management and then to finance, then 
to the human element, and lastly to religion. With all this has 
come also a clear recognition that there is such a thing as the en- 
gineering type of mind as contrasted mth the legal or medical type. 
It is a distinct type of mind, one that employes a certain method 
of attacking problems. 

Every graduate of a technical institution views the matter of 
education through spectacles of his own making. He has some 
criticism to make or some suggestion for his school's betterment, 
and many of these have been most useful. Every university 
faculty welcomes criticisms and suggestions, because they serve 
to enlighten them as to where they are going and as to what should 
be done with their curriculum. 

In this country the average young man arrives at a university 
at the age of 17 or IS, and is usually graduated at about 22 or 23. 
It is not good to have boys stay in the university too long, for their 
vertebrae become stiff. In the four years allotted to the educator, 
he inust take this young man and try to teach him mathematics 
and engineering subjects, train liis character; he must further 
teach him EngUsh, of which he knows notliing. That, it should be 
noted, is a criticism on the lower grades of school. He must also 
teach him something of the classics, and lastly, must turn him out 
a finished engineer. 

The Ust of things that must be instilled into these young men in 
four years is a long, long one, and if the faculty to wliich I have 
the honor to belong should undertake to incorporate in its curriculum 
the one hundredth or thousandth part of the suggestions they 
receive, nothing but chaos would result. 

No man can properly be called an engineer who has not studied 
mathematics, physics and the mechanics of engineering. When 
it comes to the amount or quantities of these subjects, however, 
most men who have given much thought to tliLs problem will 
probably agree that three years are sufficient to give a man a 
thorough grounding in these essentials of engineering training. 
This will leave a year in which the boys may be given some knowl- 
edge of the other fields about which they apparently ought to know 
something. 

One of the fiist things that was brought to our attention as a 
requisite for the engineer was economics. That was not difficult to 
incorporate. Every engineer is by nature an economist. Every 
great power house is a problem in economics. The engineer studies 
economics quite wilhngly, and it has become a large part of the 
engineering curriculum. 

The nex't demand — and an insistent one — was for a large amount 
of work in management, administration. We now have as a last 
demand this matter of human engineering. The engineer ought 
to know a great deal about the human element in industry, but 
generally speaking, he has not in the past been concerned with the 
human element. It has only been in recent years that he has been 
brought into touch with this problem; and, it may be said that 
he has been a little cold-blooded about it. He wants to get things 
done, and means are ways to an end. 

If you are going to have the type of man that does things — and 
remember that engineers are the great ways and means committee 
of civihzation — you may do other things, but you may not take 
away those fundamentals and get what I call the engineering type 
of mind. If I were to make any reply to the industrialist who adds 
that we do many of these things in the hope of getting men more 
closely adapted to their requirements, I would say that they, as 
a rule, have not appreciated either this problem or its solution. 



The industrial leader has seen fit to criticise the university without 
offering many constructive suggestions as to how the problem can 
be solved. One of our great industrial leaders some time ago 
remarked that if he had liis way he would put industrial leaders at 
the head of all universities. His argument was that the universi- 
ties are too far away from industry. Well, I hope that they may, 
in some respects, stay away from industry, and I hope there will 
always be in this great land universities where teachers are free 
to teach the truth as they see it. I am free to admit that one of 
the things that must be done is to give these young men some 
knowledge of the human problem and related problems, but I do 
hope there wiU never come a time when institutions will be adopted 
by industrialists, who have only in mind the pecuhar problems of 
industry, and have not clearly in mind that the great hope of 
civilization hes in the engineer, and in making him as ideal as we 
possibly can. 

ENGINEERING EDUCATION DISCUSSION 

Dean A. A. Potter of Purdue University submitted a written 
discussion, in which among other things, he said that our curricula 
are in general designed to teach students basic subjects wiiich they 
cannot acquire by their own efforts after they graduate from 
college. 

Mr. Pratt had stated that the engineering schools undertake too 
early specialization. While the pressure from the outside was 
great for specialization, a study of the present curricula of engi- 
neering schools would reveal the fact that the tendency was to reduce 
specialization and to broaden the training of the undergraduate. 

Carefully kept persomiel and academic records should enable 
engineering educators to discover men who are of the inventive 
type and wiio can be developed into inventors, designers and 
research engineers. The inventive type of student usually shows 
his talents wiien very young and his training must be entirely 
different from that of men who are to enter the fields of production, 
sales or of public service. 

A curriculum which provides no contact with engineering prob- 
lems during the first two years is bound to discourage many of 
the more practical and ambitious students. 

There is too much tendency in our entire educational system to 
encourage the development of "one text book" people and without 
basing the instruction upon the students' ability, aptitude, knowl- 
edge and experience. Apparently very little effort is being made 
to discover and to develop the student's talents. 

Statements have been made that there is a distinct need for more 
highly trained engineers. He would like to have the opinions of 
Mr. Pratt and of others from industry as to whether we are justified 
in encouraging students to devote two more years to their prepara- 
tion. To be more specific, wiiat inducements could industry offer 
to our exceptional students if we encouraged them to spend five or 
six years at college instead of four? 

M. W. Alexander' said that meetings like the one in session 
w'ere highly desirable, but they would not bring results. It was 
necessary for the engineering professors and the industrialists in 
each community to come in close touch, so that the former might 
learn from the latter of the progress made in the art and the apphca- 
tion of the science and of the adjustment that the engineering 
schools should make as rapidly as possible in order to catch up with 
the rapidly advancing industries. 

A. M. Gieene, Jr.,- speaking of the demands on the colleges for 
specialists, said that these were being met by training men whose 
fundamental work was of such a nature that it prepared them so 
that they were able to think, reason and apply. Personal contact 
was one of the most important parts of the work, but, with the 
increase in size of classes it was growing rather impossible. Some 
of the best work done in preparing men to go out and solve the 

(Continued on page 42) 



* Introduction t ) discussion of the preceding papers on engineering 
education. Slightly abridged. 

^ Dean, College of Engineering, Cornell University, President Am. See. 
M.E. 



' National Industrial Conference Board, New York, N. Y. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 

^ Professor Mechanical Engineering, Rensselaer Polj-technic Institute, 
Troy, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



President Carman's Address 



Annual Meeting, 1921, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

A.S.M.E. Has Emerged From First Epocli Related Princi])a11y to Scientific Advancement of ^Material 
Things and Now Faces Second Epoch — llie l'roljU>m of Human Kehitioiishii)s 



BEFORE discussing the main tlieine of my address I desire to 
relate some of the principal Society activities of the past 
year. In the year 1920 the spirit of unrest that characterized 
the human mind as a result of the years of warfare was at its height, 
and gave expression in most walks of life. It was rampant in engi- 
neering society circles, and it is with great pleasure tonight that 
I give expression to my findings covering the op)eration of the affairs 
of our Society. 

Our Society is democratic in organization, representative in 
government — its operation is cooperative — its activities extend 
into every part of the United States and are within reach of almost 
every member, and its accomplishments are contributions to the 
welfare of mankind. 

As President I have traxxled over twenty thousand miles. I 
have visited and addressed local sections and business organiza- 
tions, carrying the message of engineering ability and its relation 
to the great economic problems of the day. 

I have failed to find "politics," or any group of men, or any one 
man, governing the affairs of our Society. 

The San Francisco man has as "much to say" as the New Yorker, 
and the West Coast members of Council and conunittees are as 
conspicuous as those from any other .section; North and South, 
East and West, are united. 

There is not anj-where apparent group or faction, friction or dis- 
cord, except the friendly difTerences of opinion. We are all one 
large family, its members helping each other, all working for the 
upbuilding of our Society. 

One year ago The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
celebrated its fortieth anniversary. The Local Sections in forty 
cities held meetings, and with glad hearts told of the accomplish- 
ments of the past forty years. 

FORTY years of Society activity, and 
FORTY cities celebrating; 

FORTY — a cardinal number with great significance. 
The "Fortieth" Anniversary is used many times to indicate com- 
pleteness. Israel's greatest kings each reigned forty years, the 
ancient Venetian court was composed of forty. 

Do these first forty years represent the first epoch in the history 
of our Society? 

Has the epoch been completed? All indications point that way, 
and if it has, then we are now closing the first year of the second 
epoch. In the years ahead I believe there will come the reaUza- 
tion that a year ago marked the distinct closing of the first, and 
beginning of the second, epoch. 

The important accomplishments of the first epoch related princi- 
pally to scientific advancement of material things. What is to 
be our aim for the second epoch? 

The beginning of the first epoch was coincident with the beginning 
of a constantly and greatly increasing demand for mechanical 
equipment and allied engineering projects. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers has been a 
splendid copartner in all the technical and scientific developments. 
It has rendered, and still is rendering, a valuable service to industry. 

It was, at its beginning, organized to assist in the solution of the 
great problems of its day. These problems were technical and 
scientific in their nature, and their solution contributed to the rapid 
increase in quantity production, through liie aid of mechanical 
appliances. So rapid and complete was the development that 
many operations were accomplished with little effort on the part 
of man. But in many instances the elimination of the effort 
produced an operation of drudgery — and drudgery always creates 
dissatisfaction and strife. 

If we are to follow the policies of the founders of our Society, 
we, too, must assist in the solution of the greatest problems of our 
day. 

You will agree with me, I am sure, that the greatest problem 



of today is neither technical nor scientific, as applied to material 
things. It is one of human relationships. 

If the problem were only the relationship existing as man to 
man, then it would not be one to be considered by engineers. 
But our problem is more than one of man to man; it involves 
not only the relation of man to man, but also the relation of man 
to production — to intense and mechanical production — of man to 
waste of production and con.sumption, of man and his relationship 
to industry, and of industry and its relationship to man. 

In the early developments, engineers as a whole gave attention, 
in machine design, or plans for large projects involving labor, to 
the producing of results, regardless of their effect on the person or 
persons engaged as operators or workmen. j 

Today it is and should be necessarj' to consider the human side 
• of quantity production, and since this can best be done in connec- 
tion with technical and scientific progress, it follows that the en- 
gineer, whether lie so elects or not, must be the one to assume the 
responsibility, as the technical, scientific, material and human 
elements of progress must be considered collectively. 

Our problem of today had its beginning in the introduction of 
machines and mechanical appliances to production; and with the 
introduction of the labor-sa^ing devices there also began that kind 
of intense, nerve-racking, vitality-consuming labor that has been 
constantly continuing and increasing, until it has produced one of 
the greatest problems that has ever vexed mankind. This prob- 
lem is commonly called "Industrial Relations." 

It is true that the origin of labor trouble can be traced back 
through centuries, but those are not the labor problems that give 
expression in organized labor today. 

Coincidently with the demand of ci\ilization for great quantities 
of the articles of its consumption came the necessity for larger 
industries. As these industries became more numerous, many 
of them combined and formed large organizations for the purpose 
of self-protection, self-advantage, and control of markets. 

Likewise the bringing together of many workmen, each with a 
certain and definite task to perform, gave opportunity for an inter- 
change of grievances and a combined or group effort which has 
resulted in the labor organizations we have today. 

Thus we had, growing side by side, two distinct organizations 
or classes: one. Industry or Capital, the other. Labor Unions or 
Labor. Not only have both of these organizations increased in 
size, but each has combined and federated with others of its kind, 
until both are unmeldy — overgrown, unable to control or direct 
their followers — each seeking the advantage over the other, and 
both actually taking advantage of the great consuming class, 
the Public. 

We have still another complication, a third party — the Govern- 
ment — attempting to direct the other two, and the result is more 
deplorable than ever. 

Since the Government is administered by a class which we in 
America call "politicians," and since each class has its own interests 
to protect, it follows that no one class should attempt to control 
the other two. 

What, then, is the solution? After years of struggle, after 
countless endeavors from many different angles, the problem 
remains unsolved, and growing worse. There must be some 
method that will solve it. 

The party most vitally interested, when rightly led, will be the 
deciding factor — public interest is paramount. What group of 
men is best fitted for leadership? 

The groat depression of today has seemingly lessened the ap- 
parent necessity for urgent consideration of the problem, but the 
problem is still with us, unsolved, and with the revival of business 
it will become more acute than ever. 

I recognize in society today the existence of three laws: the 

^Continued on page 74) 



Prevention of Wastes in Industry 



By FRED J. MILLER,' NEW YORK, N. Y. 



THE Committee on Elimination of Waste in Industry de- 
\'oted most of its attention to wastes of time and effort 
because these are far more important than wastes by direct 
loss of materials. 

I think I need not discuss the grosser forms of industrial wastes 
that come from loss in various ways of supplies and materials. 
Such losses are relatively unimportant and means of preventing 
them are now very generally understood and are in use in practically 
all establishments in which it is realized that the safeguarding of 
such things that cost money is as important as the safeguarding 
of monej' itself. 

I am asked to discuss, not simply wastes in industry, but incen- 
tives for the prevention of such wastes, and here we are confronted 
with the anomaly that those who would be supposed to have the 
greater incentive for the prevention of industrial wastes are found 
to be responsible for the major portion of the wastes that occur. 
Responsible, I mean, in the sense that they, the owners and directors 
of industries, are the ones and the only ones, who can adopt effec- 
tive means to stop these wastes. 

This seems to indicate that not only must there be incentives 
for the avoidance of waste, but there must be also a clear realiza- 
tion that preventable wastes are occurring and a general under- 
standing of the reasons for them and of the means by which they 
may be prevented. 

It is natural for the normal man to be active in some way — 
either mentally or physically, or both. There is scarcely a greater 
punishment that can be infUcted upon him than complete, enforced 
idleness, such as results from solitary confinement in a dark cell. 

It is perhaps industry's chief problem to conserve, develop and 
make use of the natural desire of the normal individual to be ac- 
complishing something, and, further, to relieve workers so far as 
possible from such conditions of work as are deadening to ambition, 
to initiative and to the creative instinct. Far more can be done 
along that line than may seem possible at first sight, and the re- 
sults of even the simplest efforts in that direction have, in many 
cases, been very excellent for all concerned. 

In a recently published magazine article the difference was 
clearly shomi between having a foreman tell a group of workers 
that they must work overtime and, on the other hand, allowing 
the workers themselves to pass to each other and read a letter 
from a customer saying that unless his order was shipped by a 
certain date he would consider himself at liberty to cancel it. 
The workers themseh-es decided to work overtime to prevent 
cancellation of the order. And in all such cases the more ambi- 
tious workers can exert an influence upon the others far more 
effective than any other that can be brought to bear upon them. 

In'centives in Industry Defined 

Incentives may be grouped in two general classes which may be 
called the "penalty" class and the "reward" class. 

The penalty incentives, in the form of the lash or other gross 
physical punishments, were more common in slave times than 
they are now, but the penalty incentive still persists here and 
there in various forms and there are still too many in our indus- 
tries who seem to recognize no other kind; not knowng it is still 
true that "he who owns a slave is himself in chains." 

Incentives of the penalty class make people afraid not to do 
the things they are ordered to do. Incentives of the reward class 
tend to make people want to do the things that are expected of 
them. These two classes of incentives of com'se differ widely in 
their nature; but they differ no more than the results that are 
obtained by them. 

I do not know what course the discussion of tliis question may 
take here today, but I prefer to confiae mj-self to discussion of the 
reward class of incentives as being the only one worthy of considera- 



' Past-President Am.Soc.M.E. 

Address delivered at the session on Ehminatlon of Waste in Industry of 
the Annual Meeting, December, 1921, of The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. 



tion in connection with industries carried on in an enlightened 
age and in dealing with free men. 

The reward class of incentives may be divided into two sub- 
classes that may be called respectively "group" rewards and "in- 
dividual" rewards. 

Profit sharing, group insurance, employee representation or 
participation in management, most of the so-called welfare work, 
general or so-called horizontal increases in wages, bonuses paid 
to all employees alike, etc., are and are intended to be group in- 
centives; while individual increase of wages, piece work, bonuses 
to individuals for specific individual attainments are, of course, 
individual incentives. 

Whether group or individual incentives should be employed in 
a given case depends of course upon the circumstances of that 
case; but my o^\ti experience and observation lead me to the be- 
lief that, after we have estabUshed good working conditions, such 
as well-lighted, heated and ventilated work places; done what we 
can to keep tliem in good sanitary condition and as free as possible 
from danger of accidents; and have foremen and other executives 
who have been selected and trained to take an enlightened and 
"human" attitude toward employees, the rest of the way to the 
best possible general results is through indi-\adual reward incen- 
tives; which may take the form of higher hourly wages paid to 
individuals for individual attainments, a bonus paid for definite 
attainment, advancement from the ranks to successively higher 
executive positions, or all of these together with, so far as I have 
been able to perceive, about equally good results when applied 
intelligently. And they can be applied intelligently only when 
means are provided for having a continuous record of every em- 
ployee's performance with reference to established standards; 
so that reward incentives vnW not be based upon any executive's 
prejudices or whims but upon actual and demonstrated service 
rendered in doing the work for which the plant is operated. 

As a consequence of the acute situation and the very troublous 
times we have been, and still are, passing through, there has been, 
I think, some tendency to overelaboration in certain of the measures 
taken to overcome our industrial difficulties. As for me, I still 
have faith in the comparatively simple means of enlisting the 
enthusiastic cooperation of minor executives and employees, and 
an essential part of this is to give them such treatment as every 
man likes to receive from those with whom he comes in contact; 
always remembering that workpeople are not, after all, essentiaUy 
different from other people; are at least as readily responsive to 
candid, fair and courteous treatment as are other people, and also 
as well able to judge whether or not they are receiving it. 

Causes of Industrl^l W.^stes Itemized 

And along with this there must be avoidance of the large indus- 
trial wastes that come from overloaded inventories; slow move- 
ment of materials through the successive operations of manufactur- 
ing; unskilled, because inadequately studied, and developed, 
manipulation of materials; inability to definitely and promptly 
place responsibility for delays; failure to clearly distmguish between 
those things wliich are the worker's responsibOity, the foreman's 
responsibility, the superintendent's responsibility, and the owner's 
responsibility. 

That all these, as well as the designing engineer, have their 
separate responsibilities is, in a general way, well recognized; but 
in our manufacturing establishments there is usually no means 
for definitely assigning responsibility in such manner that a record 
is made, clearly showdng to all concerned where the re.sjjonsibility 
lies and whose duty it is to take steps to correct the defect, as- 
suming it to be remediable. Such a record does away with argu- 
ments and the attempts to shift blame from one to another, until 
finally it rests upon the man who cannot "talk back," or is canny 
enough not to do so and must bear it, smarting under the belief 
that he is unjustly blamed; and being disheartened and perhaps 
alienated by what he regards as bemg grossly unfair to him. 

The major cause of waste in manufacturing lies in defective ad- 
ministrative methods, for which in general no one is to be seriously 



10 



MECHANICAL EXGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



blamed, for they are the methods that have the sanction of long 
usage and by them, or rather in spite of them, many successful 
enterprises have been, and are being, conducted. 

Certainly owners and managers are not to be blamed in the moral 
sense for following well-established methods and practices, and of 
course they should follow them until they become convinced that 
there are better methods and practices that arc open to them. On 
tlie one hand we see emploj'ers who are too easily prevailed upon 
by charlatans to take up methods that are little better than a 
group of unrelated "stunts," and on the other hand those who al- 
ways delay progress along new lines until pretty nearly everj' one 
else is far in advance of them. 

It is the work of engineers to educate and to show the better 
ways, and I predict that as time goes on our industries will be 
more and more directed by engineers who know how to direct 
them for production and who will regard production and service 
as the prime objects to be attained by an industrial organization. 
AVhen this change has been effected, one of the greatest causes of 
waste will iiave been removed. 

I could mention entire industries that are in the control of men 
who are little if at all interested in production, but devote their 
entire attention to high finance, which is often crooked finance. 

Human Element mtjst be Recognized 

All signs point to new conditions under which our industries 
must be conducted. Improved methods of administration may go 
very far, but however, along with them, and an essential part of 
them, if we are to attain the highest immediate success and prepare 
for still further progress in the future, must be full recognition of 
the transcendent importance of the human element in our industries, 
and means simply must be found to remedy and avoid the condition 
into which so many of our industries have fallen and in whicli the 
attitude of employers and employees toward each other ranges 
from indifference or suspicion to more or less open and avowed 
hostility and a keen desire for revenge of WTongs, real or imaginarj'. 

Ambitious men must be expected to have ambition for the wel- 
fare of their families, and from the social, political and industrial 
standpoints this is desirable and indeed necessary if our industries 
are to thrive by rendering service to society. 

Foremen must be looked upon and must regard themselves as 
leaders, inspirers and teachers of their men rather than mere drivers; 
means must be provided by which the ^■aluc of workers with res- 
pect to a fair standard can be indubital)ly ascertained and each 
should be unfailingly rewarded in proportion to his attainments. 

Numerous examples, some from my own experience, might be 
given of the successful working of these principles, but as an illus- 
tration of what I mean, I prefer to go back to an incident related 
by' Frederick W. Taylor, mainly because it is exceedingly plain 
and simple and also exceedingly enlightening to those who will 
study its full significance. 

You will remember that at Bethlehem, Taylor, by patient, 
careful and really scientific study determined tiie best type of 
men, tools and methods for unloading ore from railroad cars. As 
results, the men were paid considerably higher wages than be- 
fore, the cost of unloading cars was materially reduced, the men 
were not worked too hard for their phj^sical weU being, and all 
concerned were satisfied. 

An establishment located elsewhere learned of this and hired 
some of these trained men, Taylor consenting to their going and 
at the same time telling them he would ho glad to have them return 
if, for any reason, they were not satisfied in their new place. 

The men went to work there, working as they liad been trained 
to work, but found they could make no showing because thej' 
were only a few working with many others; their contribution to 
the total work done bemg therefore relatively small and indistin- 
guishable from the work of the group. In other words, they could 
make no showing of their abilities. 

They asked that they be assigned to definite cars which they could 
unload by themselves — as they had been accustomed to do at 
Betlilehem — and were brusquely told to mind their owii business 
and work as directed. 

They quit and w^ent back to Betlilehem, and thus the effort to 
gplant the methods so carefully developed there failed. 

it failed sunply because the human nature of these ore 



shovelers had been ignored; the management did not do its part by 
establishing the conditions that had been found necessary to 
success. It was a clear example of the old idea that industrial 
efficiency is to be secured by simply hiring the best workers avail- 
able at as low a wage as they feel compelled to accept and then 
driving them as hard as possible. There may have been also a 
thought of the pace-making game which has been so much employed 
and which is still beheved in by .some employers, though it is ex- 
tremely crude and the workers have very generally taken such 
measures as they can to protect themselves against it. 

It must be recognized that even in the simplest work pride of 
achievement can usually be developed, and that often men will 
work their best only when they are not hampered by conditions 
that limit their acliievements or that prevent them from being 
credited with their achievements; especially when they know, or 
believe, that these hampering conditions can be removed. 

It would, I think, surprise a great many of us if we could know 
just how much of the wastes of industry that are caused bj- care- 
less, inefficient work have a deejier underlying cause in a feeling 
created by the conditions under which men work, that make them 
believe they cannot do what they should do, and for reasons en- 
tirely beyond their control. 

In a certain government establishment to which many good 
workers came during the war, mainly for patriotic reasons, quite 
a number of these men quit because conditions there were such 
that they could not do a fair day's work, no matter how much they 
might try. They did as much as was customary there, but so much 
less than they had been accustomed to do that they became dis- 
gusted and could not bear to remain. 

It is by no means always easj' to say where the blame lies for 
industrial wastes that come from slackness of workers and execu- 
tives. 

Take the case of a machine shop in which it is apparent that 
not much more than half the work is turned out that should be 
done. In many such cases the work has been brought up to the 
full standard by a change in the management, with or without a 
change in staff persoimel, but emplojdng the same workers as 
before. 

Better Management Often Reduces Waste 

Too many there are who would, with all the assurance in the 
world, blame the pre\'ious inefficiency entirely upon the emploj'ees, 
but the hard fact that such inefficient establisliments have been 
in many cases vastly improved by change of management or of 
management methods must be squarely faced if we are to compre- 
hend our problems or succeed in materially improving conditions. 

Especially do we need to adopt such methods of management as 
win enable the facts to be fairly presented to both sides in every 
difference that arises between employer and emploj'ee; and ex- 
j)erience shows that when we have done that, both the employer 
and the emploj'ee are far more reasonable and considerate than 
either usually imagines the other to be. 

It is at least as important that all the elements of an industrial 
organization should work together harmoniously and without 
friction as that the different parts of a finely designed and con- 
structed machine should do so. Wlien either does not function 
properly, it is a case for the use of intelligent discrimination in 
finding out the real cause of the trouble and the proper remedy. 
Usually the bludgeon treatment onlj' makes things worse, no 
matter which side resorts to it. 

Production has been and is restricted by workers, both organized 
and unorganized, and most of such restriction is of course wrong, 
from the economic standpoint, if not ethically. 

In most industries, however, I think it can easily be showTi that 
restriction of production by workers is insignificant compared 
with the restrictions caused by financial juggling of one kind or 
another; by avoidable irregularity of employment of labor and of 
plant by presidents or managers who are temperamentally unable 
to make decisions and then stick to them, or are unable to do so 
because they are under the control of men "higher up" who know 
nothing of industrial science, or even that there is any such thing; 
' by unnecessarily large inventories and consequent tying up of cap- 
ital that could be otherwise usefully employed; by inadequate con- 

(Continued on page 42) 



Forty-Second Annual Meeting of the A.S.M.E. 

Sessions Held Under Auspices of Professional Divisions Consider Elimination of Waste in Industry 
Honorary Membership Conferred Upon Past-President Henry R. Towne 



Fn'E solid da.ys of professional and technical features char- 
acterized the Forty-second Annual Meeting of The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and in this respect the 
meeting was far greater than any yet held by the Society. Not 
to speak of the social and entertainment features, into these five 
days were crowded over a hundred professional events. The social 
events were dovetailed in quite satisfactorily, and though the pro- 
gram was so very full, a well-arranged schedule insured the comfort 
of all members and guests throughout the week, ^\ith the result 
that there was unanimous agree- 
ment that the meeting was a great 
success. The thanks of the entire 
membership are extended to all 
committee members who contrib- 
uted in any way to this result. 

Notwithstanding the general 
situation in the engineering indus- 
tries and the surtax on transporta- 
tion — the two factors still operat- 
ing to flatten the attendance 
curve — the registration was 1854, 
which compares very favorably 
with that of previous years. As 
it was, the facilities of the building 
were utilized to the full, the 
auditorium and the meeting rooms 
on the fifth floor, as well as the 
"best parlors" of the other so- 
cieties in the building being in use 
all the time. 

With one set of professional 
sessions on iVIonday and Tuesday 
and another set on Thursday and 
Friday, and with an all-day 
Business Meeting m between, 
there were virtually two "peaks" 
in the week, and most members 
from out of town welcomed the 
opportunity tlius afforded to take 
care of their business and other 
affairs. 

Of the nineteen professional 
sessions, nine were conducted by 
the new Professional Divisions, 
with the result that the technical 
information Ijrought out was of 
a high standard. 

The Annual Conference of Local 
Sections delegates was attended 
by representatives of 44 Local 

Sections. A more complete treatment of this meeting was given 
in the first number of the A.S.M.E. News issued late in De- 
cember. It may be said here, however, that in addition to 
considering the organization problems of the Local Sections, a 
considerable amount of time was devoted to the proposed Con- 
stitution of the Society. 

The entire day of the Business Meeting was given over to the 
new Constitution and two amendments to the present Constitu- 
tion. The meeting voted to refer the amendments relating to the 
voting of Junior members and the mechanism of amending the con- 
stitution to the membership by letter ballot. The proposed Con- 
stitution was referred to the Constitution and By-Laws Committee 
for further re\dsion and the discussion was carried through purely 
for the guidance of this committee. 

At the Business Session the first award of the A. S. M. E. medal 
was made to Hjalmar G. Carlson for his invention and part in the 
production of 20,000,000 Mark III drawn steel booster casings 
used principally as a component of 75-mni. high-explosive shells. 




Dexter 8. Kimball 

The American Society of 



but also extensively in gas shells and bombs. The annual prizes 
for best papers were also presented at this session. 

The meeting of the 1921 Council, with President Carman pre- 
siding, was held on Monday, and that of the 1922 Council, with 
President Kimball in the chair on Friday. The A. S. M. E. dele- 
gates to the American Engineering Council attended the Monday 
meeting and a large part of the time was given over to a discussion 
of the affairs of The Federated American Engineering Societies. 
On Monday the Council, the Local Sections delegates and the 

American Engineering Council 
representatives met at lunch. 

Twenty-seven committee meet- 
ings were scheduled on the pro- 
gram, and at least a dozen others 
were held impromptu. The 
Society flourishes in proportion to 
its committee work — the labors of 
the seven hundred-odd members 
who contribute their time and 
experience. 

The leading social event was the 
Dinner-Dance at the Hotel Astor 
on Thursday evening. Four 
hundred participated in tliis de- 
lightful affair. The Smoker for 
the men this year was held at the 
Fifth Avenue Restaurant, and 
those who were fortunate enough 
to attend enjoyed songs, a few 
clever stunts and a first-class 
dinner. The President's Recep- 
tion and the Ladies' Tea were 
equally enjoyable; they were held 
on the fifth floor of the Engineering 
Societies Building wliich was at- 
tractively decorated. 

The formal excursions included 
visits to the Seaboard By-Prod- 
uct Coke Company, the Essex 
Street Station of the Public Service 
Corp. of N. J., The Davis- 
BournonviUe Company, the Ford 
Motor Company, the oil-burning 
plant of the Singer Building and 
the S. S. Olympic of the White Star 
Line. The latter was the most 
jjopular for ladies as well as the 
members, and places in the party 
were at a premium. The steam- 
ship company provided tea, and 
the excursion was delightful as well as instructive. 

An innovation this year was a graphic exhibit of the several ac- 
ti\'ities and functions of the Society. This was arranged in the 
Society's rooms and attracted a great deal of attention and favor- 
able comment. 

The account of the Annual Meeting published here deals partic- 
ularly with the business and professional features. Some of the 
papers have already been published, others are included in this 
issue, and the remainder T\dll follow later. 

President's Address and Honorary Membership 
Award to Mr. Towne 

/^N TUESDAY evening of the Annual Meeting, aftei an inspiring 
^^ address in which he portiayed the Society as having com- 
pleted its first cycle and emerging into a new era, Mr. E. S. Carman 
relinquished the chair in favor of Dean Dexter S. Kmball, whom 
the membership had selected to head the Society during 1922. 



President, 1922 
Mechanical Engineers 



11 



12 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



Pre.sident Carman's address is published in full in another column 
of this number. 

The ceremony of introducing the new president wa-s carried out 
after the chairman of the Tellers of Election, Ur. H. G. Tyler, 
bad announced the result of the letter iiallot of the membership, 
taken in the fall, to fill all the annual vacancies on the Council, as 
well as to elect the A.S.M.E. representatives for the year on the 
American Engineering Council, the governing body of the Fed- 
erated American Engineering Societies. The names of all the suc- 
cessful candidates for office were read, and the announcement 
made that they had been elected by practically unanimous vote. 

The new president was escorted to the platform liy Past-Presi- 
dents Charles T. Main and Fred. J. Miller. In accepting the 
office, Dean Ivimball said that the honor that had been bestowed 
on him held a peculiar significance, because one of his distinguished 
predecess(jrs, Professor Sweet, was one of the first teachers at 




Henry R. Tow.ne 

Cornell University, and another, his great predecessor in office 
at the University, Dr. R. li. Thurston, was the first president 
of the Society. With the honor, however, he acknowledged a 
great responsibility and pledged his verj' best effort to the members 
and to the Council in keeping the A.S.M.E. in the forefront as 
the highest representative of best engineering thought in the 
country. 

Past-President Henry R. Towne Honored 

A further ceremony of the evening was the bestowing of Hon- 
orary Membership in the Society on Past-President Henry R. 
Towne. 

In malving the award President Carman expressed great pleasure 
at the opportunity of reviewing the achievements and attainments 
of Mr. TowTie, and his work for our Society since 1S82, two years 
after its foundation. 

Mr. Towne is a Lifc-Memlier. He was vice president from 
1884 to 1886 and three years later served as president. 

In early association with Robert Briggs he carried out numerous 
experiments in leather belting which were accejited as the standard 
for twenty years. He formed a partnershi)) with Linus Yale in 
1868 which resulted in the organization of the Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co., which Mr. Towne directed as President until 1915, 
since then acting as Chairman of the Hoard. Mr. Yale having 
died in 1869, the responsibility and credit for the success of this 
firm is due largely to Mr. TowTie, who greatly amplified original 
features and embodied with them radical departures in design 
and workmanship, especially in methods of production which 



have become accepted standards of the industrj'. During thirty- 
six years almost ever}- improvement in locks or lock-making ma- 
chinerj' came from the Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. Besides locks 
as such, Mr, Towne has become famous also as a manufacturer of 
complete |X)st-office equipment, chain hoi.sts and all manner of art 
hardware. 

Mr. Towne's unusual combination of business and mechanical 
ability, his keen vision into the future and his untiring efforts to 
create and maintain a product and service of excellence, have made 
him the recognized principal factor in the growth and present high 
position of the lock art. 

His contributions to technical literature and especially to the 
Society's publications have been numerous and basic. 

Mr. Towne's Reply 

In expressing his appreciation of the honor conferred on him, 
Mr. Towne recalled some of the early days in the Society, recording 
how it performed a function of usefulness especially to its younger 
members, as it does today. Then, as now, it trained its members 
in the habits of preparation for the meetings and of presenting 
their work so as to be of interest to others and, he hoped, to the 
community. In other words there has always been the thought 
of service. In this Society service belongs properly first to our 
fellow-members, then to the Society as a whole, the profession, 
and lastly to the community. 

He thought that young men were apt not to realize this pos.si- 
bility of service in their work, and yet it underlies work of all 
kinds, and especially that of the engineer. 

During the latter half of the long period of hLs membership his 
time and attention had been turned largely from purely engi- 
neering matters to those connected with the great city of New 
York, and sometimes to affairs of the nation. But in all these 
duties in which he had been able to render ser\-ice, he had been 
aided by the fact that he had not only a technical training but 
also considerable experience in the practice of engineering and 
in the art of management. Therefore those of the younger men 
who have similar training and experience are particularly qualified 
to act as leaders in ci\'ic affairs, and he urged that without slighting 
their professional work they seek opportunities to engage in activi- 
ties of this kind. 

Reception of New Officers 

Following the exercises in the Auditorium the company ad- 
journed to the reception rooms where the new officers received 
the members of the Society and the ladies. Then came the custo- 
mary informal get-together, with the renewal of old associations 
and the formation of many new ones. Music was pro\'ided, 
and the evening ended with an informal dance. 

Opening Session on Waste in Industry 

TN ANNOUNCING the general topic of the Annual Meeting 
■*■ of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers as EUmi- 
nation of Waste in Industry, President Carman voiced the senti- 
ment that in the years to come the deliberations of this convention 
would be looked upon as the inauguration of a practical program 
for waste elimination, not only in industry, but in all walks of life. 
It was traditional that the American people were wasteful, prob- 
ably because of the great wealth of their resources, but he em- 
phasized that the present was witnessing the inauguration of a 
program of economy which would redound to the credit of our 
nation. 

Explaining that elimination of waste is largely a matter of man- 
agement, the Presiilcnt said that the Management Di\ision of the 
Society, now numbering upward of 1600 members, had contributed 
the program of this session, and he therefore introduced as pre- 
siding officer former chairman of the Di\ision, Mr. L. P. Afford, 
vic:e-i)resident of the Society. 

Mr. Afford told of the interest, publicity and favorable connnent 
that has been accorded to the report of the Committee on Elimi- 
nation of Waste in Industry appointed by the American Engineer- 
ing Council of The Federated American Engineering Societies. He 
felt, however, that if elimination of waste is to be put into 
prac-tieal etTcct in American industry, this must be done through 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



13 



the individual acts of the engineers in the several professional 
societies. 

Turning to the program, Mr. Alford then presented Past-Presi- 
dent F. J. Miller, whom he also introduced as contributing to the 
Report by taking charge of the field investigations in the metal 
industries. Mr. Miller's message to the convention appears in 
another column. 

Prevention op Waste of Power 

In introducing the next speaker, Mr. Alford said that Major 
Miller had stressed the human waste in industry; Prof. L. P. 
Breckenridge' would present another point of view — the elimi- 
nation of waste of power, to be made possible by a proposed con- 
solidation of all sources of power in the country's great industrial 
zone from Boston to Washington. 

Professor Breckenridge, speaking as chairman of the Advisory 
Committee of the Superpower Committee, described how emis- 
saries from the Engineering Council had appeared before Govern- 
ment authorities and helped to secure an appropriation for a re- 
search or survey to determine what, if any, waste might be prevented 
by the development of what has come to be known as the Super- 
power System. The report of this survey," made with the cooper- 
ation of 18 railroads, 558 public-utility companies, and the infor- 
mation reported through the census of 76,000 industries using 
power within the zone, is now available. The essential elements 
of the superpower plan are: 

(a) Generation of power in plants of large capacity and high 
economy 

(b) Locating those plants advantageously relative to coal, mines, 

condensing water, load centers and coal distribution 

(c) Electric trunk lines in connection with the generating stations, 

both steam and water 

(d) Unified system of conti'ol in charge of a power despatcher 

(e) Delivery of primary power to electric public utility 
(/) Local distribution of energy by the public utilities. 

Tliis latter includes the essential element of a superpower plant 
in this or any other zone. 

Predicated upon curves extended into 1930, the expected econ- 
omies are: 

(a) Annual saving of 50,000,000 tons of coal 
(6) Annual saving of S240,000,000 

(c) Elimination of coke and its attendant wastes 

(d) Elimination of waste of water power. 
The other important effects wiU be: 

(a) Material reduction in price of power 

(6) Considerable transfer of coal transportation from land to 
water 

(c) Increased flexibility of power distribution 

(d) Opportunity for coal storage, tending to stabilize production 

(e) Establishment of chemical, metallurgical, and other metal 

industries needing large power supply and high temperatures. 

The superpower zone covers two per cent of the area of the 
United States, contains 32 per cent of the population, and manu- 
factures 44 per cent of the products of the country. 

The scheme of the superpower system is a large one, but it is 
the next logical step in the conservation of power resources. Fol- 



' Professor Mechanical Engineering, S.S.S., Yale University. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 

2 Professional Paper No. 123, U. S. Geological Survey. 



lowing the survey of the facts will come studies of the local 
conditions under which the system can be installed, and finally 
the study of the financial conditions to take care of it. 

Prevention of Waste of Money 

The third speaker was E. F. DuBrul,' who directed attention 
to the tremendous wastes in industry caused by industrial de- 
pressions in business cycles. Within a century this country has 
passed through fourteen periods of deptession of greater or less 
extent, but all involving serious loss to the investor in industrial 
enterprises. 

Liabilities of concerns which failed in the past ten months of 
1921 aggregated .1591,000,000, but even this figure does not re- 
present the wastes of investment, loss of useful values, loss of 
profits and wages in concerns which did not reach the bankruptcy 
court. 

On all sides we are told that these losses are due to maladjust- 
ment of supply and demand, but this occurs because those re- 
sponsible for supply know so little about the demand for their 
product that for considerable periods they purchase far more 
supplies than they need, and they waste capital in building plants 
to supply a non-existing demand. 

If there are 9,000,000 automobiles in the country, each con- 
summg four tires a year, or 36,000,000 tires in all, is it not waste 
of capital if 75,000,000 tires are manufactured for replacement? 

This kind of error must be placed at the door of management, 
and can be avoided only by the cooperation of managers with 
each other in a study of the facts as to supply and demand of the 
commodities they produce. 

However, the new economic conditions are compelling attention 
and business cycles are being studied as never l^efore. Men arc 
beginning to promulgate a fallacious gospel — that the end of 
business must be service, not production, not profit. Service is a 
means of gaining profit, and all business without profit dies — the 
controlling factor in management must be a financial factor — it 
stands the losses and it gets the profit where there is one. 

In the last analysis, therefore, the controUing waste in industry 
is financial waste, and it seems not to be asking too much to ask 
management to eradicate this waste by recognizing its duty of 
adjustment of supply and demand. 

Discussion of the Three Papers 

The meeting was fortunate in having in attendance Mr. W. S. 
Murray, the Director-Engineer of the Superpower Survey, who 
supplemented the remarks of Professor Breckenridge by a visual- 
ization of the "point to be striven for" by the cooperation and 
coorcUnation of all utilities within the zone, finally producing on 
the map such a system as some 500 engineers had agreed upon as 
a good mark for which to aim. 

Mr. Murray was followed by Mr. H. W. Flood, secretary-engineer 
of the Survey, who demonstrated that the concentrated-power 
system, besides reducing fuel costs to about one-half, would also 
reduce labor, maintenance and supphes to about one third of 
those for independent operation as of 1919; accordingly, in dis- 
cussing waste, it is important to add to the conservation of fuel, 
the saving of labor and capital. 

Mx. J. Parke Channing, Chairman of the Committee on Elimi- 

' Manager, Natl. Machine Tool Builders' Assn. Assoo-Mem.Am. 
Soc.M.E. 




Group of Members and Their Guests on Board the S. S. Olympic 



14 



MECHANICAL ENGINTEERIXG 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



nation of Waste, said that in stating that management is respon- 
sible for 50 per cent of the wa.ste in indu.'^try, it is fair to say that 
all men who represent manaji;ement are not engineers. In those 
industries in which engineers are prominent a.s managers and 
directors, there is and will be le.ss waste than in those in which 
engineers do not fill their proper place. 

Mr. W. N. Dickinson,' referring particularly to Major Miller's 
paper, said it was not brought out clearly that one of the incentives 
of industry is pride. Belief that industry is moving toward some 
worthy goal, and pride that his organization is a leader in that 
progress, will work as fully in a man's mind as the promi.'^e of 
financial recompense. 

Lewis F. Lyne, Jr.,^ said that he had "boiled down" the causes 
of waste to negligence, lack of initiative, ignorance and poor 
service, and the remedy to replacement of management by people 





rt 


V 9 


o^-P^ ' 







Speakers on Elimination' of Waste at Leading Session of A.S.M.E. 
Annual Meeting 

Left to right, back row: Ernest F. duBriil, L. P. Alford ; front row: E. S. Carman. 
L. P. Breckenbridge, W. S. Murray, F. J. Miller. 

who have the necessarj* ability to handle these inherent discrep- 
ancies. 

George Vangelder^ stressed the sociological side of waste. Is 
the problem the question of handling material and planning pro- 
duction, or should we use these things for the purpose of building 
up a better manhood in the country? 

The incentive which made every worker in this country produce 
in the war is the incentive that the manufacturer must give liis 
employee now — to produce, not for profit alone, but for building 
up industrial America. 

R. A. Wentworth* combined the service and the profits motives 
of industry, disagreeing with Mr. DuBrul that the aim of industry 
is profit. This speaker referred to the work of the late Mr. 
Gantt, whose life was founded on the princii)le of service. 

In his own experience he liad never seen any deviation from the 
truth that sufficient knowledge of the jiroblem, adequate observa- 
tion of the facts and sufficient initiative in ai)plying the remedy, 
could keep any business out of its trouble. 

Mr. DuBrul, in his closure, challenged the discussion of his 
statement that the end of business was profit. He agreed that 
the means for profit was service, but that did not change the fact 
that the end of business was i)rofit. There was never a business 
started for any other reason than profit. 

Education and Training in the Indu.strie.s 

Monday evening was given over to a session dealing with the 
vitally important problem of education and training in the in- 
dustries. The program was arranged by the Committee whose 
activities have been devoted to this subject under the chairman- 
ship of W. W. Nichols. 

An unusually interesting paper was presented by Dean R. L. 

' Consulting Analyst, New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Prcs. and Genl. Mgr., Oil Speciaties & Supply Co., New York, N. Y. 
As80C-Mcni.Am..Soc.M.E. 

•Sales Dept., Industrial Extension Inst., New York, N. Y., Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 

« Factory Mgr., American Everready Works, Long Island City, N. Y. 
Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



Sackett, who outlined methods of education and training actually 
being used in industrj' in this country and abroad. The develoj)- 
ment of education and training in the railroad field was treated 
by D. C. Buell. These papers and the strong discussion incited 
thereby will appear in the February issue of Mech.\N]CAL En- 
gineering. 

Pul)lic Ilfari!i<^ on Propo.sed Code 
for Unfired Pressure Vessels 

An important hearing was held on Monday, December 5, by 
the A.S.M.E. Boiler Code Committee to discuss a code for 
unfired pressure vessels, a preliminary draft of which has recently 
been issued. This pamphlet was the result of over two years of 
investigation and conferences with allied organizations. 

The contributions of the Sub-Committee on Welding to this 
code are shown in the proposed specifications for autogenous 
welding, forge welding and brazing. While there was the attempt 
to render the code comprehensive, every detail of either the con- 
st met iuii requirements or the various specifications on which there 
had been lack of agreement, was omitted. These points of possible 
disagreement were presented for discussion in a list of fourteen 
ciuestions at the end of the report. 

This preliminary report had been distributed in advance of the 
meeting to nearly 500 indi\iduals and concerns kno\ni to be inter- 
ested in the manufacture or use of unfired pressure vessels. The 
result was an attendance averaging nearly 200 during the entire 
day. 

The preliminary draft of the proposed code was read paragraph 
by paragraph and discussion in^^ted on each detail. The re- 
sponses to the fourteen questions at the end of the report furnished 
the Committee with data valuable for use in shaping the code 
into final form. The BoUer Code Committee will give this data 
immediate and careful consideration so that the re\dsed Code will 
be presented for further discussion, possibly in connection with 
the Spring Meeting of 1922. 



Power Session 

Four notable papers giving actual heat balance figures in three 
large public utility plants and the proposed scheme in a plant under 
construction were presented at the Power Session on Tuesday 
morning. 

These papers presented valuable data that had not previously 
been made public and drew, therefore, a wealth of discussion. 
The three following papers appeared in the December issue: 



^^^^^^^^Bs*' ^bk 


J^B 






^K 1 


i^SI 



Among Those Who Spoke .\t the Power Session 

Left to right, bacic row: Geo. A. Orrok. J. .\nderson, O. F. Junjgren, N. E. Funk, 

R. J S. Pigott. Leo Loeb, F. R. Low, W. M. Kecnan; front row: J. H. Lawrence. 

A. G. Christie. C. H. Berry, E. L. Hopping, 

Auxiliary System and Heat Balance at the Delaware Station of the 
Philadelphia l^lcctric Company, E. L. Hopping 

Heat Balance of Colfax Station, C. W. E. Clarke 

Heat Balance System for Hell Gate Station, J. H. Lawrence and 
W. M. Keenan 
The final paper by D. H. Berry and F. E. Moreton giving the 

Heat Balance of the Connors Creek Plant of the Detroit Edison 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



15 



Company appears in tliis issue of Mechanical Engineering. 
This jiaper is followed by the discussion at the entire session. 

MACHINE SHOP WASTE SESSION 

AT THE Machine Shop Waste Session, held on the morning 
of December 6, F. O. Hoagland presiding, two papers were 
presented, namely: Salvaging Industrial Wastes, by J. A. Smith, 
and On the Art of Milling, by John Airey and Carl I. Oxford. In 
addition to these two papers, which were published in abstract 
form in the December issue of Mechanical Engineering, an 
inspiring address on Waste in the Machine Industry was made 
by Mr. J. J. Callahan.' Mr. Callahan told of the benefits that 
had been derived in numerous instances by enlisting the interest 
of the workers in the problems of the management. 

Discussion on Salvaging Industrial Wastes 

Luther D. Burlingame^ said that true salvaging might come 
by not ha\dng the scrap heap but by havang parts so available 
that they were not to be had by merely picking in a pile. High- 
priced executives of shops or mechanics hunting for such things 
meant a waste of money. Another point was the importance of 
impressing on foremen, executives and others, the real value of 
salvaging materials. 

A. L. be Leeuw' told of experiences with the Singer Manufactur- 
ing Co., where for a number of years several of his staff were con- 
stantly engaged in attempting to save some of the materials that 
were constantly being used in the shops, such as cotton waste, 
lubricating and cutting oils, belting, metal chips from macliine 
tools, etc. 

F. Eberhardt' discussed briefly waste prevention in machine 
castings. Carl G. Barth^ gave examples of waste he had en- 
countered in a large car works. 

Discussion on the Art of Milling 

Professor Airey in presenting his paper called attention to some 
experiments made since this paper went to press, which related 
particularly to the consumption of power to cutters. The par- 
ticular type of cutter compared is known as the right- and left-hand 
spii'al cutter. It is an alternating spiral where successive teeth 
are formed on the opposite spiral. They had compared this type 
of cutter with one having all the teeth running in the same direction 
and found the alternate spiral to show a saving of between 20 and 
30 per cent, depending on the material being cut. That repre- 
sented considerable saving where a cutter consumed a lot of power. 
A cutter consuming 15 hp. in a nine-hour day would require 100 
kw-hr. Effecting a saving of 20 per cent in the power required 
for that particular operation, would be a saving of 20 kw-hr., 
which at the Detroit rate of 3 cents per kw-lir., would be 60 cents 
per day on one small milling operation. 

A. L. De Leeuw submitted an extended WTitten dLscussion of 
the paper from wliich extracts follow: 

It is to be regretted that the authors did not go a step further 
and attempted the separation of a chip by a very slow process, 
so as to enable them to observe the deformation of the metal at 
the different stages of separation, either by direct observation or 
by the moving-picture method. 

The authors' determination of the direction, location and magni- 
tude of forces in horizontal and vertical directions is somewhat 
along the line of Nicolson's experiments and, in the writer's opinion, 
deserves the same criticism. One of the cliief requirements of 
macliine-tool construction is rigidity, because it is well recognized 
that the lack of this rigidity increases certain of the forces or at 
least increases their effect on the work to an extent altogether out 
of proportion to the amount of lack of rigidity. Therefore, to 
place the work on movable pistons is to go away from the very 
essence of machine-tool design. 

A milling chip tends to start with a zero thickness and, conse- 



quently, the cutter must slide over the work for some distance 
before it will be able to penetrate. The tooth, however, enters 
the work suddenly, so that, as a matter of fact, the chip as it is 
actually produced does not start with a thickness zero. Instead 
of having the theoretical shape as shown in Fig. 1, it will actually 
have the shape as cross-hatched in Fig. 2. 

The observations about rake are closely in accord with the re- 
sults the writer found in tests made between 1907 and 1914. The 
existing differences may be explained away by the fact that in 
his experiments part of the power consumed was used for feed. 

Referring to the paragraph entitled. Effect of Clearance: Pre- 
vious tests have shown the same result brought out by the authors 
namely, that clearance has no effect on the power consumption. 
However, it does have an effect on the life of the cutter and the 
finish produced. It seems that gritty materials require, more 
clearance than those which will produce a continuous chip. 

Early in the paper the authors state that as a chip thickens, 
metal is removed more easily per unit volume. As a practical 
rule, this statement is acceptable and meets all shop conditions. 





Fie.i. 



FIS.E. 




' Employees Representation Service, New York, N. Y. 
^ Industrial Supt., Browne & Sharpe Mfg. Co., Providence, R. I. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Consulting Engineer, New York, N. Y. Mem. Am.Soc.M.E. 

* Newark, N. J. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Philadelphia, Pa. Life Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



FIG.5. 

Fig. 1 Theoretical Shape of Chip; Fio. 2 Actual Shape of Chip; Fig. 3 

Recommended Proportions of Teeth 

As a statement of accurate fact, it may be doubted. A numlier 
of observations made by the writer of this discussion showed 'that 
the efficiency increases when the cross-section of the chip approaches, 
more and more a perfect square. 

The writer must take issue with the statement contained in 
Par. 50 and following paragraphs. If the only point for consid- 
eration were the power required to remove a cubic inch of metal, 
the conclusions reached by the authors of the paper would be quite 
correct. However, in practice this power consumption was only 
one of the elements to be considered and not necessarily the most 
important one. 

In a large portion of all milling work, one cut only is taken 
which is required to produce a finish of sufficient fineness. This 
finish depends on the number of revolution marks per inch. As 
a matter of fact, in a large percentage of all cases, the feed per 
revolution is limited by the desired finish at least as much as by 
the ability of cutter or machine to take the cut. The authors of 
the paper seem to be under the impression that the underlying 
idea for the introduction of the wide-spaced cutter was to supply 
sufficient chip space. As a matter of fact, tliis consideration only 
explains their origin. It was the observation of a case of insuffi- 
cient chip space wiiich induced the writer to try a somewhat wider 
spacing. Subsequent tests with these wider spaced cutters brought 
out further advantages. 

In selecting the proper kind of cutter for a milUng job, the follow- 
ing line of reasoning may be considered typical for a majority of 
cases : 

The nature of the work compels us to limit the distance between 
revolution marks to, let us say,' 0.050 in. In order to do the job 
as quickly as possible we must have as much feed per minuteas 



16 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERIXG 



Vol. 44. No. 1 



possible. The feed per minute depencLs on two elements: cutting 
speed, and size of cutter. With the material to be cut and con- 
sidering the depth of cut, we will be limited to a cutting speed of, 
let us say, 70 ft. per min. We must now select the smallest possible 
cutter which will do the work in order to get the greatest possible 
number of revolutions which will give 70 ft. cutting speed. Now 
enter such considerations as size of arbor, depth of t«eth, size of 
keyway — all of which may prevent us from making the cutter 
as small as we would like to have it. If, for instance, we are com- 
pelled to use a fairly long arbor, we must make that arbor of suffi- 
cient size to avoid excessive l^ending and torsion. Having con- 
sidered all these items we finally decide on the size of cutter. As 
we want to do the job with as little power consumption as possible, 
we must provide for taking the heaviest possible chips, and this 
in its turn means the smallest possible number of teeth in the 
cutter. It will be noticed that tliis line of rea,soning is almost 
(Ijamctrically opijosetl to that followed by the authors of the paper. 
There are certain limiting conditions wiiich jsrevcnt us from mak- 
ing the number of teeth as small as might be desirable. To have 
too great an angle between two adjacent teeth would mean that 
in practically no kind of cut would we have more than one tooth 
buried in the metal. To avoid the resulting hammer blow, we 
must put a sufficient number of teeth in the cutter. 




Some of the P.^rticipants in the Machine Shop Session 

Left to right, back row: F. K. Hendrickson, H. S. Beal, C. J. Oxford, H. J. Eber 
hardt; front row; H. P. Fairfield, Carl G. Barth, F. O. Hoagland, John Airey. 

The original reason for the reduction of the number of teeth of 
a cutter was chip space. Soon afterward it was found that the 
power consumption was smaller and that, as a result, a given- 
size milling machine was capable of taking heavier roughing cuts 
with the wide-spaced cutter than vnth the older type. Other 
advantages showed up later on. Among these advantages are 
the fact that under many conditions a wide-spaced cutter will 
finish more pieces before it becomes necessary to resharpen it. 

Not only does a wide-spaced cutter require less sharpenings, 
but it will stand many more sharpenings. Furthermore, it re- 
quires less time to sharpen a cutter with few teeth than one with 
many. It should he understood, however, that Mr. De Leeuw 
does not recommend the widest possible spacing for all imaginable 
cases of milling. 

Besides the reasons mentioned, there are other reasons which 
may prevent us from taking the heaviest possible chips. In many 
cases it is not possible to clamp the work down in a sufficiently 
rigid manner to withstand the pressures accompanying heavy 
chips. In other cases, the piece of work may be of such a character 
as not to allow heavy cuts to be taken, either because it is too frail 
or because the heat generated will distort the piece, or both. In 
order to obtain the greatest possible economy in tlie milling op- 
eration, we must give the cutter the greatest possible number of 
revolutions and, after we have selected the smallest practical 
cutter, there is only one source of economy left and that is to in- 
crease the cutting speed. It was considerations like these that 
led up to the system of stream lubrication whereby unusually liigh 
speeds can be obtained with some intelligence and care. As stream 



lubrication not only prevents the cutter from heating unduly> 
but also keeps the work cool, it has a double effect on the economy 
of milling operations. 

The foregoing considerations led the discussor to take exception 
to the statements contained in Par. 62. (As many teeth as possible.) 

Fig. 3 shows the proportions of teeth as recommended by Messrs. 
Airey and O.xford, and also those recommended for wide-spaced 
cutters. The sketch shows a S'/rin. cutter enlarged four times. 
The left-hand side shows the teeth as formed by the formula given 
in the paper and with twenty teeth in the cutter. The right- 
hand side shows the teeth, in black, as they are actually made; 
and in broken line as they would be made according to the formula 
given in the paper. It will be seen that there is but little difference 
between these two shapes — the actual shape being slightly the 
stronger. The main difference, however, lies in the fact that the 
broken-line shape requires a specially made cutter for generating 
the backs of the teeth, whereas the black shape can be formed by 
any cutter. When the land, as originally furnished, becomes too 
wide, it is a simple matter to grind the backs of the teeth with a 
cup wiieel and to repeat this action as often as is necessary. So 
long as the size of the land is not reduced beyond the original 
size, the strength of the tooth will not be impaired. It is this 
practical reason wiiich makes me advocate the shape as shown on 
the right hand side of the sketch. 

Earle Buckingham,' wiio orally discussed the paper, was very 
nmch interested in the results obtained when using a spiral cutter, 
and offered the following explanation why these should show less 
effective results, namely, that the area of the surface of the cutter 
in contact with the chips becomes greater as the rake angle is 
increased thus creating more friction. This might explain the 
results obtained from using lubrication. The chips from some 
materials curl up more than those from other materials. If the 
chip clung closely to the face of the cutting edge, the lubricant 
might cause the chiji to wTing to the face in much the same manner 
as tw^o gage blocks are WTung together, thus greatly increasing 
the friction. An analysis of the character and shape of the chips 
produced from different materials with the use of cutters of varying 
rake angles might shed some light on this. 

The authors state that "the fine-tooth cutter will wear longer 
between grindings, due to the decrease in cutting speed." Too 
much emphasis cannot be given to the fact that a decreased cutting 
speed greatly increases the life of a cutter between grindings. 
The proportional increase in life is much greater than the propor- 
tional increase in speed. The speaker is acquainted with some 
very interesting tests made some five years ago to determine the 
effect of cutting speed on the life of a cutter. Tests were made 
at speeds of 70 and 80 ft. per min. with high-speed steel cutters 
on small nickel-steel forging^ The results were very consistent 
and showed that when running at 70 ft. the cutter would mill 
over twice as many pieces as when running at 80 ft. Thus tw'o 
cutters of the same diameter, taking the same feed per tooth so 
that each would remove the same amount of material in the same 
time, etc., but with 21 teeth in one, for example, and 24 teeth in 
the second, would show a great difference in their life between 
grindings. If the conditions were identical to those mentioned 
above, the 24-tooth cutter would mill twice as many pieces. Thus 
should make apparent the importance of tooth-numbers in milling 
cutter design. 

Frank B. Gilbreth^ called attention to the fact that there was 
a field o])en to the makers of machine tools today wiiich had not 
been utilized in the least, namely: The photographic record of 
the behavior of a tool and of the chip. It was now possible to take 
2500 pictures per second stereoscopically with a penetrating screen. 

Professor Airey, in closing the discussion, said that stereoscopic 
recording suggested by IMajor GUbreth was the logical next step. 
They had done some slow-speed work in that field. They had 
taken ten or fifteen minutes to take out one chip, and had made 
records taking it in instalments. 

Regarding Mr. De Leeuw's remarks on rigiditj' he was in accord 
with those. That was a fundamental, regardless of the particular 
cutting tool. As for the sharimess of the tool, not being cajiable 
of being absolutely definite, the test of that was in the macliine 

' Engr., Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. Assoc-Mem.Am.Soc.M,E. 
' Pres., Frank B. GUbreth, Inc., A^pntclair, N. J. Mem.Am.Soo.M.E. 



Januaht, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



17 



belt. The author had reaHzed that that was a possible source of 
trouble. They took from fifty to one hundred tests, and found 
they had to take a great number of chips, but there was no change 
in tlie energy, which was proof that the sharpness remained un- 
impaired. The chip thickness was zero at times, but it was known 
that the cutter could not get under the surface all at once. Just 
when it did get under we do not know, probably the photographing 
would clear that up. 

Railway Session 

The problem of eliminating waste in locomotive and car design 
and operation was given intensive treatment at the Railway Session 
on Tuesday morning. Two of the papers which were presented 
at this session had appeared previously in Mechanical ENGi>fEER- 
iNG. These are A\-oidable Waste in Locomotives by James Part- 
ington, in the November issue, and Avoidable Waste in Car Opera- 
tion, by Walter C. Sanders, in the December issue. The remain- 
ing paper, on Avoidable Waste in Operation of Locomotives and 
Cars, by William Elmer, will appear in the February issue with 
an abstract of the entire discussion at this sesions. 



Gas Power Session 

The Gas Power Session was the first to be held by the reorgan- 
ized Gas Power Division of the Society. With B. P. Flint, a mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee of the Gas Power Division, 
in the chair, two papers were presented, one by Louis lUmer, on 
the Porting and Charging of Two-Stroke OU Engines, and the sec- 
ond by Elmer A. Sperry, on Compounding the Combustion Engine. 
There was practically no discussion on Mr. IDmer's paper and the 
meeting accordingly took up Mr. Sperry 's paper, which appears 
elsewhere in this issue of Mechanical Engineering. 

In the opening discussion George A. Orrok^ called particular 
attention to the transfer valve between the high- and low-pressure 
cylinders, which in Mr. Sperry 's engine is the solution of a jjar- 
ticularly severe problem. Mr. Orrok also emphasized the impor- 
tance of mechanical atomization of fuel which has proven so suc- 
cessful when using fuel oil under boilers. He pointed out that the 
engine described by Mr. Sperry followed canons of steam-engine 
design. 

Francis Hodgkinson- pointed out as important the increase of 
the size of compression space, which leads to detonation and is a 
remarkable aid to good combustion. A number of questions were 
asked as to the efficiency that could be obtained in this engine, and 
in closing the discussion Mr. Sperry stated that its thermal efficiency 
approaches the theoretical air-cycle efficiency, while the mechani- 
cal efficiency in the engines thus far constructed has been about 
93 per cent. Mr. Sperry also outlined the possibilities of increas- 
ing the sizes of the compound engine and stated that with a 29 in. 
cj'linder and a piston speed of from 800 to 900 ft. per min. there 
would be no difficulty in getting an 8000-hp. engine. 

MANAGEMENT SESSION 

'T'HE MANAGEMENT Session at the Annual Meeting was pre- 
•^ sided over by Mr. L. P. Alford, Vice-President of the Society 
and former chairman of the Management Division. 

As a basis for discussion of the central theme of waste elimination 
by efiicient management, three papers were presented: Making 
Work Fascinating as the First Step Forward Reduction in Waste, 
by Walter N. Polakov; Process Charts, by Frank B. and L. M. 
Gilbreth; The Rochester Shoe Wage Arbitration, by Sanford E. 
Thompson, and two reports: Report of the Sul>Committee of 
the Management Division in ]\Lanagement Terminology, and Re- 
port of the Sub-Committee in Measuring Managerial Ability. 

Mr. Polakov 's paper was puWished in the December issue of 
Mechanical Engineering; that by Mr. and Mrs. Gilbreth ap- 
pears in this number, and Mr. Thompson's will be published later. 

Written Discussion is Voluminods 
Mr. Gompers wrote that the human element in production is 



the most important one, and labor reahzes that upon management 
devolves the responsibility of developing the technique necessary 
to provide the methods whereby the creative ability we seek to 
conserve shall be released through opportunity to use brain, skill 
and human power in production. 

Some of the written discussions of Mr. Polakov's paper were papers 
in themselves. For instance Mr. A. L. De Leeuw contributed a 
discussion of 3600 words, ascribing the entire causes of unrest to 
the demoralization of the world, and criticizing most palliative 
systems as failing to touch the underlying foundations. 

Like Mr. De Leeuw, most of the discussors agreed with the 
author and their contributions were therefore more of the nature 
of supplements to the paper. However, L. W. Wallace, while 
praising the paper highly, could not concur in the statement concern- 
ing time studies. He wTote that he had not realized that there 
was any conscious effort being made towards decentralization of 
planning, nor of reuniting, instructing and inspecting functions of 
foremanship nor of substituting time-study with direct interchange 
of workers' skill and intelligence. It seemed to him that conscious 
effort in this direction would be a backward step and not absolutely 
necessary in remo\'ing the element of monotony. 

Ralph L. Paddock wrote that the paper was filled with many 
opportunities for differences of opinions. However, he granted 
that by keeping well within the bounds of well-known facts the 
author proved his point. 

Flattering the individual worker by calling him a "super-animal" 
and making his job more interesting, Reynold A. Spaeth agreed 
was essential for successful production, but he thought he saw signs 
of a deeper dissatisfaction — the monotonous grind of working 
perpetually for the interests of others, never for oneself. 

Dr. H. S. Person^ said he could not speak too strongly of his 
agreement with the central idea of the paper, but he told Mr. 
Polakov he intended to emphasize the points of disagreement. 
He thought the author used unnecessary philosophy, that he 
weakened his argument by a one-sided industrial history, that he 
explained the Taylor philosophy and system of management in- 
correctly, and that he did not concede to the personel manager 
sufficient credit in solving the problem of management. 

Process Charts, by F. B. and L. M. Gilbreth 

Characterizing Mr. Polakov's paper as being concerned with the 
"why," Mr. Karl G. Kaisten wrote that Mr. and Mrs. Gilbreth's 
paper dealt with the "how." Mr. Polakov promised manlcind a 
social system, wliile Mr. Gilbreth's paper "disclosed marvelous 
powers of dissecting human motion and activity." One paper was 
a "telescope" and the other a "microscope" and argument between 
them would be absurd. 

Fred. Colvin- WTote that the authors' methods overcame the one 
gi-eat trouble with most records which are usually so delayed that 
they become merely post-mortems after the job is finished, and 
are not even always of value for the next job. It is not easy for 
either executives or workers to change their methods and habits, 
and an understanding of this phase of human nature is the first 
step toward efficient management. 

M. L. Cooke' asked for information regarding the relation be- 
tween the process chart and the route and instruction chart, and 
Mr. GUbreth replied that the process chart is a definite scheme 
of visualizing the thing to be done. After the process chart comes 
the route chart and thirdly the instruction chart. 

Elimination of Waste Through Wage Adjustment 

Mr. Sanford E. Thompson^ was introduced as an arbitrator 
selected by the United Shoe Workers of America, in the Rochester 
Shoe Wage arbitration. His paper, which will appear later, de- 
scribed the events leading up to this arbitration and says "In the 
arbitration proceedings wliich resulted, there was presented by 
the workers as a substitute for wage reduction, a plan designed 
to lead up to the elimination of waste in manufacture through 
scientific methods, and the adjustment of wages on a scientific 



' Consulting Engineer, New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soe.M.E. 
' Chief Engineer, Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., Lester, Pa. 



' Managing Director, Taylor Society, New York, N. Y. 

'- Editor, Amer. Machinist, Now York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soe.M.E. 

3 Finance Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Mem.Am.Soe.M.E. 

« 136 Fedral St., Boston, Mass. Mem.Am.Soe.M.E. 



18 



MECHANICAL EXGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



basis involving job analysis and time study." Then follows the 
award, a description of the Arbitration Board, and a brief treat- 
ment of the proceedings. 

Mr. Thompson then discussed the two broad questions of: 
(1) Must wages come down, and if so how much, and when? Shall 
it be a flat charge or a real adjustment? (2) How should the 
workers themselves share in wage determination; illustrating his 
points with examples for the Rochester ca,se. 

As bearing in the problem of elimination of waste, Mr. Thompson 
quoted in extcnso the propo.sal of the .Arbitration Board for 
the permanent solution of both the wage and ijroduction problems: 

"(1) That no wage reductions be recommended by the Board 

"(2) That the existing piece-work and wage rates be placed on a 
strictlj' scientific basis as rapidly as the organization of joint ad- 
ministrative and technical machinery to this end will permit. 

"In order to accomi)lish the purpose outlined in this proposal, 
the Shoe Workers request that joint administrative and technical 
machinery be established, based on the early recommendations of 
three technically qualified individuals, one selected by the manu- 
facturers, one by the shoe workers and the third by the Arbitration 
Board. The duties of this committee are to be: 

(a) To make a rapid survey of the Rochester Boot and Shoe 
Industry, from the point of wastes and inefficiencies and industrial 
relations. 

(h) To determine the type and detailed organization of the 
cooperative administrative and technical machinery which the 
manufacturers should adopt for the purpose of establisliing pro- 
duction standards. 

(c) To suggest ways and means for permanently remedying ex- 
isting vastes and inefficiencies in the local shoe industry. 

(d) Pending the establishment of the scientifically correct pro- 
duction standards, and the elimination of wastes and efficiencies, 
existing piece work and wage rates shall not be lowered. 

Reports of Subcommittees Presented 

Mr. F. E. Town,' in presenting the progress report of the Joint 
Committee on Management Terminology, defined the scope of 
this work: 

(a) to define management, and list and define the terms and 
phases of management 

(h) to extend the Dewey decimal classification to cover manage- 
ment literature. 

He dcscrilied the organization of the committee — with six so- 
cieties participating, each with two re]jresentativcs and an alternate, 
and then outlined the work that had been done to date. 

Four sub-committees were appointed, on Society Cooperation, 
on Waj's and Means, on Finance and on Program. 

The committee has succeeded in making a master alphabetic 
list of management terms, also a list classified under four groups 
for convenience, and these lists have been sent out to some 230 
colleges which have i)romised to cooperate in supplying definitions 
of these terms and doing the necessary research work. 

A vote of thanks was extended to the committee for their progress 
so far. 

The second report presented was a prelimary report by the 
Sub-Committee in Standardization of Graphics. Mr. J. .T. Swan- 
presented this subject, stating that the purpose of this committee 
was to standardize the "short-hand methods of presenting business, 
industrial and technical data." 

The work of the committee was only just started, and the mem- 
bers would be very glad to receive suggestions from anyone in the 
Society. 

The third report, on a Study of the Units and Methods of Measure- 
ment of the Managerial Function, was presented by Mr. A. r>. 
De Leeuw. 

The functions of management consist of three items: Promoti(m 
(and Extension), Production and Sales. In order to confine 
itself to that part of the investigation which would offer the best 
promise of results in the near future, the Conunittee had worked 
only on the managerial function concerned with Production. 
This in turn is manifest in three directions: Organization, Prepara- 
tion and Direction. 



' 2.50 Klevcnth Ave., New York, N. Y., Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 
' 30 Church St., New York, N. Y., Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



Under the heading of Organization we have the Evaluation Chart, 
prepared by the Waste Conunittee, under Preparation, we have 
such items as Time Study, Motion Study, Basis of Wages; and 
under Direction, we find control charts. 

The report recommends the consideration of ways and methods 
to obtain the necessary data required for: 
Organization 

Balance of Responsibility and Authority 
Preparation 

I^fTectiveness of purchasing 

Adherence to standards 

Biusis of wages in Industry 

Balance of sales and production 
Direction 

Labor stability — factor and data 

Labor attendance — factor and data 

Continuity of working conditions — factor and data 

^L^terial turnover period — factor and data. 

At the close of the discussion of this report the following motion 
was piissed : 

That a vote of appreciation be accorded the committee, and 
that they be asked to continue the study and present their 
conclusions to the Management Division, and thirdly. 

That the Executive Committee of the Management Division 
consider the advisability of asking the American Engineering Coun- 
cil to undertake an investigation of a basis for wages in industry. 

Forest Products Session 

The i5roV>lcm of conservation of forest products was given care- 
ful consideration at the meeting of the Fore.st Products Divi- 
sion. The principal speaker was Da\'id L. GoodwiUie of Chicago, 
111., who told of the work being done by the United States Chamber 
of Commerce in their appointment of a Commission on Conserva- 
tion and Rf^forestation. Tliis Commission of twelve has trav- 
ehnl through thirty-seven states and has met ^ith the men in the 
dilTerent branches of the lumber industry who are interested in a 
national policy for forest conservation. The effect of taxation on 
conservation, the imijortance of waste utilization, the control of 
competition and the restriction in timber cutting were all dis- 
cussed. Mr. Goodwillie told in detail of the project at Bogalusa, 
where every portion of the lumber and waste is being utilized in 
factories where the handling is done entirely by machinery. The 
plans are laid with remarkable vision and the regro\\'th of timber in 
a comparatively short time is actually being accomplished. 

Dr. Hugh P. Baker, of the American Paper and Pulp Associa- 
tion, told of the various methods of reforestation that wOl permit 
of a greater utilization of waste timber land. Discussion was 
contributed at this meeting by Joseph H. Wallace, George M. 
Hunt, Paul Porter, and Dr. Cruikshank on various methods 
of increasing the utilization of forest-products wa.ste. Mr. 
Goodwillie's talk and the consequent discussion will be given more 
complete treatment in a later issue of Mechanic.\l Engineering. 

Fuel Session 

The Fuel Session was held Thursdaj' with Professor L. P. Breck- 
enridge. Chairman of the Fuels Division, acting as presiding officer. 
The program of excellent papers filled the auditorium and elicited 
a great deal of interesting discussion. Abstracts of the papers 
have a])peared in Mechanical Engineering. The paper by 
\'ictor .1. Azbe on Boiler Plant Efficiency appeared in the November 
issue as did the papers by Joseph Harrington on Fuel Sa\'ing in 
Relation to Capital Necessarj' and by W. B. Chapman on Gas 
Producers and Industrial Furnaces. The masterly contribution 
Ijy Dr. D. S. Jacobus appeared in December Mechanical Engi- 
neering. An account of the discussion wiU be brought out in 
the February issue. 

Elimination of Waste Through Efficient 
IVIaterials Handling 

nPHE Materials Handfing Division of the Society, comprising 

* 1100 members, staged a session on Thursday afternoon of 

the Annual Meeting, devoted to Materials Handling an Important 



January, 1022 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



19 



Factor in the Elimination of Industrial Waste. Mr. Robert M. 
Gates, the active chairman of the Di\-ision, presided, and Mr. 
H. V. Goes, a member of the Division's Executive Committee, 
presented tlie one paper of the afternoon, wiiich was discussed 
at great length. This paper was published in the December issue 
of Mech.\nical Engineering. 

In presenting the paper, Mr. Goes stated that there was a great 
lack of information as to the best materials-handling equipment 
for a given purpose. He thought professional engineers could 
perform a great service if they could show the means available 
for handling materials. 

Mr. Goes illustrated his remarks with a series of lantern slides, 
showing the evolution of such familiar apparatus as the portable 
belt conveyor, the stevedore truck, etc., and including practically 
all of the present methods of meclianical handling. 

Mr. Goes predicted that mechanical handling of materials would 
be extended considerably within the next few years, and that prob- 
lems now outstanding would be solved. It is the duty of engineers 
who lay out plants to insist at the start that designs provide for 
proper handling of materials. 

Discussion 

Mr. J. A. Shepard' agreed with the author's statement that 
"modern civilization is the direct result of the application of the 
principles of the sub-di^-ision of labor." He pointed out, how- 
ever, that each sub-di\'ision of labor introduces an intermediate 




At the Materials Handling Session 
Left to right, bact row: W. N. Dickinson, M. F. Lawrence, R. H. McLean, H. E. 
Whitaker; front row: F. A. Wardenberg, H. V. Goes, R. M. Gates, N. C. Jolinson, 
E. Dodge. 

materials-handling problem which, if not proi^erly solved, partially 
neutraUzes the undoubted advantages of the sub-division. "Hand- 
ling 168 tons of materials per ton of finished castings" summarizes 
the problem as it affects the foundrymen, but this statement gives 
no indication of the further problem of handling the casting 
through sub-di\'ided finishing processes to wholesaler, retailer and 
finally consumer — rolling up a grand total of materials handling. 
Yet this is the situation concerning practically every commodity 
before it reaches the ultimate consumer. Mr. Shepard enunciated 
the following principle: 

"Owing to the great number of relatively simple handling operations 
entailed by the sub-di\'ision of labor, efficient handling, together with a low 
capital cost for handling equipment, is likely onl.\- through the choice of a 
type of handling machinery capable of the greate.st possible flexibility and 
mobility, thus enabling each unit of handling machinery to perform the 
maximum number and variety of handling operations. 

"Moreover, the extent to which any type of handling equipment will 
occupy building or yard room which would otherwise be available for 
production processes, must necessarily become an important factor in 
making a choice." 

Sam L. Libby,- follo\\ing Mr. Shepard, criticized the manu- 
facturers of materials-handling equipment whose attitude, he said, 
had been to sell as much of their machinery as possible. He 

• Vice-Pres. and Ch. Engr., Shepard Elec. Crane & Hoist Co., Mon- 
tour Falls, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

^ Managing Engineer, Hoist Dept., Sprague Elec. Wks., Bloomfield, 
N. J. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



thought one of the best things the Materials Handling Di\'ision 
could do would be to bring all the manufacturers to agree in a 
broad viewpoint of the problem. 

H. M. Lane' emphasized, first, the need for cooperation, between 
the material handling people of radically different classes so as to 
get the right equipment for a given set of conditions; and second, 
the importance of the cooperation of the architect, without whom 
the plans of the materials handling man could easily be set at naught. 

W. N. Dickinson, R. H. McLean, J. G. Hadfield, M. F. Lawrence, 
Wm. F. Hunt, and W. G. Brinton, also contributed to the dis- 
cussion, and all agreed that the problem upon which Mr. Goes had 
concentrated attention was worthy of further consideration and 
detailed study by the Materials Handling Division of tlie Society. 

Students Conduct Important Session 

Under the auspices of the Committee on Relations with Colleges 
and under the direct supervision of Dr. H. G. Tyler of this com- 
mittee, the members of the Student Branches of the Society con- 
ducted a session on Thursday morning. An innovation in the 
meeting activities of the Society and in its relations with students, 
this session considered two technical papers and a statement of 
the problems of Student Branch operation in a manner equal to if 
not better than some of the sessions conducted bj' mature members 
of the Society. 

Before the session opened, prominent members of the Society 
and the profession mingled with the students and explained the 
ideals of the Society and its scope of activities. 

Dr. W. H. Kenerson, newly elected chairman of the Committee 
on Relations with Colleges, presided at the formal presentation of 
the following papers: Draft-Tube Design with Reference to the 
Hydraucone by W. K. Ramsay of M. I. T.; and Flow of Water 
in Hydraulic-Turbine Draft Tubes by George E. Lyon of R. P. I. 
Both papers were presented by the authors. They will appear 
in a later issue of Mechanical engineering with the pertinent 
discussion. 

The balance of the three hours devoted to this session was given 
over to a discussion of the problems of Student Branch organization 
and operations. • J. M. Spitzglass of Chicago told of the successful 
methods used at the Armour Institute Student Branch. 

Over two hundred students attended and while the representa- 
tion of New York schools was high, there were still a great many 
from outside, some coming from Atlanta, New Orleans, Pasadena 
and Cincinnati. 

Conference on Research 

A better interchange of scientific and research information 
through the agency of the Engineering Division of the National 
Research Council is within reach if the ideas developed at the 
Research Conference of the Annual Meeting and transmitted to 
Mr. A. D. ninn, vice-chairman of the Division, who was present, 
are carried out. 

This conference, held Thursday, December 8, was conducted 
by Prof. A. M. Greene, Jr., chairman of the Society's Research 
Committee, and the attendance of over forty included many authori- 
ties on engineering research. Two sessions were held, culminating 
in the organization of an Advisory Committee to help the National 
Research Council in the correlation of research data as well as to 
make suggestions to hasten the completion of the Council's scheme. 

It w^as generally conceded that publicity would be the most 
effective method of eliminating waste in research, caused chiefly 
by duplication of effort, by lack of a coordinated and cooperative 
research program and by failure to adequately define the research 
problem before inaugurating experimental work. 

To circumscribe the discussion somewhat and to confine it to 
the Annual Meeting topic — elimination of waste — four items 
were scheduled on the program, two being technical papers and 
two reports of committees. The papers were Elimination of Waste 
in Industry through Research, by F. A. Wardenburg,^ and Re- 
search in Leather Manufacture, by Arthur W. Thomas;' the re- 



> Pres., Lane & Bodley Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 
2 Asst. Ch. Engr., E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del. 
2 Professor Food Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 



20 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol.. 44, No. I 



ports were those of the Sub-Committee on Lubrication and of the 
Sub-Committee on Steam Table Re.«earch. Messrs. Wardenburg 
and Thomas presented their papers in jierson. The lubrication 
report was presented by Mr. Albert Kingsbury, Kingsbury Macliine 
Works, Philadelphia, chairman of the committee, and the steam 
table report by Mr. George A. Orrok, consulting engineer, New 
York, and by Dr. H. N. Davis, Harvard Engineering School, 
who is conducting a poition of the steam-table research. 

Mr. Wardenburg detailed the possibilities of research work in 
the reduction of manufacturing costs, citing several examples 
in the war which had resulted in the saving of millions of dollars. 
He then flescribed a plan for conducting commercial research work 
under the commercial incentive, and secondly a suggested coopera- 
tive plan for conducting general research work. As an element 
of the latter he suggested the collection of a large fund for 
research to be placed under the jurisdiction of some central body, 
like the Research Committee of this Society, which would plan 
and carry out the research program. 

Mr. Thomas then presented his paper on research in leather 
manufacture, concluding with the significant statement that though 
leather had been in use for many centuries, we are only just be- 
ginning to find out the elementary chemistry of the reactions in- 
volved in its manufacture. He quoted this as an example of the 
magnitude of the general research problem in the industries. 
The question of duplication of research was discussed consider- 
ably at the meeting; but when the ideas of all the speakers were 
brought out, the impression was left that though almost every 
problem is being investigated by more than one agency, the phases 
are all different and each investigation practically constitutes a 
separate piece of work. Mr. Flinn described how the "card-index" 
of the National Research Council would furnish an excellent means 
of posting everyone on what everyone else was doing. 

In presenting the progress report of the Sul)-Committee on 
Lubrication, Mr. Kingsbury pointed out the inherent difficulties 
in undertaking any measurements in a film of lubricant within a 
few thousandths of an inch of space. He described the ex- 
perimental work of the committee in the field of increase of pressure 
on lubricants. He illustrated his remarks by means of curves 
prepared by Mr. Mayo D. Hersey, professor at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technologj-, Department of Physics, who was doing 
the experimental work. 

In connection with the steam-table research Dr. Davis said that 
he felt "verj' hopeful" that his organization would soon be able to 
get something on the Joule-Thomson effect, which was his assign- 
ment in tliis research. Dr. S. W. Stratton, director of the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards, supplemented Dr. Davis by telling just wiiere 
the Bureau stood in its part of the investigation, and Mr. Orrok 
closed by rejiorting how the money was coming in, stating that the 
prospects were very bright for the collection of the seventy or eighty 
thousand dollars necessary, and for the completion within three 
years of this very necessary extension of the upper limit of the 
steam tables. 

Among other prominent speakers at the session were Prof. H. F. 
Moore, of the University of Illinois, wiio is in charge of the impor- 
tant research on Fatigue of Metals being conducted with the 
assistance of Engineering Foundation; Dean Anderson, in charge 
of the research program of the American Society of Heating and 
Ventilating Engineers; H. C. Dickinson, research director of the 
Society of Automotive Engineers; and Prof. P. C. Walker, dean 
of the Engineering School of the University of Kansas. 

Professional Engineering Education for the 
Industries 

The Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education joined 
Thursday afternoon with the A.S.M.E. in a session of three 
papers on the relations between engineering education and the 
industries as follow: 
Professional Engineering Education for the Industries, F. C. 

Pratt, 
A National Policy on Engineering Education, A. G. Christie, 
College Education as Related to Industry, J. E. Otterson, 

Professor Charles F. Scott, President of the S.P.E.E. presided. 

The three papers with the ensuing discussion opened bj- Dean 



Dexter S. Kimball are published on the first pages of this issue. 
Credit is due Professor Dugald C. Jackson wiio arranged the 
program which attracted large attendance and developed exceed- 
ingly interesting discussion. 

Stresses in Flat Cylinder Heads 

The able paper by Major Gilbert Dudley Fish on Stresses and 
Deformation in Flat Circular Cylinder Heads was presented on 
Thursday afternoon at the first General Session of the Annual 
Meeting. Professor Robert H. Fernald presided. 

IMajor Fish's paper was a mathematical analysis of form and 
loading of elastic disks where the thickness is uniform and where 
all strains are within the limits of true elasticity. Although of 
great value, the paper was highly specialized in its contents and the 
discussion could be entered into only by those who had actuallj' 
attacked similar problems. An abstract of the paper with a 
r^sumd of the discussion presented will appear in a later issue of 
Mech.\nical Engineering. 

Motion Pictures of Combustion 

On Thursday afternoon R. Sanford Riley of Worcester, Mass., 
presented mo\ing pictures showing actual conditions in a stoker- 
fired furnace. The great interest aroused in this exliibition made 
its repetition necessary. There was universal comment as to the 
value that these pictures will render in the development of a science 
of furnace combustion and in a later issue of Mechanical En- 
gineering there will appear an account of the preliminarj* work 
done b}^ Mr. RUey in determining the successful methods of pre- 
paring the motion pictures. 

Motion Pictures of Handling Materials 

Following out the custom inaugurated at the Spring Meeting 
the Materials Haudhng Division enjoyed an exhibition of motion 
pictures wiiich showed the development of apparatus for handling 
coal and lime stone by machinery. These pictures, displayed 
by the Robbins Conveying Belt Company, were shown in place of 
the usual excursion. 

Second General Session 

The Second General Session of the meeting was held Friday 
morning with Dr. D. S. Jacobus in the chair. Of the three papers 
presented, one by Paul A. Bancel on Steam Condensing Plants 
appeared in the November issue of Mechanical Engineering. 
The paper by F. W. Dean on Testing Emergency Fleet Boilers 
using oil fuel will appear in the February issue of Mech.\nical 
Engineering and the paper on the Vertical Triple Expansion 
Pumping Engine by L. A. Quayle and E. H. Brown will appear 
in the March issue. The discussions pertaining to each of these 
two papers will appear with them. The present account wUl there- 
fore only include the discussion on Mr. Baneel's paper. 

In a written discussion, Professor J^ G. Christie complimented 
the author on the presentation of new ideas on condenser operation 
and design, especially of the air cooler. He asked for additional 
information about the causes and nature of tube corrosion and 
for data on water velocity, on pressure loss through a single-pass 
condenser with high water velocity, and on methods of obtaining 
higher heat transfer through the tube surface. 

D. K. Dean,' in a written discussion, combatted Mr. Baneel's 
statements regarding the tube layouts in wiiich steam lanes are 
used to assist steam distribution, on the groimd that there was 
lack of test evidence in the pajier. He stated that the Bancel 
design is deficient in that it is difficult to distribute the steam, 
equably to the ends of the condenser. Mr. Dean also made a de- 
tailed comparison of water temperature distribution in a double- 
pass condenser with the distribution in the single-pass condenser 
advocated by Mr. Bancel. He showed that the single-pass con- 
denser gives a poor division of work along the tube length. He 
further pointed out that the ratio of cooling surface to the amount 
of steam condensed is well established and requires the use of 
two passes to utilize commercial tube sizes. 

' 88 Broad St., Boston, Mass. 



January. 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



21 



Mr. John F. Grace' criticized Mr. Bancel's use of a small tube, 
single-pass condenser with a liigh water velocity through the tubes 
on the grounds that small tubes clog and require high-power cir- 
culating pumps. He deemed it wise to use a moderate velocity 
and to clean the tubes occasionally. He stated that it was his 
experience that tube losses increase as the tube surface is de- 
creased. 

A WTitten discussion by Mr. P. E. Reynolds- reviewed develop- 
ments in condenser design which have followed a seemingly aim- 
less path. He stated his belief that the design of l\Ir. Bancel 
permitted heat transfer in an atmosphere of pure steam. He 
regretted the lack of data about this feature. Mr. Reynolds 
touched on the relative merits of single- and double-pass condensers 
and pointed out that the double-pass type gives equal distribution 
of condensation over the tubes. 

Mr. E. B. Ricketts^ decried the lack of test data on the heat 
transfer in this type of condenser. 

At the end of the discussion, Mr. Bancel promised to answer 
the questions in a ^^Titten closure. 

Aeronautic Session 

Joseph A. Steimnetz, Chairman of the Aeronautic Division, opened 
the Aeronautic Session on Friday morning with an optimistic 
word for the future of aviation and for the future of the work of 
the Division in assisting the development of aviation especially 
for commerce. He then turned the meeting over to Professor 
E. P. Warner, Chairman of the Aeronautic Papers Committee 
who took the chair. In his opening remarks, Professor Warner 
explained the principal purpose of the Aeronautic Division to be 
the dissemination of facts regarding aerial transport. 

The titles and authors of the papers presented at this session 
were as follows: Commercial Operations of Airplanes, by L. B. 
Lent, Air Lines and Some of Their Problems, by R. B. C. Noor- 
duyn. Study of the Elastic Properties of Small-Size AVire Cable, 
by R. R. Moore, Tests of Plyn^ood Webs With Lightening Holes 
Arranged as in Airplane Ribs, by D. T. Brown and R. J. Diefen- 
bach. 

The paper by ]\Lajor Lent appears in another column of this 
issue. The other papers will appear in a later issue accompanied 
by the discussion relating to them. 

Major Lent's paper presents data of great value to the prob- 
lems of commercial aviation and with Mr. Noorduyn's paper, 
it incited discussion that indicated great possibilities in com- 
mercial aviation in the immediate future. In closing the dis- 
cussion. Major Lent emphasized the seemingly important point 
that the aeroplane offered greater commercial possibilities as a 
freight express or mail carrier than in transportation of pas- 
sengers. 

Lieutenant E. E. Aldriu, Secretary of the Division, newly ar- 
rived from a trip abroad was at the meeting and he gave some 
interesting first-hand information relative to commercial fljing 
in Europe. 

Textile Waste Session 

Mr. Charles T. Plunkett, Chairman of the Textile Division 
presided over this Session on Friday morning at which the Textile 
Division presented a program dealing with wastes in the textile 
industry. The papers on Hidden Wastes in Textile Plants by 
T. P. Gates and Economy in Textile Drying by B. R. Andrews 
will appear with their discussion in the March issue of Mechanical 
Engineering. 

Charles T. Main opened the meeting with a report of the World 
Cotton Conference held in England last summer which he attended 
as a delegate of the Textile Di\dsion of the A.S.M.E. Mr. Main 
emphasized the fact that the British cotton manufacturers have 
joined in contributing about one milUon dollars for cotton re- 
search work. They have planned a large laboratory and they 
expect to take up the problems bearing on the manufacturing and 
firushing of cotton. Mr. Main spoke also of the movement on foot 



in this country to unite all bodies engaged in textile-research work 
in cooperation with the International Cotton Research Committee. 
The Cotton Conference itself impressed Mr. Main by the oppor- 
tunity it offered for men from \\idely separated parts of the world 
to come together and partake of the wealth of information offered 
at the formal meetings of the comference and informally in the 
social gatherings. 

Ordnance Session 

The first session of the Ordnance Division held at an Annual 
Meeting of the Society was called to order on Friday morning by 
Waldo H. Marshall, Chairman of the Division. General Guy 
E. Tripp, Chairman of the Board of the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company, made the openuig address in which 
he emphasized the responsibilities of the Ordnance Division and 
all those who have had experience in the production of ordnance 
material in the development of an organization to supplement 
the permanent staff of the Ordnance Department. 

The principal paper of the session was delivered by Colonel 
J. W. Joyes, Chief of the Technical Staff, Ordnance Department, 
U. S. A. Colonel Joyes discussed the conditions in the past in the 
Ordnance Department and present indications of an effort to 
practice economy and save money. He discussed the Limitations 




' Harrison, N. J. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

^ 95 Liberty St., New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' 241 East loth St., New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



Chairmen of the Sub-Committees of the Annual Meeting 

Left to right, bacli row: G. R. Tuska, President's Reception: J. I. Lyie, Informal 
Cet-Together; L. B. McMillan. General Chairman; W. S. Bowen, Information: H. 
D. Edwards, Excursions: Mrs. F. T. Chapman, Ladies' Tea: Mis. 'Nixonhee, Ladies 
Acquaintanship: Miss.Burtie Haar, Ladies Excursions;^. Van Winkle, Dinner Dance. 

of tolerance in ordnance material which were somewhat troublesome 
during the frar and indicated that the present effort is to study 
carefully the producability of the various articles of ordnance. 
The cooperative work between the army and na\'y in matters of 
design of ordnance was briefly reviewed. The showing was very 
satisfactory and duphcations and wastes of effort in design are 
generally being avoided. The development of the Ordnance 
Department organization to prevent waste in overlapping was also 
explained by the speaker. He closed his address with an explana- 
tion of the policy of the Ordnance Department in investigating 
the possibilities of commercial articles before taking the design 
for strictly military uses. 

Discussion at the session was contributed by Frank B. Gilbreth, 
Carl G. Barth, Fred J. Miller, F. G. Spencer, Captain Kimberly, 
R. D. Coleman, H. C. Spaulding and E. L. Sherwood who con- 
tributed problems relating to the design, specifications and manu- 
facture of ordnance material. 



Heat Balance of the Connors Creek Plant 
of The Detroit Edison Company 

By C. HAROLD BERRY,' and F. E. MORETON,' DETROIT, MICH. 



THE term "heat balance" is currently used in two different 
senses. At times we speak of the heat balance when we mean 
a physical condition in tlie plant wliereby there is a balance 
of certain heat-absorbing and heat-de\-eloping capacities. Again, 
by heat balance we mean a thermal balance sheet which records the 
ultimate disposition of all the heat developed from the fuel used. 

This paper discusses the heat balance in both senses for the 
Connors Creek Plant of Tiie Detroit Edison Company. We shall 
first describe briefly the apparatus in the plant, following this by a 
discussion of the ideal operating conditions, and finally presenting 
actual results. The plant is considered just as it stands, without 
reference to changes now under consideration or construction. 

Description op Equipment 

The main turbo-generators are six in number — three' of 20,000 
kw. capacity, one of 30,000 kw. capacity, and two of 45,000 kw. 
capacity, giving a total installed capacity of 180,000 kw.* The 
turbines are served bj^ fourteen boilers, each of 23G5 boiler hp. 
builder's nominal rating. 

The boiler-feed pumps are steam-turbine-driven, witli the ex- 
ception of one which is motor-driven. One general-ser\ice water 
pump is steam-turbine-driven. All other plant auxiliaries are 
motor-driven, some by alternating-current motors, some by direct- 
current motors, the choice depending upon the nature of the driven 
unit. As it works out, those auxiliaries whose uninterrupted run- 
ning is essential to plant operation are all driven by direct-current 
motors, whUc auxiliaries who.se stoppage does not immediately affect 
the rest of the plant are driven by alternating-current motors. This 

Main Sf-al-ion Bus , Z4000 VplfsAC 



\ 



- Transformer 1000 Kw 



Si^sfem Servjce . 237 VolfsAC 



House Service, ?37 Volfs A C 



Transfer 5e^5 
1500 Hy^ Each 



500 K,r Each 





DC.6emrafor House Service. Z37Volts DC- 
Such Mo^or 

A.C.Oenerafor 
Steam Turbine 

1000 K/f Each ZOOO Kyi Each 

jHouse Alternators 

FiQ. 1 Arrangement of Auxiliary Electrical Syste.m, Connors 
Creek Plant 

division is not due to any belief in the superior reliability of direct- 
current motors, but is due to the fact that most, if not all, of the 
essential auxiliaries are of such character as to require or benefit 
from widely variable speed. Such are stokers, blowers, hot-well 
pumps, dry-vacuum pumps, circulating pumps,' etc.- 

The arrangement of the auxiliary electrical .system is shown 
in Fig. 1. Alternating current for au.xiliaries is available from either 
of two buses: (o) The ".system service" bus, which is fed through 
a transformer from the main station bus, or (6) the "house service" 
bus, which is fed by three lCXX)-kw. turbo-generators. A tie switch 

' EnEinccr, Vice-President's office, The Detroit Edison Company. 
' The Detroit Edison Company. 

• At the present writing one of these is in the manufacturer's plant 
in the course of rebuilding. A lO.OOO-kw. unit stands iu its place. 

• For the time bcinR 170,000 kw. 

• At the time of writing, the older of these pumps still have induction 
motors, which are to be displaced by direct-current motors. 

Abstract of the fourth of a group of papers presented at the Power Waste 
Session of the Annii.il Meeting, New York, December, 1921, of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The other three papers 
appeared in the December, 1921, issue of Mechanical Engineering, pp. 
790-795. 



is provided whereby these two buses can be connected. When this 
tie snitch is closed, such of the 1000-kw. house alternators as are- 
running must perforce operate in parallel with the main units. 
When this is done (and it is common practice at Connors Creek), th& 
governors of the small miits are set for a speed slightly above system 
frequency, and the house units are operated on the hand throttle, 
with constant steam flow and virtually constant load. 

Direct current is available from a single bus (actually constructed 
as a ring). Owing to the importance of continuous service from 
the motors connected to this bus, it is fed from four sources: 
a Two l.WO-kw. steam-driven direct-current generators. 
Each of these consists of a turbo-alternator permanently 
connected (by bolted links) to a sjTiclu'onous motor- 
direct-current generator set, so that the combination is 
merely a steam-driven direct-current generator with an 
electrical speed reduction instead of gears. 
6 Three .50()-kw. motor-generator sets (induction motors) 
driven from the house-service alternating-current bus. 




INJECTION. 
PUMP 



COLD-WATER 
-HEADER 
BOILER-FEED 
PUMP 

■BOILER-FEED 
SUCTION HEADER 

^-AUXILIARY 

EXHAUST 
HEADER 



Fig. 2 



SUR6E 
PUMP- 



-Vrrangement of Auxilhry Exhaust-Steam and Feedwater 
Heating Apparatus, Connors Creek Plant 



c Two 1500-kw. motor-generator sets (sj-nchronous motors) 
driven from the main station bus. These sets have char- 
acteristics and controls such that they may deliver power 
in either direction, wherefore they are known as "transfer 
sets." 
d A storage battery of 1500 amp-hr. capacity. 
An important characteristic of a system of this sort is that the 
load on the auxiliary steam turbines is independent of the aux- 
iliary power demand of the station. With the tie switch closed 
between the system service and house-service buses, and with the 
transfer sets operating between the main system and the house- 
service direct-current bus, the house-turbine loads may be adjusted 
at will, within limits set by the capacities of the apparatus. 
The function of the house turbines is twofold: 

a To furnish a standby source of power for station auxiliaries 

in the event of a system failure, and 
h To furnish exhaust steam for boiler-feedwater heating. 
Fig. 2 shows the arrangement of the auxiliary exhaust-steam 



22 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



23 



and feedwater-heating apparatus. The auxiliary exhaust heater 
Teceives the exhaust steam from five house turbines, from six boiler- 
feed-pump turbines, and from one general-service-pump turbine, as 
well as the vapor formed in the boiler-feed make-up evaporators. 
This steam passes upward into five barometric-condenser heads, 
where it meets condensate from the main condensers. The resulting 
hot water is discharged into the hot boiler-feed tanks, whence it is 

64.000 
60.000 



56.000 
52.000 
48.000 
44.000 

40.000 

u 

|. 36.000 

:^ 

J; 32.000 

O- 

^28.000 
<o 

24.000 

20.000 

16.000 

12,000 

8,000 

4,000 























' 


■ — 


— 


























^- 


^^ 




^^ 


^- 


^ 


























-~- 


~-^ 


"~ ■ 


— - 


— . 


- . 






















. 










— - 




— 


, 


























■ ' 


^ 


— 


— . 

















— 


— 


^ 






::;: 




■ 


;:;^ 


. , 


" 































A 












Exhai. 
ExhOL 


istUf 


lilted 












A/, 


Values 



























35 



30 X 



i 



25 



20 





a: 
E 


Q) 

-4- 



40 



220 



60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 
Feedwafer Temperature, Deq Fahr 

FiQ. 3 Computed Cost of Power for Variable Turbine Steam 

Consumption and Boiler-Feed Temperature, with 

Fixed Initial Steam Conditions 

(Steam pressure, 240 lb. per. sq. in. abs. : superheat, 200 deg. fahr.; 

boiler-room efficiency, 0.75.) 

1.150,000 



1,100,000 























/ 

/ 










A 


/ 










/ 








/ 










y 


/ 











95,000 



100,000 



Load , Kw. 
Fig. 4 Total-Steam Curve op Main Unit 

pumped into the boilers. The cold condensate piping and tanks 
are designed to care for variations in the volume of water in the 
boUers at times of variable plant load, and to safeguard the boiler- 
feed pumps against faOure of the supply. Inasmuch as these 
barometric condensers serve as condensers for the au.xiliary system 
and as feedwater heaters for the main sj'stem, they are known as 
"heater condensers." 

Theory of Operation 

There are two viewpoints from which to state the gain in station 
economy due to the operation of a system of this kind: 

a A simple but approximate view — the substitution of cheap 
power for costly power 



h A complicated but exact computation — a saving due to 
increased feedwater temperature, offset by an increased 
station steam consumption. 
The matter will be discussed from each of these two points of view. 
In the chart showoi in Fig. 3 the full lines show the computed 
cost of power for variable turbine steam consumption and boiler- 
feed temperature, with fixed initial steam conditions. If we 
assume that all losses in the turbine appear as heat available from 
the exhaust steam, that is, if we neglect radiation losses, and if we 
recover usefully and credit to the turbine all of the heat .available 
from the exhaust steam, then the cost of power is constant for all 
conditions, and is equal to the heat ecjuivalent of a kilowatt-hour 
(3415 B.t.u.) corrected only for boiler-room losses. For the assumed 
boiler-room efficiency of 0.75, this gives us a cost of power of 45.50 
B.t.u. per kw-hr., and this is shown plotted in Fig. 3 as a dashed 
line. 

In the case of a plant like Connors Creek, the main units have 
a steam consumption of, let us say, 12 lb. per kw-hr., wherefore 
power generated by them costs from 18,000 to 21,000 B.t.u. per kw- 
lir. The house turbine, whose exhaust heat we may 'assume to be 
fully utilized, produces power at a cost of 4550 B.t.u. per kw-hr. 
Clearly, the displacement of a portion of the power generated by the 
main units at high cost by power generated by the house turbine at 
much lower cost wiU result in a gain in station economy. From this 
it would appear that the maximum house-turbine output is to be 



150.000 



125.000 



: 100,000 



o 75.000 



^ 50,000 



25.000 




1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 

Load , Kw. 

Fig. 5 Totai^Ste.am Curves of House Turbine 



striven for. But the matter is not so simple, for here we meet the 
outstanding feature of the system — the auxiliary exhaust pressure 
may be adjusted to any value between the lowest attainable absolute 
pressm-e and atmospheric pressure. If we operate at a very low 
pressure, the auxiliary exliaust steam, and therefore the boiler feed- 
water, are at low temperature, with a resulting high cost of power 
from the main units. Further, with a small temperature rise of the 
boiler feedwater, very little exhaust steam can be condensed, where- 
fore the output of the house turbine is small. As the au.xiliary ex- 
haust pressure rises, the boiler-feed temperature rises, lowering the 
cost of power from the main units, and at the same time the heat 
absorption of the boOer feedwater increases, condensing more aux- 
iliary exliaust steam and permitting the generation of more cheap 
power by the house turbine. As the auxiliary exhaust pressure con- 
tinues to rise, however, another influence enters: the steam consump- 
tion of the house turbine increases, that is, the power output of a 
given steam flow will be less. This reduces the proportion of cheap 
power generated, and eventually a point is reached at which an in- 
crease of auxiliary exhaust pressure will decrease the station econ- 
omy. Our problem is to locate tliis point of maximum station 
economy. It will be worked out in the more exact analysis which 
follows. 

As is pointed out below, in discussing the results of this study, 
a complete analysis of this problem requires a large fund of infor- 



24 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44. No. 1 



mation, which unfortunately is not yet available for the Connors 
Creek plant. We shall therefore carry out this study for an assumed 
plant wtli characteristics consistent with the performance of Con- 
nors Creek. The results obtained mW serve to define the problem 
rather than to present a solution for the actual plant. The follow- 
ing data are assumed: 

Total station load, including auxiliary power demands, con- 
stant and equal to 100,000 kw. 

Main unit steam consumption a.ssumed to conform to the 
total-steam curve of I"ig. 4 

A house turbine of oOOO-kw. capacity, whose performance is 
shown I)y the total-steam curves of P'ig. 5' 

Initial specific total heat of steam at 22.5 lb. per sq. in. gage 
and 200 deg. superheat = 1313 B.t.u. per lb. 

Temperature of condensate leaving main unit condensers 
= 70 deg. fahr. 

Boiler fcedwater leaves the heater condensers at a tempera- 
ture 10 deg. fahr. below the boiling point corresponding 
to the auxiliary exhaust pressure 

Boiler-room efficiency equal to 0.75 

Radiation neglected. 
Our first step is to develop a very interesting relation which 
applies to any steam prime mover whose e.xhaust is wholly used for 



5500,000 




















/ 


2 


















/ 


/ 




3,000,000 


















/ 




















/ 






Si 

< 


2,500,000 

t- 














/ 








3 












/ 










n 
"5 il 


5 2,000.000 
■2? 






• 




/ 








/ 


X 


5! 








/ 








/ 


y 


/ 


4-tf; 


o 

^ 1 linnnfin 






/ 


/ 




y 


y 


/ 


^ 




UJ 


1 




/ 


/ 




y 


y 






^ 


^ 


6 

7 


*~ 1 000000 


/ 


/ 


y 


y^ 


^ 


y" 






^ 


o 

5 

20 




/ 


/ 




^ 


^ 


i 




=s*= 


^ 




to 
30 


500000 


y' ^ 


^ 












h^ 


^ 




















0. 
























) 


101 


30 


JC 


00 
Loo 


30 
cl,Kv 


00 

V. 


40 


30 


50 


00 



Fio. AVateb Heatable by E.xhaust Steam from Hoise Tuhbine 

heating water. If the water is heated from a constant initial tem- 
perature to a constant number of degrees below the boiling jjoint 
corresponding to the exhaust pressure, then a curve jjlottcd between 
the turbine load and the quantity of water capable of being heated 
will have the same shape as the curve plotted betw'-en turbine load 
and total steam. Proof of this fact is given in one of the appendices 
of the complete paper, where the relations involved for the con- 
ditions assumed above are developed. For these conditions the 
curves of Fig. have been prepared. 

We are now in a position to determine the cost of power for 
variable house-turbine load. Another appendix of the complete 
paper indicates the method and gives the computations in detail. 
The principal results are shown in Figs. 7 and 8. From the curv(\s 
it is clear that the best station economy is obtained with a house- 
turbine load of ■t.'JOO kw. and a boiler-feed temperature of IGO deg. 
fahr. In Fig. 7 the small circles at zero iiouse-turbine load indicate 
conditions with the house turbine shut dowii. 

In interpreting these results, attention must be directed to the 
fact that the curve of cost of power is rather flat. Operation at a 

' These curves are based on an actual test of a 1000-kw. set, and prob- 
ably indicate a higher steam consumption than is normal for a .5000-kw. unit. 



condition somewhat removed from the best point results in only a 
small increase in the cost of power. However, modern power-plant 
operation is largely concerned with small increments, and a gain of 
even 100 B.t.u. per kw-hr. is not to be neglected. 

Attention must further be called to the fact that the computations 
here given are based on one set of assumed conditions. To carry 
out this study in general would require much detailed information. 
We should need the total-steam curve for the main units running 
in various combinations over the entire range of plant load. We 
should also need the total-steam curves for aU house turbines (at 
Connors Creek, five house alternators, six boiler-feed pumps, one 




'^ '^'""o 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2«0 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5330 
House-Turbine. Load,Kw 

Fig. 7 Cost of Power for Variable House-Turbixe Load 

general-ser\'ice pump — twelve turbines in all) over their entire 
range of load and exhaust pressure. We should then have to 
develop combined curves for various load distributions among these 
auxiliaries, and for each of these we should have to compute results 




ao 



100 120 140 160 180 
Boiler-Feed Temperature, Deg Fahr 



200 



Fio. S Variation of Cost of Power with Boiler-Feed Temperature 

for various plant loads and main unit distributions, for various 
\-alues of the condensate temperature and for ^•arious values of 
the interval rf by which the boUer-feed temperature is below the 
boiling point corresponding to the auxiliary exhaust pressure. 
This is ob\iously a large undertaking, and one for which we have 
not yet secured adequate data. 

The main facts, however, are clear. For a system of tliis type 
there is a best point, and it is just as wasteful to heat the feed- 
water to a higher temperature as to a lower. We believe that for the 
Connors Creek plant the best economy is obtained with a boiler- 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



TABLE 1 THERMAL BALANCE SHEET FOR APRIL 1921, THE DETROIT EDISON CO., CONNORS CREEK POWER HOUSE 
The month of April, 1921, represents neither the best nor the current plant performance. At that time the plant was still operating with crippled units antl with 

much equipment still in progress of recovery from post-war conditions. 





Debit 












Credit 












Useful 


Lost 




APPARATUe 




B.t.u. 
per lb. 
of coal 


Per 

cent 

of heat 

value 

of con' 

100 
0-48 
0.02 
9.55 
0.27 
06 
110.38 


B.t.u. 

per 
kw-hr. 

20140 

96 

3 

1927 

54 

13 




B.t.u. 
per. lb 
of coa. 


Per 
cent 

ot lieat 
value 

of c.;al 


B.t.u. 

per 
kw-hr. 




B.t.u. 

per lb. 
of coal 


Per 

cent 
of heat 
value 
of coal 


B.t.u. 

per 
kw-hr. 


Apparatdb 




-■.— - 




Boiler 


Coal 


12349 

59 

2 

1180 

33 

8 

1.3631 


Steam to mains tsup.) . 
Steam to mains (sat.) . 


9875 
579 

10454 


79.97 
4.09 


16175 
945 


Moisture (hyd.) 

Moisture in air 

CO 


560 

25 

65 

370 

225 

1932 

3177 


4.63 
0.20 
0.53 
3.0C 
1.82 
16.65 
25.73 


914 

41 

106 

604 

367 

3152 

5184 


10454-1180 


Air Main Alternator . . 
Air House Alternator 

Boiler Feed 

Radiation from Mains . . 
Work by B. F. Pumps . . 


12349 






= 75.1 % 






















22333 


S4.66 


17060 




Steam Mains 


Steam from Boiler 


10454 


84.66 
84.66 


17060 


Steam to turbines .... 
Steam to evaporators . 
Radiation (mains) .... 
High press. Traps.... 
Heating system traps. 


9S43 

82 

33 

5 

10 

9973 


79.72 
0.66 
27 
0.04 
0.08 


16070 

134 

54 

8 

16 


Heating system 


35 

61 

120 

265 

'isl 


0.28 
0.49 
0.97 
2.15 

3.89 


57 
100 
196 
433 

786 


9843 -1- 82 9925 
10454 10454 








Leaks (restaurant, etc.) 


s 94.9% 




10454 


17060 


80.77 

17.86 

1.59 

M.33 


16282 




Turbines 


From Steam Mains. . . . 


9160 
9160 


74.18 
74.18 


14960 


Energy to shaft 


2205 

196 

0709 

9110 


3600 

320 

10950 


Bearing friction 


40 
10 

50 


0,32 
0,08 

0,40 


6S 
16 

81 


2205 2205 
9160-484 8676 
- 25 4% 




To condenser 






14960 


73.78 


14S70 








6709 

196 

6905 


54.33 

1.59 

55.92 


10950 
320 


To condensate 


4&* 
4.84 


392 
392 


790 
• 790 


To circ. water 


6421 
6421 


52.00 


10480 
10480 




Condenser 


From Turbine Packing 






11276 
3600 
3600 


52,00 




Main Alternators 


Energy from Shaft 


2205 

2205 


17.86 
17 ,S6 


To switchboard 

Ventilating air 


2106 

.59 

2165 


17.04 
0.48 
17.52 


3437 

96 

3533 


Bearing friction 


30 
10 
40 


0.24 
0,08 
0.32 


49 
16 
'65 


Pi=«^-^% 








House Turbine 


Steam from Mains 


568 
568 


4.60 
4.60 


927 
927 


Energy to shaft 

To heater-condensers . 


51 
507 

!i58 


0.41 
4.11 

4.52 


S3 
828 

911 


Bearing friction 


4 
10 


0,04 
01 
0,03 
0.08 


8 
2 
6 
16 
















House Alternator 


Energy from Shaft .... 


51 
51 


0.41 
0.4i 


S3 
S3 


To switchboard 

Ventilating air 


43 
2 

45 


0.35 
0.02 
0,37 


70 
3 

73 


Bearing friction 

Exciter loss 


5 
1 
6 


0.04 
0.01 
0.0.5 


8 
2 
10 


42=84.3% 




From House Turbine. . . 
From B.F.P. Turbine. . 


507 

108 

484 

78 

15 

1190 


4.11 
0.86 
S.92 
0.63 
0.12 
9.64 


828 
173 
790 
127 
24 
1942 


Feed water 


1185 
1185 


9.60 
9.60 


1934 
1934 




5 
5 


0,04 
04 


8 
S 


















Storage Tank 




Boiler-Feed 

Pump Turbines 


Steam from Mains 


115 
115 


93 
0.93 


188 
188 


Heater-condensers . . . 
Work on feed water . . . 


106 

8 

114 


0.86 
0.06 
0.92 


173 

13 

186 




1 

T 


0,01 
01 


2 
2 








Evaporator 


Steam from Mams 

Heat in Raw Water 


82 

1 

83 


0.66 

1 

0.67 


134 

2 

136 


To heater-condensers . 
To storage tank 


78 

5 

83 


0.63 
0.04 
0.67 


127 

8 

135 












Boiler- Feed Tanks 


From Feed Water 

From High-Press. Traps 


1185 

5 

1190 


9.60 
0.04 
9.64 


1934 

8 

1942 


To boilers 


1180 
1180 


9.55 
9.55 

04 
08 
12 


1927 
1927 


Radiation 


10 
10 


0.08 
0.08 


16 












High- and Low- 
Pressure Traps 


From Steam Mains. . . . 
From Heating System . 


n 
10 
15 


04 
0,08 
12 


8 
16 
24 


To B.F. tank 

To storage tank 


5 
10 
15 


8 
16 
24 












Storage Tanks 


From Heating System . . 


10 
5 
15 


0.08 
04 
0.12 


16 

8 
24 

3437 
70 

3507 


To heater-condensers . 


15 
15 


12 
12 


24 
24 


















Switchboard 


From Main Alternators 
From House Alternators 


2106 
43 

2149 


17.04 
0.35 

17.39 


Energy sent out 


2093 
2093 


16.95 
16.95 


3415 
3415 


To stoker motors 


56 


0.45 
0.45 


91 
91 


Ratio Auxdiary to 




coal handling 


kw-hr. 

656 „ ^„^ 




compressor 

D.V. pumps 

transmission 

miscellaneous 

gen. service pumps. . 


= 2093-2"«^° 


1 


56 




Totals 1 


47731 


1386.52 


77901 




37474 


303.50 


61164 




10257 


83.05 


16739 





feed temperature lying between 160 and ISO deg. fahr., and in this 
range we try to operate. 

Balance Sheet 

The preparation of the accompanying bahince sheet, Table 1, 
calls for the exercise of considerable judgment in selecting data, 
and even for some "directed guessing." The major items are, of 
course, taken from direct obser-s-ations, but such things as radiation 
and drip losses are not susceptible of measurement by practical 
means, and must be estimated on the basis of other observed data 
or simply on general considerations. 



DISCUSSION OF THE POWER WASTE 
SESSION 

The Power Di\'ision held a session on Tuesday morning, Decem- 
ber 6, devoted to the subject of power waste. Prof. A. G. Christie, 
Johns Hopkins University, presided at the meeting. Papers were 
presented as follows: Auxiliary System and Heat Balance at the 
Delaware Station of the Philadelphia Electric Company, by E. 
L. Hopping; Heat Balance of Colfax Station, by C. W. E. Clarke; 
Heat Balance System for Hell Gate Station, by J. H. LawTence 
and W. M. Keenan; and Heat Balance of the Connors Creek Plant. 



26 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



of the Detroit Edison Company, by D. Harold Berry and F. E. 
Moreton. The meeting was then thrown open to a discussion of 
the general subject of heat balance. 

Prof. Arthur M. Greene, .Jr.,' read a wTitten discussion by John 
A. Stevens' in which he criticised the four plants discus.sed in the 
papers for operating at such low pressures and temi)eratures. He 
called attention to the recommendation in the report of the Super- 
power Survey of a pressure at the throttle of 300 lb. per sq. in. and 
a superheat of 230 deg. fahr., and submitted figures of the pressures 
and temperatures of important steam plants of this countr>', 
England and Europe. He expressed a belief that American en- 
gineers were following rather than leading English and French 
engineers in the development and use of high-pressure steam. 

J. R. McDermet' read a written discussion of Mr. Hopping's 
paper with special reference to the proposed air extractors men- 
tioned by the author. Mr. McDermet divided systems of driving 
central-station auxiliary ajiparatus into three groups, (1) by steam, 
(2), by house turbine with electric distribution and (3), by ex- 
traction heating. He said that it was possible by rather compli- 
cated mathematics to show that with an infinite number of ex- 
traction heaters following the turbine expansion, the power-station 
cycle reduces from the Rankin to the Carnot. While from practi- 
cal considerations this infinite number of heaters is impossible, the 
extraction heater method has certain advantages which, he pointed 
out, made it an attractive method of obtaining heat balance. 

The value which Mr. Hopping gave to vent loss from the heater 
appeared to Mr. McDermet to be roughly correct although possibly 
too low. The installation of air extractors as proposed in the 
Delaware Station has three advantages: first, elimination of vent 
loss heat in the operation of the heater which in the proposed in- 
stallation should be reduced to approximately 0.5 per cent instead 
of 5 per cent; second, the loss of water through the heater vent 
in the form of steam will also be eliminated; and third, the reduction 
of temperature of feed from 210 to 140 deg. will give an added 
economizer effect and probably increase the boiler efficiency about 
one per cent. The air extractor which should be used operates 
upon the Elliot system of explosive boiling. 

James M. Taggart,* in commenting on Mr. Hopping's paper, 
said it would be of interest to know the amount of increase in 
heat return realized by lowering the feedwater temperature to 140 
deg. He also commended Mr. Berry's emphasis of the importance 
of speed control of auxiliaries. He considered that only a doubts 
ful increase in reliability was being obtained at the Colfax Station 
by the use of turbine drive for forced draft fans and boiler feed 
pumps and that the sacrifice in economy was considerable. 

John Anderson^ asked why banking coal losses had not been 
included in Fig. 3 of Mr. Hopping's paper. He thought Mr. 
Hopping had used too high an economizer eflSciency in \'iew of the 
feedwater temperature of 210 deg. If pulverized coal had been 
used in the Delaw^are Plant a figure of 16,900 B.t.u. per net kw-hr. 
might have been obtained instead of the 17,982 B.t.u. actually 
obtained. 

N. E. Funk'^ suggested that the Society standardize heat balance 
as it had standardized boiler testing, pointing out that in the 
papers presented three different methods had been used in pre- 
senting heat balances so that comparisons were difficult. He did 
not wish the impression carried away that the Philadelphia Electric 
Company was averse to electric drive for auxiliaries. He thought 
that automatic control appratus which could be started and stopped 
by push buttons was entirely satisfactory and would relieve operators 
of any except the most simple duties. 

Mr. Funk was not in accord with the trend toward higher temp- 
eratures and pressures unless thej- were necessary in reducing the 
actual cost of producing current. The cost involved in operating 
under high boiler pressures and temperatures must he figured when 



' Professor Mechanical Engincoring, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 
Troy, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Con-sultinR Engineer, Lowell, Mass. Mem..\m.Soc.M.E. 

» Research Engineer, Elliott Co., Jeannette, Pa. Mem..\m.Soc.M.E. 

* Consulting Engineer, Taggart & Perry, New York, N. Y. Assoc- 
Mem..\m.Soc.M.E. 

' Chief Engineer, Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mem.Am.Soc.^LE. 

• Or<erating Engineer, Philadelphia Electric Light Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



any theoretical saving due to these changes is proposed. 

Leo Loeb' spoke of the considerations involved in selecting 
drive for station auxiliaries and presented a summarized heat 
balance covering a week's operation at the Delaware Station. 

Francis Hodgkin.son' spoke of the delusion under which engineers 
had formerly labored that so long as steam from au.xiliaries was 
condensed in the feedwater heater the water rate of these auxiliaries 
did not matter. Nine or ten years ago he had de\ased a series of 
valves for accomplishing heat balance which provided for bleeding 
the main turbine at a time of least efficiency in heating feedwater 
and suppljing steam to the turbine w-hen the reverse condition 
existed. One reason for leaning toward the electric drive was- 
the elimination of undesirable conditions in the basement con- 
taining steam-driven auxiliaries. He thought that engineers 
generally were favoring the house turbine heat-balance scheme. 

H. R. Summerhayes' also spoke of the necessity of having steam- 
driven auxiliaries of the highest economy if economy of the main 
unit is desired. 

R. J. S. Pigott'" pointed out the fact that the heat consump- 
tion of a plant varies with the load and that in order to determine 
the most economical combination of auxiliaries it is necessary to 
study more than one load. One system for obtaining heat balance 
might be the best for a given load while another system might be 
the best for a variety of loads. 

L. P. Breckenridge" said that he was impressed with the de- 
sirability of serving industrial areas by power plants in which 
the heat energj- of the coal could be converted into electric energy 
in the most economical way and called attention to the report 
of the Superpower Survey. '^ 

T. E. Keating" spoke of the most economical boiler feed temp- 
erature which, he said, should be between 160 and 170 deg. if 
economizers are used. 

.Joseph Pope''' said that the duplex dri-\-e offered difficulties 
in shifting load from the steam to the electric ends. He also 
spoke of the lack of speed control on large turbines at the auxiliary 
steam inlet connection which might result in overspeeding in case 
of a very light load on the turbines and a large supply of low pres- 
sure steam. 

J. B. Scott'^ asked if the authors of the papers would install 
the systems of heat balance described by them in case the sta- 
tions were to be redesigned. 

George A. Orrok"^ spoke of the possibility of approaching the 
Carnot cycle in the power plant. He believed that tlie load factor 
at which the station was to run was the determining factor in 
choosing the auxiliaries to be used in working out a heat balance. 

Closure 

E. L. Hopping, in closing the discussion on his paper, and in 
answer to a question which had been asked about burning oil, 
said that the furnaces at the Delaware Station were designed so 
that, with few- alterations, oil or pulverized fuel might be used in 
place of stoker-fired coal. In answer to Mr. Anderson, he pointed 
out that the figures given in the paper included the standby losses. 
He called Mr. Hodgkinson's attention to the cleanliness of the 
auxiliary basement at the Delaware Station where steam-driven 
auxiliaries are installed. As Mr. Piggott had ad\ised, a complete 
study of economies at all loads was entered into in deciding upon 
the auxiliaries for this station. In designing a new station, the 
speaker said, he would use all of the experience gained at the 
present and other stations in making a' choice of auxiliaries. 

C. W. E. Clarke, in referring to Mr. Stevens' suggestion of using 

(Continued on page 74) 

' Day and Zimmermann, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

« Chief Engineer, Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., Lester, Pa. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 

' General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

'" Crosby Steam Gauge & Valve Co., Boston. Mass. Mem. Am. Sec. 
M.E. 

" Professor Mechanical Engineering, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale 
University. Mem..\m.Soc.M.E. 

'^ Professional Paper No. 123, U. S. Geology Survey. 

" General Manager, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. Mem. -Am.Soc.M.E. 

'* Betterment Engineer, Stone & Webster, Inc., Boston, Mass. Assoc. 
Mem. -Am.Soc.M.E. 

" Consulting Engineer, Philadelphia, Pa. Mem.-Aim.Soc.M.E. 

" Consulting Engineer, New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



Compounding the Combustion Engine 



By ELMER A. SPERRY > NEW YORK, N. Y. 



To engineers versed in the problems of selecting and designing prime 
movers, the advantages of the compound combustion engine are readily 
apparent. It is light compared with the normal Diesel, being in special 
cases, according to the author, less than one-tenth, and in some instances 
less than one-twentieth, the weight for the same output. lis mechanical effi- 
ciency is extremely high, and a distinct gain in overall efficiency from fuel 
to shaft is said to have been made, as well as a very definite gain in sim- 
plicity, direct performance and smoothness of the crankshaft diagram. 
This has been achieved while adhering to the best practice, namely, four- 
cycle operation. 

This paper presents the results of research by the author extending over a 
series of years, during which it is claimed that not only has the high- 
pressure principle been thoroughly established, but all the important re- 
quirements have been worked out, and finally an engine embodying prac- 
tically all the advantages has been subjected to long continuous runs. 

THE high-compression or Diesel cyele in combustion engines has 
worked nothing short of a revolution, ha\'ing brought to the 
prime mover its choicest heritage, the highest thermodjiiamic 
efficiency known. The fuel economies of these engines 
have forced them to the front. They have become ex- 
tremely reliable and easy to operate; instances are 
becoming common of long runs without overhaul — long- 
continued ])erformance without shutdown or forced stop 
of any kind. 

As experience is gained with these engines, however, 
there have developed some objectionable features which 
are serious. Though they occupy somewhat less space 
than boilers and engines, the weights of Diesels are on a 
par mth, if not somewhat in excess of, those of reciprocat- 
ing engines with their boilers and decidedly in excess of 
those of water-tube boilers and turbines. The standard 
product of the largest builder of Diesel engines for the 
merchant service weighs about 450 lb. per shaft horsepower 
and is large and bulky. A substantial increase in tonnage 
of freight carried is only one of the gains that would be 
secured, could these engines be made much lighter and 
smaller for the same power. 

The weight is not the only difficulty with these large 
engines, however, for they cost more than steam equipment 
of equal power. One instance of 1200,000 excess for a 
3500-s.hp. ship is cited. In another ship for the same 
service and of the same power the weight w-as 60 per cent 
in excess of the turbine equipment and the cost 212 per 
cent, amounting to $.306,000 excess. Notwithstanding tliis 
extra capital charge, the first ship at three-fourths capacity 
in the Far East trade can earn nearly double net (83 per 
cent) over its turbine competitor of the same pow-er and con- 
struction and with its machinery weighing a third more than steam 
equipment. - 

Again, it has been found that almost without exception a grade 
of fuel oil knowTi as Diesel oil must be employed. This is a partially 
refined product costing upon the present market considerably more 
than bunker oil burned under the boilers. 

The fuel-oil problem in itself renders some advance absolutely 
imperative. Conservation of our oil should be backed by Govern- 
ment enforcement to stop the prodigal waste which results from bulk 
or furnace firing of enormous quantities of these highly concentrated 
fuels, destroying three to five times the quantity, power for power, 
required by steam, especially now since the cheapest petroleum can 
jield to the full its w'onderful store of energj^ in the most direct way 
possible by being burned drop by drop dii-ectly in the cylinder and 
practically at the point where the work is to be done. 



Y. 



' President and Engineer, The Sperrj- GjToscope Co., BrookljTi, N. 
Mem..A.m.Soc.M.E. 

^ See paper by Metten and Shaw before Society of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers, May, 1921. 

Abstract of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, 
December 5 to 9, 1921, of The American Society of Mechanical 
ExGiNEERS. All papers are subject to revision. 



Compounding as a Remedy for Inherent Difficulties with 
Diesels — The Author's Early Work 

In a report made by a group of engineers in 1900, it was stated 
that if the combustion engine could be successfully compounded, 
a most important gain would be made in its weiglit and size. The 
fact that compounding presents other advantages has been known 
to engineers for a number of years, but the difficulties have been 
looked upon as insurmountable. 

A year ago Professor Watkinson, director of the important 
engineering laboratories of Liverpool University, in discussing an 
epoch-making paper by Engineer-Commander Hawkes on the Ad- 
miralty's extensive research on Diesels, stated, in substance, that 
we must recognize that the combustion engine in its present state 
was very crude and in compounding only lies the line along which 
the next great step in progress would be made. And he also stated 
that much greater results are bound to follow the compounding of 
combustion engines than were ever realized by compounding steam 
engines ; first, because of the very much greater range of pressures 




Fig. 1 10 : 1 Marine-Type Compound Oil Engine Built for Heavy Duty 



available, and secondly, because the great enemy to compounding 
in steam, viz., condensation, is not present. 

Activity in this field is now prodigious and workers in various 
parts of the world are commencing to realize that a great advance 
step is imminent. In America, a group headed by the author has 
been engaged on this problem for upward of thirty years. Starting 
in 1890, his first compound was running before the World's Fair. 
The patent records give evidence of this early work under date of 
December 10, 1892. A number of engines have steadily followed 
each other, each invoking improvements resulting from previous 
experience, until the essential problems have been conquered. Not 
only has the principle been thoroughly established, but all the im- 
portant refinements have been worked out, and finally an engine 
embodying practically all the advances has been subjected to long 
continuous runs. Data almost invaluable to the art have been 
secured, together with a series of indicator cards and diagrams that 
exceed a thousand in number. 

The outcome has been that the various prophecies of thoughtful 
engineers in the past have been more than fulfilled and there is 
every evidence that the heavy-duty compound combustion engine 
is everjiihing that was hoped for. It is light compared with the 
normal Diesel, being in special cases less than one-tenth, and in 
some instances less than one-twentieth, in weight for the same out- 



27 



28 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



put. Its mechanical efficiency Ls extremelj' high and a distinct gain 
in overall eflRciency from fuel to shaft has been made, as well as a 
very definite gain in simplicity, direct performance and smoothne.ss 
of the crankshaft diagram. This ha.s been achieved while adhering 
to the best practice, namely, four-cycle operation. 

Compounds Lighter and Cheaper — Much 
Larger Units Possible 

The lightness and simplicity of the compound solves the capital- 
charge factor automatically. Engines of this type weighing only a 
fraction of the weight of the present Diesel will inevitably be found 
to be much less in first cost as well as in cost of upkeep. 

Much higher powers than are now available are thought to be 
of extreme imjjortance and much interest is centered upon tlie 
question; in fact, the more advanced among the Diesel builders are 
todaj' concentrating upon ways and means to attain still higher 
powers from a single cylinder working on its present cycle. Of 
course this will increase instead of decrease the weight per horse- 
power. It is to the compound that we must look for a solution of 
this problem, for the reason that within presentcylinderand cylinder- 
wall limitations, powers in excess of 10,000 hp. per engine are en- 
tirely practicable and arc accompanied by all of the proportionate 



H P Cijlindtr 
'Expansion 

X 

HPCu/incfer \ \^ - 'Transfer 
Compression 




Compound Ertgtne 
ExHavsf. 



Pre-Compmsor 



' -Ex hausf-- Simple Engine 



Fio. 2 Indicator Card of Diesel Exgine 

savings in weight, space and capital charge that have been pointed 
out. 

Our own Government has watched the progress of this work 
for a number of years, inspected the development in its various 
stages, and has come forward with orders for an initial engine which, 
together with orders from other sources, is now under construction. 
To illustrate to what low figures the compound principle can be 
relied upon to bring the heax-y-oil engine, it should be stated that 
among these firders is one now under construction to weigh about 
five pounds to the brake horsepower. This may be looked upon as 
extreme, but the designed weights and finished parts as they now 
stand are below this figure. This brings us within striking distance 
of aviation engines, where the fire risk through the presence of gaso- 
line and the electric ignition system constitutes one of the greatest 
menaces to aviation progress. The remarkably high mean effective 
pressures of the hea\n,'-oil compound will give us the aviation 
engine and entirely eliminate both these sources of fire risk. 

The reason for the great weight in all classes of Diesel engines 
is apparent when it is understood that they are designed around 
an extremely small quantity of air and oxygen at each stroke, 
an amount so minute as to be quite surprising when compared to 
the ponderous engine itself. The volume of the power gases avail- 
able to do work is limited to the size of the combustion space, and 
when it is remembered that this is confined to a small crevice in the 
end of the cylinder of the order of one-twentieth of the travel of the 
piston, the hmitation is at once seen. Attempts to make it larger 
produce both compression and ignition temperatures that are too 
low and we have semi-Diesel and surface-ignition engines confined 
to smaller sizes with tendencies to a lower grade of ])erformance. 
Such engines are difficult to start and represent no gain in weight. 

Two of these volumes are sometimes combined as in the opposed- 
piston Junkers engine. The size of the combustion space, though 
still minute, is known to give some small advantages over the regu- 
lar engine which has only one-half of this space, but has the dis- 
advantage in common with all two-cycle engines of the fractional 
piston-ring support practically without lubrication on the hot 
bridges as the exhaust port is uncovered by the piston. 

Separate Cylinders Suited to Pressuhe Ranges — Two-Stage 
Compression Secures Large Working Volumes 

Take, for instance, the Diesel indicator card, Fig. 2. Draw 
the vertical line XY and it is easy to see that the exjiansion pres- 
sures to the left are high and should do their work in a high-pressure 



cylinder, whereas those to the right, especially following the dotted 
extension line of expansion, are definitely low pressures and should 
do their work in a low-pressure cylinder suitable for the purpose. 
This Ls practically all that Ls attempted in compounding combustion 
engines. The vertical line XY also di\'ides the compression curve 
into two stages, low and high, the latter taking place in the com- 
bustion cyUnder proper as a second stage. No compressor deliver- 
ing 500 or more pounds per square inch will undertake to do so in 
a single stage; there would Ije at least two stages. The old single- 
stage compression Ls discarded in the compound and tliis modern 
method of two-stage compression is adopted. 

Supercharging or compressing in two stages gives the controlling 
advantage iil that a very much larger unit volume of gases may 
be handled. The clearance spaces may be many times the size 
of those in the Diesel, and yet it is perfectly simple to bring these 
large volumes up to the requisite pressure and incandescent tem- 
peratures at the instant of fuel injection. 

The large volume of power gases in the combustion chamber 
of the compound at once solves a number of important problems, 
makes the light engine easj^ of accompUshment, and overcomes a 
number of other difficulties at the same time. No longer is the 
chilled perimeter per unit volume of gas the controlling factor, as 
it is in the Diesel. The chilled walls are retired into the back- 
ground as the large volume asserts itself, as compared vni\\ the 
small crevice indicating the total volume available in the normal 
Diesel (sh(jwn at C in Fig. 9), where the chilled areas exposed are 
very large and the volume very small. At a glance it will be seen 
that all tliis is reversed comiiletely in the large dome-shaped clear- 
ance space D in Fig. 9, where the volume has increased very much 
more rapidly than the perimeter. Tliis is again vastly increased 
in the low-pressure cylinder, where an extremely large volume exists 
with still smaller ratio of chilled perimeter. Taking all of the cham- 
bers into consideration, it is found that while retaining all of the 
chilled walls that are necessary' for proper handling of the lubrica- 
tion, still a gain is made on the order of 60 jser cent in the extent of 
these chilled walls in the compound as compared with the simple 
engine. 

With the large clearance volume we no longer have difficulty 
with solid injection, nor do we have any difficulty in using a wide 
range of hea\'y fuels. It has been known for years that as soon 
as the oU spray encounters chilled or even red-hot walls, the effi- 
ciency drops.' Here the oil fog may penetrate the deep masses of 
hot compressed air with instantaneous effect in every direction from 
the spray nozzle without encountering chilled walls and instantan- 
eous and very complete combustion results. In the compound 
engine the clearance volume is so large that the entire high-pressure 
piston displacement causes it to lose only a fraction of its pressure, 
thus bringing to the second stage, or low-pressure, both ample 
volume and pressure so that this piston (representing 6, 8 or even 
10 times the area of the high-pressure) is driven to the end of its 
stroke with pressures still above the atmosphere. 

Much Gre.\ter Expan.sion, Higher Efficiencies 

In this way the engine yields an expansion ratio based on gage 
pressures, wiiich instead of being .3 or 4 to 1, as in the case of the 
automobile engine, or about 12 to 1 as in the Diesel, can be made as 
high as 120 to 1, yielding a higher return and greater efficiency 
from the fuel because of the lower temperature of the exhaust. 
The great volume in the combustion space furthermore allows 
this space, without distortion, to extend easily out over the top 
of the low-pressure jiiston, making a most direct connection there- 
with through a short transfer port (see L, Fig. 9). 

The Compound Cycle 

Fig. 3 shows the cycle card without fuel, taken from the high- 
I)ressure cylinder in a 10 : 1 compound. The first-stage compres- 
sion enters the cylinder at point A on its out stroke with the pres- 
sure about 113 lb., giving a power stroke indicated by line A'. At 
jioint B the induction valve closes and on the in stroke the com- 
pression proper starts and rises on line B' to Diesel values at C. 
There being no fuel injection, the rececUng stroke brings the pres- 
sures down on practically the same fine B' to point B {E in Figs. 5 

'See Eng-Comdr. C. J. Hawkes' Admiralty paper: Some Experimental 
Work in Connection with Diesel Engines, November, 1920. 



Janttaht, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



29 



and 6). Here the transfer valve opens and the gases pass on the 
in stroke to the low-pressure cylinder on line D. Tliis is the out 
stroke of the low-pressure, the pressures sinking to a trifle below 
atmosphere before the final exhaust valve opens and continues 
open nearly during the entire next stroke of the low-pressure piston, 
which is, however, never shown on this high-pressure card but 
on the low-pressure card. Fig. 8. 

Fig. 4 is the air-pump card representing the first stage of the 
compression which delivers air to a small receiver, from which air 
is delivered during the induction stroke, on line A' of Fig. 3, which, 
it 'nill be observed, is a power stroke with a high mean effective 
pressure, thus recovering some of the power of the pump. 

Fig. 5 is the same as Fig. 3, except that fuel has been injected, 
and shows the regular slow Diesel burning common to all early 
cards of these compounds, where from point C a perfectly level 
line is often drawn to point C which marks the point of "cut-off." 
The gases then expand on line C" to point E, where the transfer 
valve opens and the gases continue to do work on the large area of 
the low-pressure piston, indicated by line D. The exhaust valve 
opens with pressures only sUghtly above atmosphere at point D'. 
The ordinary slow Diesel burning has the objection of lower effi- 
ciencies and allowing the heat to be added to the gases out nearer the 
exhaust end of the stroke. 

Utilizing the Deton.^tign of Fuels 

Through a research extending over a year and a half or more, 
conditions were discovered by means of which "detonation" of 
the fuels niaj^ invariably be secured. This extends to a large 
variety, including of course the heavy fuels. While automotive 
engineers have adopted extreme measures, even lowering compres- 
sion, "doping" fuels, etc., etc., in order to avoid the detonation, 
we have been working in the opposite direction. We have found 
that the thermodynamic efficiency is higher in case of high detonation 
diagrams than with low. Our work has been toward realizing these 
liigh efficiencies by developing instead of suppressing tliis liigh- 
intensity combustion. We have therefore sought to harness and 
utilize to the full the detonation phenomenon for the reasons and 
with the results outlined herein. 

Fig. 6 is a typical card taken under the same conditions and the 
same engine as Figs. 3 and 5, exliibiting "detonation" and showing 
the quick burning, pOing the heat up at the beginning of the stroke 
and as far away as possible from the exhaust end, gi\ing also a very 
much truer Carnot-cycle card. All recent running of the compound 
engines has been in accordance with tliis card. One of the achieve- 
ments of high-intensity combustion is better thermal efficiency and 
a still further reduction in the exhaust temperatures. The engine 
with this type of card is lifted from the old constant-pressure to 
the superior constant-volume performance wiiich frees the compound 
from all speed limitations. The detonation characteristics, e.g., 
the vertical rise on the diagram, persist even at very high speeds. 
This card also insures operation at lower fractional powers without 
indication of carbon deposits. 

Fig. 7 is given as showing the range of control of the peak and 
shape of the card at will under the same operating conditions and 
with the same spray nozzle. 

Elimination of Losses in Transfer 

In early attempts at compounding, principally layouts, it was 
found that prohibitive losses would occur in the transfer, due to 
the falling pressures wiiile filling the low-pressure clearances. A 
complete solution of this is found in a special adaptation of the 
process of "cushioning" — closing the exhaust valve at a prede- 
termined point before the out-stroke end, trapping a little of the ' 
hot gases and cusliioning them up to the transfer pressure so the 
transfer valve opens under conditions of equal pressure on each 
side. There are practically no losses sustained in cushioning; 
the power of compression is returned very completely on expansion. 
The additional advantage is secured of preventing all erosion due 
to high velocities of the hot gases over the transfer seats. These 
seats are amply jacketed and are found to remain smooth, bright 
and perfectly sealed over long periods. It is incidentally found 
that in cushioning, the adiabatic compression of the hot gases 
brings with it an equality of temperatures as well as pressures, so 
there is neither loss in pressure nor temperature at this critical point 



of transfer and the efficiencies are carried at high values throughout 
the cycle. 

Fig. 8 shows the low-pressure card, indicating the same power- 
pressure line D as Figs. 3, 5 and 6. On this in stroke the exhaust 
valve opens at D' and closes again at point G on the out stroke, 
giving rise to the cushioning curve H, terminating at the same 
jjressure and really the same temperature as at E in the high-pressure 
cylinder. 

The Transfer-Valve Problem 

The point X in Fig. 2 will be recognized as being the same as 
point B in Fig. 3 and point E in Figs. 5 and 6. The transfer valve 
considered as an exhaust valve is here called upon to handle much 
hotter gases than ever heretofore. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that compression in the compound is by the modern two-stage 
method. Air is admitted to the combustion chamber under com- 
paratively high pressure and although it is warm, yet with each 




Fie3 



FIQ 4- 





FI6.5 



Fie. 6 





F1S.7 FI6.6. 

Figs. .3-8 Indicator Cards op Compound Cycle 

atmosphere of pressure its cooling pow'ers are doubled. Air at 
100 lb. thus has seven times the cooling power of atmospheric air, 
seven times the w^eight and seven times the molecules in contact 
for cooling. In forcing the high-pressure piston down on pressure 
line A' in the above figures, air must pass some port in entering. 
Now, as a matter of fact, this port is in line with the transfer port 
and the induction valve itself rides on the back of the transfer valve 
in the form of a hollow sleeve / (Fig. 9) seated directly on the top 
of the transfer valve T. The back of the transfer valve is provided 
with greatly enlarged radiating and cooling surfaces presented to 
tliis cooling air and powerful convection currents are constantly 
acting when sealed. Moreover, tlu's air when entering is at high 
velocity and gushes dowm through and bathes the deeply serrated 
surfaces of the back of the transfer valve, licking up the heat very 
completely in its inward rush. 

Now in following out the cycle,' it will be noticed that tliis is 
the very step that follows directly on the heels of the transfer of 
the hot gases (D, Fig. 3) and continues throughout the next quarter 
cycle (see A', Fig. 3) and through the entire descent of the high- 
pressure piston, which in this way delivers a real power stroke to 
the crank with mean effectives in some instances greater than the 
mean effective pressures of the ordinary Diesel, thus returning some 
of the power taken to drive the supercharger or first-stage pump. 
If the transfer valve is intensely heated on its under surface (see T, 
Fig. 9) and is then instantly intensely cooled on a surface five times 
as great, it wiU certainly strike and maintain a heat balance which 
in practice is found to be extremely low, only about one-half the 



30 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



temperature of the Liberty valves, nowhere nearly approaching red 
heat nor the temperature of normal Diesel exhaust valves under 
load conditions. 

Again, the heat in these gases absorbed from the hot valve Ls 
useful ina.smuch as it is the auto-ignition temperatures as well as 
pres.surcs that are required at the end of the compression curve B'. 
Here a useful heat transfer and pure regenerative process is carried 
out. The seats give no trouble becau.se they are backed by the 
ample water jackets and, in fact, the whole transfer valve gear 
operates continuously and successfully and is found to be in perfect 
condition after hundreds and even thousands of hours of operation. 

How Lightness is Obt.\i.\ed in the Compound Engine 

Tho'question often asked is, To just what is due to smallness 
and lightness of the compound engine? It is this: In the four- 
cycle Diesel we have the tonnage of metal due to the presence of 
high pressures operating at a ridiculously low material efficiency 




Fig. 9 



Section and Elevation of Compoltnd Oil Engine, Showing Construction 



because tliese high pressures persist only about 2'/2 per cent of the 
total time. The Diesel card rises abruptly and immediately falls. 
All the rest of the time, over 95 per cent, either low pressures or no 
pressures at all arc present, whereas in the compound the pressures 
■persist and we arc dealing with great blocks of power, as can be seen 
from the power curve C". Although the i)ressures are not materially 
higher than in Diesel practice, they are made to persist practically 
clear across the card, iiroducing a very large gross mean effective. 
This is instantly followed by another line clear across the card, 
again producing another large gross mean effective in the low- 
pressure cylinder when icfcrred to the high-pressure area, all from a 
single fuel injection. Instead of 60 to 70 lb. net mean effective to 
the crank, deUvering its power through a few degrees only of one 
stroke in four, in the compound we have two net mean effectives, 
each of 300 or 400 11). per s(]. in., succeeding each other and covering 
two strokes out of the four from a single fuel injection, giving very 
much better crank-effort tlistribution for power purposes. The 
point of paramount interest is that these two large blocks of power 
are secured nol bij nny material increase of pressures, but by using 
large quantities of power gases, and "hanging on" to the pressures 
we have in those gases throughout practically two complete strokes, 
clear across the card twice, thus abstracting much more of the 
power they contain before exhausting. Su|)pose these to be 330 
lb. per sq. in. each. Added they make 6()0, which is easily ten 
times 62 lb., a net mean effective not infrequently met with in 
ordinary Diesels. In an engine of simple construction giving ten 
times the net mean effective to its crankshaft and well distributed, 
there should be no good reason why it should weigh more than one- 
tenth the weight of the present Diesel. 

The power gases work in the Diesel about 120 deg. of arc and 
in the compound 315 deg., or 2.6 times as long; or, considering 
the points of "cut-off" in each, the true expansion curve is 3 Vj times 



as long, which accounts for its large mean effectives and higher 
economies. 

Phopek Ratio foe Compounds 

As to the proper ratio for compounds, engines of 10 : 1 ratio 
of low-pressure to high-pressure cylinder areas, also 8 : 1 and 6 : I 
have Ijecn made, oi)erated and studied, the smaller ratios being at 
present considered more desirable. The weight factor does not 
change materially with changes in ratio in this region. The low- 
pressure piston operates two-cycle. The power distribution and 
the weight of the reciprocating parts both equalize best at about 
6:1. This makes a perfectly balanced unit, the end masses equal- 
ing and also moving oppositelj' to the central. The two full power 
impulses following each fuel mjection are also alx)ut equal. 
Thus full four-cylinder performance is secured with only three 
cranks and two extra power impulses are delivered on the induction 
stroke (see line A', Fig. 3), making six power imjiulses for each cycle. 
Another unusual advance should be noted, viz., complete 
reversibility and self air starting are secured without 
additional valves or cams over the simple, one-way engine 
without air starting, there being no difference in this 
regard. Again comparing the full-reversing, air-starting 
compound unit with a similar four-cyUnder Diesel of any 
jirominent make, delivering the same number of primary 
power imi)ulses to the crank, the latter has 16 valves and 
32 cams. The former operates the same cycle with two 
extra power impulses over the Diesel with 5 cams driving 
7 valve-s. 

Doing away with the three-stage air injection pump, 
its intercoolers and general complexity is another im- 
portant simplification. One United States builder stated 
recently that an excess of 11 per cent of the entire power 
of the engine is absorbed for driving these pumps. 

Marine Type of Compound Engine 

Fig. 1 shows a 10 : 1 compound engine built for heavy 
duty. Although tliis is a small marine type with liigh- 
pressure cyhndcrs 7 in. by 11 in. running at 400 r.p.m., yet 
the size of the crank-pitman end in the lower center of the 
engine reveals the ruggedness of these parts. The fuel 
pumps are also shown here and the connection to the 
governor. The cainshaft is on a shelf at the top of the 
engine to one side and is driven by skew gears. The electric 
generator forming the full load of tliis engine is shown in the 
background and one of the transfer valves with its bonnet cover 
stands on the floor in front of the engine. The comparatively small 
size of the engine, although in the foreground, is notable and stands 
out in marked contrast with the engine of Fig. 10, the product of 
the largest Diesel builder. This is the standard marine engine 
for some seventy ships. The electric generator forming the full 
load of this engine (so marked) is also in the background, as in 
Fig. 1. The generators in the two cases of course being standard, 
give an unusually excellent basis of comparison. The- compound 
works at a piston speed of about 700 feet per minute and its genera- 
tor would be still smaller in comparison, should it be worked at the 
piston speed of about 900 feet per minute of the large engine. In- 
cidentally, in the foreground of Fig. 10 there is also an excellent 
illustration of the three-stage, intercooled, high-compression air 
1)11111]) for spraying the fuel into the cylinders. 

The large size and weight in the Diesels exliends to all makes in 
somewiiat different degrees. A line of Diesels made in the United 
States are reported to weigh 512 lb. per b.hp. The engine of 
F'ig. 10 weighs 450 lb. per b.hp., while the compound in Fig. 1 weighs 
less than 30 lb. per b.hp. 



Internal Construction of the Compound 

Now as to the construction of the compound. Fig. 9 shows an 
elevation to the right of the center, and longitudinal section to the 
left, of the engine shown in Fig. 1. The two high-pressure or com- 
bustion pistons on their out stroke are at the ends and in the center 
tlie low-pressure at its extreme in stroke. The sturdy construction 
is indicated by the size of the crankshaft, about 50 per cent larger 
than in any other combustion engine of wiiich the author has knowl- 
edge, approaching, as it does, the bore of the combustion cylinders 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL EXGINEERIXG 



31 



themseh^s. The fuel pumps P and the control and manipulating 
wheel W are shown in elevation to the right. To the left the large 
dome of clearance D, forming the combustion chamber of the com- 
pound, stands out in marked contrast to standard Diesel practice, 
wliich is showii by the little space C between the solid horizontal 
line at the base of the clearance and the dotted horizontal line just 
above. The dome is large and forms an upward extension of the 
combustidu cylinder, extending also to the right in a large sweep 
surrounding the transfer ^'alve T which seals the transfer port L. 
The sleeve-like induction valve / is shown seated on top of the 
transfer valve and is controlled by the cam-operated fork F. The 
transfer valve and sleeve are lifted by a fork not shown, located in 
thimble S near the top of the stem. The first-stage annular com- 
pression pump G surrounding the trunk piston below the low- 
pressure piston proper, delivers its air to a small receiver, which 
in turn- discharges to the cored port A surrounding the iniluction 
sleeve /, the cooling action of which has been described. The 
little balancing cylinder B sustains a permanent connection with 
the low-pressure cylinder. The solid-fuel injection valve and 
nozzle A'^ are placed approximately over the center of gravity of 
the large masses of air in the clearance dome D. 

The comparison with the large dome constituting the clearance 
and combustion space in this compound with the small distance 
between the solid horizontal line at the base of the combustion space 
in Fig. 9 and the dotted line indicating the combustion space C in 
the normal Diesel, is simple to make and is significant. 

It is understood that the two high-pressure cylinders are operating 
four-cycle, one 360 deg. back of the other, discharging alternately 
into the low-pressure, which therefore works two-cycle and delivers 
power on each down stroke. The cycle has been pointed out and 
the general operation will be apparent from this figure. 

Field of Usefulness of the New Prime Mover 
To engineers versed in the problems of selecting and designing 



Fig. 10 Standard Marine-Type Diesel Engine 

prime movers, the advantages of the compound combustion engine 
are readilj' apparent. Its light w^eight for a given power with 
resulting low first cost and capital charge, the low costs for founda- 
tions, the high speeds with consequent low costs for connected gen- 
erators, the small space ref)uired and the simplicity and economy of 



operation are important reasons for suggesting new fields for this 
prime mover, which has been proven of practical value in a long 
series of tests under working conditions. The compound engine is 
es[x>cially adapted for use for auxiliary or stand-by service in water- 
jjower stations or for carrying the peak loads in central stations 



Support rncj 
ffinq5. 



Flexible Steel 

Plate Coupling'^. 





Fig. 11 Air-Gap Type of Electromagnetic Clutch 

where installations as large as 21,000 kva. have been contemplated. 

The important considerations are quick starting, non-deterioration 
of fuel reserve and flexibility of required fuel, amounting 
to almost complete independence of fuel quality. Other 
uses for the compoimd which readily suggest themselves 
are city water works and irrigation projects, either directly 
or by electrical distribution. 

The possibilities of the compound-Diesel-electric loco- 
motive should not be overlooked, as it presents all the 
weO-recognized ach'antages of electric traction. At the 
same time it represents a component part of the central 
power station, with the advantage over the latter that it 
operates at the highest thermal efficiencies known — nearly 
three times the efficiency of even a very large power plant, 
i.e., three times the tractive effort is delivered to the rail 
from every pound of fuel burned. Also the capital charges 
for main feeders, substations, bonded rails and shunted 
switches and frogs, and the third rail or elaborate overhead 
construction are eliminated. The tracks are used exactly as 
they now stand. 



Application to Ship Propulsion 
We now come to the greatest present employment of 
oil engines, namely, their substitution for steam in ship 
propulsion. The advantages of motorships are rapidly 
being recognized, and they are now bemg built in prac- 
tically every maritime country more rapidly than ever 
before. There were building last year 4.54, .502 tons of 
Diesel-driven ships, or over 7 per cent of the world's total 
under construction. In the light of the past ten years' 
experience the Diesel engine has proved an efficient, 
icliable and thoroughly seaworthy prime mover, suitable 
for a large proportion of the total sea-borne tonnage. 



Novel Electromagnetic Clutch Affords Elastic 

Drive 
In coimection with the development of the compound 
engine for marme purposes, and in order to provide any Diesel 
type of engine with speed flexibility equaling the reciprocating 
steam engine, there has been developed an electromagnetic clutch 
operating on an entirely new prniciple. 

This new t3'pe of clutch transmits i)ower entirely through air 



82 



MECHANICAL EXGINEERIN'G 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



gaps and has no meclianieal contact whatever between the driver 
and driven, eliminating wear and deterioration. It is capable of 
remote control and can be operated at any speed from zero to full 
engine speed; the torque may be varied at will from maximum to 
minimum. The power required to operate the clutch at full load 
is but a small fraction of one per cent of the power transmitted. In 
one instance .52.5 hp. required 2.56 watts, or 0.065 per cent of the 
power transmitted. -'Vn outstanding feature of this clutch is that 
on direct drive or full speed it is magnetically locked, which in- 
sures perfect synchronism and no slip with an extreme increase in 
pull-out toniue. .\t this and all times, in fact, the transmission 
has? the "velvet touch" of an air drive and insures complete torque- 
wise isolation of the mass moments lying on the two sides of the 
clutch. As seen in Fig. 1 1 the clutch forms a part of even a small- 
sized fljTvheel of either a Diesel or compound \^^th little, if any, 
alteration of its mass moment. 



tLFerfOMar.nrric clu7€h eounitu 




.^rri, p,inr COUFUNC 

Fig. 12 Plan of Pboposed Installation op Propelling Machinery 

The clutch is characterized by two kinds of torciue operating 
by opposite phenomena; the greater the differential or relative 
velocity between the driver and driven parts, tlic greater the torcjue 
available for starting and for bringing up to synchronism. This 
phenomenon also provides for slipping and continuous 
operation at all fractional speeds by means of the loaded 
secondary effect acting as an induction motor. 

The air-gap clutch drives through magnetic flux com- 
prising four ring elements, two of which are driving and 
two of which are driven. The flywheel proper accom- 
modates an exciting coil producing the magnetic flux. 
At all fractional speeds or while this clutch is slijjping, 
this magneto induction generates large currents in tlie 
driven elements which are now acting as short-circuited 
secondaries, producing hea\-y drag torques under perfect 
control by varying the amount of coU excitation. How- 
ever, when the speed comes up in the vicinity of synchro- 
nism, locking occurs. 



motors which are of substantial amount and a constant drag on 
plant and fuel economy. 

c The simplest form of gear drive may be employed because 
the magnetic clutch allows the pinion to be a complete "floater." 
The pinion may thus accommodate itself to any want of precision 
and all sorts of idiosyncrasies of the main gear and teeth without 
shock. Any irregularities existing have to deal only with the small 
masses of the pinion itself and its stub shaft, being completely iso- 
lated from the large mass moments of the engine. 

d The well-known irregularities in torque of any reciprocating 
engine and circumferential o.scillation are entirely smoothed out by 
the air gap in the clutch and are not permitted to reach the pinion; 
its specific tooth operation is thus completely safeguarded. The 
crash and general irregularities of the engine torques thus never 
reach the pinion and therefore can have no effect on the complete 
smoothness of its performance. 

e The torque, being under complete control, can be 
lowered so as to safeguard the equipment against over- 
loading, especially when sailing in obstructed harbors, 
near derelic'ts, and where floating obstacles are likelj' to 
be encountered by the [iropcllcr blades, thus providing an 
important emergency disconnecting gear breaking away 
from the large engine masses and allowing tiie propeller 
to "stop in its tracks" through the self-interruptibility of 
the magnetic clutch when reduced to fractional underload 
condition. In this way many disasters to the propelling 
machincrj' and interruptions to the serweraaj' be avoided. 
/ Nearly all revolving machinery is subject to periods, 
.sometimes running into severe " criticals. " These 
criticals always develop from the irregularities in torque 
of the mass moments within the engine pitted against 
outside mass moments aft. This can occur only when 
these are solidly coupled with each other, but if instead 
they are isolated, as by the cushion or air gap of a magnetic 
clutch of proper design, these troublesome criticals with 
their excessive stresses are completely suppressed and can never 
develop. 

g The combustion engine is reversible and runs equally well 
in either direction. The magnetic clutch solves completely ail 



miLSMFT 



Proposed Installation of Propelling ]\Iachinery 




Fig. 13 
.Standard 



Fig. 12 shows in plan view a proposed installation of the 
propelling machinery, securing the advantage to both 
engine and tail shaft of entire freedom of each to run at 
its own best speed. A propeller for a given ship has a speed at 
which it gives its most efficient performance; likewise a combustion 
engine can be built most economically and to give its best perform- 
ance for a given size if the designer is given entire freedom to choose 
the best engine speed, a condition which is cxtrenx^ly desirable. 

With this clutch and the engine combination shown in Fig. 1 
several very important advantages are secured: 

o There are available on a single ])ropcllcr all the advantages 
and flexibility of a multiple engine equipment, where one engine may 
be shut down and completely disconnected for inspection, valve 
grinding, etc., and yet the ship be going forward at three-quarters 
its normal speed. 

6 Complete flexibility of the electric drive without the expense, 
weight and space of the electric generators and motors and the 
cumbersome electric control e(|uipment for handling the heavy 
currents in maneuvering, and the double losses of generators and 



Comparison between Compound Divided-Unit Geared Drive and 
Diesel Engine Delivering to Tail Shaft the S.ame Power and Speed 

maneuv(M-ing problems, and in this way stands out in bold contrast 
to the difficult maneuvering and reversing conditions introduced by 
the non-reversible turbine. 

As seen in Fig. 12, a Kingsbury or equivalent thrust bearing 
may be located forward of the main gear. The pinions flanking the 
gear on either side are not necessarily diametrically disposed. This 
gives an excellent distribution of the machinery, compact engine- 
room arrangement, and ample space for the small oil-engine generat- 
ing sets for the ship, wiiich incidentally also supply the clutches with 
the very trifling amount of energy and any other auxiliaries outboard 
of the engines. The engines are completely reversing and self-air 
starting, and either engine may be completely isolated at will. 
When either engine is running, the other may be gradually or quickly 
started up by means of the clutch instead of by air, if desired. The 
engines under this arrangement run with extreme smoothness and 

(Conlinued on page 74) 



Commercial Operation of Airplanes 



By L. B. lent,! new YORK, X. Y. 



In order thai those interested in the operation of airplanes for commercial 
use may have an idea of what may be expected of a properly organized and 
operated seroice. the author presents in this paper an analysis of the record 
of the Air Mail Service of the United States Post Office Department for 
the year ending Sept. 30, 1921. The operating record, the cott of operation, 
and the life and maintenance of planes and of engines furnish a basis 
upon which the author points out possible improvements, the most important 
in present practice being the use of efficient commercial planes equipped 
with a thoroughly reliable power plant. In regard to cost of operation, 
the author states that the total operating cost should not exceed 70 cents pat 
plane-mile for single-engine planes of not over 400 hp. 

IT IS the purpose of the author to present in this paper some 
information wliich may be found useful by those interested in 
the operation of airplanes as vehicles of transportation for 
profit. 

Up to the present time there has been comparatively little such 
commercial service in this country and consequently there have 
been very few data developed which might be useful in an investi- 
gation and analysis of this important subject. 

Commercial fljnng in Europe is developing very fast, l>ut the 
conditions under which it is performed make it difficult to apply 
the information gained to operations in this countr}^ A large part 
of the foreign ser\'ice is devoted to carrj-ing passengers and the 
operations are in many cases partly supported by government 
subsidies, and nearly all of the elements of cost are such as to make 
it difficult to apply the results to any proposed operation, in the 
United States. 

Fortunately, however, there has been a service in operation 
in the United States since May 15, 191S, which has rapidly de- 
veloped into what may be properly characterized as the largest 
commercial operation of airplanes in the world; namely, the Air 
Mail Ser\ace operated by the Post Office Department of the United 
States Government. 

This ser\'ioe is operated by a purely ci\ihan personnel and is 
very similar in nearly all respects to that wliich would be effective 
in a purely commercial service. Moreover, the records of tliis 
ser\-ice have been carefully kept during its entire existence, and if 
properly interpreted can be used as a basis for estimating the 
probable performance and costs of any commercial service of the 
irmnediate future. 

Organization 

The Transcontinental Air Mail Ser\-ice operates daily in each 
direction between New York and San Francisco, an air-line dis- 
tance of 2630 miles and a total daOy mileage of 5260 miles. The 
various fljing fields and the principal buildings located on each 
are as follows : 



New York 
(Hazelhurst). 



1 Hangar 
1 Storage hangar 
1 Office building 
1 Hangar 



Iowa City, la. 



Bellefonte, Pa 

Cleveland, Ohio 1 Hangar 

1 Workshop 



Omaha. Neb. 
North Platte, Neb. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Rock Springs, Wyo. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Elko, Nev. 
Reno, Nev. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



1 Office; stock 
room and re- 
pair building 

1 Tent hangar 

1 Hangar 

1 Hangar 

1 Hangar 

1 Tent hangar 

1 Hangar 

1 Tent hangar 

1 Hangar 

1 Hangar 

1 Office 



1 Office 
Bryan, Ohio 1 Hangar 
Chicago, 111. 1 Large repair hangar 

1 Storage hangar 

1 Operating hangar 

1 Office 

1 Stock house 

1 Test house with 
stands 

1 Oil house 

The airplane ecjuipment now used in tliis service has been stand- 
ardized and all machines are the De Ha\'iland planes equipped 
with Liberty 12 engines turned over to the Mail Service bj- the 



' Chief, Engineering and Survey Division, Aerial Transport Corp., Mem. 
.\m.Soc.M.E. 

Abstract of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, 
December, 1921, of The American Society of Mechanic.il Engineers. 
All papers are subject to revision. 



War and Na\'y Departments. These machines are rebuilt to 
accommodate the maU load in the cockpit in front of the pilot 
and strengthened to meet the hard service required. A consider- 
able amount of this equipment was turned over as indicated, and 
is stored in two buOdings in Newark, N. J. ThLs consititutes the 
m.ajor source of supplies for the entire service. 

The total investment of the Air Mail Service is about S800,000, 
of which S133,000 is for buildings, trucks, tools, etc., the remainder 
being for airplanes and engines. 

Equipment 

It is obvious that the actual number of planes in serviceable 
condition and under repair may vary from day to day, but the 
following is a fair average figure for the year: In serviceable condi- 
tion, 50; under repair, IS; awaiting repair, 30. During the year, 
27 planes were damaged beyond repair and salvaged, whUe 48 new 
planes were placed in service and about 20 experimental types 
retired. 

Engine equipment has always been in excess of actual need, 
because of the large number of Liberty engines turned over by the 
Armj'. The total number of Liberty 12A (Army high-compression) 
and Liberty 12N (Navy low-compression) , developing about 400 and 
350 hp., respectively, in use is about as follows: Engines in ser\'ice- 
able condition, in planes and as spares, 150; engines under and 
awaiting repair, 350. The foregoing figures do not represent the 
engine requirements for such a service. 

An accurate estimate of the total engine requirements for this 
service can be based on the follomng: 22 engines are required for 
the 22 planes in daily service; at least 1 spare engine should be 
at each major station, making a total of 14; another supply of 
appro.Kimatoly 30 engines is necessary for those constantly in transit 
between the various fields and the overhaul stations, including the 
period of overhaul, making a total of 66 engines. If this service 
is properly organized a total of 75 engines is ample for successful 
operation of such a ser^dce. 

Operating Record 

The operating record for the past year is sho-mi in Table 1. 
For a thorough understanding of these figures it is thought well to 
briefly outline the conditions under which the ser\ice was rendered. 

The transcontinental course is divided into 13 legs of approxi- 
mately 200 miles each 'with stations as given above. The route 
is divided into three major divisions — the eastern, extending from 
Xew York to Chicago, the central, from Cliicago to Rock Springs, 
Wyo., and the western, from Rock Springs to San Francisco, Cal. 
It has been found that in the western trip the flight is hampered 
by prevafling westerly head -ninds, whereas the eastern trip is, of 
course, assisted by such conditions. Inasmuch as the supply of 
gas for each ship is approximately only four hours at cruising speed, 
it becomes necessary in many ffights to stop at intermediate stations 
for service. Many times coming east, planes fly a major leg of 
approximately 400 miles. The number of such trips per month 
is somewhat varied, depending upon conditions. 

Wi\As the available space in each plane accommodates 400 
lb. of mail, the average amount carried per trip for the entire year 
was less than 150 lb. per plane per trip. These planes carry a 
pilot only, who flies a leg in one direction each day, returning to 
his home station the next day and laying off the third day. This 
schedule is, of course, subject to change, which occasionally results 
in a pilot doing more mileage than indicated. 

The total flying time per day varies with the weather conditions, 
but the average speed for the entire year was 86.3 miles per hour; 
for the last 6 months (during better weather conditions) the aver- 
age speed was 87.88 miles per hour. Up to the present time all 
flights have been made during the day. An indication of what is 
possible in a continuous trip, is the record established on Feb. 22 
and 23, when the mail was carried from San Francisco to New York 
in elapsed time of 33 hr. 20 min., or a total fl\dug time of 26 hr. 
50 min. The fastest scheduled train time between these two 



33 



34 



MECHANICAL ENGIXEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



points in 92 hr. Tlie eastbouiul trip fioin Chicago to New 
York has been made in 5 hr. 30 min. The flight from Salt Lake 
City to San Francisco wa3 made on Oct. 14, 1921, in G hr. 1 min. 
elapsed time, or a total flying time of 5 hr. 32 min. over a distance 
of 624 miles. The fastest train between tha-ic two i)oints is sched- 
uled for 24 hr. 15 min. It follows that, for the transcontinental 
distance, daylight flying only will cut train time atxiut in half, 
and with night flying, the time is cut to about one tliird. 

The operation record discloses one feature of special merit 
given under "Per Cent of Performance." It will be noted that 
the percentage of performance for the year was 88.33 per cent. 
For the last (i months this average was 98 per cent, of which 96 per 
cent was actually completed on scheduled time. In view of the 
fact that the Pennsylvania Railroad in their printed timetables 
boasts of a train performance of 95.6 per cent on time, the foregoing 
record for the last 6 moutlis is truly remarkable. 

As to the effect of weather on the service, it will be noted that 
defaulteil trii)s and the number of forced landings show a decided 
increase during the winter months. An interesting fact is that the 
number of forced landings from mechanical trouble also shows an 
increase, which would indicate the effect of cold weather on the 
quality of work done by mechanics. 

During the year ten [lilots and one mechanic were killed — four 



ing are safe and conservative for estimating the o{)erating costs 
for any similar commercial line. In fact, the figures shown can be 
verj' imich bettered if advantage is taken of the experience gained 
in the .Mail Ser\'ice. 

An analysis and consolidation «( the figures given in this table 
are shown in Table 3, which give the service and unit costs and the 
costs j)cr mile for the year. In this table the total costs are di- 
vided into three general headings, namely. Overhead, Fljing and 
Maintenance. Under the head of Overhead is included depart- 
mental overhead, office force and watchmen, motorcycles and 
trucks, rent, light, fuel, power, telephone, water and radio. Main- 
tenance consists of miscellaneous, mechanics, helpers, repairs and 
accessories, and warehouse charges. Flying consists of gasoline, 
grea.se and oU, and pilots. 

It will l)e noted that the mileages as shown in column 9, Table 1 
and in column 3, Table 3, do not agree. The former figure is miles 
traveled in regular mail trips and the latter is "total miles" flown, 
wliich includes ferry trips, test flights and retrieving planes. The 
"total miles" is the proper basis for estimating costs per mile. 

An examination of Table 2 will show that the largest items of 
cost are gasohne (15.0 per cefit of the total), repairs and access- 
ories (IS. 6 per cent), pilots (12.8 per cent) and mechanics and 
helpers (14.5 per cent). Considering these separately, it is seen 



TABLE 1 OPERATING RECORD OF THE U. S. AIR MAIL SERVICE. OCT.. 1920— SEPT.. 1921 



Month 



(1) 



1920 
October. . . . 
November . 
December. . 

1921 
January. . . . 
February. . . 

March 

April 

May ' 

June ' 

July 

August .... 

September.. 

Total 



Trips 
Possible 

(ScHEnn-ED) 


TKMPTKD 


(2) 


(3) 


750 


.593 


758 


575 


884 


062 


850 


()97 


782 


660 


918 


.S71 


884 


K37 


8.50 


833 


832 


829 


624 


623 


693 


689 


657 


651 


9482 


8520 



Trips 
Dek.\ui.tkd 



(4) 



183 
222 

153 

122 

47 

47 

17 

3 

1 

4 

6 





W'eatheh 


Trips Un- 


ENrODNTERED 


completed 


Trips in 


Trips 




fog 


rlpar 


(5) 


(B) 


(7) 


n7 


190 


143 


77 


230 


345 


105 


347 


315 


87 


253 


444 


71 


310 


350 


59 


331 


520 


30 


370 


407 


20 


320 


513 


10 


268 


561 1 


6 


65 


558 1 


13 


129 


560 


8 


180 
3013 


471 


549 


5>47 

1 



Mileage 
Possible 



(8) 



154,700 
156,070 
178,770 

171,900 
159.23N 
185,6.52 
178,776 
171,900 
168,636 
131.450 
136,974 
127,700 



1,921.784 



Miles 
Traveled 



(9) 



123,274 
114,7.50 
127,306 

132,67!! 
130,431 
171.59,T 
171,156 
168.397 
166,9.56 
1.30,555 
134,549 
125,914 



1,697,.560 



Per Cent of 
Performance' 



(10) 



79.68 
73 . .50 
71 21 

77.18 
81.90 
92 42 
95 73 
97 . 96 
99 00 
99.31 
98.22 
98.59 



88.33 



Mail 

Carried, 

Lb. 

(11) 



89,.")41J 

87,302 

89.942 

84.435 
88,135 
110,117 
117,778 
115,073 
105,838 
77,276 
S4.680 
88.401 



1,138.518 



Forced Landings 
Dce to 



Mech. 

(12) 



54 

85 
89 



64 
79 
72 
57 
34 
32 
13 



778 



Other 
(13) 



59 
69 
138 

131 

122 

123 

107 

81 

51 

29 

30 

26 



966 



' For last 6 months, 98 per cent. 

*May 31 — Last day's service on New York- Washington Route. 

^June 30 — Last day's service on St. Louis-Twin Cities Division. 



of the fdriner during the last six iiioiitlis. This is equivalent to 
one pilot killed for each 169,756 miles flown. 

During the year 27 planes were so badly wrecked that they w'ere 
salvaged instead of repaired, and there were 145 forced landings 
which resulted in damage to jilancs necessitating repair work; 
of these about 100 re(iuired major repairs. Ob\'iously some were 
damaged more than once during the year. A further analysis of 
this as affecting the cost of operation is given later. 

The large number of actual forced landings from mechanical 
trouble and other cau.ses will no doubt attract attention as being 
excessive, and it should be noted that of the total number of forced 
landings only 172 resulted in damage to the planes. This is one 
plane damaged for every 10 forced landings. 

It should, in fairness, be pouited out that all landings other 
than tho.se regularly scheduled, even though made on an inter- 
mediate Air Mail field, are counted as forced landings. 

Cost of Operation 

The consolidated costs of operating this service for the yearly 
period chosen are shown in Table 2. It will be noted that there 
is no charge for interest on investment. This is of course a proper 
charge in any commercial service and should be added in any 
estimated costs. By making such a charge and adding it to the 
total costs shown in the tabic, it is thought that the figures result- 



that the ga.soline cost cannot be materially reduced by the use of 
more economical engines, for even if engine economy is increased, 
say, 10 \wr cent (wliich is difficult), the total reduction would only 
be one tenth of 15 per cent, or 1.5 per cent of the total. 

The largest item, repairs and accessories (column 4), is suscep- 
tible of considerable reduction. The elimination of forced landings 
and the damage resulting therefrom would largely reduce this 
charge. Fair wear and tear on places is relatively very small. 

The basis on which pilots are paid, namelj' §2000 per annum, 
jjIus 5, 6, and 7 cents per mile flown, has proved to be \'ery satis- 
factory, and more so than any other basis tried by the Mail Ser\ice. 
In all cases it supplies the men vfith a living wage and develops 
efficient service, which is rewarded by increased pay. 

The pay for (thief mechanics in the Mail Service averages .S2000 
per annum; other mechanics from .?1400 to .S1800 per annum; 
helpers from $1 100 to §1400 per annum; and watchman and helpers 
from .§900 to S120() per annum. 

An exjilanation of column 7 is essential. In most of the major 
fiekls the ^Vlail Service was sujiphcd with flying field, and in some 
cases with hangar facilities, by the cities in which they are located, 
wthout charge therefor. Rent for field and hangar facilities is 
paid at New York, Bellcfonte, Pa., Cleveland, Ohio, Bryan, Ohio, 
Chicago, Illinois, and College Park, IVIaryland (training 
station). At ail other cities west of Chicago no rent is ))aid. 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



35 



This item of cost is therefore comparatively low and should be 
modified if used for estimating similar costs of a commercial lino, 
unless similar arrangements coukl lie made with various muni- 
cipilaties for use of municipal airdromes. If commercial companies 
have to purchase flying fields, as well as field equipment, it would 
of course, add largely to the capital costs, as well as the operating 
charges. It is helie\-ed, however, that very favorable arrangements 
can be made with most of the large cities in the United States for 
proper landing-field facilities. 

The analysis sjiows that the average yearly operating cost per 
flying mile was 80.06 cents and for the last si.x months of the year, 
71.83 cents. 

As mentioned herein, if the cost is reduced to a ton-mile basis, 
the figures i-esulting will be unreliable; a fair basis of comparison 
is on a plane-mile basis, for it costs but little more to fly a plane 
loaded to its cai>acity than it does to fly it empty. It is a safe 
statement that untler the conditions prevailing in the Mail Service, 
the cost per plane-mile v.i\\ soon be reduced to the neigh!>orhood 
of 60 cents. 

With proper equipment and organization, a commercial service, 
using single-engine planes of not over 400 hp. each and flying 
only one round trip per day over a distance equivalent to 
that of the transcontinental service, can be accomplished for a 



Mail-Service experience shows that after a plane has had about 
450 hours in the air it is necessary to lay it up for a thorough in- 
sjjection and reconditioning. This ojjeration involves some labor 
and material (usually new wing covers, etc.) and costs an average 
of $600 per iilnne. The total time required for such an operation 
at present is about two months. Since the flying hours per year 
arc 21,952, the total number of such overhauls is 21,952 -i- 450 or 
49. The record also shows that about 100 planes were so damaged 
as to require re|iairs. The average cost of these rejiairs was about 
$1000 each and the average time about two months yicr plane. 
The jjresent rate of repair and overhaul for the entire Mail Service 
is about 11 to 12 planes per month. 

It is thus seen that about 14 to 15 planes (about one for each 
14 fields) must be constantly traveling to and from the repair 
shops and undergoing repairs. It should be stated that some 
plane repairs are made at many fields as well as at the main repair 
shop in Chicago. 

An analysis of the above shows that: 

a The initial plane equipment is about one (1) plane for each S2 miles 

of scheduled flight 
b One (1) plane repair for each 10,975 scheduled miles flown 
c One (1) plane reconditioned for each 34,000 scheduled miles flown 
d One (1) complete "washout" for each 62,000 scheduled miles flown 
e The cost of conditioning 49 planes at $600 each =1.8 cents per mile 



TABLE 2 CONSOLIDATED COSTS OF OPERATING V. S. AIR MAIL SERVICE FOR YE.\R ENDING OCT. 1, 1921 




total cost not exceeding 50 cents per flying mile. This is especially 
true if more than one round tri]) per day is flown. 

Life and Maintenance op Planes 

It may be noticed that in the foregoing no account is made of 
depreciation. In the present service no plane has remained intact 
long enough to wear out and so determine even approximately a 
rate of depreciation. Before a plane wears out most or all of the 
parts are replaced and charged up under that heading, or else it 
is so completely destroyed as to be retired from service, charged off 
entirely, with credit for such material as can be salvaged for use in 
repairing other planes. A fairly accurate idea of the rate of this 
destruction may be had from the following data: 

During the year 27 planes were so badly damaged that repairs 
were not undertaken, these planes being salvaged. Of the many 
forced landings, 145 resulted in "crashes" necessitating repairs, 
of wliicli al)outi 100 necessitated major repair work. The number 
of "crashes" is thus about 10 per cent of the total number of forced 
landings. The average fur the year is one "crash" for each 17,560 
miles flown with mail; and for the last six months, .31,211 miles. 

The number of planes recjiured as original equipment to operate 
such a service as the Mail Service and the rate and cost of replace- 
ment may be estimated as follows : 

1 plane for each of the 22 daily flights 22 

1 spare plane for each daily flight, to be used in case of "last- 
minute" trouble with scheduled i>Iane 22 

I spare plane at each of the 14 fields which may be in transit to and 

from repair shops and under repair 14 

Total 5S 



/ The cost of repairing 100 planes at SIOOO each = 6.0 cents per mile 
(/ The cost of "washouts" for 27 planes at $4000 each = 6.5 cents per 

mile 
h Total cost for repairs and replacements = 14.3 cents per mile. 

This amoimts to a total estimated cost of 1238,000. Deducting 
this amount from the total in column 4 (,$275,962), leaves $37,962, 
which it is fair to assume is the cost of engine overhauls and repairs, 
or about 2.25 cents per mile. 

Life .'^nd Maintenance of Engines 
The recoril of engines actually replaced, repaired, salvaged, 
etc., is so involved in the records that it is difficult to discover the 
exact data. However, methods of maintenance, inspection and 
overhaul have been so developed and improved that it is more 
acciH'ate to base an estimate on the present rate than to use total 
figures for the year. 

Present methods of conditioning and caring for engines have 
resulted in an almost uniform service of 100 hours of running 
between each overhaul, unless an engine is damaged in some 
"crash." Since a total daily mileage with mail is about 5300 miles 
and the average speed is 86.3 miles per hour, the daily flying time 
is about 62 hours per day. To this must be added the time con- 
sumed in warming up engines (6 hours) and the time of engines 
on various test stands, so that the total daily time for the ser\ice 
is 80 engine-hours. This is equivalent to 0.8 engine replaced per 
day. Crashes, mechanical troubles and causes other than plain 
wear bring up the rate to just about 1.0 engine per fljing day. 
Wliile this ma\- seem high, considering that only twenty-two 
planes fly regularly each day, it is not, for 100 fl>'ing hours per 



36 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



engine between overhauls is a very high figure and can only \)C 
attained by the most efficient and systematic conditioning and 
repair methods in force in the Mail Service. While about 300 
engines were used, the whole 300 were not actually overhauled, 
a.s many new engines were placed in ser\icc during this period. 
The yearly demand is, however, at about a rate of 300 engines 
per year. 

This running time of 100 hours between overhauls is true even 
after the second and sometimes the third overhaul, the necessary 
replacements being made at each overhaul. 

The average cost of an engine overhaul is as follows : 

One mechanic and one hcliier, 10 daj'S, 8 hours each 80 hours 

Washing and valve griudiiiB by other men 8 hours 

Carburetor work, cleaning and adjusting 4 hours 

Ignition work 4 hours 

Block testing 6 hours 

Total 102 hours 

This total time may vary 50 per cent each way, but it is a fair 
average. The average labor cost is about S75 per engine. The 

TABLE 3 ANALYSIS AND CON.SOLIDATION OF FIGURES GIVEN 
TABLE 4 FOR PERIOD OCT. 1. 192&-.SEPT. 30, 1921 



IN 





,Sek\ 


ICE AND Unit CfwT 




Cost Per 


Mile, Cents 




Gasoline 


Total Time. 


Totnl 


Coat 


C08t 






Mainte- 




gal. 


hr.-min. 


inilea 


l>er 

hour 


per 

mile 


Overhead 


Flying 


nance 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5( 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


1920 


















October 


60,010 


1,852-56 


154,486 


S66.71 


SO. 80 


SO IS 


«0 23 


$0 39 


November . . 


50,573 


1,651-20 


1.39.759 


73.57 


0.87 


0.21 


27 


39 


December . . 


49.844 


1,569-2S 


131.040 


83.60 


1.00 


23 


0.29 


0.48 


1921 


















January . . . 


51,427 


1,668-51 


139,609 


81.78 


0.9.S 


0.23 


27 


48 


February . . . 


68,698 


1,733-04 


153,055 


70.08 


92 


25 


0.27 


0.40 


March 


66,929- 


2,103-31; 


186,625 


73.18 


0,82 


0.19 


0.25 


0.38 


April 


66,854 


2,175-01 


186,950 


67.98 


0.79 


0.18 


0,25 


0.36 


May 


64,322 


2,041-29 


181,216 


61.08 


0.69 


19 


24 


26 


June 


57,873 


2,148-27 


18.5,091 


59.33 


o.cn 


0.15 


0.23 


31 


July 


48,625 


1,644-26 


148,684 


66.76 


0.73 


0,18 


0.22 


33 


August 


47,818 


1,696-30 


149,432 


63.06 


0.71 


0.16 


0.22 


0.33 


September. . 


43,953 


1.667-07 


148,099 


61.72 


70 


0.17 


21 


.32 


Total .... 


676,926 


21,952-18 


1,894,646 


$69.57 


$0,808 
















.\vgc. 


for .vear 


$0 1933 


$0 246 


80 368 



Total average for year. . 80 66 cents i>er mile 
Avge. for last Omonths. .. .$0.1710 $0.2282 SO. 3182 
Total -Vverage for last 6 months 71 .83 cents per mile 
Col. 3 
"Col. 2 
Average speed for the last 6 months = 87.88 Hides per hour 



Average speed for the year - 



-86.3 miles per hour 



average cost of the necessary material ipiilactunt^nts, bjised on 
Government war prices, is S150. The average total cost is there- 
fore S'225 per engine. This cost may seem excessive, but is justi- 
fied by the amount of careful and accurate work done, which is the 
real reason for 100 hours of further satisfactory service. 

Right hero may be a proper place to point out the economy 
resulting from such methods. More frecjuent overhauls and a less 
satisfactorj' service record arc a sure sequel to a lack of attention 
to the power plant, which is the iin])ortant element. To illustrate, 
consider briefly the procedure eini)loj'od in the Air Mail Service. 
Even a new engine is not assumed to be in proper condition. Noth- 
ing is "taken for granted." The method of conditioning of such an 
engine, and in general all engines after repair, may be briefly de- 
scribed as follows: 

Even new motors are at least partly torn down to insiicct the 
condition and fit of cylinders, i)istons, piston rings, crank^sluift 
and pin bearings, gears, etc. Crankshafts arc especially checked 
for alignment, end play and proper condition of thrust bearings. 
Carburetors are carefullj- ins])crtcd and calibrated for both mechani- 
cal perfection and proper functioning, as arc also generators, dis- 
tributors, and other parts. The usual jirocedure is to put on 
every engine a set of carburetors, distributors, etc., which have al- 
ready been inspected and calibrated in workrooms devoted to tliis 
special work. Such similar parts removed are turned into these 



de])artnients for conditioning. All gaskets, especially those at 
carburetor and intake-manifold connections, are replaced with those 
whose condition is known to be good, thus preventing possible 
air leaks and improper carburation. Rul)ber-ho.se connections on 
gas, oil and water pipes are all replaced when necessary and it 
is usually necessarj'. 

By using a timing disk, tlie correct timing of camshafts, valves 
und distributors is checked and the distributors for each bank 
of cylinders are synchronized both mechanically and electrically 
to within a quarter of a degree. 

After a complete iaspection and conditioning, the engine is 
run for about two hours at speeds varying from 300 to 1400 r.p.m. 
and also with wide-open throttle. After test, the engine is washed 
with kerosene and again inspected externally, and any faults which 
may have developed are corrected. AU nuts are tightened, if neces- 
sary, all cotter pins are placed and securely fastened and the general 
condition made up to a standard and passed by the chief mechanic. 
The foregoing constitutes a presentation of the mail record for 
the year, together with its analysis and certain deductions from 
this record, based on the author's experience in and 
knowledge of the Air Mail Service. It is assumed that 
some of the lessons learned in this ser\'ice, and perhaps 
some of the opinions as to what improvements are possible, 
will be interesting, and they are accordingly set forth in 
the following paragraphs. 

Impkovements Possible 

First and foremost, it must be apparent that the 
actual pay load (or mail load) carried is very small for 
planes powered with 400 hp., and if the cost of operation 
be reduced to a ton-mile basis, the results are not en- 
couraging. However, it must also be evident that the 
costs really apply to a specific number of plane-miles, 
and not ton-miles, for it costs almost exactly as much to fly a 
plane empty as it does loaded. The mail planes carried 
an average load throughout the year of only about 
133 lb. per trip attempted. As preNaously mentioned, 
the maximum mail load possible to put into the space 
available in the fuselage of these converted war machines 
was about 400 lb. These machines are now being re- 
modeled to carry 850 lb. of mail. The important point, 
however, is that in a plane designed for commercial 
ser^■ice, using the same Liberty 12, 400-hp. engine, and 
costing no more to operate, the pay load shoidd be all of 
2000 lb. 

Another important point to bear in mind is that the 
mail planes make one trip each waj' per day. A com- 
mercial ser\'ice operating several trips per day could do so 
without greatly increased overhead costs and at a con- 
siderably reduced unit cost of service. Just what the 
reduction would be, would depend, of course, on the number 
of trips made. Hence it may be fairly said that a most apparent 
improvement is a use of planes designed for commercial service, 
those which wU carry a maximum load economically over 
a reasonable distance at high speed. 

The cruising sjieed of such a plane should not be much, if am', 
less than 100 miles per hour. Head ^^^nds of 30 to 40 miles per 
hour are sometimes encountered, which slow dowTi the actual 
ground speed by exactly that much, which means that the 100- 
miles-fjcr-hour plane is traveUng at (100-40) 60 miles, whereas a 
l)lane having an air speed of 130 mUes per hour, or 30 per cent 
more, is doing (130-40) 90 miles per hour over the ground, or 50 
|)er cent more than the 100-mile plane. Some carrjang capacity 
should be sacrificed to speed in order to enable a plane to make 
time under adverse weather conditions. High speed also decreases 
the time required to fly a given distance and also decreases the 
total gas consumption, an important consideration, as \vill be seen. 
Inasmuch as the fuel load is one of the factors in determining 
the size and weight of the plane, it is important that the fuel be 
used as efficiently as jjossible. The actual cost of the fuel burned 
is not so important as the reduction in the total fuel weight for a 
given ffight, for this saving in weight may be put into added cargo; 
or, more important, it can be put into added power-plant weight, 
which will, in large measure, jircvcnt forced landings. Overall 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



37 



efficiency involves (a) reducing plane resistance, (6) increasing the 
loading per unit of wing area, (c) using a propeller of the highest 
possible efficiency, (rf) running the engine, or engines, at nearly 
full power and (e) using engines of high specific economy. The 
effect of a proper combination of the above elements is to reduce 
first cost by using relatively small machines to do the work of large 
ones, wliich in turn decreases capital costs and further reduces 
the operating expense. 

The question of reducing plane resistance, that is, increasing 
the ratio of the lift to drag (L/D), seems to have been given serious 
attention only in military or racing machines and has been ignored 
on commercial machines, especially of the multi-engined type. 
As the gross load which can be carried is equal to the thrust of 
the propeller multiplied by the ratio of the lift to drag (L/D) at 
a given speed, and as a low-resistance plane does not need to weigh 
more than one of higher resistance, it follows that the "usefulness" 
will be increased by increasing the lift-drag ratio, but in much 
greater proportion. For example, in an airplane making 100 miles 
per hour T^ith a propeller efficiency of SO per cent, the net available 
thrust is 3 lb. per engine hp. If the L/D ratio of such a plane is 
6 at this speed, the total weight-carrjang ability is IS lb. per hp. 
If the weight empty is 10 lb. per hp., the net weight of the useful 
load is 8 lb. per hp. By increasing the lift-drag ratio to 9 instead 
of 6, the total weight-carrying ability will be 27 lb. per hp., and the 
net useful load 17 lb. per hp. instead of S lb. In other words, an 
increase of 50 per cent in the L/D ratio increases the useful load 
capacity 112 per cent, a gain by no means negligible and, in fact, 
not difficult to obtain. 

Real airplane engine efficiency is not in fuel economy alone, 
although a low specific fuel consumption is essential. Contrary 
to more or less popular ideas, reliability is not a direct fiuiction of 
weight per horsepower only, for the mere addition of weight does 
not necessarily add reliability. As a matter of fact, the designers 
of recognized ability agree that airplane engines should be as light 
as possible. Lightness is an inherent quality of airplane-engine 
design and does not necessarily mean decreasing the factor of 
safety of important members below a safe figure. Making valves 
(for instance) much hea\der would seriously interfere with their 
proper functioning as valves. 

The best engines have a combined fuel and oil consumption of 
seldom less than 0.5 lb. per hp-hr. at full load, so that fuel and oil 
for a 5-hour ffight is 2.5 lb. per hp., or more than the weight of a 
modern engine. It is therefore important that the fuel be con- 
sumed efficiently. 

If the desire to "take off" quickly and climb rapidly is met, 
there must be much more power available than is required for 
economical cruising, and since all present types of engines have 
a higher specific fuel consumption when tlirottled, it follows that 
best results are to be obtained by some method which permits 
engine speed reduction with a nearly wide-open tlu'ottle. The 
variable-pitch propeller for single-engine machines is one solution 
of the problem. 

Another solution is the multiple-unit power plant; that is, two 
or more power units driving a single propeller. 

This brings us to a most important consideration in commercial 
operation, viz., the prevention of forced landings. Their elimina- 
tion will practically insure 100 per cent service aU of the time and 
materially reduce the amount of the largest single item of cost, 
viz., that of repairs of planes and engines. Until we can fly planes 
from one airdrome to another with certainty, even at reduced 
speed, we cannot obtain the best service records nor the lowest 
operating costs. 

The author ventures to predict that the next most successful 
departure from a single-engine machine will be the multiple-unit 
plant using a single propeller. And further, that such a power 
Iilant will not consist of separate complete engines geared to one 
"stick," but perhaps of two, tliree, or even more, banks of cylinders 
on a common crankcase, which mil also house the necessary shafts, 
gears and clutches in this rigid structure. All the units of such a 
power plant could be used in "taking off" and climbing to a safe 
altitude, after which one or more could be shut down and held in 
reserve to be put into service if required. Engine and propeller 
speeds in such a unit could be made such as to give maximum 
combined efficiency under normal operating conditions. The 



weight of fuel .saved in such an efficient combination, over a reason- 
able length of flight, will compensate for the added weight of the 
"relay" units of such a power plant. 

The experience of the Mail Service, as well as that of others, is 
that a landing chassis of ample strength saves many a "crash" in 
a forced landing, as well as in a hard lancUng on the flying field. 
If the landing gear stays together, much damage is averted, which 
otherwise might be serious. Large wheels and large tires have 
proved to be most useful, especially in rough and soft ground. In 
fact, the Mail Service uses Handley-Page boml^er wheels on the 
DH4 machines as standard equipment and has operated them on 
soft fields, which W(juld ha^•e been impossible with standard DH4 
wheels and tires. Nor did these larger tires and wheels slow 
down speed to any noticeable extent. There seems to be almost no 
reasonable limit to the size of wheels which may advantageously 
be used. 

In a large number of forced landings, where damage results, the 
front end of the machine only suffers, such as the propeller and 
the radiator and "(lossibly the front end of the fuselage when the 
plane "noses over." This necessitates lajang up the whole plane 
during the repair operation. To obviate this, some designers are 
using a separate quick-detachable nose^ which carries the engine. 
The advantages of such construction are too obvious to warrant 
discussion. 

It will no doubt be found desirable in commercial machines to 
use unit construction as much as possible, so that replacements 
may be quickly made and the damaged unit repaired at leisure. 

Intelligent engineering attention to the many details of airplane 
design will be well repaid in more efficient operation and decreased 
cost. We do not need to seek for new or radical types with which 
to run a commercial service. The present types, properly engined, 
will deliver a most satisfactory service if handled by a properly 
organized and operated personnel. 

Some idea of what a commercial plane, using a 400-hp. engine, 
can do, is given in the following data, which are based on accurate 
knowledge of proved performance. Such a plane having a hft- 
drift radio of 9, wiU not weigh over 5 lb. per sq. ft. of wing area. 
Besides fuel and oil for a 4-hour flight, together with a pilot and 
other accessories, such a plane will carry an actual pay load of 
3000 lb. at a cruising speed of 100 miles per hour with the engine 
throttled down so as to be developing only two-thirds of its maxi- 
mum 400 hp. Such a plane will cost no more to operate than the 
mail planes discussed herein. 

Conclusions 

While both the design and operating methods are susceptible 
of imjjrovement, it is believed that the following are warranted 
from our jjresent knowledge and experience : 

a The number of planes required for a given service is about 
one (1) for each 100 miles of scheduled flight 

b The number of spare engines required is about 50 per cent 
of the total number of planes 

c The total operating cost should not exceed 70 cents per 
plane-mile for single-engine planes of not over 400 hp. 

d Scheduled flights over reasonably long distances can be at 
least twice as fast as the fastest scheduled trains, flying 
in daylight onlj^, and at least three times as fast if night 
fljdng is done 

e Night fljdng can be successfully accompUshed with rehable 
power plants and a proper equipment of airdrome beacons 
and landing flares 

/ The most important and desirable improvement in present 
practice are: the use of efficient commercial planes 
equipped with a thorouglily reliable power plant 

g The United States is admirably adapted to commercial 
airplane service because: (1) the large area permits long 
flying distances; (2) large centers of population well dis- 
tributed over this area should supply ample business, and, 
(3) fast transportation of both goods and passengers is 
more in demand than in any other country in the world 

It The development of a large commercial service will furnish 
a reserve of planes, pilots, mechanics and other liighly 
skilled men which would undoubtedly be the most valu- 
able and effective part of our national defense. 



Process Charts and Their Place in Management 

Bv FRANK H. GILBRETH' and L. M. GILBRETH, MONTCLAIR, X. J. 



• The process charl is a device for visualizing a process as a means of 
improving it. Every detail of a process is more or less ajfecled by every 
other detail: therefore the entire process must be presented in such form 
that it can be visualized all at once before any changes are made in any 
of its subdivisions. In any subdivision of the process under examination, 
any changes made without due consideration of all the decisions and all 
the motions that precede and follow that subdivision will often be found 
unsuited to the ultimate plan of operation. 

In this paper the authors point out the place of the process chart 
■ in management and present established worthing data used successfully 
in numerous worl(ing installations for many years. They also point 
out its simplicity, field of application, its relation to standardization, 
etc., etc. 

While the process-chart methods will be found helpful in any k<"d of 
worl( and under all forms of management, the best results can come, the 
authors slate, only where there is a mechanism of management that will 
enforce and make repetitive the conditions of the standards. 

THE Process C'luirt is a device for visualizing a i)roces.s as a 
means of improving it. Every detail of a process is more 
or less affected by every other detail; therefore the entire 
'jarocess must be presented in such form that it can be visualized 
all at once before any changes are made in any f)f its subdivisions. 
In any subdivision of the process under examination, any changes 
liiade without due consideration of all the decisions and all the 
motions that precede and follow that subdivision will often be found 
unsuited to the ultimate plan of operation. 

The iirocess chart is a record of present coiiditions. It presents, 
in simple, easily understood, compact form, data which must !«> 
collected and examined before any improvement in existing con- 
ditions and methods is undertaken. Even if existing conditions 
are apparently satisfactory, the chart is useful as presenting much 
information in condensed form. 

The process chart serves as an indicator of i)rofitable changes. 
It assists in preventing "inventing downward," and stimulates 
invention that is cumulative and of permanent value. It is not 
only the first step in visualizing the one best way to do ivork, but is 
useful in every stage of deriving it, 

This paper presents established working data used successfully 
in numerous installations for many years. 

Field of Application of the Process Chart 

The process chart lends itself equally well to the routine of 
|)roduction, selling, accounting and finance. It presents both 
simple and complicated problems easily and successfully; it pro- 
vides records that are comparable; it assists in solving problems 
of notification and interdepartmental discrepancies, and it makes 

■possible the more efficient utilization of similarities in different 
kinds of work and in the transfer of skill. 

■ During the stress of unexpected rush in production, it is often 
considered advisable to continue existing practice in present proc- 
esses, even though inefficient. On the other hand, when pro- 

■duction is normal or slow, it is more generally conceded that proc- 
esses can i)rofitably be bettered. 

The use of this process-chart procedure permits recording the 
existing and proixised methods and changes without the slightest 
fear of disturbing or (lisrui)ting the actual work itself, and also 
regardless of whether business conditions are usual or unusual. 

Those who are interested in improving their process of i)roduction 
should utilize times of industrial depre.ssi()n for that iiurpose. 
Many concerns are now taking such action; many more could 

■undoubtedly enter upon such iirocedure of scrutiiuzing all their 

•■processes with the idea of putting them in the best possible condi- 
tion, if they knew a simple procedure of such analysis. 

Simplicity of the Process Chart 
The aim of the i)rocess chart is to present information regarding 
existing and proposed processes in such simple form that such 
information can become available to and usable l)y the greatest 

'President, Frank B. Gilbreth, Inc., Mem .\m.Soe.M.K. 

Abstract of a paper presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, 
December 5 to 9, 1021, of Thk .Amkrican Society of MtrHANicAL K.viii- 
NEERS. .Ml papers arc sul>ject to revision. 



po.ssible number of people in an organization before any changes 
whatever are actually made, so that the special knowledge and 
suggestions of those in positions of minor importance can be fully 
utilized. 

The time has passed — if it ever existed — when the engineer 
]irided himself upon the abstruse material that he studied and 
presented. Today engineering ranks with the other sciences in 
convening ideas in a form that Ls immediately usable. We avoid 
"translating," interpreting and adapting, thus eliminating waste. 

The j)rocess chart hiis met the tests of a satisfactory teaching 
device from the psychological standpoint, as well as of a satis- 
actory working device from the engineering standpoint. It 
shows the planned process as well as the present process, and there- 





























— - 








BASKET 




•"J . J , , J J 




■" 1 


NUMBERS 




..I ., ,J ., ... J ., 


CHANGE C 


)RD 

MOM 


Eff 1 


SYMBOL. 


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PATTERN NO liHDER NO 


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THE rOLLOWINC CHAKCES TO U MADC 


RLASOK9 FOR MAKING CKAKCC 




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1 



Fig. 1 Standard C'han-ge-Order Blank 

Notf tiiat all blank forms should be thus numbered in each blank space to be 
tilled out for describing clearly the One Best Way to Learn Work 

fon; gains the cooperation of those affected. In many instances 
recording industrial processes in process-chart form has resulted 
in astonishing ini])rovements. 

Collecting the Inform.\tiox 
Process-chart notes and information should be collected and 
set down in sketch form by a highly intelligent man, preferably 
with an engineering training and exijcricnce, but who need not 
necessarily have ijecn previously familiar with the actual details 
of the processes. In fact, the unbiased eye of an intelligent and 
exiierienced process-chart maker usually brings better results 
than does the study of a less keen man with more special information 
regarding present practices of the processes. The mere act of 
investigating sufficiently to make the notes in good enough condi- 
tion for the draftsman to copy invariably results in many ideas 
and suggestions for improvement, and all of these suggestions, 
good and bad, should be retained and filed together with the de- 
scriiitiim of the ])rocess chart. These suggestions and proposed 



38 



Javbaht, 1922 



MECHANICAL EXGINEERING 



39 



improvcuioiits must l>c later explained to others, such as boards 
of directors, managers and foremen, and for best results also to 
certain workmen and clerks who have special craft or process 
knowledge. To overcome the obstacles due to haliit, worship of 
tradition and prejudice, the more intelligence showm by the process- 
chart recorder, the sooner hearty cooperation of all concerned will 
be secured. Any one can make this form of process chart with 
no previous experience in making such charts, but the more ex- 
[jerience one has in making them, the more certain standard combi- 
nations of operations, inspection and transporting can be transferred 
bodily to advantage to the charts of (jrojiosed processes. 

Utilizing Suggestions 

A new viewpoint concerning old conditions invariably comes to 
those memliers of the organization who have become so accustomed 
to the traditional method that they cannot easily visualize a new 
method without prejudice until they actually see it in a new graphi- 
cal form. After the rough notes of the process-chart maker have 
been redrawn and blueprinted, they are later exhibited in the 
executives' theater. 

If discussions arise as to the correctness of the presentation of 
the existing facts, or as to further detaOs of the operations being 
studied, as shown by the simple symbols of the process chart, the 
room can be darkened and inexpensi\-e glass diapositives projected 
on the wall. In addition, those present may be supplied with a 
special pocket folding sterescope for use with the same glass dia- 
positives. 

As soon as the old or existing process is understood, a process 
chart of a Isetter sequence and kind of operations which compose 
it is made. The procedure for this is the same for all cases as far as 
they are carried for the time being, but of course those processes 
which warrant the most study should be carried farthest in the 
process-chart procedure. The more people who see the process 
chart and the greater detail into which the regular ]irocess charts 
are divided, the more suggestions for improvement will come in. 

Rel.\tion to Standardization 

There is no process that warrants a process chart that does not 
warrant a "wTite-up" or "wTitten system." The more care taken 
in making the written system, the more \\i\\ develop tEe need for 
and appreciation of the value of clearly defined ■wTitten standards. 
The better and the more detail in which the written system is de- 
veloped, the better and ea-sier will the standards and standing 
orders be developed. 

Standards in writing should be made, even if there is not the 
managerial mechanism necessarj^ to enforce and maintain them. 
Standards made even with enforcing mechanism absent will hasten 
the day when the enforcing and maintaining mechanism utU be 
installed and continuously operated. The procedure of making 
the standards will invariably lead to the simplifying and improving 
of the various steps as shown on the process chart. 

If it is desirable to study, improve and still further identify the 
subject-matter of each part of the process chart, it should Ije 
submitted to the regular routine process of standardization. A 
standard is a matter of degree. In its best form it is identified and 
defined with all the care and precision of the best practice for 
making the standing orders. The range, however, is dependent 
upon the degree of perfection with which provision has been made 
for enforcing and maintaining standards. 

^Vhile on the subject of range, it Ls well to caU attention to the 
remarkable attempts of Germany and Holland to provide national 
standards. These standards already cover a very wide field, 
from the style of the hand lettering and the rulings to be used on 
the paper on which the standards themselves are printed, to a 
metal seat for a harvester, tractor or tank. The range, in fact, 
already covers a surprisingly wide list of things which have not 
been properly standardized in America, and is intended eventually 
to cover everj'thing that is manufactured in quantity, or that will 
for any other reason reduce costs or improve quality. Although 
there is much to criticise in these foreign standards, they are higlily 
meritorious, worthy of continuous and careful attention, and a 
great credit to those who have devised them. 

It must be remembered that the kind of standard adopted will 
affect the process almost invariably. Therefore standardization 



must be considered if the one best way lu do work is to be derived.. 

Particular attention should be called to the fact that the creation 

of national standards of manufacture, even to the smallest com- 

Ijoncnts of the arts and trades, means also the stabilization of 

/^ STORES REOUISlTlCfeO 

/\ 5 7CRE5 BQU6H T. 

/\ iTORESR£CBIi'£D 

^V S^£RALKIN[lSOFCOMPONENTS-rfOTDES>rfABLE 70 LIST mOIVIOmtLY 

y^ WRiaD HAT£R!ALS REOUISUtONtD 

Y\^ WWfP MATERIALS ORDERED 

XX WORKED MA TE RIALS OH HA HD 

(X X) MERCHAHOISE IHSTORAeEREAOy TOSHIP 
^TY STORAGE AS PART OR PROCESS 

\/ KRHA HENT FJLE OPiMY DOCUMENTS OR MA TEPIALS 

\/ TEMPORARY PILE OFANTDOCUMEMTS OR PAPERS 

(^ OPERATION SYMBOL' WITH HUHBER.SKHIFIES OPERATIOH HOjaORSrOPERiTD/rmjB 

® MOVED ffYOPERATOR PEKPOPMIHS OPCPATION MOM 

® MOYEOffYMAM 

® MOVED By SOY ' 

HOB MOVED BY MESSENGER BOY 

<e MOVED ffY ELEVATOR 

<B MOVED BY PNEUMA TIC TUBE 

C MOVED BY COMVEYOP 

C QRA VfTY- MOVED Br GRAVITY CONVEYOR 

eSELT MOVED BY BEL T CONVEYOR. 

® MOVED BY TRUCK. 

«?, r,^r-ro,r (MOVED BY ELECTRIC TRUCK(SU65TtTUT£'6PS0LIME.HAfi0, 

® ^'-^"''"^~ [lift.ascpsemaybe) 

® — inpormatioty or message moved by telephort£. 

© — moved by mail . 



o 



INSPECTIOli FOR QUALITY 
(^^ INSPECTION FOR qi/ALITY &Y SBE'NG. 
^Cy INSPECTION FOR ClUALITy 3Y SMELLING. 

INSPECTION FOR QUALITY BY HEARING. 

INSPECTION FOR Q.UAHTY BY TASTING- 

INSPECTION FOR (QUALITY BY FEELING. 

INSPECTION FOR (QUALITY BY KINAESTHESIA 



^ 
<» 
^ 



} I INSPECTION =0R QUANTITY 



.u 



[5] IMSRECTIOf, POT, OUAUriTV B. \Z%TJr"!ou.r,M6. 

\ff\ INSPECTION FOR QUANTITY BY COUNTING. 

jilj] INSPECTION FOR (QUANTITY BY DRY OR LIJ^UID MEASURING. 

S(lS THERE AT LEAST ENOUGH f 
INSPECTION FOR QUANTITY BY SEEING \IS A PIECE MISSING FR014 
\ TRUCK OR PACKET? 
[ ^1 INSPECTION FOR QUANTITY BY AUTOMATIC COUNTING. 

O^ INSPECTION FOR QUANTITY AND quALlTY (QUANTITY MOST 
IMPORTANT). 

^^ 'NSPECTION FOR QUALITY AND ^UANTfTY (^UALFTY MOST IMPORTANT^. 

[[ 1 1 OVERINSPECTION FOP QUANTITY . 

^^ OVERINSPECTION FOR QUALITY. 

!NSP£CT!ON FOR QUANTITY ON EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE. 

^\ INSPECTION FOR QUALITY ON EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE 

[ | I OVERINSPECTION FOJt QUANTITY ON EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE 

^\ OVEFf NSPECTION FOR QUAUTV ON EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE 

T/\ INSPECTION FOR QUANTITY AND OPERATION PEitFORNED SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

\\ INSPECTION FOR QUALITY AND OPERATION PERFORMED SIMULTAHE0U5LY 

^^ INSPECTION FOR QUANTITY AND QUAUTY AND OPERATION PEPFQRUED 
V\A SIMULTANEOUSLY (QUANTITY MOST IMPORTANT). 

/f\^ INSPECTION FOR QUALITY AND QUANTITY AND OPERATION PERFORMED 

^k^ SIMULTANEOUSLY (QUALITY MOST IMPORTANT). 

, TT^-, BLANK FORM USED - INDICATES NO Z COPY OF FORM 4eS;IP THERE 

*os 'S BUT ONE COPY OF FORM MADE. FORM NUMBER APPEARS IN 

■ ' CENTER OF BLOCK . 

U^^^^ REPORTS NOT HAVING FORM NUMBERS Yf ILL HAVE BRIEF TITLE 
r»t^g" I YfRlTTEN IN BLOCK 

A SINGLE DEPARTMENT USED MORETHAN ONCE 

") BROKEN LINES INDICATE PROCESS OUTSIDE 

■^ OFTHE DEPARTMENT CHARTED - USED ON 

DEPARTMENTAL CHARTS. 



Fig. 2 Standard Symbols for Process Charts 

emplojTnent and business in general, because manufacturers with- 
out sufficient orders in their regular hues of business to keep going 
\\\\\ find it more profitable, in many instances, to manufacture the 



40 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



national standards and thus to turn their stores inventories into 
money immediately, rather than let their specially trained and 
skilled men leave them, with all the disadvantages of a high labor 
turnover. Here is an endless spiral of benefit, for the more chances 
there are for a manufacturer to dispose of his invcntoiy for cash 



Many fear standardization of the component elements of a proc- 
ess chart as something from which, once done, it will be difficult to 
escape. For the purpose of allajing such groundless fears, the 
standard change order. Fig. 1, has been provided. Tliis, when 
signed by the authorized party, instantly changes, or for a certain 



PROCESS CHART 



LOADING VB RIFLE GRENADES 



ATPOJAM 
POWD£f> 



FUSBSARF TAKeff TV 
Fl/Se L0ADIM6R0OM 



A COMPONENTS 
/\ qUAUTY INSPECTION 
□ QUANTITf INSPECTION 
@ OPERATIONS ON FUSES 
® OPERATIONS 0N6RENADE5 BODIES 
(g) OPERATIONS ON CASES 
@ OPERA TIONS ON BLACK POWDEPt 
@ OPERA TIONS ON TROJAN POnOER 
® OPERATIONS ON INTERIOR VARNISH 
@ FINISHED GRENADES 
® CARRYINS BETWEEN OPERATIONS 



CASES ARE SEALED 
WITH5I6H0DE STRAPS 
ANDSEAL5 



lf> CASES ARE STENCILED 
TO INDICATE CONTENTS 

TO FINISHED GRENADE MAGAZINE 



MA6A7INE FOR FINISHED 

GRENADES 



Fio. 3 PitocEss Chart for Loading Rifle Gkexade.s 



TROJAmSSCfieBN- 
EDTO REMOVE ANY 



FILLER PLUGS 



TOFIUERPLUS 
INSERTERS 



STRIKERS 




TO FUSE 
INSERTERS 

-4- 

DETONATOR 

PLUGS 

TO PLUS INSERTERS 

WATUDRIP 

TOENDOFASSEMB- 
LIN6 TABLE 

STRIPING 

ENAMEL 

TO PACKING ROOM 



SI6N0DFSTRAPS 
ANDSEALS 

T0PACKIN6R0OM 



and keep his organization together a little longer, even in times 
of general timidity, the more he will dare be a purchaser of raw 
material, for the process for such emergencies can be standardized 
and ready. The result is standardization, with stabilization of em- 
plojTnent, a quick capital turnover and a low labor turnover. 



instance, or a certain time, waives the existing standard whether 
it relates to a thing, a method, a procedure or a process. It will 
be noted that this change-order blank contains provisions for the 
notification of, and acknowledgment of receipt of notification of, 
all persons who are concerned with, or interested in, the change. 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



41 



Note that in the lower right-hand corners of tlie various siiaccs 
in Fig. 1 there are small consecutive numljers. This is staiiclardized 
to agree with -wTite-ups and standing orders for using standard 
lilank forms. It not only makes the writing of the standing order 
more simple, e.xact and clear, but it also shortens the time of the 
learning period for using these blank forms. This is a valuable 
feature at all times, but particularly usefid during the transitory 
period of installing new methods of management. 

Experience shows that if jirocess charts are made use of, ex- 
ceedingly few of the existing blank forms survive in their present 
form. The savings that can be made in any large organization 
resulting from submitting them to the test of this process will in- 
varialily prove it to be a good investment. 

If all departments of the United States Government would 
adopt two features, namely : 

a Put small numbers in each space to be filled out on all 

of its blank forms, and 
b !Make «Tite-ups and standing ortiers of exactly how each 
blank form is to be filled out 
and wouUl then make a survey and criticism in accordance with 
the known laws of micromotion study, the resulting savings would 
be astounding. 

We believe that, as a result, not one per cent of present blank 
forms would remain unchanged. All Government blank form.s 
that we have seen violate all laws of motion study and learning 
methods of least waste. 

The standing order is for enforcing standards and other stand- 
ing orders. This has already been deseribed in a, paper before 
this Society. 

The more detail in which the standing order is made, the better. 
The more the procedure is described by it, the greater will tje the 
improvements and the greater the automaticity resulting.^ 

If any operation of the process shown in the process chart is one 
that will sufficiently affect similar work, then motion study should 
be made of each part of the process, and the degree to which the 
motion study should be carried depends upon the opportunities 
existing therein for savings. 

If the operations are highly repetitive or consist of parts or sub- 
divisions that can be transferred to the study of many other oper- 
ations, then micromotion studies already' made can be referred to; 
also new and further micromotion studies may be warranted in 
order that the details of method with the exact times of each of the 
individual subdivisions of the cycle of motions, or "therbligs," as 
they are called, that compose the one best way known, may be 
recorded for constant and cuniuktive improvement. Such motion 
study can be best visualized if seen in chart form, and similar 
process charts can be made of any or all of the large or small circles, 
squares and diamonds showni on the process charts. These sub- 
divided motion charts can be made of each and all of the cycles in 
any given operation. Much benefit can often be derived, even if 
such motion charts are made roughly. For best results, and 
especially when complete records are required, such, for example, 
as when the process charts are of work that is highly repetitive, 
micromotion charts can be made which will give the maximum 
amount of analysis and visualization of component parts of the 
existing and proposed processes. These can be still further visual- 
ized by the chronocj'clograph process. Both the chronocyclograph 
and the micromotion process have been described before the 
Society, and more recent development in these methods and devices 
for visualizing existing and proposed processes will be the subject 
of a later paper. 

The records of the micromotion study and the chronocyclograph 
methods and devices present permanently all the fa-cts in such 
form that they can be used at any time. These photographic 
records can be studied as slowly as desired, regardless of how fast 
the motions of the process were actually made, and the marvels of 
the details of superskiU, unknown and unrecognized even by those 
who possess it, can be studied at will, leisurely and intensively, 
by learners everjT\-here, far as well as near. If desired, these 
errorless records may be used only as far as to fUl the need of pres- 
ent requirements, or they may be laid away until further needs 
demand further study, such records being in »uch perfect detail 

'See Psj'chology of Management; Applied Motion Study; and Bulletin of 
the Taylm Society for .Tune 1921. 



that they are practically as usable when old as when new. These 
permanent records of complete sequences of details of complete 
processes furnish the foundation of the best kind of trade and 
industrial education, namely, the dissemination of detailed instruc- 
tions as to the synthesized processes of the best workers obtainable. 

These synthesized records of details of processes in turn may be 
further combined and large units of standard practice become 
available for the synthesis of complete operations in process charts. 

While the process-chart methods will be helpful in any kind of 
work and under all forms of management, the best results can come 
only where there is a mechanism of management that will enforce 
and make repetitive the conditions of the standards. 

Mechaj^ism of Making Peocess Charts 

There are shown herewith: 

n The symbols used with their meanings (Fig. 2) 

b Completed process chart (Fig. 3) 

c Accompanying forms (Fig. 4) 

d Illustrations of collecting and using data. 











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Fig. 4 Standing-Ordeh Blank 



Summary 



The procedure for making, examining and improvmg a process 
is, therefore, preferably as follows: 

a Examine process and record with rough notes and stereoscojnc 
diapositives the existing process in detail 

b Have draftsman copy rough notes in form for blueprinting, 
photographic projection and exhibition to executives and others 

c -Show the diapositives with stereoscope and lantern slides of 
process charts in executives' theater to executives and workers 

d Improve present methods by the use of — 

1 Suggestion system 

2 Written description of new methods or "write-ups," "man- 

uals," "codes," "written systems," as they are variously 
called 

3 Standards 

4 Standing orders 

{Continued on page 70) 



42 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 41, No. 1 



DISCUSSION OF EXGIXEEUING 
EDUCATION 

(Continued from page 7) 

problems of the world had been accomplished without lui)oratorie.s. 

E. H. Sniffin' had always held the opinion that it might be a 
good thing if professors were to enter business life and later return 
to the schools. Probably ninety per cent of those graduated from 
engineering schools would be judged ten years later upon the basis 
of their qualities rather than their engineering knowledge. 

Joseph W. Roe* said that it was utterly im|5ossible for those who 
were trying to teach the specialist in an undergraduate course in 
any way to meet the full demands. The best that they could do 
was to send out men wellgrounded in the fundamentals, and in 
his ojjinion, more unportant than that, with a right attitude toward 
work and toward investigation. 

H. B. Shaw' could see no reason why some engineering schools 
should not develop along the line of requiring the arts degree for 
entrance, and others develop graduate courses in engineering. 
There was really no need to have all of the engineering schools 
teaching engineering in exactly the same way. 

K. G. Matheson* felt that the so-called collateral studies .should 
more largely predominate as being essential to the highest type of 
the engineer; but unless something like adequate compensation 
could be offered sf) as to attract the very highest type of intellectual 
ability and training, that the standards of engineering colleges 
would certainly become more mediocre. 

D. C. Jackson' wished to emphasize the fact that wliile Mr. 
Otterson suggested in his paper that the test in the engineering 
school seemed to be of a character that solely selected the encyclo- 
pedic mind, the truth was that the tests are, as a rule, intended to 
select men from the standpoint of the powers of analysis and synthe- 
sis. These powers were in fact those which led to a final balanced 
judgment and the accomplishment of the object wa-s one that 
could not be left solely to the engineering school to bring about the 
best results. It was necessary to have the advice of the industrial- 
ists to arrive at the highest type of professional engineers. Pro- 
fessor Jackson's own definition of it, some years back, was that the 
highest type of professional engineer is one that can conceive exact 
ideas in important engineering works or in engineering affairs. 

J. P. Jackson' defined an engineer as a man who should be in 
charge of all phases of industry except financial investigation. 
Most of the men who had discussed the subject spoke of the im- 
portance of character and he felt that stressing this before an engi- 
neering faculty every few days would do a great deal of good. 

C. A. Adams' said that he had not heard anything so encouraging 
from the standpoint of teachers of engineering for many years as 
the two pajjers presented by the industrialists. It showed a great 
advance in the attitude of industry toward engineering education, 
and the emphasis of the two papers, could be summed up in a very 
few words, namely, more emphasis on fundamentals, the ability 
to think rather than a superficial knowledge of the practical side of 
the subject, the amount of cramming necessary. Our engineering 
education was for the most jiart brutally superficial. The men did 
not get the fundamentals. He would guarantee to take 100 picked 
graduates of electrical engineering schools of this country and 
show that 90 per cent of them had no grasp whatever of the funda- 
mentals of maximum and minimum; that is, a sound grasp, a 
visualizing of phenomena and seeing through the mathematical 
equation into the phy.sics beyond, so understanding the physics that 
they could express it directly in mathematical form. That was the 
difficulty witii our engineering education. What was wanted in 
every engineer and every student was the habit of honest thought, 
the habit of demanding a sound foundation for his analysis in what- 

» Mgr. Power Dept., Westlnghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgli, 
Pa. 

* Profes.sor Industrial EnginceriiiR, New York Universit.v, New York, 
N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Henry L. Doherty & Co., New York, N. Y. 

' Georgia Inst, of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. 

' Profcs-sor Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

« Assistant to Cliairmau, Industrial Relations Committee, Philadelphia 
Chamber of Commerce, Philadeli)hia, Pa. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

• Professor, Harvard Engineering School, Cambridge, Mass. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 



ever field he Ls, and of building soundly on that foundation, and not 
the habit of thinking he knows something and throwing from his 
memorj' the things which he ought to know. 

L. W. Wallace'" said that the world, in general, had come to learn 
that the engineering type of mind, the engineering type of approach, 
was the correct tj'pe of mind and type of approach to apply to many 
of the perplexing j)roblems that were confronting society and the 
world today. It should be instilled into young engineers that they 
were in not only a learned profession, but in one of great potential 
possibilities, and that it was not only their duty to do their technical 
work well but to make their ability and training and analytical 
minds felt in dealing with the social problems of the day. 

W. II. Carrier" agreed with Professor Adams in his statement 
that ninety out of one hundred students did not understand the 
fundamentals of engineering. In many cases he had personally 
found it nccessarj' to learn a great many of these fundamentals 
after he had left college. He was not a particularly backward 
student, but there were too many things to do, and not enough 
time in which to emphasize the fundamentals. The tendency of all 
education had been to i)lace too much emphasis on quantity rather 
than quality. Students had not been taught to reason. They had 
been pushed along too fast. 

R. L. Sackett'- said that one thing characteristic of the curriculum 
of Pennsylvania State College that could not be blamed on the 
industries, was a lack of elasticity. All students who entered, say, 
the electrical course was not made in the same mold. They might 
be of equal mental capacity, they might have good minds, but it 
was quite impossible at the present time, in the present state of the 
art that vocationally they should be the same to any extent at the 
beginning of their college course. 

Frank B. Gilbreth" said that in training the indiv-idual for 
accomplishment, judgment should not be developed until after all 
facilities for measurements had been exhausted. He was not pre- 
pared, however, to criticise the product of professors who had done 
such wonderful work for such inadequate rates of compensation. 
Something would have to be done whereby the graduates from the 
colleges, when they came to the industries, would be prepared to 
do something to teach the worker. 

Sidney Ash''' ■nished to emphasize a point that Mr. Pratt had 
l)rought out in liis paper, namely, that there had been a considerable 
im])rovement in several all-around capacity of the average technical 
student turned out in recent years. He came in contact with a 
great many men taken in by liis company as college graduates, and 
thought that this improvement was about 30 per cent in the types 
that were coming through today. 

PREVENTION OF WASTES IN INDUSTRY 

{ContintUd from page 10) 

trol of the movement of material through the works from one 
operation to another and from one department to another; in- 
adequate, or entire absence of pro\'ision for teaching or training 
operators, and minor executives; absence of effective means of 
recording attainments of workers, foremen, etc., so that their 
standing does not so much depend on actual jierformance as upon 
other things, some of them little if at all related to the work, such 
as nationality, religion, membership in secret organizations or 
fraternities, and sometimes plain graft. 

When we set out to discuss an acknowledged fault our picture 
is necessarily rather a dark one. There is, of course, a bright 
side. We must work to make that bright side still brighter. 

The greatest and most effective incentive for the prevention of 
industrial wastes is disarmament, so to speak; the cultivation of 
friendly relations between all those concerned in industrial enter- 
[irises; and the maintenance of such a system as will enable every 
man, from the highest to the lowest, to know what he is responsible 
for, to whom he is responsible, and that he personally will be 
credited and rewarded in proportion to service rendered. 

'° Executive Secretary, American Engineering Council, F.A.E.S., Wash- 
ington, D. C. Mem..\m.Soc.M.E. 

" Carrier Engineering Corporation, Newark, N. J. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

'- Dean of Engineering, Pennsj-lvania State College, State College, Pa. 
Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

" President, Frank B. Gilbreth, Inc.. Montclair. N. J. Mem..\m.Soc. 
M.E: 

'* Educational Dept., General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 



Radio Ship Control 



Details of the Mechanical Changes Made in the U. S. S. "Iowa," by Means of ^Yhich the Vessel Was 

Operated and Maneuvered From a Distant Control Ship 

By REAR-ADMIRAL R. S. GRIFFIN,' U. 8. N., RETIRED 



THE bombiiiii tests whicli were carried out last sununor 
against the old battleship loira (now designated Coast 
Battleship No. 4), during which that ship was operated and 
maneuvered under her own power without the presence on board 
of any of her officers or crew, created so much public interest that 

it has been suggested that a 
description of the mechanical 
changes that were made in her 
power equipment would be of 
interest to the members of The 
American Society of Mechanical 
iMigineers. 

The loica is a shij) 300 ft. long 
on the water line, of 72.2 ft. 
beam, and at a draft of water of 
24 ft. has a displacement of 
1 1 ,346 tons. She has tv.-in-screw 
\ertical triple-expansion engines 
(if 11,800 indicated horsepower 
which are eai)a!)le of giving her 
a speed of 17-knots. They are. 
i)f course, condensing. 

The problem presented was so 
to modify her power plant that 
the ship would be susceptible of 
control by radio energy from an- 
other ship, both as to speed and direction, without any person 
being on board; that imder this condition she should be capable 
of steaming for at least two hours at a speed of about 10 knots; 
and that means should be pi'ovided for automatically stopping 
the engines and shutting off the oil supply to the boilers after 
fifteen minutes of operation following a failure of the radio control. 
The first part of the problem obviously pointed to an oil equip- 
ntent as the only one that could be considered, and as the Iowa 
was a coal-burning ship it became necessary to transform some of 
her boilers to oil-burning. The speed requirement of 10 knots 
necessitated the development of but a small fraction of full jiower, 
and therefore it was necessary to eon\ert only one-half her boilers 
for steaming at a very moderate rate of combustion. 

The boilers are of the Scotch or return fire-tube type, and there- 
fore are not so well adapted to oil burning as are water-tube boilers. 




Reab-Admir.\l R. S. Griffi.v 



valves in their steam linos such that these valves could be instantly 
closed by radio signal if it were desired to stop the engines, or 
automatically in case of low water in the boOers. 

In order to maintain a uniform water level, it was necessary to 
install feedwater regulators, which controlled the speed of the feed 
pumps in the usual manner. 

The storage of fuel necessary to provide the continuous steam- 
ing laid down in the [jrolilem was easily effected by utilizing a few 
of the doul)le-bottom compartments. 

The only alterations that were necessary to the engines were 
certain modifications of the throttles to permit of radio control. 
The type of engines made it necessary to design for the condition 
in -which the engines would be just turning over before the cre« 
abandoned the shiji, the function of the radio control then being 
to open the throttle to the extent necessary to secure the desired 
speed — which had been determined l)y tost — and also to stop the 
engines should it be necessary so to do. The control was so effec- 
tive that no difficulty whatever was experienced in controlling the 
speed, slowing Aoww being accomplished in twenty seconds and 
increase to full speed in three minutes. 

Such auxiliaries as air pumps, circulating pumps and bilge 
pumps, the operation of which at normal speed would have no 
material influence on either the speed of the engines or the boiler 
conditions, were unaffected by the conditions of the problem and 
were untouched after once having been set at the proper speed of 
operation. 

The points Miat have tlius far been mentioned pertain solely 
to the propulsion of the ship. In order to maneu\-er her, which 
was one of the most important considerations in connection with 
tlie bombing tests, it was necessary that the steam steering engine 
be imder as complete ladio control as the main engines. Ordi- 
narily this is accomplished through wdre-rope transmission from 
the steering wheel on the bridge to the shaft which operates the 
engine-control valve. For this test a small motor was installed 
and connected by chain drive to the control-valve shaft. It was 
provided with an automatic reversing contactor controller which 
was operated through the radio-controi panel or automatically 
through the gyro clutch. It proved to be an admirable substitute 
for the hand steering wheel. 

Naturally, considerable electric energy would be necessarj' to 
operate the various radio circuits and apparatus, but as operation 



I Part Section at B-B 

UppiT Limit . 




~\ Cb 



Front Plate and Insulation Removed Section at A-A ^A ^B 

Fig. 1 Alter.ations in Scotch Marine Boiler to Adapt It to Oil Burning 



However, for the power tliat had to be developed, this presented 
no difficulty. The lining with firebrick of the combustion cham- 
bers and the front end of the fiu'naces, and the protection of the 
joint of furnace and combustion-chamber sheet were the only 
alterations tiiat were necessary to the fire side of the boilers. .Vlter- 
ations to the furnace fronts were, of course, necessary to accommo- 
date the oil burners. All these alterations are indicated in Fig. 1. 

Fue l-oil pumps were installed and were equipped with stop 

'Washington, D. C. Hon. Mem..^m.Soc.M.E. 



of the ship's electric plant during the test would unnecessarily 
complicate the problem mthout supph-ing any useful information 
respecting the results which it was desired to accomplish, it was 
decided to provide storage batteries and control panels for the 
several circuits. 

In i)reparation for radio control tiie oil-fuel pumps, the air and 
circulating pumps, the feed pumps, an air compressor and a bilge 
pump are put in operation, and the steering engme warmed up 
and operated by hand control. When normal conditions are 



43 



44 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



established, the main engines are started and kept running at 
dead-slow speed, the bridge control of steering engine thrown out, 
sll battoiips connected to bus bars, and switches to radio-control 
instruments and gyro compass, and steering-engine motor thrown 
in. Everything is now in readiness for radio control and the signal 
given to "abandon ship." As soon as the boats that take off the 

STOP VALVE 

fiir/int opt.n nfien 
/eaifing s/kip. 







To fifmeapfiere. 



START VALVE 
Ifjr /ine apcaex/ by 
flr^f re<^/o signal 

7b fifmoapfterte,. 



To TKmlMea. 



Fio. 3 Uadio-Conthol Valves foe Opening .4Xd Closing Throttlk- 
CjOntrol Valve, Pio. 3 

crew are clear of the ship, slie is immediately put under radio con- 
trol by the control ship, which in this case was the battleship 



c: 



ToAhnosphere t 




Pneumaiic i'ns from Radio 
Controlled Yalre 



Main Sftam 

-ijl. ij 




control valve. This valve is then energized from the ship's con- 
trol rooni, by which action air is admitted to the balance cylinder 
of a quick-dosing valve in the steam line to the fuel-oil pump and 
up to the "start valve," as indicated in the sketch. The first 
signal from the control ship energizes the "start valve," Fig. 2, 
which admits air to the piston of the throttle-control valve shown 
in Fig. 3. This throws the piston to the left, sliuts off steam 
from the upper balance pistons, and tiie throttles open to the ex- 
tent necessary for the desired speed, the lower balance piston 
being smaller in diameter than the upper one. 

The opening by the control ship of the radio circuit to "start 
valve" closes the valve to air pressure under the action of the 
spring, and the pressure in tiio line to throttle-control valve it 



Fig. 3 Diagrammatic Arrangement of Quick-Closing Main Enginb 
Throttle Valves and Control Valve 

Ohio, which during the past two years has rendered excellent 
scr^^oe in radio experimental work under the Bureau of Engineer- 
ing of the Navy Department. 

The method of control will be understood from the following: 

When the air compressor is started, pressure is brought up to 

the "stop valve," Fig. 2, which may be called the master nulio- 



ww 




V ^^' ->h — ^^- — -n 

Fig. 4 Type of Valve Used in Controlling Fuel-Oil Pump 

released. When this occurs, the piston valve is thrown far enough 
to the right to uncover the port to the steam pipes leading to the 
upi^er chambers of the balance cylinders and the throttles close 
under the action of the steam pressure. 

Similar action takes place when it is desired to stop the fuel-oil 
jnunp. The proper opening of the steam \-alve to this pump 
ha\ing been previously determined and air pressure being on its 
lialancc piston, a radio signal releases the air pressure, whereupon 
tlie valve closes automatically under the influence of steam pressure 
on the other side of the balance piston. The throttles close at the 
same time. Fig. 4 shows the type of valve used. 

The requnement that the engines and the fuel-oU pumps should 
stop automatically after a certain lajise of time in case radio con- 
trol failed was accomplished by the introduction of a "time limit 
clock" in the "stop valve" circuit. After the lapse of time for 
which it had been set, the clock opened this circuit, and the steam 
valves to (he oil pumps and the engine throttles closed in the manner 
previously described. 

The low-water alarm was of tlie usual type except that, instead 
of blowing a whistle, the steam was used to operate a piston that 
ojjcned tlie "stop vah-e" circuit. 

The princip.al radio-control apparatus is covered by patents 
of John Hays Hammond, Jr., who permitted the free use of it for 
this test. It wast constructed l)y the General Electric Company 
under the supervision of Mr. Hammond and the Bureau of Engi- 

{Coniinued on page 70) 



Code for Displacement Compressors and Blowers 

Preliminary Draft of the Fifth in the Series of Nineteen Codes in Course of Preparation by 

the x\.S.M.E. Committee on PoAver Test Codes 



TN 1918 the Power Test Committee of the A.S.M.E. was re- 
■*• organized to re\-ise and enlarge the Power Test Codes of the 
Society, published in 1915. The Committee is a large one, con- 
sisting of a jNlain Committee of 25 under the chairmanship of 
Fred R. Low, and 19 Individual Committees of specialists who are 
drafting codes for the different classes of apparatus comprised in 
power-plant equipment. Below is reproduced the fifth of these 
codes to be completed, namely, the Test Code for Displacement 
Compressors and Blowers. 

The Individual Committee which developed this Code is headed 
by Mr. Paul Diserens as Chairman, and consists of the follomng 
men: Hugh Y. Conrad, John F. G. Miller, Snowden B. Redfield,' 
Carl G. Sprado, Charles Prentice Turner, and John T. Wilkin. 
This Committee will welcome suggestions for corrections or addi- 
tions to this draft of its Code and especially desires constructive 
comment on Pars. 10 and 10a. These should be addressed to the 
Ciiairman, care of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Introduction 

1 The code for displacement compressors and blowers is in- 
tended as a guide for testing reciprocating piston compressors 
and blowers, as well as rotary compressors and blowers of the 
positive displacement type. The tables for data and results 
apply to complete units, including compressor element and driv- 
ing element, but the code itself constitutes a set of rules for the 
test of the compressor element onlj-. For the dri^nng element the 
codes for steam engines, steam turbines, internal-combustion en- 
gines, water wheels, etc., depending upon the method of drive, 
should be consulted and followed. 

Object 

2 In accordance v^ith the "General Instructions," the object 
of the test should be determined and recorded. If the object 
relates to the fulfilment of a contract guarantee, an agreement 
should be made between the interested parties concerning all mat- 
ters about which dispute may arise, as noted in Par. 2 of the "Gen- 
eral Instructions," and the points agreed upon should be stated 
in the report of the test. 

Measurements 

3 The measurements to be made in any test of a compressor 
or blower have for their purpose the determination of the follow- 
ing essential ciuantities: 

(a) The quantity of air or gas compressed and delivered expressed in 

cubic feet in terms of gas or air under intake conditions of tempera- 
ture and pressure 

(b) The average intake and discharge pressures 

(c) The power required to compress and deliver the measured amount of 

air or gas handled 

(d) The amount of steam, electrical energy or fuel, depending upon the 

method of drive, consumed by the driving element during the test. 

In order to arrive at these quantities and as a means of inter- 
preting them, the following measurements are necessary: 

(e) Diameter and stroke of compressor cylinders, or equivalent dimen- 

sions for positive rotarj' blower 
if) Diameter of piston rods 

(o) Number and dimensions of Intercoolers and af tercoolers 
(h) Principal dimensions of driving element (See appropriate code) 
(t) Speed in r.p.m. and total number of revolutions 
(i) Indicated horsepower in compressor and driving cylinders (steam 

engine, internal-combustion engine, etc.) 
(fc) Discharge pressure 
(0 Intake pressure 
(m) Intercooler pressure 
(n) Barometric pressure 

(o) Temperature of air or gas before and after each stage 
(p) Temperature of cooling water at inlet and outlet of each jacket and 

cooler 

' Mr. Redfield approves the draft of the Code as here printed with the 
exception of Par. 10a. He believes that the amount of moisture removed 
In the separator should be weighed and that this weight should enter into 
the calculations. 



(g) Quantity of jacket and cooling water 

(r) Temperatures, pressures, etc., steam, gas or oil as applied to driving 
element (See appropriate code). 

Instruments and Apparatus 

4 The instruments and apparatus necessary for the measure- 
ment of the quantities enumerated in Par. 3 are : 

(a) Gaging tank and nozzle or orifice for measuring air or gas compressed 

(b) Tanks and platform scales of suitable capacity for measuring the 

quantity of condensed steam when a steam engine constitutes the 
driving element or for measuring fuel oil when an oil engine consti- 
tutes the driving element 

(c) Water meters or calibrated tanks, or tanks and platform scales for 

measuring jacket and intercooler circulating water 

(d) Pressure gages, vacuum gages, water and mercury manometers, and 

thermometers 

(e) Barometer 

CO Steam calorimeter (for steam-engine-driven compressor) 

(fl) Voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter and power-factor meter tor measur- 
ing electrical input for motor-driven compressors 

(h) Revolution counter 

(0 Indicators 

(j) A planimeter 

(h) A deadweight gage tester 

Directions for the use and calibration of instruments and ap- 
paratus enumerated above are given in Pars. Nos. — ■ of the 
code on "Instruments .and Apparatus." 

4a The measurement of the quantity of air compressed shall 
be by the following method : 

(o) In the case of a compressor or blower: Flow into the atmosphere 
through nozzle or orifice from a gaging tank on the discharge side of 
the compressor or blower 
(6) In the case of a vacuum pump: Flow from atmosphere through a 
nozzle or orifice into a gaging tank on the intake side of the vacuum 
pump. 
4b Where the foregoing prescribed method is impracticable, 
as for example in the case of a compressor handhng inflammable 
gas or gas which cannot be wasted, one of the following instru- 
ments may be used. These alternatives are Usted in order of 
preference. 

(c) Venturi meter 

(d) Nozzle or orifice in discharge line 

(e) Receiver tanks of known capacity into which the discharge from the 

compressor may be delievered, to be used only for compressors work- 
ing at a discharge pressure of 1000 lb. per sq. in. or greater. 

If method (c) or (d) is used, the instrument should be applied 
in a pipe through which the gas is permitted to flow under a pressure 
considerably less than the compressor discharge pressure. The 
reduction in pressure can be brought about by throttling and will 
result in eliminating, or at least minimizing, the pulsations in flow 
induced by the compressor. 

4c The kind and size of gaging tank and nozzle or orifice selected 
will depend upon the particular method chosen for measuring the 
quantity of air or gas compressed. Wlienever possible a low- 
pressure nozzle or orifice shall be used. A low-pressure nozzle is 
one through which the drop in pressure is small, that is, one in 
which the upstream absolute pressure is less than twice the down- 
stream absolute pressure. Its use for high- or moderate-pressure 
compressors involves throttling the gas before it is admitted into 
the gaging tank to such an extent that all, or nearly all, pulsation 
is eliminated. If a liigh-pressure nozzle is selected, that is, one 
through wliicli the drop in pressure is relatively large (Pi>2Pj), 
care should be exercised to select an orifice of a size suflScient to 
insure as much throtthng between the discharge receiver and the 
gaging tank as possible. 

4d The measurement of the intake and discharge pressures 
shall be by gage attached at the desired point, the fluctuations of 
which are reduced as far as may be by choking the gage cock. 
When extreme accuracy is desired or when the fluctuations are 
large, the average pressure may be found by working up pipe 
diagrams taken at or near the same point, thereby determining 
the mean pressure for the entire stroke. 



45 



4« 



MECHAXKAL ENGINEKRING 



V.)i.. 44. iSi, 



I'repakation 

5 Before proceeding with a test of a compressor or blower, 
Pars. 4 to 8 of the "General Instructions" should be carefully 
read. The dimensions and physical conditions not only of the 
compressor but of all the associated parts of the plant essential 
to the object of the tests should be determined and carefully re- 
corded. 

5a Dimensions. The dimensions of the compressor cj'linders 
should be determined by actually measuring the machine itself 
without reference to the drawings. If the cj'linders are much 
worn the average diameter should be taken, but proper record of 
the fact should be noted. 

5b The method for measuring clearance will dejiend upon the 
particular design of the compressor in question. In a reciprocating 
displacement compressor with valves of the automatic type, tlie 
most satisfactory method will be to calculate the clearance from 
the measured dimensions of the cylinder, its several ports, and 
passages. If detailed drawings are available it will be found con- 
venient to check each dimension of the parts involved by actual 
measurement and from this information compute the clearance 
volume. If meclianically operated valves are used, or if the con- 
struction of the valves of the automatic type is such as to permit 
blocking them in their closed position, the clearance may be ob- 
tained by the water-measurement method. This should only 
be attempted, however, when extreme accuracy is necessary or 
desirable. To carry out this method, refer to Par. oa of the Code 
for Steam Engines. 

5c The area of the compressor cylinder-jacket surface is that 
part of the cylinder wall or cylinder-head wall in contact with 
the water circulation and should be measured on the dry side of the 
metal. 

5d The intercooler and aftercooler surface should be measured 
on the dry side of the cooling surface. Surface in contact with 
the air to be cooled on the one side and atmospheric air on the other 
side should not be included as cooling surface. If a record of its 
amount is made it should be listed as a separate item. 

Oper.vting Conditions 

6 As pointed out in the "General Instructions," Par. 19, in 
all tests in which the object is to determine the performance under 
conditions of maximum efficiency, or where it is desired to ascer- 
tain the effect of predetermined conditions of operation, all such 
conditions which have an appreciable effect upon the efficiency 
should be maintained as nearly uniform during the trial as the 
limitations of practical work will permit. 

Tests to determine the performance under working conditions 
in which no attempt at uniformity is made are not ad^^sed, since 
the only available method of air measurement involves the de- 
termination of the rate of flow and total quantities of gas or air 
must be computed from the observed rate. Unless all conditions 
of operation are kept uniform or nearly uniform, the results ob- 
tained will not be of any value. 

Starting and Stopping 

7 The compressor should be operated under test conditions for 
a considerable period before a record of its performance is made. 
This period should be of a duration sufficient to bring about a 
steady condition of jire.ssure, temperature and speed. In this con- 
nection Pars. 16 and IS of the "General Instructions" should be 
carefully noted. 

DUR,\TION 

8 Tlie duration of compressor tests will generally be go\-erned 
by the retiuirements in so far as the driving clement is concerned, 
and for direction as to the necessary period reference to the ap- 
propriate code governing the driving element should be made. In 
the case of a motor-driven unit accurate results can be obtained 
from very short tests, the controlling factor being the time required 
to record enough sets of observations to demonstrate the uniformity 
of running conditions during the test. 

Record 

9 The general data should be recorded as jiointcd out in Pars. 
20 to 30 of the "General Instructions." Instruments should be 



read and indicator cards taken from each end of each cylinder at 
least (juarter-hourly when the conditions are uniform, and oftener 
when there is much variation. For short tests referred to in Par. 
8, readings and cards should be taken much more often. If there 
are wide fluctuations in readings they should be shown by recording 
instruments. Each indicator card should be marked with the num- 
ber, date, time, scale of spring, and end of cylinder, and on one 
card of each set the readings of the pressure gages should be re- 
corded. The log should contain the record of the readings of dis- 
charge, intercooler and intake gages, thermometers, re\olution 
counter, speed indicator, gaging-tank pressures and temperatures, 
and all other instruments, and these readings should be obtained 
at practically the same time the indicator cards are taken. The 
areas, lengths, and mean effective pressures showni by the indicator 
cards should also be entered in the log. If complete test data are 
required, representative pipe diagrams should be taken with an 
indicator applied near the cjiinder port and operated by connection 
to a reducing motion driven from the engine or compressor cross- 
head. 

9a A set of specimen indicator diagrams should be carefully 
s(!lectcd from the whole number taken, and these should be em- 
bodied in the record. The specimen cards selected should be such 
as to show the average conditions of pressure. If pipe or port 
diagrams are obtained, specimens of these should also be placed in 
the record. 

Calculation of Results 

10 Volume of Air or Gas Conipressed. The measurement of 
the amount of air or gas through a nozzle, orifice, or venturi tube 
results in a determination expressed in pounds per unit of time. 
(See Code for Instruments and Apparatus, Par. — .) The re- 
sults obtained must therefore be reduced to terms of volume at 
the temperature and pressure obtaining at the compressor or 
blower intake. For this purpose the required specific weight at 
intake conditions may be calculated from the following formula: 

Specific weight = — j-= — in lb. per cu. ft. 

where P = absolute intake pressure, lb. per sq. in. 
T = absolute intake temperature, deg. falir. 
R = constant ( = .53.3 for air). 
This assumes that the fluid compressed is ideal gas, an assump- 
tion quite satisfactory for air. The weight of air or gas per minute 
as shown bj' nozzle measurement di\-ided by the specific weight at 
intake conditions is equal to the volume of free gas or air com- 
pressed per minute. 

When natural gas is compressed the value for R is not nearly 
enough constant under all conditions to satisfy engineering re- 
quirements and a correction must be made, depending in amount 
on the ratio of compression and the nature of the gas. (See Code 
for Instruments and Apparatus, Par. — .) 

lOa' Correction for Moisture. In the case of a compressor 
handling moist air, if some of the moisture Ls condensed during 
tiie process of intcrcooling and aftercooling, the air under discharge 
pressure will be saturated. In order to correct the rate of flow as 
shown by the orifice results it will only be necessary to figure the 
capacity of the compressor in terms of a total pressure equal to the 
sum of the partial pressure of air under intake conditions plus the 
IJart ial pressure of the moisture in moist air having a relati\e humid- 
ity less than that observed in the intake by an amoimt representing 
the moisture removed in the cylinders, intercoolers, and aftercoolers. 
To deterniiiu' tliis equivalent pressure to be used in calculating the 
specific volume, the following formula may be used: 

P = Pd + Pm 

where Prf = partial pressure for air in intake 

Prn = partial pressure of moisture corrected for water of 
condensation removed from compressor and coolers. 
To arrive at the value for Pm, proceed as foUows: In the steam 
tables find the density of steam corresponding to the observed 
temperature in the discharge recei\er. Multiply this first by the 
ratio of the observed absolute intake pressure to the observed 
absolute discharge pressure and then by the ratio of the absolute 
tem|ierature in the discharge receiver to the ab.solute temperature 

' See footnote on preceding page. 



JiNOAET, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



in the intake. The value thus obtained wiO be a hypothetical 
density, opposite which in the pressure column of the steam table 
will be found the desired partial pressure Pm. 

It should be noted that the correction for moisture may be 
properly made only if moisture in the form of condensate is actually 
removed from the coolers. Care should be taken to make sure 
that the discharge temperature and pressure used is taken at or 
near the outlet of the cooler. If no aftercooler is installed the 
discharge temperature and pressure at or near the outlet of the 
intercooler should be used in the calculation outlined above. 

11 Indicated Horsepower. The indicated horsepower for each 
end of the cylinder is found by ushig tlie fornuila: 



I.hp. = 



PLAN 
33,000 



where P represents the mean effective pressure in pounds per 
square inch, L the length of the stroke in feet, A the area in square 
inches of the piston less the area of the piston rod, if any, and iV 
the number of revolutions per minute. The total horsepower of 
the cylinder is the sum of the horsepower de\-eloped in the two ends. 
11a The Mean Effective Prcsmre should be found by dividing 
the area of the indicator diagram in square inches as determined 
with a planimeter by the length of the diagram in inches, and 
multiplying the quotient by the average scale of the indicator 
spring. If a planimeter is not available, the approximate mean 
effective pressure may be determined by finding the average height 
of the diagram in inches as obtained by averaging a suitable number 
or ordinates, at least twenty, measured between the lines of the 
forward and return strokes, and then multiplying this average by 
the scale of the spring. The length of the indicator diagram is the 
measured distance along the atmospheric-pressure line between 
ordinates erected perpendicular to it and passing through the ends 
of the indicator diagram. 

12 The horsepower required to compress isothermaUy the measured 
quantity of air at average speed of the compressor is found by multi- 
plying the volume compressed per minute in cubic feet corrected 
to intake pressure and temperature by the absolute intake pressure 
in pounds per square foot and by the hyperbolic logarithm of the 
ratio of the absolute discharge pressure to the absolute intake 
pressure and dividing the product by 33,000. 

13 The Gross Horsepower is the indicated horsepower in the 
steam or power cylinders in the case of a steam or internal-com- 
bustion-engine-driven compressor; the electrical horsepower mul- 
tiplied by the motor efficiency in the case of a motor-driven com- 
pressor; and the brake horsepower delivered to the compressor 
shaft in the case of a belt-driven compressor. In the case of a 
compressor driven through belt, gear, etc., the power absorbed by 
the belt, gear, etc., must be taken into account. 

14 Electrical Horsepoirer. The electrical horsepower of a 
motor is found by dividing the input at the terminals expressed 
in kilowatts by the constant 0.746. In the case of an alternating- 
current motor, the input determined, whether expressed in electrical 
horsepower or kilowatts, should be the total input. When the 
power for excitation or ventilation is taken directly from the com- 
pressor shaft, the total input is that indicated at the a.c. motor 
terminals; but if the motor efficiency as given does not account 
for the exciter input and exciter loss, the total electrical horse- 
power used in calculating the gross horsepower (Par. 13) is that 
indicated at the motor terminals less an equivalent current re- 
quired to run the exciter. 

15 Volumetric Efficiency. The volumetric efficiency is the 
ratio of the capacity of the compressor to displacement. The 
capacity is the actual amount of air or gas compressed and delivered, 
expressed in cubic feet per minute at intake temperature and 
pressure. 

16 Mechanical Efficiency. The mechanical efficiency is the 
ratio of the air indicated horsepower to the indicated horsepower 
in the power cjdinders in the case of a steam-driven or internal- 
combust ion-engine-driven compressor, and to the brake horse- 
power delivered to the shaft in the case of a power-driven machine. 

17 Compression Efficiency. The compression efficiency is the 
ratio of the work required. to compress isothermaUy all the air or 
gas delivered by the compressor to the work done within the com- 
pressor cylinder, as shown by the indicator cards. The two factors 



involved in this ratio are defined in Pars. 12 and 11, respectively. 
IS Overall Efficiency. The overall efficiency is the product of the 
compression efficiency and the mechanical efficiency. 

The D,\ta .\nd Result.s 

19 The data and results should be reported in accordance with 
the tables given herewith, adding lines for data not provided for 
or omitting those not required, as may conform to the purposes of 
the test. Unless otherwise indicated, the items should be the 
averages of all observations. 

Table 1 constitutes the data and results applying to the com- 
pressing element and Tables 2, 3 and 4 the data and results apply- 
ing to the driving element for motor, steam-engine and internal- 
combustion-engine drive, respectively. In reporting a test Table 
1 should be combined witli its appropriate driving-element table, 
the two being thrown together to form one complete table. The 
items of Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 are so numbered as to indicate how 
this may be done most conveniently. 

TABLE 1 DATA AND RESULTS OF TEST ON POWER-DRIVEN 
DISPLACEMENT AIR COMPRESSOR 

COMPRESSING ELEMENT 
(.A.S.M.E. Code of 1923) 



Genekal Information 



(1) Dateoftest 

(2) Location 

(3) Owner 

(4) Builder 

(5) Test conducted by. 

(6) Object of test 



(7) 
(8) 
(9) 
(10) 
(11) 
(12) 
(13) 
(14) 

(15) 



(16) 



Description, Dimensions, Etc., of Compressor 

Type of compressor (single or multiple stage, and kind of gas) 

Tj-pe of compressor valves 

Method of driving compressor 

Method of volume control 

Rated discharge pressure lb. per sq. in 

Rated speed r.p.m. 

Rated displacement cu. ft. per min. 

Rated output expressed in volume (air or gas at intake pressure and 
temperature) cu. ft. per min. 

Type of intercoolers and aftercooler 

Ist 2nd 3rd 

inter- inter- inter- 
cooler cooler cooler 

Area of water-cooled surface, sq. ft 

Sec Par. .5 



(17) 
(18) 
(19) 
(20) 



(21) 



(22) 



l.st 
stage 



2nd 
stage 



3rd 
stage 



Diameter of compressor cylinders, in 

Stroke of pistons, ft 

Diameter of piston rods or tail rods, in 

Clearance in terms of- piston dis- 
placement, per cent 1st stage 2nd stage 3rd .stage 

(a) Clearance, head end 

(b) Clearance, crank end 

(c) Clearance, average 

Air cylinder ratii5 based on piston 

disj>l3cement: 

(a) 1st stage to 2nd stage 

(b) 2nd stage to 3rd stage 

(c) Total (1st stage to final 
stage) 

Horsepower constant, air cylinder: 1st stage 2nd stage 3rd stage 

(a) Head end (stroke X net 

piston area -^ 33,000) 

(b) Crank end (stroke X net 

piston area -^ 33,000) 

(23) Area of compressor cylinder jack- 1st stage 2nd stage 3rd stage 

eted surface sq. ft. sq. ft. sq. ft. 

(24) Length and cross-sectional area, 

intake pipe ft. ft. ft. 

(25) Diameter of final discharge pipe . . in. in. in. 

Description, Dimensions, Etc., op Compressor Driving Element 
(See Tables 2, 3 or 4) 

Test Data and Results 

(40) Duration of test hr. 

Average Pressures 

(41) Barometric pre.s.-!ure in. of mercury 

(n) Corresponding absolute pressure lb. per sq. in. 

(42) Pressure by gage at intake near cylinder lb. per sq. in. 

(a) Corresponding absolute pressure lb. per sq. in. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



(6) Maximum pressure above or below atmosphere 

by intake-pipe diagram lb. per sq. in. 

(c) Minimum pressure above or below atmosphere 
by intake-pipe diagram near cylinders. (See Par. 
4d) lb. per sq. in. 

(43) Pressure above atmosphere in discharge pipe near 

high-pressure cylinder by gage lb. per sq. in. 

(a) Corresponding absolute pressure lb. per sq. in. 

(6) Maximum pressure above atmosphere, discharge 

pipe diagram near high-pressure cylinder lb. per sq. in. 

(c) Minimum pressure above atmosphere, discharge 
pipe diagram near high-pressure cylinder. (See 
Par. 4d lb. per sq. in. 

(44) Pressure in 1st intercooler by gage lb. per sq. in. 

(See Par. 4d) 

(45) Pressure in 2nd intercooler by gage lb. per sq. in. 

(See Par. 4d) 

Average Temperatures 

(50) Engine-room temperature dc-g. fahr. 

(51) Temperature of air or gas near intake, dry-bulb deg. fahr. 

(52) Temperature of air or gas near intake, wet-bulb deg. fahr. 

Istcyl. 2dcyl. 3d cyl. 

(53) Temperature of air or gas in suc- 

tion port, deg. fahr 

(54) Temperature of air or gas in dis- 

charge port, deg. fahr 

(55) Temperature of jacket cooling- 

water inlet, deg. fahr • 

(56) Temperature of jacket cooling- 

water outlet, deg. fahr 

1st 2d inter- 

cooler cooler • cooler 

(57) Temperature of cooler circulating 

water inlet, deg. fahr 

(58) Temperature of cooler circulating 

water outlet, deg. fahr _ 

(59) Temperature of air or gas in gaging tank at upstream side of orifice 
deg. fahr. 

Total Quantities 

(65) Relative humidity of air or gas at intake of compressor (use Smith- 

sonian Tables) per cent. 

(66) Air compressed and delivered to line lb. 

(See Pars. 4a and 4b) 

(67) Air or gas compressed and delivered to line expressed in cu. ft. at 

Intake pressure and temperature cu. ft. 

(See Pars. 10 and 10a) 

1st cyl. 2d cyl. 3d cyl. 

(68) Cooling water supplied jackets, lb 

1st 2d after 

stage stage cooler 

(69) Cooling water supplied coolers, lb 

Unit Quantities 

(76) Volume of air or gas at intake pressure and temperature compre.ssed 

and delivered per minute [Item 67 -s- (60 X Item 40) ] cu. ft. 

1st cyl. 2d cyl. 3d cyl. 

(77) Cooling water supplied jackets, 

lb. or gal. per min. [Item 68 ^ 

(60Xltem40)l 

(78) Cooling water supplied inter- 1st stage 2d stage after cooler 

coolers, lb. or gal. per min. [Item 

69 -=- (60 X Item 40) ] 

Speed 

(82) Total number of revolutions as shown by compre.ssor counter 

(83) Revolutions per minute [Item 82 -H (60 X Item 40)] r.p.m. 

(84) Average piston speed ft. per min. 

Pmeer 

(85) Indicated horsepower of compressor cylinders, whole compressor 
i-lip- 

(86) Low-pressure compressor cylinder, horsepower: 

Crank end ihp. 

Head end i hp. 

(87) Intermediate-pressure compressor cylinder horsepower: 

Crank end i-lip- 

Head end '-hp- 

(88) High-pressure compressor cylinder horsepower: 

Crank end i-hp- 

Head end '-hp- 

(89) Friction horsepower [Item 101 (Table 2) or 90 (Table 3)— Item 85] 

i.hp. 

Power Input 

(See Tables 2, 3 or 4) 
Economy Results 

(102) Gross horsepower per cu. ft. of air or gas delivered per min. at intake 

pressure and temperature (See Par. 13) hp. 

(103) Electrical horsepower per cu. ft. of air of gas delivered per min. at 

Intake pressure and temperature (See Par. 14) hp. 



(104) Indicated horsepower in compressor cylinder per cu. ft. of air or gas 
delivered per min. at intake pressure and temperature (Item 85 
+ Item 76) hp. 

Efficiency Results 

(109) Horsepower required to compress Isothermally measured quantity 

of air or gas at average speed of compressor during test (See Par. 
12) hp. 

(110) Volumetric efficiency (See Par. 15) per cent 

(111) Compression efficiency (See Par. 17) per cent 

(112) Mechanical efficiency (See Par. 16) per cent 

(113) Overall efficiency (See Par. 18) per cent 

T^VBLE 2 ADDITIONAL ITE.MS .YPPLYING ONLY WHEN THE 

DURING ELEMENT IS AN ELECTRIC .MOTOR 
Description, Dimensions, etc., of Compressor Drive 

(26) Type of motor 

(27) Rate<l power of motor 

(28) Volts 

(29) Amperes 

(30) Phase 

(31) Cycles 

(32) Revolutions per minute 

(33) Type and rating of exciter 

(a) Volts 

(6) Amperes 

Power Input 

(90) Volts 

(91) Amperes per phase 

(92) Power factor (from meter) 

(93) Exciter: 

(a) Volts 

(6) Amperes , 

(94) Efficiency of exciter (from builder's test) per cent 

(95) Horsepower input to motor (calculated from voltmeter, ammeter 

and power-factor meter) hp. 

(96) Horsepower input to motor by wattmeter hp. 

(97) Efficiency of motor (from builder's test) hp. 

(98) Net motor horsepower hp. 

(99) Horsepower output for exciter hp. 

(100) Net horsepower to drive exciter hp 

(101) Horsepower to drive compressor or blower hp 

TABLE 3 ADDITIONAL ITEMS .VPPLYING ONLY WHEN THE 

DRH'ING ELEMENT IS A STEAM ENGINE 
Description, Dimensions, etc., of Compressor Drive 
(20) Type of engine (simple or multiple exp.ansion) 

(27) Type of steam valves 

(28) Auxiliarits (steam or electric drive) 

(29) T\-pe and make of condenser equipment 

(30) Rated capacity of condenser equipment 

(31) T}-pe of air pump, jacket pump, and reheater pump (direct or in- 

dependently driven) 

(32) T jTJe of governing apparatus 

Ist 2nd 3rd 

cyl. cyl. cyl. 

(33) Diameter of steam cylinders, in .... 

(34) Stroke of pistons, ft 

(35) Clearance in terms of piston dis- 

placement, per cent: 

(c) Clearance, crank end .... 

f/T) Clearance, head end .... 

(36) Horsepower constant, steam cylinder: 

(o) Head end .... 

(6) Crank end .... 

(37) Area of steam-cyl. jacketed surface, 

sq. ft .... 

(38) Area of interior surface, sq. ft .... 

(39) Steam cylinder ratio (overall) : 

(a) 1st cylinder to 2nd cylinder 

(b) 2nd cylinder to 3rd cylinder 



Average Pressures 

(46) Pressure above atmosphere in steam pipe near throttle, by gage 
lb. per sq. in. 

(a) Corresponding absolute pressure lb. per sq. in. 

(6) Maximum pressure above atmosphere, steam- 
pipe diagram near throttle lb. per sq. in. 

(e) Minimum pressure above atmosphere, steam- 
pipe diagram near throttle lb. per sq. in. 

1st cyl. 2d cyl. 3d cyl. 

(47) Pressure in steam receiver by gage, 

lb. per sq. in 

(48) Pressure in exhaust pipe near engine by mercury column 

in. of mercury 

(a) Corresponding absolute pressure lb. per sq. In. 

(49) Pressure in jackets and reheater lb. per sq. in. 

Average Temperatures 

(60) Temperature of steam near throttle deg. fahr. 

(61) Temperature of saturated steam near throttle deg. fahr. 

(Continued on page 70) 



SURVEY OF ENGINEERING PROGRESS 

A Review of Attainment in Mechanical Engineering and Related Fields 



Experiences on Evaporators with Heat Pumps 

Bt e. wirth 



'T'HE theoretical bases of evaporation with the heat pump are 
*■ now fairly well kno^ii, but the process itself is still in the 
early stages of development, notwthstanding the fact that a good 
many plants have been in operation for a number of years. Up 
to quite recently data were available only on installations handling 
liquid? vdth a low boUing point, but today we have other data on 
the hea\'ier liquids. 

The power consumption in the vapor-compression process is 
determined by the pressure ratio between the vapor-compression 
ciiamber and the heating chamber of the evaporator. A part of 
this pressure difference is consumed by what might be called "dead" 
temperature head, determined by the rise of the boiling point of 
the liquid because of the presence of dissolved matter therein. 
This has been pointed out already by Josse, Fluegel and Sohreber. 

Schreber considers it sufficiently precise to calculate the rise 
of the boiling point from the content of dissolved matter in the 
liquid. The wTiter, however, holds experimental determination 
to be more reliable, especially as once in his own practice he was 
unable to obtain proper performance in an evaporator which lie 
built, because the liquid, with constant specific gravity, showed a 
variation in boiling point as high as 2 deg. cent. This has been 
confirmed by tests extending over a considerable period of time 
and without apparent errors in measurement. 

The data obtained by direct measurement (Fig. 1) do not show 
any irregular variations, but produce, in accordance with the 
specific graxaty of the solutions, points lying along two parallel 
lines, which would indicate the upper and lower limits of boiling. 
In the case of the glycerine solution, the greatest variation of the 
boiling point is 2 deg. cent., equivalent to 40 per cent with a total 



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gravity.) 



temperature head of 5 deg. cent. This is sufficient to cut in half 
the performance of the evaporator and shift the compressor into 
the unstable region of , "pumping." 

Fig. 1 shows not only the variability of the boiling point but also 
its location as compared with that of pure water. As shown by 
the curves, the mother Liquids can have boiling points 10 deg. cent. 
(18 deg. fahr.) or more in excess of water, which may make entirely 
impossible the application of the process. This also shows that 
evaporator performances of 40 to 8.5 kg. (88 to 187 lb.) per hp-hr. 
which have been attained occasionallj' can be secured only under 
exceptionallj' favorable conditions and must not be considered 
as being possible in general practice. 



Useful Temper.wure He.^d 

In order to show more clearly the movement of the heat the 
author recommends replacing in the equation for the coefficient 



of heat transmission 



1 1 1 • ^ 

-^ = — ■ -f- — H — r- the coefficients of 



heat flow and heat transfer by their reciprocal resistances- 



J_ 

_8_ 
X 



= w = resistance of 1 sq. m. of area of heating element per 
deg. cent, difference of temperatui'e per hour 

= (('1= partial resistance on the condensation side 
= u'2 = partial resistance on the evaporator side 
= i<'3= partial resistance of the heater wall. 



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Sulphite Lye 



{,AHigangtpiLnhi, Heizjiaeche sattber = starting point, surface of heating elements: 

clean; WaermedHrchgi2ngszahl = coefficient of lieat transmission; spezifisches Gewicht 

der Lauge = specific gravity of the salt solution.) 

With this done the total resistance is M' = m'i + m'2-1-m'3, and the 
total heat flow is expressed by the equation Q = Al/iv, similar to 
the formula for current, i=e/iv, in electrical engineering. 

The partial resistance on the evaporator side may be materially 
increased by the formation of solid deposits separating out of the 
mother liquid. 

In a certain test there were used in an evaporator first chemically 
pure non-corrosive sulphite Ij'e and then unpurified lye of similar 
material, with specific gravities up to 1.3. The heat-transfer 
values are slio'mi in Fig. 2. From this it would appear that with 
increasing concentration the heat transfer in the case of pure salt 
lye decreases, but that the difference in heat transfer is very much 
greater with unpurified lyes because of an increasing formation 
of a crust over the heating elements. Notwithstanding the fact 
that the sediment formation at the end of a 10-hr. run appeared 



49 



50 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERIXG 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



still to lie c-oiiip;initiv(>ly iifijlit and attjickod only a part of tlie 
heating clement. At the end of the test the (■oefficient of heat 
transmission was 3000 for tlie pure salt .solution and 12.50 for the 
impure lye. That the formation of deposits produces unfavorable 
results in so far as the effectiveness of evaporators is concerned, 
has been, of course, known for a long time, but it is always assumed 
that this would apply to very long periods of ojjeration and that 
cleaning of the tubes would alTord a relief for a considerable length 
of time. The present tests would indicate th:it this is not always 
so. 

In addition to the maint(>nance of the walls of the evaporator 
in a clean condition, the lively movement of liquid in the pro.ximity 
of the heater walls has also a great influence on partial resistance 
to heat flow. 

The partial resistance on the sitle where condensation takes 



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Fig. 3 Curves Showing the Irregularitt of Oper.\tion of .\n Ev.tp- 
OR.^TOR Due to Disturbance 
(Other than tlie presence of air arising on the condensation side) 

{Wasser = water; Verdampjleisluug = evaporation output; Dauer des Belriebfs = 
duration of run.) 

place is materially dependent on the presence of non-condensable 
gases in the steam. For example, the author found by measure- 
ment on a vacuum evaporator which was not quite tight that 
even 3.5 parts per thousand by weight of air in the steam on the 
condenser outlet side reduces the coefficients of heat transfer 
from 2140 to 1410. Josse found in the case of a surface condenser 
that V2 of one per cent by weight of air in steam cut the heat 
transfer as compared with air-free steam in half. It is therefore 
important to keep the heating chambers as free from air as possible. 
In the vapor-compressor even a small admixture of air reduces 
evaporation very rapidly. That not only air but also other gases 
can affect the heat transfer materially is shown by Fig. 3. The 
vapor compressor there is operating with the liquid which gives 
up particles which are, however, soluble in water. Notwith- 
standing a uniform concentration, uniformly clean surfaces of the 
heating elements and absence of air, the performance varies to an 
extraordinary extent, which indicates an unstable condition on 
the condensation side. Apparently the gas produces an insulating 
layer on the walls of the heating elements on the condensation side, 
and tliis insulating layer upsets all calculations as regards per- 
formance. 

The partial resistance of the metal walls is the element which 
admits of the most reliable calculation. It is of importance only 
in cast-iron evaporators or in evaporators where the resistances 
Wi and «'2 are very small. Where chemical influences do not make 
the employment of other materials imperative, iron is usually 
suitable for heating elements. If, however, the resistances iCi 
and «'2 can be maintained very small, it is of benefit to employ a 
metal wall of good heat conductivity. 

In general, in computing the temperature fall across the heater 
element, it is better not to assume rigid coefficients of heat trans- 
mission, but to consider the character of heat flow in each case 
and the previous experience available in this connection. 



SUPERHE.\TIXG OF He.\TIXG StEAM 

This has acquired a considerable importance since the employ- 
ment of compressors which produce superheated steam without any 
extra cooling. The first exjjerience with compressors proved to be 
quite difficult, because of the presence of steam superheating, 
which was generally considered as being harmful to proper heat 
transfer. On the other hand, however, Classen has pointed out 
that the heat transfer in an evaporator with superheated steam 
is, all other conditions being equal, greater than with saturated 
steam. The experience of the wTiter would indicate that this is 
entirely possible, and, on the whole, the influence of superheating 
of steam need not be always quite as unfavorable as would seem 
to be indicated by some previous experiments (Ombeek). 

Foaming of the licjuid, which increases with rise of temperature, 
may cause troulile, and such means of combating foaming as are 
known are apt to cause increased pressure losses in the suction 
piping. 

Since a high level of liquid o\-or the heating surface is undesir- 
able from the point of view of evaporating output because it in- 
creases the boiling temperature, attempts have been frequently 
made to combat its influences by the emplojTnent of spray devices. 
This cannot, however, be applied when the liquid is of such character 
as to form solid deposits. The Piccard process, in which the heat- 
ing and evaporation are carried out separately and which has been 
applied as early as 1878 in Switzerland, is fundamentally simple 
and good, but increases the pressure conditions in the compressor. 





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Fig. 4 Characteristic Curves of Various Evaporators 

(Ordinates: Temperature bead between heating steam and liquid; vH = per cent; 

Abscissae; Evaporation output in per cent of normal output; Normalpunkl = point 

of normal performance.) 



The Chahacteristic Curve of the Evapor.vtor 

Even with clean surfaces the heat transfer in an evaporator is 
not of constant magnitude but depends on the type of evaporator, 
pressure conditions, character of the liquid, and other influences. 
In the design of the apparatus it is therefore a good plan to plot 
first the characteristic curve for the evaporator by plotting the 
e\'aporator output against the corresponding temperature dif- 
ferences. In order to obtain a general basis for purposes of com- 
parison, there have been used in the curves of Fig. 4 not the actual 
^■alucs l)ut comparative values based on an output of 100 per cent 
at a temperature difTerence of 100 per cent. 

For purposes of comparison two theoretical characteristic 
curves have been plotted: A, with an entirely uniform rate of 
heat transfer under which condition the output varies according 
to a straight-line law with the temperature differences; and B, with 
a rate of transfer which varies in proportion to the temperature 
fall under which condition the characteristic curve appears as a 
parabola. Curves C, D and E have been derived from tests on 
large evaporators and the curve C was taken from an evaporator 
of conventional design wth vertical tubes in the heat chamber. 
It approaches a parabola and the rate of heat transfer appears. 



Januarv, !922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



51 



therefore, to he aiiiiroximately proportional to tlie temperature 
fall. Curve D is taken from tests by Professor t^todola on a Kunim- 
ler and Matter compressor, and cur\-e E on an evaporator operatinji 
witli after-evaporation, and therefore one in which the outjjut 
depends very strongly on the temperature head. 

The Compressor 

For larger outputs on one hand and for higher \acua on the 
other, only centrifugal compressors can be eonnnercially used 
owing to the large amounts of steam that have to be handled. 
Such compressors have a lower efficiency than reciprocating com- 
pressors, but they have smaller dimensions and the further ad- 
\ untage that they give oil-free condensate and have and can be 
coupled to the driving machinery more conveniently. 

The centrifugal compressor has a characteristic curve showing 
that with decrease of volume of steam handled the rise of pressure 
ini'reases until it reaches a maximum, and then, if the volume of 
steam continues to decrease, begins to fall off, the compre.ssor 
gradually passing into the unstable region of "pumping." The 
compressor operation can be expressed in a percentage curve 
similar to that used in the case of the evaporator, in which case 
instead of rise of pressure may be used rise of temperature re- 
ferred to saturated steam. Fig. 5 gives such a cliaracteristic 
curve for con.stant speed in revolutions and constant pressure 
in the case of a standard Zoelly centrifugal steam condenser having 
an output of about 1700 cu. m. (60,000 cu. ft.) per hr. and a pres- 
sure rise from 1 to 1.7 atmos, abs. The curve vl is the ciiaracter- 




t2a rH 130 

Fig. 5 Ch.\r.\cteristic Cvrves for .\ Centrifcg.\l Compressor 

{unstabit'Stabil = unstable-stable; Beeinn des Pumpens = beginning of "pumping;" 

vH =» per cent; Kritische FoerdcrUistung = critical output; Normalpunkt = point 

of normal performance; spezifisrhe Verdampfung = specific evaporation; Ansaugf- 

Uistung in vH der Normalfoerderung = .suctio.i output in per cent of normal.) 

istic curve obtained without cooling by water injection and curve 
v2 with cooling in stages by water injection. Although with 
cooling by water injection the saturated-steam temperature was 
about 10 per cent higher, in this particular case cooling did not 
lead to higher output but only to greater power consumption. 
Curves vS and !'4 give the steam in kilograms per kilowatt-hour 
of the energy supplied to the driving motor. With decrease of 
output the evaporation per kilowatt-hour falls off materially, 
and should this fall below the critical volume it would become 
necessary to resort to throttling, which would make the efficiency 
still lower. It would appear, therefore, that for vapor compressors 
the problem is to arrange matters so as to work always with the 
compressor at its normal output. (Zeiischrift des Vcreines deutscher 
Ingenieure, vol. 65, no. 46, Nov. 12, 1921, pp. 1183-1186, pe) 



The following emergency methods for obtaining extra cooling on 
aeroplane engines are recommended by the Air Board, Ottawa, 
Canada (Technical Memorandum, No. 12): (1) Addition of a lip 
to the front of radiator (applicable only to some machines, par- 
ticularly tractor type); (2) Spiral air deflectors in the open end of 
the tube (not to be used except for emergency purposes) ; (.3) Re- 
moval of cowling (reduces efficiency of engine). 



Short Abstracts of the Month 



AERONAUTICS 

DoHNiEH DR.\(iON Fi.y Flying Bo.\t. Description of a new 
niachine built at Rorschach on the Swi.ss side of Lake Constance 
by the Dornier Co., a subsidiary of the (Jerman Zeppelin Works. 

Under the characteristic features may be mentioned the air- 
flt)W floats projecting from the sides of the hull, which take the place 
of the wing-tip floats and have the advantage of contributing to 
the lift instead of adding to the resistance of the machine. 

The machine is built almost entirely of duralumin, which is 
employed also for the wings and wing coverings. The wing.s, 
it may be stated, are of the semi-cantilever t.vpe without dihedral 
or sweepback. They are built up in three sections and are made 
to fold back, and it is stated that witii the wings folded the machine 
maneuvers on the water as easily as a motor boat. 

The outer wing sections are braced to the hull by a pair of stream- 
line struts on each side. When the wings are folded back the front 
struts are disconnected at the attachment to the hull and are secured 
to a lug in the lower extremities of the rear struts. 

The floating operation can be accomplished in about 1 V2 min. and 
it takes only about 1 min. longer to extend the wings. Both 
operations can be carried out while the boat is on the water and it is 
claimed that once erected the wings do not reciuire any truing up. 

With a 50- to 60-hp. five-cylinder radial air-cooled engine, three 
passengers on board and fuel for one hour's flight, the machine 
lifts from the water in about 30 see. {Flight, vol. 13, no. 42/669, 
Oct. 20, 1921. pp. 68.5-686, 7 figs., d.) 

AIR MACHINERY (See also Testing and Measure- 
ments) 

Propeller Blowers 

Propeller Blowers for Forced-Dr,a.ft Furn-\ces, Werner 
Mueller. General discussion on the subject of propeller-type 
blowers as distinguished from centrifugal t>lowers, and description 
of some of the CJerman types. 




Fig. 1 Aluminum-Alloy Propf.ller for Use in Blowers 

The design of propeller blowers has been materially affected bj- in- 
formation gained from tests on aircraft propellers, as the same 
aerodynamic laws apjjly to both, even though the purpose of the 
two is different. 

The essential characteristic of the propeller is the profile with a 
large cross-section of blade, thick rounded-off entrance edge and 
smoothly-drawn-out exit edge. The pressure side of the blade is 
concave and the suction side convex, with the constant curvature 
so designed as to attain a flow of stream lines as far as possible free 
of turbulence. Figs. 2 and 3 show the difference in the appearance 
of the air flow between the correctly selected turbulence-free pro- 
peller blade and the common, more or less bent, thin sheet-iron 
blade. Attention is called in this latter type to the turbulent 
formations on the suction side, which act as a brake on the wheel 
and thus create a parasite power consumption. With a blade of 
proper shape these back eddies do not seem to occur. 

In addition to the shape of the blade, the design of the blower 
housing materially affects its eflficiency. The propeller screw acts 
on the surrounding medium b)' forcing it ahead aeceleratingly, and 
only to a very small extent does a direct transformation into pressure 



M 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



take place. Because of this, the velocity to the rear of the propeller 
wheel is greater than that ahead of it, and in order to secure a 
flow free from turliulence through the hou.sing this latter must have 
a smaller cross-section to the rear of the propeller than it does in 
front of it. (Compare Figs. 4 and 5.) Bendemann shows that 
theoretically the smallest cross-section should be equal to one-lialf 
of the propeller-circle area. With such an arrangement there 
occurs a clearly defined tightening of the flow lines which decreases 
in increase in counter pressure but never disappears entirely. The 
remaining excess in flow velocity can be converted into pressure 
only by the employment of a conical intermediary piece known as a 
"diflfuser." The clifTuser therefore plays the same part in a propeller 




Fio. 2 



Fig. 3 





Fig. 4 



Fio. 5 



Fig. 2 Cobrect Blade Sbction, Giving a Turbulencb-Free Flott 
Fig. 3 Incorrect Blade Section, Giving Turbulence in the Rear 
Fig. 4 Correct Propeller Housing, Giving Turbulenoe-Free Flow 
Fig. 5 Incohkect Propeller Housing, Creating Considerable Tur- 
bulence IN THE Rear 



As to the latter, Fig. 6, in particular, shows that the power 
consumption of a propeller blower "is very nearly the same over 
the entire cross-section of the piping and that it proportionately 
falls off as the volume of air increases. It Ls also practicaUy in- 
dependent of the resistances which may be created in the piping 
by the use of throttling valves or similar de\-ices. On the other 
hand, in centrifugal blowers the power consumption is very materially 
affected by the presence of resistances, and becomes a maximum 
with an entirely open pipe cross-section. This means that the 
motor driving a centrifugal blower has to be made of ver}' generou!" 
proportions in order not to be overloaded when all the resistance? 
in the pipe are eliminated; it also means that with certain types of 
drive, as, for example, the steam turbine, there is a danger that 
with the passage entirely closed the unit might run away, and 
special means have to be taken to prevent this dangerous possi- 
bility. All these difficulties are eliminated in the propeller blower 
as the driving motor has to deliver only the predetermined amount 
of power suitable for continuous operation. 

As regards pressure as a function of the pipe cross-section. Fig. 
7 gives a straight line, which shows a practically proportional 
variation. Maximum pressure is obtained with the damper fully 
closed, while with the damper fully open the entire pressure appear.^ 
as velocity. Such a mode of variation is particularly acceptable 
for use with piping, as the pressure produced by the blower in- 
creases with the increase of resistances. Contrariwise, in centri- 
fugal blowers the pressure falls off with increase of resistance, 
which is much less desirable from a practical point of view. 

Fig. 8 gives efficiency curves of the two tj^pes of blowers, showing 















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Fig. 6 Power-Consumption Curves for 
Centrifugal and Propeller Blowers 

{Kraftbtdarf = power consumption; 0(r#wMBg — 
free pipe cross-section.) 




Fig. 7 Pressure Cuhtei* fur Centri- 
FUG.VL and Propblleh Blowers 
iPrfissuifg •= pressure.) 





























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FUGAL AND PROPELLER BlOWERB 
{.Wirknngsgrad = efficiency.) 



blower as the sj^ind casing in a centrifugal blower. The relation 
between the theoretically smallest aerial flow correspontling to the 
"equivalent nozzle" and the area of the propeller circle gives a 
valuable basis for the calculation of blowers for given outputs. 

As regards the most advantageous speed in revolutions, it is 
stated that for small blowers 2800 and for larger blowers up to 14.50 
r.p.m. are best, particularly as they correspond to the usual speeds 
of polyphase motors, thus permitting direct coupling. Such 
blowers as the I'ocge arc therefore always Ijuilt for direct coupling 
and not for belt drive, as the latter at the.se high speeds of revolution 
is not sufficiently reliable. Direct drive through steam or air 
turbines could also be used. 

The propeller proper (Fig. 1) is a high-grade aluminum alloy 
easting with a tensile strength of 18 to 20 kg. jier sq. mm. (26,000 
to 28,500 lb. per. sq. in.) and is cast from patterns reproducing care- 
fuUy-tested-out wooden propellers. It is claimed that tliesc propel- 
lers require only a very small amount of machinery, and, in i^ar- 
ticular, that they do not have to be tested for strength under speeds 
in exc(>ss of operating, as the dimensions are so generously propor- 
tioned that there is no danger of their bursting under the action of 
centrifugal stiesses. On the other hand, they must be ve^^• care- 
fully balanced, as othermse heating will develop. Also the boring 
for the shaft should be done verj' carefully in order that every 
blade will travel in the exact path of the preceding blade. Ball 
bearings exclusively are used, and in addition to a double-row shaft 
ball bearing a thrust ball l)earing is employed. 

The article describes in considerable detail some of the features 
of design and installation of the blowers and also gives data or 
propeller-blower operation. 



that the peak values are about the same in both cases, but the 
general character of the curves is materially different. In centri- 
fugal blowers the curve of efficiency reaches a clearly pronounced 
peak value and then rapidly falls off on both sides, which means 
that it is rather difficult to design a centrifugal blower which will 




Fig. 9 Forge Blowers 
(Translations for all figpres: Oeffnung «= free pipe cross-section ; Ctntrifugatgeblat-^e 
=centrifugal blowers; A»iatg€biaest=i)rope\ler blowers.) 



efficiently take care of the variable local conditions of operation. 
This is much easier with the propeller blower as its cur^•e is con- 
siderably flatter. 

Fig. 9 shows, in general outline, a Foege propeller blower. 
{Zeilschrijt fiir Dampfkesscl und Ma.'^chinenbeirieb, vol. 44, no. 3(i. 
Sept. 9, 1921. pp. 2.S1-2S-J, 12 figs., dee) 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



53 



ENGINEERING MATERIALS 

Stainless Steel for Turbine Blades 

Some Engineering Uses of Stainless Steel. Stainless 
steel is an alloy steel containing from 12 to 14 per cent of chromium 
and about O.o to 0.6 per cent carbon. The present paper describes 
some experiments made with stainless steel in turbine blades, in 
particular experiments made in a turbine at the power station of 
one of the makers of this steel. 

. The machine selected for the test was a British Westinghouse 
impulse turbine rated at 2000 kw. and running at 3000 r.p.m. 

The experimental blades were fitted to two of the wheels some 
time about June, 1920, and the wheels chosen were, respectively, 
the velocity wheel which constitutes the first stage of the turbine 
and is operated with steam at a high temperature, and wheel No. 
8, which constitutes the last stage of the turbine and is fed with 
wet steam. Tweh'e of the existing blades were removed from wheel 
No. 8. Three were reiilaced by highly polished blades of stainless 
steel having beside them three blades of the same material in the 
unpolished condition, while on the opposite side of the wheel another 




700 SOO 400 6O0 600 
Tempering Temperature. 



SOO 
700 SOO-C 



Fig. 10 Curves Showing Physical Propertie.s of Stainless Steel 
AFTER Heat Tre.4.tment 

triplet of unpolished stainless steel blades were inserted alongside 
of three new 5 per cent nickel-steel blafles obtained from the builders 
of the turbine. In the velocitj' wheel 24 blades were replaced by 
21 blades of stainless steel, three of them polished, and by tiiree 
new blades of the 5 per cent nickel steel. 

The turbines were opened up after having been in operation with 
the new blades for 3471 hr. It is claimed that the stainless-steel 
blade appeared to be totally unaffected by the work done and did 
not show either corrosion or appreciable erosion, while the nickel- 
steel blades inserted at the same time showed both, in particular 
along the inlet edges. The article refers also to the application 
of stainless steel to the rams of hydraulic pumps. 

In a tliree-throw hj'draulic pump built in Sheffield, rams of stain- 
less steel and phosphor bronze were tried. It is said that the 
stainless-steel ram has maintained its original polish better and 
suffered less wear than the pliosphor-bronze ram. 

Stainless steel can be hardened and tempered similarly to carbon 
steel, but it is important to note that its change point is much 
higher, namely, at about 950 deg. cent. 

Fig. 10 shows the variation in the 'properties of stainless steel 
as tempered at the various temperatures represented by the curves. 
For forging the temperature should be between 1150 and 900 deg. 
cent., though it is not impossible to work it below the latter limit. 
It can be electrically welded, but not with a smith's fire, as layers 
of chromium oxide form and prevent the union of the surfaces. 
{Engineering, vol. 2913, Oct. 28, 1921, pp. 592-594, 7 figs., ec) 

Strength of Manila Rope, Ambrose H. Stang and Lory R. 
Strickenberg. Data of tensile tests of 368 specimens of mamla 
rope. All the rope tested was three-strand, regular-lay type having 
diameters varjing from '/s in- to 4V'2 in. An interesting feature of 
the test is the great consistency in results. The ropes showed, 
however, a continued varjang modulus of elasticity and no well- 
defined proportional limit. 

The follow'ing is given as a summary of the results obtained : 



1 The average breaking load was found to be approximately 
a quadratic function of the diameter of the rope. It is expressed 
quite closely by the equation: 

L = cd (d+1) 
in which L is the load in pounds, c is a constant equal to 5000, and 
d is the diameter of the rope in inches. 

2 The ropes showed a continually varying modulus of elasticity 
and no well-defined proportional limit. 

3 The number of yarns composing a rope may be expressed 
approximately by the equation: 

N=kd(d + OA) 
where N is the number of yarns, k is a, constant equal to 50, and d 
is the diameter of the rope in inches. 

4 The test results cover sufficient range and show such consis- 
tency that it is believed that the formulas deduced may be used 
safely for tliree-strand, regular-lay manila rope for sizes of rope 
between V2 and 4V2 in. in diameter. (Technologic Paper of the 
Bureau of Standards, no. 198, Sept. 15, 1921, pp. 3-11, 5 figs., c) 

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINEERING 

An American Solid-Injection Diesel Engine 

WoRTHiNGTON Airless-Injection Oil Engine. The wTiter 
uses the expression "airless injection" to indicate its difference 
from the air-blast injection of the Diesel engine, although the ex- 
pressions "solid injection" and "mechanical injection" have liitherto 
been more common. 

In the new Worthington engine fuel oil is delivered to the engine 
by a service pump operated b}^ an eccentric on the crankshaft. 

The engine is of the valveless tw^o-cycle crosshead t3'pe with a 
separate compartment between the cylinder and the crankcase 
for scavenging air. 

One of the distinguishing characteristics of this engine is the 
use of a di\ided, or two-part, combustion chamber. Tlie function 
of this divided combustion chamber is to reduce explosi\'e pressures 
and to create a condition of air turbulence in the main combustion 
chamber during the combustion period. Shortly before top dead 
center, fuel is injected through the spray valve in an atomized 
condition directly into the smaller ef the two compartments, known 
as the "injection chamber," this being located alsove and directly 
in communication with the main combustion cliamber or cylinder 
clearance space. Ignition of the fuel is from the heat of com- 
pression and the period of injection is so timed that the partial 
burning of the fuel charge in the injection chamber produces suffi- 
cient pressure to start the flow of the main part of the fuel charge 
down into the cylinder until the jet of gaseous oil and air from the 
injection chamber attains considerable velocity, producing a tiu"- 
buleut condition in the cylinder just as the piston starts on its 
downward stroke. This is accelerated by the dowTiward motion 
of the piston. 

Combustion then takes place in the lower chamber or cylinder, 
under conditions closely approximating the air-injection Diesel 
engine, the resultant expansion of gases driving the piston down 
on its power stroke, after which the cycle described above is again 
repeated. The pressure from the fuel pump is high, but lasts only 
during injection about 15 deg. of crank angle. It will be noted 
that the time and rate of combustion are independent of time and 
rate of pump injection. 

One of tlie refinements of the Worthington engine consists in 
providing a scavenging-air connection on the base of the engine 
which may be piped to the outside of the engine room. By this 
means a supply of pure, fresh air may be had for scavenging pur- 
poses in places wiiere the air of the engine room is charged with 
dust or explosive vapors. 

The fuel-injection pump is of the unpacked tj'pe, and as wiU be 
seen from Fig. 11, is driven by an eccentric (17) mounted on the 
crankshaft. Each cylinder has a separate and independent pump, 
complete in aU its detaOs. By avoiding the use of packing from 
the pump plunger, danger of the plunger sticking is eliminated, 
and at the same time leakage past the plunger is considerably less 
than in the usual type of packed pump. The pump body (24) 
is made from a solid block of steel, designed and constructed with 
great care, and the plungers and valves are assembled in this body 
of a unit. 



M 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



Actuation of the pump i)lunj;ci" i-s 'jy the ecc-entric (17), the oross- 
hcad (19) engaging the tappet (21), which in turn pushes the plunger 
upward on its injection .«troke, the plunger being returned to its 
at ie.st position by the spring as tlie eccentric passes its top position. 
The actual iastant at whicli the pump plunger begins to move up- 
ward determines the instant of injection of oil into the injection 
chamber. 

For control, a centrifugal governor is fitted, acting through a 
series of rods and levers to rock tlie control shaft (10). This shaft 
is turned eccentric at a point in line with each fuel-pump plunger, 
and a so-called "by-pass lever" (9), actuated at one end by tlie 
pump plunger, rests at tiie other end on the eccentric part of the 
control shaft through the medium of an adjustable set screw. 
As the end of the by-pass lever moves upward with the pump plunger 
the by-pass tappet (9) and the plunger (7), resting on the lever, 
will move upward also, closing the gap between its upper end and 
the suction or by-pass valve (2). When contact is established at 
this point the continued upward movement of the plunger will 



ruCL OIL TO SPMy »*LVE (1) 

BY PASS VALVt 11} 



(») DISCHARGE 



FUEt OIL SUPfUYUI 



P^SUCTION CHECK VALVE (4) 

DISCHARGE CHECK VALVE(4a)N0T SHOWN 
FUEL OIL STRAINERIS} 



(19) FUEL PUMP PLUHGEl 



tlUFUEL PUMP TAPPE 
UOIHAHOENEO STEEL TaPPET 



(ISICPAHK SHAFT 




©J 


D3 


'" 


v 


J 



HAHD CONTfiOLLED AID VALVE 
FOR STARTINGIIA) 



Fig. 11 Sectio.v of Worthi.ngton Engine Fuel Pump 

open the valve, permitting the oil to bj--pass back to the fuel reser- 
voir instead of being forced through the spray valve, and thus end- 
ing the injection or effective pump stroke. It will be seen that by 
rocking the control shaft (10) one way or the other from its normal 
running position, the instant of opening of the suction valve by 
the by-pass plunger may be retarded or advanced, thus increasing 
or decreasing the effective pump stroke and feeding more or less 
oil into the cylinder, according to the load recjuirements. Also, 
by regulation of the set screw in the end of the lever (9), the instant 
of bj'-pass opening for each cylinder may be individually adjusted 
for purposes of initial setting and load balancing. {Motorship, 
vol. G, no. 11, pp. S72-S75, 10 figs., (/) 

Cooling-Water Systems for Station.a.ry Internal-Com- 
bustion Engines, Edgar J. Kates, Mein.Am.Soc.M.E. Descrij)- 
tion of the various systems, beginning -with the simple cooling tank 
and proceeding by gradual stages to the cooling towers of various 
types, overhead supply tanks, and finally the enclosed coolingsystem, 
which is the most modern development. 

The principal feature of this latter is that the jacket water is 
recoolod in pipe coils over wlii('h other water is showered or flowing. 
The only place where the engine water is exposed is at the visible 
outlet. Because of this the loss is negligil)le, practically no make- 
up water is required, and clean water may be used for jacket cir- 
culation while an inferior tyjjc is doing the actual cooling work. 



\\'here there is a scarcity even of inferior water for cooling the 
Ijijje coils, an arrangement illustrated in the original article may 
be u.sed. In this the raw water itself is in a basin below tiie pip('< 
and pumped by a second pump over an open screen-ty])e cooling 
tower, where it is recooled and ready to be used again over the pipe 
coils. 

The system just described may seem elaborate and complicated, 
but it is not so in reality. Where the water available is of inferior 
character and scarce, as in the mining regions of western Texas, 
such systems afford the only satisfactory method knowii of cooling 
internal-combustion engines. It is said that one oil-pipe-linc 
company has eciuippcd all its plants with similar systems. 

Keciprocating pumps are said to be preferable to centrifugal 
punijis for water-circulating systems, because of their greater re- 
liability and uniformity of operation. {Power, vol. 54, no. 19, Nov. 
8, 1921, pp. 710-713, 4 figs., cd) 



LOCOMOTIVE 
Engineering) 



ENGINEERING (See Power-Plant 



MACHINE DESIGN 

The Control of M.^chines by Perforated Records, Emanuel 
Scheyer. General discussion of the process as applied to textile 
machinery, piano players, automatic typev.Titers, etc. 

Perforated-paper-record control has been applied also to metal- 
working machinery, as, for example, in the automatic multiple- 
punching machines of Wm. Sellers & Co., described in some detail 
in the article. 

The author proposes to apply a modified form of the Jacquard 
method of perforated-paper-record control to machine tools of the 
turret type. He states that a lathe equipped with this kind of 
control cannot compete with the ordinary cam-controlled automatic 
lathe within the proper field of work of the latter, but may be 
applied for handling work which is larger or more complicated than 
can be handled by cam-controlled machinery. The description 
of a proposed lathe with such a type of control is given in the 
original article. {American Machinist, vol. 55, no. 19, Nov. 10, 
1921, pp. 743-747, 8 figs., dA) 

MACHINE PARTS (See Machine Tools) 

MACHINE TOOLS 

Gray Co. Planer with Helical Gear Table Drive. De- 
scription of a new planer, one of the characteristic features of 
which is the use of involute helicjil gearing for driving the table. 

Planers have heretofore been built with herringbone or helical 
gears for the first reduction, but the new Gray planer has helical 
gears throughout. The Gray company states that a train of 
planer gears having one or more pairs of spur gears cannot give 
the results which are obtained by the use of properly proportioned 
helical gears throughout, that is, from pulley-shaft pinion to table 
rack. 

Helical gears produce end thrusts. Adwantage is taken of this 
fact to cause the end thrust of the buU gear and its pinion to counter- 
act the side thrust of the tools when cutting. Moreover, the 
diameters and helical angles of the remaining gears of the train 
are so proportioned that their end thrusts very largely balance 
one another. Bronze thrust collars, provided with forced lubri- 
cation, take the slight residual end thrusts. Particular attention 
is called to the helical table rack which is of unusual width of 
face, giving great strength. The helical rack is arranged so that 
the end tlirust of the buU pinion, which amounts to about one- 
tenth of the dri\dng force, opposes and compensates for the side 
thrust of the cutting tools when they are being fed away from the 
operating side of the machine, a condition which obtains at least 
90 per cent of the time. As the tool pressure increases, the power 
rctiuired to drive the table and the resultant balancing thrust of 
the buU pinion also increase proportionately. This, it is said, 
cfiualizes the pressure and wear on the two sides of the V's, where- 
!is with a rack of the spur form the pressure and wear are greater 
on one side of the V's than on the other, due to the side thrust 



January, 1022 



MECHANICAL EXGIXEERING 



55 



of the cutting tools. It also overcomes the tendency of the tools 
to push the table up the side of the Vs. 

To provide correct tool action, teeth of true involute form, cut 
by a generating process, are emploj'ed. In order to avoid inter- 
ference and imperfect tooth forms, and to obtain great smooth- 
ness of action and stronger teeth, the pinion teeth are so cut that 
the greater part of the tooth face lies outside the pitch circle. 
The teeth ha\-e a low i)ressure angle, are cut full dc|ith, and ha\-e 
a short arc of approach and long arc of recess, giving high efheicncj', 
and greatly increasing the number of teeth in contact and the 
smoothness of action. The action of a tooth having a long arc 
(if recess compared to one with a long arc of approach is analogous 
to the action of dragging the end of a pole behind you compared 
to pushing it ahead of you. 

This design, it is said, also has the advantage of permitting the 
use of pinions of larger diameters and stronger tooth form without 
the disadvantage which attend the use of stubbed teeth, high pres- 
sure angles and low gear ratios. {The Iron Age, \o\. lOS, no. 22, 
Dec. 1, 1921, pp. U17-l-H<), 4 figs., d) 

MECHANICS 

Stress Coefficient for L.^rge Horizoxt.\l Pipes, Jas. M. 
Paris. A new method of calculating stresses wherem a general 
case of the pipe is analyzed by breaking it up into a number of 
fixed elementarj^ cases, and elastic analysis for each of these is work- 
ed out, the results being then combined by simple addition in pro- 
portion as the several elementary loadings are contained in the 
actual loading of any given particular case. 

Essentially, for general loads on a large circular pipe, it is assumed 
that the deflection along the vertical diameter takes place at one end. 
Considering the half-pipe to one side of this diameter, its one end 
is assumed fixed and the half-pipe treated as a cantilever beam; 
the very end is imagined to deflect under the applied external loads 
and then brought back to its original direction by a moment ap- 
plied through Mt, and back to its original position by a horizontal 
force Ht- 

■ From the elastic-arch theory, using Maxwell's theory of recijiro- 
cal deflections, equations are deduced for the unknowni- reactions 
M and H. These reactions contain m, which is the general ex- 
pression for the cantilever moment of the external forces on either 
lialf of the pipe, and by substituting for m in the equations its 
actual value for an}' loading, \'alues of Mj, Ht, etc., are found for 
that loading. When tliis has been done for various simple and 
elementary loadings, any number of them may be combined, and 
by addition of the separate values the resultant value of Hj or Mr 
may be found. 

Several interesting examples of the application of the method 
are given in the original article. [Engineering News-Record, vol. 
87, no. 19, Nov. 10, 1921, pp. 76S-771, 3 figs., ^4) 

The Whirling Speeds of a Lo.^ded Sh.\ft Supported in Three 
Bearings, Prof. H. H. .JefTcott. An extensive paper dealing 
analytically with the first and higher whirling speeds of a shaft 
i supported in three bearings loaded in anj' manner and of sections 
varying from place to place along the length of the shaft. In the 
general case the shaft is supposed to change in diameter at various 
sections along its length and to be of uniform size between such 
sections. Other assumptions are made, in particular, that the 
shaft is assumed to carry at various places along it a series of loads 
each of which is balanced. The bearings are assumed to act as 
free supports and not to fix the direction of the shaft any extent 
for the small deflections contemplated. 

In solving the general problem of a number of loads on the shaft, 
the author resorts to the use of a principle originally enunciated by 
Bresse, w-hich may be stated as follows: The displacement of any 
point by reason of the deflection of the shaft is the resultant of the 
displacements which would be produced if one supposes all the 
external known forces to act separately, and one after the other. 
Thus, the shaft may be considered as supported at each end under 
the action of the given load acting downward, and also under the 
action of the supporting force at the intermediate bearing acting 
upward. The result of the action of these two systems of forces 
is to make the deflection zero at the intermediate bearing. 

From this the autlior deri-\-es a number of equations for the 



deflections and slopes at any given point of each span due to tlie 
system of loads and for the total deflection and slope due to all 
the loads acting simultaneously. A numerical exami)l(> to illustrate 
this i^rineiple is given, as well as equations determining deflections 
and slope under the. centrifugal loading considered. 

One simple case of oscillatory vibration for a three-bearing shaft 
is considered and the speed of a simple oscillatory vibration deter- 
mined, likewise the ratio of oscillatory speed to normal whirl 
speed. {The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine 
and Journal of Science, vol. 42, no. 2.')I, Nov. 1921, pp. 03.5-66S, 
.5 figs., IniA) 

MEASUREMENTS AND TESTS (See Engineering 
Materials) 

MILITARY ENGINEERING (See also Aeronautics) 

Aircraft versus Dreadnaughts, Hon. Frederick C. Hicks. 
General discussion of the part of aircraft-bombi'ig tests of seacraft 
which closed wMi the sinking of the Ostfricsland. presented in a 
speech in tiie House of Rn-presentatives, of which the author is a 
member. 

The author tries to present both sides of the question and points 
out that as Igng as gravity is the force utilized to carry the bomb 
to the target, an aeroplane will always have to be within a certain 
fairly limited zone over the ship which it is attacking. 

On the other hand, however, the torpedo-carrying plane may be 
expected in the near future to become part of the aircraft outfit, 
and the torpedo bids fair tfi be the most deadly weapon carried by 
aircraft. 

As regards the etTccti\-eness of bombs which would simply hit the 
superstiucture, it is admitted that they smash things badly, but 
it is believed that their destructi\'e effect is largelj' local. In fact, 
what happened on the destroyer Manly in 191.S when a number 
of depth charges exploded on her afterdeck, it would appear that 
bombing on decks would not materially affect the men below, 
though of course it is always possible that a bomb might jam the 
rudder, derange the alignment of the shafts, or cause other damage 
that would affect the steaming or maneuvering capacity of the ship. 

Of the lessons taught by the demonstration the following might 
be cited. 

1 Aircraft is a weajjon of such great ^■alue as to warrant the im- 
mediate expansion of the service; among other tilings, by the con- 
struction of aeroplane-carrier vessels of large size and great speed. 
No need in the United States Army is said to equal today that for 
ships of this type, of which there is none either built, buOding or 
authorized. 

2 For coast defense, aeroplanes are indispensable and are weapons 
of the first magnitude. 

3 Hea\^' bombs should be employed from the very outset of the 
attack, except in special cases. 

4 Close-bj', under-water hits are more deadly than direct hits 
on the decks or hits on the surface of the water. Under-water 
explosions can be obtained by delayed fuse action, and, as a matter 
of fact, the heavy bombs had a delayed action of 1 Vs sec. 

5 There must be a change in the design of surface craft with 
increased watertight integrity, and war vessels must be provided 
with better means of protection from both explosive and gas bombs. 

At the same time the speaker pointed out that aviation is in its 
infancy, while battleship construction represents the advanced 
thought and skill of a century. The margin of development 
undoubtedly Ues mth a new service. {Journal of the United Slates 
Artillery, vol. 55, no. 5/183, Nov. 1921, pp. 390-399, g) 

MOTOR-CAR ENGINEERING 

British 200-Mile R.^^te and Its Lessons, "A Competitor." 
One of the striking features of the British 200-mile race limited to 
cars of 1500 cu. cm. was the high crankshaft speed employed and the 
reliability of the multi-valve head. Speeds were as high as '4000 
r.p.m. {The Autocar, vol. 47, no. 1359, Nov. 5, 1921, pp. 864-865, g) 

Progress in Light Cars, '"Runabout." The success of some 
small cars in the Scottish six-day trial and their ability to handle 
all requirements of general travel have led to what appears to be 



£6 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 



a stampede to produce cheaper and lighter cars, and a good many 
of them appear to be quite sati.sfactory. 

Some of these cars hkc the 8-hp. air-cooled Rover ha\e gi\cn 
apparently excellent satisfaction. It is, however, stated tliat air 
cooling is still in its infancy and, for example, the Rover has to be 
decarbonized about every SOO miles. Also the twin-cylinder engine 
is apt to be somewhat noisy. Improvement is, howe\-er, being 
rapidly made in both directions. 

As regards performance, it is stated, for example, that a speed 
Hillman does 45 m.p.h. uphill on middle gear and is very economical 
both in oil and fuel consumption. 

An important feature in this connection is that not only the 
smaller firms but also some of the leading concerns are becoming 
effectively interested in the production of small cars. 

As regards the economy of the small cars, it is stated that 35 miles 
per gallon is conmion and as high as 50 miles has been attained, 
together with 1500 miles per gallon of oil. At the same time, how- 
ever, it should be remembered that the cost of running a small car 
is very much higher in England than it is in America. In the first 
place, a car of the Ilillman type costs somewhere around £400, or 
roughly S1500, althougli S-iq). models are available in the market 
at prices as low for British conditions as £250 (S9oO). {The Auto- 
car, vol. 47, no. 1359, Nov. 5, 1921, pp. 879-882, 6 figs., g) 

General Survey of the Mechanical Features of Britlsh 
Automobiles for 1922. An article based on the features shown 
at the Annual Automobile Exhibition in London. In the broadest 
sense, the typical car of 1922 as exemplified by the show meets the 
following specifications: Four-cylinder water-cooled block engine 
■with side valves; magneto ignition; cone clutch; four-speed side- 
chain gear box; spiral bevel final drive; semi-elliptic springs; wire 
wheels. 

There is, however, a strong tendency toward the use of overhead 
valves, detachable cylinder head, single-plate clutch, disk wheels 
and possibly four-wheel brakes. 

The four-cj'linder engines stUl hold the leading position; detach- 
able cylinder heads are becoming common practice, and the joints 
are being so arranged that the gasket has to be compression type 
only, while separate joints, sometimes in the exterior of the engine, 
attend to the necessary water circulation between cylinder jacket 
and head jacket. 

Water cooling remains standard for the engines of larger cars, 
but air cooling for smaUer vehicles is used and a new system of air 
cooling has made its appearance. As regards air-cooled engines, 
it has been found that the cylinders become rapidlj' carbonized with 
burned oil. iVlso an excess of oil in the combustion chamber is a 
prolific source of spark-plug troubles. 

In one car this year there is used an engine which is oil-cooled, 
the method being to increase to about double the quantity of oil 
carried and to give it a free circulation over the outside of the 
cylinder walls, the outside of the valve seats, the valve stems and 
springs, the inside walls of the cylinders and the interior surfaces 
of the pistons. Preliminary tests have been satisfactory. 

Cast iron appears still to be the favorite material for pistons. 
Of late there has been a tendency to decrease the thickness of jjiston 
rings and it is becoming common to use for narrow rings fitted to 
each piston, three compression rings at the top and a scraper ring 
at the bottom of the skirt. 

As regards valves, the use of multipk; vah-es has not made much 
progress in touring-car engines. 0\crhead valves are, how-ever, 
steadily gaining in popularity, especially on engines of small cubical 
capacity. 

Skew gears and spiral bevel gears arc used, but the production of 
a gearing sufficiently cjuiet and inexpensive is a matter which taxes 
the ingenuity of engineers. The regular practice is to u.sc an over- 
head valve gear 0]jcratcd by push rods from a camshaft containing 
in the crankcase, which is easier to manufacture connnercially. 

In regard to lubrication and carburation, the situation in Eng- 
land appears to be essentially the same as in America. 

The outstanding feature in brake design is the introduction of 
front-wheel and four-wheel systems. It is only questions of ex- 
pense that retard the adoption of front-wheel brakes for the less 
expensive cars, but much experimenting is in progress. In most 
cars where the open propeller shaft is used, the transmission brake 



is emploj-ed; also opinion is veering round to the idea that a com- 
pensating device is not necessary for rear-wheel brakes, but that 
some form of linkage which allows a slight spring is effective and 
less liable to get out of order. 

Disk wheels are making steady progress, owing to the fact that 
they can be produced cheaply and are verj' easy to keep clean. 
Most of the small cars are now fitted with disk wheels, the sole 
objection being their liability to exaggerate any noise emitted by 
the back a.\le. {The Autocar, vol. 47, no. 1360, Xov. 12, 1921, pp. 
945-953, illustrated, g) 

PIPE (See Mechanics) 



ENGINEERING (See also Air 



POWER-PLANT 
Machinery) 

Preheating Air to Furnace by Flue Gases, E. R. Welles> 
Mem. jim.Soc.M.E., and C. T. Mitchell. The problem as to 
whether air delivered to furnaces can or cannot be preheated by 
flue gases is more an economic than a mechanical one, the chief 
concern being to find how large an apparatus can be built and still 
obtain a reasonable return on the investment. 

Economy from preheating air would manifest itself in reducing 
coal consumption per unit of power output, as such coal would be 
needed to preheat the air in the furnace. In other words, the 
beginning of the heat cycle would be moved up a notch. 

In regard to the furnace control with hot air, there is the choice 
of two courses. The quantity of air can be reduced in proportion 
to the reduction of coal, thus raising the furnace temperatures and 
probably lowering the stack temperatures. All conditions can be 
maintained as they were with cold air, using enough warm air to 
keep the furnace temperatures, and hence also the stack tempera- 
tures, unchanged. 

From such evidence as the authors have we should expect no 
trouble regarchng furnace control, but a greater tendency to burn 
out the grates and tuyeres, increasing with the temperature of the 
air. 

Preheating would be particularly helpful with pow-dered coal and 
would immediately widen its field of application. 

In order to determine the economical size of a preheater, the writ- 
ers attempt to develop an expression for the efficiency of such a 
unit for varying capacity of heating surface. To do this they 
assume that the heat-transfer apparatus consists of a sheet-metal 
condenser filled with steel tubes. The flue gas travels through the 
tubes and the cold air around the tubes, or ^^ce versa, the flow being 
countercurrent in order to keep the temperature difference nearly 
constant. The weight of the flue gas per hour is taken the same 
as the weight of air and the velocity of the two and specific heat 
are the same, the latter being 0.25. The final formula for the 
efl:iciency of the heater under these assumptions is — 

1 

2AK 

where 11' = lb. of air per hr.; A = heating surface of the preheater in 
sq. ft.; and A" = heat-transfer rate in B.t.u. per sq. ft. per hr. per 
degree temperature difference between the surface of the tube and 
the adjacent .air. (This quantity must also take care of any me- 
chanical or structural limitations in the heater.) The proper value 
for A' here is of determining influence and yet it is still quite un- 
certain, and all things considered the WTiters expect the value of A' 
in a properly designed heating unit to be not less than 4 and possibly 
as high as 10. From this point of view the diagrams in Fig. 12 
become of interest. Each curve has a point of greatest curvature 
and it is to be anticipated by the correct size of the heater for any 
given set of conditions will lie approximateh' under that point. 
If we know the cost of heaters per square foot aiul also the true 
value of A', it becomes a simple matter to determine the size of 
heater giving the greatest net return on the investment. 

A numerical example is given in the original article. The entire 
matter seems to be yet in the initial stages of development, and as 
an editorial in the same issue of Power (p. 84) points out, the com- 
mercial success of an air preheater is still uncertain. {Power, vol. 
54, no. 22, Nov. 29, 1921, pp. S44-846, 1 fig., dg) 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



5T 



The Design of an Internally Fired Supehheater, Prof. 
W. R. Woolrich, Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. Some data of work done along 
these lines at the University of Tennessee. Experiments were 
tried as early as 1910 at the University of Temiessee to superheat 
steam by the combustion of gas, the burner operating within the 
steam main against the Bteam-main pressure. In 1916-17 a de- 
sign was assembled by the author. Fundamentally, the apparatus 
consisted of a commercial air-atomizing oil burner designed for 
high pressures with its tip projecting into the steam pipe. In 
actual tests with a burner ignitetl and the steam line closed, it was 
found that no adjustment would give a suitable flame at the burner 
tip and as soon as the outside supply of air was shut ofT the flame 
would go out. This was because the commercial oil burner is 
designed to secure only a part of its air supply from the inside, re- 
plying on the surrounding ak to make up the deficiency. 

In 1919 H. E. Ayres took up the problem as an undergraduate 
thesis. In this case a new burner was made up representing a 
combination of two standard oxj'-acetylene welding torches with 
several added features. 

This work was continued by O. A. Kraehenbuehk, but the 
results at first were very unsatisfactory. No difficulty was ex- 
perienced operating the burner in the closed main without steam, 
but when the steam was turned on at any working pressure the 
flame would be extinguished. 



100 
90 
80 



S 10 



a 10 


















-^ 






^^^ 




-^ 






/ 


/\.J^ 


^ 








1 


/, 


/ 












1 


/ 














/// 


/ 














// 
















/ 
































1 

















10 



50 



60 



20 JO Vi 

Square Feet of Heating Surface. Expressed os a 
Percentoqe of Weight of Oas per Hour. 

Fio. 12 Curves Showing Relation Between Size of Air Preheater 
AND Recovery^of Heat IN Flue Gas (/i-Heat-Transfer Rate) 

After a series of adjustments operation was secured but of a very 
erratic character, the burner at times working steadily for periods 
as long as an hour. On the whole it has been proved that gas can 
be burned in the presence of high-pressure steam, but the influence 
of non-condensable by-products supplied to the steam by these 
means on condensation has not been determined. 

The method may be applicable, however, to superheating of 
exhaust steam to be used in dye tubs, laundries, and, generally, 
processes where steam temperatures over 212 deg. fahr. are required. 
{power, vol. 54, no. 19, Nov. S, 1921, pp. 717-718, 2 figs., d) 

Waste-Steam Turbine at Coal Mine 

Mixed-Pressure Turbine Installation with a Regenerator 
at a Coal Mine, C. W. Smith. Description of the power plant 
recently installed at the Nokornis Mine in lUinois. 

Prior to the installation of the plant all electric power used was 
purchased from outside, while the hoist, fan engine and several 
pumps were supplied by steam from six horizontal return-tubular 
boilers. This system resulted in very high operating costs for 
power, especially during periods of slack work. The costs have 
increased still more in the last two years when the power companies' 
rates were almost doubled. Another objection to this system of 
operation was the numerous and expensive shutdowns caused by 
frequent faUures of the utility plant to deliver current. 



Because of this it was decided to install a power plant sufficient 
to take care of all reciuirements. In order to conserve steam it was 
decided to electrify all machinery on the surface with the excejjtion 
of three car-puller engines. This not only decreased steam con- 
sumption generally but reduced condensation in the various steam 
lines. 

In order to utUize the waste steam from the hoist engine a 
mixed-pressure turbme was selected for the main unit of 1000 kw. 
capacity, in addition to which a 300-kw. high-pressure turbine was 
installed to handle the night load. 

The system is as follows: The exhaust steam as it comes from 
the hoist engine passes through an 18-in. header to the Rateau 
regenerator. This is 9 ft. in diameter and 25 ft. long and is equipped 
with back-pressure valves set at 3 lb., whicli is the maximum back 
pressure on the hoist engine. From the regenerator the exhaust 
steam passes through an oil separator to the low-pressure side of 
the turbine. When the pressure in the regenerator falls to about 
1.5 lb. per sq. in. below the atmospheric pressure, the governor 
on the mixed-pressure turbine automatically admits enough live 
steam to carry the load until the pressure in the regenerator is 
again sufficient to carry the load alone. The 300-kw. high-pressure 
turbine is equipped with a jet condenser. The circulating water 
from this condenser is not passed through the spray nozzles handling 
the cooling water on the main condenser, as this would require an 
additional circulating pump. This cooling water is allowed to cir- 
culate from the discharge near one end of the pond to the suction 
line on the opposite end. During the normal operation for which 
this unit was intended this arrangement is entirely satisfactory. 
Even in the summer months the temperature of the pond rises only 
a few degrees. When this unit has to be operated for more than 16 
hr. a day, as sometimes happens when the mine is not working, 
the circulating pump on the large condenser is operated once or 
twice a day for a period of approximately an hour in order to cool 
down the temperature of the pond. This has proved a highly 
satisfactory manner of eliminating an additional circulating pump 
and of saving the power required for its operation. 

It is stated that no trouble has been encountered as regards 
the performance of the mixed-pressure turbine in shifting from 
high-pressure to low-pressure steam vinder variable loads. It has 
also been found that the regenerator instead of increasing the back 
pressure on the hoisting engine has caused it to be reduced. How- 
ever, the original exhaust lines were too small. Under conditions 
existing at the Nokomis Mine only two men have had to be added 
to the power-plant force since this plant was put into operation. 

The installation is of considerable interest to deep-shaft mine 
engineers. The steam hoist has been considered rather wasteful 
to operate, and if this wastefulness can be overcome by the in- 
stallation of a mixed-pressure power plant, this would tend to 
increase materially the field of usefulness of this latter. (Coal 
Age, vol. 20, no. 19, Nov. 10, 1921, pp. 753-757, 7 figs., d) 



PUMPS 



Centrifugal Pumps in Sugar Refineries 



Centrifugal Pumps in Sugar Refinery, Claude C. Brown, 
Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. For various reasons motor-driven centrifugal 
pumps are rapidly growing hi favor in sugar-refining work, 
but the type of pump used has some special features developed 
to meet sugar needs and conditions. 

In Western sugar-refining plants where great quantities of salt 
water are used for condensing purposes in connection with the 
boiling of sugar in vacuum pans, the pumps are situated on the 
ground floor of the plant where they have a suction lift from the 
bay of from 12 to 15 ft. according to the tide and a lift of approxi- 
mately 150 ft. to the pan condensers. When fii'st instaOed trouble 
developed. Thus, it was difficult to hold the suction at low tide, 
as air was finding its way into the pum]3 suction. The introduction 
of this air was eliminated by tiglitening aU leaks in the suction 
line, smoothing it out and eliminating air pockets and sharp turns. 
Furthermore, it was found that at the points in the casing casting 
adjacent to the runner hub there were shoulders which still con- 
tinued to act as air pockets. These shoulders were ^-ented to the 
outer casing with a '/4-iii- line which effectuall}- destroyed any 
detrimental efTect thej' might have had. 



58 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44. No. 1 



The mctliod of ])iiming these piiinp.-; is of intere.^t. A small 
vacuum jjump was in.-itallod near the batten' of pumps and a V^"'"- 
line run to each pump. When it is desired to start one of the cen- 
trifugal pumps, the small vacuum pump is started first and any 
number of salt-water pumps can be primed immediately. 

As first installed the salt-water pumps coasisted of ca.st-iron 
casings with bronze and cast-iron runners and shafts made of 
Cimil)erland steel. Before very long powerful corrosion set in, 
atTecting both casing and runner. The cast-iron Cii.sing was then 
replaced by a bronze casing, and the Cumberland steel shafts by 
shafts of 3 per cent rolled nickel steel. Further, bronze sleeves 
were shrunk on over the portions of the shaft that were inside the 
pump, after which all trouble from corrosion disappeared. 

For the pumping of liquors, syrujjs, etc., other questions of 
corrosion and erosion came up. Here again the most successful 
results were obtained with combinations of bronze casing, bronze 
ruimer, and steel shaft with bronze tiushing. This withstood 




Fig. 13 Centrifug.\l Pcmp with Water-Sealed Packing for Pimimni; 
Sugar Soli;tion' 

corrosion but not erosion, and where this latter was especially 
noticeable, cast-iron casing, clirome-xanadium steel runner and 
monel-metal shaft were used which gave good satisfaction. 

In the pumping of sugar solution it is absolutely necessary that 
this latter shall not come in contact with the pump packing. Be- 
cause of this water-sealed [packing (Fig. 13) is used. A Vi-in. line 
of fresh water is connected within each packing gland and just 




Fig. 14 Sewaoe-Tyi'e Hunner with Double Suction 

enough water allowed to enter tlie glaiul lo seal it and pre\-enl 
the sugar from coming out. 

As regards the question of type of pump runner, it has been 
found in sugar plants that the most successful type for general 
all-round requirements is the sewage-type runner (Fig. 14). The 
open-type runner, which resembles an open star, has also proved 
successful, particularly for iJUinjiing liquids wliich have matter in 
suspension. {Power Plant Engiiiecri nxj , vol. 25, no. 22, Nov. 15, 
1921, pp. 1087-10S8, 4 figs., d) 

SPECIAL MACHINERY 

Bar Mills Ad.\pted rt) Handlk .\lloy Steel, J. D. Knox. 
Descrii)tion of a new unit built by the Central Steel Company, 
Massillon, Ohio, the clriracteristic feature of which is that care 
has been taken to adajjt the mill to ])eculiarities of alloy steel. 
Only some of the features can be noted here. Tims, the motors 



driving the 10- and 12-in. roll trains' are cooled by air wa.shed in 
a Carrier-type washer. 

The 18-in. finishing mill is driven by a 2200-hp. variable-speed 
motor designed to operate from 303 to 505 r.p.m. The gear set 
with a ratio of 115 to 34 provides various roll speeds ranging from 
90 to 150 r.p.m. {Iron Trade Review, vol. 69. no. 20, Nov. 17. 1921, | 
pp. 127.5-I2.S1, 11 figs., d) 

SPECIAL PROCESSES 

Be.nding Lock-Seam Tubing. Lock-seam tubing is made 
with the folded seam. Such tubing can be used for automoti\i- 
exhaust manifolds providing it can be bent to the forms requinil 
for this purpose without opening the seams. The method oi 
making the bends by first filling tiie tubing with molded lead or 
rosin was found, however, to be too expensive for conunercial 
production. 

In order to meet this problem a special form was made for use 
on a No. 5 pipe-bending macWne by the Wallace Supply Manu- 
facturing Co. of Chicago, 111. This etjuipment is so designed that 
the work is continuall}' supported around the complete circli' 
both inside and outside at the point of bending. The form around 
which the work is bent is grooved to embrace half the circumference 
of the pipe and a similar grooved follower embraces the other half 
of the pipe. There is a mandrel of the same size as the ^inside 
diameter of the work to be bent. A» the pipe is bent around the 
form both the follower and mandrel move with it, so that they 
always support the work at the point of bending and the metal 
is made to flow. {Machineri/, vol. 28, no. 4, December 1921, 
pp. 289, d) 

STEAM ENGINEERING (See also Engineering 
Materials) 

Inte.stigation of Breakdown of .30,000-Kw. Turbine. Data 
of an investigation by Prof. H. F. Moore, Mem.Am.Soc.M.E., and 
Geo. L. Kelley of the accident to the 30,000-kw. turbine of the 
Philadelphia Electric Co. which occurred on Saturday morning, 
Sept. 3, 1921. 

The machine was being tested for o\x'rspeed and was gradually 
brought to 9 per cent above its normal speed of 1.500 r.p.m.; the 
throttle was then closed by the go\ernor, and the machine began 
to slow down. A few seconds after the main throttle had closed a 
loud liissing noise was heard, instantly followed by two heavy 
crashes and a shower of broken pieces of metal. 

The investigation has shown that the low-pressure casing was 
cracked, the steam passages from the high- to the low-pressure 
stages were broken, all the shaft bearings were broken and the 20-in. 
mainshaft likwise. 

The following explanation is offered by Professor Moore: Under 
running conditions the passage from the high-pressure to low- 
pressure stages is under a bursting pressure considerably greater 
in magnitude than the collapsing pressure existing when there is a 
A'acuum in the passage, .and moreover the casting is designed with 
stiffening riljs on the outside, so that under bursting pres.sure the 
bulging of tlie ])ass,age will tend to cause the rilis to l)e in tension in 
their outer fibers and the plates to be in compression. Under 
vacuum this state of affairs would be reversed. He believes, 
therefore, that it would seem unlikely that the steam-passage casting 
would fail when the interior was under vacuum and the fractures 
are exi)Iained as secondary failures. 

One of the most striking features of the wreck was the breaking 
of the mainshaft and the tearing up of the surface of the exciter 
armature. The character of the met.al at the break would lead one 
to believe that tliere was dragging of one piece of metal over the 
other as fracture occurred. 

As regards tiio primary cause of failure, a theory was offered to the 
effect that a i^olepiece of the exciter field became loose and was 
jammed into tlie armature, causing enough twisting or bending to 
break off the exciter frame and the main shaft, throwing the re- 
mainder of the shaft sufficiently out of line to cause the wreck of 
tlie turbine disk and bearing. The state of the armature would 
ajipear to support this theory. 

From all e\ideiice it would aiipear that the failure of the main 
shaft was one of the last events in the wreck. 



Jandary, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



59 



The fractures in the turbine disk show cviflence of a progressive 
crack ascribed to the existence of hitcral vibrations in the (Hsk. 
This asain is exphiined as follows: The steam jet enters on one side 
of the buckets and leaves from the opposite side, any frietional 
lateral ilrag from the steam being all the time in one direction. As 
the disk revolves the steam must strike on any given blade with a 
regular rhythmical variation of force. At certain speeds this 
rhythmical variation might be so nearly in tune with the natural 
period of lateral vibration for the disk that severe repeated bending 
stresses would be set up. Moreover, these lateral vibrations may 
liave been mnnerous enough to develop .such a typical progressive 
fi-acture as was found in this ease. 

In addition, it was found that tlie turbine disk had onl^- a rough 
surface finish and carried deep tool marks whicii might have served 
to localize the effects due to sidewise vibration. In fact, recent tests 
at the University of Illinois made in the course of the joint investi- 
gation on fatigue of metals have shown that such surface conditions 
might reduce the ability of the disk to resist lateral vibrations by as 
much as 20 per cent. 

If the primary cause of the wreck were a progressive failure of the 
disk, it is easy to show that the wreck might be expected to occur 
at a time when for any reason the speed is particularly high. In 
this instance, for test purposes the speed was increased to 109 per 
cent of its normal magnitude which resulted in an increase of 
centrifugal force to 1.19 times its normal value, which is a very 
material increase indeed. (Poirer, vol. .54, no. 21, Nov. 22, 1921, 
l)p. 7,S8-793, 13 fig.s., dg) 

STEAM TURBINES (See Mechanics) 
SUGAR REFINERY (See Pumps) 

TESTING AND MEASUREMENTS 

Measurement of Air Vei.ocitie.s and the Testing of Anemom- 
eters, Jas. Cooper, The two best-known methods of measuring 
air velocity in mines, namely, by the anemometer and by means of 
smoke, are both liable to serious error. In particular, as regards 
anemometers, the friction of the parts has the effect of making 
anemometer readings correct for only one particidar velocity. At 
other velocities accuracy can be achieved only by corrections for 
the influence of friction, and at low velocities the corrections may 
be greater than the .speed registered by the instrument. 

In view of this, means for testing anemometers have been pro\ided 
at the Heriot Watt College in Edinburgh. There is already in 
England an installation for testing anemometei's at the National 
Physical Laboratory, but thej' are not tested there at velocities 
lower than 600 ft. per min., while air speeds under that figure 
are common in mines and the need for calibration is particularly 
imperative for velocities below 300 ft. per min. The testing table 
used for calibrating anemometers is described and it is stated that 
figures obtained from the tests have been compared, first, by ob- 
servation of smoke velocities, and second, by walking tests with 
the meters over a measured straight line in a still atmosphere. 

The data of tests were charted and it was found that although 
the charts plotted from the tests were similar in form to those sent 
out by the makers of the instruments, the figures of correction 
varied widely. (Paper presented in October, 1921, before the 
Mining Institute of Scotland, abstracted through The Iron and 
Coal Trades Review, vol. 103, no. 279S, Oct. 14, 1921, p. 540, ep) 

Friction of Cup-Leather Sleeves 

Tests on Cap-Le.\ther Sleeve Friction, Eugen Irion. In 
the measureinent of power in testing materi.als with machines 
operated by means of levers or weights or the like, precision to 
within 1 per cent is usually obtainable with comisarative ease. 
On tlie other hand, when the power is applied by hydraulic means, 
its measurement is complicated by the fact that considerable 
friction is present at the cup-leather sleeve, depending on the 
fluid employed as a pressure medium and the material of the 
packing, and therefore subject to considerable variation. As a 
matter of fact, unless this friction is measured quite frequently, 
considerable errors in final results of measurement of power ajaplied 
may be found. Data of such tests of friction in cup-leather sleeves 
are presented in this article. All the data in the abstract will be 



given in the original metric units and the conversion factors to 
American units appended in a note at the end of the abstract. 

This is not the first attempt to measure such friction and an 
investigation on the .same subject- has been published by \. Martens 
in the Zcitschnft des Vereine^ deutschcr Iniicnietire, 1907, p. 1184, 

The present tests were carri(>d out in a 7.5-ton hydraulic bending 
machine water-driven by a three-piston electric pump. The 
pressure cylinder had a useful piston area F = 380,13 sq, cm, (58 sq, 
in,) The dial of the pressure gage was graduated in atmospheres 
and kilograms. 

The division into kilograms w.as obtained experimentally by using 
the average friction value obtained b.y Martens and by adding 
this value to the pressure in kilograms as olitained from the equa- 
tion — 

P = Fp (1) 

where P is the theoretical pressure, F the piston cross-section in 
square centimeters and p the pressure in the pressure cylinder in 
kilograms per square centimeter. This gave Equation (1) the 
form — 



-<^ ,. + /'*)■ 



■Fp (1 



Rp 
100 



■) ill kg. 



.(2) 



where Pi is the actual jiressure in kilograms, and Rp the cup- 
leather sleeve friction in per cent as found by Martens. 

The total friction was measured by a special gage having a maxi- 
mum range of 100 (metric) tons ( = 110 short tons). Two other 
pressure gages were used with ranges of 100 tons and 200 tons, 
respectively, the errors of which were determined by careful cali- 
bration. Table 1 gives the friction values found by Martens in 
1907 as percentages of the pressure in kilograms per square centi- 
meter. The values in column 2 have been calibrated from Equa- 
tion (1), and the values in columns 3 and 4 taken directly from the 
tests of Martens. By adding the values in columns 2 and 4 are ob- 
tained the values of column 5 giving a total effecti\'e pressure pi in 
the pressure cylinder in kilograms per square centimeter. 

The tests have shown, as is evident from Table 2, that the differ- 
ences between the actual experimental data as shown by the gage 
and the values in the curve of Martens (curve A, Fig, 15) in ordinary 
cases do not amount to more than 0,5 to 1,1 per cent, .and that 
therefore the data of the two series of tests are in fairly good agree- 
ment. 





I 






































































































































\h 


~{CL 


«,?, 








































K 




































\ 




\ 


\ 






































■ a 






\ 










































t'tf 




































- 






k ' 


^^ N 
































\ 




\ 






;^J 
































1 

iO 

10 




/ 


\ 




at) 






^ 
























- 






V, 


'K 


L--, 










1 


y3 














V"^'^^ 


- = 


-^', 


^ 


*^ 


^ 


t^^-""- 


-J 




"T?" 


:zF~. 


u=^- 


-_-^ 


■^ 


^^ja^Etia* 




— ^ 


.2-- 


_ 




— 


...^ 










1 


1 


' 


"T*"' ^t»fs:' 












k 






A- 


sfl'Tf 


ochf 


vyr 


^ 




r^. 


/- 


» 1 'f 


-f- 


'-V 1 ■= 



?.20Qcd. 



Fig, 15 Curves of Cup-Leather Friction 



(Curve -4, Martens; curve B, Puppe; curves I, II. III. autlior's tests on 300-ton 
concrete press; curve C, author's tests on 7o-ton bending mactiine. {_Bis = Xo\ 
al. = atmospheres; vH = per cent; Strecke "a" zehnfach vergroessert = section "a" 
magnified ten times.)) 

On the other hand, however, in nearly all cases the sleeve- 
friction values as obtained by the present author were higher than 
those obtained in the Martens test, which may be due to the fact 
tliat the pressure fluid in the present instance was not entirely free 
from dust and fine grains of sand, which is also the usual condition 
in actual operation. It ^vas also found that the first measurements 
carried on after a period of se"\-eral hours of rest of the measurement 
always ga\'e slightly higher friction values than later tests. This 
Vas particularly so in early morning tests which followed the idle 
period of 10 to 15 hr. when the leather cup had a chance to become 
dry. After the piston has moved up and down for some time the 



60 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



values come back to within 0.5 to 1.1 per cent of the Martens 
values. The friction values obtained by Dr. Eng. Puppe in 1910 
are given in curve B for the sake of comparison. Furthermore, 
the present author has carried out se\-eral comparative tests during 
the war on a 300-ton concrete press. Tiie data of these tests are 
given in curves I, II and III, Fig. 15. All these curves agree fairly 
well with each other, though the high frictional values of Dr. 
Puppe would indicate that at high pressures rubber packing rings 
produce a considerably higher friction than leather cups. 

In Fig. 16 is graphically indicated the relation between the load 
P and the friction Rp. From the appearance of the curve of 
friction it would seem that at a pressure of 10 tons, or roughly 
25 atmos., the pressure amounts to only fi.O per cent, while at 75 
tons, or. say, 200 atmos., it is only 2.1 per cent. 

The division of tlio pressure-gage dial into kilograms appear.* 
to be a material improvement in te^sting machines. In tlie majority 
of cases one may allow an error of =t 2.5 per cent, although a greater 
precision can be obtained by the use of a control manometer. 

Table 3 gives the cup-leather friction in percentages of Fp and 





TABLE 


1 COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION (MARTENS) 


(1) 




(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


p 




/> 


Per 






tons = 2200 lb. Atmospheres 


cent 


Atmospheres 


.Atmospheres 


1 




2 6.3 








2 




5.27 








3 




7.9 








4 




10.54 








,5 




13.17 








6 




15.8 








7 




18.43 








8 




21.1 








9 




23.7 








10 




26.3 


.5:6' 


i!48 


'27;7S 


l.'i 




39.5 


4.3 


1.70 


41.2 


20 




52.7 


3.4 


1.79 


.54.49 


2.5 




65.8 


2.8 


1.84 


67.64 


30 




79.0 


2.5 


1.98 


80.94 


35 




92.3 


2.2 


2.03 


94.33 


40 




105.4 


2.0 


2,1 


107.5 


45 




118.5 


1.9 


2.25 


120.75 


50 




131.7 


1.8 


2.37 


134.07 


55 




145 


1.75 


2.54 


147.54 


60 




158 


1.65 


2.61 


160.61 


65 




171 


1.60 


2.74 


173.74 


70 




184.3 


1.55 


2.86 


187.16 


7S 




197.1 


1.55 


3.06 


200.16 



TABLE 2 DIFFERENCES BETW'EEN THE FRICTION VALUES AS 
FOUND BY MARTENS AND AS INDICATED BY GAGE. IN PER CENT 





























No. 










— 




— Atmosph 


eres- 






















-^ load 






10 


20 


30 




SO SO 


60 70 


75 


I 


1 


05 


0.45 





85 





75 


27 





48 


11 





40 0.55 


2 





9 


0.83 





33 





40 


43 





48 


33 





29 0.33 


3 


1 


1 


1.00 





85 





75 


40 





46 


39 





25 0.56 


4 





9 


0.90 





85 





34 


94 





66 


87 





66 0.76 


5 


1 


1 


0.9S 





63 





68 


95 





71 


74 





.58 0.48 


6 





99 


0.80 





76 





65 


79 





35 


91 





58 0.63 


7 





75 


0.95 





68 





79 


82 





88 


61 





66 . 59 


8 


1 


13 


0.30 





55 





83 


64 





73 


84 





52 0.48 


9 





88 


0.86 





76 





53 


66 





53 


69 





63 . 59 


10 





76 


0.90 





82 





70 


49 





67 


47 





82 0.75 


Average 





96 


O.SO 





71 





64 


64 





59 


60 





54 


TABLE 3 


SLEEVE FRICTION 


IN PER CENT OF F 


AND f 


AS FOUND 






EXPERIMENTALLY BY AUTHOR P 




P 


P = pF 






P 








ft> 




Friction in 


Friction in 


tons 




Atmospheres 




kg. 




Per 


cent of Fp 


Percent of /p 


1 






2.63 








920 






37 






40.3 


2 






5.27 








1845 






25 






27.2 


3 






7.9 








2770 






17 






18.5 


4 






10.64 








3500 






12.5 






13.6 


5 






13.17 








4600 






9.3 






10.1 


6 






15.8 








5530 






8.9 






9.65 


7 






18.43 








6450 






8.4 






9.1 


8 






21.1 








7400 






7.6 






8.25 


9 






23.7 








8300 






7 






7.6 


10 






26.3 








9200 






6. 56 






7.13 


15 






39.5 








13800 






5.45 






5.93 


20 






52.7 








18450 






4.20 






4.55 


25 






65.8 








230.50 






3.75 






4.07 


30 






79.0 








27700 






3.21 






3.49 


35 






92.3 








323.50 






3.00 






3 . 26 


40 






105.4 








3.5000 






2.64 






2.87 


45 






118.5 








41.500 






2.55 






2.77 


50 






131.7 








46000 






2.44 






2.65 


55 






145 








.50700 






2.35 






2.55 


60 






1,58 








55300 






2.24 






2.44 


65 






171 








.59800 






2.20 






2.40 


70 






184.3 








64.500 






2.15 






2.34 


75 






197.1 








69000 






2.10 






2.28 



/ p, where/ = 350 sc]. cm. is the sum of all surfaces of the cup leathers 
in friction. The values in the hist column are also of interest as 
they give the coefficients of friction of east iron against leather at 
various pressures per unit of area. [Note: 1 sq. cm. = 0.1550 sqj 
in.; 1 kg. per sq. cm. = 14.223 lb. per sq. in.; 1 metric ton =1000 
kg. = 2200 lb.] (Zeilitchrift (Ics Vereincs deut.scher Ingenieure. vol. 
€5, no. 30, Sept. 24, 1921, pp. IOlG-1017, 2 figs., vA) 



VARIA 

.\git.vtiox for Changes in Can.vdia.v Patent Law. John 
Munnock, Division Court Clerk of the Sault Ste. Marie District, 
in speaking before the Board of Trade of that town, advocated 
imi)ortant changes in the practice of the Canadian Patent .\ct. 

Under the law .Americans obtaining patents in Canada are re- 
([uired to begin manufacture in Canada witliin two years, but may 
obtain an extension for one more year. It is claimed that this 
provision frf the .-Vet is not enforced and that there are 10,000 articles 
that could have been manufactured in Canada but are instead im- 
ported from .\merica. 

It is also claimed that even if an American patentee faQed to 
meet the requirements of the Act as regards manufacture in Canada, 
he can still obtain an injunction against a Canadian manufacturer 
infringing his patent. 

To meet this situation, the speaker proposes a closer check on the 



•yfffi/rd'e yer^r^erte /(i/rye 



A^rys„a "iOfach yerffro/ierf 
/n yH 




Fig. 



16 Rel.\tion Between Load P and Friction Rp for Loads fbom 
Zero to 200 Atmos. 
per cent for the magnified curve; Kurve "a" lOfach 



(vH far die vergroesserte Kurve 
vcrgroesscrt in r// = curve 



'a" magnified ten times in per cent.) 



compliance of foreign patentees with the requirements of Canadian 
laws, and it is claimed that he has carried the matter to Premier 
Meighen, who is said to have expressed regret that action could 
not have been taken by the government prior to election. 

The subject was expected to come up for discussion at the Brant- 
ford Convention of the Canadian Associated Boards of Trade in 
November, 1921. This matter affects a large number of American 
products, among others being American typewriters, cash registers, 
adding machines, check protectors and machine tools. (Canadian 
Machinery and Manufacturing News, vol. 26, no. 21, Nov. 24, 1921, 
p. 52, g) 

CLASSIFICATION OF ARTICLES 

Articles appearing in the Survey are classified as c comparative; 
d descriptive; e experimental; g general; h historical; in mathe- 
matical; p practical; s statistical; t theoretical. Articles of 
especial merit are rated A by the re\iewer. Opinions expressed 
are those of th(> reviewer, not of the Society. 



Starting Aero Engines at low Temperatures. (Air Board, 
Ottawa, Canada, Technical Memo No. 15.) From preliminary 
reports of Experiments carried out last winter by Professor Robb, 
at lulmonton, it is suggested that the following means of start- 
ing Liberty engines at low temperatures may be found to be 
effective. A complete report will be circulated as soon as 
received. It is suggested that for the efficient doping of the 
engines some form of priming pump similar to the RoUs-Royce 
lirimer is necessary. At temperatures over 20 deg. fahr., liberal 
doping with gasoline is sufficient except that the motor w^ill require 
to be turned over several times after doping to case it up. At 
temperatures between 20 deg. falir. and ten deg. fahr. doping 
with a mixture of three parts gasoline to one part of ether will be 
fouiul to be effective. At temperatures around zero, a one to one 
mixture is satisfactory. At temperatures in the neighborhood of 
12 deg. below zero, it will be found that a mixture of two parts 
ether to one jiart gasoline is required. 



ENGINEERING RESEARCH 

A Department Conducted by the Research Committee of the A.S.M.E. 



Research Resume of the Month 

A — Research Results 

The purpose of this section of Engineering Research is to give the origin of 
:• search information which has been completed, to give a resume of research 
II faults with formulas or curves where such may be readily given, and to report 
n suits of non-extensive researches which in the opinion of the investigators do 
not wanant a paper. 

Apparatus and Itistruments Al-22. Scales. Technologic Paper 199 of 
the Bureau of Standards outlines scientific and systematic procedure 
for accurate testing of large-capacity compound lever scales by a method 
developed by the Bureau. Apparatus is described and method of 
testing is explained. Paper may be obtained at a cost of .5 cents from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 

Cement and Other Building Materials Al-22. Bricks. Sand-Lime and 
Other Concrete Bricks is the subject of Special Report No. 1 of the 
Building Research Board of Great Britain. The report is divided into 
two sections, one on sand-lirae bricks, the other on cement-concrete 
bricks. Each section treats of materials, costs, quality, uses and 
manufacture. It may be obtained at 4d from Imperial House, Kings- 
way, London, W. C. 2. 

Friction and Allied Subjects Al-22. Ball and Roller Beari.n'g.s. Tech- 
nologic Paper 201 of the Bureau of Standards describes the tests and 
gives the conclusions of tests performed on ball bearings and flexible roller 
bearings under various loads with balls and rollers of difTerent sizes and 
different hardness with varying radii of races. This report is of great 
value to any one interested in design of ball and roller bearings. This 
may be obtained at 10 cents per copy from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Washington, D. C. 

Fuels, Gas, Tar arul Coke A1-2S. The Coking of Utah Coals. The 
Coking of Utah Coals Is the subject of Report 2278 by Prof. S. W. Parr 
and T. E. Layng to the Bureau of Mines. Approximate and ultimate 
analyses were made. The oxygen content was very high. The oxygen- 
hydrogen ratio was also very high. This indicates a non-coking prop- 
erty. The preliminary testa seem to Indicate this but this feature was 
overcome and a good quality of coke obtained accompanied by a 
series of bj'-products of more than usual interest and value. The 
ammonium sulphate pioduced was exceedingly constant and averaged 
20 lb. per ton. Large-scale operations would probably increase this. 
The gas yield was low, being 3,^2 cu. ft. per lb. of coal. The production 
of gas was very uniform. The heating value of the gas was large. 
The tar yield averaged 25 to 30 gal. per ton. The coke yield amounted 
to approximately 60 per cent of the coal employed. It was dense, 
of good texture and adapted to the usual screen and sizing process. 
It would probably be suitable for metallurgical purposes. There is 
considerable volatile matter present in the coke varying from S to 12 
per cent. The temperature used to carbonize the Utah coals did not 
exceed 750 or SOO deg. cent. Bureau of Mines, W^ashington, D. C. 
Address H. Foster Bain, Director. 

Fuels, Gas, Tar and Coke A2-2B. Natural Gas-Gasoline Blends. Re- 
port 2279 of the Bureau of Mines on Natural Gas-Gasoline Blends, by D. 
B. Dow, was issued last September. Natural gas-gasoline is obtained 
by compression and collecting of natural gas. The gasoline dissolves 
a certain amount of volatile material which evaporates rapidly at 
atmospheric temperature and pressure. With lean natural gas the 
gas vapors are absorbed by absorbing oil, after which it is distilled from 
the saturated oil. This gasoline is of higher gravity and lower vapor 
pressure than the compression gasoline. To transport the volatile 
gasoline it must be blended with suitable material such as naphtha or 
weathered, in which case the volatile portion is allowed to evaporate 
causing loss. It is difficult to produce blended gasoline whicli is equal 
to refinery gasoline. Hence only a small amount of gas-gasoline can 
be blended with naphtha. Blends are sometimes made with kerosene 
and subsequently distilled, the kerosene acting as a carrying agent. 
Most common material is of naphtha range from 50 to 52 Baumfe. 
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. Address H. Foster Bain, Direc- 
tor. 

Fuels, Gas, Tar and Coke A3-22. Recovery of Unburnkd Fuel fro.m 
BoiLEii Furnace Refuse. Report 22S1 of the Bureau of Mines 
on the Recovery of Unburned Fuel from Boiler Furnace Refuse, by 
Thomas Fraser and H. F. Yancy, has just been issued. The report 
shows that washing may be used to recover a large portion of the un- 
burned fuel. The results of the test showed that with ^/s-in. screening 
and ^/4-in. oversize 20 per cent of the refuse was regained as washed 
fuel. A one-table plant will handle five tons of boiler refuse per hour, 
producing one ton of fuel. The equipment for such a plant would 
consist of a roll crusher, a storage hopper, a screw conveyor, washing 
table and two inclined dewatering drag conveyors. If water is scarce 



or costly, overflow from sumi)s may be clarified and returned to the 
sj'stem. The operation would require the part time of one man. 
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. Address H. Foster Bain, Direc- 
tor. 

Heat Al-22. He.at-Transfer Coefficient. The heat transfer between 
hot and cold oil in double-pipe heat iuterchanger used in distilling 
gasoline shows an average value of 20.05 B.t.u. per hour per degree per 
sq. ft. In most cases the mean temperature difference computed by 
the log formula was about 70. The efficiency of heat transfer in 
apparatus averaged 78 per cent on account of radiation. Information 
is from reliable source but name is withheld. 

Petroleum, Asphalt and Wood Products Al-22. Viscosity of Petroleum 
Oils. The following notes are obtained from the thesis of Mr. Achille 
R. Albouze on the Logarithmic Relation between Temperature and 
Pressure of Petroleum Oils: 

The logarithms of temperature and absolute viscosities of the oils 
were plotted and there was found to be a close adherence to a straight- 
line law from ordinary room temperature of 70 deg. fahr. to temper- 
atures of 180 to 220 deg. fahr., depending upon the nature of the oils. 
Around this region of temperatures (180 to 220 deg.) there appears to be 
a "break" in the straight-line law, but after passing this critical point 
the oils then invariably follow another straight-line law up to 300 deg. 
fahr., but at a lesser rate of change of viscosity than at the lower temper- 
atures. In other words, the absolute viscosities of the oils may be 
represented as two intersecting straight lines as far as 300 deg. fahr. 

This critical point where the lines seem to break od is fairly uniform, 
as was evidenced on plotting gravities, absolute viscosities at 100 deg. 
fahr. and temperatures at which the breaks in the straight lines occurred. 
A .study of these curves shows: 

1 That the greater the density and absolute viscosity of an oil, the 
higher is the temperature at which the break occurs. 



A \\ 

~ = = i 




Fio. 1 

2 The lines showing relations between viscosity and the "critical 
breaking temperatures" parallel themselves to a degree of remarkable 
closeness. 

3 Oils of specific gravity below 0.9 show higher "breaking point 
temperatures" than oils of specific gravity greater than 0.9. 

The oils purchased as "paraffin base" oils showed specific gravities 
at 60 deg. fahr. or less than 0.91 and their rate of change or loss of vis- 
cosity per degree of temperature rise was less than the so-called "asphalt 
and napthene" base oils. Comparing the "paraffin" base with th& 
"napthene" base oils of similar absolute viscosity, it appears that the 
breaking-point temperature of the "paraffin" oils is generally from 
15-20 deg. fahr. higher than the "napthene" base oils. The following 
table based upon the experimental data obtained in this laboratory 
(Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Stanford University) serves to. 
show these points more clearly. 



Base of Oil 

Naptiiene 

Naptliene 

Napthene 

Napthene 

Paraffin 

Paraffin 

Paraffin 



,Sp. Gr at 
(iU deg. fahr. 

0.92-0.94 

0.93-0.95 

0.94-0.9.-> 

0.94-0.9.5 

0.87.5-0.90 

0.875-0.90 

0.875-0.90 



Abs. Vise. 

at 100 dcK. fahr. 

(poises) 

0.2.5-0.75 

0.75-1.25 

1.25-2 

2-4 

0.2.5-0.75 

0.7.5-1.. 50 

1.50-2.25 



Temperature, deg. 
fahr., at which 
lower straight 
lines break 
180-195 
190-205 
205-215 
210-215 
200-220 
210-230 
220-250 



An examination of the lines on the logarithmic sheets indicate that 
the oils tend to converge toward a common point, this being particularly- 
true of oils (or products of oils similarly treated) from the same fields. 
None of the oils tested showed a continuous straight line from room 
temperature to 300 deg. fahr., but all can be represented by two straight 
lines intersecting one another around the region of 200 deg. fahr., as 
shown in Fig. 1. 

If the lines for the lower range of temperatures are prolonged it will 
be found that they tend to meet at a common point A of the diagram. 
In a similar manner the upper lines through viscosity determinations 



61 



62 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44. No. 1 



from 200 to .300 deg. fahr. indicate a coiivpreency also, but the point 
of intersection B appears to lie at a still further distance awaj' from the 
point of converKcncy for the lower temperatures. 

No further statements retiarding the common points of intersection 
can be given here, other than to briefly indicate that there are evidences 
of there being such points, principally becau.se a lack of time has made 
it impossible to study this particular case thorouglily. 

The establishment of the existence of a common point of convergence 
would be of great practical Importance. By this means it would be 
possible to know the absolute viscosity of an,v mineral lubricating oil 
(at an.v temperature) after one or two viscosity measurements had 
been made. If the absolute viscosity followed but one straight line 
over the entire range of temperatures instead of two, it would only be 
necessary to know the viscosity of an oil at any one temperature — the 
absolute viscosity of the oil being given by the line connecting the com- 
mon point of convergence and the viscosity as found by measurement. 

Viscosity and density measurements made at lower temperatures 
after the runs at 300 deg. fahr. had been obtained indicate that the 
oil underwent no appreciable changes. Most samples showed only a 
slight increase in viscosity and density due to evaporation. Experi- 
ments seemed to show that there were no measurable differences in vis- 
cosities regardless whether the values were obtained with increasing or 
decreasing temperature. 

The two Mexican crude oils show also a characteristic straight line 
law from 1.50 to .'500 deg. fahr. with only a slight tendency to indicate 
that they are made up of two broken lines. On cooling both samples 
showed increased viscosities due to the loss of low boiling point compon- 
ents. 

Mr. Albouze"s thesis includes in addition to the data and results 
of his own tests, a summary of which is given above, a stud.v of all of 
the published data on viscosity of oils from various authorities and 
determined with various t.vpes of viscosimeters; a bibliographj- of 
physical and chemical tests for internal engine lubricating oils and a 
section devoted to notes and critical review of bibliography. The 
bibliography covere ISS publications. Address Prof. W. R. Eckart, 
Lchind Stanford Universit}-, Stanford, C'al. 

Rubber and Allied Substances A1-3S. Tests of Rlbber Goods. Circular 
38 of the Btn-eau of Standards has just been issued. The subject of 
the circular is the test of rut>ber goods giving the physical and chemical 
methods used at the Bureau with an introductory portion giving in- 
formation concerning crude rubber and manufacture of rubber goods. 
Materials used in compounding rubber are classified and process of 
manufacture described, with brief summary of the detail of manufacture 
of tires, tubes, mechanical goods, druggists' sundries, methods of physi- 
cal tests with data of results as well as methods of chemical analysis 
are given. Methods of testing fabrics are included. The Appendix 
contains a list of governmental specifications, a bibliography of papers 
published by the Bureau and of the more important books and periodi- 
cals that deal with rubber. A table of specific gravities of the common 
compounding ingredients is given. Circular may be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. for 20 cents. 

Sajely Denices Al-22. Head .\nu Eye S.\fety Code. A second edition of 
the Head and Eye Safety Code is soon to be published by the Bureau 
of Standards. This mil include specifications for goggles, welding 
helmets and other protectors. Bvireau of Standards, Washington, 
D. C. Address S. W. Stratton, Director. 

Steam Pmver A3-21. Steam Action in Simple Nozzle Forms is the sub- 
ject of a paper read by A. L. McUanby and William Kerr before the 
British .\ssociation in August, 1921. _ A paper on Pressure Flow 
Experiments on Steam Nozzles was read before the Institute of En- 
gineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland November. 1020, while in Febru- 
ary, 1921, a paper on the Losses in Convergent Nozzles was published. 
This paper was read before the Northeast Coiist Institute of Engineers 
and Shipbuilders. The various papers give pictures of apparatus used, 
curves showing observed data and theoretical curves discussing the 
action of steam jets in nozzles. These sets of papers contribute largely 
to our present knowledge of steam flow. 

B — Research in Progress 

The purpose of this section of Engineering Research is to bring together those 
who are working on the same problem for cooperation or conference, to prevent 
unnecessary duplication of work and to inform the profession of the investigators 
who are engaged upon research problems. The addresses of these investigators 
are given for the purpose of correspondence. 

Apparatus ami Instruments Bl-22. Acidity and Alkalinity Recorder. 
.\n instrument for determining the alkalinity or acidity of boiler feed 
to automat icall.v control additions of caustic soda to eliminate acid 
conditions. The principle u.sed is that of measurement of concentra- 
tion of the hydrogen ions. A hydrogen electrode and calomel electrode 
are immersed in a by-passed flow of fecdwater from the heater tanks. 
The potential difference measured depends on the H-ion concentration. 
Results of data so far indicate that method would jjrove satisfactor.w 
Address E. A. Keeler, Leeds & Northrup, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Automotive Vehicles and Equipment Bl-22. Experimental Tunnel for 
Study-inq Exhaust Gas. See Internal-Combustion Motors B 11-21, 

Boilers and Accessories Bl-22. Acidity and .Alkalinity Recorder. See 
Apparatus and Instruments Bl-21. 



I nternal-Comhustion .Motors Bl-22. Experimental Tunnel for Stcdt- 
ING Exhaust Gas. Report 2288 of the Bureau of Mines on the Bureau 
of Mines Experimental Tunnel for Studying the Removal of Exhaust 
Gas, by .\. C. Fieldner and J. W. Paul, gives an account of the purposes 
of the Investigation and results found as reported under Automotive 
Vehicles and Equipment A5-21, in Mecha.nical Engineering for" 
June, 1921. The report gives the following particulars of the construc- 
tion of this experimental tunnel. 

An oval track having an axial length of 400 ft. and having similar 
construction to that of the ducts proposed in the Hudson River Tunnel, 
was constructed under ground with a cross-section approximately 9 
ft. wide and S ft. high. Above the tunnel is an air duct 3 ft. high and 
below the floor another air duct SJs ft. high. Either duct may be 
used for introducing fresh air or for exhausting contaminated air. 
The tunnel accomodates the smaller types of five-passenger cars. It 
is completely equipped with sensitive apparatus for measuring tempera- 
ture, humidity, air pressure and air velocity. Forty-eight air-sampling 
tubes are installed at eight cross-sections of the tunnel to obtain samples 
for chemical anal.ysis and to determine difTusion and concentration of 
exhaust gases. The experimental tunnel tests will include physiological 
and psychological observations of the effects on the man dri\*ing the 
cars, of temperature, humidity, rate of air flow, smoke and exhaust 
gases. Ten cars at 40-ft. intervals will be run at the rate of 10 miles 
per hour and 21,000 cu. ft. of air per minute will be introduced so as 
to keep the carbon monoxide at 4 parts per 10,000 parts of air. Each 
driver and observer will be subjected to examination before and after 
the tests. The tunnel is situated 130 ft. below the surface of the 
ground and 150 ft. from the pit mouth. The stud.v will include the 
diffusion of exhaust g<ases b.v transverse ventilation, bottom to top and 
top to bottom, temperature and smoke conditions as effected b.v opera- 
tion of motor cars, physiological and psychological effects of tempera- 
ture, exhaust gases and smoke, final check of previous investigation 
and practical demonstration of solution of problem. 

Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. -Address H. Foster Bain, 
Director. 

Metallurgy and Metallography Bl-22. Deoxidizers. Progress Report 
to the Division of Engineering of the National Research Council on 
Substitute Deoxidizers gives some of the work which has been done 
by the Committee on this subject. The Committee has standardized 
Its work and is now treating s'tandard metal with various deoxidizers 
in an atmosphere of nitrogen within an induction furnace. The stand- 
ard metal is commercially pure .\merican ingot iron and iron oxides 
melted together in an electric furnace in such proportions that the iron 
thus made give 0.5 to 0.0 per cent oxygen. When this standard metal 
is melted the deoxidizer is added and allowed to act for 5 or 10 minutes 
with the heat on the furnace. The melt is then allowed to solidify or 
is poured into a chill mold. The ingot Is then split, examined and 
photographed. One-half is then forged and the forging properties 
noted. The forged ingot is then examined microscopically for Inclusions 
and chemically for ox.vgen and residual amounts of deoxidizing elements. 

This work has been repeated in some cases in a 40-lb. experimental 
electric furnace of the American Rolling Mills Company. Each de- 
oxidizer is to be added in different amounts to determine the proper 
amount to be used. Certain of the deoxidizers have proven of special 
value in preventing segregation. Others indicate inabilit.v to replace 
manganese in eliminating sulphur red shortness. Some have shown 
a refining influence on grain structure and others have shown the possi- 
bility of reducing ingot loss from discards due to shrinkage cavities. 
In the earlier work the Committee has found 73 combinations of elements 
which promise to be of value as deoxidizers. All contain manganese, 
but many of them contain less than 2 per cent of this element. As 
the first steps of deoxidation could be effected by these alloys and the 
final deoxidization with high-percentage ferromanganese, a great saving 
can be accomplished. 

The functions of the deoxidizer are: 

1 To produce the greatest possible yield of sound ingots free from 
blow holes and with a minimum amount of shrinkage cavities 

2 To produce steel possessing satisfactory rolling and forging 
properties 

3 To produce metal free from iron oxide, slag or other solid inclusion, 
and 

4 To produce steel with maximum freedom from dissolved gases. 
The report is made by Dr. J. R. Cain, Chairman, Committee on 

•Substitute Deoxidizers. Address Division of Engineering, National 
Research Council, 29 West 39th St., New York City. 

Properties of Engineering Materials Bl-22. Corrosion of Pipes. The 
Bureau of Standards is beginning an investigation of the corrosive 
action of soil upon iron pipe. Investigations are being made with the 
cooperation of the Bureau of Soils, Pipe Manufacturers, Public Utility 
Companies and the Bureau of Standards. Forty locations have been 
selected representing different kinds of soil found through the United 
States, and in each locality a number of samples of each kind of iron 
and steel pipe in commercial use will be buried. One of these pipes 
will be uncovered from time to time to determine the rate of corrosion. 
Complete data of the physical and chemical properties of soil and 
pipes will be obtained. Extensive laboratory experiments will be 
conducted to determine the effects of variations and characteristics 
of both soil and pipe materials. Tests will also be made of representa- 
tive pipe coverings. The investigation will probably take eight to 
ten years. The progress report will be published from time to time. 
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. -Vddress S. W. Stratton, 
Director. 






Janttart, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



63 



See Properties of Engv- 



Protective Devices B1-2S. Corrosion of Pipes. 
neering Maleriah Bi-21. 

Safety Devices Bl-32. Safety Code for Logging Operations. A Na- 
tional Safety Code for Logging and Saw Mill Operations is being pre- 
pared by the Bureau of Standards with tlie assistance of a Sectional 
Committee. This Code is nearing completion. Bureau of Standards, 
Washington, D. C. Address S. W. Stratton, Director. 

C — Reseahch Problems 

The purpose of this sMion of Engineering Research is to bring together per- 
sons who desire cooperation in research work or to bring together those who have 
problems and no equipment y>ilh those who are equipped to carry on research. 
It is hoped tliat those desiring cooperation or aid will state problems for publica- 
tion in this section. 

D — Reseabch Equipment 

The purpose of this section of Engineering Research is to give in concise form 
notes regarding the equipment of laboratories for mutual information and for 
the purpose of informing the profession of the equipment in various laboratories 



so that persons desiring special investigations may know where such work may be 
done. 

E — Rese.\rch Personnel 

The purpose of this section of Engineering Research is to give notes of a per- 
sonal nature regarding the personnel of various laboratories, methods of pro- 
cedure for commercial work or notes regarding the ccmduct of various laboratories. 

F — Bibliographies 

The purpose of this section of Engineering Research is to inform the profession 
of bibliographies which have been prepared. In general this work is done at 
the expense of the Society. Extensive bibliographies require the approval of the 
Research Committee. All bibliographies are loaned for a period of one month 
only. Additional copies are available, however, for periods of two weeks to 
members of the A.S.M.E. These bibliographies are on file at the office of the 
Society. 

Machine Tools Fl-22. Torque and Power Required for Tapping and 
Threading. A bibliography of three items. Search No. 3469. Ad- 
dress A. M. Greene, Jr., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. 



WORK OF THE A.S.M.E. BOILER CODE COMMITTEE 



'/ 'HE Boiler Code Commitlee meets monlhly for the purpose of consid- 
ering communications relative to the Boiler Code. Any one desir- 
ing information as to the application of the Code is requested to communi- 
cate with the Secretary of the Commitlee, Air. C. W. Obert, 29 West 39th 
St., New York, N. Y. 

The procedure of the Committee in handling the cases i.s as 
follows: All inquiries must be in wTitten form before they are 
accepted for consideration. Copies are sent by the Secretary of 
the Committee to all of the members of the Committee. The 
interpretation, in tlie form of a reply, is then prepared by the Com- 
mittee and passed upon at a regular meeting of the Committee. 
Tliis interpretation is later submitted to the CouncU of the Society 
for approval, after which it is issued to the inquirer and simultan- 
eously published in Mechanical Engineering. 

Below are given the interpretations of the Committee in Cases 
Nos. 370 to 374 inclusive, as formulated at the meeting of October 
27, 1921, and approved by the Council. In accordance with the 
Committee's customary practice, the names of inquirers have been 
omitted. 



Case No. 370 

Inquiry: Is it permissible, under the rules in the Boiler Code, to 
construct a boiler drum, 3G in. internal diameter, built with the 
shell in one sheet, "/is in. thick, with one longitudinal seam having 
butt straps '/2 in. thick on each side? Information is also requested 
as to the maximum allowable working pressure as determined by the 
efficiency of the longitudinal seam and the tube-hole ligament. 

Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that a boiler drum con- 
structed as described does not conform to the requirements of Par. 
19 of the Code. The Committee is not in a position to determine 
the maximum aDowable working pressure for constructions not per- 
mitted by the Code and would recommend that the question be 
taken up with the state authorities or insurance companies interested. 



Case No. 371 

Inquiry: Is it permissible to construct vertical fire-tube boilers 
of either the through-tube or submerged-tube types with the tubes 
welded in both the upper and lower tube sheets? 

Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that Par. 250 was not 
intended to forbid rolling and welding at both ends of the tubes 
of a fire-tube boiler, when desired. 

Case No. 372 

Inquiry: An opinion is requested as to the actual distance above 
tubes at which the fusible plug should be inserted in economic-type 
boilers under the requirement of Par. 430r. Is 1 in. above the 
upper row of tubes su^cient? 

Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that, as this type of 
boiler is quite similar in construction to an h.r.t. boiler, an elevation 



of the fusible plug 2 in. above the upper row of tubes will be neces- 
sary to meet the requirements of Par. 430r. 

Case No. 373 

Inquiry: Will the rules in the Boiler Code for calculation of the 
Adamson type of furnace apply to the design of conical furnace 
shown in Fig. 20, using the mean diameter of the cone as the nominal 
diameter of the furnace, and is it permissible in such construction 
to form the two vertical seams therein by autogenous welding? 

Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that Par. 231 covers 
the construction described. Autogenous welding is not permissible 
in this type of boiler, except in those portions of the furnace which 
are to be stayed. 




Fig. 20 Design of Vertical Boiler with Continuous Unstated 
Conical Furnace 



Case No. 374 

Inquiry: Does the requirement of Par. 256 of the Code, relative 
to the term: "machine driven," refer solely to hydraulic or other 
forms of pressure riveters, or will pneumatic riveters conform to 
this requirement? 

Reply: It was the intent of the Committee that the term: "ma- 
chine driven" should apply only to those types of riveting machines 
which are able to drive the rivets with sufficient pressure to fill the 
rivet holes and allow them to cool and shrink under pressure. 



64 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44. No. 1 



MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERING 

A Monthly Journal Containing a Review of Proercss and At- 
tainments in Mechanical Enfilneerlnj^ and Related Fields, 
The Enfilneerlnii Index (of current enfiineerlnfi litera- 
ture), together with a Summary of the Activities, 
Papers and Proceedings of 

The American Society of Meclianical Engineers 
29 West 39th Street, New York 



Dexteh S. Kimball, President 
William H. Wilet, Treasurer Calvin W. Rice, Secretary 

PUBLICATION committee: 

George A. Orrok, Chairman Alex. G. Christie 

Ralph E. Flanders John T. Wilkin 

0. G. Dale 

publication staff: 

C. E. Davies, Managing Editor 

Frederick Lask, Advertising Manager 



Corn- 



Contributions of interest to the profession are solicited, 
munications should be addressed to the Editor. 

C 55 The Society as a body is not responsible for the statements of 
facts or opinions advanced in papers or discussions. 




Methods and Results of the Unemployment 
Conference 

'T'HE management of The Unemployment Conference called in 
*■ Washington September 26, was clearly enough in the hands of 
a man of scientific training and practical experience, whose mind 
would not rest content with the con- 
venient superstition tliat if a consider- 
able number of men and women are 
called together and allowed to simmer, 
something first-rate must happen some- 
how. He knew that merely jumbling 
together some sulphur and charcoal and 
ammonia water never made aniline dye, 
not even if you stirred them with a stick 
— that the mere presence of the elements 
of a successful conference would not 
guarantee success. Its possibilities and 
impossibilities he assayed in advance, and 
planned and managed the job with the 
cool scientific purpose of getting for the 
country the maximum practical results. 
Best of all there was no belief that by 
some magic a lasting socio-economic 
influence could take form from a few weeks of conference, no 
matter how well managed. Hence, the several projects which the 
conference started are being persistently followed up by individuals 
or small committees under the leadersliip of the Department of 
Commerce. 

The Conference had two principal fields of work, the curative 
and the preventive. It had to accept the fact that we were in an 
economic mess and propose measures by which we might tide 
ourselves over or pull ourselves out of the emergency; and it had 
to search out every kind of influence which might help in keeping 
us from getting quite so deep into the same kind of mess again. 
Emergency measures were studied first, and preliminary find- 
ings were made with remarkable speed. Through its command of 
the counsel of men of prior experience and by promptly dividing 
its work among relatively small committees, the conference was 
able within a very short time to formulate a close approach to 
standard practice in the work of employment bureaus and relief 
agencies, which most communities are undertaking this winter. 
By placing the responsibility for the institution of such work upon 



Henry S. Dennison 



the mayors, a perfectly specific record of accomplishment and 
follow-up was made possible; and the conference was no sooner 
over than Colonel Woods devoted his whole time to tliis service. 
Where jobs are scarce and we run into the second winter of un- 
employment, intelligent forehanded placement and relief will in 
no inconsiderable number of cities make all the difference between 
order and lawlessness. 

While the results of the Conference in providing more jobs than 
would otherwise have been available must have been small, here 
again its greater effectiveness lay in an intimate follow-up of the 
public announcements. Members of the Conference and notably 
one president of a large employers' organization, backed up the 
spirit of the Conference by taking up very definitely with individual 
concerns the necessities of doing as much repair work, advance 
construction and making-to-stock as good business principles 
would allow, and the advantages of distributing the burden of 
idleness among their employees by rotation of jobs and part- 
time work. The same definite sort of follow-up resulted in the 
clearance of hundreds of State and Federal projects already ac- 
knowledged to be worth undertaking but bung up for some reason 
or other. 

The very sense of inadequacy which any thorough exploration 
of the field of emergency work must arouse was a good preparation 
for the members of the Conference in undertaking the tasks of 
more permanent importance. So far the business world as a 
whole has seemed content to accept constantly recurring periods 
of inaction following periods of scarcely less expensive feverish- 
ness as visitations of any angry economic Jehovah. As yet only 
the pioneer bits of research into the complex of causes of the busi- 
ness cycle have been completed. As a result of the Conference 
there will be carried on during the next six months an investiga- 
tion of causes more expert and extensive than has ever before 
been attempted. If it fails to discover our economic rats and 
fleas, or our commercial anopheles, at least it will come near enough 
to it to excite a scientific curiosity which wiU not be allayed. 

It is not an unreasonable supposition tliat the exaggerations of 
prosperity and depression which are the source of our greatest 
damage might be laid largely to the present necessity of business 
concerns going it blind, vrithout some of the data essential for 
their continuous guidance. In making definite recognition of 
this the Conference gave a fresh spur to the projects of the De- 
partment of Commerce and a fresh inspiration to the various 
trade associations to give us pertinent and prompt statistics. 

In the field of government, fruit of the conference is already 
apparent in the Bill (Senate 2749) offered by Senator Kenyon to 
encourage and pro\-ide for reservation of a part of the pubhc works 
determined upon and appropriated for during prosperous times 
to furnish worth-whOe work during times of depression. This 
wUl withdraw some government projects from competition in a 
crowded and high-priced market, to the advantage of the business 
and laboring community and of the government as well. 

Besides the unemployment due to cycles the Conference paid 
attention to seasonal unemplojTiient, and in the same spirit re- 
fused to bow to the God of Things As They Always Were. For 
the diagnosis of this continuous industrial sickness the managers 
of the conference recognized that each industry offers a problem 
of its own, so provided special coiimiittees to make the long study 
of possibUities in building trades and mining industries which is 
necessary before any significant suggestions for improvement can 
be hoped for. 

In addition to all these projects the Conference undertook to 
put through to a point of real accomplishment a consideration 
of the relation of unemployment to the railroad problem, to foreign 
trade, and to shipping, and a statistical resurvey of the extent 
of unemployment. One has only to appreciate the variety of 
temperaments and trainings which had to be gathered together 
in the men and women who had done enough thinking on tliis 
formidable list of projects to have definite and individual points 
of view, to realize that such a group of folk plunged into open 
meetings would have met certain failure. Points like this were 
thought out in advance. The Conference therefore, was divided 
immediately into committees of workable size, each of which got 
down to the special problems prepared for it in preliminary form 
by an Advisory Committee appointed three weeks before the 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



65 



Conference met, and began to grind itself into bearing witli greater 
or less speed, depending upon the skill of its chairman. But tliis 
method would have lost a public interest of very great value by 
lack of news material, so public hearings were held beginning the 
second day, at which the problems of each committee were taken 
up in turn. When the conference as a whole was ready to meet 
I here had already been accomplished by these methods so much 
adjustment of points of view and so much broadening of the under- 
standings of the precise nature of their problems that it was easily 
possible to find ground for unanimous declarations of the general 
principles governing the various phases of the problem. 

There were stDl left very fundamental differences of opinion 
as to the applications of these principles, as it was foreseen that 
there must be in any such gathering. By the traditional method 
of letting such Conferences run, these fundamental differences, 
Ijcing largely temperamental or environmental, and thus non- 
judiciable, would have materialized into long speeches seasoned 
with some bitterness; and then the magical ceremonies of nose- 
counting would have been invoked. Now the Conference was 
clearly not a legislative body. Mr. Hoover had coolly estimated 
what it was and was for and in what ways it could serve the country. 
He knew that people might well be influenced by the unanimous 
opinions of such a group of thoughtful people, but that on any 
question upon which members of the conference differed, the public 
would first want to know who believed thus and who so. There- 
fore such measures as the committees failed to agree upon were 
presented to the country through reports signed by those whose 
views they represented; and matters that had been so threshed 
out as to constitute a final coordination of the wide range of ex- 
perience represented at the Conference, were given form as 
unanimous declarations. 

This sounds simple enough in the telling; but actually the wJiole 
procedure was a case of thoughtful and ingenious development 
of the technique of such conferences which, so far as I know, sets 
a new standard. With such an example behind us there is no 
more need for our making the mistakes we have made in the past 
in such matters than there would be for a railroad constuction 
engineer now to lay out curves sharper than his locomotive trucks 
could negotiate. 

The engineering profession can find much of interest in the final 
accomplislmients of the conference, especially when the standing 
committees complete their assays of the serious conditions in 
great seasonal activities like building and mining; but the profes- 
sion cannot afford to be less interested in the example of sound 
social engineering wliich the method of management of this Con- 
ference affords. Our social structure has grown in complexity 
well beyond the abilities of any one or two men to chart its proper 
courses. We shall need more of such conferences. And it is 
well that an engineer has come to judgment, that they may be 
managed with an appreciation of the real forces and opportunities 
involved in them. 

Heney S. Dennisox.' 

The Unique Opportunity of the Raih-oad 
Professional Division 

"p^VERY individual in the land is dependent upon the power 
that pulls trains. In fact, the progress of the nation and the 
progress of transportation are inseparable. Our Society offers 
means for record and for discussion of developments in the appli- 
cation of power and equipment for transportation. This places 
before the Railroad Professional Division of this Society a remark- 
able opportunity. 

Inspirations are coming from all directions, from railroad officers, 
from engineers connected with the builders of railway equipment, 
and from engineers who are in the service of companies not directly 
connected with the railroads or with the builders of cars or locomo- 
tives. 

Wonderful results have already been obtained and even greater 
results are in sight, having in mind the development of electric 
power for transportation, steam power and equipment to carry 
loads, both passenger and freight. Problems are repeatedly coming 

* President Dennison Mfg. Co. 



up for discussion, the solution of which with the highest of efficiency 
wQl depend very largely upon the getting together of all the engi- 
neers who are devoting their lives to this progress. Our Society 
offei's the only forum for tiiese studies and discussions which are so 
important to us all. 

Electric-locomotive and steam-power developments are coming 
on apace. Electric applications are progressing and improve- 
ments are being made. Steam locomotives have been improved 
and the present generation of engineers has bi'ouglit to the steam 
locomotive improvements which were not dreamed of fifteen years 
ago, and the possibilities of which are not yet apparent to even 
railroad officials at the present time. Impro\-ements now unrler 
development promise even greater efficiency in the steam locomo- 
tive than has ever yet been obtained. 

Electricity and direct steam for railroad transportation are in 
competition. It is most important that those who arc devoting 
their attention to the development of the steam locomotive should 
thoroughly understand what electricity is doing. On the other 
hand, it is equally important that electrical engineers should know 
that the steam locomotive of today offers possibilities that are far 
beyond those of the steam, locomotive of ten or more years ago, 
and that the railroads have before them more improvements in 
their steam pow^r than thej^ have ever used. In other words, the 
steam locomotive as v/e know it right now is very different fi-om the 
one we knew a few years ago. 

Moreover, in a few years, if full advantage is taken of the possi- 
bilities of increasing the power per pound of weight and the power 
produced by a pound of coal, the steam-locomotive figures which 
we are now talldng about will of necessity be changed. This 
Society offers the means for bringing out the best and latest facts 
reaarding these developments, and of bringing together the men 
who know these problems. It provides the means for using to 
advantage the mattu'e thought of the best engineers of this country, 
which of all countries is most indebted to transportation and which 
depends most upon transportation for its future. No other organi- 
zation of engineers provides such means for getting these author- 
ities together for mutual understanding. 

G. M. Basford. 



The Relation of the Engineer to the Community' 

A S GOVERNOR, the elected bead of a state government, there are 
■'^ two angles of this question to which for a few minutes, I might 
call your attention. One is the practical side, simply a list of those 
positions in our state government which must be filled by competent 
engineers. Upon this I shall only dwell 
for a moment. 

I do wish to say, however, that the 
State of Connecticut is proud of its 
Highway Department, and that this 
department is purely an engineering 
proposition. The splendid development 
of the road system in Connecticut is due 
to the work's having been done by 
engineers without the help of the 
politicians. 

Our Rivers, Harbors and Bridges 
Commission, appointed primarily to 
build the million-dollar dock at New 
London, had and has largely engineer- 
ing problems for its consideration. 

Among the duties of the Shell Fish 
Commission are the locating and bound- 
ing of the oyster-bed leases by the state, and the engineer is a lead- 
ing personality in their work. 

The law itself requires that three of the six members of our 
Pollution of Streams Commission shall be engineers. 

In our Department of Health the work of the engineer is as 
much needed and as quickly required in the case of health dangers 
as is that of the physician. 




Bachrach 
Everett J Lake 



' Address of the Governor of Conneotiout at a banquet of The Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers, Hotel Bond, Hartford, Conn. Nov. 
3, 1921. 



ee 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



It is in the Engineering Department of the Public Utilities 
Commission that their most numerous personnel appears. 

But I will not continue a catalog of those public offices in which 
trained engineers must of necessity serve. I will, however, speak 
of what I shall call the academic angle of my subject. 

There are certain fundamental characteristics of a successful 
engineer, characteristics which he does and must apply to his 
profession if he be worthy of bearing the name of engineer, and 
I wish to urge upon you your duties as citizens to apply them in 
your consideration of the problems of good government and the 
public weal. 

Today we often hear the expression, "Government needs the 
business man in public office," and if this be true, the need is 
emphatically for the engineering qualities of the business man. 

The first qualification of an engineer is concentration. He 
must focus on his problem like a burning glass, and not study 
with the eye and mind of an impressionistic artist. 

The next qualification is the power of analysis. The real ana- 
l3rtical engineer does not tear apart with ruthless hands and throw 
into the scrap heap all that comes between him and the point of 
his ultimate investigation. He rather lays aside in an orderly 
and tabulated array the covering or by-products, if you will, that 
they may be again replaced if necessarj', or perhaps put to other 
profitable use. 

The third qualification of an engineer is lus power of continued 
application. He learns to work continuouslj' and laboriou.'sly. 

And a fourth characteristic of the engineer is the quality of 
thoroughness. He must in his task, in his problem, bring it to 
completion. A half-finished job is in his domain practically noth- 
ing done at all. 

These, then, are the fundamentals of a successful engineer, 
and if he but avoids the one danger of his profession — that of 
allowing his concentration to restrict his vision, so that in the 
intense application to any one problem he does not see its full 
scope or misses an opportunity waiting at his very elbow — he 
becomes an ideal citizen and one of the great assets of a nation. 

You engineers apply these qualities to your life work; I am 
asking you tonight that you give a little of them to your duties 
as citizens. 

I read recently Fiske's opening chapter of the Beginnings of 
New England, wherein he describes the growth and transitions of 
governments. 

First the oriental or ancient governments, where a conquering 
monarch by warfares and struggles conquered and enslaved; then 
through the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, wiien 
powerful rulers and governments absorbed by conquest but granted 
citizenship. 

Through all of these years, these centuries, we find the people 
of the world receiving their rights, their liberties, as grants from 
rulers, expanded or contracted at the will of some individual mon- 
arch, or his appointed or self-appointed minister. 

Then came those long years of struggle in northern Europe where 
men were learning self-government and applying that knowledge. 
One of the hardest lessons to learn was that of delegating govern- 
mental functions and yet holding their public officials from trans- 
ferring their delegated power into personal authority. 

With the birth of the United States at our Revolutionary War, 
the rule of the people was forever established. Forward has been 
our march both in knowledge of how to govern and our ability 
to apply that knowledge. So today we who are holding office 
are but your delegates to turn your desires, your determinations, 
into laws and enforcements. So, I say it is the duty of all en- 
gineers to give a Uttle of their ability, which has made them success- 
ful, a Uttle of their time, perhaps an hour every day, to the duties 
of citizenship. 

There are many engineers with all the qualifications of ideal 
public officials who, when asked to serve, say, "I haven't the time 
to do it;" what they really mean is that they have not given the 
time to prepare themselves to do it. 

No matter how successful j'ou are in your own business, j'ou 
cannot be true and square and fair to the state if you cannot or 
will not take time to study its problems and know wiiat its public 
officials are doing. With the same technical skill which the en- 
gineer, the inventor, the surveyor, the mechanic, puts into his 



own profession, it is his duty everj' day to study pubUc Ufe and 
public affairs so that if the time comes when he is needed by the 
state he will be prepared for this work. 

With the same concentration, the same analysis, the same deter- 
mination, the same thoroughness that you study and solve the 
problems of a big machine, a railroad, a river, or an excavation, 
study and solve the problems of government, municipal and state, 
and you will provide better than any other class of men a solid, 
firm foundation for good government. And then with all of our 
citizenship, see that there is erected upon this foundation a struc- 
ture of government clean and pure to look at, strong and firm to hold. 

Everett J. Lake. 



The Metric Controversy 

A TTENTION is called to the report recently issued by the 
'^*- National Industrial Conference Board on the Metric Versus 
the English System of Weights and Measures, and commented on 
elsewhere in tliis issue of Mechanical Engineering. 

A committee representing interests favoring and opposing com- 
pulsory metric legislation in the United States have prepared a 
document wliich presents the facts regarding this subject in a manner 
worthy of careful consideration by the entire engineering profession. 

The report covers the liistory and present status of systems of 
weights and measures in this country, outlines the uses of the metric 
and English systems in this and other countries and in special 
fields, and closes with the argimients for and against the substitu- 
tion of the metric for the Enghsh system in the United States. 

The report is indeed a notable work and the National Industrial 
Conference Board is to be highly congratulated for having made 
such a research and such a well-directed effort in presenting to the 
public a docmnent of tliis character. It should do much to clear 
up the present misunderstanding regarding the controversy, which 
hinges on the compulsory adoption of the metric system rather than 
upon the merits of the metric system itself. 

C.iLviN W.Rice. 



Resolution to Prof. W. F. Durand 

A T a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the United Engineering 
■^~*- Societies held in the Engineering Societies Building, New York, 
on November 22, a resolution was presented to Prof. W. F. Durand 
expressing appreciation of his services in connection with the 
International Engineering Congress of 1915. This Congress, 
held September 20-25, 1915, during the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition at San Francisco, Cal., was sponsored by the 
following societies, the signatures of whose presidents were affixed 
to the resolution: American Society of Civil Engineers, American 
Institute of JMining and Metallurgical Engineers, The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, and Society of Naval Arcliitects and Marine Engineers. 
Professor Durand, as chairman of the Committee of Manage- 
ment, assisted by representatives of the societies sponsoring the 
movement, made all the necessary arrangements for the Congress, 
wiiich entailed a large volume of work extending over several 
months. It is estimated that altogether some 750 possible authors 
of papers or discussions were corresponded with. Papers in foreign 
languages had to be translated, and papers and discussions had 
to be edited and revised for pubhcatiou in proceedings of the Con- 
gress, wiiich consisted of ten volumes. 

The work of printing and distributing the volumes was partially 
completed in 1915 but distribution, especially in Europe, was de- 
layed during the war. Professor Durand has carried on the work 
during these intervening years so that it is now completed and 
the surplus papers and volumes have been transmitted to the 
Engineering Societies Library. 

' The resolution to Professor Durand states, in part, as follows: 
"The proceedings of the Congress, issued under your auspices, 
have come to be recognized as authoritatively portraying the 
status of engineering practice; and the engineering profession 
owes you tliis expression of gratitude for your enterprise, zeal, 
industry, and patience in the consummation of the work of the 
International Engineering Congress" held in the year 1915. 



I 



Marshal P^och Honored by Four National Engineering Societies 

Honorary Membership Conferred upon Ferdinand Foch, Marshal of France, by Civil, Mining 

and Metalhirgical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Societies 

at Joint Meeting in New York, December 13, 1921 



IN recognition of liis unparalleled service to mankind, Marshal 
*■ Ferdinand Foch has been unanimously elected to honorary 
membership in the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, The Amer- 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers. The presentation took place in the 
Auditorium of the Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th 
Street, New York, N. Y., on the afternoon of December 13, the 
day before Marshal Foch sailed for France. 

J. Vipond Da\'ies, president of the United Engineering Society, 
and presiding officer of the meeting, stated the purpose of the 
gathering and outlined briefly the organization of the four societies 
and of the United Engineering Society. Col. William Barclay 
Parsons, commander of the first engineer regiment to go abroad, 



ser\'ice of mankind is a great engineer. You, Marshal, have 
directed a greater mass of human energy than any other man 
has ever done. And you have successfully directed this mass 
for the highest uses of mankind, in that you by its aid have pre- 




The Foch Medal 

delivered a brief address in French, expressing the appreciation 
of American engineers for the incomparable services rendered by 
Marshal Foch. He said, in part: 

"The art of engineering was defined a long time ago as 'the art 
of directing the great sources of power in natm-e for the use and 
convenience of man.' No better definition can be found today. 
Of all the sources of power in nature, the greatest, the most valuable, 
and at the same time the most difficult to direct, is the energy of 
man himself. He who can direct human energy and turn it to the 




Ferdinand Foch, Marshal of France 

served for liim one of the most precious of human possessions — 
liberty! Liberty not only for your own illustrious country, but 
for all the nations of the world." 

George S. Webster, president of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers then made the presentation of one engrossed certificate 
of honorary membership in all the societies, jointly, and of a case 
containing emblems of the membersliip in four societies. In his 
response, deUvered in French, Marshal Foch praised the work of 
engineers during the war, stating that in moments requiring de- 
cision, "the engineer stood out as an essential factor in complete 
triumph," and e.xpressing his gratitude and that of France for their 
ser\'ices. The ceremonies closed with the presentation to the 
presidents of the four societies of silver rephcas of the Foch medal. 

This signal honor, the only one of its kind ever to have been 
conferred, expresses the recognition of these four great societies 
aggregating a membership of some 45,000, of the abUity of Marshal 
Focli to supplement his military genius with the effective co- 
operation of the commanders of the armies of five nations and 
the coordination of their operations that won the war. It forms 
another bond of union between the engineers of the United States 
and those of France. 

Marshal Foch studied engineering in I'ficole Polytechnique and 
I'Ecole d'AppMcation d'Artillerie. He served on the teclmical 
section of the Ministry of War early in life, and later was a fuU 
professor in I'Ecole de Guerre. The fact that he was not only trained 
in the applications of engineering to military purposes, but has 
also taught some of these branches in France's notable war schools 
and practiced them in the field made him eminently fitted to be, 
first. Generalissimo of the Armies of the Allies, and later Marshal 
of France. The victory in wliich he played so large a part has 
well been given the name "Victoire de Foch." 



87 



68 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



Marshal Foch has received many honors. On November 21, 
1918 he was elected a member of the French Academy. On the 
first of December of that year he received the Order of Merit from 
the King of England and in July, 1919, was given tiie title of Field 
Marshal by the King, this being the first instance in which a French- 
man's name was ever inscribed on the active list of the general 
officers of the British Army. During his recent tour of the United 
States, city, state and national organizations, educational, govern- 
mental and industrial bodies, have united to do honor to the world's 
greatest soldier. 

Announcements of the DeLainater Ericsson Tablet 
Committee 

At a meeting of the DeLaraater Ericsson Tablet Committee 
held November 10, representatives of the twenty societies who 
have participated in the movement to commemorate the work of 
Mr. DeLamater and Captain Ericsson were informed of the activi- 
ties of the Committee to date, and were requested to offer sugges- 
tions as to a further program. Those present were requested to 
have their respective organizations appoint representatives with 
authority to add to their number as needed to cooperate with the 
Tablet Committee in developing the tentative program for the 
ceremonies to occur on March 9, the 60th anniversary of the battle 
of the Monitor and the Merrimac. This larger Committee will 
formulate the details of the final program. 

The four tablets which have been designed to mark the sites of 
the Phoenix Foundry, Captain Ericsson's residence, the DeLamater 
Iron Works, and the Continental Iron Works, will be unveiled at 
simultaneous ceremonies taking place on the afternoon of March 9. 
In the evening there will be a public meeting in a hall or a public din- 
ner in a hotel where addresses will be made. 

At the annual dinner of the Capt. John Ericsson Memorial 
Society of Swedish Engineers, held at the Engineers' Club Novem- 
ber 26, Mr. Olaf Rodhe, who had just arrived from Sweden was 
present and stated his authority to represent the Swedish Engineer- 
ing Societies of Stockholm in arranging for the celebration on 
March 9. 

"Mining and Metallurgy" 

Mechanical Engineering extends its congratulations to Mining 
and Metallurgy, admiring as it does its new dress and splendid 
editorial discussion of timely economic and engineering topics. The 
presentations are such tliat a membei- of tlie A.I.M.E. is put in 
touch not only with affairs within the Institute but with what is 
going on elsewhere in the engineering world, and through these 
contacts he finds himself in step with the onward march of liis 
profession. Mechanical Engineering wishes its contemporary 
every success. 

The "Scientific American" 

The new monthly Scientific American, a combination of the for- 
mer weekly Scientific American and the Scientific American Monthly, 
show that the best features of the former publications are being 
combined in the single journal. As a periodical in which both 
layman and professional scientist will be interested, it contains 
leading and short articles covering a wide range of subjects, touch- 
ing on the new and unusual things in scientific discovery in all 
parts of the world. It contains special departments, among which 
are several on inventions and patents, mechanical and electrical, 
engineering, and science notes. The pictorial method of present- 
ing facts, has been retained. 

Index to Volume 43 of Mechanical Engineering 

An index to Volume 43 of Mechanical Engineering is now in 
the course of preparation, and, it is expected, .will be issued the 
latter part of February. A copy of this index will be sent to each 
member of the Society or subscriber who sends in a written request 
therefor. In order that no more copies than are necessary to supj- 
ply the demand may be printed, requests for copies should be re- 
ceived at headquarters not later_than February 15. 




Sir Charles Douglas Fox 



The Late Sir Charles Douglas Fox 

Sir Ciiarles Douglas Fox, upon whom in 1900 was conferred hon- 
orary membership in The American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, died on November 13, 1921, at the age of eightj^-one. Sir 
Douglas received his early education at the Cholmondeley School 
at Highgate, studied at King's College, London, and at the age of 
17 was apprenticed to his father. Sir Charles Fox. For two of these 
apprenticed years he acted as resident engineer in charge of work 
uiwn the Witney Railway, and subsequently was with the Ram-sey 
Railway in the same capacity. In 1863 he joined his father's 
firm as a partner; later his brother. Sir Francis, became a partner, 
and ultimately the name of the firm was changed to Sir Douglas 
Fox and Partners, of which firm he was the head at the time of 
his death. 

Sir Douglas Fox's work covered a wide field, for his name was 
well known in connection with 
the construction of railways in 
South Africa and Austraha as 
it was in England. Among his 
earlier work was the construc- 
tion of the London, Brighton 
and South Coast Railway, the 
Cape Town and Wellington 
Railway, and the Cape Town- 
Wynberg Railway. With Sir 
James Brunlees, he acted as 
consulting engineer for the 
Mersey Tunnel. For his work 
in tliis connection Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria conferred the 
honor of knighthood upon him. 
He was also connected as joint 
consulting engineer with the 
construction of the Liverpool 
Overhead Railway. This work 
is unique in England, though 
on lines similar to the elevated 
lines in New York City. Sir 

Douglas and his brother were responsible for the engineering work 
on the Southern and Metropolitan divisions of the Great Central 
Railway. He also took a prominent part in underground-railway 
development in England. In Africa liis name is associated with 
the Rhodesian Railway and the famous bridge over the Zambesi 
River at Victoria Falls. Other undertakings in South Africa were 
the Beira Port and Railway, Benguela Railway and the Trans-Zam- 
besi Railway. In South America he was responsible for the construc- 
tion of railways in the Argentine for the Central Argentine Railway 
Co.; in Colombia, for the Dorada Railway Co., and also in Brazil. 

He was an enthusiastic advocate of standardization and was one 
of the early supporters of the movement which resulted in the 
formation of the British Engineering Standards Committee in 1901 
on whose main committee he served from the time of its formation 
till early in 1920. 

Sir Douglas Fox became a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in 1S66, was elected to the council in 1884 and served as 
its president in 1899-1900. Dm'ing his term of office he received 
the American ci\'il and mechanical engineers, who were entertained 
at the GuUdhall on the occasion of their ^isit to London that year. 
He was also a member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and an honorar3' member 
not only of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers but 
also of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He was a director 
of some ten companies, was \'ice-chairman of the South Indian 
Railway Co., and chairman of the Industrial DweUings Co. and 
of the Northfleet Coal and Ballast Co. He patented numerous inven- 
tions connected with railway work. In 1880 he was appointed 
lecturer to the School of Military Engineering, Chatham, his 
lectures dealing with light and temporary railways. He was 
awarded at various times by the Institution of Civil Engineers 
the Manby Premium, the Telford Medal, and Telford Premium 
for contributions to the proceedings. He was elected a Fellow 
of King's College (London) in 1887. He was a justice of the peace 
and took a prominent part in many of the religious and philanthropic 
movements of the day. 



Jandart, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



69 



NEWS OF THE F.A.E.S. 

January Meeting of American Engineering Council 

The annual meeting of the American Engineering Council will 
be held in Washington January 5 and 6. Details of this meeting 
are not yet available, but the program will include matters per- 
taining to organization, a review of the past year's activities, and 
decisions as to future policies. The question of finances will re- 
ceive special consideration. A recently issued r6sum6 of the 
activities of the E.xecutive Board stated that although at the time 
the annual budget was adopted information as to probable expen- 
ditures for the fiscal year was necessarily very incomplete, and 
although unusual demands have been made upon the treasury, 
the Board has been able to function \\ithin the limits of its resources. 
It has been found, however, that even the moderate dues required 
for membership have been so high as to prevent several organiza- 
tions from beconaing members of the Federation. 

Employment Service 

In accordance with a resolution passed at the September meeting 
of the Executive Board a joint committee of nine, consisting of 
five members of the Executive Board and a representative from 
each of the four national engineering societies, has been appointed 
with power to organize uniform paid employment service for 
engineers. The members of this committee are as follows: Morris 
L. Cooke, Chairman, William McClellan, W. E. Rolfe, H. E. Howe, 
and William B. Powell, of the Executive Board; Richard L. Hum- 
phreys, A.S.C.E.; W. M. Corse, A.I.M.E.; Fred J. Miller, A.S.M.E.; 
and E. B. Craft, A.I.E.E. 

The Executive Board has also voted a special appropriation of 
$2000 for emergency employment work. 

Engineering Education 

The Executive Board has received several communications 
relative to the subject of engineering education. The University 
of Iowa recommended that the American Engineering Council 
"establish standards of engineering education for engineering 
colleges of different grades and rate the engineering colleges of the 
country in accordance with the classification adopted." A resolu- 
tion by Mr. W. W. Varney of Baltimore, a member of the Executive 
Board who has been among those taking a deep interest in engi- 
neering-education policies, asked that the Federation appoint "a 
Committee on Education to consider broadly the training of the 
engineer and to report on desirable changes in present-day engi- 
neering education to better prepare engineering graduates to take 
their proper places in the profession." Because of these requests, 
although the Board felt that there were other organizations more 
directly affected by and concerned with these matters that are 
giving consideration to them, it has decided to institute appropriate 
inquiry through a special committee on engineering education. 
The Committee on Procedure has accordingly appointed Col. A. 
S. Dwight of New York, Prof. Chas. F. Scott of Yale, and Mr. 
Varney to study the problem and work out a policy for the 
F.A.E.S. 

Errata 

In the paper by Dr. D. S. Jacobus on BoOer and Furnace Econ- 
omy in the December issue, the temperature mentioned in the 
fifth line of the third paragraph from the bottom of page 782 was 
erroneously stated to be 500 deg. fahr. It should read 300 deg. 
fahr. 

The November issue of Mechanical Engineering contained 
an account of a recent snow removal meeting of the Materials 
Handling Di\'ision of the A.S.M.E. in which there were some 
erroneous statements concerning a device evolved by Edward A. 
Smith of West Englewood, N. J. The size of the melting chamber 
of this machine is 67,400 cubic inches instead of cubic feet. Mr. 
Smith states that at 30 cents per cu. yd., a price which has been 
paid by the city of New York, it would cost S2,220,000 to remove 
7,400,000 cu. yd. of snow, representing an S-in. fall on approximately 
33,000,000 sq. yd. of streets, whereas by using 100 of his machines, 
and working 28 hours, tliis amount of snow could be melted for 
$28,000, including the total operating expenses. 



NEWS OF OTHER SOCIETIES 

National Founders' Association 

The twenty-fifth annual convention of the National Founders' 
Association was held in New York on November 16 and 17, 1921. 
At the opening session. President Wilham H. Barr discussed the 
industrial situation and general causes of present conditions, and 
A. E. McClintock, commissioner of the association, urged training 
of forces for future expansion of industry, instruction of employees 
in principles of economics, and development of a spirit of loyalty 
■within industrial organizations. 

Among the speakers at the afternoon session, November 16, 
were Magnus W. Alexander, Mem.Am.Soc.M.E., on Wage Liqui- 
dation in American Industry, and A. C. Davis, on The Present 
Railway Situation. Mr. Alexander presented charts showing 
changes in wage rates during recent years, hours worked, percent- 
ages of employment, etc., with special reference to foundries and 
machine shops. These charts are based upon investigations con- 
ducted in over twenty industries by the National Industrial Con- 
ference Board, of which Mr. Alexander is managing director. 

Mr. Davis, vice-president of the Gurney Ball Bearing Company, 
traced the development of the railroad and discussed some of the 
measures wherein he believed the solution of some of the present 
railway problems might be found. 

On the second day of the conference the following addresses were 
presented: Foreman Training, L. V. Hartley, and Foundry Costs, 
Robert E. Belt. Mr. Hartley, of the Department of Vocational 
Education of the State of Nebraska, described the project method 
of training foremen used in that state and showed charts indicating 
savings in operation costs resulting from the installation of foreman- 
training courses in various plants. 

Mr. Belt, who is secretary-treasurer of the American Malleable 
Castings Association, gave a paper which dealt with foundry costs, 
pointing out the importance of an accurate and uniform system and 
giving the relation of cost to selling price. 

An extemporaneous speaker on the first day of the conference was 
Governor Henry Allen, of Kansas, who gave a brief history of the 
Court of Industrial Relations in that state. He stated that of the 
thirty cases decided by the court, twenty-nine have been satisfactory 
to both employers and labor. 

The convention addressed a resolution to the United States 
Senate urging that railroad regulation be handled by a public tri- 
bunal and emphasizing the importance of adjusting all problems 
without stoppage of service. 

American Iron and Steel Institute 

A memorable meeting of the American Iron and Steel Institute 
was held in New York on Friday, November 18, 1921. The open- 
ing address by Judge Gary, president of the Institute, discussed 
business conditions, expressed his endorsement of limitation of 
armament and prophesied prosperous business conditions in the 
comparatively near future. 

Six papers were presented at tlie professional sessions. John 
W. Kargarise, of the Edgar Thomson Works, Carnegie Steel Co., 
Braddock, Pa., discussed improvements in open-hearth port con- 
struction, describing early types and gi^dng some of the results of 
the McKune sj-stem and the Venturi and Egler furnaces. 

James M. Camp, director of the Bureau of Technical Instruction, 
Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., outlined the relations of the 
iron and steel and chemical industries. 

Thomas J. Foster, chairman of the National Bridge Works, 
Long Island City, explained the formation of steel lumber and 
described various types used for building construction. He enum- 
erated the characteristics of steel lumber which make it economical 
and described tests to which it has been subjected. He stated 
that residence work, including apartments, is twenty per cent of 
the total building of this country and that with an ideal steel joist 
a large sh0,re of these structures will be built of steel at a material 
reduction in price. 

Fusion Welding and the Processes in Use were described by S. W. 
Miller, president of the American Welding Society. He gave the 
composition of low-carbon steel wire used for gas-welding steel 
and also of wire for electric metallic-arc welding. Among causes 
of failures in welded parts he spoke of lack of fusion, both along the 



70 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



side of the V and in the weld metal itself, and also of the oxidizing 
action of the water vapor in the gas welding flame and tliat of the 
air on the finely divided uietiil passing tlirough the electric arc. 
He was of the opinion tiiat nitrogen has no serious effect so far as 
tensile stress is concerned but that brittleness of welds is due to the 
presence of oxides. 

W. A. Hull, chief of the Refractories Section of the Bureau of 
Standards, in a paf)er on Refractories in the Steel Plant, made a 
strong plea for adecjuate sjjecifications and cooperation between 
producer and consumer. A. E. Bourcoud, consulting engineer, 
New York, discussed a direct process for steel manufacture. 

The meeting closed with a banquet in honor of Marshal Foch, 
at which there were many distinguished guests. After-dinner speak- 
ers, besides the guest of lionor and President Gary, were Charles M. 
Schwab and W. D. (luthrie. 

Society of N.w.vl Architects and M.\rine Engineers 
The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers held its 
twenty-ninth general meeting in New York Tliursday and Friday, 
November 17 and 18, 1921. Thirteen papers were presented at 
four professional sessions. One of these sessions was a joint meet- 
ing with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, at which 
W. E. Thau, general engineer for Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., presented a paper on 
Electric Propulsion of Ships, and E. D. Dickinson, mechanical 
engineer of the Marine Department of the General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, N. Y., spoke on Electric Auxiliaries on Mer- 
chant Ships. 

Among the subjects discussed at other sessions were The Tactical 
Relations between Different Classes of Men of War and Their 
Embodiment in Design; Development of the Three- Plane Na\'j', 
With or Without Battleships; How Can American Ships Compete 
Successfully with Foreign Ships; The Importance of Port Facilities 
in the Development of Merchant Marine and Commerce; American 
Apprenticeships, Schools and Scholarships; and Design and Con- 
struction of Passenger Steamers. 

Special arrangements were made for the convenience of those 
members desiring to view the exhibition of the Marine Equipment 
Association of America held in New York during the week of Nov- 
ember 14-19. The most modern auxiliaries and equipment in- 
stalled on board ships as well as illustrations of various new methods 
in shipbuilding work were displayed at this exhibition. 

The Taylor Society 

The Taylor Society held its annual meeting in New York, Dec. 
1, 2 and 3. The first public session, held Thursday evening, De- 
cember 1, was devoted to an examination of the evaluation sheet 
de\nsed and used by the Committee on the Elimination of Waste 
in Industry. The technique of the method employed by the 
committee was discussed by a large number of engineers who 
cooperated in the investigation. 

Tliere were two sales executives' sessions on the second daj- of 
the conference, one devoted to the report of the Committee on 
Sales Engineering and one to a paper on the necessity of the quota 
for proper sales cost accounting. There was also a plant managers' 
session, with a paper by C. F. O'Connor, production manager of the 
Universal Winding Company, Providence, R. I., and discussion of 
maintenance of a system of operations under varying conditions 
by Carl G. Barth, Wilfred Lewis, William O. Lichtner, R. G. Scott, 
and other engineers well fitted to deal with problems of scientific 
management. 

At an office managers' session it was shown that such fundamen- 
tal principles of scientific management as precise control of routine 
operations, standardization the basis of control, and investigation 
and experiment the basis of standardization, can be applied to 
offices as well as shops. 

The evening session on December 2 dealt with the general control 
of business. In a paper presented by John H. Williams, of Day & 
Zimmermann, Philadelphia, it was shown that any precision in 
general control rests upon the foundation of precision in the details 
of operating organization and control. This session was i)Ianned 
by the Taylor Society in order to bring out discussion which may be 
used as a guide in its study on the problem of general administrative 
control. This study is being conducted by a special committee 
appointed by the society. 



On December 3 there was a plant managers' session and a labor 
managers' session. The first was devoted to a study of combina- 
tion routing to meet the problems of small quantities and short 
operations. The second presented an analysis of the elements 
which make a good worker and of the forces which influence these 
elements. 

The meeting closed with a luncheon in honor of Henry R. Towne, 
honorary president of the Taylor Society. Addresses by Mr. 
Towne, Wilfred Lewis, president of the Tabor Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, and Cahin Rice, secretary A.S.M.E., were 
reminiscent of the early days of scientific management and • of 
Frederick W. Taylor, of whom Mr. Towne was always a strong 
supporter. 

RADIO SHIP CONTROL 

{Continued from page 44) 

neering. Its success was pronounced from the start, but as with 
the first tests of aU such apparatus, it was found that some of 
the parts were too sensitive, and more rugged ones were devel- 
oped under the direction of the officers of the Battleship Ohio. 
Simplification of the equipment was also effected in the same 
manner. 

PROCESS CHARTS 

(Continued from page 41) 

5 Motion study 

6 Micromotion studies and chronoej'clographs for obtaining 

and recording the One Best Way to do Work. 

e Make process chart of the process as finally adopted as a base 
for still further and cumulative improvement. 

Note that — 

a Visualizing processes does not necessarilj' mean changing the 
processes 

6 Process charts pay. 

CODE FOR DISPLACEMENT COMPRES- 
SORS AND BLOWERS 

(Continued from page 48) 

(62) Temperature of steam leaving steam receiver, if super- 

heated deg. fahr. 

(63) Temperature of steam in exhaust pipe as observed deg. fahr. 

(64) Temperature of saturated steam in exhaust pipe corre- 

sponding to pressure in exhaust pipe deg. fahr. 

Total Quantities 

(70) Superheat, at throttle deg. fahr. 

(71) Moisture in steam per cent. 

(72) Total steam and water consumed by engine as measured lb. 

(73) Total steam less water consumed lb. 

(74) Correction factor conforming to conditions agreed upon lb. 

(75) Equivalent total steam consumed, conforming to conditions lb. 

Unit Quantities 

(76) Steam and water (or superheated steam) consimied per hour as 

measured '''• 

(80) Steam less water (or superheated steam) consumed per hour lb. 

(81) Equivalent conforming to conditions consumed per hour lb. 

Power Input 

(90) Steam cylinder — Indicated horsepower developed, whole engine i.hp. 

(91) High-pressure steam cylinder, crank end i-hp. 

head end i.hp. 

(92) Low-pressure steam cylinder, crank end i.hp. 

head end i-bp. 

Economy Results 

(105) Steam less water (or superheated steam) consumed per i.hp-hr. 

(Item 804- Item 90) 'h- 

(106) Equivalent steam consumed per i.hp. (Item 81 -altera 90) lb. 

(107) Steam less water (or superheated steam) consumed per 100 cu. ft. 

of air or gas compressed at intake pressure and temperature (lOOX 
Item 73-^Item 67) lb. 

(108) Equivalent steam consumed per 100 cu. ft. of air or gas compressed 

at intake pressure and temperature (lOOXltem 75^-Item 67)lb. 

TABLE 4 ADDITIONAL ITEMS APPLYING ONLY WHEN THE 
DRIVING ELEMENT IS AN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE 

(The items of this table will be developed upon the completion of the 
Test Code lor Internal-Combustion Engines.) 



Metric vs. English System of Weights and Measures 

Review by Luther D. Burlingame, Chairman of the A.S.M.E. Standing Committee on Weights and 
Measures, of Research Report No. 42 of the National Industrial Conference Board 



OWING to the continued discussion of the question of the 
adoption of the metric system in this country, to supplant 
the estabhshed system of weights and measures, a joint committee 
was appointed by the National Industrial Conference Board to 
represent interests favoring and opposed to the adoption of the 
metric system in the United States, with the idea of making a 
thorough and impartial investigation of the situation, and pub- 
lisliing the results in order that a basis may be had for an intelli- 
gent decision not only by the afhliated organizations making up 
the National Industrial Conference Board, but by the pubUc at 
large. The following Committee has served: 

E. M. Herr, Chairman, president of the Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Co. 

Fred J. Miller, past-president of The American Society of 
Mechanical ? Engineers 

HenryTD. Sharps, treasurer. Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. 

Henrt'R. Towne, chairman of Board of Directors, Yale & 
Towne Mfg. Co. 

Frank 0. Wells, formerly president of the Greenfield Tap 
& Die Co. 

Under the super\ision of this Committee the investigation was 
carried on through trained employees of the National Industrial 
Conference Board, and has resulted in the publication of a report 
of 261 pages, divided into tliree parts: 

I History and Present National Status of Systems of Weights 
and Measures 

II Use of Metric and English Systems in Special Fields 

III Arguments for and against the Substitution of the Metric 
for the English System in the United States. 

Part I gives first the origin of the English and other natural 
systems, showing how our present system has developed from the 
needs of men, and has become adapted to fundamental trades 
and industries. The history of the origin and development of 
the metric system follows. The present status of the two systems 
ig then compared, showing the number of countries and population 
of each where the English and metric systems respectively pre- 
dominate, and their relative percentages to other countries where 
neither predominates. This analysis shows that the EngUsh 
system predominates in twelve countries with a population of 
nearly 350,000,000, while the metric system predominates in 
thirty-seven countries with a population of nearly 400,000,000, 
the combmed total, however, being less than half the population 
of the world, this "larger half" being listed as having neither the 
English nor the metric system predominating. 

This part of the report deals vdih many of the South American 
countries which were considered in a paper entitled. The Weights 
and Measures of Latin America, presented by Mr. F. A. Halsey 
before the A.S.M.E. at the Annual Meeting in December, 1918; 
and it is interesting to compare the findings of the investigators 
of the National Industrial Conference Board with those in Mr. 
Halsey's paper. Wlule Mr. Halsey goes much more into detail 
as to the hues of industry and manufacture where the various 
systems are used, the general trend of the present report follows 
very closely the findings as shown by his investigation, and countries 
which were reported by him as showing least progress toward 
the metric system in actual use, are classed as doubtful. 

Under the heading Weights and Measures in the United States 
the present situation is summarized clearly and holds the issue 
up squarely to the American public, as follows (page 42 of the 
report) : 

The situation in the United States, however, is today quite different 
from the situation that confronted other important countries in making 
a change from their local systems to the metric. In other countries con- 
siderable confusion of weights and measures existed at the time the change 
was brought about. In other countries, also, the change took place before 
the industrial life of the nation had become organized and standardized 
to the extent that modern production makes necessary. The countries 
outside of Europe which have adopted the metric system have little or 
no organized industry in the modern sense. 

In the United States today there is, in the first place, no fundamental 



confusion with respect to weights and measures. Furthermore, the United 
States unquestionably stands in the forefront of the great industrial and 
manufacturing nations. Its highly organized industry is based on the 
English units of weight and measure, and most of its vast technical litera- 
ture is WTitten in this system. All things considered, therefore, there 
does not exist in this country the great incentive to a change found in 
other nations where confusion was the rule until the metric system was 
adopted. 

In consequence the situation today narrows itself down to the question 
whether the advantages to be gained warrant the compulsory adoption 
of one imified system, namely, the metric, in the place of another unified 
system, namely, the English, which latter is moreover the established system 
and enters so intimately into the present industrial organization of the 
nation. It is not a question of allowing the use of the two systems side 
by side and gi\ing the metric the opportunity of supplanting the English, 
because the metric has, as a matter of fact, been a legal system in the United 
states since 1866, and any one who so desires and finds it more convenient 
and practical may use it. The question is, shall the United States discard 
the English system of weights and measures entirely and absolutely and in 
its place substitute by compulsory law the metric system as the sole stan- 
dard? 

The report includes arguments for making the change and the 
reasons on which these arguments are based. These statements 
with their opposing arguments are both strongly presented. 

Use of Metric and English Systems in Special Fields 

Part II opens with the statement that "a nation is made up of 
a number of special fields of acti^ity, in which the question of a 
change in weights and measures plays a little or a greater part, 
depending on the nature of the field and the ease or difficulty 
with which a change from an established to another system can 
be accomplished," and introduces a series of questions to be an- 
swered, such as: 

1 Has a given field had its origin and development in a certain country 
and then spread to the rest of the world, carrying with it the weights 
and measures of the country of origin? 

2 Does the position an industry has achieved and now holds center 
about standardized practices, with respect to weights and measures, 
built up after years of effort, and would the destruction or alteration 
of these practices virtually mean the giving up of the prominent place 
held by the industry? 

3 Is the scope of a certain field limited and local, as in agriculture or 
mining, or international? 

4 Are the weights and measures written into the very fabric of the in- 
stitutions, implements or records existing in a certain field? 

5 What is the relative importance of one field as against another? 

6 How much demand is there for a change? 

The report then goes on to analyze these various issues and to 
give a background, so that an intelligent answer can be given to 
each of these questions, under the following headings: 

1 Science and Engineering, under wliich are discussed chemistry, 
medicine and pharmacy, electrical, mechanical, and ci^il engi- 
neering, etc. This division is thus summarized: 

A considerable demand for a change in systems of weights and measures 
in the United States comes from the scientific group and from those engaged 
in the manufacture of refined instruments and products, but this sentiment 

is not shared very much by the engineering professions Even though 

this group were unanimously in favor of a change, its size is small as com- 
pared with such fields as agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and trade, 
and it would suffer no hardship through a change, while these others would. 

2 Agriculture, Mining, Transportation and Trade. After an 
analj-tical and statistical discussion, it is summarized thus: 

In the four fields treated in this chapter, such little demand as exists 
for a change to the metric system comes from those engaged in wholesale 
trade, who, as has been noted, comprise a very small group, comparatively 
speaking. There is practically no sentiment at all in favor of a change 
to be found in the other fields discussed. 

3 Manufacluring, including textiles, metal products, food prod- 
ucts, lumber, paper and printing, leather and its finished products, 
etc. The summary of this part of the investigation states that: 

The sur\-ey in this chapter of various specific manufacturing industries 
serves to indicate how intimately weights and measures are tied up with 
the products of manufacture and how widely English units are used in 
various industries the world over. 

The report cites specific instances to illustrate this, and continues: 



72 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Voi_ 44, No. I 



Over 90 per cent of the metal-products Industry registered decided 
opposition to a change. The food-products Industrj' showed similar op- 
position. The lumber industry was likewise opposed and emphasized 
"the great confusion and incalculable expense" that would result. The 
paper and printing, automobile, railway car, shipbuilding, and imple- 
ment and vehicle industries also went on record aa decidedly adverse to 
any cli.inge. 

Tlie manufacturing field, employing as it does over 10,500,000 workers, 
and producing commodities valued at something like S25,000,000,000 
annuallj', is unquestionably one of the most important fields of industry 
In the United States. The Indications are that a compulsory change to 
the metric system would profoundly affect many manufacturing lines 
especially during the period of transition, which the experience of other 
countries suggests would be very long. The interests and desires of such 
an important field and the efTect of a change in weights and measures upon 
it should naturally be carefully weighed in considering the advisability 
of a compulsorj- cliange. 

4 Foreign Trade. Much attention is given to an analysis of 
world trade, and the arguments pro and con, as to whether a 
change to the metric system would be of appreciable benefit to 
the foreign trade of tliis countrj'. The figures show that 48.2 
per cent of the world's export trade is now transacted by English 
countries, 37. .5 per cent by metric countries, and 14.3 per cent by 
other countries. This indicates that while more than half of the 
population of the world is included under the heading "other 
countries," the total amount of foreign trade which they represent 
is a very small percentage of the total. 

The grapliic diagrams sho^NTi in the report make very clear 
the relative importance of the different elements wliich have an 
influence on tliis discussion, and the above ratios are shown in 
one of these diagrams. (Page 105). 

Another diagram (page 113) shows the exports of the United 



States to English countries as 41.9 per cent, to Latin-American 
English and other countries, 5.7 -per cent, to European metric 
countries 37.1 per cent, to Latin-American metric countries, 6.3 
per cent, and to all other coimtries, 9 pei cent. 

Abguments for and against the Substitution of the Metric 
FOR the Engush System in the United States 
Part III is in the nature of the lawyers' pleas on each side of a 
case before a court, and is of value as showing opposing views 
strongly expressed. It is divided under the headings: 

1 Intrinsic Merits of the Metric and English Systems 

2 Advantages and Use of Metric as Compared with the English 
System in Sjwcial Fields 

3 Practicability of Making a Compulsory Change 

4 Extent and Character of Demand for such a Change 

5 Comparison of Metric and English as Universal Systems. 
The arguments pro and con under these headings are presented 

in such a way that thej' are in the nature of a spirited debate, and ' 
any one who is even casually interested in great issues before 
this country would be not only instructed but greatly interested 
in carefully following the discussion. (The report may be obtained 
from The Century Company, New York, at S2.50 a copy.) 

It is believed that with the metric question again before a con- 
gressional committee and the issue being raised before great national 
organizations throughout the country, a careful study of this 
report will help to insure sound judgment in coming to such a 
decision as vnlX place the influence of the reader on the side of this 
momentous question where it will count to support that poUcy 
wliich will be for the best interests of the American people. 



Waste in Industry 



Waste in Indu.strt. By the Committee on Elimination of Waste in In- 
dustry of the Federated American Engineering Societies. First edition, 
1921. Pulilished by Federated American Engineering Societies, Wash- 
ington, D. C. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, selling agents. 
Cloth, 6 X 9 in.. 409 pp., charts, tables, $4. 

Reviewed by Joseph W. Roe,' New York. N. Y. 

VV/'HILE many have been attacking the problems of waste in 

^ * specific industries with steadily increasing effect, no qualified 
agency has heretofore attempted to do so for Industry as a whole. 
One of the first acts of Mr. Herbert Hoover, as first president of 
the Federated American Engineering Societies, was the appoint- 
ment of a committee of engineers to undertake this, and the book 
in hand is their formal report. The purpose was to gather con- 
crete information, to stimulate action, and lay a foundation for 
other studies. No attempt was made at an academic definition of 
waste. It has been treated as the difference, in material, time and 
effort expended in production, between average practice and the 
best known practice; and the cominittee has undertaken to evalu- 
ate this difference. Its first work was to set up units and methods 
of measurement which could be applied to all the industries studied. 
This is something new and of great possibilities. With this in 
view a very complete questionnaire was prepared and used as a 
basis for a trial study of one plant in each industry. The results of 
these studies were brouglit together, re\dewed by the committee 
and a revised questionnaire developed, which was used in all sub- 
sequent work. The quantitative comparison between different 
industries was made through use of a point .system on "evaluation 
sheets," these sheets having the same grouping of information as 
the questionnaire, and with definite, careful instructions as to the 
method of arri\ing at the totals. The totals indicate waste in 
comparison with the best existing practice. Both the questionnaire 
and the evaluation slicets are given in full and are one of its most 
valuable parts of the report. 

This method of rating by points supplies a common groimd for 

the findings of 50 engineers, coverkig 125 plants, in 6 industries. 
While it cannot eliminate variations of judgment in evaluating 

the different elements, it makes sure that tlie same method is used 

in all cases, also that the same elements are considered and in the 

same relationships. 

• Professor of Industrial Engineering, New York University. Mem. Am. 
Soc.M.E. 



There is no hesitation in saying that the study affords the best 
information we have to date. It makes no claim to minute accur- 
acy, but it does to substantial accuracy. The broad findings are 
summarized in the Tables 1, 2 and 3. 

From Table 1 are derived percentage values for each of the 
agencies against which responsibiUty is assessed, as m Table 2. 





TABLE 1 










Responsibility 






Responsibility Responsibility Assa 


yed Against 






Assayed 


Assayed Outs 


de Contacts 


Totals, 


Industry 


Against 


Against (The 


PubHc, Trade 


Studied 


Management, 


Labor, Relationships, and 






other Factors), 






Points 


Points 


Points 


Points 


Men's Clothing Mfg. 


.. 4S.33 


10.50 


4.95 


B3.78 


Building Industry. . . 


.. 34.30 


11.30 


7.40 


33.00 


Printing 


.. 36.36 


16.25 


5.00 


57.61 


Boot & Slioe Mfg. . . . 


.. .^0.25 


4.85 


5.83 


40.93 


Metal Trades 


.. 23.23 


2.55 
4.70 


2.88 
19.80 


28.66 


Textile Mfg 


.. 24.70 


49.20 




TABLE 2 












Responsibility 




Responsibility 


Responsibility 


.\ssaved against 




Assayed 


Assayed 


Outside C 


ontacts 


Industry 


Against 


Against 


(The Public, Trade 


Studied 


Management. 


Labor, 


Relationships, and 
other Factors) 




Per Cent 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 


Men's Clotliing Mfg. 


75 


16 


9 




Building Industry. . . 


65 


21 


14 




Printing 


63 


28 


9 




Boot & Shoe Mfg. . . 


73 


11 


16 




Metal Trades 


81 


9 
10 


10 
40 




Textile Mfg 


50 






TABLE 3 








Points Assayed 


Points Assayed 








Against the Best Against the 


Ratio 


Industry 


Plant Studied 


Average of all 


Best to Average 






Plants Studied 






Men's Clothing Mfg 


26.73 


63.78 




2 


Building Industry. . . 


30.15 


53.00 




ly. 


Printing 


30.50 


.57.61 




2 


Boot & Shoe Mfg.... 


12.50 


40.83 




3 


Metal Trade-s 


G.OO 


2S.66 
49.20 




4K 


Textile Mfg 


28.00 


IK 



In every industry there are outstanding examples of good man- 
agement. Table 3 gi\-es a comparison of the best plant in each 
industry studied, vdih the average of the plants. 

These tables embody the general fuidings developed throughout 
the report. The results have surprised the general pubhc, but 
not those familiar with management problems. Management has 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



73 



the greatest opportunity and responsibility for eliminating waste. 
Labor has an important part, though smaller in proportion. The 
public also has a part, but less clearly defined and far more difficult 
to rectify. In many cases it involves change of habits and tastes. 
It is all very well to talk of a reduction in the numbers of styles, 
but only a ner\'}' man would tell his best girl that standardization 
requires her to wear her last year's hat a second winter; and the 
worst of it is, he would quit loving her if she did. 

The first of the three sections is a summary of the detailed 
reports, covering the sources and causes of waste, recommenda- 
tions for elimination, and a description of the questionnaire and 
the evaluation sheet used. 

The second section contains the reports of the six industries 
studied — tlie building trades, men's ready-made clotliing, shoe 
manufacturing, printing, metal trades and textile manufacturing. 

The third section comprises seven general reports, covering 
unemplojTnent, strikes and lockouts, legal machinery for adjusting 
disputes, industrial accidents, health of industrial workers, eye 
conservation, and purchasing and sales policies. These are statisti- 
cal in nature, but all have constructive suggestions for betterment. 

This book should be read by every man in a position of industrial 
responsibility. It is full of matter challenging attention and 
maintains throughout a constructive attitude. The method of 
gaging wastes is especially suggestive and forms a yardstick by 
which a manager can measure waste in lus own industry and in 
many cases establishes a basis of comparison wliich may prove a 
great help. The j'ardstick may be crude, but untU a better one 
is de\ised, valuable comparative results can be obtained if every- 
body uses the same stick. 



Book Notes 

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
May 1920. Paper, 6X9 in., Vol. 89, No. 178. 289 pp.. $1.25. 

This volume of essays discusses the economic significance of 
present-day prices, price factors in typical commodities, wages, 
profits and excess profits taxes, production, cooperation, inter- 
national finance and trade in their relation to prices, inflation and 
prices, and the world's monetary problems. The papers included 
are by well-known economists, business men and engineers. 

Bleaching. By S. H. Higgins. Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1921. 
(Publications of the University of Manchester, No. 142.) Cloth, 6X9 
in., 137 pp., $3.75. 

The idea of this volume is not to give an account of the subject of 
bleaching, but to act as a supplement to other books, of which there 
are many, dealing with this industry. The author's intention has 
been to discuss the important researches of recent years bearing on 
bleaching as a basis for further research. 

Central Station Rates in Theory and Practice. By H. E. Eisen- 
menger. Frederick J. Drake & Co., Chicago, 1921. Fabrikoid, 5X7 
in., 382 pp., illus. 

A textbook for students of electric rates, intended to meet the 
needs of both beginners and experts. Discusses the cost of electric 
ser\'ice, its price, sj'stems of charging, rate analysis, the accuracy 
of rates and public regulation of pubhc utUities. Appeared serially 
in the Electrical Review. 

Centrifugal Pumps. By J. W. Cameron. Scott, Greenwood & Son, 
London, 1921. Cloth, 6X9 in., 142 pp., illus., $3.75. 

This small book discusses the theory of these pumps, hydraulic 
losses, hydraulic efficiency, bearings, effect of vane angle on effi- 
ciency, pump details, axial thrust balancing, calculation and design 
of pumps, and commercial types. The work is intended for engi- 
neers and draftsmen. 

Les Co.mbustibles Liquides et Leurs Applications. By the Syndicat 
d'Applications Industrielles des Combustibles Liquides. Gauthier- 
VUlara et Cie, Paris, 1921. Cloth, 4X6 in., 621 pp., illus. 

This handbook, published by an association of French companies 
interested in the production and use of liquid fuel, has been pre- 
pared as a practical guide to users and dealers. It includes the 
regulations governing the importation and use of liquid fuels, 
insurance laws, brief descriptions of the chief oil-producing coun- 



tries, the principal fuel oils and lubricants and methods for testing 
them. Descriptions of the leading French types of internal com- 
bustion engines, furnaces and boilers are given, and directions for 
storing and shipping oU. The final section consists of conversion 
tables and coefficients. 

Condensed Catalogues of Mechanical Equipment. Published by 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York, 1921, 
Eleventh annual volume. Cloth, 6X9 in., 932 pp., illus., $4. 

The eleventh issue of this convenient collection of commercial 
data upon mechanical equipment and accompanying directories 
of manufacturers and consulting engineers follows the form of 
preceding editions. It has, however, been enlarged considerably 
and revised carefully. Four thousand firms are listed, under 3000 
classes, and 495 of these have published data about their products 
in the book. The number of consulting engineers is 1000, classified 
under 400 lines of specialization. 

Elektrische Foerderm.aschinen. By W. Philippl. S. Hirzel, Leipzig, 
1921. Paper, 6X9 in., 304 pp., illus. 

The use of electric hoisting machinery in mining is covered from 
several viewpoints, mechanical, electrical and economic, with 
special stress upon the last aspect of the question. The question, 
whether electric hoisting shall be adopted for a given mine, is the 
one to which most attention is given. 

Employment Management, Wage Syste.ms and Rate Setting. First 
edition. The Industrial Press, New York, 1921. Paper, 6X9 in., 
103 pp., $1. 

This concise description of systematic methods of employing 
and placing men, and of wage-payment systems, is based on articles 
that have appeared in Machinery, describing the practice in the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, R. K. Le- 
Blond Machine Tool Company, Norton Company and other manu- 
facturing plants. 

Die Forderung von Massengutern. By Georg von Hanffstengel. Vol. 
1. Julius Springer, Berlin, 1921. Cloth, 6X9 in., 306 pp., illus., 
234 M. 

Volume one of the third edition of tliis useful treatise deals with 
belt, chain, bucket, screw, spiral, pneumatic and hydraulic con- 
veyors, together with some minor types. The text is practical as 
well as theoretical, and covers modern practice very thoroughly. 
The work has been thoroughly revised. 

Graphical Methods. By William C. Marshall. First edition. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 1921. Cloth, 6 X 9 in., 253 pp., charts 

$3. 

A general treatise on the construction and use of graphical 
charts. Includes charts intended to appeal to the general pubhc, 
those of interest to executives and those intended to facilitate 
engineering and scientific calculations. Gives many examples of 
the application of charts to a great variety of purposes and con- 
tains an extensive bibliography of published charts. 

Steam Road Vehicles. By L. M. Meyrick-Jones. Second edition. 
Iliffe & Sons, Ltd., London. Cloth, 6X8 in., 213 pp., illus., 5 s. 

This book is intended to provide an explanation of the theory 
and practice of steam-road transport, suited to the needs of owners 
and as an instruction book for drivers and mechanics. Its twenty- 
eight chapters describe the principles involved in the generation of 
steam and the construction of the various units that make up the 
veliicle. This edition has been revised and enlarged. The practice 
described is exclusively British. 

Oil-Field Practice. By Dorsey Hager. First edition. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York, 1921. Fabrikoid, 5X7 in., 310 pp., 
illus., diagrams, $3. 

The subjects treated in tliis volume are the acquisition of lands, 
development drilling, development production methods, trans- 
portation, storage, fires, avoidable wastes and losses, refining me- 
thods, valuation and buying, and general observations on the in- 
dustry. The appendix contains sample forms for records, useful 
tables and a glossary. The book presents American methods of 
developing oil properties and is intended to give an intelligent 
insight into the petroleum industry as a whole. To a certain extent 
it supplements the author's earlier work. Practical Oil Geology. 



74 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



COMPOUNDING THE COMBUSTION 
ENGINE 

(Continued from page 32) 

under complete control. In one instance the clutch succeeded in 
suppressing entirely a very serious "critical" which occurred in a 
700-hp. submarine type Diesel near the normal running speed.' 

Saving in Weight and Space over Diesels 
In I'^ig. 13 there is shown in side elevation to the left, and end 
elevation to the right, the comparison between the compound 
divided-unit geared drive delivering to the tail shaft the same power 
and speed as the standard Diesel unit of the largest manufacturer. 
The divided unit consists of two engines, each with four combustion 
cylinders, in two compound units. Note each of these engines gives 
the same turning moments and torcjue diagram as an eight-cylinder 
Diesel. In fact, w^itli this divided unit we have eight combustion 
cylinders in the two engines w^ith less than half of the cams, etc., of 
a si.x-cylinder Diesel, with all the advantages of two engines, includ- 
ing immunity from shutdown, possibility of inspection and other 
operating advantages which are well recognized. These two views 
serve graphically to give some idea of the sa\'ing in weightjind space. 




FiQ. 14 



Comparison between Reciprocating Steam Plant and Geared Com- 
pound Diesel Enqinb 



To aid in the comparison with the reciprocating steam engine. 
Fig. 14 has been developed, giving three views of the steam plant 
in shaded background. Against it there is outlined the standard 
compound, two-engine, geared magnetic-clutch arrangement for the 
identical horsepower and speed at the tail shaft. 

PRESIDENT CARMAN'S ADDRESS 

{Continued jrom page 8) 

Moral, the Political, and the Economic. I briefly define them as 
follows: 

The Moral Law: God's Law, immutable, unchanging 
The Political Law: Man's Law, continually changing 
The Economic Law: The Law resultant from the two others. 

These laws are coexisting. Their scientific application and 
operation is necessary, and to have an equilibrium all of them 
must function properly and in harmony, just as the various parts 
of a properly working machine must all function. There is a 
relationship existing between these laws just as definite as the 
proportional relationship existing between the elements that go 
to make up the strongest bar of steel, the parts of a completed 
machine, or the departments of a well-organized and successfully 
operating business. 

The Political and Economic Laws must conform to the Moral 
Law, it is the basic law — and only in this way will complete har- 
mony be secured. These three laws have all been and are in 
continuous operation but they fail to function as a unit, and their 
independent operation has produced the chaotic conditions ex- 
isting today. 

There has been much effort in the last decade to solve the prob- 
lems of so-called "Industrial Relations." Many plans have been 
advanced and tried, and while there has been some improvement, 
nevertheless these plans have fallen far short of their goal. Let 
me lay special stress on this fact, for any effort and endeavor is 
predestined to failure unless its fundamental principle conforms 
to each and all of tliese laws. The world has been asking for 
thousands of years, "Am I my brother's keeper." The answer 
comes back through the ages, "Yes," "Love thy neighbor as thyself." 

' See the Sperryscope, vol. 2, no. 9. 



What is the remedy? There must be a speedy adjustment of 
affairs vital to mankind; we must secure a recognition of and 
obedience to all of these laws or we will soon be in the midst of 
the greatest conflict of all ages. We are only just beginning to 
admit that here is the source of most of the difficulties that we 
have today. 

If civilization is to continue, and I am sure it is, this complete 
conformity must be sought for, found, accepted, and reduced to 
practice. If the search is not to be made by engineers, then it 
must be made by some other group of men or by some one man. 
The world awaits the solution, men's eyes are turned, looking 
with expectancy, some hopefully, some fearfully. They long for 
jieace, the peace that will come only when this age-old struggle 
between Capital and Labor has ceased. 

Engineers, even though this message has been heralded through- 
out the land, are slow to accept the challenge to further serve 
mankind. They are seemingly content to perform only a part of 
the work for which they have prepared. 

The Federated American Engineering Societies, speaking for 
the American Engineers, thus defined "Engineering:" 

Engineering is the science of controlling the forces, and of utilizing the 
materials of nature for the benefit of man, and the art of organizing and 
directing human activities in connection therewith. 

As service to others is the expression of the highest motive 
to which men respond and as duty to contribute to the public 
welfare demands the best efiforts men put forth — Now, there- 
fore .... 

If we accept this definition, and as a Society we have 
already done so, then we cannot escape our duty. The 
door is open wide. The opportunity for service is before 
us, a service greater by far than the glorious achieve- 
ments of the past, an opportunity of weaving together 
the forces and materials of nature and human efforts into 
a composite, yet unified and synchronized unit of pro- 
duction, operating with satisfaction to the worker, to 
the capitalist, and for the benefit of all mankind. 



DISCUSSION OF THE POWER WASTE 
SESSION 

(Continued from page 26) 

higher steam pressures and temperatures, said that the ideal in 
station design and operation was the lowest cost of current consis- 
tent with reliability. Until the price of coal is much higher, 
steam pressures will remain practically as at present. The study 
of the heat balance problem with respect to varying load factor, 
as emphasized by Mr. Pigott, was important, he said, and in select- 
ing the Colfax system one was chosen which appeared to be the 
most flexible, most reliable, and to cover the greatest variety of 
operating conditions. In reply to a statement that control of 
duplex drive auxiliaries was difficult, he said that this was not so 
if proper attention were paid to the units. The question of re- 
peating the existing installation, raised by Mr. Scott, was being 
answered at the Colfax Station by a duplication of the original 
sj'stem of heat balance in a second unit which is now being 
put in. 

C. Harold Berry said that the figures in his paper were for an 
assumed rather than an actual case, the object being to define 
the problem, rather than to solve it. It would be interesting, as 
Mr. Pigott had pointed out, to make such an investigation for 
varying load factors. The question of duplicating the existing 
equijimcnt at Conners Creek was answered by the present efforts 
to change auxiliaries to a direct-current drive for better speed 
regulation, and the probable instaUation in the future of econo- 
mizers. 

.1. H. Lawence pointed out the impossibility, in New York, 
of storing a sufficient quantity of fuel oil for such a station as 
that at Hell Gate. He had never known of trouble with duplex 
drive. 

In answer to a statement made by Mr. Pope about the danger of 
ovcrspeeding a turbine at light loads when receiving low-pressure 
steam in the lower stages, he explained that such connections to 
turbines in the Hell Gate plant were designed to close with the 
closing of the main steam valve and prevent over-speeding. 



THE ENGINEERING INDEX 

{Registered U. S. Patent Office and Canadian Patent Office.) 

' i 'HE ENGINEERING INDEX presents each month, in conveniently classified form, items descriptive of the articles appearing in 
the current issues of the world's engineering and scientific press of particular interest to mechanical engineers. At the end of the 
year the monthly installments are combined along with items dealing with civil, electrical, mining and other branches of engineering, and 
published in book form, this annual volume having regularly appeared since 1906. In the preparation of the Index by the engineering 
staff of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers some 1200 technical publications received by the Engineering Societies Library 
{New YorfO are regularly reviewed, thus bringing the great resources of thai library to the entire engineering profession. 

Photostatic copies (white printing on a black, background) of any of the articles listed in the Index may be obtained at a price of 25 
cents per page, plus postage. A separate print is required for each page of the larger periodicals, but wherever possible two small or medium- 
sized pages will be photographed together on the same print. The bill will be mailed with the print. When ordering photostats identify 
the article by quoting from the Index item: (/) Title of article; (2) Name of periodical in which it appeared; (3) Volume, number, and 
date of publication of periodical; (4) Page numbers. Orders should be sent to the Engineering Societies Library, 29 West 39th Street, 
New York- 



ABRASIVE WHEELS 

Selection of. The Proper Selection of Grinding 
Wheels. P. N. Cooke. Can. Machy.. vol. 26, no. 
15, Oct. 13, 1921. pp. 25-2S. Development and 
advantages of modern artificial abrasives; grain and 
grade; manufacturing processes: production grinding; 
relation of work to grain and grade. 

ABRASIVES 

Sizing Materials. Sizing of Abrasive Materials. 
W'illiam P. Butler and Paul Keever. Abrasive 
Industry, vol. 2. no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 337-3-39, 
5 figs. Wire sizes and mesh openings of abrasive 
sizing screens should be standardized to insure classi- 
fication of uniform grain sizes. (Abstract ) Paper 
presented before Grinding Wheel Manufacturers' 
Assn. of U. S. & Canada. 

ACCOUNTING 

Becords for Consulting Engineers. Accounting 
Records for Consulting Engineers, Arthur L. Muller- 
gren. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 87, no. 17, Oct. 27, 
1921, pp. 685-687, 3 figs. Arguments for keeping 
books with segregated costs. Details of looseleaf 
system. Forms for expense vouchers and time 
distribution. 

AIR 

Specific Heats. The Ratio of the Specific Heats of 
Air and of Carbon Dioxide. J. R. Partington. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. vol. 100. no. A702. Oct. 4, 1921. pp. 27-49, 
2 figs. Results of experiments on the lines of 
Lummer and Pringsheim method, eliminating their 
systematic errors or bringing them under control. 

AIR COMPRESSORS 

Electrically Driven. Double-Acting Two-Stage Air 
Compressor, Engineering, vol. 112, no. 2915. Nov. 11, 
1921, pp. 674-676, 16 figs. Believed to be largest 
compressor ever built in Sweden. Driven by directly 
coupled electric motor, rotor of which is actually 
mounted on crankshaft. Delivers compressed air 
to mines. 

AIR FURNACES 

Firing Method. Equips Air Furnace with Hopper. 
Iron Trade Rev., vol. 69, no. 17, Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 
1082-1084, 4 figs. Coal is dumped into hopper which 
feeds a specially designed grate as coal is consumed. 
Only manual labor necessary is that required for 
pulling the ashes. Method adopted by AUis- 
Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 

Fabrics. Permeability of Balloon Fabrics (La Per- 
meabilite des tissus pour ballons), A. D. Ritchie. 
Revue Universelle des Mines, vol. 10, no. 6, Sept. 
15, 1921, pp. G21-631. Discusses rubberized mater- 
ials and tests made with them. 

Spruce. Investigation of Crushing Strength of Spruce 
at Varj'ing Angles of Grain. Air Service Informa- 
tion Circular, vol. 3, no. 259, July 15, 1921, 15 pp., 
10 figs. For determination of crushing or com- 
pressive strength from to 90 deg. 

AIRPLANE ENGINES 

Improvements. Aero Engines, Alan E. L. Chorlton. 
Jl. Roy. Soc. Arts. vol. 69. no. 3591, Sept. 16, 1921, 
pp. 725—740, 2 figs. Discusses thermodynamical. 
mechanical and metallurgical progress made in 



construction of aeroengines; stratified working, 
regeneration, bearing loadings and load factors, 
two-cycle engines, etc. 

AIRPLANE PROPELLERS 

Theory. The Modem Theory of Aerofoils and Pro- 
pellers (Die neuere Theorie der Tragfliigel und 
Luftschrauben'). E. Everling. Zeit. des Vereines 
deutscher Ingenieure. vol. 65, no. 44. Oct. 29, 1921, 
pp. 1142-1143. Investigation of lift and drag based 
on works by E. Trefftz and R. Fuchs in Zeit. fur 
angewandte Mathematik u. Mechanik, nos. 3 and 2. 
The Prandtl Aerofoil and Propeller Theory 
(Prandtlsche Tragflachen- und Propeller-Theorie), 
E. Trefftz. Zeit. fiir angewandte Mathematik u. 
Mechanik, vol. 1, no. 3, June 1921. pp. 206-218, 
1-3 figs. Fundamental principles of theory. Deals 
with aerofoils which, with given lift, have mini- 
mum drag. Calculation of lift and drag of given 
aerofoils. Screw propellers with minimum loss of 
energy. 

AIRPLANES 

Aerofoils. The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils, 
Max. M. Munk. Nat. Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics. Report No. 121, 1921, 18 pp. Mathe- 
matical discussion covering, the lifting straight 
line, parallel lifting elements lying in a transverse 
plane, three-dimensional parallel lifting elements, 
lifting elements arranged in any direction in a trans- 
verse plane, etc. 

De Havilland 32 Biplane. TheD.H. 32 Commercial 
Biplane. Flight, vol. 13. no 38. Sept. 22. 1921. 
pp. G29-630. 1 fig. Built by De Havilland Aircraft 
Co. 360 hp. Rolls-Royce engine. 

De Havilland 29 Monoplane. The D.H. 29 Mono- 
plane. Flight, vol. 13. no. 39, Sept. 29, 1921, pp. 
041-647, 25 figs. Built at Stag Lane works by De 
Havilland Aircraft Co. 450 hp. Napier Lion engine. 
Internally braced wings. 

Monoplanes vs. Biplanes. Monoplanes or Biplanes? 
A. Herbemont. Aviation, vol. 11, no. 15. Oct. 10, 
1921, pp. 420-422, 3 figs. Compares several well- 
known European cabin machines, expressing com- 
mercial eflficiency as pounds of pay load per horse- 
power. Translated from L'Air. 

Pilotless. Pilotless Airplanes (L'avion sans pilote\ 
A. Volmerange. Aeronautique. vol. 3, no. 28, 
Sept. 1921, pp. 345-351, 5 figs. Discusses automatic 
stability, the Sperry stabilizer, principle of distance- 
control, starting and landing. 

[See also PARACHUTES.] 

AIRSHIPS 

Rubberized Fabric. Balloons. Airships and Rubber- 
ized Fabric, C. P. Burgess. India Rubber World. 
Vol. 65, no. 1, Oct. 1, 1921. pp. 3-6, 6 figs. Dis- 
cusses principal characteristics of some typical 
airships and balloons, achievements of rubberized 
fabrics, etc. 

Zeppelin. The Drag of Zeppelin Airships, Max M. 
Munk. Nat. Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 
Report No. 117. 1921, 11 pp.. 10 figs. Results of 
tests in which the propellers were stopped as quickly 
as possible while airship was in full flight. 

ALLOY STEELS 

Carbon and. Carbon and Alloy Steels; Their Selec- 



tion and Use. P. W. Peel. Practical Engr., vol. 
6i, no. 1803, Sept. 15. 1921, p. 167. 

Hardening. The Hardening of Tool Steel, S. N. 
Brayshaw. Eng. Production, vol. 3, no. 57, Nov. 3, 
1921, p. 415, Results of work carried out by means 
of test bars and test cutters for purpose of deter- 
mining effect of various annealings or heat treat- 
ments. (Abstract). Paper read before Sheffield 
Assn. Metallurgists & Metallurgical Chemists. 

High-Resistance. Non-Magnetic, Flame-, Acid- and 
Rust-Resisting Steel. Chem. Sc Met. Eng., vol. 25, 
no. 17. Oct. 26, 1921, pp. 797-799, 5 figs. New 
high alloy steels developed in research laboratory of 
Crucible Steel Co. which can easily be worked and 
machined, but after heat-treatment become hard and 
resistant to attack of all agencies. 

Tests. Elasticity and Strength of Special Steels at 
High Temperatures (Elastizitiit und Festigkeit von 
Spezialstahlen bei hohen Temperaturen), Georg 
Welter, Forschungsarbeiten auf dem Gebiete des 
Ingenieurwesens, no. 230, 1921, 65 pp.. 99 figs. 
Results of tests carried out on special steels such as 
are commonly used in construction of steam turbines 
and engines, and gas, oil, automobile and airplane 
engines, to determine limit of elasticity at which 
permanent dilatation of steel begins. Describes 
apparatus used for tests. 

ALLOYS 

See BEARING METALS; COPPER ALLOYS; 
NICKEL ALLOYS; ZINC ALLOYS. 

ALUMINUM 

Annealing, Effect of. Unusual Grain Growth Due 
to Critical Strain, A. P. Knight. Chem. & Met. Eng., 
vol. 25, no. IS, Nov. 2. 1921, pp. 829-830. 7 figs. 
Discusses annealing of aluminum coffee pots, bottom 
of which was rough while sides were smooth. 

Properties and Alloys. Aluminum, Its Production, 
Properties and Alloys (L'Aluminium, sa fabrication, 
ses proprietes, ses alliages), Leon Guillet. Revue 
de Metallurgie, vol. 18, no. 8, August 1921, pp. 
461-526, 70 figs. Report of lecture at recent alum- 
inum exposition. Appendixes giving curves for 
binary alloys. Bibliography. 

ALUMINUM ALLOYS 

Automobile Construction. Use of Wrought Alum- 
inum Alloys in Automobile Construction, Walter 
Rosenhain. Automotive Industries, vol. 45, no. 
18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 862-864. Discusses advantages 
and possible applications, piston difficulties, cor- 
rosion. 

Bronzes. Notes on Casting Aluminum Bronze, 
Austin D. Wilson. Foundry, vol. 49, no. 20, Oct. 
15, 1921, pp. 801-804. 27 figs. Micrographs illus- 
trate effects of different compositions and heat 
treatments on structure. Presence of manganese 
tends to refine grain. 

Castings, Cracks in. Cracks in Aluminum-alloy 
Castings, Robert J. Anderson. Trans. Am, Inst. 
Min. & Metallurgical Engrs.. no. 1104-N. Oct. 1921, 
22 pp.; also (in abstract). Min. & Metallurgy, no. 
178, Oct. 1921, pp. 43-44. Effects of various factors 
on cracking; method of molding; prevention of 
cracks. 

(See also ALUMINUM. Properties and Alloys.] 



Copyright 1922, by The American Society op Mechanical Engineers 



Note. — The abbreviations used 
in indexing are as follows: 
Academy (Acad.) 
Ameiican (Am.) 
Associated (Assoc.) 
Association (Assn.) 
Bulletin (Bui.) 
Bureau (Bur.) 
Canadian (Can.) 
Chemical or Chemistry (Chem.) 
Electrical or Electric (Elec.) 
Electrician (Elecn.) 



Engineer[s] (Engr.[s]) 
Engineering (Eng.) 
Gazette (Gaz.) 
General (Gen.) 
Geological (Geol.) 
Heating (Heat.) 
Industrial (Indus.) 
Institute (Inst.) 
Institution (Instn.) 
International (Int.) 
Journal (Jl.) 
London (Lond.) 



75 



Machinery (Machy.) 
Machinist (Mach.) 
Magazine (Mag.) 
Marine (Mar.) 
Materials (Matls.) 
Mechanical (Mech.) 
Metallurgical (Met.) 
Mining (Min.) 
Municipal (Mun.) 
National (Nat.) 
New England (N. E.) 
Proceedings (Proc.) 



Record (Rec.) 
Refrigerating (Refrig.) 
Review (Rev.) 
Railway (Ry.) 
Scientific or Science (Sci.) 
Society (Soc.) 

State names (111., Minn,, etc.) 
Supplement (Supp.) 
Transactions (Trans.) 
United States (U.S.) 
Ventilating (Vent.) 
Western (West) 



76 



MECHANICAL EN'GINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



ANEMOMETERS 

Testing. Mensurement of Air Velocities and the 
Testing of Anemometers, James Cooper. Iron 
& Coal Tr.ides Rev., vol. 103, no. 2798. Oct. 14, 1921, 
p. 540. Discusses results obtained with a testing 
anemometer table based on that designed by H. 
Briggs many years ago and which is claimed to work 
perfectly. 

ASH HANDLING 

Conveyor, A New Ash Handling Conveyor. Eng. 
& Indus. Management, vol. 6, no. 16, Oct. 20, 1921. 
pp. 449—150, 4 figs. Describes system developed 
by Underfeed Stoker Co., Ltd., London. 

AUTOMOBILE ENGINES 

Cylinders. How Ford Cylinder Blocks are Cast, 
I'at Dwyer. Foundry, vol. 49. no. 19, Oct. 1, 1921, 
pp. 751-758. 7 figs. New River Rouge plant oper- 
ated on continuous production principle; to make 
castings for 8,000 cars per day. Description of 
making cores, raglds. pouring castings, melting 
equipment, etc. 

Eight-Cylinder. Engines with Eight Cylinders in 
Line (Le Moteur a huit cylindres en ligne), A. 
Contet. La Vie /\utomobile, vol. 17, no. 738, Sept. 
25. 1921. pp. 335-330, 12 figs. Discusses variations 
of eight-cylinder crankshafts and describes Panhard. 
Fraschini and other eight-cylinder engines. 

Light-Metal. Recent Experiences with Light Metals 
in High-Speed Engines (Neue Erfahrungen mit 
Leichtinetallen in schnellaufenden Motoren), H. v. 
Selve. Zeit. fur Metallkundc, vol. 13, no. 10, 
July 1921, pp. 316-318. 7 figs. Based on tests and 
experiences, writer strongly recommends increased 
use of aluminum and magnesium alloys in automobile 
construction and gives comparative data on weight, 
strength and expansion of aluminum castings and 
aluiniimm sheet pistons and magnesium pistons, 
as well as of connecting rods of steel and magnesium. 

Rotary-Valve. A New Rotary Valve Engine. Auto- 
motive Industries, vol. 4.5, no 22. Dec. 1, 1921, 
pp. 1065-1066, 3 figs. Chief advantage claimed is 
that of absolutely silent operation. Absence of valves 
and tappet rods at side of cylinder block allows loca- 
tion of accessories close to cylinders and a consequent 
narrow engine. 

[See also CARBURETORS; CLUTCHES. 
CRANKCASES.l 

AUTOMOBILE FUELS 

Coke. Coke /\s a Fuel for Commercial Vehicles, 
Thomas Clarkson. Engineering, vol. 112, no. 2912. 
Oct. 21. 1921, pp. 579-580. Points out that when 
coke is used as motor fuel, either for raising steam or 
making gas, cost of transport may be very consider- 
ably reduced as compared with gasoline motor. 
Paper read before Instn. Automobile Engrs. 

Condensation Temperatures. Condensation Tem- 
peratures of Gasoline- and Kerosene-Air Mixtures, 
Robert E. Wilson and D. P. Barnard. Jl. Indus. 
& Eng. Chem.. vol. 13. no. 10, Oct. 1921. pp. 906- 
912, 12 figs. Describes a simple and reliable method 
for determining initial condensation temperature of 
fuels from air-fuel mixtures, an approximate method 
for determining temperatures of partial condensation 
in air-fuel mixtures, etc. 

Kerosene. The Use of Kerosene in Automobile 
Engines (L'Emploi des petroles lampants dans les 
moteurs d 'automobiles), A. Grebel. Memoirs et 
Compte Rendu des Travaux de la Societe des In- 
genieurs Civils de France, vol. 74, no. 4-5--6, April- 
June 1921. pp. 250-269. Holds that it is not so 
much a question of carburization and carburetors, 
but of the engines, cycles, and manner of regulation. 
Tables of liquid fuels and their properties. 

Total Heat Content. The Total Sensible Heats of 
Motor Fuels and Their Mixtures with Air, Robert 
E. Wilson and D. P. Barnard. Jl. Indus. & Eng. 
Chem., vol. 13, no. 10. Oct. 1921, pp. 912-915. 5 figs.- 
Describes approximate methods in determining the 
total sensible heat content of Socony motor gasoline 
and kerosene and their mixtures with air at tempera- 
tures up to 500 deg. cent. 

AUTOMOBILES 

Camshafts. Manufacture of Accurate Camshafts, 
Edward K. Hammond. Machy. (N. Y.), vol. 
28, no. 3, Nov. 1921, pp. 175-180, 8 figs, partly on 
p. 181. Describes important operations, and gives 
complete tabulated data on manufacturing pro- 
cedure in making camshafts in Lincoln Motor Co.'s 
plant. 

Declutcher, Automatic. Automatic Declutcher 
Introduced at Paris Show. Automotive Industries, 
vol. 45, no. 19. Nov. 10. 1921, p. 922, 3 figs. Gear 
shifting accomplished by taking foot off accelerator 
pedal and waiting until engine slows down to point 
where it is sure to be uncoupled by new device. 
Gear lever is then shifted without disengaging 
friction chitch. 

Delage. A New 11 Hp. Delage. Autocar, vol. 47, 
no. 1353, Sept. 24, 1921. pp. 533-535. 7 figs. Four 
cylinder monobloc, 72 X 130 mm.; electric 
lighting and starling; four-speed gear; four-wheel 
braking system. 

Duesenberg. New Duesenberg Reflects Experience 
Gained with Racing Cars, J. Edward Schipper. 
Automotive Industries, vol. 45. no. 18, Nov. 3. 1921. 
pp. 854-857, 5 figs. Etiuipped witli eight-in-line 
engine, four-wheel brakes, overhead camshaft, and 
tubular connecting rods; high-pressure oiling, semi- 
elliptical springs. 

Electric, Suspension. Eliminating Vibrations and 
Shocks in Electric Motor Vehicles {Come eliminare i 
danni delle vibrazioni e degli urt nei veicoli auto- 
motori elettrici), Gino Turrinelli. L'Elettrotecnica, 
vol. 8, no. 26. Sept. 25, 1921, pp. 581-584, 11 figs. 
Discusses methods of suspension and describes 
new system of suspension. 



Fiat. The 10 Hp. Fiat (La 10 Hp. Fiat), A. Contet. 
La Vie Automobile, vol. 17. no. 737, Sept. 10. 1921. 
pp. 307-31 1, 15 figs. Discusses chassis, engines 
(four- and six-cylinder monobloc). speed control, etc. 

Gear Release. .Automatic Gear-Release (L'Auto- 
debrayage T. L.). («. Licnhard. La Vie .Automobile, 
vol. 17. no. 738. Sept. 25, 1921. pp. 354-358. 12 figs. 
Describes the T. L. device, consisting of a wheel with 
a helicoidal rim, similar to the free wheel of bicyles, 
placed between engine and transmission gear. 

German. New German Car Has Novel Design 
Features, Benno R. Dierfeld. .Automotive In- 
dustries, vol. 45. no. 15, Oct. 13. 1921. pp. 703-706, 

5 figs. Clutch design of this 30-hp. Protos is entirely 
new; unusual method of locking gears in position; 
cylinder block is excellent example of German 
engineering and foundry practice; no control hand 
levers on steering wheel; four-cylinder engine used. 

Haynes. Longer Wheelbase and Larger Engine in 
New Haynes, J. Edward Schipper. Automotive 
Industries, vol. 45. no. 16. Oct. 20, 1921. pp. 764-766. 

6 figs. New model "75" has 132-in. wheelbase and 
299-cu. in. engine with block-cast cylinders, in- 
clined valves, chain distribution, three-piece separate 
head, aluminum crankcase and hollow-shaft lubri- 
cation. 

Improvements. Improvements in Automobile Man- 
ufacture (Neue Wege im Automobilbau), Otto 
Sch wager. Motor wagen, vol. 24, nos. 26 and 27. 
Sept. 20 and 30, 1921, pp. 565 566 and 579-591, 
15 figs. New Rumpler car with drop-pearl-shaped 
(streamline) frame and body based on experiences in 
airplane construction. The gearless Maybach car. 
The Atlantic two-seated cycle car. 

Mack A B Chassis. Mack Chassis Now Adapted for 
Use as Rail Cars, Herbert Chase. Automotive 
Industries, vol. 45, no. 19. Nov. 10, 1921, pp. 918- 
921, 6 figs. Vehicles used for railway work have 
special axles, wheels and reverse gears, but most other 
parts of the chassis are identical with those used in 
standard Mack trucks. Special bodies seat from 
25 to 35 passengers. 

Pierce-Arrow Repair Service. Automotive Service 
Methods and Equipment Howard Campbell. 
Am. Mach., vol. 55. no. 20. Nov. 17. 1921, pp. 789- 
791, 7 figs. Tools used in remachining Pierce- 
Arrow transportation units. Reboring fixtures. 
Valve-spring tester. Welding and remilHng axle 
shafts. 

Renault 40-Hp. Testing a 40-Hp. Renault Auto- 
mobile (Essai d'une Voiture Renault 40 chevaux), 
H. Petit. La Vie Automobile, vol. 17, no. 738. 
Sept. 25. 1921, pp. 340-346, 16 figs. Test data and 
description of engine (6-cylinder), transmission 
gear, chassis, etc. 

Rumpler. A German Passenger Car of Radical 
Design. Automotive Industries, vol. 45, no. 17, 
Oct. 27. 1921, pp. 812-816, 12 figs. Describes 
Rumpler streamline car. Engine is aft and every 
possible obstacle on streamline body is removed 
to minimize air resistance. 

Rumpler's New Automobile (Der neue Kraft- 
wagen von Dr. Ing. Rumpler), A. Heller. Zeit. 
des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 65, no. 39, 
Sept. 24, 1921, pp. 1011-1015, 11 figs. Special 
feature is its rear-axle drive with which only the 
compensating shafts oscillate and all joints are 
eliminated. Due to location of entire drive in rear 
a favorable form could be developed with regard to 
air resistance. 

Stevens-Duryea Stevens-Duryea Producing High 
Grade Six. Herbert Chase. Automotive Industries, 
vol. 45. no. 22, Dec. 1, 1921, pp. 1061-1064. 7 figs. 
Describes changes made in chassis and Model E 
power plant, and gives details of construction. 

Sunbeam 4-Seater. A New 2-Litre Sunbeam. 
Autocar, vol. 47. no. 1355. Oct. 8, 1921, pp. 624-627. 
13 figs. Four-seater, 14-hp., four-cylinder 72 X 120 
mm,, overhead valves, aluminum cylinder blocks. 

Suspension. The Suspension of Vehicles (Remarques 
sur la suspension des vdhicules), P. Lemaire. La 
Technique Moderne, vol. 13, no. 1, Jan. 1921, pp. 
7-11. 2 figs. Discusses transmission of shocks by 
wheels, comfortable and uncomfortable speeds, 
elastic constants of springs. 
See also Electric, Suspension. 

Wills Sainte Claire. Wills Sainte Claire Car Has 
Engine of Orij^inal Design, J. Edward Schipper. 
Automotive Industries, vol. 45, no. 19, Nov. 10, 
1921, pp. 912-917. 8 figs. Eight-cylinder solid- 
head engine, overhead camshaft drive. Describes 
cooling system, oil circuit, etc. Gives specifications. 
65 b.hp. at 2700 r.p.m. maximum. 

Wolseley 7-Hp. A New 7-Hp. Wotseley. Autocar, 
vol. 47, no. 1353, Sept. 24, 1921, pp. 541-543, 9 figs. 
Water-cooled horizontally opposed twin, 82 X 92 mm. 
three-speed and reverse gear. 

AVIATION 

Air Harbors. Canadian Airharbors. Aviation, vol. 
11, nos. 16 and 17, Oct. 17 and 24. 1921. pp. 448-450 
and 481-482, 1 fig. Detailed description of each; 
markings for air harbors; the part of Canadian Air 
Regulations which provides for licensing of air 
harbors. 



B 



BALLOONS 

Captive, Winding Machinery for. Winches for 
Captive Halloons (,Lcs treuils de ballon capttf). 
LOon Chollet. L'Aeroiiautique, vol. 3, nos. 27 and 
28, August and Sept. 1921, pp. 316-319 and 377-380, 
6 figs. Aug.: Describes various cars or trucks 
driven by steam or gasoline. Sept.: Discusses 



power of engine, speed of bringing down the balloon, 
winding cable, etc. 

BEAMS 

Continuous. Calculations for Continuous Beams 
with Third-Point Loading, Ewart S. Andrews. 
Concrete & Constructional Eng., vol. 16, no. 10. 
Oct. 1921, pp. 647-654, 5 figs. Deals with beams 
continuous over three spans. 

Maximum Bending-moment Diagrams for Con- 
tinuous Beams, C. S. Gray. Mech. World, vol. 
70. no. 1813, Sept. 30, 1921. pp. 266-267. 7 figs. 
Discusses Clapeyron's theorem of three moments. 

Curved. Bending Lines of Curved Beams (Biegungs- 
linien ringformiger Trager), Friedrich Dusterbehn. 
Eisenbau, vol. 12. no. 10. Oct. 11, 1921, pp. 249-264, 
7 figs. Bending lines are developed for deformation 
of curved beams. 

Sections. The Graphics of Beam and Girder Sections. 
Alan Pollard. Machinery (Lond.), vol. 19. no. 473. 
Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 63-66, 4 figs. Method for deter- 
mining the centroid, moment of inertia, swing 
radius, and moduli for any shape of section on draw- 
ing board. 

BEARING METALS 

Properties. What MeUls Serve Best in Bearings? 
Bruno Simmersbach. Raw Material, vol. 4. no. 
9, Sept. 1921, pp. 316-320. Relation between 
physical-chemical properties of bearing alloys and 
their ability to live under strenuous duty. From 
Chemiker Zeitung. 

BEARINGS, BALL 

Boiler and. .\nti-Friction Bearings in the Steel Mill, 
A. M. MacCutcheon. Blast Furnace & Steel Plant, 
vol. 9, no. 10, Oct. 1921. pp. 600-607, 13 figs. Dis- 
cusses ball and roller bearings, their manufacture, 
mounting and selection. Advantages and disad- 
vantages of anti-friction bearings. (Abstract.) 
Paper read before Iron & Steel Elec. Engrs. 

BEARINGS. ROLLER 

Tangential Load. Experiments with Roller Bear- 
ings Under Tangential Load (L^ndersokningar ror- 
ande rullning under tangentialfcraft), Arvid Palm- 
gren. Teknisk Tidskrift (Mekanik), vol. 51, no. 9, 
Sept. 14, 1921, pp. 129-132, 8 figs. Discusses 
results of tests made in the S. K. F. laboratory. 

BELTING 

Cellulose. Tests with Cellulose Driving Belts 
(Versuche mit Zellstofftreibriemen), H. Rudeloff. 
Zeit. des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 65. 
no. 40. Oct. 1. 1921. pp. 1041-1044, 4 figs. Account 
of tests to determine strength of paper composed 
of equal parts of soda and sulphite cellulose in the 
different stages of manufacture, for purpose of as- 
certaining degree to which strength of cellulose 
employed in yarns, textures and belts is utilized. 

Rubber. Getting the Maximum Service in Rubber 
Transmission Belting, James B. McPherson. Chem. 
& Eng. News, vol. 33, no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 29-30. 
Writer advises securing maximum coefficient of 
friction, maximum arc of contact practicable, 
avoiding excessive tension, reckless use of dressings.^ 
and careless fastenings. 

BLAST-FURNACE GAS 

Steana Power from. Steam Power from Blast- 
Furnace Gas, Ciordon Fox and F, H. Willcox. 
Power, vol. 54, no. 20, Nov. 15, 1921. pp. 706-709, 
3 figs. Resume on utilization of blast-furnace gas 
for steam making and development in burning gas 
alone or in combination with other fuels. Typical 
data are given as to amount of gas available and 
variation in supply. Importance of cleaning gas is 
emphasized, numerous recent installations are cited 
and developments in design summarized. 

BLAST FURNACES 

High Top Heat. Causes of High Top Heat in the 
Blast Furnace. Wallace G. Imhoff. Chem. & Met. 
Eng., vol. 25. no. 16, Oct. 19. 1921. pp. 737-740. 
Charts recording temperature of waste gases are of 
value in controlling furnace operations, indicating 
especially clearly exact time when charging is done 
and if charge is alternately hanging and slipping. 

Pennsylvania. New Blast Furnace of the Crane 
Iron Works Modernizes Plant at Catasauqua. Pa., 
Richard Peters, Jr. Blast Furnace & Steel Plant, 
vol. 9, no. 10. Oct. 1921. pp. 577-580, 4 figs. Details 
of improvements in new blast furnace. 

600-Ton. New 600-Ton Blast Furnace Plant. Blast 
Furnace & Steel Plant, vol. 9, no. 10. Oct. 1921. pp. 
5SS-597. 11 figs. Trumbull-Cliffs Furnace Company- 
new plant at Warren, Ohio, now completed. Many 
interesting features constructed in this plant. 
Record time made on construction work. 

BLOWERS 

Propeller Type. Propeller Blowers for Forced - 
Draft Furnaces (Propellergeblase fiir Unterwind- 
feuerungen). Werner ^Iu^er. Zeit. fiir Dampfkessel 
u. Maschinenbetrieb, vol. 44, no. 36, Sept. 9, 1921, 
pp. 2S1-284. 12 figs. Details of the Foge propeller 
blower based on design of airplane propellers. 
Discusses shape of propeller and housing, speed, 
power consumption and efficiency. Installation 
in forced-draft furnaces. 

BOILER FEEDWATER 

Concentration, Control of. Priming and Control 
of Boiler Water Concentration. Geo. C. Cook. 
Power Plant Eng., vol. 25, no. 20, Oct. 15, 1921, 
pp. 9S6-9SS. Discusses limit of impurities in feed- 
water and methods of controUng degree of con- 
centration. 

BOILER FIRING 

Fuel Saving in. Fuel Saving in Relation to Capital 
Necessary. Joseph Harrington. Mech. Eng., vol. 43, 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



77 



no. 11, Nov. 1921. pp. 725-726, 2 figs. Investigation 
shows economy resulting from use of efficiency 
equipment. Concrete illustrations given in support 
of theory discussed. (Abstract.) 
Refined Fuel. Practical Experience*? in Boiler Firing 
with Refined Fuels (Praktische Erfahrangen im 
Dampfkesselbetrieb mit veredelten Brennstoffen). 
H. Morgner. Zeit. fur Dampfkessel u. Maschinen- 
betrieb, vol. 44. no. 3."?, Aug. 19, 1921, pp.^ 257-259. 
Notes on use of pulverized coal, and mixtures of 
anthracite and lignite. 

BOILER PLANTS 

Efficient Operation. Boiler-Plant Efficiency, Victor 
J. Azbe. Mech. Eng.. vol. 43. no. 11. Nov. 1921. 
pp. 722-724 and 726. 5 figs. Usual wastes in boiler 
plants are brought out by means of tables and curves 
of boiler performance compiled from large number of 
observations. Shows to what extent these wastes 
are preventable or can be made to balance each other, 
and recommends standard for boiler operation toward 
which designers and operators may aim. Require- 
ments of ideal boiler installation are summar- 
ized. 

Oil-Burning. High-Pressure Oil-Burning Installa- 
tion. Power, vol. 54. no. 17. Oct. 25, 1921. pp. 
622-624, 5 figs. Boiler plant of Fall River Electric 
Light Co. converted from coal to oil burning. 

Winabledon Electrical Works. The New Boiler 
House Plant at Wimbledon Electricity Works. 
Eng. & Indus. Management, vol. 6, no. 15, Oct. 13, 
1921. pp. 402-403. 1 fig. Consists of two Spearing 
horizontal water-tube boilers, each having actual 
evaporative capacity of 25.000 lb. per hr. with over- 
load capacity for 8 hr. of 25 per cent above full load. 
Details of drive and feed pump. 

BOILERS 

Design and Settings. Boiler' Equipment at River 
Rouge Plant of the Ford Motor Company, George 
T. Ladd. Proc. Engineers' Soc. of Western Pa., 
vol. 37, no. 3, April 1921, pp. 115-148 and (dis- 
cussion) 149-157, 17 figs. Discusses design of boilers 
and settings. Discussion of powdered coal equip- 
ment and superheater equipment by H. D. Savage 
and J. R. Le Vally, respectively. 

Flanging Methods. Special Methods of Boiler 
Flanging, George A. Richardson. Boiler Maker, 
vol. 21. no. 10. Oct. 1921. pp. 281-2S3, 8 figs. Hand 
flanging and sectional presses used for irregular 
shapes in boiler and tank fabrication. 

BOILERS, WATER-TUBE 

Advantages. The Advantages of Water Tube 

Boilers. James Kemnal. Mar. Eng. of Can., vol. 

11, no. 9, Sept. 1921. pp. 22-23. Describes various 

cases where cylindrical boilers were replaced by water 

tube boilers. 

BONUS SYSTEMS 

Practical Application. Practical Application of the 
Bonus System for Increased Production (Delia 
practica applicazione del sistema del premio di 
maggior produzione nelle officine del materiale 
fisso di Pontassieve), Giorgio Lasz. Rivista Tec- 
nica delle Ferrovie Italiane, vol. 22, no. 2, Aug. 15. 
1921, pp. 66-70. Describes experience with Rowan 
piece work system at an Italian railroad shop. 

BRAKES 

Air, Westinghouse. New Tests of the Westinghouse 
Continuous Air Brake (Nouveaux essais du frein 
continu syst^me "Westinghouse"). M. T6te. Revue 
G^nerale des Chemins de Fer et des Tramways, 
vol. 40. no. 7. July 1921, pp. 22-50. 8 figs. Results of 
tests in France by commission appointed by Minister 
of Public Works are entirely satisfactory. 

Automotive Engine. Motor Brakes (Motorbrem- 
sen), C. Wirsum. Motorwagen, vol. 24, no. 27, 
Sept. 30. 1921, pp. 600-605, 12 figs. Investigations 
of the braking effect of automotive engines and 
recommendations for design. Results of tests with 
Saurer brakes. 

BRASS FOUNDRIES 

Cast Ingots. The Casting of Brass Ingots, R. 
Genders. Metal Industry (Lond.), vol. 19. no. 14, 
Sept. 30, 1921. pp. 261-262. 2 figs. Describes 
experiments carried out to minimize occurrence of 
non-metallic inclusions. 

BRONZES 

Antimony, Influence of. The Influence of Anti- 
mony in Bronze (Der Einfluss des Antimons ira 
Rotguss), J. Czochralski. Zeit. fur Metallkunde, 
vol. 13, no. 9, June 1921, pp. 276-281, S figs. In- 
vestigation of influence of antimony additions up 
to 3 per cent on mechanical properties of bronze 
with and without lead. It is shown that with 
antimony content up to 0.3 per cent with 5 per cent 
lead content the treatment and casting of bronze is 
favorably influenced. 

Arsenic, Influence of. The Influence of Arsenic in 
Bronze (Der Einfluss des Arscns im Rotguss) , 
J. Czochralski. Zeit. fiir Metallkunde, vol. 13, 
no. 11. Aug. 1921, pp. 380-383. 10 figs. Investiga- 
tion of influence of additions of up to 2 per cent of 
arsenic on mechanical properties of bronze with and 
without lead. It is shown that with arsenic content 
of up to 3 per cent with 5 per cent lead content the 
casting of bronze is favorably influenced. 

Cold-Drawing, Effect of. The Effect of Progressive 
Cold-Drawing Upon Some of the Physical Properties 
of Low-Tin Bronze. W. E. Alkins and W. Cartwright. 
Metal Industry (Lond.), vol. 19. no. 15, Oct. 7, 
1921, pp. 280-285 and (discussion) p. 286, 7 figs. 
Gives results of experiments showing variation during 
cold-drawing of the three properties: tensile strength, 
specific volume and scleroscope hardness. Describes 
characteristics of individual curves. Paper read 
before Inst, of Metals. 



CABLES, HOISTING 

Metal. Metal Cables For Winding Engines (Les 
cables d'extraction metalliques ronds). M. Durnerin. 
Revue de I'lndustrie Min^rale. no. IS, Sept. 15, 1921, 
pp. 579-599, 5 figs. Discusses construction, choice 
of steels, effect of torsion, elasticity of cables and 
its parts, calculation of cross-sections, and describes 
a patented automatic "anti-torsion" which increases 
life of cable. 

CAR LIGHTING 

Gas and Electric. Railway Car Lighting, George E. 
Hulse. Trans. Illuminating Eng. Soc, vol. 16, no. 
5. July 20. 1921, pp. 99-110 and (discussion) 110-116. 
Discusses gas and electric lighting, reflectors, and 
glassware. 

CAR SHOPS 

Equipment. Kanchrapara Carriage and Wagon 
Works. Eastern Bengal Railwav. Rv. Gaz., vol. 35. 
no. 17, Oct. 21. 1921, pp. 59S-000. 12 figs., partly 
on pp. 601-604. A scientifically designed Jayout, 
together with up-to-date machine, etc., equipment, 
combine to make Kanchrapara works of special 
interest. 

CARS 

Couplers. Measures for the Solution of the Coupling 
Problem for Main and Narrow-Gage Lines (Massnah- 
men zur Losung der Kupphingsfrage fiir Haupt- 
und Kleinbahnen), H. Scharfenberg. Glasers An- 
nalen, vol. 89. nos. 3 and 4. Aug. 1 and 15. 1921. 
pp. 27-32 and 37-42 and (discussion) pp. 42-44, 
19 figs. Discusses development and different coup- 
ling systems. Address before German Mech. Eng, 
Soc. 

Dining. Great Northern Train Service Between 
London and West Riding of Yorkshire. Ry. Gaz., 
vol. 35. no. 17. Oct. 21, 1921, pp. 607-610, 9 figs,, 
partly on pp. 605-606. Describes new rolling stock 
built on twin bogie principle, with an articulated 
dining car train, embodying various improvements, 
including electric cooking. 

Pressed Metal Parts. The Use of Pressed Parts in 
Car and Locomotive Construction (Die Verwendung 
von Pressteilen im Waggon- und Lokomotivbau), 
W. Loewe. Glasers Annalen. vol. 89, no. 3. Aug. 1. 
1921. pp. 32-36, 12 figs. Describes production of 
pressed metal parts and suggests means of overcom- 
ing difficulties in connection with their adoption. 
Among their advantages over cast parts are men- 
tioned, greater safety, elimination of use of copper, 
and adaptability to standardization. 

CARS, PASSENGER 

Design. On the Question of Passenger Carriages. 
E. Biard. Bulletin International Ry. Assn., vol. 
3, no. 9, Sept. 1921, pp. 1205-1274. Discusses 
safety and comfort, types of construction and general 
design of carriages, component parts, chief devices 
and various accessories of underframe and body. 
Appendixes. 

CARS. REFRIGERATOR 

Milk Tanks, Use of. The Use of Car Tanks for 
Transporting Milk. Ry. Rev., vol. 79. no. 17, Oct. 
22, 1921, pp. 543-544; 2 figs. Describes equipment 
of B. & O. R.R. for transporting milk in bulk in 
refrigerator cars fitted with glass-lined tanks. 

CARBURETORS 

Kerosene. Carburetors for Kerosene (Les Carbura- 
teurs a Petrole), A. Mariage. Memoirs et Compte 
Rendu des Travaux de la Soci6te des Ingenieurs 
Civils de France, vol. 74, no. 4-5-6, April-June 1921, 
pp. 279-290, 3 figs. Expresses the views of Com- 
pagnie Generale des Omnibus of Paris and gives 
results of their experiments. 

CASTING 

Centrifugal. Control of Centrifugal Casting by 
Calculation, Robert F. Wood. Mech. Eng., vol. 
43, no. 11, Nov. 1921, pp. 727-728 and 730, 2 figs. 
Analyzes controlling factors, with view first of setting 
down definite mathematical relations between them, 
and secondly so expressing these relations as to make 
them useful both in design and operation of machines 
for casting. (Abstract.) 

Melts Metal For Pipe in the Mold. E. C. Kreutz- 
berg. Foundry, vol. 49. no. 19, Oct. 1, 1921. pp. 
772-774, 6 figs. Centrifugal casting process de- 
veloped by L. Cammen uses an electrically heated 
mold. Aluminum tubing made by this process which 
will be developed for casting steel. 

CASTINGS 

Molds, Plaster. Permanent Molds, Edward D. 
Gleason. Metal Industry (N. Y.), vol. 19, no. 10, 
Oct. 1921. pp. 391-393. Description of methods of 
making plaster molds for finished castings to ehm- 
inate machining operations. 

Non-Ferrous. Producing Small Nonferrous Castings. 
Raymond H. SuUivan. Can. Foundryman, vol. 
12, no. 10. Oct. 1921. pp. 30-32, 2 figs. Discusses 
daily production of a large number of small duplicate 
castings and method adopted. Paper read at Foun- 
dry men's Convention. 

CENTRAL STATIONS 

Blackburn, England. New Electricity Generating 
Station at Blackburn. Engineer, vol. 132, no. 3434, 
Oct. 21. 1921, pp. 416-420, 8 figs. Station contains 
two turbo-alternators, each of 10.000 kw. capacity. 
Details of coal- and ash-handUng plant; boiler 
plant; cooling towers; switchgear, transformers, etc. 

Cotton Industry. Value of Central Station Service 
in the Cotton Industry, F. E. Sawyer and H. E. 
Duren. Nat. Elec. Light Assn. Bui., vol. 8, no. 10, 



Oct. 1921, pp. 586-590. Describes some mills that 
have changed from own power production to pur- 
chased power and its advantages. 

CHAIN DRIVE 

Silent. The Application and Manufacture of Silent 
Chain. J. Edward Schipper. Automotive Industries, 
vol. 45. no. 16, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 773-778. 18 figs. 
Manufacture of chain parts, their assembly and 
inspection, is outlined. 

CHROMIUM STEEL 

Bibliography. A Bibliography and Abstract of 
Chromium Steels, F. P. Zimmerli. Chem. & Met. 
Eng.. vol. 25. no. 18, Nov. 2, 1921. pp. 837-843. 
Chronological arrangement of some of the principal 
papers on chromium and chromium alloy steels 
published during the period 1798 to 1919, with brief 
summary of their scope. 

CLUTCHES 

Manufacture and Assembly. The Manufacture 
and Assembly of a Cork Insert Disk Clutch, J. 
Edward Schipper. Automotive Industries, vol. 45, 
no. 17, Oct. 27. 1921, pp. 823-826, 13 figs. Descrip- 
tion of machining and assembly operations on Hud- 
son and Essex clutches. 

COAL HANDLING 

Screening and Loading Installation. Screening 
and Loading Installation of the Boekit-Asem An- 
thracite Mine at Tandjoeng in Sumatra (Kolenzeef- 
en laadinrichting voor de Boekit-Asem-steenkolen- 
mignen te Tandjoeng op Sumatra), A. Guvot Van 
Der Ham. Ingenieur, vol. 36, no. 39. Sept. 24, 1921. 
pp. 772-774, 3 figs. Constructed by Baum Machine 
Works. Heme, Westfalia. Details of arrangement 
and equipment. 

COKE 

Uses. Production, Distribution, and Uses of Coke, 
E. W. L. Nicol. Gas Jl.. vol. 156, no. 3047, Oct. 5, 
1921, pp. 37-38. Discusses use of coke as fuel and 
adapting boiler furnaces to coke. See also Iron & 
Coal Trades Rev., vol. 103, no. 2796, Sept. 30, 1921, 
p. 471. 

COMBUSTION 

Equations. Combustion Equations (Die Gleichungen 
des Verbrennungsvorganges), R. Mollier. Zeit. 
des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 65, no. 42, 
Oct. 15. 1921, pp. 1095-1096. The stoichiometrical 
ratios for inconiplete combustion are developed. 

High-Pressure. Gaseous Combustion at High 
Pressures — II, William Arthur Bone and William 
Arthur Haward. Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. 100. no. A 
702. Oct. 4, 1921. pp. 67-84. 7 figs. Further ex- 
periments to determine a direct relation between the 
actual rate at which potential energy is transferred 
on explosion as sensible heat to its products and the 
magnitude of chemical aflSnity between its com- 
bining constituents. 

Initial Temperatures. Initial Temperatures with 
Heated Combustion Air (Ueber Anfangstempera- 
turen mit erhitzter Verbrennungsluft), Otto H. 
Binder. Feuerungstechnik, vol. 9, no. 23, Sept. 1, 
1921, pp. 219-220. 1 fig. Presents formula used by 
author for calculation of initial temperatures. 

CONDENSERS, STEAM 

New Type High-Efficiency. Steam-Condensing 

Plants. Paul A. Bancel. Mech. Eng., vol. 43, no. 11, 
Nov. 1921. pp. 711-716 and 758. 14 figs. Detailed 
consideration of fixed and operating charges in sur- 
face-condenser installations, and description of 
new type of high-efficiency condenser. 

CONVEYORS 

Pulverized Materials. Pulverized-Material Con- 
veyor System. Power, vol. 54, no. 17, Oct. 25, 
1921. pp. 628-629, 4 figs. Describes the Fuller- 
Kinyon conveying system for pulverized material, 
comprising a power-driven pump, function of which 
is to start the mass in motion; source of compressed- 
air supply and a pipe through which material flows. 

Types. Mechanical Handling and Conveying of 
Materials, Richard P. Terry. Mech. World, vol. 
70. nos. 1814 and 1815, Oct. 7 and 14.1921, pp. 
293-294 and 301-302. Oct. 7: Discusses bucket 
elevators and worm or Archimedean screw con- 
veyors. Oct. 14: Discusses band, Zimmer. gravity 
and pneumatic conveyors. Paper read before 
Belfast Assn. of Engrs. 

[See also ASH HANDLING, Conveyor.] 

COOLING TOWERS 

Investigation. Investigation of Chimney Cooling 
Towers (Die Beurteilung von Kaminkuhiern), 
Kurt Neumann. Zeit. des Vereines deutscher In- 
genieure, vol. 65, no. 41, Oct. 8. 1921. pp. 1070-1074, 
3 figs. Thermodynamic investigation of phenomena 
occurring in chimney cooling towers. Equation is 
derived for determination of temperatures of the hot 
and recooled water dependent upon operating con- 
ditions. Gives results of tests on high-capacity cool- 
ing towers in industrial operation. 

COPPER ALLOYS 

Cupro-Nickel. Manufacture of Cupro-Nickel, Her- 
bert D. Swift. Metal Industry (N. Y.), vol. 19, 
no. 10, Oct. 1921. pp. 394-395. Description of 
process going in regular order from casting to packing. 

CORROSION 

Electrolytic. Electrolytic Corrosion of Lead Thal- 
lium Alloys, Colin G. Fink and Charles H. Eldndge. 
Am. Electrochem. Soc, advance paper, no. 26. for 
meeting Sept. 29-Oct. 1. 1921, pp. 335-344, 4 figs. 
Shows that addition of thallium to lead alloys has 
been very effective in reducing anodic corrosion in 
acid copper sulphate electrolyte containing nitric 
and hydrochloric acids. 



78 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. I 



Heating System. Preventing Corrosion in Heating 
Systems, Perry West. Domestic Eng. (Chicago), 
vol. 97, no. 2. Oct. 8, 1921, pp. 50-53 and 82-84, 4 
figs. Describes deo-xidizing and de-aerating methods. 

COST ACCOTJNTINQ 

Classiacation of Surplus. Classification of Surplus, 

C. B. Couchman. Jl. of .Accountancy, vol. 32, no. 4. 

Oct. 1921, pp. 2(;.5-278. Discusses various kinds of 

surpluses and their <lisplay in the accounts. Paper 

read before Am. Inst, of Accounts. 
Uniform Mill Systems. Uniform Mill Cost Systems, 

C. Oliver Wellington. Paper, vol. 29. no. 6, Oct. 

12, 1921, pp. 13-15. Discusses advantages of 

uniformity in cost accounting. 

COSTS 

Material, Recording. The Recording of Material 
Costs E. W. Workman. Eng. & Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. G. no. 16, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 426-427. 
Describes method of dealing with material charges 
which has been found to work exceptionally well in 
large engineering firm using Hollerith system for 
dealing with its labor and overhead expenses. 

CRANES 

Bridge. New Type of liridge Crane for Handling 
Sand and Gravel, W. A. Scott. Cem., Mill & Quarry, 
vol. 19, no. 8, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 27-28, 2 figs. Has 
max length of 184 ft.; clamshell bucket has capacity 
of 3 yd.: carriage speed, 800 ft. per min.; bucket 
speed, 200 ft. 

Locomotive. Crane Operated on a Railroad Truck 
(Grue pivotante sur wagon a voie normale). Bulle- 
tin Technique de la Suisse Romande, vol. 47, no. 20, 
Oct. 1, 1921, pp. 229-234, 3 figs. Carrying capacity 
of cranes 10-12 tons, radius of action 6 m. Trucks 
are of special construction. 

CRANKCASES 

Malleable-Iron. Crank Cases Made of Malleable 
Iron. Foundry, vol. 49, no. 19, Oct. 1, 1921, pp. 
7i;2-766, 10 figs. An extensive series of experiments 
in molding and in subsequent heat treatment was 
9 required before castings were produced on a com- 
mercial basis. 

CUTTING METALS 

Universal Oxygen-Jet. .\ Universal Oxygen-Jet 
Cutting Machine. Eng. Production, vol. 3, no. 56, 
Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 395-397, 3 figs. Details and uses 
of machine by Godfrey Eng. Works, London. 



DROP FORGING 

Modern Practice. Modem Drop-forging Practice, 
Fred R. Daniels. Machy. (N. Y.), vol. 28, no. 3. 
Nov. 1921, pp. 21.3-217, 8 figs. Comparison of 
drop forgings and castings, and general methods of 

making them. 

DYNAMOMETERS 

British Traction. A New British Traction Dynamom- 
eter. .\utomotive Industries, vol. 45. no. 18, 
Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 860-861, 3 figs Description of 
recording instrument designed especially for use in 
tractor trials; registers drawbar pull, time, and dis- 
tance covered. 



D 



DIES 

Automobile Parts. Making Dies for Forming Auto- 
mobile Parts. Richard Dale. Iron Age, vol. 108. no. 
18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 1127-1129, 10 figs. Explains 
design and construction for manufacture of such 
articles as brake drums and step brackets. 

Carburetor Bowl. Drawing Dies for Manufacturing 
a Carburetor Bowl, N. T. Thurston. Machy. 
(N. y.), vol. 28, no. 3. Nov. 1921, pp. 218-221, 11 
figs. Shows how substantial saving was effected by 
drawing and forming carburetor bowl on power 
presses. Describes successive operations. 

Self-Opening Dieheads. Making the Coventry 
Self-Opening Diehead. Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 
17, Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 678-681, 15 figs. Materials 
tested in an up-to-date laboratory; parts inspected 
and sent to storeroom for reissue after each operation. 
Work carried -out in self-contained factory at Edg- 
wick, Coventry, England. 

Shaving Tools. Notes on the Design of Shaving 
Tools Hugo F. Pusep. Am. Mach., vol. 55, nos. 
16 and 17, Oct. 20 and 27, 1921, pp. 624-626 and 
686-689, 18 figs. Second operation necessary to 
obtain accuracy of size and contour. Discusses 
three general classes of shaving tools. 

Wire-Drawing, Diamond. Diamond Dies for Wire 
Drawing, C. W. Busick. Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 
18 Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 703-705, 7 figs. How dies are 
lapped and tested for size. Automatic lapping 
machines for this work. 

DIESEL ENGINES 

Combustion in. Explosion and Internal-Combustion 
Engines (Moteurs a Explosion et a Combustion In- 
terne) F. Huard. Arts et Metiers, vol. 74, no. 11, 
August 1921, pp. 242-246, 2 figs. Discusses com- 
bustion in Diesel and semi-Diesel engines. (Con- 
cluded.) 

Marine. A New Nelseco Diesel Engine. Motorship, 
vol. 6, no. 10. Oct. 1921, pp. 798-801, 10 figs. De- 
tails of 600-b.hp. marine Diesel engine designed for 
electric and direct drives, built by New London 
Ship & Engine Co., Groton, Conn. Fuel con- 
sumption at 25 per cent overload is 0.42 lb. per b.hp. 
Building Marine Diesel Engines. Eng. Produc- 
tion vol. 3,- nos. 53 and 54, Oct. 6 and 13, 1921, pp. 
321-325 and 349-352, 21 figs. Methods and equip- 
ment of the North British Diesel Engine Works, 
Ltd., at Glasgow, founded in 1913 for purpose of 
developing marine Diesel engine up to 12,000 hp. 

The Marine Diesel Engine: Its Reliability in 
Service, Andrew J. Brown. Trans. Inst. Mar. 
Engrs.. vol. 33, Sept. 1921, pp. 279-307 and (dis- 
cussion) 307-325, 7 figs. Discusses the various 
parts of engine from the standpoint of showing how 
reliability is ensured. 

Worthington Solid-Injection. The Worthington 
Solid-Injection Diesel Power, vol. 54, no. 18, 
Nov. 1, 1921, pp. 675-677, 3 figs. Engine operating 
on Diesel cycle without air injection. Novel means 
employed to secure combustion at constant pressure 
with pump feed. 



E 



ELECTRIC DRIVE 

Fabric Printing Machines. Electric Drive for 
Fabric Printing Machines (Commande ^'•lectrique 
des machines a imprimer les tissus). Louis Orosheintz. 
La Technique Moderne, vol. 13, no. 2, Feb. 1921, 
pp. 71-74, 4 figs. Shows that d.c. drive is most 
suitable. 

Lumber Mills. Application of Electrical Energy in 
Lumber .Mills. W. A. Scott. Elec. Rev. (Chicago), 
vol. 79, no. 19, Nov. 5, 1921, pp. 685-688, 6 figs. 
Saws, conveyors and other units driven by belted and 
direct-connected motors; special requirements pe- 
culiar to lumber industry; mill refuse as fuel to 
generate electric power. 

ELECTRIC FURNACES 

Gray-Iron Castings. Gray Iron Castings from 
Electric ' Furnaces, Thomas Robson Hay. Iron 
.\ge, vol. 108. no. 19, Nov. 10, 1921. pp. 1214-1215. 
Present electric practice and advantages over 
older method. Comparative cost. 
Induction. A New Electric Induction Furnace 
(Nouveau four dlectrique a induction), H. Vigneron. 
La Nature, no. 2475, Sept. 10, 1921, pp. 163-165, 
5 figs. Describes Northrup system and its appli- 
cations. 
Iron Industry. Electric Furnace Possibilities in the 
Western Iron Industry, R. C. Gosrow. Jl. Elec- 
tricity & Western Industry, vol. 47, no. 7, Oct. 1, 
1921, pp. 265-266. Analysis of opportunities open 
to the electric furnace in the Western iron industry, 
with data on costs. 
Repelling-Arc Type. Something New in Electric 
Furnaces. E. F. Cone. Sci. Am., vol. 125, no. 14, 
Oct. 1, 1921, p. 229, 1 fig. Describes repelling-arc 
type of furnace having a self-regulating, flaming arc 
torch. 
Superheating Iron. Superheating Iron Electrically, 
George K. Elliott. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 69, no. 16, 
Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 1007-1011. States that by using 
basic-lined electric furnace in conjunction with 
cupola, high-temperature iron can be produced, 
desulphurization can be accomplished easily and 
impurities closely controlled. Compares composi- 
■ tion and strength. Paper presented under auspices 
of Am. Foundrymen's Assn. before Instn. British 
Foundrymen. 
ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES 

Characteristics. Characteristics of the Electric 
Locomotive, N. W. Stored Jl. Franklin Inst., 
vol. 192, no. 4, Oct. 1921, pp. 453-467, 8 figs. Deals 
with d.c. and a.c. locomotives, and regenerative 
braking. 
Comparison with Steam. Some Mechanical Char- 
acteristics of High-Speed, High-Power Locomotives, 
A W. Gibbs. Jl. Franklin Inst., vol. 192, no. 4, 
Oct. 1921, pp. 469-495, 26 figs. Deals principally 
with results of comparative trial of steam and electric 
locomotives made in 1907 to secure information in 
connection with design of electric locomotives for 
Pennsylvania terminal in New York. 
Control Equipment. Electrical Considerations 
Which Govern in a Choice of Locomotives for Any 
Given Class of Service, H. H. Johnston. Coal Age, 
vol. 20, no. 18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 717-719, 4 figs. 
Locomotives with dynamic-braking controllers 
deliver current on descending grades and must 
have additional motor capacity. Series-and-parallel 
control vs. series-parallel control. 
German. New Electric Passenger-Train Locomotives 
for the Silesian Mountain Railway (Neue elektrische 
Personenzug-Lokomotiven fiir die Schlesischen 
Gebirgsbahnen), H. Loewentraut. Elektrische 
Kraftbetriebe u. Bahnen, vol. 19, no. 17, Sept. 10, 
1921, pp. 201-203. 2 figs. Specifications: Gage, 
1435 mm.; driving-wheel diam.; 1250 mm.; leading 
wheel diam., 1000 mm.; max. speed, 90 km. per hr.; 
contact line voltage, 15,000 volts; frequency, l&% 
periods. 
Midi Railway, France. Mechanical .•\spects of the 
New p^lectric Double-Bogie Locomotives of the Midi 
Railroad in France [Sur les dispositions mecaniques 
d'ensemble des nouvelles locomotives ^lectriques 
a deux bogies moteurs (type de la compagnie des 
chemins de fer du Midi)], Fernand Broussouse. 
Le Technique Moderne, vol. 13. no. 3, March 1921, 
pp. 97-101, 12 figs. Discusses French and American 
suspensions, interchangeability and balancing of 
Midi bogies, etc. 
Selection. Mechanical and Engineering Considera- 
tions Determining the Selection of an Electric 
Locomotive, H. H. Johnston. Coal Age, vol. 20, 
no. 17, Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 679-681, 5 figs. Dis- 
cusses mine-haulage equipment and their specifica- 
tions, locomotives, speed, and weight of rail. 

ELECTRIC PLANTS 

Bangor, Me. Remodeling Plant to Increase Rating, 
Phifer Smith. Elec. World, vol. 78, no. 17, Oct. 22, 
1921 pp. 815-818, 5 figs. Describes new construc- 



tions at Veazie power plant of Bangor (Me.) Ry. & 
Electric Co., including four new units of 1,800 kw. 
capacity each. 

Blackburn, England. Electricity Supply in Black- 
burn. Electrician, vol. 87. no. 2267, Oct. 28, 1921, 
pp. 536-539. ;i figs. Describes coal and ash handling 
plants, boiler house, turbo-alternators (two 10,000 
kw. each driving 6,600-volt 50-period three-phasfr 
alternators), and auxiliaries of new power station. 

Edinburgh. New Electricity Station at Edinburgh, 
S. B. Donkin. Electrician, vol. 87, no. 2263, Sept. 
30, 1921, p. 407. Describes equipment, including 
generating plant, sea work pumps, shafts and tunnels. 
H. T. three-phase current; ultimate capacity 100,000 
kw. (.Abstract.) Paper read before British Assn. 

England. Recent Extensions at Sunderland. Elec- 
trician, vol. 87. no. 2263, Sept. 30, 1921, pp. 414-415, 
4 figs. Describes turbo-alternator, motor generators,, 
busbar and switchboard construction of Corporation 
Generating Works. 

Large Units. Some Notes on Large Electric Units,. 
Stanley Parker Smith. Electrician, vol. 87, no. 
2262. Sept. 23. 1921, pp. 378-380, 5 figs. Discusses 
prime movers, a.c. and d.c. production, converters, 
mercury rectifiers, etc. (Abstract.) Paper read 
before British Assn. 

London Underground Railways. Chelsea Power 
Station — London Underground Railways. Tram- 
way & Ry. World, vol. 50, no. 20, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 
185-189, 5 figs. Describes new equipment installed, 
including 15,000-kw. turbo-alternators, condensing; 
water plant, etc. 

Small. Economies in Operation of Small Power 
Plants. E. S. Hight. Elec. Rev., (Chicago), vol. 79. 
no. 16, Oct. 15, 1921, pp. 573-576, 3 figs. Dis- 
cusses selection of coal, reduction of air leakage and 
radiation losses, engine room economies, etc. Ex- 
tracts from paper before Iowa section of N.E.L.A. 

Steel Works, Rumania. Operating Experiences with 
the Electric Plants of the Resita Steel Works (Ru- 
mania) (Einige Betriebserfahrungen mit den elek- 
trischen Anlagen der Eisenwerke in Resita), Erick 
Beck Elektrische Kraftbetriebe u. Bahnen, vol. 
19, no. 19, Oct. 10, 1921, pp. 225-228, 2 figs. Cur- 
rent is supplied from three power plants; viz., one 
hydroelectric station, one blast-furnace-gas engine 
plant, and one 2500-kw. steam turbine, all supplying 
a single network with 5000-volt three-phase current 
with frequency of 20.8 periods. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 

Italy. Valtellina Railway is Extended, E. Huld- 
schiner. Elec. Ry. Jl.. vol. 58, no. 19, Nov. 5, 
1921, pp. 816-817. 1 fig. Discusses new trolley 
suspension and new locomotive; tests show satis- 
factory operation. Translated from Elektrotech- 
nische Zeit. 

Ore-Carrying, Chile. A Visit to the Tofo Mine of 
the Bethlehem Chile Iron Mines Co. (Una visita al 
mineral del Tofo de la Bethlehem Chile Iron Mines. 
Co.), Ricardo Solar Puga. Anales del Instituto de 
Ingenieros de Chile, vol. 21, no. 6, June 1921, pp. 
397-403, 8 figs. Describes first electric railroad in 
Chile used for ore carrying. Locomotives are of 
1200 hp. d.c. 2400 volt. 

Third-Rail System. Experiences of Northwestern 
Pacific Ry. with Third Rail System, C. E. Hatch. 
Eng. & Contracting, vol. 56, no. 16, Oct. 19, 1921, 
p 380 Experiences in operation of 37 mi. of electri- 
fied track on which third-rail system is employed. 
Notes on how contact rail is supported; protections; 
at crossings and stations; method of carrying feeders; 
and maintenance cost. (Abstract.) Paper read 
before Pac. Ry. Club. 

ELECTRIC WELDING, ARC 

Rail Joints. Arc Welded Rail Joints. Welding 
Engr , vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 27-32, 13 figs. 
Discusses welding rail joints by the Detroit street-car- 
system and tests made. 

ELEVATORS 

Electrical Troubles. Locating Electrical Trouble 
on Elevators. William Zepernick. Power, vol. 54,. 
no. 20. Nov. 15, 1921, pp. 755-757, 14 figs. Grounds 
short circuits and open circuits defined. Methods ot 
grounding power systems. Examples given on how 
to locate electrical faults on controller equipment. 

EMPLOYEES 

Thrift Encouragement by Employers. Thrift 
Encouragement by Employers— V, Leonhard Felix 
Fuld Indus. Management, vol. 62, no. 5, Nov. 1921, 
pp ''87-289 Points out that investment companies, 
appear to be ideal thrift encouragement plan for 
workers, as they furnish a thrift encouragement 
vehicle for each class of worker. 

EMPLOYEES, TRAINING OF 

Selection and. Industrial Training and Selection of 
Personnel. C. R. Dooley. Chem. & Met. Eng vol 
25 no. 15. Oct. 12, 1921, pp. 692-695. Outline o - 
basic principles underlying modern methods ol 
selecting and training employees, and some helpluL 
suggestions for solving personnel problems. 

ENAMELING 

Steel Containers. Enamel-Lined Apparatus, Chester 
H. Jones. Chem. & Met. Eng., vol 25, no 20, 
Nov 16 1921, pp. 927-932, 17 figs. Plant of Elyria 
Enameled Products Co. at Elyria, Ohio, engages in 
manufacture of enameled equipment for service 
in many varieties of plant processing; steel and cast- 
iron containers; burning equipment; composition and 
properties oftenamels; control and management of 
operations. 

EVAPORATORS 

Design. An Improvement in Evaporator Design,. 
Robert V. Cook. Chem. Age (N. Y.). vol. 29, no. 10.. 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



79 



Oct. 1921, pp. 409-410. 1 fig. Describes the criss- 
cross evaporator. 
Testa. Result of Operations With Some Evaporators 
(Resultats de marche de quelques appaieils d'evapor- 
ation), M. Depasse. Bui. de I' Association des 
Chimistes de Sucrerie et de Distillerie. vol. 38. no. 10, 
April 1921, pp. 383-104 and (discussion) 407-409, 
2 figs. Gives test data with two-stage, three-stage, 
and four-stage evaporators. 



FACTORIES 

Hosiery. lip-to-the-Minute Design for New Hosiery 
Factory, H. P. Elliott. Contract Rec., vol. 35, no. 
45, Nov. 9, 1921. pp. 965-967. Plant of Holeproof 
Hosiery Co. of Canada. Ltd., London, Ont., is said 
to combine every feature that will make employees 
comfortable and efficient. Details of heating and 
ventilating, boiler house, hot-water supply, water- 
softening plant, illuminating system, power trans- 
mission, telephone, electric time clocks, etc. 

Planning- Operations. Notes on the Preparation 
of Work Lay Outs, H. Varley. Eng. & Indus. 
Management, vol. 3, no. 57. Nov. 3. 1921, pp. 491- 
494, 9 figs. Writer enumerates points which should 
be carefully considered when a part is to be laid out in 
operations. 

Bubber Tires. Mechanical Features of Tire Factory. 
Iron Age, vol. 108, no. 20. Nov. 17, 1921. pp. 1259- 
1265, 8 figs. New Kelly-Springfield plant is said to 
have unusually complete interconnection of me- 
chanical services. Notes on tunnels, piping, wiring 
and communication. 

yACTOBY MANAGEMENT 

See INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT. 

FANS, CENTRIFUGAL 

Design. Controlling Factors in Fan Design, David 
Damn. Heat. & Vent. Mag., vol. 18, no. 10, Oct. 
1921, pp. 49-52. Discusses required capacities, 
available space and attendance, allowable first cost 
and operating, cost, etc., and gives table of present 
standards of fan design. 

Electrically Driven. Electrically Driven Centrififfeal 
Fans for Mine Ventilation. Mech. World, vol. 70. 
no. 1815, Oct. 14, 1921, pp. 303-304. Discusses 
characteristics of fans and motors, power require- 
ments, etc. 

Heaters and. Fans and Heaters. Charles L. Hubbard. 
Southern Engr., vol. 36. no. 2. Oct. 1921, pp. 44-49, 
12 figs. Working data for fans; fan drives; heaters; 
determining size of heater; heater arrangements; 
heater connections, ducts and flues. 

FATIGUE 

Industrial. Physiological Methods for Measuring 
Industrial Fatigue (Les Methodes Physiologiques 
actuelles d'e valuation de la Fatigue dite "Indus- 
trielle"), D. Gilbert. Annalesdes Mines de Belgique. 
vol. 22, no. 3, 1921. pp. 837-847, 1 fig. Concludes 
that present methods are not strictly applicable. 

Reduction. Reducing Fatigue in Tool Rooms, 
F. B. and L. M. Gilbreth. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 
69. no. 16. Oct. 20. 1921. pp. 1004-1006. 7 figs. 
Orderly arrangement of tools, conveniently placed 
shelves and drawers, and white surfaces tend to 
improve conditions in tool crib. Ample sunlight 
important. (Abstract.) Paper before Soc. Indus. 
Engrs. 

Tests. Fatigue Tests at Purdue University, George 
H. Shepard. Indus. Management, vol. 62, no. 5. 
Nov. 1921, pp. 281-286, 4 figs. How exertion and 
rest periods affect efficiency. Includes chart 
showing output in foot-pounds under certain con- 
ditions of work and rest periods. 

FILING SYSTEM 

Classification, Indexing and. Classification. Filing 
and Indexing System for Pulp and Paper Library. 
Carleton E- Curran. Paper, vol. 28, nos. 19, 20 and 
21, July 13. 20 and 27. 1921, pp. 9-11, 23 and 30, 
pp. 17-19 and pp. 17-18. Gives an adaptation of the 
Dewey classification. 

FLIGHT 

Soaring. Soaring Flight, L. Prandtl. Aviation, 
vol. 11, no. 16, Oct. 17, 1921. p. 459. 1 fig. Dis- 
cusses soaring of birds and possibilities of human 
soaring flight. Translated from Zeitschrift fur 
Flugtechnik und Motoriuftschiffahrt. July 30, 1921. 

Some Remarks Concerning Soaring Flight, L. 
Prandtl. Flight, vol. 13. no. 38. Sept. 22, 1921, 
pp. 633-634. LUiUzation of wind power in gliding 
planes. Translated from Zeitscrift fiir Flugtechnick 
und MotorluftschifTahrt, July 30. 

The Rhon Soaring Flight Contest 1921 (Rhon- 
Sefelflug-Wettbewerb 1921). Werner v. LangsdorfF. 
Zeit. fur Flugtechnik u. Motoriuftschiffahrt, vol. 12, 
no. IS, Sept. 30, 1921, pp. 278-281. List and data of 
competing machines and account of performances. 
Spinning Curves. Flight and Spinning Curves 
(Flug- und Trudelkurven), Ludwig Hopf. Zeit. 
fiir Flugtechnik u. Motoriuftschiffahrt, vol. 12.no. 18, 
Sept. 30. 1921. pp. 273-278. 9 figs. Discusses equi- 
librium in connection with stationary curve flight 
(spinning curve). 

FLOW OF AIR 

Phenomena. Flow Phenomena in Free Air Currents 
(Ueber die Stromungsvorgange), Walter Zimm. 
Forschungsarbeiten auf dem Gebiete des Ingenieur- 
wesens. no. 234, 1921. 36 pp., 31 figs. Investigation 
of flow phenomena in air currents of low velocity 
which are said to be of physical and technical im- 



portance. Description of experimental apparatus 
and results of experiments. 

FLOW OF FLUIDS 

Laminary Limit Flow. The Approximative In- 
tegration of the Differential Equation of the Lam- 
inary Limit Flow (Zur naherungsweisen Integration 
der Differentialgleichung der laminaren Grenz- 
schicht), K. Pohlhausen. Zeit. fiir angewandte 
Mathematik u. Mechanik, vol. 1. no. 4, Aug. 1921, 
pp. 252-268, 10 figs. An integration method is 
developed and examples are given to demonstrate 
its applicability. 

Laminary and Turbulent Friction. Laminary and 
Turbulent Friction (Ueber laminare und turbulente 
Reibung). th. v. Karmdn. Zeit. fiir angewandte 
Mathematik u. Mechanik, vol. 1. no. 4, .A.ug. 1921, 
pp. 23.3-252. 7 figs. Discusses theory of laminary 
friction of liquids and gases in pipes, in connection 
with which author seeks to explain from mathe- 
matical and physical viewpoint the basic principle 
of Prandtl's limit flow theory and suggests a method 
for simple mathematical calculation of even com- 
plicated cases: he seeks also to develop mathematical 
basis for turbulent friction. 

FLUE-GAS ANALYSIS 

Numerical Calculation. The Evaluation of Flue- 
Gas Analysis (Die Auswertung der Rauchgasanalysel, 
A. B. Helbig. Feuerungstechnik, vol. 9, no. 24. 
Sept. 15. 1921, pp. 229-234. Based on calculation 
of decomposition of alt combustible components of 
fuel with exception of carbon monoxide in atomic vol- 
umes, a formula applicable to all fuels is developed 
which permits an entirely new, simple and clear 
calculation of heat, according to which carbon loss is 
determined in purely mathematical manner, and 
which also permits a new criterion of fuels. 

Testing Apparatus. Apparatus for Testing Flue- 
Gas, John B. C. Kershaw. Combustion, vol. 5. 
no. 5, Nov. 1921, pp. 204-207 and 218, 9 figs. De- 
scribes seven gas-testing instruments which depend 
upon the measurement of some physical property of 
waste-gases, which also serves as an index of the 
amount of CO? contained in them. 

FORGE PLANTS 

Safety Guards in Shops. Using Safety Devices in 
Forge Shops. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 69, no. 19, 
Nov. 10. 1921. pp. 1216-1217, 6 figs. Describes 
simple and inexpensive guards which are being used 
in one shop. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Steam Power Plants, etc. Some Notes on Founda- 
tion Plans, Douglas Wilson. Mech. World, vol. 70, 
no. 1816. Oct. 21. 1921, pp. 327-328, 6 figs. Dis- 
cusses foundations for prime movers, steam power 
installations, steam turbines, concrete and rein- 
forcement. 

FOUNDRIES 

Equipment. Equipment Features Malleable Shop, 
H. E. Diller. Foundry, vol. 49, no. 20, Oct. 15, 
1921. pp. 805-813. 14 figs. Discusses changes made 
in conveying, melting and annealing at new foundry 
of Am. Chain Co.. York, Pa. 

Steel. Famous British Works. Eng. Production, 
vol. 3, no. 54. Oct. 13, 1921. pp. 338-339. 2 figs. 
Details of plant and equipment of steel foundry of 
Edgar Allen & Co., Ltd., Tinsley, for production 
of high-speed, carbon and alloy tool steels, special 
alloy steels for automobiles and aircraft, toughened 
steel castings for engineering and other purposes, 
dynamo magnet-steel castings. Imperial manganese 
steel, etc. 

Temperature Problems. Temperature Problems in 
Foundry and Melting Room. John P. Goheen. 
Trans, Am. Inst. Min. & Metallurgical Engrs., no. 
1105-N". 1921. 5 pp. Notes on pyrometer equipment 
for electric brass-melting furnace; special equipment 
for brazing brass; core-oven temperature control; 
and value of annealing. Abstract in Min. & Metal- 
lurgy, no. 179. Nov. 1921, p. 36. 

FUELS 

Gaseous. Gaseous Fuel in the Shipbuilding World, 
George Keillor. Gas JL, vol. 156. no. .3047. Oct. 5. 
1921. pp. 34-37. Discusses application in annealing, 
hardening and normalizing. Billet, plate and rivet 
heating; core and mold drying; fuel consumption. 
See also Iron & Coal Trades Rev., vol. 103, no. 2796, 
Sept. 30, 1921. pp. 476-478. 

Lumber Refuse. Consumers Central Heating Com- 
pany's New Hog-Fuel Burning Plant. Power, 
vol. 54, no. 20. Nov. 15, 1921, pp. 750-753, 6 figs. 
Hog fuel, consisting of sawdust, shavings, groundup 
edgings, slabs and trimmings, is purchased from 
lumber manufacturing plants for fuel. Three 
7.500-sq. ft. vertical water-tube boilers installed. 
Fuel delivered by barges and handled by 5-ton 
electric monorail-operated clamshell bucket to system 
of conveyors. 

Smokeless, Manufacture of. The Manufacture of 
Smokeless Fuel. Engineering, vol. 112, no. 2913, 
Oct. 28. 1921, pp. 596-601, 41 figs., partly on supp. 
plate; also Engineer, vol. 132, no. 3435, Oct. 28. 
1921, p. 464, 3 figs. Describes works of low Temp- 
erature Carbonization, Ltd., Barugh, England, which 
has 20 retorts in continuous service and are car- 
bonizing 36 tons of coal daily. Fuel produced is sort 
of semi-coke carrying only very small proportion of 
breeze, and is called coalite. 

[See also OIL FUEL; PULVERIZED COAL.] 

FURNACES, BOILER 

Forced-Draft Grates. New Forced-Draft Furnace 
Grate (Crux-Rost und -Ventisolotor), H. Pradel. 
Elefctrotechnischer Anzeiger, vol. 38. no. 153, Sept. 
27, 1921. pp. 1096-1098. 7 figs. Describes forced- 
draft grate and direct-operating mechanical induced- 



draft installations recently placed on market by 
Hans Cruse & Co., Berlin. 

FURNACES, HEATING 

Reheating. The Development and Perfection of the 

Reheating Furnace (Der Tiefherdofen, seine Ent- 

wicklung und Vervollkommnung), A. Sattraann. 

Feuerungstechnik. vol. 9, no. 23. Sept. 1, 1921, pp. 

217-219, 2 figs. Notes on operation and advantages 

of such furnaces. 

FURNACES, INDUSTRIAL 

Oil Burners. The "Rotamisor" Oil-Fuel Burner. 
Engineering, vol. 112. no. 2914, Nov. 4, 1921, pp. 
631-632, 4 figs. Describes burner constructed 
by Combustions, Ltd., Kingston-on-Thames, most 
interesting feature of which is said to be method 
adopted for atomization. It is being developed to 
all requirements from heating of small muffle furnaces 
for tempering, etc., to firing of large marine or sta- 
tionary boilers. 

FURNACES, METALLURGICAL 

Smelting. Smelting Furnace Practice with Regard 
to Different Construction Types and Present Con- 
ditions (Der Schmelzofenbetrieb unter Beruck- 
sichtigung der verschiedenen Ofenkonstruktionen und 
der heutigen Verhaltnisse), Carl Rein. Giesserei- 
Zeitung, vol. 18. nos. 22 and 23 Sept. 6 and 13. 1921. 
pp. 296-300 and 312-314. 12 figs. Author records 
his experiences since 1919, and discusses furnace 
systems, charging methods and devices, and removal 
of iron. Points out noticeable defects in present 
smelting practice and furnaces and offers suggestions 
for their elimination. Address before Assn. German 
Foundrymen. 

Tar-Oil-Fired. German Furnaces Fired with Tar- 
Oil. Kuenscher. Foundry, vol. 49. no. 19, Oct. 1, 
1921, pp. 770-771. (Abstract.) Paper read before 
Assn. of German Non-ferrous Metal Founders. 



GAGES 

Manufacturing Uses. The Need of Gauges for 
Modern Manufacturing, A. C. Wickman. Can. 
Machy., vol. 26. no. 13, Sept. 29, 1921. pp. 25-29, 
8 figs. Discusses the subject of gaging screws, and 
the checking of gages. 

McLeod. An Extension of the Range of the McLeod 
Gauge, A. H. Pfund. Physical Rev., vol. 18, 
no. 1, July 1921. pp. 78-82. 2 figs. The pressure of 
the gas forced into capillary is measured by means 
of a hot-wire gage. The ratio of compression being 
known, the time pressure can be determined. 

Precision. Precision Gauges, M. E. Kanek. Mech. 
Wodd. vol- 69. no. 1782, Feb. 25, 1921, pp. 139-141. 
Discusses 81-block sets, types on the market, effect 
of size on accuracy, material for gages, direct and 
comparative methods of measuring, etc. 

Snap. Systems of Gauging. Eng. Production, vol. 
3, no. 54. Oct. 13. 1921, pp. 345-346 2 figs. De- 
scribes an adjustable snap gage and setting microm- 
eter, which is said to be adaptable and inexpensive. 

GAS PRODUCERS 

Fuel Economy. Fuel Saving in Modern Gas Pro- 
ducers and Industrial Furnaces, W. B. Chapman. 
Mech. Eng,. vol. 43. no. 11. Nov. 1921, pp. 717-621, 
7 figs. Calls attention to fuel wastes in industries 
using gas producers and producer-gas furnaces, 
reviews progress in last 25 years in gas-producer 
construction, and describes distinctive type of re- 
cuperative furnace and extension of its use to pul- 
verized coal and oil. (Abstract.) 

GEAR CUTTING 

Gear Shapers. Production Shaping. Machy. (N. 

Y.), vol. 28, no. 3. Nov. 1921, pp. 18&-190. 10 figs. 

Use of shapers in production work in machine-tool 

building plants. 
Machines. An Improved Gear Generating Machine. 

Eng. Production, vol. 3, no. 57, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 

412^15. 7 figs. Details of novel design for helical, 

straight and internal gears. 

GEARS 

Erosion in High-Speed. Pitting in High-speed 
Gearing. Machinery (Lond.), vol. 19, no. 472, 
Oct. 13, 1921, pp. 50-51, 2 figs. Discusses new 
method developed to eliminate pitting or erosion 
in teeth of wheels. 

Hardening under Pressure. Hardening Gear 
Under Pressure. Eng. Production, vol. 3, no. 57, 
Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 426-427, 3 figs. Describes new 
method. 

Involute. The Evolution of the Involute Gear 
Tooth — VIII and IX, A. Fisher. Machinery 
(Lond.), vol. 19, nos. 474 and 475, Oct. 27 and Nov. 
3, 1921, pp. 101-103, 6 figs, and pp. 132-136, 7 figs. 
Involute pitch and pressure angle permutability. 

Non-Metallic. Design and Manufacture of Non- 
metallic Gears. Machinery (Lond.), vol. 19, no. 
471, Oct. 6, 1921. pp. 6-11, 12 figs. Discusses 
preparation of rawhide and fabric-base gear materials 
physical characteristics, design and machining of 
gear. 

Power-Transmission. Gear Tooth Problems (Bei- 
trag zur Zahnradfrage fur Uebersetzungsgetriebe), 
O. Lasche. Zeit. des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, 
vol. 65, no. 42, Oct. 15, 1921, pp. 1087-1088, 8 figs. 
Based on examples of gear teeth for marine and land 
installations, values for tooth loads and speeds are 
developed. Sliding conditions with standard and 
AEG (German Gen, Elec. Co.) teeth are compared. 
Suggests means of obtaining a neater and more 
accurate tooth. 



80 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



Spur. The Production of Spur Gears, R. Waiing- 
Brown. Eng. Production, vol. 3. no. 5.t, Oct. 20, 
1921, pp. .3(54-368. 8 figs, and (discussion), no. SB, 
Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 389-391. Comparison of modem 
methods. Paper presented before Instn. Production 
Engrs. 

Spur, Bobbed, Backlash in. Backlash in Hobbed 
Spur Gears, Carl G. Olson. Machy. (N. Y.), 
vol. 28. no. 3, Nov. 1921, pp. 222-224, 5 figs. 
Amount of backlash recommended to provide for 
unavoidable inaccuracies in machining and heat 
treatment. 

Sykes Gear-Tooth Comparator. The Sykes Gear- 
Tooth Comparator. Mech. World, vol. 70, no. 1814. 
Oct. 7, 1921. pp. 280-282, 4 figs. May be used for 
comparing and definitely measuring thickness of 
teeth, for comparing uniformity of pitch and for 
ascertaining amount of inaccuracy of tooth shape. 

GOVERNORS 

Shaft, Adjusting. .Vdjusting Shaft Governors. 
Power, vol. 54, no. 17, Oct. 2.5, 1921, pp. 641-647. 
16 figs. Shows how to adjust different types of 
governors. 

GRINDING MACHINES 

Surface. Economy of Surface Grinding Machines 
(Wirtschaftlichkeit der Fliichenschleifmaschinen), 
F. Warsow. Betrieb, vol. 3, no. 25, Sept. 15, 
1921, pp. 829-832, 6 figs. Describes machines 
equipped with grinding cylinders for economical 
machining of various flat pieces from the rough. 
Comparison of results show a much higher efTiciency 
with described machines than with those operating 
with circumferential grinding disks with equal 
neatness and precision. 



H 



HANDLING MATERIALS 

Equipment. A Survey of Material-Handling Equip- 
ment. R. II. McLain. Chem. Age (N. Y.), vol. 29, 
no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 427-431, 25 figs. Suggestions 
for the use of labor-saving devices in chemical 
manufacture. 

HANGARS 

Cape May. Cape May Hangar for Dirigible Built 
From Two Small Ones. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 87. 
no. 17, Oct. 27, 1921. pp. 698-700, 4 figs. Sheds at 
Montauk and Cape May reerected on new base 
sections to produce hangar of greater capacity. 

Suspended Roofs. Large Roofs Suspended by 
Cables To Avoid Columns. Eng. News-Rec. vol. 
87, no. 17, Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 638-639, 4 figs. Novel 
design of airship sheds, giving unobstructed full- 
length side openings. Translated from G^nie Civil. 

HEAT TRANSMISSION 

Bibliography. Bibliography on Heat Transmission. 
Am. See. Refrig. Engrs. Jr.. vol. 8, no. 2, Sept. 1921, 
pp. 150-162. 

Theory for Turbulent Streams. Transmission of 
Heat from Solid Bodies to Turliulent Liquid or Gas 
Streams (Der Warmeiibergang an einen turbulenten 
Flussigkeits- oder Gasstrom), H, Latzko. Zeit. fur 
angewandte Mathematik u. Mechanik, vol. 1, no. 4, 
Aug. 1921, pp. 208-290. 10 figs. Based on laws of 
velocity distribution of turbulent streams developed 
by Prandtl and v. Kdrman, attempt is made to de- 
velop systematically a theory of heat transmission 
for turbulent streams and of dependence of heat- 
transm.ission coefficient on shape and dimensions. 

HEATING, ELECTRIC 

Arc and Resistance. Arc vs. Resistance Heating 
(Lichtbogen- oder Widerstandsbeheizung), H. Win- 
termeyer. Elektrotechnischer Anzeiger, vol. 38, 
nos. 155, 156. 147 and 158, Sept. 29, Oct. 1, 4 and 5. 
1921. pp. 1109-1110, 1115-1116, 1125-112G and 
1133-1134, 8 figs. Discusses most important 
features in connection with industrial arc and high- 
and low-current resistance heating. 

Qas Heating vs. Comparison of Gas and Electric 
Heating (Comparaison du chauffage au gas et a 
r^lectricit^. A. Grebel. Le Genie Civil, vol. 79, 
no. 12, Sept. 17, 1921, pp. 249-252. Compares 
1 kg. of coal transformed with low tension electricity 
and into gas and bv-products. Shows that cost of 
production is in favor of gas. 

HEATING, HOT-WATER 

Electric. Electric Hot-Water Heating Plants with 
Heat Storage for Schoolhonses (Elektrische Warm- 
wasser-Heizanlagen mit Warme-Akkuniulierung fiir 
Schulhauser). Schweizerische Bauzeitung. vol. 78, 
no. 13, Sept. 24. 1921, pp 151-153, 7 figs. Describes 
hot-water heating system installed in two school- 
houses in Aarau, Switzerland, in which electric 
current of 4000 volts is employed. Points out suc- 
ce.ss and advantages of system. 

HEATING. STEAM 

Isolated Power Plant. Heating and Its Relation to 
Isolated-Plant Operation, E. L. Wilder. Power, 
vol. 54. no. 20. Nov. 15. 1921. pp. 758-761, 8 figs. 
Discusses factors that make for efficiency and inef- 
ficiencies in a combined power and heating plant. 

Radiation. Calculation of. Radiation Calculation 
Charts, D. N. Croslhwait, Jr. Heat. & Vent. Mag., 
vol. 18, no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 27-29, 2 figs. Gives 
tables of square feet of direct cast iron-steam radia- 
tion for heat loss through two-pane windows, and 
through wall area, room temperature 70 deg. fahr. 
and outside temperature deg. fahr. and explains 
application. 

Stationary Heat Storage. A Steam Heating Plant 
with Stationary Heat Storage (Eine Dampfheizan- 
lage mit festem Warmespeicher). M. Hottinger. 



Schweizerische Bauzeitung, vol. 78, no. 10, Sept. 3, 
1921. pp. 124-126, 2 figs. Results of tests carried out 
on electric heating installation in spinning mill of 
H. Buhler & Cic.. Sennhof, Switzerland, described in 
previous issue of same Journal {July 17, 1920). 
Vacuum. Operation and Advantages of Vacuum 
Steam-Heating Systems (Vorziige und Wirkungs- 
weise der Vakuumdampfheizungen). Elektrotech- 
nischer Anzeiger, vol. 38, nos. 161 and 162, Oct. 11 
and 12, 1921, pp. 1158-1100 and 1164-1165. Said 
to be especially adapted to small and medium-size 
factories. 

HOBS 

Gear. Inspection of Involute Spur and Helical Gear 
Hobs. Machinery (I,ond.), vol. 19, no. 474. Oct. 
27, 1921, pp. 90-95, 19 figs. Testing accuracy of 
hoi) and tooth parts; bobbing test. 

HOISTING MACHINES 

Safeguards. Hoisting and Conveving. Power Plant 

Kng., vol. 25. no. 20. Oct. 15, l921.'pp. 1000-1003. 

Machinery safeguards and safe operation. 

HOT-WATER SUPPLY 

Water-Temperature Control. Determination of 
Hot Water Requirements, William Wilcox. Heat. 

6 Vent. Mag., vol. 18. no. 10, Oct. 1921. pp. 31-35, 

7 figs. Essential points to be considered, with data 
on apartment houses and various methods of water- 
temperature control. 

HOUSES 

Wall Construction. Design and Construction of 
Dwelling House Walls, Carroll Beale. Concrete 
Products, vol. 21, no. 4, Oct. 1921, pp. 51-52. Dis- 
cusses types of construction, including concrete. 
Reprinted from Contractor's Atlas. 

HOUSING 

Garden City Scheme, London. Building Garden- 
Cities at the London Conference (La Construction 
des Villeset Cites-Jardins a la conference de Londres), 
M. De Heem. Annales des Travaux Publics de 
Belgique, vol. 22, no. 4, August 1921, pp. 595-626, 
11 figs. Partly on supp. plates. Discusses the hous- 
ing question and recent competition in designs in 
London. Gives illustrations. 

Sherbrooke, Can. Housing Developments in Sher- 
brooke. Contract Rec. vol. 35, no. 45, Nov. 9, 1921. 
pp. 968-969, 8 figs. Model city built to house 
workers of Canadian Connecticut Cotton Mills. 

HYDRAULIC MACHINERY 

Packing Friction. Experiments with Packing Fric- 
tion (Versiiche iiber Stulpenreibung), Eugen Irion. 
Zeit. des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 65, no. 
39, Sept. 24. 1921. pp. 1016-1017, 2 figs. Results of 
tests on a 75-ton drop and bending machine with 
hydraulic gage connected directly to working cylinder. 
Comparison with values determined by Martens. 
Advantages of the simplified pressure measurement 
with measuring cylinders. 

HYDRAULIC TURBINES 

Draft Tubes. Draft Tubes — How They Operate 
and Why. Power, vol. 54. no. 16, Oct. 18. 1921, 
pp. 600-604, 17 figs. Elementary, non-mathe- 
matical explanation of hydraulic draft tubes. Use 
of barometer and "scenic railway" to illustrate funda- 
mental principles involved. 

Kaplan. Design and Use of the Kaplan Turbine 
(Die Kaplanturbine in Ausfuhrung und Verwen- 
dung), C. Reindl. Zeit. des Vereines deutscher 
Ingenieure, vol. 65, nos. 40 and 41. Oct. 1 and 8. 
1921, pp. 1035-1040 and 1066-1069, 33 figs. Deals 
with development and details, including rotars, 
guide vanes, draft tubes, single and double turbines. 
Experimental results and behavior under different 
operating conditions. Useful possiblities and ad- 
vantages. 

Speed Regulation. Speed Regulation of Hydraulic 
Turbines, John S. Carpenter. Power Plant Eng., 
vol. 25. nos. 19 and 20, Oct. 1 and 15, 1921. pp. 
947-950 and 990-993, 5 figs. Principles and methods 
of calculation involved in design of hydraulic turbine 
governors. 

Speed Regulation in the Hydraulic Plant, N. L. 
Devendorf. Power, vol. 54. no. 20, Nov. 15, 1921, 
pp. 764-707, 6 figs. Conditions that must be met 
by waterwheel governor. Development from early 
flyball governor to present oil-pressure type. Re- 
quirements of low-head versus high-head plants. 
Operating in parallel 

HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENT 

Belgium. Utilizing Hydraulic Resources of Belgium 
(Avant-Projet de captation des energies hydrauliques 
Beiges), Herman Chauvin. R^vue Universelle des 
Mines, vol. 11, no. 1. Oct. 1, 1921, pp. 1-28, 9 figs. 
Describes Ardennais works, reservoirs, dams, canals, 
power plants, their cost, capacity, equipment, etc. 

Colorado River. Electrical Construction Plan for 
Colorado River, Charles Heston Peirson. Elec. 
Rev. (Chicago), vol. 79, no. 16. Oct. 15, 1921. pp. 
586-588. Comprehensive development proposed to 
regulate stream flow for utilization of available water 
power. 

Switzerland. Plans for Hydroelectric Development 
in the Bernese Oberland (Les projets des Forces 
Motrices Bernoises dans I'Oberhasle), Jean Ganguil- 
let. Schweiz. Elektrotechnischer Verein Bui., vol. 
12, no. 8. Aug. 1921, pp. 209-216. 2 figs. Presents 
plans for harnessing the Aar River and for develop- 
ing in Oberhasle the future greatest source of electric 
energy in Switzerland. 

HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS 

California. Progress on Pit River Project in Cali- 
fornia. Eng. News-Rec, vol. 87, no. 15, Oct. 13, 
1921, pp. 604-606, 1 fig. First plants completed. 



Features of development will be 220,000-volt trans- 
mission line, 7-mi., 3000-sec-ft. tunnel on Pit River 
No. 5. and 40,000-hp. reaction turbines under 454-ft. 
head in Pit River No. 1. 

Great Falls, Conn. Great Falls Hydro- Electric 
Development. Power Plant Eng., vol. 25, no. 20, 
Oct. 15. 1921, pp. 981-986. 11 figs. Describes equip- 
ment of Falls Village hydroelectric plant of Conn. 
Power Co., on Housatonic River, supplying normally 
10,000 kw. at 66,000 volt, to main lines. 

Italy. 1 1 ydroelectric Plants in Southern Italy (Gli 
impianti idroelettrici del Mezzogiorno d'ltalia), 
Emirico Vismara. L'Elettricista, vol. 10, no. 18, 
Sept. 15, 1921, pp. 137-140, 4 figs. Discusses power 
transmission problems in connection with irrigation. 

Maximum Rates. Determination of Maximum 
Rates for Hydroelectric Power Centrals (La fixation 
des tarifs maxima dans les cahiers des charges des 
concessions d'energie^ hydraulique). G. Tochon. 
Revue Generale de I'Electricite, vol. 10, no. 13, Oct. 
1, 1921, pp. 451—455. Discussion of standard 
specification for maximum rates proposed by Min- 
istry of Public Works. 

Sicily. Brief Description of the Works of the Societa 
Generale Elettrica of Sicily (Descrizione soramaria 
degli impianti della Societd Generale Elettrica della 
Sicilia). L'Elettrotecnica. vol. 8, no. 27, Oct. 5, 
1921, pp. 604-610, 9 figs. Discusses hydroelectric 
construction, power houses and equipment, and sys- 
tem of transmission lines. 



ICE PLANTS 

Brine Agitation. Modern Propeller Design for Brine 
Agitation and Circulation, E. A. Burrows. Am. 
Soc. Refrig. Engrs. Jl., vol. 8, no. 2, Sept. 1921, pp. 
127-133 and (discussion) 133-134, 10 figs. Describes 
experiments with Halvorsen propeller, reducing 
power consumption from 25 to 50 per cent. 

INDEXES 

Construction and Comparison. Details of Index 
Number Construction and Comparison of Indices. 
E. E. George. Eng. & Contracting, vol. 56, no. 19, 
Nov. 9. 1921, pp. 431—434, 3 figs. Notes on volume 
of production index. Bradstreet's, Dun's, and 
Federal Reserve Board index, standard and tests, 
and cost-of-living indexes. 

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT 

Distribution of Manufacturing Expense. The 
Distribution of Manufacturing Expense, C. Haigh. 
Can. Machy., vol. 20, no. 15, Oct. 13, 1921, pp. 34- 
36. Discusses five methods for distributing over- 
head expense: man-rate; man-hour; material and 
labor; sold-hour; and machine-hour rate. 

Factory Investigation. How Factory Investigations 
Reduce Costs, Albert A. Dowd and Frank W. 
Curtis. Machy. (N. Y.), vol. 28, no. 3, Nov. 1921, 
pp. 208-212, 7 figs. Discusses effect of design 
upon cost of machining and gives examples of savings 
realized by change of design; savings effected in 
drilling, and by use of punch press. 

Instruction Sheets. Proposals for New Factory 
Instruction Sheets (Entwurfe neuer Betriebsblatter). 
Betrieb, vol. 3. no. 25, Sept. 15, 1921, o. 160. Pro- 
posal of Works Dept. of German Federation of 
Technical and Scientific Societies for care and 
handling of automobile tires. 

Proposals for New Factory Instruction Sheets 
(Entwurfe neuer Betriebsblatter). Betrieb, vol. 3, 
no. 26, Sept. 25, 1921, pp. 166-168. Proposals of 
Works Dept. of German Federation of Technical and 
Scientific Societies for care and handling of precision 
ball and roller bearings; installation, operation and 
care of transmissions. 

Material Control. Material Control for the Small 
Industrial Plant, Henry C. Haskell. Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. 62, no. 5, Nov. 1921, pp. 271-273, 1 fig. 
Describes simple, direct and logical method of ap- 
proaching problem. Includes illustration of stock 
card used in system which includes material costing, 
ordering and planning. 

Purchasing Department. Purchasing. A. B. John- 
son. Paper, vol. 28. no. 19, July 13, 1921, pp. 17-19, 
28 and 38. Discusses work and organization of 
purchasing departments. Paper read before Super- 
intendents' Assn. 

Scientific. Scientific Management — XXXII, Henry 
Atkinson. Eng. & Indus. Management, vol. 6, 
no. 15, Oct. 13, 1921, pp. 400-401 and 403. Failures 
of scientific management and their cause. 

Stores Records. Machine-Posted Balance of Stores 
Records, C. MofTitt Ford. Bui. Taylor Soc, vol. 
6, no. 4, August 1921, pp. 139-152, 4 figs. Discusses 
mechanical equipment and card design; posting of 
cards; method of proof; filing, posting and verifying 
routine; etc. Paper read before Phila. Section of 
Taylor Soc 

Tool Handling, The Handling of Metal-Cutting 
Tools (Die Behandlung der Werkzeuge in derFabrik), 
A. Fattier. Zeit. des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, 
vol. 05, no. 41. Oct. 8, 1921, pp. 1003-1065, 3 figs. 
Notes on materials for tools; storage and distribution 
in factory; repair and renewal: hardening of tools. 
[See also TIME STUDY. ] 

INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION 

Reorganizing Small Works. Reorganizing the 
Small Works, H. N. Munro. Eng. & Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. 0. no. 17. Oct. 27, 1921. pp. 459-462, 9 figs. 
Writer demonstrates importance of forming clear 
idea of conditions of working, capabilities of staff, and 
proper location and layout of plant, in describing 
practical system of reorganization. Notes on 
planning organization chart. 



Jantjart, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



81 



Stimulating Interest of Workers. Making Work 
Fascinating as the First Step Toward Reduction of 
Waste, Walter N. Polakov. Mech. Eng., vol. 43, 
no. 11, Nov. 1921, pp. 731-734 and 765, 7 figs. 
Points out that such experiments as have been 
already conducted in uniting brain work with manual 
work have proved beyond any doubt that such a 
course liberates dormant or suppressed creative 
capacities of men, improves quality and quantity of 
production, and, above all, substantially ameliorates 
industrial relations. Advantages to owner and labor 
groups are set forth. (Abstract.) 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

Cooperation. Experiments in Industrial Coopera- 
- tion. Iron Age. vol. 108, no. 19, Nov. 10, 1921, pp. 
1207-120S. Constructive solutions of employer- 
employee relations presented at meeting of Acad, of 
Political Science. 
Economic Axioms. The Economic Axioms of 
Industry, E. W. Petter. Eng. & Indus. Management, 

■ vol. 6. no. 18, Nov. 3. 1921, pp. 500-502. Notes on 
creation and unequal distribution of wealth; com- 
munity's well-being; employer and worker; piece- 
work rates; unemployment doles and waste; how 
the State can assist. (Abstract.) Lecture arranged 
by Indus. League & Council. 

Human Factor. The Human Factor in Industry — II, 
Clarence H. Northcott. Indus. Management, vol. 
62, no. 5. Nov. 1921. pp. 292-297, 4 figs. Points out 
importance of weighing physical and mental differ- 
ences and study of job in vocational selection. Dis- 
cusses motion study, fatigue, rest periods, etc. 

Industrial Court, Great Britain. The Industrial 
Court of Great Britain and Ireland, R. W. Patmore. 
Indus. Management, vol. 62, no. 5, Nov. 1921, pp. 
269-271. Its history, functions and personnel. 

INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES 

Carburation. Study of Carburation, Thermody- 
namics of the Explosion Engine (Introduction a 
I'etude de la carburation, pyrodynamique du moteur 
a explosions), M. Carbonaro. Memoirs et Compte 
Rendu des Travaux de la Societe des Ingenieurs 
Civile de France, vol. 74, no. 4-5-6, April-June 1921, 
pp. 185-249, 13 figs. Discusses deflagration at 
constant pressure, ignition temperature, flame 
propagation and its velocity, etc. 

Cooling-Water Systems. Cooling- Water Systems 
for Internal Combustion Engines, Edgar J. Kates. 
Power, vol. 54, no. 20, Nov. 15, 1921, pp. 710-713, 4 
figs. Notes on quality of water: use of cooling tanks; 
open cooling systems and their faults; inclosed cool- 
ing systems. 

Increasing Power Output. Petrol Engine Per- 
formance. Times Eng, Supp., no. 564, Oct. 1921, 
p. 277. Notes on increasing power output. 

Supercharging. Supercharging Engines, C. H. T. 
Alston. Automobile Engr., vol. 11, no. 155, Oct. 
1921. pp. 337-341, 2 figs. Discusses advantages 
and disadvantages; its application to aircraft, road 
motor vehicles, marine, stationary, and portable 
engines; etc. 

[See also AIRPLANE ENGINES; DIESEL 
ENGINES; KEROSENE; OIL ENGINES, SEMI- 
DIESEL ENGINES.] 

IRON 

Gray, Oxygen in. Discusses Problems of the Foun- 
dry, J. Shaw. Foundry, vol. 49, no. 19, Oct. 1, 
1921, pp. 759-761. Discusses differing view of 
metallurgists regarding effect of oxygen in gray iron. 
Methods of making physical tests and their effects 
on results are pointed out. 

Oxygen in. Determination. A New Method for the 
Determination of Oxygen in Iron (Ueber ein neues 
Verfahren zur Bestimraung des Sauerstoffs im Eisen), 
P. Oberhoffer and O. von Keil. Stahl u. Eisen, 

■ vol. 41, no. 41, Oct. 13, 1921. pp. 1449-1453, 6 figs. 
By employment of new method, iron- and manganese- 
oxygen compounds in all mixture proportions can be 
completely reduced; with iron- and silicium-oxygen, 
compounds, whose silicic-acid contents do not ex- 

- ceed 20 per cent, at least 93 per cent of total oxygen 
content can be reduced. 

Pig and Cast, Composition of. Composition of 
Pig Iron and of Cast Iron, Y. A. Dyer. Iron Age, 
vol. 108, no. 20, Nov. 17, 1921, pp. 1267-1270. 
Chemical and structural composition. Various 
elements, their characteristics and effect on metal. 
Oxygen in iron. 

IRON AND STEEL 

Tests. Experiments on Properties of Iron and Steel 
to Resist Wear (Undersokning rorande jams och 
stlls samt en del andra kroppars formaga att motsta 
notning), J. A. Brineli. Jernkontorets Annaler, 
vol. 105, no. 9, 1921, pp. 347-398, 22 figs. Describes 
series of tests made, and abrasives used; gives table 
of results. 

IRON CASTINGS 

Reversed Chilled. Steel Addition to Pig Iron and 
Reversed Chilled Casting (Stahlzusatz zum Roheisen 
und der umgekehrte Hartguss), E. Piwowarsky. 
Giesserei-Zeitung, vol. 18, no. 26, Oct. 3, 1921, pp. 
356-359, 7 figs. Writer seeks to establish relation 
between chemical analyses and the congealing dia- 
gram of iron-carbon alloys. Bibliography. 

IRON, PIG 

Mixer. Pig Iron Mixer. Eng. Progress, vol. 2, no. 10, 
Oct. 1921, pp. 227-230, 8 figs. Advantages of mixing 
process; rolling and tilting mixer; electrical tilting 
device. 

Synthetic. Synthetic Foundry Pig Irons in Germany. 
Iron Age, vol. 108, no. 18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 1137- 
1138. Methods of production during war to over- 
come scarcity of low phosphorus irons; their proper- 
ties; charcoal iron. Translated from Stahl u. Eisen, 
June 30, 1921. 



K 



KEROSENE 

Carburation. Carburation of Kerosene and the Ac- 
tion of the Walls (La carburation par le petrole 
larapant et Taction de paroi), G. Lumet. Memoirs 
et Compte Rendu des Travaux de la Societe des In- 
genieurs Civils de France, vol. 74, no. 3-5-0, April- 
June, 1921, pp. 291-300. Discusses effect of cooling 
the walls and gives results of tests made, also tables. 



LABOR 

Hours of Work. " The Eight Hour Law (La Loi des 
Huit Heures). Leon Repriels. Revue Universelle 
des Mines, vol. 10, no. 6, Sept. 15, 1921, pp. 654-676. 
Discusses its provisions and its application, and 
why Belgium cannot ratify the Washington eight- 
hour convention. 

Organization. The Purpose of the Labor Articles 
in Automotive Industries, Harry Tipper. Auto 
motive Industries, vol. 45, no. 15, Oct. 13, 1921, 
pp. 732-733. Points out necessity for studying 
human side of production activities with a view to 
preventing trouble rather than waiting for diffi- 
culties to arise and then attempting to find a remedy. 
Production cost depends largely upon human 
organization. 

LABOR TURNOVER 

Problem. A Common Sense Attack on Turnover, 
James R. Adams. Indus. Managment. vol. 62, 
no. 5. Nov. 1921, pp. 298-302, 4 figs. Writer tells 
what has been done by Studebaker Corp. under 
present conditions, to make employees appreciate 
management's problems and to enlist their intelligent 
cooperation for the common good. 

LABORATORIES 

Applied Mechanics. A Laboratory of Applied 
Mechanics (Notice sur le Laboratoire de Mecanique 
appliquee), J. Boulvin, F. Keelhoff, G. Van Engelen, 
O. Steels. Annales de I'Association des Ingenieures 
Sortis des Ecoles Sp^ciales de Gand, vol. 11. 5th 
Series. 1921. pp. 130-148. Discusses its functions, 
and equipment for teaching purposes. 

Gas. The Industrial Laboratory of the Bourbonnais 
Co. (Le Laboratoire industriel de la Compagnie du 
Bourbonnais), J. H. Brodin. Chaleur et Industrie, 
vol. 2. no. 17, Sept. 1921. pp. 554-560, 4 figs. Dis- 
cusses development and equipment dedicated to gas 
interests. 

Scientific Industrial Research. A Modern Scien- 
tific Industrial Research Laboratory and Its First 
Results (Un exemple de laboratoire moderne pour 
recherches de science industrielle; ses premiers 
rejultats), Georges Baume. Revue G^nerale de 
I'Electricite, vol. 10, no. 12, Sept. 24, 1921, pp. 396- 
398. Discusses laboratory of Societe de Recherches 
et Perfectionnements Industriels, founded in 1919 
at Puteaux, and how it works. 

LATHE TOOLS 

Circular Form Tools. Designing Circular Form 
Tools. Eng. Production, vol. 3, no. 55, Oct. 20, 
1921, pp. 370-371, 2 figs. Describes use of practical 
formulas. 

Apron Design. Lathe Aprons, A. Clegg. Eng. 
Production, vol. 3, no. 55, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 373-378, 
12 figs. Comparison between typical English and 
American designs. 

Economical Operation. Study of Economical 
Lathe Operation with Special Regard to the Cutting 
Pressure (Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der Wirt- 
schaftlichkeits an Drehbanken unter besonderer 
Berticksichtigung des Schnittdruckes). Herbert 
Sack. Betrieb. vol. 3, no. 25, Sept. 15, 1921, pp. 
800-813, 21 figs. Investigation of effective power 
and its dependence on feed and depth of cut in con- 
nection with detachment of chip. A diagram is 
developed from which the cutting speed for cross- 
section of every chip can be obtained. 

Feed Reverse Mechanisms. The Design of Feed 
Reverse Mechanisms for Lathes, A. Clegg. Mach- 
inery (Lond.), vol. 19, no. 472, Oct. 13, 1921, pp. 
34-39, 13 figs. Discusses the tumbler, fixed center, 
bevel, and planetary or epicyclic gears, and their 
advantages and disadvantages. 

Headstock Design. Improved Lathe Headstock 
Details and their Jigs, Hubert Bentley. Eng. & 
Indus. Management, vol. 6, no. 15, Oct. 13, 1921, 
pp. 398-399. 4 figs. Describes very simple and 
successful type of spring-locking bolt and jig em- 
ployed to ensure accuracy in drilling of locking bolt 
holes in both cone and gear wheel. 

"Non-Stop" Methods. Devices for Repetition 
Work. Eng. Production, vol. 3, no. 56, Oct. 27, 
1921, pp. 392-393, 4 figs. Describes certain non- 
stop methods, by means of which lathes or machines 
are kept running. 

Oerlikon Works, Switzerland. Recent Machine- 
Tool Developments. Engineering, vol. 112, no. 
2915, Nov. 11, 1921. pp. 652-656. 23 figs. Describes 
new lathes made by Swiss Machine-Tool Works, 
Oerlikon. Two designs are built, one with three- 
stepped belt cone pulley drive, and one with single- 
pulley, and all-geared head. 

Turret. Production Work in the Locomotive Shop. 
Machy. (N. Y.), vol. 28, no. 3, Nov. 1921, pp. 228- 
230, 3 figs. Application of the Bullard vertical turret 
lathe. 

Turret and High-Speed Lathes (Re vol verdre fa- 
bank und SchneUdrehbank), R. Ende. Betrieb, 



voL 3 no. 25. Sept. 15. 1921, pp. 789-797, 8 figs. 
Points out as an example that round parts can be as 
accurately machined on a turret as on a high-speed 
lathe, without employment of skilled labor required 
for latter machine Thus initial increased cost of 
installation is often made up within a year's time. 

LIFTING MAGNETS 

German Type. Lifting Magnets (Lasthebemagnete). 

Glasers Annalen, vol. 89, no. 5, Sept. 1, 1921, pp. 

54-56, S figs. Describes construction, handling and 

uses of lifting magnets, with special reference to the 

Demag (Duisburg, Germany) type. 

LIGHTING 

Exterior and Interior. Improved ' Practices in 
Exterior and Interior Illumination. WElec. World, 
vol. 78. no. 20. Nov. 12, 1921, pp. 971-974, 8 figs. 
Broadening applications of modern equipment 
yielding greater service to industry and homes. 

Factory. Better Illumination Cuts Production Costs, 
WardHarrison, Orville F. Haas and Fred W. Dopke, 
Elec. World, vol. 78, no. 16, Oct. 15, 1921, pp. 763- 
764, 2 figs. Test data show increase in production 
of 12.2 per cent due to installation of modern lighting 
system. Tests made by Dover Mfg. Co., Dover, 
Ohio. 

LIGNITE 

Water-Soluble Ash. Importance of Water-Soluble 
Ash in the Evaluation of Lignite (Wichtigkeit der 
wasserloslichen Asche bei der Verwertung der 
Braunkohle), Th. Limberg Feuerungstechnik, vol. 
9, no. 22, Aug. 15, 1921, pp. 205-207. Points out 
importance of analysis of composition of ash, and 
discusses influence of water-soluble ash on the dif- 
ferent products of lignite. 

LOCOMOBILES 

German Type. The Overtype Steam Unit, H. 
Keay Pratt. Mech. World, vol. 69, no. 1782, Feb. 25. 
1921, pp. 141-143, 1 fig. Discusses development 
of locomobile by R. Wolf of Magdeburg, giving 1 
b.hp. per lb. of coal in special trials. Advantages 
and details of operation. 

LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS 

Fire Tubes, Mounting. Mounting and Fixing Fire 
Tubes in Locomotive Boilers (Le montage et la 
fixation des tubes a fumee dans les chaudi^res de 
locomotives), H. Gallon. La Technique Moderne, 
vol. 13. no. 2. Feb. 1921. pp. 59-62, 12 figs. De- 
scribes new automatic apparatus for the purpose. 

LOCOMOTIVES 

Boosters. The Locomotive Booster As an Operating 
Factor. Ry. Rev., vol. 69, no. 15, Oct. S, 1921, pp. 
461— i69, 16 figs. Results of tests made with five 
new Pacific and one Mikado types of locomotives 
fitted with boosters. Operating characteristics. 

Economic Use of Steam. On the Question of the 
Economic Production and Use of Steam on Loco- 
motives, Maurice Lacoin. Bulletin International 
Ry. Assn., vol. 3, no. 9, Sept. 1921, pp. 1157-1204, 
35 figs. Discusses steam superheating and com- 
pounding, packings, valves, feed water heating 
water-tube boilers, scale, combustion control, etc.. 
Appendixes. 

Economical Design. Avoidable Waste in Locomo- 
tive Operation as Affected by Design, James Parting- 
ton. Mech. Eng., vol. 43, no. 11, Nov. 1921, pp. 
729-730. Points out that best way to overcome 
waste is to design locomotive so that it will fulfill 
efficiency requirements of (1) a drawbar horsepower 
for minimum amount of fuel, (2) for minimum 
amount of weight of locomotive and tender, and 
(3) for minimum cost of repairs, and shows how these 
are secured. (Abstract.) 

Feedwater Heating-. Feed Water Heating on tfae 
London & North Western Railway. Ry, Gaz. vol 
35. no. 16, Oct. 14, 1921, pp. 572-574, 2 figs. De- 
tails of latest application of Weir feedwater heating 
system and pump to "George the Fifth" class of 
express locomotive. 

Floating Bushings. The Development of Floating 
Bushings. Ry. Rev., vol. 69, no. 17, Oct. 22. 1921, 
pp. 535-538, 5 figs. Describes early development, 
and recent application to new locomotives built by 
Am. Locomotive Co. 

Mallet. Virginian Mallet Locomotives. Ry JI 
vol. 27, no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 12-13, 1 fig. Tractive 
power 147,200 lb. working compound and 176,600 
lb. working simple; 2-10-10-2 type. Comparison 
with 2-8-8-2 type. 

Mexican Railways. New Power for Rehabilitation 

of Mexican Railways. Ry. Rev,, vol. 69, no, 18, 
Oct. 29, 1921, pp. 578-580, 5 figs. Baldwin buUds 
nearly 100 locomotives comprising five distinct type 
for service on heavy grades. See also Ry. A"^e, vol. 
71 , no. 20, Nov. 1912, 21, pp. 937-939. 

Northern Pacific. New Locomotives for the North- 
em Pacific. Ry. Age, vol. 71, no. 17, Oct. 22, 1921, 
pp. 767-769, 3 figs. Pacific type for heavy fast 
service. Mikados, mallets and switchers follow lines 
of earlier designs. 

Operation. Traveling Engineers Present Valuable 
Reports. Ry. & Locomotive Eng., vol. 34, no. 10, 
Oct. 1921, pp. 2*>5-271. Discusses operation and 
maintenance of oil-burninglocomotives, self-adjusting 
wedges, feedwater heaters, devices for increasing 
tractive power, and operating stoker-fired locomo- 
tives. Report of Executive Committee. 

Faulista Railway, Brazil. Electric Motive Power 
for Paulista Railway. Ry. Age, vol. 71, no. 16, 
Oct. 15, 1921, pp. 721-722, 3 figs. Describes electric 
freight and passenger locomotives for Brazil; tractive 
efforts at 25 per cent adhesion 58,500 lb. and 51,000 
lb. respectively. 

Thermic Siphons. The Installation and Operation 
of Thermic Syphons. Boiler Maker, vol. 21, no. 10 



82 



Oct. 1921. pp. 273-277, 12 6g3. Discusses applica- 
tion to locomotives as an efficieocy-promoting 
device. 

Valve Gear. Poppet Valve Gear for Steam Loco- 
motives (Weitercs Ober die Ventilstcucrung bel 

, Dampflokomotiven), II. Wittfeld. Zeit. dcs Ver- 
cines deutscher Ingcnieure, vol. 65, no. 44, Oct. J», 
19''1 pp 1141-1142, 10 figs. Supplementary to 
arricie in same journal (no. 24, p. 62:!), a special 
type of I.entz gear is described and compired with an 
older type. 

LUBRICATION 

Tests on Steam and Gasoline Engines. Compara- 
tive Lubrication Engineering. Sci Lubrication, 
vol. 1, no. 9, Sept. 1921, pp. 18-21. Describes 
test on small-power Corliss engine, and on a Conti- 
nental motor, giving some interesting dilution data. 

LUBEICATING OILS 

Castor and Mineral-Oil Mixture. Tests of Castor 
Oil and Mineral-Oil Mixtures on Gnome Rotary 
Engine O. J. May and Howard Cooper. Set. 
ECbrkition, vol. 1, no. 9, Sept. 1921, pp. 10-14 
6 figs. U. S. Army-Service report discussing metbod 
and results of tests made. 



M 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 

MANGANESE STEEL 

Castings, Grinding. Grinding Manganese Steel 
Castings. I". U. Jacobs. Foundry, vol. 49, no. 19, 
Oct. 1, 1921, pp. 767-770. 8 figs. Frogs and switches 
produced from accurate patterns and carefully 
molded. Ground because too hard to machine. 
Annealed before grinding. Wheels are coarse grit 
in hard grades. 

MARINE STEAM TURBINES 

S.S. Giulio Cesare. Tlie Machinery of the Four- 
Screw Geared Turbine S.S. "Giulio Cesare." En- 
gineering, vol. 112, no. 2915, Nov. 11. 1921. pp. 662- 
664, 18 figs, partly on supp. plate and p. 606. Con- 
structed by Wallsend Slipway and Eng. Co. Ltd. 

MATERIALS 

Testing. Testing Materials, T. W. MacAlpine. 
Eng. & Indus. Management, vol. 6, no. 18, Nov. 3, 
1921, pp. 498-499. Plea is advanced for formation 
of a British national testing organization. 

MEASURING MACHINES 

Internal Diameters. \ Machine for the Measure- 
ment of Internal Diameters, G. A. Tomlinson. 
Engineering, vol. 112, no. 2912, Oct. 21, 1921, pp. 
55S-560, 6 figs. Describes method and machine 
developed at Nat. Physical Laboratory, Teddington 
England, which is said to give high accuracy and 
allow inside diameter to be explored to any eitent 
necessary. 



MACHINE CONSTRUCTION 

Allowances. Determination of the Required -Allow- 
ance Dimensions for Different Constructions (Fest- 
stellung der erforderlichen Passmasse fiir die yer- 
schiedenen Erzeugnisse), W. Kiihn. Betneb^ vol. 3. 
no 26, Sept. 25, 1921, pp. 405-411, 8 figs. Explains 
when limit gages should be used and how selection 
of allowance dimensions for a given construction 
piece should be made. 
Record of Materials. Record of Materials Used in 
Machine ConsUuction. Machinery CLond.), vol 19, 
no. 471, Oct. 0, 1921, pp. 1-3, 4 figs. Gives details 
of a "commodity book" in which are recorded all 
materials and standard parts used by the firm, 
these records are kept up-to-date. Various ad- 
vantages are claimed for this book. 
MACHINE SHOPS 

English. Famous British Works. Eng. Production, 
vol 3, nos. 55, 56 and 57, Oct. 20. 27 and Nov 3, 
1921 pp. 362-363, 4 figs., 386-388, 4 f^gs., and 410- 
411 2 figs Oct. 20; Worcester works of Heenan 
& Fronde Ltd., for manufacture of Fronde dyna- 
mometers, Heenan air filters, oU and water coolers, 
refuse destructors, and refrigerating machinery. 
Oct ''7- Works of Marshall, Sons & Co., Ltd.. 
Gainsborough. Lincolnshire, for manufacture of 
engines, boilers and machines. Nov. 3: Works of 
John Fowler & Co., Ltd., Leeds, for manufacture of 
steam plows, road-transport and heavy-haulage 
engines, traction engines, etc. 

The WeUman-Smith-Owen Engineering Works 
at Darlaston. Iron & Coal Trades Rev vol. 103. 
no 2798, Oct. 14, 1921, pp. 54o-o4b, 18 figs, on pp. 
547-550 Describes machine, fitting and erecting, 
and pattern shops, laboratory, welfare section, etc. 
Layout. BuUding Machine Tools in a New Plant, 
F L Prentiss. Iron Age, vol. 108, no. 17. Oct. .27. 
1921' pp 1070-1075, 16 figs. Arrangement, trans- 
portation system, routing of material and lighting 
are features of Colburn Machine Tool Co., Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Factory Lay-out as an Aid in Reducing Costs. 
Machy (N. Y.), vol. 28, no. 3. Nov. 1921, pp. 182- 
185 8 figs Describes new plant of Colburn Machine 
Tool Co.. Cleveland, Ohio, laid out with view to 
economy in manufacturing. 

A Machine Tool Shop of Unusual Construction, 
Fred H. Colvin. Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 17, Oct. 
27 1921, pp. 668-670, 8 figs. Description of Col- 
burn Machine Tool Co., Cleveland. Ohio. 
Steam Turbine. New Works of the Compagnie 
Ijlectro-Mecanique at Bourget (Seine) [La nouveUe 
usine de la Cie. Electro-Mecaoique au Bourget 
(Seine) 1, Ch. Dantin. Le Genie Civil, vol. /8, 
no 26, June 25, 1921, pp. 541-545, 8 figs. Describes 
constructional details of works. aU reinforced 
concrete. 



MACHINE-TOOL INDUSTRY 

Orient as Market. The Orient As a Machine-Tool 
Market, W. H. Rastall. Am. Mach.. vol. .'>5, no. 18, 
Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 730-5. Data on pre-war growth 
of foreign business and growth since 1913; foreign 
markets olher than European. How to sell machin- 
ery ill A.sia. Address before Machine Tool Builders. 

MACHINERY 

Dismantling. Valuable Hints on the Dismantling 
of Machinery. Can. Machy., vol. 26, no. 15, Oct. 
13, 1921. pp. 29-32, 8 figs. Discusses separation of 
rusted parts, seized parts, forcing methods, and bolt 
action. 

Perforated-Record Control. The Control of Mach- 
ines by Perforated Records, Emanuel Scheyer. 
Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 19, Nov. 10, 1921. pp. 743- 
747, 8 figs. Principles of pneumatic and electric 
control of machinery. Difficulties of automatic 
control. Machines controlled by paper records. 

Power Consumption. Determination of the Power 
Consumption of Machinery (Bestimmung des 
Kraftbedarfes von Arbeitsmaschinen). Elektrotech- 
nischer Anzeiger. vol. 38, nos. 149, 150, 151, 152 and 
153. Sept. 20. 21, 24 and 27, 1921, pp. 1065- 
lOOB, 1073-1074. 1079-lOSO, 1087-1088 and 1095- 
.1096. 11 figs. Notes on numerical determination 
of power consumption; determination by comparison 
with machines of same construction type, but differ- 
ent output; determination through measurement. 



METALLOGRAPHY 

Foundries. Applications of Metallography in Iron, 
Steel and Malleable Foundries (Anwendungen der 
Metallographie in der Eisen-, Stahl- und Temper- 
giesserei), Rudolf Stotz. Giesserei-Zeitung, vol. 18, 
nos 24, 25 and 27, Sept. 20, 27 and Oct. 11, 1921. 
pp. 325-328, 341-344 and 370-372, 43 figs. Notes 
on microscopic investigation of iron castings. Paper 
read before Ass.i. German Foundryraen. 

Microscopic Examinations. Metallography — The 
Microscopic Study of the Structure of Metals, Henry 
S Rawdon. Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 17, Oct. 27, 
1921, pp. 659-664, 29 figs. Value of metallurgical 
science in industry: uses of the microscope. Study 
of metallic structures. Results of microscopic 
examinations. 
Optics of. The Optics of Metallography, W. I. 
Patterson. Trans. Am. Soc. for Steel Treating, 
vol. 2, no. 2, Nov. 1921, pp. 108-132, 30 figs. Deals 
with important optical parts of microscopes. 

METALS 

Cold Work, Effect of. Strengthening Metals by 
Cold- Work, E. Heyn. Chem. & Met. Eng., vol. 25, 
no. 16, Oct. 19, 1921, pp. 735-736, 2 figs. Explains 
nature of changes in cold worked metal, elastic and 
plastic deformation, etc. From Metall und Erz. 
1918, Nos. 22 and 23. 

Protective Coatings. Metal Coatings as Protection 
Against Corrosion (Metaliiberzuge als Rostschutz- 
mittel), Werner Lange. Zeit. fur Metallkunde, 
vol. 13, no. 9, June 1921, pp. 267-275, 36 figs. 
Discusses protective coatings of lead, tin and alumi- 
num. 

Refinement Tests. Refinement Tests with German 
Metals (Veredelungsversuche mit inlandischen 
Metallen), H. Hanszel. Zeit. fur Metallkunde, vol. 
13, no. 10, July 1921, pp. 319-329, 1 fig. Deals with 
aluminum, mild steel, cast iron and electron, and 
discusses methods for testing of metals and alloys. 

Rolling. Metal Rolling (Le Laminage), Sigma. 
La Mdtallurgie, vol. 53, no. 40, Oct. 6, 1921, pp. 
1884-1887. Discusses longitudinal or parrallel 
rolling; cross or circular rolling, i.e., reeling; and 
helicoidal or oblique rolling, as for Mannesmann 
tubes. 
Structural Properties. Structural Properties of 
Metals and Alloys, R. W. Woodward. Am. Mach.; 
vol .55, nos. 15 and 16, Oct. 13 and 20, 1921, pp. 
590-599 and 636-63S, 2 figs. Applicability of metals; 
factors of strength and elasticity; compression; 
ductile and brittle materials, fatigue; thermal, mag- 
netic and optical properties; corrosion. 

METRIC SYSTEM 

Arguments Pro and Con. The Metric System of 
Weights and Measures, David A. Molitor. Jl. 
Eng. Inst. Can., vol. 4, no. 11, Nov. 1921, pp. 569- 
672. Advantages of system, legal problems, tran- 
sition steps. 

Metric versus English System. Eng. & Contract- 
ing, vol. 56, no. IS, Nov. 2, 1921. pp. 420-427, 
Summarizes points in favor and opposed to metric 
bill. Reprinted from Lefax. 

MILLING CUTTERS 

Formed. Formed Milling Cutters, George H. 
Strain. Machinery (Lond.), vol. 19. no. 474, 
Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 109-112, 18 figs. Factors in 
design which eliminate waste of driving power; 
cutting angles, rake and clearance of circular tools; 
standards for convex and concave formed milling 
cuttings. 

MILLING MACHINES 

Heavy Vertical. Investigation of a Heavy Vertical 
Milling Machine (Untersuchung einer schweren 
Senkrechtfrasmaschine), Willi Mitan. Zeit. des 
Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 05, no. 43, Oct. 
22, 1921, pp. 1110-1118, 13 figs. Construction and 
operation of new machine by Fritz Werner Corp. 
Berlin-Marienfelde, for unwieldy workpieces. Cal- 
culation of feeds and speeds. Performance tests. 

Rotary. Reducing Costs by Rotary Milling. Machy. 
(N. v.), vol. 28, no. 3, Nov. 1921, pp. 202-205. 10 
figs. Examples of work advantageously handled 
on Becker vertical rotary milling machines. 

MOLDING MACHINES 

Modern. Modern Molding Machines (Ncuere Form 



Vol. 44. No. 1 



maschinen), U. Lohse. Giesserei-Zeitung, vol. 18. 
nos. 23, 24 and 25, Sept. 13, 20 and 27, 1921, pp. 
308-311, 331-335 and 344-348, 20 figs. Construc- 
tion development during recent years. Deals with 
hand and power-molding machines, pattern machines 
with lifting carriage, stripping-plate and roll-over 
machines, etc. 

MONEL METAL 

Welding. Monel Metal Welding, Michael Dzamba. 

Welding Engr., vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 41^2. 

Discusses welding generally, also welding of rods. 

sheets and castings, and soldering. 

MOTOR PLOWS 

Engines. The 4S'60-Hp. B.M.W. Motor-Plow En- 
gine (Der 45/60 B.M.W. Pfiugmotor), Otto Schwager. 
Oel- u. Gasmaschine, vol. 18, nos. 6 and 10, June 
and Oct., 1921, pp. 97-104 and 104-165, 7 figs. 
Details of engine built by the Bavarian Motor Works 
Corp.. Munich, based on their experiences in con- 
struction of aeroplane engines. Test results with 
described engine. 

MOTOR TRUCKS 

Future. The Motor Truck of the Future, Roliin W. 
Hutchinson. Indus. Management, vol. 62, no. 5. 
Nov. 1921, pp. 257-201, 4 figs. What permanent 
highways, pneumatic tires and ferro-steel will.do in 
revolutionizing motor-truck engineering. 

German. German Motor Trucks and Tractors 
(Der Kraftwagen als Nutzfahrzeug). Allgemeine 
Automobil-Zeitung, vol. 22, nos. 29, 30 and 31, 
July 16. 23 and 30. 1921, pp. 23-26, 26-30 and 21-26. 
32 figs. Details of various types, including delivery 
trucks, tippers, timber-ha.iling trucks, hearses, 
street sprinklers, hook-and-ladder cars, omnibuses, 
etc. 



N 



NICKEL ALLOYS 

Nickel-Aluminum-Copper. The Properties of Some 
Nickel-Aluminium-Copper Alloys, A. A. Read and 
R. H. Greaves. Metal Industry (Lond.), vol. 19, 
no. 13, Sept. 23, 1921, pp. 232-239, 23 figs. Dis- 
cusses preparation; rolling and machining; tensile 
tests; properties of cast, cold-rolled and heat-treated 
alloys, etc. Paper read before Inst, of Metals. 

NICKEL METALLURGY 

Rolling. Rolling Pure Nickel, A. E. Surface. Sci. 
Am., vol. 125-A, no. 17, Nov. 1921, p. 34. 3 figs. 
Describes rolling of 99-per cent pure nickel into the 
various shapes into which mild steel is rolled, accord- 
ing to method developed by Charles T. Hennig 
and carried out at plant at Hyde, Pa. 

NUTS 

Acme Thread. Making an Accurate Acme Thread 
Nut, B. M. W. Hanson. Machy. (N. Y.), vol. 28, 
no. 3, Nov. 1921, pp. 197-199. 4 figs. Notes on 
difficulty of obtaining proper contact between 
screw and nut; use of roughing and finishing taps; 
lubrication when tapping; holding an Acme tap in a 
turret lathe. 



o 



OIL ENGINES 

Marine. Oil Fuel Burning Installation on S.S. 
"Paris" (Installation de la chauffe au pctrole sur le 
paquebot "Paris"). Bulletin Technique du Bureau 
Veritas, vol. 3, no. 8, August 1921, pp. 181-185. 4 
figs. (In English on pp. 186-188.) Discusses 
storage, piping, pumps, burners and operation, and 
gives test data. 

Still. The Still Engine. Mar. Engr. & Naval 
Architect, vol. 44, no. 528, Sept. 1921, pp. 36-40, 
4 figs. Describes engine which may be two-stroke 
or four-stroke type; burns gas, petrol or oil. Ad- 
vantages, starting, overload, efficiency, etc. 

OIL FUEL 

Burning. The Burning of Oil Fuel, A. Keens. Mar. 
Engr. & Naval Architect, vol. 44, no. 529, October 
1921, pp. 76-85, 12 figs. Discusses various types of 
machinery and its arrangement for burning oil fuel. 
Observations and comments derived from experience. 
Combustion. Combustion of Fuel Oil, Percival J. 
Woolf Iron & Coal Trades Rev., vol. 103, no. 
2797, Oct. 7, 1921. p. 504. Discusses drawbacks 
of excess of air supplied for rapid combustion, 
advantages and disadvantages of an additional 
combustion chamber, and the Sklovsky patent for 
eliminating excess air. Extract of paper read 
before Refractory Matls. Section of Ceramic Society. 
Handling. Security in Handling Inflammable Liquids 
Chem. Age (Lond.), vol. 5, no. 119, Sept. 24, 1921, 
pp. 372-373, 1 fig. Describes MauclSre patent for 
storage and protection of petrol which also permits 
distribution either in a continuous flow or in pre- 
determined quantities. 
Mexican. The Production and Combustion of Mexi- 
can Fuel Oil— Vll, J. M. Pettingell and J. R. Carlson. 
Combustion, vol. 5, no. 5, Nov. 1921, pp. 209-212, 
7 figs. Describes use of Mexican oil in various 
metallurgical furnaces, although sulphur content is 
high. 
Power Uses. The Application of Oil to Power Pur- 
poses, Sydney H. North. Trans. Inst. Mar. Engrs., 
vol. 33, Sept. 1921, pp. 325-331. Shows increase m 
water evaporated per lb. of oil, and in thermal effi- 
ciency of Diesel engines. 

OIL STORAGE 

Shipyard Plant. Shipyard Bulk Storage Oil and 



January, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



83 



Paint Plant. EnKineering. vol. 112. no. 2914. Nov. 4, 
1921, p. 632, 10 figs, partly on p. 634. Describes 
installation at new yard of Fumess Shipbuilding Co., 
designed with steel storage tanks and automatic 
measuring pumps for distribution of oils, layout 
being such as to reduce cost and increase ease of 
handling. 

OILS 

Linseed. Air Required in Baking Cores Made 
W'ith Linseed Oil, A. A. Grubb and U. S. Jamison. 
Chem. Jl- Met. Eng., vol. 25. no. 17, Oct. 26, 1921. pp. 
793-795. Results of laboratory and plant experi- 
ments on consumption of air and oxygen in baking 
linseed oil-bound cores, together with a review of 
available data on absorption of oxygen by linseed oil 
in drying. 



PARACHUTES 

Aeronautical Life Belts. Parachutes, T. Orde 
Lees. Aviation, vol. 11, nos. Ifi and 17, Oct. 17 and 
24, 1921. pp. 451-453 and 485-4S8. 5 figs. Discusses 
parachutes in the sense of aeronautical life-belts, 
for pilots and passengers. Lecture before Roy. 
Aeronautical Soc. 

PETROLEUM 

Catalytic Oxidation. The Catalytic Oxidation of 
Petroleum Oils. C. E. Waters, jl. Indus. & Eng. 
Chem.. vol. 13. no. 10, Oct. 1921. pp. 001-903. Dis- 
cusses briefly relation between oxidation of petroleum 
oils and formation of deposits in internal-combustion 
engines to sludging of transformer oils and to de- 
terioration of turbine oils. 

PIPE, CAST-IRON 

Manufacture. Cast-Tron Pipe, The Method of 
Manufacture and Its Inspection, Wihiam R. Conrad. 
N. E. Water Works Assn.. vol. 35, no. 3. Sept. 1921. 
pp. 205-220 and (discussion) pp. 220-227, 6 figs. 
Discusses manufacturing details, including drying, 
pouring, cleaning and testing. 

Standardized. Standardized Cast Iron Pipes. Eng. 
Production, vol. 3, no. 56. Oct. 27. 1921, pp. 401-404, 
10 figs. Describes methods of Stanton Ironworks 
Co., Ltd., Nottingham, England, as example of 
advantages attendant on standardization of foundry 
products. 

PIPE, STEEL 

Butt-Welded. Recent Improvements in the Manu- 
facture of Welded Pipe, F. N . Speller. Blast 
Furnace & Steel Plant, vol. 9, no. 10. Oct. 1921, pp. 
5SO-5S2. While there have been many improve- 
ments in appliances for butt- welding pipe since 
introduction of this process, the method of finishing 
has not been materially changed for some time. 

Hammer- Welded. A Hammer-Welded Steel Pipe. 
Iron Age. vol. lOS, no. 18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 1130- 
1131, 3 figs.: also Iron Trade Rev., vol. 69. no. 18. 
Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 1148-1151, 7 figs. Product of 
National Tube Co. , Pittsburgh. Steel plates are bent 
to required shape and overlapping edges are heated 
and welded under hammer. Hammer-weld process 
adapted to large sizes of pipe. Protective coating 
applied. 

Hammer- Welded Pipe; Its Manufacture and Use. 
Eng. & Contracting, vol. 56, no. 19. Nov. 9, 1921, 
p. 445, 1 fig. Notes on sizes and thickness; manu- 
facturing process; physical properties of material; 
joints; elements of economy and efficiency. De- 
scribes a hammer- weld gas line. (Abstract.) 
National Bui. No. 13 published by Nat. Tube Co. 

Manufacture. Bessemer Plant of Steel & Tube Com- 
pany, Gilbert L- Lacher. Iron Age. vol. 108, no. 19, 
Nov. 10. 1921 , pp. 1 199-1205. 1 1 figs. Latest 
developments in design and equipment embodied in 
addition to Mark works, Chicago, for manufacture of 
pipe. 

PISTONS 

Alum.inuni, Machining. Precision Machine Work 
in the Production of Aluminum Pistons, J. Edward 
Schipper. Automotive Industries, vol. 45. no. 15, 
Oct. 13, 1921, pp. 722-725, 15 figs. Methods 
employed in manufacturing pistons for Essex engine. 
Special care exercised in machining piston pin hole 
square with piston axis, and in aligning piston with 
cylinder bore. 

Machining. Machining Hudson Super-Six Pistons. 
Machy. (N. Y.), vol. 28, no. 3, Nov. 1921, pp. 225- 
227, 5 figs. Methods used by Hudson Motor Car 
Co. in producing pistons with high-production mach- 
inery at low cost. 

PLATES 

Perforated, Stresses in. Increased Stress Caused 
by Circular Holes in a Plate LTnder Tension (Ueber 
die Spannungserhohung durch kreisformige Locher 
in einem gezogenen Bleche), Th. Poschl. Zeit. fiir 
angewandte Mathematik u. Mechanik, vol. 1. no. 3, 
June 1921, pp. 174-180, 3 figs. Derivation of formu- 
las for determining increase in stress caused by a 
number of holes, as for example, rivet holes in.a plate. 

POWER 

Industrial, Analysis of. Analysis of Industrial 
Power. H. Goodwin. Power, vol. 54, no. 16, Oct. 
18, 1921, pp. 584-5S8, 3 figs. Investigations based 
on latest census returns from North Atlantic States 
show more than 76,000 industrial plants, using in 
aggregate over 9.000,000 hp. of which over 2,000,000 
hp. is supplied by steam engines. 600,000 by steam 
turbines. 540.000 by water power, 279,000 by inter- 
nal-combustion engines, and remainder purchased 
power. 

POWER GENERATION 

Coit Systems. How to Follow Up Power Costs, 



N. A. Graigne. Indus. Management, vol. 62, no. 5, 
Nov. 1921, pp. 275-279, 3 figs. Analysis and dis- 
tribution of operating costs to consumers. 
Fuel Economy. Fuel Economy by the Adoption of 
Scientific Management in Power Generation and 
LTtilization, David Brownlie. Eng. & Indus. 
Management, vol. 6. no. 14, 15 and 16, Oct. 6, 13 
and 20, 1921, pp. 393-391 and 396, 421-424 and 433- 
436, 13 figs. Notes on flue-gas analysis and boiler 
feedwater meters. 

POWER PLANTS 

Coal Mine. Mixed-Pressure Turbine Installation 
with Regenerator Appreciably Decreases Power 
Costs at Nokomis. C. W. Smith. Coal Age. vol. 20, 
no. 19, Nov. 10. 1921, pp 753-757, 7 figs. Describes 
very modem coal-mine power plant at Nokomis 
mine, Illinois, of Nokomis Coal Co.; capacity 1,300 
kw. of which 1,000 kw. is mixed-pressure and 300 
kw. high-pressure turbine power. 

Design. Developments in Power Station Design — • 
XII. XIII and XIV. Engineer, vol. 132, nos. 
3432. 3433 and 3435. Oct. 7, 14 and 28, 1921. pp. 
364-365, 390-392 and 445-447, 13 figs. Oct. 7: 
Babcock boilers for utilization of waste heat from 
coke ovens and blast furnaces. Oct. 14- Halberg- 
Beth blast-furnace-gas-cleaning plant; Kirke waste- 
heat boiler with integral economizer; and waste- 
heat boilers with vertical tubes. Oct. 28: Describes 
Bonecourt gas-fired boiler unit; Thomson boilers 
operated with coke-oven gas; Brett drop-forging- 
furnace waste-heat unit; Babcock & Wilcox furnace 
for burning saw-mill refuse. 

Mine-Mouth. Seward Plant of Penn Public Service 
Corporation. Power Plant Eng.. vol. 25. no. 19, 
Oct. 1. 1921, pp. 937-947, 17 figs. A mine-mouth 
power plant supplying industries in Johnstown 
district. Details of equipment, mechanical and 
electrical. 

Modern Practice. Refinements of Practice in Modern 
Power Plants. I. L. Kentish- Rankin. Power 
Plant Eng.. vol. 25, no. 20, Oct. 15, 1921, pp. 988- 
990. Discusses features regarding furnace construc- 
tion and the overcoming of difificulties with super- 
heater operation. 

Superpower. The Performance and Cost of the 
Superpower System, Arthur R. Wellwood. Power, 
vol. 54, no. 19. Nov. 8, 1921, pp. 725-730, 10 figs. 
As result of work of Superpower Survey, certain vital 
facts concerning performance and cost of super- 
power system are presented, and conclusions drawn. 

POWER TRANSMISSION 

Machine Shops. Transmission of Power in Machine 
Shops, F. A. Pike. Mech. World, vol. 70, no. 1815. 
Oct. 14, 1921, p. 298. 3 figs. Advocates more 
direct driving. 

PRESSES 

Automobile Parts. Presses and Dies used in the 
Production of Motor-car Body Parts. Machinery 
(Lond.), vol. 19. no. 475. Nov. 3. 1921. pp. 117-121. 
10 figs. Description of tools and machines used by 
Austin Motor Co., Ltd., Longbridge Works, Bir- 
mingham. 

PRICES 

Stop-Loss, Finding. Finding the "Stop Loss" 
Price Point, H. R. Boston. Indus. Manage- 
ment, vol. 62. no. 5. Nov. 1921. pp. 266-268. Defi- 
nite way of estimating how far a price may be cut. 

PRODUCER GAS 

Qualitative Regulation. Device for the Qualitative 
Regulation of Producer Gas (Vorrichtung zur 
qualitativen Regelung von Generatorgas), Robert 
Nitzschmann. Feuerungstechnik, vol. 9. no. 22, 
Aug. 15, 1921, pp. 209-211, 2 figs. Discusses basic 
principles for qualitative regulation and describes 
arrangement which is said to fulfill required con- 
ditions. 

PULVERIZED COAL 

Advantages and Disadvantages. Firing With 
Pulverized Coal (Le ChaufTage au charbone pul- 
verise). P. Frion. Memoirs et Compte Rendu des 
Travaux de la Societe des Ingenieures Civils de 
France, vol. 74, no. 4-5-6, April- June 1921, pp. 
123—172. Report of Commission of Fuel Utilization, 
appointed by Minister of Pub. Works. Discusses 
actual developments in use of pulverized coal. 
Describes installation using it. its advantages and 
possibilities, and its inconveniences and dangers. 
See also R6vue Universelle des Mines, vol. 11, no. 1, 
Oct. 1. 1921, pp. 48-56. 

Firing With Pulverized Coal (Le Chauffage au 
charbon pulveris6), Sigma. La M^tallurgie, vol. 
53, no. 38. Sept. 22, 1921, pp. 1781-1782. Dis- 
cusses disadvantages and draws conclusions com- 
paring these with advantages. (Concluded.) 
Boiler Firing. Burning Powdered Coal and Blast- 
Furnace Gas at River Rouge, Thomas Wilson . 
Power, vol. 54, no. 18, Nov. 1, 1921, pp. 664-670. 
9 figs. Arrangement and construction of big boilers 
and their control. Pulverized-coal equipment and 
layout of gas piping and burners. Performance 
guarantees and operating force required. 

Burning Powdered Coal in Boiler Furnaces, K. 
Kita. Jl. Inst. Elec. Engrs. of Japan (Denki 
Gakkwai Zasshi), no. 399, Oct. 1921, pp. 713-740. 
Author tries to make comparison of combustion of 
powdered coat with that of ordinary method, and 
points out important factors to be considered in 
construction of furnace. Bibliography. (In Jap- 
anese.) 

PUMPING 

Centrifugal and Air-Lift. Modern Pumping. Col- 
liery Guardian, vol. 122, no. 3170, Sept. 30, 1921, 
pp. 933-934. Paper on "Modern High Speed 
Centrifugal Pumps" by S. F. Barclay and paper on 



Experiments in Air Lift Pumping by J. S. Owens. 
Read before British Assn. See also Eng. & Indus. 
Management, vol. 6, no. 18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 503- 
506. 

PUMPS, CENTRIFUGAL 

Design and Application. The Centrifugal Pump, 
S. F. Barclay. Engineering, vol. 112, no. 2914, 
Nov. 4, 1921, pp. 642-044, 8 figs. Notes on mechan- 
ical design and application. (Abstract.) Paper 
read before British Assn. 

Manufacture. Manufacturing Centrifugal Pumps. 
Western Machy. World, vol. 12, no. 10, Oct. 1921. 
pp. 392-395, 12 figs. Describes machine operations 
on pump bases, brackets, spiral bodies, impellers, 
etc. 

PUNCHING MACHINES 

Efficiency. Increasing the Efficiency of Punching 
Machines (Zur Frage der Leistungssteigerung bei 
Lochwerken). Hugo Becker. Betrieb, vol. 3, no. 25, 
Sept. 15. 1921. pp. 832-838, 16 figs. Comparison 
of costs of punching work in the plating of a freight 
steamer with use of a simple punching machine 
and of a roller table machine shows economy of 
latter. 



R 



RADIOMETALLOGRAPHY 

Possibilities. X-Ray Photography and Material 
Testing (Rontgenphotographie und Materialpru- 
fung), R. Schenck. Stahl u. Eisen, vol. 41, no. 41, 
Oct. 13, 1921, pp. 1441-1449. 24 figs. Discusses 
nature of Rontgen rays and possibilities for ^their 
use in material testing and metallography. 

RAILS 

Magnetic Surveys. Magnetic Surveys of Railroad 
Rails. Iron Age. vol. 108. no. 20. Nov. 17, 1921, pp. 
1271-1273, 7 figs. Determination of fissures ob- 
scured by heavy damage from gagging presses. 
Improvements being made in section and in straight- 
ening. 

Second-Hand, Use of. Classification and Distri- 
bution of Second Hand Rail for Use in Track. 
Eng. & Contracting, vol. 56, no. 20, Nov. 16, 1921, 
pp. 463-464. Notes on supply and demand for 
used rail; variables to be considered in use of rail; 
recommended method of assigning and distributing 
rail. 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 

Germany. Construction of the Railway Between 
Tongres and Aix-la-Chapelle (Der Eisenbahnbau 
Tongern- Aachen), E- Hiinerwadel. Schweizerische 
Bauzeitung. vol. 78. nos. 14, 15 and 17, Oct. 1, 8 and 
22. 1921, pp. 163-167, 182-184 and 201-205, 22 figs. 
Describes section including bridges and tunnels 
built by Germany between years of 1915 and 1918, 
said to be one of largest and most important works of 
engineering carried out during war. 

RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION 

Austria. The Electrification of the Austrian Federal 
Railway (Die Elektrisierung der osterreichischeo 
Bundesbahnen) . H. Baecker. Glasers Annalen , 
vol. 89. no. 5, Sept. 1, 1921. pp. 48-51. 1 fig. Notes 
on projects, hydroelectric and power-transmission 
plants. 

Brazil. The Paulista Railway Electrification. S. B. 
Cooper. Ry. Rev., vol. 69, no. 16, Oct. 15, 1921, 
pp. 507-509. 8 figs. Describes Westinghouse 
equipment recently delivered and conditions making 
electrification desirable. 

Heavy Traction. Electrification Report of the A.E. 
R.A. Ry. Elec. Engr.. vol. 12. no. 10, Oct. 1921, 
pp. 391-396. 1 fig. Report of Committee of the 
Am. Elec. Ry. Assn. on heavy electric traction. 
Compares locomotives and multiple unit-cars. 
(Abstract.) 

Italy. Economic Aspects of Electric Traction in 
Italy (Aspetti economici della trazione elettrica in 
Italia), Pietro Lanino. Ingegneria Italiana, vol. 7, 
no. 170, Sept. 10, 1921, pp. 144-14G. Summarizes 
needs of Italian electrification and gives list of 
impending constructions. 

Electrification Progress on Italian Railways, 
Giovanni B. Santi. Ry. Elec. Engr., vol. 12, no. 
/ 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 371-375, 6 figs. Discusses develop- 
ment of electrification on account of high price of 
coal and no oil resources. The Valtelline three- 
phase. 15-cycle, 3000-volt system has been working 
for 20 years. 

Steel Plant. Electrification of the Steel Plant Rail- 
road, R. B. Gerhardt. Blast Furnace & Steel Plant, 
vol. 9, no. 10. Oct. 1921, pp. 613-617. Discusses 
savings effected in fuel, repairs, labor, and deprecia- 
tion; also discusses safety, frogs and switches, etc. 
(Abstract.) Paper read at Assn. Iron & Steel Elec. 
Engrs. Convention. 

RAILWAY MOTOR CARS 

Gasoline. Petrol Rail Motor Cars, Kalka-Simla 
Railway. Ry. Gaz., vol. 35, no. 15. Oct. 7, 1921, 
pp. 535-539, 7 figs. Describes car for narrow-gage 
mountain service in India under severe working 
conditions, due to steep inclines and many sharp 
curves. Design includes several noteworthy features 
particularly gearing and transmission, frame con- 
struction, and combination of coupled wheels and 
radial trucks to give flexibility on curves. 

RAILWAY OPERATION 

Automatic Train Control. Automatic Safety- 
Apparatus and Automatic Train Control (Appareil 
automatique de sdret^ et de contrdle des trains), 
Maurice Gouineau. R^vue G^n^rale de TEIec- 



84 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 1 



tricit*:-, vol. 10. no. 12. Sept. 2-i, 1921, pp. 406-112. 
10 figs. Describes Regan system as adapted to 
French railroads. 

Cab SignaliriK and Automatic Stopping of Trains 
(La r<:p^titton des signaiix sur les machines ct I'arrfit 
automatique des trains), J. Netter. La Technique 
Moderne. vol. 13, no. 3, March 1921, pp. 101-104, 
7 fiKS. Criticism of Regan system recently tested on 
Paris-Dreux line; comparison with Rodolausse 
apparatus; systems used by principal French rail- 
roads. 

Interchange of Rolling Stock. On the Question of 
Interchange of Rolling Stock, C. W. Crawford. 
Bulletin International Ry. Assn., vol. 3, no. 9. 
Sept. 1921, pp. 1275-1321. Discusses the question 
as it affects United States, Canada and Mexico. 
Gives summary of their regulations and practices, 
also answers to questions sent. Appendixes. 

Passenger Traffic. Handling Heavy Passenger 
Traffic at Doncasler. Ry. Gaz., vol. 35, no. 14, 
Sept. 30. 1921, pp. 493-490 and 507, 4 figs. De- 
scribee the special traffic arrangements made by 
Great Central and Great Northern Railways in 
connection A-ith the race traffic. 

EAILWAY REPAIR SHOPS 

Contract Shop, vs. The Cost of Contract vs. Rail- 
way Shop Repairs. J. W. Roberts. Ry. Age, vol. 71. 
no.' 10. Oct. 15. 1921. pp. 729-731, 2 figs. Total 
cost to railroad was 28 per cent greater in its own 
shop than in a contract shop. 

Experimental Scheme. An Experiment in Railroad 
Rep'iir Work, Fred H. Colvin. Am. Mach., vol. 55, 
no. 2U, Nov. 17. 1021, pp. 807-S08. Securing 
greater interest by local management. Improved 
machinery and buildings. Describes scheme adopted 
by Erie R.R. at Hornell, N. Y. 

Hequirements. The Requirements for a Modern 
Car Repair Shop, H. H. Dickinson and Paul Schioler- 
Ry. Age. vol. 71. no. 19. Xov. 5. 1921, pp. 890-893, 
3 figs. Type of building, character of tools and gen- 
eral plan for both steel and wood equipment. 

RAILWAY SHOPS 

American Practice. Railway Machine Shop Prac- 
tice — III. Machinery (Lond.), vol. 19. no. 473, 
Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 67-69, 9 figs. Examples of Ameri- 
can practice in machining bearing brasses, axle 
boxes and wedges. 

Machine Tools for. Railway vShop Machine Tool 
Equipment. British Machine Tool Eng., vol. 1. 
no. 2, September-October 1921, pp. 277-399. 188 figs. 
A series of articles on railway-shop equipment, in- 
cluding locomotive boiler shop, wheel and axle shop, 
frame shop, spring shop, grinding shop, general 
machine shop, capstan and turret lathes, carriage 
and wagon frames, girder work, etc. 

RAILWAY SIGNALING 

Alternating-Current. Principles of Alternating Cur- 
rent Signaling. John S. Holliday. Ry. Signal Engr., 
vol. 14. no. U, Nov. 1921. pp. 443-445, 9 figs. 
Explanation of motor and generator motion and 
transformer action that produces rotation in an in- 
duction motor. 

Automatic. Road Test of New A.utomatic Train 
Control. Ry. Signal Engr.. vol. 14, no. 11. Nov. 
1921, pp. 431-432. 4 figs. Test conducted on system 
in which no physical contact is made between 
apparatus on locomotive and on roadway. 

Automatic Block. Proposed Modification of Stop- 
and-Proceed Rule. Ry. Age, vol. 71, no. 19, Nov. 
5, 1921, pp. 807-869, 4 figs. Details of practice on 
fourteen roads using "tonnage" signals, relaxing the 
stop-and-proceed rule. See also Ry. Signal Engr., 
vol. 14, no. 11. Nov. 1921. pp. 429-430. 

Automatic Color Light. The Re-Signaling of the 
Liverpool Overhead Railway. Ry. Gaz., vol. 35, no. 
16, Oct. 14, 1921, pp. 571 and 576, 4 figs., partly on 
p. ' 570. Describes automatic signaling system on 
elecUically operated raikoad, using color light signals 
only. 

Block System. Absolute Permissive Block Signal 
System, C. A. Dunham. Ry. Signal Engr.. vol. 14, 
no. 11, Nov. 1921, pp. 438-440. 7 figs. Study of 
single track signaling showing track layout and cir- 
cuit diagram and explaining operation of trains 
between sidings. (Abstract,) Paper read before 
Kansas City Sectional Committee Meeting. 

Electric. Principles of Alternating Current Signaling. 
John S. Holliday. Ry. Signal Engr.. vol. 14, no. 10( 
Oct. 1921, pp. 389-390. 12 figs. Explaining an easy 
method of constructing vector diagrams and the 
application to track circuit problems. 

Interlocking. Interlocking at a Railway Bridge in 
England, James Benjamin Ball. Ry. Signal Engr., 
vol. It. no. 11. Nov. 1921, pp. 424-428. 7 figs. 
Interesting signaling features on Keadby Deviation 
Railway and movable span over Trent river. (Ab- 
stract.) Paper read before Inst. Civil Engrs. 

One-Lever Route. One-Lever Route Signaling. 
Ry. Gaz.. vol. 35. no. IS. Oct. 28, 1921, pp. 643-648, 
9 figs. A new design of power locking frame whereby 
one lever is used to set up each route, signalman is 
given a visible indication of all that occurs, conflict- 
ing movements are rendered impossible and separate 
point levers are dispensed with entirely. 

Progress, America. Progress of Railroad Signaling 
in America. H. S. Balliet. Ry. Signal Engr.. vol. 
14, no. II, Nov. 1921, pp. 433-437. Detailed history 
of apparatus and methods used from the days of the 
smoke blanket to present efficient systems. Paper 
delivered before N. Y. Signal Sectional Committee. 

Tunnel Signals. The Electric Signaling System in 
the Arlberg Tunnel (Zur Geschichte der elektriscben 
Femmeldeeinrichtungen des Arlbergtunnels), L. 
KohUiirst. Elektrotechnische Zeit., vol. 42, no. 34, 
Aug. 25, 1921, pp. 939-943. Describes numerous 
troubles experienced with system installed in 10.25- 



km. tunnel through which trains driven by steam 
locomotives arc operated. A telephone cable, 
which when installed measured 8000 microhms re- 
sistance per km. from copper to lead sheath dropped 
in six years to only 0.2 microhm. 

RAILWAY TRACK 

Concrete Supports. Concrete Block Track Supports 
on Italian Railways. Eng. News-Rcc, vol. 87, 
no. 17, Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 089-690, 2 figs. Fixed 
and rocking blocks placed longitudinally have rail 
si-ats at each end. Rockers insure vertical loading. 

Maintenance. Distributing Expenditures in Track 
Maintenance, J. L. Starkic. Ry. Maintenance Engr., 
vol. 17, no. 11, Nov. 1921. pp. 403-405. 4 figs. 
Gulf. Colorado & Santa Fe is obtaining increased 
interest and efficiency by means of new work records. 
Advantages of Budget System for Track Work, 
C. A. Morse. Eng. & Contracting, vol. 56. no. 16, 
Oct. 19. 1921. pp. 370-372. Points out that there 
should be a carefully prepared budget made up in 
fall of year including all probable expenditures of 
coming year outside of ordinary upkeep of track and 
roadbed. Apportioning amounts covered by budget. 
Paper presented before Roadmasters & Maintenance 
of Way Assn. 

Scandinavian Construction. On the Question of 
the Construction of the Road-Bed and of the Track, 
K. Ahlberg. Bui. International Ry. .Assn.. vol. 3. 
no. 9. Sept, 1921, pp. 1147-1150. Concludes that 
Scandinavian countries will doubtless increase the 
load per locomotive axle considerably without 
changing maximum speeds. Appendix. 

Turntables. Twin-Span Turntables on the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio. Ry. Rev., vol. 69. no. 18. Oct. 29, 
1921 , pp. 563-568. 12 figs. Particulars of design and 
advantages to be realized in use of this type of 
turntable. Length 100 ft.; carrying capacity 450 
tons; built by Bethlehem Bridge Corp.; used for 
heavy Mallet type of locomotives. 

RAILWAYS 

Consolidation. Consolidation of Railroads. Ry. 
Rev., vol. 69. no. 14, Oct. 1, 1921, pp. 423-437, 29 
figs. Proposed consolidation of railroad properties 
of United States into a limited number of systems. 
Tentative plan of interstate commerce commision 
based upon Ripley report. 

Shanghai-Nanking. Notes on the Shanghai-Nan- 
king Railway. Ry. Gaz.. vol. 35, no. 18, Oct. 28, 
1921. pp. 637-638. 3 figs. Describes general char- 
acteristics, standard gage, high-capacity rolling stock, 
train control, train service, buildings, etc. 

REFRACTORIES 

Fireclays. Effect of Impurities in Fire Clays, C. E. 
Bales. Brick & Clay Rec. vol. 59, no. 10, Nov. 15, 
1921. pp. 723-725. Points out that high-grade 
fireclays must be akin to kaolin. Explains coloration 
processes and neutralizing of harmful ingredients. 

Furnace Lining. Carborundum Linings for Brass 
Furnaces. M. L. Hartmann. Can. Foundryman. 
vol. 12, no. 10. Oct. 1921, pp. 34-35. Explains 
how carborundum refractories are applied to prob- 
lems in crucible, tilting or rotary, and reverberatory 
furnaces, with records of certain installations. 
Paper read at Foundrymen's Convention. 

RIVETED JOINTS 

Efficiency. A Criticism of High Efficiency Riveted 
Joints, John S. Watts. Boiler Maker, vol. 21, no. 
10. Oct. 1921, pp. 278-279, 3 figs. Calculations 
indicate that use of multiple riveted joints does not 
increase seam efficiencies. 

ROLLING MILLS 

Bar Mills for Alloy Steel. Adapts Bar Mills to 
Alloy Steel, J. D. Knox. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 09, 
no. 20, Nov. 17, 1921, pp. 1275-1281, 12 figs. New 
12 and 18-in. merchant units installed by Ohio 
steelmaker rounds out rolling equipment. Unique 
guide box prevents scrap loss. Rolls adjusted by 
set screws. Description of mills. 

Chambery. France'. Rolling Mill and Foundry of 
the Soci^t^ r Aluminium Francais at Chambery 
(Ateliers de laminage et de fonderie de la Soci^te 
I'Aluminium franjais,^ Chambery). Marcel Blondin. 
Rtjvue G<!!nerale de TElectricite. vol. 10, no. 12, Sept. 
24, 1921, pp. 401-405, 5 figs. Describes equipment. 

Electrically Driven. Some Methods of Obtaining 
Adjustable Speed With Electrically Driven Mills. 
K. A. Paulv. Proc. Engrs.' Soc. of Western Pa., 
vol. 37, no. 3', April 1921. pp. I5S-178and (discussion) 
179-188, 19 figs. Discusses rolling mill practice, 
speed of rolling and systems of speed control. 



SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 

See INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT. 

SEMI-DIESEL ENGINES 

Open-Crankcase. The Open-Fronted Surface Ig- 
nition Engine, F. G. Butt-Gow. Trans. Inst. Mar. 
Engrs.. vol. 33, Sept. 1921. pp. 239-269 and (dis- 
cussion) 270-279. 22 figs. Discusses closed and open 
engines and compares cost of manufacture, running, 
overhauling, lubrication, etc. Describes various 
types of open-crankcase engines. 

SHAPERS 

Toolroom Work. A New Shaping Machine. Eng 
Production, vol. 3, no. 55. Oct. 20, 1921, p. 372, 3 figs. 
Describes machine introduced by The Butler 
Machine Tool Co., Ltd., Halifax, designed especially 
for toolroom work. 

SOLDERS 

Investigation. Metal Solders (Zur Kenntnls der 



Metallote). L. Stemer-Rainer. Zeit. fur Metall- 
kunde. vol. 13. no. 11, Aug. 1921, pp. 368-379, 6 
figs. Deals with tin-lead, aluminum, binary copper- 
zinc, and silver solders, copper-zinc solders contain- 
ing tin, and iron, steel and gold solders. Deter- 
mination of composition, melting point, tensile 
strength and hardness, based on which valuation of 
the different solders is given. 

SPRINGS 

Coil. The Manufacture of Coil Springs, A. W. Allen. 
Machinery (Lond.). vol. 19, no. 474, Oct. 27, 1921, 
pp. 85 89, 17 figs. Coiling machines: open coil 
barrel springs; press operations; eye forming; cutting, 
eyeing and bowing. 

Compression. Nested Steel Compression Springs, 
T. F. Stacv. Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 20, Nov. 17. 
1921, pp. 795-796, 2 figs. Deals with design of 
concentric springs so proportioned that all springs 
are worked to maximum fiber stress. 

Design. The Design of Springs. Joseph Kave Wood. 
Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 17. Oct. 27, 1921.' pp. 674- 
677, 10 figs. Control of the "spring criterion." 
Formulas for leaf springs constrained at one or both 
ends. Characteristics of coil, spiral and bufler 
springs. 

A General Method for Spring Design, Joseph Kaye 
Wood. Am. Mach., vol. 55. no. 19. Nov. 10, 1921. 
pp- 757-762. 3 figs. Types of springs. Economy 
index and load-deflection rate. General formulas 
and table of constants. Parallel scale chart. Im- 
portance of material index. 

STANDARDIZATION 

Automobile Industry. Industrial Standardization. 
Geo. W. Watson. Automobile Engr.. vol. 11, no. 
155. Oct. 1921. pp. 356-358. Advocates more stand- 
ardization in British automobile industry, including 
agricultural tractors, etc. Resum^ of presidential 
address before Instn. of Automobile Engrs. 

STEAM 

Callendar Equations. The Callendar Equations 
for Steam, Gerald Stoney. Beama, vol. 9, no. 4, 
Oct. 1921, pp. 345-350, 3 figs. Abstract of some of 
the best and easiest ways in which to use these 
equations, with special reference to steam turbine 
practice. 

Production and Distribution Accounting. Ac- 
counting for Steam Production and Distribution, 
A. R. Smith. Power, vol. 54. no. 17. Oct. 25, 1921, 
pp. 630-633, 1 fig. Describes two forms of balance 
sheets and enumerates possible losses which can be 
detected by their use. Ways and means and ad- 
vantage of metering boiler outputs. 

STEAM-ELECTRIC PLANTS 

Diagrammatic Recording in. How Can the Ex- 
ecutive Keep in Touch with Plant Economy? C. 
H. Delany. Jl. Electricity & Western Industry, 
vol. 47, no. 7, Oct. 1, 1921, pp. 267-268. 4 figs. 
Diagrammatic method of recording results in oper- 
ation of a steam electric power plant. 

STEAM ENGINES 

Uniflow. A 200 hp. Uniflow Steam Engine. Power 
House, vol. 14, no. 18. Sept. 20. 1921, pp. 21-23, 
4 figs. Built by Galloways Ltd., ^Ianchester, 
Has a novel high-speed valve gear and compression 
release. 

[See also LOCOMOBILES.] 

STEAM METERS 

Types. Modern Feed water and Steam Meters 
(Neuere Speiscwasser- und Dampfmesser), W. E- 
Germer. Zeit. fiir Dampfkessel u. Maschinenbe- 
trieb, vol. 44. no. 33, Aug. 19, 1921, pp. 259-261, 
3 figs. Details of piston disk meter with cylindrical 
measuring disk; the Woltmann meter for turbine 
condensate; \'enturi meter for water and steam. | 

STEAM PIPES ' 

Reducing Resistances in. Economies Obtainable 
by Reducing Resistances in Steam Piping. O. 
Denecke. Mech. Eng.. vol. 43, no. 11, Nov. 1921, 
pp. 735-738, 2 figs. Discussion of general principles 
on which design of steam piping in power plants 
should be based, with comparison of formulas sug- 
gested for various elements affecting steam consump- 
tion as function of resistances encountered to flow of 
steam. Translated from Zeit. fiir Dampfkessel u. 
Maschinenbctrieb. 

STEAM POWER PLANTS 

Modern Design. Modern Steam Power Station 
Desiirn, Frank S. Clark. Jl. Franklin Inst., vol. 192, 
no. 4, Oct. 1921, pp. 413-152. 11 figs. Notes on 
present status of turbine design; economical and 
mechanical features of station design; operation of 
plant. 

STEAM TURBINES 

Blading Failures. Low-Pressure Turbine Blading 
Failures in Destroyers, D. F. Ducey. Engineering, 
vol H2, no. 2913 and 2914, Oct. 28 and Nov. 4, 
1921, pp. 615-619 and 647-650, 15 figs. Results of 
chemical analysis of damaged blades, metallographic 
examination, various heat-treatment, impact-shear 
and bend tests carried out at experiment station. 
(Abstract.) Reprinted from Jl. Am. Soc. Nav. 
Engrs. 

STEEL 

Artificial Seasoning. Artificial Seasoning of Steels, 
H. J. French. Am. Mach., vol. 55, no. 19, Nov. 10, 
1921, pp. 768-771. Review of available data on 
length changes and spontaneous generation of heat in 
hardened steels. Results of preliminary experiments 
on artificial seasoning. Printed by permission of 
Bur. of Standards. 

Automobile Gear. Investigation of Tooth Wear 



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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. I 



ENGINEERING INDEX (Continued) 

With Automobile Gear Steels, E. R. Ross. Automo- 
tive Industries, vol. 45, no. 18. Nov. .). 1921, pp. 
865-869, 10 figs. Steel with minimum of 0.45 carbon 
that is capable of treatment giving a scleroscope 
hardness of 75 or over is recommended for oil treat- 
ing. Specification limits should be close enough to in- 
sure uniform results from a standard heat treatment. 

Bar, Weight of. Estimating the Weight of Bar 
Steel, Hyman Lcvine. Machy. (N. V'.), vol. 28, 
no. 3, Nov. 1921, p. 190. Formulas for calculating 
approximate weights of various sections and lengths 
of steel- 
Cast, Carbonizing Parts. The Carbonizing of Cast 
Steel Parts. William O. Conner. Trans. An?. Soc. 
for Steel Treating, vol. 2, no. 2. Nov. 1921, pp. 
148-149. Writer finds that all parts or pieces should 
be cooled in pots to atmospheric temperature. 

Cast, Impact Tests on. Study Impact Tests on 
Cast Steel, !•". C. I.angenherg. Iron Trade Rev., 
vol. 69, no. IS, Nov. 3. 1921, pp. 1145-1147 and 1154. 
6 figs. Results of investigations on cast steels 
of varied compositions and heat treatments. Higher 
shock strength is shown to be obtained from low 
phosphorus material. 

Crystalline Structure. Crystalline Structure of 
Steel (Stilets kristallbyggnad^ Arne Wcstgren. 
Jernkontorcts Annaler, vol. 105, no. 10, 1921, pp. 
401-430, 8 figs. Discusses theory, methods of test- 
ing, structure of allotropic modifications of iron, 
structure of hardened steel, etc. 

Hardness Formulas. Determines Hardness Formu- 
las E. J. Janitzkv. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 69, no. 17, 
Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 1079-1081, 3 figs. Investigation 
conducted on steel specimens shows that Brinell 
hardness can be computed by use of mathematical 
formulas. Outline of method for deriving formula. 
(Abstract.) Paper presented before Am. Soc. for 
Steel Treating. 

Impact Properties. Impact Properties of Various 
Steels, F. C. Langenberg. Chem, & Met. Eng., 
vol. 25. no. 20. Nov. 16, 1921, pp. 910-912, 5 figs. 
Cylinders of steel, centrifugal cast, were sectioned 
and tested, a set of steel bars, with increasing carbon 
content, and some steel casting were tested after 
various heat-treatments; comparison of impact for 
forged and cast steels. 

Liquid, Svu-face of. The Surface of Liquid Steel. 
Cosmo Johns. Engineering, vol. 112, no. 2913, 
Oct. 28, 1921, p. 619. Supplementary to previous 
papers by author on appearance of liquid steel as it 
flows from the launder of an acid open-hearth furnace, 
and evidence of existence of vapor of iron or steel. 
Paper read before British Assn. 

Nitrogen in Carburized. Nitrogen in Carburized 
Steels, W. E. Ruder and G. E. Brophy. Chem. & 
Met. Eng., vol. 25, no. 19, Nov. 9, 1921, pp. 867- 
871, 7 figs. Describes micrographic methods for 
detection of nitrogen compounds. 

Properties. The Properties of Steel. Eng. Produc- 
tion, vol. 3, no. 57, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 417-418, 1 fig. 
Notes on influence of various elements. 

Stainless. Stainless Steel for Turbines. Electrician, 
vol. 87, no. 2207, Oct. 28, 1921, pp. 540-541, 5 figs. 
Examination after 3471 hours run showed that stain- 
less steel blades, polished and unpolished, were 
practically untouched. See also Iron & Coal Trades 
Rev., vol. 103, no. 2800, Oct. 28, 1921, pp. 626-627, 
8 figs., partly on p. 628. 

Stainless Steel in Engineering. Eng. 8: Indus. 
Management, vol. 6, no. 17. Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 466- 
467, 2 figs. Describes demonstration at Thos. 
Firth's & Sons, Sheffield, England, showing behavior 
of turbine blades, made from stainless steel, under 
working conditions. See also Eng. Production, 
vol. 3, no. 56. Oct. 27, 1921, p. 405, 2 figs.; Engmeer- 
ing, vol. 112, no. 2913, Oct. 28, 1921. pp. 592-594, 
7 figs.; and Engineer, vol. 132, no. 3435, Oct. 28, 
1921, pp. 447-450, 7 figs. 

(See also ALLOY STEELS; CHROMIUM 
STEEL; MANGANESE STEEL; URANIUM 
STEEL. 1 
STEEL CASTINGS 

Heat Treatment. Heat Treatment Improves 
Castings. Martin M. Rock. Foundry, vol. 49, 
no. 20, Oct. 15, 1921, pp. 797-799. Tensile tests of 
unannealed, air cooled and water quenched steel 
castings do not disclose marked difference in strength 
but impact tests show water-quenched product 
excels others. 
Welding. The Welding of Steel Castings (Schweissen 
von Stahlformguss), L. Treuheit. Stahl u. Eisen, 
vol. 41, no. 39, Sept. 29, 1921, pp. 1361-I36C, 
21 figs. Notes on different processes with special 
consideration of electric arc and autogenous welding. 
It is concluded that for steel castings oxygen-acetyl- 
ene and fire welding are best processes, and should 
be used exclusively for highly stressed castings. 
(Abstract.) Paper before Assn. German Foundry- 
men. 
STEEL, HEAT TREATMENT OF 

Hardening. Discussion of the Hardening of Steel 
and Other Alloys, Oscar E. Harder. Trans. Am. 
Soc. for Steel Treating, vol. 2, no. 2, Nov. 1921, 
pp. 139-147, 1 fig. With particular emphasis on 
important part played by solution and precipitation. 

Hardness Variation. Hardness Variations in Heat- 
Treated Steel, Carle R. Hayward. Chem. & Met. 
Eng., vol. 25, no. 15, Oct. 12, 1921, pp. 695-696. 
Gives some tables of figures for shore center and 
half-way tests showing greater hardness in center. 

Influence of Mass. A Contribution to the Problem of 
the Influence of Mass in Heat Treatment, E. J. Jan- 
iUky. Trans. Am. Soc. for Steel Treating, vol. 2, no. 1, 
Oct. 1921, pp. 55-62, 3 figs. Writer seeks to show 
that law which relation of mass has to physical proper- 



ties exists and can be determined mathematically. 

Quenching. Efficiency of Various Quenching Med- 
iums With Their Practice and Applications, James 
H. Morey. Trans. Am. Soc. for Steel Treating, 
vol. 2, no. 1, Oct. 1921. pp. 63-69. 4 figs. Discusses 
effect of brine, oil, sperm, lard, sea or salt water. 

Tempering. Notes on Tempering (Remarques sur 
hi treinpe), L. Cirenet. La Technitpie Moderne, 
vol. 13, no. 3, March 1921, pp. 104-111, 2 figs. 
Criticism of Dejean's article dealing with factors 
affecting tempering, mechanics of tempering, 
tempering iron and various iron and steel alloys etc. 
Close of discussion by P. Dejean. 

STEEL, HIGH-SPEED 

Electric Tool. Features of Electric Tool Steel Prac- 
tice, W. J. and S. Stuart Green. Iron Age, vol. 108, 
no. 17, Oct. 27, 1921, pp. 1061-1064, 3 figs. Points 
out that standardized shop practice is necessary. 
Large ingots are recommended. Top pouring 
preferred for tool steel. 

Ingots, Heat Treatment of. The Heat Treatment 
of Heavy Ingots of High-Speed Tool Steel (Beitrag 
zur Frage der Warmformgebung schwerer lilocke 
aus Schnellarbeilsstahl), W. Oertel. Stahl u. Eisen, 
vol. 41, no. 40, Oct. 6, 1921, pp. 1413-1416. 8 figs. 
The formation of cracks with forging of high-speed 
steel ingots is attributed to presence of coarse carbide 
concentrations, whereas observed disintegration of a 
forging in a circular or core part is caused by phe- 
nomena in connection with forging in angle saddle. 
Explains how this disintegration can be prevented. 

Treatment. How to Make the Most out of High 
Speed Steel. A. J. Wilson. Can. Machy., vol. 26, 
no. 13, Sept. 29, 1921. pp. 35-36. .Steel must be 
heated uniformly. Tools should not be hardened 
direct from forging operation. Should be annealed. 

Tungsten Content, Effect of. Effect of Tungsten 
Content on the Specific Gravity of High Speed Steel, 
Arthur S. Townsend. Trans. Am. Soc. for Steel 
Treating, vol. 2, no. 2, Nov. 1921, pp. 133-138. 
Observations made in writer's laboratory tend to 
establish general rule for annealed steels that the 
higher the tungsten content the higher the specific 
gravity. 

STEEL MANUFACTURE 

Enameled Steel. Enameled Steel Manufacture, 
Chester H. Jones. Chem. & Met. Eng., vol. 25, 
no. 19, Nov. 9, 1921, pp. 883-886, 9 figs. Develop- 
ment of glass-lined steel containers; fabricating and 
finishing the steel; mixing and firing the enamel. 

STEEL WORKS 

Electrical Development in. Electrical Develop- 
ment in Steel Mills, R. B. Gerhardt. Iron Age, 
vol. 108, no. IS, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 1135-1136. Re- 
port of progress during past year. Advance in con- 
trol equipment. 

French, Rebuilding. French Modernize in Re- 
building. L. Guillet. Iron Trade Rev., vol. 69, 
no. 18, Nov. 3, 1921, pp. 1152-1154. Better equip- 
ment than was used before war installed in iron and 
steel works. Products of American engineering 
skill used in some plant. Resume of restoration. 
(Abstract.) Paper before British Iron & Steel Inst. 

Scotland. The Valuation of Steel Works in Scotland. 
Colliery Guardian, vol. 122, no. 3169, Sept. 23, 
1921, pp. 870-871. Evidence given in connection 
with reassessment. 

STELLITE 

Use for Cutting Tools. Stellite and Its Use for Cut- 
ting Tools (Le "Stellite" et son emploi pour les 
outils de tour). L'Ouvrier Moderne, vol. 4, no. 6. 
Sept. 1921, pp. 227-230, 26 figs. Properties of 
stellite, degrees of hardness, operating tools, etc. 

STOKERS 

Elvin Mechanical. Distinctive Features of the 
Elvin Mechanical Stoker. Ry. X- Locomotive Eng., 
vol. 34, no. 10, Oct. 1921, pp. 2.59-264, 10 figs. 
Details of its construction and operation, and im- 
provements made without changing fundamental 
principles of its design. Applied to Mallet locomo- 
tives. 

Pluto. The Pluto Stoker and Its Development in the 
Last Decade (Der Pluto-Rost und seine Entwicklung 
im letzten Jahrzehnt), H. Pradel. Zeit. fur Dampf- 
kessel u. Maschinenbetrieb, vol. 44, no. 32, Aug. 12, 
1921. pp. 249-251, 6 figs. Describes improvements 
since' 1911 in forced-draft traveling step grate manu- 
factured by Pluto Grate Co., Weiss & Meurs, Ltd., 
Berlin. 



Frcierick .Mbert Hayes. Textile World, vol. 60, 
no. 20, Nov. 12, 1921. pp. 57-63. 9 figs. Describes 
equipment of Durham Hosiery Mills, Durham, N. C, 
and gives details of mercerizing buildings in course 
of construction. 
Ventilation. Ventilation and Humidificat on of 
Textile Factories, H. N. Leask. Domestic Eng. 
(Lond), vol. 41, no. 34, Oct. 1921, pp. 155-159, 
1 fig. Describes an apparatus designed by A. B. 
Cleworth meeting all the requirements of humidity 
and ventilation, etc. Extract from paper read 
before Rochdale Cotton Spinners' Mutual Improve- 
ment Soc 

THERMODYNAMICS 

Pressure-Volume Chart. Application of the Log- 
arithmic Pressure-Volume Diagram to Heat Phe- 
nomena (..\nwendung des logarithmischen Druck- 
Volumen-Bildes fiir Warmevorgange), K. Komer. 
Zeit. fur angewandte Mathematik u. Mechanik,. 
vol. l,no. 3, Junel921, pp. 189-194, 5 figs. Describes 
how diagram can be developed, giving theoretical 
and actual logarithmic pressure-volume diagram 
of a Diesel engine, from which temperature and 
entropy for everj' point can also be directly read. 

TIDAL POWER 

Proposed System. Using the Power of the Tides. 

(L'Utilisation de I'energie des marees). L'Industrie 
Electrique, vol. 30, no. 702, Sept. 25, 1921, pp. 
345-352, 1 1 figs. Discusses the various systems, 
proposed, classed as, using the water level, velocity of 
water, or weight of water. 

Severn Project. Long Distance Transmission and' 
Tidal Power, T. F. Wall. Electrician, vol. 87, no, 
2263, Sept. 30, 1921, pp. 408-410, 3 figs. Discusses, 
the Severn scheme of the Ministry of Transport for 
an average generation of 500,000 hp. over a 10-hr. 
day. Scheme involves d.c. generators driven by water 
turbines; transmission of power to London at 120.000 
V. pressure. Electrical difficulties involved. (Ab- 
stract.) Paper read before British Assn. 

System for Utilizing. Long Distance Transmission 
of Electrical Energy with Special Reference to Tidal 
Power, T. F. Wall. Engineering, vol. 112. no. 2912, 
Oct. 21, 1921, pp. 587-588, 3 figs. Preliminary out- 
line of system obviating difficulty of varying speeds- 
of turbines, permitting use of a.c. generators driven 
directly from turbines, and offering other advantages. 
Paper read before British Assn. 

TIME STUDY 

Stop-Watch. Stop Watch Time Study. Does It 
Promote Industrial Efficiency? Eng. & Indus. 
Management, vol. 6, nos. 16 and 17, Oct. 20 and 27, 
1921, pp. 437-440 and 463-465. Oct. 20: An in- 
dictment of the Stop Watch, by Frank B. and L. M, 
Gilbreth. Defense of stop watch by Carl G. Barthj 
and Dwight V. Merrick in discussion held under 
auspices of Taylor Society. 



TERMINALS, LOCOMOTIVE 

Olclahoma City. M. K. & T. Improves Its Facilities 
at Oklahoma City. Ry. Age, vol. 71, no. 16, Oct. 
15, 1921, pp. 713-716, 7 figs. Engine terminals and 
yards have been reconstructed to take care of in- 
creased business. 

TERMINALS, RAILWAY 

Snow and Ice Handling. Handling Snow and Ice 
in Railway Terminals, J. J. Navin. Eng. & Con- 
tracting, vol. 56, no. 20, Nov. 16, 1921, pp. 462-463. 
(Abstract.) Paper read before Maintenance of 
Way Club of Chicago. 

TEXTILE MACHINERY 

Construction. Machining Operations on Textile 

Machine Parts. Machinery (Lond.), vol. 19, no. 

473, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 57-62. 14 figs. Review of 

methods employed by British Northrop Loom Co., 

Ltd., Daisyfield, Blackburn. 

TEXTILE MILLS 

Hosiery. Durham's New Dyehouse and Steam Plant, 



u 



UNEMPLOYMENT 

Factors Affecting. What Construction Can Do for 
the Unemployed, R. C. Marshall. Eng. & Contract- 
ing, vol. 56, no. 16. Oct. 19. 1921, pp. 378-379. 
Outlines factors vitally affecting unemployment 
emergency, and discusses steps for reviving con- 
struction. Memorandum submitted to President's 
Unemployment Conference. 

URANIUM STEEL 

Microstructure. Uranium Steels, Hugh S. Footc 
Chem. & Met. Eng., vol. 25. no. 17, Oct. 26. 192U 
pp. 7S9-792. 13 figs. Discussion of microstructure 
of steels containing a similar percentage of carbott 
and increasing percentages of uranium. Brief 
description of influence of uranium as an alloy in 
structural and high-speed steels. 



w 



WAGES 

Limitation of Output. Limitation of Output, 
H M Vernon. Eng. & Indus. Management, 
vol. 6, no. 16, Oct. 20, 1921, pp. 428-432, 3 figs. 
Based on chapter in writer's recently published book 
on Industrial Fatigue and Efliciency. Includes 
statistical information obtained during war and now 
published for first time. Discussion as to what is 
best form of wage and piece-rate payment. 

Problems. Wages Problems. Iron & Coal Trades 
Rev vol. 103, no. 2794, Sept. 16, 1921, pp. 395-397. 
Paper by W. L. Hichens on "The Principles by which. 
Wages are Determined" and paper by Prof. Kirkaldy 
on "The Wages System and Possible Developments." 
See also CoUiery Guardian, vol. 122, no. 3168, Sept. 
16, 1921, pp. 797-798 and p. 805. 



ZINC ALLOYS 

Copper-Aluminum-Zxnc. Tenax Metal (Tenax- 
Metall), Willy Schulte. Giesserei-Zeitung vol. 
18 nos. 18. 19 and 20, Aug. 9, 16 and 23, 1921, pp- 
258-260, 268-270 and 278-280. Zinc alloy con- 
taining 2.88 per cent copper and 4.44 per cent alum- 
inum, developed during war, practicability of whico 
was confirmed by official investigations and private- 
experiences. Results of tests to determine its value 
for construction of rods, as a substitute for brass. 



Mechanical Engineering 

The Monthly Journal Published by 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Publication Office, 207 Church Street, Easton, Pa. Editorial and Advertising Departments at the 
Headquarters of the Society, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New Vorli 

Volume 44 February, 1922 Number 2 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

A Review of Industrial Education and Training 87 

Education and Training in tiie Industries, R. L. Sackett 87 

Education and Training on Railroads, D, C. Buell 91 

Discussion on Education and Training 92 

Avoidable Waste in Locomotive Operation, William Elmer 93 

Discussion at the Railway Session 97 

Emergency Fleet Corporation Water-Tube Boilers for Wood Ships, F. W. Dean 99 

Motion Pictures of a Stoker Furnace in Operation, R. Sanford Riley 103 

A Study of the Elastic Properties of Small-Size Wire Cable, R. R. Moore 105 

Air Lines and Some of Their Problems, R. B. C. Noorduyn 107 

Strength of Airplane Rib Forms, D. T. Brown andR. J. Diefenbach 110 

Flying Problems Discussed Ill 

Session on Fuel Economy * 112 

National Research Council to Coordinate Research Throughout the Country 114 

Mechanical Advisory Committee for Division of Engineering, A. D. Flinn 114 

Elimination of Waste in Industry Through Research, F. A. Wardenburg 115 

Research in Leather Manufacture, A. W. Thomas 116 

Research Problems Discussed 117 

Survey of Engineering Progress 119 

The Flow of Air and Steam in Nozzles — Short Abstracts of the Month 

Engineering Research 128 

Work of the A.S.M.E. Boiler Code Committee 130 

Bombing of the U. S. S. Ex-Iowa and the Former German Ships, Com. F. J. Cleary 131 

Editorials 132 

The Development of the Colorado River— Industrial Standardization — Engineering Societies Library 
now liOans Books 

A.S.M.E. Announces Spring Meeting Plans 133 

Engineering and Industrial Standardization 136 

Report of Federal Power Commission 137 

News of Other Societies ; . . 138 

Library Notes and Book Reviews _ 139 

Advertising Section : 

Display Advertisements 153-EI 

Consulting Engineers 86 

Classified Advertisements 93 

Classified List of Mechanical Equipment 94 

Alpliabetical List of Advertisers 112 



Price 50 Cents a Copy, S4.00 a Year: to .Members and Affiliates, 40 Cents a Copy, $3.00 a Year. Postage to Canada, 
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Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Easton, Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on January 17, 1921. 



Contributors and Contributions 



Education and Training in the Industries 

The work instituted by the A.S.M.E. Committee 
on Education and Training in the Industries is exceed- 
ingly important and a valuable contribution to it was 
presented in the paper by Dean Robert L. Saekett at 
the last A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting and given in 
abridged form in this issue of Mechanical Engi.neer- 
ING. Dean Saekett is dean of engineering and in 
charge of the Experiment Stati(m at Pennsylvania 
State College, a position he hivs held since 1915. 
Previou.s to that he taught at Purdue University for 
eight years and during that time he was engaged in 
extensive consulting work in the hydraulic field. He 
is a graduate of the University of Michigan, in the 
class of ISitl. 

The second Annuid Meeting paper on this subject 
of Industrial Training was given by D. C. Buell, of 
Omaha, Nebraska. Mr. Buell is director of the Rail- 
way Educational Bureau which cooperates with a 
large number of railroads in their educational work, 
and he has had a long experience in supervising railway 
training. His paper appears in slightly abridged form. 

Operation of Locomotives and Cars 

The paper by William Elmer, presented at the 
A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting Railway Session and ab- 
stracted in this issue of Mech.\nic.\l Engineerixo, 
gives the fundamentals upon which the maximum 
operation of locomotives and cars depends. Mr. 
Elmer has been in the service of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad since his graduation from Princeton Univer- 
sity in 1894. He has acted as master mechanic, 
and superintendent of motive power on various divisions 
of the Pennsylvania Lines, and at present is super- 
intendent of the ^Middle Division. He was also re- 
sponsible for the design and construction of various 
shops at Altoona, .luniata, etc. 

Mr. Elmer's paper is followed by an abstract of 
the discussion at the Railway Session. 

Tests of Oil Burning in Marine Boilers 

The Annual Meeting paper by F. \V. Dean, ab- 
stracted in this issue of Mech.-\nic.\l Engineerixc, 
supplements a paper on testing U. S. Shipi)ing Board 
boilers, given before the 1919 A.S.M.E. Annual 
Meeting. Mr. Dean, who served in the steam- 
engineering department of the U. S. Shipping Board 
during the War, has had long experience in the con- 
sulting field of power and mill engineering. He has 
been a member of the A.S.M.E. since ISS.'i and served 
as its vice president from 1895 to 1897. He graduated 
from Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard t^niversity, 
in 1875, and served as instructor there for eight years. 

Aeronautic Problems 

The A.S.M.E. Aeronautic Division at its first 
Animal Meeting Session devoted its program to the 
problems of the commercial ojieration of air lines and 
also to a technical consideration of some aeronautic 
materials. Two papers on air line operation were 
given. The one by Major L. B. Lent was abstracted 
in the January issue of Mech.\xical Engineering. 
The other, by R. B. C. Noorduyn, appears in this 
issue. Mr. Noorduyn's contribution is extremely 
valuable as it gives a clear idea of the preliminary 
difficulties that must be met and overcome before a 



successful air transportation is thinkable in this 
country. Mr. Noorduyn is a representative of the 
Netherlands Aircraft Manufacturing Company. 

The papers on materials were jiresented by R. R. 
Moore, D. T. Brown and R. J. Diefenbach. Mr. 
Moore, who is chief of the Phj-sical Testing Branch 
at McCook Field, presented the results of a study of 
the elastic properties of small wire cable, a most im- 
portant contribution of knowledge necessarj' for 
efficient design of aircraft. The paper by ^Iessrs. 
Brown and Diefenbach gives the results of an investi- 
gation of the strength of plywood webs of a form 
reseml)ling airplane ribs. Mr. Biown is sales engi- 
neer for the American Radiator Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., and Mr. Diefenbach is with the Worthington 
Pump and Machinery Corporation. 

Fuel and Its Combustion 

The A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting Fuel Session was 
well attended and the papers were fully discussed. 
All of the papers have previously appeared in ]\Iechax- 
iCAL Engineering and the discussion is abstracted 
in this Lssue. Following the Fuel Session, R. Sanford 
Riley, president of the Sanford Riley Stoker Co., dis- 
played motion pictures of a furnace in operation. 
The interest in the picture here described made it 
necessary for Mr. Riley to repeat it. 

Mechanical Engineering Research 

The A.S.M.E. Research Committee held a notable 
conference at the last Annual Meeting, at which the 
duties of the National Research Council Mechanical 
Engineering Advisory Committee were discussed as 
were other important matters pertaining to the re- 
search activities of the Society. Two valuable papers 
on research were presented by F. A. ^^'ardenburg, 
assistant chief engineer of E. J. du Pont de Nemours 
& Co., and Arthur W. Thomas, assistant professor of 
food chemistry at Columbia University. The report 
of the A.S.M.E. Committee on Lubrication was pre- 
sented and progress of the research with the Upper 
Limits of the Steam Tables was discussed. 

Editorials 

The editorial pages of this issue contain an inter- 
esting account of the power jiossibilities of the Colo- 
rado River, by 0. C. Merrill, executive secretary of 
the Federal Power Commission. There is also an 
appeal for a comprehensive program of industrial 
standardization from E. C. Peck, chairman of the 
A.S.M.E. Standing Committee on Standardization. 



A.S.M.E. News Well Received 



The first issue of A.S.M.E. NEWS, the 
new semi-monthly publication of the A.S. 
M.E., was mailed under date of December 
22, 1921. It has attracted wide attention 
and many favorable comments have been 
received. It is evidently satisfying a need 
for a frequently issued organ devoted to 
.\.S.M.E. activities. 



A.S.M.E. Spring Meeting, Atlanta, May 
8 11, 1922. Papers for this meeting must 
be in Secretary's hands by March 15. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Volume 44 



February, 1922 



Number 2 



A Review of Industrial Education and Training 

Symposium at Annual Convention of A.S.M.E. Develops Many Principles of Value in Formulating 

Standard Code of Procedure in Industrial Education 



FOR se\'eral years The American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers has maintained a relationshij) witii the universities 
and colleges of this country, anil it was but natural that in time 
the interest of this organization should be extended toward the 
technical and trade schools which play such an important part in 
our system of industrial education. 

Two years ago the scope of the Committee on Relations with 
Colleges was extended to include Education and Training for the 
Industries, and the name of the committee changed to the more 
comprehensive one of Education and Training.^ The symposium 
on this subject at the recent Annual Meeting of The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers was the second public meeting 
held under the auspices of the enlarged committee. Wiiile con- 
forming with the central idea of the convention, by showing how 
■technical education for industrial employees is for the purpose of 



prci'entiag irasle of money, materials, mechanical power, and human 
energv," the papers and discussions brought out many principles 
which will be utilized by the committee in formulating a standard 
code of procedure in industrial education. This can be adopted by 
the Society and recommended to the industries and the educa- 
tional authorities. 

Two papers were presented and discussed at the session held on 
the evening of Monday, December 5, in the auditorium of the Engi- 
neering Societies Building, New York. Dean R. L. Sackett, State 
College, Pa., presented the first pajjer, on Education and Training 
in the Industries, and D. C. Buell, Director of The Railway Edu- 
cational Bureau, Omaha, Neb., presented the second, on Education 
and Training on Railroads. President E. S. Carman presided over the 
session and Chairman W. W. Nichols of the Committee presented 
the speakers. An abstract of the papers and discussions follows. 



Education and Training in the Industries 

By R. L. SACKETT,2 STATE COLLEGE, PA. 



T^HE education of the worker in the United States has been 
•*■ neglected, while in Europe special types of instruction have 
been in use for some time. The continued growth of apprentice and 
continuation schools there indicates that they perform a valuable 
service. Howe\-er different the conditions abroad and here may be, 
the fact remains that more systematic methods must be employed 
to improve skill, to prejiare men for jjromotion, and to inform our 
wage earners concerning American industrial methods and ideals. 
The early apprentice and his master constituted the first in- 
dustrial school. The apprentice system failed to meet the need 
of changing industry and became relatively unimportant, when the 
age of power and labor-saving machinery arrived about 1876. 

'Continuation Schools 

Probably the earliest continuation school was that organized 
in Munich, Germany, where daytime attendance at commercial 
and industrial schools was made compulsory for all under eighteen 
years of age engaged in commerce or industry. Besides the con- 
tinuation of their general education in history, German, mathe- 
matics and citizenship, separate classes are arranged for the youths 
of each trade and in these classes both practical and theoretical in- 
struction are given in the trade by skilled workmen and special 
instructors. It is to be noted that Germany, in the beginning, 
brought the public schools and industries into close cooperation 
in the conduct of the continuation school. 

In Great Britain the Fisher Bill for compulsory continued edu- 
cation was pa.ssed in the Education Act of 1918. This bill pro- 
vides for a national system of public education for those 14 to IS 
years of age. The system is being applied gradually and the 
number of students will increase from 600,000 to aliout 1,200,000 in 
1925. Attendance of two half-days per week is required and the 
subjects are divided into — 

a Study of English, Geography, History, Mathematics, etc. 



Practical Science, Vocational In- 
swimming, gymnastics, 



' W. W. Nichols, Chairman, C. R. Richards, R. L. Sackett, J. C. Spence, 
Ira N. HoUis. 

2 Dean of Engineering School. Mem..\m.Soc.M.E. 

Abstracts of papers presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, Dec. 
5 to 9, 1921, of The American Society of Mech-4Nic.\l Engineers. 
All papers are subject to revision. 



6 Instruction in Handicraft, 

struction. 
c Physical Training, including dril 

organized games. 
The possibilities of the continuation school were first recognized 
in the United States about eight years ago, since which time twenty 
states have established such schools. The need for them as a part 
of our state sj'stem was emphasized by Charles W. Eliot, Presi- 
dent Emeritus of Harvard College, who said in 1916: 

A survey of the programs of existing American secondary schools — pub- 
lic, private and endowed — would show that as a rule they pay little atten- 
tion to the training of the senses and provide small opportunities for ac- 
quiring any skill of eye, ear, or hand, or any acquaintance with the accurate 
recording and cautious reasoning which modern science prescribes. 

In support of the continuation school and of industrial instruc- 
tion in general, the National Association of Manufacturers in 
convention May, 1913, declared: 

First, It is the purpose of vocational education to save, educationally, 
that 50 per cent of the children of the land who now leave school at the end 
of the sixth grade, undirected, unskilled, uninformed, and to train them and 
others of all ages in the essentials of successful and happy workers in their 
chosen occupations, in commerce, in manufacturing, in agriculture, and in 
home making.' 

Second, It is essential that the teachers in vocational schools shall have 
had extended experience in actual emi>lpynient in the occupations taught, 
to the end that the instruction be practical and meet actual conditions. 

Third, Failure has marked every attempt at vocational education not 
directed principally by employees and employers from the vocations, thereby 
assuring that the instruction given shall justify the confidence and hope of 
students, parents and the vocational interests whose cooperation is essential. 

In 1913 the state of Wisconsin began a continuation-school pro- 
gram requiring one half-day per week attendance by those between 
14 and 16 years of age. Following this example nearly half the 
states ha\-e since enacted laws of a similar character, but most of 
them reriuire attendance two half-days per week. 

In general, the program of the continuation schools in this 
country has included instruction in English, mathematics, history 
and then vocational instruction along the trade which the employee 
is pursuing. Classes in any community are therefore divided ac- 
cording to the principal occupations in the local industries. At- 
tendance is required during two half-days per week and this time 

' American Industries, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 27-38. 



87 



88 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



is deducted from the iiia.xiinum number of hours of employment 
permitted per week. The employer is required to make provi.sion 
for the absence of those who are required to attend the continuation 
school. 

Pennsylvania was the second state to provide continuation 
schools, and in l'Jl.5 when the act was passed there were probably 
"at least .")0,000 children between the ages of 14 and 10 who had 
left school to go to work." Why do they leave the common schools? 
A very recent report of the Pennsylvania Dejjartment of Public 
Instruction says, "Many children when asked why they leave 
school to go to work give economic necessity as the reason." Care- 
ful and conclusive investigation shows that very few children leave 
school to go to work because of financial necessity. Thirty-five 
per cent of the children when first asked gi\'c economic necessity 
as a reason, but the invariable result of investigation is to reduce 
this number to between 10 and 15 per cent. In the majority of 
cases further ciuestioning brings out the statement that the desire 
to leave school is the result of "lack of interest, the failure to make 
the next grade, dishke of a teacher, distaste for one or another of 
the prescribed studies, the desire for clothes, spending money, or 
a craving to try something different." Whatever the reason may 
be, the fact remains that the secondary- and high-school systems 
which have been built up in the United States, valuable as they are, 
do not serve all the needs of all the people and the continuation 
school is an attempt to appeal to and to serve the objective type 
of mind, the restless, those who are not adapted to our public 
schools, or are led to think they do not meet the workers' needs. 

The instruction given in the typical continuation school re- 
quiring attendance eight hours per week is about as follows: 

I General Cl.\sses: Hours 

English, Vocational Guidance and Occupational Analysis 2 
Industrial Geography, Citizenship, Hygiene, Music, 

Recreation, Arithmetic, Drawing 2 

Industrial Arts and Home Projects l}-2 

Reading for Appreciation H 

II Prevoc.^tional Classes for "Self-Discovery:" 

English, Vocational Guidance and Occupational Analysis 2 

Industrial Geography, etc 2 

Related Arithmetic and Drawing 2 

Commercial Household Arts or Industrial Prevocational 

Work 2 

III Vocational Classes: 

English, Social Science, Industrial Geography 2 

Related Arithmetic, Drawing and Hygiene 2 

Commercial Home Making or Industrial Vocational 
Work. (In school, shop or in place of employment un- 
der special instructor) 4 

Students are assigned to one or the other, according to their prepa- 
ration and their needs. 

What are the purposes of the continuation schools? I quote 
from the Pennsylvania Bulletin showing a realization of a supreme 
need and of an immense service which these schools may perform 
if rightly directed. 

These children must learn how to adjust themselves to the task of earn- 
ing a living, realize that for practically all of them promotion will be slow 
and must be earned, that shifting from job to job is a wasteful practice, 
that they must learn to be responsible punctual, industrious, willing to ren- 
der cheerful service, if they are to succeed. 

Industry grants thom little opportunity for instruction on the present 
job, the line of promotion, or the next job. Especially does industry fail 
to give them outlook and opjjortunity toward the permanent job which in 
a few j'ears will replace the present and temporary job. 

Therefore, the continuation school must provide opportunity in funda- 
mental subjects for review and drill on what is already known, for advanced 
work on what is yet unknown; and for ajiplying what is studied in school 
to the experiences of every day. The school must help the child to analyze 
the present job and the job to come, give vocational counsel and vocational 
guidance, provide opportunity for prevocational shop experience which 
eventually will become vocational experience. While making the child 
more efficient on the present temporary job the school must prepare the 
child for the probable permanent life job. 

Because many of these pupils are irresponsible at fifteen years of age and 
may be more so at nineteen years, there must be training in the things that 
make for decent, restrained, respectable citizenship and community rela- 
tions. And because all, both boys and girls, will soon be voters, there 
must be training in civics, in knowledge of the structure and functions of 
democratic government. 

Lest the pupils become careless in personal habits and in regard to the 
safety of themselves and others, there must be training in personal hygiene, 
community hygiene, and safety-first principles. 

Because the gang spirit is strong and is the inevitable characteristic of 



adolescent youth, it must be made a force for right doing through the influ- 
ence of assembly gatherings and the development of school spirit. Because 
normal youth must have recreation and leisure, the school must train 
and guide in the profitable use of recreation and leisure. 

The Need for Cooperation. A school system which can perform 
all these functions or one-half of them is such a valuable asset to 
imlustry and hence to society that its aid should be invoked. As 
the English Labor Party pointed out, these aims cannot be reached 
without the closer cooperation of the industries with this type of 
school. None of the legislation so far passed provides for the 
active advice of industrial leaders in the community. This is 
hnportant if the continuation school is to fulfill aU its functions 
as above set forth. On the other hand, it would be a serious error 
to make this type of school merely a manual-training vestibule to 
factory emjiloyment. It is a social institution as well as an indus- 
trial one. It is even more important to industry just now that 
half the effort of our schools be applied to fundamental training in 
habit and character formation, to right thinking and right acting 
about work and citizenship. 

Apprentice Schools 

The Union Pacific, the New York Central System, the Santa Fe, 
and the Pennsylvania Railroad organized schools for apprentices 
of one kind or another beginning in 1S74 when the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railroad began a school for apprentices at 
its Elkhart, Indiana, shops, but attendance was not compulsory 
until 190L In ISSfi evening classes for apprentices were organized 
at the JacLson, Michigan, shops of the Michigan Central Railroad. 
Later the class hour was shifted to the close of the work but was 
not on company time. Still later the instruction was shifted to 
the morning hours and on company time, which is now the general 
rule. The Pennsylvania Railroad began its apprentice school in 
1911 and has gradually e.xtended the plan until there are now 
eleven schools east of Pittsburgh. At first the position of labor 
unions toward industrial education was one of hostility, but this 
has changed in the main and now the International Typographical 
Union has its own extensi\^e schools, the first of which was estab- 
lished in 1908. 

To the foresight and frugality of Germany is due the com- 
pleteness of her educational program, w^hich for a half-century has 
excelled in the applications of chemical and electrochemical re- 
search to the promotion of her industries. The beet-sugar industry, 
the production of synthetic dyes, the by-product coke oven, refor- 
estation, the improvement of river navigation, have been the 
product of scientific education directed toward the development of 
new resources and the reduction of costs. More recently she has 
anticipated the solution of the human problem in industry by a 
plan of intensi\e practical education for every youth who leaves 
school to earn a living. Furthermore, her industries have been 
copartners with the state in the conduct of the program — an im- 
portant factor in which she still leads the United States. 

The experience and present de\elopments in European indus- 
trial education are of interest because they exhibit the trend of 
educational affairs and the effects of the war. Germany now prob- 
ably possesses the most complete educational system of any country 
in Europe. Boys are required to attend the usual courses in ele- 
mentary school instruction up to the age of 14, but during the last 
year they are allowed in some cases to work in the trade-school 
shops during their Saturday half-holiday, pro\-ided that their 
health is good. 

The trade apprenticeship course is from three to four years in 
length, which is somewhat shorter than is usual in Great Britain. 
The distinctive thing about German trade training is that it is 
given in company shops rather than in public trade schools. For 
instance, the Siemens & Halske Company have special school 
shops where apprentices attend, for one year and also return for 
the last three months of their apprenticeship to make a "test 
piece." The latter is used as a part of the examination for li- 
censing as a journejinan. At the end of the course the appren- 
tice goes before an examining committee of experts who test his 
knowledge of the trade and to whom he submits his "test piece." 
Successful ones secure a journeyman's certificate. The appren- 
tice then goes on and obtains a master's certificate. The appren- 
tice training in the industry must be supervised by one ha\'ing a 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



89 



master's certificate. Special short courses of about eight weeks' 
length are given for those who desire a master's certificate. Those 
who attend the apprentice school in a recognized plant are exempt 
from attendance at the government continuation schools. 

In France there is no national scheme for training artisans. 
In Paris and other industrial centers, however, evening and Sunday 
morning classes afford opportunity for trade instruction and there 
are certain day schools for the combined practical and trade in- 
struction of young men who intend to become expert workmen or 
foremen. 

In Switzerland there is no national system of apprentice training, 
but a plan of continuation education embodying trade instruction 
somewhat similar to that of Germany, is carried on. 

In Great Britain apprentice training has probably been a more 
important factor in supplying skilled mechanics than in the United 
States. One of tlie most notable scliools for the training of employees 
who enter as apprentices is that conducted by the British Admir- 
alty for more than 7.5 years, with marked success. The object 
is to train men for positions as draftmen and subordinate dockyard 
officers, to select the most capable for advanced training as design- 
ers, and to give an employee the largest opportunity. 

In the Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers of Great 
Britain, vol. 53, p. 571, there is a discussion of the various types of 
industrial education in operation in Great Britain. The principal 
ones are as follows : 

o A trade apprenticeship combined -with e-i'ening or part-time 

study 

6 A short period of, say, a year in works, then a college course 

followed by works apprenticeship for college graduates 

c Taking a complete college course and then a works course 

d Sandwiching college and works training as in the cooperative 

plan frequently used in the United States 
e Taking a complete works course and then a college course. 
Mr. Fleming of the British Westinghouse company, describes 
their course for ordinary apprentices and says that: 

. . . they are first carefully selected on their educational qualifications and 
character. After a short probational period to test their practical aptitude 
they are admitted to the apprentice school. 

Instruction is given about five hours per week to all apprentices on com- 
pany time and the firm also supplies books and stationery. 

The apprentice is paid the regular rate during his school hours. 

The instruction is of two kinds: general and trade. The first is a contin- 
uation of the apprentice's regular education and is important as the standard 
of education is low for this class of people in England. 

The trade instruction is given by members of the engineering staff, in- 
cluding leading foremen and shop engineers. Drawings, lantern slides, 
and shop demonstrations are used to teach processes. 

An interesting feature is an elective committee of apprentices representing 
the different trades, which cooperates with the school staff. 

The most promising apprentices are selected as a result of their school 
work and are sent for one day per week to the Manchester Municipal 
School of Technology on company time and expense. 

Another works school which has caused considerable comment 
is at Manchester, England. It is devoted to general education 
and to trade education. I quote a significant paragraph from the 
description : 

Before a trade training in England can be effectively given it has been 
found necessary to laj' the foundation of a general education of a deeper 
and more solid character than can at present be obtained in a primary 
school. 

Is this true in the United States? Are we attempting to make 
skilled workmen, and losing sight of the importance of general 
education and intelligent citizenship? 

In one British plant, which is believed to be the Vickers Company, 
the apprentice attends school four hours per week for four years. 
His general education includes 18 months of mathematics with 
shop applications, elementary science, that is, fundamental physics, 
principles of heat, electricity and mechanics. He has also free- 
hand drawing to relate the hand and eye. The general subjects 
include also civics, industrial history, WTJtten and spoken English, 
the laws of health and first aid. 

The trade instruction begins after the above period of 18 months 
of general education. The students are now divided into two 
classes — those to follow mechanical engineering lines and those to 
foUow electrical engineering lines. The treatment of the two is^ 
quite similar and only one will be described. 

Six montlis are devoted to the development of mechanical 



principles, after which the groups are divided into some 12 trades 
and are taught the principles of their trade with demonstrations by 
expert foremen. 

Boys meet their foreman in the school room and there discuss with him 
in class matters of trade practice. This is of the most healthy character, 
and is doing much to remove that natural diffidence which boys normally ex- 
perience in approaching their foreman upon such matters. 

The lecturing staff at the works school is composed of half-time lecturers 
all of whom are works engineers. Mostly university graduates volunteer 
their services. 

This association of future leaders with future workmen and foremen, 
superintendents, etc., is valuable. These advantages belong only to works 
schools. 

During the last two years a unique development has occurred. The 
main body of apprentices is self-governing. Each class elects one of its 
number to represent its interests and these come together once a week and 
form an apprentice council. The Council has a chairman and secretary. 
Council organizes social functions and acts as an apprentice tribunal. 

In the latter capacity it has already done good service. It has set- 
tled minor differences, and arbitrated in such cases with more sat- 
isfaction to apprentices than could have been given by any other 
method. 

Apprentice Training in the United States 

While the number of apprentices in proportion to the number of 
skilled workmen may be less today than in the past, the training 
of apprentices is an important factor in some of our industries^ 
in railway motive power, in the metal trades and to a lesser extent 
in other fields. There are two classes: first, those who have had 
a grammar-school or a high-school education, and, second, special 
apprentices wiio are graduates of technical colleges. 

The practice of one of the electrical companies will illustrate a 
typical plan for the first class. Apprentice trade training is given 
to prepare draftsmen, patternmakers, foundrjoiien, machinists, 
toolmakers, electricians and junior engineers. 

Applicants are first accepted on probation for a period of three 
months. 

At the completion of each month of the probation period their names are 
brought to the attention of the Trades Apprentice Committee, at which 
time their record is reviewed for the purpose of determining their aptitudes 
and characteristics. At the completion of the third month a definite de- 
cision is made by the committee as to whether the young man shall be placed 
on the course, recommended for a regular position in the organization 
where they can be under further observation, or released from the company 
as unsuited for the work. 

When the probation period is completed an agreement is entered into 
between the company and the apprentice and his parents, and outlining 
what the company, expects of the apprentice during his course and what the 
apprentice maj- expect from the company. The apprentice is then placed 
in a special training department in the factory where he receives preliminary 
instruction in the operation of various machine tools under the direction 
of especially qualified instructors. 

The training department turns out a product the same as other depart- 
ments in the factory, but it is particularly equipped to take care of young 
men who have had no previous experience on machine-tool operation. 
Supplementing the shopwork each apprentice reports to the trades ap- 
prentice school four hours per week. Two hours of instruction are given 
up to blueprint reading, sketching and mechanical drawing, including tool 
design. The other two hours per week are devoted to economics, science 
and a study of shop problems, including the application of mathematics 
to manufacturing operations. 

After several months' experience in the apprentice training the young 
men are placed in the different manufacturing divisions on various kinds of 
work to thoroughly acquaint them with our products, organization, personnel 
and policies. As they progress through the course more difficult assignments 
are given them, both in the shop and in the trade apprentice school. 

Students are "upgraded" and promoted and wage scales deter- 
mined by careful supervision and records of performance, character 
and habits. The drafting course and junior engineering course are 
open only to high-school graduates. Advanced technical training 
is available for all trade apprentices in an evening school supported 
by the industry and in evening classes at technical institutions 
in the city. 

Special Apprentice Courses 

Special apprentice or graduate-student courses for college tech- 
nical graduates are given by an increasing number of corporations. 
These courses are designed for the dual purpose of acquainting the 
student with the proce.sses and product of the company and of find- 
ing the hne to which each student is best adapted. The method 
frequently employed is to devote one year to practical experience 
in design, assembly, and testing with weekly conferences with and 



90 



MECHANICAL EXGIXEERIXG 



Vol. 44, Xo. 2 



instruction by the engineers and executive staff. After the par- 
ticular line of work for each to pursue is decided the subseciuent 
training is more intensive in that particular line and leads to de- 
sign, research, testing, and sales or executive positions. 

The motive-power departments of the Pennsylvania and New 
York Central systems have had courses for college graduates which 
have led students in the past to enter a few of our technical 
schools that provided special training preliminary to service in 
the motive-power departmcnt.s. This plan was successful until 
the railway shop unions were able to obtain an agreement with the 
director of the railroads under goveriunent control that college 
graduates should not be .so employed. This was not only short- 
sighted but unf:;ir to college-trained men and to the railroads. 

The general ajiprentice courses are effective where they are em- 
ployed in training skilled mechanics and in preparing men of ability 
to become foremen and minor executives. The special apprentice 
courses serve as vocational guides and acquaint the student with 
the product, methods of manufacture and business ideals and 
practices of the company. There is no doubt of the value of such 
cour.ses. The objection is raised that they are too long and that 
college students avoid apprentice courses, some of which are four 
years in lengtli. This ol)jeetion could be partly met liy a cooper- 
ative plan in which the industries accepted undergraduates as ap- 
prentices, employing them before graduation for one or two sum- 
mer periods of tliree months. 

General Instruction for Skilled and Semi-Skilled Employees 

This country has developed types of instruction unknown abroad, 
adapted to the needs of mechanics, electrical workers and a wide 
variety of other trades unknown in other countries. 

Correspondence Courses. The English type of extension lecture 
course was first introduced here about 1891 and it soon replaced 
the old lyceum. This variety of extension instruction was not 
adapted to the needs of the average industrial employee. It was 
soon supplemented by correspondence courses, and private cor- 
respondence schools for instruction in a wide variety of subjects 
sprang up and flourished. A number of them are still active — 
one claiming to have a million students enrolled. The pul>lic and 
private correspondence schools have done a great service for those 
who had the ambition and ability to pursue the work. 

The PennsTjlvania Plan. Classes are organized in the shops, 
power plants, and wherever a group of men or women desire to 
study industrial or engineering subjects. A teacher is selected 
from the executives, who knows by experience the problems of the 
machine shop, boiler room or other parts of the industry in which 
the group is employed. The subject which they desire is i^re- 
pared in special form adapted to the type of instruction. 

The class meets with a teacher once or twice a week in a room 
equipped and provided by the plant or in the city schools or in the 
Y. M. C. A. The time is usually at the close of work hours and 
before the workers go home. An increasing number of companies 
allow a part or the whole instruction to be given on companj' time. 
Some pay the cost of lessons, drawing materials and instruction 
as a bonus to those completing the course satisfactorily. 

Supervised Home Study. A plan devised where the group de- 
siring a subject is too small to warrant the expense of an instructor 
or where an isolated employee desires an advanced subject, is to 
provide corresi^ondence lessons as is usual but have an instructor 
or supervisor in reach of such student, who may be consulted at a 
stated place and time to answer questions and ex|)lain difficulties. 
The answers are sent to the college teachers for grading. 

The Engineering Extension Division of the Pennsylvania State 
College organizes the three types of instruction, viz., correspondence 
and extension classes and supervised home study, for over 7000 
men and women employed in the industries of Pennsylvania. The 
subjects cover a wide field which is constantly being extended. 
Special lesson niatc^'ial lias been and is being prepared ; or the 
texts produced by the University of Wisconsin Extension School 
are used. Courses for college credit in engineering arc given by 
both institutions mentioned under proper restrictions. 

Cooperative Courses for Technical Students. It is not the purpose 
of this outline of the various types of industrial education to dis- 
cuss college curricula for technical students who expect to enter 
industrial or engineering occupations. A word concerning the 



various forms of cooperation between the schools of technology 
and the industries, however, seems appropriate. 

For years the industries have employed college men during the 
summer vacation, or for a h.alf-year or more before graduation. 
The cooperation was at first more or less loose and informal, with a 
growing tenderlcy to reciuire reports from the industries and from 
the students on the quality of work done, its character, and the 
comments of the "boss" on the human qualities of each student. 

The first systematic attempt was that made by the University of 
Cincinnati, under Dean Herman Schneider, in 190(5. The plan 
is for the student to spend two weeks in pursuing his studies in 
course and tlie following two weeks in a shop somewhat as an ap- 
prentice learning a trade. Thus alternate periods are devoted to 
class and to practical work. Groups alternate so that the same 
subject is repeated in cla.ss and in the industry. The student is 
pai<l a wage increasing with his practical experience. 

The plan was first applied to students in mechanical engineering 
and later to civil engineering students and those following business 
pursuits. It took about five years of eleven months each to com- 
plete the cour.so, and it was stated that "present cooperative stu- 
dents who have been at the University of Cincinnati four years are 
of more value to the industries than the ordinary college graduate 
who has had a four-year course and two or three j'ears as a 
special apprentice. 

A number of other institutions have adopted a cooperative plan 
differing only in the length of the period spent in the class room be- 
tween periods in the shop or in other details. The plan has cer- 
tain merits now well recognized. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has established a 
course in cooperation with the General Electric Company at its 
Lynn, Mass., works which was described in detail by Prof. D. C. 
Jackson and M. W. Alexander at the May, 1921, meeting of the 
A.S.M.E. in Chicago. 

Under this plan the student pursues two years of the regular 
course at the Institute as heretofore. At the close of the sopho- 
more year, the summer period of 13 weeks is spent by all those ac- 
cepted as cooperative students at the Lynn Works of the General 
Electric Company. The succeeding terms of 13 weeks each are 
spent alternately by one-half the class at the works and at the Insti- 
tute excejit that the last term is pursued at the Institute by all stu- 
dents. The cooperative course is five j'ears of eleven months each in 
length, a month of vacation following each eleven months' term. 

Foremanship Training. Probably no educational factor in 
industry has been so emphasized by the war as the need of special 
training for the foreman. The character of his job has changed 
and his importance has increased. He determines certain factors 
wliicli decide whether production is on an economical or a wasteful 
basis. He also represents the management or maj' do so in the 
new relations with employees. He is no longer employed to "hire 
and fire," but to organize, assist the accounting department in 
analyzing costs and reducing them, to coordinate more closely 
with other departments and to maintain good personal relations 
with his men as the representative of the management. 

Numerous plans of instruction have been prepared to be given 
in short intensive courses of two weeks, or by correspondence, or 
by weekly works meetings of the foremen in a plant. Quite fre- 
quently, however, it is the management that needs to take the course 
in order that the importance of the foreman's job may be appre- 
ciated and in fact officials are taking new and increased interest 
in education for workingmen, foremen and for minor officials. 

Foreman Teacher Training. Congress passed the Smith-Hughes 
law designed to give each state a specified amount of federal funds 
if matched by an equal appropriation of state funds for the pur- 
pose of training industrial teachers. This has been interpreted 
as applying to foremen who may be gi\-en "foreman teachers' 
training." The good foreman has always been a teacher, but re- 
cent industrial conditions and the numerous cooperative schemes 
for training .secondary-school, high-school and college students in 
industry have magnified the foreman's importance as a teacher. 
Many are inclined to smile at the idea of formal training for the 
foreman teacher, but the fact is that the act offers opportunities 
for jjractical training of foremen in the art of teaching that may 
' have an important effect on the loss of material, human effort and 
wages in poor work or retarded [production. 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



91 



It is a wise industry which utilizes every honest strategy (o pre- 
pare it for world competition. If the Manufacturers' Association 
were to confer with the Federal Board for Vocational Training which 
administers the Smith-Hughes funds and approves coiu'ses, a 
much more ^•aluahle training might be devised. 

The Young Men's Christian Association has for years conducted 
courses in mathematics, drawing, auto meclianics and other sub- 
jects of service to those employed in the inilustries and has aided 
thousands of young men to get a better knowledge of their daily 
job. Kindred oi'ganizations are doing likewise. 

Conclusion 
There are numerous demonstrated educational aids to tlie worker, 



and whatever helps him will improve industry and society at large. 
Neither our public-school authorities nor the industries have fully 
realized the stabilizing value of practical education. The reduc- 
tion of waste and the increase of efficiency in production are mat- 
ters of education of which both the employer and the employee 
have need. 

Furthermore, our educational work in the industries has been 
mainly to help the man in his daily job. We need to look farther 
ahead and use sound pedagogical methods in presenting to the 
employee the principles of economics, of simple finance, of factory 
operation and company policies. Some improvement in our in- 
dustrial relations is possible by the use of the simplest educational 
])rinciples heretofore largely ignored. 



Education and Training on Railroads 



By D. C. BUELL,! OMAHA, NEB. 



'T'HE education and training of railroad men is a subject which 
■*■ has received considerable attention from railroad executives 
for many years. The history of pioneer railroad-development 
work in this country forms one of the romances of the new world. 
Less than 100 years have elapsed since the first American railroad 
was projected, and the subsequent development carried with it 
those possibilities that attract men, both young and old. 

In the early days the whole railroad was a school. Home boys 
importuned the agents of the railroad to be allowed to learn tele- 
graphy and station work. It was a privilege to be allowed to ride 
on an engine or on a train so as to learn to be a fireman or a brake- 
man, or to help switch cars in the yard or truck freight in the freight 
house, or even to work in the track gang or around the engines in 
the roundhouse. There was always a trained man ready to step 
into almost any minor job on the railroad and handle the work 
connected with the job successfully. 

While the old apprentice systems obtaining in most shops were 
in effect in the railroad shops of the country at an early date, 
nevertheless the first educational work of a general nature inaug- 
urated by the railroads was in connection with associations of 
engineers, executives, and others brought together for the purpose 
of adopting standards of equipment, engineering, and operation. 
Much of the educational work on railroads has been done through 
tlie medium of such associations, members of which in many cases 
had the power to pass officially on standard methods and practices 
presented for their consideration. 

These men were confronted with standardization problems be- 
cause of differences of gage of the railroads, the necessity for trans- 
ferring freight and passengers from one road to another, etc. Their 
deliberations and conclusions have made possible our unified 
transportation methods of the present day. 

New Educational Requirements of the Roads 

Up to the last twenty years sufficient new railroad mileage was 
built each year so that enough new positions were created to make 
promotion rapid. Today things are entirely different. There 
has been so little new mileage built in the last few years that op- 
liortunities for promotion in railroad service have been far below 
normal. Men ready for promotion have had to wait years before 
their oijportunity came. 

During the last fifteen years political interference, both state and 
government, in railroad operation tended to remo\T from the 
railroad executi\-e his power of initiative and his ability to do big 
things in a big way. Consequently, in a manner almost unnoticed 
by himself or his community except in its cumulative effect, his 
lirestige was reduced. During this same ijeriod the labor unions 
placed barriers in the way of their members training men to take 
ujj railroad work. Rules and restrictions forced u]X)n the rail- 
roads and counter rules and restrictions imposed by the railroads 
made railroading much less attractive to the youth of the country 
than formerly. There is a reaction at the present time following 
the experiment of government control of the railroads, that 
would indicate the possibility of a partial return to the older con- 

' Director, Railway Educational Bureau, Omaha, Neb. Mem. Am. 
Soc.M.E. 



ditions of management which made railroading more spectacular 
and consequently more attractive to youth. 

Railroad executives have not been insensible to these changing 
conditions. Most of the railroad companies in the past twenty 
years have experimented with the training of apprentices in the 
shops. Some of the companies have very efficient apprentice 
systems, among which those of the Sante Fe and New York Cen- 
tral stand out preeminently. 

Individual executives fired with enthusiasm have made sporadic 
efforts at educational work of almost every kind in almost every 
department in indi\'idual organizations, but it was not until about 
1905 that a comprehensive plan of educational work for a railroad 
organization was seriously considered. 

Basic Efforts in Educational Work 

At that time the late E. H. Harriman called on the executives of 
the various lines under his control to work out some plan of edu- 
cational work which would provide op]3ortunity for ambitious 
employees to increase their knowledge and efficiency and fit them- 
selves for promotion. 

On the Southern Pacific Railroad, under the leadership of Mr. 
Kruttschnitt, a plan of training students in railroad operation was 
evolved which was in effect for a nuniber of years. Young men 
selected for this training were given a four years' course of directed 
practical work to give them experience in the various departments 
of the railroad and to fit them for supervising positions when their 
period of training was completed. This plan, like any other new 
plan, had its faults as well as its good features. The fact that it 
is no longer followed is due to lack of placement opportunities 
rather than to a failure of the system per se. 

Following the lead of the Southern Pacific, the Union Pacific 
Railroad Company in 1909 organized a Railway Educational Bu- 
reau on much broader lines than the Southern Pacific's plan and 
with an entirely different objective. 

The Union Pacific idea was to offer to every ambitious employee 
in the service an opportunity to increase his knowledge and eflScieney 
and place himself in line for [jromotion. In order to make the 
service equally available to all employees instruction was offered by 
correspondence. 

In buOding up this Union Pacific educational plan it was nec- 
essary to prepare practical lesson texts on almost every phase of 
railroad work. The problem of preparing such texts for all classes 
of employees involved the expenditure of several years' time and 
of a considerable number of thousands of dollars. The response 
of the employees to this educational opportunity was greater by 
far than had been anticipated. There were as high as thirty to 
thirty-five per cent of t!ie employees of the Union Pacific enrolled 
as students under this plan. 

Operation of R.mlway Educational Bureau 

As an example of the operation of this plan, track laborers were 
given opportunity to study those things which they needed to 
know to become successful section foremen. Not only actual prob- 
lems of track work but other subjects such as a working knowledge 
of the time table and the book of rules, a non-technical knowledge 



92 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERIXG 



Vol. 44, Xo. 2 



concerning the operation of signals, instruction concerning emer- 
gency repairs to the telegraph line, instruction concerning the opera- 
tion of track motor cars, instruction about such uses of concrete 
as might be a part of a section man's routine of duties, a thorough 
drill in section foreman's accounting for labor and material, etc., 
were offered them for study. In other words, the Bureau furnished 
to employees practical information about their duties and the 
duties of the positions ahead of them that would assist them to 
become more efficient and place themselves in line for promotion. 

Other railroads interested in this educational work undertook 
the problem of working out similar service for their employees. A 
start was made on the Chicago & Great Western and on the Penn- 
sylvania to establish similar education.-il work, but the time re- 
quired to prepare the texts and the considerable cost involved in 
inaugurating the plan seemed to prevent other companies from 
going very far with the idea. 

Tiie Union Pacific educational work was extended to other 
Harriman lines, including the Illinois Central and the Central of 
Georgia. Plans were then made for extending this educational 
service to all of the Harriman lines, but the demand for this kind 
of work all over the countrj' was such that Harriman line officials in 
conference decided to turn over the work to the author, who had 
originated and directed the plan, and thus made this educational 
service general in its nature and available for any and aU railroads 
interested. 

Since 1913, the Railway Educational Bureau with its office at 
Omaha, Neb., has functioned as a semi-commercial institution 
cooperating with any railroad management interested in offer- 
ing educational opportunities to its employees. At the present time 
this Bureau is cooperating with nearly 100 railroad companies, 
representing well over one-third of the railroad mileage of the 
United States. Interested employees pay a nominal fee for the 
service, the railroad companies making tlie collections for the 
Bureau in the same manner they do for insurance companies, 
watch companies, board, etc. 

While this Bureau has provided the railroads with a comprehen- 
sive educational plan available for their employees, changing con- 
ditions require that much more than this be done. 

Even Broader Solution Must be Sought 

Old methods of apprenticeship no longer function. There 
must be new methods inaugurated for training new employees 
before inducting them into the service, for the training of foreign- 
ers and those with educations too limited to allow them to 
study by correspondence. Then, too, there is needed special train- 
ing for employees selected for promotion to minor supervising po- 
sitions before they actually take up their work of supervision. 

A number of prominent railroad executives are giving careful 
thought to methods by which the educational necessities outlined 
in the preceding paragraph may be accomplished in a practical 
manner. 

There is also needed, some method of keeping railroad employees 
informed of current problems, changes in standards, new methods 
and practices. 

The Railway Educational Bureau at the present time is cooperat- 
ing with the Society for Visual Education in Chicago, in the work- 
ing out of a plan for a library of railway moving-picture films 
which will be available for all of the railroads in the country on a 
distribution system similar to that in effect through film exchanges 
to the motion picture theaters. This plan presupposes the pur- 
chase by individual railroads of projection machines which will be 
located at di\ision points, general offices, etc., so that weekly 
programs of educational pictures can be furnishetl for employees 
and their families. 

It is realized by railroad executives that the whole subject of 
railway educational work ties up with two other very important 
problems, one the employment of men and the other, directed 
personnel work following employment. 

It is the belief of some of those who have made a study of this 
subject that the trend of thought in the raUroad world will lead to 
the adoption of a centralized office to which railroad executives 
can go for aid in educational and personnel problems. One of 
the functions of this centralized office would be to prepare educa- 
tional matter suitable to, and a\ailable for, the use of the railroads. 



This centralized office should handle the railway library of moving- 
picture films, and should also cooperate with individual roads in 
working out individual educational problems in connection with 
the training of new employees, apprentice training, intensive train- 
ing for men selected for minor super\ising positions, etc. 



DISCUSSION OX EDUCATION AND 
TRAINING 

Dr. Ira N. HoUis,' Pa.st^President A.S.M.E., emphasized that 
the need is to train men not only for high efficiency in the industries, 
but also for greater satisfaction with their work. The ine\itable 
consequence of the latter would be that their spare hours would be 
usefully occupied in those things that tend to the greatness of our 
country. He hoped that the A.S.M.E. as it gains in oppor- 
tunities and progresses in influence, might have the foresight to take 
a hand in this most important question before the industrial world 
today. 

Dean A. A. Potter^ thought that in industrial education, too 
little attention had been paid to the talents of the learner. 

Prof. A. L. Williston' while agreeing with the authors of the 
pajjcrs that progress has been made in industrial education, con- 
trasted wiiat has been done with the need that e.xists in all the 
different lines of industry today. He criticised the industries 
themselves for making almost no effort to supply tliis need. 

He hoped that the Society would go into this matter with a 
considerable degree of seriousness, and that it would have ^ision 
enough to see that back of tliis is a contribution comparably greater 
than any other it can make to the profession and to the country. 

To J. A. Randall* it seemed that since industry wants individuals 
trained more definitely for the job, it is necessary to have more 
definite conceptions of the duties to be performed in the industries. 

In addition, employees should be trained in company pohcy, in 
attitude toward the company, the community, and society. 

The problem of industrial training is so large that no single 
industrialist or group can solve it, and he suggested that the Society 
join with other organizations in improving courses, which so far 
have given the means of getting a living without conveying the 
power to live a life. 

Edward Robinson* gave a few vital statistics showing just what 
fraction of the population the problem in hand applied to, and he, 
in turn, considered the committee was on the right track and hoped 
the Society would support further work. 

L. W. WaUace^ thought that much could be done through the 
Federal Board of Vocational Training if the engineer-citizens of 
the country would take a greater interest in its work. He said that 
an engineer could, with advantage, be appointed on the Board. 

C. B. Connelly' emphasized Mr. Wallace's statement. This 
Society stands for education, if it stands for nothing else, and it is 
the duty of the Society to take up this important work. We have 
an engineer in the cabinet — the first since the time of Georui' 
Wasliington, and the engineering point of view is being incorporated 
into govermnent matters. Now, therefore, is the greatest oppor- 
tunity for success. 

A. B. Clemens' contributed a written discussion of both papers. 
His discussion of Dean Sackett's paper detailed the work of the I 
correspondence schools under contract or agreement with indus- | 
trial concerns for the instruction of employees, and his discussion 
of Mr. Buell's pajjer supplemented this information with a review 
of the work of the correspondence schools with the railroads. 



' Pres., Worcester Polvtechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass. Mem. Am. 
Soc.M.E. 

- Dean, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. Mem. .\m. Soc.M.E. 

' Principal, Wentworth Inst., Boston, Mass. Mem. Am. Soc.M.E. 

' Secretary Advisory Board, War Plans Div., Genl. Staff, War Dept., 
Washington, D. C. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Professor Mechanical Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, 
Vt Mem. .•^m. Soc.M.E. 

* Executive Secretary, American Engineering Council, F.A.E.S., Wash- 
ington, D. C. Mem. .\m. Soc.M.E. 

' Commissioner of the Dept. of Labor and Industry, Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pa. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Principal, School of Mechanical Engineering, International Correspon- 
dence Schools, Scranton, Pa. Mem. .\m. Soc.M.E. 



Avoidable Waste in Car and Locomotive Operation 



Bi- WILLIAM ELMER.i ALTOONA, PA. 



The aoerage freight locomotive travels less than 60 miles per day. It 
sperjds about half of its time either in the hands of the transportation de- 
partment mooing trains or ready to move them, or in the hands of the motive- 
power department being repaired and prepared. There is naturally avoid- 
able waste in each department, and questions which may accordingly be 
ask.ed relate to whether the engines are properly loaded and properly used. 
The present paper outlines the procedure for determining this, and one of 
its several appendices gives a method of wording out the most economical 
tonnage for loading the freight engines of any division, based on actual 
practicable performance in everyday operation. The treatment considers 
the value of the locomotive, taf^ing account of interest, depreciation and 
taxes; the relationship between straight-time and overtime rates for road 
crews; the quicl^ening up of the time of the trains by a*reduction of tonnage 
and the increase of the time the crews are on duty by an increase in tonnage. 
H hen these matters have been sufficiently studied in the light of the recorded 
facts, the question relating to proper loading can be intelligently answered. 

The author discusses avoidable Waste in the operation of cars under three 
heads: (a) Their utilization in the hands of agents, shippers and consignees; 
(i) their handling and dispatchment in yards and on the road; and (c) 
their repair and inspection. 

Things contributing most to the reduction of waste in car and locomotive 
operation are cooperation and teamwork^. If a division superintendent 
can be assured that everything is being done that can be done to have every 
available engine in service that can be put in service and that every engine 
dispatched is being loaded to the maximum number of cars it can economi- 
cally haul, then he is assured of an economical performance and an avoid- 
ance of waste in the operation of both locomotives and cars. 

LOCOMOTIVES, the fu-st of the two divisions set forth in the 
title, are classified into major groups as freight, passenger, 
sliifting and work locomotives. There are 6.5,000 locomo- 
tives on the railroads of the United States and half of them are in 
freight-train service. Thirty-two thousand and eightj- locomotives 
earned a freight revenue of $4,.325,078,866 in 1920, or an average of 
$13.5,000 per locomoti^'e per year. Each engine made an average of 
59.3 miles per day or 1800 miles per month. The average freight 
engine earned for its o-miers S370 per d.ay or SO. 25 per mile run. This 
is at the rate of $1.5.40 per hour or about 26 cents per minute. The 
striking thing in the group of facts above presented is the figure of 
59.3 miles per day made by the average freight locomotive. How 
can we excuse an average mileage for all the freight locomotives 
in this country of less than 60 mUes per day? We can picture the 
average freight locomotive rolling along the rails at 15 miles per 
hour and that means less than four hours out of each twenty-four 
actually moving trains. The locomotive spends its entire time 
either in the hands of the Transportation Department moving trains 
or ready to move trains, or in the hands of the Motive Power Depart- 
ment being repaired and prepared. Roughly we may say that the 
engine is in the hands of each of these departments about half the 
time. Of course there is avoidable waste in each. 

Taking up first the Transportation Department, there are two 
broad inquiries which may be made: (a) Are the engines properly- 
loaded? (6) Are they properly used? Assuming that suitable 
engines have been furnished the Transportation Department, or 
taking the engines on any division as we find them, how are we 
to know when they are properly loaded? If a d>mamometer car 
is available, road tests may be run to determine the drawbar pull 
of the engines and to measure the resistance of trains of various 
make-ups on the ruling grades at the desired speeds. In the 
absence of this facility it may be desirable to outline the procedure. 

A — Are the Engines Properly Loaded? 

A track chart of the road is necessary, gi\'ing the distances from 
the starting point to the beginning and ending of each curve and 

» Superintendent, Middle Division, Pennsylvania Lines, Altoona, Pa. 
Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

Presented at the .\nnual Meeting, New York, December 5 to 9, 1921, 
of The .American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West 39th 
Street, New York. Abridged. All papers are subject to revision. 



93 



tangent, ■nith the degree of curve, and elevations of points where 
the grade changes. With these data a true profile may be i)lotted, 
showing the elevations above sea level and the actual grades; 
but this profile will not be fully representative of the resistances 
encountered by moving trains until it has been transformed into an 
equivalent compensated profile by superimposing the curve resis- 
tances on top of the grade resistances for each direction of traffic. 
We can imagine a level railroad so full of sharp curves that a very 
considerable resistance would be experienced by a moving train. 
Many experiments have been tried in an effort to find how much 
resistance ^-arious curves offer to a moving car, and we will take 
1 lb. per ton of 2000 lb. per degree of curve. The resistance due 
to grade is fortunately an exact mathematical quantity — 20 lb. 
per ton for each 1 per cent of grade. Therefore each degree of 
curve offers the same resistance as a 0.05 per cent grade. A 6-deg. 
curve had the same resistance as a 0.3 per cent ascending grade. 
A grade which is climbing upward at the rate of 26.4 ft. per mile or 
0.5 per cent and has in it a 6-deg. curve, or 9.5.5-ft. radius, will 
therefore have superimposed on the true grade of 0.5 per cent the 
equiv.alent resistance of a 0.3 per cent grade due to the 6-deg. curve, 
or a total equivalent grade of O.S per cent. Of course, to a train 
coming domi this hill the equivalent grade would be the difference 
between these values, or 0.2 per cent. 

Having determined the equivalent grade, it will be necessary 
to decide whether it can be operated as a momentum grade or not. 
If the length of the grade or other physical conditions on the ap- 
proach pre\-ent attaining any considerable speed, the dead pull of 
the locomoti\-e will have to be depended on to get the train over. 
The tractive power of a locomotive is readily calculated from a 
very simple formula where p is the boOer pressure in pounds per 
square inch by gage, d the diameter of cylinders, I the length of 
stroke and D the diameter of the driving wheels, all in inches. For 
a sunple two-cylinder engine, tractive power = 0.85pdH/D. When 
a locomotive is moving, some of its tractive-power effort is used to 
overcome friction of the engine and tender, and on a grade some 
more is needed to lift its weight against gravity, and at speeds of 
more than six or eight miles per hour the boiler becomes a factor 
in its inability to furnish 'enough steam to follow the pistons with 
full pressure under long cut-off conditions, so that some more 
complicated formula becomes necessary in the calculation of the 
tractive power required for mo^-ing trains. Besides the resistances 
due to curves and grades, trains are affected by journal and flange 
friction, wind, rolling resistance, temperature, etc. 

It is a well-known fact that trains cannot be loaded on tormage 
alone. One hundred empty cars weighing 20 tons each would be 
a 2000-ton train, and might overload an engine to the stalling point, 
whereas the same engine on the same grade would handle twenty- 
five 80-ton cars with no trouble. The number of axles is the im- 
portant factor, and in order that a long empty train may have the 
same resistance as a short loaded train, it is necessary to use a factor 
for each car known as the adjustment factor, and this factor will 
vary wth the different physical conditions met with on different 
di\'isions. 

Having chscovered the adjustment factor for any given di\'ision, 
and knowing the principal types of freight engines in use on that 
di\'ision, it is weD to construct tractive power-speed curves for 
the various engines, and plot on the same sheet adjusted-tonnage, 
train-resistance cm-ves on various level and compensated-grade 
tracks, so that the intersection of the tractive power curve with 
any given grade will show the speed that could be maintained with 
a full-tonnage train on that grade. 

After ha\'ing completed the above described investigations and 
ha\-ing before us the equivalent profiles and the speed curves on 
various grades, we can lay out a schedule of the running time 
between the various towers, adding the necessary time to cover the 
initial and final terminal delay, water stops, coal and fire-cleaning 
stations, interference from passenger trains, etc., and bearing in . 
mind the overtime limit based on a speed of 12 V2 miles per hour for 
the distance between terminals and the time the crew is on duty. 



94 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44. No. 2 



Now comes tlie crux of the whole matter. ,\fter the tonnage 
lias been established, what are the results on the road? Do the 
trains lose so much time sponging or setting off ears with hot boxes, 
or draw heads out or brake rigging down, or due to interference from 
other trains that they cannot get over the road without excessive 
overtime? If the dispatching and terminal and road sui)ervision 
arc all that they .should be and a record has been made for a suffi- 
cient period from which may be drawn reliable conclusions, we can 
determine whether the overtime is excessive — in which event the 
tonnage should be decreased — or if the majoritj' of the trains get 
over the road within the overtime limit, then the tonnage should 
be increased. Appendix Xo. 1 contains the description of a graphi- 
cal report showing each morning the performance of each of the 
previous daj''s trains, both slow and fast freight, plotting the time 
on duty from called to relieved against the |)ercentage of the full 
tonnage loading of the engine utilized. This gives the train master, 
Toad foreman of engines and superintendent a review of the pre- 
ceding day's operations, and any falling away from the standards 
set up on the part of the subordinate officials whose duty it is prop- 
erly to load the trains is quickly brought to light. In Appendix 
No. 2 is given the method of working out the most economical 
tonnage for loading the freight engines of any division, based on 
actual practicable performance in ex'eryday operation. The 
treatment considers the value of the locomotive, taking account 
of interest, depreciation and taxes; the relationship between straight 
time and overtime rates for road crews: the (luickening up of the 
time of the trains by a reduction of tonnage and the increase of 
the time the crews are on duty by an increase in tonnage. When 
these matters have been sufficiently studied in the light of the re- 
corded facts, we are in a position to answer the question. Are the 
engines properly loaded? 

B — Are the Engines Properly Used? 

So far as the Motive Power Department is concerned, it is im- 
portant to have reliable reports which i)resent promptly to the 
responsible operating officers, on the succeeding day if possible, 
all the pertinent facts concerning the performance of the locomotives 
available. These reports should cover not only the utilization 
made of the serviceable locomotives but also of all those laid off for 
repairs, both in the roundhouses and the back shops. The more 
promptly the work is done the more engines will be available for 
service and the smaller vvill be the number required to be purchased 
and to bear interest and depreciation charges. To this end the 
facilities at the engine terminals should be ample to inspect promptly 
the incoming locomotives and send the reports to the dispatcher, 
who can at once call a crew in case the engine has only light work 
which can be comjileted by the time the crew reports. The fire- 
cleaning pits and facilities for handling ashes, coal, sand and water 
should be in duplicate at important points, and at one well-known 
freight-engine terminal it is possible to clean the fires and prepare 
for ser\-ice 4()D locomotives per day. Hot-water systems for wash- 
ing and filling boilers save time, and drop tables or unwheeling hoists 
should be provided for iiandling driving wheels, spring rigging and 
driving-l)ox repairs, .\mple jib or overhead cranes should bo in- 
stalled in all important cnginehouses, as the rods, pumps, pistons, 
smokebox fronts, etc., of modern locomotives are now so heavy 
that mechanical appliances must be used to reduce the cost of hand- 
ling and save time in running repairs. The enginehouse referred 
to above at times furnishes the power for ten eastbound trains in 
two hours and at the same time ten to fifteen engines an hour for 
westboimd trains. An operation of this magnitude requires close 
supervision in order that waste of power and loss in efficiency may 
be avoided. 

CARS 

The avoidable waste in the operation of cars may be considered 
under three heads: 

a The utilization of cars in the hands of agents, shippers and 
consignees 

b The handling and dispatchment of cars in yards and on the 
road 

c The inspection and repair of cars by the maintenance of 
equipment department. 



A — The Utiijz.wig.n of Cars in the H.\nds of 
Agents, Shippers and Consignees 

The committee of engineers appointed by Secretary Hoover 
some months ago to investigate waste in industry made a most 
amazings report. They undoubtedly gave this <iuestion careful 
study and the report that they made brought out the fact that the 
production of this country could be immediately increased about 
50 i)er cent by the full utilization of existing facilities. The man- 
agements of the industries of this country are acknowledged to be 
the most efficient known and the railroad managements arc no 
exception, therefore it is the more surprising to find such disparity 
between the present efficiency and the attainable. 

So far as the railroads are concerned, one great means that 
suggests itself is the increased use of cars in the hands of agents 
and shippers, which neces.sarily involves the promptness with 
which they are loaded and unloaded and the extent to which they 
are loaded, i.e., that the maximum loading be secured for the car 
in the minimum time, etc. 

Maximum car loafling is a matter of dire necessity during periods 
of car shortage. If is also very essential to the economic conduct 
of transportation. During recent months the necessity for con- 
serving cars has been decreased by the small volume of tonnage 
handled by the railroads; the requirement of economy is more 
urgent than at any time within the past eighteen months. This 
is all a matter of education and a spirit of cooperation on the part 
of the public. When the railroads had more business than they 
could haiiflle the local officers were being urged to get out and 
interview the shippers, the underlying idea being to secure their 
cooperation, especially in the matter of better and heavier carloads. 
Distinct improvements were noticeable and the effort proved its 
worth. With the slump in traffic the "drive" lost its punch and 
there is a tendency on the part of the shippers and railroad men 
alike to let down in their efforts to secure maximum loading. This 
"line of least resistance" method is resulting in considerable less- 
than-capacity loading. 

It is a fact, not generally recognized, that car loading affects the 
cost of railroad operation very seriously, not only because the pay- 
ing load may be a small percentage of the gross train load, but also 
because lightly loaded cars require more tractive effort per ton 
than hea\"ily loaded cars; e.g., the average weight of a car is from 
15 to 20 tons while the average weight of all commodities is averag- 
ing approximately 27 tons. The load of the car itself must be 
hauled with every movement of the contents and requires as much 
tractive effort on the part of the locomotive per ton to move this 
weight as it does for the contents, therefore the importance of 
keeping the percentage of lading to total weight as high as jjossible 
is self-evident. This question has assumed a very different aspect 
to the shipper since the pas.«age of the Transportation Act, which 
stipulates that the rates must be sufficient to earn a fixed return 
on the value of the i)roperties. Any waste due to the light loading 
of cars adds to the operating cost and thereby to the rates necessary 
to earn the specified return. The shipper therefore has a new inter- 
est in effecting economies of transportation and can contribute to 
that end most effectively by cooperating in the heavier loading of 
cars. 

During the period February to August, 1920, the average loading 
of cars in the United States increased from 28.3 tons to 29. S tons 
per car. .\s a result of this cooperation on the part of shippers 
there was a gain of carrying capacity ecjual to approximately 
112, .jOO cars. From time to time we have noticed by the public 
press that there is a shortage of 100,000 cars in the United States, 
and as such is considered a serious matter to the trade of the 
entire country, it is very apparent that the simple feature of in- 
creasing the load in each car l.o tons more than liquidated the 
alleged shortage. 

General practice permits the loading of cars 10 per cent in excess 
of the marked capacity. There are great possibilities in the utiliza- 
tion of this margin, for with many classes of loading great advantage 
may be taken of it to gain one car in eyery ten and to increase the 
average carload correspondingly. 

There are many commodities mo\ing which will permit of the 
making of trade units to correspond to the capacity of the car; 
this has lieen done with cement and other like commodities. The 
trade unit for cement shipments was .set at 144 bbl. for a 50,000-lb. 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



95 



("ipacity car; 173 hbl. for a 60,000-lb. capacity car; 231 bbl. for 
ail SO,000-lb. capacity car and 289 bbl. for a 100,000-11). capacity 
car. The establishriient of this standard encourages the loading 
of cars to caj^acity. If this were done with fi()ur and all similar 
commodities great a,ssistance might thus be rendered to the 
railroads. 

The agent through close association with shippers is in the best 
position to encourage maximum loading. It is often decidedly 
hard to convince shippers that they are not loading their cars to 
cubical capacity. This is particularly true of the coal ojicrators. 
The best means of producing convincing evidence of the empty 
space in a car is to show the shipper a photograph of the car which 
will speak for itself, and we have found a kodak to be a most iielpful 
instrument in increasing the tons per car. The cars may easily 
be intercepted and i)hotograi)hed at scales or in classification 
yards. 

The prompt release of cars under load is a large factor in the 
€fficieney of the car. Most shippers and consignees are reasonable 
in this res]5ect and will gi\e us their best efforts if the matter is 
handled with them in a diplomatic way. After urging the shippers 
and consignees, the railroad then has a very important iiart to 
play by the prompt movement of cars, whether loaded or empty; 
it being purely psychological that after urging the shipper or con- 
signee and then failing on our own part would necessarily breed 
antagonism. 

B — The H.\ndlinc, and Disp.\tchment of C.\rs 

IN Y.\RDS .\.ND ON THE ROAD 

After cars have been loaded and waybills furnished by the 
agent to transport freight from point of origin to destination, it 
becomes the duty of the train master to arrange for movement 
and delivery with the least possible delaj' consistent with economical 
operation. This necessarily involves good organization and effec- 
tive supervision to accomplish proper movement through yards 
and over the road. Normally cars are weighed at the first track 
scale encountered after departure from shipping point, for the 
purpose of ascertaining proper charges for transporting freight 
which involves the agent at the scales, who is responsible for securing 
accurate weights as a basis for applying the freight charges. As 
a rule, the weighing is performed in a yard consisting of receiving 
and classification tracks. Trains arri\'ing in the receiving yard are 
subjected to inspection and minor repairs to insure safe movement 
over the road between terminals, sending to the repair yard any 
bad-order cars that must be "shopped" for this purpose. After 
inspection and repairs have been completed, the train is jirepared 
for swtching from receiving yard to classification yard, which 
process requires car markers to chalk-mark cars for their respective 
classification tracks, according to destination and routing, also 
furnishing corresponding switching lists for the conductor in 
charge of switching crew, and switchmen who operate switches 
leading into the classification yard. Yard locomotives and a 
force of trainmen are required to switch trains into the classifieation 
yard at proper speed for accurate weighing at points where cars 
pass over a track scale; also requiring brakemen, commonly de- 
signated as "car droppers," to ride cars into the classification yard 
and control them Ijy use of hand brakes to bring them to a stop at 
the proper point and to avoid damage by impact with preceding 
cars standing on track. 

The train from receiving yard has now been distributed on various 
tracks in the classification yard, usually from ten to thirty tracks, 
depending on the size and importance of the yard operation. The 
original train having thus lost its identity, following trains, classi- 
fied in like manner to the same tracks, are reciuired to assemble 
cars that will comprise new trains to be dispatclied when the 
required tonnage is accumulated. A variety of conditions arise 
at this stage of the operation that seriously' influence the time con- 
sumed by cars enroute to their destination, which may necessarily 
be repeated from one to many times between the originating point 
and destination of cars, depending on the distance and the territory 
over which they are mo\'ing. The time required to assemble suffi- 
cient tonnage for a train in the classification yard is very largely 
dependent on the steady or intermittent arrival of trains in the 
reeei\'ing j'ard; also on the hauling capacity of road locomotives 
used on trains dispatched in the same direction, which may be 35 



or 50 cars from one yard and 100 to 115 cars from another yard 
for the same class of locomotive, depending on the ruling grade of 
the division over which trains are being hauled. 

In this connection anotiier jirimary cause of delay in assembling 
trains in the classification yard is to be found in the usual number 
of classifications imposed upon certain j^ards for the convenience of 
connecting divisions to meet their reciuirements for various reasons, 
but primarily due to inadequate track and switching facilities. 
So-called "prior classifications" are also a source of yard delay at 
the point where they are assembled, but the time thus consumed is 
presumably offset by saving in time at the next yard or terminal 
point where such trains are kept intact and delivered to the di\'ision 
in advance thereof wthout reclassifying, which means an actual 
saving in the aggregate time consumed from shipping point to 
destination, also in operating expenses. Therefore a considerable 
portion of yard delay is beyond control, owing to prevailing condi- 
tions that cannot be eliminated. However, there is ample oppor- 
tunity for minimizing yard and road delays to train movement 
by employing the best operating methods, maintaining sound 
organization and efficient supervision. 

Time consumed assembling tonnage for heavy trains to be hauled 
Ijy large types of locomotives over comparatively level grades may 
be viewed by some as a contributory cause of "avoidable waste 
in cars," but it should be recognized that doing so reduces 
the number of engine and train crews and locomotives re- 
quired to haul a large volume of freight, which means economical 
operation. 

C — The Inspection .\nd Repair of Cars by the 
Maintenance-of-Equipment Department 

When trains are hauled over the road certain defects develop, 
and by the time they reach the terminal of a run a certain portion 
of the cars, say 3 to 5 per cent, must go to shop for repairs. The 
cars from the time last inspected until they go to the industries 
or mines to be loaded and return, develop many defects due to 
stress and strain of service, and consequently they ha\-e to be 
shopped when reaching the nearest terminal. 

There are three distinct classifications for shop cars: light, 
medium and heavy. When an inspector discovers a defect which 
he cannot correct, he applies a bad-order card, and places it in a 
conspicuous location on the car. These cards are placed in one of 
three positions: vertical, horizontal or at an angle of 45 deg. A 
card placed in a vertical position indicates light repairs; horizontal ^ 
hea^T repairs; and at a 45-deg. angle, medium repairs. 

.\fter the train is inspected a car marker goes along the train 
and marks each car with chalk and the date and track number to 
which each particular car is to be classified. 

As already stated, the classification yard consists of a number 
of tracks for the various classifications; a certain number of these 
tracks are set aside for shop ears, some tracks for light-repair ears, 
some for medium, and some for heavy repairs. The shop cars are 
moved from the classification yard to the car-repair yard by shifting 
engines, usually at night, and the repair tracks filled up so that 
when the gang foremen arrive at their places of duty approximately 
one-half hour in advance of the commencing time for the shop forces, 
they can prepare their work for the day. It is their duty to see 
that the work is [jroperly distributed and there is sufficient material 
on hand to proceed with the repairs. 

After thej- have all the cars wTitten up they start inspecting the 
work done by the men to determine if it has been properly per- 
formed, and that proper charges for material have been made. 
After this is completed they report out such cars as are ready to 
go and mark those uncompleted to be set back. The shifting crew 
then takes out the entire string, returning those not completed. It 
is the gang foreman's duty to see that any cars not completed are 
in such shape that they can be mo\-ed out with the O. K. cars, as 
otherwise there would be non-movable cars between two or three 
cars 0. K. for service and this would hold the cars ready for move- 
ment an unreasonable length of time. 

After the cars are turned out of the repair shop they are returned 
to the receiving yard and reclassified over the hump to be returned 
to service. 

In order to keep a check on cars undergoing repairs, a report is 
prepared and sent to the different operating officials. The report 



96 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



indicates the time the car is shopped, the time it is moved to the 
shop, the time repairs are completed and the time car is moved 
out of shop. By checking over this report each morning the master 
mechanic, superintendent or general officers can determine in a 
few seconds if there are any cars that are being held an unreasonable 
length of time. 

It is the aim of the operating officials not only to see that all cars 
are repaired, but to have the cars repaired promptly and returned 
to service in the most expeditious manner. 

Conclusion 

The great secret of the entire operation, therefore, lies in 
cooperation and teamwork, and these can be checked by suitable 
reports. 

The statistics which reach the superintendent's desk giving 
hourly, daily, weekly and monthly information are many and varied, 
and originate from numerous sources, but the reports scanned by 
the author with most interest each day are those which tell where 
each of the hea\T road freight and passenger engines were the day 
before and what they were doing. There is a maxim, "Take care 
of the shillings and the pounds will take care of themselves." It 
seems to apply particularly to the railroads. Take care of the 
engines and the dividends will take care of themsel\-es. Of course 
this could not be literally true, but there is so much involved in 
this "taking care of the engines," embracing as it does the time and 
inferentially the money spent on locomotive repairs, the quality of 
back-shop and engine house work performed, the proper tonnage 
rating, and suitable loading of engines in order to obtain the most 
economical road speed, the reduction of delays getting into and out 
of yards, the inspection and repair of car equipment, the efficiency 
of water stations, coal-, sand- and ash-handling plants, the organi- 
zation and operation of wreck forces, the handling of local freight 
and work trains, in fact, almost each and every one of the thousand 
and one matters that go to make up a successful operation of a 
division. If any one of the features named above is not functioning 
properly, as well as others too numerous to mention, the effect will 
be seen in the slowing down of the road speed or a lowering of the 
average mileage per serviceable locomotive or a falling off in the 
loading efficiency. All these must be at their highest possible 
levels of practical performance, and when they are, a glance of the 
eye at the daily barometer ought to tell it, and when they are not, 
a few minutes' inspection of the data ought to tell why and point 
the remedy. The supervisors must have tracks fit for speed and 
.service; the signal engineer must have communicating systems 
and signal apparatus in good working order; the road foreman 
must have engines properly rated and sufficient crews and super- 
vision; the train master must have his yard and road forces properly 
instructed and disciplined; the division operator must have his 
train dispatchers and signalmen aJert and intelligent; and the 
master mechanic must produce the power in ample quantity and 
fit for service. If the di\nsion superintendent can be assured that 
everything is being done that can be done to have every available 
engine in service that can be put in service, and that every engine 
dispatched is being loaded to the maximum number of cars it can 
economically haul, then he is assured of an economical performance 
and an avoidance of waste in the operation both of locomotives and 



APPENDIX NO. 1 

Daily Slow Freight-Train Performance Record 

The record shown in Fig. 1 is prepared each morning from the train sheets 
and tonnage records of the previous day. Each dot or circle represents a 
train, its position vertically indicating on the scale at the left the percentage 
of the full cai)acity of the engine utilized, and its position across the sheet, 
read from the scale of hours at the bottom, shows the time the train crew 
was on duty. The red dots (shown in Fig. 1 as small circles) represent 
eastbound trains and the black dots westbound trains. The extreme 
left-hand dot shows a westbound train which was 99 per cent of the full 
adjusted-tonnage rating of the engine, and it made the run over the division 
in S hours 12 minutes from the time the crew were calletl to report for duty 
until they were relieved from duty at the opposite terminal. It includes 
initial and final terminal delay and this particular train nmde an excellent 
run, well within the overtime limit. The red dot (small circle) slightly 
above and to the right represents a 100 per cent eastbound train, 8 hours 
and 18 minutes from called to relieved. The dot to the extreme right shows 
a westbound 101 per cent train, 14 hours. It is seen at a glance that the 



lowest loading for that day was 94 per cent and the highest 10.5 per cent. 
The spread of the time was from 8 hours and 12 minutes to 14 hours. Four- 
teen runs were made within the overtime limit (of ten hours and a quarter), 
and no crews were relieved on account of the 16-hour law. The average 
of all the red dots (small circles) is shown by the red cross at X and its posi- 
tion shows that the average of all the eastbound trains that day were loaded 
to 100 per cent and the average time was lOJ-i hours. The black cross at 
B shows that the average loading of westbound trains was also 100 per cent 
and the time just under llj-^ hours. 

The black characters near the left-hand margin indicate the class of engine 
hauling the westbound trains, the number of cars being shown on the scale 
at the right, and the time from called to passing out of the yard being read 
on the scale of hours at the bottom. From this it can be seen that there 
were three trains of 100 cars each, 1 hour and 24 minutes, 1 hour and 30 
minutes and 1 hour and 42 minutes getting out of the yard. There were 
nine trains of 115 cars each, varjing from 1 hour and 12 minutes to 2 hours 
and 48 minutes initial terminal time. Other trains are as indicated, the 
total number completing their runs that day being 20. Similar information 
is shown for the eastbound trains by the red (dotted-line) characters near 
the right-hand margin, the final terminal delay being recorded from right to 
left and read on the scale just above; the number of oars per train varying 
from 90 to 105, and the time from 36 minutes to 2 hours and 6 minutes. The 
same sheet is also used to record fast freight trains, but these have been 
omitted to avoid complication. An explanation can be given on the back 
of any unusual conditions, undue length of time on the road, reason for 
relieving crews, etc. A code of sj-mbol letters reduces the need of elaborate 
descriptions. 

After keeping these daily sheets for several months, the location of all 
the red crosses may be recorded on a sheet of tracing cloth, or a composite 
of all the red dots (small circles) may be made on one tracing, and through 
the center of gravity of all the dots a curve may be drawn, and this will show 
for any point on the curve the average time for the trains corresponding to 
that tonnage loading. A similar composite of the black dots' will show the 



130 

120 

+-•110 

C. 

^100 

%'' 

£ 80 
* 70 

i'eo 

g 50 
^ 40 

I'm 

20 
10 



1 — r~i I ' r 

InttialTerminalDelay.WB Trams. 



-tj: 



lour > 



, I 1 ' ' 1 1 

FinalTermmal DelauE-BTr gms 



KEY 

Easfboundtfkd, '» " *'- o • 



Ife 



_4= 



I 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II. 12 13 14 15 16 17 15 19 20 
Total Time from Time Called to Relieved. Hour^ 



m 

90 
80 
70 
60 

50 i 

40 
30 
20 
10 
P 



Fig. 1 Daily Slow Freight-Train Performance Record 



westbound trains. These curves are shown in Fig. 2 and are the basis of 
the calculations of the most economical train loading described in Appendix 
No. 2. Evtn if most of the dots and circles are concentrated along the 
lines of full tonnage, there will usually come days when engines are being 
loaded light to get them to the other end of the division to meet a heavy 
movement, and there are occasional mistakes of yard clerks which result 
in underloaded or overloaded trains which are not checked up until the 
conductor's wheel report is recorded at the end of the run. 

APPENDIX NO. 2 

The Most Economical Train Loading 

The curves described in Appendix No. 1 having been prepared, the d.ata 
shown in Table 1 may be calculated. Column 1 gives the percentage of 
engine loading, from 120 per cent down to 80 per cent. The average flat 
tons in the eastbound and westbound trains having been recorded each day 
on the sheets shown in Fig. 1 and the percentage of the engine loading being 
also available for each day, a summarj- may be run up at the end of the 
month and a comparison drawn as to the number of flat tons per train which 
would correspond to a 100 per cent tonnage train. A few months of this 
information will settle the proper figure and this has been shown for the 
westbound trains at the head of column 2. This amount multiplied by the 
percentages in column 1 gives the tons per train in column 2. From the 
load-time c\irves in Fig. 2 may be read the average time for a westbound 
train lo.adcd to 120 per cent of the engine rating, etc., and these times re- 
corded in column 3. The summary mentioned above will also show, by 
extension, the total gross tons moved each day, and the average of this 
figure is at the top of column 4. The number of trains which it would be 

' It is suggested that black ink be used in making the composite of the 
red dots and red ink for the black dots. It is much easier to sec the opposite 
color through the thickly clustering dots of the composite, and those below 
the tracing cloth will not be so readily missed. 



February, 


1922 












M] 


ECHANI 


CAL E 


NGI> 


fEERI 


NG 














97 
















TABLE 1 


MOST ECONOMICAL TRAIN LOADING 














(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


(13) 


(14) 


(15) 


(16) 


(17) 


(IS) 


(19) 


(20) 


21) 




1^ 




.B « 

S 

2: ^ 


i! 

atig 

c o" 
-^ 
H - 


•Era 

." = — 
£•2 


eld 




«) c c 


a ^ 


s * 

d ^^ 


u 
O. . 

B.HI 

> 
O 


i2^ 

Isx 

lis 


■fix 

lis 


.§lx 


2S5 
J5i 


■^■DOl 

•gax 

lis 


Ik 

lis 


Ml,® 

•o.-X 


Total engine and 

wage cost per day 

(18) + (19) 

Per cent engine 

loading 

W.B. 


120 


2SS0 


14 . 18 


16.667 


8400 


120 


12.93 


27.11 


51.11 


851.85 


35.49 


6.61 


9.92 


165.34 


657 , 23 


341.67 


1358.14 


2015.36 


511.11 


2526.47 


^?{\ 


lis 


2760 


13.00 


17.391 


8055 


115 


12.11 


25.11 


49.11 


8.54 . 07 


35.59 


4.61 


6.92 


120.35 


478.39 


356 . 56 


1417.17 


1895.56 


512.44 


2408.00 


115 


110 


2640 


12.13 


18.182 


7700 


110 


11.40 


23.53 


47.53 


864.19 


36.01 


3.03 


4.55 


82.73 


328.85 


372.73 


1481.60 


1810.45 


518.51 


23'8 . 96 


nn 


105 


2520 


11.41 


19.048 


7350 


105 


10.78 


22.19 


46.19 


879.83 


36.60 


1.69 


2.. 54 


48.38 


192.31 


390. 4S 


15.52.10 


1744.47 


527.90 


2272.37 


105 


100 


2400 


10.77 


20. 


7000 


100 


10.21 


20,98 


44.98 


899.60 


37.48 


0.48 


0.72 


14.40 


57.24 


410.00 


1629.75 


1686.99 


539.76 


2226.75 


inn 


95 


22S0 


10.19 


21.053 


6650 


95 


9.67 


19.86 


43.86 


923.38 


38.47 










431.59 


1715.71 


1715.71 


5.54.03 


2269 . 74 


95 


90 


2160 


9.67 


22 222 


6300 


90 


9.16 


18.83 


42.83 


951.77 


39.66 


, , 








4.55.55 


1810.81 


1810.81 


571.06 


2381.87 


90 


SS 


2040 


9.18 


23.529 


5950 


85 


8.70 


17. 9S 


41.98 


987.75 


41.16 










486.34 


1917.31 


1917.31 


592.65 


2509.96 


85 


80 


1920 


8.70 


25. 


5600 


80 


8.26 


16.96 


40.96 


1024 . 00 


42.67 








.... 


512.50 


2037.19 


2037.19 


614.40 


2651.59 


80 



■•2400X(1)=2400 multiplied by value in Column 1. 



necessarj* to run to move the average day's business may be found by divid- 
ing this number of tons by the proposed tons per train in column 2 and the 
Tesult recorded in column 4. The same process is followed to obtain the 
figure at the top of column 5 as explained for column 4 and as there will 
usually be the same number of eastbound as westbound trains in order to 
avoid running power and crews light, the tonnage per eastbound train will 
be found by dividing the total tons to be moved per day by the trains per 
day shown in column 4 and the results recorded in column 5. The total 
time on duty for the crews in making a round trip is shown in column 8, 
and from data obtained on reports described in other appendices, it has been 
■determined that on the division under consideration, engines are off the 
road and in the hands of the Motive Power Department about 24 hours 
■for every round trip they make. Consequently, 24 hours should be added 
to the times shown in column 8 to give the total time of an engine for a 
Tound trip as in column 9. This number of round trips made in column 4, 
multiplied by the number of hours per round trip in column 9 will give the 
total number of engine hours shown in column 10, and these figures, divided 
by 24 hours in the day, will give the number of engines assigned to the service 
as recorded in column 11. 



120 

^100 
<e 90 

?80 
I TO 
"it 60 

i^50 
■§ 40 
-i 30 
•5^20 







1 1 1 


"" 


■ 












.-' 


":P 






Ini1 


lal Terminal belaij.WBTra 


ns 








^ 


\'> 


^ 1 

Tinal Temiiri 


alD 


'laLjiB.Trains 




















1 


/ 


Y 


Ho 


jrs 1 


e 


I 


■ , 


•> ■ 


. 






















• 


/ 




































/ 


/ 




































/ 


'/ 
























1 














'/ 












KE 


:y 












* 












// 






y/esfbc 


und, Black, RepresenfTed by 


— 












/ 


/ 






















" 














,f 








































j 















































































































:oo 

90 
60 
70 
60 

u 

50 ^ 
40 "" 
30 
20 
10 



"0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 16 19 20 
Total Time from Time Called to Relieved, Hours 

Tig. 2 Type of Curves Used to Show Average Time for Trains of 
A Given Tonnage Lo.\ding 

As the average distance run by these trains is 128.2 miles and the over- 
time speed basis is now 12^/2 miles per hour, the time per trip is IOV4 hours 
and for the round trip 2OV2 hours. Consequently, the overtime per round 
trip is found by subtracting 2OV2 from the times shown in column S, and 
the result entered in column 12. We now pay time and a half for overtime 
in freight-train service, therefore the number of hours shown in column 12 
multiplied by 1V2 gives the overtime hours for which we have to pa.v at the 
regular hourl.v rates, and these figures are entered in column 13. Multiply- 
ing by the number of trains per day in column 4, we have the total number 
of punitive overtime hours per day shown in column 14. The total wages 
paid to the engine and train crews in slow freight ser\'ice and with the class 
of^engine under discussion now amounts to S.3.975 per hour, and the figures 
in'column 14 multiplied by this sum gives the total overtime cost per day 
as^shown in column 15. The straight-time hours per day is the product of 
the 20^/2 hours for one round trip times the number of trips in column 4 and 
is shown in column 16. This at the rate of S3. 975 per hour gives the total 
straight time cost per day shown in column 17, and adding the overtime cost 
In column 15 gives the total wages cost per day in column 18. 

Modern Mikado locomotives of the size under consideration are worth 
$47,750 apiece, and taking interest at 6 per cent, depreciation at 4 per cent 
and insurance and taxes together at 1 per cent, we have fixed charges of 
85,256 per locomotive per year, or $14.40 per day or 60 cents per hour. 
Column 19 shows the value of the engine hours in column 10 and the sum 
of the wages cost in column 18 gives the total engine and wage cost shown 
in column 20. It will be noted that this cost is a minimum at 100 per cent 
loading. The limits are rather narrow and an error of 10 per cent in over- 
loading or underloading would cause a loss of SlOO per day or S3000 per 
month on the amount of business handled on the division under considera- 
tion. 



DISCUSSION AT RAILWAY SESSION 

TN opening the third session held so far by the Railway Division 
* of the A.S.M.E. on Tuesday, December 6, 1921, Edwin B. 
Katte, chairman of the Division, called attention to the fact that 
the keynote of the Annual Meeting, the elimination of waste, was 
being carried out by the Di\'ision in papers relating to waste in 
connection with the design and operation of railway equipment. 
He introduced W. H. Winterrowd, chief mechanical engineer of 
the Canadian Pacific RaOway, and now vice-chairman of the 
A.S.M.E. Division, who presided at the session. The papers pre- 
sented were Avoidable Waste in the Operation of Locomotives and 
Cars, by William Elmer; Avoidable Waste of Locomotives as 
Affected by Their Design, by James Partington; and Avoidable 
Waste in Car Operation — The Container Car, by Walter C. Sanders. 

Discussion of the Paper by William Elmer 

Wm. L. Bean' opened the discussion of Mr. Elmer's paper, stat- 
ing that he considered it a splendid exposition of the practical 
means for overcoming a loss incident to the short and inadequate 
use of equipment and that it presented a specific method of working 
out improvements. It had been his experience, he said, that lo- 
comotives which were operating satisfactorily to the extent of 
keeping off tlie delay sheet, might not be operating with satisfac- 
tory fuel economy. He had noticed on the N.Y.N. H. & H.R.R. 
during 1921 that the consumption of coal on a unit basis in freight 
service was 10 per cent less than the pre\aous year. Part of this 
increase in economy was due to equality of loading, as in times of 
slack business trains could be uniformly loaded more easily than 
in busy times. He considered overloading of engines worse than 
underloading. He had found that many roads, in applying the 
adjustment factor explained by the author, failed to take account 
of the difference of its application on the level and on grades, as 
was also true of temperature adjustment, which applied, of course, 
only to rolling friction. 

A. J. Wood- spoke of the importance of considering acceleration 
so essential in heavy passenger traffic. There was a field for de- 
velopment of this problem, he said. He had been interested to 
find how accurately schedule time can be computed by laying out 
speed-time curves from ordinary roadbed data. 

Mr. Elmer, in closing the discussion, commented on a reference 
Mr. Bean had made to the importance of fuel economy, saying 
that he did not wish to imply that he did not consider this of im- 
portance. He would not, however, give too much attention to a 
sUght variation in fuel economy if the loading of the locomotive 
were correct. Acceleration, too, was important, but was as vital 
in freight traffic as in passenger traffic. 

Discussion of the Paper by James Partington 

C. C. Trump' presented a written discussion in which he called 
attention to the application of the uniflow engine to locomotives. 
Prof. Johann Stumpf, by using the energy of exhaust steam with 
an ejector action, had been able to lower the back pressure in the 
cylinder by 4 or 5 lb. per sq. in., especially at heavier loads. Thus 
both the length and diameter of the uniflow cjdinder for a given 



' Assistant General Mechanical Superintendent, N.Y.N.H. & H.R.R. 
2 Professor of Railroad M.E.. Pa. State College, State College, Pa. 
» Fuller Lehigh Co., New York, N. Y. 



98 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



drawbar pull had been ri'duced. In addition, a steadier draft had 
been attained. A smaller boiler is required but a larger super- 
heater, because of reduced flue temperatures. Data from Europe 
indicate that with 700 to 800 lb. pressure in a compound uniflow 
engine, a well-designed condenser, economizer, etc., the economy 
and simplicity of a Die.sel locomotive might be c(iuak'd, with the 
additional advantage of ability to use; a greater variety of 
fuels. 

Mr. Trump presented a translation of a paper by Professor 
Stuinpf dealing with the subject of the uniflow locomoti\-e with 
single-beat valves and exhaust ejector action. 

Wm. H. Wood,^ offered a written criticism in whidi he claimed 
that most of the devices for increasing the economy of locomotives, 
.such as firebrick arches, feedwater heaters and superheaters, did 
not result in the economy claimed for them but in greater mainte- 
nance costs. 

.John L. Nicholson* called attention to the newly developed 
thermic siphon which had shown an average saving of 1.5 to 19 per 
cent in the fuel consumed per drawbar horsepower. If two thermic 
siphons were to be applied to locomotive No. 50,000, mentioned 
by the author, they would add appro.ximately 62 sq. ft. to the ra- 
diant-heat-absorbing surface of the firebox, and result in an addi- 
tion of Ifil boiler horsepower to the capacity of the locomotive. 
Allowing for the net additional weight of the siphons, the result 
in this locomotive would bo a reduction in weight per boiler horse- 
power from 119.0 lb. without the siphons to 113 lb. witli the 
siphons. 

W. F. Kiesel, .Jr.,'' called attention to the errors involved in using 
empirical formulas for steam requirements of locomotives. Thus 
comparison of the locomotives referred to in the first and second 
columns of the author's Table 1, which are the Erie No. 50,000 and 
the Pennsylvania K4S, respectively, show, according to the formulas, 
that the former is the more economical. Test results, however, 
are as follows: 

No. 50,000 K4S 

Low rate, one test, coal. lb. per i.hp - 2.12 1.52 

Low rate, one test, steam, lb. per i.hp 16.5 14.96 

Maximum i.hp 2216 31,S4 

Weight of locomotive in lb. per maximum i.hp 121.4 97.0 

This shows that the K4S is actually far ahead of the No. 50,000 
on every count, instead of being inferior, as the eom]3arison, based 
on the antiquated empirical formulas, would indicate. 

Frans H. C. Coppus' WTote that the logical order of locomotive 
de\-elopinent, as far as combustion is concerned, should be the 
following : 

1 Mechanical induced draft at front end 

2 Condensing exhaust steam and returning condensate to 

tender 

3 Pumping the hot water from the tender through a waste- 

steam and waste-gas heater into the boiler 

4 Under-grate forced draft in the ashpan. 

His discussion continued with an elaboration of these improvements 
and an estimate of the savings to be expected from their use. He 
lof)ked forward, he said, to a reduction of the operating expense 
of a locomotive equivalent to 50 per cent of the present coal con- 
sumption. The suggested improvements, he pointed out, can be 
attached to all locomotives now in use and at a cost which will p.ay 
for them within a year. 

John E. iMuhlfeld" contriliuted a written discussion in wiiich he 
developed some ideas in addition to those presented by the author, 
such as increased boiler pressure and superheat, compounding, 
reduction of the factor of adhesion, and tender boosters. He also 
pointed out that it would take a locomotive of consideralily in- 
creased fuel economy to make worth while the scrapping of many 
serviceable obsolete locomotives now in u.se. 

Carl .1. Mellin'-' said that some of the formulas presented by the 
author should lie accepted only as approximations. 

Elmer A. Sperry'" spoke of the possibilities of economy in rail- 



• Mechanical and Constnictinc Engineer, Medi.a, Pa. 
5 President. Locomotive Fireiiox Co., Ciiicago, II!. 

• Mcelianical Engineer, Pa.R.R., .\ltoona, Pa. 

' President, Coppus EngineerinK and Equii>nient Co., Worcester, Mass. 

• Consulting Engineer, New York, N. Y. 

'Consulting Engineer, American Locomotive Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
'" President, The Sperry Gyroscope Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



road operation by the use of Diesel-engine locomoti\es. The pos- 
sibility of using bunker oil as fuel in the new compound Diesel 
engine instead of the higli-grade oil which the present Diesel re- 
([uired was going to be greatly in favor of this new type of power. 
It was po.«sil)le, he said, that the Diesel locomotive would be com- 
bined with electric motors, to obtain the advantages of electric 
power and economical generation of current. 

Oliver C. Cromwell" called attention to faulty design in ])ro- 
vidiiig sufficient lubrication for the locomotive trucks. He had 
fouiifl less packing used on the locomotive journals than on those 
of tender and trainler trucks. 

Discussion of P.\pei! hy \V.\i.teh C. S.\>.T)ers 

A. E. Ostrander'- WTOte that special containers for use in the 
transportation of high-grade freight are not new; they have been 
in successful operation for years. One large company in New 
York has purchased several lots of containers called "steel lift vans," 
and their method of operation is to supply one of these vans to a 
shipper, furnishing him with keys to special locks with whicli the 
containers are fitted. The shipper then loads his freight into the 
container, the lading in this case being high-grade furniture, locks 
it up and it is then delivered to the railroad for shii)ment to any 
jiart of the world. 

Tlie fact that they have continued in business, and, as indicated 
above, have purchased several orders of the vans, shows that it 
must have been profitable busmess for them; therefore it would 
certainly seem to be more profitable to a railroad to handle strictlj' 
high-grade freight in this manner. 

In regard to the statement made that the use of the container 
car saves .demurrage on freight cars, this seems unfair to the rail- 
road if no charge is made for demurrage on the containers them- 
selves. In other words, the shipper or the consignee has no more 
right to use a container as a storage warehouse than he has to hold 
up a car for the same purpose w-hen he is not in a position to unload 
his goods. 

Verbal discussion of the paper was participated in bv V. N. 
Crocker, Supt. Mail Traffic, N.Y.C.R.R.; C. H. Otis, Asst. Supt. 
of Car Construction, N.Y.C.R.R,; R. H. R. Newcomb, Asst. to 
President, B.&M.R.R.; and F. S. Gallagher. Engr. of Rolling Stock, 
N.Y.C.R.R.; in which the advantages of the container car and 
experiences with it were brought out. 



Bureau of Economic Research 

This Bureau was organized for the purpose of finding and placing 
the facts in regard to economic questions before the public. In 
order to ensure the impartial and scientific treatment of the data, its 
Board of Directors is composed of men of wideh- divergent points 
of view. 

The directors include Ed^vin F. Gay, President; .John P. Frey, 
Vice-President; W. C. Mitchell, Director of Research. The 
Research Staff is composed of: Wesley C. Mitchell, Willford I. 
King, Frederick R. ^Nlacaulay, and Oswald W. Knauth. 

How large is the National Income? Is it keeping pace with the 
growth of populati^)n? By what industries is it mainly jjroduced? 
How is it distributed among our income receivers? These are the 
questions to which an answer is given in the report of the National ■ 
Bureau of Economic Research of New York entitled ''Income in 
the United States," which is now in press, and to be issued within 
a few days. 

The total National Income increased very greatly between 1910 
and 1919 wlieu measured in current dollars; it increased less when 
(alculnted in unchanging dollars based on 1913 prices; the per 
capita income in terms of 1913 dollars increa.^jcd still less. 

The time-honored opinion that America is a nation of spend- 
thrifts is brought into question by the report. The savings of 
individuals going into extension of plant as rejiresented by new 
corporate issues of securities; public improvements financed by 
state and municijial bond issues; and the great number of private 
houses built each year; all these mount up to a large total. 



" Mechanical Engineer, The B. & O.R.R. Co., Baltimore, Md. 
"Genera! Mechanical Engineer, Am. Car & Foundry Co., New York, N. Y. 



Emergency Fleet Corporation Water-Tube Boilers 

for Wood Ships 



liy F. \V. DEAN,' BOSTON, MA.S.S. 



Tests upon the standard four-pass water -tube marine boiler designed by 
ihe United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, using 
coal as fuel, were reported by the present author and Mr. H. Kreisinger in 
a paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Society in 1919. In consequence 
of the introduction of oil for fuel on many of the steamships of the United 
States Shipping Board, it became desirable to ascertain the relative merits 
on several of the available mechanical atomizing oil burners for boilers. 
Tests were accordingly run. the boiler used having a heating surface of 
2518 sq. ft., a furnace volume of 408 cu. ft., and a commercial horsepower 
of 435 on the basis of the marine rating of 6 lb. of water to a square foot of 
heeling surface per hour. These tests and the results obtained form the 
subject of the present paper. 

OIL-FUEL EVAPORATIVE TESTS 

IN THE paper presented to this Society in 1919 by the author 
and Mr. Henry Kreisinger, on coal-fuel tests of Emergency 
Fleet Corporation water-tube boilers for wood ships, ^ it was stated 
that oil-fuel tests were being made, and in the present paper the 
principal results of those tests are given. 
In consequence of the introduction of oil for fuel on many of the 




The boiler tested was the four-pass boiler illustrated on p. 627 
of the former paper and here reproduced "as Fig. 1. In the oil 
tests the bottom of the casing was dropped 12 in., and the furnace 
on sides and bottom was lined with brickwork about 12 in. thick, 
there being 2'/^ in. of sO-o-cel brick next to the casing. These 
were covered by 2V2 in. of calcined brick. The sides were still 
further lined with firebrick 6 in. thick and the bottom covered with 
two courses of standard firebrick laid flat. This formed a ver.y 
effective insulation, so good, in fact, that the bricks suffered accord- 
ingly. However, it was the standard lining of the Emergency Fleet 
and was very satisfactory in keeping down the temperature of the 
fire rooms aboard shiji, for wliich purpose it was adopted. This i$ 
shown in Fig. 2. 

The furnace volume was very small, the distance between the 
front and back walls was only 6 ft., and the distance from the back 
wall to the burner tip about 6 ft. 9 in. This short distance, without 
doubt, prevented the atomizing capacities of the burners from 
being fully developed. After every series of tests the joints be- 
tween the bricks opposite each biuner required pointing and some- 
times the bricks over a small area required replacing. 



S'UainSteam l-3"Safe1y. Valves 



9 



Water^ ,® 

liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii"'^ """ 



O o o » o ■> o « o « o > 

/ OOpOOOOQOOOOOOQ 

oooooooooooooooo'l i 

OQOQpQpoOQPQpOOOOr 

00000000000000000c 
ooooooooooooooooool?' n n ; 



-n—ll'-irmMofOra 



- T'-IOW- 



-t3'-4"- 



One dn,/eras drann -S+n-hnmrn Qm Boiler to Other Hand - Pbrt 
Fig. 1 F0UR-P.4.SS Standard Water-Tube Marine Boiler for Wood Ships 




steamships belonging to the United States Shipping Board it became 
desirable to ascertain the relative merits of several of the mechanical 
atomizing oil burners for boilers. The tests were made under the 
direction of the writer assisted by Mr. Henry Kreisinger, then Fuel 
Engineer of the Bureau of Mines, and under the critical observation 
of Lieut-Commander W. R. Purnell and Lieutenant Pennycook 
from the Philadel]3hia Fuel Oil Testing Plant of the U. S. Navy. 
As in the coal-burning tests, assistants for chemical and physical 
work were furnished by the Bureau of Mines, as well as by the 
Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

' Mtr's Agent, Wheelock, Dean & Bogue, Inc. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

Presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, December 5 to 9, 1921, of 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Slightly abridged. 
All papers are subject to revision. 

2 Trans. Am.Soc.M.E., vol. 41, p. 623. 



The following were the dimensions of the firebox below the tubes 

Height of furnace at front 5 ft. OV^ in. 

Height of furnace at back 6 ft. 9 in. 

Width of furnace 11 ft. 6^2 in- 

Distance between front and back walls .6 ft. in. 

Volume of furnace 408 cu. ft. 

Tlie boiler was equipped with thermocouples for measuring the 
temperatures of the gases throughout the passes and in the uptake. 
At the latter level there were several thermocouples for determining 
the temperatures at various points, for it had been previously as- 
certained that the temperatures in the different parts of one hori- 
zontal plane of the uptake were not uniform and varied as much as 
100 deg. fahr. 

Means were provided for sampling the gases at various points 
throughout the boiler between the vicinity of the burners and the 



99 



100 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 14, No. 2 



uptake. Thus the progression of the process of combustion could 
be ascertained. Similarly draft gages were arranged to indicate 
the drafts at various points. 
Some of the dimensions of the boiler are given as follows: 

Width of casiDE at floor level 13 ft. 4 in. 

Length of casing at floor level 7 ft. It)' j 'n. 

Height of center of steam drum above floor 1 1 ft. 8 '/» in. 

Width of water spaces in headers 8 in. 

Outside diameter of tubes 3 in. 

Exposed length of tubes between headers 7 ft. 7J^ in. 

Number of tubes connecting headers '. 388 

Number of tubes between rear header and drum 21 

Steam pressure carried 210 lb. 

The Oil 

Mexican oil was used because it is the only oil that is usually 
available for steamship fuel. This oil as it comes from the wells is 



pressure into the weighing tank. From this tank the oil aftfr 
being weighed was discharged into a tank containing a steam coil, 
and to this tank the pump suctions were connected. BetweRn tlio 
pumps and suction tank the suction strainer was located and the 
discharge strainer was placed between the pumps and oil heater. 

The NA\Tr Bureau Standard Burner 

This burner is shown in Fig. 3, and consists of a circular cast- 
iron register with inclined (not radial) blades around the outside- 
bet ween two thin narrow rings with which they are cast, so formed 
that the air passes between them somewhat toward the center of 
the burner, and by them is given rotation. 

The register is suitably bolted to the boiler front, but between 
it and the front there is a conical ring which serves to direct the- 
air toward the oil and counteract the opposite tendency caused by 
the centrifugal effect of the register. 




V'j'' 



ffrick Calcined 3r/c^ ' 

Fig. 2 Arrangement of Furnace of Boiler for Oil Firing 



of about 21 gravity Baume. About 12 per cent to 13 per cent of 
gasoline is removed, leaving the oil at about 16 gravity Baum6. 
The heating value per pound is about 18,330 B.t.u. 

The first sample taken was found by the Bureau of Mines to ha\-e 
the following properties: 

Specific gravity at 1.5 deg. cent : O.OUO 

Gravity, Baume, modulus 140. at 60 deg. fahr 15.8 

Viscosity, Engler, at 05. 5 deg. cent 19. 21 

Calories per gram 10, 179 

British thermal units per pound 18, 323 

Water, per cent . 00 

Sulphur, per cent 3 . 88 

Mineral matter, sand, etc., percent 0.00 

Flash point (Pensky-Martens closed tester) 72 deg. cent. 

Burning point (Pcnskj--Martens tester opened) 116 deg. cent. 

Solid at —2 deg. cent. 

Other samples, of which many were taken, ditfered but slightly 
from this. 

The Burners 

As stated before, all burners tested were mechanical atomizing. 
This type is used at sea in order that all steam used in heating the 
oil may be condensed and saved for feedwater. 

Six kinds of burners were used, No. 1 being the U. S. Na^•y Bureau 
(of Steam Engineering) Standard Register Burner. 

Other Apparatus 

The oil was supplied to the burners by either of two horizontal 
duplex pumps, 5V4 in. by S'/a in. by 5 in. A pair of suction and a 
pair of discharge oil strainers and an oil heater were loanetl by the 
Schutte dnd Koerting Company. On the discharge pipe of the 
oil pumps there was a 6-in. air chamber about eight feet high, which 
maintained the oil pressure at the burners sufficiently steady for 
the best results. This chamber was emptied of oil at the beginning 
of each test and charged with air at 100 lb. pressure. 

The oil was heated in the railroad-car tank and forced bv air 



The oil is forced through a pipe to the so-called tip, which is 
screwed on the pipe and serves the purpose of deli'.Tring the oil 
to the furnace in a rapidlj' rotating stream passing through a very 
small hole. The tip consists of two hardened steel'parts, the outer 
one being called the "nut," and apparent on the drawing. The 
nut has a conical cavity with^the apex toward the furnace and the 





Fig. 3 The Navy Bureau Standard Burner 

other part is conical and fits it in firm contact. The latter is pro- 
vided with tangential gi'ooves fed by small holes and these grooves 
serve to rotate the oil as above mentioned. 

The centrifugal force derived from the rotation of the oil causes 
the latter to spread into the form of a thin lioUow cone, which is 
protected from the inrushing air from the register by a cast-iron 
cone untU it reaches an advisable thinness at the edge of the cone, 
where it is met by the rotating air with which it is thoroughly 
mixed. Immediatelv beyond this line of mixture the ignition 
occurs and the completeness of combustion depends upon the ade- 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



101 



quacy of the quantity of air, the completeness of the atoniization 
of the oil, and the thoroughness of the mixing. 

The other burners have tips that rotate the oil, as this is in- 
dispensable in thinning the oil film, but burner No. 4 rotates the 
air but little, and No. 6 not at all. This demonstrates that the 
rotation of the air is not necessary, a conclusion that might other- 
wise ha^•e been reached. 

The Tests 

Four burners of each kind were applied to the boiler, and, except 
the Navy Bureau Standard burner, were placed with their centers 
■ 30 in. apart and 20 in. above the furnace floor^ leaving 24 in. be- 
tween the side walls of the furnace and centers of the adjacent 
burners. In some of the tests the Bureau burners were arranged 
likewise, but at the beginning they were placed with their centers 
36 in. apart and 22 in. above the furnace floor, leaving 15 in. between 
the side-burner centers and the walls. No advantage in either 
spacing could be discerned. 

The fii-st burner to be used was the Bureau, and on account of 
inexperience with Mexican oil \-ery poor results were for some 




0.05 0.1 0.15 
Pounds of 0; 



0.2 Ot5 03 0.35 0.4 045 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 
il Burnt per 5q, Ft. of Heating Surface per Hour. 



formed and the air admitted in such a manner that it will intimately 
mix with the oil. 

A common feature of all the mechanical atomizers tested is the 
rapid rotation of the oil as it enters the furnace, as in the Bureau 
burner. This is produced, as in that case, by forcing it at high pres- 
sure through small channels of various forms tangential to a small 
central hole in the burner tip through which it passes to the furnace. 
As it issues it rotates rapidly and the centrifugal force expands it 
and forms a thin conical shell of oil. While expanding it is u.sually 
protected from the incoming air by a thin cast-iron conical shell 
of advisable diameter placed in front of it with its base toward the 



Fig. 4 Efficiencies and Drafts of Selected Tests 

time obtained and immense amounts of smoke made. With more 
experience excellent results were obtained and there was no difficulty 
in preventing smoke wth this or any burner. In general a slight 
amount of smoke was allowed. 

At the beginnmg there was frequent difficulty from the carboniz- 
ing of the oil, but this was gradually overcome. 

The criteria by which the merits of a burner can be judged when 
used with induced draft are its ability to burn the oil to CO2, to 
do this wth a minimum of draft, to produce little smoke, to produce 
no carbonization in the burner, and to have sufficient range in oil- 
biu-ning capacity. 

To produce desirable CO2 the oil atomization must be well per- 




No.l 



No3 No.+ 

Burners 



Fig. 5 Comparison of Boiler Efficiencies, Drafts, CO3 and Uptake 

Temper-\tures at R.\ted Power of Boiler with Different 

Burners, and Average CO of Selected Tests . 

furnace. When the oU reaches the edge of the cone it is swept by 
the incoming air and the mixing and ignition occur. 

Results of the Tests 

The results of the tests which are considered to be most reliabfe 
and to represent the merits of the burners are given in four tables 
in the complete paper, of which Table 1 is representative. With 
each burner several preliminary tests were made before sufficient 
skill was acquired to obtain consistent results, and these are omitted.. 
It may be well to remark here that the representatives of the burners 
were not able to operate them successfully, which indicates that the^ 
efficiencies of boilers with oil fuel are very uncertain. 

It was intended with each kind of burner to consume oil at four 
different hourly rates for four burners collectively, namely, 500 
lb., 800 lb., 1100 lb., and 1400 lb., but it was impossible to realize 
these results wth precision. 

In judging the merits of a burner by the magnitudes of the COa- 
and CO, a difficulty is encountered from the fact that these con- 
stituents are not uniformly distributed throughout the area in 
which they are determined, whether it is in the uptake or in one of 
the passes. 

Usually, in the boiler tested, the combustion is complete by the- 
time the gases reach the first or lowest pass of the boiler, but if th& 
gases are sampled in this pass they are far from uniform at different; 



102 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



points between the end of the baffle and rear header, 
are examples: 



Test No. 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
4H 



CO. 
. from header 
[jer cent 

10 
11.9 
10.0 

1 1 it 
116 
12,6 



COs 
■ in. from header 
per cent 
10.4 
14 2 
12.3 
13 3 

12.8 



While the above are at different distances from the 
of the baffle, the following arc at the same distance and at 
{lifferent points in a line parallel to theend of the baflle and 
19 in. therefrom: 



The following In Fig. 5 a diagram of comparative uptake temperatures, drafts, 

efficiencies, CO; and CO is given. 

In Fig. 6 the ujjtake temperature gradients of the different 
burners are shown. It will be noticed that the burner of lowest 
effi('iency gave the steepest gradient. In Figs. 4, .5, and 6 all 
burners are included. 

Burner No. 6 required the lea.st draft and the least adjusting. 

It was the only burner that did not vibrate; it gave the highest 

CO2, but also next to the highest CO. All other burners required 

constant adjusting to maintain i)roper CO2, and the reason for this 

[•nd could not be ascertained. 



CO2 

39 in. from header 

per cent 

111 

14 3 

12 

13 6 
13 6 
12.9 





Position C 


Test No. 


CO, 




per cent 


26 


11 


36 


12.9 



Similarly the other ingredient 



Position D 


Position E 


CO; 


CO, 


per cent 


per cent 


12 


12.3 


9 5 


11.8 


s of the gases 


ViiTV. 



400 



400 T==. 



c^ 400 



400 



400 



400 




0.15 OZ OZS 03 035 04 045 0-5 055 06 065 
Pounds of Oi! Burnt per Sq Ft. of Heafinq Surface per Hour 

Fig. 6 Temperature Gradients for Different Rates of Oil 
Consumption with Different Burners 



This variation of the gasos of conihustion renders it 
difficult to apply the chemical criterion in determining 
merits of a burner. In operating burners, of course, con- 
stant studies of the gas analyses are made, and this is 
necessary, for if the CO2 is good at one point it is probable 
that it is at others. Nevertheless, it is necessary to 
determine the efficiency of the boiler under the same con- 
ditions as a final means of judging of the performance of 
a burner. It may be found that the maximum boiler 
efficiency will not correspond with the maximum CO2, and 
this is true with these tests. 

.In the tables of results given the following efficiencies and 
average CO2 and CO occur, and are here listed in the 
order of the burner trials. 



T.\BLE 1 RESULTS OF EVAPOUATIVE TESTS OF FOUR-PASS BOILER 
EQUIPPED WITH FOUR NO. 1 OIL BURNERS 

Fuel Oil Used: Mexican Petroleum Residuum 



1 Test number 

2 Date of trial, 1919 

U Duration of trial, hr 

4 Barometer, in 

5 Number of burners used 

DIMENSIONS AND PROPORTIONS 

6 Furnace volume, cu. ft 

7 Hrating surface, sq. ft 

8 Ratio of h.s. to f.v 

AVERAGE PRESStTBES 

9 Steam pressure by gage, lb 

10 Atmospheric pressure, lb 

11 Absolute pressure, lb 

12 Draft between damper and boiler, in. . . . 

AVER.VGE temperatures 

13 External air, deg. fahr 

14 Fire room, deg. fahr 

15 Feedwater, dejj;. fahr 

16 Escaping «;as, deg. fahr 

17 Furnace by optical pyrometer, deg. fahr, 

FUEL DATA 

18 Oil consumed per hour, lb 

19 Oil per liour per sq. ft. heating surf., lb.. 

20 Oil per hour per cu. ft. of fur. vol., lb.. . . 

21 Oil per hour per burner, lb 

22 Temperature of oil at burners, deg. fahr. 

23 Pressure of oil at burners, lb 

24 Hfat value per pound of oil, B.t.u.. . . 

25 Moisture in oil, per cent 

20 Silt, per cent .^ 

27 Specific gravity at 60 deg. fahr 

28 Viscosity, deg. Engler at 65.5 deg. cent. 

29 Flash temperature, deg. fahr 

30 Burning temperature, deg. fahr 

31 Carbon, per cent " 

32 Hydrogen, per cent 

33 Sulphur, per cent 

34 Gravity at 00 deg. fahr., Baum6 scale. 

QUALITY OF STEAM 

35 Moisture in steam, per cent 

EFFICIENCY 

36 Efficiency of boiler and furnace, per cent 

WATER AND EVAPORATION 

37 Water supplied to boiler per hour, lb. . . . 

38 Dry steam generated per hour, lb 

39 Factor of evaporation 

40 Evap. per hour from and at 212* fahr., lb, 

41 Do. per sq. ft. lieating surface, lb 

42 .Actual evaporation per lb. of oil, lb 

43 E<iuivalent from and at 212° fahr., lb. .. . 

44 Do. per cu. ft, of furnace volume, lb 

POWKR OF BOILER 

45 Land lip. obtained (rated at 250 hp.). . . . 

46 Per rent of hind rating obtained 

■^7 Equiv. land hp. of marine rating 

48 Per cent of marine rating obtained 



37 


33 


29 


Aug. 8 


Aug. 1 


Jul. 26 


Vi 


6 


8 


29.4 
4 


29.3 

4 


29.5 
4 


408 


408 


408 


2518 


2518 


2518 


6.13 


6.13 


6.13 


200 2 


197.0 


203 1 


I4.4fi 


14.26 


14 51 


214 66 


211.20 


217.61 


0.3S2 


0.774 


0.947 


72.8 


74.6 


82.8 


74.7 


83.6 


89.8 


116 


90 


68 6 


414 


412 


465 


2198 


2230 


2331 


527 


615.5 


807.8 


211 


0.246 


0.325 


1 292 


1.509 


1.98 


131. S 


153.9 


201 95 


266 


264.1 


276.5 


146 2 


181.9 


249,3 


18376 


18376 


18352 


O.l.i 


0.15 


05 


0.00 


00 


0.00 


962 


0.962 


0.96 


20.39 


20.39 




167 


167 


158 


270 


270 


266 


84.02 


84 02 


84.19 


11.00 


11 00 


11.11 


4.04 


4.04 


4.07 


15.50 


15.50 


15.80 


1.11 


1 04 


91 


75.9 


77 .7 


76.8 


6663 


7783 


9876 


6590 


7700 


9790 


1 . 1.50 


1.170 


1.198 


7580 


9060 


11730 


3.03 


3.62 


4.09 


12.50 


12.51 


12.12 


14.38 


14.72 


14.53 


18 57 


22 20 


24.00 


220 


263 


340 


88 


104 


136 


435 


435 


435 


51 


60 


78 



38 

Aug.9 

4.88 



408 
2518 
6.13 

196.7 



1.475 

70 6 

79.2 

85 9 

516 



1137.8 

0.455 

2.79 

284 

283 4 

167.8 

18376 

0.15 

00 

" C. 0.962 

20.39 

167 

270 

84.02 

11.00 

4.04 

15.53 

0.85 

78.9 

14520 
14397 
I.ISO 
10988 
6.80 
12.65 
14.93 
41.63 

492 
197 
435 
113 



3! 
Jul. 30 



408 
251.S 
6.13 

193 . 60 
14.51 

208 11 
1.902 

74 6 
84.9 
73.7 
638 
2551 

1341.0 
53 

3 29 
335 3 

260 

228 

18376 

0.1 

0(1 

962 



1 

270 

84.02 

11.00 

4.04 

15.54 

0.87 

77.0 

16555 
16400 
1 . 10: 
19550 
7.82 
12.22 
14.57 
47.93 

56' 
22' 
435 
1.30 



3C 

Aug. 7 

5 

29 14 

4 

408 
2518 
13 

201 

14.34 

215.34 

2.51 

86 2 
92.7 
91.7 
583 
2654 

1584 6 

634 

3 882 

396 2 

281 

236 4 

1,8376 

15 

0.00 

962 

20.39 

167 

270 

84 02 

11,00 

,4,04 

15.54 

0.93 

76,1 

19620 
19437 
1.174 
22819 
9 14 
12,27 
14.40 
,55 g.i 

061 
265 
435 
152 





Average 


Average 


Average 


Burner 


cfficieucies. 


CO: 


CO 




per cent 


l)er cent 


per cent 


No. 1 


77.02 


11.88 


0.09 


No. 3 


75.94 


12.10 


1.12 


No. 4 


73.50 


12.00 


1.18 


No. 6 


75.10 


12.71 


0.18 



In Fig. 4 tho efficioncies and drafts of the various liurners are 
plotted. The Bureau Standard burner recjuired more draft than the 
others. The reason for this is that it was designed for use on war 
vessels and made to require a strong draft, orj^fire-room pressure, 
in order not to backfire from gun shock. 



DISCUSSION 

T N the discussion which followed Mr. Dean's paper, Past-President 
*■ D. S. Jacobus presiding, Joseph Nelis, Jr.,' who had been 
associated with the author in the early part of the tests, said, in reply 
to questions, that an attempt was made with the standard size 
adopted to run up to as high a capacity as possible — higher than 
they would be on shipboard — and that in some of the higher ratings 
the brickwork melted. The burners employed were all mechanical 

(Continued on page 104) 

' Manager, Marine Dept., Power Specialty Co., New York. N. Y. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 



Motion Pictures of a Stoker Furnace in Operation 



By R. SANFORD RILEY,' WORCESTER, MAS.S. 



THf] moving-picture method of showing furnace operation is 
the result of about ten years of study and experiment in an 
effort to sliow continuously the action of a fuel bed. The 
opportunity thus offered of studying the fuel bed in operation may 
suggest new lines of investigation and development. The first in- 
timate contact with a roaring-hot stoker fire usually developed the 
fact that motion-picture cameras were valuable and must be 
treated with more respect. A temperature approaching 3000 deg. 
fahr. presented new problems even to the most versatile motion- 
picture expert. 

These difficulties in the oliservation of the phenomenon of the 
combustion of coal were finally overcome by the ingenuity and per- 
sistence of F. H. Daniels- so it is to him we owe the invention and 
accomplishment here described. 

The camera (Fig. 1) was mounted at the right height on a stand 
which was arranged to roU up to the door. A heavy asbestos 
shield was built to protect the front and side of the camera. The 
shield over the front was made to fit more or less accurately in place 
of the door, while the shield at the side was made to protect the 
camera against the hot brick lining of the door when the latter 
swung open. This arrangement made it convenient to run the 
camera uji into position as soon as the door was opened and main- 
tain the furnace conditions the same as when the door was shut. Fig. 
1 shows the operator in position with the door opening closed by 




Fig. 1 Arr.ingement of Camera before Furnace Door 

the front shield and the hot door lining covered by the side shield 
showii. Even with tliese precautions, an electric fan was required 
to keep the camera safe and the operator less uncomfortable. 

Of course, the real problem was the protection of the camera lens 
during the time it had to be exposed. The hole allowing the camera 
lens to look through the front screen was normally closed by another 
asliestos plate. This plate was tripped open by the operator's 
foot only during the time pictures were to be taken. Note the pedal 
and pulley connections thereto in Fig. 1. 

For protection of the camera lens, a water cell with glass windows 



' President, Sanford Riley Stoker Co. Inc. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

- General Manager, Sanford Riley Stoker Co., Inc., Asso-Mem.Am.Soc. 
M.E. 

Remarks accompanying presentation of motion pictures, under auspices 
of the Fuel Division, December 8, 1921, at the Annual Meeting of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



was first tried. A forced circulation of water through the cell 
did not prevent the glass from cracking. This defect was remedied 
bj' using special Pyrex glass, but it was found that air bubbles were 
fornied on the side next the fire and even distilled water did not pre- 
\'ent them. These of course spijiled the clearness of the pictures. 
Finally, the combination of two sheets of heat-resisting glass with 
a thin sheet of gold between was tried. The gold acted as a mirror 
and threw back into the furnace approximately 75 per cent of the 
radiant heat, while it allowed approximately 7.5 per cent of the 
liglit rays to pass through. This protector for the lens was itself 
protected by two jets of compressed air arranged to impinge and 
mushroom in front of the opening in the asViestos screen. (See 
the hose connection in Fig. 1.) This air had to be delivered at 




Fig. 2 Cross-Section of Furnace Setting 

approximately 100 lb. pressure in order to get the required cooling 
effect. Furthermore, it had to be clean and free from all moisture 
and oil. The trap shown imderneath the camera was drained 
frequently in order to insure clean air. 

In addition to the screening effect of the gold leaf, it was found 
necessary to use what is called a Wrattan filter in order to prevent 
halations on the film. 

At the suggestion of .lohn A. Stevens, Mem.Am.Soc.M.E., a 
spectrometer was used in the fire and this showed a complete spec- 
trum fi'om reds down to violet and a brilliant yellow sodivnn line. 
The blues and purples increase in intensity', depending on the 
temjiierature of the fire viewed through the spectrometer. A 
panchromatic film stock was used to bring out the reds of the 
spectrum. This combination of gold screen, Wrattan filter and 
panchromatic film shows the texture of the fire well enough for the 
purpose. 

The pictures were taken at the plant of Bird & Son, Inc., East 
Wal]3ole, Mass. The boiler is a Stiiiing, of S22 hp., equijjped with a 
0-retort extra long Riley underfeed stoker. This installation was 
made by .lohn A. Stevens, Engineer, of Lowell, Mass. and a cross- 
section of the furnace setting is shown in Fig. 2. The height of the 
mud drum being 11 ft. above the floor line allowed the use of the 
rear door sho^vn in addition to the usual side observation door. 
Both these doors were used for taking pictures and proved just as 
convenient for this as they are for observation in everyday use. 

Fig. 3 is a typical view through the rear door and Fig. 4 through 
the side door. Restriction of the view due to limited flare of the 
brickwork around the doors is a handicap but does not interfere 
with a study of the limited area seen. It is hoped later to get more 
extended views through specially flared door openings, but in this 



103 



104 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



case it was necessary to take pictures under usual service conditions. 
It is also planned to make special studies of side-wall clinker ac- 
tion, and development of clinkers elsewhere in the furnace. The 
operating conditions were normal during the week the.se pictures 
were taken. It took nearlj' an entire woA^k to get satisfactory mo- 
tion pictures of the fire alone, and altogether about 2000 ft. of film 
were ascd up in order to get the 700 ft. shown. There was no at- 
tempt made to have the fire in any special condition. The pic- 
tures were taken generally as the apparatus could be prepared for 
action, and some of the operation shown is better as an example of 
what not to do. 

I The pictures taken and reproduced at normal camera speed show 
nothing much more interesting than tlie still pictures reproduced 
in Figs. 3 and 4, except perhaps the pictures of the banked fire and 




I'lG. 3 Typic.\l View through Kear Door of Fur.nace 




Ffo. 4 Typical View through Side Door of Furnace 

the dumping. The change from banked fire to 300 per cent of rat- 
ing in six minutes is less monotonous than normal operation and 
shows ciuite clearly what happens in lireaking up a fire bed that 
has been standing overnight. The dumping shows what happens 
if stokers of this type are dumped with a heavy fuel bed. 

The most interesting features, and certainly the most dramatic, 
are those taken at intervals and speeded up like the well-known 
pictures of a growing plant, though of course no such great magnifica- 
tion of speed was used. Some of the pictures were taken at inter- 
vals of six and eight seconds. These show some appreciable change 
in the fire and when speeded up to normal reproduction rate of six- 
teen per second, there is an action worth watching. Particular 
attention will be called to some of these highly speeded-up pictures 
where the fuel bed appears to be "shimmying" on its way instead 
of "inching" along at a scarcely perceptible rate. The disintegration 
and melting away of the fuel is clearly sho\\m as is also the gradual 
segregation of the non-combustible matter in the form of clinkers 
on the surface. It is to be regretted that there appears to be no waj^ 
of getting a cross-section of the fire, although we hope to find a way 
of making some additional observations below t lie surface. 



DISCUSSION ON E. F. C. WATER-TUBE 
BOILERS FOR WOOD SHIPS 

(Continued from Page 102) 

atomizing burners, as steam atomizers wasted too much make-up 
water. Up to the ratings jxjssible in marine work — i..5 to 6 lb. of 
evaporation per square foot of heating surface — smokeless op)era- 
tion was possible with oil at the proper temperature and pressure. 

John A. Stevens^ gave interesting particulars of the oil-burning 
installation on the Cunard liner Mauretania, describing the per- 
iscopes on the uptakes for observing the character of smoke pass- 
ing, the foamite tanks for use in extinguislung oU fires, etc. The 
furnaces on the Mauretania were somewhat small — 46 in. in diame- 
ter — and the combustion chamber restricted. The installation 
made it possible to dispense with 4.50 firemen and coal trimmers. 

F. W. Ixahy' called attention to the electric-drive vessels of 
the U. S. .Shipping Board, which were pro\ided with oil-burning 
Scotch boilers and aU of the improvements that had been men- 
tioned in connection with the Mauretania. 

N. E. Lewis* gave particulars regarding the dimensions of a 
4.50-hp. water-tube boiler with 4-in. tubes 14 ft. long and equipt^ed 
for oil burning, as well as of a 2-in.-tube marine-type boiler. The 
efficiencies reported were perceptibly higher than those given in 
the paper. Mr. Lewis said that he had noted a statement in the 
paper that the efficiencies of boilers with oil fuel are very uncer- 
tain. He believed that a well-designed mechanical oil burner 
would give higher efficiencies with less care and manipulation on 
the part of the operator than any other fuel-burning apparatus. 
The adjustment of air and oil pressures was practicallj' all that 
one had to watch, other than seeing that the burners were kept 
free, and it was not like the coal-fired, gas-fired, or other kind of 
boiler where several other elements entered into the operation. 

Superpower 

There are few who understand the superpower plan in detail, 
but the public does not understand it in general. 

Even men in the business regard it as a collection of extra-large 
power houses and say that the superpower station of yesterday is 
the ordinary plant of today. 

Perhaps they make a difference between the superpower station 
and the superpower plan, although they mingle them in wTiting 
and in conversation. 

Look over an industrial city block of a few years ago. There 
are in it a dozen or twenty separate power plants. On the back 
street several small industries, each with its boiler and engine, coal 
carts from different dealers backing up and leaving the fuel, a ton 
or two at a time. Oil, packing and supplies bought in driblets. 
No one of them big enough to support a real engineer. On the main 
street some office buildings with more pretentious and efficient 
power plants, but the aggregate employing many more men than 
were needed, burning more fuel and pajing more for their su]3])lies 
than would be necessary in a well-designed and operated plant 
that could furnish not only power, but light, heat, hot and cold 
water, compressed air, vacuum, refrigeration, etc., to the entire block. 

Extend this idealization to a section of the country instead of 
to a city block, and you have a conception of the superpower plan. 

Only the superpower plan does not contemplate merely building 
a single immense power station for each industrial block or district 
and tying them all together. It proposes an intelligent engineering 
study of the power needs and the available sources of power supply 
for a district and a combination and coordination that will give 
to each subdivision of the district a dependable supply of power 
in the cheapest and most econonucal way. 

It is the organization, the systemizing, the rationalizing of the 
power resources of the country. 

And it is time that somebody began to think of power in that 
way; to look ahead to the time when the world will have to decide 
the purposes for which fuel may be burned and power used; to 
pick tiie essential industries. This time is already in sight so far 
as liquid fuels are concerned. — F. R. Low, ]VIem..\m.Soc.M.E., in 
Power, Jan. 10, 1922. 

' Consulting Engineer, Lowell, Mass. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

• Marine Manager, Diamond Power Specialty Co., New York, N. Y. 
Mem.Am..Soc.M.E. 

* Babcock & Wilcox Co., New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



A Study of the Elastic Properties of Small-Size 

Wire Cable 



By R. R. MOORE,' DAYTON, OHIO 



In aircraft worl^ use is made of seoeral varieties of small-diameter steel 
cable, f^nowledge of the physical characteristics of which is imporiarxt for 
efficient design. The present paper gives results of a series of tests carried 
out at McCooli Field, Dayton, Ohio, in which it is shown that the modulus 
of elasticity of small-sized wire aircraft cable varies from 1 5.000,000 to 
28,000,000. depending upon the size and type of the cable. The maximum 
difference between moduli of specimens of the same size and type of cable 
may be as high as 3.000.000. 

It was also found that the modulus of elasticity may be raised by loading 
the cable below the elastic limit, and that resting the cable does not seem to 
have any definite effect on the modulus. The elastic limit may be raised 
by loading the cable a little beyond this point, the maximum increase ob' 
iained amounting to 63 per cent of the original elastic limit. 

THE development of aircraft has brought into use several 
varieties of small-diameter steel cable, a knowledge of the 
physical characteristics of which is important for efficient 
design. Such information becomes vitally important to engineers 
who are concerned with the development of new types of aircraft 
and the advancement of the science of aviation in general. This is 
the case at the Engineering Division of the Air Service, located at 
McCook Field, Dayton, Oliio. The subject was first brought to the 
attention of the Material Section by a request from the Design 
Section for stress-strain curves on various sizes of the 19-wLre non- 
flexible type of aircraft cable. After completing these tests the in- 
vestigation was extended to cover all the available types of cable 
used in airplane construction. 

Engineering handbooks do not quote any -^^alue for the elastic 
limit of wire cable, and for the modulus of elasticity they give 
a value of about 12,000,000. This value, however, refers to wire 
ropes with hemp centers and for sizes greater than Vs in. In 
aircraft work we are mostly concerned with ropes made of high- 
strength steel wire in sizes less than Vs in. and types which have 
either a wire or wire-strand center. The value for the modulus of 
this type of cable is considerably greater than 12,000,000. 

WhUe the determination of ultimate strength is a comparatively 
simple matter, the accurate measurement of elongation necessary 
in determining the elastic limit and modulus of elasticity presents 
se\'eral difficulties. In the first place, the fact that the cable is 
built up of so many small wires and strands makes it difficult to 
locate accurately a definite gage point and attach an instrument 
there wthout its shifting in position. It is evident that the usual 
type of extensometer with pointed screws for grips is of no use for 
this work. In the second place, a cable twists when under load, 
so that any rigid instrument cannot be used. 

Tests were made on a 20,000-lb. Olsen structural-material and 
airplane-parts ■ testing machine which was previously calibrated 
and found to be in good adjustment. However, in several cases 
the measurement of load was obtained from the deflection of an 
accurately calibrated sprmg placed on the upper head of the ma- 
chine and arranged so as to take the load applied to the cable. The 
deflection of the spring was measured with an Ames dial reading 
to 0.001 in. It was found that this method gave more consistent 
results because it was considerably more sensitive to small variations 
in load than the lever system of the testing machine. In fact, some 
such arrangement is absolutely necessary in testing the small cables, 
particularly the '/32, Vie, and V32-in. sizes, in order to obtain the 
elastic hmit and modulus with any degree of accuracy. To obtain 
the breaking load, however, the spring must be removed and the 
load measured on the machine. A view of the complete set-up with 
extensometer attached is shown in Fig. 1 . 

The instrument used was very similar to the familar wire-wound 
dial type of extensometer. The greatest difficulty was in attaching 

• Chief, Physical Testing Branch, Material Section, McCook Field. 

Abstract of paper presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, December, 
1921, of The American Society of Mechanic.il Engineers. All papers 
are subject to revision. 



the dial to the cable at tlie gage point. This was accomplished by 
attaching the dial to a specially devised clamp as sho\\ni in Fig. 2. 
At the other gage point, a second clamp was attached similar to the 
one holding the dial. To this clamp one end of a fine magnet wire 
was attached; the wire extended down the cable and around the 
brass drum, the loose end having a light weight attached to it. It 
is clear, then, that as the two gage points moved apart the wire 




Fig. 1 Complete Set-Up of Appar.atus with Extenscmeter Attached 

turned the drum and shaft upon which the needle was mounted, 
thus recording directly on the dial the elongation of the cable. 

In order to reduce the error occurring from tliis twisting, the wire 
was placed as near the cable as possible and hardly exceeded '/o in. 
from the center of the cable at any time. As the maximum twi.st 
noted did not exceed 90 deg., the error incurred in the modulus due 
to tliis error of elongation is negligible. 

Cables of four different types of construction and one made of 
phosphor-bronze wire were tested, the types and sizes tested being 
given in Table 1. 

A chemical analysis of several wires taken from the phosphor- 
bronze cable gave the following composition: tin, 3.77; copper, 



105 



106 



MECHANICAL ENGIXEERIXG 



Vol. 44, Xo. 2 



95.60; zinc, 0.34; phosphorus, 0.28. A chemical analysis of 
several wires from the steel cables gave the following composition: 
carbon, 0.64; manganese, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.033; sulphur, 
0.033. 

In Fig. 3 is shown the arrangement of tlie wires and strands in 
the four different types of cables. 

Stres.s-strain curves for computing the mndulus and locating 
the elastic limit were plotted on cross-section pai)er with a scale 
of 1 in. equal to 0.01 in. actual elongation in 50 in. The vertical 
scale was made so as to give the curve a slope of about 45 deg. with 
the horizontal. This large-scale plotting showed the readings of 
the c.xtensometer to be very consistent, indicating that the cable 
was stretching uniformly and also twisting uniformly. 



modulus obtained on different specimens of the same cable. The 
largest of these differences is in these '/s-in. 7 by 19 cable, specimens 
13 and 14, which show a difference of about 3,200,000; and the 
by 7 cable, specimens 16 and 40, which show a difference of 
2,760,000. 

The highest modulus obtained on any cable is 27,703.100. This 
value was obtained after loading below the elastic limit. It should 
be remarked here that this value is more than twice as large as the 
\alue 12,000,000 which is commonly quoted for wire rope. 

The largest increase in modulus is found in the '/s-in. 7 by 1!» 
calilc, which shows an increase of 6,600,000 after loading aiwve 
the yield point. It is noticeable that this maximum increase occurs 
on the smallest-sized cable. The phosphor-bronze cable shows the 



B/ajsiPn/n 




TABLE 1 TYPES AND SIZES OF CABLES TESTED 







//a/f/rf Cffjf/t!' 






Voc^s 




^BS3»a 



MA^ntSUF-^^. 



Fig. 2 Extensometer Cl.\mp 

The values for elastic limit were obtained by selecting the highest 
point on the straight-line section of the stress-strain curves. 
Strictly speaking, this is not the elastic limit but the proportional 
limit. (American Society for Testing Materials.) 

However, as the majority of practical designing engineers use the 
term "elastic limit" to designate what is actually the proportional 
limit, we have also used it in that sense in order to avoid confusion. 





l9-yYire Cable 



7x19 Wire Cable 




Cord Ctnfer 




7x7 Wire Cable 6x7 Wire Cable 

Fig. 3 Types of Cable Construction 

There is considerable variation between the modulus of different- 
sized specimens of the same type. In order to show the compara- 
tive modulus values for the different types of cable. Table 2 was 
prepared, selecting the same size of cable from each type as nearly 
as it was possible to obtain. 

There is in several cases quite a difference between the first-run 



Type 

1 9 wire 

7 by 7 

7 by 7 

6 by 7 

7 by 19 
7 by 19 



Materia] of 


Protective Coating 




Wires 


on Wires 


Diameter of Cable 


Steel 


Tinned 


'Ai*. 'A«. Vm, Vs, 'Ai, y> 


Steel 


Zinc-plated 


'A«, VJ! ,'A2 


Steel 


Tinned 


>Ai 


Steel 


Zinc-plated 


•/e. 


Steel 


Tinned 


v.. Vji, Vi;, Vj!. "/r 


Phosphor- 


None 


Vn 


bronze 







* This cable has only 7 wires because of its stnalt size. 



TABLE 2 



COMPARATIVE MODTLUS VALUES FOR DIFFERENT TYPES 
OF CABLE 



Type 



19 wire 


v« 


7 by 7 


Vr 


6 by 7 


v« 


7 by 19 


v« 


7 by 19> 


Vn 


' Phosphor-bronze. 





Average 1st Run 
Modulus 



24,870.000 
19. 505.000 
17.989,000 
15.605,000 
11,307,000 



.Average Modulus after 
Loading above 
Yield Point 

25,687.000 
22,985.000 
20. 660. 000 
20. 112,000 
11,953,000 



4000 



■5 2400 





























































„^^ 
























* 




»-" 


























Ai 


\^ 




























/^i 


f 


/ 




























V 


























A 






























nP 


' 


























A 


7/// 


/ 


























M 


m 


/ 


























i 


m^ 
























/ 


9/// 


A 


w 


/ 
























7 


























/ 





























20 030 040 0.50 060 

Eloncjafion rn Inches per 50 Inches 



070 



080 



Fig. 4 Ri.se in El.^stic Limit of 'As-in. 19-Wire Xon-flexible 
Steel-wire Cable 



smallest increase in modulus of any of the other cables, even though 
it is of the same type of construction (7 by 19) as the one which 
showed the greatest increase. 

While it is true that the modulus is raised a greater amount by 
loading above the yield point than below the elastic limit, it is 
to l)e remembered that a very large part of this increase is due to 
the loading below the elastic limit. It is evident, then, that the 
net effect of loading above the yield point is small. 

The final object of this investigation was to determine whether 
it is possible to raise the elastic limit by loading a little beyond this 
point. The results of one set of runs made to show this are given 
in Fig. 4. These curves indicate definitely that the elastic limit 
can be considerably increased. 

The amount of increase obtained on the cables tested is as given 
in Table 3, page 111. 

(Continued on page HI) 



Air Lines and Some of Their Problems 



By R, B. C. NOORDUYN,' NEW YORK, N. Y. 



To those who are inleresled in the early and successful development of 
icommercial air lines in this country, this paper will give an index of the 
problems to he solved, both from the point of view of development of the 
machine itself, as well as of such important accessory factors as proper 
landing facilities, ground organizations, legislation, and insurance. 

The author gives a detailed account of the progress of commercial aviation 
in Europe, tracing the development from the time of the post-war experi- 
mental worli with military machines and fields, to the present successful 
operation with proper machines and schedules and with Government 
subsidies. 

His ideas are authoritative, and hence valuable, and his presentation of 
the problems of air lines should do much toward helping to secure the estab- 
lishment of air travel in this country as a factor of everyday life. 

TIII'j ail' lines in operation in Europe since 191!) have proved a 
<>:i-eat attraction for Ameiicans who have formed, in fact, 
a surprisingly large jjercentage of the passengers carried. 
The fa\'oraiile impression which they invariably bring home of 
the new method of travel encourages the belief that once air lines 
are running in this country and can promise to equal the perform- 
ance of those with which the traveler has become familiar abroad, 
jiublic sup]5ort will be forthcoming to a greater degree than has been 
generally anticipated. 

In the United States last year, the mileage covered by commer- 
cial or privately owned airplanes was estimated by the Manufac- 
turers' Aircraft Association, from reports received from operators 
all over the country, to be not less than six million miles, in the 
(•nurse of which some 225,000 passengers were carried. The 
I'renchman, who is accustomed to using a time-table for the next 
plane for London or Amsterdam, and buying his ticket at the near- 
est travel bureau looks at these figures and thinks that the air 
lines in this country must be doing a good business. If this large 
jnileage were actually covered in the operation of scheduled ser- 
^'ices over fixed routes, instead of in unorganized short flights, we 
ciiuld indeed consider air-travel to be an established factor in every- 
day life. 

As a precursor of regular services the present volume of flying 
must not be underrated. Its educative value is very great as the 
]ia.ssengers carried on short flights now will be the patrons of the 
air lines of the future. Further, personnel, pilots, and mechanics 
are being trained, and ground organization, landing fields and ser- 
\ice stations are being developed all ov^r the country, although 
>l()wly and on a modest scale. 

What, then, are tlie difficulties which have so far stood in the 
way of rapid development of regular inter-city air lines in this 
country? 

Briefly, the airplane finds itself today in that stage through which 
many new inventions have passed, and in which the article itself 
has reached a more advanced state of development than the fa- 
cilities and accessories necessary for its comjjletely effective use. 

The modern commerical airplane has all the qualities requisite to 
passenger vehicles generally, whether land, sea, or air going, with 
the additi(jn, naturally, of a few of its own. As for comfort, pas- 
sengers are seated in chairs similar to those in a Pullman car, in cab- 
ins easily entered through full sized doors a step or two from the 
ground, protected from wind, cold and engine smells. They view 
the scenery through large windows. The motions of an airplane 
are far more gentle than those of any other vehicle, while sense of 
speed and vertigo are entirely absent in straightforward flying and 
there is no dust or dirt. 

Safety and reliability under organized operating conditions are 
now such as to justify anyone in entrusting life and property to 
the air; according to the latest time-tables the regular passenger 
and freight lines in Europe are covering 22,000 miles per day. 



Table 1, a summary of British Air Ministry weekly reports on the 
traffic between London and the Continent, shows some interest- 
ing figures. On the three routes operated, 3088 flights were started 
during the first 10 months of 1921, of which 91 'A per cent were car- 
ried out in good order, which represents a distance of 700,000 
miles flowni and at least ()200 starts and landings made without 
one single passenger being hurt seriously. These figures are the 
more remarkable when taken into consideration \vith the very 
unfavorable weather conditions for which the region of the English 
Channel is notorious. 

The United States Air Mail Service, which is operated over a 
series of route sections somewhat shorter in average length than the 
European lines, completed 95 per cent of the 6690 flights attempted 
during the first 9 months of 1921, in the course of which 1,. 332, 000 
miles were flown with mail. On the Cleveland-Chicago section 
the twenty-fifth successive week of 100 per cent performance was 
recently reported. However, it must be remembered that the 
Mail Service is supplied with a far greater number of airplanes and 
engines in i)ro])ortion to the length of its routes than any private 
company striving to operate at a profit could afford, and also that, 
when carrying mail only, flights often can be successfully carried 
out under conditions which would be incompatible with the safety of 
passengers. The figures given do not, therefore, provide a satis- 
factory basis on which to judge the relative merits of equijjment 
and personnel between the U. S. Air Mail and the European pas- 
senger lines, as far as regularity of performance is concerned. 



> Netherlands Aircraft Mfg. Co., New York, N. Y., Fokker representa- 
tives in America. A.M.I.Ae.E. 

Paper presented at the Annual Meeting. New York, December, 1921, 
of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All papers are subject 
to revision. 



TABLE 1 


OFFICIAL STATISTICS ON 


THE AIR LINES BETWEEN 




LONDON AND THE CONTINENT 






From January 


1. 192 


1 to Octob 


er 30. 


1921. 


.\pprc 


ximate 


total 


mileage flown 


700.000 miles. 


Not a 


single passenger killed or 


injured. 










.= 


iO 






•v^ 


y. >.'a 




H 




ance 
iles 

iber 
neys 


h 


W5 to 




^ v 3 




^ 0* 
O.C 


O 






.2,0 < 


S6u: 


l5s 


t5i 

Ph OU 




















De Haviland 


















Handley-Page 


Paris-London 




2W 1141 


4.)S1 


435 


787 


1021 


90 


Preguet 
Farman 


London-Paris 




240 1110 


4.521 


317 


407 


1033 


93 


SP AD. 

Vickers 


London-Brusselsi 


210 2fiO 


298 


MS 


133 


243 


93.5 


Farman 


















De Havilland 


Brussels-Lend 


3ni 


210 22fi 


3.53 


177 


173 


201 


89 




Lond on— A m sterd a m - 


2fi.5 176 


200 


160 


166 


167 


95 


Fokker F-3 


Arasterdam-London- 


205 17.5 


275 


164 


147 


162 


93 




Total 




, . . 3088 


10228 


1401 


1830 


2827 


91.3 


= 



' Service su.spended owing to fire at Brussels aerodrome Sept. 2S, 1921. 
■ Commenced operations .■Vpril 14. 1921. 

Finally, in judging the present status of the airplane as a means 
of transportation, the all-imjiortant question of operating cost must 
be considered. The first air lines started operations hopefully, 
on the assumption that their small first outlay, on the purchase of 
converted war planes at a fraction of the manufacturing cost, and 
the supposed imperative demand of modern business for speed 
above all things, would insure at least a paying business from the 
Iseginning. How sadly they were disappointed is clearlj- shown 
both by the history of the companies concerned and the rapid, if 
not yet quite comjjlete, disappearance of these machines from the 
chief airways of Europe. 

Large numbers of 3-seater machines, converted fast day bom- 
bers, were in use during the first year or two after the war, which 
showed a dead financial loss on every trip, even when loaded to full 
capacity which was by no means always the case. Large twin- 
engine bombers, capable of carrying about 10 passengers, solemnly 
ploughed their way daily between London and Paris and London 
and Brussels, more often than not less than half loaded, and at a 
prohibitive cost in gasoline and oil for their big engines. The fares 
charged had to be very high antl the vicious circle was complete. 

The technical results — mechanical reliability and ability of the 
pilots to make their way in bad weather in spite of the rather 
primitive meteorological and other ground services available at 
that time — were surprisingly good, but the financial results were 
disastrous and produced a great deal of adverse opinion. 



107 



108 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



It was not until the French Government heavily subsidized the 
French lines and enabled them to make a cut of 40 per cent in their 
rates, that traffic bepan to increase; with this a.ssistance, the old 
war types, uneconomical as they arc, took on a further lea.sc of life 
in France and are still widely used in that country. To enable the 
British companies to compete, the British Government assisted 
them by financing the acquisition of modern commercial planes on a 
repayment basis, and guaranteed a profit. The effect of these 
steps on the traffic itself is well shown by Table 1. In the meantime 
the principal constructors had given their serious attention to the 
problem of increasing the carrying capacity and reducing the run- 
ning costs and the new machines showed a remarkable improvement 
in this respect. 

It is interesting to note the successive steps toward this realiza- 
tion of the chief commercial requirement, the carriage of greater 
loads at less expense. Just before the dissolution of the pioneer con- 
cern — The Aircraft Travel & Transport Co. — a desperate effort 
was made to improve matters in this respect. Operations were 
placed in the hands of traffic experts pure and simple, who, quite 
justifiably, at once tried to increase the service obtained per week 
from the equijmient in hand, such as it was. Undoubtedly this 
effort pro\aded a vast amount of data on constructional details 
such as accessibility of engine installations, ease of repair and all 
matters which would become especially prominent as more work 
in a given time was demanded of each airplane as a unit. The 
results only emphasized more respects in which the coming commer- 
cial designs had to show improvement over the converted war 
types, aside from carrjdng capacity and load space. 

The requirements having thus become clearly established, the 
designers set out to fulfill them. After the 360-hp. DH16, really a 
converted DH4, carrying four passengers in very cramped quar- 
ters, and subsequently the b.^t, FK26, which carries a slightly 
greater load with the same horsepower in a good-sized cabin, this 
progress in design was very marked in the 450-hp. DH18, carrying 
eight passengers which was very soon followed by the Fokker mono- 
plane with five passengers for 185 hp. With these the useful load 
carried per horsejjower had advanced from 4 lb. to 8 lb., or an im- 
provement in commercial performance of 100 per cent. The in- 
ternally braced monoplane, in which the airplane finds itself prac- - 
tically reduced to its essential parts, lifting surface, body, chassis 
and controlling organs comprising the entire structure of the ma- 
chine, has opened up fields of study in the matter of wing design 
which promise still further progress in this direction. Within 
recent months several new designs on this principle have appeared 
and are in successful operation, which again show an advance in 
carrying capacity. Notable among these are the new DH29 and the 
new Fokker F4, which carry from ten to twelve passengers and 
considerable baggage with engines of 400-450 hp., the useful load 
carried per hp. thus having now advanced to 9 lb. Roughly, this 
means tliat such airplanes can carry a load of more than one ton in 
passengers and freight a distance of 600 miles in 6 hours at a fuel 
cost of $48, or 'A of a cent per passenger mile. 

The few figures given go to show that the airplane, even in its 
present state of development, is by no means a hopelessly costly 
means of transportation, pro\-ided that facilities for its exploitation 
are developed to a sufficient extent so as not to entail the addition 
of entirely disiiroisortionate overhead charges to the actual ruiming 
cost, charges of a character with which no other form of trans- 
portation has to contend or is able to bear. In the following para- 
graphs a few of the factors governing these charges are discussed. 

The Selection of Routes 

Wliat has been said gives an indication of the airplane's present 
capacities and also of the trend of development in the near future. 
The next question is, obviously, where can it be put into regular 
service with a reasonal)le expectation that that service will tecome 
truly a public utility and receive sufficient support to thrive as a 
commercial venture? 

It may be argued that eventually air traffic will have its place in 
the scheme of things alongside the older and slower means of transit, 
wherever traffic of any kind — or at least long distance traffic — 
exists. However, it is obvious that in choosing the routes to be 
operated during the introductory period very great care will have 
to be taken to select those on which the air lines are likely to justify 



their existence within a reasonably short time. Such routes may 
be fairly clearly divided into two categories. First, there is 
tin; route between commercnally or politically important points, 
of which the development has been so rapid that transportation 
facilities have been unable to develop proportionately. The new 
world is full of such oiiportunities for the airplane, the only vehicle 
which is practically independent of geographical obstacles and does 
not entail the laying dowTi of a permanent right of way. 

Second, there are routes on which terrestrial tranportation fa- 
cilities are very highly developed and the volume of traffic very 
great, but where at the same time communication is retarded by 
natural obstacles which do not affect the airplane to any consider- 
able extent. Chief among these are mountains and intervening 
stretches of water entailing either transshipment or circuitous 
routes. 

In either case, the decision that the establishment of air communi- 
cations is a justifiable venture can only be made after careful study 
of existing transportation facilities and local conditions. The full 
sujiport of the foremost industrial and business interests in and 
around the terminal cities must be obtained; and ex-tensive pre- 
liminary canvassing and propaganda work are essential \rith a \-iew 
to enUsting cooperation by the community in the establishment 
of air terminals and other facihties analogous to those pro\-ided for 
shipping as well as to insure patronage once the air line is in oper- 
ation. 

The public has to be taught how to use the airways; even with 
air lines in full operation a great deal of publicity work and effective 
advertising will be necessary to show the business man just how to 
combine the new transport facilities with the older ones in order to 
take full advantage of the airplane's speed. This is especially the 
case as long as night flying is not practicable, or rather, not organ- 
ized and regularly carried out, thereby necessitating the coordina- 
tion of train- and air-ser\ice schedules for long distance transpor- 
tation. 

Especially in the early days, the European lines suffered from 
lack of appreciation of the value of this educative pubheity, a fact 
which contributed immeasurably to their difficulties in obtaining 
satisfactory loads. Both by this example and the far greater de- 
velopment of the science of advertising in this country, the coming 
American lines should have a considerable advantage over the 
European pioneers in this respect. 

In the establishment of the first lines many similarities to the 
early days of railroading will be found, but many of the trials of the 
latter, both technical and financial, may be avoided. Compared 
with the railroad, the capital outlay involved in the air Une is 
fractional; the non-requirement of permanent tracks involving the 
possession of immense ti;acts of land, will always be among the 
chief advantages the airplane possesses over any other means of 
overland transportation. 

Ground Org.\.nization 

Nevertheless, real estate values effect the increasing commerical 
use of the airplane to a considerable extent. There is probablj' no 
other single factor which has been so effective in retarding the 
general use of aircraft in this country as the lack of landing fields. 
Such ijrivately owned flying fields as there are, are in only too 
many cases small, with obstructed surroundings and inadequate 
for highly loaded connnerical craft. The military fields, which in 
Europe form the backbone of the airw'ays, are few in the U. S., 
even including those abandoned after the war; also they are gen- 
erally located just where the ground happened to be naturally 
suited for training in flying, far removed from large cities. In 
Europe important centers were liable to attack by enemy air- 
planes and defensive squadrons had to be stationed close at hand. 
Even in the case of the European caiiitals, however, the air ports 
now established on these old military fields are in most cases much 
further away from the cities than is desirable for commercial flying. 
If two hours have to be spent in transportation to and from the 
airports, in order to make a 2V2-hour journey by airplane, the sav- 
ing of time over the railroad, at least where the latter provides an 
efficient and direct service, is practically lost, and the air Une is 
not likely to flourish. 

This problem is admittedly in most cases difficult of solution 
The nearer the center of a town, the more valuable land becomes; 



J 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



109 



liiiwever well financed, the cost of such land suitable as an air port 
is not one which a new transportation company, which has yet to 
(li\-elop a popular demand for its service, can be reasonalily ex- 
piM'ted to bear. The analogy with docks and harbors, of which the 
initial cost is borne by the city treasury, is obvious, but it is also 
demanding much from a city's foresight and enterprise to expect it 
to lock up a great amount of capital in reserving large tracts of val- 
ual)le land near the business center, of wliich — especially at first — 
\iTy scant use will seem to be made. As traflnc develops, in- 
creased landing fees, hangar rents and other dues will improve the 
immediate financial aspect, until the time, which may not be so far 
distant as to be visionary, that long distance airliners will land on 
]il:itforms covering the stations, yards and part of the tracks of 
tlif hjcal railroad lines or even several city blocks. 

To a layman, it would seem that in this question of reserving cen- 
trally located tracts of land as airports for a number of years there 
may be much to interest real estate manipulators. 

The arrangement of emergency landing fields at short distances 
apart, along the routes, should not present any difficulties. Their 
jircparation may involve the removal of a few trees and other 
(ilistructions and the erection of suitable marldngs as a guide for 
pilots when in difficulties due to weather or mechanical trouble, l)ut 
otherwase they can retain their normal functions if meadow land 
is selected. 

A most important part of the ground organization is the pro- 
vision of a specialized and adequate meteorological ser\'ice. A 
considerable development of the existing Government meteorological 
institutions or weather bureaus will be necessary, since the in- 
formation obtainable at the present time is of very little use for 
air navigation. In Europe, government weather experts and radio 
services are installed on the principal airports, and reports are ob- 
tainable hourly. In England it was so well recognized that air 
navigation was bound to develop the knowledge and organization 
of meteorological work, that shortly after the war the existing 
government meteorological office was placed completely under 
the control of the Air Ministrj'. 

Such further auxiliary services as directional radio and bea- 
i coning the airways by night, will eventually all have to be recog- 
nized as a jjublic service and undertaken by the Government; 
the pooling of facilities by different railroad companies may be a 
matter of private arrangement and not the concern of the pubUc, 
but the following of organized airways and the picking up of radio 
sii^iials will automatically become a public right. 

Legislation and Insurance 

As Is the case with any form of transportation, the perfection 
of organization, mechanical reliability and standing of personnel 
ought to be reflected clearly in the terms on which equipment 
passengers and freight are accepted for insurance by the large 
companies, and it may be fairly regarded as illustrative of the 
condition of commercial flying in this countr.y that the state of 
affairs in aircraft insurance is far from satisfactory. 

At present the position of an insurance company called upon 
to quote on aircraft risks is not enviable. The entire absence of 
any legislation to place responsibility for even the most ele- 
mentary consideration of public safety, by controUing the efficiency 
of aircraft and ground organization, combined with the scarcity 
of such ground organization in the form of landing fields and aux- 
iliary services, would induce any company to keep clear of taking 
aviation risks for the present, were it not for the necessity of ob- 
taining experience and statistics as a basis for the business which 
the development of air transportation on a large scale will eventu- 
ally offer. As it is, the present state of the aircraft insurance 
market may justifiably be described as chaotic. Again, risks have 
been accepted which should never even have been considered, and 
the consequent losses duly paid, while on the other hand premiums 
have been quoted which must have been based on a considerable 
"factor of ignorance," being, apparentlj', out of all proportion to 
results already been obtained elsewhere under conditions suffi- 
ciently similar to those involved in the proposal. 

The institution of a system of registration and inspection of 
aircraft and pilots by the Insurance Underwriters Laboratories is 
a great step in the right direction. To make the system fuUy 
effective, it is to be hoped that legal confirmation of the powers 



of that body will soon follow. The assignment of such technical 
duties to a semi-public institution, instead of to a Goverrunent de- 
partment — which iirincijile has a strong precedent in the case of 
shipping in Lloyds — is in many respects preferable. The rapid 
development both of the airplane and its application, may neces- 
sitate frequent and urgent changes in existing regulations, with 
which necessity it will be difficult to keep pace if technical details 
are incorporated in Federal laws. 

Tiie effect which proper legislation will have on the financial 
strtl)ilization of air transportation in general, both through the cre- 
ation of reasonable insurance facilities, and through the definition 
of the legal status of the airplane and that of its operators, is well 
illustrated in the case of passenger liability. When legal liability 
for the safety of passengers and third parties is determined, in- 
surance against these risks will become possible. At the present 
time the risk cannot be determined. Possibly claims on one ac- 
cident are limited to the value of the machine to which it hapened, 
as under Admiralty Law (which presumably already applies to 
seaplanes); possibly they are not. The operators of aircraft can 
only print a strong cover against liability on their tickets, or per- 
haps incorporate each plane as a separate company, and find com- 
fort in the safety statistics. It is to be noted that the latter have 
already led the English insurance companies to strike the clause 
refusing flying risks from the ordinary life policies. 

With the development of the air lines, the insurance rates will 
undoubtedly always serve as an excellent index on the effectiveness 
of whatever legislation or regulation there may be and of the sound- 
ness of air transportation as a public service and a business. 

A Few General Conclusions 

In re\'iemng the possibilities of an early and successful develop- 
ment of air fines in this country it is imperative that the European 
pioneering in this sort of traffic he closely watched and that the 
gi-eatest possible use be made of the experience and statistics it 
has provided. Except as regards purely technical matters, how- 
ever, these should be applied to American projects and prospects 
with great circumspection and the difference in political and eco- 
nomic conditions be kept clearly in view. The case 'of direct 
government subsidies is a striking one, these having been largely 
responsible for the development of traflac in Europe, while they 
are practically unthinkable in this country. 'Wliat is wanted from 
the Government here is what may justifiably be looked upon as its 
natural obligations, that is, the provision of facilities of all kinds, 
as outlined above. That direct financial assistance ever fosters 
true progress and new developments no one believes. Human 
nature being as it is, the tendency is inevitable to regard official aid 
as manna from Heaven and let things take care of themselves; not 
to speak of the countjess opportunities for favoritism, intrigue and 
worse, that it entails. Abroad, conditions are different in that 
respect. It should not be forgotten that most Eurojiean trunk- 
lines are international in character and that national pride and po- 
litical expediency are potent factors in matters of this kind. Also 
that the various governments have a much greater interest in the 
maintenance of a commercial air-fleet as well as a ground organiza- 
tion that can be requisitioned at short notice in case of need, than 
will ever be the case in this country. 

Apart from their questionable desirability on the grounds touched 
upon above, direct subsidies should not be necessary. The variety 
of geographical and economic situations which the United States 
offers within its own boundaries will pro\ide plenty of scope for 
financially successful commercial flying operations, if properly 
taken in hand with proper equipment. The moment that air 
transportation shows its inherent advantages to the business men 
of America it will be used on a scale which will leave European 
traffic figures far behind from the very start. The history of the 
automobile is a good example. 

The amount of traffic, both in passengers and express matter 
from wiiich the air lines will be able to draw their share, is great. 
The "magnificent distances" to wiiich President Harding alluded 
in his recent message on this subject automatically insure the sav- 
ing in time that makes air travel pay. 

But the first steps are always the hardest and official support in 
some practical form for operators and builders of commercial 

(Continued on page III) 



The Strength of Airplane Rib Forms 

Description of An Investigation to Determine the Strength of Plywood Webs, with Lightening Holes 

Arranged as in Airplane Ribs 

By D. T. brown,' PHILADELPHIA, PA. and R. J. DIEFKXBAfII,= BUFFALO, N. Y. 



As illustrating the problem of the strength of materials entering into 
airplane construction and the degree of research necessary for their proper 
solution, the following report of an investigation carried out at the United 
States Forest Products Laboratory will he of interest. In the design of 
airplane ribs the prime requisite is to obtain the maximum strength with 
minimum weight of rib. Two factors enter into the problem: the form or 
design of the rib and the method of its construction in relation to the grain 
of the material. It will be seen that the investigation reported was con- 
ducted in a very complete manner and that conclusions of great vclue in 
the design of this essential pert of the airplane are brought out. 

THE great difference in the strength properties of wood along 
and across the grain has long been recognized as one of the 
features restricting its use in structures. Tests made by 
the U. S. Forest Products Laboratorj' show that the approximate 
ratios of the strength properties in these two directions are; The 
modulus of elasticity across the grain is one-fifteenth of that along the 
grain; the tensile strength across the grain is one-twentieth of that 
along the grain. These ratios do not apply exactly to any individual 
species, since different species varj' largely in this respect. 

A very material reduction in the differences along and across the 
grain is obtained in ply-wood construction by gluing together suc- 
cessive sheets of veneer with the directions of the grain at right angles, 
and varying the proportion of grain and number of plies in the two 
directions. 

In the design of airplane rilis the prime requisite is to obtain the 
maximum strength with minimum weight of rib. This series of 
tests has been made to find the strongest form of rib, taking into 
account the two factors above mentioned by placing the grain of 
the veneer 45 deg. to the vertical. In modern practice the face 
grains are vertical and the core horizontal. Most of these tests, 
however, were made with the face grains parallel and at 45 deg. 
to the vertical with one core at 90 deg. to the face grain. 

Description of the Materi.\ls Used 

Birch veneer '/as in. thick was used. In order to obtain a fair 
comparison in the tests, all of the veneer used in making up the 
ply-wood was cut from one log. The veneer used consisted entirely 
of heart wood, the log licing sufficiently large to eliminate the need 
of using any sap wood. No pieces containing knots r)r checks were 
used. The veneer had been in store for some time and was well 
seasoned. 

The veneer was glued together into three-ply ply-wood by the 
Theodore Schwamb Company, which specializes in such work. The 
ply-wood was cut into specimens 4'/2 in. wide by 18 in. long. As 
already noted, the face grains were parallel and in most of the tests 
at 45 deg. to the vertical, and the core was placed at 90 deg. to the 
face grains. One of the chief objects of these cxijeriments was to 
determine the effect of making the web of a rib from plJ'^vood with 
the grain at 45 deg. to the chord, so that the grain runs parallel to 
the directions of the principal stresses at the neutral axis of the web. 

The ply-wood now used in ])ractice in airplane ribs is made up 
■with the face grains parallel and usually vertical and the core hor- 
izontal. This method has j)rovcd generally stronger than if the re- 
verse disposition is used, that is with the face grains parallel and hor- 
izontal and the core vertical. 

In order to prove the superiority of the method suggested in this 
paper some specimens were made according to modern jiractice and 
tested under like coiulitions. 



' Sales Dept, American Rncliator Co. 

^ Student S:i!es Engineer, Worthinpton Pump & Machy. Corpn. .lun- 
Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

Abstract of paper presented at the Annual Meeting, New York, Decem- 
ber, 1921, of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All 
papers are subject to revision. 



The Methods of Testing Employed 

In all cases the specimens were tested as cantilevers at a 15 in. 
arm. Spruce flanges ' Vin. square were glued on the sides of the 
specimens to prevent lateral collapse as a whole. In order to insure 
a definite length of cantilever arm and also for holding purposes, 
a hardwood Wock, ' 4-in. by 3'/rin. square was glued on each .side 
at one end of the specimen. The specimens were held in a wide- 
jawed vise; knurled jaws were used to avoid slippage. The load 
was appUed by a smooth-acting screw jack, and the force was 
measured by placing the screw jack on a small platform scale which 
could l)e read accurately to one pound. Upon the head of the screw 
jack, a round steel bar was placed. This insured a concentrated 
load at the end of the cantilever. 

The Results Obtained 

In the rectangular type of lightening hole with constant web 
thickness and variable fillet radius, it was found that below V4 in. 
radius the fillet was of but little use. 

The specimens for the tests made in the next group, were made 
with variable radius of fillet using lattice construction. A maximum 
of 283 lb. was reached in this group. Since 181 lb. was the maximum 
force applied at the end of a 15-in. cantilever with vertical grain and 
rectangular holes, and since it has generally been found that lattice 
design with triangular holes is little, if any, stronger than that in- 
voking amply filleted rectangular holes, if vertical or horizontal 
face grain is used in both cases' the advantage of diagonal-grain 
design for the lattice form appears to be clear. The comparison 
between the best case with diagonal grain and lattice design and the 
best arrangement of rectangular lightening holes with vertical 
grain expressed in percentage change from the second to the first 
Ls as follows: 

Radius of Increase or decrease of area Increase or decrease of 

fillet, in. not cut out (change of web force applied to produce 
weight, per cent) failure, per cent 

I A -29 +12 

1/2 -2 +29 

V. +2 +56 

The advantage of the lattice construction is obvious. Inspection 
of Table 1 , wiiere the ratio of strength to area of web is given, indicates 

TABLE 1 R.'VTIO OF STRENGTH TO AREA OF WEB 





"2 









1 L. 

c 

V 




•ent 01 
Remain- 
Applied 


> 1 


= 1 


3 


Z 


--. K 4j 


3 C 

•5" 


u 


= n 

iS S i- 


it 




11 g 

_ ^ 




f- 




:*•;: C.S 


«ii 


UU, 


Q;:'5 


P.< e.<.S B. 


S-jfce,<e.S 


Rect- 


Radius 


f '/! 





Shear 




76.1 


23.9 


50 


2.09 


angular 


o( fillet 


1 /- 


','< 


Shear 




73.1 


26.9 


Sn 


2.04 


IJKhten- 




■ '/; 


1 


Shear 




70.7 


29.3 


64 


2.18 


ing 




V2 


I'A 


Shear 




67.7 


32.3 


97 


3.00 


lioles 




I'/: 


I'A 


Shear 




63 9 


36.1 


134 


3.71 


Lattice 


Radius 


fV.6 


'A 


Compression 




74.6 


25.4 


202 


7.95 




of fillet 


■ v„ 


■A 


Compression 




70.3 


29.7 


233 


7.85 






.V.6 


V. 


Compression 




63.3 


36.7 


283 


7.71 


Lattice 


Thick- 


fvr 


'/4 


Compression 




74.6 


25.4 


202 


7.95 




ness of 


'/< 


Compression 




73.0 


27.0 


238 


8.82 




web 


Ivr 


•A 


Compression 




71.5 


28.5 


256 


8.9S 






'.'< 


Tension 




69.9 


30.1 


278 


9.24 


Crossed 


Dis- 


f'A 


'/< 


Compression 


7 in. 


70 8 


29.1 


201 


6.90 


lattice 


tance 


'A 

'A 

I'A 


'/. 


Compression 


6 in. 


69.3 


30.7 


230 


7.49 




be- 


'A 


Compression 


in. 


67.2 


32 . S 


280 


8.54 




tween 


'A 


Flange 


4.5 in, 


,63.7 


34 3 


295 


8.60 




center 




















of cross 



















that that ratio is little affected by radius of fillet, the smaller ratlii 
having a slight advantage. 

Tlie ratio of strength to w^eight is steadily impro\-ed by increasing 
the width of the diagonals, although the improvement is slow for 
widths of '/s in. or more. 

A crossed-lattice arrangement with a spacing between the crosses 



' Bulletin Airplane Engineering Division, U. S. Army, September, 191S. 



110 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



111 



of 1.5 times the depth of the lightening hole appears to be approxi- 
mately equal to the best straight-lattice arrangement. It is difficult 
to make a satisfactory direct comparison, as the required dejith of 
the horizontal portions of the web, above and Ijelow the lightening 
holes, varies with the distance between lattice members. With due 
allowance for this fact, a very close sijacing of the crosses seems to 
be best. 

With forces in excess of 300 lb. the flange fails by shearing. In 
the crossed-lattice construction true shear failure of the diagonals 
never occurred. The compression members are supported by the 
tension members in such a way as to decrease the free length of the 
colunm under compression. 

In connection with this crossed-lattice group some specimens were 
tested ^\^th the compression member left out in every other cross. 
This arrangement is palpably inferior to the straight-lattice or con- 
tinuous crossed-lattice. It was found that the crossed-lattice type 
did not stand up so well relatively with web thickness of Vis in. 

A continuous cross lattice spaced at 3 in. with vertical grain, 
carried 214 lb. Even this design is far better than that with rec- 
tangular holes. 

Finally a test was made with no area cut out and it failed by buck- 
ling of the flange at 32.5 lb. 

It was observed in the tests made that there was but little de- 
flection \nth both the straight lattice and cross-lattice type. The 
deflection with the rectangular type was much more pronounced. 

PROGRESS IN FLYING DISCUSSED 

"PRACTICALLY all of the discussion at the session was on the 
•* commercial aspects of aAdation. I\Jr. Joseph A. Steiumetz, 
chairman of the Executive Committee of the Aeronautic Di\-ision, 
discussed the present status of aerial development, describing the 
progress in Europe from fii'st hand observation this summer, and 
the progress in this country, especially in the South, where com- 
mercial lines are about to be inaugurated. In the construction and 
development of aviation throughout the world, he saw tremendous 
possibilities for the art witliin the next few years. 

Prof. E. P. Warner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who 
presided at the session considered that our fundamental purpose 
is the development of commercial flying, which has ceased to be a 
problem of design and construction, and has become one of publicity. 

Lieutenant E. E. Aldrin, secretary of the Di^^sion in the discus- 
sion of Mr. Noorduyn's paper, detailed his experiences on the London 
to Paris Air-Line this summer. He said there was no question of 
the advantage of commercial flying, if only from the point of saving 
time. 

Commercial flying in Europe is now developed to the point 
that the passenger uses a time-table just as he does for a railroad 
train. 

Then again, the comforts of the air journeys are a favorable con- 
sideration. 

Mr. Foster RusseU' asked a number of questions regarding the 
cost of carrying mail and Major Lent answered him, pointing out 
also that there was much greater promise of commercial success in 
carrj-ing goods, such as mail, than in the transportation of passengers. 
A study had been made of the profits to be derived. The coimnercial 
companies acknowledged that they were after express business and 
other high class matter, and would be glad to avoid the risk of carry- 
ing passengers. 

Mr. Noorduyn answered a question of Mr. Russell's that the 
Government would gladly turn over the carriage of mail to private 
transportation companies pro\'ided that they could show satisfac- 
tory prospects of rendering good ser\'ice, but that the Congressional 
appropriations would not allow the payment of a higher rate for 
air-Une transportation than by any other means. 

There was considerable discussion of the possibilities of aircraft 
landing fields, and Mr. Steinmetz related his experience in getting 
such fields. He said the way to do it was to get a City Plan Con- 
ference to set aside a big fair ground, or a county exposition field, 
and then get an engineer to go over the layout wth them and put 
in an aircraft landing field. Later on they could be shown their 
great wisdom and foresight in pro\iding for an air port for world 
traffic. 

1 Spokane, Wash. Jun-Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



Mr. Russell, thought the main problem of commercial fl\ing was 
the pro\ision of a machine which could be made and sold very much 
like a Ford automobile is sold, something that could be sold to farm- 
ers. He also gave his experiences with landing fields, reciting some 
of the cases encountered in trying to get such fields. He thought 
the best tiling to do was to get airplanes in the air and the landing 
fields would come. 

Several of the speakers present discussed the feature of safety in 
commercial fljing, and there was a general agreement that great 
publicity should be given to the relatively small amount of risk, 
added to the exi;reme i)leasure of this form of transijortation. 

Among those who took part in the discussion was ]\Ir. Charles 
Manly, past president of the Society of Automotive Engineers, and 
a well-known figure in the practice of a\iation. Mr. Manly out- 
lined in great detail the things that would have to be done to 
make commercial flying popular with the public, and to make pos- 
sible the development of commercial aviation companies on a profit- 
able basis, without which there could be no commercial flying. The 
only other thing to be met was that a machine should be pro\ided 
which could bethought for a reasonable price. 



ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SIZE 
WIRE CABLE 

(Continued from page 106) 

TABLE 31AMOUNT OF INCREASE IN ELASTIC LIMIT OBTAINED ON 
THE CABLES TESTED 



Type 


Size 


Increase in Elastic 


Per C 


ent Increase ove 






Limit, Lb. 


Original Elastic Limit 


19 


Vm 


2000 




62 




Vi« 


1000 




33 


7 by 7 


Vk 


250 




63 


fi by 7 


V« 


240 




30 


7 by 19 


'/8 


400 




36 




"/3! 


2000 

Conclusions 




33 



The modulus of elasticity of small-size wire aircraft cable varies 
from 15,000,000 to 28.000,000, depending upon the size and types 
of the cable. The 19-wire cable has uncloubtedly the highest 
modulus and the 7 by 19 cable probably the lowest. The maximum 
difference between moduli of specimens of the same size and type 
of cable may be as high as 3,000,000. 

The modulus of elasticity may be raised by loading the cable 
below the elastic limit. The greatest increase is obtained on the 
7 by 19 type and may amount to 6,500,000. 

Resting the cable did not seem to have any definite effect on the 
modulus. 

The elastic limit may be raised by loading the cable a little beyond 
this point. The maximum increase obtained amounted to 63 per 
cent of the original elastic limit. 

The complete paper contains curves of all the runs in the different 
sizes, also complete logs of the tests. 

AIR LINES AND SOME OF THEIR 
PROBLEMS 

{Continued from page 109) 

aircraft would do much to ease the situation. Contracts for the 
carriage of mail at rates, commensurate with the increased rapidity 
of delivery, could be given to reputable air transport concerns 
wiiose facilities for carrying out their engagements would bear in- 
vestigation. Congress can make this possible as it did wiien mail 
coach and couriers were replaced by the railroad. 

Another valuable form of subsidy would be the development of 
all purely war-types of machines in the shops of commercial build- 
ers and a system of awarding to designing firms paying production 
contracts for their own original products. Thereby would the 
aeronautical industry regain a good deal of the confidence which 
apparently it has lost. And the blending of the newest ideas in 
aeronautical warfare or defense with the most modern develop- 
ments in efficiency and rehability would go a long way, in the 
WTiter's opinion, toward the reestablishment in this country of 
supremacy in the air. 



A Session on Fuel Economy 

Discussion of Four Papers at A.S.M.E. Annual Meeting Brings Out Many Experiences in Economic 
Boiler and Furnace Operation, Leading to Great Fuel Savings 



THE Fuel Waste Session of the Annual Meeting of The Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers, held Thursday morning, 
December 8, 1921, attracted a large audience and a volu- 
minous discussion on account of the popular interest in the subject. 
Prof. L. P. Hrcckpuridge, (,'hairman of the Fuels Division, presided 
at the meeting. The papers presented were, Poller Plant Efficiency, 
by Victor J. Azbe: Boiler and Furnace Economy, by D. S. Jacobus; 
Fuel Sa\ang in Relation to Capital Necessary, by Joseph Harring- 
ton; and Fuel Saving in Modern Gas Producers and Industrial 
Furnaces, by W. B. Chajanian. All these iiapers have already been 
published in Mechanical Engineering. 

All Concede Mr. Azbe's Statements Sound 

J. M. Sjiitzglass' quoted the following paragraph which, he said, 
he believed to be the keynote of Mr. Azbe's paper: 

Nowhere is there such an opportunity for good return on the investment 
as in the boiler house, where a few dollars properly applied can perform 
wonders. But there are also properly designed plants that are wasteful, 
due to human inefficiency, and to such beliefs as that stokers are a failure, 
high CO: harmful, economizers a poor investment, superheated steam 
impractical, etc. It is the man who designs or operates who is at fault, 
rather than the equipment. The fireman is more important than the stoker 
and a good fireman will obtain good results from a poor stoker. But since 
good firemen are scarce, it is preferable to purchase equipment which is as 
nearly foolproof as possible. 

Wm. S. Aldrich^ wrote suggesting that in grading combustion 
performance, a percentage scale with maximum possible CO2 as 
100 per cent be used. 

John Chnton Parker' spoke in commendation of the paper. He 
pointed out the necessity for honorable design, honorable testing 
and honorable ojieration in the engineering world. 

R. Sanford Riley^ considered the paper absolutely sound, saying 
that nothing sounder had been expressed before the Society than 
the author's ideas on differences in conditions of operation. 

D. S. Jacobus^ said he wished to add that, in getting the most 
out of a boiler plant, more must be considered than the efficiency 
of the boiler and the efficiency of the plant in general. Much of 
the saving to be made in boiler plants is often not in improvements 
in the boilers themselves, although many times such improvements 
can be made, but by such means as changing the system of heating 
feed water, or of providing hot air, or of adjusting the heating 
system. 

David Moffat Myers, ^ speaking in the spirit of Dr. Jacobus's 
remarks, told of making a saving of 15 per cent in a plant without 
making a single change. The firemen, conscious of his presence, 
had paid better attention to their jobs, with the resulting saving. 
In other plants he had found that merely by requiring simple 
records kept, economy was improved through the psychological 
effect on the firemen. He also spoke of the necessity of providing 
the firemen with an incentive for good work. Efficiency in a plant, 
he said, was a combination of the efficiency of the men and the 
efficiency of the machine. 

C. H. Smoot' asked who was responsible for low efficiency in 
boiler plants — the manufacturer of the boiler, the manufacturer 
of the stoker, the operator, or the fireman? If it is possible to in- 
crease the efficiency of boilers from .50 to SO per cent, as stated by 
the author, it seemed to him that such an organization as the So- 
ciety should see to it that such savings were made. 



' Cons. Engr., Republic Flow Meters Co., Chicago, 111. Mem.Am.Soc. 
M.E. 

» Gary, Ind. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

» Editor, Lefax. Sheridan Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

* Prcs., Sanford Riley Stoker Co., Worcester, Mass. Mem.Am.Soc. 
M.E. 

' Advis. Engr., The Babcock & Wilcox Co., New York, N. Y. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Cons. Engr., Griggs and Myers, New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc. 
M.E. 

' Engr. & V. P., Rateau, Battu Smoot Co., New York, N. Y. Mem. 
Am.Soc.M.E. 



C. Harold Berry' assumed that most of the statements of the 
author's paper referred to small plants, and not to central stations. 
He also pointed out that the tests reported in Table 3 of the paper 
were made at different ratings, which might account for some 
change in the efficiency. The author's statement that most stations 
had too many boilers did not apply to central stations. 

In reply to Mr. Berry, the author pointed out that the tests 
referred to were run in each case at maximum capacity, showing 
that improved concUtions resulted in increased capacity as weD as 
increased efficiency. 

Dr. Jacobus' Paper Characterized as Filled with Wisdom 

W. F. M. Goss' characterized the paper as a concise statement of 
significant facts and a monument to the industry and scientific 
skill of its author. He has long had a part in the development of 
tliis field of engineering research, and much that is common knowl- 
edge today, has come through the painstaking processes which he 
has inspired and promoted. Underljing this paper therefore are 
activities incident to his fruitful fife. 

Edward N. Trump'" WTOte congratulating the Society on having 
received such an able paper as that of Dr. Jacobus, saying that it 
was full of the wisdom of long experience. A survey made by the 
Fuel Administration during the war had shown that the average 
efficiency of plants in the- State of New York, even including the 
large plants operating at 80 per cent efficiency, would not be gi'eater 
than 50 per cent. 

Wiile we should study the investment factor, he said, in deter- 
mining wliether or not to replace an inefficient plant, we must re- 
member that the supply of coal in this country is not inexhaustible 
and will always increase in cost, and we owe something to posterity. 
We should be content to take a low rate of return on our capital, 
expecting other advantages which are more difficult to calculate. 

He dealt with such questions as economizers, corrosion, high 
boiler setting, operation of boilers at high rating, furnace volume, 
and form of furnace as affecting the economy of operation. 

Alex D. Bailey" wrote in reference to a statement of the author 
that air heaters are of special advantage where low-grade fuels are 
burned. While this may be true as stated, he said, it is equally 
true, particularly in the case of coal, that on account of the sulphur 
content, air heaters might operate at the greatest disadvantage. 

So far as the personnel of boiler plants is concerned, probably 
the greatest need for education and missionary work is with mana- 
gers and eliief engineers who do not appreciate the importance of 
this part of power-plant operation. 

Automatic systems for combustion control will never take the 
place of brains, and wiiile these may function fairly successfully if 
left alone, their ultimate success would be improved by proper 
supervision and care. 

To attract the right kind of men the concUtions in the boiler 
room must be made attractive, and to get the best results projjer 
equiiimcnt must be provided, so that the men with proper education 
and training can get the desired results. 

R. Sanford Riley'^ wrote that we all agree that combustion 
should be comjjleted within the furnace chamber. This requires 
volume and proper opportunity for mixing of the gases. He could 
not see, however, that efficiency is increased by the maintenance 
of a high temperature in the furnace between the fuel bed and the 
boiler. The maximiun temperature due to combustion of the fuel 
will be obtained when there is high percentage of COo without CO, 
or in other words, when there is a minimum of excess air accom- 

' Research Engr., The Detroit Edison Co., Detroit, Mich. Mem.Am. 
Soc.M.E. 

' Pres., Ry. Car Manufacturers Assn., New York, N. Y. Mem.Am. 
Soc.M.E. 

'° V. P., The Solvay Process Co., Syracuse, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

" Chief Engr., Stas. 1 & 2, Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, 111. 
Mem. .A,m. Soc.M.E. 

" Pres., Sanford Riley Stoker Co., Inc., Worcester, Mass. Mem.Am. 
Soc.M.E. 



112 



February, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



113 



panied by complete combustion. The above condition represents, 
of course, tlie highest combustion efficiency and if Dr. Jacobus 
means "temperature of combustion" or "fuel bed tempera- 
ture" when he says "furnace temperature," he could certainly agree 
with his statement. The temperature within the furnace chamber, 
however, need not be as high as this maximum temperature of 
combustion. 

Elsewhere in the paper Dr. Jacobus mentions the large utilization 
of radiant heat, and he was much impressed with the statement 
that B & W boilers may absorb as much as 60 per cent of the total 
heat by radiation. It seemed to him that this large absorption 
by radiation is all to the good, and the consequent lowering of 
furnace temperature is one reason why it is so good. No com- 
promise is necessary in this respect, except to secure ignition. 
With underfeed stokers there is no need to make any compromise 
whatever, and the best practice seems to be to expose the maximum 
area of tubes to radiant heat and thus hold dowTi the furnace 
temperature. This transfer of heat by radiation is the direct 
route "from maker to user." There is then no middleman like 
brickwork to take toll and cause trouble. Convection can also be 
considered a middleman but does not require much attention or 
cause any trouble. 

He suggested the theory that all boiler-furnace construction 
should utiUze radiation to the maximum, and so hold furnace 
temperature dowii to the minimum. This theory has nothing to 
do with the temperature of combustion in the fuel bed, which of 
course should be the highest possible to correspond with the mini- 
mum of excess air. 

E. L. Hopping" presented a wTitten discussion referring to the 
design of furnaces for 1500-hp. Stirling boilers, with integral 
economizers, at the Delaware station of the Philadelphia Electric 
Co. Two considerations were kept in mind; 

a That the furnace be made suflBciently large to allow for effi- 
cient operation at high rating without detriment to furnace walls 
or stoker parts 

b That in case it was found desirable, after installation of the 
boiler, to change to some other type of fuel burning, the cost of 
such a change would not be prohibitive and that conditions would 
be such as to produce the highest economies. 

The furnace as finally designed and built has a volume of 4.8 cu. 
ft. per rated boiler horsepower, or about IV2 cu. ft. per maximum 
developed horsepower, wiiich is a rather high rating for stoker- 
fired boilers. These boilers were designed to operate at maximum 
capacities of about 300 per cent normal rating. 

The results obtained in operation of these boOers have been very 
satisfactory and one condition which was not looked for has been 
secured. This is the practical elimination of the cinder nuisance 
at this plant. 

Edwin B. Ricketts" discussed the subject of deformation tempera- 
ture of furnace brickwork and methods of decreasing it by cur- 
rents of steam or air or by circulating water through pipes in the 
brickwork. He also spoke of the lack of uniformity of size of 
furnace brick and methods of overcoming the difficulty. 

A. A. Cai-j'"" pointed out the difficulty of separating the efficiency 
of the boiler from the combined efficiency of boiler and furnace. 
Notwithstanding the difficulties involved, he had found it desirable 
to determine individual efficiencies for boiler and furnace, and he 
explained his method. Dr. Jacobus' statements concerning firebrick 
he considered important, and he discussed carefuUy the problem 
involved in the design of the furnace, the selection of the material 
and the character of the clays used. 

David Moffatt Myers urged the necessity of taking the matter 
of fuel conservation out of the hands of the individual, who will 
always be wasteful, and placing it with an authority powerful 
enough to insist upon economical utihzation of this valuable natural 
resource, and suggested means by which this might be aecomphshed. 
Wm. S. Aldrich offered some data covering experiences with a 
vertical water-tube boiler, installed originally as a waste-heat 
boiler and hence heated almost entirely by convection. The 



boiler was subsequently used with oil and with coal fuel, experi- 
ments showing that the conclusions of Dr. Jacobus were correct. 
This discussion spoke also of difficulties with brickwork at high 
temperature. 

F. F. Ueliling"* wrote in amplification of Dr. Jacobus' statements 
regarding the presence of a small amount of CO with a high per- 
centage of CO2. Since the relation which the percentage of CO 
in the products of combustion bears to the loss up the chimney is 
a very interesting one, it occurred to him that a few curves showing 
chimney losses for different percentages of CO and CO2 might 
prove not only interesting but also of value to engineers when the 
importance of CO content in flue gases is given their consideration. 
The curves were shown on the screen. 

One of the most striking facts brought out in the curves is that 
there is not only a loss due to the presence of CO but also a gain, 
and the net magnitude of the CO loss is their difference. In other 
words, the effect of CO on chimney loss is twofold, one positive 
and the other negative, and the resultant actual CO loss can be 
determined by their algebraic summation. Furthermore the net 
effect of CO on the chimney loss may be plus, minus or zero, de- 
pending upon the conditions obtaining. 

Wliat actually takes place wiien CO is present is; 
First, a loss results due to the unliberated heat in the CO itself, 
that is to say, the additional heat that would be available if the CO 
in the products of combustion had been oxidized. 

Second, a gain occurs due to the fact that the more CO there is 
in the products of combustion for any given percentage of CO2 
the less will be the weight of the products of combustion per pound 
of carbon burned, and consequently the less will be the sensible 
heat dissipated by the flue gases as they leave the boiler. 

John A. Stevens" spoke of the arrangements at the new central 
power station at Paris for preheating the combustion air to 190 
deg. fahr. Another system has been devised for preheating to 
170 deg. The proper temperature seems to be between 170 and 
190 deg. fahr. The preheaters consist of a series of plates beyond 
the economizer, through which the air for combustion travels in 
one direction and the exhaust gases in another. The heater can 
be easily cleaned, both inside and outside. 

Dr. Jacobus submitted additional matter after the meeting in 
which he said that the statements in his paper respecting the influ- 
ence of the amount of boiler heating surface exposed to direct 
radiant heat from the fire on the efficiencies should be amplified. 
Where some portions of the fuel bed are much hotter than others a 
higher efficiency may be obtained by absorbing the maximum amount 
of radiant heat directly from the fuel bed rather than by mingling 
the gases within the furnace and afterw^ards passing them to the 
boiler. In general, however, the higher the furnace temperature 
the higher the efficiency. This part will be more fully covered in 
liis closure. 

Mr. Harrington's Subject a Puislic Affair 

Walter N. Polakov" opened the discussion of Mr. Harrington's 
paper by emphasizing the fact that the conservation of our re- 
sources is in reality a public affair. Machinery, boilers and stokers, 
furnaces, instruments in the boiler room are of Uttle importance 
unless the human element is back of them, and unless the intelli- 
gence is present to make use of wiiat is available. The fact that 
daily performance does not equal test performance is due, he said, 
to four things: First, monotony, which is absent from test condi- 
tions; second, stimulation always present under test conditions; 
third, lack of coordinated brain and manual effort, as is essential 
in tests; and fourth, the close watch on all conditions which must 
be maintained during the test. It is important to increase the 
interest of the power-plant personnel in the use of instruments and 
to train them properly to observe the indications of these instru- 
ments. Whatever instruments are necessary, he said, usually 
pay for themselves within a short time. 

T. A. Marsh" called attention to some changes made in the 

(Continued on page US) 



" M. E., Philadelphia Electric Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Mem.Am.Soc. 
M.E. 

'* Asst. to Ch. Oper. Engr., New York Edison Co., New York, N. Y. 
Mcm.Am.Soc.M.E. 

" Cons. M.E., 95 Liberty St., New York N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



'* General Mgr., Uehling Instrument Co., New York, N. Y. Mem.Am. 
Soc.M.E. 

" Cons. Engr., Lowell, Mass. Mem..4m. Soc.M.E. 

'* Cons. Engr., New York, N. Y. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

1' Ch. Engr., Green Engrg. Co., East Chicago, Ind. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



National Research Council to Coordinate Research 

Throughout Country 

With Assistance of All Kescarcli Agencies, Complete List ot" Investigations to be Kept — A.S.M.E., 

in First Annual Research Conference, Considers Means of Covering 

Mechanical Engineering Field 



AMECHANICAL Engineering Advisory Committee for tlie 
Division of Engineering of tlie National Researcii Council 
has been formed within the organization of The American 
Society of Mechanical I'^ngineers, \rith the Society's Standing 
Committee on Research as a basis. The contemplated program 
is described in tiio following article by Alfred D. Flinn, chairman 
of the Di\'ision of Engineering, who detailed the plan at the Annual 
Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical luigineers, at a 
Research Conference held on the morning of Thursday, December 
8, 1921. 

IMECHANICAL ENGINEERING ADVISORY 

COMMITTEE FOR DIVISION 

OF ENGINEERING 

By .\LFRED D. flinn, NEW YORK, N. V. 

IV/f ECHANICAL engineers make use, in some measure, at some 
^ *■ time, directlj^ or indirectly of many results of scientific re- 
search. There are, however, certain problems requiring scientific 
and engineering investigation which fall within the field regarded 
as peculiarly that of mechanical engineers. Among these, by way 
of example, may be mentioned problems relating to heat transfer, 
fatigue or progressive failure of metals, lulirication, cutting of 
metals, heat, treatment of metals, welding, fuel economy and 
properties of steam. 

Fields requiring research related to engineering are numerous 
and broad; the corresponding fields of application are occupied 
by the societies represented on the Division of Engineering. These 
societies have close contact with practicing engineers and the in- 
dustries. The Division consequently came to the conclusion last 
Spring, that it could render best service and most wisely select 
and control its activities if it had the guidance of an advisory 
committee, or board, in each broad field of engineering. Such 
committees or boards are therefore being organized or have been 
organized in civil, mining and metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, 
highway, and welding fields. In some cases two or more societies 
having kindred interests have joined in one advisory committee. 

Of course, the Division can proceed no faster in the development 
of these ad\'isory committees than the societies are disposed to 
progress, or the committees themselves are willing to go. 

Functions which the Mechanical Advisory Committee is expected 
to perform in its several fields are: 

1 To act as clearing-house, steering committee and coordinating 

agency, in an advisory capacity 

2 To advise the Division in selecting the most ijromising and 

feasible researches and in organizing the research committees 

3 To propose researches which would be of especial interest to 

the A.S.M.E. and the societies associated with it in the Ad- 
visory Committee 

4 To consider ways and means suggested b,^• the Di\ision for 

the conduct of the selected researches 

5 To .s(>rve as the cotmecting link between the Division and the 

Society or the grou[) re|irescnted by the Advisory Committee. 
The form and degree of organization may be adjusted to the 
desii'es of the Advisory Conmiittec. The American Bureau of 
Welding is an example of complete and close organization. The 
committee representing the A.S.M.E., at its first meeting, held 
December 8, 1921, preferred informal organization, leaving organi- 
zational de\'elopment to be matle as needs become ajjparent. The 
functions in such a field may be performed in general through 
sub-committees, by corres|iondence. It will hardly be feasible 
to hold meeting.s of the whole Ad\-isory Committee oftener than 



once a j'ear, in conjunction with t!ie animal meetings of the Society. 
It may be that in the future one session of each annual meeting 
will be given over to a program of papers, reports and discussions 
on research topi(\s under the auspices of the Re.search Committee. 

Sub-coinmittes may be suggested by the Division from time to 
time as needs arise. The interests of the Advisory Committee 
will suggest others. Initiative on the part of the Advisory Com- 
mittee is much desii-ed by the Division. Permit the suggestion 
also of an interim committee of a few members to conduct the 
business of the Advisory Committee between meetings of the latter. 

The National Research Council has thirteen divisions. Six are 
devoted to general relations — Federal, Foreign, States, Educational, 
Research Extension, Research Information. Seven divisions are 
devoted to technical research, including engineering, agriculture, 
medicine, and the mathematical, ph.vsical and biological sciences. 
The Division of Engineering is made up of representatives of ten 
societies, including all four national engineering societies, and a 
number of members cho.sen because of their interest and their 
j)rominence in engineering. 

The Division of Engineering is a svvitchboard, or telephone 
exchange, or clearing house, to bring together from one extreme 
the man in industry who wants to see practical results and who is 
loath to put money into research even then, and the man at the 
other end, who is called the pure scientist, and the various grades 
between them. One great advantage of the Research Council is 
that in its many committees it is able to assemble these many 
jioints of view of pure research men and the "practical" industrial 
men, by personal contact and by correspondence. It often happens 
that information or a suggestion is picked up from committee 
a.ssociates which is very valuable — information in the different 
branches of chemistry, biolog)', physics, geology, engineering, 
medicine. This feature of the work of the Research Council de- 
serves emphasis — the bringing together of minds in many lines 
of scientific and industrial pursuits and the possibility of getting 
one man to help another, often incidentally, even though the 
connection of their problems at first thought seems remote. 

The Division (and the Research Council as a whole) needs close 
contact with the various main groups of engineers in order to know 
how it can serve them most effectively and most acceptably. Small 
groups of men working in the Research Council's offices, or in 
committees closely connected with those offices, cannot get the 
various points of view which are needed except from a large group 
like the Advisory Committee. But if a group like this exists and 
can be readily reached through its chairman and its sub-committees, 
proljlems can be referred to it and sound advice can be obtained 
on the willingness to support a given project, or reasons for modifj-- 
ing or declining the proposal. At lea,st the Division can get the 
suggestions of men who have been working on that line, whatever 
it may be, or who are prepared in their establishments to undertake 
to advantage the investigation selected. 

At the Grosslichterfelde Laboratory, near Berlin, there is a 
wonderful card catalog. It is reported to have t)een claimed that 
of all the questions that came to this laboratory, eighty per cent 
were answered by the card index. Some one in Germany or else- 
where had worked on the subject in question and those cards showed 
where the information was. Be it notetl that the questions sent 
to this laboratory were supposed to require original research work. 
That is the value of having information or keys to information 
available and concentrated at one place. In its field the Division 
of lOngineering seeks to become useful in that way for the various 
branches of engineering and allied industries. Much more broadly 
the Research Information Service at the Washington office of the 
Research Council is endeavoring to build up such a collection of 
keys to scientific information and research personnel for the scien- 



114 



Iebhuary, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



115- 



fists and engineers of the country. It will require the aid of many 
men who are leaders in technology and science. Engineering 
Societies Library is cooperating. 

Interesting reports, papers or discussions presented to the Di- 
vision of Engineering are offered for publication to the member 
society most likely to be interested. Occasionally such statements 
are issued as bulletins of the National Research Council. 

Not a few research projects have phases which interest more 
than one society. Fatigue of metals has botli metallurgical and 
mechanical aspects and concerns the civil engineer besides. Weld- 
ing enters the fields of mechanical, electrical, civil and mining 
engineering, in addition to being a metallurgical and physical 
problem and interesting the welders as specialists. Heat transfer 
affects all Ijranches of engineering, but especially the mechanical, 
the heating and ventilating, the refrigerating and the automotive 
societies. Highway research concerns particularly the civil, auto- 
motive and mechanical engineers. These few incompletely stated 
examples but indicate and emphasize the need for such a clearing- 
house as the Division of Engineering. 

Through the generous cooperation of the Engineering Fouufla- 
tion, the Division of Engineering has offices in Engineering Societies 
Building, 29 West 39th Street, New York, the focus of American 
engineering. The headquarters of the National Research Council 
is in Washington. Information in further detail will gladly be 
given in response to inquiries addressed to the office of the Division 
of Engineering. 



PROCEEDINGS OF RESEARCH CON- 
FERENCE 

'T'O those who heard Mr. Fliim's plea for the cooperation of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers with the National 
Research Council in the attempt of the latter to place on file all 
the information available on research, and who also heard the dis- 
cussions at the conference, there came the mental reaction that 
an enormous amount of research along parallel lines must be going 
on at any time and that there is really a lack of general information 
as to what research is really in progress. For in the comparatively 
small group — about fifty — gathered at the conference, men engaged 
in important work learned practically for the first time of the 
details or work with many similarities being conducted Isy others 
sitting almost beside them. 

This fact must have impressed the chairman of the A.S.M.E. 
Research Committee, Prof. A. M. Greene, Jr., who conducted the 
conference, when he made the remark that "a Research Conference 
such as this should be held at least once a year. Today is only a 
starter. Our Standing Research Committee of five is not able to 
do this kind of work; the committee is at jiresent busy on such 
subjects as lubrication, bearing metals, flow of fluids, heat transfer, 
steam constants, permanency and accuracy of engineering instru- 
ments, vibration of shafting, torsional stress, vibration stress, 
friction of glass. These subjects represent particular phases only, 
though the whole field of mechanical engineering is open to the 
committee and the Society. 

"The National Research Council feels that the Society ought 
to be available to furnish information on any branch of the subject, 
but only by a much larger committee organization than the present 
can this be done. Therefore the suggestion was that there should 
be a committee of about thirty-five, which would be a Idnd of sub- 
committee of the Research Committee, and an advisory committee 
to the National Research Council." 

Throughout the proceedings of the conference there was no ob- 
jection in principle to this kind of organization. It was felt, 
however, that the organization should be more or less informal 
and flexible, and formed with the idea that it could be made avail- 
able to the National Research Council at any time upon its 
request. 

Papers Presented and Discussed 

To confine the discussion at the conference to definite subjects 
it had been arranged that four topics should be introduced. Two 
of these were technical papers: Elimination of Waste in Industry 



Through Research, by F. A. Wardenburg;' and Research in Ijeather 
Manufacture, by Arthur W. Thomas.- The other two were, 
respectively. Report of the Research Sub-Committee on Lubrica- 
tion, and Discussion of Steam Table Research. While a number 
of valuable ideas were l^rought out in the discussions by the re- 
search specialists present, the account here given of the remarks 
made is confined as far as possible to the two things necessary for 
a successful liaison with the National Research Council: An indi- 
cation of (1) the extent to which important work is being more or 
less duplicated in some other place; and (2) the probable degree 
of general pu!)licity about research work in progress. The papers 
by Messrs. Wardenlnu'g and Thomas are both condensed con- 
siderably to fit within the space of this special account of the 
Conference. 



ELIMINATION OF WASTE IN INDUSTRY 
THROUGH RESEARCH 

By F. a. wardenburg, WILMINGTON, DEL. 

'T'HE prime object of business is the making of money, and if 
•*■ research work is to maintain its proper place in business, it 
must be conducted so that it will more than pay its way. 

Perhaps in no other work is it more difficult to foresee the diffi- 
culties liable to be encountered, and research work is always ap- 
proached in a spirit of optimism. As a consequence, the cost is 
almost certain to be underestimated, not infrequently as much as 
50 per cent, and the saving is very liable to be overestimated. 
As the work progresses the solution of the problem seems always 
just "around the corner," and more and more expenditure is in- 
curred until the final cost may be greater than the saving effected. 
This is particularly true of the development of new machines or 
processes, but to almost as great an extent with an improvement 
to something existing. The result may be that the research, in- 
stead of decreasing waste, adds to it. 

From the standpoint of the permanent success of research work, 
every possible means should he adopted at the inception of a prob- 
lem and at all times during its progress to make the proposition a 
commercial success. 

As one of the methods of assisting in this, the following plan of 
a large corporation is outlined: 

1 When it is desired that a research problem be undertaken, it 
is required that there be filled out an "Experimental Request 
Form" gi\dng 

a Title of research problem 

b Process affected and plants to which applicable 

c Reasons for conducting research 

d Description of process or machine in use which research' 
work is to improve or replace 

e Description of proposed improvement and how to be ob- 
tained 

/ Estimated cost of research work 

g Estimated savings or other advantages, given in detail to 
show clearly how saving has been figured and estimated 
capital expenditure necessary to put results into pro- 
duction 

h Name of persons making suggestion or contributing major 
ideas 

)' Necessary approvals by executives authorizing the work. 
It is surprising the many research prolilems which seem very 
promising when discussed in abstract, but which fail to jjass the 
test insured by the filling out of the above form. 

2 The man having charge of the research is recjuired once a 
month to make a complete review of the problem, stating: 

a Object of the investigation 

h Work accomplished during past month 

c Status of problem to date 

d Probability of successful outcome and any new develop- 
ments having a bearing on the application of the work 
commercially, if successful 

e Further work proposed in immediate future. 



' Asst. Chief Engr., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del. 
Mem..ALm.Soc.M.E. 

' Asst. Prof. Food Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 



116 



MECHANICAL EXGINEERIXG 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



3 Where it is apparent that the cost of conducting a re.«parch 
problem maj' be greater than the appropriation, an additional 
appropriation must be secured, at which time the commercial 
status of the entire subject is reconsidered by the executives to 
determine whether the expenditure of the additional money is 
justified. If not, the study is discontinued. 

4 At the conclusion of a research iiroblem, a complete report 
is made, in which is included the estimated figure on capital ex- 
penditure necessary and the savings and other advantages to be 
gained by the application of the results obtained to regular pro- 
duction so that, if justified, the research work may he turned to 
profit as soon as possible. 

This plan of conducting research work lays continual stress on 
the commercial outcome. At every angle the question is asked, 
"Is the cost of this particular step justified by the results to be 
obtained from it?" 

Suggested Cooperative Plan 

Many companies in different lines are carrjdng on research work, 
each on proV)lems in its own line. There are, however, many 
problems which should be studied but wliich are not receiving the 
attention they deserve because they do not present sufficient 
probai)ility of making a satisfactorj' monetary return to justify 
any one company proceeding viith the work. 

Much research now done by manufacturing companies has to 
do only with that i)art of the subject which is of direct interest, 
frequently the effect of one or more of the variables is not deter- 
mined, and frequently also, the study is only conducted to obtain 
a part of the curve. Further, there is a great deal of research 
work, of great importance to industry, but which is not done be- 
cause it is seldom that any one company can justify conducting 
an abstract scientific reseach -nith the hope that the result of that 
research can be profitably applied to its business in some way. 

True, a great deal of such work is being done by the universities 
or similar institutions, and some of it by the Bureau of Standards 
and other departments of the Government. The governmental 
departments, however, cannot be altogether depended upon be- 
cause of the difficulty of securing the necessary appropriations. 
This kind of research work in the universities must necessarily 
show slow progress because it must be carried on during the spare 
time of the member of the faculty who is working on it, and it is 
difficult for a man engaged in university work to have the per- 
spective necessary to obtain the results in the way most suitable 
for commercial use. Further, the problem selected to be worked 
upon depends upon the desires of the man wlio hapjjens to have 
the opportunity and desire for research work, and is not determined 
as it should be from a broad viewpoint to insure that the most 
important subject receives earliest attention. 

How much better it would be if a fund could be collected by 
subscription from manufacturing companies and others interested, 
and this fund placed under the control of some central body, such 
as the Research Committee of The American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, which would fix a j^rogram of research work to be 
conducted, the place where the work should be done, and the 
methods to lie followed in doing it. 

With such a plan, information very necessary to industry would 
be obtained many years sooner than under the haphazard plan 
now followed. More complete and scientifically accurate informa- 
tion would be obtained, and the results would be much more 
widely distributed and made available for industry. As is quite 
important also, the total cost to industry would be very much less 
than where many concerns dujjlicate effort, as is now being done. 
To accomplish the best results, such a fund should be a continuing 
one, so that a program could be adopted for several years' work. 

The American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers 
has had such a plan in effect for the past two years, with sub- 
scriptions amounting to $25,000 per year for five years. The 
cooperation of the U. S. Bureau of Mines was secured, and the 
Bureau loaned excellent laboratory facilities in the fuel-testing 
station at Pittsburgh. This latter is equivalent to approximately 
$20,000 per year, so that the equivalent of $225,000 is available 
altogether in t his instance. An excellent technical staff is employed 
and good progress has been made. The work is directed by the 
Research Bureau of the Heating and Ventilating Society. 



With the wide field covered by the A.S.M.P'., no difficulty 
should be experienced in raising a similar fund, ample to carry on 
an ambitious research program and secure data of inestimable 
value to industry. Some of this research would be carried on in 
a laboratory to be financed and controllerl by the committee flirect- 
ing this fund, and some of it at universities, the necessary financial 
assistance being provided from the fund. This would also increase 
the scope of the research work which the universities could carry 
on, as the necessary financial support would be easier to sectire. 

RESEARCH IN LEATHER MANUFACTUREj 

Bv ARTHUR W. THOMAS, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

'T'HE art of leather manufacture is a glaring example of the need 
* for scientific research, and if conditions in some other indus- 
tries are comparable with those of the tanning industry, it is time 
that attention is given to publicizing the research which has been 
done, if only to show the small amount of accurate scientific data 
upon which these industries are based. 

In the average tannery the majority of the operations conducted 
in transforming rawliide into finished leather are conducted in 
essentially the same manner chemically as they were centuries ago. 
Frightful "formulae" similar to "shot-gun prescriptions" of the 
old-school physicians ha\'e been jealously guarded in the tanneries 
and have been handed down from generation to generation. 

The point of view is usually that since good leather was being 
made in 1000 B.C. or 1776 A.D., why bother about scientific re- 
search? This impedance in the leather industry wiU soon be over- 
come by competition. 

To give an example, the foul practice of bating viith dungs is 
still to be found in many tanneries, though it has been found that 
artificial bates can be prepared with the necessary proteolytic 
enzyme in the dungs — and even the value of the presence of pan- 
creatic enzyme is now questioned. 

Fundamental advances in the science of leather formation have 
been made in the last few years, and he who can understand the new 
chemical thermodjTaamic theory of Proctor and liis students, notably 
Wilson, can safely discard all his old rule-of-thumb methods and 
feel sure in advance just what is going to happen in his processes. 

Many other examples might be given. Stasny's studies of 
limings have proved that the old idea of necessity for the presence 
of ammonia in lime liquors was unfoiuided, and that tlie factors 
wiiich count are regulation of alkalinity and proportions of sulphide. 

Studies of the combination of chrome and collagen have pre- 
vented the running of tons of chrome into the sewers because of 
lack of knowiedge of the reaction forming the insoluble impurtres- 
cible chrome-collagen compound. And so on. 

Instances in which mechanical engineering has improved the 
efficiency of leather manufacture are numerous. 

The designing of extractors and vacuum evaporators has made 
possible the manufacture of concentrated vegetable extracts per- 
mitting quicker tanning and eliminating the expense of freight 
on barks. 

Machinery for unhairing, fleshing and shaving hides have elimi- 
nated much hand labor, although there has not as yet been invented 
a machine which will completely dehair. 

Large mechanical rocking systems have improved the liming 
operation. 

Since animals are raised primarily for their meat and wool, 
tanners are obliged to use a by-product as their raw material, often 
under great handicaps. Disease in the animal, admittedly fatal 
in the meat industry, is also a serious factor to the tanner. 

The warble fly problem has been acute. This insect deposits its 
larvae in the hide of the animal, which becomes filled with holes. 
The only preventive so far is to watch the live cattle and remove 
the pest by hand. 

To summarize, there is a great field in the tanning industry, by 
the prosecution of scientific research, to eliminate the unnecessary 
wastes due to lack of knowledge of the reactions and hence waste 
. of time and materials. Further, publication of the knowledge 
already available will do much to produce a better product, and 
make it available at a better price, restoring leather to the point 
at wiiich it can successfully compete with other materials. 



Fbbbcary, 1922 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



117 



RESEARCH PROBLEMS DISCUSSED 

T^HE first paper to be discussed was that by Mr. Wardenburg. 
* The idea tliat the DuPont Company insisted on the promise 
of profit before it gave approval to research, was a surprise to M. 
C. Stuart,' and he thought it would be to others. On the other 
hand, C. E. Lucke- thought that this was the most imjjortant 
paper of its kind ho had ever heard. Whether it expresses the 
correct ideal or not, he did not think as important, as the fact that 
it could be expected that the niaxinnmi research would be done by 
business corporations. 

Dr. Lucke thought that one of the most valuable contributions 
a Research Conference can make is a classification of research. In 
such a classification the most important kind is that of improving 
commercial ijroducts. 

Albert Kingsbury' thought that too close a scrutiny of research 
subjects sometimes hid things which would otherwise come to light. 
Further, things set forth as objects in research are often not ob- 
tained, but on the other hand, by-products sometimes turn up of 
a value often exceeding the primary object. 

L. F. Lyne, .Jr.,' continued on the line of Mr. Kingsbury's re- 
marks, and added from his personal experience with lubricants. 

F. A. Wardenburg, in closing this part of the discussion, said 
that most firms finding it necessary to earn a maximum return on 
their capital were not carrying on research. However, he felt that 
such concerns would be glad to contribute to some cooperative 
program, carried out under proper auspices and including subjects 
in which they were interested. 

A Familiar Research Discussed 

To bring out ideas of value to the conference, the chairman 
called on Prof. H. F. Moore, of the University of Illinois, well 
known in connection with tlie investigation there of fatigue of 
metals, or, as Professor Moore put it, "progressive failure of metals 
under continuous stress." 

In describing the scope of the problem. Professor Moore charac- 
terized it as "invohnng much indefinite research into first principles, 
whose outcome could not be seen." 

The National Research Council first saw the problem, and 
secured a large grant of funds to carry on the investigation. The 
Engineering Experiment Station at Illinois contributed the labora- 
tory apparatus and also Professor Moore's time. One large com- 
mercial company found the apparatus and organization could be 
effectively utilized for certain work it wanted done. 

The work therefore represented a measure of cooperation be- 
tween the National Research Council, the Engineering Foundation 
which supjjlied the money, the Experiment Station at Illinois, and 
one commercial companj'. 

The Research was carried out under a definite agreement, and 
the University charged a price. An interesting part of the agree- 
ment was that the data of the entire investigation should be open 
at any time to any interested party. 

To his mind, this research pointed out the value of cooperative 
investigation between quite widelj- different interests. He saw 
no reason why such an arrangement shoulrl not be duplicated 
elsewhere. 

Both Mr. Flinn and Dean C. R. Richards" called attention to 
the fact that though this investigation has been completed, the 
apparatus is still available to any industries which might want 
to use it. Dean Richards put it that it would be unfortunate if 
this laboratory, now brought to a proper degree of efficiency, were 
disbanded before it had gathered in the knowledge not only of 
ferrous, but of non-ferrous, metals. Dean Richards called 
attention to one fundamental condition — that the obligations of 
the University to the public compel it to ovni and control the first 



' Prof. Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Naval Post-Graduate 
School, Annapolis, Md. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 

' Consulting Mechanical Engineer, New York, N. Y. Mem..\ni.Si)c. 
M.E. 

' Kingsbury Machine Works, Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. Moni..\ni. 
Soc.M.E. 

' Pres. and General Manager, Oil Specialties & Supply Co., New York, 
N. Y. Assoc-Mem..\m. Soc.M.E. 

• Dean, College of Engineering, and Director Engineering Experiment 
Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. Mem.Am.Soc.M.E. 



right of ])ublication. He thought it a great mistake when such 
institutions keep their results secret. 

Dean Richards thought that in the long run the more complete 
our knowledge of science in its application to industry, the greater 
the confidence of the jjoople in using the products of industry. So 
that the idea that research must be kept for a secret use, and to 
keep competitors from meeting competition, is entirely WTong. 

.\ Small Beginm.ng Develops Into Big Work 

Dean Richards also cited the research at Illinois, in connection 
with the National Warm Air Heating and Ventilating Association, 
into hou.se-heating furnaces. In the beginning, while the mem- 
bers of the association thought the research would be good, especi- 
ally good, advertising, they had no conception of the results to be 
obtained. Now, as the work has gone on for four years, their 
attitude is entirely changed, and they want it continued until 
nothing more is to be gotten out of it. 

Secrecy of Experiments Undesirable 

An interesting sidelight on secrecy was exposed by E. J. Prindle,' 
who said that not only was it an altruistic thing to reveal secrets 
of research, but it was a dangerous thing not to reveal them from 
the standpoint of the Patent Law. The law sustains the man who 
first discloses the discovery, and not the man who first makes it. 
The object of the Patent Law is to lielp the man who not only 
makes an invention, but who discloses it to the world so that it 
may become public property after a given period of protection to 
the inventor. 

I;. F. Lyne, .Ir., gave an example of costl3' duplication of effort 
resulting from \'iolation of the principle which Mr. Prindle pointed 
out. One concern had spent $300,000 in developing a certain 
l^roduct and putting it on the market, while another concern lo- 
cated not very far away was carrying on exactly the same investi- 
gation. 

The product was a luljricant, and apart from the number of 
commercial concerns there are at least four societies — all repre- 
sented at the conference — giving their attention to lubricants! 
As he understood it, one of the purposes of the National Research 
Council is to bring together such interests as these. 

Mr. Flinn rephed to Mr. Lyne that such was one of the func- 
tions of the Council. He could give good examples of such service 
in the iron and steel industry, the welding industry and others. 

Work of the A.S.H. & V.E. Described 

Dean Anderson, research director of the American Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engineers, showed how in research start- 
ing out for one thing often led to searching for others. Their 
work at the Bureau of Mines Laboratories in Pittsburgh started 
out with the goal of finding the relationship between air tempera- 
ture and humidity and air motion — a thermodynamic problem. 
Soon it developed into research on some fundamental laws of the 
cooling powers of vapors. The effort on the human body turned 
the problem into a physiological one and brought in the Bureau 
of Health. 

PrimarOy the work of the laboratory has been to take the numer- 
ous problems presented by the manufacturers, and from them 
determine the fundamental relationships. 

With regard to publicity, he expected that we were doing things 
today that the Chinese did two thousand years ago — doing them 
again because the Chinese left no record of how they were done. 
With this experience, there is a tendency now for no one to keep 
from the scientific world anything he may find out. 

Advocates a. National LABOR.vroRy 

In calling attention to the amount now spent by the A.S.M.E. 
annually for research. Dean Anderson asked if more money could 
not be appropriated. He thought the Society should estabhsh a 
research laboratory like those at Illinois University or Pittsburgh. 
He regarded such a plan as the foundation of the Society — not to 
collect data about the isolated pieces of research going on about 
the country, but to have a real research laboratory for the general 
sciences. 



8 Patent Attorney, Prindle, Wright and Small, New York, N. Y. Mem. 
Am. Soc.M.E. 



118 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



Vol. 44, No. 2 



Professor Mattliews and Dean P. F. Walker botli endorecd the 
laboratory idea. Dean Walker said that the discussion had taken 
a turn which had been in his mind for years, especially in connec- 
tion with oils and lubrication. He hajjpened to be a member of 
the A.S.T.M. Committee on Lubrication, and seeing the report 
of the A.S.M.E. Committee on Lubrication on the program, he 
wondered whether tiiere were any coimection between the two 
organizations. 

This was a cue for the presentation of the Report of the Sub-Com- 
mittee on Lubrication, and Professor Greene therefore called for it. 

A.S.M.E. AVORK IX LIBRKATIOX 

TN presenting this report, Albert Kingsbury said that it was 
■■■ simply one of progress for the past year. The committee 
was organized five or six years ago, and at that time, from a general 
survey of the situation it was decided for the present to deal with 
the absolute fundamentals of the subject only. 

Practically everything we know at.)out lubrication has been 
evolved in the last forty years, and one problem — that of the con- 
ditions existing in the ordinary bearing under normal conditions — 
had practically monopolized all activity in this line. 

The ideal condition in a bearing is one in which the film of lubri- 
cation should be of measureable thickness, and should separate the 
component parts of the bearing so that the frictional resistance is 
transferred from the metal and becomes entirely fluid friction. 

It has been knowTi for a number of years that the ideal condition 
is subject to treatment by theory, and definite formulas have 
been evolved so that fairly accurate predictions can be made. 

It is well understood that the property of a lubricant maintain- 
ing its fimction is viscosity. Another important property is 
"oiliness," which for some reason unknown so far seems to be 
greater in the organic than in the mineral oils. 

The work of the committee has been devoted to carrjang on ex- 
periments on oils under high pressures, up to 44,000 lb. per sq. in., 
and the results so far justify going to stiU higher pressures. Having 
obtained some indication as to what happens at 3000 atmospheres 
the committee is anxious to find the conditions at 30,000 atmos- 
pheres, and hopes to do so later on. 



PROGRESS IN 



STEAM-TABLE 
DESCRIBED 



RESEARCH 



"DY a fortunate coincidence there were brought together at the 
■'-^ conference Mr. George A. Orrok, who induced the A.S.M.E. to 
accept the administration of a fund subscribed by the industries 
to make a research into the upper limits of the steam tables and 
estabUsh fundamental constants. Professor Greene, under the 
auspices of whose Research Committee the technical work was 
being done, Dr. S. W. Stratton, Director of the Bureau of Standards, 
which has carried out some of the investigations, and Dr. H. N. 
Davis, of Harvard University, in whose laboratory another part 
of the exjwrimental work is being done. 

From the information given by these four gentlemen the meeting 
obtained a very good idea about how this work was being financed 
and how administered, how far the experimental work had pro- 
ceeded, and what were some of the difficulties. 

Doctor Davis gave