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Full text of "Mechanical exercises, or, The elements and practice of carpentry, joinery, bricklaying, masonry, slating, plastering, painting, smithing, and turning"

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MECHANICAL EXERCISES; 

OR, THE 

ELEMENTS AND PRACTICE 

OF 

Carpentrif^ Plasteringy 

Joinery^ Painting^ 

Sricklayinf/^ Smithingy 
Masonry^ and 

Slating, Turning, 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVtembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/mechanicalexerciOOnich 



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33 



MECHANICAL EXERCISES; 

OR, THE 

ELEMENTS AND PRACTICE 

OF 

Carpentry^ Plastering^ 

Joinery^ Paintingy 

Brichlayiny^ Smithing^ 
Masonry^ and 

Slating^ Turning, 

CONTAINING A FULL DESCRIPTION OP 

THE TOOLS 

Belonging to each Branch of Business; 
Aud copious Directions for their Use. 

WITH AN EXPLANATION OF THE 

TERMS USED IN EACH ART; 

AND 

An Introduction to Practical Geometry. 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

THIRTY-NINE COPPER ' PLATES. 




By peter NICHOLSON, 

Author of The Carpenters' Guide : Joiners' Assistant, S,i 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY J. TAYLOR, 

jIT the architectupal library, 

59, HIGH HOLBORN. 

1812. 



Son 

•N53 



Printed by W. Stratford, Crown Court, Temple Bar. 



PREFACE. 

MORE than a century has elapsed since 
an ingenious and useful work on the 
Arts connected with Building was publish- 
ed under the title of Mechanical Exercises^ 
by the celebrated Joseph Moxon : that it 
was both useful and popular the various 
editions testify, and at this time it is 
become scarce and rarely to be met with. 
It can be no disparagement to its ingenious 
author, to say, that the progress of science, 
and the changes in matters of art have 
rendered the work obsolete and useless. It 
treated on Smithing, Joinery, Carpentry, 
Turning, Bricklaying, and Dyalling. 

I have followed the excellent plaq of 
Moxon and treated each art distinctly : 
I have first described the several tools 
belonging to each branch of business, next 
the methods of performing the various ma- 
nual operations or Exercises, to which tliey 
are applicable, these are further illustrated 
and explair^ed by numerous plates : the de- 
scriptions are made as plain and familiar as 
possible ; and there are few operations but 

will 



VI PREFACE. 

will be found fully and clearly explained ? 
finally to each is added an Index and exr 
tensive Glossary of terms used by workmen 
in each art, with references also to the 
plates : and it has been my endeavour that 
ithe description with its definition should be 
clear, ajid show the connection between the 
science and the art, thereby producing a 
pleasing and lasting effect upon the mind. 

The arts treated of are as follow: 
Carpentrify Joinery^ Bricklaying, AlasQiiry, 
Slatingy Plasttring, Pairitingy Smithing, and 
Turning, the whole preceded by a slight 
introduction to Practical Geometry, and il- 
lustrated by thirty-nine copper-plates. 

These Exercises commence with those 
arts which work in wood, namel}^ Car-? 
pentry and Joinery, which are much alike 
in their tools and modes of wprking : then 
comes Bricklaying, which with Carpentry 
are certainly the most essential of all in the 
construction of a building. 

Masonry and Bricklaying are in reality 
branches of the same art, and both founded 
upon principles truly Geometrical, yet I 
have given the precedence to Bricklaying, 
because it is of the most general use in 

this 



PREFACE. VU 

this country ; yet it is generally admitted, 
that Masonry is the more dignified art of 
the two, or indeed of all the arts con- 
cerned in the formation of an edifice. On 
that difficult and intricate subject, the 
Theory of Ai'ches, I have endeavoured to 
give a familiar, and I hope a satisfactory 
illustration. 

Slating comes next to cover in the build- 
ing: then Plastering, which is used in the 
finishing of buildings, and furnishes the 
interior with elegant decorations, and con- 
duces both to the health and comfort of the 
inhabitants : Painting is not less useful than 
ornamental; it adds to the elegance of 
buildings, and tends to the preservation of 
the materials, whether wood or plaster. 

Smithing or Smithry is extensively 
useful in almost every department of art 
as well as building ; by it are made the tools 
which perform all the operations of the 
before-mentioned arts, and therefore, though 
last, should not be least in our esteem. The 
use of iron also has of late years been very 
much extended : in wheels for machinery^ 
(some of the immense size of seventy feet 
diameter.) Iron Bridges (one at Wearmouth 

of 



vm ■ PREFACE. 

of two hundred and thirty six feet span,) 
Rail roads, Boats, Roofs, Floors, and va^ 
rioiis other articles not necessary to enu- 
merate here. 

Turning is a curious Mechanical Exercise, 
and though not absolutely necessary in 
building, may be employed with advantage 
in many of its decorations. In this article 
I have given a legitimate definition of 
elliptic turning, b}^ which, its principles are 
deduced to be that of the ellipsegraph or 
common trammel, and this without enter- 
ing into further demonstration. This art is 
illustrated by plates, shewing the principles 
of the machines, as well as by views of the 
machines and tools. 

As the practice of the arts here treat- 
ed of, is founded in Geometry, and as 
the descrijjtions of the materials and of 
the tools may be referred to the several 
figures of that science, I have prefixed 
to the work such definitions as are neces- 
sary^ to the comprehension of any draw- 
ing or design, which is to be executed, 
accompanied by many uteful problems, 
which will enable the mechanic to under- 
stiind the configuration of its several parts 

in 



PREFACE. IX 

m practice, and to perform many useful 
problems upon true scientific principles. 
The problems for setting out work upon 
the ground, and those for reducing draw- 
ings to any scale or proportion, even with-^ 
out knowing the scale of the original draw- 
ing, will be found interesting, and very 
useful in practice. 

This work, which treats only of the first 
rudiments of practice, will be found parti- 
cularly interesting and useful to gentlemen 
who practise, or are fond of The Mechanical 
Exercises, and to young men or apprentices 
in any of the professions, though, on some 
occasions, the older workmen may be 
benefited by a perusal. The terms in- 
troduced are those in general use amongst 
workmen in London : and on this account 
it will be of essential service to young men 
coming to the metropolis. An art cannot 
be taught but by its proper terms. Many 
other branches of art might have been in- 
troduced into this work, had space allowed, 
but those here treated of are intimately 
connected with each other, and have a na- 
tural affinity, and will, it is presumed, form, 
upon the wdiole, a very interesting work to 

young 



X PREFACE. 

young mechanics ; those who wish for fur- 
ther information in the building art, and 
particularly on what relates to Geometrical 
Construction, may consult my other pub- 
lications on Practical Carpentry. 

Every art is improved by the emulation 
of its competitors : it is therefore the ardent 
hope of the author, that the reader may 
not be disappointed of meeting with abund- 
ance of that information which his mind 
may be desirous to obtain. 

P.N, 



TABLE 



( ^ ) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 
OF PRACTICAL GEOJ^IETRY. 1 

Definitions ----- o 

Definitions of Solids - - - - 6 

Plate L Definitions . - - - 9 

Plate II. Solids - - - - II 

Plate III. Problems - - - - 12 
Prob. 1. From a given point in a given straight 

line to erect a perpendicular - 12 
Prob. 2t. To let fall a perpendicular froin a 

given point to a given straight line 12 
Prob. 3. When the point is at or near the end 

of the line i method fir St - - 12 
Prob. 4. To draw a perpendicular from a point 

at the end of the line - - 13 

Prob. 5. To bisect a given straight line 13 

Prob. 6. To bisect a given angle - - 13 
Prob. 7- To male an angle equal to a given 

angle - - - - - 14 

Prob. 8. Througfi a given point to draw a line 

parallel to a given right line - 14 
Prob. 9. To draw a line parallel to another at 

a given distance - - - - 14 

Prob. 



xii CONTENTS. [Geometry. 

Page. 

Prob. 10. Three straight lines ^ of which any 
ttvo are greater than the third being 
given, to describe a triangle, the sides 
of which mil be respectively equal to the 
then given lines - - - IS 

Plate TV. Problems - - - - 15 

Prob. 11. The side of an, equilateral triangle 

being given, to desci'ibe the triangle 15 

Prob. 12. To describe a square^ the sides of 
xvhich shall be equal to a given right 
line - - - - - 15 

Prob. 13. To describe a hexagon, the sides of 
which shall be equal to a given line 16 

Prob. 14. To describe any regular polygon, the 
sides of which shall be equal to a given 
line ----- 15 

Prob. 15, To inscribe a polygon in a given circle 

17 

Prob. \6. A square being given to form an joc- 
tagon, of which four of the sides at 
right angles to each other, shall be com^ 
mon to the middle parts of the sides of 
the square - - - -• 17 

Prob. 17. In a given circle to inscribe a hexa- 
gon or an equilateral - - 18 

Prob. 18. In a given circle to inscribe a square 

or an octagon - - - - 18 

Prob. 19. In a given circle to inscribe a penta- 
gon - - - -. - \^ 

Practical 



G«oinetry.i CONTENTS. xiH 

Piige. 
Practical problems performed on the Ground. 
Plate V. Practical Problems - - 19 

Prob. 1 . To erect a perpendicular from a given 
point to a right line^ of a tape or string 

19 
Prob. 2. To erect a perpendicular at or near 
the end of a right line, by means of a 
tape - . - . - 20 

Prob. 3. Another inethod - - - 20 
The same figure - - - 20 

Prob. 4. To describe the segment of a circle 
to any lengthy and perpendicular height 

21 
Prob. 5. To describe a semi-elliptic arch to 
any length and height with compasses 

2.3 
Plate VI. Practical problems - - 214 
Prob. 6. Any three straight lines being given to 

find a fourth, proportional - 24 

Prob. 7. To divide a line in the same propor- 
tion as another is divided - - 24 
Prob. 8 Any distance being given infect and 
inches of a part of a drawing, to di- 
vide a given length of a similar part 
of another drawing into feet and inches, 
so as to form a proportional scale 

25 
Prob. 9. A drawing being given without a scale 
to proportion, another having the di- 
mension 



rtf CONTENTS. [Carpentry. 

Page. 

niension or extent of some part of the 

intended drawing - - - 20 

Prob. 10. To draw a diagonal scale - 27 

OF CARPENTRY. 2^ 

Section 

1 Definition - - . . . QQf 

2 Tools - - - a .. 29 
S Of Sazvs - - . ^ - 29 

4 The Axe - . - . . ai 

5 The Adze . ^ . ^ , si 

6 TTie Socket Chissel - - • - S2i 

7 77/ 6- Firmer Chissel - ^ - 32 

8 77/(f Ripping Chissel - - * 33 

9 r/zd> Gimblet , - . - - 33 

10 T/^e ^z/^-^r 34 

1 1 77i(? 6^«?^«e ^ . ^ ^ . 35 

12 r//e Zere-? . - ... so 

13 To adjust the Level - - - 38 

14 The Plumb Rule ^ - : - - 38 

15 7 he Ha miner * - - 40 

16 The Mallet - - - - * 41 
il The Beetle or Mawl - - - 41 

18 The Crow . * - - - 42 

19 The Ten foot Bute . - - * 42 

20 The Hook Pin ... - 42 

21 The Carpenters' Square - * - 44 

22 Operation - . ... 45 

23. 7b 



Carpentry.] CONTENTS. xv 

Section Page 

23 To join two pieces which arc to form four 
angles, and the surface of one piece or both 
parallel a?id perpendicular to those of the 
other -.---- 46 

24 To join one piece of timber to another y to 
form two right ajigles with each other, a7id 

the surfaces of the one to be parallel and 
perpendicidar to those of the other, and to 
be quite immoveable, when the standing piece 
is pulled in a direction of its length, while 
the cross piece is held still - - - 47 

25 Another method - - - - 47 
W To notch one piece of timber to another, or 

join the two, so as to form one right angle, 
in order that they may be equally strong, in 
respect to each other - - - 48 

27 To fix one piece of timber to another, form* 
ing two oblique angles, so that the standing 
piece cannot he drawn out of tJie transverse 

49 

28 To cut a rebated notch in the end of a scant- 
ling or piece of zvood - - - 49 

29 To cut a grooved notch, or socket in a piece 
of timber - - - - . 50 

SO To cut a tenon - - - - ,50 

31 To frame one piece of timber at right angles 
to, and at any distance from^ either end of 
another, both pieces being of th&same quality 

5\ 
32 To 



xxi C O N T E N T S. [Carpentry. 

Section Page. 

32 To Join two timbers bij Mortice and Tenoui 
at a risht an^le, so that the one shall not 
pass the breadth of the other - - 54 

S3 Of Foundations and Timbers in joisting 
and walling - - - - - <^5 

34 Stud work and Plaster buildings - 58 

35 Description of a Table of Scantling - 60 

36 The Table of Bearing Posts - , - 61 
yi Observations on the Table - - 61 

38 Table of Girders - - - - m 

39 Table of Bridging Joists - - 63 

40 Table of Binding Joists - - - 64 

41 Table of Beams - - - - 64 

42 Table of Principal Rafters - ^ 65 

43 Table of Purlines - - - - 65 

44 Observations ----- 66 

45 Table of Small Rafters - -66 
Abstract of the Building Act, so far as i^egards 

the Carpejiter - - - - 67 

Plate I. Tools - - - . 70 

II. Dove-tailing, notching, &c. 71 

III. Flooring . - , 73 

IV. Girder Joists, scarfing, &c. 76 

V. Framing for a Wooden House 



Index and Explanation of Temns used in Car- 
pentry - - - • - - 81 



OF 



Joinery.] CONTENTS. im 

Section Page; 
OF JdlNERY. 

1 Definition - - - - - 91 

2 The Bench ----- 92 

3 Joiners' Tools - - - - 9,5 

4 Definitions --*.-- 9'5 

5 The Jack Plane - - - - 97 

6 To grind and sharpen the Iron - 100 

7 To fix and unfix the Iron - - 101 

8 To use the Jack Plane - - - 103 

9 The Trying Plane - - - 102 
10 The use of the Trying Plane - 103 
U The Long Plane - - - - 103 
l!2 The Jointer - - - - 104 
IS The Smoothing Plane - - - lO^ 

14 Bench Planes - - - - 104 

15 The Compass Plane - - - 105 

16 The Forkstqf Plane . - . - - 105 

17 The Straight Block - - - 105 

18 The Rebate Plane - - - 106 

19 Sijiking Rebating Planes - - 107 

20 Of the Moving Fillister - - 107 

21 0/ the Sash Fillister in general - 112 
S2 The Fillister which thrdlvs the shavings 

on the bench - ~ - - - 115 

23 Of the Sash Fillister for throwing the 
shavings off the bench - - - 116 

24 Rebating Planes without a fence - 117 

25 Skew mouthed Rebating Plane > 117 
Sl6 Square mouthed Rebating Planes - 118 

b ^1 Side 



xviii CONTENTS. [Joinery. 

Section Page. 

11 Side Rebating Planes - - - 119 

28 The Flough 119 

0,9 Dado Groovi?ig Plajie - , - ■* 121 

30 Moulding Planes - - - - l^ll 

3\ The Bead Plane - - - - 122 

32 A Snipe-bill 125 

33 Hollows and Rounds - - - 125 
3 A Stock and Bits - - - - 126 

35 The Centre Bit - - - - 128 

36 Countersinks - - - - - 129 

37 Rimers - - - - - 129 

38 The Taper- Shell Bit - - - 130 

39 The Brad Awl - - - - - 130 
1^0 Chissels in general - - - 131 

41 The Firmer Ch'issel - - - 132 

42 The Mortice Chissel - - - 132 
-h3 The Gouge. - . - - - - 133 
AA The Drawing Knife - - - 133 
45 Of Saws in general - - - 134 
AQ) The Ripping Saxi) - - _ 134 
47 The Half Ripper - - - 135 
A'^ The Hand Saw - - - - 135 

49 The Pannel Saw - -. - - 135 

50 The Tenon Saw - . - - - 135 

51 The Sash Saw - - - - 136 

52 The Dovetail Sazv - - - 136 

53 The Compass Saw . - - 136 

54 The Key-hole or Tuniitig Saw - 137 

55 The Hatchet - - - - 137 

56 The 



Joinery.] CONTENTS. xis 

Section Page* 

56 The Square - - - - 1^7 

51 To prove a Square - - - 138 

58 The Bevel - - - - * 1^^ 

59 The Gauge - - - - - 14,0 
QO The Mortice Gauge - - - 140 
^1 The Side Hook - - - - 141 
Q2 The Mitre Box - - - - 1^1 

63 r/i^ Shooting Block - - - 142 

64 T/ze Straight edge - - - 142 
^5 Winding Sticks - - - - 142 
66 TAe Mitre Square - - - 142 
Plate I. Tools - - - - - l44 

II. Tools . - - - 146 

III. Mouldings - - - l47 

IV. Mouldings - - - 150 

V. Mouldings for doors - - 152 

VI. Ditto - ... 154 

VII. Ditto - - - - 155 

VIII. Mouldings for Sashes and Cor- 

nices - - - - 157 

IX. Dog-leged Stairs - - 181 

X. Geometrical Stairs - - 188 

71 Definitions - - - - - 158 

72 To make a straight edge - - 159 
^73 To face a piece of stuff - - l60 

74 To shoot the edge of a hoard - - l62 

75 To join tzvo boards together - - l62 

76 To join any number of boards, edge to 
edge^ with glue ^ so as to form one board l63 

b2 77 To 



M CONTENTS. [Bricklaying. 

Section Page. 

n To square and try-tip a piece of stuff l63 

78 To try-up a piece of stuff all round 164- 

79 To rebate a piece of stuff - - 1 65 
^ To I'ebate a-cross the grain - - l68 

81 To frame two pieces of stuff together l69 

82 Boarding Floors - - - - l73 
^S Hanging of Shutters to be cut - 1 76 

84 Hanging of Doors - - - 177 

85 To scribe one piece of board or stuff to 
another - - - - - - 177 

56 Doors - - - » - . 178 

57 Stairs - - - - - - 179 

SS Dog-leged Stairs - - - - 181 

^9 Bracket Stairs - - - - 186 

90 Geometrical Stairs - - - . 188 

Index and Explajiation of Terms used in 

Joinery - - - - - - 189 

OF BRICKLAYING. 

\ Defijiilion - ' - - - - 205 

2 List of JValling Tools - - - 206 

3 List of Tools used in Tiling - - 206 

4 The Brick Trowel - - - 207 

5 The Hammer - - - - 207 

6 The Plumb Rule - - - - 207 

7 The Level - - - - - 207 

8 The Large Square - - _ 207 

9 The Rod - - - - - 207 
\0 The Jointing Rule z ' .' 208 

11 The 



Bricklaying.] CONTENTS. 


xxx 


Section • 




Page. 


11 The Jointer - 


- 


208 


12 The Compasses 


• 


208 


13 The Raker - 


- 


208 


14 The Hod - 


- 


208 


15 The Line Pins 


- 


209 


16 The Rammer 


- 


209 


17 The Iron Crow and Pick Axe 


209 


18 The Grinding Stone 


- 


209 


\^ The Banker 


- 


210 


20 The Camber Slip - 


- 


210 


21 The Rubbing Stone 


- . 


211 


22 The Bedding Stone 


- 


211 


23 The Square - 


- 


2U 


24 The Bevel • 


* <• 


211 


25 TAe Mould - 


* , - 


211 


26 7%e &r/6<f - 


* V 


212 


27 The Tin Saw 


- 


212 


28 The Brick Axe - 


• 


212 


29 The Templet 


« 


213 


SO 77ie Chopping Block 


- 


213 


S\ The Float Stone - 


* ^ 


213 


32 Of Cements 


«• • 


214 


33 Description of Bricks 


A » 


222 


34 Of Foundations - 


K • 


227 


35 0/ ^a//^ - 


* ai 


231 


30 Vaulting and Grqining 


^ 


236 



Plate 



xxli CONTENTS. [Masonry. 

Page, 
Plate I. Tools - - - - - 240 

II. English Bond - r - 241 

III. Flemish Bond - - - 243 

IV. Arch Work - - - 245 

V. Piers and Cornices - r 24? 
VI Groins - - - - 249 

VII. Niches - - - - 251 

VIII. Steening Wells - - 252 
Abstract of the Building Act, so far as relates 

. to the Bricklaijer - - - - 253 
Index and Explanation of Terms 2ised in 
Brickbaying - - - r . - - 268 

OF MASONRY. 

Section 

1 Definition - - * - - - 269 

2 Masons Tools " - ^ - - - 269 

3 Of Marbles and Stones - - 271 

4 Stone Walls - t - - 273 

5 Stairs - - - - - - 280 

Q Geometrical Stairs - - - 28 J 

7 A short account of the origin of the arch, 

and authors who may be consulted - 283 
Plate I. Problems respecting Arches, and 
methods of determining Elliptic Arches 

2-86 
Prob, 1. To render the compass method use- 
ful, not only in descinbing the curve ; 
but in finding the joints perpendi- 
cular 



Sjlating.] ^ CONTENTS: xxiii 

Page, 
cular thereto, so as to form an arch 
ivlikh shall not have any sensible varia- 
tion in practice from the true Elliptic 
Curve, nor hi the perpendicularity of 
the joints - - - - 287 

Prob. 2. To find the joints of an Elliptic Arch 

at right angles to the curve - 289 

Prob. 3. To describe the Parabolic Arch, and 
thence . to draw the joints at right 
angles to the curve - - - 289 

Plate II. Strength of Arches - - 291 

Index and Explanation of Terms used in 
Masonry _ - _ _ _ 294 

Section OF SLATING. 

I Definition - - - - - SOl 
platers' Tools - - - - - SOI 
Explanation of Terms used in Slating - 302 

OF PLASTERING. 

1 Definitions - - - . . so4 

2 Plasterers^ Tools - - . _ qq^ 

3 Materials 304 

Explanation of Terms used in Plastering 306 

OF PAINTING IN OIL. 

Definitions and Tools - - - Si4 

The process for painting on new wood ivork 3 1 5 
The process for painting on old ivork - 3l7 
A List of useful colours for House Painting 3 1 9 

OF 



xx\r CONTENTS. [Smithing. 

Of smithing. 
Section Page. 

Defifiifion - - - - - 521 

1 Description of the Forge - - 32 1 

2 The Anvil - - . - - 322 

3 The Tongs 322 

4- Hammers ----- 323 

5 The Vice 323 

6 The Hand Vice - - - - 324 

7 The Flyers ----- 324 

8 Drills - - - - - - 325 

9 Screw Plates - - - - 326 

10 Shears - - - - "- - . 326 

1 1 Sazvs ------ 327 

12 Of Forging 327 

13 Of Heats 328 

1 4 To punch a hole - - r - 330 

15 Filing and Polishing - - - 331 

16 7b cut thick Iron plate to any figure 332 

17 Bivetiing 333 

1 8 Tb 7^{vet a pin to a plate or piece of iron 333 

19 To rnake small screiv-bolts a7id nuts - 334 

20 Of Iron, Steel, cast Steel, 8(c. - 3361 
Plate I. Perspective view of a Smith's work- 
shop, showing a double Forge, with its 
apparatus and some tools in general use 

343 
Plate II. View of another part of a Smith's 
work shop, showing the Work Benches 
with the Vices, the Drill in the Act of 

Boring 



Turning.3 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 

Page. 
Boring and a Turning Machine, as 
wrought by a Winch and Wheel, as 
also by the foot - - _ 345 

Index and Explanation of Terms used in 
Smithing - - - - - 546 



Section OF TURNING. 

1 Definition and Historic - 

2 Circular Turning - 

3 Lathes in ge?ieral - 
A The Pole Lathe - 
6 The Foot Lathe 

6 A Chuck - - - 

7 Of Tools - - 

8 The Gouge - - - 

9 The Chissel - ' - 

10 Right Side Tools - 

1 1 Left Side Tools 

12 Round Tools - -• ' - 

13 Point Tools - - - 

14 Drills - - - - 

15 Inside Tools * - - 

16 Screw Tools - - - 
\1 Flat Tools - 

18 Square Tools 

19 Triangular Tools - 
^0 Turning Gravers - 
21 Parting Tools 

22! Calippers - - - 



^55 
350 
358 
•358 
360 
367 
367 
368 
368 
369 
369 
SQ9 
370 
370 
570 
370 
371 
371 
371 
371 
371 
371 
Plate 



xxTi CONTENTS. turning.] 

Section Page. 

Plate I. Tlie Pole Lathe - - - 372 

II. The Foot Lathe - - - 374 
24 Elliptic Turning - - - - 375 
Plate III. Exhibits the various positions of 

the Chuck for turning Elliptical work, 

&c. S77 

Plate IV. Shows the relations between the 

foregoing diagram and the Chuck 380 
Plate V. View of a Turning Machine 3&4 

VI. Of Tools - - - - 386 
•i6 To turn a hollou} Sphere - - 387 

21 To turn one Sphe?'e within another - 388 
28 Conclusion ----- 389 
Index and Explanation of Terms used in 
Turning - - - - - 391 



A TABLE 



A TABLE 



Showing the Pages where the Plates are explained, also the 
Pages opposite which they are to be placed. 



GEOMETRY. 



PlaJe. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Plate. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



Plate, 

1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 



Fs explained on 
page. 

9 to 10 
11—12 
12—15 
15—19 
19—24 
24—28 



To be placed 
opposite page 

9 
11 
14 
15 
19 
25 



CARPENTRY. 



Is explained on 
page. 

70 to end 

71—72 

73—75 

76—77 

78—80 



To be placed 
opposite page. 

70 
71 
73 

76 
80 



JOINERY. 

Is explained j To be placed 
on page. opposite page 



144tol45 
146 — end 
147—149 
150—151 
152—153 
154~end 
155—156 
157— end 
181—186 

188—194 



144 

146 

147 

150 

152 

15 4 

155 

157 

181 
and descrip. 

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Plate. 

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Plate. 

1 

2 



Plate. 

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BRICKLAYING. 


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NG. 


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S86 



MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 

OF 

FMACTICAIL GEOMETRY, 



fjrEOMETRY is the science of extension and 
magnitude : by Geometry the various angles of a 
building and the position of its sides are deter- 
mined:, as a square, a cube, a triangle, &c. : 
Boards and all Tools used by the Carpenter and 
Joiner are geometrical constructions : by Geo- 
metry all kinds of roofs and various other things 
laying in oblique angles are determined : the 
proper construction of all sorts of arches and 
groins depend entirely upon the principles of 
Geometry. I have, therefore, prefaced this work 
with an explanation and definition of such geo- 
metrical figures aS will frequently occur in carrj'- 
ing on of works, and which are therefore neces- 
sary to be well known by all artizans and work- 
men, as well as by those who may superintend 
them : this slight introduction to Geometry will 
also be useful to all persons who wish to to under- 
stand the practice and descriptions of the handy- 
works herein explained. 

B Geometry 



2 * PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

Geometr}? is the science of extension^ and mag- 
nitude, and consists of theory and practice. 

The theoretical part is founded upon the rea- 
soning of self-evident principles; it demonstrates 
the construction, and shows the properties of 
regularly defined figures. The theory is the 
foundation of the practical part; and without a 
knowledge of it, no invention to any degree cer-' 
tain can be made. The use of Geometry is not 
confined only to speculative truths in Mathematics, 
but the operations of mechanical arts owe their 
perfection to it ; drawing and setting out every 
description of work, are entirely dependent up- 
on it. 

Definitions. 

1. A point is that which has position, but not 
magnitude. 

2. A line is the trace of a point, or that which 
would be described by the progressive motion of 
a point, and consequently has length only. 

3. A superficies has lepgth and breadth. 

4. A solid is a figure of three dimensions, hav- 
ing length, breadth, and thickness. Hence sur- 
faces are extremities of solids, and lines the ex- 
tremities of surfaces, and points the extremities 
oflines. 

If two lines will always coincide, however ap- 
plied when any two points in the one coincides, 
"with the two points in the other, the two lines 
are called straight lines, or otherwise right lines. 

A curve 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 3 

A curve continually changes its direction be- 
tween its extreme points, or has no part straight. 

Parallel lines are always at the same distance^ 
•and will never meet, though ever so far produced. 
Oblique right lines change their distance and 
would meet, if produced. 

One line is perpendicular to another, when it 
inclines no more to one side than another. 

A straight line is a tangent to a circle, when it 
touches the circle without cutting, when both are 
produced. 

An angle is the^ inclination of two lines towards 
one another in the same plane, meeting in a point. 

Angles are either right, acute, or oblique. 

A right angle is that which is made by one line 
perpendicular to another, or when the angles on 
each side are equal. 

An acute angle is less than a right angle. 

An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle. 

A plane is a surface with which a straight line 
will every where coincide : and is otherwise 
called a straight surface. 

Plane figures, bounded by right lines, have 
names according to the number of their sides, or 
of their angles, for they have as many sides as 
angles : the least number is three. 

An equalateral triangle is that whose three 
sides are equal. 

An isosceles triangle has only two sides equal. 

A scalene triangle has all sides unequal. 

B2 Aright 



4 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

A right angle triangle has onlj one right angle. 

Other triangles are oblique-angled, and are 
either obtuse or acute. 

An acute angled triangle has all its angles acute. 

An obtuse-angled triangle has one obtuse angle. 

A figure of four sides, or angles, is called a 
quadrilateral, or, quadrangle. 

A parallelograna is a quadrilateral, which has 
both pairs of its opposite sides parallel, and takes 
the following particular names: 

A rectangle is a parallelogram, having all its 
angles right ones. 

A square is an equilateral rectangle, having all 
its sides equal, and all its angles right ones. 

A rhombus is an equilateral parallelogram 
whose angles are oblique. 

A rhomboid is an oblique-angled parallelo- 
gram, and its opposite sides only are equal. 

A trapezium is a quadrilateral, which has 
neither pair of its sides parallel. 

A trapezoid hath only one pair of its opposite 
sides parallel. 

Plane figures having more than four sides, are 
in general called polygons, and receive other 
particular names according to the number of 
their sides or angles. 

A pentagon is a polygon of five sides, a hexa- 
gon of six sides, a heptagon seven, an octagon 
eight, an eneagon nine, a decagon ten, an unde- 
cagon eleven, and a dodecagon twelve sides. 

3 A regular 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. O 

A regular polygon has all its sides, and its 
angles equal; and if they are not equal, the poly- 
gon is irregular. 

An equilateral triangle is also a regular figure 
of three sides, and a square is one of four ; the 
former being called a trigon, and the latter a 
tetragon. 

A circle is a plane figure, bounded by a curve 
line, called the circumference, which is every 
where equi-distant, from a certain point within, 
called its centre. 

The radius of a circle is a right line drawn 
from the centre to the circumference. 

A diameter of a circle is a right line, drawn 
through the centre, terminating on both sides of 
the circumference. 

An arc of a circle is any part of the circum- 
ference. 

A chord is a right line joining the extremi- 
ties of an arc. 

A segment is any part of a circle bounded by 
an arc and its chord. 

A semicircle is half a circle, or a segment cut 
off by the diameter. 

A sector, is any part of a circle bounded by an 
arc, and two radii, drawn to its extremities. 

A quadrant, or quarter of a circle, is a sector 
having a quarter part of the circumference for 
its arc, and the two radii perpendicular to each 
other. 

The 



6 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

The height or altitude of any figure is a per- 
pendicular, let fall from an angle or its vertex, 
to the opposite side, called the base. 

The measure of any right lined angle, is an 
arc of any circle contained between the two 
lines which form the angle, the angular point 
being the centre. 

A solid is said to be cut by a plane, when it 
is divided into two parts, of which the common 
surface of separation is a plane, and this plane 
is called a section. 

Definitions of Solids. 

A prism is a solid, the ends of which are si- 
milar, and equal, parallel planes and the sides 
parallelograms. 

If the ends of the prism are perpendicular to 
the sides, the prism is called a right prism. 

If the ends of the prism are oblique to the 
sides, the prism is called an oblique prism. 

If the ends and sides are equal squares, the 
prism is called a cube. 

If the base or ends are parallelograms, the 
solid is called a parallelopiped. 

If the bases and sides are rectangles, the prism 
is called a rectangular prism. 

If the ends are circles, the prism is called a 
cylinder. 

If the ends or bases are ellipses^ the prism is 
called a cylindroid, 

A solid. 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 7 

A solid;, standing, upon any plane figure for 
its base, the sides of which are plane triangles, 
meeting in one point is called a pyramid. 

The solid is denominated from its base, as a 
triangular pyramid, is ojie upon a triangular 
base, asquare pyramid one uponasquare base, &c. 

If the base is a circle or an ellipses, then the 
pyramid is called a cone. 

If a solid be terminated by two dissimilar 
parallel planes as ends and the remaining surfaces 
joining the ends be also planes, the solid is 
called aprismoid. 

If a part of a pyramid next to the vertex be 
cut off by a plane parallel to the base, the por- 
tion of the pyramid contained between the cut- 
ting plane and the base is called the frustum of a 
pyramid. 

A solid, the base of which is a rectangle, the 
four sides joining the base plane surfaces, and two 
opposite ones meet in a line parallel to the base, 
is called a cuneus or wedge. 

A solid terminated by a surface which is every 
where equally distant, from a certain point with- 
in it, is called a sphere or globe. 

If a sphere be cut by any tvvo planes, the por- 
tion contained between the planes is called a 
zonC;, and each of the parts contained by a plane 
and the curved surface is called a segment. 

If a semi-ellipsis, having an axis for its dia- 
meter, be revolved round this axis until it come 

to 



8 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

to the place whence the motion began, the 
solid formed bj the circumvolution is called a 
spheroid. 

If the spheroid be generated round the greater 
axis the solid is called an oblong spheroid. 

If the solid be generated round the lesser 
axis, the solid is called an oblate spheroid. 

A solid of any of the above structures, hollow 
within, so as to contain a solid of the same struc- 
ture is called a hollow solid. 



PLATE I. 



-^^ome^ju, 





a d ^ & r 



Tlatel. 



E 




M 



O 










Ai 



Bi 



Ci 



P;i 




a * <,' 



ZondonJiiMs^eJ March 2^.ieu.iyJJ^y7or-:^7,irono,n. 



I 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 9 

PLATE I. 

A an acute angle. 

B two lines inclined, and would meet and form 
an angle if produced. 

C a perpendicular cc? is said to be perpendicu- 
lar to ah, and the angles cd!«, cdb are both 
right angles. 

D several angles meeting at a point, when 
this is the case, each is denoted hy three letters, 
the right angle is the criterion of judging of 
every other angle; dbcis a right angle^ abc 
an obtuse angle e be an acute angle. 

E a right angle. 

F an acute angle being less than a right angle. 

G an obtuse angle^ being greater than a right 
angle. 

H, I, K, L triangles. 

H an equilateral triangle all the three sides ab, 
b c, ca being equal. 

I an isosceles triangle, ab and be being only 
equal. 

K a scalene triangle all the sides being un- 
equal. 

L a riffht ang-led triangle. 

M, N, O, P, Q, R quadrilaterals or quadran- 
gles, MNOPare parallelograms; MN rect- 
angles; M an oblong; N a square; O a rhom- 
boid ; Pa rhombus; Q a trapezium ; and R a 
trapezoid. 

T,U,Vpolj- 



10 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

T, U,Vpolygons, T a pentagon, U a hexagon, 
and V an octagon. 

W a circle, a the centre, h a point in the cir- 
cumference, rt & a radius. 

X a circle, c the centre, d and e points in the 
circumference rf e a a diameter, or a chord passing 
through the centre. 

Y a circle, d and e points in the circumference, 
dc 3. chord; dfe the less segment, anddgc 
the greater. 

A 1, B 1 segments, ach, ach arcs, ab, ab 
chords ; B 1 a semicircle. 

CI, Dl sectors, D 1 a quadrant, ca, cb 
radii at right angles, a b arc. 

E 1 a triangle, ab, b d, da the sides, ab the 
base, fZc« perpendicular to the base called the 
altitude. 



PLATE II. 



F7:^.2. 




Fiff.S. 







Tla^e 2. 



Fiff.2. 




Tic/. 6. 





Tiff. 7. 




ri(/.4 




Ficf.S. 




Tiff. a 



Tu/Jl 




Xiti^ml^iK'Ti'-jfMrrrh 2f>J»n.M:JJ'fiy^"r7fiah Stfhonri 



2 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 11 

PLATE IL 

Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4 are all parallelopipeds and con- 
sist of six sides, when two opposite sides are per- 
pendicular to the other four, the parallelopiped 
is denominated a rectangular prism, and if the 
four sides be equal rectangles, the prism is called 
a square prism as fig. 1, 2 ; and if all the four 
sides are equal squares, the prism is called a cube, 
as fig. 1, The reason why called a parallel- 
opiped is because each pair of opposite sides are 
parallel planes. The structure of a rectangular 
prism occurs more frequently in the practice of 
carpentry and joinery than any other form what- 
ever, all timbers and boards for the use of build- 
ing are cut into this form. Doors, shutters, &c. 
are thin rectangular prisms, as fig. 4. 

Fig. 5 is a cylinder. 

Fig. 6 a hollow cylinder. 

Fig. 7 the section of a cylinder cut oiF by a 
plane parallel to the axis. 

Fig. 8 the sector of a cylinder contained by 
two planes forming an angle, and the curved sur- 
face of the cylinder ; the line of concourse of 
the planes being parallel to the ^xis of the cy- 
linder. 

Fig, 9 a prismoid; the ends of chissels which 
contain the cutting part is of this form. 

Fig. 10 a wedge ; the end of a chissel contain- 
ed by the face and the basil are of this form. 

Fig. 10 



12 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

Fig. 11a square pyramid. 

Fig. 12 an octagonal pyramid inverted. 

Fig. 13 a cone. 

Fig. 14 inverted hollow cone. 

Fig. 15 a sphere. 

Fig. 16 a spheroid. 

Prob, I. From a green point in a given straight 
line, to erect a perpendicular. Pl. 3. Fig. 1. 

Let F F be the given straight line and C the 
given point. Take any two equal distances C a 
and C & on each side of the point C : from the 
points a and Z> with any equal radii greater than 
C a or C b, describe arcs cutting each other in D. 
Draw DC and it will be the perpendicular re- 
quired. 

Prob. ii. To let fall a perpendicular from a given 
point to a given straight line. Pl. 3. Fig. 2. 

Let C be the given point and E F the given 
straight line. From the point C describe an arc 
cutting E F at a and b. With any equal radii 
greater than the half of ab describe arcs cutting 
each other at D. Draw C D and it will be the 
perpendicular required. 

Prob. hi. When the point is at or near the end 
of the line. Method first, Pl. 3. Fig. 3. 

Let C be the given pointy, E F the given line. 
In E F take any point a and with the radius a C 

describe 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 13 

describe an arc CD. Take any other point 
fc in E F, and with the distance b C describe an 
arc, cutting the arc CD, at C and D draw C D 
and it is the perpendicular required. 

Prob. IV. To draw a perpendicular from a point 
at the end of a line. Pl. 3. Fig. 4. 
Let E F be the given straight line, and F the 
given point. Take any point a above the line 
and with the radius a C describe an arc C F 6 cut- 
ting E F at &. Draw haC: tljen draw C F and 
it will be the perpendicular required. 

Prob. v. To bisect a given sti^aight line, 
Pl. 3. Fig 5. 

Let E F be the given straight line. From E 
and F as centres, and with any distance greater 
than the half of E F as radii, describe two arcs 
cutting each other at A and B. Draw AB cut- 
ting E F at C, then E F is bisected in C. 

Prob. vi. To bisect a given angle. Pl. 3. Fig. 6. 

Let E F G be the given angle.. From the 

point F describe an arc a b cutting F E and F G 

at the points a and b: also from the points a and 

b, with the same radius, or any other equal radii, 

describe arcs cutting each other in C. Draw 

FC and it will besect the angle as required. 

That is, the angle E F G is divided into two 

equal angles E F C and CFG. 

Prob. vii. 



14 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

Prob. VII. To make an angle equal to a given 
angle. Pl. 3. Fig. 7 and 8. 

Let E F G be the given angle.' Dravir the 
straight line H I. From the point F. describe an 
arc a b cutting E F and F G. at the points a 
and b. From H as a centre, with the same 
radius, describe an arc cd cutting HI at c. 
Make cd equal to ab. Draw HrZGandthe 
angle I H G is equal to E F G as required, 

Prob. yiii. Tlirough a given point to draw a line 
parallel to a given right line. Pl. 3. Fig. 9. 

Let A B be the given right line, and D the 
given point. Draw any right line DA; in A B 
take any point c and make the angle B c E equal 
to the angle BAD make cE equal to AD; 
draw D E, then D E is parallel to A B. 

Prob. ix. To draw a line parallel to another line 
at a given distance. Pl. 3. Fig. 10. 

Let A B be the given right line, C the given 

distance from any two points in A B as A and B 

as centres describe two arcs dUe and/ 1 g. Draw 

HI to touch the arcs at the points Hand I; 

and H I is parallel to A B and at a given dis- 
tance (V 



Prob. 



J>. 




Tiffl. 



MffZ 



^iate 3. 
C 



E- 



"rf 'S\ 



2?.- 



!« c ^Y 31 --... .„-'- r 



i> 



-f— ^ 







/ -^> 



/ E • 



5. 



B 




E' C 




-. ^Z99. 



a EH 



<? I A 



C B 



<?-'''/\ "--e J"-' 



Tr^JO. 



B D 




-ije/97/ie/^?*y^ . 



J^lute 4- 








I H & I. 




P X 




L.>rid,:i yziM/.^h, ,1 Mnt\;'i 2Hlfai.h\^j1iy7o7'JiiJr7illoU<mi. 



J. 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 15 

pROB. X. Three straight lines , of zvhich any two 
are greater than the third heing given, to de- 
scribe a triangle, the sides of which xvill be 
respectiveli/ equal to the three given lines. 
Pl.3, Fig. 11. 

Let the three straight lines be ABC: Make 
D E equal to C, from D as a centre with the 
distance of B describe an arc at F. From E. as 
a centre with the distance A describe another arc, 
cutting the former at F. Join F D and F E ; 
and D E F is the triangle required. 

Prob. XI. The side of an equilateral triangle 

being given, to describe the triangle. 

Pl. 4. Fig. 1. 

Let A be the given side. Place A upon any 
straight line B C and with the same extent from 
the points B and C as centres describe arcs, cut- 
ting each other in D. Join D B and D C^ and 
B C D is the equilateral triangle required. 

Prob. xii. To describe a square, the sides of which 

shall be equal to a given right line. 

Pl. 4. Fig. 2. 

Let A be the given right line, which place up- 
on any straight line B C. Make the aqgle C B E 
a right angle, and B E equal to B C through 
the points E and C. Draw E D arid D C paral- 
lel to B C and B E and B C D E is the square 
required, 

Prob, 



16 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

Prob, XIII. To describe a hexagon, the sides of 

which shall be equal to a given line. 

Pl. 4. Fig. 3. 

Let A be the given line^ which place upon any 
straight line B C. From the points B and C, 
with the distance B C describe arcs cutting each 
other at I. With the distance IB or I C de- 
scribe the circle B C D E F G, then ap ply the side 
B C successively to the circumference as chords, 
the circumference will be divided into equal 
parts, and the hexagon formed as required. 

Prob. xiv. To describe any regular polj/^on, the 

sides of which shall be equal to a given line. 

Pl. 4. Fig. 4. 

Set the given line upon any other convenient 
line, and with a radius equal to the given line 
describe a semicircle upon this line. Divide the 
semicircle into as many equal parts as are to be 
sides in the polygon; then the half of the diame- 
ter is one side of ihe polygon, through the centre 
of the semicircle, and through the second division 
from the other end of the diameter draw another 
right line, which will form an adjoining side 
to the former; bisect each of these adjoining 
sides by perpendiculars, and the meeting of 
these perpendiculars will give the centre of a 
circle, which will contain the straight line given. 

Fig. 4, is an example of a pentagon. 

Fig. 5, is an example of a hexagon. 

Fig. 6. is an example of an eneagon. 

Prob. 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 17 

Prob. XV. To inscribe a "polygon in a give?* 
circle. Pl. 4. Fig. 7, 8. ^ 

Draw the diameter of the circle, and another 
diameter at right angles^, produce this last dia- 
meter so that the part produced shall be three 
quarters of the radius ; divide the first diameter 
into as many equal parts as the polygon is to 
consist of sides : through the second division, 
and the extremity of the part produced of the 
other diameter, draw a line to cut the circum- 
ference without the points^ the chord of the 
arc intercepted between the point in the circum- 
ference Thus found and the diameter, applied suc- 
cessively to the arc, as other chords will form the 
polygon required. « 

Fig. 7 example in a pentagon. Fig, 8 example 
in an octagon. 

Prob. xvi. A square being given to form an 
octagon, ofwhichfour of the sides at right angles 
to each other, shall be commonto the middle parts 
of the sides of the square. Pl. 4. Fig. 9. 

Let I G K L be the square given. Draw the 

diagonals I K and G L cutting each other at m ; 

from the centres I, G, K, L and with the radius 

I m, ■ or G m, &c, describe arcs G m B, A m D, 

C m. F, E m H cutting the sides of the square, at 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H ; Join B C, D E, F G, 

H A and ABCDEFGH will be the polygon as 

required. 

C • Prob. 



18 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

pROB. XVII. In a given circle to inscribe a hexa- 
gon or an equilateral, Pl. 4. Fig. 10. 

Apply the radius successively as chords A B, 
BC, CD, DE, EF, FA, and ABCDEFA 
will be the hexagon. 

From A with the radius A B or A F describe 
the arc B F. Join the chord B F. Make B D 
equal to B F; and join DF and B F D is the 
equilateral triangle required. 
Prob. xviii. In a given circle to inscribe a square 
or an octagon. Pl. 4. Fig. 11. 

Let ABCDEFGHA be the circle. Draw th* 
diameters A E and C G at right angles. Join 
AC, CE, EG, GAand ACEGA will be the 
square required. 

Bisect any two adjacent angles by diameters, 
and the whole circumference will be divided into 
eight equal parts, AB, BC, CD, D E, EF, FG, 
GH, HA; the chords of which being joined will 
form the octagon ABCDEFGHA as required. 

Prob. xix. In a given circle to inscribe a penta- 
gon. Pl. 4. Fig. 12. 
Let ABCDEA be the given circle. Draw the 
diameters Ajfand gh at right angles, cutting 
each other in the centre at I : bisect g I at i : 
from i as a centre, with the distance i A, describe 
an arc A A: cutting g h Sii k : from A as a centre, 
with A A" as a radius, describe an arc k E cutting 
the circumference at E: Join A E, then apply 
A E successively to the circumference as chords, 
and ABCDE will be the pentagon required. 

Practical 



-u.e&7?tetry. 



J^lateS. 




Jzff.A J. 





_/:„r„/,j„7i,7:7iWier/J£,n'A ■"ta'iv.iv^n:\>r-S^7,m'Uo,-n . 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 19 

Practical ProUems 'performed on the Ground 

pROB. I. To erect a perpendicular from a given 

point C to a right line A B, hy means of 

a Tape or String. Pl. 5. Fig. I. 

Take two equal distances C A and C B, ex- 
tend the tape to any length greater than A B, 
double it, put a pin in the meeting, open out the 
tape ; place one end of the double distance, or 
the ring at A, and let another person hold the 
other end at B, and a third person take hold of 
the stripg at the pin, and stretch it out to D, 
then the stake at D, and the point C will be in a 
perpendicular to A B. To illustrate this, sup- 
pose C A, C B each ten feet, then A B is twenty 
feet ; you may extend the line to forty feet, which 
being doubled, the division will fall upon twenty 
feet, let the ring be put upon A, the division of 
forty upon B; let the division of twenty feet 
in the middle of the line be extended out to D, 
while the ends A and B are held fast : then drive 
in the stake D, and it will give the point whence 
the perpendicular may be drawn to C, upon the 
right line A B. 

K. B, Though three persons are mentioned 
here, one may accomplish the business by stick- 
ing an arrow in at A, and hooking the ring over 
itj then take a stake with two cross draughts, and 
drive it in at B, hook the line at forty feet round 
two of the cross draughts, then extend the mid- 
dle at twenty as before. 

C % Prob. II. 



20 PRAOfTICAL GEOMETRY. 

Prob. II. To erect a perpendicular at or near 

the end of a right line A B, bi/ means of a Tape, 

Pl. 5. Fig 2. 

Take any distance DB(sajten feet) extend 
the tape to Eny greater length, ( say twenty feet) 
fasten the ring at D, and the other end (twenty) 
at Bj lay hold of the middle (at ten) and stretch 
it out to C, carry the end of the tape B round 
to E, until the point E be in a straight line 
with C and D, keeping C and D fast, and the 
string completely stretched, drive in a stake or 
pin at E, then shall the points B and E be in 
a straight line, perpendicular to A B as re- 
quired. 

Prob. hi. Another method hy the Tape. 
Pl. 5. Fig. 3. 

Suppose the perpendicular erected upon B C. 
from B. Take the numbers 3, 4, «& 5 or any mul- 
tiple, of these numbers say, 6, 8, and 10; then 6 
and 8 make 14, and 10 make 24 ; make B C six feet, 
put an arrow in at C, on which hook the ring 
of the tape, and fasten the division six feet at B 
and twenty four feet again at C ; lay hold of the 
line on the division fourteen feet, which carry to 
the point A, until both parts of the line become 
stretched, then the points A and B will be in a 
perpendicular to B C. 

The same Figure. 

.To do the same thing by means of d. five foot 
rod. Make B c three feet, with four feet; and 

the 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 21 

the end of the rod resting on B, describe an arc 
at A, with five feet, and the end of the rod rest- 
on C, describe another arc crossing the former at 
A ; then shall the points A and B be in a line 
perpendicular to B C. 

Prob. IV. To describe the segment of a circle to 
any length A B and perpendicular height C D. 
' Pl. 5. Fig. 4. 

Take the middle of A B at C : fix the angle 
of a square at C, direct the outer edge of the 
stock in the straight line A B, lay a rule upon 
the outer edge of the blade, and draw the per- 
pendicular D C F. In the same manner take the 
middle of the line A D at E, and draw the per- 
pendicular E F, the meeting F of the two per- 
pendiculars will give the center of the segment : 
take a slip of wood, and mark the distance D F 
from one end, put a brad-awl or nail through the 
rod at the mark, and through the point F, lay 
hold of the other end of the rod at D, and with 
a pencil at D, carry it round from A to B, press- 
ing the pencil gently to the plane, and the point 
will describe the arc A B D. 

JV*. B. Segments of circles are generally de- 
scribed upon a floor ; but when this cannot be 
conveniently obtained, a temporary rough board- 
ing is laid, which will be sufficient for brick or 
stone arches; but if the arc to be drawn is for 

joinery^ 



22 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

joinery, and where different pieces of wood are 
to be fitted, the surface would requite to be tra- 
vesced and straighted in length and breadth. 

The foregoing method may be readily applied 
where the space is unlimited, or the radius of a 
moderate length : when the radius is very great, 
so that a rod of sufficient length cannot be ob- 
tained, and where there is sufficient room a wire 
may be used for a radius instead of a string, 
which cannot be depended upon in such cases, 
being liable to stretch ; but if you have an arc 
to describe, and are confined to limits, which 
the radius would exceed, the most eligible me- 
thod will be as follows : 

Fig. 5. Let A, B, C be any three points what- 
ever, it is required to draw the arc of a circle 
through them without making use of the centre. 

Prepare two rods, each having one of its 
edges straight, and each at least equal to A C the 
chord ; lay the edge of one of the rods close to 
the points A and B, having one end at B, lay 
the straight edge of the other rod to coincide 
with the points B and C, having the one end also 
at B, notch and fix the rods together at B, and 
to keep the angle invariable, nail a strip FG 
across the legs B D and B H ; move the whole 
round, keeping the edge of the rod B D close 
upon the nail, pin, or brad-awl at A, and the 
other leg B E close to the nail, pin, or brad-awl 

at 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 23 

at C ; a pencil placed at their meeting B press- 
ing the point gently to the surface, will describe 
the arc required. 

Prob. v. To describe a semi-elliptic arch to any 
length A B and height C D with a pair of com- 
passes. Pl. 5. Fig. 6, 

Take the height C D and apply to the length 
from B to E towards the centre ; divide the dis- 
tance E C into three equal parts, set one of them 
towards B from E to F. Make CG equal to 
C F, and with the distance G F from G de- 
scribe a small arc at H, and with the same dis- 
tance from F describe another cutting the former 
arc H. Draw H G I and H F K. From the 
centre H with the distance H D describe the arc 
1 K. From the centre G with the distance GI 
describe the arc I A. From the centre F with 
the same distance, or F B describe the arc K B, 
then A I D K B will be the semi-ellipse required. 

N. B. This is a mere representation, and can- 
not be true; for no part of a circle is to be found 
in the mathematical ellipse, since the curvature is 
continually varying from one axis to the other. 
It is always lame at the junctions, and is only a 
make shift, for want of better means. The fol- 
lowing method by the trammel is correct, being 
derived from geometrical principles. 

Fig. 7. The instrument called the trammel, 

consists of two pieces of wood joined together at 

3 right 



24 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

right angles, with a groove in the middle of each; 
the trammel rod is a square bar with three points, 
or pins, made exactly to fill the grooves, and to 
slide easily in them, so that two of the pins must 
be made moveable, and to be always in a straight 
line with the third, which may be a pencil pass- 
ing through a hole. The machine is thus pre- 
pared: set the first pin from the pencil to the 
height, and the second from the pencil to half 
the length, then put the pins in the groves, which 
being fixed upon the axis, move the point B 
round from A to B, and describe the curve 
A B C D, it will be the true ellipse required. 

Prob. VI, Any three straight lines heing givenio 
Jind a fourth proportional. Pl. 6. Fig. 1. 

Let C A, A E be any two straight lines form- 
ing an angle. Make A B equal to the first of 
the given lines, A C equal to the second, A D 
equal to the third. Join B D, and draw C E 
parallel to B D, cutting A E produced at E. 
Then will A E, be a fourth proportional to A B, 
AC, AD, or AB, AC, A D, A E. 

Prob. vii. To divide a line in the same propor- 
tion as another is divided. Pl. 6. Fig. 2. 
Let A E be the given line, divided into the 
parts A B, B C, CD, D E and A 1, the line to 
be divided, forming any angle with A B. Join 
E I, and draw B F, C G and D H, parallel to 

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PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. ^20 

E I, cutting A 1 at F G H, (hen the parts A F, 
F G, G H, HI, will be to one another, or to the 
whole line A I, as the parts A B, B C, C D, 
D E, are to one another, or to the wliole line 
AE. 

Prob. VIII. Ani/ distance leing given in feet and 
inches, of a 'part of one drawing y to divide a 
given length of a similar part of another draw- 
ing into feet and inches j so as to form a propor- 
tional scale.. Fl. 6. Fig. 3. 
Let A B represent 57 feet 2 inches, the 
length of one drawing, the part between 40 and 
A being 7 feet 2 inches, then the distance be- 
tween 40 and B will contain 50 feet; and let 
C B be the length of another drawing, either of 
2:reater or less extent than the former, it is re- 
quired to find the scale of the new drawing. 
Join A C ; draw 0, : 10, 10 : 20, 20 : 30, 30 : 
40, 40, parallel to A C, cutting C B in : 10, 20, 
30, 40; then the distance of every two adjacent di- 
visions will be 10 feet of the new scale. The first 
10 feet may be sub-divided into feet, by divisL^ns 
parallel lines in the same manner, and by this 
means the scale of a new drawing may be found, 
when the whole length, or any part, and the 
scale of the original drawing, and the whole 
length, or any similar part of the required draw- 
ing are given. 

Prob. 



26 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

Prob. IX. A drawixg being given without a scale 
to proportionate another, having the dimension 
or extent of some part of the intended drawing ^ 
Pl. 6. Fig. 4. 

Draw two lines A B, B C forming any angle 
ABC with each other, as before, from the an- 
gular point; on one of the lines BC set off the 
extent of the part of the required drawing, 
from B to C ; from the same point B set the ex- 
tent of the corresponding part of the other draw- 
ing, from B to A on the other line, and join AC. 
Make A B a scale of any number of divisions, 
as five, divide B C in the same proportion; sub- 
divide one of the extreme parts of AB into tenths, 
find the proportionate tenths of the correspond- 
ing part of B C; then will AB be a scale for 
the original drawing, and B C a corresponding 
scale for the required drawing. 

Example, Figures 5, 6, 7? 

Suppose ABCDA to be an original drawing, 
as a plate for a book, and to be of greater length 
or height than the page will admit of: then let 
the given height be E H, construct two propor- 
tional scales, fig. 7, as described in this problem, 
then all the dimensions and distances of the dia- 
grams of fig. 6 will easily be proportioned to 
the corresponding dimensions and distances of 
the diagrams, fig. 5. A very accurate method, 
where any of the diagrams are very oblique, is 

to 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 27 

to produce the sides to the boundary lines in the 
original drawing, then finding the corresponding 
points in the boundary lines of the required 
drawing, and by this means the angles of posi- 
tion may be had with the greatest correctness. 
In circles, the position of their centres must be 
found by measuring from the corresponding 
boundaries^ and then their radii from the respec- 
tife scales. Parallel lines may be drawn by the 
parallel ruler. 

Prob. X. To draw a diagonal Scale. 

Suppose A B to be a scale agreed upon, con- 
sisting of 50 feet, the divisions separating each 
two adjacent 10 feet, being 0, 10, 20, SO. Draw 
the parallel lines AC, .0, 0.. 10, 10.. 20, 20.. 30, 
SO..BD. Take any convenient opening of the 
compass, run ten parts from A to C, and from 
B to D. through the divisions, draw parallels; 
then C D being numbered as A B : divide A 
into 10 equal parts, and also CO; from the 
points 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. in A B to the points 
1, 2, 3, 4, &c. draw 0, I; 1, 2 : 2, 3:3, 4, 
&c. By this means you may obtain the hun- 
dredth part of the distance A or CO, accord- 
ing to the parallel you measure upon; thus, sup- 
pose you required 32 feet, and 4 tenths of a 
foot, you must place the foot of your compass 
on the fourth division from 30, on the line A B, 
in the vertical line SO, SO, and extend the other 

leg 



28 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. 

leg along the fourth parallel^ till it fall upon the 
diagonal 2, S, and this extent will be equal to 
32.4 feet, and thus any extent whatever may be 
found. 

Draftsmen seldom or never make use of a dia- 
gonal scale, as persons in the habit of drawing 
will, judge of any small part as nearly by the 
eye, as if measured by the best divided diagonal 
scale, at least without the assistance of a glass; 
and thus employing a common scale will be a 
great saving of time. However, in the solution 
of a mathematical problem in mensuration, it 
may be applyed with advantage where time 
would be of less consideration, in order to obtain 
the accuracy desired, or to confirm the truth of 
St calculation. 



MECHA 



29 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 

OF CAMFENTMYo ■ 



§ 1, CARPENTRY in civil architecture, is 
the art of eraplojing timber in the construction 
of buildings. 

The first operation of dividing a piece of tim- 
ber into scantlings, or boards, by means of the 
pit saw, belongs to sawing, and is previous to 
anj thing done in carpentry. 

§ 2. The tools employed by the carpenter are 
a ripping saw, a hand saw, an axe, an adze, a 
socket chissel, a firmer chissel, a ripping chissel, 
an auger, a gimblet, a hammer, a mallet, a pair 
of pincers, and sometimes pldnes, but as these 
are not necessarily used, they are described under 
the head of joinery, to which they are absolutely 
necessary. 

§ 3, Of Saws. 

A saw is a thin plate of steel, indented on the 
edge, so as to form a series of wedges, with 
acute angles, and for the conveniency of hand- 
ling, a perforated piece of wood is fixed to one 
end, by means of which the utmost power of the 
workman may be exerted in using it. 

Saws have various names, according to their 
use. It is obvious, in order .that the saw should 

clear 



30 CARPENTRY. 

clear its way in the wood, that the plate should 
decrease in thickness from the cutting ed^e to- 
wards the back, and for this purpose also, be- 
sides this additional thickness, most saws have their 
teeth bent towards the alternate sides of the plate, 
this must always be the case where the plate is 
broad; in very narrow plates the cutting edge is 
made thicker than usuaL Such saws as are not 
intended to cut into the wood their whole 
breadth, have strong iron or brass backs, in ordet 
to stiffen them, and keep them from buckling or 
bending; both external and internal angles of 
the teeth of saws are made to contain sixty de- 
grees, and the magnitude of the teeth is propor- 
tioned to the size of the saw, and accommodated 
to its use. 

Some saws are used for dividing the wood in 
the direction of the fibre, and to any extent of 
distance exceeding the breadth of the plate, at 
pleasure, others are only employed in cutting in 
a direction perpendicular to the fibres, to any 
breadth or thickness ; the former case requires 
the front edges of their teeth to stand almost per- 
pendicular to the line passing through their 
angles, in order to cut through, or make a way 
through in less time than if set backwards, which 
is better adapted to the latter case : for other- 
wise, the points of the teeth would run so deep 
into the wood, as to prevent the workmen from 
pushing the saw forward without breaking it. 

The 



CARPENTRY. 31 

The saws commonly used by the carpenter, are 
the ripping saw, and the handsaw; which are 
particularly described under the head of joinery, 
as well as other saws used in that branch. 

§4. The Axe 

Is an edged tool, having a long wooden handle, 
for reducing timber to a given form or surface, 
by paring away slices of unequal thickness, is 
used by a reciprocal motion in the arc of a circlcj 
generally in a vertical plane, forming the surface 
always in the same plane, and has therefore its 
cutting edge in a longitudinal plane, passing 
through the handle ; the slices cut away are call- 
ed chips, the operation is called chopping, and 
the surface reduced to its form is said to be chop- 
ped ; but among woodmen the operation is call- 
ed hewing. 

§ 5. The Adze 

Is also an edge tool with a long wooden handle 
for reducing timber to a given form of surface, 
by paring away thin slices of unequal thickness, 
by a reciprocal motion in the arc of a circle, and 
in a vertical plane ; but its cutting edge is per- 
pendicular to alongitudinal plane pavSsing through 
the handle. It forms a much more regular and 
smooth surface than the axe. The operation is 
also called chopping. 

The use of the adze is to chop or pare wood in 
a horizontal position. 

6§ 



32 CARPENTRY. 

§ 6. The Socket Chissel 
Is used for cutting excavations ; the lower part 
is a prismoid, the sides of which taper in a small 
degree upwards, and the edges considerably 
downwards : one side consists of steel, and the 
other of iron : the under end is ground into the 
form of a wedge, forming the basil on the iron 
side, and the cutting edge on the lower end of 
the steel face. From the upper end of the pris- 
nioidal part rises the frustum of a hollow cone, 
increasing in diameter upwards; the cavity or 
socket contains a handle of wood of the same 
conic form: the axis of the handle, the hollow 
cone, and the middle line of the frustum are all 
in the same straight line. The socket chissel, 
most corfimonly used, is about 1|- or 1| inch 
broad. It is chiefly used in morticing, and is 
the same in carpentry, as what the mortice chissel 
is in joinery. 

§ 7. The Firmer Chissel 

Is formed in the lower part similar to the 
socket chissel : but each of the edges above the 
prismoidal part falls into an equal concavity, and 
diminishes upwards, until the substance of the 
metal between the concave narrow surfaces, be- 
comes equal in thickness to the substance of the 
metal between the other two sides, produced in a 
straight line, meet a protuberance projecting 
equally on each side : the upper part of the pro- 
tuberance 



CARPENTRY. 33 

tuberance is a flat, or straight surface, from the 
middle of which rises a pyramid, to which is 
fastened a piece of wood in the form of a frus- 
tum of a pyramid, tapering downwards, this 
piece of wood is called the handle; the middle 
line of the handle, of the pyramids of the con- 
cave, and of the prismoidal parts^ are all in the 
same straight line. 

§ 8. The Ripping Chissel 

Is only an old socket chissel used in cutting 
holes in walls for inserting plugs, and for sepa- 
rating wood that has been nailed together, &c. 

§ 9. The GimUet 

Is a piece of steel of a cylindric form, having 
a tranverse handle at the upper end, and at the 
other, a worm or screw; and a cylindric cavity 
called the cup above the screw ; forming in its 
tranverse section, a crescent. Its use is to bore 
small holes ; the screw draws it forward in 
the wood, in the act of boring, while it is 
turned round by the handle; the angle form- 
ed by the exterior and interior cylinders, cuts 
the fibres across, and the cup contains the core 
of wood so cut : the gimblet is turned round by 
the application of the fingers, on alternate sides 
of the wooden lever at the top. 



D § 10 The 



34 CARPENTRY. 

§ 10. The Auger 

Is the largest of all boring tools^ it has a 
wooden handle at the upper end at right angles, 
to a long shaft of iron and steel; at the lower end 
is a worm or screw of a conic form, for entering 
the wood; so far it is similar in construction to 
the gimblet : the lower part of the shaft, axis, 
or splindie is steel, and is of a prismoidal form, 
to a certain distance, from the end upwards. 
The edges are nearly parallel, and the sides taper 
in a small degree upwards ; the part of the shaft 
above the prisaioid is arbitrary ; but it is obvious, 
tUat in. order to pass the bore freely, its trans- 
verse dimensions must be less than the lovv^er part. 
The worm has its axis in the same straight line 
with the axis of the shaft? The lower end is 
hpllow, or cut into a cavity on one side of the 
cone, and forms a projecting edge on the narrow 
surface of the prism called the tooth, which is 
brought to a cutting edge. 

The part of the lower end on the other side of 
the cone projects before the face of the pris- 
moidal part in the form of a wedge, the line of 
concourse of the two sides of the wedge form- 
ing a cutting edge. The vertex of the cone is 
the greatest extremity of the lower end ; the cut- 
ting edge of tlie tooth is something higher or 
nearer to the handle, and the cutting edge of 
the wedge-like part still nearer to the handle. 
Any point being given as the centre of a cylin- 

dric 



CARPENTRY. 35 

dric hole on the surface of a piece of timber, the 
vertex of the conic screw is placed in that point; 
then keeping the middle line of the shaft perpen- 
dicular to, or at the inclination to be given to the 
surface of the timber; turn the auger round with 
both hands, the screw will draw it downwards 
into the wood, and when it has got a certain 
depth, the tooth will begin to cut a portion of 
the cylindric surface of the hole : when the part 
of the cjlindric surface is cut half round the 
circumference, or perhaps a little more, the pro- 
jecting wedge-like part will begin to cut out the 
bottom, and the core will rise in the form of a 
spiral shaving, by continuing to turn the handle. 
This construction of the augre is of verj late 
invention, and is certainly a great improvement. 
The lower part of the old form of the auger 
is a semi-cylinder on the outside, and the inside 
a less portion of a larger cylinder, the bottom of 
of the cutting part is formed like a nose-bit : be- 
fore this auger can be entered in the wood a 
cavity must be first made with a gouge. 

§ n. The Gauge 

Is made out of a solid piece of wood notched 
with an internal right angle, or consisting of two 
narrow planes perpendicular to each other ; one 
of- these straight surfaces forms a shoulder, the 
other surface has two iron teeth placed in a per- 
pendicular to the intersection of the two surfaces, 

D2 so 



36 CARPENTRY. 

o distant from one another as to contain the 
thickness of the tenon, or breadth of the mortice, 
and the tooth next to tlie shoulder, so far distant 
from the intersection, as the tenon is distant from 
the face. When you gauge, press the shoulder 
close to the wood, and the other surface of the 
gauge which contains the teeth, close to the 
other surface of the wood to be gauged ; then 
draw and pull it backwards and forwards, and 
the iron teeih will scratch the wood so as to 
make a sharp incision or cut. When carpenters 
have occasion to alter their gauge for other work, 
they either file away the old teeth and put in new 
ones: or if the distance between the old ones 
will answer, they cut away a parallel slice 
from the shoulder, or put a new piece on be- 
fore it. 

§ 12. The Level 

Consists of a long rule straight on one edge, 
about 10 or 12 feet in length, and another piece 
fixed to the other edgeof the rule, perpendicular 
to, and in the middle of the length, and the sides of 
this piece in the same plane as Ihe sides of the 
rule; this last piece having a straight line on 
one side perpendicular to the straight edge 
of the rule. The standing piece is gene- 
rally morticed into the other, and firmly braced 
on each side, in order to secure it from accidents, 
and has its upper end kerfed in three places, one 

through 



CARPENTRY. 3/ 

through the perpendicular line, and one on each 
side. The straight edge of the transverse piece has 
a hole or notch cut out on the under side equal 
on each side of the perpendicular lines. A plum- 
met is suspended by a string from the middle kerf 
at the top of the standing piece, so that when 
hanging at length, the bottom of the plummet 
may not reach to the straight edge, but vibrate 
freeh in the hole or notch. \\ hen the straight 
edge of the level is applied to two distant points, 
and the two sides placed vertically, the plummet 
hanging freely, and coinciding with the straight 
line on the standing piece, then these two points 
are level ; but if not, let us suppose that one of 
the points is at the given height, the other point 
must be lowered or heightened according as the 
case may require, and the level applied each 
time, until the thread is brought to a coincidence 
with the perpendicular line. By two points, is 
meant two surfaces of contact, as two blocks of 
wood or chips, or the upper edges of two dis- 
tant beams. 

The use of the level in carpentry, is to lay the 
the upper edges of joists in naked flooring hori- 
zontal, by first levelling two beams as remote 
from each other as the length of the level 
will allow ; the plummet may then be taken off, 
and the level may be used as a straight edge. In 
the levelling of joists, it is best to make two re- 
mote joists level first in themselves, that is, each 

through- 



38 CARPENTRY. 

out its own length, then the two level with 
each other; after this, bring one end of the in- 
termediate joists straight with the two levelled 
ones, then the other end of the joists in the 
same manner, then try the straight edge longi- 
tudinally on each intermediate joist, and such as 
are found to be hollow, must be furred up 
'straight. 

§ 13. To adjust the Level. 

Place it in its vertical situation upon two 
pins or blocks of wood; then, if the plummet 
be hanging freely, and settle upon the line on the 
standing piece, or if not, one end being raised, 
or the other end lowered, to make it do so, turn 
the level end for end, and if the plummet fall 
upon the line, the level is just; but if not, the 
bottom edge must be shot straight, and as much 
taken off the one end as you may think necessary ; 
then trying the level first one way and then the 
other as before, and if a coincidence takes plate 
between the thread and the line, the level is ad- 
justed ; but if not, the operation must be repeat- 
ed till it come true. 

§ 14. The Plumh Rule 

Is a prismatical piece of wood, with a line 
drawn down the middle of one of the sides, pa- 
rallel to the two adjacent arrises on the same face. 
Its use is to try the vertical position of posts, or 

other 



CARPENTRY. 39 

other work^ perpendicular to the horizon, by 
means of a plummet suspended f^om the upper 
end of the rule, and a notch cut out at the foot, 
in order to allow room for the plummet to vi- 
brate freely. 

In order to put up a post perpendicular to the 
horizon, place the bottom of the post in its situa- 
tion, and the sides as nearly vertical as the eye 
may direct; if the post stands insulated, it must 
be fixed in this position with temporary braces, 
at least from two adjoining sides, but if very 
heavy, from all the four sides, then try the 
plumb rule upon one side, and if the thread co- 
incides with the line, that side of the post is al« 
ready plumb, "but if not, the top must be moved 
forwards or backwards, accordingly as it leans 
or hangs, as much as appears to be wanted, by 
previously moving the front and rear braces, and 
fixing them anew, vihile the other two remain^ to 
stay the other sides: apply the plumb rule again 
as before, and if there be a coincidence between 
the line and the plummet thread, then that face 
is perpendicular, but if not, the several similar 
operations must be repeated till found to be so. 
Proceed in the same manner with the other two 
parallel sides of the post,- until these also are 
made plumb, and by this means the post will be 
get in a true vertical position. 



§ 15. The 



40 CARPENTRY. 

§ 15. The Hammer 
Consists of a piece of steel, through which 
passes a wooden handle perpendicularlj' ; the 
steel is flat at one end, or in a small degree con- 
vex. The use of the hammer is for driving nails 
into wood hy percusive force. The other end of 
the hammer, that is not used for driving nails, is 
sometimes made with claws, and sometimes with 
a. rounded edge, like a semi-cylinder. The claws 
are for laying fast hold of the head of a nail, to 
be drawn out of a piece of wood; for this pur- 
pose the back of the hammer is rounded, so. that 
the hammer, in the act of drawing the nail, may 
not penetrate with its other extremity into the 
"wood; and this also lessens the distance of the 
force to be overcome from the fulcrum, and con- 
sequently increases the power employed. When 
the hammer is used, place the back of it upon 
the wood, and the claws so as to have the nail 
fast between them, lay hold of the handle and 
pull the contrary way to that side of it on which 
the nail is; then, if the force be sufficient, the 
nail will be drawn out of the wood, and the nail 
thus drawn will come out almost straight. Some 
people, instead of pulling the handle of the 
hammer the contrary way to the side on which 
the nail is on, (and thereby making it describe a 
circle in a plane, perpendicular to the surface of 
the wood, and through the longitudinal direc- 
tion of the head) turn the hammer sideways; 

the 



CARPENTRY. • 41 

Che nail is easier drawn by this way, but then the 
surface of" the wood is more injured, as well as 
the nail, which is frequently so much bent as not 
to be of any more use. Claw hammers are chiefly 
used in the country; and those with their other 
extremity rounded like a cylinder, are used in 
town for clinching and rivetting. In driving a 
nail, when the hammer comes in contact with 
the head of the nail, if the striking surface is not 
perpendicular to the shank of the nail, the nail 
will not be driven into the wood, or only in a 
small degree, but will be bent sideways towards 
an oblique angle, and will thus frequently break 
the nail, unless it be well entered, and so strong 
as to resist the force acting thus obliquely. The 
reader must here observe, that no force can act 
with its full effect upon another, unless in a line 
perpendicular to the surface of contact. 

§ 16. The Malkt 

Is similar in its construction to the hammer, but 
the head is a thick block of wood, of a structure 
in form of the frustum of a pyramid, the side of 
this frustum tending to some point in the handle 
continued. Its use is for morticing and driving 
pins into wood. The object is struck by the nar- 
row sides of the mallet. 

§ 17. The Beetle, or Maul 

Is a large mallet to knock the corners of fram- 
ed 



42 CARPENTRY. 

ed work, and to set it in its proper position, and 
is sometimes used for driving short piles into the 
ground, where it would be unnecessary to use 
greater power. The handle is about three feet 
in length, and for these heavy purposes both 
hands are employed. This is more used in the 
country than in London, where they use a sledge 
hammer for the saipe purpose. 

§ 18. The €row 

Is a large bar of iron, used as a lever to lift 
up the ends of heavy timber, in order to lay 
another piece of timber, or a roller, under it. 
One end of the crow has claws. 

§ 19. The Ten Foot Rod 

Is a rod about an inch square, divided in its 
length into feet and inches, for the purpose of set- 
ting out work. The method of raising a per- 
pendicular by a ten feet rod, is described in the 
Practical Geometry, page, 20, Prob. iii._ In- 
stead of a ten feet rod, some use two five feet 
rods for the same purpose. 

§20. Hook Pin 

Is a conical piece of iron, with a hooked head, 
declining upwards in the form of a wedge. The 
top is flat, for the purpose of driving it down; 
and the shoulder which rises from the cone, 
stands perpendicular to the axis, and is used for 

driving 



CARPENTRY. 43 

driving it out of a hole, when it is fi"Xed fast. 
The hook pins are the same in carpentrj^, as 
what the draw bore pins are in joinery^ viz. 
they are eir.plojed after the tenons have been en- 
tered in the mortice and bored, as shall be pre- 
sently shown, in drawing- the shoulders of the 
tenons home to their abutments in the mortice 
cheeks: When there are several mortices and 
tenons in the same frame, as many hook pins 
are employed. The method of boring, and 
using the hook pins, is thus: bore a hole first 
through the mortice cheeks, not very distant 
froni the abutments ; enter the tenon, and force 
it home to its shoulders as near as you can ; mark 
the tenon by the hole, and draw the tenon out of 
the mortice. Then pierce a hole through the 
tenon, about one third of its diameter nearer to 
the shoulder, and enter the tenon again, bring- 
ing the shoulder as near to its abutment as pos- 
sible ; drive in the hook pin with considerable 
force; the convex circumference will bear upon 
alternate sides of the mortice and tenon, viz. 
upon the farther side of the hole of the tenon, 
and upon the nearest side of the mortice from the 
joint, the shoulder of the tenon being brought 
home to its abutment, the hook pin may be 
drawn out of the hole; for this purpose there is 
a hole through the upper part of it, by which it 
is sometimes drawn out with another hook pin ; 
but if driven in very fast, it will require the as- 
sistance 



44 CARPENTRY. 

sistance of a hammer to strike it upon the shoulder 
upwards, and two or three smart blows will soon 
loosen it; when drawn out, enter the pin, and 
drive it home with force, or till it be sufficiently 
through and fast, so as not to be driven farther 
without breaking. 

§21. The Carpenters' Square 

Is a square of which both stock and blade con- 
sists of an iron plate of one piece; it is in size 
and construction thus : one leg is eighteen inches 
in length, numbered from the exterior angle, 
the bottom of the figures are adjacent to the in- 
terior edge of the square, and consequently their 
tops to the exterior edge : the other leg is twelve 
inches in length, and numbered from the ex- 
tremity towards the angle; the figures are read 
from the internal angle, as in the other side; each 
of the legs are about an inch broad. This imple- 
ment is not only used as a square, but it is also 
used as a level, and likewise as a rule : its appli- 
cation as a square and as a rule is so easy as not 
to require any example; but its use as a level, 
in taking angles, maybe thus illustrated; sup- 
pose it were required to take the angle which 
the heel of a rafter makes with the back, apply 
the end of the short leg of the square to the heel 
point of the rafter, and the edge of the square, 
level across the plate, extend a line from the 
ridge to the heel point, and where this line cuts 

the 



CARPENTRY. A5 

the perpendicular leg of the square, murk the 

inches, and this will show how far it deviates 

i 
from the square in twelve inches. 

§ 22. Operations. 

Having now mentioned the principal tools, 
and their application, it will here be proper to 
say something of the operations of Carpentry, 
which may be considered under two general 
heads ; one of individual pieces, the other of the 
combination of two or more pieces. 

Individual pieces undergo various operations, 
as sawing, planeing, rebating, and grooving, 
or ploughing: the operation of the pit saw is so 
well known as hardly to need a description; 
planeing, rebating, grooving, or ploughing, are 
more frequently employed in Joinery, and will 
be there fully described. The other general head 
may be sub-divided into two others, viz. that of 
Joining one piece of timber to another, in order 
to make one, two, or four angles, the other that 
of fastening two or more pieces together, in order 
to form one piece, which could not be got suf- 
ficiently large or long in a single piece ; there are 
two methods of joining pieces at an angle, one 
by notching, the other by mortice and tenon. 

Notching is the most common and simple form 
that prevails in permanent works, and in some 
cases the strongest for joining two pieces of tim- 
ber together, at one, two, or four angles : the 

form 



46 CARPENTRY,. 

form of the joint in this is varied according to the 
situation, the positions of the sides of the pieces, 
the nuQiber of angles, the position of the pieces, 
and the quantity and direction of the force im- 
pressed on one or both pieces, or according to 
any combin-i-tion of those circumstances. The 
most useful are the following: 

§ 23. To join two pieces which are to form four 
angles, and the surf aces of ' one fiece are both 
parallel and perpendicular ^ to those of the 
oilier. 

A notch may be cut out of one piece, the 
breadth of the other, which may be let down on 
the first piece, or the two pieces may be recipro- 
cally notched to each other, and for further se- 
curity, nails, spikes, or pins, may be driven 
through both: this form is applicable where 
each of the pieces are equally exposed to strain in 
any direction : when one piece has to support the 
other transversely, the upper piece ma\ have a 
notch cut across it to a breadth ; suppose 4 of the 
thickness of the piece below, and the lower piece 
must have an equal notch cut out on each upper 
arris, leaving t of the breadth of the middle en- 
tire, by which the strength of the supporting, or 
lower piece, is less diminished than if a notch of 
much less depth hadlbeen cut the whole breadth : 
this mode is applicable to carcass roofing, in 
letting the purlines down upon the principal raft- 
ers. 



CARPENTRY. 4/ 

ers, and the coramoa rafters again upon these; 
also in carcass flooring, it is employed in letting 
down the bridging joists upon the binding joists. 

§ 24', To join one 'piece of timber to another, 
to form two right angles with each oihcr^, and 
the surfaces of the one to he parallel and per- 
pendicular to those of the other, and to he quite 
immoveable, when the standing piece is pulled 
in a direction of its length, w'hile the cross 
piece is held still. 

Dovetail the end of the perpendicular piece^, 
that is, form it like a truncated isosceles triangle, 
the wide part being on the extremity, make a 
corresponding reverse in the other, and if both 
these pieces be horizontal, and the former laid 
upon the latter, they will answer the ictended 
purpose without the addition of nails, spikes, or 
pins : in this mode^ if the timlj^r is not suffi- 
ciently seasoned, the perpendicular piece may be 
drawn out of the transverse piece, to a certain 
distance, according to the degree of shrinkino-. 

§ 25. Another Mo^e, 
Which prevents the perpendicular piece from 
being drawn out of the transverse piece, Allow- 
ing that the timber should shrink, is to notch 
the transverse piece, so as that, if the breadth be 
supposed to be divided into five equal parts, and 
three of these be notched from one edge, and 

one 



AS CARPENTRY. 

from the other, leaving one part entire, obseft-* 
ing that these two notches shonld not be cut 
more than t of the thickness through ; then cut 
a notch out of the perpendicular, to fit the en- 
tire part of the transverse, leaving | entire to-^ 
wards the estremitj, and when the two pieces 
are joined together, the notch and the entire part 
of the perpendicular piece will respectively fit 
the entire j.art, and the broad notch of 4 of the 
transverse piece. If the upper piece press upon 
the under piece, by its own weight, or with an 
additional force, neither nails, spikes, nor pins, 
will be necessary. 

These methods of framing a piece of timber, at 
right angles to another, are used in cocking down 
the beams of a building upon the wall-plate; 
but the latter method is more generally employed 
than the former, as being more perfect; either 
method is infinitely superior to mortice and tenon 
for such purpose. 

§ 26. To notch one piece of Umber to another^ or 
join the two, so as to form one right angle, in 
order that they may he eqitaUy strong, in re- 
spect to each other. 

Notch each piece half through, and nail, spike, 
or pin them together; or they may be partly 
notched on each other, nnd the inner edge of one 
again notched, leaving the substance sufiiciently 
thick below each notch, and a part entire at the 

inner 



CARPENTRY. 49 

inner edge; cut the corresponding reverses in the 
other piece, and when the two arejoiued, neither 
can be drawn out of the other : these two me- 
thods of joining a piece of timber to form a right 
angle with another, are applied to wall-plates 
and bond timbers at the corners of a building; 
but wherever the thickness of the walls will ad- 
mit, it is much better to make the end of each 
piece pass the breadth of the other as much as 
possible, so that bj this means four right angles 
■will be formed instead of one ; then the two 
may be equally notched as in the former case. 

§ 27; To fix one Piece of Timber to another, form- 
ing two oblique Angles, so that the standing 
Piece cannot be drawn out of the transverse. 
Cut a dovetail notch in the transverse piece, 
keeping the edge straight upon the side next to 
the obtuse angle, that is, forming the dovetail 
on the side of the acute angle; make the cor- 
responding notch upon the piece which has the 
two angles on the same side, and nail, spike, 
or pin them together if necessary : this form is 
particularly applicable to roofing. 

§ 28. To cut a rebated JVbtch in the End of a 
Scantling, or Piece of Wood. 

If the piece is not above three o*- four inches 

in either dimension, it may be cross-cut with the 

hand-saw to the depth, and the piece may be cut 

E longitudinally 



50 CARPENTRY. 

longitudinally out^ or in the direction of the fibres 
with the same: but if the stuff is very broad as a 
plank or board, and the notch is to be cut in the 
breadth of the board, then you naay cross-cut the 
face with the hand-saw as before^ and cut the 
piece out with the adze to the depth required; if 
it is to be cut from the edge of a board or plank, 
you may proceed as at first with the hand-saw 
only. 

§ 29. To cut a grooved M)tch, or Socket, in a 
Piece of Timber. 
Cross-cut the t<\ro ends or sides with the hand- 
saw to the intended depth ; then, if the notch is 
sufficiently long or broad to admit of the breadth 
of the blade of the adze, you may cut out the 
wood between the two kerfs with the adze ; but 
if the width or breadth of the tenoned piece is not 
of sufficient extent, you may then cut out the in- 
termediate wood between the kerfs with the 
socket chissel, and smooth the bottom of the 
notch with the paring chissel. 

§ 30. To cut a Tenon. 

This operation is only a double rebated notch; 
and consequently the methods for cutting the 
tenon are the same under like circumstances of 
size and dimensions. See also the next article. 



§31. To 



CARPENTRY. 51 

§31. To frame one Timber at right Angles 
to, and at some Distance from, either End 
of another, both Pieces being of the same 
Quality. 

To do this, the piece of timber which is to 
stand perpendicular to the other, must be reduc- 
ed of its thickness, by cutting awaj two rectan- 
gular prisms from both ends, and leaving another 
rectangular prism in the middle of the thickness, 
commonly called a tenon, which is made to fit a 
corresponding excavation, called a mortice, taken 
out of the other piece, so that when both pieces 
are joined together, two of the surfaces of the 
one piece will be straight with two of the sur- 
faces of the other, and the other two remainins: 
surfaces of the one piece will be perpendicular to 
the other two remaining surfaces of the other, 
and if properly joined, the superfices of both 
pieces will come in contact with each other, so 
as to leave no interstice or cavity. 

Before the mortice and tenon is made, it will 
be proper to say something of the proportion be- 
tween the thickness of the tenon, or breadth of 
the mortice, and the thickness of the stuff: Sup- 
pose the tenon to be entered in the mortice, and 
driven home; and suppose the piece which has 
the mortice, to be held still, while a force is ap- 
plied to the other end of the tenoned piece, so as 
to act transversely to the morticed piece, then 
one or other must give way. It is evident that if 

E2 the 



52 CARPENTRY. 

the mortice cheeks are too thin, they will split, 
or if the tenon be too thin^ it will break trans- 
versely; there is^ therefore, some proportion be- 
tween the breadth of the mortice and the thick- 
ness of the stufFj so that the one shall be equally 
strong with the other^, to resist this kind of strain. 
Another thing which will afiect this proportion^ 
is, whether the junction is to be supported, as 
in wall- plates, or unsupported, as in joisting; a 
thinner tenon will be required if unsupported, 
than if supported; for suppose that the junction 
has no support, the surface of both parts lying 
horizontally; and suppose a weight or force up- 
on the tenoned piece, near to the shoulder, pres- 
sing vertically downwards, while the morticed 
piece is fixed at both ends, and the tenoned piece 
also fixed at its remote end ; likewise suppose 
that the width of the mortice is one third of the 
thickness of the stuff, it will perhaps be found 
that the under cheek of the mortice will split 
away, while the tenon will remain unbroken, 
the mortice, therefore, requires to be still less ; 
but there is another reason, equally powerful, 
which corroborates this practice, which is, that 
by cutting away one third of the substance, the 
morticed piece would be weakened too much 
when thus unsupported, as is the casein joisting. 
Though we cannot determine with mathematical 
accuracy, nor by any result of experiments, com- 
mon practice has sanctioned the thickness of the 

tenoQ 



CARPENTRY. ' 53 

tenon to be about one fifth of the thickness of 
stuff; this being fixed, we shall now proceed to 
the practice. 

First square the shoulder, by drawing three 
lines, one perpendicular to the thickness of 
the tenon, and each of the other two to meet 
this line perpendicular to the adjoining arrises, 
on which the first line was drawn; then mark the 
breadth of the tenon, at the place where the mor- 
tice is to be cut, in the length of the morticed 
piece, through each extremity draw a line by the 
iron square, perpendicular to the arrises on the 
one side on which the mortice is to be cut, and 
at the intersection of the lines, with one of the 
adjoining arris, draw two other lines on the con- 
tiguous side : then, where each of these lines meet 
the other arris, draw lines in the samemanner upon 
the third side ; so that each of the three contigu- 
ous sides will have two lines at right angles to 
the arrises of that side. Take the guage, describ- 
ed in section 11, and guage the tenon trom the 
face, and the mortice from the same side, which 
is to be flush with it. Then entering the hand- 
saw by the lines drawn on the shoulder, cut 
the shoulders to the guage lines, and saw off the 
tenon cheeks, and thus you have the tenon com- 
pleted. Then with the socket chissel and mallet 
knock out the core of the mortice ; then draw- 
bore your work together with the hook pins, as 
in I 20, and the work will be completed. 

§32. To 



54 CARPENTRY. 

§ 32. Tojoifi two Timbers hy Mortice and Tenouj 
at a right Angle, so that the one shall not pass 
the Breadth of the other. 

Let us suppose that each of the pieces to be 
framed are of yellow fir, or both of the same 
quality of wood. It is evident, that if the mortice 
were cut away the whole breadth of the tenon, 
and the tenon of the same breadth as the piece it 
is formed on, that the one could not make any 
resistance to the other without the assistance of a 
pin. In order to accomplish this, the mortice 
must not be cut to its full breadth, but must want 
a certain part of that towards the end of the 
tenoned piece; our next enquiry must be the pro- 
portion between the length of the mortice, and 
breadth of the tenoned piece, as it must be con- 
sidered the strain which the mortice is liable to, 
is splitting, and that of the tenon, is in breaking 
transversely to the fibres ; for there is a certain 
proportion between the breadth of the tenon, and 
breadth of the piece on which it is cut, so that 
the one will resist equally with the ottier. This 
is a point that has not been mathematically 
ascertained; however, commlDn practice allows 
the tenon to be reduced about one third of its 
breadth, and consequently the breadth of the 
tenon two thirds, and the length of the mortice 
two thirds also. As to the thickness of the tenon, 
or breadth of the mortice, it is the same as we 
mentioned in the preceding case, and will differ 

according 



CARPENTRY. ' 55 

according as it is to lie hollow, or lie upon a 
solid. The cutting of the tenon, and taking out 
of the mortice, is the same as has been shown in 
the preceding case, the pinning the same as in 
§ 20. 

^33. Of Foundations and Timbers, in joisting 
and walling. 

The foundations being excavated to the intend- 
ed depth, the ground must be examined, hy try- 
ing whether it is sufficiently firm in all places, so 
as to support the weight of the intended building. 
There are several means of securing foundations 
without piling, should any artificial means be 
required; but as our present subject is carpentry, 
and as these do not come under the carpenter's 
profession, we will first suppose that the intend- 
ed building is to be brick or stone, and that the 
foundation is infirm, piles must then be pre- 
pared, such, that their thickness may be about 
a twelfth part of their length. The distances 
which these piles ^ill require to be disposed, and 
the momentum required to drive them, will de- 
pend on the weight of the building; for the 
weight of the ram used in driving them, ought 
not to be more than what would be sufficient for 
the purpose, as a greater number of men, or 
power, would need to be employed, which would 
occasion an unnecessary expence. We will now 
suppose the piling to be completed, so as to be 

sufficient 



56 carpe:ntry; 

sufficient for supporting the intended building;? 
some people lay a level row of cross bearers, called 
sleepers, and plank above; but then observe, be- 
fore the planking- is laid, that all the interstices 
should be levelled up to the top of the sleepers, 
with bricks, &c. The planking, however, will not 
be necessary, provided that the piling be suffi- 
ciently attended to, and thus the ex pence of the 
foundation will be materially lessened. All tim- 
ber whatever, of which the thickness stands verti- 
cal in the building, being liable to shrink, will 
also make the building liable to crack, or split, 
at the junctions with the return parts. In cases 
where the ground is not very soft, a balk is some- 
times slit in halves, and these either laid imme- 
diately at the bottom, or at the height of two ot 
three courses, and this will frequently prevent 
settlements, which are occasioned by an unequal 
pressure of the piers, and the intermediate 
brick-work or masonry, under apertures. Sup- 
pose the foundation to be brought up to its 
heiiiht, or to the level of the under sides of the 
ground joists ; the ground plates must be laid, 
and sleepers, at eight or ten feet distance where 
the floors are intended to be boarded, these 
sleepers are supported upon small pillars or piles 
of brick, or by stones, at five, six, or eight {tQ,t 
distance, according to the substance of timber 
used for the sleepers, and their ends supported 
by the walls. The next thing is to lay the 

ground 



CARPENTRY. 57 

ground joists. When the bricklayer has got to 
the top of the first windows, the carpenter ma_y 
lintel the windows; but if the joisting of the next 
floor is laid upon the lintels, the wall-plate and 
the lintels will form one continued length of 
timber, which will be much stronger than lintles, 
having only nine or ten inches bearing upon the 
walls. Suppose now the wall-plates laid round 
the exterior walls, and returned in flank or party- 
walls, except at the flues, andiikewiselaidincross- 
walls of brick or stone; or if a timber partition 
is required, and the joisting to be supported by 
this partition, the partition is seldom carried up, 
the joisting is first laid and levelled; instead of 
the partition, a plank or other piece of timber is 
laid under the joisting at the place, and this sup- 
ported by uprights, which are forced up with 
wedges, so as to bring the top of the joists to a 
level; before the joisting is put down, the trim- 
mers of stairs and chimnies must be framed in. If 
a double floor is to be laid with girders, be sure 
to lay templets, or short pieces of (in)ber, under 
the girders, as this will distribute the pressure 
over a greater surface, and thereby prevent set- 
tlements. The naked flooring being laid, in car- 
rying up the second story, bond timbers must be 
introduced opposite to all, horizontal moulding*!, 
as bases and surfaces. It is also customary to 
put a row of bond timber in the middle of the 
story, of greater strength than those for the 

bases 



58 ' CARPENTRY. 

bases and surbaces. The work being so far ad- 
vanced, we will suppose the builing roofed in 
and completed; as there will be immediate oc- 
casion for resuming the subject in the description 
of a wooden building. 

§31. Stud-work, and Plaster Buildings. 

The foundation being made secure, and the 
several scantlings for ground-plates, principal 
posts, posts, bressummers, girders, trimmers, 
joists, &c. being prepared and framed, agree- 
able to their several situations. Timbers laid in 
the foundation, or next to the ground, are gene- 
rally of oak, as ground- plates, which should be 
about eight inches broad, and six inches verti- 
cally. The front and rear plates are to be fram- 
ed by mortice and tenon ; the front and rear 
plates being morticed, and the flank pieces con- 
sequently tenoned. Sometimes the flank pieces 
are morticed to receive the joists. The ground 
plates are to be bored with an inch and half 
auger, and pinned together with oak pins, made 
taper towards the point, and so strong as to with- 
stand the blows of the mallet, when driven tight 
into the hole. As the wood which carpenters 
work upon is generally heavy limbers, a block 
is laid under the corner to bear the plate off the 
foundation, so as to allow room for driving 
of the hook pins; when the wooden pins are 
driven, remove the blocks, and let the plates bed 

firmly 



CARPENTRY, 59 

firmly on the foundation. But before the pins 
are driven, if there be any girders, it must be 
fitted in, and all the joisting and trimmers, for 
they cannot be got in afterwards. We shall sup- 
pose that every thing is got to its birth, and the 
work pinned together. Four corner posts, eight 
inches by six, viz, of the same scantling as the 
ground plates, are erected, presenting their nar- 
row sides to the front, and extending the whole 
height of the building, till they meet the wall- 
plates. These corner posts are called principal 
posts, and are morticed and tenoned into the 
ground-plates, and also for the purpose of beipg 
inserted into the rising-plates. At the height 
of the principal story, two mortices must be cut 
in each principal post; which being set up, en- 
ter the tenons of the next bressummers into the 
mortices, and stay the principal posts, by means 
of temporary braces, fixed to the framed work 
of the floor. Set up the - several intermediate 
story posts, or those which are framed into the 
interties, and tenon the ends of these posts into 
the bressummers or interties, as it may happen 
whether there are interties between the bressum- 
mers or not. Proceed in like manner with the 
bressummers, girder, and joists, of the next 
story. It does not always happen that there is a 
girder, but if one side of it should prove to be 
wainy, that side must be turned upwards, and 

the 



60 CARPENTRY. 

the shoulders of the joists must be scribed upon 
the wains. 

We shall now suppose, the principal posts, 
story posls, or other intermediate posts, bressum- 
mers, girders, floor joists, trimn^ers, ^nd trimming 
joists, all completely fitted together, you may 
proceed to pin the work together, and put on the 
raising plates, which are let down upon the 
tenons of the principal posts, and then complete 
the roof; you may then begin to put up the 
truss partitions, if there be such, and fill in the 
larger interstices in the outside framing, and in 
these partitions with quarters. 

§ 35, What now remains to be done belongs to 
the joiner, and will therefore be found under the 
article. Joinery. 

In the description of this wooden fabric, as 
there are several particulars respecting the scant- 
lings and bearings of timbers, not mentioned, the 
following table may be referred to, not only to 
supply these wants, but on various other occa- 
sions. 

In the following tables, the first verticle co- 
lumn contains the heights or bearings in the clear 
of timbers ; the second, the scantlings in inches 
for fir wood ; and the third, the scantlings in 
inches for oak wood, the corresponding parts 
are to be found in each horizontal row : as is suf- 
ficiently plain from the tables. 

§ 36. TABLE 



CARPENTRY. 
§36. TABLE I. 



61 



BEARING POSTS. 


Height. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


8 

10 
12 
14 
16 

18 
20 


6 X 10 

7 X 11 

8 X 12 

9 X 13 

10 X 14 

11 X 13 

12 X 16 


7 X 12 

8 X 13 

9 X 14 

10 X 15 

11 X 16 

12 X 17 

13 X 18 



§ 37. The table of bearing posts here given, is 
considered as sufficient only for supporting two or 
three stories of a dwelling house, it is impos- 
sible to give a table that will be adequate to 
every class of building. These scantlings do not 
depend upon the height of the building, but 
upon the weight with which the several floors 
are loaded. 

The supporting timbers required for the con- 
structiori of a warehouse, ought to be very dif- 
ferent from those employed in a common dwel- 
ling house. It must be farther observed, that 
all bearing posts which stand insulated, ought to 
\)e exactly square ; but, as in general they are 
stayed sideways by doors, windows^ orinterties; 
the sides of the pieces employed are cf unequal 
dimensions : giving a greater depth, requires less 
timber to make them equally strong, and by 

making 



62 CARPENTRY. 

making them thinner, gives more ample area for 
light, which is particularly wanted in shop stories. 
Another observation ; the table above is not con- 
structed, so as to make the story posts at different 
heights equally strong, even under the same cir- 
cumstances of weight, as higher posts would be 
more liable to accidents than lower ones, so that 
there is a continued increase of strength from the 
lower to the higher posts. We cannot say posi- 
tively, what the exact scantlings for bearing 
posts of given heights ought to be, though the 
weight which they have to support were known, 
as we have no detail of experiments sufficient to 
enable us to establish a principle- of calculation. 
We have therefore, nothing else to depend upon 
but our experience, and what we see commonly 
put in practice. Two practical men will not 
always exactly agree, in what ought to be a stan- 
dard under particular circumstances. The break- 
ing of timber by compression, is so intricate of 
itself, that men of science have not agreed as to 
the general law by which a transverse fracture 
is produced. With regard to the difference of 
strength between fir and oak, Muchenbreuk as- 
serts, on the authority of his own experiments, 
that although oak will suspend half as much 
again as fir, it will not support as a pillar, two 
thirds of the load : upon this authority also^ the 
author has ventured to make the oak scantling 
larger than the fir. 

§38. TABLE 



CARPENTRY. 



63 



§ 38. TABLE II. 



' 1 

GIRDERS. I 


Bearing. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


12 
16 

23 
24 


10 X 8 
12 X 10 
14 X 12 
16 X 14 


9x7 
11 X 9 
13 X 11 
15 X 13 



§39. TABLE III. 





1 
BRIDGING JOISTS. 


Bearing. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


4 

6 

8 

10 


4 X 2| 

5 X 2| 

6 X 2f 

7 X 2| 


^ X 2i 

4^ X 21 ' 
H X 2| 
61 X 2i 



§ 40. TABLE 



64 



CARPENTRY. 



§40. TABLE IV. 



BINDING JOISTS. 


Bearing. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


8 
10 
12 
14 


7x4 

8x4 

9x4 

10 x 4 


6x4 
7x4 
8 X 4 
9x4 



§ 41. TABLE V. 



TIE BEAMS 


Bearing. 


l*ir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


20 
SO 
40 

50 
60 


8x4 
10 X 6 
12 X 8 
14 X 10 
16 X 12 


7 X 3f 

9 X 5| 

11 X 7f 

13 X 9| 

15 X 111 



§ 42. TABLE 



CARPENTRY. 



65 



§42. TABLE VI. 



PRINCIPAL RAFTERS. 


Bearing. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


A2 

18 
24 
SO 
36 


5 X 3 
6i X 4 
8x5 
9| X 6 
li X 7 


6| X Si 

7i X ^ 

9|- X 5^ 
10| X 6| 

12| X 7| 



§ 43. TABLE VIL 



PURLINES. 


Bearing. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


6 

8 

10 

12 

14 


7x4 
8x5 
9x6 

10 X 7 

11 X 8 


6| X 3i 

7| X 4| 

81 X 5i 

9i X 6| 

10| X 7| 



§ 44. In 



66 



CARPENTRY. 



§ 44. In table VI. As principal rafters are al- 
ways in a state of compression, the oak scant- 
lings are increased according to the aforesaid ex- 
periments. All ties should therefore be, made of 
oak, and all compressed or straining pieces of fir. 

§ 45. TABLE VIII. 



SMALL RAFTERS. . 


Bearing. 


Fir. 


Oak. 


Feet. 


Inches by inches. 


Inches by inches. 


8 
10 
12 


4| X 2| 
6 X 2i 

7| X 2i 


4x2^ 
5| X 2i 

7 X 2i 



All beams ought to be cut or forced to a 
timber, an inch for every 20 feet : as all framed 
work will shrink and sag after being put to- 
gether. 

Roofs are much stronger when the purlines 
ran above the principal, than when framed in. 

In all case or tail bays, in floors or roofs, the 
bearings of either joists or rafters, ought not to 
exceed 12 feet. 



K 



Abstract 



CARPENTRY. 67 

distract of the Building Act, as far as regards 
the Carpenter, 14 Geo. III. whichrefers only to 
London, and the several Parishes within tlic 
Bills of Mortality. 

Those timber partitions between building and 
building, that were erected, or begun to be 
erected before the passing of the act, may remain 
till one of the adjoining houses is rebuilt, or till 
one of the fronts, or two thirds of such fronts, 
which abut on such, timber partition, is taken 
down to the bressumraer, or one pair of stairs 
floor, and rebuilt. 

Proprietor of a house or ground to give three 
months notice to pull down such wooden parti- 
tions when decayed, or of insufficient thickness, 
and to be left with the owner or occupier of 
such a house, and if empty, such notice to be 
stuck up, in and on the front door, or front of 
such house. 

No timber hereafter to be laid in any party 
arch, nor in any party wall, except for bond io 
the same; nor any bond timber, within 9 inches 
of the opening of a chimnay, nor within 5 
inches of the flue, nor any timber within 2 feet 
of any oven, stove, copper, still, - boiler, or fur- 
nace. 

All framed work of wood for chimney breasts, 
to be fastened io the said breast with iron work as 
hold fasts, wall hooks, spikes, nails, &c. nor 
driven more than 3 inches into the wall, nor 

F 2 nearer 



68 CARPENTRY. 

nearer than 4 inches to the inside of the opening 
of the chimney. 

No timber bearer to wooden stairs let into an 
old party wall, must come nearer than 8| inches 
to the flue, nor nearer than 4 inches to the inter- 
nal finishing of the adjoining building. 

No timber to be laid under any hearth to a 
chimney, nearer than 18 inches to the upper sur- 
face of such hearth. 

No timber must be laid nearer than 18 inches 
to any door of communication through party 
walls, through warehouses or stables. 

Bressummers, story posts, and plates thereto, 
are only permitted in the ground story, and may 
stand fair with the outside of the wall, but must 
go no deeper than 2 inches into a party wall, 
nor nearer than 7 inches to the centre of a party 
wall, where it is two bricks thick, nor nearer 
than 4 inches and a half, provided the party 
wall does not exceed one brick and a half in 
thickness. 

Every corner story post must be of oak, at 
least 12 inches square, when employed for the 
support of two fronts. 

Window frames and door frames to the first, 
second, third, and fourth rate classes, are to be 
recessed in reveals, 4 inches at least. 

Doorcases and doors to warehouses only of the 
first, second, third or fourth rate classes may 
stand fair with the outward face of the wall. 

No 



CARPENTRY. 69 

No external decoration to be of wood, ex- 
cept cornices or dressings to shop windows, fron- 
tispieces to door- ways of the second, third, and 
fourth rate classes, covered ways or porticos to 
buildings; but not to project beyond the original 
line of the house in any street or way; such Co- 
vered way or portico not to be covered with wood. 

Nor such cornice, covered way, or the roof of 
portico to be higher than the under side of the 
cill to the windows of the one pair of stairs floor. 

No flat gutter or roof, nor any turret dormer, 
or lanthorn light, or other erection placed on 
the flat of the roof belonging to the first, se- 
cond, third, fourth, and fifth rate classes to be of 
wood or timber. 

No wooden water trunks must be higher from 
the ground, than the tops of the windows of 
the ground story. 



PLATE I. 



70 f CARPENTRY. • 

PLATE I. 

Fig. 1 the Axe used in chopping timber by a 
reciprocal circular motion, generally in a vertical 
plane, and with the cutting edge in that plane. 

Fig. 2 the Adze used also in chopping timber 
by a reciprocal motion, generally in a vertical 
plane, but with the cutting edge perpendicular 
to the plane, and thereby forming a horizontal 
surface. 

Fig. 3 the Socket Chissel used in morticing; it 
must be observed, that the socket chissel is not 
always the breadth of the mortice, but generally 
less, particularly when the mortice is very wide. 

Fig. 4 Mortice and Tenon Guage. 

Fig. 5 the Carpenters' Square, 

Fig. 6 the Plumb rule. 

Fis:. 7 the Level. 

Fig. 8 the Auger. 

Fig. 9 a Hook pin for drawboring. 

Fig. 10 the Crow. 



PLATE n. 



a^?yi€ ?t/^tj. 



T/ute 1. 



Tt^l. 



J-z^.d 



Ir^.6. 




XaruZunJiti&a^eJMaivA X^'jSsfyJ'Tqi^ar.^AMo/lorr/ 






^lafe ^ 



Jz^J. 




Zo,,Jo!, 2^7.7,s7ie,f2tarfA t/fjSjiJ;, JC^r7or.B^^M.U<r. 



& 



CARPENTRY. 71 



PLATE II. 



Fig. 1 the manner of cocking tie beams with 
the wall plates fitted together. See § 25. ^ 

Fig. 2 shews the manner by which the cock- 
ing joint is fitted together. No. 1. part of the 
end of the tie beam, with the notch to receive 
the part between the notches in No. 2, which is a 
part of the wall plate ; See § 25. 

Fig. 3 dove-tail cocking. No. 1 the male or 
exterior dove-tail cut out on the end of the tie 
beam : No. 2 the female or interior dove-tail cut 
out of the wall plate, to receive the male dove- 
tail, See§ 24. 

Fig. 4 the manner of joining two pieces to- 
gether to form a right angle, so that each piece 
will only be extended on one side of the other, 
by halving the pieces together, or taking a notch 
out of each, half the thickness ; See § 26. 

^ Fig. 5 two pieces joined together, forming 
four right angles, when one piece only exceeds 
the breadth of the other by a very short distance: 
No. 2 the socket of one piece, which receives 
the neck or substance of the other. This and 
the preceding are both employed in joining wall 
plates at the angle ; but the latter is preferable, 
when the thickness of walls will admit of it. 

Fig. 



72 CARPENTRY. 

Fig. 6 the method of fixing angle ties : No. 1 
part of angle tie, with part of the wall plate: 
No. 2 the wall plate, shewing the socket or female 
dove-tail. Though the angle tie is here shewn 
flush with the wall, in order to shew the manner 
of connecting the two pieces together; the angle 
tie is seldom, or never let down flush, as this 
would not only weaken the angle tie, but also 
the plate into which it is framed; See § 27. 



PLATE III. 







J^oluiorLjWAMr,ZMoW,iRlSaiy,/J^f^^^^_g-^ll,g 



CARPENTRY. 75 



PLATE III. 



Fig. 1 plan of a floor where the joists would 
Ifeave too great a bearing without a girder, and 
where the walls in the middle of the apartment 
are perforated with windows below. If there 
were rio windows, the place of the girder would 
be obviously in the middle of the wall, in order 
to make the strongest floor out of timber of given 
scantlings, or to make it equally strong with the 
least quantity of timber ; but as there is an open- 
ing, and if the end of the girder were to be laid 
over that opening, it would render the walls 
liable to fracture, which would be still a 
greater error than the former ; to avoid this evil, 
the girder must then lie upon a solid pier, and to 
make the best of this circumstance, so as to 
be at the least expence in timber, or to make 
the strongest floor out of given timbers, the end 
of the girder must be placed as near to the 
aperture as possible, so as to have a solid bearino*, 
and the other end as far distant from the middle 
line, upon the alternate side of this line : and 
thus the middle of the girder would still be in 
the middle of the length. Some objections may 
be raised against this method of placing the 
girder, as it only divides the centre joists equally; 
but the answer to this is, that the greatest stress 
upon the floor is always in the middle; and there- 
fore 



74 CARPENTRY. 

fore^ as the joists are equally divided inthe middle, 
there is the greatest strength where there is most 
occasion for it ; and likewise, taking all circum- 
stances together, the middle is not capable of 
sustaining the same weight as other parts of the 
floor nearer to the extremes are : however, it still 
remains as a question, whether a girder placed 
in this position, or stronger joists running the 
other way, would make the cheapest floor : this 
I shall leave, as circumstances in practice may 
determine. >^ 

Fig. 1. Explanation of the Timbers in a single 
Floor. 

A, A, A, &c. Plan of walls. 

B, B, B the Flues of chimnies. 

C, C, C the upper side of Wall plates. 
D D C irder. 

E E Fire-places. 

efj eft eft &c. Tail bays of joists framed into 
girder. 

gh, g h, g h Tail trimmers framed into trim- 
ming joists, in order to prevent the ends of the 
timbers as much as possible from going into the 
wall, according to the Building Act. 

I k, i k Hearth trimmers. 

m ?L Quarter partition between rooms. 

wop a Nine inch wall, inclosing stairs. 



Fig. 



CARPENTRY. 75 

Fig. 2. Explanation of the Timbers in a double 
, , Floor. 

Ill this, the plans of the walls, flues of chim- 
nies, and upper side of wall plates are denoted 
by the same letters, as the same things in the pre- 
ceding explanation are. The other parts are as 
follow : 

ah, ab, ab Binding joists. 

c d, c d, dc, &c. Bridging joists. 

f/ Stair trimmer. 

gh single joists framed into stair trimmer. 

It may be proper here to observe, in this ex- 
planation, that any row or compartment of joist- 
ing to which the flooring boards are attached, 
whether in a double or single floor, between any 
two adjacent supports, is called a bayof joi&t- 
ing; a bay of joisting next to the wall, is called 
a tail bay: and those between two girders, or 
between two binding joists, are called case 
bays: thus in fig. 1; the joisting on either side of 
the girder is called a tail bay: and in fig. 2 there 
are two case bays, and two tail bays. 

In the framing of floors, some persons leave 
the stair trimmer out until the stairs are put up, 
and then the triminer is put up by the stair case 
hand, or joiner. 



PLATE IV. 



76 CARPENTRY. 

PLATE IV, 

Fig. 1 section of a Double floor, with a girder, 
taken transversely to the bridging joists. 

A section of Girder. 

BC, BC Binding joists. 

d^ dy d, &c. ends of Bridging joists. 

e, e, e, &c. ends of Cieling joists, chace mor- 
ticed int6 binding joists. 

Fig. 2 section of a Double floor, taken trans- 
versely to the binding joist. 

A, A sections of the Binding joists. 

B C part of a Bridging joist. 

D E Ceiling joists. 

E F, E F parts of Ceiling joists. 

Figures 3, 4, 5, 6, shows the manner of Scarf- 
ing or lengthening of beams. 

Fig. 3 an oblique Plain scarf. 

Fig. 4 a single oblique Tabled scarf. 

Fig. 5 a Parallel scarf keyed together. 

Fig. 6 the method of building beams with 
small pieces. 

The third, fourth, and fifth figures must bc^ 
firmly bolted with at least two bolts. Fig. 4 and 
5 have each an opening for a key to be driven 
through, which must be done previously to the 
bolting. These beams would be much stronger 
at the scarfing, if an iron strap were placed on 
each side of it, in order to resist the heads and 

nuts 








^Z%zzfe z/. 



m 



2z^.J2. 




Tz^.S. 




,^z^.4 




Tz^.-5 




Tz^.G. 



Ti^.7 




Xo7ulu>J^tbshe<iMiuTh ieUSuiyJJaylo>:.B^Jt3i>Uam . 



CARPENTRY. 77 

nuts of the screws more effectually than the 
wood. 

Fig. 7 a truss for a Span roof. 

A, A Wall plates. 

B C Tie beam 

C D King post, crown post, or middle post, 

EF, EF Struts. 

g h, g h Puncheons. 

I G, IG Principal rafters. 
K, K Pole plate. 
L, L sections of Purlines. 
KM, KM Small rafters. 
M M Ridge piece section. 



PLATE 



78 CARPENTRY, 

PLATE V. 

The framing for a small Wooden House, the 
lower storj coustructed of 9 inch brick work, be- 
ing more secure against external violence, and the 
upper part of 4|^ inch stud work, to be covered 
•with lath and plaster. This house is supposed 
to be constructed where timber is abundant, and 
brick or stone expensive. The ground story. 
Fig. 1, consists of a passage, front and back par- 
lour; the one-pair story may be a drawing room, 
and back room, which may communicate by 
means of a pair of folding doors; the upper story 
which is partly taken out of the roof, may be di- 
vided into bed rooms. If two adjoining houses 
were to be built on the present plan, placing the 
fire places of the contiguous houses back to back, 
so that the same wall, containing the flues, may 
be common to both, it would not only be a great 
saving, but strengthen the whole. The partition 
between the back rooms of the two houses is of 
wood, and the fire place is placed in the angle of 
each rooili, the brick work being continued from 
the front in order to receive it. The end or 
gable, is constructed entirely of stud work, to be 
lathed and plastered. Not only two contiguous 
houses liiay be done in iTu's manner, but any series 
of houses forming a street, by constructing every 
alternate wall with flues, and every other inter- 
vening wall of stud-work. The rear fronts will 
'*. consist 



CARPENTRY. 79 

c&asist entirely of stud work. Wooden houses 
ought always to stand upon a stone or brick 
found?ition; if, instead of the parlour, the front 
room were a shop, and the window extending 
from the door to the wall, then there would be 
no occasion for ?iny brick work^ and the whole 
would be constructed of stud work, excepting the 
party wall for the flues. Houses constructed of 
wood are forbidden in London, by the building 
act: also all interior timbers, within a certain 
jdistance of chimnies, as the foregoing abstract 
which contains what belongs to the carpen- 
ter, shows: however, they are much used in 
country towns,, where they are not bound under 
such restrictions. 

Fig. I Plan. 

Fig. 2 Elevation. 
" Fig. 3 Gable flank, or division between houses. 

AB, BC Ground plates, or ground sills. 

BD, BE, CF Principal posts, extending the 
whole height of the building, from the ground 
plate to the roof plate. 

AG, HI, KL Story posts: all intermediate 
posts are also called story posts, which extend in 
altitude from floor to floor. 

GP, IQ, RS, TU Bressummers, supported by 
^he story posts; the bressummers RS, TU are 
also interties, being framed between posts, which 
in this example are principal posts. 

MN, DO Fig. 2 the edges, and EP, PF the 
liides of the extreme rafters. 

All 



80 CARPENTRY. 

All the oblique pieces, or those which are 
placed diagonally within the framing, are called 
braces. 

The tie beam is not placed at the feet of the 
rafters, but higher, in order to give head room, 
in consequence of which a brace is extended from 
the foot of each story post, adjacent to the mid- 
dle, in the upper story, to each rafter foot, and 
as these braces perform the ofiSce of ties in this 
situation, they ought to be well strapped at the 
ends. 

Fig. 4 a longitudinal Purline truss. 

Fig. 5 a longitudinal Truss, placed Tertically 
under the ridge for supporting the intermediate 
rafters, and restraining them from descending 
down the inclined plane, and thereby preventing 
all lateral pressure from the walls: for it is evi- 
dent, that if the upper ends of the rafters are held 
in their situation, the lower ends would describe 
vertical circles, and from their gravity would 
descend, and consequently approach nearer to- 
gether, and therefore, instead of pushing out the 
walls, would rather have a tendency to draw 
them in. This principle, as well as trussing the 
inclined sides of a roof, was discovered by the 
author many years ago, in consequence of a dis- 
pute, in which he was chose an arbiter, on be- 
half of the architect; but the principle was so 
bad, that he was under the disagreeable necessity 
of giving judgment in favour of the contractor. 

INDEX 



JF/^^e ,:. 




I 1 I I I M I 1 I I 



Ti^.I. 



\^^ 



.^^ 



Fz^.4. 



Ti^.^. 



^Z^ 



Ximdonl^TtblihairMzrcfi tfijStliyJT<!i'7^TnSu^'iffo76en-r, . 



21 



81 
INDEX AND EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS USED IN 

CARPENTRY. 

N. B; This Mark § refers to the preceding Sections 
according to the Number. 

A; 

Adze, § 5. 

Axe, § 4. 

Auger, § 10. 

B. 

Back of a Hip is the upper edge of a rafter, between 
the two sides of a hipped roof formed to an angle so 
as to range with the rafters on each side of it. 

Baulk, a piece of foreign fir, or deaJ, being the 
trunk of a tree of that species of wood, generally 
brought to a square, for the use of building. Jn 
London the term is only applyed to small lengths, 
from 18 to 25 feet, generally under 10 inches thick, 
having a considerable taper, and the wains left, 
so that the baulk is not brought to a square. In some 
parts of the country these obtain the name of Dram 
timber, as coming from the place of that name. In 
London the largest pieces of timber, such as Me- 
mel, Dantzic, &c. seem to have no common appel- 
lation, being familiarly called pieces of timber, and 
frequently by the vulgar name of sticks; these ex- 
pressions seem to define nothing, as they apply 
equally to all sizes. Difierent names seem to ob- 
tain in different parts of the country : in some parts 
of the north, large pieces of fir wood are called logs; 
but in London log is restricted to the largest 
pieces of oak or mahogany. 

G Beam 



82 CARPENTRY. 

Beam, a horizontal timber, used . to resist a force, or 
weight, as a tie-beam, where it acts as a string, or 
chain, by its tension ; as a collar beam, where it 
acts by compression ; as a bressummer, where it 
resists a transverse insisting weight. 

Bearer, any thing used by way of support to another. 

Bearing, the distance that a beam or rafter is sus- 
pended in the clear : thus if a piece of timber rests 
upon two opposite walls, the span of the void is 
called the bearing, and not the whole length of the 
timber. 

Beetle, § 17. 

Board, a substance of wood contained between two 
parallel planes ; as when the baulk is divided into 
several pieces by the pit saw, the pieces are called 
boards. The section of boards is sometimes, how- 
ever, of a triangular, or rather a trapazoidal form, 
that is with one edge very thin : these are called 
feather edged boards. 

Bond Timber, § 33. page 57. 

Brace, a piece of slanting timber, used in truss parti- 
tions, or in framed roofs, in order to form a triangle, 
and thereby rendering the frame immovable ; when 
a brace is used by way of support to a rafter, it is 
called a strutt. Braces in partitions, and span roofs, 
are always, or should be, disposed in pairs, and 
placed in opposite directions. 

Breaking DOWN, in sawing, is dividing the baulk in- 
to boards or planks ; but if planks are sawed longi- 
tudinally through their thickness, the saw-way is 
called a ripping cut, and the former a breaking cut. 

Bressummer, or Breastsummer, a beam supporting 
a superincumbent part of an exterior wall, and run- 
ning longitudinally below that part. See Summer. 

Bridging 



CARPENTRY. 83 

Bridging Joists are the smallest beams in naked 
flooring, for supporting the boarding for walking 
upon. iV^" Plate. 

Bring up. See Carry up. 

C. 

Camber is the convexity of a beam upon the upper 
edge, in order to prevent its becoming straight or 
concave by its own weight, or by the burden it may 
have to sustain, in course of time. 

Camber Beams are those used in the flats of truncated 
roofs, and raised in the middle with an obtuse angle, 
for discharging the rain-water towards both sides of 
the roof. 
Cantilevers are horizontal rows of timbers, pro- 
jecting at right angles from the naked part of a 
wall, for sustaining the eaves or other mouldings. 
Sometimes they are planed on the liorizontal and 
vertical sides, and sometimes the carpentry is rough 
and cased with joinei'y. 

Carcass of a Building, is the naked walls, and the 
rough timber work of the flooring and quarter parti- 
tions, before the building is plastered, or the floors 
laid. 

Carpenter's Square, §21. 

Carpentry, § i. 

Carry -up, a term used in discourse among builders 
and workmen, denoting that the walls, or other 
parts, are intended to be built to a certain given 
height, as the carpenter will say to the bricklayer, 
carry-up that wall ; carry-up that stack of chimnies, 
i. e. build up that wall or stack of chimnies. 

ClilssELS, § 6, 7, and 8. 

Crown Post, the middle post of a trussed roof. See 
King Post. 

G 2 V^EAL 



84 CARPENTIiY. 

D. 

Deal Timber, the timber of the fir tree, as cut inta 
boards, planks, &c. for the use of building. 

Discharge, is a post trimmed up under a beam, oi' 
part of a building which is weak, or overcharged 
by weight. 

Dormer, or Dormer Window, is a projecting win- 
dow in the roof of a house, the glass frame, or case- 
ments being set vertically, and not in the inclined 
sides of the roof; thus Dormers are distinguished 
from sky-lights, which have their sides inclined to 
the horizon. 

Dovetail Notch, § 27. 

Dragon Beam, the piece of timber which supports 
the hip rafter, and bisects the angle formed by the 
wall plates. 

Draw Bore Pins. See Joinery. 

E. 
Enter, when the end of a tenon is put into a mortice, 

it is said to enter the mortice. 
Entertice. See Intertie. 

F. 

Featheredged Boards. See Board. 

FiLLiNG-iN-PiE(iES, sliort timbers, less than the full 
length, as the jack rafters of a roof, the puncheons, 
or short quarters in partitions, between braces and 

, sills, or head-pieces. 

Fir Pole, small trunks of fir trees, from 10 to 16 
feet in length, used in rustic buildings, and out- 
houses. 

Firmer Chissel, § 7. 

1?L0 or, 



CARPENTRY. 85 

Floor. See Naked Flooring. 

Foundations, § 33. 

FuRRiNGS, are slips of timber nailed to joists or rafters, 
in order to bring them to a level, and to range them 
into a straight surface, when the tinibers are sagged, 
either by casting or by a set, which they have ob- 
tained by their weight in length of time. 

G. 

Gain, a term now out of use. See Tusk. 
Gauge, § 11. 

GiMBLET, § 9. , 

Girder, tlie principal beam in a floor for supporting 

the binding joists. 
Grooved Notch, § 29. See Plate 2. 
Ground Plate, or Sill, is the lowest plate of a 

wooden building for supporting the principal and 

other posts. See Plate 5. 

Hammer, § 15. 

Hand Saw, § 3. 

Hook Pins, § 20. 

Handspike, a lever for carrying a beam, or other 

body, the weight being placed in the middle, and 

supported at each end by a man. 

I. 

Intertie, a horizontal piece of timber, framed be- 
tween two posts, in order to tie them together. 

Jack Timber, a timber shorter than the whole lenoth 
of other pieces in the same range. 

Jack Rafters, are all those short rafters which meet 
th^ hips. 

Jack 



86 CARPENTRY. 

Jack Ribs are those short ribs which meet the angle 
ribs, as in groins, domes, &c. 

Joggle Piece is a truss post, with shoulders and 
sockets for abutting and fixing the lower ends of 
the strutts. 

Joining of Timbers, § 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Joists are those beams in a floor which support, or are 
necessary in the supporting of the boarding or ceil- 
ing, as the binding, bridging, and ceiling joists ; gird- 
ers are, however, to be excepted, as not being 
joists. 

JuFFERS, stuff of about four or five inches square, an4 
of several lengths. This term is out of use, though 
frequently found in old books. 

K. 

King Post, the middle post of a trussed roof, for sup- 
porting the tie-beam at the middle, and the lower 
ends of the strutts. 

Kerf, the way made by the saw in sawing timber. 

L. 

Level, an instrument used for leveUing floors, 

§ 12. 
Lintels, short beams over the heads of doors and 

windows, for supporting the inside of an exterior 

wall, or the super-incumbent part over doors in 

brick or stone partitions. 
Luthorn windows. See Dormer. t 

M. 

Mallet, § 16. 

Mortice and Tenon, § 31. 

Naked 



CARPENTRYo 87 

N. 
Naked Flooring, the timber work of a floor for sup- 
porting the boarding, or ceiUng, or both. 
Notching, § 28, 29. 

P. 

Pitch of a Roof, the inclination which the sloping 
sides make with the plane, or level of the wall-plate; 
or it is the proportion which arises by dividing the 
span by the height. Thus if it is asked what is the 
pitch of such a roof, the answer is, |, J., or | ; 
when the pitch is |, the roof is a square, which is 
the highest that is now in use, or that is neces- 
sary in practice. 

Plank, all boards above nine inches wide, are 
called planks. 

Plate, a horizontal piece of timber in a wall, gene- 
rally flush with the inside, for resting the ends of 
beams, joists, or rafters, and is therefore deno- 
minated floor, or roof plates, accordingly. 

Plumb Rule, § 14. 

Posts, all upright, or vertical pieces of timber, what- 
ever, as tjruss posts, door posts, quarters in parti- 
tions, &c. 

Prick Posts, intermediate posts in a wooden building 
framed between principal posts. 

Principal Posts, the oornerpostsof a wooden build- 
ing. See plate 5. 

Pudlaies, pieces of timber to do the oflice of hand- 
spikes. 

Puncheons, any short post of timber; the small 
quarterings in a stud partition above the head of a 
door, are called puncheons. 

Purlines, the horizontal timbers in the sides of a 
roof, for supporting the spars or small rafters. 

Quarters, 



88 CAUPENTRY. 

Q. 

Quarters, the timbers to be used in stud partitions, 

bond in walls, &c. 
Quartering, the stud work of a partition. 

R. 

Rafters all the inclined timbers in the sides of a roof, 
as principal rafters, hip rafters, and common rafters, 
which are otherwise called in most countries spars. 

Raising Plates, or Top Plates, are the plates en 
which the roof is raised 

Rebated Notch, § 28. 

Ridge, the meeting of the rafters on the vertical angle 
of the roof. See Plate 5. 

Ripping Chissel. § 3. 

Ripping Saw, § 3. 

Roof, the covering of a house, but the word is used 
jn carpentry for the wood work which supports the 
slating, or other covering.. 

S. 

Saw, § 3. 

Shaken Stuff, such timber as is rent or split by the 
heat of the sun, or by the fall of the tree, is said to 
be shaken. 

Shingles, thin pieces of wood used for covering in- 
stead of tiles, &c. 

Shreadings, a term not much used at present. Sec. 
Furrings. 

Skirts of a Roof, the projecture of the eaves. 

Sleepers, pieces of timber for resting the ground 
joists of a floor upon, or for fixing the planking to in 
a bad foundation. The term was formerly apphed- 
to the valley rafters of a roof. 

Socket 



CARPENTRY. 89 

Socket Chissel. § c. 

Spars, the term by which the common rafters of a 
roof are best known in ahnost every provincial town 
in Great Britain, though generally called in Lon- 
don common rafters, in order to distinguish them 
from the principal rafters. 

Stanciieons. See Puncheons. 

Struts, pieces of timber which support the rafters,. 
9,nd v/hicli are supported by the tjruss posts. 

Summer, a large beam in a building, either disposed 
in an outside wall, or in the middle of an apart- 
ment, parallel to such wall. Whpn a summei: is 
placed under a superincumbent part of an outside 
wall, it is called a bressummer, as it comes in a 
breast with the front of the building. 

Stud WORK, § 33. 



Templets, § 33, page 57. 

Tenon, § 30. 

Tie, a piece of timber placed in any position acting 

as a string or tie, to keep two things together 

which have a tendency to a more remote distance 

from each otlier. 
Timbers, how joined, § 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 
Trimmers are joists into whioii other joists are 

framed. 
Trimming Joists, the two joists into which a trimmer 

is framed. 
Truncated Roof, is a roof with a fiat on the top. 
Truss, a frame constructed of several pieces of 

timber, and divided into two or more triangles by 

oblique 



90 CARPENTRY. 

oblique pieces, in order to prevent the possibility 
of its revolving round any of the angles of the 
frame. 

Truss-Post, any of the posts of a trussed roof, as 
king post, queen post, or side post, or posts into 
which the braces are formed in a trussed partition. 

Trussed Roof, is one so constructed within the 
exterior triangular frame, so as to support the 
principal rafters and the tie beam, at certain given 
points. 

Tusk, the beveling upper shoulder of a tenon, in 
order to give strength to the tenon. 

V 

Valley Rafter, that which is disposed in the inter-- 
nal angle of a roof. 

W. 

Wall Plates, arp the joists plates, and raising 
plates , 



MECHA- 



( 9\ ) 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 

OF JOINEMY. 



' § 1. JOINERY is a branch of Civil Arcliitec- 
ture, and consists of the art of framing or joining 
together wood for internal and external finish- 
ings of houses ; as the coverings and linings of 
rough walls, or the coverings of rough timbers, 
and of the construction of doors, windows, and 

stairs. 

* • • • 

Hence joinery requires much more accurate 

and nice workmanship than carpentry, which 
consists only of rough timbers, used in support- 
ing the various parts of an edifice. Joinery is 
used by way of decoration only, and being al- 
ways near to the eye, requires that the surfaces 
should be smooth, and the several junctions of 
the wood be fitted together with the greatest ex- 
actness. 

Smoothing of the wood is called planing, 
and the tools used for the purpose, planes. 

The wood used is called stuff, and is previ- 
ously formed into rectangular prisms by the saw; 
these prisms are denominated battens, boards, 
or planks, according to their dimensions in 

breadth 



92 JOINERY. 

breadth or in thickness. For the convenience of 
planing", and other operations a rectangular plat- 
form is raised upon four legs, called a bench. 

§2. The Bench (Pl. 1. Fig. 12.) 

Consists of a platform ABCD called the top 
supported upon four legs, E, F, G, H. Near to 
the further or fore end AB is an upright rectan- 
gular prismatic pin a, made to slide stiffly in a 
mortice through the top. This pin is called the 
bench hook, >\hich ought to be so tight as to be 
moved up or down only by a blow of a hammer 
or mallet. The use of the bench hook is to 
keep the stuff steady, while the joiner, in the 
act of planing, presses it forward against the 
bench hook. DI a vertical board fixed to the 
legs, on the side of the bench next to the work- 
man, and made flush with the legs : this is call- 
the side board. At the farther end of the side 
board, and opposite to it, and to the bench 
hook^ is a rectangular prismatic piece of wood 
i b, of which its two broad surfaces are parallel 
to the vertical face of the side board : this is 
made moveable in a horizontal straight surface, 
by a screw passing through an interior screw 
fixed to the inside of the side board, and is call- 
ed the screw check. The screw and screw check 
are together called the bench screw ; and for the 
sake of perspicuity, we shall denominate the two 
adjacent vertical surfaces of the screw check, 

and 



"JOINERY. 93 

and of the side board, the checks of the bench 
screw. The use of the bench screw is to fasten 
boards between the checks, in order to plane 
their edges; but as it only holds up one end of 
a board, the leg H of the bench and the side 
board are pierced with holes, so as to admit of 
a pin for holding up the other end, at various 
heights, as occasion raaj require. The screw 
check has also a horizontal piece morticed and 
fixed fast to it, and made to slide through the 
side board, for preventing it turning round, and 
is therefore called the guide. 

Benches are of various heights, to accommo- 
date the height of the workman, but the medium 
is about 2 feet 8 inches. They are 10 or IS 
feet in length,' and about 2 feet 6 inches in 
width. Sometimes the top boards upon the 
farther side are made only about 10 feet long, 
and that next the workman 12 feet, projecting 2 
feet at the hinder part. In order to keep the 
bench and work from tottering, the legs not 
less than S| inches square, should be well 
braced, particularly the two legs on the working 
side. The top board next to the workman may 
be from 1| to 2 inches thick: the thicker, the 
better for the work; the boards to the farther 
side may be about an inch or 1|: inch thick. If 
the workman stands on the working side of the 
bench, and looks across the bench, then the end 
on his right hand is called the hind end, and that 

on 



94 JOINERYo 

on his left hand the fore-end. The bench hook 
is sometimes covered with ati iron plate, the front 
edge of which is formed into sharp teeth for 
sticking fast into the end of the wood to be 
planed, in order to prevent it from slipping; or, 
instead of a plate, nails are driven obliquely 
through the edge, and filed into wedge-form- 
ed points. Each pair of end legs are gene- 
rally coupled together bj two rails dove-tailed 
into the legs. Between each pair of coupled 
legs, the length of the bench is generally divided 
into three or four equal parts, and transverse 
bearers fixed at the divisions to the side boards, 
the upper sides being flush with those of the 
side boards, for the purpose of supporting the 
top firmly, and keeping it from bending. The 
screw is placed behind the two fore legs, the 
bench hook immediately before the bearers of ^ he 
fore legs, and the guide at some distance before 
^he bench hook. For the convenience of putting- 
things out of the way, the rails at the ends 
are covered with boards; and for farther ac- 
comraodation, there is in some benches a cavity 
formed, by boarding the under edges of the side 
boards before the hind legs, and closing the ends 
vertically, so that this cavity is contained be- 
tween the top and the boarding under the side 
boards: the way to it is by an aperture made 
by sliding a part of the top board towards the 
hind end; this deposit is called a locker. 

§ 3. Joiners* 



JOINERY, 95 

§ 3. Joiners' Tools. 

The Bench Planes are, the jack plane, the fore 
plane, the trying plane, the long plane, the 
jointer and the smoothing plane; the cylindric 
plane, the compass and forkstaff planes; the 
straight block, forstraightingshortedges: Rebat- 
ing Planes are the moving fillister, the sash fillis- 
ter, the common rebating plane, the side rebating 
plane: Grooving Planes are the plough and dado, 
grooving planes : Moulding Planes are sinking 
snipsebills, side snipsebills, beads, hollo\\'« and 
rounds, ovolos, and ogees. Boring tools are, 
gimblets, brad-awls, stock and bits. Instru- 
ments for dividing the wood, are principally the 
Ripping Saw, the half ripper, the hand saw, the 
pannel saw, the tenon saw, the carcase saw, the 
sash saw, the compass saw, the key-hole saw, 
and turning saw. Tools used for forming the 
angles of two adjoining surfaces, are Squares 
and Bevels: Tools used for drawing parallel lines 
are Guages. Edge tools, are the Firmer Chissel, 
the mortice chissel, the socket chissel, the gouge, 
the hatchet, the adze, the drawing knife. Tools 
for knocking upon wood and iron are, the Mal- 
let and Hammer. Implements for sharpening tools 
are the Grinding stone, the rub stone, and the oil 
stone or whet stone. 

§ 4. Definitions. 

If a plane be set with the under surface upon 
the wood, it is intended to operate upon, and 

placed 



96 JOINERY, 

placed before the workman, and if four surfaces? 
are perpendicular to the under surface, each of 
these surfaces is said to be vertical ; the one next 
the workman is called the hind end, and the op- 
posite one, the fore end, and the two in the di- 
rection which the plane works, the sides: the 
under surface is called the sole, the side of the 
plane next to the workman is called the right 
hand side, and the opposite side to that, the left 
hand side of the plane. 

The depth of a plane is the vertical dimension 
from the top to the under surface; the length of 
a plane is the horizontal dimension in the direc- 
tion in which the plane is wrought; the breadth 
or thickness of a plane is the horizontal dimen- 
sion at right angles, to the length and depth. 

In order to make a distinction between the 
tool, the under surface is called the sole of the 
plane. 

The reason for being so particular in defining 

these common place terms which might be 

supposed to be known to every one, is, from a 

desire of the author to prevent ambiguity ; as in 

the term depth, which implies a distance from 

you in whatever direction it runs, as the depth 

of a well is the vertical or plumb distance; but 

the depth of a house is the distance from the 

front to the rear wall, and consequently is a 

horizontal distance. 

§5. llic 



JOINERY. 97 

§5. The Jack Plane (Pl. 1. Fig. 1.) 

Is iispd in taking off the rough and prominent 
parts from the surface of the wood, and reducing 
it nearly to the intended form, in coarse slices, 
called shavings; this plane consists of a block of 
wood called the stock, of about 17 inches in 
length, 3 inches high, and 3| inches broad. All 
the sides of the stock are straight surfaces at 
right angles to each other. Through the solid 
of the stock, and through two of its opposite 
surfaces is cut an aperture, in which is inserted 
a thin metal plate called the iron, one side of 
the plate consisting of iron, and the other of 
steel. The side of the opening which joins the 
iron part, is called the bed, which is a plane 
surface, making an angle of 45 degrees with the 
hind part of the underside of the plane. 

The end of the iron next to the bottom is 
ground to an acute angle off the iron side, so 
as to bring the steel side to a sharp edge, hav- 
ing a smiU convexity. The sloping part thus 
formed, is called the basil of the iron. The iron 
is fixed by means of a wedge, which is let into 
two grooves of the same form, on the sides of the 
opening; two sides of the wedge are parallel to 
each other, and io the vertical side of the plane, 
andconsequentlytotwo of the sidesof thegroove; 
the two sides of the grooves, parallel to the 
vertical sides of the plane are called cheeks, and 
the two other sides inclined, to the bed of the iron 
H are 



9B Joinery. 

are called the butments, or abutment sides': the 
wedge and the iron being fixed, the opening 
must be uninterrupted from the sole to the top, 
and must be no more on the^ sole side of the 
plane, than what is sufficient for the thickest 
shaving to pass with ease ; and as the shaving is 
discharged at the upper side of the plane, the 
opening through must expand or increase from 
the sole to the top, so as to prevent the shavings 
from sticking. In conformity to analogy, the 
part of the opening at the sole, which first re- 
ceives the shaving, is called the mouth. In order 
for the shaving to pass with still greater ease, 
the wedge (PI. 1. Fig. 5.) is forked or 
cut away in the middle, leaving the prongs to 
fill the lower parts of the aforesaid grooves. On 
the upper part of the plane, behind the iron, 
rises a protuberance, called the tote, so formed 
to the shape of the hand, and direction of the 
motion, as to produce the most power in push- 
ing the plane forward. 

The bringing of the iron to a sharp cutting 
edge is called sharpening. The cutting edge of 
the iron must be formed with a convexitj, and 
regulated by the stuff to be wrought, whether it 
is hard or soft, cross grained or curling, so that 
a man may be able to perform the most work, or 
to reduce the substance most, in a given time. 
To prevent the iron from tearing the wood in 

cross 



JOINERY. 99 

cross grained stuff, a cover is used with a re- 
versed basil, (PI. 1. Fig. 4.) and fastened 
by means of a screw, the thin part of which 
slides in a longitudinal slit in the iron^ and 
the head is taken out by a large hole near the 
upper end of it. The lower edge of the cover 
is so formed, as to be concentric or parallel to 
the cutting edge of the iron, and fixed at a small 
distance above it, and to coincide entirely with 
the steel face. The basil of the cover must be 
rounded, and not flat, as that of the iron is. The 
distance between the cutting edge of the iron^ 
and the edge of the cover, depends altogether on 
the nature of the stuff. If the stuff is free, the 
edge of the cover may be set at a considerable 
distance, because the difficulty of pushing the 
plane forward becomes .greater, as the edge of 
the cover is nearer the edge of the iron, and the 
contrary when more remote. 

The convexity of the edge of the iion depends 
on the texture of the stuff, whether it is free, 
cross grained, hard or knotty. If the stuff is 
free, it is evident that a considerable projection 
may be allowed, as a thicker shaving may be 
taken: the extreme edges of the iron must never 
enter the wood, as this not only retards the pro- 
gress of working, but choaks and prevents the 
regular discharge of the shavings at the orifice 
of the plane. 

H 2 ^ § 6. To 



100 JOINERY. 

§ 6. To Grind and Sharpen the Iron. 

When you grind the iron, place your two 
thumbs under it, and the fingers of both hands 
above, laying the basil to the stone, and holding 
it to the anole vou intend it shall make with the 
steel side of it, keeping it steady while the stone 
is turning, and pressing the iron to the stone witli 
your fingers; and in order io prevent the stone 
from wearing the edge of the iron into irregula- 
rities, move it alternately from edge to edge of 
the stone with so much pressure on the different 
parts, as will reduce it to the required convexity; 
then lift the iron to see that it is ground to your 
mind: if it is not, the operation must be repeat- 
ed, and the steel or basil side placed in its former 
position on the stone, otherwise the basil will be 
doubled; but if in the proper direction it will 
be hollow, which will be more as the diameter 
of the stone is less. The basil being brought to 
a proper angle, and the edge to a regular cur- 
vature, the roughness occasioned by the gritty 
particles of the grind slone may be taken awaj', 
by rubbing on a smooth flat whet stone or Turkey 
stone, sprinkling sweet oil on the surface; as the 
basil is generally ground something longer than 
what the iron would stand, for the quicker dis- 
patch of wetting if, you may incline the face of 
the iron nearer to the perpendicular, rubbing io 
and fro, with the same inclination throughout : 
having done it to your mind, it may be fixed. 

When 



JOINERY. 101 

When there is occasion to sharpen it again^ it is 
commonly done upon a Sat rub stone^ keeping 
theproper angle of position as before^ thentheedge 
may be finished on the Turkey stone as before : 
and at every time the iron gets dull or blunt, the 
sharpening is produced by the rub stone and 
Turkey stone, but in repeating this often the 
edge g€ts so thick that it requires so much time 
to bring it up^ that recourse must be had again 
to the grind stone, 

§ 7. To Fix and unfix the Iron. 

In fixing the iron in the plane^ the projection 
of the cutting edge must be just so much be- 
yond the sole of the plane, as the workman may 
be able to work it freely in the act of planing. 
This projection is called iron, and the plane is 
said to have more or less iron as the projection is 
greater: when there is too much iron, knock 
Vrith a hammer on the fore end of the stock, and 
the blows will loosen the wedge, and raise the 
iron in a certain degree, and the head of the 
wedge must be knocked down to make all tight 
again : if the iron is not sufficiently raiwSed, pro- 
ceed again in the same manner, but if two much, 
the iron must be knocked down gently by hitting 
the head with a hammer: and thus by trials, you 
will give the plane the degree of iron required. 
When you have occasion to take out the iroii to 
sharpen it strike the fore end smartly, which will 
loosen the wedge, and con^quently the iron. 

§8. To 



102 ' JOINERY. , 

§ 8. To Use the Jack Plane. 

In using the jack plane^ lay the stufi" before 
you parallel to the sides of the bench, the farther 
end against the bench hook ; then beginning at 
the hind end of the stuffy bj laying the fore part 
of the plane upon it, lay hold of the tote with 
the right hand, and pressing with the left upon 
the fore end, thrust the plane forward in the di- 
rection of the fibres of the wood and length of 
the plane, until you have extended the stroke 
the whole stretch of your arms, the shaving will 
be dischargnd at the orifice : draw back the 
plane, and repeat the operation in the next ad- 
jacent rough part: proceed in this manner until 
you have taken off the rough parts throughout 
the whole breadth, then step forward so much 
as you have planed, and plane off the rough of 
another length in the same manner, proceed in 
this way by steps, until the whole length is gone 
over and rough planed; you may then return 
and take all the protuberant parts or sudden ris- 
ings, by similar operations, 

§ 9. The Trying Plane. (Pl. 1. Fig. 2.) 
Is constructed similar to the jack plane, ex- 
cept the tote of the jack plane is single, and that 
of the trying plane double, to give greater 
strengh; the length of this plane is about 22 
inches, the breadth 3 J, and the height Swindles. 
Its use is to reduce the ridges made by the jack 

plane^ 



JOINERY, 103 

plane, and to straighten the stuff: for this purpose 
it is both longer and broader^ the edge of the 
iron is less convex^ and set with less projection : 
but as it takes a broader though finer shavings it 
still requires as much force to push it forward, 

§ 10. 71} e Use of the Trying Plane. 

The sharpening of the iron, and the operation 
of planing is much the same as that of the jack 
plane; when the side of a piece of stuff has 
been planed first by the jack plane, and after- 
wards by the trying plane, that side of the stuff 
is said to be tried up, and the operation is called 
t^rying. 

When the stuff is required to be very straight^, 
particularly if the broad or narrow side of an- 
other piece is to join it, instead of stopping the 
plane at every arm's length, as with the jack plane, 
the shaving is taken the whole length, by step- 
ping forwards, then returning, and repeating 
the operation throughout the breadth, as often as 
may be found necessary. 

§ 11. The Long Plane 

Is used when a piece of stuff is required to 
be tried up very straight; for this purpose it is 
both longer and broader than the trying plane, 
^.nd set with still less iron, the manner of using 
it is the same. Its length is 26 inches, its breadth 
3|- inches, and depth 3|- inches. 

§ 12. The 



104 JOINERY. 

§ 12. The Jointer 

Is still longer than the lona: planC;, and is used 
principally for planing straight edges, and the 
edges of boards^ so as to make them join to- 
gether^ this operation is called shooting, and the 
edge itself is said to be shot. The length of 
this plane is about 2 feet 6 inches, the depth 3| 
inches, and the breadth S^ inches. The shaving 
is taken the whole length in finishing the joint, 
or narrow surface. 

§ 13. The Smoothing Plane. 
(Pl. l.FiG.3. ) 

Is the last plane used in giving the utmost 
degree of smoothness to the surface of the wood : 
it is chiefly used in cleaning oft" finished work. 
The construction of this plane is the same with 
regard to the iron wedge and opening for dis-* 
charging the shaving, but is much smaller in 
size, being in length 7f inches, in breadth 3, and 
in depth 2^, and differs in form, on account of 
its having convex sides, and no tote. 

There is also this difference in giving the iron 
a finer set, that you must strike the hind end in- 
stead of the fore part. 

§ 14. Bench Planes. 

The jack p4ane, the trying plane, the long 

plane, the jointer and the smoothing plane, are 

denominated bench planes. 

§ 15. The 



- JOINERY. 105 

§ 15. The Compass Plane. 

Is similar to the smoothing plane in size and 
shapC;, but the sole is convex, and the convexity 
is in the direction of the length of the plane. 
The use of the compass plane is to form a con- 
cave cylindrical surface, when the wood to be 
wrought upon is bent with the fibres in the di- 
rection of the curve, which is in a plane surface 
perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Con- 
sequently compass planes must be of various sizes, 
in order to accommodate different diameters. 

§ 16. The Forkstajjr Plane 

Is similar to the smoothing plane in every re- 
spect of size and shape, except that the sole 
is part of a concave cylindric surface, having 
the axis parallel to the length of the plane. The 
use of the forkstaflf plane is to form cylindric 
surfaces, by planing parallel to the axis of the 
cylinder. Planes of this description must like- 
wise be of various sizes, to form the surface to 
various radii : these two last planes are more used 
by coach makers than by joiners. 

§ 17. The Straight Block 

Is used for shooting short joints and mitres, 
instead of the iointer, which in such cases would 
be rather unhandy; this plane is also made with- 
out the tote, and as it is frequently used in 
straightening the ends of pieces of wood perpenr- 

dicularlj 



106 JOINERY. 

dicular to the direction of the fibres^ the iron 
i? inclined more to the sole of the plane, that is, 
il forms a more acute aagle with it : in order that 
it may cut clean, the inclination of the basil, 
and the face of the iron, is therefore less on this 
account: the length of the straight block is 12 
inches, its breadth 3^, and depth 2J. 

REBATE PLANES IN GENERAL. 

§ 18. TJie Rebate Plane 

Is used after a piece of stuff has been pre-- 
viously tryed on one side and shot on the other, 
or tryed on both sides, in taking away a part 
next to one of the arises of a rectangular or 
oblong section, the whole part therefore taken 
away is a square prism, and the superfices form- 
ed after taken away the prism is two straight 
surfaces, forming an internal right angle with 
each other ; so that the stuff will now have one 
internal angle and two external angles. The 
operation of this reducing the stuff is called re- 
bating. Rebating is either used by way of or- 
nament, as in the sinking of cornices, the sunk 
facias of Architraves, or informing a recess for the 
reception of another board, so that the edge of 
this board may coincide with that side of the 
rebate, next to the edge of the rebated piece. 
The length of rebating planes is about 9|- inches, 
the vertical dimension or depth is about 3|, they 
are of various thickness, from 1|; to | an inch. 

Rebate 



JOINERY 107 

Kebate planes are of several kinds, some hav^ 
the cutting edge of the iron upon the bottoiDa 
and some upon the side of the plane. Of these 
which have the cutting edge on the bottom, some 
are used for sinking, and some for smoothing or 
cleaning the bottom of the rebate ; and these 
'which have the cutting edge upon one side are 
called side rebating planes, and are used after 
the former in cleaning the vertical side of the 
rebate. Rebate planes differ from the bench 
planes, before mentioned, in their having no tote ; 
the cavity is not open to the top, but the wedge 
is made to fit completely, and the shaving is dis- 
charged on one side or other, according to the 
yse of the plane. 

§ 19. SmMng Rehaiing Planes 

Are of two denominations, the moving fillister 
and sash fillister: the moving fillister is for sink- 
ing the edge of the stuff next to you, and the 
3ash fillister the farther edge; consequently these 
planes have their cutting edges on the under side. 

§ 20. Of the fnoving Fillister. 
(Pl. 1. Fig. 7.) 

Upon the bottom of the moving fillister is a 
slip of wood, so regulated by two screws as oneof 
the vertical sides of the slip may be fixed parallel 
to the edge of the sole; then the breadth be- 
tween this side of the slip and the edge of the 

sole 



108 JOINERY. 

sole of the plane is equal to the breadth of the 
rebate. This slip is called a fence, and the Ter- 
tical side of it next to the stock, the guide ; 
as the rebate is made upon the right edge of the 
stuff, the fence is alvvajs upon the left side of 
the sole. The iron between the guide and 
the right hand edge of the sole of the plane must 
project the whole breadth of the uncovered part 
of the sole, otherwise the plane will not sink, so 
long as it is kept in one position; the right hand 
point of the cutting edge of the iron must stand 
& small degree without the vertical right hand 
side of the plane; for if this point of the iron 
stood within, the situation of the point would 
also prevent the sinking of the rebate; it is also 
necessary that the cutting edge of the iron should 
gland equally prominent in all parts out of the 
sole, otherwise the plane cannot make shavings 
of an equal thickness, and consequently instead 
of keeping the vertical position, will turn round 
and incline to the side on which the shavings are 
thickest, and thus the part cut away will not 
have a rectangular section, for the bottom of the 
rebate will not then be parallel to the upper face 
of the stuff; and the side which ought to have 
been vertical, will be a kind of a ragged curved 
surface, formed by as many gradations or steps 
as the depth consists of the number of shavings. 
Observe, that whatever regulates any plane 
which takes away a portion of the stuff next to 

the 



JOINEilY. iOi? 

the edge^ to cause the part taken a%vay en the 
upper face of the stuff from the edge to be of 
one breadth, is called a fence: in like manner, 
whatever prevents a plane v/orking downwards 
bejond a certain distance, is called a stop. There- 
fore the fence regulates the horizontal breadth of 
what is taken awav, and the stop, the vertical di- 
mension or depth, and this is to be understood, 
not only of rebate planes, but of moulding planes, 
where the moulding is regulated in its horizon- 
tal dimension, in the breadth or thickness of the 
stuff', and the vertical on the adjacent vertical side. 
Returning to the moving fillister, the guide is 
the bottom surface of a piece of metal which is 
regulated by a screw, so as to move it to the re- 
quired distance from the sole. Though the 
bottom of this piece of metal is properly the 
stop, yet it is altogether called a stop by plane 
-makers and carpenters; but to avoid a confu- 
sion of words, we shall call the bottom of the 
slop the vertical guide. The stop moves in a ver- 
tical groove in the side of the fillister, and has a 
projection with a vertical perforation, which goes 
farther into the groove, or into the solid of the 
stock. The stop is placed on the right hand side 
of the fillister, between the iron and the fore^end 
of the plane, and is moved up and down by a 
screw, which is inserted in a vertical perfora- 
tion from the top of the plane to the groove, and 
passes through the perforation in the projecting 

part 



1 10 JOINERY. 

part of the stop, which has a female, or concave 
screw adapted to that cut on the convex screw. 
The convex screw is always kept stationary by a 
plate of raetalj let in flush with the upper side of 
the plane; below this plate, and on the same 
solid with the screw, is a collar, and above, 
another which projects still farther upwards by 
way of a lever, for the ease of turning the screw. 
This part which turns round, is called the thumb 
screw. It is evident, as the axis of the thumb screw 
can neither move up or down as it turns round 
its axis, the inclination of the threads will rise or 
fall according to the direction of the thumb 
screw, and cause the stop to move up and down 
in the groove on the side of the plane, and thus 
the stop may be fixed at pleasure. In this plane, 
the opening for discharging the shaving is upon 
the riarht side of the dilister, and in this case the 
shaving is said by workmen to be thrown on the 
bench, that is, upon the right side of the plane; 
but when the orifice of discharge is upon the left, 
and consequently the shaving thrown upon the 
left, the plane is said to throw the shaving off 
the bench, and these expressions are applyed to 
all planes which throw the shavings to one side. 
In the moving fillister, as well as in several 
other planes, the upper part on the sides of the 
stock is thinner than the lower part, this part is 
called the hand-hold, and the thick part the 
body. In the moving fillister, the reduction 

made 



JOINERY. 1 1 1 

tiiade for the hand-hold is equally upon both 
sides of the plane, that is, the rebates are of equal 
depth. The edges of these rebates, which is the 
upper surface of the body, are called shoulders ; 
this plane is therefore double shouldered. The 
same appellation is given to the iron, when a part 
is taken from one or both sides, so as to make 
the upper part equally broad, but the sides pa- 
rallel to the sides of the bottom part. The part 
of the iron so diminished, is called the tang of 
the iron, and the broad part at the bottom, 
which has the cutting edge, is called the web, 
and the upper narrow surfaces of the web are 
called the shoulders of the iron, in analogy to 
those of the plane. The iron of the moving fil- 
lister is only single shouldered. Besides the 
above-mentioned parts, the moving fillister has 
another, which is a small one-shouldered iron, 
inserted in a vertical mortice, through the body, 
between the fore end of the stock and the iron. 
The web of this little iron is ground with a 
round basil, from the left side, so as to bring 
the bottom of the narrow side of the iron to a 
v«ry convex edge. This little iron is fastened by 
a wedge, upon the right side of the hand- hold, 
passing down the mortice in the body. The use 
of this little iron is principally for cutting the 
wood transversely when wrought across the fibres, 
and by this means it not only cuts the vertical 
side of the rebate quite smooth, but prevents the 

iron 



11^ JOINERY. 

iron from ragging cr tearing the stuff. The 
■whole of this little iron is called a tooth, and 
the bottom part may be distinguished by the 
name of ihe cutter. The cutter must, therefore, 
stand out a little farther on the right hand side 
of the plane than the iron, but must never be 
placed nearer to the fence than the narrow right- 
hand side of the iron. In this plane, the steel 
side of the iron, and consequently the bedding 
side of it, is not perpendicular to the vertical 
sides of the plane, but makes oblique angles 
therewith, the right hand point of the cutting 
edge of the iron being nearer to the fore end of 
the plane than the left hand point of the cut- 
ting edge. By this obliquity, the bottom of the 
rebate is cut smoother, particularly in a trans- 
verse direction to the fibres, or where the stuff 
is cross grained, than could otherwise be done 
when the steel face of the iron is perpendicular 
to the vertical sides of the plane. The principal 
use is however, to contribute, with the form of 
the cavity, to throw the shaving into a cylindri- 
cal form, and thereby making it issue from one 
side of the plane. 

§ 21. Of the Sash Fillister in general, 

(Pl. 1. Fig. 6.) 

The sash fillister is a rebating plane for re- 
ducing the right hand side of the stuff to a re- 
bate, and is mostly used in rebating the bars of 
3 sashes 



JOINERY. 113 

sashes for the glass, and is therefore called a 
sash fillister. The construction of this plane 
differs in several particulars from the moving 
fillister. The breadth of the iron is somethingmore 
than the whole breadth of the sole, so that the ex- 
tremities of the cutting edge are, in a small de- 
gree, without the vertical sides of the stock. In 
the moving fillister, the fence is upon the bot- 
tom of the plane, and always between the two 
vertical sides of the stock; but in this it may be 
moved to a considerable distance, the limit of 
which will be afterwards mentioned. The fence 
is not moved, as in the moving fillister, bj screws 
fixed in the bottom, but by two bars, which 
pass through the two vertical sides of the stock 
at right angles to their sides, fitting the two 
holes exactly through which they pass in the 
stock. Each of the bars which thus passes 
through the stock, is called a stem, and are 
rounded on the upper side, for the convenience/ 
of handling. That part of each stem, project- 
ing from the left hand side of the plane, has a 
projection downwards, of the same thickness as 
the parts which pass through the stock ; the bot- 
tom sides of these projections are flat surfaces, 
parallel to the sole of the plane; the other two 
sides of the said projections are also straight sur- 
faces, parallel to the vertical sides of the plane, 
and are called the shoulders, so that each stem 
has three vertical straight surfaces. The left end 

I of 



114 JOINJERY. 

of each stem, viz. the end on the left side of the 
stock, opposite to the shoulder, may be of any 
fanciful form. The end of each stem which 
contains the projection, is called the head of the 
stem. To each of the heads of the stem, and 
under each of the lower flat surfaces of the pro- 
jecting parts, is fixed a piece of wood by iron 
pins, passing vertically through each head, and 
through this piece; one of the sides of this piece, 
next to the stock of the plane, is vertical, and 
goes about half an inch lower than the sole. The 
small part of each stem, from the head to the 
other extremity on the right hand of the stock, is 
called the tail. The prismatic part is by work- 
men called the fence. That surface of the fence 
next to the stock of the plane, and parallel to 
the vertical faces, is called the guide of the 
fence. The pins which connect the stem and 
fence, have their head? on the under side of the 
fence; the heads are of a conical form; the up- 
per ends of the pins are rivetted upon a brass 
plate on the round surface of the stem. These 
pins fix the two stems and the fence stiffly to- 
gether, but not so much as to prevent either 
stem from turning round upon the fence, or to 
make oblique angles with the guide. The upper 
surface of each stem is rounded, and the two 
ends ferruled, to prevent splitting when the ends 
are hit or struck with a mallet, in order to move 
the guide of the fence either nearer or more re- 
mote 



( 



JOINERY* 115 

tiiote from the stock, as may be wanted. On the 
most remote opposite, or vertical sides of the 
stem, and close to these sides, are cut two small 
wedge-formed mortices, in wiiich are inserted 
two small tapering pieces of wood called keys; 
so that when driven in, or towards the mortice, 
they will stick fast, and press against the stem, 
?ind keep it fast at all points of the tail, and 
thereby regulate the distance of the fence from 
the left vertical side of the stock. In order 
to prevent the keys from being drawn out, or 
loosing, each has a small elliptic nob at the nar- 
row end, which is also of greater breadth than 
the mortice upon the left vertical side of the stock, 
Therearetwo kinds of sash fillisters, one for throw- 
ing the shaving or the bench, and the other for 
throwing it oft': their construction is the same so 
far as have been described. 

§ 22. The Fillister which throws the Shavings on 
the Bench f Pl. 1 . Fig. 6. ) 

Has its discharging orifice in course upon the 
right hand vertical side of the stock, and the left 
extremity of the cutting edge of the iron is nearer 
to the fore end of the plane, than the right hand 
extremity of the said edge. On the left side of 
the stock, and from the sole, is a rebate, the 
depth of which is equal to the depth of the re- 
bate made on the stutf. The upper side of the 
fence ranges exactly with the side of the rebate 
I 2 which 



116 JOINERY. 

which is parallel to the sole of the plane, and bys 
this means, the guide of the fence maj be brought 
quite close to the vertical side of the rebate, or 
as far upon the side of the rebate, parallel to the 
sole of the plane, as may be found necessary. 
The depth of the rebate to be made in the stuff, 
is regulated by a stop, which coincides vertically 
with the vertical side of the rebate; the guide of 
the stop is parallel to the sole of the plane, and 
the stop is moved up and down by a thumb 
screw, in the same manner as that of the moving 
fillister, but not in a groove on the side of the 
plane, but in a mortice : the side of the rebate 
parallel to the sole of the plane, is morticed up* 
wards, that the guide may be screwed up so as 
to be flush with that side of the rebate. The 
iron of this plane is single shouldered, and the 
projection of the web at the bottom, beyond the 
tang, is on the right hand side of the plane, and 
consequently the narrow side of the tang and web 
parts of the iron are in the same straight line. 

§ 23. Of the Sash Fillister for thronoing the 
Shavings off" the Bench. 

The sash fillister which throws the shavings off 
the bench, differs only from the last, in having 
no rebate on the left hand side of the plane; the 
s^^p slides in a vertical groove on the left hand 
vertical side of the stock, in the same manner as 
the stop of the moving fillister, and not in a ver- 
tical mortice cut in the vertical side of the body 

of 



JOINERY. 117 

of the plane : it has also a cutter on the left side, 
in order to cut the vertical side of the rebate 
dean. One extremity of the cutting edge of the 
iron, on the right hand side of the plane, is 
nearer to the fore, end than the other, conse- 
quently the steel face of the iron makes angles 
with the vertical sides of the plane the contrary 
way to the sash fillister, which throws the shav- 
ings on the bench. 

§ 24. Rebating Planes without a Fence. 
Rebating planes which have no fence, are of 
two kinds : in both, the cutting edge of the iron 
extends the whole breadth of the sole ; ^nd the 
upper part of the stock is solid on the two vertical 
sides, but the lower part is open on both sides ; 
the opening increases from the sole regularly up- 
wards, until it comes to a large cavity, which 
opens abruptly into a curved form on the side 
next to the fore end of the plane. The web of 
the iron is equally shouldered on both sides of 
the tang. 

§ 25. Skew-mouthed Rebating Plane. 

The thickest stocks, or broadest sole planes, 
of this description, are made with the face of 
the iron standing at oblique angles with the ver- 
tical sides. The right hand extremity of the 
cutting edge of the iron, stands nearer to the 
fore end of the plane than the left hand extre- 
mity of the said cutting edge, and the large ca- 
vity is greater upon the left side of the plane 

than 



118 JOINERY. . 

than upon the right. The shaving is iherefore 
thrown off the bench. The use of this plane is 
not for sinking the rebate^ but rather for smooth- 
ing the bottom, after the moving fillister^ or after 
the sash fillister, next to the \ertical edge of the 
rebate : In this manner it is used in cleaning the 
bottom entirely of rebates which do not exceed 
the breadth of its sole ; but where the rebate 
exceeds this breadth, it is only used next to the 
vertical side of thr rebate as before, and the re- 
maining part of the bottom of the rebate is clean- 
ed off with the trying and smoothing planes. 
When the iron is set at oblique angles to the ver- 
tical siJes of the plane, the cutting edge of the 
sole is said to stand askew, that is, at oblique 
angles with the sides of the plane. This is there- 
fore called a skew rebating plane. The thickness 
of this rebating plane is about If of an inch. 

§ 26. Square-moutlied Rebating Planes. 
The common rebating planes have the steel 
side of the iron, or the bed, perpendicular to the 
vertical sides of the stock, and throw the shav- 
ing off the bench, the cavity for the discharge of 
the shaving is much the same as the skew rebat- 
ing plane, and since the shaving is thrown off the 
bench, the widest side of the cavity is on the left 
hand side of the stock, to clean the internal 
angles of fillets^ and the bottoms of grooves, 

&c. 

§27. Side 



JOINERY. ,119 

§ 27. Side Relating Planes. 
Are those which have their cutting edge on 
one side of the plane, and discharge the shaving 
at the other, the lower part of the stock is there- 
fore open upon both sides. The use of this plane 
is to clean or plane the vertical sides of rebates, 
grooves, &c: for this purpose, they are made 
both right and left ; a right hand side rebating 
plane has its cutting edge on the right hand side 
of the plane, and consequently throws the shav- 
ing off the bench, and the contrary of the left 
hand rebating plane. The side of the plane 
containing the mouth, is altogether vertical ; but 
the opposite side is only in part so, from the top 
downwards to soiiiething more than half the 
height, then recessed and bevelled with a taper 
to the sole; the orifice of d ;• harge for the 
shaving is bevelled. The ire./ 4 lands askew, or 
at oblique angles with the mouth side, but per- 
pendicular with regard to the sole or top of the 
plane, the cutting edge stands nearer to the fore 
end, than the opposite edge. The mortice for 
the wedge of the iron is without a cavity, as in 
the other rebating planes, and the iron shoulder- 
ed upon one side. The web is cut sloping to 
answer the beveling of the stock. 

'§28. The Plough (Pl. 1. Fig. 8.) 
Is used in taking away a solid in the form of 
a rectangular prism, by sinking any where in the 
upper surface, but not close to the edge, and 
thereby leaving an excavation or hollow, consist- 
ing 



120 JOINERY. 

ing of three straight surfaces^ forming two in- 
ternal right angles with each other, and the two 
vertical sides, two external right angles with the 
upper surface of the stuff. The channel cut is 
called a groove, and the operation is called 
grooving or plowing. The plow consists of a 
stock, a fence, and a stop. There are two kinds 
of plows, one where the fence and stop is im- 
rnoveable, and the other which is universal, of 
which, both fence and stop are moveable, and 
willadmit of eight or ten irons of various breadths, 
from J of an inch to ^. This is what I shall 
chiefly describe. The fence has two stems with 
keys and a stop, moved by a thumb screw, as in 
the moving fillister for throwing the shaving on 
the bench. The sole of this plane is the bottom 
narrow side of two vertical iron plates, which 
are something thinner than the narrowest iron. 
The wedge and iron are inserted in the same 
manner as iu the rebating planes, the fore end 
of the hind plate fbrms the lower part of the 
bed of the iron, and has a projecting angle in 
the middle, and the bed side of each angle has 
an external angle adapted to the same. This 
prevents the iron from being removed by the re- 
sistance of knots or such sudden obstacles : the 
fore iron plate is cut with a cavity similar to 
the common rebate planes. The stop is placed 
between the fence and sole : this plane is in length 
about 7| inches, and in depth Sf j and the length 
pf each stem 8|, 

§29. Dado 



JOINERY. 121 

§ 29. Dado grooving Plane 

Is a channel plane, generally about |. of an 
inch broad on the sole, with a double cutter and 
and stop, both placed before the edge of the iron 
which stands askew, it throws the shaving off the 
bench. The best kind of dado grooving planes 
have screw stops of brass and iron; the common 
sort are made of wood, to slide stiffly in a ver- 
tical mortice, and arc moved by the blow of a 
hammer or mallet, by striking the head, when 
the groove is required to be shallow: but when 
required to be deep, and consequently the stop 
to be driven back, a wooden punch must be 
placed upon the bottom of the stop, and the 
head of the punch struck with the hammer or 
mallet, until the guide of the stop arrives at the 
distance from the sole of the plane that the groove 
is to be in depth : the use of this plane is for 
tonguing dado at internal angles, for keying cir- 
cular dado, grooving for library shelves, or work- 
ing a broad rebate across the fibres. 

§ 30. Moulding Planes 

Are used in forming curved surfaces of many* 
various fanciful prismatic sections, by way of 
ornament; these surfaces have therefore this pro- 
perty, that all parallel sections are similar figures. 
Single mouldings or different mouldings in as- 
semblage have various names, according to their 
iigure, combination, or situation ; mouldings are 

formed 



122 JOINERY, 

formed either by a plane reversed to the intended 
section, by a fence and stop on the plane, which 
causes them to have the same transverse section 
throughout, or otherwise, by several planes 
adapted as nearly as possible to the different de- 
grees of curvature ; this is called working mould- 
ings by hand. All new or fanciful forms are 
generally wrought by hand, and particularly in 
an assemblage of mouldings, where it would be 
too expensive to make planes adapted to the 
whole section, or to any particular member or 
members of that section. The length of mould- 
ing planes is 9| inches, and the depth about 31. 
Mouldings are said to be stuck when formed by 
planes, and the operation is called sticking. In 
mouldings, all internal sinkings which have one 
flat side, and one convex curved side, are called 
quirks. 

§31. Bead Plane 

Is a moulding plane of a semi-cylindric con- 
tour, and is generally usedin sticking a moulding 
of the same name on the edge, or on the side 
close to the arris: when the bead is stuck upon 
the edge of a piece of stuff, so as to form a 
semi-cylindric surface to the whole thickness, the 
edge is said to be beaded or rounded. When a 
bead is stuck on, and from one edge on the upper 
surface of a piece of stuff, so that the diameter 
raay be contained in the breadth of that surface^ 

but 



JOINERY, 123 

but not to occupy the whole breadth : then the 
member so formed has a channel or sinking on 
the farther side, called a quirk, and is therefore 
called bead and quirk. When the edge of a 
piece of stuff has been stuck with bead and 
quirk ; then the vertical side turned upwards and 
stuck from the same edge in the same manner, 
another quirk will bfi formed upon this side, pro- 
vided the breadth of this side be equal to that of 
the bead ; then the curved surface will be |: of a 
cylinder, this is called bead and double quirk or 
return bead. The fence is of a solid piece with 
the plane. The guide of the fence is parallel to 
the sides of the plane, and tangential to the con- 
cave cylindric surface, and its lower edge comes 
about J or I of an inch below the cylindrical part, 
the other edge of the cylindrical part forms one 
side of the quirk, and is on a level with the top 
of the guide of the fence. The other side of 
the quirk is a vertical straight surface, and reaches 
as high as the most prominent part of the cylin- 
dric surface of the bead. From the upper edge 
of this flat side of the quirk, and at right angles 
to the vertical sides of the plane, proceeds the 
guide of the stop, which prevents the bead from 
sinking deeper than the semi-diameter of the cy- 
linder, and the guide of the fence prevents the 
plane from taking more of the breadth than the 
diameter. When one two, or more, contiguous 
senai-cylinders are sunk within thesurface of a piece 

of 



124 JOINERY. 

fef wood, with the prominent parts of the curved 
surface of each, in the same surface as that from 
which they were sunk, this operation is called 
reeding, being done in imitation of one or a 
bundle of reeds, and each little cylinder is called 
a reed. In this case, the axis of the reeds is in 
the same straight surface : but this is not always 
the case, they are sometimes disposed round a 
staff or rod. Bead planes are sometimes so con-r 
Etructed, as to have the fence taken off or on at 
pleasure, by screws, for the purpose of striking 
any series of reeds. When the fence is taken off, 
the two sides form quirks, and are exactly simi- 
lar and equal to each other. 

The least sized bead is about ^ of an inch, the 
next Yx> t^6 regular progression stand thus : 
h XX' tV h ^3. h h h h i' the first two only 
differs -3-^5 the next three ^'^, and from | to 7. of 
an inch, they differ by |- of an inch each, the ^ 
and J inch beads are torus planes as well as bead 
planes. The torus only differs from the bead iu 
having a fillet upon the outer edge of the stuff: 
consequently the torus consists of a fillet and 
semi-cylinder. It may be observed, that whethejr 
there be one or two semi-cylinders stuck on the 
€dp-e of a piece of stuff, that without there is a 
fillet upon the edge they only take the name of 
beads. Thetorus is in general much larger than the 
bead : but when there are two semi-cylinders with 
a fillet upon the outer edge, the combination js 

called 



JOINERY. ' Vlh 

called a double torus, and if there is no fillet, it 
is called a double bead, even though the one 
should be much larger than the other, 

§ 32. A SnipesMll 

Is a moulding plane for forming a quirk: 
snipesbills are of two kinds, one for sinking the 
quirk, called a sinking snipesbill, and the other 
for cleaning the vertical flat side of the quirky 
called a side snipesbill. Each of these two kinds 
are right and left. 

In the sinking snipesbill the cutting edge is oa 
the sole, and the extremity of the iron comes 
close to the side of the plane, which forms the 
vertical side of the quirk ; the sole consists of 
two parts of a cylindric surface of contrary cur- 
vature: one next to the edge which forms the 
quirk, is concave, and the part more remote, 
is convex. 

The side snipesbill has its iron placed very 
nearly perpendicular, with regard to the sole of 
the plane, the top of the iron leaning about five 
degrees forward: this plane has its cutting edge 
upon one side or the other, according to the side 
or to the hand it is made for. The iron stands 
askew to the vertical sides of the plane. 

§ 33. Hollows and Hounds 

Are mouldings for striking convex and concave 
cylindrical surfaces^ or any segment or parts of 

these 



126 JOINERY, 

these surfaces; they have therefore their soles 
exactly the reverse of what is intended. Hollows 
and rounds are not confined to cylindric surfaces^ 
but will also stick those of cylindirdal forms, 
or those which have elliptic sections^ perpendicu- 
lar to the direction of the motion by which they 
are wrought. Mouldings depressed within the 
surface of a piece of wood, or those which form 
quirks, must first be sunk by the snipesbill, and 
formed into the intended shape by hollows and 
rounds. The hollow is only used in finishing a 
convex moulding ; the rough is generally taken 
off with the jack plane, when there is room to 
apply it, if not, with the firmer chissel. In 
making of a hollow, a rough excavation is first 
made with a gouge, and then finished with the 
round, and sometimes with two rounds, of which 
the sole of the one that comes first is a little 
quicker, and the iron set more rank. 

§ 34'. Stock and Bits. ( Pl. 2. Fig. 1. > 

The stock is a wooden lever, to be turned 
round an axis swiftly by hand, in order to give 
the same rotative motion round the axis, 
to a piece of steel fixed in the said axis, the 
steel being sharpened at the extremity, so as 
to cut a cylindric hole, in the same direction as 
the axis of the stock. 

The axis is continued on both sides of the 
handle or winch part; one part of the axis is made 

■with 



JOINERY. i27 

with a broad head, to be placed against the 
breast while boring, even when pressing pretty 
hard upon the stock, and is so constructed with 
a joint, as to be stationary, while all the other 
parts are in motion ; the lower part of the stock 
is of brass, and is fixed to it by means of a screw 
passing through two ears of the brass part, and 
through the solid of the wood. The brass part 
is called the pad, which is so contrived, as to 
admit of different pieces of steel called bits, for 
boring and widening holes of various diameters 
in wood, and countersinking, both in wood and 
iron; that is, forming a cavity er hollow cone oa 
the outer side of a cylindric hole to receive the 
head of a screw, or the like. The upper part of 
each bit inserted in the stock, is the frustrum of 
a square pyramid, which goes into a hollow 
mortice of the same form, and is secured by 
means of a spring fixed in the pad, and which 
falls into a notch at the upper end of the bit. 

The construction of bits depends upon their 
use. Small bits are used for boring of wood, and 
have an interior cavity for containing the core, 
separated from the wood by the under edge. The 
lower part of the cavity is the surface of a cy- 
linder, and the upper part where the cavity ends 
is a part of a long hollow oblong spheroid, ter- 
minated upon the sides of the bit: the exterior 
side is also c^-lindrical, as high as that of the 
interior, and thence diminishes for a considerable 

way 



12S JOINERY. 

way above the hollow, that it may turn in the 
hole with the greater ease. The section of the 
bit is the figure of a crescent. The cutting edge 
has its basil on the inside^ and stands prominent 
in the middle ; this bit is also called a pin or 
gouge bit, from its being mostly used in framing: 
it bores soft wood, as deal, with greater rapidity 
than any other tool, 

§ 35. The Cenlre Bit 

Is constructed with a projecting conical point 
nearly in the middle, called the centre of the 
bit ; on the narrow vertical surface, the one most 
remote from the centre is a tooth with a cutting 
edge. The under edge of the bit on the other 
side of the center, has a projecting edge inclined 
forward. The horizontal section of this bit up- 
wards is a rectangle. The axis of the small 
cone in the centre is in the same straight line as 
that of the stock ; the cutting edge of the tooth 
is more prominent than the projecting edge on 
the other side of the centre, and the vertex of 
the conic centre, still more prominent than the 
cutting edge of the tooth. 

The use of the centre bit is to form a cylrndric 
excavation, having the upper point of the axis 
of the intended hole, given on the surface of the 
wood : the centre of the bit is first fixed in this 
point, then placing the axis of the stock and bit 
in the axis of the intended hole to be bored, with 

the 



JOINEHY. 129 

the head of the stock against your breast, lay 
hold of the handle and turn the stock swiftly 
round; fhen the hollow cone made by the centre 
will cause the point of the tooth to move in the 
circumference of a circle, and cut the cylindric 
surface progressively as it is turned round, and 
the projecting edge upon the other side of the 
centre, will cut out the core in a spiral formed 
shaving: centre bits are of various sizes in order 
to accommodate bores of different diameters. 

§ 36. Countersinks 

Are bits for v^idening the upper part of a hole 
in wood or iron, for the head of a screw or pin, 
and have a conical head. Those for wood have 
one cutter in the conic surface, and have the cut- 
ting edge more remote from the axis of the conei 
than any other part of the surface. Countersinks 
for brass have 11 or 12 cutters round the conic 
surface, so that the horizontal section represents 
a circular saw. These are called rose counter- 
sinks. The conic angle at the vertex is about 90 
degrees. Countersinks for iron have two cutting 
edges, forming an obtuse angle. 

§ 37. Rimers 

Are bits for widening holes : for this purpose 

they are of a pyramidal structure, having their 

vertical angle about 3| degrees. The hole must 

first be pierced by means of a drill or punch ; 

K when 



130 ^ JOINERY. 

when the rimer is put into the stock, and the 
point into the hole, and being turned swiftly 
round, the edges will cut or scrape off the in- 
terior surface of the hole as it sinks downwards, 
by pressing upon the head of the stock. Brass 
rimers have their horizontal sections of a semi- 
circular figure, and those for iron polygonal : of 
these some have their sections square, some hexa- 
gonal, and some octagonal. 

§ 38. The Taper Shell Bit 

Is conical both within and without, and the 
horizontal section a crescent^ thecuttingedgeisthe 
meetingof the exterior and interior conic surface. 
The use of this bit is for widening holes in wood. 

Besides the above bits, some stocks are pro- 
vided with a screw driver for sinking small screws 
into wood with greater rapidity than could be 
done by hand. 

§ 39. The Brad Awl (Pl.2. Fig. 3.) 

Is the smallest boring tool, its handle is the 
frustum of a cone tapering downwards. The 
steel part is also conical, but tapering upwards, 
and the cutting edge is the meeting of two basils, 
ground equally from each side. A hole is made 
by placing the edge transverse to the fibres of 
the wood, and pushing the brad awl into the 
wood, turning it to and fro by a reciprocal 
motion. The core is not brought out as by the 
' other 



JOINERY. 131 

other boring instruments ; but the wood is dis- 
placed and condensed around the hole. Brad 
awls are used for making a way for brads, and are 
of several sizes ; they are not so apt to split the 
wood as the gimblet. 

^ 40. Chissels in general, (Pl. 2. Figs. 3, 4, 5. ) 

A chissel is art edge tool for cutting wood, 
either by leaning on it, or by striking it with a 
mallet. The lower part of the chissel is the 
frustum of a cuneus or wedge, the cutting edge 
is always on, and generally at right angles to the 
side. The basil is o-round entirely from one side. 
The two sides taper in a small degree upward^ 
but the two narrow surfaces taper downwards in 
a greater degree. The upper part of the iron 
has a shoulder, which is a plain surface at right 
angles to the middle line of the chissel. From 
this plane surface rises a prong in the form of a 
square pyramid, the middle line of which is the 
same as the middle line of the cuneus or wedsre: 
the prong is inserted and fixed in a socket of a 
piece of wood of the same form. This piece 
of wood is called the handle, and is generally 
the frustum of an octagonal pyramid, the mid- 
dle line of which is the same as that of the chis- 
sel ; the tapering sides of the handle diminish 
downwards, and terminate upwards in an octa- 
gonal dome. The use of the shoulder is for pre- 
venting the prong from splitting the handle while 
being struck with the mallet. The chissel is 

K. % made 



132 JOINERY. 

made stronger from the cutting edge to the 
shoulder, as it is sometimes used as a lever^ the 
prop being at or near the middle^ and the power 
at the handle, and the resistance at the cutting 
edge ; some chissels are made with iron ou one 
side, and steel on the other, and others consist 
entirely of steel. 

There are several kinds of chissels, as the 
paring chissel, the mortice chissel, the socket 
chissel, and the ripping chissel. 

§ 41. The Firmer Chissel ( Pl. 2. Fig. 4. ) 

Is used both by carpenters and joiners in cu^ 
ting away the superfluous wood by thin chips. 
The best are made of cast steel. 

When there is a great deal of superfluous 
wood to be cut away, sometimes a strong chissel 
consisting of an iron back and steel face is first 
used, by driving it into the wood with a mallet, 
and then a slighter one, consisting entirely of 
steel sharpened to a very fine edge, is used in the 
finish. The first used is called a firmer, and the 
last, a pareing chissel, in working which, only 
the shoulder or hand is employed in forcing it 
into the wood. ^ 

^42. The Mortice Chissel (Pl. 2. Fig. 5.) 
Is made made exceedingly strong, for cutting 
out a rectangular prismatic cavity across the 
fibres, quite through or very deep in a piece of 

wood. 



* JOINERY. 133 

wood, for the purpose of inserting a rectangular 
pin of the same form on the end of another piece 
of wood, and thereby fastening the two pieces 
of wood together. The cavity is called a mor- 
tice, and the pin inserted, a tenon : and the chis- 
sel used for cutting out the cavity is therefore 
called a mortice chissel. As the thickness of this 
chissel from the face to the back is great, in order 
to withstand the percusive force of the mallet : 
and as the angle which the basil makes with the 
face is about 25 degrees, the slant dimension of 
the basil is very great. This chissel is only used 
by percusive force, given by the mallet. 

§43. The Gouge 

Is used in cutting an excavation of a concave 
form, and is similar to the chissel, except that 
the bottom part is cylindrical both within and 
without, the basil is made on the inside ; the best 
are those which are made of cast steel. 

§ 44. . The Drawing Knife 

Is an oblique ended chissel^, or old knife, for 
drawing in the ends of tenons, by making a 
deep incision with the sharp edge, by the edge 
of the tongue of a square : for this purpose a 
small part is cut out in the form of a triangular 
prism, and consequently the hollow will contain 
one interior angle and two sides, one side next 
the body of the wood being perpendicular, and 
the other inclined. The use of this excavation 

is 



154 



JOINERY. 



is to enter the saw, and keep it close to the 
shoulder, and to make the end of the rail quite 
smooth, for the saw will not only be liable to 
get out of its course into a new direction, but 
may tear and scratch the wood at the shoulder. 

§ 45, 0/ Saws in general. 
(Pl. 2. Fig. 6, 7, 8, 9, 13.) 
A saw is a thin plate of steel indented on the 
edge for cutting, by a reciprocal change in the di- 
rection of motion, pushing it from, and drawing it 
towards you. The cut which it makes, or the 
part taken away in a board, is a thin sjice, con- 
tained between parallel planes, or a deep narrow 
groove of equal thickness. Saws are of several 
kinds, as the Ripping saw, the Half ripper, the 
Hand saw, the Pannel saw, the Tenon saw, the 
Sash saw, the Dove-tail saw, the Compass saw, 
and the Key-hole or turning savy. The teeth of 
these saws are all formed so as to contain an 
angle of 60 degrees, both external and internal 
angles, and incline more or less forward as the 
saw is made to cut transverse to, or in the direc- 
tion of the fibres: they are also of different 
lengths and breadths, according to their use. 
The teeth of a saw are bent alternately to each 
side, that the plate may clear the wood. 

§ 46. The Bipping Saiv 
Is used in dividing or slitting wood in the di- 
rection of the fibrejj., the teeth are very large, 

there 



JOINERY. 135 

tliere being 8 in 3 inches, and the front of the 
teeth stand perpendicular to the line which ranges 
with the points : the length of the plate is about 
^8 inches. 

§ 47. The Half Ripper 

Is also used in dividing wood in the direction 
of the fibres: the length of the plate of this k 
the same as the fornier, but there are only 3 
teeth in the inch. 

§48. The Hand Saw (Pl. 3. Fig. 6.) 

Is both used for cutting the wood in a direc- 
tion of the fibres and cross cutting: for this pur- 
pose the teeth are more reclined than the two 
former saws: there are 15 teeth contained in 
4 inches. The length of the plate is 26 inches. 

§ 49. The Pannel Saw 
Is used for cutting very thin wood, either in a 
direction of, or transverse to the fibres. The 
length of the plate is the same as that of the 
hand saw; but there are only about 6 teeth in the 
inch. The plates of the hand saw and pannd 
saw are thinner than the ripping saw. 

§ 50. The Tenon Saw (Pl. 2. Fig. 7.) 
Is generally used for cutting wood transverse 
to the fibres, as the shoulders of tenons. The 
plates of a tenon saw is from 14 to 19 inches in 

length. 



136 JOINERY. 

length, and the number of teeth in an inch from 
8 to 10. As this saw is not intended to cut through 
the wood its whole breadth, and as the plate 
■would be too thin to make a straight kerf, or to 
keep it from buckling, there is a thick piece of 
iron fixed upon the other edge for this purpose, 
called the back. The opening through the han- 
dle for the fingers of this and the foregoing saws 
is inclosed all round; and on this account is 
called a double handle. 

§51. The Sash Saw (Pl. 2. Fig. 8.) 

Is used b}' sash makers in forming the tenons 
of sashes: the plate is II inches in length. The 
inch contains about 13 teeth ; this saw is some- 
tirjacs backed with iron, but more frequently with 
)}rass. 

§ 52. The Dove-tail Saw 

Is used in dove-tailing drawers. The length 
of the plate is about 9 inches, and the inch con- 
tains about 15 teeth. This plate is also backed 
with brass. The handles of the two last saws 
are onlj single. 

§ 53. The Co7ivpass Sazv ( Pl. 2. Fig. 9. ) 
Is for cutting the surfaces of wood into curved 
surfaces: for this purpose it is narrow, with- 
out a back, thicker on the cutting edge, as the 
teeth have no set. The plate is about an inch 

broad. 



JOINERY. 137 

broad/ next to the handle, and diminishes to 
about one quarter of an inch at the other ex- 
tremity, here are about 5 teeth in the inch, Tlie 
handle is single. 

§ 54, The Key-hole or Turning Saw 
(Pl.2. Fig. 10.) 

Is similar to the compass saw in the plate, but 
the handle is long, and perforated from end to 
end, so that the plate may be inserted any dis- 
tance within the handle. The lower part of the 
handle is provided with a pad, through which is 
inserted a screw, for the purpose of fastening the 
plate in the handle: this saw is used for turning 
out quick curves, as key-holes, and is therefore 
frequently called a key-hole saw, 

§ 55. The Hatchet 

Is a small axe, used chiefly in cutting away 
the superfluous wood from the edge of a piece 
of stuff*, when the part to be cut away ia too 
email to be sawed. 

§ 56. The Square (Pl. 2. Fig. U.) 

Consists of two rectangular prismatic pieces of 
wood, or one of wood, and the other, which is 
the thinest, of steel, flxed together, each at one 
of their extremities, so as to form a right angle 
both internally and externally ; the interior right 
angle is therefore called the inner square, and the 
exterior one the outer square. The side of the 

square 



138 JOINERY. 

square which contains the mortice, or through 
which the end of the other piece passes, is made 
yerj thick, not only that it may be strong enough 
for containing the tenon of the other piece, but 
that it should keep steady and fiat when used, 
and the piece which contains the tenon is made 
thin, in order to observe more clearly whether 
the edge of the square and the wood coin- 
cide. The thick side of the square is called 
the stock or handle, and the narrow surface of 
the handle is always applied to the vertical sur- 
face of the wood. The thin side of the square 
is called the blade, and the inner edge of the 
blade is always applied ta tli« horizontal surface 
of th« wood. Squares are of different dimen- 
sions according to their use : some are employed 
in trying-up-wood, and some for setting out 
work, the former is called a trying square, and 
the latter a setting-out-square ; the blade ought 
to be of steel, and always ought to project be- 
yond the end of the stock, particularly if made 
of wood. The stock is always made thick that 
it may be used as a kind of fence in keeping 
the blade at right angles to the arris. 

§ 57. To 'prove a Square. 

Take a straight edged board which has been 
faced up, and apply the inner edge of the stock 
of the square to the straight edge of the board, 

laying 



JOINERY. 139 

|a_ylng the side of the tongue upon the face of 
the board ; with a sharp point draw a line upon 
the surface of the board by the edge of the 
square: turn the square so that the other side of 
the blade may lie upon the face of the board ; 
bring the stock close to the straight edge of the 
board, then if the edge of the square does not lie 
pver the line, or any part of the line, the square 
must be shifted until it does, then if the edge 
of the tongue of the square and the line coincide, 
the square is already true : but if there is an open 
space between the farther side of the board and 
the straight edge, that is, if the farther end of 
the edge of the tongue of the square meets the 
farther end of the line from the straight edge, 
draw another line by the edge of the tongue of 
the square, and these two lines will form an acute 
angle with each other, the vertex of which will 
be at the farther side of the board, and the open- 
ing towards the straight edge : take the mid- 
dle of the distance between the two lines at the 
arris, and draw a line from the middle point to 
the point of concourse of the lines: then the blade 
of the square must be shot or made straight, 
so as to coincide with this last line. The same, 
or a similar operation must be repeated, if the 
contrary way. 

§ 58. The 



i4<^ JOINERY. 

§58. The Bevel {Fl. 2. Fig. \2.) 
Consists of a blade and handle the same as the 
square, except that the tongue is made moveable 
on a joint that it may be set to any angle. When 
many pieces of stuft' are to be tryed up to a par- 
ticular anoxic, an immoveable bevel ought to be 
made for the purpose, for unless very great care 
be taken in laying down the moveable bevel, it 
will be liable to shift. 

§ 59. The Gauge (Pl. 2. Fig. 13.) 

Is an instrument for drawing a line parallel 
to the arris of a piece of stuff, on one or both 
of the adjoining surfaces. It consists of a thick 
rectangular prismatic part, with a mortice of the 
same figure, cut perpendicularly through it be- 
tween two of its opposite sides, and this prism is 
called the head. In the mortice is inserted an- 
other prism exactly made to fill its cavity, this 
prism is called the stem ; at one end of the stem is a 
steel tooth projecting perpendicularly from the 
surface, so that by striking one end or other with 
the mallet, the tooth is moved farther or nearer 
to the adjacent surface of the head, as the dis- 
tance may be wanted between the arris of the 
stuff and the line to be marked out by the tooth. 

60. The Mortice Gauge 

Is constructed similar to the common gauge, 
but has two teeth instead of one. One tooth is 

stationary 



JOINERY. 141 

stationary at the end of the stem, and the other 
is moveable in a mortice between the fixed tooth 
and the head, so that the distances of the teeth 
from each other, and of each tooth from the 
head may be set in any ratio or proportion to each 
other, that the thickness of a tenon or wood may 
require. The use of thi^ gauge is as its name 
imphes, for gauging mortices and tenons. 

§ 61. Tlie Side Hook (Pl. 1. Fig. 11.) 
Is a rectangular prismatic piece of wood with 
two projecting knobs upon the alternate sides of 
it. Every Joiner ought to be provided with at 
least two side hooks of equal size. Their use is 
to hold a board fast, the fibres of the board run- 
ning in the direction of the length of the bench, 
while the workman is cutting across the fibres 
with a saw or grooving plane, or in travesing the 
wood, which is planing in a direction perpendi- 
cular to the fibres, or with very little obliquity, 

§ 62. The Mitre Box 

Is used for cutting a piece of tried-up stuff at 
an angle of 45 degrees with two of its surfaces, 
or at least to one of the arrises, and perpendicular 
to the other two sides, or at least to one of them 
obliquely to the fibres. The mitre box consists 
of three boards, two, called the sides being fix- 
ed at right angles to a third, called the bottom : 
the bottom and top of the sides are all parallel: 

the 



142 JOINEKY. 

the sides are of equal height, and cut with a ^arw 
in two directions of straight surfaces at right 
angles to each other and to the bottom^ forming 
an angle of 45 degrees with the sides. 

§ 63. The Shooting Block 
Is two boards fixed together, the sides of 
which are lapped upon each other, so as to form 
a rebate for the purpose of making a short joint, 
either oblique to the fibres or in their direction. 
By this instrument thejoints of pannels for fram- 
ing are made, also the joints for the mitres of 
Architraves, or the like. 

§ 64. The Straight Edge 

Is a piece of stuff or board made perfectly 
straight on the edge, in order to make other edges 
straight, or to plane the face of a board straight. 

Straight edges are of different dimensions as 
the magnitude of the work may require. 

§ 65. Winding Sticks 

Are two pieces of wood of equal breadth for 
the purpose of ascertaining whether a surface be 
straight or not, if not, the surface must be brought 
to a straight by trial. 

§66. The Mitre Square 

Is so called, because it bisects the right 
angle, or mitres the square, and is therefore an 
immoveable bevel, made to strike an angle af 

forty 



JOINERY. 143 

forty-five degrees with one side or ege of a piece 
of s^uff, upon the adjoining side or edge of the 
said piece of stuff: it consists of a broad (hiu 
board let in, or tongued into a piece on the edge, 
called the fence or handle; the fence projects 
equally upon each side of the thin piece or blade, 
of which one of the edges is made to contain an 
angle of 45 degrees with the nearest edge of the 
handle, or of that in which the blade is inserted. 
The inside of the handle is called the guide ; the 
handle may be about an inch thick, 2 inches 
broad, the blade about a ^ of an inch, or about 
^ and V^. The blade may be about 7 or 8 inches 
broad; but mitre squares must be of various 
sizes, according to the work, and consequently 
of different thicknesses. 

To use the mitre square, lay the guide of the 
handle upon the arris, slide it along the stuff 
until the oblique edge comes to the place re- 
quired, then draw a line by this edge ; the angle 
of the mitre may be struck either way, according 
to the ^direction required, by turning the mitre 
square, 



§ 67. Explanations 



144 JOINERY, 

§ 67. Explanations of the Plates in Joineri/^ 
PLATE I. TOOLS. 

Fig. 1 the Jack Plane, a the stocky & the tote 
or handle, being a single tote, c the iron, d the 
•wedge for tightening the iron, e the orifice or 
place of discharge for the shavings. 

Fig. 2 the Trying Plane, the parts are the 
same as the jack plane, except that the hollow 
of the tote is surrounded with wood, and is 
therefore called a double tote. 

Fig. 3 is the Smoothing Plane without a tote, 
the hand-hold being at the hind end of the plane. 

Fig. 4 the Iron, No. 1 the cover for breaking 
the shaving screwed upon the top of the iron, in 
order io prevent the tearing of the wood, in a 
front view : No. 2 front of the iron without the 
cover, showing the slit for the screw which fastens 
the cover to the iron : No. 3 profile of iron and 
cover screwed together. 

Fig. 5 the Wedge for tightening the iron : 
No. 1 longitudinal section of the wedge: No. ^ 
front, showing the hollow below for the head of 
the screw. 

Fig. 6 Sash Fillister, for throwing on the 
bench, a head of one stem, b tail of the other, 
c iron, <:Z wedge, e thumb screw for moving the 
stop up and down, ff fence for regulating the 
distance of the rebate from the arris. 

Fig. 



?_>w;'^<^^J^. 



J'lat^l. 



€ 










Ti?^. 



Zon^mJhiK^/irJMnW, tffJwiv.ZZ^y&aKS^A^olitVTl . 



J2 



JOINERY. 145 

Fig. 7 Moving Fillister for throwing the shav- 
ing on the bench: No. 1 right hand side of the 
plane, rt brass stop, ftthumbscrewof do, cde tooth, 
the upper part c cl on the outside of the neck, and 
the part dc passing thiough the solid of the 
body with a small part open above, e for the tang 
of the iron tooth, ff the guide of the fence : 
No. 2 bottom of the plane turned up, a the guide 
of the stop, ./y the fence, showing the screws for 
regulating the guide, gg the mouth and cutting 
edge of the iron. 

Fig. 8 the Plow, the same with regard to the 
stem fence and stop, and also in other respects 
as the sash fillister, except the sole, which is a 
narrow iron. 

Fig. 9 the Mallet. 

Fig. 10 the Hammer. 

Fig. 1 1 the Side Hook for cutting the shoulders 
of tenons. 

Fig. 12 the Work Bench, a the bench hook, 
1) b the screw check, c c handle of screw, d end 
of guide. 



PLATE If. 



146 JOINERY. 

PLATE 11. TOOLS. 

Fig. 1 Stock, into which is fixed a centre bif. 

Fig. 2 No. 1 the Girablet: No. 3 the lower 
part at full size. 

Fig. 3 No. 1 the Brad Awl : No. 2 the lower 
end turned edge-wajs: No. 3 the lower end turn- 
ed side-wajs. 

Fig. 4 No. 1 the Paring Chissel : No. 2 the 
lower end turned edge-ways with the basil. 

Fig. 5 the Mortice Chissel : No. 1 side of the 
chissel: No. 2 front: No. Slower end with the 
basil. 

Fig. 6 Hand Saw. 

Fig. 7 Tenon Saw, with back generally of iron. 

Fig. 8 Sash Saw, backed generally with brass. 

Fig. 9 Compass Saw for cutting curved pieces 
of wood. 

Fig. 10 Key-hole Saw a the pad in which are 
inserted a spring and two screws, for fixing the , 
saw to any length. 

JV. B. The Hand Saw and Tenon Saw have 
what are called double handleSj and the Tenon 
and Compass Saws single handles. The position 
and form of the handle depends on the position 
of the working direction of the saw. 

Fig. 11 the Square, ah c the outer square, def 
the inner square, af?e the stock or handle, bcfe 
the blade. 

Fig. 12 the Moveable Bevel, n h the stock, 
d c the blade. 

Fig. 13 the Gauge, a a the stem, b b the head 
which moves, c the tooth which marks. 

PLATE HI. 






J*laie 2. 



Fz^J. v%^. Zi^.S. Ti^.4-. 



JTz^.^. 




M^J^. 



Ziv-JonJ^ihtfteifMayrh iBHSu/iyJJaylc.-^^AMaao 



13 



Fitjf. 3. 



Ftff.6. 






Fig.l. 



D 



Tiff. I. 




Fi^ 



O. 



X 




^ Fzi/.& 




ZanAnJ^M'/ifJjW/nr?! tOjtn.fyJJxiiTcr-JSa^ /Mhom . 



' JOINERY. 147 

PLATE III. MOULDINGS. 

§ 68. To draw the several Kinds of ^Mouldings 
made hy Joiners. 

An Astragal is a moulding of a semi-circular 
profile, its construction is so simple that it would 
be unnecessary to say any thing concerning it. 
Fig. 1. 

There are two kinds of Beads, one is call- 
ed a cocked bead, when it projects beyond the 
surface to which it is attached. See Fig. % ana 
the other is called a sunk bead, when the sink- 
ing is depressed beneath the surface of the mate- 
rial to which it is attached, that is, when the 
most prominent part of the bead is in the sante 
surface with that of the material. Fig. 3. 

A Torus in architecture is a moulding of the 
same profile as a bead, the only difference is 
when the two are combined in the same piece of 
work; the torus is of greater magnitude as fig. 
4; in joinery the torus is always accompanied 
with a fillet. Fig. 5. single torus moulding. 

The Roman Ovolo or quarter round, as called 
by joiners, is the quadrant of a circle, fig. 6. 
When the projection and height are unequal, as 
in Fig. 7, take the height BC, and from the point 
B describe an arc at C, and with the same radius 
from A, describe another arc cutting the former 
at D, with the distance A D or D B describe the 
profile A B. This is generally accompanied with 
lillets above and below, as in Fig. 7. 

L 2 The 



148 JOINERY. 

The Cavetto is a concave moulding, the rc-^ 
gular profile of which is the qu;idrant of a circle. 
Fig. S, its description is the same as the ovolo. 

A Scotia is a concave moulding receding at 
the top, and projecting at the bottom, which in 
this respect is contrary bo|;h to the ovolo and 
cavetto; it is also to be observed, that its profile 
consists of two quadrants of circles of different 
radii, or it may be considered as a semi-ellipse 
taken upon two conjugate diameters. Fig. 9, 

To describe the scotia, divide the height -A B 
into three equal parts, at the point 2 draw the 
line 2 C D, being one third from the top, draw 
E C perpendicular to C D with the centre C, 
and distance C E describe the quadrant EF; take 
the height A 2 and make F D equal to it : draw 
D G perpendicular to F D, from D with the 
distance D F, describe the arc FG and EFG 
will be the profile of the scotia. This mould- 
ing is peculiarly applied to the bases of columns, 
and makes a distinguishing line of shadow be- 
tween the torii. 

The Ogee is a moulding of contrary curvature, 
and is of two kinds: when the profile of the 
projecting part is concave, and consequently, the 
receding part convex, the ogee is called a Cima- 
recta: Figs. 10 & 11, and when the contrary, 
it is then called a Cima-reversa, Fig. 12. 

To decribe the cima-recta when the projec- 
tion of the moulding is equal to its height, and 

when 



JOINERY. 149 

when required to be of a quick curvature. Fig. 
10. Join the projections of the fillets A and B by 
the straight line A B : bisect A B at C, draw 
E C D parallel to the fillet FA, draw A D and 
BE perpendicular to FB: from the point E 
describe the quadrant BC, and from the point 
D describe the quadrant A C, then B C A is the 
profile. 

To describe the ciraa-recta when the height 
and projection are unequal, and when it is re- 
quired to be of a flat curvature. Fig. 11. Join 
A B and bisect it in C, with the distance B C or 
CA from the point A describe the arc CD from 
C with the same radius, describe the arc AD 
cutting the former in D, the foot of the compass 
still remaining, in C describe the arc B E, from 
B with the same radius describe the arc C E, 
from the point D describe the arc A C, from the 
point E describe the arc C B, then will ACB be 
the profile required. 

~ The Cima-reversa Fig. 12 is described in the 
same manner. 

Quirk mouldings sometimes occasion confusion 
as to- their figure, particularly when removed 
from the eye,^ so as frequently to make one mould- 
ing appear as two. 



PLATE IV, 



150 JOINERY* 



§ 69. PLATE IV. MOULDINGS. 

The names of mouldings according to their 
situation and combination^ in various pieces of 
Joiners work. 

Fig. 1 Edge said to be rounded. 

Fig. 2 Quirked Bead, or bead and quirk. 

Fig. 3 Bead and Double Quirk, or return 
bead. 

Fig. 4 Double Bead, or douljle bead and 
quirk. 

Fig. 5 Single Torus. 

Fig. 6 Double Torus. Here it is to be ob- 
served, that the distinction between torus mould- 
ings and beads in joinery is, the outer edge of 
the former always terminates with a fillet, whether 
the torus be double or single, whereas in beads 
there is no fillet on the outer edge. 

Figs. 7, 8, 9 Single, Double, and Triple reed- 
ed mouldings; semi-cylindric mouldings are de- 
nominated reedsi either when they are terminated 
by a straight surface equally protuberant on both 
sides, as in these figures, or disposed longitudi- 
nally round the circumference of a jhaft; but if 
only terminated on one side with a flush surface, 
they are then either beads or torus mouldings. 

Fig. 10 



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JOINEHY. 151 

Fig. 10 Reeds disposed round the convex sur- 
face of a cj'linder. 

Figs. 11, 13, 13 Fluted Work. When the 
flutes are semi-circular, as in Fig. 11, it is neces- 
sary that there should be some distance between 
them, as it would be impossible to bring their 
junction to an arris; but in flutes, the sections 
of which are flat segments, the flutes generally 
meet each other without any intermediate straight 
surface between them. The reason of this is, 
that the light and shade of the adjoining hol- 
lows are more contrasted, the angle of their 
meeting being more acute, than if of a flat 
space were formed between them. See Figures IS 
and 13, fluting round the convex surface of a 
cylinder. 



PLATE V. 



152 JOINERY. 



PLATE V. 

§ 70. Mouldings of Doors, Sgc. 

Tiie different denominations of framed doors, 
according to their mouldings and pannels^ and 
framed work in general. The figures in the 
plates to which these descriptions refer to, are 
sections of doors, through one of the stiles tak- 
ing in a small part of the pannel, or thej may 
be considered as a vertical section through the 
top rail, showing part of the pannel. 

Fig. 1 the Framing is without mouldings, and 
the pannel a straight surface on both sides : this 
is denominated Doors square and flat pannel on 
both sides. 

Fig. 2 the Framing has a quirked ovolo, and 
a fillet on one side, but without mouldings 
on the other, and the pannel flat on both sides: 
this is denominated Doors quirked ovolo, fil- 
let and flat, with square back. 

Fig. 3 differs only from the last in having a 
bead instead of a fillet, and is therefore denomi- 
nated quirked ovolo, bead and flat pannel, with 
square back. 

Fig. 4 has an additional fillet on the framing, 
to what there is in Fig. 3, and is therefore deno- 
minated quirked ovolo bead, fillet and flat pannel 
with square back. 

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iOiNERY. io^ 

M)tei When the back is said to be square, as 
in Figs. 2, 3, 4, the meaning is, i\\ki there are 
no mouldings on the framing and the pannel 
is a straight surface on one side of the door. 

Fig. 5 the framing struck with quirk ogee 
and quirked bead on one side, and square on 
the other; the surface of the pannel straight 
on both sides, this is called quirked ogee quirk 
bead and flat pannel, with square back. 

Fig. 6 differs from the last, only in having 
the bead raised above the lower part of the 
ogee and a fillet. This is therefore denominated 
quirked ogee, cocked bead, and flat pannel with 
square back. 



PLATE VL 



154 JOINERY* 

PLATE VI. 

Mouldings of Doors, ^e. 

Fig. 1 is denominated cove, cocked bead, and 
flat pannel, with square back. 

Fig. 2 is denominated quirked ovolo, bead, fil- 
let, and raised pannel on front, with square back. 
The rising of the pannel gives strength to the 
door, and on this account thej are often employ- 
ed in street doors, though the fashion at present 
is discontinued in the inside of buildings. 

Fig. 3 the framing is the same as the last, but 
the pannel is raised in front, and has an ovolo on 
the rising. This is therefore denominated quirk- 
ed ovolo, bead, and raised pannel, with ovolo on 
the rising on front of door, with square back. 

Fig. 4 is denominated quirked ogee, raised 
pannel, ovolo, and iillet on the rising and astragal 
on the flat of pannel in front and square back. 

J^'bte, The raised sides of the pannel is al«- 
ways turned towards the street. 

Fig. 5 is denominated quirked ovolo, bead, fil- 
let, and flat pannel, on both sides ; doors of this 
description are used between rooms, or between 
passages and rooms, where the door is equally 
exposed on both sides. When the pannels are 
fiat on both sides, or simply champhered on one 
side and flat on the other, and the framing of 
the door moulded on the side which has the flat 
pannels : such doors are employed in rooms 
where one side only is exposed, and the other 
never but when opened, being turned towards a 

cupboard or dark closet. 

PLATE VIL 




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JOINERY* 155 



\ PLATE VII. 

Mouldings for Doors, ^c. 

Fig. 1 is denomiaated bead, but, and square, 
or more fullj bead and but, front and square 
back. In bead and but work, the bead is always 
struck on the outer arris of the top or flat of the 
pannel in thtf direction of the grain. 

Fig. 2 is denominated bead and flush front 
and quirked ogee, raised pannel, with ovolo on 
the rising, groo\ed on flat of pannel, on back. 
Bead and flush, and bead and but work are al- 
ways used where strength is required. The 
mouldings on the inside are made to correspond 
with the other passage or hall doors. 

Fig. 3 is a collection or series of mouldings 
the same on both sides, and project in part with- 
out the framing on each side, the mouldings are 
laid in after the door is framed square and put 
together. If braded through the sides of the 
quirks, the heads will be entirely concealed ; but 
observe, that the position of the brads must not 
be directed towards the pannels, but into t^ie 
solid of the framing. The mouldings of doors 
which thus project are termed belection mould- 
ings ; belection moulded work is chiefly employ- 
ed in superior buildings. 

Fig, 



156 JOINEHY. 

Fig. 4 another form of a Belection Mould- 
ing- 

The following is a Geometrical description 

of Reeded mouldings^ sash bars, and the manner 
of springing mouldings. 

Fig. 5 to inscribe a circle in a given sector 
ABC of a circle, bisect the angle B A C by 
G A : produce the sides A B, A C to D and E, 
and AG to meet the arc in F, draw D E per- 
pendicular to A F, bisect the angle D E A of 
the triangle A D E by E G, and G is the centre 
of the inscribed circle and G F the radius. 

Fig. 6 a Reeded staff, the reeds described as 
in Fig. 5. 



PLATE VIII. 



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JOINERY, 157 

PLATE VIII. 

JMouldings for Sashes and Cornices. 

Figj. I Simple Astragal or half round bar for 
gashes. 

Fig. 2 Quirked Astragal bar. 

Fig. 3 Quirked Gothic bar. 

Fig. 4 another form of a Gothic bar. 

Fig. 5 Double Ogee bar, this and the preced- 
ing forms are easily kept clean. 

Fig. 6 Quirked Astragal and hollow, bars 
of this structure have been long in use. 

Fig. 7 Double Reeded bar. 

Fig. 8 Treple Reeded bar. 

Fig. 9 Base Moulding of a room with part of 
the skirting. When the base mouldings are very 
largC;, they ought to be sprung as in this diagram. 
A the base moulding, B part of the plinth. 
In order to know what thickness it would require 
^ board to be of, to get out a moulding upon the 
spring, the best method is to draw the mould- 
ing out to the full size, then draw a line pa- 
rallel to the general line of the moulding, so as 
to make it equally strong throughout its breadth, 
and also of sufficient strength for its intended 
purpose. 

Fig. 10 a Cornice. The part A forming the 
corona, is got out of a plank. B is a bracket, 
C the moulding on the front spring, D a cover 
board forming the upper fillet, E a moulding 
sprung below the corona, F a bracket. 

^1\. Definitions. 



lo8 JOINERY. 

§ 71. Definitions. 

A piece of stuff is said to be wrought when it 
it is planed on one or more sides^ so as to make 
a complete finish as far as required by a plane; 
hence if it is only planed with the jack plane, 
and no farther operation of any other plane re- 
quired, in this case it is said to be wrought; and 
if the stuff requires to be made straighter with 
the trying plane, the stuff is still said to be 
wrought. 

The operation of planing the fir«t side of a 
board or piece of stuff straight, is called facing, 
the side so done is called the face, and the board 
itself it said to be faced-up. 

The operation of planing the edge of a board 
straight, is called shooting, and the edge is said 
to be shot. 

When two adjoining surfaces of a piece of 
stuff are planed so as to form a right angle, the 
piece of stuff is said to be squared. 

When two adjoining surfaces of a piece of 
stuff are planed so as to form an acute or obtuse 
angle by the inclination of these surfaces, this 
piece of stuff is said to be bevelled ; and if one 
surface is narrower than the other, the narrower 
surface becomes the edge, the edge is thjen said 
to be bevelled: but this is only meant in reference 
to the face, as the exp^ression could have no mean- 
ing, except in the relation of the adjoining sur- 
faces. The same is also applied to a piece of 

wood 



JOINERY. 159 

wood that has been squared, the edge is said to 
be squared, instead of the adjoining surfaces said 
to be squared » 

When a line has been drawn on the face or 
edge of a piece of stuff parallel to the arris or 
line of concourse of the two surfaces that are 
planed, that surface is said to be gauged, and is 
generally done by means of the iniplement or 
tool called a gauge. 

When the stuff is planed on one, two, three, 
or all the four sides, as may be required, then 
the stuff is said to be tried up; the term try-up 
ii sometimes applied to facing-, b^H in what fol- 
lows, the term facing, is only applied to the side 
first wrought. 

§ 72. To make a Straight Edge. 

Fasten two boards together in the checks of 
the bench screw, at one end, and support the 
other end with the side pin, inserted in one of 
the holes of the side board ; plane the upper 
edges as straight as the eye can observe : unscrew 
the check board, place one board upon the other, 
with the planed edges together, and the faces of 
the boards in a straight line with each other ; then 
if the edges coincide they are straight, but if not 
they will be alike round, or alike hollow ; the 
prominent parts must be marked, and the opera- 
tion repeated as often as may be found necessary. 
Id shooting the edges, the rough is first taken off 

with 



160 JOINERY. 

with the jack plane; in convex places stand still 
drawing and pushing the plane to and from you 
by the motion of the arms, until the prominent 
part or parts have been reduced by repeated 
shavings, which will be taken off the wood, 
every time the plane is driven forwards: then hav- 
ing got the edges very nearly straight, you may 
tajte one or two shavings by going the whole 
lenffth from the hind to the fore end, without 
drawing back the plane: then with the trying or 
long plane walk from end to end as before, push- 
ing the plane continually forward, and if it take 
a shaving of unequal breadth, or uneqnal thick- 
ness, or both, repeat the operation again until this 
is not the case. If the edges are very long, the 
same operation must be performed with the jointer, 
viz. by pushing it forward from end to end. 
Then, when two edges coincide in working them 
together in this manner, you will have two straight 
edfi-es. Straight edgres are easier made when the 
board has been previously faced. Here the work- 
man must keep the definition of a straight line 
continually in view. 

§ 73. To face a Piece of Sti{jf. 
Here the workman must not lose sight of the 
definition of a straight surface, viz. it is that 
which will every where coincide with a straight 
line : apply the edges of a pair of winding sticks 
one to the farther end of the surface, and the 

other 



JOINERY. 161 

Other to the nearer; directing the eye* in any 
straight line coinciding with the upper edges: 
then if by keeping the eye at the same point, and 
if straight lines can be directed from it to all 
other points in the upper edge of each winding 
stick, then the ends of the surface are in a plane. 
Draw a line by the edge of each winding stick 
on the surface, and if the surface will every 
where coincide with a straight line, then it is al- 
ready straight, there will be very little to do but 
plane the rough away. But if on applying the 
edges of the winding sticks to the surface, a 
straight line can only be directed from the eye to 
one point in the upper edge of each winding 
stick, then the surface is said to wind, and is 
called a winding surface; in such a case there 
will always be two corners of the surfiice higher 
than the other two, then with the jack plane re- 
duce the surface at the corners until both edges 
of the winding sticks are in the same plane, 
dr^w a line by the edge of each winding stick on 
the surface as before, then with the jack plan§, 
reduce all the prominent parts between the lines: 
having obtained a surface very nearly straight by 
one or several trials by the jack plane; plane off 
the ridges which the jack plane has left, with 
the trying plane, and apply the winding sticks in 

* That is, shutting one eye and observing with the other. 
This depends on vision being always performed in' straight 
lines, 

M the 



162 JOINERY. 

the same manner : in order to be certain whether 
you are keeping the surface true or not. 

§ 74. To shoot the Edge of a Board. 

First rough plane the side of the board with the 
jack plancj or plane the rough off the side of 
the board next to the joint. Then setting the 
sides of the board in a vertical position, and plac- 
ing it in the bench screw, proceed in the same 
manner in the operation of planing as in making 
a straight edge ; except that there is only one 
edge planed at a time in shooting. If the joint 
is not very long, it is brought to a straight by the 
eye: but if very long, a straight edge must be 
used; in shooting the edge, the hand must be 
carried regular from end to end. 

§ 75. To joint Two Boards together. 
Shoot the edge of each board first, or if thejr 
arc ^ery thin, they may be shot together, apply 
each of the edges together, then if they are quite 
close both face and back of the board, and the 
faces of the two boards straight with each other, 
they may be glued together : but if not, the ope- 
ration must be repeated until there is no space 
left on either side, and the sides quite straight 
with each other : when properly shot, spread the 
edges over with strong thin glue of a proper-con- 
sistence made very hot, one of the boards being 
fixed, the faces adjoining each other, and the 

edges 



JOINERY. 163 

edges straight; then turn the loose board 
upon the fixed boards, applying the edges that 
are shot together, rub the upper board back- 
wards and forv/ards until the two begin to stick 
fast, and the glue mostly rubbed out, the faces 
must be brought as nearly straight as possible. 

§ 76. To join any JViimher of Boards, Edge' to 
Edge, with Glue, so as to form One Board. 

First shoot the edges of two boards, so as to 
bring thenf»to a joint, mark the faces of these 
bo£lrds next to the joint, then shoot the other 
edge of one of the boards, and another edge of 
another board, and bring these to a joint also, 
marking them as before, proceed in this manner 
until as many boards have been jointed as make 
the entire breadth required, always numbering 
the boards in regular order. Glue the G.rsi two 
together, when sufficiently dry, glue the second 
and third board, and so on till all the joints are 
glued. 

If the boards or planks be very long, the edges 
which are to be united, will require to be warmed 
before a fire. And in order to keep the faces fair 
with each other, three men will be necessary 
alsojn helping to rub, one to guide the middle, 
and one to guide each end. 

§ 77. To square and try-up a Piece of Stuff. 

First face the side of the stuff, apply the edge 
of the stock of a square to this side, and the edge 

M2 of 



164 JOINERY. 

of the tongue to the other side or edge to be 
planed, keeping the stock of the square at right 
angles to the arris, try the square in the same 
manner in several places, then plane the side or 
edge of the stuff, until the inner edge of the 
tongue coincide with one side or edge of the 
stuff, while the inner edge of the stock coincides 
with the face. 

§ 78. To try-up a Piece of Stuff all round. 

%Vhen the two sides or the face and edge has 
been squared, gauge the stuff to its thickness by 
the gauge, then plane the other side to the gauge 
line opposite to the face, but observe that it must 
be planed so as to coincide with the blade of the 
square, while the stock coincides with the other 
side, on which the gauge line was drawn, both 
handle and tongue being at the same time at 
right angles to the arris. Having now finished 
three sides, set the gauge to the intended breadth, 
then apply the guide of the head of the gauge 
upon the edge or side that is wrought, and which 
adjoins the other two wrought sides, and the 
sten5 and tooth upon the side to be gaugod, draw 
a line upon that side, turn the stuff over to the 
other side, and place the head upon the same 
side as before, but not upon the same e^^Q, and 
the tooth end of the stem upon the side of the 
wood, draw a line upon this side: in gauging, 
you must press the head of the gauge pretty hard 

agaiast 



JOINERY. 165 

against the surface of the stuff on which it rests, 
otherwise the grain of the wood will be liable 
to draw the tooth of the gauge out of its straight 
lined course; then by working of the wood be- 
tween the gauge lines straight across, the piece 
of stuff will be completely tryed-up, and this 
last side will be planed up without the use of 
the square: and indeed, the third side might also 
have been done when the rough edge whence 
the gauge line was drawn, is pretty near the 
square. 

§ 79, To rebate a Piece of Stuff. 

First, when the rebate is to be made on the 
arris next to you, the stuff must be first tw^ed-up 
on two sides, if the rebate is not very large, set 
the guide of the fence of the moving fillister to 
be within the distance of the horizontal breadth 
of the intended rebate; and screw the stop so 
that the guide may be something less than the 
vertical depth of the rebate from the sole of the 
plane; set the iron so as to be sufficiently rank, 
and to project equally below the sole of the 
plane; make the left hand point of the cutting 
edge flush with the left hand side of the plane, the 
tooth should be a small matter without the right 
hand side of the plane. Proceed now to gauge 
the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the re- 
bate : begin your work at the fore end of the 
stuff, the plaoe being placed before you, lay your 

right 



166 JOINERY, 

right hand partly on the top hind end of the 
plane^ your four fingers upon the left side, and 
your thumb upon the right, the middle part of 
the palm of the hand resting upon the round of 
the plane between the top and the end ; lay the 
thumb of your left hand over the top of the fore 
end of the plane, bending the thumb downwards 
upon the right hand side of the plane, while the 
upper division of the fore-finger, and the one 
next to it goes obliquely on the left side of the 
plane, and then bends with the same obliquity to 
comply with the fore end of the planC; the two 
remaining fingers are turned inwards; push the 
plane forward without moving your feet, and a 
shaving will be discharged equal to the breadth 
of the rebate ; draw the plane towards you again 
to the place you pushed it from, and repeat the 
operation: proceed in this manner until you 
have gone very near the depth of the rebate, move 
a step backward, and proceed as before, go on by 
several successive steps, operating at each one as 
at first until you get to the end, then yop may 
take a shaving or two the whole length, or take 
down any protuberant parts. 

In holding the fillister, care must be taken to 
keep the sides vertical, and consequently the sole 
level : then clean out the bottom and side of the 
rebate with the skew faced rebate plane, that 
is, plane the bottom and side smooth, until 
you come close to the gauge lines: for this 

purpose 



JOINERY. 167 

purpose the iron must be set very fine, and 
equally prominent throughout the breadth of 
the sole. ^ , 

If your rebate exceeds in breadth the distance 
which the guide of the fence can be set from the 
right side of the plane, you may make a narrow 
rebate on the side next to you, and set the plow 
to the full breadth, and the stop of the plow to the 
depth: make a groove next to the gauge line: then 
with the firmer chissel, cut off the wood between 
the groove and the rebate level with the bottom ; 
or should the rebate be very wide, you may 
make several intermediate grooves, leaving the 
wood between every two adjacent grooves of less 
breadth than the firmer chissel, so as to be easily 
cut out; having the rebate roughed out, you may 
mal^e the bottom a little smoother with the paring 
chissel ; then with a common rebate plane, about 
an inch broad in the sole, plane the side of the 
bottom next to the vertical side, and with the 
jack plane take off the irregularities of the wood 
left by the chissel : smooth the farther side of the 
bottom of the rebate with the skew rebate plane, 
as also the vertical side : with the trying plane 
smooth the remaining part next to you unt^i the 
rebate is at its full depth. If any thing remain 
in the internal angle, it may be cut away with a 
fine set pariirg chissel; but this will hardly be 
qecessary when the tools are in good order. 

When 



168 JOINERY. 

When the breadth and depth of the rebate is 
not greater than the depth which the plow can be 
set to work, the raost expeditious method of 
making a rebate, is by grooving it within the 
gauge lines on each side of the arris, and so 
taking the piece out without the use of the chis- 
sel : then proceed to work the bottom and side 
of the groove as before. By these means you 
have the several methods of rebating when the 
rebate is made on the left edge of the stufl': but 
if the rebate is formed from the right hand 
arris, it must be planed on two sides, or on 
one side and an edge as before; place the stuff 
so that the arris of the two planed sides may be 
next to you. Set the sash fillister to the whole 
breadth of the stuff that is to be left standing, 
and the stop to the depth, then you may pro- 
ceed to rebate as before. 

§ 80. To rebate across the Grain. 

Nail a straight slip across the piece to be re- 
bated, so that the straight edge may fall upon 
the line which the vertical side of the rebate 
makes with the top of the stuff], keeping the 
breadth of the slip entirely to one side of the re- 
bate ; then having set the stop of the dado groov- 
ing plane to the depth of the rebate, holding the 
plane vertically, run a groove across the wood, 
repeat the same operation in one or more places 

in 



JOINERY. 169 

in the breadth of the rebate, leaving each inter- 
stice or standing-up part something less than the 
breadth of the firmer chissel : then with that 
chissel cut away these parts between every two 
grooves^ but be careful in doing this that you 
do not tear the wood up ; pare the bottom pretty 
smooth, or after having cut the rough away with 
the chissel, take a rebating plane with the iron 
set rather rank, and work the prominent parts 
down to the aforesaid grooves nearly. Lastly, 
with a fine set screwed rebating plane, smooth 
the bottom next to the vertical side of the rebate, 
the other parts of the bottom may be taken com- 
pletely down with a fine set smoothing plane: 
in this manner you may make a tenon of any 
breadth. 

§ 81. To frame Two Pieces of Stvjf together. 
For this purpose it will be necessary to face- 
up, and square each of the pieces at least on two 
sides; the thickness of the tenon or width of the 
mortice ought not to exceed in general one third 
of the thickness of the stuff; but this will in 
some cases depend upon the work, and whether 
the material that are to be framed together be of 
the same kind or not, and consequently the pro- 
portion greater or less according as the piece on 
which the tenon is cut, is of a stronger or weaker 
texture than the piece which is to receive it. 
If the two pieces are to be joined at aright angle^ 

and 



470 JOINERY. 

and the piece which has the mortice project only 

on one side of the piece which has the tenon^ you 

must then set the mortice a little farther in than 

the breadth of the piece which has the tenon, in 

order to prevent the piece at the end of the tenon 

from splitting : mark the length of your tenon 

a little more than the breadth of the morticed 

piece; strike a square line through the mark : 

then at the place where the line meets the arris 

strike another square line : if the work is to be 

Tery nicely put together, this will be best done 

with the drawing knife; square two pencil lines 

on the two sides of the morticed piece opposite 

to, or in the same straight line with the inside 

of the tenoned piece, strike other two square 

pencil lines upon the sides of the morticed piece 

next to the end opposite to the outer edge of the 

tenoned piece, or in the same straight line with 

it, and thus the distance between each pair of 

square lines upon each of the sides, will be 

equal to the breadth of the tenoned piece ; but 

this distance would be too long for the mortice, 

as when finished, one piece of stuff does not 

pass by the breadth of the other ; therefore if the 

mortice came close to the end, there would be 

nothing to resist and keep the tenon in its place : 

for this reason the mortice must never be cut out 

to the extremity, but always at least one fourth 

of the wholfe breadth farther in; if the insides 

of the pieces are intended to be entirely square, 

you 



JOINERY. 171 

you may make the length of the mortice from the 
inside pencil lines equal to, or nearly two thirds of 
thebreadth of the tenoned piece. Setthedistanceof 
the teeth of the mortice gauge equal to the thick- 
ness of the tenon or breadth of the mortice, and 
the distance from, and of the nearer tooth to the 
head, equal to the thickness of the cheek of the 
mortice or shoulder of the tenon, then gauge 
both pieces on the inner edges from the face, and 
also on the outer edges from the same face, return 
the pencil lines upon the outer edge of the mor- 
ticed piece. Lay the piece to be morticed upon 
the mortice stool, with the side uppermost, which 
is to be the inside, and mortice half through : 
turn the other edge uppermost, and mortice the 
other half; the reason of morticing one half at' 
a time is obvious, when it is considered, that the 
holding of the mortice chissel at right angles to 
the surface is all guess work, the mortice would 
therefore be liable to go not only obliquely, but 
uneven ; the length of the mortice must be a 
little more on the outer edge than on the inner, as 
the tenon when it comes to be stationed to its place 
is secured, by wedges and glue: the ends of the 
mortice must be quite straight, though inclining 
towards each other next to the inside or shoulder 
of the tenon, the sides of the cheeks of the mor- 
tice must be cut smooth with the paring chissel: 
and for the purpose of having the width of the 
mortice when finished the exact thickness of the 

tenon. 



172 JOINERY. 

tenon, the mortice chissel ought to be rather of 
less thickness than that of the tenon. 

To form the tenon ; cut the shoulders in with 
the drawing knife, place the side hooks at right 
angles to the sides of the bench, the knob or 
catch of each against the side board: place 
the tenoned piece upon the side hooks, and 
against the other knobs on the bench, and with 
the tenon saw cut the shoulders of the tenon on 
one side, and turn the other side up and cut the 
other shoulder; take the piece and fix it in the 
bench screw, and with a hand saw cut off the 
two outside pieces, called the tenon cheeks from 
the sides of the tenon, keeping the stuff entire be- 
tween the gauge lines, and if the saw is in 
good order, it will not be necessar^y to do any 
more to the sides: but if the saw has been led 
awaj from the draughts, either from carelessness 
or from its being in bad order, recourse must be 
had to the paring chissel, so as to take away the 
superfluous wood to the gauge lines, and lastly to 
the skew faced rebate plane. Having finished the 
sides of the tenon, it must be reduced from the 
outer edge to a breadth equal to the length of 
the mortice, this reduction is called haunching, 
but it is better to have a little piece to project 
beyond the shoulder, and then to cut a shallow 
mortice of the same depth close to the farther 
end of the mortice piece; this little tenon is call- 
ed stump haunchings. Insert the tenon in a mor- 
tice. 



JOINERY. 173 

tice^ driving the end of the tenoned piece with a 
mallet^ until the shoulder comes home to the 
face of the mortice: then if jour work has been 
truly tryed-up and set out^, both shoulders will 
be quite close to the inner edge of the morticed 
piece; having thus finished the mortice and 
tenon^ you may take it out and glue the shoulders 
of the tenon and inner edge of the mortice with 
very hot glue, then drive the tenoned piece home; 
if very stiff, it will be necessary to use a cramp, 
however the use of this will be better understood 
in making a complete frame. 

§ 82. Boarding Floors. 

Boarded floors are those covered with boards. 
The operation of boarding floors should com- 
mence as soon as the windows are in, and the 
plaster dry. The preparation of the boards for 
this purpose is as follows. 

They should first be planed on their best face, 
and set out to season till the natural sap is quite 
exhausted, they may then be planed smooth, shot 
and squared upon one edge; the opposite edges 
are brought to a breadth, by drawing a line on 
the face parallel to the other edge, with a floor- 
ing gauge, they are then gauged to a thickness 
with a common gauge, and rebated down on the 
back to the lines drawn by the gauge. 

The next thing to be done is to try the joists, 
whether they be level or not: if they are found 

to 



174 JOrNERY. 

be depressed in the middle, they must he furred 
up, and if found to be protuberant, must be re- 
duced by the adze. The former is more gene-* 
rally the case. 

The boards employed in flooring are either 
battens or deals of greater breadth. The quality 
of battens are divided into three kinds ; the best 
is that free of knots, shakes, sap-wood, or cross- 
graiued stuflf, and well matched, that is, selected 
with the greatest care; the second b'est is, that in 
which only small, but sound knots are permitted, 
and free of shakes and sap-wood : the most com- 
mon kind is that which is left, after taking away 
the best and second best. 

With regard to the joints of flooring boards, 
they are either quite square, plowed and tongued, 
rebated, or dowelled: in fixing them they are 
nailed either upon one or both edges, they are 
always necessarily nailed on both edges, when 
the joints are plain or square without dowels. 
When they are doweled, they may be nailed on 
one or both edges ; but in the best doweled work 
the outer edge only is nailed, by driving the brad 
obliquely through that edge without piercing 
the surface of the board; so that the surface 
of the floor, when cleaned off", appears without 
blemish. 

In laying boarded floors, the boards are some- 
times laid one after another^ or otherwise, one is 
first laid, then the fourth leaving an interval 

some- 



JOINERY. 175 

somewbat less than the breadth of the second and 
third together. The two intermediate boards are 
next laid in their places, with one edge upon the 
edge of the first board, and the other upon that 
of the fourth board; the two middle edges rest- 
ing upon each other, and forming a ridge at the 
joint; to force down these joints, two or more 
workmen jump upon the ridge till they have 
brought the under sides of the boards close to 
the joints, then they are fixed in their places with 
brads. In this last method the boards are said to 
be folded. Though two boards are here men- 
tioned, the most common way is to fold four at a 
timd, this mode is only taken when the boards 
are not sufficiently seasoned, or suspected to be 
so. In order to make close work, it is obvious 
that the two edges forming the joint of the se- 
cond and third boards, must form angles with the 
faces, each less than a right angle. The seventh 
board is fixed as the fourth, and the fifth and 
sixth inserted as the second and thirds and so on 
till the completion. 

The headings are either square, splayed, or 
plowed and tongued. When it is necessary to 
have a heading in the length of the floor, it 
should always be upon a joist. One heading 
should never meet another. 

When floors are doweled, it is better to place 
dowels over the middle of the interjoist, than 
over the joists, in order to prevent the edgo of 

one 



176 JOINERY. 

one board from passing that of the other. Wheti 
the boards are only braded upon one edge, the 
brads are most frequently concealed by driving 
them slanting through the outer edge of every 
successive board, without piercing the upper sur- 
face. In adzing away the under sides of the 
boards opposite to the joists, in order to equalize 
their thickness, the greatest care should be taken 
to chip them straight, and exactly down to the 
rebates, as the soundness of the floor depends on 
this. 

§ 83. Hanging of Shutters to he cut. 

Shutters to be cut must first be hung the whole 
length, and taken down and cut: but observe 
that you do not cut the joint by the range of the 
the middle bar, but at right angles to the sides 
of the sash frame, for unless this be done, the 
ends will not all coincide when folded together. 
In order to hang shutters at the first trial, set off 
the margin from the bead on both sides, then 
take half the thickness of the knuckle of the 
hinge, and prick it on each side from the mar- 
gin, so drawn towards the middle of the window, 
at the places of the hinges, put in brads at these 
pricks, then putting the shutter to its place, screw 
it fast, and when opened it will turn to the place 
intended. 

§ 84. Hanging 



JOINERY. 177 

§ 84. Hanging of Doors. 

Doors should be hung so as to rise above the 
carpet, for this purpose, the knuckle of the bot- 
tom hinge should be made to project the whole 
pin beyond the surface of the door, while the 
centre of the upper pin comes rather within the 
surface. To render this still more effectual, the 
floor is sometimes raised immediately under the 
door. A door wider at the bottom than at the 
top in a trapezoidal form will also have the effect 
of clearing the floor: most of the ancient doors 
were of this figure. 

' § 85. To Scribe one piece of Board or 
Stujlf to another. 

When the edge end or side of one piece of 
stuff is fitted close to the superfices of another, 
the former is said to be scribed to the latter. 
Thus the skirting boards of a room should be 
scribed to the floor. In moulded framing, the 
moulding upon the rails if not quirked are scribed 
to the styles, and muntins upon rails. To scribe 
the edge of a board against any uneven surface : 
lay the edge of the board over its place, with the 
face in the position in which it is to stand: with 
a pair of stiff compasses opened to the widest 
part, keeping one leg close to the uneven sur- 
face, move or draw the compasses forward, so 
that the poiat of the other leg may mark a line 
on the board, and that the two points may al- 

N wars 



178 JOINERY. 

ways be in a straight line parallel to the straight 
line in which the two points were at the com- 
mencement of the motion : then cut away the 
wood between this line, and the bottom edge, 
and the one will coincide with the other. 

•^ 86. Doors. 

Doors ought to be made of clean good stuff, 
firmly put together, the mitres or scribings 
brought together with the greatest exactness, 
and the whole of their surfaces perfectly smooth, 
particularly those hiade for the best apartments 
of good houses. In order to effect this, the 
whole of the work ought to be set out and tryed 
up with particular care, saws and all other tools 
must be in good order, the morticing, tenoning, 
plowing, and sticking of the mouldings ought 
to be correctly to the gauge lines, these being 
strictly attended to, the work will of necessity 
when put together, close with certainty : but if 
otherwise, the workman must expect a great 
deal of trouble in paring the different parts be- 
fore the work can be made to appear in any 
degree passable: this will also occasion a want 
of firmness in the work, particularly if the tenons 
and mortices are obliged to be pared. 

In bead and flush dooi^, the best way is to 
mitre the work square, afterwards put in the 
pannels, and smooth the whole off together, then 
marking the pannels at the parts ©f the framing 

they 



JOINERY. 179 

they agree to, take the door to pieces, and work 
the beads on the stiles, rails, and muntins. 

If the doors are double margin, that is, re- 
presenting a pair of folding doors, the staff stile 
wliich imitates the meeting stiles, must be cen- 
tred to the top and bottom of the door, as well 
as the hanging; and lock stiles by forking the 
ends into notches, cut in the top and bottom rails. 

§87. Stairs> 

Stairs are one of the most important things to 
be considered in a building, not ofily with regard 
to the situation, but as to the design and execu- 
tion: the convenience of the building depends 
on the situation, and the elegance on the 
design and execution of the workmanship. A 
stair-case ought to be sufficiently lighted, and 
the head-way uninterrupted. The half paces 
and quarter paces ought to be judiciously dis- 
tributed. The breadth of the steps ought never 
to be more than 15 inches, nor less than 10, the 
height not more than 7 nor less than 5 ; there 
are cases however, which are exceptions to all 
rule. When you have the height of the story 
given in feet, and the height of the step in inches, 
you may throw the feet into inches, and divide 
the height of the story in inches by the height 
of the step; if there be no remainder, or if the 
remainder be less than the half of the divisor 
the quotient will shew the number of steps: but 
N 2 ■ if 



180 JOINERY. 

if the remainder be greater than the half of the 
divisor, jou must take one step more than the 
nnmber shewn by the quotient; in the two latter 
cases you must divide the height of the story by 
the number of steps, and the quotient will give 
the exact height of a step : in the first case you 
have the height of the steps at once, and this is the 
case whatever description the stairs are of. In 
order that people may pass freely, the length of 
the step ought never to be less than 4 feet, though 
in town houses, for want of room, the going of 
the stair is frequently reduced to 2| feet. 

Stairs have several varieties of structure, which 
depends principally on the situation and destina- 
tion of the building. Geometrical stairs are 
those which are supported by one end being fixed 
in the wall, and every step in the assent having an 
auxiliary support from that immediately below it, 
and the lowest step consequently, from the floor. 
Bracket stairs are those that have an opening 
or well, with strings and newels, and are supported 
by landings and carriages, the brackets mitering 
lo the ends of each riser, and fixed to the 
string board, which is moulded below like aa 
architrave. 

Dogleged stairs are those which have no open- 
ing or well hole, the rail and balustres of both 
the progressive and returning flights fall in the 
same vertical planes, the steps being fixed to 
strings, Qeweh and carriages, and the ends of the 

of 




J.imLZort:Pal'lix7ied3fmft2t^:'aihJrrzihmaf/7i^iin>rm 



20 



JOINERY. 

Explanation of PLATE IX. 

(^ro /ace Page 181.) 

Showing the Construction of a Dog Leg Stair Case. 

No. 1 the Plan. 

No. 2 the Elevation. 

AB No. 2 the lower Newel, the part BC being 
turned. 

a No. 1 the seat of the Newel on the plan. 

GH No. 2 the upper Newel. 

^No. 1. its seat on the Plan. 

DEand FG No. 2 lower and upper String 
Boards framed into the Newels. 

KL No. 2 a Joist framed into the Trimmer I. 

kl,no,qr, S^c. No. 2 the faces of the Risers^ 
mn, p q, St the treads of the Cover Boards. 

my p, Sy ^c. No. 2 the nosings of Steps. 

The dotted lines on the plan represent the faces 
of the risers, and the continued lines the nosings 
of the steps. 

MO and FQ upper and lower Ramps. 

The method of drawing the Ramp is as fol- 
lows: suppose the upper Ramp to be drawn; 
produce the top HM of the rail to P: draw 
MN perpendicular to the horizon, and pro- 
duce the straight part ON of the pitch of the 
rail to meet it in N, making NO equal to NM: 
draw OP at a right angle to ON : from P as a 
centre describe the arc MO, and then the other 
concentric circle, which will complete the Ramp 
required. 

RS the Storj Rod, a necessary article in fix- 
ing the steps, for if put up only by a common 
measuring rule, will frequently occasion an ex- 
cess or defect in the height, so as to render the 
stair extremely faulty, which cannot be the case 
if the story rod is applied to every riser, and the 
riser regulated thereby. In the aforesaid case^, 
the error is liable to multiply. 



JOINERY. 181 

steps of the inferior kind, terminating only upon 
the side of the string, without any housing. 

§ 88. Of Dog-leged Stairs, 

The first thing is to take the dimensions of the 
stair and height of the story, and lay down a 
plan and section upon a floor to the full size, re- 
presenting all the newels, stringi?, and steps : by 
this, the situation of string boards, pitching 
pieces, rough strings, long bearers, cross bearers, 
and trimmers will become manifest; the quantity 
of room allowed for the stairs, the situation of 
appertures and passages will determine whether 
there are to be quarter paces, half paces, one 
quarter or two quarter winders. In this de- 
scription, in order to give all the variety possible, 
we shall suppose the flight to consist of two 
quarter winders. 

The strings, rails, and newels being framed 
together, they murt then be fixed, first with 
temporary supports, the string board will shew 
the situation of the pitching piece? which must 
be put up next in order, wedging the one end 
firmly into the wall, and fixing the other end to 
the string board; this being done, pitch up the 
rough strings,' and thus finish the carriage part 
of the flyers. In dog-leg staircases, as the steps 
and risers are seldom glued up, except in cases 
of returned nosings: we shall therefore suppose 
them to be separate pieces, and proceed to put 

up 



182 JOINERY. 

up the steps: place the first riser to its situation, 
having fitted it down so as to be close to the 
floor, the top being brought to a level at its 
proper height, and at the same time, the face in 
its right position, fix it with flat headed nails, 
driving them obliquely through the bottom part 
of the riser into the floor, and then nailing the 
end to the string board ; proceed then to cover 
the riser with the first tread, observing to notch 
out the farther bottom angle opposite the rough 
strings, so as to make it to fit closely down to a 
level on the top side, while the under side beds 
firmly upon the rough strings at the back edge, 
and to the riser towards the front edge : nail 
down the tread to the rough strings, driving the 
nails from the seat or place on which the next 
riser stands, through that edge of the riser into 
the rough strings, and then nailing the end to 
the string board; begin with the second riser, 
having brought it to a breadth, and fitted it 
close to the top ^de of the tread, so that the 
back edge of the tread below it may entirely lap 
over to the back of the riser, while the front side 
is in its regular vertical position; nail the head 
to this riser, from the under side, taking care 
that the nails do not go through the face of the 
'riser, for this would spoil the beauty of the 
work. 

Proceed in this manner as in the last, with 

tread and riser alternately^ until the last pa^ 

* rallel 



JOINERY. 183 

rallel riser. The face of this riser must stand 
the whole projection of the nosing back from 
the face of the newel. Then fix the top of 
your first bearer for the first winding tread 
on a level with the top of the last parallel 
riser, so that the farther edge of this bearer 
may stand about an inch forward from the back 
of the next succeeding riser, for the purpose of 
nailing the treads to the risers upwards, as was 
done in the treads and risers of the flyers, and 
having fitted the end of this bearer against the 
back of the riser, and nailed or screwed it fast 
thereto; this being done, fix a cross bearer, by 
letting it in half its thickness, into the adjacent 
sides of the top of the riser, and into the top of 
the long bearer, so as not to cut through tbe 
horizontal breadth of the long bearer, nor through 
the thickness of the riser, for this would weaken 
the long bearer, and spoil the look of the riser. 
Then fix the riser to the newel, driving a nail 
obliquely from the top edge of the riser into the 
newel; you may then proceed to put down the 
first winding tread, fitting it close to the newel, 
in the birds-mouth form, proceed with all the 
succeeding risers and heads, always fixing in the 
bearers previously to the laying of each successive 
tread, until the &teps round the winding part are 
entirely completed. Proceed then with the upper 
retrogressive range of flyers, as those below. 
Fit the brackets into the backs of the risers and 

treads. 



184 JOINERY. 

treadsj so that their edges majjoin each other 
upon the sides of the rough strings to which 
they are fixed by nails, and thus the work is 
completed. There are some workmen who do 
not mind the close fitting to the riser; but cer- 
tainly it makes the firmest work. 

In the best kind of dog-leg stairs, the nosingss 
are returned, and sometimes the risers mitred to 
brackets, and sometimes mitred with quaker 
strings: in this case there is a hollow mitered 
round the internal angle of the under side of the 
tread, and the face of the riser. Sometimes the 
string is framed into the newel, and notched to 
receive the ends of the steps, and at the other 
end a corresponding notch board, then the whole 
flyers are put up as a step ladder. 

In order to get the lower part for the turning, 
set on the thickness of the capping on the return 
string board, and where that falls on the newel 
below, is the place of the under limit of the 
turning. 

To find the section of the cap of the newel for 
the turner, draw a circle to its intended diameter, 
draw a straight line from the centre to any point 
without the circumference, and set half the 
breadth of the rail on each side of that line, and 
through the point, draw a ]jne parallel to the 
middle straight line, then the two extreme lines 
will contain the breadth of the rail: draw any 
radius of the circle, and set half the breadth of 

the 



• JOINERY. 185 

the rail from the centre towards the circum- 
ference, and through the point where this breadth 
falls, draw a concentric circle from the point 
where this circle cuts the middle line of the rail, 
draw two lines to the points where the breadth 
of the rail intersects the outer circle, and these 
lines will show the mitre. The section may then 
be found as shown in The Carpenters Guide, by 
tracing it from the section of the rail, which is 
the best method. 

Another method, after having drawn the out- 
I'me of the cap and rail as above, is to take a 
small portion of the rail, and cut it to the mitre 
as drawn> then take a block of sufficient size 
for the cap, and cut out the internal mitre of 
the cap to answer the external mitre of the rail: 
place the mitre of the rail into its mitre socket, 
and draw a line where the surface of the piece 
meets the mitre, draw the middle line of the 
rail upon both sides of the block, which will 
bisect each mitre; take the distance from the 
centre of the circle above drawn to the mitre 
point, and set it on each side of the block for the 
cap upon the middle line of the breadth of the 
rail, from the mitre point towards the centre of 
the block, pricking the block at the other ex- 
tremity of this distance, then these points will 
Joe the centres for turning. Fit a piece of wood 
to the internal mitre, pare off the top part of 
tfiis piece next to the mitre of the cap, so as to 

correspond 



1 86 JOINERY. 

correspond to the line drawn by the top of the 
rail, then with weak glue stick in this piece to 
its birth, and being so fitted send it to the turner. 
In order to eradicate a prevalent false idea 
which many workmen entertain, when the outer 
edge of the mitre cap is turned so as to have the 
same section as that of the rail, they suppose 
this to be all that is necessary for the mitering of 
the above: but from a very little investigation of 
the nature of lines, they will easily be convinced 
that the sides of the mitre can never be straight 
surfaces or planes, but must be curved, when 
this the case. 

§ 89. Bracket Staii^s. 

The same methods must be observed with re- 
gard to taking the dimensions, and laying down 
the plan and section, as in dog-leg stairs. lb all 
stairs whatever, after having ascertained the num- 
ber of steps, take a rod the height of the story, 
from the surface of the lower floor to the surface 
of the upper floor: divide the rod into as many 
equal parts as there are to be risers, then if you 
have a level surface to work upon below the 
stair, try each one of the risers as you go on, this 
will prevent any excess or defect, which even the 
smallest difference will occasion, for any error, 
however small, when multiplied becomes of con- 
siderable magnitude, and even the difference of 
an inch in the last riser, being too high or too 
low, will not only have a bad effect to the eye, 

but 



JOINERY. 187 

but will be apt to confound persons, not thinkr 
ing of any such irregularity. In order to try 
the steps properly by the story rod, if you have 
not a level surface to work from, the better way 
will be to lay two rods or boards, and level their 
top surface to that of the floor, one of these rods 
being placed a little within the string, and the 
other near or close to the wall, so as to be at 
right angles to the starting line of the first riser, 
or which is the same thing, parallel to the plan 
of the string, set off the breadth of the steps 
upon these rods, and number the risers, you may 
set not only the breadth of the flyers, but that of 
the- winders also. In order to try the story rod 
exactly to its vertical situation, mark the same 
distances on the backs of the risers upon the top 
edges, as the distances of the plan of the string 
board, and the rods are from each other. 

The methods of describing the scroll and all 
ramps and knees, are geometrically described in 
The Carpenters Guide. This so far relates to 
every description of stairs; but to return to the 
particulars of this kind of stairs. 

As the internal angle of the steps is open to 
the end, and not closed by the string, as in com- 
mon dog-leged stairs, and the neatness of work- 
manship is as much regarded as in geometrical 
stairs : the balusters must be neatly dove-tailed 
into the ends of the steps, two in every step, the 
face of each front baluster must be in a straight 

surface 



188 JOINERY. 

surface with the face of the riser, and as all the 
balusters raust be equally divided, the face of 
the middle baluster must in course stand in the 
middle of the face of the riser of the preceding 
step, and the face of the riser of the succeeding 
step. The risers and treads are all glued and 
blocked previously together; and when put up 
the under side of the step nailed or screwed into 
the under edge of the riser, and then rough 
bracked to the rough strings as in the dog-leged 
stairs, the pitching pieces and rough strings being 
similar to those. In gluing up the steps, the 
best method is to make a templet, so as to fit the 
external angle of the steps with the nosing. 

§ 90. Geometrical Stairs. 

The steps of geometrical stairs ought to be 
constructed so as to have a very light and clean 
appearance when put up: for this purpose, and 
to aid the principle of strength, the risers and 
treads when planed up, ought not to be less than 
1|^ inch, supposing the going of the stair or 
length of the step to be 4 feet, and for every 
6 inches in length, you may add J part more ; 
the risers ought to be dove-tailed into the cover, 
and when the steps are put up, the treads are 
screwed up from below to the under edges of 
the risers; the holes for sinking the heads of the 
screws ought to be bored with a center bit, and 
then fitted closely in with wood well matched, 
so as to conceal the screws entirely, and to ap- 
pear 



^o^n^r^ 



T^.^/'eJO. 




X(rntioTKptiMiA-hfctMi^^cA^t>:2^SIhv^Z7^'lty7':^!i/hM'Sf(J77i . 



2Z 



JOINERY, 

Explanation of PLATE X. 

( To face Page 188.; 

Showing the Construction of (geometrical Stairs. 

No. 1 the Plan. 

No. 2 the Elevation or Section. 
AB No. 1 the Curtail Step^ which must be 
first fixed. 

C^ C, C &c. Flyers, supported below upon 
rough carriages, and partly from the string 
board DHEF No. 2. sometimes the ends next to 
the wall are housed into a notch board, and the 
steps made of thick wood, and no carriages used. 
G, G, G &c. Winders fixed to bearers, cross 
bearers, and pitching pieces, when (he flyers are 
supported upon carriage?: sometimes the winders 
are made of strong stuff, firmly wedged into the 
wall, the steps screwed together, and the other 
-ends of the steps fixed to the string DEHF The 
strength of the stair may be powerfully assisted 
by a bar of wrought iron made to coincide with 
the inside, and screwed to the string immediately 
below the steps, this would make a very light 
stair, and if well attended to in the work- 
manship, will be equal in firmness to one of 
stone. 

eiK the Wall Line of the soffit of the stair 
for winding the part. 

LMN part of the rail supported by two ba- 
lusters upon every step. 



JOINERY. 189 

pear as one uniform surface without blemish. 
Brackets are raitered to the riser and the nosings 
are continued round : in this mode however, there 
is an apparent defect, from the brackets, instead 
of giving support are themselves unsupported, 
depending on the steps, and aie of no other use 
in point of strength, than merely tying the 
risers and treads of the internal angles of the steps 
together;" and from the internal angles being hol- 
low, or a re-enterant right angle, except at the 
ends, which terminate by the wall at one extremity, 
and by the brackets at the other, there is a want of 
regular finish. The cavetto or hollow is carried 
all round the front of the slip returned at the end, 
returned again at the end of the bracket, thence 
along the inside of the same, and then along the 
internal angle of the back of the riser. 

This is a slight imitation of the ancient mode, 
which was to make the steps solid all the way, 
80 as to have every where throughout its length 
a bracket-forme section. This, though more 
natural in appearance, would be expensive and 
troublesome to execute, particularly when winders 
are used, but much stronger. 

The best mode however of constructing geome- 
trical stairs, is to put up the strings, and to 
mitre the brackets to the risers as usual, and 
finish the soffit with lath and plaster, which 
will form an inclined plane under each flight 
and a winding surface under the winders. 
In elegant buildings, the soffit may be divided 

into 



190 JOINERY. 

into pannels. If the risers are got out of 2 incll 
stuff, it will ffreatly add to the solidity. The 
method of drawing and executing the scroll and 
other wreathed parts of tfie hand rail, will be 
found in The Carpenters Guide, 

In order to get a true idea of the twist of the 
hand rail, the section of the rail by a plane pass- 
ing through the axis of the well hole or cylinder 
is every whei^ a rectangle, that is, the plumb or 
vertical section, tending to the centre of the 
stair. This rectangle is every where of an equal 
breadth, but not of an equal vertical dimension 
in every part of the rail, unless thart the risers 
and treads were every where the same from the 
top to the bottom: the height is greatest above 
the winders, because the tread is of less breadth 
and it is of less height above the flyers ; the 
tread being the greatest. If you cut the- rail 
after squaring it, perpendicular to any of its 
curved sides, the section will not then be a rect- 
angle, three of the sides will at least be curved. 
Hence two falling moulds laid down in the usual 
way^ will not square the rail, though in wide 
openings they may do it sufficiently near. Hence 
in squaring the rail, the square can never be ap- 
plied at right angles to any one of the four 
arrises, for the edge of the stock will not com- 
ply with the side of the rail, being curved, ihis 
would be easily made to appear by making a 
wreathed part of a rail of unusual dimensions, 

and 



JOINERY. 191 

and cutting it in both directions. Therefore, to 
apply the sq'jare right;, keep the stock to the 
plumb of the stair, and to guide the blade pro- 
perly, the stock ought to be very thick, and 
made concave to the plan so as to prevent the 
possibility of its wabbling or turning from 
side to side; as a little matter up or a little down 
in the direction of the blade would make a great 
difference in the rectangling or squaring of the 
rail. 

All this might easily be conceived from the 
cylinder itself, for there is no direction in which a 
straight line can be drawn on the surface of a cy- 
linder, but one, and this line is in a plane pass- 
ing through the axis of the cylinder, and as the 
two vertical surfaces of the rail are portions of 
cylinders, there can be no straight line upon such 
surface, but what must be vertical, all others 
from this principle are curves, or the sections of 
the rail are bounded by curves, or by a curve on 
that side. 

In gluing a rail up in thicknesses, it will be 
sufficiently near to get out a piece of wood to 
the twisted form by two falling moulds, as shown 
in The Carpenters Guide, provided the well hole 
be not less than 1 foot diameter; the thickness of 
this piece, as is there stated, must be equal to 
the thickness, or rather the horizontal breadth of 
the rail, together with the thickness which the 
number oi^ saw kerfs will amount to, and also 

the 



19^2 JOINERY. 

the amount of the substance, taken away by 
planing the veneers. We are now supposing the 
plan of the rail to be semi-circular, with two 
straight parts one above and one below, a plan 
more frequently adopted from motives of eco- 
nomy, than from any propriety of elegance. 

The first thing to be done is to make a cy- 
linder of plank to the size of the well hole. 
Draw two level lines round the surface of this 
cylinder at the top and bottom, upon each of 
these lines set off the treads of the steps at the 
end next the well hole. Draw lines between 
every two corresponding points at the head and 
foot, and these lines will be all parallel to the 
axis of the cylinder. Upon the two lines where 
the cylindric part begins to commence, and also 
upon a middle line between these lines, set 
the heights of the winders, and the height of 
one of the flyers above and below, or as much 
as is intended to be taken off the straight of the 
rail. Take a pliable slip of wood straight on 
one edge, and bend it round, and keep the 
straight edge of it upon the three corresponding 
points at the height of the last riser of the flyer; 
then draw the tread of the first winding step by 
the straight edge from the line where the cy- 
lindric part commences to the first perpendicular 
line on the curved surface ; take the next three 
points higher, and draw a line between the se- 
cond and third perpendicular lioes> proceed in 

like 



JOINERY. 193 

like manner with the cext three higher points, and 
draw a line between the next two adjoining cj- 
lindric lines, and the lines so drawn between 
each three points will be the section of the treads 
of the succeeding winding steps. 

Having thus gone through the cylindric part, 
draw a step at the top, and another at the bot- 
tom, and thus the sections of the steps will be' 
completed; draw the hjpothenusal or pitch lines 
of the flyer on the lower part, and that of the upper 
part, and whatever difference you make in the height 
of the rail between the flyers and the winders you 
must set it up from the nosings of the steps of 
the winders upon two of the perpendicular lines: 
draw a line through the two points by bending a 
straight edged slip round the cylinder, the straight 
edge of the slip coinciding with these points, 
this line will represent the top of the rail over 
the winders, and the hypothenusal lines at the 
bottom and top that of the flyers, then curve off 
the angles at the top and bottom where the rail 
of the winding parts meets that of the flyers 
above and below, then a line being drawn pa- 
rallel to this, will form the falling mould. The 
reason of making the vertical elevation of the 
rail more upon the winders than the flyers is, 
that the sudden elevation of the winders dimi- 
nishes the height of the rail in a direction per- 
pendicular to the raking line, and by this means 
persons would be liable to fall over it. 

To lay the veneers upon the cylinder, if bed 
O screws 



194 JOINERY* 

screws or wedges are used, you may try the 
veneers first upon the cylinder, screwing them 
down without glue; prepare several pieces of 
wood J to lie from 6 to 12 inches apart, accord- 
ing to the diameter of the well hole, with two 
holep in each, distant in the clear something more 
than the breadth of the rail. Then having mark- 
ed the positions of the places of these pieces on 
the cylinder, pierce the cylinder with correspond- 
ing holes on each side of the depth of the rail. 
If the cylinder is made of plank 2 inches thick^ 
it will be suHlcient for the screws : but if of 
thinner stuft' it will be convenient to set it on end 
upon stools to get underneath, confiiiing the 
top with nu<s. Unscrew one half, three men being 
at work, one holding up all the veneers, another 
glueing, and the third lay ingthem down successive- 
lyoneafterthe otheruntil allare glued; screwthem 
down immediately. Unscrew the other half and 
proceed in like manner, and the rail will be glued 
up. The glue that is used for this purpose ought 
to be clear and as hot as possible, the rail ought 
likewise to be made hot, as otherwise the glue 
will be liable to set before all the veneers are 
put down, and ready for the screws : this opera- 
tion should therefore be done before a large fire, 
the veneers thoroughly heated previous to the 
commencement, in order that the heat may be ai 
uniformly retained as possible throughout the 
process. The glue in the joints of the rail will 
take about three weeks to harden in dry weather. 

INDEX 



( 195 ) 
INDEX AND EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS USED IN 

JOINERY. 

N. B. This Mark § refers to the preceding Sections, 
according to the Number. 



A. 

Arris, the line of concourse or meeting of two sur- 
faces. 

B. 

Bars for sashes, § 70, Plate 8. figs. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Basil, § 5. 

Batten, a scantling of stuff from 2 inches to 7 inches 

in breadth, and from | inch to If inch thick, § 82. 
Beads, § 31, 68, 69. Plate 3, Figs. 2, 3. Plate 4, 

Figs. I, 2, 3, 4. 
Beaking Joint is the joint formed by the meeting of 

several heading joints in one continued line, which 

is sometimes the case in folded floors. 
Bench, § 2, 67. Plate 1, Fig. 12. 
Bench Hook, § 2. 

Bench Planes, § 14. Plate l. Figs. I, 2,, 3. 
Bench Screw, § 2. 
Bevel, one side is said to be bevelled with respect to 

another, when the angle formed by these two sides 

is greater or less than a right angle. 
Bevel, the tool, § 58, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 12. 
Bits, § 34. Plate, 2, Fig. i. 
Blade is expressed of any part of a tool that is broad 

and thin, as the blade of an axe, of an adze, of a 
2 chissel, 



196 JOINERY* 

chissel, of a square. The blade of a saw is more 

frequently called the plate. 
Boarding Floors, § 82. 
Bottom Rail, the lowest rail of a door. 
Brad, a small nail without any projecting head, except 

on one edge. The intention is to drive it within 

the surface of the wood, by means of a hammer 

and punch, and fill the cavity flush to the surface 

with putty. 
Brad Awl, § 39, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 3. 
Brace and Bits, the same as stock and bits. 
Breaking Joint, is, not to allow two joints to come 

together. 



Casting or Warping is the bending of the surface* 
of a piece of wood from their original position, 
either by the weight of the wood, or by an unequal 
exposure to the weather, or by unequal texture of 
the wood. 

Cavetto, § 68. 

Centre Bits, § 35. 

Chissels, §'40. Plate 2, Figs. 3, 4, 5. 

Cima-Recta, §68. Plates, Figs. 10, 11. 

Cima-Reversa, § 68. Plate 3, Fig. 12. 

Clamp, a piece of wood fixed to the end of a board 
by mortice and tenon, or by groove and tongue, so 
that the fibres of the one piece thus fixed, traverse 
those of the board, and by this means prevents it 
from casting; the piece at the end is called a clamp, 
and the board is said to be clamped 

Clear Story Windows are those that have np 

transom. 

Compass 



JOINERY. 197 

Compass Pl.\ne, § is. 

Compass Saw, § 53. Plate 2, Fig. 9. 

Countersinks, § 36. 

Cross-grained Stuff, is wood having its fibres run- 
ning in contrary positions to the surfaces, and con- 
sequently cannot be made perfectly smooth, when 
planed in one direction, without turning it or turn- 
ing the plane. This most frequently arises from a 
twisted disposition of the fibres. 

Curling Stuff, is that which is occasioned by the 
winding or coiling of the fibres round the boughs 
of the tree, when they begin to shoot out of the 
trunk. The double iron planes now in use are a 
most complete remedy against cross grained and 
curling stuff: the plane will nearly work as smooth 
against the grain as with it. 

D. 

Dado Grooving Planes, § 29. 

Poor Frame, the surrounding case into, and out of 
which the door shuts and opens, copsistlng of two 
upright pieces and a head, generally fixed to- 
gether by mortice and tenon, and wrought, rebated, 
and beaded. 

Doors, § 70. Plate 5, 6, 7. 

Door Hung, § 84. 

PouBLE Torus, § 69. Plate 4. 

Dove Tail Saw, § 52. 

Praging in the hanging of doors, is a depression or 
lowering of the door, so as to make it rub on the 
floor, occasioned by the loosening of the hinges, or 
the settling of the building. 

Draw 



198 JOINERY. 

Draw Bore Pins, two iron pins with wooden handles 
for the purpose of forcing the shoulders of tenons 
against the abutments on the cheeks of the mortices, 
50 as to make a close joint. Draw bore pins are in 
joinery, what hook pins are in carpentry, and used 
in a similar manner. See Carpentry, § 20. 

Drawing Knife, § 44. 

E. 

Edge Tools, all tools made sharp so as to cut. 

F. 

Fence, the guard of a plane which obliges it to work 
to a certain horizontal breadth from the arris. All 
mouldings planes, except hollows and rounds and 
snipesbills, have fixed fences as well as fixed stops, 
but in fillisters and plows, the fences are moveable, 
§ 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 31. 

Fine Set, when the iron has a very small projection 
below the sole of the plane, so as to take a very 
thin broad shaving, it is said to be fine set. 

Firmer Chissel, § 67. Plate 2. 

Floors, § 82. 

forkstaff plane, § 16. 

Framing, §81. 

Free Stuff, that which is quite clean or wdthout 
knots, and works easily, without tearing. 

Frowy Stuff the same as free stuff". 

G. 

Gauge, § 59, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 13. 
Gimblet, § t7. Plate 2, Fig. 2. No. 1 & 2. 

GOL'GE, 



JOINERY. 199 

Gouge, § 43. 

Grind Stone, a cylindric stone, which being turned 

round its axis, edge tools are sharpened by applying 

the basil to the convex surface. 
Grinding the Iron, § 6. - 
Groove, § 28. 
Grooving Planes, See § 28. Plate 1, Fig. 8, ^ 9. § 2. 

H. 

Hammer, -5(?e Carpentry, § 15. 

Hand Saw, § 48, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 6. 

Hanging Doors, § 84. 

Hanging Shutters, § 83. 

Hatchet, ^55. 

Hinging Doors and Shutters, § 83, 84 

Hollows and Rounds, §33. 



Jack Plane, § 5, 8, 67. Plate 1, Fig. L 
Jointer, § 12. 

K. 

Kerf, the way which the saw makes in dividing a 

piece of wood into two parts. 
Key Hole Saw,, § 54, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 10. 
JCnot that part of a branch of a tree where it issues 

out of the trunk. 

L. 

Long Plane, § il. 

Lower Rail, the rail at the foot of a door next to 
the floor, 

Lyinq 



200 JOINERY. 

Lying Pannel, a pannel with the fibres of the wooci 
disposed horizontally. Lying pannels have their 
horizontal dimension generally greater than the ver- 
tical dimension. 

M. 

Mallet, See Carpentry, § 16, and Joinery, § 67, 
Plate 1, Fig. 9. 

Margins or Margents, the flat part of the stiles 
and rails of framed work. 

Middle Rail, the rail of a door which is upon a 
level witli the hand when hanging freely and bend- 
ing the joint of the wrest. The lock of the doori^ 
generally fixed in this rail. 

Mitre, when two pieces of wood are formed to equal 
angles, or each two sides of each piece at equal in- 
clinations, and two sides one of each piece joined 
tofrether at their common vertex, so as to make an 
anole, or an inclination double to that of either 
piece, they are said to be mitred together, and the 
joint is called the mitre. The angle which is thus 
formed by the junction of the two, is generally a 
right angle. 

Mitre Square, § %<&. 

Mortice Chissels, § 42, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 5. 

Mortice and Tenon, § 81. 

Mortice Gauge, § 60. 

Moulding Planes, § 30. 

Mouldings, § 68, 69, 70, Plates 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Moving Fillister, § 20. 

lyiuLLiON, the large bars or divisions of windows. 

Munnion, a large vertical bar of a window frame sepa- 
rating two casements or glass frames from each 
other. 

Munnion, 



JOINERY, 201 

MuNTiNS OR MoNTANTS, the vertical pieces of the 
^rame of a door between the stiles. 



O. 

Ogee, a moulding, the transverse section of which 
consists of two curves of contrary flexture. § 68. 
Plate 3, Figs. 10, 11, 12. 

P. 

Pannel, a thin board, having all its edges inserted in 

the grooves of a surrounding frame. 
Pannel Saw, § 4.9. 
Plow, § 28, 67. Plate 1, Fig. 8. 

Q. 
Quarter Round, § 68. Fig. 7. 

R. 

Rails, the horizontal pieces which contain the tenons 
in a piece of framing, in which the upper and 
lower edges of the pannels are inserted. 

Raisers, See Risers. 

Rank Set, is when the edge of the iron projects 
considerably below the sole of the plane, so as to 
take a thick shaving. 

Rebate, § 18. 

Rebating, § 79, 80. 

Rebating Planes, § 18, 19, 20,21, 22,23,24,25, 26, 
27. also § 67, Plate 1, Figs. 6, & 7. 

Reeded Moxjldings, § 69. Plate 4, Figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Return, 



202 JOINERY. 

Return, in any body with two surfaces joining each 
other at an angle, one of the surfaces is said to re- 
turn in respect of the other; or if standing before 
one surface, so that the eye may be in a straight 
line with the other, or nearly so ; this last is said 
to return. 

Rimers, § 37. 

Ripping Saw, § 46. 

Risers, the vertical sides of the steps of stairs. 

Rube Stone, § 6. 

S. 

Sash Fillisters, § 21, 22. Plate 1, Fig. 6. 

Sash Saw, § 51, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 

Saws, § 45. 

Scantling the transverse dimensions of a piece of 

timber, sometimes also the small timbers in roofing 

and flooring, are called scantlings. 
Scotia, § 68. Plate 3, Fig. 9, 
Scribe, § 85. 
Shoot, a joint, § 74. 
Shooting Block, § 63. 
Shutters Hung, § 83. 
Side Hook, § 61, 67. Plate 1, Fig. 11. 
Side Rebating PlXnes, § 27. 
Side Snipesbills, § 32. 

Single Torus § 69. Plate 3, Fig. 5. Plate 4. Fig. 5. 
Smoothing Plane, § 13, 67. Plate 1, Fig. 3. 
Snipsebills, § 32. 
Square, § 56, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 11. 
Staff, a piece of wood fixed to the external aflgl^ 

of the two upright sides of a wall for floating 

the 



JOINERY. 203 

fthe plaster to, and for defending the angle against 

accidents. 
Stiles of a door, are the vertical parts of the framing 

at the edges of the door. 
Stock and Bits § 34, 67. Plate 2, Fig. l. 
Straight Block, § 17. 
Straight Edge, § 64. 
Stuff, § i. 
3urbase, the upper base of a room, or rather the 

cornice of the pedestal of the room which serves 

to finish the dado, and to secure the plaster against 

accidents, as might happen by the backs of chairs 

pr other furniture on the sanie level. 

T. 

Tang of an Iron is the narrow part of it which passes 
through the mortice in the stock. 

Taper, the form of a piece of wood which arises 
from one end of a piece being narrower than the 
other. 

Tenon Saw, § 50, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 7. 

Tooth, a small piece of steel with a cutting edge in 
fillisters and gauges. 

Torus, § 69. Plate 3, Fig. 5. Plate 4, Figs. 5, 6. 

Transom Windows, those which have horizontal 
mullions. 

Trussels four leged stools for ripping and cross- 
cutting timber upon. For this purpose there are 
generally two required, and when the timber is 
very long, an additional triissel in tlie middle will be 
found necessary. 

Try, § 78. 

Trying, § 78. 

Trying 



204 JOINERY. 

Trying Plane, §9, lo, 67. Plate i, Fig. lo. 
Turning Saw, § 54, 67. Plate 2, Fig. 20. 

W. 

Warp, See Cast. 

Web of an Iron is the broad part of it which comes 
to the sole of the plane, the upper edge or end of 
the web has generally one shoulder, and sometimes 
two, where it joins the tang. 

Winding Sticks, § 64. 



MECHA- 



( 205 ) 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES, 

OF BMCKTLAYING, 



§ 1. BRICKLAYING is an art by which 
bricks are joined and cemented, so as to adhere 
as one body. 

This art in Londoi? includes the business of 
walling, tiling and paving, with bricks or tiles, 
and sometimes the bricklayer undertakes the bu- 
siness of plastering also: but this is only done by 
masters in a small way. In the country brick- 
laying and plastering are generally joined, and 
not unfrequently the art of masonry also, which 
has a nearer affinity to it than that of plastering. 
The bricklayer is supplied with bricks and 
mortar at his work by a man, called a labourer, 
who also makes the mortar. 

The materials used are mortar, bricks, tiles, 
laths, nails and tile pins; bricks and tiles are of 
several kinds, which, as well as other descrip- 
tions of work, are treated of under their re- 
spective heads, viz. 1st the Tools, 2d of Cements, 
3d of Brick-making, and the various sorts of 
bricks, 4th the several kinds of Tiles and Laths, 
5th the different methods of treating Foundations 

according 



^06 BRICKLAYING. 

according to the quality of the soil, whetlief 
of an uniform or mixed texture, 6th Walling, 
7th a Description of the Plates, and lastly, an 
Explanation of such terms as have not been de- 
fined in the course of the work, or such as may 
require a farther explanation, with an index to 
the principal technical terms used in this art, and 
in connection therewith, the terms and index 
being placed under an alphabetical arrangement, 
as to the former branches of Carpentry and 
Joinery. 

BRICKLAYING TOOLS DESCRIBED. 

§ 2. A List of Walling Tools. 

1st a Brick Trowel, 2d a Hammer, 3d a Plumb 
Rule, 4th a Level, 5th a Large Square, 6th a 
Rod, 7th a Jointing Rule, 8th a Jointer, 9th a 
Pair of Compasses, 10th a Raker, 11th a Hod, 
12th a Pair of Line Pins, 13th a Rammer, 14th 
an Iron Crow, 15th a Pick Axe, 16th a Grind- 
ing Stone, 17th a Banker, 18th a Camber Slip, 
1 9th a Rubbino^ Stone, 20th a Bedding Stone, 
21st a Square, 22d a Bevel, 23d a Mould, 24th 
a Scribe, 25th a Saw, 26th, an Axe, 27th a 
Templet, 28th a Chopping Block, 29th a Float 
Stone. 

§ 3. ^ List of Tools used in Tiling. 

1st a Lathing Hammer, 2d a Laying Trowel, 
3d a Boss, 4th a Pantile Strike, 5th a Scurbage. 

Tools 



BRICKLAYING. 207 

TOOLS FOR WALLING DESCRIBED. 

§ 4. The Brick Trowel 

Is used for taking up mortar, and spreading 
it on the top of the walls, in order to cement 
together the bricks which are to be laid, and 
also to cut the bricks to anj required lengths, 

§ 5. The Hammer 
Is used for cutting holes in brick work. 

§ 6. The Plumb Rule 

Is about four feet long, with a line and plura- 
met, in order to C3.iiy the faces of wails up ver- 
tically. See also Carpentry, § 14. 

§ 7. The Level 

Is about 10 or [2 feet long, in order to try 
the level of walls at various stages of building, 
and particularly at window cills and wall plates. 
See also Carpentry, § 12, 13. 

§ 8. The Large Square 
Is used for setting out the sides of a building 
at right angles, which is also obtained by Prob. 
1, 2, 3. Geometry, page 19. 

§ 9. The Rod 
Is either 5 or 10 feet in length, and used for 
measuringlengths, breadthsand heights with more 
dispatch than could be done by a pocket rule. 

§ 10, 77ic 



^08 BRICKLAYING. 

§ 10. The Jointing Rule ' 

Is about S or iO feet iong^ according to wbetlief 
one or two bricklayers are to use it, and about 
4 inches broad. By tbis rule they run the joints 
of the brick work. 

§ 11. The Jointer 
With which, and the jointing rule, the hori" 
zontal and vertical joints are marked, it is shaped 
like the letter S, and is of iron. 

§ 12. The Compasses 
Is used for travessing arches and vaults. 

\^. The Raker 

Is a piece of iron with two knees or angles, 
"which divide it into three parts at right angles 
to each other ; the two end parts are pointed and 
of equal lengths, and stand upon contrary sides 
of the middle part. Its use is to pick decayed 
mortar out of the joints in old wails, for the 
purpose of replacing the same with new mortar. 

§ 14. The Hod 

Is a wooden trough, shut up at one end and 
open at the other, the sides consisting of two 
boards at right angles to each other, from the 
meeting of the two sides projects a handle at 
right angles; this machine is used by the la- 
bourer for carrying mortar and bricks, he strews 

the 



BRICKLAYING. 209 

the inner surface over with fine dry sand before 
he puts in the mortar, which prevents it sticking 
to the wood, then placing it upon his shoulder, 
carries the load to the bricklayer. 

§15. TJie Line Pifis 

Are two iron pins for fastening and stretching 
the linCj at proper intervals of the wall, in order 
to lay the course of brick work level on the bed, 
and straight along the face of the wall. The 
line pins have generally a length of 60 fee^t of 
line, fastened to each pin. 

§ 16. The Rammer 

is used for ascertaining whether the ground be 
sufficiently solid forbuildingupon, also for beating 
the ground to a firm bearing, so as to give it the 
utmost degree of compression; for if ground is 
built upon in a loose state, in all probability 
fractures in the walls would ensue, and endanger 
the whole building. See Foundations. 

§ 17. The Iron Crow and Pick Axe 

Are used in conjunction for cutting or break- 
ing through walls, or raising large or ponderous 
substances out of the ground, or the like. 

§ 18. The Grinding Stone 

Is used for sharpening axes, hammers, and 
other tools. 

P § 19. The 



^10 BRICKLAYING. 

§ 19. The Banker 

Is a bench from 6 to 12 feet in length, ac- 
cording to the number of those who are to work 
at it, and from 2 feet 6 inches^ to 3 feet in 
breadth, and may be an inch thick, and raised 
about 2 feet 8 inches from the ground. It is 
generally made of an old ledged door, set upon 
three or five posts in front, and its back edge 
against a wall. It is used for preparing the 
bricks for rubbed arches, or other guaged work 
upon. 

§ 20. 77ie Camler Slip 

Is a piece of wood generally about half arj 
inch thick, with at least one curved edge rising 
about 1 inch in 6 feet, for drawing the sofHt 
lines of straight arches, when the other edge is 
curved, it rises only abotif one half of the other 
viz. about | an inch in 6 feel, for the purpose of 
drawing the upper side of the said arch, so as 
to prevent it from becoming hollow by the set- 
tling of the arch. The upper edge of the arch 
is not always cambered, some persons preferring 
it to be straight. The bricklayer is always pro- 
vided with a camber slip, which being sufficient- 
ly long answers to many different widths of open- 
ings; when he has done drawing his arch, h^ 
gives the camber slip to the carpenter, in order 
to form the centre to the required curve of the 
somt; 



BRICKLAYING. 211 

§ 21. The Rubbing Stone 

Is of a cjiindric form about 20 inches dia- 
meter, but may be more or less at pleasure, fixed 
at one end of the banker upon a bed of mortar. 
Bj this, the bricks which have been previously 
axed are rubbed smooth, also the headers and 
stretchers in returns, which are not axed, called 
rubbed returns, and fubbed headers and stretchers. 

§ 23. The Bedding Stone 

Consists of a straight piece of marble, not 
less than 18 or 20 inches in length, abou»t 8 or 
10 inches wide, and of any thickness. Its use is 
to try the rubbed side of the brick, which you 
must first square, in order to prove whether the 
surface of the brick be straight, so as to fit it 
upon the leading skew back, or leading end of 
the arch. 

§ 23. The Square 

Is used in trying the bedding of the bricks, 
and squaring the soffite across the breadth pf the 
said bricks. 

§24. The Bevel 

For drawing the soffit line on the face of the 
bricks. 

§ 25. The Mould 

Ts used in forming the face and back of the 

brick, in order to its being reduced in thickness 

P 2 to 



212 BRICKLAYING. 

its proper taper, one edge of the mould being 
brought close to the bed of the brick already 
squared ; the mould has a notch for every course 
of the arch, 

§26. The Scribe 

Is a spike or large oail ground to a sharp 
point, to mark the bricks on the face and back 
by the tapering edges of the mould, in order to 
cut them. 

§ 27. The Tin Saw 

Is used for cutting the soffit lines about |- part 
of an inch deep, first by the edge of the bevel 
on the face of the brick, then by the edge of the 
square on the bed of the brick, in order to enter 
the brick axe, and to keep the brick from spal- 
tering. The saw is also used in cutting the 
ioffit through its breadth, in the direction of the 
tapering lines, drawn upon the face and back 
edge of the brick, but the cutting is always 
made deeper on the face and back of the brick 
than m the middle of its thickness, for the said 
purpose of entering the axe : the saw is like- 
wise used for cutting the false joints of headers 
and stretchers. 

§ 28. The Brick Axe 
Is used for axing off the soffits of bricks to 
the saw cuttings, and the sides to the lines drawn 



BRICKiAYINC: 2l3 

by the scribes. As the bricks are always rubbed 
smooth after axing, the more truly they are axed 
the less labour there will be in rubbing. 

§ 29. The Templet 

Is used iu taking the length of the stretcher 
and width of the header. 

Mote, The last ten articles relate entirely io 
the cutting of gauged arches, which are now 
the principal things that occur in gauged work. 

§ 30. The Chopping Block 

Is for reducing the bricks to their intended 
form by axing them, and is made of any chance 
piece of wood that can be obtained, from 6 to 8 
inches square, supported generally upon two 14 
inch brick piers, provided only two men be to work 
at it, but if four men, the chopping block must be 
lengthened and supported by three piers, and so 
on according to the number. It is about 2 feet 
3 inches in height. 

§31. The Float Stone, 

fs used for rubbing curved work smooth^ such 
as the cylindrical backs and spherical heads of 
niches^ so as to take out the axe marks entirely : 
but before its application, it must first be brought 
to the reverse form of the intended surface, 
30 as to coincide with it^ as nearly as possible in 
^nishiog. 

' 4 32. Of 



214 BRICKLAYING. 

§ 32. Of Cements. 

Calcarious Cements may be classed according 
to the three following divisions: name]\, Simple 
calcarious Cement^ Water Cement^ Mastichs, or 
maltha. 

1st Simple calcarious cements includes those 
kinds of mortar which are employed in land 
building, and consists of lime, sand, and fresh 
water. 

Calcarious earths are converted into quick lime 
by burning, which being wetted with water falls 
into an in palpable powder, with great extraca- 
tion heat: and if in this state it is beat with sand 
and water, the mass will concrete and become a 
stony substance, which will be more or less per- 
fect according to its treatment, or to the quality 
and quantities of ingredients. When carbonated 
lime has been thoroughly burnt, it is deprived 
of its water, and all or nearly all of its carbonic 
acid. Much of the water during the process of 
calcination, being carried off in the form of 
steam. 

Lime stone loses about ^ of its weight, by 
burning, and when fully burnt, it falls freely, 
^.nd will produce something more than double 
the quantity of powder or slacked lime in mea- 
sure, that the burnt lime stone consisted of. 

Quick lime, by being exposed to the air ab- 
sorbs carbonic aci4 with greater or less rapidity, 
as its texture is less or more bard, and this by 

continued 



BRICKLAYING. 215 

continued exposure^ becomes unfit for the com- 
position of morjtar; and hence it i^ that quick 
lime made of chalk, cannot be kept for the same 
length of time between the burning and slacking, 
as that made from stone. 

Marble, chalk, and lime stone, .with respect 
to their use in cements, may be divided into two 
kinds, simple lime stone, or pure carbonate of 
lime, and argillo-ferugenous lime, which contains 
from ^^ to ^\ of claj, and oxide of iron, previous 
to calcination: there are no external marks by 
which these can be distinguished from each other, 
but whatever may have been the colour in the 
crude state, the former when calcined becomes 
white, and the latter more or less of an ochery 
tinge. The white kinds are more abundant, and 
when made into mortar will admit of a greater 
portion of sand than the brown, consequent- 
ly, are more generally employed in the com- 
position of mortar; ■ but the brown lime is by far 
the best for all kinds of cement. If white, 
brown, and shell lime recently slacked, be sepa- 
rately beat up with a little water into a stiff paste, 
it will be found that the white lime, whether made 
from chalk, lime stone, or marble, will not ac- 
quire any degree of hardness; the brown lime will 
become considerably indurated, and the shell lime 
will be concreted into a firm cement, which though 
it will fall to pieces in water, is well qualified 
for interior finishings, where it can be kept dry. 

it 



216 BRICKLAYING. 

It was the opinion of the ancients, and is still 
received among our modern builders, that the 
hardest lime stone furnishes the best lime for mor- 
tar, but the experiments of Dr. Higgins, and 
Mr. Smeaton have proved this to be a mistake, 
and that the softest chalk lime, if thoroughly 
burnt, is equally durable with the hardest 
stone lime, or even marble: but though stone 
and chalk lime are equally good under this con- 
dition, there is a very important practical dif- 
ference between them, as the chalk lime absorbs 
carbonic acid with much greater avidity; and if 
it is Only partially calcined on the application of 
water, it will fall into a coarse powder, which 
stone lime will not do. 

For making mortar, the lime should be im- 
mediately used from the kiln, and in slacking it, 
no more water should be allowed than what is 
just sufficient: and for this purpose Dr. Higgins 
recommends lime water. 

The sand made use of should be jperfectly 
clean; if there is any mixture of clay or mud, it 
should be divested, of either orboth, by washing it 
in running water. Mr. Smeaton has full}' shovpn 
by experiment, that mortar, though of the best 
quality, when mixed with a small proportion of 
unburnt clay, never acquires that hardness, which 
without this addition, it speedily would have at- 
tained. If sea sand is used, it requires to be 
well washed with fresh water, to dissolve the 

saltj 



BRICKLAYING. 217 

salt, with which it is mixed, otherwise the ce- 
ment into which it enters, never becomes tho- 
roughly dry and hard, the sharper and coarser 
the sand is, the stronger is the mortar, also a less 
proportion of lime is necessary. It is therefore 
more profitable to use the largest proportion of 
sand, as this ingredient is the cheapest in the 
composition. 

The best proportion of lime and sand in the 
composition of mortar is yet a desideratum. 

It may be affirmed in general, that no more 
lime is required to a given quantity of sand, than 
what is just sufficient to surround the particles, 
or to use the least lime so as to preserve the ne- 
cessary degree of plasticity. Mortar in which 
sand predominates, requires less water in pre- 
paring, and therefore sets sooner, it is harder 
and less liable to crack in drying, for this reason 
that lime shrinks greatly in drying, while sand 
retains its original magnitude. We are informed 
by Vitruvius lib. ii. c. 5. that the Roman builders 
allowed three parts of pit sand, or two of river 
oi: sea sand to one of lime; but by Pliny (Hist. 
JSTat. lib. xxxvi. ) four parts of coarse bharp pit 
sand, and only one of lime. The general pro- 
portion given by cur London builders is 1| hun- 
dred weight, or 37 bushels of lime and 2| loads 
of sand, but if proper caution were taken in the 
burning the lime, the quality of the sand, and 
in tempering the materials, a much greater quan- 
tity of sand might be admitted, 

Mr. 



218 BRICKLAYING. 

Mr. Smeaton observes, that there is scarcely 
any mortar, that if the lime be well burnt, and 
the composition well beaten in the making, but 
what will require two measures of sand, to one 
of unslacked lime, and it is singular that the 
more the mortar is wrought or beat, a greater 
proportion of sand may be admitted. He found 
that by good beating, the same quantity of lime 
would take in one measure of tarras, and three 
of clean sand, which seems to be the greatest 
useful proportion* 

Dr. Higgins found that a certain proportion of 
coarse and fine sand improved the composition of 
mortar; the best proportion of ingredients ac- 
cording to experiment made by him are as follow 
by measure. 

Lime newly slacked - - 1 part. 
Fine sand ----- 3 parts. 
Coarse sand - - - - 4 parts. 

He also found that an addition of ^ part of 
the quantity of lime, of burnt bone ashes, im- 
proved the mortar by giving the tenacity, and 
rendering it less liable to crack in drying. 

The mortar should be made under ground, 
then covered up and kept there for a considerr 
able length of time, the longer the better, and 
when it is to be used, it should be beat up a- 
fresh. This makes it set sooner, renders it less 
liable to crack, and more hard when dry. 

The stony consistence which it requires in dry- 
ing 



BRICKLAYING, 219 

iflg, is owing to the absorption of carbonic acid 
and a conmbination of part of the water with the 
lime : and hence it is that lime that has been 
long kept after burning is unfit for the purpose 
of mortar, for in the course of keeping, so much 
carbonic acid has been imbibed as to have little 
better effect in a composition of sand and water, 
than chalk or lime stone reduced to a powder 
from the crude state would have in place of it. 

Grout is mortar containing a larger proportion 
of water than is employed in common mortar, so 
as to make it sufficiently fluid to penetrate the 
narrow irregular interstices of rough stone walls. 
jGrout should be made of mortar that has beenv 
long kept and thoroughly beat, as it will then 
concrete in the space of a day: whereas if this 
precaution is neglected, it will be a long time be- 
fore it set, and may even never set. 

Mortar made of pure lime sand and water, 
may be employed in the linings of reservoirs, and 
aqueducts, provided that it has sufficient time to 
dry, but if the water be put in while it is wet, 
it will fall to pieces in a short time, and conse- 
quently, if the circumstances of the building are 
such as render it impracticable to keep out the - 
water it should not be used : there are, however, 
certain ingredients put into common mortar, by 
which it is made to set immediately under water, 
or if the quick lime contain in itself a certain 
pojtion of burnt clay, it will possess this property. * 

This 



520 BRICKLAYING. 

This is all that is necessary to saj under this 
head, what relates to mortars employed in aquatic 
buildings will be treated of under water cements. 
From the friable and crumbling nature of our 
mortar, a notion has been entertained by many 
persons, that the ancients possessed a process in 
making their mortar, which has been lost at the 
present day, but the experiments of Mr. Smeaton^ 
Dr. Higgins, and others have shown this notion 
to be unfounded, and that nothing more is wanting 
than that the chalk, lime stone or marble be well 
burnt and thoroughly slacked immediately, and 
to mix it up with a certain proportion of clean 
large grain sharp sand, and as small a quantity 
of water as will be sufficient for working it; to 
keep it a considerable time from the external air, 
and to beat it over again before it is used, the 
cement thus made will be sufficiently hard. 

The practice of our modern builders, is to 
spare their labour, and to increase the quantity 
of materials they produce, without any regard to 
its goodness; the badness of our modern mortar 
is to be attributed both to the faulty nature of 
the materials, and to the slovenly and hasty me- 
thods of using it. This is remarkably instanced 
in London, where the lime employed is chalk 
lime, indifferently burnt, conveyed from Essex 
or Kent, a distance of 10 or 20 miles, then 
kept many days without any precaution to pre- 
vent the access of external air: now in the course 

of 



BRICKLAYING. 2'^l 

of this time, it has absorbed so much carbonic 
acid as nearly to lose its cementing properties, 
and though chalk lime is equally good with the 
hardest lime stone, when thoroughly burnt, yet 
by this treatment, when it is slacked, it falls into 
a thin powder, and the core or unburnt lumps 
are ground down, and mixed up in the mortar, 
and not rejected as it ought to be. 

The sand is equally defective, consisting of 
small globular grains, containing a large pro- 
portion of clay which prevents it from drying, 
and attaining the necessary degree of hardness. 

These materials being compounded in the most 
hasty manner, and beat up with water in this 
imperfect state, cannot fail of producing a crumb- 
ling and bad mortar. To complete the hasty 
hash, screened rubbish, and the scraping of roads 
also are used as substitutes for pure sand. 

How very different was the practice of the 
Romans, the lime which they employed was per- 
fectly burnt, the sand sharp, cleaned and large 
grained : these ingredients were mixed in due pro- 
portion with a small quantity of water, the mass 
was put into a wooden mortar, and beat with a 
heavy wooden or iron pestle till the composition 
adhered to the mortar; being thus far prepared, 
they kept it till it was at least three years old. 
The beating of mortar is of the utmost conse- 
quence to its durability, and it would appear 
that the effect produced by if, is owing to some- 
thing more than a oiere mechanical mixture. 

Water 



222 BRICKLAYING, 

Water Cements are those which are impervi- 
ous to water, generally made of common mor- 
tar, or of pure lime and water, with the addition 
of some other ingredient which gives it the pro- 
perty of hardening under water. 

For this purpose there are several kinds of in- 
gredients that may be used. 

That known by the name of Pozzolana, which 
is supposed to consist of volcanic ashes thrown 
out of Vesuvius, has been long celebrated from 
the early ages of the Romans to the present day. 
It seems to consist of a ferrugenous clay, baked 
and calcined by the force of volcanic fire, it is a 
light, porus, friable mineral of a red colour. 
The cement employed by Mr. Smeaton, in con- 
struction of the Eddyston light house, was com- 
posed of equal parts by measure, of slacked 
aberthaw lime and pozzolana; this proportion 
was thought adviseable, as this building was 
exposed to the utmost violence of the sea: but 
for other aquatic works, as locks, basins, canals, 
&c. a composition made of lijne, pozzolana, 
sand and water in the following proportion : viz. 
two bushels of slacked aberthaw lime, one bushel 
of pozzolana, and three of clean sand, has been 
found very effectual. 

§ 33. Description of Bricks. 

Bricks are a kind of factitious stone, composed 
of argilaceous earth, and frequently a certain 
portion of sand and cinders of sea-coal tempered 

together 



BRICKLAYING?. ^i^J 

together with water, dried in the sun, and burnt 
in a kilrtj or in a heap or stack called a clamp. 

Bricks are first formed from the clay into 
rectangular prisms, in a mould of 10 inches ia 
length, and 5 in breadth, and when burnt, 
usually measure 9 inches long, 4| broad, and 
2^ thick: so that a brick generally shrinks 1 inch 
in 10; but the degree of shrinking is not always 
the same, it depends upon the purity and tem- 
pering of the clay, and also upon the burn- 
ing- 

For brick making, the earth should be of the 
purest kind, dug in autumn, and exposed during 
the winter's frost ; this allows the air to pene- 
trate, and divide the earthly particles, and faci- 
litates the subsequent operations of mixing and 
tempering. 

To make real good bricks the earth should be 
dug two or three years before it is used, in order 
to pulverize it, and should be mixed with a 
due proportion of clay and sand, as too much 
argilaceous matter causes the bricks to shrink, 
ftnd too much sand renders them heavy and 
brittle. The London practice of mixing oi sea 
coal ashes, and in the country light sandy earth, 
not only makes them work easy and with greater 
dispatch, but tends also to save coals or wood 
in burning them. The earth should be entirely 
divested of stony particles, and should be often 
beat or turned over, with as little water as pos- 
sible. 



224 BRICKLAYING. 

sible, in order to incorporate the soil ^ith the 
ashes or sand, until the whole be converted into 
a uniform paste, and note, that too much water 
prevents the adhering of the parts; before the 
bricks are burnt, they should be thoroughly dry, 
or they will crack and crumble in the burning. 

Bricks made of good earth, well tempered, 
become solid, smooth, hard, durable and pon- 
derous; but require half as much more earth, 
also a longer time in drying and burning, them 
than common bricks, which are light, spungy, 
and full of cracks. Bricks are either burnt in 
clamps or kilns, the former is the practice about 
London, and the latter in the country ; bricks 
burnt in kilns are less liable to waste, require 
less fuel, and are sooner burnt than in clamps. 
It must be observed that steeping of bricks in 
water after once burning, and then burning 
them afresh, makes them more than doubly 
strong. 

There are several kinds of bricks, as Marls, 
stocks, and Place bricks. The only difference in 
making them is, that marls are prepared and 
tempered with greater care, the constructien of 
the clamp is the same for each, but for marls 
areater care is taken not to over-heat the kiln, 
but that it burn equally and moderately, and as 
diffusively as possible. The finest kind of marls 
called firsts, are selected, and used as cutting 
bricks, for arches over doors, windows, and 

quoins. 



BRICKLAYING. 225 

quoins, for which they are gauged and rubbed 
to their proper forms. The next best called se- 
conds;, are selected and used for principal fronts. 
Marls are every way superior to stock bricks, 
not only in colour, which is a pleasant pale yel- 
low, but also in point of smoothness and dura- 
bility. Hence the gray stocks are an inferior kind. 
The place bricks, or as they are otherwise called 
peckings, and sometimes sandal or semel bricks, 
are those that are left of the clamp after taking 
away the rubbers and marls, their inferior quality 
is occasioned by not being sufficiently and uni- 
formly burnt : they also differ from stock bricks 
in being of a redder colour, and of a more un- 
even texture. Burrs are over-burnt brick, some- 
times two or three are quite vitrified and run to- 
gether. There are also red stocks, these arc 
made in the country, and burnt in kilns, 
the best kind are used as cutting bricks, and 
are called red rubbers. Fine bricks are made 
at Hedgerly, a village near Windsor, and are 
therefore also called Windsor bricks. These 
are very hard, of a red colour, and will 
•tand the utmost fury of the fire ; their length 
and breadth are the same as stock bricks, but 
their thickness is only about 1| inch. Bricks 
are sold by the thousand. Stock and place 
bricks made for sale, shall not be less than 8| 
inches long, 4 inches wide, and 2^ thick,> when 
burnt, by 17 Geo. hi. cap, 69. 

Q Besides 



226 ^ BRICKLAYING. 

Besides the bricks of our own manufacture, 
Dutch clinkers are also imported for the pur- 
pose of paving j#rds and stables. These are 
very hard^, of a brimstone colour, and almost 
vitrified in burning. They are about 6 inches 
long, 3 broad,, and 1 thick, and look extremely 
well when laid herring bone ways. 

As a building material, bricks have several 
advantages over stone, being lighter, and from 
their porus structure they unite better with th« 
mortar, and are not so liable to attract damp. 

Bricks for paving floors, also called paving 
tiles, are of several magnitudes, and are made 
of a stronger clay. The largest are about 13 
inches square, and 1| in thickness; the second 
are about 9 inches square, though called 10 
being foraierly so, and 1~ thick; these may btf 
rubbed smooth, and when laid diagonally, hav« 
a very pleasing eftect. Bricks for paving are 
about 9 inches long, 4| broad, and 1| thick. 

The chief covering for roofs in and about 
London is slate : however, in the interior of the 
country, tiles are almost uniformly used for the 
roofs of houses, and in some instances on barns ; 
tiles for roofs are of several kinds, as pan tiles, 
plain tiles, ridge tiles, and hip tiles. Pan tiles- 
l(re about 13 inches long, 8 inches broad, and 
about I inch thick ; their transvese section is a 
figure of contrary curvature, the form of the 
tile being two portions of cylindric surfaces on 

both 



BRICKLAYING. 227 

both sides, the part which is of the greatest ra- 
dius serves as a channel for discharging the rain 
water, and the other part, which is of much less 
radius, serves to lap over the edge of the ad- 
joining tile: at the upper end of the tile pro- 
jects a knob from the under and convex side, for 
the purpose of hanging it to the lath. The laths 
used for pan tiles are about J of an inch thick, 
and 1^ of an inch broad, made of deal. Flemish 
tiles are sometimes imported from Holland, they 
are very hard and durable, and are glazed of a 
leaden colour. 

§ 34. Foundations. 

Having dug the trenches for the foundations, 
the ground must be tried with an iron crow, or 
with a rammer, and if found to shake it must be 
pierced with a borer, such as is used by well 
diggers: then if the ground proves to be gene- 
rally firm, the loose or soft parts, if not very 
deep, must be excavated until a solid bed ap- 
pears; but observe in building up these parts 
that the bottom of the excavation must widen 
upwards in a gradual slope, in the direction of 
the trenchers in form of a series of steps, which 
will admit of a firmer bed for the stones, so that 
they will have no tendency to slide, as would be 
the case if built upon inclined planes: and thus 
in wet seasons, the moisture in the foundations 
would induce the inclined parts to slide, and 
Q 2 descend 



22S "BRICKLAYING. 

descend by their gravity towards the lowest part?/ 
and in all probability would fracture the walls^ 
and endanger the whole fabric. 

If the ground proves soft in several places to 
a great depth under apertures, and firm upon 
the aides on which the piers between the windows 
of the superstructure are to be erected, the better 
way is to turn inverted arches under the aper- 
tures, See Plate 4, and indeed at all times where 
there is sufficient height of wall below the aper- 
tures to admit of them, it is a necessary pre- 
caution. 

For the small base of the piers will more 
easily penetrate the ground than one continued 
base: and as the piers are permitted to descend 
in a certain degree, and so long as they can be 
kept from spreading, will carry the arch along 
with them, and compress the ground, which 
Vf'vW therefore re- act against the under sides of 
the inverted arch, which, if closely jointed will 
not yield, but act with the abutting piers as one 
solid body. On the contrary, if no inverted 
arches were used, the low piece of walling under 
the apertures not having a sutiicient vertical di- 
mension would give way from the resistance of 
the ground upon its base, and thereby, not only 
fracture the spaces of brick work which lies ver- 
tical between the aperture, but breaks the cills 
of the windows. Where the precaution of in- 
verted arches ia omitted, and the building is 

weighty. 



BRICKLAYING. 229 

weighty, the probability of the event of fracturing 
the walls is almost certain; the author, who has 
had great practice in conducting buildings never 
experienced any instance to the contrary, in the 
numerous buildings in which he has been cour- 
cerned. It is therefore of the utmost conse- 
quence to throw these arches with the greatest 
care ; they ought not to be less in height than 
half tl!\iir width, and as a parabolic curve is very 
easily described, it would be still more effectual 
in resisting the re-action of the ground than one 
of uniform curvature, as the arc of a circle. 
The parabolic arch or vault being the form adapt- 
ed more nearly to the laws of uniform pressure. 
From the equality of the curvature of the cir^- 
cle, it is only capable of resisting a uniform 
pressure upon all points directed to the centre, 
and thus a cylindric vessel surrounded with water 
is a proper form of a hollow body to be con* 
istructed of the least quantity of materials, or at 
the least ex pence. 

The bed of the piers ought to be as uniform 
as possible, for though all the parts of the bot- 
tom of the trenches may be very firm, if there 
be any difference, £is they will all sink, the quan- 
tity which they wi|l give will Jje according to 
the softness of the ground, therefore the piers 
erected upon the softer will descend more than 
those on the firmer ground, and occasion a ver- 
tical frfictu^re in the building. 

If 



230 BRICKLAYING. 

If the hard parts of the foundation are only 
to be found under apertures^ then build piers ia 
these places, and instead of inverted arches sus- 
pend arches between the piers. In the construc- 
tion of the arches some attention must be paid to 
the breadth of the insisting pier, whether it 
will cover the arch or not : for suppose the mid- 
dle of the pier? to rest over the middle of the 
summit of the aiches, then the narrov/er the 
piers, the more curvature the supporting arch 
ought to have at the apex. When arches of 
suspension are used, the intrados ought to be 
clear, so that the arch may have the full effect; 
but as observed before, it will also be requisite 
here, that the ground be uniformly hard on 
"which the piers are erected, for the reasons al- 
ready given; but it might be farther observed, 
that even where the ground is not very hard under 
the piers, if it is but uniform, the parts will 
descend equally, and the building will remain un- 
injured. 

If the foundation be not very insufficient^ it may 
be made good by ramming large stones closely 
laid with a heavy rammer, of a breadth at the 
bottom proportioned to the insisting weight, and 
this breadth in ordinary cases may project a foot 
on each side of the wall, then another course 
may be laid upon this so as to bring the upper 
bed of the stones upon a general level with the 
trenches^ and to project about 8 inches on each 

side 



BRICKLAYING. 23! 

Side of tbe wallj or to recede 4 inches on each 
side within the lower course. In laying of these 
courses, care should be taken to chop or hammer- 
dress the stones, so as to have as little taper as 
possible,, and to make the joints of the one course 
fall as nearly to the middle of the stones in the 
adjoining course as possible, and this principle 
must be strictly adhered to in ali walling what- 
ever, and though there are various modes of dis- 
posing stones or bricks, the end is to obtaie the 
greatest uniform lap upon each other, through- 
out the whole. 

If the foundation is very bad, the whole must 
be piled, as already described in the department 
of Carpentry. 

§35. Walls. 

We shall now suppose that the ground is either 
naturally sufficient for building upon, or is pre- 
pared for the purpose by means similar to what 
have already been described: and the different 
qualities of mortar and bricks being also de- 
scribed, such materials must be employed in the 
construction of the whqle, or in the diiTerent 
parts, as are sufficient for the end proposed ; thus, 
in places exposed to the weather, more durable 
materials must be employed than to those which 
are covered ; but in this, some regard must also 
be had to the importance of the fabric, or whether 
long duration may be required or not. 

When 



^33 .BRICKLAYING. 

When you slack the lime, wet it only with so 
much water as is sufficient to reduce it to a pow- 
der, and only about a bushel at a time, covering 
it over with a lajer of sand, in ifrder to prevent 
the gas which is the virtue of the lime from es- 
caping. The best proportion of the ingredients 
of lime and sand for mortar has been liilly spe- 
cified, but in ordinary cases, where time wiil not 
permit to prepare the materials to the best ad- 
vantage, or where the end proposed would not 
be a compeosaiion for the expence, about 2 or 
2| measures of sand to 1 of lime may be used ; 
but even this proporiion will not always hold, 
for some lime will require more and some less 
sand ; this being understood, slack the same 
quantity of lime alternately, until the whole is 
made up: this is a better mode than to slack the 
whole at once, as the exposure is less in the 
former, than in the latter case. 

Beat your mortar with the beater three or 
four times over before it is used, so as to incor- 
porate the lime and sand, and to break the knots 
that pass through the sieve ; this will not only 
render the texture uniform, but will make the 
mortar much stronger by permitting the air to 
enter the pores: and observe here also, as we 
have before stated, to use as little water in the 
beat'ng as possible. Should the mortar stand 
any time after beating it should be beat again, 
immediately before it is used, so as to give te- 
nacity 



BRICKLAYING. ^33 

nacity and to prevent labour to the bricklaj'er. 
In summer dry hot weather use your mortar 
pretty soft, but in winter rather stiff. 

If you lay your bricks in dry weather, and if 
you require firm work, you must use mortar 
prepared in the best way, and before using the 
bricks, they must be wetted or dipped in water 
as they are laid on the wall, but in moist weather 
this will be unnecessary. The wetting of the 
bricks causes them to adhere to the mortar, 
whereas, if laid dry and covered with sand or 
dust, they will never stick, but may be taken 
off without the adhesion of a single particle of 
mortar. 

In winter as soon as the frost or stormy season 
begins to set in, the walls must be covered, for 
this purpose straw is usually employed, and 
sometimes in particular buildings a capping of 
weather boarding, in form of a stone coping, 
for throwing the water equally to both sides is 
used; but even in this case, it would be better 
to have straw under the wood, which would be 
still a farther proof against frost. There is no- 
thing so prejudicial to a building as alternate 
rain and frost, if exposed, for the rain makes 
way through the pores into the heart of the 
stone and mortar, and when the freezing comes 
on, the water is converted into ice, which ex- 
pands beyond the original bulk with such power, 
that no known force of compression is capable of 

preventing 



234 BRICKMYING. 

preventing it from expansion. In consequence 
of this, the heaviest stones and even the largest 
rocks have been burst. Though this is the cause 
why buildings decay in lapse of time, yet the 
vertical surfaces exposed to the vreather suffer but 
io an incomparably small degree to horizontal 
surfaces thus exposed. 

In working up the wall it would be proper not 
to work more than 4 or 5 feet at a time, for as 
all walls immediately after building shrink, the 
part which is first brought up will remain sta-- 
tionary, and when the adjacent part is also brought 
up, it will shrink in altitude by itself, and con- 
sequently will separate from the other which has 
already become fixed. In carrying up any parti- 
cular part, the ends should be regularly sloped 
off so as to receive the bond of the adjoining 
parts on the right and left. There is nothing 
that will justify one part of a wall being carried 
higher than one scaffold, except it be to forward 
the carpenter in some particular part, or the 
like. 

In brick work there are two kinds of bond, 
one in which a row of bricks laid lengthways in 
the length of the wall, is crossed by another row 
laid with their breadth in the said length, and 
thus proceeding to work up the courses in alter- 
nate rows, which is called English bond. Tho 
courses in which the length of the bricks are 
disposed in the length of the wall are called 

stretching 



BRICKLAYING, 235 

stretching courses, and the bricks themselves are 
called stretchers. The courses in which the length 
of the bricks run in the thickness of the wall are 
called heading courses, and the bricks thus dis- 
posed are called headers. The other kind of 
brick work is the placing of header and stretcher 
alternately in the same course ; this disposition 
of the bricks is called Flemish bond. This latter 
mode, though esteemed the most beautiful is 
attended with great inconveniences in the execu- 
tion, and in most cases is incapable of uniting 
the parts of a wall with the same degree of firm- 
ness as the English bond. 

To enter into the particular merits of these two 
species of bond would carry this department be- 
yond its allowed limits; the reader who wishes 
farther satisfaction will consult the explanation of 
the Plates, and an ingenious tract on Brick Bond, 
by Mr. G. Saunders, where the defects of Flemish 
bond, and the superiority of the old English 
bond, are pointed out in the most satisfactory 
manner. However, it may be proper to ob- 
serve in general, that whatever advantages are 
gained by apy disposition of placing the bricks 
in Flemish bond in any particular direction, is 
lost in another : thus if an advantage is gained 
in tying a wall together in its thickness, it is lost 
in the longitudinal bond, and the contrary. In 
order to remedy this inconvenience in thick walls^ 
some place the bricks in the core at an angle of 

forty 



23d BRICKLAYING. 

forty-five degrees, and parallel to each other 
throughout the length of each course, so as to 
cross each other at right angles in the succeeding 
course : hut even the advantages ohtained by 
this disposition are not satisfactory, for though 
those bricks in the middle of the core have suf- 
ficient bond, yet where they join to the bricks 
on the sides of the wall, they form triangular 
interstices, and therefore the sides must be very 
imperfectly tied to the core. 

§ 36. yaulting and Groining. 
Definitions. 

A simple vault is an interior concavity extend- 
ed over two parallel opposite walls, or over all 
diametrically opposite sides of one circular wall. 

The concavity or interior surface of the vault 
is called the intrados. 

Theintrados of a simple vault is generally form- 
ed of the portion of the surface of a cylinder, 
cylindroid, or sphere, never greater than that of 
half the solid, and the springing lines which 
terminate the walls that the vault rises from, are 
generally straight lines, parallel to the axis of 
the cylinder or cylindroid. 

When the vault is spherical, the circular wall 
terminates in a level plane at top from which the 
vault springs, and forms either a complete hemis^- 
phere, or a portion of the sphere less than the 
hemisphere. 

Conic 



BRICKLAYING. 237 

Conic surfaces are seldom employed in vault- 
ing, but when a conic surface is employed for 
the intrados of a vault, it should be semi-conic 
with a horizontal axis, or the surface of the whole 
cone with its axis vertical. 

All vaults which have a horizontal straight 
axis, are called straight vaults. 

All vaults which have their axis horizontal, 
are called horizontal vaults. 

A groin is the excavation or hollow formed 
by one simple vault piercing another, or a groin 
is that in which two geometrical solids may be 
transversely applied one after the other, so that 
a portion of the groin v/ill have been in contact 
with the first solid, and the remaining part ia 
contact with the second solid, when the first is 
removed. The most usual kind of groining is 
one cylinder piercing another, or a cylinder and 
cylindroid piercing each other, having their axis 
at right angles. 

The axis of each simple vault forming the in- 
trados of a groin is the same with the axis of 
the geometrical solids, of which the intrados of 
the groin is composed. 

When the breadths of the cross pages or open- 
ings of a groined vault are equal, the groin is 
said to be equilateral. 

When the altitudes of tl?e cross vaults are 
equal, the groin is said to be equi-altitudinal. 

Groios 



238 BRICKLAYING. 

Groins have various names, according to the 
surfaces of the geometrical bodies, which form 
the simple vault. 

A cjlindric groin is that vs^hich is formed by 
the intersection of one portion of a cylinder with 
another. 

A cjlindroidic groin is that which is formed 
by the intersection of one portion of a sphere 
with another, 

A spheric groin is that which is formed by the 
intersectioa of one portion of the sphere with 
another. 

A conic groin is that which is formed by the 
intersection of one portion of a cone with an- 
other. 

The species of every groin formed by the in- 
tersection of two vaults of unequal heights, is 
denoted by two preceding words, the former of 
which ending in o, indicates the simple vault 
which has the greater height, and the latter end- 
ing in ic indicates the simple vault of the less 
height. 

When a groin is formed by the intersection of 
two unequal cylindric vaults, it is called a cy- 
lindro-cylindiic groin, and each arch so formed 
is called a cjiindro-cyiindric arch. 

When a groin is formed by the intersection of 
a cylindric vault with a spheric vault, and the 
spheric |)ortion being of greater height than the 
cylindric portion, the groin is called a sphero- 

c}lindric 



BRICKLAYING. 239 

cvlindric groin^, and each arch forming the groin 
is called a sphero-cjlindric arch. 

When a groin is formed by the intersection of 
a cjlindric vault, with a spheric vault;, and the 
spheric portion of less altitude than the cylindric 
portion^, it is called a cylindro-spheric groin; and 
each arch forming the groin is called a cjlindro- 
spheric arch. 

When one conic vault pierces another of greater 
altitude, the groin formed by the intersection is 
called a cono-conic groin, and each arch form- 
ing the groin, a cono-conic arch. 

A rectangular groin is that which has the axis 
of the simple vault in two vertical planes, at 
right angles to each other. 

A multangular groin is that which is formed 
by three or more simple vaults piercing each 
other, so that if the several solids which form 
each simple vault be respectively applied, only 
one at a time to succeeding portions of the groin- 
^ed surface, every portion of the groined surface 
will have formed successive contact with certain 
corresponding portions of each of the solids. 

An equi-angular groin is that in which the se- 
veral axis of the simple vaults form equal angles, 
around the same point, in the same horizontal 
plane. 



PLATE I. 



240 BRICKLAYING. 

§ 37. Explanations of the Plates in Bricklaying. 

PLATE I. 

Fig. 1 the Brick Trowel. 
Fig. 2 the Brick Axe. 
Fig. 3 the Square. 
Fiff. 4 the Bevel. 
Fig. 5 the Jointing Rule. 
Fig. 6 the Jointer. 
Fig. 7 the Hammer. 
Fig. 8 the Raker. 
Fig. 9 the Line Pins. 
Fig. 10 the Rammer. 
Fig. 1 1 the Pick Axe. 
Fig. 12 the Camber Slip. 
Fig. 13 the Banker, with the Rubbing Stone 
placed at one end of it. 



PLATE XL 



^la^e -I. 



r'CcAZ!:z/u/yn^. 



Tz^.2. 



M^.2. -^>^ A^^- 



Iz^JO. 




Ixa.&. 



X^idof\^vi^7i9h^ciM(ifo7i Z€A2BMhv.K7qy7^mSii?7iMi?7Sar-n . 



22 



t:^/r%C^/^l 



TT 



Tl^te 2. 



Ti^.l. 




Tz(/ . 3 




Tz(/.4^. 




L,t„Jrt,l.:/-'r.'/ini-Mini, :it>jStjfy JJiu/aMiiJi S.lhoi-n . 



BRICKLAYING. 241 



PLATE IT. 

Various specimens of English bond according 
to the different thicknesses of walls : in these the 
heading and stretching courses mutually cross 
each other in the core of the wall, and there- 
fore produce an equality of strength. 

Fig. 1 shows the Bond of a 9 inch wall, here 
as well as in the following it must be observed, 
that as the longitudinal extent of a brick is 9 
inches, and the breadth 4| inches, in order to 
prevent two vertical joints from running over 
each other at the end of the first stretcher from 
the corner, after placing the return corner 
stretcher, which becomes a header in the face 
that the stretcher is in below, and occupies half 
the length of this stretcher ; a quarter brick is 
placed upon the side, so that the two together 
extend GJ inches, and leave a lap of 2^ inches 
for the next header, which being laid, lies with 
its middle upon the middle of the header below, 
and ill this manner the bond is continued. The 
brick-bat thus introduced next to the corner 
header is called a closer, The same effect might 
be obtained by introducing a" J bat at the corner 
in the stretching course, for then when the corner 
header comes to be laid oyer it, a lap of 2^ 
inches will be left at the end of the stretchers 

R below 



242 BRICKLAYING. 

below for the next header, which being laid, 
the joint below the stretchers will coincide with 
its middle, and in this manner the bond may be 
continued as before. 

Fig*. 2 a Fourteen inch or Brick and half 
wall. In this the stretching course upon the one 
side is so laid, that the middle of the breadth of 
the bricks in the heading course upon the oppo- 
site side falls alternately upon the middle of the 
stretchers, and upon the joints between the 
stretchers. 

Fig. 3 a Two Brick Wall. In the heading 
course, every alternate header is only f a brick 
thick on both sides in order to break the joints 
in the core of the wall. 

Fig. 4 a Two Brick and ^ Wall, bricks laid 
as in Fig. 3. 



PLATE III. 



-^yTt^e^Z^ 



^laZe 3. 



Ti^.I. 



O/l^^^n^^: 




J^tU/. 2. 




XonJonJijais?tedMcav7i 2fi. 7877.!ty XTa}'!o?:J?i^7t.Si>l6o7vl . 



24 



BRICKLAYING. 243 



' PLATE III. 

Contains various specimens of Flemish bond 
according to the different thicknesses of walls. 
The dotted lines show the disposition of the 
bricks in the courses iibove. 

Fig. 1 a Nine inch Wall where two stretchers 
He between two headers, the Icngih of the 
headers and the breadth of the stretchers ex^ 
tending the whole thickness of the wall. 

Fig. 2 a Brick and half Wall, one, side being 
laid as in Fig. 1, and the opposite side, with a 
half header opposite to the middle of the stretcher, 
and the middle of the stretcher opposite the mid- 
dle of the end of the header. 

Fig. 3 another disposition of Flemish Bond 
where the bricks are similarly disposed on 
both sides of the wall, the tail of the headers 
being placed contiguous to each other, so as to 
form square spaces in the corner of the wall for 
half bricks. 

Fig. 4 a Reversed Arch supposed to come 
under a window, in order to prevent the frac- 
turing of the wall under the lowest window. 
Arching under the apertures should never be 
omitted in any building whatever, provided there 

R2 be 



244 BRICKLAYING. 

be room, if not, pieces of timbers ought to be 
laid, so as to present the most inflexibility to the 
ground, and make the wall act longitudinally as 
one solid body. 

Fig. 5 Supposed to be the case where the 
ground stands firm under the apertures, the 
weight of the pier is therefore discharged 
from the soft part under the piers. In this case if 
the bond of the pier is good, there will be very 
little danger of the wall fracturing under the 
apertures. 



PLATE IV. 



<L^/?^^x>^yCa^u^/n^. 



^Ifz Ire 4 



J'-v^.Z 




Tz^.Z 






Tz^.3. 




Tig. 6: 



X2 a 4 -f 19 76 9^21 




^s#^ 


-WplM 


1 




1 




1 1 








1 1 








1 1 








1 1 ' 








; 1 ' 


1 




1 1 


1 1 








1 1 ' 








1 1 ' 








1 I ' 


1 






j:afuf,'Ti7'l'Z>/fs/{cJJ£//Wl.?o:jiiIAiv.l/?tt-/,>/.-J/u,?L/ro//w/ 



BRICKLAYING. 245 



PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1 Part of the upright of a Wall, at the 
return, laid with Flemish bond. 

Fig. 2 a Scheme Arch, being 2 bricks high. 

Fig. 3 a Semi-circular Arch 2 bricks high. 

Fig. 4 a Straight Arch, which is usually the 
height of four courses of brick work, the man- 
ner of describing it will be shown in the follow- 
ing figure. 

Fig. 5, To draw the Joints of a Straight Arch, 
Let AB be the width of the aperture; describe 
an equilateral triangle A B C upon this width; 
describe a circle around the point C equal to the 
thickness of the brick. Draw DE parallel to 
A B at a distance equal to the height of four 
courses, and produce C A and CB to D and E. 
Lay the straight edge of a rule from C to D, and 
with a pair of compasses, opened to a distance 
equal to the thickness of a brick, cross the line 
D E at F, removing the rule from the points C 
and D. Place the straight edge against the 
points C and F, and with the same extent, be- 
tween the points of the compass cross the line 
DE atG: proceed in this manner until you 
come to the middle, and as it is usual to have a 
brick in the centre to key the arch in, if the last 
distance which we will suppose to be H I is not 

equaUy 



246 BRICKLAYING. 

equally divided by the middle point K of DE^ 
the process must be repeated till it is found 'to 
be so. 

Though the middle brick tapers more in the 
same length than the extreme bricks, it is con- 
venient to draw all the bricks with the same 
mould, which is a great saving of time, and 
though this is not correctly true, the difference 
is so trifling as not to affect the practice. It may 
however be proper to observe, that the real taper 
of the mould is less than in the middle, but 
greater than either extreme distance: but even 
the difference between this is so small, that either 
may be used, or taking half their difference will 
come very near the truth. This ditierence might 
easily be shown by a trigonometrical calculation, 
the middle being an isosceles triangle, of which 
the base and perpendicular are given, the base 
being a certain part of the top line. In the 
triangle upon the sides you have one angle equal 
to 60 degrees, and the side D F is given and DC 
■=:z ( DK"" -f KC*)| can easily be found, so that 
in this triangle the two sides and the contained 
angle are given. 

Fig. G an Elliptic Arch, the top is divided 
into equal parts, and not the underside. 



PLATE V. 



-Z^late A 




^//^ 



JV?!. 




J^2. 




Jz^.2. 



jr?2. 



jsn>2 




J7\^.3. 



jri. 



1Y?2. 




Tig.4.. 



Jif^. 6. 



y?2. 



JV?Z 






i*ififili|iil [I jii iiilili 




f 


miiiifli 1 miiiiiii 1 u 1 u iiii 


iiiiiiiiiii 


1 !|I|[JI||I|P 


lliiiii 


liill 1 !l!: ili;.!llii;/:i,;lMlU::l!:; j"i! i^'] llii.ii'!!:!. ■'•.^/iu.'iiJikUilIji fli \ iili 


11 


^7 ^ 










niiiilliiiliii ^'^^iiiiiiiiu'''''iiiiiiiii'""'iiiiiii 




'Jill 


II 






1 




1 1 




1 



J^ulmJ'^ih'JieJMm-Ji -KUSniy. ZJ^n-f.-r-WaTiMTla 



BRICKLAYING. 247 



PLATE V. 

Contains piers of various substances according 
to the Flemish bond disposition of bricks, with 
designs of Brick Cornices. 

Fig. 1 a Pier, 2 brick square : No. 1 the bot- 
tom course. No. 2 the upper course. 

Fiff. 2 a two and half Brick Pier : No. 1 the 
bottom course. No. 2 the upper course. 

Fiar. 3 a three Brick Pier: No. 1 the bottom 
course. No. 2 the upper course. 

Fig. 4 a three and half Brick Pier : No. 1 the 
bottom course. No. 2 the upper course. 

Ornamental Brick Cornices. - 

In the construction of any thing destined to an- 
swer a particular end, it frequently happens that 
different kind of materials may be employed for 
the purpose: it is evident that every distinct 
species of material will require its own peculiar 
manner of treatment, and the sizes of the parts 
which are to compose the thing required, must 
depend upon what the material will most con- 
veniently admit of: thus brick, wood, stone, or 
iron may be employed to construct a body for 
any proposed end, the manner of working 

these 



^4H BRICKLAYING. 

these will not only differ, but the sizes of the 
things which are to compose the whole, and not 
only so, but sometimes a change in the general 
form also. 

In brick cornices, from the various kinds of 
bricks and tiles, a variety, of pleasing symmetry 
may be formed by various dispositions of the 
bricks, and frequently without cutting, or if cut, 
champhering only may be used. 

Fig. 5 a Cornice in imitation of the Grecian 
Doric. 

Fig. 6 a Dentil Cornice, in this last the upper 
member is champhered to give it the appearance 
of a mouldins:. 



PLATE VI. 



^:::^ r/^Atau^/na,, 



:fz^.i. 



Ti^.4-. 





Zig.a 




Zii'idmTalJis7xta3/aifhtai/iU.i\JJqi-7t!t-Stif/iM^7irt-n. 



BRICKLAYING. 249 



PLATE VI. 

Contains Groins of various kinds. 

Fig. 1 a semi-cylindric equi-angular groin, the 
centre of one vault being generally boarded 
in without any regard to the other, and the other 
boarded in afterwards. 

Fig. 2 a Cylindroidic-cylindric Groin, being 
the intersection of a cylinder with a cylin- 
droid. 

Fig. 3 a Cylindro-cylindric Groin, being the 
intersection of one cylinder with another, and the 
cylindro vault being the highest. 

Fig. 4 an inaprovement to the common four 
sided Groin, by Mr. Tappen, Architect, by raising 
the angles from an octagonal pier, instead of a 
square one; by this means, the pier may be 
made equally strong, by giving it more sub- 
stance, and cutting away the angles will be 
more commodious for the turning any kind 
of goods round the corner ; this may therefore 
be looked upon as a very considerable improve- 
ment in the vaultings of cellars of warehouses. 
This convenience is not the only improvement 
which this construction admits of, but the 
angles of the groin are strengthened by carry- 
ing the band round the diagonals of equal 

., breadth 



250 BRICKLAYING. 

breadth, which affords better bond to the bricks, 
which are usually so much cut away, that in- 
stead of giving support, are themselves support- 
ed by the adjacent filling-in arches. 

Fig. 5 the centering for an hexagonal Gothic 
Groin, such as are frequently seen in Chapter 
houses. 

Fig. 6 the Piers of an hexagonal Groin, and 
the angles obtunded according to the plan of Mr. 
Tappen. This construction is purely Gothic, the 
springers would cover the obtunded parts of the 
groined angles, and columnar mouldings, those 
of the piers. 



PLATE VII. 



^!:yOy?^^^c^Az 



J'/ale 7. 




F,\^.2. 




Z'ind.niI^,/J^:':/,,,nr.tvh2/Umiv.ZSr,7fr?M^7^iMi^7hr. 



•M 



BRICKLAYING. 251 

PLATE VII. 

The method of cutting the bricks for a cylin- 
dro cjlindric arch, and two different methods for 
the joints of the heads of niches. 

Fig. 1 the cjlindro-cylindric arch, with a frame 
of wood so constructed, that the two horizontal 
pieces having their outer edges in circles con- 
centric with the circle of the wall : this is shown 
by the plan of the wall No. 2. The edges of the 
circular pieces are graduated with divisions per- 
pendicularity over each other, A B : No. 2 is a 
rule to be moved vertically along the said con- 
centric edges, which vertical position is always 
known by the corresponding divisions, on the 
front edge of the rule is a hook projecting so as 
to come to the cylindric surface of the wall, the 
hook is shown at No. 3, with a part of th6 rule. 
The use of this machine is for drawing the edges 
of the bricks in order to cut them to the circle. 

Fig. 2 two different methods of forming the 
joints for the heads of spherical niches. In the 
right hand half the joints run horizontally, but 
this is a very bad method, as all the beds are conical, 
the bricks at the summit have little or no hold. 
In the other half the joints run radially in planes 
from the face to the center. The work is not only 
more firm when executed by this last method, as 
bedding the courses on planes, but much more 
easily executed, nothing is more difficult to form 
than conical surfaces: and in this both conical and 
spherical surfaces occur; whereas when the joints 
run radially, only the spheric surface occurs^ 
which may be formed by one bevel, only one side 
being straight and the other circular. 



^52 BRICKLAYING, 



PLATE VIII. 

iShows the method of Steening Wells. 

The first thing is to make a centre^ which 
consists of a boarding of inch or inch and half 
stuff, ledged within with three circular rings. The 
bricks are laid between these rings and all headers. 
The wide joints next to the boarding are filled 
in with tile or broken bricks. Where the soil is 
firm, centerings are not necessary, but thev are 
requisite in sandy ground. The centering re- 
mains permanently with the brick work; as the 
■well digger excavates the soil, the first centre 
sinks, then a second centre is made, and put 
above the first, and built in with brick work in 
the same manner: and thus the number of cen- 
terings depend on the depth of the well. This 
method is that used in London : but in the country 
other methods are used. One is with several 
rings of timber without the boarding, they first 
build upon the first ring, 4 or 5 feet, then a se- 
cond ring, and build again, and so on to the depth 
of the well. This however is not so good a me- 
thod as the foregoing, as the sides of the brick 
work are very apt to bulge, particularly if great 
care be not taken in filling and ramming the 
sides in uniformly, so as to press equally at the 
same time. 

Abstract 



r^^ rf/jA/^ty^ n^. 



T^nie S. 






I pju/n,. raliis?ia?Jfmc7i fdz^H.fyjrTqvTarJ/iffAJloaa. 



^^ 



BRICKLAYING. 253 

Abstract of the Building Act, as far as regards 

the Bricklayer, 14 Geo. III. which refers 

only to London, and the several Parishes with- ' 

in the Bills of Mortality. 

Every master bricklayer to give 24 hours 
notice to the Surveyor of the district from the 
1st to the 7th rafe^ concerning the building to he 
altered or erected ; but if the building is to be 
piled or planked, or begun with wood, it be- 
comes the business of the carpenter to give such 
notice. 

The footings of the walls are to have equal 
projections on each side: but where any ad- 
joining building will not admit of such projec- 
tion to be made on the side adjoining to such 
building, to be done as near as the case will ad- 
mit according to each of the four rates. 

The act calls every front, side or end wall, &c. 
(not being a party wall) an external wall. 

The timbers in each rate may be supposed to be 
girders, beams, or trimming joists, &c. and their 
bearing in all cases, and in all the above four 
rates, may be as much as the nature of the wall 
will admit, provided there is left 4 inches be- 
tween the ends of such timber, and the external 
surface of the wall. 

The joints of the brick work may also be 
shewn, and may answer to the express number 
of bricks, of which such wall is to be com- 
posed. 

It 



2o4 BRICKLAYING. 

It may now be necessary here to say something 
farther relative to external walls. 

External Walls, 

And other external inclosures to the first, se- 
cond, third, fourth, and fifth rate of building, 
must be of brick, stone, artificial stone, lead, cop- 
per, tin, slate, tile, or iron; or of brick, stone, 
artificial stone, lead, copper, tin, slate, tile, and 
iron together, except the planking, piling, &c. 
for the foundation, which may be of wood of 
any sort. 

If any part to an external wall of the first 
and second rate, is built wholly of stone, it is 
not to be less in thickness than as follows: 

First rate, 14; inches below the ground floor, 
9 inches above the ground floor, second rate 
9 inches above the ground floor. 

Where a recess is meant to be made in an ex- 
ternal wall, it must be arched over, and in such 
a manner, as that the arch and the back of such 
recess shall respectively be of the thickness of 
one brick in length : it is therefore plain, that 
where a wall is not more than one brick thick, it 
cannot have any recess. 

No external wall to the first, second, third, 
and fourth rate, is ever to become a party-wall, 
unless the same shall be of the height and thick- 
ness above the footing, as is required for each 
party-wall to its respective rate. 

Of 



BRICKLAYING. 255 

■ Of Party Walls, 

Buildings of the first, second, third, and fourth 
rate, which are not yet designed by the owner 
thereof to have separate and distinct side walls, 
on such parts as may be contiguous to other 
buildings, must have party-walls; and they are 
to be placed half and half on the ground of each 
owner, or of each building respectively, and 
may be built thereon, without any notice being 
given to the owner of the other part, that is to 
say, the first builder has a right so to do, where 
he is building against vacant ground. 

Party-walls, chiranies, and chimney shafts 
hereafter to be built, must be of good sound 
bricks or stone, or of sound bricks and stone to- 
gether, and must be coped with stone, tile or 
brick. 

Party-walls, or additions thereto, must be car- 
ried up 13 inches above the roof, measuring at 
right angles with the back of the rafter, and 12 
inches above the gutter of the highest building, 
which gables against it; but where the height of 
a party wall so carried up, exceeds the height of 
the blocking course or parapet, it may be made 
less than 1 foot above the gutter, for the distance 
of 2 feet 6 inches from the front of the blockina: 
course or parapet. 

Where dormers or other erections are fixed in 
any flat or roof, within 4 feet of any party wall, 
such party wall is to be cttrried up against such 

dormer, 



256 BRICKLAYING. 

dormer, and must extend at least 2 feet wider, 
and to the full height of every such dormer or 
erection. 

No recess is to be hereafter made in any party 
wall of the first, second, third, and fourth rate, 
except for chimney-flues, girders, &c. and for 
the ends of walls or piers, so as to reduce such 
wall in any part of it to a less thickness than is 
required by the act, for the highest rate of 
building to which such wall belongs. 

No opening is to be made in any party wall, 
except for communication from one stack of 
warehouses to another, and from one stable build- 
ing to another, all which communications must 
have wrought iron doors, and the pannels thereof 
are not to be less than ^ of an inch thick, and to 
be fixed in stone door cases and cills. But there 
may be openings for passages or ways on the 
ground, for foot passengers, cattle or carriages^ 
which must be arched over throughout with brick 
or stone, or brick and stone together, of the 
thickness of a brick and a half at the least, to 
the first and second rate, and 1 brick to the third 
and fourth rate. And if there is any cellar or 
vacuity under such passage, it is to be arched 
over throughout in the same manner as the pas- 
sage over it. 

No party wall or party arch, or shaft of any 
chimney, new or old, must be cut into, other 
than for the purposes as follows : 

If 



BitlCKLAYING. 257 

If the fronts of buildings are in a line with 
each other^ a recess may be cut, both in the fore 
and back front of such buildings, (as may be al- 
ready erected) for the purpose of inserting 
the end of such other external wall, which is to 
adjoin thereto, this recess must not be more 
than 9 inches deep from the outward faces of such 
external walls, and not to be cut beyond the 
centre of the party wall thereto belonging. 

And further, for the use of inserting bres- 
summers and story posts, that are to be fixed on 
the ground floor, either in the front or back 
wall, the recess may be cut from the founda- 
tion of such new wall to the top of such 
bressummer, 14 inches deep from the outward 
face of such wall, and 4 inches wide in the 
cellar story, and 2 inches wide on the ground 
story. 

And further, for the purpose of tailing-in 
stone steps, or stone landings, as for bearers to 
wood stairs, or for laying-in stone corbels for the 
support of chimney jaumbs, girders, beams, pur- 
lins, binding or trimming joists, or other prin- 
cipal timbers. 

Perpendicular recesses may also be cut in any 

party wall, whose thickness is not less than 13 

inches, for the purpose of inserting walls and 

piers therein, but they must not be wider than 

15 inches, or more than 4 inches deep, and no 

such recess is to be nearer than 10 feet to any 

other recess. 

S Ail 



258 BRICKLAYING'. - 

All such cuttings and recesses must be imme- 
diately made good, and effectually pinned up, 
with bricks stone, slate^ tile, shell or iron, bedded 
in mortar. 

No party wall to be cut for any of the above 
purposes, if the same will injure, displace, or 
endanger the timbers, chimnies, flues or internal 
finishings of the adjoining buildings. 

The act also allows the footing to be cut off 
on the side of any party-wall, where an inde- 
pendent side wall is intended to be built against 
such party wall. 

When any buildings (inns of courts excepted) 
that are erected over gate- ways, or public pas- 
sages, or have different rooms and floors, the 
property of different owners, come to be rebuilt 
they must have a party wall, with a party arch 
or arches of the thickness of a brick and half at 
least, to the first and second rate, and of one. 
brick to the third and fourth rate, between build- 
ing and building, or between the different rooms 
and floors, that are the property of different 
owners. . 

All inns of court are excepted from the regu- 
lation as above, and are only neccssiated to have 
party walls, where any room or chamber com- 
municates to each separate and distinct stair-case, 
and which are also subject to the same regula- 
tions as respect other party walls. 

If a building of a lower rate, is situated ad- 
joining 



BRICKLAYING. 259 

joining to a buildiog of a higher rate, and any 
addition is intendca to be made thereto, the party 
wall must be built in such a manner, as is re- 
quired for the rate of such higher rate of build- 
ing as adjoining. 

When any party wall is raised, it is to be made 
the same thickness as the wall is of, in the story 
next below the roof of the highest building ad- 
ioining, but it must not be raised at all, unless it 
can be done with safety to such wall, and the 
building adjoining thereto. 

Every dwelling house to be built, which con- 
tains four stories in height from the foundation, 
exclusive of rooms in the roof, must have its 
party wall built according to the third rate, al- 
though such dwelling-house may be of the fourth 

rate. 

And every dwelling house to be built in future 
which exceeds four stories in height, from the 
foundations, exclusive of the rooms in the roof, 
must have its party wall built according to the 
first rate, although such house may not be of 
the first rate. 

Chimnies, Sgc. 
No chimney is to be erected on timber, except 
on the piling, planking, &c. of the foundations 
cf building. 

Chimnies may be built back to back in party 

walls: but in that case they must not be less ia 

S 2 thickness 



^60 BRICKLAYING. 

thickness from the centre of such part}' wall than 
as follows: 

First rate, or adjoining thereto, must be 1 
brick thick in the cellar story, and | a brick i» 
all the upper stories. 

Second, thirds and fourth rate or adjoining 
thereto, must be |: of a brick thick in the cellar 
story; and | a brick in all the upper stories. 

Such chimnies in party walls as do not stand 
back to back may be built in any of the four 
rales as follows : 

From the external face of the party wall to 
the inward face of the back of the chimney in 
the cellar story, 1 brick and ^ thick, and in the 
upper stories, 1 brick thick from the hearth to 
12 inches above the mantle. 

Those backs of chimnies which are not in 
^afty-walls to the first rate, must not be less 
than a brick and | thick in the cellar story, and 
1 brick thick in every other story, and to be from 
the hearth to 12 inches above the mantle. 

If such chimney is built against any other 
wall, the back may be | a brick thinner than 
that which is above described. 

Those backs of chimnies which are not in party 
walls of the second, third, and fourth rate, must 
be in evei"y story 1 brick thick at least, from the 
hearth to 12 inches above the mantle. 

These backs may be also j a brick thinner, 
if such chimney is built against any other wall. 

All 



BRICKLAYING. 26 1 

AH breasts of chimnies, whether they are in 
partj walls or not^ are not to be less than 1 brick 
thick in the cellar story, and | a brick thick in 
every other story. 

All withs between flues must not be less than 
I a brick thick. 

Flues may be built opposite to each other in 
party walls, but they must not approach to the 
centre of such wall nearer than 2 inches. 

All chimney breasts next to the rooms, and 
chimney backs also, and ail flues are to be ren^ 
dered or pargetted. 

Backs of chiranies and flues in party walls 
against vacant ground must be lime whited, or 
marked in some durable manner, but must be 
rendered or pargetted as soon as any other build- 
ing: is erected to such wall. 

No timber must be over the opening of any 
chimney for supporting the breast thereof, but 
must have a brick or stone arch, or iron bar or 
bars. 

All chimnies must have slabs or foot paces of 
stone, marble, tile, or iron at least 18 inches 
broad, and at least 1 foot longer than the open- 
ing of the chimney when finished, and such slabs 
or foot paces must be laid on brick or stone trim- 
mers at least 18 inches broad from the face of 
the chimney breast, except there is no room or 
vacuity beneath, then they may be bedded on (he 
ground. 

Prick 



262 BRICKLAYING. 

Brick funnels must not be made on the outside 
of the first, second^ third or fourth rate, next to 
any street, square, court, road, or way, so as 
to extend beyond the general line of the buildings 
therein. 

No funnel of tin, copper, iron, or other pipe 
for conveying smoak or steam, must hereafter be 
fixed near any public street, square, court, or 
way, to the first, second, third, or fourth rate 
and no such pipe is to be fixed on the inside of 
a -• building nearer than 14 inches to any timber. 
Of iiiher combustible material whatever. 



INDEX 



( 263 ) 
INDEX AND EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS USED IN" 

BRICKLAYING. 

N. B. This Marfi § refers to the preceding Sections, 
according to the Nuttier. 



A. 

Act, Building, p, 243. 
Arches, § 37. Plate 3. p. 24L 
Arris Ways, tiles laid diagonally. 
Axis of a Vault, § 36, p. 236 and 237. 

B. 

Banker, § 19 ^ 37. Plate i. Fig. 13. 

Bed of a Brick, the horizontal surfaces as disposed 

in a wall. 
Bedding Stone, § 22. 
Bevel, § 24 and 37. Plate 1, Fig. 4, 
Bond, § 35. p. 234, 
Bone Ashes, §32. p. 218. 
Borer, § 34. p. 227. 
Boss, a short trough for holding mortar, wh<en tiling 

the roof: it is hung to the lath. 
Brick Axe, § 28 and 37. Plate 1, Fig. 2. 
Brick Trimmer, a brick arch abutting upon the 

wooden trimmer under the slab of the fire place, to 

prevent the communication of fire. 
Brick Trowel, § 4 and 37. Plate i. Fig. i. 

Bricklaying, 



264 BRICKLAYING. 

Bricklaying, §1, 
Bricks, § 33. 

BuiLEJIMG-Acf, §<38. p. 243. 

C. 

Camber Slip, § 20 and 37. Plate I, Fig. 12. 

Cements, § 32. *^ 

Centering to Groins, Plate 6. 

Chopping Block, § 30. 

Clamp, § 33. p. 224. 

Clinkers, hard bricbs irpported fiom Holland, § 33. 

p. 226. 
Closer, a brick bat inserted where the distance vv'ili 

not permit of a brick in length, Plate 2. p. 241. 
Compass, § 12. 
Conic Surfaces, § 36. p. 237. 
CoNO-coNic Arch, § 36, p. 239. 
CoNO-coNic Groin, § 36. p. 239. 
Course, a horizontal row of bricks stretching the 

length of a wall. 
Cross Passages, §36. p. 237. 
Cutting Bricks, § 33. p. 224. 
Cylindric Groin, § 36, p. 238. 
Cylindro-cylindric Arch,,.,§ 36i p..238., 
Cylindro-cylindric Groin, §.36. p. 238, 

CYLINDiO-SPHERIC ArCH, § 36. p. 239. 

Cylindro-spheric Groin, § 36. p. 239. 

CyLI^^DROID, § 36, p. 236. 

Cylindroidic Groin, §36, p. 238. 

D. 

Dutch Clinkers, § 33. p. 226.' 

English Bond, §3.5; p.jj?;^;23|. ^.i_ 
Euui-altitudinal Groin, § 36, p 237. 



BRICKLAYING, '265 

Equi-angular Groin, § 36. p. 239. 
Equi-lateral Groin, § 3e. p. 237. 

F. 
Flemish Bond, § 35. p. 235, Plate 3, 
Flemish Tiles, § 33, p. 227. 
Float Stone_, § 31. 
Foundations, §34. 

G. 

Geometrical Solid, § 36. p. 237. 
Grinding Stone, § 18. 
Grotns, § 36. p. 237. 

Grout, § 32. p. 219. 

H. 

Hammer, § 5 and 37. Plate 1, Fig. 7. 

Headers, § 35, p. 234, 235. 

Heading Courses, § 35. p. 234, 235, Platq 2. 

Hemisphere, § 36, p. 236. 

Hexagonal Groin, p. 249. Plate 6. 

Hod, § 14. 

Horizontal Vault, § 36, p. 237. 

I. 

IntRADOS, § 36. p. 236. 

Inverted Arches, § 34, p. 228. 
Iron Crow, § 17. 

J. 

Jointer, § ll and 37. Plate 1, Fig. 6. 
Jointing Rule, § lOand 37. Plate l, Fig. 5. 



K. 



Kilns, § 33, p. 224. 



.(i<)'\ 



Large 



too brickuiying; 

L. 

Large Square, § 8. 

Lath, small slips of wood nailed to rafters for hanging 

the tiles or slates upon. 
Lathing Hammer, § 3. 
Laying Trowel, § 3. 
Level, § 7. 
Lime, § 32. 

Lime Water, § 32. p. 216. 
Line Pins, § 15 and 37. Plate 1. Fig. 9. 

. M. 

Marls, 33. p. 224. 

Mortar, § 32. 

Mould, §25. 

Mult-angular Groin, § 36. p. 239. 

O. 

Ornamental Cornices, Plate 5. 

P. 

Pantile, § 33 p. 226, 227. 
Pantile Strike, § 3. 
Paving Tiles, § 33, p. 226. 
Place Bricks, § 33. p. 224, 325. 
Plumb Rule, § 6. 
Pozzolana, § 32. p. 222. 

R. 

Raker, § 13 and 37, Plate 1, Fig. 8. 
Rammer, § 16 and 37. Plate 1, Fig 10. 
Rectangular Groin, § 36, p. 239. 

• ■ Rod, 



BRICKLAYING, 26? 

Rod, § 9. 

Rubbing Stone, §21 and 37. Plate 1, Fig, 13. 



S. 

Sail over, is the overhanging of one or more 

courses beyond the naked of the wall. 
Saw, §27. 
Scribe, § 26, 
scurbage, § 3. 
Simple Vault, § 36. p. 236. 
Skew Back, the sloping abutment for the arched head 

of a window. 
Sommering, the continuation of the joints of arches 

towards a centre or meeting point. 
Spheric Groin, § 36. p. 238. 
Spheric Vault, § 36. p. 236. 
Sphero-cylindric Arch, § 36. p. 238, 239. 
Sphero-cylindric Groin, § 36. p. 238, 239, 
Springing Lines, § 36. p. 236. 
Square, § 23 and 37. Plate 1, Fig. 3, 
Steening Wells, Plate 8. 
Straight Arches, heads of apertures which have a 

straight intrados .in several pieces, with radiating 

joints, or bricks tapering downwards. 
Straight Vaults, § 36. p. 237. 
Stretchers, § 35. p. 234 and 235. 
Stretching Coui^ses, § 35. p. 234, 235. 

T. 

Templet, § 29. 
Tin Saw, § 27. 

Toothing, bricks projecting at the end of a part of 

a wall 



268 BRICKLAYING. 

a wall, in order to bond a part of the said wall not 
yet carrijsd up. 
Trimmer, See Brick Trimmer. 



Vaulting, § 36„ 



V. 



W. 



Walls, § 35. 

Water Cements, § 32. p. 222. 
Water Table, bricks projecting below the naked 
of a wall, in order to rest the upper part firmly. 



MECHA- 



( '269 ) 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 

OF MASOKMY, 



§ 1. MASONRY is the art of preparing and 
combining stones by such a disposition as to 
tooth or indent them into each other, and form 
regular surfaces for shelter, convenience, and 
defence, as the habitation of men, animals, goods, 
fortifications, bridges, separation of property, 
&c. and may be said to consist either of walling 
or arching. 

§2. Masons' Tools. 

The tools employed by the mason are different 
in different counties, according to the quality of 
the stone employed : in some counties of Eng- 
land the stone is soft with so little grit as to be 
wrought by planes into mouldings, as in joinery 
work. The naked surfaces of a building are ge- 
nerally finished with an instrument called a drag; 
the Bath and Oxfordshire stone is of this de- 
scription. In other parts, the stone is so hard as 
only to be wrought by a raallet and chissel. In 
London the value of stone occasions it to be cut 
into slips and scantlings by a saw, the operation is 

done 



270 MASONRY. 

done by a labourer. In those countries where 
stone abounds, it is divided into smaller scant- 
lings li}' means of wedges. In most descriptions 
of stone whether hard or soft, a hammer is em- 
ployed in knocking and axeing off the prominent 
parts. Hard stono and marble are reduced to a 
surface by means of a mallet and chissel. In 
roiigh stone from the quarry, where the saw has 
not been employed, a narrow chissel called a 
point, about a :f of an inch at the entering part 
is first used: but the inequalities of sawn stone 
if not very prominent, are reduced by means of 
an inch chissel, and sometimes more or less ac- 
cording to the quantity to be wrought off. Chis- 
'sels are from ^ of an inch to 3 inches in breadth 
at the cutting part: those of the greatest breadth 
are called tools, and employed finally on the sur- 
face, which is more regular after having gone over 
it, than that left after the operation of a narrow 
chissel. When the surface is wrought into narrow 
furrows or channels at regular distances, like 
small fiutings which completes the finish of the 
face, the operation is called tooling, and the sur- 
face itself is said to be tooled. When the sur- 
face is required to be smoothed, it is done by 
rubbing it with a flat stone of the same kind with 
sand and water, and the larger the stone, the 
more regular will the surface be. 

The form of masons chissels is like that of a 
wedge, the cutting edge is the vertical angle, 

thejr 



MASONRY. 271 

they are wholly constructed of iron, except the 
steel end, which enters the stone. The end which 
is struck by the mallet is a fiat portion of a spheric 
surface, and projects on all sides beyond the 
handling part, which tapers upwards with an 
equal concavity on each side. The other tools 
used by the mason are a Level> a Plumb Rule, 
a Square, a Bevel, a Trowel, a Mallet, a Ham- 
mer, and sometimes a pair of Compasses. These 
have been sufl&ciently treated under the former 
departments of Carpentry and Bricluaying, to 
which the reader is referred. The saw as hag 
been observed, though an apendage of masonry, 
is used by the labourer. 

§ 3. Of MarUes and Stones. 

Marble is polished by being first rubbed with 
grit stone, afterwards with pomice stone, and 
lastly with emery or calcined tin. Marbles with 
regard to their contexture and variegation of 
colour are almost infinite : some are black, some 
white, and some of a dove colour; the best kind 
of white marble is called statuary, which when 
cut into thin slices, becomes almost transparent, 
which property the clher kinds do not possess. 
Other species of marble are streaked with clouds 
and veins. The texture of marble is not alto- 
gether understood even by the best workmen, 
but they generally know upon sight, whether it 

will 



272 MASONRY.' 

will receive a polish or not. Some marbles arff 
easily wrought, some are very hard, other kind& 
resist the tools altogether. Artificial marble or 
Scagliola is real marble pulverized and mixed 
with plaster, and is used for columns, baso re- 
lievos, and other ornaments. 

The chief kind of stone used in London is 
Portland stone, which comes from the island of 
Portland in Dorsetshire, it is used for buildings in 
general, as strings, window cills, balusters, steps, 
copings, &c. but under great weight or pressure 
it is apt to splinter, or flush at the joints. When 
it is recently quarried, it is soft and works easily^ 
but acquires great hardness in length of time. 
St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Bridge are 
constructed of Portland stone. 

Purbeck stone comes from an island of the 
same name, also in Dorsetshire, and is mostly 
employed in rough work, as steps and paving. 

Yorkshire stone is also. used where strength and 
durability are requisites, as in paving and coping. 

Ryegate stone is used for hearths, slabs and 
covings. 

Mortar is used by masons in cementing their 
works. This has already been fully handled 
under the Bricklaying department, which the 
reader may consult. In setting marble or fine 
work, they use plaster of Paris, and in water 
works, tarras is employed. 

Terras 



MASONRY. 273 

Tarras is a coarse raortarj durable in water, 
and in most situations. Dutch tarras is made of 
a soft rock stone found near Cologne on the 
Rhine. It is burnt like lime, and reduced to 
powder bj mills^ from thence carried to Holland, 
whence it has acquired the name of Dutch tarras^ 
It is very dear, on account of the great demand 
there is for it in aquatic works. 

An artificial tarras is formed of two parts of 
lime and one of plaster of Paris: another sort 
consists of one part of lime, and two parts of 
well sifted coal ashes, 

§ 4. Stone Walls 

Are those built of stone, with or without ce- 
ment in the joints, the beading joints have most 
commonly a horizontal position in the fare of 
the work, and this ought alwavs (o be the case 
when the top of the wall terminates in a hori- 
zontal plane or line: in bridge buildings, and in 
the masonry of fenced walls upon inclined sur- 
faces, the beading joints on the face sometimes 
follow the direction of the' top or terminating 
surface. 

The footings of stone walls ought to be con- 
structed of large stones, which if not naturally 
nearly square from the quarry, should be re- 
duced by the hammer to that form, and to an 
equal thickness in the same course, for if the beds 
of the stones of the foundation taper, the super- 

T structure 



274 MASONRY. 

structure will be apt to give way, by resting 
upon mere angles or points, or upon inclined 
surfaces : the courses of the footing ought to be 
well beded upon each other with mortar, and 
all the upright joints of an upper course should 
break joint, that is, they should fall upon the 
solid part of the stones in the lower course, and 
not upon the joints. 

The following are methods practised in laying 
the footings of a stone foundation; when the 
walls are thin, and stones can be got convenient- 
ly, that their length may reach across each 
course from one side of the wall to the other, the 
setting of each course with whole stones in the 
thickness of the wall, is to be preferred. But 
when the walls are thicker, and bond stones in 
part can only be conveniently procured, then 
every other succeeding stone in the course may 
be a. whole stone in the thickness of the wall, 
and every other interval may consist of two stones 
in the breadth, that is, placing the header and 
fitretcher alternately, like Flemish bond in 9 
inch brick work. Jfut when bond stones can- 
not be had conveniently, every alternate stone 
should be in length r of the breadth of the 
footing upon the same side of the wall, then 
upon the other side of the wall a itone of ^ of 
the breadth of the footing, should be placed 
opposite to one of |, an^ one of | opposite to 
one of y : so that the stones may be placed in the 
same manner as those of the other side. 

In 



MASONRY. 275 

In broad foundations where the stones cannot 
be procured for a length equal to 4 of the foun- 
dation, then build them alternately, with the 
joints on the upper bed of each footing, so that 
the joint of every two stones may fall as nearly 
as possible in the middle of the length of one 
or of each adjoining stone, observing to dispose 
the stones alike on each side of every footing. 

A wall which is built of unhewn stone laid 
with or without mortar, is called a Rubble wall, 
they are of two kinds, coursed and uncoursed ; 
the most kind of Rubble is the uncoursed, of 
which the greater part of the stones are crude as 
they came out of the quarry, and a little hammer 
dressed. This kind of walling is very inconve- 
nient for the building of bond timbers, but if 
they are to be preserved to plugging, the back^ 
ing must be leveled at every height ia which the 
bond timbers are disposed. 

The best kind of rubble is the coursed, the 
courses are all of accidental thicknesses, adjusted 
by a sizing rule, the stones are either hammer 
dressed or axed : this kind of work is favourable 
for the disposition of bond timbers, but as all 
buildings constructed either in whole or in part 
of timber are liable to be burnt, strong well 
built walls should never be bonded with timber, 
but should rather be plugged, for if such acci- 
dent take place, the walls will be less liable to 
warp. 

W^lls faced with squared stones, hewn or rub- 
T2 ed 



276 MASONRY. 

ed and backed with rubble, stone^ or brick, are 
called ashlar: the medium size of each ashlar 
measures horizontally in the face of the wall 
about 28 or 30 inches, in the altitude 12 inches, 
and in the thickness 8 or 9 inches. The best 
figure of stones for an ashlar facing are formed 
like truncated wedges, that is to say, they are 
thinner at one end than at the other in the thick- 
ness of the wall, though level on the beds, so 
that when the stones of one course or part of a 
course are shaped in this manner, and alike si- 
tuated to each other, the backs of the course will 
form an indentation, like the teeth of a joiner's 
saw, but more shallow in proportion to the length 
of a tooth : the next course has its indentations, 
found the same way, and the stones so selected 
that the upright joints break upon the solid of 
the stones below. By these means the facing 
and backing are toothed together, and unques- 
tionably stronger than if the back of each ashlar 
had been parallel to the front surface of the 
wall; as the stones are mostly raised in the 
quarries of various thicknesses, in an ashlar fac- 
ing it would contribute greatly to the strength of 
the work, to select the stones in each course, so 
that every alternate ashlar may have broader beds 
than those of every ashlar placed in each alter- 
pate interval. 

In eveiy course of ashlar facing, bond stones 
should be introduced, and their number should 

be 



MASONRY. 277 

be proportional to the length of the course; this 
should be strictly attended to in long ranges of 
stones, both in walls without apertures, and in 
the courses that form wide piers, when thej are 
wide, every bond stone of one course should 
fall in the middle of every two bond stones in the 
course below. In every pier where the jambs are 
coursed with the other ashlar in front, and also in 
every pier where the jambs are one entire height, 
every alternate stone next to the aperture in the 
former case, and every alternate stone next to the 
jambs in, the latter case, should bond through the 
wall, and also every other stone should be placed 
lengthways in each return of each angle, not less 
than the average length of an ashlar. Bond 
stones should have no taper in their beds, the end 
of every bond stone, as well as the end of every 
return stone should never be less than a foot, 
there should be no such thing as a closer per- 
mitted, unless it bond through the wall. All 
the uprights or joints should be square, or at 
right angles to the front of the wall, and may 
recede about ^ of an inch from the face with a 
close joint from thence, gradually widening to 
the back, and thereby make hollow wedge form- 
ed figures, which will give sufficient cavities for 
the reception of packing and mortar. Both the 
upper and lower beds of every stone should be 
quite level, and not form acute angles as is often 
the case; the joints from the face to about J of 

an 



278 MASONRY. 

an inch within the wall, should either be ce- 
mented with fine mor:ar, or with a mixture of 
oil, putty and white lead : the former is the prac- 
tice both in London and Edinburgh, and the lat- 
ter in Glasgow. The putty cement will stand 
longer than most stones, and will remain promi- 
nent when the face of the stones has been coroded 
with age. The whole of the ashlar, except that 
mentioned of the joints towards the face of the 
■wall, the rubble work and the core should be 
set and laid in the best mortar, and every stone 
should be laid on its natural bed. All wall plates 
should be placed upon a number of bond stones, 
and particularly those of the roof where there 
are no tie beams, by which means they may either 
be joggled upon the bonds, or fastened to them 
by iron and lead. 

In building walls or insulated pillars of very 
short horizontal dimensions not exceeding the 
length of stones that can be easily procured, every 
stone should be quite level on the bed, without 
any degree of concavity, and should be one en- 
tire piece, between every two horizontal joints. 
This should be particularly attended to in piers, 
where the insisting weight is great, otherwise the 
stones will be in danger of splintering, and crush- 
ing to pieces, and perhaps occasion a total de- 
molition of the fabric. 

Vitruvius has left us an account of the man- 
ner of constructing the walls of the ancients, 

which 



MASONRY. 279 

which was as follows : the Riticulated, is that 
wherein the joints run in parallel lines, making 
angles of 45 degrees each, with the horizon in 
contrary ways, and consequently the faces of the 
stones form squares, of which one diagonal is 
horizontal and the other vertical. This kind of 
wall was much used by the Romans in his time. 
The locertain wall was formed of stones of which 
one direction of the joints was horizontal^ and 
the other vertical: but the vertical joints of the 
alternate courses were not always arranged in the 
same straight line, all that they regarded was, to 
make them break joint: this manner of wall- 
ing was used by the Romans antecedent to the 
time of Vitruvius, who directs that in both 
the reticulated and incertain walls, instead of fil- 
ling the space between the sides with rubble pro- 
miscuously, they should be strengthened with 
abutments of hewn stone or brick, or common 
flints, built in cross walls 2 feet thick, and bound 
to the facing and backing with cramps of iron. 
The Emplection consisted of two sides or shells 
of squared stone, with alternate joints, and a 
rubble core in the middle. 

The walls of the Greeks were of three kinds, 
named Isodomura, Pseudisodomum and Emplec- 
tion. The Isodomum had the courses all of an 
equal thickness, and the other called Pseudiso- 
domum had the courses unequally thick; in both 

these 



280 • MASONRY. 

these walls^ whenever the squared work wa;S 
continued^ the interval or core was filled up with 
common hard stones laid in the manner of bricks 
with alternate joints. The Emplection was con- 
structed wholly of squared stones, in these bond 
stones were placed at regular intervals^and the stones 
in the intermediate distance were laid with alter- 
nate joints in the same manner as those of the 
face, so that this manner of walling must have 
been much stronger than the Emplection of the 
Roman villages. This is a most strong and du- 
rable manner of walling, and in modern times it 
may be practised with the utmost success, but in 
the common run of buildings it would be too 
expensive. 

§ 5. Stairs. 

When stairs are supported by a wall at both 
ends, nothing difficult can occur in the construc- 
tion, in these the inner ends of the steps may 
either terminate in a solid newel, or to be tailed 
into a wall surrounding an open newel ; where 
elegance is not required, and where, the newel 
does not exceed 2 feet 6 inches. The ends of 
the steps may be conveniently supported by a 
solid pillar, but when the newel is thicker, a thin 
wall surrounding the nev/el would be cheaper. 

In the stairs of a basement story, where there 
are Geometrical stairs above, the steps next to the 
newel are generally supported upon a dwarf wall. 

§ 6. Geometrical 



MASONRY. 281 

§ 6. Geometrical Stair's 
Have the outer end fixed in the vvall^ and one 
of the edges of every step supported bjthe edge 
of the step below, and constructed with joggled 
joints, so that they cannot descend in the inclined 
direction of the plane, nor yet in a vertical di- 
rection, the sally of every joint forms an exterior 
obtuse atigle, on the lower part of the upper 
step, called a back rebate, and that on the upper 
part of the lower step of course an interior one, 
and the joint formed of these sallies is called a 
joggle, which may be level from the face of the 
risers, to about 1 inch within the joint. Thus is 
the plane of the tread of each step continued I 
inch within the surface of each riser, the lower 
part of the joint is a narrow surface, perpendi- 
cular to the inclined direction or sofSt'of the 
stair at the end next to the newel. 

In stairs constructed of most kinds of. stone, 
the thickness of every step at the thinnest place 
of the end next to the newel, has no occasion to 
exceed 2 inches, for steps of 4 feet in length, 
that is, by measuring from the interior angle of 
every step perpendicular to the rake. The thick- 
ness of steps at the interior angle should be pro- 
portioned to the length of the step : but allow- 
ing that the thickness of the steps at each in- 
terior angle is sufficient at 2 inches, then will the 
thickness of steps at the interior angles be half 
the number of inches that the length of the steps 
has in feet: thus a step 5 feet long would be Sc- 
inches at that place. The 



282 MASONRY. 

The stoHe platforms of Geometrical stairs, viz. 
the landings, half paces and quarter paces, are 
constructed of one, two, or several stones, ac- 
cording as they can be procured. When the 
platform consists of two or more stones, the first 
platform stone is laid upon the last step that is 
set, and one end tailed in and wedged into the 
wall, the next platform stone is joggled or re- 
bated into one set, and the end also fixed into 
the wall, as that and the preceding steps are, 
and every stone in succession, till the platform is 
completed. If there is occasion for another 
flight of steps, the last platform becomes a spring 
stone for the next step, the joint is to be joggled 
as well as all the succeeding steps, in the same 
manner as the first flight. 

Geometrical stairs executed in stone depend 
upon the following principle : that every body 
must at least Ibe supported by three points placed 
out of a straight line, and consequently, if two 
edges of a body in different directions be secured 
to another body, the two bodies will be im- 
moveable in respect to each other. This last is 
the case in a Geometrical stair^ one end of a 
stair stone is always tailed into the wall, and on9 
edge either rests on the ground itself, or on the 
edge of the preceding stair stone, whether the 
stair stone be a plat or step. The stones forming 
a platform are generally of the same thickness as 
those forming the steps. 

§ 7. ^ sliort 



MASONRY. 285 ' 

§ 7. ^ short Account of the Origin of the Arch 
and Authors who may be consulted. 
The Arch is perhaps one of the most useful in- 
'ventions that ever took place in the art of build- 
ing : by it we are enabled to cross the deepest rivers 
and valleys, and places which are rendered impass- 
able by rocks or precipitous banks. In such 
situations, without its aid, goods conveyed by in- 
land navigation, or by any other means, could 
never obtain the same celerity of transportation, 
nor have been conducted at so easy a rate of ex- 
pence. By the use of the arch we are enabled to 
build apartments secure from fire, to cover aper- 
tures where it would be impossible to lintle them 
with stone, and to support walls or their tops al- 
most to any height. 

The theory of the equilibrium of arches de- 
pends on the deepest principles of mathematical 
science. Those who are desirous of obtaining 
the fundamental part of the art of building 
arches, will do well to consult the 5th article 
of Emerson's Miscellanies, and Hutton's and 
Gwilt's Principles of Arches, and for a know- 
ledge of the practice, it will be well to 
peruse a work in French, by Perronet, which 
has gained him great reputation, as containing 
the whole result of his experience in the prac- 
tice of building bridges and arches: also a work 
by Scmple, containing many excellent practical 

remarks; 



284 MASONRY. 

remarks ; there are other authors^ but those here 
spoken of, have acquired the most celebrity. 

Arches are to be found in the Greek Theatres^ 
Stadia and Gymnasia, some of them erected pro- 
bably 400 years before the Christian £era. The 
most ancient arches of which we have any thing 
like dates, are the Cloaca at Rome, begun by 
Tarquinius Priscus. The emperor Adrian threw 
a bridge over the Cephisus between the territo- 
ries of Attica and Elusis, on the most frequent- 
ed road of Greece. The ancient bridges at Rome 
were eight in number: the most considerable of 
which vras the Pons iElius, now the bridge of 
Santo Angelo. There are several other Roman 
bridges in and out of Italy, but the most cele- 
brated was that erected over the Danube by 
the emperor Trajan, the span of the arches is 
supposed to have been 170 feet each: but even 
this is considerably surpassed in horizontal ex- 
tent by the ancient bridge of Brioude in France, 
consisting only of one arch of 181 feet span. 
Several of the French bridges are remarkable for 
the great extent of the arches. The bridge of 
Neuilly, built by M. Perronet over the Seine, 
consists of five elliptic arches, each 128 feet 
span, composed of eleven arcs of circles, of dif- 
ferent radii. The most considerable arch in 
Great Britain, is that over the river Taff, near 
Llantrissent in Glamorganshire, consisting of one 
arch of 140 feet span : the curve is the arc of 

a circle 



MASONRY. 285 

a circle of 175 feet diameter. Sarah or Island 
bridge over the Liffey, above Dublin, consists of 
one arch of 106 feet span. The bridges at 
Westminster, and Blackfriars, London, though 
among the boldest and finest undertakings of 
modern times, have their arches of less horizon- 
tal extension than those above mentioned; the 
arches of the former arc semi-circular, the cen- 
tral one is 76 feet diameter or span. The arches 
of the latter are nearlj elliptic, nine in number, 
and the central one is 100 feet wide, and the 
arches on each side decrease regularly to the land 
piers. 



PLATE L 



586 MASONRY. 



PLATE I. 

Observations on the customary Prohlems m Ma- 
sonry respecting Arches, and Methods of de- 
scribing Elliptic Arches. 

The operation of describing an ellipse with a 
string, though true in principle, is useless in 
practice, as the string stretches in such a degree 
as not to be depended on, and the degree of ten- 
sion is in proportion to the length of the string, 
which is therefore unfit to be used for describing 
the curve of an arch of large extent. The tram- 
mel or elliptic compass is a very accurate instru- 
ment, butitcan onlybeused forworksuponasmall 
scale: this method of description will be found 
in Problem V, Geometry. The description of an 
ellipse with a beam compass may be put in exe- 
cution in arches of any e'xfent as has been fully 
verified in the practice of that distinguished 
French Engineer, M. Perronet. But the com- 
mon method with three centres only is extremely 
lame, owing to the sudden variation of curva- 
ture, which takes place at the junction of two 
very different radii. 



Prob. I. 



^rL€Z,J€>^?^'^ 



^>-^. 



>?^ 



EX 



Jt'/L 



%■ 



x: 



z'.- 




^__^. 


TUlJTTy^ 






t!Wnr///\ 


f 


; /\ '" 




Wi^^ 


A 




c 







2 .2 3 4 S C 



MASONRY. 287 

Paob I. To render the Compass Method useful 
not only in describing the Curve, hut in finding 
the Joints perpendicular thereto, so as to form 
an Arch which shall not have any sensible varia- 
tion in Practice from the true BlUptic Curve, 
nor in the Perpendicularity of the Joints, 

Find a number of points in the curve equi- 
distant on each side of the extremity of the con- 
jugate axis: find the centre of a circle passing 
the middle point, and the other two points one 
on each side of it: join the centre with the last 
two points of the curve, and describe an arc 
through the three points : then to complete the 
half curve, join one of the next points of the 
curve and the end of the arc by a straight line: 
or suppose these two points to be joined, and 
and bisect this line by a perpendicular, which 
produce until it meet the first of the radii: join 
the last point of the curve, and the concourse of 
the two last radii: from the point of concourse 
describe an arc from the end of the arc last de- 
scribed to the next point in the curve ; proceed 
in like manner with the next succeeding arcs, if 
more than two, until the last arc but one, is de- 
scribed: continue the last arc until it meet a 
diameter parallel to the transverse axis: draw a 
line from the meeting of the arc and diameter 
throuvh the extremity of the transverse axis, 
and produce this line till it meets the arc; from 
the point wher^ the line meets the arc draw a 

line 



288 MASONRY. 

line to the centre of the arc; from the point 
where the line so drawn cuts the transverse axis 
as a centre, describe an arc from the end of the 
arc last described to the extremity of the trans- 
verse axis. 

Example Fig. 1. Let A B be the transverse 
axiS;, and C D the semi-conjugate. 

Draw E D parallel to AC and AE parallel to 
CD. Divide C A and A E each into three equal 
parts at the points/^ g^, h, i. Produce D C to X 
making CX equal to CD. Draw X// anda^gAr, 
also li k d and i I d, then the points k and / will be 
in the curve^ bisect the distance Z D at right 
angles by m n meeting D X produced at n. Join 
In cutting A C at ^. The points t and u being 
on the line or semi-transverse C B, make C t 
equal to Cy, and draw n t v. From n with the 
distance n D ov nl, describe the arc/Dx). Bi- 
sect the distance A" / by a perpendicular op meet- 
ing In at p. From p with the distance pi de- 
scribe the avclkq. Draw p ^ parallel to A B. 
Join q A which produce to meet the arc Ik q in 
r : also join rp cutting A B in g. From g with 
the distance gr describe an arc r A, and the 
half AD and part of the other half Dv o( the 
arch will be completed. Make t u equal to fg, 
n s equal to up. Draw s u w. From s describe 
the arc v w, and from u describe the arc w B 
which will complete the other half of the arch. 

Prob. II, 



MASONRY. 289 

Prob. II. To find the Joints of an Elliptic Arch 
at right Angles to the Curve. 

Fig. 2 Find the centres 71, p, s,g,y, t, u as in 
Problem 1,, then radiate the joints between D 
and V by the centre n, the joints between v and 
w by the centre s, and the joints between w and 
B by the centre u, and the other half of the 
arch AD in the sanae manner, Oft thus: 

If the arch ADB is described xvith a trammel. 
Take the semi-transverse AC, and from D de^ 
scribe an arc cutting C A at F, and another cut- 
ting C B at F, then the points F, F are called 
the focii. Now to draw a line at right angles to 
the curve frpm any point H. Draw HKF and 
and HTiF, making HK equal to HL. From 
K and L as centres, describe arcs of equal radii 
cutting each other at I, and draw I H, which 
will be a joint at the required point H. In the 
same manner may any other joint ih or as many 
as required be obtained. 

Prob. hi. To clescrile the Paraholic Arch, and 
' thence to draw the Joints at right Angles to 
the Curve. 

First, to draw the Curve. 

Fig. 3. Let C D be the abscissa or height of 
the curve, and E B the base or a double ordi- 
nate. Draw AE parallel to C D and ED pa- 
rallel to A B. Divide C A and A J^ each into 

V > the 



290 ^ MASONRY. 

the like number of equal parts. Draw ia, 2b, 
3 c, &c. parallel to C D; also draw ID;, 2D, 
3 D, &c. cutting the parallels at a, h, c, &c. 
which are points in the curve, then the curve 
maj be drawn with a bent rule through the 
points, a, b, c, &c. and the other half B D being 
drawn in like manner will complete the whole 
curve. 

Secondly, To find the Joints. 

Let it be required to llad a joint to any point E. 
Join EB, which bisect atg": (\x2iW glii perpendicu- 
lar to AE cutting the curve at h : make h i equal 
to hg, and join E i: draw EF at a right angle 
with E z and E F will be a joint at right angles 
to the curve. In the same manner all other joints 
may be obtained. 



PLATE IL 



^rCajtH7n 



^^ute 2 



T- 



T7/2 



I 



/ 








Ir/^ 



Zo7iiiotiI^ll>h'sheilMnTfi2ajSa.bY,77m-l'?7-^^/t_Bblio 



31 



MASONRY. 291 



PLATE II. 

With respect to the power which arches have 
of supporting themselves, it depends upon the 
load insisting on all points of the arch, it is evi- 
dent that there may be such a relation between 
the curve and the weight on every point of it, 
80 as the weight may have no more tendency to 
break or spring the arch in one point than an- 
other, and it is evident, that if the materials are 
of the same specific gravity, that the wall erected 
at a given height upon the arch will obtain a 
certain form, so as to keep the arch in cquilibrio, 
and that the form of the terminating line of the 
wall will depend on the curve of the support- 
ing arch. 

Fig, 1 If the intrados of the arch be a semi- 
circle or semi-elliptic, the extrados or terminat- 
ing line of the wall will be a curve running up- 
wards at the ends, so as to make the two vertical 
lines which are tangents at the extremes of the 
arch assmytotes of the curve, and consequently, 
neither the semi-circular nor semi-ellyptic arch 
are adapted to bridge building; and it maybe 
pronounced with safety, that though these curves 
are frequently employed in bridge building, were 
the materiala only placed in contact without co- 

U 2 cohesion 



292 MASONRY. 

hesion or friction, the mass supported could not 
stand when the road way is straight, or a con- 
Tex curve through -at the length of the arch, 
and that it is only in consequence of friction or 
the cementing quality of the mortar in connect- 
ing the whole of the materials in one mass that 
such arches stand for so many centuries as they 
are found to do. However, by employing only 
the middle portions of these curves, a road way 
or eitrados of tolerable convenient form may be 
obtained. 

Fig. 3 is an arch of equilibration, the intrados 
of which is parabolic, which requires an ex- 
trados of the same form and curvature, both 
being similar and equal. The vertical heights 
between the two are every where eqiial. 

Fig 4. is another Equilibrated Arch, the in- ' 
trades is an hyperbolic curve, and the extrados 
requires a curve, such that the vertical lines be- 
tween the two curves are continually less from 
the crown towards the feet of the arches. 

Fig. 5 is another Equilibrated Arch, the in- 
trados being a catenarian, or such as would be 
formed with a heavy chain suspended at its ex- 
tremities from two points at less distance from 
each other than the length of the chain, the ex- 
trados to this curve may admit of different forms, 
it may either be a convex curve, as when the 
\¥all erected upon it is low, or a straight sur- 
face 



MASONRY. 293 

face or plane, as when the wall erected on it is 
enormously high, or a concave curve, as when 
the wall is still higher; neither of the three last 
curves are at all adapted to bridge building, 
the extrados line at a moderate height of wall 
being too rapid in its acclivity and declivity. 

Fig. 6 is an Arch of Equilibration, where the 
top is a straight line: the intrados at a given 
height of wall is calculated to answer thereto, 
this arch is therefore well adapted in most si- 
tuations for the arch of a bridge. 



INDEX 



( 294 ) 
INDEX AND EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS USED IN 

MASONRY. 

N. B. This Mark § refers to the preceding Sections^ 
according to the Number. 



A. 

Abutments of a Bridge, the walls adjoining to the 
land, which support the ends of the extreme arches 
or road way. 

Arch in masonry is a part of a building suspended 
over a hollow and concave towards the area of the 
hollow; the top of the wall or walls which receives 

• the first arch stones is called the abutment or spring- 
ing, § 7. 

Archivolt of the Arch of a Bridge, is the curve 
line formed by the upper sides of the arch stones 
in the face of the work, or the archivolt is some- 
times understood to be the whole set of arch 
stones that appear in the face of the work. 

Ashlar, § 4. 

B. 

Banquet, the raised footways adjoining to the parapet 

on the sides of a bridge. 
Bath Stone, § 2. 

Batter, the leaning back of the upper part of the 

face 



MASONRY. 295 

face of a wall, so as to make the plumb line fall 
within the base. 

Battardeau or Cofferdam, a case of piling with- 
out a bottom for building the piers of a bridge. 

Beds of a Stone, are the parallel surfaces which in- 
tersect the face of the work in hues parallel to the 
horizon, § 4. 

Bond, is that connection of lapping the stones upon 
one another in the carrying up of the work, so as to 
form an inseparable mass of* building. 

Bond Stones, stones running through the thickness 
of the wall in order to bind it. 

Bond Timbers, § 4. 

Bridge Building, § 4. 

Bridge in masonry is an edifice or structure, consist- 
ing of one or a series of arches, in order to form a 
road way over a river, canal, &c. for passing the 
same. 

Butments, 5<?e Abutments. 

C. 

Caisson, a chest or box in which the piers of a bridge 
are built, by sinking it as the work advances till it 
comes in contact with the bed of the river, and then 
the sides are disengaged, being constructed for 
the purpose. 

Centres, the frames of timber work for supporting- 
arches during their erection. 

Chest, the same as Caisson. 

Chissels, § 2. 

Cofferdam, the same as Battardeau, 

D. 

Drag, a thin plate of steel indented on the edge, like 
the teeth of a saw, used in soft stone which have no 

grit, 



296 MASONRY. 

grit, for finishing the surface. A piece of a joiner'^j 

hand saw makes a good drag, § 2. 
Drift, the horizontal force of an arch, by which it 

endeavours to overset tlie piers. 
Dutch Tarras, § 3. 

E. 

Emplection, § 4. 

ExTRADOs OF AN Arch, the exterior or convex curve 

or the top of the arch stones, the term is opposed 

to the intrados or concave side. 
ExTRADOS OF A BRIDGE, the cuH'C of the roadway. 

F. 

Fence Wall, those used to prevent the encroach- 
ments of men or animals. 

Figure of Stones, § 4. 

Footings, projecting courses of stone without the 
naked' of the superincumbent part, in order to rest 
the wall firmly on its base, § 4. 

G. 

Geometrical Stairs, § 6. 

H. 

Headers, stones disposed with their length hori- 
zontally in the thickness of the wall. 

I. . 

Impost or Springing the upper part or parts of a 

wall in order to spring an arch. 
Incertain, § 4. 
Insulated Pillars, § 4. 
isodomum, § 4. 

Jettee, 



MASONRY. 297 

J- 

Jettee, the border made around the stilts under a 

pier. 
Joggled Joints, the method of indenting the stones, 

so as to prevent the one from being pushed away 

from the other by lateral force, § 6. 

K. 

Key stone of an arch, the stone at the summit of 
the arch, put in last of all for wedging and closing 
the arch. «• 

Key-Stone, the middle Voussoir of an arch over the 
centre. 

Key Stones, used in some places for bond stones. 

L. 

Level, horizontal or parallel to the horizon. 
Level, an instrument, the same as that used in brick- 
laying and carpentry. 

M. 

Mallet, the implement or tool which gives percusive 
force to the chissel ; in figure it approaches to a 
hemisphere, with a handle projecting from the mid- 
dle or pole of the convex side, § 2. 

Marblej § 3. 

Masonry, § l. 

Mortar, See Bricklaying § 32. and in Masonry, § 3. 

N. 

Naked of a Wall, is the vertical or battering sur- 
face whence all projectures arise. 

Off 



298 MASONRY. 

O. 

Off Set, the upj^er surface of a lower part of a wall 
left by reducing the thickness of the superincum- 
bent part upon one side or the other, or both. 

Oxfordshire Stone, § 2. 

P. 

Parapet^s, the breast walls erected on the sides of 
the extrados of the bridge for preventing passen- 
gers from falling over. 

Paving, a floor or surface of stone for walking upon. 

Piers, the insulated parts of a bridge between the 
apertures, or arches, for supporting the arches and 
road way. 

Piers in Houses, the walls between apertures, or be- 
tween an aperture and the corner. 

Piles, timbers driven into the bed of a river, or the 
foundation of a building for supporting a structure. 

Plaster of Paris, § 3. 

Pitch of an Arch, the height from the springing to 
the summit of the arch. 

Point, the narrowest of all the chissels, and used in 
reducing the rough prominent parts of stone, § 2. 

Portland Stone, § 3. 

Pseudisodomum, § 4. 

PuRBECK Stone. § 3. 

Push of an Arch, the same as Drift, which see. 

Quarry, the place whence stones are raised. 

Random 



MASONRY* 299 

Random Courses in Paving, unequal courses with- 
out any regard to equi-distant joints. 
Reticulated Wall, § 4. 
Rubble Wall, § 4. 
Ryegate Stone, § 3. 



Saw, a thin plate of iron of considerable length, re- 
gulated by a frame of wood and cording, the ope- 
ration is performed by the labourer, § 2. 

Shoot of an Arch, the same as drift or push, see 
Drift. 

Statuary, §3. 

Sterlings, a case made about a pier of stilts in order 
to secure it. 

Stilts, a set of piles driven into the bed of a river, 
at a small distance from each other, with a surround- 
ing case of piling driven closely together, the tops 
of the piles being levelled to low water mark, and 
the interstices filled with stones, forms a foundation 
for building the pier upon. 

Stone Stairs, § 5. 

Stone Walls, § 4. 

Stretchers, those stones which have their length 
disposed horizontally in the length of the wall. 

T. 

Tarras, § 3. 

Through Stones, the term used in some counties 

for bond stones, which see 
Thrust, the same as Push, Shoot, or Drift, ^ee Drift. 

Tooling, 



300 MASONRY. 

Tooling, §2. 
Tools, § 2. 

Under Bed of a Stone, the lovirer surface generally 

horizontally posited. 
Upper Bed of a Stone, the upper surface generally 

horizofutall}'^ posited. 

Vault, a mass of stones so combined as to support 

each other over a hollow. 
VoussORS the arch stone in the face or faces of an 

arch, the middle one is called the key-stone. 

Wall, an erection of stone generally perpendicular 
to the horizon, and sometimes battering, in order 
to give stability. 

Y. 

Yorkshire Stone, § 3. 



MECHA- 



( 301 ) 



MECHANICAL EXERCISES, 



0¥ SJLATING. 



§ 1. SLATING is the operation of covering 
the top or other inclined parts of a building with 
slate. 

§ 2. Slaters' Tools 

Are a Scantle, a Trowel, a Hammer, a Zax, 
a small Hand Pick, a; Hod and Board for mor- 
tar. See the following Explanation of Terms. 



EXPLANATION 



( 302 ) 
EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS IN 

SLATING. 



B. 

Back of a Slate, is the upper side of it. 

Backer, is a narrow slate put on the back of a broad 

square headed slate, when the slates begin to get 

narrow. , 

Bed of a Slate, is the lower side. 
Bond or Lap of a Slate, is the distance between 

the nail of the under slate, and the lower end of 

the upper slate. 

C. 

Course, is any row of slating, the lower (ends of whiph 
are horizontally posited. 

E. 

Eave, the skirt or lower part of the slating hanging 
over the naked of the wall. 

H. 

Holing, the piercing of the slates for nails. 

L. 

Lap, See Bond. 

M. ' 

Margin of a Course, those parts of the backs of 
the slates exposed to the weather. 

Nails, 



SLATING, 303 

N. 
Nails, painted iron or copper of a pyramidal form for 
fastenino^ the slates to the lath or boardino:. 

p. 

PatExMT Slating, large slates used without boarding, 
and screwed to the rafters with slips of slates bedded 
in putty to cover the joints. 

S. 

ScANTLE, is a gauge by which slates are regulated to 
their proper length. 

Slates used in London are of several kind, as West- 
moreland, P^ags, Imperial, Dutches', Countess', 
Ladies, Doubles. The Westmoreland is the best, 
the}^ are from 3 feet 6 inches, to 1 foot in length, 
and from 2 feet 6 inches to 1 foot broad. Pags are 
the second best, and run nearly of the same size. 
The third in order, of inferior quality are the Im- 
perials, they run from 2 feet 6 inches long, to 1 
foot long. The other kinds will be understood by 
the order under which they are named, being in- 
ferior in size accordingly. 

Sorting is the regulating of slates to their proper 
length by means of the scantle. 

Squaring, the cutting of the sides and bottom of the 
slates. 

T. 

Tail, the bottom or lower end of the slate. 

Trimming, the cutting or pairing of the side and bot- 
tom edges, the head of the slate never being cut. 

Z. 

Zax, the tool for cutting tlie slate. 

MECHA- 



{ 304 ) 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 



OF FJLASTEMNG^. 



§ 1. PLASTERING is the art of covering 
"walls or ceilings with one, two, or three layers 
of any plastic or tena<jious paste, so as to admit 
of a smooth and hard surface when the material 
is dry, and also of ornamenting walls and ceilings 
either bj being run or cast into moulds. 

§ 3. Plasterers' Tools. 

Tools used by the plasterer, are Plastering 
Trowels of several descriptions. Joint Trowels, 
and Jointing Rules, a Hawke, a Hand Float, a 
Quirk Float, and a Derby. A Scratcher and 
wooden Skreeds for running mouldings. 

§ 3. Materials 
Generally employed are Lime, Hair, Sand, 
Plaster of Paris, and these are variously com- 
pounded, as the following alphabetical arrange- 
ment of Terms will show, which also explains 
the tools and their uses. 

Walls consisting of brick or stone in the best 
houses are always lathed by the plasterer, pre- 
vious 



MASONRY. 305 

vious to the operation of plastering, particularly 
interior walls, and it is more requisite to lath 
walls constructed of stone, than those constructed 
of bri(>k, which is a dry substance, and not liable 
to attract damps. 

Ceilings are generally plastered upon laths, 
particularl}' in. London. In some parts of the 
country reeds are employed in their stead : the 
reeds are spread out on the ceiling, so as to form 
a regular surface, and are confined to their si- 
tuation by nailing laths to the joists, the reeds 
running transversely between them and the joists. 
The reeds are cheaper than laths, but require 
more material of plaster and labour : so that 
when finished the difference of cost is very trifling. 
Other matters in plastering will be seen in the 
following Explanation of Terms. 



X EXPLA- 



( 306 ) 
EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS IN 

PL ASTERI NG. 



A. 

Angle Float, is a float made to any internal angle 
to the planes of both sides of the room. 

B. 

Bastajid Stucco, is three coat plaster, the first ge- 
nerally roughing in or rendering, the second 
floating as in troweled stucco, but the finishing coat 
contains a little hair besides the sand, it is not hand 
floated, and the troweling is done with less labour 
than what is denominated troweled stucco. 

Bay, a strip or rib of plaster between skreeds for 
regulating the floating rule. ' 



Ceiling, the upper side of an apartment opposite to 
the floor, generally finished with plastered work. 
Ceilings are set in two difterent ways, the best is 
where the setting coat is composed of plaster and 
putty, commonly called gauge. Common ceilings 
have plaster but no hair, this last is the same as the 
finishing coat in walls set for paper. 

Coarse Stuff, 5^^ Lime and hair. 

Coat, a stratum or thickness of plaster work done at 
one time. 

Derby 



PLASTERING. , 307 

D. 

Derby, a two handed float. 

Die, is when plaster loses its strength. 

Dots, patches of plaster put on to regulate the float- 
ing rule in making skreeds and bays. 

Double Fir Laths, are laths |- of an inch thick, single 
fir laths being a bare |. All the ceilings on the 
entrance and drawing roi^ni floors and best stair 
cases should be lathed with double fir laths. 

F. 

Fine Stuff is made of lime slacked and sifted through 
a fine sieve, and mixed with a due quantity of hair, 
and sometimes a small quantity of fine sand. Fine 
stuff" is used in common ceilings and walls, set for 
paper or colour. 
Finishing, is the best coat of three coat work, when 
done for stucco. The term setting is commonly 
vised, when the third coat is made of fine stuff" for 
paper. 
First Coat of two coat work is denominated laying, 
when on lath, and rendering on brick, in three 
coat work upon lath it is denominated pricking-up, 
and upon brick, roughing-in. 
Float, an implement for forming the second coat of 
three coat work to a given form of surface. Floats 
are of three kinds : namely, the Hand float, the 
Quirk float, and the Derby. 
Floated Lath and Plaster set fair for paper, is 
three coat work, the first pricking up, the second 
floating, and the third or setting coat of fine stufli", 
understood to be pricked-up, as there is no floated 
work without pricking-up. 

X 2 Floated, 



308 PLASTERING. 

Flqate©, rendered and set, this is the common term. 

Floated Work, is that which is pricked-up, floated 
and set, or roughed-in. 

Floating, is the second coat of three coat work. 
There is no floating without pricking-up or rough- 
ing-in first, and then the finishing or setting. 
Floating consists of the same stuff as pricking-up, 
but more hair is used in the former than in the 
latter. The floating should be brushed with a birch 
broom, and in order to rough the surface, for stucco 
or setting for paper. Floating is always used in 
stuccoed work, walls prepared for paper, and in the 
best ceilings. 

Floating Skreeds differ from cornice skreeds in this, 
that the former is a strip of plaster, and the latter 
wooden rules for running the cornice. 

Floating Rules are of every size and length. 

G. 

Gauge, a mixture of fine stuff and plaster, or putty 
and plaster, or coarse stuff and plaster, used ia 
finishing the best ceilings, and for mouldings, and 
sometimes for setting walls. 

H. 

Hair used in plastering, ought to be long fresh hair. 
Hawke, a board with a handle projecting perpen- 
dicularly from the under side for holding the plaster. 

J. 

Joint Rules and Tools are narrow trowels and rules 
of wood for making good mitres. 

Lath 



PLASTERING. 309 

L. 

Lath Floated and Set Fair. These words bear 
the same meaning as lath pricked-up and floated 
and set, which see 

Lath layed and Set, is two coat work, only the 
first coat called laying, is put on without scratching 
except it is swept with a broom. This is generally 
coloured on walls, and whited on ceilings. 

Lath Plastered Set and Coloured, is the same 
with lath layed set and coloured, which see 

Lath Pricked-up, floated and set for paper is three 
coat work, the first is pricking-up, the second float- 
ing, and the finishing is fine stuft. 

Laying, is the first coat on lath of two coat plaster 
or set work, it is not scratched with the scratcher, 
but its surface is roughed by sweeping it with a 
broom, it diff'ers only from rendering on its applica- 
tion. Rendering is apphed to the first coat work 
upon brick, whereas laying, is the first of two coat 
work upon lath. 

Laying on Trowels, the trowels used for laying on 
the plaster. 

Lime and Hair, is a mixture of lime and hair 
used in first coating and floating. It is otherwise 
denominated coarse stuff': in floating more hair is 
used than in first coatiuir. 

M. 

Matepjals in plastering are coarse stuff, fine stufl", 
stuff", putty, plaster, gauge, and stucco. 

Mitering Angles, in making good internal and 
external angles of mouldings. 

Mouldings, when not very large are first run with 
coarse auge tj the mould, then with fine stufl\, 

then 



310 PLASTERING. 

then with putty and plaster, and lastly, run off or 
finished with rawputt3^ When mouldings are large 
coarse stuff is first put on, then it is filled with tile 
heads or hrick bats and run off successively, with 
coarse gauge, fine stuff gauge, putty gauge, and 
finished with raw putty : in running cornices there 
must always be skreeds upon the ceiling, whether 
the ceiling is floated or not. 

P. 

Pale, a vessel for holding water to moisten the plas- 
ter. 
Plaster, is the material with which ornaments are 
cast, and with which the fine stuff of gauge for 
mouldings and other ^arts are mixed. 
Pricking-up is the first coating of three coat work 
upon laths. The material used is coarse stuff, some- 
times mixed up in London with road dirt or Thames 
sand, and its surface is always scratched with the 
scratcher. 
Pugging, the stuff laid upon sound boarding, in order 
to prevent the transmition of, or deaden the sound 
in its passage from one story to another. 
Putty, is a very fine cement made of lime only. It 
is thus prepared : dissolve in a small quantity of 
water, as two or three gallons, so much fresh lime, 
(constantly sth-red with a stick) until the lime be 
entirely slacked, and the whole becomes of the con- 
sistency of mud; so that when the stick is taken 
out of it, it will but just drop ; then being sifted 
or run tlirough a hair sieve to take out t\\e gross 
parts of the lime, it is fit for use. Putty differs from 
fine stuff in the manner of preparing it, and in its 
being used without hair. 

Quirk 



PLASTERING. 311 

Q 

Quirk Float, see Angle float. 

R. 

Rendered and Floated is three coat work, more 
commonly called floated, rendered and set. 

Rendered Floated and Set for paper should be 
termed roughed-in, floated and setfor paper is three 
coat work, the first lime and hair upon brick work, 
the second the same stuff with a little more hair 
floated with a long rule, the last fine stuff mixed 
with white hair. 

Rendered and Set, the same as set work, see Set 
work. Rendering is the first of two coat work 
upon naked brick or stone work whited on walk or 
vaults; roughing-in being the first coat of three 
work on naked brick, but the compound term prick- 
ing-up is used for the first of three coat work upon 
lath, or on brick work, which has been previously 
rendered. Though the term rendering is some- 
times used in three coat work, it is improper. The 
material for rendering is the same as that for prick- 
mg up. 

Rough Cast, is the overlaying of walls with mortar 
without smoothing it with any tool whatever. 

Rough Rendering, is one coat rough. 

Rough Stucco, is that which is finished with stucco 
floated and brushed in a small degree with water, . 
much used at present. 
Roughing-in, is the first coat of three coat work. 
Running Mouldings, see Mouldings. 

Scratcher, 



312 PLASTERING. 

S. 

ScRATCHER, the instrument for scratching the plaster 
as its name impHes. 

Second Coat, is either the finishing coat, as in layed 
and set, or in rendered and set, or it is the floating, 
when the plaster is roughed-in, floated and set for 
paper. 

Set Fair, is used after roughing-in and floated or 
pricked up and floated : it should be well troweled 
as it does not answer for colour without. 

Set Work, two coat work upon lath, the plasterers 
denominate set work by the compound term of lay- 
ed and set. 

Setting Coat on ceilings or walls in the best work 
is gauge or a mixture of putty and plaster, but in 
common work it consists of fine stufi^, and when the 
work is very dry, a little sand is used. The setting 
coat may either be a second coat upon laying or 
rendering, or a third coat upon floating; the term 
finishing is applied to the third coat when of stucco, 
but setting for paper. 

Setting, is also the quality that any kind of stuff" ha« 
to harden in a short time. 

Single Fir Laths are something less than | of an 
inch in thickness. 

Skreeds are wooden rules for running mouldings. 
Skreeds are also the extreme guides upon the 
margins of walls and ceihngs for floating, to the 
intermediate ones being called bays. In running 
cornices, where the ceilings are not floated, there 
must always be skreeds. 

Stopping, making good holes in the plaster. 

Stucco or Finishing is the third coat of three coat 

plaster, 



PLASTERING. • ^ 313 

plaster, consisting of line lime and sand, the best 
is twice hand floated and well trowelled, bastard 
stucco has a little hair, see Finishing. Rough stucco 
is only floated and brushed in a small degree with 
water : troweled siucco is accounted the best. 



Traversing the skreeds for cornices is putting on 
gauge stuff on the ceiling skreeds, for regulating 
the running mould of the cornice abore. 

Three Coat Work, is that which consists of prick- 
ing-up or roughing-in, floating, and a finishing coat. 

Troweled Stucco for paint, the same as roughed-in 
on brick work, and set or pricked-up, floated and 
twice hand floated. 

Third Coat is the stucco for paint or setting for 
paper. 

Two Coat Work, is either layed and set, or render- 
ed and set, see these articles. 

W. 

Work, is the coating of plaster layed and set, and 
applied to brick work only where there are two coats. 



MECHA- 



( 314 ) 



MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 



OF 

FAINTING IN OIL. 



PAINTING is the art of covering the sur- 
faces of wood, iron, &c, with a mucilaginous 
substance^ which shall acquire hardness on the 
surface, and thereby protect from the weather, 
and produce any colour proposed. It is intend- 
ed here to treat only of common painting in oil, 
which comprehends the mechanical process fpr 
preserving and ornamenting stuccoed walls and 
wood work of houses: also iron and wooden 
rails, &c. 

In this branch, the requisite tools are Brushes 
of hogs bristles of various sizes, suitable to the 
work, a Scraping or Pallet knife. Earthen Pots 
to hold the colours, a Tin Can for turpentine, a 
Grinding stone and Muller, &c.; the stone should 
be hard and close grained, about 18 inches dia- 
meter, and sufficiently heavy to keep it steady. 

The 



PAINTING. 315 

The Process for Painting on new Wood Work, 

As the Knots in wood (particularly deal) are 
a great annoyance in painting, great care is re- 
quired in what the painters term killing theni^ 
and the most sure way of doing this has been 
found to be, by laying upon those knots which 
retain any turpentine, a great substance of lime, 
immediately on its being slacked with a stopping 
knife, (this process dries or burns up the tur- 
pentine which the knots contain), and when the 
lime has remained on about twenty four hours, 
scrape it off, then do them twice over with size 
knotting, which is made with red and white lead 
ground very fine with water on a stone, and mix- 
ed with strong double glue size to be used warm, 
after which, if you have any doubts of their 
not being sufficiently covered, do them over with 
red and white lead ground very fine in linseed 
oil, and mixed with a portion of that oil, taking 
care to rub them down with fine sand paper each 
time you do them over, to prevent their appear- 
ing more raised than the other parts, by the re- 
petition of a greater number of coats than the 
other parts of the work will have; when this 
is quite dry, lay on your Priming colour, which 
is made with white and a little red lead mixed 
thin with linseed oil. When the priming is quite 
dry, and if the work is intended to be finished 
white, mix white lead, and a very small portion 
of red with linseed oil, adding a very little spirits 

of 



316 PAINTING. 

of turpentine, and second colour your work; it 
is well to let the work remain in this state for 
some days to harden, then your care must be 
(before you lay on your third coat) to rub it 
down with fine sand paper, and stop with oil 
putty wherever it may be necessary, observing 
particularly if any of the knots show through 
your work, in which case take silver leaf, and 
lay it upon them with japan gold size; the third 
coat is white lead mixed with linseed oil and tur- 
pentine in equal portions, and if the work is in- 
tended to be finished with four coats, let your 
finishing coat be made of good old white lead 
and thinned with bleached linseed oil and spirits of 
turpentine, of the portion of one of oil and two 
of turpentine; a very small quantity of blue 
black may be used in the two last coats ; and if 
the work is to be flatted dead white, the above 
process is prepared to receive it. Dead white is 
fine old Nottingham lead, and thinned entirely 
with spirits of turpentine. 

In painting on Stucco, it is necessary to give 
it one coat more than wood work, therefore the 
fourth coat should be mixed with half spirits 
of turpentine and half oil, and this will receive 
the finishing coat of all turpentine or flatting. 
But if not to be flatted, then the finishing coat 
should be done with one part oil and two of tur- 
pentine. As the colours used on stucco walls are 
very numerous, it would far exceed my limits to 

treat 



PAINTING^, • 317 

treat of them distinctly: let it therefore suffice 
to say, that the same process must be observed 
in using them as in white, only that each coat 
should incline to the colour they are intended to 
be finished. 

The Process for Painting on old Work. 
Let all the work you intend to paint be well 
rubbed down with dry pumice stone, and care- 
fully dusted off, and where the work may re- 
quire, let any cracks or openings be well stopped 
with oil putty, after which mix white lead, 
adding a very small portion of red lead and with 
turpentine and oil of equal parts, paint your 
work (this coat is technically called by painters 
second colouring old work) after this is done 
and the work dry, mix good old white lead with 
half bleached oil and half turpentine, adding a 
very small portion of blue black, and finish your 
work: or if it is intended to be flatted, the 
former process is a proper preparation to receive 
the dead white; the same process is to be ob- 
served for stuccoed walls, observing that if they 
require a greater number of coats, the mixture of 
half oil and half turpentine is proper. The more 
you mix your colours with oil, and the less with 
turpentine for outside work the better, as tur- 
pentine is more adherent to water than oil, and 
consequently, not so well calculated to preserve 
work exposed to the weather; yet as oil will 

discolour 



t 

318 PAINTING. 

discolour while, it is necessary to finish that with 
a portion of half oil and half turpentine : but 
in dark colours, such as chocolate greens, lead 
colour, &c. &c. boiled linseed oil and a little 
turpentine is the best, or boiled oil only. 

White lead is used in all stone colours; white 
painting is entirely white lead; lead colours are 
white lead and lamp black; pinks and all fancy 
colours have a portion of white lead in their 
composition: but chocolates, black, brown, and 
wainscoats have no portion whatever. 

Clear coaling is made of white lead ground in 
water and mixed with size : it is used instead of 
a coat of paint, but by no means answers the 
end, as not possessing a sufficient body, and will 
scale off in time, and change the colour, in damp 
situations. Clear coaling is rhost useful where 
the work is greasy and smoky, as it prepares it 
better to receive a coat of paint: but when used 
for joiners work where mouldings are concerned, 
it destroys the accuracy of the workmanship by 
filling up the quirks and mitres of the mouldings. 
Clear coaling is not much used at present. 

Some colours dry badly, and in damp weather 
all colours require something to expedite their 
drying, a good dryer may be prepared of equal 
parts of copperas and litharge ground very fine, 
to be added as wanted. 

Putty is made of whiting and linseed oil, well 
beaten together. 

The 



PAINTING. 319 

The brushes when done with should be put 
into a pan or pot with water, which prevents 
their drying and becoming hard; also if any 
colour is left, water should be put upon it to 
prevents its drying. 

Drying oil is made thus: to every gallon of 
linseed oil put one pound of red lead, one pound 
of umber, and one pound of litharge. The oil 
and the materials to be boiled for two or three 
hours, ^ote. If the pot in which the oil is 
boiled will contain fifteen gallons, it is not pru- 
dent to boil more than five gallons at a time, as 
the oil and material will swell s.o much as to 
endanger boiling over and setting the place on 
fire. After having boiled a sufficient time, the 
pot may be then filled up with oil, and made 
to simmer gently, and then it is finished. 

A List of useful Colours for House Painting. 



Black - 


lamp black 


White " 


white lead 


Yellow - 


ochers, also patent yellow 


Blue 


Prussian blue, and blue black 


Red - 


red lead, vermilion and purple brown. 




or India red. 




crimson, lakes, to which add vermilion 
or white according to the tone. 




Green - 


grass, verdigrise. 




invisible, dark ocher, blue and a little 
black. 






Gi^een 



Chocolate - - 
Lead Colour ' - 
Brown - - - 



320 PAINTING. 

Green - a good, patent yellow and Prussian 
blue, 

. pea, mineral green. 

India red and black. 

black and white. 

umber raw and burnt, 

• mix black, red, and dark och(2r. 

Purple - - - mix lake, blue, and white. 
Yellow and red lead, make an orajige colour. 
Red and blue make a purple and violet colour. 
Blue and yellow make a green colour. 
Black, blue, white, and a little India red 

make a pearl colour. 
Light ocher, Prussian blue, and a little black 

make an olive colour. 
India red and white, make ajlcsh colour. 
White and umber, make a stone colour. 



MECHA- 



( 321 ) 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 

OF SMITHING, 



SMITHING is the art of UDiting several 
lumps of iron into one mass, and of forming anj 
lump or mass of iron into any intended shape. 

§ 1 . Description of the Forge. ( Pl. 1 . ) 
The forge consists of a brick hearth raised 
about 2 feet 6 inches, or sometimes 2 feet 9 
inches from the floor, heavier work requires a 
lower forge than lighter work : its breadth must 
also depend upon the nature of the work; the 
brick-work may be built hollow below for the 
purpose of putting things out of the way. The 
back of the forge is carried up to the top of 
the roof, and is enclosed over the lire in the 
form of a funnel to collect and discharge the 
smoke into the flue, the funnel is very wide at 
its commencement, but decreases rapidly to the 
flue, whence it is carried up of a proper 
size to take off" the smoke. The wide part is 
called the hood or hovel, which in modern 
forges, particularly in London, is constructed of 
iron. The air drawn in by the bellows is com- 
Y municated 



322 SMITHING. 

municated to the fire hy means of a taper pipe, 
the small end of which passes through the back 
of the forge, and is fixed into a strong iron 
plate, called a tue-iron or patent back, in order 
to preserve the bellows and the back of the forge 
from the injuries of the fire. A trough for coals 
and another for water is placed on one side of 
the forge generally extending the whole breadth. 
See the Plate. 

The best position of the bellows is on a level 
with the fire place, but they are frequently 
placed higher for the purpose of getting room 
below. 

The Tools are as follows : 

§ 2. The Anvil (Pl. 1. Fig. G.) 

Is formed of a large block or mass of iron 
with a smooth horizontal face on the top, ge- 
nerally hollowed upon three sides, and on the 
fourth has a projecting part of a conic figure, 
called a Pike or Beckern, or Beak iron. The 
face must be made of steel, so hard as to b$ 
incapable of being filed. The anvil is fixed upon 
^ wooden block in order to keep it steady. 

§3. The Tongs (Pl. 1.) 

Are of several forms, straight and crooked 
nosed : the former is used in short flat work, and 
the crooked nosed in the forging of bars. The 

chaps. 



SMITHING. 323 

chaps, or parts which hold the iron are placed 
near the joint, and in order to keep it with great- 
er firmness, a ring is slipped over the ends of 
the handles of the tongs. 

§ 4. Hammers 

Are of several kinds, as Hand-Hammers, which 
are of different sizes, according to the weight 
of the work; the Up-hand Sledge is used by 
under workmen, when the work is not of the 
largest kind in battering, in order to draw it out 
to its required dimensions, and for this purpose 
both hands are used. The About Sledge is the 
biggest of all the hammers, also used by under 
workmen in battering the largest work : the 
former hammer is only lifted up and down, but 
this is slung entirely round with both bands 
nearly at the extremity. The Rivetting Hammer 
is the smallest of all, it is not used at the forge, 
but in rivetting, as its name implies. 

§ 5. The Vice (Pl. 2. Fig. B,) 

Is used to hold any piece of iron or work for 
the purpose of bending, rivetting, filing, polish- 
ing, &c. It must be placed firmly and vertically 
on the side of the work bench, with its chaps 
parallel to the edge of the said bench. The 
inner surface of the chaps is roiif^hed with teeth, 
and well tempered, there is a spring which act? 

Y 2 against 



324 SMITHING. 

against the screw pin, and opens the chaps, the 
screw pin is cut with a square thread, as also the 
screw, which is brazed into the nut box. 

§ 6. The Hand Vice 

Is of two kinds, viz. the Broad Chapt Hand 
Vice, and the Square Nosed Hand Vice. The 
office of the former is to hold small work in the 
act of filing, it is held in the left hand, and the 
parts of the iron turned successively to the file 
which is used by the right. The Square Nosed 
Hand Vice is seldom used^ but in filing small 
glob ulcus work. 

§7. The Flyers 

Are of two kinds. Flat Nosed and Round 
Nosed : the former is used to hold small work 
while it is fitting to its place, and the latter for 
turning or bending wire or small plates. 

§8. Drills {Vi^ 2. Fig. E.) 

Are used in boring holes which cannot be 
punched, owing to the thickness of the iron, or 
which require more exactness than can be per- 
formed by the punch, which is very apt to set 
the work out of order and shape. Drills are 
required of various sizes, and to be made of 
the best steel. The Drill consistsof a cut- 
ting point, a shank, and drill barrel, which 

must 



SMITHING. 325 

must be of a diameter sufficient to turn the 
Drill with the required v£locity. The drill 
is turned by a bow and string, the string is coiled 
round the barrel, the bow goes with a recipro- 
cating motion, and causes the drill to perform 
several revolutions in each progressive and retro- 
gressive motion of the bow, and different kinds 
ofVork will require different bows, according to 
the force required to turn the drill, for lighter 
or stronger work: there is also a Drill plate 
or Breast plate, in which the blunt end of the 
shank of the drill is inserted, and by which the 
drill is pressed to the work. 

To make large holes, more force is required 
than can be given by the bow and string, instead 
of which a brace, similar to that used by joiners 
is employed, and the drill itself is fitted in as a 
bit, instead of the end of the stock, which re- 
mains stationary while the other part is turning, 
there is a long tapering spindle of iron, which 
is carried round with the brace; the upper end 
of this spindle is inserted in the lower horizontal 
side of an iron plate, which is fixed to the 
under side of a beam, called the drill beam. 
The drill beam turns upon a transverse pin hori- 
zontally posited at one end, and is drawn down 
by a weight at the other, and thus presses the 
brace downwards by the ponderosity of the 
beam and that of the weight, while the brace is 
revolved by hand. A piece of iron being laid 

under 



326 SMITHING. 

under the drill bit, where the hole is intended, 
and the drill turned swiftly round will be bored 
through, or to any required depth. See Plate 
% Fig. E. 

§ 9. Screw Plates 
Are plates of well tempered steel with several 
cylindric holes of different diameters, with screw 
threads wrought into square grooves from the 
Surface of the interior concavity ; to these plateft 
belong as many pins, tapering to their ends, call- 
ed taps, which are the frustrums of cones, not 
differing materially from cylinders : the convex 
surface is threaded in the same manner and made 
to fit their respective holes. 

§ 10. Shears 
Is an instrument for cutting iron, consist- 
ing of two equal and similar pieces moveable 
round a joint, near to two of the ends, and may 
be considered as a double lever, so that when 
two of the ends are opened or shut, the other 
ends will be opened or shut also. The cutting 
edges which meet each other are brought to an 
acute angle, and the surfaces of the inner faces 
gradually come more and more in contact in 
the same plane, as the longer ends which are em- 
ployed as handles are brought nearer together. 
Shears are used in cutting iron plates and even 
bars, and are consequently of various sizes ac- 
cording 



SMITHING. 527 

cording to the stiffness or strength of the iron 
to be cut. When the shears are used, one han- 
dle is screwed fast in the vice, and the other only 
is moveable; the iron to be cut is laid betweea 
the edges which close together. 

§ 11. Saws 

In general have been sufficiently defined in § 
45 Joinery. They are used by smiths to cut 
pieces of iron or bars of all dimensions, and for 
cutting grooves and notches to any required 
depth. Shears have an advantage over saws in 
cutting with more rapidity, but saws cut with 
more exactness, and save the whole or much 
labour in filing; and may also be used in cutting 
bars or pieces of the greatest dimensions, where 
shears cannot be used. Smiths saws must be 
very narrow and stiff, with a bow of iron, by 
which the ends are made fast, and the plate 
stretched by a screw at one end ; the bow has a 
projecting part in a straight line with the saw, 
which forms the handle. 

§ 12. Of Forging, 
In forging, the fire must be regulated by the 
size of the work, and in heating the iron, beat 
the coals round the outside of the fire close to- 
gether with the slice, in order to prevent the 
heat from escaping as often as the flame begins 
to break out, and in order to save fuel, wet or 

damp 



528 SMITHING. 

* 

damp the outside of the coals : to know whether 
the work takes the heat, draw it a small degree 
out of the fire, and thrust it quickly in again 
if not hot enough: if the iron be too cold the 
hammer will make no impression upon it, or in 
the language of Smiths, it will yot batter; if 
too hot it will break or crack. 

§ 13. 0/ Heats. 

Heats are of several kinds, depending on the 
destination of the work, as Blood Red Heat, 
White Flame Heat, and Sparkling or Welding 
Heat. The blood red heat is used when the 
shape of the iron is not required to be altered, 
and when the surface is only required to be smooth 
hammered : this operation is performed by the 
hand hammer with light flat blows until the pro- 
tuberances and hollows are brought to the re- 
quired surface, whether plane or curved, the 
■work is then prepared for the file. The ham- 
mering of the work to a true surface, will save 
much trouble in filing. 

The White Flame Heat is used in forming the 
iron from one shape to another; in the execu- 
tion of this, one, two, or more men must be 
employed to batter the work with sledges, until 
it acquires nearly its proposed form and size, 
afterwards smooth it with the hand hammer. 

A Sparkling or Welding Heat is used when 
the iron is required to be doubled, or two or 

more 



SMITHING. 329 

more pieces consolidated, in order to make the 
piece of the required dimensions. In joining 
two or more bars togetherj heat them to that 
degree as to be nearlj'- in a state of fusion, 
they must then be taken out of the fire with 
the utmost dispatch^ and the scales or dirt which 
will hinder their incorporation, being scraped 
off, put the pieces in contact at the heated part, 
and hammer them together until there is no 
seam or fissure left: this operation will require 
two or more men according to the magnitude of 
the bars. If the particles of the iron have not 
been sufficiently incorporated by the first heat, 
more heats and the operations of hammering 
must be repeated until the work is perfectly 
sound ; after which it is formed into the shape 
proposed, and finished by smoothing, &c. To 
make the iron come sooner to a welding heat, stir 
the fire with the hearth staff, and throw out the 
cinders the iron may have run upon, as they 
will prevent the coals from burning; to prevent 
the iron melting, throw some sand over it while 
in the fire. In this operation care must be taken 
to prevent the iron from running, which will 
make it so brittle as to prevent its forging, and so 
hard as to resist the action of the file. In weld- 
ing, some Smiths strew a little sand upon the 
face of the anvil, as they conceive it makes the 
iron incorporate better. If by ill management 
the iron be wrought too thin or too narrow, and 

should 



530 SMITHING. 

should there he siihstance enough to make it 
thicker, give it a flame heat, and set the heated 
end upright upon the anvil, and hammer uport 
the cold end until the heated end be beat to the 
feize cr turned into the body of the w^ork, the 
^art so beat is said to up-set, and the operation 
is called up-setting. When your work is forged, 
let it cool gradually, and do not by any meanil 
quench it in water, which will harden it too 
much. 

§ 14. To punch a Hole. 

Take a Punch of the size and shape of the hol^ 
required, the point or narrow end of it must be 
hardened without tempering, as the heat of the 
iron will soften it sufficiently, and sometimes too 
much, and then it must be re-hardened : if the 
work is not very large bring the iron to a blood 
heat, but if very large, bring it almost to a flame 
heat, and lay it upon the anvil : and place the 
point of the punch at the spot where the hole 
is to be made, then with the hammer punch the 
hole. If the work is very heavy fix the punch 
in a wooden rod, and place it on the intended 
situation of the hole, let another person strike 
till the punch is forced about half way through, 
then reverse the iron and punch through on the 
contrary side; the hole is afterwards smoothed, 
and perfected by a mandrill being driven through. 
But in punching take care to plunge the punch 

into 



SMITHING. 331 

into water as often as it is heated, or as often as 
it changes colour, in order to re-harden it, other- 
wise it will spoil both the work and the punch. 

§15. Filing and- PoUsliing. 

Filing is the operation of cutting or tearing 
iron in particles or very small parts, called 
filings, by means of an instrument toothed all over 
its surface: the instrument itself is called a file. 
Files are differently formed, and of various sizes 
for different purposes, their sections being either 
square, oblong, triangular, or segmental; the 
files of these sections are respectively denominat- 
ed square, flat, three square, and half round, 
they also differ in the magnitude of their teeth, 
as the iron may be required to be more or. less 
reduced in a given time : it is evident that in 
the operation of filing, the surface of the iron will 
be full of scratches, and these scratches will be 
largeror smaller according as the teeth of the files 
are coarser or finer : files have therefore obtained 
the following names, according to the number 
of teeth cut on the same area : the largest rough 
tooth file is called a Rubber, and is used after 
the hammer in taking away the prominent part* 
on the surface of the iron ; the Bastard Tooth 
file is employed to take out the marks made by 
the rubber the fine toothed file is employed in 
taking out the scratches made by the bastard 
toothed file ; and lastly, the smooth toothed file 

is 



532 SMITHING. 

is employed in taking oot the scratches of the 
last : the surface is at last made perfectly smooth 
by means of emery and tripoli. And whatever 
be the surface of the work, whether flat, cylin- 
drical or conical, the file must always be made 
to describe that surface as near as the hand 
and judgement will direct: these matters by 
keeping the principle of motion in view, are soon 
obtained by practice. 

After the surface of the iron has been smooth- 
ed by the emery and tripoli, it is then polished 
by a piece of very hard and highly polished steel, 
called a burnisher, with a handle at one or both 
ends, according to the pressure required, which 
will depend on the magnitude of the surface. The 
sides of the burnisher are cither flat or convex, 
according to the surface to be polished. 

§ 16. To cut thick Iron Plate to any 
required Figure. 
Having drawn or scratclied the figure upon 
the surface o€ an iron plate, place it on the anvil, 
if large, if small, upon the stake: a chissej 
being in your left hand, with its edge set upon 
the mark, strike it with the hammer till the sub- 
stance is nearly cut through, so as to leave a very 
thin portion of the thickness below it: observe if 
the iron were cut through, the face of the anvil 
being steel, will battef or break the edge of the 
chissel, and for this reason when the edge comes 

very 



SMITHING. 333 

very near the under side of the plate, strike only 
with light blows ; repeat this operation till the 
whole of the figure is gone over, the part in- 
tended to be taken away, may be broken o(F 
with the fingers or with a pair of pljers, or by 
pinching the plate in the vice, with the cut part 
close to the chaps, and then wriggle it, till it 
comes asunder. 

§ 17. Rtcetting 
Is the art of fixing the end of a pin into a 
hole, by battering or spreading the end which 
has passed through the hole, so as not only to 
fill the hole, but to increase its diameter on the 
opposite side, and thereby prevent its being drawn 
out again. 

^% 18. To rivet a Pin to a Plate or Piece of Iron, 
Having formed the shank to the size of the 
hole, with a shoulder, and something longer than 
the thickness of the plate, file the end of the 
shank flat, so that it may batter more easily ; slip 
the shank into the hole, and keeping the shoulder 
in contact with the surface of the plate; the 
fend of the pin abutting upon the stake, and 
the pin standing perpendicular, strike the edge 
of the end of the shank with light blows, until 
it is spread all round, then lay heavier blows, 
sometimes with the face and sometimes with the 
pen of the hammer, till the end of the shank is 

sufficiently 



534 SMITHING, 

suiBciently battered over the plate : in pcrform- 
iDg this operation care must be taken to keep 
the pin at right angles to the plate, and the 
shoulder close. 

§ 19. 7b make small Screw-Bolts and Mits. 

Supposing the shank of the screw- bolt to be let 
into a square hole, in order to keep it from twist- 
ing bj the turning of the nut, take a square bar 
or rod of iron near the size of the head of the 
screw pin, and bring it to a flame heat ; take as 
much of the length of the bar as is equal to 
the length of the shank, and lay one side flat 
upon the nearer side of the anvil, and hammer 
it down to the intended thickness, this will forge 
two of the sides at once, the under side being 
forged by the anvil, and the upper beat flat with 
the hammer; but if the iron get cold before the 
forging is finished, it must have another heat. 
Then lay one of the unvvrought sides upon the 
jiearer side of the anvil, and hammer this side 
straight as before, so that the two other side* 
will also be made ; then beat in the angles so as to 
make it nearly round and of such length as is equal 
to the intended length of the screw pin. Hav- 
ing forged the shank square, and formed the 
head either square or round as may be intended^ 
file also the screw pin so as to make it taper iqi 
a small degree, and to take out the irregularities 
of the forge; the conic form makes it enter 

more 



SMITHING. 355 

more easily, and the irregularities being taken 
away, makes the screw more exact in the dis- 
tances of the threads : the quantity of taper may 
be something more than twice the depth of the 
threads. Then fix the bolt with the head 
downwards into the vice, and with a screw plate 
equal to the interior diameter of the cylinder 
from which the screw is to project, lay the hole 
upon the end of the screw pin, and press it hard 
downwards. Then turning the screw plate pa- 
rallel to the horizon from right to left with a 
uniform pressure round about the pin both pro- 
gressively and retrogressively, and the plate will 
begin to groove out the channel between the 
thread of the screw : proceed with this process 
until as much of the screw be formed as is re- 
quired. 

To make the nut, the hole must be equal to 
the diameter of the cylinder from which the 
thread is made in the shank of the screw, and 
the tap must be made tapering, in order to enter 
the hole. Proceed and screw the nut in the vice, 
with the axis of the cylindric hole vertical, and 
enter the screw tap, which turn by the handle 
as before, and it will begin to cut the interior 
groove of the nut; proceed working until the 
groove between the thread be of its full depth, 
the thread and groove in the nut will thus 
be made to fit the groove and thread of the screw 
pin. 

§ 20, Of 



536 SMITHING. 

• §20. Of Iron. 
Iron is a metal of a blueish white colour, of 
considerable hardness, but easily formed into any 
shape, and is susceptible of a very fine polish. 
It is the most elastic of all the metals, and next 
to platina, is the most ditlicult of fusion. Its 
hardness in some states is superior to that of 
any other metal, and it has the additional ad- 
vantage of suffering this hardness to be increased 
or diminished at pleasure, by certain chemical 
processes, without altering its form. Its tena- 
city is also greater than that of any other, metal, 
except gold; an iron wire, the tenth part of an 
inch in diameter has been found capable of sus- 
taining more than 5001b weight without break- 
ing. Its ductility is such as to allow it to be drawn 
into wire as fine as a hair. 

Iron ore is found mixed with sand, clay, chalk, 
and in many kinds of stones and earths. It is 
also found in the ashes of vegetables and the 
blood of animals in great abundance. Iron ores 
are therefore extremely numerous. 

Iron is obtained from the ore by an operation 
called smelting, and in this state it is called crude 
iron, cast iron, or pig iron, but it is very im- 
pure. Cast iron is scarcely malleable at any tem- 
perature, it is generally so hard as to resist the 
file, and is extremely brittle; however it is 
equally permanent in many applications with 

wrought 



SMITHING. 337 

wrought iron, and is less liable to rust, and 
being easily cast into various forms by melt- 
ing, is much cheaper. Indeed the labour 
to wrought iron if applied to many of the 
purposes to which cast iron is used would be in- 
credible, and in some cases insurmountable. The 
use of cast iron is sufficiently obvious in the 
wheel work of every department of machinery, 
in crane work, in iron bridges, in beams and 
pillars for large buildings, and in numerous ar- 
ticles of manufacture. 

Cast iron is reduced into wrought or bar 
iron, or forged iron, by divesting it of seve- 
ral foreign mixtures with which it is incor- 
porated The varieties of wrought iron are 
the following: Hot-short iron is so brittle when 
heated, that it will not bear the -weight of a 
small hammer without breaking to atoms, but is 
malleable when cold, and very fusible in a 
high temperature; Cold-short iron possesses the 
opposite qualities, and is with difficulty fusible in 
a strong heat, and though capable while hot of 
being beaten into any shape, is when cold very 
brittle, and but slightly tenacious. The iron in 
general use, which though in a chemical point of 
view is not entirely pure, is so far perfect that it 
possesses none of these defects ; its principal pro- 
perties are the following: 1st When applied to 
the tongue it has a styptic taste, and emits a pe- 
culiar smell when rubbed : 2d Its specific gravity 
varies from 76 to 7*8; a cubic foot of it weighs 

Z about 



338 SMITHING. 

about 5801b avoirdupoise : 3d It is attracted by 
the magnet or load stone^ and is itself one of its 
ores, the substance which constitutes the load 
stone. It is also capable of acquiring itself the 
attraction and polarity of the magnet in various 
ways; iron, however^ that is perfectly pure re- 
tains the magnetic virtue only a very short time : 
4th It is malleable in every temperature, which 
as it rises, increases the malleability. It cannot 
however, be hammered out so thin as gold or 
silver, or even copper. Its ductilitj^ is very 
great, and its tenacity is such, that an iron wire 
something less than the twelfth of an inch in dia- 
meter is capable of supporting without break- 
ing 54r9:|:lb avoirdupoise: 5th, it melts at about 
158* of Wedgewood : 6th, it combines very 
readily with oxigen; when exposed to the air 
its surface is soon tarnished, and is gradually 
changed into a brown or yellow colour, usually 
called rust : this change takes place more rapid- 
ly, as it is more exposed to moisture. 

To preserve iron from rust, particularly when 
polished, various methods have been tried 
with more or less success : among others, the 
partial oxidation, known by the term blueing 
has been adopted ; the slightest coat of grease is 
sufficient to prevent rust. 

Iron is the most useful and the most plenti- 
ful of all metals. It requires a very intense 
heat to fuse it, on which account it can only be 

brought 



SMITHING. 339 

brought into shape of tools and utensils by ham- 
mering : this high degree of infusibilitj would 
prevent the uniting of several masses into one, 
were it not from its being capable of welding, a 
property which is found in no other metal ex- 
cept platina. In a white heat, iron appears as 
if covered with a kind of varnish, and in this 
state, if two pieces be applied together, they 
will adhere, and may be perfectly united by 
forging. 

Steel is made of the purest malleable iron by 
an operation called cementation, by which it ac- 
quires a small addition to its weight, amounting 
to about the hundred and fiftieth or two hun- 
dredth part. In this state it is much more 
brittle and fusible than before. It may be weld- 
ed like bar iron, if it has not been fused or 
over cemented; but its most useful and advan- 
tageous property is, that of becoming extremely 
hard when heated and plunged into cold water; the 
hardness which it thus acquires is greater, as the 
steel is hotter and the water colder. The sign 
which direct the mechanic in the tempering of 
steel, is the variation of colour which appears 
on its surface. If the steel be slowly heated the 
colours which it exhibits are a yellowish white, 
yellow, gold colour, purple, violet, deep blue. 
If the steel is too hard, it will not be proper for 
tools which are intended to have a fine edge, 
as it will be so brittle that the edge will soon be- 

Z 2 come 



340 SMITHING. 

come notched: and if it is too soft the edge will 
soon turn aside^ even by very slight usage. Some 
artists heat their tools and plunge them into 
cold water, after which they brighten the sur- 
face of the steel upon a stone; the steel being 
then laid upon hot charcoal, or upon the surface 
of melted lead, or placed on a bar or piece of hot 
iron, gradually acquires the desired colour, and 
at this instant it must be plunged into water. If 
a hard tamper is required, as soon as a yellow 
tinge appears, the piece is dipped again and 
stirred about in the cold water. In tempering of 
tools for working upon metals, it will be proper 
to bring it to a purple tinge before the dipping. 
Springs are tempered by bringing the surface to 
a blue tinge. This temperature is also desirable 
for tools employed in cutting soft substances, 
such as cork, leather and the like; but if the 
steel be plunged into water when its surface has 
acquired a deep blue, its hardness will scarcely 
exceed the temperature of iron. When soft 
steel is heated to any one of these colours, and 
then plunged into water, it does not acquire so 
great a degree of hardness as if previously made 
quite hard. The degree of heat required to 
harden steel is different in the different kinds. 
The best kinds require only a low red heat; the 
harder the steel the more coarse and granulated 
its fracture will be. Steel when hardened has 
less specific gravity than when soft; the texture 

of 



SMITHING. 341 

of steel is rendered more uniform by fusing it 
before it is made into bars, and in this state it is 
called cast steel, which is wrought with more 
difficulty thanccoraraon steel, because it is more 
fusible, and will disperse under the hammer if 
heated to a white heat. Every species of iron is 
convertable into steel by cementation; but the 
best steel can be made only from iron of the 
best quality, which possesses stiffness and hard- 
ness as well as malleability. Swedish iron has 
been long remarked as the best for this purpose. 

The Cast Steel of England is made as follows : 
a crucible about 10 inches high, and 7 inches in 
diameter is filled with ends and fragments of the 
crude steel of the manufactories, and the filings 
and fragments of steel works; they add a flux, 
the component parts of which are usually con- 
cealed. It is probable, however, that the suc- 
cess does not much depend upon the flux. This 
crucible is placed in a wind furnace, like that of 
the founders, but smaller, because intended to 
contain but one pot only. It is likewise sur- 
mounted by a cover and chimney to increase the 
draught of air; the furnace is entirely filled with 
coke, or charred pit coal. Five hours are requir- 
ed for the perfect fusion of the steel. It is then 
poured into long, square, or octagonal moulds, 
each composed of two pieces of cast iron fitted 
together. The ingots when taken out of the 
mould have the appearance of cast iron. It is 

then 



342 SMITHING. 

then forged in the same manner as other steel, 
but with less heat and more precaution. Cast 
steel is almost twice as dear as other good steel; 
it is excellent for razors, knives, joiners' chissels, 
and for ail kinds of small work that require an 
exquisite polish: its texture is more uniform than 
common steel, which is an invaluable advantage. 
It is daily more and more used in England, but 
it cannot be employed in works of great magni- 
tude, on account of the facility with which it is 
degraded in the fire, and the difficulty of weld- 
ing it. 

To conclude: British cast iron is excellent for 
all kinds of castings; our wrought iron also of 
late has been much improved in the manufacture, 
and by many persons is thought not to be inferior 
to that of Sweden, which till lately had a de- 
cided preference, and is to be attributed to the use 
of charcoal in the process of smelting, which 
can not be procured in sufficient quantity in 
England, where pit coal has of necessity been 
substituted. The Navy Board and East India 
Company, however^ now contract for British 
iron only. 



PLATE I. 



I^ late I. 



'////r/// ////. 



y. 




_^ciiui^iSiiii's7ieiiMi7-r/iiei7'S'7zl;y^Z2?iyio?rJRi//iIFiii6or7i . 



SMITHING. 343 



PLATE L 

Perspective View of a Smith's Work Shop, sJiow- 
ing a double Forge with its Apparatus, and 
some Tools in general Use. 

A Back of the Forge. 

B the Hood. 

C Bradley's Patent Back^ showing the nozel 
or the iron of the bellows. 

D end of Forge. 

E Bellows with the rock staff. 

F Troughs for coals and water. 

G Anvilj shewing the Beak Iron, and a hole 
for holding the tools on the top. The Anvil 
being supported upon a wooden block. 

H a strong stool for supporting the Chasing 
Tool I. 

I the Chasing Tool for rounding bolts, and 
punching holes in iron, the holes are called 
Bolsters, and those upon the sides are called 
rounding tools, the whole is called generally a 
Bolster. 

K a Sledge Hannmer. 

Near D is a horse to hold up long pieces of 
iron at the end of the forge, when found ne- 
cessary. 

The 



344 SMITHING. 

The square hole near A is used for discharging 
the ashes, which slide down a hollow, and 
comes out at the bottom of the front. 

The coal trough is placed next to the forge, 
and the water trough next to the front. The 
tongs are shown in the water trough, and a pair 
of lip and straight tongs are shown on it. 

In smiths shops, where heavy articles are ma- 
nufactured, cranes are employed for taking the 
work out of the fire. 



PLATE 11. 



SMITHING. 345 



PLATE II. 

View of another Part of a Smith's Work Shop, 
showing the Work Benches , with the Vices, 
the Drill in the Act of Boring, and a Turning 
Machine, as wrought bt^ a Winch and Wheels, 
as also hy the Foot. 

A, A Work Benches. 

B, B, B Vices. 

C the Bench Anvil. 

D, E, F, G various parts of a Drill Machine. 

D the Drill Block. 

E the Drill and Brace. 

F the Drill Beam, shewing the lever to pull 
it up. 

G a rod to hang a larger or smaller weighty 
for giving more or less power to the Drill, as 
may be required in boring a greater or less hole. 

H, I, K, L parts of the Turning Lath. 

H Handle to turn the Large Wheel. 

I the Large Wheel. 

K PuUies for the Cord. 

L Pupets, Rest, Collar and Mandril. 

N Wheel and crank for revolving the Man- 
dril by the foot, &c. 



INDEX 



( 346 ) 
INDEX AND EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS USED IN 

S M I T H I N G. 

N. B. This Mark § refers to the preceding Sections, 
according to the Nu7nber. 



About Sledge, the largest hammer used by smiths, 
it is slung round near the extremity of the handle, 
generally used by under workmen, § 4. 

Anvil, a large block or mass of iron with a very hard 
smooth horizontal surface on the top, and a hole at 
one end of the surface, for the purpose of insert- 
ing various tools, and a strong steel chissel, on 
which a piece of iron may be laid and cut into two. 
Anvils are sometimes made of cast iron, but the 
best are those which are forged, with the upper 
face made of steel. Small anvils are also used in 
more delicate parts of the business, § 2. Plate 1, 
fig. G. Plate 2, fig. C. 

B. 

Bar Iron, long prismatic pieces of iron, being rect- 
angular parallepipeds, prepared from pig iron, so as 
to be malleable for the use of blacksmiths. For' 
the method of joining bars, see § 13. 

Bastard Cut, § 15. 

Bastard Toothed File, that employed after the 
rubber, § 15. 

Batter, 



SMITHING, 347 

Batter, to displace a portion of tlie iron of any bar 
or other piece by the blow of a hammer, so as to 
flatten or compress it inwardly, and spread it out- 
wardly on all sides around the place of impact. 

Beak Iron, the conic part of the anvil, with its base 
attached to the side, and its axis horizontal, § 2, 
Plate 1, fig. G. 

Bellows, the instrument for blowing the fire, with 
an internal cavity, so contrired as to be of greater 
or less capacity by reciprocating motion, and to 
draw in air at one place while the capacity is upon 
the increase, and discharge it by another while 
upon the decrease. The bellows are placed be- 
hind the forge, with a pipe of communication 
through the back to the fire, and are worked by 
means of a lever, called a rocker, Plate 1. fig. E. 

Bench, an injmovable table, to which one or more vices 
are fixed, for filing, drilling, and putting work to- 
gether, Plate 2. 

Blood-red Heat, the degree of heat which is only 
necessary to reduce the protuberances of the iron 
by the hammer, in order to prepare it for the file, 
the iron being previously brought to its shape. This 
heat is also used ih punching small pieces of 
iron, § 13, 

Bolster, a tool used for punching holes, and for 
making bolts. Plate 1, fig. I. 

Brace, an instrument into which a rimer is fixed, also 
part of the press drill. 

Breast Plate, that in which the end of the drill op- 
posite the boring end is inserted, § 8, 

Brittleness in iron is a want of tenacity or strength, 
so as to be easily broken by pressure or impact. 
When iron is made too hot, so as to be nearly in a 

state 



348 SMITHING. 

state of fusion, it becomes so brittle as to prevent 
forging, and so hard as to resist the action of the 
file. Tliis is also the disposition of cast iron. 

Broad Chapt Hand Vice, § 6. 

Burnisher, an instrument used in polishing, § 15. 

C. 

Callipers, a species of compasses with legs of a 
circular form used to take the thickness or diameter 
of work either circular or flat, used also to take the 
interior size of holes. 

Cast Iron, § 20, 

Cast Steel, § 20. 

Cementation, is the process of converting iron into 
steel, which is done by stratifying bars of iron in 
charcoal, igniting it, and letting it continue in a 
kiln in that state for five or six days, by which the 
carbon of the charcoal is absorbed by the iron, and 
causes it to become steel. 

Chaps, the two planes or flat parts of a vice or pair 
of tongs or plyers, for holding any thing fast, which 
are generally roughed with teeth. 

Chissel, a tool with the lower part in the form of a 
wedge, for cutting iron plate or bar, and witii the 
upper part flat, to receive the blows of a hammer 
in order to force the cutting edge through the sub- 
stance of the iron, for its use see § 16. 

Cold Short Iron, iron in an impure state, § 20. 

Compasses, an instrument with two long legs, work- 
ing on a centre pin at one extremity; used for 
drawing circles, measuring distances, setting out 
work, &c. 

Counter-sink, a tool used to make the necessary 

bevel. 



SMITHING. 349 

bevel, to admit the head of a screw, rivet, &c. See 
Joinery, § 36. 
Crooked Nosed Tongs, § 3. 

D. 

Draw, to draw is the act of lengthening a bar of 
iron by hammering, also wire reduced from any 
size to a smaller is said to be drawn. 

Drill, a boring tool which forms a cylindric hole with 
the greatest exactness. Drills are particularly used 
where the substance is too great for the operation 
of the punch, or where very exact cylindric holes 
are required, § 8. 

Drill Bow, § 8. 

E. 

Emery, a very fine powder, prepared from iron, used 
in polishing, § 15. 

F. 

File, § 15. 

Filing, § 15. 

Fine Toothed File, § 15. 

Flame Heat, is that which is required in forming 
the iron from its original shape. This degree of 
heat is also required in up-setting, § 13. 

Flux, any substance which mingled with a body ac- 
celerates its melting. Fluxes are salt, bone ash, 
charcoal, lime stone, borax, &c. 

Forge, to form a piece of iron into any required 
figure or shape, by means of heat and the hammer, 
or to weld several pieces of iron, § 13. 

Forge, 



350 SMITHING. 

Forge, the furnace for heating the iron so as to be- 
come malleable, and thence prepare it for forg- 
ing, § 1 

G. 

Gauge, an instrument for taking the size of any bar, 
&c. made from ~ of an inch to any size, is a piece 
of iron Avith regular notches of the sizes required. 
, Grind Stone, used for sharpening tools, &c. used 
also previous to the file in many cases. 

H. 

Hammers used by smiths are of four kinds, viz. the 
the hand-hammer, the up-hand sledge, the about 
sledge, and the rivetting hammer, § 4. 

Hand Hammer, that which is held by one hand while 
the iron is held by the other, for smoothing work. 
Hand hammers are of different sizes, § 4. 

Hand Vice, used for turning about small pieces of 
iron, while filing on the large vice, which would 
otherwise be too small for the hand to command 
with sufficient power, § 6, 

Hearth Staff, a bar or poker of iron for stirring 
the fire. 

Heats, the several degrees or intensities of heat ne- 
cessary for performing certain operations of forging. 
Heats are of three kinds, viz. Blood Red Heat, 
White Flame Heat, Sparkling or Welding Heat, 
§13. 

Hood, the lower part of the chimney, expanding in 
its horizontal dimension downwards from the flue 
to its mouth, which is considerable above the hearth 
of the forge. Plate I, fig. B. 

Hot Short Iron, iron in an impure state, § 20. - 

Hovel, the same as hood. 

Ingot, 



SMITHING. 351 

I. 

Ingot, a mass of metal. 

Iron, the material used by smiths, § 20. Ornamental 
work, such as brackets and lamp irons, is charged at 
least one third more than plain hammered work, 
such as rails, window bars, &c. and sometimes more 
than twice the sum, according to the quantity of 
ornament. 

L. 

Lathe, an instrument used in turning rounds, ovals, 
&c., Plate 2, fig. H. 

M. 

Mandril, a cylindric pin of iron, used to perfect a 
hole after the punch ; also a conical tool of iron 3 
or 4 feet high, used for making rings, or other 
circular work j also a part of the turning lathe. 

N. 

Nippers, an instrument like a pair of pinchers, with 
sharp edges, used to cut iron wire, &c. 

Nut of a Screw, a piece of iron pierced with a 
cylindric hole, the circumference of which contains 
a spiral groove. Tlie internal spiral of the nut 
is adapted to an external cylindric spiral on the 
end of a bolt. The use of the bolt and nut is to 
screw two bodies together, a head being wrought on 
one end of the bolt in order to counteract the action 
of the nut. By this means the two bodies are held 
together by compression, and the bolt between the 
head and the nut becomes a tie, § 19.. 

P. . 

Pig Iron, short thick bars of iron, in the state in 
which it comes from the smelting furnace. 

Plate 



35'2 SMITHING. 

Plate or Sheet Iron, plates of iron flattened by a 
roller, of various size and thickness. 

Plyers, small tongs for holding small pieces of iron, 
§7. 

Punch, a kind of chissel with two flat ends for pierc- 
ing iron by a hammer, one end which has the 
greater area receives the blows of the hammer, and 
the other, which has the less, makes its way through , 
the iron and forms a hole, § 14. 

R. 

Red Sear, is when the iron is made so hot as to crack 
by the hammer. 

RiMer, a tapering instrument, square, triangular, &c. 
used to enlarge holes, see Joinery, § 37. 

Rivet, to fasten the end of a pin or bolt by battering 
the end of it. 

Rock Staff or Rocker, the lever which gives mo- 
tion to the bellows. 

Rod Iron, small bars of iron, square, round or fiat. 

Rounding Tool, a tool used for rounding a bar of 
iron, of two pieces, each with a semi-circular ca- 
vity, according to the size wanted, one piece is 
fixed into the anvil, while the other held by a rod 
or handle, is applied over the iron, and is struck 
with a hammer. 

Rubber, the file which is first used upon the iron in 
reducing the protuberant parts left by the hammer; 
it has fewer teeth on the same area than any other ^ 
file, § 15. 

S. 
Saws, § ll. 

Scales, the laminated parts accumulvited on the sur- 
face of the iron by heat. 

Screw, 



SMITHING. 553 

Screw, a pin with a spiral groove cut within the 
surface of a cylinder, and with a nut having a hole 
adapted thereto, § 19. 

Screw Driver, a tool used to turn screws into their 
places. 

Screw Plate, that which cuts the spiral groove 
within the cylindric surface of the pin, § 9. 

Screw Threads, the parts which are left standing 
between the spiral grooves of the screw. 

Side Set, a hammer used to set shoulders of rivets 
to a true square or bevel, as required. 

Shears, § lo. 

Shut, the same as weld, which 5^^. 

Slice, the instrument for beating the fire close. 

Smooth Toothed File, the finest of all the files, 
and the last used in polishing the surface, § 15. 

Sparkling Heat, the intensity necessary in welding 
two or more pieces of iron together, § 13. 

Square, an instrument used to examine if the work 
be done to a right angle, for a particular descrip- 
tion, see Joinery, § 36. The smith's square is all 
iron. 

Square-Nosed Hand Vice, § 6. 

Steel, § 20, p. 339 

Swages, all instruments used to give the form or con- 
tour of any moulding, &c. used in the same man- 
ner as the rounding tool. 

T. 
Tap, a tapering pin of the form of a conic frustum, 
approaching very nearly to a cylinder, with a 
spiral groove cut on its surface, for making the 
interior or female spirals of a screw nut, § 9. 
Tap-Wrench, an instrument used to turn t}ie tap in 
making screws. 

A a TuE 



35A SMITHING* 

TuE Iron, the plate on the back of the forge, which 
receives the small end of the taper pipe, whicli 
comes from the bellows for conveying the stream of 
air to the fire. 
Tongs, an instrument with long handles, used for 
holding pieces of hot iron in the operation of forg- 
ing. Some are straight nosed, others crooked nosed. 
Tripoli, a species of argilaceous earth, reduced to a 
very fine powder, and used in polishing the finest 
works, is also used in polishing marbles, mine- 
rals, &c. 

U. 
Up-Hand-Sledge, §4. 
Up-Setting, § 13. 

V.W. 
Vice, an instrument for holding any thing fast, § 5. 
Washer, the instrument for damping the fire. 
Washer, a piece of flat iron, with a hole, placed 
between the nut of a screw and the wood, to pre- 
vent the wood being gulled. 
Welding, is that intimate union produced between 
the surfaces of two pieces of malleable metal when 
heated almost to fusion and hammered. This union 
is so strong, that when two bars of metal are pro- 
perly welded, the parts thus joined are relatively as 
strong as any other part. Only two of the old me- 
tals were capable of a firm union by welding- 
namely, platina and iron, the same property be- 
longs to the newly discovered metals. Potassium and 
Sodium. 
Welding Heat, the same as sparkling heat, § 13. 
White Flame Heat, the intensity necessary in form- 
ing a piece of iron into another shape, § 13. 
Wrench, a forked instrucaent used in screwing up 

of nuts. 

MECHA- 



{, 355 ) 

MECHANICAL EXERCISES. 

OF TUMMNGo 



§ 1. TURNING in general is the art of re^ 
ducing any material to a certain required form, 
hy revolving the material according to a given 
law, in a machine called a lathe, and cutting 
away the superfluous substance with a gouge or 
chissel, which is held steady upon a rest, until 
the surface be sufliciently reduced: sometimes 
pressing the cutting edge gently forwards, and 
sometimes side ways according to the design, 
until it has obtained the figure and dimension? 
required. 

The art cf turning is of very remote date. 
The invention is ascribed by Diodorus Siculus to 
Talus a grandson of Dasdalus; but Pliny says it 
was invented by Theodore of Samos, and men- 
tions one Thericles as being; famed for his dex- 
terity in this art. By means of the lathe the 
ancients formed vases, which they enriched with 
figures and ornaments in basso relievo. 

The Greek and Latin authors make frequent 

mention of the lathe, and it was a proverb 

Aa2 among 



356 TURNING. 

among them to say a thing was formed by -it 
when the parts were delicate, and their propor- 
tions correct. 

Turning is performed either by the body being 
continually revolved, or by the rotation being 
made backwards and forwards : but the latter 
mode is attended with a loss of time. 

The materials employed in turning are wood, 
ivory, brass, iron, stone, &c. 

Turning is also of different kinds, as Circular 
Turning, Elliptic Turning, and Szvash Turning, 
these may be said to be the simple movements of 
ihe machine according to geometrical principles, 
but by means of moulds an indefinite number 
of things may be formed in this way; but in 
all of them, suppose for a single revolution of 
the machine, the cutting edge of the instrument 
is held immoveable to the same point of space, 
and the machine is so regulated, as to bring the 
different parts of the intended surface to the 
cutting edge in its revolution. In practice, in- 
stead of the cutting edge of the instrument being 
exactly at the same place when a considerable 
surface is to be wrought, it is made to traverse 
the surface, that is, to have a slow lateral move- 
^, ment in the direction of the intended form, and 
by this means to shave off spiral turnings. 

§ 2. Circular Turning 
Is the art of forming bodies of wood, ivory, 
metal, stone, &c. by revolving the body upon a 

given 



TURNING. 357 

given straight line as an axis in a machine, while 
the cutting edge of a tool is held at such dis- 
tance as to cut or shave off the prominent parts 
in thin slices, as the body revolves, until it ac-. 
quires the intended form. 

From the definition here given, it is evident, 
that all points of the solid in the act of turning 
will describe the circumference of circles in 
planes, perpendicular to the axis, which will 
pass through their centres. 

Every section passing through the axis of the 
turned body will have the two parts on each side 
of the axis equal and similar figures : and any 
straight line perpendicular to the axis, and ter- 
minated by the sides of the section would be bi- 
sected by the said axis. 

For the sake of perspicuity, we shall call 
any section through the axis, the axal section, 
that is a section of the body in which the axis 
would be entirely in its plane; the design of 
the turning depends entirely upon this section, 
which if it be a circle, the body when turned 
will be a sphere, and if an ellipse it will be a 
spheroid, &c. This is the most useful of all 
kinds of turning, and essential in the construc- 
tion of many kinds of engines and machinery, 
where every other method would fail, as not 
being sufficient to give the desired accuracy. Its 
uses in fancy work is beyond description, and the 
labour thereby rendered easy. The practice will 

be 



358 TURNING. 

be obtained better from actual practice of the 
business^ than from any description. 

The following are the descriptions of the most 
useful wood lathesj which have the same princi- 
ples in common with those for turning metals, 

§ 3. Lathes in general. 

Lathes are of several kinds, as the Pole Lathe, 
the Foot Lathe, and the Wheel Lathe, which is 
vised in very large work, and is revolved by ma- 
nual strength. It consists of a great wheel with a 
"winch handle at the end of its axle, by which the 
force is communicated. There are other lathes 
used for very large work, driven either by steam 
engines, water wheels, or by horse power. All 
these ought to be so contrived, that the works 
may be stopped, even though the power be still 
exerted. 

■ § 4. The Pole Lathe. 

The pole lathe consists of the following parts, 
several of which are common to every other de- 
scription, the legs or stiles for supporting it, 
the shears horizontally fixed with a parallel ca- . 
■w'iiy between them for conducting the puppets, 
the puppets sit vertically, and are made to slide 
between the cheeks of the shears, the one being 
made to receive the screw, and the other to re- 
ceive the conical poinfc, which is fixed horizon- 
tally in one puppet for supporting one end of 
the piece to be turned in its axis, the screw with 

another 



TURNING. 359 

another point supporting the other end of the 
piece to be turned, by means of the screw the 
body may be fastened or slackened at pleasure; 
the rest for the tool fixed horizontally to the 
puppets, and parallel to the cheeks, the tenons 
made on the lower end of the puppets in order to 
form a shoulder for re-acting against the wedges 
below, the wedges for fastening the puppets so 
as to regulate them to any distance; the treadle 
and cross treadle for the foot, in order to give a 
reciprocal rotation to the body to be turned, by 
means of a string, coiled round it, and an elastic 
pole which re-acts against the string and the 
pressure of the foot; the pole for pulling up 
the treadle and acting reciprocally against the 
pressure of the foot, the string for turning round 
the body by the pressure of the foot downwards, 
and the re-action of the pole upwards. 

The legs or stiles may be about 2 feet 10 
inches high, and are tenoned into the cheeks at 
their upper ends, and fixed by pins or screws, 
the latter is preferable. In turning large work 
it will be necessary to brace the leg's and cheeks 
to the floor or ceiling, as may be found conve- 
nient, otherwise the work will be liable to trem- 
ble. The puppets are pieces of a square section, 
and ought to be sufficiently strong to answer 
every description of work. 

The Pole lathe is used in turning heavy or 
long work, the string is coiled round the ma- 
terial 



360 TURNING. 

terial^ which performs the office of a mandrel : 
but for general use this kind of lathe is not so 
convenient as that which is called the foot lathe^ 
and besides this there is a loss of time in making 
the alternate revolutions. The pole lathe is 
now but little used. It is sometimes as well 
as other lathes^ tightened with a screw and 
"washer. 

This lathe has two puppets with a pin or 
centre in each, the right centre is moveable by a 
screw, but the left puppet with the centre is ge- 
nerally stationary, and the work is supported 
upon the centres. The rest is moveable between 
the shears, and fastened by means of a screw 
bolt. In beginning to operate with this ma- 
chine, there must be a small part turned in order 
to act as a pully. 

§ 5. Foot Lathe. 

The Foot lathe consists of machinery and a 
frame for sustaining it. The parts of the ma- 
chinery are the treadle, the crank hook, the 
great wheel or fly, the band, and the mandrel : 
the parts of the frame are the ^eet^ the legs, the 
back board or bench, the pillars, the puppet bar 
or bed, the puppets, and the rest. 

The treadle or foot board is put into alternate 
motion by the pressure of the foot downwards, 
and the momentum of the fly wheel upwards, 

the 



TURNING. 361 

the board or frame of the treadle is screwed to 
an axle, on which it turns. 

The connecting rod or crank hook is hooked 
into a staple in the middle of the treadle board, 
and may be lengthened or shortened at pleasure 
by screwed hooks, it may either be constructed 
of iron or brass, but is most frequently of iron, 
and even sometimes of leather. 

The foot wheel or fly is put into motion by 
means of the treadle and a crank on the arber 
of the wheel : the motion is communicated from 
the treadle by the crank hook or connecting rod:, 
and fastened to the crank of the wheel by a 
collar, embracing and turning round at the upper 
end. The foot pushes down the treadle., and 
gives the wheel a rotative motion, and when the 
crank has been drawn to the lowest point, the 
momentum which the wheel has thus acquired 
draws up the treadle, and thus by the alternate 
pressure of the foot, and the momentum of the 
wheel, the motion is continued. The wheel was 
formerly constructed of wood, but novi^ gene- 
rally of cast iron ; the general, surface of the 
exterior side of the rim is sometimes conical, and 
cut with three or four annular grooves, which 
are best when recessed with an ang-le, so as not 
to have a flat bottom, this form is advantageous 
on account of the band having more power to 
turn the wheel. Some wlieels have two or 
more rims, in order to give different degrees of 

velocity 



362 TURNING. 

velocity, or to increase the power. The axle oF 
the wheel is made of wrought iron^ except the 
centres, and bent in the middle, to form the 
crank : the centres at the ends are made of hard 
steel, welded to the iron part of the axle. The 
band connects the fly and mandrel, and is mostly 
made of cat-gut of such thickness as the nature 
of the work may require. It is either spliced 
at the joining, or the two ends fastened together 
by hooks and eyes ; the band may be either 
tightened by grooves in the great wheel, or in 
the pulley of the mandrel, or by sliding pieces 
in the legs. 

The mandrel consists of an axle and pulley. 
The axle is constructed of wrought iron, except 
the part which turns in the collar, and which 
ought to be of hardened steel welded round the 
iron part. The whole of the axle of the man- 
drel ought to be turned true in a lathe. It re- 
ceives a supply of oil from a small hole drilled 
down from the top of the puppet and through 
the steel collar. 

The manner of holding the work is very dif- 
ferent and various, almost in every instance. In 
general it is held in pieces of wood called chucks, 
which are screwed or cemented upon the nose of 
the mandrel. The socket for the mandrel to 
work in has been generally made in the back 
screw, but some experienced workmen prefer it 
to be in the mandrel. The mandrel is sustained 

at 



TUKNING. S63 

at one end by the back centre, and at the other 
end by the steel collar in the noiddle of the 
puppet head: the right hand extremity, called 
the nose projects over the puppet, and terminates 
in a screw, which is sometimes convex, some- 
times concave, and sometimes both : but if there 
is only one, the convex or male screw is generally 
preferred. The pulley has generally three or 
sometimes four grooves of different sizes to re- 
ceive the band, and by this means it may be 
turned with different degrees of velocity, and 
made to accommodate the length of the band. 
The edge of the pulley is bevelled in the same 
degree as the edge of the fly wheel, and with 
the same number of grooves, but the lesser dia- 
meter of the pulley is upon the same side as the 
greater diameter of the fly wheel, and conse- 
quently, the greater diameter of the pulley upon 
the same side as the lesser diameter of the fly 
■wheel. 

The parts of the frame are as follows : the two 
feet are screwed to the floor, and morticed to re- 
ceive the legs, which are fixed thereon. Some- 
times there is only one leg to each foot, but in 
the best constructed lathes there are two; the 
top of the legs are tenoned, which are received 
by the mortices in the bearers at the top, arid 
fixed therein. 

The back board is fixed to the bearers, and 
support? two pillars which are screwed to it, one 

being 



564 » TURNING. 

being at each end in a vertical plane with each 
leg or pair of legs. The puppet bar or bed or 
bearer is fastened ait each end into each pillar, 
•with mortice and tenon^ the common foot lathes 
have no back board, and the bed consists of two 
parallel parts, called by some shears, the vertical 
sides of which form a cavity between them. The 
piuppets are so constructed as to be moveable 
upon, and fastened to the bar at pleasure, by 
means of a screw below the bed ; they are gene- 
rally three in number, the two extreme ones of 
which have pins with centres, and the middle 
one has a collar for receiving the ends of the 
mandrel. In turning of light work, not very 
long, the right hand and middle puppets are 
used, and the work is sustained by a chuck fas- 
tened to the end or nose of the mandrel. In 
the common lathes the puppets are made of wood 
and tenoned below to fit the hollow between the 
shears or bed, and the tenons are made sufficient- 
ly long to come below, so as to receive wedges 
through a mortice cut therein, and by this 
means to fix them. In the best constructed 
lathes the puppets arc made of cast iron, and 
moveable also upon a cast iron bearer, and fixed 
to the required distance by a vertical screw un- 
derneath, which comes in contact with a hori- 
zontal plate or washer below the said bar. The 
puppet which receives the end of the mandrel 
for holding the work has a cylindric hole with a 

conic 



TURNING. 365 

conic shoulder through its upper end, and with 
the axis is directed to the centres in the other 
puppet. The fore puppet has a cylindric hole 
through its top to receive a polished pointed rod 
which is moved by a screw working in a collar. 
The puppets are made so as to take off the bar 
at pleasure, they are made forked below and 
saddled upon the two upper sides of the bar. 
The sides or prongs are made very stout, and 
morticed to receive a^hort iron bar, which en- 
closes the lower part. Through the middle of 
this bar a screw passes underneath, and comes in 
contact with a thin washer or plate on the under 
side of the bed to prevent bruising it. In order 
to move the puppets freely, and to support them 
firmly, the bed ought to be made very straight, 
and of sufficient strength to preserve its figure. 

The rest is made so as to be moveable round 
the work, and fixed in any position, and may be 
conducted and fastened to any part of the bed. 

The framing and the machinery are thus con- 
nected : the treadle is fixed into the feet or in 
brackets, fixed in the back angles formed by the 
legs and the feet; the fly is sustained at each end 
^ by a transverse piece moveable up and down in 
a frame, and made stationary in any part it is 
moved to, and thus it may either accommodate 
the length of the band or the crank hook. The 
mandrel is sustained at one end by the back 

centre. 



36d TURNING. 

centre, which is fastened into the head of the 
left puppet, and the other into the steel collar as 
before mentioned. 

The machinery is thus put in motion. Sup- 
pose the crank to be raised about half a revo- 
lution from the bottom, then with considerable 
force pressing the treddle downwards, the fly 
wheel wjll be put in motion, but if the force 
communicated is not sufficient to carry it round, 
it must be pressed down in the act of descending 
as often as may be sufficient to put it in rotation, 
in the required direction of motion, at every 
time the treadle begins to descend, press with 
the foot. The momentum which the fly has thus 
acquired will be sufficient to carry it round even 
though retarded in a certain degree by an ob- 
stacle until it receive an additional impulse by 
the foot acting upon the treadle, then by this 
momentum and the continued impulses the mo- 
tion is continued, even though the force of the 
tool is continually acting upon the body in the 
act of working, and therefore continually destroy- 
ing a part of the force exerted upon the machine, 
but the part thus destroyed is always renewed 
by an equivalent. The motion being continued, 
the band communicates the rotation to the man- 
drel, and the mandrel to the body, which is 
fastened to the end of the spindle in the manner 
before described. 

§ 6. ^ Chiiclc 



TURNING. 567 

§ 6. A Chuck 

Is a piece of wood or metal made to fasten 
on the end of the mandrel, and to sustain the 
material while it is being turned. Chucks are 
variously constructed, according to the design of 
the thing required to be turned. They are some- 
times made of wood, and sometimes of metal, 
particularly of brass. Wooden chucks have a 
cylindric hole, in which the end of the work to 
be turned is inserted, and are hooped in order 
to prevent splitting when the work is driven into 
the cavity ; this kind of chuck is that which is 
most frequently used. The work is also some- 
times cemented to the chuck, and sometimes 
screwed to it, as the ^figure of the thing to be 
turned may require. The end of the chuck 
which is screwed upon the nose of the mandrel 
is sometimes a concave and sometimes a convex 
cylinder, the superfices being concentric, or hav- 
ing the same axis. In turning small work, such 
as snuff boxes, the material is fastened upon a 
hollow chuck. It is probable, that the name 
chuck has originated from the work being driven, 
jammed, or chocked into it. 

§ 7. Of Tools. 

The principal tools employed in turning ace 
gouges, chissels, right side tools, left side tools, 
round tools, point tools, drills, inside tools, screw 

tools^ 



368 TURNING. 

tools, flat tools, square tools, triangular tools^ 
turning gravers, parting tools, callippers, &c. 

§8. The Gouge (Pl. 6. Fig. 1.) 

Is used for roughing wood into its intended 
form, also in finishing hollows; the cutting edge 
is rounded. In turning, the gouge must be held 
with an inclination, and the handle considerably 
depressed, so that the side or basil of the gouge 
comes very nearly in a tangent to the circum- 
ference^ of the work, or in the tangent of a 
less circle, and consequently the cutting edge of 
the gouge will be above the axis. In the use of 
this tool, the rest is generally upon a level with 
the axis. Gouges are of various sizes, accord- 
ing to the work. ' . 

- § 9. The Chissel ( Pl. 6. Fig. 2. ) 

Is used after the work is roughed into form by 
the gouge to finish cylindric, conic, or convex 
bodies. In the use of this tool, the bank or 
horizontal part of the rest is raised considerably 
above the centre of the work, so as to be nearly 
upon a level with the surface, and the cutting 
edge must stand oblique to the axis of the cylin- 
der, so as to prevent either angle from running 
into the work ; the chissel ought to traverse the 
work gradually, but not too fast, as otherwise it 
will leave a roughness on the surface. This tool 
is used principally for soft wood. The basil 

must 



TURNING. 569 

must be made from both sides. Chissels are of 
various sizes from a ;|: of an inch to 2| inches : 
these are convenient in running mouldings and 
cleaning the bottoms of grooves. 

§ 10. Right Side Tools (Pl.6. Fig. S.) 
Are used for turning of cavities of hollov^r 
cj^linders, or those hollows v^^hich have onlj' one 
internal angle in turning both the bottom and 
the side : for this purpose the tool is made to 
cut both by its end and side edge^ so that these 
t\vo cutting edges form an angle with each other 
rather acute. This tool must be held on a level 
with the axis of the work. Side tools are made 
of different widths to suit various cavities. The 
basil is only made from one side of the tool. 
The flat side is upwards^ and consequently, the 
basil downwards. 

§11. Left Side Tools 

Are not used in internal work, as the right 
side tools, but up the left side of convex sur- 
faces, such as spheres, torus mouldings, ovolos, 
&c. The acute angle is upon the contrary side 
of this tool to the other. Left side tools are also 
made to various widths. 

§ 12. Bound Tools (Pl.6. Fig. 4.) 

Are used for turning concave mouldings, and 

are of various widths to adapt themselves thereto, 

B b § 13. Point 



370 TURNING. 

§ 13. Point Tools (Pl. 6. Fig. 5.) 

Are used for various purposes, as turning of 
mouldings, the shoulders of screws, for which 
thej are particularly useful ; thej are sometimes 
empjojed in turning the flat ends of work. 

§14. Drills (Pl. 6. Fig. 6.) 

Are used for making holes, the work is fixed 
upon a chuck, but previous to this, the com- 
mencement of the hole is made with a point 
tool, the point of the drill is presented to this; 
small cavitj, and held in the line of the axis, 
then by pressing forward while the lathe is turn- 
ing, the hole will be bored to any required depth; 
the drill should be drawn out once or several 
times, or the core will clog it, and prevent it from 
operating. 

§ 15. Inside Tools (Pl. 6. Fig. 7, 8, 9.) 

Are employed for turning out hollows and 
(Cups of all descriptions, and have various forms, 
Siccording to the curvature or angles of the work. 

§ 16. Screw Tools (Pl. 6. Fig. 10, 11.) 

Are employed in cutting of screws of various 
sizes of threads. The work must first be turned 
truly cylindrical, then by applying the tool to 
the end, and pressing gradually with a uniform 
motion in the length of the axis, the screw will 
be produced, 

§ 17. Flat 



TURNING. 371 

§ 17. Flat Tools (Pl. 6. Fm. 12.) 
Are used for turning cylindric or conic surfaces. 

§ 18. Square Tools 
Are intended for brass turning only. In these 
the cutting edges always terminate with right 
angles. 

§ 19. Triangular Tools 

Are used for turning iron and steel. They are 
of a triangular section, with three cutting edges, 
and are employed in turning planes or flat ends, 
also in the concave surface of the hollow bodies, 
as in cylindric and conic cavities. 

§ 20. Turning Gravers ( Pl. 6. Fig. IS. ) 

Are used for turning steel and iron, in rough- 
ing out the work, though some works may be 
entirely finished by them. They are nearly the 
same shape as the tool used by engravers upon 
copper. 

§21. Parting Tools (Pl. 6. Fig. 14.) 

Are used for making deep incisions, for cutting 
off a part of work, grooving, &c. 

AH these tools are beveled or basiled from one 
side, except the chissel for soft wood, which is 
basiled from each side, and are all held upon pl 
level with the axis, except the chisel. 

§ 22. CalHppers 
Are used for taking the diameters of rotund 
bodies. 

B b 2 PLATE I. 



372 TURNING. 



§ 23. Description of the Plates, with the Me- 
thods of Turning Elliptic Boards, Swash and 
other Kinds of Work. 

PLATE I. The Pole Lathe 

Fig. 1 represents the Pole Lathe, as seen frooi 
the back. 

A end of the Foot Board or Treadle. 

A B the string to be coiled round the wood to 
be turned. 

D E one of the Legs, the other being hid in 
the view. 

E F the Shears or bed of the Lathe fornied of 
two pieces, with a parallel space between. 

GH, IK the Puppets, made moveable in the 
parallel space,^ and fixed below with wedges to 
any required distance, GH containing the fore 
centre, and IK that of the back centre. These 
centres are tightened by means of screws. 

LM the Rest. 

Fig. 2 large Boring Collar with seven holes^ 
from J an inch to 3| inches diameter. 

Fig. S a Boring Collar for small work. The; 
holes ABC may be contracted at pleasure, by 
means of a sliding piece inserted in a slip or 
groove parallel to the faces. The sliding piece 
is moved by means of a thumb screw at D. The 

figure 



^^ateJ. 




JR'(/.2. 



7:o7,<io)iJ^6a.shaijrcz7-th2^.ra//.dv.r^>l%:'.^2m!;/^iBhnorvi. 



34 



TURNING. 373 

figure of the perforation is an equilateral triangle, 
the lower part of the slider forming the base of 
the said triangle; then as a circle may be in- 
scribed in an equilateral triangle, the collar will 
fit all sizes of cylindrical bodies, from the great- 
est si^e the perforation will contain, to the least, 
and touch the body to be turned always in three 
points, which are all that are necessary to steady 
the work in its revolution. This machine is ge- 
nerally constructed of iron, 



PLATE II. 



574 TURNING. 

PLATE II. 

The Foot Lathe in its general Construction. 

AB the Treadle or Foot Board. 

a the manner of fixing theTreadle to the floor. 

C the Crank Hook, hooked into a staple, and 
the end of the piece A. 

D the Crank for turning the Fly with the 
upper part of the crank hook formed into a collar 
embracing the Crank. 

E the Fly Wheel with several angular grooves 
cut in its circumference, in order to hold the 
band and keep it from sliding. 

F the Pillar for supporting the end of the 
Mandrel. 

G the Puppet supporting the end of the Man- 
drel, which holds the Chuck. 

Hthe Right Hand Puppet, containing the fore 
centre which is tightened by means of a screw. 

I, K the Legs, the Fly being supported by that 
of I, the other end is supported by an upright 
between the legs. 

L the Mandrel, shewing the end of the Spin- 
dle projecting over the Puppet G in order to re- 
ceive 4he Chuck. 

M the Rest, tightened below by means of a 
screw, and made so as to be fixed in any position 
to the Chuck. 

N a Foot Board. 

O several of the most useful tools employed in 
Turning. 

• § 24, ELLIPTIC 



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33 



TURNING. 375 

§ 24. ELLIPTIC TURNING. 

Definition. 

If there be a plane with any indefinite outlinea 
and two inflexible right lines at right angles to 
each other, and if the plane be fixed to an axis 
at right angles therewith, and if the two in- 
flexible lines be made to coincide with the planCi 
and be so moveable on its surface, that one of 
them, which we shall call the primary line, may 
always pass through two fixed points in the 
plane, and through the point where the plane is 
intersected by the axis, and if the other trans- 
verse line be made to pass or slide along a given 
point, which is not attached to the plane, but 
would remain stationary, even though the plane 
were in motion ; and if a secondary plane be fixed 
to the inflexible lines parallel to the primary 
plane, then if the axis be carried round while 
the point in the transverse line is at rest, the pri- 
mary plane will also be carried round, and every 
point in it will describe the circumference of a 
circle : the secondary plane will likewise be 
carried round, and will perform its revolutions 
in the same time as the primary plane and the 
axis, but being immoveably fixed to the rect- 
angular lines, they will cause it to have both a 
progressive and retrogressive motion in the direc- 
tion of the primary line in each revolution ; and 
lastly, if another point at rest be held to the sur- 
face of the secondary plane while in motion, it 

will 



376 TURNING. / 

will either describe an ellipse, a circlcj or a 
straight line. Hence the describing point will 
always be at the same distance from the ceritre 
or point, where the axis intersects the primary 
plane. 

The eccentricit)? of the ellipse, or the difference 
of the axis will be double the distance between 
the stationary point in the transverse line and the 
axis. 

Instead of the stationary point, a circle may be 
placed with its centre in this point, and its plane 
perpendicular to the axis, and instead of the in- 
flexible line moving to and fro along two fixed 
points in the plane, the diametric all}' opposite 
parts of the circumference may always touch a 
pair of parallel lines on the revolving plane* 



PIATE III. 



^^/Vi?, 



iTa-Te 3. 



Ji^2. 



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Xc>ncicm.jPal>Zis7iaiMarr/i 26:.t0t7 by.JlTa}'!cr-^irKSoZl>o 



TURNING. 377 



PLATE III. 

Illustrations. This Plate exhiiits the various 
Positions of the Chuck for turning of Elliptical 
Work at every Eighth of a Revolution, ac- 
cording to the foregoing Definition. 

Let AB and EF, No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, be 
the two inflexible lines intersecting each other in 
I, at right angles, and let C, D be the two fixed 
points. Let A B be denominated the primary 
line, and EF the secondary line/ and let the 
lines AB and EF at right angles taken as a 
whole be called a transverse; also let C repre- 
«ent a primary point, and let the describing point 
be taken at G in the line drawn through C D 
produced; now in all positions of the chuck the 
primary line AB is always upon the point C, 
and EF upon D; having premised this in gene- 
ral, suppose before the machine begins to start, 
that E F, No. 1. the secondary line coincides 
with EG, and the point G with o, o being in the 
plane of the figure to be described, then because 
AB always passes through C, the points I and C 
will be coincident, AB being then at right angles 
to EF. Let us now suppose the motion to com- 
mence, and let it perform an eighth part of a 
revolution as at No. 2, the describing point G 
still remaining in the same position with respect 

to 



378 TURNING. 

to C and D, viz. in the right line to CDG, then 
the point o will now be at a distance from the 
point G, and a part G o of the curve will be de- 
scribed by the fixed point G, also the point I 
will be^bove the line CDG : now let the motion 
proceed^ and describe another eighth as at No. 3, 
then the point o being always in the line EF 
produced, E F will be at a right angle with the 
fixed line CDG, and AB coincident with CDG, 
and the point which was last at G will now be at 
I. In like manner, when another eighth has been' 
performed as at No. 4, the point o has perform- 
ed three eighths of a revolution, the point 1 is 
in a line drawn from the point C perpendicular 
to the fixed line CDG, and the point 2 which 
was at G in No. 3 is situated between 1 and G. 
In this manner, by continuing the motion the 
whole curve will be generated. No. 5 shows 
the curve, when half a revolution has been de- 
scribed. No. 6 five eighths. No. 7. six eighths 
or three quarters, and No. 8, seven eighths. 

Here it may be proper to observe, that the 
angles performed by the revolution of the ma- 
chine are very different from the corresponding 
angles, formed by lines drawn from the centre of 
the ellipse to the describing point, and to the 
extremity of the curve at its commencement. 

From what has been said, it is easy to conceive 
that the operation of elliptic turning is nothing 
more than that of the ellipsegraph or common 

trammel. 



TURNING. 379 

trammel, with this difference, that in the opera- 
tion of turning, the ellipse is described by moving 
the plane, and keeping the point steady, but in 
forming the curve hy the ellipsegraph, the plane 
or description is kept steady while the point is 
in motion. The transverse ABEF is the same 
as the grooves in the trammel cross, and the line 
CDG the trammel rod: here the cross and plane 
of description move round together, but fixed to 
each other, and the trammel rod CDG is held 
still or immoveably confined: in the trammel the 
board and cross are fixed together, and held while 
the trammel rod CDG moves with the points C 
and D in the grooves. 

To set this machine therefore, it is only to 
make CD equal to the difference of the axis. 



PLATE IV. 



380 TURNING. 



PLATE IV. 

Shows the relation between the foregoing 
diagrams and the chuck. Let KLMN be the 
face of a board representing the plane^, which 
is fixed to the axis of the machine. And let 
OPQR be another board made to slide in the 
board KLMN, each two points O and K^ L and 
P, M and Q, N and R coinciding at this moment : 
KLMN will therefore represent a wide groove 
in the board; as this groove may be of any 
width, we may conceive the breadth to be very 
small or nothing, and may therefore be represent- 
ed by a groove or by the line AB parallel to KN 
and LM, and in the middle of the distance be- 
tween them. Instead of supposing the point D 
always moving to and fro in the line EF^ we 
may suppose a circle, or the end of a large cylin- 
dric pin moving in a very wide groove TUVW 
across the slider OPQR. Now therefore all the 
differences between these diagrams and those in 
the former plate, are only wide grooves in place 
of lines passing longitudinally through the mid- 
dle : for the line AB is always conceived to move 
reciprocally from the one side to the other of the 
board KLMN: now it is the same thing whether 
one straight line slide longitudinally upon an- 
other fixed line, or whether a bar of any breadth 

move 



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TUENING. 381 

ttiove in a groove of the same breadth, or whether 
a straight line in reciprocal motion always pass 
through two fixed points. 

No. 1 shows the chuck, as in the first diagram 
of the last plate: No. 2 as No. 2, No. 3 as 
No. S, and No. 4 as No. 4 of the said plate. 
Any farther explanation is conceived as unneces- 
sary. It now remains to explain how the chuck 
is connected with the machine, and how the 
parts are connected with each other. 

The end of the spindle of the mandrel passes 
through a stout upright, and projects over it 
with a convex or male screw, to which is fixed 
the board KLMN with the faces at right angles 
to the axis: a circular ring or end of a very 
large pin is attached to the said side of the up- 
right, so that the ring or pin may be fixed at any 
required distance from the axis of the spindle, 
and that its axis and the axis of the mandrel 
may always be in the same horizontal line or 
plane. 

The wide groove KLMN is made on the in- 
side of the board next to the face of the up- 
right, and equal in breadth to the diameter of 
the cylindric pin, and the slider may either move 
in a groove upon one side or the other, or move 
in mortices, but in whatever mode the reciprocal 
motion of the slider is performed, the groove in 
the slider must always be made from the inside, 
so that the board which is fixed to the axis must 

be 



382 TURNING. 

be cut away for that purpose, in order that it 
may fit upon the ring or pin, and since the work 
to be turned is fixed upon the outside of the 
slider, the slider must be flush both outside and 
inside, or the slider may project on the outside. 

It has been mentioned, that it is of no con- 
sequence what the boundary line of the board 
is, neither does it signify what the combination 
of the parts are that form the chuck, so that the 
same principle of motion is performed. The 
parts exhibited in this plate show the most 
simple form of the principle, and therefore the 
diagrams are better calculated to afford instruc- 
tion. In some chucks, the principle is almost con- 
cealed by a complication of parts, which, though 
not necessary in forming the motion, are essential 
in the practice: for this reason, by continual 
working, if the parts were only of the most 
simple forms when the grooves and pins wear, 
the truth of the motion would be destroyed with- 
out any remedy to rectify it. In the best con- 
structed chucks, the board which is screwed upon 
the end of the mandrel is a frame, which is va- 
riously constructed by different people, but the 
parts of it which form the sides of the grooves may 
be brought nearer together by means of screws 
and thus the sliders and the cylindric ring or pin 
may move exactly in the grooves. 

The drawing of the chuck, and the manner in 
which it is connected with the machine is ex- 
hibited 



TURNING. 383 

bibited in Plate 5. to the explanation of which 
we must refer our reader for further information, 
the geometrical principle, and the manner in 
which it is combined with, and their relation to 
the parts in practice, being all that is intended to 
be explained in this place ; and indeed this is 
almost the whole that can be done. The prac- 
tice can never be obtained from any written de- 
scription, but only from the actual exercise of 
the art itself, so that any farther attempt besides 
the uses of the tools, which we have already 
given would be needless, one thing only is to be 
observed, that in turning several ellipses, the 
circumferences will be nearly parallel, as the dif- 
ference in their several axis is the same. 



PLATE V. 



584 TURNING|^ 



PLATE V. 



Fig. 1 is a view of the end of the machine, 
the principal parts shown in this view are 

A the Pulley of the Mandrel. 

B and C sides of the frame supporting the 
Pulley. 

D Frame for the Rest to slide in. 

E and F Legs supporting the Frame D. 

G and H continuation of B and C below the 
Frame of the Rest. 

I Nut and Screw under the Frame of the Rest. 

K the Elliptic Chuck with two grooves, 
through which the knobs of the Slider pass, 
and are connected on the outside by a strong bar 
of iron, which is screwed upon their ends. This 
also shows the screw for fastening the board to 
-which the work is fixed. This frame is strongly 
braced to the roof, in order to keep it steady. 

P the Rest. 

Q the piece by which the Rest is fastened. 

Fia:. 3. a view of the inside of the Chuck, 
containing the parts N and O : this side of the 
Chuck being placed against the side C of the 
Frame, fig. L 

N the board containing the slider O, showing 

the 



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JPZaZ'e 




■^"^•-^o'l.^i'i&^^.iJiUroA^&./anf.v.ZZayiox-.M^AJS^lia 



TURNING* 385 

liie end of the screw which is fixed in the Man- 
drel; the board N revolves round a centre, while 
the slider O not onlj moves round, but has a 
longitudinal motion to and fro in the part N. 

Fiff; 3 a view of the outside of the Mandrel 
Frame, showing the parts L and M. 

L a part of the side C of the Mandrel Frame 
showing the ring M which is fastened to it, and 
which causes the reciprocal motion of the slider 
O in fig. % 



Cc PLATE VL 



386 TURNING. 

PLATE VI. Tools. 

Fig. 1 the Gouge for roughing and traversing 
the work. 

Fig. 2. the Chissel used in smoothing cylindric, 
conic and convex surfaces after the Gouge. 

Fig. 3 Right Side Tool. 

Fig. 4 Round Tool. 

Fig. .5 Point. 

Fig. 6 Drill. 

Fig. 7 Inside Tool for angular work, all the 
Vides being made to cut occasionally as well as 
the upper side of the hooked part. 

Fig. 8. Inside Tool for concave curved work. 

Fig. 9 Inside Tool for turning a solid sphere 
within a hollow one. 

Fig. 10 Screw Tool for the convex or male 

part. 

Fig. 1 1 Screw Tool for the concave or female 

part. 

Fig. 12 Flat Tool. 

Fig. 13 Turning Graver. 

Fig. 14 Parting Tool. 

For the particular properties and uses of these 
tools, see articles where thej are particularly de- 
scribed. 



§26. To 



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r 



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1 



TURKING. 387 

§ 26. To turn a Hollow Spiiere. 

First turn the convex surface, on which draw 
Iwo great circles at right angles to each other, 
then the line joining the intersection of these 
circles is an axis of the sphere, which will di- 
vide each circle into two equal parts or into half 
circles: divide each semicircle into two equal 
parts, and each circle will be divided into qua- 
drants. Upon each of the intersections or poles 
with a centre bit, bore a cjlindric hole with 
its axis tending to the centre of the sphere ; to 
such a depth as to leave the solid space between 
the two bores equal to the diameter of the cy- 
lindrical bores, or something less, with the same 
centre bit upon the division of each semicircle; 
bore holes tending to the centre as at firstj and 
of the same depth : there will be now six holes, 
then if the axis of any two be fixed in a straight 
line with that of the mandrel with the convex 
surface of the sphere in a hollow chuck, then 
the interior surface may be turned out to a cer- 
tain extent, and formed by means of the instru- 
ment shown plate 6. fig. 8 : take the sphere out 
of the chuck, and place the hollow part thus 
turned in the chuck, fixing it fast therein with 
the axis in the same straight line with that of the 
mandrel, then turn the opposite hole in like man- 
ner. Proceed in like manner with each two re- 
maining pairs of opposite holes : in turning, the 
hollows must be so large as to penetrate each 
C c 2 other 



3^ TURNING. 

other, and leave only so much of tlie solid t& 
connect the sphere with the core as is sufficient 
to support the latter: then each of the eight 
connecting parts must be sawn through close to 
the core, and as the core is less than either of the 
holes it maj be taken out, and the connecting 
pieces may be sawn oflf with a bent saw close to 
the concave surface, and thus you will have the 
hollow sphere required. 

§27. To turn one Sphere witliin anotJier. 

Find the centres of the cylindrical holes as be- 
fore, then bore each of the holes to an equal 
depth, so that its axis may tend to the centre of 
the sphere, and that the thickness between each 
pair of opposite holes may be equal to, or some- 
thing more than the diameter of the required in- 
terior sphere; then fixing the axis of each hole 
in the axis of the mandrel, with the tool repre- 
sented in plate 6. fig. 8. turn a part of the in- 
terior surface of the outer sphere, and a part of 
the convex surface of the interior sphere, and 
thus leave eight connecting parts, which are each 
to be cut with a bent saw close to the convex 
surface of the interior sphere, and to the concave 
surface of the exterior sphere. 

If the cylindrical holes are perforated or bored 
quite through, a series of spheres may be turned 
within each other by the same means, but the 
diameter of the least must be greater than that 

of 



TURNING. SfeO 

of the bore ; it would be best to begin the opera- 
tion with the most interior sphere, and after this 
the next, and thus in succession till the one next 
the, exterior one be loosened. In perforating, 
the cylindrical excavations, the diameter of each 
hole may be continually less, and in proportiou 
to the diameter of each of the internal spheres. 
In the same manner may a cube be turned with- 
m a sphere, instead of turning the surface of the 
interior solid spherical, it is only turning it fiat 
by means of an inside tool, which has its cutting 
edge straight, and at a right angle with it. 

§ 28. Conclusion. 

Many kinds of turning may be performed by 
making the axis of the work to be turned to slide 
progressively, or with a reciprocal motion through 
two collars, as given points according to a cer- 
tain law, while the body continues to revolve 
uniformly. If the axis proceed with a uniform 
motion, and a tool be pressed to the surface, the 
tool will cut a spiral line on the said surface. 

If a single crank be fixed to the end of the 
mandrel, and the end of the crank made to touch 
an inclined plane while the body is in motion the 
point of a sharp tool being pressed upon the 
surface, and kept stationary by means of the rest, 
a line will be cut or described on the furface of 
the wood, and this line will be the circumference 
or perimeter of an ellipse^ which will have the 

proportioa 



390 TURNING, 

proportion of its axes in the ratio of radius to 
the sine of the plane's inclination. If the sur- 
face of the body to be turned be straight, and 
the cuttins; edge of the tool be always held equi- 
distant from the axis, the body itself will be 
turned into a cylinder, and all its sections per- 
pendicular to the axis will consequently be 
circles. 

If the surface of the body be turned into 
mouldings, the work is denominated swash work, 
which was much in request in former times, for 
bodies standing upon the rake, or upon an in- 
clined plane, as in the balusters of staircases, 
but is now entirely laid aside. 

An indefinite variety of subjects or figures may 
be obtained by turning, by different regulations of 
the mandrel, by making the crank slide upon va- 
rious surfaces, or by other methods of regulating; 
the axis in a direction of its length. 



IxNDEX 



{ 391 ) 
INDEX AND EXPLANATION 

OF TERMS USED IN 

TURNING. 

N. B. This Mark § refers to the preceding Sections, 
according to the Number. 



A. 

Axis, an imaginary line passing longitudinally through 
the middle of the body to be turned, from one 
point to the other of the two cones, by which the 
work is suspended, or between the back centre and 
the centre of the collar of the puppet, which sup- 
ports the end of the mandrel at the chuck. 

B. 

Back Board, that part of the lathe which is sustain- 
ed by the four legs, and which sustains the pillars 
that support the puppet bar. The back board is 
only used in the best constructed lathes. In the 
common lathes the shears or bed are in place 
of the back board, § 5. 

Back Centre, see Centres and § 5, 

Band, § 5. See also Cat gut. 

Bearer, that part of the lathe which supports the 
puppets, § 5. 

Bed of the Lathe, the same as bearer, which see. 

Boring Collar is a machine having a plate with 
conical holes of different diameters j the plate is 

moveable 



592 TURNING. 

moveable upon a centre, which is equidistant 
from the centres or axis of the conic holes, the 
axes are placed in the circumference of a circle. 
The use of the boring collar is to support the end 
of a long body that is to be turned hollow, and 
which would otherwise be too long to be supported 
by a chuck, Plate 1, Fig. 2. 

C. 

Callipers, compasses with each of the legs bent 
into the form of a curve, so that when shut the 
points are united, and the curves being equal and 
opposite enclose a space. The use of the callipers 
is to try the work in the act of turning, in order to 
ascertain the diameter or the diameters of the various 
parts. As the points stand nearer together at the 
greatest required diameter than the parts of tlie 
legs above, the callipers are well adapted to the 
use intended. 

Cat Gut, the string which connects the fly and the 
mandrel, § 5. 

Centres are the two cones with their axis horizon- 
tally posited for sustaining the body while it is 
turned, § 5. 

Cheeks, the shears or bed of the lathe as made vyith 
two pieces for conducting the puppets, § 5. 

Chissel, a flat tool skewed in a small degree at the 
end, and bevelled from each side, so as to make 
the cutting edge in the middle of its thick- 
ness, § 9. 

Chuck, a piece of wood or metal fixed on the end 
of the mandrel for keeping fast the body to be 
turned, § 6. 

Circular 



TURNINOi 393 

Circular Turning, § 2. 

Collar a ring inserted in the puppet for holding the 
end of the n'landrel next tiie ciiuck^ in order to 
make the splindle run freely and exactly, § 5. 

Collar Plate, see Boring collar. 

Connecting Rod, ^e^? Crank hook. 

Conical Points, the cones fixed in the pillars for 
supporting the body to be turned, that on the right 
hand is called the fore centre, and that on the 
left hand, the back centre, § 5. 

Crank Hook, sometimes also called the connectinp' 
rod, as it connects the treadle and the fly, § 5. 

Crank, the part of the axle of the fly, which is 
bent into three knees or right angles, and three 
projecting parts, one of the parts is parallel to 
the axis, and has the upper part of the crank hook 
collared round it, § 5. 

D. 

Drill, § 14. 

E. 

Elliptic Turning, § 25. 

F. 

Feet the horizontal pieces on the floor which support 
the legs of the lathe, § 5. 

Flat Tools, § 17. 

Fly Wheel, § 5, 

Foot Lathe, § 5. 

Foot Wheel or Fly, the wheel or reservoir for 
preserving and continuing the motion when the 
force applied by the foot is not acting, § 5. 

Fore 



394 TURNING, 

Fore Centre, that on the right hand. See, cen- 
tres, § 5. 

G. 

Gouge, the tool for roughing out the work, § 8 

I. 

Inside Tools, § 15. 

L. 

Lathe the machine for holding and giving motion to 
the body to be turned, when the requisite force is 
applied. 

Lathes in general use, § 3. 

Left Side Tools, § ll. 

Legs, the uprights morticed into the feet for sustain- 
ing the upper part of the lathe, § 4 & 5. 

M. 

Mandrel, that part of the lathe which revolves the 
body when turned in a chuck, the pole lathe has 
no mandrel, § 5. 

Mandrel Frame are the two puppets which hold the 
mandrel, a hardened steel collat being fastened in 
the fore puppet, and a screw with a conical point 
in the back puppet. 

Nose, that part of the spindle of the mandrel which 
projects over the puppet to receive the chuck, § 5* 

O. 
Oval Chuck, § 25. 

P. 

Parting Tools, § 21. 

Pikes, 'now called conical points, which sec. 

Pillars, 



TURNING. 395 

Pillars, tlie uprights fixed at the ends of the back 
board for supporting the bed of the lathe or puppet 
bar, § 5. 

Pitched, is the placing of the work truly upon the 
centres. 

Point Tool, § 13. 

Pole, an elastic rod fixed to the ceiling of the turners 
shop for re-acting by means of the string upon the 
treadle against the pressure of the foot; the foot 
draws the string downwards, and the pole exerts its 
force in drawing it upwards, and consequently, 
should have no more elasticity than what is suf- 
cient for this purpose, as the overplus would only ' 
tire the workman, § 4. 

Pole Lathe, § 4. 

Pulley, § 5. 

Puppet Bar, see Bearer. 

Puppets, the upright parts for supporting the man- 
drel, the one on the right being called the fore 
puppet, and that on the left the back puppet, the 
screw is fixed on the one, and the mandrel collar 
on the other puppet, § 5. 

R. 

Rest, the part of the lathe which sustains the tool 
while turning, § 4 & 5. 

Right Side Tools, § 10. 

Roughing out, is the reducing of the substance by- 
means of the gouge, to prepare the surface of the 
body for smoothing. 

Round Tools, § 12. 

S. 
Screw, the conical points or centres as made with a 
screw, in order to tighten the work; the screw or 

screws 



:596 TURNING, 

screws ought to be kept so tight that there should 
be no play, otherwise the work may be in danger 
of flying out, § 5. 

♦Screw Tools, § 16. 

Sheers, see ciieeks or bed of the lathe. 

Slider, § 25. 

Square Tools, § IS. 

String, that which connects the treadle and the pole 
in the pole lathe, and in the foot lathe it passes 
round the fly wheel and the pulley of the mandrel 
in order to turn the latter. 

Swash Work, § 29. 

t. 

Tools, § 7. 

Traversing, is moving the gouge to and fro in 

roughing out the work. 
Treadle, the part of the lathe by whicli the foot 

communicates its force, and gives motion to all the 

other moveable parts, § 5. 
Triangular Tools, § 19. 
Turning in genekal, § 1. 
Turning Gravers, § 20. 

W. 

Wabble is the shaking of the work in the act of 
turning, because it is not fixed truly upon the 
centres. 

There are several other terms which are common to 
Smithing and Turning, see the Index'and Explana- 
tion of the Terms to those articles. 

FINIS. 



Printed by W. Stratford, Crown Court, Temple Bar, 



*1 ^*l 



ERRATA. 

ybr section reod segment. 

for octagon read heptagon. 

instead ofAB, AC, AD, AE, readAE ; AC : : AD : AE, 

instead of m a longitudinal plane passing through the 

handle read and handle in the plane of the circle. 
instead of but its cutting edge is perpendicular to a 

longitudinal plane passing through the handle, read 

and has its cutting edge perpendicular to the plane 

of the circle. 
for tenon read sash. 
for pages read passages. 
for X g k read X g k. 

Omitted in the Index of the article Joinery, Stairs and 
Newel. 

For Stairs see section 87. 

The Newel in Joinery is the post in dog-leg stairs where 
the winders terminate, and to which the adjacent string 
boards are fixed. 



P^ge- 


line. 


11 


18 


17 


17 


24 


22 


* 


12 3 




13; 


31 


23} 




24> 




25^ 


"l46 


22 


237 


25 


287 


11 



MODERN BOOKS 

o M 

ARCHITECTURE, 

Theoretical, Pra6tical, and Ornamental; 

VIZ. , 

BOOKS OF PLANS AND ELEVATIONS 

FOR COTTAGES, FARM-HOUSES, MANSIONS, Isc. 

TEMPLES, BRIDGES, ^c. 

OfOvnatnentsfor Internal Decorations^ Foliage for Carvers^ S(c. 

ON PERSPECTIVE. 

Books of Use for Carpenters, Bricklayers, and 

WORKMEN IN GENERAL, isfc. £s*r. 

>Vhich, with the best ANCIENT AUTHORS, are constantly 
on SALE at 

J. TAYLOR'S 

ARCHITECTURAL LIBRARY^ 

—No. 59— 

HIGH HO L BORN, LONDON. 

WHERE MAY BE HAD, 

the WORKS of the inost celebrated 
FRENCH ARCHITECTS and ENGINEERS. 



CATALOGUE, &c. 



THE Antiquities of Athens ; measured and delineated, by James 
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and Architects, in three large Volumes Folio, Price 17/. 1 7J. in 
boards. The third Volume may be had separate to complete Sets. 
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Contents of the Work. 
Doric Portico at Aihcri). /onic Temple on the l/issus, Octagon Totver of 
Andronicus Cyrrestcs, Lanthorn of Demosihenesy Stoa, or Portico at 
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Views 



( 3 T 

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( 4 ) 

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( 5 ) 

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tor, by which any Part of Architecture may be drawn with Facility 
and Exactness. By Joshua Kirby. Illustrated with 25 Plates j 
elegantly printed on imperial Paper. Half bound, il. 16s. 

The two Frontispieces, by Hogarth, to Kirby's Perspective, may be 
had separate, each 5s. 

Modern Finishings for Roo?ns, a Series of Desis;ns for Vestibules, Halls, 
Stair Cases, Dressing Rooms, Boudoirs, L'braries, aud Drawing 
Rooms, with their Doors, Chimney Pieces, and other finishings to 
a large Scale, and the several Mouldmgs and Cornices at full Size, 
showing their Construction and relative Proportions: to which are 
added some Designs foi- Villas and Poi icos, with the Rules for 
clrswing the Columns, &c. at large. The whole adapted for the 
Use and Direction of every Person engaged in the practical Parts of 
Building, by IV. F. Pocock, Architect, on 86 Plates, quarto, 2I. 2s. 
bound. 

'$he Studcvfs Instructor, in drawing and working the Five Orders of 
Architecture ; fully explaining the best Methods of striking regular 
and quirked Mouldings, tor diminishing and glueing of Columns 
and Capitals, for Ending the true Di:i meter of an Order to any given 
Height, for striking the Ionic Volute circular and elliptical, with 
0nished Examples, on a large Scale, of the Orders, their Planceerss, 

&c» 



( 9 ) 

Bee. and some Designs for Door Cases, by Peter Nicholson, engraved 
on ^ 1 Plates octavo, los. <>d. bound. A new Edition corrected 
ana <ucii enlarge;!. 

^he Carpenter'' s Neiv Guide, being a complete Book of Lines for Car- 
pentry and Joinery, treating fully on Practi-al Geometry, Soffits, 
Lines for Rofs and Domes, with a treat Variety of Designs for 
Roofs, Trussed Girders, Floors, Dciies, B idges, &c. Stair-cases 
and Han^-railsof various Constructions. Angle- Bars for Shop 
Fronts, and Raking Mouldings, with many other Things entirely 
new: the Whole foun 'ed ontr le Geometrical Principles, the The- 
ory and Practice well explained and fully exemolified on 78 Copper- 
Plates; iiici'i. ling sonv' Piactical Observations and Calculations on 
the Strength of Timber, by P. Nicholson, 4to. 15s. 

fbe Carpenter and Joiner^ s Assistant, containing Practical Rules for 
making all Kinds of Joints, and various Methods of Hingeing them 
together ; for hanging of Doors on strait or circular Plans ; for fit- 
ting up Windows and Shutters to answer various Purposes, with 
Rules for hanging them ; for the Construction of Floors, Partitions, 
Soffits, Groins, Arches for Masonry : for constructing Roofs in 
the best Manner from a given Quantity of Timber ; for placing of 
Bond-Timbers ; with various Methods for adjusting Raking Pedi- 
ments, enlarging and dimini--hing of Mouldings, taking Dimensions 
for Joinery, and for setting out Shop Fronts ; with a new Scheme 
for constructing Stairs and Hand-rails, and foi Stairs having a coni- 
cal Well-hole, 6cc. &c. To which are added, Examples of Various 
Roofs executed, with the Scantlings from actual Measurements, 
with Rules for Mortices and Tenons, and for fixing Iron Straps, &c. 
Also Extracts from M. Belidor, M. du Hamel, M. de Buifon, Sec, 
on the Strength of Timber, with practical Observations. Illustra- 
ted with 79 Plates, and copious Explanations, Ey Peter Nicholson' 
Quaito il. is. bound. The third Edition, revised and corrected. 

Paints British Palladia, or Builder^ s general Assistant ; demonstrating 
in the most ea^y and practical Method, all the principal Rules of 
Architecture, t; r; the Gn jnd Plan to the Ornamental Finish. 
lliustnted with several new and useful Designs of Houses, with their 
Plans, Elevations, ar.d Sections. Also clear and ample Instructions 
annexed to each subject in Letter-press; with a List ot Prices for 
Materials and Labour, and J>abour only. This Work ivill be uni- 
tjersally useful to all Carpenters, Bricklayers, Masons, "Joiners, Plas- 
terers, and others concerned in the se'veral Branches of Building, Sic. 
The whole correctly engraved on 4.2 folio Copper-plates, from the 
original Designs of fy'dliam and James Pain. Bound, 16s. 

The Practical House Car/enter or Youth" s Instructor ; containing a great 
Variet" (.' viseful Designs in Carpentry and Architecture ; as Cen- 
tering for Groins, Niches, &c. Examples for Roofs, Sky-lights, 
&c. The Five Or 'ers laid down by a New Scale. Mouldings, &c. 
at large, witli their Enrichments. Plans, Elevations, and Sections 
pf I'-^uses for .'own ;ind Countr)', Lodges, Hot-houses, Green- 
houses, Stables, Sec. Design for a Church, with Plan, Elevation, and 
, two Sections} an Altar-piece, and fulpit. resigns for Chimney- 
pieces, 



( 10 ) 

pieces. Shop Fronts, Dcior Cases. Section of a Dining-room srid 
Library. Variety of Stair Cases, with many other important Articles 
and useful Embellishments. To which is added, a List of Prices 
for Materials and Labour, Labour only, and Bay Prices. The whole 
iilustr.-itLc! and made perfectly easy by 14S quarto Copper-plates^ 
•with Explanations to each. By r/illiam Pain. The sixth Edi- 
tion, with large Additions. i8s. bound. 

N, B. This is PAII^^'s last Work. 

The Carpenter's Pocket Directory: containing the best Methods of 
framing Timbers of all Figures and Dimensions, with their several 
Parts 5 as Floors, Kcofs in Ledgements, their Length and 
Backings; Trussed Ro;f:, Spires, and Domes, Trussing Girders, 
Partitions, ardBridr-i, with Abutments; Centering for Arches, 
Vaults, &c. cutting Scone Ceilings, Groins, &c. with their 
Moulds : Ceiitres for drawing Gothic Arches, Ellipses, &c. With 
the Plan and Sections of a Barn. Engraved on 24 Plates, with 
Explanations. By JV. Pain, Architect and Carpenter. Bound 5s. 

^he Builder'' s Complete Assistant, or, a Library of Arts and Sciencesy 
absolutely necessary to be understood by Builders and Workmen 
in general, viz. 1. Arithmetic, vulgar and decimal, in whole Num- 
bers and Fractions. 2. Geometry, Lineal, Superficial and Solid. 
3. Architecture, universal. 4.. M nsuration. 5. Plain Trigono- 
metry. 6. Surveying of Land, &c. 7. Mechanic Powers. 8. 
Hydrostatics. Illustrated by above Thirteen Hundred Examples 
of Lines, &c. also Methods for raising heavy Bodies, by the Force of 
Levers, Pulleys, Axes in Peretrochio, Skrews, and Wedges ; as 
also Water, by the common Pump, Crane, &c. wherein the Pro- 
perties and Pre-sure cf the A'r on Water, &c. are explained. 
Exernplified on 77 large 4.to Plates, by Batty Langley. The fourth 
Edition, 2 Vols, royal Octavo. Bound 153. 

Decorrtio/is for Parks and Gardens; Designs for Gates, Garden Seats, 
Alcoves, Temples, Baths, Entrance Gates, Lodges, Facades, 
Prospect Tf'Af'r?, Cattle SLeds, Ruins, Bridges, Green-houses, 
&c. Sec. Also a He' -house, and Hot-wall, with Plans and Scales j 
neatly engvavs don 35 Plates, octavo. 10s. 6d. sewed. 

Designs iu Architecture consisting of Plans, Elevations, and Sections 
for Temples, Baths, Cassinos, Pavilions, Garden Seats, Obelisks, 
and o:;5,i Buildings; for decorating Pleasure-grounds, Parks, 
Torests, &ic. Sec. hy John Soane, Engraved on 38 Copper- plates, 

8vo. Sewed 6s. 

■) 
Grotesque Architecture, or Rural Amusement ; consistmg of Plans, 
and Elevations, for Huts, Hermitages, Chinese, Gothic and Na- 
tural Grottos, Moresque Pavillions, &c. many of which may be 
executed with Flints, irregular Stones, rude Branches and Roots 
of Trees ; containing 28 Designs, By IV. IFright, Octavo. Sewed, 
4-3. 6d. 

Ideas for Rustic Furniture, proper for Garden Chairs, Summer HoOses, 
Hermitages, Cottages, &;c, engraved on 2 5 Plates, Octavo. Price 4.5, 

Designs 



(II) 

Designs for Gates and Rai! , suitable to Parks, Pleasure- Grounds 
Balconies. &c. Also 5 i,ie Designs for Trellis Work. On 27 
Plates. By C. Mtddleton. Octavo, 6s. 

The Carpenter's Treasure: a Collection of Designs for Temples, with 
their Plans ; Gates, Doors, Rails, and Bridges, in the Gothic 
Taste, with Centres st large for striking Gothic Curves and 
Mouldings, and some Specimens of Rails in the Chinese Taste» 
forming a complete System for Rural Decorations by N. IVallis, 
Architect. j6 Plates, Octavo. Sew-d, as. 6d. 

Gothic Architecture impro'ved, by Rules and Proportions in many grand 
Designs of Ccdumns, Doers, Windows, Chimney-Pieces, Arcades, 
Colonnades, Porticos, Umbrellas, Temples, Pavillions, &c. with 
Plans, Elevations, and Profiles, geometi'icallv exemplJried. By 
£. & T. Larigley. To which is added, an Historical Discourse on 
Gothic Architecture. On 64 Plates Quarto. Bound 1 5s. 

Thirty Capitals of Columns, with six Prises, from the 'Atiiique. En- 
graved in Aquatinta by G. Richardson, on 18 Plates. 4.10. 15s. 

Designs for Shop Fronts and Djor Cases, on 27 Plates. 4X0, los. 6d. 

Designs for Monuments, including Gra<ve -stones, Compart mejits. Wall- 
pieces, and Tombs. Elegantly engraved on 40 quarto Plates. Half 
bound, i6s. 

Designs for Chimney-Pieces, with Mouldings and Bases at large on 27 
quai to Plates, los. 6d. 

Outlines of Designs for Shop Fronts and Door Cases, with the 
Mouldings at large, and Enrichments to each Design. Engraved 
on 24 Plates. Quarto, 5s. 

The Builder's Pocket Treasure, in which not only the Theory, but the 
PiacT cal Parts of Architecture are carefully explained, and cor- 
rectly engraved on 55 Copper Plates, with printed Explanations to 
each, by William Pain ; Octavo, Bound, 6s. 

Langleys Builder's Directory, or Bench Mate ; being a Pocket 
Treasury of the Grecian, Roman, and Gothic Orders of Archi- 
tecture, made easy to the meanest Capacity, by near 500 
Examples, engraved on 1 84 Copper Plates izmo. Bound, 4s. 6d. 

Lan^ley's Builder's Jeivel, Bound, 5s. 

Hanvney's Complete Measurer, a new Edition, much improved, 4s. 6d, 

Hoppus's Measurer. Tables ready cast. 3s. 6d. 

Plate Glass Book. 4s. 

The Joiner and Cabinet-maker's Darling; containing sixty different 
Designs for all Sorts of Fr.;ts, Friezes, &c, Stwed 3s. 

The Carpmtef s Companion; containing 33 Designs for all Sorts of 
Chinese Railing and Gates. Octavo. Sewed, as. 

The Carpenter's Complete Guide to the wliole System of Gothic 
Raii.ngj containing 32 Designs, with Scales to each. Octavo 
§ewed, 2s, 

A Geometrical 



_f 12 ) 

A Geometrical Fie-iv of ibs Five Orders of Columns in Architecture 
adjusted by aliquot Parts ; whereby the meanest Capacity, by- 
Inspection, may delineate and work an entire Order, or any Part, 
of any Magnitude required. On a large Sheet, is. 

Elevation of the Ne=w Bridge at Black Friars, with the Plan of the 
Foundation and Superstructure, hy R. Baldzui/z; jz Inches by 
48 Inches, 5s. 

flctns. Elevations, and Sections of the Machines and Centering used 

in erecting Black Friars Bridge; drawn and engraved by R. 

Baldujin, Clerk of the Work 5 on 7 large Plates, with Explanations, 

JOS. 6d. 
Elevation of the Stone bridge built over the Severn at Shretvsbury 5 

with the Plan of the Foundation and Superstructure, elegantly 

engraved by Rooker. is. 6d. 

A Treatise on Building in V/aier. By G. Semple. Quarto, with 63 
Plates. Sewed i6s. 

Plans, Elevation and Sections of the curious Wooden Bridge at 
Schafhausen in Switzerland, built in 1760 bv Ulric Grubenman^ 
and lately destroyed by the French. 19 Inches by 29, Price I2S» 
coloured, witli a descriptive Account in Letter-Piess. 

Perspective View of the proposed Iron Bridge at London, of 
600 Feet Span ; by Teford. Size 4 Feet by 2 Feet, Coloured 2I. as. 

London and Westminster Improved. Illustrated by Plans. By John 
Gv;j7in, Architect. Boards 6s. 

Observations on Brick Bond, as practised at various periods ; con- 
taining an Investigation of the best Disposition of Bricks in 
a Wall, for profring the greatest possible Strength j with 
Figures represT.tin;^ the dilTerent Modes of Construction, Octavo is. 

Ihe Bricklayer s Guide to the Mensuration of all Sorts of Brick Work, 
according to tlie London Practice : With Observations on the Causes 
and Cure of Siro^ky Chimnies, the Formation of Dniins, and the 
best Construction of Ovens, to be heated with Coals. Also, a 
Variety of Practical and Useful Information on this important 
Branch of the Building Art. Illustrated by various Fis-^ires and 
Nine Copper Plates. By T. W. Dearn, Architect. Octavo, 
7s. Ika.'d-. 

Tables -y)- ibe Purchasing of Estates, Freehold, Copyhold, or Lease- 
hold, Annuities, &c. and for the renewing of Leases held under 
Cathedral Churches, Colleges, or other Corporate Bodies, for 
Terms or Years certain, and for Lives. Together with several 
useful and interesting Tables, connected with the subject. Also 
the Five Tables of compound Interest. By W. Invjood, Architect 
and Surveyor. In small Octavo for a Pocket Book, Price 7s. 
sewed, or in Boards. 



B00K5 



( 13 ) 
BOOKS OF ORNAMENTS, &c. 

jI ColleSiioK of Designs for Modern Embellishments suitable to Par- 
lours, Dining and Drawing Rooms, Folding Doors, Chimney 
Pieces, Varandas, Frizes, &c. By C. A. Busby, Archiie£i ; neatly 
engraved on 24 Plates, 14. of which are elegantly coloured ; large 
Quarto. Price il. us. 6d, 

Designs for the Decoration of Rooms in the various Styles of 
modern Embellishment. With Pilasters and Frizes at large. On 
20 folio Plates, Drawn and Etched by G. Cooper, Draftsman and 
Decorator, il. is. 

Some Copies coloured according to the original Drawings shew 
the full Effect of the Rooms when finished. 4I. 4s. 

Ornaments Displayed, on a full Size for working, proper for all Car- 
vers, Painters, &c. containing a Variety of accurate Examples of 
Foliage and Frizes, elegantly engraved in the Manner of Chalks, 
©n 33 large Folio Plates. Sewed 15s. 

A Nenu Book of Ornaments ; containing a Variety of elegant Designs 
for modern Pannels, commonly executed in Stucco, Wood, or 
Painting, and used in Decorating pnacipai Rooms. Drawn and 
etched by P. Columbani. Quarto. Sewed, 7s. 6d. 

A Variety of Capitals, Frizes, and Cornices } how to increase or decrease 
them, still retaining the same Proportion as the Original. Like- 
vvise l^ Designs for Chimney-pieces: On 12 Plates, drawn and 
etched by P. Columbani. Folio, Sewed, 63. 

Tbe Principles of draaving Ornaments made easy, by proper Examples 
of Leaves for Mouldings, Capitals, Scrolls, Husks, Foliage, &c. 
Engraved in Imitation of Drawings, on 1 6 Platen, with Instruc- 
tions for learning without a Master. Particularly useful to Carvers, 
Cabinet- makers^ Stucco-workers, Painters, Smiths, and every one 
concerned in Ornamental Decorations. By an Artist. Quarto. 
Sewed, 4s. 6d. 

Ornamental Iron Work, or Designs in the present Taste, for Fan- 
lights, Stair-Case Railing, Window Guard irons, Lamp-Irons, 
Palisades, and Gate:. Wirh a Scheme for adjusting Designs witk 
Facility and Accurncy to any Slope. Engraved on 21 Plates. 
Quarto. Sewed 6s. 

A neiu Book of Ornaments, by S. Aiken, on 6 Plates, sewed, %s. 6d. 
Lainfs new Book of Ornaments. Sewed, 2s. 
*sA Book of Vases, by T, La'vo. Sewtd, is. 
•*A Book of Vases, by P. Columbani. Sewed, 2s. 
A new Book of Eighteen Vases, Modern and Antique, zs.- 
A Book of Vases from the Antique, on 12 Plates, 2s. 
An interior View of Durham Cathedral, and a View of the elegant 
Gothic Sbritie in the same. Elegantly engraved on two large Sheets. 
Size 19 by 22. The Pair 12s. 

^n exterior and interior Vii;W of St. Giles's Church in th^ Fields^ 
engraved by Walker. Size 18 Inches by 15. The Pair 5s. 

A north- 



( 14 ) 

A north-west View of Greenwich Church, is. 

An elegant engraved View of Shoreditch Church, 38 Inches by 

ao, 3s. 
An elegant engraved View of the Momimetit at London, with the 

Parts geometrically; Size 21 by 33 Inches, from an Original, 

by Sir C. Wren, 7s. 6d. 
Sir Chr'utopher Wren's Plan for rebuilding the City of London after the 

great Fire, 1666. is. 

West Elevation of York Minster, elegantly engraved from a Draw- 
ing by Janies Malton, Price 15s. 

The Building Act of the \.\th Geo, III. with Plates shewing the proj>er 
Thickness of Party Walls, External V/ails, and Chimneys. A 
compltce Index, List of Surveyors and their Residence, Sec. In a 
small Pocket Size. Sewed, 3s. _ 

>I. B. The Notice and Certificate required by the above Afl-, 
may be had printed with blank Spaces for filling up. Price 2d. each 
or 13 for as. 

Curr's Coal Viewer and Engine Builder's Practical Companion. 
Qu^arto al. 12s. Gd. 

Sn!eato?i's Experiments on Under shot ar,d Over-shot Water Wheels, 
Sec. Octavo, with five Plates. Boards. 

Exoerimental Enquiries concerning the Principle of the lateral 
Communication of Mation in Fluids ; applied to the Explanation 
of vailous Hydraulic Phenomena. By J. P. (''entiiri. Translated 
from the French, by IV. Nlchshcn, with Plates, 3s. 

A Treatise on the Teetb of IVkeels, Pinions, &c. ^lemonftrating the 
best Form which can be given them for the various Purposes of Ma- 
chinery; such as Mill-work, Clock- work. Sec, and the Art of finding 
their Numbers, translated from the French of M. Camus, with Addi- 
tions, illustrated by 15 Phtes, Octavo, iss. 6d. 

Experiments and Observations made with a View of improving the 
Art of composing and applying Calcareous Cements, and of preparing 
Quick Lime; wi'ih the Theory of these Arts. By£. Higgins, M. D. 
Price 5s. Boards. 

A General History of Inland Na'vigatio^i, Foreign a;hi Domestic ; containing 
a Coniple'e Account of the Canals already executed in England; nxitb 
Ccnvi derations ontkcse projeSied, to ivliich are added. Practical Obser- 
ijations. AneivEdit. Octavo los. Cd. Boards. 

A Map of England, shewing the Lines of the Canals executed, 
those proposed, and the navigable Pavers, coloured. On a large 
Sheet, 5s. 

ji Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation, exhibiting the nu- 
merous Advantages to be derived fiom Small Canals and Boats 
of two to five Feet wide, contaming from two to five Tons 
Burthen ; with a Description of the Machinery for facilitating 
Conveyance by Water, through the most mountainous Countries, 
independem of Locks and Aqueducts j including Observations 

- f«- 



( 15 ) 

on the great Importance of Water Communications ; with 
Thoughts on, and Designs for, Aqueducts and Bridges of Iron 
and Wood. By R. Fuliofi, Engineer. With 17 Plates. Qu^arto 
Boards, 18s. 

Ohserziatiotis on the various Systems of Cnncd Na^u'i^ation, with In«" 
ferences practical and mathematical, in which Mr. Falton''s Plaa 
of Wheel Boats, and the Utility of subterraneous and small 
Canals are particularly investigated ; including an Account of the 
Canals and inclined Planes of China, with 4. Plates. By W, Cha^^maiit 
Civil Engineer. Quarto. 6s. sewed. 

Remarkal:>le Ruins and Romantic Prospects of North Brit?.i<i, with 
ancient Monuments and singular Subjects of Natural History, 
bythe/?^'z^. C.Cordiner, of Banif, with soo Plates, elegantly en- 
graved by Mazeil. 2 Vols. Quarto. 5I. 5s. Boards. 

A new Collection of loo Views in Rome and its Vicinity, neatly 
engraved by Pronti, Quarto, Price il. is. 

A Treatise on Painting, by Leonardo da Find. Faithfully translated 
from the original Italian, and now first digested under proper 
Heads, By J. F. Rigaud, Esq. R. A. Illustrated with 23 Copper 
Plates and other Figures. To which is piehxsd, a r.ew Life of the 
Author, drawn up from authentic Materials till now inaccessible, 
by J. S. Haivkins, Esq^ F. A. S. Octavo; 9s. 6d. Boards j on 
Royal Paper, 1 3s. GA. Boards. 

Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape -Gardeuingf 
including some Remarks on Grecian and Gothic Architecture ; 
collected from various Manuscripts in the Possession of the dif- 
ferent Noblemen and Gentlemen for whose Use they were originally 
written. The whole tending to establish fixed Principles in the re- 
speftive Arts. By//. Repton, Esq. Elegantly printed in large Quarto 
and illustrated with many Plates. 

An Enquiry into the Changes of Taste in Landscape Gardening, 
to which are added some Observations on its Theory and Practice 
including a Defence of the Art. By H. Repton, Esq. Octavo 5s. 

•Hitits for Picturesque Improvements in Ornamented Cottages and 
their Scenery ; including some Observations on the Labourer and 
his Cottage. Illustrated by Sketches, by E. Bartetl, Juit, large 
Octavo, Boards, los. 6d. 

Cromer considered as a watering Place, with Observations on the 
Picturesque Scenery in its Neighbourhood, by E, kartell, Jun. with 
two Views and a Map. 0«il:avo 8s. Boards. 

The Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, displayed in a Series of 
Select Engravings, representing the most beautiful, curious, and in- 
tereftiiig ancient Edifices la this Country, with an historical and 
descriptive Account of each Subject, by John Brition. 

Of thisVV^ork, one Part, contau.ing 7, or 8 Plates, will be published 
every 3 Months, in Qiuarto, Price los, 6d j on large Paper i6s. 
Twenty-seven Parts are published. 

The Fine Arts of ihc English School, comprising a Series of highly 
finished Engravings from paintings, Sculpture, and Architecture, 



f "5 ^ . 

by the most eminent English Artists, with Historical, Critical,' and 
Biographical Letter-press, edited by /. Britton, F. S. A. price each 
Part containing 5 Plates, on Elephant, quarto, il. is, on Atlas, 
quarto, il. 16s. Two Parts are published. 
Ohservations on English /Irchitecture, Military, Ecclesiastical, artd 
Civil, compared with similar Buildings on the Continent ; including 
a critical Itinerary of 0;^or</ and Cambridge: also Historical Notices 
of Stained Glass, Ornamental Gardening, &c. with Chronological 
Tables, and Dimensions of Cathedrals and Conventual Churches, 
by the Rev, James Dallawaj, M. B. F. S, A* Royal Octavo^ 
22s. Boards. 

A COLLECTION of DESIGNS for Household Furniture and 
interior Decoration, in the most approved and elegant Taste, viz. 
Curtains, Draperies, Beds, Cornices, Chairs and Sofas for Parlors, 
Libraries, Drawing Rooms, &c. Library Fauteuils, Seats, Ottomans, 
Chaise Longue, Tables for Libraries, Writing, Work, Dressing, Scd 
Sideboards, Celerets, Book-cases, Screens, Candelabri, Chiffoniers, 
Commodes, Pier Tables, Wardrobes, Pedestals, Glasses, Mirrors, 
Lamps, Jariliniers, &c. with various Designs for Rooms, Geometri- 
cal and in Perspective, shewing the Decorations, Adjustment of the 
Furniture, and also some ger^ral Observations, and a Description of 
each Plate. By George ^jmith, Upholder Extraordin ry to his 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. Elegantly engraved on 158 
Plates, with Descriptions. Royal Quarto, Price 4.I. 14s. 6d. in 
Boards, and elegantly coloured 7I. 17s. 6d. 

The Parts may be had Separate, each containing 50 Plates, price 

il. lis. 6d. each, or elegantly colouied 2I. 12s. (id. 
Designs for Household Furniture, exhibiting a Variety of Elegant and 

Useful Patterns, in the Cabinet, Chair, and Upholstery Branches, 

By the late T. Sheraton. On 84 Plates, F'ilio. 

Mechanical Exercises j or, the Elements and Practice of Carpentry* 
Joinery, Bricklaying, Masonry, Slating, Plastering, Painting, 
Smithing, and Turning. Containing a full Description or' the 
Tools belonging to each Branch of Business, and copious Directions 
for their Use : with an Explanation of the Terms used in each Art j 
and an Introduction to Practical Geometry. Illustrated by J9f, 
Plates. By Peter Nicholson. Octavo, 18s. Boards, 21 s» Bound. 



FINIS.