Skip to main content

Full text of "The Medford historical register"

See other formats


' W 


', I 


v3 ^>(^\'!i'&ry „, 

4^/Ji; Os^avX^^ 

Medford Historical 

Vol. XXXIII, 1930 


Medford, Mass. 

'lc\ £.ei 

FT 4 



Nos. 1 and 2. 

Preface — Medford's Tercentenary Observances. Editor. 
The Pageant of the Mystic. Ruth Dame Coolidge. 

No. 3. 


Pageant Grounds ...... Frontispiece 

The Pageant of the Mystic. Wilson Fiske . . 7 

The Early History of Medforo. Alfred C. Lane and 

Robert L . Nichols 11 

The Ministers and Meeting-Houses of the First 

Parish in Medford. Clara T. Guild . . .16 

Understanding Italy. Mary Lillian Novelline . . 22 

Ships of Medford. Edward J. Gaffey ... 24 

Indians of Medford. Ruth Dame Coolidge . . 26 

Old Ships and Ship- Building Days of Medford. 

Hall Gleason ........ 28 


Residence of Governor Brooks 

No. 4. 



Matthew Cradock and the Charter of the 

Massachusetts Bay Company. Harry E. Walker. 31 

Reminiscences from Upper Medford. Samuel S. 

Symmes ......... 44 

Tercentenary Year. Editor ..... 46 

Our Illustration. Editor ...... 47 

Officers for the Year 1931 . . . . .48 

Old Ships and Ship-Building Days of Medford. 

Hall Gleason 



[Nos. 1 and 2 






Preface — 


THE PAGEANT OF THE MYSTIC. . . Ruth Dame Coolidge, 

Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Qovernors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Sabscription price, &1.50 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

For gale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 

Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 
Associate Editors, HARRY E. WALKER, 


Exchange list in charge of Geo. S. T. Fuller, 15 George Street. 

Advertising Manager, Miss E. R. ORNE. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

tlie city of Medford, Mass., tiie sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 

( Signed) 


The Medford Historical Register. 

Vol. XXXIII. MARCH, JUNE, 1930. Nos. Iand2, 


IN observance of the Massachusetts Tercentenary, our 
Historical Society planned a special issue of its 
Register early in June and to precede the coming 
pageant. Its production was placed in charge of a 
special committee and was to appear as Vol. XXXIII, 
Nos. I and 2. This was mentioned in editorial of our 
last issue and also by a slip attached by a clip to its 

By the above action the venerable editor had a six 
months' vacation and now, at the call and desire of that 
committee, he prepares these prefacing lines for their 
special issue. 

Having been in labors abundant in the various obser- 
vances, the committee finds the June days have passed 
without the Register's appearance. Instead of abstracts 
and reprints of a previous time, the committee is sending 
the text of " The Pageant of the Mystic," with its valu- 
able notes, foreword, and names of the participants, with 
the hope that it will be favorably received, preserved and 
reread in the future. 

The first of the Tercentenary observance we are else- 
where noting. Next was Patriots' Day exercises, to which 
were added those at the old cemetery on Salem street. 
The city had reconstructed the enclosing wall of brick 
and concrete with granite cap, with a well-designed iron 
gate at the entrance on Salem street. Bronze tablets 
had been placed upon its pillars. 

A bronze tablet reproducing the old inscription had 
been placed upon the Governor Brooks monument, and 
a memorial flagstaff erected in the corner of the grounds 

2 MEDFO RD' S TER CENTENA RY OBSERVA NCES. [ M a r. , j u n e , 

near River street. Suitable dedicatory exercises were 
held in relation to these by city authorities and were 
observed by a large company of interested people. 

The bronze tablets at the gate bear the following 
inscriptions: — 






APRIL 19, 1930 









APRIL 19, 1930 

And in June came the pageant. Just before this, how- 
ever, through the enterprise of our business men, there 
were printed fifteen thousand copies of a four-page paper 
called Ye Town Crier. This was printed in blue ink, its 
opening page advertising " The Pageant of the Mystic," 
its particular feature being an Indian chief overlooking 
the river's course and the ship-building on its bank. 
This was inscribed the " Official Poster of the Pageant." 

The Crier was distributed throughout the city by the 
troops of the Boy and Girl Scouts. Among the writers 
contributing to it were Mayor Larkin, who wrote upon 
"The Celebration's Benefits;" and former Mayor Cool- 
idge, who wrote upon " The Brooks Estate," the scene 
of the pageant's enacting. 

The cavalcade from Salem to Boston made its course 
through High and Main streets stopping at the Royall 
House. The three floats representing the Arbella, 
Guarding the Treasure, and Winthrop Transferring the 


Charter, preceded by mounted musicians, were met by 
our city officials and escorted thither, where suitable 
exercises of reception were held. 

Next morning the cavalcade finished the last stage of 
the journey to Boston. Though in 1630 Governor Win- 
throp did not carry the charter through the woods over- 
land from Naumkeeke to Mishawum with so much pomp, 
pride and circumstance, this portrayal was viewed by 
many along its four-day journey with interest, and in 
Medford it advertised the pageant, which was attended 
by over sixteen thousand people. Remarkably favorable 
were the weather conditions. The clouds of the second 
afternoon were somewhat ominous, ending in a slight 
shower at eight o'clock, reducing the attendance to nine 
hundred and ninety-nine. 

After the three days' intermission it appeared that 
Medford knew a good thing when they saw it, for there 
reassembled twenty-nine hundred and eight. 

But what shall we say of the pageant itself and its 
enacting by a cast of twelve hundred people, entering so 
heartily into its spirit, working harmoniously for its suc- 
cess, patiently and perseveringly through rehearsals and 
to its close? This voices it: as we walked amid the 
dense throng to take the bus-ride home we repeatedly 
heard "Wasn't it wonderful?" and that expression seems 
to be in people's thoughts and on their tongues, using 
the word wonderful in preference to the many words 
that might be used. We have heard but one adverse 
criticism ; we are giving that for what it is worth for the 
benefit of the one who will have the pageant in charge 
one hundred years from now — "There was no splash in 
the water when the ship was launched." And the wonder- 
ful setting for it, its use so kindly allowed by the present 
resident owner, Mrs. Shepherd Brooks, the historic 
ground over which the first white men came to Med- 
ford ! Language fails us. We will not try to say more, 
other than this — those that missed seeing the pageant 
missed an opportunity of a lifetime. 


In the Meeting-house of the First Parish in Medford, 
fifth edifice in succession to shelter the rehgious services 
of the old Parish, and the third upon the same site, was 
held on Sunday, February 23d, a church service after 
the manner of the seventeenth century, so far as the 
Parish found it practicable to reproduce in its modern 
home the setting and conditions of that period. 

At early candle-light the parishioners gathered in an 
auditorium lighted only by candles. The women on one 
side of the center, the men on the other. The pulpit 
had been removed and on the platform stood two tables 
and three chairs. Ordinary white candles in old-fash- 
ioned candlesticks stood on the tables and were ranged 
along the sides of the room. 

Entering from the vestry, the minister, the Rev. Louis 
C. Dethlefs, in gown and band, seated himself at the 
table in the center of the platform, while the teacher, 
Mr. Wilson Fiske, took his place at the table to the 
minister's right. In the chair at the minister's left sat 
Mr. A. W. Stockwell, tithing-man, with his staff of office. 
Below the platform and facing the congregation sat the 
ruling elder, Mr. E. W. Stone, with pitch-pipe and psalm 
book at hand. Teacher, tithing-man and elder were in 
the conventional Puritan garb. 

On the minister's table stood an hour-glass, which the 
tithing-man took occasion to reverse during the sermon. 

Opening the services, the minister made a short ad- 
dress of explanation, followed by a prayer. The ruling 
elder rose, announced the One-hundredth Psalm, gave 
the pitch, and lined the psalm for the congregational 
singing. Following this the teacher read from the seven- 
teenth chapter of Proverbs and interpreted to the con- 
gregation the scripture passage read. After a second 
psalm (the Seventy-eighth), led by the ruling elder as 
before, the minister read a portion of an ancient sermon 
on " Pleasures, True and False," delivered originally in 
1 77 1 by Rev. William Dodd. Then followed the third 
Psalm and the benediction. 


The congregational singing was remarkable for spirit 
and effectiveness. 

The customs of the clay were followed so far as to in- 
stall the pewter contribution platter at the front, to which 
the congregation made pilgrimage to deposit their offer- 
ings under the eyes of the tithing-man, by whom they 
were summoned to contribute in proportion as they had 

The church was filled to its capacity. 

After the services the rather extensive and unique col- 
lection of church silver, mostly Colonial, belonging to 
the Parish, was on exhibition in the vestry, together with 
some of the ancient records and literature, the property 
of the Parish. 

Prov^erbs XVII. 

1. Better is a dry morsel, and quietness therewith, than a house 
full of sacrifices, with strife. 

2. A wise servant shall have rule over a son that causeth shame, 
and shall have part of tiie inheritance among the brethren. 

3. The fining pot is for silver and the furnace for gold ; but the 
Lord trieth the hearts. 

4. A wicked doer giveth heed to false lips; and a liar giveth 
ear to a naughty tongue. 

5. Whoso mocketh the poor reproacheth his maker; and he 
that is glad at calamities shall not be unpunished. 

6. Children's children are the crown of old men ; and the glory 
of children are their fathers. 

"And the Glory of Children are Their Fathers ! " 

So have we said, looking back upon the rugged constancy and 
faith which animated 02ir fathers in their bitter struggle to establish 
themselves and theirs and their institutions in a new and bleak and 
inhospitable land ; upon their perfect conviction that they were for- 
warding the will and the work of their God by loosing the bonds 
which they found hampering to their souls, and by building a new- 
made freedom upon foundations as firm as their own granite hills. 

We glory in their unfeigned enthusiasm therein, in their splendid 
devotion to their task and in their generous self-immolation in its 
execution. We turn us to their example for that inspiration to high 
thoughts and great deeds which shall make us worthy to wear their 

6 MEDFORirS TERCENTENARY. [Mar., June, 1930.] 

" As he was to the fathers, so be the Lord to us." Thus speaks 
the motto upon the seal of our MetropoHtan city. It is ours so to 
bear our parts that the heritage may be nowise dimmed, but rather 
brightened, passing on to our children's children. li we cannot 
share all the sternness and perhaps the gloom of our fathers' faith, 
yet may we emulate their steadfastness, in the faith that is ours, 
faltering not in the pursuit of that righteousness unto which all 
other good shall be added. 

" So live the fathers in their sons. 
Their sturdy faith be ours, 
And ours the love that overruns 
Its rocky strength with flowers." 

Nor is this constancy in the faith our whole duty, the confidence 
in this reward our only, perhaps not our highest, expectation. 

"Children's children are the crown of old men." So, whether 
we will or not, we do bring something into the world; and we 
shall be known by what we leave after us. 

How else shall one live on, save in the offspring of his brain, his 
hand, his heart .'' If his brain prove barren or perverse, shall not 
its creatures be dead things, or worse than dead.'' And if hand 
and heart work not together for good, what shall they bring forth 
but ashes.'' He shall be judged by his fruits. These shall fashion 
his crown, shall show it forth tarnished or bright, shall build the 
furnace wherein to try its metal. Most surely of all shall they be 
found in his most precious contribution — his descendants unto all 

Heaven send we may so number our days that our children's 
children shall rise up to call us blessed, shall find in us that joy and 
inspiration we have found in the fathers ; shall fare strong and wise 
and able, to perform without fear and without reproach the work 
they may be called to do. Then shall they look upon their fathers' 
labors and the structure they have built and sing of us with pious 
reverence : 

" The leaves they knew 
Are gone these many summers, and the winds 
Have scattered them all harshly thro' the years 
But still, in calm and venerable strength. 
The old stem lifts its burthen up to heaven. 
And the new leaves, to the same gentle tune. 
Drink in the light, and strengthen, and grow fair." 

Uift pageant of tlye iUysttt 


in celebration of the 

Tercentenary of the Settlement 

of Medford 



Written by 

for the 


Produced and Performed by the People of Medford 

June 23, 24, 25, 30, July 1 and 2 

8:30 o'clock 



Leslie R. Carey 


Assistant Pageant Director Edwin F. Pidgeon 

Stage Matmger George J. Hackett 

Assistant 8>tage Man-ager John G. Fortune 

Assistant Stage Manager Frederick A. Kom Lost 

Assistant Stage Manager Thomas M. Connell 

Miisic Director Elmer H. Wilson 

Choral Director Dr. Charles W. McPherson 

Dancing Director Mrs. Frederick A. Russell 



Hon. Edward H. Larkin, Mayor of Medford 

Honorary Chairman 

Frank D. Neill, Chairman 

Charles T. Daly, Secretary 


Frank D. Neill, Executive Chairman 
Charles T. Dalt, Secretary 


Maj. John J. Carew Hon. Lewis H. Lovering 

Mr. Charles W. Collins Mr. Anthony F. R. Novelline 

Hon. Richard B. Coolidge Mr. Michael E. O'Brien 

Mr. Andrew F. Curtin Mr. Milton D. Riley 

Mr. John G. Fortune Mr. Henry Risman 

Mr. Edward J. Gaffey Mr. Alwyne E. Ritchie 

Mr. George J. Hackett Hon. Charles S. Taylor 

Mr. Samuel C. L. Haskell Mr. John J. Ward 

Mr. John G. Fortune 

Mrs. Hollis E. Gray 

Mrs. Frederick A. Russell 

Chief Thomas A. Qualey 

William F. Lacey, Jr. 


Mr. George J. Hackett 


Mrs. George B. Quinby 


Mr. Hubert C. Shedd 


Lieut. Charles H. Ewell 


Mr. Philip G. Desmond 


Joseph L. Fitzpatriek 


Mr. Alwyne E. Ritchie 


Mr. Andrew S. Scott 

Maj. John J. Carew 

Michael E. O'Brien 

Hon. Richard B. Coolidge 


Music by Medford Tercentenary Orchestra. 

Chorus by Medford Tercentenary Choristers. 

Costumes and Wigs by Ware, Costumer Inc., Boston. 

Poster by Miss Norma E. Casano. 

Amplification by Radio Installation & Service Co., Med- 
ford, Mass. 

Lighting' by J. M. Maxwell & Son. 

Scenery designed and constructed by Frederick A. Kom- 
Losy, Maiden, Mass. 

Seats by Maurice M. Devine. 

Printing Pageant Book, Mercury Printing Company. 

Chorus Accompanist, Mrs. William J. Reilly. 

Dance Accompanist, Miss Doris Brown. 

Pageant Book Secretary, Miss Louise P. Taylor. 

Assistant Pageant Book Secretary, Miss Mildred A> 


"I haue great cause to acknowledge God's goodness 
& mercy to me in inabling me to under goe what I haue 
& doe suffer hy New England, & if my heart deceyve me 
not, I joye more in the expectation of that good shall come 
to others there when I shal hee dead and gone, than I greyue 
for my owne losses, though they have beene verry heavy & 
great e." 

Mathewe Cradock to the Court of 
Assistants, February 1640. 


From the days wheu the Indians paddled their 
canoes up the Missituk, — "great tidal river," — to their 
homes by the spreading lakes, the Mystic has been the 
pulsing heart of Medford's life. The earliest settlers made 
the winding stream a highway to Cradock 's plantation. 
The "Blessing of the Bay," launched by Governor "Win- 
throp as early as 1631, was the forerunner of a later fleet 
that went down the river to all the corners of the seven 
seas. Across Matthew Cradock 's toll bridge labored the 
land traffic of colonial days toward the settlements to the 
north, and under it crept the slow "lighters" which bore 
the products of forest, farm, and brickyard to the markets 
of the seaport. Today the Mystic, no longer hemmed in 
by the "uncouth wilderness," carries its salt tide only to 
the site of the bridge. But the open valley runs on to 
the lakes while, skirting its banks, the parkways of today 
bring beauty and vision to the crowded pressure of city 

In this pageant I have attempted to picture signifi- 
cant events in the life story of the town that grew up along 
the Mystic. Sometimes imagination has necessarily added 
to the scenes that embody, however, as far as possible the 
recorded words of the past actors. I have not tried to 
go beyond the boundaries of Medford, except to follow 
back to England Matthew Cradock, who, though founder 
of the city, never saw his grant of two thousand acres. 


I have tried to make Medford live again as patriot souls 
stirred her into action, for Medford knew Governor Win- 
throp, Paul Revere, and General Washington. She had, 
too, her own patriot sons and daughters who contributed 
to the upbuilding of the commonwealth and the republic. 
From their day the colonial town by rapid growth through 
these later years has become a large city in which still 
stand sentinels of the olden times, cherished in a living 

Into Medford, as if with the flood of the tide, have 
poured the men and wealth of lands across the sea. In 
her three hundred years of existence Medford has created 
a new world from the old, and as the ebb tide of her river 
returns to the sea, so she has given again to the world 
her men and her wealth in grateful appreciation. 

I am indebted to many, among others to Miss Helen 
T. Wilde and Mr. Moses W. Mann, accurate historians 
of the city, to Mrs. Leo R. Lewis, who has composed the 
music of the choruses, to Mrs. Shepherd Brooks, who made 
her estate the pageant ground, to Mr. Leslie A. Carey, 
Director of the Pageant, whose dramatic experience has 
enriched the text and who has shown the finest spirit of 
co-operation, and to all the various committees and the 
cast who have made the production possible. 

Ruth Dame Coolidge. 

i ( 


Prologue — The Mystic River with the Ebb and Flood 

Episode I — Colonization. 

Scene 1. The First White Men in Medford, Septem- 
ber 21, 1621. 

Scene 2. The Granting of the Charter, March 4, 

Scene 3. Cradock and the Charter, July 28, 1629. 

Scene 4. "Went up Mystic Six Miles," June 17, 

Scene 5. The Death of Sagamore John. 

Episode II— Colonial Life, 1630-1770. 

Episode III — The Revolution. 

Scene 1. After the Boston Tea Party, December 16, 

Scene 2. Isaac Royall's Decision, 1775. 
Scene 3. The Nineteenth of April — Morning, 1775. 
Scene 4. The Nineteenth of April — Evening, 1775. 
iScene 5. Washington inspects the troops at Medford, 

March, 1776. 

Tableau — The Outcome of the Revolution. 

Interlude — Song Chorus. 

Episode IV — Commercial Development. 

Scene 1. The first adventure in Transportation — the 

Middlesex Canal, 1793. 
Scene 2. The second adventure — the Boston & Lowell 

Railroad, June 24, 1835. 
Scene 3. The Launching of the Ship, 1856. 
Scene 4. The second Paul Revere, April 18, 1861. 

Epilogue— The City of Medford, the Flood and Ebb Tides. 


m^t pageant of tlje Mastic 


(Before the pageant opens, the Indians are already 
on the scene. The men are in canoes fishing, the 
women making baskets and pottery. Boys are build- 
ing a fire. Kettles and clay pots stand by the fire 
where women are cooking. Before the Indian wigwam 
is stretched a drying skin; fish are drying on a flat 

Indian Dance 

Song Chorus 
From the shining lakes between the hills 
The Missituck come I, 
Winding my pathway through the vale, 
Where the broad marshes lie. 

A hundred streams in the shady Fells, 
And sunny brooks a score, 
Have loved and lavished at my feet 
Their swift and sparkling store. 

Swelling with love I bear their gifts 
A treasure to the sea, 
And then with grateful heart turn back — 
The salt tide as my fee. 

Ever the flood tide brings with me 
The wealth of seas unknown. 
And ever my grateful ebb tide bears 
The wealth that the woodlands loan. 

To all who dwell beside my shore 
I give my blessings twain, 
The bounty to take of land and sea 
And the heart to give back again. 


(Sound of music. Enter Mystic, with Flood and 
Ebb tides, two women, each with a train of dancers 
dressed to represent the varying shades of the water. 

A dance of the spirits follows symbolizing the wind- 
ing of the river, and its ebb and flow. The River 
takes a position in the foreground and the music 
changes to an Indian melody.) 

EPISODE I— Colonization 


The First White Men in Medford 

(The Indian men disperse as for hunting, leaving 
the women and a few boys in the settlement. In the 
distance approach by water Miles Standish nine 
companions and four Indians. They leave their 
shallop drawn up on the shore with two armed men 
on guard and march forward. An Indian runner in 
the foreground gives warning of the coming whites 
and all withdraw in terror before the Pilgrims land. 
Squanto and Obbatinewat enter and call to them. 
The women come slowly back as the Pilgrims come 
forward gesturing courteously.) 


Assure them, Squanto, that we mean but peace. 

(Indian boys approach and look at the color of the 
'white men and touch their beards wonderingly. 
Squanto talks with the women.) 


Which of them is the Squa Sachem? 

(Squanto interprets. The women shake their 

She not here. 




Not here! 'Tis unfortunate after all these 
miles of weary travel. Not here.— Where is 


(After much talk) 

She not here. 


strange, a squaw to reign over these people! 
Was their sachem, Nanepashemit, swept away 
in the recent plague, Squanto? 


They say Nanepashemit killed by enemy on top 
hill, right there. 

(As Squanto interprets the women point to the hill 
behind the pageant ground.) 


Where are their men? Go you 

(to a runner) 

with one of these boys, find them and bring 
them thither. 

(Exeunt the runner and a boy) 

I confess myself hungry. Yon kettle has a 
pleasant odor. 


They say, they give food pale faces. 

( 11 ) 

(The Pilgrims move up with alacrity as squaws pre- 
pare food.) 


They have cooked, methinks, some of the fish 
with which this Missituk river abounds. 


I never knew fish with more bones. 


What though it be more bony than our cod, we 
must thank them, nevertheless, for their hos- 


Give them thanks, Squanto. 

(As they finish the runner returns with a small 
timid Indian who registers fear whenever the Pilgrims 
advance toward him and takes refuge at times behind 
the stoical women.) 


Is this the only envoy of a great tribe? Well, 
Squanto, tell him we would make a treaty 
with the Squa Sachem and trade with them 
for skins. 

(Squanto interprets and the men make a display of 
wampum, knives and red cloth.) 


This country we have seen is most fertile, with 
excellent harbors and running waters. 
Would we had landed here instead of Ply- 



Nay, the Lord who assigns to all men their 
habitations hath appointed it for other use. 


Surely the Lord hath been with us in our out- 
goings and incomings, for which His holy 
name have praise evermore. 

(During this dialogue Squanto attempts to wrest a 
beaver skin from the small Indian, who finally gets 
help from the women.) 


Yea, truly Elder Brewster, but we must even 
help ourselves now in our outgoings. We 
cannot find the Squa Sachem or any men 
save this poor fellow with whom to trade. 


(creeping up and speaking scornfully with sweep of 
his arm.) 

All Squaws. Take skins and food. Enemies! 
Say they fight you. Take their things. 


Out on you, Tisquantum. Were they never so 
bad we would not wrong them or give them 
any just occasion against us. 


Perchance the women would trade with us, 
good captain. 

(He takes hold of a skin hanging about the shoulders 
of one of the women and offers her some beads. Brisk 


trading follows. The Pilgrims start toward the boat, 
well laden, the women following them.) 


They say they will save skms for you. He 

(pointing to the Indian) 

trade, too. 


Back now to the boat and our return home. We 
have not seen the Squa Sachem but somewhat 
we have done toward a knowledge of this new 


I cannot but wish "we had been ther seated." 

Note. Two powerful tribes of Indians held sway in this 
vicinity when the first settlers came, — the Massachuset and the 
Pawtuckets. The sachem of the Pawtuckets was Nanepashe- 
mit. He came from Lynn in 1615 and took up his abode on 
Rock Hill where he could best watch canoes on the river. He 
was killed in 1619, apparently about on the hill behind the 
pageant ground. His widow, the Squa Sachem, succeeded him, 
though his three sons, called by the English Sagamores John, 
George, and James, ruled over the Indians of Medford, Salem, 
and Lynn. 

This scene is based on Mourt's Relation, which narrates 
in detail the trip made by an exploring party of ten pilgrims 
with Indian guides in September, 1621. On September 21 they 
marched inland to the Mystic Lakes and found a palisaded 
Indian village deserted. Further on they came upon the In- 
dian women: "with much fear . . . they entertained us at 
first, but seeing our gentle carriage toward them, they took 
heart and entertained us in the best manner they could, boil- 
ing cod and such things as they had for us." 



(The Flood tides run toward the East, listening 
and exulting, while the faint refrain of an English 
chanty rises.) 


Beyond the sea wherein my waters flow, 

A distant call. Flood tide, what hearest thou? 


Twice every day I bear unto thy heart 
The fresh salt tides from ocean's farthest 


What new gift doth old ocean bear to me ? 


Soon, soon shall come to thee across the foam, 
From England's brave and noble hearted isle, 
A ship of hardy and godfearing men, — 
Like to yon Pilgrims who adventured here — 
To found a city on thy winding stream. 


What king doth send them here? 


No king 
But their own conscience. Yet a merchant 

Whose argosies have floated down the Thames 
And sailed to all the seas, will send them forth. 



And his name, my Flood Tide? 


Good Matthew Cradoek, born in London town, 

A generous, fair, f arsighted man. 

Who dreams of new worlds sprung from old 

and acts 
To make his dreams come true. E'en now, be- 
He and the friends of Massachusetts Bay- 
Have wrested from King Charles a mighty 

Of all these shores to found a Commonwealth. 


The Granting of the Charter 

(A canopy is borne in, followed by a train of nobles, 
Cradock among them. King Charles takes his seat 
beneath the canopy. His chancellor brings to him the 
charter of the "Governor and Company of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay in New England." March 4, 1629.) 


(to his Chancellor) 

Affix we now the seal. 

(The great seal is brought in and impressed upon 
the charter.) 

Mr. Craclock, I grant to you, as the first and 
present Governor, the charter of the Governor 
and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in 
New England. May you build a New Eng- 
land across the seas ! 


(Kneeling and kissing his hand) 

Most gracious sovereign, we will build a new 
world from our old. 

(He takes the charter. Exeunt Royal train.) 

Note. Matthew Cradock, the founder of Medford, was a 
distinguished merchant of London, prominent under two kings, 
and the personal friend of John Winthrop. To him belongs 
the credit of taking the initiative in the transfer of the charter 
to the new world. Though Cradock never came to the planta- 
tion he founded, he guided the infant settlement, gave wise 
directions as to the treatment of the Indians and built the 
first toll bridge across the Mystic in about 1636. However 
heavy was the loss in his financial investment, he never failed 
to succor and develop his struggling plantation. In his vision, 
his wisdom and in his generosity Medford recognizes him as 
the ideal father of the city. 


Cradock and the Charter 

(During the exit of the royal train, a long table 
and several chairs are brought in by attendants. Enter 
twenty-three members, present on the recorded date 
of the business meeting at which the transfer of the 
charter was first introduced, July 28, 1629, at the 
home of the Deputy Governor, Mr. Thomas Goffe in 

Among those present at this meeting and at the 
meeting of August 29, 1629, when the motion was 
carried to transfer the charter to New England were: 
"Mr. Matthew Cradock, Gov., Mr. Thomas Goffe, 
Dept., Mr. Thomas Adams, Mr. Nathaniell Wright, 
Mr. Theophilus Eaton, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Mr. 
Increase Nowell, Mr. Samuel Vassall, Mr. Jos. Brad- 
shawe, Mr. Willyam Pinch on, and others.) 


The matter of the purchase of ships is, then, 
arranged. We will now turn to the final and 
most important matter of business. Gentle- 
men! Know you this? 

(He holds aloft the charter) 

The charter! The charter! 


Aye. The charter ! 


Ay! The head of his majesty, King Charles 
himself ! 


And his royal seal affixed. 



Your name, Governor Cradock, heads the list. 


So! This much have we won from his High- 
ness, King Charles, — a grant for our colony 
of Massachusetts Bay ; a start to a new home 
in the wilderness. 


But why the charter here today, Mr. Cradock? 


Members of the Council, we need men of worth 
and quality, resourceful men to cope with 
hardships, and men with property of their 
own to carve new worlds out of old. 




But such men are unwilling to risk their all in 
such a venture without assurance and guaran- 
tee of certain freedom. 


You speak in riddles ! 


I will be brief. I propose that the government 
of the plantation be transferred to those who 
shall inhabit there, and not to continue the 
same in subordination to the Company here. 



You propose — 


I propose that the charter be transferred to the 


The charter to be taken overseas ! 


His Majesty will never consent. 


Then it shall be transplanted without his con- 


Is this treason? 


But the company is ours — we have invested our 


They invest their lives. 


But the company will be out of hand. 


Three thousand miles beyond our reach. Fare- 
well, money. 

Our money against their lives ! 



But we offer them more. 


Ay, much more. 


Is freedom from oppression of no value ? 


What freedom is there if they are to be ruled 
by Parliament? 


Treason ! 


Treason or tyranny? 


Tyranny ! 


Governor, methinks I am with you! Let them 
as Englishmen have their charter, 


Never, as long as I have breath to protest and 
the power to vote. 


But this very power of vote in affairs is what 
they are to be denied. And you with so little 
at stake ! 



Is our money nothing ? 


Exactly that — if the right of voice in its expen- 
diture be removed. 


Cradock, I, too, am with you. There is weight 
in your words. 


Not one penny of my money without assurance. 


Not one once of their blood without protection. 


Governor, I propose a vote on the proposition 
that you made. Will you read it once more. 


(reading from paper) 

"I do propose that for the advancement of 
the plantation, the inducing and encouraging 
persons of worth and qualitie to transplant 
themselves and families thither and for other 
weighty reasons that the government of the 
plantation shall be transferred to those that 
shall inhabit there and not to continue the 
same in subordination to the company here, 
as now it is."* 

*This motion was not passed until August 29, 1629, but for the 
sake of dramatic presentation, the two scenes have been com- 



Second the motion. 


You have heard the proposition. Those in fa- 
vor will say ay, and those opposed nay. 

(The vote is close, winning by one or two) 

It is voted. I have faith to prophesy that the 
Charter of our Massachusetts Bay Company 
with the seal of our gracious majesty affixed, 
will, in accordance with that vote, be the first 
to cross the Atlantic. We shall plant a free 
commonwealth in a free land. 


(Visibly moved) 

Amen, so be it. 


If there be no further business we are ad- 

(Cradock lingers after others have gone) 

Now whatsoever King or Parliament may do, 
I joy in the expectation of that good shall 
come to my settlement at Mystick. 


"Went Up Mystick River Six Miles" 

John Winthrop's Journal June 17, 1630 

(Refrain from old English chantey) 
(A boat appears carrying sailors from the Arbella 
and three colonists with Winthrop in command. As 
the clearing in the woods comes in view, they rest 
on their oars. Pantomine discussions.) 


Rest on the oars ! 

(They take sounding) 


(They rest on their oars and are instantly on guard) 

What's abroad? 


There's a landing point. Put about! Let's 
ashore ! 

(Slowly the boat comes to shore. Cautiously the 
company disembarks.) 


(Suddenly raises voice) 


(Every man attentive and cautious.) 

What's toward? 


A trail ! 




Forward, men, and cautiously. Here is sign of 
humans. Watchful ! 

The trail divides yonder. 


So. Do you, Sirs, 

(indicating two men) 

return to the ford and stand guard over the 
boat. You, men, 

(indicating others) 

take the trail to the left. Mark you keep 
within gun signal. We will to the right. 
Cradock did say they planted their farm near 
where the Indian trail did cross the river. 

But if we find no— 


No colony? Then it must appear the Indians 
have done their work. Wait! Look you! 

(indicating right) 

Some one comes. To cover, men, and spare 
your powder. 

(They instantly drop to crouching positions. From 
over the knoll to the right appear white men. They 
have seen the disembarking group and stand for an 
instant on guard. Then they recognize the dress of 
Englishmen and rush forward exultantly.) 


(one of the Mystick men) 

Englishmen ! 

(His men together shout: Englishmen! They meet 
Winthrop's unit and, half crazed with joy, embrace 
them man to man.) 


My good men. You, — are you of Cradock's 
plantation at Mystick? 


Ay. The same! Thrice welcome. Thrice wel- 
come. 'Tis over a year now since we have 
heard any English voice save our own. Oh, 
the loneliness of these forests ! 


Three brothers by the name of Sprague with 
four comrades did venture across the wilder- 
ness from Gov. Endicott's colony at Neham- 
keeke last summer ; they alone have found us. 


How came you? By what boat? How many are 
you? What of England? 


Greetings from Mathewe Cradock, your pro- 
prietor ! 


Governor Cradock! 



Nay, sir. I have now the honor to be the Gov- 
ernor of the Massachusetts Bay Company. 


You, Sir? The governor! And here? 


The same. The charter and the Governor be 
now on these shores. Cradock has willed it. 


And we be now ruled by your charter here in 
New England? 


Ay. The first ever to be taken from the old 
world to the new. 



Has your ship yet returned to England? 


Nay. The Arbella yet rides at anchor in Massa- 
chusetts Bay well stocked with merchandise 
and supplies for your needs. 


When— when— sails she for dear old England ? 


Within the fortnight. 


I would go back with her. 

And I, sir. 




What is this? 


Oh, sir, I've endured, suffered until sometimes 
it seems I'd go mad with loneliness and — 


Three of our members have already— (indicates 


I want no more of it. 


stop! Is this mutiny? 


If so, 'tis not the first. 

Have you not food ? 


Enough with care. The waters abound in ale- 
wives and the woods be full of — 



Indians that hourly seek our pelt. 


Is that true ? 


The Indians in the main are friendly and have 
brought us much aid. Dark fears. 

(He touches his head significantly) 

What of shelter? 


These woods have yielded substance for shelter 
and ships, and game for food. Substance 
aplenty for hardy souls ! 


(Turning on the recalcitrant group) 

And you prate of suffering? 

I say, Governor, let them sail those blooming 
waters as we did. Suffering ! 'Ods Bodkins ! 

(He seizes his stomach) 

Enough of this. There is no room here for lily- 
livered souls. Get you to boat and sail for 
England and when you are once more with 
them who were wont to call you men say that 


here be scant harbor for hearts with infirm 
purpose; say that here be little shelter for 
such as tremble at imaginary shadows and 
the sickly fears of children ; say that here are 
broad fields, mighty forests and potent 
rivers, boundless opportunities for those 
whose lips are firm and whose courage is 
fixed. Here we are carving new worlds out 
of old, sturdy enterprise calling for men who 
falter not nor count the sacrifice. If you are 
the stuff of which colonies must be made, I 
would to God this venture were already 


(with head bowed) 

Sir, you shame me as I deserve. I beg to stay. 


And I. 


'Tis well ! I salute you as Englishmen. 

Come, the tide has changed. Let us to our boat. 
I doubt not that many others will return to 
this fair settlement. I ask for nothing better, 
myself, than to settle by this fair river and 
build ships for new ventures. Farewell. 

(Winthrop and his men go to the boat as the other 
group stands and waves adieu. Again is heard the 
sound of the chantey as the boat rows away.) 

Note. This scene is based on an entry in Winthrop's 
Journal, June 17, 1630. "Went up Mystick River six miles," 


and one in the Charlestown Records that the Sprague brothers 
and three others travelling overland from Salem in 1628 or 
1629 found Cradock's men on the Mystic. The meeting is un- 
founded by actual record but is entirely probable. The first 
authoritative record of Medford is on September 28, 1630, when 
the Court of Assistants, under Governor Winthrop, levied a 
tax on the several plantations for instructing the colonists in 
military tactics, among others, "Meadford, three pounds." 

Winthrop, the first governor of the colony in Massachu- 
setts, early explored Medford and received a grant of six 
hundred acres, including that part of Medford now south of 
the River. He launched on July 4, 1631, "The Blessing of the 
Bay," one of the first ships built in the new world. 


The Death of Sagamore John 

(Conspicuous among settlers about a camp fire are 
Winthrop, Davison, Mayhew, John Noyes, George Felt, 
and the Eeverend John Wilson.) 


Look you, gentlemen, something's amiss. 

(A score of canoes enter bearing Indians across the 
pond about to land) 


Sagamore John and his followers ! 


'Tis another warning of attack by the Tarren- 

(The canoes land. The Indians beckon the settlers 
excitedly and they rush to the shore. Sagamore John 
is lifted from canoe and half carried to the camp 
fire. The canoes withdraw.) 


What is it, John ? 

(John settles to the ground with a cry of relief. 
All surround him.) 


Chief bad. No eat, no sleep, always lay down 



(They raise and give him water.) 



Ah ! Good ! Master Wilson. 


Here, John. 


(Seizing his hand) 

I-come-to-give-white-man-thank. Good-much 


Quick ! Give him rum ! 


No! Not more! Red chief -go-soon-see-Great 


How long has he been thus? 


For many sun he bad. 


Is he — is this the end ? 


I fear it. 


See, Great Spirit angry ! It grow dark ! 


No, John, there is no anger. All is well. 



Where Papoose? 

(They bring an Indian boy to his side. John 
readies forward and grasps the arm of the boy.) 

Master Wilson! You take Papoose-boy-make- 
him-like-good-white-man. Sometime him be 
big chief like Gov'nor John. 

(He again turns his head to Winthrop) 

Make Papoose good man — learn know white 
man God ! 


Be assured, brave chief, he shall be watched 
after. And you, John, think you that now 
you know the white man's God ! 


Red Chief-think-he-know. Red Chief love — 


It grow dark - Papoose - boy - come - near - 
Papoose-Big-Chief-It grow dark-dark-dark — 

(He dies) 

(Winthrop and his men remove their hats: Rev- 
erently they draw the blanket over the body of Saga- 
more John. Soft Indian dirge rises as Winthrop 
speaks final lines.) 


Into the land of the setting sun he goes. So 
passes the spirit of those who first learned 
and loved the hidden mysteries of these 


shores and who freely shared of their patri- 
mony that those who follow might prosper. 

(Indians embark in the canoes and paddle silently 
away, in a wide circle.) 

(The rest of the Indians walk slowly in single file 
toward the setting sun. The River dancers surge in 
from each side waving farewell until finally all ex- 
eunt. ) 


EPISODE II— Colonial Life 

This time of uneventful peace in Medfiord's history- 
is represented by characteristic pictures of the religious, 
civil, and social life. 

The settlers go to church,* and the sound of their 
psalm rises by the river. Women enter with quilting 
frames and girls and boys for a husking bee. Many Co- 
lonial activities are represented. A man is placed in the 
stocks and endures the scorn and jesting of all who pass, 
of children on their way to school (t), of men and boys 
bearing corn to the mill (t), of women on their way to 
market. Peter Tufts rides by on his way to Boston as 
Medford's first representative. His son Peter, eleven 
years old, bids his father farewell (§). A trial also takes 
place before a judge and the protesting culprit is borne 
away to the ducking stool (*t). Meanwhile the river 
dancers encircle the whole, as the river itself was literally 
a way of life to the early settlers (*t). 

*The first meeting house in Medford was erected in 1696 
on High Street, just above High Street Place, and was 30 feet 
long, 27 feet wide and 16 feet high. Rev. Benjamin Wood- 
bridge was the first minister. He called it "candlestick by 
the ford and a light set up in it." The Town of Medford 
hired a horse for his journey hither, insisting that it be well 

The second meeting house was near Meetinghouse Brook, 
1727 and was 52 feet long, 38 feet wide and 33 feet posts, 
about twice the size of the first one. The third was built in 
1770 on the site of the present Unitarian Church with a "tower 
from the ground, two porches and leads and pulleys in the 

fThe first schoolhouse in Medford built May, 1734, 20 by 
24 feet near Meetinghouse Brook. Before this by 1719 a 
writing school was established with "Mr. Henery Davison" as 
teacher who was allowed "the sum of Three Pound money for 
keepin school the time aboue Sd and also to diet him for Ye 


term aboue Sd." The third schoolhouse stood very near the 
street opposite the Episcopal Church. It was from this church 
that the children flocked to see President Washington after 
he breakfasted next door with Governor Brooks. 

Jin 1698 a Petition stated that "your Petitioners have 
hitherto been necessitated for want of a gristmill in Sd towne 
to carry their corne to be ground as far as Charlestowne or 
Watertowne and sometimes as far as Boston and Noddle's 
Island. Wliereby many times before they can get their meal 
home, it costs them as much as the corne was worth .... 
There was a mill later near Harvard Avenue, West Medford, 
and there was a saw mill as early as 1689 on "Marble's or 
Meetinghouse Brook, in land recently taken for the Fells where 
the mill dam is still clearly marked. There was a large tide- 
mill on the river on the site of Miles lumber yard (1746) and 
other smaller mills. 

§It is now believed by many that the so-called Cradock 
house was built by Peter Tufts about 1670. Medford had been 
up to 1684 a "peculiar" or local district, not set off into a 
town, but from this date it became a town. Peter Tufts to 
reach Boston by horseback must have gone via Cambridge and 
West Roxbury. He may have ferried at Charlestown or at 
Penny Ferry (Wellington Bridge) or even have gone by boat 
from his home on the river to the city. 

*tThe ducking stool, though there is no court record of 
its use in Medford, was a common Puritan method of pun- 
ishment for women or men. 

*JSome of Medford's earliest trade was in bricks and rum 
and the river was the highway for farmers' produce from all 
the surrounding country. There were many landing places. 
The passage down the river was aided by tide, sail, and oar, 
and the long haul around Labor-in-vain was early found so 
difficult that a passage was cut through. These broad sloops 
were built in Medford along the river. 



(Enter Mystic River accompanied by the Flood 
and Ebb Tides.) 


A tiny hamlet, steeped in busy peace, — 
Ploughing the fertile meadows, planting corn, 
Hewing the mighty trees for firewood ; 
Yet loyal to the dream of Cradock still, 
Building a new world. 


But the old world tries 
To curb her freedom, shear her daring trade 
And tax, unrepresented, her young might. 


The sound of Indian warfare long has ceased, 
Yet hark, what sound of thrilling martial drums 
Beats on the silence? 


My tides do bring 
Redcoated soldiers, stern repressive laws 
To tax and conquer our stout Medford men. 


The minutemen of Medford are prepared 
To volunteer alike in war and peace 
To work, to sacrifice, and e'en to die 
For their Puritan heritage of Liberty. 

(Martial Music) 


EPISODE III— The Revolution 


After the Boston Tea Party 

(Enter Sarah Bradlee Fulton and Mrs. Nathaniel 
Bradlee. The have a large iron kettle which con- 
tains water and clothes.) 


'Tis the only time I ever wished that I might be 
an Indian squaw. 


Thou would'st have made a rare one, Sarah. A 
good soldier was lost when thou put on petti- 


I know I had rather make tea as they are 
making it, with the harbor as their teapot, 
than to set the kettle on the hob. Ah ! Here 
come our painted helpmates e'en now. 

(Two men enter hurriedly, Indians from their waists 
up — John Fulton and Nathaniel Bradlee.) 


Quick, wife ! To the house and cover. 


With face and features of that cut ! You'll not 
step through my door thus ! 



But the town is full of spies. We may be 
watched ! 


Let them but show themselves and I'll fix these 
feathers with pitch and apply it to their royal 

(During the dialogue the ladies have removed most 
of the feathers and have wiped off some of the paint.) 

There. You'll soon be turned from a savage 
into a civilized man again. Take you to the 
well and end the good work. But before you 
go tell us quickly how it went. 


We did rush in a body on the wharves. No one 
offered us resistance. Zounds, how our hatch- 
ets did crash into those painted tea boxes. 
Some of us carried them up from the hold, 
some did smash them open, and overboard 
they went in a trice. 


Would I might have seen it! 


The whole regiment of redcoats might have all 
the tea they wished did they drink from the 
harbor tonight. 

Well salted indeed and cooled in the saucer. But 


come now. Get you gone. We'll remain here 
till you return. 

(Men exeunt) 

Sarah ! Look you ! A redcoat. 


Let him come. 


The feathers. 

(Sarah conceals feathers, etc. and puts towels into 
kettle and begins to scrub vigorously.) 


(Appears, looks about and is plainly at a loss.) 

You — you are late at work, good women. 


We do wash up the towels after our tea. What 
would you? 


You did make tea tonight? 


Ay, we made tea, — oceans of it. 


Pardon me. I did think you were rebels and not 
his majesty's loyal subjects. 


We will pardon you. 

(Exit spy) 

Note. This scene is enlarged from an incident in which 
a spy, searching for proof of participators in the Tea Party, 
found Mrs. Fulton and Mrs. Bradlee so quietly at work that 
his suspicions at the lateness of the hour were dissipated. 



Isaac Royall's Decision 

(Enter Plato and George, slaves to Isaac Royall; 
Captain Isaac Hall; Dr. Simon Tufts, an old man of 
75; Bond, the village blacksmith, and other colonists.) 


Here you ! 
Yes suh ! 


Where's your master? 

I cain't rightly say, suh. 


He done say he's goin' to Kings Chapel. 

(All exchange significant glances.) 

Say to Colonel Royall we will a word with him. 


Yes, suh. 


It'll take more than his gift of silver service to 
the meeting house to convince me of Royall's 



I like it not that he doth leave Medford for 
Kings Chapel. Matters stand on a most des- 
perate pass. We Minutemen do look at any 
moment for the signal to march. 


I cannot believe that Colonel Royall would turn 


Last winter when I settled accounts with the 
colonel he did show me all his arms and accou- 
trements and told me he was fully determined 
to stand for his country. Hush ! He comes ! 

(Enter Col. Royall with his daughter, Elizabeth 
Pepperell, followed by Sir William Pepperell and 
their little five year old daughter, and several 
royalists. ) 


Good morrow, my good friends. 'Tis kind of 
you to search me out. My best beloved physi- 
cian, Dr. Tufts, Elizabeth and Sir William, 
whom you do know well. And Isaac Hall, 
our brave young captain of the Minutemen. 
Greetings to you all ! 

(All make formal greetings, the child also court- 
sies. The atmosphere is courteous but cool.) 


We are leaving for church in Boston and Eliza- 
beth goes thence to other friends. 

(Plato and third slave enter bringing out Lady 
Elizabeth's trunk.) 


Is there aught in which I can be of service to 
you, gentlemen ? 

(Awkward pause.) 

Will you forgive an old friend, Colonel Royall, 
if he makes bold to beg of you to stay in Med- 
ford? The times are troubled and many 
hearts are jealous and uneasy. 


But you know. Dr. Tufts, my business in far 
Antigua doth demand my attention. 


Business is business. Sir, and Antigua a conven- 
ient place for business just now. 

(He takes a pinch of snuff.) 

Twill be thought you do take flight there, Col- 
onel. Many already say you are a Tory, and 
make threats against you. 


Men will ever talk, Isaac, but surely this cloud 
of misunderstanding 'twixt the king and 
colony will blow away. There surely may be 
honorable peace. For if we come to war, 
what prospect is there for colonial arms? Do 
you believe. Sir, 

(to Isaac Hall) 

"our brave but untrained soldiers can openly 


defy the power of England? Why, believe 
me, Sir, she is too strong for us and would 
send against us her ten thousand Russians 
who would subdue us."* 


I'll not believe it, and if I did I still would fight, 
were it I alone to the full ten thousand. 


Good Gad, Sir, this fellow forgets you are an 
Englishman and love your flag and king. 


He remembers I am an American and love my 
colony, home, and friends. 


Zounds, Sir, you surely cannot take sides with 
these demagogues? 

(Stir among colonists.) 

On my honor, Sir, I'll never raise my sword for 
my king against my countrymen. 

(The Pepperells whisper excitedly.) 

Spoken like Colonel Royall. I was assured the 
love you bore your country was so deep you'd 
throw the weight of your wealth and influence 
on the side of freedom. 

*Directly quoted from Royall's words. 


Father, you would not take up arms against 
England and the King? 

Who talks of fighting? I but talk of peace. 


Peace is out of the question. Matters have 
gone too far. 


It is a time, Royall, when to be neutral is to be a 
Tory? Who is not for us is against us. 


Come, Colonel, we trifle. You must choose ! Is 
it King or Colony? 



My heart is with the colonies. 


Your hand on it. Sir ! 

(Royall half extends hand to meet that of Hall.) 

Stay! Think what you do. Sir! Do you con- 
template treason against your sovereign ? And 
your property. Sir — think of your property. 


Father, you would not disgrace your daughters ? 

(Royall hesitates, then withdraws his hand.) 

Gentlemen — I cannot. Quick, my carriage — I 
am not well. 

(Slowly he withdraws from colonial group followed 
by his friends. The coach rolls up. Royall starts 
to mount, hesitates, turns back to the group of men. 
Pepperell touches his arm, he turns, mounts and the 
coach rolls away. As Royall leaves, a light is turned 
on Hall who steps forward. Dr. Tufts stands with 
bowed head.) 


Thus must history record this struggle which 
will ever try men's souls. We move according 
to our light. 


The Ninteenth of April— Morning 

(Alarm-bells sound. Paul Revere dashes by. There 
are distant calls — "To arms— the British are coming 
—To arms,"— with the sound of fife and drum the 
Medford Minutemen enter, and with Isaac Hall in 
command march away. Townspeople gather excited- 
ly in Square — Bond, the Blacksmith, Porter, the 
tavern proprietor, Dr. Tufts, Sarah Bradlee Fulton, 
Mrs. Nathaniel Bradlee, Stephen Hall, Esq., former 
member of Legislature, and others. There is a dis- 
tant sound of battle.) 


What's the news, Master Porter? 


News aplenty. 


They've been fighting? 


Most certain blood has been shed. 


Blood. Sure and that'll make the boys see red ! 

(Fife and drum drawing nearer.) 

Yes, more minutemen down the Salem Road. 


'Tis the boys from Maiden. 


(Enter the company from Maiden. A boy from 
the roadside offers a pail and tin dipper of water.) 


Where is the fighting? 

(Distant boom of camion) 

Lexington, I should reckon. 


Quick then, boys, we'll catch them before they 
reach Menotomy. Forward! March! 


Huzzay, boys, on with you! The rascals came 
here and stole our powder. 


Stole it, did they? Bad 'cess to 'em! Sure, we'll 
give them all they want! 

Fight 'em, boys, fight 'em! 

(A few stragglers pass by from time to time on foot 
or horseback, all in a great hurry.) 


Will they come back this way? 


Nay, I reckon, they'll take the shortest road to 
their boats to get under the shelter of the 


(Enter Henry Putnam with ^n, followed by his 


Henry, Henry, come back. Don't go off without 
something in your stomach, you aren't going 
without your dinner! 


Yes, I am. I am going to take powder and balls 
for my dinner today, or give them some. 


Did you ever see such a man. He's no call to 
fight at his age. And his dinner stun cold ! 


Nay, he's a hero. 

(More music.) 

Another company of minutemen eating up the 
ground before them ! 

(Enter Dauvers men.) 

Which way to the fighting? 


High road to Menotomy. 


Forward ! 

(Cheer from bystanders.) 



Where are you from ? 




Not a second's pause. Boys, most of them, just 
boys, but boys that can fight. They must have 
run the whole sixteen miles. 

(A farmer gallops in and stops in front of the 
Tavern. Porter runs to bring him a drink.) 


What news, man? 


The farmers are fighting all along the road and 
the redcoats are running for Charlestown. 


How many of them be there? 


Gage had to send more troops to help 'em out. 
The road's full of them and the houses are 
smoking all along the way. 


Houses afire? Why, this is war. 

(Again, distant sound of fife and drum.) 

I wish I could have fought longer, but my pow- 


der was all gone. I tell you I lay behind a 
stonewall and caught some of them, I tell you 

(Enter another company.) 

Which way to the fighting? 


I just came from Menotomy and they were fight- 
ing there. Best take the road to Charlestown. 


Whence came you? 




Lynn and Danvers have passed already. You 
are late. 


All has gone wrong with us. Mistake upon mis- 
take. I fear we'll be too late for any fight at 


You'll cut them off at Winter Hill. 


I'll with them. 


Hurray for the minutemen ! I'll with them, too. 

(Bond and Porter exeunt.) 

You and I, Mistress Fulton, had best prepare 
supplies lest we see wounded men come here 
at night. 

(Exeunt to tavern.) 

(There is a brief darkness thrilling with the roar of 
drums and faint echoes of martial music.) 


The Nineteenth of April — Evening 

(Enter Abigail Brooks and her nieces Mercy (age, 
twelve) and Nancy (age, eighteen.) 


What you suppose is happening? 


The guns are nearer, I do believe. 


Will they return this way, think you. Aunt Abi- 


Not the redcoats, I warrant you. They'll make 
the best of their way to Charlestown and the 
men of war. 

(She brings out a kettle.) 

But what are doing. Aunt Abigail? 


Our men may be coming home any moment, and 
the brave minutemen of other towns. They 
will be hungry and thirsty. 


And you are going to feed them? 



Yes, child, we'll light a fire under this kettle and 
serve them. 


Not tea, Aunt Abigail ! Oh listen, that was near- 


Tea, child ! No patriot drinks tea. Peter ! Peter ! 


What then, Aunt Abigail? 

(Enter Peter Chardon Brooks, small boy of eight.) 

Peter, bid Pompey bring all the last milking 


Yes, mother. 


This is what they shall have. 


Your best chocolate, that you saved so long. 


Naught can be too good for those who hurry 
to their country's call to-day. 

(She melts chocolate while Peter and Pompey bring 
in milk in wooden buckets.) 
( 55 ) 


Oh, mother, I climbed up to the roof, and I saw — 


What, what, tell us what! 


Something bright, shining in the sun, over at 
Menotomy and, oh, mother, I am sure it was 
the bayonets of the British soldiers marching. 


Oh, listen, it is the redcoats. How near the fir- 
ing is ! 


Oh, mother, couldn't I go and see? 


Nay, son, I need you here. Who comes there? 


Some of the minutemen returning. 


Bring them here quickly. See, I have some 
chocolate already hot in the kitchen. Bring 
that first, Mercy. 

(Enter three farmers, powder blackened, slouching 
wearily in their saddles. Peter and girls scamper to 
meet them.) 


Here they are, mother. Their powder is all 
gone, and they've been fighting. 


You must be tired and hungry. Quick, girls. 

(Reenter Mercy.) 

We've got 'em on the run, thank God. 


Yes, ma'm, British grenadiers, running like 


Oh, I hope no one has been hurt. 


Hurt! They say eight of our men were killed 
in Lexington and scores of the grenadiers. I 
saw some of them conveyed off in litters. I 
did myself. 

(Enter Peter conveying another group. The first 
group moves along, saying "Thank you, Ma'm.") 


Are they coming back this way? 


No, making for Boston town as fast as ever God 
lets 'em, our men hot on their tracks and tak- 
ing pot shots from any cover they can get. 


Swarming in on their rear guard, mess of human 
hornets. The whole countryside's aroused. 



Ay, we have seen the minutemen from all the 
north shore pass by us to-day, Lynn, Danvers, 
and all. 


Well, the regulars won't add another mile to 
that journey, they won't. They were that hot, 
their tongues was hanging out of their 
mouths, like dogs. 


Do have more chocolate. 


No thank you, miss. It's powerful good and I 
never tasted any before. But we have a far 
ride to get home to our farms and milking. 


(Rushing in, in high excitement.) 

Mother, here comes father. 


Your father? Are you sure? Thank God! 

(Enter Rev. Edward Brooks, walking beside a 
horse on which is a British officer.) 


Thanks be to Providence. My dear husband, 
you are safe ! 


Yes, wife, and I have brought you a guest. Lieu- 
tenant Gould of the King's own. My nieces. 
Lieutenant. Here, help him down. 


(They lift him from horse and he stands sup- 


But you are wounded. Not badly, I hope. 


Shot in the heel at Concord Bridge. The Lord 
has delivered our enemy into our hands today 
and we must be merciful unto him. 


He shall be our guest. 


I resign myself, madam, to being prisoner of 


Call you it war? 


Yes, wife, and we must be ready to give our all 
for liberty. 


Mr. Brooks, this is a fateful day. This is rebel- 
lion and will be punished as such. 


Perhaps not a rebellion, but a revolution. The 
outcome of today is now in the hands of God. 


Washington Inspects the Troops at Medford 

(A detachment of New Hampshire soldiers under 
Col. Stark marches on field and sets up tents. Early 
March of 1776.) 

(Enter Mistress Molly Stark and Sarah Bradlee 


(To Col. Stark.) 

Kind Madam Fulton has but now sought you at 
the Royall House with butter and eggs for 
your table. 


And an offer of more firewood for your men if 
need arises from Captain Thomas Brooks. 


I salute you, General Fulton. Our army owes a 
great debt to you. 


Nonsense, sir, I have but done what every Med- 
ford woman fain would do. 


Tis firewood that the Tories in old Boston lack. 
But our patriotic Medford citizens have seen 
to it we suffer not. 



How long think you these Tories will lie idle in 
Boston town? 


I do believe that Howe will soon embark his 
troops on his ships and sail from the city. 


And my own eyes shall see it. I shall mount the 
stairs of our Royall House to the roof and 
where last spring I saw the smoke rise over 
burning Charlestown after Bunker's Hill, I 
shall today see the British slink crestfallen 
out to sea. 


Good morrow, ladies and my fellow officer. 'Tis 
indeed a fair spring morning. 


Ay, the troops will soon be in action. 


And the British troops in Boston flee before our 


Oh, Washington, Washington. And what is 
there about this siege of Boston that shows 
such marvelous generalship? A lesser man 
had driven Howe from shelter long ere this. 

(The women show visible indignation.) 


No man can fight without ammunition and 'tis 
but now that Congress hath supplied cannon 
and powder. 


Time will shov/ how soon he uses that powder. 
But for the sake of my bleeding country 
alone, I pray for his success. 


Amen to that. 

(Washington rides in accompanied by Colonel 
John Brooks, staff officer. Lee starts.) 


I am fortunate in finding here two generals at 
once. Ladies, your servant. What was that 
to which you prayed so heartily, amen ? 


To your success, sir, at the lips of General Lee. 


I thank you, Lee, for your loyalty. I do stand 
in need of faithful officers, true to their men 
and me. The time has come at last to spring 
our forces on the enemy. 


We are prepared for action, sir. 


Your men 

(with significant coldness) 

are near at hand, ready for inspection? 



At Winter Hill, sir. 


We'll not detain you longer, the while your men 
do need you. Good morning, sir. 

(Lee makes his bows to Molly and Sarah and salutes 

I shall have trouble with that man, I fear. 

(To Mistress Fulton) 

Madam, I have not forgotten the service you 
did to patriot cause in bearing my message 
into Boston, walking by night to and from 
Charlestown and rowing over the river. 
Some day I shall more fittingly thank you. 

(She courtesies deeply. He rides to the tents. The 
men stand at attention.) 


Corporal, how stand your men? 


Our General and the Medford people, sir, have 
equipped us well. All we would ask, sir, 
would be action. 


Courage, men, that will, be soon. We shall have 
our chance to serve our country. 

(He salutes again and rides slowly into distance, 
all following him with their eyes.) 

. (63) 

The Outcome of the Revolution 


We shall win our liberty with General Wash- 

(Washington with the Minutemen and the thirteen 

General Charles Lee was later disloyal to Washington and 
was suspended from his office. Though quartered at Winter 
Hill he spent much time at the Royall House which he dubbed 
"Hobgoblin Hall." 

Medford has borne an honorable part in the military his- 
tory of the country. Her company of fifty-nine minutemen re- 
sponded to the call of Paul Revere; their maxim was, "Every 
citizen a soldier; every soldier a patriot." Medford men were 
with Washington at Monmouth, at Brandywine, and at the 
crossing of the Delaware; and fought bravely for the liberties 
of their country. Approximately 236 men out of a population 
of 900 townsmen bore arms in the Revolution. 

John Brooks, the most distingxiished son of Medford, was 
a prominent figure in the struggle for independence; a military 
leader of skill and daring, and the trusted friend of Washing- 
ton, he became later Governor of Massachusetts, serving the 
State for seven successful terms. 



Song Chorus 

I was the road that bore the load 

In the days of the colony — 

The thoroughfare which made men dare 

Strike inland from the soa. 

I and my rills turned around the mills 
That sawed the forest w^ood, 
And ground the corn thej^ lived upon 
And called the Giver good. 

The swarming fish that gave men food 
Fresh meadow grass for kine, 
The clay and wood for hearth and home, 
And the clipper ship were mine. 

Gone is the crew of the frail canoe 
That barely grazed my breast; 
The lighter gone on which were borne 
The fruits man's labor blest. 

And, half asleep, doth near me creep, 
With aqueduct and lock, 
The slow canal, whose lifetime shall 
The locomotive mock. 

Loud now the beat of hammers fleet 
In the shipyards by my side, 
Loud the cheers as a clipper clears 
The way for the brimming tide. 

Hail to the ships with the curving lips 
That quaif of my river foam. 
They sail the seas of the far countries 
And call our Medford home. 



Commercial Development 


The First Adventure in Transportation, 

"The Canal," 1793 

(Enter a group of men, Governor Samuel Adams 
and staff with a band of ladies in costume of the pe- 
riod, Col. Loammi Baldwin and Gen. John Brooks, 
and James Sullivan, president of the Proprietors of 
the Middlesex Canal.) 


Gentlemen, today marks the climax of many 
years of labor and organization. Since 
this corporation received its charter signed 
by John Hancock until today we have 
pushed our way forward with the vision ever 
before us of bringing to the citizens of Bos- 
ton and Medford, and of our other towns, 
safe and reasonable transportation for them- 
selves and their necessities. Today the first 
shovelful of earth will be dug for the great 
Middlesex Canal by Colonel Baldwin, to 
whom is entrusted the duty of its construc- 
tion. In honor of this occasion we have pres- 
ent a distinguished guest. Ladies and gentle- 
men: I have the honor to present to you His 


Excellency, Samuel Adams, the Governor of 


Ladies and gentlemen; and far seeing gentle- 
men of the Middlesex Canal Corporation. I 
account it indeed an honor thus to take the 
first step toward uniting the waters of the 
Merrimac River with Boston Harbor. It is 
an ambitious undertaking full of promise for 
the entire countryside; nay more, for the 
State, and even for the nation. We shall 
build a new world from the old one. For it is 
no new thought, my friends, that the pros- 
perity of a nation rests on its transportation. 
Long have our tidal rivers, the Mystic and 
the Charles, brought prosperity to the people 
of their shores, but with the coming of the 
nineteenth century our merchants must de- 
pend on surer, easier transportation, not at 
the mercy of the tide and the windings of the 
river, but reaching far into the countryside, 
beyond their sources. Our coaches, our 
laboring teams of horses and oxen, must find 
another assistant. And such, we may proph- 
esy, will be the Middlesex Canal, threading 
the countryside, a harnessed river, bearing 
the produce of the country to the towns 
with speed and safety and economy. It is, 
therefore, with the same enthusiasm which 
our beloved President, George Washington, 
felt toward canals that I see today the first 
spadeful of earth turned toward its comple- 


(He takes a spade and hands it to Baldwin, who 
upturns the first sod. Cheers. Exeunt crowd. 1802*. 

A canal boat enters drawn by horses or mules. 
Several horse-drawn vehicles and dray by oxen enter 
during following dialogue. Enter a sea captain, whist- 
ling, and Thatcher Magoun, looking at canal.) 


Good morrow, Captain. May I ask if you come 
from yonder schooner whose masts I saw 
from Winter Hill? 


Ay, ay, sir. 

How much w'ater do you draw? 


Ten feet. 

What's your tonnage ? 


One hundred and twenty tons. 

Do you go up and down the river often? 


Yes, I bring wood for the distillery yonder. 
I've just had a sample. 

*The Middlesex Canal was opened in 1802-3 and was in 
use until 1846. The competition of the Lowell railroad, against 
whose building the proprietors of the canal had remonstrated, 
dealt the deathblow to the canal. The rails and ties for the 
new railroad were carried by the canal. 



Are there any large rocks or bad shoals in the 
bed of the river? 


All clear. 


How deep is the water generally at high tide? 


I guess from fifteen to twenty feet. 


Do you think an empty ship of three hundred 
tons could float down the river? 


Oh, yes. ; 


Thank you, sir. ■ 

(Exit captain whistling.) 

'Twill do. The canal for ship timber, the river 
for ships and Medford for my shipyards. 




The Second Adventure 
"The Railroad, June 24, 1835" 

(Crowds gather and carriages and heavy teams. A 
group of men and women are in excited conversation.) 


Well, I declare to goodness! What won't they 
think of next! 


No steam carriages for me. Let 'em as wants to 
ride in 'em but as I says to Hosea this morn- 
ing, I says, "Hosea, old Fanney and the Con- 
cord buggy is good enough for me. She may 
not be fast but she is safe." 


I suppose t'wont be long, Abner, 'fore you'll be 
takin' the morning train to Boston. Heh, Heh. 

(General Laughter.) 

Hear That? 

(To deaf individual.) 

Caleb, says as how t'wont be long 'fore Ab- 
ner'll be a takin' the morning train to Boston. 

(Further laughter.) 

There won't be a critter on a farm in the coun- 
try where this new dido runs through as 
won't be killed in a fortnight. 



I know a feller who's seen the engine and he 
says as how there's a dingus on front that 
scoops up everythin' on the track. 


I just can't get used to the idea. It don't stand 
to reason to me that a kerriage can go along 
with nothin to fetch it. I should just as quick 
think 'er flyin'. 


Oh, I dunno, Maw, steam is a wonderful thing. 
Look what it did to your stun jar that you 
left in the fire. 


Caleb! There's one thing I thinks on. If this 
steam buggy gits agoin', what's to hinder 
thar being two on 'em ? And if thars two, why 
not three ? If this thing grows, what's going 
to happen to the canal? It looks to me as if 
this steam engine would be a bad partner for 
the water. 


Don't you worry. If it ever does run, which I 
doubts, 'twont never take the place of that 
thar canal. You kin count on that, Hosea. 


No, Abner, I want you to promise me you won't 
go near that contraption. You're alius so in- 
quisitive. I expect nothin' but you'll want to 
git right up in the front line. 



Don't worry, Lucy, I know my P's and Q's. 

(To crowd.) 

Better be gettin clown, hadn't we? She may 
be along any minute now.* 


She's four hours late now. 


You don't suppose she's gone around some other 
way do you? 

(They move down as a train whistles. The train 
appears with passengers. In the distance the canal 
boat moves out of the picture.) 

*Though strongly opposed by the canal proprietors and by 
many speakers in legislature, the Boston & Lowell Railroad 
was chartered by the General Court of Massachusetts, f)uilt 
largely by foreign labor, with ties of split granite, and opened 
June 24th, 1835. This was the first railroad with passenger 
service in New England. 


The Launching of the Ship, 1856 

(There is a great pounding of hammers and the 
labor of ship carpenters. Throughout the scene there 
is the sound of hammers and saws and the busy labor 
of the shipyard.*) 

A crowd of children enter shouting, No school, 
no school! Hurrah for Captain Foster! 

(Enter Mr. Charles Tufts and Hosea Ballon 2nd.) 

(to one of the children) 

And what is the reason for your happiness? 


'Tis a great day for Medford. The clipper 
"Wild Ranger" is in Boston Harbor, back 
from California and China, and Captain 
Joshua Foster is launching a ship. 


How many ships, son, do you think have been 
launched in Medford? 

*Medford's shipbuildini? extended from 1803 to 1873, when 
the last ship was launched. There were 567 ships built in all 
and Medford was known on all seas for the swiftness of her 
clipper ships and the sound, honest workmanship in all her ten 

t Hosea Ballou was the first president of Tufts College, 
opened in 1854. The land was given by Mr. Charles Tufts who 
said he would put a light on his bleak hill in Medford. 



Hundreds, sir, just hundreds. The very best 
ones ever built. 


Aye, 'tis true. Medford ships are buiit on hon- 
or and sail in the teeth of any gale. 


And fast, too, sir. Didn't the "Herald of the 
Morning," built right in Hayden & Cudworth 
yards, sail to San Francisco in 99 days? 


Our New England ships are in every sea. 


And you won't find any of them faster or bet- 
ter built than those right on our own river. 
See if you can. 

(Exit boy.) 

(Ship launching. As ship is launched out of seal, 
a great shout from the crowd is followed by a vocal 
chorus which sings one verse of "Thou too sail on.") 



The Second Paul Revere, April 18, 1861 

(There is the alarm of drums and the strains of 
"John Brown's Body". Enter Samuel C. Lawrence 
holding papers in his hand, with his brother, Daniel 
W. Lawrence and a detail of five soldiers in uniforms 
of the period.) 


By the President of the United States: A 
Proclamation: Whereas the laws of the United 
States have been for some time past and now 
are opposed and the execution thereof ob- 
structed in the States of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisi- 
anna, and Texas by combinations too power- 
ful to be suppressed by the ordinary course 
of judicial proceedings or by the powers 
vested in the Marshals by law — 
Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, Presi- 
dent of the United States, in virtue of the 
power in me vested by the Constitution and 
the laws, have thought fit to call forth, and 
hereby do call forth, the militia of the several 
states of the union to the aggregate number 
of 75,000 in order to suppress said combina- 
tions and to cause the laws to be duly ex- 

Seventy-five thousand volunteers to defend 
our capitol. That is the call of President Lin- 


Our Medford Company E will be on the march 



Not soon, immediately. I have already here the 
marching orders for the whole Fifth Regi- 


Prompt work, brother. I am proud to salute 
you as Colonel. 


Daniel, you know where to find the captains of 
the regiment. Take these orders to each com- 

(saluting and taking papers) 

Very good, sir. They shall be in the proper hands 
before dawn and by tomorrow morning the 
whole regiment shall be ready to entrain in 

(He starts to leave) 

Hold a moment. 

(D. W. Lawrence wheels back) 

Do you know what day this is ? 


The eighteenth of April, Colonel. 


Yes, the eighteenth of April, the very night on 
which Paul Revere made ready to ride through 


Middlesex to rouse our Minutemen against 
the British. 

(Paul Revere dashes on from the left. He crosses 
down to D. W. Lawrence wheels about, beckons to 
the latter and then dashes off left, closely followed 
by D. W. Lawrence.) 


Lead, Paul Revere. I follow. 

(Gallops off) 

God bless Massachusetts, the first to rally to the 

Note. The Lawrence Light Guard was organized October 
1, 1854, as Company E, 5th Regiment, Massachusetts Light 
Infantry. On April 15th 1861, three days after the fall of Ft. 
Sumter, President Lincoln issued his call for volunteers. Mas- 
sachusetts was the first to move and Col. Samuel C. Lawrence 
issued marching orders to his command on the 18th of April. 

It is a singular coincidence that on the night of 18th of 
April Daniel W. Lawrence covered almost the identical route 
of Paul Revere eighty-six years before. 

From the beginning to the end of the Civil War, eleven 
calls for men were made in Medford and her 769 enlistments 
were the response. For bounties and other war expenses the 
Town paid out over $56,000 and voluntary subscriptions raised 
the amount to almost $73,000. The women and children con- 
tributed their part by sending clothing, bandages and neces- 
sary supplies. — Miller's History of Medford. 

( 77 


(Music of Pomp and Circumstance March) 

(The Mystic slowly brings in the City of Medford 
and seats her under a canopy. The River dancers 
form circle about the throne presenting the charter 
granted in 1892 to the City of Medford.) 

Thou hast outgrown the childhood of a town ! 
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts grants 
hereby the charter that creats thee city ! 


Oh, Mystic River, fairest foster mother, 
That cradled, fed, and clothed my infancy 
And launched the ships that bore my honored 

On farthest seas, thou here hast shown to me 
The pioneers who dared the great unknown, — 
The brave men who have ventured all for me. 
May Medford never lack its Minutemen 
Or patriots who tread the paths of peace, 


What do thy sons to keep thee beautiful 
That souls of men be glorified and grow? 
For man must never live by bread alone 
But by that beauty that doth feed the soul. 


Much doth our city owe in reverent love 
To those who kept thy river still a road, — 


An open sweep up valley to the hills, — 

And those who saved thy crown of woodland 

The Middlesex Fells — for heritage forever. 
Where men may still walk free and rest and 



Medford, what other sons of thine are there 
Whose vision and hands have blessed our town? 


Time doth forbid I further name to thee 
The sons who gave their city beauty, peace, 
Places of worship, college towers fair, 
The armory, the new-built hospital, 
The library, the elms along our streets. 
Yea, and this place, a wild bird sanctuary. 
Where children learn to know their feathered 

And list their songs on this historic hill.* 

*The Middlesex Fells were saved as a State reservation 
largely through the effort of Elizur Wright who made a great 
gift of his own woodland and finally so aroused public opinion 
that the Fells wore accepted February, 1894. Grace Church 
was largely the gift of Mrs. Gorham Brooks in 1868. The 
Lawrence Armory was the gift of Gen. Samuel C. Lawrence. 
The Lawrence Memorial Hospital was provided through the 
generosity of Daniel C. Lawrence and his son, Rosewell B. 
Lav.-rence. The Library wap or'ginally the Mansion House of 
Thatcher Magoun and was presented to the City by his son, 
Thatcher Magoun, in 1875. The Children's Library was the 
gift of General Samuel C. Lawrence. The Elms along the streets 
of West Medford were planted through the generosity of Ed- 
ward T. Hastings and Samuel Teel, Jr. Mr. John Bishop made 
the same generous provision for the eastern part of Medford. 
Turrell Tufts, Esq. left a le;:acy also for roadside trees. The 
beautiful Shepherd Brooks estate has been given as a bird 
sanctuary by Mrs. Shepherd Bi'ooks and her children. 


(Birds enter and dance.) 

At the close of the dance, enter the later settlers of 
Medford and take their places beside the city. Again is 
heard the sound of drums and national music. Paul Re- 
vere enters, beckoning to those behind and leading in the 
Spanish War Veterans who pass and form by Medford. 
Then, still at the call of Paul Revere, enter the American 
Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars from each side of 
pageant ground.* 

Behind the last military lines follows Peace. More 
later settlers follow with citizens of all foreign nations 
represented in Medford. The entire pageant cast enters 
and forms about the city. Last of all come the last mem- 
bers of the Grand Army of the Republic, escorted by 
tlie Lawrence Light Guard. The music of the final chorus 


Down from the haze of glacial days 
To a future of mystery, 
I wind the dream, with my placid stream. 
Of Medford's history. 

Gone is the crew of the frail canoe 
Which barely grazed my breast ; — 
The lighter gone, on which were borne 
The fruits man's labor blest. 

*The military history since the inauguration of the first 
city government in 1893 has been a continuation of the patri- 
otic record of the town of Medford. Over two hundred men 
served in the Spanish War under Colonel J. H. Whitney. When 
the United States entered the World War, April 6, 1917, Med- 
ford again came forward and the names of over two thousand 
citizens of Medford stand on the Honor Roll on Forest Street. 


Silent the beat of the hammers fleet 
In the shipyards by my side ; 
Silent those cheers, as a clipper clears 
The ways for the brimming tide. 

Where are the ships with the curving lips 
That quaffed of the river foam ? 
They sailed the seas of the far countries 
Yet never a one is home. 

Still bathe in my tide the exulting tribe 
Of the swimming, diving boys, 
And the winters bring the icy ring 
Of the skaters' joyous noise. 

And overhead with wings outspread, 
The air flotillas come, 
Soaring thro the heaven's blue 
With the deep-mouthed motor's hum. 

Oh, ne'er forget the vision yet 
My tides have brought to thee : 
Keep fair and green my vale serene 
In grateful memory. 

Down from the haze of glacial days 
To a future of mystery 
I wind the dream with my placid stream 
Of Medford's history. 

(With the last verse of music Mystic crowns Medford. 
The lights turn upon the great city seal. The spots sud- 
denly pick up America on a float in the Pond, like the 
Statue of Liberty, and the band plays the Star Spangled 
Banner. ) 



Indian Dances Skilton 

American Fantasie Herhert 

Massachusetts Bay Tercentenary March Frazee 

Sigurd Jorsalfar Suite Grieg 

Pomp and Circumstance March Elgar 

Minuet from Military Symphony Haydn 

New World Symphony Dvorak 

Evolution of Yankee Doodle Lake 

Ballet Music Gounod 

Coronation March Meyerbeer 

National Hymns of Countries 

Theme from "Pique Dame" Overture Suppe 

Over There 

John Brown's Body 

Stars and Stripes Sonsa 

The Star Spangled Banner Key 


Dr. Charles W. McPherson, Conductor 

"From the shining lakes between the hills" 

Carrie Bullard Lewis 

"Land of Hope and Glory" Sir Edward Elgar 

"I was the road that bore the load" Carrie Bullard Lewis 

"Sail on, Ship of State" Leo R. Lewis 

"Down from the haze of glacial days" 

Carrie Bullard Lewis 


Walter Smith, Conductor 

Monday, June 23, 1930 7 :30 P. M. 

Gerald Frazee, Conductor 
Monday, June 30, 1930 7 :30 P. M. 



Indians On the Island 

Frank M. Brewster, Chief 

Martin Doyle Joseph Plante 
Thomas Norton 

James A. Lunn, Medicine Man 

Arthur Center Christopher Sarno 

Eugene Duplain Albert Walkling 
Anthony F. Lyons 

Lois Bacon 
Barbara Ellis 
Mary Guido 
Edith Hawes 
Jerry Jones 
Barbara Kendall 
Esther Knight 
Helen Michelson 


Indian Dancers 

Mildred Parsons 
Hazel Richardson 
Dorothy Robar 
Priscilla Rurbeck 
Virginia Sherman 
Harriet Smith 
Barbara Snowman 
Wilda Stuart 

Indian Warriors 

Michael Albano 
Jeremiah Barbato 
John Brenen 
Joseph Cafarella 
Philip Carcione 
John Carpineto 
Patrick Carpineto 
Philip Carpineto 
John Carvotta 
Oreste Castraberti 
Alfred Catino 
Louis Collella 

Vespasiano Collella 
Frank Colletto 
Louis Comunale 
Anthony DiNafio 
James DiNafio 
Samuel DiNafio 
Charles Hemmand 
Anthony Labella 
Saverio Maietta 
Andrew Mara 
Louis Palumbo 
Anthony Pilaro 


Arthur Ragozzino 
Joseph Saeco 
Anthon}' Scarnici 
John Selvitelli 

Anthony Taverna 
Michael Vallerini 
Frank Venezzano 
William Vinci 

Indian Women 

Marietta Arlin 
Alice 0. Budds 
Emily M. Burrell 
Mary A. Carroll 
Annie M. Chisholm 
Bride J. Condon 
Winifred Connoly 
Mary E. Cunningham 
Clara C. Demontier 
Annie M. Drury 
Mary E. Gingras 
Catharine Griffin 
Catherine R. Kenney 

Margaret C. King 
Margaret Lynch 
Vera Mack 
Kathleen C. Marcou 
Marie L. Marcou 
Lillian M. McDonald 
Mary H. McGuire 
Emily D. Nelson 
Margaret M. Reardon 
Mary E. Sullivan 
Mary T. Surrette 
Gertrude E. Tracy 

Indian Girls 

Lois Bacon 
Barbara Ellis 
Mary Guido 
Edith Hawes 
Jerry Jones 
Barbara Kendall 
Esther Knight 
Helen Michelson 

Mildred Parsons 
Hazel Richardson 
Dorothy Robar 
Priscilla Rurbeck 
Virginia Sherman 
Harriet Smith 
Barbara Snowman 
Wilda Stuart 

Indian Boys 

Francis Burt Wilbert Jones 

John Canty William Kenney 

Paul Canty John Rose 

Donald Crooker John Shemkus 

John Garvey George Wadrope 

Mystic Mrs. Doris F. Tower 

Flood Tide Miss Rebecca A. Sullivan 

Ebb Tide Miss Bernice M. Sullivan 



The Flood and Ebb Tides 

Thelma R. Ardito 
Bernadette M. Bizier 
Adelaide Bodah 
Margaret A. Bowes 
Inez L. Broiwn 
Charlotte Burdette 
Thelma R. Cahill 
Dorothy P. Callahan 
Ruth M. Callahan 
Elizabeth C. Carroll 
Elizabeth B. Chaffe 
Florence M. Collins 
Irene M. Cohici 
Dorothy E. Davis 
Mildred E. Davis 
Helen V. Donovan 
Margaret P. Ellis 
Dorothy E. Fitzgerald 
Lorraine E. Fraser 
Katherine F. Friel 
Marguerite S. Houlihan 
Carolyn L. Johnson 
Audrey L. Kenney 
Anna M. MacNeil 
Irene V. Matel 

Isabel E. Matel 
Marguerite A. Mclntyre 
Katherine J. McKane 
Dorothea V. Mullane 
Eleanor Mullane 
Geraldine J. Murdoek 
Marion T. Murphy 
Eileen M. O'Connor 
Dorothy Packard 
Anna M. Quinn 
Beatrice M. Ranberg 
Elizabeth L. Reardon 
Frances E. Reardon 
Helen E. Reynolds 
Alice M. Romano 
Vera M. Romano 
Doris P. Smith 
Ethel Mary Smith 
Ethel May Smith 
Mildred M. Solberg 
Verlie 0. Whiting 
Eleanor Wilson 
G. May Wilson 
Dorothy H. Wyer 




Scene 1 

The First White Men in Medford 

September 21, 1621 

Captain Myles Standish Walter R. Magoun 

Frank B. Crockett 

Squanto or Tisquantmn Joseph N. Arcaro 

Edward Winslow J. Stanley McKee 

Elder William Brewster Ralph McKay 

Timid Indian Oreste Castraberti 

Indian Warriors, Women, Girls and Boys 
from Prologue 


Mystic Mrs. Doris F. Tower 

Flood Tide Miss Rebecca A. Sullivan 

Ebb Tide Miss Bernice M. Sullivan 

Dancers — The Flood Tides from Prologue 

Scene 2 

The Granting of the Charter 

March 4, 1629 

King Charles I John J. Bagley 

Governor Mathew Cradock Henry I. Dale 

King's Chancellor Joseph F. Orpen 


Richard A. Ardini William E. Ingraham 

C. Arnold Babcock Edgar S. Michelson 

Fred Bosworth John D. Mullins 

Cyril M. Cronin Joseph A. Noveiline 

Edward S. DeLeo Alexander Treem 

Sylvester P. Doran Francis B. Welsh 

Morris L. Kertzman Robert M. Winn 



Edward B. Hutchinson, Jr. Ernest A. Needham, Jr. 

Everett W. Needham 

Scene 3 

Governor Cradock and the Charter 

July 28, 1629 

Governor Matthew Cradock Henry I. Dale 

Thomas Goffe George P. Hassett 

Sir Richard Saltonstall Gerald F. O'Donnell 

Increase Nowell Robert 0. Andrews 

Samuel Vassall Edward Murphy 


Richard A. Ardini William E. Ingraham 

C. Arnold Babcock Edgar S. MieheLson 

Fred Bosworth John D. Mullins 

Cyril M. Cronin Joseph A. Novelline 

Edward S. DeLeo Joseph F. Orpen 

Sylvester P. Doran Alexander Treem 

Morris L. Kertzmau Fi'ancis B. Welsh 
Robert M. Winn 

Scene 4 

"Went Up Mystic Six Miles" 

June 17, 1630 

Governor John Winthrop Edwin F. Pidgeon 

Thomas Mayhew, Cradock 's Agent George L. Bussell 

Nicholas Davison, Second Agent Chester E. Young 

First Settler Clarence M. Ewell 

Second Settler John W. Pinkham 

Third Settler Henry C. Green 

Sailor Clarence M. Sherritt 



Arthur Antrobus Harry E. G-ifford 

Bruce Champion Henry C. Green 

Edgar N. Champion Allen C. Jameson 

Chester George John Shade 

George E. Young 


Alfred E. Buck Edwin Richardson 

Albert W. Crowe Lee Russell 

Frederick A. LeBuff Warren B. Scrannage 

Joseph Lyons John Smith 

Robert J. Moody John L. Stevens 

Alvin W. Morse George P. Yeamans 

Scene 5 

The Death of Sagamore John 

Governor John Winthrop Edwin P. Pidgeon 

Sagamore John Edward M. Quinn 

Thomas Mayhew George L, Bussell 

George Felt Charles V. Sturdivant 

Indian Arthur Ragozzino 

Reverend John Wilson Harry L. Pearson 

Rev. Henry F. Smith 

John Noyes Walter W. Dixon 

Nicholas Davison Chester E. Young 

Papoose Edwin F. Pidgeon, Jr. 

Settlers from Scene 4 

Indian Warriors from Scene I 



Colonial Scene 1700, Going to Church 


Pastor Rev. Louis C. Dethlefs 

Pastor Paul S. Fiske 

Drummer Sidney T. Guild 

Teacher Wilson Fiske 

Teacher Harry E. Walker 

Precentor Philip W. Johnson 

Tithing-man Alcott W. Stockwell 

Tithing-man Charles H. Grant 

Arthur I. Bourden Arthur L. Finney 

Douglas P. Brayton Charles E. Finney 

Percy S. Brayton Earl Mahoney 

William P. Clark Lawrence P. Moore 


Mabel A. Brayton Barbara E. Johnson 

Caroline L. Chase Edna C. Johnson 

Stella W. Howe Mary C. Palmer 

Clara W. Jackson Ellen L. Tisdale 

Alice L. Jeffery Elsie Tufts 

Helen T. Wilde 


David C. Baker Wm. Bradford Coolidge 

Katherine C. Baker George L. Cushman 

Alison Brayton Thomas W. Jackson 

Angela G. Chase Richard Johnson 

Phyllis K. Pidgeon 


Peter Tufts Thomas Chaffe 

Peter Tufts Jr Peter Tufts 10th 

Man in Stocks E. Roy Smith 

Man in Pillory Harold Dole 

Officer Arthur Stearns 

Officer Harvey Bartlett 

Officer Thomas T. Johnson 


Margaret I. Barbour 
Edna Boardman 
Evelyn Boardman 
Frances Boardman 
Helen Buss 
Mildred Clarke 
Dorothea Gushing 
Laiu'a Gushing 
Beatrice G. Davis 
Hattie L. Dole 
Margaret Gow 
Margaret Gowan 
Adelaide L. Hall 
Adelaide S. Hall 
Lucy Jameson 
Marffaret Johnson 

Katharine Kidder 
Melvina G. Kintz 
Ruth Lawrence 
Louise Mamoute 
Elizabeth McKee 
Rosamond Mitchell 
Eleanor Mullen 
Rose E. Norman 
Josephine F. Plastridge 
Edith Schweikart 
Eliza Smith 
Harriet Stearns 
Louise A. Taylor 
Margaret Vance 
Gora F. Weston 
Alice H. Wrioht 


Arnold B. Bagnall 
Roland Davis 
William Dole 
Bernard Hadley 
Walter Hallstrom 
Glemens Kintz 

Robert Morison 
Donald Murch 
George Packard 
James Peistrup 
Gharles Piper 
William Ryan 

Robert Stearns 


Edward Boardman L. Mitchell Marcy 

Richard T. Davis Gharles A. Plastridge 

Gharles E. Walters 



Jacqueline F. Hall Alice Purbeck 

Priscilla Davis Barbara H. Purbeck 

Helen Russell Barbara J. Plastridge 

Natalie Newcomb Ethel Waterman 

Judge Edward A. Cronin 

Victim of Ducking Stool Paul Ruddy 

Woman Eileen Coyne 

Dancers — Flood and Ebb Tides from Earlier Scenes 


Natalie Fessendeu 
Barbara Mather 
Urita A. Pote 
Audrey Ruck 
Dorothy Rugg 
Dorothy E. Whitman 
Marjorie E. Whitney 
Ruth AViltshire 

Richard Harlow 
David Lowe 
William Mitchell 
William H. Mitchell 
Stephen Nichols 
Herbert Robinson 
George H. Rugg 
Andrew F. West 


Mystic Mrs. Doris F. Tower 

Flood Tide Miss Rebecca A. Sullivan 

Ebb Tide Miss Bernice M. Sullivan 




Scene 1 

After the Boston Tea Party 

December 16, 1773 

Sarah Bradlee Fulton Dorothea D. Deignan 

MoUie G. Ward 

Mrs. Nathaniel Bradlee Laura Cunningham 

John Fulton William A. Ward 

Nathaniel Bradlee Carl Linder 

A Spy Malcolm 0. MacDonald 

Scene 2 

Isaac Roy all's Decision — 1775 

Plato Hans P. Block 

George John J. Dwyer 

Harry Bond James H. O'Gara 

Captain Isaac Hall Francis A. Partridge, Jr. 

Dr. Simon Tufts ; Walter E. Pingree 

Sir William Pepperell James A. Guerney 

Lady Elizabeth Pepperell Hortense S. York 

Isaac Royall Russell G. Randall 

Lady Pepperell's Daughter Ardelle E. Tiffany 

Coachman Frank M. Quinn 

Footman Joseph Conway 


Herbert Andrews Walter J. Crowley 

Joseph Conway Franklin G. Hinckley 

Paul Conway Donald R. Kenney 


Scene 3 

The Nineteenth of April — 1775 

Paul Revere Frank M. Brewster 

Harry Bond James H. O'Gara 

Jonathan Porter Harry L. Walker 

Stephen Hall Joseph M. Miller 

Maiden Captain Benjamin B. Osthues 

Sarah Bradlee Fulton Dorothea D. Dei^an 

Mollie G-. Ward 

Henry Putnam Bernard A. Cassidy 

Mrs. Putnam Teresa A. St. Denis 

Danvers Captain Herbert V. Carr 

J. William Powers 

A Farmer Everett A. Tisdale 

Salem Captain Walter Gordon 

William J. Perry 
Dr. Simon Tufts Walter E. Pingree 


Louise C. Anderson Mary C. Lawless 

Margaret Barrows Margaret A. Mackay 

Isabelle A. Brewster Alice R. Matthews 

Alice 0. Budds Johana A. Sehade 

Ida J. Bussell Marion Smith 

Mary A. Cleaves Mary Strachan 

Alice E. Cowan Agnes G. Sweeney 

Louise B. Cowan Alice L. Tewksbury 

Lillian Dean Edith V. Tewksbury 

Mary M. Donoghue Edna M. Tewksbury 

Florence G. Dyer Eva D. Tewksbury 

Edna L. Ewell Florence D. Thurston 

E. Jean Ewell Carolyn A. Weeks 

Maria Gaffey Ethel B. White 


Fred Hall 
John Hickox 
William Hickox 
James Lawrence 
Walter Miller 


Earl Mollineanx 
Roland Mollineaux 
Stephen Ryan 
George Swimm 
Frank White 

Company of Medford Minutemen 

Captain Fi-ank K Abbott 

Lieutenant Robert M. Magee 

Ensign John J. Hayes 

Sergeant George W. Gushing 

Sergeant John A. Mather 

Sergeant Marshall P. Newman 

Corporal Charles L. McDonald 

Corporal Joseph H. O'Mara 

Drummers Gerald Bagley 

Albert Chisholm 


James W. Abbott Kenneth Ferguson 

Carl A. Anderson Ralph F. Folsom 

Herbert G. Andrews Ernest L. Gault, Sr. 

Orin Andrews Ernest L. Gault, Jr. 

Robert 0. Andrews Russell Greenleaf 

Robert T. Blodgett Francis 0. Heffler 

S. W. Boyd Maurice L. Hilt 

George E. Bussell Franklin G. Plinckley 

Roland B. Clark, Jr. Fred. 0. Hoitt 

Frank Como Geoffrey H. Houlder 

Joseph Conway Donald R. Kenney 

Paul Conway Arnold H. Kuper 

Frank Crockett Arthur W. Kuper 

John J. Crowley Curtis L. Marehant 

Walter J. Crowley Philip P. McGonagle 

Leo Daykin William E. McMahon 
Frederick DeBenedictis William Meade 

Lincoln D'Etoile 0. Mortensen 

Fi-ed Dunbar Peter A. Murphy 

Walter Emery Charles B. Olmstead 


Harold A. Osgood Paul E. Ruddy 

Prank Pearson Frank Santouroso 

Merton E. Porter William G. Seott 

Paul G. Richmond Arthur L. 8i)offord 

Arthur Romano Albert H. Thomann 

John J. Ruddy, Jr. Robert G. Transue 

Company of Maujen Minutemen 

Captain Benjamin B. Osthues 

Sergeant Stuart C. Linnell 

Corporal Eugene H. Johnson 

Drummers Kenneth Chisholm 

Russell Dealy 

John Bianeardi Joseph Landry 

P. Henry Brennan Leonard Marehand 

Arthur Center Wilfred Marehand 

Philip M. Center John McGrath 

Ray B. Chadbourne Dudley Miller 

Joseph L. Coyne John H. Morrow, Jr. 

Gordon Diamonds Edward E. Murphy 

Louis Durant Bernard Norton 

Wilfred Durant B. B. Osthues, Jr. 

Frederick Pougere Edward M. Peters 

Theodore P. Gahan John A. Ricker 

Douglas Gillis Norwal D. Robinson 

Harold N. Gillis Chris Sarno 

Wilbert L. Hill Walter Sullivan 

Frank Hoitt Benjamin F. Walker 

Fl-eeman Kendall Andrew F. West 
Sumner R. WTiolley 

Company of Danvers Minutemen 

Captain William J. Perry 

Lieutenant Herbert Carr 

Ensign H. A. Vinet 

Sergeant Mario Manfre 

Corporal Edward A. Cronan 

Drummers John Hanlon 

William Lucia 



Charles Abate 
Nicholas Abate 
John A. Anderson 
W. P. Anderson 
George L. Bussell, Sr, 
Charles A. Cooper 
Thomas D. Collins 
Louis Collella 
Bonney Constantino 
Frank B. Deering 
Patrick Dugan 
F. Eostrom 

Arthur Fennelly 
Joseph Fisher 
Allen Griffin 
Charles Griffin 
Frank Griffin 
W. J. Hanlon 
Herbert Hazelton 
John J. Higgins 
George W. Joseph 
John J. Joyce 
Edward H. Leonard 
Carl Malm 

Company of Saleim Minutemen 

Captain Walter B. Gordon 

Lieutenant J. William Powers 

Ensign Joseph M, Rego 

Sergeant Walter F. Amero 

Corporal J. J. Hanlon 

Drummers Ronald Nichols 

James Rogers 


E. Forbes 
Basil Gallivan 
V. Magnuson 
C. E. Malm 
Harold Malm 
L. J. Mangione 
William McDermott 
Alexander McGillvray 
J. A. Murdoek 

Clarence S. Nickerson 
M. T. O'Connor 
R. Pretty 
George N. Rant 
W. H. Roberts 
B. Shedin 
Eric Shedin 
Anthony Silva 
Joseph Tosto 


Scene 4 

The Nineteenth of April — 1775 

Abigail Brooks Theo Wilson Lary 

Nancy Teresa A. Charnock 

Mercy Claire M. Ashton 

Reverend Edward Brooks Wilder N. Hopkins 

Peter Chardon Brooks Harold S. Adams 

Lieutenant Gould Burton W. Irish 

First Farmer William P. Mitchell 

Second Farmer Bruce Poehler, Jr. 

Third Farmer Gordon L. Potter 

Fourth Farmer Robert L. Ashton 

Scene 5 

General. Washington Inspects the Troops 
At Medford — March 1776 

Sarah Bradlee Fulton Dorothea D. Deignan 

Mollie G. Ward 

Molly Stark Ellen R. Hayes 

Marie E. Harvey 

Captain Thomas Brooks Charles F. Odams 

General Lee Dr. Hiland F. Holt 

Colonel John Brooks Fred A. Dexter 

General Stark Earle F. Bacon 

General Washington Rufus H. Bond 

Corporal Marshall P. Newman 


William I. Edgerly Herbert G. Wells 

Alfred S. Mature Newell G. Wilder 



Tableau — General Washin^on with the Minutemen 
and the Thirteen States 


Emily C. Batchelder Edna Lothrop 

Dorothy Boscho Anna T. Martin 

Elizabeth A. Braun Olive T. Mott 

Ruth Danman Rachel Peaslee 

Grace Fleming Caroline Robinson 

Nellie Hoitt Marian Tolleys 

Rachel G. Kingman Louise G. Sargent 

Gertrude Lane Alice C. Webster 
Cora Weston 


Song Chorus 




Scene 1 

The First Adventure in Transportation 

The Middlesex Canal — 1793 

James Sullivan James E. Lavery 

Governor Samuel Adams Francis A. Kehoe 

Thatcher Magoun Thomas J. Griffen 

Sea Captain Carl F. Lynch 

Col. Loammi Baldwin Joseph J. Gianino 

Arnold Babcock James P. Good 

William A. Baldwin Edward Griffin 

Joseph J. Carew George Hogan 

Lawrence J. Connolly Francis J. Keough 

Francis M. Coughlin John B. MacFall 

Frank R. Coughlin Edward J. Magennis 

Charles W. Crowley Robert F. Meagher 

Guy S. DeVeer John D. Messina 

Francis R. Dittami Dominic D. Occhipinti 

John B. Faucette Arthur E. O'Connor 

Patrick J. Faucette Thomas R. Qualey 

Joseph P. Gemellaro Charles J. Ryan 

John Gerrior James E. Shea 

John A. Gianino Archibald Trepaney 

William A. Gillespie John F. Trepaney 

Mildred E. Babcock Ruth Ellsworth 

Anna G. Ballou Mary Foster 

Viola A. Ballou Helen M. Gillespie 

Helen C. Callahan Eilleen A. Good 

Dorothy Cevera Maude E. Good 

Irene Coluci Ruth E. Kennedy 

Anna B. Cronin Pauline C. MacFall 

Jacqueline DeShea Mary MacKale 


Agnes Marshall 
Mary McGrath 
Frances McManus 
Rose C. O'Connor 

Louise Perodi 
Mary B. Price 
C. Grace Quinn 
Doris R. White 

Scene 2 
The Second Adventure in Transportation 

The Boston & Lowell Railroad 
June 24, 1835 

Martha Cassie F. Godwin 

Susan Dorothy E. White 

Lucy Martha E. Lee 

Abner Bert Branch 

Caleb Stephen G. Nichols 

Hosea Edmund A. Stockwell 

John Ralph A. Nickerson 

Engineer George Watson 

Fireman L. C. Gay 


Mildred Bee 
Edwin J. Bergstrom 
May Branch 
Leslie Brown 
Blanche M, Earle 
George J. Earle 
Hazel E. Gay 
Bertha Hebard 
Warren C. Henneberry 
Walter F. Knight 
Ruth F. Lovering 
Francis P. Mauriella 
William B. Morash 


May Noonan 
Carl D. Parsons 
Frederick Perri 
Leon W. Rich 
Dolly M. Rutledge 
Jean Smith 
William T. Smith 
Burritt M. Terrell 
Margaret T. Terrell 
Bradford E. Wakefield 
Edith C. Wakefield 
Mabel Watson 
Sarah M. Wilbur 


Scene 3 

The Launching of the Ship — 1856 

Charles Tufts Roy Hurd 

Hosea Ballou, 2nd Winslow MacElhiney 

Boy John Garvey 

Harold Brewster 
Clifton Cavanaugh 
George Crosby 
Harold Parnum 
Robert Kennedy 
Milo Monteno 
J. A. Murdock 
Clarence Osgood 


G. C. Reid 
George Rendall 
C. C. Stengler 
Louis J. Stimpson 
R. L. Vlass 
Charles Wilkes 
Thomas Williamson 
F. L. Worth 


Charlotte Arne 
Wellington Brewster 
Elizabeth Brown 
Edmund Garvey 
Charles Reid 

Phyllis Reid 
Leroy Roblee 
Ralph Roblee 
Ruth Snook 

Scene 4 

The Second Paul Revere 

AprU 18, 1861 

Colonel Samuel C. Lawrence Colonel Frank Gibbs 

Daniel W. Lawrence Hollis Ellwood Gray 

Leroy D. Robbins 


Lieut-Colonel John R. Sanborn 

Major John J. Carew 

Captain Charles A. Kirkpatrick 

Captain Clarence H. Hayes 

Mr. John A. Mather 



Mystic Mrs. Doris F, Tower 

Flood Tide Miss Rebecca A. Sullivan 

Ebb Tide Miss Bernice M. Sullivan 

Medford Miss A. Gertrude Sharkey 

Goddess of Peace Mrs. Miriam R, O'Hearn 


Dorothea V. Mullane 
Eleanor Mullane 

Carolyn L. Johnson 
Elizabeth B. Chaft'e 

Irene V. Matel 

Bird Dance 

Thelma R. Cahill 
Ruth M. Callahan 
Elizabeth C. Carroll 
Irene M. Coluci 
Katherine F. Friel 

Audrey L. Kenney 
Isabelle E. Matel 
Eleanor Mullane 
Elizabeth L. Reardon 
Alice M, Romano 


Randall Corbett 
Patrick Duffey 
John Greelish 
James F. McCarthy 
John E. McDermott 
James McHale 
Michael McKeon 
]\Iichael J. Murphy 
James J. Phelan 
Frank M. Quinn 
John Rabbitt 

John Scannell 

Mrs. Randall Corbett 

Annie J. Corbett 

Mrs. John Greelish 

Mrs. Mary E. McCarthy 

Ellen McHale 

Mary ]\TcHale 

Mrs. Michael McKeon 

Mrs. James Phelan 

Mrs. Frank M. Quinn 

Mrs. John Rabbitt 



Anna Abbadessa 
F. Abbadessa 
Elda Bagnulo 
Edith Basile 
Florence Basile 
Josephine Basile 
Mary Bucci 
Viola Bucci 
Carmela Carvotta 
Angela Colella 
Geneva Cortina 
Marion Danca 
Lillian DiMaria 
Lena Doria 
Anna Francesca 

Mary Franchini 
Flora Galassi 
Grace Gullifa 
Nancy Gulino 
Vennie Ippolito 
Marie Martini 
Josephine Novelline 
Mary Palumbo 
Scantina Perella 
Eva Rocci 
Theresa Sacco 
Rose Sanze 
Agatha Scarnico 
Mary Spera 
Lydia Still 

Paul Revere Frank M. Brewster 


Rex G. Post, Commander 
Horace H. Adams 
John P. Ahearn 
Luke P. Bresnahan 
Joseph A. Brodeur 
Fred J. Clifford 
William A. Davidson 
Fred W. Denish 
Roy W. Greenleaf 
Fred 0. Hoitt 
Lester H. Jones 
Lewis Johnson 

Freeman LeBlanc 
James J. Lee 
James W. Lowe 
William F. Mahoney 
John H. Miller 
Cornelius Powers 
Thomas Rodgers 
Walter H. Shea 
Samuel 0. Spaulding 
Marchant H. Stewart 
Legrand M. Thompson 



Samuel Farry, Drmn Major 
Joseph McDonald, Jr., Mascot 

Francis Barry 
John Borthwick 
Herman L. Dillingham 
Thomas DiStasio 
Augustus J. Fitzgerald 
John Halmkin 
Herbert Healey 
William J. Knight 
Walter Lane 
Chester Macomber 


Lawrence A. Barrett 
Clement A. Barry 
Francis P. Barry 
James F. Beatty 
John J. Burke 
Rufus H. Bond 
John J. Carew 
Charles M. Doherty 
Edward P. Duffy 
Myles J. Ferrick 
Augustus F. Fitzgerald 
Edward G. Foley 
Charles Gilligan 
Kalph J. Grant 

Stephen Matthews 
LeRoy Montague 
Harry Paine 
Anthony Pignitelli 
John Roberts 
Clarence Salisbury 
Wilfred St. Couer 
Chester Sennott 
Howard Shedd 
Joseph Wellington 


John H. Horan 
William F. Lacey, Jr. 
Cliester A. Macomber 
Donald P. Malcolm 
Robert M. Magee 
Patrick F. McNally 
John Messina 
Michael Piggott 
Antonio Pignatelli 
Dr. J. F. Roberts 
Chester M. Sinnott 
Joseph E. Val'way 
Chester D. Woodside 


Edward G. Hughes, Commander 

Edward A. Anderson 
Stephen J. Anderson 
Henry E. Babineau, Jr. 
James Blakely 
Walter L. Bradish 
Arthur W. Breault 

Albert Cochran 
Frank A. Cummiskey 
Ray B. Croft 
Frank DeLisle 
Herbert J. DeLory 
David J. Dodge 


Thomas F. Doherty 
William J. Doyle 
Eugene Duplain 
Michael J. Fallon 
Walter F. Frazier 
Denrelle G. Garey 
John P. Goodman 
Charles S. Gorton 
John J. Hayes 
Arthur L. Herbert 
Raymond H. Hollis 
Edward J. James 
Harry Jones 
William P. Lawler 
James Logan 


James A. Lunn 
Dominic Manganillo 
Frank Marchand 
J. Clifton Marchant 
William L. Morrison 
Joseph M. O'Keefe 
Harold A. Osgood 
William F. Shine 
Arthur D. Stokell 
Dennis J. Sullivan 
John D. Tate 
Lewis Weidman 
Albert L. White 
Harry E. Wilson 

Pageant Cast 


Gerald Bagley 
John Barry 
Philip Borsvert 
Albert Bennarito 
John Bresnahan 
Arthur Burnham 
John Carew 
Albert Chisholm 
Kenneth Chisholm 
Thomas Connor 
Frank Daly 
Roland Dealy 
Francis Doherty 
Raymond Dolan 
George Dutfy 
Thomas Early 
Roland Egan 
John Garrelly 
Peter Foley 
Albert Hackett 
John Hanlon 
John Hart 

George Haviland 
Edward Hogan 
George Hogan 
John Hughes 
James Johnston 
Francis Keough 
Joseph Keough 
Vincent Keough 
William Lucia 
Robert McCabe 
Martin Murphy 
William Murray 
Ronald Nichols 
Thomas O'Connor 
John O'Neil 
Francis 'Sullivan 
Francis Queenan 
James Rogers 
Edward Shea 
James Shea 
Philip Sullivan 



Captain George H. Lennox 

First Lieutenant Lawrence F. Carew 

Second Lieutenant Robert P. Campbell 

First Sergeant Henry L. Caughlin 

Staff Sergeant George Morley 

Sergt. Michael DeFina 
Sergt. Francis L. Doyle 
Sergt. Charles B. Gray 
Sergt. Fred Pickard 
Sergt. James A. Ross 
Sergt. John E. Rowan 

Corp. William J. Doyle 
Corp. Hartwell Fleming 
Corp. Joseph P. Reardon 
Corp. Franklin J. Werner 
Corp. Robert M. Winn 


Charles A. Babcock 
Martin E. Carew 
William A. Coiffe 
Albert E. Colclough 
William L. Colclough 
Edward J. Elliott 
Raymond A. Griffin 
Francis J. Hanley 

Santo J. Alizzeo 
Frank Berecz 
Joseph A. Bryan 
Roger T. Collins 
Russell E, Conboy 
Alfred W. Cottam 
James E. Cotter 
Carl E. Dexter 
Herbert J. Doyle 
Wallace H. Ellis 
Peter J. Feeley 
Armand A. Eraser 
Norman P. Frazier 
Lester W. Gauthier 


Edward V. LeBlanc 
John J. Lloyd 
James L. Maher 
John A. Manning 
John F. McCabe 
Daniel J. McCue 
Ernest M. Pierce 


Joseph A. Gerace 
John E. Glazebrook 
Edward J. Hogan 
Manus Kane 
Lorimer Keith 
Plenry J. Lindsey 
William T. MacMullen 
Paul J. Mahoney 
Edward F. McCarthy 
John F. McCraig 
Howard J. Murphy 
Paul W. Murphy 
Joseph J. O'Hearn 
Frank V. Olson 


Charles A. Parker John J. Tonry 

Kenneth F. Pinn Antonius II. VanBreemen 

Lester W. Sherman Irving C. Weymouth 

Carl J. Stagliano John J. Williams 
John E. Sullivan 


George L. Stokell, Commander 
Herman R. Green Benjamin F. Lewis 

Winslow Joyce George P. Marsh 

Thomas Kelley Alvin R. Reed 

America Mrs. Margaret Fitzgerald 




Evelyn Belsar 
Helen Bent 
Isadore Cohen 
Ethel Crosbie 
Norbert Crowley 
Lawrence J. Curcio 
Mario DeBenedictis 
Clara DeMattia 
Henry Gerrior 
Amy L' Africain 
John McCarthy 
Virginia McPeck 
Helen L. Mahony 
Joseph Mallard 

Barbara March 
Ralph E. Muollo 
John O'Heam 
Guy Oliva 
Dorothy Olson 
H. Perry 

Mrs. Natalie Powell 
Luis Sovientino, Jr. 
George E. Stevenson 
Elena Tarullo 
Loretta M. Thomann 
Eleanor G. Wiggins 
Frank Wise 
Anna Wynne 

Florence G, Perry 

Salvatore Ippolito 


Winifred Olson 

Scott Eckhoff 


Frank S. Gilkey 


Paul A. Monier 

Walter M. Fowler 
Paul Gilpatric 


Howard Marshall 
W. Olmstead Wright 

Daniel H. Goodnow 


H. Allen Marrill 


Donald Berg Lillian S. Cadey 

Grace Richardson 


William A. Pride, Jr. 


William Burns 

Richard Tufts Fiske 


Morton Sage Neill 



Miss Elizabeth Alward 

Mrs. John Ayer 

Miss Esther Barrows 

Miss Evelyn L. Berton 

Miss Ruth Beckman 

Edwin J. Bergstrom 

Mrs. Alice J. Blaikie 

Miss Abby Blanchard 

Mrs. L. E. Blanchard 

Miss Ruth E. Brooks 

Mrs. Ethel Bryan 

Lewis S. Burns 

William H. Canch 

Miss Norma C. Carlson 

Miss Doris H. Cassidy 

Dana F. Chase 

Miss B. Faye Child 

Luther M. Child, Jr. 

Miss Edith S. Clark 

Miss May J. Clarke 

Miss Georgina E. Constantine 

Miss Harriet A. Constantine 

William Corbin 

Mrs. Marion O. Corley 

Miss Martha E. Cox 

John M. Crawford 

Mrs. John M. Crawford 

Frank W. Curry 

Miss Constance S. Dalton 

Miss Faith W. Davis 

Miss Helen L. Davis 

Miss Nancy DeMark 

Mrs. Anna V. Dooley 

Miss Isabelle Drew 

Mrs. C. E. Dustin 

Miss Ruth E. Elder 

Mrs. Robert E. Evans, Jr. 

Robert E. Evans, Jr. 

Mrs. Ingenue Fassett 

Albert B. Fletcher 

Mrs. Marguerite E. Franklyn 

John S. Fyfe 

Albert Gardner 

Miss Elinor Genthner 
Miss Elizabeth Gibson 
Miss Jennie Gibson 
Miss Gladys E. Gill 
Miss Hazel D. Godwin 
Miss Ruth E. Golding 
Miss Alice Goudie 
Mrs. Nellie B. Greenleaf 
Roy Greenleaf 
Miss Muriel F. Grimshaw 
Miss Jean Hamilton 
Miss Thelma Harris 
Miss Clara Harvender 
Miss Harriet H. Hawes 
Mrs. J. P. Hawes 
William G. Hawes 
Miss Helen Heckbert 
Mrs. Stella W. Howe 
Mrs. Mary E. Kennedy 
Mrs. N. Hobbs Knight 
Miss Ruth Lawrence 
Miss Edith L. Letson 
Mrs. Frank W. Lovering 
Miss Elizabeth Lowry 
Miss Alice M. MacKay 
Mrs. Andrew Magnus 
Miss Bernice P. Magnus 
Miss Marjorie Mather 
Miss Peggy McAllister 
James H. McGowan 
Mrs. Mildred Meyer 
Mrs. Ruby Miers 
Miss Mabelle Mitchell 
William Mitchell 
Mrs. Fanny A. Moses 
Miss Fanny A. Moses 
Mrs. Anna R. Moulton 
H. Ernest Mountain 
Georgina A. Murphy 
Miss Rebecca Nichols 
Frank Noyes, Jr. 
Mrs. Barbara R. Parsons 
Carl D. Parsons 


Frederick J. Parsons 
Francis A. Partridge, Jr. 
Mrs. Francis A. Partridge 
E. A. Patterson 
Miss Esther Perkins 
Miss Mildred L, Perkins 
Miss Hazel W. Pierce 
Mrs. Adde Pratt 
Melville Prentiss 
William A, Pride, Jr. 
Miss Alice M. Purbeck 
Dyke L. Quackenbush 
William J. Reilly 
Leon Rich 
George H. Richey 
Ernest B. Ritchie 
Miss Mabel K. Rollins 
Mrs. John H. Rooney 
Mrs. Mary H. Russell 
Miss Bernice Sarty 
Miss Helen Shaw 

Rev. Henry F. Smith 
Mrs. C. F. SoUows 
Miss Ruth O. Spidle 
Everett W. Stone 
Mrs. Grace A. Stone 
Miss Frances Talcott 
Irving Thorley 
Miss Muriel Thorley 
Malcolm W. Valentino 
Miss Gladys M. Wade 
Mrs. Florence Walker 
Mrs. Grace W. Walker 
Fritz Walkling 
Miss Eva A. Warner 
Miss Marion Watson 
Miss Alice Wescott 
Andrew F. West 
Miss Mildred C. Wigcins 
Miss Catherine W. T. Wild 
Mrs. Isabelle W. Witberell 




Hon. Edward H. Larkin, Mayor of Medford 

Honorary Chairman 

Frank D. Neill, Executive Chairman 

Charles T. Daly, Secretary 


Maj. John J. Carew Hon. Lewis H. Levering 

Mr. Charles W. Collins Mr. Anthony F. R. Novellin? 

Hon. Richard B. Coolidge Mr. Michael E. O'Brien 

Mr. Andrew F. Curtin Mr. Milton D. Riley 

Mr. John G. Fortune Mr. Henry Riseman 

Mr. Edward J. Gaffey Mr. Alwyne E. Ritchie 

Mr. George J. Hackett Hon. Charles S. Taylor 

Mr. Samuel C. L. Haskell Mr. John J. Ward 


Alexander A. Lucey 

J. Wallace Buchanan 

John J. Ward 

Hon. Richard B. Coolidge Edward J. Gaffey 

Andrew F. Curtin Hon. Lewis H. Lovering 

Hon. Charles S. Taylor 


Honorable Richard B. Coolidge, Chairman 

Mr. Joseph C. Smith, Secretary 

Mr. Herman N. Baker Miss Helen B. Fee 

Mr. Charles T. Daly Miss Mildred A. Jacobus 

Miss Louise P. Taylor 



John J. Fortune, 
Miss Anna Ballou 
Mrs. E. R. Brackett 
Mrs. Frank V. Braun 
Mrs. Ida J. Bussell 
Mr. Leslie R. Carey 
Mrs. H. E. Carter 
Mr. John G. Glazebrook 
Rev. Glenn D. Glazier 
Mrs. Walter D. Hall 
Mrs. W. P. Kenney 
Mrs. Lena Lareau 
Miss M. E. Lee 
Mrs. Philip B. Lewis 
Mr. Frank W. Marshall, Jr. 


Mr. Philip P. McGonagle 
Rev. Norbert H. Mclnnis 
Mr. Marshall P. Newman 
Mr. James H. O'Gara 
Mr. Benjamin B. Osthues 
Mrs. Margaret G. O'Sullivan 
Miss Laura P. Patten 
Miss Natalie Peterson 
Mr. Edwin F. Pidgeon 
Mrs. Virginia R. Thompson 
Mr. Harry E. Walker 
Mrs. Carolyn A. Weeks 
Mrs. J. D. Wright 


Mrs. Hollis E. Gray, Chairman 

Mrs. Joseph D. Robinson, Asst. Chairman 

Mrs. Elizabeth V. McGray, Secretary 

Mrs. E. R. Breed 

Miss Charlotte Hallowell 

Mrs. Edward Hayes 

Mrs. Charles W. McPherson 

Mrs. Eleanor MacOnie 
Miss Laura P. Patten 
Mrs. Anna Roberts 
Mrs. Teresa A. St. Denis 


Mrs. Hollis E. Gray 


Mr. John Crawford 

Mr. Reed M. Elliott Mr. William B. Wells 


Mrs. Sara B. Albrecht 
Mrs. J. T. Berry 
Mrs. Susan H. Blakeley 
Miss Caroline Bridge 
Mrs. Dora Buckell 
Mrs. Alice O. Budds 

Mrs. John Buffam 
Mrs. Emily Burrell 
Mrs. Marie J. Cassidy 
Mrs. Louisa B. Cowan 
Mrs. Henry Crooker 
Mrs. Annie Drury 



Sarah Eisan 


Monica McDonald 


George Elder 


Dora A. Nicholl 




Florence Noyes 


L. Esam 


George Phillips 


E. Jean Ewell 


Peter Ruck 


Edna L. Ewell 


Alice Rugg 


Mary J. Ewell 


Addie Rupert 


Charlotte Gillard 


Joanna Schade 


Dwight W. Hadley 


Florence Shackford 


Mary Johnson 


Joan Slater 


E. Gertrude Lane 


Daisy P. Smith 


Thomas Lanigan 


Georgia Spinney 


Lena Lareau 


Eva Tewsbury 


A. A. Littlefield 


Marie Walsh 


Dora H. McKee 


Mary Welch 


Sarah Meagher 


Carrie Young 


Mrs. Frederick A. Russell, Chairman 

Chief Thomas A. Qualey, Chairman 
Members Medford Fire Department 


William F. Lacey, Jr., Chairnian 

Lawrence M. Barrett 
Clement C. Barry 
James J. Beatty 
Frank B. Blodgett 
John J. Devaney 
Charles Doherty 
Myles J. Ferrick 
Henry A. Gaffney 
Harry L. Gerrard 
Charles Gilligan 
Class A. Grant 
John M. Horan 

Chester J. Maccmber 
Scott McCauley 
Daniel F. McGrath 
Patrick \V. McNally 
Harold J. Nicholson 
Michael E. O'Leary 
Michael Piggott 
Thomas B. Piggott 
John F. Reagan 
Dr. J. F. Roberts 
John B. Walsh 
John Wynne 

The Boy Scouts of the City of Medford 



Dr. Walter T. Burke 
Physicians of the city representing Medford Medical Society 

Jeremiah J. Delaney 

Mrs. Ernest R. Brackett, Medford Visiting Nurse Association 

Representatives Medford Chapter, American Red Cross Society 

Miss Lena Johnston, Supt., Lawrence Memorial Hospital 

Nurses from Lawrence Memorial Hospital 

Mrs. Rebecca L. Cable 

Mr. George J. Hackett, Chairman 
Frank B. Deering, Secretary 


Mr. John J. Carew 
Mr. Ernest J. Chisholm 
Mr. Thomas M. Connell 
Mrs. Ruth D. Coolidge 
Mr. W. Warren Ewell 
Mr. Harold T. French 
Mr. George S. T. Fuller 
Mrs. Walter D. Hall 
Mr. Albert W. Hathaway 
Mr. James L. Kelleher 
Mr. J. Frank Kelley 
Mr. Horace E. Knight 
Mrs. Lena Laroau 

Mr, Philip P. McGonagle 
Mr. John P. Murphy 
Mr. Robert O'Callaghan 
Mr. James O'Neii 
Miss Laura P. Patten 
Mrs. Marguei-ite M. Pote 
Mr. Milton Riley 
Mr. Henry Risman 
Mr. Timothy J. Scannell 
Mr. Donald Smith 
Rev. Frank A. Tobey 
Mr. V/illiam A. Ward 

Mrs. George B. 
Mrs. Fred Ashton 
Miss Dorothy Brigham 
Mrs. Harold J. Bryan 
Mrs. F. D. Carr 
Miss Beatrice L. Carroll 
Mrs. William R. Carroll 
Mrs. Harry Carter 
Mrs. C. H. Chamberlain 
Miss June D. Cociidge 
Miss Leor.e Cunningham 
Miss Mildred Foley 
Mrs. Cassie Godwin 
Mrs. G. A. Gordon 
Miss Eleanor Grady 
Joseph Grady 
Mrs. Albert C. Gray 
Mrs. W. C. Henneberry 
Ernest M. Hodgdon 


Quinby, Chairman 

Miss May Hu?-hes 
Mrs. F. D. Kelsey 
Clifford C. Larcum 
Miss Violet LeBlanc 
Mrs. Edith Maggi 
Georj^:e A. Mooie, Jr. 
Lawrence Moore 
Miss Claire O'Donoghue 
Miss Louise O'Hara 
Mrs. Marion Polleys 
Mrs. G. G. Reddinrr 
Mrs. Milton D. Riley 
Nelson Robinson 
Miss Anna Ryan 
Mrs. Howard T. Shedd 
Mrs. Pauline Walker 
Mrs. C. J. Wiggins 
Mrs. A. Chesley York 



Mr. Hubert C. Shedd, Chairman 
Mr. Elmer H. Wilson, Music and Orcliestra Director 
Mr. Frank S. Gilkey, Assistant Orchestra Director 
Dr. Charles W. McPherson, Choral Director 
Mrs. Alice J. Blaikie Mrs. William J. Reilly 

Miss Doris Brown Mr. Milton D. Riley 

Mr. Samuel C. L. Haskell Mr?. Fiank W. Smith 

Rev. Denis A. O'Brien Mr, Chester E. Whiting 


Lieut. Charles H. Ewell, Chairman 

Officers Medford Police Department 

Members Medford Veteran Constabulary Association 


Mr. Philip G. Desmond, Chairman 

Mr. Arthur J. Quinn, Secretary 

Mr. Fred Bosworth Mr. 

Mr. Frank M. Brewster Mr. 

Mr. Herbert Caryl Mrs 

Miss Norma E. Casano Mr. 

Mr. Arthur B. Chapman Mr. 

Mr. Thomas M. Connell Mr. 

Mr. Edward A. Cronin Mr. 

Mr. Charles T. Daly Mr. 

Mr. Dwight Davis Mr. 

Mr. Richard Davis Mr. 

Mr. Joseph L. Doherty Mr. 

Mr. Charles M. Drury Mrs, 

Mr. Eugene Duplain Mr. 

Mr. Lawrence E-. Ellis Mr. 

Mr. Frederick C. Finn Mr. 

Mr. Joseph Fisher Mr. 

Mr. John J. Fitzpatrick Mr. 

Mr. H. T. French Mr. 

Miss Elizabeth M. Gahan Mr. 

Mr. Harry E. Glfford Mrs. 

Mr. Franeis Griffin Mr. 

Mr. George J. Hackett Mr, 

Mrs. Thomas C. Hoover Mr, 

Mr. Ralph L. Kendall Mr, 

Mr. Arnold Kuper Mr 

Capt. George H. Lenox Mr 

Frank W. Lovering 
John S. Mannion 
. Anna T. Martin 
Eugene McGillicudy 
Philip P. McGonagle 
Joseph J. McManus 
Elmer Murch 
James Murphy 
Marshall P. Newman 
John J. Noonan 
Charles H. Phinney 

Marguerite M. Pote 
Norbert B. Quinn 
Samuel Sayward 
Andrew S. Scott 
William F. Shine 
Joseph C. Smith 
Robert N. Spofford 
Clarence L. Thompson 

Joseph Thorley 
Carrol H. Tiffany 
John F. Walsh 
Lawrence J. Weidman 
Richard H. Wheeler 
James D. P. Wingate 
Arthur Woodman 



Joseph L. Fitzpatrick, Chairman 
Miss Mary C. Meaney Miss Margaret M. Mahoney 


Charles T. Daly, Chairman 
Bernard A. Cassidy, Secretary 

Miss Ruth M. Callahan 
Thomas M. Connell 
Richard Davis 
Joseph L. Doherty 
Miss Helen B. Fee 
Miss Emma Fitzpatrick 
Miss Esther A. Horgan 
Miss Mildred A. Jacobus 
Miss Katherine B. Kilroy 
Miss Isabel E. Matel 

Miss Mary A. McGrath 
Miss Eleanor A. McKenna 
Miss Mary C. Meaney 
James B. Meehan 
John J. Mullen 
Timothy F. Murphy 
Miss Alma C. Ryan 
Miss Clara A. Silva 
Miss Margaret I. Tobin. 
Arthur Woodman 


Alwyne E. Ritchie, Chairman 
Agnes S. Ritchie, Secretary 

Frank Abbadessa 
Mrs. G. M. Allen 
Mrs. Marie A. Baker 
Miss Anna Ballou 
Mrs. Clara A. Bates 
Mrs. Ida M. Beauvais 
Dow H. Beyea 
Mrs. Alice J. Blaikie 
Rufus H. Bond 
William M. Boynton 
Mrs. E. R. Brackett 
Mrs. Frank V. Braun 
Almon C. Bridges 
Mrs. Etnma M. Bridges 
Edward N. Brown 
James V. Burke 
William Burns 
Mrs. Ida J. Bussell 
Mrs. Mabel A. Canty 
Ernest J. Chisholm 
Charles W. Collins 
Edwin Consolmagno 
Charles A. Cooper 
Mrs. Adeline Cushing 
William Dandale 
Emil DeBie 

Miss Clarice A. Dunbar 
Mrs. T. F. Davis 
Louis Durant 
Charles H. Ewell 
Clarence F. Ewell 
James A. Franklin 
Harold T. French 
Ensign T. Frieberger 
George S. T. Fuller 
Edward J. Gaffey 
Mrs. Herbert Getchell 
John G. Glazebrook 
Mrs. Mary S. Googins, 
Mrs. Charles Gott 
Gen. Albert C. Gray 
Dr. Robert M. Green 
Edward W. Harris 
Mrs. Gertrude Harvey 
Albert W. Hathaway 
John Healey 
Mrs. Mary Healey 
John A. Herlihy 
Mrs. Alice M. Hoefer 
Henry E. Holt 
Mrs. Thomas C. Hoover 
Edward G. Hughes 


Edward H. Hutchinson 

James L. Kelleher 

J. Frank Kelley 

Ralph L. Kendall 

Mrs. J. W. Kennedy 

Mrs. W. P. Kenney 

Mrs. Oliver F. Kidder 

Oliver F. Kidder 

Mrs. Horace E. Knight 

Miss Elizabeth LaFleur 

Ernest Lawrence 

Frederick A. LeBuff 
Miss Martha E. Lee 

Capt. George H. Lenox 

Mrs. Lillian Lyons 

Mrs. Eleanor A. Macomber 

Frank W. Marshall, Jr. 

Mrs. Anna T. Martin 

Eugene C. McCabe 

Mrs. William J. McClellan 

Mrs. Elizabeth V. McGray 

Joseph C. Miller 

Mrs. Marguerite H. Molloy 

Mrs. John Montgomery 

Miss Beatrice M. Morgan 

Mrs. Catherine Murphy 

Mrs. Frank D. Neill 

Marshall P. Newman 

Ralph A. Nickerson 

E. A. Nordon 

James H. O'Gara 

Charles B. Olmstead 

Mrs. Margaret E. O'Neill 

Benjamin B. Opthues 

Mrs. Margaret G. O'Sullivan 

Mrs. Leon I. Peabody 

Miss Natalie Peterson 
Henry Perrin 
Mrs. Molly Piggott 
Mrs. Marguerite H. Pote 
Mrs. Floyd P. Prescott 
Miss Mary Price 
Edward N. Quinn 
Frank M. Quinn 
Mrs. May T. Riley 
Mrs. Anna Roberts 
Mrs. Dorcas A. Roberts 
Adolf G. Rosenblad 
John J. Ruddy 
Mrs. J. D. Scates 
Clarence M. Sherritt 
Mrs. Thomas H. Sinnott 
Agnes V. Smith 
Mrs. Frank W. Smith 
William H. Smith 

Miss Alma E. Snow 

Mrs. Ethel 0. Soar 

J. Harry Spillane 

George L. Stokell 

Charles L. Sullivan 

Charles W. Taber 

Carrol H. Tiffany 

Mrs. Sarah Twombly 

John E. Volpe 

Walter T. AVebb 

Mrs. Carolyn A. V/eeks 

Clarence T. Welch 

George P. Weston, Jr. 

Henry J. Wilson 

Mrs. Isabella W. Witherell 

Lemuel C. Woodbury 


Andrew S. Scott 

John J. Carew, Chairman 
Charles A. Cooper, Assistant Chairman 
Hugo S. Bagnulo Joseph Fisher 

Elmer F. Deering Charles L. Fitzhenry 

Jeremiah J. Delaney Edward Forbes 

Frank J. Farry J. Raymond Gaffey 

( 118 

Simon Long Joseph W. Myers 

Charles W. Martin John H. Neill, 2nd 

Charles H. McClellan A. Chesley York 

Edward S. Mitchell William Standcumbe 

John L. Murphy F. Irving Weston 

The list of names in this book are to June 12th. 


Ancient Order of Hibernians, Division 4 

Belgian American Union 

Castle Hill Associates 

Cradock Lodge, Loyal Order of Moose 

Cradock Temple, Pythian Sisters 

Sarah Bradlee Fulton Chapter, Daughters of American Revo- 

Sarah E. Fuller Tent 22, Daughters of Veterans 

First Baptist Church 

First Methodist Episcopal Church 

First Parish Unitarian Church 

Forest Park Improvement Association 

S. C. Lawrence Post 66, Grand Army of the Republic 

Harmony Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows 

Knights of Pythias 

The Lawrence Light Guard, Company E., 101st Engineers, 
M. N. G. 

Lawrence Men's Club 

S. C. Lawrence Corps 5, Women's Relief Corps 

S. C. Lawrence Camp 30, United Spanish War Veterans 

Carolin Lawrence Auxiliary 32, United Spanish War Veterans 

General S. C. Lawrence Camp 54, Sons of Veterans 

General S. C. Lawrence Camp 54, Sons of Veterans Auxiliary 

Mystic Parent-Teachers Association 

Medford Council 141, Knights of Columbus 

Medford Welfare Association 

Medford City Employees Union 

Medford Constabulary Veteran Association 

Mount Herman Lodge of Masons 

Sagamore Lodge of Masons 

Medford Visiting Nurse Players Association 

Medford Italian Club 

Medford Catholic Women's Club 

Medford Teachers' Club 

Mystic Congregational Church 

Medford Women's Club 


Medford Rotary Club 

Medford Kiwanis Club 
Medford Athletic Association 

Medford Branch League of Women Voters 
Medford Lodge 915, B. P. O. Elks 

Medford Center Postoffice Dramatic Club 
Medford Improvement Association 

Medford High School Students 

Medford Lodge 1359, Order Sons of Italy in America 

Medford Historical Society 

Medford Post 1012, Veterans of Foreign Wars of U. S. 

Medford Post 1012, Veterans of Foreign Wars of U. S. Auxiliary 

Medford Women's Republican Club 

Medford Grange, Patrons of Husbandry 

Medford Boat Club 

Medford Post 45, American Legion 

Medford Post 45, American Legion Auxiliary 

Mystic Court, Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters 

Medford Chamber of Commerce 

Medford Council, Boy Scouts of America 

Medford Council, Girl Scouts of America 

Otis Street Players (First M. E. Church) 

Middlesex Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star 

Royall Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star 

Optimystic Club (St. Joseph's Church) 

Royall House Association 

Truth Rebekah Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows 

Rollins Class (Trinity M. E. Church) 

St. Clement's Church 

St. Francis of Assisi Church 

St. James Church 

St. Raphael's Church 

St. John's Methodist Episcopal Church 

St. Joseph's Church 

St. Joseph's Dramatic Club 

Santa Maria Lodge 1570. Order Sons of Italy in America 

St. Cecilia Court, Catholic Daughters of America 

South Medford Parent-Teachers Association 

St. Joseph's Branch, Ladies Catholic Benevolent Association 

Thursday Fortnightly Club 

Samuel C. Lawrence Camp 30, United Spanish War Veterans 

West Medford Congregational Church 

West Medford Baptist Church 

West Medford Women's Club 

Wellington Methodist Episcopal Church 

West Medford Reading Club 

( 120 

Mayor Edward H. Larkin, Chairman 

Hugo S. Bagnulo 
Judge Lawrence G. Brooks 
Rep. Richard D. Crockwell 
Judge Frederick W. Fosdick 
George S. T. Fuller 
Adolfo Gange 
Sidney Gleason 
General Albert C. Gray- 
Rep. John J. Irwin 
Col. Benjamin B. Shedd 
Lieut. Col. John R. Sanborn 
Justice William Gushing Wait 
Major Orville J. Whitney 
City Clerk Charles A. Winslow 
Rep. Arthur L. Youngman 


Michael E. O'Brien, President 
Howard F. Alden 
George H. Bailey 
John H. Burke 
Charles A. Callahan 
William F. Callahan 
Robert P. Campbell 
William H. Cheetham 
Charles J. Donnellan 
Frank I. Fuller 
George P. Hassett 
Joseph 0. Knox 
Ernest Martini 
James J. Nicholson 
James W. Norton 
Floyd T. Prescott 
Alexander C. Peters 
James W. Prior 
William F. Shine 
Robert N. Spofford 
Clarence E. Twombly 



In recognition of services freely and graciously ren- 
dered, the Pageant Committee tenders grateful acknowl- 
edgment to the following : 

To Mrs. Shepherd Brooks, for the use of her estate for 
the Pageant itself and for the loan of carriages, teams 
and horses. 
Trustees, Boston Elevated Railway Company for pub- 
licity and for the establishing and maintaining of bus 
service to the Pageant grounds. 
Frederick A. Kom Losy for the many valuable suggestions 
and expert advice for stage lighting, scenery and scenic 
Miss Norma E. Casano for designing The Pageant of the 

Mystic poster. 
The Boston & Maine Railroad for selecting and furnishing 

design of train used in the Pageant and for publicity. 
The Maiden Electric Company for contribution of power, 
service, expert advice and loan of flood lights used in 
lighting the grounds and parking areas. 
Medford Historical Society for securing historical ma- 
terial and the use of their building for committee meet- 
Mr. Elmer H. Wilson for suggestions for the musical pro- 
gram, training and conducting the Pageant orchestra. 
Medford Daily Evening Mercury and the Medford Mer- 
cury and Messenger for publicity in the columns of their 
Medford Lodge 915 B. P. 0. E. for the use of their build- 
ing for the purpose of holding rehearsals. 
Dr. Charles W. McPherson for his valuable assistance in 
orchestrating, training and conducting the Pageant 
Samuel C. Lawrence Post 66, G. A. R. for the use of 
Grand Army Hall for the purpose of committee meet- 
Miss Elizabeth Gahan, Mr. Arnold H. Kuper and Mr. Jo- 
seph Costello for donating original posters. 


The Medford Chamber of Commeree for their assistance 
in the publicity work. 

Boston Globe for photographic reproduction of Pageant 

Mystic Waste Co. Inc. for donating bunting, cloth and 
other materials. 

Reverend Glenn D. Glazier for his suggestions and as- 
sistance on the Pageant. 

Mr. Thomas M. Connell and his associates of the Publicity 
committee for editing and issuing the Town Crier. 

The Aleppo Temple Shrine Band for giving a concert on 
the Pageant Grounds on the evening of June twenty- 

Mrs. Frederick A. Russell for designing the dances and 
training the dancing groups in the Pageant. 

Mr. Michael E. O'Leary, superintendent of the Brooks 
Estate for assistance in layout of Pageant Grounds, ap- 
proaches and many facilities. 

The Band of Medford Post 1012, Veterans Foreign Wars 
of U. S. for giving a concert on the Pageant Grounds 
on the evening of June thirtieth. 

Mr. Harold J. Nicholson for his assistance and coopera- 
tion in laying out the seating arrangements at the 
Pageant Grounds. 

Mr. Frank B. Blodgett for his advice on construction work. 

Mr. Henry A. Gaffney for his advice and assistance in the 
lighting of the Pageant Grounds, 

Mr. Alexander A. Lucey for his advice on the making of 
contracts, and Mr. Joseph L. Fitzpatrick for the pui-- 
chase of supplies. 

The members of the Class of 1930, Medford High School 
who participated in the Cavalcade, and by so doing ad- 
vertised the Pageant in various cities and towns. 

Mrs, Teresa A. St. Denis, chairman of the Public Welfare 
Board for the use of office and other assistance. 

Messrs. Frank M. Brewster and Eugene Duplain for the 
building of Indian tepees and aiding in publicity. Mr. 
Willis A. Bishop for his advice on Indian Scenes. 

The Mercury Printing Company, A. B. Chapman, Supt, 
and staff for their assistance and many courtesies ex- 


tended the Pageant Committee in connection with 
the printing. 

The Medford Police Department for their assistance in 
planning measures of safety and protection. 

The Medford Fire Department for their fire prevention 
work and protection. 

Mrs. Adelaide Hall for her assistance in pageant group 

All members of the Cast, the Chorus, the Dance, the Or- 
chestra, the large group of sewing women, the various 
organizations who have actively cooperated with the 
Pageant Committee, those members of sub-committees 
who have given of time and ability, and all private in- 
dividuals who have contributed to the success of the 
Pageant by the loan of properties and in other ways. 

Kenneth J. Cuneo for his services as Ye Towne Crier, 


Vol. XXXIII.] 

[No. 3. 








THE PAGEANT OP' THE MYSTIC. Wilson Fiske, ... 7 


Robert L. Nichols H 


PARISH IN MEDFORD. Clara T. Guild .... 16 
UNDERSTANDING ITALY. Mary Lillian Nov elline ... 22 

SHIPS OF MEDFORD. Edward J. Gaffey 24 

INDIANS OF MEDFORD. Rtith Dame Coolidge . ... 26 

Hall Gleason 28 

Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Governors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Subscription price, SI. 50 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

Fur gale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 

Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 
Associate Editors, HARRY E. WALKER, 


Exchange list in charge of Geo. S. T. Fuller, 15 George Street. 

Advertising Manager, Miss E. R. ORNE. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

the city of Medford, Mass., the sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 

(Signed) _ 


The Medford Historical Register. 

Vol. XXXIII. SEPTEMBER, 1930. No. 3. 


JUNE, 1930. 
By Wilson Fiske. 

THE shadows lengthen out. The summer sun, 
Closing his longest visit of the year 
To the faire countrie of the Missituks, 
Reluctant sinks behind the hills that hedge 
The ancient village of Menotomy. 
We sit, or stand, or stroll beneath the trees, 
Upon an eastward slope, within the bounds 
Of that wide realm which even yet remains, 
After so many generations gone, 
To grace the holdings of the stately line, 
Whose gracious act our theatre tonight 
In courtesy provides. Before us stretch 
Green meadows, scythe-cropped, flanked on either side 
By wooded knoll, — proscenium bases fit, — 
Behind which, right and left, the entrances 
Upon our sylvan stage their hosts deploy. 
Across the scene, up stage, a little lake 
Extends, its further shore with thickets fringed. 
Behind a narrow strand, — back-curtain meet 
To finish off the settings of our stage. 
Such is the scene whereon this night shall be 
Portrayal of our city's history. 
From earliest ages on, in mimic pageantry. 

The shadows lengthen. In the gloaming grow 
The settings of an Indian camp. Small fires 
Burn brightly. On the tripods swing the pots. 
The squaws in many-colored mantles stir 
The evening meal. Across the scene stalk slow 
Red warriors, arriving one by one ; 
The boys, their games afoot, dash yon and here; 
Anon, the girls arrange a sunset dance. 
Shouts, laughter, every peaceful sound is heard ; 
The while, upon the water, silent hold 
The swift canoes their flight from side to side 
Scarce rippling e'en the mirror of the tide. 


The shadows deepen. Spot-lights float across 
From either wing to wing ; the footh'ghts' beam 
Shows clear again the fading forms and acts. 
A waltz's strains from out the darkness float, 
And slow, advancing to the swaying rhythm, 
Forth issue from the lower entrance left. 
The Spirit of the Mystic, and the Tides, 
The Ebb and Flood. Accompanying these, 
A corps, interpretative by the dance 
Of all the river's windings, and the flood 
Of waters and the ebb; and rolling slow, 
The tumbling breakers o'er the rocks to show. 

Darkness — and when again the stage is seen 
A change has stirred the group upon the green. 
Commotion reigns; as when poised high above, 
The soaring hawk o'ershades the brooding dove. 

The frail canoes seek shelter at the shores. 
And not the paddle but the white man's oars 
The waters fret. A crafty w^arrior flies 
To shoreward, whose unfailing Indian eyes 
Appraise the instant peril, and his whoop 
Swift warning carries to the waiting group 
About the fires. Across the little bay 
A laboring shallop makes its cautious way. 
With measured stroke and slow it comes to land. 
And from it quickly step a little band. 
Armored and armed. They come with rapid tread. 
The doughty Plymouth Captain at their head. 
The faithful Squanto marching at his side. 
Their red-skinned friend, interpreter and guide. 
They seek the ruler of this region fair 
In vain ; but barter with the squaws, who share 
With them their homely meal ; and then depart, 
Good Elder Brewster saying as they start 
Upon their homeward voyage, he e'en could dare 
To wish his people had been seated there. 

Darkness, once more. The setting shifts again. 
The inspiration of the waltz's strain. 
The Tides. The Ebb flows eastward to the sea, 
To whom the Flood, swelled high with prophecy, 
O'erpowering the feebler outward flow. 
Unfolds the page that shall the future show, 
Forecasting the events which yet shall be 
Presented in our pageant's witchery : 


" Soon, soon shall come to thee across the foam, 
From England's brave and noble-hearted isle, 
A ship of haniy and God-fearing men, — 
Like to yon Pilgrims who adventured here — 
To found a city on thy winding stream ; 
Of all these shores to found a Commonwealth." 

In rapid sequence now the scenes unfold. 
Events portraying as the Tide foretold. 
The charter taken from the royal hand 
By Matthew Cradock, to the newer land, — 
New England, — is by Winthrop safely brought, 
And Indian friendship is by friendship bought. 

The darkness falls again. The newer scene 
Displays the settings of a later day; — 
A century has passed. The stalwart arms, 
That won from out the wilderness a home 
And freedom, folded lie upon the breasts 
Whose courage matched their strength. A younger race 
The picture fills, enjoying now such peace 
And comforts as the age and land afford. 
Colonial life, the settlement begun. 
Shows forth its quaint activities and arts. 

Across the village green, at call of drum, 
The habitants upon a sabbath morn. 
Sedately to their place of worship plod ; 
The minister at head, with book in hand. 
His family, the teacher, tithing-man. 
Precentor and the rest, in solemn line. 
Anon, the dame school holds its session dread ; 
Whence steal the urchins slyly as they may 
To cast their gibes — and somewhat more, perchance, — 
Upon the wretched culprit in the stocks 
Hard by, — perhaps to laugh and clap the hands 
In glee, at vision of the ducking stool 
Beyond. The women deftly spin and quilt ; 
The men to mill depart, their grain to grind. 
Across the green the Representative 
Of Medford, at the Great and General Court, 
Rides gaily, not without full many a nod 
Of friendly recognition as he goes. 
Again the sound of music, and the grace 
Of damosels and gallants in the dance, — 
The stately minuet, — our looks entrance. 


'Tis dark again. Again the decades pass; 
Another generation holds the stage. 
The spirit of unrest o'erbroods the scene ; — 
There 's contest, revolution in the air. 
The Medford men who helped to brew the tea, 
With Boston Harbor for the pot, are back 
And sheltered by their faithful wives from harm. 
The gloom aye deepens. On an April night 
The fateful messenger, in foam-flecked haste 
Arrives, th' alarum cries, and clatters west, 
His weightier mission thitherward to do. 

As when the urchin's wanton pole may stir 
The wasp's grey paper house beneath the eaves. 
Forthwith the swarm shall dart without, full armed 
For combat in defense of home; — so now 
From every dwelling forth the people pour, 
To aid, to speed, to cheer the three score men, — 
Less one, — who march that day to hear the words 
Immortal from their leader — " Stand your ground. 
Fire not, unless ye first be fired upon ; 
But if they mean a war, let it start here." 

At eve the minutemen return, less gay, 
But no less steadfast ; and again the wives, 
The Medford women, prove their faithfulness, 
As when did woman fail in stress to do ! 
"An equal crown doth history hold, for her 
And for the warrior." 

The struggle o'er, 
The country turns it to the ways of peace. 
Of old hath Meadford held an honored place 
As builder of the carriers of the sea. 
Behold we now the launching of a ship, 
"A beautiful and gallant craft," shall bear 
To furthest seas her builder's fame — and ours. 

And now, the creeping barge, across our town. 
Floating the timbers of the vasty woods, 
Nor less the riches of the inland farms, 
Down to the shipyards and the waiting ships. 
Is followed, rivalled, conquered and eclipsed 
By the draft steed of iron and his tow ; 
Whose thews of proof and path of double steel 
Fatigue nor storm nor heat nor frost may stay ; 
Whose labors turn those other wheels as well, 
Which by their revolution weave the spell 
That puts New England first in industry 
Through all the years of her third century. 


Our panorama, which in sunset's glow 
Began, its scenes of sylvan life to show, 
In keeping with the twilight's softening spell, 
Closes with every artful aid may tell 
Of Medford's glory. What consummate art 
So well has somehow blended every part 
To make such satisfying whole ! Depart 
We, musing thus. But 'twas not art alone! 
Art made the play, the music, gave the tone 
That lifted the performance from the zone 
Of commonplace. Ah, yes! But something more 
Than merely art is requisite before 
So many hundred people may be brought 
Untrained, undisciplined, impelled by nought 
But neighborly good feeling, and their pride 
In Medford, thus most aptly to provide 
The picture of her past. 

And in that same 
Good feeling, in that love of her good name, 
Her hopes for all the future lie. Here lives 
The Spirit that all value to her history gives. 


STRANGE stories of far-distant time do the rocks ot 
the earth's crust tell the geologists, those men who 
are trying to learn something about old Mother Earth's 
past, stories of volcanoes, of earthquakes, of strange ani- 
mals and of ice ages in and near Medford. 

The very oldest rocks in Medford were formed by 
water sorting, that is, ancient rivers carried sand down 
to the ocean (over six hundred million years ago) and 
this sand was cemented and pressed together to make 
what is known as a sandstone. Later this sandstone was 
cut and invaded by lava which baked and hardened the 
sandstone into a rock known as quartzite, which can be 
seen in ledges along the horseback trail to the west of 
the Lawrence Observatory. These rocks are now well 
above sea level, although they were once on the sea bot- 
tom, and are, therefore, good evidence of the internal 


forces of elevation resident within the earth. If it were 
not for this force tending to elevate the rocks of the 
earth's crust the continents would long ago have been 
eroded down to a flat, featureless plain at approximately 
sea level. 

Long after the formation of the quartzite there was an 
active erupting volcano in West Roxbury. When liquid 
rock or lava pours out on the surface it flows away in all 
directions and soon cools and hardens into solid rock. 
More lava coming over these first layers helps to build 
up a cone around the vent. Occasionally, instead of 
liquid welling up, fragmental material is ejected and it 
falls around the vent, helping also to build up the cone. 
In such ways a volcano is formed. From a careful study 
of the rocks in Roxbury, geologists have found a peculiar 
kind of rock which can be formed only by a volcano, and 
so they conclude that at one time an active volcano 
existed in Roxbury. If such a volcano existed now there 
would be great danger for the people in the vicinity of 
Boston, for molten lava might pour down on them or 
they might be burned and buried by volcanic ash, cinders 
and bombs such as are thrown out of some of the present 
day volcanoes. Much time has gone since that volcano 
existed, and it has since been absolutely leveled by the 
forces of erosion. This gives us some idea of the im- 
mensity of geologic time when volcanoes can be formed 
and worn away. 

The Mystic river lies in a filled trough which nearly 
follows a fault, that is, a joint or crack in the rocks along 
which there has been movement. It is such movement 
of sectors of the earth's crust that produces earthquakes. 
Motion along the so-called San Andeas fault produced 
the disastrous Californian earthquake in 1904, and motion 
on this Medford fault may and undoubtedly did shake 
this region, say two hundred million years ago, as vio- 
lently as California was shaken in 1904. Although there 
haven't been any severe earthquakes around Boston for 
the past hundred years or more — the quake in Boston 


in 1925 could hardly be called severe — yet three hun- 
dred years ago earthquakes were a real and terrible expe- 
rience to the people of Boston, for the shocks were 
frequent and sharp. In 1638 a severe quake terrified 
the Pilgrims in Plymouth, who thought it was the "hand 
of God " punishing them for their sins. The damage 
was small simply because the dwellings were log cabins, 
which are low and very stable. Between 1727 and 1741, 
the Rev. Mathias Plant, of Newburyport, recorded one 
hundred and twenty shocks around Boston, and in 1775 
the greatest of all the recorded earthquakes took place. 

On the fifteenth of November, 1775, seventeen days 
after the terrible earthquake at Lisbon, Portugal, which 
killed thousands of people, there occurred the greatest 
earthquake of historic times in Boston. The damage 
was considerable. Many chimneys were levelled, roofs 
crushed in and many houses disjointed and nearly de- 
stroyed. Such an earthquake today would undoubtedly 
cause great damage and loss of life, because the city is 
larger and the buildings are higher. 

But the activity of the internal forces of the earth did 
not cease with the movement along the Medford fault, 
for long after, cracks were formed in the earth's crust, 
and later these cracks were filled with molten lava which 
hardened, forming what the geologist calls a dike. The 
largest and most famous of these is the widely known 
Medford diabase dike about which so much has been 
written. This fills a great crack extending from a little 
south of the Powder House in Somerville, under Tufts 
College hill and the school house to Governors avenue, 
and thence west of pine hill to the Fellsway. For a long 
period of time the Medford diabase dike was exposed to 
the atmosphere and consequently it was deeply eroded, 
decayed and weathered, so when the glacier came it was 
unable to carry away all this weathered rock and so had 
to leave much of it in place. This weathered diabase 
forms a red sand or gravel much desired for walks. It 
penetrates at times as much as sixteen feet along cracks, 


between balls of less altered rock. This can all be beauti- 
fully seen on Governors avenue, Medford. 

And then only the day before yesterday, as far as geo- 
logic time goes, the rocks tell us that the whole of New 
England, and indeed about four million square miles of 
Northern North America, was covered with an immense 
continental ice sheet, something like the one over Green- 
land at the present time. This ice sheet was thousands 
of feet thick, and it appears that it melted away from 
New England in the neighborhood of about twenty-five 
thousand years ago. Now, what is the evidence for the 
existence of this continental ice cap, many will hasten to 
ask. In the first place, there are the transported bowl- 
ders or rocks, sometimes called erratics, because they are 
often found in insecure positions, which sometimes allows 
one to rock them back and forth with a slight pressure 
of the hand. If we will examine these erratics we will 
notice an interesting thing, namely, that the erratic is 
not made of the same material as the rock on which it 
rests. In other words, it is not in its place of origin, and 
has been transported to that place by some agency. In 
many cases these erratics weigh hundreds of tons. Now 
geologists have asked themselves what agency could 
have transported these bowlders. Could the wind have 
done it ? Could running water in the form of rivers or 
brooks ? Could the waves, aided by shore currents ? 
To all these the geologists are forced to answer " No," 
and the only agency which could have transported the 
bowlders is moving ice. Indeed, we may observe this 
very thing in living glaciers today; large bowlders are 
being continually carried from high up in the mountains 
and dropped low down in the valleys. These erratics 
are very common in Medford, particularly in the Middle- 
sex Fells. 

Secondly, there are the striated rocks. If one has 
done a lot of hiking and at the same time has kept his 
eyes open, he may have noticed in many places that the 
rocks are polished, smoothed, scratched, striated and 


grooved, and if one is particularly keen-eyed he may 
have made the remarkable discovery that in New Eng- 
land the striations run approximately north and south. 
What could have scratched and polished the rocks? 
Again the geologist answers only moving ice, and again 
we observe that at the present time living glaciers are 
doing this very thing. Striated rocks are very common 
in Medford. 

Among the many features produced by the glacier are 
the so-called drumlins, hills composed of clay and bowl- 
ders, oval in shape, with their long axes running north 
and south and usually one-half of a mile to a mile long. 
College hill in Medford, Winter hill in Somerville, Beacon 
hill in Boston, and most of the islands in Boston Harbor 
are drumlins, as well as many more around Boston. 

There are several theories for the origin of these drum- 
lins. Some geologists believe that they are irregularities 
built up beneath the ice by irregular deposition, as sand 
bars are built in an overburdened river. 

The clay pits near the Wellington marsh and those 
near Tufts College were also formed because of the 
glacier. The continental ice sheet contained great quanti- 
ties of clay, sand and gravel, and as the ice melted, streams 
of muddy water poured into lakes in front of the ice and 
often also into tidal water. In the case of the Wellington 
clays, the rivers ran from the ice into tidal water. The 
coarse gravel was deposited close to the shore, the sand 
was carried out farther by currents and then dropped, 
and the clay, because fine, remained in suspension for a 
long time and finally settled out in the quiet, deeper parts 
of the tidal water. Such was the origin of brick clays in 

Medford is very fortunate in having close to it the 
Fells, a state reservation with beautiful lakes, walks and 
trees. Not only are the Fells interesting and beautiful 
to the layman, but they are also a paradise to the geolo- 
gist, for within the borders are many geological features. 

This brief description of a few of the geological events 


is enough to show that vast changes have occurred in 
Medford during geologic time. Volcanoes have been 
formed and worn away, great movements of the earth's 
crust have produced severe earthquakes, and a conti- 
nental ice cap has come and gone. In this long series 
of events the present is but one short page. Many 
changes have occurred in the past and many more will 
occur in the future. 

"The hills are shadows and they flow 
From form to form, and nothing stands; 
They melt like mist, the solid lands 
Like clouds they shape themselves and go." 



[From an address s'ven before the Women's Alliance, October, 1929, by Mrs. Clara T. Guild.] 

i6g2. In 1692 Rev. John Hancock, grandfather of 
the patriot whose signature is so familiar to us, was hired 
to preach. Arrangements were made for his board with 
Mr. John Bradshaw for a year " If he shall continue his 
ministry so long with us." The price of board was five 
shillings a week. After only six months' preaching, Mr. 
Hancock was called to Lexington, where he was pastor 
fifty-five years. 

The next " supply " was Benjamin Colman, a student 
at Harvard College who, after six months, returned to 
college for further study. A call came to him from 
Brattle Street Church, Boston, and he returned to Eng- 
land and was ordained there, fearing that his known 
opposition to the strict rules of the Colonists regarding 
theological tests would prevent his ordination here. Mr. 
Colman is said to have contributed more than any other 
man of his day to the elevation of the character of the 
New England pulpit. 


i6g3. On January 17, 1693, the town voted to have 
a meeting-house erected on land belonging to Thomas 
Willis on the north side of Woburn road "on a rock." 
Trouble in meeting the expense and other difficulties 
delayed the completion of the building. The house was 
30 X 27 X 16, and the walls were plastered with lime and 
a pulpit and deacons' seats erected. What excitement 
must have existed over this first meeting-house in Med- 
ford ! To be sure it was uncomfortable, as the windows, 
we are told, were openings with shutters, but the men 
struck their feet and their hands together for warmth 
and the children hovered as near as possible to their 
mothers' foot-stoves ; but at least they had the conven- 
ience of a nearer place of worship. The interest, too, 
must have been very great when the "seating" took 
place. One did not enter and take any seat at will. The 
town appointed a committee of most judicious and popu- 
lar men to apportion the seats, their rule being that the 
"quality" of a person determined where he should sit, 
and his "quality " depended on his age, the amount he 
subscribed toward building the house and support of the 
minister, and the " charges " he paid the public. The 
work of the seating committee caused such " heart-burn- 
ing " that a new committee was chosen and a re-seating 
made. Pews were not tolerated at this time, but Major 
Wade, a rich citizen, was given permission to build a 
pew and the liberty was granted to a few others. 

i6g8. The people were just settled in their new 
meeting-house and were unsuccessful in settling a minis- 
ter when Rev. Benjamin Woodbridge of Charlestown 
was engaged to preach for them for six months. A horse 
was hired for the journey from Charlestown and back 
and for use on Sunday if needed, the expense being two 
shillings a journey for a " well-shod horse." 

For twelve years Mr. Woodbridge was acting minister 
of the town, he claiming he was a settled minister, the 
town claiming he was not. Several suits at law were 
required to settle the differences that arose. In spite of 


the unhappy relations that existed, Mr. Woodbridge had 
a strong hold on some of the people and continued to 
live in Medford until his death, in 1710. That the town 
held no ill-feeling toward him is shown by the prompt 
and generous vote of one hundred pounds to meet the 
expenses of his funeral. 

lyii. After Mr. Woodbridge 's death Mr. John Tufts, 
son of Mr. Peter Tufts, supplied the pulpit for about six 
months. He was one of three candidates when the town, 
in 171 2, chose Rev. Aaron Porter, who was the first set- 
tled minister. He was ordained February 11, 1713, and 
immediately after the ordination a covenant which had 
been prepared was signed by fifteen members, " thus 
gathering the First Church in Medford, February 11, 
1 71 3." The church was approved by the magistrates, 
thereby gaining the franchise for its members. This 
settlement and approval formally instituted the First 
Parish. Mr. Porter was a wise leader and valued minis- 
ter. He died after only nine years of preaching. A 
marble slab in the Salem Street cemetery bears the in- 
scription, " Sacred to the memory of Aaron Porter, the 
first settled minister of Medford." 

While the size, site and equipment of a new meeting- 
house was under discussion, Mr. Porter's successor was 
selected. Rev. Ebenezer Turell was ordained Novem- 
ber 25, 1724. The new meeting-house, in size "fifty-two 
feet long, thirty-eight feet wide and thirty-three feet 
posts," with a steeple rising from the center, situated on 
the south side of High street near Marble brook, was 
first occupied on September 3, 1727. Mr. Turell's preach- 
ing showed courage and force of character. He influ- 
enced and helped his fellows by giving the best that was 
in him. To all good causes he gave sincere help, and 
he was a fine representative of the highest education of 
his time. Just as the opening years of Parson Turell's 
ministry coincided with the building of the second meet- 
ing-house, so the closing years were troubled by the erec- 
tion of the third, built on the spot where the present one 


stands, a site which Parson Turell did not approve. The 
house was seventy-six by forty-eight feet with a tower, 
a spire and two porches, and with forty-eight seats on the 
floor and eight in the gallery. The windows had leads 
and pulleys, and on the inside and outside the structure 
was most respectable and appropriate. 

March II, 17 yo. The church was first used March 1 1, 
1770, with no special service of dedication, for that would 
seem to imitate the English Church. For the same poor 
reason observance of Easter and Christmas was banished. 
Mr. Turell died December 5, 1778. 

September 14, 1774. Because of their minister's failing 
health the church and town engaged as his colleague 
Rev. David Osgood of Andover, who was ordained 
September 14, 1774. Mr. Osgood preached for more 
than forty-eight years and died December 12, 1822. In 
later years his theological opinions slowly but surely 
changed. Freedom to hold his own opinions caused him 
to give the same freedom to others. Each one, he main- 
tained, had the right to judge according to his own con- 
science. He was an honest, fearless, true patriot ; learned, 
brusque, but always reverent. He preached on all sub- 
jects with force and conviction, and with an authoritative 
dignity which surpassed any man of his day. After 
listening to Dr. Osgood in Brattle Street Church, Daniel 
Webster said, " It was the most impressive eloquence it 
was ever my good fortune to hear." His sermons some- 
times took two hours to deliver and were often delivered 
entirely without notes. 

182J. After Dr. Osgood's death Rev. Andrew Bige- 
low was invited to succeed him at a salary of eight hun- 
dred dollars. The church, with some dissenting votes, 
concurred with the town, and Mr. Bigelow accepted and 
was installed July 9, 1823. After a short time given to 
the study of law Mr. Bigelow with his whole soul turned 
to the study of divinity. He came with experience, hav- 
ing worked with great zeal in Eastport, Me., and in 
Gloucester, Mass. 


Ever since the settlement of Dr. Osgood there had 
existed a disturbed feeling in the church which Mr. 
Bigelow did all he could to calm. But on August 25, 
1823, seventeen members sent a respectful letter to the 
church asking for a letter of dismissal that they might 
form a new church. Their request was granted with 
less controversy than might have been expected. Both 
parties were acting as their conscience directed. All 
who did not unite with the new society became the First 
Parish, which was legally organized in this way: On 
April 12, 1824, ten male memloers of the original parish 
applied to a justice of the peace to issue a warrant direct- 
ing one of the ten to notify all legal voters of the parish 
to meet in the meeting-house for the purpose of electing 
officers, raising money, etc. Thus the First Parish be- 
came a legal body under a separate organization. 

1826. In April, 1826, the question arose about the 
right of the town to hold town meetings in the church 
as was their custom. The selectmen said they had the 
right ; the parish said they had not. A town meeting 
was called to meet in the church as usual. The doors 
were locked, but entrance was forced. In the suit which 
followed the Supreme Court upheld the parish. 

i82y. Ill health caused Mr. Bigelow to ask to be 
relieved, and after preaching five Sundays as a candidate. 
Rev. Caleb Stetson was elected as his successor at an 
annual salary of one thousand dollars. Near the middle 
of Mr. Stetson's ministry of twenty-one years the old 
meeting-house was torn down and a new building erected 
on the site of the old one. The new house was dedi- 
cated December 4, 1839, and served the parish for more 
than fifty years, until destroyed by fire on January 15, 
1893. The present church building, the third on the 
same site, was dedicated June i, 1894. Mr. Stetson's 
ministry coincided with the period of the anti-slavery 
movement, and he whose heart was warm to every good 
cause did not refrain from this subject in his preaching. 
In settling his successor the church voted that it was 


" inexpedient and hazardous to preach any political abo- 
lition sermons or discourses in our pulpit on the Sab- 
bath." This vote was later rescinded. 

i8^g. Rev. John Pierpont was chosen as Mr. Stet- 
son's successor and was the first to be installed by simple 
ceremony by the committee of the church instead of by 
an ecclesiastical council. At sixty-four years of age he 
felt it his duty to not only denounce sin but to fight it 
in every possible way. He became noted throughout 
the state and country as a zealous supporter of the tem- 
perance and anti-slavery movements. His course caused 
considerable feeling in the parish and led to his resigna- 
tion in 1856. But he did not remain idle. When the 
Civil War began he obtained a commission from Gover- 
nor Andrew and marched as chaplain with the 2 2d Regi- 
ment from Boston. Later he performed excellent service 
in the Treasury Department at Washington. His home 
was in Medford ever after his ministry, and on a visit he 
died here suddenly in 1866 at the age of eighty-one years. 
"Patriot, Preacher, Philanthropist, Poet, Pierpont " are 
on his head stone at Mount Auburn, and these words 
attest his qualities. 

Rev. Theodore Tebbets, much admired as a man and 
as a preacher, served the parish until 1861, and Rev. 
Edwin C. Towne, a man of radical views, which caused 
complaint, served until 1867. 

i86g. The pastorate of Rev. Henry C. DeLong began 
on the first Sunday in March, 1869, and continued forty- 
five years. Mr. DeLong, while a student of affairs of 
the time and informed on all questions, unlike some of 
his predecessors took no stand with any "cause" in his 
preaching that would make for controversy in the parish. 
His preaching, while timely, did not present political 
questions, but it did present principles that underlie all 
good thought and action. Having strong convictions, 
gentle and serene in spirit, fine in appreciation of all that 
is true and noble, seeing the good wherever it existed, 
Mr. DeLong's spiritual influence was of rare worth. He 
was minister emeritus two years, and died January 9, 19 16. 


igi4. In September, 19 14, Rev. Louis C. Dethlefs 
came to the First Parish in Medford. He also teaches 
with strong conviction that " ReHgion is not learning, 
not logic, but love; not contact, but co-operation." And 
so our preaching and teaching of today follows out the 
highest and best of any time, with the simple, potent rule 
for spiritual nurture and religious life — " Love and Co- 

Ten settled ministers and many " supplies " have 
preached in the five meeting-houses of this ancient parish 
in three hundred years. Long pastorates, a continuous 
stream of scholarly thinking, increasing tolerance of 
others' views, and a desire to be of greater possible ser- 
vice as ministers of God have marked their lives and 
immeasurably influenced the First Parish of Medford. 


A study of the Italian race is absolutely necessary for 
any person who desires full and complete knowledge 
of all that is best in art, in literature, science and in 

I will quote the ability of historians by Carlo Botta 
and Pasquale Villari, romancists like Manzoni and 
D'Annunzio, masters of language like Bartelli and De- 
Amicis, and not overlook astronomers like Scheaparelli, 
and electricians like Ferraris and Marconi on the loftiest 
ranges of applied science. 

In the field of railway engineering there are no more 
extraordinary memories than the three grand passage- 
ways of the Mount Cenis, St. Gothard, and Simplon 
tunnels, the enduring monuments of southern Latin engi- 
neers and constructors who are said to be unassimilable. 

"Shakespeare's most romantic heroines, Juliet and 
Desdemona," observes Wilfred Scawen Blunt in " The 
Speaker," " were both borrowed, as we know, and not 
without the loss of dignity, from Brandello's Italian 


Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio and Aristo became English 
household words through translations and imitations. 
From the dawn of early English art and literature Italy 
has been a mecca for her artists and scholars. The lofty 
imagination of Milton first expanded in Italian air. Here, 
too, the restless and embittered heart of Byron sought 
solace. All that is mortal of Shelley and Keats lies under 
the shadow of Rome. In Florence the genius of Brown- 
ing reached its zenith, and his memorial tablet in Venice 
bears the lines of his poem, " Open my heart and you 
will see graved inside of it Italy." 

And can America forget her distinctive indebtedness? 
The new world owes to Italy the debt of the old and 
more. May she not well remember that it was the son 
of a Genoese wool comber whose unflagging spirit re- 
vealed her existence to Europe, that the Florentine, 
Amerigo Vespucci, was her godfather, and that the voy- 
ages of the Cabots and Verrazano first traced the North 
American coast line and cleared the way for pioneer 

Other names in the history of Italy are Tasso, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Canava, Verdi, Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, 
Ristori, Duse, Salvini, Rossi, Alfieri, Giacometti, Cavour 
and Mazzini. 

The Italian by training and environment is a child of 
sunshine, and is less responsible for the slum conditions 
obtaining in our large cities than the owner of the 
property or makers of laws which allow unsanitary con- 
ditions to obtain. 

Under the stars and stripes in the last World War the 
Italian stood second to none in his line of duty, whether 
it be in the training camp or in the trenches. The per- 
centage is equal to any of the other nationalities that 
made the supreme sacrifice to make this world free for 

The Italians in United States today stand for obedi- 
ence to constituted authority, allegiance to the stars and 
stripes and one hundred percent Americanism. 


24 [September, 


Years ago one of the requirements of our school work 
was the memorizing of some poetical work which we had 
to recite before our critical fellow-students. 

It was a task much dreaded by many. Among the 
selections was Longfellow's "The Building of the Ship." 
Truly our beloved New England poet knew his subject. 
I recommend all to read it, if you have forgotten it. It 
will have a deeper significance at this time to every true 

In the official publication of the Medford Historical 
Society (Historical Register) there have appeared arti- 
cles pertaining to the subject of ship-building in which 
Medford was at one time vitally interested. 

What follows (in part) is matter taken from these 
papers, and I feel confident it will revive interest among 
many to go into the subject more thoroughly. 

Few people realize what an important part this indus- 
try played in the life of Medford, and in the building of 
the commerce of the colonies. 

In a single year (1845) thirty vessels were built on the 
banks of the Mystic, with a tonnage of 9,712 tons, valued 
at over one-half million dollars. In a period covering 
seventy years (the life of the industry) 568 vessels were 
constructed at a cost, it is estimated, of $12,500,000. 

The first vessel of record to be built in the colony was 
the Blessmg of the Bay. It was a bark of thirty tons and 
was constructed of locust cut on the farm of Governor 
Winthrop and launched July 4th (an eventful date), 163 1. 

The pioneer in the industry in Medford was Thatcher 
Magoun. His yard was nearly opposite the end of Park 
street. His first vessel was the Mt. ^tna. It is interest- 
ing to note that Thatcher Magoun was born June 17, 
1775, the day the battle of Bunker hill was fought. 

In all there were ten yards on the Mystic extending 
from what is now known as Foster's Court to a place 
adjoining the old Boston and Lowell Railroad, now the 
Boston and Maine. The largest ship ever launched in 

1930.] SHIPS OF MED FORD. 25 

Medford was the Ocean Express, of 2,000 tons, built by 
J. O. Curtis, and ships of more than 1,000 tons were 
built above the Cradock bridge. The last ship to be 
constructed in Medford was the Pilgrim, launched in 
December, 1873. ^ view of this ship's launch may be 
seen in the rooms of the Medford Historical Society. 

Truly it is fitting that the official seal of our fair city 
should carry a replica of this ship on the stocks. 

It is interesting to note that after nearly three hundred 
years an attempt was made to revive ship-building in 
this locality, and after much adversity and tribulation 
and loss to the originators of the project, a vessel called 
the Tremont was launched at practically the same spot 
where the Blessing of the Bay was built, near the Wel- 
lington bridge in what is now Somerville. 

Space does not permit us to tell of the many things 
relating to this subject, which may be found in archives 
of our local Historical Society and in the Public Library, 
which bears the name of the man who generously gave 
the same to Medford, Thatcher Magoun, the pioneer of 
Medford's greatest industry of the past. 

Gone are the ships that sailed the sea — 

Once linked with Medford's history, 

The placid Mystic flows serene, 

And naught remains of busy scene, 

Where children watched while strong men toiled, 

With forge and saw, while pitch-pot boiled ; 

Who played with fragrant chips that flew, 

From pine and oak that adze did hew ; 

Some sailed away in visions fair, 

To foreign lands and treasures rare. 

Gone are the ships that sailed the seas, 

Leaving us only memories. 


26 [September, 


Long before Matthew Cradock had conceived the idea 
of a plantation on the Mystic river, the Indians had made 
their home beside the Missituk lakes. These Indians in 
Medford belonged to the tribe of the Massachuset which 
inhabited practically all the east central part of the state. 
Early explorers tell us that the country was more or less 
open, that there were many cleared fields, and that the 
underbrush in the forests was burnt annually to open 
the woods for hunting, while Indian trails ran between 
the various Indian villages and to hunting or fishing 
grounds. Shortly before the arrival of the Pilgrims the 
Massachuset Indians had been decimated by a terrible 
plague and many of the villages were deserted. 

The larger part of Middlesex and Essex counties was 
under the rule of an Indian sachem, Nanepashemit by 
name, who came to Medford from Lynn about 1615 and 
had an outpost on Rock hill overlooking the river. He 
was killed in 16 19, perhaps by his hereditary enemies, 
the Tarratines, who often came down from the north in 
the autumn, swept up the river in their canoes and de- 
stroyed or pillaged the crops of corn. Nanepashemit 
was succeeded by his wife, the " Squa Sachem " with her 
second mate, the sorcerer Webcowit, while the sachem's 
three sons became the sagamores, George of Salem, 
James of Lynn, and John of Medford. 

In Indian days there were doubtless trails between 
these various villages — a trail, too, from Charlestown to 
the famous fish weirs where the lakes narrow into the 
river — substantially along the lines of Main and High 
streets of today — and another probably along Grove 
street toward the hunting grounds in Woburn. Our 
early roads doubtless followed Indian trails. Numerous 
Indian relics, still found occasionally under the plough, 
and the graves of Indians near Sagamore avenue in West 
Medford and on the hillside not far from the old pump- 
ing station, mutely attest the presence of large Indian 
villages. The great run of alewives and smelts in the 


spring also brought the surrounding country Indians, 
who erected temporary fishing camps near the " Rock " 
beneath Rock hill, and smoked their fish in the open 
meadows. Their houses were of two types. The more 
permanent ones were large and oblong, made of closely 
planted poles bent over like a grape arbor and carefully 
shingled with pieces of flattened bark. The temporary 
ones were round, with frameworks of poles covered with 
removable mats of woven cat tails or grass, but not coni- 
cal like the teepees of the western Indians which could 
be rolled up and dragged from one place to another. 
Inside the houses were long bunk-like platforms and a 
full equipment of baskets, wooden utensils and clay pots, 
though the French traders along shore early supplied 
Indians near the coast with iron or copper kettles. 

In September, 162 1, a party of Pilgrims from Plymouth 
explored Massachusetts bay, and Medford historians have 
always believed that the account of this trip detailed in 
Mourt's " Relation " pointed clearly to Medford. These 
explorers found the wigwam of Nanepashemit on Rock 
hill, a stockaded village some way beyond additionally 
protected by a moat and bridge, with a house within the 
stockade "wherein being dead he lay buryd," and beyond, 
on a gently sloping hill with great oak trees, another 
wigwam in which he had been killed. The Pilgrims 
followed the Indians and finally overtook the women 
of the tribe. With these they made peace and, as their 
guests, partook of a dinner, probably a porridge of beans, 
corn and dried alewives. The men were away, and the 
Squa Sachem too, with whom they had wished to make 
a treaty, was " not here," as the interpreter said, but they 
traded skins with the squaws and returned to Plymouth, 
wishing they had " Been ther seated." 

In later days Sagamore John was friendly toward Crad- 
ock's settlers, and indeed Matthew Cradock was very 
explicit in his directions to his men not to molest the 
Indians and to recompense them for their land. When 
Sagamore John died he regretted that he had not wor- 


shipped the white man's God, and left his son as a ward 
to the Rev. John Wilson, who owned what is now Wel- 
lington, to be brought up as his ward. A deed granting 
land to Winthrop, but reserving the use of the weirs to 
the Indians, was signed in 1639 with the crosses of the 
Squa Sachem and Webcowit. Early maps show the 
lodges of Sagamore John on the south side of the river 
where it is joined by Alewife brook. Gradually the In- 
dians withdrew, though remnants of the tribe made their 
home in Turkey swamp, now Winchester reservoir, and 
old accounts show that the Indians occasionally worked 
for the white men. The last Medford Indian was Hannah 
Shiner, who, under the civilizing influence of Medford 
rum, was drowned in the early nineteenth century. 

The only tangible reminders of the presence of the 
Indians today are the relics in the collection of the Med- 
ford Historical Society and the boulder erected to the 
memory of Sagamore John. 



By Hall Gleason. 

(Continued from Medford Historical Register, December, 1929.) 

1847. Joshua Hamblen. Schooner, 70 tons. Owners, Thomas Hopkins, et al., Chatham. 
Built by J. O.Curtis. 

Helen McGaw of N. Y. Ship, 598 tons. Owner, John A. McGaw of Boston. Built by 
James O. Curtis. Hailed from N. Y. Sold Norwegian Acct. August, 1863. Name 
changed to Roska. Alive 1900. 

Niobe. Ship, 686 tons. Owners, George Pratt of Boston and Briggs Thomas of Dux- 
bury. Sold to William S. Bullard and Henry Lee, Jr., ?/ aA Registered Decem- 
brr 5, 1851. Registered Mav 19. 185^ Stephen H. Bullard. Sold to B. S. Allen and 
others December, 1860. Built by Paul Curtis. Sold to British Acct. July, 1863. 

Independence. Ship, 827 tons. Owner, Augustus Hemenway of Boston. Built by 
Paul Curtis for above. Sold to N. Y. parties. Sold to British Acct. February, 1864 
Name changed to Gylfe. Last report, 1893. 

R. C. Winthrop. Ship, 781 tons. Owners, Benjamin and George P. Bangs, et al. 
Built by Paul Curtis. Boston to S. F.. arrived August 13, 1852, 138 days. Sold to 
Baltimore parties July, 18.53. Sold to N. Y. parties July, 1862. N. Y. for Antwerp 
Sailed from former port February 21, 1873, and was passed abandoned in lat. 40° 10' N., 
long. 50° 45' W., on March 8, 1873. 

Horsburgh. Ship, 542 tons. Owners, Samuel Hooper and .Abbott Lawrence of Bos 
ton. Registered June 7, l&Sl. D. G. and W. B. Bacon. Registered June 11, 18.57, 
Edward Oakes & Co. Registered June 19, 1855, Tuckerman, Townsend & Co. Bull 
by Hayden & Cudworth. Boston to S. F, 128 days, arrived August 2, 1852. A ban 
doned .•August 17, 1860, near the island of Juan Fernandez, while bound for Hampton 
Roads with guano 4rom Callao. 

Anstiss. Ship, 621 tons. Owners, William S. Wetmore of N. Y. and Jos. Steele of 
Boston. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 


1847. Amelia. Ship, 572 tons. Owners. James VVellsman, et a/., of Charleston, S. C. Built 

by Henry EwcU. Last report 1886. 

Crusader. Ship, 600 tons. Owners, William W. Goddard of Boston. Built by Henry 
Ewell for above. Sold to Vernon H. Brown in 1874 and rik'ued a bark. Hailed from 
N. V. in 1879. Was under Brazilian tlau wlu-n lost. MissinK February, 1892. 

Georgia. Ship, 665 tons. Owners. James G. Mills, et al., of Savannah. Ga. Built by 

J. Stetson. Newcastle, England, for Boston with a cargo of coal and ch. micals. 

.Abandoned at sea after a heavy gale October 6, 1854, in lat. 42°50' N., long. 45° 50' W. 
Frank. Brig, 1595^ tons. Owner, Jotham Stetson of Medford. Built by J. Stetson. 

N. V. for St. Mary's, Ga. Went ashore on .Amelia Beach Novembers, 1851, having 

parted both chains and become a total wreck. 

1848. Living Age. Ship, 758 tons. Owners, Edward D. Peters & Co. of Boston. Sold to 

William .Appleton & Co. Built by I. Stetson. Wrecked on Pratas Shoal. China 
Sea, December 31, 1854, while bound for N. Y. from Shanghai with teas and silks. 

Harriet Irving. Ship, 616 tons. Owner, William W. Goddard of Boston. Built by 
Henry Ewell for above. Boston for Valparaiso. Went ashore May 9, 1872, at Laguna 
de los Padres. Cape San .Antonio. Captain and one man drowned. While saving 
cargo ship was burned through carelessness of workmen. 

T.Taylor of Yarmouth, Mass. Schooner, 75 tons. Owners, Howes & Taylor of Yar- 
mouth. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 

Marcellus. Ship, 660 tons. Owners, Henrv P. Oxnard and Jno. I. Bowditch of Boston. 

Registered May 14, 1857, C. H. and William Dillaway, ei a/. Built by Hayden & 

Cudworth. Name changed to Theodore Kiioop. Sold Norwegian .Acct. Name 

changed to Helcne. Lost August, 1877. 
Cromwell. Ship, 949 tons. Owners, William Perkins and Francis G. Shaw, e'jf a/., of 

Boston. D. D. Kelley and others in 1877. Built by Paul Curtis. Sold foreign in 

188.3, Norway. Last report 1889. 
Cochituate. Bark, 347 tons. Owners. Elkanah Bangs and William H. Bangs, et al., 

of Boston. Built by Paul Curtis for above. Wrecked June 14, 1861, on the west 

coast of .Australia while bound for Singapore from Melbourne. Wrecked south of 

Hostmans .AbroUios. 

Townsend of Boston. Ship, 719J^ tons. Owners, .Andrew T. Hall of Boston and Josiah 
Richardson of Shrewsbury. Built by Paul Curtis. Boston to S. F. Destroyed by 
fire May 15, 1S54, in the Pacific Ocean, lat 35° south. Twelve lives lost. The twelve 
survivors sailed 660 miles in open boats and finally landed at the island of Juan 

Circassian. Schooner, 72 tons. Owner, T. L, Mayo of Yarmouth, Mass. Built by 
James O. Curtis. 

Herbert. Ship, 619 tons. Owners, Isaac Thacher of Boston, James O. Curtis of Med- 
ford and Elisha Bangs of Brewster, et al. Built by James O. Curtis. Schiedam 
for Sunderland. Ran ashore on the south side of Flamborough Head October 28, 
1864, and became a total wreck. In ballast. 

Chasca. Ship, 658 tons. Owners, David Snow and Isaac Rich, «? a/., of Boston. Regis- 
tered .Aueust 25, 1855, Charles O. Whittemore and Benjamin Sewell. Sold to Lom- 
bard & Whitmore, March, 1854. Built by James O. Curtis. Sold to German Acct. 
Name changed to Antoinette. 

Abaellino of Boston. Ship. 606 tons. Owners, J. & A. Tirrell & Co. of Boston, 1848. 
Built by J. T. Foster. 
! Velocity of Chatham. Bark. 246 tons. Owner. J. .Atkins of Chatham. Mass. Built by 
Joshua T. Foster. Sold to N. Y. April, 1856. Santiago to N. Y. Wrecked March 8. 
1858, on Castle Island in the Crooked Island Passage. Crew saved. 

Crescent City. Schooner, 113 tons. Owners, Joshua T. Foster, et al., of Medford. 
Built by Joshua T. Foster. 

Vesta of Boston. Bark, 1% tons. Owner, John Flynn of Boston. Built by John 
Taylor. Philadelphia to Boston. Wrecked September 21, 1851, in thick and stormy 
weather east of Gull Ledge. 

Robert. Bark, 778 tons. Owners, William Bramhall and Thomas Howe and Wash- 
ington Williams of Boston. Thomas Howe and others successors. Sold to Daniel 
Draper & Son July, 1864. Built by John Taylor. Sold August, 1868, to Tokatea. 
Last report 1880. 

Home. Bark, 338 tons. Owners, Nathaniel Francis, ?/ a/., of Boston. Built by John 
Taylor. Sold to N. Y, parties before 1860. Sold to German Acct. October, 1863. 
Name changed to /«/'/7tfr. Renamed /-ferf/ar. Last report 1881. 

1849. Josiah Bradlee. Ship. 648 tons. Owners, George K. Minot and Nathaniel Hooper, 

et al., 1849. Registered April 19, 1859, William and William L. Thwing. Sold to 

Sprague & Soule, September, 1860. Built by John Taylor. Sold to June, 1862. 

Sold to British Acct. June. 1864. 



1849. Clara Wheeler. Ship, 995 tons. Owners, William Bramhall and Thomas Howes of 
Boston. Built by John Taylor for above. Sold to N. Y. parties December, 1852. 
Sold to British Acct. November. 1863. 

Ella. Bark, 195 tons. Owners, William W. Flynn, John H. Pearson, et al., of Boston. 
Built by John Taylor. Name changed to W.H.Rendall. Name changed to ZJowa 
Margarida. Alive 1900. 

Squantum. Ship, 646 tons. Owners, Thomas B Wales & Co. of Boston. Built by 
J. T. Foster. Wrecked at Coorla Boula, India, June 14, 1860, while bound for Bom- 
bay from Boston. Three lives lost. 

Tirrell of Boston. Ship, 9433^ tons. Owners. J. & A. Tirrell & Co. of Boston. Sold to 
Edward C Bates & Co. of Boston December, 1852. Registered Boston October 4, 
1854, William H. Boardman and William F. Whitney of Boston. Built by Joshua 
T. Foster. 

Fenelon. Bark. 393 tons. Owners, William F. Weld & Co. of Boston, 1849. Sold to 
N. P. Mann & Co. August. 185b. Built by J. O, Curtis. Sold to Chilian Acct. Janu- 
ary, 1863. Name changed io Jack Filcher. 

Sarah H. Snowr of Boston. Bark. 226 tons. Owners, David Snow and Isaac Rich, ei al., 
of Boston. Registered Boston December 19, lJ-50, Elisha T. Loring of Boston. Sold 
to John E. Lodge & Co. of Boston March, 1855. Built by James O. Curtis. Sold 
foreign and renamed (1st) Anna Moore, (2d) Julie, (3d) Lizzie Dalgliesh. Last re- 
port 1886. 

Anna Rich. Ship, 670 tons. Owners, David Snow, Isaac Rich, et al. Built by J. O. 
Curtis for above. Sold to British Acct. June, 1853. 

William Sturgis of Boston, Ship, 649Ji tons. Owners, William F. Weld & Co. of 
Boston. Built by James O. Curtis. Cardiff to Iloilo. cargo coal. Struck Magicienne 
Bank off the coast of Guimeras on September 19, 1863 ; beat over and sunk on Ottorg 

Humboldt. Ship, 716 tons. Owners, William F. Weld & Co. of Boston. Built by 
Paul Curtis for above. Put into Batavia, Jarva, in distress and was condemned and 
sold April 21, 1871. 

Western Star of Boston. Ship, 842 tons. Owners, Benjamin and George P. Bangs 
of Boston. Sold to Elijah Williams & Co. of Boston. Built by Paul Curtis. Sold 
British Acct. January 7, 1865, owing to severe injuries sustained in a cyclone at Cal- 
cutta October 5, 1864. Totally wrecked during a .gale at East London, C. G. H.. 
December 16. 1874. 

Samuel Appleton. Ship, 808 tons. Owners, D. P. Parker, Boston. Built by P. Curtis. 

Fillmore of Machias, Me. Schooner, 70 tons. Owners, J. D. Crocker of Yarmouth, 
Mass, and others. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. Hailed from Machias, Me., when 
lost. Sailed from Boston November 16, 1905, for Bangor during a stiff north-wester 
and was never heard from. 

Australia. Ship, 632 tons. Owners, Silsbee, Stone & Pickman of Salem, Mass, Pur- 
chased from Salem parties September, 1863, by J. W. Sears and others. Built by 
Hayden & Cudworth. Abandoned on (Soodwin Sands near Amherst about August 
20, 1864. She was under pilot's charge, proceeding to sea from Maulmain, Burmali. 

Manlius. Ship, 670 tons. Owners, Thatcher Magoun & Son. Sold to Howes & Crowell. 
Registered February 1, 1859. Built by Hayden and Cudworth German Acct. .April, 
1863, and then Norwegian. Name changed to Nor. Sunk off St. Catherine's Point 
November 10, 1888, after being in collision with a steamer while bound for Stettin 
from New York. 

Revere. Ship, 734 tons. Owners, Howes & Crowell, et al., of Boston. Sold to Baker 
and Morrill July, 1862. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. Sold to San Francisco July, 
1865. Rig changed to bark. Last reported 1883. 

Beatrice. Ship, 877 tons. Owner, William H. Boardman of Boston. Built by Samuel 
Lapham. Sailed from Cardiff, Wales, July 10, 1861, for Hong Kong and was never 
heard from. 

Argonaut of Boston. Ship, .575 tons. Owners, John E. Lodge, Samuel Lapham and 
William Nott, et at., Boston. Built by Samuel Lapham for above. Boston to S. F, 
133 days, arrived March 13, 1850 : Boston to S. F. 134 days, arrived July 4, 1852. Con- 
tinued in trade with the Far East, making fast passages under Captain Norton of 
West Medford. Owned in Christiana by P. Stranger in 1866. 

Magellan. Ship, 589 tons. Owner, Augustus Hemmenway of Boston. Built by J. 
Stetson. Put under the Chilian flag. Name changed to Quintero, afterwards hailed 
from Gautimala, Pisagna. for Boston. Sunk off Cape St. Roque December 3, 1877, 
by Br. cable steamer Norseman. 

George Green. Ship, 866 tons. Owners, Charles R. Green, et al., of New Orleans. 

Built by Jotham Stetson. Stranded near Dartmouth, England, January 22, 1877. 

Twenty-four lost. 

1850. Prospero. Ship, 645 tons. Owner, •'\ugustus Hemenway of Boston. Built by Jotham 

Stetson. Wrecked at Chanarel, Chili, June. 1864, while loading copper ore for Boston. 

Vol. xxxm.1 








Symmes 44 





Hall Gleason 48 

Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Qovernors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Subscription price, 11.30 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

For aale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 

Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 
Associate Editors, HARRY E. WALKER, 


Exchange list in charge of Geo. S. T. Fuller, 15 George Street. 

Advertising Manager, Miss E. R. ORNB. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

the city of Medford, Mass., the sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 



The Medford Historical Register. 

Vol. XXXIII. DECEMBER, 1930. No. 4. 


[From a paper read before the Society in November, 1929, by Harry E. Walker.] 

THE seventeenth century witnessed the coming to 
maturity of the national state. The national states 
of that century were either autocratic or aristocratic, 
none were democratic as we now understand the term. 
In France, where autocracy had been firmly established 
by Cardinal Richelieu, the last Estates General to meet 
for one hundred and seventy-five years was held in 1614. 
From that date until 1789 a king of France could say, 
" I am the state." Spain, too, had an autocratic govern- 
ment. The purposes and control of the colonies of these 
two countries reflected the power of their kings. The 
colonies were not commercial ventures of their subjects, 
nor did the colonists possess any political or religious 
rights. Holland and England were aristocratic. The 
rise of the Dutch Republic taught many a lesson to our 
forbears, and its story has a curious parallelism with our 
own. Germany and Italy were then, as they remained 
until after the middle of the nineteenth century, what 
Metternich called them, — "geographical expressions." 
In England, James I, from the time of his accession in 
1603, sought to establish his full control of state and 
church. He was not equal to the task. In 1625 his son, 
Charles, brought new enthusiasm to the fight for the 
establishment of his divine right. And it was in the 
period of these first struggles of Charles that the charter 
was granted. 

From^ the middle of the sixteenth century commercial 
companies had been formed in England for trade with 
various parts of Europe and the Near East. In 1600 


the Great East India Company was chartered to exploit 
the wealth of those far regions. Raleigh's adventures at 
settlements had been at his own expense, and Hakluyt's 
" Discourse on Western Planting" had called attention to 
the advantages which England might hope to derive, 
but it was not until 1606 that the first companies M'ere 
chartered for the " planting " of America. One of these 
was the company for Northern Virginia, commonly known 
as the Plymouth Company, which attempted a settlement 
near the mouth of the Kennebec river and after one year 
abandoned the attempt, " their former hopes frozen to 
death." Meanwhile, the settlement fostered by the Lon- 
don Company at Jamestown became the first permanent 
English settlement in the New World. In 1620, the 
London Company granted a tract of land to the " major 
parte " of the Pilgrims in Leyden, who had decided to 
seek a new home in America. London merchants agreed 
to finance the undertaking, and King James agreed not 
to molest them, "provided they carried themselves peace- 
ably." The pilot brought them to Cape Cod and they 
decided to settle at Plymouth. They had no charter 
from the king and so were without the legal right to 
establish a government; and they were not within the 
limits of theirgrant of land. Undisturbed by these things, 
in the cabin of the Mayflower, before landing, they drew 
up and signed a compact in which they combined them- 
selves into a civil body politic and pledged obedience to 
" such just and equal laws as shall be thought most meet 
and convenient for the general good of the colony." This 
is the first instance of complete "self-determination" in 
our history. 

In this same year, and almost at the time the Pilgrims 
were agreeing to the Mayflower Compact, King James 
made a grant to "the Council established at Plymouth, 
in the county of Devon, for the planting, ruling, ordering, 
and governing of New England in America." There were 
forty patentees, among whom Sir Ferdinando Gorges, "a 
friend of the king and of the prerogative," was the mov- 


ing spirit. The grant was a vast one, — from sea to sea, 
from forty degrees to forty-eight degrees north latitude, 
that is, the whole stretch of the continent with an Atlantic 
coast line from Philadelphia to the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence. The powers bestowed, too, were vast ; they 
could "settle and govern," and "all British subjects were 
prohibited from visiting and trafificking into or from the 
said territories, unless with the license and consent of 
the Council, first obtained under seal." The purpose was 
purely commercial. As early as 1618 or 16 19, fisheries 
were begun in Massachusetts Bay, but wars broke up this 
business, and by 1626 the loss of capital was complete. 
In the summer of 1622, Thomas Weston, a London mer- 
chant, sent out men to establish a trading post, which 
was located, unfavorably as it proved, at Wessagusett, 
in part of what is now Weymouth. 

In December, 1622, Gorges obtained from the council 
for his son, Robert, a grant with a coast line from Point 
Allerton (East Boston) north to Nahant and inland for 
thirty miles, and with such powers, both secular and 
ecclesiastical, that, had the enterprise been successful, a 
feudal principality would have been established in what 
are now Middlesex and Essex counties. 

The adventurers of the council, discouraged by the 
failure to get profits, in December, 1623, apportioned 
their grant among the surviving patentees, twenty in 
number, and from one of these. Lord Sheffield, Edward 
Winslow of the colony at New Plymouth secured a grant 
at Cape Ann, which in 1624 he sold to the Dorchester 
Adventurers, an unincorporated joint stock association, 
established through the endeavors of Rev. John White, 
rector of Trinity Church in Dorchester. It was this com- 
pany that maintained very precariously the group in 
Massachusetts known as the " old planters," and it was 
the foremost of the "old planters," Roger Conant, who, 
removing from near Gloucester to Naumkeag, became 
the founder of Salem in 1626. And it was John White's 
concern for their welfare that won the interest of the six 


men in London, who secured from the council in 1628 
the grant of land which in the following year became the 
basis territorially for the Company of Massachusetts Bay. 
In securing this grant the Earl of Warwick, who was at 
that time the president of the council for New England, 
and who is said to have been an ardent promoter of the 
Puritan movement, played an important part. Gorges, 
still a member of the council, gave his approval of the 
grant, "so far forth as it might not be prejudicial to his 
son Robert Gorges' interests, whereof he had a patent 
under the seal of the Council." He seems to have assumed 
that the control of this grant would remain with the 
council, as was the case with the earlier grants. 

Mr. White's account of the inception of the Company 
of Massachusetts Bay, an account prepared in 1630, does 
not mention the council's grant, doubtless because after 
the royal charter had been secured, the earlier grant was 
considered of little consequence. Gorges, writing in 
1635, when the great charter for New England, under 
which the council for New England operated, was sur- 
rendered, gives his version of the transaction. He writes: 
the council were in a state of " such disheartened weak- 
ness as there only remained a carcass in a manner breath- 
less, when there were certain that desired a patent of 
some lands in Massachusetts Bay to plant upon, who 
presenting the names of honest and religious men easily 
obtained their first desires ; but, these being once gotten, 
they used other means to advance themselves a step from 
beyond their first proportions to a second grant surrep- 
titiously gotten of other lands also justly passed unto some 
of us, who were all thrust out by these intruders that had 
exorbitantly bounded their grant from east to west 
through all that mainland from sea to sea. . . . But here- 
with not yet being content, they obtained unknown to us, 
a confirmation of all this His Majesty, by which means 
they did not only enlarge their first extents . . . but 
wholly excluded themselves from the public government 
of the Council authorized for those affairs, and made 


themselves a free people." After a fruitless struggle to 
secure the revocation of the Massachusetts charter, the 
unwieldy Great Council for New England surrendered 
its own in 1635. 

We have mentioned that Roger Conant moved from 
Cape Ann to Naumkeag in 1626. He had with him 
three other " honest and prudent men." At about this 
time the Dorchester Adventurers, having expended their 
capital to no profit, dissolved their company and sold 
their shipping, but John White, who has justly, I think, 
been called " the Father of New England colonization " 
and who had primarily in mind, not financial gain, but 
to make the services of religion accessible to fishermen 
in New England waters, promised Conant and his com- 
panions a patent and men, provisions and goods for trade 
with the Indians. It was in seeking to make good this 
promise that Mr. White interested John Endicott and 
five others in securing the council grant. This group of 
six men has been called the Dorchester Company, and it 
had preparations under way to send out Endicott even 
before the council had granted them a patent. Endicott 
sailed in June, 1628, and reached Naumkeag in early 
September. At first the " old planters " were disposed to 
question the claims of Endicott and his company. The 
new name, Salem, commemorates the amicable settlement 
of the dispute. Later that same fall preparations were 
made for a settlement at Mishawum, now Charlestown. 
The following summer, that of 1629, the settlement of 
Salem was reinforced by the arrival of the Higginson 
party, making a group of about three hundred, one-third 
of whom were at Charlestowai. 

In July and August of 1629, an ecclesiastical organi- 
zation w^as affected, the tercentenary of which was com- 
memorated in Salem in 1928. The procedure is inter- 
esting and, because it is apparently the same as was 
followed in later local settlements in Massachusetts and 
shows the basis of the churches of today of the congre- 
gational polity, I quote from Palfrey's " History of New 


England": "A day (July 20) was appointed for the choice 
of a pastor and a teacher, and after prayer, fasting, and a 
sermon, Mr. Skelton was chosen to the former ofifice, and 
Mr. Higginson to the latter. Having accepted the trust, 
they were set apart to it with simple solemnity. Mr. 
Higginson and three or four of the gravest men laid 
their hands on Mr. Skelton's head and prayed, and then 
for the consecration of Mr. Higginson the same service 
was repeated by his colleague. The next step was to 
gather a church, or society of communicants. Mr. Higgin- 
son drew up a confession of faith and church covenant 
according to scripture, of which copies were delivered to 
thirty persons. . . . The day appointed for it having 
arrived (August 6), the two ministers prayed and preached. 
Thirty persons assented to the covenant and associated 
themselves as a church, and the ministers, whose dedica- 
tion to the sacred office had appeared incomplete till it 
was made by a church constituted by mutual covenant, 
were ordained to their respective offices by the imposi- 
tion of hands of some of the brethren appointed by the 

In the very months of July and August of 1629 when 
these measures for a church organization — self-constituted 
and self-governing — were being put into effect, steps 
were being taken in England which were to result in a 
state organization which, if not self-constituted, was in 
practice from the first self-governing. The charter to 
the governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in New 
England passed the seals on March 4, 1629. Powerful 
influence-^ had secured the charter; purposes broader 
than appeared on the surface were entertained; and the 
England of that year, in conditions economic, political, 
and religious, was favorable to the realization of these 
purposes. In England there was much unemployment 
and wide-spread poverty. About one hundred and eighty 
out of the three hundred who went with Endicott in 
1628 were bondmen. The parliament which had forced 
the Petition of Rights upon an unwilling king had just 


been prorogued. No parliament was to be called for 
eleven years, the longest period without a parliament in 
England since parliaments were established. The hard- 
won rights of Englishmen seemed lost. The leaders of 
the Puritans could find no legal remedy. It was the 
period of ship money and forced loans. All publications 
were under the king's control. Civil liberty was threatened 
through the court of the Star Chamber, and religious 
conformity sought in the power of the court of the High 
Commission. What wonder, then, that to the minds of 
some of the leading Puritans the idea came to leave the 
land where freedom was being denied and to seek it in a 
new land ? When this purpose was first concerted is un- 
certain. The Company of Massachusetts Bay was formed 
primarily for purposes of trade, but all of its leaders were 

Let me mention important powers granted by the 
charter. It gave power to the freemen of the company 
to elect annually from their own number a governor, 
deputy-governor, and eighteen assistants, and to make 
laws and ordinances, not repugnant to the laws of Eng- 
land, for their own benefit and for the government of 
persons inhabiting their territory. Authority was granted 
to admit new associates and to fix the terms of their ad- 
mission. As all earlier English charters had done, it 
provided that all subjects should enjoy all liberties of 
free and natural subjects, as if they were within the realm. 
No mention was made of religious liberty. No authority 
was given to establish courts, to constitute a house of 
deputies, to impose taxes on the inhabitants, to incorpo- 
rate towns, colleges or schools. These things were done 
and were justified under a general provision authorizing 
them " to ordain and establish all manner of wholesome 
and reasonable orders, laws, statutes, and ordinances, not 
contrary to the laws of this our realm of England." 

As has been said, the charter became effective March 4, 
1629. Near the last of April a form of organization was 
adopted and a government for Endicott's colony at Salem 


prepared. On May 13 Matthew Cradock was re-elected 
governor; the first officers had been named by the charter 
itself. From its inception Cradock seems to have been 
interested in the company. The men and goods sent to 
Endicott in the spring of 1629 were financed by the 
company and Cradock, either equally, or at least one- 
third borne by Cradock alone. 

On the 28th of July, 1629, Matthew Cradock initiated 
a momentous movement, a movement which was destined 
to effect the transition of the company from a trading 
co-partnership, engaged primarily in the business of fish- 
ing, to the beginnings of a political and religious com- 
monwealth. At a meeting of the general court of the 
company, held at the house of the deputy governor, 
Thomas Goffe, in London, Cradock, the record runs, 
"read certain propositions, conceived by himself; viz., 
that for the advancement of the plantation, the inducing 
and encouraging persons of worth and quality to trans- 
port themselves and families thither, and for other weighty 
reasons therein contained, to transfer the government of 
the plantation to those that shall inhabit there, and not 
to continue the same in subordination to the company 
here as it now is." As to the "other weighty reasons," 
we can only guess. Perhaps they are of a nature that 
to record them would have been unwise. No record, so 
far as I know, has been found. This we do know: that 
the Puritan cause was in sore straits. Six days after 
the grant of the charter, Charles dissolved parliament, 
announced that princes were not bound to give account 
of their actions but to God alone, and proclaimed his in- 
tention of reigning without a parliament. Did the Puri- 
tans see in New England an asylum, where courts of the 
Star Chamber and of High Commission would find it 
difficult to cause them trouble.^* Did these leaders already, 
from practical experiences in promoting emigration, ap- 
preciate the advantages of a government on the spot and 
remote from royal control ? 

The company record continues : " By reason of the 


many great and considerable consequences thereon de- 
pending, it was not now resolved upon ; but those present 
are desired privately and seriously to consider thereof, 
and to set down their particular reasons in writing /r^^/ 
co7itra, and to produce the same at the next General Court; 
where they being reduced to heads, and maturely con- 
sidered of the Company may then proceed to a final reso- 
lution thereon ; and in the meantime they are desired to 
carry this business secretly that the same be not divulged." 
These measures for "private and serious consideration," 
for reasons in writing, and for secrecy, prove the im- 
portance and boldness of Cradock's proposal. They were 
to do more than colonize ; they were to enter upon the 
high enterprise, as Robert C. Winthrop puts it, " of self- 
government, of virtual independence." 

Doubtless there were many hours of serious delibera- 
tion and consultation during the month of August. For, 
two days before the August meeting of the general court, 
the so-called Cambridge Agreement was drawn up and 
signed by twelve of those who proposed to migrate, 
among whom we find John Winthrop. This famous 
agreement is chiefly a mutual pledge " to pass the seas 
(under God's protection) and to inhabit and continue in 
New England," with the important proviso " that the last 
of September next, the whole government, together with 
the patent for the said plantation, be first, by an order of 
court legally transferred and established to remain with us 
and others which shall inhabit upon the said plantation." 

At the regular monthly meeting of the general court 
of the company on August 28, two days after the Cam- 
bridge Agreement was signed, the deputy-governor, in 
the absence of Governor Cradock, stated to the court 
" that the especial cause of their meeting was to give 
answer to divers gentlemen, intending to go into New 
England, whether or no the chief government of the 
Plantation, together with the patent, should be settled in 
New England, or here." Two committees were chosen to 
present the arguments, one "for" and the other "against" 


the proposition. These two committees were to confer 
together the next morning and later report. They met, 
debated, and after a long discussion in the presence of 
the company, the deputy put the question in these words: 
"As many of you as desire to have the patent and the 
government of the Plantation to be transferred to New 
England, so it may be done legally, hold up your hands; 
so many as will not, hold up your hands." Then the 
record continues: " When, by erection of hands it ap- 
peared by the general consent of the Company that the 
government and patent should be settled in New Eng- 
land, and accordingly an order be drawn up." 

Was this action portentous? Is this act the planting 
of the seed of independence even before the mother coun- 
try has been left behind ? The spirit of the founders of 
Massachusetts is closely akin to the spirit of the revolu- 
tionary fathers. Cradock's act, "conceived by himself," 
may well be considered the very first step in the long 
series of events which produced the United States of 

The meetings of the company during September and 
October were devoted to the many necessary arrange- 
ments in effecting the transfer. On the 20th of October, 
1629, Governor Cradock presided for the last time. The 
records read thus: "And now the court, proceeding to 
the election of the new Governor Deputy, and Assistants, 
— which, upon serious deliberation, hath been and is 
conceived to be for the special good and advancement of 
the affairs; and having received extraordinary and great 
commendations of Mr. John Winthrop, both for his in- 
tegrity and sufficiency, as being one every way fitted and 
accomplished for the place of Governor, did put in nomi- 
nation for that place the said Mr. John Winthrop, Sir 
Richard Saltonstall, Mr. Isaac Johnson and Mr. John 
Humphrey; and the said Mr. Winthrop was, with a gen- 
eral vote, and full consent of the court, bv erection of 
hands, chosen to be Governor for the ensuing year, to 
begin on the present day ; who was pleased to accept 


thereof, and thereupon took the oath to that place 

Cradock remained in the company as one of the as- 
sistants, and after the transfer of the charter to Massa- 
chusetts, became one of the group associated in its support 
and known as the Board of Undertakers. These men 
hoped, through appropriation of land and some advan- 
tages of trade, to leave some opportunity of compensation 
for the money expended. In this they were disappointed. 
Cradock himself, in 1640, disclosed his true spirit and 
that of his associates in England Vvhen he wrote to the 
general court: "I am beholden to the Court and I heartily 
thank them for easing me in the country rates this last 
year. Truly as I once delivered to a full board at counsel 
table, so I have great cause to acknowledge God's good- 
ness and mercy to me in enabling me to undergo what I 
have and do suffer by New England . . . and, if my 
heart deceive me not, I joy more in the expectation that 
good will come to others there, when I shall be dead and 
gone, than I grieve for my own losses, though they have 
been very heavy and great." 

After four or five months of busy preparation, all was 
ready for the great emigration. In eleven ships the 
governor and company were to cross the sea with the 
ark of the covenant, the palladium of their liberties, their 
charter. The ship upon which Winthrop and most of 
the leading men were had been named the Lady Arbella, 
but may we not hope that traces of its former name, the 
Eagle, still survived? It were indeed fitting that an eagle, 
our national emblem, bring to our shores the earliest 
germs of political independence. 

On June 12, old st3de — June 22, as we reckon now — 
the charter in the hands " of men of substance and posi- 
tion, experienced in affairs, financed by their own means, 
numerous, well-equipped and self-supporting," reached 
these shores. It is the foremost date in this year of 1630. 
And the successful transfer of the charter ought, in my 
opinion, to be the outstanding feature commemorated in 
this tercentenary year. 


The summer of 1630 thus marks the establishment of 
a colony which differed from any that had preceded it in 
the new world "in its inception, in its character, manage- 
ment, and personnel, as well as in its chartered rights 
and privileges." The colony soon outnumbered all the 
other English settlements combined. It expanded almost 
at once into a full-fiedged political community, conscious 
of its own strength. As VVoodrow Wilson said, " almost 
unobserved by the powers in London, it erected some- 
thing very like a separate state on the new continent." 
There were dangers in this course, both from England 
and from within. We find Cradock in England called 
upon to produce the charter. The authorities were 
amazed to learn of its transfer to America. Cradock 
transmitted the demands of the Privy Council to Win- 
throp and Winthrop then inaugurated his policy, which 
was to prove effective, a policy found in his statement 
that he proposed " to avoid and delay." But Cradock in 
England was summoned into court on quo warra7ito pro- 
ceedings, made default, and judgment was given that he 
should be convicted of the usurpation charged, and that 
the franchise should be taken and seized into the king's 
hands, " the said Matthew not to intermeddle with, and 
be excluded the use thereof, and to answer to the king 
for said usurpation." A theocracy was created by the 
adoption in general court, on May 18, 163 1, of a religious 
test for the franchise, " to the end the body of commons 
may be preserved of honest and good men, ordered and 
agreed, that, for the time to come, no man shall be ad- 
mitted to the freedom of this body politic, but such as 
are members of some of the churches within the limits 
of the same." This was a bold if necessary measure. Its 
purpose was, I think, primarily political, in that it was 
thought to afford the surest means to retain control of 
the colony in the hands of those who were in sympathy 
with the original pantentees. 

In the first quarterly general court held in Boston on 
October 19, 1630, it was determined that the freemen 


should choose eighteen assistants, and that the assistants 
in turn should choose the governor and the deputy- 
governor. But a year and a half later, on the 9th of May, 
1632, the election of governor and deputy was also opened 
to the freemen. 

The population increased so rapidly that it became 
impossible to have a primary assembly of all the freemen, 
and in 1634 a representative assembly was devised after 
the model of the old English county court. The repre- 
sentatives sat for townships and were called deputies, 
At first they sat in the same chamber with the assistants. 
but in 1644 the legislative body was divided into two 
chambers. It would be interesting to tell in detail of the 
contest between these two legislative bodies on the ques- 
tion of what was called " the negative voice," which had 
its beginning in the disputed ownership of a stray pig, 
and which ended in the establishment of the principle 
that each body possessed a negative on the legislative 
acts of the other, a principle now nearly overthrown in 
England, but still a vital part of our bicameral system in 
both state and nation. 

I have tried to tell the story of the events of three 
hundred years ago, in which Matthew Cradock had a 
leading part. It is the story of the transformation of a 
king's grant into a constitution, without the change of a 
single word. But the government under that constitution 
was not at first democratic, it was not even republican, 
since hardly more than one in live of the male inhabitants 
possessed the suffrage. A House of Commons in 1630, 
had there been one, would not have been democratic, and 
this would have been true of a House of Commons in 
1880. But in Massachusetts the suffrage widened con- 
tinuously under the original charter, under the province 
charter, and under the only constitution this state has 
ever had. The chain is unbroken. And if it be shown, 
as I think it could be, that the Constitution of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts influenced the framers of 
the Federal Constitution more than that of any other 


State, we may truly say that out of the tiny seed planted 
by Matthew Cradock when he presented certain proposi- 
tions " conceived by himself," has come the constitutional 
government of the United States, a government whose 
powers are adapted to the interests of its people and to 
the maintenance of individual liberty in 

"A land of settled government, 
A land of just and old renown, 
Where Freedom broadens slowl)' down 
From precedent to precedent." 


Thomas Symmes, sixth generation, second son of Cap- 
tain John and Elizabeth (Wright) Symmes, born at 
Symmes corner March 30, 1783, married Sarah Lloyd 
Wait, daughter of Nathan Wait of Medford. 

He was killed in the woods in December, 181 1, by a 
sled load of logs slewing against a large tree and crush- 
ing him. When searching parties found him, about eight 
o'clock in the evening, the yoke of oxen were standing 
quietly chewing their cuds. They had apparently stopped 
at his word of command just as the heavy load crashed 
against the tree and ended his life. 

This happened at Christmas, on the old wood road 
which led down from Turkey swamp through the valley 
which is now flooded by the waters of the south reservoir, 
and followed Meeting-house brook as nearly as the rugged 
nature of the land would allow to Winthrop square. Mr. 
Symmes was hauling the wood to his home in Medford. 

Turkey swamp was a heavily wooded section, noted 
in the earliest days of the settlements for the great white- 
pine forests which covered most of its area. It is now 
the middle reservoir of Winchester's water system, a lake 
of fifty-eight acres surface measurement. 

The spot where the tragedy took place was very near 
the hut where Hannah Shiner, the last Medford Indian, 


lived. This is near the easterly end of the causeway, or 
dam, and road which separates the middle and south 
reservoirs, and quite near the overflow or spillway of the 
middle reservoir. 

So far as I know there is no exact record of the years 
when Hannah Shiner lived near Turkey swamp, but 
while living there she occasionally came to the black- 
smith shop at Symmes corner to have her axe sharpened, 
and once, at least, my grandfather, Marshall Symmes, 
Senior, welded a new cutting edge to the head of the 
axe, tempered and sharpened it with his best skill. The 
Indian woman had nothing with which to pay him, nor 
did he expect pay, but a few weeks later she brought to 
him, at the shop, three fat puppies. 

The story of the death of this lonely and last Indian 
of the Nipmuc tribe as handed down is, that on the night 
of the great September storm, in the year 1815, she was 
blown or fell into the Aberjona River, near the Converse 
bridge, at what is now Winchester center. 

It may interest older residents of Medford to know that 
the second daughter of Thomas Symmes, Eliza Ann, 
married Henry Withington, the famous baker who sup- 
plied for years all the surrounding country with Medford 

Up to the year 1870 a large area near the south dam 
of the Winchester reservoir was covered with a heavy 
growth of white pine, one stand of several acres was so 
dense that sunlight could not reach the ground. That 
winter my grandfather sold at auction the standing tim- 
ber on a twenty-five acre lot. This was an old-fashioned 
wood auction. At noon Medford crackers, cheese and 
hot coffee were served free to all. The memory of that 
luncheon has staid with me for sixty years. I was twelve 
years old that fall and carried a red flag all day at the 
auction, shifting from the corner of one lot to the next 
as the sale progressed. 

Sometime during the year 1867 a man was discovered 
living as a hermit in a dugout on the eastern slope of the 


hill facing Meeting-house brook not far south of the 
present dam. He lived there till 1870, when most of the 
wood was cut off and the owners of the land destroyed 
his hut and drove him away. It was in the old garden 
of the hermit, in 1872, that a great Texas long-horn steer 
was shot. For several years these great cattle were 
driven over the roads to slaughter houses. Ten of them 
broke away from a drove near the Oak Grove Cemetery 
and were later killed in the woods. When running wild 
they were dangerous, so much so that the legislature 
passed a bill forbidding any one turning them loose on 
any highway. They often had a spread of horns from 
six to eight feet. I pulled the one that was shot in the 
hermit's garden out through the woods to an old road 
with a horse. The animal's horns were so long that they 
caught on tree trunks and we couldn't go on till the horn 
was lifted around the obstruction. 



The Tercentenary year has passed. From Province- 
town to Plymouth where the Pilgrims landed, where the 
breaking waves dashed high (or were said to), from Salem 
to Charlestown and Boston, where Puritan Wentworth 
came with the charter, thence through the state, follow- 
ing the Bay path, then westward by the Mohawk trail to 
the Berkshires and through the Connecticut valley, have 
been enacted scenes of historic interest worthy of the 
event celebrated — the beginning of a new England in a 
wilderness hitherto unknown. Many educative lessons 
have been taught, historic events portrayed, and pageants 
given. Medford has not been backward in this work, 
and these words of a Medford speaker of twenty-five years 
ago, "When in 1930 the bright June days shall come 
Medford will fittingly observe its three hundredth birth- 
day," have proven true. Also these words: "some girl 


whose talent, musical or literary, shall bring her fame." 
Let the pageant tell the story, and later let MzV tell — 
the great four-mile, four-hour parade of cosmopolitan 
Medford that closed by the streets' lights and the crescent 
moon. Then in November, in the hall of the First Parish, 
was reproduced the " Old Medford Town Meeting," and 
the women's indignation meeting thereabout, both carried 
out by the young people of the Parish. The old Puritan 
costumes, " body of seats," the town clerk with his ink- 
horn and quills, ballots of corn and beans, true to life as 
in the records, were portrayed. Fame to the " girl." 
There were no beans cast, for the men had "humble pie." 


It might well have been called in the 1820s the Execu- 
tive Mansion, for in it resided the governor of Massachu- 
setts, John Brooks. Of what occupied its site prior to 
its erection we cannot say, nor yet can we say just what 
time it was built. It stood on the site of the present 
Medford Savings Bank. 

In various views of Medford square it may be seen, 
but in none so clearly as in this illustration, which is re- 
produced from that in the Usher History, made from an 
authentic photograph then taken. We know of no other 
reproduction. In it the governor must have resided at 
the time of his first election, and there a great company 
gathered to escort him, riding on horseback, to his in- 
auguration in Boston. (See Register, Vol. XVII, p. 9.) 

Just prior to the erection of the bank this house was 
sold to Walter Bates, who intended removing it over the 
river, down Main street to the old branch canal basin, 
but found that impracticable and the house was de- 
molished. After this, the Medford Savings Bank erected 
" the last word in construction," which was its home 
until in recent years it gave place to the present larger 

48 [Dec. 


0tUttts (or tijc gear 1931. 



Telephone, Mystic 0030. 7 Hastings Lane. 



Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer. 


Telephone, Mystic 3571 -M. 10 Tainter Street. 

Recording Secretary. 


Telephone, Mystic 0238-W. 32 Gleason Street. 






Librarian and Curator. 


By Hall Gleason. 

(Continued from Medford Historical Register, September, 1930.) 
1S50. Sachem of Boston. Ship, 772 tons. Owners, Benjamin C. White and Henry H. Jones, 
et al., of Boston. Built by Jotham Stetson. Boston to New Orleans. Wrecked on 
the Gingerbread Ground March 27, 1854. 
Gentoo. Ship, 747J^ tons. Owners, John E. Lodge & Co., 1850. Registered June 9, 
1854, William W. Goddard. Built by Samuel Lapham. Lost December, 1876. 

Union of Boston. Ship. 688 tons. Owners, Mackay & Coolidge, et al., of Boston. 

Registered Boston, May 12, 1853, Robert C. Mackay of Boston. Built by Samuel 

Lapham. Sold British Acct. October, 1863. 
Hemisphere of N. Y. Ship, 940 tons. Owner. Jotham Parsons of N. Y. Built by 

Hayden & Cudworth. Hailed from N. Y. Foundered November 22, 1867, in lat. 

2° N., long. 17° W., while bound for Liverpool from Bassein. 

Isabella. Bark. 354 tons. Owners, Lombard & Hall. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 
Smyrna for Boston. Stranded near Cape Spartel and went to pieces in a gale Novem- 
ber 11, 1855. 

Sumter. Bark, 383 tons. Owners, Lombard & Hall and Ryder & Hardy, ei al., of Bos- 
ton. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 

G. E. Webster. Bark, 354 tons. Owners, Reed & W' ade. Built by Hayden & Cud- 
worth. N. Y. to S. F. 112 days, arrived January 26, 1851. Boston to S. F. 218 days, 
arrived July 3, 1852. Boston to S. F. 142 days, arrived August 2, 1853. 


1850. Kremlin. Bark. 470 tons. Owners, Craft & Co., 18S0. Registered July 6, 1853. James 

Hunnewell and Charles Brewer. Remastered May 8, 1854, Ttiompson & Davidson. 
Sold to John E. Lodge & Co. December, 18.%. Sold to John S. Emery & Co. Octo- 
ber, 1862. Sold to E. P. Emerson May, 1S6V. Built by Paul Curtis. Wrecked on 
Saranac Keys, W. I„ March 22, 1870, while bound for Cienfuenos, Cuba, in ballast 
from .Aspinwall. 

Shirley. Ship, 910 tons. Owners, George Pratt of Boston and Ebenezer A. Shaw of 
Quincy. Registered October 4, 1852, Stone, Silsbee, and sold Salem Pickman of 
Salem. Built bv Paul Curtis. Sold S. F. in 1872, Towed to Alaska in 1897 and con- 
verted into a hotel. 

Mohawk. Bark, 420 tons. Owner, J. P. Macy, Nantucket. Mass. Purchased from 
New Bedford parties November, 1863, by M. Bartlett. Built by James O. Curti.s. 
Name changed to Minna. Nidaros. Last report 1879. 

J. H. Jarvis. Ship, 680 tons. Owners. Snow & Rich, Boston. Built by James O. 

Shooting Star.* Extreme clipper ship, 903 tons. Owners, Reed & Wade of Boston. 
Built by James O, Curtis. San Francisco to Shanghai 35 days. Canton to Boston 
86 days in 1852. N. Y. to S. F. 142 days, arrived August 14, 1851. Boston to S. F. 
105 days, arrived August 17, 1852. N. Y. to S. F. 121 days, arrived .August 16, 1853. 
N. Y. to S. F. 115 days, arrived July 15, 1855. Cirrnmnavigated the globe in 264 sail- 
ing days. Sold to a merchant of Siam in 18<)2. \\ recked on coast of Formosa in 1867. 
* First California clipper ship built in Medford. 

Paragon. Bark, 3,50 tons. Owners, David Train, ^/ rt/., of Nantucket. Built by James 
O. Curtis, Wrecked on Strong's Island March 20, 18,53, while whaling. 

Beerings. Bark, 380 tons. Owner. W. H, Boardman, Boston. Built by J. T. Foster. 

Trimountain of Boston. Ship. 10315^ tons. Owner, John H. Pearson of Boston Built 
by Joshua T. Foster. Sold to N. Y. Sold October. 1864. Tonnage new law (1301.04), 
For loss see newspaper, February 22. 1880, Abandoned, sinking, February 13, 1880, 
voyage N. Y. to Bremen. 

President. Ship, 1021^2 tons. Owner.':, William Bramhall and Thomas Howe of Boston. 
Built by John Taylor. While lying at anchor at St. John, N. B., with a cargo of deals 
for Liverpool, she dragged ashore during a gale October 2,5, 1853, and became a total 

1851, Rajah Walla. Steamer, 562 tons. Built by Samuel Lapham. Owner, Cassius Darling 

of Boston. 

Georgianna. Bark, 230 tons. Owners, W. B.Reynolds, ,?/ a/. Built by Samuel Lapham. 

Coringa. Ship, 737 tons. Owners, N. and B. Goddard of Boston. Registered April 22. 
18SS, Benjamin A. Gould and John A. Blanchard. Built bv J. Stetson. Owned by 
Charles Brewer & Co. when lost. Boston to S. F. 132, 150 and 15S days. Collided 
with a schooner forty miles off Cape .Ann, sinkini; her and losing her own cutwater 
and headgear, in 1852. Chartered by the Tudors for ice trade to China after being 
rigged as a bark. Singapore for Bangkok. Wrecked on Patani November 15, 1880. 
Three lives lost, 

Samuel Lawrence of Boston. Ship, 1053 tons. Owners, Andrew T. Hall, <?/ a/., of 
Boston. Built by Paul Curtis. Sold Brittish Acct. April, 1862, and renamed I'an- 

Syren. Medium clipper ship, 1064 tons. Owners, Silsbee & Pickman, Salem. Sold 
Boston, 1856, and registered May 17, ISSS, James Hunnewell and Charles Brewer. 
Built by lohn Tavlor, Boston to S. F. 141 davs, arrived November 18, 1851. N. \ . 
toS. F. 118 days, arrived December 23, i;S.52. N. Y. to S. F. l,?0davs, arrived March 
30. 1854. In 1861 she was 103 days from S. F. to Boston. Boston to S. F. 132 days, 
arrived J[une 4, 18.55. Condemned at Rio Janeiro. She was repaired and as the bark 
Margarida of Buenos Aires is listed in Lloyds of 1928. 

John Taylor. Screw steamer, IWA tons. Owner, J. Torsfiff. Built by John Taylor. 

Telegraph. Extreme clipper ship, 1078tons. Owners. Phineas Sprague & Co.. Boston. 
BuiltbvJ.O. Curtis. Arrived S. F. November 1.5, 185). from N. Y. in 125days. Agam 
March 10, 1S5). again April 16, 1854, and again April 19, 1855, from Boston in 114, l.^.-> 
and 109 days respectively. Valparaiso to Golden Gate in .34 days, fastest time on 
record. Sold to Savannah October, 1855, and rena.meA Henry Brighain, Burned 
at sea in 1868. 

Susan Hinks. Ship. 700 tons. Owners, Snow & Rich, Boston. David Snow & Co., 
successors. Sold to Nickerson & Co. about 1S60. Sold to Captain Arey and others 
March, 1870. Built by J. O. Curtis. Put into Carthagena, '^pain, in distress while 
bound for Boston from Leghorn and was condemned June, 1871. 

Antelope. Medium clipper ship, 507 tons. Owners, William Lincoln & Co., 1851. 
Built by J. O. Curtis. Sold to N. Y, parties June. 18^5. Bangkok f'lr Hong Kong. 
Wrecked on Discovery Shoal, Paracels Reef, China Sea, .August 6. 1858 "Captain 
Clarke, with four passengers and thirteen seamen left the ship in one boat, while 


1851. the mate, one seaman and ten Chinese passensrers took the other. Four days later 

Captain Clarke fell in with a Chinese hshiny^ boat and offered its inmates S'26 to tow 
him to a place where he could refill his water casks. They agreed, but it was soon 
evident that they were not keepinu faith. So Captain Clarke cut the tow rope and 
endeavored to escape, but the Chinese pursued and attacked the boat with stones, 
compelling surrender, as tlie shipwrecked crew were without means of resistance. 
The boat was robbed of everything of value, two of the Chinese, armed with spears, 
standing Ruard ; but the attention of the pirates being distracted while dividing the 
plunder, two of the ."American seamen sprang aboard the Chinese craft and succeeded 
in dispatching all her crew. Captain Clarke, who attempted to follow his men, fell 
between the boats but was rescued. The junk was well provided with rice and water, 
and a course was steered for Hong Kong, and that port was reached on .August 14th." 

City of Boston. Screw steamer, 600 tons. Owners, P. Sprague & Co. of Boston. Built 
by J. O. Curtis for above. 

Napoleon. Ship, t.75 tons. Owners, Thomas Lamb, et al. Built by J. T. Foster. 
Sold to Norwegian hccX. May, 1S63. Last report 18V3. 

Caroline. Ship, 740 tons. Owner, James Wellsman of Charleston, S. C. Built by J. 
T. Foster. 

Polar Star. Ship, 667 tons. Owner, John H. Pearson of Boston. Built by J. T. Foster. 
Sold to N. Y. parties March, 1865. 

Chester. Bark, 242 tons. Owners, J. H. Pearson, eiat. Built by J. T. Foster for 

Hamlet. Ship, 1099 tons. Owners, Howes & Crowell. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 
Sold to Salem parties. Put under the British flag. Wrecked on Nauset Beach, Cape 
Cod, February 13, 1866, during a fog while bound for Boston from Calcutta with 
East India goods. 

John Wade. Medium clipper ship, 678 tons. Owners, Reed & Wade. Sold to J. J. 
Di.xwell, of the "Augustine Heard Line," in the China trade, June, 1854. Built by 
Hayden & Cudworth. Sold to a China House. Boston to S. F. 1,31 davs, arrived 
January 14. 1852. N. Y. to S. F. 117 days, arrived January 8. 185.S. Boston to S. F. 
119 davs, arrived December 22, 1853. Bangkok for Hong Kong. Struck a rock March 
29, 1859. lat. 10° 40' N., long. 101° 48' E.. Gulf of Siam. and was abandoned. 

Ocean Eagle. Ship, 597 tons. Owners, E. and William H. Pangs. Registered No- 
vember 30, 1855, Jacob C. and William C. Rogers, et al., of Boston. Built by Hay- 
den & Cudworth. Sold May, 1867. 

Edisto. Bark, 365 tons. Owners, Lombard & Hall of Boston, et al. O. K. 18,=;9. B. F. 
Flinn, f/ a/. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. .Abandoned December 12. 18f),\ lat. 
36° 15' N.. long. 63° 20' W., in a sinking condition while bound for Celte from N. Y. 

Olive Branch. Schooner, 85 tons. Owners, J. P. Crocker, f/ a/., of Yarmouth. Built 
by Hayden & Cudworth. 

Dauntless. Extreme clipper ship, 791 tons. Owner, William W. Goddard of Boston, 
who also designed her. Built by B. F. Delano for above. Boston to S. F. 116 days, 
arrived February 11, 1853. Sailed from Boston October 23, 1853, for Valparaiso, 
Chili, and was never heard from. 

Rocket. Bark, 396 tons. Owners, William W. Goddard. Boston, William F. Weld & 
Co., 1869. Built by B. F. Delano. Boston to S. F. 150 days, arrived January 10. 1853. 
Sold to Baltimore January, 1853. Rio de Janeiro to S. F. 127 days, arrived June 19, 
1&55. Sold to N. Y. parties October, 1854. Last report 1887. 

Courser. Medium clipper ship, 1,000 tons. Owner, A. Richardson, Boston. Built by 
P. Curtis. Boston to S. F. 108 davs, arrived April 28. 1852. From ,50° S. in the 
Pacific to the Equator 19 days. (Best time 16 days.) N. Y. to S. F. 137. 1.36 and 145 
days. Cape of Good Hope to Sandv Hook .38 days, the record to that time. Foo 
Chow for N. Y. .April 4, 18.58, wrecked on Pratas Shoal. Crew escaped in three boats, 
after being iired upon by some junks which they mistook for fishermen, and their 
boat upset. After being stripped of everything they managed to right their boat, 
bale her out and find their way to Hong Kong. Captain Cole was in command, and 
anxiety and vexation brought on a fever from which he died. 
1852. Phantom. Medium clipper ship, 1174 tons. Owners, Crocker & Sturgis of Boston and 
Crocker & Warren of N. Y. Owned later bv D. G. & W. B. Bacon of Boston. 
Built by S. Lapham. Boston to S. F. 105 davs. N. Y. to London 20 davs, return .30 
days. N. Y. to S. F. 121 days, arrived February 2,3, 18,55. N. Y. to S. F. 102 days, 
arrived April 29, 1856, after being within 800 miles of destination for eight days with 
light winds. N. Y. to S. F. 125 days, arrived June 21. 1858. Hong Kong to S. F. 33 
days, 22 hours, pilot to pilot within two days of the record, arrived May 6, 1862. 
Wrecked on Pilot Reef off Pratas Shoal. Crew and passengers left in five boats. 
Captain Sargent, with those in his boat and .?50,576 in gold, arrived at Shanghai. 
Two boats were captured by pirates and their crews were ransomed by Chinese mer- 
chants for$25 each. Captain Peterson, who commanded her for five voyages, claimed 
she had never been beaten on a wind by any vessel. 


Medford Historical 

Vol. XXXIV, 193 1 



Medford, Mass. 



No. I. 

Retrospection. Thomas M. Co?inell .... 

The Medford of Cradock and VVinthrop. Richard 
B. Coolidge ........ 

Notes by the Way. T. M. C. . 

Old Ships and Ship-building Days of Medford. 
Hall Gleason ........ 

Officers and Committees of the Society for 1931 




No. 2. 

Early Officers of Medford Co-operative \ 

"•^^*^ ....... V Frontispiece 

New Home of Medford Co-operative Bank J 

The Medford Co-operative Bank. Frank W. 

Lover ing ...... 

A Tercentenary Poem. Marion Nottage 

Elizur Wright ..... 

Historic Markers .... 

A Timely Excerpt .... 

Notes by the Way .... 

Old Ships and Ship-building Days of 
Hall Gleason ..... 


Present Officers of Medford Co-operative Bank 





No. 3. 


Thk Old Time Medford Town Meeting. [A Play.] 

Wilson Fiske and Ruth Dame Coolidge . . . 41 

Notes by the Way. Thomas .)/. Confiell ... 52 

Old Ships and Ship-building Days of Medford. 

Hall Gleasoti ........ 54 

No. 4. 


Governor John Brooks .... Frontispiece 

Medford and George Washington. Ruth Dame 

Coolidge and Richard B . Coolidge .... 57 

The Old Time Medford Town Meeting. [A Play.] 

Wilson Fiske and Ruth Dame Coolids'e . . . 66 

Vol. XXXIV.] 







RETROSPECTION. Thomas M. Conne II 1 


B, Coolidge 2 



Hall Gleason 22 


Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Qovernors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Sabscription price, &1.50 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

Por sale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 


Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 

Exchange list in charge of Thomas M. Connell, io Tainter Street. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

the city of Medford, Mass., the sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 



The Medford Historical Register. 

Vol. XXXIV. MARCH, 1931. No.!. 


THE deep lush grass o'er spreading marsliland grows, 
Salt-tanged by season's over-fiowing tides; 
The river runs its placid course to sea. 

The cocks of hay, which thrifty folk did reap, 
Against the time of Winter's hungry need. 
No more make silhouettes on Autumn sky. 

The ring of metal 'neath the hammer's stroke, 
The fragrant smell of pitch and pine and oak, 
The busy hum of industry are gone. 

The ships, staunch built, long since have sailed 
To port which has no registry on earth ; 
Their serving purpose has enriched ova* store. 

The forests felled, from which the timber came. 
Have grown anew, with restful leafy shade, 
Where one may seek a quiet glade to rest. 

The trails, where deer-shod feet in silence trod. 

Are highways, wide and winding, smooth and broad; 

That follow river's way unto its source. 

The City, which three hundred years ago, 
The Fathers came with steadfast faith to found. 
Reveres their graves, as Nation's holy shrines. 

The spires, that rise o'er temples of the Lord, 
Show Faith unshaken, as in days of old ; 
While bright the torch of Liberty still burns. 

Here in the valley, where the Mystic tides 

Have ebbed and flowed, through many changing scenes, 

Prosperity and full contentment reign. 

The magnet of the hearthstone fire has drawn 
The best within our gates from ev'ry land ; 
To dwell in unity with fellow men. 

On Nation's scroll the name of Medford stands. 
As one who, with her peers, her heritage 
Esteems and shall uphold forevermore. 

— Thomas M. Coxxell. 

This poem was awarded first prize by the Judgres out of a large number submitted during 
the Tercentenary Poem Contest in the Medford Mercury conducted under the supervision of 
(he Medford Tercentenary Executive Committee. 

^ [March, 


By Hon. Richard B. Coolidge, former Mayor of Medford. 

[Delivered at the Riverside Theatre. September 28, 1930, on the occasion of the literary 
exercises held by the city of Medford in celebration of the Tercentenary of its settlement. J 

THREE hundred years ago, on September 28, 1630, 
the Court of Assistants of the Massachusetts Bay 
Company assembled at Charlestown. The Court met in 
the Governor's house, the " Great House," for which the 
gentle Margaret Winthrop had not yet left the manor 
house and the primrose hedges of Groton across the At- 
lantic in Suffolk. The Governor sat at the head of the 
council table, the burden of responsibility for the new 
colony showing in his keen, thoughtful face saddened by 
the recent loss of his son by drowning at Salem. Near 
him was the grim and choleric Thomas Dudley, Deputy 
Governor, John Endicott of Salem, courageous and 
practical, and six other assistants less known by name. 
Hovering in attendance also was the Beadle, James Penn, 
awaiting the orders of the Court. A quorum was present 
without Sir Richard Saltonstall, the founder of Water- 
town, whose title did not save him from a fine of "four 
bushells of malte for his absence from the Court."' The 
Magistrates met at eight o'clock in the morning for there 
were weighty matters requiring their attention. 

For our present purpose, the most significant business, 
well down the calendar, was the adoption of an order 
which read as follows: — " That there shall be collected 
and levied by distresse out of the seuall plantacons for 
the maintenance of Mr. Patricke and Mr. Underbill the 
some of ^50, vz; out of Charlton ^7, Boston £11, Dor- 
chestr £y, Rocsbury ^5, Waterton ^11, Meadford ^3, 
Salem ^3, Wessaguscus ^2, Nantascett _;^i."'' 

This is the first mention of Medford in the colony 
records and for the reason that the order was made on 
September 28, 1630, it is formal proof that Medford then 
existed as a settlement. 

We meet today to observe the Tercentenary of the 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 76; 2, The symbol " £" was not used in the original. 


founding of that settlement. In so doing we observe 
also the Tercentenary of the founding of the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony, for the events are so related that they 
cannot be kept apart. 

The planting of Medford, a part of a larger undertak- 
ing, grew out of a great unrest that stirred the English 
people in the early years of the seventeenth century. 
The adventurous voyages of Drake, Raleigh and Smith, 
following the discovery of the new world, stirred the 
imagination of the peoples, and roused the English to 
seize upon the resources and opportunities that waited 
on these virgin shores. This was the unrest that was 
the spur to new colonies and new ventures 

There was an unrest of another kind. The very week 
that Charles the First granted the charter to the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Company saw the dissolution of Parliament, 
and heard with alarm the royal proclamation whereby 
the King alone would henceforth govern and inhibit "all 
men so much as to speak of a Parliament." Upon the 
strong party of English Puritans this royal edict fell with 
a chilling pall, for in it they marked the oncoming of an 
unequal struggle with the King. Apprehensive of their 
outcome, they conceived the plan to establish a place of 
refuge beyond the sea and found a new England of their 
own. The spiritual adventurers of that day made ready 
to embark upon a voyage into a new world of thought. 

The Massachusetts Bay Colony grew out of these two 

" Of the trading company that grew into a colony and 
the colony into a state,"' the story has lately been told. 
Of the granite of the Puritan character and the seams 
that marked it, of their high purpose and its sometimes 
narrow application, of their vision and their short-sighted- 
ness, of their grim conscience and joyless life, but withal 
of their great accomplishment, the story has likewise been 

I shall confine myself to some account of the earliest 

I, Bryce, American Commonwealth. 


days of Medford and the life of the times. In any such 
account two persons of that distant day loom through 
the fog of years, — Winthrop who came to New England, 
and Cradock who remained in London. Both were identi- 
fied with Medford, — Winthrop because he trod this very 
ground, and as Governor of the colony ruled its destiny; 
Cradock because Medford was Cradock's plantation and 
he its proprietor. Let us then go back to early Medford 
upon which the Court of Assistants laid a tax on Septem- 
ber 28, 1630. 

The plantation which they taxed, in fact existed before 
that day. 

Stand with Winthrop on the high deck of the Arbella 
as the flagship of the Puritan Armada neared its haven. 
An ocean voyage of more than nine weeks lay between 
their departure from their anchorage off Yarmouth Castle 
and their arrival. It was in the early dawn of June 12, 
1630, that the Arbella headed into Salem Harbor. As 
the ship skirted the coastline the Governor, calm but 
expectant in the ship's cabin, penned in his Journal "we 
have now fair, sunshine weather, and so pleasant a sweet 
air as did much refresh us, and there came a smell off 
the shore like the smell of a garden." Such was the wel- 
come that the land breeze of that June morning wafted 
from the wild strawberries of Cape Ann to the throng at 
the ship's rail. To none was the prospect fairer than 
to the Lady Arbella Johnson, daughter of the Earl of 
Lincoln, as she stood by Winthrop's side. At Salem, 
however, there was disillusionment, for the settlement 
under Endicott had bread and corn for only a fortnight 
and sickness had taken its heavy toll. Within the first 
few weeks Lady Arbella herself succumbed and, as 
Dudley later wrote to the Countess of Lincoln, " We 
began to consult of our place of sitting down, for Salem 
where we landed pleased us not." 

So it was on Thursday, June 17, that Winthrop wrote, 
" We went to Massachusetts to find out a place for our 
sitting down. We went up the Mystick about six miles." 


His heart lightened as he saw the sparkling new world, 
the wooded slopes, the green meadows, the winding river 
and the restful hills beyond. " We found a good place up 
Mystick," he wrote. What place on the Mystick this was 
we know not, — perhaps it was the head of navigation. 
But in any event it was at Charlestown and not Mystick 
that Winthrop took up his abode in the " Great House " 
where sat the Court of Assistants. Dudley, in his letter 
to the Countess, completes the record. "We were forced," 
he wrote, " to plant dispersedly at Charlestown, Boston, 
Watertown, Roxbury, Dorchester, upon the River Saugus, 
and some of us upon Mystick, which we named Meadford." 

Thus some time between June 12th and September 28 
there was established a settlement at Meadford in the 
summer of that year. 

There is, however, ground to believe that a settlement 
existed within the present boundaries of Medford prior 
to the summer of 1630. In September, 1628, sixty colo- 
nists sent out by the New England Company under John 
Endicott as local Governor, established themselves at 

From Salem, according to the Charlestown records, 
three brothers by the name of Sprague, in the summer 
of 1629 undertook a journey, and with a small band 
travelled the woods about twelve miles to the westward 
to a place lying on the northerly side of the Charles 
River. " This they found to be a neck of land generally 
full of stately timber as was the main and the land lying 
on the easterly side of the Mystick River from the farm 
Mr. Cradock's servants had planted called Mystick which 
the River led up into . . ." From this record, written 
within the memory of then living men, it appears that 
in 1629 Matthew Cradock had already planted a farm at 

Here the name of Cradock first appears in connection 
with early Medford. This merchant adventurer of Lon- 
don, whose ships had made him rich in the East India 
trade, was naturally drawn by the prospect of trade with 


New England. At the time of his birth the very air of 
England was a-thrill with the adventure of voyages to 
the new land across the seas. As a boy along the Thames 
he saw ships from America discharge their rich cargoes 
of fur, and spurred by this fascination of his boyhood he 
became a ship owner and traded in distant lands. In 
May, 1628, he invested fifty pounds in stock of the New 
England Company. In 1629, with Saltonstall and others 
he reorganized that company, secured the royal charter 
of the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in 
New England, became the first Governor, and pledged 
two hundred and fifty pounds to the undertaking. On 
the eve of sailing he boarded the Arhella at Yarmouth, 
bid Winthrop godspeed and was saluted with a salvo 
from the ship's battery. He remained in England, but 
his influence and interest were great in New England. 

That interest existed as early as September, 1628. 
Then Endicott in Salem wrote to Cradock in London 
of the affairs of the settlement. On May 28, 1629, in a 
letter which exists, he directed that Endicott " send our 
barke that is already built in the colony to bring back 
our fishermen and such provision of salt, if any remainder 
there bee and also hooks and lynes & . . ."' Some years 
ago there was current a tradition of early ship building 
on the north side of the Mystic. If this tradition is linked 
to the bark that, by the slow passage of letters, Cradock 
knew in May was already built in the colony, there is a 
strong lure to believe Cradock's men were settled in Med- 
ford in 1628. In the present state of the record, however, 
this bark remains a phantom ship, sliding into unidenti- 
fied waters and hailing from an unknown port. 

We have it, then, that when in 1629 the Sprague party 
emerged from the woods upon the farm which Cradock's 
servants had planted called Mystick on the east side of 
tlie river, they came upon a settlement already existing. 
How long before the summer of 1629 that farm stood is 
speculation. Perhaps in 1628 it housed the shipwrights 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 404. 


whose hammers broke the silence of the surrounding 
forests as they fashioned the first vessel that dipped into 
the Mystick and was lost in the fog of uncertainty in 
which three centuries of time have enveloped it. 

Between Cradock's town house in St. Swithin's Lane, 
London, and his farmhouse of logs in Medford Vv-as the 
difference between the settled Old World and the New. 
Stretching away from the farm was the wilderness. 
Through the clearing it had a glinipse of the Mystic, 
across the pond where the ground was marshy near the 
square of today. Pasture Hill of later years, near the 
point where stands the Center School, then formed 
the bank of the river. From that point a gravel beach 
extended down toward the present square. Farther down 
the river lay the marshes. Following the course of our 
Salem Street came the Salem Path by the great barn of 
the plantation opposite the site of the present Mystic 
Church, along the ^d^^^ of the pond and skirting the 
slope of the hill 'to the landing place of the ford, where 
the tides of the Mystic rose and fell a full ten feet. From 
the landing place the path continued to the west, later 
to become the Way to the Weirs. On the opposite side 
of the river, but veering away from the marshy land, ran 
the path from Charlestown to the ford. To the north of 
this farm were the rocks, and beyond them again the 
forests which were still the haunt of the hidian and the 

Meager as it was, by 1633 Cradock's farmhouse was 
so well known as to be designated in court proceedings 
as " Meadford House." Nevertheless as Wood, the Eng- 
lish traveler, wrote of the settlement in the same year, 
" Though it is situated very pleasantly by the water side, 
ther be not many houses as yet." 

In this settlement were but a handful of inhabitants, — 
Cradock's men who came prior to 1630 and those of 
Winthrop's expedition who joined them in that summer. 
Captain John Smith may have been responsible for the 
cominor of the earlier settlers. In 1614 Cradock doubtless 


read his description of the new country in which he 
observed, " the main Staple from hence to be extracted is 
fish." Dried and salted fish was in those days a staple 
food product of the Old World, and Cradock sensed a 
new and profitable trade. It is this that he had in mind 
when he wrote Endicott at Salem of the " Three ships 
equiped to fish at the banck with 29 waigh of salt . . . 
together with lynes, hookes, knives, boots and barvels 
necessary for ffishinge."' Moreover at the head of the 
river, as the same observant Wood wrote, were great and 
spacious ponds "whither the alewives presse to spawn. 
This being a noted place for that kind of fish, the Eng- 
lish resort there to take them." 

It was in part fishermen who dwelt in Cradock's farm- 
house. Others were shipwrights. In the spring of 1629 
the company sent over in the Two Sisters, for the joint 
account of the company and Cradock, six shipwrights 
and a cargo of pitch and tar, cordage, sailcloth and nails. 
Wood visited Cradock's plantation in 1633 and the cargo 
just referred to confirms his statement of Cradock that 
" here likewise he is at charges of building ships." In 
1632 he had a ship of one hundred tons on the stocks 
and here the year following he built the Rebecca of sixty 
tons. All these vessels, it is believed, were built on the 
later site of Foster's shipyard, and without ballast floated 
over the oyster bank which crossed the channel farther 

Timber both for ship building and export was at hand 
for the felling. Of this, Cradock wrote before the Win- 
throp men cams, " There hath not been a better tyme 
for sale of tymber these seven years than at present; and 
therefore pittye shipps should come back emptye."^ 

It was in fish, ships and timber that Cradock, the world 
trader, sought to turn to profit the resources of the new 
land, and these largely occupied the early settlers at his 
plantation at Mystic. 

Cradock's plantation it remained until his death. In 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 404; 2, page 3S4. 


this first decade and, indeed up to 1684, it never attained 
the status of a town but was, in the language of the day, 
a Pecuhar, a parish or district having authority to act on 
most local legislation, but not to choose a representative 
to the General Court. To the north of the river, Cradock 
owned all of the land. To the south stretched Win- 
throp's Ten Hills Farm. The Weirs at the Mystic they 
owned in common. Here in 1637 or 1638 he built at 
his own expense the bridge that bears his name, to facili- 
tate the increasing traffic to and from his plantation. 
From Medford House his agent, Mayhew, managed the 
business of the plantation, but not to the profit of its 
absentee proprietor. The year 1637 marked the strain- 
ing of his patience. In January he wrote Winthrop of 
the grief he was put to by "the most vyle bade dealings" 
of Mayhew. In February he calculated that about eleven 
hundred and fifty pounds should be to his credit but for 
Mayhew's extravagances. We sense his indignation in 
his words. "My servants write," his letter ran, "they 
drink nothing but water, & I have in an account lately 
sent me Red Wyne, sack and aquavitae in one year 
above 300 gallons, beside many other intollerable abuses, 
10 L for tobacco, etc." In March he sought Winthrop's 
aid to end Mayhew's authority and observed that he is 
much out of pocket by the venture. In 1641 he died, 
and the days of Cradock's plantation were over. 

Of this early Medford the accounts are scant. Of its 
public records there are none, for the settlers were making 
history, not writing it. For the public concerns of the 
pioneer community struggling to establish itself in a new 
land we turn to the records of the Great and General 
Court and of the Court of Assistants, both of which 
enacted laws and ordinances for the welfare of the com- 
pany, the government of the plantation and the people 
inhabiting it. What, then, were matters to which they 
gave attention in those earliest days ? 

The first meeting of the Court of Assistants in New 
England was held at Charlestown, August 23, 1630, and 


the first meeting of the freemen in General Court at 
Boston on October 19 of the same year. At this meeting 
only ten had the right to vote. To each voter there were 
ten others who, without voice in the government, desired 
to be made freemen out of about eight hundred persons 
settled in the colony. 

The settlements were scattered in a region where the 
friendliness of the Indians was uncertain, and in the 
settlements themselves were hardy adventurers prone to 
overstep the conventions of a settled community. Was 
it civil government, or Indians or law-breakers to which 
the Court gave first heed ? 

To none of these temporal concerns did the law-makers, 
alert to dangers both from within and from without, give 
their first attention. The item of business that stood at 
the head of the calendar at the Court held on August 23d 
was the maintenance of the ministers, Mr. Philips and 
Mr. Wilson. For them, it was ordered that houses should 
be built with convenient speed at the public charge. For 
Mr. Wilson, whose parish included Medford, and w^io 
later owned a large part of Wellington, the Governor 
undertook to see that this was done. For him, too, the 
Court provided twenty pounds a year "till his wife come 
over." To Mr. Philips, whose wife came with him, the 
Court, among other items, provided three hogsheads of 
meal, one of malt, four bushels of Indian corn and half a 
hundred salt fish with twenty pounds for apparel and 
other provisions. Thus was the maintenance of the 
ministers provided.' 

In so doing the law-makers carried out the policy of 
the parent company. In April, 1629, Governor Cradock 
had sent over to New England an official letter which 
contained this declaration : — 

" For that theppngating of the gospel is the thing (wee) doe pfess 
aboue all to bee or ayme in setling this plantacon, wee haue bin 
carefull to make plentyfuU pvision of godly ministers, by whose 
faithfull preachings, godly conversacon, and exemplary lyfe, wee 
trust, n )t onlt those of or owne nation wil be builtvp in the knowl- 
edge of God, but also the Indians. "^ 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 73; 2, page 386. 


It was at the second meeting of the Court, on Septem- 
ber 7th, that the Assistants gave more temporal attention 
to the Indians. Here, again, they bore in mind the com- 
pany's pohcy. " Yow haue form caution giuen yow," the 
same letter proceeds, "to take heede of bceing too secure 
in trusting the Indians . . . and that yow may bee the 
better able to resist both forraigne enemies and the nati ves, 
if ether should assaile yow, wee pray yow lett all such as 
Hue under or gounment . . . bee exercised in the use of 
aarmes, and certaine tymes appointed to muster them."' 
Accordingly Captain Patrick and Captain Underbill 
were allowed at the public charge for half a year's pro- 
vision, two hogsheads of meal, four bushels of malt, ten 
pounds of powder and lead to make shot, also houseroom 
and fifteen pounds, twelve shillings in money.'' By com- 
parison, the ministers had the advantage in meal, malt 
and money, and the military men in powder and lead. 

It was for the maintenance of these Captains that the 
Medford plantation was first taxed. The men from Mys- 
tic, Charlestown, and Newtown held training on the first 
Friday of the month at a convenient place about the 
Indian wigwams,^ but some were delinquent, for Cradock, 
himself, was fined three pounds because at divers times 
his men were absent.'* 

In Medford, the Company was not put to early use 
against the Indians. Sagamore John was friendly. More- 
over, it was the policy of the Company, as Cradock wrote, 
" that no settler be permitted to do any injury of the least 
kind to these heathen people." To this neighboring Saga- 
more, Saltonstall, upon order of the Court, paid seven 
yards of cloth for damage to the Chieftain's wigwam, and 
again a hogshead of corn for damage done by his cattle.^ 
So scrupulous, in fact, were the colonists that Winthrop 
declared there was not one foot of land but was farily 
obtained by honest purchase from the Indian proprietors. 
Nevertheless, the colonists were on guard, and in Med- 
ford, as elsewhere, were forbidden to allow the Indians 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 392; 2, page 75; 3, page 90; 4, page ici; 5, pages 84, 102. 


the use of firearms on any occasion whatever; ' to employ 
them as servants without license to the Court,' and to 
furnish them strong water.^ On the other hand, in each 
plantation, there was provided a trucking house where 
the Indians might resort to trade.^ It was not until 
1637 that war with the Indians broke out. The General 
Court, out of a levy of one hundred and sixty men to 
prosecute the Pequot War, called upon Medford to fur- 
nish its proportion of three, and to each common soldier 
going to the war granted twenty shillings a month and 
his "dyot."5 

It was not, however, altogether against dangers from 
without that the early Court sought to protect the planta- 
tion. There were from within dangers that lurk in human 
nature itself. Chief among these was the thirst for strong 
water. The Company in England had considered this 
before Winthrop sailed, when Cradock wrote, " Though 
there be much strong water sent for sale, we pray you, 
to so order it that the savages may not for our lucre sake 
be induced to its excessive use, and at any hand take 
care our people give no bad example and if any become 
drunk, we hope you will take care that his punishment 
be made example for all men."^ At an early date the 
Court anticipated the eighteenth amendment by seizing 
the liquid stock in trade of one Richard Cloughes for his 
selling great quantities with ill effect to sobriety.^ In 
1633 it enacted a license law which forbade the sale of 
any strong water without leave of the Governor.^ There- 
after, the Court constantly infringed upon the personal 
liberty of the bibulous by setting them in the bilboes. 
Among these, however, can be identified no resident of 
our plantation. 

Indeed, not until May, 1638, does any resident of Med- 
ford appear of record as guilty of misconduct. Then 
John Smith for swearing, being penitent, was set in the 
bilboes.^ This is to the credit of the plantation, for those 
were days when men must tiptoe through life to avoid 

1, Colony Records, Vol. I, pag^e 76; 2, page 83; 3, page 106; 4, page 96; 5, page 192; 
6, page 406; 7, page 76; 8, page 106; g, page 233. 


over-Stepping some rule of conduct. For instance, for 
shooting at fowl on the Sabbath Day, one was publicly 
whipped.' The paternal law-makers went farther. They 
denounced long hair on men^ and forbade them " to wear 
immoderately great breeches." ^ They limited to a narrow 
binding the lace that women might wear,'' and under pain 
of punishment prohibited all persons from publicly taking 
tobacco,^ which was consistent with Cradock's early 
recommendation that " the same bee taken privately by 
auntient men and none other."^ We sometimes say that 
the Legislatures of today enact a multitude of laws. They 
have their precedents in the sixteen thirties. 

Among other offences against good conduct was idle- 
ness. Indeed, the London Council of the Company, while 
Cradock's men had hardly built their log houses on the 
Mystic, had urged that the government in New England 
in the infancy of the plantation settle some good orders 
whereby all persons there resident apply themselves to 
one calling or another and no idle drone be permitted 
to live among them. Accordingly, an early Court decreed 
that no person should spend his time idle under penalty 
of punishment.^ Under the spur of this enactment, it 
appears that workmen were not only diligent, but set a 
premium on their virtue by demanding a high wage. This, 
in the first year, the Court took steps to curb, limiting 
carpenters, joiners, and bricklayers to two shillings a day, 
or sixteen pence if meat and drink were furnished them.^ 
In 1 63 1, such wages were left free as men might reason- 
ably agree,'' but two years later the Court again adopted 
a schedule for these and other craftsmen, under which, 
for instance, the best laborers had eight pence a day if 
their diet was found, and " taylors " twelve pence.'° But 
if labor was curbed, so were profiteers. The Court turned 
its attention to the price of commodities in these words, 
" Lest the honest and conscientious workmen should be 
wronged or discouraged by excessive price of those com- 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 82: 2, page 126, and Commonwealth History, Vol. I, 
page 272: 3, Colony Records, page 274; 4, page 183; 5, page loi; 6, page 403; 7, page 405; 
8, page 74; 9, page 84; 10, page log. 


modities which are necessary for their Hfe and comfort, 
we therefore, order that no person shall sell any of the 
inhabitants any provisions, clothing, tools or other com- 
modities above the rare of 4 pence in a shilling, more 
than the same cost or might be bought for ready money 
in England."' In regard to commodities of small bulk 
and hazard in shipment, the Court concluded with the 
admonition, " that all men be a rule to themselves in 
good conscience, assuring them that if any man exceed 
the bounds of moderation, he shall be severely punished.'" 
To corn, the local food staple, the Court gave special 
care, fixing the price at six shillings a bushel.^ Without 
leave of the Governor of Assistants, the inhabitants were 
forbidden both to send it out of the plantation '■ or buy it 
from any ship that came into the Bay.^ These were war 
measures in their battle for existence. 

I have cited a few sidelights upon the laws under which 
the men of this plantation lived in the sixteen thirtys. 
There were those who were critical of the Court. One, 
Thomas Dexter, was bold enough to say that the captious 
government would bring them all to naught. For this 
he was " set in the bilbowes, disfranchised & fined 40 
pounds."^ Another, John Lee, taxed the Court with 
making laws to pick men's purses. For this he was 
whipped and fined. ^ There is no record of such dissent 
in Medford. 

At the end of the first decade, the Massachusetts Bay 
Company, the trading corporation, had in fact become a 
colony. In that time, fully four thousand persons, bring- 
ing with them commodities valued at two hundred 
thousand pounds, left England for the new land. Of 
these, the greater part came to the settlements of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. How many made their homes in Cradock's 
plantation cannot be determined. There is no clue in 
the taxes levied by the General Court, for in 1630 taxes 
were levied in a lump sum apportioned according to the 
estimated wealth of the towns or plantations. Of the 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page iii; a, page iii; 3, page no; 4, page 77; 5, payc S3; 
6, page 103; 7, page 132. 


first tax of fifty pounds in September, 1630, Medford 
bore three pounds, as for instance did Salem.' In 1633, 
out of the total of four hundred and twelve pounds, Med- 
ford bore twelve and Salem twenty-eight.^ In 1637, 
Medford's share of a levy of one thousand pounds was 
twenty-five, while Salem's had increased to one hundred 
and twenty.^ It is apparent that the settlement at the 
Mystic was not keeping pace with the other settlement 
on the seaboard. In 1638, Medford's tax was the smallest 
of all, six pounds, sixteen shillings, eight pence, out of 
the total of four hundred pounds.'* In the year following, 
we read that Mr. Matthew Cradock is freed from rates 
for the year ensuing out of consideration for his charges 
in building the bridge.^ In 1641, the new decade opens 
with the order that Mr. Cradock's rates should be for- 
borne until the next ship comes.^ Thus we may say that 
early Medford was Cradock's plantation, and its pros- 
perity largely that of his venture here. 

Let us leave Medford of the sixteen thirties and gap 
the three hundred years in which it has grown and justi- 
fied the faith of its founder. Of the Medford that saw 
Cradock's domain broken up among individual owners, 
and of the later years and of the later comers, both from 
within and without the nation who built its history upon the 
early foundation, I must let Medford today speak for itself. 

Today, then, upon this Tercentenary, we look back 
from the end of three centuries to the beginning, and 
from our own life to theirs of which Medford was a part. 
Of the undertakings of the Puritans, Winthrop wrote in 
his Journal of those days, "After God had carried us in 
safety to New England, and we had builded our houses, 
provided necessities for our livelihood, reared convenient 
places for God's Worship, and settled the civil govern- 
ment, one of the next things we looked after was to 
advance learning." 

To what development have come these purposes of 
the founders ? 

I, Colony Records, Vol. I, page 77: 2, page no; 3, page 209; 4, page 247; 5, page 257; 
6, page 330. 


Civil government has been settled. By virtue of, and 
in times in spite of, the charter which Winthrop brought 
over, there evolved the Town Meeting "for the ordering 
of the town's affairs,"' and the Great and General Court 
of today, for the ordering " of the publick affayres of the 
commonwealth." Through the Senate succeeding the 
Court of Assistants and the House of Representatives 
succeeding the deputies formerly elected by the Towns, 
the freemen of today exercise the right to make laws 
granted by Charles the First to the Freemen of 1630 in 
Court assembled. In that year, not a dozen out of the 
eight hundred or more possessed that right. Moreover, 
for the first decade and longer, only freemen who were 
members of the church were granted admission to the 
General Court. In fact, the great body of colonists were 
without the privilege of the vote. Least of all, was it the 
thought of Winthrop that suffrage, however liberal, should 
include the Puritan women. He cites the case of a young 
matron, " who had lost her witts by giving herself to the 
reading and writing of many books," and observed more 
in sorrow than in anger " if she had attended to her 
household and to such things as belonged to women and 
had not gone out of her way ... to meddle in such 
things as are proper for men, she had kept her witts." 
Civil government has been settled, but it would be a sur- 
prised and apprehensive Winthrop, who today would find 
in place of the theocratic and undemocratic government 
of his time, the representative democracy of our genera- 
tion. To this fullness has the civil government of the 
Puritans developed. 

Places of worship had been set up. At the last Gen- 
eral Court held in England, in February, 1630, the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Company provided a fund, out of which as 
a public charge, should be defrayed the building of 
churches. At the first meeting of the Court in New 
England in August of that year, provision was first of 
all made for the maintenance of the ministers, "for," 

I, Colony. Records, Vol. I, page 172. 


wrote Winthrop, " we came to abide here and to plant 
the gospel." The school boy who was asked, " Why did 
the Puritans come to this country ? " was a historian 
when he replied, " To worship in their own way and 
make other people do the same." Religious toleration 
was not a feature of the Bay Colony in 1630, but if in- 
tolerant, the founders were not inconsistent, for in the 
words of John Fiske, "They came to found a state which 
was to consist of a united body of believers." Their rigid 
theory necessarily succumbed to a more liberal spirit ; 
and it would be an incredulous, but farther-seeing Win- 
throp, who today would find in religious liberty one of 
the corner stones of the strength of his Commonwealth. 

Learning has been advanced. 

Out of their English background, the early colonists 
brought with them a traditional regard for education. 
Among them were graduates of the schools and universi- 
ties of the homeland. So strong was the appeal of their 
inheritance and environment that after the passing of 
only six years the pioneer colony through its General 
Court agreed to give four hundred pounds toward a 
school or college at Newtown which has become the 
great University at Cambridge in our day. A few years 
later was adopted a law requiring each town having fifty 
households to appoint a person to teach children to read 
and write and every town of one hundred households to 
establish Latin schools.' Upon these early enactments 
rests the public school system of Massachusetts and the 
free schooling which is now so generously offered to the 
younger generation of Medford plantation of today. Once 
more, it would be a proud and grateful Winthrop should 
he view today the extent to which, from his early begin- 
nings, the advancement of learning, as a function of 
government, has progressed. 

But even preceding these — civil government, places 
of worship and learning — there was the elemental con- 
cern of shelter and livelihood which occupied the found- 

I, Commonwealth History, Vol. I, page 284. 


ers. From their village homes in the English counties 
of Suffolk, Essex, and Norfolk, came to the early log 
cabins of Massachusetts Bay this Company, representing 
in the country gentry, the ministers, tradesmen, yeomen 
and craftsmen "a cross section of the English people." 
And here for the first five years, never free from the fear 
of famine during the winter months, they went about 
their undertaking to establish the Commonwealth. Theirs 
was the life of the times but in pioneer surroundings. 
They knew hardship, discomfort, inconvenience and iso- 
lation. The pace of their life was measured by their 
means of communication, transportation and the hand 
processes of production. The tradesmen, the yeomen 
and the artisan, save as the details of their calling were 
regulated by government, provided the necessities of 
their livelihood by pursuing their independent way. 
Doubtless it was the cost of waste, duplication of effort, 
and inefficiency outlawed by modern standards, but under 
the corporation which brought them over, developed the 
individual proprietor. In his economic effort, energy, 
self-reliance, resourcefulness and persistence found their 
stimulus in the life of their time. 

We are the successors to their generation, but not to 
their manner of life. For us is comfort, convenience and 
sanitation, communication that is as instant as electric 
energy, transportation that is swifter than the eagle's 
fhght. To us has been born the modern machine, w^hich 
grown to amazing uses now gears the pace of our life 
to our machine-made world. To the machine we owe 
mass production. For mass production, high-pressure 
salesmanship provides a market, and when the resources 
of the consumer are drained, he pledges his future earn- 
ings to extend that market. Distribution on the same vast 
scale accompanies mass production. In economic effort 
we live in a state of intensive efficiency. We eliminate 
waste, duplication of effort, and even the individual when 
he reaches a lower standard of efficiency. Ours is the 
day of the machine and the merger. The individual 
proprietor is threatened. 


In this Tercentenary year, we are passing through a 
recurring cycle of economic depression, all the more poig- 
nant because of our recent careless prosperity. Today, 
the nation, state and municipality are repeating what the 
London Company did in May, 1629, when they urged 
out of zeal for the public good that there be settled "some 
good orders whereby all persons resident upon our planta- 
tion, may apply themselves to one calling or another." 
Then, when there was much to do, it was of public con- 
cern to keep men from idleness; now when there is 
less for the individual man to do, it is of public concern 
to keep him busy. Let others discuss the causes of this 
economic depression arising in the aftermath of a world 
war. Let us remember one fact, — that here is but one 
problem against the many that confronted the founders. 
They had but the genius of their own kind and with that 
alone laid the foundations of the Commonwealth and the 
institutions of today. Since their day, there has been 
blended into our people the genius of other races. To- 
gether we form one people, divided neither by inheritance 
of race or religion. To the blended genius of such a 
people, intent upon providing for the common good, the 
problems of today are as nothing compared to those of 
the distant yesterday which we commemorate. 

In that yesterday the earliest comers were ever mind- 
ful of posterity. They built not for themselves alone but 
for the generations to follow. So, too, may we in the 
tolerant spirit of our democracy raise to greater height, 
the common good both of ourselves and those who follow 
us. In that undertaking, like Matthew Cradock of early 
Medford, we " shall joye in the expectation of the good 
that shall come to others." 


Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay — (Colony 

History of New England — John Winthrop. 
Life and Letters of John Winthrop — Robert C. Winthrop. 
The Winthrop P'leet — Banks. 
The Massachusetts Bay Company and its Predecessors — Troup. 

20 NOTES BY THE WAY. [March, 

Builders of the Bay Colony — Morrison. 
Commonwealth History of Massachusetts — Hart, 
Beginnings of New England — Fiske. 
History of Middlesex County — Drake. 
History of Medford — Usher. 
Men and Machines — Chase. 
Medford Historical Register: 

Maps of Medford at Different Periods — IVilliani Cushing Wait. Vol I, 
page 1 19. 

Governor Cradock's Plantation — Walter H. Cushing. Vol. I, page 138. 

Bridges in Medford — John H. Hooper. Vol II, page I. 

The Ford at Mystick — John H. Hooper. Vol. IV, page 1. 

Roads of Old Medford— /t?//;; H. Hooper. Vol. II, page 53. 

Some Old Medford Houses — Johii H. Hooper. Vol. VII, page 49. 

Matthew Cradock Estate— Walter K. Walker. Vol. IX, page 1. 

Pine and Pasture Hills — John H. Hooper. Vol. XVIII, pages 25, 60. 

Medford Condita. \(il% — Moses W. Mann. Vol. XXIII, page 65. 

Why Mystic — A/oses IV. Mann. Vol. XXI, page 49. 

The Cradock House, Past and Future — Ruth Dame Coolidge. Vol. 
XXIX, page 37. 

Some Errors in Medford History — John H. Hooper. Vol. XIX, page 25. 

The March of Miles Standish — il^/^^^^ W. Mann. Vol. XXXII, page 17. 


Since the last issue of the Historical Register the 
demolition of the old wooden building on High street 
known as Grand Army Hall has been completed, and in 
its place a fine new structure which will house the Med- 
ford Co-operative Bank is being erected. 

The old building, which to our best knowledge was 
built previous to 1857, housed .the old Hook and Ladder 
Company and the Mystic Hose Company. The roster 
of the members of the Hook and Ladder Company read 
like a blue book of Medford. In the year 1 866, Daniel W. 
Lawrence was foreman and treasurer. The company 
consisted of twenty-four members. The Hose Company 
had twenty-one members; Gordon Hayden was foreman 
and Joseph C. Miller, clerk and treasurer. 

The lower part of the building was used as a lock-up 
and Heman Allen was chief police. It is a matter of 
record that Mr. Allen suggested that new quarters be 
found for a lock-up, as the health of the prisoners was en- 
dangered because of dampness and he feared the town 
would be liable for damages from those who suffered 

1931.] NOTES BY THE WAY. 21 

therefrom. The total cost yearly of the police force to 
the town was thirty-seven dollars and twenty-five cents, 
and five dollars of that amount was paid for gas to the 
Hose Company. 

The building stood at that time on the spot which is 
now the driveway of the Armory. It was purchased by 
General S. C. Lawrence and given to the Grand Army, 
moved to the site next to Andrew F. Curtin & Sons' 
store, and remodeled suitable for occupancy. In addition 
to being used by the G. A. R, it was the home of several 
fraternal orders, among them being the Red Men. 

The passing of the old hall was the cause of regret by 
many who had enjoyed festive hours within its walls. 

Changes in transportation between Medford and Wo- 
burn will go into effect as soon as the buses are secured, 
the city of Woburn having granted permission to the 
Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway Company to oper- 
ate same over their streets. The city of Medford granted 
a permit some months ago. 

Relative to this modern manner of travel, we note that 
on January i8, 1888, the North Woburn Street Railway 
Company petitioned for a location of tracks between 
Winchester and Medford via Purchase (now Winthrop) 
street; and the same was granted March 5, 1888, after a 
discussion relative to the schedule. The Railway Com- 
pany wished to limit the service to six months, viz., from 
May to October inclusive, but it was not acceptable to 
Medford. Upon agreement, the road was completed and 
opened June 19, 1888. The fare was six cents, five tickets 
for twenty-five cents. The running time between the 
square and Oak Grove Cemetery v.-as fifteen minutes; 
from Oak Grove Cemetery to Winchester, fifteen min- 
utes ; and forty-five minutes from Winchester to North 
Woburn ; total distance, eight miles. 

West Medford is now using bus service, which seems 
to meet with general approval, and the tracks are being 
removed from High street as rapidly as practicable. 

— T. M. C. 

22 [March, 


By Hall Gleason. 

(Continued from Medford Historical Register, December, 1930.) 

IS52. Champion. Ship, 106] tons. Owners, William Perkins and Isaac Schofield of Boston. 
Built by .1. Stetson for above. Sold British .Acct. October. 18M. 

Beverly. Medium clipper ship. '.76 tons. Owners, Israel Whitney and William Perkins 
of Boston. Built by P. Curtis. Boston to S. F. 144 days, arrived October 1. 1852. 
Calcutta to Boston 83 days, arrived January 4, 1856, the second fastest passage on 
record. Boston to Sands Head, off Calcutta, in 86 days, arrived Novemljer 23, 18.57. 
Believed to be a record. Calcutta to S. F. 80 days, arrived September 4, 1858, within 
one day of record. In 18^i2 she was chased by the Confederate privateer Flo. ida but 
escaped. Name clianyed to Alexander, of Batavia. CoolidKe Os: Slater of Boston 
reputed owners. Owned in !8')7 by .A. A. Keed. Later her name changed to Aino- 
natit, of Port Louis of Mauritins. Owned by Wm. F. V\ e!d & Co., Boston. Owned 
in 1S72 by L. E. Bakor, Varmouth, N. b. Last report 1873. 

Sir John Harvey. Screw steamer, 700 tons. Owners, Thomas J. Jones, William R. 
Clarke and H. E. \\ oodward, Boston. Built by J. O. Curtis. 

Onward. Medium clipper ship, 874 tons. Owners, Reed & Wade of Boston. Built 
by J. O. Curtis. Boston to S. F 125 day.s. arrived December 1, 1852. N. V. to S. F. 
150 days, arrived January 25, 1854. N. Y. to S. F. 158 days, arrived October 15, 1856. 
Owned in 1857 by Joiin Ogden. Sold to U. S. Government in 18fil, and became a 
cruiser of the fourth class. In January, 1863, sht- captured tlie British hri^i Ma,ic/ciene, 
but the capture was not justified and the briK restored to her owners. Sent out in 
search of the Confederate privateers /'/('/ /V/iz, Alabama ■&'[\A Skenandoah on different 
occasions. -After the war she was used as a store-ship for the navy. Sold No- 
vember 1, 18'-J4, for:?1.850. 

Star of the Union. Extreme clipper ship, 1079 tons. Owners, Reed & Wade, Boston. 
Sold to Samuel G. Reed & Co. May, 1860. Built by J. O. Curtis. N. Y. to S. F". 122 
days, arrived June 3, 1853. N. \ . to S. F. 124 days, arrived October 14, 1854. Sold 
to New Bedford parties March. 18.54. In collision with British bark Simon Hatley 
off Cape Horn. Reported condemned and sold, 1866. 

Whirlwind. Extreme clipper ship, %0^ tons. Owners, W. and F. H. Whittemore 
and Charles B. Newell of Boston. Built by J. O. Curtis. Sold to N. Y. .Arrived at 
S. F. March II, 185.\ in 119 days from Boston, and asrain, January 13, 18.54, in 129 days. 
From N. Y. to Melbourne in 72 days, second best time on record, in March, 1858. 

Competitor. Clipper ship, 871 tons. Owners, William F. Weld & Co. Built by J. O. 
Curtis for above. Sold to German Acct. Decemb<'r, 18h3. Name changed to Lorelei, 
Purchased by William ¥. Weld & Co. .April, 18f)8. Name changed to Competitor. 
British Acct. Boston to S. F. 115 days, arrived July 20, 1853. N. Y. to S. F. in 
122 days, arrived September 23, 1854. Boston to S. F. 138 days, arrived October 15, 
1855. Last report 1900. 

National Eagle. Medium clipper ship, 1095 tons. Owners, Fisher & Co. Sold to 
Bates, Hoi brook & Candage, (October, 1865. Sold to D. G. & \V. B. Bacon, bold 

to J. H. Sears, 6^/^/. Built by J. T. Foster. Sold to N. Y. parties Boston to S. F. 
1.S4 days, arrived May 20, 1854. Wrecked in Mendolin's Gulf, Adriatic Sea, March 22, 
1884, while bound for Fiume, .Austria, from N. Y. 

Ellen Foster. Medium clipper ship, 996 tons. Owners, J. and A. Tirrell & Co. Regis- 
tered November 9, 18.53, Lombard & VVhitmore. Sold to Howes & Crowell January, 
18,57. Built by J. T. Foster. Boston to S. F. in 152 days, arrived October 31, 1852. 
Sold to Peruvian Acct. July, 1867. Wrecked on Puget Sound, December 22. 1867. 

Gem of the Ocean. Medium clipper ship, 702 tons. Owners, William F Lincoln & 
Co. Built by Haydcn & Cudworth for above. Boston to S. F, 120 days, arrived 
December 2, 1852. Sold to Newburyport parties October, 1854. Sold to S. F. parties 
.August, 1867. Seattle for S. F. W recked .August, 1879, on Vancouver Island. 

Alexander. Ship, 596 tons. Owners, Baxter Brothers, A'armouth, Mass. Built by 
Hayden & Cudworth. Liverpool for Singapore with coal. Struck Frederick Rocic 
in the Straits of Rhio on February 5, 1864, was beached and became a total wreck on 
East Island. 

Golden Eagle. Extreme clipper ship, 1121 tons. Owners, William Lincoln & Co. 
Built hv Havden and Cudworth. Sold to New Bedford parties. Boston to S. F. 
1.56 davs, arrived May 9. 1853. N. Y. to S. F. 128 days, arrived July 23. 1854 N. Y. 
to S. F. 105 days, arrived .August 25, 185,5. Captured and burned February 21, 18^>3, 
near lat. 29° 18' N., long. 45° 15' W., while bound for Cork with guano from How- 
lands Island, by the Alabama. 

1853. Sea Flower of Boston. Ship, 1024 tons. Owners, Benjamin C. White and Henry H. 
Jones, <^rt/., of Boston. Built by Jotham Stetson. Sold foreign. Last report 1885. 


li=^3. Wild Ranger. Clipper ship, 1044 tons. Owners. Thatcher & Sears, et a!., of Boston. 
Built by James O. Curtis, .\rrived at S. F.. October 25, lS,S.i, in 12.S days from Boston, 
and again January 2(i, 1855, in 125 days from N. Y. Sold British .Acct. 1862 and re- 
named Ocean Chief. 

Eagle Wing. Medium clipper ship, 1174 tons. Owners. Theodore Chase & Co. of 
Boston. Built by J. O. Curtis. London to Hongkong 84 days, Boston to S. F. 
105 days, arrived .April 5, 1854. Sailed from Boston February U, 1865, for Bombay 
and was never heard from. 

George Peabody. Ship, 1400 tons. Owners, William F. Weld & Co. Built by J. O. 
Curtis. N. Y. for S. F. .Arrived at Valparaiso May 28. 1881. in a leaky condition 
and was condemned. See newspaper, March 9, 1884. 

West Wind. Medium clipper ship. 1071H tons. Owners, J. and A. Tirrell & Co. of 
Boston. Built by J. T. Foster. .Arrived at S. F. from Boston September 26, 18.5% 
and November 22, 1855, in 135 and 12":> days respectively. In 1861-62, 133 days. In 
1856-57, 122 days. Sold British .Acct. 1863. Renamed Lord Clyde. 

Morning Star. Clipper ship. 1105 tons. Owners, Thomas B. Wales & Co. of Boston. 

Built by J. T. Foster. Boston to S. ¥. 148 days, arrived November 27, 1854. She 
then-after made five similar runs in l.^S days. 102 tlavs, 125 days. 105 days and 115 
days. On the 102 days' run slie was olt the California coast several days in Ijght 
winds and calms. In 1860. had it not been for light winds and calms for the final 
ten diys of the run she would have made the passage in two figures. V\ bile at Callao, 
in 1^57, the mate was stabbed by one of the crew, the remainder of them drawing 
knives and pistols. The mutiny was finally quelled by an aruu-d force from H. B. M. 
sh'\p Monarch. In 1863 she was captured by the Confederate privateer .'i/a/'.rwa, 
but the cargo being owned by neutrals she w'as allowed to proceed. Sold to British 
.Acct. June, 1863, for £6.500 sterling and name changed to Landsborough. Reported 
lost in 18'X). 

Hortensia. Ship, 701 tons. Owners, Perritt & Co. of New Orleans. Built by J. T. 
Foster. Sold Norwegian Acct. Rig changed to bark. Last report 1889. 

Edward Everett. Bark, 245 tons. Owners, John H. Pearson, et al., of Boston. Built 
by J. T. Foster for above. Sold to New Bedford parties .April, 1867. Whaler. 
Foundered October, 1875. 

Climax. Clipper ship, 1051 tons. Owners, Howes and Crowell. Built by Hayden & 
Cudworth for above. Put into Callao, Peru, from the Chincha Islands, guano laden, 
March 31, 18.55, leaky. Was condemned and sold tn parties in Peru who repaired 
her. Renamed Antonia Terry. First vessel to use the double topsail rig. 

Ringleader. Clipper ship, 11.54 tons. Owners, Howes & Crowell of Boston. Built by 
Hayden & Cudworth. She was a very fast sailer, but encountered light winds on 
all of her trips to San Francisco. On the first trip, 110 days, she was within 400 miles 
of destination when 100 days out. On the fourth trip, 114 days, she was 700 miles 
from the Golden Gate when 98 days out. Her passage of 78 days, Boston to Mel- 
bourne, was also very fast. Left Hongkong May 3. 1.3ti3, for S. F. with a load of 
coolies. On May 9th she struck on the Formosa Banks. One account says that as 
soon as she struck she was surrounded by piratical Chinese fishing boats, the crews 
of which drove the coolies ashore and began pillaging the ship. The captain reached 
S. F". on the Emily Banning, while some 200 of the coolies reached there Septem- 
ber 15 on the Don Quixote. 

Don Quixote. Medium clipper ship, 1429 tons. Owners, John E. Lodge & Co. Built 
by Samuel Lapham. Boston to S. F. 126, 107, 109 and 111 days. N. V. to S. F. 139, 
119 and 139 days. Sold to F. Couisinary, Havre, France, and renamed St. Aubin. 
Classed .Al in Lloyd's in 1874. 

White Swallow. Extreme clipper ship, 1192 tons. Owners. William Lincoln & Co.. 
Boston. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. She made three runs from Boston to S. F. 
and six from N. v. to S. F. The fastest was 110 days and the slowest l.SO: average 
of the fastest four, 122 days. She sailed from Boston .April 18, 186U, and made land 
40 miles south of the (iolden Gate in 104 days. In 1865 her passage was a momentous 
one. She left N. V. with her rigging in poor condition, and according to the story of 
the crew th>y were put to unnecessarily hard and dangerous work, forced by brutal 
beatings with brass knuckles, belaving pins and the like. One grievance was that 
they were put over the side on stagings while the shipwas going ten knots and roll- 
ing and pitching heavily. Two men were lo^t overboard. The crew finally mutinied, 
seized the captain and mates and put them in irons, altlioueh the captain was 
allowed on deck to take observations and direct atfairs. all his orders being fully 
obeyed. .A written agreement was then drawn up absolving the crew of all blame 
and promised good treatment. On arrival at S. F . however, six of the ringleaders 
were tried but were acquitted by the testimony of the passengers and admissions of 
the officers. For many years tlie M'hite Sii'iillow case was famous in legal circles. 
Boston to Hongkong, cargo ice. Foundered at sea 180 miles S. W. of Fayal, which 
the crew reached in boats. 

24 [March, 1931 


0Uittv^ for tfje ^ear 1931. 



Telephone, Mystic 0030. 7 Hastings Lane. 



Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer. 


Telephone, Mystic 3571-M. 10 Tainter Street. 

Recording Secretary. 


Telephone, Mystic 0238-W. 32 Gleason Street. 






Librarian and Curator. 













Vol. XXXIV.l 

[No. 2 









BANK \ Frontispiece 



A TERCENTENARY POEM. Marion NoUage .... 34 






Hall Gleason 39 


Facing 40 

Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Qovernors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Subscription price, &1.30 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

For gale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 


Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 

Exchange list in charge of Thomas M. Connell, id Tainter Street. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

the city of Medford, Mass., the sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 

(Signed) _ ___ 


Early Officers of Medford Co-operative Bank 

First President, 188r, to 1907 

Second President, VX)7 to 1912 

First Treasurer, 18<% to 1911 

Second Treasurer, 1911 to 192S 

-""■^HL*- — 

The Medford Historical Register. 

Vol, XXXIV. JUNE, 1931. No. 2. 


MARCHING along with a growing Medford through 
the changes and developments that have marked 
almost a half a century in this city of today's sixty thou- 
sand population, the Medford Co-operative Bank, typical 
of thousands of similar institutions in the United States 
which are operated by and for the people with the objec- 
tive of homes owned and money saved little by little, 
reached on July 7th, 1931, its forty-fifth birthday. 

The attainment of this notable milestone brings to 
Medford in visible evidence a monument to the unceas- 
ing labors of the men who have toiled so faithfully down 
the years to make true the familiar advertising motto of 
the co-operative form of banking, " Own Your Own 

Wisdom in the usury of money entrusted to its care, 
and the businesslike use of the profits thus accrued by 
the bank, whose statement of conditions puts it closely 
into the six million dollar class, have enabled the Medford 
Co-operative Bank to erect for its own headquarters the 
finely proportioned brick building, in architectural design 
that of a New England colonial home, on High street 
at the foot of Governors avenue, where for years the 
Grand Army hall had stood. 

The informal opening of this new banking house, tenta- 
tively set for Tuesday evening, July 7th, 1931, marked 
then at one and the same time the forty-fifth anniversary 
of the institution's founding as well as complete realiza- 

* This article, written by Frank W. Lovering, a Director of the Bank, a member of the Build- 
ing Committee, and for years on the staff of the Medford Mercury, includes material furnished by 
Forrest E. Thompson, Treasurer of the Bank; Thomas E Connell, Treasurer of the Medford 
Historical Society and a staff writer for the Mercury; and Howard A. Goodspeed, architect, to all 
of whom the author is greatly indebted. 


tion of the ideal which has been its second preachment, 
" Save and Have." 

It having been deemed fitting that the facts about this 
bank should be set forth on this occasion in the Medford 
Historical Register, the writers have searched the dim- 
ming, hand-written records of the formative days when 
the late James S. Sturtevant, that indefatigable little man 
who began the institution, was secretary; have followed 
on in studied parallel with the old copies of the Medford 
Mercury, wherein the late George W. Stetson, its editor, 
set down his painstaking reports, and so to the present 
time, making excerpts from the manifold typewritten pages 
of the latter years; completing this with a description in 
authoritative detail of the bank's new home as prepared 
by Howard A. Goodspeed of Medford, the architect; and 
closing with the names of those who carry on today. 

The Medford Co-operative Bank was the thirty-ninth 
of its kind to be established in Massachusetts. 

Humbly, in that common meeting place, the select- 
men's room of the now vanished old town hall, which 
stood close to Main street and fronted on High street, 
where today is the building containing the Medford city 
offices, " there was quite a gathering of citizens," the 
Mercury oi Friday, April i6th, 1886, records, "on Tuesday 
evening [April 13th]. The meeting was called for the 
purpose of discussing the advisability of establishing a co- 
operative bank in Medford." 

And continues the story of its birth : " Howard D. Nash, 
Esquire, presided, and J. S. Sturtevant officiated as secre- 
tary. After a full and spirited discussion of the needs 
of the town and the benefits derived in other towns and 
cities from such banks, it was voted as the sense of the 
meeting that a co-operative bank should be established in 

" Committees were then appointed to take the necessary 
steps at once and to report at a future meeting. There 
is every indication that on or before May ist the bank 
will be established." 




The Mercury for Friday, April 30th, 1S86, records that 
" An adjourned meeting of the projectors of a co-operative 
bank in Medford was held in Governor Brooks hall* 
Tuesday evening. [April 27th, 1886.] There were some 
fifty gentlemen present, who were enlightened on the 
workings of co-operative banks by D. Eldridge, secretary 
of three of these institutions in Boston. At the close of 
this meeting, VOTED: 'That Messrs. J. S. Sturtevant, 
H. D. Nash, J. A. Sullivan, W. H. Warren, J. H. Hooper, 
I. W. Hamlin, B. C. Leonard, J. R. Teel, C. P. Lauriat 
and C. Currier constitute a committee with full power to 
perfect the organization of a bank.' " 

The first act was to file an agreement with the Com- 
missioner of Corporations of the State of Massachusetts 
for the formation of a bank with a capital stock accumu- 
lation of one million dollars. This agreement is among 
the framed records of the Medford Co-operative Bank. 
The following men attested to it and showed their faith 
in the proposition by subscribing to many " shares " of 
the " current series " stock : 

John H. Hooper 
P. R. Litchfield 
J. Henry Norcross 
Charles Currier 
Joseph E. Ober 
VV. H. Warren 

D. I. IMcIntire 
Fred H. Kidder 
Thomas B. Dill 
R. C. Leonard 
Charles N. Jones 

E. S. Randall 
J. H, Archibald 
Eli Ayers 
Pearl Martin 

Asa Law 

John W. Bragdon, Jr. 
G. H. Sampson 
Ira W. Hamlin 
Josiah R. Teel 
Charles P. Lauriat 
Howard D. Nash 
John A. Sullivan 
James S. Sturtevant 
). H. Whitney 
R. Gibson 
B. E. Perry 
William C. Craig 
Geo. W. W. Saville 
Frank E. Chandler 
Charles F. Paige 

Charles W. Murphy 
Charles L. Hutchins 
Morris W. Child 
John A. Gaffey 
George W. Stetson 
J. E. Potter 
Geo E. Davenport 
William P. Martin 
James W. Tufts 
Edward W. Hayes 
Josiah E. Woods 
Lewis H. Lovering 
Henry Withington 
Michael F. Dwyer 
F. C. Williams 

May 1 2th, 1886, there was mailed to each of the sub- 
scribers named a usual notice of the first meeting of a 
corporation to be held on Saturday, June 5th, 1886, in 
Legion of Honor hall,t High street. 

•"Governor Brooks hall" was the meeting place of Governor Brooks Council, Legion ot 
Honor, in the second floor of the present Masonic building, originally known as " Small's block." 
t Then also called "Governor Brooks hall." See footnote above. 


At this meeting there was a tremendous amount of 
business transacted under the careful guidance of D. 
Eldridge, spokesman of the occasion, and the " father" of 
the first co-operative bank to be estabhshed in Massachu- 
setts. James S. Sturtevant presided, and Howard D. 
Nash was appointed temporary clerk. 

June loth, 1886, the bank actually got under way. That 
evening twenty-five of the subscribers assembled, and 
under the proper authorities and form adopted the neces- 
sary regulations and by-laws containing eighteen articles 
and numerous sections covering the entire scope of co- 
operative bank business as it was conducted at that time. 

The following ofificers and directors were then elected: 

President, Dana I. Mclntire 
Vice-President, J, Henry Norcross 
Secretary and Treasurer, James S. Sturtevant 
Directors ; 
James W. Tufts Ira W. Hamlin Charles P. Lauriat 

James H. Hooper Charles N. Jones Eli Ayers 

William C. Craig Henry Withington Joseph E. Ober 

Charles Currier Fred C. Williams Howard D. Nash 

Geo. W. W. Saville Thomas B. Dill W. H, Warren 

Auditors : J'^^" ^- Sullivan 

William P. Martin Fred H. Kidder Edward W. Hayes 

The officers thus elected were duly sworn to the per- 
formance of their duties before D. Eldridge, justice of 
the peace. So the Medford Co-operative Bank was 
formed and organized in proper manner under the laws 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and was now 
ready to commence business. 

June 23rd, 1886, the first authorized meeting of the 
Directors was held in the assessors' room* at the town 
hall. At this meeting President Mclntire appointed as 
Security Committee, John H. Hooper, chairman ; J. E. 

• For a while business was carried on with the assessors' room as headquarters. (Mr. Sturte- 
vant had previously devoted a desk in his hotne on Riverside avenue to this purpose.) The records 
of the bank are hazy as to the length of time the assessors' ofiRce was used, but November 3, 1886, 
a safe w.».s " pLaced in the assessors' room of the town building" for the use of Mr. Sturtevant. He 
was an assessor for about one year following a political upset in town meeting. Later, quarters 
were occupied in the ground floor ol .Small's block (upstairs was the town's armory). This long, 
narrow " banking house " was the right-hand half of the present flower shop of M rs. (jreen. Rich- 
ards' plumbing shop occupied the left half of the present flower store. Bank and tin-knocker were 
separated by a stout partition. The new home of the Medford Trust Company at 23 High street 
was occupied in 1913, and the Medford Co-operative Bank took lease of quarters in the second 
story. The first shareholders' meeting held there was April a, 1913, and the first directors' meeting 
on the evening of April 9, 19T3. 


Ober, Charles P. Lauriat, John A. SulHvan, Heny With- 
ington; and as Finance Committee, Thomas 13. Dill, 
Chairman ; Ira W. Hamlin, Charles N. Jones. 

With the organization completed, the date for the first 
receipt of moneys and the sale of funds was set for the 
evening of July 7th, 1886, at which time the first dollar 
was left on deposit and the first share of stock was sold 
and issued. 

The whole sum deposited that evening was sold at pub- 
lic auction — three loans totalling $1800.00 — at an in- 
terest rate of 6% per annum and a premium of $.05 to 

All this happened forty-five years ago, and therefore it 
is only fitting that on this, the Medford Co-operative 
Bank's anniversary, the public and many present share- 
holders of the institution be informed of the conditions 
surrounding the establishment of this bank which has 
grown continuously till in 1931, with assets of nearly 
$6,000,000.00, it is the nineteenth largest co-operative 
bank in the commonwealth, and there are two hundred 
and twenty-seven of them. 

During these forty-five years the nation has passed 
through many periods of stress, of depression, of war, 
which have severely affected the financial standing of the 
United States as well as of the world. Great industries 
have ceased business ; others have been born ; science 
has scrapped old ways and discovered new ones ; large 
banks and financial houses have risen and toppled to 
their fall ; enterprises without number have found it need- 
ful to close out rather than continue at a loss. 

The co-operative banking system, born in Philadelphia 
more than one hundred years ago under another name, 
has in every instance weathered the storm ; and the Med- 
ford Co-operative Bank has passed through the turmoil 
and upon reaching smoother seas and fairer sailing has 
found itself sounder-built, more substantial than before. 

The institution has experienced conditions that de- 
manded the wisest judgments of its captains and the sin- 


cere advice of its Directorates. These have been secured 
from the services of officials v^rhose keen interest in the 
affairs of the bank and in the community it serves have 
redounded to the generous credit of all concerned. 

The record of the Medford Co-operative Bank has made 
it one of the strongest in the state, and as the assets in- 
creased year by year the management began to realize the 
time was fast approaching when the institution would 
need its own quarters, must " own its own home." For 
nearly seventeen years it has occupied the upper story 
of the Medford Trust Company building at No. 25 High 
street, in the center of the city. 

When it was decided to buy a site the so-called Grand 
Army hall property opposite the foot of Governors avenue 
was decided upon and was purchased in 1926. The old 
building there proved to bring sufficient revenue to carry 
the property through the several years of ownership at 
little or no expense to the bank. In 1930 the Directors 
felt the cost of building construction was about to drop 
quite appreciably, and in consequence an architect was 
chosen from several other Medford men in the profession, 
each of whom had been commissioned to submit a design 
he believed to be in full keeping with the historical lore 
of the city and the best traditions of New England. 

Howard A. Goodspeed of 55 Wolcott street, West Med- 
ford, was awarded the contract for the plans, and from them 
has been erected the fine colonial building, a residence 
in exterior appearance, which over coming years will be 
the Medford Co-operative Bank's first real " home." The 
general contractors, Frankini Brothers Company of Med- 
ford, were in charge of the work. 

The Building Committee consisted of the President, 
former Mayor Lewis H. Lovering, William P. Hart, 
Walter F. Gushing, Leroy H. Robbins and Frank W. 
Lovering. These men comprise, also, the present Secur- 
ity Committee. Mr. Thompson, the Treasurer, was 
chosen clerk by the Building Committee, and aided it 
materially with suggestions as construction progressed. 


The new banking house embodies several features of 
Medford's well-known examples of the architecture of the 
Colonies. It has the double chimneys and the deck rail- 
ing found on the Hall house nearly opposite; and the 
Dutch gambrel perfected in the roof of the Cradock house 
on lower Riverside avenue. 

Windows are typical of the period and like those in 
the old Seccomb house which stood on the site now par- 
tially occupied by the building of the Medford Trust 
Company. The entrance doorway and circular windows, 
although not found in local precedents, are typical of the 
period. Admittance to the building is directly into the 
banking room through revolving doors. This room ex- 
tends the entire length of the High street front and is 
panelled in gumwood to a height of twelve feet. The 
room has a barrelled ceiling of antique hand-moulded 
plaster with an ivory tint, which blends with the brown 
of the woodwork and the brown and black rubber tiled 
floor. A ceiling sash pierces the center of the spacious 
room and admits overhead light from a large skylight, 
concealed from exterior view by the deck railing extend- 
ing between the twin chimneys. 

A Flemish chandelier drops from the center of the 
ceiling sash for artificial illumination. 

The counter screen, directly ahead as one enters the 
banking rooms, is of polished wrought iron and brass 
with a frieze of pierced cast ornament. To the right, 
beneath the large triple west window is the oflficers' space, 
separated from the public with wrought iron and brass 
railing; and leading from this area is a conference room 
with glass panels set in a screen similar to the counter 

The vault at the rear of the counter work space is 
equipped with a heavy Mosler door with wide, polished, 
steel architrave. A money safe and a nest of private 
safe deposit boxes for the officials and employees of the 
bank occupy one portion of the heavily re-inforced con- 
crete vault. 


At the rear of the building in an ell overlooking the 
Mystic River Basin is the machine room, with a ceiling 
of acoustic plaster, retiring facilities for women, a special 
room for the Investment Committee, and toilet accom- 

A side entrance gives access to the building for meet- 
ings of the Board of Directors, the Security Committee, 
or on other occasions when the main banking rooms 
are closed. 

From the hallway into which the side entrance admits, 
a colonial flight of stairs leads to the Directors' Room 
on the second floor. On the east side of this is a coat 
room and storage space. Adjacent to the hallway are 
toilet accommodations. The room is perfectly propor- 
tioned and, like the main banking rooms, has a barrelled 
ceiling, ivory-tinted, gumwood panelling and cornice, and 
a floor of rubber tiling. 

There is a spacious fireplace at the front and triple 
doors let to an iron balcony of colonial type over the river. 

The Directors' Room is furnished with chairs and 
table of the Windsor period, the whole blending delight- 
fully into such a meeting place as tradition asserts the 
early Medfordites were wont to gather in on occasions 
of moment. 

In the basement of the building besides the storage 
vault are the heater room containing the latest in oil 
burning boiler and equipment, service room, fan room 
and janitor's room. At the rear are recreation room with 
toilet, and a complete kitchen. 

The building is heated by the vapor system, and 
thorough ventilation is secured with methods carefully de- 
signed by ventilating engineers. The plumbing, modern 
in all respects, has chromium-plated fittings. 

The electrical system is designed to meet the special 
and exacting requirements of a building of this nature. 
All intercommunicating telephones are of the dial type, 
used in connection with the regular telephone system. 
The bank is forty-two feet on High street, and sixty-eight 
feet deep, with the entire first floor of reinforced concrete. 


The cost complete approximated $80,000.00. 

As a matter of record it may be set forth that the first 
President of the Medford Co-operative Bank was Dana 
I. Mclntire, 1886-1907. He was succeeded by J. Henry 
Norcross, 1907-1912. Former Mayor Lewis H. Lovering 
became President in 1912, and continues in that office. 

James S. Sturtevant was Secretary-Treasurer from 
18S6 to 1907. In 1907 the dual oi^ce was divided. Mr. 
Sturtevant remained as Treasurer through 191 1, and 
Elisha G. Pierce, chosen as Secretary in 1907, became 
Treasurer in 191 1, continuing until his death in July, 
1928. At the time Mr. Pierce was made Treasurer the 
office of Secretary was discontinued as to title, and that 
of Clerk of the Corporation was established. Upon Mr. 
Pierce's death, Forrest E. Thompson, who has been for 
several years connected with the bank, was chosen Treas- 
urer and Clerk of the Corporation (1928) and serves in 
those positions now (1931). 

The officers of the Medford Co-operative Bank as of 
1 93 1 are as follows : 

Lewis H. Lovering, President 
Walter F. Cushingf, Charles S. Taylor, Jolin W. Rockwell, Vice-Presidents 
Forrest E. Thompson, Treasurer and Clerk 
Willard T. Crossman, Assistant Treasurer 
Directors : 
Lewis H. Lovering Alden W. Teel Edgar H. Savage 

Charles S. Taylor Frank W. Lovering Frank G. Grady 

Walter F. Cushing John J. Mulkerin William N. Curtis 

David G. Melville Alwyne E. Ritchie Winthrop I. Nottage 

John \V. Rockwell Lerov H. Robbins Charles L. Oxnard 

William P. Hart Henry P. Van de Bogert John C. G. DeWolfe 

Security Committee: 
Lewis H. Lovering William P. Hart Frank W. Lovering 

Walter F. Cushing Leroy H. Robbins 

Finance Committee : 
John W. Rockwell, Chairman; John J. Mulkerin, David G. Melville. 

Attorneys : 
Edward N. Carpenter, George M. Nay, Carpenter. Nay and Caiger, 73 Corn- 
hill, Boston. 

Actively engaged in the handling of the bank's clerical 
duties are : 

Carolyn E. Weeks, Margaret ^L Gowans, Evelyn B. Ranisell, J. Olive 

34 [June, 


Written by Marion Nottage and awarded the second prize, a silver cup, in the Ter- 
centenary Poem Contest conducted by the Medford Mercury. 

Three hundred years since that intrepid man 

Flung Medford's banner to the sky, 

Yet those long days from wilderness to now 

Are but a breath in Time's slow sigh ; 

Forests of mighty oak, golden and green, 

Long crowned this vale without a name, 

The land grew rich, the spilling stream more wide, 

Before the tawny Indian came. 

An early morn, washed by the rising sun. 
Knee-deep in summer's fragrant sedge, 
Immovable and bronze, rider and horse 
Mirror as one in the tide's edge ; 
The Indian with arms stretched wide and high 
Greets dawn with thanks for peace new found : 
"Grant to the Missituks zeal here to make 
A valiant happy hunting ground." 

Though circles of their campfires glow no more 

In the clear starriness of night, 

Still through the valley flows the stream they named 

The Mystic, marking in its flight 

The ebb and flow of years, of rain and drought. 

Of smiling sky and iron-bound clouds; 

Its memories compass lives of fairer men 

Who sought inevitable shrouds. 

No more slim schooners glide upon its breast, 

Or lighter craft the red men steer, 

The early settlers with the Indian blend 

In memory of yesteryear. 

Biit now the river has regained young life, 

And bears again a youthful freight. 

The Mystic lakes resound to swimmer's splash, 

To scud of sail and ring of skate. 

And Medford speaks through laughing children's voice 

Of pride in its fast growing youth, 

A city old in years yet young at heart 

In strict adherence to the truth ; 

And as to sea the peaceful Mystic flows, 

Whose banks with dwellings fair abound, 

Great Spirit, grant Thy lenience once again. 

To bless our happy hunting ground. 

1931.] 35 


Mr. George S. Delano, in his article, " Men Whom 
We Have Known," published in the volume " Medford, 
Past and Present," printed in 1905, writes thus of a man 
whose name has lately come again to the notice of the 
people of Medford: " Elizur Wright we knew well, — a 
man of genius in many ways, a generous citizen, the 
father of Middlesex Fells. No man can have a more 
beautiful, expressive, or lasting monument than the Fells 
lands ; yet, as a reminder that we appreciate the man 
who, by gift of time, energy, genius, and money, caused 
public action to define itself in the preservation of our 
grand forests, a monument built by public subscription 
on Pina hill would be in keeping with our appreciation 
of him." 

It is interesting that this proposal of a monument to 
the memory of Mr. Wright should be renewed more than 
twenty-five years later, and this time to honor him, not 
as the father of Middlesex Fells, but as the "father of 
life insurance." The National Association of Life In- 
surance is sponsoring a plan to raise a fund of one mil- 
lion dollars for a memorial. 

In Volume IV, No. 3, of the Historical Register 
may be found an extract from a paper read before the 
Historical Society by Mr. Wright's daughter, Miss Ellen 
M. Wright, in which the pioneer services in the cause 
of forest preservation in general and of the Middlesex 
Fells in particular, rendered by Elizur Wright, are well 
set forth. He planted the seed and the splendid Metro- 
politan Park System of Massachusetts is the fruit of that 

Mr. Wright died in December, 1885. The following 
are excerpts from the Medford Mercury of that month : 
" For the last half century Mr. Wright has been a promi- 
nent figure among the public men of this state, and both 
in public and private was honored and respected by all. 
He was born in South Canaan, Litchfield County, Con- 
necticut, February 12, 1804. His father moved to Tal- 


mage, Ohio, in iSio, and here young Wright lived on a 
farm until he was eighteen years old, when he entered 
Yale College. He graduated in 1826, and during the 
next two years was a teacher in the Lawrence Academy, 
Concord, Massachusetts. From 1829 to 1833 he was a 
professor in Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio. 
Having warmly embraced the principles of the Aboli- 
tionists, he removed to New York in 1S33 and became 
secretary to the American Anti-Slavery Society, in which 
he continued for five years. During this time he was 
also editor of the Quarterly Anti-Slavery Magazine. He 
removed to Boston in April, 1839, and became editor of 
the Massachusetts Abolitionist, a paper which dealt effec- 
tive blows at slavery. 

" For several years he remained connected with the 
newspaper press, and in 1845 established the Chronotype, 
on which he continued to do yeoman's service for the 
hated cause. The Chronoiype was merged with the Com- 
monwealth in 1850, and he remained editor for some time 
after. In 1858 he was appointed to the office of insur- 
ance commissioner, holding it until 1866. He was recog- 
nized as the best informed man on insurance and kindred 
subjects in New England, and he published several books 
relative to these matters. In 1841 he published a trans- 
lation in two volumes of ' La Fontaine's Fables,' a work 
which became known universally. He also published 
' The Lesson of Santo Domingo, or How to Make War,' 
in 1861 ; 'Eye-Opener for Wlde-A wakes,' in i860; and 
'A Curiosity of Law,' in 1866. In 1843 ^^ ^^^ allied 
with the Liberty party, and published a popular song, 
dedicated to the presidential candidate, entitled 'An Ode 
to James G. Birney.' Mr. Wright was an occasional 
contributor to the Mercury, and his letters were always 
read with much interest." 

1931.] 37 


As part of the Medford celebration of the 19th of 
April for 1931, the Medford Historical Society replaced 
two of the original markers on the sites of the first and 
second meeting houses. So well had the original signs 
been made that with a little repair and repainting, they 
were ready again for service. The Medford Boy and 
Girl Scouts sent a delegation, with a Boy Scout Bugle 
and Drum Corps, to meet on the site of the first meeting 
house at the corner of High street and High street 
place. There they formed at attention while workmen 
generously loaned by Mr. Blodgett, Building Commis- 
sioner of the City of Medford, securely screwed the sign 
in place. This now reads 



16% — 1726 

DIMENSIONS 27x30 ft. COST 80£ 



Then the President, Mrs. Richard B. Coolidge, gave a 
short talk to the scouts on the first meeting house and 
the historic landmarks in that part of the city. Present 
also were James W. Norton, President of the Board of 
Aldermen, Mr. Thomas M. Connell, Treasurer of the His- 
torical Society and Scout Executive Harry T. French. 

The little cavalcade then marched, bearing the sign of 
the second meeting house, to a position near the brook. 
Investigation proved that the second meeting house stood 
on the land now occupied by two houses near the brook, 
but as permission was not granted on the original site of 
the sign, the Historical Society placed the sign with simi- 
lar exercises on the land of Mr. Lund, the second house 
from Meeting House Brook. This sign reads in the 
original wording 





It is to be hoped that we can keep alive the original 
interest of the society in the marking of all important 
historic sites. 

38 NOTES BY THE WAY. [June, 


From Robert C. Winthrop's "Life and Letters of John 
Winthrop" we make the following quotations, because 
they describe an interesting first event in the history of 
Medford, which occurred just three hundred years ago: 

We soon afterwards find him (Winthrop) making note of a most 
interesting occurrence^ in the progress of the little plantation, and 
in the history of New England navigation and commerce: — 

"Julv4. The governor built a bark at Mistick, which was 
launched this day, and called the Blessing of the Bay." 

The attentive reader can hardly Iiave omitted to observe the 
beautiful coincidence which exists between the dates of some of the 
most memorable occurrences \\\ our early colonial history and those 
of some of the great events of our more recent national career. Thus 
the governor and company of Massachusetts set out from Salem for 
the bay on the 17th of June, and probably encamped that night not 
far from what was afterwards known as Bunker hill. Thus, too, 
the first Thanksgiving Day of the colony was on the 2 2d of Febru- 
ary, and the Blessing- of the Bay was launched on the 4th of July. 
The change of old style into new would, indeed, destroy these 
coincidences; but as long as the dates shall stand, as they still do, 
on the printed page, the associations which they suggest cannot fail 
to be cherished with an almost superstitious fondness. 

Mistick, where the Blessing of the ^rtiy was built, and launche(^ 
on the 4th of July, 1631, was the summer residence of Governor 
Winthrop for some years. 


Since the last issue of the Register the old Floyd 
house, located on High street between the Christian 
Science Church and the new St. Joseph's Parochial 
School, has been torn down. The old house was over 
one hundred years old, and occupied by the Floyd family 
for many years. It is being replaced by an apartment 
house of large size. 

The Medford Historical Society acted as host to the 
Bay State League at the League's spring meeting, held 
Saturday, April 25. Seventy delegates present, repre- 
senting twenty-two societies, were greeted by Mrs. Ruth 


Dame Coolidge of the local Society, and the Hospitality 
Committee functioned during the social period. 

The completion of the new Daniel A. Gleason School 
on Playstead road, West Medford, adds another to a list 
of Medford's modern school buildings. 

It is of colonial design, two stories high over a ground 
floor. It has ten class rooms, five on each floor. The 
plan provides for additions to the building without mak- 
ing extensive alterations. It is 165 feet long by 54 feet 
wide, with a playground 250 feet by 160. The ground 
floor has a playroom for boys and one for girls, and toilets 
for both sexes on all three floors. 

It has rooms which may be used for additional classes 
if necessary. The heating plant is of the latest type, and 
the cupola and the two chimneys make for suitable venti- 
lation. The first stor)' has a principal's ofifice and wait- 
ing room, also a medical room, fitted with plumbing, 
etc., which may be used as a dental clinic. 

It has an electric clock system, with a master clock, 
and program regulator, fire-alarm system and intercom- 
municating telephone service. As a whole the building 
is not surpassed by any like structure in suburban Boston. 


By Hall Gleason. 

(Continued from Medford Historical Register, March, 193L) 

185.^. Kingfisher. Extreme clipper ship, 1286 tons. Owners. William Lincoln & Co. Sold 
to P. Spraeue & Co. October. 18.58. In later years Samuel G. Reed & Co., also of 
Boston. Built by Hayden and Cudworth. She made four passages Boston to S. F. 
and two from N. Y. .'\verage for the six, 126?^ days: fastest, 114 days: slowest. 135 
days. Sold to Uruguay and renamed /rt/wz? Cibils. Broken up in 1890. 

Edith Rose. Ship, .SIO tons. Owners, Crowell. Brooks & Co. of Boston, 1853. Sold 
to Howes & Crowell, October. 1857. Sold to William .Appleton & Co., November, 
18S7. Sold to S. Hooper & Co. 1861. Built by Havden & Cudworth. Sold June, 
1863, to . Sold .March. 1866, to . Last report 1886. 

Fleetwring. Medium clipper ship, 8% tons. Owners. Crowell, Brooks & Co. Sold to 
Howes & Crowell, 1857. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. She mado fourteen passages 
from Boston or N. Y. to S. F.: two of 113 days ; one each of 114. 121 and 122 days, 
and two of 128 days. S. F. to N Y. 103 days, two to Boston in 112 and 119 days. 
Last .American owner, Vernon H. Brown of N. Y. Changed to a bark and sold to 
British .Account. 

Herald of the Morning. Medium clipper ship. 12**4 tons. Designed by Samuel H. 
Pook. Owners, Thatcher Maeoun & Co. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. On her 
maiden voyaife. Boston to S. F. in 106 days, when 100 days out she was within 1.80 
miles of the Golden Gate. N. Y. to S. F. .Arrived at S. F. 100 days, 6 hours, anchor 
to anchor: 99 days, 12 hours, pilot to pilot: best day's run, 340 miles. The only 


1853. Medford-built vessel to make the passage in less than 100 days. Arrived May 16, 

1855. Boston to S. F. in 116 days. Arrived March 18. IS59. Boston to S. F. 108 days. 
Arrived May 25, 1860. Sold to Norwegian .•\ccount, her rig changed to a bark. In 
1890 she appears under the British flag, W. J. Smith, owner. In 1859, wliile off Cape 
Horn, she was struck by an iiumense sperm whale which appeared to be badly 
injured. The ship lost part of her stem and her pumps had to be kept going until 
her arrival at de.stination. 

Robin Hood. Extreme clipper ship, 1181 tons. Owners, Howes & Crowell. Built by 
Hayden & Cudworth. Her maiden passage Boston to S. F. in 127 days. Thereafter 
she made eleven runs from N. Y. to S. F.. two of which were made in 107 days. 
From S. F. she made five direct runs to N. Y., the fastest being 88 days in 1862. Her 
time on the others was 107. 108, 117 and 117 days. Destroyed by fire at Baker's 
Island, Pacific Ocean, August 30, 1869, while loading guano for Queenstown, Ireland. 

Lamplighter. Bark, 365 tons. Owners, Lombard, f/ a/. Built by Hayden & Cud- 
worth. N. Y. for Gibraltar. Captured and burned October 15, 1862, by the Alabama 
in lat. 41° 10' N., long. 59° 17' VV. 

Osborn Howes. Medium clipper ship, 1050 tons. Owners, Crowell Brooks & Co. 
Sold to Howes & Crf well. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. Boston to S. F. 153 days, 
arrived lanuary 20, lii55. N. Y. to S. F. 124 days, arrived April 30, 1856. Sold to 
British Acct. August, 1S64. Last report 1870. 

Rambler. Ship. 1119 tons. Owners, Baxter Brothers of Yarmouth, Mass., and Israel 
Nash of Boston. Sold to Carleton 18<^.0 (O. K. 1864). Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 
Name changed to Fanny. 

Elmwood. Bark, ,339 tons. Owners, Edward Bartlett and Augustus Hemenway. et al.. 
Boston Built by Melzar P. Delano. 

Wm. H. Starkey of Boston. Pilot schooner, 78 tons. Owners, Matthew and Reuben 
S. Hunt of Boston. Built by John Wade, Jr. 

Ocean Telegraph. Extreme clipper ship, 1495 tons. Owners, Reed, VVade & Co. of 
Boston. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. "No expense was spared to make her one 
of the most perfect and beautiful ships ever built. The bow raked boldly forward, 
flaring gracefully, and was ornamented with a beautiful carved female figure with 
forks of liglitning plaving around She was very sharp, with a long, clean run taper- 
ing like that of a pilot l)oat. Her light and graceful stern was ornamented with 
carved work surrounding a figure of Neptune. She had a fine sheer, and every line 
and moulding harmonized her whole length." She made eight passages to S. F. from 
N. Y. The average of seven of these is under 117 days, and of the eight is 121 days. 
She made five passages from S. F. to N. Y., of which four were under 100 days. The 
average of the five is 96.8 days. Portions of a number of these runs were very close 
to record. Fastest outward passage to S. F. 105 days, 20 hours. Fastest return 
passage 90 days. In 1855 she made the run from Callao to N. Y. in 58 days, believed 
to be the fastest on record. Sold to Jas. Baines & Co. of London for £7060 and re- 
named Light Brigade. Changed to a bark in 1875. Condemned and converted 
into a coal hulk at Gibraltar in 1883. Last report 1891. 

Ocean Express. Medium clipper ship, 1697 tons. Owners, Reed, Wade & Co. of 
Boston Sam'l G. Reed & Co., successors. Built by J. O. Curtis. A gilded eagle 
was her figurehead Her rig was changed from single topsails to Howes double 
topsails after her first voyage. She had hard luck with head winds and calms on all 
her California passages. Her runs from N. Y. to S. F. were 135. 125. 13f), 1.39, 148 
and 143 days. From Boston to S. F. 137 days. In 1857 she made ,3'i4 miles in 24 
hours. In 1861-62 she was engaged as a U. S. army transport. Sold to Peruvian 
.Acct. in 1872. Reported having made the run from Callao to California coast in 31 
days, which is close to the record. Under Costa Rica colors for a time. Sold to 
German Acct. and name changed to Friedrich in 1876. Sold subsequently to Nor- 
wegians. Reported abandoned in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1890. Largest ship 
built in Medford. 

Enoch Train. Steam tug, 384}^ tons. Owners, Boston Steam Tow-Boat Co. Built 
by J. O. Curtis. 

Good Hope. Ship, H'^S tons. Owners, James Burritt, e/ a;/., of N. Y. Built by James 
O. Curtis. Name changed to Frederick Hasselnian. N. Y. to S. F. 143 days, arrived 
November 11, 1855. Lost near Quebec in 1881. 

Norwester. Clipper ship, 1267 tons. Ownor.s, J. T. Coolidge & Co. of Boston. Sold 
to R. F. C. Hartley, etat., of Boston in 1864. Built by S. Lapham. N. Y. to S. F. 
in 122. and 195 days. Boston to S. F. 1.32, 131 and 1 ^4 days. Boston to Calcutta in 
91 days, claimed to be second best on record. Return voyage in 95 days. New 
Orleans (or Liverpool with cargo of cotton, burned at Key West, November23, 1873. 

Emma. Ship, 857 tons. Owners, James Wellman, ^^ a/., of Charleston, S. C. Built by 
Joshua T. Foster. Last report 1885. 

Hon. LhWiS H. LU\ EKING 
President of tlie Medford Co-operative Bank Since 1912 

Present Treasurer and Clerk Since 1928 

Vol. XXXIV.] 

[No. 3. 








Wilson Fiske and Ruth Dame Coolidge 41 

NOTES BY THE WAY. Thomas M. Connell .... 52 


Hall Gleason 54 

Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Qovernors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Subscription price, &1.50 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

For sale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 


Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 

Exchange list in charge of Thomas M. Connell, io Tainter Street. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

the city of Medford, Mass., the sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 

( Signed) 


The Medforcl Historical Register. 

Vol. XXXIV. SEPTEMBER, 19:-;i. No. 3. 



Copyrishted by Wilson Fiske nnd Ruth Dame Coolidse. 

The Prologue and the First, Skcond and Fourth Scenes by 
Wilson Fiske, the Third Scene by Ruth Daaie Coolidge. 


THE composition of "The Old Time Medford Town 
Meeting " was first suggested by Rev. Mr. Dethlefs, 
Minister of the First Parish in Medford. 

The series of representations celebrating Medford's 
tercentenary year had been inaugurated by "A Seven- 
teenth Century Church Service" in the auditorium of 
the First Parish Church on Sunday, February 23, 1930, 
under Mr. Dethlefs' direction. This met with so much 
favor as to draw forth many requests for its repetition, 
both from people who had attended the service and from 
some of those who were unable to gain admission for 
lack even of standing room. 

But the church meeting was strictly a religious service 
in form, and singularly dignified and reverent in charac- 
ter, and Mr. Dethlefs hesitated to take any action which 
might tend to make it appear dramatic or show-like. 
However, he was willing to arrange for some other form 
of memorial by which the First Parish might close the 
tercentenary season it had so happily opened. It occurred 
to him that, having begun with a church meeting, it might 
be fitting to finish with the one other absorbing function 
of Puritan New England, a town meeting, and during 
the presentation in June of Mrs. Coolidge's " Pageant of 
the Mystic " he asked me if I would undertake to write 
something appropriate to that purpose. 

I was by no means confident of my ability to produce 
anything satisfactory in the line of pageant or play, but 

OCT 13 ICCl 



expressed my interest and agreed to do what I could. 
Much diligent and very interesting research among the 
ancient town records suggested the idea of setting forth 
the doings of some one actual meeting, adding to the 
records only such procedure as must necessarily be pre- 
sumed to have had place in carrying out the business of 
that meeting. This told a story truly, and made a pic- 
ture — which was very much black-and-white until Mrs. 
Coolidge's fancy and her brush added the color and 
perspective by portraying the women and the home. 

The " Town Meeting " was presented by members of 
the First Parish at their Parish House, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Dethlefs, December 3, 1930, for the benefit 
of the Parish, the cast being as follows : — 

JOHN BRADSHAV^, Constable 


PETER TUFTS, Selectman and Rep: 





esentative, MR. LOUIS C. DETHLEFS 


And on April 15, 193 1, it was repeated at the same 
place, through the courtesy and with the co-operation of 
the First Parish members, by, and for the benefit of, the 
Medford Historical Society, the cast being the same as 
before, with these exceptions: 


Miss Katherin Howe appeared as Anna Tufts. 

Mr. Donald Fiske appeared as John Francis. 

At the first presentation the prologue was read by 
Mr. Fiske; at the second by Hon. Frederick W. Fosdick, 
who was introduced by Mrs. Coolidge. 



A Medford Town Meeting of the Seventeenth Century may be 
known to us by date and by its results, because the town records of 
the last quarter of that century are still witli us, and bear evidence 
of painstaking efforts at precision and completeness. Some of them, 
by the way, are remarkable for their admirable chirography, as 
they are for their peculiar orthography and sometimes construction. 

But the reports of the meetings are for the most part mere records 
of the enactments of that most puissant legislative body, the town. 
They do not give us insight into the processes, by debate or other- 
wise, through which these results were had, nor note the many 
touches of homely quaintness which must have characterized their 
progress, and which we should so much enjoy to read. Motions 
lost were not recorded. 

Therefore a representation of sucli a scene must be, as to these 
details, wholly imaginative. But usually the place, the personnel 
and the costuming we know somewhat in detail, and we know 
something of the form of procedure. Members of the First Parish, 
familiar with the forms and requirements of its present-day meet- 
ings, will readily recognize these parish meetings as the direct de- 
scendants of the town meetings of the days when town and parish 
were one. 

The particular meeting which we have chosen for presentation 
in full was the first meeting after the completion of the first meeting- 
house in Medford, and it seems to have been interested almost 
wholly with business concerning that edifice, which we must re- 
member was built to serve the purposes of both church and town 

The " covenant " with its builders called for a building thirty 
feet by twenty-seven feet, and sixteen feet high. To get an idea 
by comparison we may consider that this auditorium in front of the 
stage would almost exactly ccjntain two such buildings. The house 
had but one room at that time, no gallery and no pews. It had 
real glass in tlie windows. The roof was shingled and the walls 
clapboarded and brick-filled. The floor was of native pine. Of 
course, when used for town meetings the space covered by the pul- 
pit and by the deacons' seat in front of that, was unused. But the 


table in front of the deacons' seat might well be useful to the clerk 
and moderator. The pews were built later, one by one, and always 
at the expense of the occupants. The right to build each pew was 
granted specifically by the town as a special mark of consideration. 
The building of the pews necessarily restricted the floor space for 
the seats, and led to the building of the gallery as the church popu- 
lation increased. When the meeting-house was built the " ratable" 
heads and estates were twenty-seven. This might give a total popu- 
lation of perhaps one hundred and fifty and a church attendance 
which might easily overfill the little meeting-house. 

We do not know that there were any prescriptive rights to special 
seats within its one room at the town meetings, but the seating of 
the congregation at public worship on Sunday was a solemn and 
momentous question, not easy of handling, probably seldom ad- 
justed to universal satisfaction, usually productive of heartburnings 
and differences of opinion not quite in keeping with that irijunction 
of St. Paul's "In honor to prefer one another." 

Our forbears were but scantily democratic in their inherited ideas 
of social rank and station, to which the)' clung tenaciously, however 
boldly they repudiated the political principles of their mother coun- 
try. VVe know that the first placing of this congregation was not 
wholly acceptable, and required revising a few years later. 

The time of which we treat was some seventeen years before 
the town had any settled minister, and before what was known as 
the "gathering" of the church. But the "church" at that time 
meant always the religious organization, and never a building. The 
building was in no sense sacred, and was subject to the customs 
and control of the church onlv when it was used for religious ser- 
vices ; which, however, might very well be its most frequent and 
important use. 

In those particulars on which information is obtainable, we have 
tried to present the picture with accuracy on all significant points. 
Peter Tufts was moderator at this meeting. Stephen Willis vjas 
town clerk (which title he pronounced " dark" and usuallv spelled 
with two c's — clerck). 

The selectmen were Peter Tufts, John Francis and Nathan 
Wade; the tithing man was Jonathan Tufts; Nathaniel H;dl was 
surveyor of highwavs; and John Francis and Ebeneezer Brooks 
were fence-viewers. 

Thomas Willis was in fact the newly elected constable. But 
Thomas Willis appears before us ratlier as the donor to the town 
of the meeting-house lot. F(jr this reason, and to avoid confusion 
of his name with that of his brother Stephen, we have taken the 
liberty to extend the term of office of John Bradshaw (or Bradshur, 
or Bradshoe, as it was variouslv written), who had been town con- 
stable until within a few weeks previously. 


We may even know fairly well who else were present. The 
town meetings were called by the selectmen, in the name of the 
Crown, and the summons thereto was served by the town constable. 
All the " ratable " males w'ere included, and absentees from the 
meeting were fined for non-performance of public duty. Inci- 
dentally, any refusal to accept office was also punished by a hand- 
some fine. Here in matters political was democracy indeed, beside 
which our own attempts tliereat decidedlv pale. Under this system 
the town " rates" or tax lists would give us very nearly the person- 
nel of the meetings of corresponding dates. For instance, we have 
the "rate" authorized by the identical meeting represented, and 
we have the list of original subscribers to the bidlding fund of the 
meeting-house, with the amount of each contribution. It may not 
be amiss to explain that ''town rates" meant taxes levied by the 
town, while "country rates" were imposed by the General Court. 

The transactions of the meeting presented have been followed 
with equal faithfulness. With the exception of one clause borrowed 
from the record of a subsequent meeting and used to illustrate a 
characteristic trait, the resolutions passed are taken from the town 
record of that meeting and so far as possible are verbatim — even 
literatim — copies thereof. No business but the business of the 
day has been presented, and none omitted. The methods of voting 
are authentic. 

The same care to keep within the record applies to that portion 
of a second town meeting which is presented for your acceptance. 
And the episodes set forth between the two will sufliciently justify 
themselves without apology, even though their details are neces- 
sarily based on tradition rather than the town records. The locale, 
the characters, their relationships, and apparently their views, if 
not their action, are historical. The locale of the meeting of the 
committee men will be obvious if we recall that a considerable por- 
tion of the ancient highway northwestward from the bottle-neck at 
Cradock Bridge is still called Woburn street. 

The Bradshaw house still stands, albeit more modern buildings 
have destroyed its view of the meeting-house site. The two other 
dwelling houses named in the text complete the trio of Medford 
residences then and now functioning as such, and have now nearly 
completed the fulfillment of Madam Wade's prophecy. 

And now, having shown our hand, we '11 play it, and hope for 



The Town Meeting in the New Meeting-house. May 25, 1696. 

^^ Diligent In business, ferifent In spirit, serving the Lord." 

Interior of the new meelmg-house discovered ; perhaps not quite finished ; 
a table ; no fixed seats ; several stools, chairs and Impromptu seats of differ- 
ent kinds ; with some attetnpt at orderlmess afid neatness under difficulties. 

Enter the men of the town, singly and In groiips, with greetings for each 
other, and any casual, appropriate conversation. Possibly ofte or two still 
swallowing a hurried breakfast after doing the chores. 

Enter Willis, tow7i clerk, 7vlth book, bundle of pens. Ink-well and sand- 
box, all which he deposits on the table. TJien he looks abotct to see If the 
room Is In order for the meeting, and makes some s?nall chatiges In the setting. 
The men stand about In groups without order, and of course are particularly 
171 disorder when Stephen Willis advajices to table and raps the ineetlng to 

Stephen Willis. John Bradshaw, Constable, thou wert required 
By the Selectmen, in due ordered course. 
To notify tlie people of our town, 
The freeholders and other habitants, 
That here within their meeting-house they do 
Convene in general town meeting; now 
To see how may the town be minded well 
To act upon those questions in the writ 
Set forth — Hast thou so done ? 

Bradshaw. Aye Master Clerk, 

All this hath been most faithfully performed. 
Ill name of his most gracious Majesty, 
Yea, William, even him of Orange, King 
Of England, Ireland, Scotland and of France, 
By grace of God ; Defender of the Faith ; 
By order of our town's Selectmen, and 
In virtue of mine olifice and the law ; 
I, Bradshaw, duly chosen Constable, 
With fifteen days of notice, as required, 
Did warn and summon all and singular 
The men of this our Medford, that they meet 
At seven of the clock in the forenoon. 
Upon the five and twentieth day instant, 
That is to say, of May, the year of grace 
One thousand and six liundred ninety-six, 



And of the reign of our good King the Vlllth, 
Within their meeting-house upon the hill 
Hard by the Marble Brook ; therein to take 
Such lawful action on the town's affairs, 
(Being within the purview of the writ), 
As may be for the common good and to 
The glory of Almighty God — Amen. 

And this same writ have I upon the door 
Of our said meeting-house displayed, and eke 
Have ta'en such further means for its report 
As by the law commanded. 

Willis. Wherefore we, 

Thus timely warned and legally, and now 
Being so met, do stand in lawful case 
To hold discourse upon our town's affairs, 
And so to act as may our conscience fit. 
And first, by all use, custom and the law, 
We now proceed to choose from out our men 
A Moderator. I await your wish 

John Hall. I do propose that we elect 

To moderate our meeting, Peter Tufts, 
Our Representative at General Court. 

Willis. Which nomination, I perceive at once 

Is seconded by Goodman Whitmore, and ( IVhitmore nods) 

If other nominations there be none. 

We may proceed to vote. What do I hear ? 

Leftenant Tufts is chosen by acclaim ! {All, Aye, Aye.) 

So be it then — Leftenant Peter Tufts 

Is chosen Moderator, I proclaim. 

Tufts {exchanging places with Willis). 

Let us invoke a blessing from on high. {Reads a prayer.) 
Have we at hand a copy of the writ ? 

Aye, sir, it lies before you on the desk. 

My thanks — 'Tis here set forth we are to see 
What steps the town will take to "dignify," 
Or place our people in their meeting-house. 
What is your pleasure here ? 

It doth behoove 
Us that we act upon this weighty point 
With all discretion and decorum due. 
'Twere seemly our inhabitants be placed 
With such respect to age and quality, 



C. Brooks, 



Nor not without regard for generous gifts 
Toward the building of our meeting-house, 
As that our meetings shall be surely marked 
With proper dignity and aspect grave. 

Considerations like to these require 
Much earnest, even prayerful argument. 
More fitted to deliberations apt 
Of wiser heads amongst us, and a corps 
Less numerous than this our forum. I 
Do therefcjre mcjve appointment now by us 
Of a committee bidden to this task. 

Willis. Aye, but, in such case who shall fitly place 

The placers ? Shall they justly seat themselves ? 
Not so, I trow. Our wiser men would not 
So undertake to do. 

Brooks. Indeed I am 

Persuaded thou art right, nor did I think 
To put such situation to our men. 
I would amend my motion to provide 
That our Selectmen first of all shall place 
Those men, appointed then to place the rest. 

Moderator. How many shall on this committee be. 

And who ? 

Brooks. The Moderator I would say ; 

The rest, I am content they shall be named 
By wisdom of the Moderator — and 
For number I would counsel five in all. 

Moderator. You hear the mind of Brother Brooks. Are there 

Objections to this method ? If not so 
We may proceed to vote on't. Those who would 
So many be appointed so, for such 
Most weighty service, now will show their will. 
Erecting each a hand to show the same. {A pause.) 
Or, otherwise if minded, by the same 
Signification, now. Plainly it is 
Affirmatively voted. {A Pause.) I do name 
To this committee Caleb Brooks, John Hall, 
Our Town Clerk, Stephen Willis, and to these 
Good men and true add Stephen Francis' name. [A patise.) 
There hath been courteous application made 
That Major Nathan Wade have liberty 
To build within the meeting-house a pew. 
Is this in keeping with the town's desire ? 



John Hall. 


Thomas Willis. 




I move to grant such liberty, with this 
Proviso, Major Wade invite some one 
Or two to sit with him. 

Do we agree 
With tliis ? {A paiisr.) It is so voted — Major Wade 
We find hatli liberty to build a pew 
When he shall see good reason so to do. {A pause.) 
It now appears that to the land whereon 
Our meeting-house doth stand, no title yet 
Is vested in the town. Much do we owe 
To our good Brother Thomas Willis, that 
He hath provided for our use this place. 
Nor would we he should feel the least distrust 
There might be aught uneasy to our minds ; 
But yet in fairness to the town, and him, 
It seemeth we should make the record clear. 
Against all accidents. 

I am content, 
Nay, much desirous to provide defense 
Against such ills — and I do move to make 
Instructions to our good Selectmen now 
To that good end. 

Well, then, 'tis put to vote 
That the Selectmen duly " go to get 
Sufficient title to the ground whereon 
This meeting-house is built." In favor, "Aye"; 
Opposed " No." {A pause.) Unanimously aye. 
And so in the afifirmative the clerk 

The vote will duly place on record. {A pause.) Next, 
The writ recites that certain persons' heads 
Are free by law from country rates, because 
Of age, or otherwise ; and we are called 
To say if these same heads by us shall be 
Now rated to the meeting-house, and to 
The other charges of the town as well. 

Unless there be good reason contra shown 
I do so move ; that is to say, that they 
Be rated to the charges of the town. 

Which motion I support. 

'Tis duly moved 
And seconded. {A pause.) If there be no debate 
Let those in favor vote by show of hand — 
Enough — And now against the motion — None ! 
Note, Master Clerk. 








And now it doth appear, 
The carpenters that built the meeting-house 
Have work performed more than they bargained for. 
The writ doth bid us see what shall be done 
To satisfy such charges just hereon, 
As may be found. 

The workmen who have reared 
By labor of their hands this edifice 
To be our house of worship, and as well 
Our place of business, if they have wrought 
Beyond the obligation by them ta'en, 
Not meaning such excess to be their gift, 
(For each of them already has set down 
His name in contribution to the fund, 
And each, like us, is subject to the rate 
Imposed therefor), in fairness should receive 
Just payment for the work by them so done. 

But if the work performed beyond their gage 
Hath not been authorized, nor may not be 
Full needful to the house, we should beware 
How that we spend the substance of the town 
Unwarranted by our necessities. 
Tho' we be blessed in many comforts now 
Our fathers found not easy in their day, 
Yet are we fain to watch with care our purse, 
Being but ill bestead in that. 

I would 
We have from the committee by the town 
Appointed to the building of the house 
Opinion on the value of this work. 
How saith our Brother Brooks ? 

Why, that the work 
Was proper and most needful to the house 
And greatly forwards our convenience in't. 
In sooth, we felt it must be had, and by 
Our acquiescence sanctioned it, I think. 
So stands the case. 

To me it seems most wise 
We put the settlement of this affair 
In hands of our Selectmen : and I move 
'"Tis left with the Selectmen to agree 
With the said workmen on the price of work 
That 's done, more than their bargain as 'foresaid ; 
And that the said Selectmen are empowered 
To make a town rate for their payment" just. 


Moderator. The motion you have duly heard. Is there 
Debate on any furtiier point ? If not 
What is your pleasure on 't ? Is 't seconded ? 

Several. By me ! By me ! By me ! 

Moderator. 'Tis so indeed. 

By show of hands we '11 indicate our will. 
In favor, now. (Patcse.) And now opposed. {Pause.) The ayes 
Are in majority by far. [A pause.) The Clerk 
Will note 'tis in affirmative. 

Is there 
Aught else at this time we should do? {A patcse.) Not so, 
I find. A motion to adjourn would now 
Be timely. {A pause.) 'Tis so moved, and voted ; I 
Do therefore rule this meeting is dissolved. 

( Curtain . A II slatiding. ) 


A Meeting of the Building Committee on the Oborn Road. 

March 6. j^^ 

'^Man thai is born of woman." 

{Enter right, Johtt Bradshaw and Stephen Francis.) 
Francis. It seemeth. Master Bradshaw, we two are set, with Brother 
Whitmore — nay, here cometh Master Whitmore now. 

{Enter Whitmore , left.) 
Good even. Brother Whitmore, and well met. Thy name but now was on 
our lips. 

Whitmore. Good even, good friends ! My name upon your lips ? But 
why ? 

Francis. Why, thou knowest, — but I bethink me now, thou wert not at 
town meeting this forenoon. Thou shouldst have good excuse for that, else 
standest thou in danger of a fine for non-performance of a public duty I 

Whitmore. I am but now returning home from Cambridge, where my 
good wife's father lieth ill of a fever. Surely a journey of charity excuseth 

Bradshaw. Aye, so it should. We trust by God's mercy thou has left 
Master Eliot in mending health. But thou shouldst know at once: — The 
meeting this day voted that the town will build a gallery in our meeting- 
house, with three seats in the gallery. The seats to run through from one 
end of the gallery to the other, and a pair of stairs made to go up at each end. 

52 NOTES BY THE WAY. [Sept., 

And the seats to be parted in tlie middle, the one half for men and the other 
half for women. And the town did choose thyself and Brother Francis here 
and me to agree with whoso may build the gallery as 'foresaid. 

Whitmore. Meseemeth all this will make much work and cost ; what 
with two pairs of stairs and the partition in the midst; and all to gain but 
three seats across. 

I suppose, natheless, we fain would make room below for the pews of 
Madame Wade and Master Thomas Willis. Our town must fail not in the 
honor due both quality and service. 

Francis. Aye truly. But before me riseth another doubt as well ; may- 
hap a greater. Talk not of trouble till thou hast seen the sorrows of a seating 
committee ! Thou knowest I did my endeavor, with much prayer and travail 
of spirit, on the placing committee, with our honorable Representative Tufts, 
and the Clerk, and Master Brooks, and Brother Hall, to seat the congrega- 
tion as might be fitting to their stations. And yet I misdoubt me there is not 
one satisfied, save those that sit in the women's pew in the one corner, and 
Tliomas Willis' in the other, and the deacons' seat between the two ; and 
their seats be prescribed. The men might be dealt with, by good fortune 
and patience — but the women!!! And now I foresee we must e'en go 
through it all again, apportioning the gallery seats. 

But the women must be borne with — the good Lord bless them. 

Bradshaw. Amen! 'Twould be no marvel, when we come to the 
placing, if the town saw fit to change its mind ; but our present duty is laid 

Let's to our task then, like the steadfast men we be. {Exeunt.') 

( To be coniinued.) 


Recent gifts to the Society include a watch imported 
from England in 1820 by Dr. Luther Stearns, a member 
of the well-known family whose name is intimately con- 
nected with the history of Medford. It has a silver case, 
and is a valuable addition to the Society's collection. 

Among other gifts received from the grandson of 
Major George L. Stearns is the dress sword which the 
major wore when on recruiting service during the Civil 
War. As is known, the major was active in recruiting 
the colored soldiers during the rebellion. Major Stearns 
was a friend of John Brown, and perhaps it was from 
him that he got the " Pike," which is also one of the me- 

1931.] NOTES BY THE WAY. 53 

nientos received. The pole, which is about six feet long, 
carries on the end a double-edgfed dajjgcr about eight 
inches in length, and is a most formidable weapon. 

Entirely different from this relic of war is an exquisitely 
made yarn-holder, evidently used by the major's wife. It 
is collapsible, and may be mounted on a stand. Surely 
an emblem of industry when knitting Vv-as an art and not 
an affectation. 

Since the last publication of the Historical Register 
bids have been called for the building of two new schools 
in Medford. A new James A. Hervey school, containing 
eight rooms, is to be erected in West Medford upon the 
site of the old school bearing the same name, which has 
been demolished. It will cost approximately $80,000, 
and is designed by Francis Whitten, Jr., of Hutchins and 
French. Mr. Whitten designed the new Gleason school 
on Playstead road, which was opened in September. The 
second school to be erected is located in the Forest park 
section, on Governors avenue, near the Lawrence Me- 
morial Hospital. This building will replace the portable 
school used at present. It will contain six rooms, and 
provisions have been made for a community hall, for use 
by the residents in that district. It was designed by 
McLaughlin and Burr, and will cost around $90,000 
when completed. 

When contracts for these schools have been awarded 
the work will go forward at once. 

It is expected they will be completed and ready for 
occupancy beginning next school year. 

With the removal of the car tracks on High street 
from Winthrop square to Medford square, and the resur- 
facing of the street, which is progressing at the present 
time, Medford will have another fine thoroughfare to her 
credit. The street is already completed from Winthrop 
square to West Medford station and is one of the most 
attractive streets to be found in any suburb. 


A foot-bridge is being erected over the railroad tracks 
near the Boston and Maine station in West Medford for 
the benefit of the school children attending the Gleason 
school and for residents of that section of the city. 


By Hall Gleason. 

(Continued from Medford Historical Register, June, 193L) 

1S53- Asterion. Medium clipper ship, 1135 tons. Owners, David Snow & Co., Boston. Sold 
Auirust, 1S(.(I. to Buckiin & Crane of N. Y. N. Y. to S. F. 131 days. Wrecked on a 
reef near Baker's Island, Pacific Ocean, September 24, 1863. An account of her loss 
is sjiven by Capt. W. H. McLain in his " I-ieminiscences." ''In 1863, at the ape of 
seventeen, he sailed as one of the crew in the Asterion for Howland's Island. On 
her return she was Inst on Baker's Island. . . . The crew had great difficulty in 
fisfhting their way through the surf to the beach. A few stores and some wreckage 
drifted ashore and out of the latter rude huts were constructed. For over two 
montlis they dragged out a miserable existi nee, their principal food being snakes, 
which they dug from their holes in the ground, and sea birds which they caught, h 
constant lookout was kept for passing vessels and finally a sail was sighted which 
they were able to signal and which took them off. It was the Herald of the Morning." 

Ship, 1300 tons. Not sold. Built by J. T. Foster. 
1855. Sancho Panza of Boston. Medium clipper ship, 876 tons. Owners. John E. Lodge & 
Co. of Boston. Built by Samuel Lapham. Sold British .Xcct. March, 1863, and re- 
named Ninitod. Sold later to Germans, rig altered to bark. Sailed from Pictou, 
N. S., for Liverpool on October 31, 18V0, and never heard from. 

Young Greek of Boston. Bark, 4.5SJ^ tons. Owners, Alpheus Hardy & Co. of Boston. 
Built by J. O. Curtis. Sold British Acct. April, 1864. 

Conquest. Ship. 1064 tons. Owners, .Mpheus Hardy and Joshua Sears, et al., of 
Boston. Built by J. O. Curtis for above. Wrecked at Harbor Island December 2, 
1865, while boinid for New Orleans from Boston. 

Pleiades. Ship, S'J? tons. Owners, Benjamin N. .Allen and .'\nibrnse H. White, ?/«/., 
Boston. Built by J. T. Foster. Destroyed by lire May 1(., 1S59, near the Isaac's, 
Bahamas, while bound for Queenstown with cotton from New Orleans. 

Luocothea. Ship, 950 tons. Owners. . Built by J. T. Foster. 

Zephyr. Bark, 4145^ tons. Owners, Sylvester K. Small of Boston. Built by Hayden 
& Cudworth. Sold and hailed from San Francisco Mav, 186S. Newcastle, N. S. W., 
to S. F. Wrecked on Mayne Islands February 13, 1872. 

RivaL Ship, 983 tons. Owners, Howes & Crowell of Boston. Built by Hayden & 
Cudworth. Sailed from Rangoon, Burmah, March 27, 1872, for Falmouth, England, 
and was never heard from. 

Electric Spark. Medium clipper ship. 1216 tons. Owners, Thatcher Magoun & Son 
of Boston. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. Sister ship to clipper Thatcher Magotni. 
Maiden voyai;e, Boston to S. F., 106 days, and the only one in which she did not 
meet unfavorable conditions. Crew niutincd on a voyage from S. F. to Callao in 
1857, and had possession of the ship for two weeks. Captain Titcon)b was locked in 
his cabin and would have starved except for a supply of preserved food of wliich 
the cook and steward, who were part of the mutineers, were ignorant of. Struck 
Conninbeg Rock near the Wexford coast, Ireland, September 26, 1869, was beached 
and became a total loss. 

Goddes.s. Ship, 1126 tons. Owners, Baxter Brothers. 1855. Sold to N. C. Nash & Co. 
February, 1861. Built bv Hayden & Cudworth. Sold to Norwegian .'\cct. Septem- 
ber, 18t)4. Name changed to Nordens- Droiming. 

Thatcher Magoun. Medium clipper ship, 124S tons. Owner, Thatcher Magoun. 
Built bv Hayden & Cudworth. Her figurehead was a life-like image of the father of 
sliip building on the Mystic, and who died the year she was launched. She made 
five passages from Boston to S. F., the fastest being 113 days and the slowest 1.S2 
days : seven from N. Y. to S. F., fastest 117 and slowest 149 : two from Liverpool in 
150 and 115 days. The average of the fourteen is 128.7 days. S. F. to N. Y. in % 
days in 1869. Sold to Norwegian Acct. and renamed Hercules. Reported lost off 
the coast of Africa in the early '80s. 

Goodspeed of Boston. Schooner, 283J^ tons. Owners, David Hinckley, et al., of 
Boston. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 

Captain Paine. Bark, 512 tons. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 


1S56. Silver Star. Ship, 1195 tons. Owners, Reed & Wade, ^< a/.. Sam'l G. Reed, successor. 
Built by J. O. Curtis. Wrecked while loading suano, November 10, 1860, at Jarvis 
Island, South Pacific Ocean, lor tiio U. S. 

Flying Mist. Medium clipper ship, 1183 tons. Owners, Theodore and George B.Chase 
of Boston. Built by J. O. Curtis. Her figurehead was a full-length female in flow- 
ing garments. She received favorable notice in all theports she visited. Boston 
to S. F. in 115 days in 18.S7. during which she made only .S/4 miles in elevfn days and 
was off the California coast for three days. N. Y. to S. F. in 123 days in 1S59. Blown 
ashore and became a total loss at Bhiff Harbor, New Zealand, with a cargo of sheep 
and merchandise from Glasgow, Scotland. The crew, the 18 shepherds, and 820 out 
of the 1760 sheep aboard were saved, the rest of the cargo lost. Last of the Cali- 
fornia clipper ships built in Medford. 

Bold Hunter. Ship, 797 tons. Owners, Paul Sears and Reuben Hopkins, et al., of 
Boston. Built by James O. Curtis for above Cai)tured and burned October '^, 
18*>\ about lat. 19° N., long. 20° 3S' \V., bv Confederate cruiser Georsiavi\\\\fi bound 
for Calcutta with coal from Dundee, Scotland. 

Young Turk of Boston. Bark, 384 tons. Owners, .^Ipheus Hardy & Co. _of Boston. 
Built by James O. Curtis. Made passage Boston to Gibraltar, 1859, in 15 days. 

Addie Snow of Boston. Ship, 989 tons. Owners, David Snow, et al., of Boston. Built 
by J. T. Fnster. Lisbon for Santos with salt. Struck some rocks near Fort Lage, 
mouth of the harbor, on August 18. 18bl, was beaclu'd and became a total wreck. 

Hesperus. Ship, 1019 tons. Owners, Thomas B. Wales & Co. Built by J. T. Foster 
for above. Destroyed by fire January 8, 1861, at Woo Sing, China, while discharging 
coal from Liverpool. 
HS7. Bunker Hill. Ship, 994 tons. Owners, James Lee, Jr., of Boston and James O. Curtis 
of Medford. Built bv James O. Curtis. Sold January, 1863, to Henry Gardner. 
(Capt. William P.Davis.) Burned at Manilla February .3, 1875, and sold foreign. 
Name changed to Elcano. Last report I39I. 

\AzT.\e. Bark, 502 tons. Owners. C. Taylor & Co., 1859. Built by James O. Curtis- 
Sold October, 1803. 

Wild Gazelle of Boston. Bark. 490 tons. Owners, Alpheus Hardy and Joshua W. 
Davis. £■/«/., of Boston. Built by James O. Curtis. (Tonnage new law 414.44.) Sold 
to Baltimore. Baltimore to Paysandu. Abandoned at sea in a sinking condition 
September 7, 1872. 
1S58. Nautilus. Ship, 551 tons. Owners, Lombard Whitney & Co. of Boston. Built by 
J.O.Curtis. Sold to German .'^cct. January, 18f)3. Name changed to O/Zw/e. Sold 
Norwegian Acct. Name changed to Christian/a. Last report 1894. 

Curib. Bark. 212 tons. Built by J. O. Curtis. 

Industry. Ship, 1070 tons. Owners, Theodore Chase & Co., 1858. George B. Chase, 
e/ a/., successors. Sold to Vernon Brown & Co. July, 1868. Built by J. O. Curtis. Sold 
December. 1870. Last report ISSl. 

Templar of Boston. Ship 791'^ tons. Owners, Thomas B. Wales & Co. of Boston. 
Sold to Baker & Morrill of Boston February, 1866. Built by J. T. Foster. 

1859. Mary Edson. Bark. 369 tons. Owners, Moses Nickerson of Boston: Ryder & Hardy 

September, 1,S^4. Built by James O. Curtis. Sailed from N. Y. with petroleum and 

lumber November 14, 1873, for Beyrout and was nevi-r heard from. 
Cambridge. Screw steamer, 858 tons. Sold to U. S. Government July 30, 1861. Bull* 

by J. O. Curtis. Sold Philadelphia June 20. 18f6. Name changed to Mitutetonka- 

Owners, Sprague, Soule & Co. Last report 1885. 
Mogul. Ship, 798 tons. Owners, William Perkins & Co. Built by J. T. Foster. Sold 

to British .Acct. May, 1863. Quebec for Tyne. Abandoned at sea November 24, 1880. 

1860. Rebecca Goddard of Boston. Bark, 487 tons. Owners, 1860-1870, lasaigi & Goddard; 

May, 1S70, Laforme & Frothingham: Kideout. Roberts & Cn., IS-a^: C. S. Glidden. 
Built by James O. Curtis. (New tonnage 412.89.) Converted into a schooner, three 
masts, barge, 1893. 1894 1896 hailed and owned Pensacola. 1- la. last report 18%. 

Mermaid. Ship, 503 tons. Owners, Lombard, Whitney & Co. Built by J. O. Curtis- 
Sold to French .-Xcct. June, 1863. Name changed to Blanche. 

Young Rover of Boston. Screw steamer aux. bark, 418^ tons. Owners, Alpheus 
Hardy and Joshua W. Davis of Boston. Sold to U. S. Government July 27, 1861. 

Sold to Curtis of Boston June 22, 1865. Built by J. O. Curtis. Boston to the 

East Indies. Wrecked, June 29, 1866, on a reef ten miles south of Monefa Reef, near 

Matilda. Ship, 874 tons. Owner, J. Wellsman of Charleston, S. C. Built by Joshua 

Punjuab. Ship. 780 tons. Owners, Thomas B. Wales & Co. of Boston. Built by J. T- 
Foster. Sold to British Acct. lune, 1863. Name changed to iJ^warM. Hong Kong 
for S. F. Lost December, 1862. 

Mogul. Bark, 500 tons. Built by J. T. Foster. 


1861. Cutwater. Ship, 9&S tons. Owners, Henry Hastings & Co. Built by J. O. Curtis for 

above. Sold to German Acct. in 1SS2. Name chanyjed to Port Royal. Arrived at 
Grimsby December 17, iSS7. from Pensacola and was probably condemned. 
Quisnell. Ship, 1025 tons. Owners, James Funk, «/ a/., of N. Y. Built by J. T. Foster. 
Last report 1S%. 

1862. Somersetshire. Ship, 1034 tons. Owners, E. S. Innes, et al ,o{^. Y. Built by James 

O. Curtis. Sold foreign and renamed Georse Gilroy. Condemned in 1889. 
Pearl. Bark, 5.% tons. Owners, Georgia G. Ryder. Isaac Hardy. «/«/., of Boston. Built 

by J. O. Curtis. Last report 1893. 
D. C. Molay. S. S.. 1300 tons. Built by J. T. Foster. 
Agra. Ship, 951 tons. Owners. Thomas B. Wales & Co. Built by J. T. Foster. Name 

changed to Heinrich. Last report in 18%. 
Tanjore of Boston. 907 tons. liiiilt by J. T. Foster. (Tonnage new law 957.76.) Sold 

foreign and renamed ^;i/;a. Sold to Holland in 1874 and renamed Betzy and Arnold. 

1863. Nesutan. Ship, 947 tons. Owners, James O. Curtis, et al., of Medford. Built by J. O. 

Curtis. Sold foreign. Last report 1895. 
NepauL Ship, 996 tons. Owners, '1 homas B. Wales & Co. of Boston. Built by J. T. 
Foster. Sold to British Acct. .-Xpril, I6i)4, and owned by Emmons & Son. Name 
changed to A/?<^/«/;. .>old to German Acct. Name changed to Z,/«a. New River, 
N. B., to Liverpool, 17 days, in 1864. Abandoned waterlogged August 27, 1887. in 
lat. ,%° 20' N., long. 71° 10' W., while bound for Dordrecht from Fensacola with 

Cosamundal. Ship, 600 tons. Built by J. T. Foster. 

Eastern Belle. Ship, 1030 tons. Owners, Walthew Cuthbert & Co. of Liverpool, Eng. 
Built by J. T. Foster. Last report 1880. 

1864. Fall River. Screw steamer, 952 tons. Owners, Old Colony S. B. Co. of Fall River, 

Mass. Built by J. O. Curtis. Last report 18S6. 

1865. Horatio Harris. Ship, 1076 tons. Owners, J. S. Sturgis & Co. Built by ij. O. Curtis. 

Sold Holland .^cct. Name changed to Samarang. N. Y. for Sharpness. Sanic near 
the entrance of N. Y. Harbor November 7, 1880, after a collision with steamer 

Nellie Hastings. Brig, 467 tons. Owners, Henry Hastings & Co. of Boston. Built 
by J. O. Curtis. Abandoned, sinking, after a heavy gale, March 13, 1875, in lat. 49° 
38' N., long. 14° W., while bound for Singapore from Liverpool. 

1866. Madawaska. Brig, 511 tons. Owner, H. Hastings. Built by Hayden & Cudworth. 

First voyage Boston to Kichibucto, arrived June 18, 1866. Lost i875. 

1867. John Worster. Bark, 611 tons. Owners, Henry Hastings & Co. Built by J. O. 

Curtis for above. Last report 1895. 
Mystic Belle of Boston. Ship. 754Ji tons. Owners. 1867-1878, William Hammond & 
Co.; 1878-1890, Edward Lawrence. Jr.; 1890-1898, George M. Winslow. Built byJ.T. 
Foster. Converted into schooner barge, three masts, in 1890. 1899- 1902 owned and 
hailed from N. Y. 

1868. Springfield. Ship, 1043 tons. Owners, Henry Hastings & Co. of Boston. Built by 

James O. Curtis^ Sold to German Acct. 1880. Name changed to Christina. Biance. 
Last report 1897. 

Don Quixote. Ship, 1174 tons. Owners, William Hammond, ^^ a/., of Boston. Built 
by J. T. Foster for above. Sold German Acct. about 1879. .Afterward sold Norwe- 
gian. Rig changed to bark. O. K. 1903. 

1869. Cashmere. Ship, 936 tons. Owners, Henry Hastings & Co. Built by J. O. Curtis for 

above. Rig changed to bark. 1881. Abandoned September 12, 18S5. in Van Die- 
men's Straits after being dismasted in a terrific typhoon while bound for Hiogo, 
Japan, with oil from Philadelphia. 

J.T.Foster. Ship, 1207 tons. Owners. Nickerson & Co. Built by J. T. Foster. 
Sold Swedish Acct. in 1874. Name changed to Grepen. Rig changed to bark. .Alive 
in 1900. 
1873. Pilgrim. Ship. 956}^ tons. Owners. Henry Hastings & Co. of Boston. Built bv J. T. 
Foster. Rigged a bark in 1880. Sold to N. Y. parties about 1888. Wrecked on 
Turk's Island May 20, 1893, while bound for Cienfuegos, Cuba, with coal from 

Note : The term clipper ship refers to the fast type of ship built for the California trade 
between 1850 and 1856. The information concerning them is largely from "American Clipper 
Ships," by O. T. Howe and F. C. Matthews. 

The abbreviation S. F. is for San P'rancisco; N. Y'. for New York. 

Owner's residence is Boston when not given. 

Vol. XXXIV.] 

[No. 4, 









Coolidsie and Richard B. Coolidge 57 


IVi/son Fiske and Ruth Dame Coolidge 66 

Entered as second-class matter, under the act of July 16, 1894, 
Medford Station, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Meetings of the Society at the Society's home, 10 Governors 

Avenue, on third Mondays at 8.00 P.M., from 

October to May inclusive. 


Published quarterly (March, June, September, and December) 


Medford Historical Society, 


No. 10 Governors Avenue, Medford, Mass. 
Subscription price, &1.50 a year, postpaid. Single copies, 40 cents. 

For sale at the Society Rooms and by the Treasurer. 

Publication Committee. 


Editor, MOSES W. MANN. 
Exchange list in charge of Thomas M. Connell, io Tainter Street. 


I give and bequeath to the Medford Historical Society, in 

the city of Medford, Mass., the sum of Dollars for 

the general use and purposes of said Society. 



(,()\. JoHX BROOKS. 
Host of Washington in Medford. 

The Medford Historical Register. 

Vol. XXXIV. DECEMBER, 1931. No. 4. 


Ruth Dame Coolidge and Richakd B. Coolidge. 

[Presented, with amplifications by Richard B. Coolidge, before the Medford Historical 
Society at the Peter Tufts or Cradock House, November 23, 1931.] 

PERHAPS no figure looms up from the past with 
the romance, charm and dignity of George Wash- 
ington. Many a historic novel of the Revolution intro- 
duces him ; many an old house in the early colonies claims 
to have harbored him overnight. Our Medford Royall 
House has a tradition that George Washington slept in 
the upper guest chamber, and that he found the some- 
what elusive General Lee within its walls, but no authen- 
tic record exists to corroborate the very possible incident. 
Fortunatel}^ however, the presence of Washington in 
Medford rests not only upon quite conclusive inference, 
but upon documentary proof. 

Washington came to Massachusetts three times, and 
twice at least of the three times he came to Medford. 
He very possibly came all three. 

His first visit to Massachusetts was in February, 1756, 
when as a young of^cer of twenty-four, already colonel 
and head of the colonial forces in Virginia, he came to 
Boston to consult Governor Shirley on a question of 
technical military precedence. Washington had met the 
governor before in Virginia when, before the disastrous 
battle of the Monongahela, Braddock had called the 
colonial governors to a council of war. Here in Alex- 
andria, Governor Shirley had met Washington.* Gover- 
nor Shirley's son and namesake had been secretary to 
General Braddock, and in the following battle had been 
killed in the height of action. Now Washington, who 
had brought off the remnant of the once proud British 

* Irving' s Washington, 


army, came to General Shirley, commander-in-chief of 
the king's forces in America since the death of Braddock, 
and was entertained probably by the governor for about 
ten days.* 

If we think of Washington only as a grave, unsmiling, 
careworn general we must change our conception of him 
when, in the eager enthusiasm of young manhood, with 
two of his aides and black servants, all resplendent in 
new liveries, he galloped along the rough, frozen roads 
of the eastern colonies. Washington was not only a 
magnificent horseman but a connoisseur of fine horses, 
and was always magnificently mounted, so that the little 
cavalcade was well worthy of the attention which it re- 
ceived all along the route. 

In Boston he had a sad errand in telling Governor 
Shirley the details of the death of his son in battle. 
Apart from this, his stay must have been an absorbing 
and keen delight to him. He visited the Great and 
General Court of Massachusetts, in which the plans of 
military operations for the next year were being ably 
debated. In this Washington was intensely interested, 
not only from his military interest in the coming cam- 
paign, but from his knowledge of the Virginia legislature. 
The histories add that he received " the most hospitable 
attentions from the polite and intelligent society of the 
place, and visited various points of interest, such as Castle 
William in the harbor." 

At this time Isaac Royall was on the governor's coun- 
cil, and Royall's Tory neighbor, Robert Temple of Ten 
Hills, the next estate, was Shirley's son-in-law. What 
more natural than that Washington, whose diary shows 
that he sometimes rode sixty miles a day, and who usually 
rode from Rockingham to Princeton, five miles, in forty 
minutes, should ride about the countryside of Boston 
and receive the hospitality of the governor's family and 
friends.? And the country seat of Isaac Royall was one 
of the show places of the suburbs, mentioned by another 

* Spark's Washington, Vol. I, p. 132. 


traveler of Washington's time as being " One of the 
Grandest in North x^nicrica."* This, however, is the 
purest surmise. 

Washington's second visit to Boston was in 1775, as 
commander-in-chief of the American army. Boston, in 
which Washington had visited among the Tories, was 
already invested with a long line of siege-works and re- 
doubts. At the top of Winter Hill, beyond the Medford 
line, was a fort. " On our side," wrote Washington to 
the president of Congress, July 10, 1775, "we have thrown 
up intrenchments on Winter and Prospect Hills, the 
enemy's camp in full view at the distance of a little more 
than a mile. . . . The troops raised in New Hampshire, 
with a regiment from Rhode Island, occupy Winter Hill; 
a part of those from Connecticut, under General Putnam, 
are on Prospect Hill." He also wrote in the same letter, 
" Upon my arrival I immediately visited the several posts 
occupied by our troops." In another letter to Richard 
Henry Lee in Congress he wrote, "Our lines on Winter 
and Prospect Hills and those of the enemy on Bunker's 
Hill are in full view of each other, a mile distant, our 
advance guards much nearer and the sentries almost near 
enough to converse." We know, in addition to this, that 
General Stark had his headquarters at the Roy all House 
and his men in Medford, so that Washington, visiting 
the outposts of his army, must have come into Medford, 
and in this survey he probably visited the American 
general who now occupied the fine country seat of Isaac 
Royall. This, however, is inference, very probable, but 
not authenticated. 

A more certain proof of Washington's presence in 
Medford comes with a deed of heroism familiar to every 
Medford school child. There lived in Medford at this 
time a brave, determined woman whose name was Sarah 
Bradlee Fulton. She had already helped her husband 
and brother when, after the Boston tea party, she and 
her sister had transformed them quickly from redmcn 

* Journal of Capt. Francis Goelet, October 21, 1750. 

I AM f ' ■• \-' ^ 


to colonials ; after the battle of Bunker Hill she had 
helped to nurse the wounded soldiers brought back to 
Medford from the scene of battle. About where the 
Central Fire Station now stands was a large open space 
which had been turned into a rude field hospital, and 
there, from her home almost across the street, in a house 
whose site is now marked by a tablet, Sarah Bradlee 
Fulton came to help as nurse. Many of the unfortunate 
dead were buried together and their bodies later moved 
to the old Salem street cemetery, but others of the 
wounded were saved by the heroic efforts of the Med- 
ford women. 

Miss Helen Wild writes * : — 

During the siege of Boston, Major Brooks, later our honored 
governor, was given despatches by General Washington to be de- 
livered inside the enemy's lines. Late one night he came to John 
Fulton, know^ing his patriotism and his intimate knowledge of 
Boston, and asked him to undertake the trust. He was not able to 
go, but his wife volunteeied. Her offer was accepted. A long, 
lonely, dangerous walk it was to the waterside in Charlestown but 
she reached it in safety, and finding a boat, rowed across the river. 
Cautiously making her way to the place she sought, she delivered 
her despatches and returned as she had come. When the first 
streak of dawn appeared she stood safe on her own doorstone. 

In recognition of her services General Washington visited her. 
It is said that in the fashion of that day, John Fulton on that occa- 
sion brewed a potation whose chief ingredient was the far-famed 
product of the town. The little silver-mounted ladle was dipped 
in the steaming concoction and the first glass from Mrs. Fulton's 
new punch bowl was sipped by His Excellency. This was the 
proudest day of Sarah Fulton's life. The chair in which he sat 
and the punch bowl and ladle were alwa3'S sacred, and are still 
treasured by her descendants.! 

Another very human relationship of Washington was 
with John Brooks, who rose to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel in the Continental army, and later, major-general 
of the militia of his state. During the war he was close 
to Washington in many campaigns, helping to fortify 

* Historical Register, Vol. I, No. 2. 

tThe account of this visit of General Washington to Mrs. Fulton in the 
house on Main street was related by Mrs. Fulton to her grandson, Francis 
Wait, uncle of Judge William Gushing Vv'ait. 


Dorchester Heights, acting so distinguished a part in the 
retreat after the battle of White Plains that his regiment 
received the distinguished acknowledgments of Washing- 
ton for its gallant conduct. With Washington, too, he 
suffered the winter of Valley Forge. But one of the 
moments in which he best served his commander was at 
the end of the war when, at Newburg, in March, 1783, 
the officers of the American army, exhausted by the cam- 
paign, not only in hardships and sacrifices but likewise 
in purse, for most of the ofHcers had spent in their coun- 
try's service all they owned and all they could borrov/, 
were finally, by some rebellious patriots, urged to retain 
their arms and take by might what was due them by 
right. To Washington it seemed the crowning disgrace 
of the war, if the men who had served for freedom should 
turn their arms to self advantage, no matter how in- 
herently unjust was their treatment. On this occasion 
the commander-in-chief, to whom this day was one of the 
most anxious of his life, rode up to Colonel Brooks with 
intent to ask how the officers stood affected. Finding 
him, as he expected, to be sound, he requested him to 
keep his officers within quarters to prevent them from 
attending the insurgent meeting. Brooks replied, " Sir, 
I have anticipated your wish and my orders are given." 
Washington, with tears in his eyes, took him by the 
hand and said, "Colonel Brooks, this is just what I ex- 
pected from you."* 

Colonel Brooks was to be one of Medford's greatest 
men — seven times governor of the Commonwealth — 
but his friendship with Washington was to have still 
another expression. In October, 1789, as first president 
of the United States, Washington set out on a tour of 
the country, partly " to acquire knowledge of the face of 
the country, the growth and agriculture thereof, and the 
temper and disposition of the inhabitants toward the 
new government," partly as a measure of health. It is 
always to be remembered that Washington was a success- 

* Brooks' History of Medford. 


ful farmer, a careful overseer of his own estate, a com- 
mander-in-chief who had given thorough inspection to his 
troops in time of war. So this tour may be considered a 
personal inspection by the new chief overseer of the 
nation, a personal reconnaissance of the states committed 
to his charge. 

October 15, 1789, he wrote in his diary,* " Commenced 
my journey about 9 o'clock for Boston. . . . Was accom- 
panied by Major Jackson, Mr. Lear, and six servants as 
a retinue." At Worcester he found an aide of Major- 
General Brooks of the Middlesex militia to arrange 
details for a military parade on his arrival. To this Wash- 
ington was averse, feeling that he came not in a military 
but a civil capacity. He sent word " to inform General 
Brooks that as I conceived there was an impropriety in 
my reviewing the militia or seeing them perform manoeu- 
vres otherwise than as a private man, I could do no more 
than pass along the lines." The next day he noted that 
the militia " made an excellent appearance with General 
Brooks at their head." 

The formal visit to Boston was made and the general 
proceeded. On Thursday, October 29, he had a busy 
day. First he visited Cambridge. "After leaving Cam- 
bridge, at the distance of four miles we passed thru 
Mystic,! then Maiden, next Lynn." On Friday the 30th 
he passed over the bridge between Salem and Beverly 
and comments in his diary, " This bridge is larger than 
that at Charlestown but shorter than the other over 
Mystic. All of them have drawbridges." This bridge 
was the newly finished one at Penny Ferry, now Maiden 
or Wellington bridge. It had been built in 1787, and it 
was by this road that Washington now traveled to 
Maiden and Lynn. 

The record of this visit of General Washington is re- 
corded in a very interesting manner. Caleb Swan, who 
lived in the old house still surviving as a part of the 

* Washington's diary. 

t Medford is commonly called Mystic in the old records. Cf. Goelet's diary. 


Home for the Aged at Winthrop square, had a "Brooks' 
History of Medf ord " which he interleaved, and in which 
he recorded many notes of passing interest as commen- 
taries on the text of the history. I am adding to this 
paper a copy from the interleaved paper, yellow with age, 
which he wrote concerning the visit of Washington: — 

The visit of General Washington to General Brooks in 1789 — 
(mentioned page 69) — was in the forenoon. He came on horse- 
back, escorted by several gentlemen from Boston. Their horses were 
taken to the barn of Mr. Isaac Greenleaf nearly opposite the house 
of Dr. Osgood — where Capt. Ward from Salem afterwards built 
his house and died — and now owned and occupied by Mr. Thatcher 
Magoon, Jr.f 

Mrs. Samuel Swan was then at school in the Town School kept 
by Mr. Prentiss — now Mr, Train's house — and next west of Genl. 
Brooks house.* — She remembers the children were all brought out 
in line in front of the School to see General Washington (every 
scholar held a quill in their hand — ) Mr. Greenleaf's son Isaac, 
now living in Medford aged So — also remembers the visit — and 
that the horses were brought to his Father's barn. 

Benjamin L. Swan remembers hearing of this visit, from Gover- 
nor Brooks himself — while he was on a visit to Medford, he called 
on General Brooks, who invited him to go and see his fine bed of 
Mangel Wurtzel in his garden and while there, the General told 
him the last time he saw General Washington was on the above 
visit to him. 

Mrs. Howe told Dr. Swan she remembers hearing Mrs. Ingra- 
ham speak of seeing General Washington on this visit. — June 15, 
1859 ^Irs. Howe also remembers hearing Mrs. Ingraham sav she 
received a polite bow from General Washington as he passed her 
house — She was gaily dressed for the occasion. 

Mrs. Howe also recollects Governor Brooks telling her that 
General Washington breakfasted with him. 

Mrs. Abner Bartlett says Mrs. told her that Col. Brooks 

requested Mrs. Brooks to have some Indian corn cakes at breakfast 
as General Washington was fond of them. 

One Other record of Washington's visit is still left to 
us. Next the meeting-house, on its eastern side, stood 
the home of the minister, David Osgood, the fine old 

* General Brooks lived at this time in a house to the West of the meeting- 
house, formerly called the Jonathan Watson House. The meeting-house was 
on the site of the present church of the First Parish (Unitarian). The scliool 
was to the west of General Brooks' House, the site later occupied by the 
Train House. 

t Now St. Joseph's Convent. 


house that is still the home of the minister of the First 
Parish. The house was almost new when Washington 
saw it, as the Rev. Mr. Osgood had built it for himself 
in 1784, and doubtless the minister and his famih^ stood 
by the door to see the president ride by. At all events, 
Dr. Osgood kept a diary, beginning January i, 1777, and 
ending December 5, 1822. This diary is still in the safe 
of our Medford Public Library, and there in tiny script 
can still be seen the entry, "Oct. 29 1789. Gen. Wash- 
ington pasf thro' ye town & calls (or called) upon Gen. 
Brooks. Fair." 

There is one final service only, one debt of devotion 
that Medford could pay, and that was the sad service of 
remembrance. On yellowed paper in the library is the 
copy of the oration which General Brooks delivered in 
memory of General Washington on the day appointed 
for the recognition of his service to America. It must 
be that many of the boys and girls who had watched 
the president riding through Medford with a military 
escort crowded into the meeting-house, close beside the 
home of General Brooks where Washington had once 
breakfasted, to pay honor to him after death. A com- 
mittee chosen by the town gave the following directions 
in a circular printed and circulated in the town: 

1. At one o'clock p.m. the stores and shops of the town to be 
shut. The bell is to toll from one o'clock till the procession shall 
arrive at the meeting-house. The inhabitants to assemble at Union 
Hall, with a black crape or ribbon upon the left arm above the 
elbow, as mourning. The scholars of the town school to join the 
procession in a body. The procession to move at two o'clock under 
the direction of the committee. 

2. Females, of all ages, are requested to wear black ribbons 
and to be seated in the meeting-house before the arrival of the 

3. Male strangers are i-equested to join the procession. 

4. After the procession is seated, music suited to the occasion. 

5. Prayer by the Rev. Dr. Osgood. 

6. Music. 

7. Eulogv, by the Hon. John Brooks, E«q. 

8. Music. After which, the bell to toll till sunset. 


The " Brooks' History of Medford " proceeds to say : 

Everything was thus done by tlie town which could express 
grief at the loss or respect for the memory of the venerated chief. 
Gen. John Brooks, the companion in arms of the illustrious warrior, 
and one of his favorite friends, was the person, of all others, to 
deliver the public eulogy, and it was done on the 13th of January. 
On that day all business was suspended as on the sacred Sabbath, 
the shops closed, the flags at half-mast, the meeting-house robed in 
black, and every inhabitant dressed in mourning apparel ; and these 
badges were continued for thirty days. In forming the funeral pro- 
cession, the children of the town preceded ; the military with muf- 
fled drums were in attendance as an escort ; and the officers of the 
town, the chaplain and the orator were accompanied by strangers 
of distinction. The meeting-house was crowded to its utmost capa- 
city and the funeral music and impressive prayers were in proper 
keeping with the solemnities of the commemoration. 

The eulogy was afterwards printed with this title-page: 

An eulogy on General Washington, delivered before the inhabi- 
tants of the town of Medford, agreeably to their vote and at the 
request of their committee on the 13th of January, 1800. By John 
Brooks, A.M., M.M.S. sand A.A.S. Printed"^by Samuel Hall, 
No. 53 Cornhill, Boston. 

The Rev. Dr. Osgood, who had served his parish faith- 
fully from the outbreak of the Revolution, also preached 
an appropriate sermon to his parish on Washington. 
This was printed by vote of the town, with Washing- 
ton's farewell address, and a copy was given to each 
family. These old expressions of Medford's grief are 
still found in our public library. "When February 22d 
arrived, the meeting-house in Medford was open for re- 
ligious exercises and the day was kept as sacred."* And 
through the two hundred years that have passed since 
that first celebration of his birthday, the name of Wash- 
ington has lived in Medford not in tradition, but in the 
authentic history of the town and the townspeople that 
knew and loved and served with Washington. 

* Brooks' History. 

66 [Dec, 



CopyriRhted 1931 by Wilson Fiske and Ruth Dame Coolidge. 
{Continued from Vol. XXXIV, No. J.) 

The Prologue and the First, Second and Fourth Scenes by 
Wilson Fiske, the Third Scene by Ruth Dame Coolidge. 


WHEN, on March 6, 1699/1700, the town authorized the building of 
a gallery for the meeting-house, it was voted that this should be 
divided, one half for the men and one half for the women, as was 
the floor below. At the town meeting on January 31, 1700/1701, the men 
voted to exclude the women from the gallery. Then something happened, 
but exactly what can be determined only by the results. In little over a 
month the men reassembled in town meeting and voted that the women 
should occupy their half of the gallery, " notwithstanding any former vote to 
the contrary." 

What pressure did the patient and obedient wives of Medford exert on 
their husbands ? 

It is with great hesitation that I permit the following interpretation of 
tliat pressure to go into the sacred pages of the Register. The women of this 
little scene are carefully chosen from the old town records ; their ages, their 
families, even their grandmothers, are accurate. The house where they met, 
which commanded the meeting-house, is still standing, but the interpretation 
of the women's wrath and rebellion and their plot of revenge is such rank 
imagination that it could not stand save for the fact that it helped create a 
touch of fun in a serious evening's program by the First Parish and the His- 
torical Society, and may go into print as a transcript of the attempt of the 
Society to make relive the days of olden Medford. The work of Mr. Fiske 
is based on the records and is accurate ; mine, however, though based on 

some records, is largely fancy. 



An Indignation Meeting at the Bradshaw Home. 

T ^^ 1700 

January 31, j^-j 

^^ Reckon not ivithoul the hostess." 

[John Bradshaw' s home near the first meeting-house, January 31, 1700.) 
(S/ill siatid/ng at the corner of High street and Hastings lane.) 
Molly Bradshaw, thirteen years, daughter of Mistress Mary Bradshaw, 
is discovered S7ueeping up the hearth with a wing. 

{Enter Mary Bradshaw, left.) 
Mary. Molly. 

Molly. Yes, Mother. 


Mary. 'Tis well thou art almost a woman grown and able well to help me. 

Molly. It is my duty and my pleasure, ma'am. 

Mary. Thou knowest well today is town meeting, and because our liouse 
doth stand so near the meeting-house, 'tis likely that some of the women of 
the Parish do call upon me the time our men are at the meeting. 

Molly. Yes, mother, and surely all the women wish to know how the 
vote goes about the women in the gallery, 

Mary. Aye, they are so earnest that they will venture out despite the 
cold. Now child, thou canst help me today by churning butter and peeling 
apples for a pie this noon. 

Molly. Aye, father dearly loves deep apple pie. 

Mary. And chiefly see to it that the younger children keep from under 
foot. See that Ruth doth work upon her sampler, and that John and Jonathan, 
albeit they are little, help in combing wool for my new coverlet. 

Molly. Aye, mother, thou hast taught me Satan ever finds some work 
for idle hands to do. 

Mary. And see that little Sara crawl not near the fire. 

Molly. Yes, ma'am, 

{Enter John Bradshaw, left, bearing some extra wood for fireplace .) 
Mary. Hast thou surely eaten plenty for thy breakfast, John ? 
{Exit Molly, center; John pats her on head as she passes him and she ctirtsies. ) 

John. Thou art a rare wife, Mary, and hast lined me most thoroughly 
with hasty pudding and with hot mince pie. 

Mary, I do love to cook what pleaseth my husband. 

John, Thou canst not please me better than with mince pie for break- 
fast, and that thou knowest well, 

Mary, I know that thou wouldst pleasure me as well — ](A\n — {button- 
holing him). 

John, What is it, Mary ? It grows toward eight o'clock and the meeting 
is called promptly. 

Mary. I know, John, that thou art a deacon of the church, and doest all 
things as thy conscience bids, yet, if thou mayst, pray bear me in thy mind 
when thou votest today. 

John. Thou wouldst have me vote to let the women hold their half of 
the gallery ? 

Mary, Aye, Jolin, they dearly love their chance to sit up yonder, and 
surely in God's sight they are equal with the men. 


John. Equal they surely be, yet good and helpful and able as they be, 
still — they be women and the weaker vessel. 

Mary. But, John, — 

{Loud rappinf^ at door, enter Stephen Francis, a man of fifty-five, with his 
young second ivife, Haitnah, both well swaddled iji wraps.) 
Francis. We may come in ? Hannah here would come with me to call 
on Mistress Bradshaw while I did go to meeting. 

Hannah. I have been so long indoors, with the snowdrifts blocking the 
road, that I long to see some other face than my good husband's. 

Stephen. What 's that, Hannah ? 

Hannah. {Hand under his chin.) 'Tis all thou hast and 1 like it well, 
but sometimes I would see another, even if it were a woman's — 

Stephen. Well, well, do as thou pleases, so long as thou dost interfere 
not with man's work. 

{Mary helps Hannah retnove wrap.) 

Hannah. And Stephen, thou wilt vote for the women to stay in the 
gallery, wilt thou not ? {She hangs on his arm.) 

Stephen. No ! Thou belongest on the floor and so the other women. 

Hannah. ( Who is used to wheedling.) But, Stephen — 

Stephen. Paul says that women must cover their heads in church, but 
he did not mean that they should sit up in the balcony and see how other 
women are covering theirs. No, I say. 

Hannah. But, Stephen, I only wished to see whether Madam Wade 
had received a bonnet from England. 

Stephen. {Throwing tip his hands.) Plague take the women. Next 
thou wilt be demanding a bonnet from England for thyself. Come quickly, 
Bradshaw, lest they press us further. {Molly brings in John' s cape and hat 
and exits.) 

Mary. John, thou wouldst not care to take my little foot-stove with thee 
today ? {Lifts foot-stove from hearth.) 

John. Foot-stove, ptah ! Wouldst make a woman of me today ? Tut, 
tut ! keep thy luxuries for thyself, Mary, and {gently) keep thy own sphere 
too. No woman graces it better. {Exeunt men, stage right. Maty goes to 
window and watches him as he goes down the street. ) 

Hannah. 1 do confess I am sorely curious about the town meeting. 

Mary. So feel we all. 'Twould not perhaps have been so hard had not 
the men most freely granted us the right to sit in one half of the gallery 
when first they built it new. 

Hannah. Aye, in full town meeting too ! 


Mary, And now they suddenly repent and threaten to exclude the 
women utterly from the gallery ! 

Hannah. Methinks we are like naughty cliildren wlio have whispered 
in meeting. I confess myself still angry. I am not through with Stephen 
Francis yet ! 

{Enter stage, right, Mistress Jemima Hall, wife of JoJin Hall, and sister-in- 
law to Mary Brads haw.) 

Jemima. Good morrow, sister Mary, I did ride up with John on a pillion 
to spend the morning with thee. Hast thou no spinning that I may do ? 

Mary. Thou art most welcome, and thy labor, too. Thy children are 

well ? 

(Enter Molly, left, with work ift her hand.) 
IVIoLLY. Oh, mother, see, here doth come Mistress Peter Tufts and her 
daughter, Anna ! * Master Tufts is helping them from out the sleigh. 

Mary. 'Tis a great honor, Molly. We '11 welcome them. {Exeunt Mary 
and Molly, right. ) 

Hannah. ( Who has dropped her work and is standing by the window.) 
The men are stamping their feet. 'Twill be a short session I mistrust. 

Jemima. I declare ! Anna Tufts hath with her John Brocus with whom 
her banns were cried last Sunday — a fine strapping lad. 

Hannah. Aye, but too masterful. I 'd as lief be an old man's darling, 
methinks, as a young man's drudge. 

Jemima. And look you ! There doth come Madam Wade t herself in her 
sleigh, all wrapped in bearskin. This is honor indeed ! 

Hannah. Honor is it, or curiosity ? She doth fare abroad most mavel- 
ously since her husband died. 

Jemima. He died and left her the richest woman in town, and a pew on 
the floor in the meeting-house, and the liberty to go where she would. Me- 
thinks she doth not mourn as one that would not be comforted in her old age. 

Hannah. She is coming up the steps and Mary is still helping Mistress 
Tufts while she warms herself by the kitchen fire. Let us welcome her. 

{Exeunt Hannah and Jemima, left. Enter, right, Anna Tufts, followed by 

Johti Brocus.) 
Anna. {Petulantly.) Most certainly thou hast a right to thy own opinion. 
I never said thou hadst not. 

John Brocus. But, Anna, thou knowest thou art the one woman in the 
world for me, but when it comes to the others sitting in the gallery and wliis- 
pering and ogling — they do corrupt the young men. 

* Residents of the Cradock or Peter Tufts house at this time. Peter Tufts was representa- 
tive to the General Court. 

t Mistress of the Wade house, the brick house on Bradlee Road. 


Anna. The young men ! What dost thou mean ? 

John, Thou must have seen last Sunday, even after our banns were read, 
how WiUiam Pattin did stare upon thee. 

Anna. WiUiam Pattin ! 

John. Aye, thou needst not start because I found it out. Mind thee, dear 
Anna, after we are wed I shall not bear it that another man stare my wife out 
of countenance. I shall protect thee, Anna. 

Anna. And thou wouldst vote the women out of their places in the gal- 
lery because forsooth William Pattin did make sheep's eyes at thy property — 

John. Property! No sane man would call thee property, Anna, least- 
wise not until after he had married thee [puts his arm about her). Sometimes 
methinks the days of witchcraft are not done, and thou art a witch who hast 
charmed the heart clean from my breast. 

Anna. Then thou wouldst vote as thy little witch directs tliee for the 
women in the gallery ? 

John. What, and let William Pattin feast his eyes on thee and ogle at 
thee all the sermon long ! No, not I ! 

Anna. {WrencJiino; herself free.) Then thou must know I'll have no 
further banns read for thee and me ! I be no witch before marriage nor no 
property after! And 1 shall be free to smile at William Pattin an 1 will! 

John. But, Anna — 

Anna. Nay, go, go, go ! I '11 have no more of thee, and 'tis well I found 
out betimes the tyrant thou wouldst prove. Farewell ! 

(Johfi slams on his hat and exit, right.) 

(Enter, left, Mercy Tufts, Anna' s stepmother, a7td Mary Brads haw.) 
Mercy. W'hat was that, Anna, a lover's quarrel ? 

Anna. Truly I do love him, mother, but I will not marry him an he 
votes to drive tlie women from the gallery. 

Mercy. I did think he loved to watch thee in the gallery, Anna. 

Anna. He is jealous, mother, of William Pattin, and every maiden 
knows that William Pattin only looked at me because Abigail Willis sat 
beside me. 

Mercy. And didst thou tell him William Pattin was wooing Abigail ? 

Anna. (Sniffing.) Nay, why should 1 ? Let him think what he will, 
if he do not think me true. I will marry no man who will not grant I am his 
peer to sit beside him in the gallery. 

Mercy. But thy father, Anna, hath set his heart upon this marriage, 
and a father's will is law. 


Anna. Mother, thou knowest father is too kind and fair to enforce this 
marriage without my due consent. 

Mercy. Aye, thy fatlier, cliild, I 'm sure will pleasure thee. 

{Enter sia^e, left, Hannah and Jemima, escorihtg Madam IVade. Mary 
Bradshaw goes to meet Jier while the others curtsy.) 

Madam Wade. Good morrow, my good townswomen. {They help her 
remove wraps. ) 

Mary Bradshaw. We do rejoice to see you here among us. 

Madam Wade. As I do to see you. {She advances to a chair in center. ) 
My position in the town necessitates a knowledge of the town's concerns, and 
I would do what woman may to see that they go well. ( Takes snuff.) 

Mercy Tufts.* My grandmother, Anna Bradstreet, did believe that 
town affairs should be the interest of every educated woman. 

Madam Wade. Especially when the business of the meeting doth so 
concern us women. 

Mary Bradshaw. Aye, we women all do marvel what did cause the 
men to doubt if it were seemly that the women sit in the gallery. 

Madam Wade. Thou knowest my pew is on the floor near the pulpit 
and I do not see what passeth in the gallery. 

Mercy. I too do sit on the floor, but thou, good Mistress Francis, thou 
sittest in the gallery and mayst guess perchance what did hap there to make 
men change their minds. 

Hannah. Because we saw too much. 

Madam Wade. Why, tell us what thou sawest from the gallery, Hannah ! 

Hannah. Aye, marry, I did see thy new and charming bonnet, straight 
from England, was it not. Madam Wade ? 

Madam Wade. Well, I confess it was, my dear. But then thou knowest 
my position in town doth demand that I should dress beseemly. 

Hannah. That hat, dear Madam Wade, beseemed thee well. And I 
said to Stephen such a hat as that would well become me too. 

Madam Wade. And what said he then ? 

Hannah. He said I paid more heed to Wade than Woodbridgef and to 
bonnets than to Bible. 

Madam Wade. How very unreasonable. What, pray, would be the use 
of importing bonnets with great expense from the mother country and not 
wearing them to meeting ? 

* Mercy Tufts was daughter of Rev. Seaborn Cotton by his wife Dorothy Bradstreet. 
daughter of Gov. Simon Bradstreet by his wife Ann Dudley, the poetess. 

t Rev. Benjamin Woodbridge was the first minister of the first meetingr-house. 


Mercy Tufts. My grandmother, Anne Bradstreet, the first New Eng- 
land poetess, as ye know, did say that women all should honor the Lord 
with their best, and surely that would be with the best our wardrobes do 

Hannah. I am still angry toward Stephen Francis, but I think he will 
buy me a new bonnet from London ere I be through with him. 

Madam Wade. 'Twill cost him a pretty penny, but look thou get it from 
him. Tell me what else thou sawest, for surely a good bonnet is naught amiss. 

Hannah. Why, I did mark last Sabbath how our Anna here did blush 
when the banns were read 'twixt her and her intended, and how John Brocus 
did swell like a turkey cock with pride. {Laughter.) 

Anna. Perchance he 'II lose some feathers ere he strut again. And didst 
thou mark how William Pattin did make eyes at Abigail Willis ? 

Mercy. Well, all the world doth love a lover, and I do believe the good 
Lord doth himself. My grandmother, Anne Bradstreet, who was the daughter 
of one governor and the wife of another, did write on lovers. 

Madam Wade. And what else sawest thou, Anna ? 

Anna, Why, beshrew me if I did not see John Hall go fast asleep last 
Sunday and the tithing man come marching up {she i7nitates with a cane) 
and tap him on the bald pate with the rabbit's foot. He jumped as he had 
seen an angry spirit. 

Jemima. He saw an angry spirit when he did get home. I did scold him 
well for disgracing all the family by sleeping under Mr. Woodbridge's nose. 

Madam Wade. But it might make him angry to be seen from the gal- 
lery. And what else, Anna ? 

Anna. And I did see good Mistress Bradshaw's children crowding round 
her footstove striving which should warm his little hands. 

Mary Bradshaw. It was so cold I gave them greater liberty than the 
dignity of holy worship did mayhap permit. 

Anna. And I could see the face of the Willis baby, that was christened 
the morning after birth, grow purple as the frozen water from the font did 
touch her. 

Madam Wade. Poor infant ! Oftentimes I wish that the meeting-house 
were as warm as my home and that of Mistress Tufts. Their good brick 
walls are surely built to last three centuries. 

Molly Bradshaw. {Entering left.) Oh, mother, I cannot make the 
butter come I 

Anna, Let me help thee, Mary. I do feel as I would love to beat on 
something, were it only buttermilk. {Exeunt Anna and Molly, Annagesiicti- 
laling with her fists.) 


Mary Bradshaw. {Glmicing out of the ivindow.) The meeting; must 
be long. I see no sign of life about the meeting-house save the swishing 
tails of the horses in the shed. 

Madam Wade. Wilt thou not sing us one of thy old ballads, Mistress 
Hail, whilst we do wait ? Perchance our heedless tongues will rest a bit. 

Jemima. I '11 gladly do so. Wilt thou hear the old tale of Barbara Allen ? 

All. Pray sing. 

{Jemima sings a ballad while Mary rocks the baby and the others are busy 
at their tasks. As she closes, Abigail Willis enters, left, with Anna Ttifts. 
They stand at door and listen to last few verses.) 

Madam Wade. Charming, my dear. 

Mary Bradshaw. I do love to hear thee sing, sister Jemima. And here 
is Abigail. Thou art welcome, Abigail. 

Abigail. {A small, shy maiden, curtsies.) Thank thee, Mistress Brad- 
shaw ; and I rejoice I came in time to hear thee sing. Mistress Hall, 

Anna. 1 marvel how in olden days these rejected lovers all did die of 
love. I should not do so; nay, nor will John Brocus, either. {Exit.) 

Mary Bradshaw, Is there aught that I can do for thee, Abigail ? 

Abigail. My aunt did beg I would come here this morn and see if thou 
didst have an extra share of camomile and thoroughwort. 

Mary Bradshaw. Why, surely, I have plenty. But tell me, who is 
sick ? 

Abigail. The baby has been ailing ever since she was christened in the 

Jemima. Mayhap God saw and marked her for his own. Six children 
have I borne and of the six he hath borne three away. 

{Mary Bradshaw kneels beside cradle and puts her hand over the sleeping 

child. ) 

Mercy Tufts. And I have had eight children and of those but two are 
living. {Drops hands in her lap.) Sometimes I do think — 

Madam Wade. I know what I do think — that God might longer spare 
our little ones an they breathed not quite so soon the cold air of our meeting- 

Mercy. But supi^ose they died without baptism, would you consign 
them, then, to everlasting wrath ? 

Mary Bradshaw. 'Tis cruel hard for us New England women to lose 
so many children. But we do strive to be good helpmates to our husbands, 
and serve our God in peace and quietness. 


Hannah. Sometimes methinks the whole of this new world doth rest 
upon the frail shoulders of us women. We card and spin, and weave and 
dye, and bake and cook, and cut and sew. What woman of us but has ached 
from stooping o'er the fire or standing by the loom ? Do we not labor all 
day long as tireless as our husbands, and then by the light of the fire still 
keep our fingers busy with knitting and spinning ? And at night the care of 
the house and the children is still on us. We murmur not, but yet at times 
we ask, have we not shared your labor, and is not ours a half of the reward? 
( A II stop, spellboun d. ) 

Madam Wade. Thou speakest for us all. 

Mercy. And we do ask but little, but a few seats in the gallery. 

Mary Bradshaw. A little love and romance in our dull week's work. 

Hannah. The worm will turn, will it not, at last ? 

Madam Wade. Aye, and 'twas the last straw that broke the camel's 
back. Wait till we hear how they vote. Are the doors yet open of the 
meeting-house ? 

Jemima. {At window .) Nay, 'tis still quiet. 

Mary Bradshaw. The baby is asleep and I do wonder whether ye all 
would care to see the coverlet that I am weaving on the loom in the spare 
chamber. My dyes were good and the pattern is chariot wheels. Methinks 
it is right pretty and I would that you might care to see it. 

( A II women rise, speaking as they make their way out. ) 
Mercy. I do love chariot wheels. 

Jemima. Is the dye of indigo ? 

Hannah. My weaving is what makes me happiest. 

{All exeunt, stage center, except Abigail, who is held back by Anna, entering 

stage right.) 
Anna. Oh, Abigail, I have broke my troth with John ! 

Abigail. Have broke your troth ? Why, surely, what did he ? 

Anna. He would not vote to let the women share the foregallery and 
did say that I and women all were men's property. 

Abigail. And didst break thy troth for that ? Why, truly, Anna, if I 
could have the man I loved I 'd gladly be his property — and sit on the roof- 
top, if he so willed. 

Anna. 'Tis fortunate thou lovest a kindly man, for William Pattin would 
not say a cross word to a bear an it began to hug him. 

Abigail. He 'd not say a cross word to me. 

Anna. Not an thou wert a bear. He 'd say — even a bear has its good 
points. {Opens her artns and simulates a hug.) 


Arkjail. Fie, fie ! Why sayest thou William Pattin ? Dost thou think— 

Anna. Think ? I know! I sit not in the gallery with mine eyes shut. 
Thou naughty girl ! Didst think he made sheep's eyes at me ? {Looks otii 
of window.^ Wait ! Wait a moment ! [Dashes from room, stage right.) 

Abigail. {At -window.) 'Tis William himself and Anna is calling him 
from the doorstep. Mercy, someone is coming from the meeting-house ! I 
do believe — yes, it is none other than John Brocus! Alack! what will lie think? 

{Enter Antta, stage right, leading William Pattin.) 
Anna. Here is no partition to divide ye two as in the gallery of the 
meeting-house. Thou hast cause to rejoice at the women in the gallery, hast 
thou nut, William ? 

( William li'alks toward Abigail ayid takes her hand.) 

Anna. Thou wouldst vote fur the women in the gallery, wouldst thou 
not, William ? 

William. I did do so, and gladly. 

Abigail. But thou knowst I would not sit save where my father and — 
and — my liusband did deem it right fur me to sit. {Anna 7/takes a face and 
retires to other part of roo?n.) 

William. {Putting his arm about her.) But that is by my side, is it 
not, Abigail ? Thou timid little maiden, thou dost know 1 have waited long 
for a chance to tell thee so, and would not now had not Anna helped me out. 
{He lowers his voice, while Anna ostentatiously turns her back and pokes 
the fire. He kisses Abigail.) 

Abigail. William, William, tliou must not ! Suppose that they should 
find us ! {Abigail runs off stage, left. Enter unobser^/ed, stage right, fohn 
Brocus. William wheels around and comes to Anna with out-stretched 

William. God bless thee, Anna. I do owe thee more than ever 1 can 
tell thee. 

John Brocus. Not long has it taken thee to profit by the breaking of 
thy troth. Hailing another man, boldfaced, on the public street and bearing 
him into the house where thou mightst be with him alone. Off with the old 
love, on with the new. I am well rid of my bargain. 

Anna. And I, too, thou jealous, suspicious tyrant. 

( Williatn starts to speak but Antta silences him.) 

John. Thou mayst be glad to know that the men have voted to exclude 
the women from the gallery, false, prying, ungodly females. {Exit, stage 

Anna. Nay, tell him not the truth, William. I beg thee conceal the 
matter a few days. 


William. I am sorry, Anna, 

Anna. Nay, grieve not. I am happy for thee and Abigail. {Exit Wil- 
liam, stage right. Anna is silent a few momefits, wiping her eyes a little 

{^Reenter all the women, stage center, murmuring as they coitie, "Right 
pretty.'' " Well woven.'' " Good color." " Fine design . " ) 

Anna. John Brocus hath been here and he doth say the men have voted 
to exclude the women from the gallery. 
Madam Wade. They never dared ! 
Mercy Tufts. 'Tis an injustice ! 

Hannah. All because 1 did so love to see the newest bonnets. 
Mary Bradshaw. They think their consciences do guide them. 

Anna. I think they be all jealous lest we look more freely than we might. 
( Other women gather in back, discussing. ) 

Jemima. Tut, tut, child ! thou art angered over thy broken troth. 

Anna. It angers me they tell me where to sit. No man shall bid me 
marry him as if I were his dog. 

Abigail. But I do believe she still loves John Brocus. 

Anna. No, not I. {Women come forward.) 

Hannah. I do believe that if we women all did bind ourselves together 
in a pact we could compel our husbands to see reason. I can twist Stephen 
around my finger. 

Jemima. I am willing to assist, if we could make them to rescind the 
vote. But what would you suggest ? 

Mary Bradshaw. The way to every man' s heart is through his stomach, 
every woman knows. 

Mercy Tufts. We could not starve them. 

Mary Bradshaw. No, but we could fail to serve them something they 
did yearn upon. 

Madam Wade. I will tell thee what will touch their stomachs most. 

All. What is it ? 

Madam Wade. Pie. Give them no pie till they rescind the vote. 

All. No pie ! 

Mercy. No squash pie, golden from the oven ? 

Madam Wade. No squash pie. 

Mary Bradshaw. No pumpkin pie, spicy with cinnamon ? 

Madam Wade. No pumpkin pie. 

Jemima. No venison pasty ? 

Madam Wade, No venison pasty. 


Hannah. No apple pie, juicy and sweet ? 
Madam Wade, No apple pie. 

Anna. Nor of the blueberries we picked in the woods and dried on the 
attic floor ? 

Madam Wade. No blueberry pie. 

Abigail. No mince pie ? ( Voice is almost tragic.) 

Madam Wade. No mince pie. 

All. I agree. 

Abigail. But suppose our fathers order us to make them pie ? 

Anna. We can have an accident ; there can be, — too much salt in the 
pie, or — some pepper in the pastry. 

Madam Wade. {To Abigail.) What hast thou in thy hand, child ? 

Abigail. Some camomile and thoroughwort I am taking to my aunt for 
little Susannah. 

Madam Wade. Perchance a sprinkling of herbs from the kitchen ceil- 
ing might befall the pie and do the men no great harm. {Laughter.) 

{Enter Molly, stage right.) 
Molly. See, the meeting is over and the men are coming. {Exit.) 

Madam Wade. 1 will be gone. Thy coverlet is very pretty, Mistress 
Bradshaw. And you will have more time, methinks, to weave when the 
cooking is made easier. {Exit.) 

Jemiaia. Farewell, sister. But I do not know what John will say when 
he sees no custard pie. 

Mary Bradshaw. Perchance 'twill make his disposition softer. {Exit 
Jemima, right.) 

Mercy. We'll do our part, though I do believe that Peter Tufts did 
vote for us. He will not forget that my grandmother was Anne Bradstreet. 
{Exit Mercy.) 

Hannah. I'll seetliat Stephen Francis is a pieless man, and I '11 get me 
a new bonnet from it, too. {Exit Hannah.) 

Anna. Let them be pious for we'll see they're pieless. {Exit Anna.) 

Abigail. She ever has her joke, dear Mistress Bradshaw. Thank thee 
for the herbs, and if I needs must mix them in the pie — 

Mary Bradshaw. Thy father may sweat a little for it, but 'twill do 
him no real harm. 

{Goes quickly to the door, calls ''Molly." Enter Molly with a dish of apples 

she is paring. ) 
Mary Bradshaw. We will have no apple pie for dinner. We ' 11 change 
that venison pasty into a stew with carrots and parsnips. 


Molly. But mother, father likes not stew, and when Indian John gave 
him the deer he did say that we then should have some venison pasty. 

Mary Bradshaw. We shall have stew, with plenty of carrots. And 
the apples, I have decided we shall make them into applesauce for the 

Molly. And our dessert, mother ? Why not the apple pie? 
Mary Bradshaw. No pies at present, and mayhap our men may learn 
the taste of a new kind of pie. 
Molly. And that is ? 
Mary BRADSHAVi^. Humble pie. 

T~- William pattin of Cambridge and abigail willis of medford maried. — the 24th day of 

June 1700, John Brocus & Anna Tufts was maried.— 


The Town Again. March 3, j^ 

"Humble pie. '' 

Town meeting in session. Peter Tufts, Moderator; John Bradshaw, Clerk. 

Moderator. What is 't I hear ? Do I attend aright ? 

Good Brother Francis, dost thou mean in fact 
Thou wouldst the women still may freely sit, 
Upon the Lord's day, in the gallery, 
The men their neighbors; — being both beyond 
The view of seats, of pulpit and of pew ? 
Methought thou wert, aforetime, when on this 
We held debate, most zealous for the strict 
Observance of the strictest of the strict 
Requirements of propriety. Dost thou 
Abate thy zeal ? 

Francis. I said not quite so much. 

Nay, in my motion made but now, 1 did 
Intend that forasmuch as it doth seem 
There are amongst us some who like not well 
The rule we late adopted, touching this 
Vexed seating question, it were fit they have 
Fair opportunity some plan to name 
May better fit their views, and to the rest 



May be not unacceptable. I moved 
For reconsideration of our vote — 
No more. 

Rradshaw. Aye, Master Moderator, those 

Who find our late resolve offensive, or 
Who doubt its wisdom, or its good effect 
Upon the peace we all would fain preserve, 
Should have occasion better ways to show. 

Pattin. 'Tis hinted there be those whose womenfolk 

Do call themselves ill-fared that, if there be 
Some fear of unbecoming levity, 
Themselves, and not the men be thus sought out 
For censure. 

Francis. Are the men not prone as they 

To slip the other side of modesty ? 
And for their piety, their reverence, 
Their dutiful obedience to the least 
Requirement for the show of all respect 
For things and times and places holiest 
Will any hold our women are surpassed ? 

Moderator. Thou reasons 't well. Wilt now a motion make ? 

Francis. Why, no, I did but mention how I heard 

'Twas held. I'll preach no soft indulgences 
Nor counsel vacillations on our part 
Not I. 

Whitmore. Uneasy rests my patience in 

The face of arguments like this. Too much 
We hear of rights of women, — and their wrongs 
As well. Bethink ye ! Independence lifts 
Its hard and stubborn head amidst our homes. 
Are not our wives and daughters softly bred ? 
Protected by our laws, our loves, our arms ? 
And shall, forsooth, the women play, for that. 
The mentor to the men, and set the laws 
For our behavior ? Let them sit below 
And save themselves the stair. 

Bradshaw. Thou art severe 

Good Brother John. Thy withers are unwrung 
I 'm sure. Thou art not wont thus fiery hot 
To speak, I ever think of thee as one 
All kind and gentle with his folk. 


Brocus. And for 

Thy scorn of independence, — was it not 
For this our fathers braved tlie wilderness 
And conquered it ? 1 've lieard thee tell the tale 
An hundred times. And none can better tell't. 

Bradshaw. 'Tis even so. But somehow I know not 
What is to do. I would — 

Moderator. Perchance I may 

A venture make. If you — or some of us 
Will move — I think we ' re ready for it now — 
Reversal of our vote upon this point 
Of seating in the gallery, why then 
We '11 answer yea or nay, and show how we 
Our own minds know, and mean our way to have. 
Such move would bring a test. The mover e'en 
May vote against it if he will, 

Bradshaw. I make 

Such motion ; with proviso that we vote 
With corn and beans. 

Moderator. The Clerk will so prepare. 

(Each voter passes before the Clerk' s desk and receives one bean and one 
kernel of corn. When all are served — ) 
Moderator. The Clerk will read the motion as 'tis put. 
Each man will drop one ballot in the box. 
The corn doth stand for aye, the beans for nay. 

Clerk. (Reads) " 'Tis put to vote whether the town will part the 
front gallery in the midst, the one half for men 
and the other half for women, notwithstanding 
any former vote to the contrary." 

(All pass the Clerk again, each matt droppifig a ballot in the Clerk' s box. 

The box is opened by the Clerk and emptied on the table. No beans are found.) 

(During the reading of the motion Anna Tufts appears at a window up- 
stage. The men being all attentive to the reading and therefore turned from 
her, do not see her. As the men in voting file slowly past the Clerk' s box, 
which is down-stage, Anna scales the window, climbs on the Clerk' s chair 
and looks over their heads. She is the first to discover the result of the vote 
and exclaims, almost with a shriek.) 

Anna. There are no beans! THERE ARE NO BEANS! 

(Anna jmnps quickly from the chair, terrified by her own temerity in 
intruding upon the meeting. The Moderator, her father, recovering from 
his incredulous a7nazement, reaches for her sleeve with some idea of disciplin- 
ary action, while Brocus, her lover, tnakes as if to embrace her, eticouraged 
by her discovery that he has voted as she demanded, but 

THE CURTAIN is too quick for them both. 



'latinee: 2 o'clock 

Evenings: 7 o'clock 





V V V 

(r§¥A[B[LD§Dtl[Ea> 091© 




CKoice Fruits 


FresK Vegetables 


Tel. 2188 or 0132 

Two Phones 



The Best Place in the City to Eat 

Coffee rvirnished in Insulated TanKs 
Home Made Pastry Home CooKing 

1 1 a High Street, Medford Square 


Telephone, Mystic 3610 

Always Reliable 




Always a Fresh Stock of High-Grade 



Tel. Mystic 0480 

Plumbing and Heating 


Sherwin = Williams Paints 

Qas and Electric Appliances 



Telephones, Mystic 0081=0082 


Established 1883 

Tel Connection 



|3lumbing anb locating 



bailors anb d^utfittrrs; 

For Men and Boys 


Medford Square, 0pp. Medford Theatre 



Telephone, Mystic 5060 

At the wJ^^the Lion 
Sign, of ^^ and Pen 

Adams, Gushing & Foster, Inc, 


LOOSE Leaf system3 — office furniture 

Tel. LIBERTY 6062 ^-Cii^ 





1 10-1 14 FEDERAL ST., BOSTON, U.S.A 

One Flicfit 





Whole Bnhbcd Head 


No Kinks — No Frizzks 

Not nttfCted by bathing or shampooing 

An Appointment Might be of Advantage 











TEL. 0277 


32 Canal Street, Boston 




Furniture Manufacturers and Dealers 



Phone, Mystic 0128-R 
Mystic 0128-W 






, , . (3olb Xeaf , . . 














P. O. 

BOX 1838 






Fellsway Plumbing and 

Heating Company 



Plumbing: and Heating: Contractors 

All Kinds of P'ood Cooked to Order 



Telephones, Mystic 3370-J or32()5-R 

Leo's Shoe Store 

Shoes for the Entire Family 

A Good Place to Eat 


AT Reasonable Prices 

Agents for W. L. D<)n<^l;is Shoes 

Meals Served at All Hours 

Auto Parties Accommodated 

Free Parkintj .Space 

436 Salem Street, Hedford 

W. C. rKKAT. I'rop. 

Ste\'ens S(|. , opp. Fellsway Theatre 

Tel., Mystic 2432 276A Sprinir Street 





High Pressure 

Gear Flushing 

Bring Your Car to us. See the work done while you wait. 



It Will Be 

a pleasure for us to know we have suited 
you with glasses. flYour pleasure comes 
with the wearing. 

A. D. IRISH, Optometrist 


Telephone Connection 




Tel. Mystic 0242-R 



JVIedford = = Mass. 

Telephone, Mystic 0031 

West Medford 

Telephone, Arlington 3917-\V 

Office Phone, Mystic 3882 Res. Phone, Winchester 1057 M 


TReal Estate anb Tfnsurance 

Justice of the Peace 


Your Copy of the 



mailed to your summer address 



Deposits go on interest the first day of each month 
in your home bank 




Medford Trust Company 



501 High Street 
West Medford 


Stevens Square 

East Medford 

Magoun Square 
South Medford 

Hours, 8 A.M. to 3 P.M. Saturdays, 8 A.M. to 12 M. 

Open Saturday evenings from 7 to 9 



PHONE.-MVSTIC 1 123 - 1124 or 1870 

We carry a complete line of 


Our I^Jpfti:)! 

Leader if>" J^ 

Cream of 


President Treasurer 

Credit Manager 





11 07- J 
Telephones, Mystic 5091 

For anything: in the jewelry line 
visit the 

New Jewelry Store 


Up-to-date Repairing: 
8 High Street Medford Square