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JUL 51 I95Q 







G^i-'T OF 
Dr. 0,0, Freyermuth Estate 

'^^ ^^"y. STA^^■, 









Lindsay & Blakiston, 

Medical Publishers and Booksellers, 

Xo. 23 South Sixth Street, Philadelphia. 


y/ Manual of Midwifery, 

Including the Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy, Obstetric 
Operations, Diseases of the Puerperal Suce, lie., &c. By 
Alfred Meadows, M.D., Member of ihe Royal College of 
Physicians, if c.,&c. First American from the Second London 
Edition, ilh numerous Illustrations. Price,. . . SjOO 

-'Thixr wbureail ttaeHntulltlimur tbls wurk will bear oa out In thlDklngUiat I>r. 
McAilows'a Maniial (uriua line »f thB miiat ooiiTenldnt. iiractlcat, anil cunciM booki yet 
I>ubllab«] ufl till- aubjMt. I( waarapcvlallyKnuilasBstiiclcnt'Binuiuiil. and tbeaathor 
liai. In bli Kmnd i.Ml!il»a. auugbt 1u tualie IL uf nfual raJae Xo the practitioner. The 
l>art which Iraila uf i>b«t«lrlc <i|ienvtl»ua has bern veil rerlaed. ami haa renlved dd- 
laentni lulitliluns. anil the aevcral chajiian un l.'nnatural ami Cutujilci Labura likewise 
ajiuprlac much dcw matter. Vpwardaifl ninety new t(itfravln§a liafe hbva InacneU 
111 thin e-lltluii. ami. wlih a vivw l» far'tlltale relbrrnw, thp authiir haa tUrnlab«I It with 
a TVTf lull and oimplirle tabic •>[ conltnta and Index. We can Hirdlnll)' mwiDincnd 
thin luutiual aa actumtc ami iirocllcul. and as ouiitaliilDH lo a imall cinnpaaa a large 
■muunt of Ihe kind at Inrurmatlon Bullalile alike to tbc atudent ami |muUlkiner."— 

Lsndaa Lanetl. May a, i«11. 

Cazeaux's Great Work on Obstetrics, 

A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on Midwifery, includ- 
ing the Diseases of Pregnancy and Parturition. Fifth Amer- 
ican, translated from the Seventh French Edition. Reviled 
and Annotated by S. Tarniek, Adjunct Professor in the 
Faculty of Medicine of Paris. Greatly enlarged and im- 
pr(>ved. Over 1 1 oo royal octavo pages, with numerous Litho- 
graphic and other Illustrations on Wood. 

Price, bound in cloth, bevelled boards, . . t6.;o 
" " leather, 7,50 

T^e Change of Life in Health and Disease. 

A Practical Treatise on the Nervous and other Affections 
incidental to Women at the Decline of Life. By Edward 
John TiLr, M.D. From the Third London Edition. In 
one volume. Octavo. Price, f 3.00 

*■ Tba great al'llltles ot Ur, Till, hli eilenslre knowlei1g« mnd hli lltanr; power, are 
w>ll (liown In tbiB l>uik,anil m arv tilmsed to say tlial II has lubstiuitlal ami peculiar 
marlla. It cuntalDi many ugo, iitvctlcal rHtumrDeoilatluas. atiil will ■mpl}' repay 

J/trutMXy^EiinbMTgk Mtdteal Journal. 

Uillenberger s Handy Book 

Of the Treatment of Women and Children's Diseases, ac- 
cording to the Vienna Medical School. 

Part I. The Diseases of Women. 

Part 11. The Diseases of Children. 
Translated from the Second German Etliiion, by P, Nichol, 
M.D. One volume ixmo. Price, $■•75 

The Practice of Medicine and Surgery 

Applied to the Diseases and Accidents incident to Women. 
By W. H. Bri-oRD, A.M., M.D., Professor of Obstetrics 
and Diseases of Wumen and Children in the Chicago Medi- 
cal College, &c. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, 
with additional Illustrations. Price, t$.oo 

The npUI gjile uf the Ural edition uf thie hook, whleh waa eihanateii in a little mora 
than a year, haa enabled the author tu caretnlly revise (he whole work, add many lin- 
pnvetoeiils, anil to make a Inr^ addltloo ufnew matter, wltliaat, ImweTer, matarlally 
iDcreaalDg the alio ut the rolume. 

Byford on the Chronic Inflammation and 

DUplacemenis of ihe Unimpregnated Uterus. A New, En- 
larged, nnti ihoroughly Revised Edition, with numerous Illus- 
trations. Price Ij.oo 

'This work will be f»aiid partlcnUrl; uM^il higenani pnctltlODen. The dlflerent 
■ DTijnHfi Ktt trrnUd iilaLnly uul conclKly, ftnJ jait puch LnfonnalLoD Lb glTsn m» will 
I* uflhe nidat prsctlCB] vmlue. While pralliltjf le SToldeil. anthlns nfre^ ImporUDea 
<• umllWil. In preparing the •eoonil edltlim llhubesD ttio object urtbesuthiirtoadd 
(•' Ihe uienilnvB or Ibe wurk bj' Iboronghly rerliioK. oumcUnR. enltrglng. iDd llloi- 
inllng It."— dncfmall Mtdttal Rfptiiorg. 

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of 

Women, including ihe Diagnosis of Pregnane)'. By Grailv 
Hewitt, M.D., Lecturer on Midwifery and Diseases of 
Women and Children at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, 
&c. New Edition, with a new series of Illustrations. $5.00 

A Practical Treatise on the Diseases ofChil- 

dren. By J. FoasvTH Meigs, M.D., Fellow of [he College 
of Physicians of Philadelphia, &c.,&c., and William Pepper, 
M.D., Physician to the Philadelphia Hospital, Uc, Uc. 
Fourth Edition, ihoroughly Revised and greatly Enlarged. 
Over 900 royal octavo pages. Price $6.00 

"The muA thonmgb mn*! pnt'tloal work on theBubjeut nuw Iwlbre the prureMlaa." 

A Practical Treatise on the Diseases of Jn- 

fancy and Childhood. By Thomas Hawkes Tanhe», M.D. 
The Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, by Alfrei> 
Meadows, M.D., London, M.R.C.P., Physician to the Hos- 
pital for Women, and to the General Lying'in Hospital. 
One volume. Octavo. Price, *3-S° 

A Clinical Treatise on the Diseases of Chil- 

dren. By Thomas Hillieh, M.D., Physician to the Hospi- 
tal for Sick Childreti, and 10 University College Hospital, 
tec, tec. Octavo. Price, t^.oo 

The Surgical Diseases of Infancy and Child- 

hood. By J. Holmes, M.A., SurgeoD to [he Hoipini for 

' Sick Children, &c. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 

Octavo. Price, $9.00 

The Functions and Disorders of the Repro- 

ductive Organs in Childhood, Youth, ind Advanced Life. 
By William Acton, M.D. A New American from the last 
London Edition. Octavo. Price, ^3.00 

Foeticide^ or Criminal Abortion. 

By HiKiH L. Hodge, M.D., Emeritus Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. Price in paper, 30 cts.j in cloth, 50 

The Philosophy of Marriage 

In its Social, Moral, and Physical Relations. With an Account 
of the Diseases of the Gcnito-Urinary Organs, the Physiology 
of Generation in the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms, &c.,&c. 
By MiCHAEi. RvAN, M.D., Member of the Royal College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in London, &c. Price, $1.00 

On Intermarriage, 

Or, the Mode in which, and the Causes why, Beauty, Health, 
and Intellect result from certain Unions, and Deformity, Dis- 
ease, and Insanity from others. With Illustrations. By 
Alexander Walkir, author of " Woman," " Beauty," &c., 
&c. izmo. Price 

LINDSAY & BLAKISTONS complete Descriptive Catalogue a{ 
their publications, together with a classified and priced list of 
all recent Medical Boolts, American and English, furnished 
or mailed free upon application. 







a\E. DISEASED Of TU£ bKIN, Etc. ¥m. 



L ti* VMiinUf* vnt ptiiuis or ■aim asip oiiuoei a imt hdical 
OBUsii or (uu, *"*■" or tai ajiiucait behcil UBoaAinui, etc m. 






- KUmt,>«)nItaitDA(ildrcnwnM,lallMjMrUiT,tr 
la tU anfi <M» of th* IHnrtit Ooart of UMCDlUd Stata Iv tha Kuun Dh liM m 




IiT preaeDting the fifth edition of this compend to Medi- 
cal Students, the only apology which it is necceeary to offer 
U the rapid Bale of the four former ones; and this has 
been considered as sufficient evidence that the work has 
proved useful. 

The careful revision which the present edition has nnder- 
gone, makes the work more complete, and gives it, tho 
author trosts, higher claims to a favorable reception. 

The object is to furnish the Student of Medicine with a 
short and succinct view of the most important facts and 
principles which engage his attention during his pupilage, 
in order that he may refresh and fix more firmly upon his 
memory what he has read and heard, aa well as to enable 
bim properly to arrange his knowledge so as to use it in 
the most advantageous manner. 

With such a Yade Mscdu many leisure moments may be 
rescued from entire loss, whether occurring in the class* 
room, before or between lectures, while in attendance at 
the hospital, or elsewhere, and turned to good account. 
These short intervals of time, when singly considered, may 
seem of little value ; but, taken in the aggregate, and use- 
fully employed, may be of great consequence. 


It is also believed that the present edition will be found 
nseful as a Pocket Manual to the ^ onng Practitioner, aenr- 
ing to refreeh his memory on elementary subjects, and on 
practical points, in cases of emergency. By reference to it, 
he will be able to bring before his mind the principal points 
of subjects (perhaps partially forgotten), that may be im- 
portant and useful, under circumstances not pennitting a 
reference to more voluminous and extensive works. 

These we consider to be the legitimate objects of all 
works of this description, and, when used aa intended, they 
cannot but ba of great practioal advantage. 

No claim is made to originality ; it is strictly a compila- 
tioD from standard aathorities, intended to present, in a 
brief space and compact form, the outUaes of generally 
admitted troths of Medicine. We have, therefore, drawn 
freely from the best sources within our reach, and copied 
ideas — and in some cases the words — of the different 
authors that have been need. This general acknowledg- 
ment is due, aUbough a reference to the particular wo^ks 
may be unnecessaTy, 






DtmrmaK or Aaitoar ii 

BllLama ....<..» It 

TmuiE. M 

?pine .. 28 
eriiol Verleb™ M 

Doi»l VerifTir*... SO 

Laabw Vstubra 30 

Sa«r«iB AO 

C-'CO^I 31 

0*tA InBominila -,,.,„,-..„- 31 

Thorai 31 

Bib* »2 

Sl^nmca 32 

BovKt or Tire Hmk 33 

Cnnium 3-1 

O* Frontia „ 33 

0*» PirifUlU.. 33 

OsOcclpltla 33 

Otfii TvmporuDi . 34 

0> Sphftioidet ... - . 39 

Of Eibtnoldo .... 3A 

Bone* uf <>>< K>.ra 3A 

Oiu UaiUlarla Supfrinn SS 

OiH Pitmil IT 

Oiu Naii ST 

Omh I'iiiC"!' 37 

Ou> MaUruiD. ...... 3A 

OiPB -Spongiuu nrer^cin.. 3B 

Tomer ■. 38 

OaHn illarF feriui 38 

'OiH Triqucin ~ 38 

<>■ Bjoidta 40 

Boms or T>m Snnuoii SmtKin- 

Tim _ U 

SupuU 1« 

Clavicle 41 

Muuianii 41 

Done! uf Ihe Furi^iirni- 41 

linn 41 

KbJliis 41 

Bunra of Lhe Hand 41 

Car|kua ....,......,.........,,.,..,.,.„, 42 

U«fa«Tput ............................ 42 

PhiilnngM 42 

Bo MM or Tiia Ixfeiiior Ixtkihi- 

tlEII 12 

On Fiiniorii 42 

TIbin 42 

Fihulu 41 

PaU-lla 43 

TiFHit 43 

Mfliuraug ., 43 

Fhalangu ^ 43 

CiSTii.AaB » 43 

LisAVEsn 44 

LiiEtLuenti uf the l<ower Jaw 4& 

Lifamentj of (he Vertebr*}. -.-... 45 

Liganenta uf lhe Pdvia 4& 

Ll|;nfnen» of tbc Riba 48 

Li|fiimenle *tt tbe ^hiiulder ....... 4T 

iAXntntnUi of the KLbciw 47 

LiKaiD»nt« uf Ihe Writi 4S 

Lij(amtnta of tbs Fingera 48 

UfanenU of tba Hip. ^ 





Ligfiinentf nf the Kiifo-Jaiat 4t 

LignmcDlt uf At Aoklt...^.. 60 

iKTEaunit^iTa &0 

Mdiclh tl 

HulCLii OP THE Truhii i2 

Muiclri tif llie AliiJ in .... bl 

Munrlet 4ir Elir MdiU l^rn VOID,-. 54 

HuFclii uf Ihe Ihurai _..,.^.... SI 

MuKclo I'f ihe l).r.-k „ M 

Hmetei of thr Neck I>8 

Hi'icLM or THK Head *kii Face.... it 


Uuj«]e» dT tha Shnulijtfr. .......... A] 

UuiiFt«fl of the Arm .-^-. .„...,.<... Al 
MuioLei irf Ihr PopFarin A3 


Huaclri uf iht ThiKli «3 

Mundci uf Ihe LeK A& 

Orbaim ur DtaERTiox A7 

Trelh „ (8 

TuDgu* 68 

Piiliila 70 

OliiKla i>r ihs Munch 70 

PhujDi „ n 

(Bioiibagiu T t 

Abdomen..... .,.,.. 72 

ItBeioiia or mi Aidomir 72 

Cbtlopoietic Vwcbba T4 

Bl-iiDBrh 74 

Inurllnee 76 

BehhII IrilL-^ii^jf! .... 75 
Lul^ IntHline IJ 


Lrvur 78 

UuM bl.d.|.T.. ;s 

SptHD 70 

Fancnu _ 70 


Kidn«j* 70 

BI»Jdi.T 81 

OrRUM ofUi-nvriiiMiii in ih' Uiile HI 
Orgini of liftbvmliijTi in ihv Fe- 
mala.... 86 

OlMAiig or ReaPtmtio 87 

Lnrjrni eg 

Tneli<a..„ SB 

LuD^ .1, ,>•,>,..,. 80 - 

PUun 01 ! 

ClllCDt.ATDRT STITIt>...„.„ „, 91 

Hwrt __ n 

AlTBRIRI „ 94 

Aortii 94 

IwPrn* C«r..liJ 94 

Eilrrioil I'Bnilid ._ 90 

Inii'rliji Mllli(l«ry ... 97 

ArlTritf -bf itieUrflii^ 97 

Suhcluvimi Arterj _ 97 

AjLthnTT -^rleTj. .,,•.,....„.>. 9S 

Brneliiiil .^tcrj „.. OS 

Cwlio Anay Oil 

EupiTkiir JHfAFmcria Arterj...... 100 

InlrTlnr M#>pi>li-rio Arlrr; 190 

rtkfidLirc IEbcii 100 

tnrtrn*! Iliac Arierj „ 100 

GitMD*] llim Arlerj 100 

Fcmarnl Arurji 100 

Aalfrlur unil Curlcriur Tibiil 

Aricrifi.. 101 

VEiiori 8t«i-«ii _ 101 

VfDA liiM I)frc(ii>len 191 

VniR liinorjiiTiaiii. ....... 103 

Vena Atygui 103 

eiilx'loriiin VVh 103 

Vsiinuf ilieSuperii-rKitipiuiij 104 

Veii4> ChVH A-ceDilcnti 104 

IViuiilii -e Tlinc Veiij 104 

Vefftrm'f ibe Irtfarior Kitrrmit^ 105 


Lbi-CchU qmi LjiophaLici.. 195 

Thumcie Duotj 104 

Nebvits Ststkm lOT 

!>pi«Al JVIntro* lOT 

llrmii _ lOB 

Vrr^f, „,„ II) 

Olfacli-ry Htrrt „. |)) 

0|.tio N^rvi' IIS 

Hiiiur Oculi lis 

PHlhalicui.. lis 

TrifacUl 114 

ft1»(or P^ Itrnup -,._,.,,.... Ti4 

Xneial mid AuJIiJirj IIS 

Oi"??u--phnr>ftgeiL.>... 115 

Avtrarnry 115 

Hjpugi«P»r 117 

Skdiki „ lis 

Kj» I IB 

Eur 119 

Orrat StiPATBinc NRnr«. IK 

SrinAL Kebtr* 121 




RlTiTMi. BoTins IIT 

Oq^vnlQ BBd indrj^anifl BudiH'-- 117 
DUunclioDi brLWBea AniDKli 

■ nd VFKFtablfi 1!T 

UUirHftt« El rin«nti,., „,.,,». .»,..» 13S 

OrifUiie KlrmcnU ■>,*•'.->»«■-— 138 

Tha Tiunri ~. l:jl 

FcBcnoM or M» — 


AaiMiiL FuRcnoxi — Fi>ircTiui* of 

RlLATIOI _ 134 

{■cntibililjr 134 

EikthkL Sroi-Htiiinn ..,. ISA 

ScBH uf Timrh — Palpiiliuli 131 

Bm»* uf Tiipt* — (lurtiitiiin 138 

ScDu urdmiill — OiriEiii>o U9 

6«cirfl vf Hen ring — Audiliun^.., 140 

e«BH of BiKht — Viaiuo 141 

IICMDLAK UuTios 143 

Tabic nfibt Mairlu 147 

PanrtiDDi or Biptmion — Lan. 

§•■(• 131 

dllary Uulian 133 


DMunoa 133 

Vwd — Alintnt , 133 

Hant*T „.... 133 

PrrbanilnD orFoud 133 

DcgluLiiiiiD .............. „.,....... 130 

ChjialSnIiuB 13S 

Chjliflivtiaa ................. ...... 133 

I>*r>ra4iiin IfiO 

Tbint „ leu 





Biicmal AbaorptioB ISI 

Ch/Urtii _ _ l« 

Ljinpboiii. Ill 

V?nituii Altpiprtitiiin - - 1A4 

Inlt^niAl Ahudrpiiun „,.,..,. .,.„. 144 

Afri'triUnl AbavrptiiiQ .....^....,. 104 

RispiBATroN _ 183 

IntpiniiiiMi ,^,......^.^^.,,.,„...,.., 133 

Klplrritiiin IBB 

Sii nffuiBcMtiuD — HeiuabDniw ■-^. ■ ■' 1 37 


Aetiiin ijf tbn Kurt 171 

Ai;tiun uC ihe Arurici 173 

Kdtritioii IT4 

Cell Duelrine 17* 

Funiiation of Cella — . ITi 

CALOiiiriciTioi) IT( 

BccRKTion I7T 

Kihalarit AppBralua,,,,,,,,,...,,, 177 

FrillicuUr OrifiiDi IIT 

QlmnJulir Organi 17T 

RihsliiioDi _ 17f 

Fullirutnr SrcKtlnni _ 131 

illnadoUr SCBreliuDB _ IBl 

RepBUiiLcnvi FuRimDiri tSl 

tiBABHAtlOn _ ISt 

Aom _ IM 

IxnirinrAL DirrKmiKcm amoko 

M isxisD IBT 

Trmperninenta..^..- -.^ IBT 

ContiiiDtiun and Iiliuajnaru;.. IBS 


Cbisibtbt ISI 

CiLoaii. 101 

r^n.lBrtic.n nf CHlorii' 101 

Kcfireliun uf Cdlnriii,. lOZ 

TiaB>nlHlDn vf Calriric 102 

BqaallutiOQ nf XvQipBrBlBn.... IDS 



Eir«r1i or Hnt on Hatl«r 103 

Spi'ciac Hmt 194 

Lmeni llent _ 104 

tivBpuriitiun tO( 

LWBT 117 

Ppde*..... IV 




Tbonrie* Df LIgbt 1»T 

6ip|«r Whi 1ST 

TBrrcHrlal Li,ht HB 

BliCtricitt » 1VB 

AUinciltir ind Bepnlninn „. ItV 

Inriiictinn af ELcclridlj ^ 100 

LFjdrn Jar IN 

EliciraioMen «ad BltctruteopH 101 


Vultiie or Oilrinia Cirtir 10) 

Oklriinia Bnltcrj „ 101 

ElKUuliutlon 103 

Blectru-MiigiicliiDi ~ 104 

SrKciric GsiiTrrT » lOi 


ArriHiTT ^.., 

^ lOJ 

Sthxiiji lOU 

Otysto 110 

OiJabuiLioD .......................... in 

Hjdrug*!! _ ill 

Kicragen ..., ...».....,...» 113 

Compgundi uf Hllragen _ 114 

A tm4>iph era 114 

Ciirbon „ 11 J 

Sulpbnr IIB 

GuBi|Mand( of BnlpliDr _. IID 

Pbuphonii _. Ill 

BOTOD 121 

BilisoD 1Z& 

SeleniaiD 32t 

CWurine „.... 126 

CompDuodi of ChloriDO 317 

loiiuf MS 

Bromina lUb 

Flnurioc 138 

Ammonit !3S 

CoDipnonda of H;drog«n aod 

CorhoD _ 2.1» 

HjdragcD and Sulpfaur 241 

Hjdro)!>r and PhQ>|ibu™i 141 

Kilrugen and Cirbgn 141 

HlTlLl 24* 

l(iT*ui or TBI Aliauei 248 

PatMtium 24fl 

Sodium _ 24B 

Litbium 250 

AnnDODJum 2AI 

HaTAL* or TBS Aleilihi BARras.. 251 

Barium SftI 

BtronliuiD IS3 

Calcium 253 

HagEieaiuui ...,,. 254 

IttTALR ur TBI Eaktbi Fiopbr.... 255 
AlKBipiiin, „., 155 


AT A fiR3 HBAT 25S 

MangBneae 254 

Irun _ 257 

Zins 100 

Tin Ml 

Cball Ml 

Nickel 2« 



Ant QIC ................................ 183 

AnliBOD7 H. 188 

Copper _ _. 287 

Lead _ 288 

BiiDuih 188 

Mbtali tbk Oudh or vhicb ibb 


■T A RED HRAT 271 

MmBTj _ 2T1 

SiWar 274 

Outd - 278 

PladiiBm - 1TB 

Allot! iio Amaloahi _.... 27T 

Salts ITT 



VasiTAiLB AciDi _ 2S3 

Ohoahtc Salt Basks, orTssktaili 


NftfTTaAL ^rBflTAHrRH, TBR OlTflK:! 

AirD HrDRoaKR or wrich ark in 


OLRASiiora, Rksinoiib, aid Bitd- 


Spirituous *rd Ethereal Spibtah- 

cEs m 

CoLORiNQ Hatters 191 



PLE aATTEH .,.._.....,..,....,,,». SVt 


ArihAI. CREBItTBT 194 

Analttical Cbemibtrt , tH 

Table or Stridls. and Equita- 

CBS _ Ml 




DlVl'EilO^ I »■■■■■■■ ■■I*>»PM>I"»H«H— > 


■aktm ivD nua OcapoonM 

Bwy t» --.™ — 

linv.. ..—..... 





TaUUI* OiU - 304 

CbluTina ~.... 301 

lodina 303 

Bramina 30& 

MWTAIM _ 305 

AntimoDj.,,,, 306 

Amnle son 

Copper _ 307 

a«M _ SOS 

Irna.... 308 

_ SOS, 

Uenarf......... Ml 

eilTW SMI 

Tin BH 

Etna _ BIO 

Pburpboroa „ Sll 

ainu, nr Ensmel BIO 

VcaxTAiLic PoiHwa.... 310 

AtrO'NATPMtio Puiioni»...- 311 

Niin«tio PnUiinn...... 311 

Piiiiutnou« Uu»hriHioji SIS 

Aninml Chnrcoal u bd AnlidoW 

titt Puiftout.. SIS 

Aznun. PoisoTiR SIS 

PoipniiDUS Pinb SIS 

Poifunnun Serpenlr 311 

CHDlhariB VciintoriB _ 311 

VrnDmaui Inpeeu ». SIS 

Salln or the Rsbld Dog Sll 



IbTiMtA Mbdioi— I>«afi<tlon. 310 

Dpantian nf HadlolDM 310 

PriiBUT and SteoaiAij Open- 

tioo 310 

ImlHDcei mudifjiDg Lb* Ao- 

doB of Hcdicine* SZO 

Farmi of HhUcIbm 310 

Adainlamtian of Hadiclnei ... 32 1 

CusairioATioii _........ 3!1 

Tabli or CLAiurioATioR 32S 

A>t«uratim 817 


OaBwk 3S8 

ftalli _ _ 320 

Kino 320 

Caiacba „ 339 

Bhalanj 3B0 

Loprond S30 



Cnncibill - SSI 

Bllckhcrr; Root _ 331 

U*(i Crcl 3S1 

Pipniitewa 334 

Bed Rqm - 331 

Pcraitsnaii ....•• 334 

Crcuuio 334 

HnRRAL AttmiiaKirrt 33S 

Alam „ 335 

htti - 33S 

AciUlt of Lead 330 

ToNKM 330 


Qaiuiia -...-» .....■-. 33T 

auldtfanad - ~ 333 

Oeotiu _ - 3Sa 


aoif TXVT*. 


Culvmho „ Sn 

Amrrinm CvnUurj ._„._.. tit 

BiTTimi or l'aci<LttR on Hanmin 

Piiurtarnn _ SIO 

IVimiBn Barli „..„...._„._ S4I} 

]>0KHm>d ...„.,..-..— ...». .4....... 341 

Willi Chrrrj Birk 341 

Chuoinmtls 34t 

B>in««*t «.... M3 

VIrgtatk linih«r<i<>t- US 

Mjrrrh ^u..... 344 

AnKUtlur* .._. 344 

dxriirilU Bark M4 

AlDHikllcB ........«....._,.«.», 3(4 

Onnf PmI ^ S4i 

dnDfinon,„.,„.4n..„.,..„.,,.,,. 341 

Canrllii ^ _„.._ S4& 

Cl«.« ....„ „_ „ M» 

Nulm>(...„ _ „._...... tti 

Bluak l-rpiHr -... M 

Cl|l»b. „ „ _ MS 

Pllorula „ _.. Mt 

DanlMDOra „.. 343 

AnnaUt 8*«il(.._„ » 343 

P*|i[i>riDlnl .. ». 1)3 

tt|-fjirmlnt ......^.^a ...*.,....,..,. 341 

Cnlniuui ..„„ .„,. 343 

MiKiHAL Toiiioa ..„„.,.._ MS 

Ir..o _.„ 343 

C"P(»t 34B 

KIne „ >4« 

Bitmulb 3M 

SUrrt ..._,.,_ 330 

Hlnml Acid* ,._... .. SM 

AimiMAL t<TIIIULA KM ..._.,.. ,.._..., 33) 

R«d Ptppff 3AI 

Oil ot Turiwadna _.. Ul 

Pb«)fibanr( _ _ Sil 

47arbvoM* «r Ammunla .... Ul 


HiRioci SniiiTLA im, 

trixioDiot _ 

HdfIi „„ _, 


AMkfaUd«_..._ _,... 

Talutan ..... 

CnuKiL atiHDUVn _..._.. 
Ala.list ......_._ _ 

OpiviD .......... 

LaalDMttu ■>..„,_,. .._,.... 

lien buo*-. »...».«.. ,„..v.. 

tlnpi ...... ....H.H 

Ctnpbat .... 

Dndl^ Xt(hlrh*il* 


biilmirMi „., , 

Uf inluck _ 

4BTriiit>. 8in«Ti*si .>,.,„.., 
AaiiiDitvy ....»...,^.,.,,.,„ 


- 8*1 

_ s« 





... 333 

....... 3J4 

_ 334 




_ 3i* 


, 317 

........ K&n 


NoraDH 8bim«i«« 

y.iijcluTi .._...„,. 

Fra»le Asid ........ 


. 339 


. 131 


. Ml 
. 301 
. 3*3 
. 334 
. S«M 
. 333 
. 3M 
. 3M 

Ipsrsriimbii _...._„■■„,., 

I."b<itiii _...,.. 

Milkupn! „ 

lli'-ndr.toL .,«_..... 

Trirtar Kid*ILo...,_,„_.„. 

Sulphalcof Zloe ..,„, 

liutphalt of Coppfr »..».. 
CaTBxmiiai ,„..,„.,„_,_ 

ViaBTAM.K CATatanr* 13T 

Hhdb 33J 

PurKins Chiw „ sn 

CiMiir Oil........... .._,_.._ 317 

Khalwth _,.„ ssr 

ftMt Mr 

Amcrifjin &FiinBMi..t.i.Hi.(4w.. 3M 

Butwrnut _..—,. 8M 

Al"«> «.....„„._ 30t 

Ji>Up .WO 

M>f-*ppl« 310 

Hvurauion; _ _..»_. STt 

Blirb Ildlcbur* ..„.,. .,».« 3T3 

Colo«xntb .._.„.__.____ 3T« 

Oambos* „ lis 

KIMlrlan IT4 

CnWn Oil „,_ SIA 

. 373 






. 377 

. _ 173 

.. 378 
. >7« 
.. 3T0 
.. ITS 
.. UtO 
.. )»S 
. 3G» 
. 3*1 

• w 

. m 

KmaAi. CaniiiiTict 

Sulphur _.,.. _.., 


blln* CsibtrrlM _... 

. Salpbsu of »-iH 

Salphaii r.t Maenrfii 

Sulpbnt* of rf.Uwa , 

Supitunnw* *f PotM* 

Tartnu of Pmuah .............. 

Tnrlnlt of PnUua iintl &ijs,. 

Pboipbau afSoil* ^,.^. 

Cllnit III llwnwaU „...._ 

Cl»l"iiiri .. 

BnaATjt „, 

Dicimm „..„ „.„ 

flqnlll „ „., 

Mfudow $aSVun ,......,,..„.„, 

IndiAn lltfinp ......•...,..„«.., 

Dxidalt „...„. 

Jui>i;>(r RtrrlM....M,.,,u...». 

WlM C«rrot „„., 

Partlfjr Riiot 

Tarp«Dtln* __,.., 



C^n thiiridvji ......... ..... ........ 

OvIinnBUt nf Polawa „ 

Aitainw nf TuUna 

BiUttTMC of PoiMM 



rm I 


NiintFor FMmmi w 3B1 

Spirit st Nitria SUmt SSI 

DupBoarnn 383 

K*Di»TUB DiAPBounca _ 381 

IpcraeaiDbja »*ri>* 3B3 

Tvtnis of Antimooj and Pu. 

(■•w ~ - S8S 

Dovar*! Puod«r„ ».. SB3 

EBru«a>A>T DiArlontnc* ....._- SB3 

Cilnia sf PdUim - 383 

AaataU of AHBMia - 384 

MUraU of Putaau - 3M 

Spiill oT Bnlpboiia Eihn - 384 

A&tBiaTiTB OiiraoBBTtci 384 

UMiiMiiDi - 184 

Hmwkob _ 38* 

BM*«fTu 384 

8arwp«illB - 38S 

BxriCTORAvn >...-.■ — — ■■■ 386 

Sratiga 3BT 

Blmek Snakaroot - 388 

ArdiaoDrao ,..*,..- 388 

Anaabliila 888 

Balaam of TdIu 388 

BaliaBofPerD „ „ 389 

Stiirai 38S 

B«biu1d 3SS 

CupaibK S8» 

Ujnh ,..,. 380 

Oalbanam 389 

ElaSHapana - ISO 

Wind Saphtba 380 

■■■■vaaoaun „...._ 3SB 

AtoM SM 

Blart HalUbora 3M 

Owiaenn SM 

Sariaa 3*0 

CaolharidM „...» - 3M 


BmPAmN _ S9D 

Spaoiih Flj _ SSI 


BaOEABonc* ~ SSI 

DKKULCCim „..„ SM 

Ekoixi Bwn „„_ - in 

DiLDcvn 3U 

MKDicwaii UHOLASairiBD «..» IM 

Hoi Voniea SM 

Artania - 804 

Hareirj BN 

lodiaa > tn 

Ahtaoid* -... SH 

AKTHiLMiirnoi » SM 

Pinkroot « SH 

Prida of CfaiBa SM 

Wormaaad SM 

Tin SM 

FunagnnaU Bark _ SPB 

Taile or Blent ams AiiKcru. 
riona _ SM 


PnaicaiPTiaHs 4M 


DiiTiTic PaiFAaATioiii 4M 

QcAiTiTTii or Opitm in Dippta* 


Table op tbe Alcdioltd BTBBnn 
OP WlKEi _ „.„ 4IS 

Table aaowiNa tbb Dippamaaoa 

■ ETVltM UlEIlia, DnUPt AM> 

OaaiRi OP VAKioca UiDiciaAL 


raiA or tbb Dbited 8tatm..„,_ 4lt 



lanavKATWK .— 41tt 

Bapporatlra InBaamBtlDD.-i..., 410 
DIeeraUn In flammallon _..,.... 4! I 

HaniUation 411 

Br7(lpctaa - 423 

yBranealoa, or Bnll._ 424 

Aalhnx, sr Carbaaolo 434 



Pernio, or CbllbUa 42> 

ProithiW 4IS 

Burat tn 

WoDBna _ 42« 

Ineiiad Woondi _ 418 

Panourvd WoBudi *M 


P*Dtlr*Un( IfDDndi ,._«._.. itt 

OiBiuied Wnand*.... tif 

LMfnUd WuuBiU _. 42t 

Pi>lHDed Wnuorf 4tf 

Qvntbol Weondt . . itt 

AMoIMM..— ..—.-»....-..■...»..- tM 

DWNM _,..,__^ . 4SB 

Flmplf UlMr ..»,,•. IS) 

IndoUni Ulivr Ut 

kRoruLi u^„ iS 

8*Fli rill,. „.,...„ 

..... 4SI 

Tuituiti ._....__.«....»... 4)11 

Flui^Tt'iia* 43T 

Fnrlurcaf Iho LnvFf JiH-,... 4.1H 

Fn«lu>* of Uie Varohni-. 4aS 

FnMaMaf t)i«Bito...„...„„., 440 

VnetitN«r ibvCwniav 44t 

rnnlur* af lb* Clmiiala 440 

fr««liir« oT lb* An* — 441 

f nieUr* nt ib« Tsmna 443 

Frnclor* ef <h* PnUlU- 44< 

Fni>'(»r< iiF ihi Thinh. 441 

Prafluft cf tbv Lcj^ ,..,...... ».., 4^1 

r.iiri|ii Dnd Frulsr*. 4M 

LttX >'■'«■■> ~ 4U 

I>i(lnc<iilioii of lb< Li'Btr jKfC.- 4M 

J>i>lMslluii of Ihc Cla?icl«, 4£t 

DiiluiHli'ia »f Iht Arm 41A 

DiiliicalJuii uf Uic furturu 4A? 

Dlpl«i>Bll"n nf lh« T)iiith 4(10 

DtffoCfltUa ff ibft KDfD ......... 4Afr 

Didortlion Qf tho Anblt 400 

I>uil>*t or TH* Bunci AnnJuiim 4dA 

CsrlM..... 400 

Carln of tlia Spin* _„._ ^.. 4tt 

Ilfcniib. ...,._„„_,.,.,. 4IIT 

Kintlo'Ia _.. 4(IS 

8ploii VirfiiA«ii......,...4,. 400 

0><r'>-Sitin>mi , 403 

Hutliilpt Oirinin _ its 

Rudlilii. or RivliiU 400 

Caxalsl". •" llir I)'***" 'lOO 

Fphgui Arllcoll. tpF Wliiit Bv*l' 

liBjt 4TI 

Itjdnrlbut. or Drvnij of ■ 

Mot - 4t0 

Uoimtili Ocrlilnit* m.._^... 470 

AacbjIoiU .._ 470 

Dl(iA<'* or ran Abt>dim „,. 471 

Atitfuri'ih-.-. 471 

AnenriiiD b> Anihslomotb...,,.., 471) 

Vkritiva Aneuritm......... 472 

IlilaMH or *■■ Tmiit ..,. 47S 

CIr*D«le und V*rl«i)c«U, „.. 471 

IiBaonnlioo of Yfiina,«rrbtv- 
bkta 474 

IlUDBia* OF TUX Ht> ■>_..,, _.^..,„ 474 
Friolurri uF ili* t<kvll......-_ 4T4 

Cunruttioa oF lh« ftntn. ..«-.!. . 474 
Ci'mprvflrtiriD of thfl Uralo...^... 470 
iDfljilltiLIHlutb of tbf* Ilr>in....... 470 

runjpii Crrcbrl. ur Enfe|-b*lo. 

«!• —.—,..... trt 

DiMASH or TBI Btb _ 477 

CunjuoMiial Opbtbalmla 47T 

Seleroiio Oatatbalfila _... 4T( 

IrliU Orhihtlmia. ar liiliM 4T» 

l'ti.rt>pLlh»llBi* 470 

Purjifiurn „... 4tlO 

K«n[fcl»....„ _...„ tSO 

(Ijiacilj of (b* Curnta .._....... 4M 

Victr ..f Ihe Comm.. 481 

Suphjlcmii „ „„. 401 

llj|n.j)liio ,_... 481 

II^dr<>pblhiilcBia....„,.„,^»,.. 401 

OM I Iff* led PopU „ 4R1 

Pniridenlia Iridif .......... ....... 401 

CaUrvI „ „ 481 

ADinri'ib .... ...„ „.... 40S 

Fulal* LacbrynBlliu....... ~ 4BS 

HmbliBiB* 405 

HnnlfOliKa 40T 

Bd«i1«! Tunen of lb* 1*t«. 

IM - „.. 4«T 

BntTtiptoD _...,„,..-..._..„ 40T 

Bolr^i)a...MHiH.._„,. „,.,...._ 4AT 

l)i»*t%tt or TBI No«a Avn Am- 

t*VK „ 400 

Puljtiu* oS U» NoM _.... 400 

Otona _...„ 4M 

ToBgvf, or Poljrpui of lb( Alh 
IruiB -...,_ _,... 433 

Dux»Bi 0* TBS lUuni _.. 4M 

II are- lip ..„.....„ .... 4U 

BmoU - 4M 

llaKuniutIm «f tb« FiaBam 

l-lBgUB _ ™j(... tit 

Kntuc4d Tnaill* ts» 

KloD^tlDS Of lb* UvnU i^O 

Epulit, wl^bvtrleiif th*Oua». 4M 

DiaKAiia ev raa Macs 400 

Kilranfooi Bodlci In list (Jbu- 

pbnjui „ _.. 400 

Sliii-turr of iht <B>oplj*i;iii 4H 

Utoiaval vt Kitniiiruui Rudln 

frvin l.aijni ami Trwhea .... 401 

Braneh-rfelr. nr 0">ln ......... 401 

Tartioollli. ot Wrj Kmk 401 

HaHflu _._... 0)1 

loKuinal Bvnila ~».-~._ 40S 

FafBAnl Ittmlii „ (00 

VnblllHl llrrnla 407 

CMi*nilal lUrata.. ^.... 407 

ABnrioiAL Avuo _m-i» 401 




D»B«*i> or !■■ Rbctdh 4V8 

Prulipfu Aoi. _ i»t 

Brmorrbuid* .._ „ ~ 418 

ruulB in Ado 4M 

IhBBAiu or m TisnoLi Aim 

Psaii 4gB 

IlfdtmU 4He 

Haa>t«e«l* „ 601 

Phjaotla... »_ - Ml 

Vunfbjaatia .....^ 601 

DuBAnu or T8K UKtnrui *i<d 

BLAnpB* -....— sot 

Filial* in Pciin« 601 

Bct«>tiuD And IneontineDM uf 

Urint „ 60! 

Drisatf CKlcnl« - 604 

A>rDTATioa - 300 

AmpautioD U th* Sbouldct- 

Juinl _ S07 

AnpataUan abuT* Ihe Elbgw... SDg 
Aapaudon U tb* 81 boir.JulDt. 608 

AapBUlioD of tta* Fanaru 509 

Anpalstaan of lb* WruWjaiDL. 610 


AiDpuuiion of tba Iifg.-. ....... HO 

Amputaliun or tfao Thi|^» All 

LiaiTDRB or AfmiiiEi 612 

Li);*lun of th« Commoa Caro. 

tid 613 

Lif-ature of tbc Eiternal Caro- 

tiJ 614 

Xiigalur* ol tbt Uumaral Ar. 

terj 614 

Ligalurr at the Kndiiil Artery.. 614 
Ligature at Ih* Ulnar Artery... 614 
LigaiuTc or tli« Kilernal liiao.. 614 
Ligatora or Ibt F.-innml Artery 616 
Ligature uf tha Puaterior Tibial 

Arlarj 616 

Ligature of U>* AnUrior Tibial 

Anarj 6IB 

■PiiAciantii* 51S 


ElHORRHlOK rnoM LEECH-Bini-. 61S 

j CLua-raoT — Taliph ..,,„ 61S 

I IXTSBSIOI or TEI TOB HalL ......... S30 

PART vn. 



Cn Filth - 613 

6*«ram 623 

a-iv - 5" 

lauainaU i23 

BacTD-aaiatie Llgametiti 614 

Diriaieai or tha PalTli 624 

IHaeacun oT tbe Ptlrli - 624 

HMittraaeiitt of Ilia Superior 

BtnJt 625 

llaaiiir«iiienu at tha Infartor 

Btnilt 626 

Am nf tb* Pel*li _ 620 

Inalinados of lbs Palrla _ 620 

Plaaea of tha StralU S2T 

DsroBMiTT ur TBI Pa(.Tii 628 

Tbb Fsrab HiAD 62S 

Dianatara uf tbe Cliild'a Head- 629 

Sstorai asd f untauelloa _ 630 

IfBirriDATioB „ 631 

BetsBKamant of tk* Fausliog of 
■fonHraalloa 131 


Prigxiuct _ 63S 

The Menibntnea 633 

The Placenu 6M 

The Fwul ClrrulBiioo 636 

Chan get in tbe Ulerua frum 

ImprtHnation.- 637 

Develupmeat oftb* Pwtul 637 

EitFK-uterine PregoaDcy 633 

8igDt of PrenaDcj 639 

Table of tbaSigni of Pregnancy 640 
Treatment during FregLancy... 642 

Abortion 641 

Action of the I'Mn 64' 

KctroTemiL^n of fba Utaru*. 644 

Antevcrfiun of tbe Uterya. 645 

Ohllquilten of tbe (I terua. ........ 545 

Term of Utero.gettatlon 646 

Laioi „ 640 

tjlagei jf Labor ....„ 640 

Cooduot ot J Labor 647 

Laceration of tbe FgrioeuiB...~ 650 
Bora Nipplii 66t 





Nutanl or Uouiiited Labor.... i&l 

UefbBDiam nf Lnbor ib2 

Tb« PrratnlBliou iH 

PrcfenUliuD utibe Brceeb Hi 

Fregenlatlun uf Ihe Fhl ib7 

Prflienlaticin of the Rafl»......„ &AT 


CULT OR Priltiebbatuiul _ HI 

Flouding SiS 

CtinTuiiiuui.......... 668 

S;iio<ip«....... 563 

Hvrnlii i&O 

Bad Puiltiun of iba Hod _ bb9 

F«n PrtbeDULiuDa bb9 

TurDJDg 601 

Tib pDRORPi {M 

Lockad or luipirled Head 68fk 

Uurme Hemorrhage _ MI9 

Aecidtntnl Heiuorrhnge btU 

Unavoldibl' Hemorrhage _ &T3 

Puerperal CauTaMuni 6T6 

iDTcrfiuD of Uio Uunu ^ t7< 


1 ■■ FOROIFB, 

TwiDi „., bit 

PrvHatetiao o( the Arm mai 

Sfaouldar.. „^ &T8 

PrulapiBtoflhe Uabllinl Curd M) 

Rupture of the Uurui HI 

Turning, or Veniun „... Ml 

Deli*erlu performed bj Inrtrv- 
mrau applied eiibar la tb* 

Mother or Child _ G$» 

Premalur* Deliver; SBS 

Puerperal or PerituDoal Fever^ 5BS 

Puerperal Hinia _ US 

Phlegnaiia Duleoi _ 6B9 

Diaa A sat or Cbildbrit _ 6n 

aum Rub itO 

Jiandiefl» .......................... . AH 

FlaLulent Culie (M 

CunTuliIoBI „ tW> 

Dentilion _ 6U0 

DiarrbiBa „ 601 

Aphtha, or Thrurb tVl 

Barij SigOM of Diiean in Cbfl- 
drao _ fiSl 





Organie and Functluaal Dueaie b9b 



AmcDLTATion _ SOI 

ActcuLTATioit or -tat Cirit. IDS 

ABiCDlUtloD of the Reipirator; 

AppantD* _ 003 

Betpiralorj Murnrnr S03 

Narmal Reiplntlon A03 

PBIholugicAl Pbenumcna 604 

Alipratluna in the Iniemilf uf 

tha Reipiralor; Murmur IV06 

Lnud RespirHtion.... 606 

FeeMe Rei| imtign G06 

AfaMnl Rbjthin A06 

Prenueneji of Rtepintion IM 

Coniinuii; afReaplmloD _ A06 

Dnratluo of ReiplrMloD - 006 


AuacHLTATioi' or trk CbrBt, 

Prolonged ExpiratiDD. \„,, 607 

A1l«r*tiuDi Id the CbBraeter of 

tbe RfapiratlDD „ 607 

Hirah Reapiration .,..,...,., 607 

Bronehlal or Tolnlar K»pirk- 

Uon „,. 608 

Cavemuui Heap! ratio d... ....,,,.. 608 

Anphorio Reapiration............. 60V 

Abnormal Sounds...... BOV 

Pleuritig FrialiDn- 60W 

Rtlea 610 

Soiioroud Rftle...... „ 610 

Crepilating Rtlc 610 

Suh-crepiiHriog Rile 611 

Carernom Rtli 613 

Crackling. Crumpling. Ao. 611 

AuaculiBiion i>f rhe Voict 611 

Pbyaiolagieal Phenomena _ 611 

PathologTcBl PhenoEiaika 61S 


IncnLTATian or-rHB Cbrit, 

Br>>nehH»pb<iiij' .^^,...... - „ A13 

(Ke..phnn_v «l.1 

Prcl'inlriquT ^. .,...,. ..,.. SI4 

Arn|»b"ric Vriice..... A14 

tlcullHi Tinklini; 6U 


PhjfikolttjpemJ PhflMcimrna » AI& 

Piith<iT<>ificnl Pb«n4»TnenH.. 516 

Tbc liD|iuJi-a AlA 

The KbTthui „ H7 

The S'lun'I.. ei7 

AbDnrniat S»un<li or Murman- fllB 

Anamie MurmorB-. ...-..- 671 

PeriearJi^ Murman... ->.*» ASl 

FnwcnitHL Sians or Disiabi., 


Tm-nM _ M2 

Inleiuilient Virtr 024 

RenilKnl Feirr _ AZA 

H«lic Fevtr A2T 

Telloir Fever 827 

Cootiiiiini Yfm A2T 

Trpboid Prier HZB 

Tjpbiu firgr... A30 



Stuvalitii 8)1 

OloHiiif 814 

ToDfilliiiti Aas 

ParuUiiji 835 

Aeiiu tiiftrilLi 83S 

Cfaranic llDitrltit A.1A 

Acute EnUrilii ASA 

Dy"enlfrir AST 

Cbrvntr ET3i«riLii ,.,,,,. ASS 

Acuta Prriinnitia ASS 

Am* IlrpKtiUi... . A3S 

Chranlc HFpntllli A3B 

Orguio SiKuH at the Uret.^ 63) 

laPLAaviTio* or tbi Nuktoiii 

fiTiTim 841 

Ccphaliilf 841 

PhrcDitii 84t 

AnchnUin... A41 

Canbrili* „.._ 843 

InpLtMBiTiar or ran RainRATORT 

ORsm -.■• A41 

PntaD'inU „ 841 

Pleuriiii B4S 

I«rynitiri ... A4A 

Aealr Larynptti „ A4S 

Cbrnnic Idrjnfilii 647 

Trmchifitip, or Crnap ^.., 848 

Afdec Bronf^hitj*.^..,^ „.., A48 

Chnnic Err»ni<hiii^ ,.....„ 849 

Pbtkldi PnlmanalU A&O 

Mmp'kjitmM of (b* Luag* - AU 


DiiKASRi or THB UaiiiAar OasARt, t&t 

MepbriUi AM 

Cyililia AM 

Brinhta UIkh* > AM 

bUbrlea ASS 

LiKbiaiia... .....< --,,,.„..>*ri, 867 

DiliASH or -TNI HaAiiT „ ASS 

PericBrdilb. 6»8 

E d„™Hill« AS» 

ItlicuinHLlvm >-.,-,.----,„-,,,.. 669 
Guui... AW 

ERUPtiVK Fkturi - AAV 

VnrWn. - 66* 

Varisella OKI 

/ Rube»Iii AAl 

ScarlAiina AAI 

Me noil ■■« OKI 8A) 

HfiDorrhige frani tb* Nnatrlli... 8A} 
IlmnrrbiKe ttnta tbe Longp.... 804 

Meniurtlinifi' Troin ih« Slummoh.. 8A4 
Pbk'f^inn^tu D<tl'-Dt A8S 


Tous Ststkv OflS 

Apiiplcxj 08S 

Punilyiiii A8A 

Bpilep-j AA7 

China A8T 

C«nt'iiltiv« AtfecUuni ot InrnnU SAS 

^■thma AA> 

'NeonilKift 'ff (he Face.. A70 

Mental I>4^r4neeai«i]t„. ...» A70 

Di^iirlum Treinens..^ « A71 

H4>nyhiig-cougb - A71 

AaphjTAia. -.« A73 

DrREAiii* or na Stomacb ahd 
BowEUi A73 

DUrrhoa. A7I 

Cho]<^rii M.irbui.. 874 

Ch'Jcni Epildeinira 874 

flHlulent Civile A77 

Billoui Culie „. ATT 

CL«lif?a Pinion qui ATfl 

CnnnlipAtloB AT> 

Obiimction sf th« Bowel) OTS 

ProlnpiiDa AnI OSl 

Worma in the Aliiuenlir; Canal 083 

Csiioiire DtHKAaia or rvi SkiR A84 

Onlsrlal. — Veaieula ABS 

Eruraa ABS 

ButtarultiB. OBS 

Harpu.. OSS 

Beahiaa 880 

Ordor M.— HuHn . OSS 

Pr'mpbigijik,....- ^ OSS 

Bupin., AS8 

Ordar 3d. — Puiuiln OST 

Ecthjnia AB1 

Asaa SS7 



OHirU — tniptilita CM 

Fimi „ ess 

Ord(r 4cb. — B»nlbriuBt>..„.., M» 

BkH'-Ih. USB 

Ddirwria „. Sft 

Brjiihriti*-^ „ 489 

OrdM-ttb. — PipulK....^.- Alio 


tmit* 6*0 

Order atb. — SiivnoB ..,.^u». Ml 

FiIjriMt „_... 091 

L'l-r* IWI 

Pruri»i> MI 

trhitjriuH..,- 1»9 

Order Itb. — Tub*Mula 491 

LdIIiui _ Ml 

OrdMSIk.-Mwnil»._ n»l 

Parpytb ....•.._.... Ml 




Q. What h Anatomy 7 A. The science of orgaDization. 

How is it divided f Into Vegetable and Animal. 

Hov is Animal Anatomy- divided? Into Human aad Com- 

What is Humnn Anatomy f The Anatomy of man. 

Wh«t is Coraparatife Anatomy f The Anatomy of all other 
animals except man. 

How is haman anatomy divided ? Into DescrijAive, or Special, 
Surgical, Oeneral, and Pathological. 

What is Descriptive, or Sgiecial Anatomy f That which de- 
Bcribes the form, Mze, position, aod connections of organs tu a 
liealthy condition of the body. 

What is Surgical Ariatoioy ? That which treats of the relation of 
one part to another, and has also been termf d Regional Analomy. 

What U General Anatomy 7 That which treats of the strnctnro 
of the sirapJe tissues of the body ; and is synonymons with Histology. 

What is Pathological Anatomy f That which relates to the dis- 
eased stmctare of the organs. 

Under what divisions is hnman anatomy studied? Osteology, 
or a description of the bones. Syndeemology, of the ligaments. 
Myology, of the mnscles. Splanchnology, of the viscera. Aden- 
nloyy, of the glands. Angiology, of the vessels. Neurology, of 
the nerves. Dermology, of the skin. 

What ore the uUimaie elements at the body ? Carbon, nitro- 
I (26) 


gen, oxygen, hydrogen, pho^[>horua, tulphur, iron, calcium, . 
sodium, potassium, &c. 

Whftt are the organic elements f Gelaiin, fibrin, albumen, 
mucus, fat, Ac. 


Whftt are the orgaos of support to the airimal fhimef The 
hone» ; they give Crmnesa and strength to the body, afford points 
of attachment for tlie nuinerons mnsclea, give shape to the animal, 
and afford protection to some of the more important oi^ns ; such 
as the encephalon, medulla spinalis, heart, Inngs, &c. Their form 
and disposition are always adapted to the oCSceB they are designed 
to fnlfil. 

What is the bony framework of the hnman body called 1 Skeleton. 

What is the natural skeleton ? When the bonea are held togetiier 
by their natural connections of ligaments, cartilages, &c. 

What is an artificial skeleton f When the bones are held to- 
gether by artificial means. 

Suppose a line, called the median, drawn fi*om the top of the 
bead, downward through the middle of the skeleton, will these two 
sides be similar f Yes, the iMines of the two sides wilt be per* 
fectly alike: and where bones are divided, the two hakes will be 

What are the regional divisions of the skeleton f Head, TVunk, 
Superior, and Inferior extremities. 

What is the number of bones in persons of middle age f For 
the trunk — twenty-four true vertebrre, one saerom, four coccygeal, 
two tnnominata, twelve ribs on each side, and one steruum. For 
the head — eight in the cranium, fourteen for the face, and one 
hyoid. For the upper exiremiliei — thirty-four to each side. For 
the inferior extremiites — thirty-two to each side. In all, two 
hundred and eleven, not including the bones of the tympaoam and 
teeth. In early life the number is greater, and in old age diminished, 
by the growing together of bones originally distinct. 

How are bones divided in regard to their shape ^ Into long, ghort, 
fiat, and irregular. The long bones are foand principally in the 
limbs, and are composed of a shafl and two extremities. Bhort 
bones are irregularly cuboidal in foriq, spongy in texture isteraalljt 



I vitb A Ibio crnrt extTnally, The *hort bone? are the rertcbrse, 
cjx. carpal atiil tnr«ii1 bont«, pntdlroaDrl sesamoid bones. Fled 
boaes consist of two layers of itctisc bgno with od iiilermedtnle ccl- 
luUr atruciur«, whicli u called diploe. Invgular bones are ihoM 
which ftre not dUiiiKtl)- refuruble to cither of the abore dlviBions; 
bat are of k nixed character, bving purtly Oion mid portly flat. 
The UOponil, sphenoid, clbmoid, superior nutvillnrj', inferior max- 
iUuy, (wtale, iofcrior lurbinatcd boDes, os lijoides, and sacrum 
pri'scnt oxamples of (his dasa. 
Wlial is an eminence on a bono railed f Apophj/tia or procff a 
Lvbou uiiilcd. and epiphysis when separated by curtilage ; tlio ehalt 
|cr 1>ody of a bone is termed its diopftjnia. 

What other names are applied to emiaeocea of bone depending 

lapoii tlivir shape, situation, and useT Itcndg, irhcti convex. 

rouodisb. and smooth. Nfclg, when smaller at tlie middle, and 

increoMd tovards the extremity. Condyle*, wbeii the licjid is 

Bltd itneqnally rounded. T<f&rrvfcM, or tubcrogHifJi, wh^n 

even, rODgb, and irrenrular. Spines or epinoug processes, when 

barj) or pointed. Cristas, when there are long and sharp elcva- 

is. Coronoid, if the termination is in a sharp edge. JUtuloid, 

it«id, coracoid, &c., from their resenibla.oce to certain other 

kiafis. Oblique Intnaverse, &g., from relolite siluntiona. Tro- 

kanlen, when they i«rve to turn a bonei 

What names are given to d^preggionaf CotijJoid, trlicn deep 

,«U|v-ltke. Alveoii, or sockets, OS the lockcta for the teeth; 

\, glenoid, vrben eupcrBcial. 

How are boaea divided tn regard to density i Into compact and 

\wtiular; the former is sltaatedeslenially, and the taller internally. 

Wliat la the conu/HWi'/toit of bones f Animul and earthi/ matter. 

^Tbe minute analysis of which is gelatin, 3i parts ; phosphate of 

Sme, M paru ; carbonate of lime, 1 1 purls ; Quale of lime, i portA ; 

ph'iHphaie of tnagneaia, I |uirt ; and murinte of sndn, 1 part. Tlip 

[b'lnra bIkO contain a liUl» iroa, manganese, tilex. ainmina, ait>) 

pbodphate of amioouin. 

Upon wbh-b of llivie primary constltncnls do(« the hardness uf 
be boui- dciwud ? The earlhy, uud may be obtained by caleitiation. 
How may tlie animal part be demonntralvd ? By immersion for ' 

I titMc in ditnte muriatic acid, the eurihy parts wtU be difisolved, 
tvlag the udmal. 



Wliat la the tlnicture of bones ? They are composed of tw» 
•IniMares, comjiart aixt cellular; the former is siloated exicniBlIjr, 
Riid ihe latter Iiilenmlly. The comjiaet struclnre is Tilirons, bnt 
arraiiged in lamina. RuDDiii); ihroa^li ihesc Fibres ire hare ibo 
Hattrtian canah, which communicate with smntl lenticular cxcn- 
vatioDS kaon'n as the lacuna or corpu»ele» of Purkinjf, bj pores 
or tultuli. wliich also connect these lacotue topeiher. They arc 
veil supplioii. ihrongb this arrangeiDont, wilh hlood-vMseb, nerrca, 
and nhsorbents. 

What is meant by Pertotteunl It ts the Ghroii» membrane 
vrhioh Biirroiiiids booea except at their articular enriilages. and 
receives the insertion of tendons, li^nments, aponeuroses, Ac. ; ■ 
that portion of this membrane Bitiiated on the skull U called i»ri- ' 
cranium. lU u»e is also to eotidiicl the hlood-reaaels to ilie bones; 
(five protection and iliupo to them, and to secrete boue iu the 
growing .itate, or in fruciiirw. 

What i* ineiiiit by the medulfary memhrntf. 1 It is « rerj- deli- 
cnte niemliranR of areolar thsue lining ihu iuteniul and ecllnUr 
structure of hone which Hecrett^ the medulla, and terics (he por- 
poitc of an inlcrnal )ierioitenm. 

Are bones perfectly o-uJSeil al birth? No: the ends of the 
lot))! buneH are carlilajtinouK; the carpus and torxnt are nearly in 
the •ume Btnte, aod the processes gcucmlly arc rcry imperfectly 

What are Ibe ttagtg of osnilicalion 7 Tlicro are three. The 
first is the gelatinoiu, mwKU», or pulpi/, wliU-h exists during Ihe 
Grat month; second, carfiVn^tnotw, rommencing with the second 
monlh; and third, oaaeoug, or calcific, which coiumencea ai the 
end of the second month iu some of the bones : when osaiQcatiou 
commences, tlie color of the cartilage becomes deeper, and in ilie 
middle of a yellow color; the n-ssels dilate, carry red blood, and a 
red point Is perceived in the centre of Ibe cartilage, whith U eallml 
puni-lum oHsijicationit, from which the di-poslt increanes on fu 
■urface. The long bones commence by a small rlnp, which extends 
Itself. The flat irregular bones commence by one or more points, 
aud radiate to ibe periphery. The abort bones may hare a slii;;rle 
point or several, and they all grow by successive depoaillous on th« 
vuter jturhiee or at the ends. 

At what age are bones must dense f At the mid<lle period of 




tife ; and is tgts advances (hcjr grov lighter, more collalur and 
^brittle, aikt the pruporlion ofanitaul mailer is diminislicd. 

What is lh« )>roi-««s of tb? rormation of caUmt When a frae- 
tare lak«s place, lli«ro is cfTnsioii of blood into it ; lh« toll parU 
■well i the blood is absorbed, and while this h goiuf; on. then i| 
An clfusioR of coagulating lymph ; an osBeoo^ riug h iheo formed 
u-uuod the scat of fracture, vriih a pin in lis centre. Next, the 
' exifeoiitiee of Uodc bcniu to fnse thcmselTcs together ; which wliou 
complete, the bonv ring and pin, being eiipcrQaoDB, are abuorbed, 
■lid ibe cavity, cellular Etmctnro, membrane, Ac, are re-eetab- 
lished. The proccsa is cniirety similar, in other respects to the 
forniiiion of Dew bouo. Jn compound ft'acltirea, granulaliona 
frvijucutjj spring up from Ihi^ snifftce of lh« booc in ibe same order 
u in the formation of n«w bone. Best is important for the perfect 
, iK-rformaoce of this process, or a faUe joint may result. 


■Whnt consdtntca Ihc Trunk ? The Spine. IfioraT. and Pelci».i 

\Vli>-rc i« the wpine *)tuat«d t At the po«terior part of the trunk,! 
Btid extend* ^wii the head to the inferior opening of the pelvis. 

What romiWxcR It f It conxi'tit of Iwenly-eight or tnrcnly-niDe 
dislinvt pieet-4, of «hich the upper twenty-four are trne or momljle 
ferlelme. the twenlv-fiflh is the sucrnm or pelrie vertebra, and Ihe 
; remainder are the caudal vertcbrie. 

What are <he cttnviHrea of the »])ine f The cervicat portioa 
b convex anteriorly and concave posleriorly ; Ihoracic portion 
' raut^Bve in front and convex behind; lumbar portion convex In 
Ih>nt and concave behind ; pcli^c and caudal coueave In front and 
convex tiehbd ; and depend npon the different degreea of thick* 
BtM of lli« bodies of ihc vertebrm and ihe iulervening caDtilagcs. 

How are the Irue verlebrcB divided? Into seven eervlcai, 
' twelee doreal, and five lumbar. 

What does a vertebra voiinst of? A body, tvo laminat, seven 
proeeiaea (two tranversc, one spiiioan, and four oblitine). and a 
hollow for lodging the spinal marrow, which is funned by tlie 
body anteriorly and the ininino! posteriorly and Intcrntly. 

What oharacloriws a Cerricat verlcbraf Smaller ihna the 
otben; loogest tateralljrj epiual fornincn large and triangular ; 



aptnoDS process forked ; transTerae proceues sbort, doable, uto 
perforated for the passage of the verteliral artery and vein. Ther* 
are also differences between these vertebrffi ihemselves, . 

What is the peculiaritj of the Rrst cervical vertebra, and what 
its name f It bos no body or npiiionB process, being a sinipli 
ring, and is called atlas; the transverse processes project bejr on d 
those below. 

What is there pernliar to the second cervical vertebra, and what 
is its name ? It has npon it8 nppcr part a process called odonloidet 
or deng, and the vertebra itself is called vertebra denltUa, and also 

What characterizes the Dorsal vertebrce f Bodies longer antero- 
posteriorly, and more cylindrical than the cervical ; their trans- 
verse diameter decreases from the first to the third, and then 
increases ; the upper and lower margins and points of transverse 
processes are marked with small articular faces for articalating 
with the ribs ; spinal foramen small and round, diminishing in size 
from first to third, and there increases to the last. The oblique 
processes arc nearly vertical. 

What chamcteriKcs a Lumbar verlebraf Body larger; long 
diameter transverse ; spinal foramen triangular, and larger tbtm 
the dorsal ; transverse processes long, and stand out at right 
angles ; spinons process thick, horizontal, and terminated in an 
oblong tubercle. 

What are the points of ossification of the vertebrie T Escept in 
the atlas, axis, and vertebra promini'ns, they are developed by 
three points, one for each lamella, and one for the body. After- 
wards there are added to these six additional centres; one for 
each transverse process, two for the spinous process, and one for 
the opper and nnder surface of the body. 

Where is the Sacrum situated, and what characterizes it F It 
is at the posterior part of the pelvis, forms part of its superior 
boundary, and is the pedestal of the spine. It is light and spongy 
in textnre, triangular, concave anteriorly, and irregalarly convex 
posteriorly, where it is divided by spinous processes; articulates 
laterally with the ossa innominuta, and originally consisted of five 
pieces. It has four anterior and four posterior foramina ; its canal 
is triangular, lai^er above than below, is continuous with the 
ipinal canal, and contains the canda equina. The aoteriw foramina 


tousDiit the anterior nerves of the cauda equina, which fonn the 
great sciatic nerve. ' 

Vhat are the points of ossiScation of the sacnim f There an 
twenty-one points ; five for each of the three first pieces, viz : 
— one for the body, one for each lateral portion, and one for each 
lamina ; and three for each of the two last, viz : — one for the body, 
ind one for each lateral portion. 

What are the characteristics of the Coccyx t It resembles the 
tacmni, only mnch smaller, consists of four pieces — sometimes only 
three — united by Bbro-carttlage, corresponds with the tails of 
animals, and is articalated soperiorly to the sacrum. It is de- 
veloped by four points of ossification, one for each piece. 

What are the UBes of the vertebral column f It gives a secnre 
lodgment to the spinal marrow, is a line of support to the trunk, 
and the centre of its movements. 

Where are the Oisa Innominata sitnated ? They ore two in 
nnmber and situated on either side of the sacrum, form the lateral 
and anterior parts of the pelvis, and articulate with the os femoria 
OD each side by the acetabula. 

What are the original divisions of each os iniiominatDm f 
Ilium, ischium, and pubee, all of which meet in the acetabulum. 

What characterizes the Ilium f It is the largest of the three, 
forms the upper and rounded part of the initominatum, articulates 
with the sacrum, and forms tn'o-fifths of the acetabulnm, and may 
be described as divisible into an internal surface, the costa venter, 
which is concave, and an external surface or dorsum, which is 
convex and rough, and gives origin to the glutei muscles, a crest 
or spine, and an anterior and posterior border. The anterior 
■uperior spinous process in front gives origin to the sartorius, and 
tensor vaginfe muscles, and Poupart's ligament ; the inferior 
Spinous process gives origin to the rectus muscle ; the space 
between the two gives origin to the gluteus medius. The ileo- 
pectineal prominence is below, !□ a groove above which pass the 
iliacos intemns and psoas magnus muscles. The posterior supe- 
rior and inferior spinous processes are posteriorly situated. 

The crista has three lips; the transversalis muscle arises from 
the internal one; the intcnial oblique froni the middle, and the 
external oblique is inserted into the external. The Sciatic notch 
is OD the inferior border of the ilium. 

A N A T M T . 

I What chnrnctcrizts the Puhiel It is the anterior part of tha 

R limoioiiiatiim, and is the fimullMt of ilie three i it is composed i>r a 

body sud two Inrgc braiichcfi, one running doimwards, called tl-e 
ranua, to juin tlic ischium — nnd the olbcr backtrunlt and opwarii« 
to the ilium, t-nllcd the horizoutal portion; it nrtivniatcs irjth ita 
teWaw bjr a flat «iirriicc cnlM the ^mpbyMK ; it furm» onc-fi^b or 
the noetabaliim, atid uonlributcs to the roniiHtlon of tbe obturator 

What characterizes the Tediium 1 It forms tbe posterior inferior 
part of llie os iiinotiiiiialum, Is next iu siec to the ilium, triangular 
ID form, it« anterior exiromit; bends upwards to join the pubes, 

L which is the criu, and the remainder is th« liodj', ihc tower part gf 
which it Ibu tubcrositjr; it forms tvro-lifths of the acetohnlum. At 
the nii<l<llc of its posterior morgln Is the spinous process, to which 
is nitnched the lesser sacro-scinlle ligament. 
What is meant bjr tbe Thoraxf It is th« upper part of the 
trunk, and U formed by thi; dorsal vencbra behind, sternum hi 
Trout, and by Ihe riba and Iheir curlila);u« inlertnediale. 

How are the Ribs divided f Into seTcn true and Qt« false, ou 
each side. 

What cliaracterlxca the ribdf They are paraboloid, have au In- 
ternal and external tiurfuec, an upper and lower margin, a sternal 
and vertebral extremity, an auKle. head, tubercle, and neck. 
They ore developed by three poiatH, vist : — one for the central part, 
one for the lu-tid, urid one for the luberoshy. 

Whrre it the Sl'-rnum stunted f In the middle front part of 
tbfl thorax, and la divided Into thr«e portions. th« lower of which 

riasomelimea culled xyphoid or envifonn cartilage. The |)ointa 
of otiiificntion, or development, vary fk'om six to fourteen in 
The upper portion la thieke^l, and resembles a triangle with tbo 
corncra renioYed. buae upwards, a concavity above, one on each 
lidK fur Ihe urticniution of the clavicles, and two aiuatler ouce 
below fur articulating with the ftrHl and second rilw. 

The middle portion is longer uud narrower, and Iiuh depresiioDB 
on its sidtB for articulation with (CTtrol of tli« ribs. 




How ar« tlie bones of the boat) divide>(l ? Into ihoKc of lh< 
traniiim ani) j'ac€. 

What bonM con«liliite the Cranium f The na /ronlir. on orri- 
pitu. two M»a pariftatia, two oxna f^nt/jofum, ok rHimoiih-», and 
the oa tphenoidea. These forni the cavity for the brniii. which hm 
thr*« diaioeifra: the antero-posterior. from the lower pari of the 
o» frontis to the protulieraiice on the ailildle of the inferior siirfnco 
ef the OS occitiitis, six and a half inches ; ihe lateral Inclttdeit the 
apaee beiween the tnperior margins of the oeut Umponim, four and 
thrre-fotinh iiKhcs ; and the vertical, which is Uken from llie centre 
of [lie oc<-ipital foramen to the centre of the sutare between the 
parietal booes, four and a half inches. 

What Me tlw cbaracterislics of ihe Oa Frontis f It forma the 
KDterior. a portion of the superior, lateral, and inferior parleten of 
llie cranium 1 external face conrcx, internal concave, symmetncul, 
knd fomtt ibo vppcr and anterior part of the orbit. It hna liro 
internal and two cilemal atiirulnr procewwi. « niwal process, two 
■upercilinrj ridjies, a trmpontl ri<lKe, two orbilnr pliitcs or pro- 
s, two cluTalions of tho frontal Hinn<(e«, two Kuprn-orbilal 
notches; aiul it arlicalates with the pamlttl, cihtuoiilnl, and sphe- 
noidal l>onf« of the cranium, and ncverul of the Tacc^ It is developed 
l>y livo ceiilm, one for each Intent) liulf. 

What are the character i)> lies of the ih»a ParifUtlial Thcj 
form tbe sujwrior and lateral partH of the midilte of the craniiiRt ; 
thtj ttt qaadrilntern], convex exicrnall]:', and concnve ititcmnlly, 
Md Mch of lli<^in has a parietal rminence and a puriet«1 f»nim«n — 
o<M of these niarkx the centre of o.isiricaliun, and the other Irans- 
niilK a vein to the superior lonf^ltudinii) finii^; they arc developed 
hj- Hinsle centres of osslRcalion. Thev arliculuie tnpelher, with 
the frontal, the sphenoid, the teraporul. and the occipital bonea. 
Tbey have each s deep groove commencinft nt their anterior infe- 
rior aBi;le intcrnallr, for the middle meiiinjreal artery. 

What are the characlerittics of the 0» Occipitin? It i* »ina<lri- 
lateral, rcseuihlinf a trniicjiinm, convex externally, and contave 
[nteniollr; )>oih surfaces are modified by ridKea and proec^ea, 
fix; — on the cxUmal surface U the Aiperior curved line, in tha 



middle of which is iho ocoipilnl pnitiibrriinrn; nbout threp-fonrihii 
of 111! iiith below lIiiK IB I Ik- iiircmri'iirri'd line; llicre is iilso n con- 
(lyic OH CAch nidi! for nriit'iilntinti with the ntliis ; niid the biuilar 
pruccas in front of lUc fummcn niAR-ntini. Upon its iatenial nir- 
f&ce is ft cruclul rl<ttc«, tlio iiitcruni utt-ipllui proUtberance, and the 
jagnlu eminence. Il is devdoiwd by four centres ; one for iho 
poMerior purliou, one for each coudylu, and one for the btuiJnr pro- 
ecn. Il forms a lar^e purlion of (he posterior mid inferior pnmlM 
of \he cranium, and lian a lur^e furamen calicd foramen m«|;iium, 
which IraiisniitM llic- uii-didlii apimdiM, ticrvi ncccKsorii. and the ver< 
IcbmJ arlcrics and veins; ttie anterior condyloid fnrannra. wliich 
IrunKniitK llic ninth pair of iicrrcs ; and llic ponterior condyloid, 
which trnnsmitt a ccrTical vein to the iHlcntI einu«. Jl articulates 
wiili the- pnrictiLl, temporal, and spU«aoid bouc*. 

Fig. 1. 

flThol ore the charact eristics of the 0«»a Temporumf Tli«y 
firini (y>tli»nK of tlie inferior lateral pariclcs, and of ih« baa« oflbe 
• raniinr. have an irrcf^ular Bgnre, and are divided into the ante- 
rior poi'ion called isquamoiis ; ' posterior, nailed nuasloid,' and lh« 
middle or peirous' portion. Th« mastoid portion hu cella or 
siniiMNt, which commtinicali; with the lympaniim. The elevation!! 
■111 euch .'.de are ihc nin^oid. the Kygomaiii.-.* the MiloEd," and the 
viiijinitl prucchR's the ridgic inlvrrially, and the petrous* purliou. 
Tlie deprcidiuus are (he glenoid cavity, iho ()s«nra Glasseri, a fossa, 
Ihc ilijjuif.'ic,' behind the mastoid process, iind the temporal ; a 
groove fo* the lateral sLius. nnd the occipital groove.* The fora- 
minn are 'he meatuR auditorium inleruu&"'" and extcruuf^ Una 



nrotid.'llie tljrlA-ittaicloHl.'lbe Eauiiti-hiiin crtniil, and tlie open- 
iuRn of tlic Htiiiviturt of ttie cochlea" iiml vrstibiile." Tli''j' nro 
coiiTHH'trd ta lilt! «{ih«tioiil. parieifil, miliar, and occlpUnl bones kjr 
midmt i find aru Mch d«v«lop«d hy firv t-unircfl of oasiflcaiion ; 
one for the wquBmou-t portion, one for ilie miutoid, one for lh« 
jivtrnus porlioii, one for the aadilorjr process, aiid one for Ibfl 
urlui*! procen. 

Tig. 2. 

What ore the cfanradcriittlcs of the 0» Sphentrideaf It In »ym- 
m«trica1, but very im-Knlnr, iiin! plncitd nctntu ihn middle of ilie 
base of the cranium. It coiihisU of a body and lur^e prooi-^ea 
called the lessicr''' and preat^r" wing«, ibe ftirmvr of which are ibe 
•pophywi of I tiftra **'"*- There are also the pliryfrnid inlonijil," 
olirary procfMM aad eihiuoidiit xpine.* T\k fi^rnmina are opiienin.* 
lacernm euptrio*^ <>r ■jiliciioiilale,' ovale,* rntiiiidimi,'«pinnle,"' and 
ptsry^idciim," The aella wrcffu" in on the iipjier »iirritcc. snd 
contains the piinitarj* (claiid. It nriivalates Aboru nnit in (inmt 
with the Toinrr, frontal, rthraoidnl, malar, and parietal boncn ; 
luirrall^ with ihe temporal ; behind wiih the occipital, " and wiih 
tl>r palate bonea by the pterygoid proersMei! ; ami U ilctelopcd by 
tnolrc ccnireii; fonr bciuj; for the body, toar for the winxs, two 
for Ui« vxtomal ])tcryg»id [ilalc*, and tnro for the sphenoidal 
*pnat^ bnnCK. 

What iId thete foramina «cvprallT trannmit ? The opticiim tmna- 
mlta Ibe optic ner** and ophthalmic ariery ; ihe tat^eram «upi-riuB 
tnui^miu Ihe iliird. fourth, (iral iimwh nf i)ii> lifili, and the ftixtb 


pnir or nerve* ; the rotandnm tranamits Uitiiecond )>rnnch of tlit 
fifth pnir or nenef. the ovdo th« third tnwicb of ibu lifib puiri 
the Kpinnle the miiltlln artery of the durn mnlc-r ; unii ihu iittry- 
goidraai Ihe ptcrT)[oiil norrc, which is a rucurrenl of Ihu accoiid 
branch oftho fifth pnir. 

Wlint nrt ihc chiirnctcrislic* of Ihc 0» JiOimitiJctJ (See Fir. 4. 
page 3'J.) It is siluntcd litlwwn ihc orUitor proceBUti of the OS 
fronliK; it Is cuboidnl, vcrjr li|rlit mid coltular, utid coiiaiUs of b 
pcrpciidicnlnr Inmclta and two Utcrnl niAinca. The part betwem 
the ortiitar procci^cx xnpniorly iii irnltcd the vriUriforni plnte,* with 
the criftu icalli' in the cctitro. Tlie lutcral aiiuaes kr« dlvuible 
into ail iiiternnl and externa] Kurfitce, tiiid four borders : on the 
Inieriiu) Kiirfovu U sitnnti'd lh« superior inealuii of the iiobc, nhov* 
vUlch la the Huperlor mrbliiMed boii«, and below is th« middle 
tnrbliinted bone or procem. The eslcTnal surface is quailrilntmU 
and smooth, hence naiaed os planum;* it aliio fonus part of the 
orbit of llie oy«. Theso fnofset^ are cellnUr. anil divided into unlc- 
rior and posterior elbuoidat cells. This bono articulates viitb 
ihirioen others; two of the cranium, the rest of tbe face; it is 
developed by three eenlrcs, one for each lateral mass, aad one for 
tho perpendicular lamella.* 

What is meant bj Utv pyramidii of WiiiarJ They are trianga- 
lar liolloir pyramids on the posterior part of each cellular portion 
of Ihe ethmoid bone, consi^tiiif; »f a sintcla cell; and (be ttzygoit 
proccM of the sphenoid bone is received between them. Tliey are 
found in children from three to eif;lit yMrs of af(9. Tbe |iyminid 
tomrds puberty becomes a part of the uphcDoId bone, and (lutachcst 
itself from the ethmoid by u KUture. 

What campoies the Pack ? Fourteen bones j thirteen of whkh 
are in the ui)|>er Jaw. They are the OMa tnarillaria superiora. 
oaea tnaiarum, oiua nan, o««a turbinaia in/rriora, o»»a palati, 
o»ta unguis, and lbs vomer. The fourteenth is tbe o« miuitlare 

What are tlie rharitcleri^ticii of the Osso Maxiilaria Supevioraf 
Tliry are dislin.^iiiithed by tlivir nupcriorfiu;, and compoi' In; nearly 
tin- wholf front of the upper jnw, Tbry nUo form a portion of the 
orbit of the eyes, and have nlvnolur. malar,* unital,* sod palatine 
procMsea. They have alao a tarfic cavity in each, called tbe anfrum 
Highmorianuv which communtcutcK with tbe note, a formiueii 





Fig. 8, 

inm opening twhind Iho incisor teoth, cooimon to boUi; and 
I boDi! has A caaal i-ii]t«d inrra- 
vrbititr, nprainf; oo the front by 
Um infro-orinUir forntuDn,' wliicli 
OmnstBtts Uiv inrra-ort>iUr titnv niid 
WU17, and B amine' ami cub-iuuai * 
tosam. Tbey ATticnlnic widi llic 
frontal, ** nuui,'* nngiiirami, mitlor. 
and eihnioiilBl honvH" snpitriorly : 
befaUid to ttii: pnUlcand siihunoidal 
boDM t" in tbt middle lo the vomer 
Uid to each otl>er;*aud hj ili« niuitl 
finrhte lo llie inforior eponirf ; niid 
sre «ach de*«l«|>cd by nix cenires — 
oat tor Uw body, one for einli of 

tbo tbre« proeoMc* (nnsa), malar, and judntc), and two tor the 
mlvfolar procva. 

Wliat are the cl«iraci«rt(lic4 of Ihe Onm Patati* They nro 

placad |KMteriorly to tbe Kupcrior ninxilltiry txmci. Iitttwfi'n them 

and ilt« pUryfcoid procesMi of the rphi-iinid. — Tliry nn^ ciich 

_illTid«d into Uiree porltona; the bori/.uiitnl or pnlnlr pinte. the 

tical or oasal plale, and the orbitar or oblique plntc. Thi'y 

k*« dx ■rtlculatiuns. vlx : — niih the iimxillnry botie.<, splieiioid. 

Ihnoid. inferior tpoiipy, vomer, and w!ih encli oilier; and eocb 

boiic U dcre1o[>ed by a »iii);1c centre. 

What ar« llie cbDracterlslk-ii of ilie Osita Aonf They arc two 
in nnniW. and 111 up ibe vaeanei- between 1I10 iianul proeensei of the 
Hilierior muiillary twne*. ard form wbat is lermci) ibe bvid^'e of 
■III- none. TlH.'y articulate with eacb other anteriorly, on froiilii 
taiMTiorly. opper maxillary posteriorly, and with tlie septam nuriam 
■Iwrv tlwy snite together ia front ; each bone is developed by a 
^ittflt centre, 

^K What are the characterUtics of the Oitea Unguist They are 
^^pniall, and are placed nt the iiiteniBt nide of tlie orbit, between llie 
^^haMl procesH's of tha oppcr maxillary hone and thL> )>lnnar pinie 
pf the ethmoid; aMi»l in fomiing the ductus ad nasum, nrlu-ulate 
loonely wilb llic on fronlis. tiiipvr mnxillary, planar plalo of iho 
ethmoid, and inlvrior tpongy bone of the doso; they are each 
developed by a single point of osa6cal)9B. 




Wlint Br« th« i-harncl eristic* of (lie 0**0 Malarum t Tbey an 
Bilniilni u[ ihc rxliTiin) iinplc of ibo «rWt of llie rjit. and form ibe 
ini<ldk and rxtcraul pun* ot ihr face. Tliejr or* quadniiigular, 
with irrcf^ular murftinx. havi- giipcrior aiid inferior orbitar, rvgo- 
malic, and maxillary prorcsM-^ The; articnlate en rack bide vritli 
lUe maxilliiry, rroiital, siiWiioidal, and temporal bobee; tbejr an 
dvvelopocl by a ficigic point on wioli side, 

Wliflt ar« the characieriatii-a of the 0»*a Sjfini/t^ta In/trioral 
Tliejr are sltaatcd at the inferior umt luttrrat imrtH of ihe noB«^ 
beloti' th« 0|>enlD|]; into tlie iiiitnim lliiclimorianutn ; the; have a 
coacave and conveji 8tirrnc«, with tbo coiicavitjr looliing tvirarda 
llio inaxillttrj bi>ii«L 

Wiini arc tlie cUnM-ttriMics of Ibe Vomerf It ia placed 
bclwueii tU(! nontrilf, and fonns n part of the «pptiiiR. It ariica- 
]atv» WIow with thv iiusul npine of lh« superior ma:iiltary and 
palate boncK, and above to the natal lamella of iba ethmoid and 
azygos prorcMW of llic *phcni)i<!. 

What are the chara(-teH»lic-s of iha 0» Kixillare Inf«rift»1 It 
forms tho tower bonndurj' of the face, and is capable of motion. It 
is compo&ied of a Iwdj- atid two extremities of rami ; has alveolar 
procoMcs, two antics, condyles, and eoronoid procmMr* ; aW two 
forutniua, tho anterSur menial, whith tranamlla a pan of the inferior 
alvttular uriery and n«rve ; and itie ]KiHterior m^'nlal, throngk whii-b 
the inferior alveolar artery and nerve enter; the middle union of 
tiia two nidex is eulled KyniplivKi*. 

Uow arc the boiiva of tl»' Crnnium unilt-d f By wvtvr^t ; thtj 
are (bo coronal, wbidi unilet the pnrietal and frontal bf.'-iw ; tht 
tagiUal. whirh iinilfn the two pnri«lal ; Ibe lainMoi'ial. joining 
llie purielal and «cci|ji(ui ; and ibc two tqvamout!, eonneiting lh« 
Kcjnaiuoua part of the temporal and the pnmtal. lu the IsisbdoMal 
aro fre<inrally fonnd small bonea called o«sa Wortniana, or Tri* 
ijuelra, and ocennitinally llicse are fuund in Ihc other nlorea. 
The iHO« of the aaiureH arc not fully settled amonfif auatominlii and 

What arc the principnl Tarietien of mttttr^tt The mrralrd. 
wbcra tbc ntiion it formed by iwo lionUrf of dilTerenl bones pos- 
seasing cenated edges. The miuamou», where (be union la 
focned bj the overlapping of the bOTctled edges of the two con- 
ti^ou* bones. The hartnonia, irheni there it a limple apposition 




er Foiittinovs Enrfitces, belnn more or less roo^ and rotentire. 
The gehindijIetU, wfaere lli«n' is a recoplioii uf one bone inlo a 
•hrnlb or Saare of another. 

What it tile drtirture of the boii<« of the crniiiiim ? Thc;r nn , 
l«(MBpo«til of two InliJM united by ovtliilnr siibsiniice cnllcti di'/)fiir,f 
,'lrhwh bcgtiu to BJiovr itself nt two or Ihi-ec vcnn of ngv, The 
Internal Uiblc U tliin anil brittle, aitil \» rnllcii Kilreon*. 

Bow nuuiy bone* «iiter into the composition of ihe Orhll f 
^Stren; tlie frontal, tlio ninlar, the Riiperior mnxillury, tbo planar 
laUi of tliv cthinniiJ, the oii^nifornt. splKtncid. anii pnlate. 
Wliat arc tbv clMractcri sties of rhc Nnsul Cntity ? 
Im-pilnr, Mparaiod from its fellow by a septum, niid hns threo 
dbtliict mvnlascH or paesagw. 

TIm tuperior Una t)i« posterior elhnioidul cellfi,' Ibc itpli«noidni 
t«l1«, and th« «pbcBO> palatine foratneii apcnin;; into it ; itit :(ilnulioo J 
In tirtwe^n ()i« ftiipi-Hor and middle' lurbiiiittcd boiii». Tli<- mi-Ule 
meatiu i« fuitiid between the middle and inferior turbinated boiicj^," 
vrltll the fh>iltiil ainua, anterior eilimoidal celt*,' and tlit- antrum " 
(•petiiiiK into it. Tli« infnriar la between tlie inferior tiirliiniiiid 
txiue ' and tlie door uf the cuviij'. Is tbe largest, and Uaa lliu uu^al 
tlact openlni; into {u 

Tlie anterior openlni; Is railed tlie anterior nares, and the poste- 
rior npDDinjt itie poelrnor narea. 

Wh*re b the Zyf^matic Fofsa situated ? On either side of tlio 
head, aiid is formed by the parietal, sphenoid, temporal, aud fruutal 

bonea ; tlie zygomit bounds U exiernallv, niid it U occupi^ bjr ih« 
temjiornl mnsclc. 

Wht-rc in Ihc I'lcryKO-Muxiltary Fossa f At the boUoin of the 
tjgomalic tf/va. and i-i Corriied by ibe superior maxitlary, (iktatii, 
atid it|>liuiii>i<l bonl^«. Iti Hhupc is triaii)!ulor, bftM u|>wiir(li; t)i« 
gaiit(Iii>n or Mi-ckH i.t coninlnetl in il. and irJVB6 off braiiclura which 
pocs throiijrii fiiruiniiia «|>ciiiiig upon this fwaa. 

Whurr IK Uic On Hyoide* KiluaUd 1 At iho root of (he tongue 
Killiin Uic dn-lc of the lower ja«r, abd insnialed, having no t-uiN 
neclioii with any i>lhn- boii« except by iDOBcles and lignnieDt*. Il 
is conipused of » body, iind a i;rculer and leiacr curnu on each 
side ; and is dcrelopMl by Gv« )ioiiitK — one for tlie body, aud Oiw 
for each coran ; cturen jioirii of inuftcJes are attached to this bon«. 

Superior Extrkmities. 

llow arc the tupcrlor «xtremitiee divided ? Tbcy are divided 
on eiOnT niiie into nhoul'hr. arm,/orfai-m. and hand. 

What cmiittu'ei' llie Shuukltr ? The tlafit-le and Kcapula, whioli 
occupy Ibc KiipiTtor, lateral, and poiterior puns of the ihttrax. 

Whnt arc ihe characteristics of the Scapitfa 7 It is on iho poiilc- 
Hor i>art of the tliurax, and exlciidA from the second to serenih 
rib Inclusive; it is triangular, has an aiit«rii>f fnco called veiitrr, 
and a posterior face or dorsum, a superior edge or <M>sta, an ex- 
lernaledi^'e or inferior costa, aud a posterior or Internal edge; 
termed the base; has tlirce angles — ono superior, otic inferior, 
aud the other anterior or external ; a spine rnnning from the poste- 
rior edge obli<iuety lonordK the anterior anisic, rapidly increasiiif; 
ontil it rlAes and is, elongated furwards and npirants, and overban)^ 
the RhmiliUr-j^iiil. niid is cnllnl the ncromion process; a cenix, 
corncoid prore«, and a glirnuid entity, for urlicnlatiiif; aith bu- 
merns. It la developed by six c^iiirdi; one for (he body, one for 
the eoriinild proeens, two for the acromion, onv for the ])OEtcrior 
border, mid ui>u f<>r \\h- inferior angle ; ariicninte* wilh the clavicle 
and hiiinvrus; and has »iixteen miiaclcti atladtcd to it, viz: — 6nb- 
tcapuluriK, supra and liifhi-iipinatiia, omo-hyoid, levator nngiili 
scapulae, rhumboideus major and minor, ncrratus mngiius, lung 
head of triceps, teres minor and major, long aiwl short tendon of 
bleeps, trapeiiiuj, deltoid, pectoralis, minor and coiueo-brachialis 




I extent 


rbe lifcaments allocbed to tbe coracoid process are the coracold. 

caracu^Uvkiilnr. and hiimcTitl, and the coftto-coracold meinbTane. 

Wliat «re llie cliaracteriiliw of the Claiivle f It is a long boue 

(iiuuted tramrerai^lf at ihe superior and anicnor pans of ilie client, 

extend hig from tlie sternum to tlioncroQiionprocusa of the scapula; 

la compared in shape to the letter /. and is divided into body, 

lal, and tmpular esircraiiies. It is developed lij- two centres ; 

articvlales with tlie Elemnni and Hcapula ; and lias c'lx maficlea 

larltcd to it, Tit : — stenio-mosioid, trapexios, pcctoralid major, 

liuid, Aaticlaviua, aod Merao-hrold. 

Wlmi are tlie cliaracierifttica of the ffumeruet It is cylindrical, 
iMtb extrerottles enlarged ; Ihe superior is catted its head, which is 
Iwinbiplirrical, aitil attached to the body of ibe bone by the neck t 
It lias lou iQberodilics, external and idlcriial, between wliich is tlie 
bicipiial ktootc ; tvo biginoiil cmiiics ; one receiven the cormiuld, 
and ibe other the olecranon process of the utna ; and two condyles 
Tba part between the exIreiuEiicG is lenned body. It is dcTctupcd 
by HTcn centres ; articulates with the fjleiinid cnrily of tlie cctt|inlB, 
and with tlie ulna and radius; and lia.t Iwcntj-four nawloa 
aUadird to iL In the motions of Ihe vbouldcr Joint it U axiacepti* 
ble«f olataUon, de|>re«aion, udvanuin);, retreating, circumduction, 
i| and rotation. 

^^ What are the bont« of Ihe Fomrmt The nlnu and rndinn. 
^B Whatarotbecbaradcrisiiesofihe C/Mor Itistitnaledon theln* 
^Hf da of iIm- fiin-arin with ihe liltic flnjror ; nt-nrly xtTiiiithl. much larger 
^VW the upjier than al Ihii lover extremity ; tht; upper or humeral 
extremity hat on olecmiion and a curonnid proccM, u-iih the grcnirr 
•igmohl cavity between ttieiu for articalntinf; nilh the hniniTnc, 
tad iIm leaMT on the radial surface of the coroiioid for nrliciilnlinp 
ilh the head of the rudin«; the lower fjtlrcmity hu» a ntyloid 
and an articular tnrfncc for articulating with tha carpa«, 
!On« for aniculntintc with tlw radiuK. It u devrIoi)rd liy four 
cetitTM ; articulate* vrltli ibu bnoi«m» and radius ; and has twulre 
.owaciaa Ulacbed lo it. 
W bat are the chnracterixtica of ihe Badiuaf It ia tlie mtary 
ae of Ibe forearni. »horier than tlw ulna, siiiintcd exteriorly to 
and exlrnid* frotn tbe o« huim-ri to the wrinl ; it it mnallcr al 
m upper than at llie lomx exIri'inItT ; and hns » hi-iid. neck, 
'^iBberoaity, and styloid proce.*d. It t* developed by threti oentrei, 



fLrlicDintefi wiih tlie bumonis, ulna, scaphoid, and semiinnar bones; 
and baa nine muscles atlnchcd to it. Tti« forearm cxct-ules upon 
Ibe arm, flexion, extension, and Inleral inclination. 

What composes (be Band 1 The carpug, wetacarpue, anil 
j^alangea or ditfiii. 

WIiBi are tlie bones of (lie Carpaa? Tliere ore t«o rows: In 
the fim are tlie st-apliuitlfs. hinarc, i-unelfonne. and pisirornte ; in 
the tieeond are ilie tra]>ezlam, Irapexoidcs, mafrnura, and nni-if urine. 

Wlicre is iho Mvtaearpvg silnatedF lietween ilic corpus and 
plialanfces of the fin)^TB and tliniub, and aro Bre in number. 

IIow many Phalangee are there? Fourlcen ; three for each 
llni;ur and two for ilie ibumb ; the bone adjoining ibc meta<:ar|m» 
is ibe firei, tti middle is the second, and the olber the third. 

I pai 


What are Ilift Ijonca of each Inferior rxlrcmity ? The of/fmQrif, 
tibia, ^hiila, patirlla, larxitii:, mrlaiortut, and jJialani/eti. 

What are ihc ohiimi-lcri sties of the Or FVmnrinl It is the 
tariteHt bone in tbp hnmnn bodj; at lie Hipnior exlremiiy it hn« 
three well marked eminence*, the bend, and punter and Icuer 
troehanli-n : ihtt head w sapporied by tbc n«'k. which projeeta 
from tliu liody uf the bonu between the Irucbantcr* ; ihe lin« 
Ix'tween the iroi-haiiivn \a called the linea qnadrota. Its inferior 
extrecijiy is larK^r, and divided into two paru, ih« Itiiemul and 
exlernal condyle. Tlie linea aspera bi-frins liroa<l, nxiR-h. am) flnl, 
on a levH with the tTuclmnter minor; a« it deM-ntda, il become 
more I'lcvnti-il, and il« lower i-xlrcinily divides into two superficia) 
ridjfca, one runnia)t 1o each condyle. It Is dereloped by Uto 
oenlret; one for ihe shaft, one for each exlremlly. and one for 
each trochanter; and hu» twenty-three moscle* attached lo it. lis 
inoliona consist in extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, rota- 
tion, and circnmduL-iiou. 

What are the bone« of the leij .» 'die tihia, Jthula, and patella. 

Wluit are the ehnriieU'rislicM of the Tihia f It is on the Internal 
side- of the leg, and exU^nds from ihe tliijirh to the fool ; it U the 
lonpmt and Inr^i-st bone in th<- body, except the femur; ihe supe- 
rior exlrrmity is nim-b tnrper ihan llie inferior ; its inferior (nlernal 
part il colled the internal mailuolns. It bn* also an elevation called 



Ban process, am) nnothcr called the tuhcrnk ; it n dcrclnpcd bj 
three L-«utreB ; oite for t)i« abart, and one Tor eaeli extremity ; nnd 
bas t«n iniL-urltrs atuHied to it. Flexion, etu-tixioii, nnd purliul 
rouiioti, nre llie tnolions of the lepr upon Ibe tlii>;b- 

Wlinl are ihc tharacteri sties of the Fibula f Ii U at the exlemal 

ide of ihe tibia, and eilctidd from its bi-ad to ibo fool ; ill' iiifrrior 

D<t external part b cnllMl itic external malleolus. Tills liotic ia 

eveloped by thr«c oenim ; and bns nine niuseles attnchcil to il. 

nhn tibia and (ibnia arlicnlnlc below witb the afttra^lus. 

What are lh« eliararlrrifilics of the Palellat It is small, inter- 
liate to the thigh and Icfc. and plnc«d on the frout of the kDe«- 
Mtit; its anterior face conrex and roujfli ', and its circiimrorenco 
b nearlr oval. «ith the lon^ diameter transrene. 

Ilo«' is lUe/uat divided T Into lanti*, metatarna, and Ice* or 

Wbat composes tlie Tannsl Seven bones; viz., os eaieis. tlie 
a^ra>jaht», the na vit-ularr, the ciiboide*, Ihe cunetfortae exitmum, 
cmui/orme ii\eJium, and cunei/orme inlernum. 


Wlint are the charactfrislica of Cmiilagel It is a Eolidlanco 
of a wliim or pearly color, hard, flexible, very elastic, foond In 
Tarion* i>«rts of the body, especiallj- on the articular surfaces of 
bi.rr«, the end of the noec. the edges of tlio eyelids, the enr, »-ind 
pipe, rad of riba, ix. It contains no ml lilood-wncls, nerrcs, 
aor lyroptiatim. The cbemicnt analysis is : gelatin, 44.5 ; wutrr, 65 ; 
photipliaie of lime. O.&. 

Ilownro tliecanllafTcst'iVtfex'f Into articular, or those which 
covrr till- iiarfac« of booes In movable Joints ; the interarticuiar. or 
Uio<c which are Interposed 1)elween the ends of bones to form a 
noralik socVft ; the connectint/, or those which nnit4 the articular 
eiirfHceii of l>one9 by an Immovable union, as the sutnres of th<! 
sltuli, the connections between the bone* of the pclvin, Ac. ; and 
(tie carHtage of oavittet, or those which form the InrrBX, trachea, 
port of the Dose, &e. 

What ti the nieinbrane surroundinir cartilage eollei! ? Ptri 
cht/nHriam, and il is similar to the perioElenm. 




Of Lioame'(T8. 

Wliiit nn tha chitrii«t«ristics of the ligamenloM or deamotd 
Httua, nilk'il nlf^o fibr^ut tUiniei It rib; be known bjr its white- 
ncKS, liriiincM. the unyirldiiig nntarc or irx inaleiiiils. Mid it« Bbruiu 
arrnngcmcnt It i« vrrjr gcncrnlly ditTnscd in ihc liuman body, snd 
has a yety close conneclioii uilh iho cellular trxluro ; it also Hsrv^t 
the purpose of conncctiii); ihe bones in their art ictib lions. Tbo 
Bensibiliiy of this system is cstmnely obscure ; the uanal meebnnicul 
and chemical iiritants do not affect it; it may, however, be pro- 
duced by a tuisting motion, or nlivti under a slate of inflominalloii, 
as In gout, rbeomalism. &c. Tbere ere two kiiidx, tho witile, fouitd 
in Icndona, fescite. and most of Ibe lif;«niont«; and the j/tllow, 
which is fonnd in the ligameiaium tiuclis, iu many res^t^ls and ducU, 
und is elastic. 

What Is meant by L-gamenta 1 They are those orp:nns which 
tte tbo bones loKelhor, and in the movable Joiuls are divided into 
the capxtilar, and tbe /tmicutar. Tlic Brat are open at the end, 
and envelope the ends of tbe bones, extending from one to the 
other ! the second are mere cords, extending from one bone to the 
olber, and may be flattened, round, or oral ; Ihey may be cither 
fntenial or external to the capsular ligament; their stndy is called 

Whirt ore the character i*lics of the Fihro or LiQamenlfi-carli- 
laginoM^ »y)item 7 It partakes of tlie character of both ligameot 
and carlilnpc. and the cousliluenta of which consist of a Strong 
fibrous malliT, inlennixed with csnilagc. 

What are the different farms of articulation thai arc met with In 
the human body called? St/narifirofis, atnphi-arthrosia, and 
diaiiliry^fi*. In tbe /«( of these, tho bones itre immovably con- 
nected with each other. Ataphi-arihrwd* is n joint iniermediale. 
in ajililudo for motion, between the immovable jivnurlhrosis and 
Ibe movable d'tarihro^is ; it is of u mixed chiLrm-tci'. being partly 
lined by *ynotial membrane, and partly by the intervention of inlcr- 
osseoits li^menis. Example* of thU nnion may be seen in tho 
connection of the verlebrte. Diarthrogig is the movable articn- 
Intion : of whl<-b we have examples in lh« great nomber of the 
joints of the biuly. 






Wbat k iDMiil hy a Synovial mtfmbranel It b a nwnbrKDfl 
tilling Mch Bravablc krtictilaLioii, rolIi'RUd over tbc iiiiern«l face of 
<i* c*]>«ilnr lij^aoHnt bdiI th« iinjcnlitr citnilujKC ; it is a perfecl 
Me. wid tlilTirrs th)ia iht cnpsiiUr lignmnit in bnvinfc no opeini\t( 
i'lll; it i) wliilr, thin, 6vRii-trAii*|Mtr«iit, mid Kift, Mongs to the 
dw of icfoas mt'iobranc«, mid tlie llniJ «<i[tcI«>1 Iij* it in culled 
•jddtU, the nse of nlticb ia to (limiiiixli fricliun, and facilitate 

Wbat nrv the etructnr«« entering into thi-nom|)asitioii of a joint? 
ft<W, varlila^, fihrv-cariilaqe , liijampitljf, nnd synovial metii* 

What caters into tho Arlieulation of tlif Lowtr Jmel Dcjides 
He benee tipited nith their rftrtilngcx. thcrv \% a capsular ligHmont^ 
ta internal, cslomal, and stylo-innxiljury ligiimcnt, and a eiuuII 
trian^ilar ligament discorrrvd lij Culiluiii. two iijrnonal tnem- 
htuee, an ini«nirticvlar conilngc, and an tTcctile liune. The 
Borentuta of the lover jaw arc depreasiou, Dlevation, a forirard 
. backwurd mOTemeni, and a movement ftom side to side. 

Pig. S. 

What are the Ligamei^ of the VcrUbra T The inlervertebral, 
mlrru/r and fttlcrior' tvrtt^rai, a tiopttu/ar*' at the nrticnlu- 
llnna of the (>l>li(|ii« pn>cc«*««, inlerwfeou*. li^amfniiim ntiehtF, 
Ifjamfitto Jlat-a (23 paim); bftwcvii tlic ory;i|iot ntid alius nre Ihc 
on/rnor and poflrriur, hi>twe«ti the Mcond nnd first venebnr and 
Ikp twrlpat are liie ltur«rti tiijamenton, franecene,' wi'ih the nppei' 
aad Imwt' appcadiuct, obtiquc or moderator,* and middle oi 
i/nii-jAJ li'jnmentt. 

WImI an the Ldjamtnla of the I'etniit The anlt^rioraud pof 
knur" c»reyffm^ Ui"-I»mbar, »acro-»pinovt»* UKrO'^iac' pot- 


Urivr tarro-tfiaHe."- " anterior aaero-BcitUie,'^ * obtttrattyr," an- 
terior puhie Hiid tlie »vb or inter-pvbic ligftmeots. 

WImt itro tlie Lvjamol* at the posterior ftrtlcnlnlion of th* 
J?t'fc«? Th<t anterior or radiattnp,* inlemrtieular.' twi> captular 
far ilie hoad of eoeb. ami ovk where they are articulnled with the 
iransverse processes of tlie verlebrw, llio internal tranttvrite* the 
ej^tertiat traneivrte, and middle coi^fj-lrai>»itr»e ligamrntn. 

What sro the li^meiils of ibe anterior ariiculalion at the rihat 
There nre two, an anlnrior* (Fig. 8), a potteriw. and the cosio- 
xij'hf'id ligamcjilg; also a synovial incmhrnnc imprrfeclJy developed, 

WImi ore the lipnmcnts anrl parts coriccrncd in the arlico- 
Inliuns of the anterior end of the dariclef Thu captular' and 
iulerciaeicular' WgAmttiH; an inli-rarlicutar cartilage;* two 




rijE- 0. 

gjtnovial mcBibranee ; aud Ui« rhomboid* ligineiit, connMUDg the 
8m ril> wilb the claTicle. 

Wliiit in mcanl by ttie Articutalion of the Shoutttert It is 
tile juiKtiun or Uie claricle to the D^per part of tW ttvrnnm and 
Gnt rib; oT tbe scapula to the daTiclu; nnil or tbc liumcms to 
ibr ten pill «. 

Wbal li|^in«nt« arc conci>niuii in Hip tu-aputn-ctaru'ular ariicv- 
liomt Tli« rt^ular, ttic coracv-claifiruhr' wbirli is divided 
JDto ibe conoid mnil Irapvzmil, bijid, coracoid,* and ibe triansutar* 
UgameiiU, oroomco-ocromia/i't.* 

Whal lljconieata ar« conci-nivil In the 
icapiilo-hvneral articulation 1 Tt)e 
capMutar, ' (he lon^ head of the hietpt^ 
eomeo-kumrral* or liQamentum ad»ci' 
(iriuni/aDd th^^'^Noi'rf li^meot. which 
UtTonnda die i^lutiuiil CDTJty. Tliia 
joint b capable of every rnricty of mo- 
tioR, tia : — of taorcnicnt forBiinl* luid 
b«ekw«rii». ofntKlocUon and iiddiictioti, 
of dtxninidiKtioB ani) rotAtir>n. 

What are the li^m«nl» of the elbow 
jmutJ The cofmitar' (Fig. 10), «n- 
aniar,'* and' (I-'if;. 11), «r coronary 
fjUrmal* (FIr, lO), and inlerrtal tote- 
nil"{Yig. 11). lignments. 

Wbat Iviament* are «itnateil fi^fuwd tlw radivit and K?na .» The 
%nUroM*fOUM* (Fig. 11). tbe rownt/' (Fi|f. 11), ligamcnU (or liga- 
nemlmn lervd*), and Ibe coptu/ar (Fig. It), or Mcci/orm ■! 
Oi«ir lowar eimraitiH. 


Fiit- lOi 


What Bre ihe lisamejila ot lh<s torisl-jt.inll TheiN/Rr»ai'(Fig. 
l2) Bnd external* lateral, capsular* doreal, ra<lio-utnar,* and 
palmar' Vigain^iits. The movcmenU of the joint are fiexion, px- 
leaeion. adduction, abduciioo, niid circQ induction. Tliere arc nUo 
ligam«nts connccling the second row of tlio i-nrjius with the meta- 
carpus;* ft cttpnitlar tif/amenl* far iho carpo-metncarpnl joint of 

Fig, IS. 

llic Ihiimh, and one for the meta- 
eiirpo-phulongiftl joint," and nn 
f^crnal lateral " for ilie same 
joint; a capsular tigam«it*of 
the Tnclacarpi>-]>halanjriat nTtlcn- 
luliou of tlio tudvx rinj{«r, tale- 
ral'*'* ligginienta for similar 
nrticntntionM, and inferior pat- 
war"''' ligaments. 

Wlial are tlic ligamenU of Ul« 
ilio'/cmoml (Vlg. 13)orAip<rrti- 
culalivnJ Thu cotylnUt, vbivh 
lipK the mnrgiu uflhe acclabulum, 
ibe interarticular OT round, eod 
ilie rapstilar' Ivjatn^nt The 



moTenntts aro flexion, cxteiiiion. sdiliiction, atidiiclioii, elroomduc- 
tloii, aad roMtiuti. Tlif out rcproBvniH tliD socrrt-ivrlcbral,' lite ilio- 
tumbar,' liiv antrriur ftortion of ll>o sacro-iliac,' Tiic lower jtarl 
o( ihr anUrriur vrrlrhral,' Pvupart'g ligament* an*] tliut portion 
of it ca\\ei\ Oimbrrnal'n,' tht accetaory* of ibc lji|>-joint. aiiU ihsi 

^obliimlar' lip.iinrnts. 

WItal nn- tito ligniacnti *uil p«rta roncenied !i. lliei;ni'^^'n/f 

iTIi*^ capsular hyamenl. or invo/Mfririn generate, tbc fii;<nN«n( 
of Uie paletla' (Fig. IS), a poirten'or' (Fig. H), or lirjamtiU 0/ 

rig. 11 

Flfr 15. 

Fit. 16. 

iWintlme' (Fijir. U). tn/*-ni«i' tnA arterital* Itdeml (Fig. U), 
Nad (uv< eeuciot*-' (Fl|t. lAj lijranii-iitii. Thli Jiiitit Iium otxu two 
'temilunar cfrlHaijea*'^ {F<ir- 1.^). onJ ilH niutiotis ure lh<fp of 
. ftriiuii mad «xU'iiMoii. The cii|icri<)r |ii.-rotii>o-libiul tiriii-ulmiuu " 
uFlg. 15), ■oil llie inlcr(»sM>i>iis ligunitiil;" ilic (luHtcrlor superior 
T|i(r»Di.-o-iIiiiiil ti)cani«ii* (Pi]r. N), Pifr. Id rt-prcinints a lungi- 
'tndinal wnrtioii of llie kiiep-joliit, sliowiiip tliu i-i-llutur slriiclurp of 

the tower eiiil of Itiu fi-aiur anil libio;,' tins |taiella' wilh ils ligo-i 

Bu^t,' Uw )>rm Immp' undiT it, Dtr ligatiiciituiii rnacoiura,"' tlie 
[■Dlvriorcmclsl liicuiiii'nl," and Ok (eudoii af ilic [|iia(lrire|iK rciimriK.* 
[](iw arv (lie frfrm ■ml Jibula unilrd lo-;i.>llier 7 Tbc)* ore iitiiled 
laoiicd'irt^ by iin «iiifnVr and in/rtirinr li),'atiitiit. uml n cynoi-iW 

nembraafi iitrrriorl}' al>o bjr an anterior and jxmterior IJ^- 
6 If 


mcnt ; nnd the liodi^H if Ihcitc bones arc utiitcd bj^ an inlrrottfinu 

WImt nre the liitninrnts of tlic onHf-joinlf An Impcrfecl «ij»- 
siilar, on inlrrnal, ami nn ertemal lateral lignrocnl. 

Wtiiit )i)[nin(-nl.i i-diiiiLirt ihc ot antra'jalut ftud oi calcisl Tlie 
inleroMt^ouii, pi>*t/^rior, nni] <Mloid WjinnivMB. 

Whnt coimcuIM thu aMrarjahit «'Ilh the KCttpficndeef 

It in conncctL-d abovfl l>y n hroaJ Ihin tignmeot ; below \»y two 
tipinionts, inlrrnal and erternal t:alcaneO'tcap!ioid. 

What cuimtc-tit Die oo/m with tli^ cuboidea? The auperior 
And inferior calcaneo-cvboid li;;8iiiei)tfl. 

Of TBS IktbotiurhtS. 

Whftt is meant by the iiitcgiinjeiits of tho hoAj t Tbc c«Uul«r 
and adipoie eubttaiicet, and the dfrmoiil coKtring. 

Whnt arc gome of Ibo proporlics of cellular tissue? It il M 
elementary tUsae, generally di^eminated over the whole body; 
found beneatli the skin ; bclneen muscles; connecting membra nes 
and other pnrls ; entering into iticir composilioii ; inilispeii»nh1o 
to their texture ; and precedes them in the development of tho 
faitns. It ia composed of cells which communicate freely vilh 
each other, and may be dislended either nilh air or other fliiid«. 
and friini iu cluxticity uheii the dixtenKiua 'u removal it will return 
to itii original shape. 

Where U tli« adipose glrudure found ? Between (be ekin «nd 
itic fascia, in tli« layers of condensed cellular subManee, next to 
the mujicles, as the fa<-e, uccb, trunk of the body, buttocks, limbs, 
palms of the hands, soles of tho feet, &C. In eheniical roinposi- 
tion — for whieh, sec Animal Chemistry — it differs from all other 
parta of Ihc body in containing no uitrogcii. It is enclosed by 
cellular Hubiilanee. 

Whnt it mennt by the dermoid covering^ The akin; lu 
tebaceou* RtiA perspiratory organv; iht naiU ; and the &air. 

How many lamina doen tho skin consist ofT Two, the cutia 
vera, nnd the c'ticula. Wlint was rormcrly called rele mufOiiioi, 
ftnd wlileh eontnins the eoloring mntti-r. is merely the deeper Of 
more recently formed ]>»rliiin of the nitielc or epidcrmi*. 




"WliBt if ntiilcratood bj tlie atbaeeoya organa t Tbo follicles bdiI 
flaiM>& Mbiult nirnisli llie oilf oshalalion Ibut iuLiricatvs Uie &urf»ce 
of ihi- hliiii. 

M Iiil tE iiwaiil 1>y (ha yertpiralorjf &ryana 1 Tbcy are bodies 
I'lUeil nvilorijiai-out inlands. (roitlniiM<ii iii tlio rtitis vera and sabcu- 
toiiroiis Cflliilar li^isiir. Tin}' esrt) consist of a cfliiKlrit.-iil tntie, 
f;i'ni-ra1lT cxicnititig froBi Ibc iiiitlcr surface of the tniu skin to tlie 
KiiTfnci- u( llircu(k'l«. Thu Gr&t povtioii is tortiioiiii, ond collected 
Inlu a fjiiall spherical ball snrruiitidcd by fat vciiiclcs, rroin which 
tlie lube imccetb in an irrrgulur iind tortuous manner lo Ihe 
Burfuii.', sill] opens by n conical orilicc on tho ridges of the culia 
ri-rn made \ij I be papilta! lacms. 

WItat nrc lliti nail* f Tlicy may be comidercd as a continuation 
«f tin cuiiclc. nipjily its place on the e.xtrcmilica of tlie finders and 
toen, and corrirfpond with lliu talous nnd lioofii uf aidiaals. Tlicy 
ve devoid of or^iiixalion. Each one cooeiHia of a root, a body, 
and a free vxlrciuily. 

Wlinl Mft tlic hain ? The; arc cylindrical liliinienU found on 
must fmrt* of Ihr tkin excepting tlic palms and koIck. Tliey linve 
■Ml blood te»svU or nrnes, but probably have a »pccic4> of iutcrtti- 
tial circa lal ion. 

Or Mcfici-ES. 

What ar*! the prop«rb>» of n)ut«cle« T Tbey are the onrtins of 
iBotioii. Hiid arc cburitclerizvd by rvtlnvtat. to/tttrM, irrHabiiity, 
amiroctHily, and by beiitf; formed of long, parallel llbree, wliicli 
are amoved into fn-tcienU; each fibre exlendiug the whole Icn^h 
of Ibe muM'le, condlderitiff tbe leogtb m re|ireaenitd by tlie (en- 
dlnooit bvf-loiiing ou one hand, and tlie tcudiuouB trrinination on 
llie DtlHf. 

ni>w are ihey diridcd 7 Into votuntanj and im-olunlary. 

What is meaut by (he mt/olilif>f of inn^cks 7 It is their power 
(iriiiriirnelion, elongation, and rvmnining fixed. 

Wliat does a tuiuck cotisiiit of T A belly nnd two exlremiUes ; 
Ihv ut>e Ibal la Sxeil U i*alled tho heitd or origin, and tbe oth^ ia 
tlw Uil or iaserlion. Tbose which Mirruund orillccB are called 


.1 fATOMT. 

tphinrli-r*. TIic tifllr or (lodr U ihe flesliv imrt, ana .he exlreoii- 
tii'it UR- Kiidiiiou*. In ihe iiiont simple nuiBcles, the fibres niu ta 
ihf ilin'ciioii lit tliuir leii|ftli, and ani tenood fuaiform. Thwe 
wliifli nm obliquoly rrum & leiidoii or bone nre called semi -pen noli. 
Tli(i*e «lik-h cuiivcrsfi'tt'liquelj' to ii teiidun ia llie centra aif culled 
punnali. Oilier* ai;"!" are formed of a coti(*iTies of emailtr 
mustlefi, tlie filirw at which run in different dirL-clioiis and intermix 
with it-iiiliiioini mailer, as tti« drltold and 8nl)Kca)>ular. Muscles 
are cum|><)^L■(l of bitudlcH of Glires ciicli ctiUM^uii); uf filnmcDts; 
tlie filumeiita are dltiaible Into fiiBcii-uli, and curb rssFit'uluj con- 
vlxtit of a nunilicr uf primitivi! TiarllHem ur wtrrutis elements held 
10|ieilier l>v a lou[;li, dcliruie. and elnxiic iiienibreiie called Mirro- 
lemma. Tbpv are well iinpplird wilh lj|uud*TCi8els and nerves. 
VariouM Kiiiniill a|i|d<Rd to unufuliir Ql>re will eauiie conlractioa. 
Thi' ftimernl pbenomeiia nianirented by, or capaeSty of a niuicle, 
are temitMl inyulility ; Llivy are contruction, elongutiuo, and [lower 
ofn-mainliiK Cixrii. 

V]»m witat diH'S ihc Htreii^'ili of a mutide depend f Upon Um 
number of its fllii-es; so iliai lliot<e wliDKe Gbm run oliliquely are 
(rtronprr lliiin ilioi-c wbii-h viiri tonsil ndinuily. 

How ure taiilun^ dlMinguii-licd ? Ky iheir vhite and »l)in!ng 
appvarnncc; tliej liave no elaslidly or power of eIou|;ntioa or 
(■iiutiai'tion ; tliey liaTC two general xliapes: funicular, or llli* 
eoi'iU ; and jnembranou»,' or resembling au aponearonia. 



Where iti ihe/aecia auperjiciati* abdoiiinia Eitnated T Beneath 
the Mn of i)ie alnionien, and consi<'t> of n Inycr of condensed cellu- 
lar Bubslunee. It is luminntcit. admils of being i1i«soctcd into 
1ayt-i'«, and eucloHes the lymphatic glands in the groin, 

What are the ori'ji't, iusertio'i, and u«e of ihe following mnsdes t 

OM/avt exirrnus." (See Fig. 17.) Origin, eight or nin« 

ioferiur rlbit. Iii!.ertion, ensiforni canilage, liuea alba, pubii. 


ahatoh r. 


I'ovpan's ligament," aoil anterior tw-o-thirds of tlie cr«si o{ the 
Uium, Uso, 10 cninjire^8 fli« abdomen. 

Obii'/uu» i'llrrnua." Oripiii. fascb lumiiomm, crest of ilium, 
u4 extpruol iliirti of Puupuri'a lijcameut. Insertion, iuto tlie 
canilftgcs of ibe seven inferior ribs, eiisiform cartilage, lines alba, 
«jni]ih7Ki», anU uiijiirr edpj of the pnliis. Use, to beiid ihe body 
•sd coBpntu tlic ubiluuicD. 

Hg. IT. 

Crematler. Origin. I*oiipari'« ligament and obliqiiiiH inicniiiii 
iBMrllon, tnnica rngioiili* t«ti<, and »cF»iuin. 

7Va'iii(vrM/ui, Ori)tii>. fa^eia tambonim. cn'tl of tliiiiu, 
Poapan's liiraineot, mid wvcn lower vibn, IciKcrlioii with the 
v)ilit|iiuj iulcmiii. Um>, lo eoraprcss (he abdomen 


Rei'lug." Oripi'ln, pnbls. Insertion, cn5irorni cartilnpc, and to 
tlie furUHKed or ilie fifth mid »ixlli ribs. Use, to bend the trunk, 
■nd eumiirciiit ihe alxioiiien. 

J'j/t'amiilaUs." OHjjin, pubis, liiserlinn, linen alba. 

Wliut other i»Brts are exhibited by Fig, 17 f Common teiidan 
of the hiternal obllqne and iransTeraalls;" crura/ arcAj^/oarta 
lata fcinoris ;" rapAenua opening, external abdominal Wiif},* and 
Poupart'K U^afHent." 

Where is ibe/ofcia A-owsirrxo/ia situated T 

It tftTers Oie al)domeii, lies under ilie muscles and in front or the 
peritoiienm ; it is eofilliinous wilh the iUnr fascia whicli iurroanda 
the poMerior |>arl of the jwriioneum, and the jielvlc fa'ci* whicli 
tnrrounds tbsl portion of periloNeiim in the ravity of ihe pelvis. 
Tlic iniernal abdominal ring is siinnted in it. The tenii rii^g Sa 
lialjle lo he mitnndentootl ; it means liere dimply lliat point where 
the fu'cia tfaiisvrrsalis ceaMrs lo cover the abdomen, mid rum- 
metices lo cover tlie cord ; it is ferjr thin at this place; and an 
artificini disseeiion may readily form an opening or rini.' with a 
well dcQned edge, altliougb ii does not eiiat in the naiurul »tale of 
the ports. 

Tig, 13. 


Diaphragm'-*-* (Fig. 18). Tlie (rrcotcr muscle. Origin, 
liphoid curtilage, the cutilngcs of ihe Itrnt true and all ibc falM 



rib*. ln«ertioii. cordiform tendon. — The l«i«fir maiwlc or cnirn.*- ". 
Uriirin. iho bodies of thr lirwt four lumljur Tcrlvtirte. IiiHcrtioii, 
ror'lirarm tt-niloD Wlint parts unt to bi; Eioticrfl ul)out ihc tlia- 
pliraicni ? Tlic Ugnmcntum tirirualutn,'' point of nri^iii of ihft 
poou iMKiiUK,' the »tnall iriao];titur space bcliind the (tlornum* 
roTrrri] onl5 hf teran* iimuibrmni!, unit ihruujtb wliicli tivvniw 
tiunriimrn fata; liiutas iirticii»," rommeii CMopImgeum," forumvn 
qaadrnium," mid a sinall «)>cotiiK Tor Ibe lesser iplRiicliiilc uervet.' 

Qu4ulnii»t titmborum.'* Otifc'm, Rpliie of iliutu. Insertion, 
ImivTenie prDCCsscs of iunibiir rertebne, and la^t dorsal. Une, to 
hnd Ihv trunk to one aide and fDrwardd. 

ftoa* niHtctea." Origin, tlie Inmbar and dorsal vcrlebm 
Inwrtlon. carliy of tli« (lelvb, and lesser IroLliflnicr. 

lUacuK intrmuK. Oriirfu. transverse process of last lumbar ver- 
Irbra, cresi of ilfum, and iliac fossa. Itiferllon with the pHuiu 
mutrlrv into the femar. Use, lo bend the tlii^h and body. 

nHint are the nmscles of the male perineum 7 

Pit. IV. 

S^iinierani.' exttritm and iJiterniitt. i-rfrlor penia,' acetle- 
'mrituB' OT ejacKlotor neminn, trim-' • .■ -./x perinei,' levator 
' ei>mprea»ir urrthrte, and coecygruf.' 
What are th<ii mn.'iclea of iht /emak [lerineum T Sphinctvr 
ivxyimr.'* rrtflor clU^Hiiis,^' traiirKmua pvrinei,^"' leealor 
ti,' ^thittder ani.* 



fig. 30. 


/ ^^^IBV^n^ 




^ M 



D " 1 



^i^,^ ^m 


FIS- Bl. 







^^ ■ 


^BS^^^^^^t ^I 

' ^^^'j^^fl^^E^^^^H^^^^^H 

^^^^ B 


^^v* ^^^^^1 


^w ^^^1 


1 1 





Whiil •r*th«or^'n. innTlion.mi\<i iioeof the fullowiug riuscImT 

Iiipin»eutiim imctiffi, kst uervicnl, and 
llt« dorsiil vcrlcbne. In.wrtlon. tliivkltv 
■eriMiiit'ii |>roi-«ss, spine or tlie ficapula. 
Utc, to tlrnvr ihu parts iti Uie sncrel 
dirttfitnui or iu GUrea. 

LatuMmu* dorti.* Origlii. danal 
■pinm. rii*ri« lurtilinrum. gRcnim. ilium, 
■nd thrvf ar Toiir i»M rUrs. I tiki: ri ion, 
bnincfut. UtK-, to draw tiK os Imirivri 
i]o«iiviBn1«, and Iwckuurdt. 

fUiiimliniiiru* mnjur ami minor.'*" 
Oti^in, liffHiiiriiiiiai iiiiclitc, iiid dnr- 
nl s|iii>i»). IiiJK-riion. )iiLfc i>r the scu- 
paU. ITse, to dnxv tbc si-nptjla up 
mH linvk. 

Wtiui olltcr Diiiwlc* arc fitoateil od 
the iMck T I^-valor anf/uli KapHlat,'* 
rpleniut capiti$" and colli." gacTO-lum- 
ialin' (Fig. Si), lonyiimimut duriti* 
rinnatis Joriri* IVif:- H), mii»cuti oc- 
RMort'l, ctrrf ico/m ileiMvmlen»,' IrauM- 
emnplenit* temi-tpinalit cvlli" and 
<hni, " multijidut tptnce,'* r»-fiiK caj/i- 
ti* jtotHcvt iimjvr' and minor," ob- 
lijvut tuperior'* and inferior,'* interapinaleit.inlerlmninrmarit, 
fmoIoT'.'s co/darum, " npinalts lionsi,' nerrtUue mqjor aniicwt," and 
temtna in/erior potliciu' (t'ig. 21). 

rHorax. (See Fig, 17.) 

WhiiloT«lliirnn;j«n, in«rr(i"oFi, niii) uxcorthf- Mlnwinft mnRi'tesT 

I'ftiiiraU* majvr.' Orijiiii. BtcninI Imlf of tlnvit-Ic, Hiilorior for- 

(im oT Rtcniiiin, i-iirtilntr«-s urUiv itiinl, rmirth, nnii, tiiiil i>i\lh Iriin 

rili». IiiM^ioB, humcnis, nntpri«r edge of liiiiijjiliil groove. U*o. 

tuilmw the nrm itiHUixlii. forwnrdi, mid lo dcprcfs it. 

Pteloratu minor.* Oriifin, upper edge of roimli, fifth, bii*! 



«ixih rilxi. Triaerlion, comooid (irmim of itcapula. XJtie, to inw 
\t ill, unit (liiwn. 

Stibclaciwi.^ Orifcin, Drrt rih. In>crlii)n, eliivielu- 

Serralu» maiinuf.'-"' Oritfiu, liglil or nine »oj)crior ribs. In- 
f«rtion, baw! of iti-n|iiilA. Unt", lo dniw il Torwardit. 

luUrrrattalet, rxlrrnal." Oriifiii, rU\m inrtriur ril« at Ibcir 
exicruul, iiircrior cdgw- liwertion. (njiprior edge uf ribii Uenuuth. 

ItUernal, Origin, vlcrvn HIm iiiUTiinll;, rr»in tliv lowcir edge 
iir cncli. liiM-nioii, iiii»:r Itp of llio rib bencnth. Use, to draw 
till; ribn tHgHlicr. 

Triangatarix rirrm. Oritcin, lower purl of slcmuin. IiiMcrtion, 
caniluirtN uf fuurih. (iflh. iind :<txtli ribe. Uco, to diminish tbo 
uaril; of the llionix, ficctvralui m«ior.' 

Wbut affc the origin, inaertian, and tixe of ibo platuftma my- 
oti/esf '* (Kite. 24.) Orlfcin, cellular membrane ov«r deltoid and 
pecloral musiilci!. mid from tlie clavicle. Insertion, cliiu and f«Bcia 
or ilic laie.-al and inferior [inrts of Uic face. U»e, lo ekvate the 
Kkin of Ihe neck, 

Sto»iio-ci«(/o-wio*i/wtJirK(! "•"■". Origin, Ktei-num and claTicle. 

IflMltioii, niutoid proc»«i uiiil inuiHT«nw rid^ of ibe ondintxl 
bone Uw, to drnw ibv chin tomrtU the ntcniiiiB. 

Vrtwt Dtlicr RiqRclPH or* tlwre of ihe n(ck, tli« ubrim of whioti 
noftlj iBdiotiu itirlr nitai'liiin-nt ? Sh-rno-hiftiideui, uterno-l/itf 
ntditiM, lhyrrO'hi/&ideuii, omo-tiyaiilrHt, mtflfz-hifoideuii," nlj/h- 
iyoideut.' Ktflo-gloiitu*!* tlf/to-iJiaryugitt*,"' tjrnia-liyoiilnit. 
bnyuM colli, reclut oopAi'it antieux tnajor. minw, and laiernlu, 
KoitHtM anlicuK," mcdiuM" niiil po»tUru$." 

What »ra tli* orirjin, initfrtinn, Bwd ttae of the accipUo-fron- 
lalinf OrI|;iii, iia]Mirii>f iruiiaveiw ridge of thi- occipiul bono 
Bud muiuid |irui'V)M. Iti««it!on, iiile|:iiiiieiiU niid mawlM of eyc- 

jHr§, Vw, lu vomiKOlc llie forclii'ud and virvate the tupercitiii. 

Oirrugalitr Kiipcrviiii. Origlu, iiilornal angular |)roces> of o* 



houliN. Iiitimii>n. middle of eyebrow. Uae, to drnw (tie low«t ' 
pan of tliC! fi>rcli(.-ji<l into rerlkal wrinkles. 

Compnumr narw.* Origin, nwt of ala nari. Insenion, into 
it* fellow, nml lower pari of os nnsi. 

Orl/irtilari* pal jivhrarum,' Origin, niksal process of o« maxll- 
Inre migienitf^. inU-rnnt angular process of os fronli^, niii) from o< 
uii|;ui'<- liixerliuii, orliilar and luieal proccfses of iuexiUar> boM- 
and pHlpebral tifrntncnt. Vho, to ctoso ilie eyelids ■ 

Levator lahii rupn-iorii' et alfp no«.* Origiu, nasal and orbitar 
proccMf« of Miperiur iiiiixilliirj- Itono. Inscriion, »ide of ala nRsi, 
tnd app«r lip. Umc, to draw Ihe upper tip and sta nasi npwa/ds. 

Levator anguU ori».* Origin, iiiilerior pari of superior msiil- 
hry bone. IriKcrlioii, comer of ihe mouih. Use, to raise the 
angle oflhe niouUi. 

Zyyov\ati(Uf mnjnr and tninor'-'. Origin, foro part of maiar 
bone. Insertion, enmcr of the mouth. Use, to draw the comer 
of Ibfl moulb louards check bone. 

Depreaur labii sn]jcnorif el alee nagi." Origin, inferior part 
of upper maxillRry ban«. lnM-rlion, side of ala nasi and contigu- 
ous part of oppcr lip. Use, 1u ilepreKs Die upper lip nnii nia naM. 

DepreiKOr apguli orix.'* Origin, Imso of lower jaw. Insertion, 
corner of moulb. Use, to draw the corner of mouth downwards. 

Depre»*or labH in/erioriif.'* Origin, bnris of lower jow. In- 
sertion, side of lo«*r lip. Vf*. to driiw the lower lip downirnrds. 

Lfvaior menii el labii in/rnorin. Origin. Iiieisirc fossa of 
lower Jrw. Iii<Lerlian, integuments of tbe chin. Use, to raise Uw 
mlrguments of the ehtn. 

Hucfjnnlor." Origin, coronoid proecM of lower maxillft and 
bnck pun of upper maxilla, Inseriiun, corner of month aud eou:^ 
tiguoua parts of upper and lower lips, 

Orbicttlarii ort's. " This is a sphincter miiECle which snrrounj 
(lio mouth ; coiiseqQODll}', it has neither origin nor insertion. 

Lower Jaw. 

Tetnpomlu. Origin, scmieirculnr ridge on parietal Itone, too 
porni foona, and fascia. Ineertion, corouoitl process of lower jaw| 
Vw, to pull It directly up. 


MtUMter." Ori^ii, Eii|ieTior tnnicillsr^ bone and zygomn. In- 
MTtloB, outer snTface of angle ot low«- jaw. 

PUrryjoidi'tw interixuM. Ori(^in, internal aide of «xl«rns1 ptery- 
goid |i)at«. loBrnion, inner side of ati|-Ie of luwer javr. Use, to 
doM ilw Jaw and prodnce a (rritKlin^ mutfoa. 

Ptrri/yoitieus tT<ernus. Ori^'iii, outer kSiIo of cxtcnittl plcry- 
iroid plalo. loKcrtiou, internal jinri of neck of lower javr. Use. 
same a» fomuir. 

ih'jarfWcti*'-' (Fig. 23). Origin, frroovc at linso of miistoiil! 
process; In \U oourte It it alUu-lmd to the on liyoMe* hy a liga- 
ment. iMertloii, Inner >lde ofbaxe ofjnir. Um, to open ilie moutl). 


are tlie orijriN, in«ertion, and tiKof tliefollowiDj^miiscleKf 

It- ai.) 

DnUoiict, Origin, lower edite of Hpiiic of scapula, ncromioD, 
•ind outer lliird of cUviule. Insertion, liumartts, near its middle. 
tJee, to raUc ilic nnn. 

Supra-fpt'iiafus." Origin, scapula above its spine. Insertion, 
crest, tuliero»ity of limncrns. Use. to raise ihe Brio and turn It oat. 

In/ra-xpinalus." Origin, scapula below tbe splue. Insertion, 

eat luberoeltj of liumerus. Use, to roll the arm. 

Ti-n^ii minor." Origin, inferior cosln. Insertion, peat tnlie- 
ity of tlK faumertis. Uae, to rotate and draw the arm down 
and bock. 

Tt'-ii majur." Origin, inferior auglu of *(.-apula. Inxertion, 
inner edge of tijciplla) groove. U*e, to rotate llie arm inwards, 
and draw it back. 

SutMMpiilaria.* Origin, tulwcapular foxKn. In<terlion. small 
tobefclo of huiuena. Uie, to draw the aria down und roll it in. 



I t»t.niM< Origin, ccimeiiid p^'(^e^J^ and edge of glenoid 
Issertion, tubercle of radios. Use, to flex the fore&rm. 



Fin. S8. 


Coraco-Brachialu." Origin, coracotd process. Insertion, ia- 
tcniul side ot liumerus near Ibe middle. Use, to tlroir tl>c am up 
and I'orword. 

Bracliiati» interTtug.'^" Or!(;ii). centre of bumornH. Insertion, 
ooronoid proeiws oriilnR. Use. to Rvs tlic furninii. 

Tricepi extrntor cuhili.'* Origin, iicelt of ccapiilD. outer «i<le 
or humerus, ridge Icsding to iulerufll condyle of hunirnix. In- 
«crtion, olccrunon jirocets. Use, to extend tlic foreurm. 


Wlmt (ilass of muscloa lalie origin IVom the internal coiidjie U)d 
anterior part of ulna ? The j^trora and proiuUor*. 

What an Uw Bcxont nnil jironatora ? Pronator radii teres,* 
fitsvr carpi ra^ialvt* palmari* hntjiu* fiexor carpi vlnaria.* 

Flr-ftir •Uijilorum t.ubUmii' ji'-rfomtut,'' Ortpn, itincf condyle 
and radios. InMTtioii, Hccoiiil |)liu1iiiix. Use. lu tirnd iha second 

flexor diyilonim pni/unthm prr/arang. Urigin, alnn, radius, 
an4 int«ivs«v«nH lijiumtiit. Iii«erti<iii, laxt )i)ialanx, 

t'lfxor lontjuM poltic**. Origin, radiuH. Insertion, last phalanx 
af tliHRib. 

Pronator rattii i/uailraiu*. Oriffin, anterior surrace of ulna. 
iDMnion, anterior part of mdiiix. 

What clUB of niiiM'k-s Inkc origin from the externa] condyle and 
posterior pul of nlnaT 1'hr MipinalOTS and exteiiaont. 

WItal are (he supinalon end ejeteniwtl Sujyinalor radii 
ionf/tt»," e.xtfn»ar carpi radialie lowfior and tm^vior, extrmmr 
f«rpi ttlitari*, extmeor diyilurum cwmunin, tupinafiir radii 
Arr><u, extiinaar owi* metacarpi fu^licis mamit," exte»gt/r minor 
wdliciM mantu, mafor potlicia matiuH, and indkatur. 

te^« tli« or^rm, insertion, and uge of tlic following 
, ir»w> aijr»'in»/cwi«m' (Pig. 88), Origin, ilium, rmn-tion, 

cia lata. 

Sartoritm.* Origin, anterior superior spinous process of ilinia 
lli«ef1ion. npppT end of tibia. tJoe, to bend the leg and dmw it 
ftliliqnrly in. 
Hedun /fmori*.* Origin, anterior inferior spinous process and 
■rpn of ncelaliiitam. Insprlion, pntells. 

Vattus eJteniws.' Origin, below iruelianter major and ouler 
edge of linM aspera. Inserlioti, nniles with reetn.-i. 

fttiduii inlernug.* Origin, on a level witli Irot'hniiler minor and 
from inner wipe of linea ospera. Insertioti, iiiiit«ii with rcotux. 

HrtPM*. Origin, anterior and exienial pari of ri.-iuori.i. In* 
Jon, niiites with rectus. Use of these four to oxleud lh« leg. 




Qracilia.'* Origin, gymphyiia itnil (l««cei)il!iiff ramus of the 
)mbij. iDKuniun, iiitpniul Kiirrtice ot libia. Use, t'l flex the- \t^. 

Pectiiteuf." Orijrin, huri/.unlnl jiorliun «r \nMa. Iiiserlioii, 
uypvT |iArl of liiie'a lupcro. Vtv, to druw llie [liigh iuwunla and 
forward 4. 

Adductoi' lotipun." OrSjfln, anterinr surface of puliis. Itiscr- 
tioii, middle tliird of linva nspera. 

Atlduclor brei.-i». Origin, anterior inferior KurfiH-e of pubis. 
lirtTliou, superior lliird of linea atpern. 

Adtlucttir tnayiiut.'* Urigiii, dcecriidiii^ mniiis of puljis. rnraiu 
and liihrrriEity of llio iscliiiitn. Inecriion. iiilenial cuiidylu and 
Hdgi? trading to linea aspera. TTse, thesi- ilireo tuusclc-t draw the 
thigli inwards. 


tJliUtrns moj-imHa.* Ofigiti, posterior third of spine of ilium, 
ucmm, OB i-ocoygis, aiid sa<To-sclaUc lignnieut. Insertion, be- 
tween lrocliaDt«r mill liiicA asiiera. liueu aapcra and Tasda lulu. 
n<e, to ilraw tlie iJil|;l) Itack and keep tlie iruuk cn^el. 

aititiFttM ni'-rfiHs.' Orlt'iii, spine of ilium aiiii domiim. Inter- 
lion, great lrocIiant«r, Use, to draw ibc [bii;U buik nnd oat. 

OlutiFtis minimum. Origin, dorsum of iliqm. Insertion, (Treat 
(fM-bantcr. Use, to aHdnct ihc thigh and rol«le the linih inwards. 

I'sri/ormuL* (Fig. 2"), On'K'", SBcrnni, irialiv ligament, and 
Disai. Iimrtion, root uf troehimiur mnjor. JSwb, to roUitc tho 
limb in. 

Grmini.* Orif^in, one from root of tbu aitlne of iitchlnra, the 
Mher from tahcroilljr. IiLMrtion, root of trocliuit«r major. Use, 
tu mlaie the Umb tn. 

OhturaUir inlerniu." OHgtn, pr.lvlc niar^n of fomnien tbyroi- 
d«om, [is memhrane and pluno uf th« ischium Ipserllon, fossa of 
trochanter. Use, to rotate the limb out. 

Quadmlus /pmorie." Origin, tober Iselitt. Insertion, great 
Irochaiitar and line leading to the lesser. Use, to rotate the Umb 

Obturator exiernus. Origin, obtnrator llgameiil. Insertion, 
fossa at root of trochanter. Use, to rotate Ibc tblgh out. 

Steeps Jicror crurU.'* Origin, long liead, tnln-r isclifi; short 
bend, lines aspcra low dowo, Inaeriton, head of Hbnla. Use, to 

X the leg. 

iiemi4entlinoaHg." Origin, tnbor Uehii. Inserilon, tibia. U«, 

flex the leg. 

iifmi-memhranofu». Origin, tuber l^ehii. InHerllon, cstomftl 
oondjrlfl of femur, and head of tiliia anil liliub. Use, to flex the 


Tibialis anlii-H*.' (Fig. 29). Origin, bend nnd *pitie of tihiu, 
bl(rraB>eous ligament. Inserilon, great mnitirnrm bune and BrsI 
mcUlarsal. Use, to present the sole obtt(|Uely in. 

F.Tlrnrrrr loni/us digilarum jiedin.* Orisfin, Iieods of tiliia, 
Ql'ula, and interosseous ligament. Insertion, last phalanx of the 
fottr external toet. Uitc, to extend the toes. 

Pi-ronrug titrtiu*.' Origin, lilinla. Insertion, metatarsal bone 

littU> tlie. Fue, to l)en<l the (ooU 



r=je -St 


JfjrfifnMr propriua paltMa pedis} Origin, nilUilIc Ihtrd i>f 
Rbula and liMa. liiaerlioii, second pbalanx of grcut lae. UK,tQ 
cxtcod il. 

PeroneuK tongttt.'' OHkIu, bead of libniD xi)d tibia. Iiisertlou, 
mclatarsal bone of frrcal lue and internal cimeiforni- Vm, to 
rjlcnil thp frint niid iiu-line the sole untwards. 

iVron'-un bmrie.' Origin, loner half of liliula, Inscrlion, boRe 
nr metaCarenl botic uf littlv toe and cuboid bon«. 

GoMlroi-nrtniiuf."' Origin, npjier and back part of condyle of 
ffinar mid riilp? above it, Insorlion, os ralcin. 

Solfw-' Origin. I'xteninI Itead from miierior tbini of flbula; 
interiml Ii4-iid. raiililk- third of tibin, iinilco with Ibo above and 
fiirtiK Ibc (cndo-Ai-hUtig. Inwrtlon, ox cnlcis. Uhc, to extend 
Uw loot. 




Ptnntarig, Origin. b»ck part of femnr. Inecrtioti, o« (.iilctB, 
Popliiftu.* Origin, dcpreMioa on outer cond^rlc- Imterllon, 
ijwf pan of tibia. 

yiexor longHt ttiffUonoH pedis per/orane.^ Origin, flat surface 
ofiibia, faMta, itc. Itifprtiuii. last phalanic of four IcMMr loefl. 
FWmr tonijM poUicig pedis.* Origin, inferior pari of Sbola. 
mioa, lui phataiix of gnM toe. 

nbiatiu pi>aticu».' Origin, tibia, Gbula, nnil ligament Inser- 
tion, OS luviculjkre. Use, to «xtend Uie foot, ami present the solo 

Oroans op DionnioK. 

Tbat are th* oryana of dig^elion t The oTganB of jigt«tiou 
rig. SI. 

codrUi ill nil uiiiiitcmiiilPil cntinl i.x(rndiii|; from Ui« lips to iht 
UQS, Qud uf itiiiucrou* RluiKliiliir bmiii;* plii(H.-d iiliing iu conrw. 
Tliit cniinl. callirii aliai«riliii',T. ik iliviilrd iiitn tlirnt portions, the 
tuperior, middle, ntid inferior. The suj}erior U coDipo&ed of lli« 
moulh, pharynx, and cetsopliar/tia;^' the middle, of the irfomacJi' 
Bod KHia// inlmtinef*-*-^' the inferior, of the /oi-jjc I'nfr** 
htrtt.*' '"■"■"■'*■" The ijlanduiar hodim are ilie nalirarif ijland*, 
pancrvas, litxr, uplecn, and a largo nuiub^T of murifiat-nug 
glanilt extending aluiii; Ihe wliole coune of the voiinl. 


Wtot »» t1i« oftflrwAtmft'rt of the teelh ? They are lli« hfeMf^tt 

portions of tlie body, and hear an nuBlo^ry lo bone. The n'ealer 

pftrt of Uietr leu^h is iniplanled into the alveolar processes of ibe 

Jawt; this part is called the root; beyoud ihia is a portion tto- 

braced by the gum called Ihe nrcL- : and tlin 

^ free or priJecliliR |inn ts the body or i-orntia. 

Whnl is the ituni/ier of teeth in tlie adult? 

Tlilrtj'lwo; alxleeii ia tacit Jaur, and are 

clas^ifli^d from ibeir tlmpe into t\g\n iiicitor*. 

four I'uapnted, ei^hl bi*ciiapnted, and tweWt! 


Of what are IfClh compo^edf They are 
composed of three Eubstaiices, one of which 
is iiiory. or bone-like, called dentine:* one 
la enamel;* «od tlic other is called misfa 
petroaa, OT cirmenium.' The enamel formi 
the peripherj' of the bod; of a looth, ■« la 
known bj Ita wblteiieia, briuleiteea, BemJ- 
traii!*par«ticy aod hardness. It is fllmiH, 
and the fibres arc placed «o nit to pass from 
the snrface towards the centre of the lo4th, 
BO that the frii-tion it apjilied aj^icA Ibelr 
extrvodlies. lie oom|iosiiion is prtDcipally 
phuspliate of lime willi a ntnall portion of 
gelatin. The uxM'onti porlino ix itie muct 
ohimditnt; It fonnaihe root, neck, and body, 
except The cntat of enamel on its peripl]er]r. 


Tlie c«Tn«nt corers nil the BUfr«c« of t)i« loolh that Is not luTMted 
iUtSBinel. Inienitllir there U n ruvity.* Illlcd with a soft jnilpy 
Mtt«r, wbicb receivM ■■■ arterv, a vein, and n nerve. 

TtwartertMofilie tteihof iIm appcr Jaw come IVom the alveolar 
■nd infrn-^rliilur, and the lumvii Trurn the second branch of th« 
Ulb pair ; i)i«i artcrieit uf the luwef tci'th eonie from the fnirniul 
amlary. ami (be iiertes f^om the third branch of the flilh pair. 

Vlisl U iiiiilentomi bj the Jeciduouji lertUI They arc teclh 
fcraliar to iiifniiU, aiid are tweiilj in ituuilier, ten 1q eai-li juw ; on 
ikher fide arc two iudsorii, one ciiN]itdaIuf<, nnd Iwo luolnri:)!, 
&>se of tliem fall out about the tievcutU vear, aiitl all of tlicra \>j 
ll* foDrtmiilh. The onlur of their apjieoriiitcv is oa foUowii : — 

Two central innHon. from tlie *ixih to the dKhth mouth: 

T'o lateral iitctton', from ibc tcvrnlh to ihi- tenth ntontb. 

The first Bivtar ou cucb side, from the twelflli to the (onrtvnlh 


The cnsiMtcd, fh>ni the flfteenlh to the twentieth nionih. 

Th« second molar, from the tvuntieth to the thinielh inonlh. 

At birlh there ar* Ibe rmlimrtm of fifty-two teotli in the two 
jaN<; Iwnily ileciduout and thirty-two |ii:rmancol. 

IIo» uv the decidaoni leelb rentofcd f Ity ibc absorption of 

Where is the lonfcoe ritnaled f 
It exicBds from the nc hyoidiw po»- 
tcriorly to the incisor teetb anteri- 
orly. It ia divided into lioae, body, 
and tip. 

What mtii»cUf rompoKc tli* 
tonirnof The rfy'"?'***"".' ^.v*- 
fflwmvs* ffet»it>-hjfOijlonm»,^*'' and 
hngiuili* ' form the principal bulk ; 
Imliica ihei'" there ore ibe sujM-rJi- 
rwJ /tn^trai mmrc/e, trantvi-M 
hn\i«ttf wiw*r/irji,'* and the vtrlicol 
ttmjual wwvle; whidi arc small 
Ibm ninninf; in diffemit ilirrc- 
UmW| as their iianies iiidicnte. 

Pit 88. 


How art the ptg>illw of the tongae divided 1 Into papilUa 
maximcB or capiUUce, medice, villosce, and fiiifarmea ; and occapj 
the anterior two-thirds of this organ. 

Wliat other parts are there to remark abont the tongue ? The 
frcBna-epiglotiidia, frwnitm lingvsE, foramen ccBcum, and rapht. 

The tongue is sopplied with arteries principally from the lingnal 
branch of the carotid ; and with nefTea from the hypoglossal, the 
fifth pair, and the glossO'pharyiigeal. 


What compoges the paiate f It is composed anteriorly by On 
palatine procesges of the superior masiliary and palatiue bonea, 
covered by the lining membrane of the mouth below, and pituitary 
membrane abore ; posteriorly is a membranous portion called the 
soft palate, which has an oblong shape and continued from the hard 
palate posteriorly ; in its centre is the uvula, from which proceed 
the two crescentic doubling called the lateral half arches, which 
are divided into anterior and posterior. In the depression between 
these is the tonsil gland. The space bounded in IVout and behind 
by these lateral half arches, is the fauces ; and the anterior opening 
into it is the isthmus of Ike fauces. 

The muscles of the palate are the islhmi constrictor faucium, 
palaio-pharyngex^, circumfiexus, or tensor palali, levator palati, 
and azygos uvulw. 


How are the glands of the mouth divided f Into muciparov* 
and aaliixiry. 

What are ihe muciparous glands ? They are the labtal, buccal, 
lingual, palatine, and the tonsils. The buccal, labial, and palatine 
are, properly speaking, salivary glands. 

What are the salivary glands ? The parotid, its excretory duct 
is called the duct of Steno ; it is llie size of a crow quill, and opens 
opposite to the second targe molar looth of the upper jaw ; the 
submaxillary, its duct is called the duct of Wharion ; and the 
aublingual, its duct is called ductus Eiviniani. 



Tlut ore th« cfianciirriMiat of tL« pharynx f 
■KBbraooaM caTilT, Kituulcd hrlwcoR 
tkccrriL-al Tertebric and ]>o>tcrior pnrt 
«r Uic no»e and month, and extends 

m the bMc of the craaiam to tlw 

^Kfrum the buc of the craaiam to tlw A/ AV. 

^Htcwrr p«n of th« crinoid ortitage and 'j^^^r~jJt?S^ 
^KKb mttIchI rertebfs, irli«rc H is imki> ^flVH^^^BKn^^ 
linued i*to tfac ttsoplia; UK i it Ims w^t^i 
(oruniiiK opening into It. vix. : pottv- 
riuf oArm, two ; GmlnchiaD lalicv, two ; 
moDlli, turjrni, and ocsopbagns. It 
eaaaSU of Ihrte covlt; lli« ezfitntal 
or muivular Is composed of three miiK- 
chioa each »ld«, one above ibc other 
—teetlaiar, mtermediale, and aa in- 
fertml, or mtu-oua coal. The ransclcs 
Ibniting the ninecular coal are ibc con- 
itnelon in/crior,' meilitts, and supe- 
rior* The arteries which sni>ply it are 
the mprrior and larerior pbar^'ugeal on 
Mch side. 

What are the characUruHc* of the 
(TToo/jAo^ua ' (KifTS. 31 and 31) f It u 
a tube coDlinnoiw witli xht |iliarfnx. In 
Enrnl of the spine, behind the traeli«a, 
ten or IveUe Hues in diameter, incrtatv* 
in dM IVom «Im>vo <lownwnriU, and ter- 
miiialM at the canliiw orifice of th« 
ftontoch, at ft ]>oitit opiiooile the tenth 

doflwl ««ntl)ra. In the Ibornx. It potMcx dnwti in the ,ioi>terior 
nwdikBtlnnn, with the norta on the kfl. ami th<! reiiu mjno* on 
the riR'hL. It liaN three eoati, the miiticutar, Cfllutar. and muroua, 
miu) Ib nniu-d to adjacetit parta b_r loo^e cellulur kub^ance. Tha 
BDScolar ixMt consiuls of two laniinv, the longitudinal and the cir^ 
eulor. Its arteries are derived from the inferior lliyroid, the tll0> 
nchi aorta, and the gastric. 

five pntra of abdominni uiiiiii'Iuk ; (lostcTiorly hy tli* Imter nnntlM 
or th« diaphragm, (|tin(lruti IuioIjuiqri, ibc lumlmr T«rtebre, wid 
Ibe eacruin. 

Uow tnany lindt o/viiicera are conlniiifd >n tbe carity of ihe 
abdompD ? Thrco : one is tngnjiod in digcxiioti and B8«imiluiiod, 
Biiolher in the tccrclion nud «xcn.>Uoti of iiriue, and Ihe third la 

Ilow is th« abdomon diviiicitf Into erbitrnr]^ ro^'ona : coiuldrr 
a line or plane n« vit(TiMliii|[ ai-roKt thv alidnmcu nboiit two inchei 
below the iimbilii^tiK fnun the «iipiTior part of (he critla of one iUnm 



. Ift the eerm)>on<liiii: point of tlie otbcr side.'' Draw on ench 
iMx h Kae periwoiik-uliir lo llie fir^l by commeiicinir at tbti sute- 
n« Inferior apinoiu |>r()L'OM vf l)i« ilium, nnd cnrrir il i>p to tlin 
■lii|>hr«pa:*' ihua uxlciid a runrlli line aoross tl>p iiliilom<?n jm- 
nlWI vrlih ihe lint, niid iiiter^cciii)g ilto two Iii'i. n Iktc ihry strike 
U* nrilla<n<s of thv ril«.''' It is ifta tliat thef.v four liuft «r 
|i^ae), wli)i ibe affiinlance of llie psriHes of IIir ulictoiiicii. funiisli 
■mrivjion« Thecemrat one mliove is rnllt-ii ili(r'-;"[/ajifrtr, m>il 
lit lateral lite riyht and lefl hypoclioniMat:.^* Tlie it-Jilral In 
Ibt middle is the um&tViVvif,' and Ihc Inirrnl tliv rii;A(* and left* 
Imtar Tli« central bcloir is the hufi/iynMric' and lh« Inlernl 
III* riyhl " and hjl " i7i«c. Tlw fcmbuiil ue cordit, or pit of tlic 
'[(■tsscli, is il»e hollow in ttiofipij^adric region. Tli? rf'tiopulnt" 
■1 IW report fur Iwu inches around the e;niphjrsis pubtf. Time 
Ua UfX art- trrnied fQ bard i mite iliviKiono. 

Wlial poMilion relnliv* lo time nitigtiji does llie U'fr OLVnpj-? 
Xrarl; lltu wliok of ibc right liy|>o(-lic>ridrNi<;, the upjiifr half of the 
tpipiKtrie. and the rijtbt sopcrior pun of the left liypotlidddriae. 

Wbvre it tliu ifplrxn i!lua(e<l 1 In the potturiur jinrt of the left 
h/poohondriac region. 

Wlirra il llie ttamaeh* (ri);. Zd) Mlnulcfl f Modi-rutcly A\*- 
md«d. il ofeupi«t> the lower bulf uf ibu t-pit(»>lric region and tlic 
rigbt iafrrior |>orti»n of ihc ti-lY liy|iot'li<inilriDi*. 
Wb«n ifl the nna/f in/««liW HUuaicd f Mudorntcly dixlcndcd 
llRiait. It oceuptesttie umbilfeal reg^lon, ihc Ii.vpOKnMrie, portiona 
of Ihc iliac on <Mch side, and nUa the upper part i>f ihc cavity 
ttir i>r]viii, wben its viscera are empty. 

W'tirre in the targe inUftHne* Bltuated f It beginii In the right 
iliae rv^iun. ft»cenda lbraii|^ tbe rifflit tumlmr and riglit liypoHion- 
Arime, p«aHea Into tlie lower pari of the e|>i}:uE<trii.-, or iipppr part of 
ibe niabilical, accordint; to the stale of dimension of the Monmch, 
llinnct iuto ibe left liypocbondrlnc, left lunilmr. mid left Iliac, paKMe* 
into tlie ptilvia, and dcKcendiug iti front of the aucruu. tenninaieii 
in ih« BituK. 

Wlivre la lite panerroM* Htlnaied? Trausvertely in the lower 
ii'k jMirt of lite eptgnMric roj^ion, extending from tlie left liy]ia- 
cltondrlM to the right «ide of the ipbie, and Li plaued beblud the 
■tooiuh, vklcb coTen ft, 




Fig. 88, 

Where are the kidneye and caysul<e rerales sitnated T In the 

posterior part of the lumbar re- 
gions on each side of the spine. 

Where are the urinary bladder " 
and rectum'' situated ? la the 
cavity of the pelvis, and between 
them in the female are the uterai, 
OTaries, and vagina. 

What is understood by the pert 
ioneum 9 It is a seroos meinbrant 
liiiini; the abdomen and reSected 
over the periphery of nearly all 
the viscera. It is a complete sac, 
with no opening into it, eiccpt in 
the female through the Fuliopian 

What are the pmceises of the 
peritoneum ? There are four, and 
are known by the general name of 
omeriltim, epiploon, oi caul. They 
are called omentum Tninus, or fie- 
palico-ijastricum," omenlum ma- 
jus or gastro-colwum,'^^''' •" 
rmtenlum colicum,"ftud the omen- 
tum gaelro-splenicum, besides some other smaller reflections. 

What are the cliaracteristies of seroirn viembranee f They are 
thin, transparent, and white, resemble compressed cellular mem- 
brane, invariably assume the forra of ])erfect saes, are diirtinct one 
from another, and secrete a serous Huid for the lubrication of their 
intern al surfaces. 



What are the characteristics of the stomach f It is a hollow 
viscus, situated in the epigastric region, of a conotdal shape, curved 
upwards, and presents two faces, two orifices, two curvatures, and 
two extretntties. The faces ^re called anterior and poaUnor 



Tht oriSctc tin named cardiac *ni pyloric. The curvatores an 
tb« tmaW ami yrral, or upper niwl iouvr. It liui Tour coaU or 
lainiuw. v(<: ftrnbitu-al. mwictilar, ixUutar, iiiui mitrotf*. lU 
naiN-alM' coal U vull<>('ti*<l iutn TftKiiiuli. atiij |iaM in llirrr (liren-tiobs, 
l<iti;;iiiidlnBl. cirrubr. and o)t1i()lll^ The 'jtaniiii, of Urunncr aro 
Mluoli-d ouar llic citrtliac and jivloric oriSi'i'S. It U Trry vttscalsr; 
it* anetica t)dti)t braucfacs uf (lie cixllsc, are i)ic icu«irjc, riiclil and 
ittt " iru-e|)l)iluic, ai»l l)ic vnaa hrcvin. Thi- Qr>l li> tlitr Icner 
iinaturr; iliu »cc-uuil anil (bird alonf; lliu i;r>'at curvature ; and 
m laxL, trom four lo iix in nuiul>er, to iu tn^at cul-de-MC. The 
till lertnitiHie in the veiia {lortaruiii. 1'h tiem-x come from th(^ 
fiar vuguni and tku scmUuDar gaugliou ot lli« ity in pathetic 


Wbai is the 1cni;(Ii of ihe inmtlnal caiml ttota ihe pj'lorns to 
(lie mm ? Frum thirljr to lliirty-llve (evt ; and is divided l>jr 
uiiiilomii<ts inio lli« »>nall and ihe hrye infetline. 

Wliat are ihe c/iorortmxfiV* of ihe Umall Iittfgtinet^*'*'* It 
commenceB oi the pytonis, aiid tcnuliintcf iii ihe right iiioc rcpon 
by a laleral njieriiire in ihe large iiile«iin«. Il Is fviir-lifihit of the 
leiijrlh ol' iht whole caiinl. Iieiiip from Iwfiilj-foiir lo twenijr-ciirhl 
feel, cjlimirifal ; ihe upper end is Inrger Ihnii the l">*cr. ik'i'rrn>jt>g 
^radualij' a« vod proceed doniiwards. It has four coalt likt- the 
stoiuneh, which have Ihe some iinmc«. Th« course of its moEciihr 
fibres i§ longiliidiiinl nod circiilur. Its Riiicons c^bI is ihrowD into 
folds or daplifnlurps, culled i-ahulcr cvnnivenU-n, in tlie dircclioit 
of the cirenmfcrcnc*, and lire m-jfinent* of Hr^lu. 

On this I'ont arc onmcrons small pntjeciiaii*, calleil i.-i7(i ; hence 
it is sometime* lennrd villous ronl. Eiirh tillus iK composrd of 
an arlcrf, vein, and Ijinjihniic. or Inrleul. Its miicoHK i^tntidK ar« 
siinntfd in the et-llDlar cont, lielwem ihe niii*riilnr and niiicoi», 
and their duct* opMi on the siirfiiri' nf ihe latler. Thry on; rtiiiiary 
and n'jgrrijaird : thf fnnnrr arc ylanrluUr KoUlaria- or firuanrri, 
nnd are fuuiiil prindpully in the duod^'iiuni, und upper ponion of 
th« small iuteitine; tlie hilier are culltd ylondiilnt a/pninaitv or 
Pn/rri, and exist !ri the lower part of the Hnnt! IiiieKtine. 

ilow is ilieniuull inteminc Jii'irfiTii? imo dundrnum,' jejunum^ 
■nd i7f!um ,-* the latter two have iio mark of di»tlaction, and are 
RometiiDeH culled the tncHenteHc portion. The duodenmn i* about 
twelve inches long, and is the eommcnecTrmnl of this canal. The 
upper iwo-lifllif^lielow tlie duodenum is called the jgunam, and the 
lower three-liflhs the ileum. 

What is the Mexenlery t It is th« process of peHtonenm which 
itervea to connect ihc small inlesliiics In the posterior parietes of 
lh« abdomen, and exiend* from llic left side of the scrorid lumbar 
Teriebra to Ihr right iliac fossa ; this altnchnient is railed Ihe root, 
and ia abont six inihcs long. Its liimimr contain llic superior 
mceenieric artery and vein, lymplmlii; orluetcal ginnds and veBMis, 
ramificalions from the eolnr plexus of the sympathetic nerves, and 
rcUoIar nnd adipose tissue. 



^H Wlut Kra iIm iAaitiet«riaics of the /afjk InleMne* It 
r»w(li 111 •llniuet«r the anmll, and receiree tbe effete tnutlcr ihcru- 
fraai. It i« iiui >4i n-pubrly cylindrit-al; ibc «urriivt^ ii> arrniiRvt] 
Imii ilirt'o MiriM or lotigilndiuul rows of |)roj«ctioiiB, ^ejiamtei] by 
UiMTrrM iJt:[>n>i»J(Mi«. It couim^iufs ot tlie iurerior cnil uf the 
*akll iiiirittiui-, anO termfiuktes at llio anus. Ii is diiltji-d into 
(lim> iwriM ; lhi> coinaK'iiceineiU, below tli« inseriion of ili« ilruin, 
•liiMl two \ae\ia^ In lengnli, In callod ilie nectim,' or oa/mf (tifi/ 
iIm remaioini; portion, until it renebc* lUe jirlvic, \» called ibe 
eoton,*-""" whuB it takes tbe name of irdtim." 1'\\e Bp)i(Ti)dia 
TeralTormta* i« n womi-lik* procna attuolx-d lu tiic infuriur jionioB 
of lh« MBonm. 

What ia weanl br Mi-juxvlonf A dii|ilicetion of pCTtloncum, 
which Sx«S the large iiilcelino to the posli-rlur pnrictes of the 

How maii^ eoat« bos the larf;o iiileHtiDD }* Four, hcorinp tbc 
aiune name as those of liie sniail iiit«itine. Tlie ppf-lfonea^coal 
kaa tinall du))Ui:atnrea roiitflinirt^ fiit, and called appf'niUce* 
tpipl^ica:: the inu;icu/iireoui huii (wo lajen of fibres, ibe longi- 
tadtiial, aud transvene or circular; ibe mitcou» roat haa but few 
villi, bat iu miiripiiuniH rrlandd and fulUc1c<i are vcrj niiineroua. 

Wbcfe ia the ihiffotiv valKn t At tlie Jiinctloti of the ileum and 
oput colt or ctMiiiu. 

Wbal la neaiil by itfnnr^tumt It ii> ibnt dopticalurc of peri- 
toiieuia which attaches ilie rectnm to the as* rum. 

From vhat in the large iiite^lino sui'itlitd uiih blood t A part 

of tiK an|>erior ueMHtcrie, the uliole of the iiifirrior mttsciiieric, and 

tlie internal padie arteries; the visn6 emf)ly into the vena porla- 

rum ; ibe Dcfves ar« derived fhini the solar niid b]'pog:a«tric jilesm 

^o( Uie sjrmpathelic. 

^B What arc tlw <AaracUriMicii of muntiM mtmhrancsf Thej 

^^ba tka IntarDal «urfncr« of ibc hDllow vifircra, aitil form nu iniemal 

Icgamuii to tbc bodj. itiinlof;ou» lo thi^ tikiii. The; arc of a koD, 

tjMiii^v cutuiKlenct, enailj yield to iiicobiitiicnl violence, and nru 

ipendcBl U|ioii tiK tiurronndijig eoilulur coat for their (trciigib 




What nre the rfiarartrrittic* of the Lhvrf It KcerHc* (h^ bi1« 
arid is Iho liir(;fat ^lAtid in thi- linniflti Ixxly. It* wholi^ mpnrior 
Tacc ia iii coiitm-t witli the ijin)>hntf:in ; on llic Ic^ iit the »|il«cn, 
below are llie Kloiiiadi uiul Iraiixvt^nie cotoD, wid bt-hiiid arc tlic 
vcrli-brie aiid nsi>fii(liii,i; cava. It iH about ten Incheii in It-njilh, 
BIX or ftevi'ii vriilc, niiil ti'i-{|;hfl in the udalt four to five pnund*. 
It is divided iali) lobrs, called n'^/if and left. Tlic former i* iho 
larfrcr, and hu elevntious on it« Nurfui-e. called hhului Kpitjtiit. 
and lobitiiit qiiarluii. On Ihe under f^urfaec arc Ave GMurcs, viz . 
linnjiludinal. n/ the tluHui fenatiu*, ttvnei'eree, one /or (A<r gall- 
blailder. and uiie /or fhe vt-na atca. 

Wliai arc llie UijainenU of the liver ? The falciform or Au* 
jjeiiiairi/, liie li-jamenluni tfi-es, llie right Jaleral, llie If/t lateral, 
aiid «oiiie enaloraiHts ^hc ibe nnrae of corotiary to itint du)tlicsiiira 
of perlloneura, at the JuneiloD of the suspciiiwry and lateral lim- 
ineDtii. The liver has aUo a proper roal conuecting it with ibe 
peril oueiin). 

What are ihe bloodi:e*tehT They ere of three kinds: the veim 
porlaniia, the hepatic artery, aud tbe hepniie veins. 

What cv>npo»ea it J Adiii, or prnnnlntioTm. each of vhich u 
complolc ill itKcIf, having tlie ahove-iiutiicd blood vesMlr, the oHjcin 
of a branch of the hepatic duct, culivd poriu bilUriuF, IjrinphMic 
vcBseli, and nerves. 

What is the cnpntle of Oliftoni It i» a conJenscd lamina 
furm^'d oiil of ft while nnd yellow eliislic eellnliir fibr«n» limiic. at 
the bnllom uf the trnimverKc liKKure of the liver, wbicli invetl* ibc 
vena ]>orlarnin, licpnlic artery, nnd biliary ducts, mad fultows ibem 
tbr-'innhoiit the Hiilinlanee of the lii'cr. 

Wlinl are llie cliaraclerittiei' of the Gafl-hhdtlerl It )• ■ 
reservoir for llx bile, lixcd on the under »nrfiirc of the (crcnt lobt 
of the liver, to the right of the umbilical flttfure ^ its shape Isui 
obloiig pyriforiu uc, and is about lliree inches iu leugth. ll lut 
three roaia. a peritoneal, a cellular, and a mucous. Its ariei^- is • 
branch of Ihe hepatic ; its veins empty into the vena portarfiin, aiid 
lis nerves come from the »ympalbelic, lis duel, called cyalic, 
uuiles ai ui acute auj^le with the liepaiic duct, aud forms the 




rfvrfiu eommunit ehotfdochut ,■ Iheiw dnct* have two coatii: «. 
tturnnl. filiroux. lamellKtt^d. nnH t-xtt^nnlili; ; nnd n mucniifi. 

What nru ill* cAurnrti-rtitdrj of lh« Splixrt f It is in ilie [lOHle- 
fMrfxtrt i>r the Itft h^pouhoiidriuc ration, liontiiii-d above l>y thr 
dl»|>Jtn^, below liy the colon, on the rijtht by Htv grenl end o( 
ihrFtuoiACh. and (lio (MncTMS. Il* color varies from deep blue lo 
<Urk tirown ; it \» uanally abottt four and a hiilf iiichi-s long by Iwo 
Md k half vrlde. Ita artery, called j^|>lctiic. i« a bnincb of tli« 
(telbc, itH v«in eiHptiea Inlo the vena purlurum ; thi- lympliotlca 
tn onni«roii« and remarkably far^re, nud il« nervf^ arc dirived 
from the M>lnr plexus. It has no eSL-retory du(.-t, and lu ii)>c is not 
aarcnalaed ; bat it nioflt proWbly serves aa a divertkulum in euie 
of GOBfcasKon. 

What are the charaeteriglifa of the Pancreaal It t» fixed in 
tiM lower and baek part of i1i« epi^iitric region, bonnded In front 
by Ike alomaHi obirli conceals it, and is between the two Inininn 
of the niewcDlun, about six or seven inrbes lonff. two wide, and 
llNiien«<l Wfore and behind ; iis right exiretnlty is enlarj^-d iniu ■ 
hewl or taker, aometiineii railed the tenser pancrta*. Il it of a 
llcbt itmr, or Jjink color, and ronsists of lobules. Tlie arteries 
wliich «n|ii>Iy it come priucipally from the splenic ; llie veiim empty 
into tli« aiileoic ; and the nerves come ttora ibe solar plexuii. It 
fMTClM a (alivary Hutd, and is Ihc largest of thl.t eln*.t of ^laiiilt, 
Il« Mcn-tory dticl U called t/"c/u* Wirtumrii. wliidi fitlipr pene- 
trairs the dn>-lUH communis cbuledoclius, ur the dugikniim, very 
cloM to II. 

Urinary Oryan». 

What are the urinary offrans ? Tbe kidnegB, rmutl eapiulet, 
hiadHtr, nrHirrv, and urrthra. 

What are the rhartuieriaticB of the Kutnrj/nt They arc two 
plandubr bodies fur tbe seeretion of urine, silttated on cither sida 
of the sjHne, e.tlending from the upper margin of the eleventh 
■lonuil to the tower margin of tho second lumbar verlebra ; tlie 
rinbl is ten or Iwelre lil>ee lower than the left ; they are lianl, solid, 
of a brown color, a conapiVRsed ovoidat shape, exrnv>ii-d on tin- 
nanHn. which t« applie<l to the »pine, and resemble Ibe eotnmon 
kidney hpan; they ar« nboni four inches lonn, aivd Iwo wide, nnd 
weigh each three or fowr onneet, have do periluneul wnt, but biive 


a well markH capsnie; tile arteries are tailed llie rennl { 
goni, uiid are braiii^lu-s of ili« aorta ; the velui lake ilic- miiik 
H« the arlorics, and arc equftl to tliem In iiumbei'. The ikubsiaiiet 
of Ibe kid[i«VB is dividod iuUt corUtal' (Fig. Sb), aud lueduUary 
or tit 1)11 lar.' 

The cortical, or secretory Bub»taii« fornia tlie flrcumrerenee, 
and is on an avcrajie abont two lines in iblckii^ss. It vonsliU of 
a number of toruioiis tiib(« of Fcrrelii, in ulilrli llie uriae Is ftral 

Tbc inbular portion consists in from twelve to nghteea conoid*! 
fasciculi called tlir ni«dullari/ coma of Malpiijhi,'' with tli«ir bnsea 
towards ihc cortical portion; lln-ir npires coiivn-go lowardii ibe 
ecnirc. are free, and (irojert "o a* to form tlie prrpUltF rvnaUa.* 
Knrli faKdculiis or conn i« cn)iuble of subdirisioo into »inall /lyro* 
tnidt of Fimvin. and carli |i^raniid cotiKisiH of n iiuiober of straight 
(u&ea of Bellini or tuhnli urini/rri. inlo whii-b llio toHuoua lubea 
of t'errrin em\'ty. Tiic a|>ex of caeli cone is called papilla 
renabts, and in llic centre ot racli |'a|iilla is a slight depression 
callirdyocco/a ; it \* rucvivtd into tli<! innnidibnlnm, into which the 
urine is cvfricd ax it (loxes from tlie oriliccs of ihe pn|>il1i. 

What coiU|)oses lli« vscnluri/ duct of tlie kidiwj: ? Tho ureler,'' 
wliicli coniitieDces in the centre of ilie kidiic}', bj- an eidargemenl 
called prlvif:' lliiii bruucbes olT i<u[ieri»rly into llircc or fonr por- 
lioiLS cnlkd calu-f,' odc aliote, one- lielow, and one or tu'o inter- 
mediate. Eaeh uf tbi»e rulict-i Is dividnl 
at ila free exiri'iuilv into tlirce or fonr 
sliort funnel -»lia I leii IcmiinniioBs. nttled 
in/nnifibula.' These terminations eni- 
bruw, cneh by its expanded orifice, tho 
base of a ]>a|>illn, so as to permit the lat- 
ter to project ini<j it, and dii^lil its urine 
there. Tlie pelns of the kidney as it 
emcrg1^s from llic flsrinro bceomea redDC«d 
til n cylindrii-nl canal, which Is properlj 
Ibe 'irv/i'r.'* it is about the size of a 
[•oiire rjiilll, descends into Uiv pelvis, and 
pLiii-truii-* ohli(|ucly the coats of the 
bladder, ten or twelve linea behind Ita 
ni- k ' (tig. 3it), and is composed of two coals or lauiinw. 

rig. 3», 




mini nrr the Hfntti cap»ule*' (Fig. 38) ? Tbej are two small 
Mitr*. one VII i-itticT nidi;, ]i|ncr<l ii]"Hi the apper «id of ihu 
liMiirv, of B yeltun i»li-browii vulor tiiigrd with tvd, hitvc no cxcrc- 
Wj dacu, and are lh« raoxi diitlini-'tl/ developed in the r<eliis. 
The arltTifj: ani (lonTrd from tlio iiorlu, ihc ri-nul. iind phrenic 
inni(«; tlw Tpin (if tJH; r'n;\il "Ulv (■ir][>lii-!i into llit' ri'iin cnTa ; 
ihu on liw- 1i-(l fidK into till' rcnnt vein. Tlic ncrT» nre supplied 
turn Ihe r«nnl mill plirrnic )ilcxii>".->i. 

fflwt lire ibf rftomrfrcind".-* of llic BMili^r (Vig. 311) ? It i* 
Um rwoMwir fur tlic tiriiK-, jiluc>;d in the jiriri* j\M behind ihe 
^phjni* gf ihu piibcs. Tin- t^njuiinr ctid i» ciillnl tlic ujijKr 
/mdtui* tlio lower eoO tlic in/rrinr fundut;' and botwstn the 
tn b Xht body ; ihu ihtX* it ilK plm-v «f junoticn with tlir un-llira. 
Il consiiclit of four c<M(!i, ihr jM-nt-inral. tnn*rular, ri-ltular, and 
■ >kiomj> ; nixl i« reiaiiird In ito plncn hj teixn Irw- litcumiiitf, vix ; 
tm attlfrior, Iwa lalfral, two umhiU'.'al, and Ihv urachns; nnti 
bj /»tir/al»i', »li : /inv awdrtwr, nnd /uM^xutrmor. 

Til* tf»l four nre romi<;'l 'ly iIk* jxilvic fiKnn ; ihr two nmbilicnl 
by the ol>ltl«ralt«o of th<: nmiiilic-nl iirlrrics <if lliu ftcliis; nnd 
III* tilne )i^mnit« arc rvflcclioiis of the pcriloncnin Th« inU'mal 
Un of Ihu miKOUi coat pn-scnt* at il» inferior part ihc i-encle 
triau'jle.''*'' with iU smooth centre' hiliinil and bi-low ihe ncfk, 
ocmpyiii)( th« »pace bctwrcn it and the orific** of the nrclors. 
Tbi; uruta vtJiicaf' l» at the pntcrior nnplu of the Irianglp. which 
I to mrtimffi iirvMnIa an <ib«truction to tb« iniroduclion of the 

Organt of Ofneralion in Pie Male, 

What do ihi- male orgim" of gcncrnlion cun)ci«t off The fe*(f- 

(-K, and ibc peiiit, wiih itirir appcniiagtm. 
How [« IIm Peni» fonnrdf Dy rammon inlr^racnts, c^iliilnr 
Hiie. tlw corpora can-rnosn, nnd tJif rorpii* npnnjriosnra nreihrw. 
Wliat are llio cAnin-r/'.nVir* of ihc tWtliraf It is a panal 
ni«e IrnfTlh TaricK. aitd extends from th* ntvk of ihe bladder to 
e rjrtrfinity »f the giant peni*, Th* fir»t pnrl |i«iftmir* tha 
prvr^als iilattd," nm] i* nilletl ihc jirottalie portion ; " on itc iii- 
fi-riur iiurfni.'« it a donblitijc, which oonxlilnleo ihe tvrvmonlanum* 
or caput gollinain«'is' Uctirccn the pro*taic and Ihe bulb" ii 
the mentbmnoug portion,'* about eight or ten tines long; th« 



I tiliiticc of tlio utvlhra U lodged in the corpu« Kjioii^ioMlB ftoB Id 
pj sg. coiiinieiiGetiieiit nt ibc deep perineal 

fiuK-iu to the meatus arinarius ; Ihi* 
mini Turii^s in iu dimcctiotis in 
(lifTcnriii |>iirt«. 

^V||at oilirr prnis ant to Imi ob- 
served ill Fif!. 39 y The uiYfcfrs,' 
orijice of Uik riudUK rjacMlalaria,* 
ducU" /roni Urn prvdale ijland, 
witli the ntck oflhr. bliulJer abore, 
one of Ct'Wper's t/hntU.'* »Uli tbe 
orijicet of thdr wxrrfw^ dudn," 
corpora cavcrnoaa.'* etvctor penia 
muicte,*-'^ accfferator vri»(v mua- 
WtT,"" ntiil pr">!afi- ytaiui."-'* 

Wliiit nm llii; charactrriffio of 
the Vfticiilcp acminalml Th«jr are 
two coiivoliili'd lubep, ooe on encb 
side, (wo iiicliea iii length, placeil 
on the lower fuTidns of ihc blwddtr, 
betw«fji it and tho nt'tuni, and 
belilod the prosiate glnnd; they 
ore composed of iwo co«te. Tha 
excretory chiei of mcli vesicle b 
nboiit n line and n linlf loiifr, nlten 
it joins with the von defert^n* of the 
vnine Hide ; a eotnmon canal is _ 
fornictl culled ductus rjacvlalorita, I 
which in flpht or ten lines lonjt. 

mil* pnrsUrl wiili it< frilow, and openc nt the lateral anterior face 

of Ihi- enpui jrullinnpinif. 

Whiit nre ihc fharnrlrriiaifs of ihc Prnflate <;'o>irf,*'* (FIr. 

3!)) ? It ix n li'iily nliont the Hze of n hon>e-rlmttiul, fixed on ilia 

neck of the lilndilrr. niul pcnrlrnled hy the arethra. lid secrellon 

ix I'lDpticcl into llic prostatic portion of th<: urethra l>y Gftecn oi 

Iwoiilj" cxcrelory iluel*. 

What is ihi- ntnutinn of Cowpcr'n glands? Tliey are two In 

RuiiiWr. oni* on riich faille, Mlaitled in advance of the prostat<^ 

between the tnmirin' of the triangular lignment. 




Wlial urc ill* charactr-rliitieg of the TegtMrtt Tliey ire two In 
BnW. oni; oil mull Me ut tlie Ei^rotiiin, of nn olilotijr form, com- 
]irTur<l Inlrrully, an bidi mul a li*lf loiif^, imo iiic>i In breuillh, 
tlghL vr trn liufS in thickncu, ami oni'i-liiji<-il hy tli« acrodim, 
rftrfm, (Kif'ra eaffiualit, tunica alliuijinexi. anil lunica vMculoaa, 
I Tlut KTofum is a conlinnntion of Ihr romtiiuii fkia. coniriKiii lo 
btllt lesticW, S]:min«lric«t, niid diviilvd bjr u niiii'lic tine called 

Till- ilariDA U witliin tli« fcTotoin, aiid forms two mc*. one for 
*t(h tr»tii-l<f, 

Tliu tuni'.'o tMt;inali* U riRidty coinparabtu lo a douMii ni^ht- 
(tf, onf portion niltii-riiiB: firuilr to th<; liinii.'H albiijcinun licnralli, 
at 1\m! olIiiT looN'ly rvn.ftp<l out the t<;iilifl«. 

The tunica olbu^nea ' it. ihc pnTpiT com uf the U'lfliVle, and U 

at tiiimodiate coiitad will) it ; it U (li-iu«. Ktronir. wtiitc. und li)>raus. 

Tli« tunica ivtculitra w (lie nutrient ineaiUranc of tlir le«ti>; 

litnatpd initntdiiilrly witliin tli« aUui »!■>*-'», pticlo«iii)( t.liu Huijttflnoe 

of lti« k'""*'' "**'' ■■eiiilii'fr }>ru(v»M'ii Inwariiti biM«f«n tlw lobolva. 

I The ijlandular jtartioH of lh« twtlcliw consbta of n conff«iie« of 

eo«Tol«t«<l tulio* railed lubitli M-miitt/eri. "•' amonnllng to ihm 

bvixlred in uniiil'iT, aTi<1 racli iiuirlj Rercntceii nntl a bttlf fc«t iu 

Ieii|!t1i, fonnintt ImnLii ti<-lil toiceOier l>f cellular kiibtlnnci). 

The vajta rvcla' un leruiinnlloiui of iho 
talinll MininiKrri, wliicli unite HMT the eciurc 
oflbr trsliele, [|i Acoinpli'-nli-d nrmiigement, 
callnl relc rMculwnin* lin'tix, 

Tbt vaiKt fffitmntia* (tttyia twelve to 

•ighttfen diirij;) (irocc«<l ft-oni ihe rete v<i«- 

evlamm Irmiit,* and penclraie tbo eor/iHs 

Uiijhmoriantim.'* and lutiieu ntba^cinM. 

Each aD« U tb«n courolai«d npon itwtf 

itilo mconUa.\ body, tlie onma vatrutotUMj 

Kacb Cine, at iU btibr, liM iU tube tnWliug 

uirreMix'lT into (hi; tulw of wUeh tJi« epi- 

ilidfnii* U formed. 

^H Tb^ rpiiiiili/miii* h romicd of a sint^lc 

^^BorulutMl tubi* of till* fourlh of n line in 

^BtaMt-r-, ai ll>e lowiTt-iid It )H-4'0t»e« l««s 

^VHBlMlf-d. ttim* uiiwarda. and obtalM 1I10 

qams itf vtu de/rrvm." 



A X A T (> M V , 

Wlml formj; the Hipirrmalif cordl It U n nisciniliis of nboat 
liuir till iiicli in (lintuelur, and iii«j' be felt piifHiii): frnm Ihc oppef 
end of tlx^ iKliolc tu tlic iilidomiiiul nnjr. Il is formril by Ibu vas 
(lurtrcns, upeniMtic artery, and vein*. Ivm|)hiilic]i of ihc tesUde, 
luid lite iii>ni>ii; uovltdc] liy a cellular nubtluiioc cnllod tunica yOr 
gitintiK roiiiiiiiiiii», and (lie cri'mii^U^r mu.sdc, 

Tlic CrcniMiiT iniisdi: U dcrivtd from iho internal obliqii« and 
lrnnsrcr»iili«, conipliricljr envelops llic cord, and drag's the testicle 
upward;*, The ra* di'/*'" i* the proper excretory dnct of the 
Icsiidir; it is n uhile lube, nboat a line and a lialT in diameter, 
and ha« a crartilaginou* Tod ; from ihc inlcmai abdominal ring, )t 
dips doH-ii into the pctvi$ by the tide of tho bladder, and lerini- 
iiHli?« in itio iiivthra, altvr aniliiig trilh the duct from the vesicala 
frtmiiialJs; this common duct k culled the durtun fjaculaloriug. 

What la nndcretood by Ihc I'enneumf The space included 
betw<«u the aoufl. arch of th« pubis, and the tnbcro«tiea of the 

What are the faKctoe and mneclos of the porinciim ? rerineal 
fascia,'^ the triangular ligament of the urethra," and the pelvic 
fascia." The perineal fascia " is hcnrnth the KupcTficial fu»cia, and 

Fig- 41. 

1b dense, thin, and tou^h ; in front it is roDtinnoaB with th« 
dartoB," behind witli the base of the iHanKolar littament" by ila I 
niiicrioT lamina," also with Ihe anal foacla,* a portion of the pelvic 
iwria " Beoeatb ibit llie auades of the periiienin are situated. 



The IriMiKtilar ltin>iii«il " occii|>ie;i lli« Rrcli of Ihe pobis ; tlir 
tta|)« i« iiiilkuted by ibe namo. It ix )ierfi)riiti'<l bj thu meni- 
bnnoiiii ]M)rtiuii of tli« urttlim ubout mt iiu'li lu'luw tht xyniiibyKit, 
»il M|Mmt*a llie peWU from tlie pi^rlii^iim ; it Joint Ihu pvnTi«nl 
uil wiai roKiv." Cowp«r'* " itiiti Om proxtiitp )t''i"<l ' >* «i(iii»«<l 
between i1* two Uinina!,'*'" ihc iiuilvrior of nlilcli it u»iiiili7 ukliad 
ihB IhMia or tbc |)ro«tal«. 

Wbnl olhw porta •ru extiiblt«d by FiR. 41 ? The bta'tder* tbo 
wnArr,' i.«* dt/ertn*,* rujht tvtiicula teminalia,* rrdo-ivgicat /old 
of thf fM-rilvnvum,' pronlale gland,* neck of the. bladder * proiHalic 
portion* »{ tli« urrthra, memt>ranouM pvriion," deep /aacia,*^" 
leiiator OHi." 

Tli« pelric riinciB xurrotiiiilH ttmt portion of ili« pcrilonoum which 
lbi« lb* pelvis, iinil it i-oiiiiiiiioiiB with ihu tnuMversalia and iliac 
fueta. Th« AiiliTior li)caniviite or Iho blad<lcr" (>'i^. 41), ob< 
Cantor ftKio. ksd rt«to-vc«iciil ruicia. aro proc?»sr3 of ibis. Tlie 
■nadw ar« the erector penis, accelrratur urinic. tninttvrgiu periiid, 
■pbincter ani, coccfK^t"*' *nd lorutor aoi. (Ace Vlgn. 19 aud 39.) 

/Vniofr! Organs of Generalion. 

What are the or^urui of jirncrDtioii in the female T The Tuka, 
rairiiia. litems, Fallopian tubes, and tbc oraria. 

What conslilutea the Vulva f Tlic rulva consislH In the nionv 
vraerls. tlie labia externa, llio labia itilvrnii, or nympliM, tlie cJltoris, 
ihe ?eatibuluro. ibe orillciiim nrttline. the roiirchettc, and ihc fgsta 
Baviculnris. Tbem are called ibe external or(^anii. 

Where is the ihns Peneris and the other exteriml orcnriit sitn- 
vni T The mnm veueris U an uccuumlailoii of ocllular and ndi 
|io«c duhiitanai vorertDj; the pnbM. 

Tbe Labia Ejtema arc two bodies of a xiniilar (cicture to tlio 
nifM veiitria, niunlQff parallel from It in a downward and buckivard 
eoarae, where tbcj* nnllo and fomi tlie poxlerior commiGsnre, or 

Tbo Oliloriii i* directly beneath ihe lupmor union, or oritrin ol 
the lubia ; it eonniMx of two crura which imilc and form its botty. 
the cklerna) tcriBinaiitui of which hiix been rnlled its plans. 

Tbt Jfymphof. or Labia fnterna. ar« two itmilnr bodlea depend- 
ing tVom ibe cliloriii. which aeparate and rtiD downwardB towards 
tbc Of cxtcnniD. 


L^ 86 

^V Tilt Ventihulitm U a, Afptesflon twelve or fifteen liiteg. long;, he- 
r Iweeii tlie liiltiii liiUnia. Ii la bounded above by Uie clilorU Hiid 

below by ihp orifice <if the iirellira. 

Tlie (Mjhv of till? urethra is found belweeu tlie Inferior ]»orti<itii 
of the iiytuphte, at the liifuriDr part of ihe veatibulnm. Tbe citial 
ftp tlie wrcthra !s about IJ Inches In length. 

The Orijirr of llio vaijina is below ibe orifice of Ibe gretbra, and 
immediately under tlio Hympbysis pubis. 

Tlic Hynien U n iQeinbrauous exjianslou at the orlQee of ilio n ■ 
gfuu. and pnrtinlly eloitioK lu 

The CariinruliK niyriiftirmn ivre Riuall fleoliy raKiilkT bodiei 
tllunled ut ilic exieroul orifice of the vaccina, upon which iu Uk! 
virifici Ktnte the hymen ft]>|>ear3 lo Hprcad itself. 

Tho Fiyurchftle in a #eniilunar fold In »itvnncN> of iIh! hynt^n. 

The F<i**a nafiCularit \» the spave bi-]u»r the re»ltbu1uin and 
fourdietle, and anterior to llie orifice of the vajtiaa. 

The iVrinn/m !« the Kjiuce directly bebiiii) the inferior termina- 
tion of the labia and before the uuuk, about an inch and s hulf lb 

What arc tho iDtomsl organs t The rn^lnit, uterus, and Dtenue 

What (ire the chartui&ritties of the Vnffinaf It is a thin mos- 
culu- membranous canal, loading from Ibe vulva to the aicrus, from 
four to six inches ia length, between the bladder in front and the 
rectum behind, flattened, so as to bring its anterior and poxterior 
Burfuees in contact, lias three tunics, an external cellular, a middle 
innnculur, and an internal mucous. At il« anterior end is th« e<irput 
apr/nyiifgum va^'ntc, or ptexua rfii/ormiB. The gpMncler cagina 
muxele snrroands iia anterior orifice. 

The Ifymett h placed at the anterior orifice, for the purpose of 
cloHini; it more or less perfectly. 

What are the charatieriaiie* of tho t^fru^t It ia a comprcoed 
pyrifiirm body, two and ii half Inches lonif, and one and a half in 
diainHer at iu widest part. Itn posterior face ennvex, anterior 
nearly llat, about one inch in thickncas, and divided into fumliis 
body, and neck. The /urK/u^ Ik the pari between the Fnllopion 
tubes at Ibc nuperior extremity, the m-rk is i\m lower cylindrical 
portion, and Itie body is the part intenniriliute to ihc two. Ita 
cavitji is triangnlar, with tlie sidi:s convex, and the inferior angle 



prcMtiU townnli Ibu opening into 1h« Ta(;{na called m linctw. Tbe 

mucoaa ^And* or Wumo in (lit neck arc culled ui-ula NabvllU. It 

kMM lliTM QOAt*. u veroas ur exlernal, a middle wbkb is miiscular, 

['•nil Bii iiitcniiil or mucoiij. Th« maseulur coat U composed of 

iMi^tiiilinal, circular^ uii'l gl)1ic)ue fibres. Tbid OTfsan is supi'lied 

iriili liluud Uy tU« uterine aud ii))«niialic arteries ; nilb iicnea from 

l-tlw aortic plcxti», and {mm tbe hjrpotCMtriQ m^rvea aud plcjtiiii, 

brinx a luixinre of .incral and ijt'nipalliL-tie ticrvefl. 

Wbut are tli« l.i-jaufiiU iif thf u/f ruK 7 Tlic* broad or lateral, 
^tlie oii/f nor, \\w posterior, aod roMnrf tijtuineiits. 

What arc ill* Falhjrian lubfg ? Tlipy are Iwo mused o-mcmlira. 
caiialK, one on eilWr Hide, in tlio «ii|ierior part of tlie broud 
i^itmrnlB <if llie ntrruH. four indioi long, eslcndinx from tlie t]j>iMT 
kngle of tliv utrriDC ntvitv to ihv sidv of lla- pelvi.t, wlieru lbi-!r 
eximniltcs arc loo(«, aod v:(}iatidcil into a trumpet xliaped inoutli, 
callod Ibcir Jijnhriafed cxln-miti'i!. They »ervc to conduct the 
oTam from thv orariet to the atrmw. 

What are tlie cAarncfunrfi'-n of ihc Oiviric*f Tliey «rc two in 
RBcnbcr. one on fillter side. Kiinntwi on lUc posterior Tncc of llw 
br»ad ligameul*, of a com[ireMfil iivoid slinpc, abont lialf the niia 
of the male lc«livtc. They lini-e ivfo coats : a prriloncat, am! tlie 
tw'ica albusfinra, wbicb corn-Jipond* with the MnM! coat of tlie 
Ivsltelo. Tbrir nrtirrlei are tlie xpvrmnlint ; and tbeir n<Tv<Mi are 
fruoi ilic Hpemialic iilrxnu. Tbc |)r'i|*r lij.»iie of tbe ovnry (eulivd 
[ta Mlrotna) cuntiM* of drii«e ctlttilar Kiilihlance containing within 
[t« areulie a nanilH-r of vuall Tcxiclcn called Graafian, onv of wbicb 
[n matured nixl thrown olT at every mcDKtrual period in a ttatc of 
bcalUi, learing IxOiind n oorpna liilcnm. 
From wlieott do the female orguns of generation derive ttidr 
' bToodreiwrN and nerve* f Prineipully from the internal pndic and 
other l>rar«:bi-)i of (be bypoKuntric nrtertt-ii ; tlieir vrirm nni into tbo 
hypo^nvlric \ and tlidr nerve* come from the Micriii and hypognstria 


OaoAXS or RKepiRATiON. 

Wh»t arc t}i« organs of respiration ? Tli« Utrj/nx, Irachea. and 





Whnt BiP Ihe chnracti'rii'Hc* of llie loryinr " f FIr. 42) i' H Is an 
Irrejriilivr oiriiliipinoui liilip. forminir tlit upper piirt of llie wind- 
|iipf ; it \» lielow ihn OK hi'oMea nnd root of ihv tnnitiic, hoondoi) 
l.i-hii]iJ liv (be |>hiirj'iix, and Inttrally by x\\t priraiiivf wirodd nrte- 
rit's i>nd iiittniiil jiiffiilar veini, and contrittutm cMuiliully to Ibe 
rurmutUiTi ur tli<! voitH-. 

Five dlxtiiii-t ciiriJtaicM entor into it:: ^tnidurc; thoy are one 
thyroid, one criroiJ, otic cpiglotth. and two ari/tenoid. 

TiiP Ihifrtiid \» llic InricpM. nnd Torras tJic iirominmco in tli* <i|>per 
]niit of ihp neck, cnllril pnmum Adnmi. It hns two )iroi-e<«e8 on 
I'iii-h »ide; one cnllod comn mnjuf, and lliP oilier cornu minuK 

Thi; cricoid U lielow iJie iliyroid, fomis ilic tiase of the larynx, 
Olid articnliilv* wiih ilic irin'hi"ii. Il* form is thai of a ihltk rlnR 
compressed lalernlly, nnd ia tliree times as high poetfriuHy aa It Iti 

The arijtenoid carlilagtf resemblo trianffular pyramids curved 
Imi-kwarik. are aliout six tinea Ions', and are placed on tbe upper 
mar;;iu of ibe cricoid cartilngo behind. 

The rpigloUi* is situated on tlie poxtcrlor face of the base of ll>e 
03 hyoiiles; its iteniirnt Khape in tlial nf an oral disk. 

Thi- li'javienU of llip larynx are the crieti-l!ii/rviil, tUe tniddlf 
ihi/ri-o-liyoid. tbc Inlrral Ihyrro-hijoid, nnd the llij/rrffarytenoid, 
tno in iinmbiT. on eadi side of the laf^nx, one abore the tultcr, 
three lince apart. The^e laitt-iiatncd li^nrnvnts also have the name 
of ligantenlum tvcalu: and the portion of the larvnk which Is 
formed by them, nnd the ponches between Ihcm which are called the 
wnMcUt of Oalrn. are the stmclupM esM'nlinl to the foruiatioii 
of voice. The opi'iiiiitt liclwcen the two luncr iipaments ia called 
the rinia shlliilis; and thu upaoe between the npper llfra<nent)i 
and Ibe dnpllcntare passing from ibe arytenoid (0 tlie epigtotlia, is 
on lied ij^oUi*. 

Tlie tnu«dr» of ihe larynx ars tha thyrvo-hyoidivt, cric"4hy 
rvidfttt, rrice-ari/trnoidefit pw/jcus, and taterati^, Ihyrto-uryt^ 
noi'r/eits. anjltnoidcuf-^btiqtiua, and lran»tinw», (AyrvcHtjT^rW- 
lideu9, and aryUno-ifpiglvUideita. 



The nrrcet of tbc tnrynx conic priiK^ipnll; rrom the snpcrior nod 
idmot Itrjngnl brniicliM or the pur vagum. Tho arteries nre 
tnnlies of tlic nipurior mid iufurivr thyroid. 



What are th« chamdcngtics of iho trnclicft ? " It U ft eylindrical 
omI tour or life inches long:, timl nimr tiiir» in diuiiietcr; El <i|)i-iit 
fnio tbe larynx a>wvo. ani) UTiniimios iii Ihu tliorax opposite to 
iIm third dnrt«l v»!rteltra, by two linmcln--* callfil lirom-hlffi. The 
Mnidures which enter into the composition of Uie tnichru nre e»rtJ- 
k$e. Itgaiurntous fibre, mnacle, i^atidf, and Mueouo meinlirane. 

The t'anli«pe presi-rve* ihe nhapc, and coii*i«lfi of rrmn bIx- 
teen to Iwent}' diitliiict riaifS, wliioh nre dolid'.-nt ul tU«ir poMerior 

Tlie Iijt«nienIon<i slnii'lnre exif<t>i between the proxininte marpriiis 
of tbe riiiifs and HtU up the imenali betncen tUrin ko an lo render 
the tulie perfect. Tli« drrii-ieney in Ihe riii^ pottluriorly U siip- 
plieil in part liy coudensed cellular siibBtHiictt. 

The miiM^ular Btrnetnre «xbls at llie carttln^inonx detkivney in 
Um )>i>ileHi}r third : the filires pas^ In a Iransrer^e dinrlion be* 
tween tlie interrnpled extremities of tlie rings; il is betwwn lh« 
condensed cellnlar stthtitaDce aod the niDcaoa moinhrnnc of the 


The mucoiH menibnine lines the whole inlcmal portion, from 
larriix lo Ihe hroncliite, tlirooj^hont all their raniifi«itiong. 

Th« bronchi have ibe siiine strui-tiire and arraaf^emeni as Ihe 
after rarnifying Into a number of sulidh Uioiis. they lenni- 
nate in the lol>iite« of th^ Iun((s. 

WItere is the Thyroid Oland sitnated ? It is pbeeil on lUc 
llr&t and teennd rinitd of the trachea, and on tlie sidea of the larynx 
vailed la tin' reiilre he ilK iKlhmun. 

Where I* the Thymut (llo'iii nltuuledf Bclwecu the trachea 
and apper extreioiiy of the ncrnum. 

What are ihc characteruticf of the Innjw ?"■"■" 

Tliey uro 

CMcniiall; the >«al of the pioee»« of re^piriition. and oi'nipy tienrly 
iIm whole eailly of the ihorax. Tlicy are Lno bodicn of a grayinfa- 


FI|. 43. 


plok color, sepsratcd by ilie lioart nnd fig girat vMscISi ttd tktik 
forms an irrejliilar com; willi the npex oliov^. 

The right Innjr i« diviili'd !tilo Ujre« /<>(w«, unit the left iulo Ivtol 
Each lobe is Jiyidci) iiilo clUtiiict loM'-t, niilluU bjrccllnlnr tissue. 
Tlio lobules arc tiiibdiTiikd into liut air-eHIx ; (bene cells com mu- 
nicalt lalcrBllj- in (In; iiiiliviiluul loliulm, but not witli the cells of 
diffcnnl lobolw, Tlif-^e uir-vfsiclps un; iinilcH tog^ctlicr by cellnlar 
tiwue, rorming the tiarcncliTiiia tliroDgli nblch Uooil nnd air-veesels 
rainiry. t'lich lobule has a ramiUcatiou of the bronchial lobe eeut 
10 It. 

Till! liliiodvirMsdn are of two kiiiilii : tlio {inlinonary,^** and broD- 
cbial. Tlic fiinnnr t* Tur llio nt'nttion of the bluoij, and ilie other 
for ihe TKiuriiihinunt i>{ the lunjfK. 

The ncri't-H c'i)n)u from Ihc pur vo|;nia and .tynipHlbulic. 

What coiiipoMM the Hoot of the luiign ? llic ruut of each lung 


is rorini?d bj ibe pntnonKry artery, and two veliie, the oervec, 
lir.iiK-liiii*. Ij-ui]t1inltc TOMcln, am) glands, coTer«d by the pleon, 
«>it-r« it L-xu-ndt Trora ihe lungM to tlii- pcricardiam. 


What ii the arranQtment of Uic picunc? They are two in 
nnmber, alTonl a pcrTcrt covering Tor vic-h lung:, nnd are rcRculrd 
ovitr the adjnurat >ides of tli« pvricunliiiin, and the interior pcrl- 
{tberj of ih« tliorax. 

That ])urllou of the ])l«urti wtildi coven Ibe lung If called yleura 
ptiimwialts, and that wliii-h lines (he thorax h iht pii^ura codalix ; 
the two sides beiiip: alike. They rereive blood froni the broiicliiul 
ftnd iiilercOHtat urii-ni-ti, aud iicneit from tli« iiilereo.iial«. 

The {iteune ditiik- the tlioniit vcrtii-ally into two |>arl>i; this 
•eptatu U called MtdiaatintuM, and coiitainx the heart with its 
f»>T«ri«fc« and frrrat tcsmU. The iiirdinstinnm is diviili-d into 
thr«e poniotix. Tba anlfrior |inwes from tlie front of the peri- 
rnrdiiiin to the pott«r>or face of the middle line of the sternum. 
The ponltrior pnwics fn^in the po«terior fiicc of the pericardium to 
the dorsal vertehrai. Tlve superior E« witlifn the cireult of tlic 
fimt rilw and Ktemnm. 

What are contained in the posterior m«diastionm T Tin Otoramo 
oarta, tiM taophayii», the ixna azjftjog, the Ifioradc duct, and the 
par raynm nrrre of hoth »ides. 

What are contained in the mperior racdiimtiDum t A pan of the 
Rflwlns of tba (Aymus gtand, dtuccndiny vena iwiwi,' Irantt^trM 
\>fin, or^vna innomini/n, the lopn/lhi- airho/lfie aorta* arlrria 
iitHominala,' left ettnUid,' le/i subclavian,'* trachea," axt^agvM, 
phrenic nerve, and par va/jwm. 

CtBCVLAT(»T System. 

What is the apparatus by which Ihocircnlntioti H effected T The _ 
hmtrt, which in man coasiMs of four cftvili«« ; the arteriet, v^ina, m 
and cnpillirifg. 

What are tlie coiinw and <kscri|>tion of the chvuliitJon f Tlie 
Mood, after Retting to tlHt right niirictc. is emptied by its cootrte* ■ 
li"in into ibe ri(i;hl vrntriHi-, from whioh It in forced through the 
ItnuMbw of the pntajoiinry artcrj- into Ihe lungs. It is returned 



throngli ihc fonr pulinonnrj: tmhh lo the loft auricle of ihe heart, 
which rontrnclK and IhroKs Ihu blood iiiio ihe tefl ventricle, from 
«liich it U |>ri>])ullctl, \>y its coiitraHioii, ioto tlie aoria ; it in then 
dintributrd to th« whole hoAj bj its small branches, from whidi it 
is cullecli-d Itj <'nrrcii]>on(liiig veins, iriin Ilic n*cfiiiliiig niiO <it- 
sceiidiiig cava, llinl i-ni|it}' into the riglil Doridr. It will, there- 
fore, be >een that llicre ore two cirrnlnlions — llie greater or ays- 
teinic, the nrleries of which roiitaiit n-i) l>Iou(l. unit ihi: vciiui dark 
or veiioiix Ittood ; and tlie ksscr or piilinoiiic, llie nrtcrics of whivh 
contain dork blood, and the reins red or vivified blood. 

Whiil is nimnt by ihc capillaricgT They are tlic extreme vas- 
cular rami lira tiouK which fonn the connection between the arlerie* 
and veinii. 

Of how many cimls arc the nrltrifs eoniiioscdf Three: an 
external, n midillr, and intvmal cont. 

The cJftTnn/ or cellular voM i» conHcnsed crlltitarnibtlaace, 
foniK'd into a cjlindir, llie filirctof «hii'h niii ia evprj direetloa. 

The middte coat, called also niv»cular. prupirr, or litnttinoHK, 
(a of t Mglit yellow tinge, the £brvs of which are circular, abd 
I>o«we«)i elajiiciiT. 

Th[! internal coat is KomcliincK called nervous and arsohiiold; 
it is a thin ncroox membrane. 

Cellular ituWtHiH'e, v(ts<i>1s, and nervca also enter Into tlie struc- 
laru uf arl<rrii-i>. Tlui blucidruMelK whloh nourish llie arteries are 
called aua arteriarum. 

Of bow many coals are the veins eomposed f Tlireo : an ex- 
ternal, a midtlle, and an iutemiil coat, oiialogou* lo the corrcs* 
ponding coats of the arteries, but more delicate iQ their texture. 


ofia 1 

Where is the heart nhiatedt In ill* thorax betwMS Ui* «tns 
num and sjiine. having the Inngs on either side, nnd the twdlnoas 
centre of llie diaphragm below. 

It is surrounded by its proper membrane, the pericardium; it< 
wcitrhl is about six oiiiieex, |ta>ateia Icnf^lh about Bve and a balf 
iiichu<, and its base about three and a luilf iiichei in diameter. It 
[a divided into four cavitieK ; two uf nliidi are called auricleM, and 
two venlriclre. The uiiriclef I'urm thi- buAe of the heart, and tlie 


ttBlHelM its boilj. Tbe right nnricle and rontricio rorm the right 
lifc of the heart, aniJ ibc iftl Hiirick nticl veoin'cle form the left 

Whit are Ihe ^aracterittien of the ri^Af aurKtel* It In an 
lUang puhoiijal csrit/, joiiivil at itc posterior snperlor anf;l« hj 
iW ^Btecndiitg vena cftva, mid at ){« jioaterior iiifurior unitle hj* 
At afrenditig cara. Iii front it i« dilated iiito a poach called 
ting, tbo Hpp«r oxtrtmily uf which is elon)i^(ed iuio a proceit* 
rth iMlenud edgm, culled auru-te, or aunV-M/ar portion. Ou tJic 
l>)«Biii belwrrn ihu ■tirtoleH H the/wira oealie, which is sun-ouiidvd 
bf i» njtNK/us, or the ielfiianjs of I'lrusspiia ; below the /ciaiici 
t(«Ji« is the Eustachian titilve. At tli« orifice of tbe lar(^ eoro* 
urr vein Is the iMifuufa Tfieb^sH. The opeDiiif^ into the rt^ht 
rcutrii-lt! is the o«ft'ifui triioirtim. In tbU Wiriclc are fiucicull of 
■nanilar Abres called mutcuU pecfinaii. 

1?bat are the ckarafteriulict of the right wrn/nWe?' Itw of 
(he farm of a triBii;:iilar pvramid. forms ilie greater pjirt of the 
utrrior surfuee of ihe li«vit. and is aboiii three ISnea iu thlckncM. 
h» lolertial surface Is covered bj muscular faoeiculi called cotumn<K 
rarnriv ; from aone of these. amBU tendinoiu conlt are sent to 
Ihe Tulvfs, called chordtv Un'iinrt^. The mliif*, three in nuiobcr, 
■•rtwp'ii thi* tentricle and aurirle ore called tricutjnd, Th* open- 
hjc for the pulmonary art«ry la abore, atxl funitKlied with three 
tilTM called RcuiiiMiiar, or niijmotit, which have in the centre of 
their edge* a itmall cnrtiliiciiiouii body cnlli-d ci'rpH»culum auran- 
tii. Between tlie oaier Eacc of each valve and the artery is a pooch 
catlH the nHHH of Valmlm. 

What are tbe charorinii^ti of Uie Ir/I auriclel Ila GgDr« Et 

iDOf* rctcolorly qtiadninsiitar than the rijeht. lit tip or car-like 

purtion u nilaatcd at ihu left of the pultiioiiary nrtcry, and it u 

loagcT. narrower, more crooked, and Dxire notched than the ri^bU 

Thi* n|t«<iiiiig between the lelt aurtcte and tentridc i< alto called 

onfiuni ivnoMum. 

■■ What arc the c/ioraefurMMrn of the !(■/( tienlriclet' The shape 

"Bf It* <'a«iiy rweinljlM a louit ovoidal or coniciil body, with Jln 

jiarieio* nbnnl ci^ht 1I»ck tn ihiekneKX. Itx inlernnl surface has the 

Uptite nrraoiiruiRiit iik the riuht rcnlricle, ill hiiving tbe lli-fhy cntumns 

^^lU'd rrJumitiK i^rneiv. The oji((i(m vmimim on this side is ft»r- 

nisbed bj rnhc* oaltcd the mitrat, two in ntinilwr, the inargitia of 




wliii-li are also ftirniKhcd with chorda lendinem. The orifice of tbo 
uortii in furnialiiMl with throe KrmitHnar tralix*, corne»)>ondiii); ex- 
noily with IIiuku at (he Ari;^iii oT titc jmtuiODiiry artery, exce[it ihut 
they arc thicker ami ilrntiKer. 

The sinas^K of ValMlva abo «xt9t in the same manu«r. 

What ore the bloodueM^U uf the heart F Tliey ant the right and 
■■rft coronary arteries, aiii) (treat and le&scr corojiary veins. 

Where are the nervee of the heart derived from f Principally 
IVom the ccrrical ^u^llons o{ ihe sympathetic; they follow the 
coronary arleriea in their dislribiitioii. 

What Is uiidentood l)y the Pericardium 1 It is a mem hm nous 
snc eiivelupintf the heart, ll consists of two layers, an external 
libruui and an intenml serous. The serous layer lines the Gbroutt 
Mild U llien n-flei'led over the heart and roots of tlie vtsscls. The 
iiitoinal cavity ot tlio heart U Itued hy a serous membrane called 
tndocardium, duplicuturea of which with fibrous tissue form Ilia 


What is the great trunlt of the arterial system called T AortaT 

What are the bnnche* of llie aorta f The righi and le/t cxtro- 

«ary arieriet,'- ' which go to the Guhsianoe of the heart. 


mg. 44. 


From thi; arvft: the arleria innomtnofa,' the left primUiv» 
tarotui," and tbo U/l subclavian arteries. " 

Fran the thoracic portion ; the tironchiat. one for cncli tunK, 
and HOiii«i||iiU two or more, the (nophageat, vhic-h are firv or xix 
mull twl][8, the potterior arierirg oJ the mediaelinitm, »uil the 
tn/mor inUrvottai* or «»rh litk, which supply the tvn lower inter- 


Fy<*m tlM oMonunaJ poriion ; th« j^Aixntca,' two in Dumber, the 
crtiac* ibr tuprrii/r mMrii/rrir,* tlii; '■a/K'u/or,* one or more on 
M<-li <i'le, tbe trmul'n-nlii '' unil rp«rmaJTin, " one uti each side, the 
in/ttrior m»»enteru>," the lumbar' fire on ««eh 8i<l«, and ibe 
wdiltUr 'ticnl " arteriw. It then ttrmlnuietlinheprimilitxiliaca. 



How b Ihc Arlrria fniwrninafa divided F Into ri^lit snbolft- 
vlaii and right primiiivc cnrotid. 

How nro ihe Carotid* on each side di»idcil f Into inlemal* 
uikI eu-lrmal carotid/^.' opposiloa to tbe os liyoiiicn. 

Wlml ore tlie urlcrics given off by ibc IrUrrnal Carvlidf* Tho 
li/mjanic, llil anterior menin^iU, the opthalmic, ihc oonimuni- 

caling arifry of Willi*, the choroid, the anfrrtor and the middle 

What are tho branches g^von off by the Exfemol Carotid -rlr- 
lAryf The »i(;cri<ir thyroid,' the Ungual,* the J'ar-ial' {Khich 
pivfn off ihc mibmnilat,' the in/r^nor labial, tbe in/rrior coronary* 
am] ihe Kuperior coronary*), the mastoid, the parolidean, the w« 
ferior pharipigeal," the occipital,''- "■" and the p'ulerior auricu- 
lar," when It divides luto two larpe tniDks, the internal maxillary* 
and tiie teinjmral," The oecipiial, " "■ " gii-ea off the cerrical • 




The temporal giv«s olT Uic transcerse /(uciat,- the middle tern- 
poml,'' wnl tlie anterior " tind posterior temporal. '* 

Tbo inl^rnai ni<Ltiltarif' (Fig. 4G) sends off the followiiiii: 
brunches: Um* arieria fym/xt'iiva,' tlic arf^ria inrniii^a jMirLxi,* 
ibe monifl^ea mojina' or medui, the maxillaris or inferior 

tip U. 

dental," iho lemparaltg profunda, two in number, plert/goidem, 
buit-alu, maritlari* nupnrior," in/rU'OrhUalii'," jialatiiia nujHf- 
nor,'* ptfaryng^a euperior.'* ani \\u! gpheao-palaiina,'* viVicli In 
Uie temilu&iiog iniiik. 

What ■« llie branchM ffiron off by ihc Subclavian arterifn 
(Fig. 47) OB each Hd«! Thu vertebral* ihe inferior thyroid, 


■p-hich ^tn off (he mccpdinei or $uprr/!efal (vm'tvt* nrprriof 
luli-rttjKlal," intrrnat mammary." prn/unela (vrrrriV, " BnJ jxirln' 
rior cer^-ical ;" uft»r jmnHtig llift Hibi-liivinn inii*clr, it is pallt*! 
ariUary orrery* tu i)il' lower ninriiin of l)if iirm-pilt nrxl from 
'hi* ptuve lo llio elbour-juiiil, it i« cnlU-d brachial '° (Fig. tS). 
Wliut arc ilif branvhca ot \)\v Arillary Arieiy* {Viig. <*)! Tb* 

ng. 48. 


Swpe«orsc(7pw/ar, ronr«yt'r«(»7TnamTnary,"'"iw/mor«:«piitor,'' 
and tli« anterior on J potttrior rircumjlex. 

Wliiil live lilt.' branc-li«* of the Briehial Aneryf* The pno- 
fuund."'^ Ihr nmu// pn>/ound," nutriliuus, and onostomo/t*!;'* 
it ibcD bifurcntes into the radial " (Fig. 49), aad uttar " In front 
of Uiebrachialia iDleniua muscle. 



I ftr« the branches of Ihc SMial Arletyl The rrcHrtww 
nitalU," »»jifrjiciaii4 w/w. dtivMiiiti carpi, maijnn polUci*, 
mUitii* tmlieiit,'' ami ibc palmarU pro/uwia, wliich furnu tlw 
cnriM pnifaiula*. 

VVI»l •« ibi! Itrnnrhvc of X\ic Ulnar " virfctz-y ? Tlic rrcHrrrnt 
■lu/'M," tli« inbrniHufit anterior dihI ^XMnbrn'or, and thrMli* 
naifu. It tliMi runn» t)i« arctU Kvhlimit ' (from nliit^li bnuiclMS 
ir> ipiii that i>u|i|>ly (he riniii-ri. ciill«(l dujital), wid tcnniuateti b; 
lUuii-h vliwlt juiiut Um >rk-ri« iDugiift pollicil. 

Fig. 60. 

WliBt an tbe tmnclias of ibe Ceeliac Artert/t* It divides into 
three traiikt: ilw f^u/nc,* A<-jM'ic-,* aiid tplenic." Tliis division 
bflotnetimmi cnllfd Iripiu Hallnri. 

Tbe j^Mtru! ar1\-ry' ])•«»'« a]un|[ the leaser curvature of tJb« 
itoma ch . 

Thf hrpatir arterv' pre* off ihc pyloric* right gastric or gatln- 
^pl/iie," wlik'h i« dislriU«tcd lo lli« righl half of ihc grval ciirva- 
jiBv of tbe uomni-b ; th« main liraiKrh ptrn to (he traiisTcrsu (iiiniirc 
tf the lltTRf, and dltidcs iuto Ihe riV/A' and le/t branches. Th* 
cyifir ** i( jtinen olT from lUv riffbt. 

T)ic np/riu'r" nrlcry girvs off tlie paiKTca/io," the left ganlric." 
wbicb » diitribiiied to tlw l<-rt half of the groat conaiaro of the 
Moawurb. ani tbe vaaa ftrvvta,'* which are given off just before 




this nrlnry cntf m ih? xpl^t^ ; ihcy wrc fivp or six in number, ait*^ 
Jiiiiriliiit'-il u|)i>n llie grciit extremity of iho stotnodi, bclircca lli« 
cnnJin nml left piwlrio ortcry 

Wlint uru ihn hrnnclic* of the Superior Meseiileric Arteiyf* 
Thi-re lire llirrr rolic arlerign, cnll«tl ileo-eoUca, ci'lica-drrlra, 
trnd colica-media, besides itie jiriticipal ■ti»tribatioii to the amall 

Whul nrc \\\v bpuHchiit of the Inferior yf'netilcric ArtfryJ The 
gujirrior, mul'lle, iiiid theVn/tfrt'orcoiic BTtrricit; md llie (tw^Jim'cT 
^^ hannurrlt'iidaL 



Into two 

ITow nre the PrimHive Thacs* (Fig. 51) divided? 
trmik*, culkii inlernal' and external.* 

What are the branches of the Internal IKac Artery 1 The i?*^. 
lumbar,'^ lateral eacral." obturator. " middU hrentorrtioidal," veni' 
oal,'" uierine, gluteal," and the iecMatic.^ The lat-blDlIc g[»« off 
the internal pudic," which nirofn pivesolTlhe lower htmiorrhvUtal,'* 
I'erineal," '^ uretliro-bulhar," ra»iu* aupcr/te-'alu, dorti jxnit, 
ntid the rar-ei-nows arlerij of the penis. 

M bat are ihe hranthes of the External Jliael The fpigattric* 
and circumflex nf the ilium. 

What Is the extent of the Femoral Jrfery, and what are ita 
branches F It extends from the crural arch to Its perrnratton of 
the addartnr niaKnus ; and gives off the »iipe.rjiciai artery of tbo 
ubdunicn, external pudicn, pto/unda femorit (which divides JDtg 



I Btli 


•xieraal and intmiftl circamllox) ; tho Gret, 
•wiMiil. third, ftiul fourth /icr/i/mtin^, niiil Ibe 

WLiBi is the tstetit of the I'opdtfal Arlfry 
and iu tiraiK:bvsT It Is a coniiiiiinliuii uf ihe 
fotaonl after ti» pa»ag« tliraiigh thv tcndiiioiu 
iaMitiwo i>f the uilduclor iaii>;rius ; exiviids to 
Ihe oiiealii;; ill ihe iiitfTtii'wouii lif!«meiit, aiid 
(riiM off the mperiw internal* tupKrtor ex- 
tfrnal,* miJille, inferior internul Acid infrrior 
extrrndl articalar ancrit*, hikI the yaatrucnv 
miat; it thru dlvidrs into the anUonur aud 
paelerior tibial, "• " Brtcriet, 

Whm %r« the bratwhes of iM Anterior Tibial 
ArUr<f t 'I'hi! «i^i<rrc«( tibial, tHlernal OikI 
tJterntt mall'-'tlar. lamal, melaiartal, dortal 
arurrr of ibi' frciit lo*, tiid joiiiH with the es- 
U^fnal planlar ia the Koh! of tlic fuut. 

Wh»l are Ihe branches of Uic I'ottrrior 
Tibiatl"-' The pervneat,'*" the inkrnal 

dtxtemat plantar; tbid liui nn'Wta with lh« 
snteriorlihiMl wirrj-, iirn! forms tht area* ]'tiin- 
larw. which pivo^ off ihv di'jUal and lUe prr- 
/orttiug orUiriM. 





What i« the office of the Tciiis? To collect Ihe blood from Ibe 
•rlerice in ull jtRrit of Ibe body, and reliini il to Ibe heait. 

What \t their general arrangcaienii There are two aecoin- 
panring ncli ancry wlicrcrer tlie pari is init- rided for locuiuolion j 
lmidf« which there is an abDodanl cla>s of xupcrliciul, ov «utiou> 
laiieous veins, wliicb form ■ nuculur ncUwork over the whole 
U»d/. Tliose DfcomiiBiiviuR llie urt<Tif< nn; Icrmed \xinm comiles, 
aod take the aamea of the arterim uhicli ilicy accoiupany. Jb 
•ome Other caws, two arteries empty into one rein, 

What is llidrWruofureT Tlifiriroat^ are much thinner than ihe 
«rt>r)«i, but Niuilar in theia in structure. The interual i-oal i* 



thrown Into dupIIcMnTu or TalreB, which ktc more abandmnt in 
tlie fiuperlicial thuii in \hv deop-ecBled TcinK. 

What an- ttio grmil tnmks of the TenoiiH ejrstem railed? Vena 
cava aactnd^^nn,' and dcscendena' (Fig. 53). 

y'lg. .',3, 

rif. u. 



mini tHtiB form th« Vena Cava De»cendens1 The two iwn<» 

Whnt forms ihe Vena fnttominala? It b forme*! on efllier ifda 
h» iIh- jiiiirtioii of ihc rubclacian * with Ihe inlental jn/ivlar.* 

VTbiit TcitniM tniiikH ilix(rliiirf,-e into t)i« renit EimuininHtR. or 
i]pitcnntliiif> «ava? Inferior thymilal, verifbr^U nupfrior inUr- 
rcMfaf, inti^mal mammary, mna atygtm, and itumc others of 
awll«r (iM. 

'Wbat «inii foTin the Vrna Azygo» T " The ten inferior intor- 
eoiUlii of tlu> right lide. and foar or six of the left ; it nnn«toiniMc« 
inrerwrl/ with ttone of the Tciiw of tlic n1»I')iiieti. Thote on the 
I*fl form the IHitii-Atysog," nnd empty into the other by n branch.* 

What (Mfts are reprcMiited 1>y Fig. 54 f The ejiernal ' and 
internal* iliac veing, vtriia cava agcmdenn' and deae^ndfHit with 
th« tennlnatton of the vena styipis into it;' middle* and /a/iraf 1 
|»orrd/*' Toiiw; origin* and trunk' of the greater atyjoit vein 
frmn the Innitiar veiiiK ; also that of llic te»ser " or hemiatt/goK, 
from tbo Inuibar retiH* of the left side, and Us termination " Into 
llie prrnier. Tli« lorrainalion of the superior *» *" and riffht or 
nine iuf*rior interco'tnls"'*" in the preater azygos ; the five infe- 
rior inlercoelal'***'' reins opening into the lewer; iho recepta- 
, cv/ttin cfcy/i." llntraa'c rftW,*"" with its termiontion " in th« 
■nftlefonned hetweni tlie left unbclnvian" and intcnial jugnlnr;" 
I ri'jA/ (Aonin> (/wrt." 

Wlial fonnm the Intrrnal Jugular Frin' (Fig. 63)? It ex- 
tends from the We of the craninm. where it commnnicnics with 
the tmcral Kiniu oa ekch iii<Io. to ihe internal mnrpin of the ftrtt j 
rib lis ronitimivonHDt b ralnrped into what Ik eulled its </»//, ^ 
or ■■»«*, 

WlHtt fiirniii ihn Brlemal Jufpilar* (FIr. S3), and where doea 

It tArminnU 't It in a eontiniintion of the lempvml, n^'eivi-x tha 

fanal, and lini/ual. and «)ni«limea s»\tvrior Hiyroid and occipital 

T«in«. It nNUnlly Krminatea In the subelavian. 

Where Ik lh« Subolauian (Fig. 53' and FIj. 54 ") sllnatcd ' I 
tt extend' from the axillary to the rena innoniiiata, and goes 
under the luhclui ian musdc, in front of the subclarian artery ; and 
wbrre It |>aMca over the drst Hli, the sealenus antkns muscle ii 
between iheni. the *oin being in front of it. 

What fornit the Axilla$y Vain, and where is it sitnaled 7 Tba 



anivn of the basilic with the ftracAtal rein. It is in front of the 
■xillury urtory, incladcd id the same sliealli, And iiivolrod with the 
i.tillnry |<k-xu« nf nerves. At the under surfuoc of tlie clitTicIo it 
(uki^s I lie nnme of tiibdatinn. 

How nrv tht rdJifl of the superior extremitieB nTTuiigcd f Into 
</«'/} ttalcd ntid superficial. The former tnkc llic nnniee of tha 
KTlerivs which lliejr accompany, itnd uru two to cnch nrk-ry. Tbe 
Inttcr itru tlividiKl into two print-ipnl trunks : tlic ceph4ilic Kud 
btuil c. 

WliBl ia ifac Mttuatioti of th« Cephalic Veint It is the trunk 
coming: from the thiiiiib nnd foruHnger, recdvcs MtTtTiit hukU 
brunches on its coiii'tw, nnd ivmiinait^s in llic uxillur; rein. 

Whut is the siiuiilion of the Bmilic Vinn t It begins by tba 
tmiik froin the alnnr side of Uie band, rwdrea brsncli«« in ita 
course, niid, >>y its union with the brncbinl, forms the axillary ittia 

Vihnt 14 the siluittlon of the itedian Vein t It i» in tlif middle 
and front of ilir forcurm ; its trunk ii«c<-nds, and helow the iiend 
of Ihe nrm divides into two ; one bmncb point; t" the ce)>halie vein, 
and calkd median cephalic, and the other froiug to the ImwiIic rvin, 
and called median banilic. 

Where is the Vena Cava Aacendt^tit* (Fig. &8) situated, and 
what branc-hi!« doe« it receire 7 In front of tho spinal eolnnin to 
its right, nail extends from the junction of the primitive illne reins 
(which unite to form it opimsilu the fourth latnlmr rcrtebra) lo thu 
right anriclo of the heart. wIkti; it empties. It receiros the midtlle 
aaeral.' iumtor,'*" ri^hl KpTinatic,'*-*' em ulijfnl,'* capsular, he- 
patic,'* and p/irnu'c veins. Thu left spurmatie opens into the kft 

VHiat form* tlic Primitive lUae Vein on each side? Tliejnne- 
tion of the external and internal flliKs opposila llie eocro-llioc 

Whnt fonngllio Inhrnal lUiw'^ t>t HypngaMric Oinf Itarists 
by venous brnnrlies cumts[Kindin|]; with tlio distribution of tbc 
bypogastric artery, oouic of wliluh nri.- lerim^d )itexn.«e*; and are 
llio hiBtnvrrhoidat, ivfical. »acral, pv<li:ndal, ulrrinr, nnd vaginal 
pUxueem and the gluteal, obturai'ir, ond itriflumbar wing. 

What furms the ExU-rnal iliac" Vein f It in n continnation of 
the fimoml. and rieciTeg Die epignslric and oir('iim6eE iliac veine, 
which oorre£|jond with ttao arteries of the umc nuae. 




Wbat is ll»r srrangetnpiit of ihe veitis of the inrerior extremities f 
Ii>lo depji scBleil aird sujiertioiul. Tlie formvr follow tliu eourse of 
tlte arteries, tnkv ilie snmc iiam^, and ore two fur i-tury artery o» 
far ap m the liam, and also for the muscular arteries <jf tlie thigh. 
Wbat are tlie taperJuHal v«ioii? The mpliena minor uid 

WliKt U tlie situation of tbn Saplitrna Afinorf It coiumencea 
^DTJir tl»o external tiiie of the lo|> of the foot and ext«nial ankle ; 
trunk ascvuds aluufC the iiack of the let; ^lUperRcially, and t«rnii- 
in the jiojtliUal rebi. 
What b ibe situation of the Sapheua Major i It comracncm at 
Ihe liiieraal |>url of the foot ; its trunk paiiiHea upirardg in front of 
lutenial ankle, internal face of the leg od a line with the po»- 
rterior mnffrin of ilie tibia, and la cuutinued on a line with the pos- 
terior BiarjiilB of lli« sartorius muscle ; it theo terniiDalcs io th« 
cmorat Tein. about twelve or eighteen lines below Poapart'i lign- 

Prom irhence ts the Vena Porlarnm derived ? The riBCcm of 
ibe aMomeit. and correaptnids with the snperior and inferior mesen- 
teric anofies, and tlie coeliac, with the exception of tha hepatic 

Wltat is mrant \>J (be Sinv» Poriarum f The rcnn porlnnira, 

rken it rrnehea Hie traiisrerse fiEsore of the liver, dtviden into a 

right and kft braneh, at right nnglen »i(h Ihn main mmk, luit iii a 

line with one another ; th««e votiKtitiile the nnuK jiorlarum. 

Where do tlu) terminating hriiiii:be)i empty ? Into the vcnce 

AMxmitcKT OK LYMfUATio SrsTm. 

WImi are the oltM/rl>rnl«f Tbey are tmnll, pellucid, ImnspA-j 
rent, rylindriea) tube*, whoso oiRee is for insti^rtitlal absorption, 
'iBtid aloo lo takt up lli« nntrilionK part of oitr food. 

How are the iisorbcnl tphoIs divided f Into hcteah and 
\l\ftnp/ui/i''*. Tlie former nre tluist; which obaorb ilie chyte, and the 
'latler arc funnd in nthcr pailx of the sVHiem; their siructure is 
'4imilar, and tlM'y difft-r only io the fluid with whi<-h they are oceu- 
r jiied. Tlicy nre nUo divided into nupfrficial and deep tetUed. 
Wliiil nri- lymphalic i/laniin f Thcr are flattened, ovoiilal hodies. 
of a reddisb>aNh color. indaralcd,nnd of a variable volume, through 


whi(!li the lymphatic vessels have to pnss on their way to the tbo 

rncic duct. The ve&Jvlii tluit enter them are culled t-oaa in/erenlia, 

and ihoxe tbut depart l-oms ej'erenlia. 

Where are they found? In clusters, below the occiput, under 

llie eurs and jaw, atoti); the sido or the neck, in tbe axUia, root of 

the liiii^s. lueaetilcry. loins, pelvis, &c. 

Whttl are the main trunks called ? Thoracic Duett.'*-'* What 
are lh« course and arrangcraent of the 
thoradc duels ? The t-/l Uioracic duct " 
is the mniu trunk ot the nl>BorbcHl ayi* 
teui. It lie^itis ithont the srconil or 
third lunibur vciKilirn. Shortly arier il« 
comincoccment it ii dilated, and lbi*dil»- 
talioD \i C*Heil the reserwirof I'rcquet. 
or rece/lacuiam chyli " Tlw thomcic 
duot enteTH tite thorax between the 
crura of the diaphragm, ascrada to the 
foarUi dorsal vertebra, when it inctiuca 
to the l«rt side, njteeudi iiilo the neck 
near the bead ot tlie first rib ; It then 
lums donnnarda" and forwards, ov«r 
the left suUcliiTian artery, and dischar)^ 
into the puinl of jnnutJon of the left 
■iibelavian, and inlt^ruid jngukr velna. 
It {h commonly abuut ihenize of a crow- 
J f^ The ri'jhl ilmra^ic dutt. " or, as it is 

Bi- (ii<\-\ iometime* culled, the riijhl brachio-ce' 

f^ I J JC phalic, it about one inch long, aad do- 

/ . , T Hcendii to rmply itself into the junction 

of the ri)ilit iiiternnl ju|;«lnr with the 
right sii'iclfttinn veinj, It i* formc<I by 
the lymphnlic trnnki of the rrghl iddo 
of the bend and neeV. from the right 
Upper extremity, and the Bup«rfici«l 

lymphatics of the right side of the thorax, and parts adjoc«nl to it. 
Whol else is represented by Fig. 55? The aarta,'-*-* artcria 

mnominala,' le/l carotid* Itfl nubclarian * nuprrior catia;' tha 

ivo.tvtus innomii'ata,' internal Jugular,'-* t*ito oii/joi." 




Kmivovti SvaTEM. 

Vlbat \a tli« uK^riiti*) initrudicnl of tliit system ? A pecallAii 
ktiitn«l Qiatu-r cnlUil nrurint. 

lluw is ili« tivnuuH Kptvm diriilvd t [ii:o tbc cvniral or inter- 
nal fwft, cocapowd of the brain oni) epinal marrowi and lb* ; 
r-jrlrriial, or p^irip)ieral portion, whidi couKisU in ihe ncrvca (iT 
ibc frroin ■uil npinat tnar>-ij\c ; mid into lliu si/itijiiUlirlic tynffin 
of Hirnvt. 

The raBtml portion in composed of Dro kinds of aulisikace ; one 
tallml medullary, and ibe otlier ciHerilious. 

Tbo p4Triplii!fnl ponioii, or the ncrv«, are formed by parallel 
fascicoli. lb« finest fllameiiia of whIdi are composed of a Inbc lilled 
with ovttoua matter. Tlic ^boatb of tbe nerves is cnlleil neuri- 
rmma ; It envelopes the nerves, and al^ forms an envelope for 
kcU porticulHr fibre and fatciciiltis, and is an e.xtension of ibe pia 

nlrr nnd dura mater along tbe nervea. 

Tb«re aro ibree modes by wbicb these raacicnll unite with each 
otber : bjr antutomoei^, plexus, end ganglion. 

Spinal Marrow. 

Wliat art tbe charar^i^ridicii of tbe spinal marrow * {Tig. 60 and 
Pig. 5t) t It ii within tbc vertebral curiiy, and exiendt ftoin tbe 

Ltnt vort«1)ra of ibe neck to ibe Ur^t or second of the loins, ini'ln- 

in. It bn4 foar membranes — dura tnalrr, jwo mater, tin^mbrann 

denlala, and (tin fro araeli»oi<li:a : its general form is cylindrical, 

ftatmed sllfibtly before and behind ; its snbstaiM-e is of two kinds 

^^neritioas and medullary. 1( is divided by sulci into fonr fu- 

rvicTili or cord* on each aide, vis : 
Anterior or motor columns, vrbich 
^v« oriirin 10 tbe motor roots of 

, Ihf *piniil nerves. iMteraJ colnnias, 

'«hH-ii ari' dividml in rai>i-(ii>n b^ 
l«rt«B mulion and amiMillan, and 
bare bcm deM-rl))«d by Sir Charles 

^Bi-ll an tbe rvji/nroTory («kV. /'w- 
leriar, or columns nf ten^alinn. 
wbiob give origin to the wiuttiTC 




rodU of ihc tpinnl ncrvi^. Median posterior coltimns. which have 
DO fcpiiinii* fiiiifUon fiiUiignFil to thcra at present. 

Tho spinal marrow [tives off from its Ri<1pg thirty pnir* of bcttw ; 
frtf^lit lit tlic'in aril rsllrrl <vri-i>n/, twelve dortal, fire Utmbar, and 
tvttMu-ral. Till! siiiniil m-rvrs nrc furnnd from two roots — nn 
unU'rior' m motor, and a jiortcrior' or sensory, which are srpnr»tiMl 
by tho Uffamenlitm denliculalum. A ganglion is Tonnfi) on the 
pcKitrior root, tiryond which the two rooljt unite, and procMd to 
ihfir proper destination. 

Thu arteries or iho itpinnl marrow arc derirgd from the verie- 
braU, inU'rco^aU, lumbar, and »acrat. 


Wlint !a nndentlood by tlie encrphal/m or brain T It i« that 
pni't oflbe oenlrnt porliuii of the nerroii.t »-stem eonlnine<l within 
the bonei of the cranimn; of an oral iihupe, KurnmndNl hy Ihrvc 
mt^iubrniieti, the dura water, tunica arachnoidea, and pia mattsr. 
Its Knliatonec la divided Srito ninerilout and mpdultary. 

Till' lirnin in divided inti) Mfltitta Oblnnr/ala ; frntufu-ranlia 
Aiiiiulariii, or Pom I'arulii ; Cerebrum ; and Cerebellunt, Mch 
of which arc symmetrica), and coimiit In riiflit and left halvvK, per 
fectly alike, 

WImi are the procetM* of the diirn mater t fiitx cerebri, Un- 
lorium cvrrb«lli. nnd /alx cercbrlli. 

Wlint are the tinus^a of the Dura M'lerl Suprrior longUa- 
dinal. iaJrrat (one on each side), inftriar longitudinal, nnu* 
quartu* or rvrfus, ptrlrou* (two on each sido, ihu tuprrior aod 
inferior), canernowi (one on each side), circular, and th« occipi- 
tal, Tho arteries that supply the diirn mat«r are the Bnterior 
meningeal, a branch of the inlurnat carotid ; the midiUe meningeal 
nnd meninfrea parva. hraDches of the internal innxillary ; the infe- 
rior meningeal, from nsccndinK phnrynireal and occipital arterifis ; 
and the postcritir nieiiinpjal from the veriebraJ. The nvrvM ut 
diTived frnm the nervi molirs and vertebral plexus of tlw sympa- 
thetic, from the ('iisM-rian gangliua, tho oplhiktmie nerve, and aoil)» 
time* from the fourth. 

What ix the Torcvtar ffemphitii It is the union between the 
loofjltudinal, the fvurth, and the luttral (inasue. 





What BTC lh^^ diarB4-t«ri«lici of tbo M^vUa Ohlangata^ (Ffp; 
&7)T It extend* from ibc Miierior tnarRia of tli« Gr>l verrical 
vrrletira la tlie inii)ill« itf lli« ba-tilar proctm of \]ie os occipIU8.| 
(In it" uiiiler nurrace. on euvh aide, is the Ctrjiui Pyraviidale.'^ 
(Fiff. 5«.) 

Tbe Eminentia Olimria (F\g. 59' and Fij^. GO") are two 
^KMlk*. on« on eilber Midi', ul lli« uxiLTnal nmr^hi of the {ijrauildo] 
bodiw. wilb tbe eorpvx ^mbriatum in tlie cetitre, and tbu olivary 
trout" (Fi|!. 60) whicb f^tA to tlie optic ttihercleu. 

Th* Corpora lleMi/ormia (Fi^. f>S' ui>d Fie. 60*), oue on 
.•ilher side, ere pbcwt al (he luterul tniirf^iiis of ili« medulla 
oblonf!«tji, posterior to the olivnria, and ure u eotilitmuiioii of tlio 
ponterior portion of the medulla s)iiiiatiH. Between the corpora 
rcKifonaiH, on tbe superior fuce of ihe medulla oUontraia, is an 
«XBB*Rtiwn, named from iu shape i-alamva neripluriug, which 
fbrma a part of tli« floor of tlie fourth veutriHe of the brain. 

What are the cliara<:ter!»li«s of the Prrnt I'amlii (Fijt. !>'." FIr. 
5il,' kiiil Fii;. 6U') 7 It ii a lar>;e pr-ijcttlntf buiif, )>Itii-i.-d ul lli« 
top of Ibe medulla oblont;ata upon thejunciioii of the body of the 
iplicDold bone wlih lli« basilar process of the os oecipitia. convex, 
am) >b<Nit one inch in diamctr. Four crura ]>roceed from IL 

Wbat are tbe cboracterialic* of the CerrMlum.'- ' { Fijr. 6()) ? It 
it in tbe posterior fossa of the cranium, tie|>nruied from thu iioticrior 
lobM of tbe cere4>nim by the tentorium, and connected with the 
pons Varolii hj the crura of tbe -:erel>ellum. It measures four and J 
a half Inches in tli« transvcriie diameter, tiro and a hulf in ihicknesi^ \ 
nnil aboal the same from Uvfun backnardn. It hmt on Iik Kii))crior 
face the iiuicms superior cerebelli ; another on the inHrriur xiirfuce. 
called ill* sWciw iu/erior etrtbelii. 

The superior middle ridm ia called t^^miiVxu/wTt'or, the anterior 
extrcinitjr of which is from ita eleratlon called nionliciilut crrelM-lli. 
Tbe vermtB infmor is a ridge occupyinic the deep snlcut which 
di«Icl«8 Ihe cerebellum on k\i inferior »urfiice inlu h<.'miKphenrs. The 
cmiml part of Uie cerebclliiin is formed b/ ihe vernili superior 
and inferior, and is ibo fundanirutat portion, I 

Tlwi fa/fv of Twiuwcn* arises from tbe cerebellum ttnder tho 
•otetlor iwrt of ibe b»M of the monticiilMS. 

The forpwi rkotnhoiiieum, or denlatuin, is in the middle of the 
tnak of tbe arhnr vtia. The cerebellum ia associated with the 


(jiinnl con! nnd ecrchrnm liy Ihnn' poire of pedlclen. r\z: corpora 
rcxti/ormia ; ptwr^^wr cm-Mlo ad (en/en ; aud crura verebellt. 

Wliiit orp elinrncUriKtics of the Cetrlrrtiml It vrelghB abnnt 
ihrflc [loiinil*; it ix ofnidnt, mpnsnws Blmtir. six inches in its 
Htitpro-fitiMcriiir iliiiNu-lcr, fui- inche* In breadib, ami foor or fiva 
deep. It U sepnmK-d by ihc loniritiKlinal figure lino hemitplieret, 
the rifchi nnd left. At ihc bcltoin of tlilM RMurc b the corpus 
rnllosum. which connects the two lirmimpberes topciliCT. The 
lii-iiii-<]>lu'rrf urc ench iliviilcil on ibirir ui^iler Hurface into three 
)i]bcK, antrrior, tititt/l!r, uiid jMinlfriiir. I'lie Btiterior In onterior 
to Ihc Jjiwurf of S'/fi'tu* : l)iv pontmur rcttt on the Icutorluiii, 
mill the triiiidlc J* bel>r<'cn thr*c IW(>. 

Tii(- p(Ti|)bcn>- it fiirmc'l in<o convoluiioni, called •yyrt, nnd 
thtsi- nrc M'jinniied by fi»ann-K culled ruM. 

Tlie Crura <'rrrhri" f Fiff. CO) are iw« ibiok white cords which 
IsBue from the pouK Vurolii, Hr? nbimt tight line* Imifr, inutUBlly 
diver)re to ench side to rnlcr the Itiatami ttptiri. nnd ate depurated 
by n fissiirc. which in thtS third renlrictr of the brniii. 

The Emitirnlia Mannnillan'a, or Corpora Albt'canh'a' (Tig. 571, 
are Iwo simill hodii^, one on esch ride, nttinted near the nnterior 
exireniiiics of the cram eercbri, nnd ore connected with the lh»)ami 
optlel by two white cords ; ihcy aro the anterior extremity of the 
crura of the fornix. 

The In/unilibulum' (Fig. 51) is placed immediately before the 
emineniia mnnimillorio. It is Qatteiied, conoldn), half sn Inch 
lonfT, litKo upward, and its apex poinir downwords nnd forward*. 
JiH 1)uxc iK liollow, aud opens iiilo the third ventricle, bu^ the point 
ia cloMcd. 

Th(! I'iluifarij Qland is sitnated in the sella turcica. 

The Tiiiirr Cwereiim' (Vig. 60), or Pons Tarini, h a portion 
of the under wirfncc of the crura cerebri, and forms part of lh» 
floor of the third veiiiiicle. 

The Thalami Opitd' (Vig. BO, divided vertically), two In nnm- 
ber, called also OangHa J'oilica, are i<itnnted on the univerior faro 
of the (Tiis cerebri, about an Inch and a half in le»Kth, and ei(rht 
liiic» brcind and deep, Tli* thulami are inciiullnry exiertially, 
corlicul. iind niednltary Internally, and united to each oiber by Uie 
commUtura violtis. 
■<i The Oorpora Siriaio. or Oan^lia Cvrebri Anttca. art tvo 



pyrlforin bodies, 8ilual«d before the thnlnmi, nt the boltom of the 
jftierkl ventricles. Tbey arc iKo and a hftir ioclifc long, convex in 
iht-ir u|i|>er mirface. eli^ht lined brcMtl at ilie rront, and taper back- 
wnnl (o n \w'tM. Tbc SrjMum Laciilum U bctweea (lioui iii rrotit, 
bnt (w^toriurly tlicjr diver|;e no u lu Ddmit the thulami between 
tbeot. Tbe Ttxnia Siriala U plni-ed in the anf;le furiiieil bdvreen 
Uh interual nariria of tbu corjnis ntriuUim uiid iKe cxiernal tine 
of iIm thiUniM oplkus. Il it n »iiiall medtillary band coinniMicitig; 
Drar tbo »Rt«rior rrarn of tbu furoix, tind oWrthig (be coune uf 
lb« runreil Gnnre in irhicli it ii placed ; It goes to the jioiierior 
ntd of tbc corpua ttrintutn. 

Tbc C'lrjum Callnifvm ic placed nt tho bottom of the fimnro 
whicb eeparntee th* two IteniiBpbcroB. nod may bo broaglit into 
Tie* bj aliving Ibctn olf t» n lerel with it. It it Iben teen to be • 
mvdalUr; \mjtr uniling (be mnxH of tlie Iwo licmUplivrcH fur two- 
fifths of llw lvi>g diametT <>! (he lirain, about tight lines in l>rMiltb, 
narked hy a niidillo line cnllvd rapfi^, and fomis the rouf of the 
lateral ventricles. 

The Fumix or Tritfone Cerebral is plnccd immcdifttply l.iclow 
tile curiioa caJloMini. ]t is iriangnlur, llio bnxc of which is beliind, 
wid tbe apes iu front, about an iach and a half long in it« body, 
aa-1 one Innfa wide at the bnse, wbich is beneath ihe corpii* enl- 
lufliiEn. contiaBons wilb it, and gi(rs llic foniix tbu nppe«mnuo 
of beiug a part of tl»e Knme Ktmeture doubled on it«elf. 

Tlw Sfplutn i^ucidum is a pnitition pinced verlicallj^ in tbe 
middle of ihe brain, arid extends from ibe ('or|>us cnlluMini abore, 
to tbe fornix below; betireeo its hiinina is sitDutcd tbo /i/l& 
wnlrv^lt, or Mtiirtcutug septi. 

Tbe Pineal Oland is Iwiiratb the posterior margin of tbv fornix, 
ttpon tlie superior part of thn tabirv-iils qundrigeminii. 

Tba Felnm Inlerpwitum is a fvllci'lJoii of pta nmler. Kvparntin; 
tbu piaral glantl from the foniix, and tbn fornix from tbc thalnnii 
oervurnra (it>t!curuni. Ila edi^s cK>n<aiD a plexns of veins called tlie 
fitrxuj rhori/iilm. 

Tbo Tulmreuta Quodri^mina are situated on tbe superior face 
of tbe crum cerebri, and Jusl ttebind tlie thalaiut. Thef coiisi»t of 
(bar roundeil eloralionit. acpnraied bjr a crneial furroff. Tbe largor 
pair i> almre, and called nat-x, und the oiber is called teste** 
tJpder tbsM is a paosago called iho aqueduct of Sylvias, i'ig. W. 




How mnny Vmirktr* of the brain arc iImtcT Pour; In 
taUrai, )ilaf-i-d oiw in either Iwinii'ji1i«nj of ihe ccfdiniin, iW lAtH. 
Crftcr^N t)ip iHv thatami, and llie fourtli u«drr |bp (vri-^ry/um. 

Tlw Lateral Venh-icfen nv\\ i-onsisi of n body and ihree pi»- 
CCRWC, called contva. The coreoa ur« nnmed from tlicif ponikn 
antrrior, poulerior, and lattral, or in/rrior. 

In tlw jDoMen'or ccrnH ar« seen ih« htppnt^mpur fninor. In 
tko inferior, or laierot cvnttt, h found ibv epmit ffrnmcmui, or 
ln'}ff>fratnfiua major, Irnikliiatcd by ibc yif* hrppocmnpi. 

Till' Thiril IVNtnile U Lounili^d brlu« by tbv |>oih larini, mm 
cerebri, and ibe craihuntiie mamillarva; and abovo b; tho Ttliim 
li)lrr]><)»ltuDi Diid fornix. 

Tli« Fourltt Ventricle h bouiidt-d in ftont by the inbrr aiiaolar*. 
and mrdiilln obloiiKalu; beliEnd, by ihe fundamenlul [Kirlion ortb( 
ci-ri'lK-ilinn ; above, by the rvlve tif Oie brain and lubeTTuU qnad- 
ripcniiim ; laterally, by the medallary prolonrpttions from tlir ent- 
bi-lltim to the tubercala <|uadHgcniinB, and is open below when tiie 
pta mater >fi renioved. 


Tlie follonfiift nerTM are in pairs, and tbe descriplion of ooe 
aide B|i|i1ies e(|na1ly to the other : — 

Whei'e does lliu Olfaclory S<frve arieo fr«m T By three faaclcnll 
or roots from the bufiis of the brain at the corpus stnatani, and 
cottleiiL'e Ell \ho (Iiisiire of SyKiua. Thei anile, mid at lh« aaterior 
extremity thin tierve id tnlnrged into wliiit in terinei) the bulb, whirli 
acudii fW>tu Its onder surface Hlnnivnls to the Sehnelduriati membrane 
tliroujib the crlbrifurin plate of the etlimnid hone. 

Where doea the Ojaie jVcruO''* (Fig. CO) nrise from ? Il 
arises by a brotid Aatleiied root, a portiod from the thntnniiiG opti< 
cn»* fFigr. fin), and another part from the tubercnlaqiuidri^emina; 
it aUo ndheres lo the erns cerebri, and pasns under it. The optic 
nerre« of th« two sides arc fused togetlicr, and fomi what is called 
their chiaum' (Via. AT), or eroiming; afler thin they lepornte. and 
ca<-h one ptu.<es tliruii^h the optte foramon of its nviprcliTe side. 

Whfre does iIil- Third Pair'"'^ (Fig". M and 6«) ofnertes. or 
JH'jIor 0>'"li, niW frum ? From the internal face uf the crui 
cerebri" (Fly. 60). two lines in advance of the anterior taar^cin of 
the labcr annulare* (Fif. 51). Il penetrates the orbit, thtoogfa 


poMkI fisarv, and it n ilihtribolcd to a<tit of tliv inu«c1ca 
doM tlie Fourth Pair*-" (Ptffn. S7 and fl'i) of nerres, or 
tieuK «rlae from F It arikes by iwo lUaincnU fVom the ti|i)ier 




dtiterior fncc or lli« vftUe ot Ihc brain. It (row lo ihe orI>U tbronph 
the s|>henoidal Bmiito, uiid U di*lribme(l lo tli« dujierior vbti<)uc 

Where doe* Ihn Fi/l/i /'07>**" {Vtgf. 5' and 60) of ncrrcs, or 
Trifacial, »ri*c from? \ij «pr<Tiil cli«linct filiiinents from tho 
medulla oWohkhIh, but emerjfpit from the pons Verolii' {Fig. fi" i. 
or tuoer aimnlnn:. Tliey ntiiie, mid furm the tetuilauar gnDgliou, 

or j/ongiion of Caewr* (Fiff. 68), 
which sends off ihree liranckes, viz: 
thv lint, or opl/ialmif,' ihroiigh the 
qiiicnotdal flexure ; the swond, or 
evperior miurillarij .' through tlw forn* 
men rvtuudtim ; mid thi; lliird. or in- 
ferior mn-nUonj.' ilirougli ihi- fitrauicit 
OTttle. Th«ir Ri'iii.Tul diklributiun is to 
ihe orbit, Ihu fnn, niid thf> tongue. 

Whm oilit-r parts of the liftb ]»iiir 
and •4j'"^^"t pan« arc f«pr«a«uti-d hj 
Fig. 6S? Tlie orbit.' antrum high- 
morittHWm,' tongue, frontal hranch' 
of lite oplhnlniic ti^'rve dividing ioto 
txl«rnal uiid inlrrnal. laeiirymal,' 
natal," internal naral." vrternal tut' 
sal," etiemal and inlernal fronlai." 
iff ra-orbHar." potierior denial.'* Olid- 
4le denial." anh-rior tlmtai." iahial 
■nd palpebral." pterygoid*' from 
Meckel's ganglirtu, an/error ftmncArt'* 
of Ibe thinl branck, lingual,'^ inferior 
denial,'' ita mental branchft,* auritu- 
lay braiwher," my/i.-Aymrf," 

Where doe* ihe tiirth Poir'^" 
(Fig*. 57 and 60) of nerTcs, or J/nMr 
Exkniun, arf» from ? From the bB« 
or Qpper exlrctoitj' of th« corpna fJTt- ■ 
middle. It pa*»eii into the orbit hy 
the >|>lir-uoiilul fi^Kure. and is dis- 
tribatMl opoti the abductor ociili iuii>- 



Wh«re docs lli« Seventh Pair"" (Figs. 5T mid 60) of nerre*, 
or fbn'a/ >Dd Jurfitory, nriM from? That portion of the t«v«mtb 
pur, eaJIcd ibo f»ciol, vt }>on'm dura, nriscs hj two branches fh>m 
tbe amlolte oblongata. It emerges tlirnugli the Htjlo-inutoiii 
ronunra. and » didribnted to tbe aiu»:le« and skin of Uie bead, 
bAtitig \}ut niimr of pes an»erinui. 

Tbat ponioit vaWitA the Au'lUory, or portio mollK" (i"\g. GO), 
afiaes fruia Ui« mcdulUrjr strin; on llie sarface of the calAmiif scrip- 
lonna, and from tb« corpus r»;tiforine. It pcnt^lrntcE the niraltis 
audltorius internns, and is distribnted to tbe labynmh of ib? ear. 

Wher« does the Kujhih Pair" (Fig. 5T), arise from? That 
purtioD of tlw eighth pair called OlCKto-pharyngtal (Fig. 59.'^''' 
and Fig. W), arue« tcom the posterior cord* of the medulla 
oliloiigaia. It eiiiergna* through the foramen lacerum posteriua, 
and is distributed to tbe tongue and pharynx. 

That portion called PufumrM/attrie (Fig. 58. "^"■'' nod Fig. 
60"). ariiicii from the eorpns rttttirorino' of the mKliilIa oblongata. 
It pHadS out Uiroagh Ibe foramen lac«i-um postrriuK, and !s dii- 
iriliflted to lliu orpinfl of rcRpiration, and to t1i<! slomnch. 

That portion called ihe Aix^fnaiy* neno arUcs from the poste- 
rior fasi-ioulut of the medulla ohlongata, and tpinnl nisrrow. It 
is formed br (tie union of ^ix or itevm roots frani tbe spinal 
marrowr, and three or four Troin ih« nwdnlla oblongata, and passes 
into the cavity of the eraninm through Ihe foramen magnum, pa^es 
nnl ngsio throngb Ihc roramcn Inceruin posterius, and la distributed 
to the musclea and inlegunienta of the neck. 

What other parts are represented in Fig. 59? The ganglion'" 
nt tb" pneumopastric, its plrsiforvi gantjliim " lower down, and 
its trunk : " lis jAargngeal bmneb, wliich. along with a lintMcb from 
tbe yloiiui phary»Q*al^ and Kupet-inr laryii'jral" form.* the p!ia- 
ryn^ai plexHa." We then have Ott cardiac" branches given off; 
also tbe recurrent lari/nyetti," anlitrior," nuA pcn^erior ptilmo- 
iwry." It then fomw the emapkageal plexus* and terminates in 
the ga»tric branchet." 

Wbero doea tlie -Wiji/A Pair"-" (Fig*. 57 and 60) of B«rTOi 
iriM from ? Bv severnl faxclculi. fn>m thtt fisiure which separates ' 
tbv corpos prmmiilule ' (Fig. 5'J) from the corpus otivare,* on tbe 
meduila oblongata. It gets out of the cranium through the ante- 




rior condyloid foninMD, and Is ilistribnted to the maseta of tb* 

From wh^ncp nro llifv nrtwrJM of the brnln derived 1 From tbe 
liilcriml curuliilK nml icrtcltrnlf. 

The iiiiemal cnrotid ikibms into the craniiim throofrh the earolid 

• canal ; when il rt-iHrhcd ihn nnttrior Hinoid pmcwii. it Ktndt olT the 

oplilhaliiiii; urtirr>- to tliu urliii. It is tbi-n diBlribiilcd to Uic brein 

\>J ihv nrteriu <-horoidca. nrt^riii call'iss, or anterior oorcbri, artcri* 

Romaiuiilroiit niiicrior, and the nrturia cerebri moilia. 


The Tcncbrnl mrtcries' (Fig. 61) nrc brnndiM of the sulwlntittn, 
lod pUH leroogh tlie Irnngvcrfe i>roccwcK gf lb« nix superior rcr- 
tebm of tlw neck, enl«r(he crnniinn thri>ii|;U (lie ort-i|>itiilfQrnmen, 
sod conliiim; till thry rpBch ill? poElcriDr muri(iii uf thu lubcr niinii- 
lore, wbcn liie two <m)oIcscc, ami form » ^it1(c!l; trunk ealtcil lliu 
iMsilar.* ReToro this nnioti, it sends off the NpinnliK puiicrior' and 
■at«rii>r,' siiii Ibc infcrinr cprcbflli.' Tli* biisibr k'^cs oS ih« 
ui«rift Mi|wrii>r ci.iTl>clli ; ' it then diriilm into tliu ]io»terior artery 
of th* e^rrbrum,* one on each side. These ln«t ortcriM are JoineH 
br thi! MTUria eonnimicans poxterior,* wliicli vi>in|)l«l«s iho circle 
»( \VilIt«. 

IIow it lb« Circle of WUlit formed T Antcriorlv and Inlcrallv 
Itr tha IdKTnnl c«roridB'"° and th«ir brnneliw ; the jMiiilcrior part 
by the bpiillar,* and its bifurealion, and form* a frets communication 
Dotwi-ea ibo vi-»»elg of (ho tuo sides of the l>r»in. 

\Vli«t oibor branclici «re represented by Fig. 61 ? Th* anUt 



nor cerebri," middle certbrat," antmor commumcant,'* and the 
ophthalmii:. " 


From what sonrce is the pilvitary membrane, supplied with 
nerves? From tlic olfndorjr, or Bret pair, bdiI from the Bflb pair. 

From what eonrt-c arc the filoodrptgeh of (he noee denved f 
From the internal ninxiUiLr]', nml the ophthalmic arlcnee. 


What cniistitutcji tli« orgau of vUIod f The ball of Ae lye, and 
Its aurHiary partt. 

What are tlit* auriliary parts of the cro T The eyelids, or pal- 
pebrtr tupernlia, tiijamentum palpibratr fxientum, coiyHnctiv<i, 
glamls of Meibomiut, cilia, mintcleif, lachrymal apparalut, con- 
aintioj^ of the lacbrjrmaJ glands, lacJiiymal duct, litcfirymnl 
tac, lachrymal caruncle, aeniilunar tvilvc or /old, and pumia 

The muscles are the levator palpebne superiorls, the /our redi, 
and ftco vbliqve. 



What nervti eaj^tly tb« orbit 
of lh(! <7tr They on dirircd 
from ihu motor ocull, or third 
poir, the Irocblearis, or foortb 
pair, the first branch of tl>e tri- 
geminus, or fifth pair, uid tbt 
motor oculi ext^ruu.t, or sixth 

Wtmt arteries supply the orbit 
of the eyof The ophthalmic 
tthidi bu numerous branch^. 

What forma ihe ball of the 
eyef It is furnirJ bjr conccnlrir 
itmicn, nnd Aumor* (.-ontatntd ia 
tlioni. Th« lunics arc the scfftv-'-' Biid cornea'' (Fijr. ii) 
extcmaUjr; the chormdea*-' and the im* next la order; and the 
retina" internally. 



n* httmort are Ike vftreous." wbicb eonstituM th« priDcipal 
t«n of the ejebsM; tbe nyttailine," which is in from of the 
n(rvo«ic;">'* uid tlie aqiieauM. b«lirvcn lh« crjrstaJliiie and tlie 

Tbe ckorvid ooo/,*'* la unllcit ■! iu maitriot lunr^in to Uw scie- 
niUnb)rUi« dlinn- litnnitiil- 

Tbt p4J;infNfi(»i nigrum in tprcod over tlic whok intcroal sur- 
ticrot th« choroid, Iwtwcco it und the rrlinn. 

TJ« vjfrwviw Aumor " it( compoMil of tbe /unica htfaloi<ifa " nnd 

Whtt olb<.T pnrU an rqiroMOitcd in Fiir. Gi f Tli« ciliary ring 
«r Iij^mm/ *• ' wiih iu iatemal mirfacc,* ciliary boJij* posterior or 
<Aaa6(r' of iht a(|ii«om hnmor, lerminalion of the retina,*^' 
tmal 0/ Ptlit,"* and 0}>fic nervti" with iU infcetiaonl. 

How h th« oar diridcd 7 Into the external ear. tli« fym/xiniini, 
Md tba (ofrynnlA. 

Of what is tha <^cf«raai ear composed f It n fornwd of th« ex- 
brlor portion commoDly cnlled Iho onr, and by a csrhI which leads 
itiflrnallf lo the tfrajMnatn. The -oiiict )>(>rtioii is divided inut 
piniu and lobue; Uio fonncr i« Ihe ciirtilnftiiioiiK portiuit, mid Ibc 
Utter U wfl and pendulout, nltot-hcd to it< inforior portion. 

The difTonot pane of tlic external vnr arc, the ameha, meatus 
amtiUnriuM exiemtu, the helix, at^iheH3t,/(utta xnnttminiUa, Iraguf, 
■lid anlilragne. 

The munclet of the cxtrrniil car nrc very fvubly ilcvclopNl, and 
■nr helreit me^j(^r and Minor, tntijicm, antitragicv*, tran»itrtti» 
mtrieuta, atlotetu auriculos. relrahene auricula, and the anUruyr 


What it ibo ■ttnatioo of the Tympanuml It is interposed be- 
rweeti the mnua aaditorios aod ttw Inbyrtulb. It is three lines in 
deptJi, six (d ihc antero-poiMrioF diameter, and tli« T«riiv*l tu«a- 
MraoHBt about tbe saua. 

The memhrana tt/mpani 11 NitiiHteil Ijtrtireen the inentus externns 
•nd IjUpaBDlU, and is conipvacd of four InuiiTin, 

The floor of the tyoipanuni it innrkcd by a ristiifc called the pro* 
^^mmlvry, ud opaainipi called the /oramen ora/c and foramen 





rotunHum : the latter in the dried bone i* the opening to thi 

The rminentia jiyiytmuiali* \t n sratill cniiticnce, projecttug from 
th(^ poKlc^rior ])uri uf (lie tym]>iitiuiii ; it ix liulli>u-, niid c<»intnuiii> 
eiitt!» nt ihi! otiier cuil wiih the cniial of FhUopivt, 

TliP Eit'lachian tulic is nt llie fore purl of tlip Ijmpanoin, «nd 
com mil II in U's wA tiic other oxtreiniif with tlic phorynx. 

Tlic boncM in the t;in|iniiRni are the maUfut, incu», orbxculan, 
nntl stapen. wliio^ nru sncceMlTcIir nrticiilntvd, «a nit to form ft 
eliaiii. The mii!c'k» wliich move these bones arc llic laralur tym- 
pani. Icntmr tympani. rlap'-diug, mid the laxaliir h/mpani mitor. 

What i* the Kitantiim of the labyrinth^ It i» ])lnci-d on the 
inner »i<le uf ilic tjmpnniini, nnd i« divid(^ into three portion*, the 
vcflibiiliini, gemicirvtUar canalt, nud tlit^ lyKhlfa. 

TIte nerve* which nrc «pcnt in part or wholly upon the orffan nf 
licitriiig arc the auditory, portio dura, and Iriyi^minug, or JifVt 

The Oreat Sympathetic Nerce. 


Wlmt in meant hy the Si/mpalhrlit^ Nervet It cotidUtM of 
diuiiiii of fcAnf;liu extendiiift from (he bime of the cranium to Ui« 
lower extremity of the «acriiiii. Tliese ^nnjtlions nrc iiiiitM! to> 
gvther by an inlenuediutc nerTons rord, mid send olT (iliimeiitJi Id 
adjfteent orgaim ; there iit one of lliem for eni^li iiiteriertehnil xpace, 
except thoM! of t)ie nvck. The gniigliou of Kibe* niiilei! 1h<> two 
halrc* of the Hymputhetie avKtem tiiiperiorly, and has been poiirI- 
dcrcd a> its origin ; iurcriorly, they arc united by a pinf;lton on 
tlu! median tine uf the cooeyx. 

It *upp!ieii all llie tnternul urfcniiii of the body through plexuseR, 
which take the utimc of the artery wliieh they arcompnny. 

What IK the nrrnniccmetit of th<^ Sympathefie nt iu upper por- 
tion ? There arc fix cniiiinl (rntiKlin, the 'larigiinn of Hib^» : rjan- 
tfliojt of lAunifini'-r, called a\*n i/anijUon rrirolirum, or ^nylion 
eatvrnogum : tlie Irntirultir ur ciliary ijanijlinn ; the trphtno-oala- 
line tfanglion. OT f/amjlion of iU-rkrl : the otic fjangtion, OT^ttt' 
ijlion of AriiQlit : nnd l^if smlimanllar;/ 'laifjlirin. 

How many Vi-rrical Oanglionn are there ? Three, a snperior. 
middle, nnd inferior. 

The first i> oiipoKite to the transferee proceii of Ut« lecond ee^ 



rini vrrtcbrn, atid Wbmd the iiitcrniil curatid ttitcry. 

nrucbim. Noai' i>f wkicli commniiicate wiib 

ibr siili-rior traiika' of the Gret, sccoiitl. 

udthinl t«r\k«l nertes; wiids abranuh' 

rIm lo iUk ciirotiil plexus, and ohv tv Ibo 

Moonil cefTU-iil g^nKlion; It c<itin«ct8*aleo 

milk llw facUI. fiithtli, and niiitb iiervcs, 

n4 aitli Ibe (iliuryiigcul plexus. Soma 

InncliM jota to furin Ibe Aii|i«ri<>r carduic 

Mng,* «kich foon to Join lh« cardJsc g&n- 

f lios. The middle Ik uppotiile to ibe $]>Boe 

bMvvoi ihr Knii aiid sixth cerviral verte- 

bn. It in RiBall. Homeilnies wAiitliitt, and 

mu DpoD tb(! Inferior lliyrold artery, and 

i* often colled thyroid fcaiigliou. It jolnn 

the ira u<t third rervu'«l ganKliuii, and 
u eoniiMltd to tbe anterior trunltH of iW 
tilfd, Totirlli Olid fifth ccrricnl ncrvec, and 
fi-ad>i Ihc middlo cortlliii' ditvc to jtiiii lh« 
cardiac |)l«ius. The inrcriuv Ik furmi-d ia 
Ibe intcrTal lwl<rr«ii tlic head of the £r*t 
rib and tha tnunTcriv proccas of the last 
Mnriral veTt«l>nt. It Joins the sixth, 
caiirnth, and riiiblli n-rvi^-al iierv«s; alao 
till? middto eardiac nerre' and cardiac 
]ilexa«, by neaiu of tbc inferior cardiac 

Vfhmf it iIm! Cardiac Pkjrus litiiated t 
Uvtwwn ibe arch of tli« aorta and tbe 
lower i»rt of tbe traehi-a and bronchiw. 

It IK formed |irinci|>ally from ibe brniiches sent by the three cervical 
icnngliona of tlie aymiiatbrtie of cnch side; there are Blaments also 
from Ibr n-currvat and the {lur vn^iiin. This plexns is ilittln- 
iniHliwt by tlie aoniten of il« tcxtnrr, nnd its branches niiiy he 
divided iiilo antfritn; piiflfHor, nnd tn/irior, 

II ow many Tlioractr (Sanyliont of the tympnthvlie are there F 
Txfire ; lliey arc placed on or Mear the bcodf of iho riba, are 
nnueeted together by the main cord of Uie nympalhetio, and 
raceJn flJancuia lygiu the dorsal i^riea. 




Wlinl arc ihc Branche* of Ihc lliorncic ^n^lions ? The ^eat 
tplanchtiic nrrtv. " iirisps liy i^ninll lirnnchc s from the sixth, to ibc 
ninth or leiitli lliurncii- frniifclinn'*. ini-luitive. 

The ¥niaU" tjtlanifinic nerve is dcriTcd from the tcnlh DiMi 
eleventh Ihoraric (rang^lion*. 

Where b the .''■itiiVtinnr Gnn^rifWi " Htnmed T On eneh ride 
of the nnrlii. nml i* r<irniril hv nti nwcrablngc of sevem! Rtnnller 
cues, which recciTc ibHr fosrieiili frwin ihc great B|)!nticbnie nerrM, 
Thefe Kevt-rnl piii|rtiii uro iiiiik'd t(>(r<'Iher, and fnrni tlic nml ot 
the solar [ilexiiK, from which procred lirHMchc* Id \he vi«>erii; vii : 
the ('(BJine, or tlomiirliio |iI[-xiik, tu the liver, ijui>di-iiuiii, uiid |>kn- 
crcns, the fplenic lo Ihc spleen, Ac, ench foilowing the arteries as 
they pr»reed lo thtir renpei^live destiiintionN. 

IIow miiiiy I.vmhar OanijUnvn of the »;'iii;iulhHie arc (hero 7 
Flvf! ou t-iijier xidu, placed anloriurlf oa Ibu aide of the bodies of 
the liinil)Dr vertobm;. 

IIciw ig the HijpnijaMric Plrxnt" formed F Hy hranelie* of lh« 
luiuhur and aorlk- jiIcxiiKn, and filmneritx from the Mocrul iranglia. 
jlll (lie vixeerti of the pclvin are nipplied from it. 

IIow inanj' are Ihi-ro of the Sacral Ganrili'imif'* QtnenMy 
tliri-e, Hoiiietinici four or live, on the ant^or fuee of th« HacraiD, 
near the corriTspoiKlinii fiimmina for ihe tninKmiKtion of the AncnU 
nerves. The luxt of the Kiicral ganglions detjichrc liownwnrds i 
or more GlHineniK, whieh nnnMomoite wiib the ron-csponding i 
of Ihc opposite sidcii nnd form n »ort of arch, or coecjgeiil gniiglionT 
which \» Ibu lorminatiuii of the sjnipalhelic nerve. 

Spina! Nt-rvf*. 

IIow are Ihe nerves of the medulla xptnalls arranged? 
anieriur or mulor root unilea with the posterior or seiiiltire, ia ' 
inlervertt-hrul fomininu ; then a division lakes place {nto pomvrim 
or >miilter, whieh !iu|iplic« the innsdeH of the back ; and Into ante- 
rior or larger, which conned* with the ganglions of the syropaihetlc 
nerve, and aUo form pleximed which fhnifah the principal nerree to 
the inuteles of the triml; and e.xtreinlllea. 

What ix the origin of the I'hrfnir Nfrvet It >r!j«a from tht 
anterior faKeieulus of the second and third eervlcol, and generall; 
by two or three lila:iii.-iiu fVora the upper part of the brachial 



What ntrvei cuntributc la form the Rrachial riexuitf The 
ftiiltrior kraoch^a uf (he four iiifirrior ccrvkitl iirrvnt, iin<l the Gnt 
loraal or thorauit:. It exteinl.-i from the »;aletii niancluK to iho 
r«lllU (Ml a lerd wiili Uie ueck of the on humeri, mid >iirruund« (ho 
txilUrj utety like tlie brnicU of a whip cord, from tha cljkvicte to 
the ON humeri, below ItM he«cl. 

What iicrvM proceed from the oxilldry or brnchinl pltxus f Tho 
wcapvlar, thoracic, axUlary, two cutaneoxit, radial, ulnar, aod 

What is the nnmber of Thoracic or Dorsal spinal nerves T 
They consist of iweU-o pairs. 

What is the number of i\ie Abdomitiat spinal nerves? There 
•re five lambar, nnd live, Eomo(itne5 six, Htcral, on each side. 

The anterior fascinili furm a plexus from (he upper part of the 
loins (o the lower pnn of the sncrnm, called the plexut cruralia, 
which has been divided bv antitoniisia into phxua lumbalit, foi-roeil 
by llie four swperior lambar nctres. and the jjiexue iachiadicus, 
formed by the but lumbar Kod the sacral. 

What arc tlie Derves ^reii off by the Lvmbar Plexusf The 
oruratin anterior, nervHt obtutittoriua, a branch running to jr>iii 
the sciatic plexus, the abdomino-crtiral britiichc^ t^rmaiicuK ez> 
temu», ciUanettt extcrnvn, cuiamtt* niedias, cusnfiu anterior, 
«Dd cuiaaeuM inkmut. 

What are the brmicliM which arc );iven off by the Scialic Plexua 
or Ptexna Itchiadicitst The nerd glutisi, rieri'ug pud ndulit 
tonr/ite inferior, ramtit /emoralig, cutaneita puelerior, nervus 
pudendaliji lomjut superior, and the n^ruiu iachiadicut, or ffreat 
miotic . 

What » the division of the great Sciatic ATcriw ? The poplileat 

• poetrnor tibial, aod the prronral ; and in its conrso fci'cs off 
be cuiautua iaternut superior, the ciUanru* inlern-ir inferior, 

ltd a targe trunk or three diK(invl braiichcH, which go (o (lie udduc- 
tor oiagniui, «cmi-mfmbraTii»uii, bicep«, and Ki^mi-tcndinofas. 

The peroneal iierve diviiJcH into two bruiiclit-t, the pervneut 
txtxmiu, aiid the tibialis anterior. 

The poaterior tibial or pnpliti-al nerve given off the extfrnal 
ttfJtrnua, aod Mvera) rmnll brnnchcs to the inii«L-le» of the leg, 
)b«B it divides in the bollow of (be os catcis into the tntemat uud 
' 9X/*n>al plantar nerrea. 






Natohal B0DIE& 

B«m »rt boiJIpB divided f loto Inoryanio and Organic. 
VUl are some ot (lie propurlles of Inorganic bodies ? Tli«7 
powca the contuou prupertieK of matter, and tlieir elements we 
II*(it aoder ordfnnry circunixlaiicea. 

ffiit «re tbc genernl proitcrtii'K of Orpanic bodits ? Tliey hare 
jvopeniet in rotninon wjlb tliu iiitir^nnic, but alwo hnve others 
oniToItinf; llie firat in n rcmnrknblc maiincr. Their vicmenta are 
inder^Iiif; coiLitnDt cliingcj^ attd the NdriiccH wliich |{ive ns a 
kuowledgc of their itruciure and ruiictiou^ are called Analomy and 

lu what r«specbi do tliey differ? They dilTcr lu refrard to their 
orv^in, tliape, titc, chemiral character, texture, mode of pr»- 
tercation, termination, atid jiwUve /urceg. 

What we the oUJects of the Scleuce of Physiology t They are 
to «:tpUiu the mode In which » UtIdj; being Is born, nourished, 
rej>rodueeii, and dieg. 

How Me orgauic bodies dJTided 1 Into AnimaU uid Vegs- 

In what respects do these differ from each other? In eomposi- 
Han, te-xturt, senaathn uid volanlary viotion, nulrUion, aud 

Tbe dlsiiBctloaB between them are not so rl^dly flxcd as betweeik 
tli« loor^ah: ud organ iud. 

Both regietiibleB and anlmalfi are endowed with functiona termed 
veget^tv, ptantic, or organic; bat animals have other TunctiADB 
•aperadded, tJz: eensaiton and voluninry miMion, which dUlin- 
gnl*h tliera. and are tenaed animal, while the fumtiuiia commOD 
to both are termed organic. 


Tbej differ in compoEition, which can be easilf detected bj 
baniing, from the odor g\vea out. 

Mulder says that celluloEC (C''H"0"J forms the principal puU 
of the cellular mass in plants ; and in animals the primary materitl 
is gelatii>e (CH'^N'O'). 

The texture differs very much : fluids predominate in animib, 
solids in regetables. Only one elementary tissue, the vesicular or 
areolar, exists in vegetables ; while in the animal there are thite, 
the areolar, the mxiscular, and the neroous. 

Nutrition is effected differently in the two classes. In snimtla, 
the food has to be changed so as to adapt it for noariBbmenL 
This change takes place in an internal organ called the stomtcfa, 
and the process is termed digeslioti ; absorption of the prepared 
material then takes place from its intemai lining, by which a snpfdf 
of nutriment is furnished. There are important differences also in 
the stepawhichprecede the reception of food, requiring volition, 4e. 

In reproduction, a close analogy exists, bat there wn alio 
differences connected with sensibility and voluntary motion, coin 
trolling the union of the sexes in animals, while in vegetables then 
is neither perception nor volition. 

What are the two kinds of elements which enter into the compo- 
sition of the human body f They are the chemical or inorganic, 
and the organic, which are compounds, aud are the prodnct of 
vital actions. 

What are the chemical or inorganic elements t Oxygen, hy- 
drogen, carboti, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium; and in smaller 
quantity, sulphur, iron, manganese, ailicium, potaagium, alumi- 
num, chlorine, sodium, magnesium, Ac. &c. 

What are the principal ultimate elements f The animal bodies 
consist essentially of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and aiote, as a 
general rule. 

How are the organic elements divided f Into those which con- 
tain nitrogen and those tbat do not. 

What are those in which nitrogen is contained t Protein, 
including albumen, Jibrin, caseum or casein; globulin; pepsin; 
gelatin; chondrin; osmazome; mucus; urea; uric or lilhio 
add; red coloring principle of tht blood (hemalin ot hematoain) f 
yellow coloring principle of the bile. 

What are the characteristics of Protein J It is procured by 



liaolriiig Klbamcn, fibrin, or casein in « modcrntol; strong lolii- 
Uun of naiilic polaeb, and adiling acetic nctd, whcu it will he 
"(•ntnl in tbc forin of a gehi'mau*, trnii^Iiiccnl ]>rpci|>iiulv. It 
'» the Mnw, fron wliiuhevcr of (lie dI>otc ingrcdiunl* it luny \>tt 
vh^ed, and j> Rnppoccd to form the ba«s of all ibv Hhucm: 
iKMcthe uatnc. It coni)iin4-« with oxygtti in deliiiii« proportions 
(pTving; ■ binoxittc and Iriloxide, wliich arc formed in the Inng). 
tnm Hiria ; the fibrin iii tl)« l>luod in this vay acting as a carriut 
«f olJ^vn to (bo lis«nce. In inllaniiiialioriK, a much larger qiiunlity 
«f oiitliied |>ratein it i^intaincd in tlic Mood tiinn exists in hcallh. 
vUtb giTcs rJM to (he baffy coat. Its formula is, CmHwNiOid, 
Tbc «xiit4Tiive of ibis substance as a dUtinct organic element, hna 
U« draied by Liebig and Fleiimann, wlille it is maintained by 

Altumen, Jtbrin, and casein are luodificatioDS of tliis element 
Kimcd bj cvmbinatMn witb a small qoaiititf of phoHphoms, or of 
aJ(>hor, or Iwth. 

Albumen U found eitbcr li<ioid or concrMe : tiqnid, in the wbiio 
«f tgir, «Tura of ibe blood, cbylo, lymph, and in souiq of the secro- 
(iiMii ; solid in tbe brain, sj>in«1 vord. ticrrcs, Ac. Ilent, ncids, 
ud Corro«ivc sublimate coagalalo it. The ki<lncj« sometimes in a 
diwaacd «luti,> M«rcic it. 

/V6r-tn exiMt in chyle, lymph, blood, and niusde, and is an 
abaodaot and important antmul principle. It may be procured by 
beating blood with a rod, Id wrliich il will adhere in lilamcnts. It 
is totid, wbito, dxibk, eluAtic, insipid, inodorous, and liearier thnn 
water. It rx>nsti[uies ibe bu fly coat of the blood, is H^crcled in 
InHammation, and cailt^ eoagnlable lymph ; bas the property of 
Belf-coBgulation, is tbo canse of the congulntion of (be blood, and 
posaeMCa a litgber degre« of organ izabiliiy ihan nlbnmen. The 
flhrin la arterial blood is more highly oxidized than tliut in tbe 
Tcnoiw. Cticniirally, fibrin and albumen cniinot be distingnishcd.* 
Ciunin oiLi>(R abnndunily In milk, and la the basis of cheese, is 
fonnd aliu' in blond, saliva, pancreatic Juice, pna, &c. It is ob- 
laiiMd \ij OMgnlatlng milk, washing (he coagulum, and drying it. 
Il conialna aulpliur, bat no phospbonia. 

* Uarh jret rtnaiaa l« ba wltled nvpecting wha( an tentwd Ihe fnui» 



OhbtiJin i>r the titouil-corpoxclc* hns alio bocn pluced by tomo 
Binonj; llic protein compounds. 

/VfiKtn hiM aIhu bv?n clui>!ii.-il witti DiRtn, mid pOMem* nanj 
|>r<>|>urtlfa of aUiDiiieii. Lit^bii^ <loul>t» itii oxixttiice oi » dtMlnct 
cotn|iouiid. Il bus \ifCtt rvf^rdud by Mulder as a protoxide of 

Orlalin \» the ehlff ingredient of cellular tissue, skiu, tendon*, 
lii:aiDont», aud cartilage; it !tt found also in otlier Mruolaret. It 
U ublaiiifd liy bulling KubstunccH contuiiiing it, clarifying, eon- 
cnitraliiig, and drying tlin solulioii. It i» known in comioerctt bj 
the names glue, inngtaM, portable soup, Ac. Tannin precipitates 
it from itH Holution, and ik tlie apprcijirialc lest. 

Ohonilrin w obtntnod by lioiting ihe eonim. permanent cartilages 
ind honn Iicforc owilienlion. It rocinblcR golntin. 

Oiinatome exisU in the mnsclc*, blood, and brain; it g^ft* 
^svor to sonpe, and U nuiriiivc ond stimnUting. 

Mucus in a lliiiil U'civted liy niucons surfncrs fur their protection. 

Urea exists in tlic urine of miimtnniiiv in hcaltii, It is dcriTcd 
from the decoTupoxiiion of tliu tiMuve in the process of ontritioo. 

[j'ric or lilhic aeid ia found in the urine of man, binls, mt- 
ponlK, Ac. In the herbivara, it is replaced bjr the hippuric add. 

Ilemalin, or hfmattmn, is llic red coloring principle of the 
lilood, whieli, It bail been supposed, may depend ufton the »n1]>bo- 
cyaniie of iron. It in c»ntain«d In a capsule which la coinpowd 
flf 'jlobutirt. 

What arc those which do not contain nitrogen 1 Olein, Htearin, 
fatty matter of ihe brain and nerren; ftcetio acid; oxalic tcid; 
benxoic acid ; lactic acid ; sugar of milk ; sugar of diabetes ; bilin 
orpicromel; eholeslerin ; and biliverdln. 

Olein or Elain. and .Sfran'n, are found in Hxcd oils unitod with 
glycerin. Olein gives (luiditf , and stearin the solid elements of 
fatly matter. 

Margarin in also a constituent of fnt. 

In what forma are the component parts of the animal body 
found r Solidi and fluids. 

What are the 8o/i((*i of the human body ? Botu, cttrlihif, 
mu*cles, ligamenli, vestelH, nerees, ganglttms, /^licte*. or 
vrypla, glands, membranea, areolar, rellnlar, or tamxnatfid 
Kwii<!, and vitctig; this last is the most complex in the hanan 


Mf, KMd ii the Bunae giren to organs coDt^iicil fn the iplnnchuic 

tluw are ritrmbra»fti rliviilcd f Into simple *nd oonponnil. 
Whut we the nrnpte incnibraiici f The weroiu, mvcong, oiid 

Wlwt kre tite comjmxinil membrftnci 7 Thi-y are tbe Jibro-te- 
nm. KTo-mtimuis, »aA /ibro-mucous. 

Vhal ant Ihc primary ti»«ue» or analomk-al elcmcnUt Tha 
nfliteror lami>ialf4 fihrt oiliAftu-: the muscular Jibre or lifsue; 
uA tbe nertwiM, pulpi/. ()r mrJullaiy jibrv or tiMue; to whicb 
Moiktf bu been added bj Chiiii*i'kr, cullol tho a/bti^'n«0N4. 
llMeilUBea, bj uniting dilFvrentlj. form the lir«t order of solids, 
MdlheM again by anioD glTu rixu to eompouiid colid'!, from whicb 
iW iUffereiit organi, booM, glamlx, Jc<^-, arc formed. The tissneA 
«rr ilirerentif clanili«d hj different nuthont. 

Ifliat are tlie ttstarc* nnd olber organized eoiDitiliii'nts of the 
Mjrf Blood, chylir, nnd lifmph. Epidfrtnio tintue, including 
(pAc/i'unt, culicU-. naiU, and hairf. I'i'jment. Adipose litsiie. 
CrHuiar f areolar Huue), yibrous H'uve. Klaglic tigaw, Car- 
lilaye. Bone or otwouJi lisxue. Stuitcvlar tit*M. XerooMS 
Uuue. JHoi>do<»»rU. AluorbKut i.TMr'« and gtanda. Sen>u4 
cni/ Stfitovial menuAntHM. lUuwvM meinbram't. Skin. Secre- 
ting 'jlantta. 

In vrliat wnj are the R^id* arrnngi'd to form the difTtrent strnc- 
taruB ? In filamtttU or eUtMntary fibre*, UkkuvJi, orijann, appo- 
rsfuitrK, sod «y«fefflR. 

What i> fnconi hy ■ /ibreJ A nnmlier of filamenlit anited to- 
gether. It i* Mmctinwi called a Hmui^, but thi* term is asually 
a|t{ilied tu a pnrticnlnr arrangement of fibres. An origan ia a com- 
ponnd of eccral llnaei. An ajyparatut is an a»cmblugc of or- 
noa l«iiding to the name end. nA the digestive appandtt*, vrliich iit 
formed by a variety of orgnna of a diiuiniilur kind. A v'/tif'-m in 
on uwuiblage of organs jio-'ti't^^-'iiTitt the iiumc or nn annlogoii* Ktrni*- 
tnre- For example, all the mniclM of tlie body hnvo a common 
nnii-tiire, and, taken oa* whole, conatitiite the mumular Kyxirm. 
The ume viih llie tmmI* and nerved, which, taken collccUrely. 
roDslliiite the vaaevlar Md nrrcotur systeiiu. 

What proportion do the Buidt of llie body liear to tbe whole 
weight r It ii not «uy to tiiUnialc tlie proportion, as it raries at 


difT'Tcnt limes and periods of life; the younger the Btiimnl, tin 
Renter ihe preponderance of ihu lliiida. 

How have the Quids of ihe hod; been cInssifiedT Into Irs 
dasaes : 1, those produced by the act <>r dij^eetion. ihe chyme and 
i\Kchj/le; i, the circulating Uiiidx, ihe h/mph niid ththloodi 3, 
ihf: perapired Jluide ; i, Ihe /'Alieitlar ; auA b. t\K slanilular. — 

What are the phifsicat properlins of the tissues f Flexibihly, 
rjienfibilil^, etaelicity. and porosilij. 

f'lnslicili/ is the properly which causes a tissue to react upon the 
wiihdrnwnl of a iitreichiii); or comprcstins; force. 

Wc hnvo example* of thii! property in the yellow ligumentf. In 
the iuidi)li> cont« of thu nrlcricx, A'.'. 

Kjl'^nniltilily i* poK^nnted by elastic tissiKB ; bat some tiwoes, •« 
the libniHK, trill yield to a rIow continaetl distending force, thnt art) 
not clastic. 

i'lejribilily may exist without elasticity or cslensibility, aa b 

Porogity is the properly of permeability by fluids, potsesaed by 
tiiwiics aflcr death as well as daring life ; tbo term itnbilntion has 
also been given to this properly. This properly give? rise, amlcr 
ocrtAin circuin»U>nccK, to the pbciiomoDa termed endo*tno»f and 

If we take a ^Iam or other tube, closed at one eod by a piece 
of bladder or nieraliranc. and place in it a solution of salt or sugar, 
we Hud that the solution permeates the pores of the membraite. hat 
(toes not pass through it. If wo then immerse the lower end of the 
tube in pure wat^r. it is found to rise within the tube, sonietiiues to 
a considerable extent ; while, at the same time, a portion of the 
solaiiou in the tnbe hnc piused into the water. In this phenomena, 
the current from viithnul to toUhin U cjilled cnifosmoss, wblle the 
current from loUkin to vjithoiU is culled exoamoBe. 

The circumstances necessary for the iiiicce«s of this experiment 
are, that an affinil}/ mnxi exiitt between the fluids and the mein- 
brane -, the fluids must he iniarihU with cnob otlier, and of itiffrrfnl 
den»itiee. As a general nile, the current in the most rapid from the 
rarer to the denser medium, and eoulinues until their density is 

ThiM properly is purely phjsieul, an 1 not pec^iar to organlied 


lexturts win ^^| 

Onvtnm ; pl*l«fl of eUte, bBb«d clay, and Roni« nire 
(ibibit it. 

Alliuiai-a, of nil mIdUo organic enbslaiicM, facilitalca endoimose 
tiiih tbe Bn-iUeJil fi>rw, 

No ultsrociorf i.-x|>lanaIion hns yet biwn irivcii of (his physical 
b«. Tli« corrent is usnatly the most rapid from tli« rnrfT to th« 
d^awr lliiid, y«l Uii« i* noC alwuys ihc cnse; it is d«lDrmiiied by 
tbf ■Bnity brlwccD tbv liqnid and ihc dividing snlwtsiice ; nnd in 
tron thr li(|tiid hsvin^ ihr gmicst olBiiily lo the opposite sid«. 
U«at pbeiKini-oii, uxaal I y looked npon asrilnl, cnn becxptiiincd 
bj tlrii proiwtty, in pbytiolotty, pnlhotoKy, niul th<rnipr-iili('x. 

(hm> «rf ■!«) KBtijcrl lo Uie wimc lnw. iti respect lo tlii* pro- 
prrlj, tbnt li(|iiidii lire; niiil tlii« dotilili^ niriYiil lukrK pUcr in tlio 
lini!3 dufiiip ihir dct of rf*pirotion, through llir walls of llic pul- 
BX'otrj nir-ftllit, and lh« miuiildy ramified capillnriM on ihi'm. 

IVlmi it nndrrKlood by the vHat prapi-rtrrn of flu- tm^uejif They 
«rt ihdie bdoii)iiiig ouly to Uinng or^uizcd products, and are 
faanti in mii»nilar and iicrions ktructiires. 

Tilt >itnl pr■lp^-^y of musi^l« is conlmctilily. ond is chnract eristic 
ufiliit tissue. Tiic vilul properly of nervous structure is maoi- 
fntrd in ibn-e «rnys : fir^, by inducing contractiou in the muscle 
n|){ihcd by it ; socumf/y. by exclling eon tractions in Diiiseles not 
tii[')ili«d by it, t)iroii;-li u ehuii);e prodiicei) in llie nervniis centre; 
thir^li/, (.y cxi'litii;; sii-iis»iioii. 

A\l organlxnl Iwings do n'lt possesx ibe properlica of cod- 
Eni'-iility and MiMibility. Veg^lal'les liavu no iiervons KyKtcin, 
(■Jil ihirtfore the fiiiM.-liiiii of sen-'ibility is wnmiiiK i nltlimipb ihcy 
late irrilaliiliti/ i»r e^icitaMtty duieKiped, wliieli tnny be con- 
HcJervd to Iw Uie vital proiterty coramoD lo all orgunixcd bodies. 

FoNcTioKs or MjUf. 

nw are ibc rnoctioiia of man clnsviSed ? Into ihrco classes: 
ml. The A»xmat. or lliose of Itelatt»n. Serond. The Jfttlri- 
y/iirrf. Tlie It'-prttductin:. 

hat in Includitd under tlw lirti of tliese ditjsions ? SeitsibUi(jf 

ssd mutcular vtotton, iuciodlng ex^'ufi or ian<juag«. 


What noder the aecond f Digestion, abBorpHon, rofim'ioK 
circulation, nutrition, calorification, nnd «cre(ton. 

What under tie third 7 Generation. 

What are the forces which preside over tbe varioia (nscticM) 
They are either general or special; the fomier are pftyriralot 
chemical, and the latter organic or vifal. Some organi in <t 
ampli's of purely mechanical Brran|;ements, as the eye, orgu ol 
voii'c, the car, nnd the circulatory apparatas, arraDgemeBti tx 
endostiioso and cxogiuoec, &c. In many functions, chemical tfjBHJ 
perforniR an im])orlant part also ; while othen cannot be eiplaincd 
on these principles, and ore termed vttol. Many fnnctioDi ue 
performed through a combination of these forces. 

Anihat. FuNcnoins, ob Funchons or Rklatiom. 

What is understood by Sensibility f It is the function by whid 
the animal oxperiences feeling, or has the perception of an imprci- 
sion. It has also been applied to tbe property of livliif; parts of 
receiving improuiions ; whether attended by conscioosness or not 
of the indiviiiual upon whom the impression is made. We, thei* 
fore, where there is consciousness, have animal sensibility; ud 
where there is none, it is terraed orr/amc sensibility. 

liy wlint npparntiis is it that aniuml sensibility is effected f Tbe 
whole nervous sysicin is coiicernrd in it. 

What is included in whai is called the Nenous Syxiemf It 
consists of three portions : first, Utn cerebrospinal axin; secondly, 
of cordn called nerves ; and thirdly, of a nervouB cord situated on 
each side of the spine from the head to the pelvis, forming ganglia 
opposite each Tertebral foramen, and called the great aympaiAetie. 

What is Dr. Marshall Hall's division of the nerves? Into, 
1. The cerebral, or the sentient and voluntary. 3. The true 
itpinal, or excilo-molorg. 3. The ganglionic, or the nutrient and 

The Grst of these receives impressions which are conveyed by 
afferent nerves to the brain, and produce a mental impression, 
As a result of this, a motor impulse may be transmitted along tbe 
efferent nerves to particular muscles which are excited to coDtrMS 



llaiL The eDn^pltatori and nerTes comiBuiii eating with U Are tht 
wfiiMt tor lh«-i« ruiiciiuas. 

Tbr MYi'U't ironida nuy recettc inipri>siioDs wliivh ore propagated 
■I**!) fjftrfni W>m la gvni^liunic <«iiires distiDi-i from tlie sea- 
•cdiaiii, in wbkb a r«Bex niotur influence is excUcd, Ihat Ih trai»> 
ni"'i| «h>ii^ efftrent iruiiku I'otinrcled with ihwe cenires. nnd 
M ic? MiticiiliLr <.-uuiraciioii, uiiliuuL itie necesaarj iiiterveniloo of 
MMMtkii ntid rvlltioa. Tli« oi-ftaiis for tbi£ ruiiciiou are the gray 
B>iiiT orUie spinal rurd, and ibe nerves connected vUh IL 

Tbo oBi-e iierTurnied bf a nute licpends apvii iu eonoeelion*, 
ontroi Bud jmrt/Acral, ami ttiaf )>« ascurtuliied by an exuinlnntion 
vf lft«( conntrlionH. If it lose iixelf entirely in tJi« oubtlnncc of 
Bwtlo^ ve iiifrr tl iit efferent or motur; if on a mcinbnnoua 
Ufuuitilt, llial il in alTiTi'nt or m-n.iory ; if on m iiiirface uiinptcd 
toiMriTv Kfincial iai|>reMiun« vnly, il may be inrrrrud that il U * 
*enr iif jijMvial Keiwntioo. 

The iliiril diviKioti bas for it« olijed to combine and hnimonize the 
adieular mnrcnwnls connected with organic life. Jt itiUuencat 
ttaAiMlionf iiF Butriiion, secretion, Ac, al»o. Mncli reioalna yet 
ft he IcanH-d re«|iei-ling tlw |>liy!iolt>gf uf tbe nenotis system. 

H'hal {>b<-nomena nn^ intlnded under the lerm sensibility J The 
WiMdfion*, |iro)>rrIy »o culled, aind tbe intetledaai and momt 
What is mcHni by it tttnMili'M t It is the perception of an 
Ipmsioa nadc on nn orgnn ; it is by tins tnenns tlint we receive 
liMwIvdfrv of wbat is paMing nrwund and witbiu ns; and troia 
tieh result (A oM^iAi nnd^Hr///ui«>if. 

lIoMT aro ibe senutlons divided 1 Into external and internal. 
A<ra aiid Biidition lire exHrajdes of the cxtcrnn], nnd Imuger and 
llrtit of Ibe inl'Tnal, 

, ]• the «w'<-|ibiilon nei'CHsnry to senMlion t It is. Tiir imprea- 
miMt be made on a itiUnnl nrgun and eonimuni'Tnled lo ibe 
rrjibaloii, before ni-iixiitiDn i* I'lTi-cled. 

lluw iBiiy this be |in>ved? Ely cnlting or pulling u lifrninre 
woaml ■ aerie proouedlng to any sensible pirt ; or. If the brain be 
prc<reitt«d from acting iit any way, there wil' bo no sensation. 

tlaa Um floaditioD of the mbid anything to do with sensation f 
It bait. 


U every pnrt or lbs hinwn Iw^f subject lo Benslbllllj T It h, 
eilher in Ir-iiIiIi or (Ji*ens«, If ire exeept pi>rlia|>» ibe ciiilcle. 

Ill wliiit )iiirt or the hrub are the ctirvbrBl oTftuns of the leniici 
placed 7 That portion beiueen tlie curponi qiiadrliteiulna and tho 
■uedulla obloiiffivtii. <iii-ludiii|; these partH-, ti>id it i.t trilb Ibh (uirt 
of the brain ihiit ibe iiurvca of the wtaua are found to conimuniciiie. 

What would be ilie iffeci of dividlii); the pokterjor mom of ihii 
«pitm1 iiorveH *nd of ibe tirih pnir 7 All ijrnmtl Ken^iliilit; would 
be \o*\ ; but, if we diride the ncrVM of the itetiite*, Uirir fnm-lions 
only arc deKinijcd. 

Ill whm Diinnpr i* tliiii tran«mif»ion tAong tb« nerrons cords and 
xpiniil mnrrow irffecled ? W'v ore nniK-iiHiiiiitcd with the nialerial 
vtiuricter of Uiv m-nous fluid or influrncc vhkh pnsse§ alon;; tlie 
nert'e* with inch rapidity ; and we are nwaro of such trans nituiiun 
only by the results. Wheilicr it in animat iipiril» flecreled l>j the 
broin and tmiiMiiilted nlon^ tlic iicrvcft under ibe n«nie of »4Tr.v;u« 
Jtuid, or vrhdher eifccted by vibralione or omrillaliona of t)i« 
nenoDS cords, or whether it is produced by the operation of 
animal electricily or an elfctrwd ur galuanoiii fluid, n-e will not 
attempt to delcnniae. This IsBt explanation U perhaps the most 
popular one at present, 

Eiiemal Semationa. 

Whol are the external »ensationH? They are ihoM pGrceptlona 
that are ocea^ioned bjr the impressions of boilie:! exient&l to the 
part impressed. 

How are they divided ? Into the iensmt properly go called, by 
which tbe different qnnliiies of extenial bodies arc flKccrtained ; onu 
those »enitati<>tis wliiuh are caused by rontuct, hut nlTord no infor- 
Tiiation to the mind. The external sc^.tes un- the organs by wbich 
wc bec-ome n«piainted witli bodies that Kiirronnd nit. 

What arc the exK-niuI ■ensw f Tart or tovch, tatlti, nmell, 
hparin^, and nWim They nil ron*iiil of two parts— pAynt'ivi/, or 
tliiLt which Riodiru-it tbe iiclion of the body which causes the Impres- 
sion ; and ncrvouH or vital, which recciTes the imprealvn, and 
convoys it to ihi! brnin. 

The sensoR majr be exercised in two modee : aeHvelj/, bj direct- 



attention ; uti] patnvfly, when impr«s«oiu are nceived 
Bl tlio mind being specially directed to litem. 
Tbe BVtite exvrciiic giros iocmeiMl dHicacj* and W^r ; yet this 
■uul n«t b« loo contUnt, or loo intense, or injiinr ran; ret^ult. We 
Uf alani dndcn t Mnmtion hy Toliiiitnrily dimini«liin^ ihc nmouiit 
«f ttimitliM K|>p1ied to tho sentient orgnn. Tfau loi^ of one sense 
iiWMlljr kttcnded by an incrcMC of aciitcncst in llioso rem»iiiing', 
bu ilii« oodvublcdly arixe« from tlicir Kupcrior edncation. 

Tbe wniMs are all modiltdnliuiu of tbnl of tact or lourh ; ihc 
npid body, llu^ odorous pitrtid«i, tlit naiioroaK vibrnlions, and llio 
light, niu»iiiii|>ingo upon or louoli tJi« aerroiu position of tlie organ, 
^IwtoTt t«ua4tion can tie vffcclod. 

^m Seift! of Tact or T\)ueh. — Palptaion. 

^H n'bat ia meant >iy the Sfinm of tnct or toncli ? It U the general 
^HfttHog or Miuibilily ; and la more cxtcnsirely diffused iKiiii any of 
(k ftllicr M-nwK. 

It tliero any difference bctw(«ii toct and loncli ? The teiisc of 
Uet is spread gOBOralty in the orgaint ; and e.<prdn11y iti the nuta* 
wous and mucouK unrraccs : touch is tact joined to museulur eon- 
iractioii, and diireicd byrolition; — no ihni liie exercise of toct 
may be rK>n«idcr«iI asptumiw; aail ihnl of tnneb nWuw, 

What is the chief organ of touch ? The skin, which is snpplicd 
by ncrrcs from the posterior rooU: of (he «piiinl nerTOi, and from % 
portion of tlie Khh and cinhth pair of cenrlirnl tii^rvi's, and arc the 
^^pme w those of general «ciixalion. They iik dixtriliutcd to ihe 
^^pctilc papilla;, which arc small etevaiionx cucluMiif; loopn of hlood- 
^^■sselt and branches of a aenKllirc nerre. situated on the exterior 
^Bufacc of the culia vera, and covered by tJie calicle, which serres 

•5 a prutc>(:tiou to tba papillte. 
^^ The cut (Fig. I) reprcMiiU several of these papSllie of the palm 
^Br lh« liatid, with the cuticle detached. They are mugni&ed 35 

Tba acnlMien of Ihla sense In different fir* !■ 

pMTIs, is in proportion to ibe atiiotiut of 
\otj nertro di*tributed to tiiem, and 
education of the p«n. Contact of 
^Htdy with the aeuwry surfaco is nc- 

lO eierdse of this function. i— --^.:;..i 



What conditioas an necessnrj to tha »x«rclu ar this aCDtef 
Meri'lj' lliat ihe aubslance uhich cuumt* il shull Im brongllt in COB- 
taci witli the |ihysical part of ihu orf^aii — tbe cuiiclv. 

At'H sli tiie layers of ibe Mii ntmnffiry to touch ? Erorj Injtr 
ap|>cara lo have an approjiriiile olSte lo iierrorm in the exercise of 
this fuiii;tioii. 

Ity whui H(rDke are wectiableil lo fonii an iitooof lbeleniper»tara 
of bodies J The neniie o( tact or touch. 

Doea It nlwny* ifire ui ■ uorni:! impresnion T Hot Blwafa, u ft 
la vtty niuuh tiiQui-Dccd by the pruriouiily aurronndiDg tempenton^ 
imbit, Ac. 

Ik thin t^oHMdnrnd to tie one of tha most certain of Itia aensM T 
It is, |)i.>rliti)ix, the It-iLit HiibjFi-t to error of all the seuseB. Some 
hnr« cniled il the ri-'juUliny, the genmclrical sense; but this to 
giviiiK il toobi)|>ha position. It if) enpablo of oxirsordinary acDt«- 
ness and ceriftiniy by piiiicalion, as in the rsi>e of blind peraoria. 

Where is the most di^licai* or^rau of touch itluated T In mnD 
and monkeys, in the hand. In most qnadruped^, is ihe lijia, aiiout, 
or proboscis; in molluscoas antmala, fn ihe tenlacala; and In ln> 
»eeU, bi Ibe anlouns. 

Sense of Tiute, or OueUiiion. 

What ia the object of the sen«o of tasta t It tcachca ns the 
■(uslity of bodies cnlleil gajA'litt/. 

Is the or^ti of tniiie enpalilc of reei'ivliijr otbrr iinprea*ions ihaa 
those of taslK 1 It alio puKU-vwa the power nf toui-h, and one of 
theao propertiea may be lort while the oilier reinuiiu ; and neither 
one can supply ihe plnir nf iho other. 

What is ihe ehicf organ of tnicle T The t«n;nie. The lips, inner 
Kurfncc of the cheeks, palate, and fnneea nlao pnnirlpnte lit thia 
fiiiiolioii. The inneono mrinlimnc of the tont^ue !» hift'ily or^n- 
iKed, and ihe pnpillrr, or pmper ortrnns of taste, an very nnmeroua. 

What eircuiiislaiiceit are nccCHmry Ihnt thi* faocllon lany be 
tatixfuclorily exercised ? The inncoun inembnine of the rnouth 
thuuld be in a state of inlefcrity. the fluids poured Into It should 
exixt In proper quantity nnd quality, anil the subManee to Iw ucled 
should be soluble. It is improved aUo by brlaglng the tonilliej 
ronlact wilh the palate. ' '- 

What nerres are dislribiUed to tbe tongue t Tlie ninth fi™ 

nkl, ud MImi braachc* of tbe 6(Ui pair ; anil the glomo* 

Which of ihfsi; i.t KuppiMcil lo b« tli« ncrro of t»rt« T Thfl Un- 
KmI bnuich of ibc fifth pair. 

It tkb MOM capable of cultivation 1 It is, in a Tcr; high 

S«n«e 0^ Smell, or Ol/nction. 

Vhkt b the o1>j«<ct of this sense T Ta appreciate the odorous 
opcrtita of hodica. To do Ibb, ImmMJiBtc contact of the odor- 
ooa hedjr b not necessary ; an oduvouH ctnuuaiion from il which 
^ifaail iiii|i[tigc apoB tlus orin><i of senitit l>eln^ sofflcient. 


' tha Annlomtcal deecrlplloii and references to this figure, sea 
ay, page 39. 
What is ibe organ of nnc)l ? It is a macous membrane which 
bes tbe itasal cavities or foasv, called tli« Scfineidcrian, or 

What cnndiiloBB nrntt exl«t that the sense of imetl may be dulj 
ti*rcis«d f The oriraii must be hi u hmltliy condition, and the 
faHMSllofi from an odoroni body must Japiiigc upon the pituitary 
MalmHe witb considerable force. 

What [i the ordliinry medium for tlic transmission of odoroas 
panicles T Tbe air. 

In irbat mode u olfaction effected T In inspiratJon, the air 
charged viUi odorous (wriiclct comes in contact witb the pitiiitarj 



membnine, through the mfditim or the rbmI nncni, which tmn 
the a<|gron» [lartitles as llicj pkss, and also kcc]>! thu |>«rU |ir«- 
peri; lubrinttd. The olfactory ncrrr, being dittribsttd oa tbi 
meinbmnc, Fvccirrs the im{ircs«ioiis of tfavM particles, anil is ihii 
Baaiiiicr tlio scuMlion U Aocainplisbcd. 

Ill nhiil pnn of Ihc olfaetDr}' organ docE this sense mid'' ;^ 
highest di-grcc 7 In the upper ponioD. 

WliBt nerves arc distributed to the olfactory organs f A f>vr.h.: 
of lh« Gnh pair, and the oiroclory or first pair. 

What is considered to be the pro|)«r nerre of this seoM 7 lU 

Is this sense capable of improvemeiit bj educstioo T It is. 

Sense of fffaring. or Audition. 

rWliat ia the object of this 8en» f It tnakes known to wW 
peniliar vibrations of sonoroys bodies, whtdi coDslilute mnnds. 
How is the organ of bearing divided ? Into three portions: I, 
Um attenat ear, or that exterior to t]i« memhrnnn Ijmpant ; % 
Um middle ear; and 3, tbe inlemat ear Itactf, which i-oulainB tha 
audi tor J nerve. 

Wbnt office does the eslernal ear perform in audition T It col- 
Icvta the &ound. which It transmits to tbe menibrana tyiDpant 
through the meatus audltorius exlcrnRB. To undfrsland this 
properly, tlio laws regulating sound must be understood. 

WliAl Is the function performed by tbo middle car? The Eono- 
rons oscillations are reccirod by the mcmbrana tyinpuii, and 
trnnKuiilted to tbe intornnt cnr throngti the niediurn of the niiddlt^ 
in lliree ways: 1st. by the nir cuntnined iu tlic cavity of the tym- 
panum i Sdly. by Ibi- eliain of boiiCH to tlie metnbrniie of the 
foraueu ovale ; nnil. 3Jly, by the pnrieten of the tyroiMinutn ; oscil- 
lattoDS arc, therefore, excited iu the membruucs of tJii' foramen 
ovale and roliindum. 

What are the unes of the maslaid crlls in hearing T Tbcy ar« 

What are the nses of the osgiclea or emoU boneg of the middle 
ear ? Tliey fulfil two function* : ihcy conduct the vibrations from 
■ tlie mcnibruiia tympani ; nml aUo tlreli-li nr rnider mori; tense tbe 
membranes to which tUev arc ultuched at ibeir extrcultict. 



^^^^^t pari dots Hid EuttacAutn iHbe perform in audition ? Th* 
^HHply ur lliifl IiiIjo is exscKliBi to bearing, and ils dosiira U Tol- 
lu*H b; detftinw; lijr it llicre is a maintPiiatii-c of I lie C(][ii1i1)riiim 
MircMi Ui« air within ihr l}-iD|>aiiuiD ami that without, so ns to 
tllaw of Uie fr«e octioD of the mrmbrane. by provciiliiig inoiHliMt« 
(■maitre »Bd tendon, which would lie produced by too (treat or 
Wafitih presMre on either side; thecflTcctof which wontd be to 
tapair the hrartng. It has been snpposod to be an avotnie for 
tifinil tv ibe iiitvrnal ear; but this U very qncstioiinblfr. It il 
tbuug'ht also to net as a direriiculum Tor llii! air in the cavity of 
iW tyiD|>aiiuin a lieu it is agitated by loo powcrfal sonnds. It also 
tmn ibe purpose of earryitig into the plinrynx any liccrvtioits of 
the lyiiipaiiniu, tlwreby prevejiling accumuJation, and keeping it ia 
abrallliy cohdiuoa. 

kWbat ia the fanction of the internal ear in audition F Tbo 
vibratioita reach the internal ear, as luia been fhoirit, by whieh 
He wciabranes covering the foramen ovale and rotunduin are 
Ibnwa iulo vtbratiunR, and conimonicatc the imprcsiions to the 
Afttorof C'ofuNirtus, which fills the cavities of the internal ear. 
TV vibrations are titeu liy Ibit medium conducted to the auditory 
aervr, whieb received the impmuion* and convey* Ibeia to the 
iraiu. Of the ]>rccise anct of ihu varioux bcttutiful (larls of the 
iDtemal ear, ar« ore niLll ignuntnt. 

What is the nerve of hearing T The portio vioHia of th« 
(ereoth pair; but it i» necesKnry ihnt the ticrvc of e|>ceial sensi- 
bilJiy. dintriboled Itf tlie purl (ivbich i« n branch of tlie &(lh pair), 
tluHild 1m id a Ktate of integrity, or tlie hearing will be iiopaircd or 

I> tliia Muse improved by education J It la (rreaily improved bjr 

What It the dilTcrGace between hearing and liMeningf Ou<? 
may be IcmH-d passive, and the otlier adive uudiiiou. 

^" Wlial I* the oljjcct of this sense T 
liflht Mid color. 

What i* the organ af vision ? The eye and ils accessory organa 
' totaminft. 

0/Oie Scnuc 0/ S>(if>l, or Vmm. 

It i« to give us the notion 01 



Are nny my* oriijihl inniTviMil to vision that lUI on othfT purl* 
of tlio eye tlinii llic iittiim ? No ; nod it U only IhM portion railing 
on the coriicn which pontes throiifjh (he piipil tlint ran reach Ibe 
Totiiia. mill iiin-rt ihe nerve nr sit.'ht. 

Wtinl nru thtt *;lian|;«^ that n rny of lifchl nndcrifoot In paiuiiig 
Ihrou^h the couU and liumora of the tye T W)i«n tt Btrika the 

conii-n '■' oliliqnely, it h refruclcd 
''^ "■ towiinU the pcrpfiidiculsr, rsfsed 

from the point of inipocl, bevBiue 
it pnHxes into tt iJsnRer medium. 
ll in llicri'bj- rendered more con- 
VMjiviil or nppronehcR the «3UB 
of lh<- cone, Iii [>ii%fiaK tliroiiph 
Itie n<]ueouii hnmor.'*" little raria- 
tion is prodnccil. an it is of about 
tlio same density as the vomca. 
Thisfoiiverfreiiceeauaeaa greater 
niinilier of raj-s lo be eollccted 
lowurdu, and enter iho pupil, and 
of course to pDM through the 
rn'MiiMinc Iciw ; " which, being 
of increased density, the oon- 
verp*nce h - dl n ■ n im n ,i rd f^om the incrensed refraetivc power 
of llie mediiiiTi iiml iIil- i-uiivi-xlty of the lens. After the ray has 
passed the cry^U^tline !enii, it emerges hilo a. rarer in«slii]in (the 
vitreous humor"), and >*, therefore, refracted from the perpen- 
dicular ; but the »hupc of ihe potlcrior snrfaec of ihc lens is snoh 
that the converftfit^e ix ftiriher increased, and incft* Ihc ether rayt 
at a focus on the retina," and there presonling a pictnre or rtpre- 
sentiitiou of the objeet on Ihe retina iu an inverted posiliun. 

To whtii U the achromatic properly of the eye proliftWj ovlogf 
To the difTc-rent refractive powers of the humors, 

Whui i» ihi- \>*c of the Srh'rotic coal of the cj-e T It gires form 
and pruleclion to it. 

What Ik Ihe nue of the Choroid' coat. It lus is chiefly owing 
to the black pig;nient which lines and penetrates it. Tills pig- 
menlum niV/rum scrve.i the ]nirpo«e of nbKorbing the rays of light 
after they have puiucd through the retina, and by this means 



\g Uic ccmfiiMoii that wooUl uiso from raricd reflections 
wnet H ft do^co apiiiiM too txrotijt ligbt 
VrW is ibo KM of the Taprtumf It< rimdion i« not l^illy 
led; Iwt U. Ucamoulms is of ilio opiei'Mi that it acta the imrt 
■( ■ Mirror. Mid. hj rttsmiuf the nya of ligbt througli tlio reiiun, 
«>h}K1s it to a doa>>1e conlaot. 
What » tlic UM or ilie IrU* to vision T It aetJi Ibe pari of » 
l>hragiB of a lens or telescope, oiwl its funoiion inuri 1>e to 
the ■Iwmition of f plitrif iiy ; wliich it do« Uy dlmlni^ing 
RrCiL'c of thi! lens no wliich ihu njx impinge, »o ttiat ihcy mnf 
MM et the Mmc focox no tlif rvliim. It is capabl<> nf coatfactiiig 
ordnuing, so an to contract or <lilnii> tbe papEI. Its simclnrc ts 
nffottd hj MiDc to be macular, and by oiliera vascular and 
■mos; tbe reaseb and nerves being di^iriiinicd on nil erectile 
tinaa. If mnscnlar, ii man coDsist of cirt-uinr and radinii.'<l fibres, 
lod tbe contraction of tbe pupil must be from tlie action of tbe 
fimlar fibres, while its ililniaiioii is from the nxlintcd. If it la 
tfretile tiMUir. (lie dilutntion and contraction ara ovriog to the 
iriaiioa of tbe ([uantitjr of blood sent to ibe pari. Tlie inolloivt 
the tfi* ap|>Ci>r to l>« rcry much ander the influence of tlie optic 
nerre ; for. if this acrvc be divided, the papil is rendered iiiimovuljle 
aad expanded. It also ap|)«ars lo be tnach intlnciice*! by Ibe other 
ea dtslributcd to the cfe. Tlie exact agency of eni^h over it 
not *^at lo be well understood ; but we find thul it contracta 
or dilates according to the in(ei»iiy of the light that strikes tho 
e. Tliv snoi of ita tues a tlmt it is partly the canse of Ifao 
romatlsnt of tbe eye; that it corrects ihe ulierralion of sphe- 
Ity ; regulates the quantity of light admiltcd ihrongh lite pupil, 
nrcuuimodate* tbe eye, to a certain extent, lo Tision At differ* 
t distances. 

Wb»t is the function of the MeHua' (Fig. i) ! It is a nerro of 
iai sensibility, and limited in its fuuctiou to the appredalion 

Is il iiccesiary to the perfection of its function that tbo nerve of 
iDeral sensiliiliiy (a branch of the liltli pair), which is distributed 
the [itirts, should be in a state of integrity f li is. 
What are the uses of the e>)HuUi Tin-y preserve the eye in a 
ict EUle by nictation, regnlate the quantity of light adcnitied lo 




^«- d 


Ills «ye when too pow«rriil or very weak, and preserve Uie m 
from tl)e contact and Irritotion ufrorolffH malteK. 

Wlini are the aws nf the mumcleM orthee;reba1l f They serve to 
COuiiircM tli<! Iiull, and )r<vo llii: jirojicr tlirecitoii lo it t<iT vUioo. 

What are the ai»» of tliir [farf? Tlii'ir molHlen lli« conjunctiva, 
and Aervc lo remove extmncdii.i Ixulies fruni lis anrface. 

Wlint secretes the tears T The liu-hrymal gfaitd. 

Is tlie retitia capable or vImiuI iiii|ire*suiiis over Its whole sar- 
fiwe ? It la ; but the poinl of ilMnct vi»toN \a the ceiilral part of 
the reiliia, or that part In ibe direction of the axis of the «ye. 
Tliij jiuint is rcadilv discriminalcd on looking at a priniod pagv, 
when ii will be perceived ilini thai part to which the axis of the e;e 
in directed i* algnc tharpljr anil distitictl}' seen ; ibcreforc the nxie 
of the cyOi in chnnged n« wc wish to change our attention from oofrl 
Idler or word lo umuhi-r. 

What I'oiidiiion* nri- noeewnry that the imafiR of an object may 
imprexs the rcUna. and be pervelved by the ininil ? It mtwt occupy 
a Hpace oti the reliiia wifEciwtly large for iix varinu* parts lo be 
npjirtciuted ; the linaf;v miixi he dixiinct or sharp, or, In other' 
word«, ihi! luiuinou.t rays that forin it iuui.t Kanvetf^ Dccnrately to 
a focu* OH the retina ; and Ibe image niu^l be HutTicieiitly ilium inated. 



VThU uigk niiut an objc<i:t subtend to be viglble 7 Tli« iilxlietli 
if • ilc^m ; bat the tUiiuI power differs greatly in individual. 

Hu tbo eyu the power of accoitimodatinj^ Itself lo differeiil 
dkUama JB mionf It ba^; bat upon wbut tliis deiK'nUn U uii- 

WliBt connection betweMi tbe n<.Tvou> tyKtem and (be rre U ra- 
pmtMed by Fig. 4 ? The 0|>thi aevt«» aud cliiitmii,' cor|>ui-u nlbi- 
CUlit,* pons YaroUl,* iiieUullii oblonitata,' and ihv iirifriii »( the 
UM,'foartb,*flrtli,*sJztb,'°seTei3tli,"ei|;btli,<'aiid ninth" puiri: of 

Of Mvsccmh Motion. 

What are tbe objects of tli« function nf miiMmlnr motion f To 
CMCalc all tb* [Mrtial mollonit tliut nrr iirn-siinr}' for nutrilinii and 
raprodnction. laromoiioa, &c. Scnulnlity mid vntuntnrj molion, 
Mriotlj it[ic«kiu)7, com]ifisc the urbolc of tliR life of rcli>ii»n. 

Uow i« ibis fuDutiuu divided? loto loconioliltl!/ uiid r.xprrt- 
tion, or UiiK«as«- 

What ori^ni are ^sentlnlltr corieerned in tbiH fnnction t The 
mtCfplialon, Uie npinat marrow, the neri^f, ami tlin mwnclei'. 

Mwcle* bave bees termed tbu aclire or^ariK of locoinoliun. ia 
floniraHllatlnciiou to the bonca, leiidon«, aud ligarueuto, wbicb ore 

tfawnlBr tWue is of two kinds : the girialed or Griped, forintnff 
mnitcleH uf animnl lift; and the non-slrialed or untlriped, 

minK tbe niitselea of or^rnnic lifi;. 

C'mtrattlliljr U an inhrrrnt prupurt^ of muHirulnr fibre derivrd 

(fom it* ama iitraclur«, iudopnidi-nt of ihc ii^rvouK !>yxtcin. Tbcrc 

l«o fomu of contrnctilitj' ; one pr'niui'i-s n cjukIhhI tendeney lo 

lortcniiiit. Independent of cWttdly, nnd is tvrtituil lomcil!/ : tbu 
otfaer *et* at mt«rTa]«, and by the application of a KlimuluK, pro- 
duciniK active eoniraciion, 

What 1* meant by x^Auntary motion ? That wbicb is elTecled by 
Um mflMnlar system of animnl lifo, or by a rontroction of the mus- 
dw undiT (.lie iiillnt-ni'e of volition or the will. 

Tu wliat p«rt does tUn function uf volition belong F To tbe 
•noapluluii— tbe infloencu of wbic-b is transmitted along Uie spina) 
BUITOW anil oervei lo tlic niuacled. 

13 s , 



Where is tho seat of tlie nervoiia centre of niii«nilar contrartlfin ? 
The ciicei)liaUc orfrans ooiicern«d In Diusculnr mi>tion nri! ihe <^r- 
[inra stmia, the thalami nerTornin opiicornm at their lower pnrt, 
llip i-Tura eereliri. the pODS Varolii, llio pedniicle« of tbe ceTel>elliitn, 
Ihc Iiuorul |iarta of tlie medulla obloa^bi, auiJ the aiiieHvr columu 
of tlie medulla spinalis. 

Dolho same nervoua flbrea convey the power of mnsculnr molloi 
that );ive Rciislhillly ? No : they may be nnrclopL-d in the nunt 
n«uriieinma or itbeaih, Imt the filirea arc ilifTcrvat. In tbe caae of 
-the Hpitial inarron', Uie anterior column, and t)i« nervtn coanected 
with it, are in«ervicrit to muKular molioii ; the ponlcriur to Kcnti' 
billly ; whilo lli<^ middle colamii. in the opinion of Sir Chnrle* Betl, 
is the "Oiirce of the reipiratory nerves. 

WIml nre the phenomena of roluntary mum-ular contmeiioor 
The iiervouA inflneni-e cmauatea from some portion of the c«rcbr<K 
Hpinul uxifi, Olid under the truidaiice of Tolilion, proeeedt nlniig Uk 
Murn-!t nilb iinmenne rapidity, and exdtAS tbe mmcle to euntrac- 
tion. The miixcle, from bcin^ Hinooth, lieeomea rufrouK, the lielly 
mure tumid, tlii; ends nppruximutu, and the whulu organ is rendered 
Ihirker, linni-r, aMcl ^ho^te^. 

It it uttmerally believed by physio lofrixts that (he space occupied 
by B muccle durinjc contrnctiun, and the amonnt of blood in II at 
llint lime, arc not incrcawd, or the color nllcrcd. For a nmacle 
to act. it IK ncci'ctriry that it pu.«(.'Kx u proper phv^ieAl orpaniutioo, 
and be alxo endowed with a vital properly culled irriiabih'Itt or 
•. The nervonj influx la the ordinary alimnlna to contraction, 
nhliriiiKh it tnuy Vio excited by other stimnlu.'i. Atier a muscle ha4 
been in aeliun fur some lime, repone i.s neccMary, even If tl»e 
nRrvoim xtimulux should he itireetc^d to it. Cuntradilily reinaiua 
after dissolution, but mueh lunjrer in many of ihit lower orders of 
nnininU than in the hi|flier orden. Thix rnay be proved by tbe 
npiilicniion nf Htitnnli to the mnscles or nervn. So met imea por- 
tion* of the body move after dvnth, nilhont the application of 
ttinnili, an is aecn ocr^itsioiiiilly where pcrxons hate died fran 
eholero. When caMtrui-lii^n nf n tnnsdc takca ]ilae«, a •enmlion 
instructs the mind of the fact ; this has given rise to tbo idea of a 
mu»rular itciisr. by which wc form ideas of force and rcsistoim. 

In what manner are the pheuomena of ninvmlnr coDtrMtlon 



-i:<tdn(dF II is eis«ni{Blty an orRanIo and tIuI prooe«s, eorw 
■■'. with as iiiliemii property of i&ascuUr flbri-, and different 
lt«« tmj physical |>Toces9 wjili vlilcli we are acqauiiitcd ; tbcnfortv 
Ml to bv oxjdained by t]i« ordinary prupeniM anil tnnts which 
*fmXf npoD DMtler. 

Upon wliat does Uie/om? or inientHi/ of mv»cutar cvnlraetitm 
itfuii I Tli« phyBinl condiiion of the mnacle, and the energy of 
lU brain. 

MmcIm of Inrtte, Srm ibm wHI contract with more force llinn 
IIrm with delictue loo«c fibres, the energy of the braiu bciii^ ibe 
lui; wbil«, in lBBtaiie«s of ^al cerebral exeltenii'iit, mniw)«« of 
Mtaie Mniclnrc nuiy bo made to exceed tliowe of firmer orgnniw- 
tlAB. It ia, therefore, where the organlzalion li flm and the 
exriununit of the bralo gn*t, thnt we luve the greatest inlcnHiiy 
of nuKcular contraction. A ma«cle is eapitble of exeninj; ita 
imatnt d«|iTce of force wheu at it« Irst dej^rees of contraction, or 
ibni nearly at It^ full leof^h. Exercise, by Improvinff the |ihy»]ciil 
mdttion. incrMses tlie capacity to forcible miiiteular contraction. 
Hio duration of mnscntar couiractlou is greater In voluntary 

(n InTolunlary mnsclcs. 
Tli» wtocUt/ cf DinscDlar contraction differs according to tlia 
RlaaloM which sets it in motion. When exciieil by the wilt. It 
dlffeni la obrdience to Ibis stimnlus; and differs grcully by e.xer- 
ci<e, and in dilferent animals. 

The •xtoni of miiwnlar contraction is rcgnlated br volition and 
the bagth of tb« moKclc. 

Is a combination of the actions of different mo»ctes necessary in 
execathtg the various movements of the body ? It i«. 

^A*aAtiaao attsr nii kah^iib or I'n. bahcui, mooUMSO 10 

THtlH acTIOIIl. 

fBi tfUfr ta avm 

hfertut t^iMbnu major, 
- •■ ninnr. 

Otdl^vu apUli upcrtor. 

Splvoiliu '■flilfc 

Dl/ft'ir*( if-, 

nttttn ftniiaa* olnOTr 

nhllqiiuA r.ii#TTiii« iiUninlaU^ 
'^ |Ntr* uj^ 


'■ ntlnnr, 

hit <if Jfnppihl'- 
KhbinhnLilpU* in^ti^ff, 
fvTr>tu> ivkHtirm tgpvrloTt 

" will, 

R<r|ut |ii»tl?iu ni^Our, 
OUhjuua ivjilUa tii»rtor. 

llIintrLlBil'l<'<iii ■nt\)aT, 
hrmlur ^Wkua auiwrlfirr, 

Ci/iiiirMimna tlonit 


Qnnlralii' Imniif-mDit 



Pirt of pHuimtli mfr- 

ArmnCf ^ 

Drarhkll* *nUru«. 
Proq^Tar lerd. 


" fllHlllQll, 

BnplnBlnr lanfiu. 

tin*. Atinlu* BiAfbiu. 

]^l1»|niu< *\fn\, 

TiiR KFitiKvi I* uara 


Tan* uii|J[>r» 


pATt nf pflrtdnlb nt 

IaUmIbu danL 








^^^^FHT B 1 Ii OO T ■ 

^^ M9 J 


M* otwia u HnTu 




/inotnU hn ^^^^M 

^^ nmr nr|i« ndUlto, 

Kjiltfnnr fT^r^^i null- 

F^oinr rvf^'l mitills 

rtffuif tvhMmls ^^^1 

■Ul JiHICtar, 

KiUn*>i mtm fiidU 

fvrrl uJijtrf*. ^^^H 

riHV (bUibiIi, 

KAtMiBbT r-u|4 nJt 

*]^ b.ojfhir. 

lir'ifbtkiluh, ^^^^H 

riHM wpt nlaul*. 

*JIb tn-rlor. 

K^mKir wrfil nvli- 

Exl4n^»r r*>mi)iiiala ^H 

Ttrmtr ■wIMaJiM. 

Slhu«i*r iHtliiiU lu- 

klb b«ttor. 

4lijf1i/>rum, ^M 


Kilcnwr wU tuAt*' 

KiL«i.H^F inlnlinl tlU ^| 




llst*rivr anmubU 

BiUnwr prlDl lnU^ 

Bmcnivr «irpl ul- H 




auiL ^^^1 


Ell-Tiv^r JprOpFlUt 






mi I HUB* u ¥*rt» 

^_ /t-«*«iJ/Wi..*. 

OiirHv^ Iliad ttue- 

AHitfOf^ (MM Al> 

^^L mill Al julint ty 


null'. A> He tt/ttr 

EltoniH nail bhIo- 

f niBcir !«*•••. 

1 ■- IcnaWi 

StupMir r«iiui iitUr- 





n>i,ar bPttta, 

Kii*tiKir tHQDdl tm 


ZatboxpT tHbuiU la- 





nn mmuj 

1 All MOOD 

^^J^n.-*^ -■ ;lm^ 

6cf (It. b^F 


^VnnorxbllBK . 

btrnvir APiMniiulk 

Ahluflor luilirrK 

AMU4^l0F dliilU Eftk 


Kiuiuar winiiut ilV 





1 n>M* kraiU 4l|llt 

1 ailBlMl. 

1 AMMO* «|#il nl- 

^H IMt. 



nil TiHH n Hcita 


^^^^H MnvBMP Ifi 



^^V^BV BttCBWt 

Oluwut Qi&itauih 

PrtM D«caiu, 

TefivoF T4jHni> ^m» H 

^H )•»•*. 

r>rl Df iluMiu D>. 



^^nkMor twiBB Ihbo- 



u^uttqt piiLiimu% H 

^V f*^ 

OMpnIitr ln**fTin^ 


TI>"ILU<, H 

1 AMWwWf. 

1 - Bnfto. 

" mojEhtif, 



DHim*'-' ■iifriMii., 




tJiuJndu f*ciwrlli 



fanl-iNHn hrvnuiiL 



T« Tman n wrimi. 







T*TUaf <a^b« fom"' 

niu1#n* imkilmni, 



V»f\ at k'vIbiu ■» 



IWt cf sIvMu UP 







.A»( w^B flb< bp u 

<".iHr>T'.r E>il'-'(Jil4, 



'JfiA-'Mii^ WifpfWir, 




A4iJ iii-ftr ><4i>iriiB, 
" n>ii|E«*>* 


^M IS' 







ItmrA, v /ami, 

TDililli aoUnli, 
Eitf-nmr nnprfat 

FwoTHiu WrUiii. 

Tm Tow D WiTWJt 



I'UflPtiu Innfuis 
•' bmU. 

KiTvMvtr Tirnprlut 

llrll '^ 

Tibliiii poalhn 


mi vrrllDL 

ikj^tHviff. AT Jlrnrf t 

jlMurlcr pallldi. 

riotnr brvala d1^ 

Ahhii^tfff Dlbiml dl- 

Flpttrf Hffwwrliu, 

AA'Utrlnr |vi]>1iilii, 
fkinr briHli nilnlttl 

Tn* na lu ■arm 

KiWi->nT linili db 

AMuMcr psilldi, 

Aililnrlnr 41(111 I 


Whftt nrc llic Allitudfn wliicli mnn Is napnblo of mtgniningf 
They are diriiJcd itilo tlie arft'i'fl and the paiin^'ei thv Tonnw re- 
quire n mitKftitnr dlTorl ; the lulter do not, u nhun thi- hodj lies in 
a horizonlnl i)0>iilioii. 

Does the attltiide of ttanding require iitDscalar effort 1 It re- 
qair^H the action of the extensors. 

How are tlio SiotvmrnU of the body divided ? Into partial and 
locomolirie ; the former )iim[>1y chaogeii the relative altoation of 

* QDain's Uumaa Anittani]'. hf Qo^n anil Sbarpey, Amer. edlL bj Lrid; 
t 46». Pl>ltiid*lphii. 1810. 



fmrti of the boitr, and Ok taller llie retnUon of t!i« whole body to 
till* soil. 

VTbat iro lb? Locomotive morctnctiU ? Walking, leaping, run- 
mng, wmmming, Jljfing, Ac. 

Or TBK PvitCTiON or ExpHXHRioN, OA or Lanqoaoi!. 

n'bnt is Includud uiidur tbia Wad ? Those varieties of miuciilar 
ronlriM:iIr»i bj- wbkb ninu and uiiitnalK exiillill tlinr feeliiifr*, and 
cotnmunicate titt kuuwiedge of sut-U feelings to each olher ; and 
cofD)>ri»i» two dilTvreDt neta of actlonn. 

Wbat am ihry f Those addrcMed to (he ear, prodiioitiR the 
ph«nonipna of >wct ; end thofle aiiprecintcd bv night and by touch 
— or the yfttitrex. 

Wbnt in nirniil by the Voici, or Phonation f It is the Round 
prodaced in ihe larj-iix ubik th« air it pnxsin^ through it. 

Tlir tiindificikttoni; by which »pi-ech is produced are elFected in the 
cavity or ih« mnnlh and in the fiiuctts. 

What orgaitt are cont-ernci) in the production of ibe voice f The 
mnsclei co<ic«med in respiration, the Inrynx, the tnoutb, and naaal 


What are the condUions necessary to the production of the voire f 
That air ahall be scot from the lungzs through Ihe f;lotliH, where it 
nay throw certain parts Into viliratioti. and then ninke its exit by 
the muoth and naaal foMie ; volition ia, however, also required to 
canae the neeessary action of the muscleH of ihe larynx for its pro- 
dnetloD and roMlificnlion. 

What are Ihe e-fi'rfciiMs that Ihe voice h [iroduced in the larynx t 
One is thai, if an opening ia made below Ihe hirynx, the ruii-c is 
lout ; anotlter is, that Ihe voice of an animal may be produced, or 
■ reaemblanee to it. by foroiuc; the nir into tbu tracheal (^xtri?niily 
towards the Urynx, provided we approximate Ihe arytenoid enni- 
Imfn ; bat If ibb Is not done, no voice is produced by the air in 
pawing. Also, if the mnsclea muvinif the«e parts are paralyxed 
^rmn any ca<ue, the volee is lost. 

What ntirixti preside over the nnixdw roncerncd in the fomiation 
of tbe voice f The superior and infrriur laryngeal nerves, vhc last 
of which if call«<l recurrent. 

Ry wliai portion of the larynx is the voice produced T The in/e- 



rior liganiimft, vIifHi vibrate dUtioctlj' durinff tli« prodiiotlou of 
the voice, and upon which it evideiiily dejieml*. Tlwse li)*arni!uis 
ore, therefore. esscDtially tho organs of voic«, and are called llw 
chordtF vocalea. Tliey are opernUd apon, and modified Ui llicir 
aclion, bj thp moBcIcs appropriate for that purpose. 
The respective actions of Ibe different niuBcles are u follows :— J 

(MrD-IhmMd 1 

.ItTtfrhjrshlri /' 

nMTm Oe PitftL -/lAt .V«Cij. 

CrlivwrlnialdBl taallnl - 

-C^ Uu ilaltli. 

(VbvaFiilanulJ*! Ulattla* 


{rrMa rfirTlhr<F Ib^ lonn Mft* of lb<< 
■rruuultl lu-Ulnci, ukI ef«ii (b* il-I- 

ThoHC only which rpliix or stretch the» lif^m«iits are concerned 
bi the protJuctioii of thi- voit-c. 

Thti in/ennly or vuhnnr. of (he voice depends nainly upon the 
force with which the air is sent from the )un)pi. and iho ttzo of the 
larynx. The difTcrenco between Ihc ninle und fcmnlc Toico rfi-pcnds 
essentially upon the difference in the wxc of llic larynx. The dif- 
ferent notes are produced by different dcgrcM of IcnBton of the 
chorda) vocalcs, or liicamcnts. 

The timbre or ^valitij of tho voice depends npon Ihc .^>ndition 
of tho cariilnges of the 1iir>'nx, and the aptitndc4 of pan* of the 
orgvn for vihratiun. <lcpcudiug npou a variety of circurastaDce* 
connected nith the Inrynx iknd accmsory parts. 

CiUABi Motion. 


What ig nndrr»tood hy n'liai-y or wirotory motion r CiHa. 
ore little hair-like proccsaes which cover some forms of epitbelinro, 

a, and are visible by the aid of a 

^'*- **■ microacopo, lliese cilia have the 

\^^tt^^M^§^MMm,m *'" property of niovinic or being 

amammm^^m^^ moved, re^einlilinp, ithen In mo- 

* lT^^n]Tf ^r^Tir" ^^"* ' "''^ "^ whmil ovw u-faich 
'l |'''''\r//' ' ''" Ihewindishlovring.lirsldeprvtsed, 

* Dongliton's Ph.ninlo^. Tth vdltion. 



mi llien retaruing to itc ori'iriiial slMc. It in or great Inijiorrance 
ifl the knlnal economy. They moro towards lh« au(l«is, iitid 
propel lb« Hecrelions in that direclion. 

The cause jirotliM-'iiig this motion is not known ; it ae«nii to l>e 
moltcular, wid indetfcndeiit or the vital condition aiiU ^tiniuli 
i<NtIag it, BBdi as narcotics, electricity, &c. 

XcTwrrvB FoscnoMa, 

Vfltt Are the natritire functions? Digestion, abiori>lion, rcs- 
plntion, circulatioD, nutrition, calorifiealioa, anil iecrelioii — ccvrh 
it< Emmber, 

What is cfTci-ted by IbeM fiiDctionsT The contpoflilloa luid 
decomposition of the body. 


What is dtpntion f It is that process to nhich food \» (ubjedcd 
N as to render th« nutritiTe portion of it Bt for abKurplion. 

What are the di^roslivo organs f Tlit^- consictt of u long cnnni 
of variable dimeneioM at its different pans, niid cuininiitiicniing 
externally by two opcniogs — the nionlb and the annn. 

What is meant by /ood or atimftUt All KuUlancvt which, 
mhm rrreived into Ibe digestive or^un.i, are capulilu of being eoo- 
vertcd into chyle. 

How are animals charntrterlxed tiom tlio food npon wliicli Ihey 
nlMiatf The eamieorous, or those feeding on Qviih; the pin- 
eicorotu, on ll»li ; the tnaectivoroHa, on inseds; llw phyliivtrQuii. 
on vegetables 1 the granieonus, on seeds; the /ru^i'wrous, on 
fhitta ; tbe gran»imoorou« and hcrbiivtvus, on the gnuwes ; and 
the tmttivoroHa, on both animal and vegetable food. 

To which of these does ibe digestive apparatus of man belong ? 
Intemediate between the raniirorons and herbivorous ; it is, there- 
fore, oinn-ttiroii.^ nithongh be is capable of living on either vrgeta- 
lil« or aainal diet, to tbe exclnsion of t)ie other ; bat when coiiltned 
lo one nione from infancy, the corporeal and mental devdopmeiit is 
genevally inferior to that produced by a mixed diet of v«^etables 
and animals. 

WIU naa or anlmab lliriTS aod live when rcitncted to any nnglo 



snicle of diet ? Ther will wot for nny consklcrablp Ira^h of l!n»^ 
m VHricty, wbeilier uiiimnl or vp^etuble, or bolh, appe'ara to be 
neoeeary to licHlth. (Far rulereiices to thiN Hgure, see Anatomy, 
(tagea 74. 75.) 


Wlint is lhi> iii»i«ioti of Blinipnls proptiMd bjr Dr. Poreira f Th« 
A^ueotiti, Murilaijinouf or Qutntny, Saechariiui, Amylacfoua, 
I.iijnevu*. Prrti'iatyoui'. Aciflulout, Alcnhoiic. Oiiy at Fatly, Pro- 
U'inacfous, Getalinoug, ani Saline. From thcM «i'»ij>i( oltmcnU 
our compound nliincni* nrc formril. 

Wlmt forms the bnxin nf nil ilriiik* ? Water. 

How »re driiik.f clnMilinl by l»r. I'crcira t 

1. Mucila^nouf, /arinaceout, or luwcharine inoila. 




i Aromatic or aatrimjenl drinks. 

3. Acidulous drinks. 

4. Aninol brotlu, or drinks contuiuioif gelatine aud osmaiotne 
i. Emul^ee or miiky drinks. 
C. Alcitholic and olber intaxicaliag drinks. 
Liebij; divides >lim<!tiU iuco atolhed and non-azoUied. Ue oon- 

■Uwi Uie azoiixcd to be fur ihe nntrition and reparation of the 
Hioul ti&uiea ; Itence he calls item ••plnsttc eUmenla of ww/W- 
tM." The noti-azotixed are dwiened to supj'ly the materials for 
uimtl heal and reaitiration. hem-« called "e\eint>\ta of re*pira- 
Im." It has been projiowd to call the Qrst natritive elements, 
uA the latter oalori/iKient. 

What li nDd«ntood bj a Condiment t A substance which pro- 
aaua digtMlon, and Is taken irlib food for Ibat purpote ; and also 
Mattlmea adds to lie sapid it;. 

What are lli« different part) of tU« digestive operation F Hun- 
f/r.pnhtntiOH of food, Orttl or Ihicfat di'iealvin or mantivation, 
^idition, Chymijicatton, Ibu Aclion of On; Small Ittle*line, iho 
Atim of the Larye IntetHne, niMl Defecation, or Ihe ErjmUion 
^^ffce*. Tbe lintt «ix of theiw bdonjf to the formation of 
Afl« : the othrrA rvlnle to the exercmentiiious portions of tbe food. 
tV dlsntlon «f solids reqairvt all Uiew proceuen : that of liquids 
''•priHt onlf tlilrxt, prelienRioa, (teffltttllion, Ihc action of the 
iMlicIl, and of th« Kinall intcatinv. 

That If. Uungerl ll i* an iiilrmal Kwisiilinn , the H-nt, of which 
itforariablj refurrod to Ibc Kti>mni.-li, ai>d jiniccdiii from chungeM 
fa ihiil organ, ll Indicate* the want of nvliil aliniunlv 
Thinl indieate* ibv want of n liipiid. 
What are the Kcncrnl cITccts of liuiigor on the system. Debility 

•od diminished action of ovvry organ, except^ perhaps, of the ab- 

aorlfents, wliirh are Kiippoted to be incroa«cd. 
From Mbal «oarcc are the nerves of the stomnch derirod 7 The 

eighth pair and the great s; mpnilietic ; bnt to which of thcae tbe 

ieutcutioa of hanger u referable i« not clearly settled. 

What aro t)i« orgaBS uf Pi^hension uf t'uoii t The arms and 

the mouib. 

What changes nro cBrctcd npon ihc fuoil in the nioiith i The 

principal is Mastication, by which the food is prepared bj uiinuta 

dieiaioD for tbe action of the aolveiit. Tliix nii-chaiiical (liuulcgro- 



(ion t<t ninterially aidc<1 by Intalivulion, while, at (be iamc limp, 
till- fliiliviL changes tlie chemical compositiun of the miu^ Tbt 
resL-tion of this Quid is alkalin« (deptndent upon Uic basic phot- 
]ihalc of soda), varying al different iiiue!i, being ibc greatMt during 
utid afler meals. The subsiance upon which tho peculiar pro|>er' 
ties of salira depends is termed Ptyalin, nn BlbiiminoQs comp»uud 
which ocia tbe i>arl of a " ferment : " Sulphoc'jaaogttn is a\io anl- 
furmly present. Tliia fluid Is made up from the wcrotious of tht 
buccal and salivary glands. Tbe products of the different aalirarj 
glaiidd have different degrees of efficacy in this jiart of the digestive 
process; and th« quantity a ostiraatod st aboat three and a biUf 
pounds daily. The rsliva exerts a chemical action on the C&rina- 
ceoiis etemonls of food by chnnging starch or dextrine into grape 
sugar, whik no action is exertvd npoo niirogenons coinpouuds. 

What organs are brought into action in Drglulition T The 
rooDlh, pharynx, and oDsophagns. It hus been divided into three 
atagea: in tho first, the food passes from the niotitb. into the 
pharynx; in the second, it clears tlie apertnre of i lie glottis and 
tiatiul fu««e. and attains tho cesophagaa ; id the third. It clears the 
mophngu:* and enters the stomach. 

Wbat ar« the nerics distributed to these porta T Tbe glouo* 
lAaryngeal to the nncous sarfaco of the tongue and fauc«s. and la 
the exoitor nerve; and the pharyngeal branches of the pnMinio. 
gastric are the motors ; there are also some branches of the litth 
pair, which may be considered as araociale excitor Berrca ; and the 
aMtociutv motors are branches of the hypoglossal. 

Wiml Is meant by Ciit/miJicxUton ? It is that part of the tnie 
digvutivu action by which food is converted into n pullac«uus nuM, 
Ivrmed chyme, and is eXL-luuvely a gastric act. 

What cliangM ocrur in the stomach after food ia swallowed ? 
The mucooB membnuie becomes florid ; thn different s««retioiu 
take place in gretter abundance, and become mixed with the food. 
After some iu'erval, longer in some cases than in otbcn. the 
pyloric porti'm contrairts, which sends the food into (lie splenic 
portion, th^ it dilate:, imd thix alternation gwea on during the 
vholotimv <r digCKlion, iiiid in cntlcd jirriflalr ; it is limited at 
hrst to the )>yIorir poition, but at length it it extended to the other 
portions, "o that the whole Ntomach participate* in this kind of 
morcmeiii. This movement, which ia prodaeed bj alternate 



(MUBClifiA mnd rrlaxDlion oT the cirmlnr fibrcfl or Ihr etomacti, 
hdUuiri thv ailniixiun of ili« fotxj wiili its sM-n-tioas. Thv 
tfOftliiMif iiwfunnol. ibcrtfafc. in tli« BKiiiitM-li. uro itis gfnth> 
•KJIkiofj or lenBttialar nmiidn*. and Ibu Miniixiurv of tttv AmmI 
•kh thv (lilTDTtiit ivrreiioiiK of the Monuirli mxl ii)>|ivr portion of 
lU alinKBlarr nnnl, »liicli an; lli« j>riiici|iKl aptuls of tli< liif;**- 
iIm prthnuvi in ikc Ktumiu-h. 

niiiU U tti* nnlurc of llw i>nKT*jt of Goftric Dis^tlion? The 

prtvip*) aiiiinl is ilia Ga*lrie Jvicf, uliicb is secreted bf the 

p^>(<e folltrlrs ; it ta a clear, iran»j<areRt, colorless, or sliglilly 

ydln* llniil. irilli xtry little riiicidilj. It U dei-ldt'dU sl-h) ; but, 

wi\k nguil to llie iinturf of this acid, tlwre U a diM-repsBC}' ainonf? 

dwinitU. Bcraanl. Thomsoii. Lebmau. Smilli of Pbilad«l|>hia, and 

othtn, nSna llmt tl it Lactic airid. Hydrucbluric add lias aUo lieca 

drtcclBd, and ibey may botb be [ifcNcnt and ctMilribut« to il* 

Kilivnt power. Other acidi hnve also been dHi«ied, but con 

Itanllf \m coiiaidercd as iu nonnal const ilii«iii>. Tbe peculiar 

orfrauic fiTUcnt uf ibis Ouid i« Pepsin, wlitcli ci)ii)biij<u> wiili many 

aridi i and, *'hvit tu uuion wiili acetic and luurlaiw ncIdH, lit twheut 

power in iiicrrncetl. Tli« qaaulity secreted dtptiids raibrr upou 

Uttf )c>i>i'ntl rciiiiiretnciiU of the fjaiem iban upon the qituiililf of 

f«Ml iutrodun-d inin Ibc ftoiuacli. A df_finilf y rufortion only of 

kliBMit cmn btt ]M.-r(crlly di|:esied in a k<vvii qnamiiy of lliiid, and, 

ikould iba former be in •xcese, it will reinnin in ili« stomach vt 

|MiM into ihu iHjtreU in n crudf filnlr. nnd prudure diM««c of son* 

kind ur oilier. Tm- roodiiion of ibr iii-rTmix fVMum. uud llir slnio 

af in(«|:ril7 of ih> |>iiruiaoKa)-lric nt-rvc, iiillMiiiiv xix^nily tlic prci- 

Aoniwii of lliiit Iliiid, and tlMTcfon.' drciilcdly uflV-ct tln! diKvuiive 

prwrcaa. It b llie principiil agrnl, tlivrvfore, by wbiclt r/inmical 

aolution and ndudion of the food arv ctfccled, and Vhifiuf iw 


Tlii« Itqaid (lliD chTtne) ia of a puttacrous consisluncts bnt 
rarioa pratly in it* comp'Mittoa and ai'peitrnni'e, acc-onlinj: to tli« 
pro)Mrti"ii of th* diffvrvnt eli'inviilnry Kllll^lnlll■e1l ent<!riii|; into lh« 
cum]H>tit['in of tint food, alway^i, bowvrvr, bavinfr a strong acid 

Aiotite-i Riilnlann* arc dMohvd by the j^giric Jnlce, wMIe no 
action ia »X(Tle<l u)Kin ttarchif. laccharine, or olfo^inoui niiitlerB. 
Any dianiie wliicli may take place in tbe starchy pariickx iu ilia 





aioniBch is pntin-'Iy flrpctKlrnl npon llic iiri*iiipp of ihc snliyni^ 
fluid. Oifoijinoiir nmllrr* orr ininij- rrdwfit lo ii uliiic uf miiiuin 
dlvt^Eon, aii(lnuMlitfiiKMlinnKlntourfiu>|>riit^ioTi ihronftli theoh^iDe. 
AlbuniinovK mallrrx, or ilic I'ritlrin cnntfxiunilii. niv ron.pltli'ly di*. 
solved, tlicir cliiniii-Bl jtrojicnir^ nri- nliciTd. and iht-y nre limnplit 
into one unirorni coiidilioii. thai of albuminote. wl)i<-h it n Male 
tjcst adujilt'i] fi>r ptiltKi'<|ti(nl usMmilnliun. ]n ilii» <-i>iiditioii \\kj 
seem lo form drfinite cctnljjiinUmiK with itie koItcoI lliiidi' «lii(h 
have reecircd llii- unmc of prplt/net. In tliis prorcM Ihc rp»rrr(. 
ing power in carried \>y \he iirpsin, « hilc tbe tolvctti power it due 
to ttic! iicid. 

TIm- solvent pow«r of the gastric Joic^ is influenced hy tetnprra- 
tufe ; it reqDires a lient riotn 96° to ICO'^, nnd is reiaTdcd if n- 
dnceil below tliis point ; and if raided above it ihe pastric juico ii 
decomposed and its solrent power destroyed. It is also infln«nccd 
by malwji ; liy ihe revioval of the vwllera already r^lmfd or 
ttiwolvrtl, which mny be doite by abeoipllon in pari, and nlRO by 
Ihc cM-itpe oflhc redueed portions ibroiipb the pyloric 0ri6c«; and 
by llif »tWo of minute (iicivion and incorforaiion vtVA aqueovM 

Tliu Chyme, or prodnct of p:stlrie digestion, rontntcs mntlors in 
eotuUon, and also iniieh that ts only redvced and nicchnnicallj 
gurpi'vdrd : (be solution progresses somewtiftt ancT it has passed 
into ihf inleslinni tiil>e, Dipeslion, therefore, ia not coniptelt-*! in 
llio slomaeh, but only Bdrnnced. The lime ocrnpicd in ibia por- 
tion of digestion viiries very mncli, d''p<'ndi<i|C npoii l)ii' kind of 
di<^t nseil ; but ihrcu or fnur hmirs is prolmlily alionl nn averafM. 

\\'liiit is llip iiiili.rf of till- process of Inlefiinal JtietfKtimt f Soon 
afler the i-)iyiiii; enters the diiodurinin it i« siilijet-led to th« action 
of the bile, the pnnrri-atie lliitd, nnd llic sccrttlion fnim the jrlniidul* 
in tho walU of the inlcslinc Itnttf (prnocirdinj; ehielly pi-rlinp* from 
Ih* fc'"'"'* "f Brunner), which i.i culled .Swr-i/s Knlrrirun. 

Tins pancreoJi resemblett tlie imliiury iclunds, nnd its nenvtion 
Blron[*Iy resembles the saliva in its general oppearnnce ; It is clear, 
culorlcMi. ili|;litly viM'iU, nnd alkaline ; Imt tlit nulure of Its aiiiinnl 
prlMciple ii not precisely the same, nliliuu|>1i il is nUo enjiuble of 
conTLTlinf; March Into sugar, and ilicrefore subEervient to lliv ron- 
tlaued digcfltioD of the farlnaceoDs part of food dnring il« p«s«Bs« 
llirough ihe small inteetinea ; vbicb power, however, is ekered by 



lb* (U'-r-Hx enlericuit. Acmrditif; to M. Bernard, the twentiol 
paqKuri uf the pHiK-reatic llui<l ia to pruiuutc t)io iibiioi']i1iuii of 
but ualterti, bj mluL-iitg them to an emuimtn whiob is capable of 
fmlinti: il£ way ialo ibe lacteals. 

Ttie lliliary ««creti<>ii b aW reccircd into the iliiodonutn, bnt Its 
rtitct ngMicT in Ike pmc«id of diitMtioii fit nut wdl uii<l«retQod. 
It is asceruined. botverer, lliat it huK the cfR-ut of clieckiag 
ilMtnicllre c1i«uic'Al cbauffeK in tlie chirme; reriiit-iitutioD and 
•«idilr ill l)i(^ ulimentary cniinl w thui fin-vrntcd. It iiIko promolea 
(xrisiatiti.- aclioii ; bat aninmli may live fur u tuDir time nbere the 
bill; i« «rri«d off froia the system ariiticiiiUy, uliliuuKh tliey will in 
tiw ilie Irani inaailloit. 

The Sitecut Bnl^rieruB b a cotorlcsj, vi*dd Ilqiitd, Invariably 
tikaliue 111 iu reactioBs. It has the remarkable jiroperty of ex«n- 
inf; a wjUent action on slbamiiioa* bodies, »rfliv«ly Inferior to Iho 
^BHtric jiiifc, nnd ulso the (lower of eoiiveriiiit; elaivih into siignr in 
ttMrly an equal d«-gree with Ihe utSm mid iiaiicrenite llnid. The 
Buid uf Ui« unall inlexlineH, com)ioui)iled of thene dilTereut ^«cre- 
tiu<i», i>OM«eses tlie peculiar pover of diMoltliiR, or of rcdueiiij; to 
n abttOflnble condition, nlimeiitary iinbtiniK^i-s uf every class, * 
propwty (MMsesud by nelUier of ibe Suidi eouipiniing It, sefwratoly. 
It eomplctut the eonvenivu of Mnrehy itiio saccliariiie matter, It 
rmaUiSi'ii olMfcinoas rantten, redlHxolvm albdinimiu:! cuinpuunda 
•htch haw b«cn iirwijiitatvd by the aitniixturu of Uile. nnd cum- 
plcica the Rolutiou of thin cIshv of iubiitativw which have been 
1m|ierf«rtly diisolved ia the sKimnch. It Is Iherefure enabled to 
eoai]ilele th« jirejiaratiou of all ibe cam)>ounds called for by the 
Vmtied wanta of Uie sptem. The (troccssej of dlgeetion and con- 
nnton are probably couiioued dnriug the entire pusago of the 
■llfliDDU alonft iIm intestinal canni, while the products arc grndually 
beini; with'lrAttB by the action of the absorbents, so that, by the 
time the mnss reaches the ctscum. lillle rcmiiiiiii ex<'C]it the innu- 
triilum nml innoliiblu portions of the food, tofrollicr with tlie exci«- 
■cntltioiiK |iarts of the bile and other ticcrclions. The conlcnis of 
tbc iutc^tine are alkulinc luitil ibrr arrive at the ccccuiii, when they 
baoonc acii). 

Wlkat IS the office of ibe Large Intcniine f It acts as a reservoir 
excretory canal fur tlie fecas. 

Where is the fecal matter formed, and what do«s it consist off 



In the larjre intestine, and consists of the escrementiiiom ptrtof 
tiic fD'nl, IIS well aa of the juices of the upper part of the eanil, 
which liare lioen subjected to the di;rei-tiTe process; of the seen- 
tiotia poured out fruin ihe loner part of the intextines ; and of tin 
guhiitaiices which hare escaped the dipestive action of the Monkrh 
and Email inti"^'ine. The chemical composition varies according to 
the nature oi' the food ; its qiianiitj, the kind of digestion, Ac. 

What is meant by Defecation t It is the expulsion of the fecea 
from the recttiin. 

What is Thimtf It is the desire for drink, and ia an intonl 
sensation resembling hunger, arising from the necessities of tbe 
system, caused by a constant drain of Ihe flaid portions of llie 

What are the exciting caases of thirst T Febrile and inflamma* 
tory diseases, loss of flaid from any cause, long speaking or singiag 
certain kind.^ of diet, and habit. 

Where is the sent of the impression of thirst T Principally Id tbe 
back part nf the mouth and fauces ; but whether primarily there, 
or produced by sympathy nilh the condition of tbe stomach, ia not 

Can the sensation of thirst be allayed by injecting water into the 
stomach without its bein^ applied tu the fauces, or by injecting it 
into ihe blood-vessels? It can. 

What change is ])roduced in Ihe blood by abstinence from 
liquids ? It becomes more and more deprived of its watery portions 

Is the mechanism of deglutition of liquids the same as solids f 

What changes occur in liquids when swallowed T They acquire 
the tetnperatnrc of the stomach, and become mixed with the secre- 
tions contiiincd in it ; some of them undergo chymilication in whole 
or in part, and others do not ; and of those that do not, some are 
absorbed direcllj from the stomach without change; and others 
arc not, nntil they act upon the secretions of the stomach, by which 
they tiiidcrfco some chanjie, and then they are afterwards absorbed. 
Those liquids which are converted into chyle are either changed 
wholly into chyme, or else a part of it is Kcpnrated which nndergoea 
this process, and the aqueous or fluid portion remaining is then 
absorbed without change, either from the stomach, or else from the 
small intestine. 

PHTfllOtOOT. 161 

h«t is neuit bj ervdationt It U the Mc&po of g«s from tbc 

Wtiat U mviiiil tiv rrgur'iUalionl It Jh trlicn liquid or solid 
fon<l, iiiMrnil of nir, oKcviKlf frutu tlio elomiicb iuiu ibv tiioulh. 

Whftt is tntanl l>v ru ni ijioJicn J II is Ihu fiMiilty of reluming 
ibr f>K»>l from ihi- ff iinairh iulo lliv uiuutb. to be a^aiu ttubjvulcd to 
^M!itk-«tii>n mill (li-|;luliliuii. 

^B^TlMt it VomUingi It is ui inrcrtcd action of the ttotnrich hj 
^Rlch it« ronirnts nre cxprllw), uiid is ktirani preceded hy Itoth 
\aem\ and pmcriii di><iarbiini.'e. It diffcn from rr^rurgilniioii in tlie 
BMVMtloi) tb*t |tr«M-de:i, the rvtcbiiiic ibnt iu'eoti]|iiLiiici(, niid the 
tKU^iM tbtti generally HucceedA it ; rtguriTiiulEoii Ih not usually ao 
co«|ibd)h1 1>r iiidiA]ioHltion, wbile TomiiiiiK alwiijr* is to & greater 
or Ic'v ettviit. 

In w bat order are ilie pli«noravua of vomitiiit; cxhil'ited f When 
h (a omsod bj eulistanccs taken into the Hluiiiai.-li, tbc first iiupros* 
tlOB ia raadu on iu n<MTi-s, and rrnnsiuiliid frum tbi^m to tbc ncr- 
rooa ceoUv^ from which it a ruQecicd to \hv (liii|>hriip;ni and 
aliduRiiiial iniiKi-'Ips in such a manner Ibiil they ore thrown inio coii- 
tndioii, sad press apon Ibo stoinncb; ibis or;niii also cutiiracU 
tnn Mn pylorus lonards tbti cardia; and by this cunibiiistion of 
cBofU tlw conletii« arc (jectod from the stouiacti itito the cenopba- 
nd out of Ui« montlL 



Wli-tl arc Ihc diffcmit bindt of absorption ? Tbcj ant of two 
Und»— tli« rxtvrnal and inU-mal; llw furincr inolmliii tlw nbsorp- 
tlOD wbidi takes piscv on exmni^oai inailerii frum tbc nirfaoc of 
IhebodrBod ibe mncoua membntne." ; Hiid the Inttur, those tbal 
■re eflvHed iiitorually on mntlen which form a part of the body 

MTbat kind of nlworption in elTecttU in the organs of di(;estioii ? 
Tbtre are two kind<! — one is where the matter absorbed is not sab- 
)kUiI lo digestive action, M ll<iiiid« ; and tbc olber is wbcro it haa 
Un »u)>jf«tcd Id a ehniig«, and dited to bo taken np by the appro- 
(■riaie tr»M'U for ibnl purpose. 

Ii tlieic a pvniUttr apparnlnit for tlie absor|>1ion of diyle T 
■Ihtta ii ; it U nlled Uw Chyli/erova Apparatug, and consists of 
U' 1, 



the chi/li/erous cestelt or laH<rah, metienleria glamh, and tfiorade 

The laeteiilB commenco in the viV/i of tin 
iinull iutwtitiea; eai-h one In a villuf. ))V a 
c/ojtrrf fo-lrrntitij {*tK Fi(t. *) ; und tlic Irnitk 
iR)u!iii; from «iicli vHltis in forfoed by ibe coa- 
fliiencu of Minaller branelies, wbicli anwio- 
inoso frvi^ly willi eacli ollii-i. aud form loops, 
go Ihnt Itirre is no open orifice or free extro- 
milj opeiiiiit; i>|ioii tlie intuf^liniil miicunii nir- 
fnce. Tliwii vdMiil* rcouivc ilidr coiitcnts by 
imbibition, wliich U a pbysical propurty of 

Hovr can cliyle bp obtniiicd ? By killing an animnl wliitc dtp.-*- 
t)on U ill full |)ro»r«», iiflrr n nill mt*) ; it rany than be jirocitrw) 
by opening the ihoracic duct. 

Whni arc llio apix-nrnnce and properti« of chyle f II ts a Ii<tnid, 
of a milky-vhilc uppmriincp; limpid and (rnnspftront in hcrlitfa- 
Toui aniiunJK, but npnqiic in tnrnivoronii ; it U nul \he\i or ^lutl- 
nou* t" \\w lonHi; \)k confiptwee is Tsriable, acrard!n)C to the 
kind of fooil ; nrilhrr ncid nor alkaline, has a srcellsh taste, sper- 
matic MnuH. nnd spo<7i(ie grnvity prcoter ibnn distilled water. Its 
chi-rniral rlinriielcr greatly rescmWes blood ; ibe more nearly so, ns 
it prurccds fnrlhor along the vessels. It conlains globules which 
hare bcea supposed to he ibe nuclei or primordial cells from ahivb 
all the ttsf^uc« fire furmed. The constiineiits are water, fibrin, 
albumen, fatly matter, soda, ebloride of sudinra. and phosplMto of 

What is meant by Chylotial It is the elaboratioo aud absorp- 
tion irf ehyle. 

Does ctiyle exinl in a separate *(flle in the snrall iiite^liire ? It i* 
fiftil found hi the clijiiferous vtswcU. and miiU be elaborated by 
them from the cbymoiis mass furaied in ihe intestine ; this coover- 
alon or separation i^ a cbemicnl process, bnl regutnled by the lavri 
i>r vitality In a peculiar nunni-r. This function of chylosis has also 
been referred to the asrency of eolls. for ibe partlcolars of which 
»i'e Carpenter'* Phyniolo't'/. 

Do(^ chyle always posscea the same essentia) character? It 


Ion ; NllhoiiRh it may vnrj tlifrhUj oocordlng to the food and 
difl^^iie |H)wt'ni of tli« imlividnat. 

WItnt iit lltir coiii-M! of tli? chyle F 

AloDf; lh« i-hi'IircroQii vrtMiU lih\ 

tbrontih thi! mi-iieiitcrii: thiamin into the 

ptBi'utimi chvli," or ihii brf:iniiin^ 

' I'l- tli4>ninc duel." »H«re it iM-eonna 

mixMl with tiMi l)'iii]>li. and \s condurted 

T ' ibomlM-litnan Vein." Tho motion 

' At cbjrlo alnng tlw TegKcis a])|)par£ 

to prwr«d f^on b kind of peristaltic 

a4:tiuR in the in. 

Wlial i% tlie conpoallloii of (he chyle 
ia tlw Iftctptils fifior to Ita rtitry Into the 
rowMMtBric gluiids 1 Fat iii Inri^e ijDaii- 
lltjr ; alliuineii in tmall qnantity ; aud 
BliH* aliuoiL want ill If. 

Wliat in the central lactcalii, or those 
LWMB tlw mcMiilcric glaiida and Iho- 
ncicdncl? Fat in n>i.-djiiii) iinnritily ; 
Klliomrii in lar^ quantity ; and filirin 
iu iimliuni ([unntiiy. 

Wtiat ii iu i-»m|>o*itioti tn t)i« tlio- 
Efncic diictF Pat in rtrj sinull {|UBn- 
I tjty ; nlltamva ia mcdinni quanlily ; and 
'Cbrin in innxiiauni quaniity. Tty this 
it rill lie Hvn that, in the [trocuxs of 
•Hnimilaiion.fai-or oil Rlohulr* diminish, 
iKliili- filiHn i« pro pi) nig II ally Inumuwl. 

A< tlip chyltfcrotiK tmimIk arc ihe oxcluvivc ntrenlii of cliyloali, 
snd nliMirtt iMlhinK hut chyle, by nhnt inuaox da Iluidpt get inlo 
jtiw rircnktiou withuat iwKiiuilatloa ? Tltrongh the ui«tliuin of the 

Bj what aitrati Is Lymplton* dTected ? A system of renela 
doMly itaenabliti!; iJie Inctcab, and luving itie thoracic duet in 
. cornnion with tlieni. 

How may lymph lie prontiri'd T By o)irnin)r a lymphatic roiiRrl, 
land rnllci-tinft it ax It imir* from it ; ami niKo hy li-iling ihe nni- 
nai fasl neoiral dnyM, and lh<:n oiHiting tlie thoracic dncU Tlie 



rormcr method is uncertain, nnd the Inttor doM not ffin it In ■ 
sliite of I'Mtirr jmrily. Olitninrd from llic itioradp duct iti this woy, 
it U of u ruKf untl xllghtly vimliiic tint, s{(cnnntic »moll, aud uHna 

What is ntidcrslood l)j tymphomt It is Uie action of elabora- 
tion tiy uliii'h Ijropli is rormed. 

Wliiit disiipsition is made of tli« lympb f It is omptiwl, along 
witli tlic chylo, into Ihc tenons sj'Meni. 

What ia tlic apparalns qJ Venous Abforpliont An «itrnuelj 
namcrous set of vtsselii, calltrd veins, which commenee is tUe lex- 
tuKG of lh« body by ihe cspillnrj' Tessels, and terminate in the 
heart ; tliey also receive tlio products of their own abwrptloM, B&d 
of the lyinpbalics nnd the lacteals. 

• In vt^iious absorption is there any TJIal elnbornlion, as So the 
abdorplloti of eliyle nnd lymph f The wei^'ht orcvidcnt-c is against 
it; it is. therefore, snpposed that venous absorplion U effected by 

What are the difTerent kinds of Inlernal Abiorplion t The 
innterlilittl, rvcrementitial, and extrrementiliaL Ity tlie Orst, the 
dilTeritii textures of the body aro decomposed, and conveyed Into 
the mnss of the blood. Tlie fiecond is tlio absorption of the various 
fluid* effused into cavities. The third is the ahsorplion from the 
excretions ju their reservoirs or their excretory tnlws. 

What are the agents of thcAo nhsur))tioiis F The lymphatic* or 
veins, or both. By tlie lymphntics, irhm the siilislatice absorbed 
has been Hcleclcd and cinliorated ; nnd by llic veins, wU«i no change 
or conversion Iim talccn ptHi>o iu the mntn'ia] al>torbcd. 

The sura of the mntler appears Xo he this : the chylifiTon* and 
lymphatic vessels form and trnnKfflit only chyle nnd lymph, with 
Boroe saline mntlcrs; while the reins tiikc up and tittniiiBit every 
liqaid that is tufliciently thin lo pvruiit imbibition through tliecoatt 
of the veins. 

Whnt i? meant by Acciiivtai Ahmrplinn f It ii^ the absorption 
of sabsiances adicniitioiisty introduced into tlie body, or placed in 
contact with some pnrt of tt. 

Con absorption lake place from the cnlnneonn ctirfnce ? It can ; 
bnl It (lues not take place readily while the cnlicle is entire, unless 
Boaked ijy irnmeniion In a fluid f<tr some liine. 

What aro other iustancee of nceidnitid nlMor|>lion F Where 



nbslnnon nre reUincd in excretory duels, or silualed In porta not 
uainral to tlifin. For instance. wli«ii ilie bll« ts nrreHod iii lu 
' ^ Mnrv ilad. tlxTC ii: simn oti<I«-iice of iln existence In ibe Uloodi 
iL.tii atiwor]tiiwn. AIko, iiiwn Mood is cITused into ibc cellular 
mnnhmiic rrom uny cansc, ii i* fouml to disappear bjr absorption ; 

■ p>irii->ii< Knt, ami the more solid jioriiotis al\erw«nJs. 

■ ihv (liltVront prodDClit of aluoTption ntixf Tb«j do; 
frum wbatcror aoiim; tbrjr may be d«riv«d, or however dilTerenl 
tbvy Bi«7 l*«, and forni one mtM which is converted into arUrial 
blood bj tlie cbaiigiw which Uk* pltwe iii Ibc lungs. 

Of Betpiratum. 

"Whal b the groat object of respiration T To eonrert tlie venous 
blood with iia absorbed mailers into arterial blood, by a fuoctlon 
lemiul hetnal'/niif. 

Where dnM thin conror»ion lake pla^ie? In the air-cells of lite 
Inog), the air of wbk-h podmb in contact with the blood, and fSit* 
to il flone of ita coostitRcnta, receiving otlier portions Tram the 
f'bkMxl b rMoni. The polmonary opparatna and atoioaplieric air 
•re, tberafurv, e«sehtii>l)r concerned in this rnnclioii, and it is ncces- 
•arj' tb«l ttic nctton and properties of each nhould be amicnitood. 
Are llie muwlea of reipimUon oiider llie control of the will 7 
[Thejr an partly amlur the control of llie will, bni not entirely; 
itbey are. therefore, lermetl mixed, neither belonginu cxclaiively to 
voluntary or the fnvolnntary. 
What i( the cnnne of reipiratioa T It procecdx from an internal 
[kmaalino dvieloped. jirolmttly, by tbc UiDfc, thronjrh \\f- giinglionio ' 
tterre. and cnrrii'd to the brain or tpinal luiirruw through the 
inediaia nf (be pneuniogaxtric, which cullx into nciion the tunselcd 
lof b)*piration. and ha* been culled tlie "chief excitor" of the rw- 
j.pirwTory ntovetoMiU. 

WImi nioveiBPDiK conMitnte retpirotlon? The dilatationB and 
eotitraetioBS of the thorax, or in»piralion and erpirtUton. 

It) wbai manner in inspiration effected ? Gentle iniipirstian Ii 
iluced almon entirely by the action of the diaphragm ; bnt in 
l-d«ep and foreed iaipirmtion tl>e n^spirntory muKles, which elevaia 
the cbest, are aito called into action. In both cases, (heir action 



i)t to cnlirce the caviTy of IIr- iIkdux, and bj Uist menra air la 
raii.^cl to <-iitor thi- liiiiir*, )iri>i]uc.-iii); iiiiiplralfon. 

What <|imntity of air entent tli« latiin iit eai-h Iiisplratioo 1 
Thvtv If u f:tv>it diSvKime \u ditTereDt persons, uiid In the sane 
jicnuri; ikpeiiiiiug u[ion wliellicr tlie itmiiiralimi is f;eutle, deep, 
or fi>n-ed. 

The ftvcrnKC wtimnlc U about Iweiily culitc liicliea, which roil 
with ihe air already in the IiingB afl«r ilie pri>vioiis cxjiiratioD. 

In wtiat iiiniiiier is crpir'alion elTueled ? Ity llie L-lai^iicily of Uia 
cartileffes corapoting tlie chcHt, and tlie yellow tissue of the 1>r«Mi- 
chia, to a Li-rtain cxtcDt, wheii the diaphrngm and other tnii»cle< 
lire vcluxeri ; but ihis is ncr-omplished »til] further by the aclion of 
np]irti{iriuti3 musL'tes. sach as the tn'angiilaris »t«nii, th« broad 
ali(!urii!iiiil muR-les, rectus abdominis, sacro-lumbalii, sciralni 
ponLk'UK liiferlur, &'c. 

Call tlit^ luii),*s be entirely emptied by a forced expiratioD J The; 

Is (he bulk of the air diminished by respiration t It is diminished 
about onc-tiniHh of its bulk, ns nenr as can be nscertoined. 

What is the cpmniity of air remniniiiR in the Inngs afler s forced 
e.\]iiraliou ? AL-cordlng to Boiituek, there are one hundred and 
tveiUy cubic iucbea ; tmo hundred and ninety when in a iialiirni or 
quieeeent state, and three hundred and thirty in a distended stale ; 
BO that about one~ei(!lilh of ilio whole contents of the ltiti|^ Is 
changed by each rettpiration, and that ratlier more tliSD two-tliirds 
can lie expelled by a forcible expiration. 

What is the relative time occupied by these different mOTemcnla 
of respiration ? The iiifpirnlion occupies about five-tenlhs of the 
whole time, the expiration about four-tenths, and the interral 
liel»'ccn the expiration ond Ihu succeeding inspiration one-tenth. 

What is the number of respirations in a minute? Altonl 
eighteen on an avcracc ; although it is subject to Turiatioo front 
this in different iiidiviiiual«, and at different periods oT Ufe, anil 
fi-om sonic other eirenmstunec". 

The ordinary numcrienl proportion botwecn the nspiratoty 
movements and the pulsations of the himrt is about one to four, 
and when this proportion is widely varied from, there is reason to 
sap))Oi'i: that citlier the nervous system, or organs of ree|iiral)on, 
ftrc disordered. 



Whal otlitr fuocilonx iire com-vritnil in llie rciipirDtoiT moTe- 
BrnU! The mum <>r miivII ; Kiicking; tirniiiiii)!:, or ihe umplo^* 
aM of violrtit fflbn; tli« px)ial«i»n nt Ihe vurioiis fxrmlous, 
nlguMry atid inToliminry — «uch m (li;r«cnlioii. fpitiinp, coui^liiiifr, 
■mting, vomiiinic. kccouchncnt, &v.; and the cxptv^sions — sh 
ij^ag, jraui-njiig. laagliing. crying, 6ob1>ing, fic. 

By what fuDclion arc ibe chnngcs produced on ihc vrnoiiii Itlooii 
rlirh Kndcr it Ql for nniriiioa ? The fouclion of sanguijiraiUm 

Whal are One chanftes effected upon the nir and blood hjr (his 
hmetlon t Tho uir io«« a ponioti of i>xygtn and axote, and 
■a|iini carbonic acid: the bulk of it niso i« diiiiuii''1ii<d; but 
Mbmt eOMS pniMinl diffcmit rraalt.i in n-pird lu tl>c ninount 
of tiiAM cben^M. Tku blood, in jmtxiiig from Ok riglil Mileofihe 
brart tfarowyh the iuiigx to ibe left miIc, hircoincK of n florid color, 
ami this » canted hy vutitnct in llie Inng' with oxrg«ii, nliiTt car- 
bvnic ncid h also gircn off; l>iit not in so hrge a )iropnriiiin um 
oxygen it absorbed. This change, in th« const ituc^iiU of the nir 
and the blood, is elTected by pnssin;; Ihrouj;!) ibe coikjii of the 
Muodvce»U. Aqueona rapor, containicf; albumen, i* also dia- 
cluuii^ed Eroin tlie lunj^. 

n'hat are tlic aouri-eii from which the carbonic acid is derivf^d ? 
lilt. Tbe couliiitial decay of the tlKiim»: tlic ninnunt of which ts 
iDlliHtimd by B varii-ty of eircuniKtitiucK. 3d. The mciamar|)hosU 
peculiar to Ibe avtire condition of miisctilar and ni^rrous ils^unt. 
3d. lly Ihe direct conversion of the carbon of the food ; Itiis laid 
todrce acenn to be peculiar 10 warm-blooded uuiiiinlit, and vuriet 
iu iiaoriiily with the amount of heat to bo jit aerated. 

Wlwt arc tl>e eaaeuilal arranif^mcnts of all or^anM of rcipirution f 
Tha ften«ral plan is th« mbi« in all. and consists of niemliranouc 
pruluni^tiooa of tlie external aurfnce, which la adn[)ti'd l>y its vas- 
cularity and permeability to bring the blood nad uir, or a medium 
coiitBining air, fnlo close reluiioR. 

WWii iIk^ nir \* couluined in water and respired. The organ con> 
abia of Tascnliir txtUf. «r fringes, called ijitU; but where the air ta 
breatlied a« it exiHis in tlic atmosphere, tli« surface ia reBecIcd 
tnvardly, forming cliambers or passages, by whldi the air and 
bloud are bronghl into tbe proper retatiou. By one or the otli*r 
af tbrsc anangemeiilB, we lind that sttflicienl surface Is provided 




for cirpi-tinp the respiratat7 cbooges, in accordiinee wilb Uhj wnoti 
of the niiim^l. 

fVhst are iho relative proportion§ between the oiir;cen iiitialed, 
and ibe carljonie at-id esbuled f They ore iiivcraelr ax i)iv nqnarc 
roots uf llieii' sjierilie |iru\i(ic.s; that in, the <|iiiiiililif of oxxftm 
abgortied uitl cvcrcd llic mrlxiaiv acid fri^ra otf in thit proportion 
of 11*4 to 1000. Cnrl>oiiie iiciii ntnlaiiiK pn'fisplv its ovra volume 
of inj'Krii ; thert'fore, in 1 1 "4 pertu of ox.vp;<'ii abKoriicd, 1000 are 
thrown <ifl" iiK ciirlioiiie ncid. Ic-nvitije 1 "4 patis to bo di»>)io£«d of In 
aoRic otbi-r way. A portion of Ibis forms a utiioD with &ul|iliur 
and pbrj»phiirii» in tlic bod; ; the rcnaindiT of this ipoU probably 
nriile* witli the liydrofcen of llii- fiitty innltcr, and in Ibis way fonns 
a jiorlioTi of the water vxlinled from tbo lonps. 

The quantity of carbonie acid exbnird raries greatly; the mean 
being about IGO grains of carbon per hour for aa adult. 'Uiv 
amoaut U varied liy the deTelopraent of the body, and by wx. 
beiiiR larger in the male, in « bicU the qiianiily increased from eight 
years lo thirty ; stationary- until forty j and decreases till old age. 
when it accords with that at ten very ti«-urlj. The <piatility U in 
proportiub lo uuBeulnr development. 

In fcmoktubi; increuxe agree* uiili llial in ihemnle nntil puberty; 
rrmuiiiK Mationary diirlni; inenMninl lifr, and then dcereatics. after 
the age of Rfiy, ** En men. During pregnancy, it increa^a, nod 
alhO wiicn ihi* meiiBed are !>aspcndi'd from other canees. Cold, 
exercise, a fall meal, and sumo of the exnnlbemala increase it. 
Piminished in chronic dixcoKes of the respiratory organs, Kleep, 
and tvplins fever. It varies also in limO of day; grealeet al mid- 
day, and decreasing until midnight, and again increuau. It t* 
not formed in the lung:!, th««e organs Iteing merely the medium 
of its exit. Many ingenious theories bare been advanced to 
account fur the cliange of color, bnt it is i»Ot yel saiiNfarlority 
Bveounied fur; we know, however, that il is couuected «itli the 
action of oxygen on the red corpuiU'lea. 

I« (here any ehunge produced )u tbe blond by cotning in contact 
with the air on the cutaneous Mivfncc? Il \s believed bj waK 
Ibal there In, but It in a matter not euiirety leitled, 

Whut la the effr^ct of dividing the pneumognstric nerrt*, or 
oighlh pair of Willis? If both Ridei are divided, draib is pro- 
duced more or lens promptly, the blood beii^r lettt and lean cliangod 



IHn the wiiOQ« to llw Brlcrlal, »« lim<? elapsM. 'inlil Ufc ceases 
If till- n«nc of "lie siJo onlj is diviiicd, ilii-ri our liiug only « 

Sa iImi llin piii-nniofrastrlc nerve supports ilio function of tho 
knp h\ tviMtHmiin^ to lh<r change of l)|i)(iil from tin- venous to ihe 
■ntrlnl, bcnidn lu sguticy id tht* dilTirrvut j)nrt« of llic Oij^eitivft 

WiMt i-lfcct is prodm-ed bv tyin^ the phrrnic nerve? AMhmatk 
htalfaing, iierfornied bj Ui« interco^tiiU ; and drnth in u nhort 

I WbcTO i* (be i:«nlral nervouH point of the respimtorj' muvemeiilH ? 

I It u lUpfioitiid to be (lie Dppcr pnrt of the medulla ulilonirntu. 


0/ Iht Circulaiiott. 

\y\ittt in lit* ol.jett of this function? Tlie distrilmtion of the 
liloml lo ibc TnriuuK purcs of the lio'ly, niiil iis rvinrii to the grcnl 
mitral ortran — l3i« liearl. 

WhiH U tiM! eoarse of tlie blood Ifi tbe circulation ? It tets out 
>ia till' be»rt, iiiiil Is first disirilinted to llie liitifrs, there lo nn- 
ilrr^ii xhK chniiRiM foluted oat under the lieud of Itespli-ation : it 
i» ihcn Kent to (be o)i|>os1te sldu of Ihe heart, from whenee it h 
dtMrilmtPii to erery pnrt of the "vsl*m hy the iHliTies, nnd re- 
innied l>f the v«nii Ut the rifrht eidv of the heart, from which it 

fl OilL 
Is ihr heart a niiijrk or doithle or^n T It i« fJoahle, nnd oncb 
le lit it i« c»ini>fl»ed of Ito ratiiioi r ihc one whicb receive* the 
hhI frum itic vdtix in CBllcd the aurlclr', nnil the unc which propels 
is the tcniricle. 
How arc tli«e lwi> «idc« urilio heart dcsiKiuiUd f One oftluin 
i* H]i|iro|iria(td to the vmiom* blood, and in culled the venous heart 
— mi*Q tha ripht or atiti-rior lirnrt. The other circulate? only ar- 
^^^nl blood, and is called the nrti-riiil hcurl — al«o llic left or |>o«- 
^■^r hrart, from tlir rt-tativc position of the Inro sides. The fiivt 
^^B nomi'tiatei) alM> called the pulmonary heart, and the latter tho 

' Tlii* arTanKcroent alw) pn-serils two eirmlntionK : one from the 

ill nlde i»r the heart, l)iruu)th th* lnn(r*. to the left side, which 
I called tli« loHcror pnltnoiiiccirnilntion; and the other, from the 
aide alou^ the an«rieH, liirouffli ibc whole system, and back bj 


tbe veins to the rigtit ride, and is railed the gttattw «r 

WhnI «TC the organs of th« circalation J Tbe heart, arterie*. 
eoftillariex, and wing. 

What u ilic qnantitf of Mood in tbe artfriei and reins i U it 
dilienit to form a correct Mtirante or tbc <|tuitiiil]r of the eimila- 
linti fluid, >>iit the nesmt approximation we hav« to it is. perbape, 
that il coa«i«ts of atKmt one~lifih of tbe nrbole «ri)cht of ibe hodr, 
and that ibo {iro|tonioti between tlte amoaBt in tbc arteries nod in 
the f rine is m foor to nine. 

What are Ibe conititiMOls of the blood f XJrin^ Uood, or blood 

cirenblin^ in ilie Te«srls, ron- 
'^ slits of li<iuvr nD^ini* and 

red corpBKles (Plff. f>; hot 
when conirulnlcd, il b irparated 
into two jKirtiona \ ont >» a jcl- 
lowitib flaid, called tJie scntn ; 
and tbe other is n rod solid, 
called clot, cnior, 
tam, eoo^lnm. Ac. Tlic 
portioai of ihcxe j»rj. ' 
(CTcm] cipmmslancea. The wruia eontAins water, rarioBS 
fiat}- matters, exlrnrliTC tiiaiti-rt. and alba men ; and the 
mrtiiam consists of 6l>rin, and the red enr|>n<rl(«, railed ako 
orin. hemalin, hematosin, Ite. The coloring natter of the bloiMl 
rexitliM in dietioct partielts or ftlobulta, und. according to the b«l 
obm-ners, in Ibeir enrolope ; but npoo wbal chemical ooin|KM&d it 
depends is still rcrr nnccruin. 

Cpon what does the formation of a dot depend 1 The 6brht, 
wbicb, hj assnaiaf the solid forin, fires rise to lbs coagnlation of 
the Idood. 

Is lite cosealstioQ of Ibe blood a u-hrmical or a ritnl procasa f 
It is a dispatcd point among pbjsiotofciMs. Some chemical ag«ats 
rcUnl or destroy, while otiiers aceelerste it. 

When was the circulation of tbe Mood di<CATered T In IfilS 
llv crU-hniled ilancr oliuiard a full knowledge of tbe hct. bat 
did not commnnicaie it till the world witil 162S. 

What was Harrey's doctrine of tbe cimUtionT tit Ungfat 
thai Ibe Tenons blood U brought from otery part of Ibe body, and 


rilTBIOLOaT. Itl 

tmptlod into i)k' .,^la auricle or the heart, from Ihe ri|?ht anride 
II towf into ibe right rciitrlcle, liy urtii(.-li it in [irujfuied itiio the 
palmoiury artcrjr. «Dtcra Iho \uugf. um) jmasox itirouKli the capil- 
brie« into tlwr piildioiiarr mns. Ify UifM it !» coiivi^ril iiilu Ui« 
kifi Biirk'Ip, Mid trom tiioun to titu cvmwpoiiding VL-ntrivIc, wliicll 
coatractfi nnd sends it into tlie uortn, Trom whic-h it i* cQirtud to 
t^ery pan q( llie bgdy, tliroug:h Die ultimate rami fi cat ions >f tlw 
ar.mes— th« capillaries ; tbrM coiuiuunicale vtiih lli<^ veins, wliicli 
collect tbe bluod. aud can*}' it to tlie rigbt side of tbc hcorL Tlie 
erideuct-s in proof of tliiii are numerous. 

Ib wImi Diftimer is ttio circulation I'ffci'tcd in the lii-nrt 7 TliA 
biooA is received into lltn two nurirlcs s)-ti<:bronouslf, wliieh <-i>ii> 
met M ibe same moment vn two siilcx, to lliat tb« two vcntric-k-a 
an filled, and bj their sjmcbranona coutraelion (wfaieh i* conliDU- 
oas with that of the aurides), Ihe blood is emptied into tbe eorre- 
spondiiig arteries. Uelaxation nnd liilatuiion iu tbe case of both 
fflurickfi awl teniricl«« tticceed imaicdiately their coiitmclion on 
both sides of Ihe heart. 

Uq* do thes* aciioDs of thr heart Inko ]>lac« in the order of 
Une 1 Experiments hare prorcd that the ventricles coiitrai-t and 
Um aariclet dilate at the Htnie lime, and oecupv aboat one-half uf 
ibe whale time required for contriK'tion, diastole, and repose. At 
soon as tbe syMole of tbe ventricle tcriuiiialcs, its diastole saceeed^ 
Ksd occupies about one fourth of the irbole time ; s/Dcbronously with 
which blood flows Into it from the anride. The other fourth, the 
bvart is in n ftate of repote ; but at the latter part tlie aiiriclea 
cuniraet with a short, {|nlcl( jerk, which drivei the bluud into the 
rvnlrideH, and th»n contractluu is also iranBiniiivd ti> the VMiIriclcs 
in nn aliNoil eonliniious mnniin'. 

What is andentood by ditutiole and systole uf Ihe ventricles f 
Tlivir diUlaltuu i* called dill^t•(lF. aitti their contractiun s.v>li)1c. 

Jl TV ihtrt Biiy Kunodii prodni-ed by the action of the limri ? Ity 
ap|ilyHiR tlw car to the prteoordial rcfrion, with or witbMit the 
■lrlh<»co]M>, we bear at Orst a dull, len^rt belted sunnd. >tvni-hr<in»iiit 
wiib the anerwl pulse ; lbi» is i-atkd the IliAl Hound »r tbe heart. 
Tbm mccwda n sharp, ^uiclt sound, like the Happing of n vatve, 
wliich it Ibe MCtfud aouud of tbe heart 

What are the causes ofthe^frict mtujid of the heart, and at what 
period does it OMur T Tbc first tound is belieted to depend upon 


the rvfh ofhiood through the comparattTelj narrow orilcn tfAi 
soriu uikI jitihnoiiury artery, ihe paggage of i/nod overtbtni^ 
iiitcnml Kurfui'? of ihv ht^nrl, the brvil mvnculaire oftbeinidB 
aittt Vint r ill I'D in coiitruetiiig, upon the aouud prodund bj fniw 
of llic vhartlo- Irmthiea:, and the closure of the anriculo-TCDtrinlK 
TaJvffi-, -t>o that it is not diptiideiit npon a single caDn.billni 
tliG i-oniliiiiuiidii. 1( occurs FjiichronoQEl}- wiih the pnbt [in ih 
vessels mar ilie licnrt). ilic imjiulKe, and the djetole of lb* tnft 
clex. It is heard Kith the greatest inleiiKitjoTer the bodjttf At 
vcni rifles. 

What is the t-ause of Ihe (trconrfeoi/ndof theheartf ThtiwiiJ 
Hiiuiid is referulile c\du!^ively to ihc closure of the HDilDm* 
Ki).')noi<l vulvi's, and is, therefore, heard with the greateit istoslf 
over the aorta. 

Tlie fi)llowiii(r, from Carixntcr, may Hwist the memoiy:— 

Firmt iS'iiwjh/.— Ventricular systole, and anricnlar diaMi>le. !► ' 
pulse npiiiiist ihe dn-st. PuUe in arteries, 

Si-i-i»iil Koiiiid. — First stupe of ventricular diastole. 

Iiilfrral. — Shurl repose ; then auricular systole, and teCMO 
stupe of vcnlrii-nlar iliiislolc. 

A re the ortcries coni-crncd in the progression of the blood, or * 
it (lu'ing entirely to llii- aclion of the heart f The blood ii noreffl 
ill iiK course partly by the contraclioii of the arieriea. 

Whnt is the nature of ihis arterial contradtont It is paitiy 
from the i-laflii-ily of the middle coat, and partly fVom an odt^ 
vonlraclion. In tlie lurpe arteries the principal force exerted i* 
from llic eliiKticiiy, while the active contractile property inereu** 
m we recede from the heart. In sdditioD to elasticity and coa" 
trnctility, urierics have nlso a power of slow contraction, whitbi" 
properly termed lonit-ily, differing from both these, and ia a n^ 
projUTty possessed hy arteries, 

Whnt part or agency have the capillaries in the circalatioO 
They ]iossess a vital power of contraction, and they are also snf 
posed to have a vital projierty of expansiliility, or of liecomin 
turgid. It is, therefore, inferred that the cnjiillaries, by their coo 
traction, contribute materially to the circulation, by propelling th 
blood forward into the veins. 

What are the forces that propel the blood in its circulation 
riie action of the heart, the elasticity of the arteries, the contrne 

rii Y s I r.on y . 173 

I*- Ton-c of llio sm;ilkT vessels, parlii-iilai'ly of llif ciijiillaiii'^, iiiid 
ic bliglu claslic'ity of the vtiris, and perhaps they also have a small 
bare of contructilitj. The suction power of the heart in dilttting 
^rbcther from it^ elasticity or kti active dilatation, we will not de- 
Ade) hu an effect in brinq^ng the blood to it ; the suction power 
•f ttie chest in inspiration also has an agency in causing the blood 
to flo« to the heart by the reins ; while, perhaps, expiratjon en- 
courages the flow from it by the arteries. 

What are the inodifyiug forces of the circulation ? Friction, 
yniity, curvatures, and anaslomosen. 

Wbat effect has/rtcftoa? It retards the progress of the blood 
•long the Tcssels. 

What effect has gravity^ It may be either an increasing or a 
ttUrdinff force, according to ci re nm stances. Position, therefore, 
hit tn effect upon the circulation, whether we take a portion of the 
Wy, or the whole. A knowledge of this fact is often of import- 
iHt in a therapeutic point of view. If the body is in a horizontal 
posilion, the heart beats with less energy and frequency than when 
CKt, and the amount of blood is increased in a part by depressing 
n below the centre of the circniation ; because the circulation by 
tit arteries is increased, while that by the reins is diminished : on 
til* Wntrary, if a part is elevated, gravity retards the circulation 
Df the arteries and facilitates that by the reini'. 

What effect have curoaturet f They retard the progress of the 
'•W in the circulation. 

What is the cause of the pulse? Dr. Parry ascribes it to the 
'■•ptilse of distension given by the blood as it passes through any 
[•rt of an artery, from the contraction of the left ventricle. 

What is the frequency of the pnlsittions or pulse ? In the healthy 
Molt male, the average is from seventy tn seventy-five per minute ; 
Mt temperament, habit of life, position, Ac, vary this very much. 
"** pnlee of the adult female is usually from ten to fonrtecn beata 
Vk^ti than it is in the male, other circumstances being siiuiiar. 

Whit are the uses of the circulation ? Principally to transmit 
•"Wi* longs the blood in a crude condition, so that it may be con- 
**ntA into arterial blood ; and then to convey this arterial blood 
^ the different organs of the body for the purpoaei to which it it 



0/ NutrHion. 

What h undcriilond by llic riindiun of nnlrltion f II comprisM 
the chatific-ii »liitrb kru c»i>»tumly tekiiifc ptucu In th« Viody, both of 
absorption and Oe|io.iili(>ii, and nWu-h tSecl ibo <liH'<ini|>UBiiltiii and 
recoiupuiiiiioii, or rcnovaliouof vacli ori;aii or jionion ororgaiiiwd 
liviii); liudiea. 

What is tlie apparaiu^ hy which ft h elTecled ? The <ie]>ositioK 
is Bupposeil to bv jierrormed by a set of minutu vessels, bntnolici 
of (he capiDnrici, whose fuiiclioa 'n to exitale nulrilivc substancts ; 
anil arc therefore lermed e-j:halenU or nultilice ej:haff>il». The 
decomposition is carried oti by iht ab*orbenl». 

By what kind of nbeor|itioa Is decora position produced f U* 
whnl is termed inKli-rlitial, orifainc, or deconipotiiig abforplion. 

Whal portion of I he absorbent system is coiiLTruvd in tliiBBl>- 
sorption f The lymphatics are principally, if not entirely, convcmed 
in l)ie absorjilioD oT &ulids. whieh are brnkcn (town and reduced lo 
lymph by a proi.'i?'^ with which we are unaeipiaintcd. 

In what eondiiioii does the organic molecnie ia its simptcKt fora 
exist t Uy some it is believi'd lo consist of a coll. and by othen 
of a libre ; perhups it exists in both forms. , 

What is nndei'stuod by ihc doctrine of cells? li snpposn • 
mulri.v »r cir;,-Anix!nF; mat«i-ial. called cytoblaMomit or bluteiiui, 
prepared for the formation of tlie llH&iie : in Tesetables this is anp- 
posed to be a lliiuid pun or ve;,'eitible mucni^ ; and in animals 1I14 
liquor Kunpcuini.i, »hich cunsiMs CAsenllally of flbriii. In this mnlrix 
or IjlaKtcnia uiiuiiie RTOiiular poInU nro exhibited, ichich increuMi iu 
%\zi: fnun ihn iiK^tomerulion of the minuter Ki^nules around lh« 
Inrurr. and iiinsiitut« nuclei, or cTloblaslH. or lull pirms. which hare 
within them, and formed before (hi:in, well-deflued bodies, tenacd 
niK-U'oU. I'Voni ibrKu eyt>>b!nalii o-IU are formed, which arc ihu 
primordial M'lls(«eo Fig. 10). A transparent 
reticle is seen to pr^ijrcl from lli«cytublsMt<ir 
cell giTni, a» a naieh filnsA does from tlie dial ; 
this is tlic conimeneeiueui of the cell, wMeh 
extends and bccomcN ho lAr;;« tlwl tbe cylo- 
blast appears like a itmull »peel[ within, and 
on lis walls. This t<,-sk-1e or cell U Glkd with 
a fluid, and is irregnlar in shape, depeudlug 

fn ID 



■pon iffdviin. nnd the dilTiTi-iit fonnx in ilifTcri-nt tiinincit So (hat 
lliBonlrr «rtliiK jirucrw w. ihcn-ron; iiniuirix or urRuiiiziiift uiutcriul, 
ullnl a/lt>biadema by some, and bladnna by oilien ; which la ft 
Suidm vltirh Gm nucltoli are fonned, tben nadd or c>tublaKts, 
ud ili<.-n ctIIn arc devdopod. 

[Tniler trlut clrcDnislaQeea are these cells formed 7 Thejr may 
pn'sinaic iti two modes: either in an orgnniiabte materiel iiuder 
lie iiiflueiM!e aod in coutact with a living solid lifsue, or in the 
imertor or jH^viuosly formed edl» — therefore, miillii'lied ai'd 
ioer^iiicd in both ili»e wuys Aceordlng to this theory of cells 
(be prtH-vKH of nutrition eoiulals in the f^run'th of ilie individual 
ttlla comj'oxliiK the body ; and ihul ilieie derive their ^upiioit 
ImiB lh« orifaiiic torn p on ml 4 whii-li ure xnpplied to llieru liy tliu 
liluod ; the dilTureiit pnrln !id«ciiti|i;. a|iproi>riiilin)r, and converting 
to Ihdr on-ti T^niclun- xiich nmliTluN i»s iin- iiilii|i(i>d to their growth. 
Wbnt pround in ihwe fi>r bcltevinfr Ihm a libre miiy nlso be h 
|irimitiv« oricaiiii: mok-i-iilu ? The ndvocntes of the diictrino that 
cells are ihe only fimple orgnnir molecule, bdiere that fibres are 
IbrmnI from cellit being m> arningrd a« to form the tihrous liiuue; 
whik- the advocates for the fibre organie inolcciilo contend ihnt 
r«lla arc not nece«snry to the formntion of nil tiiwiies, since fine 
Slims are found in Gbrin thui hn« coagulated out of tlio body ; and 
that ihepa U an nnnlufry of strnetnre bc^tween fiilsr membrane and 
fibrin co«f^ilnl<r<l afler dtnth. or afler il haK been n-muvx'd from ihe 
body. Tbc aiiiioarnnce of tibrilx also so quickly after coagalntion 
rnoM hardly, afronling to Gulliver, lake place or be prudnccd, if 
thpy had to be formed by tho priicew of cells, The»c are. how- 
ewr, pultits upon which pliyKiulogi^l* arc not yet xi'ltled. Accord- 
bn tn Pr. Dauglison. all we can af«i-rt i«. "that the viinl pro- 
perty wliieh exists tn organizable mntlrr^^in the Rbrinouit portion 
of ihe blood, and in the bln«lenia thut i* fnrninhed by the parents 
■1 H fecuiidminfr nnion — givev ocoatioa to the formation of cell« in 
aoBiv rnwi, of flbrea In olhers; and that the tiMues n re farther 
dvvdnpei) lUronph the ngeucy of thitt rfll-li/e at fibm-U/i!. to M 
to ci'iuliiule all ibc textures of which the body ix compoied." 

I><K< Ui« action of nutrition affect the weight and Kixe of th« 
body T II does, lbroU|[h all the peri<nU of eximenee. The came 
of llii^ dcreloptnent or gruuth of or;;nn», anil of the whole body, 


ami of the liniiU fiiii>ipii<-it lo Kurh drv^lnpnii-nt, ik drprndrnt npoii 
vilnl \avi. wliicli iirv bcjoiiil our ]ic)«Tr to fniliuiu, 

Ic Dulriiion Ptjimllj' aclivc iij ilic tliflcrnit orgonf, or in the Mimo 
ot:fanK uiidiT nil nrciimstancesT It is nol ; Mcrcise JncriMijes iu 
nrlivitjr, in l)ic riiim-Ioe, for inMnnc«; atid io th« );In[id». mot^tM, 
and skin, it goes on miicli motv rBtiidl? than it don io Ibe tendons, 
lilimng TncinhrHiie«, bones, Ac. 

The Mtuc of Lrahh, age, cotiKlilution, Ac, also modlff this 
proci!**, i/tifcr'rr./jAi/ or rircfftirr tivlrition occors wlicfi the 
miilciinl for iiDiirisliii)^ the body i» drponiii-d more rnpidly thnn 
rcijuirMl by llio vnstc; thiK frrt|iiMilly iici-nni wilh pnrtirulor 
orfcaBK, end tiut very M'ldom In ilic vlmli- Inily. Afnfhy Is the 
n^Tvnte of hyper(ru|>liy, 1i(<iiif; n condiiion of dtmini'liMl nalrition ; 
Ihia may niM be eooliii<?d to ]inrilonlar orgnriK, bnt it itdMiully 
more Kfticrnl. \ 

Wlirti pnTl* arc lout, tho rcpnrnlivc nuiritim oprralions are 
anulojCoiiK 10 Hliiit liikrn plucc in tiie lint dcvclopmcDt, and occur 
Willi (fvi'ftl rn|iiilily. 

Indiimiiintiiiti ik not ncf<-»nry to thin propon. 

Till- ilciiih of iiidividunl m'IIk i* ti-rmrd nmlivutitr doatb ; while 
llic liciiili Iff till' nhcili- Itody is liTiiu'd »mnatir lU-uilt. 

Niitriiivft procL>»Mi «ro not depcnd^'til upon nonrons inHntnce 
for tlirir cxixti-iict^, tmt tln-y nn^ liillni'ncrd by it ; and Jt maj ba 
con^idpriKl ■■■Kcnlinl to thtir perfect coudiltoii. 

These procw«^» nrc ptri-rrlrd in a (ocal vnrlety of ways in 
diitc-nxn, and may be pnidacrd by mjinrroun raiii«(^«, of wbicb tha 
tfvaiity of th« inutrrrinl fiinii»li(sf Ik frrtim-nily one. 

\t \\iete any n-rUinty Kx to the period of linif it reqnirefl to 
cffoct u comgiti'te rluinK<! in tlic conttitucntd of ihv systctn f We 
hare notliing certain on thin point. 

0/ Cahrijicalion. 

What IK undcndood by thin fnnctlon f It is that fiiHClion by 
H-birh ImdipK preserve Ibe tenipcrnUirc pcniliar lo ihetn, iad^pco- 
dcnt of the Mirroundiii|r leniperntnre, willtin rcrinin Iin)iU, 

By wbnt tnt-anx do livinir bodies prescrte ibcir Icmppratore 
when plur'cd in oni: bcUiw wbnt Ik hnlnriil lo lliemf IHif three 
greul fUnciiotiit of rckpirntinii, IniicrTHtion, and ctrcululion appru 




la be ncccuitrj to tbis «n<t ; tt ts a function executed id tho inter- 
sM>(IiaU) tyKWin, or ojrktciii of tmlrition of (lie wliote bo(l_v, bj a 
■]>«cial ch«iiiic-o-vitiil aution. No single net of Ibis fuiiciioii in id 
rxtendod trnM can occoqqc for it ; bnt U h to ibe whole of ibcia 
eoublDcd, cotnineneing wUh digestion, that we are to look for B' 
ilntJon of this jiroblein. 

Th« amouul of heat produced seems to bear a direct jiroportion 
lo tli« amount of oxygen talceo into the synteu, niid Ibe carbooic 
add dUetiifn^red. and h, do doubt, connt^cted wkh tlils conversion 
Thi.t fuDctioii is iuflueneed by, xex, teuijierumcnt, idlosjn- 
rrai-y, Ac. 

The rad corpiucles of the blood are imiiortani ageiita in Ibis 

Qovr b the natural temperature of tb<! body preterved in a hlftfa 
leiDperatnre t It Ik by the etimiualioii of aqueous mutter from the 
■yKtem, and iu eTaporalioo from the aurfuce of the body. 

0/ Secretion 

VThat lit nndemtood by Rccrttion? It if ■ tnuttipli! function, 
which tuku* pUce in llie titamn of our orjtuns, and nvpurnte* frnm 
ifae blowl the variou* humor* of the body, The Icrm is applied 
both to titc opcratioi) and the product. 

Do tli« orKans exeruiing the vnrioao secretory opcrationa differ 
from cnrh oihcr 7 They do very much ; they hnvc, howcror, been 
gr>iup<.-<l into three ulntscJi — ibu fxhalant, Ibc j'oUicular, and lh« 

What ia Um exhalani upparatuat This fbnction la attributed ' 
to a svt of veweU termed cxbalants, which are regarded by maDj ' 
an notbinic tnnre ihnn tlic minute radiclec of ordinary arteries. 

Wiut U meant by the follicular organst X/ullicle or cryjit 

b an orftan having the form of an ampulla or vesicle, situuied in 

jtbr sub«>laHCC of tlie Klein and mucous membraucfl ; and M'creion a 

^Said for lubricating these pnrls, wliich is dlsdiurged either by a 

entnil aperture, or very short duct or lacuna. 

What la a glandular organ 7 A gland consists of an artery, au 
btcruediat« body, called parenchyma, ubich li the proper slruc- 
tnri! of the glaad ; of an excretory duct for carrying off the ucnetcd 
,0(ud ; of Teins, lymphatic vefiselti, and nerves, which proceed front 



the i^BTifjIloulc Byatem ; lliesc are i\\ bonnd tD|^etli«T bjr ccllalar 
membrane. Tli«y ore com|)o<ied of lobiilen, tech or whicti is com ' 
poMri) i>r ilie abure dements ; tlieae are hold (o^lber with cellular 
tnbijtauou, and hare a merutiraiw luTeslinfr i)i« wliolo. 

The ftimjilfsi form of secrcton' a)i|iaratiis is. ilierrfbrc. a Btmple 
cajiillury veaitel, and nnlmttl membrane ; and tlie follicles and ^ Isoda 
pOK«ex« A more complex orfraiiixatioD, but biIII e»M-nllalljr identical ; 
every Rocretiniir orftnn pn^tKeiueii, as oisential parts of iiE Mnictnrtv 
a dimple texturelets aiembrniK;, called primary or baatment mmn- 


brant (a), rielh(b), and bhorlittt^U (c). (F)fr>- II. 12, nod IS. A) 
The«e three Hructural cltinents arc arranged in various modaii aod 

rift 12. 



hfiv« been clitssoci by tome onder one one or otiter of two principal 
divisions — viembranet and giande. In some the basement mem- 
brane is extended by eTCrsion into processes (Fli;. 12), but more 
generally this extension \» produced by invention and eonvolntion, 
as !i> PlR. la, A. R. C. D. 

Simple rjlaruh are represented hy Fiy. 13, A. m three forms; 
utraipht tnbe {//). unn (l<) coiled tube (t"). 

JHulttlovular crijpu by Fig. 18, B; of tubular form {k) aaoou- 
lated (0 

RacemoM or vencular compound phnde by Fig. 13, C; entire 
gland showinK brnndicd duct and lobular structarc (m) ; a lobvla 
(n), with a branch of dnct (»). 

A compound Uvular gland by Fig. 13, D. 

Is the physiology of thlK function well understood f It b 

All we can nrilh certaint]^ m; is. that Hccrrtion tflkts place hi ll)( 
pmmAymii, or in th« capillnrv sjsl«tn of th« Mvrriiiijr ornnn, 

Tbe nfMcrioiu mgency prcMdinK ovrrtliin fanctioii hux been a 
natltrr of vontrorvrnr for * lon^ time, mid lit not yft KVltlfi. It 
tea Iweo ex|)laiiii-(l Ur rxi-luUrc nii^dmiiint). difimiiral, anil vitnl 
tbvoriCB. PcrlniiK tlic trulli in, thnl it i* a vitul |ift)<-i!«s modilieil 
fej itiwhuiiciil mill cli^inicuj Inwit aiij sgellL'icl^ and eocoia|»li*lie*) 
ifarooKti ihe Kgencj' of cclla. 

Ilu<r lire tbe urcr/rtion* dWiitvii f Into exhaled Mv^n'/ioix. oi 
tg/talatiom,/tttliculor iterrttiont, Kiid i/landvlar m'oreliona. Otbei 





(llvifiionB hftTcbem adopted, but this mw, foutided on the nntarc 
of ilic Kci-retliiff urf^n, liai been adopted by Biuhut, Mujjendie uiid 

How nn' llip fxhatationii diridcd ? Into intrrtial nnil r.TtemtU. 
Tlic riirrniT nrc nercineutiiinl, mid tlio Inller recrenii-nto-cxcrr- 
mcnt!t!nl. In lliii rirxt clnM nrc the KCrout cxhnlnlion«, tbu srronK 
rxtiulolion of the eelliihir nipniliriiTie, (lie ndipOM rxh&tnlion of ibr 
dUIulur tnvnibrHiic, the- i-icliiilulioii of mnrrow, the Kpnviul rxhaln- 
tinn, t)ie cxImlHtion of the uolorinfc inaltcr of thi^ tkiii, ntid of other 
pnrls, und the iin-ohir oxhiilslinn. Iti lh<! Keccmd are the t'xhala- 
tton of the xkiti, nnd the exlinlntioii of miicoii» mrintirflni.-s. 

Whnl orpinM siTrcU' the urmiif rxhidntJoni ? The pleura, peri- 
cnrdiitm, peritoiieum. nniehiioiil coat of Ihc brain, nnd tunica vajii- 
natis tDEti«. In henlih thiii fliiiil lubricatei thexo eaviticE, which 
opiienr* to be its principal iiKe. hot doe* not nccomalnle, being 
taken np by the nhtiorbenls ; n rhiingc in the relnUon bptw<-en »x- 
hnlation and al»orpliou mnv ^ive rise to dro|wy. Thi« fluid i« 
soppoi^ed 10 trnnKnile tlirongh the pnrielc* of the nrterics, and to 
be uken np by inil>il)ilion lliroH(th the coot* of the roin«. The 
terons exlmlulion of ilu- relliilur ineinbrnnc i* nnnlofcons to thi<, 
nnd appeni'K lo hnvc llic mime uw*. tliut of tahricntion. and facilita- 
tinjt till! motion of the parm. 

Wlinl i* the orfrnn upon which the adipo»e exhnlnlion depends? 
The orfijwsp wrniftronc, which forms a vehicle in Hhkh the fal is 
inrhidod ; nnd it is ntiached to the celhilnr tissnc. 

Whiit nre the nr^nnic clemuntH of fnt f Olein, ttearin. mar- 
garin, nnd ijl'iiyrrin. 

What nre the nuen of fiit? Tliey are both pnrrnl and local. 
Tlic first serves as a provinion in lime of need, whether from iofiifr 
position or abstinenee rroni food. The second nre of a phrMctl 
nature, diminishing the cfTecls of pn^sore. forming a enshion. and 
by liUinjr np the intcrtlicei to as to give n rounded fortn and cootonr 
to the body. 

Upon what organ does the exhalation of ni<irrou> depend? T^ 
delicatp raembivne which exi'ts in the inierior of boucs, called Ike 
medullary membranei, and sometimes called intcrnai pei'lnatenm. [t 
perhopa nervci the i;eneru1 purposes of &t, and aisc to fill u|i tpoiOM 
thai mifrht otherwise be vacant. 

bat organ secrotes the tynomal exhalation J The synovia] 

rn riioLAOT. 


e, whteh Is slltiated wUb!n ibe artlciUar capsules and the 
Wlwt oralis exbttle ibe coloring matter of the skin ? They 
TOnbt or a f^Uadiilar |iar«ichyma, or oriinn of !tc(.-rutiriri, in the 
nIatA&cc of Ibe trite sIcSii, n link below the- ])u[>lltu>, tvilh exiretory 
dacu, wbicb tle)K>sit the mutter lietweuu them. 

What ia tiiidentood by ibe aivufur exhaUilona? Tho^e that 
iK effected iu parenchjiDatous structiirea — as the humors of tlie 
•fe. ke. 

Whu i* tbe cuianfov* tmntpirfttton or exhHlalioii lernietl when 
inTUitilcf The iiuendible trunnpimtloii or|)er«|iintioii : and vhen 
it I9 perreixilile, it '\* calkd Hweal. It U secreted by a ^ditiidnlar 
pamchyiiw, Hilualed lu the xkiii, which aecrttlea the lluid, with 
OdcIj ojicniiig oc tbe snrfncc nf Ibe body for its di.tcharge. The 
qnwjiiij of ihi* fluid in viirird hy a irreal variety of elrtniiiiKlniiceii. 
What it und4^r>l(>od by the pubntitiary truiii>|ii ration f It 1« a 
vmiiun thrown off from the Kurl'aco of the uir-|iaMa(ceH and liitigii, 
n'wmhling very much that Ibrowa off by the nkin, and is nearly 
iiltnLicBl irhh it in rhetnicnl conipoiiiiun. 

II»w arc th« FnHicular tecruUon* divided f Into the mucooB 
Uii Ihe cstancotis. 

What u Ihe product of tlic accretion of tlie luucons follicles or 
0y|]i8 called ? Uucii*. 

What are cxain|ilM of the foDicnlar secretion of lbs skin f The 
Nrrciion on the face, u-hich ha« the appearance of worms when 
breed tbroa^ the external aperture of ihc fullicle ; Ihe humor of 
Meibonins, and of the caruiiciila lachrymalis. 

What are ibe glandular secretions i" They are the laiik, sperm, 
(rice, bile, p«ncreatic juice, saliva, and tears. 

What secretes tbe tears? The lachrymal plond ; bnl, aa we 
generally me«i with them, they are mixed with ihe secretions of Iha 

1,tUMitlva, caruncula iachrytnalis, and follicles of Meibotuius. 
Wbal la the apparatus for the secretion of tbe saftca 1 A jiarolld 
and. a auboiaxillary, and a subliogiual, on each side. 
What (ecreles llic panrrfotic juicef The pancreas, which re- 
MBtblea rtry mach the Mtirary ^lundx. 

What in the apparalus for the secretion of bilef The liver, 
oe|>alic duct, i;all-hlBdder, cyilic duct, and the dnctux coinmunLi 




What pciculinritjT i« tUerc in tlic strticlurc of th« liver F It h 
HU|i])1i«d nilli two kimU or blooil — ihn nrt«riiil mid tbu veiiuus 
From n hich of iheic iho bile is ncirnrH-d i* ]rrl iiiixuUled. 

What arc ihe substaticcK found in bile? CholeitcrtKe, bilio 
acid, bilh-erdin, and Gome Mrlh; ealH. 

Wlml uscF! docs tlie bile snbserre in tbe Dnimal econoiri}- T A por- 
tion pnssc's off wilk tbe cxcrcmciililiul part of the coitleiils of tlift 
aJimciiIary canal; another portion renders fattir matters coluble, 
and cupuble of being absorbed by the lactenls, and probably con- 
verts ftugar into faltj matter. It contrains hydro-carbon in lBrg<: 
((uaiitily. the soparalioii of which from the blood is of imjiortance 
to the condition of that fluid. 

What i.i the apparatus for the eccretloD of urtN«r The kidneyi^ 
uretcni, bladder, and urethra. 

WImt i» tlio object of this function f It appears to be lo dq>n- 
rale the blood, by separating from it (be elements of Ihe sobsiMices 
of which tbe urine is composed. 

It ia purely excrouieuiitiul, and-it is tUe nilrogeiioiu coapoands 
that ur« cliuiiuQti^d. 

What in th<! aualyilsi of healthy urine, socordlui; to BeracIiniT 
Iti 1(10(1 purls it euui.lKl.t of: water, OSS'OO ; urea, SOIU; sulphale 
of pouwii, 3-71; sulphule of soda, SIB; photpkate of Mpdn, 
2'94 1 chloride of sodium, ili; plioiipliate of anmonln, lib\ 
muriate of uminonia, I bO; free lactic acid, laclate of ammonia, 
anlmiil matter soluble in alcohol, and urea not separable from tilt 
ubote, 1714; earthy pho&pUales, with a trace of iluaie of lime, 
1-00 ; llthic acid, I'UO ; mucus of the bladder, 0-32 ; silcx, O-DS. 

What are the orirans termed glandi/tirtn ganglumut They are 
tlie iipleen, ihyruid. thymus, and Bupra-reuul oapulM. Th«i 
of ihese are not well settled. 

Of thi: RKPROoiicnvr rciwriosB. 

What lit tbe object of thcie runctiona? The preacrration of the 
RpHM<ti> ; and ihu difTLTc-iil rmiclioui tending lo Ibii rotull arv treated 
ot under tlie fullowlui; hcud : — 




To what class of bodiM i» tbU runclion peculiar ? ' To orguiiscd 
bodica exclusirely. 

Wbot Is DDdorstood bjr uniKoeitl generation ? It i« vhcre gene- 
ntion i* effKted iiy ft proccns rectairing tlie i)ri--cxi$ieiii^<? or nn 
Olfuil«d being; and cc|uivoi'iiI g<:iieruliuii in vrlivrc friuTiilioti is 
nppoHd to Inkc pliici! spoutotioously. Iiy vxtnuicoii!! iiiHiu-ncus, 
vilhoBt requiring n purtiul. This Iikst ihvcirj' in not gvuc-rally i>d* 
aitted. ftkbough udvui-alcd by muiiy. 

What it tli« Kimplvst furui of )^ii«ratioii ? It ta where an niilniHl, 
il> certain period of Its existence, separates intoscvorul rrapineiitA, 
(■di of whifih furuiB a ucw individual. This is called Jttiii>arou« 
gnvration, or genemtion by spontaucons (tirision. 

What 1h tni'anl hy gemmiparou« generation f It conslsla lu the 
bmatiou of knds, spomlct, or gennfl, on some part of ihe body ; 
tbcw btfonie developed, drop off, ami form as many ueu- indirid- 
nalt. In both these forms Keiierution l.i cxecuifd by n «iiig1c in* 
dividual. llit;ber In the scale we have scpurute urgniiK, ivhich are 
divided into tlie male utid female ; some orifanlxed bodlex have both 
in the sane individuni ; but as we ascend In the scale to the suiicrior 
aniiBut*. they are eeparatcd, and belong to distinct Imllvidiials, lu 
vhicb cose copulation becomes netci^ary. 

Wlint are lUe Taricttes of this kind of generation where copula- 
tion IN necessary ? In the first plnco, the othoi may bo fecundated, 
laid by the female, and batched out of the body, which is called 
Ofipart/na generation. 

SiToiMlly. The pTOCMS of laying may commence, and the fecun- 
dati-d ovum pass so slowly, that it is hatched before it Is expelled, 
•nils i» called ooo-Ptoiparows'feeacnition. 

Thirdly. The IVcunilated ovum may be detached from the ovary 
toon after coptilalion, and then deposited in a wonili or uterus, 
there to be developed until the proper period for its e.ipultion, after 
which It may be further nonrished by a peculiar and opproprialo 
Mcrrtlon l\inii§hcd by the mother. This is vivijmroixa generation. 
tjosily. There or« aniinnix proviiled with pouches, into which the 
fonatr. born at nn early stngi- nf thdr growth arc rcciived and 
joortsbed with a secretion furnished by the mother from glands 



tItuatPd in ltii;tc poiK-hoii. Tlit^c nre the mar$upat, and the opo^ 
Hum may he i^unniilrrvil nn tlx^ type. 

The young are ulso »oinctlm«i born nlih tlio ulinpe peenllu to 
tliem, and at others wiih forniR which are changed materially, u in 
tbi- |iuj>llio, or butKiHly. 

Wliiit are tlic difTtrcril acta oecessary for reprodnctioa in th« 
buuinri ipiteieK ? 

Oirncralion, or the fnrnmtion of germt. 

Coputalitin, ur the iiiiitin of tlic soxeit. 

Fucunilalian, or ihe viviGcRlion of (cerms. 

Conceplion. or the retcnlion of the virlGcd (^rmii, 

Ottlaiinn, (It prrijnanctf. 

Parttirilii/n, lirlu-rri/, or accouehmtrnt. 

Laiiatinti, iir the nourishment of the Infant n-ilh milk. 

Wlint ure the ranle organf of gvnerntion ? The Iwo lentm; ihfl 
ejrivtory dii'i* of tliejie plnnils, cailetl vaaa drferenHa: tl» ir«- 
iiulo' arniinnicji ; tuo cniinls, called fjaculaiortj ; and th« perils. 

Wlint iiecreie* tlie rprrm.oT feciindulin;; Huid of the male f Tlie 
texiiclen; when formed, tt 1^ received into the tubuli semiuireri. and 
posses nIonK tliein to the ejiiUldymns, llie vog defervna, and tlw 
TCiii<-u]« Aeininnlea, where it U deposited, until it is discharged into 
ihi- nrethra diirinjE vcnerenl excilem<^^nt. 

What are tlie fenialu oifrnns ? They are those inaervient to 
copntation and fecoindation, nnd liiost for gestation and lactaiioo. 

Wliftt is understood hy Mcnffrualion 1 It is the periodical 
discharge of a bloody Hiiid from the vulva, occnrringonce in about 
twmiy-eight days, and lasting from ilirco to aix days. This dia- 
cliargp Is culled tho catamenia, menaet, Jlowera, Ac,, and con- 
tinues during the whole time the female is capable of coDceivlng, 
trnm puberty to the critical age, or time of its coetatioa Tbia 
procsB la accompanied by the maturation and discharge of an 
ovule from the ovary, which occurs once every twenty-eight days 
hi henlth. and is the csncnlial action of the sexual function. 

What organ gives out this fluid? It is an exhalation or seere* 
tion clfei-tcd from the intcniAl Kurfnee of the uterus. 

Is niciislniotion ncccBsnry to imprrgnation f As a frcnerat rule 
its nppearnnco denotes the cnpuljility of being impregnated, and 
Its absence Ihe wnnt orcnpnhility ; yot there are exceptions to it. 

Where does /ecuntfaf ion and conception occur f In the ovariam. 



Wbat ]>erlod etnpses after r«cuiidaiiou before the ovom arrives 
In (he m^nis ? Aboiil ten or tvelvo dnye, 
Hftw may llie hfitotlicsts of generation be divided ? Tliev mny 
t dined voder two hcaUs— ihe s^^tem of epigenestn, and tliat of 

Wbsl ia Dnder^lood by tlie sysiem of Epi'jennUI II la the 

I tlwry wliich Bupjioaes ihe neu- being to be formed of nialcnals 

Ifbniiiibtd by both iexes. ibe parllclea of whielt )>reviou6ly pottaesed 

[tiw nKcosarjr arrangement for cousiltuling It; and it is alut sop- 

' poied that ibwe (tarltvWs btirc a controllinfr af^iit or force whicli 

rrf;ulau-ii their uSnIty, dilTercnt frum tlie ordiiiurir force* of matter, 

ud lliiit force ban becu tertned cotmu; platiiir. nisus formalivut, 


^^ B'lint is uiider^ivud by llie ibeory of Evolulionf Tliia theory 
^HnpiJoie?! tliut tlic uvm Individual pre-exiaU in iome eliape in one 
^Bsf the wxes, but reqairea to be vivEHed by the other, in the gMi«- 
^Viuive act, afler vhidi cummeiice the dereiopnieute or evolutions 
^pvUcb result in llte rurmation uf a distinct being. 

Bow are the advocates of this theory divided ? Some of them 
ni|>poi« that the grerm exists iu the ovary of the feiiinle. and recjuirea 
only the viiifyinif influence uf llie male s|>erm to eau^e its evulutioti. 
! Tbe«e are called 0(yiri<rfit. Olhi-ra -lupporie tlir male x|iL-rm ti> coo- 
tain the rudimeulA ol the new beinp, mid ilmt ike fiMiiale merely 
alToTds it a nidas and pabulniu daring its development. The tatlei 
' are called tpermoliuls, feminists, and a'limalcvluils. 
i What ia nnderKlood by the doctrine of OT»n« ftuinn ex oeo. as 

l^ldvocatetl by Uarvey r It auppodes all animala to orf!>nale from 
< 'lb ovum, or tgg, ntid that this is furniEhcd by the female. In th« 
hnmaD being, itit-y arc ve^icalee, ovules or ova, which csiisl in tin 
ovaria, one of vhith niatiircM, and is thrown off every twenty-eight 
days, wunliug only to be feciindolcd by the tuaie to bo evolved and 
produce a living being. 

Wliat ia the mdfit modern view of this subject, as adopted by 
lyaiologista t It is a modiliealion of the ibeory of ejii);enes!s. 
ley believe there most be a union of niaterinU fumislivd by both 
f$, otherwise it is imposJble to explain the liniitiirity of confor- 
lion to boih parents ; thai the si^ereliou of ibe mule, llie sperm 
I, is united to (he ovule funiislied >>y the ovuririm of the female ; 
d that (be embryo rcsalta tt<tm n iinion of ilir-n products, Im- 



pnasei villi life from t1i« instant or each union, and Kilb & gmtrt 
or lese rir!ieinl>laiicc lo one or llio other |)artiit. 

Ill wiml mniiiicr does tlie recDndatio); lliiid of ihe mnle reach (1m 
OTur)»f Tiiia U siill a dispnled qnestton «n«nf:st p1iv»io1of;istB ; 
Bome allc^ng tliat il passes from the Taf;iua inio Oic utcnis, tlieiico 
flloMj! the Fullo)>iuti inbes to ihe ovaries ; utLierB »ti|)[ioKe it to Iw 
traiiiiinilled from llie vapna to ilie ovaries, (hroti|;1i the inlerrtn- 
lion of special absorbents, but these have not ea vet been (>roT«d 
to exist. The fiirijier theory scvtuK the more proboble, and thai H 
Id promoted hy cilinn- aetiou. 

Is there any eoiisciousne&s of fecuinlation on the part of llw 
feniaU- at ihc moment of its occurrence. There are no ajmplona 
thnt can l>e depend)^ on. At what period, tn the human female, 
id ctineL'ptiou most likely lo occur T Immediately before and after 
the menstrual period ; particnlarly the latter. 

What is the proportion of twin cases in this conntr; f About 
one in seTCDty-fiTO. 



Hotr an the dilTercnt aprei divided ? Into Infancy, enmpridnfc 
the period from birth until the second dentition; childhood, that 
Ix'lncun the Msrond dentition and puberty; adolesceuce, thnt 
lielivci-n ])nl>eriy and manhood ; Tirility, that between youth aad 
old HfTt:; and old ii|te. 

How Ik the period of infancy divided ? Into that aft^ the cliiki 
ix iwhi^red Into the world until the lirst dvntitioa, compriainjr abont 
Keren months. Secondly. Tliu period of first dentition, and li 
considered to inchiile the period betwet^n seven montha and two 
years. Thirdly. The Ijulnnee of the period of infancy. 

Thrtiii|rli whnt period lioes fhiliUinod extend f From the wrreDtli 
lo the flfltcnlb yt-ar, or to the periiid of puberty. 

Through whiil piTiod diwn o'li'trKcenet extptid ? Krnni about 
the lifitcnih to ihc twenty-Gfth year in men, and from Uricen to 
twenty •one in vronien. 

IIuw IK the period of ririhli/ or manfiaod divided ? Into ihrM 
periods — crcKcent, ciinfirmed. and decrcsTOUt virility. The fir*! of 
the<tc extendK from the ap of twenty-live to thirty-live in the male, 
and from twcniy-oue to tliirty in thci fimalc ; Ihe second, from thirty' 



§n to Rni-feiv ^ Off WKb^ sin fenn. uifiv lo nr^m Ck Ocnttw : 
dK third. Epw Sic7MEk« o» sxet sl ek nule. ani ^n &nv CO lAr 

Vku u Mi'i I III! Ill &T jMf «p! f Ec is :&« pRioii whm cnn- 
lU«f mm; 11^1 1 ^ai liiiiBORjes three periiMb ■» :itur«s : iimptmi^ 
ot pen oid aiR^ rmrMTnir ga jevtncr irus ; coalicveii old axv. 
or cMhniT, u ogbcr-bc ,?**b • '"■^ deaeyiutiie; &»■ m^et.&tv 

Hn ue thr dtfcitt ta desizBaioi 7 Br ib« Units t«->Mf>i'r«m«-ni: 
CMMnfMaf. irfauMyiMJ HMn. mrqvir^ liiWirrei^iivi:. mi\il the rurie- 
tiatf Ae kmimmi» ipeeiet. or O^ diffnent rmr^i of MvniiW. 


Thtt a ndcmood br lemprrtvm-^U f Tlwr mn tlioe« indi- 
ridaal diffmans wbkfc cobski in sarii diiproponion i>r p«rt$. a^ 
neudi Totame and •ctiTitT. aa lo sensiblT modifj thr whole or- 
euin, bat witbon iatcffffin^ with the health : and. therefore. 
I)^! phniolofKal eoaditioD. 

Bo* uc the tesperafltenU dinded 7 Into the MnjTinnc, the 
Wma or ckoUrie, the m^(ancA.j/ic. the phlt^matic. and the 

Ww u« the characteristics of the gangnine Ifmperamralt 
Then is ■ predomiDaoce of the circiilaiurr STslem, eharacteriied 
°J ■ ttroDg, freqaent, and regular pu1:% ; roddj coiufiloxion ; 
MisMtd couDtensnce ; a good and distinct It -marked shajH' : firm 
'"li ; light b»ir ; fair skin ; bine eyes ; great nervoos snscejilibi- 
^] quick conceptioti ; ready memory ; UvcIt imagination ; addif- 
tioa to the pleasores of the table ; and amorousness. The diseases 
of this temperament are generally violent ; and are sealed in the 
nrraliiory grstera — as fevers, inflammations, and hemorrhages. 

Vbl are the characteristics of the bilious or choleric Irmjtr'm- 
"««? The poise is strong, hard, and frequent; the subcutaneons 
winj are prominent; the skin is of a brovn color, inclining to 
Trflow; hair dark ; body moderately fleshy ; muscles firm mid well- 
■»fied ; the passions violent and easily excited ; temiier alinipt 
•■d impetnoOR ; great Brmness and inflexibility of character ; bold- 


iM>Ks in th« flonctptton of ^rojMta, and antirinf; perserenHico b 
ihrir rtildltniMit. Th« diseases are gPiierally combintd with more or 
le«s dornDgcmeni or ibc bepatic system, vrhtcli is conuidend to bo 
liromiiiciitly doTolopcd. 

What arv the characteristics of tbe metanehoiie lemperameTUt 
Thfl vital TunctioDS are feebly or irregularljr pcrforraotl ; ihc skin 
aMuniM & deoper hne ; the conDtnumce is mI low and tnd; Ib<.- 
bowcls fire torpid, and all tbe oxcretiona are txrd)^; thepuleeii 
hnrd and babituall? coiilracled ; the imagioation is gloomy, tad 
Ibc temper suspicious. 

What are ibe charoctcri^lics of the pJi/pf/maJtc, /ynijiftotit?, or 
pilvitoue lentperanient t They are soft Besli ; pnle »kin ; foir 
hnir ; weak, slow, oiid soft pulse ; flgnre rounded, bnt ineJiprcMiro ; 
tbe Titnl Bclion* more or less languid ; Ihc memory not tcnnciou*. 
and the attention Tacillating ; with aversion to botli mental and 
corporeal exertion. 

What ore the charneterif ties of tbe nrroout Umperamrnt f The 
oervoDs system is predominant. The miwdos ore monll, sufl, and, 
»8 !t If ere, wasted ; ■ slender form, jrencrnlly ; great TiridncM of 
sensation ; and promptitude and fickleness of rrsotution. The dit* 
enst-s iTicidenl to a iircdominnnce of thi« temperninent are of tbc 
hy»tericol and cur.vulcive kind ; or those usually denominated 

Theee distinctions are not always well marked, and the dilfcrent 
lempernmenls are Dsually blended together, so ns frequently If 
render il diCUciili to decide wbiefa on* predominntes. 

CoMtilulwn and Mioayncruc*/, rfv. 

What \» understood by the conttiUttion of an Individua] ? It is 
thu mode of organljmilon proper to that person ; and tbey are as 
Dumcrou.t us the individuals themselves, 

What t« nnUerstood by idloxtjncracy t It is a term apptieii to 
the pernllar disposition wliteh cnnses an individual to be affected 
by exlriUK^ouH bodies in a way dttTerent from that whicb tlicy affect 
mankind (n general, 








VTrat is Ch«mistT7 f It is the Bcience nlitcb makes Iciiown tha 
sompMition of bodies, and the luaiiuer in wlilcb tbcy comport with 
KLch other. 


Thai ia oodeTBtood by the l«riti catorif:f It !« tlie cn««o or 
t^t producing the seusatloD and {ihenomeris of heat. 

Vhst are some of th« )>ro]>ertSes a( caliirii-, or liriit7 It has 
koj npposed to b« a i<iilill« lliiiil, the imrticici or whidi repel 
wh other, and are attrucK-d liv nil ^ihir xnhtUuHv; it is impou- 
dtnble ; cxiMods, and is pn'scot in all bodirs : transferable fVom 
one body to nnotber; tending to an cqnilihrium in three ways — 
bf direct contact, by condnetion, and by railintion. The gcuerally 
Ritittd opinion now is, that th« phenomena of heat are eaosed by 
ilbtuioiia of a rery snblte eihcrinl me<liiim. 

Vnan ar« the principal coudilionB which inSnence the conimuni- 
wHoii of b«at by dim4 conlad^ The degree of conliguity, and 
'i'eondiKting po¥rer of snbsiances ; electricity h exdted os akloric 
pwcs trttm one body to another. 

Bo« ar« bodies divided in re^rard to their power of condueting 
<^loric f Into condnctors, and non-conductors ; ooiong the former 
Ibc mctnU, and amung the latter, or (hose which conduct very 
Vetly, nri; nhm, wood, charcoal, floids, gasen, and porona 
inec« iicncnilly. With rcRurd lo ihe relntiTe conducting 
Iw*! of the ipetuli", lliey slanil in llie fullowjug order : Gold, the 
^tt} then, silver, copper, ir^in, line, tin, lend, and platinum. 

Ar« liquids good condnclors t Liquids have scarcely any con* 
dsctjug power ; but when heat is applied to the lower portion of 



them, ucendlnff and deaceiidlu;; cnrrento aro cEtsbllabw) i tbt 
lioMed partides, being exjiaiided, rise, and coldrr onM dtannd 
U> take their plo^e ; ao that very soon ercry panidt> ot iW Raid \tt 
lieated by direct contact with the heated portion of the conlniniiig 
veftsel. If the heat u applied at the top, the liquid is itc«rcdy 
beated at all, except »t the surrace. 

What IB understood b)' the radiation of caloric t Wbon host 
passes from one body to another, independent of n medium, there* 
fore in vaoDo, it is termed radiation ; and the bent so distributed 
fs called radiant or radiatfd heal. 

A heated body snupetided in the nir Iin* il» tpniperolnre rodnced 
to an eqiiitibrinin : what arc Ok modes by which it ig neeouipliitbed T 
It is done in thrpc ways : first, by Ihc cvnilucUn<! power of the nir, 
irliich is rery tridiiiit ; sceondly, by tin; mobUiti/ of ihc nir io con- 
tact witli it ; nnd, thirdly, by radiation. 

IIow is heat diiitributcd in rodiniion F It is emitted from the 
GnrTnco of a hot body equally in all directions, in rittbt liuefi, like 
radii from the centre to the circumferenee of a s]ih«re ; and when 
tliey fall upon another body Hrc distributed in three ways : re_fiected, 
abiorbed, or transmitted. In the first and third cases, tlw lem- 
perfttare of the body on which the rays fall is not nfTccled. in (he 
other it is increased. 

In what proportion does bent decrease as we recede fruu a 
body f It diminishes in the ratio of the squares of the diiit«ncc6 
from the nidinlirig body. 

It the riitliiiilnjt power of a body inflncnced by the n«iur« of ihe 
radiating Kurfncef It »; a polished plate of metal radiaiw ret7 
iniperrcc'lly ; if rong^h^Jied, its rndinting: power is increased ; and, 
if covered with a tliin layer of paper, isinglass, wax, or rMia, U is 
greiitly increased. 

The eoli>r of surfaces has been thought to hare a great effect on 
the radiating power ; block radiating the most rapidly, r«d le«a, 
and while Blill lea*. This luis been llic most prevalent Tiew of the 
subject, ulthoujjli some meent expcrimcuts of Prof. Uache appear 
to prove Ibat color alone, independent of the molecular strueturei 
doest not influence the radintiu); power of i^urfnces. 

Can heat be rdleeted when acrompnuied with light f It can, 
and is subject to the Kiime laws in this respect as light. 

Will a good TadialiuK surfuce mnki* a ^od reSectorT Noj 



•tUkfr vlll B irood reltector roak« & Rood radiator, ihcR« pro* 
ptftlM b«ing invrrst'lj lo vnvh other ss a ^rriirrnl rule. 

ffkm Iwnt strikes an 0]inqiip hotlr. niicl it is nol n-ltrrtcd, wW 
Imomk ot '»? Il is iiivnTinlilTaftioWW; ntid llii-ir nivx nrc mip- 
plMmHal lo ihe nn wliidi may I* reflpcttil if nny nrc rcllccli-*!. 

WImI rPl»tton exUls beiwoen ihe nh)i&r/jf(Vr nntl the trflccfii!* 
|«ir0E of bodWsi' They nrc in aii inrcrsE proimtlion to cot'li 
•Cbir. So tlwt th« inorei rays of heat ihat arc ebsorbcd by a body 
llir fewer are refleclrd. and ftw I'ere/i. 

What relation «xt!>l« lietwemi tlic raiUanI ai>d ahtorfttiiv |>ow«r 
rf ImhUmT TItose siirfaees of bodies wbioh hnve Die ali&ortitive 
|»«er Iiave tbe FadiatiDf; power diweily |iro|iort!orial in most 

1m that one «)«ss of anrfiiccs tire );ood nli^orbers and radiators, 
vliile Buoilier are good reflecloni and rett>ini'r«; lUme qaaliliea 
kin); in rpHoua proportloiis Iti dilferenl surfuees. 

Ubut iH lueunt by Irantntution of lii-at f It Is its pasKafre nn- 
tbiaiml, or nearly no, ihrougb lran»]mrv[it m<^ia, nr through a 

Ik limt iiiiliji-<-t to pnlari:alion and double refrw^ioni II IM; 
mil a)M> to ilrfKflnriirition. 

Ity wluit mi-an* do bodiw fllintii uiid keep up an fqiiolily of 
tnofwraiiirp ? Accmlinf; lo the theory of Prcvosi. nil bodiw are 
taaitaiilly radiatiiifr heaX. orculoHlio ruys. and the leiii|ierHliir« of 
t li4Mly fnltj wIm-r it radinlei) mure ibon it nbnorliB ; on ll)e contrary, 
the cook-r body bM-onies tmnner ubcn ti absorbs more llian It 
radiates; and the temperature Is stationary wbeti the qDnnlilics 
cniitleil aiid n-ceived are e<|iial. 

An liiHtun(« of (lie Gr^l i'ai« Is exiiiblted when a hot body is 
RarronitdMl liy colder ones; of ilie second, ifhen a colder one is 
HirroDiided by warmer; and of t)i« last, when the leiuperalure of 
ibe IxidieK near rach othrir is fi|iu>l. 

Arconliiitt to anoilicr theory, h<idi*a of equal temperature do 
iiol rndiata at alt, and uhL-n Ihe tvmpeniture is uueKpiul, Ibe butler 
bodies bIoiw mdiatc. 

What arv «opi« of lh>! eflTpcts of heal on matter ? Il is es«entia. 
Id titAl tutlioBS, butb iinlmni and ve^'tabl«. It inllntmeen the 
of bodies, as regurdit tlitir cs>ndiliou of solidity, JluMUy, or 



vapor. It also povrrrfully iiiUiiriK'eii cbtmlcnl nctinn mai com- 

Duvx lii'nt uiTdriably fxjianii all bodies f It dnes, will) llie 
«xcr)>li<in nr tumc Quids, wlildi are expanded also fit bijili Iviiipu- 
rnUirvc, mid are coiitmcted as th« U^ id pent lire fall.t. gntil U n 
rcrtniii trinjicrntare thej again expand, foruiiii(( uii vxivptioa to 
tlie giMK-rol law 

Upon wluit principle Is k Oierviometer Toaiidec] t The rxpaa- 
iiiltilily of tliiiilx, nnd nii-Tvury i* ihc one |[en<-rully lucd. 

Upon wlmt j)riiii-i]ili' in {liu jiijrometer of Wodfti-nowd formed 7 
Ifwo licnt a mixture of aliimiiiou» cnrlli and uuicr or riajr, it con- 
trni-ts frutn lliu «x|>nl!>t(m of ihr water, luid ihi» contrtu-tiaa u on 
iixlicalion of Ihe niiinnnt of lirnl to wliich it hns \irta ^ubjectiMl. 
Tlie Itmptraturc iiidiruted hy lliU in»(Tnairiit, however, li not 

Whnl is understood bj gpedjic heat t II is iho (|iiniitiijr of boat 
whic-b utie body coolaius compared vfitli otbiT bodiw i>f the sanio 
weiifbt or bulk, and at the sanic tcm|>oraiure, ns Indicated hy a 
tbtniioiiieter. Thus, if A takes foar times as lonj; lu hont lo tba 
Kiimo tt'inpi-mtiire us It does, then iu specific boal i« four compared 
to Wi, which is one ; io ihm dilfen-nees iu time of bodiM in bmt- 
inc or cooliuR, similarly exposed, expreta their npecilic boat. 

If we Iflke a pint of murt-ury at 100'°, and a jiiat of tralerat iO", 
and mix then), the revuhitiK tcmpei'utnre Ik only G0°, and not Hm 
mean between them ; the mercury ban lost 40', and ibe wat«r hut 
goim-d ill*. 

If eiinal wei)iht« are taken, it it tlill more evident i^ 

1 poand of mereurr at 162'i . _. , . ,._-, 

. '^ , , ' . ,.'. giTMH mixture at 103'. 

t pound of water ai 100°} "^ 

The water has gained only 3' wbile the memirj baa lost 6d°. 

Water has, therefore, a speelAc calorie eompured wltb lucrcory of 

30. while mercury h 1, or in the proportion uf 30 tu I. Tbis dif- 

fcrcnce in bodie.w i;t noineliincs tarrneil capatrili/ /or heat. 

Wlmt In w\Ai!tiiXaiiA \ty Mnmtlile and iuxT-tifible heali Sensible 
heat in that heal of wliich we can take cojrnixnncc by onr MDses; 
and inHetikiiile or latrnl Ix-nt \* llmt which i*^ proved In exist in a 
Uxlr, bill doeii not alTect our )<vii»iilioiiii, or our incanj of moasitring 

Lat«n; or insensible beat may be illustrated by a sttnple experi- 



nwni: Mix k pound of wnlcr nl 1'4°. wiih n pnnitti of water at 
Si'i thr rcsiitiing icaipcrnture will bv the mcuti or ili« two, or 
W ; If, iaiitcA*! uf tli« nur bI 82^ n pouni) of snoir or W of 
(Ik Min* Ivinp^ratiirr Ijp «u))Kti!iilri), tlic rKKiiWing tpiitperalure w{l1 
b* anl; 8S' nfler the molting of the ic«. Ilcni-e. a« luudi lient 
•ill havB l)wii rendered Intent iii Ihc melting of Ute ict an would 
bn nis«d bu e<iual weight of water one hundred and foriy-twQ 

li U ronnd also that one pound of Btenni will rnise ten poniida of 
■*liT l(tO°. or if coDceutraicd in on« poucid, the rise of tcmptra- 
liHvwuuld be KHW', or to about a red heat, if prevented from 
luumin^ ibe ftfrJCoriQ fitale. Thia lieat ioipHrted t» thu water 
niilf in it in a intent alale, or at \atm all above n lint eim be ac- 
M«Bl«d for bj a temperature of 212', uhlch ia the Kuusible Iciiipc- 
niBK both of boiling water and slenni. 

Ilaa «Terj Eubatanco a specitlc heat peculiar to lt«elf? It hat; 
lad acliange of compomiou will produce a eliunge of cnjincil):- for 

Wlwrn has a BubrfatH-e the preatest capacity for lieat, in « solid, 
or liqaid slate T In a liquid L-<iiidiii<>n. 

DtK* ibe 8)i«cilic bent of b y;a.», vnry with the dcniilj* and daali- 
rit} r It A^H'i.. A diiuiiiiiiioB of deiiMitjr iiicrcnscs tlie ca;>ai-'itv, 
unI vicv TertA. 

]a the n|iet-llic hifst oFwIidK and liquids the same at all teinpera- 
tam, wImih there is im change of e'lmpotitiun ? As the ternperatnn 
iocuiiM. tlie t-apacily iii<;rt;n«Rt, hut it is owing to tlieir dilatation, 
u in the ftae of gu««. 

Doe* a Hunii^Q in upe^-ific hi-at pnxliiee a chnnee in temperature f 
klomyn; an inenuc of cnpncily, tlnrcforc. of llio specific beat 
illmiiiiobes the temiKratTire ; and n d«crca<c of capacity (r attended 
■ iih an iin-i*«se «f temitcratnrc. 

What d'termines the condition of bodies as to thi>lr eoudilion 
of H>li(l)tT. rti)nidity. or paMons slate f The relative tntoiiiiily of 

Ietion nnil rrpuUion. 
To wlul i* llir property of repttlition owing ? To bent ; and the 
arm of )>«di'-<' may )>c made to vary as this is increased or dlwin- 
Wwd. Every solid may bo converted into a fluid, and every lluid 
iaU ■ Tapor, provided our means for the production of heat ar« 
lAciefUJy powerful. 


t* IM-Ht n>>i><irbrit iinO miili^r^d iii«(riHible, or enid firodiu'Cd, whcB 
Boliil lioilii-K imxiiiiic ilie li'/uiil form? Ii i*. TliU hrnt i* »omt' 
timet cnllnd ihc heat of Jtuulih/, ami svt-m> nrcoMnry to lh« 

On tliin )iriiicipl« (he cotcl prodticed \tr fritjorijic miainrtiiit 
pxplniutd. Wlii-n strnw nnd »utl ore mixed, n tcmpn»tnre of wrw 
ia produced, nm) nri*M from llie iittmrtion between Ihc Kilt «nd 
wntcr, prndiiciiiK liqiitifiiL'lioii, mid thfruby licnt i« rriidvrud Uteiit, 
»nd cfiW if ihi- n-iiill. 

is licnt evolved, or iniide seimililc during the pitssnge af i, liqnid 
into A toHdf It it; and a rnmilinr inMntice cxistn in the formnlioa 
ofico, wliirh m-icr itei* lieli^w 32' while ehnnginir trnm n liquid to 
a Eolid stole, kl llio siirroii tiding temperature he what it mny. 
And hIho in the ulai'ing nf lime bj* water; which produces an 
elcrnlion of Icmpi-rnliiri- frnin the wnlcr pnssini; into a solid etate. 

li there nny o^ii'ntinl distinetion between fapora niid gaeeal 
No; what arc cuininoid}* chDciI gaces ore merely vapors that %n 
difficult to coiidinse : ^oiiie ncTcr hove been condensed al sll, bill 
no doubt could be by KaCTu-ictit prepare and reduction of tenpera- 

Ouex are more expaoKihlu ihnii cither lit^nids or solids, and lh« 
rate of expansion is unirorm, and the same in all (fases, heinp about 
the iW\\i of ihcir whulf viilume fnr every defrroe of Fahrenheit. 

What i» mciiiil liy a Jirrii IfKlift It is a body which resists tha 
siroiipcwi hcnt wc are cnpublc (jf producini; without vaporiiinff, 

Whnt is incftiit by a /■ulnlite body J It id a body which Is con- 
verted into vnpor by our means of prodiicinfr heal, 

Whol i* ebiiliition T It is wlierc vapor is formed below the sur- 
face, givin); rise (■> a commotion in the liqriid ; and the temperaiure 
at which this takes |>lace k called tlie bnifing point. 

Whnt is ini-nnt by p.rapnratioiif It is where rapor It fomed 
below thi^ siirfiici? (irid <ii-eiirs nl ivimmon temperatnres. 

Is ibi; liniliiift }>"inl cif all liquids the same at the common pr»- 
Rire of the nlinotphi^ref No; Miljilmric ether boils nl SiG^ F., 
iik'i>hiil at ITlj", iind pure water at Hi', oil of turpentine at 3I0^ 
ntid mTcurj- nt 662°. 

What cirnim«tancc* modify the hoilin;; poiat of liquids f Varia- 
tion in the ]tressiire of the nimospliere ia the principal one. The 
material of which the vcMel cnnlaining the liquid is composed hat 


I ihflacnc*; aUn Ibu pnwRncc of nngiilitr bodice. Ltqutiln boil in 
' Bl 14(1'' lovrr tluii iu tliii ojm^ii uir, unil if hiibji^i^ii-il lo HuQi- 
rirnl pn-wiirv. miiy \ic lifjtlvi] to an}' exliitiL wilhniit builiiiir. 

Thr iliirrn:tiM! iii tlic bi^iliii;; ])uiiit of waiiT frum ililTiT*;!)'^!! In 

awjihcfic |>muiiin! fBriiUticit one at Iho bttit modi^ of oKcorliiiii- 
Ibv hrijiht of ntuualniiix ; u dcjirfHiiioi) of otii^ (li-Kf<'<' being 

ml lo 518 fiipt of tli-tniioii, frum lliu amount of jimiKiirt; of the 
tlin>'»}<bnn! ttcing (liiniuiKliL-i] in ibnl pruporlioii lu; wc a«c?nd. 

A milk- facli of water, in bccomiii;; xtmin nt ihc ordinary prcs* 
nre of ibc ■tinntipbcTc, cxpiiiiiU ii<-nrl)r tu n cubic foot iu bulk ; 
•mI a lorttc aiouuiit of hut i.i n-n<li-n-il ku-nt iii tin; prwrw. 

WbNl circunuiHRt^GS iaSacuc% tlxi jirticcuut of eva)>(irnt>ot) ? 
KiDnl vf Ktirfiicc, and Ibc «tiitc of the ur, m to Um pent turn, dry- 
nm, MilliK'u, nnil di'&inl;. 

i diaiinuiiiia of Icmpcmlurv nlwayii n-inltx whMi nrnpornlioo 
t*\n plttn*. ni>d h'c may iiiidcr cvriuin circutiisianccit be produced 
tij ibig lat-aag. 

ffliai are thr aoitrce* of licnt f Tbe sun, combuKtlon, elcnlricitjr, 

< iiQiiiet of aaiiBiiU ilurlng life, cbcniical and mei'liaaival nL'ttoo. 


WIhU ia niMttt by ilie scieuce of OiMcat II U that (cicnco 
fUch tnaia of 'iJi/A/ mid t-iWon. 

What is ihi- niiture of light 7 Arcoi'dingr [o Newton, it is nn 
anaiialion ot incoixrivably Diiuatc particles frotii luiniiiuiu boditx ; 
itry rolitlv. kimI lmr«lM in siraighi lines with iuinience velocity, 
brhig IftS.tWU milt* in n wtond. A'-curdhig-Tu the other theory, 
it tt tiiujily fibratioiiM, or andnluiiuns, of a enbite ethereal inv<liiitii. 
wlildi site riiH) to Tialon in n inniiner giniilar to what tbe midula- 
hlioiis at ihu air itaprtM the nerres of hearing. 

What in mrant by u ray of li^hl i It \i the Hiniillot porlitm 
«bieh call l>e nepitratvd from eontiguous portions. 

In what pru|H)rlioii doc» light deeren«e as »e prueeMt fmni a 
hnint'lu object t A* tiio *<iHurv of the distance from [h« luminoiu 
object incrntiteit. 

Whvu lixht falln on a body, in what manner is it diiposod of? 
ttui dlhw rf/fatW, rr/racUit, or ah»9rb<td 

la Mulnr tight $impi£ otemipoundT It ii a compound of Beren 


MDipIc or primary colore, vijj : nA. ontn^, yellow, jtrcpn, bine, 
Indiga. onil viok-t. Tliis lias for n long lime licrn the rrrcir^-d 
opinion, but lit prcsMit tlie riews ot lircwster prevail frencrally. 
wliii'li is, that, there nre but thrt« primary colore, red, yellow, iind 
bluo ; anil tbnt tliB oroDfce, ^recD. indiieo, nnd violet arc eompoiiiid 
ones : each color «xi«nd» ov«r ll)e whole specirum, Itot bin its 
great«8i intensity at oae pan (iudicaled by the h«Bbt of iJie curra 


Tcllow. Red. 






■ Itatig*. 


in tbe din^acn). There are also rnyi of the spcctrnra t«rtaed 
calorific, aud chemical, and 10 which some hftva added the moff- 
ti vti ling. 

The h'reutest illum'naiing power of tbe iprclmni in about iu 
middle, or between the yellow and green ; llic irrefttcst calorific 
]H>wer is the red apace, or beyond it, varyiiif with ihc prism UMd ; 
tbe ifiemen cliewieal power it in th« most refrangible part of 111* 

l.iKhi is [ii^reitaary to vegetable and animal existence, and vmvj 
iirthe pUeai>meua of the nntural world ure due to its iiiHuenco. 

Wlint is iiinlenitOfMl by fejTv*iriW light? It is nnificinl liglili 
aiiiL llic coiniiiuii method of obtaining it is by eombiKtion. 

Whut arn in»inimeiits rnlled that nre dtai^cd for measBring 
intciisilict gf light t PholoinHfrs, 


What U rnidemlood by electricity f It is a principk railed into 
action by nibbing substances eslled rlrrlrict. »iirh n« iinil>er, glsfs, 
Ac., with dry tktlk or clolh, nnd which ctinses cotititfuon;^ li^ht 
bodies tu move towards Ihem or b« attracted ; whI tli* sulMtanc* 
pui>iicNiliig this property of attraction is »aid to be clwtrifKd. 



ii iliis nitntctiot) nlted T Electric aitnttion. 

What (nka pUfe wh«ii tbvte liglit subsiances come in contact 
•ili m etveUi&vi body ? Tl*y recwlo or are rejielled, and ihis 
prn|>crtr b ralleii «l«cirk repuiiiion. 

CaB this properly or electricity be condiicled from one body to 
MMber? It c»n by some enb<iaiices, but not by others; lience 
bodies are divided into condactors and non-conductors. 

Wjiat ara tht condunlore T Metats, (.'liarco&I, plumbago, water, 
u4 MfastanccE vliich contain water in its liiiuid slate. 

Arc pkcirics coodactorxf }io; they may be handled williout 
Iwuf ihrir olv>ctrieit)r, except nt tlic pans lonclicd ; on (he oilter 
btml. rondadom are uon -electrics, becauM the electricity is at once 
tuntd off. 

Can a condiKtor bo •lectrilitxl or excited 7 It can. by being 
bHlUcd or cat off from contnct with lfa« earth, either directly or 
ladinetly, by means of a nonn'ond actor. 

T*BL« 0* cMmecTORa *iii> laauLiToai, 









hnuif Mvla, 

FiimJ oili, 

ATkallnv ■oUUoai, 

Splrii* of tarpnatinak 





Damp air. 


Vfgriftbia and animal ItodlM. 


Dry ^at». 

Why do «l«trif expwlmeiils asually fail In damp, wcntliorr 
Bwmw the ntniofphere then act* a* a conductor, awl cgntlncts the 
[ •Iwricily off. 

Wlwl are ihe diffrrfnl rvniHtionn of clcclricity ? There ie one 
>ll»i| vititous, becanttc dercloped on ^Ihm. and nnolher enlleu 
ow, becanse drvdopcd on roinuus Militlnncex. Thcj arc nl«o 
I poM(t>i; and lu-'jaliiy, the terms viireons and positivci being 
[Wdtynonyinonilf, as are resinoun and nctcativt. 

Wlial relation do liubslances bear to each other, simi'.arli/ elec- 
'iflwl ? They repel each other. 



Wlien diatiimitarly i^lectriRvd ? Thvy alliywl tech other. 

Ilovr \i elccLricity tJviUid t Jij rriction, change ot temperature, 
cV'micttl action, coiitact. i:)iun;;(!ii ot form of a body by vnrialiotit 
of tomiieruiure. ntid [iruxiiullir to aii elwtrified body, or lir iadac- 
tiou ; when excited by uh«iitit-ul means, it is called galranUm. 

By /notion !s the iniMt ununl oiode of oblaiiiias electricity, and 
the ordinary elecirlc laacUliie is formed oii this principle. 

That change of Ufrnjieratare b a Hource of electricity, may be 
proved by hcaltiii; ractallic rods to different Icmiicratnrw at their 
eslremities; this ia thenno-etectricitif. 

Prwrimity to an fleclrijii'd body, or itntucdon, in anotlwr Diode 
of cxcilin); it that is often riisoru-d to. Klwtrieily may be forced 
through »p»ce ut nppri-ciablu dixlnnecii, «tvcn xhouid n oon'COfl> 
dui'tititc !(tiV>sti>iice be inlerposei] ; it arivni from the ntlrariiTe aitd 
repulsive povi-erK a«cribi'd to elc'ctric^ nuitlK. If an innulated cou* 
diii'lor be plnord with il» end tnwardn a prime conductor, ihe end 
towardu the comliietor will aN«iitne a nt.-tiutive cutiditiuu, while Its 
other end will he poKitivc, and any xerieit of condiictoifi will ftuunM 
the Kninc condition, bnl wilh erinntuntly deoreafiug tnteii-iity. It la 
au Imporuinl principle in electricity. 

ElectriSed boTlIi.-i attract lij^ht objects to I hetn, became an oppo- 
site state of elecirirtiy Is induced. When wc move the baud to- 
wards the prime condiielor of an excited mnchtae, a spark ts i^vea 
out on account of ih« band beiiiit made ue)rative by Itiduction, and 
the spark restores the ccpiilibrlum. A cloud charged with electri- 
city pasting Dear tlie earth iudnces an opposite stale, and lightning 
ill the re^ntt. which i^ nu electric s|)ark on a Iar;;c ^cule. 

On what prindple is the Lfydia jar formed .' TliiH of induO' 
tion. They consist ofjurs u-iib wide moallis, coated interualty and 
externally with tin foil. The monlli is closed by cork, throu);h 
which a metallic condnclor ts conreyed to the inside coaling, which 
is bronjrht in contnrt with Ihe prime conductor of an electric ina- 
chini; ; it bcciime« charged pusilircly, while the outside will be 
negntivu by indnction. If a coinmanicalion be established by ft 
cuadiictor liclwrcn ihv two ;oais, a spark la produced, and the 
eqniliiirium cstahlishcd. The coaiias merely serves as a conductor 
to spread the electricity over the snrfucc of tlie plaaa. A ncriea 
of two or more iif these jars may be arranged so a» to consiitntr a 
hatli-ry, by connci-tiiig their iiiiernaJ surGicea logotlier, and alio 



fximml sorfnees w!(li each oilier. Id this way llic elTects 
mf lip tficn-a>«4 by dlitchurKiiii; tlicm all at once, inilUitliig lb« 
i^liinini;, vliich 'n Ihv saiue tliiiif,' on a lui-jie scale. The object 
ot li^niitg radH ia to mablUh ur jircfierve the cqiiililirium between 
Ika ekad and the eaitli ; tliey are pointed, ao thnt Ibiii may be done 
bImIIj} if tliej pnaented a blunt exti-eiiiiiy, it would produce a 
tfUk and slraclt which miglit produce unpleo^nut cITocls. Ttiis \» 
Ja^ to the fact tliai electricity will tlou- ra^'idly from points, 
*tile on a largB torface it innxt ncciimulnic in Inr^e qnnnlitieH be- 
fitre a dbi'harj^ will occur, or a titgii degree of iiitenfU'j niuxt take 
lice, whicli in nieaiarcd by the lengllb of tlic spark. Eltelromelem 
id fieclrifacofiti iiien»are intensity: pith ballu Etispendod, and 
inK each other vhen electriRed. niid Ihcftotd leftf olcctromGter, 
lUMTvH of these instruments. The quaiiranl niciisnre« inton- 
divergence of ihe pith ball from ihc pcrpciiiiivular. Ths 
oe electromeler mcnsuru amonut of cxvilalion by the weigUta 
by the stlravtito force. 


Whm and by wliom discovered? In ITJO. by Qalvinl. He 
■<*idintally noticed, la disseclitiR frojrs, thai, «heii the scalpel was 
lo MMaci oiib \\tt BCTTea, and touched another metal in coniticl 
•ill) ibe mn»olc, eon I ruction took place. He supposed lliat thoro 
■M a OKK'tinrgu of deriricity a.i in a Leydeii jar, find lliut the 
■trre) acted n« one conlinii of the Jar, the muKclcii dh ihu other, 
*»d that ina:>r»lar ninlion wiu alwnya depenili-nl upon such din- 
■tngei. Volto denied lhl«, and iillegud ibiil ihc muscle una only 
U lltetrofrope, indicnlin^ the prCMCiicu of electricity. Fur tho 
pBUMloa <^lhis kind or cleiaricily, two mctiiU or coudueturs arc 
DcrMury, and a fluid that acta on, or corrode* one more than 
•■WlJur. It in idrnlical «ilb ordinary Heclricily «»dlrd by a 
""ehuiB; IliiB Intlcr. from being iiiMilnled, \ms itreat inlfnuitij, bnl 
t^ 9»ai»/i/y h sianll. In galvanic dorclopnienl, the quanlily ii 
"lie. lioi the U-nfion i« not great. 

Wljat is a nimplc Kullaic or ijalranic circlet It may be formed 
h * pUlo of «inc and a plate of copper, or other metals, placed in 
*ntu| of water wiib sulphuric ocid, and the two melalH brought 


CU EH lit THY. 


ill coiitftct nt thdr iMlff*. dirw-tly, «r Ijv im-nii* of n wire, niid » 
ffnlvniiic current will ')»' pxoiuii ; livilrutrcii i'SCiii>injr m ilic copper 
plnli;. while ilie kiik; oni: will Ih-uoijii? osidixi-d. The rorwnl wti 
out frum the most to tlic Icnst oxidixable mvtAl in lAe walcr, and 
to Ibe former otU of the water. 

Thv fulluwini; oxliiliits it cuiincclion of tbrcc siaple circles. Rod 
the ilircctloa of Vlw correiit : — 

Pig- 3. 


irsmraonin lie dmiI in thin Ijnttwj- iiwtend of tlie dilute snlphnrie , 
acid, thu current will be rcTor«ed, on acfoiint of (be copper betng , 
more readily ai-tcd upon bj the ammoiuu tliun tbe xiiic is. CbMU 
G&l dccoin position is niTCKtinry l» tin- gnlvimii- txeitHlion, Diid^^ 
two coiidiietom will nn«wcr the purpose, GO that one is acted upon 
more euxily Ilinii ihp oilier. 

Two liipiitU uikI II nictnl nUo mny form a circle, provided ona 
liquid operuCcs raaxv strongly on one aide tbuu the other od tba 
otber side of ilie plutc. 

A batterif coii>!i»(s of a great man; Tollale circles, or compotmi 
yn/i-nniV circles. 

Qvanliiy is produced hj the extent of ^urfncc of the platm, 
wliile tengion depends Dpon the number of the platec; either may 
be itKTcased to u t'l'ctit extent hy ntignieiiling the oinitition for i(a 
prodiiclion. The lif>t is menviired liv il» chrmical effect, and' 
pariienliirly by its power of dccom|i')sitiuii ; the latter by its power 
of imsslnif ihrouuli imperfect coiidnclors. 

The maK"^t'c needle h deflected from its meridian by a galranlo 
cuneiit. and is a true menBure of its energy ; in fact, it Is a yaK 
vatiomelcr, which i^ co[i»iruclvd in Uie siune way ; the dircctioa 
cf the curreni, is alao indicated. 

Cuu Leal be produced by pilvatiLim ? It can, by Iiicreasinf; the 




MWe ; ptatlnum hax Iii-pq hied hy it wUh (rivBt rapiditj ; cliar- 
«mI hu also l>i-i-ii iK'utri) to irhiii-ni-K* iii vucuo, atiLl it cauiiot. 
tWnfore, b« dcppntlcnt upon c<>iiili(i>.-lioii. 

EleHn^iutioti, or rlrftrottffit. \* \\\v (Ircompotiitioii of a fluid 
Ij Riitanib nrlion; rhvlrodrt. or p'/lm, of ik Imltcrv nre tlic 
rdints or tlir rirniit wlicro Hcctricnl {ilicnomena fire maiiifesled, 
uti] trt iixanll; ibc cxtrtniiiics. 

StfetntiylfK arc !^Titi8tnnccs which are taxable of dprompOFttioQ 
li l)iif aiatincr ; nix] two ronditioiis sr<^ iiecee<<Bry. T)ie fubslance 
boDdFT^ decomposition niu«l Ite a roiidiiL-l«r; and it mtisl aUo 
t>« Id ■ liquid forra. WaliT acidnlalcd witli Milphuric acid ia one 
nbiiaim tliat may bo tlins decomposed; and f«. ihcri'fure. an 
(tetnilytff. Wbcn decomposed, Ihe OKypeii iit found ai llm ])i>»l- 
Im pole, and is, tlierefore, tlectro-iii-rialive, because opjiOkite siutca 
iltract each other ; while ihe hydi'0|«ii Is (riven off al the tiei-utive 
pair, aiid on (li« same i)rtneiple must he rli^rtro poxiliri'. If ihc*o 
mn alMuld be collected, tl will lie fimnil thnt ihe usyjrcn U only 
OBfhalf tli« balk of the hydrofceii, thiii proving hy nnnly«is Ihat 
In fttlnroes of tiydroften and one of oxy^n arc combiacd in ihe 
faraation of water. The luiutiiiT of this decomposition is illaa- 
Med by llio diagram. 

U lITt lu lU U'lUl >ul« 

P and Z arc tbc pln1cJ> immencd ; W W the wires leading into 
a Teasel of wairr ; and II and O are the jifnses ^ven off. 

TI>o water IK suppofcd to arrange itself in a inolccalnr cont^tion 
lietwevn Ihe poles or eleclrodcH, a particle of oiyi;en is cvolnil M 
the anodo, and it* pniticlc of byilrufren, iuilead of l>eing tmiitircrrrd 
at OHce lo ttic uppoaitc Hcctiude, unties with the next particle of 
oxygcii, aed dia]ilacta the pnrtii-le of hydrogen with which it waa 
preriuiialy unil«<), which, i>u bcinj; dikpluced, aaite^ with the nut 



Iinrticlc of oxyif^n. an<l w on to itie totiL uhcrc ft partWe of 
li,v<JruK<-i) i» lliruHii uft. 

TtitTu i". llir-ii, u jinipngiation uf u jiulur Torcc ihnviigbQUt tho 
moki^iilnt <if ll)L- wutirr, and all oiltvt clevtruly tm, und u seriri of 
poiiKi'Ciilivf (lM:uin))usitioiia niid ret;nin[)OMlionti pr(>il«ii;ciL. 

Curt nia'jnirlifm be pradiicod by galrtitiiiim f It cuii ; and hu 
givpTi rhv to Oio scicuui! of eUctro-'magnetinn, If ■ vurraiil of 
dtfctricit; bu parted ut ri);lit aiiglcB to k \>\tvt of iron or stcd, 
iDngnutic polnrilT is ilvvdoped, tlte dirvi-lion of the ciirnrnt d«lor- 

^ mining tlio pgiiiiioii of ihu \m\m. If this vurrciil circulate » nnnibcr 
of lini(-Knraiiiitl tliR liar, llic vfTi-ct is iin'rvuscd, and un cxlraordtnary 
mnfrni-tir powrr is soon acquired. 
Uy luking it ]jiucv of >»rt iron, »nrri>iiiiiU>d hj a coil of coppei 
win-, bent itilo a huree-tliue form, and sur- 
"*• *• rounded prcrloiisly with silk, ao as to inaulnte 

Q il, unci coniict-ling lliv two ends of tliL> wire « Ilk 

L j'MMIli n biiiiiTy, it will bo found that iho two ends of 

^K ^S ^^^ "'^'^ \ifti« poweri\il nmgiiellc propcrtia, 

9 9 capable of susialiiing a great weight while the 
^t a curreiil U closed, 

a S '""' ""igiK'li^"! produced in tbis way will 

a B exliiliil the saute properties uk that of a coiuinon 

fW^^\ mngnct, of attradron nnd repulsion, Magueltun 
/ y \j iim,v ulao be made to call into activity eleclrle 
cL curr^itit. Take the two exir^niitiex of th« coil 

/' '• of ihc elect m- mil pi el above thown, and roiiocct 

(sif them with a galranomvier ; np)ily a sled hone- 

dhoe innpnct lo tlic ends of the bar, and a cur- 
rent of electricity will be developed, w iiidicatcil )iy the deScclion 
of the needle. Wlicn the magnet is removed, the polarity being 
dealroyed in the iron, a second current is prodnced opposite lo tlie 
flrsl. In both coses the cuiTent is but moaeniary — a mere wave. 
By iDini; a powerful mairnrt, and mabin]; nn arrangement by whldi 
a li(>r wrapped with the coil can be applied and removed with 
rapidity, or so that a* polarity may bo induced nnd drntrayed 
t|iiiel(ly, magiieto-elcftric currents of preat imeiisity may be pro- 
duced. This principle has been applied to the ooustractioa of 
machiues for medical purposc-s. 


SronFio G«AViTT. 


Wlut b RfKcilic frraTiij* It fx tli« relatlre vdght or Mjud 
Mb «r iliffcmit bodifC 

How in it n4cvruiitc<l f By ilividiiifr die weijtlil of xht body hy 
tk wri^lit or IIm same bulk of wnUr. wliioli U nnsiiinfiJ nx iiiiily. 

How in the wci(rlH of * like hoik iif wiilrr fiiniid ? Uy wrif;hiny 
iJw nib«Uncc out of water, and tii water, the dilTurcnceit will be lh« 
*ti)^t nf tli« water di!([>laved. 

BnpfXMC tli« body h liKliter timii water. Tlien add the weij^lit 
mnoMTj to sink It to the weight of Ibo body, and you hare the 
*nt^t nf an equal bulk of water, wblcb will eiutble you to tlud the 
ipedlki {gravity in the uaaal maBncr. 

What ar« the InttlruneiiU used la ascertalu the specific gravity 
tf liifuldi. ffj/ditimettrrs. 

Vbol U BMUued as tiaitr in ascerlaliiitii; the specific Rravity of 
ptfT The aUiuMpli«ric air; and their apeclSc f;ravity ii awer- 
Uofd oa the aome jmueiples as liqiiida and solids. 

^^^^ NotnUtCLATVBX. 

' Vkat are the compoandi of oxygeii called, that do not possess 

Ki^ir t OxiAn, 
I Vkot are they called when tbcy po<sefl« nciii'ii/ 1 Acidn ; and 
I M* naiDed IWtia the snbBtane? noidilit-d by the addition of iV. For 
iartance, lulpharic and carbonic acids are acid componails of sul- 
(dnraMl cwiion with oxygen, 
SnppoM a base should form two acids with oxygen, what Is tho 
called containinic the leoitl iguaiitity of oxygeii f It lukes the 
of ibv base with the addition of ou«, as snlpburoiw acid. 
Bj what bame do we denote the simple Don-ni<-lullir coinbuMiblea 
'hni uniKnl witn one another, with a melnl, or a meiallie oxide F 
are known by the addition of urel or iilf. mt nulpiiurvl, cnrbu- 
, and pboNpburet of irau, or salphlde, carbide, and phosphide 
af inm, dunoiltig compounds of sulphur, carbon, and pbosphomb 

How arc Ibc oxides diitinffuisbed from each other T Protoxide 
I* die Qnt degTee of oxidation ; binoxidt the second ; teroxide the 



en IMlaTBT. 

thirii ; and t1i« term peroriile is often applied to the blRliCRt Aegrr4 
of oxidaiion fiesqui, one and n half, is nsod 10 an oxido, lUe oxy- 
gen iu which is to that in the first vxlde as one and a hair to one, 
or as lliroc lo two. 

What is iisnallj' nndcrttotid \ty the terra taUt A conpound 
resulting from 1h? nnion of an ncid wiih a base. The dcQiittlofl of 
a salt, as given hj Dr. Hare, is, ihal it is a soluble com]>ound, con* 
laiiiin^ one or more acids, or corrosive tnfredienis, the qtlkUtfes of 
the inirrcdiehts being eilher neuiralleed or modified ; tli« Dnmeis 
iiidJL'iitive of the composition. 

If the narae of Ihe acid lerniinates in te, the name of the Mit 
terminates in ate; tf the ncid lenninales Id oiu, Ihe salt termltialM 
in iff. Thus the stilphnlo, carbonate, and arseiliate of poto^a are 
Hilts of snl]>tinnc. rnrbimic. and arsenic acids nilh potasAa. Tha 
terms sul]ihite and arscnile of polassa. denote comhiualEitiiK of >ul- 
phiirons and arKciiiuns acids «ilh polnsRa. 

What is «iider«tood by nrutral, »uper, and euh salUf Sail* 
arc termed Jifufral, if the acid and base ueulralixe cnth other j 
aupcf. if the acid is in excess; and syih, if the base ti In cxccsn. 

Another manner of expressing the relation between a<'ids and 
bases relates to ibc atomic constitution of the salt. If there is an 
etiuivalent of the acid and alkali, the generic oame of the nit ia 
employed H'ithout any other addition. 

If two or mure cqnivnionts of the acid are attached to oii«of ibc 
base, a nnmernl is prefixed iiidienling its composition, u the *uU 
phale and bimtlpfiaic of poiasss ; the oxalate, binaraiatr, and 
quadroxalaU of ])otaSBa. When Llie base \i In exceu, or the acid 
dcHcieni, it is proposed to cise the Greek numerals, i/i>,/r)>,Mrul'M, 
to inilicate the equivalent of an alkali in a s^bsal^ In other com* 
pounds, where two or more equivalents of a negaiEvc elenaent enter, 
they nrc distinguished by the Latia numeral, and the Oreck ntinia 
mis arc applied to that element regarded as positive. For inxtituce, 
a tiichliiride contnins two cqnirnlcnts cf the negative eleoicDt ehlo- 
rinc; on the oiher hand, a dicltioride signiflea that one eqair.ilcol 
of chlorioo is combined nith two of a posiiive body. 

Wliul i» nn nniphigen elcmeni ? One which has the power of 
coitiliiuiiig with others nnd fuiniing both acids and bnant, u 
oxygen ; ibns, it will coiubino with iron, rormiLg a bau FeO, and 
nitrogen, to form an acid A'O.* 




What is BiMBt bv a hotoff^n sail T It is a enhetance havlnp t]i« 
Vroprnin of n salt tUnI is composed only or two siiii|)le fluhstBrieeit. 
loiiiM, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, otiii (■yanoR'en are the only 
*iin|>l« «al)(!lanees iha: have the properly of rumbiniiiir «iib other 
linplp sobfilanoes, nnd rorming Ihif. clnss of eompoundH. 

Vhat ia mennt by Intalynisi It is the nctlon of pretinirr in 
pndwing drrompotition ; ns when a body, which po§Bes«eB wbal 
kw bvcn termed cntnlytic forre, rctiolves otber bodies into ii«w 
rgiD|ioiiiMlK bj men voBiaet or prrscncc, without itself oxperieiieins 
ny modtScatioD. 

What i* nirniii by ittrrmorjhovii f It is a term applied to diifer- 
m budiiv vliich harv the bniiic crTstnllinc fonn. 


What in undenttood by ehemu'at offinily. or attraction f It ts 
llMt afBnity or a(lmcli<iM which in vxerted between the miDUtest 
puiiclA of ilifTrToiii kind* of luiittvr, causing ihcm to combine, and 
fumi new IxHikti, with now propertiev- 

I)««* It art at tcHMIe or i/iivttrille diilanrrs f It acts only at 
in*rtinMr <lii'taaec«, or whvn in apparent conlnet. 

What i* an imtiincR of cArmtV.'df altraclion t Oxygen and iron 
knniiiji r««t, or nn oside ; oxide of iron and Fniphune acid form- 
ing a itrvtMi ralorcd xall, tlic Kulphalv of iron. 

tVlial In nn<li'r»lo>i(i liy nimjln ed'cCivr affinity ? Suppose we 
bam A cotapoiiDi) formi'd by ihe nntun of iimmonia and oil, and to 
tJiia w<i add tiulphurio aoid, ihu grcaUT nttraelion of the nmmontn 
for ibc (iiipharic lu^id llinn c.\iiit» between it and tV oil, will mnw 
H lu leave \\if oil, aivd unite witli the acid ; ihi^ h an innlanci: of 
kincti) clcvtl*o aKnity, so termed bei-auHu there nppenrx to be an 
dtnTiioii. or choice «xerei«ed. 

WluU in tn«inl bj double flf<'lii^e affinity 1 Suppoiw two nalte 
hating diffen'til a<'td.-i nnd banes, ^uy curbonutr of nmmmiin nnd 
liydroeblorutc of liute, be mixed together, llii- ciirliutiic ncid will 
quit llMt niDmonia, and unite with the litne; the hydrocblDric acid 
will aUo leaTC the lime, nnd unite with the ammonia; no t}iat 
lioth i>ngiiial suits "ill I't- dvi'timjiotied. and luo new ones formed; 
•Jiii ia an iaKlnnce of donhk cl«'ti» c afllnity. 

Wliat leading ciraunKtancu characteriice chemical action ? Tho 



loss of propcrtiFB of the combiain^ eubslnncr*, and llic scquUltioD 
of uew «iiee in xhe new compoiind ; cb&ngcc of limsit;, temiMirkture, 
form, nnd color. 

Wliiit i-ircaiii(taiicc9; inoilirj thr operation otaBinUf T Cnbtfion, 
elasiicily, qiianiit; vt niollvr. gravity, prrtsare of ihp ntniospbcre, 
kDi) iba agoijc; of tlic impomtcrnblai. 

Do bodies mule in dejtnUe or indefinile proportiont T Snt^ i 
tfttotlCM UDile in drtiiiile proporiions, nnd form bat few diffcrrnt 
'fiompoUDds willi each ulhur; some of them but one, some two,i 
others nicuin nnile tn tlirt-e. (hut, live, and even fix, wliiuli U (lif 
Lbighesl niimbiT of eomponudit that iinj two eiiliHtsnces arc kpown 
rto produce. They nre governed by three rcmarlcahlc laws: — 

First Law. — The eomposition of bodies it fixvd and invariablo. 

Second Law. — The relative quantities in which bodies nniU^ 
msy he exprewed by proportionnl immljcrs. 

3'liirii Law. — When one body. A. unites wiih anotltcr body. B, 
in two or more proportions, the quiinlilies of the latter, united with 
the satno quantity of the former, bear to each other a very simple 

All Mibttanccs contniuing only two atoms are called binarj/ 
componntU', those of two binary coroponuds are called Urnan/t 
of fmir, <iuarlcrnarij ; nnd so on, 

Siibsluacee niso unite in definite volumes, so thai the lows of 
combination may equally well be deduced from the volitiaea or firoii 
th(! weigUtH of conibiiiing »ultstance.i, nnd the cuinponition of 
giucnnx bodies may be im well expn-Ki^d by mcntiirc lu weig'hts. 

What i.4 undee^tood by clir^mical f/uiralrnlf It ie a number 
repie^xenting the cumbining pniporlioos of a body, which igj 
equivalent to another body, and mny be substituted for it id com- 
binutionii. These eombiuing proportions mny bo expreiwed bji 
nnmlien, lu which liydruj^en it. reprcseuicd as I, and they repn<seii|j 
relntire, nnd not ab»oIiite weighla. ■ 

What in menai by iaonwrie or melamtric bodies T Bodies arf] 
termed isomeric or im-iamerit: which contain the same cliemteal: 
elcraents. nnd in the Kamc mtiii, tind yet haro chemical pru])ert!ei 
different from each other, ni the oil of lemons (C/f), and the oil 
of cop.iilif» {G"V/*). i 

Wlini i« ihv liiircrcni-c l)etween polymeric AiiA melameric hudiee ?; 
A body is taid to bo polymeric of another when the relative pro- 




^mlmi of iu elNHnta In ibc same, but whirli lias twice or IhrUw 
t)» vqaiTKlrni unmber of Ihe oik Mow II. TKi», oil ofiurpcniinc 
iC*H') u poljnierip ftf ibe oil orcalamna (CIP). 

How n*T ibe eqiii*iil«nl ot compouods be deiermin«i) t Bj 
id4ing tOfctnlitT ibe nnmhers rcprcucntinj^ the eqnivalcnis cnlcriiig 
iuo the combiDkitoii. Thttt mimbcn nrv »on>etIffi«« tenued atomic 

^^^Kt ii k K^nibnl f The Brst Mtrr of ih« I.nlin nnine of an 

^HRHm, or, if two elciumt« begin with ibe unmc Irlti-r, a g«coud 

mallfr OM b added. Tiiii*. N (tnndx for nitropeti, and Ni for 

lickel. A kvihImI itfrlf imlicnlCK onu cquivnteiit ofnii clement, aa 

r C. which implies one atom of clilorine, 

^B What uiT thi- rrrabolg for the tbrce jihyRicol formti of niulierT 
^I^mM i» rrprcscntc<l iii Romnti type. n« Zn for litic ; a lujUtti U 
^H|hl*i<1ed in ilatics. a:; BO for water ; and a 911s bj a mibII bnir 

tKtef. for oxygen 
I n«v are Ibc ttrmlioh of organic bodies dietitigiiiahcd from tho 
I itorynicT By baving a line drawn orer th<-m, ns O. Pi, wblch 

nmi tut DXnIic n<-icl niiii proU-in. rcspcclively. 
I Wlral mic is oWrvi-d in writing fonnnlns T If it be an ampliiguii 
»K l)ir tiMv i« pluvcd before tho acid, as in «a)pbalo of Koda 
(SiOSO*). If n bn!<>gi-u Mill. Ilic inctollic milicnl is pinci-d before 
thfttli radical, a» in th« chloride of liiic (ZnCI). In all oilier 
a»n Ibe body raoiit ren-mbliiig oxygen is placed on Ibc rig;bt of 
<h oiWr elemeal. 

Wbta ■ cAoipoiliid consist* flf (crcrnl cC|nivHleiiM of the >ame 
(••■niU, liow are they mntliplied ? By plonny Kiniill li^iirea to 
ft* rfjiht of tlte syroboU, lu C'Jl^O, whii-h in tlie forninlii for clher. 
Ilvw ii an nnrombined element nmltiplicd f IJy placing a \tiTgO 
. ipiftU) ilie toft of the tiyrabol, ua to, wbicb xi^iifics four cquiva- 
1 1"!'' of free OXjp-a. 

Wlen a larpe Rgnn i» placed before a compound, how far docs 
fh mnltlplyf To the fir*t comoia or pins sipn, as SNaO.PO*, 
► •Mdi lurrilwsicphiMpbnii- of aoda; or. if the symbols nre enclosed 
I'" « )>iin'itllici;l<. it niullifilics nil within il, as 4(FeOSO*), wblch 
thdieticf e(|iiiTalenlK of nnlpbate of Iron 
18» <■ 



la the entire formala or a compoond body almya expresaed 
No ; it la fycqia-nt]}- altliruviuleil, aa C/ Tor cyuii(>]{«n, insiCNd a 
C'N, wbich cx|iro»»Ps its iiltimnl«> com point ion. 

How it tliv Kviyiliul fur ciiimtiluliijiiiil wslrr dixlinguUbod froi 
that of WHtcr of «ryiitallizatioii F CouKiiluliuiinl water ix prints 
In tlie djiiibol* «f iU dements. thii», HO, m XnOCO'HOCO', wlii« 
is bk'tirboiiiktc of K'kIa, Uic wutcr in it being nccrwinry to ltd cxial 
eui'e. On ilie oilier hnni], Aq in ihc Kfinbol for ilic wntor o 
iTjstatlixfltion. ah in AI'0'3SO',KOSO' + 24 Aq. lli« foriuuU ft 
comninn oluni. thu cmiitltinc form of which i* drntrofcd by drivin, 
off ihu H cqiiirnknU of waur. 


When was osyg«n diacoveredl By Priestly in 1771, and ti 
Scbeele a year or two after, without a knowledge of its prie 
discovery. It was lermed dephloyiiAicaled air, ejnpyrral air, an 
vHat air. 

How ia oxygen obtained! It may be obtaiiu-d from the pcroS 
fdes of inaiiguiifse. lead, and mercury, nitre, and chlorntc of potaal 
by cxpuAiire to n red beat. It iniiy be ulituini-d from the fomit 
by lioniin)! it to rc^dnean in a (nin-hnrrel, ar iiifiiling it in a Has 
witli an equal weight of conceutrule J snlphuriu avid, by mo&itt of! 

Wbnl i* tlie ralionah of tbenc Inrt two proccraca I On applyii^ 
a red heat to the peroxide of innngtineKU it losea onp-third of il 
oxygen, and is convened into ibc proio and ttCMiui oxidva : that 
3MnO'= Mii'O' + MnO + 20 

Wben mixed with sulphuric acid, the peroxide loncs n irbol 
rt|uiTaleul of oxyg«n, and is converted into the protoxide, wliie 
unites with lh« acid, leaving a aulpliale of the protoxide in th 
retort, thus : IIOS(T + MnO' = MnOSO' + JiO + O. 

Wlmt ia the ralionale when procured frotii tliv chlorate of polael^ 
A rctcirt uf gluiis containing no lead in its couipo^tion shonld b 
Hied. Thu chlurate first bireoinn litintd. and on nn increase 
heal it whcilly n'-<iolved intu pnre oxYRen gns, which escapes, ai^ 
into a while compound, which is the chloride of potas^inia, ai^ 
tcniBins in the retort thus : KOCIO' = KCI + 60. Or. Ihiw : — 




mink I'M (0* 

O* 1 tl 


■ •inlt.MMijrfo. 

CIK- fTiHrl-tr "-f j-'iirt'rTn 

HtV Dxymn k thtrefore, derived panl^ from ibe pota«aa, and 

^■nlflVniii {hv chloric ncid. Prootirud lu Ma way, it IsTerjpure. 

^^ Bj tbt ■dditinii of (he black oxid« of niaui;aDe»e \o the clilorate 

of poiuh. It RiBj be »btaiii«il at a mucli lower teiu))L'nLture, and 

i^ih ittf iilRiple iipparaiai ; ihi- oxUle of manganese, hi t)iis case, 

^^ptratM ttinjily by lia presence, vrttliuut undergoing cliemieaJ 

^Bbwitte itwlf. *o that decomporition la effected by kataljsis. 

^P What arc the /imp-'rtiris o( oxjfffn gas f It is colorlcaa, insipid, 

Fkodurous, reriucls light f«My. a nun -conductor of electricity, iho 

mom peTf«i;t electro- negati*« subsunoe we posseia, heavier than 

lUDMiiWric air, niiitet with some snbstauccs wbich are said tu be 

oiiill(«d, and are ditided Into oxides and odd$ ; supports coiutioa- 

liin ID a bigh degree, aud is iiecc^ary in a diluted slate tg the 

in|<fatlou of animals; pure, it is dctelcrious. lis specific parity 

I ii MH ; e<iuiralciit 8 ; and symbol O. 

Vhtt isuuderflu'xl hycotnbiigti'niT In its common acceptation, 
H Wms Ibe rapid union of oxy^n with a combiuilble malerlal, 
•Undtd wiib tin enission of light sod heat. Bot tlie ttnioD of 
■uy niber substances is »Uo characicrizeil by similar phenomena. 
WWn oxygen uiiitM with another i^nbittanco in the proportion of 
M tqniralent of each, the componiid la called a pnloxide ; if io 
*• |wo|M>ni»n of two c<|ulvaltiii» of oxygen to one of the other 
iImmu, iIh) c<>mpoa»d i» railed a rf^ui or Nnoxide ; throe, ter or 
Mvxido, Ac. Wlieu the ratio of 1 to 1^, or 8 to Sexiita, Ui* 
Ita tnufui n employed. Thui : — 

F*0, protoxide of iron : F«0', the binoxide ; FcC, triloxidc ; 
F<W, tba letqufvxide 


Vbta wai hydroffrii Hitvovtretit It wns llrat doKcribud by 
^*vidlib, In I70(I, under the name of ioflammnble air. 

'to* ii hydroRcn prftntred 1 It may be prucured lut<>rebly pare 
• iHwiajt ihr Tttpor ufwaier OTer inelallic Iron, heated in rvilnvn, 
■m Iij puitinn pieecs of iron or jtinc into dilute sulphuric aiid 
"hat IK tl>p rationale of these prucewcH ? In Ihe former ca«e, 

I 312 

I Ihc oxypren of tlie water unites wilh the red-hot tron. and the liy- 

drogen is ael at liberty, tliiu : SFe + -(//rt = F'O' + FcO + *H. 
In ibe Intler, the oxyf^en of tliu water uiiitet with the metal, nnd 
foniiii an o.ifde, whii-h unite) wltli the add. and forniH n Kolpliatr, 
while the hyJro(fen of the water U set at liberty, ihui : JIOSO" -f 
Zn = ZnOSO* + H. Or thus ;— 


wtm—. — 

Balpharic acU. — }*■■• 
Hao „ 1 Xb 

-a. BjdfaBn 

XdCUO*. InlphM* If diw. 

What are the propurtiea of hydrogen pas ? Il Is colorless, bu 
neither odor nor laMe, h a powerful refractor of light, the lig;bt««t 
body kuowu, will not support respiruliou, a uon-!>u|ii>orter of com- 
buititm, hi;cl)ly liillnrainable, but, like other coinbR.ilihleH, reqairen 
the aid of a vapporler of i-otabiisilon, electro-posiiiic, and produces 
a remarkable alteration in the vuire when breathed. If a jet be 
thrown upon spongy ]ilatinum, it in I|;uit''(l. tid eqnltaleal \» 1 ; 
symbol H ; up. gr. 0-OGSfi. 

What 18 the product in the eonibnrtion of Iiydropeii ? Water ; 
which will be exactly equal in weipht l" the giwcs diKappearing; 
it give* off very little light in burning. When in contact with 
oxygen it mny be eel on fire by (lame, a «»lid body healed to r«dii(«s 
UiG rlcetric ^park, and spongy plalinnm, if thrown on it in a jet. 

The nmounl of heat evolved is very great, a* in be&l exhibited 
by Baro's compound blowpipe, which ik arranged mi that tti« oxy- 
jen and hydrogen, emitted from giiRonKter.'. ""r mixed ol the point 
of ignition, and produce ihc greatest heat known. The Drnm- 
niond light i>> fnriiK-d by n jet of this, iirnited and thrown on lim«. 

What are the ehetnieal rclationit of water f It bak xolxxnl pro- 
pcrticK exceeding n«iy other liquid. Il exhibits yV«W« acid proper- 
ticK by uniting with biuex and neulrnlixin;i them in some degretr, 
as in ilx nnion wilh pntmh. It bIho xomelimvx actM the part of a 
ha*e. and i« neccMuiry to the exUtcnec of acidity ; as on inxtuncc 
of thi*. dry xulphnrie acid exerlM no acid prnperties until unit<-d 
with wuliT. It exist.* in «ome unit* a>i i-on>/i fn/(on«( \eatrr, in 
which enrie it ix necesisnry to ibeir exi«lencc, and if drivm off by 
bent, tht! ).nlt 1^ drcomposed. Epnom salt* ix on instance of thit. 

It i» fiiiind also in ery«al», and nccesHiry to their extstciice, in 
the form of what is termed wntfr of crytlatliialion. 



What In the jtroporiioii ejiislinji; between the oxjpen and liydro- 
(cvn in Ibe fonnBiioii of water 7 By ineuxura tbcre ib two vulunteft 
of bTilrogin to one of oxygen: hy weight 8(1-9 oxirgcu to U'l 
hydrogen, or nuri^ as 8 i>artit oxygta 1q I of hydrogen. It> 
s^Dibol is no. 

Uow many combiiintionn ore there of oxy^n mid hnlrofcen? 
Two ; one in the proportion to foim water, nnd another, which ia 
the peroxide o( hydrogen. 110', ond conlnhm twice as much oxygen 
fts in contained in water. 

The peroxide of hydrogen is a colorless, inodorona, tranoparcnt 
liquid, and has strong liWching properties. At a temperature 
above bd" it effervesces with ibe escape of oxygen gas, and exptoden 
riolciilly at 213°; bns a metallic ta»te, and becomes tliiclc by 
evaporation. Uetals and their oxides dceontpon it. ^ 

Otone has been Hipposcd to be a nev form of peroxide of bydro- 
gea, allbough it has never been isolated. 

KiTBuucv, OB Azote. 

How ia nitrogen procured t By borning a piece of phonphoms 
in a Jar hill of air, invertod oTer water ; the oxygt^n of the atnio- 
Bphere unites niih the pbo^phoms, forming met n- phosphoric acid, 
which ix iibM>rtjed by tlie water. Nilro^'n remninc in the Jur, iu 
coDibination with a small qunntily of curhonie ncid, which uiiy be 
rcmovvd l)y agitating it with a lulntion of pure potns»a. Or it iniiy 
ba proenred by any other NubKtancc which will take the oxygen 
from tire ntmotpbere, and leare llie nitrogen. It was Gr^l noticed 
Lj Kithrrford. In 1772. 

Wbat are ibc prujterlite of nitrogen f It is colorleiix, dc*oid 
of ta^tc or Mni-ll. more diiitingui.^lied by ncgntire cliaruclcrs tbaii 
by any stril^ing |irt)pi'n!eK ; uuii-Kupiiurler of combustion oud rus- 
piraitoii, and not contbuKtible. Iix cqniralent ia 14'D<!; sp. gr, 
p-flTS; synilwl X. 

Iliiw many compotindg doe« nitrogen form wiib oxygen t Five, 
n(!kliJ<« its cuBil>inniion in tbc alDioe[ihcre, which b conKidvred as 
« mnrlianical mixture. 



cOMroDXps or ninMom wrra oitqh. 

». a 
mtmu Oxide. . 11)0 eo 
KMoOxlde 100 100 

HTpooitrotu Aold, 100 lAO 
Nltniiu Add, 100 U>X) 

Nitric A«ld, 100 250 

Nt tiIkIiI. Bqulr. Brntotfc 

14 0R-i-lfi=3(>l)4 
] 40114.24 =.3801 






What is uuderstood by ihe rtic or aimonyhere J It is that 1 
of paseonn matter bj wliich lh« earth is surrounded on fill sitJe 
and adiicres lu it by tlie furcc of gruTlly. Its pressure on the tm-, 
hce of the earth is^i|iial 10 about IS pounds to the sqaare iiicb of 
surface, which rondera it capable of sujiponing a column of water 
94 fvcrt high, and one of mercury 30 inches. I 

le (he prc«isuix of the atmosplicre iurariably the same? Vo; 
it varios at different limes, and according 10 the elevation abovt 
tile level of the soil, as indicnled by a baromcler. I 

What nrc ihe component partu of the atmosphere J It is com- 
posed of oxygen 30 or 21 pans-, and niirogi?n 79 or SO by Toliiinc^ 
it also contains a little c»rljoiiic acid. Ity weight, it is oxygen 33; 
nitrogen 76; carbonic acid, uinmotiia, and watery vapor 1. Th« 
priiieipnl chemical properties are owing to the presence of oxyg«fi> 

How is the protoride of nitroyen or nitrom oxiiie procured ? 
By subjeeitug the nitrate of ammonia to heat, which is decomposed, 
«tid llie products are protoxide of nitrogen and water. 

What is the rationale of ihiti proiTSS T The nitrate of ammonia 
ffl com|io<ied of nitric acid and ammonia. The nitric acid is com- 
posed of one equivalent of nitrogen, and Gve of oxygen ; and tb« 
Mnmonia of one of nitrogen and three of hydrogen ; making in aQ 
two eqniTalenis of nitrogen, live of oxygen, and three of hydrogeu.. 
Ity the addition of heat their relations lire changed, so thai tiM 
ihn-e eqiiiviiloins of hydrogen unite with iliree of the oxygon, and 
form water, leaving two equivalents of oxyf:eu and two of iiilrogMU 
which wnilc and form the nilroiis oxide, thus : NIl'NO' = 2110 + 
2M0 \ or, considering the nitrate of amoiuula to contain one «qat^ 
t&lent of water, tkua : — 




miitto 0/ UBOuaia 


J Ml* 

f WtMt 

\ tto 



Vbat arc Ibe propordVs of nitrous oxide f It is a colorless gfts, 
ibMtlnlilc by ]>ure tratcr, a supjiorlcr of comlmstion, prodacea 
ahOuatioo wh«n breathfxl. withont lieiiig: fnlloivcd h; dt^prcKsian 
«rll»gitor. It is vbnt is termed eTfiHaralin^ or laughing gag. 

How is the btnoj-trfit procured f Ity the notion or nitric acid OD 
MItllic c«ppCT ; tbo gas escapes anil may be coUecieU otcr water 
or owrcory. 

Vbat is the rolionale of this procew ? One portion of nitric 
•eld li decomposed ; pftrt of its oxyiren o\i<li);cs the copper, while 
•notlier part is retaiDed by ilie niirogen, forming the biiioxide or 
tilric oxide thus : tN(y + 3Ca = flCuONO' + NO'. Or thus: 

Mm MM 

<krf*t> * t<i<<i>- 

iI(A Unnkd* ur DllK^BO. 

(-diiVKuO t iaO>. KICnttotMtiM. 
.CllO) ^ 

Wok adil, 1 -lolt. IJW -"^ 

Eqnivaleot 300*; fommUlNO'; sp. gr. 1-039. 

Vliat are the properHes of the binoxido of nitrogen ? It is a 
Colorless gaa; wlieu mixed with any gaseons mixtare conlaiuliig 
»»y(t«i, dense suffocating acid rapors of a red or orange color are 
pFoiloced, which are hilrous acid, and are copionsly absorbable by 
^'airr. This peculiarity is a distinguishing text for nitric oxide, and 
**( alto a lest for tlie presence of free oxygen. It ia not possessed 
^r suid properliee, and is irre^pirnbk. 

Uonr is lnjpdiitrovB acid produced T By adding binoxJde of 
*'Itwgiin to oxygen in excess, pure potnsh being present, 100 luea- 
Mirei of oxygen combine with 100 of the biuoxide, and bypoiiitroiu 
^cid in formed, which anites with (he potnsb. 

Vhitare its properties T At 0" F., anhydrous liquid, byponi- 



troas Bcid is culorless, and greeu at common tern peratarci, tot 
Tulatile, passing off in the form of an orange vapor ; on admimn 
witli w&icT, it is converted into nitric acid and biooxide of nitrojo, 
thus: SNO'and HO = NO' and 2N0'. FonnulaNO"; eqainW 
3804; Bp. gr. (of gas) 172. 

How is nUrous add obtained 7 By introdDcing 200 measiini 
of binoxide of iiilrogen into a dry exhausted glass vessel, with IDO 
of oxygen ; also by subjecting the nitrate of lead, carefully diirf, 
to a red heat, thus : PbONO' = PO + O + NcA 

What are its properties 7 Its vapor is of ati orange-red colu, 
irrespirable, has acid properties, is absorbed by water, the binoiidi 
of nitrogen being di^engaired, and nitric acid remains in the nttr, 
thus: 3X0' yield 2N0' and NO'. Formula NO'; equivalwt 
4604; sp. gr. (of gas) 318; of liquid 1-45. Its vapor majh 
condensed by a freezing mixture, into a liquid, in which state iti> 
anhydrous acid, and pungent to the taste, gives a yellow stun to 
the skin, and is very corrosive. At 0° it is nearly colorless, and A 
32" it is yellow. When mi.xed with a considerable quantityof 
water, it is instantly resolved into binoside of nitrogen, which a- 
capes with etferveacence, and into nitric acid, which unites wiUitl* 

How may nilric add he procured f By adding binoxide <rf 
nitrogen slowly over water, to an excess of oxygen gas. It i> 
composed of 100 measures of nitrogen, and 250 of oxygen. Vot 
commerce it ia procured by decomposing some salt of nitric acid 
wilh oil of vitriol ; and common nitre or saltpetre is generally em- 
ployed, thus : — 

K,^_ i;^;"' ^^ — - HO.NOt. LlquM nltrio hU. 

KO.SO] -f HO,SOl BlnlpbkU sf 

Can nitric acid exist in an insulated state f Yes ; bat it U 
difficult to obtain it pure ; it exists in a dry crystalline form, and 
exerts no acid reactions unless developed by water. In commerce 
It is generally known by the name of aqua forlis. 

What are its properties f It is highly acid, largely diluted i1 
reddens litmus paper permanently, unites with alkalies forming 
salts, which are called nitraieK. In its purest concentrated form 
it is colorless, and has a specific gravity of 15 or 1-51 At 1'5 il 

3 e<llll**1nirfl jalpbu. 



Eper cent, of voter, for wliicli it hns s frrMt nffinily. 
illj on iHil>i>innc(« dlspfl«ed to unite with oxy^rii dv- 
coBijMWM tepMnWw, ttie oxT(t«ii of the Bcid uniliiig with rlidr 
hiilrn^Mi, forniitiR nnlor, tind nleo wilh tlic carl>oii, forming car- 
Uuii: acid. All tlie sulU of iiitric Arid ar« soluble in water. 

Kttrie Keid *f rp. gr. 1-A2-~N0„+H0. It per CMit. ol nier. 


^M V]M are Ibu Ivi-lf tor nilric and ond lh« mintesf Whfn on- 
^BtBliiped. it Is readily dMi-rlL-d liy lt« Mronp action on copper and 
^^Mnry, epilllini; niddy fuiiivB of nitrous acid. 

AiH>tl)«r, b to mix the t.u|i|>og«d uiliic acid, or iiitmic. with 
£Im« mlplmric avid, add to tlii« some pure linc. and «et Hrc to 
ilf bydrop«n h It Is solved; If nitric acid is preRciU ilic flame 
till have m f;^l■el>i^1l nhiie tint, vblcb Is oning to the presence of 
.ibr binoxidc of iiiirojrcti. 

Aoolbcr, la to »dd to the suppoecd nitrate a, drop of sulphnric 

lt><l Wtrd ill ft te«l tube, and then sdd a crystal of morphia, 

■ liirh. if nitric acid lie [irescnt, will become of nn orange red fol- 

(d by ft yellow color. The Eulphiiric acid in this caec should 

be tested prcvionsly. 

Cab DON. 

^ b «hnt form Ik carbon nsuatly pr»«)tcd to lu ? la ihc form of 
'Wnikl ami tbc dinmond. 
How Ih it procutvd? liy heating wood to redness in a close 
^^ ''«"■!. The volatile iisris arc expelled, and llic carbon accous part 
HSnifaia, wliicb is culkd charcoal. If bones arc n«ed Instead of 
^^"nt, we liave animal charcoal or ivory black. Tlie diamond la 
^fxind in a pare slate. 

Wlial nre tbc jiriijirrtie* of clinrcoal ? It is bi^ihly eoml>nsllt>l(^ 

r^td. and brittle, coiidticlf^ heat slowly, a i;oud eonduelor ol eicc< 

Wy, very refractory in the fire if the air is excluded, aljsorbs air, 

"itivr pases, lar^'ly. and yields them apiin on the a|>p)!i:alion 

^l ;" the pToi>oTtiun, however, varyiiifr in different ^si-s, and 

Iwrbt the odoriferous and coloring ])articleB of animal and tcgu- 

^ie nbataBces, 





Anlm&l charcoal is moBtlj Ducd wheD «r« wiRh lo decoloriM 
flafda, 1iy Win); liudy )iuIreriE«d, and liaviiig ilie fluid fiitrtbd 
tlir<>ii|;l) it. Tliu enui^aleiit of rarbon U 6, symliol C, 

r'liiti arc ihe compounds of c«i'boa and nxjrfiren ? There ara 
! -, cnrboiiic oxide, QQ, oxdlic acid, CaOi, nod carboulc add, 

low U rurbonio add, or fixed air, procured 7 It may ba 
expelled frura cummoa limestone or nia^Mla (which are carboiw 
ale*), by ilie action of beat or acids, ihaa: CaOCO'+80*= 
CaOSO + CO'. Or Ihas : — 

CartniikU n1 Mm* 


110. Wfttit. 

It is also fiinin-il during irspirntion, fcrmcntatioo. mid comlHWtioB, 
Wli«ii it iiL'ciimuliites in tvdls, Jcc, it if cnlled choke damp. 

Wlint are tbe properiifi of carbonic acid ? It U colorleaii, liw 
odorouii, ela.»lic, conden»llilc iiilo a liiiuid under a preitMrv of St 
atEnoApberefi, may be frozen Into a. white solid, will not anpport 
re«piralion or couibaslion, incombuslible, rondeni lime-water turbid 
by (he formation of carbonate of lime, absorbable by water, llw 
qiianlity absorbed being very much increa^d by pressuni ; and, 
when tbe iiressnre is reniorcd, it eacapcs with nn effervesce nco. Tha 
nprii'i'Hblc. lively ln*le of lircr. porter, ale. minenvl water. Jec.. ia 
ou'in); lo lis presence. It nnltcs with alkallDe snbstaiices, and tlia 
jolis so foriuod arc termed carbunalet. It it easily dinptaced fron 
411 its rombiiintion)' by tlic byilroclilorie and the atronjter ocidM. wIiM 
it dx-Hpes with «irvrvir«cciicu. Formula CO*; eqairnlcnl 23; e[k 
gr. 1-52. 

How ii tMrbanii; oxidf prorured^ By cxjioiln); two part« of 
well dried chalk and one of pure iron (ilingx to a red heat, an^ 
wusliin;; the f^ii evolved nilh lime water, or an alkaline solution^ 
which abaorbii the carbonic acid and leaven the carbonic oxlde^ 

Another mode is to mix binoxahte of potash with Are or all 
times lis weight of sniphnric acid, and heat it lii a retort ; an effetu 
vcscciice Kuun eni^iies. wliik'h i* a mixture of carbonic acid and can 
boiiiu oxide, and may bo separated in the same manner M in tin 
precedinf; proccu, | 

Wliut ii the ralUmalt of ibis last proccet? Oxalic acid Is if 



'of p*(iiiil pam of tlic ck-ments ofcariionle aclA nni] cnr- 
Ji-, mill thi-r cuiitiot exist iii Ihe form of oxalic acid, iinlcM 
lumnliiimlioii viih water, or tome other aubataiive. The aulplitiriu 
Kid ihcn tiiiii4-( wit!) butli ihc potns»a and water of the kiiioxaUte, 
imI tba osalic add being thus set flre« ia decoiii))oud, Utua : — 
IIOCO* + SO* = HOSV + CO + CO*. 


w*<tr _ _ 


I'Hli, Kul|ih*laaf nin. 

WJiU ore (he proprritft oi ntrbuoic oxide 7 It tl colorlesa, 
iuipid, ha» no aeid ]ir<))H'rii(^ iiilliiinrnulile, burning: nltli b lambeut 
Upe B*oe, aiid irrexjiimlik. l-'oniiiilD CO; equivalent 14 j »p. 
p. 013. 


Cutwiile Olid* _ ^ ^ CO. 

OHiwinokeicI 00 -fa 

OaOt mtid- - „ _ 2C0 + a 

QilarMarboaio«cMl(pha>phcac ]{•■).,„_,„,» H« CO-t-CL 

Crwoaie Bcld _ ^ SCO 4-11- 

Utiliik noU.- 4CU-i- H. 

te., A«. 


I Irlial form do ire ^nerallf find sulphnr t II is found in Ihe 
of rulraiioes, j^iiL-mlly in a ma<iaice slate, somelinies erys- 
■llitfl; It Ik ttUn found (.■umMiied oilli ihe melalu, tiuch as silver, 
*"p|«r. mlini'iiiy. kftd, niid ir«ii. Prom lis combination wlih Iron, 
•tiicli ia riilli'd iron pi/ritrt, it miiy be pmeurcd In lurtfi- fjimntilie* 
'.' Miflsiirc to a ^^d hvat ni n close Tr«H, when it is »[ililinml. 

fhiU »re tite properties of iulplinrf It in aolid, kritllc. of a 
ffWnMi-jellovr color, has a peculiar odor when nibbed. in»lpleHi, 
^"illiiablc, a non-conductor of clcclriciiy, ncpiiiiTrly dcclrilird 
^Wrtion. fnsed at 216' F. ; if the tempcratarc is raised to 320" 
n IhlrkeiiH and scquir«> a reddish linl. 43t1^ to 4^2' it is so lenn- 
'wwtliai the rwsei may be inverted niilioiil cauHn^ it to fliange 
If rniaed atlU higher, to it« bolting point, it again become* 


liqoid ; at ttie temperature of 438'', if ponred into water, it beeoiB* 
ductile. It is volatile at 550° to 600^, and is condensed ancbange 
at lower temperatares. Its equivalent is 16; symbol 8 ; sp. gi 
1-99. ■ 

What are the compouada of sulphur and oxygen J There ix 


fialptadr. Oi:rg«D- Bqatr. Pormnla 

Bnlpborous Bcid - Id + 16 = S2 80> 

Bulphnric ftoid IB + 24 =^ 40 SO'oi-SO' + a 

HfpDsnIpharouB acid 82 + 16 =■ 4B S*0< 0rS0>4-S. 

H7po9alpbiiriD acid 82 -j- ^ = ^3 SK)* or 2(90*) + C 

&c., Ad. 

What are the properties of sulphurous acidi It is goseoni 
colorless, tranaparent, has a puiigeut suffocating odor, an acii 
taste, and bleaching properties ; it reddens litmus at first, and th« 
bleaches it. It hati a strung affinity for o?Lygen, and will precipitab 
metals which have a weak stfiuity for oxygen from their solutions 
It combines with metallic oxides, and forms salts called sulphites 
Formula so'; equ!raj(;nt 32 ; sp. gr, 2-21. 

How is it procured ? It is formed by the combustion of sulpha 
in the atmosphere, or dry oxygen gns ; it is also evolved miiet 
with carbonic acid when combustible snbsfances, containing carbon 
are heated with strong sulphuric acid ; and by heating sulphorii 
acid with most of the metals, with copper and mercury particularly 
it yields a very pure gas, thus ; 2S0'+ Ca=CoOSO'+ SO'. I 
may be obtained liquid, by transmittiug dry, pure gas through i 
glaus tube surrounded by a freezijig mixture. When exposed U 
cold, in a moist state, a crystalline solid is formed. 

How is sulphuric acid procvredf One method is to subjec 
to a strong beat the sulphate of iron (copperas or green vitriol) 
the sulphuric acid of the salt passes over in comhinaiion with tin 
water which it contains, thus: 4{FeOSO') E0 = SO' 2S0' + 
2SO' + 2FeO*. 

Procured in this way, it is called the fuming sulphuric acid ol 
Nordbausen, on account of the white vnpors which it emits oi 
esposuro to the air, and from the place ia (Germany where it I 
manufactured. . 



' Anhti^rout mlphuric arid may bn proeurwl frnm tli]« by heiit- 
hlh ^nily in ■ retort, uid siirrouudiiiK [1i« recetrer adnplod to it 
w'ah n mixlaru or iinotr uud tinlt, In whk-b It Is condensed iulo * 
whW crrKUtUtiic Noliil. 

|Tb« iBotl caininon process for procuring Huljihuric acid, ia to 
I tul|itinr, mixed with oue-e!KlilU its weij-ht of uUrate of potash, 
i>*funiui;u «rr«tip-cl so ihut llie currciil of air snpponirii? coiu- 
bution will ciinducl thu prOflnviM inio a leaden chamber rontainiug 
titer, which bcvomni Mturuted ulth the sulphuric acid fonocd ja 

What b the rationale of ibis jirotoss ? The nitric noid of the 
din ykld* oxygen to a jionion of iiiilphur, and couTtru it into 
Mlfdmrk acid, which comliiiie* with lh« pota»n of the nitre ; at 
At ome lime the greater part of tite (^il)ihHr foraiM »nljihnrouit 
yU liy unitiiiiE with the oxvgcn of the air. 

Th« aiiric »cid. by yielding a portion of iU oxyfccn to (he ttuU 
}hr. is converted into liinoxidc of ninngcn ; ibich, comiTiR in 
ma»n with the air at the moinf nl of its srpnrnlion. in conTertcil 
taaifd oitrouB acid fapor^. The gHxemiK pnxlnet in ihi' t«it(len 
ckmlncr, therefore, is saljihiiroiis and nitrous acid^, iitRKHphcric 
til. tad watery vapor. From these elements n cryttnlliiie cnm- 
r*ni ia formed, conMsting of snlplmric ncid, hypotiilroni add. 
■admer; and, uhen tliie 8olid comeK in conlnct with the water 
*it 1^ chamber, it is iIcconipo«e<l, the Milphuric acid i« abitorlied 
^Ihe water, and nitron*) acid and hinoxido of niirngen e«cnpo [ 
Ibi iiuer of which, i«ming iii contact with the nir. in converted 
i*lo nltruaa acid. This nitrons acid is uRnin inUrinlxfii with 

ll)ifaaroiis acid and aqncons rnpor, and fixe* Hmc lo a second 
of the erysialliiie compound, which undcrgoe* the uiine 
D^ M tile first. Tlie following diagram reprneiits tlic forma- 
die cryalslllne compound : — 

IKI*. DTMOltniu tcht 

OiT' Whi* nnvouna. 

ua nitH. 


T*>LI OF HTDBtTia Or IVlFBirmia AOID. 

Kardhtawn 230'+ HO SpeoiAo grarity 1-96 

Purest oU of Titriol SC+HO " " 1-86 

SCf+SHO " " 1-76 

S0»+4H0 " " 1-68 

&o, Ac. 

What nre the properties of Enlpfauricacid? As osaalljr obtaine 
it is a dense, colorless, oil; fluid ; boils at 620° ; speciBc grvn 
1847; very corrosive; soar, reddens litmns, and ewparatea i 
other acids from their utiioD with tbe alkalies. Chloride of barini 
or any salt of baryta, is a test for it and its soluble combiDstion 
and will form a white precipitate, the sulphate of baryta. 


How is phosphorus procured^ By igniting bonea in an op> 
fire QDtil all thp animal matter is destroyed, leaving only a wbi 
Bobstance, which is principally the phosphate of lime -, reduce this 
a fine powder, and di);cst with strong snlphuric acid and wat( 
sufficient to give the consistence of a thin paste. The phospha 
of lime is decomposed ; a sulphate and a soluble snperphospha 
of lime is formed. The superphosphate of lime is to be dissoln 
in warm water, and separated frora the sulphate by Gllration, ai 
evaporated to the consistence of fyrup, then mi.xed with one-fonr 
its weight of powdered charcoul, and heated in an earthen retoi 
with the beak of the retort put into water, in which the vapor < 
the phosphorus is condens^ed, of a reddish-brown color, owing 
the presence of the phosphuret of ciirbon. It may be purified 1 
a second distillation. 

What is the rationale of this process ? When the snperphospha 
of lime and charcoal are mixed, and heat applied, the oxygen i 
that part of the phosphoric acid, which constitutes the superphc 
pbatc, unites with the charcoal, and forms carbonic acid and rs 
bonic o.'cide gases ; phosphorus is distilled over, and phosphate i 
lime wiih redundant charcoal, remains in the retort. 

What are the properiiee of phosphorus? It is colorless ai 
transparent when pure; a soft Eolid at ordinary temperatures, h 
a waxy lustre when cot with a knife, di.*tilii at 550', very inflai 
mable, undergoes slow combustion at common temperatures wb 


I to the air, and emits a white vapor of an alliaceons odor, 
lu n^iiiraltfit U 33; itymltol P; anil up. p. ITT. 

Vrh«l ttte llw! fxtmpimnilf of pliosphimig and oxygon T The 
«lide of pkmplionis, roiwi'sliiig of tiro (-(luiTntcnts of phospharus, 
iiiii ooe of Qxyicttt, I',0; tlie h]rpoplio:<pli«r(ju» acid. I cq. of 
yl«i|>horus lo 1 of oxyjci-n, 1*0 ; thu plmsplmriaK iicid 1 cq. of 
fiufpliurus to 3 of oxyfciiu, PO, ; iiml Itic iilioK^lioric. pjropliov 
fhuric, or nelapiioiiplioric nvid, whicti ia 1 «q. of pbottpharu* aud 
1 (i)(. of oxygvii. PO,. 

Tbifc are ecTeral varictiuft of thJH auid wliich difTvr vcrj mncli in 
iWir ri-Actioii niih other ttuliKlaricoK, but whosn compOKilion is the 
umo 03 lo tbe aaiuiuil uf water cxisliiig ia (ach. 

riiMpharie add (dr;) V(V- 

rhi»r>li'>rlo *cld (iviinmon) ?()>+ JIHn, Trilmnic. 

Pyi^pbo-phoric add VO^+ 2110. B*rnio. 

M*t«pba>phario Mid PO*-)- t<0. Mni>obul«. 

Hftw is phoBphoric icid procured t By dccompoi^ing phoKpbate 
I bujlA with Golphnric acid. 

What are ita proprrlie*t It ia viscid, inodorotw. coloHcsn, 
nid. rcddoos vrKPtabIc blacs, and, wbuD hcuU'd i» rvdiicM, cor^ 
Vdn (tUsH or porcrlnin. 
Uua many claases of salts does phosphoric acid form, and wlint 
The monobafric. SaOP'O*; ihe bibtuic; SSaO.P'O'; 
■ Iriluific. 8NaO.P'0*; corrcspondiiiR willi the i-qiiivalrnU 
«f fWf p iM'id liy each, as is shown in ilic aligve tabic. 
Q'lik'h I'lsM is tile most common ? The trilittic ; which givca • 
U'le otecipitate with Ditrala of silver. 
Ubai ulac« of phosphates exists in plants and animals T Tha 

Uaw many series of salts does the tribasic add form, and how 
•t lh«y csjircMcd ? Thus, in the soda scries wo have one with 
•^Norttw.. NA0.2H0.P0,; anothcrncu/ra/, 2NAO,HO.P0, j 
'itlWnl alk-aline. SNAO.FO^ 

Uf Iho above, ill* siilunlt is llie common phnnphiile of soda of 
'^*l>i»|Hk. Iti all Hnids of the bodies of nnininls having nn acid 
"■cii-Mt. the firxt of Ibese salts is Tniind, aiul in tl>ose poMCuiiig 
i; routton tlio last is fonnd. 





Uovr is boron procurvdf It wk Gmt obtnincd bj subjerllng 
boracic acid to ihr nclion of « powfiful pilvunic bntiery. Bnl It 
niny bo giroi-iircil in luTfin qiiniitilifs by bvoiing: boracic acid ullh 
liolassiuin. by wtiirli tlir burnci<- lu-ld is dejirivc'd of ils oxygen, and 
tbe boron lihonitcd. Utu« : BO' + 3K = 3K0 -f B. 

"What are tbe propfrtiet of bonm ? Il is of a dark olive color, 
hnn neiiher taste nor mipll, and is a non-con doctor of electricity, 
Il is liol soluble m water, alcotio). ether, or oils, does not dtK'om* 
poiiu unter, beurs a strong beat in cloae vessels witliout fusing;, or 
beinjt eliaiij^cd, except that Its density Is increa«ed. If bcutcd to 
60U' it takes Are, o.\y(^n d!»in|>i>ears, and bomcfc tcid U formed, 
lis equivalent is lU 9 ; symbol li ; ap. |;r. about 2. 

Wliut are tlio compounds of boron and oxvf^n f Boractc acid^ 
BO', ie the only compound of boron and oxygen. 

Wbcre ii il found, and liow is it procured? Il i* found, as » 
eaiurnl proilni-t, !u ionie of tbe bot sprini^, and b > congliln«nt 
of daliiliie. borncili-, and boniic, wliich is a compound of boracifl 
acid iind aodu. and is a biboraie. Il is procured by adding aul- 
pliuric ncid to a suluiion of piirifieil bomx in four limes its ■'eighki 
of boiling u'uier. The Hutplmrie add uiiit«4 n'ilh thu soda, andj 
tile boroclc acid is deponlted, on cooling, in cry«tnls, which niaf 
1>« punfii-d by waiihlng, (U>.->u]vi[i); them in bulling water, and byl 
rc.Ty.liiiliwli<iii, tlm»: NaOiUO' + H0" = Nn()SO'+ 2BO', \ 

^\\nl ntv X.\v: prriperiu-i of boracic nctd ? In crystals, it fa ft< 
hydrntc, ulighlly solulilu in wnter. very tuhtblc in nlrohol, and thflj 
Boluiion, when irI on lire. Iiurns wilb a green flume, which is a aurtti 
t«ct fi>r ihf prf»euce of buracic ucid ; sp, gr. Il"9, inodonms, 
bitter Ui>tt:, rcddenK litmus, and, niib nlknlinocitrbonntes, produirct 
eirervcacenCG. In its hydroun Mate, if gradually exposed to a btghi 
heat, it« water of crystal limit ion li expelled, and a fused tnusa 
remaiu, which will bear a white heut without snblitnalion, and on 
cooling, forniH a hurd, trankparent glaKi, whidi is anhydroua^ 
bonciu acid. It aljsorbs water, and loses its transparency if 
GXpoiied tu llie air. Il i» lowcliincK uM-d ns a flux, from lis being. 
ftry fujublu and coniinuiiicullng ibis properly to other sabstAiicM. ' 




Ha* JK tttkoa procvrvdf It was Bret procured by Bcrxoliii^, 
ifllie aclioii of )>otaiwoiii on Sao-silicic ocid fens; but « more 
rantinicDt procwa fs rroni itie double floorido of Kilicuii nud pi>UK- 
liuD. or Kodiuin. {irFvioiiatir dri<-d, mid placed in a ginfs tiiW wilh 
folaniuni, ro nbkh a xfiirll lamp is applied. Tlie ]>ola>siuin 
uiilM witti thu llii(>riri« aiid tlie siliirou is set at libiTty. thus: 
«'P.8KF ^ 6 K = fiKF + 2Si. To render it perfeclly pan. il 
■tonld \iim be hcutcd to mltiesi, and digested in diliit« hydrofluoric 


Whit «re ihu prvptrtie* of fcilfcon ? It U of a dark nut-brown 

colur. oiilioni moiatllc lutlre, non-coiiducior of pleeirii-ily, incuin- 

bdxllilr, iiiii diKM>U'cd or oxidixed by sulplmrlc, nitric, hydrothlo- 

pr, or by drofluonc ondu ; but nitric atid IiydrofluoHc acid» mised 

'~4iu«tv« it readilj. ll« eqniTnlait iti 21 3 ; symbol SL 

niiat It tbo evtiipoMiiun of ^h'cic aeidl In 100 parts there 
•R 48'l of KilinHi, and ^IMS oxyceii, by weight. 

Where is ilife sllicii: ttcid foQtid, uiid huw U It procored T It 
tnsU in firvAl prufiwion Id nature, utidur the luuues of silica and 
lilirNu* i-artliK. Il forms a pari of nmiiy minerals, and. under llie 
tam of <|iiarix, forms tnoutitninouit mauc!i. It is (lie primipal 
I ilfndknt In MDid-Mone*, Bint, ctinleedouy, &e. &c. It nay ha 
pncDfcd by ifcniling; pore rock crystal, tlirowiu]; it, wliile red liol, 
Ixvwsier. and rednnng it l» a line putvilcr. 

What ari^ ihe proprrtie* uf silieic Bci<l ? A* procnred above. It 

lis iij,>t>l while powder, fcrls roujcb nnd dry wlimi nibbed between 

UmIiihttd, inBipid nnd inodurouK; up. ^r. 3 C9. It is very fixed 

■Ktbt Gre, but niny bt.> fnKcd by llie hydro>i)X3'gen blon'pipe, inxolu- 

We in wnl4-r, doe* mit aEfoct te*!* for ncid*, Inii, in its ctiemicol 

'Wbfliatiuos, acl« tlie part of nn ucid and displnres earbonie ncid 

jH 1^ the alkalies by the aid of beat. The nnlure of il« romliiim- 

^H bam with tb<- ulkutirs drpi-tidK upon ihe priipnrtions in ^ liidi tliey 

H ■"■nited. One of tlir^e coniliinalionK, whieli Is one part stUiic 

^K*i'd Slid ttirc« of corbonale poliiua, is deliquesecet and «ai>ily 

Hdiiwlvej in water, in this condiiion it bus been ealkd the ft^uor 

VfiiiiU or lienor stlinim. 

B; msrsiDfc the proportions the result ia the mlUkuown unidv 



jflnis. Ercr; kind of (;latt Is a coniwanil of nItcKi ind ufAt 
lime or bueH ; tlt«reron, n sitiotv. The qnulitj gvnerallr dopeod- 
lu|; a|ti>ii tile |iTirity of il>c niiiliTials, anil fn flint glnu, betidHtb 
pare lilieic «i-!d oiid nlluli, Uien.- b ndUvd xiiuc or tbe oxidM «f 
l«wl ; ll U, tiMrerore, a double ult, cohiimmmI or bisjlicBle of )>o- 
toau, «ail Usilicate ofoxhlcs of I«a(I. Iu cqiiiralehl is iii^ 


How ii KdcniuiR fornicil nnd bow is it procurvd 7 It ([tmnllf 
ocrars in coiiibi nation with iran pfrilAs, abo in some volcwiic yn- 
dune. a« a sul|i)inrct, and it i« somclirni.-s found cutnlHutd tiA 
Mvml of ibo in«tAl«. It mn; bo oblnincd fron the sulpliunt bj 
mixliif; it witli pi)fhl (im«« its wei^lit of jieroxido of Bii(igwn«i 
nnd «x|iosii>(? Die inixinre to a low red Iwnl in ft (tUks ri'lort, Hit 
bokk of wliich exieiida into water. Tlie oulpliur U oxidixcd by th» 
oxide uf niantraTifsc. nnd tlic Helciilum l* iublimvd. 

Wliiit arc iU prupi-rtiex ? It iH a brittle 0|inqni> eolid, hariciff' 
ndltit-r tn.itt- nor odor, of n inctnllif IuxtrL> wbi-n in moss, and wlip'*' 
in poirdor of a di-ep n-A color. It MofienK at SIS^. and ma; b^ 
drnnu into linu tlir«nd« ; cunduri* beat and «l«dmitv iio|>«rfcetlf J 
and ii insoliihlc in witter. Kxpoxed to thu nnmu of a blowpipe i^ 
colors the Hninc of n liitlit blue oolor. and cshnles a eironfc odor of j 
decayed horfcradinli ; which mny be considered u eliaracitrixitf^ 
of the presence of Ki-1eiiiui», whether alone or in combination. lit- 
equivalent if 30'6 ; Miiibol Se ; sp. gr. 4-5. 

Wlmt sre the compounds of selenium nnd oxygon t There ut 
three : the oxide of selcDium. 8oO ; Mleniou« nctd, 80' ; and 
ftelenic acid, SeO . Tbe seleoic aeld Is analo.i;oiu in composition, 
und tnnny of iu properties, to salpliuric acid, and tlinl Kimilariiy 
e.vt^'uds ntNo to their cotupouuda wiiti alkaline eubstnncc*. 



)T is eblurine goa obtainrd T Itj the nelion of hrdroelilorlc or 

'fitbrliiTic Hcid. nnd the peroxide of innnfrnnese, in the proponJoR of 

two pnrtii of Ibe formi-r to onu of tlie latter ; tlic chlorine csetpe* 

with elfervesccnee. witbunt tlie npiiticulion of heat ; but nmcb moro 

rapidly wlieu hont is applied. 



hat I* tht ralicnoU of this jrorcss f TTic hydrochloric actd 
: of Hiloriiic 3 eqs. . And hydrogen 2 eqs. ; the oxide of mnii- 
piaM Miuists of mangsDcso 1 eq., and oxTgen S eq». In the 
taction wliicli taken plntM;, 1 oq. of dtiurine unites ntlli the 1 eq. 
4( (Dnngiui^M:, forms llie chluride »f manganese, and I oq. of i-lil(» 
fa* it tet at liWny ; anil the 2 rqs. of oxygen and 9 eqs. of hydro- 
ft nuitc Mid form wat«r. So that tho resalt ii chloride of uinn- 

Ipime. wuicr. niid chlorin*. which is set at libeny, iliua : 2IICI 
■f UaO' = 2//0 + MnCl + Cl. Or : _ 

] Biali >r blanikU of 
> iqiUt, Of tblAinliT- 

■illO. W»!«. 
n. ChtnlBa. 

Wfcal arc the jnyifirrlies of tlilorine gas ? Tt hns a yelloirisb- 
fntn color, astringent issie, and disngrceabte smoll. It is irreB|iI- 
nJik even when Inrgely diluted with air, and eiuii« licat and light 
*\m iirongly coniprcMied. lly the tip|)licniion i>f obout fonr at- 
Hipherw of prt!Murc. it bcfomca a limjiid liquid of a bright yel- 
l»»coJor, It i« olworbolile by water, wlurh yiirbls it when healed. 
^_Il|naeiiU tbc pbetiomena of coinliiiGlion when bronght in coiitaet 
^VlA soDW Hulnlanees. and tlie result H a chloride, or an acid «on- 
^BNibir chlorine. It lias a very strong ultinily for hydrogen, is 
^Pt*eulvely electric, line no acid propcrtivH, lias n great nlliiiily for 
srUli, and a [Ktaerful bleaching property. Id its application to 
Unehiag the pn-wnce of wntcr is ncce»siiry, nnd bydroehtoric 
wdii gvtirrali-d during tlie process ; from whieh hc itifir lliat the 
*>ltr \i dvcouipOHCd. tbc hydrogen nniiing with the clilurinc, and 
"teiyjrm i* littvnited. which occasions the bleai-hing. The com- 
l^Mdi of chlorine which are not iicitl arc termed cbloridci*. Tht 
W for chlorine i* nitrate of the oxide of Kilver, which produces 
**Mle preci|iilatc. It« i^iniviilcnl ix 3S'4ii Kjmbol Cl i »p. gi". 


Vbat vonponnii d'i4 < chltirim- form nllh hydrogen 1 It form>- 
^^•/ArocMnnc or murialic aoi-l, which \a 1 eq, of chlorine to I 

B«» may thi« acid ha preparrdi In a gu.teoua dtale. it may b« 
K*<*ftd by palling a utTung liquid Noluliou of the acid into a glass, 
'■"1 hntinf it unlit it boils, when the gas is evolved, and may bo 


collected OTer memiry. Auother method is to mix equal weightl 
of liqnid gal|>liuric add and sea salt, and oppl; he&t. 

What is the rationale of these processes f In the former, tbi 
acid dissolved in water is simply expelled by he«t. 

Tn the latter the water is decomposed, its oxyfcen anites witfadit 
eodiara of the cliloride of sodium, or sea salt, and forms sodn, tbf 
h}'drogeii aiiiles with the chlorine and forms the bydrocbloric atid, 
which escapes, and the sulphuric acid unites with the soda. Tbc 
water in this process is supplied by the enljihuric add. The remit, 
therefore, is sulphate of soda and hydrochloric acid, thus: NaCl 
+ UOSO'=NaOSO' + HCl. Or: — 

Snipfa uric HTM .E<0> ^__^.^ -S»0HO'. Snlpbcla Of IDdi. 

-CIB. ChkinihTdile leM. 

w»tM {moI^ 

Cblorlil«of»dlaii>..i Cl- 

Under what circumstances will the elements of hydrochloric arid, 
when broii(r|)t into contact, unite? When an electric spark i) 
passed tbrcuf^h the mixture, by the presence of flame, a red bot 
body, or spon);y platinum. By exposure to diffused light thtj 
unite slowly, but the direct solar rays, like electricity, Same, 4c, 
produce a sudden inflammation accompanied with an explosion. 

lu what maimer is the add procured in a liquid state f By 
passing a current of gas into water as long as any of it will be 
absorbed, we procure a concentrated aqueous solution. 

What are the propifHies of hydrochloric acid? In a gaseoui 
state it is colorless, has a pmi^rent odor, and an acid taste. In a 
temperature of 50', and under a pressure of 40 atmospheres, it is 
liquid. It is irres])irablc, incombustible, and a non-supporter ot 
combustion. Heat will not oltcr it chemically, but galranism wiD 
decompose it; hydrogen will be found at the negative pule, and 
chlorine at the positire. It has a powerful attraction for water, 
whiL-h causes a white cloud to appear, where it is liberated into the 
atmosphere, owing to its combinatiou with the aqueous vapor ; ice 
also liquffies instantly, if introduced into ajar containing it, and 
llic pas is rapidly absorbed. On inlroUucinff a jar containing the 
gas into water, the absorption takes place so rapidly, that the 
water is forced up with the same rapidity as if it were a Tacaum. 
During the absorption, heat is given out. 

How can we determine the quantity of this acid contained in Ita 



nhtlonsf BjWerlBiniiig the qnantity of pan marble dlsioWed 
hf a irlv'ii o'tiKhl of pacIi. Ever; 60*6 groius of marble correa- 
IMiiii lu 3f> 4^ uf reul ncid. 

Wbui nre itie projjrriift of Ibe liydroehloric «eid of coiumrrce ? 
k hu tt yrl)»w color, and rotitalns iiDiwritiis, wlikb aro unually 
«kric Milt Mil|<huri<- ni-M. aiid ihi^ oxide ot frob. If pure, tt w n 
nlorieM liquid, ciiiil» wliiic viiiiui-k if rxpoKCd (o Ibi- uir, very »our, 
rtddfits Iltnunii, and ncutraliwii alkalii's. U tmwit at Cfl", Rnd 
boils at I lu**, giring off ilic pure li yd roc hi one acid gsx tn(t\y. 
It is d«cotDpOM^ by tnbt^tanon )'il■!di^); oxjgco neily. 
Vbnl cotnl-inalion of bydrochlork «riil is iiKpd in di^ohing gold 
ittd plaiinam ? It ie a mixlura of two ptirte of ihc bydroi-liloric 
ud one of ih* nitric acidis, and in coinmonly ti rtncil 07110 n-ijia. 

Wbnt chemical action lake* piftrc in fi^rming a xohiiion of gold 
h; ibis mixturv ? Tbe nitric and lirdrocbtoric acids drcomposo 
Mtk oihCT, aitd produce water, iiilroas acid, and clilorint ; A« 
Ulvnil [lower i^ dependent on the clilorinr, whicli is libcrntrd. 

What are llic cutDpoiiiids of chlorine nnd oxygen T Tlier are 
ibf bypocbtoroiM acid. C'lO ; the chlorotm neiil, ClOi ; hypocliloric 
will, CtO, : cliloric acid, ClO^ ; ami the perchloric ncid. CtU,. 

now in hifjMchloj-oua acid procnredf Uypocblorons ncid, or 
mliivrine. may be best procored by pouring peroxide of nicrt-ury, 
a floe powder, and mixed with mice itg uvight of diglillcd water, 
iUo botilw fillfsl with cblorine gas. By apilation, the chlorine is 
(WfJctely alworbed. Tbe oxido of mercnry is dceompotcd, both 
iliconUilnvDta combtnini:; with cblorine. tlic niercory forming cor- 
nht Bublimalv. and tli« oxygen hypocblorous acid, thus , }IgO + 
^ICUnsCI-f 6V0. The acid may then be M-pnnitrd by di^tilla- 
<n, Khich iihoald be done at a tetn]ieralui'c below 212°, ni it is 
pimcd at ihnl bent ; or it ninj be licst perfonncd under re- 
I prcudie. The acid tbas procored mny be conceutmlcd by 
tMtand dlsiillntion. 

Wlinl are the }ir"}n-rii'-K of liypochlorom acid T It Ik a tran*. 
pwnil liquid of a tlighlly yrllon color when oonccnlrulcd ; ban a 
rpBOftretitig odor, an exceedingly active action on the akin, 
'but icraetcr iban ibat nf nitric acid; hipli bleneliiiig pro 
when concentrated *try liable to be decompoiied. cblorine 
ig «ToUed. and chloric acid produced ; ihiit effect is promoted 
light, and produced instantly by the direct rays of the sail ; 





kIho, )iy iiKiiuiion witli nngiilnr bodic*; a portion of ponnJed 
glpM |iri>(lui'T« liri&k tli-comiioMlion, wh«ii (browm Into tbis fteid. 
It ix a ])owerfnt oxidiziii^ ngeiit, jianiciiliirly of the non-metatltc 
L'lenioiiU. which ore ruadily liroughi to their lii^he^t degree of 

llo"' Is i:hhrt/u* arid pi-ocurt-d ? By hentmi? In a flask a min- 
turc or fuur [inm ehluruti- potu-wii, three of uriieiiiotiB actd, and 
twelve of nitriu auid, previoiixly ililuled hiiIi four parU of water. 
The beal must be upplit-d cuiiliou^Jy, by means of a water bath. 
The add cornea over iii the form of a greenish yellow gna, baring 
Rirong bleachiiig properties ; combines slowly with baecH forming 
ery stall iutble aall*; water absorbn five or six limes iU own toIuidc 
of the g&». 

How ia hypwhloric acid procured? By making 50 or CO 
in^lna of chlorate of potaaaa Iiiiu a paale wiih strong sulphuric 
ariii, pnliiiig it iiilo a gUt« relorl, and applyiii); heat by inraiis of 
warm watt^r kept below 212", when « gas of a bright yellowish- 
green color ia disengaged, which haa an eromniie odor witboiA 
the ftniell of chlorine, and is rapidly abaorhcd bj water, to wbidi it 
imparts iU tint 

What is the ralionale of this proccas? The sulphuric acid <Io- 
composes a part of the chlorate of potosaa, and liberates efalorio 
Bfid, which, ai ihc moment of separation, resoWes Itself into hypo- 
chloric acid and oxygen ; the last of which paases over to the acid 
of the und^cumposed chlorate of potaasa, and is converted into 
pc'fi'hloi'ic acid. The resultiug compounds are bUulphale and |>er- 
chlurale ofpotas**. and lirpochloric acid, ihusj 3KUCIO'+4SO*=s 

IVlml aru lliu pmjM-rtifr. of liypocbloric acid ? It ha* bleacbiag 
properties, and excna violent action on combnatibtus. Phosphoros 
takes tiru with an explo«ion when introduced into Una gas. A 
temperature of 212^ causes a violent explo»ion. It nay bo 
liquefied by cold. No compound of it with a tiaxe ha« jrct been 

now b chloric acid procured ? To a dilute iwlutioa of chloralo 
of baryta add weak suliiburii^ iicii), pn-cihrly aufliirienl for ciimbining 
with the baryta; uu inMilulilu sulphate of baryta i* furmi:d and 
precipitated ; and pure chloric acid reinaius in the liquid, tbiia: 
BaOC10'+SO':^BaOSO'+ WO*, 

What are the profwrtifn of L-ldorie ncid f It reddcni ve^lahto 
tihc rulors, has s tour laMc, and roimit neiilral ttnlt^ with nlknlino 
■mm* (.'allrii elilorateit. It hnji no bleariiinfc iimprrlirt, n cimiin- 
Maiice «lii(-b diatitiguUlm it from chloriiio, liypoclilorous stids, and 
klorciDs DcidR. It doc* not f'wt a prci'ipitalc with n solution of 
' nllrale of adver. ]t may he ooiiecnlraiH hr a {criitic lient to 
oily con^lMeuce. lu 1hi» liijrlily ronccntratrd elRtr it has • 
illowbh tint, an odor of nitric add, sct« firo to dry organio 
■Iter, itnd coiivcrtii akohol into wretie acid. 
It i« raikily drromgioird by dcnsiditiiifr nprnts. 
Ii may 1h^ diMiiiKui^^hrd by funning a xalt nilh potflXfin, which 
jklnlliws in tablo*. him n pcnrly jiiMrc. dcflagrslM like nitre 
htn thrown oil buniinfc diurcoal, oiid yidd* dilorii" opid by the 
lion of concentrated siilphoric ndd. 

How is ptnJiloric arid |irorurrit t Hy adding dihite (sulphuric 
^•tlil to pefx-blorute of poiuwa, and H{i|i|yiii^ licat lo the mixture; 
tiiiie rnpor^ nri«e tluit condeniic aa a colorless liquid in the 
netiter, which in a wlution of jierclitoric add, thns : KOCIO' + 
Stf- KOSO* + CIO'. It may he obtained in a wlid form, by 
ilitalf tl with slTonp sniphriric add nnd distilling:. It hiraea nheo 
Itnn into water, similar to red-hot iron ; forms a compound 
tU potaitMt very slightly vnliiblc In water, trhieh is the perchlorale 
tf poiBfira, and may ho (li<'liniiiii>hfd from the chlorate hy not 
We ml lip yellowish on tin- application of hydroclitoric aeid. The 
friury form of its cryKinl i.t u ri);ht rhoinbnictal priam. 

How is ilie qtiailriirhlnridr of lutnujrti prncun-d ? DiKotvc an 
■•M of kydrorhloratc of ammonia in l^nr IG oaruei of hot wiiler, 
*b(s h has cooled to W invert a widc-monllied |-la»a hiiiik>, full 
•ftlMne, into it. Thi? chlorine is nbgorbed, il acquires a yellow 
■iar, asd in a few minutes (globules of a yeltow fluid float like oil 
•1^ ita surfare ; wlirn Ihey acquire the giito of a small peu. they 
Mk ta the bouotn of the tiquid, and should be collected In a leaden 
■anir placed under the mouth of the bottle. 
What it the raliottali^ of this process 7 The ammonia in dei-om- 
Iby tlic chloniie. hydrochloric arid in pcncraied by the hydro- 
Tiho nmmonia unitinf with a part of the chlorine, while the 
I of the nmniDnlii unites with uuother part of the ehloriue, 
tll'Cl -i- IC; = iUCi + SCL' 
TTW at« ibe projiertiea of the qnadrochloride of nitrogen 1* Il 




U one or Ihc luoft ar|]^3rirfteotBp(»lnds linan-ii. [I U not con;:eBled 
bj a mixture of snow «nd salt, rnnj be dlstille'l Ht lAO', explodes 
betweoii 310° aii4 •Hi", coiitact with some co id I m bibles cbusm 
detoLiaiioii nt I'omnioii tpinperaliim. jiar^ti'tilarlv oiU, both Tolatile 
and lixed Tho prodatls of Iliu ex)>)ri.''iuri are clilurlne and oiiro- 
gen. This corapouud is 4 eqa. of chlorine lo 1 of nitrogen, or. u 
BUted by Bcizdius, 3 cqa. of chlorine to 1 of nitrogen. 

Wbat ore iho cmnpauntiM of Morine »Uh carbonl The sea- 
qiiii-Iiloridc of carbon, C'Cl' ; the protochlortde, CC1 ; aod the 
didiloridt^. C'CI. 

How U /WKquichhride of carton procured ? By uxpodnf; o1^ 
flanl Rna to clitoritie ; a L-oiiib!naliuii taken plat:e betwccfn ibcm, and 
all oily liquid iii i^eiicruled, which \a a compoitud of i-art>oii, hydro- 
pco, and I'blnriae. Put tbla into a veasel conlaiaing chlorine gas, 
and expuKu ii lo the direct rays of the son ; ibc chioriiie d(N!oiu> 
puwa the h<|uld. hydrouhloric acid is liberated, and the carbou 
utiitcvi with the chlorine at the moment of aeparalJon. 

What are the properlien of the Hcsqiiichloride of carbon ' It la 
solid at common leuiperalurce. has an aromalic odor, a uon-con* 
(liii'tor of (jli-clriciiy, and a powi-rfiil rcfcncior of ti(tht ; up. j[r. 9; 
fuNtK at 330^ ; ii nmy be diMilted wlibout change, and a&itimea a 
cr>'KlallJnp form when It cuudeiiHca. 

Ilutt is ihi? pml'irlitfiritte of i:arlyn proenred ? By passiiiR tho 
vapor of perdihiride throuf-U a red hot f-lass lube filled with pieces 
of rack crvMlal. it Is purtiully decomposed ; chlorine and prvto- 
chloride of rurbuh beiiift the reBult. 

What are Hie prnf>t-rtie« uf protocliloriile of carbon? It Es a 
limpid ?utarli.-K>i litpiid, iius a decisily of lA.*!, does not congeal at 
D", and in cont-ertcd lalo vapor at lflO° or 171)'. It may be d!»< 
tilled, hilt expOKure lo a red heat resolves it Into its elements. 

What nrc Ih^ rharafli-ritlieii of tho dirhluruh- at rarhint f It 
ifl of a white color, in the nbape of Kinall, nod, adhesive fibres, anil 
has a peculiar odor rc^einblinji sperm uceli. 

What arc ihiM-ompoiitidi' uf Wi/tinWand sulphur t "nie difblo* 
ride, S'Cl ; and ihr pro loch I or! do, SCI. 

What arc tho oompoundn of chlorine and phoipborns F The 
pentachtoride of phtixplmriiK. PCI, ; and the lerchioride, PCI*. 

How in ihi- pt'iifaclilurirle of phuaphorue procured? By id- 
flatning plioxphorus In dry chlorine, the percbtoride collecta inside 

df Uit TMsel. It i» wliitr snil v*ry tolntilif. By hcntinjr ii n'ldor 
•nann m<I coolinjc, it yi^ldn IrnnRparMit pri^mntic cryitnU. 

now 1* ihu l«rchIoridc of phu»|>lioriiK procnred ? By hinliiig 
th« p«ntilari<lo wiih |iliof^|ili»rii« ; nUo by posfin^ tlic vapor of 
|llk<M|»hara)i over i-om>Mrc HBblimatu conlnincd in a tfUsi: talic. 

What ■lu the prvperliea of ihp terchloridc of pho«pliorii» ? Il 
b ■ clnii* lii|ui<l, like water, «f xp. ^r. 1'4S, «mit» ncid rnnicK when 
tidied to ibt •ir, owing to ihc <1 ceo m posit I on of nr|iicoiis ritpor. 
Oanliinic witb wmtcr, « mntiinl dcrom posit ion titk«s pincc, hcnt is 
Htlrtd, Rnd ■ sotudon of hrdrocbloric and ptioitpluirouf adcU in 

flow in cftlori/rarhimic acid, or fihrtmit-nv gat procured ? By 
tipoiiii^ e(|ual iwrlx, tiy iiuriuurr, of (^liloritie und rnrbonic oxide 
ptt» to HinKtiiae, a combination ai^incH, and ft conlrnetion to liftif 
Ikt Tolnme laki-x place, 

Vhnl ore th« propertiea of diloroearl ionic add ^oT It ii 
nlort*M, hns m alronK odor, and reddens dry liiinnn paper, com* 
Wmj with (cnwous ammonia, and forms n wliiie solid uiH, ibert-rurc, 
tat Kid pni|H'riie«. Water decomposes it, and Itie retinit ii hy<)ro- 
tUortD and cnr))Oiiic acida. 

Wliat eoinpoond docs dilorine form with boron t It forms tlie 
tiHiloridff ; and It la procured by puttiTi); receutly i>repared boron 
into chlorine, wlicn It takea Are fiponts neon sly, and ft colorless gat, 
tkfhloride of boron, Is formed, wlileli U absorbable by water, and 
u4rrft««« double deconpofltlon at the Mine moment, ibe result of 
*kith It lirdr'K-bloric and boraeic acida. 

Vliat coiQ]>oiiiid does eiitfrijte form witb mliconf The le' 
tUoride, wbicli mav (>« prociireti by heAting siticon in a current of 
fhlorinc (fas. Tli« product is <-oMlcnf«d into a rotorlcM liqnid, 
ihich, by lite addition of water, is convened into hydrochloric aad 
ne acids. 

Iickloriue a simple or compouiMl snlwUnce? It is a simple 
'b*dy, because it canitot be deoom|m)ied by any known meaits. 


WkfTf is iodiii' found ? It Is found In many miucral Rprinm, 
bcombinalion with KrHlimn nad pntoMlura ; It U also found in the 
Mtr of the Mediterranean, in the uy«t<-r, and sotne ntber marins 



inollnacciiiii BOfaikltt in spoiip;e<t, and in most bladfl of sen wpe 
li bii# uUo been Iband hi the minenii kiugdom iu combinalioD m 

How is It procured J II la prociircil from kelp, nn impure ea 
boimte of soda, vlilnined bv incineraling wn vrvAt. OarlionaU ' 
■odu Is prepared ri'om the kelp; and llic rvsiJunl liquor ronta) 
imlirif! Ill comltiiialion willi potfts«iiim i>r soHtnm, ichivh maf 
KCparuicd hy the ndditioD of Rulpburic add and liinovidc or na 
gaiiem- ; l>y ihc applicalinn or lic-nt tli« iodine \* tl)H. s»l>limr<l, aJ 
mav be collected in coul glius rei-viverx; tliiiK : wilh iodid« 
dod'ium. 280' + MiiO'Xal = MiiOSO' + NuOSO' + 1. Or : 

IidMtaf iBdlDra 

Mln* . 




9itirph«at of i 


floIphM* #f mtagtatt. 

What are llie properliea of iodine ? Ii Is soft, frinble, nolld. h 
a Ifluiiih color, metallic Instre, and crysmlline a])]icufiinpi>, rcw- 
bliti^ niicHccouB iron ore. It is fused at Slib", and i?1>ii!litioii ia| 
pUco at 3*7°. If moisture is present, it is sublimed rupidly at 
temperature below boiling water. Its rapor ie of a rich fio 
color, ^om wtiich it derives iM nnme. 

It is a Dou-conductor at electricity, and negatiTelj electric. 
Is ter; sparingly soluble in wbKt. but very soluble In alcohol • 
elhur. It bas a strong nOiriity fur (he nictals and nioU of tlie nd 
metallic combustibles producing compounds, termed Iodide*. 

Tli« lett for iadin« is Etureli ; but the iudine ranst be In m ft 
coiidillou, and tbe solution cold. Its ctiuivalont is ISSS ; %jmi 
I; ap. gr. *fii. 

Wbai compound does iodine form wiili hydrogen T It fonin i 
hydi'iodic acid, wliicli is 1 cq. of iodine to I eq. of hydrofcea. 

Uotr is hi/itriodic aaid procnri^d ? It maybe formed bj t 
direct union of hydrogen wiih Ihi- vopor of iodine transmllt 
throngli u |iorci-lnin tubi? at u red bent. It may aUn he procor 
hy the in'ii'w of wilier on ihp iodide of ]ibo»phoru», wliich gives I 
bypopliospliorie and hydriodlc acids, the lullcr of which post 
ovM ns a colorieas gas, ihua ; PP + ailO — SHI + P0». - 

What are the properties of hydriodio acid ga«f It hu a m 



ddeitS T«e«lft)>l« bine colors, and prodnees white fumes 
lixvd wiih iIm air. 
Wliat h iu Bclion on tiie metallic oxides J Water and an iodide 
oT the nivtal is romed. (has : KO -{- HI = EI + JJO. 
lU iaits are called iodides. 

What ara tlie componnds of iodine with oxtgeo ? Th« oxide 

le, iailotu) aeid, iodic and periodic acid. 

itr is Ibe oxide oT iodtiie and todoas add procured t Bjr 

th« vapor of iwlin« and oxjgvn pis considerably healed, a 

llow mailer of tli« consisteoco of solid oil ts produced, which is 

led as the oxide of iodine ; and, if the supply of oxygen be 

tanlimivd, it is conrertod into a yellow liquid, which is the iodoas 


Bow is (he iodic acid procured ? By decomposing iodate of 
Hrjics by means of sulphuric acid, The following is th« rationale : 
MUO* + SO* + BaOSO' + 10'. 

What are th« propertiet of iodic acid T It is a white, semi- 
lnn(par«il solid, has a ^rong, astringent, sonr taste, inodorous, 
mim anhydrous. Its com|>ouiMls ara called iodates, 


is bromine procnred ? From bittern, by the action of chlo- 
W <rhicb, l>y its superior afliiiity fur the metallic radicals, liberatw 
ibroiuino. The bromine is then taken np by elher, and acted 
I by potash, which is cdnrerlMl into (he hrDmidc nnd bromste, 
I broinale iteing conrcrl«d into hromlcic liy mcnnx i>f heiit. The 
pMfliutn i* acted on by Mulphuric acid ntid peroxide of innnga- 
Mf : the foHowing elianfce oecnrring : 380' -1- UnO* + K Itr = 

What ara thv/inr/xryir'^ of bromine t At common tcmperatnna 
>I i* a hlaekixh-retl li<|iiid. IIa odor la very dixngri-cabio, and re- 
■■xiblni chlorine. It i* congealed a( 4", and in tinltle. It emita 
*t camnwn tcmperaturea red-colored raporx, mcmtiling nitrons 
*rtd. and boiU at 116-5°. ft r«tembteji oxygen, chlorine, nnd 
'**''ie, in Wing negnlttely electric It is rolnbtc in water, alcohol, 
I (tiler, tui|)portii comhiiHiion nnder some circnmManccv, and i» 
'deMrvcltve to life. It has not been derompofcd, nnd is rery 
i in Ita chemical relatioiiM to iodine nnd chlorine. It can 


Hciil ii fiiniicrf. 

WLul uri" til? propfrtiM ni hydrtihrvm 
pis, of nil acid Imic nnd pnngtiit oAm 
when mixed witli moiM nir jiHdit vh\it v 
by chloriiit; hyiirodiluric acid ^ns is j) 
ilc})(Hiitc(l. The «nlls i>r bromine are call 

Whiil crmpoundt »rc formed with hr 
bromk- acid i* the only known compoiin'l 

How in ilprncuicilf By dccompo^in 
bromntc of barrla with sulphuric m-id. ' 
prccipitBtpd, the hrnniic im-mI rfmnin* in i 
ptiitriitPi} liv slow evapoi'utioii. but r»nno 
wat*r without bring decomjiosed. The f 
BnOBO' + S(r = BbOSO' + flrO*. 

What nrc the proji^rtifii of hromin aci 
but not corrosise, very llltle odor, redden 
destroys Its color. It Is annlogoiia to 
acids, Ita roinpositlun Is I eq. ofbromll 

How is ihe chloride of bromine jiroce 
rent of clitnriii« Iliroiich bromine, and 
vagiors by a frpczing luixiiin?. 

What are iho propertiet of chlorid* ofl 
fluid of a reddish -yellow color, diM^e 
odor, and cnn«M a di«uhitrg:e of tMr« froi 
in it« vaptir, »nd chlondcK and bromides i 



raoilp IK to mix flaoridv of calcium and peroxide of mnDga- 

wlth stil)i)iaTic ncid. 

Wbnt aro tli* pmprrtif* of fluorine f It is a ycllowlsli-browti 

Kts, rawDiUist ohloriiif in otlor, tilcaclics, is ll^f!:ntivuly electric, 

uhI hM a iiowcrTuI nffinity for tlie mt-inls and hydrut^oii. lis 

t^nifalent \i IS'fiD; *p. ^. TS ; itymbot F. 

What ciMnjwnnd doi-ti fluorine fonu «itli hydroRen ? Tlie hydro- 
Biii>ric ftfi'l, wliii'h i« 1 eq, of nuoriui> lo 1 of liyilroijen. 

How U ft jrrarurfd f lly ndding <'i)nci'ritrntcd snljihurlc acid 
to fiiior s|Mir (whicli iit n fluoride of cnlciiiin), rL-dm-ud to n One 
fovder. Tlie acid dixlilx over nn ap]ilyiti|^ licat, and muHt be 
(Olltelwl III n Irnden rcceiror mrroiinilrd witli icr'. Tlie result in 
bfdroSnoric ncid, wliieh comec over, nnd llii- Gulplnili! of lime 
itmafiia IB Iho retort, Uiii»: H08(r + CaV = OuOSO' -t- ///■'. 

What are llie propcrtic* i>t liydrofluon'r:- aridt It if a colorlesa 
liquid at 33°; if expoxtd to the air, it llii.'ii oS in deiiKv white 
fuinca, prodn<rcd bjr its comlii nation with the atmoKphcn; ; lia« & 
poaerftU nffinitr for wnicr, and a rery pungent vapor. It ix the 
OWtil dcclniclive lo aiiimnl inalli^r of all kuonn NiilistnnccJi, its 
kpitticatioii Wing followed by a malignant ulcer ; It corrodes Rlu.tit, 
tud lluoKilicIc ncfd ftnit in prodni'r'd. 

When dilated with three or four limeM itx weifchl of water. It It 
fvitabie for etrliing: on glaKt. It has the properliua of a powerful 
acid, redden* titiuitx, lia« a Mrong loiir taitte, neuiralizea alkalieH, 
aad Bflitea with melalii forming compoiindit, called Booridea. 

How Uflifohoric or.-ut fiaa olilnUied ? By hcaiinft a mixture of 
13 parl« of Kiilphnric a«id with 3 of (lunr Kpar and 1 of vilriflcd 
bunieic acid, in a (tatk, It tnny nl«o be obtained by hunting 
bydro-lluoric and boracic nddii in « mctnllie retort. 

Wbal tlic Ibc proptriien of flnoboric acid gaK ? It it colorlcKt, 
haa a |'<-nrlrDling pungent odor, reddciin lilniu«, and f«rmii hiiUk 
with alkalies ealk'il lluoborates. It luw a very Mrong affinity for 
water, vliieli It will take from any ga* containing uqneonit vapor, 
titua affording a delicate tr«t for it in ganes. Water nbaorbs it, 
Uid fortiu a strotig cauxlic itolution. 

How \i Jlutmlicic acul prociin:)! ? liy mixing 2 parts of strong 
■iwlphimi- acid, 1 of fliior upar, and 1 of sand, or pounded glnia ; 
90 the ApplicaliuD of heat, it i* dittcogaged, and may be collected 



over merciir;. The following arc the changes: 8S0*-|- SiO* + 

What are the properlic* of fluosilieio aciil ? It is a cotorleas 
g:iis, dots not BHp]>i>rl com bit »I ion, desimys tiniiuiil life, anil unitca 
vilh the watery vapor of lln; atitiof[))ierv, forming n white cload. 


What U ihe oom position at ammtiniacat <ja»f It is a compottiid 
of nitrogen ; 1 eqiiivnlciit lo 3 of hyilrox™- 

How in it prartirfdt it iimy lie procured from any salt of 
ainmaiiia b; llie a<.-lioii of n pure ulkali, iir nlkuline mnh. Equal 
)>arts of the hydroclilorale of ummutiiu mid eauKtic lime ere g«ne- 
rallT employed ; hcnt i* applied, the auiinonia is given off, and tha 
rvftiduc is chloride of ciileium niid tinii;, thu lime being added in 
excesa. Thus: MI.Ol + CaO = CaCI + UOXU,. Or: — 

ttiid I 

8tl aoiaHilu. ct ulitorid* 
of uBcnnfili. 



OMorMi ar C*)rlaBL 

A highly coneeiilraled solution of ninmonia in obtained by Irana- 
Riilting n (-iirrent iif ihu gnK into wiuer. m long n« it will absorb iL 
To cxliiliit the gnu jmri^, il nin<t be collected ever mercnry. 

Wlint nrc the jir'-pi-rliirf of ammonia t Jn a gaseous form it W 
coIorlexH, powerfully jniiigcnt, irritates the «yfa and nom, irrespl- 
rHl>le when pnre, a nnn-snpporior of combnMion. slighlly combun- 
(ible iti oxygen gac, and a mixtnre with oxygen detonates by the 
elcetriu spark, water being formed, nnd nitrogen set free. The 
gas may be lirgnelied at a tenipcratnre of bQ", and under a premuro 
of l!'5 Aimotpheres, forming a transparent eoIorl«a liqaid. It '\a 
highly nlknliue, form* snlt« deeoniposablo by being healed with Ihf? 
fixed alkalies or alkaline earths, or by a red heat. If coia)>ine<i 
with a volatile neid, the compound may be itiibHined nitehaitged. 
It has a poHcrfnl nlllnity for water, uhieh absorbti 780 tlmri: iti« 
bulls, the sp. gr. of which \t diniiniahed to «'93«. The liijiiicS 
lolnlioij is clear, eolorless, and poajteMies the peeullarillet of the ga* 
itsoir. -m 

How m&j free ammonia be detected ? By the odor, lu Umpo— 4 
rary action on lurmeHo paper, which it xtuinx brawn, and the color 




Mxn rcnppcsre, oving to it« volnlility ; and by itt fiVBhtR drime 
fnnM wtirn a giota ixitl. inoiKtrii«<l »itli hydrochlcrie Mid, is 
broflglit D«ur it ; tlicttc wiiitc fiiiiifji are the hydrochlDraCc of am- 

How amnj compounds of nitrogen and Ujdrogon arc there? 
Tim* : w followH : 

ninmi. BrdNfu. 

Anldoiiu _ N + SHorNn>. BymW AO. 

Annonia.^ »....N'4-3i< urNII'. ParmuU A<I + IT. 

Ancaoniun » M + til or NU. •■ A'l + -'a. 

Wlial ia ammonium f It itc a bypniheticsl mrinl, the brnto of 
UUMiiiit. It hnx iH*Ter bitc-n iiiulntcd, 1ml hnx tinii infcrrrd to 
(till, becaaM nil tLmulgnm in foriiivd wiih inurcurv, l>y n gulvriDiu 
curat, wlilcb rcMiubl«t na aroitl)(iiin foniK-d with h uicial. The 
biw of the csltt formed of nmmnniu it tuppoifd to lie mi oxiAn 
of ihiH riuliciil, faecauie oxy-udila ilo not iiiiilv wtili hm-i-t which 
cootdn no oxyKen, while oxy-ttcIdH do uiiiio wiih uniiiioitiu and 
form aninoniocfll »alts. ltd fonimlii would be Nil', utiil that of 
itt oiide NU' + O ; eq. la + 8 = 2G. 

Coupotmm OP IlrDRooKN and Oahuon. 

Whit are the known compound* of hydro((irii and portion t I/ight 
ctfimrtiltrd hydroffen, olf/innt gas, elhvrine, jiaraj^nf, vupimu, 
Km, oil gtearine, icof tyit, bemoin, naphtha, oil of furpentine, 
nfrlne. catnjAene, oil of copaiiv, jajiij/fr oil, lemon oH, narin 
•^ oii, black pepper oil, naphthaline, paranajiiitJialinif, and 

4'bal is tbe proper cbeniical nnine for lujht rartiurelled byiho- 
^"i TTie dicarburet of hgdmgen. Oilier nnmes, frequently 
**d, arc hettf'j injtatiiviable air,iiie injlatnmable air o/ manhen, 
"d hydroH^arburct. 

Wli<ni is it fotin4, iind how it it obtained 7 It is formed in 
"•fftiaiil pools, from the dccoinjiooilioii of vegetnUlp innllcr. and 
'**'y he procured )>y ttirrinjt t)ie mud nl the boitam, and i-ifllcrtiTi); 
'Ui isTcrUd roMvU lut it riM«. Qlitainrrj in Ihix way, it i-anlnins 
''tttlll quantity of carbonic acid fcait. It may alno be ohtiiined 
*T hcatiag wctato of potuh with hydr*t« of baryta. The following 

CR eUtllTKT. 

is the ralw»a!e ; KOCHW + BuOUO = KOCO* + BaOOO* + 


What are Ita propt^rlirnt II is rolorleta. toelclen, luia very lllU«< 
araell, j^euiis, u|>|iorU'r of ivimbuslioii or ri-s|'iratioii, Ui- 
fiauraable, and burtiH wilh a ydluw flume. WStli u HufGcicnt |ior- 
lioii of atoionphenc air, ur oxygta, it rurma a detonatin); conipoaiid, 
waller and cnrhonic acid being rarmed when it is detonated. 

I'lic jire damp, so de&trucl[?e fri i-ob1 Diiiiea when ignited, U 
cumpoacd of lliis gtta. 

Upon what priiiciplo is Sir nuuiphrey Duvf 'h siafi-iy-lainp con- 
Btructcd ui prevent iho explosiou or ihl* gait F It is Tound that the 
Aame cannot past tl)rou<!li a narrow tube, bowerer aliorl, provided 
its diameter U sufBmtnil}' reduced. Now a piece or wire Kuuite 
maj be reiturded us un u.iituinblnKii or tlu>iie lubnt, and lluine will I 
not peiielrate it; tli«reforc, it n i-unimi>u oil lump i* nurroandcH) 
willi a piece of tliis K'^nxe, it will huru in ibe explonive mixlurc, 
witliout coiniimnlL-atiiiK i^ouliuatiou to the Knu cxtcriiully. 

What h the con)|Kiailiiin otolejiani gtu, and why i> it »a eiilkd ? 
It IB composed of ^ eiis. or carbon and 3 e(|i. of liydrofren. miitod 
to form 1 eq. of the gna ; aud is called olcGant paa, bccau-te It foniiM 
an oil-lilie liquid u-iih vhlorine. Formula C'H'; equiralent 14; 
■p. gr. -980. 

How is it procured f By heating a mixture of alcohol and kuU 
phnric acid, in the prDportion of one part of the former to four of 
the latter ; irfTeneKccnco eiisuci. and oleliniit gna passes ocer. 

Wlint arc tlic prupcrticc of olfjiant gatf It is colorless, taatc- 
leat, ftnd Inodorous, a iian.snpponi-r uf combustion and re»i>in«lioa, 
iuSammable, burning with a den«o white light, and forms an explo- ■ 
sivQ miiliii'o with osj^gcn, or atmospheric air. It it dec<im|>(Me<l ' 
by a iiucccesiud of electric »pnrks, and by being Iran^milled tliruugh 
red-hot porcelain lubes. A mixture of two parts of cbloriue, and 
otie of olefiant gas, takes lire oil the application of flaute, the rt- 
sull of ivhir:h it hydrochloric acid, and the deposition of charcoal ; 
but if they lire allofted to remaio at rest, they enter into direct 
combinnlioii. and a yellowish ail is produced. 

Cpou what does tht /lame ofoAQdles, lamps, gas 1 1 Rh la, culinary 
fires, &c., depend F The compounds of carbon and hydrdnen. 

Uoir may they l>e procured for the purpose of gas lights t Bj 



Ae deslruelire (listlltntion or biluminnQx roni, vood, oil, tar, or 
other iiiQainmahle sulialaom. 

U|M>H whut doi-8 Itie illHrninalinti poumr at tWe <!Oin|iai»i(lf 
prini-ipnlk (l>'|«-ii>l T Tliis poivcr in in ]iru|)t)rti<>n lu ihi: i|iiuiiti1y 
of cnrlKXi i-oiiii?ii>e<l iato a Tolumc, providtj iIiimc is a miffidviit 
fiupply of oxTgen to coiiEnine it ; oltiurwitc, thi; exucn of corbon 
rrudf ti tlip flsniA emokj^. 


Wbnt lire the covipounds formed b? hydrofcen aud sulphur F 
kre two ; liydroKulpliurio U4.-id, HS ; and llio persoliiliuret of 
^fcy«lro(feii, HS^ 

lloir lit hytiro*ulphuric arid, or tulphvrtUKd fi^ttrot/en, as It il 
|g«u(mlly culleit, procnrodf By hcociiifc kcsqiilsulpburct of nati- 
^■luny villi fuur or fire iIims it« weight of liydroclilorid nciij. 

Wliai is the ralittiale or llils process 7 Ttie chlorine of the 

hydrocbtoric acid ntiltes wiili [lie anliuiouy of llie seaqiilsiilphuret, 

formliifc * ■e*quitliloride, and iKe liMir.f)''^ii of th« bydrofhlorif acid 

rnite* with tli« milpliur of tlic tii-Miiilaul^ilitrret. and forms liydrosuU 

rphuric iwid, thus : Sb'S' + SHCl = S Ci' + SH.'. 

U tnay also be obuiiied by ihe actloa of an ocid with water on 
the sul|i)iur«l of iron (iron pyrites). Wheo ehlorohjdrlo acid ii 
Bavd, the following is the reactiou : — 

Chlonlijndrto utfl l ., _ 
£alf iKinl oC IniD I J* 

'tiCL Chlarld* of Itvo. 

.US. tulpbnnlloil )i)rlni|sa. 

Wllca MilphuTic aeid is inted, ll is aH follciwn; — 

Bulphuri« vH n> 

■ulMiunt of Inn J g* 

»*•■- I" 

FM.M)'. Sul(>luita uf Inm. 

II& ttalfhuntled hj'dncBQ. 

Formnla. HS; eqniTalenl. 17; sp. gr. I 'IS. 
What are ihe proprr1ie« of hj drosiilphurit! ai'ld f It is a color- 
leas g»B, reddens moist litmiic, haa a very oITeiiHre taste and odor, 
ilmtlar to putrid f^gp>. a non-NU[>porler of rmpiration and coinbns- 
liin, pombtistlble. water and sulphuric acid beinK iho products, 
mnd sulphur Id deposited. U may be readily diilJnguished by ita 
il g 



odor, tarnishing silver, and thr eharartcr at it» prcct]>itnle wllk 
solutious of ai'M'iiions nrid, larlar cmt-lio, ur Kails pf Irad. lU 
balu are called hydrosalpli^itcs. 

IItdbcoek Attn ruuu>uoitvs 

How is photphvniled hydrogen pronired f Ity Ibc ttdlon of 
Mruiig hydrochloric acid on phosphnrct of ralHum. Tb« fullowini; 
U ilie reaction whvn wfttvr, lime, and ptionphornx are lualed (»■ 
gelbiT : — 

.I'll*. fbopbtuXU bTdnpl^ 

PboiifllMV*. I t*v< 

Un*,»rq». \tM- 

i^opo \ n>pcit>tiHpbiu or ntm. 

■wtfj V 

What are its propertieal It is a transparent, eolortciix fun, ol 
an offeiiwu' odor and bitter taslp ; it is » non-Mipporttr ot com- 
bnKliuii ami nnimal life. It (leloaates n-ilh oxygen at ihc tviiipe- 
ratura of 300°, by the elcctrie spark, and by diniini«:li«l prcMure. 

If lli<! lienlf of n rttoit frnni whic-li thid gn» iKsuc* i« plunitwl 
DiidiT nuier >» lliiil liiililik* of it iiiiiy n«e (lirnufrU llie liqnid, <ucb 
oiii,', on rciiuliinjf ilii? vuiTiicv. nill liurxt into a llnnie, and fonn r 
rinjr ordc-u^e »'hili-.itniikr. which t>ilitr|;e* an it afceiiil*, prescbiing 
a Iii-(iuiiful uppcnriitiL-u cliunicieriaUc of tliis gu. It ba« bMii 
known ax the Wtll-o'-lhe-witp. 

NiTXOOKK Axn Carbom. 

What cnmpound in formal belwecu nitrflgeii aad carbon T 
Ci/anogen or Inearburtt of t\itrttgen. 

Formula, NC', or Cy ; ec|uivnl«il U+ 12 = 20; sp. gr. TSI 

How Is cyanogen provun-d ' lii iKiuiitin hicyatiide of mercury 
{n a porcelain r<.-tort, and cullcelinir the product orer mt'reury. 

What uro the fm,perliea of cymiogi-u T It Is a colorless, Iran 
parent, irrfupirablu gni. It Ik limpid, liquid at ibc Icniperatnrc oC| 
46", uud tiud«r a prepare of 3'6 atmoiphcres It vill not suppo 



but biiniB uilh a Ijeniilirttl flatne. Il la carbon i eqa., 
1 M], Il lius a MroDg Icmleiicjr lo untie with ele- 

tiiralnit Hi)«iniK.fB, in lliie rcspti't rpEFitibHiig chturine ; Il is a 

haU>)[)-ci liody, aiid its c{iiii]>ouii(le art c-nllcd cyarndex. 
^^ Wli»i roiui>otitid i§ foruied by i-jauogen uuU lij-drogiii ? i/i/- 
^H6c^nilG' or jirvtaic acid. 
^ FwtnuWi. CSS, lit Cyii; equltolent, 2C + 1 = 27 ; «p. gr. 

(Ii<li)lrl) 0-C7CT. 
^k Hjilrocjsiiic sdd is obtaioed in tlie diMillotion with welcr, of 
"J Wlrr aliiHiiidfl, ajijil* M^ds, tli« terii«U of i*ucli«. ami jilums, 

Invcaof the cberry lanrcl, and otlier platils. 
^^ Ilow elw ifi il tiblauied. and ulial are it» properlks ? By l)ie 
^^tolioiiorh;dToi.-blurica<:idu)ioiicvauideofnii.-rvur]r. tliua: H;;Cy+ 
^nCI=HKCI-f llCj. Cjimogtn w))I atao uiiltv with l)irdro)?ea 
^^Miltr tbe s&ni« dR-umsIaticta timt cb)uriii« does ; as follows : — 


-Cfll. ItfiliwjiniovU. 
-CIK. CUorMa of pDlurioB. 

Il In rulorlcsB. I!(|ti)d, lin.i nu mlor r«eiiiblinp peach leaves, very 
lolmjle. Iii^bljr )ioin<iiivii0, and jiovwisea sliglil acid pro|>t:rliei. 
Cynnic Acid. CJfO, or CyO; cquivulwil 34. 
it naiiidv tif )i<ntnR8ii)in is licnivd in lli« nir. buth ihc drmcntii 
■U otj'f^rii from ilic oir. iind a cyiiiiulc of |itilaR'ii is r«riii«d 
,C;0,KO). The puln^Mi miijr he removed niid the vjiiiiio acid 
.•ilh water. Il is niinlopaiiii to ninny oilier compounds of 
I, niirufrin, ami onygcii, which arc naid Ki be ifiunicric Kith it. 
' CyaM/« of Ammonia. This roiiipoiiiid hM tome t(itcrc«t on 

»»Wuunlor Wing; iaomeric willi un-a, one of llic orgnnic coiiMitu- 
BUoftbcariiic. IwfonimiaisC'yO.AV/V 110. orCNO.NH'+ 
0; ud corr»|ii>ii<U wilh (he r<>niiiilu of ims, C'N'Il'O'. 
Fuiminic At7>d. K'Ttiiiila Cy 0'; Miuivnlviit 68. Il is formed 
'? llic ictiiM of hyponilroini and ori alcohol in llic prmciicc of a 
™1 <if «i|viv or inunriiry. Il hai< not bei^ii inoluteil. 'VUcfutmi- 
'">*^ uf nltu-r U fiinued by piiUiiiR silver in iiiirii; ucId, and. when 
"■Whed, nddiii}; nluoliol The Utter becomes oxidized, bulnft 
**>*med iiila BJdchyde and oxalic add ; while tlie nilHc acid ia 
*^^>ncd into bT[K>nilruiii ncid, by inipurliiig a portion of lu 
ft to the ulcolioi, which tli«ii react* on Boin« undecumposed 

tliat iicitlivr nliluniic nur liromiiic i* p 
tuiiiia)! cyuiiop.-Ti liu liralL'iI wiUi nn a 
lilOf iiri-riiiilHU- i* ubiiiiiii'il, IT n I 
pUcrd in ■ <-i)]iiu1c over • flamr. ai 
ninnKiiiinm Aitdnl. ihe Wnt will «i 
vapors, which nill niii(« with (ho sul) 
grn ; tim uuiief wiih tlio nitimoriiiiiii, 
of ■mmoiuiim. Then pine? a drop 
iron on this, and n bliiDil-ruct «pot is < 
rjnniUc of iron, mid ii n ccrUtin teat. 


Whftt nit the cJtaiiictrriflica cf mt 
of clwTlricily ainJ !ii>at, rlcfilro-posilivc 
flccior* of lipht, ntid ppi»r«s n poculim 

What if ihu tiumbrr «f ihc niclnis J 

Whnt muHilii i)«.<)ii.-N% Ihf prnperij- of 
iro^ipiT, tin, pliitintim, cnilniiiiin. lead, 
poiiiiirn, ninl fro/.i-ri nir-rciiry. 

Whnl nn- the iml"l« which poescM 
Oohl, iiilTcr, iron, and copper arc Ihe 
(trnwn into wire with rariliiy. 

Wluit l» meatil br tha t^rm rti/jt - 



What an Ibe oxidts or mrtaU called nliirh nre cnpn>>k or nni- 
tia; wilk Mciila nnd rortniiig mlltf They tiro ralltil allialiii« or 
Mti&alilL- t>ii«cs, anil are go'ierally the protoxide. 
liarn aemU nn nlHnitT Tor chlorine t The; hnve a potrernil 
iltf, and in iniuiy iimlBHrrK niiilu so us to present thu phcno- 
ntiM of comltniilioii ; and «ill rnM|<ii^|ill; iliiiplacc oxygen from its 
^n^n villi llic mrlnlo. 

^p Whnl are llii- (ntiicrni trkariKlcriiilics of the mHoitic chlorides T 
Hm of iKeai arc solid at rommoii Icmix-rntiircs, fusible by hea!. 

I fad eryxUllix« on cooling. Some of thrtn may bo Rublimed wtthant 
9nitgt i Ibry art; for Ihu most part colorless, have do metallic lastre, 
ltd hiiT« ihe appearance of snlls. 
\ ila><: ihe ini'ials nti alGnjty far todinet They have a strong 
itSlnity, and tnoat of iheaa compounds are DOt decomposable by a 
iH bral in elose TpMels. 

Have ih« nicliils an uflinity for iti'/zj/iurf Tli^y have ft strong 

hiilency to unite with it, and the timou may be BpooinpHslied by 

aliii;; llw melnl with stitplmr, by (frnllinf; a mixture of a meialt!c 

aide nod kiilpbur, and Ijy ssviral other proceases. 

Iii>» uri' Ibe iBetiiU ^/rUlfilT Into ttrn claMes. 

Claji* Irf. Those whifh yield alkallLs and earths by oxidation. 

Hiaa id. Those the oxid(>s of wtilcb arc neither alkalies Dor 

Tile J!rM class comprisea tkirlfrn tnelaU, which bare been ar- 
Uipd Intii thrwt order* : — 

Ordfr IW. The metallic bases of the alkalies, They are pafas- 
liim. Hodivm. IMium, and animonnnii. 

Urdr.r id. The metallic bases of ihu alkaline earths. These are 
hrivm, Mlronlinnt, oafct'um, and niagitrrium. 

Order Sd. The metallic basea of the earths. They are atumi- 
"*■, lerfrtom, crbtHm, glitcinum, yllrium, thorinum, and tirco- 

Tlio tiet^id clana coraprifvs lu<enfy-iitn« melaU, and may be 
uninp-il Into three orders : — 
I Orctrr !■(. The metals which decompose water at a red heat, or 
Hpfib an arid at ordinary lemperutures. Tlier are manganese, iron, 
^■("c, radmOim, tin. cottaU, chrontitim, and nid-fl. 
^H Ordi-r Sil. The metals whieh do not decompot^c water at any 
^l^peratttre. and tfae oxides of irhich are not redncible to a metallic 


BUte hj hnt alone. Tliev are arsenic, vantuiium, mu/ybJenum, 
tungtlen, cotumbium, anlimony, urantum, cerium, bifinuth, lila- 
nivnt, hlhtrium. vopprr, tantalum, uiid luad. 

Orilfrr 'id. Tlio nielult llie oxides of which iii^' n-cluted to lliS 
nieliilllc? BUite Uj a red heat. Tliejr are mercury, iidr^r, gold, fita- 
linum, jiaUaJium, rhiMltum, otmium, Hiid iridium. 

Metals o? rat Alkaijss. 


How la poUssiam procured 1 It may be proenred br aiilij«rtinf; 
iDDiatFiieil hvdrale o( jiolasMa to a Ralvnnic battery, and tltc |iotn»> 
■lam will tic ruiiiid at Ihc nejralive {lolc. A more abiiiidaiil Hiipjilj 
amy he iihtahied by biin^iii^ (amd hydrate o( pulnsu in couiaet 
with tiiriiiiL};^ o( iron liented to whllciieM in a )^iin-barrel. Another 
inelliod is lu iiii.\ iron filing and cimrcuul witli polaasa, In bd inm 
bolUoi in both oises the potassium is sublimed, and mav be col* 
lecled. The ralionnlc is ihal ibe iron and chnrcout abstract oxy- 
pen rrom ihe poiawa, and the polas»tiim i* liberated. 

But the method now more commoni/ praclifed is that of obtsln- 
h): it from i^'iiiled or carboniKcd rream or tartar, inlimaiel]r mixed 
with charcoal in course powder, whidi, on the application of heat, 
is resolved into carlionic oxide and iiiclallii- pota'sttim ; the latter 
of which fihnuM he rccelvnd in iinphlhn. The folloning is the ra- 
tionale.- KOOO' * 20= 3:o -t K, 

What arc the proprrdet of polnsgiiim f It is wild nt common 
lemperatnres, perfectly Quid at 160^. sod and niatlcnble nt5l>'. and 
britlli! at A2' ; nndorjroes sublimation at a low ird heat without 
chanKC. provided there i« nu oxy);en present, and is similar in liiairo 
to mercury. Its prominent chemical proprrty is its affinity for 
uxytfen, which it combines with rapidly iti the air, and by eootuci 
with ii'e or Huidf containing o.xysen, so that lo preserve it. it tnuxl 
be kept in tubes horm^licaily scaled, or under ihc surHice of liquids 
which contain no oxygen, snch ns nnphlhn. oil of copaiba, iu:. lis 
^quiviilent is 39; sp. gr. tib^; symliol i'g ur K. 

Wlmi nru ilic mnijinund" of pulniisinm and oxygen ? They art 
'he prol')xidc, KO ; and thu tcruxide. KO'. 

What are the pro|>erllc« of the profaeidf of polattium, potash, 
or pota4iaJ jinhj/droua polataa ii a ahite K<^id, highly caastic, 



fbwt al K trmpcralDre a liule nliove redtiws, and u not d«ei>iii- 
)WH^ or Toluiilitcd by a v^rv tii^'h h«al. It has n frrent nfflnuy 
rurvairr, ami rorms thrre coiiiponiidit wilh il. irith llie <liMnf>atce- 
HfMol lint daiiiig titc combuiation. Tli«8e compoiincU are called 

Tbc hi/dnile o/poUuea, KO + HO, bIbo called caustic pola»»a, 
wti polatfa /uM,i* prepared by adding lime to tlie solution of ihe 
r>ri>eiii(c or potsesa ; lira carbonate of lime beiiif; pTvci)>italed 
iiVik iliu potiuh reinaina in soliiiion ; this is concentrated by ovapo- 
ntion. and poured into moulds. It is a white, very deHquescenl 
atdld. toluMc ill wntcr and alcohol. It may rimlitr be disiingoisbed 
bjriildiag Inrlaric acid Id excess to a salt of potasM dissolved in 
rold water, and a white pri-ci|>iltitc, ibe bitarirato or polassa, is 
fcmtd. It may i»l*o be prcmpilated by perchiorii: add, llic pcr- 
(hkratc htiajc nearly iiiitiiluble; and k Kolulioti of the cliloride of 
iilMioQia prutliices n yellow pni-ipiiiilu. Tlierc is also a light gcla- 
'Jmu prvclpilalc by Nilivatcd hydro lliioric acid. 

fIo> ii the lervjrtde of pt^aMiwin formed t Ity burning potaa> 
tiiioinibe i>pMi nir, or in oxygen gaj, an ornngc-colored substunnu 
iit)mi«d, wlifdi \* the ivruxide of pota»tiinm. 

H"w \i tlie iodide of pulamum pHJCuruil ? ll may he formed 
^J braltag poioa.-iium iu contact wilh iodine ; the union of wliich 
<akf(^Bee«ith tlic evolution orii^hlam) h«nl. i!at, for procuring 
it b^iiinliiy, tli« prrfenible mode ih to ndd indine to a hot luhilioii 
vt pnn |>otiiisa, until the tilkali in nt^utruliivd ; by tliia proceu 
iinlidvor polaasiuni and iu date of pota^na me ffeiivnttcd ; evnpo- 
tslt ihii to dryi»ess, and cxpuiv hi a platSuum criidble to a red heat, 
•Wb vill dvcompOM rhe iodaie. leaving!; llie todido of potusxium, 
iW: GR.O 4 «l >= KOIO'+ 6KI; whidi. on being heated, Is 
(Mind into iudide of potaMinin, (bus: KOIO> + 5KI = 6KI 

Viol are ihf prttptrlie* of the iodide of poluiiium 7 It is easily 
Mills, riiH-K ill vupur at a ht^at below rcdnvn*, very suluhle in 
"■Ursnd alcohol, and deliiiue^i'cnt in a mahi. almonphure. 
Wb*l arc Hoeae of the most important Halls of potaiua? Car- 
, KulfJxalr, niiratc, and i-hlnrate. 
IB eoBimon piil ntid p<arl imA.-m arc nn impure carbonate, pro- 
"•M by lixirialins tlic n>lint of inlnml plnntic. anil evaporating to 
^TVtK} pnrified by redineolving and boiling. 

_ *»Ur* 




The »all of tartar Sa a pure carhonala, prepared bjr the iIcvonK 
position i>r<'rtMtin uf uriar at * liiKh hrat. KO + CO'. 

Tlw bicurboiiiitc. KO.CO', HOCO', or KOHO.SCO'. rany bt 
rwraieil liy ])R«xijig a «lrcniii of carbonic ucid throug'li a soliilivn of 
ihu carbonate ; it is k«s «otabte ilutn tbc carbountc. For com* 
iiKTce. it ix prepared hy t'\p(ii<iiij{ tliu carbonate to cnrlioiiic ticl*I 
bikI inoUlurc bv upri'iiiling it tliiiJy on framrt, bj- which it abKorbn 
vntor and c«rboiiic actd. and iiii;ren«M in wciglit nbuut 34 per 
cent. Id (liis form it U known nK «at irrattu. 

The sutpliiitr. KO + S0°. in the reiiiduft remaining in the retort, 
nflcr llic |trpi>ornliwii of nilrii: add. The butttfthaU. (KOSO* 
tlUi^O' ui KOllU, SSU'J, i^ mure Kolnblc, and itoii acid propcrtiM. 

Tbe nitraiv, KO + NO', cultvd uIho niire nixl tailptlre. in foumt 
ill »oui^ ■'oiJN, iitid in niKo man iifuc lured from artifidal itiire<b«d8. 
CryMtnU, mx Kidud priim*, very Bulublr, eontuiu wat«r coiifintd 
niccliuTiically ; heiicu ibe decmjnUtlton when tbrovni upon liot soala. 
If lifiiied. it in convened iota & nifrtte, and oxvf^n U g[\et> off, 
but n hi^h beut enlirely dec-ontposes U. It Is an important poriioD 
of {lutifmwdtr, hy inipariin^ oxvf^en to tlie other inirredieiiila, 
rhiircoal and &iil|iliur. Wlien gunpondcr is burned, the o.vyi^ 
bf tlic nitre nnites with the curboii, and forma carbonic oxide ; with 
tlie sutphur, forming sulphurous acid ^a, and idlruf>en l» »tA free; 
the sulpliurei and the sutphocyanido of pota«^iuni are aUo formed. 

The vhloraie, KO+CIO\ posaeases remarkable duflagnting 
propt^niiu, and yields oxygen lartrely when heated. 

mUvaU, KU.SU'; silicic add nniiea tn different proportions. 
If the alkali be in excess, the salt will be soluble in water, and thv 
sobition h called the liquor o/jhnts, or solnble f[\Mt, If ibe 
fillclc acid be In excels, the salt formed is gt/>j(^, irhirh. when pure 
and culurleu, ii ecunliully n nilicalc of puta.ih and lime. It nuij 
be amdc to BUUme by metallic u\ideii a f^eal variety of colors. 


How is sodium prncu/T'/? Hy llie winiu processes by wbicli wo 
obltrin potassium, tnlintiuiiiu^ »«(la fur the polnNin. 

What are li\c proprrlivti of Nodiiim f It has a strong metaUic 
Instre, in cnlor similar ii> kIIht. is M>rt »l common temperutum. 
fuses at S00°, nod U Tajiorixtd nl it red heat. It ia oxtdIz«d by 

eaBMi«T*T. 94* 

ntor like potUBUL lis cqviTiirfi,: i$ 23 : R>- ^. 0-9T3 : sym- 
bol So or X«. 

What are tl>« compov,nJ* rj! st'disn Uid cxrevn ? ThcT arr tht 
protoxide. XaO ; uid Utt st^tjtnotiit. Nk'O*. 

Ho« is the pn4'tTide <A socivm. tn soda, (titainevi. an\1 what 
m xa propniieti It miTl« obtahiMf br ;he oxidation of^odiiim 
in lir or water, from ibe a^b^ of sea «c«ds. or commoii mIi. 
JxAydrviu, it is a eraj solid. difEevit of fu$ioii. nnd vorv similor 
Ui potissa in lioih itf finifil>le aiid chemical )>ro)>erties. l>ui iuh^t 
be distiopoished from ii by ite forming with »u1)>hiiric «cid a snll 
aalj reo^niised as Glauber's salt, or sDl|>hate of soiln. Ilx khIiji 
ut all soloble in water. caDoot be i>reci]iilatcd, nml, on i>\|ioxiiip{ 
tbm br means of a (>lalinam win; to the b1oKpi|>(', a rii'lt yclbiw 
color ii imparted to the flame. 

How is the aesqmtuide of sodium obtained T lly liiMitin|("o<llii>i) 
(OTtdnns ID oiT^D g»B. It is of an oniiigc t'oKir, with nrlllicr 
teid nor alkaline properties, and is dcconipiiscil liy vrntvr Itilo 
•ndt lod oxjeen. 

How is the chloride of sodium prooiifivi 1 Ii iiiny Up furiinnl 
br burning sodiam in chlorine, hj heating sixlitim in Iiyili'i>i'li1<i)'i<' 
•tid, and also hr nentraliEing sodn with liyilroi'liliirlr ni'lit, ll la 
fond in nsiore under the name of roi-k salt, niid In nrn wiiitv, «f 
rlucb it forms a large part ; bIko in ninii; sulini' h]iniitr>i 

Whit are the properties of chloride of Kniliiini 7 |i liiit tin 
■pttibiT saline tnsle, fases at a red lii'iit, f<irinH ii li'iiiin|Mii'ti|i1< 
'"illle ratSB on cooling, deliqucKeen in a niciiHt iiliii'in|ilji'ri', li>il Out 
is t dry one, and is decompof^ed by siil)iliiirii- iirjil, livilriMJilnilii 
"id being set at liberty, und suljibiitr; <•{ mhIii rDiiinil |i j»ib 
"twihe pro|)erty in a very high ihijcri:''. of |ir'-Ki'niii(r iiiciil limn 
jwtrtfsciion, and is used extensively in tin- iirii. 
Whit are the oxynalts of itoda? Thij iin; iIh- f'illi(»lnK . 

f"i«inw NiiO.(:o'+ inim si » ifi \t» 

KtitboMto^ Nii0.r<f+ mc'l' <'» ) <* M 

&lf4.t« „ NsO.Wj'.f l'lMi> ill ) I'l I '.(M I'll 

Krtplm, VHfLHrC-l- HMhi»« V) ^ HI IM 

Wit „ NbO.M*' ill I '•* "'' 

Cklont. SnO.Cfi* ill i '"' '1 """ 

''"pklt* \''l}}\>H'U 

Bibwiit* S«<«W^-|-1'JII'J HI 4'WN ( VI- IWll 


The cartjonate is obtained from the »«)ies or ms plurta by liziTi- 
ntii>n aud era)>or>tioD ; also from common salt, bj the addition of 
bDi|>hiiric mcid, the sulphate of loda is fonned, from which the car- 
liunate mar be procured. The crjstals lUDaltj cootain 10 eqoiTS- 
lenlA of water. It effloresces ; meltj iu iu own water of CTjstsl- 
lization when heated ; and, atthongh a neutral salt, has a poverfnl 
alkaiiiie reaction. 

lii'.arhonaU. called also sapereorbonale, may be prepared by 
j»mng a ^iream of carbonic acid gas Ihrongh « satarated solntioa 
of neiiiral carliotiate. It is a double salt, consisting of carbaoate 
of soda and the i-arlioDate of water. The carbonate loses 9 eqai- 
letits of water iu becoming bicarbonate, and becomes m white 

Suljihaie, commook called Glauber's »aU, exists in sea water, 
and is a residue in the preparation of hydrochloric acid, by th« 
action of Bulphuric acid on the chloride of sodium in water. 
Sulphuric acid, added to carbonate of soda, will prodoce it pnr«. 
Crvrtlals arc four-sided prii^tns, with dihedral summits, efflorescent, 
melt in their own water of crystallization by heat, and soluble in 
InU-c thflr wfipht of cold water. 

Nitrate, obtniiied naturally and artificially in the same way that 
nitrate of potassa is obtnined. Crystal, rhomb, does not effloresce, 
because it contains no water of crystallization, but is deliquescent. 
It yielils oxygen to combusiililes more slowly than the nitrate of 

Cliloratfi resembles the chlorate of potassa in all respects. 

The Haloid gaU» of godium are the chloride, iodide, bromide, 

What arc texts of sodium 7 The compounds of potassium are 
Ibe only ones lialilc to be confounded with those of sodium. Soda 
{rives ft yellow tiii(;« to flame. Its sails are generally soluble and 
cffliiri'scciit. The biL'hloride of platinum forms a precipitate with 
poliissii, uiid not with fioiia. The only insoluble salt of soda is the 
an'iinoiiiatu ; while the autimoniate of potash is soluble. 


How is lithium procured? By decomposing lithia by means of 
galvanism. It is a white colored melal, resembling sodium, and its 
equivalent, according to Berzelius, i.^ 644 ; symbol L. 



Wliat cotnpoBBd doM Ihliitiin fnrm nilh oxvfren t It fonilT but 
mt Fau|iotDnd, which U I e(|. of rtich. niKl i« calK^d /ifAin. 

What mn t)ie prttpertiet of lilhiii? It elos«ly resemblec ^oHa 
NhI potuw in iu chcmirul ri'lHtuiiK. Ii$ snlls, when hrui^fj on a 
plMhuiM wire baton a Itlowpijio, lingo ilic flamo of a red color. 


Wbol IK itmnianinm ? The liypottioiicnl rndicnt, or metal, which 
iiilkr bnnc of amnioiiin; cfiiijvftlrnt 18; Sfmbgl HW. Ammonia 
il lb« protoxide, NH'O; oquivulrnl 3G. 

It i» fMeons, ohisined fram tlic chloride of iimmoniiiiQ bv nddlng 
^oicklitnc. and ajijilyin;; Iit«t. Il has a pungent odor, colorless, 
■IkaJine reaction, condenaihlc into a liquid hy a prcwmro of 66 
•UnoapberM at 60° F. Water absorbs -fOO tiiiwe its own volnnia 
of aBumonin, and the solution is called /tfiior* flmmoni'cF,' density 
■875. It is a povrcrfnl alkali, and is arranged with soda and po- 

axT«iii.n or Ahkokia. 

PhrtKinaU „ -.... KITA'^Oi «-|-Ubs48 

bButphm - NII,0.»<'*+ KO 56+40— Tft 

FRUmt*. „ MI,O.KO> se-f &<-=M 

Jte., ft*. 

ntrhonalK, that »o called in the ahopa, )■ a KeHijai<?tirb(iT<alr, and 
v prepafud l>y ftnbllmiiir; cliulk with lli« ebloride of nrrimoniiim ; 
the mtnh \* •eM|nicarl>onate of acninniiin and diloride of cnldum 
It is cohvertrd into the blcarbonale of ammonia (XH'OifiCO*) by, 
(.■x)roaiire, from lh« ej^cnpe of ummotila. The sesquicarlionaie Is 
*olul>te in water. lii.iDluble in alcohol, has the odor of ammonia, an 

^^tkaline reaction, and nn acrid, lioT, alkaline taste. 

^B Sulphatf. obtained by addinfr sulplmric acid to carbonate of 

^Hiniaania. or to cou1-(;b.h lltinor, to ukturalion. 

^F ffilrotv. prepared by uddirij; nilric acid to carbonate of ammonia. 
The protoxide of nitrogen (or luughini; goa) Is prepared from tliin 

MrTALH or rnx Ai.rai.i!(b K.(KTn8, 
How t* liarlun procured t By decomposing the csrbonate of 

'jla by meanit of galvanism, and forming an nmalgam with raer- 

fiiry, irliich nmnlgTitn mny lio dcroni posed hy h«nl iii a Towt Trw 
from nir. Thu mc-rciir^, bciiig Tulntilixcd, Imvm tht bariam in i 

What nre llit pmperlic* of bnrinm t It i* o diirtt-jTMy coloreil 
inelal, atirnt-ls oxygi-ii from lli« iiir, niitl yiild* a ubilc powrtcr, 
which i» hnriFia, nnd ilfcumiiciKoi wiiti-r, hjdru^i^n CKcapinfr, aiiil 
baryln in formrd, Il» i-quiviiti-m is fiS" ; tyiiitiol Ba. 

What sire ihu compounrlii of tiuriiiin iin<l oxy^n ? The prol- 
03cide, BaO ; and the pcroxiiJi-, HnO'. 

Uow is llic protoxide of bnriiiin, liaryluK, or barrla, preparedf 
It is produrrd by the oiiiintion of barium in air or wntcr, njid maj 
be prrpnrod by dccoinputiiiiK thr nilnit<! ofbtirytu ai a r«>d heat, or 
by ^iilij'.-ciiiig the corbotmltr to iiii ititmnc! wliiru heat with chari'oiil. 

Whnl iir« the prt>p<-rt\e* o( prntetride "f burium ? It is a (tray 
powdvr. s]>. gr, i., ditlioutt to fu.ic, hiu caiutic alkaline |iropfrti«ii, 
coiivi:rU vci^clnblc bliifM to f[n:L-Ti, ani) nviitrnliuii acid», ha* % 
strong allinity fur WHtrr.iuid nninli-:iM-htat i« prodncodby ihtntnton. 
It iK diKtingiiiKlied by iu ulkuliiit; t^oiution, by all its tulubti! salui 
roniiinjr whiU- jirei-ipiliilc* ; tlic carbonate of baryta, by the addition 
of nlkalinii carl)(iiiali.ii ; and the Kalphrite of biiryla, by the nddilion 
of a soluble sniphatc or unlphuric ncid ; nud by the characteriBlirs 
of chloride ofhariiini, fomicdby the action of the hydrochloric acid 
on baryta. The carbonate of bar^'Ia is soluble in dilate nci'I, and 
u poi«onons io a Kolablc state, whether the solntion is formed from 
acid in the iloninrh or ont of it. 

l[o* in llie /jrrwrirfp oF barinm procuredt By passing dry 
oxyccii ga« over pure bnryia at n low red heat. This oxide it 
oscd ill fonniMp the prroxidr of hydroRin. 

What are the oxj/imltg of baryin ? They are ; — 

CMbonnto „ BaO.CO' 767+22=a 68-7 

SulpbMe B»O.S0» 76-7+40= Iin-7 

Vttnu _ BnO.SO* 707 + 54 

What ar« the haloid salts of bnrinni f They are : — 

ChloriO* „ „.... lUCT fl8■M+8S^l 

Bruin idv„,„_ BaBr 

fc^it* — M....« Unl 

B isa-7 ^ 




Bow is stronltum obtained? By a proccM aDnlogoiiit to tlinl 
vmployrd iii prociirinj^ bnriuin. 

Wlidt BTT ih« propi-rlieg of strontium f Ii is a ht.nvy nu-ial, 
(imilnr in properties to barinnt. Its eqniralent is 438 ; rymliol Sr. 

VTbnt are the oxiileg of stroittiiim 7 They are' the protoxide, 
8rO; and ih^ peroxide. SrO'. 

How is the protoride of BlroDttuni, or Biroiitia, prepared F 
Prom the nitrate and cfirbonate of siroiitin. (u (he came maiitier as 
IwrvtA. which it resemljles in rao^l jiariii-'iiliir*. Its miIih are not 
IwUonous; whni healed on a jjlaliiium Gre before a blowpipe, it 
00 Dimnti testes a red liul 1o the tliiine. 

How U the peron'de procured T In the Rarae way 88 peroxide 
of barium, aad ii is possessed of siniibr properties. 



How b calcium i>roctiredt Its exixlence may be shown In the 
same manner as barium. It is of a whiter color than eiiljer bui-inm 
or •trutiliuiD, and tinioti with oxyi^t^ti DonrerU It Into lime. Itx 
eqalvalent is SU ; symbol Ca. 

How timiiy cumftoiij'dt are there of calcium aud oxygen T Two ; 
the proloxi'k', CuU ; and ibe peroxiilu, CaO'. 

How Ik the ptuluxide of calcivm. lime, or quivklime, ]>rociire<i ? 
By snbjeciliit: carbonate of Uoie to heat sullidently strong to expel 
ita carbonic add. 

Whnl arc its properiitt 1 It Is a brittle, white, earthy ^ubstnnce. 
Bomcwbnl alkaline, ptiosphorciconl when belled to redness, fasible 
wiib iin-at difficulty, slightly soluble in, and has a strong affinity 
for water, which prodnce^ nn increase of temporature by th« union, 
aad tfau result is elaltd lime, which is a hydrate ; It parla with its 
water at a red heat. 

llie most delicate leM for its presence is oxalate of ammonia or 
potava, the oxalate l>King iusulubie. The nrtnitc yidils pn<mnlic 
CTTstuU. U very deli(|ueaccnt, and <io1uble in alci>h<;l. wlik'h proper- 
tie< diitinKttiMi It f^om baryta and stronlia, the nilralt^ of which 
crjKtalliie in uctohedrons, and are not dotiquesccnt, rr tolable id 

|. nA 


n.iw i* th*peroxide of cn/i-i'um procuredt In the same wiS 
DH I'll! )ieroxiile ur barium, and jiaiacsaes similar properties. 

Wliut lire tlie oxytatU of lime ? Tlicy are ibe carbDiinte. OaO, 
CO'; Miljihule, CaO'.SO*; tiliosjihates polybasic. 

Carbonultf, Touud plenlifullf uuder the Tarioug forms of liine- 
Kloiii-, mar>>lc, ttc. In some cases amorphous, and in others crya* 
tnlliuKl. It Mt Tuund in soliiliuti m waters wiih an exce^ of car- 
hunic add, from wliii-h k la on«ii deposited, by parting with Uiis 
exces*. in ibe form of italaymUes. gtalacliles, &a. 

Saljihale may be formed by adding siil]thiiric acid to thu ciir- 
boiiale. Il ts called selenile wlien occurring native, in a crystal- 
line form. 

Planter of Paris and i/ypauin are tnlphate of Uni«. It contains 
2 equiv III cuts of water of crystal I ixat ion. which it loEos wh«n gronnd 
up and heated, and becomes an anhydrout white powder; it la 
uneil fur making caila by mixing with water. nhJih enters again 
Into coiul'inatiou with It, bci-oming a solid hydrate. 


How \i rangnc«iiiin procvredi By tlic action of^ntrnnisni. It 
niny nUn be oljliuned by the action of potasaium on the chloride of 

What pre Its properli^f It has a brilliant metallic luiitre, n 
wliiii' color, it xvr}- ninlluable, and fuHe-i at a red heal. It linrns 
in oxygen ^ax when henli-d to rrdneKi, and mngnnia it furraed. 
Its eqniralent in 13*7 ; ^ymbul Mg. 

What compound does miigncvium fomi with oxygen? Th« 
protoxide, MgO, known hk mngnexia. It may be prociiretl br ex- 
pOKlng the curbonutc of magnc«in to a high ml beat ; and is called 
{Mltrined magni'sia. 

What arc tlw: prnpi-rlie* of miigacKia ? It has feeble alkaline 
)>ro]>ertieit, except in forming nenlrni laltx trith acida. Its aolphat* 
ia very noluble, which iierrcK to dinlniguUli it from the other alitft- 
line earth*. It Is prcHpiiaied from iiK %i\.\i% ax a hydrate by pare 
alkalleH, and muy \w di.vtinKuUlied and iiepuraled from lime by the 
uxnbiie of ammnnia. 

It forms several euiU with arida, 

Oarbonale, the magnesia alba of the sho]>ii, may be prepared by 
adding eurbonnie of potassa to aulphate of magneiia, by wblcb 





HBTAL6 or THE Earths Propkr. 

procM* tt is pr«cipttitt«d as « fitio wliite po«d«r. Tw formuln U 
MgO.CO'; equivalent 43'6T. 

Sulphate. NfrOSO' J- TFIO; eqnitalcnt 13367. 

Kj}fr> gallg. found in some minoml springs, nnd in Bpa wbIptj 
very solnblc ; crygisk are four-^ided prramids It is tho typo of a 
larp Haw of mctallie ealt^ MgO.SO'. UO + SIIO. The om 
eqiiivnlcnt of water ia constitational, which, if separot^ti. (kMroy« 
th« salt, niiless its place ta supplied by anolber salt. Tliis may be 
don« as in sulphate of maKncsia and pota&h, MgO,SO'(KO,SO0 


The best le»l la to form the amnion In-iuagDcsi urn pliospbate by 
the addition nf aiuuinnin to a Rolubk phospliate of maene^ia. It 
also forms, by tlui addition of sulphuric acid, the Epsom salt, 
having Its cbaruclerlillc bitterness. 

^V Row is alnminum prociiri^d ? By the docotn posit ion of the 
chloride of aluminum by pi>tii»ium. The changes are na follows : 
^^I'CI' + 3K ■= 3KC1 V 3A1. 

^^f What are the prupcrtir* of alnminnni? It is a ^ray powder, 
resctnblihg phtimim, or in Kmull m-nlis or spangles of a metallic 
lustre ; a eonilucior of olectrit-ily when fM«ed, bnt not in powd,«. 
and fasibl« ot a temperature above tlie fD«in)t point of cnst iron. 
Hums in ihc open air wliwi heati'd to rednpw, and forms a white 
aluminoiK rnrtli. Its cqiiivnlcnt i» 13T ; symhol Al. 

What ii the composition of alumina, or aUminous earth t It 
' is a sffquioritle o/aluminum 

How is alumina pmcuiT<(? By disKolvinft porified alum, adding 
an vxct-s* ofcnrbonntc of potiusn, the alumina in precipitated, and 
ay l»o collected on a filter. 

What are the yroprrlien of abtminn t Tt iit tnntelMs, inodorons, 
hwolnblu ia water, rcry infusible, and has a powerful nllinity for 

It may be dislimriitslicd by beiujr xeparntefl from the and* as a 
rlrit/c. by ihit alknlitii! carbonates and ammonia; by being pre- 
Ftipitated by pare sodn. or potaiaa, and the precipitate rcdiuoUcfl 
hy aa cxe«M of tlic alkali. 




Sulphate, AI'O'.SSO"; in\. I"1S8. It Is deeonipowd in wrtn- 
tiaii b)' alt ihu alkalies; it will utiilu witli olticr tutltM. aiid Ifacrvb; 
form douMu ooes. 

Sulphate of alumina ond jtotoMa. AI'0'.8S0' + KO.SO* + 
241]0, cq. 47*57. This U llif comman alum, whicli i* procnrod 
Trom a c\a.j contHiriin^; sulphurut of iron. Thu mlphnr forfn* 
fruli'liiiric ec'id. unili-s wiili tlm uliimiiiii nnd iron, mid tlic iron nmjr 
be displuood li; nddiiifr clilorldc of poiauiiiiii ; lliu rp*nlt Uicii will 
be &titji)ia(e of nlnmiiin nnd potiwn. tiiid tlic clilui-idv nf iron. 
CrvKluls arc ofhihcdruns. nnd iliiir wotor iit t^iwily cx|ii-llt'<l by heat. 

Sulphate v/alumina iind n,<la. Al'O'iSV+SnO.SO'-i-iilJO. 

Sulphate o/alumina nud ammonia, Al'0'S.SO"+NirO,SO*+ 


Tbose are analogous to cotninaii alum, and am formcid in lli« 
same way. 

The othrr mctnU of the nrthi are Cfltirinum. iltrium, Thori- 
n"iii, and Zircvnium. They arc iiiiinponniil. 

Mk-tals wiiion riEraMi-ofiB Water at a Rsd Hut. 

Man'janete, or Sfanyanegmm. 

How is nrnnguni-xc prvrurfdf It in procured Trom tlie oxide, 
Dy healing it in conlnct with oil and chnruonl. 

Whiil nrn tlic prnjif^rlifit of manpuiMe ? It ic of |Fra7i>''h- white 
rulnr, firii'iiiliir tuxliirif, difficult of fusion, tamii^hcji by cxpoMire to 
the nir, and liurux if hcaU-d lo redneut in open vewels- lU equira- 
leiit lit 27'T ; xyniliul Mn; tipei-iflc (travliy 8. 

Wlnii are tlie com{i<tHnd» of tnBM;;ancM and oxTfcenF The 
proluxidc. MriO ; tlie senqoioxide, Mn'O"; the binoxide. MnO*; 
manxiuiic ncid. MiiO*; penunii;;uiiii: acid, Ma'O'; r?d oxido ot 
inaiigan<'*e, Mn'O'; nnd vnrvaclie, Hn'O^ 

How is ihe pruliiriile of wangam-re prociired ? By exponiatT 
llie ))i-r']xi(le, seHi)u[oxid«, or red oxide of niuiit;une«e to rharcoul 
and liciti comliiiivd, or to beat aod u (-nrriJiit of hydroften. 

Wlint uro the propttrlien of the prouixide of msni^nese f It Is 
of a tii;lit Kreen rolor, attravtN oxygen from ihu aif, aiid naites 
readllv with acidt. 





Tow i* the iftqui/KTide of manganfM procured? It I" fogn 
in nnlarv, nniJ niny tie formed by exposiiig tlie peroxitk! for (on 
time 10 B nioilcraUt red Ileal. 

Iluw ii the binojide, peroride, or hluft; oridf of niniifntiic»0 
procured ? It JH fotliid iii uatur« mixed with siUcfOu.i, ur aliiiui- 
noax wrllw, oxide of iron: nnd curliiiiiate oriiiiie. Il inuy u1iu> bo 
fonni-d urtilicinlly, b^ itubjociitif: the iiilrate of Ibv iirtitoxide uf 
lUaHcoiiete lu n Ion ml licut uuul the uilric acid In expelled. 

WliBl nrc it* prvpertivB? It is uncliangeable by expuMire to 
lh« air, iiiMluhle in nalcr, does not unite uiili acid> or ulkutle*, 
ftod jlvMu Dxvi;«ii RHH when boiled with Kiilphiinc acid ; or, if 
li_Ydrocbl«ric Bcid Is used, chlorine h evolved. 

It » niucli med in the arts for Dianufaclnring glaEs, and la pTe- 
parini; chlorine for blcocliiup; purposeH, 

How in the red ojide procared ? Il la fonnd in nature, aud 
tnaf he arlillcially formed by exposing ihe pero.vide or scsqMioxide 
to a white heat. Of ihe same dirgree of ftaeDcac it is browiiiBh^red 
when eold. end bluck when irarra. 

How is the earvttcite procured ? Il \a only procured as a naliiral 
prwliiction among some of llie ores of mnngnticse. 

Wliat are iIih Utle tor iiian^nnese. If fiiHed with borai by the 
tilow|>i|)e, a bead of an amcihyst color is formed ; the peculiar cha- 
cueicoh properties of mnngniiie acid arw the best teft. Amrauoisj 
throws down a precipitate which twcomu Ac$h colored, and is my 
■oliible ia escess of precipitant. 


How )H iron peDemlljr/ounii in Tialurt i In Inrgc quantities in 
combination viib oxygen and snlphnr. cnllcil orrji vt iron ; but iti 
la dilTufred almost universally in jircatcr or timnller <piantitiea. 

How is iron procured? By ■ulijccliii^ Ihe ores, roa^led nnd 
redaced to coariic powder, to the action of charcoal, or coke, and 
lime ala hifth beat. 

What is the rationale of tbl» proccst J The cnrhon doprirc « th« 
ore of its oxygen, and the lini't a<-U nn n llux by combining with 
the itnpnritie<, niid formii n componnd futibic mass called slag, 
which b1I"«« (be melted porlicles of iron to itc»cenil Ibruugb it, 
and eollvet «1 the bottnu. If the iron i« in the condition of n «li- 
83* R 


CBlo. the fullotriDB occnrs : FeOSiO' + OaO + C = CaOSlO' + 
¥t J- CO. 

What an ihc prnprrlifg of iron J It lins n prny color, strong 
metnllic lustre, «iiM?p|>iil)lc of polinh, in diirlilo, mstlcable. and rer; 
tonnciotis. It it Atlniirtvi) by t1i« mn^not, nnil aiAy be rendered 
mngnetic, n properly posst^wied by no other iiicIbI cxeept nickel. 
It line a strong nflinity for oxvfren. but doc» iiot take it rroio a drj 
ittmoiipherc ; liiit, if moiMurc bn pmcnl, it oxidizes orrueta i if 
healed lo rednesH in the open nir. il alis'trhs oxygen mpidly, and ia 
converted into black scales, wliicli are Ihe hUch oxide of iron ; and 
if in oxygen, it is attended with virid scintillntiuns. Its eqaiiraleni 
is 2« ; symbol Ve ; sp. gr. 1 788, 

Wliflt are the compouHitu of iron and oxygen f The protoxide, 
FeO; the red, per, or icsquioxide, Fc'O'; the black oxide, Fe'O'; 
and ferric arid, FoO'. 

Where is the protoxide of iron fontid, and what are Iia pmp^r- 
ties f It is Ihc Imse of the niiiive rnrbiinaie of iron. Il is formed 
when metallic iron is pluecil in dilute sulphuric acid ; and is pr«ci- 
pttated as a h-Ai^ hifdrale. from tis enlts, by pore alknllus. lu 
salta. when in solnlion. nluorli oxy^^n from the air. A ^ottltioa 
of galls does not prodnre n chunfre of color, but alkaline hydro- 
sulphates eanHf a Iilucit preir[[ill*te, the prolonnlphnret of iroii. 

How is the rfi, or n'^fpiioxiiti'. of iron procun-df It is a na- 
toral product, known un red hirniniiie, mid is fonnd masvive, l^brons, 
and ill rhoinboidiil rryilnls. Il nmy bo formed hy dls^olvEnfc iron 
in iiilro-hydi'ochloric acid, nud precipitating nith an alkali. In thii 
itale k is a hydrate. 

What are ihc prtij>rrtif* of the red. or seaijuloxlde t It com- 
bines with most of ihc ncids, forming salts, which oru gcnernlly red ; 
and it may be precipiUleil from them hy pare alkaliui as a Ay- 
drate. Pr>i*hian (ilwr i-< formed by tiie addition of ferrocyannrel 
of pi>tad4ium [o this oxide, and a 1>lood-rcd color la prodnccd bj 
Kulphocyanurcl of polnminm. and n btuek color by the infosion of 
(falU. The« last rcopeiitM mny be considered as unerring Irtis foi 
the minutest qnantity of the se«qni<>j(i(]e. nml any other oxide maj 
be converted into this by nitric acid, it is not attrnc-ted by th<* 

Where is the Mack, or mogneiic oride of iron foond. and wli*l 
ia its Domposition ? It is found native, often cryalallised in rrgu 





W oclcibHron and dodi?cft1iedroii rortn ; it is attracted b; tlif 
tnaf^nct. aud nrny become lunifuetic. It U aUo formed wlien iron 
h beated lo rvdacu in the open air, or in contact witli nqucon.! 
vmpor. It is comitosed of the protoxide, and the red or aesqiii- 
o\ide combined. 

Wliat are llie f>.rysolU of Iron? Tlie sulphate of prnloxide, 
eO.SO'llO + 6110 ; commonly called coppi-rag, or green vilriot. 
Uav bo formed by the acttoo of snlphnric acid And water on iron ; 
bm, for commcK'ial piir|>oscp, hv cxposinif iron pyritWi (the enlphu- 
ret) to air und moisinrc. It ofilorcKccB by exposure, aud the sum- 
qnwxido is furroed on Us snrface. 

Si-ftiui. or Pertutpftate. i\'0*.3S0', may be obtained by ad- 
diogr stilphiirio acid to the sesquioxide; an alkali or an alkalino 
cxrlionaie added to il* solution, prccipilatcs the scsquioxide, be- 
CSUBG vurbonic acid cannot unite with it. 

yUrat'' o/ i*TO(ari(/«, FcO.A'O*. may bo obtained by dilute 
Diirk' a<^id nm! iron, 

Per, or Sr^quinilnUet FoH)', SNO* ; formed by adding an ex- 
c«si of nitric Eu:id. 

Carbonate of Pntoridt, PcO,CO'+ HO, may be formed by 
addiu^ A Roliilion of carbonate of soda to a solution of the proto- 
Bulpbulr of iron, from which its precipitated. It absorbs oxyi^eo, 
is ronrcrt^l into scti^iiiiixidc. nnd carbonic ncid is liberated, be- 
CBUM it will not form n union with ihc per or srsqnioxide. Tbi* 
increa<« of nxidntion may be prevented by incorporating it as sooo 
«e formr<l with honey or Fn^r. 

What are the haloid tatU of iron ? Pntfoditoride, FeCl ; may 

formed by difsolvinii; iron in chlorohydric acid, and by putting 
on in a slate of mrnnte division into chlorine gas. 

Senquicl'loride, Fe'CI', may be formed by adding two part* of 
chlorwhydric acid and one of nitric, to metallic iron. 

Protoiodiilt, Fel ; formed by healing an cxcesi of iron in a, solu- 
tion of iodine, and prosened by sugar, or iron clippings. It is 
^Mteemed as a remedial agent very highly by many. 

SeMfuiodidt^. FeT. 

What arc ihe compnunds of snlphnr and iron ? Thf tctruat"! 
phiiret. Ff'S ; the disulphurcl. Fe'S ; ihi- protosulphiircl, FcS ; tJi* | 
■esquisnlphuret, Fo'S'^ the bieulphnrel, FeS*; and Ihe nisgnetie ' 



]>yi'ilea, Fe'S^j wliidi ig a componiid of the bisnlphnrpt and tb» 

ll is foiiii'l ill nature in rombinotion, rnllnl iron yyrile*, which 
\t ('litmiciiily ibc liitiil|>)iiin;t, vailed aleg h<iVf gull), rtom itM hard, 
sliining, j'cMow n]ipi-umncc. / 

PriAoi'vlph uret, PvS ; nhtaincd hr liiimiii|t rt^d-liot irou in cou- 
Inut wilh Kuljitiiir. It i* magnctit*. nii<l uf a darki colitr. 

F'Trorijaniih vf Patatuwm. Yethw PruMiale of Potash, 
Fe.Cj' ak. or Fr(0"N'), 2K. 

It JH inniiiifui:tiircd un u ]arj;i> KCaitt tij ))laelii|; cnrbonate of po- 
taiwa utid iron in coiilact willi aiiiiiiul inallt^r, as old leallier, t)OitM, 
Iwir. &K., and xiibjcctini; thi'm to a bi^b bcal. Tbe cvanide of 
potuMiiiai i» lint fornied, wliicb form:( a union with the JroB — ibe 
ft^rTOCfaiiiiltr of pntuxniiiin. Thi.i nalt mity tbcn be dissolved out 
and cryMHlliKi'il m ln-nutiful, lar(!i;. y>-ili)W, ocluliedral cryeials. 

FvrrtK-tjantdev/iron ; PruMian blue. 3(PeC3r')4Feorye,Cy*,F, 
prepared by adding ferracyaiiide of poina«iuni ia solaiioa to a 
Kiqui&all uf iron, for inttaaoe, Ibc sesqai sulphate. 



pot*Mlainw».^...-p.,, InK. 
>«> al fwanlMlllAMa Jl''''. 

JCX^'ll''^ fruMwi Um. 

uRO^SC^. t ^tk of lulph*!* of poMas. 

What are the compound* of carbon niid iron ? There are thnc 
dbtinct compounds; (r^'sphlie, east, or \n^ iron, and xied. 

Where is graphite (calk-d also plumba-in and blavk irad) olv 
tallied f It is found as a natural produeiion, and may be formeJ 
anificinlly by exposing iron wiib an excew of charcoal to a Tiulent 
and long-con li lined heat, h eoutalne aboat IJTe per cmt of iron 
wlicn pure. 


How is sine found In nature, and liow \» it procurvdf It 
found native as a carbonalir, eallod ealamint', and nn a guIjAiti 
i:alled siiic-blmdi'. It In procured by ex]ioitiiro to lieat and carbon 
froiu llie cnlaniine. and from the biciidi- by the name proecvi, after 
roaeliiig or evpuHure to air at a low red heaL Thu melal is iit' 
tilled by a piuctss termed di»tiilatlun by dcKiient, mid iimy be pari- 
Qed l)y bting ugnivi dir'iilted. 





tn IW proprrtifg of zinc? It htm n mctntltr lii»lf«, 
loh-wMtC color, II liimiiiiili-0 (I'xlitre, i» liurd und britllo. unci, hy 
pgsure in cloae rcttclit to b while lit-iil, II tt tiiblinit^d uiii'liniitrcd 
■iMDrbii oxyitni, and fonni llie white oxide or Qoners of zinc, 
beatMl i<> fiifiuR ill open vesi^U. or, iT lieattd to [cdiitHs in n 
clotH) *wscl, niid the cover rcnioved, ccmLusiron takes place with 
white lifibt. ItK e<iuivu1ent Is SIS ; »!>. gr. 7 ; symbol Za. 
Wbitl Br« the compovndg of tine and ojygen t Tlierc are two, 
Ike protoxide, ZnO ; and the peroxide, tlie compoxilion of which 
^ii onccrialn. 

^H How is the protoride of line procvredi Bjr the nddition of 
^Btiti«! »uI]<horic U(-i(l lo eIiic, nnd by collecting the flukcK which 
^Bri>r during the r<otnl>iJMii>n of linc. 

^H What nre tht- jimpriiies of the protoxide of zinc ? It la inxolii- 
^Ble Ea water, forinti rc^ciilur Halt* with acidit, and 'cotnliincM with 
Hboiae of (he alkalies. It la jireciiiitnted from its MiltiiioRN us a, 
'^ white hydrate by [iiire potaaau or ainmoiiiu; as a carbonntc, by 
the carbonate of ntitmonia ; and is redis.eolvcd by the addition of 
I an pjtcess of the pra-ipiiatil. j^lkaline carbonates preri|iitBte nti a 
»hitr i.-arl)onnte, end hydrv.iulphiUe of ammonia precipilatets it os 
^hydratt-d salphai-ct. 

^K Sulpkttlf, ZdO.SO', SO-i-6frO; this U uhilf vilriot. and may 

^^W prepared by nddiiiit ««lphuric acid to Kine, wiitcr liciuft prewnt, 

Cart/vnatf, 7.nO, CC^ + HO, may be pn-imrcd by ndditi^ llin 

(nrlmtintc of an ulknii to a Kolntion of the Mitphute, and it will bo 

• precipitated. It i.i found nalirc ax rnfi'^miW. 

Chluridr, ZnCl, tniiy be formed by liiiniin|c Kinc filings in chlo- 
rin* gas, or diwolvinji; zinc in chlorohydric acid. 



How is tin penerally found in tintiirp, and how is it promrfd^ 
Ii t>ei-iirs native as an oxtdr ; from which il may be procured by 
Iwnl aud charcoal . 

What are (he prrrp^rtiea of tin T It resembles stiver In itR 
■|i|>«iiraiic« *, tta brilliancy ie loKt slowly by contact nilh the atmo»- 
l<hrre; It Is DiallvBlile, inferior in dnctility and tenacity, soft, 
Maatle, and, when bent backwardB and forwards, ]>r«duceH a 
|<etoliar rr«cklini; Itoise. lu equivalent is &S'9; ep. gr. ''391; 
*7mbol Sii. 


What are the compounds of lin and oxygen 1 The protoxide, 
SiiO ; the sesquiozide, Sn'O'; and the binoxide, SnO'. 

Whnt is the purple of Ctusiuet It is a combination of the 
binoxide of tin and protoxide of gold, produced b? the action of the 
protoxide of tin on a solution of gold. This propert; of forming 
a purple precipitate with a solution of gold is considered as a lest 
for the protoxide of tin. 

What is nndemtood by gtannatee f They are combinations of 
binoxide of tin, which possesses feeble acid properties, with the 

What is the composition of the fuming liquor of Libaviunt 
It is the bichloride of tin, and the dense white fumes emitted when 
it is exposed to the air are caused by its niiion with molBMre. 

Tin baa two chlorides and two tulphureU. 


How ia cobalt /ound in nature 7 It is generally found in com- 
bination with arsenic. Its equivalent is 295; sp. gr. 1-834; 
symbol Co. 

What are the compounds of oxygen and cobalt? The protoxide, 
CoO ; the sesquioxide, Co 0^ ; and the complex oxide, Co'O'. 

The tenia for cobalt are, that its salts are generally red ; the 
precipitate of the protoxide by an alkali is always bine ; smaltz is 
a silicate. The chloride is red in solution, but becomes blue by 


How is nickel ybunrf in nature ? Generally aa a copper-colored 
mineral, which ia the arsenture( of nickel, containing small por- 
tions of sulphur, copper, cobalt, and iron, and called kupfeminkel 
by the miners. The process fur procuring it is somewhat compli- 

What are the properties of nickel ? It is whitish, intermediate 
between tin and silver, baa a strong metallic lustre, and is ductile 
und malleable. It is attracted by the magnet, and may be ren- 
dered magnetic, but its oxides are not. Its equivalent is 295 ; sp. 
gr. 8279; Symbol Ni. 



Tlie ealta of nickel are nenerally green ; the protoxide is procipi- 
Uttd from any of lt« mIix iu solution bj uu ulkali, an a beautiful 
gtttm kjdnie, aiKl Kulpburvttvd Iivdrof^ii f;'nt» a klovk sul^thurct. 

Uetals vhich so mot DEcoiiroftK Watkk at any Tempeba- 


Bow it snvnw found in nalnn! ? 6onii.-tinKMf unlive, but gene- 
rmllj ia coiBbinatioii with other mHaU. 
How in it proctiredl Itr roiikliiig the orc«, it is volittib'xud, 
[combines with oiyt^m, and is coiidtmsed in cakc«, which are Ihe 
[white oxide. Prooi this lh« metal may be procured hy heat and 
IcIiiircOB), ibe pure metal being sublimed, and ma; be collected in 
1 proper vessel. 
What are the propertiea of arsenic ? !t U brittle, has a metallic 
FlsitiT, a whilUli-i^rajr color, and crystalliue. lla equivalent Is 76 ; 
ip. Itr. &'8tf4S; ayaibol As. 
Wbut are the compounds of arsenic and oxygen ? There an 
ifo ; ihe aneiilom add, AsO'. and the arsenic acid, AsO*. 
Hoa' l« ar¥4Jniout at-ld prvjmred T Ii is generated when arsenic 
I h^MiIrd in open vewels. and it may be prepared by digesting it 
rith dilute nitric »cld, or the white anenic of commcrc* (g«-iieratod 
K muting the ores of arsenic and cobalt) ; may bo panRed by & 

■d vabliiitatioii. 
Wbat arc Ibc prftjtt^ies of araenioua acid } It ia mostly sold 
I tlic M*te of line whit'i ponder, but wlieii first Hublimed it Is in 
"itlls Diasnrc of a vitreouK liinire. It la sublimed at 3S0°, and 
■J In condenied on cold Kurfoces. It U snsceplible of two d>f< 
trent cryttallinc formit, nnd U, therefore, termed dlmorphoos. Il 
n^dentt vegctoble blu« w\ar* feebly, combirm with tulitiabic bases, 
forming ta\\*, tcroird ar%ciiiier<, and i.i a virulriil ]>oison. 
What are tbc important fciiri' for urscriiouii acid? The unuuo 
al nltrat* of silver, ammoTiiacal Mil{ihiitu of cop[ier, hydrogal 
miric acid, hydrogen gas. and thi; niHaltIc copper t^st of Reiiisch. 
The Jirft of thc«e produce* u ijelhiw jn-eajntal'L; tlie arsenite of 
lide of Kilvcr. This Icrt i« liulilc lo ttoine objection when sea KOl* < 
' aulas] and vegetable infuiiouK arc jirrscnt. frum the arseoil* I 



■ilvfT not siilisiiliiif; nt nil, or in kui-I) an Impure Htaie that it can- 
not be rccQ^isctl prKju-rly. 

The teamd. ihi; ammnntafal Kutpfiale of' copper, prodtiwt S 
gifcn precipilatc, known as Srlicrt'-^r, ijrftn ; jel there arc cirouni- 
BtnncM ondcr wliicli a greenish pr<i'i))iuie may be foniKd with 
ammoniocAl sulphate of copper, tliul amy bu niijitaki-ri for Sohede^ 
tfTcn where no nrecnie is pn-M'nt, anii under oilier circuDWtatMa 
il may be present in mintitc qunniitv, and no prcdpitate be formed. 
It iniiy. th<.Teri>re. Ik- [ontiiliTi-i] a riilliu'ioLia test when applied to 
mixed HuiiJi, however >,ure il uiuy be trheu ibe arsenJona add tt 
dimiolveil in ptiru wiil.:r. 

The l/urd, llie lii/ilrtiHutphunc acid, produces a iftUottr previpi- 
lalf in the liijnid when Ibi^ gai \a pa^ed ihroiiiih it, from the 
rorniiition of nrptment, or the se^ijuisulpbaret of arsenit-. Wben 
thin te*t iH used, ibe liquid should noi eontain a free alkali ; and, 
to ATotd it, a little acetic acid should be added. Thus far ihlt 
teat may be considered fallacioaa, aa tbe same colored i>recipiute 
may be produced with selenium, cadmium, tin, and antimutiy. 
Bui the precipitate, the sftquixulp/itirel of artenie, formed by 
this proces*. may be disilnguished from all oiher substances by 
being dried, mixed wilh binek (lux, and heated in a glufA tube to 
redness: deciini position (nkei phiec. and the metallic arsenic ia 
deposited of an iron-gray color exiemally, and crystulliue inter- 
nally, on the cool pan of the tnbe. Additional evidence may he 
bad by eonTcrling the metal into arsenious acid, whieh may be 
done liy holding that pan of the tube in which the mefat in dopo.iited 
over a s|iiril-tanip in such a manner that tbe mel«l may be Nublimed 
alowly, and as it is laporized it comhlnes with oxy^n. and ia 
deposited in another portion of the tube in bcaniifal oclobedral 
erj-^taU, iliut nmy easily be detected by a praetited eye. Id this 
experiueiii llie lube should bo clean and dry. 

The fvitrUt, the application of hydrogen. An nmaloreUed 
hydrojren is formed, which ii a. gui<eou« eoinpiiund that ylelda 
metallic arsenic or arsenions acid, and water in eombuslioa; the 
meiallle arsenic or a rsenious acid being deposited accordingly aa 
tliv supply of oxygen is moreorledit ubuiidaul, each witb iu ]»• 

The apparatus for conducting Ibis procemi is railed Marsh's. 

The a rue niu re tied hydrogen ix pri-piired by adding a flnid ooa- 



I ttiH r.i 

tftlalBK STOenlo to Ihe ordinnrj npjmrututt for Kcnoraiiiiii; tivdrofr^n 
So tbnt, if a KiuiHXled Duiil <-untiiiii areunic, Aiid U added in tliin 
my. wc will Imre Uiiit product. 

Tli« mi^llic cujijifr tvnl coukUu iii t)oilin|c clmii strips of 
C0|>pcr ill tlio liijuiil j.u|>pO]i<!i] t.< ciiiiluiii urxL'tiio. wbich &)i(iu!il 
ptWTtoiuly l>e aoiaalali-d uliKlittj- wllh ticviic or livdruthluric iiuid. 
Ifanenic be p»««iit, it will tm previpilnied on the tiri;;lit surfiicD 
of tbe Cupper, aiiiJ proMut tlie lud.tre of mntallic unieiiiu. TliEa 
prcci|<iintfl mnj be fimlier texled by tli« Turioas procesKVit for test- 
fa^ afMiiie. 

A goixl plaa to panne is the fol1ow{ii)r, vfz : Boll cleitii Ktrips 

copptr foil In <iilm« marlotic acid, for tlie purpose of lesliny tlie 
lom of ifipniatCTials from nrdoiiic; llieti add tlie fnispocted lluid. 
and continae the boiling ; if araenic be prviient, tbe copper will soon 
be coaled over, presenting tlie appenrance of rolled zinc. Tntie the 
copp«r and deposit ; introduce litem into a snhlimiii*!' lube of French 
glaM, (■lofrd m (he loirrrtiid ; apply a spirit lump mitil the copper 
b«>con)CK briglil, wiicn a stccl-cilorud cra«t will be formed on tli« 
cooler portion of the tube. Then open ifac lower end of the lube. 
K as to adroit air frc«-l>'. nnd npply licat a^in. *\) as to retnblimo 
Iho crust, which will be dcpovitcd in the form of a white riiiff. in- 
■teiid of u mciullic one. in conM'qnenrc of hnving become oxidised, 
or i-haaiccd biu'lc to anenioiu ui^id. Take the xiiblimin;; tubi; and 
conliinli, and boil in dinlilliid wuter ; tM the fotutioii wiih kulpliate 
of copiMrr and nitrale of siUtr, and «Tpo«- to the vapor of am- 

ohin. wbteb will {five Ihe d)afueU<riMi<; rcat^tiuiis. 

We bavo here a GvrJca of proceMW having the advantage of ocoti- 
'mrt/, delicacy, and i'imftlinty. and ronibiiiing all the best testa. 
Ho epecUl apparatus l^ nei:e>jDry, and the whole mnv be gone 
ihroagb with ia a short spAce of time. This is the plan pursued b/ 

Biajinotid, aa a modltScatioa of Rojnscb's method. 
i« beat antidote is the hydrated peroxide of iron, 
bat are the cvmpounds of sniphnr and arsenic 1 There are 
The bisulpurvi or real'jar. is found in the mineral kinc- 
■iid may b« fonneil uriiliiially by licating HrM-nioiix neid with 
t balf tiK weight of »nlphar anlil it fuaet. lu e<|nivalcni U 

\ Th« lerttdpliuret, or orpimenl. in also found in nature, aad may 
be pTsparcd by ftuiug together G<|ual purU of anenious acid and 


'sulphor. This ia the coloring principle or the paint called King'M 

Tlie persulphnret, which raay be prepared by pasaing hydrosnl- 
pharic acid pras throngh a solntioD of arsenic acid. It rcsemlilcB 
orpiment in color. 


How is antimony found in nature 7 It is generally foond as a 
Bat))hDret, and called crude antimony ; although it sometimes occura 

How is it procvredf By heating the snlphoret in a covered 
crucible with half its weight of iron Slings, or by mixing with it 
two-thirds its weight of cream of tartar, and one-third nitre ; and 
thrnwini; the mixture in small portions successively into a red-hot 

What are the properties of antimony ? It is brittle, white, run 
ning into bluish gray, has considerable metallic lustre, fuses at 
810°, and is volatilized at a very high temperature. Its equivalent 
is 129-04: sp. gr, 6-702; symbol Sb. 

What are the compounds of antimony ? They are : — 

Toroiidd S1)0> !29-rH-t-24 = 153'0* 

AntimonioaB ncid SbO* 129 01 -j- 32 = 161 M 

Anlimonic add SbO> 129-04 -f- 40 = ISB-Ol 

Terchlorido _ SbCl" 

renlBchlorido .-... SbCl' 

Teraulphuret SbS* 

Sniphitnti ID onions acid SbS< 

Pentasulphuret, or BulphantJinonic acid SbS* 

Tartrata of aotiniony and potnasH Sb0',K0,C«II"O*-t- 2H0. 

How is the teroxide of antimony procored f By sablimation 
during the combustion of antimony ; and by adding carbonate of 
potassa, or soda, to a solution of tartar emetic. 

What are the properties of the teroxide of antimony f It is a 
white powder of a somewhat dirty appearance -, when heated, it 
Bcqnires a yellow tint, and, if protecled from the atmosphere, it may 
be sublimed without change. Healed in contact with the air, it 
absorbs oxygen, and, if heated suddenly, it takes lire and burns ; 
in both coses antimoiiious acid is generated. It is the only combi- 
nation of oxygen and antimony which forms salts with acids, and 



b tbt ban of farlar emetic, or Ihc larlrale o/ antimony and pa- 
toMO. lu Mlts aru iiiKolu<)lc iii, or <icoani[iOMd by water, except 
tarUr enetti!. TlMtinKoloblecnltxof ftiitimoiifare rendcrrtl Eolable 
lijr GXccM oT Uirtaric m liydrochloric scids. TIig prcscnci; of nnti- 

moiij in u>lu(mD raiiy i-iutily be dclwtcd by hy(lro!tnl|>biiric acid, 

■hidi produces an oran^'>colorr(l privipiutc, Ayilrofed UtrrulphU' 

Tft of anlimont/, ciillvd K/^rmes mineral. 
Tartrate of antimoHy and potaMa. SbO».KO,C'II"0* + 2110. 

«t tartar emelK. way Im prepurvd by boiling lUc tcroxidc of uili- 
^nony wflli L-reaiD of (nrinr. 

It U a bibfuic suit ; in cream of tarlnr. we have the tartaric acid 
^Bliitfil to two base* (putauu and wutcr) ; wlicn the tiTOxldu i» 

boiled viih it, it takes the plave of the water, aud lliis tail i» 



Bow Ik copper you Ad In Dature f It i* otitti found natire, but 
^generally In coinblDatloii with Hulpbur, aa ilie native tiiilphuret, 
yvbicfa in iioii)e4iines combined with iu1])hurei of iron. 

Wbat are tlie properliag of copper J It U of a reil color, which 

Blininiialieg it from all otlier iDetaL^, except titanium ; It Is ductile, 

tlleablf, teiiacioue, hard, elastic, and sonorous. It does no. 
eliaase ip k dry atmosphere, but riiHi8 in a damp one, aad in con 
Tcned into a grccD carbonate of the block oxide of capper. Itk 
eqatvalent in Sl'C; sp. gr. 8-895; symbol Ci). 

WImI are Ibe comp"unris of copper and oxygen f The dinoxide, 
CuH), the bluek or protoxide. CuO ; and the pernxide, CuO'. 

Which of Ui«ie oxides unites with acids and fornis Ealt« f The 

Vt'liat aru the oxjftatU of copper f 

inir«t« »., 

aljilkalv ..—Ml-. 


_ CuOSOi+fillO 

What ts blve vUriolt It is the talphate of copper, formed by 
|l»iIlDg lulphark acid upon copper. Cu.SO' + hUO. 

Tbe crysuls contain five eqiiivnlcnts of wntor, inoniorphons with 
Hilph. Dugnesia. It contains one equitiilrut of coniililulionul 
nter, which may be replaced vith another salt, forming a doable 


one. The addittoo of amnionta to this salt in solattou prodacm ft 
precipitate of the protoxide, which, on continninf; to add the am- 
monia, is redisBolved, and amrooiiiated copper is formed, or • 
doable salt, the sulphate or amrnonia sod copper, of a deep-blo* 

Salphate of copper ma; be rendered snh;drons bj beat, and be 
comes nearly while, and is decomposed at a high temperutare. 

How are the ealls of copper divtinguMed f Thej have a ^ea 
or blue tint; hj^drosutphuric acid precijiitates a dark browu Bill* 
phuret, and furrucjanuret of potassium precipitates a reddish-broira 
ferroeyanuret ; and it is precipitated in the metallic state bj a rod 
of iron or zinc. 

What is crude verdigrU f It is a mixture of neutral acetate or 
eubacetaie of copper with impurities. 

What are the cryalalB of Ventuf It is a crystalliEed Tieuirai 


How is lead found in nature f As a SQlpharet, the galena of 

mineralogists ; aa an oxide ; and as a salt. 

How is it procured f By roasting galena at a moderate tempe- 
rature, by which it is converted into the sulphate of lead, which it 
then iutinmtely mixed with another portion of the ore, and the tem- 
perature rapidly incrca.«ed, by whit-h sulphurous acid and metallic 
lead are formed, thus: PbOSO' ■+ PbS = 250' + 2Pb. 

What are the properties of lead ? It has a liluish-gray color, a 
strong metallic lustre, tarnishes by expoanre to the air, and acijuires 
a thin coat of the carbonate of the protoxide. It fuses at 613% 
and is ductile in large masses. Its equivalent is 103'6} sp. gr. 
11-352; symbol Pb. 

Wliat are the compounds of lead and oxygen 7 They are : — 

ttaboxida Pb>0 297-124- 8 = 21512 

Oxide PbO 10356+ 8 = 111-66 

Binoiide PbO> 103'66-|- 16 = 119-66 

Minium, or red lead 2PbO, PbOi, or PbjO*. 

What are the characteristics of the dinoride, or suboindef It 
Is generally linowa as ffross / it is of a dark-gra; color, and U 
V importaut in its chemical relations. 


How is tbe protoxide procvredt By coltccUntc llio p^y film 
• likrli furiaii on the sorfacv or melted Icnil, and exposing; il lo hvut 
and air until It bccuraes yellow. 

Id tli« state of powder, it is called manm^ol ; btil, whan pnrliallf 
Ikied, by whicli ii is vHrtJied, it is oalk-d titharye, And contain* a 
iligtit mixture of rod oxida. 

Whal Arc il6 proptrHetl It hu a lemoii-yollow color ; it it in- 
•olnble in water, Uwci at a bright red heat, and unchangcablv ill 
tke fire. l)Ul niny lie reduced by heat and combustible mailers. Ii 
W tiK biiM- ui all ihe noils of lead, and these arc generally of a 
wlilui coluf. It aeli) b bodi« cases as an acid, by iiniiiug with 

Brd lead, or mmt'uin, SPbO.PbO', is formed by passing ait 
over massicot wllliont rasing, but at a considerable boat. It is a 
nixltire of the bi and protoxide. 

What are the properliea of the red oxide 1 It docs not unite 
vilh acids giro oiT oxygon when healed to rednMa, and la con 
tcricd into the protoxide ; it is rcsolrvd ioto protoxide and pcrox- 

|lil« l>y nitric acid. 
L What are tho osiytalls orica<I f 

NllratA „ rbO.NO> 

SMlpliats riii).SO> 

Cartianata » »...,...,. rbO.C0> 

Chroisftlc. - rbO. TrO* 

Aotal* _ _.... ri.O.r'H'O'+SUO 

TriUaie usvtats -. ....«.». 2I'bO,C*U*0*4. HO 

J aod 


yitrale of Lead, PbO,A^0', may be oMained by addiiiK nitni. 
acid to metiLllic lead. It is solablc, and crysialtizes in opaquo 
anliydrons octahedrons. 

Aerloie of Lead, PbO.C'H'O' 4- 3/rO. may be pr-jpnivd by 
boiling lilharg« in acetic acid. It may be cry.itnliirHl. and con- 
uliu S equivalents of water. It ia known ajt iiu;jar of lend, and is 
very folnble In water and alcohol. Ita taste la sweet and a«lringrat, 
aod tn large doses it is poiBonoita; 

The SvlnKtlale. 3PhO.C"U'0' + JIO: prepared by boiling the 
tale with litharge ; called, also, Oouiard"* exlraci. 

Which talt of lead is the most poisonous f The carhanalt 
tervM. or wAU« lead, so that any talt of lead, u the acetate, 


which is easily changed into the carbonate, may also b« poiit>.oiu 
by conversioD iuto the carbonate in the stomach. This may be 
obviated by administeriug au excess of viuegar, or acetic acid, wiwj 
the acetate. 

What -are the tests for lead f The hydrosalpharic acid, which 
gives a black precipitate. The sulphates give a white precipitsls 
with lead, that is insoluble in nitric acid. Hydriodate and chro- 
mate of potash give yellow precipitates, the iodide and rhromate 
of lead. It is also separated from its salts in the metallic form by 
iron or zinc. The lead is deposited, forming the arbor SatamL 

How is peroxide of lead pTVcvredf By the action of nitrie 
acid on minium, which dissolves the proto^tiide and leaves the per- 
oxide -, and by passing a current of chlorine through a soluiion of 
acetate of lead. This oxide is of a pure brown color, insoluble iu 
w»ter, does not unite with acids, aud is resolved into a salt of the 
protoxide and oxygen gas by strong ox-acids. 

What arc the haloid salts of lead 1 Chloride, PbCl j bromide, 
PbBr; iodide, PbJ. 


How is it found in nalnre ? In combination with salphar, 
arsenic, iron, and copper. Ecjuivalent 10'95 ; sp. gr. 990; 
symbol Bi ; and melts a 497°. 

May be obtained pare by beating the nitrate. 

What are its properties f Btaulifully crystalline, a steel-like 
lustre, undergoes little change by cxjiusiire. and. when heated in 
the open air to 500', takes fire and burns with a blnish-white 
flame, and c0)iiou3 fumes are emitted, which is the protoxide of 
bismuth ; and nitrie acid is its proper solvent. Jlose's fusible 
metal is composed of 8 parts of bismuth, 5 of lead, and 3 of tin ; 
and melts at 212° F. 

What are the compounds of bismuth f They are : — 

Soboiido BW 141 -90 + S _ UiW} 

Protoxide BiO 70 95-|- 8 = 7806 

Cblorido BiCI 70-M+85-*! 6=106-86 

Nitmte BlO.NO= + 8HO 

SubnilratB 3BiO,NO'+ HO 

The vroloscide, BiO, is the base of the oxysalts. 


Chloride, BiCI ; procured bjr iDtrodncin^ bismuth in povder in 
thlorina gns ; it «as foiioerly rnlird the buHer o/bi»7ntilh. 

AVm/* of Bimiulh. BiO.KO' + d/iO; \,npiTed by adding 
■iiric acid to bitimuili. It forms iraiisi'arcrit colorlera crjstals, 

bicii, w)i«ii tlirown into water, are dcconi]>i»ed, and cativcned 
ni|i> a eyjjirmtlralt, whicli r«ma!tiH iu aolulion ; and a mihnUrale, 
■bid) is prcei)iiliiied, aud la iioueiiniM called tnaijinery of buemuJk, 
Jl!iO,Xo'+ HO. 

Wliat ore tli« letUt for lilsmutb 7 By tlie addition of u-aler to 
tht itroinKuliii the xulisnli!! are precipitsled ; and Huliihn retted 
hidrofivn )>ruiluci:s an iiitunse brown |irccl|i!tate flom iLc suit* of 
^^dii netal. 


Stati trt A BB> Mat. 

itrrcury, or Quii;knh^r. 

How is latmnTj /oiintl in nattm T It is found native, combined 
III siil|itiiir, ■• cinjiabar. wliich h its most abundant fana ; 
ualirniitntrd witli silvur; and ns n rliloride. 

How is it procvrcft. oiid rrom where ? By healing the salpliuret 

til liuie, or iron Hlings, bf vhii-h means tlie mercurjr is volutllined 

the Gul|>bur rplaincd. To purify it. it may be digested with 

pburic acid. It is bronghl priDcipally IVom Spain, Hungary, 

i»i*, nnd Sonth America. 

What are Its propeHitaJ It ti fluid at common tempera turn, 
a tlB-white color, and hna a si ronfr metallic In xl re. Itfreetca 
39* or 41)" lielow uro ; boils at about Gni!', and does nni lamish 
CXpoaurc to the air if perfectly pure. It la acted upon by nitric 
Imi anlpburic acids. Iti equivalent is 101; tp. ^. (fluid) 
-&68, (f^xen) 1&-S1S; symbol HfC. 

Wbat arc tliu cvrnptiuntln of mcrnirj" and oxygrcn f There are 
lw«, iIk- suboxide, Usc'O; und the protoxide, HgO. 

lltiw in the »ubo3n<i« of nutnrury prveureJ f By mixing calomel 
briskly ailb an oiccesN of potiu»a, the oxyg:cn nnd chlorine exohnnge 
[Jai^s, and ehtorid« of potassinni and the snbnsiitit of inercnry are 
lormed. It may al^^o be proearcd by adding an alknline sulutinn 
the nitrate of th«- suboxide of men-ury 
What are tbe properties of the auboxldo of mercury ? It ii a 



blatk powder, ewUf dMOmposed, nnitea nilh adds, but ia a veab 
buso. TliG nitnte ta decomposed by alkalies, irliich throw down 
die cilboxide; by alkaline cftrbonatea throwing down the while 
carltoiiiile ; by liydrocliloHi; ai'ld, or any soluble rliloride, and the 
tiulidiluridi^. or calomel is formed ; and by bydrosoljihuric sc!d, 
mill the black protoiiulpliiirL't i* prucliiccd. 

How is tlie prutfi-i-idf jirotmred ? By tlio a<;tlou of beat and air 
combined; by (litxoIvinK mercury in nitric acid; and by cx)ioeiDe 
tli<^ iiilrate to a lieal iiuQlcii^nl (o expel llie uilric acid. IL fa tta 
red firrrifiUatis of popular latjjruajte. 

WImc itrc the properliet of the protoxide? It Is [a abEning 
('ry^Ialljne scales, when hot it is nearly black, and red when cold, 
finely puwdcred It is of nti oran);e color ; when licatcd to redncM 
It Itt rvsolved JDlo metallic mercury and oxygen. It Is separated 
from acids by aniroonin and ita rarbonnle, as a white precipitate. 

What arc ihe compouiidg of chlorine and mercury ? They are 
the snbctilnridc or calomel, which is 2 cqa. of mcrciify, and I eq. 
orchtfirinc; and the chloride, or corroitirc Kubliniate, which is I 
cq, of mercury, and 1 cq. of clilurine. 

Mow i> the tuhvhtiiride, or calomel, HfT'Cl, procured? It it 
gciiiratcd whea mercury and chlorine come in contact at comraoa 
tcm|>praturc«; by the anion of mere a ry and the cbloHde, whicb 
iliiiuld be tnblimed ; and by mixing the nitrate of the anboxide 
with hydroctiloric acid, or a noliibte chloride. It is usnally pro- 
cured by rubbing Ihc dry gulphnte of the r*^ or proloiidc with at 
much melallic mercury nx in conlnincd in the Kulphnlc, and a quaa- 
tiiy of common salt, until ilic globules disappear and the mllluK 
becomes nniforiu- iSui'jcct this to iiubllmailou ; carry the vapor 
of calomel into an ntmotphere of steam, in wliich it becomes con- 
densed in a sUtic of minute division. 

t f^r tnarmrf 
I nk, ittytra 
I B| .ul- I 
.phurk add k 


J vq- aulflhAl* uf DBRury 
I aq. Dirunio mmarj — 

'«'■""'-"-'-■■- {iq:tr: 


What arc its prop«rfifMf It i» while, crystalline, compael, 
tasteless, inodorous, and not altered by exposure to the atmoipbtfe 
if light is eiclnded ; bnt by this it is rendered black aud putially 




I U the mcuUie itnte ; alk«llii« oolullona render it black bj 
iht roRLBtion of the niboxtde. It toinetimcs cuiituinit portion* or 
tlir rlilofiOtr, witicli wuiilil lie a duiii^roiM combiaatloii wlieii 
nplo^rd in ni«liciiiu ; and mn; be deteoled hf boliln); villi wuler, 
Md kdding caustic poiacb lo the filtered li<iiiid, which will give • 
rtlloir precipitate if corrosive &abtiuAie be present. 

How U tito chh/riii'\ or corrmive eublimate procured t Dj 

itMtiiiir mercury io chlorine ^s, nnd hj- subliming a mixture or I 

It^ of ttie Ralpbntc of the red oxide of raercnry with 1 eq. of th< 

llUuida of *i>diiiia. The pfodiicU of this lnr>t proccM arc 1 rq 

ttlbe chloride of merciiry. and 1 cq. of the sulpfaalc of soda. Thr 

mluii onj be cxpluiacd as follotrs ; — 

J *q niltlnla ' I 

1 m. I'M'irln* 
1 iq. nliuo 

0»nalH ntiUmaUL 

JdIiiIaU of «<tB. 

WhU tkn it* propfriiest It i« wbite, ttcmitrnnspftn^nt, crystal- 
line, and pohoitout ; has an acid, burnintr tiiHf, and Icrtcs ti nxu- 
Mno* nictallle one. It ik Hlijrhlly soluble in cold wnlcr, nnd highly 
>lnb1e in hot water nnd alcohol. Hy th« addition of ammonia (o 
Koliiiion, ihn \rliilf prfdpiiate 1* fur«n?d. 
What ore the Utiii for e«rro*ive sublimate? IlydrflSQlpbDrie 
Bcid precipilule^ Itie black sulphurel of mercury; llme>watcr and 
Ilie pnre fixed nltLuliea a yellow peroxide of mercury ; hydriodute 
^■kf pulassa precipilalea the Iodide of merrnry, which is of a scarlet 
^Hplor, and resembles no other iodide ; protochloride of tin causes l 
^Wncli precipitate with Ibc sails of mercury, which is perhaps the 
^Kosl delicate test we possess for them. Another is to place a drop 
^Rkf the suspected li<|nid on |»olished Rold, and toneh it throuf;h the 
ll(|aid with a p4ece of iroa wire or point of a knife, when the part 
tonrhed iiwtantly becomes while, which is caused by an amalj^am 
^of (foM, ADiflincn or while of v%^ produce? » while flocculeiit 
^■■rvclpilnli', which is n compound of calomel and altiumcn, and Is 
^■H-rl; iberefure, white of n^gf. is an anIiiinCe for poisoning* by cor- 
^fbidve Nibliinale, 

' What are the intUdr* of meri'urr? They arc the tnhiodide, 

' ' ' b mercury 3 cqs. and iodine 1 eq., Hg I ; and is obtained 


b; mixing the nitrate of the suboxide of mercflry with the iodide 
uf poldSiiian). It is a greenish -yell onr powder, iuGoluble in water. 

The iodide, which is 1 eq. of mercary and 1 eq. of iodine, Ugl ; 
and is obtained by adding the iodide of potassium in solntion b) 
the nitrate of the protoxide ; or to the chloride of mercury. It it 
precipitated as a rich red-colored powder, vicing iu beaaty with 
Termilion, ■ 

What are the compounde of mercnry and snlphnr ? The »iift- 
sulpkurel, which is 2 eqa. of mercury to I eq. of salphar, fig's j 
and may be formed by passing hydrosulphuric acid gas through a 
solution of the nitrate of the suboxide of mercnry, or throngh 
water with calomel suspended in it. 

The aulphurel, which is 1 eq. of mercury to 1 eq. of snlphnr, 
EgS ; and is formed by fusing sulphur with six times its weight of 
mercury, and subliming in close ressels. This is fictitious ctn< 
nabar, and, when powdered, it forms the beantifol pigment ver* 

What is eihiopa mineral ? It is a mixture of sulphur and the 
sul|>huret of mercury, and is formed by triturating together equal 
parts of mercury and sulphur. It is the subsulphnret, Hg^S. 

What compound docs mercury form with cyanogen ? A cyanide, 
HgCy, obtained by heating the red oxide of mercnry with Proa* 
sian blue. 

The salts of mercnry are all volatilized or decomposed by a tem- 
perntiire of ignition ; those that do not yield the metal by simply 
hesting, may be caused to do so by the addition of dry carbonate 
of soda. The metal is displaced from its soluble combinations by 
a plate of copper, and also by a solution of protochloride of tin in 
excess. Sulphuretted hydrogen gives a block precipitate. 

Lime-water and the alkalies give a black precipitate with the 
sails of the suboxide, and yellow with those of the oxide. 

Alloys of mercury are called amalgams; it nnites with many of 
Ihe metals and forms a solution, some of which afterwards become 

St? tier. 

How is sWver found in nature, and where 7 It is found native, 
and in combination with sulphur in galena, also combined with gold, 
tuiimony, copper, &c. Nearly all the lead of commerce containi 



of iHltcr. It i* fonni] in Mexico, Pero, Han^nrf, and In 
the United Suu«». 

Ilow id it procured? My atnalyamation and cupellalicn, de- 
pending upon llie fi>rra of on; uKud. It rony ho ahtniiied pure from 
cuin by diit»oIvii>|t it iii nilric ociii. nnd dci:omi>i>Mtig the nitrate, 

WliM ara iui proprrtu'tf It is the dourest while of llie inel&ti, 
itceirea a beautiful jiultKli. it rrry mnllcnhlc, diictilv. quite iMia- 
doiu, sod whvii pare, ami, whon fQM''i in open vrMeN. it nUiorlis 
ayftcn. It iii libckeni-d by Kiilplmr nud r)ilorinc. It* cqiiiralcni 
fa 108; sp. KT. 10-51; »ynil>ol Ag; mclls at 1873°. 

Wlial arc tUe compound* of nlver and oxitgcn f They are the 
nboxlde, Ajt'O ; llic protoxide, AgO. The l»st i» obtained by 
decotnpofiiait tlic nilrato by potiuili or »odii. It. is of n (U'rp-oliie 
color, aoloble .dightly in wntrr. and forms a fnlniinnliag eonipoond 
with aniiaoBia. It it prccipiliiled in ihu metallic slate liy most of 
the inetala ; when aiereury is employed it nssami^s un arboreaceal 
appeanuice, c&llei] nrbt/r Diaiur, And tlie peroxide, whieh iJi 
iwiniporiftDl 111 Ita cliemieal relutions. 

How is (lie nitntie o/ athvr, AgO.NO*. procnredf By the 
•ctioa of nitric acid on ^her ; when it has been fused !t is called 
lunar cwtlic. 

Wbut is Ihe best teat for silTer J Chlorine, and the muriates, 
whk'h forcQ ao insoloble chloride. 

Haw is the chloride of siWer, A^CI, prepared ? It sometimca 
occun Batire, and i» called horn nilivr ; it is (tenenilcd wIimi silver 
is heated iu clitoHnc gas, and may bo precipitntcd by adOing liy- 
druchlorio acid, or a soluble cbloriile to the nitrate of silver. 

Whnt are itMpropt^rtiesI It is while, insotnbie iu wat<-r, Kli^htly 
soluble iu mMs, but TCry soluble in ammonia, and in decomposed 
l>T hydro^D. 

Uow is the ioditte of nXver procured f By addiiijc the iodide 
of poussiuin to a solution of the nitrate of silver. It is grcenith 
yellow, aud \* soluble in water and ammonia. 

Uow ia tbu tuljAttrri »/ mlier proeured ? Silver unites with 
aulldiur on exposure lo hydrosulpbuHc aci<l, and by traiidinitling 
this y^s lhron>!li a solntinu iif tlie uilrate. wbi-a It subsides aa a 
^«rli-brown preciptlute, the sulpburel of silver. 

Fntminaiini) nVtvr ia prepared by dissolviii}; the precipitated 

tide in ammoniR; and poascwes exMtedlngly dangerous ciplosiTo 


properties ; n-hen dry, the toDcb of a feather being safficicnt te 
cAune it to explode. The reason of this explosive properly it tbit 
the silver ha« a feeble affinity fur oxygen, while the hydrogen of 
the ammonia has a powerful afiuity for it, so that a sli>;ht diElnrb- 
ing cause is sufficient to cause tbe oxygen and hydrogen to nniu. 
The products of this action are vrater, nitrogen, aud metallic ulnr. 
Solutions of silver are reduced to the metallic slate by iraii, 
copper, mercury, &a. 


How is gold found in nature, and where f It is found pure at 
in combination with other metals, in North and Soath Auerin, 
Hungary, and Liberia. 

How is gold obtained pare ? By amalgamation with mercatj, 
and tbeu distilling off tbe mercury ; by making a solution in oitro- 
hydrochloric acid and precipitating it by the snlpbate of iron. 

What are the properttea of gold ? It has a yellow color which 
distinguishes it from all other simple metals, is very malleable and 
ductile, but inferior to several in brilliancy aud tenacity. It hu 
but little affinity for oxygen or sulphur. Its equivalent is 994; 
sp. gr. 19'257 ; symbol Au. Its solvent is chlorine, to which thi 
nitrohydrochloric acid owes its solvent powers. 

What are the oxides of gold ? The protoxide, AnO ; the bin- 
oxide, AuO'j and the teroxide, AuO'. 

What is the test for gold in solution T The protochloride.of tin, 
which throws down th&j^urple of Cassiua. 


How is platinum /ownd in nature, and where ? In the metallic 
state, associated or combined with other metals. It is fonnd in 
South America, and in the Uralian mountains. 

How is it obtained f By dissolving the native grains of platinum 
in aqua regia, or nit ro- hydrochloric acid, and adding to it a solu- 
tion of sal ammoniac, which affords an ornnge-yellow precipitate. 
This is to be washed, dried, and exposed to a red heat, which 
isolates the metal in a porous state, called plalina sponge ; which 
may be consolidated by mechanical pressure, heat, aud hamiDering. 

What are the properiiea of platinum f It has a white color, 
with a lustre inferior to silver, is malleable, ductile, may b« welded 



■t higfa t«BiperaiurM, nnd U diltiailt or oxitUtiftn or fusion. Chlo- 
fine, or nlotioiiK vhidi nOonl it in i(it [irupur lulvt^nt. It u tlio 
beavleet ofkuoviinMiinU, c(|iiivalent 98*8; «p. trr. Sl-fi; tynibut PL 

Wbai %n the tnmp'iuniiti oX ]>l»1iiiiiiii f Tliera are ikrec oxides, 
lir» f btoridCB, two l«t]iJ«4 uid two sulpburifta. 

Wbat is ihe ItiA for plmiuum ? J'rotocliJoride of tin, wbicb 
llirowB down a ciareiKiolored [)recipilat«. 

Allots and Amai^asm. 

Wkit ii meant by alloj/s and amnli/nmsl Jlloyg are combina- 
lioM of the mvtalR wiiti meli utlicr. mid, wlion ntcrcnrjr is a con- 
<ti(acnt. tb<7 arv railed awaUjami'. 

ITfldur what circatn»inncw do mHiilii combine with eocb otIi«r T 
It it nvcGMarjr lliiU at li^m ojic uf tlicui nbouid be liquid, vrh«n 
tbtf «il) niiite if llie nttructiati in ciniritftii:. 

Do ihcjr combine in dHiiiitn (iruponiuii.t onljr f TI1L7 nnite ia 
all proportioiia ; vet tJieru a|)|)unni to he n lunduucy to uijit<! iti 
dcfinilt! proponioiu, a* Home compuutida of tliin Ificd occur iiaiire. 

Wliat are thu gtnerai p r oper t tee of alloys ? Tliey reiicni)il« lh« 
luetalii, arc o|>a(|iH, poinex metallic lunlre, and are f^ood conductor! 
of lieat and electricity. Tlie color la Bometlmes cbanfted from thai 
of ita con»liluetit8 ; tlte hardness U gmerally tncreaW, ooiise- 
quently the aoDorouaneas la iu general iDcreasod ; tJi« malleability 
and ducliiily are usuailj impaired ; the deosity is somtlimes 
greater, sometimes less; the fu&ibilJty is greatly luercascd, and the 
I teidency to uuile wltJi oiygeii augmeuted. 

of Mlts dirided J Into amphigen and halogen 

How is the da 
■a I In. 

Wbat are the halogen unit* 7 Thry are those salts formed by 
the iinioti of a unli-ratliciit wilb a meinllic-rudicn), ns common salt 
(NaCl); and are binary in conxtitntiun. nnd inrliidi-il nnder the 
eomiMMinilt of rhIuriiH-, iodiuc, bromine, lliiorinr, and i-vniin^'cn. 

What are the aiiipAiIwn salts F Tlicy are tlioxe furtm^d of ele- 
mcBta wbicb bare tbc power of generating both acidi and bases, 



MB snlphfite of Bodft (NaOSO*). In tliix intUntre oxygen confon 
acid pro|ierlic« on the mlphiir anil basic on ihe ^cida. ■ 

The nmphi^cn suits ar« diTiiU'ii into tub or banic «nlt«, where ^ 
there is an cxci'»e ot bnsw over llic acid ; nriUral, when there in 
one M)uivalciit of boiic and one equivalent of uoid, whether lUey be 
add or alknline. The iccnerol rule in tlic formation of a neuirul 
amifliigpn snll in : that Ihere are at many rqui>yileiil» of acid a« 
there are equivalenU o/oxt/^en in the ba«e to tchich it in aUachrd. 
Thai one cqiiivitlimi of acid is (ufllcient to neuirniixe a protoxide; I 
hnl two eijnivitlentit of acid are Ticci-Hiuinry to form a neutral Halt 
with one cciuivuluiit of a deutoxiile. Suprr, or acid salt*, arc 
tho*o in vrliieh the neid Is in exc««; thai {», there ma; be two 
cquivalcma of acid to one of baae. 

Double »all» ; tlime may belong lo eitlier of the above claiuei ; 
thus chloride of §odiura will nnlte with the chloride of raercnrr, 
and a double hatoidal iah is formed; and Milpliate of alumina, 
Qniicd with eulphntc of potassa (alum), is a double amphifnn bbU. 

All of the flalte ore chnrncteriied bj their taste, and form of their 
CiT/fa'*, which arc rimple or compound. 

Cl^avarie ix the tendency of cryKtaU lo split in pnrticniar dii«c- J 
tion«, and \» an indication of a regular Mrucluro within. ■ 

They arc iMmt>rphou» wlicn they hare the Hitnc cryetalline 
Mrueturc, hnt diCfi-r in chemicjil composition ; nnd 'limorphoue 
when tlie Anme Hulintance may hare two crystullinc forms. (Joni- 
omeier u the name givea to an iustruineDt for meo&uriiif; the angles 
of crystals. 1 a 

What i^ meant by dfli(iue«cei'l »all F It is where a salt attracts f 
moialure (Vom the atmosplji^re. and becomcji liquid. 

What by an ^ «all ? It la wlierc a salt loses its wal«r 
of cryatulliicatiou by exposure to the atmosphere, and falls dowa 
Into a white powder. 

What is the waier of cryntaUiiatinnl It i* water which nnitM 
with a salt in crysiallisation, and rormii a part of the cryaial, but I 
la not nn cssenllnl iu);rcdicnt lo tlie exiMence of the salU 

Whnt is meant hy 0Jr\jsaU»1 Thoite of which both the acidl 
n'ld l>ii«es contain oxveen. 

Wlmt nre tlio characteristicg of the tulpJiairst They form white 
prccipilnti-s witli the ealts of baryta, stroutio, and leiul, which are 




tatolnbk ID nitric add*. OT these (ciits barvu ia considered the 
bwl for kiilpliimc add, cither froc or combined. 

Tbey are M>lul>te, wiili ihu eKccplion of the eulphatM of baryta, 
i>f tlie oxideH of tin, BQiimifiiy, bUtnuth, lead, and mercury. Those 
ijnriiiKlr totutile, are the Ku1[»hniec of itroritia, lirae, iJrronia, 
fltria, and of the oxides of cerium and tilvor. The other eulphaiea 
are ((iiitc foltibtc iii water. 

What aro the chararicri^tia of the fuJpltiletf The sulpharic, 
hrdriii-hlorie, |tli4W)>boric, and arf^enic acids decompose the sulphites 
with elTiTTCKCi-nce, o«in^ to ihe liberation of sulphurous add gas ; 
ibeir ore convened by nitric arid into xulphatca. 

Wbnt U the prumiaent charncti-rittic of ihe nilnUetf Thej aro 
dteoiD|M»«d incanubly tit a hijch teinpcniliirc. 

What is the prominent churatteri.siic of the nilrile»f lij- tb« 
addition of a strong acid the red fumes of iiitruiis acid arc diiwu- 

Wliat is the characteriHlc of the Morateti Tlicj are deeom- 
poeed at a red heat, oxygen gas is evolved, and a chloride is 

What ebanicteriEes the chloriu»1 They are soluble in water, 
■nd possess high bleaching and oxidiziii;^ projierties. 

Wlwt cbamclrrizes the fodateaf They arc similar to the chlo- 
rates, iodides being formed of coorso, iuatead of chlorides, wbeu 

Wltat characterizes the aneniatefl When heated to rcdiicsn 
with charcoal ihejr are deconipoHCd, and metullic arsenic is set al 

What charaeterixea the clmmcUesf They arc generally either 
«f ■ red or yellow color, are docomposcd by heal, and the add is 
rMohed into green oxide of chromium and uxygea gnx. 

What cliaracterixcs the carbonali-n? 1'Mv deromponition with 
dTcrTcarmcc by nearly all the acids, and most of thpm arc (Iceom- 
pmed by heal. 

How may tlw salt* of ammonia be distiriguiiihed ? By the ad- 
dition of pure potMna, when the odor of ammonia is given olT. 

How may the hyilrvHulfilialri be dlntlnguixhed y By hydrosul- 
phtirk oiHd bdng e]i]>«lleU wilh effervescence by other acids. 

Wliai Is Qoderslood hy Hulphar-mU»1 They arc double sal- 
pbnrcU, aa the ozysalts are double oxides ; the sulphurct of om 



nwlttl adinR ns nn ocid. while tlin wilphiirot of aooiher m*tal ocbi 
M n hnir. Kornic* mincml, Tor iiutarice. la au eiampk of & 
eutphnr talt. Whig uilpliurvt of niitinioii; united with sulpharet of 




Whkt it DiMleratooH liy orjrniiic chnnUirv ? It coinprtbenda tb» 
history of those componncls whiirh arc of nnimtil or r^ttablt 

Whiit nrn thfl Mfnplf clrmrnln romiti^t under notic*' in orfianio 
chi;mislry ? They arc cnrliun, hydroycn, oxjjten, nnd nilrofren, 
with triteea of ]ihot>[thoruii, tulphur, iron, Riliciu ncid, |>oU*Ka, 
lime, ite. 

The mode of union diffi-rK from that in the Enorgnuic kinj^dom. 
Id ihat, unicm lolccs plare \>y jiairg of elements; Dinn — copper wid 
oxyi!eii combine tu form oxide of copper; poiauium and oxygto 
to potash ; fuljihur and oxyiren to sulphuric acid ; sulphuric acid 
Ihwi combiiicii with oxide of copper and of potaaaliiw ; by which a 
pair of sails is formed, that are atcain capable of miittUK lo form a 
dophle eompound. CnO.SO' + KO.SO'. The mo« fy)in[>(f<!iilcd 
prodncla may be formed in this way. In orpiiiic chcnibtry It It 
diOVreiit ; (he nnion of the elemonl^. no matter how complex, scemB 
to be nimnlloiieong. In Biigar, C"1I''0'', or morphia. 0"O*N0', 
and niimirronn orhcr similar rniett. the dements are bound op to- 
gether, as a single whole, which m.iy enter into eombitiiition yiiih 
nlher sulvtanees. and be disenfTOKed with proprrtte* nnchnnged. 

Are ofi^anic suhsUnces liiihle to decompomlion t Yes ; they are 
very prone to decomposition, the tfiidency of cnrl)on and hydrogen 
beinfT to appropriutc to iheniKelve* ox inneh oxvfcen ait will form 
earhonio acid and water; and. when the oxygeii \* iutttiffioient, car- 
bonic oxide and cnrhuretled liydro^ren are formed. Whvn Uie 
orgnnie Mubiinnce coatain* iiiiroKen It ia very prone lo deeompoxi- 
tiiiu, nnd walrr. carbonic acid, hydrocyanic acid, nnd noiiuonia are 
formr^d. Thi^y arc all decompoud at a red heal> and ncarlj aU 
beiow thi,< li'mperiilure. 

What an: the partienlar trharacleruilict of oTjcanlc prodnnUt 
Tb'v are coiupoKed of the tamo elementa, undertro spontaneoat 



decora poeiti on witli facilit)', cannot be funned by the direct anion 
•f their eleni«nts, and ara decomposed ai a red beat, 

Tlw more complex tlie consUlulion, the jrreateT tlie liability to 
decompoiiilion ; this diBposillon is less wbere the elements galuriile 
Mch otbtr. Animal mailer is generally quoternary. and more 
liable to decomposition than vegetable, which is usually ternary. 

Stomerie bodies arc numerous, nnd this condition is snpposed to 
dfpend npon a tiiffcrent armngrment in the constituent atoms, tlie 
noniltcT bring tlie lame, 

Wbiit \* Hntlfi>Iood by the term compovnd ratiMi'tl They are 
cumbinatioiiK ihal pcrfomi iW riinclion" or elementary bodies. The 
rollowinj; are ihc niovt impcirlnnt cxaniplcR of thi« claM : — 


Carbonie i>iid«, orjmiaxida of carbon CO 

CjKnagen, or bienrburcl ot nitrogen ..,.„.. ,.,....«i.ii.>....... CN 

Utllon, or lotrtiilcDrburol of Ditrogca^....... _......... C*K* 

DenuilU, baniul*, or bmii^lo -« _ ~- C"li*0> 

Clnoianijl. or oinnaniu1*i , ...» » CH*0< 

8al;«7lB. or mIicuIo ».. C"ll>0> 

A«ei7l. ar iteetule »»....„ C*ll* 

Formjl, or fomule ....-■. -_ ~ — CU 

Amide — - ~ NH» 

BUi^J. or olanlo.utf.ipH. •<■«■■ ■*i*>i*rt.«*iBi*f*ia«HiB>i«K ■>•*»•<,■ C^li* 

U«ih7'- omoihalo.... •„....-» Cd* 

C«ljl, or cnlulp _ _..._ -....^... C"!!" 

Otr«n>l. or gl;DBral« »_ - _.-— C'H' 

Amjl, or and*....- ,....» -. C^Fn* 

HtHtjl, or mtaolal* ..........».....__ C*l(* 

Xaeoilyl, or kacDdula CU*Aji. 

Tegetable CircMisniT. 

What arc the eimpir rlrmnnln of vegrtabiu Kubntanccx ? Oxygen, 
bydnogen, carbon, nnd a few conluin nitrogen. 

Wltat i* mi^aiit by llic jtrosnnalt or immedittie principle of 
Tfgi-tablfflF TItry are componuiU which exist ready formed in 
plattU, anch ex «ugar, xtntvh nnd jcam. 

What JN int«nt by tlio proximate nanlyxiK of Tegclnlilee ? Il la 
tbc procvw of KCi'uralJnir the proximal^ principlea from ea(!h other, 
and ihf rednciion of the pniximiite prineiplcH into llielr eimpiest 
)>arta oonHiitiitrR the if u Hi male ar'alynia. 



How miij vp^tdWc »iil)stnn<rM be armnRcd t Into the \xgr{abie 
OfitU, tlic O'-'jetable aUcaliet ; neutral tubatancfK. tho oryijvn and 
hifHrogen of wAicA are in the ratio to form \eater : the (^oayi- 
nouti, rr-Kifiiinit, and bilumuiour principlrx : ihn K/nViVucu* Mid 
rt/irri'al prineiplet; colorinij malli'r ; uud ct/mpoun<ir whicli cow* 
not 6« cliuted under lh« preceding hfodt. 

VeoETjiBLX Acids. 

Wliat are the veftetoble add* ? Tlioy are comnouiids poMeesIH!? 
add propertiea, which are products of vcgetalioii. 

What ore ihe general proprrtic* of vogelable acids f Thcj" are 
dcconipoftfd at a red heal, les» linhloto siiontnurottmleeompiwin'on 
than Qllicr vegetable sabsUnecu, decomposeiJ by lii>l nitric odd. by 
which the; urc canverted iuto carbonic acid and water, and nearly 
all are polylmxic. 

Is oxvgcn alH-aya in a proportion above that for forming water 
in rcftctablc adds? Generally, but not always; MnietioiM it is 
crrti in a leas proportion, a« in hnnioic add ; but whcD tbore ia 
nioie oxygen thiiii «iilficcs to fomi water witli hydrogen, the vegc^ 
Inble Nubulances arc ulwnyn acid. 

Where i* Oxalic acid. ("(/.HO, or 2C0 + O + HO, foond ! 
In sereral )i]aiil« ready formed, an in the rumer acettuia, cr common 
■orrei ; the oxalia ac«lo*ffla, or wood norrcl ; and !t may be pre- 
pftred by digesting nugar njtli niiric add, 

What are the jimpirties of oxalic add ? It crydtalliaa !n al«i»> 
der, RHtlened. four hiid Bix-«idcd pHsms. leruituated by Hix4.ided 
BnuiuilM, bnt ibe primary form ik an obli(|ue rhombic prijtni ; il bnH 
a sour taste, reddens ItCmiia. und forms neutral salia with ulknlies, 
and is very soluble in water. It is powerfully poisonous, and \a 
frequently taken by mistake for epsom salts, irhich it resembles. 
ChalU h its antidote, with whitb it forms an insoluble oralale of 
lime. It il dirtingnished from all other acids by the form of iU 
cr}'«tals, unit by it« colntion giving, with liine>wnlvr, a while iniolu- 
ble precipitate. It contains the etementu of earboatc acid and car- 
bonic oxide, into which it is deeompused by the action of a strong 
add. It u monoba&ie. but will nuite in more than one proportiuii 
to a single eqniralent of base. 

The KO/fa of oxalic acid are neutral oxalate of potama, KO.C'O*, 
HO ; binoxalate of putana, called tatl of eorret, and exiria in 


U$ OfHorttla, or torrel, and in t/ar^lcn rhuharh. Foriimlft 
KO.2(C'0') + alio. Quadoj^la/f. of ,H}/iu>m. K0,*(0'0') + 
7HO. Ojalahi of ammontu, NH'O,C"0*+ HO. Tliis lut \% 
vmA bs b tcet Tor lime. 

Wliera i* Atxtie add, C'lTO' + HO. found T It exiata in the 
up of nimiy )ilniitjt, dth^ ftw or combined ; ll Is t;enFrated h* tho 
(iMlnictive difltillatiou of refKtnbte mntler, itnd is pruduced by th« 
Dcdon fenneiitalioii. It is Lest olttained pure nnd concentrnlcd 
tif dMompoeing lh« acetates by suiphnnc acid. For chemical |iiir- 
potea it i« otilnined by ihe dceiructive distillation of wood, and 
(oM iiii'lcr die Mtme of pifrolifineou» acid. 

Row is mctn'K acid dwlimjuin/iedf By its flavor, odor, and 
YulaiiJiiy. Iir iwlta ar« called aceliUcf, and arc nil soliililc in hot, 
>Dil iiKHt of ihcBi ill colli wfttrr; formnla, HO.C'II'O'. 

Vi'hrrt i% Laritr arid tound ? In ec>ur milk, and in the beetroot; 
iDmiila, HO.CS'O^. 

Where It Kinie add foand ? In cinchona bnrk. In eomblnatioD 
*ilh time, quinla. and dnchotm ; forniiila, C"H"0"HO. 

Wliere ia 3Mic acid found ? In llie acidulous frulis, such as 
grapes, oranges, ctirranls, apples, Ac. ; formula, 2HO,C"il'0*. 

Wlierv is ftirK- acid found f In the juice of the lime and 
IniMii; formula. 3H0.C"H'0". 

From what is Tartaric acid procured f It cxisl« in the Jutca 
of Mine of Ibe acidnlons fraita, but gonernlly in combination with 

le or pfliaKKit. 

It In prepnri'ii by mixing chalk with crenm of tartar, from which 
the tartrate of lime ■» thrtiwn down, ntnl (he tnrtralc of potnMa 
rcinuinrt io «oliitk>n ; to tliii tartrate of lime milphuric avid in added, 
and Ibe turtaric acid b set nl liberty. 

What are the fimprrlita of tartark- arid ? It has an aj-reenUIe 
soar taste, reddens litmus, and forms with slhuties ncntral tialtit, 
called tartrate*. It la dliiinffuUhed by fonnin)* a white precipitate, 
the bilartrate of potassa, when mixed with any of the salts of po- 
lum ; it, thtrdbro. separates potama from the other scidn, and 
prodaws a precipllalc with time, which is soluble in an cxcea* of 
the ncid. It i« remarkable in forming double saltx, the most im- 
purlant of wbii-h are thoKc of polaita nnd *fida, or thv Roeheti^ 
»a!l, nnd of nxii/c nf anllmont/ and, ai tartar muHc ; fli 





What la the cream of tartar of the shops ? Il is llii; bilartratf 
of potataa; in an impure slate known b; the name of tartar, or 
argot, it w found encrusted on the uAes nnd bottom of wine culu ; 
belug ioiolublc in nirolin), ti \a ikpociird ns slcohol U Torostd du- 
ring tha Tinoii* ffrmunlution ; formiilii, KO,HO,C"H O". 

2brtrote of polatna, aKO.Cn'O"; «r mtuble tartar. Tixr- 
trate of polawa and mda, or ItofMU' fait. KO.NnO.C'lI'O" + 

Where It JSimioie acid fonnd 7 In pnm beuxoin, Htomx, bnlitnro 
of Peru, Tolu, Ac. ; also in the urine of the cow und of rhlldron. 
Il Is goDeralty procured fVoni gum benzoin ; formula, HO.C'U'O'. 

Where is Meconic acid foam) ? It is found only in opiuin com- 
bined villi morpbiu. It ie known bjr forming n-ith the Bwqutsalls 
of iron a blood-red color, which render* it valuable na a test for 
opium; formula, SHO.Ci.HO,,. 

Where is tannic arid, or 7ifln»t'n, found ? In the excreseenves 
of [he oak. called ^nll niilii, in the bnrk of most trees, in kino, 
catechu, the tea plant, rtimnch, nva nrti, nnd in astringent plants 
generally; it h the princijml caiiw of iisi rin^r^ncy in Tcgetnblea, 

What arc ihn proprrtiri' of tannic atid ? Il in colorless, Inodor- 
ooH, has an astringent laiile, no bilti?rnc>'s, nnd mnj' bo kept in the 
solid siat«. Il Ik sohible, reddemi hlmn;*, and dccnmpoxes tli« enr- 
bouaies. It Ktrikc^ a deep-blue precipitate with Ihe Kruqni-Kalls of 
iron, but not wiih tli« proto-iutltK, nhlch distiiigiilxheii it froai all 
Other gubstancex except gullic acid, and from thix it mny he diistin- 
pnisherl by yielding, with a solution of fcel'itin, a white, (Inky pre- 
cipitate, Noliible iti a Koliilion of |(eUtin, but inxolnblc in water nnd 
gullic acid. TbiK compound of tannic acid and in-'lniin, c*Ilt<l 
laiino-geialin, Is the basis of leather ; formula. 3II0,C"H'O*. 

Where is Galtic acid found t In most suh^anceA which contkln 
tannic acid, and is probably dcrclopcd by the oxidation of thai 
acid. It does not prccipilnlc gelatin or the Halts of the vegetable 
alkalies; formnU. 2H0.C'H0'. 

How i>s the Saecinic fleid obtained 7 ]}y heuting powdered 
amber in a rrtort ; formula. SHO.O'H'O*. 


Obqamio Salt Babes, or YcorrABLE Alkalies. 

What ia anderstood by vegetable alkalies 7 They are those 
proximate vegetable priiiciplea which possess alkaline properties, 
Thej all coutaiu nitrogen, are decomposed by a moderate heat, 
■nd are but slightly soluble in water. 

What is their cotnpoeilion f Carbon, hydrogen (in greater pro- 
portion than to form water), nitrogen, and osygen ; and they 
always exist in combination with an acid. 

How are they generally procured f The snbstance containing 
the alkaline principle is digesled or macerated in a lai^ qnantity 
of water to disBoKe the salt, of which the alkali is the base. Then 
wid a powerfnl salifiable base, which unites with the acid, the alka- 
line base is set at liberty, may be collected on a filter, pariGed I j 
tolation in boiling alcohol, and evaporated to dryness. 

What are some of the most prominent vegetable alkalies ? — 

HorpWa C»H*NO« 

Codeia CH'NO* 

I eoniposition not known. 
Hareeift ' 

Narcotina - C"H»NO' 

Coneik CHIN 

Nicotia .- C»H'N 

Qainia dl'fJO" 

Cinchonia , C»H"NO 

Aricioa C»H"NO« 

BtTjohni. C"H N"0 

Braci* , C"H NH)' 

Veratri. C»H"NO» 


Caffein ' 


Tbeobromin CB^NK)' 

' I 0»H»H«» 

Where is Morphia, CH'^NO', fonnd in nature J It is the medi- 
cinal agent of opium, in which it is combined with meconic and 
snlpliiiric acids, and other foreign matters. 

Wliat are the properties of morphia f Colorless crystals of a 
brillinnt Instre, and in irregnlar, sis-sided prisms, maybe obtained 
['rom llie alcoholic sointion. It is insoluble lu cold, and slightly 




in 1iut wnirr, tn>tel<'i«t wlivn pure, but very bitter when d{i«<.N«<l In 
nU-gliol, or rciiduTL-d Kolublu Ijy meaiid or «d add. Strong i..(ric 
Mid uonrcrla it liitu oxalic aHd, and, with a seMiuisalt or iron, ft 
Ktrike)! n blue tint. It is almotit Inert wh«ii pure, from its inaoln- 
liilily, bill wlien in stilinion it aits witli gr*ai encrKV. By dwom- 
(loxinK a nail of inurphia by ammonia, wIini taken into the stumacb, 
ibu tSfxUt of uii over-dune may be prctemed. It Oecompoacs Iodic 
ncid, nnd mu iodine Troe, which may be recopil^fd iiy March, iU 
ap{)ro)>rial« ICKt; one Rrain of pare inor|)tila iit 1000 graioi of 
water may be recoKuioed by this test. 

It forma a sulpfiate, an aeelale, a jdioupkale, a chloride, Ac. 

Wlicre ar« Cinchonia and <}ainia found 7 Id the ducbonta 
bark, in anion with ktnic acid. 

How are tliey procured f By Inkinf; up tho aoluble parts of tlie 
barl( by hot water, ncidnlated with liydroehloric add ; concentrate 
tlie solution, and dit;est with snccessiTely added portions of xlnked 
iinie until the iitiuid becomes alkaline. The prenpltate b carefiillj 
collected, and the vegetable alkali separated by boiling alcohol. 

What are the properliea of cinchonia, C*H"NO f When pore 
it crystnllizes in cotorlem, qnadrilnteral prisms, insoluble in cold, 
slightly Bbluble in hot water, and very soluble in boiling alcohol. 
ll has a very bitter tnstG tvhon dissolved by alcohol, or an acid; 
and forms sails with ncidi. 

What arc the properties of qnima. or qinniW, 0"n*NO' 1 It 
is precipitnled from iis solulioos by alkalies in while fluck.t, which 
do not crystallize; very soluble in alcohol and ether, bat very 
olightly so in water. Its medicinal virtues are more powerful than 
those of cinchonia. It forms salts with acids, the most !m]>uriant 
of which is the di*ulphaif. and is prepared iu large quantities for 
medicinal purposes, crystallizing in delic«tc white, needJe-ihaped 

The sulphate of qutnin is frequently adulterated ; and tkeaub- 
slnncM gi-'iierolly employed are water. suRnr, starch, gum, ammo* 
niaeal and carihy salts. When pure it should only lose 8 or 10 
per cent, of water of cryslnllixniion liy hcnt. The other impurities 
may be doteeled by iKe api>ro|iriiiH' nunuin. 

Where is tilrychnia. C"H"N'0', found? In the fruit of tho 
ntnjcUnoa iffnalia, and the titrycbnos nux vomica, and has alec 
been extracted from the Vpa». 

Oailf ISTKT. 


Wbat are Ike propcrtiet of Btr7chni« 7 It is eoloble in l)oi1ing 
alcohol, ami hj crnpornlloii U is procarcd in r«iir-8i<lct] jirixms. 
t( it a virulmil poljion, prodacinjc druth in n verf »hort time if 
lakcR in kuOidtiil qnautU}'. It ncliou i« acconipniiicd by u-Unic 


Cafffin. or TTlnn, C'H'N'O'. fonnd in t«. coflVc, nnd nifltl', 
nay be prcpurvd bj^ addln;; Babact^tntc nf lend to a decoction of 
Ita, coltee, or mati^ ; thcD removing; ilic lead bjr xolpharctlcd 
k^drogeD, and addiug nnimonia. Tlie rnfTciii rryrtailixVN oiil in 
ufta of while, silky ii«ed)es, which have a hittrr toat^ aod sublime 
aiiluHit deeoni position. 

NetmiAL &rBerA*(CEH, the Uxrosx and TlYUiinoe!! or wiiini 


Bxxies. * 


H Wh: 

^m What is r«marliB)>l« in this c\afs of bodice f TfadrconibuntlMliljr, 
^''hesidM oibor propcrtioc common to pnch. They penernlty coninln 
' hydrofren in a lar^r proportion than is necesHnry to form water 
[ frith llieir oxjgva, and tbcy exert a feeble affinity for other bodie*. 
' What are t^c chimctcri«lics of OiUf Tiicy are inflammable, 

hava a peeuliair nnctaons fed, and are insoluble in water. They 
LAro divided into ^td nn<l volatile ; the former givet a pormaiitnt, 

What EubEtancee an inclnded In this class f 

LtcnUi„ _ „ C"H«0« 

Oum Arabic 1_^ _ _ Cfl'K)" 

Cline nigar / 

SuKW or milk C*m"0- 

Sofar or «r«ot ». .»»....» Om'Kl* 

OloaoH, or imgtt tt fn>p«* \ 

. Bi«ar of *kkKb [ ~ C"II»0» 

Di*b«<le insar f 

SUreh -. 

CtllalOM t 

Daitrin*. i 

Muu)It«-_ _. „ CH'tt* 

OLKAOiyorB, ResTKorB, and BirrMiKors Substancbb. 


greuy stain to paper ; and the latter produces one which diiap- 
pears by a gentle heat. 

Where are ^ed oils nsna'ly fonnd T In animals and in the 
eeeda of plants, bat olive oil is procnred from the polp which sur- 
rounda the stone. These oils are obtained by roastinj^ the seeds, 
and subjecting the pnlpy matter to pressure and a gentle heat. 

They absorb oxygen, and become rancid when exposed to the 
atmosphere, or to oxygen gas ; they also unite with alkalies and 
form soap. 

What are their component parts f Stearine and margarine, or 
the hard portion ; and elaine or oleine. 



Stesrine .'. C"H*0" 


FcUlj/ Acidi. 

SiMrioaeid _ C»H"0«+2H0 

M»rg«rio acid. C"H«H)«+ 2H0 

Oleieuid „ C«H»0*4-2IH) 

Glyoerine «% CH«0*. orCfl'0'4- HO 

Slearine, C"H"0'', the solid constituent of fat, may be obtained 
by melting mutton suet in ether, and allowing the whole to cool, 
when the stearine wilt crystallize. It is white, friable, insoluble iu 
water and alcohol, but soluble iu bailing ether; melts at 130° F. 
Chemically it is a slearate of glycerine. 

Stearic acid, CH^O' + 2H0, may be obtained by saponifying 
stearine, and then adding an acid, which separates it from the gly- 

Margarine may be obtained from the ethereal solution of mutton 
suet after the remoTal of the stearine. It resembles stearine, bat 
IS more fusible; melts at llfi°. It is a margarile of glycerine. 

Margaric add, C"H"0' + 2H0, resembles the stearic, but is 
more soluble in alcohol. Melts at 140°, and has one more equiva- 
lent of ozygen. It is obtained from margarine by SBponificatiou. 

Oteine may be obtained from popor, by which It hna beou 5b 
•orbed in prfparini; marfcariiie; aha by Hltcrin^ th« Died oils at 
the {Kning icmperalurc. Itvxcrahlvs oil in npprarance, colorleM 
wlicn pnrtt, and coogMkla at iO" P. ; soluble in boiling alcolio) %n 
ctlicr; iiiMtable in wat«r. Il ii an olvale o/ ijlf/crine. 

OUic acid. CWW + 2H0, is procared also by the Kepoiiifica 
tion «r olciQ, which it roRcmbl^s very much. It is void of color, 
Itglttn' tbau water, has a<:id properties, and is soluble iu alcohol. 

O/ytwtJi*. C'H'O*. or CITO" + HO, the buo common to all 
fat" ; obtained by forming an insoluble soap niili olive oil, oxide 
of IcAd. ami wntrr. The oleo-mariptrHlo of the oxide of lead is 
formed (lend- plaster), and is precipitated, while the glycerine re- 
niainii ill Kolulion, from ahich it may be oblnincd by evaporation in 
vDi:ao ; void of color when pure. viKrid. sp. gr. 1'SiT, tweelifh 
taste, soluble in water, and U convened by nitric acid into oxalic 
acid. It ta said to be a liydrut^^d oxide of a liypotlieli<-8l baM 
called g!j/eeril«. Thus: — Glyccrilv, CH*; oxido of friycerile, 
CH'O* ; glycerine, the hyJruted oxide of ulycerile, C*irO'+ HO. 
Aarolint, C'H'O'. amy be obluEued by the deatructive dEstlUalion 
of faU, in ft gaseous form, which, when condensed, forms a volatile 
IHHBOtiou liquid. 

BvtjfHc, eapric, and raproic acids are foutld in butter, iu addi- 
tion to llie oih«r ingredients fonnd in fats. 

Wax is oiinlogoas to bts ; it is composed of ceWni^ which ie 
•olubic in alcohol and wat«r, and will form soap ; and of myrictne, 
irhich ia itisolable in water and alcohol, and will form n soap. 

Where ure volatile or at^^niial oils found T lit aroiuatjc plants, 
(tan wbich they are obluincil by distillation. 

Tbey will not leave a greasy spot or «tain. aro converted into 
*^>or at alight elevations of the tcnipenitore, colorless when pare, 
powarfal odor, pungent burning instc, do not Eaponify, whcD ex- 
^^peed to tbc air absorb oxygen, and are converted into reiius. and 
^^■•f alao dq>out a cryttalliue mnlKir culled gteampUn. when 
^Buding lonae time. Tliey have bevn dividvd into those wliicb 
pBnataiu oiygeii, and lUove haviuy sulphur and uilrogen ia theii 




metal acting nn an acid, wliile the Kulfitinret of uiother m«Ul uti 
M ■ biiBc. Kcrtncs mincrnl. Cor iiwlurjce. it. au example of ■ 
Rolphiir Mitt, being tn1{iliurct or aniimun; uuiU'd vllh sal|iliiirrt rf 


What i# mnIiir»loo<I liy oritstiii- chcmidry f It cotnprclicnds th* 
blflorji of tiKwa coinpoatids wliich arc of animal or teg«ubl( 

Whst an* llic fimpU flrmrnls cominp nnder nolicp in orpmic 
chcmiilry ? Tlicy nre carlina, hydrogen, oxygen, and niirogen, 
will) tntccs of pboitjihorDs, tulpliur, iron, nlicb tcid, potMta, 
lime. Ac. 

Tbt mode of anion (liflfn from ibnl in the inorfcanic kingdoin. 
In ihal, nntoD taki« plnrc liyjHiirti ofcloments; thn* — copper tnd 
oxyic«n combine tu fonit oxide of copper; potaMium anil oxygen 
to poiuiti; Kn]|i)iiir and oxygon to cnlpliuric acid ; sulphuric oeiil 
ihi'ti couibioe* with oxide of copper and of potamium ; by which a 
pair of mUih ih formed, timt are attain cnpable of uniting to form a 
tloiibie comiKinnd, CnO.SO* + KO.SO*. TIm moit coraplicated 
proditciH nnay be formed in thii wny. In organic chrnstUry il it 
dilTi-rfrit ; the union ufilm vlcmt-nt*, no ninttcr huw complex, aeciB* 
lo be nimulianeous. In «ngmr, CH^O". or raoriihin. C"II'NO*. 
and numeroua other similar rases, the clement* are bonnd op to- 
(•elhi^r. as a aingle wljule, wliieh may *iner into eombinntiun irilh 
ntJier substances, and be diiieiigaged wiili proiiertSes nndiaugcd. 

Are orcanic aubsiAncea liable lo deromjxmition 1 Yea ; tliey are 
very |>rone to decomposition, the tendency of carbon aiid bydrogcn 
being to appro|>rittle to theniseUes as much oxyceo as will form 
carbonic acid niid wratcr; and, when tii« oxygen is insufficient, car- 
bonic oxide and cnrburettcd hydrogen nre formed. When Ibe 
organic »nh«inneo contaiim nitrogen it \t very prone to decomposi- 
tion, end wnti-r, cnrbcitiii: ncid. bylrdcynnic acid, and ammonia are 
fonncd. Tlx-y arr nil decomposed at a rod heat, and nearly aU 
below Ilii" tcinpcratHrc. 

What are the particnlar eharadrriftica of organic prodacUf 
Th*v are coinpoied of the Home elements, undergo ■pootatieoiii 


ompoBition with facility, cannot be formed by the direct anion 
their elemeDte, and are decomposed at a red heat. 
?bt more complex the coostitalion, the greater the liability to 
ompoKition ; this dispoeition is less where the elements saturate 
b other. Animal matter is generally quaternary, and more 
lie to decomposition than vegetable, which is osnally ternary, 
'tomeric bodies are numerous, and this condition is supposed to 
lend upon a different arrangement in the constituent atoms, the 
nber being the same. 

What is understood by the term compound radicles f They are 
nbinatious that perform the functions of elementary bodies. The 
owing are the most important examples of this class : — 

Carbonle oxide, or protoxide of ctrboo CO 

CjHiiogeD, or biosrbaret of nitrogen C*N 

UelloD. or SeBquiorburat of nitrogen C*N< 

Bentoile. beniule, orbeni;1g... „ CKHH)' 

Cinnamjl, or cinnHtnnle CH*0* 

S»ljcj1e, orsalicQle „ C»H»0« 

Acetyl, or ncetule C*H' 

Formjl, or formale CH 

Amide _ NH' 

Ethyl, or ethule CH' 

Uelb;1, ormelhule C'H» 

Cetyl, or cetnle CH" 

OijctTj], or gljcemle > C*H'' 

Amyl, oremule C^H" 

UeMtyl, or mcMtale C*H* 

Eaoodyl, or kacodul* C<B<Ae. 

Vegetable Chemistrt. 

Vniat are the simple elements of vegetable substances f Oxygen, 
irogen, carbon, and a few contain nitrogen. 
What is meant by the proximate or immediate principle of 
^tables ? They are compounds which exist ready formed in 
mts, such as sugar, starch and gam. 

What is meant by the proximate analysis of vegetables t It Ib 
! profess of sc|wrnting the proximate principles from each other, 
d the reduction of the proximate principles into their simpleRt 
rts cnnRtitutes their ultimate analysis. 



How mitf Tepeublfl aubstaiKfa be Bmnjr«d f Into tb* MgctoH( 
ariilK, tbu ix-jfiable altaiien ; neutral eubtiancew, tlM aryjjvn V)il 
h^lro^M of which are in Ihe roiw (o form tealer; ibl irfM>;i- 
nuuM. n-ninout. and bi^Hiiiiii'SKd princijAett tht rptritHGua U^ 
flhereal principlm ; coloring molt«r ; and cumjWHJida tc&tcA ra>*^ 
not 6« clatsed under the preceding hcadM. 

VKQr.TAKht Acids. 

'n'hnt nrc the vrgetable ncid< f Tbe^ wro MiBpoondi 
•ci<l propcrtic*, which are prodncU of *e|^BiJan. 

What arc ibe (feneral properti*it oX TegeWblc adds f Tbejr 
()ei:uni poled at u nd beat, lea* liable to S]MntaiieoiH derompnaii 
tbuii other v^etablc subslBDces. decomposed hjr bot iiilric ociil, 
which thej are convened iuto carbonic add and water, and nt*^ 
all are poly basic. 

■■I oxygen nlway* in a proponSoo above tbat for ttimia% wn 
in fCKeuble add*? Generally, but not alvaya; Homctlinfs it 
even in a leM proportion, od i» beniolc acid ; bat irbeti there J 
ninre oxjiteii than Huflices t» forin nater with hydrojjeii, the t«9^ 
littile iiahjiiuiiiies ure alwtiyi acid. 

Where is Oxalic a<-id, fO'.HO, or »C0 + O + HO, foood? 
In several plants ready formed, as in Ihc rutnexac^ua, or cotnmon 
sorrel ; Lhc uxatig aceloxr/la . or icood morrfl ; and it may bo pre- 
pared by di^re^rinf; su^'av with nitric odd. 

Wbai are the properties of oxalic acid ? It rryiilwllizes in tlco- 
dcr, Qaltoiied. four and six-sided prisms, termiiiHted by eix-sided 
Eiimniitn. but iho primury form U an oblic|ne rhombic prinn-, it hu i 
ti »niir inslc. reililciis litmnH, ami rnrms nMilrnl snllK with alkoliM, 
nnd is very noliiblc in water. It ii powerfully poisononx, and ia 
rn.'qupii(ly lakou by mistake for cpnom Kalta, which tt rcsooiblca. I 
Chalk in il* antidolr. wiib which it forma an insoluble oxolattt 9/ 
lime. Il i.t diiitiiif;ui!ibed fnini nil other adds by the form of its 
crystals, and by its soluUuti siviMp, with lime-water, a white involn- 
ble precipitate. It eontalua the elcinenia of carbonic acid and car> 
bonic oxide, iulo which it is decomposed by the action of n ttrong 
add. It is monobasic, but n-ill nniie in more than one proportloD 
to a »ln|Tle equivalent of lia»e. 

TIn nilt« tit oxalic acid arc neutral oxalale of polatM, KO,C'0', 
BO i binoxal^e of pola*ta, called mi/( of tarrtt, and exbtt in 


f/xalis oceloseUa, or sorrel, and in garden rhubarb. Formula 
K0,2(C0') + 3H0. Quadoxalaie of potaaaa, K0,4(C'0') + 
7HO. Oxalate of ammoma. NH'0,C'0'+ HO. Thia lost is 
osed M ft test for lime. 

Where ia Acetic acid, C'H'O' + HO, found T It exlBtO in the 
up of DiKiiy p]ant§, uither free or combined ; it is generated bv the 
dcslructive distillation of vegetable matter, and is prodaced by the 
acetciDS fermentation. It is best obtained pare and concentrated 
b; decomposing the acetates by sulpharic acid. For chemical pur- 
poses it is obtained by the destractire distillation of wood, and 
sold ander the name of pyroligneous acid. 

How is acetic acid distinguiakedt By Ita fiavor, odor, and 
Tolatility. lis salts are called acetates, and are all solabte in hot, 
and most of them in cold water; formula, H0,CIPO'. 

Where is Lactic add fonnd ? In sonr milk, and in the beet root ; 
fonnola. HO. C'S'O'. 

Where is Kinic acid fonnd J In cinchona bark, tn combination 
with lime, qninia, and cinchona ; formula, C"H"0"HO. 

Where is Malic acid found ? In the acidnloos fruits, sach as 
p«pes, oranges, currants, apples, Ac. ; formula, 2H0,C'H'0'. 

Where is Citric acid fonnd f In the juice of the lime and 
lemon; formnta, SHCCH'O". 

From what is Tartaric acid procured J It exists in the juice 
of tome of the acidnlons froita, but generally in combination vith 
lime or potasso. 

It ia prepared by mixing challc with cream of tartar, from which 
the tartrate of lime is thrown down, and the tartrate of potassa 
remains in solution ; to the tartrate of lime sulphuric acid is added, 
■nd the tartaric acid is set at liberty. 

What are the properties of tartaric acid f It has an sgreeitble 
tonr taste, reddens litmns, and forms with alkalies neutral salts, 
called tartralea. It ia distinguished by forming a white precipitate, 
the bitartrate of potassa, when mixed with any of the salts of po- 
tasaa ; it, therefore, separates potassa from the other acids, and 
prodnces a precipitate with lime, which is soluble in an excess of 
the acid. It is remarkable in forming doable salts, the most im- 
portant of which are those of potassa and aoda, or the Bochelle 
wit, and of oxide of antimony and poiasm, or tartar emetic ; for- 
inola, aHO.CH'O". 



What ii the cream of tartar of llie thapt ? It is Ihe bttartnU 
of potaMa ; in nn iru]iun! sluto knoirii by tli« nknui of larlar, or 
argot, it is found encrusted on t)ie &ldek niul bottom of wfne rub; 
bciiifc insoluble in atcoliol, ii ia deposited as nicoliol in fomeddn- 
rinft the vluoua rermonlalion ; romitht. KO.HO.C'Il O*. 

Tiirrrob) 6/ potasfa. SK0.C"II'O'° i or aoluUe tartar. T)ir- 
trale of polae^a anil foda, or liorhdlt tall, KO,N«0,C*H'0»+ 


Wliere ic Bcttoic acid found f In fniin bmzoin, elomx, bahun 
of Peru, Tolu, A«. ; "Iso in tlie urioc of ihc cow und of rhildrai. 
It is gcncmllr procured tram gum benxnin ; fonuuia, IIO.CII'O'. 

Wliorc is ifixonic and found ? It in funtid ontj in opiim com- 
bined vilh morphia. It ts known by formini^ wlih tbe KesqnlMlt* 
of iron % blond-r«d color, which renders it Tuluable as a tctl tm 
opium; formula. SHO.CHOi,- 

Whero 'w tannic acid, or Tannin, found F In tlie excrt«cmcci 
of th« onk, called f^all nuts, in Ihe bnrk of most tfccti. in kino, 
catechu, the teu i>tant, Minmcb, uva urni, and iu oxiringcnt pluiti 
gcncrnlly ; it is the principal cause of usirUigencjr in regtiabtcs. 

What are the properiie* of tannic acid ? It Is eolortew, bodor- 
oii». Ii»s an oairiugent toaie. no bitierncfi«, and maj be ke|>t in tbe 
solid stnio. It is soluble, reddens litmus, *nd decompose the car- 
bonates. It strikes a deeji-blue prcclpilalc vrllh the sesqai-Bolu of 
iron, but not with the proto-salls. which disiingulshes it from all 
other snbsianues excepl gallic acid, and from this It inny be ilUtia- 
frnishcH by yielding, with a solulion of ^Intin, a while, flaky pr»- 
cipitutc, soluble in a solution of gelalin. but insoluble In water and 
lUic ncid. This coniponnd of tannic arid and gelalfn. called 
inno-gelatin, is the hnsin of leather; formoln, SHO.C"!!^)*. 

Where is Qallic acid found ? In most substance* which coutaia 
tannic acid, and ix probably developed by the oxidation of that 
arid. It t\ai:* not predpllnle gulalln or the salts of tbe repetable 
alkslics; fonnnla. 2HO,C"HO'. 

(low in the Succinic acid obtained T By healing potrdeTCd 
omher in a retort; formula. SHO.C'H'O'. 


OsoANio Bait Bases, ob TxarrABLK Alealjxs. 

What is nnderstood b; Tegetable Alkalies? The; are those 
proximate vegetable principles which possess alkaline properties. 
They all coiilaia nitrof^en, are decomposed by a moderate heat, 
■»d are bat eligbtly soluble in water. 

What IB their compoeiliont Carbon, hydrogen (in greater pro- 
portion than to form water), nitrogen, and oxygen ; and tbey 
always esist in combination with an acid. 

How are they generally procared f The substance containing 
the alkaline principle is digested or macerated in a large qaantity 
of water to dissoke the salt, of which the alkali is the base. Then 
Add a powerfnl salifiable base, which unites with the acid, the alka- 
line base is set at liberty, may be collected on a fitter, purified I j 
lolation in boiling alcohol, and evaporated to dryneES. 

What are some of the most prominent vegetable alkalies ? — 

Morphia _ C»H»NO« 

Codda -™ C"H»MO» 

> composition not known, 
Nbtccik i 

Kwcolin* „ CH-NC 

Con«ia „ C'H'N 

Nicotia - C»H«N 

Qainia _ C^iU'NO' 

aDchonU - „ C»H"NO 

ArisiD* C»H"NO« 

StTjehnia ~ ^ _ C"H NM) 

BnioU „ „ C«H N-O' 

T«™tri» „- C"HnNO« 


^^^"X CH'tPO* 

Thein i 

TheolmiiDin CH<*N>0> 

Where is Morphia. C"H"NO', fonnd in nature T It is the medi- 
cinal opent of opium, in which it is combined with meconic and 
Mlpliiiric acidit, and other foreign raRttera. 

What are the properUee of morphia ? Colorless crystals of a 
hriliiiint lustre, and in irregular, six-sided prisms, may he obtained 
from the alcoholic solntion. It is insoluble in cold, and slightly 



Ill hot wnter, tasteless when pure, bnt very bilKT wlien dii*»!»«il in 
bIcuIioI, or rendered soluble by means of an ocul. Strong LJric 
acid coiirens It into oxalic aoi<l, nml. witti a smqniiialt of iron. U 
elrike* a blii« tint. It U almost inert wluii purr, from iu i&Mla- 
bility, but wlieii in Mlotion it act* with grroi energy. By item- 
jioMiiK a salt of morjihia bf ammonia, wlirn (akcu into tli* ttODindi, 
the elTects of an ovcr-do&e mav be prevented. It decompotn iodic 
acid, and seta iodiue free, wliicli may be rccogritsed hj nareh. la 
appro)iriate test ; one grain of pnre morpliia in 7000 graini af 
vuler may be recognised by this lest. 

It forms a Hulphale, an acclale, a jihon^half, a chloride. Ac 

Wlicro are Cinckoma and Qtiinia found 7 In the ciucKoni* 
baric, in anion wiih kinic acid. 

How are ihcj proriirrdf Ky (nkinff op the soloWc parts ofdi 
bark by hot water, acidulated with hjijrochloric acid ; concecinu 
tbe EolQiion, and digest with racccssivety added porUoDS of slabd 
lime uiilil the liijuiil becomes alkaline. Tlio preHpilale is carcfull; 
collected, and the vegetable alkali »eparaled by boilinj* uleohul. 

Whul are the properties of diicbuiiia, Cl^'NO T When pan 
it crystallizes in colorless, quadrilateral prisms, insoluble In coM, 
slightly solublu In hot water, nnd very soluble in boiling alcohol. 
It has a Tcry liilter tnste when dissohcd by alcohol, or oo acid; 
and furms sahs with nclds. 

W'hal arc the properties of tpiinia, or qvinine, C*H"\0' f It 
is prooipitatcd from its solutions by alkalies iu wbilu fluckx, wliieh 
do not crystalliiG ; very soluble in alcohol and elher, bnt very 
slightly so in water. Its medicinal rirtii«s arc mora powerful ihaa 
those of cinchouin. It forms salts with acids, the most iroponanl 
of which is the Ji»ulpfiaie, and is prepared in largo quantities for 
medicinal pnrpoiten, crystallizing in delicate white, nc«dle-ehaped 

The sulphate of qiiinia in frequently adulleratfd ; and the sab- 
siance* generally employed nrc wuter, su^nr. rtarch, gtim, ammo- 
iilocol and earthy salu. When pure it should only lose 8 or 10 
per cent, of water of crystallixailon by heat The other impuntits 
may be di^tci-led by the Bp|iro|ii'{ate ueiins. 

Where is Strychnia. C"H"N"0'. found? In the froit of the 
tlrgchnos iijnalio, and the gtryclinott nux vomica, and ba« alsc 
}cn extracted from the Cpa», 


Wliat are the properties at etTjcbnia f It is soluble in boiliDg 
ilcohol, and by eTaporation it is procured in foar-sided prisms. 
[t is a Tiraleot poisoa, prodacing death io a verj short time if 
lakeu ID Eolficieiit qusntity. It action U accompanied b; tetanic 

Caffeiti, or Thein, C'H'N'O', fonnd in tea, coffee, aod mat*. 
DDBj be prepared by adding enbacetate of lead to a decoction of 
Lea, coffee, or mat* ; then removing the lead by SDlphnretted 
bydrogen, and adding ammonia. The caffein crystallizes oat in 
tafts of white, silky needles, which have a bitter taste, and sublime 
withont decompositioii. 

8KBIXB. * 

What BnbBtances are inclnded in this class F 

Lignin „ „ . CH"©" 

Gam \nhi<s\ CHl'O" 

Cnna tngtt i 

Sagar at milk C"H"0" 

Sogaror «rgot_ _ C"M»0" 

Qloeoae, or sugar of grapes -i 

Sagarof atareh !■ C"H"Oi« 

IMabetic sugar J 

Starch -. 

Cellnlose _, 

Trag^^^thns ■■•- C-'H"^ 

Deitrine. J 

Uannite „.... CIPO" 

Olxaoinocb, Bebinoub, and BiTDHiNOve Stibstamcbb. 

What is remarkable in this class of bodies f Their combnstibility, 
besides other properties common to each. They generally contain 
hydrogen in a larger proportion than is necensary to form water 
with their oxygen, and tbey exert a feeble affinity for other bodies. 

What are tbo ch a racl eristics of Oihl They are inflammable, 
have a pecnliar nnctnous feel, and are insoluble in water. They 
are divided \^\ajlxed and volatile; the former gives a permfmBnt 


^eaey stain to paper ; and the Utter prodaces one which dinp- 
pears by a gentle heat. 

Where are fixed oils oBna'ly found f Iq aniinals aad in the 
seeds of plants, bnt olive oil is procared from the palp which tai- 
rounds the stone. These oils are obtained by roastin)^ the secdi, 
and sabjecting the palpy matter to pressnre and a gentle heat. 

They absorb oxygen, and become rancid when exposed to tbe 
atmosphere, or to oxygen gas ; tbey also unite with allutlies and 
form soap. 

What are their component parts 1 Stearine and margarine, or 
the hard portion ; and elaiae or oleine. 


Sle»rine .'. CnH"0» 


Folly Aadt. 

8t«ariD Mid _ C"H««Ot + SHO 

UBrgaric acid C"H"0«4- 2H0 

Oloio Mid C-H-O*-)- 2H0 

GljOBrine .^ C»H»0*, or(?H'0»+HO 

Stearine, C"H™0", the solid constitnent of fat, may be obtained 
by melting mutton suet in ether, and allowing tbe whole to cool, 
when the stearine will crystallize. It is white, friable, insolnble in 
water and alcohol, but soluble in boiling ether; melta at 130° F. 
Chemically it is a atearate of glycerine. 

Stearic acid, C''H''0'' + 2H0, may be obtained by saponifying 
stearine, and then adding an acid, which separates it from the gly- 

Margarine may be obtained from the ethereal solution of mutton 
snet after the removal of the stearine. It resembles stearine, bat 
IB more fusible ; melts at 1 16°. It is a niargarite of glycerine. 

Margaric acid, C^H^O' + 2H0, resembles the stearic, bat is 
more solnbie in alcohol. Melts at 140°, and has one more eqoira- 
lent of oxygen. It is obtained from margarine by saponificBtion. 



Otriifr m»y be cliUiinpiJ from paper, by which It hiw heei. »b 
■orbed in preparing mnrgnrtiK ; kIso hy filterin); Ibe flxed oils nt 
tlic fi«esiiig icmperstarc. Iti-scmblt* oil in appearance, color)e» 
when parc^ mai congtol* at 30' F. ; iolubl* in boilinff nieohol so 
ether; ioMluble in water. Il itt an oleaU of glycvrint. 

Oleic aeid, CtfO' -f 2110, la procured alio by the KUpoiiiflcfi 
iJoo of oleiu, which It resciublu very macli. It U void or color, 
Ugbier than water, hoa acid properties, and [« itoluble io alcohol. 

ff/ycrnnr. CFI'tt", or C'H'O' + HO, the ln«c common to nil 
TaU ; obtained b; fortntng an in«olulit<! aoap with olive oil, oxidu 
of lead, and water. Tito oleo-iajirKuraie or the oxide of lead it 
foraed fleiid- plaster), and la prccij.iiaied, while the gljcerine re- 
Ol^ns io tolutioD, from which it ma; be obtained by evaporation in 
ncvo; void of color when pure, viscid, sp. gr. 127, swculith 
taUe, lolabic in water, and is converted by nitric acid into oxalic 
■cid. It is said to bo a hydralcd oxide of a hypollictical baso 
called gljfceriir. Thus; — Glyccrilu. C'U' ; oxide of glyccHIo, 
CU'O*; glycerine, the hydratcd oxide of glycorile, C*irO*-l- 110. 

Acroline. C*jr(/, may be obtsioed by the destructive dintillation 
9tUtM, in ft gMeons form, which, when condcnacd, forms a volatile 
poiKHioiis liquid. 

Buiyric, caprie, and caproic ueiAn arc fonrtd in batter. In addi* 
lion to Iha other iagredienl* found in ful*. 

iriLT w analognuii to falit ; tt i« conipoxud of cerine, which Ja 
•nlulile in alcohol and watrr, and will form loap ; and of tnyrieene, 
which il iiuotnble in watj;r and alcohol, and will furm a soap. 

Where are votatil^ or ttnt-nlial mis found ? lu aromatic plants, 
from which they arc obtained by distillation. 

They will not leave a frreiuy xpot or ataio, arc converted into 
lapor at slight ekvalions of the temperature, colorlcai when pure, 
poworful odor, pongent burning taste, du not sapontl^, wbeD ex- 
posed to the air absorb oxygen, and are converted Into resins, and 
lh«y alao depotit a cryttalllue natter called stearoplen, when 
Uanding none lime. Th«y havg been divided into ihuio which 
cootoiu oxygeu, and tboae baviug solphor and aitroycu in their 



What in llie fn^am of larlar of Ihi! .tbojiti * |i is the fiiVartroftr 
of polaxna : in an im[iur« Mate known by ibu nnni« of larlar. or 
argol. it is founi) encrnsted on ilie Btiieii und bottom of wine pmIcc ; 
beli)^ lDSDlnbl« in alcohol, it is depostli^ as alcolml Is formed dii> 
riiiff the finoiiB fcrracntntion ; formnia, KO.UO.C'H C*. 

Tartrate of pnlafM, aKO.C'lI'O"' ; or tolubU tartar, ^r- 
traie of pitlama and wda, or SuchrUe tall, KO,NaO,C'H'0'» + 

\Vli«n; i» lie-nzaic acid found ? In gnm benxoin, atoriix, boJaua 
of I'cru, Totu. &c. ; also In the urine of tli« caw nnd of diildrcn. 
It in frcncrallj procured IVom gum beiiEoln ; formula, IIO.C'H'O'. 

Wli«rf is Meconic add found ? Il la found only in opium com- 
bincd with morpliia. It h linown hj forminff wilh tJi« Mtquiutlit 
of iron a blood-rcd color, whicb rendcra it valuable as a test for 
opiura; formula, SHO.ChHOi,, 

Wbere Is tannic acid, or Tannin, found T In tlie eiccreBC«nec« 
of th« oak, called gnll nuts, in the bnrk of most trees, in kitio, 
catecliu. itie tea plant, sutnacb, ura ursi, and in aatringciil planU 
generally ; it is the principal cause of asiringoncy in regetsbles. 

What are ilio prrjpertirg of tannic acid ? It is colorless, inodor- 
ous, has an astringent tnstc, no bitterness, and may be hepl in ibe 
solid stale. It is goluhlc. reildi'ni' lilmuR, nnd dccomposea tb« rsr- 
bouaies. It striken a. dcc-p-bluit prrdpitiitc with the urnqni-Mlts of 
Iron, but not with tlic proto-snlt*. wliich iliKlingnishcs it from all 
Other substances except gnllii- nciii, nml from this it may be distin- 
guished by yielding, with a soluiiou of gelatin, a white, Uaky pre- 
cipitate, solnltir in a coluiion of gelatin, but iiiKoluMc in water and 
g«llic acid. Tilts compound of tannic acid amt Rclatin, called 
lanno-ffelahn, Is the basis of leather ; fonnula, 3!10,C"H'0*. 

Where is Gallic acid found ? In most substances wlilcb contain 
tannic aeid. and is probably developed by the osldalion of that 
•eld. It does not precipitnlc gelatin or the salts of tbe regetable 
alkalies; formnlB. SHO.CJIO*. 

HoiT is tlie Succinic neid obtained ? By bcDtitig powdered 
amber in a rrlort ; formula. SIIO.O'H'O*. 




Omamc Salt Bases, ob TcarrABUc AutALm. 

Wbnt iit nndprftood bv TFg:?!!^)!^ nlkftHnf They are thoae 
prusimitte vcgHablc principles wliic-h pousess ntkaliae propcrlics. 
Tbej all voiitaiii iiitrofrcii, arc drcoinpoMd bj n nodtrate bout, 
wd are but sliRbllj itutublu iu wuUr. 

What IH tlieir cvmponition t CurWii, bjdrofcen (in fouler pro< 
portioD ttisD lo fonu vaier), niirofreii, and oxjrj^vn ; and Ihej 
d«<ivs rxUt ill corobiiinlion uiili au acid. 

How BIT thpy |[tn«riilly procured T Tbe snbataiice containing 
tbc alkalitic iiriiicipk is digvElcd or mRcerated in a \utft quantity 
of irntcr tu di^Mkc t)ic rail, or wbicb the alkali is the base. Then 
tdil a |>owcrrDl HililiuUv bn^c. which unites with the acid, the alku- 
due base )f Kct at tilicrtj, may tic collected on a filler, pnriGed I y 
•ulntion in boiling alcohol, and ctaporated to dryness. 

Wliat art some of the nont promiucnt tcgctablc nlkalioeF— 

' '" \ eoinpoiilioD not kno«o. 


MorpMa ....- __ _ „ f»n*SO* 

f«d«U _ ,.._.^ C»U»KO» 

.\«re..Ho» _„ __ „ _.. 01^ "SO" 

CwwU M-.~..- ~ — - CHt.V 

ItUotia _„„. .,. „..- — „, „.. „.,.„..„ ... „„...,.... C>'II«N 

(>>!■!■ „.....,„„.„,..,. „„,„ .„.„. C*>ll"SO* 

Clncbwia... - .._ _ „._„ Cll i^NO 

ArteiM C:»H"NO» 

StTjehnia .,....,..„,..„ ,_.~ _,.._... Oil }P0 

BnuU «.» »».. C«n M>0* 

Vmiirla _....-_ _- - - CH-Sy* 


Cmllem \ 

n»la I 

T**ebn»«in_.™ C«"S«0« 

.. r«n>N>o* 


Where la Morphia. C"H">"0'. found in namre T It ia the medi- 
cinal afreiit of opium, in which it is combined with moconio and 

.l)ibnric aeidit, and other foreign roattera. 

\* hat are tli« proprrlief of mori)liia J Colorless crystals of a 
brilliant lurtn-. and in inr^Ur. nix-sided priKmit, may he obtained 
ftoia thr alcvliotic aolDtioii. It U insoluble in cold, and (lightly 



ITow U ether proiwri-d ? Itv liealini; the sironi^ iHdi wltli 
alcohol ; ihi' itlffureiit kiiiOit are dUtinpilnhed bj the name of lh« 
ociila iiceil 111 their |)ivpiiratJori. 

K'her cuntutrii C'H'O ; iti reference lo Heidi, It rwemWea a b«SB, 
vhivh lin.t liecn «u|>iWMfI lo lie the oxide of a metallotd or hrpo- 
tbeitnal nidicBt. culled tthiffe. an>lofrotiB to cyanogen ond kakodyle. 

Eihylc. iTtnbol Ac. CH". Glide of elhyle; ether. C'H'O. 
Hydnile of tli« oxide of ethtle ; alcohol. C'H'O + HO. Con- 
eiderinn rlhitr to he mi oxide of elhyle, It la fonnd to be capable 
of iiniiitiff vflih oxy-uelrls, and fonnfii;- with ihem salw ; while the 
hnloirnn t)0(liet unite directly with tliu radical >a tbey do with me- 
tulUv bodies. 


How ia chloroform obtAined f By distillltig alcohol with chlo- 
ride of lime, or bleaebing powders. 

Wlitit arc its properliet 1 II ia a colorkaa, transparent It<iuid \ 
»p. (IT, 1 48, of the Tflpor 41 99. It is not combiiatible ; lUropor 
it decomposed at red heat; it ia insoluble in valer, but la reatliij 
Id alcohol and ether. Formtil*. C'JICf, or FbCP. 

CoLottiKO Mattebs. 


What arc the prevailing color* of rogetableaT Sed, t/rtlow, 
blue, and iirfrn, or their mixlurrg. 

Does fogelable culorliifc matter oecnr in an inaulaled Ktstef 
No; it i» alwnjit nltnched to some proximate principle, inch as 
mucilnpinoii*. cxtru(;tive, or resinonn inibatnnces. by wlilch j|« pro- 
iiertics an- jnllufiiced. 

It i^ Ki-nffully decompo§ed by the combined agency of the ann'* 
rays, and a moial aloioaphere ; and all of them are destroyed by 

What 18 meant by lalv»f They are insotuble compooud* 
fonnrd by voloHuK matter with some of the metallic oxidM. 

What ia meant by thu term Tnordanl. or banat It i« a aubetenca 
having an afliiiity both for the coloring matter, and tfao artiot* to 

"polorcd ; which, by combining with o»ch »t the iittme t;in«, 
caiiMt ibv life to be prniianrnt. 

IThoee coloring lubstftnccx which ndhcro to the cloth without • 
iMcia. are railed MubiHantive colon, and tbotc which require ft 
buis, odjeditM colore. 
What snhslaiiccs produce the htuit rfi/M? [njiijo. 
What Ibc rcdf Cixhincal, lac, archil, madder, hraat'Wood, 
logwood, and M.^iD«r. 

The tfr HoK-f Qum-ilrt/n bark, turmeric, wild Ammcan 
hictori/, J'titlw, and foffri^n ; nil nt which nru ndjcclive colore. 

The blocks The uim« ingrvdienU a> writing ink; and ffl, 
therefore, cstcntiolljr aride of iroit with galtio add and tannin. 



What arc the artlclN belonging to this cinse f Vf^Habh albif 
wm, fjliUcH, yetat, anpara^in, bangorin, cathartia, /ungin, 
mibmn, utmin, tupulin, inulin, medullin, piperin, oHvitf, aar- 
tocoU, rAutarfcorin, rhapotiticin, coheyxlin, berberin, biyonin, 
yfntiaHin, lanthopicrin, teittitin, teneffiit, saponin, arthanulin, 
plumbayin, Moropht/le, tanygdalinf aalicin, poputiri, vuconxn, 
eolumbin, tlalin, nnapifin, &c. 




Spostaxxocs caANOEa op Veoetablk Mattkr. 

Wltat is Fvrmentationt It is ceriflin spontaneoua changes] 
»bich »eE«lnble ^abfilancea undergo when the vital prlhciple 
extinvt. It 1h divided into fonr distinct kinds, viz : ihe eaixfiarine^' 
tinou*, atvlout, and pulrefactioe. 

What suhstancen nndcrgo the raccharine /emi^nlaiion f Starch 
b the only one known to he Bolyecl lo this fermentation, which 
take* plac« wlwn it is kept in a moist stale fur iionie time ; and 
Mgnr equal to half Ihe weight of llie starch emjiloyed is formed. 

WhAl circumstances arc ncccssnry to the vinout /ermentationt 
The presence of tugnr, ww/cr, ^«as(. or some fervi^.nt, and a 
epnala tempfrolurr.. Tlie chnnges which tnl^o place are ihe dis> 
appearance of sugar, the formation of alcohol, and ihe escape of 
eaibotiic acid gas. 
85 • 



Under what dimnHtanoM does tho ocfious /ermtntatio* take 
plnco ? When a liquid vrhich has «nd«rgoi)e tbo viiious r«rmeiiU- 
tion is mixad vrith fanst, and eipoced to tb« open air. In thia 
procMd uxygun in alHorlt^il, nnd carbonic acid gu* i* diten^nged. 

Whiii iri re; II nil Uncos nrc nocwwury to ihc putrfjadim /erm»nia- 
ttonl Tilt autOinpBiivitig dri;um.-'taiiciM wliiuh cjialilit (liiK procvu 
to tnkf place, urc nioi^tun:, air, nnd a ourlain iL-mpcmlur*! ; Iha 
DioHt Tiivorable U-mpenituru in betwren 60 uud 100 dtr^roca. 

Tliu priiidptil producu are walor, tight varburcllvd hydrofrrii, 
enrlionic ni'iij, and, nlien nilniKuti ii> pre»uiit, ammonia. Tba 
Holid rvmuiriA ari.' chiircual, ouuibiuud with uxjrj^en and bydrugCD. 


What coiidltSooa are necessary to gcnnlaation ? Moitliirv, a 
certain lemperalurt, am) uryyen ga» 7 Light, which is foTorabla 
to the subsequent stages of regetatJoD, la ii^uriMU to gcnuiiiotton. 


What is meant by prtmmate animal princlpl** J TTwy are di»- 
tloet componniU drrivcd Trnni ibo boilies of aninials, 

Uow arc th«y dtnlini/uijihril TroiD Tt^gciable matttrf By the 
prespiico of nitrogen, tbrir Kirong tcnUcncjr to pntrcfjr, and the 
offi'iisivc prudiicbi o( piiirpfnclion. Some v<-g<T(«ble prinriptv* 
contain nilrogi.'n. but ihry du not putriify rrndily. 

What nrt the mnenlial cnnMitvrnU of animal compoandif 
Carbiin, OTijyfn, hydroijfn, nnd nitr»ijen; hnid«. tome of ihcm 
contnia iihofphomt, iiulphur, tnirt, earlhy, and taltnt malUrt. 

Wliiit I'fTi-cl huA heal upon iheta wlirn upplu-d in a clow vta»«l f 
Thpy yitlil mater, carbonic oxide. carbartUed /lydm^eu, atrbon- 
al« and hyilroeyanale of ammonia, n fetid, tliiek oil, and carbon' 
arrou* maitrr, whlcb is a poucrrul dei:olori)tinf{ ug«nt. 

Wliut is the principle of the mode of aiialyiinf/ aiiiiiMl and 
vegUaUe.eubstnncee r It is to coQFcrt the whole of the rstiion 
cjnielncil inio carbonic acid, and the hydrogen into waler. 

What is nndersiood bj protein compounda t SubMaocea which 
coTiliiin p'trfft" ; ihe principal onesarealbumeu, Pt"+S'P; ihritt, 
Pt" + SP ; and cnscin. Pt" + S. 



Priitrin. Cn^IfO" + P + S. 5]rmho] Pt. It mnjW ohtniiM-d 
by dUsulvirig 1ioitir« in which it is (;ont:iiii(;d, in Mustic nlkoli, onii 
Uien nclOiii)^ an exccM of add (the acclic imaallj') ; b tTiOw-whit« 
preH|iitaie in thrown down, whidi in jirotein. Il i* lantcleH, 
Wolubte in water and nlcohol, but Holuhlc in acetic acid, and in 
<olui(ons or the atkalleii. It act« both u^ an acid uiid a ba*e. 

now are animal products diTliled T Ul. Into those which ara 
■niiber acid nor oleugfnoui ; 3d, the aeida ; aud, 3d, the oils and 

What substances are included In the first division f Fibrin, 
albDmen, caiein, gelatin, urea, nx^ttr of milk, and sugar of diabetea. 

In what does Fibrin, Pi''4-6P, exiuf In muiclc, chyle, aud 
Wood. It is solid, white, liiil|>(d, and Inodorous. 

Where is Albumen. Pt"'+S'P, found ? In the white of eggs, 
and in th« Kenini of the blood. 

What are the properties of albumen f It la preclpttnted by 
O0rro«ire aubliinatc, which is Its host test; and it la coagulated by 
beat, nicohni, and ihe stronger acids. 

Where is Oefalin found T In the skin, cartilngeti, mcmbranrt, 
■ad linnes. 

What ore iU prapnrtM^J It is readily solnblc In water, and 
Ibrmi a Jelly when cool ; it ift known in commerce by the name of 
glae; tannic Bcid fi itx appropriate texL 

Where In Vva found T It i.i proi-iirrd from fresh urine. 

Where i* Pi-psin found ? Cnllfd ul.^u gaxttragf, anil exists in 
tbe epilhellal n\U of the mucont meiubrantt of the siomDch. It i» 
tmtid Id the gastric juice, held in solution by the acids of the 
UOOMch. It may be uhiaitied by di»i«ulving the mucous membrane 
«f the stomach in acidulated water, and adding a subacctate of 
lead ; the iwpain is pracipltated with lead and albumen ; the lead 
nay be removed by mlphuretted hydrogen, and the albumen by 
jeat, leavin; the pepalo. 

What are llie proximale principles of animal oils f The sftme 
n are funned in the T^elable. 

What circurastanoes are nece^ary lo the piilrr/action of animal 
aiib>l«uc«s ? Water, air, and a certain lempfralarr. 

What are the products of putrefnclion f llWirr, ammonia, 
rarftonrc anil aretic adds, carbvretkd and sulpliurrJled hydrxtgcn, 
aufl pliotphurrttfd hydrogen in some cases. 





By what process dft you analyice a f^aaooua mLUure containing 
nxyyent IiitrotJuce into the miittire a qnanliiy of liydrogen, 
more than xnfficic^nt to tialiinite tlio oxygc^ii [ircmint, carvriiUy mcji- 
Aure the whole, pas* ati iili^i'tric Kpnrk througih it, of iiilroduL'n ioto 
It a piece of Kjion^y |ilatitiiim, and note l.he diinirmtion ; ditldu the 
diminution by llirec, and you liave the (quantity of oxygen origi- 
nally !u tlie mixture. 

What h the proccits wben the quantity of nitro^m is to be de- 
teniiiiied ? The ineihod iti to witlidraw all other gaiteout ubKtuicea 
Willi whii-h U h lui.xed. 

What it ihc mode of determining the quantity of carbonic acid 
in gatcou* mixlur?^ f liy ngilating the mixture with lime-water, 
or a noliilion of eaii^lic potimxa, and noting the dvficicney. 

What i.t ihi- mode of drtcrmininit the tiunntity of ktidrogcn f By 
raiiKiii)! il to comliine with oxyiteu by the electric itparic, or plati- 
nnm. Tlie princijile i.i the name for the inflammable gajtett, chlorine 
heing nvod for tiome of them inuiead of oxygen. 

Whut i» (he general mode pursued In the analysitt of oryanio 
ooriitfJ It ia to present oxygen to the orgnnii- body and npi^y 
ht«t ; the carbon is thuii converted Into carbonic acid, and it« hy- 
drogen into water ; when nitrogen in prcKent ammonia Ik formed. 
Tiic best inenn» of Hupplyiug ihe oxygen is by means of the block 
oxide of copper. 
























A nan Id 





























( i'liprurn) 

II -Q 

















































21 -S6 


( Pcmm) 






( Nfttrium) 






























Titanium * 



( H jdnrgpiUD) 































What »re Pm«on»? Tlwy are subiitaiitcs, which, when )nt«- 
doccd into the animal ecouoniy b; any means, a«t In a noxious 
manner on the viial propenioa or texture of organs. 

An poisons Bimilnr in ihcir nclion f >'o ; «bcIi oue produces 
nympioiM Mmewhnt peculiar to itsoir; allhoufrh poisons of a par- 
ticular class may resemble each other very much in their cfeets. 

Uow many kinds of antidotes are there 7 Two ; one dcstroya 
the detcierioas qualities of poisons, by a change of conipooition, 
btfont ita injurious action is developed ; nml the other controls the 
poitoDoiii action oftcr it has been cttnbliKhed. The former \* at 
fTcat consequence ; the latter of lint very lillle, if con»iJi;red ns n 
•pccilic antidot*. independent of the genc-rul condition of ihc vy»tcm. 

What other means arr reported to ? Eracuatton of the itomoch, 
cithtr by nn oioetic:. or Mumneh-pumji. u'hvn taken inteniully ; and 
by excision, or the application of a. cupping-glass, if applied estor- 


What ore the poisonous acids ? The Acetic, CUric, Muriatic, 
Ifiinc, Sulphttric, Tartaric, Oxalic, and Pruesic. 

Wbal are the ayinptoma prodoeed by them T With the excep- 
tion of the prusiic, they are (generally strong corrosive poisons; 
producing a burning heut in the mouth, throat, (esophagus, and 
atoiiiach; acute pain, eructations, nansea, biccongli, Tomiting, 
teodeniees of the abdomen, coldness of the surface and extrtiultles, 
depTMsed pulse, horrible contortions, exces.siTe thirst ; and, whuo 
taken In lar^e quantities, a fktal termfnation. 

SO taoij 





What is the treatmentf Ttm alkalire, nlknlinc curths, and ihm 
cBrboiiates, as antidotea for all the acids except the nitric bd<J 
oxalic ; and for these magiiesia and lime onlj, cr their carbonatK, 
An to be used. Lime in some form or other, as in chalk, or in 
plutoriiig on the wall. Is geocrally the nearest at hand, and shonld 
b9 tttpd in an emergency. To obviate the effects of the poison ns* 
miieilnginous dn'olis, olive or almond oil in large qunatililtcs, 
V til Hi cut fomentations, and clfstors. 

In nhnt forms doesprusxtc acid exist, in which it ntAy be taken 
into the Bystem f That of pruesic or hydrwyanic acid, oil of 
biUer almondu, and laurct water. 

Wliat nrc tlie i>ifv\ji[ojn»f It is a sedative poi»on, and is lo 
rui>id in it* actiou lliM it is seldom treated b;a phTsicinn. Yfhta 
it it not nt once faUl, the (jmiptoios are fuddvn lou of Muse. 
triitmiM, diflii.-nlt, and rattling respiration, coldncu of th* exlrcnii- 
ties, ■ Hmcll of bitter ulmoiitls proccediog from tb« nioutii, ssiall 
pulse, swclliiig of the neck, itnmobilitjr of tho pupils, sonuiUniM 
ooiilructod, Olid at others dilated, convuluons, Ac. 

What is the ireaitneni t The antidotes are ammonia, cold affu- 
sion, nrtilinnl respiration, and Smith's antidote, trbicb CMUieta la 
administering > solation of carbonate of potub, followed by a 
dilute solution of old sulphate of iron, bj vrkioh PniKsiaa bin* ii 
formed, a compound not poieonoiis. 

What are the le»te for the acids 7 SuIpAurt'c octd ia precipi- 
tated bj aty salt of baryta, and the precipitate is fniolubte in 
Eiiric acid. 

Muriatic gtveB a white precipitate with the nitrate of gilwtr, 
wbicli turns black by exposure to Ht;ht 

Nitric gives orange-colored faoiea when pnt on copptr, and dia- 
AoWea gold when mixed with mariatlc acid. 

Acetic gives the odor of rinegar. 

Cili-ic blackens when heated. 

Tartaric precipitates crystals with a solution of potas»t 
Oxalic givw a white precipitate with lime-water, 

Alkalikb and tubix Salts. 

Wbat articlM ar« included under this head T .Ammonia, and 
Muriate of Ammonia i Potatna, cautlic utd the U({wr poiat^tp ; 



tli« caricnate, th« nilraif, or taUpetre; &nd tbe sulphurel, or 
Uixr of tulpliur : auit Soiia. 

Wlwl are the symploms produced by a poUonoas doso of these 
3rlicl«s]' Omtt heat in the tliroat, difflcull and painful degluU- 
tloa, romltinii; of bloody UAttcr, acute pain in the giomach. cold 
HVTFKti, weaknesi, hiccough, colic pidni, bloody sinols, coiiv-alBloiis, 
and d«ath : when nitrate at potaKli lin.t been taken, tliere are aUo 
internal riguni. Tlie citrbonatM will elTefvc-i^e with acidH, and tbe 
Ur«r of anlpbur will cuuae uructatioim of unlphuretted liydrogca. 

What la ili« IreeUmnntt Vegetable acida, as vinej^ur, lemon- 
jnlce, ix., neatrnliie the alknl!«:i and their carbonule.t : the fixed 
olU will fonu »oui>ii with them, and deiitroy their couaiic clTucta. 

Wli4:n nitrate of polui^h hiu been taken, an emetic vhoald be 
^rcB, aiid tl)e cffeet« ihould be combated by a nlii)h logistics. Com- 
mad salt and liquid chloride of soda will docompo»c the lircr of 

What are tbe irM»f The nlkulit* are known by tlieir action on 
turmeric paper ; and by rcuitoring the eolor of litmus, which baa 
been reddriic-d hr an arid. 

Carfionalff by their effurrescencc with an acid ; the mnrlatc of 
ammonia by giving out fumeH of ammonia when mixed with quick- 

Kilmle <tfpota$»a deerep!tate.i, and deQagralcs when thrown oa 
bol coals. 

liitxr 0/ »u!jAur cmlta anlphuretted hydrogen when diioolved 
with u wid. 


Carbonatt, Muriate, and NUrtUe. 

WhAt ar« the lymplomnf Violont vomiting, burning la the 
ttonuh, iMirging, exhaustion, oonvaUionx. and death. 

WimiisOittrttttmejUt Dilute sulphuric acid and the soluble 
nlpbates are nntidotes, conrcrling them into an insoluble sulphate 
of baryta, Emetics should also bo given. 

What are the leatal A solnble sulphate gives a white preclpl* 
tate, iu&oluble in any of the acids. 



What are tbe tymptomst II \a a pare Erritftnt. 
Wbai h tliG ]>roiier In^cUmifnlT Diluto auidii or oils. It givea 
> precipitnle with oxulic aiid curbonic Kcida. 


Whmt AK i\\e Ht/mpt'tmtt Intoxivntfon, complete inscDHibility, 
ipoplpxy, pnralysiR, nwoltun Tucc, and a wncll of liquor in the 

■What ii th« irialmrnti RmeticR, the etomach-pnmp, if the 
patient cannot HH-nllnw ; thn coM iliuh will answer a good purpooe ; 
and bloodletting:, if nccMsary. Khonid he rpBorted to. Acetate of 
ammoniii fp/itn'tfis ^/j'nrfi-rfirij will relieve inlozlcatJOD ; and the 
iiihaUtioti of gaKeoQR Btnmonia sngwcrs the same purpose. 


Creosote. Dipprl'g Animal Oil, Oil of Tar, Oil of Tobacco, Oil 
of 7'urj>etiline. Fitsel Oil, £c. 

What are the symplomat Banilng pain, vomlttng, pnnfrcot 
tntite, purging, tic Turpentine and tobacco aCTeet the ttervoui 
sy;*t(.-m : the peculiar odor of each will Berv« to detect them in the 
matter romlced. 

What i« tlie trrahiwnt f Albnmon for the creasote ; dllote adds 
and liwd oiln will coutiterairl Dippel'* animal utl : the otlien harit 
DO particular antidote, but must be treated on general principles. 

The odors of these Eubstanccs afford the bcKl tc*U. 



Whiit arc the ni/mptomii iifhtfn inhaled? Violent irritation of 
the orgnns of ri'Ki>iralii)n. bloody expectoration, inflamntaUon, and 
permsnent pnlnionnry dinvuto- 

Whflt ia ihe (fetUinrnt t We have no antidotos. Tlic effects to 

be treale<] on general principles. It is recognisad by its bleaching 

perty, and peculiar odor 


potsoKi. M5 


Iodide of rotoftium. 

fTbal are the symplamsl Burn!n|f pain In the throat. lai^ftrBlinf; 
palii in th« Monuh, fniltlcei c(r»ri-i to voiult, lulTuiion of the eyus, 
BiiJ )>pin and [endenww of lli« epif.'iiiitrium. 

What f( Ibo Irralmenlt 8tarc)i, or anything contnininf it, in 
the aniMotc for igdiM. Ii>dt<!u of potaKslum lias oo antidote, and 
our only rcliann: i« in prompt cmcsis. Inflammatiun should bo 
nbdacd bjr gMictal treatnionU 

What ar« the feiita fur iodine f Starch fonnx u bluu precipiinte. 
Iodide of potaMiam (lirta a L-rj^tallino prucipliatv with lurtario 
add, and th« rcnnlning liquid a blue color with Ktarcta, 


What are the aymptowat Most Ttoteot burning pain in the 
tncta and sloinach, with difficaltj of brcathinic ; which are soon 
followed hf collapse and death. Wlieii applied eilcroally, it> baa % 
corrotive action. 

What Id ibc Irealment f Acetate of lend is Ibc antidolo ; albn- 
ncD or Ntarch tbouM be fivt^ty adriiini.itcrcd ) and the intiainmnlign 
ii to be treated on Kcnvral pHnciplCK. 

Wliat an tli« fcmls 1 It is dtvplncud from its componndR by chto- 
tlDB, and i* known bj ita color and odor. 



Tartar Kmeiic, Muriate or Butter of Antimony. 

kWluit are the rff'tiin as a poison? A sercre meinllic tn-it*, 
tanaca, copious Tomitinfr, hiccouch, Imminf; pain In the stonioch, 
ulic, frequent stools nnd teiwMuus, dilUc-ult resplrntion, fatntinfi;, 
•luU (|niclc |>uIm, cold skin, loss of senite, erniups, prostration, and 

What is th« Irtatmtrnl f It eincsis docs not take plai^, it ihould 
' promoUtd by licklini; thn tliraot, and diluMit drinks ; antidote* 
2$' u 


(hmiM ho ndmlDlelFred ; amoDK wlikli stp decoction of gnlts, Pem* 
viiiii liiirk, common lea, kc If lUe Tomiling is excewiro, giTo 
Inudnnum nnd wariu brandy; aiid applj' revtilslvts freely; the con- 
Keciitivu trcMtmont tiliould be adapted to the coiiditiou of the dia- 
ca« eximing. 

Wliftl are that/rtUf Solphureted liydropen forms an oninge- 
c«lori:d |in-(;i|iituU- vtiiU ihe solutions of antimony. 

Free nlkuHw jirodiice wliiie prueipiiaies. !u tts solid forms th«r» 
arc while fumes when heated, wliicli redden liimiis. 


Arscnioia Add, or While Artcttic., or Tetloie Sti/ 
phiiret of Areenic. King'» Ytlhw. RM SuljAurtt. Fly 
Powder. Fbwler't Sohition. Argcnicat /Wc. ArKtical 
Soap. Amenite 0/ Copper, or Scheele't Green. 

What arc the fympUnml The different preparations arc nil 
(ioleiitly poisfinouB, whether applied iuccraally or extem«lly. The 
Hymptoins are an Bustcro tMte, hawking, eonsiriclion of ilie Ibroat, 
hiccough. nniiscA, nnxictj, freqnent siiiliinga, pain at the preeordia. 
vomiting, blnuk fetid stools, (reqnenl irregular pnlse, insatiable 
tliirsl, delirium, conruUions, tou of feeling, especially of the feet 
and hnndo. nnd death, 

VVliulnre the uiiunl ■morbid appearances alYcr death! loflam- 
mntioii uf the month, stomach, nnd intestines; spots resembling 
cKehart on the ftumaeh and duodenum ; perforuilonK of tlwlr coats ; 
and th<; villons cont of the stomach is reduced to the coumtcflce 
of a reddiiih-lironn pnlp. 

What is the Irealmenlf Before tlw antidote can usaally be 
proenri-d, the poison shoidd be dislodged by ad eioetic of sulphate 
of tine or copper, ticUing the throut, Ac., or by the stomach- (tump. 
Deinnleents should be freely given, both before nnd after romiiing. 
As an antidote in all cases for the puiiionou* compound* of arsenic, 
the liydratcd «r^qnioxide of iron, in a mof»t »r pulpy state, sfaoald 
be given as soon as {lOKuble, in doses of a tablespoonful to an 
adiili, of a dcisertspoonful to cliildrcn, every five or ten mdiutee, 
until nrgcnt symptoni» nre relieved. The after symptoms sbould 
be combated on general principles. 

Tbe hydrated sesquioxide uf iron it the antidote tDoat eomnoalj 





relied on fo cesee of polsonfnc by anciiic ; nnil tlie formalA fur iti 
prepar&liou ia given lielow. Evcrj- npolhucitrjr and counlry pliy- 
ncJM &boiild keep il always on liaiid. 

STukATSD rinoxiiiK or ikox. 

K> — Rolpliarie MitI (07" Baumi), 8 oi. ttl part*. 
Iron win. Sol 10 •• 

NilHo atii (40° DaaiDd), 6) ot. II " 
Vfttor of ■unonia, ^ >. 

Water. IJ g«1. 88* " 

Mix the Biilphuric odd with the watirr in a priass vesKel; tben 
odd tlio iron ; and aft^r ibe tlTerveiieeiii-p ha* eunncil. riltcr. Add 
lli« nitric add Iti divided portioiii, urid up|ily heut no loii^ lu 
orange-colored funiM are i;iven off. To the liculvd noluUoii, pour 
iu the water of amnioiila until a decided excesv has been added; 
Ibea wa.«li itie preulpiiale by deciintutioii ntilil llie wnxlilnfc* prive 
DO |ireL-i))iiate with niirale ot baryta. The watiT is llicn to be 
drawn off until Juxl enough rcnmiiiK to give ibe couMttence of tliick 
CreaiB. Il ithoutil tWn be kept in boUleit of conrenicnt kIzc for 
Me, mid )iivrn a« iibove when repaired. 

If tiK hydrate is not at hnml, tmc tlic pri'cipllnted hydrntc of 
■agoeifia or carbonate of iron. dtlTuKed throiijrli water in Ilic same 
■Bit Iter. 

C«)ciBed ma^ncEia Um niKO ri-cenlty bi-cn uwA an an nnlidolo 
»ith good effect, Tlic bydmie of mn^nei^ia may be prepared bv 
adding poiassa to a sotuiion of Epsom salts and washing ibe pro- 
(tpitate with water. 

For tbe le^» of arsenic, see Chemigtry, article " Arsenic" 


Sulphate o/ Copptr. Acetate of Copper. Carbonate of Copper, 
AraenUv of Cojtper ; and from Cooking UfenaiU, Soda Faun- 
taian, Jtc. 

Wlint ar« the tymptomt of poisoning by the snlta of copper ? A 
Cop|wry ta»te, pain in ihi^ head, nnnsea, vomiting, catbajvln, colic, 
ifranip, cotiiuliiioos, inHcneibitity, and death, 

Wlint is the trctitmeiit 1 Albumen, in ifac form of white of eggs, 
eo|>fou» drnntfhlA of warm milk, and brown sugar, or rnolassea, ar* 
tbe li«st antidottt. 



Wbaiare tlit laUf Annonia ^ne a lipht blw precti^tatt, 
rediiMolTcd \ty im excw, tatn^ag a deep blue soluiiou ; r«rroc7«ti- 
Bta of jiotuh, u ric-h claret red ; sulphurotted bjdrogeit, s ctiocobtt 
brown ; nnd & {lolUhed ocedic causes a procipitato of pure copjier 
OD its Burfave. 


Chloride of Qold. FulminaHng Oold. 

Whnl ar« tlie ai/mplomtT Similar to other irrilant poiMni. 

What are tbe anlitfolen f Ma^esia and albumen ; mucilagiuoos 
drinks ilionld also be freely nscd. 

Wbat arc the Itslgy The ehtorido ii readily decomposed hy ihe 
proioealphaie of iron, and the nitrate of tiUcr, and tbc gold sepa- 
rated iu a. metallic »tato. 


Suiphale and Chloride of Iron, 


What are Ihe rymptomt f Irritating, colic pains, Tomlll 
purging, pniii in tlio llironl. tension of the cpigaslrium, cold: 
of thin, nnil fL-elilrness of pnUe. 

Whnt i» l\tclreatmentJ Carbonate of soda !g a (rood antidote; 
and the pnriiculnr tymploms should be relierud by ittcir appropriate 
trcalmeot. Albumen raay ha freely used. 


Atxtale. Carbonate. Rtd Oxide. LHhanfe. Wine* »v»<teiai 
by Lead. From Cooking Ctennla, dxr. 

What are the $<f7nplt>mtt Irritation of the alimentary caiul. 
tpitm, nca'Toni syiu)iioms, pivralysis, either partial or complde, 
conriiUioni, and death. The must common effect U coUca pIcttHiun. 

Whnt is the tmUment ? The soluble sulphate*, aa magnesia, or 
Bodn ; (lilule .<nl|ihiirie neid. which Is also suld to act as a prcren- 
lite ; and the phusphaie of soda. EmelicB of sulphate of lioi) 
alwnld also be used. 

What nru the tei^ii f Tlie •oluhle aalts yield a irbile pr«cipitata 



mlpliMa and cnrhonates in Bolatton. The t-hrnmikti'K and 
iodld* of potassiDai giri; a yellow prccifiitsto. Sulphurvltcd by- 
drogen « blxcb. 


Corroaive BuUimatr. Ci/anurrt of Mercury. Nitrate. Bed 
HfcQnde. SvlphaU. Red Sulphurct, and the White J'rwipUate. 

What ar« Ihv symplomsf An irritnnt ; Imreh, metallic, os- 
triii^etit irutc; banting pniii in the Btomocli; vomiting and purg- 
iiig or bloodf mnUtr; irrilnlion or llic urinnry organs; lightness 
■nd barnitig in the thront ; i-ontitcmnncc pale or flushed ; doalng, 
loimr, CO II vn If ions, and dcnth. 

What is th« Ireatmeniy Allinmcn in some rorm or other, ai 

%Bgii tx-alcn op with wntcr; milk; wheal Hour beaten up with 

««lvr. Carbonate of Koila hoAbcun lucd willi Micccra in poisoning 

with eorrorin sublimate, Tbo inflummaiorj symplous should 

roceire their appropriate treatment. 

What arc the l^ett t I'otasb gives with corrosive subtiinalc a 
ycllowiFb prtvipilnte ; nmtnonia a white; lime-water an orange; 
and (nlpharellcd hydrogen a lilnelc. A solnlion placed on gold, 
and toochcd with a knife, produces nu amolgBm of inereuiy and 
gold at the pi>ifll touched. The tiilriite gives a blnek precipitate 
wiib iIm: frte alkalies. Ail the sulid forms of mercury are volniile, 
sail they nuaj also be reduced by healing th«in with charcoal and 
enrbonate ofaoda, and the mercury will bu Kublimi'd. 

^ What an 


Kitrate or Lunar Cauntie. 

What are tbe t^iptomat The usual effects of the corroaive 

What i* the trratmmlf Common »nH is the proper aniidolc. 
Mucila^noui driiikKubould be freely given, so as to produce rotnit- 
in/g. Consecutive inflanimaiions should bo treated according to 

' titdivatioiiB 

What are the tetlsf Chloride of «odinm gives a white precipi- 
tate, insoluble in nitric acid; ammonia, u gray precipitate, which 



in riMJiuoW^d by ad excess of ammonia ; ADd » jellaw predpIUU 
wlLb pliud]>liaie or ^oda ; the precipitates muy also bo reduced. 


Chloride of Tin. Sotviion iwcrf by Vycrt. Oxide of Tin, 

What sre the proper antidotes tot the salts of tin t Effgs Of milk, 
in large quantiuea. 


Oxide. SHlphale and Ac«UUe ofZtno. 

What are the synip/or;i« } Violent vomttlng ; astrio^f^t l^ste; 
burning pain io tho stomnch ; pale couotenaoce ; cold e.vtrcmilies ; 
ilull fyvs ; Siittcring pulse. Death is a rare result. 

What is the trfolmentl Warm water, carhooste of soda, milk, 
ud albumen. 



What are tho *ymptomE of poisooing by phosphortiB f 
principal one is violent pnto and Irritatiou of the slomach. 

What is the (neo/nic»( t The stomach shoald be evacnatcd, and 
demolcents freely «iniploycd ; but wo have no anUdol«. 

OUAXN, OR Enamkl. 

What are the *i/mp((Mnit? When taken in coaree powder th«y 
prodiiee irrHfttirtu and in 11 animal ion of tho howoU. 

What id tlic tnaimfntl A xnlphalc of sine emetic, Mid dotoiil- 
ccnl drinlu. 


How are the vegetable poiaons divided T Into tbo Irritant, 
Acro-narcotic, and Narcotie. 

Name some of the Irritant Te;;elable poIsoDs. 

JaUtp. Scammony, Croton Ti-jHum, Spurgt, Savin Oil, Hed 
Cedar Oil, Elaterium, Poke, Cuheb», ItanuncuH, Olttmdtr, 
Castor Oil Plant, Qamboge, and 7h>wy. 



Wlwt are the potsououa eff^eHaaf tIi«<s«F An acrid piinfr<^nt 
Us(i>, with more or leas bitterueas, cxcm^to )ic«1, great drynewh 
or Ihc mouth und (hrnat, wiUi & sense of tighlneaB ; violent niid 
contiancd roraStfnfc ; ]>urKing, with great pain in the stomiioh nntl 
boveli ; polu ttrong, rye<|uc»I, aud regular ; hreatliing ofleii quick 
and diDcalt ; appearancea of intoxication ; dttataliou of the pupil ; 
inttnribilitj rcMoabliiig death ; the puUo beootaea alotr nai Iokm 
fU force, and I* followed bj dcatlt. If applied externally, mno} 
of ihom tecicate and iulliune the skin. 

What i* the Ireatmentt If there i* romitfnfr. om lar^v dran^hla 
)f warm wat«r or ihin gniel ; but if other tiTKciil ■iymptonif come 
on dillioiit romiting, it ohuuld be exdted by siilphnht of xinc, or 
tome ulber jtronipt emetic ; purKing iliouM aUo he cxcii«(l when it 
does not exixU After the poUon ba^ been got rid of. girc n Ktrong 
infiiaioa of coffee or dilute vinegar, camphor, or ether, aiid a]>ply 
frictions; blinters may alio be often used properljr. 

The other trealmetit should be npon general priuclplca. y 

Acbo-Nascoiio Poisoxa. 

Name some of them. 

Aconite, JUwihrooms, Truffie*. Dogibane, Arnica, Relladonna, 
'utk«y€, Wormseed, Cieula Ufaculata and Virota, Cocculun In- 
CotchicvM, Coninm. Slramonium. Digitalis, Ergot, BtacI: 
Bellnbon, Ipecacuanha, Camphor, Lobelia inJUtla, Oleendtr, 
TtAacco, Poi»Oi* Vine or Hhus Rhadicang, Sumatk or Poiton 
Oak, Hue, Sanguinaria Canadeneis, Squill, Pinkmot, Ntix 
Vomica, Upat, Dinaatd WhetU, White Hellebore, Disfoted IHaijt. 

The inhalaUoB of chloroform allays ibe spasms produced by nax 
Tomica, or its active principle, atryclinla. 

Harcotio PoiBftirs. |J 

Name aone of them. 

Bitter Almonda and Peach Kemeln, Hyoncynmui Nigtrr and 
Allnu, Lacliica Fintsa, Opi*ttn and ita prarimala principles. 
Poppy, Cherry Laurel, Block Cherry, Wild Cherry, and D\U- 

What ore tli« g«i«nl symptom* of theite polvonaf Stupor, 




nnniliiitsN, hcavines* of lh« Iiead, de^re to vomit, sHfcht at llnil, 
but iiicrcnxtiiK ; ■> »on or intoxlcatloD ; stnpid BJr ; papllK dilated ; 
furioii.i ddiriuni, noinotlmea pain; coovulsions or pals;; imlbiila 
variuble, but at first generall; strong and full: breathinR quick. 
(treat aiixiel; and dejection, cluiniuy skin, cold extremities, iater- 
I'ujiti-d ^npitii; Ktplration, and death unle&a retiered. 

What islhtlrralmfitiiy EvacaatSoii of tlie stomach by the pomp, 
nr itii Hi^tivc! emetic, of which nulphate of lEiic ia lh« best, and ita 
action »lioiiiil be promoted bj the uaaal rneims. After the stomach 
haa been evncuntcd, dilute rlnegar, stimutaiils, sloaplMiia, and Mc- 
UonH ntny be called fur. 

The ))utieiit xhoiild be hted if Decennary ; kept routed aa much 
as poniiblc by cold to the head, cold douche to the face and ch<«t, 
and by the oetion of an electric or electro-nui^iietifl machine, or 
flaf;ellaiiou ; and artlQi-ia) retipinition should aUo he kept up, until 
the fiysteta ean rally. 

If opium prodnces difficulty of breathlnf^, the lidialatinn of tJio 
Tftpor of iralor is attended with benefit; and spirltia Mlndercri ii 
said to prevent the slapor. 

Poison 0178 MuHuaooMS. 

There are five pnUonoaM xpccie*. 

WImt arc the Ktftnptmnn* Nnnsra, heat, pain in the stomach 
■nd boweln, with voniilinf; and purgrinj; ; thirst; convulsions and 
fainting; palMC small and Treipieiit ; delirium; dilated pupils and 
stapor; cold iwuals, and draili. 

What is the Irr.iUmeniJ The rtomnch and howeU should bo 
cvncuated by an emetic, followed by a cntlinrtic and sttmnlaitng 
cIvKlcT. After tlio poiion k cvacnntcd, ether maybe administored 
with small quantities of bmndj and water; hot if Inflnminntory 
symptoms occur, they should be combated with appropriate rume- 

Amual Ouaxcoal ah an Antiuotk roft Poisons. 

This Kubstance has recently been brought forward with consider 
able conRdcnce. an an antidote for poisons, and particularly foi 
the whole claoN of vef;vtiib)i! ])oixons. The conctutioiis, wbieh it ll 
Staled we are justified II admitting, are the folloiriiig:— 






lit That aniiB&l charcoal has the power of withdrawing, when 
iwed M a proper (cnipcraturo and in BufEuieiit qunntily. niotil, if 
not all, knows vpgotal)le and auimiLl poiioiiouii jiriiiciplFS, and 
certain tnioeral poisons from their soluiiona. 

2*1. Tbal, gitCD at the sante lime wiWi, orihortly a/lfr ihcue 
poiwas liAve been swallowed, it prcvoots iheir delelcriouit autioo, 
or acts an antidote. 

3d. That, given in caara of poisoning, it cnn exert no fnJuriouN 
tufla«Dce ; bm, on lh« other hand, pronioleg Tomilliig, entangles 
the poison, and protects iho coats of [he stomach agalnti It. 

4ib. That, although it cannot be subsllluted for tlie uhdbI anti- 
detee for paisotiing by mineral siibslanres, yet It may be usefully 
eioplojed in conjunction with llicm, or in their absence. 

When gireo. il should be mixed with water aa hoi ae «an be 
ivnllowed, as its action is aided by an elevated tempcralure, 

rge cinantUivs with warm water promote emesla. 

Animal charcoal may be prepared by removing the eiirthy ninttcr 
from Ivory black by dilate chlorohydric acid, and aflerwnrds wakU- 
tnjf mod healing to redness in a covered crucible. Thi^, however, 
Il ■ tedious process, and only ten per rent, of pure chiircual i» 
»htalned. A better mode is to calcine Icntber scraps or blood with 
peariasfa, washing and rehe«ting in a close crocihle. It la particu- 
larly necessary thnt a pnr« article should ho used, and, as it may 
be kepi for a long time without deteriorating, it should be prepared 
■o w to lie ready for use by apothecaries and coantry phyxiciaiut. 
Bee Ranking'e Abslracl. No. 13. p. 302. 



h There are twenty or more species. 
Wh*t are the eymplomgl After eating, a weight at the stomach 
comes on, with slight rcrti^, and headache, cerise of bent aboat 
the head nnd eyes, thirst, often an eruption of the iikiii (urticaria), 
and In many cases death. 

What is the Irraimenl f An emetic, qoickly followed by a |>ur- 
gative, thoDid be given. Vinegar diluted may be drunk after tUir 
operatjon. and the body nUo tpongcd with it ; sweetened water 



and nl^o nll{&]In« water hac« been rccoinrnpii<l'?<l t<i.ol>Tmte the 
effeela of Ihe poison. If epasin! occur after lli* crnciinlioiin, give 
laudaDum ; and if inflammation, ndiipt th« Hpproiiriikte ircnimeiit 

P01»0»0tl«( SKILPENT8. 

Of th«c there arc a nnmW r of xpecic*. 

Wlint am the n/mplom)! f A KliArp jmrn at the part hitlen 
u'hii'h soon sprrnilE ovrr the limb or body ; fnaX ivdlinj;! at line 
hard aiitl piilu, iht'D rrdilii'h, livid, and gnngmioiiii in nppi'nraiKe; 
fiiinliti);*, voniilingc, coiivtiUionK, jaundice iiometimn> ; \ml*e i.innl1, 
fri'qnciil, nnd irrcirnlar ; brcalhin^difficiill. ould twentw; (he Mgbt 
fnilii, and the inlellerliial fnculliu are di»<irdcT«d. InfluinninlioB, 
jiufipuralion. and Kiinjirciic. rollowed by death. 

Wlint i* thir hralmriilf Kxriiiion nf ihc part, if it can be done 
eurly ; or dvilroycd by the application of ranttic ; npply a liiruture. 
and cup the wound : aq. aminoniiL' htm been root) m mended as a local 
application to the- vronndMl piirt, and bImo to be taken intenuiltjr. 

The Irealmenl xhoiild lln-u be rci;u1nt<rd by frrnprnl prinripleiL 
Keeping the palieut fntoxicutcd in «onietiiiieH attcud«d >ritli b«iHil 


Spanish or Blielering Fli/; and LyUa Vittaia, or Po<alo Fly. 



^^ What are the nyvjilviiis f A iinuH-oiii odor of the breath ; atrid 

r tnite; buriilnK bctit In the throat, Mo in ach. aud abdomen; TomitinK, 

I often bloody, wllh copious bloody &tools; severe poiii In the 

I ttoiuach : puinful nnd obminute priapUtn, with heat iu the bladder, 

I nnd strangury or retention of arlne; convulsions, delirium, and 


Wliflt is the trea/mentf Toinitin); should be excited by Inrfte 
drnu^liis of swept oil, sugar and water, milk or linseed tea. to 
which may be added ipecac, or sulphate of line. Kmolltenl elys- 
tcre: and if iiiflnmmalion of the organs occurx. we use the appro- 
pn'alc remedies for such a condition. Camphor dissolved iu nil 
m«y h c nibbed orer tlio bellj and ou the thighs. 




TxHouovB Ihbbots. 

W}i*t are (h« ai/niptomal Usually tli«re Is not mnch swelllni; or 
pain ; bnt at other times there are violent s^vrnploms, iiileuBe pain, 
hi^h fevrr and nckneu. 

What is the irealmenlf Hartshorn and oil rubbed on the part: 
Fait and waior is also a good application ; thejr shoald be kept or. 
DDtil pain and swelling are redoced. Bathing the part willi chloro- 
form allays the pain. 

Hartshorn or other diffnsiblo stimalanl^ intemally are often 

SuiVA or TUB Raqid Doo. 

What are the gymplemti At on uncertain period, pain ocean 
In the bitten put, nlthoufch tli« wound muy hare b»led. Anxiety, 
uneniineRit, 1aii(i;aor, spaiins, (rraut diHturbanee, and diBtcult r»pi- 
niion Bucceed ; Haliva (lovm from the mouth ; there is n horror of 
drinkf. and an inability to take them. Tbuxe lymptoms are nil 
aetmivnlrd until death cloaeH the secnc 

Wlinl is the frralmrtttf No Inrntment can bp rolled on after the 
dis'-aw hnii occurred. Ak a ppeveiilive of the fatal lympliini*, llu- 
|<nrt nhould Ik completely L-xcisei), even after it hiLs hfuled, if not 
done before; the part Kbould then be waiihed with warm wnti-r. 
(-aostic applied (o it, followed by a poultice, and the wound healed 
by gTanututioiu. 









Wn*T Is Materia Medical It h Ihst science which treats of 

Whot is Pharmaryt It \» the art of preparing them for nse, 

Whftl I« Tfierap^ulicsJ TherBpeullcs comprlaes die principles 
of medicinal ndminlMnttion, and the indicatioua which articles of 
(he materia medlca are calculated to fulfil. 

What are Uedinnet/ Tliey are mbsiancca capable of pro- 
dDcing n« an ordinary resnlt, and by ilielr own inherent pow«T, 
mrtaio modification* of the vital fanctionw, which rcndur thorn 
appJicoblo to rhe cure of diKCiuc. — Wood. 

What are the otjecls of ottention in the iiliidy of medtcinei T 
Their or^n; modes of collection tnd preparation ; commercial 
hitlory; tentible proper1if» ; chrmicat cnmpogilion and nr/n/ion*. - 
phyinologi<Ml adion and loxolnipral hiflori/; tffectn in difratct 
and the iitdicationa Ihntf are calculated to anexcer in their treat- 
ment) pariicutar applicaliont in ca»cs not falling nndcr nny 
general rule; and doxtft, mode of administralion, and tlic crtnm- 
porvneotM or o^^nat prrpanaioM to which thcj may bo >dI>- 

How ma; theli operation be divided f Into tlieir primary and 
meondary operation. 

In what way may the primary or immodiate influence of mcdi* 
dnea be exened T | 

Ist. By nervous communicalion. 

Sd. By entering the bloodviMele, and acting through the medium 
of the circulation. 

<>1D) , 



3d. By acting exclusively in the neighborhood of their apf^i- 

W but are Ihu lucilioila of |>rininry ogtt^ration ? Uechanieal or 
Phyvicatf Chemical; and I'htftujfiigical, Vital, or IJi/ttamie. 

Hare in«dldnea in tlielr opcrulimi an utliiiity for one pan more 
than anotlier ? They have. SotD« substanuea act oa the clrx-ula- 
tory. DcrvouB, or the absorheol syMem, and from ilie (general dts- 
tribotion of these syatnua tJidr action ajipearj* to l>e general. 
Oiliers act upon the stomacli, bowels, akin, kidneys, lungs, im.; 
the primary action of which in considered tu be local. Tliia diffiBr- 
ence in their mode of action funiishes a basis for their diryon. 

What inlluenccs alTeclinf; ihe syxlem may modify the eclioa of 
medicines 7 Tliey are dieeaiH-., climale, mode 0/ h/c, habit, aye, 
aex, temperament, idiosyneratiet, and mental opertttiont, which 
tboald all be atii^nded to In maklni; preticriptions. 

What (teneral rule is applicable in the dotes of medicines accord- 
ing to ai/et For children under twelve years of a|^ the doses of 
most mediciues should bo diuiluished (n tlie proportion of the age 
to the age increased by li. Thus, at 


2 years to 1-1; vixi 

: 1 -1 : at 4 years, to 1-4, tiz : - 

2 + 12 ■ '-""' " " ■' — "4+ia 

>-l<4 A Ml done to be given at 21 years of age. — Parit' Phar- 

Some medicines, such as castor oil, calomet, Ac., may require 
larger proportional doses, and opiates smaller. 

Disease, by modifying the susceptibility, often requires ns to 
modify the quantity of medicine adniiniBtercd. to produce a given 
effect. Tlic instances of this are numerous, and should be attended 
to in each particular case that may arise. 

Climate, and also gnmmer and winter in different climates, cwm 
medicines to net differently. Narcotics act mot« powerfully in bot 
than in cold climates -, therefore, smaller doMs should be piven ; it 
is the reverse in rvganl to some other nicdioines. 

Sex. Women rc^qniro Ktnnller <\t>*e» than men ; they are more 
rapidly affected by piirgntives tliun men, and tlie condition of tbo 
uterine system should nlwityi be taken into account. 

Temperame}U. Stimnluiil* and ])urguiives more readily affect 
the sanguine than tlio phlegmatic; and, conscqueatly, the doa» 
should be mudlKed. 



HobUa. A kiiuwled^ of tbne !a Impartaiit ; iwrions habiinsted 
'.o ilic uM of Htiinnlanti urn] imn;aii(-!i, require larger doses to affect 
tlicm when diKciucd ; whili; jionoiiH in th« babit of o«iiig uliue 
pargativcs require smaller do«M of tliin olnn to opemto on the 

When opinm is hnbitiinlljr u^ied it rcqaircs lu;gor doses or this 
B/ti<:l«, but Dot or other narcotic*. 

IdiiMi/ncratift. Tlicjic, of counto, onii only b« known by cxpe- 
lieoca vilh rach panicolar individual and article of mvdicino ; but, 
wtien known, it sbonid govern us nccordinf;ly. 

What lA meant by Ibc secondary ejf'^clis of medicinen ? They 
an changM wbicb follow tlie immediate operulion of medScinea, 
ud depend npon certain phy»iolu(;ical laws of the ayitem, which 
\ UodUy the effects of primary actions and cundiiions, and are very 
important in the treatment of disease. Purgation is the )>riiiMT7 , 
operation of a cathartic, and derivation of blood from the Itead by 
depletion and revnUion la a secondary effect 

What are the tnetliod* by which their effects are produced ? By 
the deprv^ton /allowing tzeiiement ; by the reaction fotlowimj 
drprttsion; through Ihe dependence of /tinciion ,' the principle 
of tynpalhi/ or nenrou* lrammi»fion ; the principfe o/ reutilsion 
or derivaiioH ; the efforU of Nature lo repair injuries; and th« 
removal of the caute. 

Whni arc th« methods by which the effect* of medicines can lie 
afccrliiinext ? Throtiqk tlirir urmMbta properliim ; iheir chrmieat 
rf laliona; Iheir botanical affinitin*; bi; VJ^rimenl or observation 
on inferior amniaU ; and by ohixrvation of their rffecls on man. 

What are the mulboda by which mediciiiei operate In the cure of 
dtwwcf By Jt-ptftion, ri^ptetion, dilulion, elimination, ttiviuta- 
tion, atdMion, revtihnan, utiper tension, aUeralion, anti-cauMiion, 
chemicaJ action, and mechanical action.— Wood. 

In what/ormM are medI<Tiriea used ! In potedert, pUU, troche*, 
mttraett, electuarifn, confection*, mirturr^n. toluiion*, decociioM, 
infitaioni, lltinfl*, linrfur^g, trinetjani, tynip*, kuncyn, orymeln, 
UnimenU, cerate*, ointme»l», plaMvn, valaplatiiu, and lut the 
alaleofgiU a>id rapor. 

Powders should be formrd by tlrving the snbxlance. bruising It 
!■ aa bvn mortar, and passing It through a (iere ; and should be 



k«pt ill w I? 11 -closed vessels. Medicines Uiat arc iiol rery bttlk^r or 
dutii^'iei-uUU', niid thai ure not corroiive, are nciven in ihin wny. 

Pilt is one of Ui« moat convenient foruiB of medicines, both for 
prenervution and adtniniatrutioii. In their [>rui>nration. ih« roaas 
Blionid be of a eouiiliient^c to cohere ]iro|>erly, nnd ytl finn vnouRli 
to retain the iflobulnr rurm. Iti cumj>OHiliun nhunld not (icnuit It 
to mould, conlruet muixinre. or harden too quickly and Qrmly. T)ie 
exaipumli, or xabitancrii vrilh whieh ihey ure mixed, vary in tome 
nienxuru with the eoiuposiiion. Bread crumb, hard aoap, extract 
or llc|iiorice, iniietluKe, iyrn[i, treacle, conserve or roses, Ac., are 
the gubxtann:* umiatly emjiloyed. If ))llls are to be kept aoioe time, 
treacle and cunncrve of n>tieii are best ; if utied esrly the otliers do 
well. When renins are used, the addition of alcohol prerenta 
hnnlenin^. To prevent pills from adhering, uae liquorii^e povrder, 
flour, iitarvh, or lycopodlnm. To cover them, f;elalln amwers welL 
PilU ure belt prcucrved in close botllcs or tin boxes. The cflicicncy 
of small pills in frvaU'T than larjte one*, the same quantity ofmaio- 
rial being used. Bolutet are preparations similar to pills, bat 

Trochff.o^ Loirnye», nrK often used; the bans eonilstaof Kafar, 
gum, or liquorice cxtraet, which nn; cooibiaed with nch articles of 
activiiy as may be desired. Care should be taken to RTOid too 
great hi'ai in preparing ihem. 

Klectiiarirt, Confniioiii, and Con»trvr.», are all escentially th« 
same, nnd arc in nsc as a rchicio or form for ibo ndministrnlion of 
remedies wliich arc bulky and insoluble, and can be dixguiMd in 
Ust« by sweet »nh«tftnce4. 

fJnracU consist of ihc nelivc inerodientt of complex medicinal 
Eii>if!lnnec«, «xtraclcd by water, alcohol, or acetic acid, or by ex- 
preuinic Ibo juice of plants nnd then evaporating to tbe solid con- 
sis ten re. 

Mtslurtt, or Emulsion*, are convenient modes of administration 
of remedies. They are generally composed of one or more sub- 
stances which arc insoluble, and suxpended in water by the fnier' 
veniion of glim, sugar, or yolk of egg. Much care Is oeceiaary In 
rorming a good mixture or emulsion, so as to be of a unifunn 

Decoction ■■ this is a form much in vogae, but b Improper when 
the eubstADce contains a volatile oil, starch, or gum, unless these 



htltcr lure nec^swrj- for the porpoiies desiiKoed bj the prejiaiuliuu. 
Ill KOBie caacfl ehemEcat cbanKGit stw occur at tlie builijij; [loiiil, by 
wliidh the eomposiUou U entirely i-baiiifed. The Te^selx uied tor 
<1«(-ociioiia should be covered, ro as lo )>revcDt the uicii|>c uf xteaiii. 
■11(1 the proceas shoulil be c-ontioued as short a time ua .tuOic-t-i Tor 
extiucting tlw desired nwteriaL Care nhould be uVvn that the 
vessel shoald be compoaed ot a material Dot aelvd upon by ilie nub- 
stance to be boiled. 

Jn/ugioH* arc prepared cither with cold or hot naler, but utv iidI 
boiled ; and is a convenient mode of adminiiitenDi; remedies of the 
fegetable kingdom. Tlioy are osunlly prepared as wanted, but may 
be kept Mime time, provided they be pui into a buttle filled to the 
lop and well corked. Many ealtstnncc* yield their active principles 
to cold water by pervolaiion or duplavenitnl, which is ))«comiug a 
farorite mode of obtwDing thoni at the present time. 

Tinetiirrs arc formed by ninccrntinir xnbstanccs in alcohol or 
proof Bpiril for seven day> or mure, nnd then »lrniiiing or llltorinft; 
or by tU*plact!nient of the ai-tivc itiftrctliMits by pet-colalion , a 
method now generally preferred. Thix form is favorable to the 
pnservntinn of the Mtive constitucnlx of dnigs n-ithodt alteration. 

Syrupe ! where medicinal substances arc preserved in a solution 
of sugar. SoDieliincs resorted to fur the purpose of covering dia- 
agrecahlfl tuate, bnt inori! Kencrnlly m preserve them in a conve- 
nient shape for making mixtures. They ore «im/)/e or radical; 
the former con*ists of white sugfar. i^ pounds to a pint of water; 
the latter are prepared by dif^utvin^ the sugar in a watery solution 
of the drn)c*, or by adding the tincture to simple syrup, and driving 
off the heat by a taud-huth. lEcat should, howoror. bo employed 
in all canes. 

Vinfgarg is where vinegur is used as a solvent, and is often an 
eligible prepnrniion. 

J/oneyi are not now much in use. 

OjrymcJv arc where honey and vinegar is combined in prepa- 

LinimrntM are oily compound* intended for external appUua- 
UoDS; they are softer lliati rillier cernie-< »r ninimcnlt, 

OinlmeiUt mcll nt the teinperuinrr of the xurrncc of the bodf, 
kut are harder than liiiimciila and softer thnn cei-uln. 

C«rafn are harder than eitlier liniinentK or ointDieiiU. Simple 




oernle is compo*Pfl of fri'sli InriJ nml whito wnx. Some ftf thCBB 
last prc]mrutic>iia arv iniidi: li; Kiinptj niixitig or Iritnrnlinic ; ollivn 
require the old of tk moiterato lirat, aniJ u|titalSDit irhile cuoliiig. 

Plaster* are sulkl ut ordinary tL-inpmitiir(-j», iiml rcqniro llic nid 
of hCBt to rend&r thum in a condilioa to be Gprco<i, 

Calaplarmt. or Poullicea: tbi-se arc prrparationt liaTing pro- 
pertiM of softness, or emollient properties, moisture, and heat or 
olorntion or temperature in some cfl«es. Tber nre mostly prepnml 
from bread and milk, Haxseed, slippery elm, Ac 

Gnu and Vapor: many arlieles may be B|)plieil to tlie surface of 
the body and lungs, or broncbini tuboii, in this way, and affords a 
niciitiE of active medimtiun in some cnscs. 

'!'■> what pari of ilic body arc medJciocn applied ? To the sto- 
mach, rectum, »kin. bronchial ttibr» and pitlmonartf air-celh, 
no»trilt, inside of the mouth, and by injections into Iho btood- 

Wlinl are tlie objects in tlic oppliralioii of mediciuus t4i the rec- 
tumt 1st. To produce alTioe uvaeuatioii«. id. To obtain their 
pecniiar effects on tlie system, or on the reetnm il.iclf. 

In the littler eAsu it «liould bo ^ven in Binall bulk, ko tliat it maj 
remain in ihu bowels. The relative dose admiuisiered in tlii« way 
■faoald be three llmcii the ordinary quantity, M a freneral rule. 
Medieine* applied to the reclutn are called euppotHoricM, when 
■olid ; and, when liquid, cli/stgrg, injectiong, or enemala. 

What are the moilet of application to the sHn 1 Th«y an va- 
riouft. The skin niny be retained or removed ; the medicine may 
b« DSed in Ilie form of gas. vapor, liquid, or a soft solid, and may 
be applied to the whole aarface of the body, or a part. 

How are medicines applied lo the bronchial tubee, Ac. t In the 
Btnte of gas and vapor. 

What objecU arc to be gained by their nj) plication to (lift not- 
tn'U t A powerful excitement of the brain, and a itrORg nvahjoa 
Oxicn neighUorinf; parts. 


Upon what principle is th* preferable mode of claseiliealion 
foDQded r On the relations which medicines bear to the haman 
system in i) healthy state, or upott their physiological effaell. 





What h the tSr^t itraud <litUii:in in cliiKfiincntion T Into mpdicirtoH 
wbtoh SCI on the livtng bodtf, und tlioite wiiiul) net upon foreign 
matters contained Id the body. 

How la ibe Ural pirantl division divided * Into thoM sabctnncc* 
whk-b act generviiif, and those which act lacaUy. 

How ara iIm g«n«ral reiaodiea divided ? Into tHmvtaids or 
nxeHanta and sedative*. 

Hoir are stimulants divided t Into permaneni and diffutible. 

How are tlie permanent etimuIanU divided? iato aalrm^enle 
and lonict. 

Horn nrc the dilTnsibli- xtimulnnis divided ? Into arleriat gtimti- 
lantt and cerfhro-ntraovt* ^timulanH. 

Tli« lailvr maj bo a^in divided into cerebral Simulant* or 
atitnuiattt narcatict, and into nrrcoiu Mttmuiante or anli-ipM- 

lluw nre SGdnllvtn divided F Into arterial gedatives or ir/W 
geraula, and nn-i/>u« gui/ofi'tt^g or sedative narcotin. 

Ho« are the ttK-ii/ remedies divided? Into lho«e which nlTect 
Ute /unrf K>ng, those wliiih affect the orgainzalion, and lliosie which 
nre inirManiirii/ in ilieir sclion, 

TtioM nffuoting lh« funelion of a part arc : \t^ Emetics; Sd. 
Catliartittn; 3d. Viunlkv: ilb. iJiaphorelict; tlh. Expecto- 
rar-ln; 6lh. Emmtrnayogur* ; "Ih. Sitilaijuijur* ; and, 8ih. Ei'rkinirs. 

ThiMeaffi't'lingiheon^uiEalioiioruiiarinrc; 1st. Jtubr/acivnla ! 
Sd. Kpitpadic*! and 3d. fic-Aaj-iificif. 

TlioM opcTutttiit mefhanicutly ore : Ut. Dfitnuloent* ; 3d, Emol- 
Kfnta; and 3d. Diluents. Tiien there uru incrrt'ui'i/, Wi'nr, or- 
«<nKC, nru t<cn»tra, and eiv;of, whiili cannot be eouvcnicntly cIomi'- 

How ia the aeeond Rraiid divl&ioii divided ? Into, I«t. Anlavida ; 
and, 2d. Anlhelminiica. 




■r raoranOK wood, orrHK imiTEMitr «* ramavLVutU. 

I. Subttanett wfiieh act on the tiuing body. 

OenenI Remedies. 

Permanent Klimulanta. 



DiffoEiblc Etiniulants. 

Arterial Btimulants. 

Cerebro-nerTOQs stimnl&nts. 
Cerebral stimulanU, or BtimDlant narcotica 
Nervous BtimnlaDts, commoolj called antispMrnodivt. 

Arterial sedatives, or refri^rants. 
Nerrons sedatives, or sedative narcotics. 

Local Remedies. 
Affecting the faoctioDi. 

Affecting the organizatiOD. 

Operating mechanical!;. 

Medicines insusceptible of accurate clasBification. 
Nax vomica. 

II. jSu&siances which atd on foreign malUra conlauusd toUhtn fhi 


Antacids, Anthelmintict. 



What is an utringctit t A medicine which prodaces contraction 
ortii« liviDg fibre. 

What arc the r/c»eral efftdt of MtringcnuT ITicy iirodnco 
grtatcr firmness of masclc, diminished cnlihrc, (greater rifciilitf of 
tht bloodvetscU and abSQrl>cnis, and n diminniiiin or clusare of 
•Kreting orifiecs o&d secrction« gi;iicrul1y. Thry produce moderate 
and permanent cxciffmenl of the ornnnic Itfi-, but do not Influence 
tha nerTOQs qrslem niaeb, or iho funi'lion* nf animal life 

When are aslringmts iailicali:H f In aiihvallhy diNchnrgei Trom 
th* Moodvfitecls. or secreting orifioes; in eases Rcnernlly wUlch 
depend upon retitxntion of the tiMncs ; and in inllamniallon in iu 
earliest stngc. 

Wbeo are tbcy contra-indiealed 1 By the exUtence of any mor 
bid condition of which ihe discharge is a mere effeil, and nhlch ft 
is calculated to relieve ; and by the eiiiitenee of any considerable 
loea] or general excltemenL In esaen of excitement, if it be deslm- 
Ue to sappreta a dtucharge, they sbonld be preceded by bleeding, 
or other dtpktlng measures. Tbcir exicrnal use is governed niih 
tome modifications by llie same rules, hut mny bo sdmiiisiblc locally, 
vhea their internal use would not be jiixtiliablc. 

Iu what partievlar diseaMn, attended with nnheallhy discharges; 
are astringents applicable t Dinrrhten. chniiiic dvficnlery, diabetes, 
catarrh of the bladder. exc«<sivr Kwrntiiig, nnd all the hemorrhage^ 
always snbject to the contra-indicating cirenmKtanccs. 

Under what ctrvumntancet may astringents be nued locally In 
eases of indamnintion f In the cnrnmcTicruK'nt of inHammstioD, 
before Ihe excitability is much incrcn.«cd, or in the latt«r stages 
after it has heconw in some menMire exhausted ; nnd are applicable 
in increased miicous secretion, after the snbsidence of inflaminalion, 
as from Ihn umhrn, ragina. rectum, and nontrils, in exces«vo per- 
■piraliofl. in hctnorrhngcs from parts within reach; and in cases 
of loc«l rrlaxation, as in venous distensions, prolapsed aDDB, 
bIcthn. and iivnin, and in flabby ulcers. 

How arc aslringcnts rfu-irferfJ Into the vr^table and mineral 
The fonner hare nn identity of character dcjiendiog npon a 




similarity of compotition, the Imter agreeing only in the pro 
vt astringenc}'. 


To wlint proximntn principle do vegetablo utringenU ore 
tlipjr prciilitr proijerty ? 7'annin, or fannw acid, and galttc add ; 
and llic; dilTcr only in the proporllan of this principle, and in ibe 
churnclvr of the other inRreitJenta msodated witb it. 

What ore the aeHnifik prajfrlit:* of tanuiii ? !l is solid, nt>crj>- 
tnlUzal)le, white or slightly jellowlih, strongly astringent without 
biltt!rn«Kt, and it precipitates many of the meuillic salu. viih iron 
form.i a blaek compound, and is incompatible with gielatin, irith 
which it forms a precipllaie. 

It Is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether ; reddens lilmoB, and 
forms salts with bases. 

Wbut is its dMiff Prom 3 to 10 gn. erery hour, 8, 8, or 4 

Oallic acid is produced by an aitcration of tannic acid by the 
addition of oxyEcn. It hnc Iwcn preferred lo tanain by some a< 
an astringent The doae is the same as tannin. 

Qcmnjg, C S. 

ales, \ 

^T1lnt ari; the officinal specif* of Quemi in tli« United Stales, 
from which oak hark h dctivcd ? ITie Quervv» alba, or white 
oak, and the Qufmi* linrturia. or black oak, arc the only ohm 
oflti-ina) in the Unitr^l Slates; but this genns contains shoot 
eighty (pecies, thirty or forty of which are foand in the United 

They contain tannin and gallic acid ; are powerfally aslrinj^t, 
and well adtipted to case* nriiiiirini; nKtringcnln, both internally 
and externally ; although not tiKcd much inicninlly. 

The black oak contaitiK a coloring principle, called quercitrine, 
which rendent it ralualile ns a dye. 

How is the oak bark nsed f In powder, drtHxIion, and erlnict. 

What U the dorr ? Of the powder, 30 grains ; the decoction, 
fJU; exiTwt, 30 grains. 




Oalla, Oallt. V. 8 

What ar« Oalls, aii<l wbcn ore they procnred. Bxercscencea 
OB tlw yoting branches of tli« Qitrivu» in/ectoria tad other speeica, 
produced bjr the ponctiiix of the Cynipt qHerciu/otii; tbo best 
>ra gathered car)?, and arc called blue, ffreen, or black )^lla ; th» 
iafrrior ar« gathered later, and Are called the white galht. Active 
principles, tannic and gallic aeidK. 

They arr brought froui A^ia Minor aud ncighborluff countries. 

Uo« arc gaitt generally utcti? Ah a local aiiplicatioii exter- 
Dalljr, but Biaf be nscd in powder, in/ttsioH or decociian, and 
ti/tciure Dooc of ibe [lowdcr 10 to 20 groliit ; of tlic iufuniun 
(nad« Jm to Oj) f^ij ) "f (''« (iucture fjta to r^iij. 

What are incompaitbUiil Sulphurlo and muriatic acida, ge- 
latin, prcparaiiona of iron, ^. 

Ki.<io, C. 8. 

What arc the varieties of Kinof They ar« tbc African, Ja- 
maica, Botany Bay, and £<»( India or Jlmboyna kino. The 
East India in the kind mo» UKcd, aud i« the intpisuted juice vC 
Pierocarpux Stamupiutn. 

What are iu generul characteriitica t At found in tbc nhopa, it 
H la amall, irrrgutar, an^fular, shining fi-ti^rinenti', of a dark rcddinh- 
browB or black color, and eaailf pulverizoble ; ouiituiiia tannin and 
extractive maitar. 

What are ila medieat properties and t(M«f Tt ia povorfnllj' 
aalringefll, and i> one of the beat ariiclci of this cta« where aa- 
triagenta are indicated. It may be given in powder, itifation, or 
dlaaoivtd in diluted alcohol. Vtme of powder tmm 5 to 30 grains; 
<ltin/wnon (made by 3>j cxtruct, and boiling water )h^) fSy The 
aiHMntt of alcohol in the tincture rendura it objection able. Inwm- 
pofAkf aamo as galls, 

Catwbv, tt. S. 

From vhat is the Cntechn procured f It is an extract of the 
Dod of the Acacia Cate^Jtu, and comes (torn Hindostaa. 
88 • 



What are the general «Aaract«rf orntMhn f It comes to as In 
musH«iiof liifferentabapefl, «fart»l7brofni,TU7iiiK from a reddUb 
or j-ellowlfth-brown to a dnrk-livcr color ^ coutaiiia t&nuin, ex* 
tracliTe. and mucilage. 

Wliat are its medical propurlie* and wtetl It b tonto, power- 
fully &etnn^rnl, mid may he giritn wiiiTi; aHtriuRenla are iudinied 
Dose Trom 10 gritins to $,**, and rvpc-ated frequcoUj. Incompaii- 
bh» same u galla- 

Bqataut, Krameria. U.S^ 


From wtiiit is Rhatnnj oblainedf Frona Ihf root of tit* Kra~ 
meria Iriandria. It in a unlive of Pero. 

What ant the t/i^n'^ral rharadtrt of rhatany f It cornea to os in 
p1e»s of various shape* and dituenftions, often eyliTidrica], and t"0 
i>r time f^el in leufclh, The ininerel BCtii.i, and moxt of th« tnin«ral 
snllM, are im-umpatibU. Cold water, bj displacement, estracts all 
the astrini^eiicy from It. 

Wliat are its meHieinal prcpertiet and utet? It li a genii* 
loniL", powerful astringent, and may bo given where aKlrlntrentK arc 
iiiiliniled. Dose of powder from 30 to 30 grains ; of infiiiiioti or 
deeuetiuii (made by Sj of bruised root to Oj of water) rjj ; of ex- 
tract 16 or 30 graicis ; liuctare f 3j to f^iij ; and i^up fJM. 

LouvrooD, ncBmaiiuryton, U.S. 

From what is the Logwood procurrdf From the JJismatoxytw 
Campechianuin, tunl i* hroutrbt from Campeachy, the shores of 
Hoiidnras Itny, ami other parU of Iroprrnl Anicrira. 

Wlinl are the yeneral diaroetfrinlic* of logwood ? It is hard, 
cojnpact, beuvy, of a deep-red eolor, becomes dork by exposure, 
nOLl hu» a svreeti!>h estriuKeut laato. Ivt peculiar prineiples are 
tannic acid and /nKmaioxylin. 

What are ita medical pi-opertien and mms f It is a mild aRrio- 
gent, well adapted to relaxed and enfeebled cooditions of the 

It li giveu iQ decoction and exlrart, hoth of vliicb are ottcinal 
Oott! of the deuoction fS>J ; of ilie extract 10 to 80 gr8Jn& 



CnAKESBn.L, Geranium. U. S. 

Prom wliat ti the Cranesblll derioed ? From tJi« Oei-ojiiBm 
mootf/oJum, an iadigenous. perennlul, herbaceous plant, ^owiag itt 

wood*. Tbo root is the part used, and should be collected li 
mnron; actiw principle, tannin. 

What u« it« medical pfvperliet and v>e»f It i« a powCTn>l 



utriogeot, ftod mftj b« cmiiloyM where ther are Indicated ; Et b 
Tcrv free from unpioa&siit qaalilies, which renders It serricettWo for 
infaiils, and mar be ^v«n m aubtlanc^, decoctum, tincture, or tur- 
Iract. Dote of poirder SO or 30 gnioa \ decoction (made JJ to 
0js8 boilud to OJ) from fjj to f jjij, 
It b freqaeutly ^iven to children, boiled In raltk. 

Blackbebry Root, Jtubui VUlotua. V. 8. 

DEWBKRBr Root, Rubut Trivialie. V. &. 

What is the offlciiinl name or the plant furnishing the Bl«cltl>en7 
Root and the Dewberry Root? The Bubtta Villoaw and Rubtu 
Trii-ialig, th« virtues of which reside in the bark of the root. 

What arc their medicinal properliee and uattt Toulo and 
stroii^lv astringent. The decoction is prepared the same as the 
preceding article, and gircn in the sanio doae. DoM of powder 30 
to 30 grains. 

UvA Vrbj, Arctodaphyloe Uva Vni. TI. S, 
What ia the plant fgmt»hing the Uva TTrsi f The Arbvtttt Uva 

rig. 8. 



■IV. nr Arrlnrlapht/hi* XJea Urti, a (0101], tniilin^, fvcrgreCB 
hrub, growinn; |>l«iiiifiill; la iliu Uiikcd Suiec as Tur souUi a« Kew 
'Mmj. TIm: Ivuvcs are tho put UAed. 

\fbac »rc llie ijeneyat prtijMrtw* of the leaves ? Tliey are io- 
odorouK wli«n. frcsb, snicll like liuy when dried, )ia<i: n bitleriKb 
Uftr. Ktrgiigl.v iiKtriii||;eni, and nf\erwardH sweeiiiiii. Tiic aclire 
injTediuuta are tannin, biiter extractive, resin, gum, aad gallic 
Wliut KTe ltd medical properliet and utetl It u sa'Tin^nt, 




lotiic, and Uiouftlit by »omc to h»ve m (pccific direction to the m 
nary or^fans. Dtme of jfowdtr 'u from 9 j to Jj i deeoction, 3y, S 
«r I limes a day. • 

PtPSlESEWA, Chiniaphila UmMlala. \Jt S. 

Wbftt portion of the PipstMewa, or Chlmapbila umhdUta (Flff. 
3). ix utvA in medicine 1 The leares and stein. It U a small, in- 
dig;«rnoii« cvcrgTcrn plant. Rowing ia the north of Europe, Asift, 
and Atncric-n; inhabiting the woods. 

Whiil nrr their ^enrral propertiea T The taste is pleaHiiitly bit- 
ter, niilrinjrrnl. nnd Rweetisb. Boiting water and alcohol extract 
the native pmiieriiw of the plant, which are tnnnin and bitter m- 

Whnt BK its medical prDptrticK and vieiif Dinnrtic, altetutire, 
tonic, and astrinitcnt. It has been nscd with good etTect In cases 
or scrofula. It l.i (^(^nfmlly nscd In dnwction (|J to OJss of water 
boiled to OJ), and lukcu lu S4 hours. 

Rks Robes, Roea Oallica. V. S. 

What portion is n<ed f The petals. It i» a native of the math 
of Europe, but is introduced into the United Stale", and h exten- 
sively cullivntcd. The active principle* are tannin, {(ullio acid, aod 
coloring matter; not much uxed except lu Its pre para tlo us, as a 
rehicle fur oilier articles. 

CowpounJ infusion is sometimes used when on astringent is re 
quired, hut more fraqiK-nily as a rehicle for sulphate of magnesia. 

Cotterir. formed nitli the petals, sugar, honey, and water ; vbich 
is mostly u»ed in the formation of pills. 

PKnAiMMON, Diotpyroa Virginiana, tJ. S. 

What portion U naed T The unripe fruit, in tufadon, sjmp, and 
vinous tiuctur« ; and the bark. 


Id what diseases has creasote been used as an astringent T In 
hemoptysis and hnmatemesis ; also in leacorrhcaa and bronehor- 



rbffik. It hu nlito l)«cn oKcd fu a local apiilicalion Eu hxmorrlinKe, 
and in a dilated Mule to rt'laxod inflamed «urrucc.i; urnl to chfck 
Tomilinx in cliolcrn, |>rujriiaiii.'y, Ac. Do»e, as un aiilniifcvnt. one 
or ivo drop*, spfiTuI tiinrx a dnf, uell (lifTu^cd iti rauriliiftR. A 
Baidrachm conuiiiK 150 dropn of cniiuuie. I'ill \* Kuid to be a 
gaud fortn of i-xtiiliilinn. One part to 80 of water U a good atfougtb 
to begin with as a local application. 

8ev«ral articlca, U v)ood'«oof, pymligneous acid, lar-vaU'r, &c., 
owe tliMr principle rirtucs to the pre^nce of creasote ia them. 


Alcm, Alumen. V. S. 

What ia th« chcmicul composition of Alam f It is a anlpbftte 
of alumina and potassa. 

What are the incompatiblesf The alkalies, lime, ma^nc»ia, and 
their carbonates ; tarirntc of poln«sa and ncctate of lead. 

What arc iiit meJical proprrtins nnil tiiieg f A«trin^nt in ordi- 
Bar; medicinal ilote^, but emctin mid pursfilivc iii large doses. It 
is Bscd interiiallf and locally. It forms an excellent local appllca- 
tioa Ut chronic congestire iiillflmmatioiia, and pariicnlarly iti leucor- 
rhoa. Tii« ordinary dose is Tram tO to 20 grains, repealed everr 
two or three honrs. 

Alvm curd is made b; rabbin^ np alum with the wlilte of An 


Alum whey: prepared bj jij of alum In a pint of milk, and 
tlwn straining. Doae ^ij. 

HnHttwe the preparatioiiii of Lead used medicinally ? They are 
' llw Ltiharge, m Plumbi Ondum SemivUrium, the Carbonate, 

tlie Aeetale and Subaarlaie. 
I Whut are ihe rffrvU of llic combinations of lead f They are 

sednlive and atitrinp-ut, and produce poisonous elTecls. if taken in 
large doses, or Iohr n-jH-Htcd. The Kutphnic, nnil probably the 
acetate, are exceptions to this. Snlpburic acid, sulphate of soda, 
and sulphate of majpiexia are anlidottu. 

Lkad, P!vmhu7it. V. a. 



WIml ftro Uie Qenerol propertif» nf the Afrtat^ nf Lead? It ia 
a nliiie mM, cryslnltizcd in brillinnt iipcdics. lu In^c is swetl and 
■st^in|^en^ It U liabl« to be dpcorapos^d l>T WAtcr containing car- 
bonk neid. bat i!i ivdiuolfrd bv dM^ttc arid. 

Wliui nre iia incompaliltlftf It i« digicom po«cd hj nil acids, 
soluble sntb^. ihu aridii of mbirh jinxttice insululilu or «|>nrin|;l]r 
soluble compound-i with tlie proiuxidc of lend, lim«-iviiirr, aramo- 
nia. (lOtnsxA, nnd Kodn Bulpliurelled hjdrof;en |;ives a bUck pre- 
cipilalc. nml iodide of pobisiiiuni a j'ellow on». 

Whnl nn- itx mrdiral prap^rtifg and u*ftt In medicinal doMM, 
tt is powerfully aMiriiigGiit, sedative, and tn lar|fe ou«s aa irritant 

Ii \* adniidiaiered in hetnoirhaRefl of th« Iun|r>i. tntMtines, and 
uterus. By givitif; acetic acid coinbiued with It, the rorraalion of a 
CAcbiitmIc \a preveuled, upon wliivb Its poiionoas qaalitin nn sap- 
po&ed to depend. 

Dow is ttom 1 to 3 prBtnH, repeated as required. 

What is ibe white lead 1 It ia the cnrbonate ; and !■ only em- 
ployed uxicnially, bciiijt u^ed as an appliuailoi) to uievm and exco- 
riHtcd KurrnccH. It is iho moM poisonons of tlic preparations of 
lead, priidiicinfc the disease called coHea picttmutit. 

What is Ovularil'f fxlrrui of I fad f It is a mihilion nfthc »ub- 
acHaie of lead (Liquor Plumlii Subacuialix) formed hj the ncctalo 
of teod .Ixvj. ST-mivitrilii'd oxidr of Kiul sixw, diKtillcd water four 
pints, boik-d mid fitu-red ; If diluted iti ihe proportion nf sij lo a 
pint of water, it forniK ihc liquor plumbi Aubactfaiit litlutut, or 
Ociilard'g vegeto-mineral taaler. 

Goulard'* ccrale i« fiirineil by hentlng together Iho extract vrilh 
while wax, olive oil, and ciiuiphor. 

The n'Urale of «t7wtr, gulphaU of copper, Hwtvre ofcMoride 
of iron, perchloride of iron, pernitrale a/ iron, tulphatf of iron, 
Wttlphale of line, and some utber article*, are nscd for their local 
aslrinfcent effects, but they will be found under otlitr heads, as they 
haro other properties also besides that of astriagency. 




What are meant by Tonics ? They arc medicines wbicli prodace 
gentle and pcrmaoeut eiciteraeiit of the vital actions. 



Wbcn are XoTi\ciii\juriDii»t In Ihe hcnltliv atsle, mid Iadi!cn»iu 
of txciuiwrit. 

They maj dimiiusli cxdmUillt}-. or natiirul lioiilthy jiow«t; or, 
produce an irritation ubii-li laay tio rutloni-d by iiillainrimlioii. 

They ^luuld iirvcr be t;i«vit iri a ilaie of ituund heullh. willi th« 
view ur tMTTCuJng alreogth, or of rendering ihu iiyaicm l<:n)t iK-vexti- 
ok to ditMHif. 

Cddrr what circniiutanees nre tniiicjt indtrali'dt In onsCK in 
which tli« ritiit nvtiona iin* d<^|>rci'<ed Ix-ioii' tlicr Ktnnitiird of li<-iil[l>. 
They iiivi)ti>rul« lUv »y>leui io a t«iifu!d miiriiicr : 1*1, liy incrunfiiij; 
[lie cncryy of tlic ■tiiiiinch ; and, 2d, liy n direct influence over tlw 
wbols fraiiK, produein^ iiri eli'viiiimi or iill ihi; vital «ctioii& 

Thoy are nlxo jciven fxr llin |>iir|ii)M' or kinjt ii dtruidcil imprcE- 

aion on the nennUA fiyKK-in, no lie to lireal: u|i disease!* which occur 
in paroxyiims with riKii''H"iiy. 

There ore spvi-rnl influoiice* wliit-h mny act as topic remedtet 
which are iiot mHieitie-i, Tln*-*c nr^^ i/iW, cj-rrrimr, pure air, mea- 
tal injittf ncet, IraeeiUng, culJ, and Irani'/ution, nj blood. 

How infly tonit^ be diridcd f Into the pure bitters; bUlen 
peculiar in llieir proprrlirA : aroTnalii-t ; and tninrral tonicn. 

What are ihe effects of llic I'urc UiHirn t Tliey increase the 
tppetito, invi^ofuto di^t^tioti. hiivi! litlli^ iiilluencc over the circulii- 
(ion. unices in Inrgi- dn^c*, and exhibit but lilllo ovidciicc of aelioa 
(HI Ihi! hcrTuns svilriit. 

What ore ihe iffeets tif Hittem p'-cuUar in their propertiest 
Tlicy are irenerally more stininlntiii); ihnn tlie pure biiierit. 

What are the effects of the AromaJic^J Tliey depend upon the 
pn-M-nee of vulalile oil, nru more sliiiiulaling tliiiu the bitter*, and 
approach nearer tn the ililTuEiblo lilLmulnnls. 

What ere the peculiarities of the Mineral ToniVji* They hnvo 
no roiumoti peculiarity except (he tonic properly, encb having pwu- 
Uaritiw which lerve lo dibtinguish it from tbc others. 

Qi;a»ia, C. S. 

Frooi what is Quassia drrieedi It is the wood of the Quamtin 
~txv«Ua and Qua^iia amarit, trees of the wect liidien. 
29 If 


Wlml nrc tlm rjfm-raJ rfimttcffri^tief of qiikssia ; Tlic wood ia 
whitUh, a:itl yirll(iwi»)i b; cxpoMirc ; lins a |»irvl)' bUUr Uuto ; the 
active princijiU- i« '/xiMnin. 

Wbiil nrc iU aftliiat pmpi-rtir* nnd u^rsf It has Hi? pir>)wr- 
tif« i>r llic Kinijik- liitU-r« in tlirir lii^liCKl drarcr. Il i» pariicularly 
useful in d5F|ii-p«ia from duliiiiij- of the Momnch. Il is giroa in 
in/u«ion in ihc |iroportion of Sij to Oj rnid w«tcr Poae fgy. S 
or 4 times n Aay; of exlrart. frnin 2 to fi g;riiini( of li-ttiurv, t^j 
to fSiJ i of pnwiifr, 30 to 80 grniiix. 

GoLDTHiiKAD, Coptis. V. S. 

From irhat is the Qoldtbrcail procured.^ It Is th« root of 
Copt is M/olia. 

Wbut nrc 'ii* mvdifal propertie* nnd uw4t Jt is a simple touie 

biOer, clos«ly aiialngons to 4iiaMin. Duso of powder 10 to 80 
grains; tincture f.^J. 



Okktun, Oentima. V. S. 

From wliat la OcDtinii procuredt U U ibe root of tin* Gfnttana 
tulffa. wbtfb ^-rous on ibc Al|>«>. and ulher muuniaiii.i; tlu: active 
prtovi|>le or whicb Is •jenlianin. 

Wlvnt Ate Ihc yriwro/ jimji^ifH of llie root? Thi- Initte !• 
tlljfliily Hwevtixh, and iiHtiiAtly bjiur. Water uiid iilcuhol esinicl 
Ui« tuto «ud iui<(]U'ul viriuv.i fViim tl. 

Wbnt are Itx mfdUal jirnpetiien and v»e»J It jwiNCUCS in * 
bipU ili^grM the tonic |io»fpr of Ihc tiiiu)i1e ^,^ 5, 

bittern, excite* ibi! a)>)>eiltc. liit i|];uriilc^ 
be i>owcr of (tiffoliun, iiitrvaxti tlie 
i>in|ieratiir« of llie body and iLe force 
of the dn'obilioii. 

It is giveu tu pou'i/^r, tfow 10 to 40 
grains; in in/wiion (.;m to Uj), fji to 
Qij J otlindurt, f3j to faij ; ofcjciJ-nd, 
& tu 30 ffnlui. 

Sabbatia AxaDUitM. V. S. 

What portion of llie Sabbaiia anijn- 
tarU, or Ann-rirat* Cenlaury, is iiscU T 
Tlif whole plant. It ^rons in the Middle 
and SoiitbCTii Sluleii, in low mriniun'ti, 
and slioHid bo lolleeted alien in floaor. 
It i> prt^KTiWl ill ibesamc cusck n« kcd- 
tian, end is gawrallv Riven in infusion 
(%i '" OJ) ; 1b powder, the rfow is 5»8 
to ?j. 

What arc it« medical proj}i-rlii'» and 
vnfMl ll had tbc tonic i.ronerties of tlie timple liilleni. Dotf of 
tittt ir^/untn {si to Oj) rj^j. 

Coi.l'»no, Colontba. U. 8. 

Prom what plant ij Ibe Colaniho deriwd* The Coccuivs pat- 
nuitiu. The root Is the part w«cd, and i» bronglil from Africa. 


Whal nrc ii» ijrnrral projirrlu-nJ A« it comM to im. it i» " 
Unl, circiOiir, or ovul {■ii-ci':*, ofa Ullrr ln»ic, a.x\A elij^htl; nroDikttc 
(idnr. Active principlr, coUtmbin. 

\V tint nrc il« metfieal pri.fieiiifti niid vm»1 It in a ust^T mild 
toiiii'. IK) ii3itiii[.'<^tii-i'. hikI Iiiii kliffhllj KiEifiulaiit. Um-<] iii ;x<K.-</rr, 
in/usivn, uihI linciurt. Dont «f the fmutlrr. 10 lo 30 ^raln* ; of 
inj'uiiun (mode in llie proitorlfon of 5*a to OJ), from TJj to fjij ; 
of Uniturf, f^M to f^J. 

Pbrdtum Bark, Cinchona. V. S> 

from whnt is tlie Pcruvinii Burk ohlainndf Piffpntiit spf^ira 
of the ('iiiv/itiria, hroiifilit from the wp>torn conKt of Sonth AmcriciL 

Tbfre are three olficiiiiil varictici: 1, pale bark; 2. yrllow 
bitrt:; nnd, 3, ri-ti bark 

The jxile I'lnbruL-i-K tlie (urietieR enlled jAua nnd Lima; the 
yelltno it ea\\v.A in commerce Califaya biirk, nnd of whk-b then 
nrr two Tnridii-'H, the i/inllfti aud Jiat. Thu red i> divided toto 
llip quillrd und ilm t(al kIm). 

Wlitil nre ilu' tm|>'>rlnii1. )>rliii-i]ile« of hnrV f Quinia, Cinehonia, 
Qiiitiidta, nnil Quinotdia. i-ouiltitied willi tim'a acid, 

Whitt prvpanitiotiii of )iurk niv geiierallj u»ud 7 Tht etilphate 
nf quinia mid cinrhonia. 

Wlint nre (lie medical prtipeiliet aiid KMr« of cinchona ? It it 
one of tlic ninut vnliiublu loiiii-K ue poMCti^ ftR well aa aoil-iuler- 
mitlcni. Tlic Ixvt luoilu of giving tlio bark U In sabstance; doae 
of llic powilcr Sy 

What Ik tlic compurntivc powpr of xalplialc ofquinine compared 
«itU tlio hark f 10 to 14 ^ruiiifi Ik cqiiivntciil to ,^j of |;aod hark. 
The diffcfwil variclir* of hark differ in the rdnlive proporiionn of 
llic aeiivc principles wliich ihcy conlaiii. Tlie ]>ale bark contains 
a nniL-h larger proportion of einelionta than of qiilnia. The yclla« 
hark contains 11 lar^r pniptirllon of <|alaM. wilh tcr; little elnclionla. 
Tlic red bark eontnins contlilernble <iiianlitics l>ol!) of quhiia and 
clni-'liotiia. It i>T g;iven as an aniipcriodic in inlerrailtcnlK In donet 
of 12 10 18 ^ains, divided Into two or three parts, in the inlerval 
of ihe paroxysm. As a mere (oin'c, J to J a praiii 3 or 4 timet. » 
day. The fiulphnto of cincli»Nia rcqnires to he jtiven In nouicwtiftt 
larger quantity to produce the same results as the quinia. 



The Peruvian bark or its prnparatSont may m«i-t ««vcrsl <ii»1i(tc( 
thefapeiilknl itidicaliuiia ; 1, as a siioplu tuiiii:; 2, us nu anii])e- 
rkiilic; 3, Ml saperaedeul; uid 4, Ja reference to its secoudary 
ttdattte pro pert! ea. 

DoowoOD, Comvx Florida. V. 8. 
Fram wh«t do we procure Ibu Dogwood bark? From tbc 

Kit- 0. 

Comtu Florida, aa indigrnoos tree. Tbc d(m and mode of asln; 
GimiUr lo the Peruvian bark. 

Wild CirxRur Haiik, Prvnm Viryiitiatta, XJ. S. 

Whnt in the iifliciiint uamc oT t\w irce from oliidi the Wild 
Cherry Imrlc i* procnrr'H Prinus Virginiana — iodlgcnout lo 
tbi» coonlry, 

Wlial am ttie actirc priociplui ? B^droeyanic arid, tannin, 
•nd bHUr extractive. 


What are ils nifdieal propertiet Bnd ntfff II It toiiic ■ml 
setlative ; lemem ibe acliou or tlic licari ami aricric* ; and U nw 
fill in ilic licclic fever of Htrofulti uiid coiiEUtnptivn. Dote of pow- 
der, 3« to 5j ; of ihe if/usion, f Jij S or 4 Umw a dny. 

Chamomile, Jnlhemie yobilii. U. 8. 

Whnl In llie offidiinl nuine of tbe Chamomile f Aitlhemit 
nKbilif; the Qowera are the ))ariG used, alilioogh all parls of tlie 
plant are actire. Tlie active principle la biUcr extractive aud 
volalilr oil. 

la tinall doaea ll {» Ionic, and In lnr(^ ones emetic. Tbe cofd 
in/vnion i% lipsi nlien UKcd as a loulc In dosed of fjij ; doM if tlio 
powder, Sm to 5j. 

Boxesrr, ^w/xitoKum. U. 8. 
Wbal are the medical propertiet and vte» of the £upalorium 


ptrfaltatum, or Thormi^hwortt It Ik Ionic, rfinphorctic, and 
tuki-n til kruc down it iicW n-s nii cmplic nmi njicricnl. As a tonic 
ft (thouM be ndminUlonii] in MilMtanM or cold infusion. J)oae of 
ihe pourder, 20 or 30 Kraiiin; and of ihoin/imon, f.^i frequently 
repealed. An n dinpliurctic. it slioald be givGii warm. As &n 
euifrtic and callianic, in doses of one or two gills of the strou)^ 

VutoiKiA SsAiiraooT, Serpentaria. V. S. 

Wliat are Ibe medical propertiet and uses of tho Ariatoloefiia 
Serpeniaria. or Virffinta Svaberootf It is iiidigeDona; tlie root 
it tbe i>ait Dsed, and its active ingredients are a InUer principla 

Fig. «. 



and volatile oil. It is a Btimnlant tonic, acting also as a diapho- 
retic or diuretic, according: as it is administered. 

Dose of the povider, 10 to 30 grains; infusion, fjj to f|ij 
every 2 or 3 hours ; officinal tincture, f 31 to f ^ij. 

MvBBHA, Myrrha. U. S. 

From what is Myrrh procured^ It is an exndntioD from the 
Amyris Myrrha. There are two Tarieties, the India and Turkey, 

What are its medical properties and usesf Its acthe prinriple 
is a renin and volatile oil. It is a stimalant tonic, with a tendency 
to the InngB, and also to the uterus. Employed io diseases of 
these orguns where there is no febrile escitement or acnte iuflam- 
mation. Used in powder and pill in dose of 10 to 30 grains ; of 
the tincture, fsss to fjj. 


What are the medical properties and t/ges of the bark of the 
Galipea officinalis, or Angustura? Its active parts are Intler 
extractive and volatile oil. It is a stimulant tonic, but little 
employed in the United States. 

Done o( the powder, 10 to 20 grains; infusion, f^ij; tincture, 
fSJ to f3ij. 

False AnguKtura bark has poisonous properties ; its active 
ingredient is brucia. 

Cascabiua Babk, Cascarilla. TT. S. 

What are the medical properties and uses of the bark of the 
Croton Eleutheria, or Cascarilla^ Its active ingredients are 
extractive and volatile oil. It is an aromatic tonic, and is nov 
only employed where a gentle stimulont tooic is desired. Dose 
of \.\ie powder, 20 to 30 grains; of the infusion, fJlj. 


What are the general properties of aromatic tonics F They owe 
their characteriFlics to tolatiie oils, are more stimulant than tonics 
generally, and more toca] in their action than diffusible stimntants : 




rcltero pains in the stomach and bowuU, expel flatuknce, ko. 
Poi-uclions end cxlrni:ts u1>Joeiloijnl>l«. 

Wliut arc ili« mf<ik<tl /•ro/'fiiir* mid uaet otORAMOS Pkkl, or 
riiid o! ihc fruU of the Citrus Auranlium? It ia a luild tonic, 
stomai-liic, and cnrmiiintive; (^irtrn in infusion. 

Wlibt are the pr'/perliea or tlie prepared bark of the taurut 
Cinnamojnum, or Cinsamojj F Tliure are two rarieticB, the 
Ceylon cinnamon knd China cinnamon, or caMta. Its active 
priiM;iples are v<^atiU oil and lannin; Its medical qbo tlie Gam« as 
Mromaiics la f^ncra), applicable in cnKen rtqnirinf; aatringeuttf. 

Dott oipowder, 10 to 30 grains; tintturr. T.^j. 

Wbal aro t)viproprrlu» or the linrlc of ihc Camki.ia Alba f 
Ita actifo intrredil^rlt« nrc wlalilf. oil At\A bitli-r rrlrartitv ; ninid 
gmenWy comhined wilh oilier articles. It is an ingredient in the 
powder of Aloeg and Canelta, or fiiera picra. 

Prom what are Ci/>vk« di-ri\xd1 Tliey are the iintxpandtd 
flower buds of ihe Eugenia Caryophyllata, »r CarijnphyUw> aro- 
malKVn ; broagiit fixtm the West Indies and the European colonics 
of Ouiana. 

What arc their medical properlietl Their active principle is 
■ vnlalite oil. Thcj ore nucd where a ^timnlnnt aromntic i* indi- 
cated. Vote of the /)OU>ifcr, 5 to 10 (rrnins ; in/ugion ninde with 
(3ij 1o OJ) f^iji oil, 3 to 6 drop*. Used in Rcrcral officinal pre> 
para lions. 

From what i» Ihc Nwtmfo prorvredf II i» the kcmel of the 
frnit ol'the 3I'jriiilica M"trhola. growinK i" the Molnccn*. 

What arc ilK meJiva! pr-ipertif* and iwca ? The iiclive principle 
is « volatile oil; it aiKo yields a fixed oil, called the Oil of Mart. 
It coioliine* nnrcolic *ilh anmintii! properties. Dote of powder, 
b lo 10 graint ; of minlih oil. 3 or 3 dropn. 

From whnt U the hiJ^CK. Pui-er obtained f It is the dried 
berries of the Pifr Xiijrum. 

What arc Uk pf^pertieK and iiscsf It contains a Tola tile oil 
an acid conereie oil. and pipertn. Its acllvitv depends npon lia 
oiU. and not the pipmn. which Is inert when pnrc. It in a warm 
carmioalii'e stimnlont, and «Bed where snch properlicK arc indicated. 

From what arc Ci'BxiiS obtainrd 1 It in the dried fruit of the 
itper Cubeba, a fine growing in the Ba*t Indict. 


■14 S 



WImt nrc it« prepvrtiv* and unal lu Mtive inEp-edient ii « 
mlaJilf oil. 

It is nn^nmtic nml iliiirdUc Otue of tlic /»(»i<iAfr, JM to SJas 8 
or 4 timtv a tiny \ of tbc volatiln oil. lU to 30 dropK. 

From wlmt is the I'imk.sto u&fuiric'f? The M^/Hm Pimento. 
Tlie active pr(i|icriic« rv»iUv in a vulatile and fixed oil. Dose of 
llie ail, 3 lo G ilrops. 

Wliat arc th« properUe* and us^-h of Oaiidamom. or the fruit of 
tlie Alpi'iia Cariiamomum ? It is a wnrm aromatic, less lic&lluff 
mill Mimuliiling tlinii tome ottiere. It eiilcrs into n uuiabcr of 
ofTiciiial |irc[>arnliona. Dogtr of the compimnd lineiure, f^J. 

Wliiit other aromatic seeds are used in medicine F Fennel, 
Cartiwaij, Coriantlcr, Aniw: 

Whiil is tbe i/uKc of the compound gpiril of lMrxni«T% Tho 

d««l-« ia {J,fi lo fsj. 

Uliat is the officinal nomo of the Peppkhmint ? Mentha Pipr- 
rita. tfiine of Ihe oil, 1 lo 3 drops ; of llie ?;'««»(■'', I « to 20 drops. 

Whal is the ofBeinal iinioc of the Spearmint 7 Mvntha I'iridie, 
and posKssCB properties similar to the last. 



W1i«t other berbaceouti nroniAiIn arc a»ed in medicine ? Tbe 
Uftiwma pul&^wide*. or Pk.ssvbotai. ; ifeliiva offirinalM, or 
Balm; Ort^num vttlgare, or Orkiaxuu; aud Ibu Oaultherin 
pntrtimbe'in, or pABTftllKlt BXBSY (FIj;. 0). 

From what is Gimikx prvcureilf It is the root of Ihc Hiu^ln-r 
afficiintlt. BJi herbaceous pl^nt, native at tho East Indies, and cul 
tivattd io llie Wcsl Indies. 

What are its pn>j>ertiei aud uie» i It h aroinulic, s)>ie^, puiv 

(Fig. 10,) 


Itont. hot, and biting. lu virlucs Are extracted hj vrtter and 

nil-oil 111. 

It i« ft KFAteful Mimiilnnt, nnd cnrmiiinlivc ; und mny be given in 
potcder, in doses of 10 to 30 grains ; iii in/iuion, fjij ; in tincture, 
rsj Of fsij. 

In wlial doses la tho Aofiitlis C'aumvk, or BWfut Jiag (Fig. 10) 
uKfU f ItH uses, modea of adminitUraliun, niid iJo«ett are similar %o 
ihone of the ginger. 


Ikon, t'errum. V. S. 


Wfittt are the propertie* of the preparatiooB of iron ? They are 
hiRlily Ionic, raise ilie ptilnc. promote the secretions, and int^n-aae 
ibe coloring matter of the lilouit. Thi: diBenscs in uliieb tlivy ore 
nio»l used are chloroMs, bysloiia, Hiior albus, gleet, scrufula, 
rickets, Jlcc. 

The preparationB of iron mur be considered in reference lo iheir 
tocnl effects upon parts with vrliich thcjr come in Gonlaet, and their 
effecU on (he 9y«trm 'jenrralli/. In their Ifierap^ulic apjili'-aliim 
lUey may be considiTcd as o merr^ tonic, or excilnnl of the func- 
tJODs. and as a TvcanilrucUvx mjent, by affording uintcrlul and iiiQu- 
ence for the production of blood corpuscles. 

WliHt are the dosfg of the differeiii preparations of Iron J Tbo 
Fiiin^* — Ramcnta ferri — in doses of S to 10 ;trAin<i. St'alft — 
SguamiB /erri — & to 20 grains. Prepared Carbanali: — f't-m 
fJarboaae PnrparatM ; Precipitated Carbonate — Ferri Corbotat 
Praxipitalut, Dote of the IarI two, 5 to 20 irriiiim ; in neuralgic 
cases, from j;ss to ^j. 3 times a day, and iiicreaKod 

Salphaie — /hrri aulphaa — Oreen vitriol — Copprra* — in doetta 
of from I to & grains ; of the dried, from ^ to 3 grains, S or 4 
times a day. 

Wlmt arc the incompalibUs of the sulphate ? The alknlicn and 
alkaline eurlmnales. muriate of lime und baryta; nitrate of ulrcr; 
dcclate of lead, tacnin. Ac. 

Tinclure o/ fhe Muriale — TinHura Ferri ^^t^rial^^s — dose 10 
to 30 inininis, 3 or * limes a day. Tartrate of Iron and Potaaea 
— Ferri tt Polamts Tariraa — doie ID to 30 graiuii. Pkaa^iate, 
b lo 10 grains. 







AmmOHuitf^ Iron — Pi-rrum Ampimnaeum — dose 10 or 13 
imlnK. lodidn of Intn — frrri /or/(t/i(in — dose 2 or 3 )rratiiB, 
ibtvT timUit u (Iny. Synip nf Iniliile of Iron, Of Sotulion of 
ftitiiik of Iron — ilo«e 20 to 50 tlrop*, tlirue llrncs a day. diluled 
wtlb water at \\k moment ot (xliJltilioti. Ffrrtiryanuret of Iron 
— JFerri /Vrrocyonurriirm — F^rravyamde. of Iron — Pvre Prtis* 
nan Blue — doM 4 to C grninjt, Kcvrrnl tltDOti a day. 

CopPEK, Cuprum. \J. 8. 

Wbnt IK the effect of tliu preparation* o( Copper on tlie system f 
In il« pure mIaIc it Se inert, but in cumbinaiiuu lii^lily poisonous; 
in Kiiintl (|uaiititieii but lilttu sensible effect is produced, except a 
*ili|i)itly tunic and astringent influence. 

Wlirn luken in poisonous dose*, tliey produce a coppery laste In 
tbe moQili, nan!i«fl, v<>mitinf(< riotent poin in tbu Rtiimaeh and 
bovelii, blaclc And bloody stoold, [rref;ular pulse, rainllni^. thirst, 
ilifliculty of breathintt, cramps, convulsloiis. and death. Tlie bent 
tfi-ntmei)t In these causes is to administer white of egf^ In water In 
larire i)nantitiea. 

What are the do»e» of the dilTercnt oniclnal preparations of 
Copper DS a tonie? fiulpbale — Cupri Sulphax — Blue tnfrioi 
Vote ^ of a (Train, i. 3. or 4 times a day, ^'iven in pill, and omitted 
If tlic stomach becomes irritated. Ammoitialed Copper — Cuprum 
AmmoHtalum. Doge ^ a grain, tlirce or fonr times a day. 

Zisc, Zinettm. U. S. 

Wliat are the preparations of Zinc nscd medicinally t The Sui 
phttte, 0.nde, impure Oxide, anil Carbonate.. 

Whiit are tlic medical proprrlirs and use* of the Sulphate of 
Zinc? It is tonic, n«trinj[r-nt, and, in large doses, a prompt emellc 
DoM as a tonic, ^ ti cniin to 'i grnim, two or three times a day; 
u nn emetic, 10 to 30 j^nin.i. 

What are the incumpaliblexf Alkalies and tlieir earbonatca, 
bydrasulphnten, lime-water, and astrinfrent ve)retable inru.vionK. 

The Aeelaie and Valrrianate of Zinc are used for the same par- 
poses as the snlphatc, but are rather milder and less astriii|;eat. 
The dose is the same. 



Tbo Oride may be given in (1o»w of 2 lo 8 itraJua, which inaj 
grnilitnUy be increased lo 20. It hiu been iwed exlenially in pow- 
der and oiiiluient, as an nltsorliciit, (U-«iccaut, and ultcrntit. 


Wlint ]>ri'{mrutlon3 oT Bi&mnlh are ii«cd mcdicinatt; 7 The Su&- 
jiilratr oi- IVIiilit Oridn ; it is tonic and nnti»|>a8Riodio. Do«e 3 to 
SO graiuit, in powder or pill. 

8iLTim, Argentum. U.S. 

Wbat prepnrntioDS of ffilvcr are used tnediciiiully ? Tlie Ifilral*, 
Oxidi', and Chloride. 

Wliat arc flic medical properties of the Nrtrntc of Sitrrr ? As 
an iiilernal romcdy, it is tonic. aslrinirHit and aiilif^pasmodie. It 
has been employed in cpilepfv, ehorea, nnfrina prc'ti'rin. Ac. Ex- 
tcnially, it it a vntiauU, ctimulant. ami esclmrolic. Dow Jih of a 
l^rain, incrcikscd grndnally to t or b, throe tinios r day, in piUa. 
The proper antidote for n large dose is common salt. 

What arc iis inrompntiblegi Its incompntiUlcs are common 
(ialt. alkalies add tlicir carbonates, lime-water, mineral acids, as- 
trini^nt vegetatile infuniono, &c. 

What preparation of Svi.t'iiuuio Arm h used medicinally f Tho 
Diluted and tli* Aromatic. Dote of each, iO to 30 drops. They 
iticrease the appetite and promote digestion. 

What aie its incompalibl^n 1 Its in compatibles are the alltalies, 
alkaline earihs, their carbonates. Sic. 

What are the fjTects and dme of NiTRio Aao ? It ii tonic and 
refrigerant when dilated ; concentrated, it is a corrosive poUon. 
DoK 3 to 6 drops, in water. 

What are ils ineornpalilde* 7 Its ineorapatlblea are tli6 dkallfV^ 
nIkaKne eartlis, their carbunatcA. Milphale of iron, the aalU of llad, 

What !k the done of ihc XtTBOMuaiATio AoiD f From 3 to 10 
liropii, 3 or 4 tiinex a day. 




Wbat is oiider».1oo<i by Art^Dl »tiniiitnnU 7 They nrc mpdicinM 
wbich excite llie circulation, niili but little inflaeticc on the uerruufi 

Unilnr wbut condilions of HTstem are they spplienble ? In enf^ef 
of (;real |>Tt)!itraltoii, uheii sufficient energy of the ijiXvin reniauis 
to HDUln il «t the |)aiDt to which It may be elevated. Grent esre 
» often neceasary fii ilicir use, eren ill soDie cases where ibey are 
indicftlfd ; or loo gn*t reaction may occur. 

'Cavb)»!(B, or Rsr Pepper, Ctg>»i<mm. V. 8. 

What nrc the mediral properliei and unet of ibft Csyenoe Pep- 
per, or Capniciim Annuum ? It iii u powerful Klimiilnnl, wtlbout 
being Darcolic; useful iu cnfreblcd and lon^uld stomachs; active 
principle atpficin. iAw' ot jMncdir, 5 to 10 grains; of in/vfion 
(3ij to 0s6), faes ; of tiudurr. f 5!j to f 3ij ; used aifo as a gargle. 

Wliat are tho medival pntprrlu-s and mm of Snaira op Ttra- 
PEMTINE, or Oil or TirpkhtimT U is Btimnlant, diuretic, 
Dntliclmintie, and, iu lar^ doses, ctttliartio. Dt>ie 6 to SO dropi, 

What is ibc dom of PnoapiionvBr It U ,^lli of a ^rnin, in an 
olea|ri»ons, or ethereal volmiun, 

What arc the propcrlie* and (low of Caiibonate or Ammovia? 
It b stimalant, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. The done an a 
stimulant Is ftrom o to 1 D grains, iu pills or emnlalon, und repeated. 
Tt Ik one of our best stimulaois io low ferers, Ac 


What is nnder*tood by Nervous Stimulant* f Tliey are medi< 
clne« that not only ulfect t]|<^ hi-nrt and nrlrm-s, but also superadd 
an excitant iafluencc over the nerroun «yKtroi. 

Under what cnndtiionii of the Hyut^in are they oppltcablef In 
deranged conditions of the nervonit »yiitrm, not connected with 
InSommation or arterial excitemeot, and particularly if aMociated 
with general debility. They arc termed aniispaamodici from ibeii 


ponitr of rtli«viii(t -iim.-im. when it i« the rwoll of irrfjfilnr dirtri- 
Ijurion of iicrvinm i[i(lui'»ce iloiHimlcnt np<»n dubilily, or other c&iue 
nol coimrelfd wilb inlliimiiintiiHi. Tlicy nrc nscful in morbid vigi- 
laiK-e, roMlciMDCiK. ilcjrrtioii of miiid, bjrpochondriasU, uid some- 
tiincii in incntul ilvruiiguii)<;iit. 

From wh:tt is Musx wbtainud 1 It is nbtAinud rrom tbo Moachiu 
Mt*i-hifertt», nn tmimn) nwcmlilinit thn dct-r, found in Asia. 

Wbat arc ils meiiwal pntprrlies and usrsf It is stimulant iind 
ftiitis{)asmoilic. nrid used in cwv6 where tbcsu quRliues are iiKtTcated, 
pariicularly in low fUUm »{ tho system. Ui^on in pill and emiiU 
ftion. Dose 10 groins, and increased. 

How is arlificial mufk prepared 7 By the action of nilric acid 
on ambor. 

Pro tn w lint la Castor obtained? It h a peculiar product of 
the Caslur Hbor. or Beaver. It la not mach lued. Dwm in tub- 
stonoe. 10 to 20 graina; in tincture, fsj to f^ij. 


AeaAixETinA. U. S. 

From what is Amafrotida proruredt It ia the inspismtcd juice 
of llje root of the Xarlhe.r Aatafatida. 

What are its medical proprrlie* and useal lu active part is 
a renin and volatile oil. li is a moderate atimnlaitt, poworTul 
aniiiipsitmodlc. an uxpeetorHnt, and feebly litxntivc. l}oge 5 to 20 
irralns, hi [rill ; emuUion ( Imc aMufa-tida), fjM to f Jj ; of lh« 
tincture, fsj. 

Talkriak, Valeriana. U. 8. 

From what i* Valerian obtained J It ia the root of the Valeriana 
oJfiritiaH)!. a nniivc of Kuropc. 

^\'hnt are its medical propertiea and tuiHat It la n gentle 
slimnlanl. wiih a narcotic cITect. It la used In hysteria, hypochon- 
driitxii. kc. Active principles a volatile oil and volalile acid, 
called {'aiTia>\ic. 

Doge of the poKdrr, 30 to 90 grulna ; of tlie in/unon {5j to 
Oj), f.^ii: of the lindiire, t^ to fjiv ; of the oil, 4 to C drops; 
of Ibp fluid fxtrarl, 3j to jiy, 

What are the properliea and ueeii of the Oil or Amukr 1 It ii 

Materia hedita akd pharmaot. 

i^miilmnt nriil DtniKiingmodic, nnd lued as a liiifm«»t. I>otui A rn 
W (Jroiw, itt emulsion. 

Wbat olhw nerrous stimuIaiiU di> vre posti^M? Onrtic, Tea, 
Coffee, Stunk Cahbnge, &q. 



Wliatis aiiderstood by Cerebral Stimalnnts? Tliey are raedl* 
tines which nol only siimiilale the circulalioii, but aUo cuiijiiiii a 
|>«culiar del^nniuaiioii lo ilie brain. Tlifj ore also called naiToUcs, 
ttoia ihe slupnr they occasion in large doses. When utken In 
ntfflcitDt doses lo destroy life, it is oci-nnlum-d by llie siigjieiisioii 
of mplralion, coiuequeut upon impaired cerebrnl iiilliitiiee. Tlietr 
Enflaeoce is rapidly dimirished by Imijit, niid inuii, ihererove, be 
n)>idly increased in dose to liec|i up any reqiiireil effctt, provided 
their loiiir-contiiiued use becomes necessary. Caailon is always 
MGMSary in lln'lr use. These are called narrnlic^, from llie slapor 
they occasiou; anodynes, from ibeir infioencc in rolievlnn piiiu; 
aad aoporifica, or hi/pnotic», rrom th«ir e^cct in iaducinfr siffp. 


How Is Alcohol produced^ By the vinoug fermentation. 

"What are its medical {irnperliea niid utea^ ll is a powerful 
Mimiilaiit, nnd i* lUe into.\icaliut; inpredicnt in nil »pirituouB and 
vinous litgiiont. It Is noi used in medicine in a pare state; 
diluted, il Id ejctensirely used as a incnittrauni. 

Wheu a decided stimulus is required, brandy is prriferrcd; bat, 
wbcu a mor« inuddi'nte one, malt liquorii or vinf ts used. 

Wliat Wises are u*cd medicinally f Madfiira, Ttneriffe, and 
Sftcrry; I'orl wben an aslrinj^iit Is Indicated. 

WtHc-urhrt/ 1.1 a conteriicul and fcood fonu of (tivln^r nine; il 
nay be laaile by addin([ to a pint uf builint; milk balf a pint of 
vrliatevcr wine mny be pr^ferrtd ; separate the curd rrom the whoy, 
*nd Rnvor to suit llie tntite If wi«lHMl. 

3f*iU liijunrt posfom tonic, alierntivr, ami nutritious propeniv'i, 
M» Jt 




and rany bo iiBed more freely ihnn wine. PvHrr and Ale an said 
to lie liie best. 

When the pulse bucomcs riilli-r iintl xlowur, ilie Mkiti moUt, niid 
delirium abates under ttio use of alcoholic rrracdiu«, the inflaeiira 
is riivarublo. 

Hon- ie ScLi-urRir Etheu prociirad F Bjr the distillation of 
alcohol aod sulphuric acid. 

^^*llnt aro its medical propertiex nnd VMgf It is a trnnttcnt, 
powcrrul dilTusible stimuliuit; aud ^ivcn wWresuch medictDcs are 
indicated. J)iM fSu to f3j. 

Opium. U.S. 

From what is Opium obtaineHt It is the concr«l« juice of tho 
Papaver i»mm/erum, or Poppy. 

Of what is it composed ? Morphia, TiarcoHna, codeia, meconie, 
acid, gum, erlradivc, rctin, &c. 

What arc ils incompatiblet t All vegetable infusions containing 
tannin and the alkalies. 

What ore its medical properties and uaeaJ It is a slimulant 
narcotic. It diminishes iho peristaltic action of the bowels, and 
all Ibc iiecretiuiis except of the skin ; allnjs inordinate mnseular 
conlrtctionx, nnd general nervous irritation. Medium dote in 
tubMlancc ig 1 (rraia ; of the tincture, 25 drops ; of the camphor- 
ated tiiirluri;, f^i ; faj of which contains 8 grains of opium; of 
tho acetated tincture, 20 drups, which is ecjual to one grain of 
opium J of the nilphale., acetate, and m uriale of morphia, jlh of 
a grain la equal to 1 grain of opium. 

Th^^ l)Mt Icrtu for the presence of tnorphin arc the eeeyuiV-A /or iV/« 
of iron, which cniiaM a 6/u« color; and nitric acid, which pro- 
diiecK a blood-red color. 

From what itt LACTDCARtUM pixicurcd ? It is the inspissated 
milk; juice of the Laolaca natica. Done S to 3 grains. 

Cakmabts IsniCA, Hemp of India. 

Prom what is E.rtractum Cannabi». or E-rtrad of J9nnp, ob- 
tained t It is un alcoholic cxtrn<-t of the dried flowerEog Idpi nf 
the Cannabis mUva, grown in the Kiifit Indies. Tho active prln- 
ciplcM of litis plant an: n volatile oU, and a peculiar rcsiu calle^l 



Wlmt are il* mi-diral pi-oprrtie* imd unrgl It slightly incrwiscit 
Die force uf tlie |iii1sp. w:t* wilh cniiritj- npoii the bmiti. cxnlting, 
dvruu^nfc, knd liiinlljr diminUhin^ ihu riiiiclioiis of the eerebrni 
ceiiUM. uml prodnce* inentnl ponfumn. The inilicalions for iU 
qm: kre tu allay pain, relieve »piucni uml ol.livr ncrrous disonlcnt. 
and to promule Kleep. It it tuid nlw) to huvc llic property of pro* 
diidiif; Dt«riiic conl.ractioiiii. It is tited in rxtract and tincturi: 
The do»c of the former, wlicii of bc*t quality, is | g;rain, repealed 
viny two or three lioare nntil its rlTcctfl are produced. In tetanus 
it it given ill ten ;^nin do«M, and rep^nt^ evcr^ boar nntil ita 
effectfi are mniiirr^t. Forty drojii of the tincture are equal to 1 
grain of extract. 

IIembane, BijotctfaviuK. U.S. 

From what li nenbane proeiircdl From the Hr/ntcyamat 
Siger. Lcnres and seedn oflicinal. 

Fi«. 11. 



Whnl are Us pi-f/;ici-f!>it and usi-n? Ita active principle is Ajjos- 
ci/'imin, ov hyorci/ainia. It la narcotic in l»r!«! d^scs; in Hnintl 
onr» it gently ncL^eleruUtii the cinMilution, and increOMti iho general 
wnrmtli ; it iloea not conMlpate. 

DoM, ot UaKex, 5 ta 10 grains; otexiracl, wblch is mostly BMed, 
2 or 3 gruini j of Hncfum, f^j. 


Iloro, Htimulut. V. 8. 

From what arc Hops jirccured f Thny are the strobiles of tlie 
Hamulus Lupulu*. 

The arMve priiicijiltx are a volatiU oil and a pevvtiar hiUer 

VihM U Lupuiinf It in a yellowiHli powder, oblained Repnnitc 
by rtiljbing nml lifting ibc strotiilci. lU biltvr principle it called 
lupulilc, or tuprilirie. 

What an ihc'T medirat propertift Ar\A UMti Tonic, moil oral ely 
narcotic, and used in dincnxct of deijiiity whftre morbid rigilance 

DosF of tbn in/uMon of ImpH (made iriili %tui to Oj of water) is 
fjij; oHhc tincturt.t si Uttiu; of the /iipiifirt, 6 lo 13 grains, 
in pill ; of ihe linrttire, (si to fsij. 

CAMriioR, Camphora. U.S. 

From wbnt i* dimplior derii^d T From llie Ijaunis CamjAirn^ 
&D evergreen, growing in Cbinu and Japan? J t is procured by 
BUbllmalion from tlic ri)ul« and Mnnller bruticilM. 

What are iu, properlttti and u*e*f II i« ver^- volatile, and may 
be snbiim<'d uncliniiKcd. 'r\w Riedium dimr ia I to 1(1 grains in 
cmiilsitm. In each ounce of the ar/. camph'ira. when well made, 
there is 3 grains of camphor. It cntera into the compjaitlun of 
several liniments. 




Dkaplv NiQiiTsiiAttK. BellaJortJia. V. 8. 

Wtiut id the ocUto prinelptc of Ah-opa Beiladonna, or Deadly 
Ni(;htshade f An alkallni.- prinoiple culled ati-opia. 
Tlic IdavM of llie plant are llie part nsrd, /tour oOUv powdereii 


kavfs 1 KTain, nfffht and morning; of the tn/imon Qj to ^x of 
v»I«r} tii to f^ij ; i>r the ej^rad, wliU'b Ih the inspissated Juice, 
j to I a gnin, tulcu ■ day, and iii<!reaj.«d ir ucceasury. It Is u«cd 
iu ilie form of plaster, and as au application to the eye and the oa 

medicinaUjr t Tho Ienve« and the seeds. The active alkalioe prin* 
ciple it daluria. 

U'liat arc it« medical proprrfif* and v«citT It is a powcrnil 

Mrcolic, and gnnw-limfs mucl in riiili-jwy. Diw. of ihp xc^de. I 

grain ; of the ej'lract Trom sccils, J ro J n grciin ; of the powdereJ 

Itai^n, S 10 3 ^aiiie; of the tincture, 10 to 30 drops; of the ex- 

• tract of the Icsvrs, | grain. Vwd hIbo iu nn oinlmeiit. 

BlTTXKSwBRT, Dulcamora. V. S. 

\V1int Is the dow of the Diilcatn&ra, or Bittenwuet ? Of tho 
k-eOcliia) decoclion. f ,;ij, 4 tiiuCK a day ; of urtroci, 5 to 10 jfraint. 
Aetke prfnelpli'. rolania. 



IIXMT..OCK, ConiuM. U. 8. 
VTltBt 18 th« doK of ibe Conium maculalum, or Ilcnilock J Of 

Fls. IS. 


Uie powierti JeB««, 3 or 4 ^&Ins ; or Ihc extrtwl, or fnRplstttod 
juice of tiislMTS^ 8 grains ; (iiiWorv jm to 3J. 


What is iDpant by Sedativca f Mciiicincx whicli. hj ttieir imme- 
diate itiflncnce pmduro a reduction or the viTnl nctioiu. 

Arterial xciliilivcs arc those that oporntc more parliculnrif npon 
lliu hfurl 1111(1 nrtrrirN, independent of ilvplelion. TIiu.kc that re- 
duce boili iirttTiul iind nervous power i>re i-ulk-d nervoiu eodaliiea. 

Under wliiil eiri-iiinilniicc« are nrtcrinl i^i-duiiveH iiidk'UlMl T In 
incmiKed vnxcular uetion, nriKinK horn nti incrvunod dUplny ot tbo 
Tim! onergieii. Rfifriytranl remedies belong to this dosi. 




What preparations of Anliinon}' are emploj^ mrdicinall; T 
Tbo larlar emetic, precipilcUett nulfihuret, aitil antimoiiial powder. 

What art th*prt^Hie» and u»fg or Jin-fur Bmclic, or the Tar- 
Irale of Aniimony ami Potastaf It is ihc most iniportant of the 
autimonialK. Its K«iicral action is scdatiTO on tlic circulation, 
> while it excites rami; of iho secretions. It may produce an allera- 
Itivc. diapliorelic, diuretic, expectorant, purgative, and emetic elTecl, 
according tm ii in ud mini tiered. Applied externuliv it acts as a 
counter- irritant. 

lU dog«, as an aJlirnUivt, it rroui ^^d to y,t.U of a groEo ; oa a 
\orvtit', or rxpr^etoratil, from ,'jtki to ^tli of a grain ; aa a nau- 
quoting tudorijt:; fTom J lo i u liraiii, rejieatcd as oecasioii re- 
quires ; OS n purgaliix, Jth of a i^ruin combined with EjiKom tialts 
Si. *tid Tcpcotcd every Iwo or thrci.- lioiirn; a* an emetu; from 3 
to 4 ^raiiig given in divided purLionit, nt iatcrvii1« of 10 or lu 

The nnlitnonittl trine conlaiiiA 2 ffralns of lurtnr emetic lo f^. 

What are )\» ineompatibhuf Mineral acids, the ulkalicn atid 
heir carbonates, ftulpUiireUi, lime-water, and vei^c^tnble astriiigents. 

What is the doiwof tlie Preciyitalrd Hulphuretl As aa allMA- 
tlvc 1 to 3 grains ; as aii emelo-cslbertli^ & to 30 grains. 

tWhai ii ihc Jo«f of the Atilimonial Powder, nsed in imitation 
r James^ pvwdert From 3 to S grains. 
WliBt other medicines are tisi-d as arterial sedatives 7 Nearly all 
M neutral altaline »alU. and those In which tlie acid predumU 
MW; lliey are usually called refrigcrsuts, the most prominent of 
which b rtUrale of potasta. Dttee 6 to 10 grains every lionr or 
Iwo, in powder or aolution. It is freqaeully combined wiiJi lar'-ar 

I The Vegetable aoida an also refrigerant or arterial sedatives. 



Wbat is uiidcrslood by Nervons Sedatives f They arc remedies 
that reduce ibe nervoas powers as well as the force of the circula- 
tion. Tliey all affect the fanciions of tlie brain, and rank wtib 
tliose loediciauH anually called naroltai. 



To nhnl clas* of dlwases are itenous Bcdatlrcx ai>|>liciil>Io t To 
comiitiiiiitx ntt«iiil<-(l willi imrvouD di^orOrr, and uiihtnltli; cxcilo- 
muiit of tito bvart aod arieric^ 

FoxuLUVX, DiffHalig. U. S. 

What am die medicinat properUeg and u»n of tbc Icatm of Ibo 
GigitalU purpurea, or Foxgloivt Th»y are narvgtic. itodatirc, 
imd dtur«lic. Aolire principle digilalin, the dose of which is ^^^tb 
of a grain. 

It !» bust f;lvcii in sw&etancf. />08s I grain IwU-e or Ihrt^c limea 
a day ; of llie oOidnal in/u9ion (sj to Oss), f.^M ; of tin- linclurc, 
10 drops, wUich U oquirnlcnt to 1 grain of the &ub^Uuc«. It ro- 
qulroi caution in its ?xhil>itioii. 

liOBKMA. V.8. 

PuinUhed by the lobelia inJlaXa, which grows abundantly in thT 
TTnilcd Btales. The whole litrb ts officinal, bat the *eedi> are the 
struiigcxt [lortion. and should be gathered in Aufru>t and Scptirm- 
bor. Active ]>riociple. Lobelina. The do*e, ua a ncrvoux sodatJTe 
tnd nnuseaiit, is 6 grains in poteder, repeated oiery hour or two ; 
tinciure, for the eaine object, fsj. 


Tlic olDciiiuI article lit the Aronitum Xapr-lluf, growing (n the 
■nonniiuiiiiufi liiUririA of Central Europe. The Icnvn and root are 
the part-i iLicd. Active priuci|ile. acnitin or acontiiit. 

It is locally irritant, followed by tinmbnciW, and generally sedattre 
to the nervuuK Hyiivm and tbc circulation. It Ik a powerful poUon 
hi large doiteit. It has been used to fulfil tho indicaiiona of re- 
ducing morbid excitenieut of the nervous or firciilntDry systems. 

It is DKed in jMwder of the leaves in d<iM-s of 1 or 3 grains; 
alcoholic extract of the leaves, J grain to 1 grain ; of the extract 
of ihe root, ^ ofa (train; Itnclure oF tli« leaves 20 drops; tiitdurt 
of the root 3 to 5 drops. thr«e times a day, and increawd gradually 

It may be applied locally freely for the purpose of relieving local 
pains; enuliuu should be observed In applying it to mncoui mMn- 
branea and to abraded surfaces. The acoailia may be made Into 
an ointineut, and applied locally also. 



American Helleboilk, Vfratnim Viride. V.S. 

The rhitttmf of the wmtrum firrrfi*. wlndi (rruw* in tl» United 
SliitcM from Mnino lo Ororgia. It in locully irrilniit, and in it) 
^ihtbI kction it it powerfully »rilalive lo the nervoua irrtcm and 
circulation, and Miinulutei the (ecreliuii*. It ]» uIko «ro«tic lu It* 
effecU. Ili cxc«x:iive action may li<; c on t ml lot] by opiaiett and 
al(!oho!lc ttimulaiiU. It hai been u»cd chicRy iii inHammalioiu, 
fuTCK and nerrou* d!»eu»eit. 

Il it n<cd in jMterler, doKe 1 or 3 jrmin«, every ihroc or four 
konnt ; fjtract (made by drjinir th« exprnscd juice of the root at 
a low lemperatare). ^ to ^ prein ; Undun- ('vlij of drie<l root to 
a pint of officinal akoliol, by Dr. Norwood, mnccrat*ii two weela), 
4 to 6 drops, repealiid orery three or four hoiin, if nrceuar^', to 
produce the desired effects. 

In trhkt preparations is the HyDRocrANic or pBcsaic Aoro 
fband ? Ill the Cherry Laurel water, and id the OH of Bitter 

What are Its properties and }ige»f It h a deadly poiaon ; one 
Br two drops of the pure acid Is sufficient to prove fatal. Tlie 
medicinal article is diluted, and may be given in does of from 1 to 
6, or S drops in dicilltcd walor, gum water, or nrup. It should 
be MiminiMercd wiili cnntion. eommcnclnfi: willi the imallest dose. 
The anliiiol«» arc chlorine, ammonia, cold affution, and artificial 

What in the active principle of the Ificotiana tabacwn, or 
Tkhacoo t tfirnlitt. or yicolin. 

What a the (pjiiutity given as an injection f Infusion, made of 
, 3tt t o Oa at u time. 

■^^b EUETICS. 

^H What are Kmcllcs 7 Medicines oapablo of producing vomiting 

^^Ib certain doses, and as an ordinary result. 

What are the Iheraprvtical eJKecU of emetics? Kvncnntion of 
the stomach, mechanical pressure on the abdominul viscera, reduc- 
tion of arterial action during the period of nausea, muscular relax- 
alion, promotion of the M*rflory rnnelionf of the skin, liver, and 
linga, poirerful agitation of tlie whole frame, purgation froqaenufi 

^ 9\ 




rerulgiou to the stomnch. d«|>lrlioti, pniinoiioti of Kl>i>or|iUon, thock 
on the byalem. nnd irriinliitii ofttio xlomach. 

What arc the uirciinitl (■»<:<» '.•onlrttindicatiwj ibc im of umetics T 
Acute iDflammation of tlic xloniiiL'li, bowelw, or nri^liburiitg vitwura ; 
Strang KADgiiiiicotui drlcrniiiiaUuii to the bnlii ; nixl proKimnof in 
the advuiicvd stage*. O&ulion should alaa be ob>trved In cwca 
of bcriiia. 

Uow arc erncticH wtually admini»Urvdf DilTuwod in water, in 
doses repeated crcr;r Id or SO niinntta until vomiting occnr*. 
Wbcu the object IK incrL'ljr to evacuate ihc MOinwh, woroi diluent 
drinks abould be fri^cly K<v<-ri, chumoinile ten is rery good ; if wc 
wish a powerful impmnion innilc on the Mslcm but little drink 
should be allowed. If vomiting lihould be exee-ssive, apply n ainft- 
piam over lUc cptgnslriiim, and Iniitlnuiiia iutcnuilly, which will 
gcoerallf relieve it : a laudanum injection is also beneficial. 

Ipxcaovaxua, U. S. 


From what is Ipecacuauhn obUtinedi It ii the root ot the 
Ccphaitu Ipecacuanha. Krutvin^ in South America. 

What are its pr'ipprtiet and ufft i In large dww it is rmctic ; 
In smftller, diii|)h(irctie and exiieclorsnt ; in dill smnller. stimulant 
to the sioiuucb. prumot.iiifr its beuliby actions. Its active principle 
is rnicCtu. ll is milil, uMd ei^rtnin in iu ojicrution. Date ati Ka 
emrfic, 16 to 30 grains ; aa a nnusennt, 3 to 3 groins ; as a (fio- 
phorKlic, ) to 2 gruius ; a.t an allerativf. ^ grain, fvjicaU-d 2, 8, 
or 4 times a day. 

The Wine of Tpecacuajtha is eni«tie in doses of fjj to nn adnlt, 
and r;;j to an inr&nl. Emetic, ^ grain ; *j/ruj>, about double the 
quantity of the wine. 

What is the dose of the root of the Gittenia tri/oHata, Indian 
jAyeic, or Americait Ipecacuanha f From 20 to 30 grains. 


LoBEUA, V. S (Fig. 14.) 

What are the properties and usee of the Lobelia injiata, or In- 
dian Tobacco ? Uesidea emelie, diaphoretic, and expectorant 
propcrtint, it has «odatire properites. The whole plum is active. 
It bears a close nscmblaneo in it« effects to tobacco, It li too 

MiLK-Wesi>, Euphorbia Oorollata. U. S. (Fig. 15.; 

Wlwra <loos Ibc Enphorbia (crovrf In varioud parU of Ibe 
United States. Tli« dried root \» Noetic in doaee of from 10 to I& 

Wbot oUicr vcgeUbU subttuicci poNtess the property of pro- 


diidnfT Tomitinp, and are occnsionalty tigtd Torthnl pnr]io«nF The 

rgol of ihc Euphorbia Iptcacuaikha, in dosta of from 10 to 20 


PiB. 16. 

BtoODROOT, jSan^tnam, U. 8. (Pig. 16.) 

The root or rliisoinc of llie Snnj/uinon'o CanaJtntii; active 
ingredient, »anguinaria. Date of tlie powder, ttom 10 to SO 
^rnins; of the tincture. f3iij to ^as. An acrid cnietic. 

The SdUil.L ; ill doge iif 6 or 8 ffrain*. 

ToDAOOo ; doiu! of tlie piModer, & or 6 grains. 

MuOTAni) In powder; ilo»e 5J. 

Wbiit in the character of Taiitah Emetic as an ein«t{c f It is 
cbarndcriied by cerlainiy. «li-«n}rlh, and permanency of wpprnlton. 
It rcmnin* in Ihe stnmach lonfrer than ipecocuanhn, nod t-xcru a 
mure powurfnl iniprc^ion on ibe syateni generullj. 



lynM, 2 to 4 grnin^. pircn in divided portioiia; 1 grain with 10 
gf ijiccucuaulw, repealed if nece^ury, mukes a good emetic ; of ihe 

Fig. 1«. 

wtno f ^n to t%\, repeated if nectasary ; for a chHd of 1 or S yesrn 
olii. SO 1o 40 drops. 

What are the characteruHct of ibe Suipbatb OF Zn«0 as an 

emeiic'T It is clmrecierized by proiupiiiesa and ootnparalivelj 

litlle Baj»ca. Csed cliivHy u a mere evacuant of ihe Uoninch ia 

I'asM reiDirin^ a prompt and energetic emeik; as in narcotic 



Dom, 10 

polions, wh«ii it should be combined wiib tprcnciinnha. 
grains to 3SB. 

What are ihe characteri^ica of the Svi-piutb or Cnpren n« an 
omi-lic i It is charnctpriKcd hj prom]ilnrf« iiiid ulifcht niiutr-n, nioru 
prompt anil povrerfiil tbitn the ]mX article. Si-l<)om uKcd o.TCopt 
in iinrcoilc poiaouing, when it is given ill do«c> of & to 15 graiiiii 

Alum iiaa been asvA as a very certnin cnctic in m umbra tioim 
croup, In doses of one tcaepooiifui of the powder cvcrjr fidecn 
mluDtcs, antil It operate). 




What arc Cnlhnrli«? They ore mcdichiM which prodnce 
CTflctintionK from the howelR. They operate: 1. By IrritHtin^r the 
miicotif! mrmlirnnr of the bowelit; S By »liniulnling tlie uxhalnnt 
Ttsm-N luid mufoiix fullirlci; 3. By Kllmulatiii^ the liver; aiul. 4, 
By abnoqition. Some act one way and soia« aaother, nud toiiie 
by a coiiibincil action. 

Do thpy opernle on all pnrla of the aliraenlarT canal alike ? No ; 
Koiuc nporute on one portion, and &ouo on anoihcr, and olhcn on 
the H'hole. 

What is meant by a hydragogue cathartic J A cathartic which 
produces large watery evacualloii«. 

Hov are cathartics divided F Into laxativft, puriftt, and dras- 
Hct or rfrooh'r purges. 

In what way arc cathartics useful in dUeaic? They frncunte 
the howds and relieve cuiistipalioii ; they dinrclly depkic frutn ibo 
bloodicssds; promote absorption; act as revultiivea; and wiinc 
by increasing the socreiious from the lirer, uud thereby relieving 

Is the action of cathartics modified by coniblniition ? It is ; by 
mixing fcreral drastice together tbcy become milder nilboot lo» 
of purgative power. Smull doaci of emetic nil)Kinncrx promote 
ibrir opernlion ; the same rffwt i* nlao pnidiiced by bitten. Tlicir 
lendi'iicy to gripe may he lessiriied by uromalicn. 

What eirenm stances affect the operation of cailiartiei f Tliey 
Operale more fnvorablf and speedily wh<^ii given on an empty 
Ktnmach, S ii hoc ptibi lily to their action \* diininiKlHil during »lcep 
und increafod by exercise. M ild dllacnt beveragm, such as tnolamea 


and wmffr, barley or rice-wBter, oatmrnl feme], Ac, form proper 
drink* to be taken befoie and during ihc opcrntion of a cathartic. 
Kxcwuite or ht/peixalharieig may be checked by a few drops of 


Makha, V. 8. 

ID what i( Mnniiji pniouri-d? Il ik tlir concrete Juioc of the 
£iiropra ntnl roluTiiltfoiia, ^OH'iii); in the ttuiHh of Europe. 
There arc Ihrco rnrii-liw : Jlalcr, cotti-mon, nud /at manna. 

Thejirst, vvjlait; in the reHiIl of ipoulnnfou.i extidnlivii ; the 
eommon it produced nhen the Ki-iuuii is more advanced, by inci- 
sionB; Oif Jot is oMikirii'd Mill later in ihc xcotan ; they ore lo be 
preferred in ihc order named. 

What are its mtiiical pnpcrlif» and utetl U is » gentle 
liucative. J)o»e |j to 5(j. Aclirc principle, mannUe, 

FuKOI^(} Caiwia, Casaa Fiituta. V. S. 

What ar« the propertit* and vtft of the Cattta fitlvla or 
I'ttr^ng Caseial The pulp of the pod^ is the medicinal portion. I 
It i> gently laxative, nnd given in rases of habitual costireness. It * 
it ou itigredient in the coiircctioo of senna. 

Doae iesto |j. 

Castor Oil, Olfum Hidni. V. 8. 

Whet plant prvdoccB the Cnslor Oil ? The Bieinm Commtmt*, 
ft native of Africa, but cultivntcd in Earopo and in this country. 
Tbe oil in obtained from the seeds by expreesioD 

What are its ww-dicoi properticti and utei J It la a mild ratliArtic, 
apeedy in its action, and good to remove accamulution of feces in 
the boweU. 

Dttie for an adult fjj ; childr«n requiring more la propuiiion 
than udnlts. 

RiiritARii. Itheiim. V. S. 
ProDD what i* Rhaharb oUainrdf II is ibe root of diflerf 


■pecies of JUif:um ; of wliicli ire grt three Tsrielies : th« Rusetan, 
Chinese, aud Euixipean. Tlie Chiutse is liic most used, but th« 
BtiKMuu U iLe best. The sclife priociples are rhubariiarin and 

Wbal are ils medical praperiifg and tutal It combines a 
cathartic and aalriu);ent power; it is tonic and glomachic in small 
duses ; roastini; increases its astringent, and di^creases ics purgalive 
cITtfcis. DoK aa a Htomacliic sud laxalivc 6 to 10 ^ains. as a 
purgative 20 lo 30 grains ; of llie European variely llie dose ebould 
be double. Tberu are nnmcrona officinal preparauous of rbobarb.* 

In/anum Rhei (ji to Om), dose f^l to fjf] ; Pilula Rhei 
(Rhei 3g. eapon. ,■?!], div. in )>il.) ; Pilula Bhet Cvtnp. (Rbei 
§[, Aloes 3ti, Hfrrli n%i, 01. Menlb, Pip. f^ss, Syrup. Aurant. 
q. s. diT. id pil.); Syrup. Rhei Jn>m. ,(Rbci .^iss, Cftrjophyll., 
Ciniiain., sa ^^ss. Mvristic, 5ij, Alcobol, diluted, Oy, Sjrup Ovi), 
or Spiced Syrvp of Bliubarh ; 7\nclura RKei {BMei %\\], Cardam. 
|sB, Alcohol, diluted, Oij); TincUtra Rhei el Aloes (Rliei %%, 
Aloes 5vi, Cardam. Jss, Alcohol Oij). or Elirir Sacrum ; Tinctura 
Rhei et Senna, or Warner's Ooxtt Cordial; Flui4 Extract of 
Rhubarb (RhiibnrU jviij. Siijpir 5*. TincU Ginger f5<s. 01. Ffu- 
nel, 01. Auise, Ui,, l^fiv. Dilated Alcobol q. ■). DoM fsi to f jaa. 

8k!ixa, TT. 8. 

From irhat is SeniM ohlaim'df It in the leaves of several 
ipceics of Cmota. There nre three commercial varieties — Alex- 
andria, Tripoli, niid fniJta Senna. 

Wlint are it« projyvrlitit and UM4l It it a prompt, efficient, and 
safe iinrgaUre. 

Its active principle l« oei/AnrttR. Z>i>M of th« j>0UN/er 3j ; g«ne- 
ralljr given in in/union, which i« officinal 3J to Oj, and given In 
doses r^ii evt-ry 1 or a hciir«. The elixir talulit is a tincture of 
Senna atid Jalap. Dune f^g to f^M Its Uodencjr to gripe may 
bt) oliviatvd by nromalicii. 

Flvid Kxlracl of Senna (Sonna Ibiisi, Sugmr sxx. 01. Fennel 
fsi, Comp. Spt. Ether f.'jij, Diluud Alcohol Oiv.) Dote Jss to JL 

Do»e of Conftclton of £crina 3j to Jm. 



Aheiucan Skxna, Cataia Atariiandkti. V. &. 
What arc the propertift and do«r of the Cassia Marilaadica, or 

rig. IT. 

AmerioB Svann f It is •imilar in proportin to ccdda, bnt weaker ) 
doee oiKsihird greater. 

BtrrrcEROT, Juylang. U. S. 
What arc the properiien and u*v* of the ejlrod of the Jugb 


matkhia mxdic^a avd puakmaot. 

cincrcA f It i« a inil<l (tnlhiiriic, oprnitlni; witbout pdn, and 
evacuating ihe alimciiinry caiiiil Hillioiil tldiiliutin)?. 

Doge 20 to 30 grninti »» a purgative, and 10 or 13 grains as a 

AL0S8, U. S. 

Prom vrliHt \t Alont procuredt It \» tlie fnsplssated Juice of 
diffiTciit sjipde* or Alotu 

TK'Tc^ iiri! lbn.'i; commercial varieties — Cape, Socotrine, and 
Bcpalic Aloen. 

What are ltd propi^rlKH and uvenf It Ir cathartic, operating 
irloH-ly, but certainly, and h&a a pecnllnr affinity Tor tlio lar;;e int«s* 

It also has a tendency to the uterine systein. Dose m a laxatEve 
from 2 to e grains ; as u puri^alire 10 to 15 ^aiiis. It h unually 
j^iven in pilt. There ia a lur;;t number of oIBdual prepnralious of 

PiJulix Atoi^» et Asmfatida (Alnea, Aiwafcetida, Saponin, Xfi). 
'Pilulce AlotK (Aloes, Saponis, ail). Pitula Ahet rt Myrrha; 
(Aloea SU, Myrrh |j, Cr<iL-i Sw. Syrup (|. »,). or Xu/uk' I'UU. 
Pulv. Aloeeel CancUa (Aloea H'j, Caticlla, Siij)> or Biera Picra, 
or Biln Bitter. Timlura Alota et Byrrha (Aloes 3ig, Tr 
Myrrh Oy), or Elix. Proprietatia. 



Jalap, Jalapa. U. S. (Fig. 18.) 

From what is Jalap obtahied? It U th« root of the Jpomwa 
Jalapn, or Ipomcra puvja, a fine, native of Mexico. 

Whac arc its properlieA and u«m? It Is an active cot hnrtir, 
cpeniting brisbly, and sometimes with pelu, producing copioae 
walcrv Etools. Pulv. Jalapm Comp. (JaJap ^i, Polaau BiUrt, 


Data: of itie pavder, 1 5 to 30 grains ; of the rettn of jalap, 9 
to lU K'ninK; of the c-xtract, 10 to 30 graioa. 

MAV>ArPLX, Podopht/Uum PellMum. U. S, (Fig. 19.) 

What are the pn>pertif» and uni** of llie Podophyllum peltatum t 
It Ifl aa active, cisriain cutUarlic, proilaces co]>ioaa liquid disehar^ 



Fig. 18. 


nitliout moch uriping, or other uiipleaitiknt tffveL It rescmbka 
jalnp in its o{iLTuli«ii, mid it n|ipli<'uUe wliriieftr a brisk calbsrtic 
i» rcqiiir«d, Tim dinie oftlie puwdercd root is about it) jirnins. 

It (-ont«ina a reeiiious [ihiidple, obtained by Mr. Hodgson, of 
Philfldclpliia. called pudophyltin. nliich girea the peculiar property 
Ui the root, maiul}', tliu duse of wlilcli is about 2 grains. 

EcAMMONT, Scammonitim. U. S. 

From whnl is ticinnmony oblaini-d f It is the inspissated JdIm 
of llw Conivlvului' Scommonia, growing in Siberia and Asia 
Minor. There are two Tarietles iu commerce, the Aleppo and 
Smyrna Seiimmony. 

\\ hat lire iln- tnetlical properliet and u*e» ofaciiinmony ? It i« 
mi energetic cntlinrllc, apt to occasion RripiiiK, und muy be nued 
In Ckses where a powcrfnl impression is desired. It In Hcidom 
glvea aiono. Dotr. 5 to 10 graiiw. 



Fig. IB. 

Black Hkllxbobk, HeUeboru*. V. 8. 

Whnt arc the proi>crtivi nml Kurn of the root of Ihe IJcllrborut 
ttiiftir, or Itliu-k lldlcliore f It id a dra.itiu b/drajroRui; rjithitnic, 
witli en)in<'imi;i>fc<ie powers ; the fresh root applied to the xkin will 
laflarae nnd vesicute. Z)om, 10 to 20 k"''"*- 

It ia seldom given alone. Il is sometimes called 3tviampodium. 

CoLOCTNTH, Cvlocj/nlhi*. U.8. 

From what Is Colocyrilh procuredf It in the fruit of the Cuct^ 
mis Cotocynthu, deprived of it< rind. It is an aniiuni i>l(Lat, bear 


llg MOlUtnblo TesomblaDce to the common cDCQmbcr ; uid it » 
oftUm of Tuilcjr. 

Fig. 20. 

What are its medical propertie* and use* f Tlio pulp is a power- 
Tul, drastic, hjrdiagogue cathartic, produciiiif all the elfiTts of ca- 
Ihnrtic* of this clus. The dose is 5 to 10 grains. The aclirc 
|>riticiplc is colocynlhin. It la seldom f^iveii alone. The moNt 
cominno form of its exlilhltiou is the compound exlrat^t (Coiopynlh 
|v), Aloes|xil, Cardumum 3!. SupoiiisSIU. Alcohol, dilut., cong.), 
which is oSioiual. Done, 10 to 15 gnlus. 

Oauikmix, Oamho^a. V. 8. 

What is Gnmhosc 7 It Ik the {n«plsut«d Jnice of a tree rap- 
poBed to bo Slalaj/milis Camboyioides, or Oorcinca Camboffia, 
Qutivcs of Asia. 

What are it« properties and iweeT It h a powerful, draitic. 
hydragogne cathartic ; apt to nauivate and vomil, and lucd in ckmi 




where a\icli properties are indicated Voge. 3 to 6 grains In pill or 
eiiiuliio.n. It Ik a cimalituent in the compound caJhatiic pill (Ext 
Oolacyntli. Comp. S». Hxl. Jalap., Uytlrnrg. Cblor. Mit, &3 3i|j, 
Gamboge 9u), the doae of which is 3 pills. 

Elatbrium, U. S. 

Wlut is EUterium produced fVom f The JUbmonfica Elale- 




rium, or Squfrtin^ d'CKniftirr, n native of Kiiropo. The fniit haa 
the shape of a iiiiall uvul cue umber, uliuiit 1^ itirhcs long, .'orored 
with stiCT hair or prickles. Tlie elateriiim ia ttie substnncc Kpon- 
Unuously deposited by tbc Juit^e of the fniit, ruidtrs in that pnrt 
which snrroiindii the seed*, and iimy hv obtnioed wilh»iit cxpr(i«sion. 

Whitt ore it* pro;crt iV« and unex! It Id a poworfiil liydraguguo 
cathiirticr, und, in tur«e do»e3, will exeite vomitinjt. 

The do»K uf ordinary commercial dntcrinm in from 1 to S graiiiR, 
gJTon in ^ grain portions, rcpMiii-d every half hour or hour until it 
operates. Of the pnrc<L (Clultcrbuck'f:) ^ of « grain is & dose 
Tho Active principle ii elaleri*^. Dote, -fg of a grtm. 


Ckotox Oil, Oleum TisUi. V. S. 
From what In the Croton Oil procured f It in the oil of the 


■ccd" of the Crotnn Ti^h'um,» native of the Kan Indies; obtained 
by uxpreiBion of the Boed« after havljij; been deprived of ihrit shell, 
Wliiil are iu propcrliet and uataf It in a powerful liydragOf^iM 
purgative, prodacing violent cffecU if gken in an 0T«rdo§e Doat, 
1 or 2 drops, admiaislcrcd in pill wMi a crumb of br«ad. Ap- 



plicil cjclcrnnll;, it iaQamcs the ekm, ond producct a pn.tttdor 




Whot lire the properftr* nml ««« wf Flcicen af Sulphur t It 
iM lutaiivi;, ditvpliorvtic, mid nlutrntive, ix eviili^oilj absorbed, and 
pafSM off by tlic »kiii. ZJcimc, na a laxative, 3j lo 3ij. It is used 
oxtcrnally m an oinlinont, and in vnpor. 

llow is Lac Sulphurif prepiircd ? By boiling oiilphiir and lime 
in water, Gllcring, precipitin ing by iniirialic acid, and wofliing the 

Maohisia, U. 8. 

What are the ]WT)pifrtT>x end u*e* at iht Carbonal* o/ Ma;pK*ia f 
Itia antacid, and by combining with acid in the nomoch becomes 
euthnrlic. Do»e, 3»* to S'j- 

Whnt arc the jiroptHic* of Calcined Magnesia, or itaijnr«ia 
until y It h Bniai.'id uiid laxative ; nitcd very much anioiiK ehildren. 
Dqsh for an adult, 3j ; for u child two yeura old, from 10 to SO 


^'hul is the getieral characler of Saline Cathartics? Tlioy ore 
iiiierin<?diuie !n power between laxatives and jiurgallves, produce 
wittiTv evuenuliont, operate at arterial sedntlvea, and do not act 
harshly. These properties adapt them to liitlHnimatury and actire 
fubrilu coinplalnla. They eloaely resemble ench other In propcrlk*. 

Wbnt are their dtmegt Sulfhate of 8oda. or Olaubrr't taU; 
of the erysialliied Mill, ,^j to SU i efflofeaced, liulf the i]aiintity. 

Sut-FiiATE OF MAaxBeiA, or Epmm »alt» ; dme, Jj to %yn. 

Sulphate of Potasba; do*t, Sm to .^jss. 

SvrKiiTARTHATBoF I'uTAssA. called also cream o/larfar; d«w^ 
5m to Sj. It is frcquenlly combined with jalap as a hydragognt. 

Taktbatk op P0TA88A, or. mituble tartar { date, |m lo 5j. 

Tahtiiate of PoTAsaA and Sopa. or Jtocfielle lalli do*e, JJ to 
^jHi. It euiera into the com|ioflltion of the SeidtHz Poioden, 
whh'li are tartrute of potaK»t and soda 3ij, and blearbonale of sods 



91], in a white paper; and turtaric acid, gn.xxxv, in a blue 

Phosphate or Soba; doee, i) to Jij. 

CiTiiATE or Mamsesia, magfiegian lemonade (Acid. Citric. ?(%] 
Magnes. Carl). 5j. Syrup. Aiiraot. fsij, Aq. deslil. f.^y). Effer-^ 
Tcaeing aolatioD of Citrate of Magii«$ia (Acid. Citric, asa, Aq. 
deatll. rSJ, Sjrup. Aurant.Ci^) ; to be taken with f$x o( Dinne- 
ford's n>lulioii or bicarbonate of maf^ueila in eflervescence. 

Wlittl i* the offiHiml name of Camimei,? Mil'l Chloride of 
ifrn-ury — Hi/itrar'jj/ri Chloridum Mite — Ui/drnryyri Chlttridum 
—Protochloride of Mercury — SuMil'fiidt of itcrtuty — some- 
times impropirly called .Sii6miina'« of iterrury. 

What are the k«t» of purilifS It niblitncs IW-cly on the appli- 
cation of heat, and strikn a black color, free from reddish tinge, 
bj the action of Gicd alkalies. Th« presence of corrosive subliinute 
msy be letted by ammonia. 

What are its incompalibleal The alitaliea, alkaline earths and 
iheir carbonalea, soluble lijdroaulpliales, &c. Nilrumudulic acid 
probably coiivcru (t into corrosive ^ubliiuaie, and may ihuK render^ 
It ttaj paisoouus, also the alkaline chloride, and should, thcrufure, 
never be (riven with It. 

Moward^a <:aliimel Is prepared by brinning »lcain in contact with 
It while in a state of vapor, which convurlH it into no impulpnblo 
powder, and wanlicn ll from corrosive •ubliinatc. 

What are the mudicat proptrliet and u»e» of cAlumcl f In 
addition to the gcnrml pro]KTtiwi of nicrrariuls, it unites those of 
a purgative and nuiliclmiiaic. 

It is employed to a great extent, and is tlic most valoable of the 
nereurial preparations. 

As a calliartic, \u tendency to increase the secretory (hncliona 
of the liver is its chief value. 

As an alleralitv, the dose is ^ a grain every other alghl, or every 
night, keeping the bowels at the same lime gently open. To pro* 
duce tmiutilion, the dose is ( to 1 grain, it or 4 times a day, 
ilicmsod if )icccM>ary. If It purj^en, it shonhl be combineil with 
OpIHD) ; as a purrjaliw, tlie dose is 5 to la or SO grnint. Larger 
doiie<i are reqnircii in proportion for i;hildri-n thiin adnliN. 

CulornrI is rr(-<pii-i>iiy comliini'd with olbi-r pnrgntiirs. It in alao 
frequently employed topically in powder, ointment, and fnniigalion. 





For whal purposes org Kncmatn employed ? To hasten, fntlli- 
tate, or increatie the action of cathartioR, lo operate on ilie bowela 
wbl^^u uit-ill^'itiescitiiiiot bo proper Ij'iigei) orrctainrd byihfiBtoiiinrh. 
wburv there is loo ^^ivat a debiliiy to MiKtitin (he nelioii ofn piir^- 
tivc, or there is great feculaiit Bccumiilalioii in the lower boivela, 
and in hahitunl constipation ; also to obtain the peeiiliar local or 
fj^entral effecte or Medicinal articlcc on thu body. A solnlion of 
common salt, molaases. and lard, eombinrd. is in eommon use; 
w&riD water alone, or soap and wnicr, also forni Tory good injec- 
tions. I( a luoie pomerflil rtmed; is required, eastor oil and oil 
of iiirpenline, common Ball, or senna tea, are eerjr proper. An 
emulsion uf spiriii of turjieutine «nd nlito of anafotida are ofieii 
iiaed tn tymponttlu coodiltona of the bowels. When the poculinr 
efToi'ii of remedies nre wixhed, ariiclua adapted to ibc rnHc ahould 
be Mtlected, and adininlstercd in some cojiTenlcnt trchiolc. eneh as 
ttanrh-water or So.iseed tea ; and the bulk should be xtnall, ko lliat 
thejr may be retained. They are a valuable clou of remedies. 




What ar« Diuretics ? They are medicines whieh increase the 
secretion of nrine. 

How do they operate 7 In one or more of three ways — by 
entering Ih* circulation, by a symputhtttic imprcMlon, or by pro- 
moting absorption. 

What therapeutic tfertg may be aecompliKhed by the nsc of 
diuretics 7 They diminish the <innutity of lii]nid in the cirnilniion ; 
prodnce absorpUou; purify the bliiod of excrement itiouK material; 
impart to the nriiie the power of disnolving n Inrpcr qnaotity of 
saline matter thrown olT by tlie kidney*, nnd rendering i( less irri- 
tant; and the lining membrane of the Itidneys may also bo stimn- 
tated wben debilitated or pariilyM-d. They nre, therefore, nscd in 
dropgy, felirile and it\Jlammalorif dUeaavs, nnd in diseaae* of the 
kidneys and urinary/ ori/ant. 

Squill, SciUo JJ. 6. 
From what U the Squill obfainedf It is the bulb of tbo Scilla 



vtarilima, Browiiitr on Iho bortlf r* of the Medilerrntieun. IW octW* 
|iriiici[ilee are cnllod nctllilin, uud bii ocr-d ttutMlanct. 

WUal arc fta tnedu:al prttjiertiei and utieaf It iw dturclic, 
exiKvioraiil, aiid, in Inr^e doM-.i. emetic uiid purgnlivc A« a 
diuretic, it i« (rciieratl; eonibiiit^ willi <-iitoniul, niid Ufted when ihero 
\s not macli influramntorj' netioii exi^linf^. AMif QK a (fiurrtt'c or 
espfciorant, 1 to 2 gmitis, repented evcT^- 2 or 8 bonn. uid 
iniTeoecd in qiinntiiy until its nclion i* evioced. At sn emetic, 
from C to 12 groins. 

Meadow SAmon, Colchic^tm. TT. 6. 

I 'What are the propertkg am] iwes of the bull) and aeeda of the 

^^UJolrhicum aiilumnate, or Mradow Saffron f Thev ]>roduco scda- 
^^^HT« effects apon the nervous f^vsicm as well as stimulate the secre- 
^H|oH. QiTCD in sufllcient doses, they produce disorder of the 
^^lonia«b and bowels, vomiting and piirffin^ ecvcrelv, and Klionid, 
therefore, be frivcn wiili wmie ennlion. When not carried off by 
the bowels, diuresis nnd ilin)ihoreMs are produced. They are used 
\a rhcQuialism and gout I)o»c of the bnib, or seeds, from X to 8 
grains ; bnt it is usually sdministerctl in the fomi of unnf. Actire 
principle, colctiicin. 
I There arc two officinol vinous lincluref. 

I The Vinum 6'oicAici.BflrficiB, the dose of which is from lOdrops 

[ tofsi- 

1 Tlio Vinum Colchici Seminu. Dose, fjBS to fjj. 

^^^^Imt nre the propertieg and tisif* of the Lf^ontodon Tarariwum, 
or IMiiiieliitH i It is slightly diuretic, toulc and nperient ; niid is 
thoap;ht to have a spetific action on the liver. lis propmie* ndnpl 
IL to disMoea of the digestiro organs, and dropsical nffccUotm ile> 
pending upon thera. An irritablG condition of the stomach and 
Iioh-<-1h, nnd acute inflammation, contra-indieale its use. l)o#r, of 
the ofGi-iriul ihcoctiuH, f J|j 2 or 3 tinie& a day ; of tli« cJlract, SO 
or 30 grniuji. 

Daxdeliok, Taraxacum. V. S. 


JuyiPKE UXKUlKa, Juniperut. U. S. 

Whnt nre tlic propertir* mid vms of tlur fruit of tho JunipemM 
eummuniif, or Jumi«^r tlrrriefl Tliu ikctive iii^rcdient is a vofo- 
/i7i! t)il. 

The berries src sUmiiluiit und (liiin.'tic, und. in liir^- iloses, pro- 
duor irrilution of ttie tirinury jinHxngi!! ; (licy arv gcni.Tnl!jr ntcd u 
an iidjiivuiii to more iiowerTul diiirelien. It U a tiiiiivc of Earape. 
DoM, of llie infusion (Jj to Oj), one (liiit during tJiu day, often 
cumbiued with cream of tartar ; of the otf, 6 to 15 druji*. 

Wild Oarrot, Carola. V. S. 

What arc the properties and um* of ihe ictAti of the /)aucS 
Cartiia, ur Wild Carrott Tliej are i;eiitly stltnolant and diurtli^ 
and may be used in iieplirltic alTeL-tlous where the ittomoi-l) is en- 
foebltfil. The active togredient is a volatile oil. Dum:, son to a] 
of the bniiitd aeeda; or one pint of the infusion, luaUu wiili IjtJi 
to OJ of water, [a the 34 hours. 

Parslkt Root, ^Wronc/inum. U.S. 

What nre the prttperiiaa and vstt of the root of ilic Apiun 
Pefroneliiium, or Panli-yl \v iw diiirclic and aperient ; lucd id 
(truiigury. Dw, of the infunon indellnite. 



TuiiPESTiitK, Terebinl/iina. U.S. 

Proiu N'tmt U tiiqteiitiiie vb/ntncfi.' It \rt tlic juice of different 
fjiMlcii of tlie Kuiicru Pinm Abie* And Larix, tad consisu of a 
rv#tn uid vuliUile oil. 

T1i«r« nra two kiiiilii uiied In ttiv United Stotcs. Th« common 
whilif turpuntint, derived [ii'iiic:i|»iI1]^ from tbf Pimig paln»lrU^ 
•nd llii; Canada larja-nline, dL-riVfd from tlic Ahies bahaini/vra, 
or Baltam of fir. Their Tirtnen roridc in the volatilo oil. 

Wliiil nrc tlifir mrdical pniprrlirf and uxrjff They arc atinrn- 
Innt, dinwlic. nntlielmintic, nnd Inxntirc. If long eonlinued, they 
prodnc« irritation of tlit: cnticou* mcmtirnnc of the urinary organs. 
/>as(t, 10 graiiic to 3j, in pill or eniul»ion. 

The \v3a:ile Ml. or gpirit of turpentine, is generally used, the 
d'i»e of whith ia 10 to 20 drops, and repealed It is also used ex 
tvnially as & rubefacient. 

BucBC. U.S. 

This contiiitJi of the l<-nvc* of neTrrnl iimiill shni'is of Sonlhcm 
Africa, of llic giiitw Harnnna Tlicir virlues dqiciul principally 
upon a rolntitc nil. nnd partly on a bitter principle. It is ctimu- 
lani, tonic, nnd diiirclitr. It is n»ed in cnics of debility wilh 
chronic inllnminikliun uf the pelri.t, of tlie kidniry, ureti^n, binddcr, 
and urrthrn, attended with profiue dlscharf^us of mui'ons or niuco- 
pumlent mnttfr. 

The doff of the powder 'a 30 or 30 grains, two or three times ft 
day ; infufion (5j to Oj of water). fSj to f5>j ; tirwlan, fjj to 
fgW 1 ^I'ld eriract, fsj. 


CoPAiTA, Copaiba. U.S. 

From what is the Bnlanm of CopiCiva drrii-mlf It Is ^t jaictt 
<rf III* Copai/rra njfficinali», nnd oilier upci-ies of the C<^i/era, 
growing in Brazil and Uuinna, 

What nrc its prop'-rtieif and ksm? Its conrtitucniit are a rosin 
sill) n Tolulile oil. It is gently stiiniilnnt, dinrcliR) and laxative. 

It Is used in ironorrliotn. icueorrliirii, frieet, dirunic dysentery, 
and In chronic bronchitis. Do»e, 10 to 30 drops, 3 liuii.ii a day ; 
of ihe evlalile oil, 5 lO 15 drops. 



Tae, Pis Liquida. U. S. 

Whut is tor? It b All empjreuinatle product, nritl rontiists of 
rcKin held in «o1(it!on \tj acetic oc^id mid an rmriyritnnintic oil ; 
colored lir I'urlioiinceous matter ; aliglitlj xoliiltlc in waK-r. V*k<\ 
in aqueoM* gotuHon (tar vnOer), wine, and vapor. In mr»Inmn/, 
it n useful in uinnjr cutanvon* Affvclions. Creatote is kn actiro 
Ingredient in iL 

Cantiiarideh, Canlharis. V. S. 

Wliat are tlio meiUcal propeHUn and rtses ot Cant/tarin c«rfea< 
loria, Cantliarideg, or Spanisfi /UegT AdniiiiiRierFd internally, 
they are powerftjlly stimalaut, and exercise a pecoliar hiflaence over 
the uriimry ofKims. In moderate doses, diuretic. Externally up- 
])lied. they iuflarae and reslcate. Dose, 1 or 2 i^nlns of the potcihr 
2 or 3 tiine>i duily ; of the tincture, 10 drops as often. 

What arc the dosw of tin- Cakbo.hatks op I>ota88a 7 The cap- 
bonalo in ascd in do«cK of 10 to 30 (cmins 3 or 4 times a day. 

The biwirbonnlc \» nsed in dox-s of from Sf* to .ij. 

What arc lliu mclicnl pmpniiei ami usm of the Acetate of 
PoTAWA. or Sal I>iiirelieu« f It, ix rtiureltc in dosc-s of from ^J to 
3J, ercry 9 or 3 honrt. In Inrue dogys, it is eaJharlic. 

What are tlio properties of Bitautratx of Potasaa, or Crenia 
of Tunar? It is dinrctic, cathartic, and refrigerant. In Kaiall 
Aosvs. ll in a cooling npcricnl ; in large ones, it is a hy<Ini(;ogue 
cathartic, which renders it nsofiil in dropsies, as well aa on account 
of its diuretic proponies, 

ThefiunKii from .^J to^y as an aperient; and from |st to 3j u 
a hydraijiiijue t-alhartic. 

W*hat are the medical prcypertiei and u»e» of the Nitrats or 
PorA«8A, or Saltpftre t It I.* diuretic, refrigerant, and dinpLorelic. 

Done, iw a diun-rir, friHn 10 to 20 (traiini. repealed, 

What ore the medieal propnrtitt nud lotr* of Si-iuiT op Nrmtc 
Etiikr, or Swi:el Spirit of Niitef It In diarrlic. diaphoretic, ami 

Dose, in fL-brilc diseaies as a diaphoretic, about 1 ttasiioonfol. 

When given as a diurftic, it should be glrcn in larger doKca. 





What are Dinphorutico ? Tli«y nn meilicines which promote 

now do liter exert a be»efi<iul effect in dl»camf By removing 
constriction of (he cutaneouA cai>illaricfl ; by dcplutiii); from the 
Uoodres9eIs ; by revtilxioii to the itnrruce ; by i>rumoiiiig absorp* 
tlon; and by ellminutinj; noxlouH matter from the blood. 

Wbal cirt'iimMaiicus nhould a patient be nubjccti'd to if free per- 
cpiration be re(|iiired ? tie itbould be nunfiiicd in bed, well covered, 
irlolbi-d with flunDel next tbe iikin, and wnrm ilitueiit drinkn freely 
IpTvn. If there h high inflammatory excitement, the loiieet or 
otliCT de|)Ietinp; remedial should be jiremlied. 

How are diaphorclii'H divided ? Into nanni'.atint), rrfrUjtntnl, 
Kod a/fcrnjt'ue dtaphorelic*. 


What are some of the Nauseating Diaphoretics J Ipkc^cvaxha, 
Md Tabtraii! or Aktimost and Potassa. 

With what h ijiecaeaaiiha usntilly combined f With opium In 
the fiirm of Oover't Powder, which consists of ipecflcoaalia 1 Kfuln, 
opiuin 1 irrain, and sulphate of potass* 8 grains. Dose 10 greina, 
repeal«<l every 4 or 6 hours. 

What i» the dose of tartar emetic as a diajAoreHcl From j\ik 
to jth of B grain. 


E> What are some of the RelViKeTant Diaphoretics ? CmtATe or 
or NlTlUC Kther. 
I How is the Vitratf nf Votatta nscd ? In two forms ; the nentml 
^tstareor snlinc dninirlit, und the elTrrvrar'iiif: drauftbt. Dow of 
Uie former, fles every hour or two ; of the la'.ler, f.V* of the alka- 
line solution, wilh f^ss of the lemun-juiee or the acid ftolottun, 

They na' Komelimcii combined with tartar enetic, and also with 
■plrits of nitre. 



How IB the AMltUe of Ammonia Dfed ? In tht form of lli6 
officinal Holulion cnlM tiijuor ammonia acftatin, or SjnrituH J/rn< 
derert. Dose, fSsa to fjj. rapeatcd every 3 or 3 liaiirs. 

HoH' i.i Nitraie of Potatta u*vd f It i-t u»uiilly coin1)incd vith 
tarlar emetic, Jtli of a |;raiii to lU or IS graiu* of (Lc iihrat*. 

How la the Spirit of Nitre us^e^? It U nseil in rercn wlicre 
tliere is nervomt dcrang^cment, or u tyjilioid ttuduncjr, and in chil- 
dren. Dote, 90 dropi to (^, repculed. 


What are some of tiie Attemtive Diaplioretici ? Tlie fimdnelii 
of liie (f uut'ocuiii officinale, ^e:ereon, SasAo/rat, and SarMj/ariila. 


What are tbe prodnots of the Ouaiacum officinale t Tlie Onni- 
cnm wood, or I^um t«((», and the Oiialac, a concrete juice. The 
medtciDal properties of the wood are owioi; to tlie Ruuic wliicli it 
coutkiii*. It Krow« in tlie We«t Indies and Souili America. 

What itru tlie i>ropertie» and iitcf of gunic ? It i* Kliinulnnt, 
altcratii'c, niid jironiutci llie secretto^i, particularly of iltc tkin. 
Dose otpoK^fr, 10 to 30 i^rains, with sweetened water or inucils^. 
Tliere are two ullieinal tinctures. J)o*e of cillier, f^J. Tlie wood 
U ntod in decoction, and it an Ingredient in tlie Compound De- 
coction of Sarfaparilla. 



Mksrheok, Mezrreum. TI. 8. 

FrATH what h Mexereon obtained t It is the bark of tlie root of 
diGTcrcnt ijiecici of Daphne; a native of Rurogw. 

What are Its properties and uavsf The recent bark, applied 
to the skin, inflames end veslcAtes. fliien fnii-rnnllr. it \» stimn- 
Iiirit, which uiiiy be directed to the skin or kidnejni. Dote of the 
bark, In sulistance. ID ifraiaK. Qcncrntly given in decoction will; 
liquorive root, which is officinal. Dote, a Icocupful four times a 

Sasnafhar. U. B. 

What are the ofllclnal porliont of the Laurut Hatrnfrasf Tli« 


tmrk of (h« root (Samo/rtif Itad<cia Cortrx), end the ]iilh of Ibe 
twifrs (SawoMiM JUtdulla). 

Wliui ure ihc nn^icai prvjieriins and UKet o{ tht bark J It ia 
lllmiilani dtkI diB|ihort-tie. I(h nclivc j<rinclple is a votatile oil, ^ 
e, from 2 10 10 ()rop:<. Tlic infukioii may be giveu aJ Mifunu 

Bassapaulla. U.S. 

Wlial aiT th« proprrifen acil «»« of Rnninparilln ? It is ' 
root of diflcmit spwics of the Smilor, growing in Mexico, Went 
Indioc, nnd Soiiih Amcrk-n. Its nctive [irinpi|>lc I* i>ar*aparilUn. 
It Ml» upon tlir HiTctioiiB, niid Ihtrcliy prinliicr* nltiTutivt frBi-cin. 
Thrre or* niinirroiM oflieiTin] pnpnrmion*. I)t-re of the jxiwdiT, 
3m lo "j; of llic compound tiecnclion (Snwjip. .^vj : SnxMif., 
Qiininc, Olyrvrrhiz.. fiS Jy. MrKcr. .^lij; A^pim Oiv), f^iv; of 
the compound ri/rup (Snrsnp. V\}; GiiHinc. ^iij; Hos. reiilifol., 
SenniD, GIvrynhiK., iS. jiy ; 01. Sassnfios, 01. AiiUi. sa TU^■ ; 01. 
Gsnltherin TQ^iJ ; Alcohol dHut. Ox ; Bntchr. IliviiJ), jjiiss; of the 
alcoholic e:Tlraet, 10 lo 20 prnins ; of ihe Jtuid ejrtrael (SflrMip 
Xx»j; Rnd, Olycyrrhi;!.. Rnd. Snssaf.. ii 5*)'; Mexefeoa gvj [ 
SnechJ- jixg; Alcohol dilut. Orlij), fsj. 


What nrc Esppctoronls? They nrc m^'ilitiiien whiib increase 
the ftecroliijii from lliv iiiiicniiK mcmlinine iif the nir-celltt niid air- 
pnitsnjiiii of the tiinpc ; or fncililnln itx dixrlinrito. 

IIoiv do expecIurntiiK iicl f 1 . By diri-clly climulntiuft iho 
lODchial Hcrction tiirough ibc mcdiiim of Ihc cirrnlntiun. 2. By 
tion of irritfltion nud Dctirc coiigMtion of the broncliiat 
jtifitoux mi'mhrniic. 3. By modrmtc endlatJon of the cirailaiiori is 
the lunj^t. 4. By ilimiiiixhinK the itmouDt of mntter thron^n out iiitu' 
^the oir-poimagcf, in relaxed tIaIcK of (he lif.Mic«, ihii* cniibliiiir tlin 
^orjroiii to cspcl it wllh more fueility. Tlii* i* rffei-ted liy nhat arc 
bIImI Klimulating cxpcdornnie. 6. Hy climulaiinir tho miiiciilnr 
power hy siininlniite nhea U is dclicieiit. G. By local npplicNlions 
to tliD bronchial miicouf^ membranes by inlinhitinii. At ihe thera- 
peutic indications differ id dilTcrotit cases rcquiriu)c cxpcclorauta, I 
S8 Z 



tiM remedies cnlciilatoil to efTcct one or the other of the above 
objects miiist l>v scli'i'lci) ncc'OnliiiK to cirtunutanct^. 

\\ hni (■ir<'iiniKturi(.-vK should • |iuliciit be subjected to while using 
expcutorniiU ? The surfutu iihouIO be Iccpt wnrm, aud IlitniiH worn 
iwxt to the skin. 

A ro cmclk siilxtanccs nsiially uxpwtornnt in «ni«ll down ? Tc« ; 
ipecttciianha in do^cs of 1 loSgroint;; larUir etncttc id dose of 
|th of a grnin ; and tlicir pr«parationa nlfO in tliit proportion. 

What arc Ihe propertiex and u«r« of Squill bx an expectorant f 
It stimuiat«B the tckcIs of the tung«; and where (here is much 
itiftainmaiioD it shunld lie preceded hj tilood-icKing. Tlic officiual 
preparations are the vinegar, wyrvp, oxymel, and tincture. 

Dose of vinegar, f^gs to f^j ; of fyrup and oxymel, from ftj tO 
foij ; of lincture, from 20 to 40 drops. 

What are the proprrfiVs and HSfs of the balb of the AuJCM 
SATiVtia, or Qarliel It is a genoml stimulant, ond promotes 
•xpectoratioD in dcbilitntcd statu of the lunfrs. The e:(prc«(cd 
jniee is often g^veu to cldldren with sugar. Dose, fsu to f^. 

rie. 3«. 


SBitUA. U. S. (Fig. 24.) 

Whnt aro the properiiea and vees of the root of the Polygala 
Btntega, or Seneka t It active principle is sgnfffin. 

It U ft Etimalatin^ expccioraot, and diuretic ; tt also acts mora 
or IcM on all the secrctioDa. 

Vote of poicder, froio 10 to SO (rraine ; of de»xiction, made bj 
boiliug ij of th« root with ,'^j of liqnorice root in Ojss of water lo 
Oj, gJTcn iD doses of f^i lo f^ij, 3 or 4 times a day. It is an 
Ingredient in Coxe^s Hive Syrup. 




Black Snakeroot, Cimieifuga. V. 8. {Fig S5.) 

Wliat are ihe prnpfi hV« and v»es of the rool of the Cimt'ci/uya 
racKmona, or black unttterriol, or cohosh f II Ktimiiin(r« tlic si-rrc- 
tions, niid pnrticulnrly llioae of tlie skin. lii<liicTs, iind brondiioi 
niucoiiB niHiDltmne. 

Dt>*« nT piiwrUr, 10 lo 30 grains; d«coction, fSj to fjij, re- 
peated fretiucDlly. 

AMSSomAO, AmmomacMii. U.S. 

From «!iiil U A tuition i no oblaineJT It ia the Inspfsssted Juice 
of till) Vorcma Ammoniaiitm, uu uiiibellifvroua (ilaiit, (p-OMiiig iu 
Pcniu. It romcx in tears mii) iiiiMt«g. 

Wliiit me li» pritpertif* niiU H»e* ? It li a aliniulaiit aud expee- 
toriint (^iiiii rvMM ; moMlv iined in chronic calarrl), a*lhma, anil 
otli^r pectoral difscnuK. Dmie, 10 to 30 grain* in rinnltioTi or pill 

Lac Atnmnniari (Aniimmine ,"ij ; Aqiia; 0»«) Jfi to Jy when 
^ivni nloriv; it is. liuwirriT, mure frcqucnil; ^ivcu iii combiuntioB, 
or forms a ri-liicie for other rcmwliec 

« AeSAFtETlDA. U. S. 

'Wliat is Ihe chnrecttT of ARfafcelida a* nn expeetorattIT Tt U 
nn odicitnl rxprclornnt und moilprotcstimiiliinl. V'-ifi, 5 to 1& or 
20 grains, in pill oremiilsion. Atifiura Jf«a/a^ida, Lac Atnafcetida 
(Assnfcetiila 3ij ; Atinu; Os). ,)» to z'^i for nn ndutt, 

BAIJIA.M OF Tom, ToUitniiHvn. \J. S. 

From tvbat I* the BulHam of Toll) obtaintd^ The Mifrorylon 
TQlui/friim, a tree (ti'twinjr in tri}|>ic-id AtniTicn. Its efsonlinl 
eoiii>tiiiit-nls are a rculti, voliitilc oil, ui.ii liroKtiie nrid. It is pro- 
carril by iiiciaing the trunk of the tnc, nnd collecting the jaice. 

Wlml nre il* nittlical properties and M»e»t U is • R«ntlj 
gtimiiliLtih),' expi'Ctoruiit. 

Doee, 10 lo 30 grains In emulaion . of tho tinrtitrt, f^j to fotj. 



BAI.8AM or Perc, Myroxyton. TT. S. 

What are ibe properlie* and um« of tlie )mUara ct the Mi/raxy- 
Iwt Fervi/eruvi, or Peruviau BaUara ? Us comttiliiail* nrp & 
rtain, Tolalile oil, aiid beiizoiv acid. It ia & in»ai, ulimulBliiig 
toaic, Btid Mpectorsni. i>ose, fjss. 

Stcuux. Z>om, 10 10 SO grabt. 

BsNZOiif. jDom, 10 lo 30 grains. 

CoPAiEA. Done, iO to 30 dro|tB, In erouMon. 

Utbah. 8timulut!ti(r expectorant. Done, 10 to 80 grain*. 

Oalbanum. Ikne. 10 to SO grainit. 

Elkcaupaxb, or Inula. Dote of decvction (Jm to Oj), f.|j to 


Wood Naphtha. J)o*t, 10 to 40 drop*, three time* a 6a,j, 
wbcB an excitant expeciorant fa needed. 

The Demulcent EjjiecU>rant» are : Oum Arabic, MarshtnaUow, 
Almond*. Olive Oil, Spermaceti, Sugar. Liquorictt, J-'larteed, 
Tragac^inlh, Benrtt, RaxxafrM, Slippery Elm Bark, Iceland 
Mo9». he. 


What Ik meant by the term Cholugnfruc* ? Medieinca wliicli 
incrcate th« flow of bile, either hy Iiicrensinir the Keeretion or fHcili- 
tating it* dix-hnrge fVoin the gall-bkdder. Remedie* may rffvct 
thii objret by relieving IHtallon and poiifronijoii of ihclirer; by 
Bxoiting the jiorlal drculutiou, mei-linnivallj or othrrwiiie ; heat may 
excite lliv hcpatle fuiK-'lioii, and ulsn irritant xuliMnnces applied to' 
the miicoiiR cunt of the diiudtnutn. The DieiUciiinl enbstaDces 
having oholngogne properties are viercuriala, nitromMrioiic acid, 
chlorine ualrr, alot», and dandelion. 


What are EmmetmtpiKuei ? They are medicine* which proinot« 
Ihe raenstrunl diMOiargo. 

How do eRiiiienafrogaea net ? Thvj may act either throngh the 
medium of \\w cirnilalinn ; or by n» icnprtuxitin being made clu- 
where, and extendml nympathiitciilty to the uterine Tcssds. 



How shoiilfl tlniy bn (Eivoii'io u.i to product tlicir full rfffelf A 
Biiort time before lliv re^ulur poriod of uivii»tniutiaii. Th« stnia 
of ihe uterine and geii?rnl syHt^iu nhuiild be ourefiitlj roi^'itU-rnd ; 
if ))lclh»ric, their um; tliould l>c prrcoded \>y di-jilclinn, nnil the 
milder gnw of the chii.-i itliould be u«d. If debility exist, ilio»e ot 
a louic or fitimnlaiil chnrncler uliould be u«cd ; and if const I put ion 
nlt«i)il, the ciitliartic cnitiienngogni.-K arc indicntcd. 

What ore the proprrtif* of the C'liAi.YiiEATrs ns regnrds their 
emneoagogne power ? Tlu-y arc eoiiiiidered (a be inferior to iio 
oilier remedies in tUi» retipuct. nnd nrc uppliralile wlicrc there i« no 
local iiiflaniniitlion or gcncrul excitement. Tbcjr are often combined 
with niocs nnd injrrrh. 

What arc the propurtitn of AL0B8 ns on emiDennpi^e 1 It is 
ver}' efTectivo, and lieticved to exert n Kiiccifie infliicnco on tli« 
uterine feraels, independent of its eathnrlle properly. Dotf. 1 or 2 
grains, 2 or 3 tirne« n day. It niny alio be given in enema, obont 
the period when inen«trantion ihoiild come on. 

What is the dofe of ItiJkCK 1]ki4,kiiohk m an emmenagognc T 
Fri^to f^ss lo f.>i of the linrlurr. 2 or 3 times a dny. 

What arc tlie propcrtrW (ifOtiAiAC a« an I'mnienngoiiue T It is 
applicable in cases nssocinled wilh rbeuraaiiKm. partienlarly in [is 
neuralgic rormc. Used in dytntonorrlia>a eitlier in ihe »imph or 
ammoniaJed (inclurr. Dorr. T'j. 3 or 4 limes a day. 

Wliai are tlie propertie^i of the leaves of the JcMiPEBCS Sasixa, 
or .Sonni! ? They are highly stimnlonl. increase most of tlie were. 
tionn. and particularly ihof^c of the uterus. 

The atlive principle is a volatile oil, called oil of tarinf. It 
•hould be avoided In pregnancy. Dote of ibe jwurrfrr, from 5 to 
20 grains, 2 or 3 limes a day ; of the oil. from 2 to & drops. The 
plant in a native of Europe. 

Whut are ilie pmperliei of Cantiiakides as an emraenagogoe ? 
They exert a powerful MimuUut elTcet over the uriaary and geuiio] 

Doue of the (t'ncturc, 10 to 30 drops tliree limes a day. 


WiMt are Epispastics f Mcdietoes that produce a blUier wbca 
applied to tlie skin. Tbey ai'c called also ivin'cvUort'eft, 



Row do ibcy vxcti & rfraediol Snfliienc« J tij ediiif; iiKtircvtl; 
fls K*'"''^'' stitimlntilK; by tlifir r*?uhive action; by Kiiboiiiiitim 
L tbcir vwii ncii»ii Tor n ■lii'cniivil otie Iti ihe pnrt to nhirli llicy aro 
I tpplied; bj their locnl Miniulii.t; \>y producing local deplclion; 
I bv the pniii th«T occntion, which uav be useful in bir|>oc-boiiilriiicnl 
I ciux^x; 1111(1 tber are employed to separate llie cuticle for tlie }>iir- 
I poM of applying iii«i]iciii««. 

SpANian Fly, Canlharit. V. S. 

What are ihe officinal pre )iAral ions of the Canlhari* veniratorio, 
or .T/wninA Fly. ax an ejiispastic f Tlie Cerate of Spanink Flia, 
commonly called hlitlrring Flatter. Used for blisitriug. 

The Oininitnl, used for mniiitsiniRg a dlscharEe. 

The Plfuler of Pitch willi Spanish flies. Used as a rubefacient 

The Linimenl of Spanish flies, g;encnilly called Decoction of 
Flies in Oil of Turi'etiiine. Uficd as an exienial slimtilaiit. 

What are tlie remedies for ttrangurif produced by cntithnrtdea T 
The milder diuretics, such as Qra uraj, sweet spirit of nitre, muci- 
lagM. Ac. 

Where ere canlharides procured? In Spain and Italy. AcllTe 
principle, cxnlharidin. 

What arc ibe propertie* of the indi^enons insect, the Caiilfiaria 
ViUata. or Poiolofy f They are similar lo the Spanish Hies ; ilio 
chemicvl composition and uses the same. 


Whut are Itubefaclvnts T They are medicines which tnflaiac tho 
akin, and produce redness withoai ordinarily Teaifalliin. 

Whiit are tho indicutiona fur the use of ihU cbisa In preference lo 
Ui>ier» ? In cases where a sudden and powerfhl action in nccea- 
■ary ; and fn caMs wherv a slicbl but lonp^-con tinned action ii 
dekired — in which ca^ the milder articles should be employetL 

Will you enumerate the rubefacients commonly einployod ? Tho 
■eedd of the Sinapta alba oud S. yi'jro, dinliii)fni»licd ai ultit^ and 
ft/ocit in Hsfan/; Cayenne Ptpper : Oil of Tarjienline ; Ruryunilti 
PUf/i. which is the product uf the Abiet ''omnitiwin, growing in 



the north of Europe; Hemlock PSch, or Pix CaNodenri*. "e 
analogous lo the Uiirgiiiidy I'ilcb ; unci Aqua Atnmonttr. wbidi il 
Dtucli used ID coiabinatioD vith street oil u volatile liniment. 


What are Eeclutrotica f Tlicy an substances which dcstroj the 
life of tlic part to which tlicjr are applied, and prodoet sloaghing. 
Th«; opcrnte by cliemiual agency, or by tiiflaeucing tb« titaliiy of 
the pnrt directly. 

What sabsuocGS are asei for this pttrpose J Tbo Actual eautfryt 
Mora; Pol(M»a, or common caustic ; iftlraU o/ Silwr. oi Lunar 
cawtilic; Ar»eniou» Acid, or tbo uAife oxide; Sulphate o/ Cop- 
per; Chloride of Mercury, or Commve tvblimale; Btml 
Alvm ; and the Mineral Acida. 


Wliat are Demnlcenta T They iirc bland mibstances whfdi form 
a viscid solution with water, 

TIuw do demu1ei!iit« act ? When applied to an inflamed turfact^ 
they protect it against irritating matiera. Mixed with acrid sab- 
st&nce'S, they bJniit tlioir acrimony, whirb are thereby rendered Im 
Erhtaling to parts with which they come in contact. 

Whot ini'dicineH are uaed as dcmulcenia ? Oum Arabut, the 
prodm;t of Keternl jipecicii of the Acaeia ; TragarauHt : Rtipprry 
Elm hark, or the inner bark of the Vlmus/ulca; Ftaxtircii, or 
the needs of ibe Linum wilaii»»im um i Lujuoricc Itiiol, or the 
root of the OUjcyrrhiza (/labra ; Iceland iJasi, or Lichen htandt- 
oiu; Irish J/uas, or Carrageen; Sago, the prmloet of the Sagitt 
Itumpliii; Tapioca, the prodiwl of Ibe Jalropha Manihot of 
tropical America ; Arrowltaot, the produel of the Mamnia arvn- 
dinacea of the West Indies; and the Barley, called eommoaly 
pearl barley, or hordeum ficrlatum. 


What are Emollients F They arc mbHtanceHwhicAfeluinRioisluf^ 
and form a eon maiig, without irritating properties. 



What are Diluents 7 They are liquids which dilute the contents 
of the stomach and bowels, fill the bloodTessels, and increase and 
dilute the secretions. Water is the great diluent, to which addi- 
tions are made to give it Qavor. 

Eroot. U. S. 

From what is Ergot obtained ? It is a product of the Secale 
cereah, or common rye. 

What are its properliee and uses ? It yields its virtues to water 
and alcohol. Its active principle is ergotin. It exhibits a strong 
tendency to the ntenis, and operates with energy upon its contract- 
ile property; and reduces the frequency of the pulse. Bread 
made from rye contaminated with it, and long used, will, it is 
supposed, produce dry gangrene, typbns fever, diseases of the 
nervous system &e. 

It is adapted to linfrering cases of labor, where the os uteri is 
dilated, the external parts relaxed, and no mechanical impediment 
exists ; the delay being ascribable solely to a want of energy io the 

Done of the poudeT, 20 to 30 grains ; of the ivfvvion, 3j, made 
with zl of the ergot to fjiv of water, to he repeated every 20 
minutes until its peculiar effects are produced, or sij are given ; 
of ergotin 5 to 10 grains. 

NtJx Vomica. U.S. 

From what is the Nux Vomica obtained T It is the seed of the 
SIrtjclinos Nxix Voviica, a tree growing in the East Indies. The 
oclire ingrcdicnlB are strychnia and brucia. 

What are its properties and vsesf In very small doses, it is 
tonic, and operates upon the secretions. In larger doses, so as to 
produce a decided effect, its action is chiefly directed to the nerrea 
of motion, producing a tendency to permanent, involuntary, mas- 



cnlar contraction. It U sometimes Dscd m parnli-tic affectioni^ *ai 
ii8 action appcnrs to be particalarl; directed lo the pnrU nffected. 
It has also been recommended as &n antipcriodie ; suppoKd b; 
some to posses more permnnencjr of aciioo llian qninliie tii th« 
cure of int^rmiuents. Do»e of the powder, 5 f^raius ; of the alco- 
holic extract, from ^ to 2 grains; of ttrijchnia, (h>m ,'jth to ^th 
of a grain. 

AB8E!tic, Jreenicum. U. 8. 

What are the propertka and u»»a of Arscnioas Aeid F lotcr- 
Dalljr, it is alteratire, febrifuge, and touic, and pccniiurlj applicaliln 
io ditioaeca of a pcrio<lical cliaractcr. Tin; vfCneXt should bu care- 
rally noted, and when llicrc in anjr disposition lo a;dcma produced, 
especially of the face and eyelids, or a feeling of slifTums, tender- 
ncss of the mouth, prickling iu tli« eyelids, iic., it should be (lis* 
continued immediately. It has been nsed in sdrrhuit. nnoini>lans 
ulcers, intermillcnt fever, diseasM of the Itnncs, nnd in cutooeous 
disease«. It is an ingredient in nearly all empirical, cit«rnal 
remedies fur cancer. 

i>o«<;, ^^Xh of a grnin in pill, and taken 8 times m day; of 
Fowter'$ lolution, 10 dropH, 2 or 3 times a day. 

Mercvry, Hydrargyrum. V. 8. 

Wliat are the preparntions of Mercury that are used medicinally, 
and their doses as altrraliue* ot tiaiagogruti Mervurial Oi'nf- 
merU, or Unguenlum liijdrartjyri ; JUercuria! Piaster, or .Biw- 
platirum Hydra rgtjri ; Mercurial Pill*, or Pilula Hydrargyri, 
commouly called bltie pills. Dok, 1 pill 3 times a day as a m- 
tagogve ; 1 «»ery night, or every other night as aUeraliix. Tlw 
ofSeinal pill weighs 3 grains, nnd contnins 1 grain of mercury; 
JUrrciirj/ wiUi cliati; or Hydrargyrum cum CretA, dose, 5 to 20 
gfaiiis twice daily ; Black Oride of Mprcvry, or Bydrargyrx 
Oxidum Nigrum, dose 1 to 3 grains 2 or 2 times a day; Red 
Oxide of Mercury, or Hydrargyri Oxidum Jiutfriim, comnonty 
called red precipilale, used externally as an etclmrolic and afiinu- 
lant — the officionl ointment cnllod Vnguenlum Hydrargyri Ondi 
Rubri: Mild Chloride o/ Mercury, or Hydranjyri Chloriditm 
MUe, commonly called cafonii;', dose, from J a grain (o 1 grain 3 



thncsdAilj; Cnrrosiue Chloride of Mercury, fft/ilrargyri Chh- 
ridutK Corrogivum, cominniily called corrvxive fuhtinialf, Sow 
trom jtti to Jth of n ifruin 3 or 4 tinipg a dav; Ytthw SulptieUu 
o/' JUercvry, or Hydranjijri Sulfthat, Flavut, comnunily cullnil 
Turprlti mineral, ilnsc, as an alterative, from | d grnin to 1 groin, 
and from 3 to 6 grnins ns an emetic — seldom nscd — lomcUiiiuK lu 
an errhine. diliitvd with liv« parts or gtnrch ; AmmonicUed Her- 
«ury. or llyitraryi/rum Ammoniatum, comnKmly cnlkul whiU 
pnvipUai^, iiwd cxtiTnnlly ; Xilrale o/ Mercury, uiied only m no 
oinluicnt, cnlled the Ointment of Nitrate of Utrcury, or l/mju- 
enlum Hydraryyri Kitratiti, vonimonlT cftllcd cilrinc ointment Ji 
Sfd Sulphumt o/ Mercury. Hydrargyri Svifkurtlum lUihrun^^ 
cofnmonljr calkd cinnabar, »»ed on\j for riimigittion ; lilack SuU 
pburrt of Mr.rvurff. or Ilydrargyri SulphurrAitm Nigrum, tot- 
ucrljr called EUii'jpi mineral, scurt-ely evtr uncd B.t pruscut. 

Ioddh. U.S. 

What are the properties &aA ii»e» of lodtne T It operatn u * ' 
general excitant, bni particularly of the glandular and abxorbeiit 

Tf long eontinned, or piten in rery large doses, it give* rise to 
deraugeiDont of (he dcttous system, restlessaess, palpitation, a mrm 
of bnming along the gullet, cxcestivo tbirgt, scute pain in the 
Btomftch, violent ommpR. rapid and grrat crnaeialion. and frequent 
pulse. The condUion of the system in whicb any of these poisoiioua 
effects are exhibited is callci) ioditm. It is used in glandular 
etdargements and morbid growths. Dote j to ^ of a grain 3 times 
a daj. It is never used in powder, but dissolved in alcohol or a 
»atery solalion of the iodide of potassium. Dote of the officinal 
linHure, 10 to 20 drops. 

Tlie Iodide of Polaggium is ofGcinal. Dose. ! to 2 urnins. 
I.wjoVs soiution is iodine 9j, iodide of potassium ifi^. and wuler 
Svil. Dose, 6 drops, repeated todine ointment. X} of lard, and 
9J of iodine. Also fodinc gr. t, hydriod. potasue ^j, ung. 
hjdrarg. 3j, rubbed well togeUwr. 





IPhut arc Antacid*? SubMaocGS capable of comlloiDg with 
Vid neutralizing acid*. 

Wi)nl (iibxiiiiicu nre oitod as antactdsT The carbonates 0/ 
poloita uiid toJa, ammonia, lime, nud magnetiitL 


What are Antheiminlics? Substances which oporat« on vonu 
in the itlimeatarjr canal, and render them casjr gf cxpalsion. 

PuiKUociT, Spigelia. V. S. (Fig. 26.) 


From wliat is Finkroot obininedl It is the root of th? Spig^ia 
Marilanilira, and is Loe oiilj' pnrt of the plant wlii<'h it olfidnnl. 

Wlint arc its propertic* anil vnfn f It is considered to be ono 
af the most powerful of ihc anthelmintics. In ofer doses, it dctor- 

DH to the brain, giving rise to Tcrtigo, dimnttss of visioo, 
Iptsms, &c. DtuM of the powder for a child from 3 to 4 years 
old, 10 to 30 grain*, repealed twice a dnj*. and followed by & 
cathnnir^; sometimes it is combined wiih calomel ; of the in/usion, 
for a child, fjss to fjj. 3 or 4 times a day, mode with %«i of tho 
root to Oj of water; uflea given with Ji>s of senna added, in the 
same dose. 

PatDBOP Chwa, Atftlaraeh. TT. 8, 

Wliat are tie properties of Ibe bark of the root of the J/irfi'a 
Ateilarach, or Pride of China? UMd in dnttction, made by 
boiling Oy of water wlih |iv of the fretih root to Oj. Dose for « 
vhild, 3bs every 2 or 3 hours, and followed by a calhutie. 

WoBUSZED, Ckenopodium. V. S. 

From what is Worm»e:rd obtained^ They are tie sMdi of ttia 
Cfienopodiitm Anlhelmintieiim, 

What is the dose f In giibMtance. bmised, 3j to 3ij for a child ; 
of tho volatile oil, from 4 to 8 drops for a child, repeated twice a day. 

■I^a « 




Whai are the properties oud v»ea of Cowhaoe 7 The spicula 
are vemiifii[^, anH net Rivcliaiiically on llie worn). Dote of the 
electuary fur an adult, S)t* ; foi^ a vluM 3 or 4 ycat^ old, ;;j, 

What is the done of tlie oil <•/ turpentine as an anlhclmintic J 
For an aduli, from f ^si to f JiJ, or even more, followed with caator 
oil ; for cliildren, in proponlon. 



Whftt is tbe do8e of Stasitoh, or Tin, u an anthelmintic f 
From 3j to 5j. 

What are the properiiea of Poukobanatx Babk 7 The bark 
©f the root IS powerfully anthelmintic ; oaed in the expolsion of 
tapeworm. Used in decoctiim (Jij in Og of water boiled to (Jij), 
one-third to be taken efery half hoar. 






Libra »ol llbrro. 
ITncin Til uiiciiii>. 
Drnchnm •<■! ilrochUMi. 
Scnipuliu tvl B<>mpuli. 
Oolariui lei oiTliiril. 
Fluldgiidii Tot duMoncliB. 
Fluittnchian vrl [lui'lrai-hinw. 
Jiliiiimum iH njinimii, 
CbMrlnU tpI L'horluliF. 
Cooblmr T«I eoohlfui*. 
Coapa> 1*1 OMipi. 


Gntliliin irl jcrnti*. 
am la Tc] gulM). 


Pilula Tal pflulM. 
PdI*!) *rt puUeTM. 
Qanntum luOielL 

51 EDA. 



or cnch. 

A pouiiJ or pnuniJa. 

An ounf a or ouhps*. 

A dmohin or ilrachmiL 

A wruplw nr wru]>l(j«. 

A pint or pinla. 

A flaidouiicv or fluldoanoei. 

A lliildrnclim or fluiilraofami. 

A tiiinliii iir niliiiniM, 

A pmiill pnpor iir jiiiisr*. 

A lipooiiful or BpDOIlfult. 

An cyt-walcT, 

A gnllon or giilloDi. 

A iluauctiou. 


A garble. 

A in^iD i>r mini. 

A drop or f^opi. 

A ilrnui^t. 

An infuuoQ. 


A miiH. 

A nil lam. 

A pilt or pill*. 

A po»it»r or powdnv. 

A luRioieiit quMilitj. 


A half. 









^ B, Anlimaail al Putuw TulrMla, 

^^r ?ut>i<H9 IlicoaaOIBlMBi, Si- 

Fiat pultis, 

To bo ufcoD In ft wiseglftMtUl cf 

•w«*t«n*d valtr. 
An n«ti>* finrtle. 
B. Iltilnriurl C'hiorldl MIU*. 

epulrwia Jalaii*. £■ gt' T. 
8. To be tnkcQ in lynip or molnnM. 
An ciccllpDt oaihurtio in iho eom- 
nieiic«inniil or blllniii tcten, 
■till ill h»|miic oiiiiKiuiCion- 
ruWerit JnlH)i». fT. X. 
TolnHB Bilailralis, 3li, 

To be (Bkro in *7Tap or iDOlnaseK. 
A bydnLgoKUC DaUiurtio. uiod in 
dropiqr And •orora'allii iulliini- 
mation of (bajoinW. 
SulpburiB. 31. 
PotMiB IliUrtnttil, 5IL 

To b« taken la ayrap or motuiD*. 
A I nil live. uwH in pile* and enU- 
ncoUB diipatei. 
B. Pulverit Ilhci, gr. s. 
Miig^noilB. JH. 
Fi«l pnNln. 

ES Tn bL' tiik«n in ■fnip or moUnta. 
A laxBiivf and uilaold. tusd in 
(tiiirrhiKn. djvpeiwiii. &e. 
B. Pulverla AdiIIb. k'. tii. 
PiilniugD Nilnitin. ^\, 
Fi*t piilti*, in cburtulM lox dltl- 











On« tc bo taken twiM or tfari^ 

timca a da; in lyTap w moUmm 
A dinretio. employed Id 4rop*y. 
fnta^N* Nitmi*, 51. 
AntimoDll M l>au«Mi Tftrtratla, 

njrlmrpjTi Chlorid. Mitln. p-, *i 
F^al pulila, In chulula* aci dl*l< 

Od« I* b* Ukan •Tf>r7 Vwo honra 

in •ymp or molawi. 
A rerrigmnt, diapbantlc. and «]• 

Unllvf. unci in bilious feiror*l 

Uoiially roll*(| mmut favdtrM. 
Pnlrerii GukIioI KmIbb, 
PotauB Nilralli, ii Ji. 
Putrtrig fjioMO. gr. lii. 
Opii, dr. ii. 
Fiat pultli, in eharmlM mz ditl- 

One to bp Iflkcii mfTj tbr** boim 

In ■jiriip nr molniMi. 
A ntlniaUiii diaphorclie. lutd in 

TbtiiniKliom and goul afW mtt> 

ciriil 'Irplolion. 
P«rri 8ubiraibi>nali>, 
Pnlvftri* C'lliirnluv. 
PalieHi Zmeibrrin. U 3L 
Flnl piiWlt, in chkrlalu nz iUtI- 

One la be Inken thr«« time* • daj 

In 17m p or nial*Mni. 
A Ionic, uwd in djapepnii and 

f«D«ni dolHlitf. 


PnlnrU ATnoB. 
Pnh«ri]t Rboi, Si ^t*. 
Eaponia ^i. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^r ^^^^^^^^^^^1 


^^^^1 lXTKMPOBAtlKOI!8 

' 4 

P8 E8CHIFTttJ!ta. 401 M 

^ UlfM, «t nam nqoa Hat musa in 

oumplicnltd with organia tIm- I 

^^F plIolM ilgloU diviilcndn, 

ovtal diarai*. 1 

f 8. T>o or thnt iv tiv ukm dallf. >t 

B. rut>nii> Opii. gt. It. M 

^^^ bcdtimo, or before a mvbl. 

Pulrcrit Ipei'aousDbM, fT. nU. ^^^^ 

^^B An cMrllenl luiulite iii huhUntl 

PuWcriii Acaoin, ^^^^ 

^^V con>li])Hiinn. 

Syrupl. Si q. •. ^^^^ 

IT B. Hum PilultniDi Hydriu-gTri, 

Mi*r«, vl Hal tiiauK In pllulai duo- 

|^^_ l^Werii AloDi, 

deciln diTidcnijn. 

^^m PulTcrif Khel. u gl. 

S. One to b« takfti after MOb alool. 

^^H BJiKc cl cum aqoft fitl muss In 

Ad anodyne diapborclio, luorul in 

^^P pllulu Tlglnii diri'lpnitn. 

djifiiicfj and dinrrbna, afUr 

1^^ 8. Tllrec to bo lakcn at brillitne. 

til* iiKt of laiatitm. 

L An kllaratlvo itnd Iniutivc. aiiful 

B> Pulicrii Opii, 

^^L in oaDatipnliuii. willi Jfenugfil 

Piilirrie Ipr^paounnka-. aS, gr- 111- 

^^V or (hfl(il«nl bcpalia tciitetioD. 

lljdrnrgyri Chloridi Miti*. gf. It, 

f B- Puheria Aloe«, 

PulTpiif A«aoiK, 

^^ EtttBCti QuMsin, H gi. 

14yrapi. hS q. a. 

^K Otei Anl*l, T)f X- 

liltoft, «t Bat raawa in pUulaB tre* 

^V ^ ejiupi. q. ». 


r HU«e, «i Gat muut in pilolM brt- 

8. One or mur« to bn inkm it b*d- 

1 ginta dliidcnilo. 

(iiDo, or ucorUing to drcum- 

1 8. Two to bn tnkiii onoi, twice, or 


^^K (bi«t tiutca a ciny. 

An aDodjuo. tiaphorMic, and al' 

^^H A laiailT*, tonic, and camunatiro. 

ten tiro, Tcr7 luefUl imUairhiMi, 

^^ niofQl in djipepub 

dy>ciitDr7. Ifphoiti pncnmooia, 

U B- Pol*' tl<>«<. 

mid tarious sihor dupawa. 

^^ Sapo Alba. 

B. t'iuinbl Acelatla In pulicron trili, 

^^H Mjnbn, 

gr. «ii. 

^H Awnr-vtida, iS ^u. 

PulT«ri» Opii, gr. 1. 

^^P Mbo«, (it flflt mnHs ia {nlulnii Iri- 

Pulv. AcnciB, 

f sin la iIiriilaiKl*. 

Kj-Tupi. Lo. q, *. 

t S. One 01 two lu b« MkcD aCter oncb 

Vl flit mania in pilulu lel diii- 

^^H mpal. 


^^1 llMful ia proinollnR digetlion, nod 

8. Ononerylwo.lbroc, orfourhoori. 

^^B ntiariiiK puin and uiica«lugM of 

An lu-iriiigoni mncti rmpbjpd in 

^^■^ th* itoniBcli- 

bnmoptj'ali and Dlerlno licmor- m 

[ B PoWori* SclllB. >)i. 

rhaito. 1 

^B iljdnrarri Chlaridl Mltla, gr. x. 


^^M PolToria AeadB. 

MlXTdRU. ■ 

^^1 STTvpi, ii q, ft. 

B. HagnMiiD. ^i. ^^^1 

^^B UImw, at flat maMa io pilnta* 


P dNcm 'liridsndn, 

TcfTB >inml. tt ('ITando ^^^H 

L 8. One [41 bo (skon two or throe timce 

Aqua; Acidi Carbaniol, fjiv. 1 

^^L • daf. 

Pint bau*tii«. 1 

^^H A iUnr«ll« and altrrotlvf. niieh 

it. To be tnkcD at a draiigbl. Ibp ia\tr 1 

^^^H ii'ocl En drop^j't upcf^^an^ whca 

tare b«ing woll ■bakon. 1 

^H w 




I *03 


OF OOMMOX ^^^^^1 

^^L Au agTc«nble ncde of ftdminliiiir- 

aqi"" nirniliB («■«; drln n)i>um 

^F log mngneiila. 

B-ijipc. rt lionitn iiir?: dsnique 

K. Mil mil*, 3>. 

aqiiAiii reliqoam pnnlatia In- 

FtenUM eaiitmi, 3L 

funds, ct omnia mlicn. 

A>|U» hiillientir, rji*. 

S. A titbl«>pBoririil In bi* liiken trtTf 

FUl inraaum et cala; dolo •4)**>' 

liaur, ur Iwu lioiira, lill it apo- 

y Mnfcnmiw oarbonalu, !Jii. 

ratet. the miiiun bdne oaok 

1 Kl. Mi»I. 

lime ««ll uliahfn. 

L B. Uii«-(liinl lo be taken crery Ihree 

Uied u a gmdo lualiro in dyion- 

^^L or four faonn lill it oporale), Ibu 

tcrj and diortboea. It ■■ d>uiiI1/ 

^^f miitun bii}iiis aliiikpn. 

knnira by the nani« uf tlt^meni 

[ An pinvllpnl oriniiinniiTt aii'l miH 


1 IdiiiiWc. in ll.i(ulaiic« uid pnln 

B. EUti-rii. ifT. 1. 

In 111 11 1>Diiv1». 

Spirilai -Eiliorl* Sitricl, fg(). 

B. oioi iiioini, rjt. 

Tinclum ^oills, ^^^H 

PultBi'la Acocln, 

Oiymvlli* Colclilol, Sa fjM. ^^^H 

SMohnri, uH 5!!. 

Syrupi, f^L ^^ 

Aqiii* Monlbai 11 peri tw, f^iil. 

KU Mift. 

AcAPinm <il niicohnrum cum lluld- 

S. A ii-nipoonriil to be tAken tbree or 

nnda dlRiidU Hquni menilm 

fourtinifit a day in a lilileoaier. 

lrr<<: d«in olvuni ii'ljiof, <t cod- 

biiKuilc. u*od in Farriar dropiiy. 

lero ; dcDiiup aiiuiiio rellqimm 

B, CopnibK, 

^^B pNalntim uifunde, et omnia 

tiplritus [ATtinduIee Comp., is 



^^ 8. To l"* Ukkva al a ilnii)[ht. Ihn nii- 

Miu'llnpni* AoMin, fgsa. 

lure buing wull eliukon. 

Synijii. r.jiii. 

B- oiei Iiioini, r^i. 

Vllvlliiia iiri uiiiug. 

Simultcrci deln pauInlimaffuTid*, 

Aqun, r JlT. 

TvTB >iinul, et oilde, 


Syrupi. f Ji», 
[ Aqug» Mviitlu* r>p«itai, fjil, 
Fl faaiiiL 

S. A tahlmpoonAil to ba taktn foul 

timpi ft dny, ur inor» frfjupiilly. 

Givnn in chronln cntnirh;. and 

S. To bu takon nt a drnuglil, Ui* nil- 

clirouia npphKlic alTroTioov. Th« 

tare bpinj; well ihakon. 

d(-tc muat be larger in gonor- 

Tlii» and Itie |ire«sdlng rormuln 


1 afford ODnvrniont DiodeJi i>r ad- 

iVrufrol Matan, ^^^k 

minirtcriiiK omtor oil, nhcn (ho 

B. Addi Cilrici. f^i. ^^| 

■lomnoh it iirituMc. Any "lUizr 

OIci Limoaii, IffH. ^^^| 
Simul l«rc, at addt^ ^^^| 

flxfd oil may be givaa io tli« 

Mme way. 

AijUie, r;{iT. ^^H 

Q, OIci Iticini. f Jina. 

Liqoa. •[ adde, ^^^H 

Tlnclunn (>|>il, T|P lU. 

Putan-o? Ciirbunnli*, q. a, ftd Htn 1 

1'bIt. Acncin, 


S-iocliari, h5 3ij. 

MUo«, CI p«r lincmm cola. ^^^| 

Ai|iiw MoiiDin Viri'llt; f^lv. 


Acudam ct saodinTuiii oiiin palulo 

B' Sued Llnonij recenlj^ fj'*- ^^^| 

10X0. 408 1 


^^P Vttumm CuboBMlIf, ^ k ad nta- 

Sjwpi, tin. 1 

^^"^ nnilnra. 

Aqwc SuiUlU, f |l*. ^^1 

U UicCB et tote. 

Fl ^^I 

1 S. A toblMpMsfal 1* im givta wilk 

S. A lablcBpoonM to b« Ikkm eeea^^l 

I *A oqiMl qaanliljr of ««Mt Vf«*7 

rioiwlljr. 1 

^^L boor M tvo heat*. 

An «ipM<iirmnl and uioJjn* opogh 1 

^^L^^ Ab •imUmK itt>pkar«ti« is Urr». 

niitnro. 1 

B. Acidi Nitnxri. f 3I. ■ 

^^^^^H^ l^mttMf ffrvrnfiL 

Tloctun* OjMI, ((t xl, ^^^ 

f %. PolMMB Cwboutu, 3iL 

Aiutn Cani|)hmv, f^Tui. ^^^| 

L^ AqM, fjlt. 

Mbee. ^^ 

^^fe liquft. 

8. Oni-foarllt lo b* tslitn etcry Uirw 

^ Or, 

or four boun. 

1 g. FoUww Bi«Btban>tk, jifj. 

Bo[<e'a miitniTi u«t<d in djMnlcr;, 

^K l^aw. fji*. 

diurhcM, and chelon. 

^V U^w. 

B- Canphono, ^. 

P 8. AdJ k litblMp«o&M or tb« i<o>nt!<in 

Mfrrh*. Jn. 

IL Is the «uo« qfUMllty at Itniou 

PuIt. Ac»eit», 

^^B or limr juleo. prttlourij' lalinl 

i^ncvhiiri. U 3II. ^^H 

^^H wilh » Ulil«rT>aaiiru) of mtMr: 

Aqur, fj^Tl. ^^^1 

^^M ttnd fiff tbv mUturr. in ■ iriiit* 

CBDipliorun CDDi oUobaUi paalnlo 

^^H of efftrrrKciieo. ererj hoar or 

in palTerem tun ; dtln com 

^^H two boor*. 

tnjtrrbn. m^ntiit, ct laofhntu cod- J 

^^H Aa eiccllmt iliiphorvtio and anti- 

Urt ; dcniquo cuin aqua paali- 1 

^^B tnotie in ttyvr, >itb dbum* or 

tin iutiiilata nuMe. fl 

^^H TonltiBg. 

S. A lablwpoonful to b* laka n for • V 

doM. Ui* miliar* boing woU 1 

^^T Atom* Slaturt. 

■haktn. " 

U B- Pol*' BxtnoL OjreytThuM, 

1 Pul>. A<*el». 1. 5II. 

\n% raiuiibor. ■ 

1 Aqua r»rTriiIi>, t^iv. 

B- Creio! pr»pant)D, ^l*. 1 

^^K Liqus, «t nJi]*, 

Miu»ni Pil. Ilydtani, KT. Till. 1 

^^H Tini uitimbiiii. f^L 

Tinelorot Opii. gtl. tUL ^^^H 

^^M Tlnctun* Opii, Ifftx. 

PuItoHb Aououet ^^^H 

^V Pt. MUl 

8(irc)iiirl. Su ,^. ^^^H 

f S, A Ublwi|)Oonful to bf Ukaa ocM- 

Aquo Cinnuinomi, ^^^| 

^^^ tlonallf. 

Aqnn. Ur.';. ^^H 

^^K Blpcctonnl, dfmulccnl, uid ntio- 

Solida ilinul t«e. Jcin llqiiiil* pan* 

^^V (!;<>■>> lutcTuI in cftUrrtis] altoo* 

laiin liihvr Urfinlun a<{iiM, oi 

^H Han*. 

Mnnia tniHoe. 

^^ B< Anlimonti M roloMm Tutmtia, 

A leMpoonfiil (A M \ttktm for « 

L er. j. 

doM (be mixture b»iiig well 

^K Sjinipl S«II1». 


^^1 Liqiuorii tlorphie Sulphnlii, £E 

An antacid andaltrratirvinlalitr*, 

^1 r^*^ 

wrll nilnplvil to (ntiintile ii\nT- 

^^^^^ Fi^M^ A«aelM, jil. 

rhiFB wilb white aloala. Tb« 



^^L dan vmnttonad li for k child a 

B> Qoinia SnlpbtHa, p. xU. ^^1 

^^1 jeat or twu old. dim] •nn}' bt> 

Acldi Solpliorioi AtOMaUcl. Tlfii- 1 

^^H rrponlf'l focir ur tix UmM in 

8.rrupi, f^ra. ■ 

^^B tvint.v^r»ur honn 

Aqua UtDlliB PIporitM, rjl, J 

^^B Q. Piilvurif Kian, ^ii. 

UiM)*. ^H 

^^B AqUB ballieulif. fjvi. 

8. A tcaipoourDl to b« t«kMi I^^^H 

^^B Fi»E iuriipum rl c-ilii; doiii Mcun- 

liuur. ur t«B kom, 1 

^^V <Juin iirtFin ndniliiea. 

A Bood mod* of nJnlBiiiNrlBf m1- ■ 

^H B. Crela pmpnnU*, jfU. 

phslc of qnlnl* Itt lototkfc 1 

^^K Tinctuna Ojiii, t^m. 


^^M Spiritiu LaTaiKtnliit ootnpotiti, 

IsroaioML ^^H 

^^P PalTwi« ArnRiw, 

3> Sennto, sill. ^^H 

^H 8a«chui, BB ^ii. 

tUgncna Salpbatii^ ^^H 

^^1 6> A tnbtMpoonful to b« t>k«n far ■ 
^^H dam. the iniitiiTs beiag itell 

MuuM, Si Jn. ^^H 
Fnnloult. 5I. ^^^ 
Aijnoi bulllvdllK, Om> 

^^M JL*triiig«nt luiil uitaold, aMfUl In 

Mncpm ffT horkin in tm* hiltcr 
elnuiD ct eo1a. 


S. Qlre > tcaenpfal ^rtrj Ibre* or 


four hoon till it ofxmlo*. 

^H B- Magnpuloi Sulphittli^ Jj. 

Au iiicvlli?Dt puigkliTo {u ftbrii* 

^^B 8jru|<j LiiRODiii, f,^i. 


^H AquB Acldi rmbonlci, f JtI, 

B. Coiumb* Contuiw, 

H MUc*. 

Zingib*ri( ooulinU, U J«^ ^^J 

^H 6. To bv tuh«ii nt ■ drsnght. 

Sonnai, ^L ^^^| 

^H An tgrecnblD miHlo of adniln!*ter- 

Aquni bullienlin, 01. 

^^p liiK nalpliNlD of (iingniviik. 

Mneoni por hnnuD In tm« lerUir 

^H B< PoCaHnc Nilntia, ^i. 

olauM Vt cold. 

^H Antlnonii <t Poloun Turtratto, 

S. A winrglnurul lo b« Inkos morn- 


ing. noHD. and oToaiiig, or In 

^B AqviB flnTialii, tgir. 

fmqusnl!;. if It opentM loo 

^H Li qua. 


^H fl. A Uhltiapoanftil to b» takm trer]' 

An ricelleni rcnodj-ln ijtprpu*, 

^H Iwn Iiijiim. 

miib eonalipntlon uid flkimknM. 

^H A r«rngcmit dikpharetjo, used in 

B. BplEdlo. |m. 


8«nnB. jii. 

^V R. Mii|cn«*<ip,8<i1ph>tiii. ^, 

llnntiB. Jj. ^^^1 

^H Anllnrinti *t P( ijmhk Tartrntis^.l. 

Poiniciili. fiL. ^^H 

^H Siioci Limoiiii roeoiitli, f Jl. 

-tqtio) biilll'tltli, Oi. 

^H Aiiiin, fjiii. 

M^urprn prr honm In tom htilm 

^B MiMO. 

flnuiio Dtesta 

^B B. A tnlilraponnful to be lAk«n ttpiy 

S. A winTgliiBiind to b* ||l**n to • 

^^B two hnnn till it operalcs on the 

oUlld from two to faurTun old, 

^H bowoliL 

Uirv* or four limM » ittj 

^H^ OmAiI In fexn. 

A poirorriil nntlialnninlto. 



PalTBrif CtncbonD. Rubra*, ji. 
Acidi Sutpharici Aromalici, fji. 
AqUB. 01. 
HacCTa per bora* dnmlecliDi mb- 

Inda kglUtu. 
A frlntflwaTuI of lit* iHeu liijiiM 

to be ttkni Tor m don. 
A Bond tucibod of afhnlnlitsriiijc 

PvniTUn borii in coIJ infuaibn. 
. Bit. lljrMejiun. gr. x. 
Vlnl antim. f.'flj, 
Ei^bC limp* fnnr limp* • dtj to in 

infini > jnu did, in vhaaplnit- 

CQUgh. {llu/ilmiJ,) 

. A^. fo-nlcnH. t^^. 
Tin! AnlinMinit, T^). 
EiL hyofcyiim. p-. I|]. 

A lf»fpooiiful «»»ry 1*0 boon to 

kn infnnl fram >tx to twelTe 

UDDtbi oM, *■ n ooagb mlliurp. 

( Ko^O 

Kii. bvlls'lriiiitn, icr.J. 

Ai. diotil. ^. 

To infanlH. fiir drops four timta ■ 
k d^, in vhuopliig cough. 


TtncL rcriiil. (tt. Ii. 

opii, ^t. u. 

Aqns font f JJ. 

Twonly dropn to a child fmm tun 
wwka loonomonih, in colic : if 
■ot r*lloT«d In lialf nil bmir. Ivn 
drap* moTo— lncr(iulii)[ ilio dosu 
M lb* chilli adTitucw In am. 



. Mafii. enrb. ^aii, 
TincL Aoi. f sJ. 
Aq. topnlh. fjtj. 
Sjmp. ntlh. fiy. 
SI I miilnra. 
A icaapoonftil vmry hour for an 

inflint or rix nioniho, ti-nubled 
witb aoldltj uf the nlonmob. 

B. Aquv fniilonli, ^ij. 
rciIaMir btcaib. 30- 

Syrupi. fJJ. 
M. A 'loMPlUpooaful occiuHaimH;. 

( IlamiUen. ) 
B- Polnup) bicnrb. 31*. 
Aq. dcitil. f jiai. 
8. Too to forty dropn dally In Infan- 
tile ooDvnlidont. (Uamilioit.) 


Et. Crctio. pr. lij. 

Wosch. gr. (iS. 

Crifi, gr. i. 

Fi, puW. doni. ittl. doa. Be. W. 
8. Oos «Tar}' boar far no infniil. 

B. Mr^fbi, gr. tJ. 

Amiiian, ictqultnrb, gr. It, 
Sm^oliuri nlbi, ^iij. 
Mir-ot! tcrviido, ct nddo, 
Aq. Dor. anmbucl, JUa. 
M. Sit miatiiiii. 

8. A Irospniitirnl otn-jr hour in infkn- 
tile e.U. ( WaidL) 


B' Pu1t. Ipocacunnhn, 

Caloniclaiiiiii, Ki gr. s. 
Saccliar. nlbl, er. 11. 
8. fhm or l«n paini c*erj lorotid or 
thinl li'iilr, >!■ nn Mpccloinnt in 
bronchial Irrluiion. 

IJivamim aid SlavnuU,) 
B. Dfcoef. poljK- *cn*K. f^i'lji*- 
0»jin«l. wlllw, f^ij. 
Vini ipMRO, l^lj. 
Anlitii. tart. gr. J. 
8. Ten mininiH lo b lomplo, ai an 

B. Mini. aoMolat. f|lM. 


or OOHHOIt ^^^^^^^^1 

^K AquN puns, fjiijo- 
^f Byrupi, rjw. Al. 

AinuKQiSTt. ^^^1 

S. A taaipocmriil eioij two or threr 

R. Ity>Ir. c. orela. gj. 1 

boun, for kd liifitnt b«iD four 

PuW. ipMM, oointK 31), ^^fl 

to nix moDtha old. 

MiLgn. cub. 31*. ^^^1 

Q. Rd. ■Miog. ^M. 

T«rt beno aimul. ^^^B 

Infus, In «. q. uq. TsrvM. p«r ^ hor. 

S. Four (0 «U grain*, u k ■cdntiv* 

^^m oolanr, f jW. 

for la£uit«. [CfftinJ.) 

^H AiMa. 

ft. Ci*M» ppL Jiij. 

Tinot, tli«buo. gt. sjt Tel ixx. 

^^P S^rvp. AltlidtH). f^. 

01. oinnBDi. gt. J. ^^^^ 

g. A. tSMpo«nful CTer; (iro hotin lo 

StwhM. »lb. Jij. H^l 

KB infant. ( )Pn<((.J 

Aq. font. fjij. M. ^^^ 

g. Potnts. tlH. ^. 

8. A tcaspoonrul eTcry two, throe, w 

VIn. »ntitn. f;jMi 

four bonra. (^onh.) ■ 

Aquie annlhi. {5]. 


^H EiL glj-cyrrb. ;;). M. 

KxTiitNAi. ArpkiCAnoM. ■ 

Aq. t<r.. t3J. ^H 
TluoL onnlhuHd. fli. ^^^H 

8. Ooo or two Iciipoonfali for m 

infant of twoltc or nightcoa 

monllii^ in catarrliitl lurti. 

S. AaeiDbrooktloiilAwboopingBOUgb. ■ 



B. Pulf. Ip«e*e. gr. UJ. 

)J. 01. oliT. f|g. ^^H 

TulT. ooiMln, 

01. Kuooin., ^^^H 

MiHuc*. <]Bib. Ha 3*1. 

01. Mrjropb.. U, gm. V 

1 Sa'rhnrl lObi, ^. M. 

8. AnwnbTontion in whooping ooogb. 1 

1 Ft. puliiii <li*ul. In lij aquklBB 

B. Sulph. eopri, gij, 1 


Pair, unobon. Jm. ^^^H 

8. A poviIcT vterf two boon in 

Aqn., t%ir. ^H 

wboopln^ avDKh, ( Vvtgv.) 

8. To b« npplisil twiof K dnj lo ft 

B. Unutune opii oamph. f Jj. 
1 Vln. nnlioi, f,;"*. 

g»ngr«n« of tli« obock. 

{Dr. Cmml) 

8ucc. glycyirb. ^iij. 


Puir, g. Bcnulni. 3IJ, 

K- PoUm» mlpbiir. Jvj. 

Aqiin femul. fjij. 

Aciuip, Ibj. 

1 8. A leiiBpoonful erery two or tbrne 

Tbli batb diaWra rtnm lh« utillatsl 

^^m haan diirinj; the night, lo ■ 

B*ri|to wiitar, In cuntnining half 

^^f ebild lii Dionthi old, in (ronble- 

Iho qtutntlly of latpburot of p(^^_ 

■omo cougb. {Dnrit*.) 


B> Emulsia nmyitd. ^i*. 

3. L'>odlnp»n. (ff. A* AtlbM.f^^ 

8ymp, nimpl. Jj. 

fi. Sulph. nibllm., 1 

Oum. trnRin'iinlh. gr. ti. M. 

Acplnlis pTumbi. Ek ^, H 

^^ B. To bo jitcn by tho lertipoonfiil. 

Zlncl aulph. JIB, H 

H (ir. iTm ^vo 

1 i 

8. Dm<1 In p*ot«. {H 4t U ITdMra.) 1 



En n ATA. 

STnip, TiolH, fjij. ■ 

B- Syrup. ii«p»». rgrj. 

Bene odmiioc, el adile, fl 

ItMOeL km^rli, f^Tlij. 

AquB mealb. f|J. M. 1 

8. Id diurbo* of ioruiti. 

S. From f jj to fgij eTory Uiiid hoar. 

{H. 4i to Maltm.) 

until tu vBuct U pnxluao<L 

B. Cup. pi^AT. No. |. 

(iCvontMi «nJ JtaunteU-i 

J)«ooc. lini. Ibuj. 

B- loftiid tinnnn. JJ. 
Aqua mcuthB, Jh, 

Maeiidl*, 3J' ^^^H 
Minnie, jU. ^^^| 
TinoU thci, 3). ^^^ 
Sjrrap. rosm. t^ij. M. 1 

(ir. A ta JTatCTK.} 
B. C«p. p»pii». gy. 

A<)iiip, IbJ. (£r. lb) £y/im<.) 
B- Amyli. 3J. 

AquK. Ibij. (J7. da Sn/ant.) 

B- IHor, titOimnldl*, 3^. 

Aquw. Ibj, 
B. Fl cii«n». For icfuitilD «aUo. 

S. Prom 3) (0 jO tvvry thinl hour. 

(AVwinn and JVuunmJI.) 

B. M*^. pnloio. Ju. H 


Put*, rhal, itr. *J. ^^^ 

B- !'■>'*' n't- J'lap- RT. XZlV. 

Snvohar. *lbi. 3). ^^^| 

^^K C>1am«lkno*. gr. W. 

01. mcliib. gt. ij. ^^^^ 

^^U 8«uch«ri bib. 5^, U. 

Aquft, f^uu. ^^^^ 

^^H Fl pulrii. dirid. In s]] pnrtM 

S. A duarlipoonful eror.T tvo faonn. ^1 

^^B vquitlcB. 

(//. rf-^nir.) 1 

^^^ 8. A l4a*paenful )»!« 11 d«y for k 


^ lU monlhs' lafnst. In otutniDttoD 

SMinot. fl 

^K «f lii« bovcli. ( IFmA.) 


^^^ B- CUomelanoa. gr, Itj. 

B. Vbl uiCJiD. i%—. ^H 

^^H PnIt. rhei, 

Bjrop. iltiifDiB, f Ji- ^^^ 

^^f Ol*04ao«li. rcBDtO, IS 3J. 
r Ft. pulrii. 

ft A i«iuipooiifiil tvtry quarter of an 1 

houi to a cbild tbrwi or four 1 

^^^ ft OB»-llkii<i of the abaTs qaimtitj U 

nonihs uld. { H'oidl.) 1 

^^m * dot* for Ml laUnt, *» a tnia- 

B< PdIi^. ipsoac. gr. x^j, ■ 

^W Um. (/V««JW.) 

Syrup. alntpL f Jj. ' 

1 B. 01. rioini r^ilj — (t. 

ft A tMapoonfal «T*ry qowtM of u 

|^_ PuIt. inciK, 4. •. 

bour la an inlftal Gtc or lix 

^^1 Aq. fiBn!«. f^ij. 

moDlha old. 

^^1 UannM, ^u. 
^^H FSkI imolaio. 

B. VIq. anlim. 318. 

P ft A J«»ortjpoonftil, rcpcfttod ivrery 
1 hovr liU it aporaMi. (^<?wiiA. ) 
B. (H. rioioi, f Jb. 

OiTmol. toillv, f3ij. 
S. A teaapoonful for an infant at Iha 

^_^ Byrop. nm, f|«. 

B. Aq<i», fJJ. 

^B Tltel OTi DD. 

Vini ipouD. f Jm. 

^^^ TInat *aDD», jIm. 

Byrupi, fjM, 

I ft Om mt two ipoonfali for na infttnt. 

ft On* or two drachni ft^uoatly. 

1 S- Muhk, Jm. 

tin Tomitine voniot. 

1 Ennltlc u*b. f JM 

(£^<ai»«i anit Mamttttl.) 

^fc KJ~^^ 



^^P ToNioii Aa» BnMctAsnd. Tin. opll, ^ ^^^| 

B F«rri »rt. 5J, 

8. Anodjmo collj^riun. To be nud 

Sjrup, limpl. q. a. 

wb«n Ibtro it groal p^in. 

M. Ft. boU, No. iij, 


B. Ax • lonio for dcbllllatnl lafaiiU. 

B- FltiTM Uithtmtdlf, 

{U. del £V<iM-) 

AO«t. ooTDiuun,. Sa Jiv. 

R Clnohouie, Ju. 

A OOmnioD ivTulsive. 

Aqun, IttJ. M. 

(if Hh Eii/ant.) 

S, To 1m >i>»J u kd (iDprnn icbcQ tb« 

B. CaUplMin. ODal. IbkJ. 

alDmach rcjaob DlncUotift. 

VnK.r«daM.^. M. 

( H. da Xi^am.) 

Cfornl 1« bwten tha lappunttloa 

B. Aqua deitillBE. fJlH. 

of k plil»|i;lnaooii« luiauf^ 

^m Quiiitt iJlhulpb. p. t). 

B. PutT, lini. i|. a. 

^^H A«t'l. aulpli. Hroinal. gtt. nj. 

Dbooo, rail, iilth. q, •. M. . 

^^ Synii'i cary»ph, f,5"- M. 

Ad cniullifnt oBtapUim. ^^^H 

1 8. From one lo two tlraolimB thrioe a 

B- Calaplun. emol. ^iv. ^^^H 

1 dflf. [KruHioa and JfawmlL) 

Parlna ilnap. ^w. M. ^^^| 

^^ U;. Sal. Iitartis, igr. ij. 

U>«d M a MItulliTa. ^^^1 

^^L Acid. Bill ph. gL X. 

(tf, i/m fittou.) 

^V Snevliiiri ii)l>l. 3J. 

P Aqtui font. U, 


^^ OoMy 5J in aliroiiio atoget of choI«ra 

B. 8p, ainiii"". Mpom. (ju. ^^^J 

^^L infkntiun. iCkapman.) 

Sjrup. altfacn. ^^^| 

^"^ W;ki Wnn. 

AqoB fivnicull, f^J. H. ^^B 

1 It. Laolia n«. Omi. 

8. A Uaipoonful for an mfKal crerj V 

1 Vin. Mlb. .^ »ei3«j. 

baur. (Avafaa.) fl 

^^ 8. Doil ttit milk, tban ndi th« wtn*. 

ALTRaATtra. H 

^^B Bktihiai. AfPtioArtoxa. 

B- Calomelano), gr. iij. ^^fl 

'^ B- Onguont. cetMci, Jj. 

AnijU, 3*. ^H 

Oxyii »in«i. 

Sofcb. »lb!, 3ita. M. ^^H 

full. Ijcopodi), ii •)■•. 

Ft. puWl) dirid. Id iU paMtfl 

S. Dieful in ulooraliun of tlio vjreltdi. 

B(|uiiloa. H 

^^ AquMfarronC |iT, 

S. On* IbrlM a dajr In infiatU* I 

■j-phiKa. (ITmiJl.] 1 

^H APOIRECAIIIES' WEIOIIT. CT 5:, Load., St., ZMi ^^| 

^^B Found. Oiuocs. Drachm*. SoraplM. CMlfc^^^H 

^m lb 1 = 12 = 90 = :f8a B GTOO ^^ 

^H j I ■■ S = 24 c= 4W fl 

H «0 ^fl 

H 3 1 « gr. » ^m 



OiHon. PIam. Fluidamioca. Ftuiilnuilims. Mlaiou. Cable fnebe* 
CMig. I = « » 128 = ma = 61440 =• Illl 

1= le = ]28 = 7CW) = 'is-ers 

fj I = 8 = «0 ^ 18047 



Wliite biioait, Jir, wikter Oiv. boil <lo«n one hiiir, itrnin. miporulc to Qj 
•dd whita ngar It;), red vino, Jir, cEniumoD Vfttor, 3]. In dobllil; of tha 
[ dlCMtW* OTfUu. 


Huulufn ■hft*iag^ Jj, wator. UIt, bail la u^, itrsiai vann afal* wllk 
onagt juloc, Jj, wlili* tannr, J>j. sherry, Jt. 


■haTiagi. Jvlll. wawr, 0!t, ball, utrato, add vbll* vlna end 
iCll, jii, or, If u T<>r; clonr jflljr ia rrriuirvd, »jTUp of linpgar. 3** I 
clarify «r!th tii« oliite oT loo tfgt, and ■Irnin, fluToring Willi olimamoii «f 


Soali Mgo in vmler for an bonr. pour it off, adding mara, ball liU lb* 
1» tniMiiamii, tbwt atlU »in« and Ruipu. 


Soak It la wmtcT t«t nine boun, tb«a boil It ^oily U11 qall* daar, and add 
(tnon-Juiog and [levt, wina, nojar, and clnnamua. 


KIct, (ago. pent! barlry. Iinrlibom abniiiis*. Knd. Erin|[ii, «n<il). ^. bull in 
R^ij of *a(cT tw Ibj, and drain ; nuirilivr, ilitkulvvd in brutb, wiuv, or milk. 


SwMt alniond*, btanobcd. jji. *hjl( nignr. 31J. water, JIv. Rob Into an 
amuUion, Mrain, ■iwl add raallad liatttlioru Jolly. JtIU, orange Uanar waWr, 
gi. MMoee «r lemon, gll. i\). 



Oreund Jalap. JSI. wkiw, OtU, enlclnod UAiinMia, jiii, toO to • JeQjr; 
Out MbJMt to gnw noialdj. 


Kev, three ipoonfult ; boii in two pints of ymUr to odv. rtrain ; fcdi] **■>«! 
kimonib, No. x-, bilior •Imou'li, No. t., make an cmulNon iritli (ogkr, ■ hill* 
flinnunon or onnBO-flow»r nitttr, •nd drink It irtmi in Uie nonung, 


IringUu; ^li, water, two pinti, boil to ana, timn. and wld milk ono pint, 
■liitc lugaT ouidy, Jl. SutrttiTc^ 


Cut k ehick«n Into naall piMMi bruiw Ot» bwt, mkI p«l the wboU into k 
■tone jar. nith > oow thai wlU idkIm It mtcr-tight i«t tlujkr In ■ l>rc« 
kiflllp of bolting nntpr. and kti'p It bulllni; tat Ibieo boura. Th*n Hlinin ulT 
tbu liquid, ind Mitwii it uliitht!)' nitli irnlt, pfpjirr. Hod niMe: urwitb loaf 
■ugiir uid lemon-juio*, luconllng to Ilia condition of tliB patient roar wbom It 
In Uiendod. 


Mil B t|iur1«r of n pontid of rlsv, picked mid wnsliod, vllh Ibii of loaf 
(ugiir, aixt JujI luiSciont nator to coror It. Uuil till it bocoiiinH • KluUnoni 
maw; lb«Q Mnia and »MMn «lUi iiihal«Ter ma; b« Ihougbl proper. 


Dnil • ^nart of wat«r and mtter it t« ««al. Tako ima-lhlrd nf ■ ahponOT 
loaf of bread, ilioa It, para off lb* eruM. and toaai to a llftbl bsown. Then put 
it inia tlio vator, pinoo i< nn but ooula in a toiprpd |inn, and boll it gantlf, till 
jitu fliiit, by putting >onie in a ipoon to cool, thnt tiie liquid baa bacome a 
jelly. Strain llir»iiBl> a c1i>ll>, mid *vt awaj far uao. Wb*& it ia to be taktai, 
vans a loMUpfal, ■«*el«a it nilb au^r, and add a littla cmlad lanuw-pad. 


Mil three tabloapoaafnla of the beat Bemnda nrrosraot In a laaoopM of 
irater till iinite innimlb ; cotor It, atid let it ttaiid ■ iquarlcr of an boar, rut 
tlie jetloB pFr1 uf a lemon iiilH a pi»t uf watn, and boll to anr-balf. Then 
lake nut Ili« toinon-pocl, and pour In the dliMilTad arrawroot, wliilr the water 
■> rlill biiitiiii: : add tuiriciniit ablle fU|car lo ewaotan it well, nnd let It boll 
togctlivr for Hve or ill miiuitef. It inn]' be (HevlenoJ, If thoaght iieei'*Miry, 
wltli lira Mupoonfuli of wine nnd lome |p«ied untmvg. It may be boiM ia 
milk inal«ad of water, or In wine and waltr, nooonllng lo Itaa oondiUon of Ik* 





Melt JJ of tringlkM in a litll* Hftnn wiiWr. atir il into » pint oT p«rt ulna, 
•deling 3U of mgar c&n<tjr, Jj of gaai Arabic, and hnlf a nulnirjE. gnttil. 
tlix mil well, kivl boil It (rn mlniilMi, or Itll iliorotiililr ditsolftd. Then 
mva tKrough niii«tin, uid cool. 


T>k* of taploei^ two qioanfbli. water, onn jiiot -. boll {^ntljr far >n hnur, oi 
unlil il Mnuoi«B K Jellj-lilw appiiiimir*, Adil ruRor. wine, ami nutniFg. with 
lanoii •Juice lo luit ihc lula and th« nftlnr« of the tasc. (Thla ii impronil 
hy KinLinit lb« Iaplac4 well, aiid kllowlng It to itccp for fitu or tix lioun, 
EbuiKinE Uie ii*t*r itirM tinw; Ibcn proeoeil m trnfoK.) 


Wkih ta hm or IbtM oaten, ind lol It aonk fnr two or tbrrt baut«. To 
k HMVpAd of M^ allow * t|iiiirl <ir wntrr. und wnno of Itio peel of a lemon. 
Blnnar tin ntl the prainn louk itftiinpureni. Then add wlao and natoiog, and 
bod tOfolbw lot a few nlnntcs (or pUIn, Triili mtik). 


Wa*li clean tame pearl bail*^, and to JiJ of barley add one qnart of water. 
Add a hn rai'liw. or nnih« IcnoD-iHiel and *u|[ar, anil b«ll clowlj' till rodnctd 
one-half. Th«o alrain «nd twoeUn. An nouririiineBt in Inflannnaloirj dlicate*. 


Take of rice, ^(J ; waib it well, nnd add Ino ()uarti> of water. Boil for H 
boar and a balf. and ilien add fugnrind niitcn*|r. a» inu«h ni may benqatrcd. 
To b« talioo ad ttttlvm. Mixed niUi milk, (hii la an eacellont diet fur c bitdroo. 



Taka one potato, coe Inmip, and one onion, adlfa a Utll* celery, or «1ei7 
(0«d. 61i«e, and boll In one quart of water fur an hour ; add aa niMb aatt a« 
U agreatlile, and ponr the whole upon a piece oTilry touL To be used wben 
animal food would be improper, 


Put three large tablenpoonfiilB of Indian meal, ilflrd, into a riiiart of water 
In a large bowl; waeh wltb aevervl walara, turning olF the wntn- u ibe nr*1 
•eltle) ; then bull for twenty minntee, itirrinic "1 'he while : add a little Mil ; 
Iben iitrain tn't nwerlra, a'ldinic a tillle butter, wine, and natmei;. !f the euo 
rrqiilra. It ihould be taken wnrm. Oalmnl Qtvrt niaj lie {iirpFired In Iba 
■am* ■B>' ; but it made of CMtte grit*, It ebonld be etnuned. after boldac, 
and tlicD MUOUd. 




Boil aome ilitw of noft brou) Id a ^unrl of waUr tor five Biinntor Hen 
baal Uin brtrnl >in<m(li in ■ >l«Hf <li"hi miiiiig with il ■ littl* at Ihe «Bter in 
vliich it liM btan beilvil i mix wilh it a bit of rrmli butiar, anil lugnt, uid 
nultnvg, KoooTdlng to oirciimiUnoei. Or, it ma; ba mail* bj graiinj[ toiat 
broiui. or grollng or pouaclLng a few cracktn ; yoai on boiling wtUst; boat 
It woll, aiitl add *u(iir uul Qutnwic. <■■' elniiiLiuoB. 


Take tl); of fine flour. I40 it up u tlgbc u pouiblo in a liaon rag; dip it 
frequanll]' in cotd water, aiid dr«dg^ lb« DuUld* with flom till a cnut \» 
forni«d iiti IL Tlieii biiil until it bvonutM a hanl drj maiu. 

This nia; he grntod and prcpiu«d in th« Bamo manner as arrowroot, for 
vbieh it i« an excgllont sulwtitiito. 


Cut Ibj of l«an beaf iuta alirvdit. and boil fur twvolj' minulM in on* quart 
of wuk-r, tnkiiig olT tbaHumu UrUoa — ofioQ cooting: atnua. Terjnoariib* 
log and paialablc. 


Fill a pound ef lean b«cf, Ibinly iliccd and Bllghlljr lalted. Into a potler- 
bottle, or Jnr, cIoboI^ corlicd. I'lnct thli in a T«9Bel ot cold water, and boU 
for an hour or mors. Tlinii dcuat and ikin tlio lli)uiil. OhWltrn Ita maj 
bo madu ia the Mme waj. 


Take lialf a cltlokcn; itrip off nil Ibe fit, and break tli< boaea; add t»o 
qaarli of walor, boil for flfloon or Iweolj' mluatu*, and aaaion vitli Hit. 


To one ponnd of lean mattoo. aUow ono quart of waltf ; aaMOD with a* 
llttlo Mlt, and lomo pardo?. nnd piiC In aom* Urn* r'oOMi of the truot of 
brond. Boil rtnwly for two or :hro« liour", BliimminK cnrpfully. B*cf, real, 
«r chiokcn brolh oinjr b« made in the Rnmc tnsnuor. Vigptubln. baric;, rlc*. 
&e.. ctn be added, if cipodlent. Million broth ma; be niado rnorp tponliT;, 
by taking tlircn chop* ; beat the meal on bolb aid**, and alico thin r put into 
a oaiicp pan wilh s pint of wntt^r. a lidle Ball, and aome erotta of bread, or 
■ome paritte;. nn<t a Email onion iliced Ibin, Oonr the aaMo-pan. and boil 
Out: iklni. and in half an hour It will be ready for nn. It rvndero anutton 
hrolh more palatable to trWf the chop* before boiling. 



Take tlie grmind malt, Oj, hot water. 01^. 
•train. Add lugar or lomoD-Juloo If Dccauarj. 

lofaa* for two bonrt, aa< 






3cXi % fin! of milk, mi, vheii bdiUiig;. ailil k litrg« wiooglua of ShenT' or 
UwlatM vtur. Lot U boil agoin, nnd ihen remoTo it (row Uic Bre and let it 
■tMiiI • ftw miiiuU*. TliHii rouiDTa tlia ounl, pour llio wlioj iota ■ bowl, and 


Wiuih > *n»!1 Ml of rtnntit, klinot (wo iiiclm* iiqii»r«. In ooM walor, lo r^ 
moTD tho Hill. Put it into ■ tcnoip. unil puar on lultrwnnn wtArr tnonssh t« 
oofra it. Let il itAOd ill night, luid in lli« morning utir lonarl niklor iulo a 
^aarl et wiirni milk. CoT*r It, ■in'l *tt il DP>r tlie l<r«. till a Ann aurl U 
formod. Pour off tha •rhoj'. >nd it wttl b« found n ver; oooling nnd pnltlubU 


Ttke two rialiwi' het, nnd add to th«n one ^llon of water, wliivh ruduoe. 
hj boiling, to Olio qmirL Strain, iiDd, whsa culil. iklio cnrnruMy. AiU tho 
trhlta of nix or alElic oggt. well bi>uten, n |iliil of iriiio, h«lf n pound of loaf 
Bunnr. and lh« Jnica of four Icintin!. and Ivt (hem bo w«lt niiod. Boil lbs 
«b>i1(i for a f«<r niiimlMi. rtlrri'iit cnimlnntl/, and pRwi it thruu)cli a flannel 
irtr&iner. (Wine should ba umillrd in rutne ouei.) 


Tah« ofpnund ^^o^ JJ, clnnunon. Jj, Wiit*r, Olj, Btril ffr forty mi tin tM, 
adding llio oinnimun nour th< aono^l>ian. Strain and awooltci, and add wiao 

If lilOWMIT. 


1U» of frosh wheat bran, Oj. water, Ihrco quann, Boil down one-tliird- 
■train, and add nigsr, hone;, or molanof. aosordlug to tho (atio of tho pationt. 


Tiake of fr«h lemoo-juiot, Ji*. freih lomon-peel, ^m, whit* •agar. ^i», 
boUing WBtor, tbroa plnti. Let thi^m Hand till ould. and th*a irtrAlu off for 
010. In feiort, it Uttio apirita of nllrc mnjr bo add^d, 


Pal Umartmlx into a pitcher or lumblori till It It ono-Iliird fiiU; then fi. 
it up with cold walor, Doi<r it, and tot il infuvo for k qiurtor of an hour or 



Put into a <aao«-pan a pint of beat moluwea. a teaapoonful of powilered 
while ffingrr, and n quarter of a pound of fromb bullsr. Simmer on hot coala 
for lialf an hour, ullrrlng fraquontly. Then *tir In IIidJuIo* of two iKiaoafi, 
or two tablvspnnnfult of linear; ««**r llio pan, ftud Ut il itBad bj iba flr« 
tivc miniifei longer. 






BoU two omoci of good eocok in » qaari of wnler, tad u «>«■ «■ it Mb 
Mt It OB etuis t« rimtner gtollj for ui hour or mora. To b* and hot. 


Tout eoniR piecM of bread brown [oot bnrnl), then pnt Ibeta Into ■ pitcher, 
■ltd fill it op witb boiling italw. Let it at«nd tilt cold, thMi itnin iU kBd pal 
U into > dsMnter. 

QuAaTHTis or Onim oohtainbd a Dimkni PBirAsiTiovi. 

Linimontam Opii- ~ ■ ■ ■ gr. i^ .._.... in f^iT. 

rania S&poniB oomp _ « gr. j „ in gr. t. 

KIdIb StjraoiB oomp ^ gr. J > in gr. r. 

PuIt. Cretffi camp. o. aplo .T...,. gr. J ....__ _ in gg. 

PuIt. Ipesacnanhn oomp gr. j in gr. s 

PuIt. Rino eompoiitup gr. j _, ingj' 

Tiiictnra Camphors oomp gr. j In f ^. 

TineturaOpii gr j in Wiit- 

ViBum Opii gr. J in 1|PiLi. 

Tinclnra [odinii camp. coDtAins gr. ij of lodins in f^, 

ODgnentura lodinii comp gr. t in ,'^sai 

Ongnenlam Hjdrarg. Fortios cootiioa ^ of mercarj tn ^j. 

UngnentniD Hydrarg. Hitini " g} •• _ in Jij 



Or mi Alcobouc SnEraTu or WiJiu. IIt Chuimiaov. 

Pvt »nt, of ■)•■ 

Pm **flD'- of 

Port. weuk*M,., ....,.,.. ......».*... 

moan nf vfion vioft ...'•—.■«•»•.*.•'»<>»«—- 

— — tiron^Bt -■****■*- ■■«<««.**.M*.iti*k Ma<*«*«--i**->i*>i-'- 

WliUc Pofl _.„„«.... 

SlierT}'. wtuktU „... _ ^. 

niami i)f in win**, ineliidinK thoM T*r; loui; 1 

kept iocwk. ....«»...»... S 

■ itrongvat 

— DiHii of irinc* v«Tf loaa k«pt in oulc in I 

(!■• Kut lodloi _ f 

MiitT* <(ft XrrM 

Uvloir*. piion^al 

wmkt'nl / [ndlM.. 

Itppl Iuhk ia cn«k in Emc I 

T«n«riiro. long in oaak DtCtlamta ^ 

C»rel«l „ 

Dry LUbon - - -._...._ 

Shim _„ „- „ 

AmontillkJo > 

Clnret. > Ural gronrth of 1811 „„... 

OlialMQ Uloiir. flnt erowlh of 1S3&. _.......„ 

K-wiii. tireiiii'l )ii(ivlb o! 1^26- — .,~> 

OnJiiiar)' Cl'irrt, > taporlor " tIq or<liiiidr« "._„.... 

BiTta All* ... 

HklMey ~. - 

BodiahclnM-, MpBrior qtwHi; « » .-_..... 

Infrrior " „..-...__._„,.. 

Uinkaoticr, *upwbr qoaltl^ _ _„ 

OiW Ediaburicli lit^ Vfure hoitling _..« 

ThlHlDtklD two jrckrsin bolllf 

Sapattor London Korler, ftmr nentliB bottled. 



14. [IT 





1:1, tU 
ID. 14 













22 8ft 
IS. 44 

TIm renilla of tb« »hort table v«ra obtun«d b; dlititUtion, whieb «*• 
apt>U»l with neb ooDtriTaoea for aoruncj. tbul ctkHj the whnlv cpirit nnd 
wilier wr^re .ilnUlled oTor wUhout * traoo of •mfjrreQmi, ind witboot Ihp ton 
of mure tliaci bvtWRrn two and tU (crain* in SDOO, From ibo quuillt? and 
dfDiitf of Th« i|iinl, Ibe mtiffil of abuilutr Btcohol of tha doudl; 'V'.{.i>, •• 
*«[| u lb« valvmi of prnof iprril of tha donaltj VIH, wan enlcuiiKiHl fnini th« 
tatilr* of Klehl«r. founded on Iboic of nilpln. Dr. CbHitispii ri'markB Ihm 
the alcoh'ilic ■treniiih of TRriuu* Mm|)1v" of ihe •am? kind of wins bears no 
relallfln nbaieierto ibeiromnierciul value, and ii ofien very dllTerenl from 
what *« 14 be indieated b^tbe ta*M awn of aa aipcrlenead »ln«-tMUr. 



SHnirina tiik DirrKiic'iox bktwiiiii MixiHt. Dnur*. ind Oi^im* <it vaiiioii* 
UiDiciimL Liqi'iu PBEi-AiiAriDtii or tuk ra*RHtnard!u or Tiix [Tsitkii 
&TAm, Ad. (ynini Kilmarili and Votcutart' " Munncl »/ MoUria Jftrfwa,** 
•diud by Drs. Toobu aii'l Dumhu.J 

!(«. of 
diupi in M 


Sulphilrin add 

ftalphurli: Ciller 

Kvcdllnl nleohul „.._.,„,..,_ 


A<T((io RcM (orjrulnUitiibla) 

Muriaiic acid 

Oil of wormtptd iCIimop. Aitlhrl.) 
^^^— ]>«p(u>riTiiiLl. <ti nnievecl... \ 

,< BWFft nlaiani], oU*t. pal- V 

tnik christi.... ..J 

■ elovw,... _ 

- elnnkmoii—.. „_.... . ... 

Oop«lbit -.. _ 

t>iliit«d nkotiot 

Awillinridn. kiDo,dlgitnii>.ana- ^ 
fmlldiv, ■iilphurlfl aeld. colcbl- i 
oum, opium, ntltrlon, Kaiiacum J 

Tinciurs (voliilSIa) orTiUriaD, of \ 
^ttiiwum / 

Tincture of muriate of iron 

Wine (Tfneriffp) _ 


of iipiiiiii |8ird?n. laodao.)... 

of olt'liipmo root » \ 

orcolvhirum fcfldit .......Hi / 

Vinegar (disllllod) _ 

of ii|iiuin I black drop).. ) 

ofciilrlilmiin „ > 

of "r|llill J 

Wnti^r fdiiiDlid) n , 

I . Bolniiou of hjrdrooif. neld.*. 

i (olullon of niljihnriu aoM 1 
(I W7) I 

BnTiilii'ii of nilrio ncid. do,,. 

■ • folulionornminoniii (ulronic) 

- ■ Milntion of ■■nmonia (wenkj 
»o1ulion of bjilriml. puian... 

- solution of arvBiilto of jiritJiK. 














No. or 

Na, at 

Bilnlmi Id 

l^>P* in ?n 

M IllVt* 




























































!*-. of 
Krmliii Inn 

























*Pi*(ikt«d aooording to Ih« fraeta* of Ibe Loodan ApotliacarlM' Rait 







Wbat Is IiiBaniiaaiion f It la a coiidiliou of b^pcrnmia, or of 
too mucli blood in a pari, with Its motion portly iiicrcnsed, and 
partly diminished. 

What axe the tt/mptoms of In Ham ma I ion ? Unnsual rednett, 
heat. »welli»g, pain ; sod the function ut the p~rt b nho perverled 
or ftrreated. 

Tlie rvitne»* In produced by an hicreoaed quantity of blood, or 
a relatively lucrcasid quantity of the red <!cir[:jacleA, or lioih to- 
gether. The hue and degree vary Mro.^liiiK to the iateii.illy, nud 
wilh the tlsau«a affected ; and are [lermnnenl. 

Snot ia produced by the incretued quantity of blood, and Iho 
more ntpid oxiduiiou of the timueg. 

Swrlling di^pendit upon increnied quantity of blood, and rrocn 
elTution of lymph, serum, pu>, Ao. 

Pain depends upon prcHsuro upon the nerrei, aiid the ftnction 
of KeuKibility ta also exalted. It U IiicreHsed by prewurc of lh« 
hand, ur uthurwiie ; unil vnrioH with the part affected. 

Sometimes thene ayroptomx are not nil prcKunt ; one of thtm 
muy be ab.ient. and yet inflanimntiou exim. 

now has iiiRainmittiou been divided? Into acute, chronic, 
ht:aHhii. and unheailhy. 

Ilovr ninny ttaijet are there of inQumtnatiou ? Two ; the cold 
aud the Ao(. In the flrat there are coldiieaa, languor, nausea, and 
a sniall, quiclc pulse. In Ihc second, the slcin is hot, pulse full and 
hard ; there ia thirat, and the part becomes awelled and painful. 
It is not, however, always accompanied bv conkliintioual aymptoms. 



What are the retulU of inflsmTnntion? Tliere arc eight: 
retolution, adhegion, effueion, girppuralion. ulcrralion. rfranwia- 
Hon, ckatriiation, nud morli^caCion, which constilutc a scries of 
st-afics in gome cases. 

What are tho causes of iiiflAniiiiAtion ? The; are chemicat, 
mechanical, and vi/al. AmoDf; the fortncr are excessive heat, 
cold, cold and moistiire CDmbincd. atmasiihmo air, coxious gasas, 
acids, altalies, blislera, rubefadenU, animal potsonB, coiilagioiu 
and specific diseases. Among the mechanicnt are contagions, 
laceratioiis, punctures, fractores, luutions, preesore, aod nnmerona 
other ageuts. 

Is every part of the body subject to iuflaramation? Nearly 
erery part, hot in an nnequni degree ; tlie liability is KCiierally In 
proportion to the senMbiliiy of ibe part. 

How are the mesiis of nrregling iiiHominHtion divided f Into 
eorinlilulional and local. Among the (ovmeT, «n general blood' 
letting, purgaiiwt*, diaphoretics, wtrcvry, opium, attHmony, and 
kne diet; among tho lutlor, nre topical btood-tet/ing, btitlering, 
cold, acetate of lead. linctiiTC of iodine, nitrate of ntver, rett, 
eoimter^rritation, tndpontion. 

What objects are to bo obtained by conetituHonal treatment F 
A redaction of the qanntily and quality of the blood, by irhich It 
is rendered less stimulating, and n general sedative Itifluetiee ta 
produced upon tho systora. ^ino of ihe means wbii-h operate 
consiiiutionnlly also act by dcriTation or revulsion. 

Suppurative Injlatnmation. 

What are the symptoms of fiippuratioTt f The redncw tLssnraa~ 
• brighter line, the swelling increases, becomes pointed and softer, 
pain is Increased, and there ts a sensation of pulKalion and throb- 
bing. Rigors or shivering often oecur, and aro looked npon as a 
snre indication that pus is formed, or about to be. 

When tho pus is once formed, pain and rcdneM diminish, tho 
swelling lluclnaies. and a cavity usually exists, which encloses tlio 
rnniter. nnd is called an ahucess. 

Wlint are tlic charaderisties of heallh\f or tavdahli- pu»? It is 
of a light yellow or creaiD color; laade ap of small globnlcK which 
float in a watery lluid. 



|Tl|lBlj|Tt1lj gll ia called ichor when it h lliiii nnd norid. Sanit:*, 
wika «n mixed niiU Idood. Sordeg, wlicn it U of n leaden 
color, lliick, and ofTonflive. Matigtianl. whcii gcncralud in pp»li- 
IcDtijI diEca«c3. Vonlaijious, wbeo il hna the power of prodiiriiig 
8 disease of llie same characier. Sero-piiruient, or muco-pitru- 
IsrU; when mixed with seroiiH or nincoiu discliargc. 

Wbut is the trealment of tuippariilivo indaniniatioit ? If Iho 
]>Rtienl haa liccn much eufeebled bf evacuations, wc snliatitiilc a 
boiler regimen, employ touies. mioeral aeidn. and opiuiD. Ax local 
means, we use fo men tali oiis and wurm poiilticeti. Po'ilticos should 
l>o coiUiiiued after tlie discharge of matter, unices il is kept op loo 
praftiseiy, wlieii other mild dressings should be employed. 

What rales ahi^ald gorcni ns in regard to opening ubKCC»xcf J 
Ahsce<«os, where the matter is widely diffused, when it prodnecH 
great pain, when itii presence i^ likely to occasion nddilionul harm 
iti any way, such as by bursting into any c*viiy, laying bnro a 
portion of bone, or of a large ressel, or by burrowing under fiucia 
ft great way before its arrival at the sarfuce. and wLeu (ituatcd ou 
(he luce, or near joints, should be opened early, lo other eaues, 
they should be left lon^cer. The bc«t instnimcut for o)H-niiig thuiu 
ia a narrow, sharji- pointed bistoury, which should be passed in 
elowly until you Bud by the feel that it is in tlie tack ; then cut 
forward GO a? to make a free incision. 

The part at which the opening should be made Dsunlly, is where 
ttiere ia the greatcfit _;l«rtutt(Ktn, or where pointing occurs; soma 
times it is ncC(«^nry lo 0|>en nt llie most depending part, even if 
floctuation should not he so ecidcnt in thai position. If the edges 
after being opened, tend to unite, a tent should be introduced. 




Vlotralive Injtammalion. 

VlMt is meont by ulccrolirc inQHrnmaliou, or uleeratiTe a1»orp 
tion? It is thai morbid process by which the continuity of the 
diffi-reni textured of the body is destroyed. 

What parts of the body are liable to ulceration 7 Every te.\ture 
is liabl«i but the skin, mueous menibranee, and cellular lissne^ 
suffer more readily ihnn other pnrtf. Paio always attends lUij 
process, and Is generally Uudnating. 





Wh«t is muttiSnttion ? Oangrme i« lh«t eondiUou which 
mniMtiiiti'lj {iri'Ccdcit the <lo*lriirtinii of ii )>iirc. Spkaiylus ili'cjotrx 
he comiilrli: di-iilh of it jiurl ; atid (lie Utiii mortijicalion dofig- 
DHtm butli MnfTfA of Ihv ('om|>liiiiit. 

Wlnil tiTv llic cliffiTMil itHt/n «f (fdUKreiic? They ure llic AiiniiW 
mill I'ry; uixl ihi' idiiipalhic mid frauriin/i'i?. 

The idiopiilhii: i) coiutilulioiial, mid the Irnuiaulic rcMilU from 
Bu Ityurjr. 

What nrv tli« eaMur* at martiftenlion ? It in irenenllv the retail 
of inlliiiiiiiiuliiiii. It uiny be caiiiivd iiIho liy jioiiioiiH, ■ deficient 
Siiii]>ly of iirleriiil bl'iotl, btij L-nu«e MhicU will cuf<«bl« the cin-'ultt- 
tivit, ]in.'»iir«. ile|ioMi.i in the iirlcrics. rrttut, Av. 

Wiml iiri) tilt" fifnifit'jmjif The jiari luxes its sciislbilily, heal, 
mid color. TUvsc rhiiii;;^* .lehloin take place suddetily, bill are 
preceded b; an {iitTeiisc uf pain and nweltinf; ; ihc blood oiroulatu 
only ill ibe InrKer Tesneb ; the tkiri Woines sofl. and of a dark;]'ed 
or purple color, and Tesicle* c»iiiuinlii|i; a ihin Mrum are formed 
under tlie cuticle. Whea it ix conipleic, if you presi niion the iiart 


llnrlmnul HTtlnB ot • Ptn tlfiiillid — / Miuili, or tn«riin>l ilunr. c Pun ± trnuul* 
Uoni. gr nfianlWr turbo, e. nnuiDiiTlUn> (Italntiua Hplum. k KfluHl nrau In Etlla 
Itr ()■»•. a. UulUnd balUij •Iriinun 




tbc blood will not iMiirn. Along: irilh these strmptoma the pulse 
becomes qtiiuk ond tremitloiiK, of n tyfihoiJ clmroflcr, tonitne dry 
nnil bruwiiisli. skin hot, tlic imlinnt re«lle«x, iii>?n«,v. and rreqiienlly 
witli detirium, Biibsalius. nuascn, and hieciip. If sufficif iil power 
exlsl* ill th« system, natore mnkei; an cITurt at tepurttiion. Tlie 
livinjt part in coiilaet witJi iho dead bocoines inllamod, a Hne of 
ilemareation U thus formed, at n'hich point ulceralion and fetippu 
rulion toko pluie. and llie line o/ nuppuralion ia developed. 

Wliivl Is ihu tnatmeHti When iliefe is hifrti iu6ammution which 
Ik likely lu lerniltiate in g:anf!n<ne, tli« anttplilogixlii: treatment 
«hoald be adapted; bul if gangrene lias Inlien plnce. a different 
praetice tnnst be pursued. The bowels should be penlly opened, 
aod tonics, and natrltioas food pHrea. Opium, carbonate of ura- 
oonia, vaiDpbor, tie., will ■» found beneficial. Locsl remedlea 
on) of use only where the mortification ia iucomplele ; when scarf- 
ficalleni, emoltlonl poulliccs, btislcr«, Jcc, have bueu recominended. 
In iitnile gangrene, opium i« an important remedy. To prevent 
slonfrhitig or bed-sores, from lotitr ronlincnicnt, the jwrls, when 
llicy are Kret di«colored, should be washed wilh a solution of 
nitnrte of ulvvr, 10 prs. to ^j of water, 3 4r 4 times a day, then 
eorered with bbiid adheMrc pta'ter. The hrdroitallc Ix-d i* 
highly recommended by Dr. Muwey, ai a preitntlic, Where the 
MreH hate formed, dress with adiiesive plaster, and change the 
pDiition of the paiient. 

AmpuUtion is seldom resorted (o in cases of mortification 
before a line of separation is formed, althoujrb it i^ sometimea In 
trnuinatio gangrene; but it should never be in the idlopaililc 

What are the symptoms of rfry mort^/kation f The toes and 
feel lose their heat, and become shriveled, discolored, and caucerted 
into a luvrd. dry, in«cnsibl« man, of a dark-blue or black color, 
without previous swelling, rHnc»). pain, oi fetor. 

What is tlte treatment f Ampvlation. 



What are the ti/mplomt of eryafpelas? Thr Fflrfacc of the 
part atfeeled Is elevated, varie* fh>m a bright ururirt to n purplish 
color, has an abrupt termlnalion, and Is accompanied with a bum- 




in^ or ileln'n; scnfMion. Th«re \» gcntrnnj man or ]t«B rljror, 
TtvtT. iiansrn, &c.. precrilinp tlie eomjitnint. Tl>e Bj'm;ilDiDs are 
«omrlimcs fili^lit, nnd Boinetimts v*r; F^CTcr<>, |<RTlicularljr In ths 
epi«]eini« form, and whrn it aitnrks Ihe licnd and fnc«. 

What arc ihe cavgn ot cmipclas 1 The con^efl tn not altran 
obrious; in otlicr cum, it majr he (raced to iho apiiHcaiion of 
poieoHf!, woaiiils, txposan, fool air, drrangcmrnl of the dlf:eslife 
orgnii*. Ac, 

Whiit iit ihe In-atmr«t1 In ihe rommtiioeiiiriit, if iniliratcd by 
thn ^I'tiiTiil vtmpliiniii, rrctiiime dioald )»■ hud 10 blood-letlinff, 
purgiiti*e», diii|'luitftiv», and low dipt. BoiuMiint-i a fotilrarjr 
phn lifconiM nccroary dnrlng the roiine of the di^raso, atid 
opium, bnrk, t-mnphor, Ac. may he inilivnlrd. The 1oc«I remcdtM 
in ait arc collofiioti, liiirinre of iodine, Milphnie of iron, nilrnle 
of xilver, anil acetate of l«ad In Miluiton ; ind.iionn. rrjereiiriul 
ninlmeiit, Hrilixh oil, Mnrch, flour, Ac. Thtt nitrate of Kilver, 
applind with a pendl no ua to surround llie inflammation, il ft*- 
qncnilj reaortcd to. 

Furunculiu, or Itotl, 

WTiat ore ths »t/mjAm>» of fkimnfniui f It ii « bard, pnirifbl, 
and hifchljr inftnmed luraor, conical, hatio below, and apex nhoTo 
the level of the >kin; and contaiua a dlcorffanlxed mats, cnlltd a 

What is the trralmmlJ Kncoonitte fiiippnrniioa viith nam) 
pouIticCT, and (IK soon a» Ihc npex hccomcK »oft, wake an opening 
Into it largo enough lo Tcmnvo tlio core. 


Anthrax, or Carhtmcle. 

What aro the nt/mplomt of anthrax T It i» a deep-seatrd, 
cirouraBcrihed. hnnl. ami pninftil dwelling, of a tirid hne, nttcmied 
wilh ilching and a ImriiiTig hfat, anil KTminnlrB hj tloufhilig. 
The constitnlionnl Kymjiti»nni nru often vitv KeTere,j>ftrtii'iiInrly 
loss of appetite, fever. pro»lration, Ac. When on the ncnlp, the; 
nearly alwayB prove fatal. 

What is the IrfotmrtitJ Emollient ponltSees in the first «!nge, 
uiilil Tpsiention. or a dixehBrgc of bloody Bcnim. appears; it 
shonld then be ftvely covered wilh ejiastio vegetable alkali, as 



rr«co mm ended by Dr. Diycick. Ot\ttT SQrgcons recommend Uiul 
il ehuuld be opeiietl carl/ l>f free incUions, aiid BtiiuulHtiiif; aii)iU- 
catiotis need. OiJium thguld Ijo frccl; employed to tmaage )oiu 
sud jirocure sleep. 
Pernio, or ChilbJain. 
Wlint nrc the nt/mpUimn of pernio ? Il i» the resiill of cold, 
and i* tiiirt wtlli in tlio cxln-uic purin of llic body. Al first llic 
akin is palii mill "lirivi-IIi-d, which is succeeded Ity redncw, tumefac- 
tion, pain, prnritiu, itnd ixdemn. In scrcre cafn. the skin bccomcfl 
purplish, tlic itching very tiulcnt ; ve»inition ttike^ place, and 
forms an ill-cuniiriioncd sore. The mild form frequently dis- 
appears in siininHT. und nrtnrns in tliu ivinier. 

What in the tiralmi^Mi Tlic application of goap liniment, 
tfAnl of Inrpcnliiio, Hulpliniu of clipper, nnd tincture of c^ntharides 
]b recomnipndi-d. Tli« bot remedy is to smear the part with the 
bnUniD of copitivu. Nitrate of silver is also a useful Application. 



What are the tymplomt of frotithimf The expuKed part be- 
OORiM bcnnmhed, iitilT. nnd iuxcnMlile; thc^nc Kymptonis are xnc* 
cecded by bent, xwellinK, pain, lividily, and by iin|ipnnition, which 
oeeurs between the sound and livin|r parl«. When the cold Ii 
lonff continued, so n* to aflfi^ct the internal or^nnti, drowsiness, 
shivering, rigidity of the limhi", diminution of the circulmion, nnd 
prnfonnd sleep, lerminnltng In denlh. 

What ipi tho trrcUmr.nlJ Know and ice wnter Khotild first he 
applied, and the pnrt( cnn^fnlly Imndlcd ; when ihv nutnrikl torn pern- 
Anv is n^«torcd. it should be treiilud nci-ording to Ihr circuniiilnnces 
W the case in regnrd to tnflauiniatinn, tendency to niorLificalion, 
Ac, When the patient is imi-nsiblp, ihi; indications arc to rcMon: 
the respiration aiid circulation by slernututuries, rolatilcs, fric- 
lioiLf, &c. 


Uuw nre bums dii^ided. nnd what are their tifmptomat They 

are divided Into fvperficiai. ulcerated, and carbunculimg. In 

the tir*i, there is simple erythcnm ; in the second, vesication ; and 

thff tliird i> nhere the cutis and adjoining parts nr« disorganized, 





with Mvorc const ilnlioiml diflnrhnncc tn propftrtion to the «slm( 
of the ii'jnry. In the eccoiid vuriety, the coiiatiiiitionnl di»lurl»- 
»nco limy bo grcnt also, in j>ro|)oiiion to the cxiint of tnrfiin) 

Al whnl iicriod rooy bom* prore danceroaK F When the nhock 
in fim roccitcd; from reaction or iiiflmumation ; and ftt tU« sup- 
purative period. 

What if tlio frToimentt In xuperfidal burnR, the appticalioTi 
of C4irtlc(1 cotton is hi(thljr extolled ; aloo coolinfc npplicBitonR, 
Hthrr by the direct npplicntion of cold, or bj eveponttinft lolloni. 
Thi! flwencfi of pcppirniinl. before veslcnllon taltet pbce, Is one 
of our br»t applications to lUHang:? pain, and prerenl the einifiion 
of scrum. 

In ih(! sccnni) variety, emollient applications sliould be nsed, 
and a liniincni <if limc-wuicr and ftuxHccd oil, or sweet oil. spread 
on rolton batting, iii an pxxl an applicHtlmi as wc can ntalie. Tn 
the third Tnriet;-, the atimulnnt plan, inlernallj and extemAllj, 
should be adopted, nnlil reaction lakcj) place, when the antlphlo- 
giiiic syatem msy become neceafiBry. Opium is gen«rnlly necexsary 
to relieve pnin niid con»liliilioniil di*tHrhunec. Dry (lonr ia a 
good local npplicntion in nil fnrmx of hurnit. 

The aflcr-trentjnent of nleen should be (joverned by the circnni- 
(tnnces of the ease, olwiiyx beurinK in mind the »tr«ng tendeiiey to 
contraction of the cicatrices, ohieh ihuuld be counteracted by 
aplints, rnlleni, lie. The ireniment of tbeM cicatrices hnx been 
recently much improved by means of plastic operations. 





How are wonnds divided t Into inei^fd, punHurrd, prne: 
Iritlinff, ennttitfd, lacf.ratrd, pninonrd, and i/uitfhol. These may 
be divided into wounds of the hfad, face, neck, chal, belli/, and 

Incited Wounds. 

What nre the dangcnt of incised wonndaf These are the ImsI 
dnuKeroiis of the wounds except from hemorrfintre, which may ba 
troublesome when a aliarp in;:itruiiient is ui>ed, or large bloo<lve«Mli 



^tint is thtt proper frr(tlme«tt It is to t>ti]ipreM the WniOf 
rbo^, olear (he wound of all foreigD matter, and ivtdu the edgea 
in coatMt. Tli« object is U) lukre ih«in heal by aiihrtfon, or 
I mH»n fiy ikr. fir$t intrnliuit, a» it wiM Tarm*(T\y called. It is pro. 
dnocd by tli« elTuirion of coagulnblc Ijinjili, or fibrin, whtofa b«- 
COiDO* orgkniicd, nnd inoorponil>M the cut nurriiacK logcih«i. 

Anotbor mo<]o of healing is hj ^n^u-rh, rcpsration b«)nf( made, 
•s ta (bo ordioary nutritive procc«s, without iuflMumaiion or 

The motfrHiinj prrirert i» einiilar to tbis; ibe gap bving iilei 
ap vilb lyiDjh gradually. 

Oranulalion is wlmt Itos been termed union by Uie Kcond itilen' 

'What arc tho means of suppiv^ssiiig hcmorrhngcs f Ligatun-»t 
e^mprv»fion, tlyplic*, cold, cteaated poaition, nnd the octrAol oai^J 
terif. Th« tcnariilum, needle, and furceps arc the Irmirumcnt 
employed to secure bleeding vessels. Ligatures nro made ot Ihrt-nd, 
•lllc, or lenlher Oorapremion nmy be perfurmed by iho tuurnitiuet, 
by fi>)lera uud pled-;iris. or by Lying a, huiidkerehief around a limb 
and twtKling it irilb a .ilick. 

Tbv nrtuiil I'liiitrry nliuuld nuvitr be employed wh«n the bleeding 
TWxeU can bu itecnr(?il. 

What arc ibi- nutans usvd Tor rctnininti; tlic edges of the wound 
in contact ? Adheriiv ulrapt, bandaijc*. aud tuturet; the object 
of wliicli is to produce adhesion. 

Tli«r« are two sntnrM in lue ; tlie Iwisled and llio interrupted. 
How is tlie ir^errupUd suture fornied ? By posMug a uei-dle and 
threud throu)tb the &kiu and tmbcataueoas cellular texture, from 
wilJioiit inwar(L) on one liide, and fruiu within outwards on tbe 
other, at about one-fourth of an ineli distance from llio margin, and 
fastening tlio cada of the thrtnd with suflieient tightniwH to prevent 
tlie nurfaves (torn »eparaliii|;. They nhonld be placed ul>ont an 
inch apart ; and, of course, the propiir number is pruportiotied to 
the Kixe of the wonnd. The inlcrTols thould bu supported by 
adhesive Ura pa. 

How is the (lOTirfcrf suture formed ? By passing a common sow- 
ing-needle ilirutiicb the »kin and other texture from one side of tho 
M'onnil t" the oilipr, and twisting a Ihrend over each enil of it in 
Ibe form of a figure 8, with a aullleieiit de^e of lightness tu keep 



the pans topelher ; wliere Beverul are oaed. the ihn-ad tnnjr also 
bo possed from one ii<-«dlu lo aiioiber. Tlie poiiiis tliould tlicn 
bo cll|i]>ed off. XeedlL-a compoficd of fifotd, silver, Ac, have been 
rccoiuiueuded, but tliejr pomcu no advautftge over tli« common 

Punctured Wounda. 


pnnetured wounds produced f 
such as needles, plni, thorns. 

Bf sharp narrow 
splinten of wood, 

Tetanus, and 

How are 

ntiiU, fic. 

What are ihe dan^ert tram poiicturcd wounds f 
]ar;;c i-ulluct!on> of nintier under tlie fiiselu. 

Whut In the Irtalwrntl A saft poultice U f;cneral1y sufBdent[ 
bul, if there nre iiidleotions of the formation of matter, or nervooi 
symjitoms nrUe, the wound slionld be freely dilated, and lteptO]>eD. 
The nii>e of upiuui luny beeoinv ui'ccuury. 


Penetrating }Vuu7id». 

What are lh« diaraelerittic* of ponetratini; wounds f The; are 
more cxiensive than punctures, and generally produced by the 
sniiill Bword. boyoiiet. or dirk. 

Wliat are ihe daiiijera fWitii penetrating wounds? They may b» 
dangerous from entering large cavities; Injury to Important blood* 
vuB^, Derves, or vlaeera ; or they may cause extensive colleuilona 
of matter In deep-t.cnled purla. 

What is llie Irtralvifiit? The firjt object i« to suppress hemor- 
rhage, which may rc<iuire extensive tneixionH. If the bleeding 
vesaul Ih ill the elicst or abdomen, dcep-nentvd, the plan In to 
diuiiiii^h the gencrnl activity of the cireulntion by blood-leltinff. 
In other rexpvc-tn, tlicy are to be treated on the constilutiojial and 
local symptoms may demand. 

ConluKd WoWiit. 

What arc ihc daiigrrg from contused wounds? Oangrene Is 
very liiihte to t«ke place whL>n they are extensive and strvere. 

Wlinl is the livatnieiitJ They should be treated on common 
aniijihlogisiic principles, locally and gencrnlly. Adhrcion Is not to 
bo expected. 

ErscHT. <n 

tutf.ieraicd ITiiundc. 

What *re the dmmpert of itn.-eratf d TDcnOf' * Titpr ktp duir«r> 
DOS from, their exuat. aud "ott pBn» inroh-ed. Tbtj l>>n4 f^- 
rlofl? i bat are iUUe i« BecmiduT bemorrliCK U)d to ^itcrvMi. 
and do Dot heal far »dknam. 

What is the bt mtm /rM* Brhtp ijw parti at vnr TA^hcr U 
possible, aod tnai il>c eanstitffUoiiaJ eflficu as ite »>iMiiuoa of 
the patient maj dcMaad. 

How are pouoaed wwandf ffr-iw^f G«**t*4!t hr cuts ia 

dissection, insecti. wrpniU. nbid animU. Ac. 

What is the trrmtwietiii In lite r.l'^z of l*« nr wasps, tl>* 
loral applicatioB of eommoa nJi. r«ld cater, aqua ammoniie. A^., 
are Dsefal. la the bhei of nrpnts. olire oil. aqa* ammonite, 
arsenic, ftc-, ha** «nM repvtaiion. The aiip'icition rf a cni>- 
piog-glaM to the part hai pniT«d owfal When cal1<^ mrk. the 
part shoald be raoTed eatirelT. In di.<^eotiiig wnuiuls, *\-\-\f 
Innar caostic, after vashiajr clean, and take a inem)ri«] j^nr^. 
The effect* of inlaannation maj require attention on general 

Gunthot Wound*. 

What are incloded ander the head of pnnshot wonnils ? AH 
iDJaries occnring from firearms, explosion of shells, r\H-kets, Ao . 
and are of the oatore of lacerated and conta^rd n-onnds. 

What circnmrtances render gunshot woands iM>i<»-r»iisf Thv 
extent of the injnrr, the parts involved, from their indistHwiliin) In 
heal hj the first intention, their disposition to slouch, ami n^*v>ii- 
darj hemorrhage. 

What \i the general Irealment f It is to siipiiress h^mnrrhape, 
and extract the foreipn body when it can he dono wiitiout too 
mnch injarj to sarronndirg parts, nnd otteiiil lo ilie grncral state 
of the STStem. The applications should be simgile, Bueh as water- 
dreaainjra, with aagar of lead and opium. Amputation is ftequenll; 



Wlwt is the Irfalmenl Of Ah»t'rf* of tlic Antrum f It is to ro- 
moTVODCor more ItiMii gorrM|)oniUiijcwith lli<; lloitrof ihcftntram ; 
if thu nintter ix not tli«ii diaclmrjicit, pius n rIiIH or rmnll trocnr 
into t1ic cnvtiv from wWre thu lootli linx hw.n jmllH, iiiiil fmiih it 
iiiti> thv. Diitniin ^nuinolly. Uie aNtringciil injrctionji fuiir or five 
times a dnf. anil keep a bit of boii^iu or tent in ike opuniog nntil 
tlie <ii«i'bi>r^r nni) inflnminntion subiiidc. 

What is till: Irrnlment of Mamnianj Abfceal Tho first step 
is to pi-cvcnt them, if postiMc, by tlic rrpi-atcd npplicstioo of 
narm vini-gnr, topical uloud- letting, and a grncral an I iph logistic 

If we find Mippiirniioii musl t«ko ploco, npply warm ponlticM, 
and open in a depending part whtn flnctnation is pcrceiTed. 

What are tbc tymplomt of Lumbar Abgcwat Pain !d the 
lambar region, oxtrndintr from the kidnejr down to tlie oatside of 
tho titigh, Icsticle of llic fiil" driiwn up. and pnin in the spermatic 
cord. Th<j*c nre followed liy rigors, loss of nppetilc, and liectie. 
It eonictitnm pointo licluw ihc groin, aomctiines it poMcs through 
the ischiatic notch, and, in olhor cases, passes down n«ftr the 
rpciiim. The discharge is gencrnlly thin and gleely, mixed with 
uaaW flocculi rmeinbling ciird« or cheosc. 

What is Ihc treatment f Very fnw rwoTcr. In ibe cnrly stages, 
Ihe antiphlogistic course sliontO be ntlopted ; but, when matter is 
formed, an opposite coarse shunld be parsncil. 

When the abscess is opened, it should be dous hj a ■moll tbI- 
vular ineision, then closed for a lime, nnd again opened, so as to 
draw off the matter in a gradual manner. 


How arc vlevn divided T Into heaUhy, \tnheaUhy,«aA itpeei/ic. 
The Dm couiprehcnds but one apedes. the simple uloer. The 
second coulniiis two species, the irritable and indolent ulcer. The 
third conialna several species, tlio principal of whith are ulcers 
from aerofula. eaticer, fangus IifemHtodes, syphilis, and syphiloid, 
Eoorbutic, herpetic, lupu^, or noli lue langere. Ac. 




Simple Ulcrr. 

Wtiat nre thi> caiiwji of Ihu siTiiplu iilt^rr ? TnjnricG tlonv to & 
Bound pnrt liy n'Oiind, coiitimioii, nli!>L*UK, or burn. 

What ur« the cfiara'-trfrinlirn of n *impte ukt-r ? It exhibits a 
(l<^rid ajipFiintncf, owing; ti> the Kmiill, jininlcd, iiiu] numerous 
l>r{)cht-red jfriinnlulirmx wliioli rovrr il. TIhtu i» u di^cliiirgc of 
bcallbf ])iu ill tinnll qunntitir, nm! llic tctiik'HRj it to liral. 

Wliot i» tlie trraJmi-nlf 8itii|>ly kccfi tin- [mrt in n priiimr poni- 
tion, «i)(I cover Ihi- tore with Kotne inilil, frrsli oiiiltncnl, spread on 
lint or linen rug. Dry lint is also a guod Application. 

Irrilable Ulctr. 

What are the characlffrittia of tbe irritablo nicer f The ed^M 
of tlie sure ate ragged, uiidcrniiiied, and Kotnotimes aliiio«i aer- 
raled. Tli« pans beyond Ihc nicer arc red and inQaincd ; the 
bottom of the nicer exhibits irregular liollows, which contain n 
tliin, grceiiisb. or red acrid mutter; and, in place orhcnllhy granu- 
lalioiis, may be funiiil n dnrk-rcd, spongy muss, painful, and bleed- 
ing on tbc xlighlcst touch. 

Whiil arc ihv caune* of tlic irritable nicer ? It proceeds from 
locnl vnuKci, iiilliiciiccd liy the «iato of the cunslitution and babita 
of iW patient. The digcxiive organs in parlicnlar are generally 

Wbal Ih the Irealmfnl? The eonKtilutional condition should Uo 
ktlcnded to; and, if the diRCiilivi: organ* are nITi-cled, resort 
(liontd bti bud to «lcady purginj; and untimonialn, if not contra- 

The proper local applications are poultici^, fomentations, crcnni, 
n weak solution of the uitraie of silver, and opinm mixed with 
)Mullicv«, or sprinkled over t1i« sore. The limb shonid bo dcvaled, 
nml pmsnre and bandaging avoided. 

Phaf/eilwnic ulcer is irregular in form, edges ragged and abrupt, 
Hurruee uneven a:id brown, pain burning, nnd cunstitntional dis- 
turbance gdiernlly great. More or Ib»» iilougbing uxunlly occurs, 
and ibe extension U rapid. 

Conslilotlonul and local Irealmcnt are both necCMnry. Correct 
',he secreliouti. allay irritation, and invigorate ihu »yiilcni willi 
fresb air and good dii-t. Apply nitric acid, nitral« of merearf, 





&c. ; then poalticpB, eolutioiis of chloride of lime or eoda. 
Mercurials are iiiodniuaible. 

Indotenl Utctr. 

Wliat ore the gymptoma of ihe indolent nicer ? The granulating 
Biirface has a flal, ehininfi; espcel. and is panl}^ covered witli a )>el- 
lide or eruM of a nhitinh or ddrk-gray color. Sometiraea the aur- 
fnce Ifl dry, but generally there is ■ discharge of a viscoui GOheHi?e 
fluid. The edges are eletaled. unoolh, and rounded ; beyond th« 
ulcer the parU arc swollen nnd indurated. The pain is trifliii|^. 

Whul is the trtatmvnl of the indolent nicer F Where an ulcer 
shows a dispOfrition to become indolent, resort shonld be had with- 
out delay to esc hnro tics, ndhcsirc straps, or the roller. If thcKO 

Fig. 3. 

do not effect ■ cum, the edges Rhonld he pared avay, and the 
whole Biirface pencilled with the vr^nrtable or luaar mustitt. The 
oak-hark pitultice. followed in u few daji by the adlieaive alripe or 
roller, will mmieiinies cunn. TIicmi nicer* IVequonlly retjuir* 
(itiioulnCin^ applieatioQS, such u luDiir cniuiio, laTiue powder, 
ennthnridcN, cupaieutn, corroaive sublimaK, &c. Dr. Phjrttck 
considered a combin»tion of Sj of simple e«rat«, and S'l) of Briliah 
oil as the beat oicalriMr. Tke drMtiiigi abonld b« eh«iigcd ro- 





ConBlilntioniil rem(?difs aUo exert a powerful influence, ond 
mdi fvmedics m blue-pill, nnd other Diercumti. xhoiilit be rc- 
■orled to. 

In liMling ehronic ulcer*, cnrc slittnlil \k tnkeii lo eKtalilivb an 
Imuc in Home part of iho body ; olhurwixc, the Ktojijiuf^ of a long- 
MiabliolHsl di«eliar^ mnj give rioe to apoplexy, or otli«r wrbiu 

I'oncoM utcer*v\]\ UHuallyheal wiih adhesive strnpii, the roller, 
or lac«d mocldng ; but In many instances tlie enlarged veins e»a 
ouly lie relieved by an operation. 

Ulcere should not lie honied when they have been stationary for 
yeare, and ihe patient is old, trouly. or a hif^h liver. Their ton 
tinnanco may act as a safety vnWe in preventing the occarrence 
of Bome serious disease. 


What arc the premonitory nyns of Acrofula ? A delicate com- 
plexion of a lively-red color, mixed with a clear while, the lips rod, 
and the upper one especially tliiek and protiiberanl. The pupilK 
of the eyes large, and the coiijuneliva fr«e from vesHclii. Thpw 
are aome of the symptoms which denote the scrofulous constitu- 

Children are more snbject to it than adnlts. 

What arc the nijmjttnmif of «orofnla 7 A scrofulons tninor Is 
lirKt a simpler vnlargcnumt withimt pnin. or unnaliiral hcul ; in a 
Bliort time, it ticconie* tender on proMinrc, ami the heat is aug- 
inirnted ; inllnmnialion then ^i-niTally seU in. nnd it irrmiNnies in 
n1>M,'c.» nnd n literati iin, lint not alwayri. Tile niniliT ilihvhnrged 
friini absCTaxen of ihix kind la thin, gleety, and mixed nilh floeculi. 

What are Mine of the tuoni obvious cautttm of serofutaf Cold 
and molaiure, hereditary inflnenee, irre;;ularilles of diet, mcngre 
and niKtholeaomo provisions, an Impure or tainted aimoKpherc, 
deficient clothing, fevere, Hlih. faligne. menia) anxiety, Jtc 

What is the pro[ier trtalmenl for scrofula? Invigorate the 
^nera! Kyrtem by a light iionri^'liing diet, tonicH. and such oth«r 
Pirans as the general state of the hi.'allli may require, yianuel 
sJmhiIiJ Iw worn next the skin, and moderate exorcise persevered In. 
Iodine and its compoamls. both ifcnernlly and locally, are vubiulile 
in the treattncnt of most case* of scrofula. Cod-livgr oil has bt«ii 
found of mneb value in ibis diMOM. 
ST So 







For tliP fcrofnloos nicer, dry lint, Ihe iodine ralaplfiKm, astrtn 
gent vrnEhes, aiid icodvralo prMsur«, are rccomiiicoded. 


Wlmt lire the fympioms of gonorrliren? Thi-y nrc a KliEht 
tililUlifiii of the plrtiiH peiiifi, luinidily of tin; Hi* of llic uretliem, 
nnd mure or irnt iiilUtinTinlicin uf Uk glnn* iitiil jiruptice. ThcKe 
nrv fultoncd by n dlKL'tiiir^u from ihc un'llirn of a lliiii nliitisli 
fluid. Kjiredilj i-)ian(tin)c tnlo n yi:)luw purulent multcr, of pii-uUiir 
empll, attended wiiti pnin along llio cgnrse vf the arclbra in dio- 
cliargitit: llic tirinc. 

Ii consiM* of an nento inllammalion of ihc litiitig raeinlinine of 
the nri-tlira, rait^ed by Iho application of mntler from nnothcT 
daring ihe srxanl connection. The time of it* appeJimnec \* vari- 
able, Ckordee Komrtitncs occurs, in which there i* erection with 
great pnin, and Iho penis is bent, with the ooncnviiy itowiiwunlK, 
in C(iiiiie[|iienc(i of the elTii^ion of lymph into tint corpus tpongiotuoi 
uretlirro. preventing its expansion. 

Various other coinplic(ition« may occur, such as ]>Iiymosi8, p«rft< 
jiliyniosis, excoriation, bubo in the groin, ab*ccM in the [lerlneoin, 
Hwf Ming of the te«ticleit, nnd pniujt in the joinls. 

What in the (rcn/menft The ahorln^e plan of treatment hta 
been r ceo ni mend cd by some, prior to the suppumlive stage, by 
ir^ecting a ttrnng aolutiuu of the nitrate of »i1v<!r. with a glnsa 
syringe, into the urethra. The eonstllutlonal Ireatmetit lt» severe 
cases Is rest, blood-letting, pnrgatlrpg, nod low diet. SliinuUiing 
diuretics, (-specially holiiaiii of copaiva and cubebe, arc beneficial. 
When Ihe ardor nrinn; and discharge diminish, we may u^ a£irin- 
gORt it^cctions, which should be rory mild. 

Wh&t \a nndersfood by Ihe »ttj>hUit<c virntJ It la a Bpeciftc 
morbid poison, nhich. applied nnder (Htrialn cooditlons to any por* 
tion of the human body, will there determine definite and cbarac* 
teriMic local phenomena, and. if absorbed, (.'ontamlnnte the systera. 

How is syphilis dividtdt Into pritnary or lucal, of which 
chancre is the e.tponent. And conttfuiive. general, or <MN<ft(u> 
iianal, whieh is always the conwqnence of chMicn. 



Wlmi i( chancre f II U « [iriuinry reiiercal lore, produced by 
llie direct sclinn or Otv (y|iliililic viriu on (lie iiioeiiluti^d |iiirt. 

Wbul nrc llm iliirunm wityx llmi diuiicrL-K maj bn dcv(-lv|)Ci] f ^ 
Rj puxtulu, ulcvratiiia, and xiiiiiU ubsci-w. 

WliiiL oro ilic iitag<!«f Tlivru ure twv ; one of ukcmlion, and 
the olhrr or cicixrixation. 

Whiil h the dilTLTcnL-a in tlie properties of (he mnltur in tlie«e 
two tinges f 111 tho 6rA it ts iiiocalablo, and id the ««cond U is 

How nrc clinncrM diridej as to localion S Into eriemal snd 
lari^Kd, or concealed. 

How arc Mic; divided tn reffanl to their chnroctmslicsf Into 
Ji4liciitar, indurated, phagedtenic, Aud /urwiculoiit. 

What 18 the index of coiisiltutJanal affection? Induration of a 

Arc biiboea chsaei ttmoug iht- piimary or secondary syiitptoraa 
of syphilis f The primary; and may occur huth (hiiu »ymputhy 
*nd ahsorptiuii. If from iilxiurpliou, Ihey arc iiiocululile, nnii are 
iactuded in Ike term fiirunculiiu;! chancres, or chaneruu.s 1iuh«<^. 

What in the trralntfrnt of cliancre f A* it !« at Gntt purely a 
local affcelion, the cpedllc Korc should ti« coiivtrtctl iiKu a nimjilo 
one by the application of caiMlic. Nitrate of filvcr, |ir(iti)iiitmta 
of mercury, tulphntc of copper, ])o(A«ta cum calcc, &e., arc used 
for this purpocc. come prefcrrinjt one, nnd K>me anoUier. AftcT 
the separation of (li« cxchnr, simple drestinpt, Kiich i» weak soln- 
tionn of snlphnto uf copper, bluck ncid yellow waxlict, aromatioj 
Trine, &c.. will b<- proper dre«sinB:«. Lnrratcd nrctliral chancres 
may he eauterixed liy Lallemand's instrnmcnt. 

How xhonhl hnhoe« from timorjilion ho treated f Ity aniiphlo- 
l^iiiic* ifcitcmKy ; lect-hes, blistcre. succeeded by a solution of cor- 
rosira subJiiuatB, and oilier aiiliphlofpEtic applications locally; 
after ulccrnlion, they should be (rpAto<] like chancres. When sup- 
puration takes place, they should b« opened early. 

What is Ibe proper tretUmenI fur chancre when It becomes tnda [ 
rated t Indurntioa being the index of ahsorpiiun. which Is foU 
lowed by const itutioual symptoms, const ilutional remedies become 
iwceBsary, and mercury, pu-ihed to the extcut of a very slight Im- 
preaslofi on the Klimd^ Is the best remedy. 

What an the conttilutional, or sctvndar^ symptoms 7 Cutane- 



<nf cmplinn*. inftnni million of the eye, iiiDnmmnliftn nnd iiWra- 
lions of ihc pointe ui«l fnnc«'«, intliimtioii iitkI utccrntiotix of tiM 
giniida of Oiv rkin, iiiBnmm«tii>ii vf llie tiMaroiu nncl fiUroiK ti>.ia«t, 
neara ]■•)», tic. 

Are ihese affectiorvf capnble of h^rtdiiarjr transmiMion ? They 
are ; bal the primnry are propagaicd from one to aiioihcr only by 

What is ih« tivalmentt By alterntiveK; amoniE which merciiiy 
stands fir^t ; iodide of potoisiuin, earsagiarllla, arsenic, &c., tre 
also ntefbl, 


Whnt IK iiiif]pr<tood I>t a Tumor? A swellitiir or ntw proiluc- 
tlon. and not a i>art of 1h» orip-iiinl compo^llon of ihe i>nily. 

How are tiiinors tliviilfil? Iiilo iioli't iind intryMfrl. Tlie »otid 
are itMrrally cnrrtoiipd by a driijte cellular xhcalh of lurronndin^ 
Crtliiiar tubiitance, which divfifea ihem from nirroiinding; pnri^ 
Other), however, have no xuch limit, and Intolvc »iirrounding parts 
as they eiiTitrite. 

What i« nodiT*iood by AihpdM 7'inBorir? They npprarlobo 
compofwd of rmtr mutter insinnflted aimonjrst extended and delicate 
ccllnlnr inljMiiiifc; frfaierally loUiilatcd, and fonnd only in ih« cel- 
Intur nnd ndipoHe tlMiiMi. 

Whdt it unileniloud hy Fihmva Tumor* ? Tliey ure formed in 
Tartom textnreo, arc coniponed of a KubMance of a dirty-frray 
color, Willi erumidcruble density, thrunph wliich firm li^iarntou 
bands rnmifr. Tliey do not mlngrlc irrt'Kulnrly with Kniraondin^ 
puts; ihiiji difT^ring: ft'om mulif;nnnt tumor* which contain fibroin 

What i« nnderMood by Knrrphitloiit Tfim»rtt They nre deci- 
fledly mnliirnnnt, and ('ailed Etiee|)hnlnid, or MMiillflfy Snrcoma, 
They arc not like hrnin or «|'in»il mnrrow in their imimale sirnc- 
liiro. as lh« name nilphi Indiente; perhnpn /ui^toiW would he k 
better lenn. Th*?y consint of a homofrenconn matter. retembtiiiK 
the subslniice of brain in eolor and con'ifilence ; atwiir««(in, bnt 
more ho In some parlx than Iti others; frenrml imftminir Occam in 
nd'Hoerd stofre*. Tlie mnrnmin. testicle, nnd rontents of the orbit 
in ciiiidren, are the parts nioKt linble to this diM>a(je, 

What IS trndcrstood by Mrlanoul Tumoni They are of rare 




xrurrtrncc, oriifiiiate En ilio cvlluliii- tissue, and itioU freqii«ntlj 
aUurk ilio viM^um, KomeliuivK llic «yc))u]|. The exicnml a|ii)ciir* 
aucf is (,'L'iierully ^litriiiig mid mottled ; iiilerriully, tbe^ cuiinUC otm 
buiu<>(^ii«i>ui black mutter, fnrilirAti^l into llii.' culliilar (isiii«. 
Occuni'Jtially tbcf arc Qriu, ia ot)i«r cuneti »afl, broktiu down, and 

Wliat iit uaderetood by Carvinamatmt* Tumorti Tlicy ar« 
t1i« uiosi maligiiant and intruvuble or tuiuor*. Tli« terai tcirrh lui 
Is ofleii used Byiionymoaiily with carcinoma, while canter ih a tenu 
preliy iiidiscri minutely' (-mitVijed to di^noie llieir condition after 
ulccrutitin, 'Ih^y arc cliaiiK-teriKcd \iy u {uctenialiiral deii»Ily or 
induration of tlie loft (larls, difGcull of resolution, and prone to 
otceration. Unequal hi turruce, uneummon]/ heavy, and tlie xkiii 
coTcrin^ tbem ]>uchcred, and or k faint IiIunIi or leaden liae; nitli 
n Ttlicniciil. peculiar, lanctuatinK puiri in llie pnrt. Tli«ir internal 
siructuru cunuint ffriu li};ameutou!i bandn, Iravenint; in vurionx 
directions, and communicate a (^ruling feci to tlie knife wbun cnt- 
tiutc ibetn. 

Wliiit ii undcrMoml 1)/ Funtju* Ilwmatodegl It is a term mp- 
piled 10 ilione fun|;ouK growths which haru hemorrhngc proceeding 
from llicm to a ((ri'liler or kw degree, uiid with more or less fre- 
quency. T!i<! term is often n)iplied to nedollary wireoma. 

What i» nnder«tood by KncijuU-d Tunwrtf Tlicy arc fupcrfi- 
ci«l, conxirt of an external gj'kI, wliicii i« Rooi^-timcs Ihin nnd 
delimtc, in other caxM den», (hick, nnd fibronx, or almoxt cnrliln- 
iriiions. The internnl jlrnctnrc varies tery much in different rnsca. 
Tlicy are sometimes dcxignnlvd from the nature «f their contents ; 
MheronuUouv, eouUining curdv matter; Mcttcerou^, containing « 
snbstjince like honey ; and SlfalomaJou», containing fatly matter. 
It is diflicult, however, lo thus def^ignale them all projierly. 

What ia the proper Ireatmenf for lumors f Extirpution with tlwi 
knife is the only remedy to be depended niion; and cvoa thi.* nill 
oftcD fail wlicn l)ie tumor h nialigaant, although it glTcs ttie best 
chance for suucesa. 


ITow arc Fractures rfiViderfJ Into eitnpl^, compound, a 
cnifili'-tUrtl, and ngnin into fran»ivrie, oMiifne, eomviinuit^tt, oud 
hngHviiiaal. A n'mp/e fraclarc Is a mere separation of (he bon^ 






GbTM, uiuiltend«d with wvere conlimon or vslerniil wonii<I. A 
compoind fracture i> uecompaiiied with an exlorniil Hntinrf or pro- 
lni<ki) Ikmw. It is called cimplicalfd wFi«n liir boiin ix broken in 
Boro ihnn one plKCC, (^)inl)iiiM wild timalioti. I narration of Urp 
TomlRi Brrupinrc of lignmpiilf. tcmloiiH, Ai;,, or otlii-r rxlcnnivc 
iignijr. A friu'ltire is Inuttvernt when iu dircclion i» pcrpcndicolnr 
to llic Mxii' of the lionc, ohlitjnf. wlicii it ilvTintrx from ihu iH'r|>ni- 
lliculnr cllrcotion, amxminvti-d when tiiu bnnc in broke in kctituI 
plncc*, 011(1 lonijitudinal whvn it ruiift parallel with tlic nxi* of the 

Wliat are lbs tt/mplown of fracture f Gwerally there is en- 
pilUR, «D(I when it cxiniK ran Ix' «lir<i on. There is nUo nsnnll; 
dcforniii;r. pnin, fwelling, nnd innbiliir to ime iind move the limb. 
Bonex in jriiiinjs KubjcctH are nomeliine* bent, only n few of the bonj 
filirw on ihc eonvexiiy giiinir nwny. 

Whnl i^ ilie /trnij/i'iniii in friiclun-K f It will c)<*pmd mneh npon 
the exlrnl of Ihe injury, conwlilulion, nn<I njce of the pnlienr, the 
kind of frncturc, buO the boue hrukcu. CoinpliciiK'O and com* 
ponnd frnetiireK nrc the rnuxt iliiii^roUH. An oMique frnclnrc in 
more (liDiciilt to muun^'e ttiuu ft trauKvene one, owing to muitculnr 

Whnl i( the trralmeni for fi-aotiirea. TIi« (iencnvl iniliraiion* 
lire li> prrvrnt or »u)i(Iuc intlnmniiiliim, and 1o Ronptaic and retain 
ibi' f>'ngini.'iits in conlaet. until thi'j lire rcMored by cnlliui. 

The former is bent necomplished by the aniiplilnK^diic course nad 
poMtiofl ; and the Iniltr by exlciiKion. eoiintcr-i^xteniiioii, pofilion, 
ipliuU, compresws, Bnd bnndnfrM. It rei^nirw rrom two to eight 
weeks to prodiiro cnnsutidutiou. nnd (onietiu«9 longer, before 
CDia^tlcte restoration Inkcs pinee. 

fraiiure of IJii^ Lntcerjaw. 

Wlwl are the rymptom* of frn"iiiro of the lower jttvf f Cr^pi- 
tnliuD pan |:eni-rally bo dcieeled. and the ie«-lh will be fotind irrcfru- 
lur, and often loos*ned. It grncrfilly occurs in the mcrital region, 
or middle of the horizunlnl runiui^ ; but it may occur ia nuj part. 

What appanttu» is necessaiy ! A comprcs*. and a bandage 
nnitcd In the centre and divided a( each cud, hear to the middle, 
so lliui eiicii loose end may be liid to tlie one ofllic opposite %ide ; 
«ii« lit ihcRi over the top, ft»d the other at the back purt of the 


Tho patient miitt tic nuiirit^hcd wtih broth or other thin fluid, 
imliibcd bolWGcn tlic tcolli. 

Fradure of Ike Vertebra!. 

Whnt nro the ti/mptomn of fracture of the vertchrie t It is rnrc, 
snil whL-n it does occur, mu^t be the ri-»ull of great rioloiico. 
Dinguoxiii ix HoinMimcii difllcult, ax |iamlfiiiit uiay oconr from con* 
cu«Kioii witlioQt fnittiire. If ft occur nbui-c the foorih cervical 
Tertebni, death tukux place ai once, from injury to Iho phrcaio 

If immedintfly hHow the fourth, iho oppcr exircmities art 
fiaralyred, there it difficult rc4|)inition, mid death ocean in » tow 

When tlie dorsBl verlcbric arc the neat of fracture*, paralysis of 
the li^nrr ivtrrDiitien, and ii^tiratiaul torpor occur, irith gascons 
(lisicrxiimi. niid dMtth in a few weuk« or sooner. 

If it he Ihi! limilmr vertebrae, the bladder and reclnm are park- 
ly»d, and the urine and feci-s pus* involuntarily, the lower ex- 
IrcRiilirs arc imndyzed. and d«alh follows sooner or later. 

7mcturi-K of the spinous processes are not serious, unteM accom- 
pnnii-d by concussion, or sone other lifjury. 

Progjinsiit \a nnraroniblc. 

What i» the treatment for fracture of the vertebra 1 If the 
pntiiiit dhnuM ^u^vive the imtnediatt- effect of the injury, the anli- 
plili(riiilic i.-OHP'e should be adopted, pnriii-nlnrly one to rellere in- 
ftnmmnlion of the spinnl marrow; and the nHne niuit be dmica 
nUr fri>(|arnlly by llic catheter. 

FractuTf. of the Jtibt. 

Whnt arc tlie gt/miilams nf frnftiin- of Uie rib*? Tlipy «rc not 
uIwnvH distinct unlfw crupituK ejciM* ; lhi;r« i* gcncrullf lilUo di»- 
plitcvmmt ; but umuUj [juln on n;)>|iiriitii>ii (r-s|icdiilly in ibu re- 
vunilicrit posluri:) at the fteat of ibc injury, which is iiicrcaMd upon 

Wbnt is the treatment t A roller C or 7 inrliM wide should be 

spl'tidl tightly round tlio breast, lo a« to csuxc Uic pntiunt to lirentho 

by ilic djfljihragm. Tbe general cymploms should bo ntteuded to 

at tbe suwe time. 

Fracture 0/ the SltTtivm. 

What nre the tymplum»'} An inerasnnt grnting of the ftsg- 
menis upon each oltirr during reepiruliuii, Tbo direction of the 
rrni.'liir<* is i-oiiimouly trnnarerse. 

What ill ihe treatment ' The indtculion* nrc to present or sub- 
dno inflnni motion, ind to nppcnsG Ibc iiii-ciuniit rough end difficult 
refipiratiou that iisnully attend. A roller eliould be applied also, 
ta in fracture of the ribK, and a comprc«« if necessary. 

Fracture 0/ Ike Clavicle. 

Wliat are the fymptomst Crepilulion, depression of tbe hume- 
Tol beneath the stemnl firngnicnt, the shonldcr felling; below the 
level of the opposite one, and llic pecolinr inclinalion of the head 
and body towards the afTeelcd side. 

What is the trvalinentf The indications in fractnre of the 
clavicle are to carry the shoulder upwards, outwards and buck, 
wards ; and lo reinin it in this position by appropriate apparatus, 
of which there Is a variety in use, some surgeons preferriiiK one, 
and Bonio another. The plan of Velpeau is reeommeuded by 
Vrnt. Miuwey, in wliich the forearm is brought across the chest, 
with tJie hniid rentiuif un the shoulder of the sound Kide, and 
accurcd in this )io«itIon by proper bandages and contpres*efl. 

" Thr ln.1t and btriit nppuriiiiiK Is that of Dr. Fox, which conjtiktii 
ill a Kling for the (ilbow, iiiiidi! of stout linen, or olher material ; 
this xhiiuld be in irnalh nlionl iwu-thirdn of tbe foreiinn, and deep 
enough (n vmbrunt the fi^rrarm ; it can eanily be made out of a 
Mici. of stuff, cut into a piirullvlo^rani iwiou the widlh of the fore- 
ann, and two-thirils of its length ; Ibis ia to be doubted in its 



BhorUst diameter, and ooe eiid senrod ap ; at the opper an^to, nnd 
the corner o( cndi side. & (.!foiig loop «f Upa u attached. A 
riiiK of liticn, eliiiTcd nJlh i.'arded cotton, ia made lo enlirnce ibo 
tlioulJvr urid axillu ; a wi'iige-slinpod pad, which shoald be ihrcs 
inches Ihit-'k ai ihe baw, six iiitbcs lung, nnd four or live wide ; 
lhr«o sirorif; piecM uf tape or bandnee complete the npparatna. 
Tlic application of it ia as follonti : The base of the pad it placed i 
in lbs axilla of the injareil ftide. and temporarily *cturcd hj beinj' 
bald, or \tj tope* tied around tin neck ; the arm of the Koand sido 
U paaud throajrh the padded rinir. which nxU in the axilla nnd 
OT«r tbedMHilder: the aliag in applied to the forcann, the elbow 

ploved lirmly in ita angle, and the arm is now broa^hl down to the 
side, the ffoclare coaplated ; tapes havirif; been passed through 
the loops attached to the slinj^. are now carried ihrouKh the riaj( 
at the sound shoulder, the tape at the elbgw mrrled bebiod tiM 
"btet, and those at the wrist iu front; these are firml/ drawn so ■■ 


• a ])Iac» Iho sboiildcr onil dnvido in proper posUion, the band 
licitig }iut into a ^ling. K«h coIIou fliuald be plnced under tlie 
lapi'fi wliorc Ihoy toiicli the skin, to prevtnl cxcoriution. With 
ihU nppumtiis I hnvo trcaitt) ■ child only twrnijr niontlu old with* 
out iiicu[iv«iiii.-iicv or dcrunnil}'. liut it is ncccsMiry lo svolil Dnch 
pressure in sucli yonnj; cnbjccts. as well ns lo cxerci>v grrnt cnre in 
protecting thf^ skin from cxroriolion ; tn tins camc, a fi-w circular 
turns of n roller were past^ed round the clie&t and forcnnu to pre- 
vent motioii- — nn iKMiiiou uunecessarv in the adult. This appa- 
ratus is cefiitf applied ; and caii be worn witlioat iDconreoivnce, 
and prolvililj answers the indications better than any ihut has yet 
been pri.>poBed.''^//o»fi>t3a' Surgery. 

Fisciurcs of the scapula can ^^encralty lie treated hy the eame 
poeiiioa and apparatDs as those of the clavicle. 




Frat'lvre of the Arm. (Figs. 5 mid 6.) 

What arc the fijmplomst Crepitation, mobility of the frng- 
ncuU, and uagulur di«plHcenient, or a tendency to IL A fraclu.-^ 



Kg. 7, 

of tlie nerlt of the homenis. besides the ordinary symptoms of 
fracture, may be dietitijfuiehcd from <iyoi-siion by the roluiiditT 
of the shoulder beinj; preserved; while in dlMoculioa there is a 
bolloiv utiilcr llie ucroiiiian, and a tiininr in the a.iilla. 

What is Ihe apparalue necessary for the ireatincnl f A long 
roller aod foor ti.irrow splints, when Ihe shaft is the seat of fruc- 

When tliecoiidylea are fractured, a roller and two angular splints 
Me iii-f-esiary. 

II When frai-tnra of the lower extremity of the hnniems occurs 

I juil above the condyles, much care is noteMary to disiiiipuisli It 

» from dislocntion of ihe radius and ulna liackn-ards. In fracture, 

I crciiitation maybe prodnced; the deformiiy is easily removed by 

D extension, and rclunis when discontinued, and the ieogib of the 

The r&ller and nn^uhir fiplint* arc uho appropriate for thtt 
iiynry ; one splint nhonhl be placed in front and the other behind 
the nrm, with the horixontnl limbs of ibi^ splints n^iliuK upon the 
Dpper and lower surCnccs of tlm forearm, and aliaclied to it by the 

Fracture of the Foreaitn 

What are the KyrijtfamM ? Crepilntion, dtforroity, and the mo 
biliiy of the rrnirmenW. 

Both boDes may he rraciurcd npon the Mme level, or at diircrent 
p&iuu, or one bone alone may he fi-aduied ; the radiua being mora 
fieqaeuily broken than the ulna. 



rig. 8. 

Fif. 9. 


The olecranon prorcw or Itio ulna may be fractured by direo* 
Tiulciicc, or by tlie fti^lioii of Ihe Irii-i'}!* niiiicle. 

The cortmoid proee** i.t .KnmiMinii.-s, alihoush rarely, fmclured. 

Whcii the coronuid pruct-iid i* liruktti, ilieru ii dii-Iocuiioi) of the 
olna titckwnnh, iviili lUu chnructvrUlio jtrojeciiou, uid difficulty of 
bending the elbow. 

Fraeture of the lower end of ihc radius may euily be nii»iiikeii 
for ditloealioii of iliis bone al the Trlst-joint, and great caution 
should be olnerved in inuklng a diafcnoals. 

In fractnre, t-repUus may be produoed. and the deformity is 
canlly reinoTed by preuure. nnd rPlurn* when lirfl free. 

Whnt afiparaliis U necessary in tlie Irralmfnti Two long 
i-oni|>reasM; two splints 3| Inches wide, and lung eiioufrh to ex- 
tend fh>m the elbow to the points of the Gngers ; and t roller. 

The soft pnrU of the int^TOKseons spnco ehonki be mude to Bcrvo 
M a iplint, by thu arntngvnicnts of the comprctxr*, to »» to force 
the tVa{rraent4 oulwnrdu, nni] ktcji them in appoi^ilioii. 

If tbla precflQlion shotilil be ncglc('(t!cl. pronntioii niid snpinatiOB 
may be d«tro}'e(l, an may be Kcun by Figure 13. 

FiB- 15- 

Fig. 13. 

In fractore of the otfcranon, tho elbow should be straightened 
and baiidatred by eircular and revenod turns of a roller frotu tlie 
hand to the injured Joint ; ihe fragment shoiilil be broaf^hl down 
and adjuaied, the roller passed aliorc it and around tli« joint, in 
Uh form of figure of 8, aulil is it Grtnly Sj[«d. (Fig. 18.) A ipLiot 



fa tlicii to be placed in front of tbo joint, of eorae length, Mt 
eci-urcd by a roller. In iliree weeki the joint shonld be nxivrd 
paialrely so as to preTont uncii^loMB. The anion will be lignrucntous. 

In A'acUirc of ihc coronoid pi-oc^tJi, the joiot most Ijc pnt in 
proper jioMliun, bent at right angles, buiiiJaged pro{ier]y, and 
jilnccd in n »lirig. 

Friicturos of ilie carpun. metacarput, nnd phalanges rcqnire no 
speeial directions; gcnoml pri^ei|>l(^9 in reference to fractures 
goTerning in all aat». 

^B Fracture of the PateUa. 

^H What nre Ihc g'jmploms t The iransTerae fracture, which iB the 

^^^^_ Dio&t eornoion, ts knuxn b; (he 

^^^^^H fig. 14. tip))cr hair being remove op's orda 

^^^^ / .^-t StTV *>" •'"^ 'hijrh. and the patient is 

^^1 f f/jf^^ s^ unable lo rise or to walk. 

^^1 / \i-ir ' ■ -*- ~\ What in the trralmftU and up. 

^H ull/~~'^'^9kl/V fiffrafuji* Tlie limb ibould bo 

^^P I ll T^^^0^Bf^ \ plueed in au extended position 
f 1 1 J ^hk^?^^^^ \ *"'^ flexed on the pelvis. The 

I /|,'J ^^^^^^^JBt V appnnttus is a splint two int-'lien 

L nrWy ^^^^^^^ / "'de, long enough to extend from 

the liiberosiiy of the iiii-hiuin to 
near Ihc heel ; two rollers, each 
BIX yards lonjl, and thr«e inched 
wide ; and compreMCS. 

Pass the roller by cirt-ulnr and 
reversed turns from the foot to 
the lower IVngment ; bring the npper one doun in eoDtaet wlih ilie 
lower ; po»s the roller around the knee in the form of the figure 
of 8, und H'tlh eirculiir inrns in sneb a manner ns to rolniu the 
fyagmeniK in contact. The roller should be passed so as to confine 
the mnneleii of the thigh; n straight splint applied behind the 
limb, und ijiiii'tmli- itnjiiiui'd. 
The union is geticmlly ligamentous. 

Frvxiurt of the ThigK 

At what part of the Kfck do fractiires (hicnr ? Both wlihln 
and exlornftl to the capsular ligament; but fracture wiibio fa mo» 




common, nhliouRl) rare in pcntotm andrr flflj rnnre of ti^, and U 
■OAtl/ met with in old womuii; tlm liuiic tindri^ocs cbnnfn^ in 
KdraiK-ifd life, whivli T«iidi-r il more linlilc to tiii« arcidrnt. There 
b a dellcieijcj of eiirthy innttLT, nrid .ipoiiginosN ot ihe caiioelli ; 
the neck Wl-oitics atro|iliied, khorteueil, nnd siinli from tbc obiiqiio 
to tbe horizouUl posillon. 

Fig. IS. 

Tlie progntMU U nry uiirarornble ; union takes pUce slowly, if 

What arc ihe tifniplom$ of the fracluro of tbe neekf The limb 
is Rencrull/ Khorti-iic^d ; iu lei)|rth can be restored without tlilttuullf, 
■Dd reiucnida n.s snoii n.i lti« exu-ii«ioD a removed. Upon ruta* 
tinf; tlic lh[|;h, nod plairinK the Imiid oit the trochaiilcr. it will luni, 
H It ntn, upon K pivot; whereas, in the soiuid bone il disttrlhc* 
Ui* arch of a circli!, the rndiuti of which U formed by lh« neck, mid 
;rv)iiliiv iniiy be prodiK-ed. 

What i« the proper Irealmnnl? In rerj old labjectn. place l]|« 
patient In bed, ktiep the limb ciiiiel, bj a iplint if nwesury, for a 
ftw wtck«. when the putirni may be ullouud to iiao crulclien. If 
Ibn patient be yxinft, it may nnite by bone, and lie shiiold, there- 
fore, be placed in a proper appuralui fur keeping It In place. 



Tlic Trrirhanttr Stajnr may be fraclured, nnd is known by Itt 

Ofiiifc (frnupii iiiiwnni. ntid by vrepilos. When Oiis ocenrs, the di«> 

pUoin^c miiKc-U-* "liunld be rctexed, and the reuambent portion 


Tba sAo/il may be uparatcd frotn Ibe epipht/ata In yotini^ anb< 

Jvcis, and should be treated bj extencloD, 

connter-extcii^on, aud ftxiiig the limb by 


Wlint part of tbv tbiph is most liable 
to fiat'tiire F The middle iii young subjecla. 
Whnl are the fijmpli/vm of fmeture of 
the Rha/lf There are the general eyinp- 
torn* of frnHiire with shnrleninff of the 
limb, uii)i-xi it in triiuxvcTM-, in which em%9 
ibo i'iid« arc Knpported njininiit each other. 

Whnl nre the liidirntioii* of trfalmfntf 
Tlie |ir>iii.-i|>iil iruliciitiuiiii are to keep up 
exii'iJsioit. coiinler-extcnBior, and coa|)ta< 
tiuii. fur wbitih ihcru u a great taricty of 
appurutiia in iim. 

Pvnaull'it np]>aratun ha« been rery popn- 
iar, mid (HiiiKinii of nn outer iipliiil, ilir« 
or four inches wide, reachini; fruui lli« 
crest of the ilinm to four inches beyond the 
foot, eauli extrirniity linvjuK a hole in it ; an 
inni^r Mplint rcnchinK from the perineum to 
the eole of the foot, and an nppcr epltnt 
reaching: to tbo knee. A counter-extending 
band is pasted over the perinenin ard 
thToagh t)i« upper hole iu tbo eplint. 
Extension is produced by a baud or hnndlterchicf applied to the 
■nkle, and mnde fitut to the tower end of the i^plint througfa tfae 

Or. Piiyiiicl; mo'lififi llrwiuU'^ apparutUA by exlcndlnf the outer 
xplirit to the axillu, in which exteiiHiun ij made In • line more 
nearly |MTallel with the axiit of the body. A block is also placed 
on the inner ^ide of the name splint, below the foot, so as to pro- 
f enl obliquity iu the tine of ext«niiioii. Bags of bran or oat chaff 




&re ptaccd od each Bido of the limli, bo m to prevent eicoriatton, 
mid keep up gteady pressure ; the wliole is then to be seeured hj 
bun liners. 

Llcioii*s apparatus consisis in usiii^ the onter tptiat alooe, a» 
■een iti lUe figure applied. (Fig- IT, p. 449.) 

Dr. Oibson rcconini etuis tingedara's apparatus as modified bj 
Itiui^df, aa seen m tbc annexed fipirc. (Fig. 19, p. 449.) 

Phynich's modlBcatioa of Deiault'8 U more popular Uian any 
otlier a)iparatua. 

Fradurt o/Ute Lfy. 

What are the most common varit-liest Oblique and truusversfl 
fractures of tli« middle, but it is liable to every variety, and In an; 
part, gomeliiiies one bon« is broken, and at uthera bolb. A 
mncty of »[i|iiiratn8 is used in their treatment. The diii-f purjiosu 
of a splint being to ennblv a enrgeon to keep, effi-eHinlly. the frac- 
tured fiurfttces of a bone in the elo^est apposition during the limo 
recini^ite for renniim. tliat one, of course, should be adopted, that 
will best answer this purpose ; and it will be found that, in aoDU 

Fig. 20. 

Pig. SI. 




CMC, eonc kind vrill answer besl. &rii] in otiiere iinotltcr ln'nd; 

ilcpriiiiing u|ioii tliv kiml of fmclurc, the tact of the oorfjcon iu iu 

a|il)licutiuti luitl It) utit, iic. 

T1i« rractnrc-box and pillow lias hipli uatliority to recommend 

it. It Ghoiilil hnvc a root-board to wliidi tbe foot can be secured 

by banda^ eo n« to pPtront lateral Inctiimllun. 

Two splints, tha lenpftb of the lej^, applied od either side, also 

(iiiBwcr llic pariiose wHI ; care being taken lo support tbe foot by 

a bandage or hnndkcrcliicr. as seen In th« fiiturv. (Fig. 19, p. HO.) 
g- 22 The fibula la oflKn frnrliin-d near the 

a^kI^■jo!nt, and onen aoeompanJcd with di»> 
luculiun of tbt; Tiiot. Tlic fool Ik tnnied out- 
wards, ua «««n in Kijrx. 3(1 and 21, p, 4!>1. 

Dupnyircn'a or I'hynick'N appnratnt la 
preferable to any oilier, nnd coimUts of a 
single splint, placed on tlie inner side of Uie 
leg, and rencbing beyond the foot. A 
wedge-shaped pnd reaching only to the ankle, 
with the Inrpierend applied to the internal 
malleoIiiH. should be used; and a bandage 
applied .to at to produce tnTcrsion of tbo 
foot, and retention in that position. 

The inUrnal mall'v!u« it niKo nomelimea 
fractured, including more or less of the tibia. 
(Fig. S3.} It is easily dutreted, nnil minire« 
the tamt nppnruiaK and treatment as fracture 
vf the fibula, only tbe application Klioutd be 
on the opposite side of tlie limb. 

Compound F>-actvre. 

A compound frnrtnre is where uii external wound commnnicatca 
with tbe fracture, and may bi' proilueed by the means cansing the 
broken bone, by the protrusion of the bone itself, or by nWration, 
aubsequently, Tbe dangers ri-'ult rmni abock, hemorrlioge, tolftQas, 
auppuratioa. hectic, or typhoid ft^ver. 

If the bone is much comminuted, or n lurgo Joint opened ; If 
large arteries are torn \ if the soft pnnn are cxiitosively Injured ; 
and pariicnlarly, if coigoined with a|;e, or di«<, amputjitiiMi 
may be necessary. 



Wlien ail uttempt h niude to tan t1i« limb, we chonld endcjivor 
to conrcri ihv cunijioiiniJ into a. Mmplft fractun;, Uy nrrc^Ktiiig 
licmiirrlingc, I'leiiririg out, tli<: wound, ntid bniigiiig the [mru 
(0)i:vlh«r properly, no ibitt uillK^ion may take ptuvv. 

The geiiernl principles or trcAlinciil Applicable fur ii> (lam [nation 
And itM rv*iilt« in diirvrciit sUigcs, masi be resorted to, uid yol 
HKCOixlurjr DinpulAliun mikj be necessary. 


What U B luToJion or dislocaiion 1 It la tli« rcniovAl or the 
head of A buii« from it« correspond in ji; Articnlatinfr cavity. 

Uow ar« the varitUrx of cli»Ioration desi^nntcl ? I3y the tcrmg 
timple anil compound; pririfUoe ami conMCuSive ; recent and 
■>U ; compMr^ mid ini-ompMf-. 

Simpte luxation id nhcrc tliore it b mere removal of the head 
of tit bone; compound, when an external wound (v>mmunicale9 
with the ONvity of Iho Joint ; primitiiv, wlien the head of the hone 
coatinuea In the uouatoral position it first assumed ; contecutitx, 
when it in removed and becomes Rued in another; reefnl and old, 
relate to the iluraliun ; completi and iuanmpltie, denote total, and 
partial diiiplncemcnU 

Uow may Inxutionx he dialinguiihed from fractures ? By want 
of ercpilntion, by the peculiar di^lurtion and rijiidily of the limb, 
and the shape of llie joint. 

What arc the mrant gejicrally employed f Conatitutional and 
local means nre both ofWn necesfjiry. Among the former are 
bload'lettinij, tcam-bal/t, naitneating ejnetics, Ac, The latter are 
e^leneiun and counlrr-fjp-nrion. 

A partial removal of the head of the bone from its articulating 
<urfn(:e is termed gub-luaatioit. 

'{ n dislocaiion is connected with a wound \a the intef;nnicntii, 
traeture, or laceration of lar^ vessels. It is called compound dia- 
/(i>"ii(to», and the same general principles (govern aa in compound 

Jhnlticttlion of Q\K IiOWer Jaw. 

In how many way* mny the Lotci-r Jaw I>c Inxnted, and what 
KTO the symploiusf Only in one — anteriorly. The condyles an 




Fif. 28. 

displ&ced, Ibe mouth ik thrown opea and cniinot be ahnt, and ibc 
coroiioid protess proJcoU nniicr the tht-ck boiic. (Fig- 2*.) 

What is the Irratnime? Tim surgeon plnrim hiu ihnnibs de*ji 
ill th« moulh, and rvnl* them upon the postcrivr in»Ur teolb, while 
tbe 6u^rs aru cnrriud beneath the cliiu and baie of tho j&v. 

Pig. it. 



Pressure sitoald be made dowiiWRnls by tbe thumbs, and tbc chin 
ekrated at the eamo momeni ; hy which reduclion may be oOecled. 
When il depends upon relaxation of the liganiMite, Sir Astley 
Cooper recommends bli^ter^ before the ear, shower-bath, and tbe 
Internal um of ammonia and steel. 

DUlocalioH of the Clavicle. 

How many ways may the Clatfiele be luxated T II mny he lux* 
ated at either end ; and the sternal portion la three dlreutiona — 
forteantif, backwardu, and upward*. They are all eiuily dixtln* 
guiahed by their peculiar deformity. 

Fig. S6. 

What h the treatment f The mom bm for fractare of tbe same 

Dl»locati»n of the Arm. 

now many ways mny tbe Arm be luxated f Downwards, /or- 
wardt, backivarda, and « oouecotlve diilocntion upwards. 

n«w (honid tbc reduction be accompli«li«il f The patient 
cliauld be .*C»tcd in « clinir ; a strung band, eight or ten inchea 
vide, pnfxed around the chut with it« middle close to the injured 
part, und it* two ends given to an nMistant on the opposite nide; 
■noUier cloth should encircle tlw; arm above the elbow, be fixed 
Bn<l entrusted to another a»iiHlnnt; the Burgeon ahould lay hold 
of the extremity to as to bond the elbow and rotate tbe huinerm, 
while the aasifitMia make exiension and couuter-extenttion. When 




BuOcient force is applied, the hamcras wlU gencrollj paaa into t)ia 
glenoid cavitjr witli a kind of snap. 




Fig. 28. 

Another tnoAe is to pinro lliu pntieot on bis back, pince a bull 
in tliv uxilla. and thi?n kt the siir|[Oon plnce hix htcl on the ball, 
Bciw the wrisl, ami by n steady force effect the rvdiic-lioii. If 
n«ci:Mary, a wet roller may be paswd round ilic arm obiiw the 
«lt>}w. itiid an vKteniHiiK baud applied, opon which greater tniciivo 
forec can be exerted. 

Sometitii(% it in necessary to apply pnllcys, a« shown in Fig. 3T, 
particulnrly in old caiies. 

A di.iIucatloii of ills Joint should not be attempted after huring 
esicted twelve weeks. 

DitlocaHrm of l/ie Forrarm. 

How may the /■'orfarm l>c luxated t BaekwarJt, laterally, 

Imi /i'mKiriU by a prt-rionii fniclure of Ihe olecranon. 
The ulna may be dislot-ated bacltxcardt, the tmllui foruard and 
%Iao baciteard. 

What are the eympfoma t Wheu both bones are ilirowii back- 
wards., there is a projection posteriorly ; on each side of the ole- 
cranon there u a hollow ; the lower extremity of the humcrnx can 
be felt at the forepart of the joint ; the hand and foreann are fixed 
ill the Eiipine poHiiion, while the joint is nearly Immovable. 

The treatment is to seat the patient ; the sgrgoon should place 
his knee Jn the bend of the arm. take hold of the wrist, and make 
extension ; this will have a tendency to sc])ariiie the radium aii^j 
ulna frata the hamerus, and bring ibcm fonvardi into their projier^ 
position. The forearm shoald then be placed in a sling after re- 

When the vlna is dislocated bactwarda, there is a coulortiou of 


Ihe tinnd end roreuiiii iiiwiinl*, nnd the oli^trrnnon process project! 
beliiuil llie liiinicru«. Thu rorciinn cniimx be extended, ndtlicr 
can it be llexed beyond a riiilit unple ; lUcte ure the dintinguUliing 
murks; U is canily rwluoed by cxiciiHiuTi nnd couiiter-extenwon. 

In dUlocalion of the radiun /'^ncardu, tlic head owiipiei tht 
hollow above tlie external coudj-le ot the hunierus. (Pig. 30.) 

fig. 30. 

Fig. 81. 



The foroarm is slightly bent, but cannot bo Qexed to d rigbt 
•ngle, nor extended complcldj; the hand is pronated -, the birncl 
of the radius may be felt inside the external condyle, rolalici^, if 
the hnnd be rotated ; and there \& % sadden check if tbo elliow bo 

In reducing it, extend the wrist and sapinate the hand ; at the 
MOW time, press with the thnmb or the head of the rndins. 

DislocoUoQ of the radiun backwards is known by fcdin;: tho 
head of the bone back of the external condyle; and there is parlidl 
lo« of movement in the juinl, (P'iff. 31.) 

Seductiun and lixalmcnl Kainu us in proviooa injury. 

ng. 83. 

The radiiie ana luna may be dislocated at the wrist, both tmck- 
wardt aa<.\ /orwarcU (Pig. 33.) 

Heducliuti is elTcctcd by extension, counter-extension, and pres- 
sure; the nrisi and foreann should then be placed iu splints and 

The radius at the wrist may be dislocated anieriorlif, poele- 
riorltf, and iaieralUj. 

The tr/iia may be dislocated at the irrisi, and may easily bo 
known by the chnn^e of position of The styloid process, projection 
of the tilna, and twisting of the hand. It may be reduced by 
extension and pressure ; it should then be conlined by compret^es, 
Splints, and bandages, on Srcconnt of the groat liability to displace- 
ment from rupmre of the ligaments. 

Tho thamb may bo dislocated backteard^t «nd also in the oppv- 

tite direction. 

Fig. S3. 




Fig. S4. 

In rediicinp it, n clovc-hilch should ho placed npon the ftnt 
phiilnnx, and extension mudt. with soine foreililc mid Bt««dy 
llcxion. townrtU tlic pnlni of tlif hniid ; mid prrninrc nuide \ij ihe 
thnnib upon Ihe heud of tlie bone, which will usually iiui.'c«vd. 

Fig. !8. 

Dielocation of the Tltialu 

What are the different Inxutions of the Tliigti 1 Upicartlii and 
ovlwardx on llie dursDin of the iliam ; downteards and inwardt 
into the fornmen ovale (Pi^. 36 nnd 37) ; vpwards tifiAforwarda 
on the {lulieii ; Irarku-ardit into the ischisiic notch, and dotentoardu 
iindur ihc tuhorosily of the ischiuro. (Fips. 39 and 39.J 

The Jtr*t niiiy be known by a prominence nt-ar the superior 
spinous proceM of the iliam, formed by ilie fftvAt trochanter, to- 
gether with B ahorieuiiig of the limb, and an ini-Iinatioa of tbe 
fiiot Inwatdt. 



The second by the limb brlnfr Icnirtlieiifd two or thrwt Jnch^; 
the foot is tiinicil outvrnrilK. nnd ihc hcnd of ihc bone iu thin sub 
jocts rany be fell In thu fornmcii otoIc. (Fife. 41.) 

The third by a burd luiiior ubuvc l*oiiport'« lignnifnt ; the limb 
is Bhorlencd nboiit nii inch, tlie foot in turned oatwiinl*. nnd the 
trochanter miijir ix in front of the Anterior tujierior .spinons procns 
of the ilium. (Fljt- 42.) 

The /ourik hy the limb beini; shortened half ui Inch, aod the 
fbot Klightly iiK^liiied inwards. (Fit;. 43.) 

Wlint ii the irealmeiUt EiteiisJon bj polteys, nnd conntcr- 
•xlenxion by & band pusing over Ibe perEnvam nnd retting against 
Ihc tiibiT of the i.tcUium. 

)Ih-odiiiK, wnrm bnth, and tartsr emetic, to at to prodoce re- 
laxation, fh^qui^nlly have lo be ri'^ortcd to. Tlie mode of acting 
and nrrongini; the means of elTcclin); rediiclioa in the different 
forms. Is well eihibllcd bj Figs. 44, p. 463. 45, 46, p. 464, and 41, 
p. 465. 





Dialocaiion of the Ktteti. 

In what ivovs may the Knt^e he Inxatott ? In four direction! 
backwarii», /orwardi, iuviarda, aud outward*. (Figs. 48, ii 
&0. sud St.) 

Kg. la. Fig. 40. 

Tbo dioQnnrif \* rngily mnde in these CSMS. 

Scduclwn \* iiccom|)ti)^hFil by extension nnd direct presstirv. 
InSsiannktion in apt to be tevere, and miifit bo combated by ucCivt 
OMaiu. and rc«t L-njiiin«(l for ecverol weeks. 

How OMj the Patrlta be hixatcilf Oulwardt, intearde, aiid 
upwards wben the ligameul of the patella Ih ruptured. 





Pig- 61. 

Dislocation of Oik Ankle. 

Id whnt direction m&j ihe Anhle be luxated ? Inwardt, 
teards, foriearda, and backwards; all of which IBA; be eaa]t 

Reduction is accomplislii-d by cxtoii^ion of the foot and flcxSon 
of the Ic-;, so ax to relax ibe gastrocneinios mascle. It Is a verjr 
eerioas injury, and amputation nill oflen bo DcceasBiT. 

Tlie Aitra'jntut is gomelimcs dislocated, and may be either for- 
ward or backmrU. 

Seduction it difficult, and cannot alvroys be sccompli»hcd, iii 
which case excision or ampntation may be noceesarf. 


D1SSA6E8 OP TBK Bones axd Joints. 

To what diseases are the Boues liable T Caries; necroMa; 
fjroftoiia; fpiita ventota ; oiteo-«arcoma f moltiliea and fi-ayititat 
Mfium; and rtKhitis. 



Whnt is carieal It is an atcemtlon of bone. 

The loft or spongy bones are the most liable to cartes. 



fWhnt nre Iho gymptom* T The affected p»rt swella, lliere is a 
Kiftciiinic of the hone, nnd it (.-rumhlcs ftway ; there In uUo b dl»- 
chnrfre ot fi'tid liliickitih mutter, nnd a, luxuriuiit Rfowth of pal« 
faniroux grnnululioiij*. 

What is the trtatmenl ? WliCli it is <le{>endeiit upon a itj'phltllic, 
I KCTofiilouN, »gorbutic, or nny coiuttituiionul disorder, gciiernl n'me- 

di«ii should be rciiiirted to. Whi-ri it pnx^eirdH from locul liijurj, 
the iiidientionK ore lo combat iiilhirniiiutiou, keep the pans at rest, 
and remoTC digeasvd portions of bone oa thcj^ become loote. 
Mineral ucidit, nud gaj^trlc juice have oI«a heeu nfiiilied with bene- 
fit. Bliiktcn, isiiuv*, KetotiK, nnd ttoady purjiin^ nre NCTTi<«nhle in 
con.ititutioniil coritt. FreHh air, tonics, and alteratives arc proper 
In adranccd Htaget. 

Carte* of the Spine, 

What are the rymptOTits f The patient complaioa of nnnilinetii 
or an uneasy sensation in the lower e.Ttremities, is languid, Guaily 
tir^d, and apt to trip or stomble in walking. 

There is oflen Hatiilcncc, sick stomach, and derangement of the 
difnstirc orptnx. i'aralvMK of the lower extremities occun in the 
■driiiccd stages of the di.teniie. Tlicre i* more or less protuber. 
ance at some portion of the tpinn) column ; the spinous processes 
of whieh proje<;t, and create coimiderulile deforniitjr. The moat 
common sent is the dorsnl vertehrie. 

What is the trraltnenlf In (he commencement bcncRt may be 
dcrirod from leeches, blisters, and cnuMio isinies; the latter of 
which it is oflen neccswiry lo continue for a long time. The con- 
diUon of the bowels, nnd diet of the ]>atienC ihonld be strictly 
attended to, the n^ciimhent poslnre enjoined, and at the same time 
the benefit of fre«h nir should be gitun. 



What la ntrerofisl It la where there is dcslroetion of the 
Titalily of bono, and differs from caries ns sphncclos dilTrrs from 
Blceration. The term aequettra ia given to dend portions of hone 
thrown off. CloaccB h a name for ojicningR in tlic cnse of now 
bone which is thrown oot. The pain is deep seated, long con- 
tinned, and severe. 



What Ifl the trtctriu^nlf It it u mnon t)i« d«>d piece* of bone 
wbcQ fdrmed. Coiutitiiiioiial rcmedtct are often required. 


What ix exoflogia ? It if uii entargi^ment of the bonj Btnicture, 
and {« dividnl inlo laminntcd, circumscribed, luheTriilnied, and 
Hpitious cxoKtoiiis. Tlic bones gcncralljr offitcteil Km tliose of the 
crotiium. lower jnw, Bieriium. ribs, and exlrcmitits. 

What is tlie trealmentt Wbeo it becomes troablceome. iU r»- 
moval &liould be ftttenipled b^ general remedies, and lov diet If 
tbc^o fail, it ehould be extirpated, if ncccKary for the comfort or 
uif«l; of the patient. 

Spina Ventoea. 

What are tlie »ymptomg of spina ventosa ? Ii is « inraor h- 
Toiving the whole eireoaiferenco of a bone, conBiMiaf^ of »a oue- 
Oiis slicll perforated wiili nnmerouH holea, eoDiaiiiing sometimea a 
thin sanies mixed with poriiciriH of h'Biph or a cheesjr nubstanco. 

What ia the Irtaivmnl t A cure may lomellraeit be produced bt 
)ong:-cuniinn<^d pressure ; Bnottirr mode of Irentmrnt is to make 
an opening into ihe envity. niid throw in cliniiilating injwiions, or 
bf cutting instruments excite Knch a drgn-c of irritation as to catue 
It to nil up willi granulntions. If ibid fail, amimintion must he 
resorted to. 

OtIfO- Sarcoma. 

What Ii Oitlco-KBrcnmii ? It in a malifrnant dlfCAiie of the hoare. 
The tumor formiuK the (ii.icautd purl iji composed of lliio bonj 
plates, arraiiKed ho m to form cells, ahleh contaiu a cbccMi-likc or 
fleahj matter, or a thin gelatinons fluid. 

What Is the trealmenlf In the early ■lagcd. conMiinitonal 
remedies may avail somethlnp; of which Ihc rompnntid dceoctioo 
ofsnntaparilla with corrosive sublimate Is perhaps the most cSlcient. 
Lccehe* and blisters have also been applied loenllj. Amputation, 
when practtcttble, is the only remedy likely to be pertnanently bene- 
ficial; even This oflen fails, nnd the rlitense returns, and attacki 
lome of the IntcninI organs, or another part of the osseons tpua- 

MoUities Ottium. 
What are the tymptomtt The bone loiea it* Datural firmnea; 


both titc nnimnl nn<l Mlinc pnrU ilimiiiixh iinlil mere itbclU arc left, 
■hirli uro tcry tuft. Ii is » very run difi-Axe. 

Wlwt is tho trealnnitf f Truntfticiil i* of liiilc iwo ; nnil nil timl 
can iKt ac*comp1i»hc<J is lo sii|tport ibc [miiciil'* airciigth by totilcf, 
^^11(1 autriiiuQf diet. 

^B RaehUit, or Jticir«t$. 

^H What ore the Mymptonuf Disorditr of tho digCKtivo org«ns, 
swt-lling of the abilomeii. ertiur'tiitiuri, itryiR-M or dJMolorntton of 
the skin, mnd bluckiie^ of the iceib. The«o symploms arc foUoved 
by distoriion i>r different puru of the body, irbich in bnd cnscn 
bwotnc rery much duforniDd. 

What u the tr«oimcntt To «trengthen the sysum by tonics, 
and keep the ttomncli nnd tiowds in proper comliiioii. Good 
DUtritiouc diet, conxiittin^ of niitmal food, has bccti recommended, 
also frivtioni), and froqiiont liatliing in salt water. 


Coxalyia, or ffip Diaease. 

Wltat are tho terms n«ed to di-note this dLwiue? Jforfriu 
cwiariua. itc/iia», gponlaneou» fu.ratioit of the os /emorit, ncro^- 
lou* carifn i\f the hip, and ah»ceii» of the hip-joint. 

What arc the aymplomuT Tlie Ural symptoin is a vlifrhl pain in 
the knee, and etnnciation of the linili : thrti pain U fvlt about tha 
trocbanlcr and gro'n. which varlM in different euics, and it in 
creased by pressure upon the hip-joinl. In wnie canes, nnchylokln 
is eMnhliihed appartnlly wiihoul the formation of pn^ ; wliitc in 
others itivre is a tiirgc aliHcei^ fi>rmcd, whidi discliurKci itnelf by 
one or more opening's, — Dnrin^ thi« proceu, tho patient U (iomo- 
limes worn ont by hectic, and dii-f^; at other linies, mn^hyloniii 
Uketi plnce ; the opening heal up, and a cure h accompli ^lu'd with 
considerable deformity. 

What is tho treattnent T The habit of bending the Ihitih on the 
fKlvio, and the leg on the thigh, should be corrected by enrvvd 
fpliiits cmdnsiiy changed for Brrnifrbler onet. — Before llie nhsees* 
foriR'. bliKicr*. cupping, and iKt'ic^ ^iiould be used, eonjoined nith 
■tmdy iiiirjiinf;, vcgelnbl* diet, und perfect rest. 

During the snppnraiire singe, tlie strength of the patient JihouM 
ba lopporttd, wid such other constiiotioual reoicdles em- 



Fungus Articuli, or White Swelling. 

What 19 comprehended under these terms 7 Infiammation ol 

l^e eynovial membrane. 

Morbid change of structure in the synovial membrane. 

Ulceration of the cartilages of joints. 

Scrofulous disease of the joints, having ita origin in the can- 
cellous structure of the bones. 

What is the treatment of the first variety ? In the acnte form 
bloodletting, purgatives, low diet, &c. The affected part shoald 
be kept in a state of qnietude, and elevated. — As internal remedies, 
mercDry and sarsaparilla are often indicated. 

What is the treatment for the second variety ? Ampatatioa ia 
geaeraJly the only remedy, and this does not always succeed. 

What is the treatment for the third variety J Caustic issnea, 
blisters, setons, and absolute rest : ancliylosis generally takea 
place, and may be considered as the safeguard of the patient. 

What is the treatment for the/owrtfi variety ? The remedies for 
scrofula should be resorted to ; aUo rest and adhesive strips. Id 
fill these varieties, when matter is formed in the joint, it should not 
be let out, but an effort made to produce absorption. 

Hydrarthus, or Dropsy of a Joint. 

What is the Irealmenlf Blisters and well-regulated pressure 
will generally be appropriate treatment. 

Movable Cartilage. 

What is the treaimeJitf If a laced knee-cap, bandnffes, &c., 
have been tried without relief, recourse may be had to an operation 
for its removal. 

■ Anchylosis. 

How ia it divided f Into complete and incomplete. 

In the incomplete variety, tlie ligaments, tendons, and snrroond- 
[ng cellular membrane are involved, and there is partial movement 
of the joint. 

In the complete form, the extremities of the bones often become 
perfectly united and identified. 

What is the treatment^ Friction with stimulating articles, and 
jadicioua movemtnt of the joint, in the incomplete variety. 


DiffKAsrK or tite Auteuira. 


To what dii«a«M Brc anerii-s »iibJL-pi? To iiillnmmftltoii. sup-' 
munition, iilcuracion, Kpliafi'IuK, i^nlrHrcous coiicrelloiis, nuifonu 
dilauitivi) of tbe COOU, and Aiieuri.iin. 


Wb&t i« micuriKtn 1 II \iax been defined to be a pulsating 
lamor formed of arterial blood. 

WUal are the varieties of ancnrisin J True, /alar, cireum- 
aerib'.d, dit^Kding, diffastd varitiom aneHri»m, iind anetuvim bj/ 

By /rue aaeiimni is nnderetood a timplc dilntntion of all the 
COaU of an urierj". cr the internal and middle rui-turcd. while the 
crilalnr coat remains entire ; hj falm atieorifm, a ru))tTire <>r 
wound of tlie three coats, so that tli« blood is cxtrnvautcd among* 
the surroniiding (larls; the sac is rormrd \>y cellular tissue, or a 
new depOBit of Ijmph, as seen in Ibc ligurc. 

rig. 62. 

The term c%rcumicrib'-d and diffnted relate to the form of Bwell- 
in;. or extent of extravnuntinn. In diMecting anourism the nae Is 
formed l>y the inGltratioa of blood between the coats of tbo 

What arc the fi/mptomr ofancnrism ? The tnmor ts Brsi ainoll. 
free from pnin, ami di*np[iears easily hy preMore, lint returns uhcn 
the prrwure in removed. A* it enlarges the pnhalion is Icfaened. 
and when much uilurKcd the integuments cohering it become pain 
fa), livid, crack, nkcrale ; and hemorrhage, if not ometcd, sooner 
or later destroys the patient. 

W bat is du) trtalmcntf Some benefit may accrue by frequent 

and repeated bleedinf^; rl(tid nhKlincnce; confinument to k nori 
zoiiial puaili»n ; ibo iiilrnmt nm o[ diiiiuli*, uj>trii)];en(a, and 
n-fri^tranU ; tlieae rt'tJiL-din iiiiinol bv dejieritli-d on, but Mhould be 
puraued wlieii Ihu tijipitiiru fnim nny na«o is fm|traclic-iible. Tlin 
Hpiture may be eutikideri'd m ilit ouly raeartH upon whkli reliaucv 
can be t'lui-ed, uiid even ihi^i »rteri ruiU, and sco»iidnry heuorrlrage 
is the cuii«i.'qiierico. Cuiiiiiruniori haa KOinutiiiic* miceeeded. 

Wliai are tlie nitca Tur the applicalion of (he liKutura iti aneu- 
rism T The surgeon should cut for a suund jiurt of the artery above 
the SAC ; penetrate cnmiuuslj until Ihe piilsutiona of the artery are 
discovered; pass an atieurltmiul needle round, armed wllh a Hro- 
lure, detaehini; It ns little as po&»ible fioui Ita eonnectloiia ; the 
ligatare sliuuld be firmly lied, one end cut off, and Ihe other left 
baiigin); rrom the wound, which shootd b« brought tognlber bf 
adhesiie straps. 

Aiieurimt by AiiaBlomosia. 

What are the fynipfonuif It U a turour rorraed by a conj^riea 
of scnull aneriufi and Teinv, with an lulermedSate cellular itructare ; 
as )t enlurites. It acquires a thrilling pulsuiile or Jarring motion. 

What ii the Ireatint-niy Comprcsiion. and excUiou aru the 
means proposed for curinji ihis disease; tliey may also nmiuetilJj 
he cured by exoitlnjr iiillauinialiou in ihe pari by Tacciuatioi), mustlc, 
needle and twisted thread, hot wire. Ac. Some surgeons preferring 
one mndc, and SOOlft another. The frequent appticatJou of collo- 
dion bus beeo asefU in aome cases by producing gradual compres- 

Varicose Aneuritn. 

What is varicose oneuriMu ? It U that form of disease In which 
n comniuuication is esinblished between an anery and a vein. It 
may be proiliici-d in ony part of llie body where a luri;e artery an<l 
rein are near eucb other, and happen to be jmuctured at tJie 




Wbat ia tk« trtatmentf Com[)restiion and Ifgatnre are tba. 
ueaiu recommended. 


What are the dbaoaea of the T«iDa f lojiammiUion, and van- 
COM eHiaryenieat. 

roric'OM Veins. 

What are the nyni/rfomn* The di»i-nx« tx utinont entirely coa- 
fined to tlie veinK of tlie lower extremilirH. In tlie commcnccraent, 
jiamCTOQit >maH clrcam.tcribed iwelllngs may lie ohvcrrcd ; at leogtb 
j-Ui* whole tcuous trunk and branches liecamc ciilart;od, rqji in a 
] cerpuniine courte, and a[>|i<-nr knotted. Ax tlicy vnlurgo, the siip- 
[,part afforded hy the vtiliea in diminished nnlil tlicy are entirely 
. lojit. The nurrouiidlu}; cellular nierabrnne bct-umes iunnmed, acd 
[^vv« riHu to painful ulcerattcitiH. 

Whet fa the treatment f Compression with a roller or laced 
IviQcking; astrinftent waaties; an elevated ]io$itIoa of the limb; 
['•nd obliteration of the (ll.ieafted rein hjr an opcrnlion, of whicli 
jthrre liaTe been several kind.t propoxed and practised; vix., the 
tifratare, the ncction, and tlie cxciMvn of tho Tein— all of which 
[•re attended with wore or lens danger. 

Cinocele and VaricoMlt. 

What am the »ymptoin*1 Cimocele in an cnlanremrnt or Tari- 
coso state of the veinn of the «|icnnatlc conl, Vjiricocelo is a 
Tarivow i>taie of the veiiiH of thu &i-rotiim. When rxiiiniiied, the 
whole rofd ajipcurs like a bundle of knotted and turtuouK veins ; 
and feel like a hunch of worms wra|>ped round and twined to- 
gether. The lunior ^uUidea on a&samini; the horizontal poMUon, 
and rfappeara on standing. 
Wlial is the Irfolment T A bag trnsa should be worn that will 
^cii^Bd the testicles, and give them a firm support. Cold a*iriii- 
t«Hh« are also recommended. There are sereral operAttono, 
[for the pnrposc of oblilcrnling the vein, proposed and praellited 
'for this disease, upon which the profession is not yet very well 

40 • 



ln/lamm<Uion of Veins. — Plilebilta. 

Wlwt forni docH phldiilb MAnnie? It tuny be acute nr nib 
acuie. There Is not much lUiiKcr in the tiubactitc form; It i^ne- 
rally affects vnricose teluB of ilie loi>«r exti^miiU's. Swelling and 
tondcniwa about the veins aiid cPdrma of the limb exist. 

Rest, leeching:, foment slions. cold lotions, elevalion of the limb, 
and purgatives ; after which, Mimulatin); frictions and presenre are 
the proper course of Ireaimifid. 

The acute form te ircnttrnll; fatal, It may be caiued by iroandSt 
ligalarc«, bruises, erysipelas, ^. 

There arc ripors, ircnk rapid pnlec. nnxicif of countenance, de- 
pression nf apirils, swHIitig and Icnilcrness over the reiii, ton^e 
fbrred, brown, dry, or black ; iikin sallow, with prostration, low 
drltriniD, and bilious voniiliiig, and dcnib often occurs in two or 
tliref days. ConKcculiio absceHes are very apt to occur in some 
joint, preceded by exceuire pain, wd followed by absccEcee also 
in the turi^^s, liver, &e. 

Leeches, repeated and followed by fomentations to the part j 
bowels opened and pain nllnycd, are proper to be done ; and the 
abscesses should bo opened early. General depletion may be 
iiectMSury in some eases; stiiunlanis and tonics in others, aceord- 
inR to the condition of the paliciit. U«rcury may be resorted to 
unless ipvat depressiou exist. 



Fraclvrrs of the Skull. 

What are the varietiee of fracture of the sknH ? There are 
several : fi»aure, counter fimure, dcprfMcd, itouble deprened or 
camrraled, ulellaled. and /^uncfurctf fracture. 

J^>Mure Is a simple crack or division; cointler Jif»ure is a sepa- 
mtion prnduced at a point opposite to that where the force wii|i 
ii|itjU(r(l ; depregged frncliirc is when tbc bones are forced hclow 
lh*ir natural level ; camirvird wlitn the siilen deeliue towards tlia 
centre ; Mftlalvd when it rndintet from a centre resembling a star; 
and pttneiared when produet^il by a pointed instrument. 

W)it is the IretUmenll In simple frairlurt-, where the brain oi 



raembrnnes are nninjnrod, liitle or no treatment ia neeMsary. The 
nle in all citscK it not to inlcrTerc unices ih? coiitciils or the skull 
•re alTecieil, and of this the symplome must be oar fruiilc. Ir 
cases, bowerer, where jlmrp point*, or rnjritrd cdircis of lionc exist, 
thej BiBj' tie remoTcd bjr appropriate ii>»lriimonts. to prownt thcin 
bom irrilnting the diiro matter, or other adjacent soft parta. Is- 
flooiataUoD Khould be gnarded against in oil cosu. 

Concustion of Che Brain, 

What are the aymplomiif In RltRhl cn.scs there Is vertigo, slck- 
neES of Cie alomacb. trcnibltnf: of tlie limbx, dimness of vision, Ac. 
Ill MTcre cases there is inaeiislbllitf, coldness of llie «kln, reiaJCa- 
tioa of the Hmbs, feeble and iiTe<fDlar pulse. diffirtiH}' of breath* 
in^, (not, liovrcver, generally stertorous, } am) dilated pupils. 

Time nyniptomK mny. after a time, sulmidc grndiinll)', when K 
deter nioiiUon of blood to the brain follows, of greater or lew 

What is the IrealvifTtli If called early, be careful that the im- 
portuniti«s of the liyxtAndem do nut dL-terniuie ;uu to bleed tx^fiiro 
the poUe rises and reaction is ui>tubli»hed, when it may be proper. 
Content yourselvei with administering a liiik* cold water, or, ff 
the deprwdion Is very great, wine in small cjuaniities. and with 
cnotlon. Generally, external stimulants, such as raasiard plasters, 
will be sntBcient lo route the syMem, and are free from the injurious 
effects of alcoho) upon the brnin. If inilammatory symptoms 
come on, bloodlcittnf^. purgatives, low diet> Ac, with cold to tlie 
bead, an elevated position of it, and blisters, become higblj ne- 

Comprattion of the Brain. 

Wtat are the canrrs and x;/mploBi*f It may n rise from de* 
pressed fracinre. offuKed «r cxtruvasaicd blood, aud from suppurn- 
tion within the broin, or itK membranes. 

When symptoint of compression come on from exiravnsntion, 
thitrc is generally an interval between the injury and the appear- 
ance of the Kvinptoms ; and when this occur*, may bo connld^rrd 
Mcliarncteriilie of compression from Mlriiin.iiileii blood. When 
these RyiRpii>m« are eiin<ed by nintter. It U llie result of inlUmma- 
tlon, tiad does not follow immediately an iiijary of the skull. 






ir compraitsion srise from cither of the prFCediop esssei^ It mtf 
bo known hj ihc pulue kecomiiif; slow and repilftr; the pnpUl 
dilated, mid insensible to the Mroiifretl li|;lit ; hroathing stcrloroas, 
■low. nml diffii'ult; the llialis loose, or yieldiiiR, iifrlmps pnratviic; 
(omciimeB (ii-xion of otic wr botli foreannit, nnd iii^rririiliflilT. 
Tlitfie Kjraiilom.-i will he suflideiil lodinlitipniiili il from conwimiion, 
where the diHtioctiou la well marked ; 1>ut often tlio *yni|>iomi< aro 
tnleriiiixed so as to create coiifutiioii and doubt In tlie tnind of Iba 

Wliat is the treaivieiitl Blood-lelttiifr, purgatives, Ac. will 
often, alone, relieve symploms of compression. 

When the boocs are depressed, they «hontd he elevated ; or, \t 
produced by extravasalion, the trephine must be resorted to, and 
the co.ifrnliiin removed. 

What arc the tnWrumPnk reqnircd for operations on the skull T 
Two or three trephines, the Inrtfcst about no inch in diutnetcr, and 
the smntlcsl half nn ineh ; alley's ssw; atenlicular; raspatory-; 
trepan forceps ; iwo elevators, a small bnisli. loolh-plck, or prober 
tenoculs ; spotifres ; crooked needles ; lif^ntures, and a sealpel. 

What are the ol.jecia to ho attained in the application of t)i« 
truphinu? To make an openinic for the rcraoral of conjTDlAlctt 
blood, and for llic introduction of the elevator beti«atli a dcprrKwd 
bone. For the former a farj-e trephine Mionld bo n.tcd. and for 
the liitlcr a small one. It is not. Iiowever. always neccKsary to 
ntc the trephine !n depressed bone, oa there is often Hoflident npnco 
to pnxs the elevator between the ft«g;ments and rentorc them to 
their proper position. 

To what parts of the sknil may the trephine be applied ? To 
all pnrt*. except lo the occipital bone. 

When it is necessary lo trephine the inner table of the IVonial 
iiinns, two trephines should he employed ; a large one for tbe ex- 
tomol portion, and a small one for the innor. 

Injiammation of the Brain. 

What are the si/mptomt t Tho face becomes fluihrd, the eyw 
red, and tender to liRht. pnpils conlructed, skin hot. )>nlse Imrd 
and quick, and tho tonpic dry, Tlie pain in the head is ulaO 
severe, and the wound, if there be one, di^eharnes a tantous niBiter, 
Rigors follow, which ore dangeroos sympinins. Detirtum, bemi- 



plcgia. tad eoovuliiona maj' also come od Jq the latter stages of tbe 

Wlinl is ibe trKtUmenl t The most active antiphlogistic coorao 
ahould be pursued ; klooii-lcllin;!, gciHTnll/. uml locally, piirgatiTcs 
blisters, &c. If Eappiirotion take i>Wc, tliu Ircpliinc ma; be HMd ; 
bat tbc cbancD of the ^nliviit's rccovcrj it very Kmall. 

funijm Cerrbri, or Ettcrphahcele. 

Wbat are the gymptomat It is a tumor bnving the appearance 
of a vascnlnr nrjrHni/.iriJ growth, wliii-h sproals from the lirnin after 
exlcnsive frcKrian^n, or llip o|iiTiilii)ti of ihn Irvphinc ; GIU np the 
opening of tlie bone, and projeetii bcyoiiii the Mcalp. 

Wliat is the trttUmentf Lij^ht drcMingii, witli raodorato pm- 
sare upon tlie tumor. 

Tbid diteue is gciicnilly fatal. 


DisKJLOES or THF. Etk. 

Conjunotiaal Ophthalmia. 

What are the fi/tnj>ftim»f A tense of uneosineu or itchlnf^ tn 
iniwtience of light, dilfii^i'ii rcJncw of the conjuncliva, pain, heat 
■■d twelliogof thoBloltcof Iheeye; an incrcaitcd Kecrction of Uars, 
»ud a fediiiK as though there wu a lodifinent of *and tn the eye. 
If ibe iaQummallon pror^ceds, there U violent puiii in ihe eyeball 
Kud forehead, uucuuipuiiicd by fever and otlicr geucrul indicpositJOii, 




SomirtiniM lTi« conjonctirn throws oni n rniipus beyond the mnrtnn 
of llio eorncn, smJ nt others Mi|iimriilitiii lukcx |)lai:«, follownl bj 
(leslntL-tion of the enrnca. and CTiu'iiniloii or the hiimort i>f Uia aye. 

Thi^rc nrc Mverul varieties of «irijiiiiclfv«I o)ihlhiiliuiii; tliccofar- 
rhal, piirutt^'il, ijonnrrhirai, niid rcro/ulouii. Suinc autliora, 
howcvvr, u'logit dllTen-iit diviriiuiid of th« ditwiue from thiK. 

Whitt is the Irttttment f lu th« early slot^ of tiimpttt InflatniBa- 
lioti it Diay be enstly removed by blood-leliiriR, general and lot-iil, 
ptiri^utives, niiliinotiiulK in iiiiuaeatinf; doyen, low diet, blisUr*, 
btlotm of tepid water, a solutioo of opium, or acetate of lead, or 
Kuljihate of xiijc. If It runs Into the cbronlc sla|*e. cold ustriugcat 
vfkJil)e«, and Hiimnlaliiig oiutmeiils may become necessary. 

For the ttilarrhal variety the proper remedies are moderate 
depletion at first, followed by highly Etimulatlng cullyria, aud oint- 

Tlie purulent variety afaonld be treated upon common anllpblo- 
gistio principles, and moderately aslriiigent washes, of wliich the 
llcjuor of iho acetate of lend Is one of the best. 

The gonorrlieeal variety may be treated upon geneial prlncfplcK. 
bni it ia aeldom cured. 

The tcro/ulout variety does not generally require roueh anti* 
phloifUtIv irealment. bat rather a tonic coarse will be indicati-d. 
A blister on the nape of the neck kept open, and weak soluilona 
of the nitrate of silver, salphato of sine, Ac, applied to the eye, 
will be found bcnelinial. 

Oraiiiilnlinnf often form on the pnlpebml conjnncliva from lonR 
coniinncd iiifl-iitimation. whicb cnutit (treni pnin nnd disturbance of 
the motions of the eye. nnd may, liy cunlinning. render the cornea 
opake by friction, nicy cnn gcnernlty be cured hy sea rifioat Ions, 
Innar canslic, or Milphaic of copper. lu Rome cnncs they Din&t Im 
removed by Ow knife or tciKsom. Conililutionnt trcAtiuent. and 
bliUers behind tbo car* nru «otni!tiracs necctcary. 

Sclervtie Ophlhaimta. 

What are the tymptomaf It is an inflammation of the Rcterotio 
cent eomelimcs called rheumatic ophthalmia. The pain Id the 
commencement is genernlly ecatvd in the temple, and extends to tbe 
eye-brow and cheek of the side nlfi.-cteil, being nin»t severe at 
night. There is no purulent discharge or intolerance of light ; 




Fts. (A 

tlio scleratic coat !« of n Aingy tirick-iliist tioge ; there is more or 
fever and (lorAngcincnt of the liigcs- 
live orgHiiR. 

VVliot i* the (fvatmrHf » Tlie in- 
dicutlonii urn lo restore the functions 
of the stomaoh, bilinry orjfnns, onil 
skin, by craelicn, purgnlives, and 
niitiuinriiiil (liujiliUR'ticn. nfter wliich 
bnrk muf be «-itiploj«d lo atlvnti- 
taf^ Tho b&it Ipeul n|>])licnti<in> 
arc II btUlcr bcbiiid thu cnr, unci 
the vinous tlnuture of oiiiuin at. a> 

Iritic OphlUalmia or Iriti* 

IVhnt nrc the symplomg? Scvero lancinating poin, oxtmdinff 
from llie cj'cbrow lo tlic nrbit, untl through the glob? of the eve to 
ike Ojtlic nerre; e:(lrenic impniicnec of li^ht nnd morbid sensi- 
bility. The conjnnrtivn tloM not prcsc-nt the nppi^iirnncc of tnHnm- 
naalion. but llirre on* nunieron* red vmkHs on thnt port of tho 
scleroika connected wilh the comcn, nitto on the nntcrior part of 
the Irl*. which loaca Iitt Willuncy, and chnngiH lo n n-ddiib or 
gTe«Di»U liue. Tho pnpll beooincs contrnciod, imguliir. mid ili 
edge is lurnod backwBni toward the crystalline lens : lymph t> 
deposited on the outer surface of the iris in spots, aud sometimes 
BO copiou<^Iy as to obliterate the pnpil. 

What is the Ireatmenlf The omiphtogistic conrse shonld be 
carried to it^ fullest extent. Obliterulion of the pupil should b« 
prevented by breaking up any bands of congolable 'ymph whlet 
may bare rormed, witb the extracts of belladonna or strnmoninui, 
applied to the outer snrfaco of the eyelids, or over the eyebrows, 
two or throe times n day. and kept on for bnlf an boor at n lima. 
When it has n syphilitic orijiin. mercury, followed up with Kiinin* 
paritln, should be uxed. The furniation of an arlijtciat pupil U 
often ucccuary after thiR didicnse. 


What Is psorophthalmiu ? It ts an indanimalion or nleemtlon ot 
tbe cj'elidi ; whether cniued by •iuall-)iox, ineaslM, scrofula, eryi>i 
pelu, or any other cause. 




Wbat are tlie xymplomg J Children or scrofiilons baUt are most 
lUlitc to Ma diseafc, The inflamniHlioi: commences on ihe etiites 
of the lids, Olid extends nlotrg the coiijiincli^.t niih pahi niid »iO' 
lenl Uvhiiii;; suppuration end iileeralloti someifinca occur, aiid are 
verj' iroublefiome. The Meibgmian glands are always farolred, 
and |>our out nn adhcsiro fluid. 

Whnt if the Ireatmentt In iW early sta)te, porfrotires and liw 
diet, with the local flpplicnlion of f<o1utions or ftcelnte of lead, 
sulphate o! ane, or snlphatc nf copper. In the ehronie slaire. lli« 
nnfrnonlDm hydrnr^ri nilrnii. applied to Ihc tdfrc-^ of the tids, will 
rcilicrc the ilchinif, and dispone the iilrcrntcil sai-faces to henl. If 
the dificnse rcsi*lii rvcry n-incdr for a lotijc lime, blisters behind tho 
ents and a cour«c of nicfL-ury may b« triod. 


What U ptcryKium f It l« a Ihin membrnnouf! cxpnnsion, situ- 
ated on the coiijunctira ; frencrally occnpylnji the inner nn^le of 
the eye 111 the shape of a trinn);lo, the apex of wlilch looks toward! 
the i-ofnGft, and somelimes eilends lo iia centre. A pannui Is » 
pterv-fium on each side, vhich meet in the centre of the cornea. 
There are two vorieiics, the mrml/ranoti», andyfesAy. 

What is the Irratvfnlf When it hfi'ComeB troableeonie, it should 
bo dissected off with a pair of cnrred scissors. 

"What IS encantliU f It is an enlargement of tlio lachrymal ca- 
runcle, and nemilunnr fold. It i» sflinetimcK mnliirnnnt. but it Is 
not a frequent diiiun.>>e. The caruncle prtsciitit « g^rannlnied and 
livid apprarniice f If the disease continue n long time, adjoining 
parts bocomu involved. 

What is the treatmenlf Excision of tli« diiwaaed parts. 

Opactin of the Cornea. 

Wlwt are the varieties of opacity of the cornea f Nebd. 
afbu^. and leiicnma. 

Nebula is a superficial opncity prodactd by chronic ophthalmia, 
and does not entirely inlcrriipi vision. 

Albugo occupies the Imnello or substance of the cornea; It is .if ' 

white or pearl color, on«tn accompanied by ophthaliuia, and \i- 
iltravt the result of an effusion of lyiuph. 



Ltucnma U a dense calloTis speck on tho rornea, of a pure irhito 
or chiilk color, nri<l lu« a polished ap^iearance. It is gcticrnlly 
j>ro<luc-b<] by a wound or ulcer. 

Whttt is llie IrraimfntT For Ihe firsi vamiy axirinpfnt t'ol- 
l^a, and ±uc!i olher rvinedicH oh ant proper in (liroiiii- oplillm)* 
aiitt. Tile ireatiniriit o( slbii^ in tri-iicrnlly liilfK-iilt, ami rripiia-i 
hip-litir AiiiDulntiiig appticaliunf, of wliii-b oii<^ of i)ie lict^l i^ tlw 
uui{(i«uiuiii livilrargyi*! iiiirati, applied liy a i-aincre hair pciit'il to 
tlw rarfuL'c of iho specli, oric« or twice a day. Washing Ihc I'fc 
will) dituled Tiiitgar has also been roconiinondcd. 

Luucoiua is perhaps seldom or ucvcr njiuovnd bjr aujr trcutnicut. 

Ulcrr of the Ciirnea. 

What are the ti/mploins f It is eomuioidy the result of tli« dif- 
ferent Tarietios of ophltialmin. SumL-timeD it oi-cupics tlie irliol« 
Gorii«a, aud at otlient it in a xiinpli! rnvity not lari^cr than tlie li<.-uil 
of a pin, oa Romu jiurliciitar piirt of l\n'- cornvu. 

What i> tlic treatinetili The aorv kIiuuIiI \ic gently touched 
Willi iiitntle vf Kilter, until au i-ti-har form* on iix «iirrarir ; nnd 
wlwB il ilrops off, the cnuKtiv »houIil liu rL-iiewcd. When the uU-er 
aixumtrs a hualthy ni^ipciinmuc, discoiitiuu* th« caiulic, and use 
nild colljrria or oialiocut«. 


Wliat il Ktapbylomn f It if n ihirkeuing and opacity of th« 
layen of the cornea, wi'h a projection of it* iniertur *urfiifc. Il 
mar be produced by Biunllpux. iiuruleut ojdilhalmiu. wuuiidit of 
tbn eye, &e. 

Whnt i» the /rca/ni'-iK* Thtre 1* no remedy; except lliul un 
Openvtiut) may be performed to eva>-iiate the humors of the eye. 
which will prevent the puin anil iiiAuQinintlon cnuHcd by dnat and 
other exintnconti bodies. Ulindnefts, of coarse, aliruyw cxEtiii, 
whether the eye in oi>eraied on or Doi. 


What !« hypopion, nnd lis ttimptvmft It is a eolIeHi«n of 
punilvnt maiii-r, formed within the poMerior or anterior ebaraber 
of the atjueoiiK tinniur. 

There i» rednexi of the conjunctive, and a yellow gpot may ba 





tL'cn at the boltom of the utUrior cliiLinher, which incrcn»e« ir. 
tixo until ilii^ wliule cuvtiy Ib fllkd. 

Fftin, intoleraoee of light, tc, are very ncTcre. In tome 
CMOS, the ioS'iiuuiuliuu uluiilvsi, urn! the jitiK in iiUurbott. In 
Otiwra, ulceration and nluiighiiig of llic ouincu may take plai't, 
fultoHvd by a deKiniciion of ihp ryv. 

Wliat U the trtatmentf A prompt nnti)ihloKi*l>c*c<iurM is Lha 
proper tmalmcnt. 

Utidrdphth ahnia. 

What is Uvdrojihlhalniia 7 It i» n drafiBy of the «;«, and onn- 
sifils in a gradual calargrnicnt or the plabe, wllUoal, at 6m. 
much pain or injury to vision ; l>al, ng tlic disease wtvauMa, there 
is pniii, impain-d vision. &c , which :uay terminate iu Irritallou, 
supimrniioii, and iIil' loss of tlie fje. 

Wliiii \* ilic Irxalmf7)l? Wln'n il i» nrcompDnii-d with ^iirrnl 
dropsy, dijfilaliit, x()iiill, volatile linctiire of itimlacum, and calomel, 
tnay he proper If the ai^umalation in large, pamcentWH ahonld 
be prrforincd. 

OWtPrahd Piipil. 

What arc the gi/mptnnis? The iris hccomcn wrinkled, and the 
pnpil cillier eniirtly elfiieed or contracted to a eery tmnll corapam. 

What is the IreiitmrTit f Aa nperntion difiding a portion of 
the ins is the only proper course. 

Procitlentia IridU. 

What Ja procidentia iridisr It is a projection of tlie Irii 
lhriiu);h an ulcer or wnnnd of ihc cornea. The paiu and Iiitoler- 
ftnee of llj-hl are cxi-csiiive. 

What ia the trealmenlT When It follows a wotrnii of tli« corneal, 

it may he rciilneeJ ; but when It proceeds froni an ulc«r, it caiittot 

be retained in lia natural siluatiun while the ulcer cxisla. The 

ulcer Khrmtd be loiiuhcd with the nitrate of aUvcr, and healed as 

soon BN prai-li cable. 


What is cfttnract. and the nym/rfom^T It is an opacity of tbo 
crt/Dlallinc. Irn». or ilK cajitulr, or of the Mor^janian fiuid, »*pa. 
rately, or conjointly, Tlicy differ in color and coniiiitcncc. Some 
arc fluid, and culled milky; other* are CAllcd golatiaous, CMeoux, 





or fcnnt, nccoiiling to their coii«i8ienoo. When the capsule I* 
0))itkr, «nil the lens rcmniiis trnnsparertt. or is ab»vrbetl, il in (.'ailed 
cnpKuUr cntarael. If » catoraet cvift rrom birlli. it in cnlleiJ noiu 
It^nitnJ. Moiit ciilnrscts on.- of a lilui^li, ur pcurl cohir; f^oinu nm 
jrniy. ur grucii ; otiit're while ; ami in some riir« itisunws liliick. 
T)htc nre four varieties; the ienliculor, eaptfilar, Mor>janian, 
liiil the capfuto-ienlkuJar. 

The r'jmpl'jma are n dimintllton of xififal; objects apprnr fiFi if 
enrclopcil in mist, or 8raok«; and visioa is tery imperfiit «Wn 
mildenly exposed to a stroiiff IIkHl In a dull lig'ht th« vision is 
improved; and when the tenn is <>pak«, lis eolor inll (^encrnll^ 
inilicnie tlie nnliire of the diseutte. The dlseates with which it is 
liable to be confoimdcd are anmnronis and glnuconm. 

The caioplrie cxuinination itive* (he most eerttiin dlnjmostic 
ei^ns of calnract. Whi-ri a l!|rhtud euiidle is held bt-fore t\ heultliy 
or nmniinnic eje, three di.itint-t imam's of it nmy be ob-crved. 
^Vi-M^, on erect imape, wlikli luorcs upnards nheu the cniidl« la 
moved upwards ; this Ik cuiued by rull<Hrliuii from Iho iuifuce of 

Fig, 50. 


rig. ST. 


tlie I'onioa. Sftvnd. nnnlhcr trrct imnffp mny be MMi pr 
u;f rrQi-ciitiii from iln; unuriormrrncp of Itic ltii». «liii!li uImi mot 
U|)wnTd.-> H'hL-ii ihi' rniiilli; in motcd in ihtil dirnclioii. Thirtl. a 
verv SRiull idvcrtcd imii^i- in »itii, lUut inori-K ilnwiiwnnl* wbcn iha 
CBiidte ii moved ujinnrcl*, tinil a n rHIrt'liou from ibc {lOfin'ior 
^iirfRve of tl)C li-riK. In rataract, iImk tiiv^rlrd imnp! Ik, frora the 
Onit r«t)iicn-<l imlUliiict, ntid in »oon nbolUlied ; mid tlii! dttp, creit 
oiiv Boon di!>ii|i|>4-nrK nlso. 

Whnl IK ili« trraluientl All oprralton is itie only troniiotiil (o 
be dc^iviulfil Ujioii. 

What nr« ihe operaliong in 0*9 for vntnrnclT CovchtKff, or 
tJrpreimioii ; r:iirar(io}> ; and ilie aOnorbenl jirncticp. 

The lir-l is ilun« with a nredle, and roiisists in removing tl>e 
cTj»talline lens donnwatilK and backwards into the vitreoDS hainor, 

Ejiraction is pfrfortned >iih a kiiife ; aud Ibe oiwaiiig is made 
faito ibe cornea. 

ng. u. 

The obforhrnt praeticfi U foiinducl npoti (he solvent pourr of Iho 
atfiicoUK hiitnor ; ilu' iippnitiun is to Iirenk up llie crj-Htnlllne Icna, 
and tiring il in uonliiot willi xhv oqiiroiu humor in \\k iintcnur 
chnnibcr. It ik dutiu in Inu wayit ; inie i* lo iniroduL'U (he nii-dla 
anlcrior, and llie otlicr po»lerior lo the iri», to that in one cckc ihc 
cornea in pcnulraled, and in th« otlicr the hImoIicti. In all in- 
Ktaticrt, prcviiju* lo the perform unco of any ujieralion. tliy syjteiu 
ebould be prepared hy purging, di«t, &c. ; and >trainonium, or 
belladonna should be applied to the portN about the eye. 

Congrntial Calaract. 
What is the treatment^ An early opeinliou. 




It it an i»* 

'Wbat is nmauro^s, ttnd what are tho rt/mplonm f 
sensible state of the n-iinn. 

The !iD)ii1 is chaiigcii in color, pr<-nl1; cxpanilcd nnil irregular 
in »lia|)c, hns undulating cdgM, aiid the Etroiigcst light prudiivo;! 
no [lerceinilile cotitraecioii. 

The |>u]iil ii occasiouall)- contracted, and in eome instances its 
motlona are parilallr rotaiued. The natural lustre of the ey9 
beconies dimlniihvd, or lost. It is easily diadnf^uiahed from 
CKIuracl by the catoptric li-ttl. 

What IB lite trea:mrntf When It arineii from any orfcanlo 
defwt, the probabili(jr of nlTording rclit^f if small. IT it pmcecd 
from gaatrie derangvnimit, rmiMiui and pur^tircs will prove nsc- 
ThI. fijUowcd by tonics. Errhinc« may also be fonnd beneficial; 
bejiinniiig with the miUlcr. and afterwards asing Uie turpetb 
ninerat combined with powdered liqunrioo. 

Fittuta Lachrymalie. 

What b fiatola lachrymalis ? ft la an overflow of lenra, pro* 
daccd by an obstruction of the nnaal duet, eilhur In canHvc|Ucnc« 
of acute or chronic iuflanimation, which inuy bo produced by a 
gri>nt varii-ty of causes. 

We xhould emU-uvor to remore tho itiflnmmution. nnd remove 
the obstriiclioii in thin way if po»iblc, which can ^-ncrally \tv 
i\am : if it fail, an operation will have to be reported to. This 
cnn«i»ts in paxniag; a nnrniu' liixtoury into ibc itnet. introducing 
its point jn«l below the t«ndn» of the orhieulitri* pnlpebrnmm ; by 
pfeesing it downwards, backwards and inwards, until it enters tlie 
duel ; the remaining uhslrnclion of the duet nitist be overcome by 
pasiing a prolio. The duct should then he kept open hy a ciitifut 
or siker style, with an cnlariwd end, to prevent it from linking too 
deep, and of t>uffleient length to reach from the ooriica of the eye 
to the termination of the nasal ducU It should be removed and 
cicaiiicd from lime to time. 

What are the caute* of sirahi^inusf It coneists either in M 
over-action or paralysis of some of the muscles of the eyeball* 


mid may he eong^nilal the rr«uli of imitation, or prodocetl 1>; 
ganric, inU>ilinal. or cerebral irritation. 

If (tiDsed by sfinpalbnlk dislurbaiicc, the Irealment shonid be 
purpaliTes, nllerativos, sud atittielniinti<'a. DivUion of \\\v miiwle 
vfill geiiuratly reliuve llie deformilT. bul not slwnjs. Tho opcra- 
Uon is simptv, nnd rnnily |irrr(inii«d. Tbn head Nhnuld be su)>> 
ported, tlic Ujv Uirni-[l oulwnnlx, itir li<lii Ki'jMtmtcd with dii ulevaloi 
(IVlllcr's nntwcTK well), ur by lliv fiti^rnt of an nMisluiiL Tlivn 
catch ihc eye with a double liook, about midway between the edge 

Kig, 59. 

of ibc L-oroen nnd cniilliuv ; nine the (K>r\}nii<-liva nt tlie canthns hj 
n pair of furcepK, and divide it nlonji; with the subjacent cellular 
tissue ; yatu ihc bbint hook under tlic lendoii of the luusclu, raise 
this OD llie hook, and divide it with the sciiston. 

Plfr CO. 

Remore the doable hook as ^o<JIl m iho lilnnt hook b pa 
The diviridu of the teodou lenijiriuti-.-> tliL> u}ii:tikiioti. Soiavllinvi' 
tlie inler-mu»CHlar faitaia, or noiue liltreit of the tendou, may pK 
vent lliL- eye fmni becominjf strnlRht, in nhicli cuse, puMi the houk 
ugaiii uiid tlitiili' ibem, lukiiif; cure iiol to divide loo freely, or there 
may be reversion of the eye 


The ejre sliould be placed at mt, ftiid inSammatton combated if 
It nriM. ir any cxiibi-mnt Kraiiuiutiuiia aiiiiour. they sliuuld be 
toudied vt'tih uhrutu of dilvcf, or cliiijied olT with ^d^eors. 


What IB hordoolain ? It i» a red, inanmed, pninfhl tumor, 
inrolviiig one or morv Mrilximiuii gliitid:>, uxunily Kcntcd on Ui« 
lover eyelid, iivnr this inner aiiKk'- 

Wh«l is tlic ttraimrnti I'Drgutivex and nttciition to did. If 
it becomes iiidolciit, njiply lunur vautilic. 

Ej\cij*ted lutnnra of Ike Eyelid 
Wbst is the Ireatmentf Kxtirjmtion. 


What i< cntro|ii(m ? It i* iin iiivt^rdoii of the tarsus or its eilia. 

What is the trfatmmtf When thi-re is simjily an minntural 
direction of the eyclnKhc:*, tliey sliould be removed viih a pair of 

When the tarsus is inverted, nnd the skin of the cydid relaxed, 
there should be nn oval piece removed, and the sides of itie wouud 
brought together. Other operntions arc also practised. 


What is ectropion f ll is the reverse of entropion ; the eyelid 
beinjt turned outwards insteiiil of inwards. 

What is the trfalmi-ntf A portion of the lid of the shape of 
the teller V should be remciwd from the outer angle ; the thick- 
ened coijunctiva should then be dissected off, and the edges of th« 
wonnd brought together with a Due suture. 


This is a fnlling of the nppereyclid ft-om ft pttlsy of the third nerre, 
orlh>ni nn injury of the levator pnlpebm snperioris muic-!e. It is 
sometimes depemlcnl upon congestion of the brain ; In which ewe 
bleeding, purgnlivrt, mercury, and blisters arc useful. SutnctEmcH 
U ]>ers>sls. and hax been Inmted by the rvmovnl of a fold of sklo 
fro la the upper eyelid. 


488 gCBQEaY. 


Polypus of the Nose. 

Where are polypi of the nose generally attached f They maj 
arise from any porlioD of the Sehneiderian membrane; but are 
mostly attached to the superior, or iuferior spongy bones, and are 
not malignant. 

What is the Irealmentf They tihould be remoied with the poly- 
pus forceps by a twisting motion rather than by polling in a Btraigbt 
line. To prevent their return after removal, the application of the 
white precipitate ointment, softened, and applied by means of a 
brush, to the part from which the polypus has been removed, is 
highly recommended by Sir B. Brodie. 


What is ozcena ? It is an ulceration of the lining membrane of 
the nostrils, having a fetid discharge, and Gometimes followed by 
destruction of the cartilages and bones of the nose. 

What is the Irealment? Bark, iron, mineral acids, muriate of 
lime, sarsaparilla, and antimony have been re<^mmended. If 
there is a sypliilitic taint connected with it, mercury will be proper. 
Locally, a solution of opium and acetate of lead may be used with 

Fungus, or Polypus of the Antrum. 

What are the symplomsf It is generally a formidable affection. 
The tumor sprouts from the lining membrane of the ujitrum, and 
grows until it fills the whole cavity; pain is tlicn experienced in 
the cheek and vye of the affected side, and the face becomes enlarged. 
These symptoms are followed by distortion of the nose, projection 
of the eye, enlargement of the gums, profuse discharges of sanious 
matter, &c. 

What is the Irealment f As soon as the nature of the disease is 
ascertained, it should be completely removed. 

Diseases of the Mouth. 

Labium Lcporinum, or Bare-Lip. 

What are the varieties of hare-lip ? The sinijle and the double. 
What is the treatment f An operation. Some surgeons recom- 



mend Ihat we should operaie iinnK-dlaleljr after birth, or within « 
Tew weeks, oihors thai we should wall until vho child la iwo or 
Ihreo years old, or after the jierlud uf ibe first deiiUlioii. Ii is 
ofte<i cuiohiDed with a dettdencv in the \mUX« and maxillary bonea ; 
In which «ifle their closure is more [lerft-ei willi an early operaliua. 
Tlie principal danger of itti eiirly 0|H-rutiun i* a linhllity lo voniul* 
aioiut. Tli« openilioM cun»isLi in [larin;: the viiji'-* "^ '■^'^ I^Mure In 
the llj>, and brin)^ii|( ihein in conluul ljy tliu inlvrruplud suture, or 
Iiin*, and figure of 8 bandage. 


WluLl Ir ratinlA f It i» an flb»iniciion of one or mon of the 
duct» of Iho xublinfTunl jrland^ and givcK ri<c to a tumor or cyt. 

Whul in thi: trr'almrnl ? Lay the rj*»l o]n;.n freely, and relliovo 
ft portion of ii with KciMiorH. SonietimiM the application o^caasUc 
bccomcd nccvMary, 

ital/ormtUion of the L'ra^num Lingtur. 

Wti,ati*the mulfuruinliun of the rrccniim lingun;r It is some 
tisita loo short, w a* to prerunt sticking. 
,lVh»l i» the trratme'it? A slight division of the frirr.nni, whirh 
paid be di>iie mrcrully, no m to avoid hcmorrhnge, aiid bIko not 
to allow the toni^e to full buekwardn into the phnrpi. 

Enlatyed 7Vn«t7x. 

What arc the symptom ff A honrse, husky toIjo, snoring 
dorbig sleep, cxcCMivc nhvexinjc when laboring under cold ; and 
npDTi inspection they will be found to be enlarged. 

Wli*t i* Ibe treaimtnl t Kcmoval, either with the knife or l[[;a- 

What inth-umenla are used for reinovtn); them f Fnhnealock'it, 
Pliy«lck'ti inslruineul modified by Uibson. niid CluuibeHin'ji ex- 
ci»iir, the lutlur of which is to be preferred. 

ESonrjaiian of the Ufuto. 

What are tlie gymptoma? Irritation about the tLroat, natiaea, 
TOmiliii(r. and hemioplyois in some cafos. 

What is the Inatmealt Removal with a lioolf and commor 
Bciasors, or other tuitahle Instrunieut. 




£piili», or TilKTcle o/ Hie Gum$. 

What anlhtsyniplomtf It is often a mnligiianl TonD oftamur, 
wbu'h BjiroHts from tIic socki-ie uf the inciMir upUi of the ui>|>cr 
jiiw, or frum ilie gum between tcclh. 

What U the trealmenti ExtirpnlioD in ile very indpiwie^r ia 
(be only chance fur a porinanont euro. 


, J>IBBA8Ea or TBK NeCK. 

What difiease« are iiiclndcd uodti tbis bead? Lodyment of 
fortign Iodic* in the pharynx; tarynir, /rnrftro, and atophagae; 
vlriclure of llie cetopho'juK; tilceration of llie gtotliat bronchlh 
eele ; wry neck, lie. 

Extraiifoue bodin tit Hie (Enophagtia. 

In whftl manner may estraueous bodiea bi the atsojihai-us prodnce 
dcutli r By producing spaamodic action of the inuscU'i of ibc glot- 
tis; from diBlenslon of the maophngus so aa to pre^ upon the 
tmchea, and eloaelt; or by producin); inQaiuiuation or ^tigrc-nc 
ftoin the continued pressure; or by violent aticmpls in rvmoviMg 

What id llie trealmenti When Ibe aubslaiice ia larjrc. U gene- 
roily rticltn in the plmryiis;, from whiob It may be removed by the 
Rnger. or a pair of fiirceim. ArliL'Ica that cun be digested, pro- 
vided (bey have no hard, rough pointa, ahouM be punlied into the 
stomach by a probang, unleas they cun be eaxlly reached. Coins 
and Kliarp rnggi^d boilica should be extracted by fnrrcpa, prnliang, 
hook, or sumu otlicr rontrivuncc, when praeltcabl« ; but when it ii^ 
not, they should be puKlicd into the Ktoiancb. 

Whi-n il become* necessnry to push any oflhose articles into the' 
itoninch, purgnlivcs and mncilnginou)! draughts should bo taken. 
Dr. Phyaick prose.riboil boiled rice in large quantities, for the pur- 
yose of defending the conta of the Rtoinuch. 

Slrklure of the (Eimphagtit. 

How ere they dividedt Into tpaemodic and permane»l, which 
are tonicilinea eouibined. Its most eoninion seat is at ttie com- 
mcnccuicni of tlic ccKOphagus. 


What are the f.ymj'lom»f Difficulty of sn-allowin?. psiu in the 
■toniRch, nausea, trouiili.-&oiue eruvtatiuus, nud |>aiii iu tlie fuucuit. 

What ia the Ireatmenti Boii^'it's, wlili or wiiliuiii lutmr t-aii:t(ic. 
Id the spasmodic ravieiy, caiuplior, opium, aiid ether ure lervkeuble 

Bemoval of exlraneou* badiee/rom the larynx and Trachea. 

Wlint o]irrutioiiH ore ])erf(irracil for this jiiirjiUKC f Laryngotomy 
nod Iradiealcmi/. 

Th« rorm«r i« the one gencrullf adopted. 

In performiiif^ this opi-ralion, nhoiild tlio inciMnn be mdclc nl 
onco iuto tlic lurjrrixf No; lliu iiit^gu incuts lihoiild fii'sl be di- 
vided, and the hcraorrhiiife cntiretj xtoiiped ; then tUu crieo- thyroid 
ini'mlinuiu niuy be divided. 

In H'hiit ijilier eatei are laryiigoloiny and tnichcotfliny reported 
toF Sonicliinex (rota Rabstniicei lodged in ihe <e:tci]>ha9U4, for 
croii|). Tor vnlargvincut of the tongue and tonsils, uluurotiiMi of tits 
gtotlii, &c. 

Bronchotvle, or Goitre. 

What is bronchoi'flc ? It is an enlargement of the whole, or » 

p*tt, of the thyroid ghind. Its causes are not Batisfactorily under- 

What is the treatment t Iodine, internntly and externally. 

TorticoUtM. i/r IVri/ Nfct. 

What are the eauaea t Contractions of the platysma myoides, 
or Memo-cltido-mastoideus, cicatrices ofliurnH, pamlyMs. Ac, 

What is tlie IrfatmentT When il proceeds from morMil con- 
truelioi; of the muscles, tliey should bo divided, and the heed 
brought into a pro|tt;r position. 


What in hernia ? It Is a protrusion of any of the contents of th» 
kbdtimcD, covered by peritoneum, lhro(i([h the parietce of th« 
Kbdonicn. ^ 

What are the diviaiong of hernia f Hernia b dirided into re- 
ducible, irrtduetbli', and ttrongulalvd, ll may aluo be termed, 
from it» contents, eitlvrowle, epiptooeU, and rnitrv-epipiovek, 

fU-Aucihlf. h(!miii Ik when it is easily replaoed. 



192 8UB0EBT. 

Irreducible heniia, when there is jtcrmaneiit protrasioD. 
Strangulated heruia, when the parts are confined by strictare, 

Enteroveie, uiieii the protusiou consiiits of intestiae. 

Epiplocele, whc-n it consists of oraentuin.' 

Entero-epiplocele, wben it cousists of intestine and omentain 

Tliere are also names given from the position they occupy. 

Bubonocele, or inguinal hemia. 

Osukeovele, or scrotal hernia. 

Merocele. crural or femoral hernia. 

ExomphaloH, or umbilical bemia. 

Congenital, when it exists at birth. 

Ventral, when the protrusion occors iD different parts of the 
abdomen, withoat reference to natural openings. 

Ventro-inguinal, when there is a combination of the two va- 

What is the &ac of a heniia 7 It is the peritoneal inveslment 
which surrounds the protruded viscera. Tliat portion communica- 
ting directly wiih the abdomen is called its mouth ; that portion 
most remote is its fundus ; and the part surrounded by the aperture 
in the tendinous parietes, the ncrk. 

What are the cavsea of hernia ? The exciting causes are Bevcro 
Bxercise, lifting heavy weights, plnying on wind inslruments, 
Tomitiiig, costiveness, coughing, jumping, &c. 

The prediaposiiig are hereditary conformation, and preternatural 
laxity of the abdominal parieles. 

What are the xyniplontx of reducible hernia? The tumor de- 
scends in the erect position, and retires by geutle pressure, or a 
recumbent posture. 

If the sac contains intestine, its reduction is accompanied by 
gurgling ; the tumor will also have a tense, elastic feel, Onicn/um, 
on the contrary, communicates a doughy sensation, and is rosiored 
to the abdomen with greater difficulty. Reducible hernia is larger 
after a meal, and an impulse is communicated to the linger when 
the pniient is directed to cough. 

Tliere is generally more or less di.'order of the digestive organs. 

What are the caugex of a hernia becoming irreducible 7 It may 
ari<ie from adhesion between the sac and its contents ; from mein- 
hranous bauds ; and from extraordinary enlargem-'-ts of the omep ■ 

tam or increase in the Toliinio of iiittsliiif;. Slow infliimmntioti fi 
(Ik moat ^i-qiicut caaso of licnita liiing cliungtd from tlic reducible 
to the irreiliiciltle comlilioii. 

Whnlarclho oynpU/ni* of slrnti^iiluird hcriiin ? In adililion 
to the other EVrnptuniii of lirrnin. there in olisiiiiutC' eonlirciic&s, 
gcncrn) Kor«iieas of the iibiloni<iii, piiiii uruund the nnvcl, sickDras 
of llic Bloinai.-h. iind iieviirc pniii in tlio ttiinor. Tiif«r- Kymploms 
inuy be followed liy hilinuK or Jstereiirnueoud vumiiidjr, hiccnp, 
qnick, bnrd \n\\*e, cold tvrcnl*, mid frrtiit anxii-ty of cuuiileniinire 
If rvlief IK not obiiiincd. the piiUc Ijf0(im«t tliri'aily, llie piili«nt 
eruy, the tumor L'ruckl<-a wliL'ri pressed iipuii, and aK<ainfx n kudcn 
color; eiiurruuu.-i diiitouKt»ii of Ok* iiliiiotni.-u take* [ilncc, the puUc 
becumvit llutlcritiK, and dt^utli eniucn. 

Whul !« tlie i^neral trvalmrjii of hernia f For reducible hernia, 
an ftjiproprtale tmas la the proper irt-uimcui; oiiil the patient 
should nc»er be without one onpuhle of rviuinitig ihe luioor. 

For irrettuiribte licnila, a suspeuaion of the tumor hy u bug 
trim, and strict atlenUun (o diet, nre all thai can he done. 

For tlrangulal'd hernia, (lie proper remedies are blood-lettlnff, 
pargini;, cold, and wartn baths, opium, fomentations, poultices, 
cold, the taxis, tartarucd aiitiraouy, tobacco Injections, and nn 

Inguinal H^'fiiia 

Throu-;h whnt openings do ihe contcnia of kd inguinal hernia 
pa:is ? Through the internal aiidominal ring. 
inguinal canal, and the extcmnl ahdominal 
riBfr. itta^jheiihliijiu; a.iH'lieii ilfollou-iiilie 
it does iiot follow the coarse of the cord, and 
ISBot therefore corcrcd by the cremHSlertnua- 
cte, but bursts through the conjoined tendon 
of the internal obliipn: and trnii»vursuli(iiiuii> 
cka. opposite the cxiemat ring. 

riiippoM: adiiJfclion Jx made of the covcr- 
injiii unit n>ulents ofiin inguinul hernia com- 
■i^iidng at the skin, what will we find ? The 
inlegumcntfl, Miperlicinl fanrin. cn-mmier 
mast.-le, hernial sac, omentum, or intestine, 
or both. 



How la tho operatbn for {nKniKal hi-nila perlmBedf Tb« pa- 
tient Ehoiild lio on bis back, kiieos end ehoulden «l«T»ted; iha 
surgeon slnnding in & convenient poaiiion, should mnbc an IndKioa 
throBgh the fkin over llic neck and body or tlia liiinor, its 0[>|iL-r 
extremity being ticnr miilivny iK'twc'cn ihc oiiterior foperiar splDons 
procr»g or llic ilium and the tnberositv or the pubes. and ltd lower 
nbunl midwn,v of the ecroium ; next, divide -the cellular membrane, 
in\ , so ox to iuf bare tho «ac, in which make a ^mall aperture 

F!«. 62. 

Vig. 63. 



Fig. e». 

contiously ; ninl then lay it open freely with a prol>r- pointed bis- 
toury ; pn»s tin; nppx of ihi; fori- Bti jeer of the li*fl liiiiicl to tlic nock 
of tlit> snc. und ihe liiHtotiry Inul Hut upon it; thu latter itlioald ba 
iDSinnftted cniitiously bciieuth tliu ttriciurc, winch luutt bu diviiiod 

Fir. rtS. 

tnming the tiigv nnd pii^hing it upwards and forwanls, no u to 
cut the niitifrinr pnrt uf the snc and olher strui-tiiTcs as>iHting in llio 
formation of ihc Mricliirc : tlio knifo b«ing wiilidntwn, the bowol 
slioultl be pii.ihi'd fcently iipwurils uiilil it rcnuhe* ibe abduin*tii ; 
tlieii atilcb llic wuunil nnd cover witb a thick broad cocnprmit, which 
ehonld be retained by incunn of a rotli-r 

How b {iigiiiiial htniia diHtingui^had from hijdrorfkl The 
tnmor of heraia ootomeiicea ubovo or at the exterant alidoininal 
hn^, and desc«ndi lowardi tli« tcrfltum ; whereaa, hydrocele com- 
mences below, and (^rudgally aseentU. 

How i* it ditEtingaiitbcd front eirsocelel Place the patient in a 
horixont«l |>oittion. pn-M firm'y on the upper part of th« ring, then 
direct btiu lu rine; when, if it be ciniocclc, the tumor will reappear, 
with an iiJcrcuM- of hikc ; on the contrary, hernia will not Khow 
iUeir until lliu Gnj^r be removed. 

What is ucaut by concealed inguinal hemaT It U a hernia 




coiitnined vltlilu the canal lending from the inlcmnl to the cxlcmot 

In opcmting for in<;niiinl hernia, what pnm nrc lih'utedt Tlie 
iDteganiMtA, cnperlidnl rnscin. crcmnKlrr ramde, mid iIk- *t\e. 

Whero ia the «c'ctf or stricture in inffuinut hernia? ]n very old 
nnd Inr^rc unvK the rxlcrnnl ring, but in recent ctstt tli« tnleniel 
rins; thiMu KtrictiireH icliuuld l)e dlrlded apwurds hi all c«seii io aji 
to avoiii wouiidiiig the ejiiguKtrk urtery. 

Ffviorat Hernia 

Through whnt opming are tlie coiilentd of a fermoral lif^niin 
prciinidH ? Hcnciith PoiipurfB li(ri»nieiil, through the aural ring. 

1 loir is the ring houmifdJ On (he enter or iliac tide hy the 
fcmornl vein ; on the Inner or imttlc Kide by Oiinliirinit** lignnienl; 
nnlpriorljt by r'in|iiirt's lignment, nnd pOi.terl(ifly by the jiuhnt. 

In diKHTting a rnnornl hi-rniu cuintnencing nl the bond of the 
thigh, what jHu-f* will be preiented ? The !nt«gunietitit, nipprRdnl 
fiiH'ia, rnxcio propria, whieh wm originally hinxe ci-llnlnr mem* 
brnnc, oecnpying the orifice of the crural ring, nml thf hernial sac 

What i» the Irratmi'nil Tqt rrdiivihk', an appropriate trows. 

For Ktran^ulalrd, the treatment muni ui-rord willi ihc general 
principle* pro|>er in hernio. 

Where ure the points of stricture of femornl heniin? At Hey'a 
ligament, in the cruruJ sheath, at Ciitnbernat'a lignnienl, or at (he 
month of the sue. In dividing tlieie Biricturea, the knife tliould 
l>i; Utrned npwnrds, and Blighlly inwiirds in mnking the ineisiion. 
If turned outward, the crural vein and cjiigatlric artery might be 
injured, or, if too far inwarda, the obtnrutor artery may Inj ctitlan- 

How i« tha oi>eration for femoral hernia performed T The 
patient should bend the thigh upwards on (he pehiR, lie In a hori- 
zontal poRtiion with (he cho«l derated. An incision should be 
made three inehea long over the tumor, the dinscetion ehonid be 
done eauiionnly. and. whatever may 'le tlid thicknenii of the cover- 
ings, they niurt bo divided ; when the »nc in opened, the finger 
■hoitld be passed to the slrietnre with the probo-iM}inlei] Viirtoiiry 
advAncing beyond It. nnd turned toward.* the Ktrielure In «ach a 
manner a* to mnke an intlxion Kufficient to admit of the rodacUoD 
of the conienLi of the mc 



Umbifica'. Jfemia, 

TliroDirh what openiojr do ilie contents of umbilical henila pro 
trndel' Ttie umliilical riiii;, either at ils centre or edpres. 

What rorms tlie outer cohering of congenital ambilJL'al hernia? 
The cellular meinbrnno that connects the veastls of the cord ; the 
inner, or sue, h n portion of perilonenm. 

Wliat forms the covering of tbe protruded riicera of yoaoff 
nlijccifi and adults in ambilical hernia? The common iutegn- 
mcnti). sapcrGdiiI faxcin, and peritoneal coat. 

Wlial i« the trralnu'itl 1 The cun|^nit»1 roriely, onle«8 there U 
some considrrnlile dvllcivnc; of pnrls or morbid complications, 
toaj be often cured bj u tinndn^c ; or by rcdueing tbe intestines, 
and surronndinf; the snc with a lirnilr drawn li^nture, so aa to 
produce sloughing, and cnn«e the fdgcK of the ring to cicalriEC. 

For nmbilieal hcniin of yonn^ xnbjeelJt and ndiittx, a )iroperi;f 
contrived truM \% the proper treatment; or a Rmall compress, to- 
tAincd in il« proper place by u banda^re or adlicurc xlmps. 

Fur ulranijutalfd uiubilical hernia, the uiuiil n^nicdins should bo 
used, and, if they fail, an operation must be rcioricd to. 

Congenital Inguinal Hernia. 

In what respect does congtrnHat hernia dilTer from cornmon 
xnQtiinal^ It is destitute of a distinct peritoneal sac, in beinf; 
lodged in the tunica ra^nalis in contact with the testicle, and iho 
■permaiic cord and artery lie behind tlie bernla. 

What is the Irealitirnll A wcll-conlri»ed truss, and, when 
stranj^ulatcd, an operation may bo requiretl unless rellervd by tbo 
nual runieiiies. 

Arlijiciai Antt». 

From what doeit it proceed? A mortified intestine in Ktrnngn- 
lated hernia ; in which caiie tliu tuund pirtion ndheren t» the nccli 
of lli« sar. til" portion iirotnided Aluugh«, i.t thrown oIT, and tlio 
feces arc diT^rhiirKi^d externally ; it niay also be cnu.ied by a penv 
tratinf wound, or an absccaa or ulceration of tlie intestines. 

What i* the Irtahnenl? Nature oftfn effect* o cure; it Is not 
best ihefi'fore to be tuo oiTlcioos in the early stupes, but simply 
apply a truHH with a broad pad to the openiug, wliich will retain 




the feces. In this diseaee, the upper and lower portion of intes- 
tine lie side by side ; ntid a very ingenious operation wEts suggested 
and practised success fully by Dr. Physick ; the principle of which 
is, to prodace adhesion between these two portions, then dirlde 
the barrier between them, and by that means establish a commnni- 
cation between the upper and lower portions, and suflbr the ex- 
ternal opening to close. This adhesion was produced by passing 
a crooked needle armed with a ligature within the oriEce of one 
gut, and bringing it out at the other, traversing in its passage the 
coats of each ; the ends of the ligature were then tied in a loose 


Prolapsus Ant. 

What are the causes of prolapsus ani, or inversion of the lining 
membrane of the rectum ? Habitual costiveness, straining at stool, 
diarrhtea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, strictures, stone, drastic purga- 
tives, &c. 

What is the treatmenl f T!ie parts should be returned as soon 
as possible by gentle pressure. If there is much inflnmiuation, 
blood-letting, general and local, mild cattiartics, cold poultices, 
astringent washes, &c., should first be resorted to. Where the 
parts become indurated, and incnpable of reduction, it may become 
necessary to remove them, cither with the ligature or knife. 


What are hemorrhoids ? Tlicy are tumors situated about the 
rectum, sometimes distinguished as vUernal and exleroal, from 
their situation ; blind and bleeding, according as they are attended 
or not with hemorrhage. 

They may consist of varicose enlargements of veins^er fron. 
blood poured into cysta formed by cellular membrane, or from a 
more organized growth. 

What is the Ireatmentf To palliate nrgent or present symptoms, 
recourso may be had to leeches, ctild astringent i-ashes, asWngett 
ointments, rest, Ac. They mny, by becoming large and trouble- 
some, or irreducible, require an operation, either by the knife or 
ligature. When they consist of varicose enlargementa, the ligature 



I I" 

ahoultl atirnyR be wei; on the contnrj, In the other kind*, the 
knife may be propcr- 

Fiiluta in Ano. 

What is n>talA in iino f It in An nb.tccnK nliont the verge of the 
naa, trilb onn or more inmll njicning^. If the opening comtniini- 
catCK with liie reL-tum, uiid iiol with ihu iiiictiutnRntN, it \» called 
inlcrnat G«tula; if It Openii upon the siirrot-a o( ihe integiiinentu, it 
b an ej-.ti^rnal fijttala; aad If thure lit an opening both internal 
■od external, It in talkd a ci/mpteU liitnta. 

Wluit h the trtatmency Abaotute r»t, moderate ttict. and mild 

When the dlncate Is hng esmblliihcd, an operation bPcoroeN 
tHCeMarf, nnleHS coo&uiuptiou exiaU, in which uuku the fiittiila ought 
not to bi- healed. 

"A better and easier iDodo of perfoniiiiig the operation in by 
pastitig a grooved director through the »tririnre, agaiiiKt or into 
Uio iiilolinc; then pass into the recliim a smooth ronntled Kliek. 
like B reetuin bougti^ the siie of the thumb, ihe Klick haring « 
groove npon one side as wide as the GnRer; thi.t being puwcd ap 
nnd held firmly by an assistant, the surgeon take* the director and 
impingeu it Qrmly against the groove In the atlek ; he now tnkcc n 
sbarp-poiatcd knife, and rans it forcilily down the groove of the 
director; the moment it comes in contact with the rectum *tick, ho 
makes a strong incision outwards against this, uiid ihun divide* 
th« Ibtula at one sweep. This operation is perrormcd In half the 
ime that the other is, and with much le^ pain to the patient, and 
gi'cator conveiiiorice to the surgeon. Any one who performn the 
Operation once this way will not be likely to employ the other mode. 
The French surgeons, many of them. aAer dividing the fitlutit, 
diHseet out its walls ; thus cutting out a, tube of the fodarated soft 
LportJt. " — i^iwdn^s' Surgery. 



What Is hydrocele f It Is s collection of water in the tunics 
ngianlii; And fDrms nn elastic pyrifurm lumor, which nt first 
rOOeaplH the lower part of the scrotum, and gruiluiilly extends 

■ VttOIKT. 

What ia the trfalmrntf An operalion i» g*ii«rany required; 
and i^ tither palliativi? or mdii-itl. 

Tbe pnlliaiiTe operuijoii is sJioplj the cracaatiou of the Ilnid hy 
« lancet or amail trocar. 

Tho operalion for radical cure may be pprformcd by laying optti 
tbe ttmica rnginnlis; by pajuiiiig a sctoii lhri)iigli it; by applying 
caustic; by extirpatiiij^ a part of the tunica vaginalit; by the 
iairoJuction of a tont; SDii by iiguclioii, aflvr the water ha* been 

Tlic last operation is tho one nstinlly pvrrornird, and generally 
wKi succeiK when properly donu. There are Kcrcral difTcrent arii- 
do made use of for the puqiono of injection. 

Pig. GS. 


How is the operation Tor tnppiny in hydrocele performrd ? Th« 
scrotum should bo seised in llic Ic^ hand, raised iind Kijueezed, so 
OS to render the skin tense in front ; the point of the troenr, hold 
in the righl hand with the fiirernigirrcliiKe npnn it, xhonld be ihrtut 
into tile friJMl of ilie swelling midwuy belwvfn the eml». When 
entered, the linger musi b« raiKcd ; and as the trocar U nitbdrawi, 
the canala should he pushed fnrlher in. where it itboiitd be allowed 




to rcmnin ontil tlio (liiH hns run off. Wlicii hijccUons are nited, 
tbey maj be iiiIroduc«d Lbruu]{li ilie tauula. 


What U hietnMoeeie 7 It i* a collt«ti<in of blood, either in the 
tunica vagi'iali^ U-sli*, within llie luiiicw allmfrinea, or iu the cellu- 
lar ii»etnbraii« of llie scroluio. Il lua}- proceed from itjary of one 
or more of ihe Itlooilvessela of ilie wrotum. 
- What U ih* Irratmintf If the cxtnivasoiioo is amall, it will 
pruliabW he nhiorbed fii a MiorC lime. If il Is not, an iacisioo 
■bould be made, and the blood evacuated. 

What la ))hyinoBts J It U where the prepuce b coiilruclcd in 
fhHit. and cannot be ilrawn over the irlntia |>uul«. 

There are two varietiuH : the natural, when il cxI.iLi at birth ; 
and llie ptrfcmatural, when it occura at any ulher jXTlod of life. 

What \* tliu ttvalini-ntf An operatiou ; either by flitting up 
the i>re|>u)'e. or removinR a small portion by cln-niuclNioa. 

in prelemttural. uben attended with hitrh indamm&iioD. the btst 
remedies are local blcediog, craullient poultices, fomentations, && 

Paraph ijmnnit. 

What in paraphjmosis T II is where the prepncn is firmlj- re- 
tracted brhind the coruna, leaving the glniiK penix uncorered, and 
toiiMlimt* producinj; fcrcal conslrictton and awvlling. It may b« 
congfcnital or acquired 

What 16 iho trtalnwnti Cold, ihe antiplilojrisiiu counw. and 
■tudy pressure, kept up for scrernl minutes. In extreme eircun'- 
4tancf«, the titricturo nuxt be divided. 

DiBRAsKS or TitK Urktiira axd Bladdkr. 

Stricture of Uie Urvthra, 

How are they diviiledf Into pcnnnncnt, spBamadic, and a 
Combiniition of the two. 

What part if the common neat of stricture? Uaually behino 
the bulb, abuiit seven inches from the extremity of the glans ; alto, 



at ihe distance of four or fire iiK-bfs, nnd three nn<l • Irnlf inchra; 
Burac'timea tbe orifico itscir is the ftciit of (Irictiire. 

Wliat ore the vymplofrmf The constitDtionnl symptom* nrr di*- 
onicr of tbe dipeatiTO functlone, ^«««rDl irritnbiliiy. *evi*rc cliills, 
foUon-cd It; high fever, and profuse peivpirattOD ; the fvbrile parox- 
ysm is not, however, an invariable attendant. 

The IocaI HfitipioiDS are n sli^hi dii^chargeof matter from the 
urethra; a rrrqiieiil desire to iirinnic; the urine is«i«i tn dropB, 
or in a rorkcil. twislcd, wiiy, or tliread-like Etrcnio ; noctamal. 

iiiMioRH ; scoliling; of the urine. &c. Excemi in vntin^, drinking, 
nd cold, nirfrriiviiie nil (hi-Kc symploinR. 

What in the Irralmrnlf Tlie llr*t obicet in to ni'rc'rtain the 
pnnilion uiid i-xteiit of the Klriclun!; which may be done hj a 
boujrie, catheter, or un-llira »!uund. 

There arc three inelhuclK of enre. Pilntalion 1)j bnngiCR, do- 
(truetiou hy cauntiuK, and diviniuii by u »tilet. 

/"wrfn/a in Perineo. 

What Ib fistula in [lerinco i It i* iin uWi'Sit coram tinicniin); ex- 
ternally, and with iht- iircihru tutt^rnully It may proceed from 
sti-ictareti of the nrethra, or frotn blowii or other iiijarioa. 

What b the Irealmentf If it depend upon strictare. the fint 
indlcution h to fret rid of that ; if the canal anterior to the fliitiila 
beeotnes obliteraiod. ft can only be accomplished by an operation. 
When tbe fiatnla is pervious, it sliouM be dilated wltt bouf^les, or 
such other means as the cose may require. 

Hetention and fncontinmce of Urine. 

Whut are the caufrt of rttcuiion of urine ? ScTcre ^onorrhceii, 
(■trtctiircK of the nrethra. enlnrged prontate, spacm of tbe neck of 
the bladder, stone, hemorrboids, fiGtiiln in ano, stimulating diure- 
ticjf. bjiitcrs, Ac. 

What arc the remfdift for retention of nrine i The warm bath, 
blood-letting, pnrgntives opintc enemnta, the catheter, forred 
inject in tin to overcome ohiitniction*, and pnnctiin- of the blaildfr. 

The following: plan i" recommended by .M, CawnftTc, and pub- 
lished in Banking'^ Mslrnct, No, 10. Peeember, 1849. 

"When called to a patient laborinft under complete or incom- 
plete retention of urine. I immediately cause the largo bowel to be 




«ail|rtted bj U oily clyster, or pMnpribe a. [mrEtiliTc one, iT there 
hu been no moliOD, for fifteen or ei;;hlL'eii liuurs. Wlieii l)ii; lint 
ctyKUT luK been relumed, I muke qm) of aiioiW, leti* In bulk, of 
coM water, or (wlint h better) bluddera, tlllcU tiiih rouKblf-pouudcd 
Ice, ure jiliiced urouiid the [leuis upon ibe perineum, tli!i;liii, uiiua, 
■jid hypogiuririum. If ibe puLleul do nut puaa more or leas water, 
After lulf nn hour of iliia treatment, I bave blm laid on the cdi;e 
of the bed wilb a water-proof eloih under bini, and tli«n i^nlijeet 
blm for twenty or (weuty-five luiiiute^ to a cold a^cL-ndiiif; douche, 
In m ttmall contiiiuoux xlmain. At ihe end of tUiit time I i;lte an- 
other cold Invenieiit, uiid continue rerri|{eraiiUi. and iu an buur I 
have (cenrmlly bem reworded by Kucfen*. " 

When it i» iieceMury lo jiiiiiciun; the bladder, it Klioiild bo iltjiio 
•ithcr throngli ibc periacuin, nbore the pubet, or through the 
roctnm ; the opcralion of puncturing above the pubcs u the one 
generally pcrforioed. 

Uow arc these different opiTntioii» pfrformfii ! When opened 
aboro the pnbc);. lay the palient on a lablc, Kbonlderv end ktiees 
slightly ruiM'tl ; umke an iiiciaion abunt three inched tung nbovi; the 
Byraphym. throii^fh ihe xkin and linoa niba, when the celiular 
tiwuv in froal of the bladder will be ex|)09>od, and thin organ may 
be opened with the point of « knife, or, what in better, with a 
trocar and otnala; the cauula or an elanttc enlKetiT should nuiuin 
hia the wound for some days. If the opening ia made In ihc peri- 
-seam. It may be done aa in Uibotomy. 

If it In dnne throutfb tbe rectum, a curved trocar and ctinula, 
about KCvuu inirhi'x lonj;. »liould be inlniduced into the ri'cluuj on 
the concavity of the furefiuRer of tlie rl;:ht hand ; the puiiil «lionl<l 
be pUecd on the triangular «pace behind the prualate ; and then 
bo forced throutth tli« tunic* of the rectum utid bluddRr, and ihe 

f trocar wiihilrawn ; when the urine will flow t)imugh the tube ; a 
fiesibic catheter may be Introduced through the cunuln, and bI- 
loved to remain. Qreat care should be uikeu not to introduce 
Ihu iastratnent high enough up to wound the puriloneum, nhieh 
night be fatal. 
Wbal la the treatment for i'ncoR(in«fice of urine f The inlvmnl 
nae of caatharldei, muriated tincture of iron, bnrk, opium, cold 
bath, and blitlera, either liagly or uocijuincd, iti kucIi a mnnncr M 
may bo iudicated. 




Urinary Calculus. 

Where areGrinarycalculi/ound? In Uie kldtic}*, aret«r, bladilor, 
prosiato gland, or arethra, bat they are niomly fouiid in Iba 

Wliat are Ibe symplomg of stone in the bluddirr? Frctiuent 
de^re lo make water, and severe pain on loidin;; tlie laM (lro)iKof 
it; mddni stoppnt;e of ihe urine while passing, and flowing agatn 
frequcnil^ b; change of pOBlarc; and tenesmus. Soanding js, 
hnwercr. ihe oa\j pofilive e^niptom, and slwnld alwaj* b* dOD* 
bernre a course of treatment is adopted. 

Wbnt is the treatment for urinary cjilctilus? Whrn there it • 
cnlcnlas patting the ureter, dcei^ve Ircalnnenl ishunid be adopted. 
Blowl should be drawn freely if the patient i^ rubugl, and a brisk 
pnrge given; the warm batli and spirits of turpentine, or Epiri(4 
of tnriicnliiic and opium, may be used with benetit ; the tincture 
of the pokeberry juice has also been recommended. When th« 
bladder contains a stone, Ihe operation of lithotomy, lUhotritjf, or 
tit/totripiiy must be performed. 

What ci re n instances are considered aduerge to the success of 
tilhotrili/^ The vmallness of the diameler, and greater irritabilil; 
of ihc orcthrn before pnUerty ; or any obetrnction to (he free pnss- 
»gC ft instnimcnld, as stricinre. enlarged [rostaie, Ac; a sacen- 
late<l uondition of the Madder ; and an unu&ually irrttable condition 
of The nrcihra or bladder. 

What circiimstaTii.-e8 are considered as /uTOmli/e for Its cmpioj* 
iDCot f A lurge and callous urethra, a capacions and apathetic 
bladder, with a good mnsciitnr power; n healthy prostate, and » 
unnll or moderately fixed stone. 

Th« in«1rumoot6 for performing this openttion are rariona, some 
turgcon.i preferring one, and some another 

Under what cireumstiinces Bhould Uthntarnij he preferred ? 
Alwuyw, (when any uporalion in perfurnied,) where the circam- 
■tnncei cxim that nre udverice to the iinei;e«< uf lilhotrity ; although 
llie exi»lence of thwe only give a negative adTuntnge tu lithotomy. 

In wimt manner vhoiihl ihe operation of lithotomy U- piTfnrmed f 
Tlic putient should bo placed in a favorable condition for the 
upenttioo, tlic pcHncnm should be xhnved, & cly«IOT of warm water 
udmini«tGrod an hour before, and bit urine ihould alao be relniuod 





(hr tliat period at lexst A firm Inble and a chnir of lh<; pmpcT 
Siiif:!!!)! should be iwlet-U'd, and nil llie a|>par»iiis nlioiild be in pcr- 
tvel oidifT, and (ilai-cd so aa ta lie easily proeufvd when wanW. 
The Gntl iie\i ia lo liiiruduw ihc staff, wiiicli sltoiild tw as large as 
eaii lie done wiih eane ; and liaviiif* ihc eroore presented a litlle 
lo tli<! lefl tide of ilie urethra ; the stoi>« should then lie felt »ilh 
Ihe luairuiu«iit, and itie latter p1»en in diaryr* of an afuiAlant. Tho 
pniieiil ahould next be secured; a pieee uf brand worxled tape, 
three yurtU louf;, should be doubled and furmed into a loop, which 
bhonid be fu^tetied on the UTi^Ii ; ho should lie direeied to K''ai^P 
the outer niarffin of the feel ; the ends on ciieh side »li(iuld then bn 
paiuied around eueh hand and foot, lo as lo iccure Ibem flnnty 
Two nB^iriiantx, one ai each knee, uill tie t-L'(inired to nupixirt ibem, 
and hold the lln^lia pruperlj- upurl. Tlw brt-eeh i>li(iu1d be plnecd 
at the murtcin of the table. The amiataiit should hold the staff 
iu the leA hand nearly perpendiealur, uilh the eoncaiity of the 
cutte renting on the upper part of the Iriunffulur liniment; and 
be Khontd draw the Keroium &litclitly upwardit and a little to the 
right «Sd«, and he should stutid on the riKhl of the patient. The 
■ur);eon hIiuuM be scaled In front of the perineum ; the eundilion 
of the proitale snuuld be examined, and the exact sltuution of the 
raini of liie pubt-a, and Ueliluui. and the tuberoniiy Hhuiitd be 
traced. The knife reeoinmendeil by Fergaraon should be used, 
and held much In ihe iniiuner of a common li!)>toury. The point 
ftlioald be entered about one ineh and lhive-f»nrths in front of the 
Bans, about a tiiie*s breadth lefl of the raphe, pu&htd llirou^h tlie 
kkln. and euiried by a kind uf Kawbi); motion doxn to the left side 
of the perineum, about an ineh beyoiid llie annt ; the middle of 
the incision beinjf at ei^nal dii^tanees from iht Inner part and the 
tuberosity ; the blade should then be run alonp the surfnee of the 
exposed ircHuIar tissue ; the forefiuprer of the lefl band should be 
thrust doun into the wound, and plaeed upon the meiubranoas 
portion of the urethra ; if resiiionce [•, offered, the resUthip parla 
■bonld lie divided by the knife The t^rgore ia the staff lioin|i; felt 
tiy ihe fltiiier, the knife should !>•■ passed alon^ il. and made lo 
porfornle the tirethm nbont ihn-e linis in front of ihe proNlnli-, and 
then slid slong the proiive nuiil it lins entered ihe blnddrr, hnvinir 
■lit open llie side of the nrethrn and nut<-hed the mar^n nf ihit 
pfoUale. If the stone U tujipoW to be larjjc, tliv upetiinj[ in iJin 



Madder ilioold be «iilnr)!:nl stightljr on H'illi(3niwin~ ihe knifi.-. Tlia 
foKltDfirer of tbu led liund sboQii] be ffriilly iiitrodiicMl Into llie 
btnilder along ihu slnlT, so an to dilato tlic imris, ond. vIko in (h« 
bladder, to nenruh for llio iloiic nnd lo rt-tuin it iicnr lUe Dtvk. 
Tlie Htulf dlioaltl llu-ii W remiivrd hy tliu iiMiMnnt, uiid llic forceps 
futradimd duvilj nnd curvrully, tu ilii-- liiiftrr ix r(>niorcil ; tlie Mune 
aliould llien be HeiKed and c-xtracti'd liv u slow, xij;zair nion-tnciit ; 
wlildi, be ill); done, (lie opcnitioti is cuiiii>lvtcd. Tlie interior of 
the bladder aliould l>e exuiulned by tlie liiifKr or u ]>ro]>cr iiutru- 
meiit, BO as lo aicertaiii wheiher there um on.v olben rcniniDinfr, 
Tli« patient, being luu^d. sliuuld r<-iuuiii in Wd, eillier on hi» biicit 
or rittlit tide. The ufter-trentiuint Mmuld be nttulaled bj circuin 
5taiic(-3. The wound iieucraltv cltixus in about tliree »eclcK, 8om«> 
liiDes earlier, and ut other liui<!» later. — FetyuMun. 


Wbot ar« the injnrics for which Amputation ix reiorted to! 
Qvn-dtot u'ukiK/^ and /mtiurrt, vxortificalion, tumor*, liiMaaed 
joint*, and w/c>rr«. 

What cireain«niieM inflnt^nm n% in refrnrd to llm jiruprieiy of 
am)iiilnlioii iu 'jun-rJiol inmnd* nnd /rtttiwrc*? Whon llit chief 
nrtciien uf a liiub aro ditidvd, ihu luiii'clca Inei-iutcd, uiid the honcfl 
limllj broken, ain)intnlion ^oiild b<; performed; uInq when com- 
plicnled with severe injury of the joititn. 

Whul tumors may render ampnintion neei-ntnry T Ottvomrcomti, 
cpiiiu vcntoMt, exohionii), fun|;iiK hitmntodeii, tic. 

WhularethedilTvrcntiiiotfc^of prr/tirnii'if/uropiitntion F f),v th« 
circular iimit'on. and by u hut u i^mwAWw Jiap operation. Soura 
Stl^gl^onK prefer one mode, and some the other. 

How it the ciirciilar operation performed ? An D.iHiitnnt. or the 
lefl hand of the operator, BhonhL grnf^p the limb and retnirt tht 
tikiniu fnr IU poHnibie ; the knife Miuuld (hen be made to em-ircl* 
the limb, tbe cdfte sinkintt ihroniih the vkin ; the intepnmi-nts 
should be further retraetiMl, nnd pare pri>veniinK thin tihonld ba 
diridcd ; the knife should be made lo sweep ronnd the limb a;;ain, 
eloMi III the reiraoled Khin. lo the depth of nbonl half an inch or 
more, through the apontiiriisiii and superlldal miiscidar fibres : the 
parts dhould be still further retracted, and Ihe knife again applied 



■0 uto divide ft1l tli« niinclM aiid itxturcK down lo thtbOM; are* 
tnictor (.liuuld then be apjilled tu Uie |inrl so as to cover tUe wound, 
(iwu ends, if une bone ; and tlii'oe, if Iwo Iwneit,) and drawn flrmlj 
u[iu'ardii mid any inu^ctc ftillicriii); to ilie buno and prevenlinf; 
r4'lrii<;ti»ii k1ii>iiIi1 lie dividtd clu)<? to lUv clolh, at wliicli point the 
mw Khould liu n|>iiUed to tlio bouu. Great rare thould bo tnlieu to 
prcK'nru tiullicient doft parU [•> elTi'Clually corer tlic end of tlie bunc. 
Tliu wunnil ulioiiKI thou l)e dres-ied afler tliv nrieri('» nre secured in 
rul-Ii a inrtnner m In prodoce union hy tlic Tirsl inltiiilinn. uud tlia 
line of junciioti may be transverse, vertical, or ol)1i(|uc, ncconling 
to tlie faiic.v of (lie Mir^un ; Uie parta should then be retained by 
fititcliM. strap*, and bandana. 

T1ii» 4lcjK.Ti|>tlon Is a general one, and will apply to any of the 
linilM On which llie circular operation may be jierfimned. 

How is am]inlalion at the Shouldrr-joinl perfurtned by thc_ffrtp 
operation t There uro soTeral modts rccoiiimrniii^d ; some iniike 
Tcrrical Haps, wliile other* form horizontnl onee. A K'lod mode is 
to make a semibmnr incision from n liulc bchiud the root of the 

Flf. 67. 



acromion tovsrds ttie corncui'l {>roc«iH, nnd tlms niflVe n llftp from 
llie skill an<i lU-lioici ; viliich hrhij! rniKcH, lliejuint iiiny be opcnrd 
from alwic; and nnolhcr llii|> ['n-icncd from ihe rcmniiiiii(f |)«rti 
IwlofT tliQ ItQiic. Tht unities tliDUltl th«i be sccorud, biid lUv 
woaiid lirvsxtd in \hc uxuol voj. (Fig. CI.) 

Fig. 68. 

How is amputation ahore the elbote pevrormec) ? The elbov 
ehoiiUI be Bcpsriili:!] from t1i« side, nnd a toiirriqoet a|i;)lled. or 
prrwurc mndc witli ilic liniidK; llic nrmoKlioulil bo tr&ii&lixed lhr«e 
inc'bca a)>nvc tlic extenial condyle wilh r sniiable kllif<^ witlch 
uliould be curried oblitiiicly downrnrdu and f(»rwnrd«. so as to make 
the inner turrncc of a Mtnilunur flap two <ir ihrrc inrhe^ in Irii^tli ; 
dirid).' the opposite ttide in ihw Kamc; draw (he two flaps 
ipward*. pDXJi n ktiife nniuiid (lie bone, which Hhonld nrxl Itt rmvtn 
ihrouKli, nnd liiv rviuornl h flniiihtd. The artrrioit ^Iiould bo 
Becured, and th«' flaps bruiii^til In coiiUd and retaiued bjr tb« 
pro|icr drc»Ui|pt. (,Fijt. 68.) 

How at the Klboii'-Jointl A sccallunar incision thonld be made 
thruujfh the «ofl paru on its anterior and upnt-r jtarC ol>liqueljr to- 



warils the joint, which mnst ho cnt into ; bend tJic limb barlcwarda, 
•0 u to bUow tbo knife to be cnrricd ocross to Ihc pnrtcrlor *ur> 
fiu-e. whcTO a lliip mnrt be kft, wliieh. iviih ihut in fri»ni, will eorer 
tb«< «lQtnp; in forming tbo po«lcrior lluji. tiio lritT|)i' mtitt bu cut 
Ihrouirh, or «k<p the olccnnon proccM divided irilb the snw or 

lloir is nmpiitniion of the Formrm pwfi»niwd? The elbow 
alllthlly lieiit, the hand pronnlcd ; paM n blnde uhoat (ix incbv* 
loaK (torn line «ide to the otiier buhind or aliavo tlin bonvs ; )el it 
be carried obliquely, to an to come out one inch nnd a bnlf lower 
down ; rnitc tlie ftup, pius the knife ncroia cIok in fhKit of the 
bones, aurl earrv it obliquely doHnwurd.t, when a second flup fa 
formed; draw these apnrt, diriile all llie tcxturea on and between 
the bones, ajiply a retractor, and »w off ibe banes close to it 

(FJe- SO.) 





1 ^ 


Pig TO- 

L 1 


1 ■" ."■ -J 


^V How at the Wrigt-jointt Hold the hand In a borlicHita) poKl- 

1 tioii, buck upwards; tal>« a eealpel or a lar^ blRtuorjr, rair; tl In 

1 ft ■cmiliinar coarse down lo llie bones from one kldu lo tlie otiier, 

1 aboni an inch or mor« below the arijculaliuii : dissect np ibe flap, 

open tbe poslerior part of ibe joint, bending tbe band dowuwarda 

Ktlbc anme lime; the tcKtuiiis on each side of tbe wmt should 

then he cut lhron;:b. and a flap made similar in »lxe and shape to 

the one Blrcadf formed. (Kip, lO.) 

At what point should ampatotion of the l-eg be performed ? At 
llie midtile, when a cholt-c (.'an be had. 

How should il lie done? Apply a tourniquet or other compTM- 
nioii ; place the piitient on a finn (able, •ap^rarted and held by 
aMitlnnlx, one of whom tihoiild »up]iun the paK to be removed; 
the Hurici-gn ithould paH an nnipiitutioit knife, »eTeu oreiKht fneliea 
ion)r. frum one «ido lo the other, doMi behind the bonea, cut a fla|» 
froiu the bnc^ part of the leg, three or four inche* long ; next draw 



rt« knife Mnst Iho fore part of ihc left wilh ^ scniidrenlw nwpcp 
between tliu poinU trniiArixed by the knife ; the flBp* thotild liu 
dm*n up by th« relrnctor, mid the rcmaiulnK parts divided upon 
■ad between tlie liones close to it, where the bow Ehould b« applied, 
and the M|iatutioQ completed. 

Klfr Tl. 

tltiw nhodld urn pii tall on of the Thigh be performr d ? The 
r«mornl iiriery should be controlled by a touruiquut or by cmnprvs- 
(ion. The curgeoD, standing on the uutdide of tho limb, should 

Kg. 7t 



Fij. 78. 

graajt the out«r side of the thigh between liis So^n and Ibumb, 
draw it from the side of th« bone, pass the kolfe from before 
bHckwards, mid cut downwarda aud outuardi so aa to form a Hap ; 
next. Introduce tlie Vnlfe tn front and carr; it backwards as 
before, but on the other side of the bone, whea, by catting again 
obliqaelj towards the surrace, the inner flap Is formed : use a »• 
tractor, divide the remaining portions on the bone close to It, and 
nxo the snw. Some Burgeons make the Haps from the aotcrior aod 
postrrior portion* of tlie thigh inirlead of the liilrrnl ; niid ibis 
inrltiud ajipMrt to possess romc adranlagCK, pnrtifiilorly for tho 
upper poniiin of tlii« limb. I.iMon prefer* the noterior and poKto* 
rior Baps, a« tliowa in Ihu lignm. (Fig*. 73 and 13.) 

IInw nhoulii nmpnintion of the PnntK be prrfonucd 1 It should 
be grasped in the left hand, and depurated by one Ktroko of ihe 
bistoury or catlin. The hemorrhsge may l)e riMtminiKl by the 
pnwiurt of an assistant until the arteries can be secured. 



At what point, aud in what manner. ehouM the Subclavian 
Artery be seenrtd ? Above the clnTicle. at a point on tlio OQtW 
(nuromiat) margin of tlie scalenus amicus ransclc. Patient on bJS 
back, head elevated and slightly turned to the side opposite; 
shoulder of the side to be operated on drawn downwards and for- 




vnrcK The tiiritton ihoalit be tnade three or Tour indict long, 
liair nil iiKili aboto ftnd |Mnillel with the clkTiciv, vxlcinlin^ from 
the clavicular porlion of ibe »ti.TiiO-itiu«loid to ihv intiTlur mnrjiiH 
of ihc tru|iFxiiiKi the piirlx next lo bo diridcd an iho plntyKnia 
mruiili-x unil cdluliir loxturc ; the cxtunml jugular, when exposed, 
should be pressed to ooe side ; nnd the direction through ful mid 
cHIuIiir subRtnnce down to tho ortio-hyoid slioiild be carefully 
mndc; draw ihis (noEelu to one side nilh a blunt hook; disseet 
•gsin cftrefuUy with n blunt implement, diriding (mrcfully any 
nmscles in the "'ay, gnfflcicntl}' ut giv« room ; by then passing the 
tnget down, the artery may be jiereeived puUuting; it slionld 
then be more exposed, nnd the ancuriiim needle passed nnder it 
from before bnckwarda, and the ligature can then be made to no 
eirrle the artery; th« identity of llie artery siiuuld be prorod 
before milking the Iij;nture llirht. by com pressing it, and uotteltig 
tJie cCTi'i-t on the pulM. I^u>'e the eiid.t of the ligature out, (allcr 
tightening it,) and divsA the wound properly. 

Id whnt manner should Uio Arlcria Innominala be KeeuredF 
Make an iuci.iion four Inehes in length, comnieuctiig over the 
middk of tlie upper purt of the scenium one iiieh below ii« murgin, 
and piuMiig u]iwuril« pnruUel with ihe Inner border of the iitcnio- 
mastoid. The &kiu, Gbreti of tti« platyttma myoid, xuperficii 
foicia, a, porlion of the iteruo-maHtuid, cellular f^nhMnnce, the 
gt«mo-hjroid and Kteruo-thyrold aliould all be carefully divided ; 
the t«m1 tlionld tlien be looked for in the eollulur membrane, 
(^polite tU« U[)pcr margin of the stcnium, and when found, tiM 
li^tnro Tiiny lie piuised round it. 

In what manner nhould the Common Carotid be secured? The 
nppor third xhoiild be selected when prnctieabls ; the patient oa 
bii buck, shoulder ilightly elevated. he«d turned to the op]>a8lte 
6ide; eommence [lie incision one inch and a half below the pomnm 
Adami, orcr the inner murgin of the stcrno -mast old, and curry it 
upwards three inches or more, parnllel with its fibres. The (kin, 
plaiysma myoidc*. and supvrGeial fascia should all be divided to 
this extvnt ; the fibres of the storno-ma»toid should lie drawn 
slightly outwards, and the cellular tissue forming the sheath lo the 
vessels cantiou^^ly opened with the knife, oppoaiie the middle of 
the thyroid cartilage ; the arlory win then be seen and fell ; care* 
fully dissect the outer margin of the artery from it* attachments, 





iind then |>8»s the needle rounri ii, keeping the point ctote upon 
the vef»el, from nilhoul inwards, and Ibc o|>ornliuri aiaj be SnUlit'd 
B8 in Other catca. 

lu what oaDuer should the External CaroUd be secured t 
Plaoe the pavient as above; make a luuated incision, convexity 
backwnrds, between ihe inasloid process and the body of ihe hyoid 
bone; llje ekin, plalyfiina myoidcs, and superficial fa&cia. sltould 
all be divided to the same extent, and the lower pan of tlio parotid 
gland broaght into view, which shoald be turned slightly upwards, 
and the external carotid may be ex|>oscd by separaiiuit the di{^as- 
tric and *iyIo-hyotd muKcIeH; a li|n>turc cun then bo tlirown ariMind 
!t, ciirfritlly avofdinfT to include other parts. 

In H hot mamivr should the Humeral Arif.ry be secured ? The 
lower third <jf th« aru »hould be selected if possible. Make an 
incitiou three inches long tliroup:h the skin and lnlervcnIti)T tcx- 
tares, alotig the Inner niarRlii of the biceps ; carefully separate the 
Derves and veins that lie alonf; with it, und pass a needle aroand 
the artery without includin}: any of thcni. 

In what manner thoold the Radial Arter*/ be secured? The 
moil favorable point i* three ineheif above the wrist, where IW piil- 
autiunx cau be dif^tinctly Tclt. The forearm should he placed in a 
Bupine position, on a firm table; make nn incision two inches in 
length, about half an inch on the radial marRio of the tendon of 
the flexor ciir]:>i rudialis; the skin, aponeurosis, and a little cellu- 
lar substance beiug divided, the artery can bo readily detected and 
Bucured. llii;htT up, this artery may be exposed between tlte 
■upinator louf^us and the pronator teres. 

, The Ulnar Artrry may be KCcurcd most eonTcnicntly above tli« 
wriit nboul two inches; in which place It Is accompanied by two 
veins and * nerve ; lt« situation Is between the flexor cnr|il ulnnru 
and the flexor siihlimis, and may be e.^jiosed by dividing the tkln, 
fiiM-iii, and ccllnlnr «nlit^tancn bctwern ihirm, 

lu B'hnl mnnnor eh'iiild the Exfrrnal ilinr Artrnj be sccurt-dT 
Patient on a tabic, *houlden' and knee slijEhtly derated ; make an 
incision three and a half inches long, abont an in<:h above and 
parallel with Poupart'a ligament, one end being i>p])Ositc tlie 
anterior superior spinous process, the other a little above lh« 
speulnj; in the tendon of the external oblique; the skin, fascia, 
and superficial e])igastric ve»elB being divided, tlte tendon joet 




intDH-d should then be cut lo b similar cictent; — now the lower 
mnr^inH of the internal oUi(|no nnd trant^rrmn^it musdcts must be 
looked fur. and tlie point of ihc lingiir or the diri'ttor )ias*C(i be- 
n«nlli them ; they uliould bv divi<trd ikliuut lutlf nil inch u|i»'urd<, 
wlien the faacia tmngvcrsiilU will lie ex|><ised ulmont cxnclly ovit 
the iatemal abdominal rinjc ; make licre n nliKbt oiTutcli iir o|ii!ti- 
iiig large uDougb to permit n view of tlie iliM fiueiR where it 
corera the psoas mnMle, when tlie arlery will be diKenven-d on th<! 
noh brim of the pelris, covered wiih a thin Infer of (.'ellnlnr tub- 
MAitee, formlii):; a kind of shenlh for it and the vein, which lice 
rlo>e upon ihe artery ; make a slight opcnin;^ into the sheath, and 
inKiiinale the jiuiui of a needle from within oulnards. so as to uvoid 
the Teiu, nud the operation should then be completed in Uie nsual 

lu what manner should the Femoral Arlery be secured ? It 
niiy be done in the middle oi' higher up; the patient slionlit lie on 
bin back, with ibe leg bent at the kuee, and the Ihigh «1if;ht1y 
rotated outwards, and bent npoo the pelvis. Make an tncittion in 
the middle of the thigh threa or four inches in IwiKlh, puriillel with 
the veKsel and with the sarlorius muscle. Tht- skin, subeutunconx 
celluhir texltires, and aponcuroajs being divided, the Mrtorius muj 
1>e seen, which may be turned either outwards or inwurdi, ami nt 
the lioltoni of the space between llie vastus iuternus and the nd- 
doelor lonfjns the vessel may be discovered in close contact wilh 
th« vein and saphcnn nerve ; pats the needle on cither xide of ibo 
vessel which mar be most convenient, but in elo».c contact, ko as lo 
prevent wounding the vein. 

In what manner should (he Posterior Tibial Arti^ry be secured f 
If the siinaiion of the ligature can be selected, It should bo where 
thevesiel lies between the malleolus and ealcaneum. Make an 
Incision two inches long midway between this procen nnd the in- 
sertion of the tcndo-Achilis, dividing the skia and aponearolic 
flbrea, which will expose the artery in company with two veins, 
wbkh may bo sepnratcil and Ihe vessels secured. If we kIiouM 
wish to secure it fi>nr inchea above the ankle, it may be dune i.y 
making a free incision about half an inch potlerior to llie margp'n 
af Ihe tibia diridiufT Ihe skin, cellolar substance, and faM-in; lite 
arterj may then be found on the fl«.<(ur communis and tibialis pui- 
ticoi Quscles, trilh a vein oti each lidc. 


Tho AnUrior Tibial Artery may be scciirrd oTcr Ihe arch of tli« 
Toot l)f iiii incision one or two iucties loti); orcr tlir convex fiart of 
tht; fool, coiumi-iicin^ tn fronl of ibo niikk, nn<l cxtcndlnf; lo tUi> 
■pace lietworit the melfitar^il bonei of tlia gmt und second Ion ; 
ibo ekin ftiid MroiiK oponcurosU nnirt W nit throa^h. wtiScU will 
expofuj ths leiidoiifc of llio eilonsor pollivis niid extensor loiiffiia 
communis mueclee, and the ve«sol will he found l.ring Vtelween t1i«m 
«Iose lo the tioncK, with a rein on csch side ; (licjr mny ilieti tii- 
ODtilj te|inrutc(l. and llic nrtcry ncciircd. 

Tliin vcsRcl niny oIm be scciirfd ubiiv* the iiittcp by making a 
free incisiiin, nnd icardiinf; bulwirvn the tcndoiix already immod ; 
if mart limn u ImndV bn-uih above tli« aiikl«, the nrlvry will be 
found bclnucn ihe exlentor eaminutiii nnd tililullx nnticati moicles ; 
low down, il lioH (111 Ihe tnrfacc of the titiiu, higher uii on tbe ln< 
terouuouK tncmbriine. — Feri/wfuon. 

How ia the operation of paracenlenin abdomini» perfunued ? 
Tim pntiwit in sented on tli« marir'" of o ehuir, the upper piirt of tlio 
abdctnrn ericlnrled with a vide band, ihe middle orcr the stommh, 
and tliu end* made to crou beliuid, and each given to an uaivlimt, 

Fg. 7*. 

who Khonlil be direclcd to pull them with modcraie ligrhtneM. Paw 
a iroi-ar and ciinuln into the nhdornen Ibroup^h tbe llnea altm, about 
an inch nnd ii hnlf below the ambiticus ; Iben niihdruw ibi- trocar. 
and allow ilie fluid tu paM through the cannla ; at the »naic time 





keeping Ibc I'ttnd dravn tpiincly. Tli« trocsr mny be pn*lied In 
by a kind of plunge. Iiitt piiiriied by llic finfttr rrtiiii cnHirinK loo 
far; or the t^kiii mny be first divided wilh n Intirpi, whicli will 
redder l«sa forre necessary. The n'oand ^hitiild be cloKed uilb a 
filrip of adhesive pinsler, and tlie bandage placed Brtnly nroQiid 
the pttlteiit. 

IIow is paracentesis ihnraein perfurmed ? Patient on llie Tnsr- 
giii of a b«i or table, leaniiij; slightly over on Ihe sound side ; the 
point selected Bhonld be the seventh and eighth rib, a liltle in front 
of the angle ; dntw tlie skin upwnrdii to u* lo bring what was 
opp<Htite to the lower margin on a h-vet wilh the npptr; make an 
incision through the tikin, cellnlnr lexlnre. and intrrcottnl inusclcti, 
iinlil the pleura i* reached, whiHi chniild by npened with ihe point 
of a knife or troear. When the fluid is cvncfruled and ihe Kkin 
let go, it will close ihe opening, which shiHild nlwnyx he made at 
ibe upper edge of the rib, so a* to avoid wounding ihc iniercoMal 
vciKelt. Great care should be taken lo prevent air from entering 
tbc CAvity of the chcxU 


What are etcharotin or cvuslicsf Snhstaaccs that exert a 
chemical action ou the materials of which the organisation is com- 
posed, so as to destroy its texture. There is a great diversity in 
Ibe action of different subManccs of this class. 

What is the proper caustic to apply in c»»e» of fnngons (rrannla- 
tfons, commonly called proud ^/tuth T Nlirntc ofsilviT it goierally 
snfltcieut : when it is not, take verdigris, «nl|ihale of copper, nitric 
oxide of mercury, of each, two dradirn*. bichloride of mercurv, one 
drachm, hogs' lard, enough to blend them well together ; spread 
lliis 00 lint, and apply. — Brodie. 

In whai manner are iasuea made by cauitta ? For ihis purpose, 
the caustic potash: or strong nitric acid, it ibe besl. When the 
former la aaed, cut a hole in aome spread udh«tivo plaster, of the 
proper fise to form the sore, aud apply it on the skin; rub the 
potash on tl»e skia surrounded by ihc pluitcr, until it hun penetrated 
through tlie skin ; then ^Montitiue it. If nitric acid is uxcd. apply 
It by means of lint on the end u( the probv. aud rob for some 
miuutei. If nitrate of silver U uted, uakc it into an ointmeut, and 



Uf on the pHrl. If tlie iMun ixiadt to heal, touch It ocnadofiaUj 
with cauKiic jiolu&li. 

HEMORRnAOS FHOM htticit-vim. 

How may this be ehectedt Preja into the hole smnll pleilgrtV 
of lint dipped in spirils of wine, or inariiited tiiictore of bImjI, or 
touch lli«in with a pointed piece of luDar raosiic. Another, nnd 
nil excdiciil mode, h lo cut a small piece of commoD glaxed card, 
%nj ntiout the site of half a diiuc, and npiily it to (be wound imnie- 
diately aft«r wiping it, hold it Rnn]y on the piirt for live minutes, 
nnd it will then mitiere. If necci^arj', a Cue stitch muat be passed 
thrvugh ncU of the lilceUiti}; oriGcc*. 

Cldb-Foot. — Tai-ipm. 

Whtat Is meant by club fool ? tl !k a deformity of the foot, pro< 
ddCfed hj irrc|fu1ar iniii<cu1ar conlraclioii ; which may be c«iued by 
nervoiia ditlurbnnce. Imperfect uulrition, Injuriea, i-oiiBnemeut, 
rheumatiira, &c, *c. It nmy be conyenilal, or acifuired. 

Wliat are llic i^ariKliejt? There aro four. 'Jalipeit fyuintu, lu 
which tlm foot rcklti ou the ball, or the ton. The tihortcning In 

Fig, T6. 





prodaced in tliis varietj by the i^ontractioa of tlic mnsclea ioBtTied 
iota Ihc OS caltis. The |>1aiiUr rasL-ift i^ aUo tliickeiiei). (Fii;. 76.) 

TalijKi V'arun. whi<'U is tlie most corniiioii variiMy, In wlicru tlie 
foot is turrjed inward and resU upon iu oulur vifce, or on tliu 
donnm of lli« fuot ; tlie lieel is also rai.H-d. Tliu decree vuritx 
greatly in (HITurent cases. There is no dtslucalioii, properly H[»cuk- 
ing. iiIl)ioii]icli tlie bones deviulo from their imtuml poxition. The 
t«ndoD8 of tlic tibialis iititieus and jtosticus, and the tcndo>Aehilli)( 
MD most contracted, itnd the [icroiici are relaxed. The Moments 
on tho inner side arc shortened, and those an the OQier side are 
relaxed. (Fig. 76.) 

Talipea Valffus. In this rnrielir, tho foot is everted, and rests 
on Ita inner side. The pcronei mnscles are contracted, and tho 
tibialia autiena and po»iiciis are elongated. Ttiere la relaxaiiin of 
the inner ligaments. It h u rare form. 

Talipes Calcaneug is a rsrc variety. 

Ttte foot resu on the back part of the faceL 

Fig. T7. 

Wh»l is the pro]ier Irralmrnl * In children, tho application of 
• proper shoe or boot, or a reclilicatioa by the proper application 



of ftdhesire rtripi, will generBtlj suffice for & eon If sot, tite 
teado&B of the contracted mascles should be divided, bf patting 
die teodoii on the stretch, while m narrow, abnrp-pointed knife is 
thnitt throngfa the skin beneath the tendon with its catting edge 
towards it ; it should then be broogbt agstnet the tendoa and 
withdrawn, dividing the tendon as it escapes The patient is then 
prepared for the proper mechanical means, to be applied in three 
or fonr dajs. After the foot is brought to a straight position, it 
requires atteatioQ and a proper shoe for a long time, to perftet a 

Intibbiok of Tox Nail. 

What is the proper treaimeTitt If mach inflamed, poaftice, 
and toach with nitrate oF silver. As soon as the tenderness will 
permit, introduce some lint under the comer of the nail, to raise 
H from its imbedded position, after having scraped or soaked it so 
u to render it soft. The whole shonld then be enveloped bj 
adhesive plaster. In some cHee, it ma; be uecefisary to remove a 
portion of the nail. 






Tub Pelvis. 

Wkkse ii the pehis aiiuated, and of what Is it cotnpoevdf It 
Is betvcen ibe lael lumbar vcrUbra aod [be superior extreuiltiea of 
th* tbif!ti bonvn. 

U IK comimitvd of foar booen In the adult; on Ita posterior and 
infciior parU by the sacrum uid i-occ-yx ; aud on its tuicrul, infi-rior, 
ui(t aiilvrlor parta by the osaa Imiumiiiata. 

Wlint are the eharaaltrintin of the Saokum F It wu oritpnnlly 
oompoaeil of live piccM — H* figure is Iriaiiirular, with tbc bnsfl 
upward* ; has four »ur/acet, an anterior, jioMerior, and two lateral ; 
ftud is pierced by four bolc« on eneh tide for the potsage of th« sacral 
nerves. Superiorly it Js attached to the Initt lumbar vertebra, aad 
laterally to the ossn innominnla. ItH limylh is from four to four 
and « half luchcs. breadth iibuut four inchi», and the depth o{ lis 
ooncttvhy b about thrci;-r»iinhK of no inch. 

What aro the characli-rislirit vt the Coccvx ? It is 1^ inch in 
length, pyrnmiilnl. has il* boie u|iwikritii. urticiitnten wiih the sacrum, 
and is composed of three or four bony portions. 

What are th« characterieiics of tbc Oxsx Inxouhtata t They 
are on each side, divided into three portions, which were originally 
distluol — the ilium, iechium, and pubes. 

The luOM on each side forms the hif^hest lateral portion of the 
pelvis; the auperior edge is nearly aemieircular, tipped with CJirti* 
lofCe, and called the sjrine; the external murface lit convex, and 
catk-d l^e donum ; the intenial is concave, and called tbc/oNO. 
It biis two unt»-ri(ir. and two poiierior spimmH pncrneff, forms 
with ih« OR pubis the Unea Uio-pectinea, and with the pubes and 
iacbiani the mxlaiiulum. 



Tbe Tscainu Is the lowest of the three bones, on each si<Ia; it 
lertmnntes in a lubur below, from whieli a process runs apirardato 
join the pubis. 

Tbe Pubis ik tli« sniDilcst of liie three ; Its loogcst portion Tonus 
a part of the acelabuluio ; it theu dimiiiisbes In siie, stretcbes over 
to join it* fellow of the opposite *iile, anil icnijt k brn&cb down- 
ward* to oailc with a portion of the iKbium in such a manocr a* 
IcsvM an opening. Iht/oramen otvle. 

The iDDominata arc joined poKtexioHf to the itacrotn l>r rarti- 
lagcs and ap{iroprial4i liganicnu ; the anterior junction it called Uie 
aymphtfgis o/ the pubtt. 

Whore arc tho Sacro-hciatic Lioamentb situated ? Tbs 
terior arises from Ihc posterior inforior RpiDous process of th« llli 
fj^m the lower margin of tho eacmm, and from tl>e first boiie of 
the coecj-x ; is inscrlcd into the internal margin of the tnberoailj 
of the ischinm ; and is extended along the iuternal face of the 

The anterior Is placed in f^onl, and ariites from the mar^a of 
the lower part of the sacrum, and the lateral mar^n of the coeerx ; 
the llbrea conreri^e, and are inserted into t)ie spinova proeeu of 
tlie iiiuhiiim. This is the arran^ment on each tid« of the peUis. 

How is tbe pelvis divided? Into the tarye and tmatl, OT /oIm 
and true; or the pdvis above oiiil beJow the brim. Thu line of 
demurcatlon beiut; thu liiieu ileo-pectlnea nt the sidex, the crista of 
the pubis in front, and the promontory of the snrnim bfihind. 

What i:> the diHliix^tion between the malf and /emale pelvis f 
The matv pelvis hu« a contracted brim of a runnded form, or tri- 
ani^ulur shape, wilb the pfomontor)' of the Buicnim projpcling. 
The/Vma/e pelviii in spnciouit, of an oval shape, with the sncruni 
Bli(tliily promioetit, and greater space is afforded for the passage 
of the child. The cavity of tbe male pchia it deep, whilo id the 
female it Is shallow. 

In tbe male, there Is a contracted anpilar arch of the pabea ; 
in thv fi'miite, there is a spacious and well-rounded areh, and the 
tuheronilies of Ilie ischia are mui^h wider apnrU The length of the 
nuTO- sciatic ligament, anil the mobility of the coccyx upon the 
aocrum serve also to disliiignish the female pelvis. 

What are the parts of the pelvis tbe diametera of which are ini 
porlanl f The brim, civUff, and otilleL 



Wb»t Bre the saperior and Inrerior openings Bometimes culled T 
The tufienior mid inferior Mraits. 

Wlist ire tlie dlanieteri iniiiallr Dutasared of tlio Itrim, catIij, 
mid uuilet? Tli« Mtruight or antero-poiderior : the IrantocVHe; 
and th« obliqur. 

Wb>l nr« ibu measaremrnln of the brim or itv-pitrior itrail f 
The ftiitera-pMtrfior from the |>roinoiitory of the nflcrum (a) tu ths 
fympliys)* (a) it 4'3 incha ; the Inkiurerw from the middle of ths 
linm ilto-peelinn <tf an« iUim (n) to the other (n) ii 5*4 iuchcs ; 
and the obliqac from one sacra-iliac sjmphjrsig (oj to the aceta* 
baluiD opposite (cj is 4'8. 

Fig, I. 

What ar« the mramtrementg of the camtyt The Bntero>poa> 

1^ terior, from the ceiiln'' of iho hollow of the sacrum to that of tlw 

^m i}imphyn's, in 4-8 indies ; the irnnsverse, from ihe point correspood* 

^" lint l"> the lower margin of the scetabohim, oo oue side, to thai of 

the oUier, ts 4'S inchest; nnrl (he ohliqne, drawn from the centre of 

I the free npnec, formed by the Eacro-seialle notch and lipiuienlii on 
one *ido, to tlio foramen ovale of the other, is 5*3 inches. (Pig. 1.) 
What arc tho measvremenfa of the outlet or t'n/itrtM* ttrailt 
Tlic antero-postertor. from tho point of the coeeyx (A) to the loirer 
tigt of the sjnphvMR poliis (a), is S'S inches, but, duriii); labor 
th« cnobililj of the cocejx may allow this diameier to be iiirmsod 

Pone inch, or to 4 '8 inches ; the tran&vert<«, fiom one taberosity of 
the iMhiuia (b) to the other (b), U 4'3 iiiclie«i and theoliliqoe, : 
Uw middle of tlie lower edge of the nera-««iatic ligament 




Fig. S. 

tf<de (o), to the point of union betveen the JBctiinm and deticendln); 

raimiB of lh« pubvs on tlie olber (c). Is 48 iiich<-a. — Jti-jby. 

(Fig. 3.) Tlie measuromenU of ibe pelvia are reported dlffereutl; 
I )}j <liflVrGnt niilhora. 

I Whni is meant by the axe* of ihe pekia ? Th»y are lines draa-n 

I at rif^lit angles with the planes of the Mntits, through their centres. 



Wlint rclntioD docs the axis of the superior Rtrait bear to tb* 
axu of the body. It forms an angle of t:}&^. A line drawn flrom 
the timbilicns (a) to the point of the coccyx (6) (Fig. S), will r*- 
jircvMit the nxis of the snpertor urail. 

What it meant iiy the inclinaJion of the pelvis f Tlie onf^le 
vhicb tho axis of the superior strait forms irlth the horizon, wbua 



ft woman is in th« upright po^itioa, mnrks what is called the incli- 
nalioii of bcr pclrU. 

Whni nilotion docs the axis of the in/grior strait bear lo the 
MUperiorJ Ii forms with it nearly a riphl angle; and la repi'c- 
Miited 1>; a lino (Irawn from the eacrum, just below the promoiUorj 
(j) perpendiculnr to the plane of ihe iuferior strait (/). The angle 
•nhlth the axisof one strait forma with the boHzoii, ia inrerse to ibftt 
of the other. {Fig. 3.) 

Wliat is the shape of a line that will represent the axis of the 
pelvis f It will Ik^ a curved line (q t) (Fig. 4). the sliape of a 
ntale catheter psusing through the centre of a series of planea 
exunding from the sacrurn lo Ihe pubes, from the Unea iteo-pecttnca 
to Ibc coccjx and sub-pubic liganieiit. 

Fig. 4. 


What Is the arrangement of the two lateral inclined planes withiii 
the ireUis on each side t The/ aro divided into anterior and pot- 

The anlerior commences at a ridge running upwards frotn the 
Bptne of the Ischiuni, extends to the symphms pubis, passes down- 
wards and forwards over the oblnralor fDrainun, ttrminating on [he 
anterior edge of iho ramus of the puMx unil iKcliiiiin, 

The potlerior commcncn at the enmr point, cxlt-nds to the 
middle line of Iho sscmni, powiea downwards and backwards 
behind the spine of the ischiam. over the iincro-«ciatie foraraon, anj 



miero-idntlc IfKsments, t«mi(natIiiK on Ihe pfwtertor ^ge of the 
lul)i-ri»iti<.'it or ihe iacliiani, tlie lower edge of the Ba*ro-«ciatic Ujrn- 
iDCiil, snd |»oiiit of tliB co«7X. These planes InQueim Ui« pn-- 
seiiilnif part of the fcctas ; when the occiput is brauffhl in cnnlsct 
with the pehU aiilemr to the spine of ibe iscliinni. it will pMS 
down apon the auterior Inclined plane, and emerge aader l)ie arch 
of the pulies ; but 11 it enter the pelvis behind the spine of l]ie 
ixcliiiim, it is liable to |>83s down the posterior inclined plane, 
rotate into the hollow of Ihe sacrum, and emer^'e al the post«rlor 
commissure of the vulra. 

Of Deformity of the Pelvis. 

Wliftt Is meant by a Defonnily of the Pelvis I Any deviatloni 
fboin iu healthy dimensions, either by e.\ce«s or dimiriutioii. 

What arc the eriU arising from an excess in »iie F Precipjla- 
tfOQ of the oieros, within th« pdris, darin;; gcstaltou, with its 
consequences; and dining parturition a too rapid labor, whlcli 
may cause alarming hemorrhage. 

What are the rn-mctlien for the difficnltics orijing from an excess 
iu sixe F For the first, a proper kIkihI petenry, or a atero-abduml- 
nat supporter. 

For the second, forbidiling the womiin to bear down diirinR 
labor*, oppoMng the too rapid escape of the child by pressiti]]; on 
its bead, or the (icrincum of the mother ; and hemorrhage may be 
much diminished by brink friotionit on ihu abiiomen over tbe uierut, 
iind by ergot. 

What arc the n«nal cau3c» of the distortions of Ihe jielvii J 
RuHitlis in infancy, and malacoittcon in old age. 

What portion it generally di.itortcd? The upper strait, «tid 
th!> in its antaro-poetcrior diami-ter; whirn the iaferior strait ii 
distorted, it is generally in ilx trunsrerne diuiaeLcr, by the approxi- 
mation of th« tnbcn of the ischia. 

Therv is not, however, any portion bat what i* liable to dericf 
tlOB from 'M healthy mcttj(nr«meutM. 

What in the Kinatletit anlero-poMerior diameter of the superior 
atrnit that will ordinorily allow a labor to be terminated siuvess 
fully to both mother iind child ? Three iiieliea; if there is erei 
three nnd a half, labor is rendered tediout, paiDful, and tiuc«rtaiii 

• •ftTSTfttCL 



for M L— ri ig tke prins? 
prl e imtier. ufro-pcfc 
ctilffn, tW iatraiJartMB of il« 

Inn pwi W Ae bHC oTlka »• 
cnui. tW iatTMiMnin oT iW 
hud la tiM of Umk; sad ptoeiBc 

poMeriar pn of tbe •naphTn.u 

kltd the projettioe nf the amua. Tha finger Mtd tbc hutil i 

■lott to be depctuM apoo. (Figs. 9, £, < ■) 

Or TBB Cuiu>'8 Hkad. 

What «re the principal diamfJtvt of llic cliitd'H tivad 7 Tht 
.,A/i'(}ue, from tbe s^npliysis of ibu chiii to t)i« posicrW nnH Kiipe* 
nor citreraltlM oTth? purietul bones, gr titc po»ierior cxtrriuii/ ol 
4F - 81 


tlie sagittal sutnre. measuring 5 inebes to 5J ; tha hnijilvdinal, 

from the centre of the forehead to the top of the lainhdoidul suture, 
measuring 4 inches to 4^; the perpendicular, from the summit of 
the head to the h&ae of the cmniiim, measuring from 3 to 3^ 
inches ; the Irangverse, from one parietal protuberance to the 
other, measuring from 3 to 3j; inches ; anil the cervico-hre'jmatic, 
esteiidiiig from the occipital bone, nenr its junction with the spine, 
to the anterior fontauelle, measuring from 3 to 3^ inches. 

Are these dinmeters ever altered during the progress of labor f 
They are liable to be from the suppleness of the bones of the head 
of the fcetus ; but all cannot be diminished or increased at the same 
time ; if one is diminished, another must be increased. The extent 
to which these changes mny lake place varies in iiidiridiial cases, 
owing to the more or less perfect ossification of the bones. 

What are the sidureg of the fcetal head which are interesting to 
the accoucheur ? The sagittal, or the line of union from the occipi- 
tal bone to the root of the nose, connecting the parietal and the 
two sides of the frontal bone with each other; the coronal, which 
connects the anterior portions of the parietal and the posterior 
portions of the frontal bone; the lamhihida!. which connects the 
posterior portion of the parietal and the anterior portion of the 
occipital bones. 

What forms the anterior or brrgmaltc fonlanitUe, and how is it 
distinguished ? It is formed at ihe points of decussation of the 
sagittal and coronal sutnres. It is di.'^tinguishcd liy four bony 
angles, the edges of wliich are lipped with cartilage, and are 
smooth, soft, and yielding. 

What forms the poHtr.rior fonlaneUe, and how is it distinguished ? 
It is formed at the points of junction of the posterior end of the 
sagittal with the centre of the lambdoidal suture, and has three 
bony angles ; two by the parietal, and one by the occipital bones. 

What parts of the head are of most importance to understand, 
in order to determine the presentations? The sutures and J'on- 

To what extent may the head be rotated on the trunk with safety 
tn the child? One quarter of a circle, and not more. 

0D8Tr.TIllCS. o2 

Or TBI GunTAi. Okoans. 8m Anatomy. 


Whilt it meant by Menatrnatioii ? It is that fiitidiou in wbiuh 
the DtvniM iirriodiculif tecKles h fiangninolunt tliiiO, accuiupniiic-il 
l>r ihc «ruliitioD of nil ovule f^uni ilio ovaries, wlik'h in u mntiired 
Onintiaii vmiclc. 

WItat part givee origin ta tbU secretion ? Tbe iiilcmal coat of 
tliL- <i(erus. 

^^'l)al are the characUri^ica of tliia tccrclioii f II rcfcniblea 
blood, has & jieculiar quality and odor ; it is not congulable, nor 
doe* ii (•ulrefy reudilj. 

Al wbal f'^riW dues QienstruDtion take ])lace f ll lakes pUce 
lit |iiilierly. or tbut {teriod ai ubidi ibe animal U capable of pro< 
j)u(,'atiiig its specica ; the age TarieH arid«r ibc inlinL-ncea of clitnale, 
coiistiiuiion, atid niodes of life ; earlier lo liot tbun cold fonntrin, 
sooner In dtia lUim In tbe cuiiiilry. Jtc. 

Wbal are Ibe cym/rfoiiM »bkb precede mefistruntion t The 
nuiinniie increase lu size, tlie voice ts cbangrd, the pubcs are 
covered with bnir, tbe best proporlions arc dcvelupcd, and tin 
laiiid is RipidlT niulnrcil. 

UesldcK Ibcse, then' I* ;("-tieriilly 1it-ndacbe. diilnoss of the eyes, 
])alriB In the pchic n'i;<ou, Wtiimlc, vliimsirul appetiic, Icucorrbiea, 
Ac, which ^ivi-s place tu u discbiir];e fMin ih« lagina. 

Wbst h ibe mtimlruoiie ptriodf Froru fonr to six days; and 
during this time from four lo six ounces of fluid arc di>chargrd. 

Vih^i an gr-neral »ymptum» durltif; the mcnstrgul flow? The 
Bppclile becouies cafiricious, the person ia lan^-iiid, pnic, or beclic- 
utly llurid. dark under the cyut, and fiVqUKiitly there i* a drsgjfing 
Ecnsaiion uliooi ibe \\\\i* and luiiiH. 

At what ci^e doci itccuxcT From forty-live lo fifty. In this 
i-Iiiuaie at aboiii forty-nix or «cven. 

Dues ibe rej-ulitr uji pun ranee of the i»cn»eK, in a hi-iiltliy iDnnncri 
«tery lncnly-ci;;ht duyx, indicate a cnpubility for procrc&Uoa or 
reprodiicliou f It does. 

lit the iiierus influenced by miy of it.i appriida^<:« in Hits func- 
tion ? Tbe ovaries appear iiiilixpcnKabl« to ii ; a* their absence, 
iriiber natural or by removal, pruvunu th« appearance of tbo 



It mi-nKimniion n pliviii'>lo^kn) or n pnl liologirnl condition f It 
is Btrictlj- a |»lij"siolo(rii'al fmiclion. 

Is ihp i-aiWfr ur nienM run linn wril nndcretood ? It ia not ; tliero 
hnvr IH-I.TI miiDT tliriirlv* riiniicd to scvouiit for it, liat tliey src not 
eutircly ratirfactorj-. 

Dttnmgement 0/ the funclion of Menttruation. 

To what dernngomenis is this fiinctioD liable f To a too lardf, 
appearance of tbe nensos. 

To its intemtplion after haring been tstablUhed. 

To excess of quauiilf. 

To menorrlingio 

To dynmenurrhara or painful mtnstnmtloa. 

And to irret/uhritiea toirards tlie dediije of life. 

At wlmi period of life, in this eoTinlrv, doeH inenntniatlDii takv 
plnee ? l-'rom the fourteenth to the lifit-fntli ycnr. 

Docs age of itself present an indication for inlerforcnfe in re- 
l^rd to this fnncltoii T No; there should be otiirr nTldencn of 
woniBDhood ; and when these are absent, ihe girl khooM ncrrr be 
tortured by eniriU'iiUF;oj.'uea, These tlj^is are tnuinenttcd under 
tlic hciid uf MuiiMt'Uation. 

Wtmt !ihoii1d be dune where these signs to a jimttr or tna «i- 
tetit CxIkI, und cnetistruaiioii does not appear, with a delientc Elate 
of hcalUi of ihe puik'nl? There should be a rt'irulnr course of 
escrL-isc inntitutcd when the patient can hear It ; »nch nt tidlnf; on 
hor^chnck. vmUcini;. d.U))ipin;; thft rope. An. Tbe drew sboiild be 
attrridfi) lo; nud tbe diet xhuiild coiisUt of enail; digt3t<^ food, 
both aiiiiiibl nnd ve(;cub)e ; nil xiiinubilinit drinks Khotdd be 
BToidud. Tiuctur*! of eiiuthnridfr*. jinrtienlarly if ]eucorrha?a 
attends, may be (riven in driM-i of ihiriy drnpf, three limes a day. 
Keeping the boweU rpuulnrly open M'iib nhKlic pills, with or wiih* 
out tbe Hnljilmttr ul' ii-iin, i.i Uenefii'ial, When aneemia or clilurtMiit 
exists, the enrhonuti; of h'un, in large doses, !s a rery reliable 

What is to be done when a chronic disease exists f Atlenliou 
should be given to the discii«e when vre have reoeuu to suiijioae Ihe 
absence of the nu'nse* depends upon it. 

What is utiiter«ioi>d hy fupprfumon of the luentei f It is the 
vant of rcttim of this di»cburgo at the accuMumed period, alter it 



turn been MUMUNd, wlicn not interru[ited by pregnancy or sncli- 

Wliiil arc the caufeet Cold, applied eilhn in the intCTTftl or 
during tlic Aow. 

Wliat arc Uic sytnplomst PDlenms, «ni8cinlioii, debility, 
nervous STtnplonis, palpitation of the beari. difllculty of brenlliing, 
and a disturliauce o( the circulutioii ; to wliicb may be «dd«d Oaor 
ailiii«, and uior« or Ihs pain in Ibe luitm and pulvis. 

Whnt is the treatment? It will de|>ond opon the state of Itiv 
rirnilation; if the puUe is disturbed, we shoald prescribe blood- 
Jetting, purging;, low diet, Ac. until it is corroclod ; and then we 
Mil safely give emoMnagognts ; among these aloelic and ferruginouc 
pills, the aminouiated tinctUK of guaiacam and cftrbonato of iron, 
sUnd iirst. 

What IB undtratood by dijainenorrhcpal It is a meoatruons dis- 
charge, necornpanied by pain of a fgrcing aud bearing dovn kind, 
and a dlscharKe of nieinbrauouH subKiance cir cuagulo. 

What is the traatment T During; the )iarQxyKiu!<, the )>nin should 
be relieved by nnodynw ntjd nniiKpiiMiiudiini, Mii-h nii rniuphtir. nnd 
ennijilior nnd npiutn, uilb piTfet^ retil. In the intcrvHls, n>r nllcrn- 
tires aiiil toniex nfter proper di;plelion. Tlir. pnlhi/li»ijiixil c«ndi- 
lion of iliu uterus aud its appuudHgus should be nitetidtd to in nil 



What changfs take pinca after tlif period of impregnntion ? The 
ovnni increases io size, and is promiueiil on the oTariuni ; ali&orp- 
tiuti of itij peritoneal coat t»kn place ; it is embraced by the fim- 
briated extremity of the Kallopiaii tube, and curried touards the 
raifty of tbo tttcrus. 

At what liwe \» the ovum found in the uterus? Probably about 
Ivcnty days after impregnation. 

What is the appearance of the ovnriiiin after the ovum u re- 
nnored? Kirsi. an clfu^ion of blood into the earily from nhence 
tbe ovuni was removed, and Ibis is fuUowud by a true curpiu 


Wliet takes place during this liniv in die cavity of tbe nti.'nisT 
Tliv inttroul iiurfa«e thronii out a laic ilar tiatiue, wbicb is termibd 




Ui« mrmhrana d'cidua: it lit)« th« rhvUj of the ntfrni doWB 
thu iiilrriNii on uii^ri. n^mnins iirxt to il (tiiriiig {in^^iianpjr, tui 
fornm tlie on>iliiiin of conurt bdwcfii the iiicnis